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Full text of "Compute! Gazette Issue 59"

Annual Guide To User Groups— 256 listings! 



COMPUTE!'^ 



May 
1988 



S3 00 

S4?5 Csraula 
@ 02220 




■k^- 



AN THE 
64 & 128 
SURVIVE?" 

4 Experts Predict 
How These 
Superstars 
Will Adapt 

PLUS— 

1 1 All New^rograr 



« K"** iiii Hw p M ^p » ait 



SUPER 128 GRAPHICS 
Hi-Res Screen Show " 
and Math Graphics 

MOB MAKER 

Pro-quality sprite 
editor loaded with 
advanced features 

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HI-RES SCREEN DUMP^ 

For 64, 128, Plus/4, 1 
our fastest ever! 

And More! 



t;;,;-;* 




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\.m. 








□ i"7Ua6"D22?0" 6 




s^. 




W,The Right Stuff" 



-NY Times (Aug. 25, ws?) 

Strap yourself into Chuck Yeager's Advanced Flight Trainer" 

The only flight simulation co-designed by the greatest test 
pilot ever. And with action so fast, even expehenced pilots 
'auger in: The right stuff is right here. 







Test the limits of 14 different 
aircraft using Yeager's own 

evaluation checklist. From the 

classicWWI Sopwith Camel to 

tliemach-speedSR-71 Black- 

S':-'"t)ird. Push the experimental 

XPG-IZ to the edge of space. 





Fly formation onYeager's wing 
through Dead Man's Slalom, 
Catch the breathtaking fear of 
a Hammerhead stall, the 
adrenaline rush of an aileron 
roll, the thrill of your first 
Cuban 8. 




Race computer opponents 

Uimtfgh white-knuckle 
(juurses, Boit past obstacles 
and run narrow gates. Skim 
the ground at lop s(jeed. wing- 
to-wing with your rival. View 
the action from a chase plane 
or the tower. 





Seat-of-the- pants flying in 
the only simulation with over 
forty years of expenence. 
Veager insisted on actual air- 
craft specs and his own flight 
evaluation charts. Climb into 
the cockpit and see if you've 
got the 'right slufr 



HDWTOOfiOEftViSilyoufreiatoorcaiiSQa- 
3«5-A52Slor(lireclVlSAofMflslSfCaraofilm 
Im CA call 800-562-111!) Ihe difGCI O'def 
price IS J3S as forttie IBM veiaon and $3* B5 

fontieCfifl vers.GnSflndaUS chGcko' 
rraney order lo Eleclturac Ans Oiiecl Sales, 
RO.BoK 7530, San lulatea.CA9M03 Add 
J3 fo( shipping and tianoimg (i5 Canadian), 
Pleaseallow 1-2 weeks ID'U.S. delivery Comini; 
for lite Applell IBM is a registered (raflemBtk 
ollniemsLimai Business Mactiines. Inc Cfi* is 
a registered trademark Df CoininodorB 
Electronics LimileO SotlwaretigS'Ncd Lerner 





PHOTO COURTESV NOHTHROP AVIATIOI^'ALLEN OUINN 
McBdIlnequolB = i9B7byThe Nevi' York Tlmns Company. 
Reurinlud by pBrmisslon. 



ELECTRONIC ARTS 



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r inuuiMu-u. Ur UniHrira It ■ iiiiHmin Dl Mlnoum Int GiunW"' ffi IKH lUfl Ourw Cm M Mil nwwl. Pi[i««»™ c I9M flirt OniM C(i|> « righu iDmM Ftald RofMrll c l!M Wimti S(» M lirtGinijl COTO U Flurn 



COMPUTEI's 




May 1988 Vol. 6, No. 5 



features 

All Together Now! Networking the Commodore 64 Tom Netsel 8 * 

The Future of the 64 and 128: Industry Leaders' Forecasts Keilh Ferrelt 12 * 

A Guide to Commodore User Groups, Part 1 Mickey McLean 22 * 

reviews 

Airborne Ranger Ervln Bobo 30 64 

Sub Battle Simulator Tom Netsel 31 64 

Chernobyl Ervin Bobo 38 64 

Amnesia Jesse Cohn 42 64 

games 

Trap Eric Haines 26 64 

Treasure Diver Brian Casey 28 64 

programming 

BASIC lor Beginners Larry Cotton 52 128/64/+4/16 

Machine Language Programming: Formatting Text Jim Butterfield 56 128/64 

Power BASIC: Fast Hi-Res Screen Dump Jotm L. Reno 5B 128/64/+4/16 

Mob Matter Bruce Thompson 60 64 

1541 Speed and Alignment Tester floss Ouwinga 63 64 

128 Math Graphics C//Aon Karnes 67 128 

Periscope: A Disk Editor for the 128 Robert Bixby 70 128 

Finding Your Way Around Commodore Disks Dale McBane 70 * 

64 Keyboard Enhancer Vivek Jhaveri 72 64 

Relative Ease Jeffrey D. Partch 74 S4 

Hi-Res Screen Show lor the 128 Rob Kennedy 78 128 

departments 

The Editor's Notes Lance Elko 4 * 

Letters to the Editor 6 * 

Feedback Editors and Readers 44 • 

Computing for Families: Worlds of Wonder — WOW! Fred D'Ignazio 54 • 

Horizons: Clocks and Cycles Todd Heimarck 55 128/64 

The Geos Column: Skeet Roger M. Pingleton, Jr 57 128/64 

Bug-Swatter: Modifications and Corrections 68 " 

program listings 

How to Type In COMPUTEI's Gazette Programs 98 * 

The Automatic Proofreader 102 128/64/+4/16 

MLX: Machine Language Entry Program for Commodore. 54 106 64 

Advertisers Index 116 * 



•=General, G4=Commodore 64, -f4=Plus/4, IS = Commodore 16. 128=Commodore 128 



COMPOTErs GAZETTE (ISSN 07373718^5 oCOMPLTreipubNMIun. ana 15 puMi-JieclmonBiry' by ABC Consumer Magaiinos, Inc. ass Sovonlh Ave, New York, fJV 10019.a division of 
ADC Pub^l5^l^g. (nc , d Cunllnl Cnas/AHC Inc . company o 19M ABC ConsuniBi MagniKics. Inc All ngiiiE reserved Edrlorul tilliqes are localeU SI SniIo 200, 32J Wosl WenOover Ave., 
GfLfriyxiro NCS710S OomeslcsuDsc'ilJIion? r2i5Suas,S!4 POSTMASTER Sonrl nOflress clTarK)OS to COMPUTE' ^; GA!ETT6. PO. Boi 10957. Dos Uunss. lA 50340 Second class 
posEagtr paid ill Now >tjf'«. NY arxJ additional mailing oMices 




Last month in this column, we thanked those readers who responded to 
the "Gazette Readership Survey" in the December 1987 issue. The last 
few returns have trickled in, and we've tabulated the results. We're pleas- 
antly surprised by the number of respondents, nearly 1300. This month, 
we'd like to share with you some of the more interesting results. 

In machine ownership, 74 percent have 64s, 38 percent have 128s, 
and 6 percent have Plus/4s or 16s. Quick addition shows that there are 
several homes with more than one Commodore model. More than 70 per- 
cent of the respondents have no plans to buy another computer in the 
coming year. Of those who do, here's the breakdown: Commodore 128, 35 
percent; Amiga, 33 percent; IBM PC/compatible, 19 percent; and the rest 
are divided among Commodore 64, Apple II, Atari ST, and Radio Shack. 
Adding the numbers for 128, 64, and Amiga reinforces what's been said 
for years: Commodore owners have tremendous brand loyalty. 

Nearly half of the respondents use GEOS, while, surprisingly, only 28 
percent are members of a Commodore user group. In peripheral owner- 
ship, 88 percent own dot-matrix printers, 23 percent own letter-quality 
printers, 45 percent own modems, and 12 percent have memory expan- 
sion. Word processors and games were the most common software pur- 
chases in the past year. Nearly 9 out of 1 readers program their computer, 
and the most preferred languages are clearly BASIC (72 percent) and ma- 
chine language (20 percent). The Programming section of the magazine is 
the most widely read, and, accordingly, "Hints & Tips," "Simple Answers 
to Common Questions," and "Readers' Feedback" are the favorite col- 
umns. More than 90 percent use the programs in GAZETTE. 

There's a correlation between the survey results and our reader mail. 
What they tell us is that the typical GAZETTE reader is not a passive user, 
but one who is active and, in varying degrees, one who spends time 
programming. 

As active Commodore users and programmers ourselves, we often 
wonder, as we're sure you do, about the future of the 64 and 128 in an 
industry that seems to spin as wildly as a whirling dervish. Our features 
editor, Keith Ferrell, asked Commodore's Rich Mclntyre, as well as some 
software publishing leaders, about how these machines will measure up in 
the hi-tech future. The results are in our cover story (p. 12). It's a must- 
read. 




Lance Elko 
Senior Editor 



COMPUTEI's 

FOR COMMODORE PEPSONAL COMPUTER USERS 



Editor 
An Difeciof 

Features EOi^ar 
Tacftrncal Edflw 
A&aratBnt Ectiors 

Assistant Technical EiJikx 

A^^i^tanl Tfljitures EdJicx 

Assistant fdiQi, 

EuDmiS5iOfi5 I f>^ ProOticls 

Eaiofidi Assj^tani 

PfOgrflrumkng Assistan] 

ContnbuTing Edilots 



iJihCD Elko 
Janica H. Fary 
Kflun FenelJ 
Patrick PBiTlih 
Rhett AndeitoA 
Cllflon Karn«» 
Onla McBana 
Tom NataoT 

Dflvkl Hafial«v 
Mlck(^y McLaan 
Troy TucXef 
Todd Helmarck 
J km Butterfleld 
flwonto. Castas} 
Fi»d D'igfTBZk) 
(E. Lansing, Ml] 



ART DEPARTMENT 
A)»XtBtD An Direclof Lae Noel, Jr, 
Mochonical ArEisls Scolty BilNi>gi 
Robin Caia 
KImPotU 

PRODUCTION 
DEPARTMENT 
Production DireclDf Irma Swain 
AssJstani Protlxsori M&iagw Ob Potter 

Copy Editors Kuran Siapak 
Lad Sonoslfl 
TammLs Taylor 
Karen Uhlarxlorr 
Typcultir>g CaroJa Dunton 



CDMPiJTET PUBLICATIONS 

Group Vtco-Presdeni, 

Putiflshef/EdlTorlal Cirector 

Manflging EditcV 

Senior Edtor 

Edffcfial Operations Director 

EflrtOf, COMPUTt! Books 

EjcKUtrvo AssiSlanl 

SenKX AdmimsfraUwfl 

Asslstani 

AdnnnistTBtiva SlaTI 



William Tynan 
Kathlaflft Martinak 
Unce B)to 
Tony Roberta 
Stsphvfi Levy 
Sybil Agea 

•SMa FfamInQ 
Ankta Armltnkl 
lri» Broolift 



ABC CONSUMER 
UAQAZINES 

Senior Vice- President Marc Raiach 
Sentof Vica-PresrtJent, 

Aj]vert^ng Richard J. Varlno 
Grouci Vce-President. 

CiTCuldtiOn Barlura H. Martri 
Vice-Pmident. Cl»ratiDn« lMi*n A. ParzEala 
Vic«-Prflfitlfin|, Production liana Beraon-VMnar 

CIRCULATION 
DEPARTMENT 
Vici^Presidonl Robert I. Ouralu 
SuOacnQtHVi Slarr Ora Blachman-OtBrown 
Mitch Frank 
Tom Slater 
JamH J. Smim 
Cu^tonur Service Kay Harris 
Single Copy Sales A^ Haattwr Woad 

OneotlhcABCPlBUSHING ©Contuses 

PresiOont RcCwl G Burton 

1330 Avonuo of tfw AmencaS 

Now^brti, hJV lOOIfl 

ADVERTISIHO OmCES 

Hrti Vofhi ABC Conatpne- Vigum, Inc . fl35 Savwm Art . H»h 

Uwbvg D*«:iv, Bar nam J TfwBBkJ Jr. AcwTr^rig D««Tc* 

OfHiiUiora; COWPUTE' P-Jfca^nra. Suit 200. 33* W«l Wana^Bf 

Art , Grt^'isSC-Q. T*C 27408 Tpf (919J S^S-^HB taiTilefln Ingfim, 

AQ.fldisirig fto4)CfKyi Cpcuainaruf 

Now tnglaiEl a Mld'Allamk: Ovrwd J nvODalC. Jr, [^17)315- 

1665. Pb* H4i(jy(fll71fifll-eiD0 

VUlwttl i 5oud^»il: Jfiy Thonxivn. LucM Dvw [312} JH- 

Vfall. HvAwatl, i Smktii CoMnbU: JVTy ThCTVKn, Ud* O^n- 

m |41St :UBA2^ 

BobDitBit a inlarubOFuk F^Ibf Harcr (017) ea^SOOO 

i.oiiona\ irquirm iTfAiVi » aoaotutJ to Jtv ^arm^ cXwPJTEIB 
GAiFTTE SorW 2C0. 324 W«t WondOv* Art , Qfsonslxro. MC 
27408 

PRIVISJ IN THE U-S A. 



W\ 



A CCIPUTErs Gazene May 1 988 










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Stealth Mission lets you fly three dilTerent jet-s; an 
F-1 9 Ste;ilth fichier. the e\[ierinienial ronA-ard-swepi 
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Select from eight different missions and ten skill 
levels. Choose the most etleaive ordnance t<i 
accomplish your mission goals. A largeiing 
a>niputer helps you delect, track, and lt)ck onto 
enemy targets. Electronic Counter-Measures protect 
you from land, sea, and airtwrne enem\' threats. 



Improved 30 animation techniques provide drama- 
tically fiLster frame rates for all cockpit views. 
Multiple external vic^^poinLs are also a\~a liable. And 
Stealth Mission includes complete VOR, 11^, ADF, 
aiii.1 DME a\'ii)nics for ci'oss-couiitr}' navijjaiion. 



I I 

Stealth Mission, the ultimate strategic .slmulailon. 

From SubLOGIC, 

Sse Your Dealer,,. 
Sieatth Mission is available on di.sk for the Conimo 
dore 64/1 28 computers for the suggested retail price 
iif S-19.95. Tor direct orders plea.se include S2.00 for 
.siiipping (outside U.S. S6.25) and specih- UPS or finst 
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mmir.fciri'lH jnJ CimnHHkw 13t arc rttu^irml inufcnuFk'iif (jmunmlmr 
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Pof>lfp Instrumanl Pane} 




Oops! 

In the review of the Commodore 1581 disk 
drive (March issue), il was incorrectly 
stated that there are no disk copy pro- 
grams available that will copy the entire 
contents of a 1541 or 1571 disk to a 1581 
disk, or vice versa. Super 81 Utilities 
from Free Spirit Software does just this, 
and then some. We regret the oversight. 
Details on Super 81 Utilities may be 
found in Free Spirit's advertisement on 
page 95 in this issue. 

Fastest Yet 

With "Final BASIC" (February) in- 
stalled on my 128, the computer runs 
much better. It now executes nothing 
with blinding speed! Thank you. 

Gilbert Canales 
Salinas, CA 

Yes, we enjoy this program very much, 
too. In fact, each morning here at the 
office, we load Final BASIC, type the 
BEETHOVEN command, and pretend we're 
listening to the Fifth Symphony through- 
out the day. 



No More Slip 

Here's an idea that costs almost nothing 
to try and makes your keyboard stay in 
place on a slippery desktop. Cut a piece 
of cardboard just a little larger than the 
keyboard. On one side of the card- 
board, glue four pieces of rubber band 
(the half-inch variety found in most 
kitchens) that have been cut once and 
placed flat side down on the cardboard. 
After the glue has dried, flip the card- 
board over and place your keyboard on 
it. Presto! Now it stays in one place, 

R. G. Borkenhagen 
Lynnwood, WA 

Swilcheroo 

In your January and February issues, 
many of your advertisers offered attrac- 
tive prices on the Commodore 2002 
monitor. In your February issue, you 
ran a review by Clifton Karnes, describ- 
ing it as recently released. In mid- 
December, ! phoned several of your 



advertisers, attempting to order the 
2002. and all told me that Commodore 
had discontinued it. They had a much 
more expensive monitor, which was 
said to be a replacement for the 2002. 1 
realize that magazines go to press long 
before they are mailed. When is the 
February issue actually printed? 

Jean P. Nance 
St. Joseph, IL 

1 was a bit surprised by your review of 
the Commodore 2002 monitor, I had 
had one for about three months when it 
went belly-up. The Commodore dealer 
I bought it from said he could not get 
parts for it and swapped il for a 1084 
monitor. The 1084 is not as pretty, but 1 
like it better — it seems much clearer 
and brighter than the 2002, 

Carol L Hazlett 
Issaquah, V/A 

Mr. Karnes responds: 1 was as surprised as 
our readers to learn that the 2002 had 
been replaced by the nearly identical 
1084. We make every effort to be as up-to- 
date as possible, but each issue is prepared 
for publication about three months before 
you see it. In late October, when the re- 
view was written, the 2002 was unques- 
tionably Cotnmodore's flagship monitor, 
and there was no reason to expect this lo 
change in the near future. Commodore of- 
ficially discontinued the 2002 (but was 
shipping them as late as January of this 
year). As far as the quality of the 2002 is 
concerned, we have several here at the of- 
fice, and have experienced no problems. 
Incidentally, at this writing, the price of 
the 1084 from various dealers and whole- 
salers is about the same or slightly higher 
(S20--$30) than the fall price of the 2002. 

Camping Computerists 
Here's an answer lo the person who 
wants to use a computer in his travel 
trailer ("Simple Answers To Common 
Questions," February). Use your porta- 
ble generator or outside AC power 
through a llO-to-12-volt converter to 
charge the trailer's auxiliary battery, 
and use a 12 voh-to-llD frequency- 
controlled inverter with enough power 
capacity for the computer, disk drive. 



monitor, and printer. The reason for not 
using the computer equipment directly 
off the outside 110-volt AC is because 
of the extreme voltage fluctuations that 
are usually encountered at campgrounds. 

Joseph Trappier 
Vienna, VA 

The real problem for traveling compu- 
terists was not asked about or ad- 
dressed by you, and that is protection of 
media. I've had several files corrupted 
on my disks as a result of placing them 
near power wiring concealed in walls, 
or leaving them near windows which 
were shaded when we went out for sev- 
eral hours, but were not when we came 
back because of the position relative to 
the sun. You might caution traveling 
readers to be sure to store their disks or 
tapes of any type (video or computer) in 
a locker where heat, electric or magnetic 
fields, and/or sunlight can't get them. 

William P. Broion 
Fallbrook, CA 



Undocumented Feature 

"Gradebook" (October 1985 and the 
1988 Special Issue) claims that all 
grades must be less than or equal to the 
perfect mark for an assignment — that 
is, extra credit cannot give a student a 
better-than-perfect score. Such grades 
are rejected as invalid. To get around 
this, enter a perfect mark higher than 
the best grade, enter grades, then 
change the perfect mark to its real val- 
ue. Better-than-perfect scores are still 
indicated as errors when highlighted, 
but are used as entered in computing 
averages and grades. 

Pat Cojmolly 
Middleiown, Rl 



6 COMPUTED Gazene May 1988 




Bring your Commodore' to life 
a FREE modem and software! 



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network that's useful, easy, fun and inexpensive. Join 
Q-Link now and we'll give you a free modem and 
software to get you started. 

Enjoy unlimited access to a wide range of Q-Link 
"Basic" services for a set fee of only $9.95 a month. 
Get help from Commodore experts — use the Hotline 
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of information from Commodore to answer your 
questions on the spot. Access Grolier's Academic 
American Encyclopedia'", the latest news and enter- 
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Special Q-Link "Plus" services let you expand your 
software library with more than 10,000 public 
domain programs — games, graphics, business and 
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Getanswerstoyoursoftwarequestions from Berkeley 
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Casino (includes Blackjack, Poker, Bingo and the 
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Offer valid in theconltnflntjlu.s and carudj for nnv members Dnlv.FupiroiG/^O/SO. 
Price* iirbjKf fo :h*ngc wllhcut nolicp. There Ji s cDrriiTiiinkations ^urcMarae for 
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Ottawa. Toronto. OuetKC. Wirid»r. Kitchener and Ul^rv inmg the Tynuiet networV. 
and 15 cents CUSI per mlhjte from nver S5 otlief IcrcatdDni ming the OATAPnC 
networlf QiHnti^m rewrvn Itie riflht to it&ilrtute a modem comparaole to the 
Commodore 1E60. 



tiim"*DilQrp II 1 regitltitd Irtdc^lik o* Conrniodore fkctfwio. Hfl O-Lm* li i wrvi[*mark of 
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Order your Q-Link software and modem today by 
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I Q-UNK RESERVATION FORM 

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Ihi-CiinirnttliircCunimliitn. 



All Together Now! 

Networking The Commodore 64 



Thomas Netsel, Assistant Features Editor 



Networking is becoming big 
business in schools. Com- 
puter labs, or classrooms with 
several computers, are reap- 
ing benefits from linking the 
computers together under the 
control of the teacher's ma- 
chine. The attractions of such 
a system are obvious; reduced 
file-loading time, enhanced 
monitoring ability for the 
teacher, increased security for 
storing data. 

The RTC Multi-Link 
Networking System allows as 
many as forty-eight 64s, 128s, 
or PETs to be linked together 
with the teacher's computer 
serving as a central storage 
device and file server. 
Networking boards and ca- 
bles plug into the computers' 
cartridge ports. RTC Multi- 
Link is unique in that it comes 
with a 20-megabyte !CT Mini 
Chief hard drive. Designed to 
make the system especially 
useful in computer labs, 
Multi-Link lets each terminal 
in the network access its hard 
drive for loading or saving 
files. Terminals can work to- 
gether on the same program, 
or they can operate indepen- 
dently. This permits the 
teacher to tailor the system to 
fit his or her teaching require- 
ments. While a majority of 
students in a class will typical- 
ly use the same program, stu- 
dents with special needs can 
work on other programs, if 
the teacher wishes. RTC 
Multi-Link handles all the 
traffic am'ing the terminals, 
the hard drive, and as many 

a COMPUWs Gazollo May 1988 




as four different printers at a 
time, 

Faster Loading 

Terminals can load programs 
from the hard drive or a flop- 
py drive. Software can be 
loaded into the Multi-Link, 
and then sent to a specific ter- 
minal or range of terminals. 
This feature saves a substan- 
tial amount of time in a class 
where a number of computers 
have to be booted from a lim- 
ited number of disks. 

"A typical problem with 
the 64 is the time it takes to 
load and operate," says 
Charles Thompson, vice pres- 
ident of sales and marketing 
at RTC Multi-Link. "We've 
incorporated a RECORD/ 
PLAY function that speeds up 
the loading process. A teacher 
can load ten 64s in the time it 
takes to load one on a local 
basis. This is achieved 
through a memory transfer." 

The RECORD function 
treats the teacher's computer 
somewhat like a tape record- 
er. After the teacher loads a 
program, the PLAY function 
sends the program to the de- 
sired terminals. This lets the 
students' terminals load from 
the teacher's, completely by- 
passing the individual 64 
drives. 

"The result is that a pro- 
gram that would normally 
take about 90 seconds to load 
from the 154! drive will now 
load in about 12 seconds per 
terminal computer," Thomp- 
son savs. 






■a- 
% 



a. 



For years, businesses have realized the 

advantages of linking PCs into a network. Offices 

boost efficiency by sharing common files and 

programs, and enjoy the convenience of being 

able to send messages to other computers on the 

system. Now schools that use Commodores in 

their computer labs can have the features and 

flexibility of a network, with files served from 

a 20-megabyte hard drive. 



Monitoring Commands 

From the central unit, a teacher can 
monitor and control any of the ter- 
minals on the network. If a student 
has a problem with a program, the 
teacher can call up a student's 
screen and offer input or assistance. 

This can be done without the 
teacher or students leaving their 
desks, or even speaking out loud, 
since the Multi-Link system sup- 
ports bidirectional window messag- 
ing. Messages can be sent from any 
terminal on the network to any or 
all of the other terminals. The 
teacher's computer controls this 
feature. When the teacher sets up 
the program, he or she has the op- 
tion of allowing messages to be sent 
from terminal to terminal or from 
terminals to the teacher. Messages 
appear in a window on a terminal's 
screen, remaining there until any 
key is pressed. 

When setting up the system, 
the teacher has the option of imple- 
menting other features or restric- 
tions. It is conceivable that a 
terminal can tie up the network for 
several minutes with a series of 
drive, printer, or message com- 
mands. The teacher can prevent 
this from happening, The teacher 
can also determine the number of 
times an individual terminal may 
access the network bus before it is 
automatically halted. The system 
can also be configured to prevent 
students from renaming or scratch- 
ing files, or from formatting the disk. 

Password Protection 

The teacher establishes the amount 
of security the system should have. 
While any terminal can use a floppy 
drive connected to it, passwords 
can be used to restrict access to the 
hard drive or printers. Once the 



teacher types passwords, their use 
becomes mandatory before any ter- 
minal can access the system. Pass- 
words must be on file in the central 
unit's memory. A student may use 
any terminal on the system, but any 
attempt to log on without the prop- 
er password results in a not allowed 
error. Another password locks the 
central keyboard if the teacher has 
to leave the room unsupervised 
while the network is active. 

Extra Commands 

In addition to BASIC 2.0, the RTC 
Multi-Link Networking System 
provides 21 extra commands. Most 
commands are followed by a specif- 
ic terminal number or range of con- 
secutive terminals. Appending the 
word ALL to the command sends 
that command to every computer 
on the network. The teacher can 
easily determine which terminals 
are online if a command is sent to a 
terminal that is not on the network. 

The ECHO command causes 
anything typed on the teacher's key- 
board to appear on the screens of se- 
lected terminals. BREAK followed 
by a number or range of numbers is 
the equivalent of pressing the RUN/ 
STOP key on those terminals' key- 
boards. BREAK returns the terminal 
to the READY prompt. The HALT 
command is similar, but it simply 
freezes the terminal's screen and 
prevents it from responding to its 
keyboard until the teacher issues the 
CONTINUE command. 

Other commands include DIS- 
ALLOW, which prevents specified 
terminals from using the printer or 
hard drive; QUERY, which prevents 
terminals from executing either 
printer or drive connmands until they 
receive permission from the teacher; 
and SCREEN, a command that du- 



plicates students' screens, letting the 
teacher monitor classwork. 

Classroom Tested 

The Canadian designers tried to in- 
clude features to make the system 
as nexible as possible, but they also 
wanted the teacher to maintain 
complete control of the network at 
all times. According to Thompson, 
when the system was 80-90 percent 
complete, officials at Commodore- 
Canada's educational department 
suggested it be placed in a school 
for testing. After using the network 
in a classroom environment, the 
computer teacher offered several 
suggestions and improvements that 
were incorporated into the system's 
final design. 

The software and hardware for 
a ten-terminal system, including 
the 20-megabyte hard drive, costs 
S2640. Schools working with a 
smaller budget can set up a similar 
network without the hard disk 
drive for $1640. Additional terminals 
may be added at a cost of approxi- 
mately $175 each, Thompson says. 

Operating a computer lab on a 
network may be a new experience 
for some teachers, and RTC Muid- 
Link is aware that schools may like 
to know more about such a system 
before buying it. "Since some 
teachers are not fully comfortable 
teaching in a network environ- 
ment," Thompson says, "we are al- 
lowing schools to try the system on 
a 30-day basis. Basically, if it 
doesn't live up to their expecta- 
tions, or they don't like teaching in 
a network environment, there's no 
cost." For information, write RTC 
Muld-Link, 110 Riviera Dr., Unit 
10, Unionviile, Ontario, Canada L3R 
5M1; or call 1-800-387-4221 in the 
U.S. or 416-479-6220 in Canada, « 



, f:-;>f.. ; 



fiS^-"' 





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The Future 
Of The 

64&128 

Industry Leaders' Forecasts 



Keith Ferrell, Features Editor 



Five years after the introduction of the 64, Commodore's eight-bit superstar is still 
going strong. The continued strength of the 64— and the 128— have caught more than 
a few industry observers off guard, prompting repeated postponements of the machines' 
obituary notices. Many other computer manufacturers would be delighted to have sales 
figures for new machines that could match those of Commodore's long-lived duo. 

Recently, Gazette talked with Rich Mclntyre, Commodore's Senior Vice President 
in charge of Sales and Marketing. We wanted to know what Commodore sees as the 
future of its two best-known machines. While Mclntyre is perhaps the world's 
preeminent Commodore salesman, he's also a shrewd and canny observer of the 
microcomputer industry, making points that are telling about the industry's tendency 
to embrace advancement for the sake of advancement. 

In addition, we gathered opinions from some software industry 
leaders, getting their perspectives on the place the 64 and 128 
will occupy in the next few years. 



Gazette: Despite all the rumors and predictions, the 6i is still going 
strong. Has that surprised people? 

Mclntyre: The accounts of its death are greatly exagger- 
ated, that's for sure. We'll sell over a miliion eight-bit 
64 and 128 units this year. 

Gazette: How many 64s and 128s have been sold 
by now? 

Mclntyre: Over seven million. 

Gazette: Is that the largest installed base for 
a single family of machines? 

Mclntyre: 1 don't think anybody's passed 
it yet — in units. In dollars, of course, it's 
been passed. But in units, I think we rank 
way up there. 



13 COMPUTEI'S Ga/Olle May I9B8 




«IORK 
WmiUSONA 
PROnSSMMAL 



Some people really like work- 
ing on their machines. And then 
there are some who prefer to do 
their tinkering under the hood. For 
those of you who can't wait to get 
your hands greasy, we proudly 
introduce geoProgrammer. The 
most sophisticated machine 
language programming tool on 
the market. 

With geoProgrammer, you get 
the same kind of technology we use 
for developing our other products. 
Which means you can write super- 
charged software. Pump your own 
programs. And assemble just about 
any kind of application you can 
imagine. 

It reads and writes and 
stomps on bugs. 

The first three tools that 
any serious programmer needs 
are an assembler, a linker and 
a debugger. So we've installed all 
three, complete with sample GEOS 
applications that teach you the latest 
programming tricks in seconds. 

geoAssembler not only reads 
directly from geoWrite files, but 
contains enough Pseudo Ops to 



LEVEL 







\titai]lk.t4fiittaa'faji lai Fji|t Jt^ -'l ^sv^m] 



^ 



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ic/'B titiilb iKiirn^Btcn t-jnri^cinur lint ^'Hrngj !■ iiip . j q. 



..-ID* SmiBt} ^sum 

pie SwiUi 

1 1 UilV *, MuiMiti 

In [uMiK 
ni 
duMcoa: 



-Alw aviiliblc (or 8U cuJ, Ct^H. 



allow all kinds 
of conditional assem- 
blies. It has all the state-of-the-art 
features you'd expect, including 
some you probably never thought 
possible. For example, integrating 
graphics is as simple as cutting and 
pasting the image from geoPaint 
directly into your program. 

geoLinker ties your program 
modules together, supporting 
GEOS SEQ and VLIR applications 
and desk accessories. You can even 
use geoAssembler and geoLinker to 
create non-GEOS applications. 

Berkeley 
Softworks 

The brightest minds are working at Berkeley. 



•ita 

^toa e44ttst lof pfo| 

; [olii (t siii jininn 
, uJ tiv Brim 

; Vtaif Ui In inal kn% 



geoDebugger allows your pro- 
gram to be tested in memory with 
full symbolic disassembly, along 
with line assembly for patching 
code in memory. It also allows 
your code to be single-stepped or 
top-stepped, with sub-routines fully 
executed. It can stop a running pro- 
gram with one key, or use up 
to eight conditional break- 
. points. When your program 
hits the breakpoint, it promi- 
nently displays the error in an 
overlay window, leaving the 
applications screen intact. 

Pro enough for you yet? Well, 
that's only a partial list of what 
you're in for. 

If you understood all that, 
read on. 

Chances are that we lost a lot 
of readers by now. But if you're still 
with us, hang in there. You have the 
makings of a real GEOS pro. All you 
need now are the right tools. 

And all of them come in this 
one handy box. 

So if you're serious about pro- 
gramming,consider geoProgrammer. 
After all. you've got nothing to lose 
— except your amateur status. 



Toordervtttll'800-44:U)U)0exl.2:M 
geoProgrammer $69.95 

(California residents add 1% sales tax.) 
S2.501IS/S5.,W Foreign for shippinfi and 
handling. Allinv* six «vt-ks fnr delivery. 



GEOPROGRAMMER 





^«^ 



''•'•oil. 



-'■J 



Gazette: Oue of the keys to Commo- 
dore's success is the terrific brand iden- 
tification consumers have with the 
company name as well as its products. 

Mclntyre: This is a tremendous re- 
source that Commodore has. Espe- 
cially members of Commodore user 
groups — they're just devout. 

Gazette: Many of those users love the 
machine's game capability. Since 
gaming is one of the 64's strengths, 
the renewed strength of the video- 
game cartridge industry has put some 
pressure on Commodore. One of the 
keys to Nintendo's success seems to be 
its aggressive TV marketing cam- 
paign. Last winter you experimented 
with renewed TV advertising for the 
64. Your commercials positioned the 
64 as a great game machine — and 
much more. Did that pay off? 

Mclntyre: Yes, it did. We targeted 
the machine toward the potential 
customer. The customer for that 
product, we felt, was around 12 
years old. We positioned the ma- 
chine as, while a computer, also a 
very dynamic and rich entertain- 
ment system. The number of games 
that are available for the 64 out- 
number those for Nintendo and 
Sega. There are still new games be- 
ing released. 

Gazette: For the parents of young- 
sters in that target market, you touted 
the advantages of giving the children 
something more than just a game 
machine. 

Mclntyre: The print ads that we ran 
in that December period targeted 
toward the parents, ran directly 
against the message we were trying 
to get to the children. To the par- 
ents we were saying that the 64 
could do more than play games. 

Recreation is certainly one of 
the major reasons to buy a system. 
Entertainment will always be a key 
element in 64 and 128 strategy. But, 
we asked the parents to consider 
the value of the investment and the 
fact that the computer can provide' 
many, many more functions than 
just recreadon. 

it's an educational tool, a pro- 
ductivity tool, as Vi^ll as a learning 
device. We felt that the computer 
versus the game machine had many 
more advantages that would far 
and away compensate for the price 
difference between a 64 and a [car- 
tridge] game machine. 

14 COMPUTEIS Ga/Wfe May 1988 



The Golden Age Of 64 Software 

Robert Jacob of Cinemaware views the present as the beginning of a re- 
naissance in 64 software design. 

"The golden age of Commodore software got started just a few 
months ago," Jacob states. 

What's causing the renewed strength? 

"Several factors. Part of it is directly attributable to Deluxe Paint on 
the Amiga. All of our graphics are done on the Amiga and ported down 
to the 64. It's more powerful than any drawing package available. 

"Second, the inclusion of fast loaders by the major software pub- 
lishers dramatically speeds up disk I/O on the 64. With a fast loader 
such as V-Max, we can load as much as 20 times faster than normal 
Commodore DOS," Jacob points out. 

"We no longer rely on character sets," he says. "Bitmapped graph- 
ics give you bigger, more powerful games. 

"Music is also a factor. The English are ahead of us in terms of mu- 
sic drivers. Few people have fully tapped the abilities of the SiD chip 
yet." 

All of which produces a renaissance. 

"Yes. Much better sounding games, faster disk access, better 
graphics — you can see why I'm so excited. 

"1 am very bullish on the Commodore market." 




Gazette: And that strategy paid off 
far Commodore as well? 

Mclntyre: Yes, it did. We included 
a free software offer and received 
tens of thousands of coupons, every 
one of them representing a purchase. 

Gazette: There are a variety of games 
that we'll never see on a cartridge 
machine. 

Mclntyre: Exactly. The fact that the 
game is on a disk gives you more 
latitude as to the type of game you 
can play. 

Gazette: Hozv else do you go about 
responding to Nintendo? 

Mclntyre: Quite frankly, if some- 
one came up to me and said, "I've 
got a Nintendo and I'm playing X 
on it," I'd say, "That's great, 1 can 
play it on my 64. Can you do this? 
Oh, sorry, you can't even type any- 
thing in, can you? 1 can save my 



scores on the disk drive. Can you 
do that on a Nintendo cartridge? I 
can play my games online, can you?" 
The games that are being ported 
to the Nintendo are, for the most 
part. Commodore 64 games. They 
are going right after the 64 titles. 

Gazette: What about rumors of a 16- 
bit Nintendo? 

Mclntyre: Bring it on! A 16-bit 
game machine, whether Nintendo, 
SEGA, NEC, or whatever else, wUl 
be a game machine that costs exact- 
ly as much, if not more, than a 64. 
My goodness, 1 can't wait. 

Gazette: fs your primary outlet still 
the general retailer? 

Mclntyre: It is still the mass mer- 
chant. The largest percentage of our 
business goes through the Scars-, 
the Toys "R" Us-type channel, be- 
cause of the price point. 



History Repeats Itself! 

In 1977 Avalon Hill introtfuceti Wooden Ships & Iron Men to the table top gaming publif. 
Eleven years Jifir, Av atoa«titU>{ittrinituc es. tor your plea 



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twa^^Ynvlyr, ■ , 



The game brings tc life the tactical maneuvers and ship-to-ship combat from the days of ttie American ' 
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flagships and sail into naval history. ^--^ ■ ^ ■, it f i /i 

Create American gunboats and send 
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Portuguese schooners, With its ease 
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willingness to accommodate ; ''■;:/{,......, 

itself to YOU, WS&II« will make 
you look at computer historical games 
in a whole new way. ^ 

Partial list of features: y,.;.| 

Thirteen ship types ^'^ ^' ., 

Eighteen Nationalities s 

Detailed Information on 200 stiips ,; 

including number and type of sails, ,;. 

hull thickness and crew quality :>^ 

Dockyard .^ 

Scenario Generator .m 

$35.00. 1 to 2 plaverft T 



Commodore 64/12 

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Gazette: How does Commodore maintain a successful 
mass-retailer presence when many larger computer com- 
panies cannot? 

Mclntyre: Product recognition is high, obviously. It's 
been on the market for five years now. That channel is 
very important to us. 

The support that we're still receiving from third 
parties allows that to be. There are still new titles being 
written for the Commodore 64. 

Gazette: Those developers are continuing to stretch the 
limits of the machine. 



"We cannot keep up with 
demand on the 128/' 



Mclntyre; Programmers are still learning about the 64, 
still finding things they can take advantage of when 
they're writing software. 

As far as high quality, low-cost graphics machines, 
the Commodore 64 was the first, and is still an excel- 
lent device to be used in that area. It does have limita- 
tions, in terms of memory and speed. But, for the price 
performance, it's still the best deal. 

Gazette: What about the 128-specific market? Are you 
seeing any increases in 128-onl}/ software? 

Mclntyre: In 128-specific software, really, in the pro- 
ductivity aspects, all you're going to be seeing is 80- 
column software. There's no recreational software per 
se written for the 128. 

In producdvity, though, there's GEOS128. Time- 
works has a large 128 installed base. 

Gazette: Docs the machine continue to sell? 

Mclntyre: The 128 is a product that Commodore can't 
keep in stock right now. That product is still selling 
very weli. We cannot keep up with demand on the 
128D. 

Gazette: Will we see, then, this success broaden? Is there 
going to be a Commodore 256? 

Mclntyre: No. We have a RAM Expander, the 1764, 
And of course we have the 1700 series, the 1700 and 
the 1750 RAM Expanders for the 128. That's how we 
will address memory expansion for these products. 

We're the world's largest purchaser of DRAMs 
[Dynamic RAMs], and we have been severely impacted 
by the price increases. So to build an eight-bit machine 
today with more resident on-board memory would in- 
crease the cost of it, 

For those who wish to utilize bank switching and 
increased memory, they're available to them with the 
1764 RAM Expander. 

Gazette: What about a Commodore hard disk drive? 

Mclntyre: You will not see it for the 64. 

ia COMPUrErs Gazem May 1988 



The 64 In A Squeeze: 
The View From Activision 

Bruce Davis, president of Activision, takes a differ- 
ent view of the 64's future, a view somewhat less 
sanguine than Rich Mclntyre's. 

"The 64 is taking a lot of heat from Nintendo. 
Tandy is doing a good job of lowering prices and up- 
ping the performance of its MS-DOS machines. And 
the 64 is getting squeezed," Davis says. 

How does Commodore succeed in such a 
market? 

"First, they need to improve the price-value re- 
lationship. The 64 has been selling at the same price 
with the same basic features for quite a few years 
now. Commodore needs to either lower the price or 
add more features. Something's got to change, or 
they'll continue to lose market share." 

How does the 64 look from the software 
perspective? 

"Again, market share has gone down. We've 
also seen some price degradation on 64 software — 
the only format where price degradation has 
occurred. 

"This creates problems for the publishers. The 
average selling price for a Nintendo cartridge is 
higher than for a 64 — this is not a plus for us." 

Doesn't Commodore's large base of machines 
offset lower prices? 

"A top-selling videogame title easily sells in six 
figures," Davis notes. "It's rare for a 64 title to get six 
figures. So the argument that a huge installed base 
justifies lower margins is not true anymore." 

How long, then, can you continue to support 
the 64? 

"Several more years. There are still decent prof- 
it opportunities. Obviously there are some changes 
in product strategy. Where the majority of revenues 
two years ago came from the 64, it now accounts for 
less than a third." 




Gazette: Users can get hard drives from third-party man- 
ufacturers such as Xetec. 

Mclntyre: Yes, we don't have to reinvent the wheel. If 
there is a specialized market for hard drives, and a third 
party wants to take advantage of it, we encourage it. 

Gazette: Doesn't the level of interest in hard drives and so 
on indicate that there are 64s and 128s being used in in- 
creasingly sophisticated ways? 

Mclntyre: Look at Berkeley Softworks. They're run- 
ning laser printers off of 64s, Berkeley has really shown 



the world the productivity aspects of the machine. I 
was here during the launch of this product. I am very 
much a fan of it, and I am still not convinced that it has 
reached its full potential. 

Sometimes when people come into my office, I'll 
take a letter off my desk and ask them whether the let- 
ter was done on a Commodore 64 or not. How can you 
tell? The quality of the output is directly related to the 
quality of the output device. The processor is limited 
only by the quality of the output device. If you run a 
laser printer with a 64, you cannot tell the difference. 

If you can put an eight-bit machine into an envi- 
ronment and be satisfied with its performance, recog- 
nizing that it does have certain limitations, and you're 
willing to live with those limitations, you will have a 
very powerful microcomputer. 



"If someone launched a 

machine today that was going 

to sell a million units in the 

next calendar year, would the 

developers support it? There 

would be a stampede/ 



// 



Gazette: Let's talk about a couple of those etwiwuiuenls. 
Commodore has rededicaled itself to the education market. 
Wilt we be seeing more 64s and 128s in schools? 

Mclntyre: The 64 is in front of more students, for a 
smaller amount of money, than any other microcom- 
puter. That's how we position it in the education 
market. 

After all, the purpose of the exercise is to get as 
many students as possible exposed to microcomputer 
technology. We're not trying to expose them to 386 
technology; we're trying to expose them to computer 
technology. With budgets as they are today in educa- 
tion, the 64 represents a tremendous opportunity. You 
can put more 64s in front of more students than any 
other machine in your budget. 

Gazette: Are you seeing a strong educational response to 
your new marketing initiative? 

Mclntyre: We have gone back into the field to estab- 
lish educational dealers, and the response has been tre- 
mendous. The 64 is still selling into the elementary 
levels. It's not selling anywhere near the levels it once 
did, but you have to put thai into perspective. There 
are today a lot more microcomputer systems available 
than there were when the 64 was launched. 

The 64 still has about a 20-percent share in the 
educational market, in terms of installed base. Accord- 
ing to Market Data Retneval, there are [in 1985-87] 
130,908 Commodore units installed in public schools. 
That is a substantial piece of the business — as opposed 
to 68,000 IBMs, about twice as many. 



Gazette; Another environment is business. Are you still 
finding Sis in that environment? 

Mclntyre: Yes. For those who are aware enough of 
computer technology to not feel that they need a mini- 
computer to accomplish their purposes, there's the 64. 
Cable stations still use 64s as character generators. 
That's a cost savings! We're talking $20,000 for a char- 
acter generator, as opposed to the cost of a 64. 

Gazette: You're coming off a successful year with the 64. 
How many more such years lie ahead? Hoiu long can the 
machine continue to sell? Already, some publishers are 
concerned about a declining share of the market for 64 
software. 

Mclntyre; Software base and third-party support are 
the critical factors. 

Sometimes I listen to software developers, and I 
get a little angry. 1 want to ask them, "Why are you try- 
ing to kill this product? Is there not a large enough in- 
stalled base to support your efforts?" 

The sales versus two years ago aren't as great. So? 
If someone launched a machine today that was going 
to sell a miUion units in the next calendar year, would 
the developers support it? There would be a stampede. 

Gazette: MS-DOS dominates the software market in 
terms of percentage of sales, but the unit sales of 64 soft- 
ware continue to increase. Are there still opportunities for 
software developers in the 64/128 market? 




-- -- ». I.n - 



"i:™.7';;;:::?^MLV«^7»^«7.mrisssi7«y-r,(;«EjStf»/^ 



SERIES 



COMPUTErs Gazene May 19B8 19 




IT'S THE NEXT BEST THING 
TO SKIING THERE. 



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Find out what it's like to be a human shock ^^^I^^^H ^^^ first-person or 

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THE GAMES: WINTEREDinON 



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Sir-Tech Sees The Future 

Robert Sirotek, vice president of Sir- Tech software, 
thinks Commodore and its eight-bit machine are up 
to the challenges facing them. 

"There's a heck of an installed base, so, from 
the software level, its future continues to be very op- 
timistic," Sirotek says, "That's why we're support- 
ing the machines with many dtles." 

What about the hardware itself? How long can 
Commodore continue selling 64s and 128s? 

"As far as the hardware side, Nintendo and 
Sega are nipping at Commodore's heels. Commo- 
dore has a real positioning problem, having to react 
by updating the 64's hardware in some manner or 
repositioning it to compete head-on with Nintendo." 

Can it be done? 

"I have complete confidence that Commodore 
will pull it off. They won't go away." 







Mclntyre: Berkeley Softworks. again, is a good ex- 
ample. This is a company that started out two years ago 
to support a product that at the time was three years 
old. Brian Dougherty [Berkeley's founder] feels that wo 
haven't exploited the 64's capabilities yet — and he 
keeps showing us that. 

Gazette: Ai the same time, Commodore has expanded its 
presence with the Amiga and ii'illi your PC compalibie. Do 
these ventures take energi/ away from the eight-bit products? 

Mclntyre: We are not going to walk away from that 
part of the business. The 64 and the 128 have been and 
will continue to be an important part of Commodore 
Business Machines, no matter what we do with Amiga 
technology, with MS-DOS technology. None of it is. 
done to the exclusion of our core business. 

Now, we have a problem, too. As soon as some- 
thing reaches its peak in this country or levels off a bit 
or — worse than that — declines somewhat, we have a 
tendency to walk away from it. That's crazy! 

Gazette: But that's business. 

Mclntyre: 1 have this discussion with merchants all the 
time: "Well, sales aren't what they were this time last 
year." 

"How are your profits? How is the return on retail 
space?" 

If today we made a sales presentation on a product 
that would return what the 64 returns, the merchant 
would take it on. You have to keep things in their prop- 
er perspective. 



Gazette: In terms of marketing, what other advantages 
has She 64 acquired over its history? 

Mclntyre: The functionality of the machine has also 
grown. QuantumLink is a good example. Here's an on- 
line service available to the 64 user. For about $350 — 
computer, disk drive, modem — you've got online 
shopping, banking, airline reservations, information 
services, and so on. 

Gazette: Despite this, the machines sometimes get rapped 
as being old-fashioned, obsolete. 

Mclntyre: Today, if we positioned the 64 in the mar- 
ketplace — forget RAM, bytes, bits — if we went out and 
functionally described the Commodore 64, it would be 
heralded as a fantastic advancement in personal micro- 
computing. 

The problem is that if you start to talk to people 
who have been in this business since its inception, they 
start to get jaded; "It's only eight-bit." 

Who cares? You are buying this machine for a spe- 
cific reason. If it satisfies that need, it is never obsolete. 
Only your requirements become obsolete. If you no 
longer require it, then you obviously would no longer 
need hardware to satisfy the need. The need ceases to 
exist — not the hardware. If the need continues to exist 
until the year 2000, then that machine is still 
satisfactory. 

There is no such thing as hardware obsolescence. 
That is a phrase that was coined by the naysayers in 
this industry. That's baloney. a 



CHU 




Two supercool spies straight fmm 
the Joke and Dagger Dep;irtment of 
MAD" Magazine. It's a slippery. 
sl< )sny race for time throuRh 
bobbing icebet},'s juid chilly 
lxH)l)y tr^ps. h)r only one 
spy gets to sit in tlie single- 
seat escape nicket. And 
the other? I'liat's one 
spy who won't be 
coming in out of the cold. 
Two-player option. 



^^ 



ARGIC ANTICS 
SPYVS SPY 




SERIES 






A Guide To 
Commodore 
User Groups 



Part 1 

Mickey McLean 



This annual GAZETTE feature provides an up-to-date list of user groups 
across the U.S., throughout Canada, and around the world. Part 1 
includes states A through M (Alabama-Montana). Under each state 
heading, groups are sorted in order according to zip code. 

User groups from tht' remaining states (Nebraska-Wyoming) and 
from outside the U.S (including APO addresses) will be listed in Part 2 
next month. 



ALABAMA 



V;il]cy CnrnmodDri; UsciB Ccoup (VCUG), T.O. 

Boi K.l?. Dri-.llijr, Al. ,15hl)2-()H35 
ScoltabarD CammodDrc^ Users Cioup. Rt 5. Bo^ 

255. Scllshpro. AL JiTfiH 
Sequoyah Users Group (SUGl, 702 Wiliiams Ai'e. 

>J.. Ft. r.iyiif, AL 3S->h7-2hli 
Montgomery Area Commodoie KompuLer Sociely 

IMACKSI, P.O. Gns 2]0ilb. MonLgoinm', AI. 

36121-(infi 
EjiI AUbjma Users' Group, P.O. Bos 219. 

iLitksciiinlli', AL ,1h2(>5 
The Byle Hunch, F.O Ho\ 185, Evi'tgreen, AL 

36401 
Amigi/Commodore Club of Mobile. 38fiS-H 

Rue ^.U\^.i^n, ,Mobile, AL .16608 
Commodore Mobile Users Croup (CMUC), P.O, 

Bo!, 9524, Mobile, AL 3hl.91-0524 
The Lighthouse BBS User Croup, Kt, 3 Bin 196, 

S.ilcm, AL 3bS7A 
Smiths Alabama Commodore User Group. Rl. 2 

Boi 105, Smilhs, AL36«77 



ALASKA 



Anchoragf Commodore Users, T.O.Box 104615, 

AiichoM,;.', AK«9510 J6I5 
Silka Commodore User's Croup, P.O. Bon 2204 

Sitka, AK 99B35 
First City Users Group, Box 6002, Ketchikan, AK 

99901 



AltlZONA 



Commodore User Group of AriiOna, TO Box 

21291, Pliui'nn, AZ H5n.l6 
Arizona Commodore Users Croup, PO, Bos 

27201, T-Mnpe, AZ SS2K2 
Gila Hackers, HI, 1 But 34. Globe, AZ S5501 
C64/12a Information Ejchinge Croup. IKJ S. 

Kolb Rd "345. Tufsim, AZ S5710 
Catalina Commodore Computer Club Inc. P.O. 

Box 32548, Tucson, AZ S5751 



ARKANSAS 



The Southwest Arkansas Commodore Users 

Croup 404 5 Greening Si,. Hopi-, AK 71801 
Commodore User Group, Rl. 9 Box 354-A, Hoi 

SptinKv AK 71913 
Commodore Information Association (CIA), Rl, 

1 Bov 103-1", Mayfloufi, AH 72106 
River City Commodoie Club, P.O. Bui 4298, N, 

Utile Rock, AR 72116 
The Commodore Council, 1821 B reckon ridge Dr., 

Lillle Rock, AR 72207 
The S,T.O.N.E. 64 Users Cioup, P.O, Box 301, 

Heyno, AH 72462 



£2 COMPUTEVa Gaielle May 1988 



The Personal Touch Commodore User Group of 
Hoxie and Walnut Ridge. 503 Kjylj'iin Dr.. 
VValnul Ridge, AR 72476 

Harrison Users Group. Kt. 1 Boi 15, Hnrrisun, AR 

72601 



CALIFORNIA 



Hollywood Users Group (HUC) for Commodore 

Computer Owners, P.O. Bi» 38313 HoIIvivtoJ, 

CA 9003S 
South Bay Commodore Users Group ISHCUG) 

(■suburban LA,). P.O. Bin 1 176, Redondo Bejch. 

CA 902780176 
C128 West Commodoie 138 User Group, 2917 

Colorado Ave.. Santa. Mimica, CA 90404 
Commodore 64 West Users Club (West LA. and 

Santa Monica), P.O. Box 406, Santa Monica, CA 

90406-0406 
ilegabyles C64, 9802 S. C.ilmada Ave., Whiltier, 

CA 90605 
Wesl Orange County Commodore Users Croup, 

P.O. Box 6441. Buena Park, CA 90622 
Southern California Commodore Users Group, 

llOlfl R. Riiienaans Ave., Suite 203, Norwalk, 

CA 90 6 50 
Commodore Helpers of Long Beach, 3736 Myrtle 

Ave.. Loiig HtMch, CA 90S07 
San Fernando Valley Commodore Users Group. 

7017 Geysi-r Ave., Reseda, CA 91335 
California Area Commodore Terminal User 

Sociely (CACTUS), P.O. Box 1277, Alta Loma, 

LA 91701 
Roscmead Associated Members (RAMI. 2636 

Willard Ave., Hosemead, CA 91770 
South Bay Commodore Users Croup, I'.O, Box 

1899, Chulj Visla, CA 920121899 
Qceana-64 Commodore User Croup, 1004 Plover 

Wa)', Oceanside, CA 92056 
Back-Country Commodore Club, P.O. Box 776, 

iiamona, CA 92065-0776 
Armed Forces Commodore, 4631 Gainaid Way, 

San Diffio, CA 92121 
San Diego Commodore Users Group, P.O, Box 

Kh53l,San Diego. CA 92138 
Ccncrai Dynamics CRA Commodore Computer 

Club, General Dynaniiti Electronics, MZ- 

7234A, PO, Box B531U, S.in Diego, CA 92138- 

5310 
Hi Desert Commodore Users Croup, 62026 Sun- 
burst Cr., io-Lhua Tree, CA 92252 
Ciub-64ISan Bernardino), P.O. Box 514, Fatton, 

CA 92369 
Commodore Users Croup of Riverside (CUGR), 

PO. Box WK. Riverside, CA 92515 
Power Surge, c/o Orangewoiid Academy, 13732 

Clinlon Ave . Garden Ciove, CA 92643 



West Orange County Commodoie User Group, 

20311 Ravenivood Ln., Huillington Beach, CA 

92646. 
South Orange Commodore Klub (SOCK), 25401 

Champlain Rd., Laguna Hills, CA 92653 
Southern Orange County Commodore 

Kompuler Services Croup (SOCCKS). The 

Wizards Exchange, 2421 2 Holiyoak Ln. Apt. D, 

Laguna Hills. CA 92656 
Commodore Technical User Group (CTUG), P.O, 

Bin S342, Orange, CA 92664 
Ventura Commodore Club 1306 Finch Ave.. 

\cnlurj, CA 93003 
C1VIC64, P.O. Box 2442, Qxnarel, CA 93034-2442 
A Baiters fie Id Area Commodore Users Sociely 

(ABACUS), 3101 Oakridse Dr., Bakersfield, CA 

93306 
San Luis Obispo Commodore Computer Club, 

P O. Box 3836, S,in Luis OW-po. CA 93403-3836 
Simply Users o( Computers Combining 

Experience for Strength and Success, 184 

Santa Vnc/. Ave, Paso Robles, CA 93446 
Central Coast Commodore Users Group, 4237 

Plumeria Cl., Sanla Marii. CA 93455 
Antelope Valley Commodore User Group 

(AVCUG), P.O, Box 4436, Lancasler, CA 93539 
Madera Users Group (MUG), P.O. Box 783, 

Madera, CA 93639 
Valley Commodore Users Croup, P.O, Box 3228, 

Salinas, CA 93912 
PLUG (Plus/4 Users' Group), Bo. 100!. Monterey. 

CA 93942 
Monterey Peninsula Commodore Group, P.O. 

Box 2105, Seaside. CA 93955 
Fl. Ord Commodore Users (FOCUS), P.O. Box 

21S0, Seaside, CA 93955-2180 
CWEST Bay Area Commodore Users, 850 

Butnt'tl oil, San Francisco, CA 94131 
PET-On-Thc-Alr, 525 Crestlake Dr., San Fran- 
cis o, CA 94132 
Diablo Valley Commodore User Group, P O. Box 

27155, Concord, CA 94527 
Marin Commodoie Computer Club, 665 I. as 

CoUnda? Rd., San Rafael, CA 94903 
64/Moie Commodore User Croup, Inc.. P.O, Bon 

26811. San lose, CA 95159.6811 
Stockton Commodore User's Cioup, P,0. Box 

8354, SiDcklon, CA 95208 
Lake County Computer Users Commodore SIC, 

PO. Box 385, Cleilake, CA 95422 
Amateurs and Arletians Computing, P.O. Box 

682, c/o Alex KR6G, Cobb Mountain, CA 95426 
Computer Users Croup of Ukiah (CUCU), c/u 

Wood Enterpriser, 1107 S, State St., Ukiah. CA 

95482 
Auburn Commodore Computer Club, P.O. Box 

4270, .Auburn. CA 95604 
Fairfield Commodore User's Cioup, 366 Royal 

O.iks Di„ Vacaville, CA 95688 
Sacramento Commodore Computer Club, P,0. 

Box 13393, Sacramento. CA 95813-3393 
North Valley Commudore Users Croup 

(NVCUC), I'.O. Box 7658, Chlco, CA 95937 
Commodore Owners Users Group of Redding 

ICOUGOR), 37 Rose Ln., Redding, 0\ 96003 



COLORADO 



Colorado Commodore Computer Club, 11B55 

Adams St.. Nonhglenn, CO H0233 
Ft. Collins C3, PO. Box 2051, F;, Collins, CO 

80522 
Front Range Commodore Club, P.O. Box 272, 

Niivoi, CO 80544-0272 
Commodore Club, P.O. Box 25851. Colorado 

Springs, CO 80936 
The Local Folks Computer Club, 1653-130 Rd.. 

CIcnwood Springs, CO 81601 



CONNECTICUT 



Capital Region Commodore Computer Club 

(CRCCC), PO. Box 2372. Vvrnon, CT 06066 
Hartford County Commodore Users Croup. Inc., 

P.O. Box 8553, Easl Hartfoid, Ci 06108 
Eastern Conn Commodore Uaeis Group, 227 

lagger Ln., Hebron, CV (16248 (DBS" 203-228- 

1031) 
Computer Users Group, 6 Saner Rd., 

Marlborough, CT 06447 
Commodore Users Group of Stratford, P.O. Box 

1213, Slialioid, CT 06497 
The Naugaluck Valley Commodore Users 

Group, P,0 Box 622, Waierburv, CT 06720 



SoiHh Kent Vim Croup (SKUG), Bm 97, Soulh Kcnl, CT 06785 

Fairfield Counly Commodore User Group {FCCUGt, I'.O, Box ;i2. Danbury, 

CT 05B13 
Slamford Area Commodore Sociely (SACS), P.O. Box 2122, Siamionl, CT 

nh906-oi;2 



DELAWARi; 



Speciil Infciesl Croups NULL IS*1*G*NULL), 2iili Owvn Dr„ Wilmmclon, DE 

Firsl Slate Commodore Club, I'.O, Box 1313, Dinvt. DE 19W3 
Lower Delaware Commodore Computer Club (LDCCO. P.O, Boii 5314, Nas- 
^JU, DE 19969 



1 LOR I DA 



Port Orange Commodore L'ser Group (FOCUG), 1244 Thomasina Dr., Port Or- 
ange, FL32U19 
Public Domain Users Croup, I'.O. Box 1442, Orarige Park, FL 32067 
Welnka Commodore Users Group, P.O, Hox 1 104. Wi'Lika, KL 32093-1 104 
Commodore Computer Club ul i.icksonviik', S43S l.viul.i Sue Ume VV„ Jackwn- 

ulle, I'l. 32217 
Bay Commodore Uiers Group (BCUGl, I'.O. 6o\ 3 1B7, P.inam.i Cilv, FL 33401 
fort Walton BeJch Commodore Users Croup. PO. Bm 3, Shalimiit. FL 32579 
Gainesville Commodore User Croup. P.O. Box 14716, Gainesville. FL 32604- 

4716 
Citru5 Commodore Compuler Club, P.O. 3o\ 703. Bi'verly Hills, FL 32665 
Lake/Sumter Commodore Users Croup, P.O. Bin 416, liv^burg. FL 32749 
Lake County Educational Users Commodore Club, P.O, Box 326, Tavarec, Fl 

32778 
Titusville Commodore Club, SW Alford Si.. Tllusvillp, KL 32796 
Ccnlral Florida Commodore Uieri Club, P.O. Bo* 547326, Orlando, FL 32854- 

7326 
El Shift OH, P.O. Bos 36134H. Melbourne, FL 32936-l31« 
Fellsmere's Club Compu-Matiia Inc., P.O. Box 629, Felsmeie. FL 329-18-0629 
Miami Individuals with Commodore Equipment (MICE), II 110 Bird Rd., Mi- 
ami, FL 33165 
Miami 20W Commodore Users Group, 11531 S.W. 84 St., -Miami. Fl. 33173 
Gold Coasl Commodore Croup, P.O. Box 375, Deerfield Beach, FL 33443 
Slircom User's Croup of Martin Counly, P,0, Bin 1446, Pon Salerno, FL 33492 
Charlotic Counly Commodore Club (CCCC), T.O, BoK 512103, Punta Corda, 

FL 33951-2103 
Bits and Bytes Compuler Club, 1859 Neptune Dr., EriKleivood, FL 34223 
Commodore Brooksvillc User Group (C-BUG). P.O. Bo\ 1261, Brooksville, FL 

34605 
Clearwater Commodore Club Inc, P.O, Boi 11211, CloarM,'Jter, Fl. 34616 
R.H.C.C. Users Croup 64/128. 8032 Banister Ln., Pon Richei'. FL 34668 
Suncoasl Bytes Commodore Computet Club, P.O. Box 71\. Elfers, FL 34680 



GRORGIA 



Griffin Commodore Program Eichange ICCPE), 1820 Hallmnrk Dr, Crilfin, 

GA .10223 
Middle CA C-61 User Croup, 104 McKinlev Dr., Griffin, GA 30223 
Slone Mountain Users Group (SMUG 64/l2BI, P.O, Bo> 1762, Ulbum, CA 

30226 
Athens Commodore Users Croup, One Beech H.iven, Athens, GA 30606 
C-64 Friendly Users Group, 775 Kings Rd., Athens. GA 306O5 
Commodore Club of Augusta, PO, Box 14337, Augusta, GA 30919 
Savannah Commodore User Group, P.O. Box 1171. Sai'annati, GA 31402-1171 
Albany Commodore Amateur Computerist. P.O ikjx 5461, Albanv, C.A31706- 

5461 



HAWAII 



Makai Commodore User Croup (MCUG), PO, Bo* 6381, Honolulu, HI 96818 
Commodore Haw.iii Users Croup (CHUG), P.O. Box 23260, Honolulu, HI 

96872 



IDAHO 



I'otalello Commodore Users Group (PCUC), Rt, 2 Box 4HE, Potatello. ID 83202 

PFP 64 Software Exchange, 742 E 19th, Jerome, ID 83338 

Eagle Rock Commodore Computer Club, P.O. Box 3884, Idaho Falls, ID 83403- 

3884 
Banana Belt Commodore Users Group (BBCUGI. P.O. Box 1272. Lewiston. ID 

83501 
GE.M-M, Ken Rosecrans. '107 N. DeClark. Emmeii. ID 83617 
Commodore Treasure Valley /Boise Users Group (TV/HUG), P.O. Box 6B53, 

noise, ID 83707 



ILLINOIS 



PET VIC Commodore Users Croup, B92 Knollwood, Buflab Grove, IL 60089 
Fox Valley PET (Commndoiel Users Croup, 833 Pi.isiiftl Ave., Eljpn, U. 60 1 20 
Computers West, PO Wo, 3357, Glen Eilvn, IL 60138 
NorthEastern Computer Rappers of Illinois 64-128 of America (NECRIA), 220 

Connors, Lotkpm, tl, (■0'141 
Southwest Regional Association of PTOgrammcrs/64 Users Croup 

ISWRAP/64), PO Bm 342. Bedlcird Paik, II. 60499.0342 
Chicago B-128 Users Croup ICBUC Inc.), 4102 ,\. Odell, Notridge, IL 60634 
Knox Commodore Club. 675 Arnold St., Galesburg, II, 614Q1 
Survivors of the Sixty-four Users Group fSOSUC). P.O, Box 6108, Macomb, IL 

61455 
Western Illinois Commodore Users Group (WICUC), 906 W. 6lh Ave, Mon- 
mouth, IL 61462 
Canton Area Commodore Users Group, 13 N. 17lh Ave., Canton, IL 61520 
Meeting 64/12S Users Thru the Mail. R.R. I Bov 151. Si. Joseph, IL 61873 



Champaign -Urbana Commodore User Croup (CUCUG), 803 N. Parke Sl, 

Tu«-ob, II. 61935 
East Side Computer Club. P.O. Bax 1347, Alum, IL 62002-1347 
Gateway Computer Club. PO, Box 1839, Fairview Hcighls, IL 62203 
Weslern Illinois PET User Group (WiPUCI, Rt. 5, Box 75, Quincy, IL 62301 
Soulhetn Illinois Commodore-Amiga Club, 1707 F Main St., Obey, IL 62450 
Decatur Commodore Computer Club (DC3I, 664 W. Grand, Di'cniur, IL 62522 
Capital CilyCommodoreComputerClubtSCs), P.O, Box 2961, Springfield, II. 

62708 
SPUC Computer Club, P.O. Box 90.15, SptingField. IL 62791 
Chess I'liyeis' Commodore User Croup, 723 Barton ^i. Mt \'emi)n. IL 62364 



INDIANA 



Indianapolis Compuler Club, Inc, P.O. Eos 11367, Indianapolis. IN 46201 
Midwest C-64 Users Croup (MW64UCI. P.O. Bos 9311, Highland, IN 46322 
Kosciusko Commodore User's Group, 312 E. Prairie, W.lrt.iiv IN 46580 
Tort Wayne Area Commodore Club, PO. Bos I3I07. Port VVayiii', \>i 46B67 
Logansporl Commodore Club, P.O, Box 1 161, I.ogansixirl, IN 46947 
Commodore Small Town Users Croup (CSTUC), P.O, Box 161, Vevay, IN 

47043 
QSt Alliance, P.O, Box 1403. Neiv Albany, IN 47150 
Fraternal Order of Police Computer Club (FOPCO. 2535 Anthonv Dr., Evans- 

ville. IN 47711 
Commodore Computer Club, P.O. Box 2332, Evansville, IN 47714 
Western Indiana Commodore Users {WICUI, P.O. Box 1898, Terrc Hauie, IN 

4780S 
Commodore Owners of Lalaycltc (COOL), PO. Box 5763, Lil.iyrlle, IN 47M3 



Commodore Users Group, Ames Region (COUGAR), PO. Box 2302, Ames, lA 

5(U1I0 2302 
Capitol Complex Commodore Computer Club, PO. Box 212, Des Moines, lA 

50301 
Commodore Computer User Croup of Iowa, P.O. Box 3140. Des Moines, lA 

50316 
Ft. Dodge Commodore Users Group. 1606 2nd Ave. N,. Ft Dodge, lA 50501 
3C Users Group, R.R. 3, Box 20. CTarks City, lA 50616 
Product Engineering Center Commodore Users Croup (PECCUG), 333 joy Dr., 

VVjteiloo, lA 50701 
Tricomm Compuler Users Group, 310 S. Floyd Blvd. Sulle 309, Sioux City, lA 

SIlUl 
Syntax Errors Anonymous Commodore User Group, 216 6th St. S.W,, Spencer, 

IA5I3U1 
Crawford County Commodore Users Group, 519 N. 19th St., Denison, lA 

51442 




'Die nearby electni-cheiiiical plant is pumping out radii^ctive 
repellenL If you're to save your world, you better ^et off your web 
ani^ find the parts you need to become Spiderdroid, a deadly, 
hyper-mobile fighting machine. But watch out for the stingers, 
nick hoppers, and big lx)n'rs. What's wTDug? Isj 
Uiing bugging TOU? CpiDEDpAT" 



BY£0»r 




i^.uii™iAmtw«.iw«:mf.MirK,ifWiUUBUttTi«MMnrnixPttoi«J«,M 



, -. 4..-'. . ■ '■ c * * " V * ' ^ v^V • a 

v.'..;V.: ^.r* "... " ^,'SJ^ 



■^^.J*.-* 







Get ready for four of tlie most cfialleng- 
ing, rugged, rump-bumping cross 




Permanently. You will when you endure There are boulders, rivers, potholes, 
the lorigest winter of your life in the ice, and mudbogs to contend with. What 
sleet and slosh of The Michigan are mudbogs? You'll find out. (Just after 



Fie'/lv al ttirtlli iiuu'iiuli'i-'I in/ H.''- f-lhi'.i'iS^'i'i'"dF iifn'itu' muti. 
panked&non.skiii-mnti. and the f^rubbien rcrtain sourii ol ifif bof tiff 

country road racing courses this earth 
has to offer. 

Fight the torturous terrain of Baja. 
Rocks, boulders, skid-sand, even a few 
spikey cactuses. And of course, heat 
that's hot enough to fillet any forehead. 
Ever had your hands stuck to the wheel? 



Course. The Georgia Red Clay 
Course has enough mud to keep 
you a human fossil for 2,000 years. 
And then there's Death Valley 
Get it. D-E-A-T-H Valley 
Start with pre-race strategy 
Select and customize your personal 
vehicle Your supplies. Your repair equip- 
ment, Believe us. You'll need everything. 



you find out there's a Demon 4x4 chas- 
ing you all through the race. A Demon 
hellbent on your destruction.) 

If you win enough races, collect 
enough points, only then will the 
Victor's Cup be yours. It's 
the least we can do. After 
all, you did go through 
hell to get there. 



4x4 OFF-ROAD RACING 

BY 



Cominodlur S4/!2i. IBMScampunhln. Amifi 




Iowa City Cummpulcr L'spm Group (ICCUG), P.O. [Wn 2412. Iowa Citv. lA 

5Z2-H 
Washinglon Area Commodorf Users Croup, P.O. Oo\ -145, Wjshinalon, lA 

52353 



KANSAS 



Lawrence Commodore User's Croup. i'O Sim 220'1, Liwrcnti', KS h6(l-15 
First Commodore Users Group, Mh I. ChipiH'iva. rida. KS fthII7l 
TCCUG. Inc., ro Ik)y S43^, T.ipi'U KS 66W1H (BBS" ^13-862- 1604) 
Newlon Are.i Commodore Club, 112 DriMikside, Noivlon, KS 67114 
Parsons Commodore Computer Users Croup, 714 S. 35th Si., Parsons. KS 

67357 
Commodore User's Group of McPhcrson (CUGOM), 10D9 Sycamore PI., 

McPherson, KS 67461) 
Salt Cily Commodore Club. TO. Box 2644, Hulchinson. KS 67504 
Mid-Kansas Commodore Club, 1509 Hubbard, Creal Rend, KS 67530 



KENTUCKY 



Purchase C64 User's Group, Kl 1 Bov 2IWA. (..ilvcrt Cily KT 42029 
GUs};uiv Commodore User's Croup, I'O [!ii. 154, GI,t.(>"w. KV 43141 
Logan County Commodore Users Club, P.O. lk>\ 302, Lewisbur^;, KY 42256 
Commodore Users Croup of Madison vlUe (CUCOM). I'O. Bo\ H49, MadistTr- 

villf, KY 42431 



LOUISIANA 



New Orleans Commodore Klub, 3701 Division SI. Suiie 140, Melaine, LA 

70002 
SoulheasI Louisiana Commodore Users' Croup, P.O Boi 1138, Gray, LA 70359 
Commodore Users Croup ol Slldell (CUGSl, 111 Marche Blvd.,' SI i Jell, I.A 

7045H 
Acadiani Commodore Computer Club (ACCO. P.O. Box 31412, Lafayelle, LA 

70593 
Halon Rouge Area Commodore Enlhuslasls (BRACEI. 3540 Olive Ave,. 

Zachan: LA 70791 
Ark-La-fen Compulct Club, P O. Bo< 6502, Shrevcporl, I.A 71 106-6502 
PAGE U.C PO. Bm 7703, Alev.iTidna, I.A 71306-7703 



MAINE 



Your Users Croup (YUG), P.O. lioi 1924, N. Windham, ME 041162 
Compumanla, HI Nurth St., Saco, MI! 04072 

Southern Maine Commodore, I'O. Bo<416, StaiborouKh, .MC 04074-0116 
Commodore Users Group of Coastal Maine, 103 Main Sl„ Topsham, Ml; 040B6 
Commodore Users Society of Penobscot (CUSP), c/o 101 Crosby Hall, Univer- 

sHV ul Maine al Or(ini>, Onimi, Ml; 04469 
Islarid/Reach Computer Users Croup, P.O. Bin 73, Dkt lsk>, ME 04627 
Southern Aroostook Commodore User's Croup (SACUG), P.O. Box 451, 

Houlion, Mf 04730 
Northern Maine Commodore User's Group, P.O. Bo< 493,, Luring AfB, ME 

04751 



MAHYLAND 



Fcderallon of Commodore User SociclicB, Inc. (FOCUS DC/MD/VAI, l',0, 

Bnx 153, Annapolis Jiintlion. MD 20701 <Nole: ("Jris is J frJcralhn amsKtmg of 

15 uiiT ;;riiiijis in ihr VA/MD/DC a'ffl, iwl a dub cllfing indifiiiual 

nh'ml'mliipf,.) 
MUMPS Users' Group (MUG), 4321 Hanivick Rd. Suite 310. Callege Park, MD 

20740 
Rockvillc Commodore Users Group. P.O. Bos 8805, Riickville, MD 20856 
National Bureau o( Standards Commodore Users Croup, 3 Cross R%e Ct., 

Cemianl0ii.TL. MD 20S74 
Monlgomery County Commodore Computer Society. P.O. Bni 26B9, Silver 

Spring MD 2(1902 
VIC Apprecialors {VICAPI. 10260 Neiv Hampshire Ave,, Silver Sprinft MD 

20903 
Harford Counly Commodore Users Group (HCCUGI, P.O, Bon 109, Falhton, 

MD 21047 
CUM-BACC, 1427 York Rd. ai Semirari' Ave., Baltimnre, ,MD 21093-6014 
BAYCUC, 110 Diinbur\' Hd., Reisilerslown, MD 21136 
Ballimote Area Commodore Users Croup (Bay-CUG). 4605 VOGT Ave., Bal- 

iimim'.MD 21206 
Randallslown Commodore UserGroup, 3702 DurleyLn,, Baltimore, MD 21207 
The Flrsl Sector Users Group (FSUC). 113 L, Moni);omm'Sl. Isl ll, B.iliimure. 

