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i-Ffcefaee- : :..,'. .'•„■;■■ ,-.. : ■".... .-,,■.: .; ..-..,. ;-.,.■ ,., ■ ■ 
J-Istroduetion .... ■.„■... v ,.,' . ■.-.... :.,:■'■■ ..:■' : .,v 

'r- flistoiy ..Mif ■ the : Study .of ■ ■the- Flora . . . ^ ... 
;%Wpjjg-raphy^ ,■".'->■ ' : ■■■'■•■:"■ '■ -'.■;-.■■"...■'■"'■'.■■.■...■'. '■'■.;■■■■ .v.'." ■-.'...■.'■'■ 
.■ Bifoliate..;, '-.y-" .■■■;. '■■/■vi,. ■. .! ■ ...'; : ...-. : .: '- ;-, ; . -■■-;" ■...-,'■■. ■■;'«•■■'■ ,1V- 
Soils ■.., v.. ■ ... - ...-•''' .,'. ■:■'■;■'';... ■■'-.:- : '\. .^: >- ! '-:.:'■' 
Geological- and Ecological Areas and their types of vegetation 
-Geegi&phieal Relationship of 'the Maltese Flora ... ... 

"Ff-uUvTree Growing in Malta' and Gozo 
' \ ■ ■ by Joe' Borg ■ 

.Medicinal 1 Plants "in Malta 

■ ' "' , fay H.- <Micalfef ..: 

' tStaseriWation of ;the Flora 
^Explanation .of- Teat. 

Key tor the Families, 

Apebuftt -of the Specie's - ..; 

■ ;:K0^*iphyta '6.-, '■■■■■ 
.^Sp eitinajE ophy ta ; ' '[ ' : ' 
;;Gyi^asperniaei::i V '., . 
xArigiSsperniae : ; 
^0^$yledoneS: V 

^M^rio cotyledon es 
'.-itates' ...". 

Jjio^aTy, ■ - .■:'; .,-.' .■ 

Bi^lifigrap.hy, .... 
;-Iridex. ..:.„."'■■!.■.,.:,.. 

^m-w.:::- -:■: 


: ix-. 

x ■ ■ ■ 






'iyi v " : - 

; Iviii 

lx V. 

:.'t v -"- : " 
■;i,' :V 
:-(VV . 

6 v'.'" 
"'■!>.!■''. "'■'■'. 

9 : 

3S9 : 

i — : ixvi 
■.'491- ■■:.:■'■' 




*" ! -i|i .-iSefobfef tfe'phe of us^S.M.if;, took'qp tBle pos^i/i* ,of iU&urir.-jnrBiglog-y 
IMSM&pM^!^^^ Christmas she 

^Si^^^-WMF ^^^WJ^^ldiiaiid .^BisiJBiil^. of 
^9TO.BS^-?a'*^ by. Professor J.ehn 

LMrfcto"it||7^tt%w|i&vsp#yceiiaBd, had one .gxpSV aefleieK'cjf-'ior . tlie field botanist, 

I'ffil^f^^^MI^JsiW^lJM^ ,Cp1npl?,te;:fgU,seai& revision -wf- -flies-.. Flora was. . 

'""" B^i^l>f^^s,^rto;^a'^3f hadvthe.4ifn.ja4;o ^ri^ a -!<« out,, but, that a; compilation 

% ^ -.^Ksftfj&i ^4p'^fi^^v^:h^i^i.$--^^)si.^. the wmL ■ - ., -.,-. 

,^jOTjie^i«gtjis5s t^.Maltaj ^^^b^gsnir^^ctliii^-TeQgini's irbm the relevant 
.^■^fp|:;,:^.#larti8 i ^p / iiiiltf ; in ;thA''J^ands..;ana s also,des,oriptions7.of those l species 
: f|o^ilt 1 W a ^; !< ^ife |,1 f '.%??W3? ^rej.dy.-tavipla^leii »li}, this-, worts."- carried out iti - 
Miiltaj;, she was greatly eneotiraged: by Professor; Hemy Mlcallef .; who Was in : 

j^^t^^^f^^A^J(b^^mm(^^^a^0i^^i^^re^. material ji-kthe field This 
^wifck.aS far, as ; it was possible bad.been completed wfieri sjieYle-ft $f*lta in December 
^^{^ne^^.retHrnied:: tp>:Malta : *occ,asi$ns^sin$e; ^<5r further afield , wofck. 

^i^^S^^Wf^-^f^' ^!i''A^'^"*!^'--^5Si*^-; bi S^ I ftlS ■"4* l j§ i c^t ie *4'' 'i<* '&« : wQtfc- ..and ■ agreed to 
■ittumavjte,; ™e, hook, ss Wh; oftji ; specie s ; :pf . 8t&i$i .'-gcsnus,? aftd;. this --ta s k, : with a - f e w i ex^- 
:^»^M^ag; i .^^.. ; c|^rt;e4 : i !c»ut: : -Tfie/jpajoEil!^ 

: ^aj#|i&gathb^d * th- ,i$ : al% ■ 4%,- r^maifetE : '.|roin ■ ft- tepmbhration - of previously 

'pU^UMw'^list^'djh^rbariutTi spgeh^ens.. Other JVfalta. plants are illustrated 

■WLMiran&s Mo0 hd mogt; of:iKe.:i , gmal^r:'>^|'lori and : Paoletti tl^l-ZOn 

'M.j^fjItMloMi jfvlietf'.tsrttl #;le(<titr^r 'itf^eCercfcer.liSBir Sj.M-;H;:>as replaced hy 

■■ ; p^'^^^*il?^ ^ *M i^l.^br J K# Ww$?.. Pi&W: 'Jias-. ret'ijrried .to . Malta, for 

^P^gtail; /Mr,ifc>,d5 J-jb : $hi? tr||p j$#ira- jjl and , $6- ,fie(d ■ ' work , every year sin pe ; As 

:^^j^, s1£^^jJt^ f ftg';Flcfc7^ 'Etii^jiaiBttlriiee^iii^, avatiaMg ; she -al^o took on the work. of 

^spfw^^liSkh^ dpcripifons- arid :: keys, ;so that during 1971 the account was 

• c^m^fmJf^&ii^eyf #iis<.;tb ■^■;Dips^6^ia^r ■■■ , '.-■,.-" ■ , -, 

; ' A"s'p.feS^v.W^"W-riti}ii^^iid&-Joi;tilse keebuht of Compvsiide: for Flora- EUropdtea 

■ffy$s!s jd^aK ^£itit s l^ife, family ^for, Ai?Wm,'0.j f ,t^e' ^ Islfluds at the sanie 

! tliji^ ifu'itl 'tttaSi- indebted $~ r atfer'FibraE&r6p<&d contributors to this large and 

difficult family, for .-jaljjiwlng ,' to, consult their manuscripts, often in a provisional 

^i&p^ii^, f.c* s advice yglVen^^r^atirtt'^ : /. ■ ", - ..-.-■. 

. ■' ,'■ J^h^"iyiohocot| , lfedott^f for ■ which' irt. most ;cases. there was no; recent revision 

: tfrr-a 'iSurbpfeaK' scaie^^ostd'a'cbh^iderable-probieiri. fortunately, Kiartyn- Rix, who 

was doing Tesear-chipn:' FrittllariG ;at C.ambrld^', took ;on and completed th«se in 

i&i-ia ^fiija tfie Exception of the Gyp ettipeae' arid, &fa«iiWea^- The- Grqmineae haye 

■r -^e^; pi*.pSr^.jSy-;'t*:A;;W'. under thei, direction of Dr: 1 A. Metderls^bf: the British 

Htu'seuHL |, of Natiirat ijistoty; Whb'has also 1 eon'tribdted the Gcntianaceae in the 

Wc'dtjfedont.- ■?E;^TSi i has ^prepared thjs?\€yperdchw 

' "ra e ! etiological part of the Intro Auction ; is a ri ginal . : inate ria J an d h a s been 

prepared -hy'S,3W,H;. and P.A.W, frotn jtheir fieldwopk, on the Islands. As fruit trees 

■play'^clljri^imp^t.tairt.part in the landscape of the Isjands ;weare very, lucky .to 

4^/^bl^1tpr ? incJii()3 : ei i a chapter ; bri ^ejt^fcuftiv^tion by s 3oe : Borg ■ who has made tire 

. treesrbt- ihe^KlSrids -his' jE>at , tieula*.^tild^„A,t. an «iirly, stage, Henry Mieallef hati 

promised an ; article on the -medfeinM 'plaiit's -of Malta, but his untimely death 

gecufrr^d btsfbre he had 'completed it. By the permission": of his widow and of the 

Malta ttalon of Pharmacists we have however 5 heeii able to include an extract 

fronj^jan. already published paper on the subject, ., . ■ 

• ^D'.S; has - tiHr&dghon.t acted" as general editor so as to obtain as; much 

■ contitiunity of style as possible. He has also where necessary made norrienclatural 


and taxonomle decisions, some of which (in .those gi - oups not yet written for 
Flora Europaea) have had. to be made Without: : satisfactory revision: 

When it comes to expressing our gratitude for all the help and encouragement 
we ..have received during the preparation -of the .book, it is -fliificult to; '-knoty -where 
to begin and where to fend: ■■ ,4 ■ ' : ' f '" ' 

■ First 'and ■ foremost we are grateful 'to the: Editorial Committee ^■'F^a 
Eurapaea and the Cambridge University Press -for qiei'jii'iss.iotf ''to repro$uc£ /th* 
■descriptions, of taxa published in that -work.- Without that. 'permission J thfcptojecf 
would- never have got off the ground. ' .' '" ' '■-, ;;■'""',■/ 

To the floyal University of Malta we are greatly indebted :for helarSilg'lhe 
main' financial support for the preparation of the* manuscript and f^^puhlisiimg 
the hook. In particular we. must thank Prdfessor'E.J.jBbrg ; Constanzi>^ce:ehan- 
cellor' and Rector Magnificus, who was* sespanSiBle foV : granting firjanc'e ;^hd; ar- 
ra7igement of publication, and 1 -without; Vhose^ help' the ; booik could- hot" h'averbeen 
completed; In-the eariy'days Pi&fessor -H.'Mifcallef was- instrumental in getting 
the' project started, and Mr: John Mangioii. >Flead : of Printing -. in* the. tJnfversi'ty 
Press; has -made useful suggestions ! to.PACW; concerning the format "of the text 
and illustrations. '■■■ ■ " L ■' 

We owe a great debt to Dr. EmmaniM Agiusi who completed the' arrangement 
for publication: after the' authors'had left TVlaita. Without -his -efforts^ this flora 
wonJd not now be- published. ■■■'..- , - 

S.M.R, wishes to thank Miss A,' Gatt, who typed all the preliminary man user! pt 
and translated much of the original; work -;n Italian; and' Miss V. pe'Bat'tista' who 
checked references andoollect^dherhariuni specimens, while ..Mis's'A.V, (Jdinilleri. 
■Miss;F. Nicholas, and Mrs. C. Sciherras' helped with the -'collecting- ahd pre^singi of 
herbarium specimens, and Dr. P.Y, Hoyle contributed several unusual .specimens, 

'P.A.W.- wishes to thank her parents, _ftlr, & Mrs, C. 11. Newland,. for' their "help 
and patience during the eight years; Mrs, $. Patterson and Airs, F^LeysoH- Wh* 
have ; provided her with houses during her visits, to, Malta; Dr. G. ^arhmi^^taernpel . 
and Mr, Mario Cauci who-: spent. much available timd .oyer;M ; alte$;;I^f,']!lt.A. 
Delia, former Curator of the Argottl Garderis-for access to 'herbarium ■^ate'rial^Mjr: 
J. .Sultana, for field excursions and hospitality in: Gozo:, At^ British Museti'm 
Natural History) London, PA.W; would like to thanfc.Dr. M., Melderls .ari(J : #r, C. 
Humpries of the European Herbarium f or the'ir help, and encpufagehje,nt, and Dr: 
.W...T, Steam for valuable help over .nomenclature .and" bibliography; "at ,thie In- 
jstitctte of Archeology Professor J. Erans for suggestions on the prehistory, sections 
of the introduction, , : ■ ...'.' ■/' ' ; . *' ,.'".-; 

Additional grants in connection with the preparation of. the" , final jnanuserlpt 
ha ve been rec eiy e d f r o m the. Botanical Res eareli t an d . Per missipn ft a$ . ki h dl ■?■■ b e e n 
■granted toy H. Bowen-Jones et at for permission to : reproduce ; :ih'e map on,;p. : XXH 
from their book .Malta Background for.. Development^ , "'"...'".' :'" ., : 
. Throughout the project the library and ' herbarium of th^. Botany School , at 
the University of Cambridge has been used as„a base, for -checking both -references 
and ; specim&ns. .During, a .difficult period financially' Professor R.JVJ. Br-iari^Head 
of that Department, made available a- temporary loan to ;lide u's,jover. ,Pio'fe$sor 
E-.J.H. Corner aud Dr. ;S'.M. Walters, also o±" that Department, gayerus much 'help 
and continual encouragement throughout; . ,""'""■ 

The typing of thefinal manuscript has been a ply carried,'Mrs.;A...Jtill 
and -Mrs.; J.G. Murrell. Mrs. Murreti has also given much otliet help lir.pltittiiig 
together the Flora: for- publication, including: the preparation.- of the:4nd^'xL .Mrs-; 
B.S. .Croxall has helped with the proof-reading: ',. ..',." ,.'' 

To all those', mentioned above and to: the many others who ..have hejped in 

various ways. we are greatly indebted - ■ ,. ,'...- 

Sylvia M.'Daslam Botany Sohooh .,-..',.-.'...- 

; Peter D. Sell -..; -....'.-■. University .ol. Cambn(i^ 

. Patricia .-A. Wolseley ■ England,. «■ 

'..'.'■■ '""■'.'" "" April t97^: ; : "^v'"': .■.-.:'. 

■"''■' ' viii-.. ■'•■■'.. ; .. ■ .:'' : '; 

■> : 4 : pstffry :^the »4y of/the 0pra , , 

>A"'* ' W^i^^^^^^^i^^--'^^^'^^ 3 ^' Cicir>.anii iucritius'-.r^fei^od 
; -C ffl|-M^n^u]ftftM|iFin^MWta, and ii^uintimii jto; thOf^oses^p^m^.ol^s,^ vines, 
^Is'a^ct^ther- jSul-f -*ree s,-, the" fii-st; iHal tesfe^wr.itef, . ly-hw jnfenjf wned ,-tSe native „ and 
cWivftSo? »Wfe "of '-thS". Jslands- was .Francesi!.0 ; : Abela:. ; in ISf/. In ..MayrlSeiithe . great 
Ehgi^"h'"hbta'n^t Jdhn'Ray paid:- a short- -visit to ipe Islands, The plants 
(d¥~%e': : lsltods .however,-: t waS, .hy .Jh-e Maltese ...physician. -loh. < Erjrii : Qgse.o..3pfl«imico 
wjfo^W S^W iauiiief'ia'tejAa*- 1 ; swQtes^^botfc iiatiye . and. c^iyate^ a tjpial. that ; wgs 

■;..'- ' '-?ihe "Swedish botanist, Fetrus :Forskal, in his posthumous Flora Aegypyiaco- : 
■*j06$$6$-:}P,- 1-775, inserted »/ shortlist- Of Matese :pfepts:-.lnclu^ing; cultivated 

i-aiW^ft ,hativep'ispef i0$-^oyected t*!*. fehp, by «tha- Maitese.f doctor fSio.f-g-ip Ijoqancji ■ In- 
^^,^ui^s,-S;C. Mamaiii .DJl^rylUe, a' captain of- the ^French navy;: mgntione^-in-a- 

,;'gpfeH^a?ip,n : i^4i^.MemQi^^M^SmA^H-Am^^i.e ,dc -.Pa?^,' 4 ^ native ■■specjes of 

:■■ MJdtks^i '■ „J, .; ■ -j, ,,.<!,' j ';' '-■.''{'•• .,,.'". .-"*', , ivr . -. '■:■■ 

.''■o*'v-* j|fl'.',.1^2\'|?, .Carlo -Gia.einto ,:oi, tiiig; : Diseased 'Giarmehtes, ..Prpie^sor oi 
Sa-^tty^ipjfhe Malta^UniversityiiPliblished iBHCoJlaboratj : on>with Dr; Agpstino.jN^udi 
^a%glhj:-.. MH ano- - ; Zei!aBa> . '■£; list, pt &$$ speeie^, ,^f^s ;. and -Cryptogams^ 
f'nktiv>e; aud^cultiypted' fronivthe^sfetnd? ;ef -■]WsIta,:Qe*Q- and;Dampedusai. Dellcata -(see 
.heiowA considered 351 P^anerogasis.vand- 14, Cryptogams M the^e. to be native ot 
JMalta.^hd^Gpzo. ' .;..--,-. .■:■'•!.'■-■ ■:■.- ; v ■'.-■■■.'■■■■■ '- ; -.'-.- .■•.':■ ■' ; .- :-.;,:■ . ':■. 
. ■■ ,/The fi rst real , att empt a t a co ippr eh en sHe Flora of M alta , wsj s - mad e hy D r . 
Sfefano ^erafa, Fr,.Gia gihtp\- ; sue cessor'-=inithls;; chair of Botany and Natural :ili story 
'.',i-a: ; i'he Malta Univershyj,;"who. : ,|n. 'the., years. ; j|^2?,.;an i d. 1.831 published his ^ora.o 
■°'^rti|j^^^s f \ tK ; ej^j^M;?:»'M,^ ■^^^mer^e^Xd44VspeljSes;;:Sl' - wl^icli-;,. 0;-; Cryptci£:ams.' t> n5df 489 
. E|&$^pgai&^$V^ '■"..' ■'■■■ '■ , ' -.'■ : 

'.-; m'^lB^3v.P-i'Bfehnlr,. : Iri 'a -chapter on botany in BatIg*er T s Historical GutiLz 'to 

M0a.iQ,7id, GpXo, .gjwv a<b.P^-&^etch ; of the Islands' Plpra,.and ;caleul,ked that about 

fg$ "species 0F Phanero^msy^w^re -native. ..^A Swedei'. Carl Frederick: Mymah; in,. a 

.^prlt^pu^iished. 'at S|;0|k^ almoin Sweden |n ; l I§4Sj'.".--.^;a-ve, 1 under the -heading ■ Oh- 

: , ■ Jjajd Wffiss- $Mr,p£pe t ati'm, , Jf if sf , ef ', . 73 ; . Maltese \ s pecie s s col] ec t e.d , hy , him . „ . . . ' ■ 

.. : i!a ,, : . '!lft '^hipt ...Dr . G , C .' &m ch ; : DeUoa ta, , who ; am ce.e d e d . Pro f esse r . Zer af n it i 

' -^ 'S-^ a V ; 9? Sotahy h j' punish ed : . in the. Tt ansae iiqnr,\o£ the, Academy o/,.; So ie «c« s of 

'■S^^hf^pi.,f ..list of ,44)0 ip.eqi'eSi,*n^tiye to the' Maltese j Islands, His main .-worltrt'hovi;,. 

\^^i^^^s'^,.-i'^,:^)\^:lm:, : \i^-\-Wlot"0' Melit'ensis .he, Vnymerated' 7i6... H s_|»0cfeS -'-of. 

,\P]^i^r.^*a^s' native^^o ; |h^/islands, 5^ 

■'^^^.j'Sfi^ijii.ihe' Etdletiii aie.lqi SociSti ''Bi^a^^-^^^J;Fva7ice f 'Tyi;-.\.fj&vina;'lO^Si, i ' 

^w|i0^#^ow'e.djf^yeeh; Digl(cat^ -in, ,the..;.chair- .6f /f ^otaiJy.j, published; . a .list', of lijaltese 

,- Gj^JjjpS^f as,' |oilbwed hy .a', ser^s ;of papers iiij the 'journal; II' Bartii'. entitled .-.'JKotese, 

Bp^^^^^eali^gfwith'S^'fanliiies.of M^a'Itese p^anerogahis:" He wusepga'ged'dn the 

manu^isr^^ Of ' a £ojnplef,e j Analytical Flora o£ Malta ; \vh$h b e. '.died ^t ,-t ho ■ corii 

pSrltivei^.-'eatly. 1 ageVbf S4;^ears, .'^ ,■-.'.." ■'■',"".:■■ ; .''. '■ . '. ' ,' 

''■"f^i^n^lilhmatiJ J:F, TJUthie: "visited'the' Inlands 6n ,fwo occasions, in 'ilJTt Ti 

a^ia ilfrfST^An* ate count or "the til^ntshe eoljWcted* ! was' ; pubris&ed iti (fie : Jjbtiryifti '/if.. 

'■§ot.nn0H ondda) ; Pfe : ! ^iho phbhshed- 1 an al phab'etic al - list of Maltc se - pi a nts ' i n - th e 

local journal Ji Bartk. Between 30 and 40 at the Species he recorded Were new 
to the Islands. ; . f ./ ^ . ., [ ^. ■«»* v > -'■ - : '» «' ■' ' '- 

Professor F. Deboiio, stAe's nest iccfipa-flt of -.Isd^st of Botany: and Natural. 
History published jn II Nati&allsta Maltese an analytical tableof Maltese KBrttiw 
ctt!ace«c, '..'.■ ■ -\. . ^ .. ;■« .-. ,, .„ ■ ■;.,,,,. . ,-, K ,,- ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . ii ,.„: ■ ' ' - ■ 

Count. Dr. Alfjeto* fearMjia ! ^a^^o^ll^d^virS^o^s . oh : the. Jslaiids' 
Flora. In UNafuralUta: Maltese in: 1880; ha- published a list of rare g&tiia and 

inosemen^onea^'prevjopsiyKt-olohel* mj; •>06:dfr$y^the> «&fc *EM; ■'■iSSdwffT' W* 
Rev:.;'Ge«.rg.^f?>ten.slOw, the ■■• Rev; g.'vArwt^^ 'ah'd. Mrs. Sbfee who" tiaVco'ti&fM 1 ' 
trvthe/Is^andsv- ^ .; .■'"■• """• " ■'■.». -**-*' - ' ■■ ■■' .,->, r-- t *:%■',-■ ',&■' ;.-Joi -.'■..; /, #/ 
' ..' BeiwigeiiU.^Ai:^:^ 
*M^£:£ ; lor^ 

■ #d*$ in , collator at$» ■ with y .D*:> ■ #; CiffuaW r Gl^-M^^f^^^^ f ii^SS'a$-^ 

:l^':eryp>biiiftls;' , tllou^h:.''inan i! ^ df '.trfe'tii h^V^o^'-tfe^reydu^ v.-' 

'■■ .-.Between l#v£hi-l^J0n'n^06.£^^ 

Maltese' Islands 'Which .-ciifinlftated iti- his D^cri^^ M^ra : 6fHkS"'MMi^' : is^nM' 

in~ 1927i ■ • ~~ ' - -j -- ■.<{'.: ■;. if-:.. ■;„' -..<■■ ■ >;■; .'-i.rv. . ;;■ -, ^, a > :v f.. ■ . . 

■'■,{' 'Thevwerks'. bj£'S6Hi^iet**ifn.ft Carua'iia.iflatto'i Srfd^by Jdhrf^org w-e-rV- t-hfUlSSi. 

cGmfrrs^nisr-se- 1^ 

;I955 ; GnldcPCK :I^'hffai!tfo:publfelied; : a ■Ctt|^/^ i ^i5Ptrari-«^^MB?to,hf '4v*ic^' we'te: 

■ ■frieIndffftj.30Q of the'coitfirionest^speefe^wtf^^^ 

A second edition published In 1969;com tallied ^00 spaces arig illustrations.' jfife^lirK 


coifet: 1 oft'Wfstdbjf "attd- laiid'fd^veloiim^iitfsJTi tftg- Mafi^jj: ;Di£Mn'g ; .he'r. &&$: iri. M&ii 
, #i<i>f r e^seve^alJStoall oookletst^'ft' >JatSra*a*i46Yyyfri .t-he<lglan'dsr&f wh&h 
the most important: is Malta's FlarW^tiifp ;$tbjisbed lh'1969.i - - ! - .' . ^i. 

. The- Maltfi£e,/Islaiid>rjie;#Uh^^^ 
due sciutrl Of Sicily^ 220 miles (35^M;> duti^tidWh* ^(^Tfipffli-MCa^Q'ut 18Q;,tfci?e£- 
■OZBjj.jim) cast of '-.Tunis. The -archijie'Jkjjo.- rbh's ftortjfi-west fS soU&-east ,an2fi^ is 
mi1es;X4'g;kn1'j.:.i!i.:l : engtn. ■'■ .'.,,-.. ' /'; ' : \ [ '\\ : ":_ /■; .;,"„" "r 1 -,_ ,"',' ':;,„,, . 

Malte;; '.the' 1 ". largest ,iiTid:,most.'SdU:tKpri^ : 'islaWd; ij!/ !?■ fifes' : . (2| ,'km) ; jifi 4gWgtrj 

in Malta 1 is th,e: stretch' of .-double 'ticked .sea^SUffSJn'^e sSdtnTwest, rfsi]ri|: r *0';8M 
feet . ,;(251, m&r£s.)''\:abfflve -'Eft^ 

Umskoiie, .rises "sheer ■■'Mrfvof:3he~-Bea i ';W; jt9*406i feet {12a rfettes.^'iia^o^e;, which : 
is the ■yellow Giohfeerina limestone ,Viy£ri forms": most <ff 'ihe jl^Wf ■ j£ii]g^itr£as; 
in .Malta. This' t .is, , i3 Sj by:the.B^i|e^ 

these jpfe'clplliojis el&s r ^hat: form- fee.' : S6fth^est"..c'd : ast; tlje |jrottt]0 f all^ ^adu.all;! J: 
a way. to ^.%V#^Gultur&!vfl^d'tiTban , '' r a)^li^ i 6X't||ie .GI,bbigeHhk;hasjn)'.rs^^iKdteg' 
'Valte^ta in'ihevBp'Ht^Vsnd^rtai^ d^djity,,irideli^ed.'fc| s a|feijte. 

on.ifie ^or^reake^ri : . ) side,:..Jhe 1^^,^ 

are.piany. lar^g t ■ villa ges ts , { .[ifh^^fl0r'th:w.e|it^Eh.: pait M Of,me.^Ja^g' C6n^is|s^ip?iflly, 
of steep',- barren hill-rid gds of Upper Coraftirte runulngi'apprpxlm^tci^. ^j$*fiast 
andpso.uthiwesit, the, mo:st in^portaRt¥o^,v^hiC;h,vare.jMa i ria > ^d^^ : ^ 
Wardija. Jtidg'e ..and-iihe^hhigh ies.cainp^^lit.' i !C^tejjd'irig.:Ati'om^ 
Inithe:valleys ; bfetwee,n the^rldgesitn&tjRper^GoraJlI^e.iido.wrtrtl^ 
terraced areas of cultivation where ihtrfcate systems of irrigation from \rei!» 

i^^^Bi^llS^^rea-at^hadira -has- allowed the; formation ■ of a 

^^^SgS^^^S'&g, up^to 4 mile« <«■"«.>£?£ 
^fti^^^^3are'niiles'.-tt ' is-a- greeiier aad.rriore agricultural island than. 

s-.iai : i!!*3«a/«H?fSfc'.S,..'ii--si'r:. 1 '.aiiu:»ili« ■■«;«!; .im-'Ji-iuhr -rinsftii.'' . i» ^ !■■• '•'■■■',■ '■'• : ; . 

^characteristic slopOof lo-40 

'^^^rS^ffip^'WXdlSnSHii into.^o main hydropic 
:^!&A^SSS^M^mm^^ ^*™ d Europe dunn, 
: $)$. W the' Pfeocene and later Tertiary 

TarJEien Cemetery 
Tasxien ■ ■; 
^gintija *■■■ 
-Mgarr ' . 
lied Skorba 
■Grey ; Skotba 
'Gbar ■■Da-lam 

C chronology BC 

■Frump 1W 

28SO--24flfO :.-. 


Traditional dates BC 

pre I960 

- : 1450-1350 

Culture sequence 


Sequence of occupation by prehistoric people with suggested C Li doles. 

■ : :ThS^ 

SS^SStS. <SZ& -re 3 are^o^^epS-ch in 



aijimai species as at Ghar Dalana. The first settlers must have arrived by sea c, 
S4OOO\0;C; f ^ i50 years) (C 14 dating, Trump (1966). DendrOchrimological evidence 

,h;a^: recently shown ; that C14 dating is inaccurate, owing to variations in the 
amount of G14 present during prehistoric times. At present there is no reliable 

hs&alerto calculate this inaccuracy,: but the arrival of , theses ettlers may be as early 
as 5tKS0 B.C., (Renfrew 1972). Animal and plant remains around their settlements 
-shriw -that these people were already farmers. 

• There is a cultural! break between these people and the 'tempi e-bujlders J 
who arrived ;c, 3200: B.C. and occupied Malt^'for tfie nex(::1400 years^ The temples 
were built of stone and skilfully semi-domed; The size and number of these 

"Le,mple$ indicates a substantial population on the Islands, but there was no 
evidence for- domestic sites untilifTrump'^'careful- excavation of Sit orb a (Trump, 
1966),, Here 1 he demonstrated continuous occupation from the earliest Ghar Dalam 
;phase -to the Mgarr phase (p. xi). The remains were adjacent to the temple at 

..Sfc^rba:,, but it is possible: that elsewhere subsequent occupation destroyed or over- 

"laid 'earjy. 'settlements. ^The uniqueness 6i the feuildings and culture of these 
'peo.ple suggest a high level of organlsatiorij 

;:'!■';':■ -^^^onze Age people who; ari-ivedc. 2000 B.C. have left b^th domestic and 
ffl-r'tified remains, as at B^ahrijaiaud Borg in-Nadyr. At Tarxien they reused temple 
liiateriaj. from the earlier" period/ )3u ring this period theae is evidence for contact 
With'pSrts ..;of. the Mediterranean," ,: * . -""" . '■■ 

.'the Phoenicians arrived in Malta sometime during the ninth century B.C. 
'<fic>r' -seafaring nations Malta provides excellent vharboufcs- and ? ; hoIds a strategic 
posjiiop in' the Mediterranean, What little evidence : there,- is at present shows that 
'ithg.phoeji&iaus settled pn the islands in at least four centres^, (vide Ptolemy)-. 
'■. BJeflte" pt^bat '; and Mdina)-, Chersonesus /(■■? Valletta)^, Hera (ityarsaxlokk), and 
■.iHejfacles; (location' unknown, vide.; Moschatj, 1968). Roe&eut tombs are found in 
'hiiniber's at Mtarfa, Binfeemma, near Rabat, Ghajn QEyiet and;, --else where. The 
'second pumVWavs brought control of the Islands to the Romaii^'in 218 B.C., but 
., tjfeir: occupation; apparently left Hfctle cultural effect. Inscriptions^ from, this period 
;t shpw that'ihe language- was stilt > Punic, ^he Islands adopted: Christianity after 
^-Paul wSs shipwrecked there in A.D: 60. ' ••■;*. 

■<'- ' The periods after the Sar^^ns invaded iir ; §70 A.I?, are badly chronicled. 
>The; Norman kingdom ■ ;4l Sicily '"took over in 1090, followed %y several other 
^'-European powers. There are fgw- signs of settlements on the Islands and the 
:'■ inhabitants were- left unprotectedjnfrom the^freqiaent pirate raids until the knights 

of. St. 'Jtthri" arrived in 1530. Even today' the Maltese farmer often lives inthe 

village^; -and walks to his fields each day. .-.'*■ 

The arrival of the knights heralded a period of architectural activity. 
First of all: they had to 'fortify the Islands. agaihs$ the <furks, who had expelled 
them' from. Rhodes in 1522, Also, to live on this apparently barren rocky island 

\in thehJahner to which, they were accustomed they had to build auberges and 
Churches. These buildings and -fortifications remain a .feature of the Islands 
tod ay. ; Their sources of income were derived ff dm lands' in Europe. The French 
.vevojutfon deprived them of these resources and they capitulated to Napoleon 
in 179$. The Maltese joined foi&es with?: the British to overcome Napoleon's 
garrison, and thereafter: rejftainedrlft thaBrtfish Empire until their independence 
■ in 1964: : -j ^ '. ■ ; i .^..J"- ' 1$ ''-..V 

. De,snite such a history of afleir rule '.thy Maltese language still contains a 
strong Semitic element. -- ". ■' -"''.v ■'*■!■ '"it ''' i;. : 
{ ■ The population of the Maltese Islands in 1970 was 323.000, an average of 2.G6G 

■■\H^ayV'!)f..:'.]>ttpuiation- per sqtiare mile. This , is the second densest population in 

:^iie;:woHd) ranking next after Hong Kong: 

-Pig; 2>*AWfag^i MfetetSrote^ iratfJGteta 

-***:■&&• Mar, i*pr M^ ;^ e -' r^,y ..' A(ag -^i/ .XOi* ; •„'**,. ^Ofa. 

Cirtm.) ..-,591' ~:j54 ' T42-- ; i '"22 :: .J12""' ." -; tj ;: ^ : *.<K5 '7 

*Ma»lmtHti - ." - . : . ■:' : ; : .- 

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'%; ''■■; ......■-..Climate ' 

, ' Th^ Maltese islands have a Mediterranean. climate, with hot dry summers and 
.eodl f w>3t winters. Average data are shown in Fig. 2, and the seasonal pattern in 

'.tfig.'-jf-' ■-■■■■-■:■■■■■ . ■ ■ ■. • . ■ 






>\ A tt J T A S O N 

'■;■ v.;. 1 ?'S- 5. Climate -diagram of Rainfall and Temperature. 

%--'; : iWXr vy'.\ ' ■■.'■. ^ ; .■■-. ;■-■ ■Rainfall.: ■ 

l',^B|9.U'-Js" usually .negligible between May and August (and, in some years, 
■' #ffiUteflSp;sEJa arid" as the temperature averages 2ti.5°C between June and "September, 
■• 'thVsujterier'is unfavourable for plant growth, 

... In :;aiitumn ; rain typically falls in heavy but: short storms, October being the 
; _month;\with the highest average fall. In, winter and .spring it is usually less heavy, 
,:®*^H.McfsUy" being B t^e last month with ..sufficient rain for a: good growth of 
: ',ve'g"&tKt^Jii : ih: ; shallow soils. ." ■• ■.-,.■■ 


The annual rainfall averages about 500 mm/ v but is very variable, in : 4^ 
of years it is below 50% of the average, .in 5.%*- of yearsJt .is oyer 150% ,of%, 
and in only. 86% of years is it within 25% '.. ot the average. There, is also variation 
in monthly. rainfall from one year td another (Fig. 3). The average November raift;'r 
fall for two consecutive ten year periods was 8 and 115.. -mm. This liability tft 
drought and seasonal variation: can seriously disturb agricultural production. 

Rainfall is often variable within the Islands. A striking example occurred in v 
October 1865, when -275 mrm of water fell in a heavy storm in Fforiana and less 
than; 40 mm. ~,m Rabat.; 

While the monthly rainfall usually decreases, between October and March, 
the number of Says on, which rain falls each month remains more stable. The.' 
amount of rain falling pep day is highest in autumn. In 1965, five of the six days' 
with over 25 mm, rain were in October and. early November^ and one was iiir 
February. This distribution is J typieal. 

Hail is precipitated during some, storms. About t,wiee each -winter there is a 
shower of soft White hailstones which resemble snow arid sometimes remain on the 
ground for a few hours. ■■' '■;■'-. ;■■;''■'■.-■'.; .' 

■ Dew' 

Dew is often hiavy, particularly between Aprii.and September, when the rain '.' 
fall is slight. Dew can also be heavy in other dry .periods ie.g, Novemberi- February : 
and : March, ■ ' ;; 

'■ Temperature:- .■■■; -., I -.--.. ■ 

In striking contrast to the rainfall, the temperature is remarkably, stable ffrnm , 
year .to year (Fig. 3). Hence the very marked aiiWtKil differences' in vegetation - 
are due rhore to variations in rainfall than io those, in te T mperaiunj. The difference 
between day and night temperatures is slight ' , 

January, February and March are, on. average, the c0ldest ; monfh&.\yith drjr : 
temperatures averaging hardly above 45°C and night \opes, hardly -ahe-Ve 1 irci 
Light frosts occur. Grass minimum temperatures", weje below 0°C ^n five days 
in 1965, and three days in i96"6, the lowest temperatures being -2°C ,in 1965 and 
-5°C -in 1966. These' 'frosts' usually last a, very short time, and haye : no marked 
effect on the vegetation. Cat-ice (not : recorded-lh'1^4i7:) is reported -to form on 
puddles occasionally. ". ' -.'-"'■■■: .: : 

July and August are normally the hottest : m maths, and the maxima, in some 
years, reach 43° C. Grass level and' soil surface temperatures go higher. In 1966. : 
not a, hot summer, grass level temperatures ■-.: werfc , ij-p to 41)°^,. and soil surface 
ones : frequently above 40°C. ■ '. 

.Sunshine : 

The Maltese Islands have a sunny climate, in mid-summer, sunshine hours 
average about 12per day, day length feeing ground 14 hours. Even: in mid-winter 
the average sunshine is over: 5 hours, the amount of ; clourt being, low. Even in the 
exceptionally wet winter of 1965, winter sunshine averagred. 5.5 hours per day,. and 
up to mid- April there were only: 14 days with not more than one hour of -sunshine. 


Relative humidityis high, usuaHv : ;65-8C%, with- little seasonal .;vaTia lion;; and; 
rarely failing below 40% (fig (b). This is higher than that in coastal; regions 
of neighbouring Mediterranean countries. 

F'SSjmT--^'- *=-.,»v.iP»K» : 'T-.' -^ ''">" : Sots •■■■'■■ 



-V WK- .m -^lMt^M wB.:,. -'oar ' '■■J 



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S J ! ! s I' 



Ffg. 6. Soils of Malta and Gozo. 


:■'■"..'. The Maltese climate is very windy. Only 10% of days are' calm, with summer 
apd autumn being less windy than spring and winter (the maximum number of 
calm days are in August, with 14%, and the minimum number in April, with 
"7%). The cool north-westerly Magistral blows, on average, on 29% of days in the 
year, the dry north-easterly Grigal on 15%, and the hot humid Sic kk (Sirocco) 
on;l3%. The northerly Tranvuntaha brings the coldest weather, and the southerly 
Nofsihhar the hottest. 


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.^...^y.iKfaitB^soilJs;: are- highly calcareous (with ' pH normally -..over H.O), all bciiiK de- 
iiy.^dirom calcareous rock, Tfiere are; three main types (Fig, 6).. 

;fChe:CartfO»ateraVt; soils are 'Of relatively recent ■■origin.. Their organic content 

■ ..i^vet^ jpw;: usually -l ■— l,.o% 3 and consists of raw humus and undecom posed plant 

reminSs llje -surface- layer is usually brownish. The calcium carbonate content 
i-h^iinly . Jh; ,calclt«. grains) is- SOW/o in soils derived from soft limestone, and 

; I^JiOf^'-ln those from the Blue Clay. ■Carbonate raw soils are found on. Blue 
fil&y,. tf&higeritia limestone and Upper Coralline limestone .scarps mainly In the 

■ ' sfjiitttyifBSt of j -Malta and centre of Gozo (Fig. 6). Apart from the sandier soils,. 
t%sE^reas: usually have little or no terracing, large fields and low "walls. The 
sffi|iVer':eIaj: slopes, however, have little, soil, frequent gullying', and are unworked. 
' ^Xerorend^ina^soils are rather more manure, wiQi less unweathered rock waste 
and shgh'tly.'- more humus. The organic ;content-is usually "2-3%; hut may be up to 
6&s |ii. uncultivated soils. The surface layer is usually pale brown. -The calcium 
c orbuhate - con te n t is 55 - 80 % , whi di " is 1 ess than that o f c a r b o n ate ra w soils etc- ■ 
■pMssf f i'o m lhn eston e, X er o ten dzin as < _ ar e : c oimno n i n- cfin-t ra 1' Ma i ta , ■ and central 

~ iijt4';;-w.est- Gdzo: The la-rid; is usually strongiy terraced. 

■ ,'fhffi terra' (terra iiisca.;- terra fossa and intermediates) soils art; the eldest, and 
were formed under ■ a different, and probably -Wetter climate than that of the 
present-time; They are relic soils of ancient origin that have changed little in 

;..;r-pceit.f -.iftaesi : : ' ; '.' "■■; Ui', : -- ...\ '.' •.'.-'■ .:^ v - 

• ■■: ' % he; rgani c matt er conte nt is co m p a r a ti vol y high , a bo u t 4.5% ^ (lo we r in 

, euiti'Va ted", .higherin uncultivated soils). Because of the downward movement 

■ (leaching) ,gf. calcium carbonate under the influence of rain - in the: past, its 

- "eofij-gnt. . Ei,o w is <inly . . 2 - .1 5 % . ■ ■ Th e so ils a re. : usuall y . : red d i ah. Th ey « oec u r m ai n ly o n ■■ 
thei:,k%stUands of the Upper:and Lower Coralline limestones, mostly inf.hc north, 

' .stKitth afetf.south-east oi Malta,: and -near tUe coasts: of Gov.o. 

.; Soijs wlileh are-.too disturbed : ; and altered -to fall into these categories occur 
locally throughout the Islands, on any rock 1 type. 

.' : ii : should be noted that the tradition that much of the soil of the Maltese 
Islands was: transported from Sicily and : Italy :is not supported , by the evidence, 
„'..'' The soil depth usually has more effect on the -vegetation than the soil typfe 

; DBjsthi in a warm climate, has : a eoiitrol3ing;.effect^or» moisture. S6ii depth varies 

■ .frmk pocKets a: few centimetres thicfc and bare\roi;k in the karst-lands, to areas 
b?ef:!Half:a metr&'deep inthc flat alluvial: vislleys-, In%pring; it. isi noticeable that the 

: vegetation of thfe shallow soils dries and dies b^|bre that: of deeper soils .ale ngsido, 
R-oofe'of some'lierbs as .wQlli.?as of -trees csn, grow deep into cracks in the rock 

; he to w,f ' th e/reby re a chin g a los s ep h em e ra 1 s u p pi y of wa ter . . 

G^jogieal and Ecological areas and their types of vegetation 

.Geological- badiground to the plant .communities 



SS = 






TJ ■ 











* ■ 

■ 0) 




: . The distribution of plant communities in the Maltese Islands is closely related 
tq : -t.he ..--geology and topography oi the country, 'fhose features that affect tht> 
: ptant : communities; are described below. A full geological description is available 
cljSevvhere; ; .:(Hyde 1955) :. . 

:;.. The geological structure of the Maltese Islands is markedly unifoim, con- 
sisting, of Tertiary, calcareous sedimentary rocks, eiays- and maris, .(Fig.:8).,. dif-. 
fering mainly m : their appearance and consistency. The Upper and Lower Coral 
11 he limestones are both hard, often densely crystalline rocks, forming- the two 
■titers :pf /vertical cliffs oh the south-west coast'of Malta. The Lower Coralline, the 
oldest 1 rock in : the Maltese Islands, is exposed at sea level- on- the south-west 

m^s^im'vW--y . ■■■- ■ ,.■ 
JS?-3ifVv:r-"-- ' 

^^^ ? ;'ig^M^Ua afid Gozq, ■forming cliffs that rise vertically out of the sea for 

^^IS^R <^ a ^ ^H e ■ tower Coralline is exposed as an inlier in some plages 
"ffl^ffi|k-C^eit:'.lto|'n»S barren stretches of rocky ground as at Naxxar and Ghallis 
'^^^^^M^^W^'.?-?'- at Wied Iricita, Wied Has^Saptan. and Wied il-Gnasel. 

^^ j^j-are; ^Jp'oi ^p^retfwated from the valleys found on the Upper Coralline. 

i^ffwS^te^4l^; ''£1 bbjgeldha Jimestone lies above the Lower Coralline. Readily 

) Of 

. i .jc^:s1$6'|ejin Maitp This fine-grained, evfemtextured rock has been quar- 

^§ra^^ifl:M^B'i^S»^a ib^idirig stone "since prehistoric times. The scattered quarries 

sK^P^J^SSi^fliJf-" 'abandoned" and Used as fields. Only the coastal areas support a 

^^|^^|e^^'tP|fiirtity : Of- plants. The inland areas are usually intensively agricultural 

ffis!^^Whij5^xsiept«for a .few watercourses which are left more or less undisturbed 

ls^*"?^^hW^$lu#'Glay forms a characteristic unstable' creeping slope of 1540° below 

^|fti|^^^r'"CQfiallifle '.-plateaus in Malta and *Gozo. The physical characteristics: of 

^^I^S^ayi*fe , ate(;:ftH ■■.■unstable junction between these: two. formations, causing the 

^^W£0M^|^ei'tb ;cpimc;le on to the clay slopes, known -as rdtipi areas. This junction 

^fejsTiflso inp: sprfbg: Hne for the upper water table. The slopes below are usually 

^^^rr^e^andifurrowed despite the intractability, of the clay which is unstable in 

^h^^et^easoii.' aiid drought-cracked in summer. 

'"■'>. jit' ih'e base of the Upper Coralline cliffs there is frequently a layer of coarse 
^"^^nfeerStiiown greejisand. Its plant community does not appear to differ from that 
ef^lgflrfe^^tlihe cliffs ; above. 

"" . B'^^e^ppa iCoi-aflijje plateaus rise to 829 ft. (251 m.> at the Ding 1] cliffs. Oc- 
^dfiMjjiij^most; of the northern half of Malta, they are mostly exposed arid areas 
; tp|«iJ'. e TW& ■.'rock', .is frequently jointed with a rough stony surface and under - 
:^pffh-^^erns §0 that: tho plateaus resemble the karst areas of Eastern .Europe.., 
^Pfterl^-^iheir-e are coralline rocks, on the coast or inland there are steep-^ideci 
^t^worn valleys (Widien — singular Wied). 

^Geological .features distinguishing the islands; 

S^iMii^he/gepiogioal formations cut the Island into two topographical areas^ the 
: t:^iafe|genjiai plains i and sloping rocky coasts of the southern half, and the hills, 
'iy|ll|^s;i;ar><j ^Ve^ffs of : coralline and Blue Clay in the north western half of the 
Islan^d.'; Tiie most southerly point of the Upper Cora Uine plateau is at Gebel 
C : iarjtar,: : To ttie north 'of -this, the plateau is intersected by a series of parallel 
-fatil^.rjjj^jiipg- east-north-east across the Island producing an area of ridges and 
yaiigys::,Tho'riibst striking of these runs along the Victoria Lines, the downthrow 
ihoBhi ranging between 300 and 600 ft. along its length. At the eastern end the 
. ; ;Lower ; ,- Coralline is exposed forming the barren slopes and 1 Cliffs from Naxxar to 
■.St.; Andrew s^';T owards the west the ridge rises to 750 ft. at Nadur tower. To the 
;n.ort#;"t:he land drops steeply to about 275 ft. (84 m.) in the Bingemma valley 
foilbwepV by the remaining series of ridges of Wardija, Ba^jda, Mellieha and Maria; 
■ Mie.; valleys being P wales, Mizieb, and Gtiadira. These valleys are down-thrown 
rift galleys of Upper Coralline. They are fertile areas and intensively cultivated 
aS^Fwaies, At their cOastal edges, there are the remains of sandy bays, and at 
Gftadira the remants of a sand dune system on the low- lying isthmus: Both are 
rare features of the Maltese Islands. 

<?P?o: Gozq is composed of the same geological formations as Malta, but there are 
several features which give the island a distinctive appearance. The apparent hill 7 
iness. is, due to the isolation of the areas of Upper Coralline plateau capping the 
Blue- Clay, slopes as at : Xaghra, Nadur, Siebbug, Victoria, Gharb, and many other 
smaller! Isolated nil! tops about 500 ft (150 m.) high. These also support the urban 


areas of the island. They are surrounded by, extensive- terraced day slopes giving, 
the island a green agricultural appearance in winter and spring The-Globigenna 
is exposed at the north-west end of Gozo and in; the lower Valleys of the sOutli- 
east These, as in Malta, are highly agricultural with a small area of native ptenl 
communities, surrounding the winter watercourses. .TheLpwerXoraUine is : r^ely 
exposed on the land surface expect at Ta' Cert c, where it isfaulted and 
a barren plateau with cl Ms rising vertically from the. sea to W^thO; T^> 
steep-sided valleys follow the fault lines inland at Mgarr ix-Xini and Xlendi.-ihe 
Lower Coralline is exposed to a lesser extent at Dwejra forming -the ; :cliffs around 
the inland sea, and helow Qala where it borders the north qomtaoehanneh 
Comma is a Darren ' area of Upper Corall:ne : limestone with Uttle remaining agri^ 
culture -except- in the ,Sta. Marija valley. On the eastern side the, cliffs: rise upto 
247 ft. (75 m.) aud to the west of this the land slopes away. to the sea. 
SeJwMMtett lies shout 100 metres off the nqrth-east. coast of Malta and is composed 
of the Upper Coralline Limestone faulted off from the mainland: to the west. 
Film lies on the south-west coast Of Malta off -the Dingli cliffs: This upper 
Coralline cliff island has a plateau of 2 acres with an rdum area below which 
makes access difficult '(Fft/I'a [191&) ',).". 

iieologioal ■ areas , . 

The Maltese Islands have a total area of '122* square: miles (318 square lorn) 
and there is only one point on Malta, the largest island, that is as much .as 4 
miles ■■(■CJ5 Jim.) from the coast/ According to weather conditions salt spray. may 
be blown on to any vegetation on the island. Thus all species occurring on" the 
islands must be more or less salt- tolerant. The coastal species, however, receive 
regular inundation of salt water or spray during the winter and spring ..: months- 
There is little tidal variation in the islands so that the zone of -regular inundation 
is comparatively narrow. 

The coastline is 181 (283 km.) miles lorig and distributed as shown in Fig. '9/ 

- : Malta 


Other 1 islands 

Land surface :. 

in square miles 
in square km. 

'"■ 95-' ■ ■ '■ 


■.■: .-■: 1 : |- ■:- 

■Sea coast 
■ in miles 
m ■ Ion. 

144 ■ - 

■■ : -2S.-- 

- 45 ■ ■ 

■''■■■!)■ ■' "■' '.'■' 

Coralline cliffs 

. 24%. 


■"■■'■" "'■■■■■ 

Sloping rocky shore 

66% . 


Soil or clay slope 




Sandy bay and saltman 

h 1% 


' :' ; . .''-'. 

Fig. 9. Proportional distribution of coastal rocks and deposits. 


'■' -In the Maltese coastline- the greater proportion of sloping rocky slme is 
accompanied by a greater number of bays and inlets as in the Valletta area, hi 
shallow, bays there is also: the possibility of..; accumulation- of deposits — either 
water-borne (saltmarsh) or wind blown (sanddunc). 

Although the clay areas and soil covered slopes are included in one category 
;'.jii'.\j)if. 9, physically andscologically they are-.chstinct. The clay slope is essentially 
..■Lacking in humus and unstable; whereas the abandoned holds or areas of coastal 
■sdii,^s at Dehraara are;relatively stable and 'humus- rich. This allows the develop - 
;ihehtJ:of : shrubby species which are conspicuously: absent from the coastal clay 

;.;&.■■■'. $hfe' islbping ■ rocky; shore ;is .a. 'ni'u eh disturbed area in Malta of high amenity 
value. It is an unstable habitat with occasional pockets of soil on the rough rooky 

■.surface which are likely to be removed by winter stormSj so that the area.cioso 
t» : the. water best favours annual Plants. Perenmal and shrub by species that-, with. 

■stanU salt spray occur .inland, of this area. In contrast,; the. cliffs of Malta's coasts 
are- undisturbed by Man, They have ' few places where soil cad collect and no 

: horijjbntal zonation, so that perennial often shrubby species are more frequent 

;.."; The i .species : occurring on the coasts of .the Maltese -Islands are distributed as- 

'.follows.-:^— ■■ ; '..,...',. 

Sloping ; rocky shores 
Coralline cliffs 
■Clay or soil slopes 
Sandy hays 
-Salt, marshes : 
in sea water 

"•5% of : total 'flora 

1.8% of total flora 

,1.7%, of total flora 

3.6%.- of total flora 

,1.7%'. of "total 'flora 
(i.HVv of total flora 

Total 14%. 

■_ Where a. species is- found in two or more categories it is in duped in- -each 
■ , ^The greatest number of Species is found in the sandy bay and saltinarsh areas. 
- Although these areas are infrequent, the conditions occurring are relatively .. 'Sable 
;:ofet ; ^giilariy unstable (.e.g. wind- blown sands),, 'allowing the development .0 a more 
complex: plant community. Until recently- these were undisturbed areas, .and ■ the 
distribution rdiag rani- includes hiany : species -not recorded 1 in this century ' well 
-aS'sometfjgf ar g now extremely rare. 

-;.: Inland, the ecological areas : remain associated with the geological structure 
aiicl topographical features as shown in. Fig, .8-' Tlio. Upper Coralline 1 plateaus 
usually, occupy thp higher parts of the islands; imposed -to the full force of the 
^iads-and arid for 6 months "of the year, they have largely remained agricultural 
ly undisturbed or abandoned except as gracing land for goats. Where these arc 
water-worn valleys (whether towards the coast as at Wied fJabu or iniand as 
along the MelliehV ridge) they are steepsideel %vith .funning water, in the -bottom 
-fprseyeh months of the year. The steep sides are as arid as the plateau, but : 
protected from the ; wind, and probably more important,, from the goats, they sitp^ 
port more shrubby species. 

: : : The edges of the Upper Coralline plateaus are unstable vertical scarps (Figs. 

10,;, 15) on £he Blue Clay -slopes below. -These : edges are 92 miles , (145 Kin) lorn* 
■in Malta and 38 miles (60 km.) long in Gozo. The 1 narrow zone' along the- scarp 
-«dges varies in degree of exposure but the spring line 1 ensures that there is 

luxuriant vegetation, especially of scramblers and climbers. These ecological 


divisions jjohtains 43% of the species of tjic Flora, .and the toiajlls of tire natiyei 
f o]tovre C -- dlStri?5Uti0 " ° f ? Pe ' C ' BS W the !nIa7,fl areap of the MaI *ese Islands is^ 

Coralline plateau ;ahd slope 
Valley and scarp edge 
Arable land 
Waste lajid 


16% : 

: \ -87%. 

. 40% of : the Jlora,. consists of species foiirid in arable and waste -Places These 
'SSt*^ 6 - a ^ lturtl1 *WJ#** #eas. More' species a^colmWfni 
Irodticed with new systems of agriculture as M glasshduses: ■' ' v ■ * - 

MarttjnW Contmunltles ';■'■';' 

Maritime communities are those containing species -confine* to coastal regions 
regularly receiving salt -spray, irrespective of the- presence or absence ffi: They may ^grade into inland; communities,; ;6r there may be a snarp 
boundary to agricultural or built-up land. . snarp 

sorav^^™™ 'JT^'-V^i* Pref ^ ^e.pFesenceVof.s.alt; either just from: 

,^vJ h !v main season «f flowering -of- Maltese plants is March^May (Haslam- 
,^ V,"°^ ever ' the ■maritime- species mainly flower' from June to October ; (Fie 
13) . This is also the period least liable to storms j- 

Mediterranean tides are slight; only about 15 cm. daily, and greater variations 
in sea level are causedby wind and the consequent currents. 

Rocky shores 

Most of the coast of the Maltese: Islands is exposed^ and- rocky, and varies from 
gentle slopes to tall cliffs. In Malta, the-north and east coasts (apart from the 
Bastions of the Grand Harbour; area) are mainly gentle slopes, and most of the 
cliffs are on the south-west and west sides. *: 

Sloping shores 

T i le ln ^ : 1 < ; 9mmon .coastal, habitat is a .gentle slope of bare rock with a f ew pockets 
of soii (Eig, ti). plants colonise where they can anchor^ in soil pockets arid cracks 
in the rock. Soil cover and depth, exposure to winded storm, and human in- 
terference all ■ vary considerably,, While plants are sparse throughout their -fre. 
quency naturally varies with these factors. ■ 

Widespread and characteristic species include:— 

(perennials) Crithmum marititnwm (with little soil) 

Inula pritliinoides (with uneven' surface) 
Cickoriwrn spindsum (with more soil) : 
Qlaucium, fiawwrn, (with more soil) 
Frankenia Xaevis 


xS^^^^Mm^wS'^M&^'^^m^ $■ 'i where li able to 


to sea floods in winter* 

«;^;, :-'■■ l -; 
MBSSf^aP&S^^'- ' ■■' i -.- : -.- 

Bsa»^(SESSM^g«^«sa-v=^^^^,-^i ; p^^ ly _. :sneer or w mt steep rocky slopes, and exposed o v 
§Mps$^S%P^io- : 4flO ft. (130 m;); with .valleys intersecting the face, 
mfimvA-^±*h±jh^„: :,',.^^, ■■:*»■. ■"!•- v..™:.* parts naturally receive less 

^re^M™™^^Ki^i^fl^-j^tii4:^^iip:. ^ivpfY^j, „.piiM \L4;icii ■ wiii *^ +±±i*^i» the. .same as inland . cms$. 