MD 21230 
The Annapolis Commodore Users Croup, PO. So\ .13.5S, Amiapoli-, MD 

21403 
Frederick Funrtioneers, PO. Boi 1913, Frederick, MD 21701-1010 
Hagerstown User Group (HUG), 23 Covcntfy Ln., Hagcr^town, MD 21740 



MASSACIIUSEITS 



Pioneer Valley Commodore Clutj, 6 tjurpi Icrr., ^vesineja, ma 010B5 
Eastern Mass Commodore User Croup. 6 FlaRK Rd., Marliioro, MA 01752 
Fosboro Area Commodore Users Croup. P.O Ho< 322. FoiWiro, MA 02035 
Commodore Users Croup of Cape Cod, PO. Bm 1490, Coiuit, MA 02635 



MICHIGAN 



Michigan Commodore Users Croup. Inc., P.O. tk>» 3j9, fcjsi uetroit, mi 4tiH2l 
Washtenaw Commodore Users Group, P.O. Bo> 2050, Am Arbor, Ml 4S106- 

2050 
Soft-Type Users Croup. 20231 WeslmorL4and, Delroit, Ml 4S219 
Northern Genesee County Commodore Users Group INGCCUG), P.O, Boi 

250. Clio, MI4fi42H 
Commodore Computer Club. 4106 EaFlman Rd., Midland, MI 48640 
Lansing Area Commodore Qub, P.O, Box 1065. East Lansing, MI 48826-1065 



Kalamazoo Valley Home Users Croup, P.O Ikn 30B5, Kalamazoo. MI 49003 
Battle Creek Commodore and VIC Enthusiasts, 1299 S, 24lh, Battle Creek, Ml 

49015 
Edwardsburg Commodore Users' Croup (ECUG), P.O. Box 130, EdvHinisbutg, 

Ml 49112 
Columbia Commodore Computer Club (Crt), 133 Ernest, Bmiiklyn, Ml 492.30 



MINNflSOTA 



Commodore Owners Area Compuler Club (COACC), 2380 llh Ave. NW, 

Oiv.itoniia. MN ,55060 
Hlbblng Area Commodore Klub (H.A.C.K.), 2709 3id Ave 1:. Hibblng. MN 

55746 
Rochester Area Commodore User's Croup, 2526 6lh Ave. NW, Rochesler, MN 

55901 
Albert Lea Commodore Users Group, 2217 N Bridge, Albert Lea, MN 56007 
Commodore Users Therapy Group, 1.109 N, Gorton Ave., Witlmar, MN 56201 
Redwood falls Area Computer Exchange, 717 E. WvrmingSt., Redwood Falls, 

M\ 562B3 
Heartland Area Computer Cooperative, Dm 360, Albany. MN 56307 
Commodore Bemidji User Group, lit. 3, Son 392, Bemitlji, MN 56601-S313 



MlSSISSIl'I'I 



Software Source, 4550 W. Beach Biv.t. U12 Kdgcwaler Village, Biloii, MS 39531 
Coastline Commodore Compuler Club, P.O. Box 114, Diloxi, MS 39533 (BBS" 

601-3r4-CLLB) 
Columbus Commodore 64/ 12B Club, 504 N. 20ih Si. Hast, Ci)liiinbuii, MS 39702 



MISSOURI 



Commodori- Users Group of SI. Ijiuis, P.O. I!m 2B424, 5l l.iuils, MO 63146- 

O'lf^l 
Norlheast Missouri Commodore Uicn Croup (NEMOCUCI. P.O. Ooi 563, 

.Ma.on, MO 63552 
Hcarlland Users Group, PO B<n 1251, Cape Girardeau, MO 63702-1251 
Joplin Commodore Compuler User Group, 422 S Florida Ave Joplm, MO 

64B01 
Mid-Missouri Commodore Club, P.O. Bov 7026, Columbia, MO 65205-7026 
Southwest Missouri Commodore Users Croup. 1510 South Si . Aurora, MO 

65605 
Commodore User Croup of Springfield (CUGOS), Ikii 607 Jewit Station, 

Spnngfield. MO 65 BOI 



MONTANA 



Cascade County Users Group Inc., P.O. Box 739, Great rails, M I 5940.1 [BBS" 

406-761-326BI 
Commodore Classic User Group, P.O. Box 3454, CriMi Falls, MT 59403 
Commodore Programs Inc., 740 Ea^tside Rd„ Deer Lddge, MT 59722 Imall-in 

gntup) 



EAU 




It's nuclear winter 
all year round. As 'lal, tlie 
futuristic warridf In the ye:ir 
2500 A-D., yoiill need to collect 
tlie ancient flying armor tliat will 
iiake tile difference between life 
anid liiilf-life. Watch out for the 
,i;iant sloths, vicious subhumans 
and mutant aliens. They've had 
a hanl winter. 



ijc^.ssjii/fittiMi'Ah^tf.st^m («■ i.jti i'^/j-kv i l'l^;l'^^-nl. ■^ft-riKMiK.ifii 




SERIES 




Ill this fast-paced action game for the 64. you enter a 
strange new universe where your skill and cunning are put to 
the test. To survive, you must trap a constantly moving sphere 
before your time runs out — or you trap yourself A joystick is 
required. 



"Trap" takes you to another uni- 
verse, another dimension. Trap's 
world consists of an array of col- 
ored blocks hanging in ink-black 
space, set against a blanket of dis- 
tant, sparkling stars. 

Two beings inhabit this 
strange place, each with a geometri- 
cal form; a sphere, which continu- 
ously bounces from block to block, 
and a flat square, which lies atop 
the blocks, blinking patiently. In 
Trap, you're the blinking square, 
and your objective is to trap the 
bouncing sphere and use its kinetic 
energy for your survival. 

Getting Started 

Since Trap is written in machine 
language, you'll need to enter it 
with the "MLX" machine language 
entry program found elsewhere in 
this issue. When you run MLX, 
you'!! be asked for the starting ad- 
dress and ending address of the 
data you'll be entering. Here are the 
values to use for Trap: 

starting Address: 0801 
Ending Address: 1360 

Follow the MLX instructions 
carefully, and be sure to save a copy 
of the Trap data before you leave 
MLX. To start Trap, simply load it 
as you would any BASIC program, 
and type RUN. 

When you first run the pro- 

26 COMPUTEI's Gazelle May 1988 



gram, you'll see the title screen and 
hear an ominous sound effect to 
help set the mood. Press the fire but- 
ton on the joystick to begin the game. 
The game screen consists of a 
4X4 matrix of colored blocks dis- 
played in three-dimensional space. 
At the top of the screen is your cur- 
rent score, the number of lives you 
have left, and your high score for 
the session. At the bottom of the 
screen is a bar which represents the 
amount of time remaining. Use a 
joystick {plugged into port 2) to 
move the blinking square from 
block to block. 

Staying Alive 

In this universe, all life depends on 
motion. There are two life forms. 
The lower life form is a small sphere 
that must stay in constant motion in 
order to survive. The sphere can 
bounce in any direction, but it can't 
leave the grid. You, as a higher form 
of life, don't have to move, but you, 
too, depend on motion. The sphere 
is your prey, and you must trap it 
and use its kinetic energy. 

A quirk of your character is 
that you spawn a trail of four dis- 
colored blocks that follow you in a 
snake-like manner. These special 
blocks are the key to trapping the 
sphere. The ball can't jump onto 
them, so you can force the sphere 



into a position where it can't move, 
trapping it between the discolored 
blocks and the void of space. 

There is a special situation, 
however. If the ball is already in 
midbounce and you move into a 
position where it must land on a 
discolored block, it will do so. It 
can't change direction in midair. 
Also note that you can't move over 
your own trail, so you must be care- 
ful not to maneuver yourself into a 
corner. If you do, you'll be helpless 
until time runs out. 




Slunnitig graphics campleme}it the 
cxcdleiil playabitity of "Trap." 



The time bar at the bottom of 
the screen indicates the time you 
have left. It continually decreases, 
and when it's depleted, your sys- 
tem goes into shock (shown on the 
screen by a pulsing light). You can 
survive two shocks, which will be 
recorded as small representations 
of your square at the lop of the 
screen, but with the third shock, 
you cease to exist. The screen 
pulses and fades, and you're al- 
lowed a brief period of mourning. 



Trapping The Ball 

When you trap the sphere, you'll 
receive one point for every unit of 
time remaining on the time bar. 
Anything over 200 represents very 
good play. After a successful trap, 
you advance to the next level, and 
the blocks change color. 

You'll quickly discover tech- 
niques for trapping the ball, but 
since the ball speeds up every three 
screens, the game becomes increas- 
ingly more difficult, You don't have 
corresponding acceleration, so as 
the game progresses, planning be- 
comes more important. Luckily, the 
ball ceases to accelerate after it 
reaches a certain speed. 

If you need to pause the game, 
press the RUN/STOP key. The 
screen blanks, hou-ever. so that you 
can't analyze your position. The 
screen also changes to blue so you 
won't worr}' that something is wrong 
with your computer. To resume the 
game, press RUN/STOP again. 

Modifying The Game 

One nice feature of Trap is that it can 
be adjusted for your preferences. If 
you find that the game's too fast, 
you may want more time or a slower 



pace. Or perhaps you've got super 
reflexes and you'd like more of a 
challenge. In either case, the follow- 
ing POKE statements allow you to 
customize Trap. Load Trap and type 
any of the following in direct mode 
before running the game. 
To adjust the overall speed of the 
game, type 
POKE 2910, n 

where n is a number between 1 and 
255. A value of 1 gives the fastest 
speed and 255, the slowest. The 
normal speed is about 170, 
To control the ball's speed, type 
POKE 4211. n 

where n is a value between and 9. 
Using will result in the ball even- 
tually becoming a gray blur. Using 
9 will cause the ball to never accel- 
erate. A normal value is 2, 
If you want to change the rate at 
which time decreases, type 
POKE 3258, n 

where n is a value between 1 and 
255. A value of 1 will leave you 
with something less than one sec- 
ond to react. Using 255 will let you 
trap the ball at your leisure. The 
normal rate is 42. 
See program listing on page 93. O 



MAIL TO: 

COMPUTEI'S GAZETTE 
SUBSCRIBER SERVICE 

P.O.Box 10958, □DsMoinos. tA 50340-0958 

Changs ol Addrett: Please aQvise as early as 
possible. Attach label wiih your old address and 
wrilB in new address below. 

New Subscriber; Fill in your name and address 
below. Use separate sheet lorgift orders. 



PLACE LABEL HERE 



Renewal: Attach label. 

..- One year SZ'I.OO Two years S45.00 

(Foreign subscitjers please add S6.00 per year 
lor poslage) 

sintEt . , ,„ 



ClIV SIME ZS> 

Please bill mo Paymeni enclosed 

For olhor subscription questions or problems, 
please write a note and send entire lorm lo the 
above address, OR CALL TOLL-FREE 

1 -(800) 727-6937 



C-M-- ■ VIC-- • tXtf 



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BoxADepc. U-0 

San Ansefmo, CA 94960 



ROCK 
Ul 




Builii your own or choose 
from 16 pi^-proi^rammeiJ 
caves in a geoltmcal night- 
mare of runaway !)oulders. razor- 
sharp mcks, ana ailiapKible caverns. 
What's in it f^[)r you?()li, not inuch. 
Just enough tnw aiamoiicls Ui finance 
a whole new universe. Just watch out 
for the amoebas. Suffocation is such a 
nastv way to go. 

BOULDER DASH"" 
CONSTRUCTION KIT " 







SERIES 




Treasure Diver 



Brian Casey 

What chance does a bubble stand in an ocean full of sharks? 
Not much, but if he thinks fast, he may collect a lot of treasure 
before he pops. An enjoyable, high-speed game for the Commo- 
dore 64. foystick required. 



If you like finding treasure — and 
who doesn't? — you'll enjoy "Trea- 
sure Diver," an adventurous under- 
water game that's packed with 
action. 

In Treasure Diver, you are a 
small bubble, floating at the top of 
the ocean. At the ocean's bottom is 
a treasure chest which drifts slowly 
along in the current. All that you 
have to do is hold your breath and 
dive to get the treasure. 

Of course if it were that easy, it 
wouldn't be much fun. That's 
where the sharks come in. A screen 
full of blue sharks swimming in 
hunting patterns, hoping to come 
across a morsel of food. Stay clear 
of them. Pay special attention to the 
two black sharks (they're smarter 
than the blue ones) because they'll 
try to hunt you down. 

At the top of the screen is your 
air indicator. When you dive, the 
indicator will move through the 
safe green area, into the yellow 
warning area, and finally into the 
red danger area. Be sure to surface 
for more air before you run out. 
2B COMPUTEls GaMfffl May 1988 




Brave the deep, shark-itifcsted sea to 
bring back sunken treasure. 

When a shark takes a bite out 
of you, he does permanent dam- 
age — you'll leak air faster. With 
each bite, things get worse. In waters 
this dangerous you won't last long, 
so collect as much treasure as you 
can as quickly as possible. 

Typing It In 

Treasure Diver is written entirely in 
machine language. Type it in using 
"MLX," the machine language en- 
try program found elsewhere in this 
issue. When MLX asks for starting 



and ending addresses, respond 
with the following values: 

Starling address: COOO 
Ending address: C8C7 

After you've finished entering the 
data, be sure to save it to tape or 
disk before leaving MLX. 

Plug a joystick into port 2. To 
load Treasure Diver, use a state- 
ment of the form LOAD"TREA- 
5URE",8,1 (for disk) or 
L0AD-TREASURE",1,1 (for tape). 
If you saved Treasure Diver as 
something other than TREASURE, 
use the filename with which you 
saved the program. 

To start the program, type SYS 
49152. You'll be asked to select the 
game speed. Enter a number be- 
tween 1 (fastest) and 4 (slowest). 
For your first game, try speed 4. 

When the game begins, ma- 
neuver down between the sharks to 
the treasure. To capture the trea- 
sure, just touch it. It will disappear, 
giving you 200 points. If you get 
into a jam, hold the fire button 
down as you move — you'll go fast- 
er, but you'll also use up a lot of air. 

Treasure Diver keeps the high 
score on the screen. If you want to 
pause the game, press SHIFT- 
LOCK. Press it again to resume 
play. To quit the game, press F7. 
See program listing on page 91. O 



\\\ll/// 




^•■^"''^ 






By now you've proOaDiy seen all Kie ads lor all the 
flitteienr *'Su[»f Catitioges" on me markei. And Biej can 
lalk alf day, M Iei's gel real: no cailiiflge is going lo Back up 
100% nl anything, no cartridge is going !o lurnynur C-64 into 
an Amiga, anfl no lancv screens or hyperballc clams aie 
going lo giue a cartridge any nwre powot ihan it really has. 

Thafs why SUPER SWAPSHOr is sNII Ihe Mst multi- 
lunclran cartritlge on Ihe markei It is a product Ihat is Ihe 
result ot a long process ol relinement. Our policy of conslani 
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art flBvlce. SUPER SNAPSHOT will neucr De ■■hnalized" — 
Gecause il's built lo evolve. 



HERE'S WHAT SUPER SNAPSHOT VI CAN DO FOR VOUt ' 




we miK WE yv/iif( 



• Copies 99°/. ol all memory resideni software. 

■ Disable lealure for true transparency, 

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• fiom Based scrolling Ul\. monitor will NOT corrupl memory 

■ Turbo 25— Formats for up to J5 limes faster loads, 

• Fast data copier, single or Ouah 1541/71 ana 15B1/B1 

• Sector editor allows fast eiamination and modificalion. 

■ Free KRACKER JAX parameters lor those loitgh cracks, 

• Ten-day money back salisiaciion guataniee. 

• Allention C-128 owners An optional switch Is available whicti allows 
Only S 5 00 adaltional 



• Files run wllhout Ihe carirldge in place. 

• Pre-programmed or user delinable lunction keys. 

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• Fast File copier, single or dual: 1541/71/B1. 

• Sprile killer and ejclusive eilended lila tealure. 

• Fast load and save routines are used ttirougtioul. 

• Super Snapshol VI and U2 owners may upgrade lor S20.00. Call us 
■• Our greal Slldeshow Creator available lor only S14 95 

you to disable the C-G4 mode without removing the cartridge. 



So while other companie's spend their time making their packages Better, we'll iubi keep on making our products heller 
Because we know the diiietence between TALKING THE talk-ANO WALKING THE WALK. SUPER SNAPSHOT V3: Only S59.95I 



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Convertyour C64/C12B toaroal synthesizor with the 



SFX SOUND EXPANDER 



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A five octavo synthesizer style key board which plugs into the 
Sound Expander module 

SFX FM COMPOSER AND SOUND EDiTOR * 45.50 

The software lo get the most out of the SFX Sound Expander! 
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519W.Tayior#114, Santa Maria. CA 93464 
Phone 805-925-6682 

1-80(M47-3434 -^- 

(DEA1.ER I NQUIFI I ES I NVJTED) .^T^ 




You're Gji'/GsA 
Tiie last remaining play- 
thing to survive a toy factory 
talteover. You must stop a master 

computer that's gone haywire. 

A computer intent on building 

hideous, deadly toys. What 

should you do? 

Spring into ac- 
tion, what else? 

COIL COP 



c^iiiH.Tr/f«irjt*irrtftntt tnpf.iv\frfnTrjpfuif*atUMt> 




SERIES 



Airborne Ranger 

Although on afterword in Airbprne 
Ranger's dotumentaiion has the pro- 
grammers and artisls at MicroProse 
quaking at the thought of creating an 
arcade game- — after building their repu- 
tation on simulations — they have none- 
theless done it with their usual flair. 

At first glance, il may even seem 
that they have simply produced their 
own version of a popular coin-operated 
game for the Commodore 64, A closer 
look reveals that MicroProse has both 
enlarged and rounded out the classic 
scenario of a single warrior operating 
behind enemy lines, making of il a 
more complete adventure than the 
game that may have inspired il. 

Mission, Please 

There are 12 missions in Ranger, and 
two methods of play, You may assign a 
practice ranger, whose score will not be 
recorded; or use a veteran ranger, who 
must be saved to a separate data disk. 
Mission selection offers such tasks as 
blowing up a munitions depot, captur- 
ing an enemy officer, disabling a SAM 
site, freeing hostages, and many more 
in between. 

Some missions may also combine 
two or more major tasks; these are ex- 
plained in the briefing message that fol- 
lows your selection. Scoring is based on 
whether or not you have accomplished 
your prime objective, as well as upon 
the number of enemy soldiers killed 
and the number of enemy emplace- 
ments destroyed. Besides the numerical 
point scores, you may also win promo- 
tions and/or medals. 

Each session has a definite begin- 
ning. In rounding out the game and 
making of it a full-blown mission — as 
opposed to a set of scenarios in which 
you suddenly find yourself on a field of 
combat with no past and little future— 
Airborne Ranger begins each mission 
with an airdrop. There is an overhead 
view of the mission area, much like 
what you'd see if you were looking at a 
map, and skimming down from top 
screen is an aircraft. The craft may be 
controlled right or left by the joystick in 
order to help you avoid obvious trouble 
spots. And when you think you are 
ready, you begin by dropping the three 

30 COMPUTErs CH^atle May 19B8 



supply packages — with luck, marked in 
your memory so that you can find Ihem 
later. Once you've used the weapons 
you carry, you can replenish them only 
by finding and recovering your supply 
packages. 

Your own drop comes after the 
three supply chutes have deployed. Be- 
cause you are using a paravane instead 
of a parachute, you have n good 
amount of maneuverability while still 
in the air. This, again, is controlled by 
joystick. The freedom to move will help 
you avoid landing atop a gun emplace- 
ment or a tank and can make it possible 
for you to land in a place of conceal- 
ment such as a trench. 

Because the name of the game is 
infiltration, it will not do to try to land 
on your objective, the reason being ob- 
vious: Anything worth destroying is 
also worth defending. You won't want 
to land in a hotbed of security and be 
shot down on the spot. 



An arcadc-slylc game from 

MicroProse? Yes, and a darned 

good one. 



Throughout the game, control is 
via joystick, with only minor access to 
the keyboard required. In contrast to 
the almost full keyboard use of previ- 
ous MicroProse outings. Airborne Ranger 
makes you wonder why a keyboard 
overlay was included; Four function 
keys select current weapon; the space 
bar determines whether you walk or 
crawl; a cursor key toggles between run- 
ning and walking; three number keys 
determine the fuse delay on time bombs; 
and two other keys will either call for an 
air pickup or get you first aid. It is this 
welcomed simplicity of control which 
makes the game easy to learn and which 
goes a long way toward helping to clas- 
sify it as arcade-style entertainment. 

A New Perspective 

Once your soldier is on the ground, the 
viewpoint shifts from a long shot to a 
medium shot. Your view is sfill from 
above, but is now at an angle that 




brings perspective and rounding to the 
3-D landscape. Enemy soldiers, pillbox- 
es, gun emplacements, and trenches are 
all done with a wealth of detail that adds 
both realism and urgency to your task. 

Slightly ahead of your soldier is a 
floating crosshairs pointer. This is used 
to aim the weapon precisely as you turn 
the soldier about. Depending upon the 
target, your chosen weapon may be a 
carbine, a hand grenade, a LAW rocket, 
or a combat knife. You aim by turning 
your soldier until the crosshairs is 
pointed at the target, and fire by press- 
ing the joystick button. 

The enemy can be wounded or 
killed. Wounded, he will fall to the 
ground, but will rise again when your 
back is turned. Dead, he will fall to the 
ground and, a moment later, disappear. 
Quite obviously, this particular type of 
house cleaning comes under the head- 
ing of conservation of sprites: Sweep 
the dead ones a\vay to make way for 
more live ones. Yet it also serves to re- 
inforce another tenet in the afterword 
of the documentation: One of the aims 
of AirboTiic Ranger was to emulate 
deadly combat without blood and guts, 
in order to preserve the game quality. 

Once a mission has been complet- 
ed — or when the countdown mission 
clock has reached 0— a rescue craft 
hovers over the Pickup Point. It is up to 
you to know where this is and to be 
there on time. Other mission endings 
involve your death at the hands of the 
enemy. In either case you will then be 
presented with a mission assessment in 
which you are awarded points, promo- 
tions, medals, or any combination of 
these. Then, of course, it's time to vol- 
unteer again. 

Although not quite as thick as 
some created by MicroProse for other 



games, the manual for Airborne Ranger 
is no less complete. Each mission is de- 
tailed and tactical tips for each mission 
are provided. In addition, there is a fas- 
cinating short historical description of 
Army Rangers that helps to put your 
computer missions in perspective. The 
3-D graphics are very good, as is the 
sound, and the animation in the move- 
ment of soldiers and in the explosions is 
as good as most of what you've seen on 
coin-operated arcade games. 

No matter what protests Micro- 
Prose may make, they have created an 
arcade game, and a darned good one. 
— Erviii Bobo 

Airborne Ranger 

MicTopTOse 

120 Lakefroiit Dr. 

Hum Valley, MD 21030 

$24.95 



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I never knew what hit me. 

The first etplosion knocked out the 
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deck gun and torpedo tubes. 1 had 
meant to scan the horizon from the 
sub's control tower, but in the excite- 
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in 1942. 1 hit the periscope key by mis- 
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field of view on my unseen attacker 
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Pick Your Year 

As an American, you can sail on a sin- 
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You can choose Target Practice 
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If you're fresh out of sub school, 
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After a few thousand miles of saltwater 
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the more difficult missions. Epyv in- 
cludes a handy chart that explains the 
numerous differences between the dif- 
ferent levels. 

The flip side of the card lists all the 
keyboard functions you'll need to com- 
mand your vessel. This reference is a 
tremendous aid to game play, since 
there are dozens of options available to 
sub skippers, and it's easy for novices to 
forget which key to press in the heat of 
battle. The function keys alone provide 
a periscope view, binocular view, 
bridge view (good for spotting aircraft), 
side view of submarine and surface ves- 
sels (which show depth charges), sonar, 
radar (if installed), five levels of maps, 
and a chart showing the status of the 
boat's equipment, food, oxygen, and es- 
timated repair lime of damaged items. 

At the start of each patrol you are 
given specific orders. These may dis- 
patch you and your boat to seek and de- 
stroy enemy shipping, rendezvous with 
shore units, or rescue downed air 
crews. As you leave port, you can set 
your own course and speed to your as- 
signed station, or, at the lower levels, 
let the computer handle the navigation 
for you. It will suggest a course and 
speed, toll you how many days it will 
take to reach your destination, and the 
amount of supplies you'll use, 

I seldom have problems letting the 
computer do my navigating, but my U- 
boat crew and I starved to death several 
times trying to reach Germany follow- 
ing extended patrols off the North 
American coast. The next time 1 sail that 
mission, I'll handle the navigating and 
see whether I can do better. 

Realism 

The designers have included a number 
of realistic touches in this outstanding 
simulation. If you get a radio message 
from headquarters, the Morse code you 
hear is accurate, even if the keying is a 
little sloppy. Don't worry about deci- 
phering the dots and dashes yourself: 
The computer prints the message on 
the screen as it comes across. 

Simulations can be made too real- 
istic, though. In real life, It could take 
weeks to reach distant patrol areas. 
Most computer skippers would mutiny 
if they had to wait that long before be- 
ing called to battle stations. Fortunate- 
ly, Sub Battle lets you compress sailing 
times to speed up play. As a result, a 
single mission usually can be complet- 
ed in less than an hour. When you come 
in contact with the enemy, the time 
compression drops automatically. It 
also drops whenever you are sub- 
merged, so you have to keep an eye on 
your oxygen and the charge remaining 
in your battery banks. 

Your engines automatically change 
from diesel power to battery when you 

34 COMPUTEf's GazeUo May 198B 



dive, but you have to give the order to 
switch back when you surface. More 
than once I've popped up and increased 
speed to catch a fleeing convoy, only to 
get a message a short time later inform- 
ing me that my batteries were dead. 
Don't forget to recharge them after 
you've switched to diesel. 




Time compression can also be a 
problem when you're sailing near land. 
I was taking a U-boat up a narrow bay 
off the western coast of Ireland, curious 
to see if I could see anything on shore, 
(You can't.) 1 thought 1 had turned the 
boat toward the open sea when I in- 
CTeased speed and called up the maxi- 
mum lime-compression mode. Actually, 
1 was still sailing toward land. I imme- 
diately got a We are aground message. 1 
called up an overall chart of Ireland 
only to see my sub's cursor sail right 
across the island and emerge in the 
Irish Sea — a remarkable feat for any 
vessel. The same thing happened when 
1 was commanding a U.S. sub off the 
northern coast of Australia. I sailed in- 
land for a few hundred miles, turned 
right, and powered my way out some- 
where west of Darwin, without even 
scratching the paint. 

In most cases, when you run 
aground, you'll stop. I don't remember 
seeing it mentioned in the manual, but 
if you keep reducing speed, the boat 
will go in reverse. That's a handy way 
to get off a beach. Try not to run ashore 
too often; it's hard on the torpedo tubes. 

I noticed another minor flaw when 
1 was trapped by enemy escorts. 1 was 
forced to stay submerged until the elec- 
tricity in my battery was depleted. My 
boat still had oxygen, so 1 waited to see 
what would happen. After a few mo- 
ments, I was surprised to discover the 
boat was still under weigh. Even with a 
dead battery, 1 could maneuver and 
change speed as if nothing were wrong. 
It helped us survive, but I wouldn't ex- 
pect that to happen on a real submarine. 

The same thing proved true when 
my sub's pressure hull was damaged by 
enemy fire. 1 ordered a crash dive to es- 
cape the murderous shelling, fully ex- 
pecting either to sink or get a message 
telling me that 1 couldn't dive. To my sur- 



prise, the sub went down, survived a 
depth-charge attack, and behaved nor- 
mally. Maybe the damage wasn't as bad 
as 1 thought, but 1 think we got off a httle 
too easy for a simulation of this scope. 

Frustrated U-boat Captain 

The missions supposedly are based on 
authentic historical data, although de- 
tails are sketchy on many of the Ger- 
man patrols due to the number of U- 
boats lost at sea. 1 recall that the 
Germans ivere very successful in sink- 
ing Allied shipping during the early 
years of the war. But whenever 1 as- 
sume the role of a U-boat captain, I'm 
lucky if 1 can spot smoke on the hori- 
zon. I played for weeks before 1 even 
saw a ship, much less got one centered 
in my periscope. 

As an American commander, I've 
sent half the Japanese fleet to the bot- 
tom. Once, when my periscope was 
damaged, I even sank a destroyer with 
a difficult bow shot using only sonar 
bearings. My score to date as a U-boat 
commander is one tanker and a PT 
boat. Those victories came in my latest 
game, and now I'm under attack by 
three destroyers. I've tried to lose them 
for several days. (You have the option 
of saving single missions for later play.) 

I've zigzagged. I've reversed 
course. I've tried silent running. I've 
dived so deep that rivets popped, and I 
still can't shake them. Now my oxygen 
is low, I'm out of torpedoes, and these 
escort vessels are still stuck on me like 
lint on Navy blues, 1 get the feeling that 
all navies aren't created equal. 

Never A Dull Moment 

Sub Battle can be frustrating at times, 
but it's never boring, I've been sunk by 
my own mines. At other times I've sailed 
through convoys without a scratch, bow 
and aft torpedo tubes blazing, finishing 
off damaged tankers with my deck gun, 
and knocking out waves of enemy 
fighters with my anti-aircraft weapons. 

ft's an addictive game. After an un- 
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ters, vowing to turn the computer off as 
soon as 1 get to port. Then, like a losing 
gambler who knows his luck is bound 
to change, I'll say, "Just one more pa- 
trol; just one more." Before I know 
what I'm doing, I've packed my sea bag 
and signed up for another mission. 

Sub Battle Simulatiou is more se- 
ductive than a silver-tongued recruiting 
officer. 

—Tom Netsel 

Sub Battle Simulator 

Epyx 

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Redwood City, CA 94063 

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22292 N. Pepper Rood 
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Chernobyi 



As its subtitle states, Chernobyl is A 
Nuclear Power Plant Simulation. Al- 
though the simulated power plant is of 
the same lype involved in the actual 
Chernobyl disaster — with some Ameri- 
can modifications — the simulation is of 
day-to-day nuclear power plant opera- 
lion, not of the accident that happened 
in the LI.S.S.R. 

So why is it called Chernobyl? Ob- 
viously, the creator and the distributor 
are capitalizing on a name that has be- 
come a part of our language. This is not 
a new practice and not even a deceptive 
practice when viewed within the con- 
text of marketing and advertising stan- 
dards. You are much more likely to lake 
a second look at a software package 
called Cliernobyl than you are to notice 
a package called something like "Nu- 
clear Reactor," 

Simuiating Another Computer 

Chernobyl is a simulation, but in this 
case, your computer is simulating an- 
other computer— the one that monitors 
and controls the workings of a nuclear 
power plant. As stated in the game's 
prologue, the author's intention was to 
show, in a simplified way, some of the 
problems and hazards involved in run- 
ning such a plant. I think the program 
may succeed on a level rot even imag- 
ined by the author. 

As the computer operator, you 
must sign in, give the time of day and 
the password, and bring the plant on* 
lino and into full operation. Your feed- 
back takes the form of messages — 
usually a single line that appears at the 
top of the screen. You'll be given confir- 
mation of some of the actions you've 
initiated as \vell as constant status re- 
ports on various parts of the plant. 

Since Chernobyl is run strictly by 
ki'vboard interface — in keeping with 
the plan of simulating a computer — all 
commands must be typed in. To open 
valves, type open followed by the num- 
bers pertaining to the valves you wish 
to open; to engage the turbine, type 
pon'cr on; to activate core draining, type 
letdown. Core brings up a graphic repre- 
sentation — one of several schematics 
used here to show the layout and the 
workings of such a power plant. 

How Long Until Doomsday? 

One of my first questions to the author 
was, "How long do ! have to watch all 
this stuff before things start going 
wrong?" 

"Sometimes quite a while," he said. 

My second question a few weeks 
later was, "How do ! blow the darned 
thing up?" 

!n essence, his reply was that it can 
be done but you have to work at it. Sev- 

38 COMPUTE'S Gazelle May 1988 



eral people who work with atomic en- 
ergy called him with essentially the 
same question, leaving the author to 
speculate that perhaps he'd done his 
work too well. 

That depends on what he was try- 
ing to do. We'll come back to this point. 

The printed documentation for 
Chernobyl consists of a booklet that ex- 
plains the operation of a nuclear power 
plant. Even though it does not tell you 
how to use Chernobyl, the documenta- 
tion should be read for an understand- 
ing of how the various elements of a 
nuclear plant interact. The game's real 
documentation is on the disk itself, ac- 
cessible via the keyboard. I have mixed 
feelings about this. 

On the one hand, an on-disk man- 
ual allows for last-minute updates. 
Events automatically pause when the 
manual is called up, which can be very 
beneficial if things are going wrong. 
The manual can be printed out if you 
prefer to work with hardcopy. 




Unfortunately, the printed docu- 
mentation gives the wrong information 
for accessing the manual. You have to 
type manual in order to access the 
game's documentation. Upon booting 
the game, vou get about four screen 
pages of history on the development of 
and need for nuclear power plants. Al- 
though the author refrains from being 
"preachy" on the subject, there is no 
way to circumvent the message— it is 
there every time you boot up. Where 
does Chernobyl succeed and who will 
be interested? 

Without being facetious, 1 think 
Chernabul probably succeeds in simu- 
lating the computer controlling a nucle- 
ar power plant and definitely succeeds 
in simulating the boredom of being sta- 
tioned at such a computer. That's no 
meant as a putdown. 

Pulling The Graveyard Shift 

The first time I tried the program was 
late at night: The rest of the family had 
gone to bed, and 1 was sitting before a 
computer that kept flashing messages 
telling me everything was nominal. Un- 
der the circumstances, it was easy lo 
imagine 1 was pulling the graveyard 
shift at a real power plant. 



It was even easier to imagine, con- 
sidering the boredom level of the job in 
simulation, that it would be possible for 
a real operator to miss the first changes 
in the series of messages that are sup- 
posed to warn him or her when some- 
thing's amiss. (There are audible 
alarms, but by the time they go off, 
you're in real trouble,) To me, this was 
the most frightening thing about Cher- 
nobyl: a simulation of the human frail- 
ties that could preclude disaster. 

As to interest, 1 don't think Cherno- 
byl can be approached in the way we 
approach most simulators. It is not 
something 1 would consider booting up 
because I wanted to have some fun or 
excitement. ! do think it may have some 
value as a teaching tool, perhaps in a 
classroom situation — ^particularly with 
the graphics screens that show the parts 
and workings of a nuclear power plant. 
It might also be well for a teacher to de- 
liberately induce meltdown just to 
show how a nuclear power plant can 
shut itself down in times of danger. 

As a diversion or entertainment, 

Chernobyl fails. As a teaching tool, it 

succeeds. 

^, , , —Ervin Bobo 

Chernobyl 

Cosmi 

415 N Figueroa Si. 

Wilmington, CA 9Q7i4 

$24.9S 



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Phone 616/698-0330 



25,000 




m prizes 

In our GEOS application contest 



You already know GEOS. And if you know BASIC, then 
you can write applications to run under GEOS using our 
new and exciting BeckerBASIC for the C-64. 

Now Abacus is sponsoring a contest to find the most 
talented authors among you. We're looking for the best 
GEOS applications written using our powerful 
BeckerBASIC. With more than 270-1- new commands and 
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To learn more about BeckerBASIC or our contest write or 
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GEOS applications now. 

Here's the contest rules: 

1. Write your entries using BeckerBASIC to run under GEOS. 
Entries must hs submitted on a diskette. 

2. You can submit multiple entries provided that all entries fit on a 
single diskette. 

3. Entries must be accompanied by the official entry form you'll 
find inside the BeckerBASIC package. Xerox or reproductions of 
the entry form are not acceptable. 

4 . You must make sure that your entry is received by Abacus no 
later than August 31, 1988. 

5. We'll announce the winning entries by October 31, 1988. 

Complete rules are on the official entry f(xm inside the BeckerBASIC 
package. 



YESI I want id siatl wriUfiB applicabora tot GEOS. Please rush 

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B9.95 
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tarsal tw Basic B) 
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Arniga 500 
Amiga 10OD 
Amiga 2000 
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19.95 
19 95 



136 00 
13SO0 
136 00 
54 95 
145.00 



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Basic Compiler 54 
Basic Cmgiiei I2B 
Cad Pak B4 
CadPa«1!B . 
CiiartPafc64 . 
ctiaripak i;a. 
Get! Inside a, M Book 
Bees Disk 



24 97 

36.97 
24 97 
36 97 
24 97 
24 9' 
t!97 
9 97 



Geo1i'e64 

Gaotile12a 

GeupriiiE Came 

Geeprcg rammer 64 

Gen nrog rammer t?Q 

Geupulilisn 64 

GeoDuDiisn 1EB 

Geospell 

StMnai'i WMsiiop 64 

Geo*nieri Wukincp 126 



30 97 
42.97 

?4 97 
42.97 

Call 
42.97 

Call 
18 97 
30 9' 
42 97 



m ACCESS ' 

tcneion !J 97 

LBSlO'jrn lE.ec 1 1297 

Ult<]]2i 3097 

TEnttiFiame Z4.97 

World Class Leader Board 23.97 

W^CL/BFam/Courlot? 1297 



'^BrwteftwndSoftiuafE- 






Carr^en Sfnditgo USA 

Carmen Sano lege Wcrid 

Cajidron 1 K 2 

Uagneiron 

Prints nop 

PriniS nop Companion 

p/SGiapnicsi ot2oi3 

P/SHgiiaayarapnic) 

SuperpikeCtulienge 



24 97 

21.9' 
IB 97 
17 IB 
27 9' 
219' 
17 67 
15 07 
13 92 



n itrrnnviCABTs- 

□ ragon's Lair 1746 

Eanri Oroit Slalion 22.06 

Hunt For Ren DclDOet 12 ?B 

Inslani Muiic 20.76 

LegacyoliiieAncienls 20 76 
MaibiE Madness . 20.76 

blaster Ninja Call 

Mavis Deacon lyuing Can 

Monopoly 27 40 

Dili rageous Pages 33 96 

PaDerClip3 33 96 

Paperciio PuDiisntr Can 

Pejasus . 22 06 

PegjsusSteneriot Call 

Bockloid .20 80 

Saniion 14. IB 

EcruppiBS 24 10 

SkattofDie .20 76 

SVyloill ZO 76 

SirikefiBtl 18.97 

lAiliglils KansDni Call 

WoridTourOOIl 20. 'B 



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F-15 Strike Eagle 

Dunsnij 

PiralBs 

PfmeclSlealttiFigliler. 

Red Slorm Rlimg . . 

Si lent Service 



Ace 01 Aces 
ApmiolB 

BuDDlG 

Card Snaiiii 

Fouritiaincnss 
narooau 
Hilled Until \>iia 
Minigult 
Plasma ticn 
Power ai Sea 
PiciGct SpaCB SUillori 
to'jinritfe 
ineTrain 



18 97 
IB 97 
1897 
18 97 
18 9/ 
18 97 
18 97 
18 97 

9 97 
18 97 

9.9' 
18 97 
18 9' 



CAPCOM' 



B^yx 



Gnosis S Goni ns 

SnJeArms 

19J2 



M 



Break mm 
Commando 
KidNiki 
Speed Buugy 



IBS' 
1397 
IB 97 



20.40 

13.9: 

20 40 
IS 46 



ACTIONSOFT 



DATA SOFT 



[minder crap per 
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IB 97 
18 97 



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Aliens 

Gee Bee Air R4ll( 

Ladyriitr^ 

Last t^inia 

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Uigiil B uagic 

Ponsi 

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2197 
1B9' 
18 97 
21 97 
21 97 
24 97 
24 97 
18.97 



Alternate Reality City 

Allemale ReaMy Dungeifn 

Road Wars 

Tutjruk 

Video rule Companion 1 or 2 

Video line Sltup 



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Digital Superpak 2 
Pociei Piiei 2 
PocJiet Planner 2 
Pccliel Writer 2 



13 97 
29 81 

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12 97 

18.97 



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ED.97 
36.97 
36.97 
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Cnarco Wresilms 
Create A Catena J r 
Deatli Sword 
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Four X Four fiacing 
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DrapnlcsScrau 1 or 2 or 3 
Home Video Producer 
inipossipie Missicn It 
L A Crackdown 
Dmoicion t^^nspiiacy 
Sporting Uens Basepaii 
Soyvs Spy 3 
Street Starts Ba:sei>aii 
Street Sports Baskatnaii 
Street Spens S«cer 
Suti Battle Simu-ator 
Summer Games 1 1 
Winter Games 
World Games 

n' V 111 

rtliceBlRd 



24,97 
.34.97 
IB 87 

Call 
24 9' 

Call 

, Call 

15,97 

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Call 

Call 

24 97 

Can 

15 97 
24 97 
.24.97 

Can 

24 97 

13 92 
13,92 
24,97 



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Boo i Rumple 

Bop &<A resile 

Crossword Wagic 

DflfenderolthBCrtTrtn 

DBjaVu 

Gauntlet 

Harrier Cent Pal Simulator , 

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Higit Roller 

Impact 

Indoor Spoils 

indy Jonesflimpte ol Down 

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Into tiKEJOies Nest 

King Qi cnicago 

Mutants 

Paperboy 

Road Runner 

Superstar Ice Hockey 

Superstar Misl Soccer 

Superstar Soccer 

taipiin 

Iniee Stooges 

Warp Speed 64712610730 

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Font Pak 1 
Geos64 
Geo? 123 
GecCd'C 64 
Geooatc 1 28 
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10 93 
36 9' 
42 9' 
30 9' 
42 9' 
10 96 
4; 97 



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AiienFites Can 

Amnesia 27 36 

Bard stale I ur 2 27 36 

Battle Droids Call 

ChEismaster 200O 24 97 

Chuck Veage-'sAFS 24 06 

Deatn lora Cfil 

DeiiiPairoi 1416 

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21 97 


Fleet System 11 + 


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34,97 


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21,97 

21 97 
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24,97 
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1B.97 
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21.97 
21.97 
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2197 
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26 33 
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26,88 
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36 97 
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48 97 



FIrgni Simulator II 33 97 

fiigritSimSceneivi-S 14 I6ea 
Fiicni Sim Scenery 7 .., ., 17,46 

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Steatl It Mission 33,96 



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Data Manager 2 
Data Manager 12S 
Deiiitop PuDlisner 
Gerierai Ledger 
Partner64 
PaMnerl23 
Swillcaic 7 Sideways 64 
Swntc ale 7 Sideways 128 
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17 16 
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39.84 
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33 36 
46 32 
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26.66 
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33 36 
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Basic 8 

Basjc 8 Gu'de/ Begm ners 

SCO's f^o Term 64 

Bms('roTermi2S 

8/ W Business Fonii Snop 

CSM Drive A'ign Kit 

CSM Pro red ion Manual 1 

CSM Proteclion Manual II 

Dark Castle (3-66) 

Doodle 

Font Master II 

Font Master 128 

HeiMon64(cani 

Inside Commodore DOS 

JK lesser Money Manager 

Merlin Assem pier 64 

MertinAsiemo(erl28 

M'CioUwyer 

Microieague WWF Wrestling 

Personal r^ewsietter 

Strioer's Classical Music— 

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SupB<oase64 
SuperDass 128 
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29 95 
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30.97 

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Amnesia 

You wake up in a strange hotel room in 
New York Cily. You have no clothes, 
and you can't remember your name or 
any other details of your life. If thai isn't 
trouble enough, there's a woman hero 
who insists you are her husband-lo-be. 
And yes, you also left home without 
your American Express card. 

Since you have no cash, you can't 
stay at the hotel. Not only have you got 
to find a place to stay but you also have 
to find something to eat. To top off all 
of your other problems, the state of 
Texas is looking for someone who looks 
just like you — someone who's wanted 
for murder. 

As the manual is quick to explain, 
Amtiesia (the long-awaited 64 version is 
now available) from Electronic Arts is, 
indeed, a revolutionary concept^a 
cross between a computer game and a 
novel. It has been termed the first elec- 
tronic novel because of its story-like 
quality. The author, Thomas M. Disch, 
a renowned poet and science-fiction 
author, demonstrates the high caliber 
of his craft in this absorbing story of one 
man's race against time and incredible 
odds to discover his identity. And he 
must do it before he is executed for 
crimes he did not commit. 



AUTHORIZED 

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6581 12.85 8520A 17.65 

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MICROSYSTEMS, INC. 

33 Murray Hill Drive 

Spring Valley, NY 10977 

— (914)356-3131^ 

^'-^ (800) 248-2983 ^ 



Intelligibility 

One of Atimesia's exceptional features is 
its parser. It not only accepts a larger 
number of words than most adventure 
games but also accepts a more diverse 
combination of words. One example of 
such a sentence is "Take the mugger's 
gun and throw it in the garbage can and 
yell, 'Your Mamma!' then run." This 
unprecedented flexibility makes you 
feel like a character in a book. 

Other adventure games entertain, 
but often are frustrating (the parser 
won't accept your sentences), or arbi- 
trary (there is only one solution to any 
problem). Any experienced player of 
adventure games will remember sitting 
in front of the monitor for hours, trying 
words such as opeu, push, unlock, pry, 
unfold, pull, or move, only to find that 
use is the only word the game accepts. 
In Amnciia, there are alternative solu- 
tions to most of the problems you en- 
counter. This gives the player a sense 
that anything can happen at any time. 



No clothes, no name, no 

memory — and you're wanted 

for murder. 



Other features of the game that I 
enjoy are its realism and the large scope 
of its setting. The game's two disks con- 
tain close to 4,000 separate locations in 
Manhattan, including most of the city's 
subway system. The narrative provides 
colorful descriptions of the scenery and 
a large cast of characters. One of these is 
the Wacky Wanderer, the host of a radio 
show not unlike Allen Funi of Candid 
Camera, who offers you 100 bucks if 
you can produce an elephant. 

There's also a man in a blue suit 
who gives you a cryptic clue, and 
there's a former acquaintance who de- 
livers a note you wrote to yourself in 
the earlier throes of your amnesia. 
You'll also meet a host of other people 
unimportant to the story but important 
to the mood. These include Hari Krish- 
nas. policemen, tourists, historians, 
muggers, artists, cabbies, and more. 
Many of these characters can help or 
hurt you in your quest for knowledge. 

In The Big Apple 

Amnesia's computer model of Manhat- 
tan also contains a fairly realistic model 
of life in the Big Apple. If you stay out 
on the streets at night, you run the risk 
of being mugged. Begging for money 
too often can get you arrested. If you try 
to wash car windows at the Holland 



Tunnel, some people will pay you, but 
others will merely use rude language 
and drive away. You are tossed out of 
establishments if you don't have mon- 
ey. If you don't eat regularly, you'll feel 
hungry and tired. You must sleep every 
night or run the risk of fainting in the 
middle of a street. 

Besides moving around the streets of 
Manhattan, Amnesia takes your character 
to many points of interest, such as the 
New York Historical Society, the Muse- 
um of Modem Art, St. John's Cathedral, 
the Union Club, and Central Park. For 
the stay-at-home tourist, this should be 
fun. In fact, you may have the feeling of 
being in tivo places at the same time: at 
home in front of your monitor and on 
Forty-Second Street in Manhattan. 

Another notable feature of Amne- 
sia is the speed of the game's disk oper- 
ation. Many text adventure games tend 
to have a slow data-retrieval process. 
The process is annoyingly long, but not 
long enough for you to run out for a 
snack. But Amnesia's disk operations 
rarely take more than a few seconds. 

If you like role-playing games, text 
adventures, or are new to the genre, 
you'll like Amnesia. If you don't like 
role-playing games or text adventures, 
you'll still like Amnesia. If you are fa- 
miliar with Manhattan, you'll like Am- 
nesia. If you play the game and decide 
you don't like it, just forget I told you 
about it. 

Read that again; you'll get it. 

—Jesse Cohn 

Amnesia 

Electronic Arts 

J 820 Galeiuay Dr. 

San Mateo, CA 94404 

$39.95 • 



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COMPUTEI-s Commodoro 64/128 
Pow«r BASIC 

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Collected in this one volume are more 
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Seven ot the best machine language 
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entertainment for beginning computer 
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These books ore now available at your local book or computer store. 

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Editors and Readers 



Do you have a question or a problem? 
Have you discovered something that 
could help other Conwiotlore users? We 
want to hear from you. Write to Ga- 
zette Feedback. COMl'UTErs Cazetie. 
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. 
We regret that, due to the volume of 
mail received, ive cannot respond indi- 
vidually to programming questions. 



Deliberate And Accidental Errors 

Now I am confused. A letter in the Janu- 
ary "Feedback" column asked about 
disk errors. Your answer said that some 
copy programs reproduce most disk er- 
rors. That's good. However, as you de- 
scribed it, the copy program Mr. Devine 
used duplicated the entire disk, includ- 
ing errors. That's bad. 

Software companies include errors 
to prevent duplication, but some copy 
programs duplicate the errors, making 
the disk usable. And yet, some copy pro- 
grams duplicate the errors and the cop- 
ied disk becomes unusable. 

Can you clarify? 

Gene Majewski 
Chicago, IL 

As general ride, an error on a disk sector 
makes the data on thai sector unreadable 
and liiiusuhle. Commodore disk drives will 
altempl to read a sector five times before 
giving up and returning an error message. 
The five tries cause the disk drive's 
read/write head to knock and shudder. 

Some software companies will delib- 
erately damage one or more disk sectors 
on a section of the disk that is otherwise 
unused. When the program loads, it at- 
tempts to read the damaged sector, but not 
for any kind of data it contains. The pro- 
gram just wants to receive the error report 
from the drive. When the disk drive re- 
ports that something is ivrong, the pro- 
gram continues. 

This is a form of copy-protection^ or- 
dinary disk-backup programs won't copy 
damaged disks. Hoivever, some copy pro- 
grams are able to reproduce errors. When 
you're making archival backups of copy- 
protected software for your own use, you 
want the errors to remain on the disk. 

Ordinary noncommercial disks can 
sometimes be damaged physically or mag- 
netically. If something had happens to a 
disk containing normal programs or data 

Ai COMPUTEI's GaiBllB May 19B8 



files, you may want to salvage whatever 
files are still good. In this case, the files 
(but not the errors) should be copied to a 
new disk. You don't want the errors on the 
backup. 

Programs that reproduce errors are 
good only when you want to copy deliber- 
ate errors. They're not good when the 
damage is accidental. 



Preparing The Etandom 
Number Generator 

In a previous "Gazette Feedback" an- 
swer, you have a program containing the 
line 10 LIMIT = 44: NUMBERS = 6: 
.\ = RND(-TI). Your explanation says, 
"After seeding the random number gen- 
erator in line 10 , , . ," and so on, What 
does X=RND{-T1) have to do with the 
program? The program works fine with- 
out the statement. I'm not trying to be 
rude, but I think this should be corrected. 

Chris K linger 
Thonolosassa, FL 

Here's an experiment you may want to 
try. Turn on your 64 or 118 (if you've pre- 
viously used it for some other program, 
turn it off then on). Type FOR X = I TO 
4: PRINT RNDll): NEXT and write down 
the four numbers. Turn the computer off 
and then on. Enter the FOR-NEXT line 
again. You'll see the same four numbers, 
in fact, if you start with a freshly 
powered-on computer, the sojuence of 
RND(l) numbers is always the same. 

Next, try PRINT RND(~5), 
RND(-5), RND(-5). When you put a 
negative number in parentheses, the RND 
function always returns the same value. 

Computers are loo predictable and 
orderly to generate truly random num- 
bers. Instead, they start with a "seed" 
number and perform various mathemati- 
cal operations to scramble it up. The re- 
sult becomes the seed for the next random 
number. Putting a negative number in pa- 
rentheses gives the random number gen- 
erator a brand new seed. 

The example program you cited was 
designed to pick six lottery numbers at 
random. But since the RND function re- 
turns the same series of numbers, the pro- 
gram would always choose the same six 
numbers, as long as it was the first pro- 
gram to run after the computer was turned 
on. The RNDI-Tl) line uses a negative 



seed, so it forces a specific number into the 
random number generator. But the re- 
served variable Tl counts how many jiffies 
have passed since you turned on the com- 
puter. tA jiffy is 1/60 second.) If you ran 
the program two seconds after turning on 
the computer, you'd get different results 
from those you'd get if you ran the pro- 
gram three seconds after turning it on. 



Hi-Res Color Blocks 

When you use the BASIC 7,0 PAINT 
command on the 128 with multicolors 
close together, blocks of color some- 
times appear on the boundary, overiap- 
ping to the other side. Can you explain 
why this happens? 

George Smid 
Upper Bumie. Australia 

On both the 64 and 128, the hi-res and 
multicolor hi-res screens have two com- 
ponents: the bitmap and the color map. 
Tiie bitmap takes up 8000 bytes (64.000 
bits) of memory. Each bit corresponds ex- 
actly to one of the pixels on the 320 X 200 
screen (64,000-pixels). 

A hi-res pi.\el can be displayed in the 
foreground or the background color. In 
multicolor hi res, the pixels are twice as 
wide, but there are four colors instead of 
two. Since the 64 and 128 have 16 differ- 
ent colors, there are 256 possible combi- 
nations of foreground and background 
colors, which are numbered 0-255 and 
stored in a byte. If the designers of the 64 
gave every one of the 64,000 pixels its own 
byte for controlling color, the color map 
would need 64,000 bytes, which would 
just barely fit into memory. Thus, the 
color bytes are built to handle more than a 
single pixel. 

Each of the 1 000 bytes of hi-res color 
memory controls the foreground and back- 
ground colors of a 64-pixel area— an 8 X 
8 chunk of the screen. Within the 8X8 
area, you 're only allowed to have one fore- 
ground and one background color. When 
you use the 128's PAINT command, the 
computer fills in the bitmap and the color 
map. If you have some background pi.xeis 
that are black and then you change the 
background color within an 8 X 8 color 
area to red. all background pixels are af- 
fected. The previously black pi.xeis turn 
red. There's no way to work around this 
limitation of hi-res color memory, except 
to be aware of the 64-pixel neighborhoods. 



Using KoalaPad Pictures On A 64 

I saw a 128 KoalaPad picture loader in 
the feedback section of the November 
1987 issue. I have a Commodore 64 and 
would like to use KoalaPad files in my 
own BASIC programs. 

Mark McGee 
Westwego, LA 

Each picture file is W,OQO bytes long. The 
first 8000 bytes are the actual picture. The 
next 7 000 determine one color and the last 
1000 are for colors 2 and 3. The fourth 
color ill nuilticoior bitmap made is the 
screen background. Vie program that fol- 
lows sets up the bitmap at 8192 (S2000) 
while keeping screen memory at 1024 
(S0400) and color at 55296 (SD800). 

Koala filenames have a prefix con- 
sisting of CHRSIl) (CONTROl-A) as the 
first character, followed by PIC and then a 
letter This is why the OPEN in line 140 
uses a question mark wildcard as the first 
character in the filename. Exit the ex- 
ample by pressing the space bar. 

AS 100 REM RESERVE MEMORY AFTE 

R 8)92 
EK 110 POKE 52,32:POKE 51,0 
AB 120 POKE 56,32iPOKE 55,0:CL 

R 
PS 1.30 REM BLOAD KOALA FILE AT 

ai92 
SO 140 OPEN 1,S,0,"7PIC C*" 
PK 150 S=8192:Sl=S+8000:S2=S+9 

HK 160 POKE 165,0:POKE 760,0 
GH 170 POKE 781, S AND 255:POKE 

782,5/256 
QE 180 SYS 65493)CL0SE1 
EM 190 BM=53265:POKE BM,PEEK(B 

M)OR 32 
JS 200 REM LOCATE BIT MAP AT S 

192 
KJ 210 LB=53272:POKE LB,PEEK(L 

B)OR 8 
BH 220 HC=5327a:POKE MC,PEEK(M 

C)0R 16 
JA 230 REM POKE SCREEN MEMORY 
HJ 240 FOR 1-0 TO 999 
MQ 250 POKE J024+I,PEEK(S1+I) 
GB 260 NEXT 

AB 270 REM COLOR MEMORY 
HR 2B0 FOR 1=0 TO 999 
AM 290 POKE 55296+1, PEEKIS2+I) 
FD 300 NEXT 
AK 310 REM DO THE REST OF YOUR 

PROGRAM 
PG 320 REM THIS ONE DISPLAYS A 

SPRITE ON THE SCREEN 
SD 330 V=53248 

HX 340 POKE V+21,1:X=100:Y=100 
RC 350 POKE 2040,13!FOR 1=832 

ISPACEiTO 895:P0KE 1,25 

SjNEXT 
AS 360 DX-iRND(l)'8-4:DY=RND(l) 

•8-4 
EC 370 X=X+DXiY=Y+DY:POKEV,XiP 

0KEV+1,Y 
PM 380 IF X<20 THEN DX=RND(1)' 

4+2 
AP 390 IF X>250 THEN DX=RND(1) 

*4-6 
AB 400 IF Y<20 THEN DY=RHD(1)* 

4+2 
SF 410 IF Y>250 THEN DY=BND ( 1 ) 

•4-6 



BF 420 GET ASiIF AS <> "' " THEN3 

70 
PP 430 REM RETURN TO TEXT MODE 
WHEN A SPACE BAR IS PR 

ESS ED 
CB 440 POKE BM,PEEK(BM)AND 223 

iPOKE MC,PEEK(MC)AND 23 

9 



Saving ML Files 

I have a long BASIC loader program 
that POKEs machine language (ML) data 
into memory. I know the starting address 
and would like to rfo a binary save of this 
program to reduce its size and load time, 
but I need to know its ending address 
plus 1. Can you furnish lines to add to 
the loader which will display the ending 
address after the data has been entered? 
Brian Vaughan 
Alameda, CA 

Determining the ending address of the ML 
program from your BASIC loader should 
be relatively easy. The loader should con- 
tain a statement such as FOR I = 49152 
TO 49499: READ A: POKEI,A: NEXT 
wliich READS and POKEs the ML data 
into memory. Here, the starting and end- 
ing addresses of the ML program would be 
49152 and 49499. respectively Anotlier 
possibility is that the loop loould look like 
this: FOR I - TO 347: READ A: 
POKE 491S2-]-!, A: NEXT. In this case, 
the starling and ending addresses would 
be 49152 + and 49152+347, the same as 
the first example. 

Once you know these addresses, you 
can carry out a binary save of the pro- 
gram. The lines below demonstrate how to 
save a portion of memory to disk. 

DF 100 SA=49152:EA=495a0:FS-"E 

XAMPLE" 
CB 110 SH=INT [SA/256) :SL=SA-SH 

•256:EH-INT(EA/256) :EL= 

EA-EK'256 
GE 120 0PEK1,B,1, "0;"+FS 
RS 130 POKE780,253:POKE253,SL: 

POKE254,SH!POKE781,EL:P 

OKE782,EH 
RH 140 SYS65496:CL0SE1 

To be certain the ML program is in 
memory before the save, place these lines 
at the end of your loader 

Line IQO defines the starting address 
of your ML program as SA. its ending ad- 
dress plus I us EA, and the filename for 
the binary file as FS. Substitute the start- 
ing and ending addresses of your ML pro- 
gram in this line along with a suitable 
filename. The filename you choose can be 
as many as 16 characters in length. Make 
sure you pick a filename that doesn't al- 
ready exist on the disk. 

After calculating tiie Imv and high 
bytes of the starting and ending addresses 
of the ML program, line 120 opens the file 
F$ to drive for saving. If you have a sec- 
ond disk drive and have changed your disk 
drive number to 9, you'll need to change 



the 8 in this line to a 9. Line 130 stores the 
values required by the Kernal SME in the 
A, X. and Y registers. Finally, line 140 
SYSes to the Kernal SAVE routine at loca- 
tion 65496 and closes the file. 

On the 128. you can use the BASIC 
command BS/WE to carry out a binary save 
to disk. Vie format for this command is: 

BSAVt,"filenmiie",Ddrive number, ^de- 
vice iiHmber.Bluiitt numbcr.Vstarl 
address TO Fending addre5s+ 1 

Drive number is either or 1 (0 is the 
normal value for single-drive systems). 
Device number defaults to 8, the stand- 
ard value for a single-drive system. Bank 
number is a number between and 15 
specifying which bank of memory holds 
the data you're saving. 

For example, to save binary data in 
memory locations 4864-5499 in bank as 
"TEST", you'd use the following: 

BSAVE'TEST",B0,P4864 TO P5500 



The Multi-Statement THEN Trap 

According to the Commodore 64 man- 
ual, you can use several statements sep- 
arated by colons on one program line. 
However, the following program 
doesn't work; 

10 Xl-25;X2-25 

20 IF Xl-n THEN 100: X2-X2-HX1 

30 PRINT X1;X2 

40 STOP 

When i run the program, both XI 
and X2 are 25, but X2 should equal 50. 
Can you please explain? 

James E. Hammond 
Denver, CO 

Line 20 contains the bug. An IF-THEN 
statement checks a condition for being 
true or false. The condition tests XI =0 in 
this example. If it's true, the command 
after the THEN is executed, plus any oth- 
er commands on that line. However, a 
false condition causes the program to 
jump to the next line. 

The section of line 20 where you 
make the assignment X2—X2+X1 can 
never happen. Consider what occurs if XI 
equals 0: The program jumps ahead to line 
100, skipping over X2 = X2+X1, And if 
XI doesn't equal 0. the IF-THEN drops 
through to line 30, again skipping over the 
assignment. 

Thisfeature of IF-THEN can be very 
useful when you want a single condition 
to trigger multiple commands, fust re- 
member that an IF-THEN controls every- 
thing on the current line that follows it. 



Supercolliders 

1 am working on a program using 
sprites, but 1 have run into a problem. I 
know the command PEEK(53278) to 
test whether two or more sprites col- 
lide, but I wonder if you can tell which 



COMPUTEi's GazBllo May 1988 45 



sprites collided. It would be very helpful. 



Jesse Coats 
Ames, lA 



iocalioji 53278 is a Iiardware register wilhiii Ihc Video hiier- 
jace Controller (VIO chip's area of memory. Every time the 
VIC cliip redraws the screen, it updates tlic sprile-lo-sprite 
collisio'i register at 53278. The eij^hl sprites, numbered 0-7, 
correspond to the eight bits, u/so mimlwred 0-7, in the num- 
ber you PEEK from tliis register. The sprites correspond to the 
follmuing values: 



Sprite 


Value 


Number 


FEEKed 





I 


I 


2 


2 


4 


3 


8 


4 


76 


5 


32 


6 


64 


7 


128 



// sprites 2 and 3 are currently involved in a collision 
and no other sprites are colliding, when you PEEK(5i27S), 
you'll get the number 12 (a 4 for sprite 2 plus an 3 for sprite 3). 
If sprites and 6 are colliiiing, you'll receive a 65. A collision 
only counts when the foreground colors of two sprites overlap. 
If the foreground pixels of one sprite happen to intrude on the 
background pixels of another sprite, it's not a collision. 
Usually, the foreground color is the visible portion and the 
background color is the same as the screen's background color. 
You can set the foreground color to equal the background 
color, which generally makes the sprite invisible, but the rules 
for collision still apply. Also, when you're using mullicolor 
sprites or mullicolor screen mode, two of the colors count as 
foreground (collision) colors and two count as background 
colors. 

The only sprites that can collide are the ones currently 
turned on. which are controlled by the register at 53269, // 
two sprites are turned on and completely off the visible 
screen, a collision will still count. 

Programmers have always had problems with multiple 
sprite collisions. Let's say that, at a given moment, sprites 
and 1 were colliding and at the same time, somewhere else on 
the screen, sprites 3 and 7 were colliding. Register 53278 
would hold the number 139 (I + 2 + 8 + US), if you were 
concerned about the status of sprite 0, you'd know that il was 
colliding with atwther sprite. However, you wouldn't know 
which one. It could be a collision of sprites and 1, and 3. or 
and 7. 

One solution would be to selectively turn off various 
sprites. In the example above, turning off sprite 7 would elimi- 
nate the collision between 7 and 3, which would leave only the 
overlap between and I, One drawback of this method is that 
turning off sprites makes them picker. Also, when you PEEK 
53278, the nutnber there disappears until the screen is redrawn 
in I /60th second. In machine language programs, you must in- 
sert a delay loop before you read the collision register. 

A second solution, when you can't decide wliich sprites 
are overlapping, is to read the x- and y-positions from registers 
53248-53264. If several sprites are colliding, you can assume 
that the sprites near each other are involved in a collision. ■ 



Use the handy Reader Service 

Card in the back of the magazine 

to receive additional information 

on our advertisers. 



46 COMPUTE! s Gaiene May 1588 



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Ad copy Dy RWS InU. 



Since 1981 



Lyco Computer 

Marketing & Consultants 



Order processed within 24 hours. 



Order Early — Commodore Price Increases Possible 

COMMODORE 128D 

System 



COMMODORE 







$439 



95 



COMMODORE 128 

system special 



Commodore 128 
Compuler 
Commodofe 
1571 Drive 
Thomson 4120 
Monitor 




Limited 
Quantity 



THOMSON O 4120 
Commodore Ready Monitor 



• Color Composite for 64 
Mode Operation 

• Color RGB tor CI 28 
Mode Operation 

• Plus Switch able In 
Green Monochrome 

• Cables Included 



■"^-f i- 

Smarteam 

1200 Baud Modem 

Hayes Compatible 




$89 



95 




Smarteam 2400 



$189 



95 



HrtRDWAHF 

1541 II DiEk Driva S175.B5 

1S71 DISK Drive S21B.BS 

IMl Digli Drivo SIBB.BS 

InQua GT C-64 Drivs SIES.BS 

ISDEC Wontlw S1B9.95 

64 C Compjlar , 1169,95 

1 SSD COTirHilBi/Dnve S439.95 

C-1351 M0U5B S32.95 

1700 FIAM S109.B5 

C-1750 HAM „ „ „ ,.,.SCALL 

1764 RAM Ce4 SI17.B5 

10S4 Monito: M79.B5 

128 Compiglw SZ19BS 

Attention Educallonal 

Institutions: 

If you are not currently using 

our educational servica 

program, please call our 

representatives tor details. 

PC 

COMPATIBLE 
HARDWARE 

BCM 12G Gr. Monitor 175 

BCM 12A Am. Monhoi I7B 

BCC CO Color Can) I94.SS 

AST SCALL 

Laser Compacl XT W75.B5 

LOBOr Compoci XTE MOK S549 95 

Loser Dssklop TLrbo XT 256K . SSSB B5 
User Doaklop Tuibo XT (MOK , S599.B5 

Laser EGA + 4 Card S129 95 

Kraft PC Joystick Card t379S 

Zuckei CGA CotofCard $89.95 

ATI Graolilcs Soluiton S1B9.9S 

ATI EGA Wonder S199.9S 

Thomson GB 200 SZ'S.SS 



^Seagate 

HARD DRIVES 
ST2Z5 20meBHaidDrlve,... SaiS.BS" 
ST 251 40 nwB Hani Drive .. . S399.95' 
■DTC Connolier Kn (oi PCxr ... S39.95 
ST 23a 30 meg Hajd Drvo ... S24B.95" 
"DTC RLL ConlrollBr Kll tor 

PCOfT W9.95 

STIZSZOmBgS.SHaidDrtva. SZB9.B5 
DTC Conlrollaf <n lof PC.XT .. .. S39.9S 
ST 125 20 meo Inlomol CarO 

w'Conlroller S349,95 

Add SW.OO lor Westam Ogasl 
Contfo'iers 



COMMODORE 64C 

COMPUTER 



fpif'^.i $169 



95 



COMMODORE 64c 

• Commodore 64C • Selkostia 
Computer Spl80VC 

• Commodore Commodore 
1541 II Drive Ready Pnnler 



System 

Special 




ffl/LASER COMRtCrXT 

• PC-XT • Parallel Printer 
Compatible Port 

• 4.77 - 8.00 Mhz • Serial RS232 
SuperTurbo • Joystick/Game 
Clock Speed Pqj\ 

• Built-in 5'/4 Drive 

• Built-in RGB 
Video Output 

ONLY 



«> BLUE CHIfa PC 

PERSONAL 
COMPUTER 

• 4.77 Mtiz 
speed 

• Dual (loppy 

• Green monitor 





included 



$579 



95 



1-800-255-8760 



Lyco Means Total Service. 





Mark "Mac" Bowser, 
Sales Manager 

I would personally 
like lo thank all of our 
pasl cuslomers lor 
helping to make Lyco 
Computer one of the 
largest mail order 
companies and a 
leader in the industry. 
Also, I would like lo 
extend my personal 
invllalion lo all compuler 
enthusiasts who have 
not eiperrenced the 
services llial we provide. 
Please call our trained 

sales stall at our loll free number to inquire about our 

diverse product line and weekly specials. 

First and foremost our philosophy is to keep abreast 
of the changing market so that we can provide you with 
not only factory-fresh merchandise but also the newest 
models ollored by the manulacturers al the absolute best 
possible prices. And we ofler the widest selection of 
computer hardware, software and accessories. 

Feel free to call Lyco if you want lo know more about 
a particular item. I can't stress enougii that our toll-free 
number is not just for orders. Many companies iiave a 
toll-free number for orderin,g. but if you just want to ask a 
question about a product, you have to make a toll call. Not 
at Lyco. Our trained sales staff is knowledgeable about all 
tine products we stock and is happy lo answer any questions 
you may have. We will do our best lo malte sure that the 
product you select will fit your application, We also have 
Saturday hours — one more reason to call us for all your 
computer needs. 

Once you've placed your order with Lyco, we don't 
lorget about you. Our friendly, professional customer 
service representatives will find answers to your questions 

about the status ol an 
order, warranties, 
product avallabilily, or 
prices. 

Lyco Computer 
stocks a multimlliion 
dollar inventory of 
factory- fresh 
merchandise. Chances 
are we have exactly 
what you want right in 
our warehouse. And that 
means you'll get it fast. 
In fact, orders are 
normally shipped within 
24 hours. Free shipping 
on prepaid cash orders 
over S50, and there is 
no deposit required on 
C.O.D. orders. Air freight or UPS Blue/Red Label shipping is 
available, too. And all products carry the full manufacturers' 
warranties. 

I can't see why anyone would shop anywhere else. Selec- 
tion from our huge in-stock Inventory, best price, service thai 
can't be beat — we've got it all here at Lyco Computer. 
TO ORDER, CALL TOLL-FREE: 1-800-233-8760 
New PA Wats: 1-800-233-8760 
Outside Continental US Call: 1-717-494-1030 

Hours: 9AU lo 8PM, Mon. - Thurs. 
9AM to 6PM, Friday — 10AM to 6PM, Saturday 

For Customer Service, call 1-717-494-1670, 

9AM to 5PM, Mon, - Fri, 

Or write: Lyco (Computer, Inc. 

P.O. Box 5088, Jersey Shore, PA 17740 

C.Q.D.RI>k-FrBd Policy: ■full man utacrurflr^'warranlieaa no salaa lor fMJtsLdo 
PA • prices siiort J°Q coGh cTiscouni. add t% iof ciedii cards • APO. FPO, 
mternalionsF add S5 plus 3=e lor prionly • 4.Acak dearoncfl on personal cliOcks 
• we Chech for credil card Ihett • soiry. ccrrpaiibilrly no! guafanTe«<] • ratum 

aulhDEljalioniQq(ilri)d*duaTonewprpducTauarar>[ee.rflTu[nf^ric1ions apply ■ 
pilco/availaLillJlysuDjQctlocriQnca'prepaliJ orders L;ndor$50 in Contlr>antai Lis, 
add S3.Da 



. C64/128 
Modem Value 



I AvsTeK 1200e Hayas 

Compatiblo Modem 
I Direct Connect Cafria Ta 

Vour CS4/12B 
I Free OLLdnTum Ur^ SoFiwara 

Only $89.95 




■5-1/4 



Donin: 

SSOD ..„ 

DSOD 

SKC: 

DSOD ..,. 

DSHD „. 

Gen«ricDSP[ 
VartMtIm: 

.SSOD -; 

,D600 

3.5 

IrUull: 

SSOD ..„. 

DSOO 

Boniu: 

SSDD 

DEDD 

VKtwUm: 

SSOD _. 

DSDD -. 



Disc 
Storage 



OVS-IOSvi S3.99 

OVS-76 Svi S12.9S 

OVS'iOaii J9.9S 



Generic 
Ribbons 



Save up lo 5Crt4 qH 

braixl prtca*! CotI (or your 

make and model f 

Color Ribbons 
Available 



Printer 
Interfaces 



XolBOJi- S35.95 

X6i9e SupMgiaptiics .„ S56.9S 

Xoi«Gokl 189.95 

PPI S29.95 

Cardco GWhd S3Z.9S 

Caicko Supw G $4d.9S 

MW350 M9,W 

Xlra Long PC CaUs .... SCALL 



Great 
Baraains 



New 
M-3 Mouse 

' Works v>ilh Geos 
I 1351 Compauble 

Call for 

Introductory 

Price! 



Mouse Pads 

• pfovidas cloen, duBl-froe auf" 
lace for your mouao 

• fJi>-mar backing lo pnatecl 
your desk surlacs ^^V^C 

9x11 .... $10.95 ^MS 

Mouse 

Cleaner 

$9.95 



A "■■■, 

McHlmCard 





=SSORIES 



.... ts.ss 



t>M 

-.. ss.os 

(S.S5 

..„ S6.B5 

S6.e5 

i13.B5 

Sl.SS 

..-, M.M 

.M^,.. (11.50 



. S11.S0 
. SI7.9S 




._...„- Sfl.95 

.,.,„.,„.,.. sio.es 

..,.,., S12.9S 

P UB.H 

SS.SS 

S6.B5 

,.,- S10.9S 

,- - S11.B9 

SI 9,99 

SI 6,75 

S24.95 

SM.95 

SI '.95 

PC i 16.95 

ek 

527,95 

list $9.95 



Surge 
Suppressors 



PPI02,6outfBt S16.95 

PP106-6 ouBoI wilh 

EMIRFI SJ8 9S 

PP 104-6 ouMt wiUi 

irvlicaioF ,.. .,.,.^.^,. 519.95 

PP101-6 0UM1 

powersinp S9.95 



Drive 
Maintenance 



SVi Olive Cleensi 

CMP142 S7,95 

SV* Drtvs Cleaner 

wllh progiam S1S.SS 

3.5 Orivs Clesnef 

CMP 154 S10.9S 



Switch 
Boxes 



Cam 25* AB S39.95 

Cen[-3ffAB S39.95 

nS23ZABC SJ5.9S 

Gem ABC _. 549.95 

RS232AeC0 S49.95 

Csm ABCD S49.9S 



Video 
Tape 



SKC T120 VHS 
Video Tape: 

OBCh S3.99 

3 pack £10,95 

to pad* „ S3S,BS 



Closeouts! 



Factory Fresh 

Special Pricing 

Call for Availability 

Ouanlum Lint .,.,. 5SA^ 

Compulof Cover ^(t 

lAistcoveisI SSAVe 

Novainn motJems SSAVE 

Anchor moOems — SSAVE 

Conran SSAVE 

TelirvkB MonNors SSAVE 

Psninonk: MonloFB .... SSAVE 
Dsrvuson DisKellBS ...,. SSAVE 
Juki 6300... SSAVE 

Ote«l BBvlngs on Epyi. 
Csrdco, Eaalern Houso. High 
TecEi Expreisiona. Time- 
worKE, Spina ker. 
Scarborough. Conllnenlal. 
and much more IT 




Accaiai 

Ecnalon S25,95 

Mach S S19.9S 

Mocft-1S8 „.,. S28,95 

.lOm Frame -.. Sg?.95 



Tr^Pscf! Sti.as 

WW. a. Lesaor Brd,, ,. S22.B5 
Famous Coursaa #t ... 511.95 
Famous Ckjursoa #2 ... S1 1.95 
Leader Board PaU ..... SH.BS 
Action Soil: 

Up Porisaipii S1S.95 

TlMiOercnoppor S1S.95 

Activlslon: 

Charr^oa. BaskoiCall . 519.95 

Music Sludlo $19.95 

Lealher GoMossoB S22J5 

Too Fuel EBmlnator $159S 

Payond Zoik $25.05 

QFL Football 519 95 

Geo B«e Air Rally STe.9a 

LaslNinjp $18.95 

M.QH18Ma|lc 519.95 

^k>IdaBert $19.95 

BatleriBB Includsd: 

Papwcfiplll S31.9S 

Oulrageous Pagss S31 9S 

D<rfc«l«y SoKworki: 

Geolile Ce4 529.95 

GsoCakiCM S2S.S5 

Gsos 64 .,_ S35.96 

GeoslZB S3995 

Geowma Sm.Bs 

GaowrtiB 12S S39.95 

GeopubHsn C&l „.. S39.9S 

Berkolay TriPak 529,95 

Brodvtxjnd: 

BanV SI. Writer 527.95 

CarmonSan [>ego 519,95 

GrapNcLlb. I, 11,111 51395 

Print Shoo 525.49 

Print Shop Compan $22,05 

Prnt Shop Paper £12.95 

CauWron 516,95 

Superbike Chahenga .., £11.95 

Electronic Arts; 

BanlSTalo S25.B6 

Legacy ol The 

AnclontB S20,B5 

Uoiblo Mndnoss $20,95 

SlBrflaoll $25,95 

Yaager'sAFT S22.B6 

Epyx: 

Osstroyer $2S,B5 

Faslkiad $19,95 

SubBalllB -522,95 

Winter Games .,.,. S11.B5 

California Gamfls 522 B5 

GisbTiIcs Scrapbook S9.95 

Str. Spons Ba»kolba« . 52295 

Surr^rnor Games II 511.95 

WofW Gamoi $22.95 

Jet CoriMal 58.85 

Firebird: 

Elile 518.95 

Goklon Path $22.95 

Gurkl of Thinraa $22.95 

Pawn ...„. 522,95 

Tracker „„„ 522.95 

StargllMr S1B,95 

Sartry 522.95 

Microlaagm: 

Microleag, BaseDall $22.95 

General Manogor $16,95 

Stal Disk S13,95 

MIcroleag, Wrestling .,., $19,95 

■B7Toam DIeK 511.95 

MicroPro tB: 

Airborne Rariger .,.,. £22.95 

F-15Slrlka Eagla $19.95 

Qimshlp 51B95 

Kennedy Approach $13,95 

Silent Service 519.95 

Solo Flighl S13.95 

Top Gunner „ _, 513.95 



SOFTWARE 



COMMODORE 



pLralas $22.95 

SIOBllIi Fighfer 522.95 

Origin: 

Auloduol „ 528.95 

Ultima III 522.95 

Ultima IV 533.95 

Moeous $22.95 

Soltwarfl SImuiaUona: 

Pure Slal Basetiall $22.95 

FoaiMll $17,95 

Puis Stal CoHege 

Basketball S22.95 

Sprlrtgbturd: 

NewBioom $29,95 

Coiliflcato Mskoi ,.. 529.85 

Clip Art Vol, ill $17.95 

Clip Art Vol. #2 $23,95 

Clip Art Vol. #3 517,95 

Grop*ilts Eiponder .,.,. £21.95 
Slralogle SlmulMlonc 

Qotr/sburg 533.95 

Phanlasia II 522.95 

PhanlaEls III $22,95 

Rlryi of ZWfm £22,95 

Road War 2000 $22.95 

Shard of Spnn^ $22,95 

Wijords Crowri 522.95 

Wa/game Consir 516,95 

Battlecniiser 533,95 

Baltle ol Anteliem $28,95 

Elsmal Dagger $22.95 

Shikirt ....J. 522.95 

SuMoflIc: 

Flight Simulilor II 531.49 

Jot SImulalor $24.95 

Nigtil Mlatkjn plntiail ,., 518.95 

Econary Disk 1-6 S12.95 

Stealtn MiSBion $31.95 

Tlmaworlii: 

Partner CG4 S22.95 

Pannor 128 S27.9S 

Svinfl Calc 12B $27.95 

Wordwrtlar 128 $27.95 

Wordwii1or3 64 S22.95 

UnlBon World: 

Art GaHciry 1 or 2 $14.95 

Print Msatai ...,. £17,95 



■^^MBGA 



Leader Boan) 122,95 

Tournamenf # 1 „„. Stl.95 

ActlvlakHi: 

Chomp. Biukolbaii .. . $2595 

Championsnip Goll 522.95 

GFLFoolbaB _. S2S.95 

Umk Studio $27.95 

Elsctronic Arti: 

D«kiie Punt II ...., $48.95 

Rockloid 525,95 

Empiro - $31,95 

Scrabbks 525,95 

Epir»: 

ApshalTrtkjgy $11,95 

Rofluo S22.95 

Wirier Games £22,95 

Wcrid Games $22.95 

Rroblrd; 

Quik) ol Thlevoe $25.95 

Pawn £25.95 

SiorglkMr S25.9S 

MIcropraM; 

Sllilnt SeMCB S2Z95 

Sublogic: 

FlloM Simulalor II £31,49 

Jel Simulator 531.49 

.Ecwiery Oak SCALL 



-AuTQi 



UnlMinH^; 

Pnnt Master ,. S'9.9S 

AriGaltofy 1 or2 ,. $1455 

Fans & Borders S17.B5 




Accaia: 

Vfld, CI. Uaflet Board, $27.95 

lOtti Frame $27,95 

AcUvlskm: 

Champ. Baseball $22.95 

Champ. Ba^Dtball 522,85 

Zork Tnlogy $39.96 

Loainor OoddoBsas S22.9S 

Beyond Hork $27,95 

Broderburid: 

Ancienl Art ol Wof $26.95 

PrlnlSnop £32.85 

Prtnl Shop Compan £31.95 

Graphic L«. I or II 519.95 

Karateka ,. $19.95 

Toy Shop $22,95 

Bank St, Wtnor + 544.95 

Andeni An ol War 

31 Soa S2S.9S 

ei«c(tonle AiU: 

Pogasus $25.95 

Wemrer Basebal 525.9S 

Hocktord _ S25.0S 

^y»: 

AptfiaiTriktgy 511.95 

Create A Cslwxfai £15.95 

Destroyer „ $22 95 

Movie Monitor Sn,95 

Rogue $18.95 

St. Spoils Baskelball ... 522,95 
Sub Bstlle SImulalor ... 522.95 

Winter Games 511.95 

Worid Games ..„ $32,95 

Firebird: 

SlBrglidBr $25.96 

Guild of TtllovBS £25.95 

MIcroleagua; 

Mlcroloag. Baseball S22,BB 

Genoral Manager $16.95 

Slat Disk $13.95 

MIcrDprote: 

Conflict in Watnam $22.95 

Crusade in Europe $22,95 

Decision In Detail $22.96 

F-15 Strike Eogis $22,95 

Silsnt Service 522.85 

Gunstilp $27,95 

Pirates _ £22.85 

Origin: 

UlCma 1 _ „ $22,95 

Ultima III S22,0S 

Ultima tV 533.95 

MoeBus 533.95 

Ogra $16,95 

Strategic SImulMloni: 

Road War 200D S22.9S 

Gotryamro $33.95 

Wizards Crown , S22.95 

SublogIc: 

Jet Simulator 531.49 

Scenery Japan $17,95 

Scenery San Fran SI 7.85 

Scenery #1-#6 £64,95 

Flight SImuloloi S34.g5 

Tlmeworka: 

SwIficaJo $39,95 

Wordwriler 534.95 

Unison Wortd: 

An Gallery 2 514,95 

Nevis Master $49,95 

Print Master (+) $29.95 

Fonts & BonJers 517,96 



pping on Prepaid cash orders over S50 in the Continental US. 



I Price Guarantee 

^ Since 1981, we have led ihe industry by 

continuing to offer ihe lowest national 
prices whiie providing quaiity service. Many 

companies have come and gone trying to £ 

imitate our quality and service. It by some / 

oversigtil we do not have the lowest prices y 

advenised on the products you desire, t 

then we would appreciate the opporlunity i 

to rectify itiis oversight, ? 



The Paper Saver! 



Panasonic 

10921 




240 CPS/1 2 Character 
Mode 

Push Feed Tractor 
NLQ Mode 48 CPS 
Excellent Versatility 
Interlacing Available lor 
IBM PC and Many 
Others 



295 



95 



Monitors 



Modems 



Thomson: 

230 Amber Tn.'12- S79.95 

450 AmDer TTL IS' Sf>9 9&' 

4120 CGA ,„S19B.9S 

4160 CGA _ SJ59 95 

4460 EGA S31fl,95 

4375 UI"aSc:iri S38a'Jh 

QB IM EGA Cnrd S1M.9S 

QB 200 Supsr Card SZI9.9S 

■QuMntnlai Umllad 



Blu* Chip: 

BCM l? GlBBh m. S75 

BCM 12" Amboi TTL S79 



NEC: 

Mullisync II 



... £559 



Sivs SI TO ovsr NEC Muhliync 

wlih Tlwrnion 4375 UllrsScsn 

S38B.95 



New for '88 



THOMSON O fr" „ se9.s 

4120 Monitor i200,PCCard S69,9S 

1 200he Modem SS9.95 

composile analog ^^™ SI/a.HS 

. C^^pame »,rh IBM ="«" "'^ Ca,d S169.95 

aniJ CommoOOre Hgysi: 
• RGaaalacaBloA J An95 Smart modem 300 „ SI49.95 

ncludea qj 199 Smanmodam 1200 S2fl5.95 

~ Smanmodom 2400 S425.95 



Commodore Ready 



.IL 




InnrB n ui'iiic 

NX-1 000 



« 1 44 cps Draft 

• 36 cps NLQ 

• EZ Operalion Front 
Panel Control 



$165 



95 




NEW! NX1000 Rainbow 
Color Printer S225.95 



SEIKOSHA 
Sp 180VC 

• 100 cps draft 

• 20 cps NLQ 

• Direct connect 
for Commodore 




Seicosha price 
increases possible 
— please order 
early. 



$129 



95 



PRINTERS 



SEIKOSHA 

SP 1S0A] S129 95 

SP 180VC .™™_._.. S129.9S 

SP lOQOVC S139 95 

SP 1000AP _ SI 68.95 

SP 1200VC S155.95 

SP IZOOAI S1M.95 

SP 1ZD0ASRS232 SISS95 

SL 60 Al SZ99.96 

MP1SO0AI S260 0S 

MPS300AI .._._„.„_„.,.. 1399.95 

MP5420AI SS79.95 

SP Series RiCBon S7.95 

SK3000 Ar „.„,. S339 95 

SK3005 Al S419.95 

SPBIO SCALL 

SL 130AI S599.95 

Toshiba 

aaisL SJbu 

341 SL Se59 

P3S1 McKlBl II „,. SB9B 

351 SX 400 cps SI019 



NL.10 woCatt S159.95 

NX. 1000 S1BS.95 

NX-IOOOC S175.95 

NX.IOOOColor S225.95 

NX-IOOOC Color S229,95 

NX-15 S295,95 

NO-10 _ S26S95 

NO. 15 _,-.-. t379.9S 

NR-IO S309 

NR-IS S425 95 

NB.1S 2* Ptn $899.95 

NB^.l in 24 Pin . 542595 

NB24-15 24 Pin S559.95 

#CITIZEN 

y.'OD S1493b 

160 _.„..,„ Sie9,95 

MSP-10 „ S259.95 

MSP-40 S2BS.95 

MSP-ia ,._._ 1334.95 

MSP-aO _.„._.-.„ S3B9.95 

U3P-*S ..,„ 1425.96 

M8P-S5 S4B9.95 

PrwriiriroSS .„. 546-195 

TrlBuIn !ZA S624.95 



EPSON 

LXaOO ...5175 95 

fT(B6E ™ S289.95 

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Wb ilock InlsrlBCIng for Alnrl, Commodore, Apple and IBM. 



ini 




(for. 



Larry Cotton 

Last month we began writing a 
complete four-function math drill 
program. We left off with a GET 
statement at the end of our math 
menu. Let's finish the program: 

160 «=lfl:Q=RND(-TI ) :REH SE 
E AHTTCLE 

The variable N controls prob- 
lem difficulty (skill level). It is the 
largest number added to or sub- 
tracted from; the largest multiplica- 
tion table; and the greatest answer 
in a division problem. 

Ten is an average difficulty lev- 
el, which you can change — before 
the program is run, of course — to 
suit the user's ability. 

Handling The Chores 
With Subroutines 

We need several subroutines for 
presenting the four types of math 
problems. You might recall that 
ON-GOSUBs are an efficient way 
to access them, so we need to con- 
vert the four possible strings ("1", 
"2", "3", or "4") from line 150 into 
numeric values, say, X. Remember 
that the VAL function does just that; 

170 X=VAL(flS) 

Our main program loop starts 
at the next line, which is a problem 
counter, P. It starts at each time 
the program is run and is incre- 
mented by 1 for each problem: 

laa p=p+i 

Values of X (line 1 70) are used 
in a pair of ON-GOSUBs to send 
control to the subroutines for gener- 
ating and displaying ihe problems: 

190 ONXGOSUB280,28a,22e,220 
200 ONXGOSUB350,360,370,410 

Note carefully that each of the 
above lines is executed separately; 
that is, a value of X = ] will access 

52 compute: s Gmotrc May 1 BBS 



first the subroutine at line 280, then 
the subroutine at line 350. A value of 
X = 3 will access, in sequence, the 
subroutines at lines 220 and 370. 

We then call another subroutine 
to check the answer, and send con- 
trol back to line 180 to begin creating 
a new problem: 

210 GOSUB'iaOiGOTOiaO 

A Two-Entry-Point Subroutine 

The subroutine called by line 190 
runs from lines 220 to 340 and has 
txvo eninj poinii. Only the last part of 
the subroutine (beginning at lino 
280) is used for addition and subtrac- 
tion (X is 1 or 2); the entire subrou- 
tine starting at line 220 is necessary 
for multiplication and division (X is 3 
or 4). 

Let's begin ot the second entry 
point since that's the order in which 
they're called in line 190: 

2B0 A = INT (N'RND(l) ) t-1 
290 B=INT(N*RND[1) ) +1 

These are our primary RND 
function lines; they generate two 
numbers from 1 to N, which was de- 
fined in line 160 and discussed 
above. Both numbers are used in ad- 
dition and subtraction problems, 
though only one is used in multipli- 
cation and division problems. 

Next, we should add a line to 
handle a peculiarity of subtraction 
problems. Since we want our an- 
swers to be nonzero and positive, A 
(the number subtracted from) must 
be larger than B (the number to 
subtract); 

300 IF(X=2)RND (fl<=B)THEN2a0 

We use an IF-THEN to check 
whether we're .subtracting (X is 2) 
ami whether A is less than or equal to 
B. If both conditions are met, we 
must generate more pairs of random 
numbers until A is greater than B. 
(This explains the occasional short 
delay in generating subtraction 
problems.) 



Color-Coded Screens 

The next lines set the stage for dis- 
playing the problems on a blue 
screen. Later we'll color-code the 
screen for right (green) and wrong 
(red) answers. 

310 PRINT'MCLH) ":POKE532ai ,6:R 
EM FOB C16 AND C*9 - USE CO 
L0Rfl,7 INSTEAD OF POKE 

320 F0RJ=lTO7: PRINT:SEXT 

330 PHINTiPHINTAB (6) "PRESS ONI. 
¥ RETURN FOR ANSWER" 

340 PRIST;PBINTTAB(13); :RETURN 

Now. write the lines for the sub- 
routine's first entr)' point, that is, for 
multiplication and division problems 
(X is 3 or 4). 

220 lFFLAG=lTHEN2Sa 

Here we're checking to see 
whether a signal flag has been 
"raised." We'll raise that flag later in 
the program (see line 530) by mak- 
ing the variable FLAG (FI.) equal to 
1, signifying that the program has 
been run through at least once, and 
that the user wants to continue. 

If FL is 1. we don't need to ask 
again which multiplication or divi- 
sion table to use; the program will 
skip lines 230-270. However, at the 
first run, FL = and control will fall 
through to line 230; 

230 PRiNT:PRINTTAB [131 "TABLE"; 
240 INPUTTS 
250 T=VAL(TS) 

We use INPUT because the 
user may need to type two digits. T 
will become one of the numbers to 
be multiplied in multiplication 
problems or the number to divide 
by in division problems. 

Now we must check to see 
whether the table value is greater 
than the previously selected skill 
level (line 160) or less than 1 (we 
will not present problems with 
numbers less than 1): 

260 IFT>NTi!ENPRINT"(3 UPl":GOT 

0230 
270 IFT<1THENPKINT"(3 UP}":GOT 

0230 



This brings us to lines 
280-340, which we've already 
written. The sole RETURN in line 
340 suffices to end the subroutine, 
no matter whether the entry point 
is at line 220 or 280. 

Incidentally, if you were writ- 
ing a program like this from scratch, 
how would you know where the 
subroutines would be? That is, how 
would you know, when writing line 
190, that the subroutine entry 
points would be at 220 and 280? 

You probably wouldn't. It's a 
good idea to write the subroutine(s) 
at distant, easy-to-remember line 
numbers (for example, 500, 1000, 
1500, and so on), then (mostly for 
neatness) renumber the program 
with a renumbering utility such as 
"Renumber 64" in the November 
1987 issue. 

Displaying The Problems 

Next, we write the subroutines for 
actually displaying the problems. 
These are called in line 200, which 
is encountered upon RETURN from 
line 340. First for addition: 



350 PRINTA"+"B" 
N 



"i ;C=ft+B:RETUR 



Then for subtraction: 

360 PBINTA "-" D """; :C"A-B:RE 
TURN 

For multiplication, it would be 
nice if the problem were displayed 
with the chosen table value T dis- 
played first sometimes, and second 
ofhej times. That sounds like an- 
other chance to use RND: 

370 L = INT !2"RND(1))*1 
380 r)N[.GOTO39fl,40a 

These two lines cause the pro- 
gram randomly to GOTO line 390 
or 400, depending on whether L is 1 
or 2. 

390 PRINTT"X'"A"-"! :C = A*T:RETUR 

N 
iBB PRINTA"*"T"="! !C"A*T:RETUR 

N 

Note that we can print X on the 
screen to signify multiplied by, even 
though the computer's BASIC in- 
terpreter recognizes only *. Last, for 
division: 

410 PRINTA*T"/"T"="; :C"fi:RETUB 
N 

We print / to the screen to 
mean divided by, which is the same 
sign the computer recognizes in its 
computations. T — the multiplica- 



tion or division table value — has 
been gathered from the user in lines 
240-250. 

Calculating The Answers 

In all four problem-generating 
lines, the value C is calculated; it's 
the right answer to the problem. 
Calculating C in addition and sub- 
traction problems is easy: A-I-B=C 
(line 350) and A-B = C (line 360). 

Multiplication is slightly more 
difficult. We must employ the user's 
table value T and only one of the 
randomly generated numbers (A is 
chosen arbitrarily) to create the an- 
swer: C=A'T (lines 390 and 400). 

Division is the trickiest. If the 
user picks a table value T of 7, then 7 
is used as the number to be divided 
by. 

Our difficulty level is 10, so our 
two randomly generated num- 
bers — A and B — will be in the range 
1-10. What do we do with them? 

The answer is to premultiply 
one of them (say A) by T (in this 
case, 7). That will create the num- 
ber to be divided into. The answer 
will then be the random number: 
C = A (line 410). B isn't used. 

Checking The Answers 

Back at line 210 we called a subrou- 
tine at 420 to check the answer. 
Here's how it starts: 

420 DS-"";I«PtJTDS 
430 D = VAL.(DS) 

D is now the user's answer. We 
should compare it with the right an- 
swer (C) and, if they are equal, send 
control of the program to the right- 
answer routine, which begins at 
line 480; 

440 IFC=DTHEN480 

If the answer is wrong (C 
doesn't equal D), control falls 
through to line 450, which begins 
the wrong-answer routine: 

450 POKE53281, 2:REM FOR C16 AN 
D Ct4 - USE COL.OR0,3 INSTEA 
D OF POKE 

460 PRINT:PRINTTAB [12)"'THE ANS 
WER IS"C 

4 70 GOTO 510 

These three Hnes turn the 
screen red (color code for wrong an- 
swers), print the correct answer C, 
and send control to line 510. 

Line 440 says that if C = D, 
control should go to the right- 
answer routine, which begins at 



line 480: 

480 POKE53281,5:REM FOR C16 AN 
D C+4 - USE COLOR0,6 INSTEA 
D OF POKE 

490 PRINT:PRIHTAa(l6) "GOODl" 

500 K=K+1 

510 PRrNT:PRINT"PRESS RETURN T 
CONTINUE OR TO QUIT." 

Line 480 turns the screen green 
(color code for correct ansu-ers) and 
line 490 prints a complimentary 
message. 

Line 500 is a counter for correct 
answers. K begins at (as do all 
variables when a program is first 
run) and is incremented by 1 for 
each correct answer. 

Line 510 prints a message to 
offer the option to continue (press 
RETURN) or quit (press Q). Let's 
GET the user's response: 

520 GETBS!lF(BS<>CifRS(13))ANDl 
BS<>"Q")THEN520 

We'll cover the CHR$ function 
later. This IF-THEN statement says 
that if the user doesn't press either 
RETURN or Q, the program will 
just loop at line 520. The response if 
the RETURN key is pressed: 

530 IFBS=CHRSa3)THENFLAG = llRE 
TURN 

We referred to this line when 
we explained line 220. Up to this 
point FLAG (FL) has been 0. But 
when the user signifies (by pressing 
RETURN) that he or she wants to 
continue, line 530 makes FLAG= 1. 
We have literally raised a flag as a 
signal, and it stays raised until the 
program is run again. 

Control falls through to line 
540 if Q (to quit) is pressed. The 
screen is cleared and colored blue; 

540 PRINT'MCLRJ '■:POKE53281,6:F 
OR C16 AND C*4 - USE COLOR0 
,7 INSTEAD OF POKE 

Keeping Score 

Finally, we need to print out the 
score. K is our correct-answer 
counter and P is the number of 
problems presented: 

5 50 PRINT! PR INT" SCORE !"K"CORRE 
CT OUT OF"P"PROB[.EMS 

A complete listing is found in 
the Program Listings section, Try 
the program yourself at any skill 
level (line 160) you wish, or you 
can encourage a child to practice his 
or her homework with it. 

See program listing on page 90. V 

COMPUTEIs Gazollo May 19BB 53 



@0Tn][paa 

(?(o)K 




Worlds Of Wonder— WOW! 




Fred D'Ignazio . 
Contributing Editor 

In this month's mailbag I received a 
letter from Art Oswald of Goshen, 
Indiana. Art was responding to my 
article in the November COMPUTE! 
magazine about computers of the 
future. He wrote: "In the future, the 
phrase '1 wonder' will become ob- 
solete. 1 won't have to wonder what 
would happen if, or wonder what 
something was like, or wonder how 
something might be. 1 would just 
ask my computer, and it would sim- 
ulate by means of holographic pro- 
jection anything my imagination 
could come up with." 

Now, I ask you, Art, is this 
something to look fonvard to or 
something to dread? 

I have a new science-fiction 
book coming out which deals with 
this subject — the effect of comput- 
ers (and electronic media, in gener- 
al) on the human imagination. The 
book is Robot Odyssey 1: Escape from 
Robotropolis (Tor Books, April 
1988). Listen to two teenage boys 
carrying on a conversation in the 
year 2014: We thiuk pletily ushig 
computers, but we don't imagine. We 
don't have to imagine luhat the fourth 
dimension is, or what will happen if 
we combine two chemicals, or what 
the dark side of the moon looks like. 
The computer is there a step ahead of 
our imagination with its fantastic 
graphics, cartoons, and music. We no 
longer imagine because the computer 
can do our imagining for us. 

"So why imagine?" Les said. "My 
pop says most people's imaginations 
are vague and fuzzy anyway. If the 
computer imagines stuff for them, it'll 
probably be a big improvement. 

Les is right. If the computer 
"imagines" something, it is usually 
based on a database of facts, the vi- 
sion of an artist, or a scientific mod- 
el created by experts. How could 
our puny imaginations compete 

54 COMPUTEfs GazBllB May 19B8 



with images that are this inspired, 
detailed, and exact? 

Frontiers Of Knowledge 

Science-fiction writers think a lot 
about new worlds of wonder. It is 
the human desire to "go boldly 
where no man has gone before" 
that is among our more noble im- 
pulses. It may even be the "engine" 
that drives us to innovate, invent, 
and take risks. Without this engine, 
we might sink into a kind of emo- 
tional and intellectual swamp. Life 
could become extremely boring. 
Every time we contemplated a deci- 
sion, we would first ask our com- 
puter, "What if?" and see what the 
consequences might be. Knowing 
too much might even paralyze us 
and cool our risk-taking ardor. 

Imagination Amplifiers 

Art writes that the phrase / wonder 
may be renderecJ obsolete by com- 
puters, but I'm not certain that he's 
right. Instead, 1 think that we could 
use computers to stimulate our 
imagination and make us wonder 
about things even more. 

Where does our imagination 
come from? I picture the imagina- 
tion as a LegoT" set of memory 
blocks stuffed into the toy chest of 
our mind. When we imagine some- 
thing, we are quickly and intuitively 
building a tiny picture inside our 
heads out of those blocks. The 
blocks are made up of images, 
tastes, smells, touches, emotions, 
and so onfall sorts of things that 
we've experienced and then tucked 
away in a corner of our minds. The 
quality of what we imagine de- 
pends on three things: how often 
we imagine, the quantity and diver- 
sity of blocks that we have to 
choose from, and our ability to 
combine the blocks in original — 
and piercingly true- — ways. 

Most of us have "pop" imagi- 
nations created from images sup- 



plied to us by pop culture. We read 
popular books, see popular movies, 
watch the same sitcoms and com- 
mercials, and read the same news 
stories in our newspapers. It's no 
wonder that much of what we 
imagine is made up of prefab struc- 
tures derived, second hand, from 
society's small group of master 
"imagineers." Electronic media has 
made it possible for these imagineers 
to distribute their imaginations in 
irresistible packages. If you have 
any doubt, ask an elementary- 
school teacher. Her students come 
to school singing jingles from com- 
mercials and write "original" com- 
positions which really are thinly 
disguised copies of toy ads, movies, 
and Saturday morning cartoons. 

Where does the computer fit 
into this picture? It could be our 
biggest defense against the imagi- 
nation monopoly which the dis- 
pensers of pop culture now have. If 
we can tell the computer "1 won- 
der" or ask it "What if?" it will 
work with us to build compelling 
images of what we imagine. If the 
process is interactive, and we can 
imagine in rough drafts, then we 
can polish, ornament, and rework 
our images as easily as a child 
working with sand on a beach. 
Then maybe the images inside our 
heads will be from imagination ex- 
periments that we do with our com- 
puters and not stale, leftover 
images pulled from the refrigerator 
of pop culture. 

What do you think, readers? 
What have computers done to your 
imagination? What might they do 
in the future? Write: 

Fred D'Ignazio 

c/o COMPUTErs Cazdie 

324 W. Wei\dover Avenue, Suite 200 

Greensboro, NC 27408 




Clocks and Cycles 



Todd Heimarck 
Contribuling Editor 

Last month, we looked at some 
strategies for speeding up BASIC 
programs. Here's one more idea: 
Throw BASIC out the window and 
convert the program to machine 
language (ML). 

But what if you don't know ML 
and have no plans lo start learning 
it? No problem; just buy a BASIC 
compiler. There are several good 
compilers available for the 64 and 
128. Let's look at what they do to 
speed up BASIC. 

ML: The Bottom Line 

Ultimately, the only language your 
computer understands is machine 
language, the language of the ma- 
chine. What we call BASIC is really 
just another ML program. When 
you turn on a 64 or a 128, the pro- 
gram called BASIC automatically 
runs. (On other computers, such as 
the IBM PC, you start out in DOS 
and if you want to use BASIC, you 
must load it from a disk.) 

Commodore BASIC is an inler- 
prcteii language. When a program 
runs, the computer starts at the be- 
ginning and handles the individual 
BASIC commands one by one. A 
good illustrative example is the 
PRINT command, which is very flex- 
ible, It can print numeric variables, 
string variables, calculations, literal 
strings, or literal numbers — PRINT 
A: PRINT A$: PRINT 3 + 5,TAN 
(A • B): PRINT "PLEASE WAIT"; 
PRINT 5. 

When the BASIC interpreter 
sees a line that includes PRINT A$, 
it looks up the PRINT command 
and starts lo evaluate the parame- 
ters following it, which might be 
variable names, functions, calcula- 
tions, or several other possibilities 
Uke parentheses. After figuring out 
that AS is a variable, the interpreter 
goes off into variable memory to 
find the string. It searches sequen- 



tially through every currently de- 
fined variable until it finds the right 
one. Then it goes to the routine for 
printing the string. A!! of this hap- 
pens while the program is niiniing. 
Compilers handle a lot of the 
busywork in advance. A compiler 
would assign the variable A$ to a 
specific place in memory. Then, 
when it's ready to PRINT A$, the 
compiled program already knows 
that it's a string (not a number) to 
be printed, and it knows where the 
string is located. In effect, a compil- 
er translates BASIC commands into 
their ML equivalents, taking care of 
many details (like where variables 
live) in advance. 

Adjusting Clock Speed 

One more speed-up trick is worth 
mentioning. If you have a 128, you 
can type FAST to instantly double 
the speed of all BASIC and ML pro- 
grams. It works great in 80-column 
mode. In 40-column mode the screen 
goes blank, although programs will 
srill run without the visible screen. 
The FAST command doubles the 
speed of the internal clock. Note that 
this clock is separate from the jiffy 
clock and the two time-of-day clocks, 

A Commodore 64 uses a 6510 
processor and has only one clock- 
speed: 1 MegaHertz (MHz), which 
means the clock ticks a million 
times a second. Each tick is called 
one cycle. The 128's 8510 processor 
can operate at two clockspeeds: 1 
MHz or 2 MHz. When you double 
the speed of the clock, every ma- 
chine language instruction executes 
twice as fast. 

By way of comparison, the 
original IBM PC had a clockspeed 
of 4.77 MHz, which might lead you 
to believe that the PC is four to five 
times faster than a 64, 

The IBM uses a different pro- 
cessor, however, which complicates 
the answer. Commodore's Jump to 
SubRoutine (JSR) command, for ex- 
ample, uses six clock cycles. Given 



1 million cycles per second, you 
could spend one second executing 
about 167,000 JSRs. The equivalent 
ML command on the IBM PC is 
CALL, which takes either 19 cycles 
or 28, depending on whether 
you're staying within the current 
64K address space. With a clock- 
speed of 4.77 MHz and 19 cycles 
per instruction, you could execute 
about 251,000 CALLs, which is 
faster than the 64, to be sure, but 
only by a factor of about 50 percent, 
fiot 500 percent. 

IBM PC machine language 
consistently uses more clock cycles 
per instruction. Comparing a regis- 
ter to an immediate value (CMP 
#$13, for example) takes 2 clock cy- 
cles on the 64, and 4 on the PC. The 
64 decrements a number in memo- 
ry in 6 cycles, versus the PC's 15. 
Subtracting takes 2-6 cycles on the 
64, 3-17 on the PC. 

The IBM has a faster clock, bul 
a slower machine language. When 
you average it out, an ML program 
for an IBM PC running at 4.77 MHz 
is roughly twice as fast as the equiv- 
alent program for a 1 MHz Com- 
modore 64. And a 128 in FAST 
mode runs ML programs at about 
the same speed as an original IBM 
PC. You can expand a 128 to 640K 
(same as the original PC), although 
you have to keep programs and 
variables within 64K banks (also 
the same as the original PC). 

So if you've thought about 
changing from a 128 to an inexpen- 
sive 4,77 MHz PC clone, think 
again: Is it really an upgrade? You 
won't gain any speed. If you're set 
on buying a speedier computer, 
there are faster clones available (up 
to 16 MHz), and there are some ex- 
cellent (and extremely fast) 68000- 
based computers (including the 
Amiga, Macintosh, and Atari ST). 



COMPUTErs Gazelle May 198B 55 






Formatting Text 



)im Butlerfield 
Contributing Editor 

Have you ever loaded a file {perhaps 
from a bulletin board) into your word 
processor, only to find that each and 
every line has a return after it? Re- 
moving the returns manually is a te- 
dious job. How can we write a 
program to perform this task? 

Let's take a closer look at exact- 
ly what we want to do. We don't 
want to remove all the returns — that 
would put all the text into one huge 
block. Load a file into your favorite 
word processor. What makes a para- 
graph? There are two possibilities. 

First, a paragraph is indicated 
any time there are two return marks 
in a row. (In your word processor, 
carriage returns may be visible or 
invisible. Some word processors let 
you toggle carriage-return visibili- 
ty.) Secondly, some people use the 
system that a single return ends a 
paragraph and the next line is in- 
dented with several spaces (de- 
pending on the writer). 

Start With The Rules 

Let's write a program that strips all 
the extra carriage returns out of a 
file. We'll ust; these rules; 

1. Two consecutive returns will be 
changed to a single return. 

2. A return followed by a space is 
left unchanged. 

3. A return at the end of the file is 
left unchanged. 

4. Other returns are changed to 
space characters. 

There are many ways to write 
any program, but here's my plan of 
action. We'll use a flag to tell wheth- 
er or not the previously read charac- 
ter is a return character. If it is, we'll 
look at the current character to see 
what action we should take. This 
procedure will make it easy to follow 
the rules stated earlier. 

To make things easier, we'll 
open the input and output files 

56 COMPUTEVs Qaieire Mny 19B8 



from BASIC. When the machine 
language program finishes execut- 
ing, we'll use BASIC commands to 
close the files. 

If you just want to use the pro- 
gram, type in the BASIC program 
and save it to disk before running it. 
When you're ready to see how the 
code works, read the following 
section. 

In Machine Language 

Since this is a rather small program, 
we can fit it into memory at 8192 
($2000 hex). This area is available 
on both the 64 and the 128. 

The first section of machine 
language is a subroutine to output 
to file 2. We must save the A regis- 
ter (to the stack) when we call 
CHKOUT ($FFC9), 

$2000 PHA 

LDX #S02 

)SR $FFC9 

PLA 

JSR SFFD2 

)SR SFFCC 

RTS 

Next comes the main entry 
point. We'll jump here from BASIC. 
First, we'll set the flag (at $FC) to 0: 

S200E LDX #»0 
STX SFC 

Now we'll read a character 
from the input ffle. The program 
will loop back to here each time it 
needs input. 

$2012 LDX #$01 

JSR $FFC6 

JSR $FFE4 
PHA 

JSR $FFCC 
PLA 

We now copy the status to a 
storage location {$FD) so that we can 
later check for the end of the file. 

SZOIF LDX $90 
STX $FD 

If the flag is not set, leap ahead 
to $203C. 

S2023 LDX SFC 
BEQ S203C 



The flag is set — we're looking 
at a character following a return. 
Using the X register to hold the first 
character, we check for a space: 

$2027 LDX #SOD 
CMP #520 
BEQ S2D33 

If it's not a space, look for a 
second return: 

$202D LDX #S20 
CMP #SOD 
BEQ S2042 

Now we output the characters 
from the X and A registers. (Notice 
how we changed the first character 
to a space at the address $202D 
above.) 

$2033 PHA 
TXA 

JSR S2000 
PLA 
JMF S2042 

The above jump to $2042 out- 
puts the second character. 

This code takes care of the situ- 
ation when the code is not set. First, 
check to see if the new character is a 
return. 

SZ03CLDX #S01 
CMP #S0D 
BEQ $2047 

If we find a return, we skip the 
following output section: 

$2042 ]5R £2000 
LDX #$00 
STX $FC 

Now check for end-of-file. If 
it's not set, repeat the whole 
procedure. 

$2049 LDX $FD 
BEQ $2012 

If we're at the end of the file, 
we check the fiag one more time. If 
it's set, send a return. 

$204DLDA #£0D 

LDX $FC 

BEQ 52056 

JSR S2000 

All done. 
$2056 RTS 

See program listing on page 85. • 




m@^ ©©mmm 



Skeet 



Roger M, Pingleton, |r. 

For a nice change of pace, take a 
break from the productivity and 
applications environment with this 
arcade-style action game for one or 
more players. This GEOS desk 
accessory runs on either the 64 or 
the 128 using GEOS or GEOS128. 

"Skeet" is a fast-paced electronic 
version of the shotgun-and-clay- 
pigeon skeet shoot, running under 
GEOS or GEOSl 28. In Skeet, you try 
to shoot down flying clay pigeons 
by quickly moving your mouse or 
joystick's pointer over the target 
and clicking or pressing the fire but- 
ton. You can play Skeet by yourself 
or with any number of friends. 

Getting Started 

Since Skeet is written in machine 
language, you need to enter it with 
"MLX," the machine language en- 
try program printed elsewhere in 
this issue. When you run MLX, 
you're asked for the starting ad- 
dress and ending address of the 
data you'll be entering. Here are the 
values to use for Skeet: 

starting address: 0400 
Ending address: lllF 

Follow the MLX instructions 
carefully. When you've finished en- 
tering the Skeet data, save it to a 
GEOS- formatted disk, and then run 
the GEO-Converter program (Pro- 
gram 2) to convert the file to GEOS 
formal. 

Now boot GEOS and go to the 
GEOS menu. You should see Skeet 
listed as one of the desk accessories. 
You can click on Skeet in the GEOS 
menu or double-click on the Skeet 
icon to begin playing. 

You'll see a box containing 
Skeet's playing field and four icons 
shaped like cartoon captions with 
the word Pull in each one. To re- 
lease a clay pigeon, click on any one 
of the four pull icons. 

When pulled, pigeons begin 



their flight from the bottom of the 
playing field, alternating between 
left and right, with the first pigeon 
beginning on the right side. Since 
the pigeons alternate sides, you can 
always predict from which side the 
pigeon will be coming so you can 
pull from an icon that gives you the 
best shot. 

Make It Count 

Once a pull icon has been selected, 
you have just one shot with which 
to hit the clay pigeon. You shoot by 
pressing the fire button on the joy- 
stick or clicking the left mouse but- 
ton. Holding the button down after 
selecting the icon will waste your 
one shot, so be sure to release the 
button after you've pulled. 




Pull! It's skeel liiintitig season in GEOS. 
Use a joiislick or mouse to shoot down 
as mani/ clay pigeons as you can. 

Below the playing field is a box 
containing your score and the num- 
ber of pigeons pulled so far. Each 
time you shoot, score flashes. 

Above the playing field and to 
its right is a box marked options. 
Clicking this box lets you select the 
number of pigeons to use for each 
game (10-100, with 20 being the 
default) and the speed at which the 
pigeons fly (fast, medium, or slow, 
with medium being the default), 
These options can be changed 
before, during, or after any game, 
with one exception: If you select an 
option to use fewer pigeons than 
have already been pulled, your 
change will be ignored. 



When a game is over, your per- 
centage of hits is displayed in the 
middle of the playing field and your 
pointer is placed on and restricted 
to the reset box — the box with the R 
in it. After you've clicked on the re- 
set box, the game resets and you 
can either play again or click on the 
close icon in the lower left corner of 
the playing field to return to GEOS. 

Tips And Traps 

Shooting from the icon closest to a 
clay pigeon's launch site can be easy 
if you fire at the pigeon's lowest 
point. This strategy can be difficult, 
however, if you decide to follow the 
pigeon up and shoot at it later. 

Different input devices can dra- 
matically change the play of the 
game. The proportional mouse helps 
the pointer's mobility. Some shots 
that are impossible with the joystick 
are easy with the mouse or some oth- 
er proportional input device. 

If you're using a joystick, you'll 
want to keep the pointer moving at 
the maximum velocity. You can do 
this by constantly moving the point- 
er around the screen and selecting 
the icons while in motion or only 
stopping briefly to select them. Stop- 
ping to look at the number of shots 
fired (the OUT OF number on the 
screen) can bring down the velocity 
of the pointer or put you out of sync 
with the speed of the pigeons. 

You can change the minimum 
and maximum velocities of the 
pointer, as well as its acceleration, 
with the GEOS Preference Manager, 
providing a parent application 
doesn't alter these values. Skeet 
changes the shape of the pointer 
from an arrow (the default) to a gun 
sight when it enters the playing field. 

If you make an amazing shot, 
GREAT SHOT! is displayed on the 
screen. This happens in two 
circumstances: 

• When you pull from an upper icon 
and hit the pigeon when it is at its 
largest 

COMPUTBI's GazBlle May 198B 57 



• When you puil from a lower icon 
and hit the pigeon on its descent 

It's difficult to hit the pigeon 
while the pointer is in motion. 
While neither of these shots adds 
more than one hit to the player's 
score, they make for a greater dis- 
play of marksmanship. 

Skeet can be played with sev- 
eral variarions. For practice, try se- 
lecting a goal of 100 pigeons. (An 
asterisk in the options menu always 
lets you know how many have been 
chosen. Each player (in multiple- 
player games) can choose an icon 
from which to pull. If one player is 
better than another, the weaker 
player can be given a handicap by 
being allowed to choose a slower 
speed for the pigeon or more shots 
in which to beat the percentage 
score of the better player. 

The positions of the icons 
allow you to create your own game 
variations. One variation, "Around 
the World," can be played by 
shooting five shots from each icon 
and deciding the winner based on 
the most pigeons hit out of 20. An- 
other game,"Horse," can be played 
by shooting from one icon at a set 
speed. You can also tally the great- 
est number of hits in a row from 
any particular pull icon. 

Program Notes 

There are several noteworthy pro- 
gramming techniques used in 
Skeet. Since Skeet is a desk accesso- 
ry, special menu handling is re- 
quired in order to keep from 
destroying any application data. 
When Skeet is initialized, it saves 
the portion of the background 
screen under the area where the 
menu will unfold. Then it imprints 
that same area from the foreground 
to the background. Thus, when the 
menu is roiled up, the GEOS Kernal 
can simply restore (he background 
screen. Before leaving the game, 
Skeet restores the background 
screen to its original state. 

Another technique is found in 
Skeet's bush-drawing subroutine. 
A bitmap pattern is defined for the 
hushes at the bottom of the screen 
using the GEOS compaction scheme. 
This pattern repeats three times, 
taking up one-third less room in 
memory than conventional bit- 
mapped data. Studying the screen 
will show where it repeats. 
See program listings a>i page 81. 9 
58 COMPUTE'S Gazelle May 19BS 




Fast Hi-Res 
Screen Dump 



lack Reno 

This bi-res screen dump program is 
the fastest and most versatile zve've 
ever published. It works on the 
Commodore 64, 128, Plus/ 4, and 
16 with Commodore 1525, MPS- 
801, MPS-803, MPS-1000, MPS- 
1200, and compatible printers. 

One of the strongest features of 
Commodore computers is graphics. 
Of course, the problem with com- 
puter graphics is that the picture 
disappears from the screen when 
you turn the power off. If you have 
a Commodore 1525 or compatible 
printer, you can transfer your 128, 
64, Plus/4 or 16 hi-res screens to 
paper at lightning speed with "Fast 
Hi-Res Screen Dump." [Ed. Note: 
Our test results were a speedy 1 min- 
ute. 25 seconds per screen dump.] 

Typing It In 

Hi-Res Dump is in the form of a 
BASIC loader. If you plan to use the 
program on a 128, be sure to use 
128 mode when you type the pro- 
gram in. This will ensure that all the 
128-specific keywords are properly 
tokenized. 

Type in the program. Now you 
must tell the program where your 
hi-res screen is located. To do this, 
adjust the value of the variable SL 
in line 30. For the 128, Plus/4, or 
16, use the value 8192. This is where 
the hi-res screen is located when 
you use BASIC'S GRAPHIC com- 
mand. If you're using a 64, enter the 
starting address of your hi-res 
screen. Many hi-res drawing pro- 
grams on the 64 use the area starting 
at 24576 ($6000). If you have trou- 
ble locating the bitmap, just remem- 
ber that it starts at an address that is 
an even multiple of 8192 ($2000). 

Now save the program to disk. 
When you're ready to print a pic- 
ture on the 64 or 128, load and run 
the program. (If you are using a 
Plus/4 or 16, typo POKE 56,23: 



POKE 5,0:CLR and then load and 
run the program.) You'll be asked 
where you would like the machine 
language program to be POKEd 
into memory. Depending on which 
machine you're using, try one of 
these values: 

Commodore 64; 49152 
Commodore 128; 307Z 
niis/4or 16: 588B 

After the machine language 
program has been POKEd into 
memory, type NEW and then load 
the hi-res screen into memory. This 
can usually be done with a state- 
ment of the form LjOAD"SCR£EN" 
,8,1. On the 128, use BLOAD- 
"SCR£EN",B0,P8192. Replace 
SCREEN with the filename you 
used when you saved the picture. 

To send the picture to the 
printer, type SYS starting address, 
where starting address is the value 
you entered above. For example, 
SYS 49152 would be the correct 
statement to enter on the 64. 

After your picture is printed, 
your printer remains in graphics 
mode. Turn it off and then back on 
to reset it. 
Sec program listing on page 80. 9 



COMPUJE'.'s Gazette is looking 
for utilities, games, applications, 
educational programs, and tu- 
torial articles. If you've created 
a program that you think other 
readers might enjoy or find use- 
ful, send it, on tape or disk, to: 

Submissions Reviewer 
COMPUTE! Publications 
P.O. Box 5406 
Greensboro, NC 27403 

Please enclose an SASE if you 
wish to have the materials 
returned. Articles are reviewed 
within four weeks of submission. 



So you can code circles around the pros, 
eh? Well, here's your chance lo prove il. It's 
the GEOS I'nigramming Contest. And all it 
takes to win is a Commodore and juur skill 
at programming under GEOS to win in any 
four catCKorles and walk away with all kinds 
o( prizes. 

Includinti a check for $1,000. 

Just send us the GEOS-based program 



applicalions from llei keley Softworks 
' Commodore peripherals: 1670 1200 Baud 
Modem. 1351 Moust; and 1764 or 1750 RAM 
Expansion Module 

' Six month subscription to Q-Link. the tele- 
communications service and Q-Link "s Pub- 
lic Domain Software Library from 
Quantum Computer Services 
> 'Rvelve month subscription to Computel's 



6JudninR will ho [H'lfiJiniud by llic staff of 
• Ciimpulel's (iaicllt Majpzinc. The 
dL-ci>iiiii» ol the iild)|i^E^ ^ri' riii,il ill iill [c^ctE, This 
uichHlts (lotisirais rt|5irdinE trealivily, simllarily 
amunK eiilrits ^nd tluncral suilabiiily. 

7 Entries bcciimu lilt properly of Berkeley 
• S<>llw(irks. which reserves the ri^l 10 
ndapl. use or putilish all entncs retuivei], linlries may 
twtome \)Atl o(.T '■hhari:w:irc'" libniry In be di^lributra 
by Iltrki'ley Softuoika, L'oniputcl's Gaiellu and 
CJuant urn Cumpulur Services, Aa pan of cadi 



YOU Wnri THE PROGRAM, 
WEUWRin THE CHECKS. 

The GEOS Programming Contest. 



you're most proud of — on 
disk— by August 31, 1988. 
Tliere are tour categories, 
each with an Applications' and Desk Accesso- 
ries-- winner. Which means that there are 
eiKlil first prizes. EiKhl second prizes. And 
eight thirds. 

And each prize consists of lots more 
prizes. 

We may not be the only 
ones writing checks. 

And that's only where the bucks start. 
Because if your program makes it into a 
GEOS Shareware Ubrary, all kinds of satis- 
fiu<l users may be wrilinj; you checks. 

So boot up and gut down to pumping out 
ynur most professional GEOS program. 
Then send il in with the information required 
below. Who knows? We could be sending a 
check riKht back lo you. 

1, Applications are identified by the GEOS 
Application Kile 'lype, are entered from and 
exit lo the desk'lbp and conform lo the 
GEOS user interface. 

2, Desk Accessories are defined as pro- 
grams which are less complex than applica- 
tions, are identified by the GEOS Desk 
Accessory Kile Type, may be entered and 
pop- up within any application and upon exit- 
ing return the application to its prior state. 

Categories 

ENTERTAINMENT— Includes enter- 
tairuneiU and gacTies. For example, a Chess 
game (Applications Division) or a trivia 
game (Desk Accessories Division). 
EDUCATION — Primarily educational and 
instructional. For example, a world geogra- 
phy program (Applications Division) or a 
flash card program (Desk Accessories 
Division). 

PRODUCTIVITY— Designs that improve 
personal productivity Examples include an 
"outline processor" (Applications Division) 
or a scientific or financial calculator (Desk 
Accessories Division). 
OPEN PROGRAMMING— Open design 
category that includes programs not covered 
in other categories. Examples include disk 
utilities, printer and input drivers and tele- 
comnnmicationsprograms. 

Over $25,000 in 
cash and prizes! 

Eight First Prizes! 

• $1,000 cash 

■ Announcement in Coniputel's Gazette 
Magazine 

• Complete library of CM or C128 GEOS 



Gazette magazine 
Eight Second Prizes! 

• Announcement in Coniputel's Gazette 
Magazine 

• Complete library of CM or C128 GEOS 
applications from Uerkeley Softworks 

• Commodore peripherals: 1670 1200 Baud 
Modem and your choice of a 1764 or 1750 
RAM Expansion Module or 1351 Mouse 

• Three month subscription to Q-Link. the 
telecomnmnications service and tJ-Link's 
Public Domain Software Library from 
QuniUum Computer Services 

• 'Iweke tuiinlh subscription to Compulel's 
Gazette magazine 

Eight Third I'rizes! 

• AnnouTicenient in Computel's Gazette 
Magazine 

• Your choice of any five CM or C128 GEOS 
applications frt>rli Berkeley Softworks 

• Commodore peripherals: 1670 1200 Baud 
Modem and your choice of a 176-1 or 1750 
RAM Expansion Module or 1351 Mouse 

• Three month subscription to ()-Link, the 
telecommunications service and (J -Link's 
Public Domain Software Library from 
Quantum Computer Services 

• Twelve month subscription to Computel's 
Gazette magazine 

Official Rules 

1lini|>liiyci's "f Herktlcy Sodwurka, Qiianlum 
• Corn put er Services, Liiser Direit, Cnmpulgl's 
(iiiii'lle MiiK^'i"!', ''"-'ir nilveilising and proraoriunal 
.iKcncies .ind Iheir immediate families are not eligible 
to enter ibe con lest, 

2i;aih entry musl be your original worii, 
• previously unpuhll sited in ^iny fonii. 
All Ihose projp-aEiis aivepled will be required to affirm 
[his in wrtliit}j. 

3Couiest:inlsni,iyenlt:nuulIipl[' ente^orieti, liut 
• (luy only subi nil one entry perralcgory ptr 
division (e.jj. one enliy in Ihc Knlerlainmcnt ealeRnry 
A^^licalLons Ihvision. d/oicineentr^' ul Ihe 
Knienaimiieiit [lesli Actcssones Division;. 
Hejpidlc^s ol the number ol taleguries you enter, you 
nili only be eliKible lo wui one priie. 

IXMdline (or entries is AuKUSl 31, 193S. Mail 
entries lo Compulel's tiaielle. P.O. Bos 54U6, 

GreenslH)ro, NC, Z74(a 

All It: (iKOS E'roKramminj! Cnnlesi, 

SAccepi.inie ol an enliy iliall ni>l ctealt any 
• implnalion lliiit Ihe entry ta^ tiecn received and 
revieiveil hy Hirkeley Softworks ur has been used in 
any way in prcduil development. 

11 Berkeley 



4. 



aubmiaskin. conteaUnls should 
indudL'in the proKrjm their name. 
nddrosEi ar>d ji "[iwr feo" amouni for 
siHisfiLtJ UH.TS tu send ;i iliscrt'iioiwty p.'i>inc[iL 

8|\nln<'s nv.ij' be wrillun in any proji^ainminE 
• Lin},:u.']i^e but musLbc;i(jK()Sba5<]dpri)^nun 
biiiJiortiMK [Ih-tiMOS nio sintfiurc iind be ixL-cuiaWc 

Wliichi'Vif l,Ul^:ll;^ne is dui^tn, tho omi.- nmsi bta 
scU'SUiidiEiK proiincT] rh.nI i:aii bt run by someone 
wht>dws™)i (m-niht: [iin^uyflt. We must bo able to 
legally di^iribuU' ihe profjrnin wilhoul inclining 
Lceniinj^fccSorany other abliga lions lu the maker of 
The lan^>ua}i!e, 

9Kn[rie? musl be submiu^iii on 5-25" floppy 
* disks in ITi'l 1/1571 fomuit- 'I1te (ollnwing 
shctLild be deiirly niLirked ml Ixith Llii' ptiiitouE jmd 
the disk: 

A. Conte^hint's nmne, ;iddri.'s:4 and phone number. 
M. C;iteK<rry and divii^Lon for the enlty, 
C. Intendi'd Uhc fnr the progrjmi. 
Ill Knirits mujit be aecompanied by y 
-JL w • descriiitjori wIikIi expbins hou' to use ibc 
progr^nt ui\ii what il dcies. 

nlliii eoiUest is viiid where prohibited by law. 
■ All k'deml, ?;UIL' ;ind Ittal taiics iirt the sole 
rosponsJbilLiy uf Ihc- winners- 
General Conditions 

■ IjLirif. wiMbc jiHli;<"d(mcrr-i[ivny, nni^niwlityn inltrrfacc 
.jn-i^trriiV rtilh"lTn'rGt!OSpiugrjnis;mdtiT(T-frer 
ijjj|l[y u| (lici"'>d«'- 

> MakifSUTtyijurnuiler will pictlectyoui disk from 
d^nuRCr Affix 5Li!5acni first cEass pitsiactf- M^iJ yriur 
pnnioui. d[!>k :ind nlFcml rfniry bbnk id the above 
^iddrtsiAEnlimcUireachCompulet's Gazette Magazine 
(iL'fuiv Uit AuKu^[ :tl. ly»a, dt-adline- 

■ Wmm:isunl] In- jTiimutKtL-dhy (litrfbtr, IDWS. 

Sponsored by Berkeley Softworks 
nnd Computel's Guzcttc. 



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VLKASi: I'klNT 



Name 

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Address- 



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Age_ 



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I -jrrjTil Elkil l1>i- 1*1 iCJiii (f T-k^tHtT ml kV^ ti m nuiTi raiG- 
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Softworks 

The brightest minds are working with Berkeley. 



SlfiU'iture . 



Mob Maker 

A Professional-Quality Sprite Editor 

For The 64 



Bruce Thompson 



"Mob Maker" is the closest thing we've seen to a perfect sprite 
editor. It offers many advanced features — and is a must for an- 
imators and game designers. For the 64 with disk drive. 

for starting and ending addresses, 
respond with the following values: 

Stnrling address: 0801 
Ending address: IDIO 

When you've finished entering the 
program, be sure to save a copy to 
disk before leaving MLX. 

Although Mob Maker is writ- 
ten in machine language, it can be 
loaded and run just like a BASIC 
program. When you're ready to use 
Mob Maker, plug a joystick into 
port 2, load the program, and type 
RUN. You'll see the Mob Maker 
editing screen (see photos). 

Mob Maker does not clear out 
the sprite definition area, so you 
will probably see garbage on the 
editing grid. Press SHIFT-CLR/ 
HOME to clear out the sprite. 

Your First Sprite 

At the top of tlie screen you'll see 
eight sprites. When Mob Maker is 
first run, all eight sprites use sprite 
definition number 16, The first sprite 
(sprite 0) is the active sprite. The ac- 
tive sprite's definition number 
blinks to show you that it is active. 

You'll notice that each sprite is 
in a different color. These are the 
computer's default colors for its 
eight sprites. We'll discuss color in 
more detail below. 

Now let's get to work. If you 
haven't done so yet, press 



Sprite editors for the 64 have been 
around almost as long as the 64 it- 
self. "Mob Maker." a sprite editor 
that takes its name from an early 
term for sprite (movable object 
block), distills the best features of 
the most popular sprite editors and 
adds a few of its own, 

[f you use "Sprite Magic" (GA- 
ZETTE'S most popular sprite editor, 
published in the August 1984 and 
1987 issues), you'll find that many 
of the commands have been re- 
tained. You'll also be happy to dis- 
cover that Mob Maker is file- 
compatible with Sprite Magic. 

But Mob Maker goes beyond 
Sprite Magic. It lets you view eight 
sprite definitions at a time — a great 
boon to animators. The sprite defi- 
nitions can be moved around to 
help you design the combined 
sprites that are often used in com- 
mercial games. Mob Maker also 
features advanced data-block con- 
trol. For instance, you can easily 
copy a group of sprite definitions 
from one area to another. 

This is one tool that game de- 
signers won't want to be without. 

Typing It In 

Mob Maker is written in machine 
language, so you'll need to enter it 
with "MLX," the machine language 
entry program located elsewhere in 
this issue. When MLX prompts you 

60 COMPUTEI's Gazone May 1988 



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"Mmb Maker." is a sprite editor packed 
with advanced features. Above, all eight 
sprites show the same image, a basketball 




A second sprite has been designed — litis 
one zvith arms, legs, and a face. 



SHIFT-CLR/HOME to clear the 
grid. The drawing grid turns blue 
and sprite definition block 16 is 
cleared. The flashing square at the 
top left corner of the grid is the cur- 
sor. Use the joystick to move the 
cursor around the grid. Note that 
the cursor wraps around the edges 
when you move off of the grid. 

Press the fire button to plot a 
point in the grid. You should see 
the point appear in each of the eight 



■sprites. You can draw continuous 
lines by holding down the fire but- 
ton while moving the joystick. In 
order to erase a pixel or a line, press 
the 1 key and draw. Turn the pen 
back on by pressing 3. 

Draw a shape (perhaps the first 
letter of your name). You can use 
this shape to test Mob Maker's 
commands. 

Mirroring And Moving 

Press 5H1FT-F. This key mirrors the 
sprite horizontally. The F key flips 
the sprite upside down. Now try 
pressing the left- and right-cursor 
keys to scroll the sprite one pixel at 
a time. The up- and down-cursor 
keys scroll the image vertically. 

Loading, Saving, And 
DATA Statements 

After you've drawn all the sprites 
you need, save them by pressing 
SHIFT-S. A window opens with a 
prompt that asks for the starting 
and ending page numbers for the 
data you want to save. The joystick 
or the cursor keys can be used to se- 
lect numbers. Press the space bar to 
enter a number. Next, you'll be 
prompted for a filename. Be sure 
not to use quotation marks in the 
filename. If you decide not to save 
your sprites, press RETURN to 
leave the window. 

Once you have saved your file, 
you can load it again by pressing 
SHIFT-L. You'll see the "NAME/ 
RETURN = EXIT" prompt. Type in 
the filename (again, omitting the 
quotation marks), and then press 
RETURN. If you include the quota- 
tion marks or type in the name of a 
nonexistent file, the red busy light 
on the drive will flash and the pro- 
gram will return you to the screen 
as it was before the attempted 
LOAD. If you simply press the RE- 
TURN key without typing any- 
thing, the window disappears. If 
you forget a filename or just want 
to examine the files on the disk, 
press SHIFT-4($) to see the directo- 
ry. Press any key to scroti through 
the directory; then press RETURN 
to close the directory window. 

In order to be compatible with 
SPRITE MAGIC, all data will load 
into the sprite editor starting at 
page 16. Be sure to move or save 
any shapes defined in this area. 

BASIC DATA statements can 
be created and saved to disk by 



pressing SHIFT-D. The same num- 
ber-entry system (using the cursor, 
joystick, and space bar) is used in 
the 5HIFT-D command. You'll 
probably have to renumber your 
DATA statements in order to merge 
them with your BASIC program, 
since they start at line 1 and incre- 
ment by 1. An easy way to do this is 
with "MetaBASlC,'" GAZETTE'S most 
popular programming aid, published 
in the April 1985 and Febn.iary 1987 
(enhanced version) issues. 



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"Mob Maker" lets i/ou move the sprites 
atii/where on the screen. Here, livo 
sprites are ovcriapfied to create a two 
color hi-rcs human basketball (see third 
sprite from right at lop of screen). 

The Sprite Pointer 

After you've loaded the newly creat- 
ed and saved file, the eight displays 
across the top of the screen should 
all be pointing at sprite page number 
16. To change the sprite definition of 
the active sprite, use the + and — 
keys. When you hold down the 
SHIFT key, all eight sprite pointers 
(not just the active ones) are incre- 
mented or decremented. 

Selecting Sprites 

The active sprite can be changed at 
any time with the function keys. 
Press fl to select sprite 0, f2 for 
sprite 1, and so on. When you work 
on animated sprites, you'll probably 
want to see how a sequence of 
sprites look together. To do this, use 
the function keys and the + and — 
keys to change the pointers to a se- 
quence. For instance, make sprite 
point to definition 16, sprite 1 point 
to 17, sprite 2 to 18, and so on. 

Cursor Velocity 

Press V to change the cursor speed 
(velocity), A window will open and 
ask for the new speed, which can 
range from 1 to 9. The fastest speed 
is 1, and the slowest is 9. The cursor 
velocity affects the drawing speed 
and also the speed at which the def- 



initions change when you hold 
down the + or — keys. This feature 
lets you preview animation at vari- 
ous speeds with the + and — keys. 
To return to normal speed, change 
the velocity to 5, the default. 

Moving The Sprites 

The sprites displayed across the top 
of the screen can be moved. Begin 
by pressing Z. Next, enter the num- 
ber of the sprite you wish to move. 
(As usual, pressing RETURN will 
allow you to exit and close the win- 
dow without changing anything). To 
confirm your selection, press the 
space bar or the fire button. Use the 
joystick to move the sprite wherever 
you like. Press the fire button to enter 
the sprite's new position. 

After you've worked with Mob 
Maker a while, you'll find several 
reasons for moving sprites, By mov- 
ing one on top of another, you can 
draw hi-res, two-color sprites. By 
moving sprites next to or above each 
other, you can create the giant sprites 
used in many commercial games. 

Expand Mode 

Press X to expand the active sprite 
horizontally. Press Y to expand it 
vertically. Press the key again to re- 
turn the sprite to its normal size. By 
holding down the SHIFT key and 
pressing either X or Y, you can 
change the size of all the sprites. 

Killing The Grid 

At times, the drawing grid can be 
distracting. Press SHIFT-W to 
"wipe" the grid. Press W to bring it 
back. 

Using The Buffer 

Working with animation effects 
often requires designing a series of 
frames, with each successive frame 
changing the position of the image 
slightly in order to create the illu- 
sion of movement. To save a frame 
to the buffer, press the I (Into Buffer) 
key. The buffer holds one page of 
sprite data. To pracdce using the 
buffer, set one of the sprites to 16 
with the -(-or — key. Then press I. 
A window will flash open briefly 
with the message CURRENT 
DATA SAVED. Advance the point- 
er to the next sprite pointer and 
press O (Out of Buffer). This will re- 
place the contents of the current 
page number with the shape in the 
buffer. This new image can be edited 

COMPUTEVa Gazello May 19B8 61 



to become the next frame in the ani- 
mation sequence, and then be stored 
in the buffer, with the process repeat- 
ed to create the effect of movement. 

Working With Color 

There are two sprite modes: hi-res 
and multicolor. Let's start with the 
hi-res mode, the mode we have 
been in up to this point. To change 
the color of one of the sprites, press 
the C (Color) key. A window opens 
that reads: 

CHANGE COLOR OF 
I -BACKGROUND 
3 -SPRITE COLOR 
RETURN " EXIT 

Press the 1 key, and you'll be 
prompted to enter a color key. You 
can select one of the 16 available 
colors, entering the new color in the 
usual way, by pressing either the 
COMMODORE key or the CON- 
TROL key together with one of 
color keys at the top of the key- 
board. Of course, if you happen to 
select a background color that is the 
same as the foreground color, the 
image on the grid will disappear. 
Press C again, this time selecting 3 
at the prompt. Enter a new pen 
color. If the screen color clashes 
with some of your selections, you 
can change it by pressing S (Screen 
Color) until you get a pleasing color. 

Press M to enter multicolor 
mode. Then either load one of your 
saved sprites or draw a new shape. 
This shape will appear in multicol- 
or. Pressing SHIFT -M will set all 
eight sprites to multicolor. Notice 
that in multicolor mode the pixels 
along the x-axis expand to twice 
their normal size. Multicolor mode 
is a tradeoff; you trade half the res- 
olution for four times as many col- 
ors. Sprite Magic users will be 
happy to note that Mob Maker per- 
forms all operations correctly in 
multicolor mode — even the hori- 
zontal flip. 

Press the C key to experiment 
with changing colors. A window of- 
fering the following choices will 
open: 

CHANGE COLOR OF 
1-BACKGROUND 
2-M.C.O. [01] 
3-SPRlTE COLOR 
4-M.C.l (Jl] 
RETURN - EXIT 

The background option works the 
same way that it does in the hi-res 
mode. Pressing 3, the sprite color 

62 COMPUTEI'i Gazsna May 1968 



Mob Maker Quick Reference 



c 

D 

DEL 

HOME 

I 

L 

M 

O 

Q 

R 

S 

U 

F 

fl-fB 

V 

W 

X 

Y 

Z 

+ 



SHIFT-CLR/HOME 

SHIFT-F 

SHIFT-R 

SHIFT-H 

SHIFT— 

SHIFT-W 

SHIFT-X 

SHIFT-Y 

SHIFT-M 

SHIFT-L 

SHIFT-S 

SHIFT-D 

SHIFT-INST 

SHIFT-C 



color assignmenl 

shifts sprile down one pixel 

deletes current sprile 

moves cursor to upper right of design grid 

stores current sprite in buffer (buffer holds one sprite) 

shifts sprite one pixel to left 

toggles multicolor 

gets sprite from buffer 

quit— exit to BASIC 

shifts sprite one pixel to right 

advances screen color 

shifts sprite up one pixel 

togglM mirroring (left/ right flip) 

select sprites to 7 

sets display and cursor movement velocity 

brings back grid 

toggles X expand 

toggles y expand 

allows sprite display (0 to 7) to be repositioned anywhere 

on the screen 

increments sprite pointer 

decrements sprite pointer 

disk directory 

clears out current sprile 

toggles vertical flip 

reverses on and off bits 

increments <ill sprite pointers 

decrements all sprite pointers 

wipes out grid for clear view of sprites 

toggles Jf expand all 

toggles y expand all 

toggles all multicolor on 

loads sprite data (does nothing if file not found) 

saves sprite data in a binary file 

makes DATA statements and saves them to disk 

inserts blank data block at current sprite number 

copies sprites to other locations 



option, affects color changes for the 
current sprite only. Make some 
color changes using this option. 
Notice that only the current sprite is 
affected by the changes you made. 
Now press C again and select op- 
tion 2 or 4 when the window ap- 
pears. Note that when you change 
colors using these options the color 
changes in all of the eight sprites. 
Both options 2 and 4 work in this 
manner. This means that in the 
multicolor mode each sprite can 
have four colors — one is unique, 
one is the background color (trans- 
parent), and the other two are 
shared by all eight sprites. 

Moving Data Blocks 

You have already used the Clear 
command (SHIFT-CLR/HOME). 
The Delete command works some- 
what differently. If you press the 
DEL key, the current page of sprite 
data is erased and the rest of the 
sprite pages are renumbered to fill 
the gap left by the deleted sprite. 
This can be useful when you want 
to remove a sprite from an anima- 
tion sequence, 



The Insert command (SHIFT- 
INST) inserts a blank data block at 
the current sprite number. The oth- 
er sprites are renumbered and 
move up by 1. (Sprite 255 is lost.) 

The Copy command (SHIFT- 
C) copies a range of sprites to other 
locations. A window opens to 
prompt you for the starting page 
number, the ending page number, 
and the number of the page to 
which the data is moved. Numbers 
can be entered with the cursor keys 
or the joystick. The !eft-/right- 
cursor key increments numbers by 
10, while the up/ down key incre- 
ments by 1 . Press the space bar to 
enter the selected numbers. 

Quitting The Editor 

Pressing Q will allow you to quit 
and exit to BASIC. You can reenter 
Mob Maker from BASIC by typing 
RUN again. However, if you have 
loaded a BASIC program or a 
DIRECTORY while in BASIC you 
must reenter by typing SYS 2106. 



See program listing on page 83. 



1541 Speed 
And Alignment Tester 



Ross Ouwinga 



Your disk drive is probably the most important peripheral you 
own. Since it contains precision mechanical parts, it's also the 
most likely to cause problems. "1541 Speed And Alignment 
Tester" helps you track dozvn those problems. For the Commo- 
dore 64 and 1541 drive. 



For most computer users, a disk 
drive is a critical component of the 
system — it's the primary means for 
loading and saving programs. 
Without it, most types of comput- 
ing would be impractical, if not 
impossible. 

When your 1541 disk drive 
malfunctions, "1541 Speed And 
Alignment Tester" can help you 
discover just what the problem is, 

1541 Tester analyzes the most 
critical functions of the disk drive 
and provides you with important 
information via display on your 
monitor. With just a glance, you'll 
see how fast your drive is running, 
how far off the alignment is, and 
how well it reads each track of a 
disk. It oven tells you how well it 
reads between tracks. Once this 
information is displayed in front of 
you, you should have no trouble 
deciding if a problem is serious and 
requires a trip to the repair shop. 
Knowing what's wrong with your 
drive can save you a lot of time, 
trouble, and money. 

Common Problems 

The 1541 is a relatively reliable disk 
drive. Its mechanism is rugged and 
can tolerate a considerable amount 
of abuse. However, nothing is per- 
fect, and there are times when 
something in the 1541 fails. Typical 



problems can be caused by a cor- 
rupted disk, a broken or maladjusted 
mechanism, or faulty electronics. All 
of these can cause intermittent load 
and save problems. In extreme cases, 
the drive will not function at all. 

If your drive does not operate 
at all, turn the drive off and then 
back on. Next, check the power 
cord— both at the outlet and at the 
back of the disk drive^to make 
sure it's plugged in tightly. If this 
fails, check for a blown fuse in the 
back of the drive. Replace the fuse, 
if necessary, with one of the very 
same rating. 

If none of these steps solves 
your problem, something may be 
wrong with the internal electronics 
of the drive. If when the power is 
turned on, the red light comes on 
and stays on or begins flashing, it is 
almost certain to be a serious elec- 
tronics problem. Anytime the prob- 
lem involves internal electronics, 
you'll have to take it to a repair shop. 

Distinguishing other problems 
usually is not quite as easy. In most 
situations, a problem results in the 
familiar read error symptoms — the 
red light flickers and the drive 
makes a clattering noise. The pro- 
gram may take longer than usual to 
read or save, or the disk drive will 
abort the procedure altogether and 
start flashing the red light to indicate 



an error has occurred. You can easily 
find out what this error is by run- 
ning the following short program: 

10 OPEN 15,B,15;INPUT#15,A,BS,C,D: 
CL0SE15;PRINT A,-BS;C;D:END 

The error is convenient to know at 
times, but generally it is not suffi- 
cient to let you know the real source 
of the problem. These types of er- 
rors may occur if a disk is corrupted, 
the drive is rotating the disk at the 
wrong speed, the head isn't aligned 
properly, or even if the drive is op- 
erating in an electronically "noisy" 
environment. Since these problems 
all have nearly identical symptoms, 
a program like 1541 Tester is neces- 
sary for providing you with addi- 
tional information to help pinpoint 
the problem. 

Typing It In 

Since the program is written entire- 
ly in machine language, type it in 
with "MLX," the machine language 
entry program found elsewhere in 
this issue. After loading and run- 
ning MLX, answer the prompts for 
starting and ending addresses with 
the following; 

stalling Address: OBOl 
Ending Address: 13D0 

Type in Speed And Alignment 
Tester and save it to disk. If you 
have a tape drive, you should also 
save a copy on tape. This allows 
you to load the program if your disk 
drive is not functioning well 
enough to load it from disk. 

To load the program from disk, 
type LOAD" filename", 8. If you're 
loading from tape, type lDAD"file- 

COMPUTErs Gazello May 1986 63 



itame". When you're ready to run 
the program, type RUN, 

The title screen appears, fol- 
lowed by a short delay while a pro- 
gram is being written to the disk 
drive's RAM. When this is done, 
the menu is displayed and you're 
prompted to select either the speed 
test or alignment test option. 

Up To Speed 

The speed test checks how fast the 
disk is spinning when the disk drive 
is reading and writing. The speed 
can fluctuate somewhat without 
causing any problems. However, 
there are limits, and some pro- 
grams^particularly those with 
copy-protection — are more sensitive 
to speed variation than are others. 
Normally, a disk should rotate at 
about 300 RPM (Rotations Per Min- 
ute). This should not vary by much 
more than one or two RPM. If it 
does, a read or write error may result. 

To check your drive's speed, 
load and run the program. When 
the main menu appears, press the 1 
key. You'll be prompted to insert a 
blank disk. This disk may be for- 
matted or unformatted, but make 
sure the write-protect notch is un- 
covered. The speed test writes to 
the disk, but it uses an area of the 
disk that normally isn't used by the 
1541. If you have data on the disk, 
it won't be destroyed; however, to 
be absolutely safe, use a disk that 
has nothing important on it. 

After inserting a disk, press 
any key to continue. The speed data 
screen appears. After some calcula- 
tions are completed, the speed is 
displayed along with the difference 
between it and the ideal speed of 
300 RPM. The difference also in- 
cludes a plus ( + ) sign and a minus 
( — ) sign. A plus indicates the disk is 
spinning too fast and a minus indi- 
cates it is spinning too slowly. If the 
speed is within tolerance, it's dis- 
played in green. If it's a little out of 
tolerance, it's shown in yellow. 
This indicates only a slight prob- 
lem. If the speed is far enough out 
of tolerance, it's shown in red. 

If the speed is in the red, your 
drive can still save and load pro- 
grams without error, but you may 
have difficulty reading disks for- 
matted on another drive. For this 
reason, it's recommended that you 
have your disk drive adjusted if it 
consistently runs in the red. 