^^^^^^^^^^^W^^tfesoh'.,sheer.anfi cliffs. On the more dissected 

^^^^^^^M^^^feW^.5tKfer™ry Steep- slopes -where there is. some shelter, two 

^^^^^n^^^^^^jfe'^fi^^mlii.Jtbyndanee,.. 'inula, : cnt-Jiffioktes near the water, and 

^^^^^^^^M^^P^fe^^%'^°^ "rtwky .plaees, Citpulariaviseasa. 

^^^^^^^^^^PW-W^#^E* :s Wes„. grade into the flatter-slopes described above. 

^PSi^^Pw-^'--"^'^' * ' ''■• ■ ■ '" ' 

^^^^^S^wlpeCi^SM.'the sheer cliffs and steep, slopes include:— . 

Wi'0f^&0p,^.' :: }P^ s M 'usually not near the water i 

V^^^kmi^^$^i^fl^^ u ^- : * .'■■■-■■■■ 

el^pfM^tarSa >; sffi sco'sa 

■^- ; ? : 5"f : $0% T-iei'Vi (iegypticuih 

g^^^^^SiC^rilfit^oi.c!'^ ■;.''. 

i^W&>0^0$ti$$i l ''^ictispidata -(rocky places near the- water). 

WM^^4M&&^OiAaei}i(j(i.ta Xlocally common in the south-east, of Malta and Gozo) 

^M^^^^feAhi'd^^osited:- sediments : ■ 

^sClf^f^'aTg ; "qhly a:few- bays and inlets which are sufficiently sheltered for sand or 
ir^i|ji§ft^sceu;mulate. Since the land- area of -the Maltese Islands is small and the 
i^sfpS^^'^diK "liiw^stpiie-; the amount -oferodedsediment avail able for deposltionis 
|^^fs^%n^all!''.,.G(JTi,secEuentl.y -these habitats are limited in extent and never reach 

^^iSl^Kd: ''",''■■■■ '"'■ ■ ' 

p^^l^iffi^subffiergfed: species Posidonia acvardca. is common on tli^ sandy bottonis 

1 ..?^4o'f^agK,S^'an i "ba^s and inlets. . . 

Sy:-;' '.|-^h'e'tj|*$jest : herach^ is at Ramla in Goze, where sand dunes develop,, and there 
'.;"^i5;;sa : ;f4ili^ ss W n 'tfom bare sand to stabilised dunes^ and to tamarisk scrub. Else- 
*' : 'C^|^r^B™g|h^fiHes:.are. smaller, and topography and human interference allow only 
i*jv^$i5'^giji^jsf;4it|gsfe ■ communities to occur. The ; 'dune s r in Malta are best developed 
r^St*®|iMlta : ' : (M : g-I2). Sahdy hea c he s occur also at Golden Bay, St. Pauls' Bay. 
I: ' '^RaM|;a ! .%£-f prriy Orieina^andinyario.usotherbaysonthcnorth-weBtofthelsland, 
;■ ~^h^^a?S ! iinietS "vvith some sand are also scattered in this area, e.g. Banar ic- 
' '■ \ J &0& l &®$ ihflians' Bay. ■ . ■ . 

:! ' ^' ir: *BeSaUse the (less disturbed) sand habitats are so limited, the characteristic 
;'■■ .jpieci^ thougboften abundant on one or more beaches; are infrequent in- the 
.■Maltese' IS! Snd& as a whole. . ■ 

1 "l^hsaiid, life -the other soils, is calcareous. Bare sand is very unstable, Easily 
blo:vfn'bv wind, moved by. waves and disturbed by trampling. It is also deficient 
in -organic matter. Only a few species can grow in such habitats. Co fcile maritwm 
(effriimoh at Ghadira) and Eryngium maritimum (common at Golden Bay) are 



Fig. 10. A view of the Dingli Cliffs from Ta' 2iita to show the -...two. tiers of;. -..Upper, 
and Lower Coralline cliffs, the 'rdum' slope : between. The foreground' is of tipper 
Coralline karst with dwarf bushes of Th-jra : tis capttaivs, Erica mulpi flora -s.nd 
Euphorbia spinosa- The dark trees of Ceratonid siliqiid stand out below the Upper 
Cos-diline. dill' 'and on the lower: slopes ot 'Globigevma' there are many .rounded 
shrubs of Euphorbia dendroides. ■-.■■■;■'■.■■. 


!3f:^v;vW^W!i^..^^ft^So:4fjH.? J .^.. i S;?fi&j:o:o^^oro.-:^:..^:!..:;.x:x^:o:.: 

;fft*Si;i.f : ..:'^./'..." ■'.','' ■".'■'■''.■".■' ■'.'.'■ ''■'.' '. : ' : ',"' :'v. : -... ■ ■' '■ ''.J' "Sultana 

J^: 12, The saltraarSh and remains of sand dune system at Gnadira. The dark 
^if-ufts- at (he odge of the! saltmarsh on : the : left urc . Inula'' crithrnoides with 
. ^kr&g'miteis behind. Tamarix africana occupies the older dune and saltmarsh 
.vegetation 'towards the right. Ii): the foreground ther« is an area ' of 'Coralline. 

v>. : ' :; v':. rocky plateau. ' 

'.itwojo'l'the'se^-'When-a strand plant becomes established, it impedes the move m ent- 
^orSaiid'by the wind, and a iiummock developes. When the wind direction changes; 
'-_tHc%ii-m^io^k's^ajre blown away and built -up in. another direction, -Most of this 
, fsc^erM Veg elation is ' ■ e phemeral . A fc Gha dira (Pig,' 12 ) ; for instance, . all th e 
-^tya^'filan'tson the coastal side of the road are likely^to be moved and; Jtilled by 
'^ Trunin 'storms, and 'in an y are: killed by trampling. .;■■.■■■ 

; • *$'■ AtM amla ; in : Gozo, however, Ammophila.arenaria colon ises the bare san din 

'. t land <jf the strand plants. .This species isa most efticient stabiliser; of sand. It has 

' jpsegpEiig .ihizomes and 1 on g ,ro ots which bin d , sa n d, a nd . a ; ha bi t : permi tjtirig ver ti cat 

Xro^tii) after >< the; plant has been buried in sand. Consequently, with sand con- 

tini^lyiybeiHg blown -in shorej and caught aniid the tall leaves of Avimophila. 
jidjt-nes -.!(>f over 5 m, high have been built up. At Ghadma, which has. a road and 
.:Barj;p^r^.in; the centre of the sand area, the tallest , dunes (beiiind the car park) 
> ba^yj-sfeacb I m- Elsewhere in Malta, although, sand . stabilise*! with grass can 

flccufcijSf the back of beaches, it is tpo flat: .to. be termed dunes. Be c3 us el of the 
"h£rflan)interferenee at Ghadira,. the dunes are. being eroded by wind and trampled 

-Taster 'than they are being built up. The performance of Ammophila is often poor, 
^■nd rhizome^' and roots can be seen exposed on some dunes. 

sloping rocky shore at Qalet Marku showing uneven surface with 
shrubby plants of initio', erithmoides and Stiaeda vera. 


Other species of the open sand duns ..habitat include:— > 
Agropyron junceum : Mvdieago mar-iiia 

UnOnis -natrix 

Aitibrosia maritima 
Kryngium rnttritimum 
Hupliorotd pqrahas 
Kupkorbia, tertaewia 

Pancratium manhviunl 
H<x>lymii$ gr,im&i$oru& 
SpergvXaria- Matvnd 

, When saiid : has been stabilised by Ammophm, aM l£tt&mw-$an&^&Mifii 
deposited on the dune .ttlie satnd : -be>ing deposited 6"n the ne\^e* ■dUhes:',rie'areMi|lll 
. sea-.). , a St m ..soil,. surf ace . pan develop^ 'Which; contains, mo im Humus',- -arid p$rnii|slpl 
establishment of sp.efeies-unabiete stoferateai . ttibie ha| tat At &i& ifccl? kmM 

■stabilised dtujies ,,at' ii-striis, AamaMsk s,erub "ha'sv 'devoi&ped; ''i ; jMa'p9fi :i :SBr,ai.-'lftS 
occurs indepextdeptly of ; ^ujne:fOrm&tfen ^.^gy^tl^ia^SafiiiMt^-^^lii 
.Bay ih-'CominOj AM;F«^gIk^.an^vS$J¥:Blas ; .i« -Koj4,' : ifr .afep9arsaigti!*Sefe';iHp4#i 
less sand, audi thus less . Jhstabi&ty-of: sU:bstt>ate, tree; eoi^nisa.tiofeeqcurs Vitiltw 
the sea: At Ghadira, the scrub occurs ;on>^ .""■.;;■ ;;;.,;$ 

Muddy' shorefa... "■",' ■■" ";■',■ : :i " , . - '■!'■- . ; ■ . -. r .;l.' 

■. _ The ■ submerged sfpecies ZOstera ' - Mifirtti «■/ is . ''frequent- .oh f ° -muddy^ hottams; 'M 
various- bays arid itgets. "■■■■._' '" ; : -^ .'■-'■■ ■ >, : ''*;■.,.< ' "'' , ■ •" "%i 

,. .Muddy shores, on: which^iaitmarshiVegetHtion can develpp,"' arefc-spafeeif. ! i$sk. 
sandy beaches. The \h&i4eyelo.ped<|re, at : ^alir.t\tih.d:-:& : a "(^"ere^e bjaff^lsfc 
water pool behind: the car^rjc ;(s oh:;,mud;);, Ji^mn.ants, Mmh ft!stM?bld;% i; R»iS; 
interference, occur ; at Mafsaska-ia." ana;,Mkesa"Bb£nj >nd\ smaller' ".jj'rifef a;l/k}^¥ 
(whiclvhad a' similar basic habitat, but? ha&heeh'ttraihed: arid' converted t0'-'6'tn!fe 
uses). No other examples are large enough to he considered separately.- 

Eyen Salini and Ghadira are far from their natural state/ ; At Salini the'^ait. 
pans, the road and associated disturbance separating salt from freshwater habitats, 
the Kennedy Grove, and- the trampling associated' with free public access, in eW 
t fi at - on 1 y a s mal 1 ■ a r ea of salty mud . now remains: At Gti adl i a, -t h e -g round, im 
mediately around the pool is somewhat disturbed, .: and leads into agricultural 6v 
non-rnuddy habitats.: 

The Ghadira pool is below sea level; so sal| water presumably percolates into 
it throughout the year. Salt is presumably also blown in. Rain water drains from 
the surrounding land. Consequently- the;water: level -is high during the rainy 
season, but low in late summer .when the salt' concentration is high and a ;thin 
crust of it is left on ...the dried ohi e d f e ? .pt' the pooh -.. \ : . ' ; 

Mediterranean sea water: contains c.-Sff% of sate. It is. the high concentration: 
of chloride ions which many species are unable' to tolerate The, pool at Ghadira' 
can have chloride levels ^well. above those r of ttto soa (when -evaporation Vin. ..dry, 
weather -concentrates the SHlt},tho:ugh the marshy area usually, has -Jess salt than, 
sea water. '■;■.'■.!■'.■■':';■■.■.'■'.'..'.■■'■''■ :.;:':, ■ ; ; i :/. V,.' : ' 

Salty, muddy pools towards the sea at. Salini contain the submerged species 
Ruppm\ maritima'. } . ■"■'■■■■'■. ..■"■■;■:,.:'■ .:.: : .' ■:■'.,:' "■',■ ■' . : - : '..v : .-' : -. : : H .:•■...■'■.■■': '.'■ ;: '/v" ; :'■>■:.■"-■;■■■■-'■■'■ 

Mud in salty,; but iinflooded: (or -barely-flooded 5 areas at' Ghadira;;and ; Salini 
a/e colonised by Salicornia rrtmOsi<;sima, Rather^, higher grourid tends to be, ; less- 
salty, .because rainwater leaches the salt ffpm the soil. Jttncus aciitm arid Sper- : 
riularia marina occur with and* butside the; tinier $alid'oriiia- ramosbsttftazone at 
Ghadira and J uncus maritimus and, Suaeda o eta da so at SaliriiL PhragmUes;austra- 
lis (reedswamp) is 'common to the west flf the pool at fihadlra, arid': overmuch 
of the mud and higher ground at Salini. It gVows weU in up to c, .'i;2% ; ehlorlnity 
in the soil water, and so occurs whete the salt has been diluted by the addition 
of fresh water or by leachlhg from dry soil. ■,.■■■ 

Inula crithm-oidesis common on drier ground outside the most sulty areas. 
Tamarisk scruh is likewise common on ike drier and less salty parts: "at Ghadira, 





m ^her oC 5Pe eie S> ^**%^^S?^ ^ ^^ * ' 

e'oraliirie plateaii 

the succession of: both . -saltmarsh and sand -dune 

^^'ty» " '^ni maj he: the final stage .hi 

E ' * ge o1i er species occurring in the saltmarsh habitat include FuccinelUa JosrJculaUL 
l^f|;s^olc(:Kfli7 Ji SatS.ote..spdo, SuaeM mvriUm* and rrtfltoehm b«»M,o. 

S S»t>.- "i-,th soil ■■ : ■ 

W% , Soil-covered Slopes are not contiguous with the sea: they occur only -above one 
^ V '^-^&^^ti^iinB vegetation described above. Yet the bands ot almost 
d,iV «^ saltj mud or sand may be narrow,, and salt spray regularly reach further . 
1- These habitats bear most of the typical species of the inland vegetation 
^^^Pa'teti) the habitat (karst, valley etc:), hut, in addition, coastal plants occur. 

These include:^- 
B&ta mlgaris subsp. maritima 
^Icfiori-ttwi spmositm ?karst, deep soil) 
Giauciu.m fiavum 
. -i jiilia crit hm oides 

Lvgeum spartvm (Clayl 
Mesembryanttiemum . nodifiarum pM'mila. 
Spergulitritt. marina 

Coastal Blue Clay slopes 

'■'■'■ : An infreouent but verv characteristic habitat: is the steep slopes of BIup Clay 
iacihg the sea. They occur at e.g. G-nejna and Ghajn Tuffietifi in Malfci, and e.g. 

from to Marsalforn in Gozo. The soil is unstable. Because of the steepness 
r,i the- slopes' -it' moves downhill With winter rain, and cracks in the summer sj*u. 
Eroded gullies .are widespread. On the steepest slopes with most erosion, higher 
plants are very sparse indeed, and even with more shelter and stability the cover 
.tails far short of 100%. ■ 

Lygeum 'spar turn is the characteristic and most abundant species. This species 
is not found inland. Since the slopes with Lygeum extend well over 100 m. from 
(he sea, they cannot properly be classified as maritime; ■ 

The -species, list is. very small, : the habitat extremely rigorous. 

Species present, include:—. 

Aniheniis secundirumea ..- lAmoniurtl reikeulatvm vulgaris stibsp. mariiima-- Oxaiis pes-caprae " : 

. He'dysaru-m coronarium' Pdllenis Sp-mosa v 

imda trithma't&vs [towards the:' sea) . ■ Ricris- eefwoides ; •■ ; 

Coralline plateaus. 
These areas are shown on Fig. 8 and occupy most of -the npr,th and m-st 
ti-f -M«lta, the south and east of -Go'zo- and the .whole < of; C&juino. T'^y consist oi 
rocky exposed areas (Fig, 14) id which any soil or vegetable .remains are blown 
away i;j the frequent strong Muds leaving isolated pockets of soil protected' by 
■boulders. Similar pockets are left after the; evaporation of the Winter' pools. During 
the rainy months- water falling on- the rocky surface either runs off, .passes- through.- 
t.ue rock or remains in poolSi The pools ae evaporated by the ■■ summer sun during. 
April- and May. During the dry months, of April to September inclusive (thai: is 
when 2T is equal to or greater than P as denned in UNESCQ-FAO BioGljmatic map 
15*69'). where P - precipitation (rainfall etc) and T — evapotrartspiration) < the 
.plates us '-are arid regions of intense heat with little apparent yegetaUdti.Wn^W'^he 
h [Huron rains arrive in September or occasionally not Until October every suitable! 
[Jat'e is occupied by a growing plant. The flowering period nf these plants is at. its 
peak in March, April and ..ftfay. (Fig : 13). so that fruit is produced during. the early 
summer, and '.most remains dormant until the rainy seasonv (see Zoliary, 1962). 

The plant community of the plateaus consist of deeper doted shrubs of a xer.o- nature, annuals and g-&3phytes which Only appear, .during Vfhe growing 
season of October to May, and perennials that are adapted to ; ■surviving tnedry 
season. The shrubby species are almost aU dwarf : or kept so by grazing. They 


". ' Micfomeria micr ophylta '■■■'. 

Anthy IHs he »'■ jji. anraae 
Euphorbia .spinosa,, 
■ frunuvaa thpmijnlia 
Jasoiii'a glulinos-a 

PUagnalon rnpestre 
Teucrium fruiicans 
Thymus capitaius 

' When thci rock surface becomes inaccessible to goats or protected froth the 
■wi:;cf (as where the rock dips steeply into a valley) several' more shrubby; speciei 
are found i.e. • '"'■''. 

lirica muUifloru Rhamnus lycioides ■ 

Euphorbia ■ ■' Rubus ulmifolius 

V-kloinis . '{ruticosa. 'fcucrium ftavnm 

■'.Siwti shrubby species in this category are now rare:— 

Cistus. mimspelicnsis 

■Cvro&iUa .valentincL. communis 
Hosmariifus officinalis 

''■<id£$.k'' ■*'■'-'■ ■■' '"' : - ■;-■.''■■ ■:■■■■■■■■:■ .P.A.W.. 

-^^fc^ofalh-ne, plateau <s& ft.) a.f Dfngli with: plants of Asphodelus : <testivus 
.S^f!?^**" SbruUty S pecfes;irichKle Thymus cupUdius, Teucri^ 
[ WW? m > J^ 1 ^ ■ cynnnch®*, Prasad mmrPmarM&n ftipesire ' arid liV ■. thl 
,disUnce Phlvmis ftutmsusj- Brdckypodium' veimiiih occupies the pockets of 
■earth. Two species _ characteristic of this coastal plateau and hot inland are 
■,, .'"■'. .-'■'■:. Hypericum aegyptiacum and Crucimella mariiima. 

^i^i^ :Q ^^^ 0; tre ^'^^ d(0 ™Ci.s«iqwa a^^ir:^ carka. ^hich may be 
-fpad^aluralised on- open and expose^ plateaus. 

■,;<>. .'FeiennlaiS' frequent on -the- Coralline plateaus and slopes i tlc i ude ._ 

AtifhylUs tetraphylla 
Anthyllis wulneraria 
Asperida cynanshied 
'■' £#mlfi- tom,mimis 

Mentha pulegvum 
Rutd ckalepensis 
Sanguisorba minor 
Foenicultfm vulgam 

: :vS-^t;tois;; : category the most conspicuous speicies in summer are the thistle-like 
.'-utantss iftcliiding qarlina lunata* Carthamus lanatus and Cortina gummifero. 

There are. numerous annual species whose seeds remain dormant throughout 
■fP^.^ftu^^JKdntlis., ; Those .that occupy ithe freshwater pools duririg-the winter 
f|i| d^Tfee Sfc?^* Cycle,by April to May when :the,pool S 

:, ' Vffissula vaillantii 
, ."' C&lUtriehe spp. 

Damasonium alisma 
Elatine hydropiper 


^^■■^! r &:' 
















■.:.;■: ■ ;■■■.:■■'.'"' -,^- :-'>:■"■ ■'■■ ;■,■ -V. : ;■- - . / •■ ' ;r ...■■ :-.;■;. P,A;^. ,. f 

Fig. 15. Spring line and -'rdum',- area below an Upper (Joralline, scarp , at $£ta'^Ea£ 

"[Frees .and shrubs, include,, Lauru.v. ttbbUi^. Crataegus:, <szaralu$i, Pisimia ..lentisvus]^ 

Teucrlwm jrutwans and Erica, ■multifiora. Climbers j include; Smilox qspera; Usiera-: 

-., - ,heli%, Asparagus aphyllusapJi. Galium apariwe. .„« ,' .■ > , ■ ..;■„ .^ 

.-■ Other annuals occupy the small pockets of earth or the shallower pools, as; 
they dry out Germination may occur over . a long period during the rainy, sejasonl 
and was still occurring in , March ;-gn areas investigate & during -196B;' by Wolselev 
(see 2ohary .1962). Those germinating -late-M^th^'saitiy season are ofte»: unable ■%:, 
complete their life cycle as the arrival of the dry season is -quite sharply defined,' 
see Figs, 2, 3,' 4, and although the perennials are 'able to -make' use of water : iit ■ 
the rock, the shallow, growing annuals are in pockets of earth that are dried ■.out;*; 
very rapidly. These' species include:^ 

Bclfe annua 
Evax pygmaea 
Linum gallicurri 
■ Lotus creticus 
Lotus 'teduHs 

Plantago coronopits 
Ranunculus bulidtus 
Sedum cast Uteum 
Tri fo liuM . st eUatum ■ 
Trifoltum siiffoeatiim 

Geophytes are also .abundant in this'rocky habitat, spending the dry-season 
as buihSj corms, rhizomes or tubers. Some- of ithese 1 -' flower after the first -amuinn 
rains, before their' leaves appear:— ■■..■■:■' 

Narcissus serotinus Urginea iharitima, Spiranthss spiralis. '• ■' " 






M'He^feper GoraHine scarp at -.Mtaria, snowing the abrupt coEitijje from f: 
plffiji^ the sheltered hihim- spring line. Below this arc -Lei-rao 





' ; %ower;iti the early spring from February to April:— 

Iris sisyrinchium 
Ornithogalum pyramidale 
hiomulea -celumnae 


arc found on the rocky plateaus and the dry slopes of. 
ill^SSlieys/'Fh.e ...commoner species include;^- ... 

Illlc&fitis ~ pijramidatis ■ .Orchis coriophora 

s-Si-iai;^'^™-;^;,!;^^*™-. Serapias ' parmfiora' 



Ophrys fusca 

l%''€^-!ft ; eidistr'ihtjtion of species on an area of Coralline plateau at Ghar il : Kbir ii 
"^M^M^^I^i Fig; 17. This type of distribution m,ay exist over large . areas of the 

|'^iq#0irj|- plsteaus or be found in smail discontinuous areas as-in field margins and 

Ig^'iWdsidfis. ■'...-■■■_.■ 
Cvalleysi'and scarpedges of the coralline plateaus 

i'S;^ :i ^ere are -numerous steep-sided valleys (Fig. 18) intersecting : the coralline 

ri^rM -find, exposed areas of: coralline in the- south of Malta. The distribution of 

^vtffis^ and the coralline scarp edgesis shown in Fig. 8. Rainfall during: the winter 

„ , ■■sihaBtWfe often very heavy so that the valley bottoms are considerably disturbed 

^-^Wth^^unvoiffyfroni the surrounding high lands, with large boulders along the 



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: Some of the herbaceous species that ate commonly found in tfcese-M^ 
bottoms are:— -.-: -' : ■''' , ; ". .:"'■''■■■ ~ '■■;'■'." ; .; ' : -^BS 

Apiuir? nodiflorum 
Cyperus lo-ngus 
Jiincus acutus 
Lythrum tiysxopifolia 
Lytkrum junceum 
Panicwm repens' 
PHragynites australi's- 

Plantagq Xaneeblata 
Plant'ago major 
Polygonum lapathifolium 
Ranunculus ■ muncattys ■■■ 
,Rumfi£ con g tome r crisis ■ ' 
Scirpu$ holoschotimts 
Veronica anagallis^aquaUea 

Where- there is standing water for a considerable period as at the C&a'&tfifl 
i.akes, created in 1890 and extended >a s recently as I973> there are other ■sjallf 
whjch can tolerate. Hdeef|,^ater;'£or:seVeraI months of the year' and *h% : ,eiJIL 
.summer- drought.' Tbejse.are AZi.Sma tanceoLatum, Ranunculus - mvricatto@&Mm 
ZaniMnm sZrwmanwm, the latter being a recent introduction. V3i|P 

Globigerfna slopes with deeper soil '-'. -^ 

The sides of most valleys in the" 'Maltese Islands eithe;r^haW-ashati##l 
intermittent soil cover, or are cultivated. Rarely";. on the .soft GlobigerW-Sini 
stone a slope can occur, with both a continuous soil cover and W cultivate ■ <-M 
at Delimara. Aspect can be important. At Belimara;sea spray isbidwii furtli : >-M 
the east facing slope than it is up the west-horth-w:est:sl6pel^The, e ast-facih">:'^8^ 
is also likely to have the warmest soil, since sunshine reaches it earlier in 1%;^^ 
The vegetation on the two slopes. differs considerably in bothvthesp'eeic'r presMl 
and in, their abundance. The slopes are intermittently ■■grazed "by ■caMl'e- 1 **- *--?S 

The most, abundant plant is O'xalis pes- eaprae. The species list is J'-ii"', :w.Hm^i 
is a common phenomenon in a stable- habitat with good solt,"nii'-.i'-'. --.. ' i.£det^fll|L 
exposure, and forms a-sharp contrast .to the short species lius oi'' '.ne ,lti£- Uillll 
slopes. '" ''-..' "■'' ■'..'.-' ' '■' ■'■' ' •'''■'' "■■*' : - '■■^■■■.■■■.";^^s 

Species present include: — 

Arisaruyn, vuigare 

Cortina lanata 

Cichorium spino&um , , . 

Diplotazis eritcpides 

Krodium maliicoides 

Galactites tom.ctitozu 

Hlanta.qo lag opus- 
■ P&endorlai,' i .puyiAltL- : ■■ ."' ■'. 
.. Srabiosa : atropurpurea: : 

E.etlys'arum- .coroiiarium, 
Inula crithmoides 
Lobularia maritima- ■■'■'■ 
M;&dicago spp. : ;■■■;■. 

Patients, spinoga 
Pinardia coronaria 
'SciU'a, perumoTia- 
Silene colorata. 
Urginea maritiiria 

, Cultivated: and waste places is 

History. .,.--. ... ■ ' : . , ; . . ■; ■-,■■■<'■ 

The first traces: of human occupation have b^eti dated at 3800 B:C : ( + : 10 
years). Although there are few architectural remains from the earlier periods 
(Fig. 20) from 3800 — 3200 B.C., there are remains pf domesticated animals and cul- 
tivated species of crops, indicating that these people were already farmers Animal 
bones include high numbers of goat and/or sheep; cattle of 'great size (more 
frequent in the :early: phases), pigs,' ajnd a. small canid. Carbonised .g-fjjfri includes 
Tnttcum dieocum and .probably T. compactum, Lens cuK^aris (Neoiithlc^jiatoliari 
type; seeds 2.60-3.25 mm- diameter), Scorpiurws sp. and SKerardia arvensis (Trump 
(1966)). There seems to be no complete break: between these peopie and 
the temple-1>uildefs who oceuppied Malta during the next 1400 years Their most 

Fig, IB. SteejbSided val- 

; ;-ley V .'.at;': Wiett.'- : ^il-GhaseI 

■showing the. boulder 

-strewn- .-. 'bottom-' with 

trees of Ceratonia sili- 

qii.n and" Pruims dulcis 

__ _ '■'■'. 011 the lower- sidesj 

^Kl^^^^^^' '' ""■' ; '""''" ' ■'■ ■■■■•" 

is^&'^'m^^ 1 ^ issq.tur^l-- remains, are the gigantic temples- that are found in many 

^^^^^^^p^a^d4^' z( ?- : -ISie- absence of any domestic settlements lead to the 

^^^^Wt-^nfi^l^Mg&fJW^s. * sacred; island visited by- pilgrims, but Trump's care- 

ffip^^^^6jS^M'|fcMk6rba have^shQwn almbst 'continuous-domestic occupation from 

^^^^^^^lp^i¥;p;'hases3800".E:C. to'-thei- -Mgaff phase 2800 B,C: The domestic -re- 

^^^^S^^^tM&I^BL^ seem; :to include, those -species already mentioned. During 

fn^^^tiffl&pfese;?a'&,ut- 2600 B.C., horse, deer, cat (common) and dog (rare) were 

s ^f#MiMi|i;|^ansr (isVlh). 'The temples were stone -built and partially' 

^^^^^bfjts^ybod and clay roof. The brushwood at Skorlia was of Olc.a 

^^^lfei^^ ; ',h^aiith fires gave the additional woody- species Cercis stli- 

P^^4ff^.iis:^p.-and iProiirtws sp f-Trump (1966)- ). The last two were 

^0^tijyfi'iat';tlia( time;- but became extinct and have recently been re- 

S™^/^v----' ; ■ ■■. : ■'■ ■■■ : -- -.■:■■■■ 

^e^ol^urKerice 'Of "crop'. pi ants suggests a" form of field management and it is 
W~ jjc^blkthat: some of the terracing in the rockyhills around the temple sites may 
*^g'am*6rigihated' in; prehistoric times. Evidence for early terracing is found in the 


^^W^ J^^^^TO 


tei^#ggVifl(-Ji-<ix.e L! water. cDjj^jervaUQB was also a feature Of Ihe system. There is little 

Fig, 19. Uppe 

ley sides at /Vw$!i3Ki&as£l' With -shrubs ..Q&&itp1iv%bi&:@ewdT~m<i&$ 
and Periplasm laevigata.' , '. ' . V' 1 '*'-., .'■'■■'■'■ : : >>. ',-1 

Fig. 20. Valley an Globigerlna rodi- "showing winter ■ wiater-eourse bordered fay 

fields. Photograph tafcen in January when the: only ^ conspicuous -species in the 

valley bottom are Rumex conglomeratus and Ranunculus muricatiis. 

|MPMfee;.:ipr\ water collection or : storage, in :any Scale : during this early period, 
'ii^S^S^f ■ ^tfBf-eiS terns ■ associated, with some of the-, temples. These are visually 

^*p>cfc eayfes wife-stone covers as above Mnajdra. lAlthough the-crop plants 
3p^ibeeh : dry .farmed^ supplies , for domestic animals and Man himself 

. ., ||^|ft T ;t6 >|ia vef heen ; conser i> a d for >the dry sea son . 

J^hfi^% : : -:a-'rdisUh«t /break in the sequence between the temple builders and 

|^^^:ft|$9}*pftt BtfQnsje Age occupants. These 'people 1 have left a few areas where 

StMi^g^; $ pn rli&er able, domesti c remains as ;at Borg in-nallur an d Bahri j a . Agr i- 

Sj^pr|fet|ces. w«re : continued and Vicia faba var. celtie a appears for. the first 

_|e^M*>w;foae,.of the staple crops of the; dry farmer). There is evidence that 

||%n^, : w«rei> : used? for grain storage or sites during -this period at Nuffara, ■ Gozo. 

^^si^lgnjentsiappearvto before :dose5y associated. with a water source than 

^^PFli^ifvfpeii 64s. -Bahrija for example is; one of the few places where iresh 

IM^^fe^fcoughout the year. Duringcthia period, the architectural remains are 

^^^in'sqalfehut.stiiristone built, -Roofing; timbers :{probaMy Pimis: italepensis) 

" 'rfh^fhe TarjKien Cemetery .buildings gave a carbon dating- of e. 1930 B.C.' 

|ij^|(#g\$ha$ they^werle eut in a earlier period and; reused by the: Bronze-Age 

^^ff^^epel' -must^ have already been scarce hy 1600 g.C. Analysis of pollen 

||f|p|l$^|fe.a- yJBronze^age, .cistern gave Pinus; (searee), Oted (commonh Scofpiurua 

^gfl'Sp^and a'C&muasite, (Trump. <1966>"-. ).. -The Phoenicians arrived 

'SigSzi, Number -of plant species, expressed as %, flowering i throughout the year 
in ruderal places WX an * cultivated places. 


w^Wktimi'F-ti ■■■■■• ■■ 

800..-JB:C. and were dislodged; by ehe; Romans 'after ..the ■ e&rthaginim^wiiisfjmm 
second .century B.C. There followed- a long 1 period ' tinder;- Roman ! ruTe' ifflplpl 
Islamic conquest; 'of Sicily -in- the ■ ninth cent-u'ty.r - i Surprisingly, '-there is. Jifilpj 
formation about this, period and: few remains, .apart fjotri ■S > iinic?-fefiailJs.;D^ifi^^^ 
time the grape 'became widely cultivated* The Arab ■bcc^j^Uon.:is- : $i;mila^fs^^B 
chronicled. During this periud the orange and other citr lis bruits wer& ; iiifef?M^®i 
and many vinsyards destroyed. .. "■■■• - - ' ' '• ■'- .< .. <'*4;Jf 

Prior to the' arrival, of tne -Knights of St 'John in ISSftith.e' JSro^iss^'fol^^ 
by the- Aragowese, held Malta foiva shprt period: "The'arehite.cture'iOif .-■•ths^lffi^^ 
is .a magnificent' feature of the Islands. However; ■ during ": tieif vstay 1 ' 'vltaJ§^S 
materials suchas/grajn and. vegetable' oil were imported-: so;'th^t t^e.^bwird^®^« 
were not-depedenton-i the' lo'Cai agricultural supply;, they ■ atteipptfed; to i^^^m 
export products . encouraging the growth of. cumin and mo);e : >pa'rtl:feularly ''j^i^p 
for' Which many thousands: (reputed to be §OjO0OJ- .olive^'tj-ees.^Wfeiife^eat^a®^ 
- When ;the cotton, m^rltet -collapsed- jn.lSQPi the,: decline" in feottoii ^wln^ibt^ 
and>has>continued until the- present- dayv though: cotton i&oStiJQ? :*e^*ccS^igiM 
grown in. Gozo. la- 13G0 the. British were; asjced .-■: to ta'ke ov^r>!afteKhelpfJE(g H *^^^^ 
Napoleon's- few troops.-It continUed~tq>be -a mfiitary-hase,dfipeniJent]6nfiiinpT[^^ffi 
food -supply -Si nee Independence in -1964 large sum's have beep investe^lin'TiMgl^S^ 
schemes- and glasshouses/ but there ^ire large ;areas ! -6f JWT alia sand; G'0 w.wtffire)!||l|| 
crops found -in' prehistoriettimesaM'stilloiu^va^ 

or less; self-supporting gathering their .seed- sach-yeaij-f or: tne'f pllowin# se^o'ji;^^ 
having. little contact' with the urban areas, ..;■-■■ ' : , : ,-, -■■''-', ']'■-' j 1t.||L 

Lfinti is divided' according to, Roman law.^nHhe death of -the.-o^ife^.so'^h^^ 
many farmers have fields in several: different areas, TJie-fieldS ;on jihe.bil^ides^ftrS 
terraced and average half an acre; on the lowlands they-may be up to S.'ac^s^S 
The terraced fields Wer"e cut in the rocky -slopes: to gHe; a horizontal- field '-bsd^j 
and a wall on the lower: side. Smaller stones were : left on the :suftace:of:the : fiigiC. 
bed and the whole covered with a thin layer of soil, often brought .fr^m;pt^^ 
regions, 'a'a' this was and still IS a valuable -commodity. -Areas pKtbe--Sur#6UB$riIf 
rock w«re frequently left undisturbed: in and around the 'fields. The ya , H-,a'et&|j-r| 
a -wind break and a rubbish dump, for- weeds- G3ay.terra : ce"dl : fleidS: : also require^, 
winclbrenJc; and bemg unstable ground it'is^often.more cohvenlentuto : use -reE$d||| 
of Arunda donax- or rows of Opiintia Jlcu syndic <?, -". • ," '■-,'■ *V '' '';". f fM 

The. small size- of' the.'Helds: Sua plotsJ^nd^tHeiEyisJunctQWnfersbips-aiscoura^ 
the use of , tractor -drawn agricultural machinery, exfcePfcr.m a- /«W; .fa^uW^ • ar,e%- 
Co lis e q uentiy- ' t he fi orse i- or mill e with a simple. ; wg o d e ; n ; plough .- Isi .: a ^amiliSr ■' '.sigliiS 
The ; r6tovat'or. is now Widetvvused. bat owing' to the. Inaccessibility of : iBe|rJs:?it'bf^; 
has to be carried for considerable distances along: steep "and racky -patbs : . ' '"' ;,f 

Cultivation arid mariagmertt ,"-". , ..'.'." ■'" '■', 

Tber annual rainfall occurs 1 between September. .and- April Imost : y eats -leaving J| 
5 months or more of continuous drought. E>ry farWingutUiseSi the;annual'!Tainfa| -.'" 
for crop production, usually leaving -th:e' land barren* in the. summer jhqntib,'S thmigh; 
occasionally planted with a meloii.or tomato. crop.- The tapping; of, the : water .tables, 
with wheels and wind pumps rttade- intensive land.'use possible- In' atfeas thal.w^e ■'? 
not on the. natural spring line^Wi^d pumps-are frequently used- to suppleinent the J 
dry farming water-supply in ord^i*, torincrease-tlie-etpp yfeld:r ' ■ ■ ',-■"« 

W^igX&i.A-j- ^"nTrtTv^or-humanrConsuiaption:— 
^S|#ise^-mamly tor sativum 

vll JfimmMm?%'« ■■^■■'^■ : - Solannm tuberosum . . 

™^»^M®^s:if ! S^:^- ! r ■■■:■■ ■■■■\'-'- vidafaba . 

"Hral^i.^ ''■'■■■ 

-,:',- j -foft. ereeu, -as and whsn 

i^P,-- :.■■.': ' n in .AUril dried, and kept as summer 
grfEfK^leth: Century ^re,no^« 

^S^'^^H^alternated -annually ™ tn S™ 11 - : - : ports 

Dry farming crops 

Arable crops used mainly for fodder: 

Cicer arietinwm 
Hedysdruffi coronariutn 
■ HoTdcum vulgare 
Lathyrus oehrus 
Lathyrus sativus 

w ,|^^#^ rgl T d ..^Wing conditions i.clud^ 

^^^^^^^ik^ii^«;; : -.. .■■.'■ prunus duicis ■ ■ 

^ffi^®^"'^- Prwus persica 

lf^Z\llWm^&> : : ' ;; Funica granata 

^^^^^^S'^-'~ ' '■'' '■■■■ Vit\$vinifcra . 

mmffi&^: ■•'.';'■'■; ■"'. ,, , ■ . ftrt - f i_ clay slopes below the upper water 
j$j||:^;:' '"■■; ;'- '\ .. _■_.„„ i__; ffa Mnn include: — . 


£ew^ cwJmaris 
Scorpiwrws murieaius 
.Triticwn aestiyum 
yicia> ; erviiia .. 
Ficia sativa 

i-'^SU-CuMtrWto spp. m early 
:'i\ .-;■. summer 

Frosario spp- 
Lactwca sativa 
tgcopersicitm esc«I<:«-t« m 
■jS.ofanttin- ttto'croswrn 




Fruit trees usually grown under irrigation include.— 

Other common early flowering weed species include'.— 


Citrus aurantium 

Citrus deliciosa 

Citrus limetta 

Citrus limon 

Citrus sinensis 
Eriobotrya japo-ttica 
Mains domestiea 
Pyrus 'communis 

Early fruiting species and varieties of the latter three are occasionally found Jffk 
in dry fanning areas. Many fruit trees are iutercultivated with vegetable crops. :■&■' 

Animal husbandry 

Sheep and goats are t!ie only livestock visible, in the Maltese country-side, 
about 80';i of these animals being pastured on the Coralline plateaus {Xaghri) 
(Bo wen-Jones et al (i960))., other 'livestock such as cattle, horses, mules, pigs, 
poultry and rabbits are kept in some form of enclosure and fed chiefly with 
green fodder pulled from the fields and roadsides: Where intensive agriculture 
has been implemented, cattle and pigs are kept in larger numbers and fed on 
imported foodstuffs. 


24% of the flora of the Maltese Islands occur as weeds of cultivation and 
167c as weeds of waste places. This very high proportion is associated with the 
length of time Man has been on the Islands and the agricultural practices of the 
region. In mimy places there is no sharp boundary between the snecies of the 
disturbed areas and the flora associated with undisturbed areas as it may survive 
in rocky islands in fields, field margins, roadsides and urban areas. Species of a 
particular habitat fi.e. karstland) are frequently found associated with typical 

Cultivated- bud 

Cultivated land may suffer up to four disturbances or more per annum if 
the land is irrigated. It is not surprising that the annual habit is also prevalent 
among the weed species; six annuals to one perennial. 

Those perennials that occur as weed species are able to survive the summer 
drought as a bulb or rhizome e.g. Gladiolus italicus, Muscari comosum and 

Anemone coranaria. 

The flowering periods of the weed species are shown in Pig. 21. As most 
crops are removed by the end of April there is a sharp drop in the numbers of 
weed snecies flowering between April and May, 113 species in April to 44 in 
June. Thr* latter number includes weed species of irrigated ground that often flower 
throughout the year, species flowering after the harvesting of the crop or species 
occurring when there are summer crops on the land. 

The early flowering annuals include some of the most conspicuous wised 
species in the Maltese Islands:— 

Bra&slca rapa — yellow ,. 
Diplotaxis erucoides — white 

Oxalis pes-caprae — . yellow 
Silene colorata — pink 


Lamium amplexicaule 
Lathyrus ariiculatiis 
Lathyrus eicera 
Malva sylvestrls 
Medicago litoralis 
Medicago orbicularis 
Medicago polymorphs 
Medicago truncatuta 
Melilotus messanensis 
Melilotus segetalis 
Melilotus sulcata 
Papaver dubium 
Papaver rhoeas 
Pinardia coronaria 
Plantago afra 
Portulaca oleracea 
Haphanus raphanistrum 
Reseda alba 
Trijolium nigrescent 
Urtica urens 

Adonis annua 
Astragalus boeticus 
Avena barbata 
Avena sterUis 
Ftiscutella didyma 
liromus madritensis 
Calendula arvensis 
Convulvulus arvensis 
Emz% spinosa 
Erigeran crispus 
Erodium tnalacoides 
Euphorbia peplus 
Fumaria densifiora 
Fumaria. gaillardotii 
Fumaria parvifiora 
Galactites tomentosd 
Hippocrepis multisiliquosa 
Hordeum leporinum 
Scarpiurus murlcatus 
Sonchus oteraceus 
Tordyliurrt. dpulum 

The perennial species mentioned also flower early. 

Those species that are in flower after the crop has been removed include: 

Ammi tnajus 
Belphinum halteratwrn, 
Hypericum crispum 

Mentha pulegiym 
Ridolphia segetum 

There are fewer species of weeds of irrigated land, but each species will 
often occupy large areas of land. They include; 

Amaranthus retroflexus 
Chenopodium album 
Convolvulus arvensis 
Cynodon dactylon. 
Heliotr opium europaeum 
Lamium amplexicaule 

Polygonum convolvulus 
Portulaca oleracea 
Setaria viridis 
Stellaria nigleeta 
Urtica dubia 

Anchusa italica is characteristic of fields on the clay and Linaria triphylla 
uf those on Globigerina Limestone. 

Orobanche crenata is a serious parasite of Vicia faba causing wilt and di- 
minishing production of beans. The failure to burn infected plants results in the 
rapid spread of the species. Oxalis pes-caprae is frequently used for grazing; but 
it contains a compound detrimental to the animals digestive system, Cynodon 
dactylon is a weed of general occurrence which reduces the yields of tree crops, 
such as Citrus, considerably. 

Abandoned frelds have become a common occurrence during the past few 
years and these develop a characteristic flora if they are sufficiently protected 
from the wind and consequent soil erosion. A field above Buskett abandoned 
for three years included many more perennials such as Cupularia viscosa, Aspho- 
detus fistulosus, 'Ferula, Phagnalon rupestre, Daucus carota, Carthamus lanatus 
and Sanguisorba minor. In areas sheltered from the wind by walls there were 
several shrubby species., Rhamnus alaternus, Pistacia lentiscus, Prasum majus, 


Crataegus azarolus, Rosmarinit* „*, ■ ». ■ "$S 

«?«** of C.J^nSjSK? SL?^ *•"*■ There we re als0 | 
™* f?^ ™<* young trees were ShfC .* flte ? M * to an <* ««TO i^F 
disturbed by the plough for a longer li! t lu placeS that had not be!" 
Present fa the Buskett valley. ^ P ° n ° d than thre * ^ars. Parent tr e« w ^| 

slrictum, &HIcn" C Lior*rt iat M^- With lal!ow or abandoned fields iridic r - ^ 
»iscos«, &fopa tartaw and Bromtts sp, pMre " s ' S«il<wd*a tnzayo, P«re B tace(fe=: 
Waste places '""*• 

-mall fie , d and orchard on °S^ ^ d "* ^ st °»* -alls that surro^eTfe 

Jo ^^^^*£^*«^ «* species that a. aH ^ 

dumps there are many S pec^ Se^ut^ 3 ^ and burial as * ™bS£fi"- : : 

Auena bflrbata 

Borago officinalis "Voscyamus albus 

Bromus spp. Mercurtalis annua 

Ecballium elaterium P™ardi a coronaria 

Euphorbia helioscopia ^ybum marianum s; 

Galactites tomentosa ^rtica pilulifera 

are frequent. areas rauch us >^ by humans. The following specif ; ; 

Aster sqwamcttw; rmetaria lusitanxca 

Bromus madritensis ™ fl am ™« 

Euphorbia chamaesyce ^9ma marithna 

Galium verrucosus, o-etana viridis 

Hordeum leporinum Sisymbrium, irio 

Malva sylvestris Sonchus oleraceus 

Urtica urens 

undisturbed '^y^ ^^TdeJ^Sto h ^T shrUbb ^cies «n survive 
on a vacant building site: NicltU^S^-^iT 0ecasional Phenomenon, as 
these places. AiKmtte «^ iTOa IIarZ^uus J~ m nmUm ar * com ™" m 

On iootpaths and roadsides there ikT^ n ^7"™" may ateo OCcur - 
the plant. The perennial or wLnial Vanf ^ n W m tte aeri ^ Parts -of 

common in this category and SL^ "" * ^ devel «P^ root system t 

Convolvulus altkajsoides pi^„„ 

Erodium malacoides ' ^Mntago coronopus 

Erodium moschatum Plantago serraHa 

Galactites tomentosa ^oralea fotuminosa 

Lactuca virosa balv^a verbenacea 

Lobularia maritima ScaUosa atropurpurea 

Malva parviflora „ m Vulgaris 

Malva sylvestris Verbascum sinuatum 

Oralis pes-caprae verbena officinalis 

xlv< ■ 

'Species that have an annual habit arid commonly occur in this habitat 

Erodium cicutarium 
Geranium moUe 
Sdene nocturna 
Silene sericea 


^ppdiu m-m, wait 
W^'^Om^za faonarie nsis 
^0^^^ria graveolens 
■"^'■^chtK* parvifiorum 

IBrafeSeisT.occupJing the walls are usually perennials and include:— 
f^1it^Riiiiin : m&jus Euphorbia pinea 

W^l^Ulnii^:',.si(!V.lum Oralis pes-caprae 

z-^foifaivuiiis, '• alttiaeoides Parietaria lusitaniea 

^^^Pl^^e.'- ■ walls.-, are -within reach of sea spray (e.g. Valletta and Floriaua 
^f|||pS|^SI^many : of i.the ..species that occur on cliffs are found, incliiding some that. 
' 'lj|jw^BC0riW0H-'l^ r * such as Cherianthus cheirti and Matthiola incana. 

fegi^fe.-i.&^'erihg;: period of species in waste places is shown in Fig. 21. II is 
^gS^^featiti^,; later than lhat of weed species of cultivated places. Disturbances of 
^^^^^^^d^'ien-vjronmerit show little annual pattern and the flowering period is 
^^&*e A similar '■'to: that on the Coralline karst where the perennial habit is also 

|^p)»"ed;V :;';. ■■'■,;■ 

j; j Geographical Relationship of the Maltese Flora 

:V, : :i Fhe -sedimentary rocks and clays of the Maltese Islands were laid down 
^wr^ftg' the; Miocene period of the Tertiary at a time when the adjacent land 
lj|ar§k;:; was {covered with subtropical vegetation. During the later Tertiary and 
;#^sfe:pl : ,the Pleistocene, the Maltese Islands were part of a land-bridge between 
i^IS'vfrflpe: -and ■.'■North Africa dividing the Mditerranean into East and West hasins. 
'^I^Jttring: the- :c older periods of the Pleistocene glaciations, this became a migralory 
:^r6tife.'fb: the- warmer, south via Sicily and Italy. This is demonstrated hy the 
; :;:fpss11--: remains at Gtiar Dalam which include Pygmy Elephant, Dwarf Hippopota- 
"Jmus, ; swansV turtles and later horses and deer, in numbers that could not exist 
vjdn;-the small land surface available today. The land bridge remains as a suh- 
omariine ridge which towards Sicily is only around 50 fathoms below the surface. 
;, ; : Any- -fluctuations in sea level would ' affect the Islands' land surface considerably. 
■' : Seniatkable fluctuations in Mediterranean sea level occurred during the glacial 
phases of the Pleistocene due to isostasy (locking up of water in the icecaps) 
arid eustasy (tilting of the adjacent continental coast tine due to ttie weight 
fat ice on the ice-caps). The Taised beaches in the Mediterranean regions suggest 
■ that the Straits of Gibraltar may have been forjned after a heightened sea level 
overflowed- at this point. The combined effects of these phenomena caused 
t variations in the sea level in the region of 100 m. (Kaikes, 1967). Raikes- considers 
"that the present sea levels were not established until c. 4000 B.C. at the earliest. 
.'■:'■'■■ Today, Malta occupies a central Mediterranean position with a characteris- 
:tically Mediterranean climate — that is a summer dry period of up to ^"months 
and a winter wet period with temperatures that do not fall below 0°C. (Fig. 2). 
During the. summer dry period the humidity is frequently high. This factor was 
taken into account when constructing the bioclimatic map of the Mediterranean 
7«ne (Fig. 22). The Mediterranean climate is shown to he bordered on the 
North bv a mountainous cold winter region and on the south by a dry desert, 
region. To the west it continues to the Canary Islands. The Mediterranean region 
is essentially coastal and was botaniealjy defined as including those species found 
within 100 km, of the coast (Fl. Eur. Symp. no. 5). According to climatic conditions 
it can extend up to 300 km. inland as in Spain and North Africa. The distribution 
of Nerium oleander (Fig. 23) closely follows the biociimatitr limits of the Medi- 
terranean region. 


auoz ufcamu^ipaiM em J° deUi ^n^wTPoia *ZZ '%%& 

Sittrp $£ - 0^ L0573& fop , 

s£?P Opt - $i UOS533 £JT1" 

I ■ *4^P 0^1 - £Ij UOSF99 &ll? ' 

EXfp £|J£ U^lf^ jb^qoi uosess ^.ip qj&3Bp 

". ; ; .".".".: r .". n . '■' "'."■:- ouaaai aivwna' 






Fig. 24. Distribution of Cymmorium caccimum XXX, NeHum oleander oooo and Pinus halepensh. 


The distribution of endemic tree species in the Mediterranean is a guide to 
the climatic conditions, but the picture is complicated by Man's Ion* term 
destruction of iorest trees for fuel and agricultural purposes and the nature of 
their dispersal when reintroduced into an area. Pinus halepensis (Fig, 23) is an 
endemic of the Mediterranean whose distribution closely follows the limits of that 
region. During the Pleistocene climatic fluctuations, Finns alternated with Qwercus 
m dominance (Higgs et al. 1976). Pinus was generally dominant in the colder 
periods and Quercus sub-dominant. This was reversed in the warmer periods 
The destruction of Quercus forest by Man since c. 4000 B.C. is evident over the 
whole Mediterranean area. In Malta Quercus ilex forest Is limited to a tew vener- 
able oaks at Wardija and a few outlying trees and scrubby oaks at Wied HaSrtm 
Fmus halepensts is widely planted as it is over the rest of the Mediterranean 
area and naturalises extensively in the Buskett Valley and elsewhere Distribution 
of acorns requires a woodland fauna whereas distribution of pines is brought 
about by wind and fauna. Knws halepensis therefore acts as a coloniser and 
Quercus species arrive when there is a woodland fauna and parent trees in the 
vicinity. If the parent trees are not present Pinus halepensis remains the domin- 
ant tree. 

In tropical climates the temperature varies very little during the year and 
the dry period coincides with the period of shortest daylight, whereas in the 
Mediterranean climate the dry season coincides with the period of longest day- 
light However, on the Mediterranean coasts the temperate rarely falls below 
0°C so that there are several relics from the subtropical vegetation of the Ter- 
tiary. These include Ceratonia siliqua, a feature of the Mediterranean landscape 
and Cercis sUiquastrum, whose wood was found in the fires of prehistoric peoples 
in Malta. The oldest fossils of this species are from the Lower Eocene in N 
America, and later deposits are found throughout the Tertiary. Ficus carica and 
fyrtus communis and the famous Maltese Fungus, Cynomorium coccineum (Fig 
23), are also subtropical relict species showing a disjunct distribution. 

During the glacial periods of the Pleistocene, conditions were much colder 
than at present. Eurosiberian relict spcies found in Malta are few and include 
Populus alba, Salix spp., Crataegus mmogyna and a Malta rarity Brachypodium 
sylvaticum. These species are found in wet valleys and humid places where they 
are protected from the summer drought. 

Of those species occurring in the Maltese Islands 66% are Mediterranean 
Some of these have a restricted distribution on islands and dry coasts which fall 
into the Thermomediterranean (accentuated) subdivision of the Mediterranean 
ciimate with a dry season up to six months long. The Maltese Islands fall into 
this subdivision. Species of limited distribution that are common n the Maltese 
Islands include Hypericum aegyptiacum, Sedum caeruleum, Micromeria micro- 
phylla, Anthyllia herm-annioe, Centaurea nicaensis, and Jasonia glutinosa. Rare 
Maltese species include Tetraclinis articulata (formerly common cf Abela 1647) 
now found in N. Africa, Malta, and one site in Spain; Eupfcorbid Uvonae found 
in western N. Africa, Malta and Sicily; and TrigmeUa maritima found in N 
Africa, Malta, Italy and Syria. Some of these are North African species of limited 
European distribution. They represent 13% of the Mediterranean element in the 
Maltese flora. The remaining 44% is made up of cosmopolitan species such as 
rtiragrmtcs australts and weeds of waste and cultivated places. This element 
of the flora changes according to agricultural practices and to avallablity of 
species. One of the most recently introduced species is Aster squamatus, now 
frequent along roadsides. 

There seems to be only one endemic in the Maltese Islands, demonstrating 
the relatively recent isolation from the mainland. This is Centaurea crassifolia 
in the Compositae. Crew's pusilla, originally described as MelUella pusilla, and 
thought to be an endemic genus in the Islands has recently been shown to 





3 $efcng":t6 the genus Crepts and to occur also In Kriti and Australia (Merxmuller, 
■&i$t|Bot, Munchen 7; 271-5 (1968), 

■ ■"■■'Although one can compare and contrast a Mediterranean flora by species 
..fpresetft or- absent, the plant communities are more difficult to eompare owing 
$^a 'varying use of terminology and language. Turrill's Plant hife of the Balkan 
0^'Mhsuld provides a background for the classification of Mediterranean plant 
^^imunijies. In the Maltese Islands the species found in areas of coralline pla- 
'Sjfj^i&ana. valleys approximate most closely to Turrill's phrygana. Turrill empha- 
:&&* that phrygana is usually a degenerate condition often produced by over- 
jgiSsaiig of macchie which contains more shrubby and tree species. This is cer- 
; ^a|jilV irue of Malta, place names indicate that macchie was previously found in 
s&Jttiy ; areas: Ballut — Quercus ilex, Znuber — Pinus halepensis and Gharghar ~ 
pkttactinis articulata (not found in the East Mediterranean). Other characteristic 
tm^^ie' ; taxa that are present in Malta include Cistus, Smilax, Pistacia, 
:$efdionia, Spartum and Myrtus, Some of these are now very rare, but if grazing 
i*e'te controlled in some areas, it is possible that true macchie could regenerate 
'Slfe'Sin at Buskett, Wied Hafcrun and il-BsHut. Typical phrygana taxa include 
/Thymus, Anthyllis and Satureja all of which are frequent on the Coralline 
■piateatis of the Maltese Islands, 


> ■: ':'■■''. by 

" ; : Joe Borg 

The growing of citrus and stone fruits, apples and pears was begun on a large 

scale only after World War I, when mainly Sicilian, Italian and French varieties 

!■ vfere introduced. Most trees are grown as open centre, dwarf or semi-dwarf while 

jcordon, espalier and fan types are not common. The dwarf habit types are more 

■easily sheltered from the wind and easier to manage in the small terraced fields. 

■The plum, Loquat or Japanese Medlar, Olive, Pomegranate, Fig and Prickly Pear 

are i semi -vigorous to vigorous. Most of the fruits, like the vegetables are marketed 

through a licenced middleman (Pitkal), with the exception of Grapes for pressing 

vwhirh are normally grown by contract to wine merchants. 

There are many varieties of fruit which have not been 'studied: the following 
/list only includes the common ones. 

Citrus trees 

■ The common species are: — Lemon, Lumija (Citrus limoni); Orange, Laringa 

(Citrus sinensis); and Tangerine Or Mandarin Orange, Mandolin a (Citrus cleliciosa). 