64 COMPUTEIs Gaielle May 1988 



The speed is continuously re- 
calculated and displayed, and it 
isn't unusual for the speed to fluc- 
tuate somewhat as the disk drive 
runs. This is nothing to worry 
about — some disk drives are better 
than others, and even the disks 
themselves cause some variance in 
speed, depending on the amount of 
friction they produce. If the disk 
drive's speed is normally good, but 
a certain disk causes the speed to 
drop out of tolerance, that particular 
disk should not be used. Also, the 
speed may vary if the drive belt in- 
side the disk drive is slipping. This is 
not uncommon, especially on older 
or well-used disk drives. If this is the 
case, have the belt replaced. 

To stop the speed test, press any 
key. It may be necessary to press a 
key more than once to stop the pro- 
gram since the program communi- 
cates constantly with the disk drive 
and may miss some key presses. 

The Line Up 

To begin the alignment test, press 
option 2 when the main menu is 
displayed. You're prompted to in- 
sert an alignment test disk, and then 
a new menu of options is listed. 

The disk used for an alignment 
disk may be any formatted disk. For 
accurate alignment testing, it's im- 
portant that the disk be formatted 
on a disk drive that has near-perfect 
alignment. The closer the align- 
ment disk is to true alignment, the 
more accurate the test, A commer- 
cially produced disk (such as COM- 
PUTEI's Gazette Disk) is ideal. Do not 
use a copy-protected disk; the 
alignment test program does not 
write to the disk, so it isn't likely 
that any of the programs on the 
disk will be altered. However, if 
any of the programs on the disk are 
important, make a backup of the 
them before you use the disk with 
the alignment test program. 

After the alignment disk is in- 
serted into the disk drive, the align- 
ment test is started by pressing the 
space bar. You should see a data 
screen with two sets of four col- 
umns. The columns are labeled 
"Track Being Read," "Track Actu- 
ally Read," "On Track Readabili- 
ty," and ''Between Track 
Readability." As the program runs, 
the data appears under these head- 
ings one track at a time. 

The first column is labeled 



Track Being Read. The data in this 
column shows you the number of 
the track that's being tested by the 
program, it always begins with track 
1 and ends with track 35. This is the 
standard 1541 disk format and 
doesn't change, regardless of what is 
actually on the disk and whether or 
not the disk drive is in alignment. 

Before the data appears for 
track 1, the program goes through a 
rather involved procedure to deter- 
mine the position of the read head. 
It then moves the head down, past 
track 1 and against the head stop. If 
the program is successful in figur- 
ing the position of the head, there 
should be a light "click" sound 
when the head hits the stop. If it's 
unable to figure the head posidon, a 
litde extra head banging may be 
heard. This is a last resort for the 
program and is very unusual, but it 
may occur if the disk drive is severely 
out of alignment or if you acci- 
dentally used an unformatted disk. 

The second column is labeled 
Actual Track Read. This is the num- 
ber of the track that is actually un- 
der the read head. There is data on 
each track of a formatted disk that 
indicates which track is being read. 
The alignment program tries to 
read this data and displays the track 
number in column 2, Track 1 is the 
first track that should be read since 
it's the track that should be under 
the read head when it's against the 
stop. For every track, the number 
that appears in column 2 should be 
the same as that in column 1. If the 
numbers are the same, that number 
appears on the screen in green, in- 
dicating that the correct track was 
read. If the track number read off 
the disk is not the same as that in 
column 1, the number is displayed 
in red. Usually, the numbers in col- 
umn 2 are all green or all red. It's 
unlikely that both red and green 
numbers will be scattered through- 
out the column. 

An incorrectly adjusted head 
stop is usually the culprit when the 
track numbers in column 1 do not 
match those in column 2. The dif- 
ference between the numbers in 
columns 1 and 2 tells you how far 
the stop is out of adju,stment. If the 
difference is 1, the head stop is off 
adjustment by one track. If the dif- 
ference is 2, it's off by two tracks, 
and so on. You can also tel! in 
which direction the head stop is out 



of adjustment. If the numbers in 
column 2 are higher than those in 
column 1, the head stop is too high 
and the head cannot move down 
far enough. In this case, you would 
never be able to load programs that 
are saved on the lower tracks. The 
more common situation is when the 
numbers in column 2 are less than 
those in column 1. In this case, the 
head is allowed to move down too 
far. This is really no problem when 
using disks that were properly for- 
matted, because the disk drive is 
able move the head into position to 
read all the tracks. Even if the disks 
are formatted on a disk drive with a 
head stop adjustment problem, 
there will be no problem reading all 
tracks on the disk as long as the 
disk is used with the same disk 
drive. A problem arises when the 
disk is used in a drive that does 
have a properly adjusted head stop. 
It will not be able to read the tracks 
that were formatted too far down 
on the disk. 

Without an alignment tester, a 
head stop adjustment problem is 
not easy to recognize. It only shows 
up when using disks on more than 
one disk drive, or when the disk 
starts to fill up with programs. No 
errors are encountered if the disk 
isn't very full — programs are saved 
on the disk beginning at the middle 
tracks and then they work their 
way out to either end. Even when 
the disk drive encounters an error 
and bangs the head against the stop 
in an effort to correct the error, as 
long the head is able to align itself 
with any track, the drive keeps 
working. It's nice that the 1541 is 
capable of adjusting itself, but it's 
difficult to know that a head stop 
adjustment has occurred unless 
you're using a special test program 
like this one. Once the problem is 
known to exist, it's a good idea to 
have it fixed to minimize the chance 
of running into a serious problem in 
the future. 

The third column is labeled On 
Track Rcadahiiiti/. The data dis- 
played in this column is the most 
important for determining whether 
or not the disk drive has an align- 
ment problem. Just as the heading 
suggests, this is an indication of 
how well the disk drive is able to 
read data off the disk for each track. 
The alignment program attempts to 
read at least 17 header blocks of 



data on the track. If it's able to read 
each header correctly on the first at- 
tempt, the readabilitv is 100 percent, 
which is displayed in green. This is 
the way it should be for every track if 
the disk drive is properly aligned. 

If it takes more than one at- 
tempt to read any of the headers, 
the number that appears in column 
3 will be something less than 100 
percent. If it's between the range of 
94 and 99 percent, it's displayed in 
yellow. This moans all the headers 
were eventually read properly, but 
there was some difficulty. If the 
number is less than 94 percent, it's 
shown in red. This indicates that 
there was difficulty reading one or 
more headers, and possibly, the 
disk drive wasn't able to read some 
headers at all. A well-aligned disk 
drive should not have any trouble 
reading all tracks at 100 percent. If 
this is not the case, try another 
alignment disk. If the results are 
similar, there's probably an align- 
ment problem with your disk drive. 
Before having it realigned, however, 
move it to a different location, as far 
as possible from your TV set, moni- 
tor, printer, computer, or any other 
electronic device that might be near 
by. Electronic interference is proba- 
bly more common than true align- 
ment problems, and it produces the 
exact symptoms. If moving the 
drive makes no difference, you'll 
need to take your disk drive into the 
shop for repair. 

The fourth column is labeled 
Between Track Rcadnbilih/. This is 
very similar to the information giv- 
en in ihc third column, except the 
read head is actually positioned be- 
tween the tracks. Ideally, the drive 
shouldn't be able to read any data 
and the readability should always 
come up percent. In reality, some 
of the data from the surrounding 
tracks bleeds over to the area be- 
tween ihe tracks. Even though the 
disk drive is capable of reading 
some data between tracks, it would 
make sense that it would have the 
most difficulty reading consistent 
data when it is exactly midway be- 
tween the two tracks. When it's 
close to the middle, the numbers 
should be low; when the head is 
closer to either of the tracks, the 
numbers should be higher. In prac- 
tice, this is Irue enough to give 
some useful information, but due to 
tolerances In the entire mechanism 



and in the disk itself, these numbers 
cannot be considered absolute and 
should be used for reference only. 

In column 4, the numbers 
change colors at different points 
than they do in column 3. If the 
number is percent, the number is 
displayed in green. This is the ideal 
condition when reading between 
tracks. If the number is in the range 
1-80 percent, it's displayed in yel- 
low — numbers most commonly fall 
within this range. If the number is 
81 — 100 percent, the number is 
made red. Red numbers are less fre- 
quent than yellow numbers, but 
they do appear even on disk drives 
that work very well. The alignment 
is best if there are at least a few 
green numbers. There may be prob- 
lems if a lot of numbers are red, but 
don't be concerned if the numbers 
in the third column are consistently 
high (green). 

You may also notice that some 
or all of the numbers in the fourth 
column are follou'ed by a plus or a 
minus sign. The program counts 
how many times it reads data from 
the lower track and how many 
hmes it reads data from the upper 
track. It then displays a " — " or 
" + " to indicate which track was 
read more often, and it lets you 
know which track it is closer to. If a 
minus sign is displayed, the lower 
track appears closer. If a plus sign is 
displayed, the high track appears 
closer. If the sign is consistant for all 
the tracks, the head is likely to be 
on the high or low side, depending 
on which sign is most dominant. If 
there is a somewhat equal spatter- 
ing of plus signs and minus signs, 
the head is probably pretty close to 
being midway between the two 
tracks. If there is no symbol, either 
both tracks appeared equally close 
or the program was unable to read 
enough information off the disk to 
make the calculation. 

Even though the alignment 
test provides a considerable 
amount of information on the 
screen, it isn't difficult to use, espe- 
cially if you're using a color moni- 
tor. If all the numbers in columns 2 
and 3 are green, the alignment is 
good. If you're using a black-and- 
white monitor, columns 1 and 2 
should be identical, and column 3 
should be filled entirely with the 
number 100 for proper alignment. 
The disk drive requires repair if col- 

COMPUTEIs Gaielle May 1988 65 



umns 1 and 2 don't match, or if col- 
umn 3 has any numbers below 94 
percent. However, before sending 
the disk drive to be fixed, make sure 
you try more than one alignment 
test disk to make sure the disk itself 
has not become defective. 

Operating The Program 

It's possible to stop the alignment 
program and get back to the menu 
at any time by pressing any key. It 
may be necessary to press it several 
times since the computer is con- 
stantly communicating with the 
disk drive and will, at times, ignore 
the keyboard. 

The program stops testing 
when it finishes testing track 35. 
Press any key to cause the menu to 
appear. It's possible to make the 
testing run continuously by pressing 
selection A when the menu appears. 
With this option, the program auto- 
matically clears the screen after it 
reaches track 35 and begins again at 
track 1, It's necessary to press a key 
(possibly more than once) to get the 
program to stop. 

Option 1 of the menu causes 
the read/write head to move to 



where track 1 should be. The pro- 
gram then reads the track number 
off the disk, displays it, and stops. 
This option is included for those 
who may use this program to adjust 
the head stop themselves. This ad- 
justment requires disassembly of 
the disk drive and includes a signif- 
icant danger of electrical shock and 
should not be attempted by anyone 
not qualified to do so. 

To return to the main menu 
from the alignment test menu, 
press the fl key. It's recommended 
that you return to the main menu 
and press the Q key to quit the pro- 
gram. This resets and initializes the 
disk drive to make sure it's ready 
for the next program. 

It's possible to test the align- 
ment of a friend's disk drive with- 
out actually having that person's 
disk drive available. Have the 
friend format a disk on his or her 
drive, and then use that disk as the 
alignment test disk. If the align- 
ment checks out, it's likely the disk 
drive is propedy aligned. If the disk 
does poorly, it would he wise to run 
the alignment test program directly 
on the suspected disk drive before 



making a decision to have it fixed. 

Any disk can be tested for 
proper formatting, using the align- 
ment test. Just use the disk to be 
tested in place of the alignment test 
disk. The data displayed shows you 
if all tracks are formatted and if 
they're in the right order. It also 
shows you. if certain tracks contain 
errors, whether the readability (col- 
umn 3) of that track is lower than it 
should be. 

There may be more applica- 
tions than mentioned in this article. 
It isn't guaranteed that the program 
will operate appropriately for any 
application you dream up, but it 
does include a number of safe- 
guards to avoid erratic behavior 
from the disk drive. It's impossible 
to damage the disk drive by run- 
ning programs, but it is possible to 
get it lost. If this is the case, turn the 
disk drive off and then back on 
again. Then, type in and run the 
following short program; 
10 OPEN15,8,15,"T0:":CLOSE!5:END 

This initializes the disk drive and 
repositions the read/write head to 
its, home position. 
See program listing on page 88. O 




COMPUTErs Gazene May 1988 



1 28 Math Graphics 



Clifton Karnes 




One of Ihc many graphics screens from 
the demo program (Program 3J. 



If you think math is boring, take a look at the beautiful, sym- 
metrical shapes this program can create on your 128's screen. 
Using polar geometry and an interesting collection of mathe- 
matical functions, "128 Math Graphics" may convince you that 
math can be fun. A disk drive is required and a color monitor 
is suggested. 



In October 1986, COMPUTE! pub- 
lished "Amiga Math Graphics," 
and, about a year later, in August 
1987, "Math Graphics For Atari 
ST." The graphics demos were im- 
pressive, but both versions were for 
16-bit computers with super-high- 
resolution video. Could math 
graphics like these be created on an 
eight-bit computer like the Com- 
modore 128? The answer is yes. 

The two programs accompany- 
ing this article— "128 Math Graph- 
ics Demo" (Program 1) and "128 
Math Graphics Tool Kit" (Program 
2)— show that the 128's graphics 
capabilities have to be seen to be 
believed. Program 1 demonstrates 
seven math graphics, one after an- 
other. Program 2 — the Tool Kit — 
allows you to interactively create, 
alter, load, and save Math Graphics. 

Using The Demo 

Since Math Graphics Demo (Pro- 
gram 1} is written entirely in BASIC, 
type it in, save a copy to disk, set 
your 128 for 40 columns, and type 
RUN. The Math Graphics Demo is 
based on the Amiga and Atari Math 
Graphics programs, but is custom- 
ized for the 128. It displays a series 
of seven graphics on the 128's high- 
resolution (320 X 200) screen. 

The first graphic shape you'll 
see is a star. This design is followed 
by a twisted band, a spiral cone, a 
side spiral cone, spikes, a right oval, 
and finally, a multilobe. Each graph- 
ic uses a different foreground color. 




T^ic Tool Kit (Program 2) is a powerful 
graphics u/ilify that lets you alter, save, 
and load custom Math Graphic images. 

and two are multicolored. If you 
■want to move on to the next graphic 
before the current one finishes, sim- 
ply press any key and the demo will 
begin displaying the next one. 

The graphics presented in the 
demo are interesting and entertain- 
ing to watch, but they're just a few 
examples of what you can create 
with the 128 Math Graphics Tool 
Kit (Program 2). The Tool Kit allows 



you to experiment with graphic de- 
signs. You can change any Math 
Graphics parameter, load Math 
Graphics from disk, save your new 
designs, view the directory, change 
colors, and more. 

Math Graphics Tool Kit 

The Tool Kit is a BASIC program, so 
type it in, save a copy to disk, set 
your 128 for 40 columns, and type 
RUN. You'll see a menu of choices 
marked a-y. To give you an idea of 
how the Tool Kit works and how to 
experiment using the menu, the fol- 
lowing examples show the way the 
values are used, with each menu 
item indicated in italics, 

FOB Tl -PI*e TO Pl*f STEP Pl/g 

FOR T2-ri*(i TO PI*t STEP PI/; 
RR-a :TT=o-HPIA iGOSUB 

FOLARX:xl = POLARX 
RR = b ;TT = p + PI/' :GOSUB 

POLARY;yl = POLARY 
RR = e :TT°i( + Pl/m iGOSUB 

FOLARX:x2-POLARX 
RR=d:TT-r+PT/« iGOSUD 
FOLARY ;y2-P0LARY 
NEXT T2 
NEXT Tl 

POLARX POLARX»RR•COS(TT)^■X 
CENTER 

POLARY POLARY = RR*SlN(TT) + Y 
CENTER 

Let's discuss each menu option. 
a-d determine the size and shape of 
the graphic. You'll notice in the 
demonstration program that these 
numbers change very tittle from 
one graphic to another. It can be in- 
teresting, though, to alter these val- 
ues and see how each one affects 
the printed graphic, 
e. The start of the first theta loop — 
variable Tl in the example above — 
this value is usually set to 0, and you 
probably won't need to change it, 
i. This is the end of the first theta 
loop. If the number 2 is chosen, the 

COMPUTEra Gaiene May 1988 67 



graphic is drawn once. Increasing the 
number causes the graphic to be re- 
drawn, and decreasing it causes the 
graphic to be incompletely drawn. 

g determines the increment of the 
loop. It's fun to experiment with 
this value. The smaller the number, 
the greater the distance between 
each line in the graphic; the larger 
the number, the smaller the distance. 
h. The start of the second theta 
loop — T2. A second theta loop is 
needed for some graphics. If you 
only need one loop, however, you 
can set the starting and ending val- 
ues of either this theta loop or theta 
loop 1 to 0. Just be sure to place the 
appropriate values in menu choices 
o-r so that xl, yl, x2, and y2 use the 
active theta loop. 

i. The end of the second theta loop. 
Like the first loop's end, this deter- 
mines how much of the graphic is 
drawn. A value of 2 is good to use 
here, also. 

j. The second theta loop's increment 
can be changed with option /. This is 
an interesting value to experiment 
with. As with g above, the smaller 
the number, the larger the distance 
between lines in the graphic. 
k-n are the offsets for xl, yl, x2, 
and y2. Altering these values can 
produce subUe results. If you don't 
want an offset, any large value — 
10,000, for example — will effec- 
tively eliminate it. 
o-r determine whether xl, yl, x2, 
or y2 use theta 1 or theta 2 values. 
Changing these values can make a 
dramatic difference in the graphics. 
If you're only using one loop, be 
sure to set these values to that 
loop's number. 

s determines the foreground color 
of the graphic. The background is 
preset to black. The colors are Com- 
modore's standard screen colors — 
black = 1, white = 2, and so on. 
An easy way to check these colors is 
to look at the top row of your 128's 
keyboard. On the front of each key, 
the top color is the key's number; 
the bottom color is the key's num- 
ber plus 8. The Tool Kit reserves the 
value for something special: multi- 
color. 

t. By pressing I, you can load any 
math graphic you've saved with the 
Math Graphics Tool Kit Save com- 
mand. It's usually easier to load an 
existing graphic and experiment by 
altering its values than it is to de- 
es COMPUreis Gazolto May 19Ba 



sign a graphic from the beginning. 
u saves the Math Graphic currently 
on the screen. If you make an error 
with this command, or with t (to 
load a graphic), don't worry. The 
program will notify you of your 
error, and continue. 
V views the disk's directory. To re- 
turn to the menu, press any key. 

w is the most important command 
in the Math Graphics Tool Kit. You 
press this key to view any graphic 
whose values are on your menu. 
While you're looking at the graphic, 
you can press any key to return to 
the menu and save, load, or contin- 
ue to modify your design, 
X returns to BASIC. 
y redraws the menu. This command 
can be useful if the menu accidently 
scrolls, or becomes corrupted. Press- 
ing y will give you a reformatted 
screen without altering any of the 
current graphic's values. 

Changing A Graphic 

To get an idea of how to use the 
Math Graphics Tool Kit, load and 
run it (Program 2). Now enter the 
following values to create a circular 
graphic; 



a 


— 


115 


b 


= 


85 


c 


— 


40 


d 


— 


45 


c 


— 





f 


— 


1 


g 


— 


3 


h 


= 





i 


= 


2 


J 


— 


20 


k 


— 


lOOOO 


1 


= 


lOOOO 


m 


— 


10000 


n 


_ 


lOOOO 





= 


2 


P 


= 


2 


q 


= 


1 


r 


— 


I 



When you've entered these values 
and have double-checked them, use 
option ti to save this graphic with the 
name circles, or something similar. 

Now, choose the w option to 
view this math graphic. If you want 
to return to the menu before the 
graphic has finished forming, press 
any key. 

Now we're going to alter two 
values, and cause a dramatic change 
in the graphic. Change ; from 20 to 3 
and /from 1 to 2, Next press ii' to 
view the new math graphic. Chang- 
ing these two values has trans- 
formed the circle into a star. 
See program listings on page 85. 9 



9)^^ 



• There is a small bug in "Condensed 
Font" (January). As listed, the progritm 
will print CHECK DATA LINES 230- 
370 and stop. For all versions, add the 
line 190 X — 0, and the program will 
work correctly, 

• "S/ifedScrip/Justified" (January) works 
correctly — however, messages are print- 
ed to the screen in the same color as the 
background. To fix this problem, sim- 
ply delete line 20. (This problem does 
not occur when the program is loaded 
from the Gazeite Disk menu,) 

Special 1988 Issue Corrections 

• Euchre: The line following 1255 
should be 1260. not 160, The correct 
checksum should be XQ, 

• SolarPix: Line 1330 should read 

BE 1330 FL=l! tFRIGHTS[K5,l)="R 
"THEHFL=-1 

• Math Dungeon: The line following 
630 should be 640, not 60. The correct 
checksum should be BH. 

• Snapshot: In Program I, the line fol- 
lowing 120 should be 130, not 10. The 
correct checksum should be FX. 

• Memo Diary: The line following 1310 
should be 1320, not 120, The correct 
checksum should be BQ. 

• The Construction Set: The ending ad- 
dress in the typing instructions for Pro- 
grams 2, 3, and 4 is incorrect as listed. It 
should be 77FF, not 7803. 

• 128 Instant Keywords: The following 
changes are necessary for programs 1 
and 2 to work correctly. 

Program 1: 

fiE 100 PRINT"iCLRl''!S=DEC["130 
0") :BflNK15:FORD=STOSH7 
6:REflD AS: POKE D.DEC (AS 
) :NEXT 

Program 2: 

IIS 30 BftNK15:B-PEEK(451H2 + PEE 
K(^6)*2S6;PBINT"KEYHORD 
{SPACE)VAt,UE(S) ■ "; 

BD 4B H-PEEK(B) !PHI(JTRIGHTS|HE 
XS(H),2);" '■; 

• Printer Wedge and SpeedScript: 
These two programs are compatible, 
but disk users must install the wedge at 
either location 854 or 679. Tape users 
must install the wedge at location 679 
only. Don't press RUN/STOP-RES- 
TORE; it disables the wedge. Follow 
these steps to use the programs togeth- 
er; First, load and run Printer Wedge, 
Then assign it a location in memory. Fi- 
nally, load and run SpeedScript without 
pressing RUN/STOP-RESTORE, • 



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Periscope 

A Disk Editor For The 128 

Robert Bixby 

Want to get a close-up look at what's on your 128 disk? Need 
to fix a file? Then try "Periscope," a short but powerful 128- 
mode disk editor for the 1541, 1571, and 1581 disk drives. 



Two weeks ago, my trusty 1541 
disk drive bit the dust. It had been 
through 2'/: years of daily service, 
so I couldn't complain. 1 had never 
needed to realign it. In fact, I never 
even cleaned it. It had traveled hun- 
dreds of miles and read hundreds of 
disks— small wonder that I had be- 
gun to think of it as indestructible. 

When my 1541 passed away, I 
got two new drives — a 1571 and a 



1581. I also got an unexpected 
headache. 

The Problem 

I use three programs almost exclu- 
sively: GEOS, SpcedScript, and my 
assembler. While GEOS performs 
flawlessly on my new drives, and 
SpeedScript is as powerful as al- 
ways, my assembler constantly ar- 
gues with the 1581. It scrambles 



files, places weird entries in the di- 
rectory, and just generally 
misbehaves. 

I still haven't figured out what 
the problem is, but along the way I 
wrote "Periscope," a simple sector 
reader and editor for the 128 that 
works with all three Commodore 
disk drives. 

The Solution 

In 128 mode, type in and save a 
copy of Periscope. Because you can 
seriously damage the informaiion on 
your disks if you enter the program 
incorrectly, be sure to use the "Auto- 
matic Proofreader" program, found 
elsewhere in this issue, when you 
type in the program. When you first 
use the program, try it on a scratch 
disk to be sure it's operating properly. 
When you are ready to use 
Periscope, be sure that you are in 
40-column mode and then load and 
run the program. You will be 
prompted to enter the type of drive 
you're using. Press A for a 1581, B 
for a 1571, or C for a 1541. 



Finding Your Way Around Commodore Disks 



Dale McBane, Assistant Technical Editor 

When you type LOAD" filename". S, 
BASIC tells the disk drive that it 
wants a file called filename and then 
it sits back and waits for the data to 
arrive. How does DOS (the disk op- 
erating system) know where to look 
for filename? To answer this ques- 
tion, let's look at a little background 
on how Commodore disks are 
arranged. 

Commodore disks can be di- 
vided into three basic groups: 5V*- 
inch single-sided disks, 5Vi-inch 
double-sided disks, and SVz-inch 
double-sided disks. Of these, the 
5'/i-inch single-sided format is by 
far the most common. Single-sided 
Commodore disks, those formatted 
on the 1541 or the 1571 in single- 
sided mode, have 35 concentric 
tracks numbered from 1 to 35. 
Track 1 is near the outer edge of the 
disk and track 35 is near the inner 
hub. Because the outer tracks are 
longer, they have more sectors than 
the inner tracks. Tracks 1-17 have 
21 sectors each. Tracks 18-24 have 
19 sectors, tracks 25-30 have 18 
sectors, and tracks 31-35 have 16 
sectors. Sectors are numbered from 



to n — 1 , where n is the number of 
sectors in the track. Double-sided 
disks, those formatted on the 1571 
in native mode, are like single- 
sided disks except that they have an 
additional set of concentric tracks 
on the flip side of the disk. Tracks 
1-35 are on side and are nearly 
identical to tracks 1-35 on a single- 
sided disk. Tracks 36-70 are on side 

1 with track 36 near the outer edge 
and track 70 near the hub. The 3Vi- 
inch format of the 1581 is physical- 
ly very different from either of the 
5V<-inch formats, but it's similar 
logically. As far as the computer is 
concerned, 3Vj-inch disks have 80 
tracks with 40 sectors per track. 

When the disk drive receives 
the request for a file, it goes to the 
directory to find out where the file 
is located. On 5 V*-inch disks, the di- 
rectory is on track 18. On 3Vi-inch 
disks, it's on track 40. 

The directory contains the 
information that DOS needs to 
manage the files on the disk. When 
DOS needs information about the 
disk currently in the drive, it goes 
first to sector of the directory 



track. The first two bytes of sector 
point to the first sector of the direc- 
tory, usually track 18, sector 1 for 
5 'A -inch disks or track 40, sector 1 
for 3V2-inch disks. Each directory 
sector contains eight directory en- 
tries and a pointer to the next direc- 
tory sector. Each directory entry 
contains a byte indicating the file 
type, a pointer to the first sector of 
the file, the filename, and the num- 
ber of blocks in the file. For relative 
files other information, such as a 
pointer to the first side sector and 
the record size, is also included. If 
you use GEOS, then even more 
informafion is squeezed into the di- 
rectory entry. 

To find a file, DOS goes to the 
first directory sector and looks at 
the filename in each entry to see if it 
matches the one it's looking for. If 
the filename matches, DOS follows 
the pointer to the file itself and be- 
gins sending the data to the com- 
puter. If it doesn't find the file, DOS 
follows the pointer to the next di- 
rectory sector and looks at each en- 
try there. If DOS searches all the 
directory sectors and still doesn't 
find the file, it returns a FILE NOT 
FOUND error. 

In order to trace a file, you'll 
need a sector editor that can display 
the character representations of the 



70 COMPUTBrs GereUe May 1988 



Next, you'll be prompted for 
the device number of your drive. To 
choose the default value of 8, press 
RETURN. Otherwise, enter the cor- 
rect device number and then press 
RETURN. 

You should see Periscope's 
menu: 

c — Con I in ue 
e— Edit 
n — New 
b— Back 
q— Quil 

Since Periscope is best used to 
trace programs or text files (which 
are linked by the first two bytes in 
the sector). Continue is a very useful 
command. When you press C, Peri- 
scope calls up the next sector in the 
file. When you reach the file's final 
sector. Continue will have no effect. 

The New and Back commands 
are also used to read sectors. Use 
the Back command to trace back- 
ward from the current sector. This 
works only when you have used 
the Continue command to progress 
through at least two sectors. The 



Back command is not able to take 
you to the sector at which you start- 
ed. The New command lets you 
jump to any place on the disk. It will 
ask for the track and sector number. 
The only way to exit Periscope 
is by choosing the Quit command. 
This will reset the drive and your 
computer to their default configura- 
tions. Note that the RUN/STOP 
key is disabled to keep you from 
breaking out of the program. 

Editing Your Disks 

The most powerful {and dangerous) 
of Periscope's commands is Edit. 
You'll probably want to use this 
command only with a copy of a 
disk. With Edit, you can change 
messages, alter directories, edit text 
files, correct damaged sector links, 
and do much more. 

Edit displays the current sector 
on the screen. Use the cursor keys 
to move the cursor through the 
data. You will notice that there are 
two numbers displayed just below 
the sector data itself. The first num- 



ber is the value under the cursor, 
The second number is a two-byte 
value obtained from the byte under 
the cursor and the byte immediate- 
ly following it. As you move the 
cursor around the screen, these val- 
ues will change automatically. The 
data can be changed simply by typ- 
ing over it. Two keys end Edit 
mode: RETURN saves the modified 
data to disk, and ESC takes you out 
of edit mode without saving the 
changes you made. 

While in edit mode, you can 
move throughtout the sectors of a 
file. To do this, move to the first 
byte of data on the screen and press 
Alt-C. You'll move to the next sec- 
tor of the file. Press Alt-B to go 
backward. If there is a track and 
sector pointer within a sector (as is 
the case with the sectors that hold 
the directory), you may move the 
cursor to the first byte of the pointer 
and use Alt-C to move to that sector. 

Periscope is a powerful pro- 
gram. Be careful when you use it. 
See program listhtg on page 91. m 



data in a disk sector. If the editor 
you are using can also follow sector 
pointers or pointers under the cur- 
sor, or if it can display the numeric 
value of the data, so much the better, 
Begin your trace by doing the 
same things that DOS would do. 
First go to the first directory sector. 
For 5 'A-inch disks, this is almost al- 
ways track 18, sector 1. For 3'/2-inch 
disks, track 40, sector 1. You should 
be able to see eight filenames scat- 
tered throughout the displayed sec- 
tor. If you are tracing a GEOS file, 
you may have difficulty recogniz- 
ing the filenames. That's because 
GEOS uses standard ASCII instead 
of Commodore ASCII. If the file 
you want to trace isn't in the cur- 
rent sector, follow the pointer in the 
first two bytes of the sector to the 
next directory sector. Keep search- 
ing directory sectors until you find 
the file. Next, look at the third byte 
before the filename of your file. 
This is the file type identifier byte. 
The following table shows the char- 
acter and numeric representation 
for each of the different file types. 
If the file you are tracing has been 
scratched, you can easily "un- 
scratch" it by changing the file type 
identifier byte to a value other than 
0. Be sure to change it to one of the 
values in the table above or your 



Character Numeric File Type 



@ 



0(SOO} 



a 129(881) 

b 130(582) 

c 131($S3) 

d 132(S84) 

e 133($85) 



A 193(SC1) 

B 194(SC2) 

C 195{SC3) 

D 1961SC4) 

E I97($C5) 



Scratched file 
(pointers may 
not be valid) 
Sequential 
Program 
User 
Relative 
CBM(1581 
only, partition 
area) 

Sequential 
locked 

Program locked 
User locked 
Relative locked 
CBM locked 
(15B1 only) 
(The character representations (or locked 
or unlocked sequential, program, user, rel- 
ative, and CBM fdes will appear in reverse 
video.) 

disk drive may become confused. 

The two bytes just before the 
filename in a directory entry point 
to the first sector of data for the file. 
The first byte is the track, and the 
second is the sector. Follow the 
pointer to the file by either moving 
the cursor over the first byte of the 
pointer and executing the com- 
mand to follow the link under the 
cursor or by examining the bytes 
yourself to find the track and sector 
and manually moving to that sec- 
tor. Either way you should be look- 
ing at the first sector of the file. 

As with most disk sectors, the 



first two bytes of a data sector are a 
pointer to the next sector of the file. 
If the file you are looking at is a pro- 
gram file, the second two bytes of 
the first data sector are the LOAD 
address of the file,, The remaining 
bytes are the data of the file itself. 
Of course, some of the more com- 
plicated file types, such as random 
files and relative files, have a some- 
what different file structure, but 
most Commodore files are ar- 
ranged this way. 

With this information under 
your belt, you should be able to un- 
scratch a file, change a file's type, or 
even find the load address of a file. 
For more information about Com- 
modore disk drives, check the us- 
er's guide that came with your 
drive. Two very helpful books on 
the subject are The ISil User's 
Guide by Dr. Gerald Neufeld (pub- 
lished by Brady), and Inside Com- 
modore DOS by Dr. Richard Immers 
and Dr, Gerald Neufeld (published 
by Reston). 

A disk sector editor can be a 
wonderful tool for reconstructing 
damaged disks, but if you're not 
careful, you can use it to turn your 
disk into a scrambled mess. Ex- 
treme caution is essential. Always 
workonacopi/if you're trying tore- 
cover data from a damaged disk. 



COMPureis GbzbIib May 1983 71 



64 Keyboard Enhancer 



Vivek Jhaveri 

Add the power of the 128's editing functions to your 64 with 
this dynamic program. A customizer program is also included 
to let you tailor it io your needs. 



The Commodore 64 has a good 
screen editor, but the 128 has 
shown us what a great screen editor 
is like. While the 64's editor pro- 
vides the essentials and little more, 
the 128's editor has plenty of useful 
features to make life much easier. 
The ESC key, for example, adds 27 
editing and screen control enhance- 
ments when used in conjunction 
with various keys. Also, the func- 
tion keys can be easily redefined, so 
typing frequently used keywords is 
made simple. 

"64 Keyboard Enhancer" and 
"Keyboard Enhancer Customizer" 
add 21 new features to the 64, in- 
cluding the 128's 11 ESCape se- 
quences, four redefinable function 
keys, five keys to change colors, 
and one key whose function can be 
defined by the user, 

Installation 

Since Keyboard Enhancer (Program 
1) is written in machine language, 
you need to enter it with "MLX," 
the machine language entry pro- 
gram found elsewhere in this issue. 
When you run MLX, you're asked 
for the starting address and ending 
address of the data you'll be enter- 
ing. Here are the values to use for 
Keyboard Enhancer: 

starling address: COOD 
Ending address: C48F 

Follow the MLX instructions 
carefully, and be sure to save a copy 
of the Keyboard Enhancer data 
before you finish typing. Now, re- 
set your computer by turning it off 
and on; then load Program 1 using 

72 COMPUTErs QaieUe May 1988 



the syntax 

LOAD "filename", S,l {for disk). 

or 

LOAD "filenami!'\l,l {for tape), 

where filename is the name you used 
when you saved the Keyboard En- 
hancer data. When the program has 
loaded, type NEW — to reset impor- 
tant memory pointers — followed by 
SYS 49152, to start the program. 

The Commands 

Keyboard Enhancer commands can 
be used from direct mode or from 
within a program. When used in di- 
rect mode, all commands are pre- 
ceded by a press and release of the 
control icey. From inside a program, 
the commands can be used by issu- 
ing a SYS command followed by 
the appropriate address. See the ta- 
ble within this article for a cross ref- 
erence of commands and SYS 
addresses. Now let's take a look at 
each command. 

CTRL V and CTRL W scroll the 
screen up or down by one line, re- 
spectively. CTRL V is useful as an 
alternative to the normal scroli up- 
wards (by two lines). Both CTRL V 
and CTRL W can be used in con- 
junction with smooth scrolling. 
(See the Commodore 64 Program- 
mer's Reference Guide, page 128, for 
more information on smooth scroll- 
ing.) Note that text which scrolls off 
the screen can't be recovered when 
the screen is scrolled in the opposite 
direction. 

CTRL P erases everything from the 
beginning of the current screen row 



on which the cursor lies to the posi- 
tion of the cursor. CTRL Q is the 
mirror image of CTRL P. It erases 
everything from the cursor position 
to the end of the current screen row. 
Unlike ESC P and ESC Q on the 
Commodore 128, which operate on 
program lines (sometimes call logical 
lines), CTRL P and CTRL Q affect 
screen lines (sometimes called 
physical lines) only. To understand 
the distinction, think of a program 
line that occupies two rows on the 
screen. The rows spanned by the 
program line form two physical or 
screen lines, but only one logical or 
program line, 

CTRL @ takes the idea of CTRL Q 
one step further and erases every- 
thing from the cursor position to the 
bottom right comer of the screen. 

CTRL D erases the current screen 
line without changing the cursor 
position. Like CTRL P and CTRL Q, 
it affects screen lines only. 
CTRL J and CTRL K make it easy 
to move the cursor from one end of 
the current screen line to the other. 
CTRL J moves the cursor to the be- 
ginning of the current line, and 
CTRL K moves it to the end of the 
current line. 

CTRL M disables screen scrolling, 
and CTRL L reenables screen 
scrolling. CTRL M is useful when 
you want to put something at the 
bottom right comer of the screen 
without scrolling the screen up. 
Note, however, that CTRL M does 
not affect the functions of CTRL V 
and CTRL W. It only affects normal 
scrolling, not those scrolling func- 
tions added by this program. 
CTRL O disables Quote and Insert 
modes. This comes in handy if you 
want to move the cursor inside a 



Keyboard Enhancer Cross Reference Table 



Sequence 


SYS address 


Function 


CTRLV 


49678 


Scroll screen up one line 


CTRLW 


49500 


Scroll screen down one line 


CTRLP 


<i')n7 


Erase to start of line 


CTRLQ 


49985 


Erase to end of line 


CTRL@ 


50089 


Erase to end of screen 


CTRLD 


50043 


Erase current screen line 


CTRL J 


49919 


Move cursor to start of line 


CTRLK 


49933 


Move cursor to end of line 


CTRLL 


5003! 


Enable scrolling 


CTRLM 


50037 


Disable scrolling 


CTRLO 


49912 


Cancel Quote and Insert modes 


CTRL + 


50081 


Increment border color 


CTRL - 


50085 


Decrement border color 


CTRL- 


50089 


Increment screen color 


CTRLt 


50093 


Decrement screen color 


CTRLX 


50180 


Change colors to default colors 


CTRLfl 


50196 


Print stored string #1 


CTRLO 


50226 


Print stored string #2 


CTRLfS 


50256 


Print stored string #3 


CTRLf? 


50286 


Print stored string #4 


CIKL U 


50316 


User-defined sequence (see text) 



quotation without printing reversed 
graphics characters, as would other- 
wise happen. 

CTRL + and CTRL - increase or 
decrease the value for border color, 
respectively. Suppose that the bor- 
der color is white, which has a val- 
ue of 1, Pressing CTRL — changes 
the border color to black, which has 
a value of 0, 

CTRL * and CTRL T adjust screen 
color. CTRL * and CTRL T increase 
or decrease its value by 1, 
respectively. 

CTRL X sets the border, screen, 
and cursor colors to their default 
values. As written, the program de- 
faults to a blue screen and border, 
with a cyan cursor. These default 
values can be changed, if you like, 
using the Keyboard Enhancer Cus- 
tomizer program (discussed below). 
CTRL fl, CTRL B, CTRL f5, and 
CTRL f7 all cause a stored string of 
as many as ten characters to print 
on the screen. As written, the pro- 
gram has no stored strings, but you 
can store your own strings for these 
sequences using the Customizer 
program. 

CTRL U is a user-defined se- 
quence. You can use your own ma- 
chine language subroutine to 
determine what will happen when 
this sequence is pressed. Your sub- 
routine must start at address 50316 
and end with an RTS instruction. 
Then, if CTRL U is pressed, your 
own subroutine is automatically 
executed. 



To combine your machine lan- 
guage for CTRL U with Keyboard 
Enhancer, follow these steps: 

• Load Keyboard Enhancer using 
LOAD '■fileuame",8A (use ,1,1 for 
tape); then type NEW. 

• Load your own assembled subrou- 
rine in the same way. The starting 
address should be 50316. Don't for- 
get to type NEW. 

• Enter the line 

POKE «,0:POKE 44,192:POKE 45, 
A -aNTW/2S6)'2S6)rPOKE46, 
INTM/256) 

where A is the ending address of 
your subroutine. 

• Type SAVE "fUename",8 (,1 for 
tape). 

• Switch your 64 off and on to reset 
it. 

■ Load the program that you just 
saved with LOAD"/i7eHflme",8,l 
(again, use ,1,1 for tape). Type 
NEW and enter SYS 49152 to start 
the program. 

Now try typing CTRL U. Your own 
special subroutine should be 
executed. 

Note that if you type CTRL x, 
where X is any letter that is part of a 
sequence, and then press x again, 
the letter won't be displayed. This 
can be overcome by pressing any 
other key between CTRL x and x. 
For example, if you press CTRL P 
followed by P, the P won't be dis- 
played. However, any intervening 
keypress allows the P to be dis- 
played. This is not a program bug. 



rather a required limitation includ- 
ed for technical reasons. In most 
cases, it will not present a problem. 
Keyboard Enhancer can be dis- 
abled by pressing the RUN/STOP- 
RESTORE combination. It can be 
reenabled with SYS 49152. 

Using The Customizer 

Keyboard Enhancer Customizer 
(Program 2) is written entirely in 
BASIC. To install it, type it in, save 
a copy to disk, and type RUN. It al- 
lows you to create your own strings 
for the function-key sequences and 
for CTRL X, the default colors. 

Before you run the Customizer, 
you need to load the Keyboard En- 
hancer program itself as you nor- 
mally would. Don't enable it yet, 
though, and don't forget to type 
NEW after you've loaded it. 

Next, load and run Program 2. 
It displays the current function-key 
strings one by one and asks you for 
a new string for each. If you don't 
want to change the string, press RE- 
TURN at the prompt. 

If you do want to change the 
string, enter the new string (up to 
ten characters), using the DEL key 
to correct mistyped characters. If 
you want to use RETURN as part of 
the string, enter a back arrow. The 
program will interpret this as a RE- 
TURN. Similarly, the apostrophe (') 
will be interpreted as a double quo- 
tation mark {"). This is useful if you 
want to define a function key to ex- 
ecute a command. 

Once you've entered all four 
definitions, the program asks for 
your default border, screen, and 
cursor colors. Ent^r a number be- 
tween and 15 for each choice. For 
a complete list of colors and their 
corresponding numbers, refer to 
the manual that came with your 
computer. 

Now, the program will end 
with all your changes in their cor- 
rect place in memory. To save your 
customized version of Keyboard 
Enhancer, type 

POKE 43,0:POKE 41,192:POKE 45,A- 
INTC4/256)'256:POKE 46,1 NT (/I / 256) 

where /I is 50317 or, if you've writ- 
ten a machine language subroutine 
for CTRL U, the ending address of 
your subroutine. Next, enter SAVE 
"filename" ,8 (use ,1 for tape). 

See program listings on page 90. ffl 
COMPUTErs Gazette May 1983 73 



Relative Ease 



Jeffrey D. Partch 



In spite of their power, speed, and flexibility, relative files 
have always been difficult to prograi^i on the 64, and for this 
reason, most 64 programmers have avoided them. "Relative 
Ease" changes all that by making this powerful file type as 
easy to use as sequential or program files. For the 64 with 
1541, 1571, or 1581 disk drive. 



Relative files offer far more speed 
and efficiency tfian any other file 
type available for data storage. 
With almost random access, indi- 
vidual entries in a relative file can 
be read from, written to, added to, 
or replaced at will. And since most 
of the processing chores are han- 
dled by the disk operating system 
(DOS), relative files are less prone 
to error than other types. In fact, 
only a handful of computer-based 
commands are even necessary to 
manage this versatile file type. 
BASIC 2.0, however, doesn't pro- 
vide us vrith much help. 

Relative file management 
using only BASIC 2.0 DOS com- 
mands is tedious and can be intimi- 
dating for the inexperienced. Many 
programmers have taken one look 
at relative fOes and given them up 
completely. This is unfortunate, be- 
cause the relative file is perhaps the 
most powerful and fascinating fea- 
ture of Commodore DOS. Commo- 
dore seems to have recognized the 
problem, because all of its post-64 
machines provide DOS commands 
that greatly simplify using relative 
files. "Relative Ease" offers these 
enhancements to 64 programmers. 

74 COMPUTE'.S Gaiei/e May 1388 



Getting Started 

Since Reladve Ease is written in 
machine language, you'll need to 
enter it with the "tvILX" machine 
language entry program found else- 
where in this issue. When you run 
MLX, you're asked for the starting 
address and ending address of the 
data you'll be entering. Here are the 
values to use for Relative Ease: 

starling address: COOO 
Ending address: C2AF 

Follow the MLX instructions 
carefully, and be sure to save a copy 
of the Relative Ease data before you 
finish typing. Load Relative Ease 
with the command 
LOAD'-RELATJVE EASE",8,1 

When the READY prompt returns, 
simply type SYS 49152 to activate 
the utility and restore some impor- 
tant BASIC pointers. If you want to 
use Relative Ease from inside a 
BASIC program, please remember 
that the startup routine clears all 
variables. 

Relative Files 

A relative file is nothing more than 
an expandable allocation of unused 
blocks or sectors on the disk. Each 



block has 254 bytes available for 
the storage of user-supplied data. 
DOS assigns these blocks to the rel- 
ative file as required, allowing the 
file to grow with the demand. 

Side sectors are special ancil- 
lary blocks unique to relative files. 
Each side sector has room for 120 
two-byte block pointers that allow 
DOS to locate quickly the various 
blocks assigned to the file. As many 
as six side sectors may be assigned 
to a single relative file, so in theory, 
a relative file could expand to include 
as many as 720 (6 X 120 = 720) pri- 
mary storage blocks plus six addi- 
tional side sector blocks (726 blocks 
total). However, 1541 users are limit- 
ed to a maximum file size of 658 pri- 
mary storage blocks, because single- 
sided disks never contain more than 
664 blocks (664 - 6 = 658). 

Records And Lengths 

Individual entries in a relative file 
are called records, and a single rela- 
tive file may expand to include as 
many as 65,535 records. In most 
cases, the actual number wUl prob- 
ably be much smaller. The number 
of records per file is determined by 
the limitations of disk space and the 
size of the record. 

Record size — or more specifi- 
cally, record length — is the maxi- 
mum number of characters that can 
possibly be contained in each re- 
cord. You make the initial decision, 
but the value is assigned to the file 
by DOS when it's first created. 



DOS allows record lengths to 
be no less than 1 character and no 
more than 254. Since one character 
in every record must be used as an 
imposed delimiter, this effectively 
raises the lower limit to at least 2 
characters per record. Every record 
in the file is assigned the same 
length by DOS, 

It should be noted that there 
are three length values that DOS 
will not accept: 42, 58, and 63. 
These lengths are rejected because 
these numbers have ASCII repre- 
sentations ("*," ":," and "?") with 
special meaning to DOS. If you ac- 
cidently use one of the values, you 
simply get a syntax error. 

Here is a short BASIC program 
that calculates the maximum num- 
ber of possible records for any giv- 
en file. To use it, you need to supply 
the number of free blocks on the 
disk and the size of the record you 
intend to use. 

20 BF=664:PRINT"NUMBER OF BLOC 

KS FREE ";BF; 
3B P0KE211, 21 [INPUT BF:IF BF>6 

64 THEH BF-664 
40 INPUT"RECORD LENGTH";RL; IF 

(SPACE)RL<1 OR RL>254THEN 

te 

50 SS-1NT( (HF/120)+.99) :BA=BF- 
SE 

6B RP=INT(BA«254/HL) :IF RP>655 

36 THEN RPaeSSBS 
70 PRINT'MRVS) there ARE";RP;" 

(left} RECORDS POSSIBLE. 

( S PACE ) " 

fields And Format 

In many cases, records can be sub- 
divided into even smaller lengths 
called fields. Fields can have either a 
fixed or a variable length. Say, for 
example, that the records in a mag- 
azine index program contain tlie 
following fields: (1) Issue no., (2) 
Date, (3) Title, {4) Article, (5) Page, 
and (6) Subject. 

With variable-length fields, 
each field is separated with a delim- 
iter such as a comma or a carriage 
return, but is allowed to seek its 
own length. The only restriction is 
that the total length of all fields, in- 
cluding the delimiters, doesn't ex- 
ceed the length of the record. 

Using fixed-length fields, the 
programmer can reserve a specific 
number of bytes for each field. For 
example, 5 bytes can be reserved 
for the issue number, 6 bytes for the 
date, 20 bytes for the title, and so 
on. When you're using this method, 
shorter entries have to be padded to 
full length, and longer entries trun- 



cated to make them fit. Again, each 
field should be separated with a de- 
limiter. The advantage of this meth- 
od is that the location of each field 
is always known. The date field al- 
ways starts at position 6, the title 
field at position 12, and the article 
field at position 32. 

Each method has its advan- 
tages and disadvantages. The deci- 
sion is up to you, but in most 
instances, it's a good idea to design 
your records so 1NPUT# can be 
used to read the information. 

GET# And INPUT* 

Records and fields are retrieved 
using either a GET# or an INPUT# 
statement. GET# simply retrieves 
characters one at a time and recog- 
nizes no delimiters. Programs thai 
use GET# need to assemble each 
string manually and specifically 
check for delimiters. 

INPUT# is faster and easier to 
use than GET#, because it retrieves 
entire strings and recognizes the 
usual delimiters (commas, colons, 
and carriage returns) automatically. 
The important thing to remember 
about 1NPUT# is that string lengths 
can never exceed 88 characters. 

Three New Commands 

Aii the commands supplied by Rel- 
ative Ease can accept variable as 
well as literal arguments in place of 
their specific parameters. Variable 
arguments must be of the type and 
value expected by the command. 
Optional parameters may be omit- 
ted from the command syntax, but 
all parameters which are included 
should appear in the proper order. 
The first command in Relative Ease 
is DOPEN. 

DOPEN is used to create rela- 
tive files and to open them for pro- 
cessing. Unlike other file types, 
relative files are opened for simul- 
taneous reading and writing. The 
computer allows as many as ten 
files to be open at any given time, 
but DOS allows access to only one 
relative file per disk drive. 

Because sequential files, and 
possibly even program files, are 
often used in conjunction with rela- 
tive files, the DOPEN command 
provides a variety of optional pa- 
rameters to support these file types. 
The complete syntax looks like this: 

DOPENttlfn,"fileiiamf,type",Lrecord- 
iength,XSdtvicenumbeT,W 



The I/tt parameter should be re- 
placed with a specific logical file 
number in the range 2-255. File- 
name must be a valid string of up to 
16 characters (control characters 
and most punctuation marks 
should be avoided). The type pa- 
rameter signals DOS that a specific 
file type (S for sequential, P for pro- 
gram, R for relative) is intended. 
Normally DOS is unconcerned v«th 
file type when files are opened for 
reading, but specifying the file type 
forces the issue and triggers a disk 
error if the comparison fails. 

The recordlengih parameter 
tells DOS how many characters will 
be contained in each record of the 
file. The allowable range is at least 
1 with no more than 254 characters 
per record (again, with the excep- 
tions of 42, 53, and 68). The initial 
decision is yours, but once the re- 
cord length has been set by DOS, it 
can't be changed without some 
complex track and sector editing. 
This parameter must be included to 
create a new relative file. 

The device number parameter al- 
lows you to specify an alternate disk 
drive. Values supplied must be in 
the range 8-30. The DOPEN com- 
mand defaults to device number 8 if 
an output device is not specified. 

The W parameter tells DOS 
that a new file is to be opened for 
writing (created). The default file 
type is sequential, but program files 
may be opened if specified by the 
type parameter. This parameter is 
not intended to be used with rela- 
tive files (which are created using 
the L parameter discussed above). 

Records are accessed through 
DOS by their record number using 
the RECORD command. 

VMCORDttlfn.recordnumber.character- 
posit'wtt 

The same logical file number 
that was used to open the relative 
file must replace the Ifn parameter 
in this command. The second pa- 
rameter, recordnumber, accepts any 
value in the range 1-65,535. The 
value depends on which record you 
intend to process. 

The third parameter, character- 
position, allows you to position the 
record pointer to a specific charac- 
ter location within the record. To 
use this parameter effectively, fixed- 
length fields should be specified. 
Since this is an optional facet of rela- 
tive file management, this is an op- 

COMPUTEn Gaietit May 1988 75 



tional parameter. The default value is 
1 — the first character in the record. 
The final command, DCLOSE, 
provides greater flexibility than the 
normal CLOSE command. The fol- 
lowing variations are possible; 

DCLOSE 

DCLOSE ON Vdevicenumber 

DCLOSE#//;r 

DCLOSE#//rt ON Vdevicenuiiiber 

The first variation closes all 
files currently open on disk drive 
number 8. The second variation 
performs the same function, but on 
the drive specified by deviceiiumber. 
The third variation closes the speci- 
fied logical file number (Ifn), which 
is open on device number 8, and 
the fourth variation closes the file 
number and allows the disk drive to 
be specified, too. 

Reading The Error Channel 

Relative Ease takes advantage of 
the little-used USR function to pro- 
vide a simulation of the DS$ vari- 
able found in higher-level versions 
of Commodore BASIC. The follow- 
ing variations are useful: 

PRINT VSRidevicenuniber) 

DSS- VSRldeviceiiumberi 

IF VAL(USR(rfei.icenuH(6er)l-50 THEN ... 

The function simply reads the 
error channel on the disk drive 
specified by deviceriumber and re- 
turns the string for processing. Be- 
cause the disk error condition is 
cleared each time it's read, it's a 
good idea to store the string in a 
variable and process its contents 
later. Note that the numeric equiva- 
lent of the error message can be ob- 
tained with the VAL function. 

Three error conditions apply 
specifically to relative files: 

50, RECORD NOT PRESENT 

51, OVERFLOW IN RECORD 

52, FILE TOO LARGE 

Error number 50 indicates that DOS 
was unabie to locate the record re- 
quested. If this error occurs while a 
new file is being created, it may 
simply be ignored. During a write 
operation this error is valid only 
when expansion is undesired; other- 
wise this error is simply a confirma- 
tion that expansion has occurred. 
During a read operation this error 
indicates that the record pointer has 
been pushed past the end of the 
file. This error is not, however, a re- 
liable method of detecting the last 
valid record. 

Error number 51 indicates that 

76 COMPUTE! s GaiellB May 1988 



more data has been sent to the re- 
cord than it was configured to hold 
and that the information has been 
truncated. To avoid this error, al- 
ways check the length of output 
strings before they are sent to the 
disk drive. Also, be sure to include a 
carriage return in your record length 
estimates. PR!NT# sends a carriage 
return at the end of each string. 

Error number 52 indicates that 
there is no more room left on the 
disk. This error only occurs during 
the creation of a new file or during 
the expansion of an existing one. 
One other error condition, 70, NO 
CHANNEL ,00.00, occurs when 
more than one relative file is 
opened on a particular disk drive or 
when you open a file with a record 
length of 42, 58, or 63. 

Creating A New File 

Before a relative file can be created, 
you should know your record 
length and have a general idea of 
the number of records you'll need. 
Deciding on an approximate num- 
ber of records is important for sev- 
eral reasons. First, since it takes 
additional time for DOS to create 
new records, it saves time if an ap- 
propriate number exists in advance. 
Second, it ensures that there is an 
adequate amount of space available 
on the disk. Third and most.impor- 
lant, a certain number of blocks 
must be assigned to a file before it 
will function properly. 

The following program creates 
a new relative file using Relative 
Ease commands. Before running 
this program, be sure Relative Ease 
has been loaded. 

10 PRINT"{CLH} (BVS} CREATE A N 

EW RELATIVE FILE " 
20 D0PENI2, "ERROR FILE" ,L22 , U8 
30 RECORDI2,29,l 
40 PRINTI2,CHRS (255) 
50 DSS=USB [9) ;DS=VAL (DSS) : IF D 

S>0 AND DSO50 THEN PRINT 
DSS 
60 DCLOSE 

The file is created in lines 20-40. 
Line 20 opens the file, line 30 ad- 
vances the record pointer to the last 
record, and line 40 writes the value 
CHR$(255) to this final record. 
CHR${255) is the value used by 
DOS to initialize or mark the begin- 
ning of new records. In this in- 
stance, every record in the file is 
initialized, and the necessary num- 
ber of blocks is allocated to the file. 
DOS never allocates less than a full 



block to a relative file, and it always 
creates as many records as the block 
will contain. 

For example, in the above pro- 
gram line 30 instructs DOS to create 
29 records of 22 characters each, 
but in fact, 34 records are actually 
created. Here's why: 22 charac- 
ters X 29 records = 638 bytes. 
Each block can contain 254 bytes, 
so three blocks are allocated to the 
file. Three blocks (or 762 bytes) / 22 
characters = 34 complete records. 
The number of extra records in- 
creases as record size decreases and 
vice versa. No additional records 
are created for lengths greater than 
127 characters, because only one 
complete record can fit into any giv- 
en block. This rule applies to the ex- 
pansion of files as well. 

Line 50 simply reads the error 
channel and prints the message if 
an error has occurred. Notice that 
error number 50 is specifically ig- 
nored, because in this case it's ex- 
pected: We're writing to a record that 
isn't present, because no records are 
present in a new relative file. 

Writing To A Relative File 

Once a relative file has been prop- 
erly created on the disk, it may be 
opened with or without the record- 
length parameter, L. As long as the 
length specified matches the length 
assigned to the file, no error occurs. 
The RECORD command is used to 
locate a particular record, and the 
BASIC 2.0 PRINT* command is 
used to write information to the file. 
The following program reopens the 
file we created earlier, and stores a 
different BASIC error message into 
the first 29 records. 



10 PRINT" 
LATI 
20 DOPENI 
30 S=4137 
40 Y"Y*1: 
50 EBRS-E 
60 IF V<1 
70 RECORD 
B0 PRINT* 
90 IF EB< 
95 DCLOSE 

500 DSS=U 

501 IF DS 

RN 

502 PRINT 



(CLRl {RVS) WRITE A RE 

VE FILE " 

2, "ERROR FILE",L22,UB 

3: ERRS="":EH=ER*1 

V=PEEK(S*Y) 

RRS+CHHS [V AND 127) 

28 THEN GOTO40 
ll2,ER:G0SUa 500 
2,ERR5:GOSUB 500 

29 THEN GOTO 30 
:END 

SR (8) :DS=VAL[DS&) 

-0 OR DS=50 THEN RETU 

DE$:DCLOSE:END 



Line 20 reopens the file. Line 30 
clears the output string and updates 
the record counter. Lines 40 and 50 
assemble each error message into 
the output string, and line 60 
checks for the end of each message. 
Line 70 positions the record pointer 



and checks for disk errors. Line 80 
sends the output string to the disk 
drive and also checks for disk er- 
rors. Line 90 reenters the loop until 
all 29 records have been filed. Fi- 
nally, line 95 closes the file when 
we've finished. 

Reading A Relative File 

The following program randomly 
reads various entries from our ex- 
ample file. The 1NPUT# command is 
used because no potential conflicts 
exist in the simple record format. 
(This program is used again in the 
next section, so type it in carefully.) 

ifl pbint"{Clr1 {rvs} read recor 

DS BACK " 

29 DOPENIZ, "ERROR flLE'-jUB 

30 EN°0:ERRS="" 

40 INPiJT"ENTER A RECORD KUMBER 

";EM 
5B ir EN°e THEN DCLOSE:EtlD 
6B R£C0RDt2,EN,l 
70 GOSUB 5aa:lF DS=50 THEN 90 
ee INPLJTI2,ERRS:IF ERRS-CHRS[2 

55] THEN 90 
81 PRINT'MUP) ERROR NO."+STRS(E 

H]i-" IS - ";CHRS(34|;ERRS 

iCHBS(34) 

89 GOTO 30 

90 PBINT"lUP){BVSlERROR MESSAG 

E";EN; "ICiEFTl IS NOT ON F 
ILE " 

91 GOTO 30 

95 DCLOSElEND 

500 DSS'USR (3) :DS=VAL(DSS) 

501 IF DS=0 OR DS=50 THEN RETU 

RN 

502 PRINT DSS:DCLOSE:END 

Line 20 reopens the file. Line 30 
clears the record counter and the in- 
put string. Line 40 inputs a record 
value from the user and stores it in 
the variable EN. Line 50 allows you 
to quit the program by inputting a 
or by just pressing the RETURN 
key at the prompt. Line 60 positions 
the record pointer, and line 70 
checks for disk errors. Notice that 
error number 50 causes special ac- 
tion. In line 80 the record is re- 
trieved and a special test is made for 
unused records. Line 81 executes 
when no disk errors have occurred 
and a valid record was retrieved, in 
this case, the record text is format- 
ted and displayed on the screen. 
Line 90 is executed when error 
number 50 is encountered or an un- 
used record is retrieved. In this 
case, the message RECORD NOT 
ON FILE is displayed. In either 
case, the main loop is reentered. 

Updates And Modifications 

At this point, it seems as though the 
true power of relative files has been 



overlooked. First we opened the 
file, wrote to the file, and closed the 
file. Next we reopened the file, read 
the file, and closed it again. The im- 
portant thing is that we didn't really 
have to close the file at all. Once a 
relative file has been opened, it can 
be written to and read from when- 
ever the need dictates. 

For a demonstration, add the 
following lines to the previous 
program. 

10 print"(clrHrvs} modify rec 

ORDS ■' 

81 print"Mup}hodify REC0RD"+ST 
rs (eh) +chrs (32) ; 

82 cp=peek(211) : print" 

{2 spaces)";errs; : poke 211, 

CP 

83 MODS = "'":IHPUT M0DS:1F HODS = 
"" THEM HODS-CHBS (255) 

64 IF LEN(MODS)<23 THEN 86 

85 PRINT"{UP) {RVSlSTRING TOO L 

OKG ERROR - 21 CHARS MAX 

(DOWN)":GOTO 81 
36 BEC0BDI2,EN,l:G0SUa 500 

87 PBINTI2,M0DS:GOSUB 500 

88 REC0RDt2,EN,l:G0SUB 500 

90 PRINT'MUP! {BVSlERBOR MESSAG 
E";EN;"([.EFTl IS NOT OH FIL 
E " 

91 PRIHT"ENTER MEW RECORD"; :G0 
T0a3 

Lines 81 and 82 format an input 
statement with the current record 



string on the right. Line 83 stores 
the modified string into the variable 
MODS and checks to see whether 
the string was erased. In this case, 
CHR$(255) is stored in the record to 
indicate that it's now unused. Line 
84 determines whether the new 
length will fit the record. If not, an 
error message is displayed and the 
modification loop reentered. Line 
86 is where the real action begins. 

Line 86 sets the record pointer. 
In line 87 the modified record is 
stored back in the file, and in line 
88, the record pointer is set again. 
This is a very important step that's 
harder to explain than it is to dc. 
Remember always to position the 
record pointer both before and after 
updating (reading and then rewrit- 
ing) a record. Line 91 allows new 
records to be filed or created when 
unused records or an error number 
50 is encountered. 

So far, we've discussed creat- 
ing a file, writing records, reading 
records, and changing records. The 
record format may have been sim- 
ple in the examples, but the me- 
chanics will be the same no matter 
how complex your records. 
See program listing on page 92. B 



Super Graphix 




Includes: 

Utility Disk 

With 

27 Fonts 

And 

Font 

Creator 



GRAPHICS and FONTS plus an eK BUFFER for tt)e ultimate In performance and 
speed. The XETEC Super Grsphlx Interface for Commodore Computers now 
otteis a new t)lgh In lectinology witti these features: 

• BK Bulfei Standard • Capable o( Storing 2 Additional Fanls 

• 10 Printing Modes • Correct Graphlca(Teii( Aspect Rado tor 

• 3 Internal Screen Dumps al' Major Printers 

• EnInnalvB Command Cnannel * ^ Active Switches with Cnanges 

• RosBl Bullon lo Hall Printing Constantly Monitored 

(rom BuHer * 'n'^'nal Fonts Support Super-script, 

Sub-scrlpt, UndeMlnIng, Bold-lace and 
Choice ol g Pitches 



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* Correspondence Quallt/ Font Built-in 



Suggested list $99.95 



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'I^Uf, Inc. / 2804 Arnold Rd. / Sallna, KS 67401 / gi3-a27-0e85 



The demonstration programs included with 
commands. Pictured above are Demos 1-3. 



'Hi-Res Screen Show" dynamically show the power of the 128'$ BASIC 7.0 drawing 



Hi-Res Screen Show 
For The 1 28 



Rob Kennedy 



The fad that the Commodore 128 is one of the most powerful 
and easij-to-use graphics machines available today is displai/ed 
in these five dazzling demonstration programs. Each one gives 
a different display every time it is run. A color monitor shows 
them at their best. 



The Commodore 64 is an incredible 
graphics machine. When it first ap- 
peared, its graphics and sound ca- 
pabilities were years ahead of their 
time. Unfortunately, the 64's sound 
and graphics couldn't be pro- 
grammed effectively without a 
knowledge of machine language. 

When the 128 arrived, it not 
only had super graphics, but it 
included a new, more powerful ver- 
sion of BASIC that made program- 
ming graphics easy. The five 
demonstration programs included 
in "Hi-Res Screen Show" illustrate 
the power and flexibility of the 
128's graphics commands. Graph- 
ics that take hundreds of POKES on 
a 64 require just a few commands 
with the 128's BASIC 7.0. (For more 
information on programming hi-res 
graphics, see "Hi-Res Graphics on 
the 128" in the June and July 1987 
issues of COMPUTEI's Gazette.) 

7B COMPUTEIS OaielCe May 19B8 



Getting Started 

Since all five demos are written in 
BASIC, simply type each one in and 
save it to disk. To display a demo, 
load it and type RUN, or simply 
type RUN followed by the file- 
name. Here's a brief discussion of 
each program. 

Demo 1 creates an entertaining 
hi-res display using just 18 lines of 
BASIC. It draws a box, increments 
its coordinates, then redraws the 
box. If any part of the box touches 
an edge of the screen, the box 
bounces off and moves in the oppo- 
site direction. Every 15 seconds the 
screen clears to remove the jumble 
of lines, and the drawing begins 
again. To quit this demo, or any of 
the others, press any key. If you 
want to experiment with the pro- 
gram, change the values stored in 
line 60 and the lower limits in lines 
110-140. 



Demo 2 works its magic using 
only the CIRCLE command. It 
draws circles, one after another, 
changing the angle for each one. 
Each time it completes the inner 
loop, the program changes the cir- 
cle increment to a higher value, and 
the circles are drawn more quickly. 

The two circle parameters— 
angle and iiit;— are responsible for 
the designs in this program. The 
value of angle determines the rota- 
tion of the circle in degrees clock- 
wise. Inc tells the number of 
degrees of arc per line segment. 
When you change this value, you 
change the drawing's shape. For ex- 
ample, a value of 180 for inc pro- 
duces a line (360 divided by 180 is 
2). If the value is 90, you get a four- 
sided figure, while 120 produces a 
triangle, and 45, an octagon. 

Demo 3 draws a U on the 
screen using the BOX command. 
The first segment of the program 
draws the left side of the V, and the 
second segment, the right side. 
First, the program draws a box and 
fills it. Then it changes the color 
source, and increments the X and Y 
parameters and the angle (so the 




Demos i and 5 Hse line drawing and fills to create artistic displays. 



boxes appear to rotate). To experi- 
ment with this program, change the 
values in lines 80 and 140. 

Demo 4 is one of the most en- 
joyable to watch. It continually 



draws lines, with each end moving 
independently of the other. If one 
end meets the edge of the screen, it 
bounces off. As in the box demo, 
the screen clears every 15 seconds. 



Try experimenting with this pro- 
gram by changing the values in 
lines 50 and 60. 

Demo 5 is somewhat difficult 
to describe since no two displays 
are ever the same. A continuous 
line is drawn in 50 segments, and 
25 random locations on the screen 
are selected and filled in, A number 
of impressive designs are possible 
using this technique. If you'd like to 
save one of your designs, type in 
the following line: 

BSAVE "filename".B0.P716a TO P16383 

You can reload the picture with 
BIOAD" filename", BO 

See program listings on page 80. • 




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«9 



COMPUTE'S Geime May 1988 79 



Power BASIC: Fast 

Hi-Res Screen Dump 

ATticle on page 58. 

HE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1930 COMPU 
TE! PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
QP 20 HEM FOR COMMODORE GRAPHI 
C MODE PRINTERS [1525, K 
PS-aai, MPS-803, ETC.) 
RO 30 SL=8192:REM HI-RES SCREE 

N LOCATION 
DK 40 PRINT"tCLR) (3 SPACES)COP 
'BRIGHT 1938 COMPUTEI PUB 
. , I NC . " 
JB 50 PRINTTAB (11) "ALL RIGHTS 

(SPftCE)RESERVED" 
EH 60 IFPEEK(65530)=5THENBftNKl 

5 
FG 70 INPUT"{2 DOWNIENTER STAR 

TING ADDRESS";S 
EO 80 FORI-^ST0S + 237:READD:POKE 

I,D!X-X*D:NEXT 
PM 90 IFX034823THENPRINT" 

(2 DOWN) ERROR IN DATA ST 
ATEMENTS" 
FE 100 SL=SL+767i;HH = INT (SL/25 

6) :LB=SL-2S6*HB 
KG lia POKES+57,LB:POKES+61,HB 

:POKES'fG5,LB-l-8:P0KES+6 9 

,HB 
XR 120 PRINT" (2 DOWN)HIRES DUM 

P INSTALLED.": PR I NT" S^S 

"S"TO ACTIVATE." 
RX 130 DATA 169,0,32,189,255,1 

69,1,162 
BS 140 DATA 4,160,0,32,186,255 

,32,192 
BS 150 DATA 255,169,0,32,189,2 

55,169,21 
OQ 160 DATA 162,4,160,21,32,18 

6,255,32 
DA 170 DATA 192,255,162,1,32,2 

01,255,169 
MF 130 DATA 8,32,210,255,169,0 

,133,80 
FE 190 DATA 133,82,133,83,169, 

25,133,81 
HE 208 DATA 169,247,133,250,16 

9,61,133,2 51 
JP 210 DATA 169,255,133,252,16 

9,61,133,253 
SQ 220 DATA 160,8,177,250,133, 

254,177,252 
CJ 230 DATA 133,255,166,80,240 

,7,70,254 
EK 240 DATA 102,255,202,208,24 

9,162,8,102 
BK 250 DATA 255,38,254,202,208 

,249,165,83 
PP 260 DATA 240,4,37,254,133,2 

54,169,128 
JP 270 DATA 5,254,32,210,255,1 

36,208,210 
RS 280 DATA 240,3,24,144,203,5 

6,165,250 
RP 290 DATA 233,64,133,250,165 

,251,233,1 
AF 300 DATA 133,251,56,165,252 

,233,64,133 
HX 310 DATA 252,165,253,233,1, 

133,253,198 
SB 320 DATA 81,208,173,169,25, 

133,81,169 
HQ 330 DATA 13,32,210,255,230, 

80,165,80 
BR 340 DATA 201,8,208,14,169,0 

,133,80 
KC 350 DATA 162,8,198,250,198, 



252,202,208 
FS 360 DATA 24 9,24,165,250,105 

,72,133,250 
PS 370 DATA 165,251,105,31,133 

,251,24 ,165 
FG 380 DATA 252,105,72,133,252 

,165,253,105 
JS 390 DATA 31,133,253,230,82, 

165,82,201 
QH 400 DATA 45,144,159,201,46, 

240,6,169 
HB 410 DATA 31,133,83,208,149, 

32,204, 255 
SS 420 DATA 16 9,1,32,195,255,9 

6 

128 Hi-Res Demos 

Article ott page 78. 
Demo 1 

AJ 10 REM COPYRIGHT 19B8 COKPO 
TEI PUBLICATIONS, INC. 
(2 SPACES)ALL RIGHTS RES 
ERVED 
RH 20 PRINT"{CLR} (3 SPACES}COP 
YRIGHT 1988 COMPUTEI PUB 
., INC." 
MJ 30 PRIHTTAB(ll) "ALL RIGHTS 
{SPACE) RESERVED" :SLEEP2 
XE 40 GRAPHIC3,1:COLOR0, 1:C0L0 
R4,l:COLOHl,2:COLOR2,3:C 
OLOR3,7 
GJ 50 X1=5:Y1=5:X2=10:Y2=6 
GF 60 X=4:Y»4:XT-5! YT-5!AN=5 
MM 70 TIS="000000" 
CX BO DO 

AA 90 C=Ctl:IFC=4THENC=l 
CH 100 B0XC,X1,Y1,X2,Y2,A 
PR 110 IFX1>1540RKI<5THENX=X*- 

1:AN = A!J'-1 
MC 120 rFX2>1530RX2<6THENXT"XT 

*-l:AH=AN'-l 
KF 130 IFY1>1940RY1<STHENY=Y'- 

l:AH = A[J*-l 
OH 140 IFY2>1930RY2<6THENYT=YT 

*-l:AN=AN"-l 
EG 150 A=A+AN 
SE 160 IFTIS="000015"THENTIS=" 

000000":SCNCLR 
QE 170 X1=X1*X!X2=X2+XT:V1'Y1+ 

V:Y2-Y2tYT 
KJ 180 IFA<lTHEHA-360 
QJ 190 IFA>36aTHENA=l 
RP 200 GETAS: IFAS<>""THENGRAPH 

IC0:END 
DP 210 LOOP 

Demo 2 



AJ 10 

RH 20 

MJ 30 

XE 40 

HF 50 



AJ 


60 


MC 


70 


JC 


30 


SB 


90 


RD 


10 



REM COPYRIGHT 1938 COMPU 
TEI PUBLICATIONS, INC. 
(2 SPACESjALL RIGHTS RES 
ERVED 

PRIHT"{CLR}(3 SPACES)COP 
YRIGHT 1938 COMPUTEI PUB 
., INC." 

PRINTTAB(ll) "ALL RIGHTS 
(space) RESERVED" :SLEEP2 
GRAPHICS, 1: COLOR 0,1: COLO 
a4,l:COL0Hl,2:COLOR2,3:C 
OLOR3,7 

FORINC-2TO190STEP4:GRAPH 
IC3,1 

FOHANGLE'1TO180STEP15 
C=C+1: IFC=4THEKC=1 
CIRCLEC, 80,100,20, , , ,ANG 
LE, INC 

GETAS: lFAS<>""THENGfiAPHI 
C0:END 
NEXTANGLE.INCiGETKEYAS: 
GRAPH ICfl 



Demo 3 

AJ 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1988 COMPU 

TEI PUBLICATIONS, INC. 

J2 SPACES)ALL RIGHTS RES 

ERVED 
RH 20 PRINT"ICLR}{3 SPACES}COP 

YRIGHT 1988 COMPUTE! PUB 

., INC." 
MJ 30 PRINTTABdl) "ALL RIGHTS 

{SPACE) RESERVED" :SLEEP2 
RS 40 GRAPHIC3, 1:COLOR1,2:COLO 

R2, 3:COLOR3,7:COLOH0,l!C 

0L0R4,1 
EA 50 Xl=l!X2=12.5 
SD 60 Y1=1:Y2=12.5 
KG 70 B0XC,X1,Y1,X2,Y2,R,1 
AH 30 X1-X1+2.5:X2=X2+2.5:Y1"Y 

1+5: Y2=Y2+5:R-R+5 
AA 90 C-C+1: IFC-4THENC-1 
RC 100 T=T+1: IFT<30TKEN70 
HD 110 T=0 

BP 120 B0XC,X1,Y1,X2,Y2,R, 1 
RF 130 C=C + l! IFC = 4THENC = 1 
HE 140 X1"X1*2.5:X2 = X2 + 2.5:Y1=' 

Yl-5:Y2-Y2-5:R»R+5 
PB 150 T"T*lJlFT<3flTHEMl20 
AR 160 GETKEYAS:GRAPHIC0 

Demo 4 

AJ 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1988 COMPU 
TEI PUBLICATIONS, INC. 
{2 SPACES)ALL RIGHTS RES 
ERVED 
RH 20 PRINT"(CLR){3 SPACBSlCOP 
YRIGHT 1988 COMPUTEI PUB 
., INC." 
MJ 30 PRINTTAB(ll) "ALL RIGHTS 
{SPACE) RESERVED" :SLEEP2 
AD 40 GRAPHIC3,1:COLOR0,1:COLO 
R4,1:COLOR1,2!COLOR2,3:C 
OLOR3,l5 
PJ 50 Xl=l:X2=20:Yl=l;Y2-5 
HX 60 X=4:XT=5:Y=4:YT=5 
as 70 TIS="000000":C-1 
CX 80 DO 

GX 90 DRAWC,X1,Y1T0X2,Y2 
KH 100 C-C+1: IFC=4THENC-1 
ED 110 X1=X1+X:X2=X2+XT: Y1-Y1+ 

Y:Y2-Y2+YT 
XB 120 IFX1>1590RX1<2THENX=X*- 

1 
JC 130 IFX2>1590BX2<2THENXT=XT 

■-1 
AG 140 IFYl>1990RYi<2THENY=Y'- 

1 
XM 150 IFY2>1990RY2<2THENYT"YT 

■-1 
KF 160 IFTI>001500THENTIS="000 

000":SCNCLR 
MJ 170 GETAS:IFAS<>""THENGRAPH 

IC0!END 
CH 180 LOOP 

Demo 5 

AJ 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1988 COMPU 

TEI PUBLICATIONS, INC. 

{2 SPACES)ALL RIGHTS RES 

ERVED 
RH 20 PRIHT"{CLR) (3 SPACESjCOP 

YRIGHT 1988 COMPUTEI PUB 

., INC." 
MJ 30 PRINTTAa{ll)"AI,L RIGHTS 

[SPACE)RESERVED":SLEEP2 
HX 40 GRAPH1C3, 1:WIDTH2:C0L0R1 

,2:COLOR2,3:COLOR3,7:COL 

OR0,l:COLOR4, I 
CJ 50 DEFFNA(X)=iNT[RND(l)*160 

)+l:DEFFNB(X)-INT(RND(l) 

*200)+l 
CC 60 FORT-1TO50 
FR 70 X1"FNA(X):X2=FNA(X):Y1-F 

HB(X) tY2'>FNB[X) 



80 COMPUTEI's Gaiene May 1988 



XB 80 C=C+1:IFC-4THENC=1 
SR 90 □RfiWC,+0,*0TOX2,^Z 
HF 100 GETftS: IFA3<>""THENGRftPH 

IC3:END 
FB IIB NEXTT 
MX 120 FORT=lT025:Xl»FNfi(X):il 

=FNB(X) 
RF 130 C=C+1: IFC-4THENC-1 
HX 140 PfiINTC,Xl,irl,l 
CK 150 GETftS;IFAS<>""THENGRAPH 

IC0:BND 
AR 160 NEXTT:SLEEF2 
CX 170 GOTO50 

The CEOS Column 

See instructions in article on page 
5? before typing in. 



Program 1: Skcet 



0400 
0408 
0410 
04ie 
0420 
0428 
0430 
0438 
0440 
0448 
04BB 
0458 
04 60 
0468 
0470 
0478 
0480 
0496 
04 90 
0498 
04A0 
04aB 
04B0 
04B8 
04C0 
04C8 
04D0 
04D8 
04E0 
04E8 
04F0 

04Fe 

0500 
0508 
0510 
051B 
0520 
52 8 
0530 
0538 
0540 
548 
0550 
0558 
0560 
0568 
0570 
0578 
0580 
0588 
0590 
5 98 
05A0 
5Ae 
5B0 
05B8 
0SC0 

5ca 

05D0 
05D8 
05E0 
05Ea 
05F0 



:BF FF 

:7C 03 

!84 00 

:23 as 

:00 23 

!84 00 

:03 80 

!00 03 

!a3 05 

!04 53 

:20 20 

:3E 00 

:00 00 

:00 00 

:00 00 

:00 00 

:00 00 

:FF FF 

:FF FF 

:FF FF 

:00 00 

:00 00 

:00 00 

:00 00 

:00 00 

:00 00 00 00 

:00 00 00 00 

:00 00 

:00 00 



23 

10 



FF FE 8 

81 93 03 

43 84 10 

00 23 9E 

ea 10 

43 82 

7C 03 

FF FF FF 

09 FC 04 

6B 65 65 

20 20 20 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 

FF FF FF 

FF FF FF 

FF FF 00 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 



02 
10 



10 
82 

43 88 
D6 F3 
84 10 
83 81 
B0 10 03 
3F FF 
AA 12 



100 00 

:00 00 

:00 00 

:eA CI 

:C1 05 

lEB 00 

:O0 01 

:28 07 

:C1 62 

:79 72 

: 39 38 

:00 5A 

!45 21 

:63 61 

!49 6E 

:60 00 

!69 67 

: 73 65 

:A9 FF 

!CE 9D 

!9D 09 

:A8 CI 

;03 FB 

:05 00 

!01 17 

:03 01 

:05 00 

!00 9B 

:01 D5 

!01 37 

:00 20 

!l9 10 20 

! 18 53 

:00 20 



00 
00 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 

00 00 20 
A9 80 85 

01 01 20 
30 07 20 
28 00 90 
28 00 90 
00 49 20 
69 67 68 
38 00 20 
43 4F 4D 
20 50 75 
74 69 6F 
63 2E 00 
6B 41 6C 
6B 74 73 
72 76 65 
8D 9C 09 
09 D0 FB 
CE 9C 09 
05 01 01 

00 20 07 

01 37 00 
07 37 00 
01 7F 07 
01 5B 00 
07 58 00 
00 0D 03 
00 16 02 
AB CI 88 
20 AE CI 
43 4F 52 
AE CI 98 



74 2 
56 31 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
FF FF 
FF FF 
FF FF 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
El CI 
2F 20 
00 88 
00 88 
03 F0 

00 20 
43 6F 
74 20 
AE CI 
50 55 
62 6C 
6E 73 
20 AE 
6C 20 
20 72 
64 2E 
8D 9D 
A9 FF 
D0 Fl 
30 00 
30 00 
Al 03 
Al 05 
37 00 
SB 03 
BS 05 
FB 00 

01 01 
06 07 
5C 00 
45 3A 
00 93 



80 A0 
83 3E 
10 E9 
SB C6 
43 91 
93 28 
80 64 
FF FD 
FC 7 
20 48 
2E 61 
00 7B 
00 68 



00 
00 



00 80 

FF ea 

FF 90 
FF 98 
00 A0 
00 AS 
00 B0 
00 B8 
00 C0 
00 CB 
00 D0 
00 D8 
00 E0 
00 E8 
00 F0 
00 F8 
20 2D 
AB CE 
03 79 
5 IC 
00 D 9 
AE 78 
70 9D 
31 BD 
4E 81 
54 E8 
69 BD 
20 C5 
CI 91 
72 E3 
65 BB 

00 5C 
09 95 
8D 9B 
20 D6 
98 71 
98 F 5 

01 4E 
09 E6 
Al 4B 
E0 F3 
01 84 
IB BC 
16 BE 
6F 56 
93 7D 
IB 68 
18 FB 



05F8 
0600 
0508 
0610 
0618 
0620 
062 8 
0630 
0638 
0640 
0648 
0650 
0658 
06E0 
0663 
0670 
0678 
0680 
0688 
0690 
0698 
06A0 
6A8 
6B0 
6B8 
6C0 
6Ce 
6D0 
6D8 
06E0 
06E8 
06F0 
06F8 
0700 
070B 
0710 
0718 
0720 
072B 
0730 
0738 
0740 
0748 
0750 
0758 
0760 
0768 
0770 
0778 
0780 
0788 
0790 
0798 
07A0 
7AB 
O7B0 
07Ba 
07C0 
07Ca 
7D0 
07DB 
07E0 
07G8 
07F0 
07F8 
0800 
0808 
0810 
0818 
0820 
0B28 
0830 
0838 
0840 
0848 
0850 
0858 
0860 
0868 
0870 
0878 



0890 
0898 



:4F 55 

:O0 A9 

:09 aD 

:A4 09 

: BD A7 

; 53 C2 

;A9 63 

; 9C 84 

;A9 35 

;D0 AD 

;01 A9 

:03 A9 

185 02 

tCl 60 

i03 4C 

i90 33 

;03 4C 

:B0 03 

:E5 03 

;00 00 

:O0 00 

;01 00 

;00 80 

;03 88 

100 00 

100 00 

:00 E5 

:94 00 

:8B 10 

;00 01 

:00 5B 

:E5 03 

;29 65 

:E6 C0 

;01 E6 

:DF EF 

103 88 

iCD 6B 

;7F B3 

;3B E5 

:E9 EF 

:88 BF 

;BA 01 

:FF 4A 

100 00 

:48 4B 

:08 11 

:08 28 

:09 28 

:09 28 

:09 28 

:09 09 

:D4 07 

:01 2E 

: 07 B8 

;00 7B 

:66 61 

;64 69 

:5F 77 

;6F 6E 

r6F 6E 

:2E 01 

;FB 07 

: 36 08 

:30 00 

: 30 00 

IAD A6 

:A7 08 

rOA 8D 

:A6 09 

: 08 A9 

:aD 9E 

:09 C9 

:A9 2fl 

:9E 0A 

!A9 2A 

! 9E 0A 

iBD 5D 

:0E 4C 

:2A 8D 

:0A DO 

iBD C4 

:D0 0D 

:CA 07 

!BD CI 



54 30 

00 8D 
62 06 
80 A5 
09 78 

09 42 
BD 9B 
58 A5 
85 01 
IE DO 
91 85 

01 20 
A9 07 
00 A5 
EE 08 
4C EE 
EE 08 
4C EE 
88 00 
00 01 
00 00 
E5 03 
00 00 

00 00 

01 00 
00 C8 
03 88 
28 00 
00 00 

10 E5 
5E 08 
88 51 
00 01 

00 IE 
E5 03 
FE AA 
D4 8E 

01 D4 
5F 5B 
03 BB 
7E 59 
FF BD 
BF ES 
DF FF 
00 00 

9 ID 
09 08 
09 06 
09 08 
09 ID 
09 ID 
17 D9 
80 9D 

01 84 

07 00 

08 C6 
73 74 
75 6D 
00 00 
73 00 
73 00 
84 F7 
00 IF 
03 08 
00 32 
00 31 

09 C9 
A9 2A 
9E 0A 
C9 14 
2A 8D 
0A 4C 
32 B0 
8D 01 
4C 5A 
8D 06 
20 90 
07 20 

02 05 
BC 7 
IC 20 
07 A9 
20 9B 
fi9 2A 
60 A 9 



■JF 46 3A 
A8 09 BD 
BD AB 09 
39 80 A6 
20 09 0E 
Q2 01 2E 
84 A9 06 

01 8D 9A 
A 9 8D 
AD 9A 09 

02 A9 07 
51 CI A9 
B5 03 20 
3C C9 18 
A5 3C C9 
8 A 5 3B 
A5 3A C9 
08 4C CB 
B0 00 00 
00 E5 03 
60 00 00 



BB 
00 



00 

00 



00 00 60 

E5 03 88 

00 00 00 

00 00 00 

01 00 E5 
35 69 00 
03 88 08 
28 00 01 
BO 00 0E 
51 E5 03 
96 DD 5B 
88 AB 40 
82 01 AB 
42 AB B4 
E5 03 88 
4E 07 04 
EB OF 67 
01 EB E5 
7F F7 FF 
03 88 DF 
E7 7F 01 
00 06 98 
B8 02 10 
8B 02 0B 
10 02 11 
58 02 11 
ID 02 11 
EB 02 11 
00 01 01 
07 09 42 
CC 07 80 
6C 08 BE 
07 00 8A 
00 00 60 
2A 00 73 
70 59 67 
6F 70 74 
09 42 02 

07 00 08 
OB FF 07 
00 4D 08 
30 2A 00 
30 30 00 
OA B0 0D 
BD F9 07 
4C 5A 08 
U0 OD 20 
FD 07 A9 
5A 08 AD 
BO 20 A7 

08 A9 32 
08 20 A7 
B8 A9 64 
CI 60 fi9 
BD CI 20 
20 9B 08 
fi9 18 8D 
9B 08 A9 
20 80 3B 
08 A9 2A 
8D 3B 0A 
00 8D BC 



ID AF 
fl9 70 
8D 63 
09 91 
20 OE 
01 3D 
BD Bl 
09 80 
17 A6 
85 60 

85 14 
5D AC 
5A 20 
B0 A9 
81 9A 
F0 3C 
38 59 
08 2F 

30 89 
88 D2 
00 A7 
00 5E 
E5 BE 
00 21 

00 31 

01 5A 
3 3A 

03 03 
72 EE 

00 D7 
08 63 
FB EE 
88 B3 
84 FA 

04 B4 
E5 E9 
59 DO 
3B E4 

01 F4 
BD A9 
03 23 
2F 69 
FE 43 
DF 0C 

00 AF 
5E 23 

86 91 
AC ED 
B4 DB 
AC CF 
B4 3A 

01 EC 

02 9F 
DC 83 

07 51 

08 60 
65 4 8 
6C 8 5 
65 C9 
69 30 
01 FE 
08 A6 
00 F6 

31 73 

3 5 Al 
00 7D 
20 A3 
A9 09 
AO BE 
A7 El 
14 38 
A6 A9 
08 00 
8D 4A 
08 71 
BO 0F 

06 30 

52 Fa 

A9 4C 

3B 5 

2A CI 

0A BB 

80 CA 

20 20 

07 55 



08A0: 
08Aa: 
OBB0: 
0BBB: 
0SC0: 
08C8! 
O8D0! 
0BD8: 
OBEO: 
08E8: 
08F0: 
OBFB: 
0900: 
908: 
0910: 
091B: 
0920: 
928: 
0930: 
0938: 
940: 
0948: 
0950: 
0958: 
0960! 
0968: 
09701 
0978r 
0980: 
0988: 
0990: 
0998: 
9A0: 
09A8: 
9B0: 
09B8: 
9C0! 
9Ca: 
09D0: 
09DB: 
09E0! 
09Ea: 
09F0! 
09FB: 
0A00: 
0A08: 
0A1O: 

0A18: 

0A20: 

0A2a! 

OA3 

0A3a 

0A40 

0A48 

0A50 

0A58 

0A60 

0A68 

0A70 

0A78 

9A80 

0A8S 

0A90 

0A98 

0AA0 

0AA8 

0AB0 

0AB8 

0AC0 

0AC8 

OADO 

0AD8 

OAEO 

0AE3 

OAFO 

0AFa 

0B00 

0B0B 

0B10 

0B1B 

0B20 

0B2B 

0B3 

0B38 

0B40 



8D C4 

00 80 

01 08 
OE 78 
9C 84 
3E C2 
60 A9 
BD 84 
14 DO 
E8 EO 
06 DO 
06 A2 
84 EB 
90 CI 
60 96 

:60 01 
:80 01 
iA2 3F 
:2A AB 
:AA A3 
:F8 14 
:00 00 
:E7 El 
:E3 39 
!E3 19 
rFF FB 
100 00 
rF8 00 
!00 10 
:00 00 
: 92 00 
:00 00 
:00 00 
:00 00 
:09 4C 
:09 AD 
!09 F0 
:35 08 
:85 0B 
:D0 14 
!09 A9 
:20 CF 
!85 0A 
:0C 8D 
!00 BD 
:a1 09 
:46 BD 
:FB A9 
:09 00 
! 20 02 
:A9 64 
:D0 Fl 
:39 30 
iBD 9A 
:1E DO 
:9E 09 
!0A C9 
!C9 12 
:18 B0 
sflO 03 
:08 20 
:07 20 
:1S EE 
:A9 09 
:01 60 
!5D 07 
!85 03 
IBB 84 
:00 BD 
:E8 80 
:84 60 
:05 85 
:0F 85 
:4C FC 
: 9B 85 
:C6 CI 
:0E EE 
!C0 04 
!9F 9 
:D0 F5 
:85 OA 
:09 85 
:0A AD 
:S5 08 
:85 0D 



07 80 
F9 07 
80 06 
A9 00 
58 A9 
60 AD 
01 80 

9 9D 
F5 A9 
40 DO 

01 60 
00 BO 
E0 18 
34 EB 
FF FF 
87 El 
30 01 
FB 40 
2A A8 
AA B0 
00 0A 
80 AO 
E3 31 
E3 El 
E7 ID 
FF F8 
EO 00 
00 AO 
00 00 
92 00 
00 54 



CA 7 

BD FD 

08 60 

8D 9B 



C0 
62 



62 06 
CI 84 
00 9D 
F8 60 
A9 00 
6C 09 
DO F5 
EO 40 
80 01 
87 El 
80 01 
04 60 
2A BA 
02 40 
00 06 
3F FF 
E3 19 
E3 61 
E0 01 
80 00 
00 F0 
00 00 
38 00 
00 FE 
00 00 



00 00 00 00 



00 00 

00 00 

B9 09 

A8 09 

3 EE 

A9 9B 

20 C6 

A 9 50 

68 85 

CI 4C 

80 9F 

A0 09 

9E 09 

A9 64 

90 9 

6 4 8D 

Fl A9 

CI CE 

8D 9C 

A9 20 

14 23 

09 A9 

AD 9A 

C9 05 

0A BO 

B0 03 

03 4C 

4C 46 

D5 CI 

EE 0C 

A6 09 

AD A9 

20 80 

A9 50 

20 5A 

A9 97 

BD 84 

BA 84 

AD Al 

08 a9 

OB 20 

0A A9 

0A A9 

A0 00 

9F 9 

00 F5 

CE A0 

EE 9E 

A9 00 

0C 20 

Al 9 

A9 17 

20 C6 



00 00 

A9 01 

A9 00 

FO 05 

AB 09 

85 OA 

CI AD 

85 OA 

0C BO 

FF 09 

09 A9 

20 CF 

BD 99 

8D 9C 

CE 9C 

9C 9 

18 8D 

9C 09 

09 CE 

BO 9D 

9D 0C 

35 85 



09 
B0 
03 



4C 90 

EF OB 

0C A9 

AD Al 

IB EE 

20 40 

09 C9 

OO A9 

85 02 

CI A9 

8D B9 

8 BB 
A9 F7 

09 F0 
07 85 
C6 CI 
05 65 
OE 35 

AD A a 

CE AO 

4C lA 

09 C8 

09 AD 

3 5 0B 

CF CI 

F0 14 

85 0A 

CI A0 



60 


A9 


3F 




07 


80 


CB 




20 


52 


A9 




34 


8D 


94 




2F 


20 


80 




F0 


01 


9D 




A2 


00 


E4 




E8 


E0 


B6 




CI 


84 


07 




AD 


62 


CI 




BD 


62 


29 




90 


CI 


IS 




A9 


00 


DD 




D0 


FB 


IB 




80 


01 


02 




87 


El 


6E 




FF 


FF 


DA 




02 


BB 


SD 




AA 


A2 


85 




04 


27 


26 




00 


03 


8F 




20 


01 


AF 




E3 


19 


C2 




E3 


31 


E2 




FF 


FF 


84 




00 


C0 


OD 




00 


00 


62 




10 


00 


31 




00 


54 


AC 




00 


00 


E8 




38 


00 


Al 




00 


00 


AA 




00 


00 


B2 




80 


A2 


C9 




BD 


A2 


2D 




CE 


A8 


42 




A9 


05 


A4 




A9 


OE 


44 




A8 


09 


F7 




8D 


9F 


Al 




A0 


09 


28 




A9 


CE 


42 




68 


85 


39 




CI 


A9 


86 




09 


8D 


4E 




09 


A9 


45 




09 


DO 


BA 




CE 


9D 


3E 




9D 


09 


01 




D0 


FB 


CC 




90 


09 


75 




09 


A5 


03 




as 


01 


EA 




01 


AD 


F4 




01 


AD 


15 




4C 


D2 


84 




31 


0B 


EE 




0B 


C9 


B0 




C9 


IC 


30 




05 


85 


2A 




09 


F0 


6E 




A4 


09 


95 




0D 


EE 


DC 




14 


BO 


5C 




01 


BD 


CB 




A9 


07 


C6 




BB 


BD 


45 




84 


A9 


FE 




84 


A9 


46 




BD 


BC 


59 




14 


A9 


EC 




0A 


A9 


FE 




AO 


00 


BF 




08 


A9 


36 




0B 


20 


CC 




09 


D0 


E7 




09 


CB 


31 




0B 


CE 


AO 




CO 


04 


00 




9F 


09 


23 




AD 


A0 


05 




4C 


23 


F0 




A9 


05 


AB 




A9 


10 


71 




00 


4C 


29 





COMPUTEIS GaiOtta May 1988 81 



3346 


:5B 


38 


A9 


05 


85 


08 


A9 


DA 


CE 


0DF0 


AB 


09 


6D 


A4 


39 


80 


AB 


365a 


!85 


0A 


A9 


0E 


85 


0B 


23 


C6 


21 


0DF8 


CE 


AA 


09 


D0 


Fl 


60 


25 


SB58 


:Cl 


A3 


00 


AD 


A8 


09 


00 


0E 


58 


0E00 


59 


4F 


55 


20 


48 


49 


54 


sses 


:ee: 


9F 


09 


CE 


AO 


09 


C8 


C0 


5F 


0E08 


00 


20 


B7 


CI 


40 


62 


lA 


0B6B 


04 


D0 


F5 


4C 


79 


0B 


CE 


9F 


SD 


0E10 


30 


30 


20 


B7 


CI 


80 


53 


08 70 


:09 


CE 


A0 


09 


CB 


CO 


04 


DO 


85 


0E18 


11 


30 


30 


20 


B7 


CI 


CO 


QB78 


:F5 


EE 


9E 


39 


AD 


9F 


09 


85 


2D 


0E20 


7C 


11 


30 


00 


20 


B7 


Cl 


0880 


0A 


A9 


00 


85 


OB 


AD 


A0 


09 


87 


0E2e 


66 


AD 


11 


30 


00 


20 


87 


0888 


85 


0C 


20 


CF 


CL 


4C 


2B 


0A 


05 


3E3 


40 


67 


DE 


11 


30 


00 


20 


0B90 


:AD 


Al 


09 


F3 


14 


A9 


05 


85 


EC 


0E38 


CI 


80 


68 


3F 


12 


30 


00 


08 98 


:08 


A9 


57 


85 


3A 


A9 


13 


85 


FC 


3E4 


B7 


CI 


CO 


69 


40 


12 


30 


aSAB 


:0B 


20 


C6 


CI 


A0 


00 


4C 


8A 


91 


0E48 


20 


B7 


CI 


00 


68 


71 


12 


0BA8 


:0B 


A9 


05 


85 


08 


A9 


19 


85 


46 


3E50 


00 


60 


20 


B7 


CI 


lA 


11 


0BB0 


:0A 


A9 


3F 


85 


08 


23 


C6 


CI 


98 


0E58 


62 


30 


33 


20 


87 


CI 


4B 


0BB8 


:A0 


aa 


AD 


A8 


09 


03 


0E 


EE 


F5 


0E6O 


80 


63 


30 


00 


20 


B7 


Cl 


0BC0 


:9F 


89 


CE 


A0 


09 


C8 


CO 


03 


BC 


0Ee8 


11 


CO 


64 


30 


03 


20 


B7 


flBCB 


:D0 


F5 


4C 


DB 


0B 


CE 


9F 


09 


87 


0E70 


AD 


11 


00 


66 


30 


00 


20 


0BD0 


:CE 


A0 


39 


C8 


C0 


33 


DO 


F5 


CO 


0E78 


CI 


DE 


11 


40 


67 


30 


00 


0BI)8 


:EE 


9F. 


09 


AD 


9F 


09 


85 


0A 


40 


0E80 


B7 


CI 


0F 


12 


83 


68 


30 


0BE0 


:A9 


aa 


85 


08 


AO 


A0 


09 


85 


B4 


0E88 


20 


B7 


CI 


43 


12 


ca 


69 


0BEB 


. ac 


20 


CF 


CI 


4C 


2B 


0A 


AD 


i'J 


0E90 


00 


20 


B7 


CI 


71 


12 


30 


BBF0 


-Al 


09 


FO 


12 


A9 


05 


85 


08 


CD 


0E98 


30 


33 


60 


30 


33 


33 


00 


0ar8 


A9 


97 


85 


0A 


A9 


10 


85 


08 


BE 


0EA0 


03 


30 


00 


30 


30 


33 


30 


0C00 


2a 


C6 


CI 


4C 


15 


OC 


A9 


05 


08 


0EAS 


00 


00 


00 


03 


33 


00 


00 


0C08 


85 


08 


A9 


58 


85 


OA 


A9 


OF 


5S 


0EB0 


30 


00 


00 


00 


FF 


33 


33 


0cie 


85 


08 


20 


C6 


CI 


AO 


A8 


09 


30 


0ESa 


CO 


37 


FF 


E3 


07 


FF 


EO 


0C1B 


D0 


0C 


EE 


9F 


09 


EE 


9f 


09 


BF 


0EC0 


FF 


C0 


00 


00 


30 


33 


00 


0c2a 


CE 


AO 


09 


4C 


2F 


OC 


CE 


9F 


94 


0EC8 


03 


00 


00 


00 


33 


38 


00 


0C28 


09 


CE 


9F 


09 


CE 


A0 


09 


AO 


B5 


0ED0 


33 


33 


00 


00 


00 


88 


33 


0C30 


^T 


09 


85 


0A 


AD 


A0 


09 


SS 


35 


0ED8 


00 


30 


00 


00 


30 


33 


00 


0c3e 


0C 


A9 


00 


85 


0B 


20 


CF 


CI 


53 


3EE0 


33 


33 


03 


00 


38 


38 


30 


0C4 


EG 


9E 


09 


4C 


2B 


0A 


AO 


Al 


08 


3EE8 


03 


33 


33 


00 


30 


38 


33 


0C.58 


09 


Fa 


L2 


A9 


05 


85 


08 


A9 


F5 


0EF0 


30 


30 


00 


7E 


00 


00 


FF 


0C50 


□ 7 


85 


0A 


A9 


10 


85 


08 


20 


5E 


0EF8 


01 


FF 


80 


30 


FF 


00 


33 


aC58 


C6 


CI 


4C 


6C 


OC 


A9 


05 


35 


2B 


0F30 


aa 


38 


00 


00 


00 


00 


03 


ac60 


08 


A9 


97 


85 


0A 


A9 


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89 


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10 


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32 


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23 


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11 


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64 


75 




30 


28 




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87 


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20 


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DC 




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7C 


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Cl 


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B7 


87 




20 


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33 


75 




6b 


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46 




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CF 




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86 




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96 




00 


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00 


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00 


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40 


37 




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60 




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68 




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00 


B8 




38 


5A 




00 


93 




00 


91 




00 


D8 




00 


81 




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80 


FA 




20 


33 




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09 




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93 




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98 




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CO 




00 


29 




00 


AC 





1098:00 38 30 00 00 00 33 

10A0:O3 08 30 00 00 00 00 

10Ae:O0 00 00 00 00 00 00 

1OB0: 02 00 00 04 00 00 10 

10BB:00 00 30 00 20 00 03 

10C0:00 00 01 00 00 00 33 

13C8:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 

1OD0:30 10 00 00 00 00 FO 

1008:00 00 00 00 03 30 00 

13E0:00 30 00 00 00 30 00 

10Ee:OO 03 00 30 30 33 00 

13F0:03 00 00 04 00 38 80 

1OF8:30 01 00 00 00 00 00 

1100:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 

1108:00 00 33 00 00 00 20 

1110:00 38 00 00 00 00 03 

1118:00 FO 00 00 00 30 00 



33 B8 
38 C2 

32 CA 
38 32 
03 D9 
08 81 
83 E8 

33 F0 
00 F8 
80 81 
00 09 
00 51 



08 


61 


30 


22 


00 


6A 


00 


32 



00 89 



Program 2: Gco-Converter 

HE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1988 COMPU 

TE! PUBLICATIONS, IKC, - 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

PR 20 POKE 53280, 0:POKE 53281, 

0:POKE 646,5:PHINTCHHS [1 

42);CHR$(147) 

SX 30 FORI=lTO10;PfiINT"{DOWH)" 

:NEXT 
JJ 40 PRINTTAB(5)"f4JUDl_ COPyR 

IGHT 1988" 
DJ 50 PRINTTAB(5) "GCH COMPUTEl 

PUBLICATIONS INC." 
FJ 60 PBINTTAB(5) "JFK ALL RICH 

TS KESERVED{HOMEj" 
XP 70 PRINT"(D0WNHBVS}f8JGE0C 
ONVERTER 1 , 1 {OFF) i DOWN ) 
IGRN)" 
FH 80 INPUT"FILE TO CONVERT'';G 

FS 
PS 90 PRINT"{D0WN)SEARCHIHG FO 

R "GFS 
HA 100 HDS = "'":FOR 1 = 1 TO 4 : REA 
HE:HDS=HDS+CHRS [HE) :N 
EXT 
KK 113 FOR I=1T05:READIE:IDS"I 

OS+CHRS (IE) :NEXT 
MD 123 NLS="":TS-CHBS(1B) :SS=C 
HR$ (1) lOPEN 15, 8, 15, "13 
:":OPEN 2, 8,2, "I" 

CR 133 GOSUB363:GET #2,NTS,NS5 

FB 140 FOB E"0 TO 7 

JX 150 DS=NLS:GETI2,BS:I=1:IFB 

S'NLS THEN2ia 
HR 160 IF ASC(BS)<>138 THEN210 
PM 173 GET#2,HTS,HSS:I^3:IF HS 

S""" THEN HSS=CHRS (0) 
BG laa GETI2,BS: 1-1*1: IF B$="" 

THEN BS-CHRS (3) 
GH 190 IF ASC(8S)=160 THEH210 
BR 230 DS=DS+BS:GOTO180 
BK 210 FOR 1=1 TO 31:GETI2,BS: 

NEXT 
FK 220 IF OS=GFS THEN250 
AA 230 NEXT E:IF NTS=NLS THEN2 

53 
GR 240 TS=NTS:SS=NSS:GOTO130 
JS 250 IF DS-NLS TKENPRINT" 

{DOWN) [RVSlFILE NOT FOU 

NO{OFF)":GOTO350 
GJ 260 PRINT" {DOWN}C0NVERTING 

(SPACE) "GFS 
JR 270 0TS=TS:0SS=SS:TS=HTS!SS 

=HSS:GOSUB363 
Sft 280 GET(2,MTS,MSS:IF MSS="" 

THEN MSS-CHRS (3) 
JM 298 FOR 1-0 TO eSlGET 12, BS 

:NEXT 
XA 303 GETt2,CTS,GTS:GOSUB36a: 

PRINTI2,HOS;:GOSU8370:T 

S=DTS:SS=DSS:GOSUB360 
KP 313 FOR 1-0 TO 32*E+2:GETi2 

,BS:NEXT 
KO 323 PRINTI2,HTS;HSS; :FORI-0 
TO 15:GETt2,8S:NEXT 



82 COMPUTEIs Galello Ma/ 1988 



MO 330 PRINTI2,KT5;HSS!CHRS{0) 

;GTSr 
OJ 340 PHINTt2,IDS; :GOSUB370:P 

RINTiPRINTGFS" CONVEBTE 

D" 
AS 350 CL0SE2:CL0SE1S:END 
QC 360 US="01":G0TO39a 
KQ 370 US="U2" 
QE 380 PRINTI15,U5;Z;0;ASC(TS+ 

"0") ;fiSC[SS+"a") 
PX 3 90 RETURN 
BP 40a DATA 0,255,3,21,87,10,1 

,0,0 



Mob Maker 

See instruclions in article oti page 
60 before typing in. 



8 01: 0C 
0809:32 
0311: 4F 
0819:20 
082l:4D 
0829:55 
08 31:04 
0839:29 
0841:37 
0849:29 
0851:18 
0859:80 
0861:08 
a869:8rj 
0871:8D 
0a79:A9 
0681:01 
0889:SE 
0B91:A9 
0899: 16 
8A1:8E 
8fi9! IC 
08Bl:Ce 
0889:68 
08C1:23 
08C9:ae 
8Dl! IC 
08D9:A3 
08E1: 02 
08E9: 20 
8F1:AD 
08F9:AD 
0901:85 
0909:F0 
0911:A9 
0919:00 
0921:04 
0929:F0 
0931:A5 
0939:15 
0941:4C 
949: 6A 
0951:D0 
0959!CF 
0961 :A0 
0969:03 
0971:8D 
0979:E0 
0981:48 
989:98 
0991:AD 
0999:4C 
09A1:09 
09A9:02 
9B1:AD 
09D9:D0 
09C1:AD 
09C9:91 
0901:68 
09D9:CE 
09El!a7 
09E9:68 
09F1:A0 
09F9:01 



08 24 
3A 00 
50 5 9 
31 39 
50 55 
42 4C 

80 00 
EF 8d 
A9 7F 
FC 9 
00 29 
8D 8 3 
8£ 00 
11 00 

21 D0 
CI 8D 
IC CA 
0D IC 
15 A2 
A0 00 

22 IC 
B9 4F 
B9 4F 
20 BC 
IC B9 
22 IC 
0E 22 
FF A0 
IC 8D 

81 19 

ac IC 

86 02 
FE A9 
06 A9 
□ 8D 
AD 03 
IC 91 

18 A5 
FE 6 9 
D0 DC 
Fl 9 
B0 03 
BD 20 

19 20 
00 A9 
BD 07 

06 IC 

07 CA 
CA 68 
46 A0 
06 IC 
C9 09 
AO 06 
4C C4 

25 D0 

06 AD 

26 D0 
FD 20 
AS 68 

07 IC 
lA CE 

09 E6 
00 8C 
BD 00 



04 9E 
2E 08 
52 49 
38 38 
54 4 5 
2E 00 

00 00 
11 D0 

85 38 

01 8D 
0F 80 

02 20 
AD 11 
A9 0F 
A9 06 
18 03 

86 05 
A9 80 
FF A0 
A2 01 
AE 22 
IC 18 
IC BC 

16 ee: 

4F IC 
20 BC 
IC D0 
01 20 
86 02 
6a 18 
F0 03 
20 6C 
A0 85 
F7 8D 
3 IC 
IC 91 
FD C8 
FD 69 
00 85 
AD 0C 
AD 01 
Ca D0 
D0 SD 
DB 19 
15 8D 
IC A2 
Bl FB 
68 0A 
aft 2E 
00 A5 
D0 06 
AD 05 
IC D0 
09 C9 
4C C4 

05 IC 
91 FD 
93 lA 

E0 Be 

00 BF 

aa ic 

01 58 
77 02 
IC AD 



32 


31 


30 


2E 


2e: 


04 


43 


E7 


47 


48 


34 


79 


20 


43 


4F 


48 


21 


20 


50 


IB 


34 


08 


38 


F9 


AD 


11 


D0 


an 


A9 


FF 


85 


4F 


AD 


00 


DD 


F5 


00 


DO 


AO 


34 


18 


00 


A9 


CF 


49 


19 


93 


2A 


D0 


09 


10 


El 


80 


20 


□ 


FB 


BD 


02 


IC 


CB 


A2 


01 


BE 


35 


BE 


0C 


IC 


71 


8D 


8A 


02 


93 


10 


20 


BC 


22 


ac 


23 


IC 


A3 


IC 


AC 


23 


ED 


69 


0B 


48 


A6 


23 


ic 


A8 


12 


23 


IC 


AC 


El 


A8 


A9 


OD 


7A 


16 


EE 


23 


FC 


CD 


A9 


aa 


BA 


8C 


16 


AD 


6C 


A9 


01 


48 


15 



0A D0 
4C Fl 

19 A9 
FD A5 
03 IC 
A2 00 
FD C8 
C0 IB 
28 85 
FE EB 
IC F0 
IC A0 
FA B9 

05 IC 
C6 01 
8 IC 

08 A9 
48 A5 
2E 06 

06 IC 
05 D0 
AD 86 
IC 4C 

6 AO 

01 D0 

09 C9 
4C C4 

20 93 
BC 06 
aa 9E 
A9 10 
F0 03 
20 78 
84 C6 
01 IC 



F7 96 

09 A4 

30 60 

05 49 

2C A6 

A0 lA 

AD 7C 

DO 98 

FD 43 

EO DD 

03 36 

00 AB 

27 B6 

20 19 

78 89 

A9 B8 

00 8B 

05 BB 
IC D6 
48 22 
11 02 
02 82 
C9 3B 
86 A6 

06 F2 
02 A2 
09 60 
lA 19 
IC 8C 
CB a6 
20 09 
4C BF 
lA AD 
A9 Be 
20 10 



0A01:ai 
0A09:FD 
aAll:2a 
BA19:AD 
0A21:68 
0A29: lA 
0A31:03 
0A39!7F 
0A41:C9 
0A49:90 
0A51:14 
0A59:0B 
0A61:fl5 
0A69:19 
0A71:CE 
0fi79:AZ 
0A81:0A 
0AB9:A6 
OA91:0A 
0A99:aE 
0AA1:DB 
0AA9; 10 
0AB1:05 
0AB9:F0 
0AC1:20 
0AC9:CA 
0ADl!Fl 
0ftD9:FD 
0AE1:05 
0AE9:F0 
0AF1:F0 
0AF9:BF 
0S01:2C 
0B09:00 
0B11:07 
0B19:1A 
0B21:4E 
0B29:F7 
0B31:BD 
0B39: IC 
0B41:1E 
0B49:2A 
0B51:08 
0359:09 
0B61:6A 
0B69:4C 
0B71:A9 
0B79: 3C 
0B81:20 
0B89:1C 
0B91:B7 
0B99:3D 
0BA1:1C 
0BA9:D6 
0BBl:3D 
0BB9: IC 
OBCllDO 
0BC9:09 
0BO1:01 
0BD9: 20 
0BE1:E6 
0BE9:A9 
0BF1:2C 
0BF9:4a 
0C01:1C 
OCO9:01 
0C 1 1 : IC 
acl9:Fl 
0C21:0F 
0C29:AD 
0C31:aD 
0C39:IC 
0C41:F1 
0C49:aD 
0C51:B5 
0C59:FF 
0C61:05 
ac69!EE 
0C71:02 
0C79:AO 
0C31:1C 
0C89:AO 
0C91:a9 
0C99:1A 
0CA1:4A 



19 A4 
48 8ft 
67 lA 

01 IC 
91 FD 

20 67 
4C 4B 
F0 B5 
10 DO 
OA CE 
BE 0B 
IC AE 
A2 00 
CE OA 
0A IC 

16 A4 
IC 6A 

05 F0 
IC EO 
0A IC 

19 A0 

20 93 

2 a6 
AE 0B 

87 lA 
DO F3 
09 A4 

88 la 
F0 14 
ID AD 
0F CD 
CD BE 
ft9 40 
8D 06 
ft6 05 
IC 8D 

06 IC 
4C 3D 
IE IC 
CA D0 
IC OD 
0A A0 
C8 CO 
98 0A 
06 B 9 
FF FF 

00 91 
09 20 
D6 OB 
48 A9 
0B 0E 

01 IC 
48 A9 
OB 0E 

01 IC 

20 AD 

02 A0 
AE 01 
IC 4C 
AD lA 
A0 11 
02 2C 
A9 10 
2C A9 
D0 D0 
85 05 
4D ID 

09 AO 
IC BD 

10 IC 

17 00 
4D 17 
9 AD 
IC D0 
4C El 
BD 11 
4 9 01 

21 DO 

4c ac 

25 00 

4c ac 

26 00 
A5 05 
AO 02 
08 2A 



5 AE 

91 FD 

A9 00 

20 81 

83 F0 

lA AD 

OB AD 

AD 00 

03 4C 

0B IC 

IC 6A 

OB IC 

BE 0B 

IC A6 

AE 0ft 

05 00 
90 16 
03 EE 
18 DO 
48 20 
00 AE 
lA C8 
lA A0 
IC F0 
A9 03 
68 6A 

5 AD 
FB AD 

29 OF 
20 00 
26 DB 
02 F0 
2C A9 
IC AD 
FO 17 
IE IC 
4E 06 
0B AA 
8A F0 
FA 20 

06 IC 

aa 09 

30 D0 
AS B9 
B0 IC 
20 DS 
FB 8 8 
B7 OB 
4C 3C 

01 BD 
01 IC 
4C 3C 



01 

01 



8D 

IC 



4C 3C 

lA A0 

11 A9 

IC 20 

ai 19 

AO 01 

00 E2 

A9 04 

2C A9 

80 80 

03 A9 
4C 9A 

00 80 
0F IC 
ID DO 

4 9 FF 
4C Fl 
D0 80 

01 IC 
A5 05 
OB AD 
IC 80 
85 05 
4C Fl 

ac A6 

4C BC 

HC A6 

BD 20 

BD 21 

A2 00 

2B 7E 



21 DO 

3e F0 

8D 0D 

19 A4 
FB 20 
77 02 
aa DC 
OC 4 9 
D3 aA 

10 a5 

90 0F 
E0 15 
IC 6A 
05 F0 
IC 10 
01 EB 
EE 0A 
0A IC 

05 A2 
CF 19 
aA IC 
C0 OB 
00 CA 
0D A9 

20 9A 
B0 03 
20 D0 
20 DO 
CD 86 
CD 25 
FO 0D 

09 A9 
C0 2C 
0A IC 
4A AA 
8A F0 
IC CA 
BD 12 

06 4E 
5C lA 

91 FB 
7F IC 
F6 4C 
AF IC 
8D 6B 

19 AO 

10 FB 
4C 3C 

9 AD 

01 IC 
DO FB 
09 AD 
01 IC 
DO F8 

9 AE 

01 C9 
OA 2C 
QC 16 
AE 01 
C9 FF 
A 9 01 
2C A9 

20 2C 
01 IC 
00 2C 

08 AD 
ID DO 
49 FF 
4C Fl 
30 10 
9 AD 
17 D0 
4D IC 
49 01 

11 IC 
IC DO 
4C Fl 

09 AD 
05 F0 
0C AD 
05 F0 
DO 4C 
IC 20 
B9 A7 
A7 02 



Bl 4E 

FA 87 

IC 5 9 

05 88 

67 35 
FO 21 
49 64 
7F 60 
EA B8 
fl2 80 
EE D8 
90 9F 

90 B7 

03 EE 
0A CB 
8E 34 
IC 94 
AE 07 

00 2F 
20 12 
FO 43 
DO OC 
DO 32 

28 4C 
lA 8D 
4C E4 

91 27 
A6 07 
02 SB 
DO 4E 
2 9 EB 
80 79 
A9 B4 

29 FB 
BD F8 
IC OF 
D0 4F 
IC 33 

06 04 
2D AD 
4C DA 
F0 01 
Fl A5 
80 38 
0B AA 
3F 53 
4C 17 

09 7A 

01 E5 
20 CD 
6B 96 
01 61 
20 E5 

68 3E 
01 7B 

10 E9 
A9 5D 
AD FE 
IC B2 
D0 B8 
3C AE 
08 Al 
A9 ID 
2D 4E 
A9 F4 
01 B9 

4C aA 

8D A6 

9 EF 
IC A6 

01 C4 
4C 59 
DO 7 9 
B5 78 

4 9 FO 
A 5 DC 
8 0C 
86 B 5 
16 31 

05 85 

06 3E 
Fl C3 
BE 8 9 

02 89 
EB 2B 



0CA9: 
0CB1: 
0CB9: 
0CC1: 
0CC9! 
0CD1: 
aC09: 
0CE1: 
0CE9: 
0CFl! 
0CF9: 
0D0l! 
0D09: 
0D11; 
0D19: 
0D21: 
0D29: 
0D31: 
aD39: 
0D41: 
0D49: 
0D51: 
0D59: 
0D61: 
0D69: 
0D7l! 
0D79: 
0D81: 
0D89: 
0D91: 
0099: 
ODAl: 
0DA9: 
0DB1: 
0OB9: 
0DC1: 
0OC9: 
ODDl: 
0DD9: 
0DE1: 
0DE9: 
ODFl: 
0DF9: 
0E01: 
0E09: 
OEll: 
0E19: 
0E21: 
0E29: 
0E31: 
0E39: 
aE41: 
0E49: 
0E51: 
0E59: 
0E61: 
0E69: 
0E711 
0E79! 
0E81: 
0E89: 
0E91: 
0E99: 
0EA1: 

aEA9: 

OEBl: 
0EB9: 

0EC1: 

0EC9: 
0ED1: 
aED9: 
0EE1: 
aEE9: 
0EF1: 
0EF9: 
OFOl: 
0F09: 
OFll: 
0F19: 

aF21: 

aF29: 
aF31: 
0F39: 
0F41: 
OF49: 



7E A7 02 Ea 
C8 C8 C8 C0 



3F B9 

FB CE 

09 A5 

19 A2 
ftO 02 
91 FB 

20 9A 
IC 10 
lA AO 

CB ca 

A7 02 

DO F5 

AO 3B 

91 FB 

20 DB 

91 FB 

20 D8 
49 FF 
3C 09 
2 3 IC 
A7 02 
23 IC 
22 IC 
lA Da 
lA A9 

A9 a2 

6E 21 

IC 8 8 

4C 29 

IE IC 

2E 21 

IC 2 9 

08 AO 

IC aa 

21 IC 
IC 2E 

22 IC 
29 03 
AD IE 
88 00 
IC AO 
2E 23 
IC 2E 
3 FO 
IE IC 
DO DE 
AD 21 
IC 91 
FB A9 
E8 Ea 
4C 3C 
20 5E 
F7 20 
08 19 
FB 88 
F5 19 
lA 20 
47 45 
20 4F 
49 19 
4B 47 
20 4F 
49 19 
2E 2 3 
00 2 
33 3D 
20 43 
4F lA 

19 20 

23 31 

20 4F 

4 5 54 
45 58 
EF F0 
Fl 08 

05 B0 
C9 01 
68 4C 
20 B 4 

19 20 
54 45 

20 00 
20 20 



A7 02 

21 IC 
5 8D 
IS 20 
20 5E 
88 10 
lA CA 
OB 4C 
00 B9 
3C 
91 FB 
4C 3C 
B9 A7 
88 88 
19 AO 
88 10 

19 AO 
91 FB 

20 BE 
A2 02 
AC 22 
30 0F 
10 EB 
DF 4C 
15 AZ 
3E A3 
IC 6E 
DO EB 

0E Aa 

2E 21 

IC 2E 

03 FO 
IE IC 
00 DE 
Aa 04 

22 IC 
2E IE 
FO 0C 
IC 4 9 
OE AD 

04 A9 
IC 2E 
IE IC 

ac c9 

49 a3 

AO IE 

IC 91 

FB C8 

03 20 

3F BO 

09 20 
lA 99 
D2 0F 
A0 3F 

10 FB 
A0 04 
49 19 
20 43 
46 00 
20 31 

52 4F 
lA A5 
20 32 
30 20 
4F lA 

53 50 
4F 4C 
A5 05 
3 4 3D 
20 5B 
lA 20 
55 52 
49 54 
FB C9 
38 E9 
EB 48 
F0 04 
FF 0E 
lA 20 



20 
52 



20 4F 
20 43 



7E A7 

41 D0 

91 FB 

la DB 

21 IC 
5C lA 
lA 28 
F5 28 
DO E5 
3C 9 
AA 02 
F6 A2 
CB E8 
09 20 
82 CB 
88 88 
02 B9 
FB 4C 
3F 20 
ae 10 
lA AO 
BE 22 
IC 91 
AC 23 
A9 03 
3C 09 
00 A0 

02 3E 

22 IC 
A5 05 

04 A9 
IC 2E 
IE IC 
OC C9 
49 03 
AD IE 
A9 00 
2E IE 
IC AD 
C9 03 

03 80 
IE IC 
00 8D 
IE IC 
AD IE 

03 FB as 

9D IE 

IC 3D 

FB ca 

AD 2 3 

9A lA 

03 4C 

08 19 

3D B3 

4C Fl 

B9 3D 

4C 3C 

A2 09 

43 48 

4F 4C 

20 4F 

3D 42 

55 4E 

05 F0 
3D 4D 
5B 30 
20 4 9 
52 49 
4F 52 
FO 15 
40 2E 
31 31 
49 19 
4E 20 
20 00 
00 DO 
31 30 
A6 05 
C9 03 
A0 04 
97 0F 
20 20 
20 20 
lA 2 
4F 4C 



02 EB 39 
EE A0 41 
88 10 92 
4C 3C 8 8 
20 08 OB 
2A 08 6B 
2A 08 7A 
A9 03 7A 
CE 21 85 
20 BE 61 
91 FB 5F 
00 BD 44 
E0 03 IB 
BE lA BE 
CB C8 91 
10 F2 16 
E3 02 77 
3C 09 9F 
5E lA 18 
FE 4C B0 
3E BC 10 
IC B9 67 
FB CE 60 
IC CE 04 
20 9A 90 
20 BE 92 

18 IE A8 
A7 02 9D 
6E 2 3 OF 
DB 03 9A 
00 8D 44 
IE IC 9B 
AD IE 64 

03 F0 12 
8D IE 58 
IC BD BF 
8D IE 56 
IC 2E DB 
IE IC A3 
F0 OB 74 
IE IC 21 
8D 22 D9 
IE IC F3 
2E 23 44 
IC 2 9 Bb 

AD A2 

IC 88 4A 

2 3 IC 6e 
AD 22 31 
IC 91 8F 
E8 Ea 18 
7S 0D 50 
A0 3F E9 
88 10 09 
0B 20 IF 

03 91 92 
09 20 BC 
20 B4 51 
41 4E 71 
4F 52 67 
lA 20 E4 
41 43 68 

44 oa D8 
15 20 75 
2E 43 96 
31 5D 11 

19 20 El 
54 45 DB 
00 20 59 

20 49 86 
43 2E BC 
5D 00 9E 
20 52 70 
3D 20 23 
20 E4 63 
03 4C 7 5 
EF C9 BB 
D0 OC 06 
DO 04 BA 
A2 9 CA 
20 49 4C 

45 4E 44 
2 2B 01 
49 19 65 
4F 52 54 



COMPUTEIi Gazsire May 1988 B3 



BFSl; 

0F59: 
aF61: 
flF69: 
0F71: 
0F79: 
QF81: 
0F89: 
0F91: 
0F99: 
BFAl: 
0FA9: 
BFBl: 
3FB9: 
BFCl: 
0FC9; 

BFDl: 

0FD9: 
BFRl: 
0FE9: 
0FF1: 
0FF9: 
1001: 
1009: 
1011: 
1019: 
1021: 
1029: 
1031; 
1039: 
1041: 
1049: 
1051: 
1059; 
1061: 
1069: 
1071: 
1079: 
10B1: 
1089: 
1091: 
1099: 
10A1: 
10A9: 
10B1: 
10B9: 
10C1: 
10C9: 
1001: 
10D9! 
10E1: 
10E9: 
10F1: 
10F9: 
1101: 
1109: 
1111: 
1U9: 
1121: 
1129: 
1131: 
1139: 
IHI: 
1149: 
1151: 
1159: 
1161: 
1169: 
1171: 
1179: 
llBl: 
1189: 
1191! 
1199: 
IIM: 
11A9: 
llDl: 
11B9: 
llCl: 
11C9! 
IIDI: 

11D9: 

llEl: 
11E9: 
llFl: 



20 
00 
E4 
05 
06 
01 
08 
4C 
20 
8D 
20 
20 
4F 
fl9 
SO 
09 
08 
20 
52 
lA 
20 
49 
00 
IC 
F8 
A0 
22 
45 
47 
20 
45 
52 
19 
00 
F0 
09 
FE 
20 
43 
4F 
55 
1ft 
45 
20 
31 
4F 
54 
20 
3A 
4C 
lA 
IC 
AS 
69 
lA 
IC 
D8 
09 
19 
20 
4B 
49 
00 
49 
00 
F0 
0S 
21 
A9 
20 
B4 
59 
20 
lA 
20 
8D 
AE 
IC 
13 
4F 
62 
DE 
FC 
DE 
95 



48 45 

20 4F 
FF A0 
88 10 
8C 86 
D0 06 
C9 03 
Fl 08 

ec 16 

21 IC 
20 20 
20 20 
lA CE 

01 ao 

a6 02 
A9 00 
20 F5 
B4 lA 
52 45 
20 49 

49 53 

19 20 

20 4F 
20 6 7 
4C Fl 
06 A2 



IC 

sa 



52 41 
4F lA 
20 59 
45 00 
20 20 
A9 00 
FB C9 
A9 04 
20 F5 
B4 lA 

48 41 
Ifl 20 
52 53 
20 49 
45 44 
4F lA 
20 2D 
lA 20 
2D 2D 
E4 FF 
BB F5 
Fl 0B 
8D 3A 
AD 3 9 
FB 6 9 

00 85 
91 FD 
AD 39 
4C 6C 
A0 09 
44 45 
4F 1ft 

49 53 

19 53 

20 4F 

19 59 
A 9 00 
FB C9 
AE 01 
IC 18 
FE BD 
F5 19 
lA 2 

20 53 
44 41 
20 49 
54 4F 
IF IC 

01 IC 
A9 0n 
8D 21 
lA A9 
15 AE 
19 A5 
8D IF 
19 A5 
FE AD 



59 20 
lA 20 
0F 09 
F8 00 
02 4C 
BC 25 
D0 06 
A9 0E 
4C Fl 
20 4 9 
20 20 

20 20 

21 LC 
0C IC 
20 6C 
9D 0C 

19 A0 

20 4 9 
4E 54 

19 44 
00 20 

53 41 
lA A2 
lA CE 
08 20 
0A 8C 
F0 FF 

54 20 
4D 00 

20 49 
4F 55 
20 4F 
20 20 
85 C6 
59 F0 
3D BS 

19 A2 

20 49 
4E 47 
49 19 
4F 52 

19 20 
2E 00 

20 49 
2D 2 

49 19 

53 4C 
C9 31 
29 0F 
AE 01 
IC A9 
IC 20 
40 85 
FE A0 
88 10 
IC CD 
0B 2 
20 B4 
4C 4 5 
20 49 
00 20 

50 52 
lA 2 
20 4F 
85 C6 
59 F9 
IC 2 
69 01 
3A IC 
A2 09 

49 19 

50 52 

54 41 

19 40 

20 3E 
A9 FF 
20 flO 
8D 58 
IC 20 
FF 8D 
3A IC 
FB 80 
IC AD 
FB 85 
39 IC 



20 20 

97 OF 

2 4 IC 
Fl 68 

Fl 08 

D0 4C 

ac 26 

AE 01 

08 A9 

19 20 

20 20 
20 00 
D0 E4 
AD 21 
19 4C 
IC 4C 

08 A2 

19 43 
00 20 
41 54 
4F lA 
56 45 
8 BE 

22 IC 
F5 19 

23 IC 

20 49 
50 52 
20 4F 

19 41 

20 53 
lA 20 
59 2F 
20 E4 

03 4C 

02 4C 

09 A0 

19 20 

45 00 

20 20 
00 20 
20 53 
20 4F 
19 20 
39 00 

46 41 
4F 57 
90 F9 
8D 9 
IC 20 
FE BD 
DE 19 
FD A5 
3F 20 
FB CE 
3A IC 
FS 19 
lA 20 
54 4 5 

19 20 
4F lA 
49 54 
4F lA 
52 20 

20 E4 

03 4C 
AD lA 
BD 39 
4C D3 
A0 04 
43 4F 
49 54 
00 20 
4F 56 
00 A9 
BD 20 
lA BD 
13 20 
58 15 

20 IC 
E8 BA 
IE IC 

21 IC 
FD A5 
20 DE 



20 


72 


20 


AB 


F0 


7F 


DO 


AD 


C9 


AA 


Fl 


CC 


DO 


03 


IC 


2F 


02 


6F 


20 


5B 


20 


BF 


20 


87 


60 


38 


DO 


OA 


Fl 


DC 


EB 


F9 


0A 


C0 


55 


05 


4F 


7D 


41 


E8 


20 


6F 


44 


6E 


22 


29 


DO 


□ 5 


18 


A2 


BE 


B7 


19 


98 


4F 


A6 


lA 


BF 


52 


06 


55 


53 


49 


52 


4E 


IF 


FF 


BC 


Fl 


E5 


66 


9C 


07 


EA 


20 


2B 


20 


Dl 


43 


3D 


4F 


72 


50 


02 


lA 


5A 


20 


02 


20 


F0 


53 


58 


00 


80 


C9 


59 


IC 


69 


AO 


EE 


39 


19 


18 


33 


FC 


81 


5E 


10 


39 


18 


B0 


CD 


A2 


9E 


49 


A2 


00 


54 


54 


B7 


20 


C6 


45 


5B 


20 


89 


4E 


D5 


FF 


B6 


Fl 


DF 


8D 


BE 


IC 


89 


11 


48 


20 


69 


50 


El 


45 


75 


4F 


OB 


45 


25 


10 


2A 


IC 


0B 


IE 


FF 


56 


14 


20 


63 


20 


94 


20 


9D 


A5 


EB 


20 


D5 


FC 


A2 


19 


IB 



11F9:20 
1201:20 
1209:03 
1211: IC 
1219:00 
1221:67 
1229: 4C 
1231:A0 
1239: 20 
1241:41 
L249: 20 
1251:80 
1259:85 
1261:A9 
1269: 3D 
1271:57 
1279!A0 
1281:08 
1289: IC 
1291;20 
1299: 20 
12A1:A9 
12A9:FD 
12B1:20 
12B9:8E 
12C1:A2 
12C9:D0 
1201: 34 
12D9:D0 
12E1:A9 
12E9: IC 
12F1:FE 
12F9:8E 
1301;A9 
1309: IF 
1311:00 
1319:D2 
1321:00 
1329:CO 
1331:A6 
1339:00 
1341:F6 
1349:FF 
1351:BC 
1359:a0 
1361:20 
1369:00 
1371:08 
1379:33 
1381:25 
1389:49 
1391:C9 
1399:C9 
13A1:A0 
13A9:2C 
13Bl!01 

13S9:90 
13Cl!lE 
13C9:AD 
1301:1C 
13D9:78 
13E1:91 
13E9:O0 
13F1:DC 
13F9:07 
1401:4A 
1409:09 
141l!lA 
1419:FF 
142l!l4 
1429:11 
1431:1D 
1439: IC 
1441: 0F 
144 9: FA 
1451:1C 
1459: 9D 
1461:A9 
1469!F5 
1471:1A 
1479:53 
1481:20 
1489:20 
1491: 54 
1499:20 



5C U 91 

93 lA A5 

4C Fl 08 

D0 E5 A5 

DE 4C Fl 

IC 99 4F 

9A 08 2 

04 20 B4 

4 4 41 54 

54 4D 45 

4F lA 20 

36 IC BD 

06 20 A8 
2C 99 3C 
IC A9 2C 
99 3F IC 

00 20 BC 
A0 01 20 
18 69 03 
BO FF 20 
C9 FF A9 
08 20 D2 
A9 ID 85 
DE 19 20 
22 IC A2 
08 8E 07 

03 EE 37 
IC 20 0B 
F5 AE 22 
2C 20 0B 
D0 F2 A4 
C6 FD A9 
22 IC CE 
FF 20 0B 
B5 FD A9 
Bl FD C9 
FF E6 FD 
ED EE 3 9 
3A IC F0 

12 A2 03 
20 D2 FF 
A9 02 20 
A9 00 A2 
16 4C Fl 
OF 20 F0 

67 lA 20 

07 6B 63 
C9 91 FO 
C9 9D FO 
C9 20 F0 
FF 29 IF 

01 F0 IB 
4 F0 00 
IE IC 4C 
a9 0A 2C 

18 60 IE 
A9 CD 20 
IC 20 B 3 
IE IC 60 
80 IF IC 
FB C8 88 
6D IE IC 
60 IF IC 

13 DB 58 

14 AD IE 
4A 20 09 
30 A0 00 
A2 00 8E 
FO FB C9 
F0 2B C9 
F0 EB C9 
F0 E3 20 
90 3C IC 
D0 D3 60 

68 68 4C 
F0 C3 2B 

00 CE 22 

01 2C fl9 

19 A2 09 
A5 06 00 
41 56 45 

4 9 19 4C 
49 19 20 
45 20 44 
4F lA 20 



FD 20 
FE C9 
A5 FC 
FB CD 
03 A0 
IC 88 
F5 19 
lA 20 
41 20 
4E 54 
4F lA 
3 7 IC 
14 AC 
IC ft9 
99 3E 
A9 00 
16 A9 
BA FF 
A2 3C 
CO FF 

01 20 
FF A9 
FE AD 
CI lA 
OB 8E 
IC EE 
IC A2 
14 EB 
IC 20 
14 EB 
FD 00 
00 20 
08 IC 
14 AO 
ID 85 
FF F0 
00 Fl 
IC AD 

02 B0 
BE 2 2 
CE 22 
C3 FF 
FF A0 
08 18 
FF 20 
E4 FF 
68 66 
3A C9 
2C C9 
43 AD 
C9 10 
C9 02 
C9 08 
C3 13 
A9 FF 
IC CD 
IC B0 
19 4C 
A9 00 
BD A7 
FO 14 
8D IE 
BD IF 
AD IF 
IC 4B 
14 68 
91 FD 
22 IC 
0D FO 
91 F0 
90 F0 
D2 FF 
EE 2 2 
AE 22 
Fl 08 
49 19 
IC 4C 
00 85 
flO 04 
0B 2 
00 4C 
4F 41 
53 50 
41 54 
4F lA 



A6 lA 77 
C0 OO 29 
CO IF 5C 

IE IC FO 

17 B9 BO 

10 F7 43 
A2 09 7F 

49 19 F2 
53 54 71 
53 00 83 
A9 00 CC 
A9 02 A5 
22 IC 04 

50 99 IE 
IC A9 2 
A 2 FF E3 

02 A2 B8 
AD 22 47 
AO IC 82 
A2 02 84 
D2 FF 09 
IF 85 38 

3 9 IC 70 
A2 00 7E 
08 IC 02 
3 6 IC A a 
00 BD 91 
E0 05 06 
CD 13 EB 
CE 07 83 
32 C6 F6 
OB 14 4C 
00 C0 71 

00 A9 7D 
FE A0 18 
0B 20 F9 
E6 FE BO 
3 9 IC C2 
03 4C 7C 
IC A9 92 
IC DO C9 
2 CC BA 

01 20 AS 
A2 OA DB 
67 lA 10 
C9 OD 7E 
4C Fl BC 

11 F0 5B 
ID F0 22 
00 DC 6D 
FO 38 14 
F0 14 
FO 06 
A9 F6 23 
2C A9 A3 
IF IC 6 
A4 BD C8 
56 13 F6 
BD IE 5E 

02 AB 48 
IB A9 CD 
IC A9 3 
IC 4C 7E 
IC 20 2E 
4A 4A 21 
2 9 0F 19 
4C 93 85 
20 E4 7E 
25 C9 09 
EF C9 BB 
E7 C9 7A 
AE 22 B8 
IC EO 39 
IC DO AC 
AE 22 OA 
9D 2 4 8 
17 14 A0 
06 20 01 
20 B4 CI 
49 19 62 
89 14 13 
44 FB 
52 4 9 3 
41 00 5B 
A5 06 IF 



F8 
EA 



14A1 

14A9; 

14B1: 

14B9: 

14CI; 

14C9: 

1401 

1409; 

14E1 

14E9; 

14F1; 

14F9; 

1501 

1509; 

1511; 

1519; 

1521 

1529; 

1531i 

1539; 

1541 

1549; 

1551; 

15591 

1561; 

1569; 
1571; 
1579; 
1581; 
1589; 
1591; 
1599; 
15A1; 
15A9; 

15B1; 
15B9; 
15C1: 
15C9: 
15D1; 
15D9: 
15E1; 
15E9: 

15F1: 
15F9; 
1601; 
1609: 
1611; 
1619: 
1621; 
1629; 
1631; 
1639: 
1641: 
1649; 
1651; 
1659: 
1661: 
1669: 
1671; 
1679: 
1681; 
1689; 
1691; 
1699: 
16A1; 
16A9: 
16B1; 
16B9; 
16C1; 
16C9: 
1601; 
16D9: 
16E1; 
16E9; 
16F1: 
16F9; 
1701; 
1709: 
1711; 
1719: 
1721: 
1729: 
1731; 
1739; 
1741; 



;C9 01 

FF BD 

4F lA 

45 2F 

3D 45 

lA 20 

C9 02 

20 OE 

FC 85 

20 OE 

08 20 

3C A0 

A2 FF 

FB A4 

Oa FF 

A0 01 

A9 01 

FF AD 

20 BO 

00 20 

AO 84 

FF AO 

IC F0 

00 DC 

60 A9 

IC 20 

52 54 

80 58 

IC 80 

4F lA 

44 20 

58 13 
60 AO 
BB D0 
A 9 01 
FB BD 
80 4 2 
20 21 
ID 85 
B5 2B 
IC A9 
BD 42 
80 21 
B4 lA 
44 49 

59 00 
FB DO 
4C 82 
FO C8 
18 A5 
FC 69 
FB FO 
18 98 
69 00 
C9 22 
FB 00 

FD as 

IB CE 

85 C6 

OD F0 

0B 20 

4C Fl 

CO 01 

00 8D 

80 15 

8A C0 

IC D0 

D0 80 

15 3A 
20 IB 
IB 00 
00 15 
FF 20 
0D 10 
04 DO 
49 FF 

60 0D 
C9 05 
A 5 02 
02 8B 

16 68 

00 DO 
10 00 
02 2D 

01 00 



F0 0E 

20 IC 

20 49 

52 45 

58 49 

12 14 
DO 4C 
19 A5 
FE AE 

19 A9 
BA FF 
IC 20 
A0 00 
FC A9 
E6 01 

20 8C 
A2 8 
22 iC 
FF A9 
8C 16 
20 05 
01 2 
01 60 

4 9 FF 
10 BD 

49 19 
20 20 

13 20 
IF IC 
20 4 9 
20 20 
20 56 

05 A9 
FA A9 

50 22 
40 15 
15 A9 
15 A9 
2C 20 
A9 08 
00 BD 

15 20 
IC A2 
20 49 
52 4 5 

20 4F 
08 C8 

16 A0 
Bl FB 
FB 69 
00 85 
46 C8 

6 5 FB 
85 FC 
FO 0B 
Fl E6 
FB AS 

21 IC 
20 E4 
03 4C 
E4 FF 
08 C9 
F0 09 
15 OO 

00 60 

01 F0 
8D IC 
IC OO 
C0 01 
00 8d 
SO IB 
BA CO 
ID 00 
DO 80 
15 8A 
20 17 

17 00 
FO 04 
48 98 
BA FO 
48 IB 
80 00 
45 02 
10 00 
8d 0E 



20 58 

20 62 

19 4E 
54 55 
54 00 
A5 06 
60 AO 
FB 85 
3A IC 

01 AO 
AD 22 
BO FF 

20 BC 
FD C6 
A9 00 
16 4C 
AO 00 
A2 3C 
00 A 2 
A9 00 
FF A9 
BC 16 
4C Fl 
29 10 
IE IC 
20 53 
3E 00 
56 13 
20 58 

19 20 

20 3E 
13 BO 

00 99 

2 4 8D 
IC A9 
A 9 ID 

01 BD 
20 85 
33 AS 
85 2C 
40 15 
F5 19 
09 AB 

19 20 
43 54 
lA AO 
CO 02 
00 Dl 
85 FE 
04 85 
FC A0 
C9 22 
85 FB 
M 00 

20 02 
FC D0 
FE 85 
OO 9C 
FF FO 
EC 15 
C9 00 
00 D0 
4 9 FF 
60 OD 
C9 01 

09 49 
D0 60 
60 C9 
FO 9 
IB DO 

00 60 

01 FO 
80 10 

10 DO 
C0 01 
00 80 
BD 17 
C9 13 
48 AO 
2F 4A 

79 00 

03 90 

80 10 
8D 0C 
03 C8 



41 
52 
20 



15 A9 24 

15 20 CF 
40 72 
4E 09 
4F AB 

FO 05 B6 

3 9 IC 8 6 
FD A5 DE 
EB BA 53 
FF A2 C4 
IC A2 4E 
A9 00 2F 

16 a6 96 

01 20 CI 
A2 FF 27 
Fl 08 6E 
20 BA 3 5 
A0 IC 28 
FF AO AO 
A2 00 F0 
00 A2 87 
AD 0E E3 
8 AD 3 
DO F7 07 
8D IF 9C 
54 41 9C 
A9 0B 30 
80 39 38 
15 20 6F 
45 4E 9C 
00 EE D4 
3A IC 7D 
IF ID 21 
3C IC 32 
20 85 12 
85 FC 68 
0E IC F6 
2B A9 A0 
A9 01 F7 
CE 0E CF 
A9 84 BB 
A 9 5 7C 

04 20 CB 
20 20 47 
4F 52 9C 
00 Bl DF 
00 F7 A4 
FB 85 ID 
FO 5 9 D7 
FB A5 B4 
00 Bl AA 
00 F7 65 
A 5 FC 70 
Bl FB 0F 
FF E6 EC 
EO AS 11 
FC F0 C0 
A9 00 87 
FB C9 E9 
4C Fl D3 
00 F9 74 
15 8A EO 
2D 15 C6 
15 00 73 
D0 15 03 
FF 20 15 

00 IC 01 

02 00 41 
49 FF 81 
60 00 30 
C9 03 CI 
09 49 38 
DO 6 EC 
60 C9 80 
F0 09 94 

17 DO 9D 
DO 60 50 
DO 4A 42 

01 84 70 
AA 90 53 
DO 99 06 
08 AD 26 
DO A5 58 

03 b9 IF 
C8 18 9b 



84 COMPUTEI'S Gazelle May 1988 



1749:26 


02 


D0 


CE 


68 


63 


85 


02 


04 


19F1:FC 


85 


FC 


60 


AS 


03 


A2 


08 


0B 


1C99:D2 


46 C6 49 4F 51 56 43 E9 


1751:AD 


0C 


03 


AE 


00 


03 


AC 


0E 


80 


19F9: 20 


B4 


lA 


20 


49 


19 


05 


C3 


CC 


1CA1:C4 


D3 CC 94 14 C3 5A 57 CF 


1759:03 


60 


C9 


06 


DO 


35 


A5 


03 


64 


1A01:C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


35 


1CA9:07 


CD D8 D9 DA 24 6C OB 45 


1761:'10 


A5 


02 


48 


84 


03 


A0 


01 


54 


1A09:C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C9 


43 


1CB1:EE 


09 81 0B 7B OB 9F 0D 06 


1769: 84 


02 


aa 


8A 


F0 


IE 


4fi 


AA 


53 


lAll;0a 


A9 


06 


BD 


21 


IC 


20 


4F 


52 


1CB9:87 


0B E6 0B E9 OB EC 0B 66 


1771:90 


13 


38 


B9 


00 


00 


E5 


03 


61 


1A19:1A 


20 


49 


19 


DD 


20 


20 


20 


EC 


ICC 1 ; EF 


OB F2 0B F5 0B FB OB 9C 


1779:99 


00 


DQ 


B0 


08 


AO 


10 


DO 


81 


1A21:20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


55 


1CC9:FB 


0B 0F OC 37 0C 43 0C El 


1781:45 


02 


80 


10 


D0 


CB 


CB 


18 


D8 


1A29: 20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


DD 


00 


CE 


C2 


lCDli69 


0C 6F 0C 7 5 0C 7F 0C 5 7 


1789: 26 


02 


90 


OF 


66 


85 


02 


63 


21 


1A31:21 


IC 


00 


E2 


20 


4F 


lA 


2B 


07 


1CD9:85 


0C 92 OC CA flC F7 0C 6D 


1791:85 


03 


60 


C9 


07 


00 


lA 


98. 


34 


1A39: 49 


19 


CA 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


66 


1CE1:16 


0D 39 0D 4a OD 77 0D EA 


1799:48 


A0 


00 


8A 


F0 


11 


4A 


AA 


C7 


1A41:C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


C3 


75 


1CE9:4C 


OE 60 OE 15 10 72 10 96 


17fil: 90 


09 


68 


48 


18 


79 


01 


00 


65 


1A491C3 


C3 


C3 


CB 


00 


60 


EE 


22 


07 


1CF1:70 


OE 2C 12 64 14 61 14 D6 


17fi9: 99 


01 


D0 


C8 


CB 


OO 


EC 


68 


57 


1A51:1C 


AE 


22 


IC 


AC 


23 


IC 


18 


87 


1CF9:0C 


10 15 11 79 11 CD lA IE 


17B1: S0 


C9 


08 


00 


IE 


A5 


02 


48 


64 


1A59:4C 


F0 


FF 


A0 


00 


78 


C6 


01 


6A 


1D01:CA 


BF B9 OF 55 0C IB 0C A9 


1789:94 


02 


A0 


00 


BA 


F0 


10 


4A 


41 


1A61:B1 


FB 


E6 


01 


53 


60 


AD 


09 


03 


1009:29 


OC IE 12 A2 15 00 00 29 


1 7C 1 : ftA 


90 


08 


B9 


01 


00 


E5 


02 


IF 


1A69: IC 


0A 


0A 


0A 


AB 


ca 


A2 


00 


BD 








17C9:99 
1701:85 


01 
02 


D0 
60 


CB 
C9 


C8 
09 


D0 
F0 


ED 
OB 


68 
C9 


79 
D7 


1A71:CA 
1A79!00 


00 
80 


FD 
0A 


88 
IC 


D0 
8D 


FB 
0B 


60 
IC 


A9 
20 


5C 
05 


Machine language 


17D9: 15 
17E1:F0 
17E9:04 


D0 
05 
A5 


4A 
A5 

03 


A5 
04 

48 


04 
48 
A5 


48 
A9 
02 


A9 
FF 
48 


00 

85 
18 


FE 
20 
46 


1A81:CF 
1AB9:FD 
1A91:FE 


19 
85 
60 


20 
FD 
E6 


08 
A5 
PD 


19 
FE 
00 


60 
69 
02 


18 
00 

E6 


65 
85 

FE 


55 
5B 
75 


Programming 


17F1:AD 


88 


02 


69 


03 


85 


03 


A9 


CD 


lA99:6a 


18 


65 


FB 


85 


FB 


A5 


FC 


04 


Article on paf;e 56. 