Although most citrus cuttings root well, the yield is not as uniform as that 
given by trees budded on the Seville or Bitter Orange, Luringa helwa (Citrus 
qurantium). This stock also reduces gummosis. The two main requirements for 
citrus trees are sufficient water supply and shelter from the wind. Hence citrus 
trees grow well at the spring line between the Coralline and the day (see pp. 
xxxv-xxxvii), and other orchards are found in sheltered areas by cliffs or rubble 
walls or in the valleys as at Buskett as well as in the centre of the island. Iron 
deficiency, which shows quic'Xry in citrus" trees, is corrected by applications of se- 

By shading citrus seedlings plants are obtained with longer internodes to 
facilitate budding. Shading is achieved by placing 'curtains' of palm leaves 
(Phoenix sp.) or canes (Arundo donax) just above the seedlings, 



Bitter Almond. 

Peaches and Plums 

Japanese Medlar 


Fig, 24, Propagation of Fruit Trees 


Method of 


All varieties are 
budded on seedlings 
of Citrus aurantmm 
Traditional:- — 


i) Budding 

ii) Grafting 

i) Budding 

ii) Grafting 

i) Budding 

ii) Grafting 

i) Budding 
ii) Grafting 


May, early June and 

a) sown fresh in September 
and October to germinate 
in January and February. 

b) sowing kernel only in No- 
vember and December and 
germinate in January and 

Stratification in late No- 
vember and early Decem- 

i) May, early June and Sep- 
ii) December to January 

i) May early June and Sep- 

ii) December to January 
December to January 
December to January 

December to January 


C; aurantiwm seed sown in 
beds in March and April, lift- 
ed ana transplanted in May if 
water is available, or in Sep- 
tember If water supply is li- 
mited to be budded the fol- 
lowing year. 

More economical because be. 
tween September and Decem- 
ber the land could be used for 
a catch crop e^. lettuce. 
Kernels sunk in trays with a 
mixture of 3 parts,sand to one 
of peat. Germination within 20 
days and pricked off at the 2 
leaf stage. 

crown veener graft for adult 


stock used is Pyrus .tomiwiws 

or Quince or Sar gel (Cydoni a 


Mains sylvestris stock gives 

uniform cropping, better pest 

and disease control and : con- 

trolled tree shape and fruiting. 

Pyrtis communis and Cydoma 

oolong as. stock. Stock, seed* 

llngs^ are : '- preferred, to cuttings 

for ease -of budding. 


Prickly Pear 

Common Method 
of Propagation 

Hardwood cuttings . 
Softwood cuttings 

Cladode cuttings 

Basal root cuttings 
Hardwood cuttings 

Propagation of Fruit Trees 


November to January 
March to September 

Julyand August 

November to January 
November to January 
November to January 


Easily rooted in beds in the open^ 

Cladodes are separated and 
planted out after leaving them to 
dry for a few days. This drying 
prevents rotting. 

Basal root cuttings are \ taken 
from adult trees which have to 
be destroyed. 



Softwood cuttings 




Hardwood cuttings 

March to September 
Mark to September 
May and June 

December to February 
November to January 

The beans are fed to horses and 
donkeys which eat air but the 
seed which is left in the manger; 
American vine rootlings as stock: 
Inserted in beds in the open and 
lifted the. following winter. 


Watering is mostly done by surface irrigation, channelling water to the tVef, 
which is very wasteful for water and soil, AH citrus trees are transplanted w|| 
a ball of earth during May. " 

The most popular varieties of oranges which between them give a continuefl 
supply of fruit between December and June, are the Malta Blood Orange, tariff 
tad-demm; the Bahia Orange, Larlnga bahrija; the Sweet Orange, Laringa Tufy. 
both varieties of Citrus aurantium and the Mandarene, Mandolin a (Citrus delicipsli 

The Lemon is grown for its culinary and medicinal values, the popular variS 
the perpetual or ever- flowering lemon, Lurni)a ta' hull stajjtm, yields more tfill 
one crop per year, ' 

Stone fruit trees 

The common species are Peach, Hawha (Prunus persica), Plum, Ghajnbaq^ 
or Pruna (Prunus domestica) and Apricot, Berquqa (Prunus armeniaca). :jm 

The Bitter Almond, Lewza moira (Prunus dttlcis) has proved to foe the beggf 
stock for Peaches and some varieties of plums. Apricot varieties are worked pf| 
Prunus armeniaca or on the Bitter Almond, but using the Cherry plum as'^f 
intermediary. The almond is more resistant to pests, diseases and drought, iaM 
is abundant. The two traditional methods of sowing the almonds are wasteful oil 
time and of land because they take a long time to germinate. During 1967-68 trial! 
of stratification of the almonds for the production of seedlings were carried ooJF 
The main advantages would be that the seedlings would occupy the land for fli 
shorter overall period, and there would be no gaps in the field due to failure if§§ 
germination. As part of an F.A.O. sponsored Horticultural Development prilE 
gramme started in 1965, the Department of Agriculture initiated trials of newlfil 
imported varieties of fruit trees. The varieties were chosen to avoid a glut of 
fruit in the market at any time. The trials took into account the suitability ■'<>£„ 
both variety and stock for a warm climate, alkaline soil, low altitude and droughfi 

Other fruit trees 

The Japanese Medlar or Loquat, Naspla (Eriobotrya japon&a) is often planted.^ 
During 1967 a number of East Mailing and Mailing -Merton rootstock varieties off 
the Crab Apple, Tufficha (Malus sylvestrU) were introduced by the Department! 
of Agriculture for trials, but the bulk of the. stock has come from Sicilian anjil 
Italian nurseries. Since 1965 many promising varieties from the continent and from! 
the University of California, U:S.A. have been undergoing trials. Cooking varieties! 
are not much in demand. 5 

The Cultivated Pear, Lan&as (Pyrus communis) is found mainly on tire heavyil 
clay soils. Pear varieties, like the apples, fall into five categories. 

a) The early ones which fruit in June and July e.g. the Malta June Pear,- 1 
MaskareUa ta' Malta, 

b) The mid-early varieties fruiting in August and September e.g. Coscia — aril 
Italian variety which has led to many other varieties since I960. 

c) The mid-late varieties fruiting in October and November e.g. Conference. - 

d) The late varieties which fruit "fir December and January e.g. Triomphe de- 

e) The very late varieties which fruit from January to March e.g. Bergamotte. 

The small Malta June Pear, Bamblnella is a local popular small fruited variety. 
In contrast to the British, the Maltese market prefers smaller varieties. The 
British National fruit tree trial grounds at Faversham, Kent, have now obtained 
budwopd of this variety for trials, which might be useful for canning. 

The Pomegranate, Rumtnlen (Pwnica granatum) is less popular than it was 

^^l||jo^##'-:di:ougftt resistant and thrives in poor soils. Its fruit is ripe 

WB^k£$i£TP ■tat-tln (Ficus carica) is an endemic tree to the Mediterranean 

^^^ ;:: £Sprffication, which is essential tor some varieties, is the process of 

Ipfiatehje" pollen grains from the male caprifig, Ficits carica, Caprificus or 

c^^tthe -ovary of the female tree by Ene insect Blastopkaga grossorum 

*''W0iimptefd) . There are various local and foreign varieties, the most 

sJ^^fThei'Farsott- which is reputed to have been introduced to the 

§|$|iii|e 'Grandmaster: Jean Parisot de la Valette (the builder of the present 

Ifj^&thVSk John's Pig, Tina ta' San Gwann and the common White Fig, 

«nnAK^ :> v:.:: 

^^^^^^^emSbeing eaten fresh, the fruits of some varieties arc dried, Savoured 

sffliPililiw-'-'teuch as rum) and preserved for eating as a dessert during winter 

'^"l!rwiPB£W Pear, Bajtar tiax-xewk (Opunta ficus-indica) is frequently cul- 

^^pfen^fienVha'tujaiised. Nowadays only the first crop of fruits appearing in 

^^^pD^e*f6r"human 'consumption, the later ones being fed to farm animals. 

^^^S6aa^s-:<oV : mtfdified stems known as Pal tal-Bajtar) are also used as fodder 

^^^»*animals -during summer when vegetation is scarce. Since it is. a fast 

W^^^&tt^^ the cladodes are adapted to water storage, it grows in practically 

^^^^Sjo^audeven in small pockets of earth among rocks. It is also used for 

^^P©ii«lts around dry farmed land (Raba tal-Baghlil. 

^^^^m>-0live : j 2ehbug (Qlea europaea) played an important part in the Islands' 
^^^Pmi^'foi; .many. .-years for the production of Oil. 

^^^^WBe^^SOs: the government was financially aided by the British to plant 

WBg^&f&& .-mainly Olives and Carbbs. They were planted in pits blasted in the 

^B|||; -at- Mellieha, St. Paul's Bay, Ghajn Tuffieha, Tal-Ballut, Mifciep and 

lliilfe^i^ii965 the Agricultural Department initiated a drive to crown-graft pri- 
^^^^l r pwned" : adult; Olives trees to table varieties, as they are rarely pressed 

^SBSfrjsSit'tttdday... '■ ■'.,.', , , 

^^M'»e : --fEuit of the Carob, Harruba (Ccratoitta sihowa) is nowadays only used 
^pfti|adder=; The fruit is traditionally harvested by August 18th. This tree has a 
^^%'niiidable root system, it is drought resistant and soon becomes naturalised 
Siiii^ky^-barren land. -.,..,* 

l|feife : Gtape or Vine, Dielja (Vitis vinifera) is very common, Being suitable to 
!&^slahd' : because of its drought resistance, its excellent fruit and for wine 
^&g£ngi; Since 1965 the Government Viticulture section has been increasing the 
S&i^tion of vines. American Vine rootlings (Bar batelle) are imported and 
alUlfteaCh year at subsidised prices. The advice offered by the Ministry to plant 
^e#a!ong- rubble walls of dry fields is being followed. This enables fanners to 
- J|$^^erop in the dry summer months. There are many local and foreign varieties 
Ifeaaad^fc'-'GuItivation for both wine making and the table, 

t'ftlitf^e /Black Mulberry, Tuta (Morns nigra) Is not often planted now probably 

S'#DeeaTase- ; of its persistent staining fruit, It is wind and drought resistant and fruits 

tisj&tfi ; May till early August although by then the quality of the fruit declines. 

1-fefe -White Mulberry, Cawsla (Morws alba) is associated with farmsteads and 

■ infrequently planted along roads particularly in Gozo. 




H. Micallei 

(Before his death Professor H, Micallef promised an article on medicinal 
plants for the Malta Flora, but was unable to complete it. By permission of his 
widow, and of the Malta Union of Pharmacists, we have included an extract {in 
a few cases slightly reworded) from his paper in the Journal of the Malta Union 
of Pharmacists 11(1); 20-23 (1970)* The latin names of the plants have been 
brought up to date). 

Since early titties^ during his tireless quest for food, Man has found either by 
accident or methods of trial and error, that certain wild plants help him to alle- 
viate some of his sufferings from disease and injury. Tnis is not a history oi 
local medicine since its origin, though several known drugs must surely have 
been introduced by the succession of settlers who occupied Malta through the 
ages, I shall limit myself to mentioning a number of plants reputed to bavs 
medicinal virtues. Among them are ancluded indigenous or imported and naturalis- 
ed plants which either grow wild as weeds or have been grown or cultivated in 
Maltese gardens, sometimes for centuries. Some have been exhaustively studied, 
and are thoroughly known, while others have-been largely ignored, although they 
have retained their popularity at least with a small rural section of the community. 
Before the introduction of milk- pasteurization there were many cases of Me- 
diterranean or LJndulant Fever in Malta. Boiled, sliced Citrus limon and Pallenis 
spinosa were popular remedies, while Centaurium erythraea and Blackstonia 
perfoliala were other favourites. Diabetes is another disease affecting a high 
percentage and Trigonella faenumgraecum was resorted to in the past. Among 
those plants known to have an action like Digitalis and Strop h anthus are the 
cardiac tonics Urginea- tnaritima (also used to kill rats), Adonis annua, Smilax 
aspera and Neriwn oleander. 

Ricinus communis and EcbalUum elaterium are very well known as purgatives. 
Aloe vera, Rhamus alaternus, Melia azcdarach and Phytolacca americana (an 
adulterant of Digitalis) also have purgative action, while the berries of Sambucus 
nigra and the seeds oi' Plant ago afra- are laxatives. Tamariv gallica, Tamus commu- 
nis, Iris germanica and Iris pallida are other laxatives, while two or three drops 
of Euphorbia chamaecyse fluid produces a drastic action if applied to the. skin. 
Sax.ifraga tridactylites is a cholagogue, while Taraxacum officinale is used for 
affections of the liver. 

Plants known to produce a diuretic action include Baraga officinalis, Urginea 
maritima, Allium cepa, Parietaria officinalis, Scirpus lacustris, Cyperus longus, 
Hr.miaria glabra, Iris germanica, Iris pallida, Dipsacus fullonum, Minuartia hybri- 
da. Autirrkiwtm majus. Reseda alba, Reseda lutea, Jmicus subuliflorus, Asparagus 
officinalis, Lonicerd caprifolium, Tamus communis, Arundo donax, Cynodon daatylon 
and Spartium .junceum, the last mentioned containing sparteine, a powerful 

Many others have astrigent properties. The sb include the bark of Salix alba. 
Cynoviorium coccineum (used for diarrhoea and dysentry), EpUobium roots and 
Verbena officinalis (used as a decoction to relieve bleeding piles). The petals of 
Rosa gattic.a and the leaves of Sambucus nigra, Sambucus* ebulus, Symphytum of- 
ficinale, Scirpus lacustris, Cydonia oblonga, Plantdjo major, Achillaea sp. 
Scropkularia auriculata. Geranium robertianum and Geranium rotundifolium are 
also astringent. Of these, Scrophularia auriculata and the leaves of Sambucus nigra 
and Sambucus ebulus have a vulnerary as well as astrigent action. Flowers of 

Hypericum are vulnerary and are used in. an olive-oil infusion in eczena sores 
-.■ while Plautaga major is also used to cover sores, Achillaea and Herniaria 
glabra are also vulnerary. Typha latifolla inflorescence provides a good haemostatic 
remedy for wounds. 

: ..The bulb of Gladiolus italicum and stigmas of Mentha pulegiutn are eriimen- 
agogues. Gladiolus italicum also has an aphrodisiac action, while Vitex agnus-ca&tus 
: fc^inaphrodisiac, Chamomilla recutita, Citrus aurantium, Citrus deliciosa, Citrus 
iimetta, Salvia officinalis, Salvia triloba, Scrophularia auriculata, Cyperus longus 
■ QeTamum robertianum and Geranium rotundifolium have tonic properties Ex- 
citant: arid diaphoretic properties are found in Erodium moschatum and Dipsacus 

7.fulibpuni-,...\ ■-..:,., ...:.. "...-.■.. - 

f.^vOrange^ower water: obtained from Citrus berg aniia, and Salvia officinalis 
. Salvia triloba, Fumaria officinalis, Fumaria capreolata, Chamomilla recutita Mentha 

■ piperita, Mentha pulegium and Melissa officinalis are important stomachics The 
last three;., tog ether with Pimpinella anisum and Cuminum cyminum are good 

-carminatives. Fumaria officinalis and Fumaria capreolata are useful depuratives 

,a.S:,well;as,stoinachics. Depurative for skin diseases is jfound in Scabiosa atropur- 

;. mrea, while Viola tricolor as an infusion, is reputed to be effective in skin 

. eruptions; ..■■■. 

;,;■> Externally the seeds of Trigonella faenumgraecum can be used to act as an 
:.: -effloMent Arundo donax, Cynodon dactylon, Acanthus mollis and infused seeds 
■■■ ¥\Plantago.afra are also good emollients. So are the sweet drupes of Zizyphus 

■ iwju.jja, while the leaves of Umbilicus horizontal are emollient for hard testes 
^: The drupes of Zizyphus jujuba are also a good medicine for chest complaints 
puitices^ of Panetariu officinalis are reputed, to be effective in bronchial catarrh 

.Japonic catarrh and asthma Aristolochia longa is employed. Salvia verbenaca 
^'1 ,™ ^\? n m ^ sl0M for coughs, while in toughs and jaundice Bdllota nigra 
:^d:,Marrabmm;;^Z e are are effective. Vrg ine a maritima is an expectorant and 
Chamomilla recutita has an antispasmodic action. 

■■ -Datura \_metel, Hy&scyamus albus, Papaver ' somnifemm and Papaver rhocus 
have a^ seoaUve action. The flowers of Sambucus nigra and SaviHcus' ebulus are 
sudorific, while Allium sativum is a febrifuge. 

^ There are several other plants used as remedies for other ailments Thus 
Allium sativum has a rubefacient action, Chelidomum majus is a rubefacient 
which also destroys corns and warts, while the powdered seeds of Brassica. nigra 
are rubefacient and vescicant. Cucurbita maxima and Punica granatum are used 
to expel tapeworms, while Artemisia absinthium and Melia ' azedarath havc'an 
anthelmintic action. Certain plants are used in cases of gravel, like Equisetum 
ww, Minuartia hybrida, Micromeria microphylla, and Ajuga iva dtrm 
kmonan^Citrushmetta have antiuric properUes, The orange-flower water already 
men uoned and Veronica beccabunga are antiscorbutic. IrisfoetidissimTis used in 
scroiuia. Gouty atlections are relieved by a poultice made from Cavparis spinosa 
£ ^llffi fepensis is used for bruises and to relieve sprains and contusions 
in weaning off Aloe vera is used. 

«,' Th ^ % ^ certA j n . pIants which « Is ° ^eld oils or substanc-es extracted from 
If m at ,. are u , se ^ ln medicine - 't^hus, Olea europma drupes are used for the 
valuable olive oil. Rosmarinus officinalis is the source of rosemarv a ^d for ner- 
X°rl ? ptperi t ah ™ a " on rich 1" menthol, and other oil-ccntaining plants 
■.^,^r tW, ? Um 5 atMWm ' Foeniculum vulgare and Anthriscus cerefoUum are 





Conservation of the Flora of the Maltese Islands is possibly more diffic$ 
than anywhere else in Europe, With the second highest population density ih : 
world, and a long history of agriculture over most of its surface, little natiifs 
or semi-natural vegetation is left and most of that is on the inaccessible coasl 

During the spring and to a much lesser extent in the autumn and winter,; 
cultivated fields are covered by a mass of colourful weeds, including bulb pla|$ 
such as Gladiolus and Narcissus, the people of rural areas have long- pie™ 
bunches of these flowers for sale and for house decoration, but while tfiC w^| 
species are so abundant they will make little: impression : on their numbers. 

The most serious threats to the Flora of the Islands arise from developemejj 
for tourism, the spread of building, the reclamation of waste land and the $5 
creased use of herbicides. The building of hotels in the more remote areas asa| 
Ghadira (Fig, 12), results in trampling and disturbance of the surrounding ar 
The readily accessible parts of the coastline are already much affected by tram| 
ling. At present few herbicides are used, but should they be introduced to: : 
greater extent the restricted flowering periods of many of the weedy specie 
would make them very vulnerable. As both the tourist industry and agriculture ai? 
importants parts of the Maltese economy, the areas which can be left in 'thej|L 
natural state are necessarily limited. But protected reserves would also be ii|| 
creasingiy attractive to tourists, and a planned tourist developement could includ$ 
protected areas where natural beauty and interest can be enjoyed. Among tig 
most important areas needing protection are the Wardija Ridge, the pool afl><$ 
sand dunes at Ghadira and in Gozo, the dunes at Ramla bay and the coralliii^ 
plateau and valley between Ta' Ceni and Mgarr ix-Xini. These together with th^ 
Wieds contain much of what is left of the semi-natural vegetation of the Islands^ 

Most of the land is private, although not necessarily fenced or walled. ThiS 
applies to waste and cultivated land: During migration seasons large scale shootingfl 
is carried out from such land, entry into which can therefore present a significant 
hazard to the botanist. 

ms^amsstssR" •-—'■■ -" ,h ,ta ■— - , ; 

Pllill^W North African flora. . d aI1 those localities given by 

^W^ di ^ b, Scam S~ r^-mlS^d Camana Gatto (S * JG 

jJUft/pitblft J.C n G.Mcat ag, informat ion particularly by (J.^"J»™ 

fllrSid-Borg (1927), with addition; ai .< many of tn6 species 

IPSer and Westra- .The P rcSen ' p ™ r wn information where possible 

JK c f™tely known, but we ^fofpA W^ho covered the most ground 

KWSly inserted on the authority of F.AW. statements are based 

»r~££ rruM r^-r- ir: 

;. T ^ general ^istrfDution^ ^^ on]y t0 g , ve an tfea of tm. 

kg|$t>m wo way meant to He prec 


The arrangement of families follows that of Tutin et al in Flora Europaea', 
(1S64 -) Which is based on that of H. Melchior in A. Engler, Syllabus der-i 
PflanzenfamiUen ed. 12 (1954-64), Latin names in most cases follow those in Flora) 
Europaea as far as they are available. Synonyms are given where it is necessary ") 
to connect the modern names with those In John Borg's Descriptive Flora of the 
Maltese Islands (1B27). English names are given for every species. For those species 
occurring in the British Isles the names selected by a special committee of the ■ 
Botanical Society of the British Isles (Dony et al. (1974) ) have been followed. For 
the remainder new names have mostly had to be created. Maltese names have 
been given for as many species as possible. 

Descriptions follow those of Flora Europaea as far as it is available, though 
certain terms (I.e. pendulous for pendent) have been altered and in some cases 
descriptions have been rewritten to fit better the Maltese plants. Keys are mostly 
specially written though they are in many cases based on those in Flora Europaea. 

As regards selection of species included in the Flora we have been liberal 
rather than conservative. Many are included on very slender evidence, but as it is 



1. Plant reproducing toy spores; no flowers; 
piS'nt always herbaceous 
Plant reproducing by seeds; flowers 
usually present; woody or herbaceous 

■2. Stems jointed; leaves flowering a sheath 
at. the nodes 

Stems not jointed; leaves hot fused into 
a sheath 

3. .Leaves not differentiated into lamina 
and petiole 

Leaves with distinct lamina and petiole 

4. Leaves borne on a creeping Stem 
Leaves forming a basal rosette 

a. Fertile and sterile leaves dissimilar 
Fertile and sterile leaves similar (or 
differing only in size) 

tf. Sori not covered by de-flexed margin, of 
Sori covered by deflcsed margin of leaf 

7. Rhizome short, superficial 
Rhizome long, subterranean 

5. Ovules not enclosed in an ovary, Dome 
either on the upper surface of scales 
arranged in cones, or solitary and ter- 
minal on lateral stems; perianth absent; 
trees or shrubs 

Ovuies completely enclosed in an ovary; 
perianth (sepals or petals or both} 
present; herbs, trees or shrubs 

3. Leaves all scale-like and usually brown- 
ish; internodes long 
Most leaves green; internodes short 

10. Trees with whorled branches 
Trees with branches not in whorls 

11. Leaves 2-5 on short shoots 
Leaves opposite or whorled 

12. Plant "free- floating on or below the sur- 
face of the water, not rooted in mud, 
very small. 

Land plants or aquatics rooted in mud 



HI. Equisetaceae 

I. Setaginellaceav 
II. Isuetaeeae 

V. Gymniogranroiaceae 

VII. Asplcniaeeae 

IV. Adiantaceac 
VI. Hypolcpidaeeac 

( Gvmnospermae) 


XI, Ephedra «ac 

X. Araucnriaeeae 

VIII. Pinaceae 
IX. Cupressaceac 

CVIII. Leraiaeeae 





13. Perianth of 2 (rarely more) whorls dif- 
fering markedly from each other in 
shape, size or colour 

Perianth not of 2 or more markedly dif- 
ferent whorls 

14. Petals not all united into a tube al base, 
very' rarely cohering at apex 

Petals all united' at base into a longer 
or shorter tube 

15. Ovary superior 

Ovary inferior Or partly so 

16. Carpels 2 or more, free, or united at 
the base only 

Carpels obviously united for -J- their 
length or more, or carpel solitary 

37. Sepals 3; petals 3 

Sepals or petals more than 3 

IS. Carpels more than 3 
Carpels 3 

19. Leaves simple, sessile; moss-like plant 
Leaves palmately divided; petioles spiny; 
plants over 1 m. tall. 

20. Stamens numerous 

Stamens not more than twice as many as 

21. Herbs; stipules 0, though leaf -bases 
sometimes sheathing; flowers hypbgy- 

Shrub? or herbs with stipulate leaves; 
flowers perigyno us 

22. Carpels spirally arranged on an elongat- 
ed receptacle; leaves not succulent 
Carpels in 1 whorl; leaves more or less 

23. Flowers actinomorphic 
Flowers zygomorphic 

24. Stamens more than twice as many as 
perianth segments 

Stamens not more than twice as many as 
perianth segments 

'25. Stamens with their filaments united into 
a tube 
Stamens free or united in bundles 


XCIV. AJisiiwtaceac 

XXXIV. Crassulaeeae 
CVt. Piilmae 

XXVIII. Hanunculaccac 
XXXVI. Rosaceae 











Itan imc n laceac 







27 - fS:\T e o thani ' free 

28. Petals 4 
Petals 5 

Herbs, Mmiin,,, . mora . or ]ess ^^ 

^ JS J b -7 «"• - ** drupe 
JTmt a dehiscent capsule 

31. Leaves pinnate 

Leaves simple (or palmately lobed) 

suckering ' ^ Up to 8 m - hi ^; no* 

33. Le avcs simple; coriaceous 
Leaves palmatisect 

Petak spreading; coro1[a with a ^^ 

35- Leaves pinnate 

Leaves simple, ericoid 

■'<«■ Sepals 2; petals 5 

Sepals as many as petals 

"' 22? or^^^ "^"o-" with a long 
xuDuiar or campanulate recentaele 

l or weakly concave receptacle 

38. CaMHne leaves opposite or whorled 
Leaves alternate or all basal 

Leaves .simple and entire 

40. Petals 4 
Petals 5 

4 '- JS^^ST *»'" - *- side 

Lit Hjpen'caeeoe 
LV. Cistaceae 

XLV. Simarwubaceae 
XLVHL Anacaxdlaceae 
XLIX. Hhamateae 

L. Vitaeeae 
LIV. Passifloraceae 

XLVI. Meliaceae 
LVI. Tamaricaceae 

XXVI. Portalacaceae 

LXI. Lythraecac 

XXXII. Cruci ferae 


XXXIX. Gcrantaccac 
XLI, ZygophyJ] aecae 

MeUpi '"present 


■E&||rt^; ; Sca>ious; land plants 
JpUBK^^'ltdt scarious; usually submerged 

'^B^SliBijhrLate; placentation parietal 
^fe^^fee;M'iplacentatJori free central 

MS^'i%*. 1 ' atev : ' ■' 

Wg&XB&i&ot. ternate . 







Is 2-3 
|l|i^'<$nii -petals 4-5 

f^^il^jftftd?- petals 4; stamens 4 or 6 
HjraljiMiiil" petals 5; stamens 5 or 10 

pp^P^^ifpre.seiit; stamens usually 4 
" l?fe$$^ absent; stamens usually 6 

a^K^ft^Bc:Sith' : numerous pellucid glands; 
^^S&tpiJKfer scented when crushed 
Kisses"- without pellucid glands 

^P^gitms ' 2-4 
^igmas: 5... . 

llHSplJ'ra*** 8 lobed or pinnate 

^sgBplfr^l^tfesJ entire 

•:J^^^^4;,FIp»rerS saccate or spurred at base 
i^^^p^'-ijlowets not- as above 

||l||p^Sc.pal5 2, small 
jHlf-v' /SefiSis.- -5; petals 5 

■ Leaves opposite 
Leaves alternate 

JStainens-S, not as below 
Stamens 5, introrse round the ovary 

H§6; ■■; -Filaments united into a tube 
l%lf ; Stamens free 

|-57< Anthers opening by slits 

|i ! ';:X--. 'Anthers opening by pores 

'"£&.■ Trees or shrubs 

10. Leaves simple; ovary on a long 
Leaves compound; ovary sessile 

■60, Petals fimbriate or lobed 
?•: Petals entire or emarginate 


XXVET. Caryophyllaceae 
LVHI. Elalinaecae 

LVII. Frankenfaeeae 
XXVII, Caryophyllaceae 

XXXVin, Oxalidaceac 
XX, Polygon a ceac 

XXXII, Cruciferae 
XXVII. Caryophyllaceae 

XLIV. Riitaceac 

XXVII. Caryophyllaceae 

XXXIX. Geraniaccae 

XLII, Llnaceue 

XXX. Papaveraceac 

XXXIX. Geranfaceae 

XL. Tropaeolaceae 
LIII. Viola ccae 

XXX VH. Leguminosac 
XLVI1. Polygalaccae 

XXXt. Capparaceae 
XXXVII. Leguminosac 

XXXVI, Resedaceae 















01. Stamens 10 

Stamens not more than 6 

62, Leaves trifoliate or pinnate 

Leaves simple, palmately veined 

(i3. Sepals inserted on a cup-like perigynous 
Sepals tree; ovary 2-locular 

G4, Petals numerous 
Petals 5 or fewer 

65. Petals and sepals 3 

Petals and sepals 2, 4 or 5 

fS. Stigmas and stamens sessile 
Style and filaments obvious 

07. Stamens 6 
Stamens 3 

68. Stamens numerous 
Stamens 10 or fewer 

60. Leaves opposite, with pellucid glands 
Leaves alternate, without pe^ucid glands 

70. Styles free: fruit fleshy 

Styles united; seeds covered with pulp 

71. Aquatic;, : leaves pinnate; segments filir 
form; flowers in spikes 

Not as above 

72. Woody climbers 

73 Petals 4 
Petals 5 

74. Stamens 10 
Stamens 5 

75. Ovary superior 
Ovary inferior 

70. Stamens at least twice as many as co- 
rolla lobes 

Stamens as many as or fewer than co- 
rolla lobes 

77. Herbs with succulent leaves 
Shrubs with coriaceous leaves 

73. Plant without .chlorophyll; leaves scale- 

Green plants 


XXXVII, Leguminosac 
XXXIX. Geraniaceae 

XX VII. Caryophyllaceae 
XXXII. Cruciferae 

XXV. Aizoaceae 

CV Orchidacene 

CI. Amaryllidaccae 
CIII. Iridaceae 

LXII. Myrtaceae 

XXXVI, Rosaceae 
LXIII. Punlcaceae 

LXV. Haloragaceac 
LXVII. Araliaceae 
LXIV. Oaagraceae 

XXXV. Saxif ragaceae 
LXVin. Umbellifefae 

XXXIV. Crassulaeeae 
LXIX. Ericaceae 


,7y. Rowers actinomorphic; stem slender 
.,; twining LXXVII. 

flowers zygomorphic; stem stout, erect LXXXVI, 

,80. Ovary deeply 4-lobed with 1 ovule in 
■;'■■ each lobe 

Ovary not 4-lobed 

.81. Leaves alternate 

i V Leaves opposite 

:;'82. Flowers actinomorphic or nearly so 

■; ■ : Flowers strongly zygomorphic 

fM. Carpels free 

■';\ Carpels united 

,: -Hi. Corolla without a corona; stylos 2,: unil- 

;..; eu except at base 

■: Corolla with a corona; styles 2, free bui 

w-. united by the stigma 

f:S5. Stamens fewer than corolla^lobes 

;:: Stamens as many as corolla-lobes 

y.M. Shrubs or trees 

r :87: Stamens opposite the corolhtlobev 

: St aniens alternating with the corolla 

■ lobes 

:8S. Style 1; stiKnra 1; ovules numerous 

Styles or stigmas more than 1; ovule 1 



Labia la e 




,-.89: Sepals, petals and stamens 4 LXXXVIH. 

Sepals, petals and stamens 5 (rarely se- ■ ' 

■ pals fewer) 

'.DO: Shrubs or herbs over 2 in, high 
: ':i\- 'Herbs 

'91. Flowers in dense cymes; corolla limb 

' ' ^ ite LXXXVil. 

flowers in scorpioidal cymes; corolla 
limb blue LXXVII*. 







92. Leaves opposite 

; Leaves alternate or all basal 

33:- Oyules 4 or fewer 
Ovules numerous 

•■?4. Flowers solitary or few, not in scorniol- 

dal cymes; corolla not or scarcely lobed LXXVIL 
Flowers numerous in scorpioidal cymes; 
eorolla-lobes distinct ' LXXIX. 

H y d rophy 11 acoae 















95. Corolla-tube long, or anthers connivent 
Corolla-tube much shorter than lobes; 
stamens spreading 

96. Ovules numerous 
Ovules 4 

97. Bracts shorter than calyx 

Bracts or bracteoles much longer than 

98. Leaves in whorls of 4 or more 
Leaves not In whorls 

90. Leaves opposite; stipules interpetiolar 
Leaves alternate or stipules not inter- 

100: Flowers in capitula surrounded by an in- 
volucre of more than 2 bracts 
Flowers not in capitula, or Bracts 2 

101. Anthers free 

Anthers coherent in a ring round the 

102. Ovule 1; calyx if present represented by 
hairs or scales 

Ovules numerous; calyx lbbe,s conspi- 
cuous; green. 

103. Anthers sessile; pollen grains cohering 
in pollinia 

Stamens with filaments; pollen grains 

104. Stamens 1-3 
Stamens 4-5 

105. Shrubs or woody climbers 

106. Leaves pinnate 
Leaves simple 

107. Flowers unisexual; fruit fleshy 
Flowers hermaphrodite; fruit a capsule 

108. Perianth entirely petaloid 
Perianth not petaloid, often absent 

109. Parasites or saprophytes without chloro- 

Green plants 

110. Stems succulent, leaflets, but with groups 
of spines 

Not as above 



Solan accae 


S crophulariaccae 


Scrophula riaceae 









XCI. Dipsaceae 




Campanula ceae 
















XIX. Balanophoraceae 

LX. Cactaceae 




^g^s- more than 12 
' * " " fe 12 or fewer 

Iffeew in ovoid capitula without an in- 

gwers not in capitula or if with capi 
" a:^ithan involucre 

Jo^ey. -superior 
liepryv.iciferior, or flowers male 

teeBahth. segments 4 ■ 

|^antir;segments more than i 

*-- ™i™ -more than 1, free or nearly so 
!;t£jf£$S.-:I,' or carpels obviously united 

JSp^attth-segments « 
pjpeiaftLh-segHieats 5 ■ . 

Kgmas. 2^3;. stipules sheathing, scarious 
^ti|ma 1;. stipules absent in whorls of 4 or more 
lL*"ayes:not in whorls 

J^FSowers in, a capitulum surrounded by 

fe^rv&tr. involucre ' , ' 

^Flowers not in a capitoW, tnough 

pi^metimes shortly pedicellate in com- 

§|^p;MtnuiTibels' . 

jj inflorescence 68 m. high with horizon t- 
y^'i-'ai "branches , !,■ i. 

Inflorescence not more than 1 m. high 

_ 'OViiles numerous 
||-^--;Ovules 1 or 2 
g; perianth tubular with a unilateral entire 


■perianth segments 6; not as above 

^Stajnens fi 
Stamens 3 

S^L : Leaves opposite 
Leaves alternate 

fesO-Flowers in axillary spike-lfte racemes 
" :k 'Flowers in umbels or superposed whorls 

*i£6> iTrees, shrubs or woody climbers 
J Herbs 

Il27.. iFlowers on flattened evergreen clartodes 
■i-Not as above 
? Ixvii 

XXVIII. Ranunculaceae 
XXXVI. Rosaeeac 

XCIX. LiHaceae 
XXIV, Phytotaccaceac 
XCIX. Liliaeeae 

XX. Polygonaceae 
XXH1. Nyctagmaceae 

LXXIV. Rubiaceae 

XCIII. Compositae 

C. Agavaceae 

XVIII. Aristalochia'jea* 

CI. Amary!l«iaceae 

CHI. Irirtaceae 

XC. Valerianae esc 

XVTI. Santata-eeae 
LXVIII. UmbcSUferae 

XCIX- Liliaeeae 


a a. 






] 24. 




' "4.' 

I'lti. Host leaves opposite or subup polite 

All leaves alternate 

I'M. Stems' green and fleshy or leaves fleshy!w;r stems or leaves fleshy 

ivA). Flowers in catkins 

Flowers -riot in catkins 

13L Leaves pinnate 
Leaves siiapie 

li'l. Style. ].; fruit a iomenlum 

'.Styles 3; fruit a dry l.-seeded drupe 

133. Anthers opening by transverse valves 
Auther.s opening by longitudinal- slit; 

184..' Flowers net hi catkins or dense heaus 
Flowers in catkins or dense heads 

1.35. Flowers hermaphrodite; no latex present 
Flowers unisexual, latex present 

136. Faiex present; fruit or false fruit flusiiy 
Latex absent; fruit dry 

137. Dioecious.; perianth absent 
Monoecious; perianth present in male or 
.foniale flowers, or bulh 

KW: Perianth absent or. represented by scales 
or bristles, minute in flower; flowers in 
the axils of bracts, a number of. which. 
are usually closely imbricate on a rach- 
is, forming a spikelel; leaves usually li 
near, grass-like-., sheathing below 
Perianth present, or flowers not arrang- 
er! in spikeiets 

.1.31*. Flowers with a bract below only; 

sheaths usually closed; stems usuahy. 
with solid in tern odes 
Flowers usually with -a bract above and 
. below, sheaths usually open; stems 
usually wiih hollow, mte modes 

HO. Auuatic plants; leaves submerged or 
floating', m florescence sometimes emer- 

Tevreslial plants, or if agnatic, with in- 
fli>!-esct!»r.-o and either stems- or leaves 

1.4]. Leaves divided into numerous filiform 


Leaves esHire or dentate or iUiforni 


XXI. Clieriopodiaeeae 





XXIX. Lanraeeae 




LX V. Ilaloragaeeae 











■ M 






142, Flowers in spikes 

Flowers not in spikes, or absent 

14a. Marine plants or in salt water pools 
Fresh- of brackish- water plants 

144. I^af-blade narrowed towards base 
Leaves liliform, or if iiat, not narrowed 
towards base 

145. Leaves all b'asitl 

Leases opposite or alternate 

146. Carpels in fruit with stalks several times 
their own length 

Carpels more or less sessile in fruit 

147. Flowers axillary; sessile or shortly 

Flowers in heads On long peduncles or 
in compound inflorescences 

148. Perianth segments 6; leaves* obovale 
Periamn segment u-4; leaves linear lo 

; lanceolate 

'■■1,49. Leaves opposite (freshwater) 
Leaves alternate (brackish) 

150. Flowers hermaphrodite 

Flowers unisexual; inflorescence With 
female heads below and male heads 

1151. Climbing plants with unisexual flowers 
Not climbing, or rarely climbers With 
hermaphrodite flowers 

152. Leaves linear 

Leaves lanceolate or wider, or some- 
times small and scale-like, but never 
simple and linear 

153. Flowers unisexual 
Flowers hermaphrodite 

154. Female flowers solitary; male flowers 
solitary or in short cymes 

Male and female flowers numerous in 
dense heads or spikes 

155. Male and female flowers in separate 
globose heads 

Flowers in a dense cylindrical spike, 
male above, f enisle below 

156. Carpel 1 

Carpels more than 1 


XCV1. Potamogetonaeeac 

XCV. Hjdrocharitaceae 

XCVI. Juncuginaeeac 

XCVII. Potanntgolbjiseeae 
XCvni. ZaiiiitdieHiaeeae 

tXl. Lytkraeeae 

LXXXI. Caimrlcliaceae 
XCVIii. Zaiiiilchelsiaceae 

CIV. Juneiiceac 

CIX. Sparganiaceae 
OIL Ilioscoraeeae 

XX!. Ohenopodiaceae 

CIX- Sparga.iuiaceai* 
CX. Typliaeeae 













157. Leaves not subvert] dilate, exstipulate 
Leaves subverticillate, with minute sti- 

158. Flowers in unbranehed racemes; styles 
short or 

Flowers in cymes in a branched inflor- 
escence; styles 3; distinct 

150. Leaves compound 

Leaves simple or apparently absent 

160. Flowers not in compound umbels 
Flowers in compound umbels 

161 . Flowers numerous, small, crowded on 
an axis (spsdix), subtended and more 
or less onclosed by a conspicuous bract 

Not as above 

162. Leaves apparently absent; stem green 
and succulent 

Leaves obvious; stem not succulent 

163. Lower leaves opposite, upper alternate; 
monoecious; male flowers with 2-partite 
perianth, female with tubular perianth 
Not as above 

164. Plant densely clothed with stellate hairs; 
ovary Saccular with 1 ovule in each 

Not as above 

165. Leaves alternate or all basal (rarely the 
lower opposite) 

Leaves opposite (rarely a few upper ap- 
parently alternate) 

1RG. Carpels attached to a central axis, other- 
wise free 
Carpels united or one only 

167. Stamens 12 

Stamens 10 or fewer 

168: .Stipules united into a sheath 
Stipules free or absent 

i(>0. Ovary superior 
Ovary inferior 

170. Perianth tubular below 

Perianth-segments free, or nearly so, 
rarely absent in female flowers 

XXI. Chenopodiaceae 

XXVII. Caryophyllaceae 

XCVI. Juncaginaceae 

CIV. Juncaceae 

XXXVI. Kosaceae 
LXVOf. Umbelliferae 

CVIL Araceae 

XXI, Chenopodiaceae 

LXVI. Theligouuctjae 

XLIII. Eiiphorlbfaeeae 

XXIV. Phytolaecaccae 

XVIII. Aristolochiaceae. 

XX. Po!ygonaw;ae 

XVII. Santalaceae 

XXI. Chenopodiaceae 






a-th segments 4 
nlth-segrneti.ts 5 

§|h ..herbaceous, rarely absent in 

""$le ; : flowers 
[anth sdarious 

Pg^: to othed or lobed 
;gl|i&ves'. entire . 

■J^ifeuUi segments 3; styles i 2 
g^nth segments 4 or 2, style 

Hb^,™ IV ovary compressed, 4-lobed 
iS^n? ovary not as above 

WSaves *lth a long -Ptao-e apex; fruit 

W^ SthouT g f iong spi-se ape,; 

i ; &tr«rt*uriwinged 

XVI, Urtica<«ae 

XXI. Chenopodiaceae 
XXII. Amaranthaceac 

XUII- Eupborbiaceae 

XVI. tlrticaceae 
LXXXI. Callitriehaceac 

XXI Chenopodiaceae 

XXVII. Caryophyllaceae 








Plants with an alternation of free-living generations. Sporophytes with vascular 
tissue, usually, perennial and herbaceous, reproducing toy spores which give rise 
to small filamentous or thalloid gametophytes (prothalli) bearing archegonia 
and antheridia on either the same or different prothalli, 



jl:-. Herbs with creeping or rarely erect stems. Leaves numerous, small, simple, 
1-veined, with a ligule on the adaxial surface. Heterosporous; sporangia grouped 
in strobili; individual sporangia solitary in the axils of the sporophylls, 

||i- unilocular; spores tetrahedral. 

1. SeJagincIla Beauv. 

/Leaves either all similar and spirally arranged, or dimorphic and 4-ranked, the 
lower patent, the upper appressed and pointing forwards. Strobili terminal; 
megasporangia at the base and microsporangia at the apex of the strobilus. 

: 1. S, denticulatu (L.) Link 

Plate I 

Toothed -leaved Clubmoss 

Stem 4-10 cm. long, creeping, flattened and dorsiventrak not articulated, very 

slender, much branched. Leaves up to 2.5 mm. long, dimorphic, 4-ranked, the 

Jower larger, ovate, acuminate, markedly dentate and slightly asymmetrical. 

iSfrobili not more than % cm., sessile, not sharply defined at the base. In = 18. 

■Mossy, moist rocks on shady slopes of the valleys, Malta: infrequent (G. Lan- 

ifranco); at Wied Ghomor (S. & C.G,; Borg); Wied Qirda and valleys near Mellieha 

(D«£hie; Borg); Ghajn Ingraw (Borg). Goto: Nadur, San Bias and Xlendi {Borg). 

Mediterranean region and Atlantic Islands. 

{According to Borg (p, 8.9); PsHotum nudum (L.) Swartz of the Psilotaceae, a 
H-ative of the tropics, has been repeatedly found in glasshouses at Lija 4 ) 


Stems short, 2- or 3-Iobed* Leaves in a rosette; leaf-base spathulate with a 

Membranous margin, and a delicate ligule on the adaxial surface at the point 

Avhere the leaf narrows. Heterosporous; hiegaspores tetrahedral, microspores 
bilateral, in separate sporangia. 

■ . 1. Isoetes L. 

Aquatic or terrestrial plants. Leaves terete or trigonous, subulate, occasionally 
P ; ; flat and linear, often without stomata. Sporangia solitary, sessile, naked, or co- 
vered with a thin tissue (velum)_ 

1. I. histrix Bory Plate I Sand QuiUwort 

I. hystrix auct. 

Terrestrial; stem 3-lobed. Leaves 5-10 cm. long x 0.5-1.0 mm wide, more or 
less flat, linear; stomata numerous; membranous margin wide at base, narrowing 

abruptly just above the sporangium, but continuing up the leaf for l-2em.; 'igfi 
bases persistent over several years as black, shiny, horny scales with central, shit 
broad lobe and two longer lateral, often spine-like .ones. Sporangium compleS 
covered by velum; megaspores 400-560^, with small tubercles which often beccfi 
confluent, especially on the basal surface; microspores brown, spinulose. 2n =| 

Among rocks where winter rain accumulates. Malta: rare, no localities given (Bo 
Armitage). ' '■; 

Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Europe, northwards to 50°N, : 



Stems grooved and jointed. Leaves in whorls, united into a sheath at the basjH 
Homosporous; sporangiophores in cones; sporangia borne on the adaxial side- 
the peltate heads of the sporangiophores; spores with 4 elaters. Prothallus gre*^ 

I. Equisctum L. 

Stems usually with a hollow in the centre surrounded by 2 rings of alternating 
smaller cavities. Leaves small, usually brownish. Cones borne at the ends 1 
the main stems and sometimes of the branches also. 

1. E. ramosissinnim Desf. 

Plate I 

Denb iz:-ziemel ;^fg 
Branched Horseti 

Stem 10-100 cm. high at 3-9 mm. wide; usually dying in the autumn, freetjE 
branched, and with scattered tubercles; grooves 8-20; sheaths green, becoming* 
brown with a dark band at the bottom; teeth as many as grooves; dark, withp 
narrow scarious border; central hollow half to two thirds the diameter of the stefr§| 
Branches hollow; the lowest internode much shorter than the sheath on the rnaif^ 
stem. Cone 6-12 mm. long. 2» = c.216. 

Damp places in fields, shaded valleys and along walls, Malta: frequent (£, 
Lanfranco; Wolseley); as at Ta' Baldu, Mtahleb, Ghirgenti, Salma, Gnejna etc. "(iff 
& c;g.); Buskett, Ghajn il-Kbira, Ghajn Tuffieha, Wardija, San Martin, etc, (Borg fli 
Salina, Golden Bay etc. ((Haslam). Gozo: not rare, Wied Bingemma, Marsalforrii 
Wied 11-Lunziata (S. & C.G.); Xlendi, Mgarr ix-Xini etc. (Borg). 

C. & S. Europe, extending locally northwards to England, the Netherlands, LattliU 
and C. Russia. ■; 



Rhizomes solenostelic, with opaque scales. Petioles dark and shining, with 
vascular strands at the base, which unite to form a single 4-angled strand distallj'! 
Sori borne on the deflexed leaf-margins; spores tetrahedral. 

1. Adiantum L. 

Rhizomes with narrow brown scales. Petioles with scales at the base only; lamina' 
wide; pannately compound, herbaceous, glabTous; veins free, Sori in parallel; 

...Jfeiups of 2-10 on the lower side of the pinnules, along and between the. 
SJSWi :: Veins. 

K& : v:capill us- veneris L. 

Plate I 

Tursin il-bir 
Maiden hair -fern 

mi-Skies 10-60 cm. long, ovate to ovate-lanceolate in outline, 2- or 3- pinnate; 
^up to 25 cm. long, black and shining; lamina bright -green of delicate 
Ifl^nmiles cuneate, flahellate, on fine capillary stalks, very variable in form 
pjsize, ;2i* — 80. 

P&e -watts of wells and eaves and among damp rocks in shaded valleys. Malt* 
: 'Wiio: frequent (S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley); also Commo (Borg). 

Ifropkal and warm temperate zones of nearly the whole world. 
feafrwetica L.and P. vitota h.(P. longifclia L) of the Pteridnccae are recorded 
54 ^gorgas being naturalized in gardens). 


acmes' solenostelic, with opaque scales. Petioles with 2 vascular strands 
gSJSS The veinVand not in well-defined son, w^out mdusnmi, 
'Ves. tetrahedral. 

1. Anogramma Link 

K^hyte-annual; gametophyte said to be perennial.; Stod. very short; scales 
jjlp^aves weakly dimorphic, 2- to 3 -pinnate, margins flat, veins tie.. So.i 
M^WeaS. along the veins. 


iKpA.-leptophylla (L.) Link 
k ^ffi^Ssm«ogrftmma leptophyUa (L.) Desv 

Tursin ir-riti 
Annual- Maidenhair 

It^Stoek with a few scales when young. Leaves slightly hairy when young 
^i&cent the sterile outer much shorter than the fertile inner which have thm 
-^^cuneat^ Pinnules, lobed or dentate at the apex. Son appearing confluent 
i^hejy mature. 
ti& moist walls ^ rocks and other damp places. Malta: infrequent (G. Lanfranco); 

^&FTa' Ba du, wied Babu, Wied Incita, Buskett, San Anton Gardens, (jnyna 

Ricl W & C.G.); Wied Il-Ghasel etc. (Borg); Maqluba (Wolseley). Goto: Xlendi, 

^Ste-Ccnc, Na'dur, Ghajnsielem etc. (Borg). 

fetfiferfanean region, north to Caucasus, Crimea, Switzerland and Chanel Islands; 

IjSS Abyssinia, S. Africa, Madagascar; India; Australia, New Zealand, 
T#ueriea from Mexico to Argentina. 


Somes with a perforated solenostele and covered with hairs. Petioles wit* 
sIE vascular stands which fuse to form a single U-shaped s £ and - ^ 
#Sinal? borne on the connecting veinlet, and covered by both the deflexed 
;ntWgin of the leaf and by an inner indusium; spores tetrahedral. 

; 1. PterldiuiK Scop, 

P; ; ;ittB«.mes subterranean, long. Leaves distant; petioles long; lamina 3-pinnate; lower 

by the indusia. 

2. A. trichomanes L, 

Common Spleen wort 

P. aquiHnum (L.) Kuhn 
pteri-s aquilina L. 

Plate I 


Lea,*, « ^V^^'SfuS"' StA: ton^eSe : 
r^e b'eSmg'g.SS^^ obtuse, usually ; 

, rS at dght angL to the eosta. Indnm oUate ». - 104. 
On clayey soils. Gozo: San Bias, Mum .il-Kbir (Borg). 



sides of the fertile- veins; spores bilateral. : 

, n , , 3. PhylliUs 

1 Lamina entire (or undulate) 
Lamina pinnate or pinnatiiid 

2. Lamina with dense light brown scales on the lower 


Lamina without scales, glabrous or nearly so 

1. Asplcnium L 

Rluzomes short, erect .or occasionally ^eping with dark ^^j^f 
linear-lanceolate, sometimes filiform scale ■ L ^ire or variously dissected; veinsl 
&M S^triZa?=iu^^mS S.W & shape and ^ 
usually opening. towards. the vein. 

2. Ceteraeh 
1. Asplenium 

Rhachis with green wings; pinnae 14 cm. long 
Rhachis with pale brown wings; pinnae 0.25-1.2 cm. long 

1, inarinuni 

2, trieliomanes 

Rhizome caespitose; scales up to 5 mm. long, with a dark central stripe. Leaves 
4-20 (-35) cm. long; petiole about a quarter as long as the lamina, dark rectdish- 
.- -brown; lamina pinnate, thiclc and dark green, with occasional glandular hairs 
beneath, or glabrous; rhachis dark reddish-brown to the apex, with a narrow, 
pale brown wing; pinnae 0.25-1.2 cm. long, ovate, oblong or rarely suborbieuiar, 
entire or erenate -serrate, base truncate or asymmetrically cuneate, apex rounded. 
Sori small, linear, but sporangia covering pinna at maturity. 

On rocks. Malta; rare, Wied Babu (Gulia; Borg); Ghajn Riftana (Borg). Gozo: 
Mgarr ix-Xim (Duthie; Borg). 

Throughout Europe, extending to the Ladoga-Ihnen and Volga-Kama regions of 

. Russia. 

2. Ceteracli DC. 

.Small, xerophilous. Rhizomes short. Leaves tufted, pinnatifid, thici;, glabrous above, 
densely scaly beneath; veins of the leaf-segments pinnate and forlied, anastomosing 
near the margin. Sori linear; indusium rudimentary or absent. 

i. ; C. officinarum DC. 

Plate I 

Busty-back Fern 

1. A. niarinuiu L. 

Plate I 

Sea Spleenwort^J 

Leaves 3-25 em. long, persistent, oblong; petiole short, one sixth to a quarter Jong as the lamina, covered with scales; lamina greyish to dark green above, 

covered with light brown, overlapping scales beneath; leaf-segments alternate, 

-.ovate or oblong, 9-12 on each side, entire or erenate, rounded ;;t the apex. Sori 

;'; c. 2 mm. Mean spore-length 41-48 , x . In ~ 144. 

Rock crevices, Malta: rare (G. Lanfranco); as at Wied il-Ghasel (S. & C.C.; Borg), 
yWied Ghar Dulam (S. & CQ,; Penza); Wied Ghomor (Gulia hi.; Borg); G&ajn 
xMula (Borg). Gozo: Xlendi (Gulia fd.; Borg). 

Mediterranean region extending east and north to the Himalaya, Tien-Shan, 
■ Caucasus, Crimea, Gotland, C. Germany, Belgium and British Isles; Madeira: 

; : X 3. Phyllltis Hill 

Rhizomes short. Leaves simple or slightly lobed, with free veins. Sori oblong to 
■narrowly linear, arranged in opposite pairs, those of two neighbouring veins 
; parallel and close, and ultimately appearing like a single sorus; indusia linear, 
i^ach attached on one side of the receptacle, those of a pair opening towards each 

cuneate^ apex rounded. 2rc - 72. -^ 

Borg')' Qala Dwejra (Borg; Gulia fil.). ^ 

W. Europe, extending eastwards very locally to S. Italy, and south to N. Moroccj 
and Macaronesia. 

■■lamina entire, not auricled or lbbed at base 
Jiariima with projecting lobes or auricles at base 

: ';-t ■■'':£. seolopendrlum (L.) Newman 

= , A&pleniuni scolopendrium L.; Scolopendriura vvlgare Sm. 

1. seoiopcndriuni 

2. siigittula 

Hart's- tongue Fern 

:; ; Leaves 10-60 cm. long, persistent; petiole up to half as long as the lamina; 
.: lamina 3-C (-7) cm. wide, linear-lanceolate, cordate at the base, margin slightly 
■undulate, entire, Sori 8-18 mm. wide, linear, usually occupying more than half the 
width of the lamina. 2w = 72. 

Moist, shady rocks and in wells. Malta: rave (G. Lanfranco); as at Wied Babu, 
Wied Ghomor, Wied il-Ghasel (Borg). 

Europe from Scandinavia (rare), C. Germany and S.W. Russia southwards; 
^mountains of Morocco; Macaronesia; Asia Minor to Caucasus and Persia; Japan. 

2 - P. sagittate me i r 

P- gonitis OKunt" & He ^od 

Plate I 


L«ve, i2. 3 o cm ,„ """* 

|"^'SS •SffiSSf S^S? a !;f -M°- - - J 

Mow, shady rocks and . „ SCOl °V^um. 2 n - 72^ haState " S «* ^ 

Mediterranean region. 



Ev- ■ 1 ' P ' BUS L. ■ '■§ 

jv.8? .™fi„° r , *£.»»■ ™»'-»»rAr.n y ;r * ess" mI 

I P i,„i„ , ^ ln a spine <m 

V *• Jialepensis Minor I 

^nuber, Prinjoll 
Aleppo Pine J 

long ■■*. 4 cm. wide, shining, brown; apophysis convex; peduncle 1-2 
toryeii. ■ Seed c. 7 mm. long; wing c. 20 mm. long. Fl. 3-a. 

ierty native at Ghajn 2nubcr near Mellieha, and. at Wied 2nuber near 
ptg). Frequently found as a cultivated tree, both as individuals and 
(Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Haslam; Wolseley). Naturalised between Gbar 
fl^tskett (Wolseley) and elsewhere (G. Lanfraneo). 

ijeah region. 

m'.-L. ; the Stone Pine, often occurs as a planted tree (Borg);). 


b^jor dioecious; resiniferous trees or shrubs with opposite or whorled, 

J^aie-like, leaves. Flowers (conea) made up of opposite or whorled 

|J?^eajes"of male cones (microsporophylls) bearing 3-5 pollen sacs on the 

^pf^rfifce. Scales of female cones (megasporophylls) bearing 2-many erect 

.. ~'J#$- '.'itfiie: upper surface, and completely adnate to the subtending bract, 

iS^re.«r less woody cone, or rarely the scales becoming fleshy and the 

lHfflP;$£*TS : "i'i'He, indehiscent. Seeds winged or not. 