17F9:Fa 


85 


02 


9S 


48 


A0 


00 


3A 


IF 


1AA1:69 


00 


85 


FC 


60 


E6 


FB 


00 


72 








1801:F0 


18 


4A 


AA 


90 


11 


18 


A5 


42 


1AA9:02 


ee 


FC 


60 


A9 


14 


AO 


00 


10 


File Stripper 


1809:04 
leil: 04 


□ 

68 


06 
48 


68 
71 


48 
02 


PO 
91 


06 
02 


DO 
C8 


99 
AO 


1AB1:4C 
1AB9: IC 


ac 

18 


16 
4C 


BE 
FO 


22 
FF 


IC 
20 


8C 
D8 


23 
19 


98 

E5 


HF 


100 


DATA 72,162,2,32,201,25 
5,104,32,21(3,255,32,204 
,255,96 


1819:00 


E5 


SB 


6B 


35 


02 


68 


85 


49 


1AC1:A0 


3F 


20 


5E 


lA 


99 


A7 


02 


88 






1821: 03 


68 


85 


04 


60 


C9 


0A 


F0 


OD 


laC9:88 


10 


F7 


60 


20 


F5 


19 


A2 


F8 






1829:04 


C9 


14 


D0 


39 


A5 


04 


48 


OE 


1AO1:09 


AH 


04 


20 


B4 


lA 


20 


49 


CC 


SD 


110 


DATA 162,0,134,252,162, 


1831:A5 


03 


48 


A5 


02 


48 


18 


AD 


67 


1AD9: 19 


43 


48 


41 


4E 


47 


45 


20 


C2 






1, 32,198,255,32,228,255 


1839: 8a 


02 


69 


03 


85 


03 


A9 


FB 


10 


lAEl: 50 


4F 


53 


49 


54 


49 


4F 


4E 


C5 






,72 


1841:85 


02 


84 


04 


AH 


00 


8A 


FB 


90 


1AE9: 53 


00 


20 


4F 


lA 


20 


49 


19 


BO 


CH 


120 


DATA 32,204,255,104,166 


1849: 10 


4ft 


AA 


90 


09 


Dl 


02 


E5 


66 


1AF1:20 


52 


45 


54 


55 


52 


4E 


20 


69 






,144,134,253,166,252 


1851: 04 


91 


02 


80 


0C 


03 


C8 


00 


CF 


1AF9: 54 


4F 


20 


45 


58 


49 


54 


00 


15 


JO 


130 


DATA 240,21,162,13,201, 


185 9: ED 


68 


85 


02 


68 


B5 


03 


68 


33 


1B01:20 


4F 


lA 


20 


49 


19 


53 


50 


06 






32,240,6,162,32,201,13 


1861:35 


04 


AD 


0C 


03 


60 


C9 


OB 


04 


1B09: 52 


49 


54 


45 


20 


4E 


4F 


20 


92 


XJ 


140 


DATA 240,15,72,138,32,0 


1869:D0 


2B 


AS 


02 


48 


98 


43 


A0 


77 


IBll: 3E 


20 


00 


A9 


00 


8D 


IE 


IC 


97 






,32,104,76,66,32,162,1 


187l!FE 


84 


02 


A0 


00 


8A 


F0 


18 


B0 


1B19:B0 


IF 


IC 


A9 


03 


8D 


20 


IC 


CE 


KG 


150 


DATA 201,13,240,5,32,0, 


ia79:4A 


AA 


90 


0D 


68 


4B 


99 


00 


F3 


1B21:A9 


0B 


BD 


58 


13 


20 


56 


13 


FE 






32,162,0,134,252 


1881:00 


AO 


10 


00 


25 


02 


3D 


10 


F0 


1B29:48 


20 


4F 


lA 


20 


58 


15 


20 


C3 


EM 


160 


DATA 166,253,240,197,16 


iaa9:D0 


C8 


C8 


38 


26 


02 


B0 


E5 


71 


1B31:49 


19 


4D 


4F 


56 


45 


20 


57 


50 






9,13,166,252,240,3,32,0 


1891:68 


6a 


85 


02 


60 


C9 


0C 


D0 


F3 


1B39: 49 


54 


48 


20 


4A 


4F 


59 


53 


C9 






,32,96 


1899: 2A 


A5 


02 


48 


98 


43 


AO 


01 


35 


1B41:54 


4B 


00 


20 


4f 


lA 


20 


49 


E2 


AJ 


200 


FOR J=ai92 TO BZ78 


ieAl:84 


02 


BB 


BA 


FB 


18 


4A 


AA 


75 


1B49: 19 


20 


20 


20 


50 


52 


45 


53 


C3 


EJ 


210 


READ X:T-T+X 


ISA 9: 90 


00 


68 


48 


99 


00 


D0 


AO 


13 


1B51: 53 


20 


46 


49 


52 


45 


00 


20 


5E 


BP 


220 


POKE J,X 


iaBi:ia 


D0 


05 


02 


8D 


10 


OO 


C8 


F5 


1B59: 4F 


lA 


20 


49 


19 


20 


20 


20 


FF 


AE 


230 


NEXT J 


18B9:CS 


18 


26 


02 


90 


E5 


68 


68 


8E 


lB6l!57 


48 


45 


4B 


20 


44 


4F 


4E 


El 


XB 


240 


IF T<>1062a THEN STOP 


lacises 

18C9:48 


02 
A0 


60 
00 


C9 
8A 


OD 
FB 


bo 
00 


16 
4A 


93 
AA 


4E 
E9 


1B69:45 
1B71: IC 


2E 
A9 


00 
01 


AD 
80 


01 
01 


IC 
IC 


80 
63 


3B 
AA 


77 
OD 


DH 


300 


INPUT "HAME OF TEXT FIL 

E";NS 

OPEN 15,8,15 

OPEN 1,8,3,NS 

INPUTI15,e,ES,El,E2:IF 

(SPACE)E<>0 THEN PRINT 

{SPACEtESiGOTO 500 


18D1: 90 


05 


6B 


4S 


99 


01 


DO 


C8 


58 


1B79:F0 


06 


OE 


01 


IC 


CA 


D0 


FA 


24 


AA 


310 
320 
330 


18D9!C8 


D0 


F0 


68 


60 


C9 


0E 


00 


5E 


1B31:AD 


00 


DC 


49 


FF 


29 


IF 


C9 


6B 


18E1:15 
18E9:4A 
18F1:D0 


98 
AA 
C8 


48 
90 
00 


A0 
05 

Fl 


00 

68 
6B 


BA 
48 
60 


F0 
99 
C9 


0C 
27 

0F 


ED 
OB 
5D 


lB89:la 
1B91:4C 
1B99:4C 


F0 
A9 
A9 


20 
IB 
IB 


6A 
6A 
SA 


90 
90 
90 


05 
05 
05 


A9 
A9 
A9 


08 
07 
06 


44 
55 
5C 


1BF9:D0 


04 


8C 


25 


00 


60 


C9 


10 


23 


1HA1:4C 


A9 


IB 


6A 


90 


DA 


ft9 


05 


BA 






1901:00 


04 


8C 


26 


00 


60 


C9 


11 


3D 


1BA9:AE 


01 


IC 


A0 


01 


20 


8C 


16 


BC 


EG 


340 


INPUT "NAME OF <HEW> Ft 
XEO FILE";FS 


1909:D0 


04 


AO 


IE 


00 


60 


C9 


12 


E9 


1BQ1:A0 


20 


20 


6F 


lA 


4C 


81 


IB 


5B 






1911:D0 


04 


AD 


IF 


00 


60 


C9 


16 


06 


iaB9:A0 


00 


AD 


01 


IC 


4A 


FO 


06 


F7 


DM 


350 


OPEN 2,a,4,FSt",S,W" 


1919:00 


2B 


A9 


00 


80 


15 


DO 


8D 


A3 


1BC1:C3 


C9 


C8 


4A 


DO 


FA 


BC 


IE 


F5 


HD 


360 


ItIP[JTtl5,E,ES,El,E2:IF 


1921: IC 


00 


80 


ID 


00 


8D 


17 


D0 


04 


1BC9: IC 


A9 


13 


AE 


01 


IC 


A0 


00 


7P 






(SPACE}E<>0 THEN PRIHT 
{SPACElES:GOTO 500 


1929:A0 


10 


99 


00 


00 


B8 


10 


FA 


A6 


lBDl!20 


8C 


16 


8D 


21 


IC 


8E 


22 


8F 






1931:A0 


98 


99 


27 


D0 


33 


10 


FA 


IF 


1BD9: IC 


8C 


23 


IC 


AC 


IE 


IC 


AD 


2B 


QJ 


370 


sys 8206 


1939:80 


25 


00 


80 


26 


D0 


AD 


IB 


5C 


IBEI: 21 


IC 


F0 


02 


A9 


01 


99 


4F 


CI 


XB 


3 80 


INPUT(15,E,ES,E1,E2; IF 


1941:00 


AD 


IF 


DO 


60 


A9 


FF 


60 


42 


1BE9: IC 


C8 


AD 


22 


IC 


99 


4F 


IC 


3A 






(space)e<>0 then print 


1949:68 


80 


6A 


19 


AA 


68 


8D 


6B 


6F 


lBFl!C8 


AD 


23 


IC 


99 


4F 


IC 


AD 


OE 






(SPACE)ES!G0T0 500 


1951:19 


AB 


EB 


D0 


01 


C8 


8A 


20 


C4 


1BF9: 3B 


IC 


8D 


01 


IC 


4C 


Fl 


08 


94 


HK 


500 


CLOSE 2 


1959! IE 


AB 


38 


93 


60 


6A 


19 


AA 


08 


1C01:00 


00 


00 


08 


00 


00 


00 


00 


60 


AH 


510 


CLOSE 1 


L96l:A9 


00 


60 


SB 


19 


48 


3A 


48 


14 


lC09:a5 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


C3 


EQ 


520 


CLOSE 15 


1959:60 


00 


00 


AO 


00 


AD 


86 


02 


9B 


1C11:00 


7F 


BF 


DF 


EF 


F7 


FB 


FD 


74 








1971:99 


00 


D8 


99 


00 


D9 


99 


00 


BF 


1C19:FE 


3F 


CF 


F3 


FC 


00 


00 


00 


CI 


1 *" 


\n 


k 1-aK r-> 1. • _ _ 


1979:DA 


99 


00 


OB 


CB 


D0 


Fl 


60 


0B 


lC21:0a 


00 


00 


90 


05 


IC 


9F 


9C 


d6 


l^o fviam uraonics 


1981:48 


SD 


21 


IC 


18 


A2 


03 


AO 


13 


1C29:1E 


IF 


9E 


31 


95 


96 


97 


93 


F2 






1 


1989:04 


20 


F0 


FF 


4E 


21 


IC 


B0 


C3 


1C31:99 


9A 


9a 


01 


01 


00 


00 


83 


EB 


Ar icle an navp 67. 


1991J0F 


33 


20 


F0 


FF 


C8 


C8 


C8 


E9 


1C39:00 


00 


00 


46 


49 


4C 


45 


4E 


2A 






r o' -' ' 


1999:C8 
19A1:68 


IS 
AA 


20 
20 


F0 
AD 


FF 
lA 


4C 
AE 


3D 
0D 


19 
IC 


AE 
53 


1C41: 41 
1049:45 


4D 

52 


45 
45 


20 

50 


49 
2C 


4E 
57 


20 

00 


48 
38 


24 
5D 


Program 1: Math Graphics Demo 


19A9:F0 


08 


20 


49 


19 


20 


20 


20 


98 


1C51:32 


00 


58 


32 


00 


78 


32 


00 


17 


FS 


1000 


REM COPlfRIGHT 1988 COM 


19B1:00 


60 


C9 


64 


B0 


12 


48 


A9 


33 


1C59:98 


32 


00 


Be 


32 


00 


DB 


32 


6B 






PUTGI PUBLICATIONS, IN 


19B9: 30 


20 


D2 


FF 


68 


C9 


OA 


B0 


95 


1C61:00 


F8 


32 


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32 


00 


38 


EF 






C. - ALL RIGHTS RESERV 


19C1:07 


48 


A9 


30 


20 


D2 


FF 


6B 


76 


1C69:32 


00 


5B 


32 


00 


78 


32 


00 


2F 






ED 


19C9:AA 


A9 


00 


4C 


CD 


BD 


A9 


D8 


12 


1C71:93 


32 


00 


S3 


32 


00 


08 


32 


83 


JS 


1010 


PRINT'MCLR) t3 SPACESiC 


1901:85 


FE 


A9 


AO 


85 


FD 


60 


AE 


59 


1C79:00 


F8 


32 


01 


18 


32 


93 


13 


0A 






OPYRIGHT 19aa COMPUTE! 


1909:01 


IC 


20 


AD 


lA 


A2 


06 


35 


5F 


1CB1:2B 


20 


OB 


DD 


85 


89 


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8A 


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PUB., INC.":PRIKTTAB[ 


19E1:FB 


A9 


00 


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FC 


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FB 


26 


F2 


1C89!87 


8B 


88 


8C 


58 


59 


4D 


53 


53 






11) "ALL RIGHTS RESERVE 


19E9:FC 


CA 


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F9 


18 


A9 


80 


65 


04 


1C91:31 


32 


33 


34 


52 


4C 


55 


44 


4B 






D" 



COMPUTED QazBllB May 1983 S5 



BD 1020 
FB 1930 
JQ ia4B 

PX 1050 

CX 1060 

DO 1070 

CE 1080 

BE 1090 

GP 1100 

KJ 1110 

XP 1120 
EF 1130 
CJ 1140 
KK 1150 

JK 1160 

EJ 1170 

HF 1180 

QJ 1190 

HH 1200 

CP 1210 

BC 1220 

FH 1230 



BM 1240 
PC 12 50 

FP 1260 



BJ 1270 



RD 1280 



fiE 12 90 



SLEEP3 

GOSUB 2890(2 SPftCES):R 

EM INITIALIZE 

GOSUB 2410{2 SPACESirR 

EM STAR 

GOSUB 1330(2 SPACES}:R 

EM TWISTED BAND 

GOSUB 203O{2 SPACES) :R 

EM SPIRAL CONE 

GOSUB 2230{2 SPACES) :R 

EM SIDE SPIRAL CONE 

GOSUB 1600{2 SPACES) :H 

EM SPIKES 

GOSUB 1170{2 SPACES):R 

EH RIGHT OVAL 

COSUB 1860{2 SPACES):R 

EM MULTILOHE 

GRAPHIC CLR 

END 

REM RIGHTOVAL 



RD 1300 

RG 1310 

GC 1320 

XJ 1330 

OF 1340 

GF 1350 

RM 1360 

AH 1370 

OG 1380 

BD 1390 

JE 1400 

RH 1410 

MK 1420 

PA 1430 

CE 1440 

HK 1450 



AP 14 60 
ME 1470 

JJ 1480 



GRAPHIC 1,1 

Rl-150 

R2"25 

R3-25 

R4-a5 

IHC=X''64 

TS="RIGHT OVAL" 

{5 SPACES) :GOSUB 2770 

{5 SPACES) :REH PRINT T 

ITLE 

COLOR 1,6 

FOR THETA'0 TO 2*X STE 

P INC 

: (3 SPACES)RR"R1 

(3 SPACES) :TT-THETA 

{3 SPACES) :GOSUB 2670 

(SPACE) !X1=P0LARX 

: {3 SPACES)RH=R2 

{3 SPACES] :TT=THETA 

C3 SPACES) :GOSUB 2720 

(SPACE) :^1=P0LARV 

: (3 SPACES)RR = R3 

(3 SPACES) :TT=THETA+X 

isPACE}:GOSUB 2670 :)t2 

=POLARX 

: (3 SPACES)RR = R4 

{3 SPACES) :TT=THEAT+J 

{SPACE} :GOSUB 2720 :Y2 

=POLARY 

:(3 SPACES)DRAW 1,X1,V 

1 TO X2,V2 

: (3 SPACES)GET AS:IF A 

SO"" THEN RETURN 

NEXT THETA 

GOSUB 2820(2 SPACES) 

EM GET A KEYPRESS 

RETURN 



R 



REM TWISTED BAND - 



GRAPHIC 1,1 

Rl"150 

R2-35 

R3'65 

R4 = B5 

INC=X/6* 

0S=X/3 

TS" TWISTED BAND" 

{3 SPACES) SGOSUB 2770 
(SPACE) :BEM PRINT TITL 

E 

COLOR 1,7 

FOR THETA = TO 2'X ^'^^ 

P INC 

: (3 SPACES)RR=R1 

(3 SPACES) :TT'TKETA 

(3 SPACES) iGOSUB 2670 

(SPACE):X1=P0LARX 



ES 1490 



SF 1500 



JH 1S10 

AB 1520 

DJ 1530 

XD 154 

FH 1550 

KD 1560 

RE 1570 

OX 1580 

HF 1590 

DC 1600 

KS 1610 

FE 1620 

PA 1630 

PE 1640 

XJ 1650 

GR 1660 

CB 1670 

ER 1680 

CH 1690 

RA 1700 

GS 1710 



EJ 1720 



RC 1730 



DC 1740 



KX 1750 

RA 1760 
EC 1770 

QH 17 80 

MB 1790 
FB 1800 
AH 1810 

MD 1820 
JE 1830 
HR 1840 



:(3 SPACES 
(3 SPACES) 
(3 SPACES) 
{SPACE):Y1 
!(3 SPACES 
(3 SPACES) 
(3 SPACES} 
(SPACE} !X2 
:(3 SPACES 
(3 SPACES} 
:GOSUB 272 
: {3 SPACES 
1 TO X2,Y2 
:{3 SPACES 
S<>"" THEN 
NEXT THETA 
GOSUB 2820 
EM GET A K 
RETURN 



)fiR=R2 
;TT=THETA 
:GOSUB 2720 
=POLARY 
)RR=R3 
:TT -THETA 
iGOSUB 2670 
■POLAfiX 
)RR"R4 

:TT=THETA+OS 
:Y2=P0LAR¥ 
}DRAW 1,X1,Y 

}GET AS:IF A 
RETURN 

(2 SPACES) :B 
EYPRESS 



HEM SPIKES 



GRAPHIC 1,1 

Rl=115 

R2=85 

R3 = 40 

R4 = 4S 

INCl-X/3 

INC2-X/6 

TS="SPrKES"(5 SPACES}: 

gosub 2770 :rem print 
{space)title 

K = 2 

FOR T1=0 TO 2*X STEP I 

NCI 

: [3 SPACES) FOR T2=0 TO 

2*X STEP INC2 
: (7 SPflCES)Rfi=Rl 
(3 SPACES} :TT=T2 
(2 SPACES):GOEUB 2670 
(SPACE} :X1=P0LARX 
; {7 SPACES)RR=R2 
(3 SPACES) :TT=T1 
(2 SPACES):GOSUB 2720 
{SPACE} :Y1-P0LARY 
: (7 SPACES) RR^RB 
(3 SPACES) :TT=T1 
[2 SPACES) iGOSUB 2670 
(SPACE) :X2=P0LARX 
: {7 SPACES)RR=R4 
{3 SPACES] !TT=T2 
(2 SPACES):GOSUB 2720 
{SPACE] !Y2-P0LARy 
: (7 SPACES)K = K + 1: IF K" 
17 THEH K-2 
: (7 SPACES) CO LOB 1,K 
:{7 SPRCES)DRAW 1,X1,Y 
1 TO X2,Y2 

: (7 SPACES}GET AfilF A 
SO"" THEN RETURN 
: (3 SPftCES}NEXT T2 
NEXT Tl 

GOSUB 2820(2 SPACES);R 
EM GET A KEYPRESS 
RETURN 

REM HULTILOBE 



GF 18 50 : 

GH 1B60 GRAPHIC 1,1 

FQ 1870 Rl=100 

FF 1880 INC-X/128 

PF 1890 LOBES-4 

CS 1900 TS="MULTILOBE" 

{2 SPACES) IGOSUB 2770 

{SPACE) iREH PRINT TITL 

E 
PG 1910 COLOR 1,8 
SJ 1920 FOR THETA=0 TO 2'X STE 

P INC 
PO 1930 :{3 SPACBS)R2=R1*SIN(L 



MX 1940 



ER 1950 



HD 1960 

RP 1970 

MQ 1980 

DE 1990 

PR 2000 

PS 2010 

XE 2020 

BX 2030 

t'R 2040 

FG 20 50 

OB 2060 

CM 20 70 

RM 2080 

KS 2090 

PF 2100 



RB 2110 
CQ 2120 

AX 2130 



JG 2140 



CS 2150 

SA 2160 

FP 2170 

JS 21B0 

XP 2190 

PM 2200 

QD 2210 

BP 2Z20 

FK 2230 

EE 2240 

CP 2250 

KJ 2260 

HP 2270 

DH 2280 



PC 2290 
BB 2300 

HM 2310 



BE 2320 

AF 2330 

KF 2340 

MG 2350 

PK 2360 

AE 2370 

CG 2380 



OBES "THETA) 
:{3 SPACES) 
(3 SPACES}: 
{ 3 S PAC ES ) ; 
{SPACE) :X1= 
!(3 SPACES] 
(3 SPACES) ! 
{3 SPACES) : 
{SPACE):Y1= 
I (3 SPACES} 
TER,YCENTER 
:{3 SPACES) 
SO"" THEN 
NEXT THETA 
GOSUB 2820( 
EM GET A KE 
RETURN 



RR-R2 

TT=THETA 
GOBOB 2670 
POLARX 
RR''R2 
TT-THETA 
GOSUB 2720 
POLARY 
DRAW 1,XCEN 

TO XI, Yl 
GET ASilF A 
RETURN 

3 SPACES} :R 
YPRESS 



REM SPIRAL CONE -~ 



GRAPHIC 1,1 

Rl=100 

R2 = 85 

INC=X/G2 

INC=X/80 

LOBES "3 

TS="SPIRAL CONE" 

(4 SPACES):GOS0B 2770 

(SPACE) JREM PRINT TITL 

E 

COLOR 1,5 

FOR THETA=0 TO 2*1 STE 

P INC 

: (3 SPACES)RR-R1 

(3 SPACES} :TT=THETA*LO 

BES :GOSUB 2670 :X1=P0 

LAHX 

: (3 SPACESjRR'-RZ 

(3 SPACES] iTT^THETA 

(7 SPACES] :GOSUB 2720 

{SPACE) :Y1=P0LAHY 

:{3 SPACES]DRAW 1,XCEN 

TER,yCENTER TO XI, Yl 

: (3 SPACES)GET AS:IF A 

SO"" THEN RETURN 

NEXT THETA 

GOSOB 2820(2 SPACES)!R 

EM GET A KEYPRESS 

RETURN 

HEM SIDE SPIRAL CO 

HE 

GRAPHIC 1,1 

Rl=130 

RZ = 80 

INC=X/160 

LOBE3=3 

TS="SIDE SPIRAL CONE" 

{3 SPACES):GOSUB 2770 

(SPACE) :REM PRINT TITL 

E 

COLOR 1,15 

FOR THETA-0 TO 2*X STE 

P INC 

! (3 SPACES)RR=R1 

{3 SPACES]:TT=THETA 

{7 SPACES) :GOSUB 2670 

(SPACE) :X1=P0LARX 

: (3 SPACES]RR = R2 

(3 SPACES) :TT=THETA»LO 

BES iGOSUB 2720 i Y1"P0 

LARY 

: (3 SPACES}DRAW l.XCEN 

TEH,YCENTER TO XI, Yl 

: (3 SPACES]GET AS:IF A 

SO"" THEN RETURN 

NEXT THETA 

GOSUB 2B20(2 SPACES):R 

EM GET A KEYPRESS 

RETURN 



ee COMPUTBs Gaieao May 19S8 



SH 2390 REM — STAR 



AG 2400 
EE 2410 
KD 2420 
QG 2430 
GF 2440 
GK 2450 
JK 2460 
BB 2470 
DK 2480 



CB 2490 

PH 2 500 

CS 2510 

KF 2520 

BP 2530 

QH 2540 

Sft 2550 

AJ 2560 

QB 2570 

DQ 2SB0 

XE 2590 

RA 2E00 

ED 2610 

HK 2620 

RG 2630 

BG 2640 

RK 2650 

PJ 2660 

SE 2670 

CJ 2680 

AM 2690 

GR 2700 

GM 2710 

SQ 2720 

HM 2730 

XR 274 

PD 2750 

BS 2760 

QP 2770 

ES 2700 

RB 2790 

BF 2800 

XB 2 810 

FC 2820 

QG 2830 



CA 2840 

GC 2850 

OF 2660 

QF 2870 

CG 2880 
HB 2890 
BJ 2900 
J5 2910 



GRAPBIC 1,1 

Rl=115 

R2 = B5 

R3 = 40 

R4 = 45 

INCl=r/3 

INC 2 =1/6 

TS = ''STAR"(4 SPACES):G0 

sub 2770 :rem phiht ti 

TLE 

K = 2 

FOR Tl'0 TO 2*X STEP I 

NCI 

:{3 SPACES)FOR T2=0 TO 

2"X STEP INC2 
: (7 SPACES)RR"Rl 
{3 SPftCES} :TT-T2+1:G0S 
UB 2670 :X1"P0LARX 
:{7 SPACES}HR=H2 
(3 SPACES} :TT=T2+1:G0S 
UB 2720 :Y1-P0LARY 
: (7 SPACESlRR=R3 
(3 SPACES) :TT-T1 
{2 SPACES):GOSUB 2670 
{SPACE} !X2"P0LARX 
: {7 SPACES)RR=R4 
(3 SPACES} !TT=T1 
{2 SPACES}!GOSUB 2720 
{SPACE} !Y2=P0LARy 
: {7 SPACES}K=K+l:IF K= 
17 THEN K'-2 
: {7 SPACBS)COLOR 1,K 
: (7 SPACESjOHftW 1,X1,V 
1 TO X2,Y2 

; {7 SPACESlGET A5:IF A 
SO"" THEN RETURN 
: {3 SPACESlNEXT T2 
NEXT Tl 

G03UB 2820(9 3PflCES}:R 
EM GET A KEYPRESS 
RETURN 



REM POLARX 



POCARX-RH'COB (TT)+XCEN 

TER 

RETURN 



REM POLARY 



POLARY-RR*SIN{TT)+YCEN 

TEH 

RETURN 

HEM PRINT TITLE — 



COLOR 1,13:CHAR 1,0,0, 

TS 

RETURN 

REM GET A KEYPRESS 



SLEEP 3 

COLOR IflSiCHftR 1,7,24 

."PRESS ANY KEY TO CON 

TINUE" 

GETKEY AS 

RETURN 

REM INITIALIZE 



XCENTER=151 

YCENTEB=93 

COLOR 0,1{3 SPACES):RE 



M BACKGROUND 
FR 2920 COLOR 4,1{3 SPACES] :RE 

M BORDER 
CK 2930 RETURN 

Program 2: Math Graphics Tool 
Kit 

FS 1000 REM COPYRIGHT 1998 COM 
PUTEl PUBLICATIONS, IN 
C. - ALL RIGHTS RESERV 
ED 

JS 1010 PHIHT"'{CLR) !3 SPACES}C 

OPYRIGHT 1938 COMPUTEl 

PUB., IfIC.":PRINTTAB( 

11) "ALL RIGHTS RESERVE 

D" 

BD 1020 SLEEP3 

FB 1030 : 

GK 1040 GOSUB 1090 

FK 1050 GOSUB 1440 

GP 1060 GOSUB 1640 

GC 1070 END 

EF 10B0 : 

EF 1090 REM INITIALIZE 



GF 1100 

FH 1110 

PG 1120 

RX 1130 

KR 1140 

QD 1150 

JK 1160 

JM 1170 



BJ 11B0 

KE 1190 

KR 1200 

RJ 1210 

GX 1220 

PC 1230 

JR 1240 

Pft 1250 

BQ 1260 

BJ 1270 

SE 1280 

PQ 1290 

BS 1300 

GC 1310 

AG 1320 



DIM R{19) :XCENTER-151: 

YCENTER=93 

DIM MS (25) ,X (25) ,Y(25) 

FOR 1=1 TO 25 

! {2 SPACESlREftD MS ( I ) , 

X(I) ,Y(I) 

NEXT I 

DATA "{rVS}a{0FF} HI = 

",1,1,"{RVS}b{0FF) R2 

{SPACEl=-",l,20 

DATA "{RVS}C(OFF} R3 » 

",2,1,"{BVS)D{0FF) R4 

{SPACE)=",2,Z0 

DATA "(RVE}E(0FF} THET 

A I'S S^TART " PI •'"",4, 

1 

DATA "(RVS)f{OFF} THET 

A I'S END[3 spaces!- P 

1 '",5,1 

DATA "{RVSlG(OFF} THET 

A I'S INC(3 spaces!- P 

I /"-6,1 

DATA "{RVS}HlOFFj THET 

A Z'S S^TAHT = PI ''",7, 

1 

DATA "{RVS)I{OFF} THET 

A 2'S END{3 spaces!" P 

I *",8,1 

DATA "(RVS)jJOFF) THET 

A 2'S ^NC{3 spaces!- P 

I /"-9,1 

DATA "{RVS)K{0FF) XI 'S 

OFFSETtS SPACES)' PI 
[SPACE}/", 10,1 
DATA "(RVE}L(0FF} Vl'S 

OFFSETiS SPACES]- PI 
(SPACE]/", 11,1 
DATA "(RVS}M(0FF) X2'S 

0FFSET(5 SPACES}- PI 
(SPACE]/", 12,1 
DATA "{RVS]N[OFF} YZ'S 

0FFSET(5 SPACES)" PI 
{SPACE]/", 13,1 
DATA "{RVSlO{OFF} XI U 
SES THETA[2 SPACES)",! 
4,1 

DATA "{RVS)P{0FF} Y1 U 
SES THETA(2 SPACES)", 1 
5,1 

DATA "(RVS)0{0FF) X2 U 
SES THETA{2 SPACES]",! 
6,1 

DATA "{RVS}r(OFP} Y2 U 
SES THETA(2 SPACES)", 1 
7,1 



RD 1330 

MG 1340 

SH 1350 

QM 1360 

GB 1370 

AF 1380 

EX 1390 

SG 1400 

JK 1410 

KK 1420 



DATA "(RVS}S 
R(11 SPACES) 
DATA "{BVS)T 

HATHGRAPHIC 
DATA "{RVS)U 

HATHGRAPHIC 
DATA "{RVS)V 
CT0HY",21,1 
DATA "(RVS)W 

MATHGRAPHIC 
DATA ^{RVS]X 
",22,1 

DATA "{HVS)Y 
AW MENU", 22, 
RETURN 



REM PRINT MENU 



(OFF) 


COLO 


= ",1B 


,1 


{off} 


LOAD 


",20, 


L 


{OFF} 


SAVE 


",20, 


20 


{OFF} 


DIRE 


{OFF} 


VIEW 


",21, 


20 


{OFF} 


guiT 


(OFF) 


REDR 


20 





CM 1430 : 

FJ 1440 GRAPHIC 0,1:COLOR 0,7: 

COLOR 4,7:COLOR5,2 
BK 1450 PRINT CHRS (14 )CHRS (11 ) 

AR 1460 PRINT"{A} "** i 128 MAT 
HGBAPHIC TOOL KIT j •■* 
^{S>" 

XD 1470 FOR I-l TO 22 

PK 1480 : (4 SPACES)PRINT"- 
(37 SPACES]-" 

BJ 1490 NEXT I 

BS 1500 : 

RB 1510 REM PRINT VALUES - 



MA 1520 1 

PF 1530 FOR 1=1 TO 25 

FR 1540 :{2 SPACES)SYS DEC["CC 

6A") ,,X[I) ,Y(I) 
BJ 1550 :{2 SPACES}PR1NT MS ( I ) 

; : IF I<20 THEN PRINT" 

{6 SPACES] (6 LEFT]"; 
HC 1560 ;{Z SPACES}IF I<=19 TH 

EN PRINTR(I) 
QJ 1570 :{2 SPACES}IF 1=3 OR I 

■19 THEN PRINT"fQ? *'** 

*********** 



SX 1580 

HF 1590 

BF 1600 

FF 1610 

ED 1620 

XH 1630 

DC 1640 

MX 1650 

CG 1660 

EF 1670 

SK 1680 

SM 1690 

RK 1700 

JF 1710 

BX 1720 

PM 1730 

AS 1740 

SR 1750 



fWJ"; 



NEXT I 



RETURN 

REM GET INPUT 



GOSUB 1880 

INPUT "SELECT ION =>";AS 

:AS=LEFTS [AS,1) 

IF AS<"A" OR AS>"Z" TH 

EN GOTO 164 

IF ftS<="S" THEN GOSUB 

(SPACE)1770:GOTO 1540 

IF AS="T" THEN GOSUB 2 
480:GOSUB 1530:GOTO 16 
40 

IF AS'="U" THEN GOSUB 2 
370:GOTO1640 
IF AS="V" THEN GOSUB 2 
290:GOSUB 1440!GOTO 16 
40 

IF AS="W" THEN GOSUB 1 
950:GOSUB 1440:GOTO 16 
40 

IF AS="X" THEN GRAPHIC 
CLR: PRINT" (CLR } "CHRS ( 
12); IRETURN 

IF AS-"Y" THEN GOSUB 1 
440:GOTO 1640 

REM NEW VALUE 



KA 1760 : 

AR 1770 GOSUB 1880 

CA 17B0 INPUT"NEW VALUE =>";KS 



COMPUTE'S Gazane May 1938 87 



:N-VAL (LEFTS (NS,5) ) 
GF 1790 A=ASC{AS)-64 
ftH 1800 H(A)=N 
BC 1810 SYS DEC{"CC6ft"l ,,X[A) , 

KQ 1B20 PRINT MS (A);: IF A<2a T 
HEN PRINT"{6 SPACES} 
{6 LEFT)"; 

HG 1530 PRINTR(A1 ; 

AF 1640 RETURN 

GF 1850 ! 

GP 1860 REM DRAW INPUT BOX 



QH 1870 : 

PE 1880 SYS DEC{"CC6A") ,,23,0: 

PRINTCHRS (27)+"e"; 
OE 1690 PRIHT"fa} '"' l 

{26 SPACEsT r**'** tX}"; 
MQ 1900 SYS DEC("CC6A") ,,23,7 
BK 1910 RETURN 
BK 1920 : 
QM 1930 REM DRAW GRAPH 



XP 


1940 




BX 


1950 


COLOR 0,1:COLOR 4,1;GR 
APHIC 1,1 


AA 


19G0 


IF R[19)-0 THEN K=l :E 
LSE K-R(19) 


JE 


1970 


COLOR 1,2:CHAR 1,0, 0,F 

S 

FOR Tl"r*H(51 TO l'?.(6 

) STEP X/R(7) 


CG 


1980 






GA 


1990 


: {3 SPACES)FOR T2=r"R[ 
S) TO r*R(9) STEP ■yR[ 










10) 


EB 


2000 


: {7 SPftCES)FOR N = l TO 
! SPACE) 4 


BP 


2010 


: (11 SPACES)RR-R(N) 


EC 


2020 


: {11 SPACES)IF H(14*N) 
-1 THEN TT'^Tl + r/Rllfl+N 
)!ELSE TT=T2*X/f (l^+'^l 






00 


2030 


: {11 SPACES)ON N GOSUB 

2170,2230,2170,2230 


JG 


2040 


: {7 SPflCESjNEXT N 


FO 


2050 


:{7 SPACES) IF R(19)=0 
{SPACE)THEN K-K + l! IF K 
>16 THEN K=2 


RC 


2060 


: {7 SPftCES)COLOR 1,K 


GA 


20 70 


: {7 SPACES)DRAW ,X1,Y1 
TO X2,Y2 


BB 


2080 


;{7 SPACESjGET AS:IF A 
SO"" THEN GRAPHIC 0,1 
:BETURN 


JD 


2090 


: {3 SPACES)NEXT T2 


FD 


2100 


NEXT Tl 


)tK 


2110 


COLOR 1,2:CHAR 1,7,24, 
"PRESS ANY KEY TO CONT 
INUE" 


FC 


2120 


GETKEY AS 


BE 


2130 


RETURN 


FG 


2140 


: 


KK 


2150 


REM POLARX 



DJ 2160 : 

SE 2170 P0LARX=RR*COS (TT)+XCEN 

TER 
XR 2180 IF N"l THEN X1=P0LARX! 

ELSE X2=P0LARX 
XP 2190 RETURN 
PH 2203 : 
PR 2210 REM POLARY 



BP 2220 : 

BR 2230 POLARY=RR«SIN (TT)+YCEN 

TER 
AH 2240 IF N=2 THEN Yl-POLARY: 

ELSE Y2=P0LARY 
BO 2250 RETURN 
FS 2260 : 
RR 2270 REM DIRECTORY 



EA 2280 ; 

OC 2290 PRINT'MCLRj"; 



MK 2300 


01 


REC 


TOR 


Y 










08E9:04 


20 


BS 


04 


20 


B3 


05 


E6 


22 


PP 2310 


PRINT 


: PRINT 


"<<PRESS 


AN 


08F1:22 


A5 


22 


20 


43 


05 


4C 


48 


Dl 




Y 


KEY 


TO 


CONTINUE>> 


i 


08F9:04 


78 


AD 


00 


IC 


09 


03 


8D 


32 


RA 2320 


GETKEY BS 










0901:00 


IC 


60 


7B 


AD 


00 


IC 


09 


5C 


QD 2330 


RETURN 












0909:0C 


DO 


F4 


20 


F2 


04 


A9 


EE 


DF 


GD 2340 


; 
















091l!8D 


OC 


IC 


AO 


00 


20 


D2 


05 


A5 


HS 2350 


REM - 


'- 


SAVE MG 








0919:20 


27 


05 


FO 


lA 


A9 


08 


B5 


Cl 




-- 











- 








0921T4A 


20 


BA 


05 


C6 


4A 


DO 


F9 


03 


JF 2360 


: 
















929:20 


27 


05 


FO 


0A 


20 


B3 


05 


02 


BQ 2370 


GOSUB 


2590! 


IF 


FSo"" 


TH 


0931:20 


27 


05 


FB 


02 


A9 


2D 


60 


3E 




EN 


RETURN 










0939:A2 


03 


20 


43 


05 


BA 


48 


20 


E8 


JK 2 380 


D0PEH#2, 


(FS) ,W 






0941: 5A 


05 


FO 


08 


6B 


AA 


CA 


10 


F3 


XB 23 90 


IF 


OS 


THEN 


;SYS DECC'C 


0949:F1 


A9 


20 


60 


6B 


A9 


00 


60 


13 




C6A") 


,,23,- 


: PRINT DSS; 


0951:A5 


18 


85 


22 


20 


4B 


F2 


85 


AB 




:SLEEP 3 


:GOTO 


2430 




0959:43 


AD 


00 


IC 


29 


9F 


ID 


56 


92 


GC 2400 


FOR I 


"1 


TO 


19 








0961:05 


8D 


00 


IC 


A9 


00 


60 


00 


29 


HO 2 Ale 


: {3 SPACESlPRINT#2,R [1 


969:20 


40 


60 


A9 


FF 


D0 


02 


A9 


33 




1 
NE 
















0971:00 


85 


4B 


A2 


64 


20 


DB 


05 


DB 


HD 2420 


KT 


T 












0979:00 


33 


50 


FE 


BB 


AD 


01 


IC 


55 


FE 2430 
BJ 2440 
BM 2450 


DCL0SE#2 
RETURN 












0981:09 
0989:50 
0991:00 


52 

FE 

ca 


DO 
BB 
CO 


2A 
AD 
08 


99 
01 
DO 


24 
IC 
F2 


00 
99 
BA 


C8 
24 
48 


EF 
45 
IE 


• 
















0999:20 


97 


F4 


68 


AA 


A9 


00 


45 


08 


ED 2460 


REM - 





LOAD f 


G 






09A1:1G 
09fl9:lA 


45 
FO 


17 
09 


45 

A9 


18 
27 


45 
60 


19 

CA 


C5 

D0 


15 


PQ 2470 












El 


: 
















09B1:C4 


A9 


20 


60 


A5 


4B 


D0 


06 


9C 


CD 2460 


GOSUB 


2590! 


IF 


FS-"" 


TH 


09B9:A5 


40 


C5 


19 


DO 


F0 


A9 


00 


09 




EN 


K&l UKH 










9C1:60 


20 


B3 


05 


AE 


00 


IC 


E8 


69 


BS 2490 


DO PEN 12, 


(F5) ,R 






09C9:4C 


Cl 


05 


20 


BD 


05 


AE 


00 


74 


EG 2500 


IF 


DS 


THEN 


:SYS DEC 


"C 


9D1:1C 


CA 


8A 


29 


03 


35 


44 


AD 


EC 




C6A") 


,,23,7 


: PRINT DSS! 


09D9:0O 


IC 


29 


FC 


05 


44 


SD 


00 


3C 




:SLEEP 3 


:GOTO 


2540 




9E1:1C 


AO 


06 


A2 


00 


CA 


DO 


FD 


DF 


BF 2510 


FOR I 


-1 


TO 


19 








09E9:B3 


D0 


FA 


60 


A9 


D0 


8D 


05 


8A 


FP 2520 


INPLIT»2, 


Ril) 








09F1:1B 


2C 


05 


18 


10 


0D 


2C 


00 


4A 


CJ 2530 


NEXT 


I 












9F9:1C 


30 


F6 


AD 


01 


IC 


BB 


A0 


6A 


AR 2 54 


DCt,OSE*Z 












0A01:00 


98 


60 


A9 


21 


60 


A9 


00 


BF 


BB 2550 


RETURN 












0A09:A0 


13 


99 


E0 


06 


88 


10 


FA 


E0 


RC 2 5 60 


: 
















0A11:60 


20 


F2 


04 


29 


10 


□ 


05 


2C 


HK 2570 


REM - 


— 


GET 


FILENAME - 


0A19:A9 
0A21:0C 
OA29:0O 


26 
IC 


4C 
A9 


91 
03 


06 
BD 


A9 

E5 


EE 
06 


8D 
A0 


70 
SB 


HD 2580 


. 
















20 


D2 


05 


CE 


E5 


06 


DO 


DA 


CK 2590 


GOSUB 


1680: 


PRINTCHRS(2 


0A31:F6 


20 


F5 


05 


20 


27 


05 


DO 


50 




7) 


+ "Q 


■I . 
I 












0A39:0S 


A5 


18 


C9 


24 


90 


02 


35 


47 


KP 2600 


INPUT 


"FILENAME =>":PS: 


0A41:22 


AS 


22 


C9 


24 


B0 


07 


E6 


89 




FS 


=LEFTS(FS 


,16) 






0A49: 22 


20 


B0 


05 


F0 


F3 


20 


EB 


50 


HC 2610 


RETURN 












0A5l!04 


A9 


CE 


8D 


OC 


IC 


fl9 


FF 


AS 




















0AS9:8D 


01 


IC 


BD 


03 


IC 


a9 


55 


02 




















0Aei:A2 


28 


A0 


00 


BC 


E4 


06 


50 


39 


1541 


s 


'P< 


^e 


d 


And 




0A69:FE 
0A71:CA 


BB 
D0 


8D 
F4 


01 
a2 


IC 
05 


38 
A9 


DO 
FF 


P7 
50 


89 
07 


Alignment 


Tester 




OA79:FE 
0A81:5O 


BB 

FE 


BD 
B8 


01 

20 


IC 

00 


CA 

FE 


DO 
20 


F7 
A0 


A2 
73 




















OA89:06 


D0 


17 


20 


97 


06 


DO 


12 


42 


See instructWJis 


in 


article 


on 


page 


0A91:8E 


E0 


06 


8C 


El 


06 


20 


97 


AD 


63 before 


typing in 












0A99:0G 


00 


07 


8E 


E2 


06 


BC 


E3 


DA 




















0AA1:06 


60 


BD 


E4 


06 


4C 


Q3 


04 


9D 


0801:0D 


OS 


OA 


00 


9E 


28 


32 


30 


05 


0AA9:A9 


00 


AA 


AB 


2C 


00 


IC 


10 


IC 


0809:36 


33 


29 


00 


00 


00 


4C 


Cl 


80 


0AB1:FB 


2C 


00 


IC 


10 


OB 


E8 


DO 


D3 


0811: 0A 


4C 


IE 


04 


4C 


CF 


04 


4C 


33 


0AB9:FB 


C8 


DH 


r5 


A9 


21 


BS 


GO 


99 


0B19:D8 


04 


4C 


9F 


04 


4C 


fi3 


04 


B6 


OAC1:20 


44 


E5 


AD 


21 


DO 


SD 


F5 


EB 


0921:4C 


3D 


06 


4C 


00 


06 


4C 


90 


6D 


0AC9: 13 


AD 


20 


D0 


BD 


F6 


13 


A9 


FB 


0829:04 


4C 


B3 


04 


4C 


CA 


04 


20 


BA 


SAD 1:90 


BD 


21 


D0 


8D 


20 


DO 


A2 


F3 


8 31: FA 


04 


D0 


0A 


A5 


18 


C9 


2E 


C9 


0AD9: 16 


A0 


00 


20 


8C 


OF 


A9 


16 


2D 


0839:90 


02 


A9 


ZC 


69 


01 


85 


22 


86 


0AE1:85 


02 


A9 


12 


85 


FB 


A9 


00 


FE 


0841:A5 


22 


C9 


01 


F0 


07 


20 


BA 


94 


0AE9:85 


FD 


A9 


08 


85 


FC 


A9 


04 


60 


0849:05 


C6 


22 


t>0 


F3 


A9 


01 


85 


AC 


0AFl:e5 


FE 


20 


D9 


OE 


20 


3A 


0E 


9D 


0B51: 18 


20 


3F 


05 


A2 


00 


20 


Cl 


C4 


0AF9:B1 


FB 


20 


AB 


FF 


C8 


CO 


20 


39 


0859:05 


A0 


00 


20 


D2 


05 


A9 


EE 


03 


OB01:90 


F6 


20 


4C 


0E 


20 


AE 


FF 


34 


0661:80 


OC 


IC 


20 


F5 


05 


A0 


00 


CS 


0B09:C6 


02 


DO 


E6 


20 


44 


E5 


A2 


0C 


0869:84 


4D 


20 


SE 


05 


FO 


04 


Aa 


8F 


OB 1 1 : 1 6 


AO 


00 


20 


BC 


OF 


A0 


14 


52 


0971:00 


D0 


18 


A5 


IB 


BD 


Fl 


06 


F3 


0B19:20 


C6 


13 


A0 


F3 


20 


C2 


13 


16 


0879:fi4 


22 


CC 


Fl 


06 


DO 


03 


EE 


85 


0321:20 


E4 


FF 


C9 


00 


F0 


F9 


C9 


9E 


0381:F2 


06 


C8 


CC 


Fl 


06 


D0 


03 


BE 


0B29:31 


F0 


4C 


C9 


32 


00 


03 


4C 


61 


0S89:EE 


F3 


06 


A4 


4D 


8a 


99 


EO 


Cl 


0B31:B0 


0C 


C9 


51 


DH 


Efl 


20 


80 


E3 


0891:06 


E6 


40 


A5 


4D 


C9 


11 


D0 


E6 


0B39:0F 


A9 


49 


20 


A8 


FF 


ft9 


30 


35 


0999:DL 


AD 


00 


IC 


29 


F7 


4C 


B8 


3A 


OB41:20 


AB 


FF 


A9 


3A 


20 


A8 


FF 


CF 


08A1:O4 


20 


FA 


04 


D0 


98 


A5 


IB 


A7 


0B49:20 


AE 


FF 


20 


30 


OF 


A9 


55 


06 


08A9:C9 


2E 


90 


92 


A9 


2D 


DO 


8E 


97 


0B51:20 


AB 


FF 


A9 


3A 


20 


A8 


FF 


DF 


08B1:78 


20 


BD 


05 


78 


A5 


22 


C9 


76 


0B59:A9 


00 


95 


A2 


A5 


A2 


C9 


40 


AA 


08B9: 12 


F0 


09 


90 


15 


C6 


22 


20 


61 


0B61:3O 


FA 


20 


AE 


FF 


20 


44 


E5 


2C 


08Cl:aA 


05 


F0 


Fl 


AD 


00 


IC 


29 


7C 


0B69:AD 


F5 


13 


8D 


21 


D0 


AD 


F6 


AD 


08C9:F3 


8D 


00 


IC 


A9 


EC 


BD 


0C 


21 


0371:13 


BD 


20 


DO 


4C 


E7 


FF 


20 


A7 


8D1: IC 


60 


E6 


22 


20 


B0 


05 


FO 


C5 


0B79:44 


E5 


A2 


OB 


AQ 


IB 


20 


8C 


6E 


8D9;DC 


D0 


E9 


20 


F2 


04 


D0 


D4 


E9 


0B81:0F 


AO 


F4 


20 


AA 


13 


A0 


5B 


26 


0eEl:20 


EB 


04 


20 


B3 


05 


4C 


46 


51 


0B89:2O 


CA 


13 


20 


E4 


FF 


C9 


00 


ai 



BB COMPUTEfa Qaielte UaylBBa 



e691:F0 


F9 


C9 


B5 


00 


03 


0B99:0B 


20 


44 


E5 


A2 


0B 


0SA1:20 


BC 


0F 


A2 


06 


20 


eBk5:hS 


43 


20 


C2 


13 


A9 


0BB1:06 


0F 


20 


EG 


0E 


A9 


eBB9:Ae 


FF 


A9 


06 


20 


AB 


0BCl:a5 


20 


A8 


FF 


20 


CA 


eBC9:BS 


20 


A5 


FF 


99 


8A 


BBDL:DS 


F7 


20 


AB 


FF 


A5 


eBD9:03 


iC 


9B 


0C 


DB 


3B 


0BE1:B9 


DB 


85 


BD 


A5 


BE 


0BE9:B5 


8C 


B0 


24 


A9 


2B 


0BFl:3a 


A9 


DB 


E5 


BF 


35 


0BF9:il6 


E5 


8E 


85 


8C 


20 


0C01:18 


AS 


Bl 


69 


2C 


85 


ac09: 01 


69 


00 


85 


B0 


4C 


«Cll:fl9 


20 


85 


B3 


20 


63 


ec 1 9 1 8 2 


C9 


00 


F0 


00 


E6 


0C2l!02 


E6 


B0 


38 


A9 


0A 


0C29:BS 


B2 


3B 


A9 


2C 


E5 


0C31:B1 


A9 


01 


E9 


00 


B5 


0C39:B4 


20 


02 


FF 


A2 


00 


0C41:0C 


A9 


12 


20 


D2 


FF 


0C49:A6 


Bl 


20 


CD 


BD 


A9 


0C51:D2 


FF 


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A6 


B2 


0C59:BC 


A2 


10 


20 


AA 


0C 


0C61:20 


D2 


FF 


A6 


BE 


E0 


0C69:a5 


A9 


20 


20 


02 


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0C71:20 


CD 


BO 


A9 


2E 


20 


0C79:A9 


00 


A6 


8F 


20 


CD 


0C81:E4 


FF 


F0 


0B 


A9 


0C 


0C89:0F 


20 


E7 


FF 


4C 


00 


0C91:0F 


20 


06 


0F 


4C 


B3 


0C39:0D 


20 


AA 


0C 


A0 


52 


0Cftl:13 


20 


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FF 


F0 


FB 


0CA9:0C 


A0 


IC 


18 


4C 


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E5 


A9 


90 


SD 


21 


0CB9: 20 


00 


A2 


0F 


A0 


2B 


0CC 1 : 0F 


A0 


87 


20 


C6 


13 


eCC9: 20 


AA 


13 


20 


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0CD1:F0 


F9 


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65 


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03 


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G9 


31 


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20 


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01 


85 


BF 


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15 


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C9 


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00 


04 


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85 


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66 


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13 


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66 


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13 


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64 


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99 


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96 


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Ae 


80 


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66 


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A9 


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16 


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BA 


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80 


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51 


90 


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A9 


9E 


20 


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80 


20 


66 


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AO 


0D7 9:0D 


F2 


13 


F0 


11 


AD 


0D61:CD 


F3 


13 


B0 


04 


A9 


0OB9:02 


a9 


20 


20 


02 


FF 


0O91:A5 


8F 


C9 


01 


r0 


3D 


0O99:C9 


24 


F0 


29 


C9 


13 


0OA1:A9 


14 


35 


BE 


A9 


07 


0OA9:O0 


02 


E6 


BF 


A4 


BE 


aDBl:ia 


20 


F0 


FF 


A9 


06 


0OB9:0C 


A9 


09 


D0 


02 


aa 


aDCl:El 


00 


4C 


B0 


0C 


A5 


0DC9!02 


D0 


E£ 


A9 


09 


20 


aDDl:4C 


FB 


0C 


A9 


13 


20 


0DD9!A9 


IB 


20 


06 


0F 


4C 


0OE1:20 


06 


0F 


A2 


18 


A0 


0DE9:20 


F0 


FF 


A0 


3F 


20 


0DFl!20 


S4 


FF 


F0 


FB 


60 


0DF9:E5 


A0 


AD 


20 


C6 


13 


0E01:A9 


63 


20 


R3 


13 


A9 


0E09:D2 


FF 


A2 


13 


A9 


63 


0E11:13 


A9 


12 


S5 


02 


A9 


0E19:d2 


FF 


A2 


13 


20 


9D 


0E21:62 


20 


02 


FF 


C6 


02 


0E29:A2 


07 


A0 


01 


86 


BF 


0E31:18 


20 


F0 


FF 


A9 


01 



4C 


0D 


63 


A0 


IB 


CI 


95 


13 


E5 


12 


20 


94 


B0 


20 


lA 


FF 


A9 


07 


0E 


A0 


60 


00 


88 


9E 


SB 


F0 


AB 


A5 


SF' DA 1 


E9 


46 


EE 


35 


B3 


P6 


SD 


A9 


BF 


63 


0E 


90 


Bl 


A9 


DF 


3B 


0C 


87 


0E 


A5 


S5 


Bl 


00 


44 


E5 


B2 


31 


Bl 


85 


34 


B0 


A5 


63 


20 


AA 


42 


AS 


B0 


A0 


2E 


20 


13 


20 


CO 


16 


A5 


B3 


81 


0A 


B0 


65 


A9 


00 


BE 


02 


FF 


F6 


BD 


20 


03 


20 


06 


9E 


0B 


A9 


B4 


0B 


A2 


D4 


20 


AA 


3F 


4C 


85 


7D 


FF 


20 


3B 


D0 


BD 


C3 


20 


8C 


D9 


A0 


SB 


9B 


C9 


00 


BB 


4C 


0D 


AA 


F7 


00 


FA 


4C 


FD 


F0 


02 


85 


10 


8F 


20 


76 


0F 


F0 


EE 


20 


02 


IF 


A2 


01 


C4 


C5 


02 


4A 


FF 


AE 


86 


02 


20 


SA 


00 


04 


C4 


B0 


04 


27 


20 


02 


E2 


AS 


8F 


03 


20 


Al 


C5 


F0 


03 


93 


04 


A9 


B5 


04 


A9 


4A 


02 


FF 


F8 


F3 


13 


□ 6 


F2 


13 


B0 


2B 


00 


DA 


E6 


02 


10 


AS 


02 


75 


00 


0A 


98 


as 


BF 


66 


A6 


BF 


B2 


4C 


FD 


F9 


0C 


20 


61 


8F 


C9 


84 


06 


0F 


75 


El 


00 


7E 


B0 


0C 


0B 


15 


18 


IF 


AA 


13 


30 


20 


44 


4A 


A2 


13 


CI 


B2 


20 


CD 


20 


A3 


D2 


00 


20 


AC 


13 


A9 


6B 


00 


ED 


9E 


34 


BE 


77 


35 


02 


DD 



0E39! 

0E41: 

0E49: 

0E51; 

0E59I 

0E61' 

0E69I 

0E71; 

0E79; 

0Eeii 

0Ea9i 

0E91; 

0E99i 

0EA1! 

0EA9i 

0EB1: 

0EB9: 

0EC1; 

0EC9; 

0ED1 

0ED9: 

0EEli 

0EE9: 

0EF1 

0EF9; 

0F01 

0F09; 
0f:1 
0F19; 
0F21 

0F29; 

QF31 

0F39; 

0F41; 

0F49: 

0F51; 

0FS9; 

0F61 
0F69: 
0F71 
0F79: 
0FB1 

0r89; 

0F91 

0F99 

0FA1: 

0FA9; 

BFBl 

0FB9 

0FC1 

0FC9 

0FD1 

0FD9 

0FE1 

0FE9; 

0FFI: 

0FF9; 

1001; 

1009; 

1011; 

1019; 

1021; 

1029; 

1031: 

1039: 

1041: 

1049; 

1051; 

1059; 

1061; 

1069; 

1071; 

1079; 

10S1; 

10B9; 

1091; 

1099; 

10A1; 

10A9; 

10B1; 

10B9: 

10C1; 

10C9: 

1001; 

1009; 



60 A 5 
20 AS 
A0 00 

3 5 FB 
FO 69 
FE 60 
3D E9 
00 S5 
BO A 5 
88 B4 
BF C0 
09 A9 
00 F9 
BD E9 
00 85 
BD A5 
A5 BA 
EF 9 
FF 20 
FF A9 
20 B0 
20 AS 

30 0F 
A8 FF 
0F A0 
FF BB 
0E 68 
A8 FF 
20 E8 
A9 06 
A8 FF 
AS FF 
D0 FS 
SO 84 
8B C8 
IB 79 
Ee SE 
E4 FF 
09 E0 
CO BD 
20 20 
BA 20 
4C 93 
A9 28 
00 20 
13 A9 
A9 AF 
A9 00 
Al 13 

;BF 20 
FF A4 
BB 00 
85 Bl 
26 B0 
UB AH 
E6 BD 
E3 60 
12 31 
S3 4B 
20 54 
00 00 

44 20 
00 00 
4E 4D 

45 43 
20 50 
4E 59 
00 96 
92 00 

4 5 53 
41 43 
20 43 
4C 4 9 
0D 0D 
9E 12 
52 20 
45 50 
49 47 
43 48 
52 45 
92 9A 
4F 50 
41 43 
52 4 5 

31 92 



FD 20 

FF A9 

60 18 

90 02 

20 85 

A0 00 

3C 35 

BE 90 

SE 35 

Bl 86 

02 90 

IC 8 5 

A9 9E 

06 85 

BE 90 

8E 85 

20 Bl 

E0 20 

AE FF 

6F 85 

0F AO 

FF 88 

AO 02 

BB 10 

02 B9 

10 F7 

20 A8 

4C AE 

OE A9 

20 A8 

20 CA 

99 E0 

20 AB 

BE 84 

C0 11 

E0 13 

D0 ED 

C9 00 

64 90 

A9 20 

02 FF 

Bl FF 

FF 86 

E5 BE 

2 FF 

IF 20 

20 02 

20 02 

A4 C3 

Al 13 

BE A9 

F8 60 

A2 10 

26 Bl 

AS Bl 

85 Bl 

7A 03 

35 34 

20 4 4 

4 5 53 

9E 12 

43 4S 

9E 12 

45 4E 

4B 92 

52 4 5 
20 4B 
12 45 
0D 0D 

53 20 
45 92 
4S 45 
47 4E 
50 52 
41 92 
41 55 
45 41 
4E 4D 
45 43 
53 53 
20 54 
20 41 
4B 20 
53 S3 
9A 20 



A8 FF 

20 20 

A5 FB 

E6 FC 

FD 90 

A2 00 

BF A5 

29 AS 

BC CB 

B2 34 

09 C0 
B4 60 
DO F5 
BF AS 
D4 A5 
BC EB 
FF A5 
93 FF 
AS BA 
B9 4C 
02 B9 

10 F7 
b9 8E 
F7 60 
BB 13 
60 4B 
FF A9 
FF 20 
E0 20 
FF A9 
0E A0 
13 CS 
FF A0 
SC A9 
F0 0E 
85 SD 
20 D5 
60 E0 
0A A9 
20 02 
4C 6E 
A9 6F 
BE 84 

4A as 

A6 BF 

D2 FF 

FF BB 

FF A6 

2 AA 

A9 IF 

B7 20 

A9 00 

06 8d 

A5 B0 

E5 BC 

84 BO 

BD 5A 

31 20 

52 49 
54 45 

53 50 
45 43 
41 4C 

54 20 
00 00 

53 53 
45 59 
52 52 
00 9A 
9E 12 
9A 20 
43 4B 
40 45 
45 53 
9A 20 

54 4F 
54 20 
4 5 4E 
4B 00 
20 9E 
4F 20 
54 20 
31 00 
20 9E 
54 4F 



AS 


FE 


40 


A8 


FF 


05 


69 


20 


53 


18 


A5 


62 


02 


E6 


4S 


33 


AS 


54 


8C 


E9 


BC 


8F 


85 


4E 


00 


E6 


FF 


8E 


86 


EC 


04 


90 


CA 


A9 


99 


BC 


33 


AS 


30 


8C 


E9 


2E 


BF 


85 


E3 


D0 


E6 


B8 


B9 


29 


A9 


4C 


AE 


lA 


20 


B4 


00 


96 


FF 


CA 


S3 


13 


20 


60 


20 


02 


13 


20 


SC 


20 


30 


76 


20 


A3 


33 


20 


F7 


IF 


04 


20 


AS 


06 


0F 


93 


AS 


FF 


B6 


14 


20 


13 


00 


20 


SF 


CO 


14 


B4 


00 


84 


03 


10 


85 


13 


A5 


80 


21 


90 


Fl 


9C 


OF 


20 


IE 


0A 


90 


56 


00 


4C 


ID 


FF 


A9 


13 


0F 


AS 


E9 


85 


B9 


OB 


C3 


38 


E2 


BF 


A9 


C8 


20 


Al 


Be 


A4 


BE 


33 


00 


FB 


76 


BF 


20 


53 


13 


a6 


B6 


20 


D2 


0A 


02 


FF 


67 


85 


BO 


96 


26 


SE 


BD 


38 


E5 


65 


90 


06 


50 


CA 


00 


FF 


OB 


9E 


76 


44 


49 


3C 


56 


45 


97 


52 


92 


23 


45 


45 


60 


4B 


92 


B8 


49 


47 


09 


43 


48 


4B 


9A 


12 


0F 


20 


41 


80 


20 


92 


02 


4F 


52 


7A 


50 


52 


FA 


S3 


50 


99 


54 


4F 


lA 


20 


41 


98 


4E 


54 


50 


S3 


20 


D8 


46 


4F 


FF 


20 


52 


D2 


41 


4C 


IF 


54 


20 


03 


0D 


50 


S3 


12 


31 


BC 


S3 


54 


09 


54 


52 


03 


00 


50 


EE 


12 


46 


Fl 


20 


52 


FE 



10E1: 

10E9: 

10F1: 

10F9: 

1101: 

1109: 

1111: 

1119: 

1121: 

1129: 

1131: 

1139: 

1141: 

1149: 

1151: 

1159: 

1161: 

1169: 

1171: 

1179: 

1181: 

1189: 

1191: 

1199: 

llAl: 

11A9: 

llBl! 

11B9: 

llCl! 

11C9: 

1101: 

1109: 

llEl: 

11E9! 

IIFI: 

11F9: 

1201: 

1209: 

1211: 

1219: 

1221: 

1229: 

1231: 

1239: 

1241: 

1249: 

12S1: 

1259: 

1261: 

1269: 

1271: 

1279: 

1281: 

1239: 

1291: 

1299: 

12A1: 

12A9: 

12B1: 

12B9: 

12C1: 

12C9 

12D1 

1209 

12E1 

12E9 

12F1 

12F9 

1301 

1309 

131! 

1319 

1321 

1329 

1331 

1339 

1341 

1349 

1351 

1359 

1361 

1369 

1371 

1379 

1381 



4 5 54 

20 4D 

4E 55 

11 20 

20 20 

52 54 

20 44 

00 0D 

20 20 



55 52 
41 49 
00 0D 
20 20 
20 20 
20 42 
49 53 
9E 20 
20 50 



20 


IE 


12 


41 


45 


59 


92 


9E 


4E 


20 


52 


45 


9A 


00 


00 


9A 


41 


4C 


20 


44 


44 


52 


49 


56 


45 


45 


44 


20 


99 


12 


33 


30 


20 


52 


50 


40 


41 


43 


54 


55 


49 


53 


4B 


20 


45 


20 


S3 


50 



49 53 3A 20 
20 20 



:00 0D 

:44 49 

:43 45 

!4S 45 

: 99 12 

!20 52 

:0O 00 

:20 20 

:53 20 

:4a 45 

!45 4E 

:9A 00 

:20 20 

:20 50 

:51 9A 

:49 54 

: 20 20 

:20 9A 

:4F 54 

: 53 50 

: 53 54 

:20 20 

:45 41 

: flE 40 

:53 54 

: 9A 20 

: 20 50 

:31 20 

: 20 9A 

: 54 49 

:0D 0D 

:20 20 

:45 52 

: 41 54 

: 53 4B 

:20 9A 

: 4B 20 

: 54 45 

: 20 9E 

: 52 41 

: 55 41 

: 41 44 

: 9A 3D 

: 41 43 

: 41 42 

:2S 25 

: 20 9A 

:45 45 

:4B 20 



0D 9A 
46 46 
20 49 
44 20 
20 20 
50 40 
00 9E 
2 20 
IE 12 
59 92 
20 44 
00 00 
20 20 
52 45 
20 54 
00 00 
20 20 

44 49 
41 54 

45 45 
9E 00 
2 32 

44 20 

45 4E 



4E 20 
4E 20 
0D 00 
20 20 
49 4E 
4C 41 
4B 0D 
20 20 
52 45 
4E 59 
20 57 
41 44 
4E 4F 
49 S3 
45 20 
49 S3 
30 2E 
0D 0D 
41 4C 

44 52 

45 45 
99 12 

92 20 52 
54 48 



4 5 52 

4E 20 

49 53 
20 20 
00 00 
20 20 

50 52 
41 4E 
9E 20 
4F 4E 
9A 20 
20 20 
53 S3 
4F 20 
00 00 
20 20 
53 4B 
49 4F 
44 20 



00 
29 



41 4C 

54 20 

00 0D 00 00 

20 20 20 20 



4 9 4C 
29 00 
20 20 20 9E 



52 45 
9A 4F 
54 4F 
4E 55 
9e 11 
2Q 20 
54 20 
54 45 
00 00 
3D 20 

42 45 

53 54 
7A 20 

43 4B 
4C 4C 
00 20 
20 4F 
4B 20 
4 9 4C 
2 9 0D 
3D 20 
4E 20 
52 45 
4 9 54 
00 20 



53 53 
52 20 
20 4 3 
45 00 



20 
20 



20 
49 



31 61 

20 20 

20 20 

61 20 

00 00 

20 20 

12 9E 

4F 20 

20 54 

20 40 



20 
20 



9E 7A 

20 20 

0D 0D 

50 52 

46 31 

52 45 

4F 20 

45 4E 



46 4F 

44 20 
20 20 
54 52 
49 4E 

45 44 
9A 30 
20 41 
59 20 
20 81 
4E 20 
52 4 5 
49 54 
20 20 
42 45 
54 52 
41 44 
59 20 
20 20 
7A 20 
20 20 
20 96 
20 20 
20 99 
9A 20 
45 53 
92 9A 
54 5 5 
40 41 
5 5 00 



54 


4F 


74 


40 


45 


FC 


0D 


9E 


B4 


20 


20 


92 


53 


45 


B0 


4E 


4B 


EO 


00 


OD 


6B 


20 


20 


BC 


53 


53 


06 


20 


4B 


9C 


48 


45 


BC 


59 


00 


04 


52 


40 


9d 


4B 


20 


B5 


53 


50 


5A 


3A 


20 


26 


30 


92 


6B 


00 


9A 


60 


20 


44 


A4 


49 


56 


04 


44 


20 


A5 


20 


20 


E3 


50 


40 


31 


45 


20 


3F 


45 


4E 


Bl 


53 


50 


41 


3A 


20 


7E 


20 


92 


97 


OD 


0D 


2B 


20 


20 


23 


45 


S3 


BB 


59 


20 


AB 


57 


48 


BB 


45 


0D 


05 


20 


20 


39 


20 


20 


IC 


20 


9E 


AE 


51 


55 


BB 


OD 


9E 


15 


31 


29 


63 


20 


52 


73 


4E 


20 


BB 


54 


45 


A0 


20 


20 


0A 


9A 


43 


EB 


49 


47 


FF 


54 


45 


BE 


00 


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72 


20 


20 


C2 


20 


9E 


17 


9E 


32 


01 


4F 


4E 


CE 


00 


0D 


92 


20 


20 


3E 


4E 


53 


E9 


52 


4D 


E2 


44 


49 


CE 


96 


73 


0E 


41 


43 


E7 


47 


20 


SA 


OD 


20 


36 


20 


54 


55 


43 


54 


60 


52 


45 


7C 


61 


20 


45 


54 


52 


91 


41 


44 


61 


59 


20 


AB 


99 


78 


A7 


54 


57 


B6 


41 


43 


Ra 


41 


42 


6B 


2S 


25 


2E 


96 


73 


EC 


20 


20 


12 


99 


78 


AB 


73 


20 


E7 


20 


81 


46 


78 


9A 


29 


20 


20 


2E 


53 


20 


0D 


20 


54 


^F 


52 


4E 


00 


49 


4E 


01 


00 


57 


CE 



COMPUTEIS Gaimie May ISSS 89 



4D 

9L 



1399:2D 
1391TA9 
1399:A9 9D 
13A1:A9 2 
13A9:60 A9 
13Bl:0fl Bl 
13B9:E6 FB 
l3Ci:6B A9 
13C9:E2 A9 



fl5 ao 4D 

D0 BE A9 

D9 B6 ft9 

2 D2 FF 

la B5 FC 

FB F0 03 

Da F5 E6 

11 D0 F6 

13 DB DE 



40 70 
aft 2 9 



52 2D 

LI 00 

Id DG 02 DB 

CA D0 FA 9D 

84 FB A0 57 



2a 


D2 


FF 


51 


FC 


D0 


Fl 


BA 


A9 


12 


D0 


S4 


aa 


00 


(10 


32 



BASIC For 
Beginners 

Article on page 52. 



Math Drill 

BE 10 POKE5328a,l:POKE53281,6! 

POKE646,l 
SM 15 REM FOR C16 AND C+4 USE 
[3 PACE] -COLOR 4, 2,7: COLOR 
0,7,4:COLORL,2,7 INSTEAD 

OF POKES 
FX 20 PRINT'MCLH)" 
KP 39 INPUT" WHAT'S iOUR FIRST 

NAME";NS 
EA 40 IFNS-""THEN20 
EK 50 L = 19-[[LEN[HS)-H5)/21 
GD 60 PRItJT"{CLR)" 
SS 70 F0RT=1T04:PRINT:NEXT 
AH 80 PRINTTAB(L) "{BVS}"NS"'S 
!SPACE)MATH PRACTICE 
{OFF)" 
AP 90 PRINT 

SA 100 PRINTTAB(13) "1. ADD 
OF 110 PRINTTAB{13) "2. SUBTRAC 

T 
GM 120 PRINTTAB[13)"3. MULTIPL 

Y 
EC 130 PRINTTABU3) "4. DIVIDE 
GP 140 PRINT:PRINTTftB(12) "WHIC 

H NUMBER? 
HR 150 GETAS:IFA$<>"1"THENIFAS 

<>"2"'THENIFAS<>"3"THENI 

FAS<>"4"THEN15a 
JC 160 N-lOiO-RNDf-TI/iai) sREM 

SEE ARTICLE 
SS 170 X=VAL(AS) 
OS ISO P=P*1 

RS 190 ONXGOSUB280,2e0,220,220 
QE 200 ONXGOSUB350, 360,370, 110 
QD 210 GOSUB42a;GOT018a 
DE 220 IFFLAG-1THEN280 
HX 230 PRINT:PRINTTAB[13)"TABL 

E"; 
QX 240 INPUTTS 
JS 250 T=VAL(TS) 
SK 260 IFT>NTHENPRINT"(3 UP}": 

GOTO230 
BH 270 IFT<1TKBNPRINT"{3 UP)": 

GOTO 230 
KS 280 A=INT[N*RND{1) )+l 
KX 290 B=INT[N«HND{1) )+l 
MG 300 IF(X=2)ANDiA<=B)THEN280 
DC 310 PRINT"{CLRl":POKE53281, 

6: REM FOR C16 AND C+4 - 

USE COLOR0,7,4 INSTEAD 

{SPACE)OF POKE 
XK 320 FORJ"1T07:PRINT:NEXT 
OS 330 PRINT: PRINTTAB(6) "PRESS 
ONLY RETURN FOR ANSWER 
AR 340 PRINT! PRINTTAB(13) ; :RET 

URN 
JX 350 PRINTA"t"B" = "; :C=A4-B:RE 

TURN 
KM 360 PR1NTA"-"B"="; :C=A-B!BE 

TURN 
MB 370 L'INT (2"RND(1) )+l 
KP 380 ONLGOTO39a,4a0 
XH 390 PRINTT"X"A"="; :C-A"T:RE 

TURN 



FG 400 PRINTA"X'"T" = "; :C=A*T;RE 

TORN 
XA 410 PRINTA'T"/'"T" = "; ;C=A!RE 

TURN 
QD 420 DS="":IMPUTDS 
SR 430 D=VAL (DS) 
FP 440 IFC=DTHEN4aa 
BX 450 POKE532ai,2:REM FOR C16 
AND C+4 - USE COLOR0,3 

,5 INSTEAD OF POKE 
JQ 460 PRINT:PRINTTAB(12) "THE 

(SPACE)ANSWER IS"C 
SB 470 GOTO510 

AS 480 POKE5328;l,5:HEM FOR C16 
AND C + 4 USE COi:,OR0,6,4 
INSTEAD OF POKE 
SA 490 PHINT;PRINTTAB(16) "GOOD 

1 
ES 500 K=K+1 
KJ 510 PRINT: PRINT" PRESS RETU 

RN TO CONTINUE OR Q TO 

[SPACE)OUIT. 
KX 520 GETBS: IF{BS<>CHRS [13) ) A 

ND(BS<>"Q")THEN520 
RC 530 IFBS=CHRS (13)THENFLAG=1 

:RETUnN 
MB 540 PRINT"JCLR)"!POKE53281, 

6!REH FOR C16 AND C+4 - 
USE COLORa,7,4 INSTEAD 
OF POKE 
CJ 550 PRINT:PHINT" SCOHE:"K"C 

ORRECT OUT OF"P"PHOBLEM 

S 

64 Keyboard 
Enhancer 

See iitstructious in article on page 
72 before typing in. 