Speaks- in 3-8 pairs 
^fejcSJea. : .4, in a single whorl 

L Cupi'essus 
2. Tetrad-is is 

1, Cupressus L, 

Plate n 

un i" 2 median)'..- 

^^oerapus trees (rarely shrubs). Twigs terete or Wangled, Leaves opposite,. 
TgJKsate;- scale-like, appressed and imbricate on adult plants; aeicular and 

|Mte£ifcih .young plants and rarely on leading shoots. Cones solitary, terminal on 
^fcjffiis-'".twigs, ripening in the second year, globose to ellipsoid-globose; cone- 
||||i|f8s ; . m : .-3-7: pairs, peltate, woody. Seeds flattened, 6-20 on each side, narrowly 


||j||j§^:scmpervirens L. Plate II Cipress fcannella 

Nf'-'-W ' ■ Cypress 

%tee; up to 30 m. high. Leaves 0.5-1 mrci, long, dark green, obtuse, Male cone 
^rn.-l'ong; female 25-40 mm. long, ellipsoid- oblong (rarely globose), green when 
Trig". -a rid shining yellowislvgrey when ripe, with 8-14 shortly and obtusely 
ilgfonate scales. Seeds 8-20 on each scale. 

Jjre : aretwo well-known forms: forma sempervirens (var. ■pyratnidalis (Targioni- 
^praetij Nyman) with upright branches forming a fastigiate crown and forma 
" Siitfeontalis (Miller) Voss with patent-ascending branches forming a pyramidal 

Emilia' .' and Gozo: Widely planted and often naturalized (e.g. Buskett) (Boi'g, 

ffcitbUB planted throughout the Mediterranean region from N. Persia to Spain, its 
l^natural range being difficult to define. 

;■ ;; - ■ '" 2, Masters 

Monoecious tree. Buds concealed by the leaves. Twigs flattened. Leaves in 
feuFs. the lateral ones larger than the others, all adnate to the twig except at 

the scale-like apex. Cones solitary; scales 4, in a single whori, valvafe, woody. 
Seeds with 2 wide wings. 

T. articulata (Vahl) Masters Plate II 

CaUitris articulata (Vahl) Ascherson & Graebner 


Pyramidal tree 12-15 m. high. Cone 8-12 mm. in diameter; scales glaueouv 
triangular, 2 obtuse and 2 acute at apex, deeply grooved, with a small spine 4 
near the apex, 

Malta: Very rare (G. Lanfraneo); as at Maqluba near Qrend), Wied Filep, Ghajn : 
Rifrana (Borg); formerly much more common (Borg); Argotti Botanic Gardens ; 

A few plants* remain on the rock faces of Maqluba and one plant at Wied Filep { 
above the quarry (Wolseley). This tree is the GtiarghaT a Juniper tree referred^ 
to by Ciantar Abela in 1772 as formerly being common on the island and stilly 
occuring over a large area including Birkirkara, Sliema and St. Julians, Place! 
names such as Gharghur indicate the former existence there of this tree. 

Algeria, Morocco, Mogador and an isolated locality in S.E. Spain near Cartagena., 


Evergreen trees with whorled branches. Leaves spirally arranged, needle-like °' i ^S 
broad and flat. Flowers usually dioecious, both sexes in cones of spirally arrangeel||||| 
scales. Microsporophylls with 5-15, pendulous pollen-sacs. Scales of female conr 
numerous, the bract large and woody, the scale (Ugule) fused to it; ovule HSU 
centrally placed, inverted. 

1. Ephedra L. 

S,^^ -d a few 2- to Celled 

P«h.segments; ovule ^^^^^J^^^ ^Sffi' 

E. fragilis Desf. 

Plate II 

Shrubby Horse-tail 

■ "j J-Juiat-iail 

^ck'S^o^s^rsuIS 1 ^ T T e A UP t0 2 Mm - '*»*• with green 

^orbicular. Female fnCefcenS °l" S XwtL^f-^ fi^ ^^E 

ffbe of mtegument 3 mm. long. Fruit 89 m^lS* r ^ th p ^./ airs ° f *«<*. 

g^cks. Malta: Very rare (Borg); Wardija (GD;ii Argotti Botanic Gardens 

|,Memmean region; S. Portugal; Atlantic Islands. 


i^^S^j^L2T%2L S ™ h ^. Xy Iem with vessels 
;;2.^tyledons, rarely I by abort™ closed in an ovary. Seeds with 

1. Arauearla Juss. 

Leaves needle-like or flat and lanceolate, 
with it, 

1. A. heterophyfla (Salisb.) Franco 

Seeds adnate to the bract and faHiirtj 

Platen Awrikarja kbira ; 

Norfolk Island Pm 

Tree 50-65 m. high, with main branches horizontal or pendulous. Leaves -m 
two kinds, those on juvenile shoots soft, awHike, incurved, bright green, tho&i 
on older and fertile shoots dense, overlapping, broadly evate. Cones 7,5;|| 
cm. x 9-11.5 cm., often broader than long. 

Frequently planted. Malta: San Anton Garden, Argotti, Balluta, Addolorai|j§ 
Buskett, St. Julians etc. (Haslam). 

Norfolk Island. 



fe^li™ subtended by S^a^nH ?'** '«*™** S»PUle S 
^MwneBt, sometimes nectanferous 5EW m Catkins; P erian *h absent 
■fefls ..filiform, free or fflorTorWw '■?**% floWers with S^^ny stamens 
gj ' m with 2-4 Parietal placentee.^ l] "" , ^ (1 - FemaIe flowers *'"> one un)toS 
£>- MSm dehiscing by 2% 'valves t^TT™*' ascen *^ anatropou" St 
HraXt u * long hairs. ■ ' es * Seeds numerous, very small, -each with a 

f |* Puds with i outer scale . bracts entjre 

" jgWwith,everal outer scales; bracts dentate or cili ate- fimbriate 

1. Salix L. 





Dioecious; shrubs with opposite or whorled leaves, usually reduced to short, m{|| 
or less coalescent sheaths; not resiniferous. Inflorescences axillary, on slisg 
shoots. Flowers enclosed in 2-4 membranous perianth-segments. Fruit a gl.ojj' 
synearp formed from 1 or 2 seeds, surrounded by 2 pairs of red or yej| 
fleshy bracts. ■+ 




SSjSffewith. one outer ^^i« t„„„ 

^Wfrmg before or after the leaves W shllped / F1 °^s entomophilous 
Jifchectaries and subtended ht™ m ? atk ™> ™ch flower with one or two 
§Pm* halved. Seeds „ ume rous y ** ^ btaCt Sfamells ^,Uy°f 3 or 5° 

StSS^^'SS^- messed hairy on both surfaces; 

K^Pii "* ■ uy yellowish; le 
Hre flowers with 2 nectaries 

2. pedicellata 

|7 ■■, 



L S. alba L. 

White WillowiS 

Tree up to 23 m, high, often pollarded. Branches ascending, appearing silvery-,, 
grey in life. Bark greyish, not flaking. Twigs silky when young, later glabrous?|| 
and olive, not easily breaking off. Leaves 5-10 cm. long, usually 5.5-7.5 times ail 
long as wide, acuminate, not or slightly asymmetrical at the apex, cuneate afcff 
base, finely serrate, covered with white, silky, appressed hairs on both surfaces^ 
petiole without glands. Stipules usually caducous. Catkins appearing with the;!?, 
leaves, dense, cylindrical. Bracts uniformly yellowish. Stamens 2, free; anthers'; 
yellow. Mole flowers with 2 nectaries; female flowers usually with 1 nectary," 
Fl. 3-4. 

Most trees arc referable to subsp. alba which has the twigs brown or yelIow- : -I§ 
brown and erect, and the leaves covered on both surfaces wtth appressed silUjjj' 
hairs, and more or less glabrescent above. Subsp. vitellina (L.) Arcangeli with;SL 
the twigs bright yellow or orange, thin and sometimes pendulous, and the leaves; If 
paler green and with less indumentum was recorded from 6nien il-Kbir by Borg:4| 
Along streams. Malta: Gnejn il-Kbir (S. & C.G.; Borg); Buskett (Gulia; Borg);* 
Mtahleb (Borg; Penza); Girgenti (S. & C.G.). ■ 

Europe except the Arctic; N,. Africa; W. Asia from W. Siberia to the Himalaya-: 
and Palestine. Often planted. ;.-! 

(According to Borg, S, babylonica L. is sometimes planted). 


Mediterranean Willow 

2. S. pedicellata Desf. Plate II 

S, aurita var. pedicellata (Desf.) Fiori 

Tall shrub or tree up to 10 m. high. Decorticated wood with numerous;' 
prominent ridges. Young twigs grey-tomentosc, older ones gradually glabrescent. ■■ 
Leaves oblong or ob ovate-lanceolate, dentate, crenate or nearly entire, thinly, 
pubescent beneath, glabrescent above; lateral veins at least 10:12 pairs, connected;' 
by a fine reticulation, prominent beneath^ impressed above. Stipules large, semi- 
cordate, dentate, deciduous. Bracts with a dark apex, shortly hairy. Catkins S : G 
of. long x 1-1.5 cm, wide. Ovary glabrous; pedicel 3-4 mm. long; style short or 
moderately long: Male and female flowers each with a single nectary. Fl. 1>2. 

Along streams. Malta: rare, Mtahleb, Cnejna (S. & C.G.; Borg); Marsa (GD.; Borg); : 
Gtlajn il-Kbira (Gulia; Borg); Bahrija, Wied Gerzuma (Borg). 
Mediterranean region. 

2. Populus L. 

Deciduous trees. Buds with several unequal scales. Leaves usually ovate or 
triangular, entire, dentate or lobed. Petiole usually long, terete or flattened. 
Flowers, anemophilous, appearing before the leaves, in pendulous stalked catkins, 
each flower with a stalked, cup-shaped disc and subtended by a toothed or 
laciniatc bract. Stamens 4 to many. Capsule 2- to 4 - valve d. Seeds numerous, 

1. P. alba I. Plate II Luq abjad 

White Poplar. 

Tree up to 30 m. high with a broad crown; suckering freely. Bark white on 
young stems. Twigs and buds white- to mentose. Leaves of long shoots 6-12 cm. 


■ long, : ovate, with 3-5 coarsely toothed lobes, dark green above, white- tomentevse 
'beneath; leaves of short shoots ovate to elliptic- oblong, sinuate-dentate, usually 
■greyish beneath. Stamens 6-10. Fruiting catkins 8-10 em. long. 'In = 38. Fl. 2-3. 
"According to Borg var. nivea Aiton, with smaller leaves which are lighter green 
with a dense silvery-white tomentum beneath, is sometimes naturalized. 

-Along streams and in damp places. Malta: rather frequent, GirgentL Buskett, 

Wied ir-Rum, Bingemma, Bahrija etc. (S. & C.G.; Borg); Wied il-Baruni (Gulia); 

Gnajn il-Kbira (Borg); Chadwick Lakes (Haslam); Wied Haznm; Ta' Gholjia 
;^WoIseley). Goto: Mgarr (S. & C.G.; Borg). 

G, : E. & S.E. Europe; W, Asia; N. Africa; often planted elsewhere. 

(Aceordingi to Borg P. nigra L. and P. tremu!^ L. are sometimes cultivated.) 


^Monoecious trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate. Male flowers in catkins or 
s -' : heads; perianth 4- to 6-lobed; stamens 8-20, usually twice as many as perianth- 
lobes. Female flowers 1-3, surrounded by an involucre of scales .(cupuie); perianth 
■-4- to 6-Iobed; styles 3 or 6. Fruit a 1- seeded nut, in groups of 1-3, surrounded 
■by the accrescent cupule. 

1. Qncrcus L. 

Trees or shrubs. Buds ovoid. Leapes usually dentate, sinuate or pinnalely lobed, 

: rarely entire; evergreen (persisting for more than a year), semi-evergreen 

"(persisting green through the winter, but falling in spring), or deciduous 

(withering in autumn, though sometimes not falling till spring). Flowers 

in emu phi lo us. Male catkins slender, pendulous; bracts minute, caducous; flowers 

numerous, with usually Globed perianth and 6-12 stamens. Female catkins with 

■few flowers, each solitary in an involucre. Styles 3-6. Fruit an oblong or- ellipsoidal 

■nut, its base enclosed by the enlarged involucre (cupule). Germination hypogsal. 

'.'.-jteaves evergreen, dark-green above, grey and tomentose below, 
entire or serrate ' 

Leaves deciduous, green, lobed 
1, Q. ilex L. 

2. rolmr 

Plate III Ballut 

Evergreen Oak, hex 

Evergreen tree or shrub up to 25 m. high; twigs and buds grey-tementos* 
Leaves 3-7 cm. long, thick but not rigid, oblong-ovate to lanceolate, with eimcate 
or rounded base, entire, mucronate dentate or spin ose-ser rate, dark green, 
glabrescent and smooth above, grey-tomentose and with prominent veins beneath; 
midrib straight; lateral veins 7-11 pairs;; petiole fi-15 mm. long-; stipules subulate, 
densely hairy. Perianth-lobes lanceolate, subacute; anthers mucronate. Frmt 
bitter, ripening in the first year; scales of involucre appressed, flat, in ■-■■ 24. 
■Fl. 4-5. 

Rocky vallevs. Malta: rare, Wied Hairun, Busketi, where it is regenerating 
(Haslam) and Ballut (Wardija); (S. & C.G.; Borg). Planted for ornament Flormna., 
Argotti etc (Haslam) The Maltese name Ballut, BaJluta occurs m many places, 
and is presumably due to former existence there of this sj>seies. At Wied 
Hazrun there are few trees left, but at Ballut {Wardija) the trees are of great 
size and regeneration is occurring outside the wood (Wolseley). 


Mediterranean region, extending to Portugal, N. Spain and W. France, Planted 
elsewhere in W, & S. Europe and rarely naturalised. 

i. Q. robur L. 

Q. pe&unculaia Ehrh. 

Balluta Ingliza 
Common Oak 

Deciduous tree up to 45 m. high, glabrous except sometimes for pubescence 
on young twigs and lower surface of young leaves. Leaves usually obovalej With 
5-7 pairs of lobes; lateral veins making a variable angle with the mid-rib, with 
several intercalary veins; petiole 5 mm. long or less. Peduncle usually long; scales 
of involucre flat, puberulent, e oner es cent except for the apices, 

Often cultivated and sometimes self-sown (Borg). Malta; planted for ornament 
as at Buskett (regenerating), Argotti (Ilaslam), Bur Marrad, Msida (Wolseley). 

Most of Europe, except the extreme north and parts of the Mediterranean region. 

(Borg s^ys the Hazel, Corylus .avelkuia L, is sometimes cultivated, but rarely 

fruits). ■ 



Deciduous trees, rarely shrubs, without latex. Leaves alternate, simple, asymet- - 
rieal at base. Flowers all hermaphrodite or male and hermaphrodite. Perianth 
herbaceous; stamens erect in bud. Fruit a drupe or samara. 

1, Ulmus L. 

Ulimi'. : 

Bark fissured. Flowers all hermaphrodite, appearing before the leaves on tlie--! 
previous year's growth. Perianth-segments connate. Anthers purplish-red. Fruit I 
a samara, winged all round but the wing eniarginate at the apex. : .>. 

It is not certain to which species the elms of Malta belong. It is possible that; 
trees described by Borg as 17. campestris L. from rocky places, in the Onieji?; 
iVKbir valley are native, and may be referable to V. canescens Melville which"; 
is native in. Sicily. A specimen collected by Wolseley (Rate 111) from Buf* 
Marrad has been determined as U. minor Miller sensu lato by R,H. Tlichens. It J 
would probably be included in V. canescens by Melville, but is not so pubescent | 
as cSiaraeteristic examples of that species. It is also highly likely that other| 
European elms have been introduced, and the situation may be as complex:^ 
as on the Continent itself. 


Trees or shrubs with latex. Monoecious or dioecious. Leaves alternate . (rarely 
opposite); stipules caducous. Flowers usually densely spicate, capitate or efii 
closed in a fleshy, ureeolate receptacle (fig). Male flowers with 8- to 4- partite; 
perianth and 34 stamens opposite the perianth-segments. Female flowers witt|| 
3- to ^partite perianth; ovary 1- or 2-locular, superior; styles' 2. (1). Ovule" 
anatropous or eampylotropous. Fruit a druplet often surrounded by the fiestrjfj 
perianth; d runlets often crowded into syriearps. 

1. Stipule-scar encircling the stem; stamens straight in bud; 
fruits borne on the inside of a fleshy pyriform structure 


3. Ficus 


^uzzz ras 1 ^ stem; -*«»«« ***** ta „»*■ 

1 BUdS With 2 " 3 «**•: syncarp gl ob0se 

Buds with M scalos; syncarp cylindr . cai w ovoM 

1: Brous s»«e«a L'Her. ex Vent 
■flu«s with 2' or 3 scale* ni ■ 

perianth 4-parttte'%tf™ ^oecious. Male flowers in' P .,tf ,-, 
: tomentose head, ni^vf i' inflexed ™ l>ud F i fl™ lke inflo ^scences- 
* Pulp in £$*■■ ^ e ™ denticulate, with 4 Z^SlZVY^' sloh ™- 

x smaii teeth, formmg a layer 

2 - Broussonetia 
2. Morus 

■ ;1 - a Papyrifera (L.) Vent. 

Plate III 

5':.- ■ 

■■■Native of China w, ,..».,. ...' i»wg, uauci). 

;^«ve of China, but wideiy cultivated. 

2. Morus L 
^.-Monoecious or diocious Fi 

i-f 68 """""""' im ° a - '""»'- »<»««, 

^!:# : - M. nigra L. . 
SV, Tata 

K.,[ Tree with stout rou^ h- u Black Mulberry 

1- wigm 
2. alba 

Wig K- alba L. 

^ociated wi t h f a r m , t6acls 

Plate II 

C&wsli bajda 
white Mulberry 

^i£5 W cZ a tTV Mh »""<*«■ Leaves . 18 , ^ 

j^sh, e d ib le ion^cStt 1 ^ s — "/ - i a X s SS :; 

J i->jSc cording to Bora- nft 

. 13 ' 


3. Ficus L. 

Leaves usually lobed; buds enclosed in the connate stipules. Stipules caducous, 
leaving a circular scar. Monoecious. Flowers enclosed within a fleshy urceolate 
structure. Stamens i, straight in bud. 

. I 

1. F. carica L. Plate III Sigra tat'-tin 


Spreading, deciduous shrub or small tree. Leaves 10-20 cm. long and wide, 
usually palmately lobed, usually cordate at base, scabrid, sparsely hispid beneath, 
Syncarp 5-8 cm. long, pyriform, greenish- or brownish- violet, Fl. 5-6. 

Many cultivars exist and the wild plant, var, caprificus Risso also shows consider- 
able variability. 

Rocky places and old walls. Malta and Gozo; Wild plants are common in the 
valleys, and on rocky ground. It is cultivated in many places (S. & C.G.; Borg), 
Stlli common (G. Lanfraneo; Sell; Wolseley). 

Extensively cultivated and widely naturalized in the Mediterranean region and 
Near East as far as North India, its native distribution is difficult to ascertain. 

F, microcarpa L fil. (V. nitida auct., non Thunb., F. retusa auct, non L.), Fiku 
is widely planted in towns (Valletta, Haslam; Wolseley). 


Herbs, small shrubs or rarely climbers, without latex. Leaves opposite or alter- 
nate, simple, usually stipulate. Flowers usually unisexual. Perianth 4- to 5-merous, 
often persistent. Male flowers with (1) 4-5 stamens opposite the perianth-segments 
and infiexed in bud, often with rudimentary ovary. Female flowers often with 
small staminodes; ovary superior, l-loculan. sometimes adnate to perianth; style 
simple; ovule 1, orthotropous. Fruit an achene. Seeds usually with endosperm; 
embryo straight. 

Leave opposite, variously toothed or lobed, rarely entire 1. Urtica 

Leaves alternate, entire 2. Parietnria 

1. Urtfca L. 

Annual or perennial herbs, usually with stinging hairs. Leaves opposite, usually 
deeply lohed or variously toothed; stipules free. Inflorescence axillary, spike-likes 
with clustered cymes. Flowers unisexual. Perianth 4-merous. Female flowers with 
more or less unequal perianth segments, the 2 larger enclosing the achene. 

1, Stipules 2 at each node 
Stipules 4 at each node 

2. Racemes with numerous female and few male flowers 

2. dubia 

1. mens 

Racemes unisexual, female long-pedunculate with flowers in globose 

heads, male spicate 

3. piluHfera 


'■I. U. urens L. Hurrfeq ARhlr 

Small Nettie 

Annual 10-60 (-80) cm. high, clear green; monoecious. Leaves 1-4 (-6) cm. 

long, ovate, cordate to cuneate at base, deeply serrate; petiole about two thirds 

as long as lamina; stipules 4 at each node. Racemes not more than 15 (-2) 

■;■:; cm. long, with numerous female and few male flowers, crec to -patent in fruit. 

i . ■; Perianth-segments of female flowers ciliate on the margin, glabrous or sparsely 

:;'■; ■hispid on the. back. 2n ~ 24, 26, 52. Fl. 12-1. 

;- Arable and waste places, near habitations, along streets etc. Malta ard Gozo- less 
;■*. common than U. dubia (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley); Coviino; (Borg) 
; North Temperate regions. 

:".;'..2. U. dubia Forskal Plate IV Hurrieq IvOmuni 

U. membranacea Poiret; (7. neglecta Guss. Large-leaved Nettle 

Annual 15-80 cm. high; monoecious. Leaves 2-6 (-10) cm. long, ovate, 
' subcordate at base, serrate; petiole almost as long as the lamina; stipules 2 at 
: each node. Racemes usually unisexual; the lower female, shorter than petiole; 
'■'.'the upper male, longer than petiole, erecto-patent, sometimes bisexual; the 
:: flowers inserted unilaterally on an inflated axis. Fl, 11-5. 

^§0: Near habitations, along streets and particularly abundant in gardens and cultivated 
^places. Malta, Gozo and Comino; very common (S, & C.G,; Borg), Mediterranean 
region, Portugal, Atlantic Islands. 

3. U. pilulifera L. Hurrieq tai-ziheg 

Roman Nettle 
Annual 30-100 cm, high; monoecious. Leaves 2-6 cm. long, ovate, truncate to 
subcordate at the base, serrate or entire; petiole almost as long as the lamina; 
stipules 4 at each node. Racemes unisexual; female long- pedunculate with flowers 
in globose heads; male spicate. Female flowers with inflated perianth. Fl. 2-5. 

.Arable and waste places, Malta: common (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; 
gji ■ Wolseley); in places of high nutrient status (Haslam). Gozo; seems more rare 
""/than in Malta (S. & C.G.). C amino; (Borg). 

Mediterranean region as far as Caucasus, central Europe, East Indies and St. 

2. Parietaria L, 

Annual or perennial herbs,, sometimes woody at the base, without stinging hairs. 
Leaves alternate, entire; stipules absent. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, 
in axillary, bracteate, 3- to many-flowered cymes, one or more in each leaf-axil. 
Perianth green, cylindrical and 4-toothed in female flowers, 4-partite in herma- 
phrodite and male flowers, Achenes enclosed in perianth and sometimes in the 
bracts. ■ 

1. Bracts equalling or exceeding the perianth in fruit; achenes 

brown or olive 3, lusitanica 

Bracts shorter than the perianth in fruit; achenes black 2. 

2, Plant erect, usually more than 30 cm. high; leaves 3-12 cm. long; 

bracts completely free 1, officinalis 

Plant procumbent or ascending, rarely more than 40 cm. high; 

leaves not more than 5 cm. long; bracts shortly connate at base 2. judaica 


I. P. officinalis L. 

Plate IV 

XeM ir-rih 

Upright Pellitory-of-the-Wall 

Usually white inside and yellowish- green or green outside. Stamens 4 or 5. Stigma 
capitate. Fruit a small green nut surmounted toy the persistent dry perianth. 

Perennial; stem 30-100 cm. high, erect, simple or slightly branched, densely 
pubescent. Leaves 3-12 cm. long, ovate-lanceolate or elliptical, long- acuminate; 
petiole shorter than lamina. Bracteoles free, shorter than perianth. Acheues black. 
Fl. 1-12. 

Common in cultivated places, and on rocks and walls, rarer in uncultivated pUces.-|| 
Malta, Gozo and Commo: very common everywhere (S. & C.G.; Borg). m 

Mediterranean region, central Europe and Asia as far as Tibet. 

2, V. judaica L, 

P. diffusa Mert. & Koch. 

P. officinalis var. judaica (L.) Fiori 

Like P. officinalis, but the stem not more than 40 cm. high, procumbent or :J 
ascending, much-branched; leaves up to 5 cm. long, ovate-acuminate; bracteoles;** 
shortly connate at base. , 

With P. officinalis and often replacing it in more open situations (Borg; G.S 

S. & W. Europe, extending to Switzerland and W. Germany. 

3. P. lusltaniea L. subsp. lusitanica Mediterranean ; Pellitory-of -the-Wall^ 

Slender diffuse annual 5-30 cm. high. Leaves up to 4 cm. long, broadly;^ 
ovate-orbicular, Bnicteoles equalling or longer than perianth; perianth not more;;g 
than 1.5 mm. long, the lobes incurved at the apex and connivent in fruit, Achenes=;| 
Drown or olive, the apex symmetrical. Fl- 4-5. 

Shady places, on rocks. Malta: Very rare (G. Lanfranco) as at WiejvJ 
il-Ghasel (Borg; Penza); Maqluha (Wolseley). Gozo: Xlendi (S. & C.G.; Borg);| 
Mgarr ix-Xini (Borg). 
Mediterranean region; subsp. lusitan-ica confined to the western half. 


Herbaceous or woody plants. Leaves alternate, simple, linear, oblong or lanceolate^, 
exstipulate, deciduous or evergreen. Flowers small, hermaphrodite or unisexual^! 
Perianth 3- to 5-Iobed or -partite, tubular to campanulate-rotate. Stamen^ 
3-5 opposite lobes of the perianth. Ovary inferior, 1-celled. Style 1; stigmas 
capitate or lobed. Fruit a small green nut or a drupe. Seed solitary, with abun*| 
dant endosperm. Hemiparasites, growing on the roots of herbs or shrubs. 

1, Thesium L. 

Perennials, rarely annuals, without a rhizome, but often with a woody stock andl 
sometimes producing slender stolons; stems procumbent to erect, simple or| 
branched. Leaves alternate, linear to lanceolate, mostly entire, 1- to 5-veinedvf 
green or yellowish-green. Inflorescence a panicle with few-flowered branches, or| 
a raceme. Flowers small, hermaphrodite, on short branches, with a bract and.j 
usually with 2 braceteoles. Perianth tubular to campanulate-rotate, 4- to S-lobec| 

m :.- ; ;l:: T. Iiumile Vahl 

Xeht ir-rift 

Plate IV 

Field Bastard -Toad flax 

■Annual, Stems 5-20 cm. high, ascending to erect, usually branched from the 

"base with long simple branches: Leaves linear or narrowly linear, rather fleshy, 

-denticulate, 1 -veined. Inflorescence often subspicate, sometimes paniculate. Bract 

:; : 2-5 times as long as flower or fruit; bracteoles usually equalling flower or fruit. 

Perianth infundibuliform, 5-lobed, Nut subglobose, reticulately veined, 5-G times 

y- as long as the persistent perianth. Fl. 3-4, 

'■: ..Fields' and uncultivated arid places. Malta: rather rare, St. Andrews, Delimara, 
: : Wied Incita (S. & C.G.; Borg); Kordin (GD.; Borg); Wardija (Gauci). Goz*: 
Xlendi, Qala (Duthie, S. & C.G.); Mgarr ix-Xini (Borg). 

■ Mediterranean region; Portugal. 


Herbs or woody climbers. Leaves alternate, entire, exstipulate. Flowers solitary 

1 or in axillary clusters, hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, usually 

>3-rnerous. Perianth in 1 whorl, more or less petaloid, forming a tube, 3- lobed 

at : the apex or with a single unilateral lobe; stamens 6 or 12, in 1 or 2 whorls, 

;iree or connate with the stytar column. Ovary inferior, 6-locular; placentation 

■■■., axillary; styles usually 0, free, or connate to form a column with a Globed 

.stigma; ovules numerous. Fruit a capsule. 

1, Arfstolochta L. 

Perennial herbs or woody climbers. Flowers axillary. Perianth zygomorphic, 
■deciduous, the base swollen (utricle), the upper part narrower, more or less 
ycylmdrical (tube); limb unilateral and entire, rarely absent or 3-lobed. Stamens 
■usually 6, in- 1 whorl, connate with stylar column. Fruit a septicidal capsule. 

L A. longa L. 

Plate IV 

Green-flowered Birth worth 

■ Usually branched, glabrescent, 20-80 cm. high; tuber cylindrical. Leaves 20 
(??.): cm. long, ovate-triangular; petioles up to X (-1.5) cm. long. Flowers 3-5 
(■6) cm. long, brownish or yellowish- green, limb brownish-purple; pedicels about 
equalling: petioles; Capsule 1.5-3 cm,, globose to pyriform, Fl. 4-6: 

Rocky places. Malta: very rare (G. Lanfranco); Wied Babu (S. &C.G^; Borg); 
Wied Ghomor (Meade; Borg); Wied Hrejjef (Asphar, fide Gulia); Wied ii zurrieq 
Wied id-Dis (Borg). 

Mediterranean region, but rare in the east; Portugal. 



Herbs without chlorophyll, parasitic on the roots of other plants. Flowers usually 
unisexual, in dense, spicate or capitate inflorescences. Fruit a small, 1-seeded nut; 
seed with abundant endosperm and minute embryo. 



I. Cyiiomorium L. 

Perennial. Male, female and hermaphrodite flowers present. Perianth of 1-5 linear 
to euneate or oblaneeolate segments, partly fused to the ovary in female ana 
hermaphrodite flowers. Stamen 1, epigynous. Style and stigma i. 

1. C. eoccinesim L. 

Plate IV 

Gherq ilgeneral, Gherq sinjur 
Malta Fungus 

Plant dark red to purplish-black. Steins 15-30 cm. high, erect, stout, fleshy, 
arising from a branched underground rhizome, bearing numerous triangular - 
lanceolate scale leaves. Inflorescence fi-12 x 2-4 cm., terminal, cylindrieal-clavate, 
with a stout, fleshy axis on which there Ere numerous, dense, subcapitate cymes 
subtended by triangular-peltate, deciduous bracts. PI. 4-5. 

Near the sea, parasitic on roots of Inula crithmoides and Halimione portulacoides. 
Malta; Very rare (G. Lan franco) as at Dingli Cliffs (S. & C.G.; Borg); Ghallis 
(Penza), Gozo: Cebla tal- Altar and Hagra tal- General (GD). 

Mediterranean region, Middle East, S. Portugal, Canary Islands; very local. 



Herbs, shrubs or climbers without latex. Leaves nearly always alternate; stipules 
often united in a membranous sheath fochrea). Flowers hermaphrodite or 
unisexual; perianth 3- to G-merous, herbaceous, often enlarging and becoming 
mcniDrauous in fruit. Stamens usually 6-9. Ovary superior, unilocular; styles 2-4; 
ovule solitary, basal, Fruit a trigonous or lenticular nut. 

1. Outer fruiting perianth-segments with 3 stout spines 4. Einex 
Outer fruiting perianth-segments not spiny 2. 

2. Perianth segments 6, the inner much larger than the outer 

hi fruit 3. Rumex 

Perianth segments 5, eciual in fruit or the outer larger 3. 

Outer perianth segments not winged or keeled in fruit L Polygonum 

Outer perianth segments winged or keeled in fruit 2. Biiderdykia 

1. Polygonum L. 


Herbs or dwarf shrubs. Leaves variously shaped, always distinctly longer than 
wide. Perianth-segments usually more or less equal, free or united at the base, 
petaloid at. least in part, not winged or keeled. Stamens 8, rarely fewer. Stigmas 
2 or 3. Nut lenticular or trigonous, not winged, enclosed in the persistent 
perianth or protruding from it for less than half its length. 

1. Ochreue white or silvery and hyaline, at least in distal part, 
eventually deeply lacerate; flowers in small, subsessile axillary 
clusters, or in lax, slender, often leafy spikes. 2. 

Ochreae brown, ususJly opaque, entire or fimbriate but scarcely 

lacerate; flowers usually in dense spikes, rarely in lax, leafless 

spikes. 5, 




I, iMriiiinu"' 
2, Perennial; stems woody at base 

Annual; stems scarcely woody at base 
3 Perianth-tube at least half as long as segments; leaves ^ arenastni m 

i uniform in size 

p"erianth-tube very short; leaves on main stem much larger 

than those on branches 
4, Larger leaves 5-18 mm wide; perianth- segments wide, -erlapping,^^ 

Larger leaves 14 mm wide; perianth-segments narrow, not _ ^.^^ 
: B S „ikes la, and slender, with each flower distinctly visible 5. ■aUc.foH*™ 
' spikes dense and stout with the flowers crowded and overlapping 

6, persicaria 
6 Peduncles without glands 
' Peduncles bearing numerous subsessile yellow gland. 

j. P. mariiimiim L. 

Plate IV 

Lewza tal-bahar 
Sea Knotgrass 

,„„,, q . pm „ 10-50 cm, high, procumbent, 
Perennial, with stout, woody stock Stems iu.« . glaucous, usually 

branS stout. Leaves M^J^™%^^££% St the b»c with 
Slackening on ^"s;W„Tw£ above, longer than most of the 
.8.12 eonspictious, branched veins s ^ T tn axillary clusters of M, 

JTir&lik? ^ ^rZ. long^nSg o'r slightly exceeding the penantn, 
glossy, in = 20. Fl. 4-7. fs & CG" Borg); Mersa 

In maritime areas Malta: ™re- ftnejna , SL « n ^ ba ' p waleS; Helheha, Marfa, 
g^^bSf^^VS^Wab, Bor,). Com** 0*1- Sta. Man., 

ZL -es of Atlantic northwards to the Channel Islands; Mediterranean; 

Levria tar-raba 
2. P, avietilare L. Knotgrass 

■a™ „ eii; rnm lanceolate to 

Annual; stems erect o< ' P™™^- ^farS^.han "thos" on the branches, 

ovate, subacute, those on «» ™ n ' stoi i mu* W ^ ^ as Y a the 

Oehreae silvery- hyaline, with fe w faint va« ^ y n()wcra solitary or in apiary 

intercedes; petioles very short, m «"j^™ verv sh ort; segments greenish, J.5 

r e ^: ^u^n ie s-^t./^rss e duii: 2 « - ». - - 

C— and --^r^r^S;^" *" ^ 
p arenastrum. Malta and trozo. sc-aiicitu ^. 

Europe, Asia; introduced into N. America, Australasia, S. America. 


7, P. lapathifuliuni L. 

Pale Persic aria 

I. F. rurivagum Jordan ex Boreau Narrow-leaved Knotgrass 

P. bellardii All. 

Like P. aviculara but smaller: leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, acute or 
acuminate; those of the main stem 15-35 x 1-4 mm., those on the branches much 
smaller; ochreae longer (up to 1 era.), brownish below; flowers few; perianth- 
segments narrow, scarcely overlapping; nut 2.5 3.5 mm., slightly exserted from 
perianth. 2n = 60. Fl. 3-5. 

in fields, among crops. Malta: Marsa (GD.; Borg); Gtiajn Tuffieha, San Aaton 
(Borg), but needs confirming. 

Usually a weed in fields. Distribution uncertain; mainly in W. & S,C. Europe, but 
extending north-eastwards to Sweden. 

Annual; stems up to 80 cm. high, procumbent or erect, simple or branched, 
sometimes spotted with red. Ochreae entire or very shortly ciliate, Leaves ovate to 
linear-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, sometimes with a large blackish spot, glabrous 
or densely tomentose beneath, with pellucid, often yellow glands visible from 
lower surface. Spikes stout and .usually dense; peduncles, and sometimes also 
pedicels and perianth, bearing yellow subsessild glands. Perianth dull pink or 
: greenish- white. Nut Mack, glossy, usually lenticular. 2n ■= 22. PI. 5-10. 

Malta: rare, Mellieha, Ghien Ingraw, tinien Fieres; Burmarrad, Attard (Borg). 
Temperate regions of the northern hemisphere; S. Africa. 

P. equisetiforme Sibth & Sm. a woody perennial 50-120 cm. high has been recorded 
at Fort Manoel (G, & E, Lanfranco). 

4. P. arenas Ircuu Boreau 

Prostrate Knotgrass 

Annual- stems usually less than 30 cm. long, procumbent, freely branched, 
forming a mat Leaves 5-20 x 2.5-5 mm., elliptical or lanceolate, more or less 
uniform in size. Ochreae silvery-hyaline With few, faint veins, less than half as 
long as internodes. Flowers solitary or in few-flowered axillary clusters. Perianth 
tube at least half as long as segments Nut 1.5-2.5 mm. long, included in perianth, 
dull, often with one side much narrower than the other two. 2n = 40, 
This may be the most common form of the P. aviculare aggregate in the Malte** 
Islands. . 

Probably throughout most of Europe, except the extreme north, but distribution 
imperfectly known; introduced into N. America. 

(Plants which have been wrongly referred to P. he.rniarimdes Delile somewhat 
resemble small P arenastrum, but they tire questionably annual. If perennial 
they may merit specific status as P. gussonei Tod. ex Cesati, Passer. & Gibelh (P. 
aviculare var. depressum Meissn.) ). 

P. siilicifoluwti Brouss. ex Willd, 

P. minus var. -serrulatum .(Lag.) Borg 

Willow-leaved Kiiotgraas 

Perennial, with rooting procumbent or decumbent branches. Stems 30-70 cm. 
high, ascending, rather stout. Ochreae strongly ciliate. Leaves 7-15 cm, long, 
linear-lanceolate, glabrous except for strong hairs on the margins and the veins 
beneath. Flowers pink, in long, lax, very slender spikes. Nut 2-2.5 mm. long, 
black, glossy, usually trigonous. Fl. 5-10. 

Damp places and by springs. Malta: rare, tinien il-Kbir, Mtahleb IS. & C.G.; Borg); 
Bahrfja, Onion Ingraw (Borg). 

Wet places and river-banks in S, F.urope. 

tt. P. persuMiria L. 


Annual; stems 20-80 cm. high, erect or ascending. Ochreae shortly ciliate. 
Leaves up to 15 x 3.5 cm., lanceolate, often with a large blackish spot, glabrous 
or occasionally tomentose beneath. Spikes cylindrical, dense, usually stout. 
Perianth bright or pale pink. Nut black, glossy, usually lenticular, 2« - 44 -. F1 - 5 ; 9 - 

Along streams. Malta: rare, Gnien il-Kbir, Mtahleb, Fiddien, Bahrija, Rdum il- 
Qawwi near Mellieha (S. & C:G.; Borg); Cnien Ingraw (Borg). 

Ruderal, and weed in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. 

2. Bllderdykia Dumort. 

Stem twining or procumbent; leaves deltate or cordate sagittate, petiolate. 
Ochreae truncate. Flowers in lax, spike-like or paniculate terminal and lateral 
inflorescences. Perianth- segments 5(-6); the outer 1 3 larger, keeled or winged. 
Stamens S. Stigmas capitate, subsessiie. Nut triquetrous, not exceeding the 

,!;■'.' B. convolvulus (L.) Dumort. 
'Polygomum convolvulus L. 

Plate IV 

Leblicba hadra 
Black Bindweed 

Puberiilent or slightly mealy. Stem up to 1 m. long, angular, twining or 
spreading. Leaves 2-6 cm. long, acuminate. Flowers in narrow, spike like 
inflorescences. Pedicels not more than 3 mm. long, even hi fruit, articulated 
above the middle. Perianth-segments greenish- white, accrescent, the outer ones 
/keeled or slightly winged in fruit (rarely with broad wings). Nut 4-5 mm., finely 
granular, dull black. 2n ' = ' 40. FL 5 9. ■ 

■ TJsually in gardens and irrigated land. Malta: uncommon, Hamrun, Attard, Lija, 
Balzan, MsKla, fcabbar, Birzebbuga (Borg); Burmarrad (Borg; Gauci); San Pawl 
Kt-Targa (Wolseley). Gozo: rare, Mgarr, Xlendi (Borg), 

.■Cultivated ground and waste places. Europe (except the Arctic), N. Africa, 
temperate Asia; introduced in N, America and S. Africa, 

3. Kumex L. 

Herbs, rarely shrubs, usually with long, stout roots, sometimes rhb.omatous. Leaves 
alternate; ochreae tubular. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, arranged in 
: whorls on simple or branched inflorescences, anemophilons. Perianth-segments 
in two whorls of 3, the outer remaining small and thin, the inner becoming en- 
larged and often hardened in fruit. Valves (fruiting inner perianth-segments) 
sometimes developing marginal teeth or dorsal tubercles as they mature. 
Stamens in two whorls of 3; anthers basifixed. Fruit a trigonous nut. 

I. Shrub; leaves pvute-spathulate, often wider than long 1. lunaria 

Herbs, sometimes woody at base; leaves usually longer than wide 2. 

Valves with distinct teeth more than 1 mm, long 
Valves entire, of with very smaO or indistinct teeth 




3. Pedicels slender, thin, articulated below the middle, deciduous, 

longer Uian the vaives 2. conglomerate 

Pedicels thick, persistent, articulated near the middle ; but scarcely 
deciduous, about as long as the values ,3. pulcher 

4, R. hucephalophorus L. 

Plate V 

1. R. lunaria L. 

Tree Sorrel' 

Shrub xvith flexuous branches. Leaves 2.5-5 x 2.5-8 cm., often wider than;, 
long, broadly ovate-spa thy j ate, truncate at the hase, rounded at the apex. 
Inflorescence a compound panicle. Outer perianth-segments 2 mm. Jong,;;; 
lanceolate, defiexed. Valves 5s 7 mm. long, renif or m orbicular, narrowly cordate 
at base, rounded or truncate at apex, with a small!, flat, quadrangular tubercle; 
near the base; margin entire. Nut 3 x 1.3 mm., widest a little below the middle. 
Fl. 4-6. 

Malta:, cultivated for ornament and sometimes naturalised as at Buskett (Borg), ' 

Native of the Canary Islands; naturalized in Sicily and Sardinia. 

2. R. cons lom eratns Murray 

Clustered Dock 

Perennial 20-60 cm. high. Plant often papillose. Basal leaves small, fleshy, 
subtended by a leaf. Pedicels about as long as the valves, jointed hear the 
middle. Valves 2.5-3.2 x 1-1.7 mm., oblong-ovate, entire, all tuberculate; tubercles 
often covering nearly the whole valve. Zn = 20, PI, 4-6. 

Along streams. Malta and Goto: common (S. & C.G,; Borg; G. Lanfranco; 
Wolseley). Comino: (Borg). 

Riversides and waste places. Europe, from Scotland, S. Sweden and C. Russia 
southwards; Asia Minor; N. Africa; Azores; introduced in N. America. 

3- R. puldier L: 

Fiddle Dock 

Perennial 20G0 cm, high. Plant often papillose. Basal leaves small, fleshy, 
about twice as long as wide, cordate at base. Panicle open; branches flexuous, 
often entangled or arcuate; whorls all remote and subtended by a leaf. Pedicels 
thick, shorter than to as long as the valve, jointed near or slightly below the 
middle, scarcely deciduous. Valves thick, coarsely foveolate- rugose, very variable 
in size and outline, Fl. 4-6. 

Two subspecies are recorded. Rubsp. pulcher has the valves narrowly ovale 
or oblong with a ligulate apex; teeth oblong, few on each side near the base; 
one or two meshes of venation on each side of the tubercle; branches angular- 
flexuous, often intricate and leaves usually panduriform. If is apparently the 
most frequent subspecies. Subsp. divaricates (L.) Murb. with the valves subor- 
bicular or ovate- triangular, broadly acuminate at the apex; teeth short, up to 8 
on each side; usually S meshes of venation on each side of the tubercles; 
branches arcuate-divaricate and leaves seldom panduriform has been recorded 
from Mtahleb and tmejna (Borg). 

Damp places, by paths etc. Malta: here and there, Mtaliicb, Wied il-Qleigha, 
Ghajn Rifiana, Cnejna etc. (S. & CO.; Borg). Gozo; Mgarr ix-Xini (Borg). 

Mainly ruderal. Western Europe from England southwards; Mediterranean 
region; Hungary, Balkans and Black Sea. 

Kelq hamraru 
Red Dock 

Annual, or rarely perennial, with one or several slender stems; very variable 
in habit and size. Leaves very small. Flowers usually in clusters of 2 n . 
PedSs usually dimorphic; some slender and very short, others long, broad and 
flat. Valves small, variable in size and shape. Fl. u-is. ( 

It is probable that all the plants of the Maltese Islands are referable tc .subsp 

iStdlVp;t. 1 irlnL,r™« 1 , , <.4' ! .n 1 b„»d ,„,. ..... ,„<, .,,,-cs 

usually of two kinds, but all with narrow-based teeth. 

Uncultivated and cultivated places. Malta, Gozo. and Comino: very common every- 
where (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

.Sandy and rocky places, usually near the sea. Mediterranean region. Canary 
Islands and Azores. 

4. Emcx Campd. 

Annual herbs; monoecious. Oehreae not ciliate, soon lacerate Female flowers at 
base of inflorescence; perianth- segments 6, free in male flowers, connate in 
female flowers, the outer 3 spineseent and indurated in fruit. Stamens 4-6. Sa^iS 
3, Nut triquetrous, included in perianth. 

1, E. spinosa (L.) Campd. 

Plato V 

Selq xewwiki 

Spiny Dock 

Glabrous, stems 30 cm. high or more, erect or ascending. Leaves oy:itc. 
truncate or subcordate at base, petiolatc. Male flowers in terminal and as Wary 
pedunculate clusters; female axillary, sessile. Fruit enclosed m psnan.n; outer 
segments ending in patent spines; inner erect, tubercled. Fl. la. 

Open places, both cultivated and uncultivated. Malta: frequent (S. & C.G,; Bovs; 
G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). Gozo.- more rare (S. & C.G.).; (S. & 

'■ Sandy shores and disturbed ground. Mediterranean region, extending to N. W. 
Spain and Azores. 


Herbs, shrubs or rarely small trees, often succulent; glabrous, pubescent or 
farinose with vesicular hairs. Leaves alternate or opposite, exstipulate. Flower? 
hermaphrodite or unisexual, often bracteolate, solitary or in dense cymose 
clusters in a spicate or paniculate inflorescence. Perianth absent or 1- to o-merous, 
often accrescent in fruit; segments usually more or less connate. Stamens 1-5, 
opposite the perianth-segments. Ovary superior, rarely semi inferior, unilocular: 
ovules solidary, basal; stigmas (1-) 2-3 (G). Fruit usually an achtme. heeds 



horizontal (compressed in the vertical plane) or Vertical (compressed in the 
horizontal plane). 

1. Leases flat, the largest usually at least 5 mm. wide, frequently 
toothed, lobed or pinnatipartite 

Leaves filiform, semi-cylindrical, scale-like or apparently absent 

2. Flowers all unisexual; female flowers mostly without perianth, but 
with 2 bracteoies which become enlarged and enclose the fruit 

Klowers mostly hermaphrodite, rarely all unisexual and the female 
with 3 or more perianth-segments 




Bracteoies free, at least in the upper half 
Bracteoies connate almost to the apex 

3, Atriplex 
A. Ilalimione 

A. Perianth-segments in fruit with a tubercle, or horizontal wing or 

keel on the back 5 - lochia 

Perianth .segments in fruit without a tubercle or horizontal wing 
or keel 

5. Perianth segments conspicuously thickened at the base in fruit 
and adhering in groups of 2-4 1. Beta 

Penan th segments neither conspicuously thickened at the base 

in fruit nov adhering-, in groups of 2-4 2. Chenupodium 

g. Stems not segmented; leaves obvious, sometimes small, but then 

Stems segmented; leaves opposite, rudimentary 
7. Braceteoles minute 

Bracteoies conspicuous 
S. Annuals; all b r an ches ' terrain cited by an inflorescence 

Perennials; with many non-flowering branches 
3. Opposite pairs of bracts free, reniform-obrieular 

Opposite pairs of bracts connate to form a segment 

1. Beta L. 

Glabrous herbs Leaves flat, more or. less entire. Flowers hermaphrodite, solitary 
or in few-flowered cymes arranged in a spicate inflorescence. Periantlr-segments 
and stamens 5; ovary semi-inferior, connate with the receptacle in fruit; stigmas 
usually 2-3. Fruits often adhering together by the swollen perianth and 
receptacle. Seeds horizontal. 














1. B, vulgaris L. 

Plate V Selq salvage : 

Sea Beet 

Annual to perennial up to 200 cm. high. Basal leaves ovate-cordate to 
rhombic-CLineate; cauline rhombic to lanceolate. Inflorescence dense, becoming: 


interrupted towards the base in fruit, ebracteate. at least jn the upper half. 
Receptacle pelviform; segments not more than 3 mm. long in fruit, incurved. 
Stigmas usually 2. 2ji = 18, Fl, 3-7. 

The native plant has the stem up to SO cm. high, procumbent to erect, root 
usually not swollen, leaves up to 10 cm. long and cymes 1- to 3- flowered, and is 
referable to subsp. maritiiua (L.) Arcangeli (var. perewwis L,), Subsp. vulgaris 
(var. cycla U; var. ssculenta Salisb.) with stems up to 200 cm. high, erect, root 
: swollen, leaves up to 20 cm. long and cymes 2- to: 8-flowered was cultivated 
according to Borg> but is not mentioned by Bowen-Jones et al. (1901). Its 
origin is unknown. 

Uncultivated places, especially rcear the sea. Malta, Gozo and Comino: common 
: . ; (S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley). 

Subsp. ■maritima occurs on the coasts of S. & W. Europe northwards to c. 5!)°N 
in W. Sweden; Azores, N. Africa, and Asia .Minor to the East Indies, Subsp. 
vulgaris is widely cultivated. 

2. Chenopodium L. 

Annual, rarely perennial heebs, glabrous, pubescent, glandular or farinose. Leaves 
alternate, . flat. Flowers hermaphrodite and female, usually in cymes, variously 
arranged. Bracteoies absent. Perianth segments 2-5, more or less unaltered in 
fruit, rarely becoming fleshy; stamens 1-5; stigmas 2 (-5). Seeds usually horizontal. 

1. Plant pubescent, with yellow or amber-coloured glands or glandular 

hairs, aromatic, not farinose 1. anibrosioides 

Plant glabrous or farinose, eglandular, not aromatic 

Inflorescence axes and outside of sepals glabrous (rarely sparsely 
farinose) 3. urbkum 

Inflorescence-axes and outside of sepals 4. conspicuously fariiiose, 
at least when young 

Plant smelling strongly of decaying fish; leaves entire or with 
a single angle on one or both sides towards the base 2, 

Plant not smelling of decaying fish; leaves often more or less 
dentate or lobed 





-.4, Seeds'iwith acute margins; testa with minute, very close, rounded 

pits; leaves often strongly dentate, not at all 3-Iobed 4. murale 

Seeds with obtuse margins; testa smooth, furrowed or with much 

larger pits; leaves variable 5. 

:5. Leaves (at least the middle and lower cauline) almost or quite as 

wide as long; inflorescence very grey-farinose 5. opulifolium 

Leaves (except the most juvenile) at least one and a half times as 

long as wide; inflorescence usually not very grey-farinose f>. 

6. Plant usually deep green (though often more or less marked by grey); 
stems often reddish; leaves usually ovate -lanceolate, ,dentate or 
entire; testa with shallow widely spaced radial furrows c album 


Want usually rather brivM ~i 

cauline leaves .i^ gl ! tgauces ^t greeii' ,t P m. * 

1- C. ambrosioides L. Urr0WS 7 ' "wctem^ 

Ghobbejra tfuh te fal 

lanceolate, Sr" ELiT' ^ ^ ^V sesVlf' ?"*** ""•*$ 

2 - C. viilvaria L. 

®!°*>»ejra tinten^J 
Annual (4.) 1 -6S cm hi eh n™ . Stinking Goose/oof! 

densely srei},!," ""'? "Wh on each m „S„ ',, ,J ™' '"W flmmblc toov,,. 

* C, urbicum L. ' :■] 

Annual (4.) 1 5-100 cm hirt, < .-Upright Goosefoot 

Sf ? Ail ViJ5$«v& «™ KXTif ' ""»-■ — ■< 

jtly keeled above. Seeds 1.2-1.5 mm. in diameter, black, horizontal, acutely 
joined; pericarp adherent; testa closely and minutely pitted. 2ii = 18. FI. 3-11. 

Ilral; and along paths. Malta, Gozo and Comino: common (S. & C.G.; Borg; 

§!&;: of. Europe; N. & S. Africa; S,W. & S. Asia; Introduced in America and 


C, Opuli folium Schrader ex Koch 

Ghobbejra griza 
Grey Goosefoot 

l&s Annual 60-150 cm. high, erect, much-branched, green to almost white, rarely 
' d-tlriged, more or less grey- farinose. Leaves (at least the middle and lower) 
hijinMc-ovate, almost as wide as long, usually with a short, prominent lobe on 
< side, otherwise entire or with several teeth. Inflorescence a very grey- 
fctiose panicle. Sepals 5, keeled. Seeds 1.1-1.5 mm. in diameter, black, obtusely 
Ifeeled; testa not pitted. 2n = 54. Fl. 5-9. 

f&a '.cultivated places. Motta: eommon (S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolselcy). 

l%ost: of Europe, but only as a casual in the north; N., E. tropical and S. Africa; 
0M&& 'Minor; C. Asia; introduced in N. America. 

W&'C. alburn L. 

Plate V 

Ghobbejra bajdanija 
Fat Hen 

!£$;';: Annual 10-150 em. high, usually erect, green or red-tinged (especially on the 
l^fitem), more or less grey-farinose. Leaves 1.2-8,2 s 0.3-5.5 cm., very 

.$tfia;ble, rhombic-ovate to lanceolate, mostly at least one and a half times as 
fffilchg <* s wide, entire, or shallpwly dentate, soma times nsure m Less 3-lobuOL 
li; inflorescence a spicate or cymosely branched panicle. Sepals 5, keeled outside. 
Heeds' 1.2-1.6 (-1.85) mm. in diameter, black, obtusely margined, usually marked 

■ faint radial furrows, otherwise almost smooth. Fl. G-10. 

¥i\ : - '■ ■ 

:|ii';- cultivated places. Malta and Gozo: very common (GD: Gulia; Borg: Wolseley). 

Iffe' sliest of Europe; N. & S. Africa; Asia; America, Australia. 

.7,' C. suectcum J. Murr 
V G. viridt auct., non L, 

Broad-leaved Fat Hen 

M «st of Europe: SW * r *„■ . 

*>-W * C Asia; introduced in N, America. 

<■ C. muralc h. 

Ghobbejra hadra 
Nettle-leaved Goosef oot 

Annua] up to 90 cm hi^h , kettle-leaved Goosefoot 


-~— «"i.jjcu, more 
dentate, not 3-lobed 
■ leafy, sepals 5, 

Annual 10-150 cm. high, usually a rather bright glaucescent green, somewhat 
farinose when young. Cauline leaves ovate-rhombic, with sharp ascending teeth. 
Inflorescence a rather lax cyme. Sepals 5, keeled outside. Seeds 1,2-l.G (-1.85) mm. 
in diameter, black, obtusely margined, with numerous, close, well-marked furrows. 

■2ti = 18. 

In cultivated places. Malta: Wied Ger?:uma, Attard and Cnien it-Kbir (Borg). 

N., C. & E, Europe, and Asia; occasionally naturalized elsewhere. 

According to Borg, C. giganteuin D. Don (C. album var, amaranticolor Coste 
:'& Reyn.) which differs from C. suecicum J, Murr in being 200-300 cm. high, with 
the young parts of the plant being conspicuously tinged with reddish-purple, and 
with large rhomb ic-deltate leaves up to c. 14 cm. long and wide, was cultivated 
as a pot herb and used as Spinach, and became naturalised in many gardens, 
Spinacea oleracea L., Spinach ,is widely grown as a vegetable. 


3. Atriplex L. 

Annuals or small shrubs; glabrous or farinose. Leaves flat. Flowers usually:^ 
unisexual. Male flowers with 5 perianth-segments and 5 stamens. Female flowers.-] 
without perianth hut with 2 large persistent bracteoles, free or connate up to! J; 
the middle; rarely some female flowers with 4- to 5- lobed perianth; stigmas 2: 
Seeds vertical, often dimorphic, rarely some horizontal. 

1. Shrubby perennials 2: 

IgF! : 3. A, rosea L. 

Rosy Orache 


2. Leaves ovate-rhombic or deltate 
Leaves lanceolate 

3. Bracteoles becoming hard in fruit; stems terete or angled 
Bracteoles not becoming hard; stems strongly ridged 

4. Cymes axillary, except the uppermost 
Cymes in terminal, leafless, often long panicles 

5. Lower leaves cuneate at base 
Lower leaves truncate lit base 

1. halimusj 

2. mollis : 


■ 5^ 

3. rosea 

4. tatarica! : 3| 
5- patuht 

6. hastata M 

1. A. lialimiis L, 

Haxixa mielha, Bjanfeav 
Shrubby Orache 

Erect stout shrubby perennial up to 250 em. high, silvery-white. Leaves up'H 
to 4 cm. long* ovate-rhombic or deltate, almost coriaceous, entire or rarely dentate,: 
Cymes remote, in a paniculate inflorescence. Bracteoles orbicular-ovate to orbicu|ar:j 
or reniform, entire or dentate, usually without appendages on the back. 2n = lSl 

Fl. 8-11, ■;• 

Var. gussoneatiuni Gulht with dense cymes and the bracteoles in fruit somewhat^H 
triangular was recorded by Borg from Malta; Biriebbuga and Gozo: Marsalforh. " 

Near the sea. Motto: formerly rare, on the bastions and in the ditches of Valletta, 
Birzebbuga, Marsascala (S. & C.G.); Mellieha Bay {Wolseley; Gauci); now widely : ; 
planted (Gauci). Gozo: Wied Xlendi (S. & C.G:). ■ 

Mediten'anean region; western France; S. Africa; N. & S, America, i* 

2. A, mollis Desf. 

Silvery Orache 

Shrub up to SO cm. high, much-branched from the base. Leaves 10-20 x 4 mm., 
lanceolate, silvery. Inflorescence paniculate, lax, shortly branched. Bracteoles thin, - 
orbicular, ■ 

Very rare or accidental and now probably extinct. Malta: Xemxija near St, Paul's/ 
Bay (Borg), 

N. Africa and Canary Islands, 

Erect or ascending annual up to 100 cm. high, much-branched, stems smooth 
or angled. Leaves up to 6 x 3 cm., ovate-rhombic or rhombic-triangular, sinuate- 

; dentate, white. Cymes axillary, except the uppermost. Bracteoles up to 12 mm. 

(long, rhombic, dentate, becoming hard in the lower half, usually with large 
appendages pn the back. Fl. 6-11. 

Sandy places by the sea. Malta: rare, St, Paul's Bay, Ta' Xbiex (S. & C; Borg), 

"Ruderal. S. & C. Europe. 

4 V A. tatarica L. 

Tartary Orache 

! Procumbent to erect, much.branched whitish annual up to 150 cm. high; stem 
snwoth or angled. Leaves up to 10 x 7 cm., silvery; triangular-rhombic to tri- 
angular-hastate, irregularly sinuate-lobed, the lowest lobe largest. Inflorescence 
terminal, paniculate or spieate. Bracteoles up to 7 mm. long, orbicular to oblong- 
rhombic,, reticulate- veined, becoming hard in the lower half, with or without 
appendages on the back. 2n = 18. M. 6-11. 

'■MaVa: recorded by Gulia from Marsaskala. 

C. & S. Europe. 

5.-. A putula L. 

Common Orache 

Much-branched annual up to 150 cm. high, slightly farinose; stem strongly 

iritlged. Lower leaves 3-14 x 1-6 em., rhombic -hast ate with cuneate base; the 

tipper lanceolate to linear, entire. Cymes axillary or in long spieate inflorescences. 

Bracteoles 5 (-10) mm, long, broadly rhombic, entire or denticulate, smooth or 

tuberculate on the back. 'In =■ 36. Fl. 6-11. 

■ By' paths and in uncultivated places near the sea. Malta: St. George's Bay near 
Birzebbuga, Marsa (Borg). G020: Xlendi, near Chambray (Borg). 

ffti'dughout Europe north to e, 71° N.; N. Africa; W, Asia; naturalized in N. 


A. hastata L. 

~A. latifolia Wahlenb. 

Plate V 

Selq il-bahar 
Spear-leaved Orache 

Erect or procumbent, stems up to 100 cm. high, usually green, strongly ridged. 
Lower leaves up to 10 x 7 cm., hastate, the base subcordate. Inflorescence 
; paniculate or spieate. Bracteoles not more than 5 mm, long, triangular- rhombic 
;to elliptic-rhombic* dentate. Seeds nearly all small. In = 18. Fl. 6-11, 

;By patbs and in. uncultivated places near the sea. Malta: local (G. Lanfranco) as 
■at Ta' Xbiex, St. George's Bay, Marsaskala (S. & C.G.; Borg); Pwaies, Marfa, 
:Wied Dalam etc. (Borg); Marsa (S. & C.G,; Borg; Wolseley); Ghadira, Pieta 
(Gauci). Gozo: Wied Xlendi (S. & C.G.; Borg); Marsalforn (Wolseley)'. 

ltuderal, usually near the coast. Throughout Europe northwards to c. 71° N. 
hi Norway; N. Africa; Asia. 





L*e Ampler, b ut the bra 

4. Hal 

imione Aellen 


■!■ II 

A«Pte Pormlcoial L eilen 

es connate almost to the 

7. Arthrociiemum Moq. 

apex in f ruj); 

; ° Ume PortulaJa?*^ Uoq 




Hlptticulate, glabrous shrubs. Leaves opposite, scale-like, the bases of each 
WpieiiEaul,- fused to form a segment. Inflorescence spicate, segmented; each 
Ilil^gpient composed of two 3-flowered cymes immersed m the pair of biacts 
||lfefri>m the node above; the flowers of each cyme mure or less equal in 
PP' : cehtral distinctly separating the laterals. Perianth-segments usually 4; 
TSs"^?' ■ ■ * 




Mediterranean ^^^ at the edges of ch , 


Jpfeiof'-each cyme falling to leave a tripartite hollow in the 
||||j||p; seeds greenish-brown to greyish; testa thin, membranous, 
M^p'iwT wit.n short conical or curved hairs 

iHliiPB* .of each cyme falling to leave an undivided hollow in the 
jm§j§fS!rt; seeds black; testa hard, tuberculate 

f rut) co sum 

2. ghKicura 


Pubescent herbs t c „. 
or f„m„. , DS * Leaves 

S. Kochia Roth 

j|||pS|^ : frutieosunt (L.) Moq. 
""fiiite.w«ifl fruticosa (L.) L. 

Shrubby Glass wort. 


1. K 

woffarta (L.) Schrader 

Tr.. a ^i. Plate VI ■S'lilSI 

wScSSSS? f2° ?»■ Wgh ' L — up to M ^er C ypi |f 

-te-obtus, SmtS^^i.r^ 3 * S 'ffi fl j b hB "^» 

*<*«■• widely cultivated fw , , "" t0 * *^e ™* ^fl 

l^hiall shrub, with creeping subterranean stem forming mats up to 1 m. in 
iMjjj^ter; Aerial stems erect or procumbent, usually stout and not rooting, 
l||Piiegus; cymes clearly not reaching the upper edge of the fertile segment; 
H|||^ucovered with short conical hairs. 2n = 54. PI. 8-11. 

^S,^me places liable to flooding and on maritime rocks. Malta: rare (G. 
IgsfsfEfaRce) as at Marsa, Marsascala, Marsaxlokk (S, & C.G.; Borg); St, Julians, 
5^^ria(GD.; Borg); St. Paul's Bay, Bahar ic-rjaghaq (Borg), 

^psts : :of S.: Europe extending northwards to 47° 1.5' N. in W. France; K. 
Sffita; Asia Minor; Arabia; America. 

&. S. 

Cultivated for its 

ornamental foliage 

'onana, Manoel i,^ 

in C, E. 

& S ' Eur °P«; native of T < 

i>-k. glaucnm (Delile) Ung.-Sternb. 
vSplicomioL macTostaahya Moric. 

Plate VI 

Glaucous Glassy.' or t 


Small flesh h **' HaIocnemi »n Bieb 


Plate Vr 

; uMqre or less erect shrub tip to 1 m, high, glaucous, becoming yellowish-green 
K'Sfiteddish, Cyme protruding, free, falling to leave one hollow in the segment; 
£; [ fl»Wers extending to more than a third of the length of the segment. Seeds 
ftjMack; testa hard, tuberculate; endosperm abundant. 2n = 3fi. PI. 7-11. 

fe|n- Valine places liable to flooding and on maritime rocks. ■ Malta: rare (G, Lan- 
Ifaffanco),. as at Salini, Marsascala, Marsaxlokk (S. & C.G.; Borg); Slicma, St. 

; Julians etc. (Gb.; Borg); Wied Moqbel, Gnallis etc. (Gulia). Gozo: Dwcira (S. 

<;& C.G.; Borg). Comina: Santa Marija, San Niclaw (S, & C.G.; Borg). 

enclosing the stem S?;., h i g !?* bec oi«ing woodv t „„ 

ft? J2SS: •5^'Sir SKfe « *> •« 

ping-leaved Sea Purslatip'-^^Sv i'&»sts of Mediterranean region, Arabia, Canaries, Cape Verde Islands. 


reniform-orbicul utcvnL ^1? SUbtendi 

10 ,t. — ^ c y mes g l0 ^T e S Si 3£T>™X Sfi*. 

Rare i n saline places n„t 

acala (Gulia). ' not Gently r, 

Shores of the Mediterran 

part of l ea v es . c . i mm 

obese branches, a " 

«l"bose. Seeds OJS-o.g rm, 

corded. Malta: St. Julians 

ean ' Black ^ Caspian Seas- 

M etc, <GD<) . Marga 
C Asia; Arabia. 


8. Saliconiia Ij. 

Annual; articulate herbs. Leaves and inflorescence like those of Artftrocnemnm. 
Gymes (!-} 3-flowered, connate with and completely immersed in the bract of the 
segment, the flowers arranged in a triangle, the laterals usually meeting below the 
centra! flower. Perianth 3- to 4-Iobed; stamens 1-2, Seeds with thin membranous 
testa; endosperm very sparse. 


S. ramosissima J. Woods 
S. herbacea auct. 

Plate VI 

Aimer id j a 
Twiggy Glass wort 

,. t „ t„ an ™, hieh typically much branched but some- 
Erect or procumbent up to ^^nifmants- £* gre en, sometimes becom- ., 
time, forming pure stands ,oi ^ small simple plants, .***£ ^^ ^ flQwers d 

ing yellowish-green, frith dark P u f pll ^^ t f aL P sometimes eventually colouring 
aiong the upper edge of thefertfle se .ments ^f^™?^ segments 1.0*6 ■; 
the whole segment. Terminal spike 5-30 ^o mm, wjde at ^ 

s^pSi-rwff: ciSuX srm- a rS O^, - — - " : 

to Zeis' hable to sahne «oodmg^ £ « frequent^ ; ^^- ^^ 
as at Marsaxlokk, Marsaskala, Me heha (£L & u ^> f ° g{' Ge0 rge's Bay (Borg); 

Xlendi (Borg). Filfla- (Gulia, Bor ^- : 

N.W. Europe and W. Mediterranean region. 

/Saline places near the sea. Malta: not common, Marsavlokk, Marsaskala, Ta' Xbiex 
;(S. &C.G.; Borg); Marsa etc. (GD.; Borg); Gncjna, Bahrija, Marfa (Borg); Bahar 
: icrGaghaq, Salini (Wolseley). 

: In suitable habitats throughout most of Europe except the north-east and extreme 
: -north; Russia; E. Asia, East Indies; N. America, 

10. Salsola L. 

-Annuals or dwarf shrubs; glabrous or pubescent. Leaves filiform or semieylindrieal, 
alternate or opposite. Flowers hermaphrodite, with 2 conspicuous bracteoles: 
: PerianthTsegments 5 (3 outer and 2 inner), usually developing a transverse wing 
oh ithe back in fruit; stamens 5; stigmas 2 (-3). Seeds usually horizontal. 

;;l. Shrub 
■ Annual herbs 

3. vermicuiata 


'^Perianth tubular in fruit; lower leaves mostly opposite 1- soda 

:: y Perianth pelviform in fruit; lower leaves alternate or at most 

1-3 pairs opposite 2, kali 

9. Suaeda Forskal ex Scop. 

Atmual or perennial « - ^1^^ 

alternate, semicyhnctrical or flat Blowers hermp^^ ^^ sQme . 

in few-flowered ^^L^SA- o^a narrow transverse wing on the back in 

times with asm " 1 ',S 1 | 3 °( . 5 ) s e 'eds vertical or horizontal, 
fruit; stamens 5; stigmas &■$ \ a>. ni-eu» 

Small shrub; seeds smooth, usually vertical 
Annual; seeds reticulate, usually horizontal 

gW'V.lsL.-Si-.soda L, 

Plate VI 

1. vera 

2. maritima" 

:i. S. vera J.K Gmelin 

Plate VI 

Swejda, Ghobbejra tar-rmied^ 
Shrubby Seablite ;.; 

S. fruticosa -auct. , MW , s . 18 (0 8.) 1-1.5 mm., semieylindrieal,;; 

Small shrub up to 120 em. high. ^es S 18 "^ ^ ^ than ^ 

obtuse or shortly apiculate ^' **^Ud C „&> Fruiting Perianth^ 
Sly -^S^S^S^Sa SSy vertLl- Fl. «* ^ 

Manne rocks, but also on old wans ,,« ^ Mg«: « «£ , (G| 
LallfrallC BanSa e S S SoSfSSi" "™ Bingemmi Xiendi, between Babarf 
^rMarSSS? (STf GG, Borg^Nadur, Xaghra (Borg). J 

S . & W. Europe northwards to c. 53° N. in England; Madeira; Canaries; S% 
Helena, Angola, ' 

Haxixa tar-rmied 
Opposite-leaved Saltwort 

2. S. maritima (L.) Dumort. 

Swejda, Ghobbejra tar-rmied|j 
Common Seablite 

2-vi = 36. Fl, 6-10. 


f:' /Erect glabrous annual up to 70 cm. high. Leaves 20-70 mm, long, semi-cylin- 
■:4rical, ovate 1 at base;, with long-linear, mucronulate apex; the lower opposite. 
^tipper bracts equalling the flowers; bracteoles ovate, with short acumen. Perianth* 
Segments ovate, becoming hardened in fruit, th& margin pectinate -ciliate, trans- 
versely keeled or with a small wing (c. 1 mm. wide) on the back. Stigma longer 
-tltatt styles. Seeds 3-4 mm., vertical, oblique or horizontal. Fl. 710. 

i'ijy the sea in sandy or marshy places; Malta and Gozo: frequent (B. & C.G,; Borg; 
; G, Earifranco; Wolseley). 

JViectiterraiiean region; E. C. Europe; C. Asia as far as Japan. 

j& . S. kali L. subsp. tragus <L.) Nyman 

'^';', ;5. '■. tragus L. 

Haxixa tar-rmied 

sJ'kfErect or diffuse, yellowish, glabrous annual up to 100 cm, high. Leaves 1040 
■item, long, linear-subulate, acuminate. Bracts patent; bracteoles ovate -triangular, 
k with long spine-like apex, swollen and more or less connate at base, longer than 
'{■•Ifte;, flowers. PerianthTsegments ovate, acuminate, soft, with an obscure midvein, 
: Mpt winged. Stigmas longer than style. Fl, 7-10. 

p&ythe sea. Malta and Gozo: more frequent than S- soda (S. & C.G,; Borg; G. 
"i-Earifraneo; Wolseley)! 

Roasts of Europe, Azores, N. Africa, Asia, N. America; subsp. tragus restricted to 
jjSthie- Mediterranean region. 

|;|; '. S, vermlculata L. 

Shrubby Saltwort 

.?- Pubescent, virgate shrub up to 100 cm. high. Leaves 5-10 x 0:5-1 mm., semicy- 

g.ltedncal to filiform, expanding into an ovate base, semi-amplexicanl, obtuse, 

j^ually pubescent.. Primary branches oi the inflorescence up to 20-40 cm, long, 

v with regularly arranged secondary branches. Bracts ovate with a filiform apex; 

i". 33 


Hocks bv the to, i/t„jj ■:J» 

»*bbi, B.^.^* ,^ *ar Mlto k k . and below Dingli (S . 4 c.G, B<f 

W. Mediterranean region snd S . Portuga , /•« 

altiyated ground near the sea. Malta: rather rare (G. Lanfranco) as at Marsa, 
"aftieb, Wied Gerzuma, Bahrija {Borg); Attar d {Penza). 

Situralized or a casual in most of Europe; native of N. America, 


.Perianth segments (4-) 5 
Penanth segments {2-) 3 

A. retroflcxus L. 

4- deflexus: 

2. albus 

3- graecfeanijl 

Stems 15-100 mi Wi, * , Common Amaranth^ 

Denb id-dib abjari 
Stems 10-50 cm hi^b „„»„+ White Amar anth 


pIS: A. graecizans L. 

A. angustifolius Lam.; A. aylvestris Vill. 

Ghobbejra hamra 
Southern Amaranth 

, I. Amaranthus L L :| 

I: Perianth segments M-i , vertically compres^f 

■ : :W 

|pK -Stems up to 70 em. high, usually erect, usually glabrous. Leaves 2-4 x 1-2 cm.. 
^Ma.te or elliptic-rhombic, usually acute. Inflorescence of axillary cymose clusters! 
1 ""fiprjfa.'ctieoles three fifths to three quarters as long as perianth, ovate, muc.ronulate. 
jfcgfejanth-scgments 3, 1.3-2 mm, long, ovate -lanceolate, acute. Fruit longer than the 
||l|erianth, somewhat muricate, dehiscing transversely, with green longitudinal 
ISyefts when young. Fl. 6-10. 

!§§!§;. cultivated places, and along garden paths. Malta: common (S. & C.G.; Bora). 
Wifeozot -.common, especially in fields and gardens around Rabat (Borg). 

p£.S ; . -Europe, introduced throughout most of Europe and sometimes naturalized. 

P¥^; A.- defiexus L. 


Plate VI Gftobbejra, Dcnb id-dib lixx 

jgft ;■■■: Large -fruited Amaranth 

>-'.. .Procumbent perennial up to 40 cm. high, densely puberulent in the upper 
Impart. Leaves 3-5 cm. long, rhombic-ovate, obtuse; margin finely undulate. Infior- 

^Seence usually dense, terminal, spicate, becoming interrupted and leafy towards 
■.J; tile base. Bracteoles a third to half as long as the perianth, ovate, wide at. the 
f;We, mucronate. Perianth- segments 2-3, 1.2-1.5 mm. long, linear to oblong- 
; - ; sj>athulate. Fruit 2.5-3 mm. long, oblong-ovate, inflated-membranous, smootli, with 
';'-vT (inll green longitudinal veins not dehiscing transversely. Seeds much smaller 
:': ; than the fruit. Fl. 5-10. In cultivated places. Malta: infrequent (G. Lanfranco 
■as at San Anton (Borg; S. & C.G.; Wolseley); Altard, Lija, Buskett. Valletta, 

Fioriana Glacis (Borg). Goto: Rabat (Borg, Penza). 

-Naturalized in S, Europe; casual elsewhere in Europe; also found in remainder of 
.'Mediterranean region, southern Asia, Java and America. 

;£* cattdatus L., Lpve-lies-bleeding, with long pendulous red or rarely green 
] inflorescences, according to Borg was cultivated for ornament and often 
naturalised in gardens, 


Herbs, shrubs or woody climbers, often with swollen nodes. Leaves simple, entire, 
exstipulate. Flowers solitary or in small terminal umbels (rarely in whorls), 
subtended by bracts which often simulate a perianth. Perianth petaloid, tubular, 
with a short, 5-lobed Jimo; lower part of tube persistent and concrescent with. 
the fruit to form an achene-like anthocarp. Stamens usually 3-5. Ovary 
superior, l-celled, containing a single ovule. 

J. Mirabilis L. 

Perennial herbs with opposite leaves. Flowers in axillary cymes, each flower 
surrounded by a tubular or narrowly campanulate, calyx-like involucre of 5 
bracts. Perianth infundibuhform, with a long tube, contracted above the ovary, 
and a spreading, plicate, slightly 5-lobed limb. Stamens 5. Anthocarp coriaceous 


1. M. ]aiapa L. 

Plate VII 


w o Rftino era high, erect. Leaves ovate, v| 
Glabrous or slightly ■ pubescent- Stems i^^ opening in the afternoon £ 
ST^nS, a^^^C^;^ c. . mm. . —r, tube | 
25-35 mm. long- Fl. 12-6. wolseley) 

Cultivated and oae, escaping. Malta and Co« : frequent (Borg, 

, , > B cultivated for ornament elsewhere. 
Native of Tropical America, cultivated io 


i-,,^ IT! nwers in racemes. Perianth- : .i 

bale, each containing a single ovule. :M 

1 Phytolacca L. " ( 5| 

carpels 10 or fewer. 1-ruit a. oeny- 

Her,, somewhat wood, at base; flowers hermaphrodite; racemes 


Dioecious tree: racemes drooping 

P, americana L. 

P. decandra L. 


Bussett ,., 

*-'<■" ■.-■ Widely planted in the Mediterranean region; native of S, America.- 

"■According to Borg, Rivina humills L. and R, laevis L„ natives of Tropical -America, 
are often planted as ornamental shrubs, and frequently become almost naturalised 
as at San Anton, Argotti, Li.) a and Attard.. 

p. clioica L- 

Plate VII 

Tree Pokeweera 

p. dioica L. T ■ „ ft19 v 25 .R cm , evergreen! 

Dioecious small tree with stout ^^^Xojng* Perianth-segments J 

perianth. Carpels 7-10, united M Li] | 

(Gauci). Gow Ghajnswlem (S. & CO.). 



Herbs or shrubs. Leaves usually opposite and fleshy. Calyx tubular or turbinate, 
often with fleshy lobes. Petals usually numerous. Ovary usually inferior. Fruit 
wood, and opening on moistening, or fleshy and indehiscent. 

1. Leaves ovate-cordate 3- Apienia 

Leaves not ovate-cordate -2. 

^2. Stigmas 8-20; fruit fleshy; seeds embedded in mucilage 1. Carpobrotus 
;;"■: Stigmas 5; fruit a woody capsule; seeds no>t embedded in 

mucilage .'-.-. 2. Mesenibryantbenium 

• : . 1. ■ Carpobrotus N.E. Br. 

^Procumbent woody perennials. Leaves opposite, 3-angled, very fleshy. Flowers 
IptK solitary, peduncled. Petals numerous. Stigmas 8-20, Ovary inferior; fruit fleshy, 
fcife irid^hiscent; seeds embedded in mucilage, 
iltjieaves glaucous, broadest at or above the middle; stamens 


■Leaves not glaucous, not broadening above the base; stamens 
■ yellow 

m: ! ' 

F1 - fi " 12 " o-„ Anton fortifications and ditche|| 

of Valletta (i>. &. C.U., noi B ), -.m 

" WOlKCl T' Cnltiv,ted for ornament and for dye from ^-^^f 
E^e7in ^uSc, and locally or as casual m C. .J 


1. aeiaaeiformis 


; l.C, acinacifprmis (L.) L. Bolus Plate VII 

;■■;■'■. .'Mesembryanthemum acinaeiforme' L. 

Xuxet San Cwann 
Glaucous Hottentot Fig 

■; : :': : : V:Stems up to 2 rri. high. Leaves glaucous, broadest at or above the middle, 
Abruptly contracted to the acute apex; dorsal angle horny. Flowers c. 12 em, in 
"diameter, purple; stamens purple, Fl. 3-6. 

^fifcarine slopes and rocks. Malta, Goso and Camino: widely cultivated and naturalised 
" jSprg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

^"Naturalised on the coasts of S, & S.W, Europe; native of S. Africa. 

0!:.C. edulis (L.) N.E. Br. 
i' : : [-['Mesembryantkemum. edide L. 

Hottentot Fig 

Stems up to several metres long. Leaves not glaucous, not broadening above 
Ipth'e middle, tapering gradually to the acute apex; dorsal angle serrulate. Flower:; 
'*'%£. 9 cm. in diameter, yellow or purple; stamens yellow. 2w = 18. Fl. 3-4. 

^Naturalized in old gardens, and waste places near old buildings (Borg). 

Wative of S. Africa. 
fc. : :V -.-'■' 

■'/,, 2. Mesembryanthemum L. 

';:;: {Cryophytum N.E. Br,; Gasoiil Adanson) 

^fjierbs. Leaves fleshy, flat or subterete, alternate or opposite. Flowers solitary or 
}$& -cymes.;' Petals numerous. Stigmas S. Ovary inferior; capsule with 5 valves, 
|$:iypmged on the angles. 


Leaves narrowly oblong, subterete 
Leaves spathulate to broadly ovate 

1. M. nodiflorum L. 

Plate VII 

1. nodiflorum^ 

2. crystiillinii^ 

Kristallina taj-blat 

Round -leaved ' Mesembryanthemiii|J 

More or less procumbent up to c. 20 cm. high. Leaves narrowly oblong, 

subterete, obtuse, glaucous and slightly erystalline-papiilose. Flowers terminal atii ^ 

axillary, solitary, subsessile. Petals shorter than sepals, yellowish or white, Fl, .4^S,| 

Sandy and rocky places near the sea. 'Malta. and Gozo: common (S. & C.G.; Borf| 
G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley; Hasiam). Cominotto (Duthie). Filfla (S. & C.G; Bovgw 
Comino and Selmun (Borg; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region extending to C. Portugal; Canary Islands and S, Africa. 

2. M, crystallimun L. Kristallina tar-ramel 

Silvery-leaved Mesembryanthennuni 

hike M, nodiflorum but whole plant densely crystal] in e-papillose; leavesfl 
spathulate to broadly ovate, flat; petals longer than sepals. Fl. 3-5, 

Sandy places near the sea. Malta: rare (G. Lanfraneo), as at Qala San TumaS^ 
near Marsaskala, Manoel Island (S. & C.G.; Borg); St. Julians, and Kajenza (Borgf|§ 
Ponsonby garden (Gulia); Gzira (GD.; Borg). 

Mediterranean region extending to Portugal; S. Africa; Australia; California ah'£§ 
Canary Islands. 

3. Aptenia .N.E: Br. '% 

Like Mcsembryanthemum but with 4 stigmas and a 4-locular capsule; valves? 
without wings: . :$ 

1. A. eordlfolin ^L. fil.) N.E. Br. Broad-leaved Mesembryanthemtioi ; 

Procumbent perennial. Leaves opposite, ovate -cord ate, finely papillose, fla't£' 

not glaucous. Flowers axillary and terminal, pedunculate. Petals purple. Fl. 3'5-S : 

Naturalized in old gardens and by old buildings (Borg). \->' 

Native of S. Africa. 


Annual or perennial herbs, usually glabrous and fleshy. Leaves simple, entire.: ;| 
Flowers solitary or in cymes, hermaphrodite. Sepals ('bracteoles') 2; netstU; * 
('perianth-segments') 4-6, free or joined below; stamens 3 to many. Ovary:'; 
unilocular, with 1 to many campylotropous ovules on a basal placenta. Fruit a" ; 
capsule; seeds with curved embryo." 

1. Portulaca L, 

Glabrous fleshy herbs with alternate or opposite leaves and small setaceous 
stipules. Flowers often terminal. Petals fugacious; stamens numerous; ovary; 
semi -inferior. Capsule unilocular with a thin wall, dehiscing with a transverse S 
lid. Seeds numerous, reniform. 

1. F. oleracca L. Plate VII Burdlleqa 

Annual with branched stems up to 50 cm. high. Leaves mostly scattered and 
alternate, but. subopposite and crowded below the flowers, obiong-obovate, sessile 
with a cuneate base, shining. Flowers solitary or two or three together, often 


rihsi Seuals c 4 mm long, keeled, joined into a short tube at the base; 
mt 9 8 ™t long obovoid; seeds c, 0.5 mm., black. 2* = 54. Fl. 5-10. 
i^^nn nlant is referable to subsp. aleracea and has the stems procumbent 
ir^t P »^ (Haw.) Celak J"*^? *" d >W n * lfa 
js-and is sometimes cultivated as a salad plant (Borg). 

tuliivated places. Malta and Gozo: very common (S. & C.G, Borg; G. Lanfraneo; 

feeley). Comino: common (Borg). 

m sd of cultivation in temperate and warm regions all over the world; native 
ttpge unknown. 



Kice as TJy. more rarely a fruit, berry or achene. 

ffl&.,. : . 

pi^tipules present, though sometimes caducous 
""" "Stipules absent 

B fSFVuit with persistent inflated peduncle, and crowned by 
sSfe .processes 
'Fruit not so 

S&'OStigmas 1 or 2 
I Stigmas 3 or 5 

If ^Leaves aristate; plant erect _ 

t/vLeaves not aristate; plant procumbent 

^■'Leaves- obovate or orbicular 

^Leaves subulate, linear or linear -lanceolate 

mi -Sepals free, or joined only at base 

Sepals joined to form a distinct calyx-tube 

Kl Capsule teeth as many as styles 
J ' Capsule teeth twice as many as styles 

sg; Style;; fewer than sepals 
.Styles as many as sepals 

»*■■■' Capsule teeth shallow!? bifid; leaves ovate 
"' ;Capsule teeth entire; leaves subulate 

WHn TVrals bifid to at least halfway 

m - -Petals bifid to less than halfway, or entire 

Igjjfl-:-'-' -Styles 3 
Styles 5 


iy spiny 





. 4. 

Hern (a Ha 

Poly carp on 



2. Minna vtia 





12, Calyx tube without commissural veins; styles 2 or 3 14. Vaccaria 

Calyx tube with commissural veins alternating witli the mid-veins 
of the s-epals; styles 3-5 13. 

1.3. Capsule-teeth twice as many as styles or teeth bifid 13. SiJene !; 

Capsule-teeth as many as styles, entire 12. Agrosteniiua"' 

' ~ j 


Leaves opposite; stipules absent. Petals usually well developed; sepals free or| 
joined only at base, 

1. Arenaria L. 

Annual, biennial or perennial herbs. Leaves opposite, entire, very variable su-i 
shape from orbicular to subulate. Flowers usually in few-flowered cymes, sorcKsl 
times solitary, 5-merous (rarely 4-merous). Sepals free; petals usually entire^T 
white (or very rarely pink); stamens (S) 10; styles 3 (-5). Capsule conical tsf 
cylindrical, dehiscing with twice as many teeth as styles; teeth narrow, acuti^ 
.Seyds several, reniform, usually dark brown, smooth, tuberculate. 

1. A. serpyllifolia L. subsp, lcptoclados (Reiehenb.) Nyman Thy me -leaved Sandwort'! 

Plate VIII 

A slender scabrid-puberulent, often glandular annual, rarely biennial; stems! 
3-30 cm, high, usually profusely branched at the base, ascending or erect. Leaves* 
2.5-8 mm. long, broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 3- tag 
5-veined, the lower petiolate, the upper sessile. Flowers in diffuse diehasia^J 
petlicnls usually longer than sepals. Sepals acute, 3- to 5-yeined; the inner wij:h| 
a scarious margin, the eenral green part being one third to a half the wldtte 
of the sepal; petals a half to two thirds as long as the sepals, white. Capsul^ 
less than 3 mm. long, slightly exceeding the sepals, straight-sided. Ripe see;l|| 
0.4 x 0.4 mm. 2m = 20. Fl. 3-5. 

Malta: very rare, Bubatira near 2urrieq (S. & C.G.; Borg). 
Dry, usually sandy places, almost throughout Europe. 

2. Mimiiirtia L. 

Like Arenaria but leaves usually narrowly lanceolate, setaceous or subulalSj 
capsule dehiscing with as many teeth as .styles; capsule-teeth wide and obtus2,$ 
seeds 1 to many, smooth, tuberculate or fimbriate, (AUine auct.; Rh.odalsi'ti.|i 

1. Perennial; petals pink 
Annual; petals white 

3- geniculate 

2. Capsule shorter than sepals; sepals 2-3 (:3.25) mm. long; seeds 

0.3-0.4 mm, in diameter ■ 1. viscosa 

Capsule 1-1J- times as long as sepals; sepals (2-) 34 mm. long; 

seeds (0.3-) 0.4^).fi mm, in diameter 2. hybrida 

1. 31. visecsa (Schreber) Schinz & Thell, Viscid Sandwort! 

A'isine te-nuifatia -par. uiscosa Schreher 

Annual with rather slender, erect stems branched usually from above .-till 
middle; branches usually erect, more rarely erect-patent; plant glandular! 
pubescent, often densely so, rarely glabrous. Leaves 4-9 (-12) mm. long, lines r| 
subulate Cymes lax; pedicels 3-8 mm., slender. Sepals 2-3 (-3.25) mm., lanceolate;^ 


"petals distinctly shorter than sepals. Capsule shorter than sepals. Seeds 0.3-0. -i- 
fffim., almost smooth, 2« = 46, Fl, 3-C. 

.Uncultivated places. Malta: rather rare, Valletta glacis (Crocefisso ) ; Marsa, 2urrieq 
:-(Nigret); Hagar Qim, Mnajdra (Borg). Gozo; (Guiia). 

Widespread) but local in continental Europe. 

2. M, hybrida (Vill.) Sehischkin subsp, hybvida Fine-leaved Sandwort 

Alsine tenuifolia (L.) Grants: 

■■ Annual, with erect stems 3-10 cm. high, branched at the base and from above 

■ the middle; plant usually glandular- pubescent, at least above, rarely glabrous. 
■Leaves up to 12 mm. long, cymes lax, many-flowered; pedicels 5-20 mm. long. 
>£'epals 3-4 mm, long, linear to ovate lanceolate; petals white,' slightly shorter -than 

the sepals; anthers yellow. Capsule one to one and a half times as long as thi 
■■"sepals. Seeds (0,3) 0.4-0.6 mm, minutely tuberculate, reddish-brown. Fl. 3.-6.' 

; Uncultivated places. Malta: rather rare, Hagar Qim, zurrieq, Marsa (S. & CO.; 

■ Borg); Kordin (Duthie; S. & CO.); Mnajd^a (Borg); Floriana (Penza). 

iBry. sandy places S. & W, Europe, extending northwnrds to England, C, Germany 
■■and S, Ukraine; Siberia; occasionally naturalized elsewhere. 

3V : M, . geniculata (Poiret) Then. 

■a. ■ ,-. Alsine procumbens (VahU Fenzl. 

Plate Vfil 

Ramlina Ghawdxija 
Woody Sandwort 

Glandular- pubescent perennial; stems up to 30 cm. high, woody at base, 
^procumbent and ascending, geniculate, much-branched: Leaves (4-) 0-10 (-12) s. 
i-fQiS:) 1-2 (-2.5) mm., elliptical to linear, with one prominent vein beneath. 
; Itowers axillary and in terminal cymes; pedicels one and a half to six times 
fas: long as the sepals. Sepals 3-4 mm. long, oblong-ovate, usually obtuse, appearing 
; yein-less, with a wide scarious margin; the pink petals ana* capsule about equalling 
U the sepals. Seeds 0,5-0.8 mm,, margin slightly rugose FL 4-5; 

-Open arid places, near the sea. Malta: rare. Maria peninsula (S. & C.G.; Borg); 
: ; llas il-Pellegrin (GD.; Borg); Cnejna, Ghajn Tuffleha. (Borg). Gaza: in mz-ny 
; places on the eoast and sometimes abundant, e.g. at Dwejrai, Ramla, MarsaH'orn, 
i^Ta'Ceiic etc (S, & C.G ; Borg). 

.'■VBry sandy places, often by the sea. Mediterranean regions; Portugal; Canary 
.^islands. ' 

J ; " 3. Stellaria L. 

..Annual or perennial herbs. Inflorescence usually a dichasium; flowers rarely- 
solitary or 2 together; bracts scarious or herbaceous. Sepals 5; petals 5 or fewer, 
■Irof absent, white, rarely greenish, usually deeply bifid: stamens 10 (11) or fewer, 
•or absent; nectaries usually present; styles 3. Fruit a globose to cylindrical 
capsule, dehiscing with fi teeth usually to about the middle. 

1, Stems hairy all round l. 

Stems with 1 (2) lines of hairs, or rarely glabrous 

media subsp. cu pan jar* 

:'?.■■ -Stamens' (2-) 10* (11); seeds usually 1.1-1.7 mm. in diameter; 
petals equalling or exceeding sepals 2. neg!ect« 






Stamens (0-) 3-5 (-10); seeds usually less than 1.3 mm. in diameter; 
petals usually shorter than sepals or absent 

Sepals usually more than 3 mm, long; seeds usually more than 0.8 mm. 
in diameter, dark reddish -brown; petals usually present 

I. media subsp. media 

Sepals usually less than 3 mm. long; seeds usually less than 0.8 mm. 
in diameter, light yellowish-brown; petals absent (rarely 
minute) 3. pallida 

1. S. media (L.) Vill. 

Plate Vin 

Harira bajda 
Common Chickweed 

Stems up to 90 cm. high. Lower leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, with long 
petioles; upper more or less sessile. Inflorescence few-or many-flowered; pedicels: 
patent or erect in fruit. Sepals 3-7 mm, long; petals shorter than or slightly 
longer than sepals; stamens (0-) 3-10. Seeds usually dark reddish-brown. 

Subsp. media has the stems up to 40 cm, high, with 1(2) lines of hairs, or rarely- 
glabrous; leaves usually glabrous; inflorescence glandular, lax or dense; sepals 
usually 3.5 mm. long; petals equalling or slightly shorter than sepals, or absent 
(var. apetala Gaudin); stamens (0-) 3-5 (-10); seeds usually 0.8-1.3 mm. in diameter 
with rounded, rarely conical tubercles. 2m = 40, 42, 44. Subsp. cupaniana (Jordan 
& Fourr.) Nyman has the stems up to 90 cm, high, pubescent all round through- 
out, usually glandular; leaves puberulent or pubescent, often glandular; inflores- 
cence densely glandular pubescent, lax; sepals usually 6-7 mm. long; petals 
equalling or slightly longer than sepals; stamens usually 10; seeds 1.3-1.5 mm, in 
diameter with conical tubercles. 

Gardens, fields, other disturbed, open habitats. Malta, Gozo and Comino: common 
(S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Mainly ruderal. Throughout the cold and temperate regions of both hemispheres. 

2. S. neglecta Weihe '^ Greater Chickweed 

S. media var. neglecta (Weihe) Fiori et var. grandiflora sensu Borg 

Stems up to 80 em. high, with 1 line of hairs down each internode, eglandular. 
Lower leaves ovate, subcordate at base, acute or acuminate, more or less glabrous, 
petiolate; upper leaves usually sessile. Inflorescence few- or many-flowered; pedicels 
long, slender, usually deflexed in fruit. Sepals usually 5-6.5 mm. long; petals 
equalling or slightly exceeding sepals; stamens (2) 10 (11). Seeds usually more 
than 1.1 mm. in diameter, often 1.3-1.6 mm., usually dark reddish brown, with 
conical tubercles. 2ra = 22. Fl. 1-6. 

Fields, gardens and valleys. Malta, Gozo and Comirio; common (Borg). 

W., S. and C. Europe extending to S, Sweden and S. Ukraine. 

S. pallida (Uumort.) Pire 
S. media var. pallida Dumort, 

Lesser Chiekweed 

Stems up to 30 cm. high, very slender, with 1 line of hairs down each inter- 
node, rarely glabrous. Leaves ovate, subacute, glabrous, usually all petiolate. 
Inflorescence few- or many-flowered; pedicels short, filiform, patent or erect in 
fruit Sepals usually less than 3 mm. long, often grey-tome ntose; petals absent or 


|fe= : 22. Fl. 1-6. 

feieids and gardens. Malta, Goza and Comno; very common (Borg; G. L.nfranco; 

j? Wolseley). 

fjtw., S. and C. Europe, extending to S. Sweden, Latvia and Ukraine. 

4, Cerasttum L, 

Inerbs, sometimes s.ighUy woody at base^ ™^%^™S!^ bfdT 
^trdlorescencesi sometimes sol ^Sepals »oc P nef . t aries present; styles 

I emarginate, sometimes absent stamens ,-10 rareij tewe lindrtcal or oUo ng 

teS^fr^re^ ^t^lEi^tWtce as many teeth as styles. 

'fySceds numerous, spherical or remform. 

^■Sepals without eglandular hairs that protrude well beyond their ^^ 

;■■ apex 

& ■ Sepals with eglandular hairs that protrude well beyond their ape* I. 

If':..,. ' , j, bradtypetaiu^ 

E- a.- Pedicels longer than sepals 

E " ■■"■:■' , ■ 2. glojiicratiim 

Pedicels shorter than sepals 

«.■■■ ■ _ „. widen ilrBurclicn bajda 

|vj, C. ftrachypetalum Peis. Qrey Mouse . car 

in* 8o«er, »lth patent « ™™^SJ^6 5 mmToi, Violate to oblon S 
;. s ..ndul«r felt; "J"" J" ^S.Sis with Tons egl.ndul.r hair. e sce «<lii.e 

>-'M. 3-4. 

l^ a: The status ^ this specie, ^edsjo^ i^S^.G -^ered.^t 

■■■Mi that the p Jants ha ve . pra ™ ,y *■ (Boiss . & H cldr.) Nymsn is densely 

^SCT^ « "^S'^r^ has included some of this race under 

C glameratum. 
; S .,W. and C Europe, ^tending northwards to 3. Sweden and eastwards into 


2. C. glomeratum Thuill. 

Plate VIII 

Widen il-gurdien idellelt 
Broad-lcavetl Mouse-ear 



■than sepals; bracts herbaceous. Sepals 4-5 mm. long, lanceolate, acute, with a;J3 
narrow scarious margin, with glandular hairs and e glandular hairs exceeding, 
the apex; petals more or less equalling or shorter than sepals (rarely absent, var. 
apetahi-m Dumort), bifid for up to a quarter of their 'length; stamens 10; styles 
'5. Capsule 6-10 ram. long. Speeds 0.4-0,5 mm. in diameter, pale brown, finely^ 
tuberculide. 2n = 72. FI. 124. ; ! 

Cultivated and waste places, along paths. Malta and Gozo.' common (S. & C.G.; Borg;:|| 
G. Lanfranco; Woiseley), 

Large-flowered Mouse-ear/? 


3. Cevastiwm Jigusticum Viv. 

C. cuwiparMlal-wtn, Viv. '"■' 

Annual, rarely more than 15 cm, high; stem with fine glandular and occasion,-; 
ally eglanclular hairs. Lower leaves spathulate, cauline elliptical or oblong:, hsir.y-;ij>| 
up to 20 mm. long. Pedicels much longer than sepals; bracts herbaceous. Sepals* 
4-6 mm, long, ovate -lanceolate, obtuse; petals one and a half times as long aj§£| 
sepals, bifid for up to a third of their length, glabrous; stamens 10; styles 5,;;" 
Capsule 6-7 mm. long; seeds 0.5-0.6S mm. in diameter, brown, sharply and minutely^ 
tuberculate, 2w = 34. Fl. 1-3. 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta; rare (Eorg); given for various places ■ byjfj 
Delicate; specimens (without location) are in the Malta University herbarium, lft 
was not found by S, & C.G. 

E. & C. Mediterranean region. 

5. Mynsotmi Moench 

Perennial, Leaves ovate. Inflorescence a leafy dicbasium; flowers 5-merous. Pctal.^g 
white, deeply bifid; stamens 10; styles 5, alternating with the sepals. Fruit ifilj 
ovoid capsule, dehiscing to almost half-way with 5 shortly bifid, blunt teeth. Seec&g 
numerous, reniform, tuberculate, , (Malachium Fries). 

L M. aquaticutii (L.) Moench Plate VIII Water Chitkwee^S 

Stellaria aquatica (L.) Scop. 

Flowering stems 20-120 cm. high, decumbent or ascending, weak, glandularis 
hairy above. Leaves 2-5 (-8) cm. long, thin, ovate, acute to acuminate at apex^ 
truncate or cordate at base, hairy or glabrous, shortly petiolate, or the up'peiv/ 
sessile. Petals white, bifid to the base, exceeding the obtuse sepals. Ripe eapsul4|| 
exceeding the sepals, pendulous from the patent pedicel. 2« = 28. 

Moist places and ponds. Malta: Gharghur and Wied Balluta, very rare (Delicata;I;.| 

Europe, northwards to Oo^N. in Fennoscandia; temperate Asia. 

6. Sagina L. 

Small annual or perennial herbs, often caespitose, with slender procumbent orj 
ascending flowering stems and subulate to linear-lanceolate leaves in slight W 
connate pairs. Flowers 4- to 5-rserous, almost globose in bud, solitary or in few« 
flowered cymes. Sepals free; petals usually white, entire, often minute, sometimes 
0; stamens as many or twice as many as the sepals; styles 4-5, alternating witltl 
the sepals. Fruit a capsule splitting to the base into 4 or 5 valves, Se'ccli! 


B4: v .^ Perennial; branches long, procumbent, rooting, from a central 

'.'■■":'.■ rosette of leaves; main stem hot flowering l. proeitmbehs 

Annual; branches ascending or ereet, not rooting; main stem flowering 2.. 

^',,2. Leaves with a well-marked arista; mean seed-size less than 

0.4 mm. 2. apetala 

Leaves muticous or very shortly mucronate; mean seed-size more 

■■;':. than 0.4 mm. 
L S. procumbens L, subsp. procumbens 

S. marltima 
Procumbent Pearl wort 

A mat-forming perennial with short non-flowering main stem bearing a dense 

central leaf-rosette, and numerous lateral stems up to 20 cm. high, ascending from 

.■procumbent rooting bases; usually glabrous, sometimes minutely ciliate. Leaves 

'54.2 mm. long, linear-subulate, shortly aristate, glabrous or rarely ciliate. Flowers 

.solitary, 4 (-5) merous; pedicels 5-20 mm. long, glabrous. Sepals 1-2,5 mm. long, 

:.< ovate, obtuse; petals usually minute or absent, sometimes conspicuous and as long 

■as the sepals; stamens 4 (-5). Ripe capsule 2-3 mm. long, longer than the usually 

■fiatent sepals. 2m = 22. 

..'^aste places and by roads and footgarths. Malta, Gozo and Comino: frequent (Borg). 

^E^rope, Asia, Greenland, N. America, widely introduced in southern hemisphere. 

^2; ;.'.;S. apetala Ard, 

Annual Pearl wort 

■..^:-, Annual; stem (1) 3-10 (-20) cm. high, erect or ascending, with non-persistent 
..basal leaves in a lax cluster, simple or with decumbent (rarely quite procumbent) 
• to ascending non-rooting branches. Leaves linear, long-mucronate to aristate 
s ^s, more or less ciliate towards the base. Flowers usually 4-merous, '■ split ar- : 
:f>'edicels filiform, often glandular- hairy at least above. Sepals ovate to ovate-oblong 
•^sounded to acute at the apex, often hooded; petals minute, often falling early,' 

fe rarely absent. Ripe capsule equalling or exceeding the patent or appressed sepals 

Hp! M sl1 -seed-size less than 0.4 mm, 2« = 12, Fl. 2-4. 

^Both subsp, apetala (S. ciliata Fries) with the fruiting sepals appressed or slightly 

SS. i; i,p|tent and subacute, the terminal capsule of well-grown plants about H times 

.|-asilong as sepals, and the mean seed- size more than 0.34 mm., and subsp ereeta 

^tilpniem.) F, Hermann (S. apetala auct mult) with the fruiting sepals patent and 

|:iS«?°^ use ; ttv e terminal capsule of well-grown plants more than if times as long 

Jg^Sepals, and a mean seed size of less than 0.34 mm. occur. S. melitensis Gulia 

pyex. tJutnie which often overwinters, and has obtuse or subacute slightly patent 

B3«pepals may also merit subspecifie rank. 

gpilorig paths and in other waste places. Malta, Gozo and Comirto: common (Borg). 

r|iurope northwards to Scotland, S. Sweden and Estonia; N. Africa' W Asia- 
ns; America. ,...., 

I^S^y-maritima G, Don Plate VIII <v aw hra tax-xatt 

; ..:. Sea Pearlwort 

K*o-,#-'A nnua1 ' usuall y glabrous, with or without a central rosette of leaves main 
IW : fl owering, it and the numerous lateral branches varying from procumbent 
pagetect; sometimes densely caespitose. Leaves linear-lanceolate, somewhat fleshy 
%6btuse or mucronulate but not aristate, rarely ciliate. Flowers usually 4-merous 
solitary; peduneles erect, glabrous, filiform. Sepals ovate, obtuse, not mucronAte, 


leaves, bracts which scarcely conceal 

often with purplish margin; petals minute or absent. Ripe capsule equalling 
slightly shorter than the obliquely erect but not appressed sepals. Mean seed-sif 
more than 0.4 mm. 2w = 22-24, 28. PI. 2-4. 

Waste and trampled places, along paths, on paved places, inland as well as ne| 
the sfca, Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfriinef 
Wolseley). ViflKlS& : Europe. 

Coasts of Europe from Bulgaria and S.W. Finland westwards and northwards ;tg| g^ 
6S°N. in Norway; occasionally inland, and on mountains up to 1,300 m. high- i$| fig 5 * 
Scotland; N. Africa. 

^ta Plants are ^^^*"StS 5? 'S^/ Vt^ 

Khe flowers, and slightly wider 
1-treated as a separate species, 
§M<dta: Floriana, rare (Borg; O. Lanfranco). 

p, macrosepala Eoiss., but 



■3 ¥"A 

^ves and sepals glabrous or ciliate only 

Leaves opposite, alternate or yertictllate; stipules present. Petals often very small! 
or absent; sepals free. 

7, Paronychia Miller 

Herbs, sometimes woody at base, with erect to procumbent, usually much -bran cjigf 
stems. Leaves opposite (or sometimes apparently alternate), elliptical to liites! 
stipules usually conspicuous, scarious. Flowers small, slightly perigynous, in axiUg 
rarely terminal, spherical clusfers; bracts scarious, usually silvery and often M<i% 
conspicuous and concealing the flowers. Calyx very deeply 5-Iobed, lobes oftej 
cucullate and awned, and often with membranous margins; petals' minute 
absent; stamens 5; styles 2, or sometimes fused but bifid near apex or with-Dijt 
stigma (rarely conical and subentire). Fruit an achene with membranous pericai^ 

Calyx lobes with membranous margins, cucullate, awned on the back 

near the apex 1. argenfeMj 


Calyx lobes entirely herbaceous, not cucullate or awned 2. eapitafc$ 

8. Hemiaria L. 

bracts inconspicuous; stigma 


and sepals conspicuously hairy 


H. glabra L. 

Plate VIII 

1. glabra 

2. hirsafa 

Smooth Rupture-wort 
ibalabrous or with short hairs 

te: . , , , „„j„ m haw stems subgiabrous oi ivn... •=«-"-- 

t ,. Annual to perennial, rarely woody f! t base ste h - ^ ^ rarel m 
fll; round, Leaves up to J - 3_5 mtn « * <£ ^ ^ k . colour^ 

Smfi ciliate' upper stipules ana oracts wiy .« j . ., ,_,..,,,.„ »,,.„..,.. he* 

vgwTt: 1^". lo ^ clusters usually contig 
,15 c. 5 mm. long. Capsule usually 

1^. -inters usuah,^^ 

ggpen Places. Malta: rare, Wied Babu (GD, Borg). 

cept the extreme, north; N. Africa; Asia. 

'fmst of Europe exc 

W-:- Hairy Eupt'-ivo-wc- 1 '* 

I. P. argentea Lam. 

Plate VIII 

Silvery ParonycMl 

Plirt Leaves elliptical to ^^^^^1^^;'^, sessile in dense 
$$Z?pZigjnou, zone sub-glabrons. 2» - 36. 

Perennial; stems 5-30 cm, high, usually procumbent, much- branched, mattedfl 
intemodes usually equalling or longer than the leaves. Leaves 4-8 (-20) mm. lonSj 
ovate to lanceolate. Flowerclus.ters usually more than 8 mm. in diameter, w : el|| 
deiined; bracts 4-6 mm. long, ovate, acute, silvery^-eoncealing the flowers. Caljfe 
1.5-2:5 mm. long, lobes equal, oblong, cucullate; awn smooth or scarcely spinuloses;] 
membranous margins equalling or wider than the brownish, usually smooth nj'J4p| 
vein. Fl. 2-6. 

Sandy places near the sea, and arid areas inland. Malta; rare, Wied Hoxt ;teai?; 
Qrendi (S. & C.G; Borg); Marsa, Sliema (GD,; Borg), 

Mediterranean region. 

2. P. capltata (L.) Lam. 

Sbaanr .■ass saves* sr~ — '" 

: e&mmon (S. & ^■•^■> ovte, «■ 

|?Europe and the Mediterranean region. 

V: 9. pteranthus Forskal 

ikm annual.' Flowers sessile, in groups of three, 
described below. 

'Fruit' complex, :i -seeded, 


Capitate Paronychia W 

;.;i;' P. dichotomus Forskal 

Laxly caespitose perennial; stems up to 15 cm. long, much-branched. Leaves 3'6 j 
mm. long, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, acute, pubescent, ciliate, greyish-;;; 
green. Flower-clusters c. 10 mm. long, conspicuous; bracts 6-10 mm. long, greatly 
exceeding and concealing the flowers. Calyx 2.5-3.5 mm. long; lobes very unequal',;^ 
the shortest two thirds to three quarters as long as the longest, entirely 
herbaceous. PI. 4-5. i 


— — ^^rSSSJS-JSS^^B;"^ 

ft-th* nodes Leaves linear, subveriicmaue, "''"„ nl ance oi atc , swollen, hollow, 
^Pressed pedunc le ; the two Mera^ ^ ^.^ a ^ nged ., row of Cllr ,c,f 

S=S£«sr-ss r jr.. ?.=«= r~~ «— 


in the spiny bracts and borne on the persistent, compressed, inflated, wing-tike. 

peduncle, the whole 'fruit' 12-20 mm. long, FL 3-6. 

formerly in sandy and clayey places; now probably extinct. Malta: at 

Mar ssi etc, (GD.), Marsaskala (Gulia). Gozo: Chambray (Gulia}. 

North Africa, Cyprus, and Asia Minor. 

itt. Polycarpon Loefi. ex L, 

Small herb:;; stems ascending or erect, usually branched, usually rough at the J 
angles. Leaves obovate to orbicular, more or less petiolate, opposite, often ', 
apparently verticillate. Flowers small, in eymose clusters with scarious bracts. 
Sepals 5; petals 5, hyaline, shorter than sepals; stamens 1-5, filaments more or less 
united at the base; style short, 3-lobed. Capsule dehiscing with 3 valves almost to v 
the base; valves twisting spirally into tubes. Seeds several. 

Leaves not purplish -tinged; inflorescence lax, spreading with many ', 

conspicuous branches; sepals mostly less than 2 mm. long 1. te trophy Hum ■; 

Leaves often purplish -tinged ; inflorescence more or less condensed, 

few-flowered, usually without conspicuous branches; sepals more 

ihan 2 mm. long 2. alsinlfolium 

L P. te trap ky Hum (L.) L. 

Plate VIIl 

Four-leaved All-see^; 

Annual, rarely biennial or perennial, without a woody stock; stems much^ 
branched. Leaves green, mostly in whorls of 4. Inflorescence lax, spreading, much-:: 
branched: Sepals mostly less than 2 mm. long; petals emarginate; stamens (1-) 3-5*: 
Seeds usually less than 0.5 mm,, punctulate. Fl, 3-8. 

WaHle And cultivated places along paths. Malta, Goto and Ccmino: frequent (S, 
& CG.;-Borg; Wolseley). .';. 

Mediterranean region extending northwards in W. Europe to S,W. England; Africa; A 

Asia; Australia; S. America, 

3- V, aisinii'olimn <Biv.) DC. 

Pew-flowered All-seedyfi 

Often biennial or perennial, without a woody stock, stems often branched^ 
Leaves green, at least some in whorls of 4; stipules conspicuous, silvery. Inflores- 
cence often branched, but always rather condensed. Sepals more than 2 mm. long||| 
petals slightly emarginate; stamens .always 5. Seeds 0.5 mm. or more in diametsr^ 
smooth. Fl. 3-G. 

Along roads and by field-paths. Malta: Tarxien, Gudja and Qormi (Borg); Ghadirai| 
(Kramer and Westra). :' : 

Usually coastal. S. Europe, 

11. Spergularia (Pers.) J. & C. Presl . ,-i 

Herbs, sometimes woody .at the base; stems erect, decumbent or pro ci unbent,; 
dilated at the nodes, somewhat flattened. Leaves linear, decussate, with palfjijfi 
scarious stipules united to surround the node, forming more or less triangulaJjS 
structures on either side of the stem; leaf-fascicles (short leafy lateral branches^ 
when present borne on only one side at each node. Perianth 5-merous; sepals fresl| 
green, with scarious margins; petals entire; stamens 1-10; styles 3. Capsule dehisciis™ 
with 3 valves. Seeds often winged. '■:%£ 

l. Robust, with thick woody stock; sepals usually more than 4 mm. 

long 1. media: 3 


■"■' ^thantmrrTZ.g r leSS ^^ ^°° t; ^ — % 
V inflorescence bracieate; petals ovate; capsule ovoid to subglobose 



S. media (L) q Presl 
S. marginata Kittel 

Greater Sea-Spurrey 

"*™tci oea-sptirrey 

iinfloteS'u*" 5 ^° Cm ' high ' glabrous throughout or e\-^ i ». ■ ■ 

,» jioiescence. Leaves mucronate' stirmioc k it ? . glandular -hairy in the 

'IS. t 6 mm - loi ?> ^tals whUe'or p1"k eau^li^ ^^E^r, not acuminate 

|n,ed; margin of ^,^^'^^^^^^J^^,^ 
ypsmy places near the <tps ]WriM„. . .i ' ' 

Coasts -mrf «u ■ ■ , * . *""'* uor §^ Xlendi, Qbajjar Borg). 

^ -nd salme mland areas of the temperate zones of both hemispheres. 

H;%.S. marine (l.) Griseb 
■S.-salitia. J. & c. Presl 

Lesser Sea-spun-ey 

§P» to ladntot,. 2». - m. M fl ™™«M; »i»B o( seed »h,„ pSSt 

m?$. diandra (Guss.) B iss. 