Program 1: Keyboard Enhancer 



C000 
C008 
C010 
CBI8 
C02a 
C028 
C030 

casa 

C040 
C04B 
C050 
C05B 

caea 

CQGB 

ca7a 
C07a 
caaa 
c08a 

C090 
C09B 
C0A0 
C0AB 
C0B0 
C0B8 

c0ca 

C0CB 
C0D0 
C0D8 
CaE0 

c0Ea 

caFB 

c0Fa 

C100 
C108 

ciia 

C118 
C120 

ci2a 

C130 
C139 



:A9 00 

:aD EQ 

:02 A9 

:a0 as 

:0a 85 

:FB 91 

:D0 F5 

:A5 01 

i9B 48 

;D0 05 

:EA C0 

:CD EC 

;CB 4C 

:C0 AD 

:D0 08 

:E1 ca 

:93 4C 

:D0 03 

:00 BC 

:C0 D0 

:8D EB 

rDl C0 

:ca 4C 

:C0 15 

:C0 AD 

:A9 00 

:20 00 

:A9 01 

:CB 6 8 

:EB 00 

!l2 7B 

:C3 2a 

!F8 C2 

:1F 0E 

:C3 2B 

:AD C3 

:05 32 

:C4 IE 

:6D 4 3 

:C1 EB 



8D E9 
C0 78 
00 80 
FC A9 
FB 85 
FB Bl 
E6 FC 

29 FD 
BA 48 
A9 00 
C9 01 
C0 DB 
El CB 
8D 02 
A9 01 
AD E9 
El C0 
4C El 
EB CO 
19 8D 
C0 ES 
E8 BD 
CI Cfl 
DB D8 
EB C9 

30 ES 
00 A9 
Bd Eft 
AA 68 
00 0» 
C3 22 
6F C3 
2 9 IB 
C2 09 
A5 C3 
17 04 
C4 06 
8C C4 
CI A8 

4C 4a 



C0 8D EA 

A9 3F BD 

90 02 58 

DE 85 FE 

FD A0 00 

FD 91 FD 

E6 FE D0 

85 01 60 

A5 CB C9 

BD EA C0 

D0 0E A5 

07 A9 40 
A9 41 

29 04 C9 

BD E9 ca 

ca C9 Bl 

A5 CB C9 

CB A2 aa 

A5 CB DD 

EC ca A9 

BD ED C0 

ED C0 BD 
C8 EB 
A9 00 
C9 01 

C0 4C El 

00 8D E^ 

Ca A9 4a 

AB 68 4C 

00 2E Bl 

FF C2 25 

24 75 C3 

C3 3E 41 

5C CI 28 

31 A9 C3 

C4 04 14 

50 C4 03 

AD 41 CI 

90 7 AE 

CI AE 42 



ca 79 

BF DF 
A9 D4 
A9 3A 
Bl FE 
BB Gl 
ED 07 
4 8 0B 
40 26 
AD EF 
CB 96 
85 06 
8D EC 7D 
04 7B 

4c as 

F0 BF 
40 0F 
A0 0C 
ED C4 
01 69 
8D 3F 
D2 9C 
EB BE 
EB DB 
0B D3 
C0 2B 
C0 C7 
85 82 
48 06 
C3 40 
BD 57 
26 B5 
C3 E4 
Al 63 
36 IF 
C4 A9 
6E B5 
18 81 
42 3E 
CI 73 



EB 
8D 
FB 



ci4ai 

0148: 

C150! 

C158: 

C16B; 

C16B: 

C173: 

C17ei 

C1B0: 

C18B: 

C190! 

C19a! 

C1A0; 

ClAB: 

C1B0; 

CIBB; 

CICB: 

C1C8; 

CIDB; 

ClOBl 

C1E0: 

C1E8; 

C1F0: 

CIFB; 

C200: 

C208; 

C210: 

C218: 

C220; 

C228; 

C230: 

C23Bi 

C240; 

C24a; 

C250i 

C25BI 

C260: 

C268; 

C27a: 

C278i 

C2a0i 

C2a8; 

C290: 

C298; 

C2A0; 

C2AB; 

C2Ba; 

C2B8: 

C2C0 

C2C8: 

C2D0 

C2D8; 

C2Eai 

C2E8! 

C2F0 

C2F8: 

C3fl0; 

C308: 

C310; 

C318; 

C320: 

C328; 

C330: 

C338: 

C340; 

C348: 

C350; 

C358; 

C360: 

C368: 

C370 

C378 

C380 

C3Ba 

C390' 

C398 

C3Aa 

C3A8 

C3B0 

C3B8 

C3C0: 

C3Ca: 

C3D0: 

C3DB; 

C3E0: 



60 00 

ED 5B 

CI CA 

60 00 

BF 85 

E7 85 

e0 Al 

59 CI 

01 BD 

FB B6 

A5 FE 

84 FD 
D0 CD 
A9 BF 

85 FE 
Al FB 
CI A5 
CI 84 
59 CI 
44 CI 
C9 27 
D0 CC 
04 8D 
27 8D 
20 F0 
EB 18 
C3 A9 
85 FB 
A9 28 
Bl FB 
FC 8D 
FB 86 
A5 FE 
84 FD 
D0 D2 
A9 00 
A9 D8 
Al FD 
CI AS 
CI B4 

41 CI 
2C CI 

C9 Ea 

DB CC 

07 BD 

E7 BD 

20 FB 

20 FG 

■FB AD 

A2 00 

C2 FB 

AS FB 

42 CI 
FC 4C 
C2 DB 
A9 00 
DB C3 



18 
38 



F0 FF 
Dl BD 



□ 2 
03 



F6 C2 
60 A9 
41 CI 
D3 BD 
F4 C2 
43 CI 
8E F7 
FF 8D 
F7 E8 
Dl 8D 



D2 
27 



F6 C2 

60 EE 

60 EE 

60 A5 

BD 42 

2 2C 

C2 A9 

8D F7 

85 CF 

IE A5 



00 00 

CI AB 
4C 5 

00 00 
FB A9 
FD A9 
FB 81 
A5 FC 
5B CI 
FC A5 
8D 5A 
86 FE 
A5 FE 

85 FB 
A9 E7 
81 FD 
FC BD 
FB B6 
A5 FE 

84 FD 
D0 D2 
A9 00 
F5 C2 
F6 C2 
FF 8A 
20 F0 

01 aD 

A9 04 
B5 FD 
A5 FB 

42 CI 

FC A5 
8D 4 2 

86 FE 
A5 FE 

85 FB 
8 5 FC 
Bl FB 
FC BD 
FB 86 
A5 FE 
84 FD 
D0 D2 
A9 C0 
FS C2 
F6 C2 
FF 8A 
FF 60 
f5 C2 
81 FB 

19 A9 
BD 41 

20 2C 
C6 C2 
E0 60 
B5 D4 
3a 20 
F0 FF 
FB FF 
60 A 9 
F4 C2 
F5 C2 

43 CI 
BE F7 

00 85 
A5 D2 
43 CI 
BE F5 
20 2C 
C2 20 
F7 E8 
60 A9 
F4 C2 
F5 C2 
43 CI 
BE F7 

20 D0 

21 DB 

01 80 
CI A5 
CI BC 
E7 8D 
C2 20 
60 A5 
Dl 8D 



AD 5 9 CI 
AE 
5A 

20 DB C3 



B0 07 
8 CI AE 



07 85 



FC 

FE 



07 85 

FD A 5 FB 

8D 5A CI 

20 44 CI 

FD BD 59 

CI 20 44 

A5 FD C9 

C9 04 D0 

ft9 DB 85 

85 FD A2 
A5 FB 8D 
5A CI 20 
FC A5 FD 
8D 5A CI 

86 FE AS 
A5 FE C9 
8D F4 C2 
80 F7 C2 
20 BC C2 



C9 1£ 



F0 
20 



FF 60 
43 CI A9 
B5 FC 85 
A2 00 Al 
BD 41 CI 
20 2C CI 
FD BD 41 
CI 20 2C 
A5 FD C9 
C9 07 D0 
A9 28 85 
85 FE A2 
A5 FB 
42 CI 



BD 
20 



FC A5 FD 

BO 4 2 CI 

86 FE A5 

R5 FE C9 

BD F4 C2 

BD F7 C2 

20 BC C2 

F0 5 CA 

AD F4 C2 

85 FC A9 

A5 FB CD 

Bl 8D 4 3 

CI A5 FC 

CI 84 FB 

A5 FC CD 

00 00 00 

85 DB 60 

FB FF A0 

60 20 DB 

A0 27 18 



BB 
BD 



8 5 CF 

41 CI 
8D 42 CI 
ZB 2C CI 
C2 20 BC 
CF A5 Dl 
Bd 42 CI 
20 2C CI 
C2 A9 27 
CI BC F6 
BC C2 60 
60 A9 lA 
00 85 CF 
8D 41 CI 

42 CI 
2C CI 
20 BC 

60 CE 20 

60 CE 21 

41 CI A5 

D3 8D 43 

F4 C2 BE 

F6 C2 A9 

BC C2 A9 

CF C9 01 

41 CI A5 



BD 
20 
C2 



38 


82 




5A 


B5 




CI 


SS 




A9 


AD 




A9 


31 




A2 


8A 




8D 


FF 




A9 


AS 




84 


B9 




CI 


40 




CI 


D6 




27 


7E 




C7 


6C 




FC 


26 




00 


D3 




59 


AD 




44 


65 




BD 


3E 




20 


ap 




FD 


DB 




D8 


EF 




A9 


AC 




A9 


40 




38 


30 




05 


10 




DB 


BB 




0B 


4F 




FE 


FE 




FD 


6B 




A5 


7C 




84 


B5 




CI 


CI 




CI 


D6 




E8 


Fl 




CC 


70 




FD 


lA 




00 


DE 




41 


A7 




2C 


3E 




8D 


EF 




20 


D4 




FD 


7E 




DB 


15 




A9 


6A 




A9 


73 




38 


42 




18 


74 




85 


DC 




20 


2E 




f6 


3F 




CI 


38 




BD 


22 




86 


5D 




F7 


B9 




aa 


2E 




20 


CI 




00 


38 




C3 


C0 




20 


CB 




A5 


lA 




A5 


59 




A5 


06 




8C 


45 




ca 


10 




BD 


01 




A5 


61 




BC 


6a 




8D 


D4 




C2 


Bl 




A9 


EA 




8D 


54 




A5 


38 




A5 


B9 




A9 


6A 




BC 


55 




C2 


70 




D0 


74 




D0 


9E 




D2 


14 




CI 


47 




F5 


2A 




a7 


0F 




0a 


BB 




DB 


FS 




D2 


23 





90 COMPUTEIS Gaigtle May 1988 



C3E8;BD 


42 


CI 


A5 


D3 


BD 


C3Fa:2B 


2C 


CI 


84 


FB 


36 


C3FB!H0 


Rl 


FB 


49 


B0 


31 


€400:80 


B5 


CF 


60 


A9 


06 


C408:D0 


A9 


06 


8D 


21 


D0 


C410:8D 


86 


02 


60 


R2 


00 


C418:C4 


C9 


00 


F0 


07 


9D 


C420:e8 


4C 


16 


C4 


B6 


C6 


C4Z8:31 


41 


41 


41 


41 


41 


C430:4l 


00 


A2 


00 


BO 


45 


C43B:00 


FO 


07 


9D 


77 


02 


C440:34 


a 


86 


C6 


60 


00 


C448:41 


41 


41 


41 


41 


41 


C450:A2 


00 


BD 


63 


C4 


C9 


C45B:07 


9D 


77 


02 


E8 


4C 


c4eB:ae 


C6 


60 


00 


35 


41 


C4«8:41 


41 


41 


41 


41 


00 


C479:BD 


ai 


C4 


C9 


00 


FO 


C47B:77 


02 


EB 


4C 


70 


C4 


C480:e0 


00 


37 


41 


41 


41 


C4HB:41 


41 


41 


00 


60 


00 



43 CI 77 

FC A 2 Rfi 

FB A9 A8 

BD 20 8B 

A9 03 A0 

BD 27 FF 

77 02 25 

60 00 50 

41 41 fl9 

C4 C8 05 

E9 4C 9A 

33 41 FC 

41 00 90 

00 F0 57 

52 C4 BD 

41 41 50 

l\2 00 6E 

07 9D DD 

86 C6 8A 

41 41 09 

00 00 2E 

Program 2: Keyboard Enhancer 
Customizer 

HE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1938 COMPU 

TEI PUBLICATIONS, INC, - 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
CX 20 POKE532B0,6:POKE532B1,6: 

POKE646,3 
JG 30 PRINT'MCLR){3 SPACES)COP 

iTRIGHT 1988 COMPUTEl PUB 

., INC." 
FB 40 PRINTTAB[11)"ALL RIGHTS 

{SPACE)HESERVEO" 
RD 50 PRINT"(2 D0WN){4 SPACES) 

'KEYBOARD ENHANCER' CUST 

OMIZER" 
CP 60 PRINT"[2 DOWN} {RVS)FUNCT 

ION KEY STRINGS" 
BS 70 PRINT" (DOWN)CORRENT STRI 

NGStDOWN)" 
BJ B0 FORJ=1T07STEP2 
QK 90 PHINT"F";J;"!"iCHRS(34); 

:READA:ZZ=A:GOSUBZ60 
QA 100 PRINT"NEW DEFINITION;?" 

;:DS-"" 

HM 110 POKEZ04,0!GETSS:IFSS-"" 

THEmi0 
BC 120 IFSS-CHRS (13)THEH160 
OX 130 POKE212,l!PRINTSS; :DS'D 

5+SS 
OS 140 IFSS-CHBS[20)THENDS=LEF 

TS(DS,LEN(DS)-2} 
HM 150 GOTO110 
MB 160 PRINT" "; 
DR 170 PRINT: IFLEN(DS)>iaTHENl 

00 
DK 180 A=ZZiGOSUB320 
FF 190 PRINT" "; :NEXTJ 
GD 200 PBINftDOWN} [RVSJDEFAUL 

T COLORS" 
JC 210 F0RJ=1T03 
MP 220 READLS:PRINT"CURRENT "; 

LS;":"; 
SB 230 READB:PRtN7PEEK(B) 
QX 240 INPUT"NEW VALUE: " ;X : IFX 

<0OBX>255THEN240 
HX 250 POKEB,X:NEXT:END 
EH 260 IFPEEK(A)=0THEN310 
GK 270 IFPEEK[A)=13THENFS="*": 

GOTO300 
PB 280 IFPEEK[A)''34THENFS-CHRS 

[39) :GOTO300 
MX 290 FS=CHRS (PEEK(A) ) 
EO 300 PBIHTFS; :A=A+l!GOTO260 
MK 310 PRINTCHRS(34) :RETURN 
RP 320 IFDS=""THENRETURN 
FS 330 F0RT=1T0LEN(DS) 
PJ 340 IFHIDS [DS.T, 1)»"':"THENF 

S=CKRS (13) :GOTO370 
EP 350 IFMIDS (DS,T,1)''CHRS (39) 

THENFS=CHRS [34) :GOTO370 
HR 360 FS=HIDS{DS,T,1) 



JA 370 POKEA,ASC(FS) :A = A + 1 
KR 380 HEXTT! POKER, a:BETURN 
KC 390 DATA 50215,50245,50275, 

50305 
FM 400 DATA "BORDER" ,50131, "SC 

REEN",501B6,"CURSOB",50 

191. 

Treasure Diver 

See instructions in article on page 
28 before typing in. 



FE 4E 

FC 17 

FD 95 

FB 8A 

00 BA 

85 A3 

EB BD 

8D 27 

fl9 9A 

21 55 

AB 5 

□ 4 CF 

04 21 
D4 3 8 
0F D6 
D4 AE 

80 18 
R9 BO 
6F R6 

00 IB 
C0 7C 
D0 7F 
DB C6 

01 C3 
C6 32 
FB 55 
FF 3R 
C5 F2 
03 B 5 
FF 07 

05 Dl 
C7 74 
C6 89 
BD 69 
ED 78 

81 AB 
FA AE 
F9 DD 
0B 63 
C6 B9 
31 BE 
E9 D6 

03 29 
FF D7 
AO E0 
D0 Fl 
33 75 
F5 EB 
F5 ED 
29 93 

04 85 
84 39 
01 9E 
04 2D 
F0 45 
3D 33 
3D 47 
C6 B6 
C9 01 
A9 72 
A9 A6 
29 E9 
C6 E0 
C2 F2 
BD 31 
AD 8E 
E7 AD 
D0 OS 
F5 EB 
3F 43 
BD B2 



C000 


A9 


00 


A2 


37 


85 


FO 


86 


C00B 


A9 


07 


A2 


C7 


85 


FB 


86 


C010 


A2 


00 


AO 


00 


Bl 


FB 


91 


C01B 


CB 


C0 


3F 


00 


F7 


18 


AS 


C020 


69 


3F 


35 


FB 


A5 


FC 


69 


C02e 


B5 


FC 


la 


R5 


FD 


69 


3F 


C030 


FD 


A5 


FE 


69 


00 


B5 


FE 


C038 


D0 


08 


A9 


00 


80 


04 


C7 


C040 


B5 


C7 


A9 


93 


20 


D2 


FF 


C04a 


OB 


8D 


20 


00 


A9 


06 


BD 


C050 


D0 


A9 


FD 


A0 


C5 


20 


IE 


casa 


R0 


2F 


8D 


05 


D4 


8d 


13 


C060 


A9 


F9 


80 


06 


04 


8D 


14 


C06B 


A9 


00 


BD 


00 


D4 


BD 


0B 


C070 


8D 


12 


04 


BD 


0E 


04 


R9 


C07B 


80 


18 


D4 


RO 


05 


ao 


03 


C0B0 


A9 


00 


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00 


S0 


A8 


00 


C6 


€850 


22 


AA 


A0 


2A 


AF 


F0 


22 


AF 


89 


C858 


F0 


80 


0A 


A0 


00 


00 


00 


00 


CD 


cae0 


00 


00 


00 


90 


00 


00 


00 


00 


Fl 


CB68 


00 


00 


00 


90 


00 


00 


00 


00 


F9 


CB70 


00 


00 


00 


90 


00 


00 


00 


00 


02 


CB7B 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


0A 


€880 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


12 


CBB8 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


lA 


€890 


00 


OF 


00 


00 


35 


FC 


00 


35 


BB 


C898 


5C 


00 


D5 


5C 


00 


FD 


5C 


03 


BC 


C8A0 


AB 


F0 


0E 


AA 


BO 


OF 


EA 


F0 


39 


CBA8 


OD 


7F 


70 


0D 


57 


70 


0D 


57 


60 


CBB0 


70 


0D 


57 


70 


OF 


07 


C0 


00 


09 


C8BB 


3F 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


E9 


C8C0 


00 


00 


00 


90 


00 


00 


FF 


00 


52 



Relative Ease 

See inslructions in article on page 
74 before ti/ping in. 



Relative 

€000:20 
C008:69 
C010:2E 
€018: 32 
0020:01 
€028:01 
C030:7A 
C03B:03 
C040!56 
€048:42 
€050: 50 
C05S:43 
C060:4F 
C068:4C 
€070:B0 
C078:E0 
€080:E7 
C0BB:B5 
€090: 10 
€098 :7B 
€0A0:04 
€0A8:00 
C0B0:C9 
C0B8:D0 
C0C0:DD 
C0C8:0B 
€0D0:DD 
C0Da:F3 
C0E0:C0 
C0EB:a5 
€0F0:A2 
€0F8:C4 
€100:20 
€108:E7 
C110:3A 
€11B:79 
C120:C0 



Ease 

33 A5 

2 90 

85 2F 

AO 00 

03 60 



A4 23 

01 CB 

84 30 

3 80 

6A €0 



39 
55 



03 A9 7f 

BD 11 e: 

60 52 
45 20 
59 20 
41 52 
29 31 
40 50 
FF FF 
44 €0 
0B D0 
68 €9 
7D A4 
A 5 3D 
A0 00 
20 FB 
C9 BB 
A7 D0 

16 20 
6B €B 
4C 68 
6B C0 
A2 02 

4 8 BO 
BA 4C 

17 4C 
CI 20 
A3 B6 
85 B7 
€0 €8 
00 F0 
20 FD 



BD 
03 A9 
45 4€ 
45 41 
4A 45 
54 43 



9F A0 
F4 €1 
EC 68 
A9 00 
3A S4 
85 7A 
Bl 7A 
A8 A2 
DB 09 
F9 F0 
73 00 
F0 16 
C0 EB 
D0 F2 
BA OA 
73 €0 
73 00 
68 €0 
FO AE 
F0 ES 
A0 00 
€4 B7 
49 A9 
AE C9 



A5 22 
S5 2D 
85 31 
69 C0 
A9 C0 
00 03 
C2 BD 
41 54 
53 45 
46 46 
48 20 
37 20 
45 21 
52 45 
F3 C2 
C9 B0 
E2 A9 
7A €8 
A5 3E 
00 02 
02 20 
20 73 
F0 C9 
CA 30 
DO F6 
20 73 
€9 44 
AA BD 
48 A9 
A2 08 
F0 DO 
20 9E 
€9 11 
Bl 22 
00 F6 
00 BD 
4C DO 



18 69 
84 1€ 
34 B6 
AD BF 
BD F6 
A9 C3 
12 2A 
49 4B 
20 98 
20 09 
28 70 



43 


hi 


00 


36 


43 


26 


27 


4D 


00 


B2 


01 


4A 


F0 


74 


85 


EF 


A0 


D6 


73 


07 


00 


CA 


44 


DD 


07 


F5 


A2 


B7 


00 


AA 



□ 59 
72 CE 
08 46 
2€ 63 



20 
AD 



25 

12 



E0 A3 
99 86 
20 55 
67 DA 

18 EF 



C 128: 20 
C130:99 
C13B:20 
C140:C9 
C14a:79 
€150:57 
C15B:C0 
€160;F0 
€163:98 
C170:DD 
€178:89 
C180:BD 
€188:4C 
C190:90 
€19B:FF 
ClA0:2fl 
CIA 8:90 
C1B0!60 
ClBBiFO 
C1C0:0E 
C1CB:AE 
C1D0:BB 
C1D8:2€ 
C1E0:B7 
CIF,8:D0 
C1F0:39 
CIFBjDO 
€200!F0 
C20a:C3 
C210:00 
C21B:€5 
€22B:F0 
€228:00 
€230:BA 
C23B: 4C 
€240:BO 
€248: 3A 
€250:20 
€25B:C0 
€260:20 
C268:C0 
C270:AB 
C278:AE 
C280:20 
C2BS: 20 
€290:20 
€298:90 
C2A0:B7 
€2Aa:68 



02 CI 
3A CO 
79 00 
55 00 
00 FO 
00 BF 
DO 07 

03 4C 

09 60 

62 3 
A5 B7 
FF 20 
68 €B 
20 Bl 
A9 05 
73 00 
15 E0 
30 73 
05 €9 
4C 68 
20 9E 
60 A4 
99 3A 
E6 B7 
40 20 
4C A0 

10 20 

03 2B 
FF 20 

4 8 CA 
BA 00 
20 C3 
3 4C 
20 14 
68 €0 

63 02 
C0 20 
F7 B7 
A2 01 
FD AE 
20 BB 
FF €8 
FF 20 
8B €1 
B4 FF 
AD Fl 
50 F 5 
68 91 
20 €A 



20 Bl 
BD 67 
F0 28 
0B 20 

19 20 

20 D2 
C6 B7 
€7 €0 
A6 98 
F0 F2 
A0 CO 
C0 FF 
A0 00 
FF A9 
2 4 90 
20 9E 
IF BO 
00 20 
FF F0 
C0 A9 
B7 BA 
B7 99 
€0 99 
E6 B7 
73 00 
CI F0 
€4 €1 
E6 CI 
E6 €1 
30 OF 
F6 BD 
FF 68 
€7 C0 
F3 F0 
09 60 
B5 BA 
FD AE 
BC 3€ 
20 79 
20 B4 
CI B9 
CO 5 
Al B7 
20 AE 
A9 6F 
48 S4 
98 2 
62 88 
B4 4€ 



CI A4 

CO E6 

20 FD 

A0 CI 

FD AE 

CI AD 

20 73 

A0 01 

CA 30 

DO F6 



A2 
90 



B7 40 
B7 €3 
AE A5 
20 EF 
€9 58 

6 7 F7 
0B E2 
CB 76 

07 48 
85 39 
20 6B 



3A 

13 AA 1 



A5 BA 

6F 20 

30 EB 

B7 E0 

11 ae 

9E b7 
01 6fl 
23 20 
FO F0 
3B C0 
3C C0 
60 €9 
C9 55 
17 €9 
20 79 
A5 BB 
Ae 9S 
BD 63 
59 02 
00 FA 
20 C4 



05 
80 
A9 
20 



€0 8D 
00 F0 
CI BE 
3A €0 
□ F5 
20 A6 
FP fl5 
20 96 
B7 CS 
7D 34 
10 FA 
AB FF 



B4 FE 
93 79 
60 E0 
03 BO 
BA 59 
8A 50 
A 2 IE 
FF 91 
86 7a 
A9 BD 
E6 52 
91 C3 
00 €2 

23 EE 
30 BA 
4C 93 
A9 65 

02 3C 
00 E0 
60 7B 
CI AE 

03 AS 
C0 17 
BD C0 
AD OF 
3D EO 
06 BC 
3E 55 
2 3€ 
4C 13 
CI C0 
BA AE 
FF 0F 

24 0D 
A4 C7 
63 57 
00 2 



Periscope 

Article on page 70. 



Kll 


20 


HH 


30 


ER 


40 


DF 


50 


RF 


60 



iiE 10 REM COPifHIGHT 19B8 COMPU 
TEI PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
GOSUD620 

PRIHT "(HOME]DRIVE TYPE" 
: PRINT"A 1581": PRINT"B 1 
571"!PRINT"C 1541{DOWtJ}" 
PHINT"{UPjPRESS A, B, OR 

€" 
GETKEYTVS! IFTYS<"A"ORTYS 
>"€"THEN40 

IHPUT "DEVICE NUMBER 
{2 HIGHT)8(3 LEFTl";DR:l 
F DB<8 OH DRJll THEN 60 
DB 70 OPEN15,DR,15:OPEN5,DR,5, 
" » " : 0PEN4 , OR , 4 , " < " : G0TO2 
50 
JF 80 IHPUT "TRACK AND SECTOR 

(SPA€ElHUMBER"!TB,SE 
QH 90 IFTYS = "A"AtID [TR<1ORTR>80 
ORSE<0ORSE>39)THENRETURN 
QX 100 IFTVS<>"B"THEN150 
QJ 110 1F(TH<1ORTR>70ORSE<0ORS 

E>20)THENRETURN 
BC 120 IF[ (TR>17ANDTR<25)0R(TR 
>5 2AHDTR<60) 1ANDSE>1STH 
ENRETUHN 
CH 130 1F( (TR>24ANDTH<31)OR (TR 
>5 9ANDTR<66) )ANDEE>17TH 



02 COMPUTEVs Galetle May 198B 



ENRETURN 
SE 140 IF( (TR>30fl[JDTR<36)OR (TR 

>65ftNDTR<71) )ANDSE>16TH 

EHRETURN 
KX 150 IFTYS<>"C"THEN200 
QS 160 IFTR<1ORTR>35ORSE<0ORSE 

>20THEHRETURN 
MK 170 IFTR>17ANDTR<25ANbSE>la 

THENRETURN 
RH 180 IFTR>24ANDTR<31ANDSE>17 

THENRETURN 
DP 190 lFTR>30ftNDSE>16THBHRETU 

m 

HP 2B0 PRINTI15,"01"; 5i0;TR;SB 

FA 210 SYSil864 

FG 220 BK(PO)=PEEK(la24) iBK(PO 

+1)=PEEK [1025) :PO=P0+2: 

IFPO>51THENPO=0 
KG 230 IFPO>LITHENLI=PO 
HF 240 RETURN 
RX 250 GOSOeeaaiPRlNTMES: PRINT 

"TRACK "TR;" SECTOR "SE 
XJ 260 GET CS:IFCS=""THEH 260 
BP 270 IFCS="C"THENGOSUBS90 
XC 2B0 IFCS="E"TKENGOSUB330 
ES 290 IFCS="N"THENGOSUBBa 
EK 300 IFCS''"B"TKENGOSUB570 
QC 310 IFCS-"Q"THEN600 
CH 320 GOTO250 
CG 330 WINDOW 0, , 3 9, 7 :CL-0 
QX 340 GOSUB530:GETINS:IFINS"" 

"THEH340 
KC 350 1N=ASC(INS) :IFIN=13THEN 

550 
CG 360 IFIN-27THENRETURN 
ftR 370 IFIN»19THEN33a 
KF 380 IFIN=67ANDPEEi((211)'eTH 

EHTR-PEEK(Cl) !SE=PEEK(C 

1*1) !GOSUB90tPOKE208,0: 

GOTO 330 
SK 390 IFm=66ANDPEEK(211)=8TH 

ENGOSUB570:POKE20 8,0:GO 

TO330 
PX 400 IFIN-17ANDCL<215THENCL= 

CL*40:GOTO470 
EH 410 IFlN-29ANDCi:,<255THEN460 
BF 420 IFIN-145ANDCL>39THENCL- 

CL-40:GOTO470 
BK 430 IFIN-157ANDCL>0THEtJC[,-C 

L-1:GDTO470 
HP 440 IFIN=18ORIN-146THEN470 
EF 450 IFIN<320R (IN>127ANDIN<1 

60)THEN340 
EH 460 CL=CL + 1:IFC[,>256THEN330 
DA 470 POKE7,{Cl-1024)/40 
SE 490 C2-(Cl-lfl24) 
XK 490 IFC2>39THENC2"C2-4a!GOT 

0490 
JJ 500 P0KEB,C2 
JR 510 POKES, PEEK(5)ftND254!SYS 

65520 
BM 520 PRINTINS; :GOTO340 
SG 530 C1''1024+CL:C2 = PEEK(C1) ! 

POKECl,XOR[C2,12e) !C3-P 

EEK(C1+1) :C4"C2-k:3'256 
SR 540 POKEC1,C2:POKE8,19:POKE 
7,7:P0KE5,PEEK(5)AND254 
:SyS65520 
□R 545 PRINT"(C1:N)(2 LEFT)"C2" 
(LEFT) (S"RIGHTS(HEXS(C2 
) ,2)")"C4'MLEFT) [S"HEXS 
[C4)"){5 SPACES} ":RETUH 

N 
RH 550 SYS48B3 
RC 560 PRItJTI15,"O2"j4;0;TR;SE 

; RETURN 
HJ 570 PO=PO-4:IFPO<0THENPO=LI 
FR 580 TR-BK (PO) :SE-BK (PO-H) :S 

[,EEPI:GOTO90 
FH 590 TR = PEEK (1024 I :SE = PEEK (1 
025) :GOTO90 

pf 600 input#15,a,bs,c,d: print 
a;bS!C;D:CLOSE4:CLOSE5: 



C[,OSEI5:PRINT"t2 HOME) 
(CLRj":POKE248,0 
eb 610 sys4944:ekd:rem enable 
{spaceJstop key and run 
/stop-restore 
qd 620 po-0!dim bk [51 ) : printch 

RS (14)CHRS [8) : POKE24B,l 
92!TR=1:SE=0 

AS 630 POKE532a0,0: POKE53281,0 
:PRINT"(CLR] {CYNI 
{3 SPACES ICOPYRIGHT 198 
8 COMPUTE ! "pub. , ^NC." 

KK 640 PRINTTAB(ll) "ALL RIGHTS 
RESERVED" 

RE 650 reS=ChrS [13) :mES="C con 

TINUE"*RES-t"Q OUIT" + RES 
*"E EDIT"+RE$*"N NEW"*R 
ES+"B BACK"tRES+"(DOWN) 
PRESS KEY" 

JH 660 RESTORE:FORI-0TO114:REA 
DA: P0KE4 864+I,A!B-B+A 

GQ 670 NEXT: IFB012696THENPRIN 
T"(2 HOME} (CLR)(RED)ERR 
0R{2 EPACESlIN DATA STA 

tements":end 
bf gb0 window 0,16,39,24,1 
gk 690 svs4919:return:rem disa 

ble stop and RUN/STOP-R 

ESTORE 

XF 790 DATA162,0e5,032,198,255 

BE 710 DATA160,00a, 032, 207,255 

FB 720 DATA1.53,00a,004,200,20a 

EE 730 DATA247, 075, 204, 255,162 

GP 740 DATA004,032,201,255, 160 

BB 750 DATA000,185,001,004,032 

PJ 760 DATA2I0, 255,200, 192, 255 

BK 770 DATA144,245,173,000,004 

BS 780 DATA032, 210,255,076,204 

KX 790 DATA255, 165,005, 041, 253 

XQ 800 DftTA133, 005, 165, 145,096 

BB 810 DATA120,169,051,141,024 

DM 820 DATA003, 169, 255, 141,025 

AQ B30 DATA003,169, 346,141, 040 

KX 840 DATA003, 169,019,141,041 

PF 850 DATA003,aeB,096,000,0O0 

EK 860 DATA120, 169,064, 141,024 

FJ 870 OATft003,169,250,14l,025 

RH 880 DATA003, 169, 110, 141 ,040 

DE 890 DATA003,169,246,141,041 

DS 900 DATA003,088,096,082,079 

XX 910 DATA066,069, 082,084, 032 

HF 920 DArA06G, 073, 098,066,039 

Trap 

See instructions in article on page 
26 before typing in. 



:99 
:39 



0801:0B 

0809:31 

0811:00 

0B19:A9 

0e21:D2 

0829:11 

0831:73 

0839 

0841 

0849:A9 

0851:32 

0859:99 

0e61:A9 

0S69:C6 

0871:D0 

aS79i99 

0B81:A9 

0889:12 

0891:01 

0899:13 

08A1:99 

08A9:05 

8B1:0F 

0BB9:D9 

08C1:0F 



0A 00 

00 00 
2 D0 
20 D2 
AD 11 
A9 00 

01 A0 



30 38 B9 



HI 
39 
08 
IF 
11 
F5 
06 
FF 
04 
80 
C9 
4C 
B9 
99 
A9 
D0 



00 Fl 

80 0E 

8D 83 

39 C8 

BD 18 

99 DO 

A0 00 

13 C8 

8D 0F 

A9 93 

22 D0 

8C 26 

05 B9 

96 12 

4C D9 

0C 99 
DA A0 



9E 32 

A9 00 

85 50 

FF A9 

DO 09 

80 0E 

00 B9 

Dl 

A9 77 

DC A9 

39 B9 

C0 38 

D0 A0 

39 ce 

98 99 
C0 18 
04 A9 
20 D2 
A0 fF 
13 B9 
87 12 

99 EC 
A9 03 
74 09 
00 B9 



80 21 

85 

aE 



36 2E 

3B 



51 C7 
20 15 



40 80 lA 

DC A9 3 3 

00 D0 3E 

99 00 33 

01 30 

30 E8 

11 B9 

F5 6A 

00 B9 04 

C0 20 EF 

00 D4 7B 

00 F5 C4 

80 BD E4 

FF A9 3C 

8C 27 IC 

7B 12 OB 

99 74 F9 

05 fl9 02 

9 9 EC 50 

C8 C0 99 

A5 12 37 



85 
66 
8E 
D0 



08C9i99 

09Dl:Ca 

08D9:A9 

0aEl:8D 

08E9:BO 

08F1:8D 

0BF9:8D 

0901;A9 

0909:00 

0911:6F 

0919;0C 

0921:13 

0929:8E 

0931:09 

0939!09 

0941:4C 

0949:4C 

0951:BE 

0959:E8 

0961:13 

0969:80 

0971:A9 

0979:0A 

09B1:13 

0989:80 

0991:4F 

0999:EE 

09A1:99 

09A9:99 

09B1:05 

09B9:A9 

09C1:02 

09C9:A9 

09D1:20 

09D9:8D 

09E1:8D 

09E9:39 

09Fl:a4 

09F9!99 

0A01:18 

0A09:EA 

0All:C0 

0A19:12 

0A21:41 

0A29:24 

0A31:99 

0A39:8D 

0A41:B9 

0A49:24 

0A51:0E 

0A59:A9 

0A61:17 

0a69:A0 

0A71:aC 

0A79: 13 

0Aai:12 

0Aa9:ll 

0A91:8O 

0A99:13 

0AA1:13 

0AA9!l2 

0ABl!lE 

0AB9:8O 

0AC1:85 

0AC9:A9 

0AO1:85 

0AD9: 10 

0AE1:D0 

0AE9:24 

0AF1:31 

0AF9;8O 

0Bfll:A9 

0B09:F9 

0B11:8D 

0B19:A9 

0B21:27 

0B29: 13 

0B31:85 

0B39:A9 

0B41:77 

0B49:E4 

0B51:5D 

0B59:7D 

0Bei:FD 

0Be9:0C 



BT 06 
C0 lA 
80 8D 
0C D4 
04 D4 
01 D4 

00 D4 
F3 80 
Cfl D0 
F0 33 
AE 27 
CA CA 
16 04 
A9 01 
E8 EB 
29 09 

29 09 

01 04 
8E 5B 
A9 06 
25 13 

9 ao 

80 52 

A9 0A 

50 13 

B9 69 

12 99 

ca 07 

ID D8 
DE 
0G 35 
A6 4E 

22 85 
CO BD 
15 04 
15 08 
C8 C0 
28 C8 
43 39 

98 69 
A9 00 
80 00 

99 01 

30 C8 
A9 28 
C4 OB 

23 13 
BF 12 
00 F5 
85 58 
8C 80 
D4 AE 

00 8C 
2A 13 
ca C0 
30 0F 

13 BD 
0E 13 
BO 00 

CB ca 

80 IC 
13 BD 
IB 13 
FF A9 
03 85 

24 A9 
A9 07 
F4 A9 
D0 E7 
11 A9 
15 00 

01 8D 
07 EB 

00 D0 

01 8D 
00 A9 
85 5B 
FE 8 5 
DA 8 5 
99 45 
A9 BE 
85 5F 
80 59 
CE 20 
CE 21 



A9 ae 99 

D0 F0 20 

05 D4 Bd 

30 00 D4 

80 0B 04 

ao 08 04 

A9 IF 3D 

17 D4 A0 

FD AO 00 

B3 D0 F3 

13 AO 26 

CA E0 63 

BE 27 13 

80 26 13 

EB E0 FF 

A9 00 80 

A2 00 8E 

96 2A BE 

13 A9 El 

90 22 13 

A9 93 20 

29 13 85 
13 A9 03 
BD 5C 13 
A0 00 84 

12 99 00 
ID 04 B9 
A9 ac 99 
99 C0 DB 
A9 13 20 
D3 A9 0F 
A5 4F 20 
D3 AG 50 
A9 3A 80 
A9 01 80 
A0 00 99 
40 00 FB 
AS 28 99 
99 44 39 
08 AB C0 
A8 99 00 
Fa A0 00 

30 B9 40 
C0 IC 00 
99 C4 07 
88 00 F3 
A9 28 BD 
99 20 13 
A9 IC 85 
A9 41 3D 
16 04 A9 
5A 13 BO 
2B 13 3C 
8C 53 13 
0B 00 FB 

13 BD 10 
ID 12 BD 
8D 12 13 

12 AO 00 
08 DO FB 

13 3D ID 
10 12 3D 
30 IF 13 
D5 95 FE 
FD A2 00 
04 B5 23 
20 IB 11 
Ba 20 IB 
A5 2A 00 

01 85 2A 
A9 BD 80 

02 00 A2 
Be FB 07 
A9 7E 80 
2B DO A9 
00 80 10 
AO 00 B9 
FC A9 06 
FD 20 70 

13 C8 ca 

35 5C A9 

A9 0D 85 

13 A2 AA 

13 D0 03 

13 00 03 



87 DA AC 
31 11 42 
06 04 9E 
A9 21 5F 
A9 03 37 
A9 05 68 
18 04 3A 
4A A2 68 
OC C9 BB 
20 6B A8 
13 00 EF 
F0 09 77 
4C 06 AF 
4C 29 6A 
F0 03 Al 
26 13 15 
5A 13 19 
00 04 <E 
BD 21 31 
A9 60 12 
D2 FF 4B 

29 A9 99 
BD 51 49 
a9 03 27 
4E 84 59 
a4 B9 96 
73 12 GC 
00 09 CB 
CB C0 4C 
02 FF AF 
90 86 3B 
CD BD F6 
A5 51 3A 
13 04 EB 
13 DB 50 
99 40 FA 
Aa FF 92 
42 39 29 
06 29 A5 
40 D0 8E 

30 ca 7D 
B9 31 FB 

12 99 80 
EF AO AB 
A 9 BF FC 
A9 23 14 
24 13 AC 
ca CO 06 
52 A9 42 
OB 04 9E 
Fl BD 37 
00 12 60 
28 13 40 
99 a6 Al 
BD 15 DC 

13 80 75 

22 Oa 50 
AE SB C0 
99 13 B4 
BD 15 05 
13 BD 73 

23 00 01 
A9 04 33 
85 FC 5B 
A9 04 E5 
20 97 B7 
C6 23 11 
11 C6 2F 
03 20 56 
A9 03 53 
03 D0 C9 
C0 9E 53 
A9 AA C5 
01 D0 9F 
BF BD 51 
00 A9 2C 
FE 12 96 

3 5 FF BA 
10 A9 2C 

04 oa 75 

06 95 87 

5E A9 E2 

CA OB 14 

4C 6 5 EF 

4C 9E 58 



COMPUTE'S GflMfW May 1988 93 



0B71:BC 


CE 


25 


13 


00 


03 


4C 


B9 


FB 


0E19 


13 


C9 


7E 


FS 


11 


C9 


7D 


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20 


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10 


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38 


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13 


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06 


AA 


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20 


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13 


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52 


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18 


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96 


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35 


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77 


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41 


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61 


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13 


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59 


13 


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38 


98 


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06 


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20 


01 


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20 


13 


20 


97 


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20 


02 


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95 


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85 


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4C 


07 


aB 


18 


98 


69 


47 


aE69 


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AG 


12 


00 


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90 


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13 


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36 


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84 


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29 


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20 


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84 


52 


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09 


99 


F-4 


09 


99 


OA 


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20 


4C 


19 


0C 


98 


40 


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CB 


C0 


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DO 


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90 


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27 


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98 


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80 


42 


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53 


60 


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28 


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57 


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59 


AQ 


05 


60 


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03 


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08 


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29 


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80 


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59 


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57 


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84 


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95 


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57 


AS 


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85 


50 


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40 


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09 


04 


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A9 


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8D 


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57 


0ED9 


88 


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85 


59 


4C 


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11 


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06 


80 


20 


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98 


aEEl 


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01 


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40 


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FA 


AS 


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5E 


aEE9 


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AD 


5C 


13 


8D 


52 


13 


flC49:C9 


3F 


00 


FA 


A5 


C5 


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40 


F7 


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53 


13 


Fa 


F2 


AE 


57 


13 


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FA 


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IF 


BD 


IB 


04 


A9 


D7 


aEF9 


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8E 


57 


13 


8E 


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D4 


0C59:00 


80 


20 


00 


A9 


5B 


80 


11 


CC 


aF0i 


55 


13 


BD 


E3 


12 


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lA 


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4C 


50 


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20 


6B 


ac 


4C 


64 


0F09 


01 


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03 


4C 


38 


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aB 


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6F 


80 


20 


13 


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59 


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03 


4C 


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0C71:00 


A2 


00 


18 


BD 


00 


40 


85 


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09 


ai 


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10 


00 


4C 


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BO 


00 


41 


95 


FE 


86 


26 


70 


0F21 


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AC 


00 


DQ 


88 


8C 


00 


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00 


42 


AA 


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90 


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38 


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A2 


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BD 


24 


12 


91 


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10 


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29 


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BD 


10 


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AG 


26 


90 


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42 


E8 


EC 


FE 


0F39 


EF 


12 


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0D 


C9 


01 


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03 


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08 


60 


A9 


El 


BD 


33 


aF41 


4C 


40 


0F 


CE 


01 


00 


4C 


0CA1:21 


13 


AO 


28 


D0 


29 


aF 


C9 


5A 


0F49 


aF 


EE 


01 


DO 


EE 


56 


13 


0CA9!06 


F0 


08 


A9 


06 


80 


28 


D0 


24 


0F51 


54 


13 


AD 


56 


13 


DO 


FB 


0CB1:4C 


72 


0B 


A9 


01 


4C 


AE 


0C 


2B 


0F59 


F0 


03 


4C 


9B 


0B 


A9 


00 


0CB9:A9 


2A 


80 


2S 


13 


20 


C9 


0C 


ED 


aF61 


56 


13 


EE 


54 


13 


EE 


55 


0CC1:AD 


23 


13 


F0 


25 


4C 


7A 


as 


45 


aF69 


AD 


54 


13 


C9 


03 


F0 


03 


aCc9:AE 


24 


13 


AC 


23 


13 


E8 


E0 


87 


0F71 


90 


0B 


A9 


00 


30 


53 


13 


0COL:30 


Ffl 


08 


8E 


24 


13 


Ba 


99 


44 


aF79 


90 


0B 


A0 


00 


ac 


58 


13 


0CD9:C4 


07 


60 


A9 


20 


99 


C4 


a7 


B4 


0P81 


58 


38 


G9 


06 


AA 


18 


8A 


0CE1:88 


8C 


23 


13 


A2 


28 


8E 


24 


ED 


0F89 


02 


13 


AA 


BD 


2D 


13 


F0 


aCE9:13 


£0 


AE 


22 


13 


CA 


CA 


F0 


ES 


0F91 


EE 


58 


13 


C8 


ca 


04 


D0 


0CF1; la 


8E 


22 


13 


A9 


20 


90 


11 


59 


0F99 


AO 


58 


13 


C9 


04 


F0 


6F 


BCF9:04 


A9 


00 


8D 


08 


D4 


20 


AO 


DB 


0FA1 


58 


AO 


IB 


D4 


C9 


40 


90 


0001:10 


A9 


41 


80 


04 


04 


A9 


04 


59 


0FA9 


C9 


80 


90 


IE 


C9 


CB 


90 


0D09:8D 


01 


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A9 


F0 


85 


22 


A9 


EA 


a FBI 


E8 


BD 


2D 


13 


00 


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0D11:CA 


80 


96 


0E 


A0 


0A 


A9 


02 


2A 


eFB9 


4C 


E2 


0F 


38 


3A 


E9 


06 


0019:20 


6A 


0E 


A9 


07 


20 


6A 


0E 


OS 


0FC1 


BO 


20 


13 


00 


OA 


Aa 


00 


0D21:88 


00 


F3 


ac 


01 


D4 


4C 


28 


17 


0FC9 


E2 


0F 


18 


BA 


69 


a6 


AA 


0D29:afi 


Aa 


aa 


A9 


41 


80 


04 


04 


28 


aFOl 


2D 


13 


00 


CB 


A0 


03 


4C 


0D31:A9 


21 


80 


0B 


04 


A9 


a3 


80 


AB 


aF09 


0F 


CA 


BD 


2D 


13 


D0 


ca 


0039:01 


04 


8D 


0B 


04 


20 


AD 


10 


CO 


aFEi 


06 


86 


58 


8C 


55 


13 


A9 


fl041:A9 


E8 


80 


96 


0E 


A9 


32 


85 


86 


0FE9 


80 


54 


13 


8D 


56 


13 


BO 


0049:22 


B9 


24 


12 


20 


6a 


BE 


C8 


IB 


0FF1 


04 


80 


5? 


13 


A9 


05 


80 


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0D 


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A9 


00 


80 


15 


06 


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04 


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20 


BD 


04 


04 


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0059:00 


80 


01 


04 


8D 


09 


D4 


A8 


9B 


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30 


05 


04 


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21 


80 


04 


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A9 


06 


as 


26 


A5 


4F 


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1009 


8D 


53 


13 


4C 


90 


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20 


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C5 


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0B 


F0 


03 


4C 


B3 


1011 


10 


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08 


8D 


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4E 


C5 


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90 


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51 


76 


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86 


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13 


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06 


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03 


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AG 


50 


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51 


20 


CD 


BD 


FF 


1031 


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BE 


27 


Da 


0O91:A2 


00 


CA 


00 


FD 


88 


Da 


FA 


12 


1039 


4r 


20 


CD 


BD 


20 


C9 


BC 


0O99:CG 


26 


DO 


F6 


4C 


BB 


08 


AS 


70 


1041 


26 


8E 


16 


04 


CA 


96 


26 


0DA1:4E 


Ffl 


EZ 


4C 


73 


00 


AS 


29 


84 


104 9 


23 


13 


Ffl 


03 


4C 


24 


la 


0Ofi9:aD 


29 


13 


AE 


29 


13 


00 


03 


54 


1051 


5A 


13 


Ea 


EB 


07 


D0 


02 


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82 


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01 


F0 


IF 


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EC 


1059 


00 


8E 


5A 


13 


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9e 


5B 


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Ffl 


21 


Ea 


03 


F0 


20 


AE 


BE 


ia6i 


CE 


50 


13 


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03 


4C 


28 


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00 


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F0 


06 


8E 


02 


00 


7C 


1069 


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03 


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5D 


13 


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5C 


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F3 


00 


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la 


00 


09 


02 


5B 


1071 


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02 


00 


01 


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10 


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C6 


00 


CE 


03 


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1079 


13 


4C 


23 


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84 


53 


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4C 


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03 


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91 


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29 


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53 


60 


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91 


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80 


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80 


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60 


A9 


40 


80 


0E09! 13 


A5 


5C 


85 


FE 


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50 


85 


CA 


10B1: 


04 


A9 


80 


flD 


05 


D4 


30 


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20 


70 


10 


A6 


SB 


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59 


30 


10B9. 


D4 


A9 


41 


8D 


04 


04 


A9 



F0 


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07 


52 




9A 


05 




la 


BE 




AA 


43 




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BA 




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17 




aa 


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FE 


33 




92 


51 




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37 




99 


71 




DA 


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00 


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28 


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95 




16 


7C 




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88 


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65 




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93 




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48 




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32 




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17 




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06 




00 


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10 


62 




38 


6F 




00 


46 




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05 




BD 


AC 




03 


F9 




40 


DB 




AE 


70 




12 


93 




30 


CF 




13 


A4 




4C 


A0 




4C 


FB 




A5 


43 




79 


BB 




03 


39 




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02 




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00 




13 


3B 




29 


5C 




09 


03 




AA 


CE 




4C 


IF 




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3F 




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A0 


BA 




00 


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06 


3F 




01 


77 




0A 


9A 




04 


7A 




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BA 




21 


40 




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FF 


66 




02 


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A5 


AA 




A6 


85 




AD 


92 




AE 


CF 




A2 


Bfl 




13 


E4 




0A 


55 




13 


CS 




SC 


AI 




00 


92 




91 


8E 




E0 


5F 




00 


05 




91 


A2 




Ea 


05 




04 


B5 




06 


2C 




00 


76 





10C1: 
10C9: 
10D1: 
10D9: 
IBEl: 
10E9: 
IBFl: 
1BF9! 
1101: 
lia9: 
1111: 

1119! 

1121: 
1129: 
1131: 
1139: 
1141: 
1149: 
1151: 
11S9: 
1161: 
1169: 
1171: 
1179: 
1181: 
1199: 
1191: 
1199: 
llAl: 
11A9: 
llBl: 
11B9: 
llCl: 
11C9: 
1101: 
11D9: 
llEl: 
11E9: 
llFl! 
11F9: 
1201: 
1209: 
1211: 
1219: 
1221: 
1229: 
1231: 
1239: 
1241: 
1249! 
1251: 
12591 
1261: 
1269: 
1271: 
1279: 

izai: 

1289: 
1291: 
1299: 
12A1: 
12A9: 
12B1: 
12B9: 
12C1: 
12C9: 
1201: 
12D9: 
12E1: 
12E91 
12F1! 
12F9: 
1301: 
1309! 
1311: 
1319! 
1321: 
1329: 
1331: 
1339: 
1341: 
1349: 
1351: 
1359: 



8D 00 

60 BS 

10 B5 
FE E5 
FF E9 
85 FD 
4C f9 
18 A5 
FC AS 
A5 5C 
60 AS 
aF 11 
22 85 
00 85 
A2 00 
95 FF 
2B 00 
90 03 
2 9 03 
D4 29 
00 42 
FF 69 
IB E6 
FE C9 
AS FF 

11 9E 
7 0F 
FF FF 
FB F0 
00 00 
00 60 
00 00 

00 00 
3E 7C 
IF 0F 
E0 F0 
FF FF 
63 21 
22 23 
22 A3 
02 03 
50 51 
04 0A 
06 0B 
0E 0F 

01 07 
7F FE 
B3 FF 
Cfl IF 
FE 00 
0B FC 

00 0a 

00 0B 
13 03 
83 2a 
70 3C 

3C 2a 

2a 2a 

3C 2B 

31 39 

la 15 

13 20 

15 14 

20 13 

01 01 

00 01 

01 00 

00 aa 

01 01 
00 aa 

02 02 
02 00 
BE 00 

00 aa 

aa BB 

aa 00 

00 00 

00 00 

00 0a 

00 00 

00 00 

00 00 

00 00 

00 00 



04 A9 

60 20 

60 20 

60 8 5 

00 85 

60 85 

10 85 

FE 65 

FF 69 

85 FE 

SE 35 

IB BS 

FE 3 5 

FF 69 

A9 28 

A0 00 

2E AD 

IC 72 

69 24 

0F C9 

AS FE 

4 9D 

FE D0 

BF Fa 

C9 07 

3C 03 

IF 3F 

FF FF 

EB C0 

00 00 

00 00 

00 08 

00 00 

F8 00 

07 03 

F9 FC 

FF FF 

22 22 

21 22 

23 22 
04 2B 
52 53 
0C BE 
BB 06 
03 0B 
0F 0C 
B0 FF 
F0 07 
FF 80 
FF FC 
00 00 
7B 00 

00 00 
0r 12 
14 09 
20 70 
20 70 

22 3B 
22 20 
38 38 
14 05 
06 09 
14 0F 
14 01 

01 01 
01 00 
00 00 
00 01 



02 
00 



Bl 
01 



03 0B 
18 03 
5 02 
00 0B 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 BB 



F3 BD 

12 11 

B9 11 

FE 85 

FF 18 

60 2 B 

60 20 

60 85 

00 4C 

A 5 SO 

FE A5 

22 AS 

FC AS 

04 85 

85 FE 

IB Bl 

IB 04 

11 AD 
91 FE 
0B B0 
90 00 
00 40 

02 E6 

03 4C 
F0 03 
60 00 
7F FF 
FF FF 
80 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 

00 FF 

01 00 
PE 00 
FF 21 
63 23 
22 A3 
22 22 
29 2A 
0E 02 
06 09 

03 08 

04 0C 

04 0B 
FC 01 
FF EB 
3F FF 

00 00 
FC 00 
aa B0 

aa 00 

05 08 
OD 5 
70 3C 
70 3C 
3C 20 
20 IB 

2 03 
10 12 

12 05 
0E 20 
12 14 

01 00 
00 00 

00 01 

01 01 
01 00 
01 
01 



01 
02 
18 A9 
05 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
00 00 
aa B0 
BB 00 
BB 00 
00 00 



17 D4 b6 

4C 07 CE 

38 A5 0C 

FC AS 5 

69 D4 DC 

12 11 69 

09 11 B7 

FE B5 62 

E4 IB AC 

85 FF 63 

5F 4C 8A 

FE 65 60 

FF 6 9 D5 

FD 60 5C 

a 9 04 OB 

FE C9 81 

C9 20 35 

IB 04 6F 

AD IB 37 

F7 9D 57 

41 AS CD 

E8 F0 IE 

FF AS 97 

3E 11 6B 

4C 3E 8A 

01 03 97 

FF FF CE 

FE FC B6 

00 04 AC 

BB BB CB 

00 00 EB 

30 0B BC 

B0 IF 03 

7F 3F 87 

BB C0 22 

FF FF BF 

22 22 EE 

22 22 7A 

21 22 38 

23 01 7D 
2B 2C SE 
03 0F b6 
5 0C 86 
00 01 57 
0F 07 96 
06 00 8A 
FF F8 B9 
BF FF BF 
00 7F 0F 
78 aa AD 
00 FC 99 
00 00 8C 
00 00 85 
B9 07 3C 
20 7D EE 
20 70 El 
2a 22 E6 

22 3B 9F 
03 ID B2 
0F 00 67 

5 13 CB 
2a a2 97 
14 0F 01 

01 al 29 
00 00 OE 

00 01 4F 

01 BB 7C 
Bl Bl ID 

aa 02 21 

01 01 20 

00 01 A8 

B0 67 23 

00 00 6F 

00 e0 2F 

00 00 37 

00 00 3F 

aa ea 47 

00 00 4F 

00 00 57 

00 00 5F 

00 00 67 

aa aa 6f 

00 aa 77 

aa 00 7F 

a 



94 CXMPUTers GazBttB May 19B8 



fv^c ^r^'^ = 



Software Inc. 





UTILITIES 



ULTRA DOS UTILITIES 
Module I 

High Speed Hard Drive orduQl floppy drive backup utility lor the Amiga 
500, 1000 or 3000. 513K Amiga roquifecJ, Compatible with any harddnve 
thai lollDws conventional AmigaDOS piolocol Backup those valuable 
files on your Hard Disktheeasy way tor only gCQ95| 



OXFORD PASCAL 128 

OXFORD PASCAL 128 is an implemenlalion of slandard Pascal 
designed specifically lor the 0128. It oUsfS all the enhancements Of this 
powerful language together with some useful enhancements for itie 
C128.0nlyS2g95i 



SUPER AIDE 

All-purpose utiiiiy piogram tor ihe C54 provides: 



• Bt'dlrectlonai scrolling 

• Auio Line Deletion 

• Trace function 

• Disassembler 

• Lo-Res Screen Dump 

• Number conversion 
(10, hsK, binary) 

• Append (lies 

• Format ~ stiod 
new/complele new 

• Menu-driven 

• Change THIS TO THAT - 
specified siring and replace 

• And much, much moiel 
Super Aide, Ihe complete programmer's tool kit. Only goQ QC| 



Auto Line Numbering 

• Renumber 

• ML Monitor 

• List all variables 10 screen 

• Hi-Res Screen Dump 

• Restore newed Basic 
program 

• Change Device number 

• Packed Line Editor 
■ Determine file load 

address 
search lor all instances ol 
with second specified string 



GAMES 



MONSTER POWER 

BIG WHEEL MONSTER arcade action for the C64! One 1o tour 
players can compete in Tractor Pulls, Mud Bogs and Monster 
Trucks. 

Monster Power is only $1 4^^! 

STRATEGIC PLAYGROUND FOOTBALL 

Enjoy a nee game of football on the C64, Using playground 
r\jles,oneorlwoplayerscan compete. Get alrealfromlhe icecream 
Iruck af half lime. 

Strategic Playground Football is only SQ^^I 



"... exce(/en(, ellicient program thai can help you save both 
money and doMniime.' ' 

1541 1571 Computers Qazette 

ijiii'vc ALiOriiVicHT ^^'^- '^^^ 

1541/1571 Drive Alignment reports the alignment condition of Ihe disk 
drive as you perform ad|ustmonts. On screen help is available while the 
program is running. Includes features for speed adjustment. Complete 
inslruclionmanualonaligningbotri 1541 and 1571 drives Even includes 
instructions on how to load alignment program when nothing else will 
loadlWorksonthe C64,sxea.ciJ8 ineither64or128mode, 1541, 1571 
in either 1541 or 1571 mode! Autoboots to all modes. Second drive fully 
supported. Program disk, calibration disk and instruction manual only 

^^r^ $3495! 

f SJ"! ) Super 81 Utilities Is a complete utilllles package for the 
f^Z—-^ ^^^^ ^'^'* ^'^'^^ ^"^ ^^^^ computer. Among the many 
^iLn\^ Super 81 Utilities features are; 

• Copy whole disks from 1541 or 1571 format to 1581 partitions, 

• Copy 1541 or 1571 files to 1581 disks 

• Backup 1581 disks or files wilh 1 or 2 1581 s 

• Supplied on both 3'/;" and 5Va " diskettes sothat it will load on either 
the 1571 or 1581 drive. 

• Perform many CPIM and MS-DOS utility functions 

• Perform numerous DOS functions such as rename a disk, fonamoo 
file, scratch or unscratch files, lockar unlock files, create auto-boot 
and much morel 

Super 81 Utilities usesan option window to display all choices available 
at any given time A full fealureddisk utilities system lor the 1581 for only 



RAMDOS is a complete RAM based 
"Disk" Operating System lor the 
Commodore 1700 and 1750 RAfi^ t- \ ^- ■ 
enpansion modules which turns all or > HAM-DISK 

panoftheenpansion memorymto a lightning fast HAfvl-DISK.RAfilDOS 
behaves similar to a much faster 1541 or 1571 floppy disk except that 
the data is held m eipansion HAfifl and nol on disk. Under RAMDOS, 
a 50K program can be loaded in V; second, Programs and files can be 
transferred to and from disk with a single command, RAMDOS is 
available for only SOQ9SI 



SUPER BtKE 

Action-packed, lun-lilled motor cycle arcade game 
lor the C64. Race the clock in Molocross, Enduro, 
Supercross or Trials. Fly through the airon spectacular 
jumps. Bounce over woop-de-doos. 
Avoid logs, trees, water holes, brickwails, other bikers, etc. as you vie 
'lor the gold cup 

Thrilling Super Bike action for only £4 ^95) 

GALACTIC FRONTIER 

Exciting space exploration game for the CS4, Search for life forms 
among the 200 billion stars m our galaxy. Scientifically accurate. 
Awesome graphics! Forthe serious student ol aslronomy or thecasual 
explorer who warts to boldly go where no man has gone before. 

Only 529951 





Order with cfiack, money order, VISA, MasterCard, COD, 
Free shipping & handling on US, Canadian, AP0,FPO 
orders. COD & Foreign orders add 34.00 




orderFrom; Free Spirit Software, Inc. 

905 W, Hillgrove, Suite 6 

LaGrange. IL 60525 

(312) 352-7323 

1-800-552-6777 

For Technical Assistance call: (31 2)352-7335 



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AMATEUR COMPUTING ENTHUSIAST 



IF: THENV 



IF you enjoy writing programs Ouring 
your spare marrents ana dream ol publishing someOay; 
THEN why wait for someday, be an ACE prog ramEr today! 

KUSE-) 



.^ . ,, programs written In b programinq format 
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C= Commodore' 128 $229 

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64C w/154in Drive 5345" 

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O Commodore' 128D $449 



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COUPUJErs Qazeaa Usf 1988 97 



How To Type In 
COMPUTErs Gazette Programs 



Each month, COMPUTEI's Gazette 
publishes programs for the Com- 
modore 128, 64, Plus/4, and 16. 
Each program is clearly marked by 
title and version. Be sure to type in 
the correct version for your ma- 
chine. All 64 programs run on the 
128 in 64 mode, Be sure to read the 
instructions in the corresponding 
article. This can save time and elim- 
inate any questions v/hich might 
arise after you begin typing. 

We frequently publish two 
programs designed to make typing 
easier: The Automatic Proofreader, 
and MLX, designed for entering 
machine language programs, 

When enlering a BASIC pro- 
gram, be especially careful with 
DATA statements as they are ex- 
tremely sensitive to errors. A mis- 
typed number in a DATA statement 
can cause your machine to "lock 
up" (you'll have no control over the 
computer). If this happens, the only 
recourse is to turn your computer 
off then on, erasing what was in 
memory. So be sure to save a pro- 
grain before you run it. \i your com- 
puter crashes, you can always 
reload the program and look for the 
error. 



Special Characters 

Most of the programs listed in each 
issue contain special control charac- 
ters. To facilitate typing in any pro- 
grams from the GAZETTE, use the 
following listing conventions. 

The most common type of con- 
trol characters in our listings appear 
as words within braces: {DOWN} 
means to press the cursor down 
key; {5 SPACES) means to press 
the space bar five times. 

To indicate that a key should 
be shifted (hold down the SHIFT 
key while pressing another key), 
the character is underlined. For ex- 
ample, A means hold down the 
SHIFT key and press A. You may 
see strange characters on your 
screen, but that's to be expected. If 
you find a number followed by an 
underlined key enclosed in braces 
(for example, {8 A}), type the key 
as many times as indicated (in our 
example, enter eight SHIFTed A's). 

If a key is enclosed in special 
brackets, g |, hold down the 
Commodore key (at the lower left 
comer of the keyboard) and press 
the indicated character. 

Rarely, you'!3 see a single letter 
of the alphabet enclosed in braces. 



This can be entered on the Commo- 
dore 64 by pressing the CTRL key 
while typing the letter in braces, For 
example, {A} means to press 
CTRL-A. 



The Quote Mode 

Although you can move the cursor 
around the screen with the CR5R 
keys, often a programmer will want 
to move the cursor under program 
control. This is seen in examples 
such as {LEFT}, and {HOME} in 
the program listings. The only way 
the computer can tell the difference 
between direct and programmed 
cursor control is the quote mode. 

Once you press the quote key, 
you're in quote mode. This mode 
can be confusing if you mistype a 
character and cursor left to change 
it. You'll see a reverse video charac- 
ter (a graphics symbol for cursor 
left). In this case, you can use the 
DELete key to back up and edit the 
line. Type another quote and you're 
out of quote mode. If things really 
get confusing, you can exit quote 
mode simply by pressing RETURN. 
Then just cursor up to the mistyped 
line and fix it. 



When You Read: 

fCLR) 
{HOME} 

I UP) 
{DOWN} 
{LEFT) 
(RIGHT! 

{RVS} 
{OFF} 

{BLK) 
(WHT) 
{RED} 
{CYN} 



Press: 



Sec: 



SHUT 


CLRIHOME 




Ct-R/HOME 


SHOT 


J CRSR 1 




1 CHSR 1 


SHIFT 


•—CRSR—* 



•—CRSR- 



Hi 
U 

o 



CTRl 



CTRL 



][ 



icna 



CTRL 3 


CTRI. 


A 



When You Read: 

{PUR) 
(CRN] 
{BLU) 
(VEL) 

(«1 
! K ) 
I F3 1 
{R ) 
{ FS I 
{ F6) 
{17) 
{FH } 



Press 



CTRL S 




CTRl i 




CTRl 7 




CTRL a 




a 




SHIFT ft 


1) 


SHIFT (3 




(S 




SHIFT 1 IS 


n 




SHIFT n 



See: 

m 

ea 



when You Read: 

T 



Press: 



See: 



SHIFT 



For Commoilore 64 Only 



E'3 



I CO MMODORE I j 1 ] Fl 

(commodore j I i I K 



[commodore I [3 1 n 

I commodore! [ 'J I rri 

[commodore I [ s i E 

[commodore] [6j IHI 

[commodore] [ 7 ] Q 



[co mmodore I [IJ 



9B COMPUrers Gaietts May 1980 



Mon-Fri 9am-9pm CST 
Sat11am-5ptn 



IL 



KSi 



wmr 



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NX-1000 

■IMCPS-Dratt 
•30CPS-NLQ 
NLQIn1Di12Pltch 
3 BulH-ln Fonli 



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Sat11am-5pm 




cronies 



NX-1000 
RAINBOW 

NEW LOW COST 
COLOR PRINTER 



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CURRENT PRICE 



Panasonic. 

Office AulomaiioniT'wW 

\Jr' 

10801-11 

Nowat144CPS 



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1091 i- II 

Nowat192CPS 



ONLY 

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Hume fAAntfip MM 

Kitchen Manager MSi 

^11 prr^fam* *>n didi 
unless otherwise rsoledl 



The Activision Utile Compuier People 
Discovery Kit'- 

Amazing soflware lets you m«l the little 
people living inside your computer] 
Malte contact with Ihe little people living 
inside your lompuler. 

Our Oiscounl Price $9.88 




P.O. BOX m327-DEPT. CC-BLAWNOX, PA 15238 



Please Read The Following Onlering Ttrmi & Conditions Carefully Before Placing lllur Ordrr: Onltrj »ilh cashiers check or money onler shipped Immedlalely on In Hock ilemsl Personal 
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ABACUS BOOKS 
Anjloiny of Ihc Ki' ■ .SIJ 
Anjiorav d( l)ie CM . .SI4 

IS71 ln»'iult Jll 

CEOS Intldr & Dul. , .in 
CEOSTilrk. l,Iip>..,SO 
ABACUS son WAR! 
Aiumblct Uonllni . . .tU 

Baiit WS 

Slilc 11B i39 

Cjcll-jt «i 

Od P;ik Iia S39 

Chlrt Pdk its 

Chill Pjk IH «S 

Cobol HS 

Cobol 118 SIS 

PPM SIS 

PPM M» ,.SM 

Spnd Trim hi ui IIB SIS 

SupwC JW 

Super C lis . .,,.S)4 

Sup»r PjkjI Sl» 

Stipci PjKll lie S39 

TAS - J2S 

IAS 138 S3S 

ACCESS 

Flhclnn Hilip Silk ...Sit 

Fdmtnii Courw Diik m 

(o. VVUildCliHl.l.lM 
FJmnut Caur» Dilk •] 

fi>iVlUrldClj4. L.B.SI'I 
FjnHHLt Ctiurv Dhk D3 

fo. Wirld Cl*« 1,B. Sn 
IrJidm BOnird lOrJRinaM 

3 Pack Sl-I 

lip SUl Plui SI? 

Tenth Fr^mr S25 

Triple Pjck: BF1I, DH2, 

Raid Ovi^r Mdhuw ,S14 
HOild Cli» 

Ludet Bunl SIS 

ACCOLAIIE 

Vrid AiFi SI1 

Apollo IB: Million 

to Ihe Moon ilt 

Cjrd SFiirki HI 

JIh & IikIw FdoiIuII .SI9 

FIjrdball S14 

Mini PutI ,. S14 

Pdntr Jl Sri S19 

IM Diiw S19 

The Tllln; I«Jpc 10 

Norm.ndy ill 

ACTION WPT 

TFiundrr Chtwppr . , - -SI** 

Up Poilicilpet SI'l 

AOIVISION 

Allrnt in 

BlAck lAi k Acddcmv ■ , S35 

Gee Bee Air Klllr ill 

MdnidC S^nsJaci $13 

Miglll I, MiBlc SIS 

Muilc S'udiu SI3 

Pultcdldi Sifc 

SFianjihji SI* 

Ihe Uil NInll Sli 

AMtmC AN FDUCA1IONM 

Hlologv ill 

Crjmmjr ill 

U'Jin l» Head (Ci, 1-11 ii; 

Phooli>(K-l) ili 

Beading ComprehrmlnnSI^ 
Sflente: Crad« )I4...S12 
Science: Crjdei .'i/6. r rSI2 
Science: Cradet 7JS...SIJ 

USCeoKrjphv ill 

US HisluFY St3 

VUirld Cruirapliy . . , .ill 
MDcId HIiluiY . ..ill 



ARTWORK 

BHdie 5,n in 

Cycle Kni^hl SI4 

InlernaElunal Hockey - -$11 

LInkword Irench i}b 

Llfik^vord German . . . . S16 
Llnki*orf] Auiuan. . . ilb 
llnkvpOfd S[unllh . . -Sib 

Slric Poker, S^l 

□ill Dlik II Femilc. 114 
OlU Dilk 'IMlIf ...iM 
Dara r)l&k ni Fenulr. .ild 
AVALON HILL 

Cull SlHke... i1» 

NSA Batkrlhall ils 

Snllflre '« ilJ 

Super Sur^av i^l 

SBS I9fli Irim Oi>k . .114 
SBS l^Bb Tram Diik .114 
SBS Gen. MRt, Oilk,. .SI9 
BATTERIES INCLUOFO 

Paimtllp 3 SIJ 

BAUDVIILF 

BlaiinK Piddles S13 

Hum Dai Games . . .i19 

vldeuM?gii Sl» 

BERKFLFV SOFTWORKS 

Gem 118 i41 

Crn-Calc I3fl i44 

Ceo-Fllr 1» S44 

CFi>\\Me Mtlriklhflp I3IISM 

cnnM in 

■Gcii-Cak S31 

■Ctu File ill 

•Ccoi Font Pak I in 

■Gro-Programmer . . . .i44 

■CcD-Publith -i44 

-Geo-Spell ,,, , SW 

•Geo-Wille WBrtuhnp i33 
* Requires Geos b4l 
BETTER WOBKINC 
Butlneis Form Shup . .il5 
BHllIlEltBUMl 

Hank i\. Wrilvr ill 

Carmen Sindlego: 

Europe . Call 

USA SIS 

W)rW ill 

Cauldnm in 

MaRnetion SI9 

Piinl Shop S16 

RS, Companion S23 

P.S. Graphilv Library 

■ t. ■!, or 13 ...lIliEa. 
P.\ CrapMi^ Library 

Holiday Edilion . ..ilb 
Super BIbr Chjllenie .iI4 
Toy Shop in 

CAPCO.M 

GFwsli & Goblins . . -i19 

Cunsmoke in 

Side Arim 119 

Spi-ed Humbler 119 

CBS 

Sucrrs* rt.AlRebri: 
Binomial Mullipitiialidn 

Ir Factoiinn ilS 

FInl r>egrre & Advanced 
Linear Iftvalions . .i14 

Graphing lliH'ar 
funcllDns - -i!^ 

Slmullin<,flui & 
Quadratic Equaliajis,i19 

Success w/Milh: 
Addition & Subl . SI9 
l>r[|mal>: Add. & Subl.SI? 
Decimal.: Mult. A Div.Siq 
Fraclions: Add. & !Hibl.il9 
Fraitiom: Mult. & Oiy.SI'l 



Mull Ipli cation Si 

Division in 

CINEMAWAHE 

iJelender oF the Cro»niIJ 

The Three SlooKes. . . , S23 

Warp Spotd (HI 133 

t.MS 

Ceneial Accl. 118 ,..S119 

Inwnlnry 118 HI 

DATA FAST 

Breakthru i19 

Commando i14 

I kirl Warrior* i19 

Kamov Call 

Kid Niti SI9 

Lock On Call 

Speed Bunny i" 

Tie Team WrtillinK.,.S14 

Vldury Road 119 

DATAStiFT 
Alterrvjie Reallly: 

Dun^iitn Silt 

Dark Loril SI4 

III 8. Baker SI ill 

Theairr Eoro(K SI* 

Tomahawk 121 

Video Title Shop 121 

DAVIDSON 

Alteblaiter ill 

Malh Bli'ler 132 

Speed Relilfr 1 ill 

Spell II ill 

ViUrd Allaik ..Ill 

DESIGN WARE 

Body Trinspirenl in 

Europeatt Nalioni . . . .119 

Mi»lon AlgetaM ill 

Spellicopler .119 

Sllles S. Traill iI9 

[IICITAI SOLUTIONS 

Pockcl Filer 1 SI) 

PoikrI Planner 1. . ..ilj 

FViclel Wriler 2 S13 

■all 1 in 1 Soper Pack, 199 
ELECTRONIC ARTS 

Alien Ilrel Call 

American Civil Wlr ..S2b 

Amnelia S26 

Arclic Foi ill 

Bard's Tale 1 i;i 1 S16 Ei. 
Banl's Talc 1 or I HinIsS? la. 
Che«mailer lODO . ...ild 
Chuck Yieeer's AFT. . .11) 
Uemon SlalWr . . . ill 

DraRon'i Ulr 11* 

Earth Orbil SlJtion III 
Halls ul Monle^Lima - .lib 
Koni l"l Red Oclober 126 

InilanI Mutic 121 

Legacy o+ Ancient. - , .121 

Marble Madnesi . 111 

MonoEKlly ... - i2b 

OotraKeous PiKCS . - . ,S13 
Pallon vs. Rommel. . . .ill 

PvBaiUS ill 

Roiktord SI1 

Scrabble ill 

Scruples -11) 

Skyfoi 1 Ill 

Skate or Die 121 

Sur Fleet I 126 

SlrileflrTf 121 

Twilighh Ran^m , . . .Call 

l^^rld Tour Golf 121 

EPYX 
Elouldrr Dash 

Cim.tructlon KlI Sift 

California Gimev . . . .124 
Chimp. Wiesllinil . lU 



Coil Cop lib 

Create A Calendar . , . . t19 

Oeitroyer il4 

till loaillRI 124 

Omirron Conspiracy . .S24 

Rid Warritir Sib 

iplderbot sib 

spy ss. Spy 1: 

Arctic Anilct sib 

Si reel Sporli; 

BasebiB -..S14 

Biskelball S14 

Sub Battle 5iniulatar.,S]4 

Summer Cimes 114 

Summer Games 2 . . . .114 
Temple ApsKil TrIloKy .114 

Winler Games 114 

We'll! Games 124 

FIREBIRD 

ElKc 119 

Guild o! Thieves ils 

KnUhlOn SIS 

Slarflldet US 

The Pawn IIS 

CA.MESTAR 

Chimp, Baseball 119 

Chimp. Basketball. ...121 

CfL Cti. RhUImII ill 

Star Rank Boiing I . . .119 
Top Fuel Elimlnalor . . .119 
HAVDtN 

Saltan 3 ,114 

SAT Math S1> 

SAT\trbll 114 

INFOCOM 

Beyond Zorli 12B 12* 

Border Zone 123 

Leather Goddesses ...113 

Nord & Ben Couldn't Make 

Head or Tail Dnt,..Sll 

Sherlock: The Hlddlr of the 

Crown jewels ..... .111 

llatlimfall ...ill 

The lurking hlorrar . . . il3 

ZnrkTdloKY S19 

INKWELL SYSTEMS 

■ 170 Deluie L.P. 16* 

• 1B4C liihl Pen 144 

FIdidraw 3J ,.il3 

Graphic) Gallerit: 

Animals .S16 

Borden A Sign. . . . ,S1b 
Fuluri.tlt Encounters lib 
Holiday Theme. ..ilb 
Map. ol tbc Mtirld Sib 
Graplllcs InUegialor 1 11* 
INTRACOHH 

Bumpei Slicker Maker 133 
Business Card Matei . . 131 
KONAMIfACTION CITY 
Boot Camp ........ .Call 

Contra S19 

Jackal S19 

Ruih 'n Allnk/Yii 

Ai KunitFu SI* 

MICROLEACUE 

Baseball lis 

Bai lloie Stat. . . .116 

General MaiiiRer 119 

19Bb Teim Dala Dlik .SI4 
1*87 Team Data Oli^ .S14 

WWF Wreslllns .119 

MICHOPROSE 

Acrojel. lib 

AltbuiiK Riniter .... SI3 
Conllicl in VIrlnim. .S2S 
Cru.ade in Europe, . . .11^ 
f-K SIrike Eagle ... ,S2J 
Gun.hip ill 



Kennedy Approach . . . lib 

Piraicl , SIS 

Pfoiecl Steallh Fighter SIS 
Red Slorm RIsioR . . . .Call 

Silenl Service 113 

Top Gunner lib 

MINDSCAPf 

Bop A WiTslle 11* 

Color Me; The Computer 

Coloring Kit 121 

Dell W 131 

Gaunllet 121 

FHarrier Combal Sim, .119 

Indoor Sports 119 

InFillralur 1 or 1 .11* It. 
Into the Eagle's Nesl .,119 
living OayllRhtl ... .119 
MI5L SiKCtt . ....Ill 

Paperboy 113 

Perfect Score SAI 144 

Super SUr 

Ice Floikey SJl 

Super Star SiKcer 123 

Uchi Mala ludo SI* 

Wise 

Bob's Term Pro 129 

Bob's Term Pra lia. . .119 

C.P. Copvl 121 

Doodle ii; 

linil CarliidKe 1 ...Call 

Font Ma.ler 2 119 

Fonl Ma.ler 11B .. li; 
Super Snapshot (H) . . .147 

Supcrbate b4, , , 11* 

Superba.e 118 144 

Superscript M 11* 

Superscript 11B 11* 

omciw 

Auloduet 131 

Moebiui lis 

Ogre 119 

Ultima 1 Dr3 12! Ei. 