Southern Sea-spurrey 

av,;-,. .juLiLiiern hea-spurrey 

&*'»■ narrowly elliptical equalhng the s^ Jl T" ° ng « petals lllap 
Kmv ' fe globose, about eoualling th^ T sebaif Jf meRS 2 " 3 - ^PSuie 

n« *« M * : „„ M ^^ Korain (s & cG; BMg); ^^ ^ 










Marsa .(Borg}. Gozo: Xlendi fS. & C.G.; Borg); near Rabat (Duthie; S, & Q-.iiJWi 
Wied il-Lunziata.-Gran Castello (Borg); Marsalforn (Duthie; S. & C.G.; Berg).-'. 

S. Europe; S.E. Russia, 

4. S. rubra (L.) J, ■& C. Presl. 

Plate VIII 

Arenarija roia : ^ 
Sand Spurrej! '■.?; 

^styles and 5 bifid teeth). Seeds variable, but never with a tuft of hairs, (inel. 
^Rudianthe (Reichenb.) Reichenb., Heliosperma (Iteichenb.) Reichenb., Melft'rulri-'tm. 
'■ : RBI)ling.,- Otites Ada'nson.) 

Annual to perennial witlh slender to somewhat woody tap-root; stems 5-25 cifj;. : J 
high, diffuse, decumbent or procumbent. Leaves very fasciculate; stipulesjfi 
lanceolate, acuminate, silvery. Bracts of the inflorescence almost as large as'thtfsl tp : 
leaves. Sepals and petals 3-4 mm. long; petals uniformly pink; stamens (5-) .I&JfJ^*' 
Capsule 4-5 mm, long, about equalling the sepals. Seeds 0.45-0,55 mm., imwrngcrtll 
dark brown, sub trigonous. 2n = 36, 54. Fl. 2-6. | 

Waste and uncultivated places. Malta, Gozo and Comino: common (Borg; .G| ^ 
Lanfranco; Wolseiey), "-i-Se 

Sandy soils (not halophilous) . Throughout Europe; N. Africa; Asia; N. America.'. 

Subfam. SlLENOIREAE .::; 

Leaves opposite; stipules absent. Epi calyx- scales (braeteoles) sometimes present;!? 
Sepals joined in a tubular or eampanulate calyx, sometimes with scarious^ 
commissures. Petals usually well-developed; stamens, petals and ovary often,; 
situated on a more or less elongated column which forms the carpophore in ■fruit.SlJ 

12. Agrostemma L, 

Erect annuals, Flowers 5-merous; aestivation contorted. Epical yx absent, calyt; 
with 5, long, linear, foliaeeous teeth. Limb of petal more or less distinct fro;if$|p;:: 
claw, coronal scsle.s present; staniens ll); styles 5, alternating with ca'tys: teeth:" 
Fruit a capsule, dehiscing usually with -.5 teeth; carpophore absent Seeds nut, 
bearded at hilum. 

Corn CoeMe.'$ 

1. A. githago L. Plate VIII 

Lychnis githago (L.) Scop. . 

Plant covered with long, appressed, greyish hairs; stems 30-100 cm, high;. . ... 
Leaves usually linear, slightly connate, acute, or the lower obtuse. Calyx 3.7 cm;-;! 
long, the ovoid or oblong tube usually much shorter than the often caducous"-' 
teeth. Petals shorter than calyx; limb not spotted, dull purple, rarely white. Seeds'^ 
mostly 3 mm. or more, with prominent acute tubercles. 2n ~ 48. Fl. 4-5, " 

In cultivated land, Malta: rare (G. Lanfranco) as between Zehbug and Wied ■■ 
Ineita (S. & C G,; Borg); Attard. Buskett, GMrgfienti (Borg), 

Probably native in Europe only in the E, Mediterranean region, but has spread 
as a weed to most Temperate regions of the world. ; 

13. Sllenc L. 

Herbs or small shrubs of varied habit. Flowers 5-merous. Epicalyx absent. Calyx- 
tube with (5-) 10-30 veins and 5 short teeth Limb of petal distinct from claw;- 
stamens 10; styles usually 3 (sometimes 4 on same plant), more rarely 5. Fruit 
a capsule with variably-developed basal' septa (absent in species sometimes; 
treated as a separate genus, Melandrium) , opening by 6 (more rarely 8 or 10V : 
teeth, twice the number of styles; carpophore present. (Sect FMdianths has 5; 


1". Calyx with 20 veins 
Calyx with 10 veins 

2: ■■Perennial with woody stock 
v.-.' Annual 

: 3. : Plant glabrous 
■ . Plant hairy 

4. Carpophore 1-2 mm, long; petal limb 3-6 mm, long. 
; .Carpophore 5rl3 mm, long; petal limb 10-20 mm long 

'5- Seeds with 2 undulate wings on back 
y : Seeds unwinged 

■6, Carpophore 3-S mm, long; calyx J.3-1S mm. long 
; : Carpophore 0.5-2 mm, long; calyx fi-13 mm. long 

-%, . Petal-limb 7-10 mm. long; flowers distinctly pedicellate 
Petal-limb 3-5 mm. long; flowers subsessile 

"■$'.: Calyx strongly contracted at mouth in fruit 
Calyx not contracted at mouth in fruit 

: 9. Capsules 5-0 mm. long 
Capsules 8-11 mm. long 

1. ■ S. fruticosa L. 

2, vulgaris 

1. Prttiaeosa 

i. behew 
5. c«rf.i-yesa 

10. co'araia 

6. ■ pendii'o 
9, . bollislifiijia 

8. gaHira 

3. sudoidea 
'?. noftarna 

Woody Catehfiy 

.-.- : Robust perennial with woody stock, 20-K> cm. high, almost completely glabrous. 

Lower leaves obovate or narrowly spatliulate; upper lanceolate, all glabrous and 

shining above, ciliate. Inflorescence paniculate, dense, with opposite branches; 
■flowers large, erect, on short peduncles. Calyx c. 25 mm. long, with patent 
;glandular hairs; teeth acute. Petals pink or red, shall owly bifid; coronal scales 

obvious, acute, sometimes laciniate. Capsule- c. 15 mm. long, ovoid, bcalt equaling 

or longer than carpophore. Seeds 1.5-2 mm, Fl, 4-6, 

■On sloping rocks. Gozo; rare in valley of Xlendi (Duthie; S. & C.G.; Borg; 
Wolseiey); valley of Mgarr ix-Xini fS. & C.G.; Borg; Wolseiey). 

Mediterranean region from Sicily to Asia Minor, very local. 

2. S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke 

Bladder Campion 

Perennial, sometimes caespitose and woody at base; stems up to <50 cm. high, 
usually branched, glabrous or pubescent, often glaucous. Loaves ovate to tinea ■:. 
Flowers solitary or in cymes. Calyx inflated, persistent, loosely investing ripe 
'capsule, 20-veined. Petals large, usually whitish, deeply bifid, with distinct i:\s\v 


avid often with .coronal scales. Capsule 8-14 mm. long, usually e. 3 times as long 
as carnoufioi-e. Seeds 1-1.5 mm., with convex back and fiat or convex face. Ft. 3-6. 

Very variable. Specimens have been seen of suhsp, vulgaris; stems up to tiO cm. 
high, ascending or evert; leaves 3-12 'x 1-2.5 cm., glabrous or rarely pubescent 
(var. pubescniis DC), ovate -lanceolate; inflorescence usually several- flowered; 
bracts scarious; capsule c. 10 mm. long with narrow necfc and erect teeth; 
carpophore 2-3 aim. long; 2» - 34 and subsp. aasustifolia (Miller) Hayek: like 
subsp. vulgaris but leaves 3-S x 0.3-1 cm., linear- lanceolate or linear, and subsp. 
commuCata (Guss.J Hayek: stems up to 6(1 cva, high; leaves 4-3 x 2-4 em.; glabrous 
or pubescent, broadly oblong-ovate- to ovate- el liptio, often obtuse and apieulate; 
inflorescence -sevecal- flowered; bracts scarries; capsule c. 10 aim, long; carpophore 
2-li mm. long; in = 48 has teen recorded. 

Cultivated .ground, along walls and roads and on roelsy ground JUo.Ua, Gvzo and 
Cmnino: frequent (Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley). 

Europe, Temperate Asia acid N. Africa, 

3.. S. sedoides Poire t 

Lsien i-gfeasfur irqiq 
Hairy Gat chi'ly 

Annual 5-20 (-30) -cm. high, usually much- branched, erect, slender, densely 
p'libesecril with patent hairs. Inflorescence profusely and divaricately branched, 
(1st! brandies ■ forming raceme-like morwehasia) cymes; pedicels mostly 1-2 times; 
as long as calyx, patent in fruit. Calyx 6-8 (-9.) x 2-3' <-3,5) mm., obloiig-clavate 
in fruit, shortly and stiffly pubescent, greenish, rarely reddish; teeth ovate, obtuse 
or subacute,. Petal -limb short, reddish' or whitish. Capsule '5-6 mm. long; carpophore 
1.3-2 mm. long- Seeds 0.3-0-5 mm., remfonu: faces slightly concave, striate; back- 
wide, obtusely grooved. Ft. 3-5. 

Itoclty and sandy places, near tire sea, Malta, Gozo J Comino and Cmiihiotto: : \ 
i'r&tjii&M on the coasts (S. & C.G.; BorgX 
Mediterranean region; local and mainly on islands, 

4. S, lichen L. 

Hairless Catciifly-.'ijffl 

Whole plant glabrous. Annual 15-20 cm, high, simple or branched, rather stout,.' 
erect or ascending. Cauline leaves glaucous, usually imbricate. Inflorescence a;; 
Sax dichasium; lowest pair of mtemo'cies of fruiting inflorescence 5-10 cm. Ibng^l 
next pair also long; flowers not overlapping; pedicels stout, usually shorter thariM 
calyx, Calyx 11-17 mm 4 long, ovoid and contracted at mouth in fruit, whitisiijilf 
with reddish anastomosing veins above; teeth ovate, obtuse; petal-limb 3-6 im* 
long, pink. Capsule 9-10 mm. long, ovoid; carpophore 1-2 aim. long, very stout! 
Seeds s. 1.5 rem., renif orm; faces concavo-convex, strongly tuberculate-ridgedl 
bach wide, plane or slightly convex, with 4 rows of acute conical tubercles. PL 34jj 

hi cultivated places. Malta: rare in a field above MeHie&a iDuthie; Borg); Ta' Baldly 
near Habat, hi sowed land (S, & C.G.; Burg). 

C. & E. Mediterranean region. 

5. S. coi-'h-rosa (L.) Godron 

Lychnis coeft-rosa (L.) Desr. 

acuminate o"~ Me of the <-**.„-. t , 

** -y h^s- ^ ^ ^ w£ ss.'Stasj' 

#** Cultivated, ,nd often * tUbe °** «■ ^ ^ tHter S 

;/ flMJ ""- «* ^t ta ^ 01 Jf *** in old gai ,ien s . ^^ ( 

Rose Catchfl) 

Whole plant glabrous. Annua! 20-50 cm. high. Leaves li near-la nceolati 
Inflorescence .an irregular several- flowered diehasium. Calyx 15-28 mm,, subclavs 
and contracted at mouth in fruit, deeply sulcata between veins, with trausveE 


I e - S. peudui a L. 
;* S. gallic, L " '" «■ America. 



Cultivated and waste places. Malta: rare, Luqa and St. Vincent de Paul hospitsiL 
(Gulia; Borg); Gozo: rare (Gulia), 

C. Europe, northwards to Denmark, Poland and C. Russia, and Mediterranean 

S. belJidifolia Juss. ex Jacq. 
S. vespertina Rot?.. 

Dense-flowered Catehfly 

Annual 30-60 cm. high,, erect; branched and pubescent or puberulent above; 
hispid and simple, rarely branched below. Leaves sparsely hispid. Flowers sub- 
sessile, usually secund, in dense, raceme-Iik'e, long-stalked monochasial cymes. 
Calyx 14-17 em. long, cylindrical -clavate, becoming clavate and contracted at 
mouth in fruit, villous, Petal-limb 3-5 mm. long, bifid, pink. Capsule 9 11 mm. : - 
long; carpophore 4-5 mm, long. Seeds very small, dark brown; faces deeply 
concave, striate; hack wide, shallowly and broadly grooved. Fl. 2-7, 

Cultivated places. Malta; Wied Hanzir (S. & C.G.; Borg); Wied Balluta 
Gulia; Borg). Gozo: (?) (Gulia). 

Mediterranean region; Portugal, 


10. S. colorata Poiret 
S. sericea auct. 

Plate VIII 

Lsien 1-ghasfur 
Mediterranean .Catehfly. 

Mediterranean region. 

14. Vaccaria Medku's 

Annual. Epicalyx absent. Calyx-tube inflated below, whitish, with 5 green wings!: 
at the angles, without scarious commissives. Petals 5, long- clawed; coronal scales 
absent; ovary unilocular (almost 2-locular at base); styles 2. Capsule ovoid, with' 
thick papery exocarp dehiscing with 4 teeth, and with thinner endocarp dehiscing.' 

V. -pyramidata Medieus 
Saponaria vaccaria L. 

Plate VIII 


Stems 30-60 cm. high, erect, branched above, glabrous. Leaves c. 5 em, long,! 
ovate to lanceolate, glaucous. Flowers in much-branched dichasia; pedicels Iour; 
bracts scarious, with green midrib. Calyx 12-17 mm, long, teeth ovate, acute..' 

Whole plant pubescent or puberulent. Annual 10-50 cm. high, decumbent to 
erect, branched. Leaves linear to ovate- spathul ate. Pedicels shorter than calyx, 
bracts of a pair usually unequal. Calyx 11-13 (-17) mm. long, cylindrical, becom- 
ing broadly clavate in fruit; teeth ovate, obtuse, densely ciliate. Petal-limb 5-9 
mm. long, pink or white. Capsule 7^9 mm. long, ovoid; carpophore 5-7 mm. long. 
Seeds 1-i .5 mm., dark chestnut -brown, reniform with flat faces, back deeply 
and acutely grooved between two undulate wings. Fl. 11-16. 

Plants from exposed and dry localities with decumbent habit, calyx c. 10 mm: 
long, carpophore c. 4 mm, long and capsule c. 5 mm. long have been called '■i'aggg.; 
S, canescens Ten. IS. sericea var, decumbens Eiv.), . :' ^El- 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common (Borg; G 
Lanfranco; Wolseiey). 

II*!.:' Petal-limb 3-8 mm. long, sometimes exscrted, pale, or d;irk purplish, entire or 
'.bifid. Seeds 2-2,5 mm., numerous, subgloboac. 2w = 30, Fl. 3-5. 

Cultivated places. Malta: Wied Hanfcir (S. & C.G.j Borg) Wied Balluta (GD.; 

JH&..C. Europe, Mediterranean region and Temperate Asia; naturalised elsewhere. 


Kerbs or rarely woody climbers. Leaves alternate, eMtipulate, rarely opposite or 
stipulate. Flowers usually hermaphrodite and aciinomorphic, hypogynous. 
Perianth petaloid or sepaloid, whorled. Honey-leaves (petaloid structures bearing 
^nectaries) often present, tunnel-shaped or petaloid. Stamens numerous, usually 
spirally arranged, extrorse. Carpels 1-many, usually free and spirally arranged. 
Fruit usually of 1 or more follicles or a bead of achenes. 

-1, Flowers zygomorphic 
■.-.., Flowers actinomorphic 

l.- Follicles 2 or more 
■ '■ Follicles 1 

3. Leaves opposite 

!;!' : Leaves alternate or whorled 

i'4' Perianth of one whorl of green or variously 
coloured segments; nectaries present or absent, 
but not petaloid 








Perianth of 2 dissimilar whorls (or apparently so), 
.V the inner of which may consist of petaloid honey leaves 

5. Honey leaves present 

Honey leaves absent 
(5. Petaloid whorl of the perianth without nectaries 

Petaloid whorl of the perianth with nectaries at base 

1. Nigolla L. 

Nigel? a 

Ran ii n cuius 

Annuals. Leaves usually 2 to 3-pinnatisect into linear segments. Perianth-segments 
5; petaloid, persistent for a time after flowering. Honey-leaves 5, opposite to and 
much smaller than the perianth-segments. Stamens numerous. Fruit of 5 (rarely 
10) partly or completely united follicles; styles Ions, patent or rarely erect 

1. N. damasccna L. 

Plate IX 

Sieq il-briinba 

Involucral leaves similar to the lower csulino. Perianth -segments ovate-oblong, 
-clawed bluish. Lobes of lower lip of honey-leaves about as long as wide, 
■■'■Modes united for all their length, forming an inflated 10-celled capsule, the 
'■5. outer loculi sterile. Fl. 3-5. 


On un.ultiv.ted land and rocky wastes, and [^^^^^ ^^ 

ground. Mfllfci, Go-so and Commo: frequent <S. & C.Ct., ue-rg, 

Wolsele-y) , 

S. Europe (frequently cultivated far ornament and more or less naturalized else- 

where); N. Africa; Canaries; Madeira. 

2. Delphinium L. 

Leaves usn.Hy about as wide as long ^J^^^aX^^^" 
Perianth-segments 5, the upper ^ "frihf spur of 4e uppermost perianth-. 

cl^ Semens in 8 spirally arranged series, l-olheles 3 (-5), free. 

Limb of uppe, honey-leaves with lateral wings; seeds numerous, ^ered^^ 

with transverse, membranous scales 

■ 1, C. aiublgua (L.) P.W. Ball & Heywood 
Delphinium ajacis auct. 

2. stapWsiagiia ^ 

Sieq il-hamiema 
Winged Larkspur ; 

Limb of upper honey-leaves unwinged; seeds few, rugose-areolate 

1 D lialierainni Sibth, ft Sm- plate ^ 

" d' pereflrinuw var. ftalteratuift (Sibth. & Sm.) Borg ■ 
et var lougipes (Moris) Borg 

Stem 10-70 cm. high, minutely ^^^^^^^J^^ 
many-branched; branches ^^"'ti? TnCesSce ! to 50 flowered, usually- 
entire, ,,ot shorter than *o ^temo de d a i I £ fi ° I Sntt,-Je^erit S 7-10 (-12) mm, 
more or less lax often long r ^^^ w ™^ent. FirtUclea 180 7-10 imu., 
£S ^sW&" ^/^td^aP^s^d-Puheseent (rarely glabrous).; 

L^'and uncultivated places. Ma.a: common (..ft CO.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; ; 
Gaud); Wolseley). Goso: (Gulia; Borg). 
W. Mediterranean region. 

2, D. staphisagriu I.. 

2errighet il-qamel : '■'-. 
Short- spurred Larkspur 

gradually narrowed into claw. Follicles 8-11 ram. wide, inflated. Fl. 4-5. 

Vdleys Malta, rare (G. Lanfraneo) as at Ta' Baldu, Wied Babu (S. & C.G.; Borg);;| 

JSkak !wi C dQirda(GD.; Borg); BuskettGirgentr (Borg). ,i 

Mediterranean region; Canaries. 

51. Consolida (DC.) S.F. Gray 

in s spirally arranged series; carpel 1. 



Stem up to 100 cm. high, simple or branched. Basal leaves with oblong 
segments; cauline with linear segments. Inflorescence usually racemose, 
occasionally paniculate; lower bracts dissected; bracteoles small, remote, usually 
not reaching base of flower. Lower pedicels mostly more than 12 ram. long in 
fruit, but less than twice as long as ripe follicle. Perianth-segments 10-14 (-20) 
torn, long, usually deep blue; spur 13-18 mm. long. Nectary 3-Iobed, with bifid 
upper lobe. Follicle 15-20 x 5 mm., pubescent, gradually narrowed at apex; seeds 
black. Fl, 4-6. 

Cultivated and often naturalized. Malta: glacis of the forts at Floriana (S. & CO; 
Marsaskala, Wied Qirda (GD.; Borg); Buskett, Girgenti (Borg), 

Mediterranean region; locally naturalized elsewhere. 

4. Anemone L, 

Perennial herbs. Flowering stems with a whorl of 3(4) often partially united 
leaves. Flowers conspicuous, usually solitary. Perianth-segments 5-14, petaloid, 
imbricate. Honey-leaves absent. Stamens numerous! Achenes numerous; style 
-not elongated or feathery, 

.Cauline leaves -much divided; perianth segments 5-8 1. eoronarla 

Cauline leaves undivided or almost so; perianth segments 12-1!) 2, hork'nsis 

.1. A. coronaria L. Plate IX Kahwiela 

"'.';' Poppy Anemone 

V 15-45 cm, high Basal leaves biternate, segments deeply lobed, Cauline leaves 
deeply cut into narrow divisions. Flowers 3.5-6.5 cm. in diameter, solitary, red. 
blue or white, Perianth -segments 5-8, elliptic. Anthers blue. Fl. L3. 

In cultivated fields and waste places, Malta: common (S & C,G; Borg; G, 
Lanfraneo; Wolseley). G020: towards Caftcia (S, & C.G.); Xaghra, Nadur, Cham bray, 
Marsalforn, Dabrarii (Borg). Comino: (S. '■& C.G.); 0_ala SaiUa Marija (Borg). 

.Mediterranean region. 

2. A; hortensis L. 


Broad -leaved Anemone 

Like A. coronaria, but lowest leaves less divided (of only lobed) with broader 
segments, cauline leaves linear-lanceolate, usually undivided; perianth segments 
•12-19 (usually 15) narrowly elliptic, patent, pale purplish FL 1-3. 

:0n the sides of th« valleys. Malta: rare. Wied Babu, Wied Xkora and Wied 
Ghomor ' (S. ft C.G.; Borg); Girgenti, Ghajn il -Kb ira, Buskett (Eorg); Wied 
Iriiita {Penza}. ■ 

,C. Mediterranean region. 

5. Clematis h. 

rWoody climbers or perennial herbs. Leaves opposite, simple; ternate or 1- to 
-2-pinnate. Perianth -segments 4 (rarely 5, fi or 8), petaloid, valvate. Honey-leaves 



:■■■' ! "v 
<•' ■'. ■? C-i 

absent; pctaloid stami nodes sometimes present- Stamens numerous. Aclijg 
numerous; stylo persistent, often long and plumose. 

.Flowers about 2 cm. in diameter; perianth segments hairy on both '-3M 

surfaces 1. vltalf 

j-'lov/ers 4-7 era in diameter, perianth segments hairy only beneath 2. cirrEi 

I. C. viialba L. 

Traveller's-joy; Old Man's 'B* 

A deciduous woody climber up to 30 cm. high. Leaves 1 -pinnate; leap! 
ovate, rarety linear- lanceolate, dentate or subentire. Flowers e. 2 cm. in diarrieigi 
fragrant. Peri an th -segments obtuse, greenish- white, pubescent on both surfai 
Anthers 1-2 mm. long. Receptacle pubescent. Achenes scarcely compressed, ,.11 

Cultivated in gardens and sometimes escaping (Borg). 

ij., W. & C. Europe; M. Alrica; Caucasus. 

2. C. eiirhosa L. 

Plate IX 

Kiesha jew Bajda 


Evergreen Traveller's^ 

Evergreen climber up to 4 m. high. Leaves 2.5-5 cm, long, usually slmgffi 
dentate or 3-Iobed, sometimes 1- to 2-ternate. with dentate or lobeci leaflets, 'VSft| 
halearica (Rich. & Juss.) Roiiy & Folic. Flowers 4-7 cm, in diameter; pedit|f 
2-5 cm. long. Perianth-segments yellowish -white, sometimes with red spots,. ov| 
pubescent beneath, Fl. 10-11. 

Valleys, sheltered rdum areas, rocks and old walls, often climbing on shrubs asp 
small trees. Malta: Fawwara (S. & C,G; Borg); Wied Innita, Wied il-Cnasel, WietST 
iz-zurricq, MtaWeb, Wied Ger^uma, Wardija, San Martin, Mellieha, BuskteBJfi 
Bahrija, Ghajn il-Kbira, Cnjen il-Kbir (Borg), also at Tal-Virtu, Mtarfa and else* 
where (Wolseley). Gozo: ratlier rare, Wied il-Lunzjata, Cigantija (S, & C.G.; Borj$|{j 
San Bias, Pergla (Borg; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region. 

f>. Atlonis L. 

Herbs with 1- to 3-pinnate leaves with more or less linear segments. Sepals ;5S[ 
(-8), often somewhat petaloid; petals 3-20, glossy; nectaries absent. Stamens?!! 
numerous. Achenes numerous, rugose, forming an elongated head at maturity. 

Petals bright scarlet with a dark basal spot; inner margin of achene 

almost straight, without a projection I. annna 

Petals, usually yellow; inner margin of achene with a rounded or 

angular projection 2. micfoeapra^ 

1. A, annua h. 

Plate IX 

Ghallet is-serduq, 
Ghajn is-serduq, Henna ; 
Pheasant's -eye ; ; ;*I 

10-40 cm^ high. Leaves 3-pinnate, segments linear, mucronate. Flowers 15-25:: 
mm. in diameter. Sepals glabrous, ovate, patent. Petals 5-S, suberer.t, concave, 
oblong, somewhat longer than sepals, bright scarlet with a dark basal spot: 
Achenes 3,5-5 mm, long., the inner margin nearly straight, the outer curved; beak 
straight, Fl, 1^5. 

Small plieasanfs-cyc 

ife- „„+ around Malta and Gogo: 

i; n? , p,- - j&rss.rnss-.'isi.; s. . «... 

m'>' ..„„ north t o S. Switzerland; Caucasus. 

|ferranean region noun lo 

lliJ'microearpa DC. % r intermedia auct 

§|«« var. micros (DC.) Lor. ^ 


7. Ranunculus L. 

1^ „1 herbs «,™a™ »W»*- rto rV5Ts <^>"l>3SS 

pv, white or reddish. Achenes 
|i- ' ■ a. 

^Flowers white 
SffifiFlowers yellow 

yP^"' : - ' ,, „ = n-m lomr stamens 5-ia 

Ifeetals usually less U»n ? J-;"^ Btam0M 
«**fei usually more than 6 mm. u, 
' : 13-nUWcrous ■ 

|^uS, membran^nged _ ^ 

fc:: immature), not winged 

fc* : '":. ,. , ,.„„ tt,„ cauline) entire, serrate 

^: Aerial leaves (mch.dmg th ca^ 

^^ : rrenate or oentaic, distinctly lobed 

: : J* even more deeply divided 

14, (Tjciiophyllus 

L'.J. l>auiotii 
13. peltiitus 

Sepals 5 

IeavM mostly crowded manorial rosette, 

Leaves mos!:ly caulinc 
Aehene, granulate or tul.erculate 
Achenes smooth 

' Hoots of 2 kinds, some SbrouB, some fleshy, 
■ ; Jj^S f«f orm to o-d^- ^ ^ 

Foots all fibrous, fihres soaeumu 
obviously tuberous 

8. {karla 

0. ballatus 

10. opliioglossifoliua 

11. fontanus 

7. pHluoosus 


9, Aehenes smooth, putietulate or with few small 

Aehenes distinctly spiny or murieato with either 
numerous or long projections 

10. Flowers 25-30 mm. in diameter; aehenes about 4 
mm. long, beak about 1 mm. long 
Flowers 12-25 mm. in diameter; aehenes 2.5.-3 mm. 
long, beak- about 0.5 mm. long 

1.1. Aehenes about 3 mm. long 
Aehenes about 7' fflm. long 

■12. Receptacle pubescent 
lieceptacle glabrous 

IS. Sepals deSoxed; leaves sliallowly lobed 

Sepals pa lent; leaves except the lowest,, deeply 

1. E, macroplsyilay .Desf. 








Large-leaved Buttercup-} 

Robust pubescent pemnniat 30-60 cm, high. Stock (.tout, erect, surrounded by; 
fibres. Basal : leaves about 4-7 x 5-10 cm., pentagonal -orbicular, deeply cordate,.; 
. ! j- to 5. partite; segments wide, irregularly incised and cren ate -dent ate; upper- 
ciiulinc leaves 3-fid with entire -. segments, or undivided. Flowers 25-30 mm. m-i ; 
diameter. Aehenes 4 mm. long, compressed, bordered, smooth, minutely pitted;/, 
or with scattered bulbous-based hairs; beak about 1 mm, long, stout, more or/ 
less curved, H. 4-5. ■ '? 

Along springs-. Malta: rather frequent (Q. Lanirarico; Wolseley); abundant in-; 
some valleys as at Wiecl Ineita, Girgenti and Mtahleb (S. & C.G.; Borg). 

W. iJediL-crraneyii region. 

H. wu'dous Crantz 

Hairy Buttercup,-; 

A more or less pubescent annual 10-45 cm. high; with the eorm-like stock not:; 
or feebly developed. Flowers 12-55 mm. in diameter. Honey.leaves pale yellow. -^ 
Acbenes "2.5-3 mm. long, minutely punctate, with small, obtuse tubercles near the/|] 
margin, or sometimes smooth; beak c. O.D mm. long, upward curving. 2-it, = 16/' 
Fl. 2-9." 

Malta; very rare (G. Lanfranco) in the ditches at Floriana (S. & C.G.; Borg). /. 

M'cst of Europe; N, Africa; "W.- Asia.- '-.- 

K, trilobus Desf. 

Three-lob ed Buttercup- !■ 

Nearly glabrous annual. Lowest leaves simple; the next 3-partite; segments; 
simple, cuneafe-ob ovate, dentate, upper with more numerous linear-oblong lobes.' 
Flowers 10-15 mm. in diameter. Honey-leaves about as long as sepals. Aehenes/ 
about 2 mm. long, with numerous small tubercles; beak short, triangular. Fl. s-t,- 


&Dump places. Malta: rare (G. Lanfranco), as at Marsa (GD.; Gulia; S. & C.G.) near 
|?Floriana glacis (Borg). Goso: rare, Wied il-Lunzjata (S, & C.G.). 

:S,W. Europe. 

1. R, murieatus L. 

Scitly Buttercup 

*'-. Glabrescent annual up to about 50 cm. high. Leaves all similar, coarsely 
ere nate -dentate and often sliallowly lobed! Honey-leaves little longer than sepals. 
Ueeeptaele pubescent. Aehenes 7-8 mm. long, ovate, spiny with a broad smooth 

■margin; beak 2-3 mm. long, nearly straight 2w = 48, 64. Fl, 2-5. 

Damp places in cultivated areas, and in valleys. Malta and Gozo: common 
-particularly in the bottom of humid ravines (S, & C.G.; Borf/; C. Lanfranco; 
//.-Wolseley). Comino; (Borg). . 

: Mediterranean region; Canaries; Asi;t east to India. 

~S. R. arvensis L. 

Corn Buttercup 

More or less pubescent annual 15-60 -cm. high. Lowest leaves simple; the 

Ji /others 3-lobed and often again divided into narrow, entire or dentate segments. 

p/Pedicel terete. Flowers 4-12 mm. in diameter, pale greenish-yellow. Sepals patent, 

"■Receptacle pubescent. Aehenes (S-8 mm. long, few (4-8), in 1 whorl, spiny or 

/tubereulate, rarely only ribbed-reticulate, with a broad sulcate border; beak 3-4 

/mm, long, straight. 2n =* 32, Fl. 4-5. 

/Cultivated and waste ground especially on clayey soil. Mali a. 'frequent, but not 
/common (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley), Gozo: Nadur (S. & C-G ; Borg); 
,Xaghra (Borg). 

:s.. W. & C. Europe; N. Africa; W. Asia to India. 

:i 6. H. chius DC, Eastern Buttercup 

. Pubescent, spreading to decumbent annual 10-40 cm. high. Leaves 3- lobed; 

■middle segment: entire to 3 (-S)-dentate. Flowers 3-6 mm. in diameter. Sepals 

l&denexed. Receptacle glabrous/Fruiting pedicel greatly thickened, Aehenes about 

3 mm. long, bordered with hooked spines; beak at least half as long as the 

■at'hene. Fl. 3-4. ■ . 

/Damp places. Malta:/ Ghajn Rihana (GD.; Borg). No herbarium specimen, 

Balkan peninsula, Italy, Krym and the Mediterranean islands. 

It, paludosus Poiret 
R fLabellatus Desf. 

Jersey Buttercup 

A very variable pubescent perennial up to about 50 cm. high, with fusiform 
tubers. Stock usually stout and fibrous. Outer basal leaves shallowly 3-lobed; inner 
3-fid; middle segment long-slip itate; all divided into narrow dentate segments. 

/Receptacle glabrous. Aehenes about 2 mm. long, minutely punctate, sparsely 
pubescent, strongly keeled on back, tapering into a nearly straight beak about as 

/long as the achene and hooked at tip. 2» = 32. Fl. 3-5, 

"'la arid, rocky places. Malta and Goto: frequent '(S„ Si C G.; Borg; G. Lanfwico). 

j§/ Mediterranean region; W. Europe northwards to the Channel Islands; east to 










: "'! • '*. 

8. R. fitariii L. 

Fomm il-gfii| 
Perennial <i<m n t ■ u Lesser CelaiS 

dentate^ Flowers 15-50 mm. todiaSrll i shaHowly crenate or rl 

j™ *-«. „ yate . Achones 2 , ^25; ^K^^^S.J-jf 

S 8 r^ e ^^ r d ^-' a ^^P s *»* |s a less robust ptolt wi ,| 
ftcarifonnb Rouy & Fouc % fl^f.) Piloe ™^t achenes, 2 » = IrSI 
vobu^t plant witn flowS^oSi ^e^S^s^' V «| 
In fi^iJ- . ^ Pubescent achenes '."M 

B ,c^ I^^ f 5^^ ™^- "«««■ and 0„o: fluent (S ;. * 
Europe; W , Asia; introduced m N. America. 

p . Autumn Biitleiils 

«« c„ n fi^s^f ; "K™^,^' h - s° ra ■"-"•'■ """»'■• «! 

Me<li, e „,„<>„ regi0 „ t0 N w Sp<ln ma poriiiB]; n Af| . ra 

|||j.l.. ; l)au(Soiii Godron . Brackish Water-iTowmol-. 

gib.'aqwaWJs var. baudotii (Godron) Fiori 

|tj., annual or perennial with either laminate or capillary leaves, or both. 

pate leaves with 3, deep, euneate, distant, entire or crenate sej;me:its. 

Mary leaves robust, not collapsing when removed from water. Hmifiy-Iiisves 

lily more than 6 mm. long, contiguous Stamens 12- numerous. Receptacle ovoid. 
H!sij.eht. Achenes 1-1.4. mm. long, numerous (40100), glabrous, m'^tinctiy 
" | us -winged. 2n = 32. FL 1-6. 

..especially in 'rocky ground. Malta, Gozo and Comma: commem (Borg; G. 
fsjanco;' Wolseley). 

sbrackish water on most coasts of Europe; N.W. .Africa. 

f^jt, peltatus Schrank 

§;?*!£:■ -dquaUUs var. peltatus (Schrank) Kcch 

'el taie- leaved Crowfoot 

16 ' R - ophinglossifolins Vi.ll. 

Adders-tongue Spear^M! 

Annual 10-40 rra h/sh Ri^i i ■ 'Hi 

Prolate; upper smal^^a^^^"'^ °' ; suborbieular, cordate, li| 
nb,cur. g .y serrate.; lower Pedicels ^ 'long a f !e av^^ W S ^ SiIe; a!l enMro'lf 

In ponds. Malta: rare (G T atl f,..„ , -llf 

CG.; Borg; Penza). (G ' LdI5fla,1 <^ as at Chain RiTlana . G ^, ^ (s J| 

S. Europe; isolated localifipc in rwi . ^ 

Canaries; Caucasus. Gotlal,d oud E "^^; Mediterranean n^j 

H. R. iontamis C. Presl 

-^C£«^ Procumbent; ^ 

Malta: very rare in ponds at Ghajn Mu]fl (Borg} _ ^ 

Corse; S. Italy; Sicilia; Jugoslavia; Albania. 


SgfiAJi.: annual or perennial with either laminate or capillary leaves, or l)ct.ri. 

riinate leaves semi-orbicular v/ith a truncate base, to orbicular, with 3-7, 

toJIow, usually crenate segments. Capillary leaves shorter thaji the ir'te modes. 

ipiei'' In fruit usually more than 50 mm. and exceeding the -pttioic: of the 

S^M'aiding leaf. Honey ■ leaves usually more than 10 mm. Umj>, contiguous; 

^Sj^iaties more or less pyrii'orm. Stamens 12- numerous. Achenes mors !:han 2 mm. 

|||nEJ;.-not usually more, than 40, more or less pubescent, ovate. 2ft = si. F'l. 1-G. 

^^ads. Malta: freo.uei)t (Borg), 

f^piSt;,&f Europe; N. Africa. 

Ilfef-' ■'■' 

pp. aquaiilis K which differs from R. peltatus in the segments of the laininstc 

ll^ycs. having dentate margins; the pedicel in fruit being rarely more than !>() 

^^^;'.: : iong and usually shorter than the petiole of the subtending leaf, in the honey 

illlite'es being up to 10 mm. long and the nectaries circular, does nol soem tabs 

B ^|fefliti.tely recorded from Malta). 

Wf,,.- R. triclmpliyltus Ohaix 

Thread -leaved water -crow foot. 

sajS'/'An annual or perennial without laminate leaves. Capillary leaves rarely more 
|tWi. 4 cm. long. Honey-leaves rarely move than S mm. lane, not eor.Usuei's. 
^aniens 5-15. Achenes more than 2 mm. long, ovate. 2n — S3. FI. 1-5, 

fill) springs, ponds and ditches. Malta and Gozo: frequent (G. Lanfnmco; Wolseley!, 
Sias at Wied il-Gftasel, Ghajn Kiftana, Wied is-Sewda and Qleigha (Borg), 

?Mpst of Europe; N. Africa; Asia; central N. America. 


Trees or shrubs. Leaves evergreen, entire, gland-dotted, alternate. Dioecious, or 
flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous; flowers aetinc-morpMc. small, gvoenhm. 
Perianth deeply 4 to 6-lobed, Stamens usually in 4 whorls, anthers opening by 
valves Ovary superior, l-celled; style simple. Fruit a berry. 


1. Laurus L. 

DUxrclous. inflorescence subsessile. Perianth Globed; stamens 8-12; anthers all ■ /■* 

inlrorse, opening by 2 ■ valves.. 

I. L. soiiilis L, 

Plate IX 


Shrub or small tree 2-20 m high, with slender glabrous twigs. Leaves 5-n f x 
2-4 (-7.5) cm, narrowly oblong-lanceolate, acute or a eummate glabrous Mae . 
flowers whh 8-12 stamens, all or most with- 2 glands at base; anthers opening by ..* 
2 valves. Female flowers with 2-4 staminodes. Fruit 10-15 mm long, ovoid, black, 
whun ripe.- U = 42. PI. 2-4. 

AfuKB and Gozo: commonly cultivated and often naturalised (S & ^ ; ; forg; G ; ^ 
Lanfran«r WoIs e lfiy>. Possibly native; Malta; Buskett Wardya, la Baldu. (Borg, :;| 
wXley?/ -CJnaJn h-Kbira, San Martin, Cnejna, Addoldrata Cemetery (Borg). ,M 
Goto: Xlendi, Nadur (Berg). 
Mediterranean region; cultivated elsewhere and naturalized in places. 


Hrrhs with Me* or watery sap. Leaves usually spirally arranged,, variously .dis-- 
SXd SJer'^m^hrodite^ictinomorphic or ,*«^«*PJ^2*g«™™- ^ 
2(-3) caducous, totals 4-6. Stamens 2, 4 or numerous whorled Ovary superior, 
unilocular, bllocuiar or imperfectly multilobular; carpels 2 to many. 

Flowers zygomorphie 

Flowers actinomorphic 

Flowers weakly zygomorphie; petals not Sepals 
Flowers strongly zygomorpllic; upper petal spurred 

Capsule less than 10 times . as long as wide, narrowed 
at base 

Capsule more than 10 times as long as wide, more 
or less parallel-sided 

Flowers solitary; petals 20 mm long or more; capsule 


Flowers in a simple umbel; petals up to 10 mm long; 

capsule 1-locular 


1. Papaver 

Che li don ium 

Subfam. Papaveroideae 

Lillet usually present. Flowers solitary or umbellate, actinomorphic; Sepals entire; 
petals entire, not spurred. Stamens numerous. Capsule dehiscing by pores or 

longitudinal valves. 

1. Papaver . L. 

^-bcylmdncal to globose, opening by pores below °the ^ s^Uc dfs C . Aril" 

■ S^" 01 .^ ^. 8 "^^ glaucous; leaves usually 
deeply divided to pinnatisect, upper not amplexicaVl 

2. Capsule setose 
Capsule glabrous 

3. Capsule subglobose to broadly obovoid, less than 
twice as long as wide 

y-to£t.^*°^- mpti ^ **** twice as 

f /Anthers violet 

!■ Anthers yellow or yellow-brown 

~,k P somnlfeinm L. 

1. somniferum 

5. hybrldum 

2. rhoeas 



& dubiuin 

4. pinnatlJiduin 

Opiujn Poppy 

; -Erect, glaucous annual 30-100 'f-isoi r-m hiA ■ V ' " * '" 0PPy 

gkmg, pinnately lobed; lower leave, with short neti^f^ 7 ' tZ Cm 1ot &> ^at e - 

mm and colour of petals, colour of^eeds anS ,W f h &WX ' , Very variaI >fe "» 

W^™ (DC.) Corb. differs in befn^ more or S Sr ^ CaP ' UlS - Subs P' 

■m- leaves more deeply and acutelv InW liw ? Se; . s ems U P to 60 cm 

pile 50-60 x 30-40 nml subgloooslVSoS ' ^ With Sn apieal ^ 

|f ¥ ISn^ SletT ^ and °^ freqUent CS ' * C-O-i «-D, Gulia; 
^& C. Mediterranean reSoT 6 " "* ™ CaSUa1 ' and probabI y na «ve in the 

Pf P. rhoeas L. 

Plate X 

Common Poppy 

■ ■ -. v-ujuraon foppy 


target- than laterals. Pedicel patent-hispid. Petals 30-45 mm long, orbicular, usiia'fl^ 
red, sometimes with dark spot at base. Filaments filiform, purple, anthers blui.sp 
Capsule 1-2 cm Ions', subglobosc or broadly obovoid, rounded at base, slig!i|, 
ribbed, glabrous. Stigma tic disc more or less flat; rays (&-} ft-12 (-18), 2n 
Fi. 3-5. 

Cultivated, and sometimes waste, places. MulUt, Gaso and Comino: very ccmmoS" 
(S. & C.G.; Rorg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Tliroi.igbout most of Europe as a weed of cultivation aJid native at. least in .-M| 
south 1 , casual in the north; N, Africa; temperate Asia. 

; : : ; '.;■■' 2. Glaticiitm Miller 

glaucous ; latex yellow. Sepals free. Petals 4, entice. Stigma 2-lobed sessile over 
^■■placentae. Capsule linear, 2-ceIled, opening from above almost to base by 2 valves. 
i0cBd£ embedded in septum Alii absent. 

i, : : G r flavnm Crantz 

Plate X 

Long-headed Fopjjj; 

3. P. rlubfum L. 

Popavc r rhoeaa var. dvMum (L.) Fiori and var. 
obtusifoliitvi (Desf.) 'Fiori 

Hispid annual 20-60 cm high; hairs patent in lower parts, appressed abo$i| 
Hoot and latex white. Leaves somewhat jdr.ucous; basal pivinaitscct or piointip||i 
segments ovate, obtuse; eatiHne often bipinnatifid, segments linear- inn cenl||||p 
acute. Pedicel ap pressed- hispid. Petals 15-30 (-35) mm long, sub orbicular, rjift^ 
sometimes with dark spot at. base. Filaments filiform, purple- anthers vi<jl$| 
.usually below the stigmJiic disc. Capsule 1.5-2 a ti.3-0.75cm, ob* ran., freer iiesM 
ribbed, glabrous. Stigmatic disc more or flat; rays 7-9. 2m =* 42. PI. ££- 

In cultivated places. Malta' and Qo?-o: common (S. & GO.; Borj;; G. Laiil'rajie^ 

.'Sparsely pubescent biennial or perennial. .Stems 30-90 cm high. Basal leaves 

f^^KiJ* 35 cm ioY]S - 'y ra te, pinnately lobed; lower segments smaller and. more or less 

H fe^' rc '' u P per coarsely dentate; cauline leaves smaller, ovate, lobed, amplesican.t 

m pjiMpwers solitary, terminal or axillary. Sepals- more or less- pubescent. Pe.f.als i',-4 

■ " f ^i l|NN'' long ' y^ ™' broadly obovatc. Stamens yellow. Ovary tuherculatc lhrou;,'hour 

VnntiS^ ^^^te length. Capsule 15-30 cm long, often curved, glabrous, not constricted between 


Throughout most, of Europe as ■ a weed- of cultivation, but only as a casual "1$$ 
parts- of the north. 

Pepprin /^ 

Mediterranean PoppSiS 

4. J 3 , pimial.induw Moris 

P. rfr.oeos- var. TxhinfLtifi.dxiTn. (Moris) Fiori 

Erect hispid Annual SO-60 em high. Leaves usually pinnatjfid, lover pciio!a.|p§ 
upper sessile; segments triangular- ovate, entire or dentate. Pedicel appressSfe 
hispid ttbove, patent-hispid below. Petals 20-2.5 mm long. Filaments filifonu, d'afK 
fi.ole.f;- anthers yellow. Capsule c. 2. x 0.5-0.7 cm, oblong-obeonic, slightly tapemdp 

towards base, ribbed, glabrous, Stigmatic disc slightly convex, not widyvt-ft^ WMi0 lobe at base on lower side 

capsule; rays (i-S, ¥1 1-3 


in cultivated- places, nlolta and Gozo: common (S & C.G.; Borg; G. b;i#; 

Mediterranean region, extending to Bulgaria and Portugal 
5. P. hybi-iilniii L. 


Rough Poppy 

Pepprin isfar 

Yellow l.Ioi'ned-poppy 

^Sfievseeds. 2n 

12. PI. 4-7, also in autumn. 

g^flt'kyancl sandy places near the sea, Malta: common, particularly along the north 
^JJifd'esisI coasts (S. & C.G.; Eorg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley), Gozo: IH-cj.ra. Kaiuia. 
JKpSitbdi; Mgarr (S. & C.G.; Gulla; Rorg; Wokelcy ! . Comrdo: fmiuwit ■■: Gnli-u ; '!3orj;; 

"SSi;-. . 

Roasts of S. & V{. Europe, northwards to Oslo; Black Sea: frequently naturalized 
Mid- C:' Europe; W. Asia. 


&p* .'''" 3. Clielitioniuni L. 

e>$£ :■■■■'■ 

Sfcitatex orange. Sepals free. Petals- 4, entire. Stigma. 2-lobecI: style very shssr-. (.',-' 

fp^&ile. linear, without septum, opening from below by 2 valves. 


C. mains L 

Plate X 

.HaxixR !;:l--fe!u; 
Greater Celandine 

Hispid annual 10-5(1 cm high. Leaves hispid. 1- to 2-pinnati.sect; segriientj'j 
linear, to oblong- lanceolate, often arista le: lower pctioiate, upper sessile. Pedice|| 
densely appressed-tiispid, less so above. Petals .10-20 (-25) mm long, obovate, rerf,f 
with durli. spot at. base. Filaments clavale. dark violet; anthers pale blue. CJapsu!^| 
1-1.23 cm, obovoid-globoso, ribbed, with stiff erect setae. Stigmatic disc cotivesi: 

rays 4-8. 2n 

11. F.I. 1-5. 

In cultivated and waste places. Malta and Gozo: common (S. & C,G, 



Native in S. Europe and widespread as 

weed of cultivation further north; C-JM 

"Glaucous, sparsely pubescent perennial. Slams 30-S!i cin bi^-h. Leaves pinnate; 
|i|ea-f(ots 5-7, ovate to oblong, terminal usually 3-lobe.d ; lateral often vjilh a sti.pule- 

crcnate. Inflorescence Ltnibeilate; Dowers VS. 
KiPijials up to 1 cm long, obovate,- bright yellow. StviTiieus yeifow; llianic-'vi:? e.Tiyr.tiiie.d 
^sSirove. Capsule 3-5 cm, more or less straight, -glabrous; aril wl-J.te. '2-n ^ 12. 
|f I.- 4-6. 

viild y/rills. Malta: local ( G . La n tra no o ) , a s a t S a n Anton. A rgo i I i ' S . A (' ' . G . : "■.. ■; o : 7.; '• 
^ifiiisftett (Gulia; Borg); Floriana Gjtrdene, Kordin (1'jorg.i. (Ja::o: Ch.-jr.ibray (Gui.ia; 
l^ifeorg); Rabat (Borg). 

_ 'Europe, exc ent the extreme Kortli, but in some districts only as an c.; crips ^'f-r.i. 
IS^artletis; N. Asia. 

Subfam. Uypecno'tLene 

^..Flowers solitary or in cymes. Corolla slightly zyjjcmorpUic; petals ro;: s^T.-rre;!. 
KsjCapsuIo linear. 

J.*- 4. HypecosisR L. 

'.Glabrous, glaucous annuals with watery sap. Sepals Tree, Petals i, at least {.lie 
||y inner pair 3-lohed. Stamens 4. Stigmas 2; style s'norL.. Capsule ricbed or joi:.AK<, 
p? : usually breaking up into 1-seeded portions. Aril abscat. 




H, procuwifctms L- 

Plate X 

Qarn il-mogbiia 
Sickle-fruited Hypecoum 

Stcm !t rl.te, procumbent. ^^«i,'& 'SS « 

lobe. Anthers 1-1.2 mm long. I nut 4 6 ^ Mt frequent (S.* 

Qbajjar (Borg). . 

Mediterranean region and Asia. 

Subfam. Fiimarloideae 

SUDiam. in.j'- ... 

„ TnRorescence racemose, bracteolate. 

usually g^rous f^^^^^T^ ^^ ° r — ^ 

Corolla transversely zygomoipmc u W 

mens 2, tripartite. -. 

5, irumatia 1>. 

petal leso-turaod .upward 

-7 Fruit smooth when, dry 

Fruit, rugose when dry _ g 

4 p e a»l. »c™te-re ( »™a in fruit 

M icels erect •' I st ™ 1 ' „ i m m 

slightly- leaked 

6 Sepals 3-4 x c, 2 mm 

SobsIs 2-3 x 1-2 mm ^ 

7 Raceme 8- to 12-flcwered; sepals 2-2.5 * c. 1 mm; fnut 
2-2.5 x l-.H-l.7mm .„, l3lim 
K,-^e IS- to 25-ilowered; sepals 2-S * 1-2 mm, 
fruit 2-2:5 x 2-2.5 mm 





3. capreolata 
6. bastardii 

4. flabellata 

1. agraria 

2. gaHlardotii 

5. bicolor 

6. 1>a5tardil 




3. Sepals 1.5-3.5 x 1-3 mm 
Sepals 0.7-1 x 0.3-0.5 mm 

9, Bracts longer than fruiting pedicels; fruit subglobose 

Bracts shorter than fruiting pedicels; fruit nearly 
obreniform in profile 

10. Bracts shorter than pedicels; flowers pink 

Bracts equalling or longer than pedicels; flowers 
usually 'white 

1- F, agraria Lag. 

Raceme 15- to 22-flnwered, longer than the peduncle. Bracts about 2/3 as long 

to as long as the patent fruiting pedicels. Sepals 3.5-5 x 1-2 ram, dentate to 

subentire. Corolla 12-14 mm long, pinkish-wftite only the jnnear petals with dark 

.purple apices; lower petal with patent margin. Fruit c;3x 2.5 mm, ovoid, strongly 

keeled and rugose when dryj apex with an emarginate beak. PI. 12-5. 

Cultivated and waste places- Malta and Gozo: common (S. & C.G; Borg; G. Lan- 
franco). It seems unlikely that this species, it' it occurs, is common, as no specimens 
'have been seen, but it certainly occurs in Sicily. 

..; Mediterranean region from Jugoslavia westwards. 


■ ■•W 



7. densiflora 


S. officinalis 


9. vaillautii 
10. purviflora 


Dahnet 1-art 
Field Fumitory 


F. gaillardotfl Boiss. 

F. agraria var. major sensu Borg 

Plate X 

Dahnet 1-art 
Italian Fumitory 

j- < Racemes 10- to 15 (-20) -flowered, the upper ones very often shorter than the 
^peduncle. Bracts more or less equalling the suberect .fruiting pedicels. Senals 3-4 
-;X c. 2 mm, irregularly incise-dentate. Corolla 10-12 (-13) mm long, pale pink; apex 
of inner petals and wings of upper one dark purple; lower petals with broad 
patent margin. Fruit 25-3 x 2.5-3 mm, subglobose ^quadrate, apex very obtuse or 
S%ubtruncate, slightly keeled, densely tub ere ulate-rugose when dry. 

^Cultivated and waste places. Malta and Gozo: common <Borg; Sell; Wdlseley). 

■; E! Mediterranean region. 

3. F. capreolata L, subsp. capreolata 

Dahnet 1-art 

White Ramping -fumitory 

;' Raceme up to 20-flowered, shorter than the peduncle. Bracts usually shorter 
jHH§&; :. -thjin the fruiting ]>edicels which are often rigidly arcuate-recurved. Sepals 4-6 x 
' -2-3 mm, more or less dentate. Corolla 10-14 mm long, creaniy-wbite or pinkish, 
jarely deep red (var. speeiosa Hamm.); wings of upper petal and apex of inner 
'petals blackish-red; lower petal with very narrow, erect margin. Fruit 2x2 mm, 
smooth, subglobose, apex very obtuse, but r-ot truncate, obscurely keeled. Fl. 12-3. 

"Cultivated places. Malta and Gozo: infrequent (G.D.; Cleghofn; Duthie; G. Lan- 
franeo), . ' 

S., W, & C, Europe; N. Africa; introduced in N. and S. America. 


4. F. flabeltata Gaspar. 

Southern Ramping Fumitory.. £ 

Like F. capreolata but raceme 10- to 30- flowered, at first as long as, then 
longer than, the peduncle; sepals 3-5 x 1.5-2.5 mm; lower petal with patent margin; 
fruit 2-2.75 x 2-2,75 mm, densely when dry. Fl. 2-3. 

Cultivated and waste places- Malta, (7oso and Comj'iio; common (BorgJ. 

Mediterranean region. 

«; F. officinalis L. 

Dahnet 1-art 
Common Fumitory 

5. F. tricolor .Sommier ex Nicotra 

Dahnet 3-art 

Two- coloured Fumitory 

Raceme S- to 12-flnwered, shorter than the peduncle. Bracts 1/4 - 1/2 as long;- 
as the more or ■ less, suberect fruiting pedicels. Sepals 2-2:5 x c. t mm, mure;; 
or less dentate. Corolla 30-13 mm long, white or pinkish- white, finally all pink;, 
apex of inner petals dsirk purple; lower petal with narrow patent margin. Fruit 1 
2-2.25 x 1.5-1.75 mm, subglobose- ovoid, obscurely keeled, rugose When dry; apex- 
subacute. Fl. 2-4, 

Open ground away from cultivation, Malta: infrequent. Wieb Babu, (Duthie.; Borg):; 
Girgenti; (Duttrie); Ta' Lawrenli, Cnien il-kbira (Borg), Go/o: Dwejra ft)uthic; ; S. 
& C.G.; Borg). -;- : - 

;'■/" Raceme longer than the peduncle. Bracts half as long as to nearlv as long 
las the ereelo- patent fruiting pedicels. Sepals 1.5-3.5 x 1-1.5 mm. irregularly dentate 
>Cpi;oIla 7-8 mm long, purplish-pink; wings of upper petal and apex of inner ones 
, blackish-red; lower petal with patent margin, spathulatc. Fruit c. 2 x 2.5-3 mm, 
■nearly obreniform in profile, obscurely keeled, rugose when dry; apex truncate 
iatir. slightly emarg'mate. Fl. 12-7, 

JfTwo subspecies occur. Subsp. officinalis has the raceme normally more than 
i-'JMlowered and sepals 2.5-3.S x 1-1.5 mm. Subsp. wirtgenii (Koch) Arcangeli 
(■lias the raceme 10- to 20-f lowered and sepals. -1.3-2 x 1 mm. 

^Gliltivyted places. Malta, Gozo and C amino: frequent (S. & C.G.; 'Borg.i. 

:..- Almost throughout Europe, east to Persia; N. Africa. 

.1. F. valllantii Loisel. 

Dahnet 1-art 

Fe w-f 1 o we r e.t I Fu mi I: o r j 

W. part of Mediterranean region. 

B. F, bastard!) Boreaii 

Dahnet 1-art 

Tall Ramping Fumitory; 

Raceme usually 15- to 25-flowered, longer than the peduncle Bracts 1/3 - l/ii 
as long as the suberect. or ereo to-patent fruiting pedicels. Sepals 2-3; x. 1-2 mm,': 
more or less serrate. Corolla 9-12 mm long, pale pink with the ap'ax of the inner' 
petals and sometimes the wings of the upper petal dark purple; Upper petal'; 1 
narrow and laterally compressed; lower pets! with narrow patent margin. Fruit, 
2-2.5 x 2-2.5 mm, ovoid with a wide, flattish base and more or less obtuse aptx, r ; 
slightly keeled and usually rugose. 2re = c. 43. Fl. 12-4. 

Very variable. Var. bastardii has no dark colouration in the tip of the unRg'ti 
petal. Var, gnssonei (Boiss.) Pugsl. has the upper petal dark-tipped and the fruit; 
with obscure apical pits. Var. bencdicta (Nicotra) Pugs), has the upper petal dailt-; 
tipped and the fruit with black apical pits. 

Malta: frequent (Borg). Xlendi (Borg). 

7. K ( DC. 

F. wdcrantha Lag. 

^.,., J ; : ; Raceme generally G- to 12- flowered, lenger than the short peduncle. Brads 
MJabout 3/4 as long as the more or less erect fruiting pedicels. Se.pais 0.7-1 t: 
£;';o.,1-0.,i-iim, more or less laciniate-denlato. Corolla 5-fi mm long, pale pink: 
p?£#ex of inner petals and wings of upper petal often tinted with blackish-red, 
fetnwer petal with patent, margin, spathula'ie. Fruit c. 2 x 2 mm, subglobose, 
^jofecurely keeled, granular- rugose when dry: apex rounded-obtuse and nnteron.ulate 
IJAwnqn- young. 2w = 32. Fl. 2-<(. 

BigL&iiltivateri places. Malta: rather rare as at Attard. Most;) and UJrKirkara (Boi'S!. 

^Mediterranean region; temperate Asia. 
Pfcife'F. parviflora Lam. 

Dahnet 1-art : -j 

Dense flowered Fumitory 

Raceme 20- to 25-flowered, much exceeding the very short or obsolete ped^: 
uncle. Bracts normally exceeding the erecto-patent fruiting pedicels. Sepals (2-j j 
2.5-3!5 x (1.S-) 2-3 mm, stibontire or laciniate. Corolla fi-7 mm long, pink; wings:! 
of upper petal and apes of inner blackish red; lower petal with patent, margin,.; 
subspathulate. Fruit 2-2.5 x 2-2.5 mm, subglobosc, keeled, rugose when dry; apex-, 
rounded-obtuse. Fl. 3-5. '" I 

Waste and cultivated places. Malta: frequent in many places (S. & C.G.; Borg):. 

W. & S. Europe; N. Africa and Middle' East: sometimes casual elsewhere. 

Dahnet 1-art 

Fine- leaved Fumitor: 

£.'- " IJke.F. vaillantii but raceme up to 20-ilowerod. svbscssile; bracts as lonjj as 

ptft- longer than the fruiting pedicels; sepals 0.7-1 x 0,3-0.5 mm, more or less 

^| -laciniate- dentate: corolla 5-fi mm long, white, flushed pink; lower petal with. 

^■patent margin, spathulnte; fruit c. 2 x 2 mm, distinctly keeled and often suh- 

-acute. Fl. 1-5. 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta: common (S. & CO.: Borg; G. .Umfranco). 
|g'vGo:o.- frequent (S, & C.G.; Borg). 

^Mediterranean region extending northwards to Britain and Belgium: \V. Asia; 
KN. Africa. 


•;\' Herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves simple, or ternate to palmate, alternate, 
S stipulate or not, slipuies sometimes spi rinse. Flowers solitary or in racemes. 
:-^ctinomorphic or more usually zygomorphic, hermaphrodite. Sepals 4. Petals 4. 
is Stamens, fi-many. Ovary single, superior, on a gynophore; carpels 2. Fruit a 

2-valved, unilocular capsule, or a berry. 



1, Capparls L. 

Shrubs with simple leaves, and usually with stipular spines. Flowers solitary, 
showy, zygomorphic; sepals 4, white or pink; stamens numerous. Fruit a berry ; 
borne on a long gynophore. 

1. C. spinosa L. var. inernus Turra 

Plate X 


Branches pendulous. Leaves glabrous, somewhat succulent, petiolate, orbicular : 
or orbicular-ovate, obtuse or emarginate at the apex, Stipular spines absent or 
caducous at an early stage. Flowers 5-7 cm in diameter, slightly zygomorphfe .. 
Sepals purplish. Fl. 4-9. '■; 

Rocks, bastions, walls. Malta, Goto, Cornino and FUfla: common (S. & C.G.; Borg; 
G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). ■■}. 

Mediterranean region; Portugal; Krym. 


Annual to perennial herbs, rarely small shrubs. Leaves alternate, exstipulate i: 
Flowers usually hermaphrodite, actmomorphic, hypogy nous. Sepals 4, free, in;||| 
2 decussate pairs, Petals 4, rarely absent, free, clawed, imbricate ' or contbrted f :|| 
alternating with the sepals. Stamens usually 6, rarely 4, 2 or 0, tetradynamous^ 
(an outer pair with short filaments, and two inner pairs, one posterior arid oiie;;, 
anterior, with long filaments); filaments sometimes winged or with a tooth'-liitKj 
appendage. Nectarial glands of various sizes, shapes colours and disposition's^ 
around the base of the stamens and ovary. Ovary of 2 carpels, syncarpous, wkfi^ 
2 parietal placentas, usually bilocular through the formation of a membranbnVS 
false septum by the union of outgrowths of the placentas; sometimes trans vers el jtj^ 
pluriloeular. Stigma capitate to bilobed. Friiit usually a dehiscent capsule 'npcrC|Jj 
ing by 2 valves from below, called a siliqua when at least 3 times as long ,as 3J 
wide or a silicula if less than 3 times as long as wide; sometimes inde'' 'scent; i% 
breaking inki 1-seeded portions or not; rarely transversely articulate with dehis'.|| 
cent and indehiscent segments, sometime* dividing at maturity into l-seeded.|® 
portions (lomentum). Seeds in 1 or 2 rows in each loculus. 

1. Fruit lomentaccous — that is transversely articulate 
with 2 segments often separating at maturity; the 
lower segment 2-valyed, dehiscent or sterile, the upper 
segment indehiscent 

Fruit a siliqua or silicula, sometimes dividing into 
several portions, or hard and indehiscent 

Upner segment of fruit globose or ovoid, with a short 

Upper segment of fruit cylindrical or obling-ovoid, 
sometimes constricted between the seeds 


29. Rcplilstrum 

3. Upper segment of fruit mitre - shaped with a single seed 28. 

Upper segment of fruit many-seeded, long and 
cylindrical; often contracted between the seeds 




:.■■ 4 - Fruit a siliqua at least 3 times as long as wide 
Fruit a silicula less than 3 times as long as wide 
5. Glabrous plant or with unbranched hairs only 

;" SKSSSft h' a £ anched or a mixture «»™*** 

6- Sepals erect 

Sepals erecto-patent or patent 
■7. Petals purple 

Pet^ yenow or yellowish- white, sometimes with 

:; ■«. Petals yellow or yellowish- white 

Petals pale yellow or greeni s n wim d ^ '^^ 
j ■-■: ■». Siliqua 4-angied, the valves 1-veined 
|v. Siliqua convex, rounded with a prominent median 

;■_. 10. Petals .15-20 mm 

Petals less than 15 mm 
^■.1^ Valves of siliqua with 3-7 veins 

| ; Valves of siliqua with single median vein or veinless 
;;'12. Siliqua 3-veined; not beaked 
|S Siliqua 3,7 veined; beak 10 mm or more long 
k 13. Valves flat; siliqua strongly compressed 
.., . Valves convex; siliqua not strongly compressed 
V}4.- Petals white 

./; Petals yellow or white with purple veins 
';:■■; 15. Stigma capitate 

| fettt'ra.*'*: ------- 

IB- Petals yellow 

Petals white, pink or violet 
;17. Lobes of stigma, without a swelling or horn 
;; Lobes of stigma with a dorsal swelling or horn 


22. Moricandla 

■'1. Sisymbrium 

25. Sinapis 

9. Cardamiue 

8. Nasturtium 
23, Diplotaxis 
2. Descuraiiiia 








21. Coitringia 

24. Brassica 

2fi. Eruca 

27. Hirsehfcldia 




5. Cheiranthus 

4. Malcolmia 

6. Matthlvla 



■IS. Silicula didymous, flat 












Silicula^ot didymous (or rarely didymous and then 

■Siheula with 4 longitudinal irreguh.rly dentate wings 
Silicula without wings 

mt n mi), rarely nucumentaeeous 

Sle C S ?pt a U T t * SePtate (coraprossed a * "«hl angfc to 

Sepals- erect (calyx closed) 

Sepals -patent or ereeto-patent 

Jlobust Planus „„ fo i m w(th fusilom mijig 

Dwarf plants up to 40 cm without fusiform roots 

Petals entire or emarginate 

Petals decp)y r 2,lobed 

Fruit didymous, rem'form or cordate 

^omllf-r^^^T' renif °™ or cordate, but 
sometimes obcordate 

Cauhneleaves KCSs0 e, ampl erica ul; petals „ 4 mm long 
Cauline shortly petiolate; petals 0.5-1.5 mm long 
Valves of fruit winged 
Valve*, of fruit not winged 

ESS SyUcif peMa " mlther] styIe absem: 

Sm q " al: Sfy,e PreSenl; caul,no a! ^l '-adical leaves 

Seeds 1-8 in each loculus 

Secd^solitary, pendulous from the apex of each 

Fruits not triangular-obeordate 
Fruits triangular-obcordate 

Seeds up to 12 in each loculus 

Sus*"'^' I ' end,l ' ol,a from 1h <= ^« of each 

17. Biseutella 

3, Bunius 


12. Neslia 
7. Armoraeia 

10, Lnbularia 

11. Eropfcila 

1 9. Cardaria 

20. Car on opus 


1. Sisymbrium I,. 

_„S.rtnuaI or perennial herbs; glabrous or hairs unbranched. Leaves entire to 
Jfjjiinnatisect. Sepals not saccate at base: petals yellow, rarely white, entire, Fruit 
fpa siliqua; valves usually 3- veined;, style distinct; stigma more or less 2-Jobed. 
pfSeetfs small (not more than 2.5 mm). 


ifcl.- Inflorescence bracteale, later with 2-3 siliquac in the 

^it: axil of each leaf-like bract 3. polyceralimn 

Inflorescence ebracteate 2. 

Siliyuae straight, stiffly erect and appressed to the 

inflorescence axis 

SiKquae not appressed to the inflorescence axis 

.Siliqua 25-63 mm long, usually curved 
Silioua (35-) 30-100 mm long, straight 

S. irio L. 

Plate XI 

4, oil icjn.ii fa 

1. irlo 

2, altissiraiim 

London Ilocket 

■15. Teesdalia 

16, Thfcispi 

18. Lepjdjuni 

14. Hyriienoloons 

13. Capselia 

15. Lepidium 

:.iilggfis! : : ' . Annual up to 00 cm high, glabreseent or with long curved hairs. Flower leaves 

.''■'itilfe^'touate-pinnatilid, the terminal lobe larger than the laterals; cauline leaves lobed 

jS^r '■ 'entire and hastate, shortly petiolate. Inflorescence condensed, the young 

|||||irliqiiae overtopping the flowers and buds; pedicels :j-6 mm Jong in flower, up 

l|rjhjr>.to ' 20 nam long in fruit. Petals 2.5-3.5 (-6) mm long; anthers e. 0.7 mm 

"%hg; Siliqua 25-63 x 0.7-1 mm, torulose; style rarely more than 0,3 inm; septum 

£parC OE less hyuline. Seeds e. 1 mm. 2n ■= 42, Fl, 2-3. 

ItvWiiste ftnd cultivated places. Malta and Goto: frequent inland (S. & C.G..;- Borjr, 
j/G,.. Lanfranco; Wolseley), 

||'&pbaMy native only in S. Europe, now widespread in Europe except the extreme 
sSsHpctJ). N. Africa, trie Near East and N. America, 

|pv " 

§Ki S. altissimum' L, Tall Rocket 


ffe'v?; : A;.mual up to 100 cm. high, usually hispid at base First- formed basal, leave, 
■minute, oblong-obvate, subcnUre; lower cauline leaves sinuate-pinnnUfid; the 
fohe ■ tipper sessile, with linear lobes. Pedicels 4-10 mm long. Outer sepals with 
"J', short horn at the apex; petals 3-K (-10) mm long; anthers 1-2 mm long. 
Jji'Siiicua (35-) 50-100 x 1-1.5 mm; style 0.5-1.5 mm, cylindrical, with shortly IMobed 
p;stigtti£. Seeds 0.8-1 mm. 2m = 14. 

Itfrban areas. Malta: infrequent Ki. LanfraucoL as at Valletta and Fiorlana (I.S120L 
^roadside near Attard (Borgi. 

Ij&Native of E. Europe and the Near East. Established in Europe and K. America. 

ft. polyceiatiutu L, 

Short-fruited Rocket 

: '';-' Usually glabrous annual up to 75 cm hi^h. Lower leaves sinuatc-pimiaUtid. 
EHfhe lotics triangular. Inflorescence bracteatc to the apex: flowers usually fasci- 


culate; pedicels 0.5-1 mm long in rruit. Petals 1.5-2 iiim long, equalling (jr|g 
slightly exceeding sepals; anthers 0.3-0.5 mm long. Siliqua 10-25 x 0.7-1.2 nun,|[ 
recurved, torulose; style thinner than siliqua. Seeds 0.6-1 mm. Fl. 3-5. 

Waste places. Malta: frequent (Zerafa; G.D.; Gulia; Borg; G. Lanfranco). 

S. Europe from Corse eastwards. 

4. S. officinale (L.) Scop. 

Hedge Mustard 

Annual or biennial 5-90 cm high. Lower leaves pinnatisect, more or leS?| 
ovate in outline, with a large terminal lobe. Pedicels 1-2 mm. Petals 2-4 tiw% 
long; anthers c. 0.7 mm long; ovary with 10-20 ovules. Siliqua (8-) 10-20 mm lortg'M 
conical -cylindrical, straight, attenuate into style, valves hairy, or glabrous (vm;|| 
leiocarpum DCj); style 0.5-1 mm. Seeds c. 1 mm. 2n = 14. Fl. 2-5, 

Cultivated places, along paths and edges of fields. Malta and Goto: common (S:j 
& C.G.; Borg; G, Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Native throughout Europe, northwards to c, 63° N„ N, Africa and the Near Easi|: 
Naturalised elsewhere, 

2. Descurainia Webb & Berth. 

Annual or biennial; hairs of two kinds, branched and unbranched. Leaves| 
3 r pinnatisect. Sepals not saccate; petals pale yellow, smaller than sepals. Fri<i|| 
a siliqua; valves with a distinct median vein; style very short; stigma suhcapitatep- 
Seeds small {not more than 1 mm), not mucilaginous when moistened. -.1^ 

ISS^u^lorg). 016 ^ ^ C ° tt0nera CGU ^ Borg). Go ,o; Wied il- 
jjS. Europe; often introduced elsewhere. 

':■:. 4. Maicolmia R, Br. 

*t£^A° ^"y 1 ' 81 her bs with branched hairs (rarely hairs of two kind* 
tSe^eSs'Sf 116 ^ T ^escont. Sepals erect, the S uL% saccate 
?S siu± "Ve* Tt-' ™ Tel ?r hi \ e > l ™^™^ median nectaries absent 
l-r^Satl^ds^^ow^ S^uluT ^^ 2 " l0bed ' *? ^ 

Sepals not saccate at base; pedicels 14 mm long in 

1. africana 

Sepals saccate at base; pedicels 4-15 mm long in fruit 2. maritlma 

$-..'M, africana (L.) R. Br. 

African Maicolmia 

„.!^rS n than U ^l^tem ffi^SS? ?r ^^ hairS; bra " ches dually 
tea-mm-longln fruit SenalsTf m!f wl ' t e " tlr e «r sinuate-dentate. Pedicel 
long, vlolei Siliqua 25 -M ?i I A Z, ? g ' not ™ te : P^als (5-) 8-10 (H2) mm 
fe4ly hispidf^^ \% m ™J™*' »' M - ^«, — e or less 4- angle" 

jpwalls. Malta; Valletta, Florfcna ,and Blata I-Bajda (Borg). 

'g^bly native in s. Europe and commonly occurring as a casual elsewhere. 

1. i). sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl : Plate XI 

Sisymbrium sopKia L. 

Annual or biennial up to 100 cm high. Cauiine leaves with linear or obloi|| 
lobes. Pedicels 5:50 mm long in fruit Sepals 2-2.5 mm long; stamens usually 
exceeding the sepals. Siliqua 345 x 0.5-0.75 mm, usually ere cto- patent, torulos^ 
valves reticulate- veined. Seeds 0.8-1 mm. 2n — 28. 

Malta: recorded at Santa Venera (Gulia; Borg). 

Throughout Europe northwards to c. 70° N.;. N. Africa; Asia; introduced i|| 
other parts of the world. 

3. Bunias L, 

Annual to perennial herbs; glabrous or with glandular, unbranched or branch^ 
hairs. Leaves entire to pinnatifid. Sepals erec to -patent, the inner not or scarce]® 
saccate at base; petals white or yellow, not clawed. Fruit an indehiscent silicu&f 
with irregular longitudinal wings, ridges or protuberances, and with 1-4, l-seede|| 
loculi; style distinct; stigma capitate. 

Flixweejtlllp!- M ' nlarf t>ma (L.). R. Br. 

Pl£ »te XI Gazun 

Sea Maicolmia 

■^^^^11^^ $,££** **" L —s obovate 

;15 x 0,5-0.8 (-1) mm in d am^ ■ *■«.:£'- Inflores cence ebracteate; pedicels 

gfe with miua^^tSSS^S^W 5"S f*!\ Sepals ^10 mm 

m«™> with mostly me^efhS'sSaTl m^Fl sT*' ^ **° 

fei S Sr ai of ™f e T places - » naturalised at Kalaftana (GD; Borg)- 
f « Satfd "Z STelsSS (Borg! ^^ ^^.W^eSl 
ii-.4-W. Greece, S. Albania; sometimes naturalized elsewhere. 

5. Cheiranthus L, 

|ws in eachlocutus; radicle ^accuSnt. ' *" ' 0beS ptttsaX ' Seeds * ^ 

1, B, emcago L. 

Plate XI 

Southern Warty-cabbagSL|p|}. C. cheiri L. 

Plate XI 

Hispid, glandular annual or biennial 30-60 (-100) cm high. Lower leaves^ 
sinuate -pinnatifid, rarely almost entire; upper entire or dentate. Petals (6-ra 
8-13 mm long, yellow, obcordate. Silicula 10-12 mm long, quadrangular, w$^ 
irregularly dentate wings on the angles; loculi 4; style 3-5 mm long. Fl. 2-4. 


G'tzi safra 


3 mTafl 5 14. n W 1 ' m ° re ° r lCSS CreCt * com P ,esse ^ sty"o 2-3 mm, .Seed s .;iHK> ; '- M - trlcwpldnta (L.) R. Br. 

Plate XI 

Mediterranean Siork 

Cultivated and naturalised on cliffs ami walls. Malta: zurrieq (S ■ & CG ' 1W- 
frequent Floriana and Valletta (Borg; Sell; Wolseley). ' 

S. Greece Wands of S Aegean, W. Aria; Widely cultivated for ornament aacjl 
natuialued on walls, cliffs and rocks in C. W. & S. Europe and N, Africa. 

6. Matthiola R, Br, 

Amrual to perennial herbs; hairs branched. Sepals erect, the inner saccate -M 
base; petals purple, white, or yellowish, long-clawed. Fruit a siiiciua- valves^ 
1-vcmed; style absent; stigma deeply 2-tobed, the lobes erect with a dorsii'"^ 

swelling or horn. Seeds ir. I row in each loculus. 

1, Siiiqua with 3 .+ equal triangular horns at the apex 
iitliqun without conspicuous horns 

2, Siliqua without conspicuous glands 

Siliqua with large conspicuous blackish or yellowish 
glands even when immature 

1. M, inrana (L.) R Br. 

'A. tnctisniduta 

1. in can a 

2, sinnata 

Ciii ;; 

Hoary Htocfc- v 

Stout perennial 10-80 cm high, woody at base. Leaves entire, rarely siiiiatJ 

pimuidfi.a, Lower pedicels 7-25 mm long in fruit. Sepals 0-15 mm lose-' Watt 

JO -30 x -1-12 mm, purple, pink or white. SHinua 45-1S0 x 35 mm c^cU:!- trdml ■ 

compressed.; stigma narrower than siliqua, without conspicuous horns. Fi. 2-3, 'v" 

Two subspecies occur. Sisbsp. means with lower leaves 5-22 mm wide obtuse or 
subacute and sepals 9-13 mm long, and subsp. rapes tris (Ra/in.) Nymau "with--' 
leaves 2a-40 mm wide, acute or acuminate and sepals 11-15 mm long. ■ ; . '■■■■ i 

Old walls ant! rocks especially near the coast. Malta: Rare (G Lanfranco) n si/ [ 
fortifications of Valletta and ■ Floriana fS. & C.G.; Borg); St Paul's Bay " Jlsirjn'- 
&St. Julians (Borg); Zurrieq !S. & C.G.; Goso;. Rabat (S. & C.G.; Borgi ' Mgarr ''■ 
(Guka; jnorg); San Bias (Rcrg); Ta' Ceni (Gulia: Wolseleyl; Ta' Sarraflu GhaW' 
Damna, Dahiet Qorrot road (Ga.uci; G. Lanfranco'J. ' " *' - ! '" ,f 

Coasts ofS. & W. Europe; Canary Islands; N. Africa;. Asia Minor; often casual ■ 

2. IVL simiatn (L.) R. Er. 


Sen Stock ' 

Densely white-tomentose, stout biennial (rarely annual or perennial) S-60 cm 
nigh, woody at base. Leaves sinuate-dentate to pinnatifid, the lobes oblong obtuse- 
uppermost leaves entire. Lower pedicels 4-15 (-IS) mm lonsr in fruit Perils 8-12 ' 
mm long; petals 17-25 x 3-8 mm, all purple. Siliqua 30-150 x 3-5 mm, erecfo-oalenf : 
compressed, the valves with large, conspicuous, stipitate yellow or black planctr' 
stigma narrower than siliqua, without conspicuous horns Fl. 4-5. 

Maritime areas. Malta: Wied il-Hesr: (Borg). Gozo: rare, Dwejra fDuthie)- Ha-raf 
tal-General (Brenner, G.D.; Borg). ° 

Coasts of W, Europe and W. Mediterranean region, 


Annual 740 cm high. Leaves sinuate-erenate to pinnatisect, the lobes ovate, 
rounded at apex. Lower pedicels 2-5 mm long in fruit. Sepals 7-11 mm long; petals 
:15>22 mm long, purple. Siliqua 25-100 x 2-3 mm, patent or deflexed cylindrical: 
stigma-lobes connate to form a third horn, the 3 horns equal, 2-ti ram long, trian- 
gular, acute. FI 3-5. coastal areas. Mo.Ua: rare S.E. Malta (G. La n franco.; Wolseley). as at Dolimara, 
Ka.lafraiia, San Luciano (S. & C.G.; Borg); Marsaseiroceo (Brenner; Borgi; Ghujn 
(Tuffieha, Qa.i.jenza (Borg), Ghar Hassan area (Gauds. 

.Mediterranean region. 



7. Armor;»e!a Gilib. 

'.Perennial herbs; glabrous. Leaves simple or pinnatifid. Sepals not. saccule 
■white, shortly clawed. Fruit a subglobose to ellipsoidal sihcula: valves 
reticulate-veined; style short; stigma capitate to slightly 2-lohcrI. Seeds In 
"in each loculus. 



: -1i. A. m*H«ina P, Gacrtner, B. Meyer & Scherb- 
Nastur liv.,m arm-oracin (L.) Frie'j 

Hovse Ra-Jiiili 

Plant with stout branched stoclt and fleshy fusiform roots. Stems up to 1 m 

r.shi^Ei or more. Basal leaves 30-:J0 cm long, '.ivate or ovate-oblong, erenato- Semite; 

:; : petiole «d to 30 cm long. Cauline leaves sessile or .shortly petiolate, the lower often 

■ -pi mi at if) d, the upper serrate or entire. Pstsls 5-7 nun long. Silicnla 4.-6 long. 

globose or ovoid; seeds 4-6 in each locidus. 2n = 32. in. K-B. 

■;Mal£d and Gozn: cultivated for its root and often naturalised (Borg!. 

■■.■Probably native of S. Russia; cultivated in many part of the world, 

' ■ 8. Nastiii'lfUM It, Br, 

Pefcmi.ial herbs;' glabrous or with few unbranched hairs. Leaves r>inn;':.e to vitnjia- 
.:tjsect. Inner senals saccajer petals white, rarely pale purplish. Fruit a sjjjau?: 
valves with weak-median vein; style short; stigma capitate, slightly 2-lobod. .Sccriw 
in l-'l rows in each loculus. 

I N.'oHicmaEe R. Br. 

Plate XH 

Kuexxuni .Sija 
Water- cress 

.Stems 10-00 cm long, procumbent below, often rooting, then ascending (:■:■ 
. floating. Leaves pinnate, leaflets more or less entire, round or broadly ellipvcai; 

lower leaves with 1-3, upper with 5-0 or more leaflets. Petals nearly twice as 
.as sepals. Siliqua 13-18 mm long, ascending, straight, or curved: pedicels c. 10 in": 

long. Seeds in 2 distinct, rows in each loeulus, with c. 25 polygoi:;.d depress i on s on 
■each face. 2m, = 32. Fl. 1-6. 

Tn flowing \vater.- Malta and Goto: common in. streams, along vallay? (S. ^ G.fL: 
Borg; G, Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

■Europe, northwards to Scotland. S. Sweden and to c. '35° N. in U.S.S.R.; 'N. .Viica; 
W. Asia. 


9. Cardaiuine L, 

Annual lo perennial herb, glabrous or ^ «»*«*- ^.^ves^i^ 
to pinnate, inner sepals slightly ^ sa «ate, .^^Xg spirally from the base 
yellow). Fruit a strongly c0 ™P r h es ^ is ^rmed£ ven; style short or distinct; 
^*S jS£eT £*'£ -owTea^h .cuius, due De^« L, . 

Petioles with small umplexicaul auricles; petals ^ ^^ 

(3-) 4-6 mm long 

Petioles without auricles; petal., if Present, 2.5-3 mm ^ ^^ 


Southern Bitter-cress 
1. C. graeca L. 

A nnual or b.ennial tO-30 cm high, glab-s or hairy. ^« Pig-J; lower 
leaves with 4^ pairs of ■ cuneat «-°boyate leaflets eacn w ^ petioles 

upper cauline leaves With 2-3 pairs o 3-lobcd or enu^ ^ 35 . 50 

itftVt'SSitt o^sllVfnewhat secund; bea* 4-8 • 

winged. Seeds on a broad funkle. 2» = 18. Fl. 2-4. 

Damp Pl-e, Goz<, Rdum il-Pergla (Gulia; Borg), C.G. reports its absence in 1J11. 
S. Europe from Corse eastwards; W. Asia. 

2. C. Iiirsuta L. 

Plate XII 

Hairy Bitter- cress 

Annual 7-30 cm ^H-^^rorticXlaSle^a^ K?^ V 
nate, with 1-3 .(-5) pairs o*?*^* ^4 maUer than the b sal leaves, with 2-5 

conical. Seeds 0.9-1 x G.7-0.8 mm. 2* = 16. Fl. 1-4. 

Shaded va.Ievs and cultivated places. Malta: free, uent (S. ft CG, G. Lanfranco; / 

WoSy) Gozo: Xlendi (Duthie); frequent (Borg). 

Throughout Europe except the Arctic and N. Russia. 

10, Lobularia Desv. 

Waste places and walls. Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common (Borg; G, Lanfranco; 

Mediterranean and Maearonesian regions; widely cultivated for ornament else- 
where and often naturalized or casual. 

11. fcrophlla DC. 

Small annua! or overwintering scapigerous herbs with basal leaf-rosette: Leaves 
:- simple, entire or dentate. Sepals erec to-patent, the inner not or only slightly sac- 
cate at base; petals white or yellow/ deeply bifid; filaments not or only slightly 

dilated at the base. Fruit a latiseptate silicula or siliqua; valves more or Jess flat, 
v-'with a median vein in the lower half; style absent to long; stigma capitate. .Seeds 

;ifi 2 rows in each loculus, not winged. 

I. L. marltima <L.) Desv. 

Alyssum maritima <L.) Lam. 

Plate XII 

Sweet Alison 

Creyish-white pubescent, or ^«^Ku-KS 

Seed 1 in each loculus. 2n = 24. 


■ 1. K verna (I.,) Chevail. 
Draba verna L. 

Plate XII 

Common Whitlow Grass 

:; Stems solitary or several up to 20 cm high. Leaves in a basal rosette, spathu- 
Jiiate to lanceolate, obtuse or acute, entire or d ista 11 y toothed, variably clothed 
: with branched and stellate hairs, sometimes mixed with unoranched hairs, ln- 
iVffoTe.scence racemose, initially dense, Jater elongating. Pedicels slender, 1.5-6 mm 
yifPS in flower, elongating in fruit. Sepals 1.5-2.5 mm long; petals l;5-6 mm long, 
?«white or reddish. Silicula 3-25 mm long, usually flat, narrowly elliptical to obovate 
fefT,su I) orbicular, glabrous^ Seeds 0.3-0.5 -mm, numerous. 2k = 14-64. Fl, 12-3, Jl— , 
^-.'■. ■ ' '" ' '"'" ■■■■■■--.= .•■_. .-.......--..,.,.■.. - ■■■■•; , ^rfm 

iMcks, walls, sandy soils and disturbed ground, Malta: rare (fl. Lanfranco) .as at 
g-^HawIi (S. C.G.); Mgiret Wied Babu, Hagar Qim (S. & CG,; Borg); Wied Balam, 
,-;Wied Babu (Duthie; S. & C.G.; Borg). Gozo: ((Julia; Borg). 

!fl£"P'0L:e except the arctic, northwards to 66°N. in Norway. 

12. NesHa Desv, 

J&iinitals; hairs branched. Leaves simplfe. Inflorescence an ebracteate raceme. 
jftSBjals erect, not saccate; petals yellow; stamens without appendages. Fruit an 
Kflitieliiseent, latiseptate, silicula; style distinct; stigma minute, slightly 2-lobed. 
l|$eeds 1-3. 


N. jvanieulata (L.) Desv. subsp. panic uluta 

Plate XII 

Ball Mustard 

Pubescent annual. 15-S0 cm. Leaves oblong or lanceolate, entire or remotely 
||ittentate, the basal petiolate, the cauline sessile, amplexicaul, with acute auricles. 
* etals c. 2 mm long. Pedicels 5-12 mm long in fruit. Silicula -.1.5-3 mm in diameter, 
fpsu&globose or compressed and almost lenticular reticulate-rugose. Fl, 2-4, 

ieultirated places, Malta: Infrequent (S. & CG.; Borg; G. Lanfranco), Ghajn 
M ; istas (Kramer & Westra). Gozo: Pergla and Wgarr (Gulia; Borg); Xewkija and 
^aiijiat .(Borg)'. 

||iB;-&'S. Europe; naturalised in the north; Near Bast; N Africa, 

13. Capsclla Meclicus 

^Annual or biennial; glabrous or with unbranehed hairs. Basal leaves entire or 
iPHiiiaHfid; cauline sagittate-amplexicaul. Inflorescence racemose, ebractaate. Sepals 
Hi.— not saccat e; petals white, pinli or yellowish; stamens without appendages, 
a&ffpit: an a ngusti septate silicula, usually tri a ngular-ob cordate; valves keeled, 
Stieuiately veined. Style distinct; stigma minute, capitate. Seeds up to 12 in eacb 


:»'- &■?' 

Petals exceeding sepals, while 

Petals not or scarcely exceeding sepals, petals ami. 

sepals usually reddish-tinged 

i. bursa-pastoris 

2. rubella 

h m 

%&. ft,: -Annual, glabrous or with tin bran chert hairs. Leaves usually pinna till d. in :-i Ivsal 



1. C bursa-pastoi-is fL.) Medicus 

Plate XII 

rosette or with 1-3 cauline leaves on lateral shoots. Sepals evecto- patent: petals 
;!S|lr white. Stamens; 4 or G, the filaments with a white basal stale. Fruit an fmgustiscp- 
CarSii- ii-gerael.-^ ||htate.sil3cula, obtuse or obcordate, with i bin.- walled valves, winged in the upper 
Shepherd's Pur«j# 


Plant sparsely hairy, especially below, or glabrous. Flowers scentless. SepihSJ 
usually green, often, pubescent. Petals. 2-3 mm long, about twice as long ass sepal-s;5j| 
wiiitc (rarely absent). Silicula fi-9 x 4-9 mm, usually longer than wide, scarce%;;| 
attenuate at base, usually only slightly emarginate: lateral margins usually stHiijtnSsj 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta and Goza: very common f.S. & C.H.; Bor»;y 
G. Lan-franco; W'.ilscley). 

2. C. rubella Renter 

Cargir il-jjciiie! 

lied Shepherd's Pursed 

Plants sparsely hairy or glabrous, Flowers scentless. Sepals usual!; - redfli#i| 

at. apes, glabrous. Petals 1.5-2 mm long, scarcely exceeding sepals, usually mid.isj|" 

■ at least on margins, Silicula c. It s f> mm, distinctly attenuate at base, usually fin?]?' 

i.' emargmale at. apex: lateral margins concave; apical lobes obtuse; style 

e_ 0.23 iiiin long. -.-::■'■ 

Cultivated and 

15. T«csiialiji H. Br. 

■part; style very short or absent. Seeds 2 in each locul'.is 

;]. T. eoronopifolia (J.P. Bergeret) Thell. Plate XII Lesser .Shepherd'^ -cress 
■■■' <T. 'ttudicavMs var, rcgulaf is ■ B.m.1 

Stem 8-45 cm high, often with ascending basal branches. Basal rosette leaves 
or convex; apical lobes usual'! y subacute: style e. 0.25 mm. 7m. = 32, FJ. l-l- | 5-5 ; ^ij' i '2-5- cm long, narrowly lanceolate, usually pinnatifid with acute lobes; miline 

KJ'Sl.eavcs (if 'present) less lobed or more or less entire. Flowers c. 2 mm in dhnnete 

■m W-- -Petals subec?ual, as Ions as the senals: style absent; silicula not more than " mm 

^Jiialta: Wardija IBorg). Gozo: Ta' <:eiic (Bore), 
felled i terra n win region. 

16. TMaspi L 

I^Anmtal or perennial herbs with, sessile, .,, amplexicau! eaufinc leaves. Hairs uri 
Hljiancherl or absent. Inflorescence racemose, ebracieale. Sepals erect, not saccate: 
petals usually white or purplish, shortly clawed; stamens without appendages. 
sJiVait an silicula with or without apical notch, the valves keeled 
£;V"fl usually winged: stifjj.ny capitate, somewhat 2-lobesl, »Sce<i« 18 t;i each 
te pwecii. Mtitia, Goi'D and Comvna; frequent (Borg: f.J, ha'ii'S|||££''w fl, »us. 

iVfedi terra u ear; region extending northwards to ft. France. 

14,. T.Iyiiip nolo bus Nult. e'l Tarrey & A. Gt\?y 

Small annuals, hairs tmbranched. Infiprescence ebracteat.e. Petals while, alior-tit 
clawei!. Fruit an HngusUsnpUi'ce silicula. elliptical to oblong- ovate. Seeds ;;-Uf;ffifF 
each ioeiiius, not mucilaginous. 

:i T, jierfoSkitMm L. 

Plate XII 

Perfoliate Penny- cress 

*Si ^' '" 

-ssBuE|,^ i1! .j e pt aceSi Malta: rare {G. I.aniranco), as at Wied litre!;! 

1, M; pr<jeu»:!bsi)s (L.) Nutt ex Torrey & A. Gray Plate XII Creeping Il'Jtchiiiiig 
var. rerelieiT -fPamp.) Fiori 
H )t.t:: kivMa •prozuntbens fL.) 'Dasv, et vicr. -sowtwt'eri Pamp. ' '^Fj 

At)i;ii:iI or hjennial with sparse unbranched hairs; stems 3-30 cm long, tjtfe 
e.uKibeni er erect. Leaveii ovatc-elliniical. entire Inflorescence mimV'-ilowr^lfL^. - T ,, . , -,, , T ,, , ,, , . ,, , 

PeKls c. 1,5 mm Ion;:, srafbtikte, equahin-r or slighUy exceeding the sepals. Si!H* M^^ ^ 1 ^^ li S \ ^'L) 1 ™* l^J'C {,S! ' c!e " ^'^y^^- wfl; ' commonly cmi 
cj!a v. 3 mm long, elliptical to cb ovate; valves translucent, with reticulate veijiiSm^ 
;■;)=.'= IS. '?A. ■ i 

,\i:i'J places. Gcvo: r;rrc at Ta' Rarrax (Gulia; Borgl. Cominc: (Eorg). 

■Annual 5-20 (-30) cm high, glabrous, glaucous. Bas;.sl leaves vosi.t!.Kto. o'bovaic. 
P^eticlate; upi)er cauliue leaves ovate- cordate, sessile, with rounded, amplexieai.'I ricks; all entire or sinuate -denticulate. Sepals .1-1.5 Ion. 5, with fcioiKi. wliite 

•iasatgin-s: petals 2-S mm iong, white; .stamens shorter than the petals; ftnthcrs 
Syeitow. iSilicuhi 5-7 mm long, broadly ohcorclatc, convex beneath: wing broadening 

liipwarils: style e, 0.3 mm, included within the wide and fairly deep .rotch. See;'!s 

c,3';4 : each loeulus, almost .smooth. 2n — 70. Fl. 2-5. 

&i C.C.: Bore,'.: 
P'ied Ghomor (CD; Borg); Wied O-Baruni. 6nc]'na (Guila: Bnrs): St. An tire wk. St. 
__Jj|iftricfcs, MagTitab, Mfia.rr (Borg). Go.iO; rare, Wied ii-T/, Perg'la tGuiia: 
: l :J^^^j iV .. 

^||jrope northwards to c. G0°N. In Sweden: >!. Africa: Near Kssf: in.v.rdducf-t' hi 
ffiSS. America. 

I'requent casual). 

17. liiscuMJa L 

fSlisrbs or small shrubs with entire to pinnatifld leaves. Fetuis 

si! ;dly 

The spscics occurs in C. Europe; Mediterranean region: Canary 'Is! amis; As §^^a e ilow. Fruit a strongly compressed ditfvmous silicula. indehiscent l.Hif. ivii 
N. & S. America: Australia, Tlit 1 variety is known elsewhere only in Corje .,nfiii^gS5iv : „ , ir j„..' . . . . 


s^seenet; ioculi oventully breaking away from, the ax-is; valves glabrous- 
|§;sircu>)e or elavate hairs; style long. Seeds utiwiuged. 


7 ih'f. 




Le;lVtS iyrate; *** - * ".m. long; petals c « «™ 
Sg; silieula 3.5-5 x 7-1B mm 

mm long, pevais <~ ■* 

1. lyrats 

2, didyma 

Lyrate Biscutella 

tj, ty mitt jj. - ■ 

u. didyiua var lymia l. Kl . sllrhe d Basal leaves UP. *ȣ'.' 

Sepals 3 ram long, R ewli > 
' Dry Pte «, »«*-, G«o and C W i»o: f«a«nt (Borg,. 

\v. Italy, Corse., Sieilia- 

' b. didyina var «p«i& ij - 

Plate XII 

Xeht il-forom. - 

Mediterranean Biscutel% 

B. didyvM var rip«la L. . up to 8 ^ 

mBnta ffilfotm. Smcula 4. ^.^ yery comjB(m (S. ^ 

JJr >, cultivated ^ waste P^es. **«. , J 

C. & E. Mediterranean region. 

IB Lepidium L. 

■ , h ., b! .oimtlme. m>U s tauM - w i th XSm" S« w8 
Annual to P"""^^ "^ Sinai. e»r«»» W™ eS 0I ^flgl., .!»* or ■ »»| 

Plate XIII 

Grass-leaved Pepperwg 


1. L. grummifoliwm L. branched above. Bas : 

C, Euro,.; M d«B.«...n »*•» "^ L w „ „„„.,.« Br .-■«■ «>< »« 

in Hnr" Lepidium sativum ■ U was tu 

t sicL'ordirig to nor*, 1J "-* J .; ;i i 

naturalise*" in 0,d ga rdOTJi - ] . ^ 

IB. Cardaria Desv, 

Like Lepidium but the inflorescence a dense corymbose panicle and the silieula 
cordate, indehiseent. 

I. C. draba (L.) Desv. Plate XIII Hoary Cress 

Lepidium draba L, 

Glabrous or sparsely pubescent perennial 15-90 cm nigh, producing adventi- 
tious buds on tiie roots. Leaves obuvate to ovate-oblong, sinuate -dentate, the 
basal cuneate, petiolate, the cauline sessile, amplexicaul. Petals c. 4 mm long, 
white. Silieula 3-4,5. x 3.5-5 mm, cordate, emarginate, inflated. 2n — 64. Fl. 4-5. 

Waste places. Malta: rare in C. Malta (G. Lantraneo), as between Birkirkara and 
Mosta, between Qormi and zebbu£, Floriana (S. & C.G.; Borg); Marsa (Gulia; 
Borg); Lija and Balzan (Borg). Goza: below Rabat along the path of Marsalforn 
■ AS. & C.G.; Borg); between Kercem and Rabat (Gauci). 

■Probably native of the Mediterranean region and W. Asia, but now established 
'throughout most of Europe as a weed. 

20. Coronopus Haller 

-Glabrous or with unbranched hairs. Sepals patent; petals white, small of absent: 
^Stamens 2-6, Fruit an angustiseptate silieula, indehiscent or breaking into 2 
ihalvcs; valves subglohose, verrucosa, or reticulate. Seeds 2. 

•.-,. Silieula 2-3 x 34 mm, apiculate; petals 1-1.5 mm., 
■:'•'■ longer than the sepals 

.Silieula 1.5 x 2-3 mm, emarginate; petals, if present, 
05 mm, shorter than sepals 

,\1. C. squama t us (Forskal) Ascherson 

C. procumbens Gilib. ■ ... ■ 

1. squamattis 

2. didyiims 

Swine- cress 

y. Procumbent annual or biennial up to 30 cm. high. Lower leaves pjnnatipartite, 

^tfie segments usually pirmatifid. Racemes usually crowded in fruit; iwdicels up 

tlft.2 mm long. Petals: 1-1.5 mm long, longer than sepals. Fertile stamens 6. Silieula 

"J2-3 x 3.5-4 mm, almost reriiform, apiculate, strongly reticulate or ridged or verru- 

p^bse; style e. 0.5 mm. Fl, 2-6. 

|i.sDamp phjces. Malta: locally frequent in the valleys {G. Lanfranco), as at Wied il- 
||5§ieigha, Marsa, Salini (S. & C.G.; Borg); Wied Incita, Wied Ger7.uma, Luqa, 
' iSMosta, Wied il-Ghasel, Floriana (Borg); Maghtab, Chad wick Lakes; (Gauci; G. 
|S|ynfranco). Gozo: more frequent (S. & C,G.; Borg). 

|WJ, C. & S. Europe, northwards to c. 6G°N. in Fennoscandia; status uncertain in 
■4ije northern part of its range; N. Africa; Canary Islands; introduced elsewhere. 

§M& [ C dldymus. (L.) Sm. 

. Senebiera didj/ma (L.) Pers. 

Plate XIII 

Lesser Swi;ie Cress 

? *i Procumbent or ascending biennial up to 30 cm high. Lower leaves pinnati- 
rjjartite. the segments usually pinnatifid. Racemes somewhat elongate in fruit; 
iVuedicels 1,5-3 mm long, longer than the silieula. Petals c. 0.5 mm long, shorter 
; r ;tlifm the sepals, sometimes absent. Fertile stamens usually 2. Silieula c. 1.5 x 2-3 
ftrnnii,. emarginate, reticulate', style absent. 2w = 32. Fl. 3-5. 

!'i;Vvaste places. Malta: frequent (G. Lanfranco; Wolseley) as at San Anton, Valletta, 


84, Argotti (S. & C.G.; Bora); Mar sa stasia (Gnlia); Giir.'i, Blata 1-Brtjcia^ 
Mgiret (Borg). Gozo: Rabat (Borg). "" 

Probably native only in S. America; 
of tlK world. 

introduced as a weed in many other 

21. Cunringia Adanson 

Glabrous annuals. Leaves simple, glaucous. Inflorescence a raceme. Inner seFa&f 
saccate; petals pale yellow. Fruit a siliqua; valves .1- or 3-veined; style s1ks<^§| 
.stigma slightly 2-Jobed. Seeds in 1 row m eadh loculus 

1. C, oriental is (L.) Duinort. Plato XIII Rarcs-e*jr .Mustard 1 

Plant 10-50 (-70) em high. Basal, leaves obovate, petinlate; eaulinc obovat^l 
to clliptisat sessile. cordate-ampfejdicaiiL Pedicels 4-9 mm long in lower, 0-20 rafts 
long in fruit. Petals (7-) 8-13 mm long, yellowish., or greenish- white, Silicrfi'jrj 
(15-) 6-1-4 em long, 4-angled; UK 
:mni. 'in ■=■ 14. Fl. f>-9. 

fe5':-':'- IVrermial; siliqua conspicuously s talked (1-3 mn 
: long) above tlie insertion of the sepals 
"Annual or biennial; siliai"-' not stalked above the in 
sertion sears of the sepals 

Kt-Q. fci!«ifolia-iL.) DC. 

t. fenUifoOa 
4. mural Is 

Perennial Wall- rocket 

Perennial; but sometimes (lowering the first year, 20-80 cm hi?»b woody ■<■:<. 
'KySsi;'. base. Lower leaves not rosulate, petiolate, pinnfitipariile, with 4-K se<jrne7its. 
pf'^SiiroiiS or with some'- hairs at the margin, foetid when crushed. Petals 7,3-:!-; 
s^min long, sulphur-yellow. Siliqua 20-fiO x 1-2 ram-., borne 'erect ors ions patent 
fijedirels; gynonhore O.o mm, more or less conspicuous. 2« --■ -22. Fl. 1-1. 

|f]h-. walls and waste places. Malta: frequent (G. La-itYarjeoi, as at iVLirm. ;:e::r {.'lie 
.^MaolorKta Cemetery (S. ft C.G.; Bor£); Coitoncra (GuHr): Valletta, Fiorina. Lu^t. 


#er>di, ZNbbar. Siggiewi, Dwe-|ra (BorR). Gorio; rare i'S. & C.G.); '.!';;' Cesic, ,Vl*si 


valves 7-vehied: stvlc cylindrical. Seeds 2-2;9il «SR:,- . „ .,,,._,,.. , 

■ "•" 1 -^la;ft'.'.-"S. t C. Europe; naturalised in Scambnavi.a and 

IQifijial further cast and north. 

"SigKrr. Nadur, Qala (Eorg). 

.'si -am 

Malta: Acklolorata Cemetery (Borgs. 

Mediterranean region and. C. Europe; freouenily naturalised and casual els&'-M 
v/nere. -^ 

22. MoiU-andia DC. 

Glabrous annual or perennial herbs! Leaves simple, fleshy Inflorescence corytf||| 
bose. Inner sepals saccate at base; petals purple, rarely whitish. Fruil a siliqua^" 
valves with a distinct median vein; style short, stigma 2-lobed. Seeds in I 'oi;|| 
2 rows in each loculus. 

1. ST. iiryensis (h.) DC. 

Plate XIII 

Purple Rocket' 

Short-lived perennial up to (55 cm, with branched stems. Lower leaves obovatii| 
re pan d- cremate, obtuse at the apex, narrowed at the base; upper eauline leaves?! 
cordate, entire, widened and amplexicaul at the base, more or less acute, Race'oiffi 
with 10-2.0 large, showy flowers, becoming lax. Petals c. 20 mm long, vioIet-pur-pteS 
Silicma 3-8 cm x 2-3 mm., compressed, 4-angied. Seeds c. 1 mm, biseriate, brdwnSI 
Fl. 3-6. 

Gozo: (Gtilia. without locality). 
Calcieolc. Mediterranean region. 


T.l Dfplotaxis DC. 

Annual to perennial herbs. Leaves entire to p inn ati partite. Sepals erecto-pattenj;?l|} 
petals clawed, white, veined with violet, yellow or pink. Gynophore usually shorg^ 
Fruit an elongate, linear siliqua with a short beak; valves compressed, svith'j'S; 
prominent median vein. Seeds m 2 rows in each loculus, ovoid or rounded. - : (l 

1. Flowers white or pate lilac; beak of fruit conical 
Flowers yellow; beak of fruit .j_ cylindrical 

2. Petals 3-4 mm long; outer stamens sterile 

Petals at least 4.3 mm long; outer stamens fertile 


2. eracoides 

3. viminca 

,'I.S, c'raeoMe's (L.) PC. 

Rale liU't 

of U 

White HocKet 

, .. ,,. Annual or overwintering, 3-50 cm high. Si ems i or many, erect, tre asc^t'diif.-, 
^Sfeafy'. Leaves of two types; the lower 5-15 cm long, in a lux basal ;:r;!«itte, oblcn;j 
fe:^'te or piisnatisert, with 6-10 lobes, or the lowermost more or lew entire or 
IfoSpsKUIai'ly' toothed; the upper sessile, more or- less amplexLcau): ay with spar>:c. 
I&tjjllirjer hairs. Petals (I5-> 7-13 mm- lor.g, white, violet-veined or befjcminf v in let 
*|iaftSr' an thesis. Siliqua (10-) liH5 x 1.5-3 mm. ascending, with a rsu-.lly l-^csvlivL 
ft§mcai beak up to (1 mm Ions, find silmtwt as wide an tJiu valws. 2-d. -■■ l'.-. 
mm-',' J.0-6. 
^Bekis «nd uncultivated places. .If alto, and Gozo: very common 'S. &- C.G/. Eoi-k: 

KS^L^an franco; Wolseley). 
^SSV''- Europe, emending eastwards to Italy; Oiie station in Danvi-.irr ( ! .e!.ta. Ovren 

^asiial in C, Europe. 

P|fe ; '' B-- vimiiiea (L.) DC Aru.ka aalvagsKi 
'■'■;. Koutbcni Hocket 

W§fr J Slender annual, 5-TJO cm high, glabrous or slightly hairy. Leaves co'i'ined 
%'|o-'-a ' brwal rosette, »eti el ate. lyrate-pinnatilobecl, the lobes entire (ov spatiiulatc 
|%iia' toothed, var. integrifoMa Guss). Petals sulphur- or lemon-yellow. Siliqua 
||pp-3S ; (-40) x 1,25-1.75 mm, e recto -patent, borne on patent pedicels; beak short 
ppi-fL2 mm long), narrow. Fl. 10-6. 

fet-Arid ■ plcices nlon^ paths, on walls and in fallow fields. Malta and Go?,a: eoromm; 
r |(S/. & C.G.; Borg; G, Lanranco; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region; often casual in & Europe and naturalized .in W. Gern;r,n.v. 
jgitelland and Romania 

&-i D, miiralis (L.) DC. 

Itisalata salvafc/ra 
Annual Wall- rocket 

■Annual, biennial or perennial, 1.0-50 cm liigh, usually many-stemmed; slein? 

I^abrous or sparsely hispid below. Leaves usually more or less cenllned io a bssat 

Srosette, with petioles up to 3 cm long, lyi's.te-pmii ati partite, pinn^fifid or guiuate- 

taenia tc, sometimes spathulate entire. Catdine leaves, when prc-sau, su bs ess lie. 


becoming violet Sdiq-aa U&-) * 8 , W i is 

1-Bajda (Burg). 

24. Brassiea L. ^ : ~. : 

various meiw.ol »oi*a are commonly £™™ ■"_££,■ lor which they «r^ 
S*W to % C ?"f^o£r?i'«o °h»' ci"m„», ,»h f» thi. -.»»»; 

- u '*"™ u " 1 ±:jSttuo 1 «r»,. m p.«..». . * 

Tinier ciiuime leaves bes^e i . ■•■iicnt'-' 

111S „p,i nw - the -inflorescence at anthesis short 

, Petals up to- 15 mm long P^^^ming part usually up to 6 cm long| 

Z h flowers clustered at top. V^£« ^ napus subsp. napob«*s 

Wong radical leaves ^ J^ rt* '<***** the ™>™*°"?:**% 

1- B. olera-cea L. 


rted or open at «.u^, ■ ^ ^ 

Leaves relatively small ^^i^t^™™ SU subsp. *^« 

r^tr^^i on Bering -»■•— « ™ us i 

s^r:nA4rs^s su; <— Ssp . ^ :1 

1, oleracea 

C^ Idical .eaves large an* usually -^e*« ^ ^ 
Cluster of radical leave, usually not much develop ^J^"^ 
. Biennial or perennial; rfllqua .Ulked above t^sepal^ar^ 
Annual; siliquu stalked above the sepal scars 


Petals 5-7 mm long; siliqua 35-65 .mm long 
Petals 7-9 mm long; 10-20 mm long 


7, toumefortu 

8. nigra 

Glabrous biennial to perennial herb up to 300 era high; lower part of stems 
becoming woody and covered with leaf-sears. Basal leaves mp to 40 cm long, 
usually petiolate, ly ra te- pin n a ti partite, crenate; cauline leaves ovate-lanceolate or 
oblong, entire, sessile (petiolate in some cultivars). Inflorescence paniculate, 20- 
to 50 (-300) -flowered, soon elongating. Petals 15-20 mm, yellow, 50-70 
(-100) x 2-4 (-5) ram., linear-terete, with a short conical beak 4-8 (-10) mm long, 
as wide as the valves at the base. 2b ~ 18 (IS. 36, 72 in cultivated races). 
R 3-S. 

■ Malta, Gozo and Comiim: Suhsp. capitata (L.) Duchesne (Cabbage) and subsp. 
genumfera (DC.) O. Sen warz (Brussels Sprouts) are widely grown as crops and 
occasionally occur as escapes (Borg; Wolseley), 

2. B. riipestris Rafin, subsp. g-ongyloides {L.) Jauchen 


Glaucous, glabrous biennial ,10-60 tm high; stem short, beginning to swell at 
2-4 cm above the ground and producing a solid oblong globular or depressed 
globular, leaf -bearine, edible tuber 5-10 cm or more in, diameter. Leaves thin 
and relatively small, petiole about 1/3 - 1/2 as long as lamina, irregularly dentate 
.-'■or divided; upper cauline amplexicaul Inflorescence elongating at arithesis. Petals 
15-25 mm longi white or pale yellow. Siiiqua 35-70 x 3-5 mm, -with a .short. beak 
often swollen at base. 

, -Malta, Gozo and Comma; Widely grown as a crop and sometimes occurring as an 
;£$cape (Borg; Wolseley). 

% B. t'retlca Lam. subsp. (jolrytls (L.) O. Schwarz 


'§?"'; Stout, erect plant. Leaves long oblong or elliptical: usually undivided, but 
:|S('fme times obscurely lobed below, entire or minutely denticulate. Head composed 
pf-of a condensed mass of short, thick colourless peduncles and pedicels and th'iclc- 
Saied undeveloped flowers; flowering panicle arising in second year, petals and 
Sfcuits similar to B. oleracea. 

bpjfatia, Gozo and Comino: widely cultivated and sometimes occurring as an escape 
° ■■'(Sorg; Wolseley). 

■'■■A. B. napus L. siibsp. napobrassica (L.) O, Schwartz 


;; ■;■ '■■': Biennial with a large tuberous, conical or globose- depressed edible root, 
gsEeaves with a large round terminal lobe and one or more pairs of small lobes 
5i)bn the petiole, uppermost eaulino amplexicaul: young radical ones sparsely setose. 
"^Petals up to 15 mm long, pale yellow. Inflorescence at mithesis short with 

;: Mowers clustered at the top, the blooming part up to 6 cm long. Siliqua with 

■jiieak usually less 10 mm long. 

ifjialta and Gozo: sometimes cultivated (Borg). 

5. B, rapa L. subsp. sylvestris (L.) Janchen 
"[: B. campestris L. 

Plate XIV Liftija, Kawliceili 

Bargeman's Cabbage 

Annual or biennial, with slender or stout tap root. Stems up to 150 cm high^ 
iBasal leaves bright green, lyrate, petiolate, with setiform hairs; upper cauline 
■sessile, more or less entire, amplexicaul, glaucous. Open flowers overtopping buds 

.'"■■ 89 




■ '-'^^ 


of inftoresceimc. Sepals patent. Petals 6-1(1 mm long, yellow. 50-10(1 x : : 
2.5-4 mm, subcreet, attenuate into a long slender beak 5-15 (-30) mm long 2n" 
= '20, Fl. 11-3. 

Sufcp. rapa (Turnip) is cultivated for its tubertsus taproot and some times occurs, . 
as an escape. : 

Oultivatou pieces and v, aste places, afalifi and Go.;o: very common fBorg; G.. 
LarifraHcu ; V/oisetey). . ,'. : 

Weed or ruder al in much of. Europe and Mediterranean region, native distribii:--; 
lion, not known with certainty. 

25. Sinapis L. 

"■Vnnuul or perennial herbs. Leaves pumatifid or pinnaliseet. Sepals pa Umi wujal 
,r subenua ; petals yellow, clawed, Lateral nectaries not pnsinatic.F i t J * ; iq > ; - 
:4h a long beak; valves distinctly 3- to 7 -veined. Seeds m I row m «,.n. Im.ln.-,. 
;' globose. 