Ultima 4 S39 

Ultima S ,,, SI* 

PROFESSIONAL 
Fleet System 3 Plui...il* 
Flee! Syilem 4 118 .. S47 
SIMON e. SCHUSTER 

Chem, Lab 11! 

|K La.ser Money Mgr.. Hi 

Typln^t Tutor 4 ilS 

SIR ILCH 

Deep Space SIS 

Wlrardry; Proving; 

Ground. S1.1 

SOf TWARE SIMLIIATIONS 

Foolball 11* 

Pure Stal Baieball , , . .131 
Pure SEal College 

Bi.kelball sin 

'Dala Di.ks Avail... . .Call 
SPRINGBOARD 

Cerlifitlle Maker 115 

CM, library Wl. 1 ...11* 

Newsroom 133 

N,R, Clip AM Vol, 1,,.ll* 

N.R, Clip An Vol. 2 . .11; 

N.R. Chp An vol, 3 119 

P-S Graphics Expander ill 

SSI 

Blllle of Aniietam. ,. ill 

Battle Cruiser 137 

Battle Croup 117 

814 113 

Flemal DaKer . ...125 

GellyUiurit -.137 

Kamplgruppe 117 

Paniei Strike! . . . .139 
Phanta.ie I, J or 3 135 Fa. 



President Eleil 1988 ,.SI6 

Questran 1 115 

Realm, ol Darkneii. . ,131 

Hints ol 2i Kin 115 

Road-var lUIKI iU 

HuadAiy juropi 115 

Shard of Spring . .ill 
Shiloh: Giant'. Trial . SIS 

Sons ol lltieny .113 

War Game Const. Sel 119 
War in S. Pacific. ...117 

Warship 137 

Wliard'. Crown SIS 

SUBLOCIC 

Flipihl SiiMilatoI 1 131 

F,S, Scenery Disks ,,, .Call 

|el S2b 

51 eal I h Million 131 

THREE SIKTY 

Diri.Ci5lle ill 

TIMEWOHKS 

Accli. Payable ill 

Accti Receivable S13 

Data Manager 1 S14 

Data Manager IIS , ,113 
FsrlynMbod Reider ,114 

General Leifrter 113 

Panner b4 1R1 12S 

Partner 118 iR) 131 

Swillcalc/SidewayslDI.I19 
Swlftcak/Sldewayt 128 Sll 
Syfsia IVirter's PerMinal 

Im, Planm'i bJ . .125 
Svlsli Porter'. Perwnal 
Fin, Planner IIS. ,,.113 

VSOrd Wriler 1 125 

Mird Writer 128 133 

U.NICORN 

Decimal Dungeon , . .119 

Frailiun Action 119 

Percentage Panic 119 

Rate Car Rlthmelic 119 

Ten llHleHobolt 119 

UNISON WORLD 
Art Calleiy 1 or l.llh Ea, 
Art Cillery: Fanta.y , ,.S1b 
Prim Master Plus . , . .123 
WFEKEY REAPER 
Slickvbear Series: 

ABC. 116 

Malh 1 or I lib El. 

Numbers 116 

Opposite. S16 

Reading .. Sib 

Reiding Climp 116 

Shape. ..116 

Spellirlbber 116 

Tvpinfi S16 

ACCESSORIES 
Bonus S5. DD ..S4,*9 Bi. 
Hi>nus DS. DO , . S5.99 Bi. 
CompuServe Slarlcr Kit SI* 

Contriver Mouse 119 

DIUi (Caie IFInldt 7511638 
DiOi Drive Cleaner .ibiS 
L)o.v Innes Mew. Retrieval 
Membership Kil .114 
Ip>i 5D0 H) jnyltick . ,114 

konlmllei . , , , ,114 

Soncom lAC 2 J.S 19 

Suncom TAC S I.S. , . .114 

Wna an Handle 117 

Wiio Boss S12 

WIloErgo.lick j.S. 11* 

Wico Ihree-Way , 119.93 
UILC Super Graphll IS* 
KETEC Super Graphli Ir.Sl* 
"All program, on disk 
unless Dlherivise noted! 



P.O. BOX m327-DEPT. CG-BLAWNOX, PA 15238 



■Please Read Ihe Followine Orderme Terms i. Condilion. Carelully Beiore Pbcinn Your Order! Order, wilh tashiemheck or money order shipped immedJil el y on m .lock items. Pervrni 
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Durchaseil & relurn directly to the o>inuljclurer. Customer service will nol ac.tpl colled calls or (alls on SD Of A.. flOOt order lim's! ORDER UNE HOURS: M.in.-Fri 9 AMo.lO PM 
Sat 10 AMJ PM EA5TEHN IIME. SecauK Ihii ad had to be »rlllen 1-3 mos, before il wa. pobMshed. prices & isidibihly are Hibfecl lo change! Nev. titles an aill.ing iJaily! Please till 



Sat, 10 AMJ PM EA5TEHN 
lor oyorr inlormatlonl 



The Automatic Proofreader 



. 



Philip I. Nelson 

"The Automatic Proofreader" helps 
you type in program listings for the 
128, 64, Plus/4, and 16 and prevents 
nearly every kind of typing mistake. 

Type in the Proofreader exactly as 
listed. Since the program can't check it- 
self, type carefully to avoid mistakes. 
Don't omit any lines, even if they con- 
tain unfamiliar commands. After finish- 
ing, save a copy or two on disk or tape 
before running it. This is important be- 
cause the Proofreader erases the BASIC 
portion of itself wiien you run it, leav- 
ing only the machine language portion 
in memory. 

Next, type RUN and press RE- 
TURN. After announcing which com- 
puter it's running on, the Proofreader 
displays the message "Proofreader 
Active". Now you're ready to type in a 
BASIC program. 

Every time you finish typing a line 
and press RETURN, the Proofreader 
displays a two-letter checksum in the 
upper-left corner of the screen. Com- 
pare this result with the two-letter 
checksum printed to the left of the lire 
in the program listing. If the letters 
match, it's almost certain the line was 
typed correctly. If the letters don't 
match, check for your mistake and cor- 
rect the Sine. 

The Proofreader ignores spaces not 
enclosed in quotes, so you can omit or 
add spaces between keywords and still 
see a matching checksum. However, 
since spaces inside quotes are almost al- 
ways significant, the Proofreader pays 
attention to them. For example, 10 
PRINT'THIS IS BASIC" will generate 
a different checksum than 10 
PRINT'THIS ISBA SIC". 

A common typing error is transpo- 
sition — typing two successive charac- 
ters in the wrong order, like PIRNT 
instead of PRINT or 64378 instead of 
64738. The Proofreader is sensitive to 
the posilion of each character within the 
line and thus catches transposition 
errors. 

The Proofreader does not accept 
keyword abbreviations (for example, ? 
instead of PRINT). If you prefer to use 
abbreviations, you can still check the 
line by LISTing it after typing it in, 
moving the cursor back to the line, and 
pressing RETURN. LISTing the line 



substitutes the full keyword for the ab- 
breviation and allows the Proofreader 
to work properly. The same technique 
works for rechecking programs you've 
already typed in. 

If you're using the Proofreader on 
the Commodore 128, PIus/4, or 16, do 
»0t perform any GRAPHIC commands 
while the ProofreadeT is active. When 
you perform a command like GRAPH- 
IC I, the computer moves everything at 
the start of BASIC program space — in- 
cluding the Proofreader — to another 
memory area, causing the Proofreader 
to crash. The same thing happens if you 
rut! any program with a GRAPHIC 
command- while the Proofreader is in 
memory. 

Though the Proofreader doesn't 
interfere with other BASIC operations, 
it's a good idea to disable it before run- 
ning another program. However, the 
Proofreaderis purposely difficult to dis- 
lodge; It's not affected by tape or disk 
operations, or by pressing RUN/ 
STOP- RESTORE. The simplest way to 
disable it is to turn the computer off 
then on. A gentler method is to SYS to 
the computer's built-in reset routine 
(SYS 65341 for the 128, 64738 for the 
64, and 65526 for the Plus/4 and 16). 
These reset routines erase any program 
in memory, so be sure to save the pro- 
gram you're typing in before entering 
the SYS command. 

If you own a Commodore 64, you 
may already have wondered whether 
the Proofreader works with other pro- 
gramming utilities like "MetaDASIC." 
The answer is generally yes, if you're 
using a 64 and activate the Proofreader 
after installing the other ulilily. For ex- 
ample, first load and activate Meta- 
BA51C, then load and run the 
Proofreader. 

When using the Proofreader with 
another utility, you should disable both 
programs before running a BASIC pro- 
gram. While the Proofreader seems un- 
affected by most utilities, there's no 
way to promise that it will work with 
any and every combination of utilities 
you might want to use. The more utili- 
ties activated, the more fragile the sys- 
tem becomes. 

The New Automatic Proofreader 

10 VEC=PEEK(772)+256*PEEK{773) 
:I.O=43:HI=44 



20 PBIfft "AUTOMATIC PROOFREADE 

R FOR "jilF VEC=42364 THEN 
[SPACEjPRitJT "C-ii4° 
30 IF VEC=5a556 THEN PRINT "VI 

C-20 " 
40 IF VEC=35158 THEN GHAPIIIC C 

LR:PRI«T "PLUS/4 d 16" 
50 IF VEC=17165 THEN L0=4S!HI« 

46:GRAPIIIC CLH: PRIHT"128 " 
G0 SA=(PEEK[LO)+256«PEEK{HI))+ 

6:ADR=EA 
70 FOR J=0 TO 166!READ BYTsPOK 

E ADR,BYT:ADR=ADR+liCllK=CHK 

+BYT:NEXT 
80 IF CHKO20570 TilKtJ PRINT "* 

ERROR* CHECK TYPIWfi IN DATA 
STATEMENTS":END 
90 FOR J=l TO 5:READ RF,LF,HPi 

RS=SA+RP!itB=INT[RS/236) jLB= 

R3-(256*HB) 
100 CHK=CHK+RF+LF+HF!POKE SA+L 

F,I,a:POKE SA+HF,HB:NEXT 
110 IF CHKO220S4 THEN PRINT " 

•ERROR' RELOAD PROGRAM AND 

ISPACEjCHECK FINAL LlNE"iEN 

D 
120 POKE SA+149,PEEK(772) :POKE 

SA+i50,PEEK(773) 
130 IF VEC=17165 THEN POKE SA+ 

14,22:P0KE SA+18,23!POKESA* 

29 , 2 24 iPOKESA+139 , 224 
140 PRINT CHRS(lfl7);CHR5(17);" ■■ 

PROOFREADER ACTIVE"iSYS SA 
ISO POKE I!I,PEEK(HI)>1:P0KE (P 

EEK[LO)+23&*PEEK(HI))-l,0iN 

EW 

160 DATA 120,169,73,141,4,3,16 

9,3,141,5,3 
170 DATA 86,96,165,20,133,167, 

165,21,133,168,169 
180 DATA 0,141,0,255,162,31,18 

1,199,157,227,3 
190 DATA 202,16,249,169,19,32,..! 

210,255,169,18,32 
200 DATA 210,255,160,0,132,180 

,132,176,136,230,180 
210 DATA 200,185,0,2,240,46,20 

1 ,34,208,8,72 
220 DATA 165,176,73,255,133,17 ' 

6,104,72,201 ,32,208 
230 DATA 7,165,176,208,3,104,2 .■ 

08,226, 104, 166,180 ' 

240 DATA 24,165,167,121,0,2,13 

3,167,165,168,105 v 

250 DATA 0,133,168,202,208,239 ' 

,240,202,165,167,69 
260 DATA 168,72,41,15,166,185, ' 

211,3,32,210,255 
270 DATA 104,74,74,74,74,163,1 

65,211,3,32,210 
280 DATA 255,162,31,189,227.3, 

149,199,202,16,248 
290 DATA 169,146,32,210,255,76 

,86,137,65,66,67 
300 DATA 68,69,70,71,72,74,75, 

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\^l ^^ Machine Language Entry Program 



For Commodore 64 



Ottis Cowper I 



"MLX" is a labor-saving utility that 
allows almost fail-safe entry of Com- 
modore 64 machine language programs. 

Type in and save some copies of MLX — 
you 11 want to use it to enter fuhire ML 
programs from COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE. 
When you're ready to enter an ML pro- 
gram, ioad and run MLX. It asks you for a 
starting address and an ending address. 
These addresses appear in the article ac- 
companying the MLX- form at program 
listing you're typing. 

If you're unfamiliar with machine 
language, the addresses (and all other 
values you enter in MLX) may appear 
strange. Instead of the usual decimal 
numbers you're accustomed to, these 
numbers are in hexadecimal — a base 16 
numbering system commonJy used by 
ML programmers. Hexadecimal — hex 
for short — includes the numerals 0-9 
and the letters A-F. But don't worry — 
even if you know nothing about ML or 
hex, you should have no trouble using 
MLX. 

After you enter the starting and 
ending addresses, you'll be offered the 
option of clearing the workspace, 
Choose this option if you're starting to 
enter a new listing, [f you're continuing 
a listing that's partially typed from a pre- 
vious session, don't choose this option. 

A functions menu will appear. The 
first option in the menu is ENTER 
DATA. If you're just starting to type in 
a program, pick this, Press the E key, 
and type the first number in the first 
line of the program listing. If you've al- 
ready typed in part of a program, type 
the line number where you left off typ- 
ing at the end of the previous session 
(be sure to load the partially completed 
program before you resume entry), In 
any case, make sure the address you en- 
ter corresponds to the address of a line 
in the listing you are entering. Other- 
wise, you'll be unable to enter the data 
correctly. If you pressed E by mistake, 
you can return to the command menu 
by pressing RETURN alone when 
asked for the address. (You can get back 
to the menu from most options by 
pressing RETURN with no other input.) 

Entering A Listing 

Once you're in Enter mode, MLX prints 
the address for each program line for 
you. You then type in all nine numbers 
on that line, beginning with the first 
two-digit number after the colon (:). 
Each line represents eight data bytes and 



a checksum. Although an MLX-format 
listing appears similar to the "hex 
dump" listings from a machine lan- 
guage monitor program, the extra 
checksum number on the end allows 
MLX to check your typing. 

When you enter a line, MLX recal- 
culates the checksum from the eight 
bytes and the address and compares 
this value to the number from the ninth 
column. If the values match, you'll hear 
a bell tone, the data will be added to the 
workspace area, and the prompt for the 
next line of data will appear. But if MLX 
detects a typing error, you'll hear a low 
buzz and sec an error message. The line 
will then be redisplayed for editing. 

Invalid Characters Banned 

Only a few keys are active while you're 
entering data, so you may have to un- 
learn some habits. You do not type 
spaces between the columns; MLX 
automatically inserts these for you. You 
do not press RETURN after typing the 
last number in a line; MLX automatical- 
ly enters and checks the line after you 
type the last digit. 

Only the numerals 0-9 and the let- 
ters A-F can be typed in. If you press 
any other key (with some exceptions 
noted below), you'l! hear a warning 
buzz. To simplify typing, the numeric 
keypad modification from the March 
1986 "Bug-Swatter" column is now in- 
corporated in the listing. The keypad is 
active only while entering data. Ad- 
dresses must be entered with the nor- 
mal letter and number keys. The figure 
below shows the keypad configuration: 



7 


8 


9 











4 


5 


e 


F 






U 


I 


o 


P 










] 


2 


3 


E 






J 


K 


L 


: 








A 


B 


C 


D 




M 


' 


* 


/ 




\ 










Space 







MLX checks for transposed charac- 
ters. If you're supposed to type in AO 
and instead enter OA, MLX will catch 
your mistake. There is one error that 
can slip past MLX: Because of the 



checksum formula used, MLX won't 
notice if you accidentally type FF in 
place of 00, and vice versa. And there's 
a very slim chance that you could gar- 
ble a line and still end up with a combi- 
nation of characters that adds up to the 
proper checksum. However, these mis- 
takes should not occur if you take rea- 
sonable care while entering data. 

Editing Features 

To correct typing mistakes before fin- 
ishing a line, use the INST/DEL key to 
delete the character to the left of the 
cursor, {The cursor-left key also de- 
letes.) If you mess up a line really badly, 
press CLR/HOME to start the line over. 
The RETURN key is also active, but 
only before any data is typed on a line. 
Pressing RETURN at this point returns 
you to the command menu. After you 
type a character of data, MLX disables 
RETURN until the cursor returns to the 
start of a line. Remember, you can press 
CLR/HOME to quickly get to a line 
number prompt. 

More editing features are available 
when correcting lines in which MLX 
has detected an error. To make correc- 
tions in a line that MLX has redisplayed 
for editing, compare the line on the 
screen with the one printed in the list- 
ing, then move the cursor to the mis- 
take and type the correct key. The 
cursor left and right keys provide the 
normal cursor controls. (The INST/ 
DEL key 'now works as an alternative 
cursor-left key.) You cannot move left 
beyond the first character in the line. If 
you try to move beyond the rightmost 
character, you'll reenter the line. Dur- 
ing editing, RETURN is active; pressing 
it tells MLX to recheck the line. You can 
press the CLR/HOME key to clear the 
entire tine if you want to start from 
scratch, or if you want to get to a line 
number prompt to use RETURN to get 
back to the menu. 

Display Data 

The second menu choice, DISPLAY 
DATA, exairtines memory and shows 
the contents in the same format as the 
program listing (including the check- 
sum). When you press D, MLX asks you 
for a starting address. Be sure that the 
starting address you give corresponds 
to a line number in the listing. Other- 
wise, the checksum display will be 
meaningless. MLX displays program 
lines unbl it reaches the end of the pro- 
gram, at which point the menu is redis- 



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>X«AK«AiSV'M^ 




played. You can pause the display by 
pressing the space bar. (MLX finishes 
printing the current tine before halting.) 
Press space again to restart the display. 
To break out of the display and get back 
to the menu before the ending address 
is reached, press RETURN. 

Other Menu Options 

Two more menu selections let you save 
programs and load them back into the 
computer. These are SAVE FILE and 
LOAD FILE; their operation is quite 
straightforward. When you press S or L, 
MLX asks you for the filename. You'll 
then be asked to press either D or T to 
select disk or tape. 

You'll notice the disk drive starting 
and stopping several times during a 
load or save. Don't panic; this is normal 
beha\'ior. MLX opens and reads from or 
writes to the file instead of using the 
usual LOAD and SAVE commands. Dbk 
users shouid also rote that the drive 
prefix 0: is automatically added to the 
filename (line 750), so this should not 
be included when entering the name. 
This also precludes the use of @ for 
Save-with- Replace, so remember to give 
each version you save a different name. 

Remember that MLX saves the en- 
tire workspace area from the starting 
address to the ending address, so the 
save or load may take longer than you 
might expect if you've entered only a 
small amount of data from a long list- 
ing. When saving a partially completed 
listing, make sure to note the address 
where you stopped typing so you'll 
know where to resume entry when you 
reload. 

MLX reports the standard disk or 
tape error messages if any problems are 
detected during the save or load. (Tape 
users shouid bear in mind that Commo- 
dore computers are never able to detect 
errors during a save to tape.) MLX also 
has three special load error messages: 
INCORRECT STARTING ADDRESS, 
which means the file you're trying to 
load does not have the starting address 
you specified when you ran MLX; 
LOAD ENDED AT address, which 
means the file you're trying to load 
ends before the ending address you 
specified when you started MLX; and 
TRUNCATED AT ENDING AD- 
DRESS, which means the file you're 
trying to load extends beyond the end- 
ing address you specified when you 
started MLX. If you see one of these 
messages and fee! certain that you've 
loaded the right file, exit and rerun 
MLX, being careful to enter the conect 
starting and ending addresses. 

The QUIT menu option has the ob- 
vious effect — it stops MLX and enters 
BASIC. The RUN/STOP key is dis- 
abled, so the Q option lets you exit the 



program without turning off the com- 
puter. (Of course, RUN/STOP-RE- 
STORE also gets you out.) You'll be 
asked for verification; press Y to exit to 
BASIC, or any other key to return to the 
menu. After quitting, you can type 
RUN again and reenter MLX without 
losing your data, as long as you don't 
use the clear workspace option. 

The Finished Product 

When you've finished typing all the 
data for an ML program and saved your 
work, you're ready to see the results. 
The instructions for loading and using 
the finished product vary from program 
to program. Some ML programs are de- 
signed to be loaded and run like BASIC 
programs, so all you need to type is 
LOAD "filemme'\B for disk or LOAD 
"filename" for tape, and then RUN. 
Such programs will usually have a 
starting address of 0801 for the 64. Oth- 
er programs must be reloaded lo specif- 
ic addresses with a command such as 
LOAD "filename", 8.1 for disk or LOAD 
"filename",!.! for tape, then started 
with a SYS to a particular memory ad- 
dress. On the Commodore 64, the most 
common starting address for such pro- 
grams is 49152, which corresponds to 
MLX address COOO, In either case, you 
should always refer to the article which 
accompanies the ML listing for infor- 
mation on loading and running the 
program. 

An Ounce Of Prevention 

By the time you finish typing in the data 
for a long ML program, you may have 
several hours invested in the project, 
Don't take chances — use our "Auto- 
matic Proofreader" to type the new 
MLX, and then test your copy thorough- 
ly before first using it to enter any sig- 
nificant amount of data. Make sure all 
the menu options work as they should. 
Enter fragments of the program starting 
at several different addresses, then use 
the Display option to verify that the 
data has been entered correctly. And be 
sure to test the Save and Load options 
several times lo insure that you can re- 
call your work from disk or tape. Don't 
let a simple typing error in the new 
MLX cost you several nights of hard 
work. 



MLX For Commodore 64 

SS 10 REM VERSION ,'. . T ; LINES 6 
30,950 MODIFIED, LINES 4 
eS'-lST ADDED 
EK .1.00 POKE S6,50;CLR:DIM INS, 

I,J,A,B,AS,BS,A(7),NS 
DM ).10 C4=48:C6=16:C7=7!Z2='2iZ 
4=254 :Z5=255!Z6-256;Z7= 
.127 
CJ 120 FA=PEEK(45)+ZG'PEEK(46) 
1 BS=PEEK { 55 ) +Z6 "PEEK ( 56 



SB 130 



CQ 140 



FC 150 



EJ 160 



PR 170 



JB 180 



GF 190 



KR 200 



PG 210 



DR 220 



BD 


230 


JS 


240 


JH 


250 


HK 


260 


FD 


270 



EJ 268 



EM 


290 
300 


KF 


310 


PP 


320 


JA 


330 


GX 
CH 


340 
350 


RR 


360 


BE 


370 


PX 


380 



) i[I5-"01234567B9ABCDEF" 
RS'iCHiiS ( 13 ) iLS"" ILEFT ) " 
iSS=" "!D5=CHR5(20) tZ5- 
CHR5(0).TS«"[13 RIGHTl" 
SD=54272iFOR I=SD TO SD 
+23iPOKE I,0iNEXTiPOKE 
(SPACB)SD+24,1S:P0KE 78 
8,52 

PRINT "(CLR)"CHRS{ 142 )aC 
RS(a}:POKE 53280, ISiPOK 
E 532B1,.1S 
PRINT TS" (RED] ( RVS f 

12 SPACES lia @i 

(2 SPACESJ"SPC{28)" 

{2 SPACES H OFF 1 [BLUl ML 

X II (REDJlRVSl 

[2 SPACESt"SPC(28)" 

112 SPACES] (BLU)" 

PRINT"{3 DOWN] 

13 SPACES JCOMPUTEl "S MA 
CHINE lANGUAGE EDITOR 
[3 DOWN)" 

PRINT"{BLK)STARTING ADD 
RESSg4|"; iGOSUB300iSA-A 
DiGOSUB1040iIP F THEHia 


PRIKT"(BLKl (2 SPACESjEN 

DING ADDRESSg43"riGOSUB 

300 iEA«.ADiGOSUB1030 i IF 

( SPACE ]F THEN190 

INPUT" [3 D0WN}IBLK]CLEA 

R WORKSPACE [Y/N]Mi":A 

5iIP LEFTS{A5,1)<>"'Y"TH 

EN220 

PRINT"(2 DOWNHBLUJWORK 

INC.. ."mFORI-bs to as+ 

EA-SA+7iP0KE I,0iNEXTtP 
RI NT "DONE" 

PniNTTAB(l0)"[2 down! 
IbLkKrVS] MLX COMMAND 
JSPACElMENU (D0WN!E43"! 
PRINT TS"[RVSlE[OFFlNTE 
R DATA" 

PRINT TS"|fiVSjD[OFF)lSP 
LAY DATA":PHIHT TS" 
[RVSjLlOFFjOAD FILE- 
PRINT TS"[RVS]SjOFF)AVE 
FILE". PRINT TS"lRVS]Q 
I0FF|UIT[2 DOWHMBLK)" 
GET AS:IF AS-NS THEH250 
A=0:FOR 1=1 TO 5iIF AS" 
MIDS("EDLSO",I,l)'raEN A 
=IiI=5 

N£XT:ON A GOTO420,610,e 
90 , 700 , 280 : COSUB10e0 iGO 
TO250 

print"[rvs] quit ":1npu 
t"(downIE43are you sure 

[Y/N]-rASiIF LEFTSCAS, 
1)<>"Y-THEN220 
POKE SD+24,0!END 
IN5=NS iAI>=fl 1 INPUTINS 1 1 F 
LEN ( INS ) <> 4THEN RETURN 
BS-INS iGOSUa320 lAD-At B5 
°HIDS ( INS. 3 ) IGOSUB320 :A 
D"AD* 25 6+A: RETURN 
A-0IFOR Ji-1 TO 2iAS-MID 
S(BS,J,l)iB-ASC(A5)-C4+ 
(A5>-e")*C7iA=A*C6+B 
IF B<0 OR B>15 THEN AC- 
0iA— liJ-2 
NEXT: RETURN 

B=INT(A/C6) jPRINT MIDS{ 
HS,a+l,l Ji iB-A-B*C6iPRI 
NT MiD5(HS,B+l,ll; iRETU 
RH 

A-INT{AD/26) :GOSUB350iA 
=»AD-A«Z6 :GOSUB350 iPRINT 
"i"; 

CK=INT(AD/Z6) ICK-AD-Z4* 
CK+ZS»(CK>Z7) ;GOTO390 
CK-CK*Z2*ZS*(CK>Z7)+A 



108 COMPUJErs Gazelle May 1963 



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2S6K Carl ridge, C64 


1124.95 


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S17.95 


CI 26 Computer System 


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Software Specials 



GEOS-64 
geoPublish 
geoCalc 
Deskpack 
Basic 3 



t3>.aS GEOS-128 

$44.95 gooFila 

$32.95 WMIer'a Wofkahop.64 

$2^,95 Wmer-sWorkshop-tJB 

S33.95 Echelon 



Free! 52 "Page Everything" Book With Any Order! 



$49.96 
S32.95 
$32.95 
$49.95 
$26,95 



Unleash The Power of 
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includes Free CP/M Programs 

■ Word Processor ■ Disk Ut.iilios ■ Communications 
CP/U Kit includes a hetplul guide Id using CP/M such as: 
stressing tha unique ieatures of Commodore's CP/M, using 
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able soflwara. 
67392 2DiEkESManualforC128 $22,95 



FSD-2 
Disk Drive 




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v* ^Ubltn In ttlO*iffiai ihipping crifl-gM- NOTE: Ol* 10 ptfil^ninj bU llm«. prohiQ jvt— MPS Kwofcalpjm ■■ k^W ra c™no»»i"r*ul rt«K^ 



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J^E' 390 CK»CK+Z5*(CK>25) iRETURN 






EHPRlNT"(DOWN)(BLUl«« E 


{RVSjERROR DURING LOAD'i 


■'QS 400 PBINT"{DOWN)STARTItJG AT 






ND OP DATA ••'1GOTO220 


(DOWN)E43"iON F GOSUB98 


■A.., t43";iGOSUB300!lF INSt> 


KC 


660 


GET AS: IF AS"HS THEN GO 


0,990,1000!GarO220 


»!^ NS THEN GOSUB1030IIF F 
2%^ {SPACE JTHEN400 






3081080 SGCTO220 


PP 980 PRINT-INCORRECT STARTIN 


EQ 


670 


IF AS=S5 THEN F=F+llGOS 


G ADDRESS { "; :GOSUB360 ! 


EX 4X0 RETURN 






U81080 


PBINT")"!RETURN 


HD 420 PRINT"lRVSj ENTER DATA 


AD 


680 


ONFGOTO630,660 ,630 


GR 990 PRINT*LOAD ENDED AT "; i 


fj^/. ( SPACE l"!GOSUB400i IP IN 


CM 


690 


PRINT"ID0WN] iRVS) LOAD 


AD=SA+ADiGOSUB360iPRlNT 


W//ry S~N? THEN220 






[SPACEjDATA "iOP=liGOTO 


D5i RETURN 


-■ &K' 430 OPENS, 3iPRINT 






710 


FD 1000 PRINT'TRUNCATED' AT END 


'. SK 440 POKE1.9a,0jGOSUB360iIF F 


PC 


700 


PRINT"lDOWN) (RVS) SAVE 


ING ADDRESS "[RETURN 


THEN PRINT INSsPRINT" 






{spaceJfils "sOP-O 


RX 1010 AH»INT{A/256) iAL"A-(AH 


lUP] (5 RIGHT}"? 


RX 


710 


IN5=N5 ! INPUT '■ ( DOWN ]F ILE 


*a56)!POKE193,ALiP0KE}. 


GC -450 FOR I=>0 TO 24 STEP 3; 6? 






NAMEg4r';IKSiIF INS=NS 


94, AH 


=SS!FOR J=l TO 2:IP F T 






1sPACE)THEN220 


FF 1020 AH=IKT(B/256) tAL=B-(AH 


HEN BS^MIDSdNSil+J,!) 


PR 


720 


F=0 J PRINT " ( DOWN | i BLK ) 


•256):POKE174,AL!POKEl 


HA 460 PRINT"{RVSj"gSI,S; iIP I< 






(RVS)T[OFF]APE OR {RVS] 


75, AH: RETURN 


24THEN PRINT' [OFFf'f 






d(ofp1iskj %A%': 


FX 1030 IF AD-:SA OB AD>EA THEN 


, HD 470 GET AS:IF RS=NS THEH'nB 


FP 


730 


GET ASiIP A5""T"THEN PR 


1050 


■ FK 4B0 IF(AS>"/"ANDAS<"!')OR(A 






IHT "T 1 DOWN 1 " iGOTO8a0 


HA 1040 IF(AD>511 AND AD<4O960 


S>"&"ANDAS<"G")THEHS40 


HQ 


740 


IF AS<>"D"THEN730 


)OR(AD>491Si AND ADt53 


:■ 6S 465 A=-(A5="M-)-2*(AS = ",')- 


HH 


750 


PRINT"D|D0WN]"!0PEN1S,6 


24S)THEN GOSUB1080iF=0 


',■ 3MA5=".")-4*(AS="/")-5 






,15, "I0!"jB=EA-SA:INS=" 


! RETURN 


■' •(AS«"J")-6*(AS="K-1 






a!"+INS:IF OP THENSie 


KC 1050 GOSoai060!PRINT"(RVSj 


•: FX 496 A-A-7*(AS="L")-8«(A5="t 


SO 


760 


OPEN l,8,e,INS+",P,W"ta 


[SPACEjiNVALID ADDRESS 


/ ")-9-{AS="U")-10*{AS-"l 






OSUBS60rIP A THEN220 


{D0WN)(BLK1"iF=\ iRETU 


")-ll*(AS-"0'')-12*(A5a" 


EJ 


770 


AH=IHT(SA/2S6)iAL=SA-(A 


RN 


P" ) 






H"256) :PRINT»l,CliRS(AL! 


AR 1060 POKE SD+5,31iPOKE SD+6 


„CM,4a7 A=-A-!.3*CA5 = S5)iIF A THE 
W/J/ N AS-MID5("ABCDaa3E456F 
W///j 0",A,1) (GOTO 540 






;CHRS(AH): 


,20BtPOKE SD,240iPOKE 


PE 


780 


FOR 1=0 TO BiPRINT#.l ,Cli 


{SPACEjSD+1 ,4:P0KE SD+ 






RS(PEEK{BS+I1 ),- !IF ST T 


4,33 


yVS 490 IF AS=RS AND((I=0)aND(J 






HEN800 


DX 1070 FOR S=l TO 100rHEXT!GO 


=1)0R F)THEN PRINT BS ; ! 


FC 


790 


NEXT:CL0SE1:CL0SE15:G0T 


TO1090 


J=2iNEXT; 1-2410010550 






0940 


PF 1080 POKE SD+5,aiP0KE SD+6, 


KC 500 IP AS="{HOMEi" THEN PRI 


GS 


800 


GOSUB1060 : PRINT ■( DOWN 1 


240:POKE SD,0iPOKE SD+ 


W/y/ry/Z/j^ BS:J=2;NEXT!l=2'ljNEX 
K^^^Sfi^'T J F-0 !GOT044a 






[BLK}ERROa DURING SAVE: 


1,90:POKE SD+4,17 






643":GOSUB860:GOTO!30 


AC 1090 POR S=l TO 100tNEXTiPO 


MX StB' IF(AS=-"1RIGHT1")ANDI' th 


MA 


810 


OPEN l,a,8,IN5+",P,R":G 


KE SD+4,0iPOKE SD,0iPO 


ENPRINT BSL?; :GOro540 






OSUBe60!lF A THEN220 


KE SD+1,0!RETURH 


yyCK. 520 IP A5<>L? AMD AS<>DS OR 
WM/. ((i=0)ahd(j=i))then gos 

^Z/.' UB1060!GOTO470 

;.EJG 530 A$»LS+SS+L5:PRINT B5LS; 
:J=2-J:IF J THEN PRINT 
(SPACEJL?! .1=1-3 


GE 


820 


GETI.'.,A?,BS!AD=ASC(AS+Z 


■ 


RX 


830 


S)+256*ASC(BS+ZS) JIF AD 
<iSA THEN F=l:GOTOa50 
FOR 1=0 TO BiGET#l,ASiP 
















OKE BS+I,ASC(AS+2S) :IF{ 




COLOR RIBBONS & PAPER 






I<>B)AND ST THEN F=2iAD 






OS 540 PRINT ASirNEXT JiPRINT 






=l!l=B 




COLOR RED. BLUE. GREEN, 


{spaceJsSj 
PM 550 NEXT l!pRIHT:PRINT"(UP3 


FA 
FO 


B40 
850 


NEXTsIF ST<>64 THEN F"3 ' 
CLOSEl ICL0SE15 jON ABS{F 




RIBBONS BROWN, PURPLE, YELLOW, 


Ribbon I Pticg Eoeh 


Black 


Color 


He*l 


W///////C\^ RIGHT)"; jINPUT#3,IN5 
Y////////f '^^ INS=N? THEN CL0SE3 1 

' GOTO220 


SA 


860 


>0)+l GOTO960,970 
INPUT#lS,A,A5iIF A THEN 
CLOSEl tCL0SE15 SGOSCB10 










Tranifer 


Apple fmagewiiter \i\\ 


3.75 


4 50 


6.50 


OC 560 FOR 1 = 1 TO 25 STEP3:B5'' 
f/JJijJJ// HID5(IN5,I)!GOSlia320:lF 
OTM»K5K I<25 then GOSUB3B0iA(I 






60:PRIMT" jRVSjERROR: "A 
S 




Crliien 120 C 
Connnodoio MPS 801 


5.00 
4.15 


6.00 
4 75 


7,95 
5,75 


GQ 


870 


RETURN 




Commodors MPS 802 


6.00 


6 75 


- 


EJ 


8B0 


POKS183,PEEKlFA+2) JPOKE 




Ccxnmodo'e MPS 803 


4,95 


5 95 


7.00 


PK 570 NEXTtIF A<>CK THEN GOSU 






187, PEEK (FA+31 iPOKEiaS, 




Commodoie MPS 1000 


3,96 


4.95 


6,7S 


B1060:PRINT"lBLK] [RVSj 






PEEK(PA*4):IFOP=0THEN92 




Commodoie MPS 1 ZOO 


5.00 


BOO 


7.9S 


ISPACElERRORi REENTER L 











Commodore 1525 


6,00 


- 


- 


INE 64i"iF=l!GOTO440 


UJ 


890 


Sys 63466:IF(PEEK(7a3)A 




OkKlaia 82/92/93 


1,75 


2.25 


4.50 


; HJ 560 GOSUB10a0iB=B3+AD-SAiFO 






NDIJTHEH GOSUB1060IPRIN 




Okidaia lB2/t92 


6.50 


7.50 


_ 


R l-O TO 7tP0KE B+I,A{1 






T"[D0WNHrVS1 FILE NOT 




Panasonic KX-P 1090 


6.75 


7,75 


_ 


):NEXT 






ISPACEjFOUND ":GOTO690 




Seikosha SP 800/1000 


5.25 


5,50 


7.95 


QQ 590 ftD=AIM-B:IF AD> EA THEN C 


CS 


900 


AD=PEEK C 829 ) +2 56* PEEK ( 8 




Etai SG 10 


1.75 


2,25 


4.50 


L0SE3!PRINT"(D0WN1 [BLU] 






30):IF ADOSA THEN F"! 1 




Stai NXIO'NLIO 


5.00 


eoo 


7,96 


'* END OF ENTRY **(BLK1 






GOTO970 














[2 DOWNi"{GOTO700 


SC 


910 


A-PEEK(e31)+256*PEEK(83 




COLOR PAPER 


GQ 600 F=0:GOTO440 






2)-l:F-F-2*(A<EA)-3*(A> 




BRIGHT PACK~200 Sheeis/GO BBcli color: Red, 


QA.610 PRINT'MCLRHDOWN] (RVSJ 






EA) iAD=A-ADiGOT093a 




Blue. Green, Yellow, 9 1/2x11 - i10,90/pk. 


i^// {SPACEjDISPLAY DATA "iG 
m"/ OSU3400:IF IK5-KS THEN2 
20 


KM 


920 


A=SA!B=EA+l;GOSUB1010iP 




PASTEL PACK-200 Sbest8/50 soch color Pink. 






OKE7a0,3!SYS 63336 




Yellow, Blue, Ivory. 9 1/2 X 11 - S10.90/dIi. 


JF 


930 


A=BS : B=BS+ ( EA-SA ) +1 <GOS 






HJ 620 print"IdownMblu)pressi 

Y///?//}/' iRVSjSPACEiOPFj TO PAU 
f/////////-&Z. [RVS}RETURN{OFFi TO 






UB10ia:ON OP GOTO950iSy 
S 63591 




T'SHIRT RIB80NS (Hul Trinifai) - Call For Price. 


COLOB OISKETTIS 


AE 


940 


GOSUfll0aaiPRINT"l8LU)** 




5 1/4" DS/DD Rainbow Pack. 10/pKk - )13.50 


- BREAKE43IDOWNJ- 






SAVE COMPLETED ""iGOT 








K3 630 GOSUB360:B=aS+AD-SAiFOR 






0220 




For riDboni A papvr nol fined ebOVH. call '0* p^ici A 


:-8TO B+7iA=PEEK{I) iGOS 
UB3501GOSUB3801PRINT SS 


XP 


950 


POKE147,0iSYS 63562iIF 
{SPACE!ST>ia THEN970 




avILJ. Prtco & tHC. luDjdCI ID ch*ng« w/D nolico. Mm, 
order 125.00. MIn. S A H 13.50. Add 12. IB C.O.D. 
lOd'l. IL rei. odd i.TVk Isi. MC A Vlii ■cCBplKl. 


I 


PR 


960 


GDSUB10e0:PRINT" [BLUl •* 






CC 640 HEXTiPRINT'JRVSJ"; :R=CK 






LOAD COMPLETED **"iGOT 




f^£NCO COMPUTER PRINTER SUPPLIES 


IG0SUB3 50 SPRINT 






0220 




P.O. Box 475, MBntono, IL 60950 U.S.A. 


KH 650 F=liAD=AD+8!lF AD>EA TH 


DP 


970 


GOSUB1060 :PR1NT " [ BLK } 




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B15-46£ 


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Dealer & Institutional Accts. 1-800-331-7054 

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EPSON F>;2ai£ 
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irw-10 



Z2S '■■ 

185-^- 
CALL 



■WITH PURCHASE OF STARTER HIT 



■■1670" CLONE 
1200 BAUD MODEM 

CHUECT CONNECT 
WITH SOFTWARE 



COMMODORE 

300 BAUD 
DIBECr COKNECI 
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19. 



90 



5W" DSDD DISKEHES 

19t* 100% CERTIFIED & GUARANTEED 

■MIN SOW/PUrfCHASEOFDISKFILE 



WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 




629.90 



Commodore 126-D Computer w/ bulIMn 
360K double ilded disk drive 

HI Reiolutlon SO column monitor 
w/cable 

80 Column High Speed Gioptflcs Printer 
wllh Interface & cablei 

Word Procojslng A Dotabaae Soltwore 



1750 RAM EXPANDER 169.'" 

6 OUTLET SURGE PROTECTOR IB.'" 
CM POWER SUPPLY 28.'" 



COLOR MONITOR 




139.90. 



"iMiii Puichais ol SKxe Guord 



BERKLEY SOFTWOBKS 



BRODERBUND 



M90 
J1." 
A^•' 

41 •' 

Id" 

14" 
14." 
CAU 
19." 
19." 
20" 



GEOS 

GEOSIIS 

GEO PUBLISH 

GEOPOOGHAMMEP 

DESK PAK - 1 

FONT PAK - 1 

GEO-DEX 

DESK PAK H 

GEOWHrE 

GEOCALC 

SEOHIE 

ACCESS 



ECHELON 26." 

MACH 128 29" 

MACH 5 20." 

lEADEnBOAUD 23." 

IBIPUPAK 11." 
WOCLD CLASS 

lEADEnBOARD 23 ■' 

SUBIOGIC/ ACTION SOR 



FLIGHT SIMULATOR II 
THUOEIV CHOPPER 
UD PERISCOPE 

scEivEnyDiSKi-i2 

JEI 

DADAEAST 

BREAK THROUGH 
COMMAT^OO 
IKARI WARITIOR 
KUNG FU FASER 
TAGTEAr«1WHESTLING 



32" 

17." 

17." 

BO. 14" 

25" 



PAINTSHOP 
KARATE KA 
WHEHEINTHEUSA 
IS CARMEN SAN DIEGO 
PBiNTSHOP COMPANION 
BANK ST. WRITE P 

IIMEWORKS 

woftowniiERiifli 

PARTNER 128 
SWinCALC 128 
□ATAMANAGERlia 
DESKTOP PUBUShER 

ACCOLADE 

DAMBIBTERS 
FIGHT NIGHT 
4lh a INCHES 
EFVUS5PV 

KltLED UNTII. DEAD 
TEST DRW 

DIGITAL SOLUTIONS 

POCKET DICTIOWW 
POCKn WRITER II 
POCI^ FILER II 
POCKET PLANNER II 
SUPERPACK II 



2S." 
17" 

23" 
23." 
29" 



24 -J 

24" 
24* 
24" 

CALL 



17," 
17." 
9." 
17." 
I?" 



28' 
28' 
28,' 
59° 



SOFTWARE 

EPVX 

CALIFOR NIACAMES 23." 

CHAMPIONSHIPWRESaiNG 23" 
23" 
17" 
23" 
23" 
23" 






'j(t() 




i^iM^^^^;^^ 



CALL 



C= 



oamm 



odore ■ PC 




CALL 



HI RESOLUTION 

MONOCHROME MONITOR 

<IO/sa Column Dliplay 




89. 



90 



20." 
20" 
17," 
14." 
17," 



GAMESTAR 

CHAMPIONSHIP BASEBALL 20." 

CHAMPIONSHIP FOOTBALL 20.' 

STAR RANKBOKING 1 7 ' 

TOP FUEL ELIMINATOR 17' 



FAST LOAD 
RAD WARRKJR 
STREET SPORTS 
WNIER GAMES 
WORLD GAMES 

ELECTORrJIC ARTS 

ADVENTURE CONST 

AMNESIA 

ARTIC FOK 

BAROSTAL£ll 

CHESSMASTER 2(XX} 

DOASONSIAIR 

HOME PAK 

FINANCIAL COOKBOO" 

INSTANT MUSIC 

MULE 

LEGAcv Of The ACIENTS 

MARBLE MADNESS 
ULTIMA 1/111/ IV 
SKV FOX II 
PAPERCLIP 

PROGRESSIVE 

BOBS TEAM PRO 
SUPERSCRIPT 
SUPERBASE M 
SUPERBA5E 12fl 
SUPERSCRIPT 12B 



11 " 
24." 
24." 
24" 
24" 
10." 
14." 
12" 
20" 
11 " 
20" 
19" 
CAU 

CAa 

IB" 



29" 
29." 
47" 
32" 
52" 



MICROPROSE 

AIRBORNE RANGER 20" 

CONFLICT IN VIETNAM 23" 

FIBSTRIKEEAGLE 20" 

GUNSHIP 20" 

PIRATES 23" 

STEALTH FIGHTER 23" 

SILENT SERVICE 23" 

MINDSCAPE 

BOPNWRESILE 17" 

DEFENDER OF THE CROWN 20 " 

GAUNTLET 20" 

INDOOR5PORTS 20 " 

KING OF CHICAGO 20" 

PAPERBOV 20 " 

SOI 20 ■■ 



CLOSEOUTS 




WAS NOW 


HOME ACCOUNTANT 


74." 24." 


PAPERCLIP II 


79." 19." 


EASV SCRIPT 


49 » 12." 


JANE 128 


99." M." 


LOGO 


69." 29." 


MS PAC MAN 


29." 7," 


PACI^AN 


29" 7." 


ZORKII 


39." 6." 


ZORK III 


49" 6." 


DEAOUNE 


59 « 6." 


SUSPENDED 


49"= 6" 



FREEFREIGHTON OROEfiS OVER HOO." Air ^yicoitenecr 
a i\ coin diicouril Add iX la crodii card purchaioi 
COD OfQeri oaa M ^^ p^ DOK OrOouunCOf'lCO^QOftM" 
ihlppino ai%d hanaling Ojanllliei on «>me ifomi may bo 
Itmired Piices ore luDjocT lo chonga wiThnu! notice. APA. 
FRO add ti% additional iMppiig Foreign oider? octijal 
rrelghl charfled All saloi oro Hnal, Return of defecliva 
merchandlw Tor rapiacamont only wlm outhorlzctlon. 
Aulhorl/fidrerurnforaiLibjoclToaieslDckkngfee, Complala 
Hiring of oil lales policies ovolloDIa upcn raque^r. FIokJo 
rastdonfi add 6% toloi lar 



COMPUTErs Gazotto May 1988 HI 




THE 
BASEBALL 
DATABASE 



LET YOUR COMPUTER 

KEEP TRACK OF YOUR TEAM'S 

BASEBALL STATS FOR YOUI 



■ E*ST TO USf • Wenu ouvtn < clear s^rECJi uirecEjona 
• aelalled uwr'i minual • my oaia entry • tasl suis 
ralrifval 

■ COMPflEHENSlUE ■ li playar and 2! pitcrhir)g slalB 

■ Inning bo> scores • lolilj, cums, avarages. elc calculalaO 

■ up 10 ao players ■ unlirniieQ gamss 

■ DETAILED nmna reports • Pl^yai roslars • win/ 
loss racard^ • gjrr^e iumrnarma ■ playar, pitching tna \iiiP 
cumi ■ piayai a no oilciw nuiories • anD a loi mora 

W« (trior a l^-rlay rncney ucb guaran[e«. to Oon'] delay Can 
u! mm ygur Visa/Masiercam aner a' stna ns me cou^un 
berg* w\\n your Chech or MO- Prtjgratn tneca ana ijaia'is a<e 
ayaiiano uwm riauisi, il you wouia iiVe more inlormairon. 



_ BBOfl tor Commoaore 6il t?fl ® S39 95 i_ 
_ BBOa tot Appit iio/ric s M9 9^ l^ 

St^j|>j>ino & tianditi^ & 
, uc ; cni/uo loui i_ 



?i] 



,_ Visa 
No _ 
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£•0 One ^ 



Ntrrw 



ASrIrtii 



Cily 



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JACOBSEN SOFTWARE DESIGNS 

Aim, Order ■ CPG 

ib9U E. A'iia Ave . Eugene. Oregon 971105 

Pfione (5031 343-8030 



COMMODORE SPECIAL 




MW-350 PRINTER I^JTERFACE 

2K BUFFER M9.95 

lOK BUPFER S59.95 

Si'ECIALSK BUFFER UPGRADE 

I8..95 

ROM UPGRADK FOR OLDER 

MW.350 1.9 ROM 

16,50 

CBM 64/128 

C64C $169.00 

C1541C $175,00 

1581 3.5 DRIVE $CALL 

1351 MOUSE $35.00 

C1660 MODEM $35.00 

Clfi70 MODEM $SAVE 

1764 RAM $115,00 

1802C MONITOR $189,95 

CI 28 $CALL 

CI 280 $435,00 

1571 DISK $215.00 

17()0 RAM "128K" $105.00 

1750 RAM "SUK" $CALL 




CBM 64 POWER SUPPLIES 

REPAIRABLE $39.95 

NON-REPAIRABLE $2.9.95 

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Now Commodore QuBlltlad Renairs! 


C64/128 SOFTWARE, 1 MUST SELL MY 
ENTIRE collecton of games, business & educal. 
progtams, Cosl S3S ea. Sell for i7 ea. 
Firsl $250 takes all 50. 713-660-8959 


C64:S4S. 1541:$30, SX64;$65. C12H;I50, 157L$55. 
Buy Sell Trade New/Used - Fast Service! 30 
day wntyl Mom k Top's Computer Shop, RR2, 
Boi 119, CainsviUe, MO 64632 (816) 872-6311 


20 DS -SUPER STUFF' PUBLIC DOMAIN 
DISKS. Only $22.00 postpaid. 40 sides full! FREE 
BARGAIN CATALOG. VISA /MC/C HECK/ 
COD. MCH Software, Bon 645, Bayfield, Wl 




CALL THIS BULLETIN BOARD SERVICE 
'or thousands of dou'nloads ic great 
adult boards. Call 718-377-4597. 
300- 1200 baud. 


54814. 715-779-3600 


1987 Kavnei liKtoi tcr COMPUTEI's GsieHe 


THE BUSINESS CARD DESIGNER FOR C128 
Craphlc/Font Designer, Printers with 
Ultra-high resolution. SASE for free 
samples II info. $24.93-Business Cards, 
P.O. Bon 681, Osburn, ID 83849 


Find any article, tip, proKram, review 
FAST! Send $7.95 (CA res + b% tan) or 
write fo( more info; Haynes Puhllshlng. 
9420 Reseda Bl, Sic, 422E. Northtidgt, 
CA 91324. Sfllisfaclion Cuaranleed! 




COMPUTEI's Qazatte ClassHled is a low-cost way to tell over 225.000 
microcomputer owners about your product or service. 

fiBtn: S?3 per lint, minimum ol four \inn Any or all of Iht FirM Imt wl m capLlj] Itiii-t^ ji no chjrge Add SIS 

pvt lint lor holdfjct n'lrrdi, or 550 for Ihr entkrr fid ^1 in boldfAcr lany mimtwr oF linf* ) Inqxiirr atout displjy 

rafrt. 
Tsrmi: Pci^pjymenl n rniijimJ Chech, monry ordirr. Amfncjn Expms. Vlu, or MdtlfrCard n accrpEi'd Mjkc 

^^hrclu piyjtl^ to C0^1|'UTE' E^uhlirHinon^ 
Form- Adi an' «ub|ect to publi*h>^r'» :ip[>riwa] and muii t* *nher typed ot leuil'lv prnileJ. On* hn* ei^iuli 40 

ftflkTh and ^pacn bel^M^n woidi. rlcjw underline words lo be ^ei In twMtjce 
Qtntnl Inlarmatkm: Advertisers usina post offli'c boi nun^bers in Iheir ads must lupply pprmanf nl address jnd 

tf iFphunp numbert. Otilors will not Pc aEknowledjftd. Ad will appfdr in next avalfabi? Issue alter retcipl. 
Cloving: 3tiJ u( Ihe (hitd month preL-cdln^ covit dale (e.g., June issue c[oses Mirch 3rd). Send order and ipmittanCE 

lo. Kathleen Ingram, Classifie.) Mananer, COMPUTE!^ Gazelle, P.O. Boi 5J06, Clreensboro, ^C ;7*03. To plate 

an ad by phone, call Kathleen Ingram it (^19} lyS.^PO^. 
No1ic«: tOMPUTl:^ PubUcalianft cannot be respunsllile for oilers or claims of advrrli^er*. but will atiempl lo screen 

t>ilt misleading or quesluinatile copy. 





HARDWARE 



COMMODORE REPAIRS... 
COMMODORi! CHIPS.,, 
COMMODORE/AMIGA CHIPS.,. 
DIAGNOSTICS... See our display ad this issue. 



THE AMAZING NEW 

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YOUR COMPUTER 
INTO A TALKINO 
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UI4 v*ll]i naw comrriandi oddKl 'o BASC 

A rXrtK; Donul Wt yc-j -ntp ornj Ctun- 

PDW b/ wnilllng Fha tunsi UrtlimirH UiAl 

nvfm *cTiK:ark», m>:ikci:iiappkcDi>oni 

CiWTWprDQrDmiirclutlMJ PrkcvW S^WMrdUiJngK'lwijiBOria 

moTHfOL A ParAnrvd pnc»,'p*fTDiTnDnca braohfrvou^i 

lo tjonn Df MAIL tvihjOt ^ th«v>3 A hondlino iU Corodo, i\7 

A^oitoDW fo CM l38andAiafbiOO SOOd. lia>3 to-c^y*.**" 
ctOani^ 30 iJoy rrtonr* ooc* C'iCBsrJft*, ana ysoi wonortty 
OrrtK trttOFtcvi race i/OTnivruasavaiiaDvrc'CvnmDAn, 

Amw, and \tM ccmpui vi 

Coil or *ri)e ToOav ro FWE Product CorolOO 

covox ihK:. <503) 342-1271 

675 Conger St.i Eugene, Oeoon fl7402 




7771? 



T 



LOTTO 

WITH YOUK HOME COMPUTER! 



Use your home computer and Sofl- 
Byles amazing new "Lotto Program" to 
get more winning tickets. 

In jusi seconds this software analyzes 
past winners and produces a powerlul 
probability study on easy-to-read charts. 
V/ith a single press ol a key, you'll see 
trends, patterns, odds/evens, sum totals, 
number Irequencies, and much more. It 
also includes automatic number wheeling, 
instant updating, and a built-in tutorial. 
Ask your software dealer. 

APP1.H. liiM, and Commcxlore 124.33 

A:ari,RadioShdcl; , ...Wl.M 

Maclnlosh (requires M/S basic) , . . , i!9,95 

Back up Copies S3. DO 

Add y.OO shipping and tiandling. Credil cdrd 

orders approved by pliDiie and shipped sarae day. 

Make checks payabls to SOFT-BYTE and mail lo. 

P.O. Box 556 Forest Park 

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513' 
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Byte 




COMPUTers Gazelle Way 1988 115 



LANDMARK 

THE COMPUTER 
REFERENCE BIBLE 

vl,2 for C64 or CI28 in 64 Mode 
v2.0 for C128 and 1571 Drive 

LANDMARK TCRB consist! of Iht iiUiri King 
Jamti vtrsion, individual vent r^erenctr. Words of 
CftnJtincohr,andaConcordaiicfof3300* ^^ords! 

• CONDUCT SEARCHES of the Bible! 
. MAKE TOPICAL FILES copying from Bible 
leiiuul SetrchnsuUi ilioidding yourovm 
commcnu! Youi LANDMARK Fila an iliobe 
convefttd fur um wiih oiher prog rami like 
Pipaclip mi CJIiOS (*ilh Wn'ir'i Workjhopl) 
- KEEP YOLTt OWN PERSONAL BIBLE by 
ojllining i£Xi in cdIqt, idding iiotea or corrunenli. 
onie lUppttmoiLvy ttudy filn, evoi rd'scncfl 
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A GOOD Bible Prognm with your conpum cjn 

OREAIXY ENl lANCE your nudy of ihe Diblel 

Our Brochure cxpliini howf 

LANDMARK TCRB is $164.95 

CALL or WRITE for air FREE Brochurcl 

P.A.V.Y. Software P.O. Box 1584 
Ballwiti. MO 63022 (314) 527^505 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED! 

PMi*'f>1"* ■ 'f «1>'M If Iflt^Ji^ al bltorWI VtfUriHa C>m«»aw* >' 'tl 



DUST COVERS 

S^mF^CTION GUARANTEED 

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COM^UInn 
C'«4/Pliii i'C-6K 
C-13g 

AmLpa I COO - 



.. g.oo 

..1 3,00 
S.OCl 
13.00 



(W/linita Hon tliiMI 7B.0O 
larboard only . ..... 7.00 

Alorl SOOXl, 130XE 10.0<1 
Aio'l Sia ST .. . . 11.00 

IBM PC' XT . 39.00 

IBMHIil ClybaonJ 8.00 
(DlFnanioni Biqulrt^ 
la IBM Clon.i) 

□ISK OIIVII 

c-ini, c-1171 e.oo 
AnKBs IV,- o'Oiv eoo 

*"1JB= i'-" D'Orv O.OO 

lndi,ii OT, MSO bD-1 B.OO 
MSD SD-; 10.00 

tnhanmsooo a.oa 

fso-1 ,„ e.oo 

.,„.. B.OQ 



SillioiKa SP.1OO0 13.00 
CoFTFtK 2itt 13. OD 

C'IPoh 8510 ... . 11.00 
Juki JJIO ... 13.00 

lnioo*wFl'»r ... 13.00 

[pion JX BO 13.00 

Epion FX 01/ IBS .. 13.00 
OkJdofa 93 13.00 

CItii.n MJ^ 10 13.00 

C OPS 1101 16.00 

0>nlni lO&Slai tO'l 13.00 
Oaminl 1] i Jioi IS'i 1«.0a 



Alo.l 1017 



11.00 



MONFTOJK 

«'ari SC i;:j>Gt W.OO 
01703, BMC CoIm 11.00 
t-lTOI.Ar-loo 1500 

Andlli 100700 1900 

CM Ul {C.180!) 19.00 

C.1»D7A'Mlign.. 40 19.00 
SEC [Slolt Mtidlll 19.00 
Mog^avD' SO BGQ IPDO 
Prlnctlon {$!□■• MDffal 19.00 
Ihomplon CM OAJ.AA 19,00 
laion {STal« Morfal] 19.00 
Sokalo SCIOO 19.00 

Itnllh (SiDll Modtl) 19.00 
VIDEO BECORDtIt It.OO 
Slnli Mokl & Modal 
Dlrn«ni>oni loqulrDd 
inclvding rlwk fuT.oul 



Alnii 10H 

PaiNTEtS 

CIJSS'MPS BOl 10.00 

oijje MPseoi 13.00 

C-MPS'fi03,C.tS30 .. B.OO 

Panoionif I090'9I 13.00 

Okidola 130/193 1300 

Oklrrol. 10/30 B.OO 

EploirMX FX RXSO 13. OO 

Epion IXaO/C-lMO 13.00 

t<to br lining UUi, MOMl tnf C«W WOia 11H y mm .In 

llint«(Wlti(rJ«iiu5rMwi""l"iOwil iNspljij »id ktMIJu 

Etiil R«, Wjjr i'- - iKd 1(1. iPO. ICfriim, Fwiiin JM'iidi 

iPKIAL COVEU WIU BE WADE lO YOUI 

DIMIHSIONI. lEND YOUI «iQUtMMINTl 

F0« ou« LOW nicE ouons. 
Crow/7 Custom Covers 

34«I1 PAIOt CtaCLE DIPT. A 
UOUNAHIUS. CA936S3 
|7M) <73.&3A3 



ADVERTISERS INDEX 



flftOtr &9rvu:? hkrnrbvf/AdwUv 



P*f 



1DSiM3j5 39 

103 *5a^irt . BC 

1H P4:.E W 

105 ack.^sq'i ... lec 

lOiWrotok 35 

107 Trw ^aBn liiH Qimfl ComoiPj .-i,. IE 

lOB QanmiF- SoPri-nln 13 

lOaSorMlm SoltMlkl . . U 

Ca'fflflfll tiort*iwB ...,,,..... 112 

lIDCt^nuSwvo ....,.-,"-.,■. ..kv ...I...--.,-..., 1 

111 CompulAt)ili[y ..„, ^i' V H.v BO 

I n ConnjW&Wy . ., , , S7 

ItJCbrnpulAWT/ 3a 

1 1* Co~iix(ei Direci , , 3G-37 

I I a Compire< Reoenla Inc -,_ IH 

Crcwn Cj^lom Covw« 118 

118 Saw ComDuTHTi ... .. ..__,,.. Sl-SO 

117 Beragrt ira .,..'. ...ITC 

118 ^flOci^ic Ant ... ...,.,,,..,,, 10-11 

iistpv< i(aia>JM7i>ai 

iaa£Pv< ..,..,,. ,,,,.,... 20 

1J1 EBIl 21 

iza^Hftk AMux ......,.....,, .. a 

m Fin Son Si>>».w>. nc ,,,. 99 

inM«ai"t Eo'nym IT 

114 jaccuwi Satan [«il^ ' n: 

139 <nvA McmyUvn*. IK ...,.._,.... 42 

12« LycD CoBBu". 1 48.41 

127 WCS 10t-l» 

laa WLBRO Ctxroany . ,......,. ,- 107 

129 Woo ^-Krt Betjran" ......,...,.....,,,... 112 

Wrrdscaw Inc. . ^, _,.,,..,__.._._._.. ! 



130 Monlgcmffy Gfinl 

131 PAvy Sorr^wc 

132PreDa)Dn OalaProucti 

ISaO-L-ni- 

134 Hpnco Ci^pular PFimtr BuFWUH 
111 StS miMnaW! . , 

SCTrfBdlBF Svilwni . 
138 Son Byll 

140Solr Or^p . . 

IIT Safw^ie &MOunMrs Q( AmfrtC* 

SolrAa.-i> SunpCUl IJ'IDrnJVD'Vr 

118 5u[]LXX^IC Corpcyatioi 
138 5bDen« MpCTJ SvsEBnq 
141 TC ElKPOK- 

143 ^er^x CcirfMISf EuvHS 
1431EVEX 

144 Ttf^^ CC". knc 
148 Trud Cinvulfft 

148 iLAWf CcTcmv Prmclt 
147 JIffAfrrIB 
148UHAinUnHmH Ire 
1«< Kmn: 



.... ItO 
..... 88 
.... 119 
. .. , !12 
...,,. 7 
.... 110 
..,, Ill 
.... 113 
.... IIS 

114 

lOO-IEII 

a 

r. 40-41 

. . .. s 

... 38 

» 

. . 1IE 

in 
11 

113 

79 

19-17 

lie 

»8J7 

77 



CLfisiFpea Ada . . .116 

COMOUTE' Book! Cornnnotn SUBCOWW 41 

CDWPI/IE* eooks UuK Sy»1pm lot mo Commcova 



FACTORY AUTHORIZED 

COMMODORE REPAIR CENTER 

1-800-772-7289 

(313) 879-2888 IL 
C64 Repair r-ao~.n .42.95 Amiga Repair 
CUa Repair ,Ki».|. 64,95 
1541 Permanent 

Alignment 29.95 

1541 Repair 79.95 

1571 Repair 79.95 



™™., 99.95 

Amiga Drive 

Repair 149.95 

Pflnten CALL 

Monltori CALL 

Other Equipment . . CALL 



CALL BEFORE SHIPPING 

PARTS AWD LABOR INCLUDED 

FREE RETURfy SHIPPING 

(APO. FPO, AIHADD IIO.OOj 

24-48 HR. TURNAROUND 

(SutajKI lo P*ili Avjillitillllyl 

30 DAY M/ARRANTY ON ALL REPAIRS 



I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



COMMODORE PARTS 

C-64 Power Supply 34.95 

128 Power Supply 59.95 

C-64 Over V/oltage Senior 1 9.95 

Other Parts CALL 

[PI Id 13.00 Shipping/ Handling I 

All parts lor Commodore equipment usually In stock 

For Parts Call (312) 879-2350 

Dealer Discounts Available 

TEKTONICS PLUS, INC. 

150 HOUSTON STREET i^^ 

BATAVIA, IL 60510 Jg*; 

CLIP AMD iAVE 




rrt'*l 



V4.0 



ULTRABYTE 

DISK 

NIBBLER 



POWERFUL NEW GCR NIB8LER 
FOR COMMODORE 04 and 128 (in S4 mode) 

Aulomatically copies mosi disks In 2 mlnules or less 
including variable density and rapid locked proleclion 

105 new parameters lo make unprotected copies ol 
recent disks. Send stamped envelope lor list 

Copies up to 40 tracks using 1 or 2 1541 or 1571 
drives. Copies bolh sides on 1571 

Copies Itself ( lor this reason, no refunds given ) 



SPECIAL - BUY A NIBBLER V4,0 AND GET 
YOUR CHOICE OF A FREE 814.95 PROGRAM 

S39.95 plus S400 shipping 



1. Disk Surgeon V2.0--new disk ullllly 514.9S 

2. Ultramall " mall list and labels i bolh lor 

Handy-Capper — race handicapper J S14.95 

3. McMurphy's Mansion — text adventure . . . -i bolh lor 
Soluware -- solutions to 10 adventures,,./ S14.95 

( Above may be ordered seporalely lor S14,S5 plus S4.0D 
stilpplng. Foreign orders add $2.00 ) 

Maitcrcard, Visa, Chech or M.O., Calll, add 6.5% ($2.60) aalei lai. 
Foreign ordcis/COD add S2.00. Paymcnl must be In U.S. funds 

UPDATES- Return oiiginol Ultrobyto disk with S15.Q0 plus S4.00 
intpplng. Foreign odd SZ.OO. No tree disk wllb update 
To order, write or call 24 hr. order line. For Info, write. 

ULTRABYTE (818) 796-0576 
P.O. Box 789 LaCanada, CA 91011 USA 



OEALERS & DISTRIBUTORS WANTED 



Introducing ThunderChopper. the new standard of excellence in helicopter 
simulation! ThunderChopper combines SubLOGIC graphics technology 
with strategies and tactics by Colonel Jack Rosenow, USAF (Ret.). This 
simulator truly was a labor of love for the Colonel: 

"I'm a chopper pilot with over 9,000 hours of flight time. Let me put you at the 
controls of an advanced Hughes 530MG Defender. No other helicopter 
simulator is as responsive to your control input, or as satisfying to fly. Start 
yourself out on the flight training grounds. My concise documentation will 
have you flying in minutes. 

"Once you've attained a level of flying proficiency, you're ready to train for 
one of the most important duties a helicopter pilot can perform - the location 
and rescue of downed pilots. 

"After you've mastered flight and rescue techniques you're ready for 
combat. Multiple scenarios let you test your skills under a variety of combat 
conditions. Escort ground troops through enemy territory. Or rescue the 
sun/ivors of a major sea battle. You'll have to become adept at selecting and 
controlling your ordnance, and at using sophisticated electronic weapon/ 
defense systems to locate. Identify, and destroy enemy targets. 

'ThunderChopper is the most realistic helicopter simulation you'll ever fly. 
Try ThunderChopper - the excellence comes through." 

Colonel John B. Rosenow, USAF (Ret.) 
President, ActionSoft Corp. 





'^€^<u 







Rescue Mission!- scan for flares 







Escort troops tlrough enemy 
territory - searcl and destroy 
enemy targets I 




''"^"-\ :-^**fte^.:,,..,,/,ffiil 



Colonel Jack pBvlded the 
strategy and tallies for 
ThunderChopp 



See Your Dealer... 

Or write or call for more information. ThunderChopper is available on disl< 
for the Commodore 64/1 28 and Apple II computers. For direct orders please 
indicale which computer version you want. Enclose S29,95 plus S2.00 for 
shipping (outside U.S. $6.95) and specify UPS or first class mail daiivery. 
Visa. tyiasterCard, American Express, and Diners Club charges accepted. 



= 1 967 ActronSon Corjjoralior 

30 graphics anfl special sFfoda ccunony SubLOGIC Corp 

ComrrnMoto &i and Connrioaaio ^2S flru ro^iaiered IrademarhB of 

CommodorD ElecErcnrCB L\a 

Appla IS a rofliiioiM traMmarti al Appis Compuiai, Inc 



-S29.95- 

Better Engineering at a Belter 

Price 



ACTSNSo) 



GE-JEnillONS iHESD IS SIBtlEG'' nC'lON SOI^TWinE 

aOI WEST SPRINGFIELD AVENUE, SUITE 711 
CHAMPAIGN, IL 618J0 |21 7) jya-Bjaa 



/ u*r 




Results 



with proven software and books from Abacus. 



^ 




ascai .^D#^ 



'-ii i^.u Cc JTiia.'dii" 




Abacus 



Super Pascal— Get Ihe taslest and 
complete Pascal tor your computer. 
Super Pascal is a lull implementation 
of standard Pascal. Extensive editor 
leatures search, replace, etc. Even add 
machine language routines with the built- 
in assembler. Fast graphics library, C-64 
version has high-speed DOS for faster 
access. (Vlore than just a compiler- 
Super Pascal IS a complete system 
that gives you programming results. 
C-64 559.95 C-1 28 $59.95 











Cadpak— The professional design tool. 
Enter simple or intricate drawings with 
the keyboard, lightpen or 1531 mouse. 
With the flexible object editor you can 
create libraries of lurnture. electronics, 
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permits. Zoom in to do detailed work. 
Produce exact scaled output to most 
printers in inches, feet, etc. Get design 
results fast with Cadpak and your 
Commodore" computer. 
C-64 S39.95 C-12B S59.95 



i 



cl 



Abacus 



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Nev/ 




Super C — You can now develop 
software or just learn C on your 
computer. Easy-to-use and takes full 
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Produces 6502 mactiine code and is 
many times faster than BASIC. Includes 
full-screen editor (search, replace and 
block operations), compiler, linker and 
handbook. Libraries for graphics and 
advanced malh are included. Whether 
you want to learn C, or program in a 
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Commodore, Super C is the one to buy. 
C-64 $59.95 C-128 $59.95 



New! 



^Am^gner/ 



BASIC Compiler— Now 
anyone can make their BASIC 
programs run faster' Easily 
converts your programs into fast 
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code. Even speed up programs 
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or crawls, give it speed to RUN! 
C64 $39.95 C128 S59.95 



GEOS'" Tricks & Tips— A 
new book with something for 
everyone. Contains over 50 
tricks and tips that you can use 
everyday. Converts any word 
processor file Into guoWrile 
format: edit existing GEOS fonts 
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internals of GEOS. $16.95 



■■■■■'■' *'Sf- 



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Please nolo oui now address andpliong numOe'S 



Abacusiiii 



Dept, Gl • 5370 52nd Street SE • Grand Rapids, Ml 49508 
Phone 61 6/698-0330 -Telex 709-101 -Telefax 616/698-0325 
Call or write today for your free catalog or the name of your nearest 
dealer. Or you can order direct using your Visa, American Express or 
MasterCard. Add $4,00 per order for shipping and handling. Foreign 
orders add $12,00 per item, 30-day money back guarantee on 
software. Dealer inquines welcome — over 2400 dealers nationwide. 



'^ssotnPro Ami *'^-^^ 

Calf (6161 698 nqqn ^ ^^^-^^