V-- SiJiijtia witt 8-17 seeds; beak cylindrical, m 
'... ' not or scarcely compressed- 
: : SJIieija with 4-8 seeds; beak strongly cum pressed 

■ ' i. (•>. arvonsis J... 


1. ai-ven.sis 
a. alba 


(!. if. friiticuiosa Cyr subsp. frntictilosa 

Mediterranean Cabbage.: 

A.ri-:*,v,;^ to pransiirnal, usually becoming woody at base: stems u.p to aO cm;- 
high, erect Lower leaves lon^-.petiolate, lyrate-pmnatifd, with '2-3 pairs of rounded 1 ;! 
or obtuse lobes, the terminal lobe much larger than lateral, suborbicular, hispid;'; 
upper leaves smaller, pkmatilohed to entire. Sepals subei'ect; petals 9-10 mm-. 
Ions;;, yeiiov-. Si Nona is -40 x ■ 3.5-2 ram, constricted at intervals, stipitate. thiV : ; 
sfi'Ik .!■-'; rem long; beak 2-7 mm long, 3-1- seeded. PI. 2--5. -f.- : 

Cultivated {fjvjiwiti. 'Mai?. 1 !. 1 Wied Ghonmr, Skirsa (C-D..: Bors). C' 

Mediterranean region. :\ 

E. toiinicEartii. Goua.n 

Tournefort's Cabbage 

^fijJ.'i!" steins op to E0 cm hi-h. usually hispid at 'east below, someUmes 
--ri-vbro l i)'-. Leaves up to 20 cm long, usnally Hispid; lower -stalked fyrate, wn. 
S ;™lv toothed terminal iobe. usually with several- smaller lateral .oh«, 
^-noer leWsessHc, usually simple, laneee'ate SV^na 2j-*5 (-a5; x (J.n-) j~H 
^patent; valves glabrous (or with short stiff, de lexed hsjrs) vw omntaUs 
/,.(L.t Koch & Zi.z)-, beak 3.0-15 mm Jon;;, ^aigM, Seens nsi.nmy i-1.,, u.n,L,n- 
;. brown or blackish. 2a = IS. Fl. 1-::!. 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta and Goso: frequent CS. A C.GJ. f^m-iTm. 1 
'"v('S. & CO.). Not mentioned by Bon*. 

^V-tlra urobnblv in the Mediterranean region, but Introduced ttirov^hout Furore. 
^SL™nfrer in the north; Siberia; introduced in many nine,: part, o, tne 
!:' iirorfii . 

Annua!, rarely perennial; stems up to SO cm hi^li Lower leaves numerous';:- 
very shortly petiolate. with 7-19 pairs of obtuse lobes, hispid, especially aloTtsy. 
the thick while vhaehis, and eiliatc. Cav,liiie leaves few, sessile, more or Ibks 1 -- 
entire, s'alJruns. Sepals suliereet, sparsely hispid or gLibrous; petals -5-7 mm long,:-' 
narrowly oblonfj-ovovate, ra!e yellow, usually violaceous at base, -becoming--- 
wJtitisb. Silimja BB-nG >: 2.5-3 ma; bcalf. 10-20 mm long. 1/8 .. 1/2 -as Ions as the" 
valvar- ] nortien. Fl 3-4. 

Goso: JtJR-n: Rabat along- the path to Wied'U-LoiKJr.ta, very rare (Duthie; BotiL'- 

MecJileiTp.tiRKn region. . y'.i 

S. alba L. 

Plate X1I.I 

Mustard is 
Wi-j'rte. Mustard 


- ■ vrval- stems up to B0 cm high, usually with stiiL dene-sea hairs, socie 
i^t£o^U^l uU»y hispid but not S ctf,>rW all petiriat,. HKiqu, 2M<> 
fc'j-SJ) mm. patent; beak 10,30 mm, attentate. Seeds 4-8. fl .--,■■ 
^Ip places: Mrzttn: rare in E. 1 Malta (G. Lanfranco), as at Ghajn Dwloll (^ & 
VBG- PotpI- along a stream on the west side of Melheha (Dutliie; Boi,,}, M«.^. 
S|r C r^orgt; LV Xbiex (Gaiici). Co.o: Marsaliorn and Ta* Cenc (Gnna; Bcrgl. 
"-Native in the Mediterranean replon,- Krym e.nd Near East; np^rall^ lhro»^u..u 
4he rest rT Kuropc but becoming rare or only casual in the nov.h. 

B. nigra (L.j Kodi 

Mus tarda sewda. 
Black Mustard 


/Vnnnal: slems no to 1(10 em high or move, branched from the middle or 
irom neav fho base. Lower leaves lyrate-ninnatisect, with t-3 pairs of lateral lobes : 
jmd a much larger terminal !ohc, hispid en both surfaces; upper leaves linear- 
oblong or sinuate, glabrous: all leaves petiolate. Petals 7-0 mm Jong, yellow,.- 
Silioiiac 10-20 x 1.5-2 mm, attenuate into a slender, seedless beak, on short (2.5-ff; 
mm] pedicels appressec! to the stem, 2r. = 16. Fl, 3-1 

Cultivated ground. Malta: Infrequent (G. Ltinlranco), as at Slarsa (S. k C.G.; 
Bnrri), between Sabhar and M;«:saska3fl CG-alla; Bors); Litcja (Bo"g). Goxro: rare 
(Dnthja; Borg). 

Most of Europe, but. commonest, in yie. and aoutl); usually as an alien' 
.but its range as a native is uncertain. 




2f». -Eruca Miller 

;l;ike Sin-tpis but sepals erect, the inner somewhat saccate 
ysiiitma 1-veined; seeds in 2 rovrs m each loculus. 

■; 1 " Tesicaria (L.) Cav. smbap. satlva (Miller) Tholl. 
: ' "' ' Plate XIV; vaivey of tin 

■ Aruka 

Salad Mtis-avd. 

k-iuallv hispid annual 20,100 cm high. Uvi.ves lyralc-pinnatifld trarely pim 
naio;, SlS terminal lobe and 2-5 narrow lateral lobe, on c »eh 3 kIp T-ctab 
15-20 ™ long? whitish or yellowish with violet veins, Mliqua 12-Jo x ,,-o nnm 
erect; beak ensiform; pedicels short, FL 2-s. 
TTeqnently cultivated and often ^"fWP*^* ^ tho valleys. 

■Hfnl/V Wicd Babu, Kordin, Rabat {S. & C.G.; Borg); tftajn Tuflith-, Ma ( i>..,,.. 

.mxxar, Msicla (Wolscley). Gozo: Fcrgla (Berg), 


n;„ a w as a salad plant end often naturalized, so .that, g 
Mediterranean region; cultivated as a saiau i-^"»- * : .g 

the native distribution is obscured. 

27 IlirsclifeWia Moench 

ripu; seeds ovoid. 

Plate XIV 

Mustarda salvagga 
Hoary Mustard 

1. II incaiia (L.) Lagrew-Fossat. 

while-hairy below. Lower leav es ™f ^^JTV.aUrs C. 5 mm *j 

shallow* dentate terminal lobe t he ^ ™.P^ es giliqua 8 . 1T x i-i. 5: p«. ; 

S e ?ni S^^VSr^Tv-iSS; ££ c 1/2 a S lon g a, valves,—,; 

at base Seeds ■ 3-S in each loculus. H- 2-.i. 

M *«, waste places, M, t , Go.o and Co^o: ™n (Bor g ; G.Lanfran^ 


Mediterranean region and Near East. 

28 CakHe. Miller ,^ 

Ann^-giabrous and ^ ecus, feculent .« ^-^^0^3 
or white. Fruit a transversely ? r1jcu l at ? ?£-& with a single seed; the Iowe ? | 

1. C. m.,ltim, S»». »*. »*>T«. (WIM.) %"«■ 

Kromb il-bahar 
Sea Rocket 

is**" ■ 

■ Along paths and in fields and waste places. Malta: frequent (S. & C.G.; Borg). Goto: 
:,. less frequent than in Malta (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley). 

te Mediterranean region; naturalized or casual in much of C. & N. Europe and 
other parts of the world. 

Enarthrocarpus ptcrocarpus (Pers.) DC. an annual with hraeteate racemes, petals 
clawed, yellow with violet veins, and a transversely rticulate jion-septate siliqua, 
the lower segment mdehiscent the upper elongate, and contricied between the seeds, 
has been recorded in Valletta and Floriana (Borg) and Manoel Island (G. Lan- 

30. Itaphanus L. 

Annual to perennial herbs. Racemes ebracteate. Sepals erect; petals abruptly 
contracted into claw; filaments without appendages. Fruit a transversely articulate 
siliqua; the tower segment very short, slender, seedless, mdehiscent; the upper 
circular i-n section, mdehiscent, straight- sided or lomentaceous (at least in part), 
or constricted between the seeds hut not breaking up into 1-seeded portions; 
beak narrow, seedless. 

Flaw <u v ■■'g 

Plant ^00 cm high. Leaves -^ e ^«SC.tS ^2?"a;| 
more than B times as long as " lde - ^^..t 1 aSM "projections at the apc*f 

£& B& (S. i CO.; B0« : WoM«>. ^^ m| | 

The M ed=s occur, o;, -«:;S£i co.s.» and S. Po«,jj 
Norway; subsp. aeaapwoca is connnea io tb_ . ^ 

29. Rapist rum Crantz 

Anm ., „ Pet „ni,, ,* w f TS c S ^s^rSuS-r^i"! 

mellow, with a short claw. Fruit a ^ an ^ e £ L ,f £ „ er segm ent ovoid to gM 

si' £?s s^ina^— si*-* wi* **. •$ 

1. 11. rugosum (L.) All. , h „ afaove Lower leaves mm 

Annual 15-00 cm high ^ 1^°^^ 6 " mm iongpah: yellow. SUicu{| 

nute: upper usually dentate pctu^ a^PeLvs « « beak) , ^ to globos| 

^^Sarrint^Tbeak 3 "^ long; lower segment cy tin dncal. Fl. 2| 


Tap-root not tuberous; siliqua not inflated, markedly 
constricted between the seeds 
Tuberous tap root; siliqua inflated, not markedly 
constricted between the seeds 

1, It. r.tphawistrum L. 

Plate X.iy 

1. raphanistrum 

2, sativus 

Ravaneil Salvagg 
Wild Radish 

Plant usuaHy more or less hispid; stem 15-150 cm high, erect; branched, 
p/ilJasal and lower cauline leaves lyrate; upper usually entire. Sepals 5-10 mm long, 
||, : elliptic-lanceolate obtuse; petals about twice as 3ong as sepals, white, yellow, 
I'SJUac or violet. Fruiting pedicels 1-5 cm long; siliqua e recto- patent, constricted 

between the fruits. Seeds 1.5-4 mm, ovoid to subgl&bose. usually reticulate. 2 n 

ia= 18.--F1. 12-5. . 

;iThree subspecies occur; subsp. rap liani strum has the petals 12-20 mm long and 
|fUthe siliqua less than 5 mm in diameter when mature; subsp. landra (Moretti ex 
■DC.) Bonnier & Layens has leaves with distant lateral lobes,, petals 10-15 mm 
■long and the siliqua more than 5 mm In diameter when mature; subsp. niarldmus 
■|Sm.) Theh. has leaves with contiguous lobes, petals 15-25 mm long and siliqua 
|-;imcre than 5 mm in diameter when mature. 

|*Fields and waste places. Malta, Gozo and Comma: common (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. 

gi'Lan franco; Woleeley). 

w^ ■ ■ ■ 

|§> Throughout Europe, but only as an alien in the extreme north 

sK;2. It, sulivits L. Fejgel, Kavanell 

Garden Radish 

Differs from R. raphanistrum. in having a thick, napiform or cylindrical root 
i^nd. siliqua 20-90 x 8-15, inflated, not constricted between the (1-) 5-12 seeds. 

||';Two subspecies oclcur: subsp. sativus; has the root much thickened, fleshy and 
|;iwatery, red or white, round, oblong or fusiform; subsp. niger (Miller DC. has 
!& the root thickened and fleshy but less watery and black or blackish externally. 










Mutta, Gozo and Viymino: widely cultivated mid a i'reqirent escape ('Fiorj';'-% 
Wolseley), ;;' 

Widely cultivated; of unknown origin. .:■'_■ 


Annual to perennial herbs, rarely woody, with alternate, simple or jMriatigts 
leaves. Flowers ' in terminal, brac.teatc racemes or spikes. Sepals 4-8; petals 4$$% 
free, entire or ladniate; staments 7-25. inserted on a liypogynous or perigynousj /' 
often '.acentric disc. Carpets 3-7, superior, free and unilocular ovary which .js«_ _ 
Open above, with numerous ovules on 'parietal placentae. Fruit a capside opeii;. : ; f| 
at. (.he top or consisting of 4-7, ] -seeded, radiating- carpels. Seeds SLiborhiciila'i^g 
or reniform. without endosperm. 

1. E<;scd,n L. 

: :it 

■Annual to perennial. Leaves .entire, toothed or pinna lid. Sepals 4-S: pe'als -^iij 
usually with dilated (cktw) and t.obed distal portion (limb); stameni! ■ lO-'i!!-^' 
tJit.ii- bases forming a disc which is often produced dorsally; carpels and stigma/p 
3 or- 4; ovary unilocular, open above; ovules ■numerous; capsule opening raori;|" 
widely at maturity. ' ■:$ 

1 . ' Vcl'ais ye3 Jew 

Petals "white cr cream 

3. C a ]>'.'. 'iik'. erect with 4 apical lobes 
Capsule drooping with 3 apical lobes 

1. 11. albii L. 

Plate XV 

3. Intra 

1. alba 

2. phytcuma 

Denb il-JiamS! 
White Mignonette./- 

2 m 

Annual to perennial. (10-) 30-80 era high; erect, branching above, Leaf-lobes 5-15. ■■ 
on each. side, entire: Pedicels 1.-8 mm long. Sepals a or fi, (L5-) S-4 mm loiiSfc. 
■petals S or 6, 3.5-fi ram long; limb 3-5 lime;; as long as- claw, lobed to I/." - 20" 
its length; lobes 3, the lateral often again lobed. Capsule S-15 mm long, narrowly;-" 
obovate. or elliptical, eonsiiicted at ape*. Pi. 12-5,- 

On 1 -va!la and in waste places und aba.ndov.ocl fields, MfJ.ia, Gozo and CsnrAW. verj ;; - 
common (-3. & C.G.; Borg; G. La.nfranco; Wolseley), ■ -./. 

Disturbed ground. S. Europe eastwards to Jugoslavia and Kriti; nt'Ciiisnj'allyV, 
cultivated for ornament and. naturalized in parts of C, & M.W, Europe. 

1L pjij'tewisa L. 

Corn Misimneilje'. 

fl.ti.nita] «r biennial 1.0-50 era high, with sis sen ding branches near the* b:\se. •■■ 
Leaves 5-300 x 5-15 mm, spathulaie, long-ciiiicate, sometimes some with lobes- 
on each side. Bracts 2.5-3 mm long. Sepals accrescent, 3-4.5 y. c. 0.75 msi at- 
a.nthesis, 50.3 x 1,25-1.5 (3.5i mm in fruit; petals 3-5 mm, whte, the tipper witlr 
claw below the middle siipitate, the lateral lobes pinnatifid. each with 5-J) j!a«ar 
oblanceolatc segments. Capsule 13-U4 k 5.5-9 mm, nodding, ohnvoid-cyiimiricai. .-■ 

Ci.i.liiy;>. ted: often naturalised around gardens (Borg). 

Mediterranean region, extending northwards to 47 3 N in France. 


y t R, lutca L. 

Denb il-naruJ: 
Wild Mignonette 

:•■■ innuil to perennial, bush v. Leaves mostly pinnatificd. with 1-2 i-4) pa 
'-■■,n^ Tor leives one Hinea bl- or ternate); segments elongate. Bracts v 
SufSX^l lobes of the upper falcate, *«" rm 
;lS S limb of the lower entire or with 2-8 -*-pa ^"- - 

t&'M2 x 4.5-5.3 mm 

i^nodd^ oblong: c^r^bovoid or ellipsoid. F 

%elds and waste places. Motto; infrequent (S. ft C.G.; Berg; G. Laiifrsiico: 

lalgarr is-Xini; Narfur; Xaglira (Borg). 

|c;.& W. Kuropc and Mediterranean region: mobably a naturrdbed alien 

C : north and cast. 

'■/i:\: ROSALES 


Annual b.crmial or perennial herbs, -rely -jail shrujs. ^-«™ u 
^ate/more or less ««:'SJS^f ^zo. mined or 

Sjft, °/s m^^ed "M *™™^» r ? ^^.£* 


follicles. Sralc-iilw nectaries usually pit-sent between uu 

^■] : " SLmiens «!-ua! in number to the Petals 
ifl- : " Stamens twice vis many as the petals 

irs or 
5. 4-S. 


■i to 

.%,.. Leaves oijposite, connate: petals 3 r 4 
'V' : ' Lciives !i;it conr.ale: petals J 

' : 3. -Basal loaves more or less orbicular 
■':,;■ BnsKl leaves not- orbicular ■ 

'.{:. Flowers !)-].!- merous 
:;.: : Flowers 5-t)-merous 

1. Craf;si(>';i 
4. Kficb-iW 

'I. Umbilicus 

4. SeflMm 

';■'■' 1, CrasE^ila I.. 

^m.ll ^abrons wnualB. with onposite connate, often reddish lc*v,.; 
^ or 3-mc.rous. Petals free. Stamens erjtial m number to Lie pet„l & . 
I^TUe. characteristic Habitat of Uiese species is ground Unode.rt m win.., 
: siiirtme.r. 

;:■: Leaves ovate, concave, crowded; flowers usually 
: : .:-' . -j-nicroiis 


and dr 

1. 1.i!laf'.: 


i evivus broadly linear, flat, patent: flowers i.sually 


, vaii!.;",n J; ii 
Mossy St: 

ft JilSaon Lestcr-Gii 

rrttaea TOJiSco.sfl. L. 

■ ' A minute, moss-like plant with prostate or oscendhip st«m.^ Le:rvcs 
Ion- ovate, concave, crowded, almost Imbncnle. 1 low-era o- ; -i ^ ' ■,;■ 
Sile^^atl groups in the IcaLaxils, Petal, 1 mm ong, s o* than u ; e 
-jKHTovtlj. lanceolot*, white, ov pale pink. Collides u.iUV i--cedcc„ ... l. .. 


Rocky places. Mulia: infrequent; as at Mgiret, Wied Incita, Bingemma (S. &. , 
CO.; Borg); Wied Ballut (CG.; Borg); Wied Xkora (Gulia; Borg); Wied Qirda, : 
Buskett (Borg); San Pawl tat-Targa (Gauci; Lam'raneo). 

Mediterranean region and W, Europe, extending locally to N.E, Germany. 

2. V. vaillautti iWflld.) Roth Plate XV 

Bulliarda voiliantii (Willd.) DC. 

Narrow-leaved Mossy StonecrapKS 

.Stems 2-6 cm high, erect or ascending. Leaves 3-5 mm long, lmear-oblong'M 
obtuse- patent, not crowded. Flowers 4-merous, on slender pedicels longer thaff'-|l 
the leaves, forming small , irregular cymes. Petals longer than the sepals, ovate3'|§ 
lanceolate, acute, pink: Follicles with numerous seeds. PI, 2-4, 

Shallow pools o:i rocky ground. Malta: locally frequent (G. Lantxanco), as at Bali;' 
ri.ja, Wied Ballut, Wied Ghomor, Wied Incita, Buskett. Faqqarija, Wied Qirda',3|| 
Wied il-Ghssel, GKarghur, St Julians Mgarr, Fomm ir-rieh (Borg); San Pawl tafc- _ 
Targa (Borg; Wolseley); Nigret (Woiseley), Gozo: Xlendi, Ta' Cen-i, Nadur, -Xaghri-^ 
(Eorg'i; Muvisar (Wolseley; Kramer & Westra). . ~ 

S. Europe extending northwards to N. France, S. Ukraine and the l& Vcrtglgi 
rare ;m si loess) over most of its range; Africa. 

2. Umbilicus DC. 

-J i*lfc:*« »*-■*. lil : 

Perennials, with tuberous or rhizomatous rootstock. Basal leaves petiolate. usually^ 
sub or bleu [fir, at ieast 2 cm in diameter, giabi'Dus. Cauline leaves much snial.Ver.g" 
Flowers 5-mei'ous, numerous, in u terminal, bracteate raceme or panicle. Calyxj; 
small. Cdroiia tubular ov camp a mil ate distinctly sympetalous; lobes more or Jesjj) 
erect. Stamens 10 (rarely 5), epipetalous; filaments short. Follicles slenderjk 
styles rather short or absent. 

Flower? usually pendent; raceme occupying more than half 

the steai; corolla lobes ovate, nuicronate 1. mpestris 

Flowers horizontal; raceme occupying not more than half 
the stem; corolla -lobes lanceolate, acute 

"I. U. rtipestris (Salisb.) Dandy 

Cotyledon iimbilicus-veneris vac tuberosa L. 

2, horizon talis-:; 

Zoqret 1-ghagnza 
Wall Navehvort :; 

Stem 20-50 tin high erect. Basal leaves orbicular, peltate, concave aboTe-|| 
sinuate-erenate; cauline leaves progressively smaller, mostly reriiform, dentate;;' 
the uppermost sometimes linear. Bracts usually linear, about equalling the pedK| 
eels, but occasionally- large and leaf-like. Pedicels 3-H mm long. Flowers 7-10.1 
mm long, tubular, usually pendulous; raceme fairly dense, sometimes branched 
at the base, occupying more than half the stem. Sepals ovate, acuminate. 'Corolla;.: 
whitish-green or straw-coloured, sometimes tinged with pink; tube about ig 
times as lotjg as the ovate, mucronate- lobes. Carpels tapered to fairly long style;; 
Fl. 4-5. "v 

Rocks and old v-aJIs. Malta: Infrequent (G. Lanfranco); as at Wied Ballot (S. &; 
C.G.); Pietk SJiemu (GD.; Borg); Rabat, Wardija, Wied Incita, Hemsija (Borg);. 
Wied zunber (Gulia; Borg), 

S. & W. Europe northwards to Scotland. 

: 2. U. horizenialis (Guss!) DC. . p late XV 

Cotyledon umbil.cus-rupesMs var. horizontals Guss. 

Zoqret 1-ghagusa 
Narrow Navelwort 

pggefe^d oJd walls. Kofta and G« ; IS. & C.G.; Borg; G. Unf*mco; 

gpfeiBterraneaii region, Bulgaria; ■ Azores: 

3. Aeonium Webb & Berth. 

BSaKse^Fiowt/f 'if n m "^ *** ^"^ ieaves ™ M **> ^~ 
:;Ea7m^a^rsep a ls° U ' mm ° ag ' '" " ™ Ie ' ^tals free, yeHow. Stamns 

: ; 1., A. fii-boi-eum (L.) Webb & Berth ; 

'■:.-.: Semper vimvoi .arboreum L. 

Plate XV 

Tree llousc-leek 

igf^ ? tw »«^ "tout, mtb -suborect branches, marked by conspicuous 
lW$L « £hJ^ t ■ „? , ™' obia ^eolate-euneate, cil late-denticulate but ^ other- 

Steele P^^^lr^ ^T u l0VV ° rS n ™*™™> »» * impact, ovoid 

P?v™-- * c -w* o 7 mm long, - bright yellow. Fi. 12-2. 

|ptf ifr cultivated since 1530, often natuwJited on walls and in rocky or arid 

S-#y olsc - e >'f l«cu)(jnu [Kramer & Vve^tra;. . ■• 

Hw J'^' 1 !! 11 " 1 ^' 1 Cn the ™ Mto of the Mediterranean and of Portugal; 

fi., i. ScdnraL. 

^^ves usually alternate, seldom crowded into rosettes/Inflorescence usually 
$py|K>se, Howers hermaphrodite, usually 5-merous but sometimes 4- or 6- to 9- 

!KShf ; ri,-.|^ f ^ ° f 1^ htly , ( i 01lnate Rt the h ^> usua1 ^ P^t- Stamens 
W^ y . ? as many, as the petals, sometimes equal in number. Carpels equal 
™st "injer lo the peuus. 

.: ; ;i ! . Petals greenish- white or. yellow 

sw" -.Petals "blue, pink or pure white 2 - 

fe£. Petals greenish-white, equalling or slightly exceeding 

fete .sepals; stems 4-15 em high k 

Petals yellow, -twice as long as sepals; stems 35-GO 
cm hign 

pi|i -Peremiial with leafy non-flowering shoots 
\j% •■■Animal:, no non-fiowering shoots present at flower- 
» . .. ing season 

: :«i : Petals blue 

ri...-: -Petals' white or pink 

-5: Leaves :i-G mm long: stems 2-5 cm high 
;,;-.. --.Uavoi 1020 mm long; stems 3-1.5 cm high 

4. litorcum 

1. sediforme 

2. dasyphylum 



: m 





'■ : : £S{ 




6. Leaves sub orbicular, flat, crenate or dentate with 
short, broad petiole 
Leaves linear,, entire, subcylindrical 

1. K. serfiforme (Jacq.) Pau 

S. rupestre var, nieeeiwe (All.) Fiori 

;t. stellatum 
5. rubens 

Me c.1 i terran eaii S i on c erap^ 

Robust, somewhat glaucous perennial with ascending (lowering stems ^Lfii^ji 
cm high and shorter non-flowering shoots, both woody at the base. Leaves obloitgjf 
or narrowly ellipsoidal, thick but somewhat flattened on unper surface, usual$g| 
apiculate or mucronatc, shortly spurred, subereet, closely, imbricate in spiral rows;!? 
on the non-flowering shoots, Inflorescence erect and subglobose m bud, wiiiyi 
strongly recurved branches, concave in fruit. Flowers 5- to 8- merous, on veiySj* 
short pedicels. Sepals c. 2.5 mm long-, ovate, obtuse or mueronate, glabvo.ujfeS 
Petals' 4-7 mm long, patent, greenish- white or ;;traw-colourerl. Stamens 10-IS^p 
Follicles erect, pale yellow or. greenish-white. 2n ~ 32, PL G-7. ' . v ri| 

Arid rocky places Malta: locally common (G. Lanfranco), us at Wied i:nubw;' 7 ' ; S 
Wied-Motfbel. (S. & C.G.); TV La wren ti (Borg); Wieb Babu (S. & C.G:; Botgsy" 
Wolseley); Wied Incita, Buskett, DIngli {Borg: Wolseley); Misran GUonoq, ' Sgni 
l.'awl tat-Targa, Nigret (Wolsele.y) . Gozo: XLendi, Wied Bingemma, M.garr ix.Xin|;? 
(S. & C.G,; Wolseley); Munxar (Wolseley). ,';j;% 

""'■i-"-' i 

Mediterranean region, extending to Portugal, K. Spain and C. France. .yS 

2. S, cfiisypbylluni L 

T h i c k-1 e a ve d Ston e«o|j ;§ij 

Perennial 3-3 cm Iiif<h, glandular- pubescent at least on the inflorescence aiflj^ iSfe':''' 

sometimes aO over, usually pminose and tinged with greyish -pink. Leaves 3-5 m : ri|P| |te$S.''caes»ito5um (Cav ) DC Br „,,.,.., ,, 

long, ovoid or suborbicular. flattened on upper surface, mostly opposite, loosClyfMl mmx'-.' . ** ' .jvcacj.-lfiavtcl 1:', 

imbricate on the non-flowering shoots. Flowers 5- or fi-merous, stalked, in sma!lt^^^;Gi a brous, usually reddish annual; stem 2-5 cm high, erect. Leave;-. 

cymes. Petals 3 mm long, white streaked with pink. Stamens 10 or 12, Follicles^ 
nearly erect; style short, turned sharply outwards. 2n = 28, 42„ 5S. Fl. 4-7: 

'■^alS |||p r "* c ytnes. Petals 3 mm long, nuicronate, white tinged wiih pinL ytnmens 4 
Arid rocky places particularly the Rdum areas along the N.W. cliSs Malta: _r£S^^^^' :mlides patellt ' glabrous. Fl. 3-4. 
Wied Babu, Rdum il-Madliena (.S. & C.G.; Borg) 
Dikkiena, il-Kaws (Borg). 

H4, S. litoreum Cuss. ,-„„,,, (,-,■.„„„,„ 

coastal Moitecrop 

A glabrous, annual; stem 4-15 em high, branches erect Leaves I{1 ?o ,. i!T , i. mK 

*&rnate, obovatc-spathulate, flattish, shortly spurred. Flowers 5-mcro^ '-ub' 

j^sile, in Jong, lax cymes. Petals 2,5-4 mm long, equalling or slightly exceeding 

ftglre. sepals, lanceolate, acute, pale yellow. Stamens 5 rarelv io Follid-.- ,>■<■„,<■<,' 

latent; styles short. FI. 3-5. "" ■■- <Jmi ^ i..tco- 

.Ocfcy places near the sea. Malta: Marfa, Cirkewwa i Bo ■■&'''■ S«li r i .'Kriri-w A- 
fetra); Madliena (Gaud). Gozo: Has il-Qala (Dtithie: S.~ & CG : For- : N*i-r 
JKramer & Wesfera). Cnmiiw; f refluent (S. & C.G.; Borg- WoLelcv) C'r^-ofVr 
l^uthie-; Borg). -...-■- . ^ . 

||fi&,C. Mediterranean region; W. Asia, 

;& nibens L. ^ stonc=1 . np 

Erect annual 5-1.2 crn high, glandular- pubescent above, somewhai ^Un-c^is 

BP&:: usually reddish. Leaves 10-20 ram long, alternate, pat put, linear s^ii<.r e s- a 

jwers 5-merous, sessile, in a leafy, corymbose cyme. PetEls'lV mm ion?\ sQ-tfv 

'nisi ate, white .or pink. Stamens 5, rarely 1(1. Follicles diverged. ;r> "uv^ hvv» 

fiuberect in upper part, giandular-tuberculate. .Styles !on K , strr^h 

jaho! rocky pieces. Malta, Gozo and comino: frequent <$. & G.G.: Bo^ 
|W"es.tra). Cominoito: (l.)uthie; S. & C.G.; Borg.i. 

ptiterraneau region and W. Europe, extending to Switzerland emi 

FL 3-fi. 

^^^,- alternate, imbricate, sub terete, broadly ovoid. Flowers 4- 

or &-mc!'0«i 

El ill 


along the N.W. cliffs. Malta:. rate||| Sf^ i-« ■■«»-, w»«'vu». x,. „-■*. 

): H-Fawwara (Gulia; Borg);Rdug^ ^p^tarid places that collect rain water hi winter. Malta- W^d Gri.-^o- Bu 

■ ^ : l3m WMS™ A Babu > Wicd Illiita (S - & C - G - Bor^); Wied il-Gnasel (Barg.: Wolseley 

Mediterranean region and parts of C. Europe; naturalized in the north-west, ''M W Ta ' Ce ^ fflen( » (s - & C.G.; Borg); Mgarr i X -Xi„i (Botp) 

' & ^PPerranean region ;;.nd ,S.C. Europe. 

S. S, fiiellatttm L. Starry Stonecrop ':- iii™,™^ 

™^^^»;Kcriilemn L. Plate XV 

Glabrous annual; stem 3-15 cm high, stout, erect, or ascending. Leaves lO-lSgi? 
mm long, fiat, with a short, broad petiole and suborbicular lamina, crenate fl^| 
bluntly dentate, the upper alternate, the lower often opposite. Flowers 5- (rarel^|| 
4) merous, sessile. Sepals broadly linear, accrescent, papillose at the apei^ 
Petals 4-5 mm long, acute, pink, Stamens 8 or 10. Follicles stellate- patent; styles:,^ 
very short.. FI. 3-6. .-, : ;1| 


Bez/ule! il-baont 

Malta: rare, Wied *enka a branch of Wied il-Ghasel (S. & C,G.; Borg); Wicd Has^ 
Saptan (Gulia; Borg), .'■'■';■ 

Mediterranean region. 

^A ; $ushy, erect, annual 5-20 cm high, oten pubescent above, usually strongly 

|«S:"with red. Leaves c. 10 mm long, alternate, terete, Imear-obtong", Firtwers 

^^ierous, usually 7-merous, on ylender pedicels in a broad, las: panicle. Petals 

IjB&alate, sky-blue, white at base. Stamens twice as many us the RO-tals. Folliries 

jllpjjpi'patcnt; style long, straiglit. Fl. 3-5. 

^g|fe;p3aces flooded in winter, arid in summer. Malta, Goto and Comiw: nbw.warA. 
1p|KJB..C,G.;. Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley; Kramer & Westra). 

Mp^dS'Of W. Mediterranean, 




XAiV. an-'*"-' — r 

1 Saxifraga U 

in leaf-iWls. Vcwla ).-■—-' . ■;:; 


Plate XV 

Rue-leaved Sasifva^e. 

l. S. ti-idf.etyliiea L, ... otom lln to 20 m hi#&j 

papulose. 2« - 22. ¥1. 2-i- ■ ■■.... ™ s a 

JMnliu: very rave: on 
Tncita .(Bovg). 

Europe os^-pi. tiw e: 

7« .:* of rode on the *ebbufi side of the vaU,y V^j 
rcl „ aorth and C. & E. Russia; N. Africa: w! Asia. 

XXXVI. ROSACEAE ■ ' . . .. 

-■■ - r „,\ ei-imilate' Flowers reg&$l| 

" r V' Si Vrmt of am- or more achciw*. drupes ' «^ usua i, y abs^f 

rarely u^cd. ^un u insr coloured and tie,hy. & nQ0 =' fl which- -b« 

» *■ ^tX^mSion bein g dUUeult to determine. J 

1. Trees or shrubs (sometimes dwarf) 

2. Leaves pinnate or digitate 
Leaves simple 

3 Unarmed trees 
Usually spiny shrub 

9, Savbus 

4. Uarpe* exposed on the hypanthium; fruit a head of 
drupelets, blackish when ripe 
Carpels enclosed in the hypanthium; ripe fruit red 

C Carpels not adnate to the hypanthium; fruit not a 

Carpels enclosed in, and adnate to the hypanthium' 
fruit a pome ' 

6. flowers solitary 

■ .- Flowers in 2 to many-flowered inflorescences 

7. Sepals shorter than petals, dentate 
Sepals larger than petals, entire 

:■■ 8... Walls of carpels becoming stony in fruit 
|\ ■ Walls of carpels becoming carrilagenoits in fruit 
"9. Flowers in panicles; evergreen ' ■ ■ ' 
; ; ■■'■-. Mowers in. umbels, racemes or few-iiovercj cluVe'-s- 
deciduous ■ ■ '.* ■ 

■M.-. ..'Styles; flesh of fruit with stone cells 

£:V Styles connate at base; flesh of fruit without stone 

?:}}'. Petals 

i.;... Petals 4 or more 

jffii.- Sepals 4-6: epicalyx .absent 

|^:- Sepals 4-5; epkalyx segments 4-5 

|^3; .Flowers yellow ■ ■ 

"" ; : Flowers white 

1. Rubas 

2. Rosa 

13. Primus 


^ SubfiiiH, UOSOIDEAE ' 

«To? Sve "C &*"*■ ^T" USU t y "■ 5 - -''—^.Hypanthium 
^utar S-; som<^ ; fi a. cenlral carpophore, sometimes campanula or 


%■':': 1. Euhas L. 

gpmlal Herbs or shrubs. Stems usually with prickles. Leaves usually pinnate 
gtote.or pedate, with 3-7 dentate leaflets. Flowers solitary or in racemose or 

If , ^ n , , / lflore9cences - F !°T ,S l,Sl)Rllj " Serous; hypanthium flat wiTh a 
,ge usually convex receptacle; epicalyx absent; petals red, purple, pink 0? 
|e samens numerous, carpels numerous: styles subtermina), usually deci- 
sis;, ovules 2, Fruit usually a coherent head of 1-seeded drupelets 
^Leaflets 3-7, pedate; drupelets usually more than 20 1, idmifolius 
^Leaflets 3, terriate; dru^elsts 2-20 2. caesius 

ig?;:.R. ulmifolltis Schott 

Plate XV 


■ &■,', u , . Bramble 

Sd?p rtth"™ 1 ? 1 ° r proe -? I ? b ? lf,t > an K l «d, of ten sulcate, pruinose, glabrous 
&*trin r iilf ^"; a F Pre ^ Cd hau " a; prickl(3s robust ' broad-based, Patent to 
»ve, whxte-tomentose beneath, convex, variously toothed, coriaceous; terminal 


6. (-■ydiJiiLa 
'11. Mespilus 

: 'fk 

VI. Crataegus 


10, Eriobotrya 


■ i 

■ :: 'i§ 

7. Pyrusi 

8. IiIalUK 


Z. Kanjjui»(>rba 

1. llubus 

.12.. . 



i. PoteHtilln 


5. Fragaria 





leaflet ovate or suborbicular to obovatc. Inflorescence often long and -nari^H 
sometimes pyramidal, leafy at the base, with patent branches and long pedals 
all ases with robust, broad-based, patent to falcate hairy prickles. Sepals defffxf 
after flowering, sometimes slightly ariculate, white- torn entose; petals cnnripi$ 
orbicular or ovate, sometimes jagged at the apex, pink or occasionally wllM 
stamens white or pink equalling or just exceeding the green, pink or wffij! 
styles; anthers glabrous; pollen completely fertile; druplets usually more than? 
hairy, often tomentose. Fl. 4-10. ' '.-.;j 

In valleys and sheltered places. Malta: locally frequent (G, Lanfranco; Wols'elelP 
as at San Martin, Mtanleb, Girgenti, etc. (S. & C.G.; Borg). Gam: Xlendi (S^ 
C.G.; Borg; Wolseley), M£arr ix-Xini, Mgarr, Nadur (Borg; Wolsefcy)- Perl 

Mediterranean region, W. & C. Furope; W; Asia; naturalised in many other liiig-f 
of the world. '—^13 

2. R. eaesius L. 


Stem flagelliform, branched, terete, glabrous, pruinose, rarely with a I^tS 
short glands; prickles few or many, weak, short, straight or falcate. Leaves iSP 
n.ate, slightly hairy ahove, more or less pubescent, terminal leaflet ovate, 'sob* " 
times more or less 3-lobcd, shortly acuminate, subcordate, rather coarsely biserraL 
lateral leaflets often bilobed; petiole sulfate; stipules ovate-lanceolate.::"^ 
florescence short, consisting of a terminal and a few axillary 2-5 flowered coryrSM™ 
pedicels Jong with short hairs, fine glands and sparse prickles;: flowers 2-2.5;:<f|li 
in diameter. Sepals oppressed to the developing fruit, ovate-lanceolate, shor$s 
acuminate, grey-green tomeutose with white margin and short, glands; pet|L 
large, ovate, elliptical or suborbicular, white: stamens green, equalling the greeniHk 
styles, Drupletes 2-20, large, black, pruinose, loosely coherent. Somewhat ealcicl&l 
2k =-- 2S. Fl, 4-&. . ■ ■ ■ ■■ 'M$ 

Rocky places, Malta: Wardija f Gulia; Borg). Goz-o: Xlondi. Wied ir-Rihan iS:||r 
C.G.; Borg); Wied- il-Lun:-qata (Gulia; Borg; Borg); San Bias (Borg). ""'""* 

Europe from Scandinavia (G2°N) and N. Russia to Spain and Portugal, Sicily arjf 
Greece; W. Siberia and Russian C. Asia to Asia Minor. ' :ii|^ 

2. Rosa L, 

Shrubs, usually deciduous. Stems usually with prickles. Leaves pinnate, stipiiliBl 
usually adnate to petiole. Flowers terminal, solitary or in corymbs, (4-) 5-imrodfi|f 
Hypanthium ureeolate becoming coloured and fleshy in fruit; epicalyx abseifffl 
stamens and carpels numerous; styles protruding through the orifice of a diBsSt 
sometimes forming a short column; ovules 1. Fruit a pseiulocarp of numerolgfl 
aehenes enclosed in the hypanthium. Y" 

1: Styles connate in a column i. sempervirens ~ 

Styles free 

2. Leaflets coriaceous; petals (25-) 30-45 mm long 

Leaflets not coriaceous; petals 12-18 (-24) mm long 

1. II. sciupervirens 1.,. 

2. gallica 

3. corymb if era 

Ghirlanda tal-ttii!^ 

Evergreen Rose :iA 

Evergreen with long creeping stems. Prickles sparse, curved, marlsedly d-rfff 

current at the base; Leaflets (3-) ;S-7, 30-150 x 10-20 mm, coriaceous, ovate-lanceolat^M 

acuminate, serrate, glabrous, shining; stipules narrow. Inflorescence (1) 3-7-flo$|| 


jif fed, corymbose. Pedicels glandular-hispid, 2-4 times as long as the fruit. Sepals 
§§>'vate, long-acuminate, usually entire, glandular with stalked glands on the mar- 
.'|iTis and back, deflexed and deciduous after anthesis. Petals 10-20 (-30) mm long. 
white. Styles connate in a column, hairy or glabrous. Fruit around 10 mm, globose 
|# broadly ovoid, red. Fl. 3-ti, 

Sq moist valleys, Malta: rare, Buskett, Wied Ineita (S. & C.G.; Borg); Wied Dalam 
flfear: the village of Ghaxaq (Duthie); Wied il-Ghasel (Borg). Goto: Mgarr (Gulia: 

Iffeii.terrar.ean region and S.W. Europe northwards to 47^ 30' in W. France. 

W&: -H. galiiea L. 

Plate XV 


Ward a taz-iejl 
Provence 'Rose 

lip.- '.Deciduous shrub 0.4-0.8 m, forming large patches. Stem with prickles and 

JgtgtaWhilar setae. Leaflets 3-7, 20-30 x 3S-30 mm, coriaceous, suborbicular or ovate 

llgii.'''riarrow]y elliptical, rounder} at the apex, usually compound-serrate, dull bluish- 

lilgreeii and glabrous above, paler, pubescent and glandular beneath. Flowers 

Tjplitarv. rarely 2-4, 6-9 cm in diameter, strongly scented. Pedicels giandular- 

jtsetoKe.'' Sepals' glandular on the back. Petals (2-5) 30-45 mm long, deep pink: 

Iptyies free, densely hairy, rarely glabrous. Fruit globose to fusiform, densely 

l^aJidular setose, bright red, Fl. 4-G. 

IpKoist valleys. Malta: rare, at 'Wied il-Ghasel, Gnemieri, Wavdija (Barg); Ta' Baldu. 
PffiS-' : '& -CG- Borg); Kordin (S. & C.G.). Gozo: Wied il-Lunzjata (Gulia; Borg). 

WB:£.--iirid S Europe; Asia Minor to- Caucasus, 

WMi- '■''■ 
lp&: '■' R. otiryntbifera Rm-kh Pale !:.ose 

'^■ v; "'' R. dti-metorum Thuill. 

■Stems up to 2 m high, green; prickles scattered, short, stout, compressed. 

it&trongly hooked! Leaflets 5-7 r 15-35 x 14-25 mm, broadly elliptical to suborbicular. 

Sorely narrower, simply serrate, sometimes glabrous above, usually ©glandular; 
Blfetiole and rachis densely pubescent, more or less glandular, covered with minute 
P^Meles- Pedicels 5-13 mm, glabrous. Sepals eglandular, deflexed and caducous after 
Warittesis, Petals 12-18 (-24) mm long., white or pale pink. Disc wide, with the 
jfeiriflce less than 1 mm wide. Styles free, long exserted, villous or rarely glabrous. 
BpFruit 10-20 mm, ovoid or globose, glabrous, red. Fl. 4-fi 

sS' : - : -' : 

m$ : 6zo: Ta' ceiie (Gulia; Bovg). Listed by C.G, as disappeared by 1911. 

pE.aropci W. Asia. 
ji-r* ■ ■ ■■ 

3. Sanguisorba L. 

MfSerennial herbs. Leaves pinnate. Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous in dense 
jpg|erminal spikes or heads, with 2 (-3) bracteoles below each flower. Hypanthium 
|p$;ja'eeply concave; sepals 4; epicalyx and petals absent; stamens 4 or numerous. 
||f|:rarely 2; carpels 1-2 (-3), terminal. Fruit of 1 (-2) aehenes enclosed in the 4 
ftearigled hypanthium which becomes dry and hard. 

^WI. S, minor Scop. 

■■■.;■. Foteri-mi stmguisorba L. 

Plate XVI 

Tursm iMlfiawl 
Salad Burnet 

■i 1 "- Plant 1D-S0 cm high, glabrous or hairy, with well developed basal leaf-rosette. 
t-Flowering stems ereel, leafy, rarely leafless. Leaves with 3-12 pairs or crbtcular 

^■' 103 

lo elliptical leaflets: leaflets 0,5-2 cm, more or less stalked, erenate to incise serrate, 
mostJv ol' equal size. Capitula 1-3- tra long, globose to ovoid, Hypanthium 3-8 mm 
wicle/usually angled, ridged or winged and with fares reticulate or sculptured in 
various ways, 'In -- 28. Fi. 'i-5. 

The plants in Malta are probably all subsp. inuricata Briq. 

Dry open places and valleys. Malta, Goto and Cumivo: frccnent (S. & C.G.; Borg; 
Haslam; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley) . 

Britain, C. and S. Europe, north lo S. Sweden and Volga-Don region; Armenia, 
N. Persia; Moroeco; naturalised in N, America. 

4. PoicntiSlii L, 

Usually perennial herbs. Leaves digit.ite. pinnate cr ternate. Flowers solitary or in:; 
cymes,' (4-) a (-<S)-merous. Hypanthium more, or less flat, with a central; hemis-> 
pherical, dry or spongy receptacle; epiealyx present; stamens 10-3(1; carpels (4-)- 
10-80; style nearly basal, lateral or terminal. Fruit a head -of achenes;. styles usually: 
not persistent. 

Flowers in cymes 
■ Flowers solitary 

L l'. Tiiria L. 

1. hirta 

2. reptans 

Hairy Cinquef oil '-..:. ■ 

Flowering stems 10 70 cm high, terminal, pubescent with. long patent egla'ri 1 -' 
dular hairs. Leaves digitate; leaf lets 5-7, 15-10& x 5-35 mm, linear to oblong- ; ; 
obltuiceolstl©, rarely obovate, with .3-7 obtuse teeth or lobes at the upe.f. Flowers: 
numerous, Cymes lax, Sepals triangular-ovate; epicalyx- .segments linear to linear-; 
lanceolate, as long as or slightly longer than sepals. Petals 6-12 mm long, yellow,- 
longer than sepals. Style conical- cylindrical. Fl. 4-5. .'/■ 

Arid places, Malta: Wied Incita (G.D.; Borg); Is-Sisjeu (Gulia; Borg}. Included* 
by C.G, in plently, disappeared by 191,1. 

S, & C. Europe; W. Asia; Siberia; N. Africa; naturalised in N.. America: 

2. P. veptans L. Plate XVI Frawli salva&gi 

Creeping C.inqu.efoil- v 

Perennial herb; stock relatively slender with a persistent rosette of leaves; ; 
flowering stems 30-100 cm high, procumbent, rooting at the nodes, glabrous or ; 
pubescent. Leaves digitate; leaflets 5 (-7), 5-70 x 3-25 mm, obavate or oblong^- 
em-ovate, dentate or serrate-dentate. Flowers 5-merous, all solitary, axillary. Sepals.' 
and epicalyx segments variable. Petals (7-) 15-12 mm long, yellow, up to twiee; 
as long as sepals. Stamens c. 20. Carpels 60-120. Style conical at base, enlarged 
at apex, 2n - 28. Fl. 3-6. 

Valley bottoms along stream beds, Malta and Gozo: locally frequent (S. & C.G.; , 
Borg; G. Lanfranco); Wied Incita (Borg; Haslam; Wolseley); Buskett (Haslam);:-: 
Wied il-Ghasel, Wied Ghomor and Fiddien valley (Wolseley); Mgarr ix-Xinl ■ 
(Kramer & Westra), 

Europe (except Island); Mediterranean 
Himalaya; introduced in America. 

region; W. Siberia, Turk is tan, Persia; 


gjy; ■ ■ 5. Fragaria L. 

J.-:-Like FoteuliUa but receptacle becoming fleshy and brightly coloured in r,-iiif- 
|: .achenes on the. surface or sunk in pill "<wuiy coiouiea in mut, 

: : ' 1- F. moscliaia Duchesne &■>,...,.. 


Wood .Strawberry 

^.Msal rosette, leaflets l-b cm long-, ovate or obovate -to rhemtic, coarsely s-fi-itc 

P ''fe I eaV ^ ereCt m frmt; Pe tficels patent- pi; Lesusnt. Flower, c 20 mm h 
i-jcfiting from the usually red glabrous icioptaeb. Fi, -3-8. . - 

:.McUa and Goto: cultivated and sometime ncturali^d on irrigated Ik^,; (Borg). 

sJ^.'- fca |? ,p * ^te^ 1 "^ to N.W. France, C. Italy, Turkey an r\ C P^ si;i - wMeK , 
^naturalized from gardens elsewhere. >-mu. wiacij 

|:#he Garden .Strawberry,. Frag.aria s. ananassa- Duchesne . hr grown, in gardens.) 

. . Subf am. MALOIDEAE 

1^1 ? rtisent > um ^' caducbus. Flowers (5-merous. Hypanthium tubular; not 
:; .<Jpen at the apex and completely enclosing the 2-5 more or less connate earned 
■ : which arc more or less adnate to the hypanthium; epkvlvx pWnl- ^ar ens 
..parous; styles 5, free. Fruit many-seeded. . ' '■ M ' tnS 

f$-^ *■ Cj'doit-ia Miller . 

^nilagmous in fruit; ovules numerous*^, l^lt^^t ^ 

; I, C. oblouga Miller 
Pyrus cyddnia L. 

Plate XVI 


Jm^ Pink Fm£ 2 5 35 cm ^12 *^? h f X ^T \ PediCeJs sho ^ ^omentose. 
Pg )2 nd Go,o; Cultivated and occasionally found in old garden, and valleys 
jgjtlys. of C. Asia; cultivated and naturalised in Europe, N. Africa and temperate 

7. Pyrus L, 
feaijthers dehiscmg centri net ally, usuallv red- camels 9* ™,„^ !i ™ eils 3, .' 








1, Leavei more than ll times as Jong as wide. 
Leaves not more than 1* limes as long as wide 

2. Fruit not more than 5.5 cm long, hard, usually not 
sweet -las ting 

Fni:t (5-) 6-16 tin long, fleshy, sweet-tasting 

1. P." pjraster Burgod. 

P. ccmrn.vMis var. ochroi Wallr. 

2. amygtialifornib 

py raster 

Langas salvasg"- 
Wad Pear 

S. Miilus Miller 

Deciduous rarely spiny shrubs, or trees, .Leaves simple, sometimes lobed. Fittwifrw 
in umbels. Petals clawed, wliite, pink or red; stamens 15-50; anthers dehiscing 
centri/ugslly, yellow; carpels 3-5, connate, wails cartilaginous in; ovules 2 
or more; styles 2-5, connate at base. Fruit more or less globose; flesli usually 
without stoJie cells. 

Tree K-20 m high with patent or ascending, usually spiny branches. . TwigifJJ 
grey to brown. Bud-scales 5-8. Leaves 2,5-7 x 2-5 cm, elliptical, ovate or; 
cuneate, rounded or cordate at base, acute or shortly acuminate, thin, crenulat*-;^ 
serrulate throughout or only at apex, rarely entire, usually glabrous at maturitjilM, 
petiole 2.-1 cm long, slender. Sepals 3-8 x 1-35 mm. Petals 10-17 x 7-13 iwt|;^| 
elliptical to orbicular. Fruit 1.3-3.5 x 1.8-3.5 cm, globose to turbinate, yellojitsj 
brown or black, the lenticels often conspicuous; pedicel L-JS.d cm long, slendcrjig 
calyx persistent. ^' 

Sheltered valleys. Malta: cultivated and naturalised at San Martin, Ghajn il-Kbirs^ 
Wied Iiidta (S. & C.G.; Borg); Wiecl Babu, Wied Xkora, Wied Main (Gulia; Borg;r,i§l 
BusketL Wied Bufula. Bahrija (Borg). ^i" 

S., W. &■ C. Europe. '■] 

2. $\ acuygdiiliforniis Vill. Round Peari 

P. e.omir-.u.-ius var, ainygdaliforrtils (ViU.) . ■-.■■■: 

Shrub or small tree up to (5 m high; branches sometimes spiny. Twigs greyfl§| 
dulJ, tomeiitose while young. Leaves 2,5- B x 1-3 cm, narrowly lanceolate to oboyat^jfl 
usually entire, rarely 3 lobed, with rounded or cuneate base, sparsely hairpg; rts ,.. 
when young, papillose beneath at maturity; petiole 2-5 cm long. Sepals 5-fi x.l.5j|^ IBJ 
mm. tri r ng it 1 a r-a eliminate. Petals 7-8 x 5-6 .ram, elliptical, usually emarginate ,a||*p 
apes. Fruit 1.5-3 cm in diameter, usually globose, fulvous; pedicel stout, as loijf;^ 
as or Might! v longer than the fruit; calyx persistent. Fl. 24. 

Rocky valleys, Malta: ■ Wiecl Incita, San Martin, Bahrijfl (Eorg) 

Mediterranean region . 

:}. P. TOrnniunis L. Plate XVI 

Tree n.i) to 2!) m high; branches with or without spines, ascending on youtig:j^^^i: 
trees and spreading on adult trees. Twigs stout, reddish-brown, soon becoming" 

iMaiture leaves glabrous on both surfaces 
Mature leaves tomentose, at least beneath 

:1. M. svSvt'stris Miller 


Tufflefi salvage 
Crab Apple 

■ ;'. M»re ar less spiny tree or shrub 2-10 m high . J/vaves U-il x 2.3- 3 .5 cm, 
; tiyate, elliptical or sub orbicular, crenate or serrate, with rounded ar cuneate base, 
■.' .shortii' apkulate, glabrous \vhen mature; petiole 1.5-3 cm long. Flowers JM nv, 
jjn diameter, white or pink; sepals 3-7 mm long, glabrous externally, tomeniose 
.-i intern ally, styles glabrous or sparsely villous at base. Fruit 2.5-3 cm Ions, sub- 
■■; glabrous, yeJlo wish-green, 

'.'Malta: Occasionally cultivated as a stock for grafting 'Borg). 

.'■Europe aflfi S.W. Asia. 

■''3. 1W. dOfKCstica Borkli. 

Plate XVI 

Tuffien t:-]' Bilinuljn 
Cultivated .Apple 

Lang as a 
Cultivated Pear- 

glabrous and shining. Leaves 5-8 x 3,5-5.5 em, ovate and elliptical, more or less-;; 
cuspidate at apex, crenulate-serridate to suberttire, usually glabrous at maturity;! 
petiole equalling or shorter than lamina. Corymbs and leaves tomentose whetfj 
unfolding. Sepals G-8 x 3-4 mm, lanceolate, acuminate. Petals 12-14 x 10-12 mm-.-- 
obovate. Fruit (5-) G x 4-12 cm long, oblong, pyriform i turbinate or subglobosc,;; 
with a sweet taste; calyx persistent. Fl. 2-4. .; 

More then a thousand culf.ivars of the garden pear are known. It is of hybrid.; 
origin, ;;Tid many species are considered to be among its parents. : \ 

tfnlto. Gozo: commonly cultivated in many varieties (Borg), 

Cultivated in many areas of the world. 


UK-armed small to medium-sized tree; twigs tomentose. Leaves '1-13 x ,'i-v an, 
;. nva.1 e -elli pti c a I , serrate, with rounded, rarely cordate base, slightly tsmentose 
"above and densely tomentose beneath. Fruit more than 3 era long, in 
colour, sweet or acid, much longer than pedicel. 

"(The apple Is of hybrid origin. More than a thousand cultivars are kjiosvn.) 

"Haifa Goto: cultivated and rarely self-sown (BoreiV 

fcuftivaled >r. many parts of the world, 

St. 'Sorbtis L. 

-Deciduous trees or shrubs, without spines. Leaves simple, lobed or jiimiate. 
Tlowers in compound corymbs. Petals wliite ("rarely pink); stamens 15-25; carped 
if), parti-; tree or connate, walls cartilaginous or membranous in fruit.;, ovule* 2; 
■Styles foee or connate at the base. 

: ■: Bark shredding; styles 5; ripe fruit 20 mm or more 
■;'■■ long, greenish or brownish 

" "' Bart; smooth; styles 3-4; ripe fruit less than Jt mm 
3onn;;. stnriet 

' -J. S, dftinestica L, 

• ■ Pyrux domestica Ehrh. 

1. domestic,! 
1, 'inHMiparifl 

Service tree 

■" : A (ree it]> to 20 m high, with patent branches; bark shredding; leaves pinnate . 
with 6-8 pairs of leaflets; leafets 34.5 cm long, oblong, serrate, pubescent beneath 
when wane, finally glabrous. Flowers 10-18 mm in diameter, white; sepals,- 


Itowan, Mountain Ash 

■ , , lM , Pmil 20 mm or more long, obovoid or pyrlfoim 
i ,. i.mopi- ilisiri wide; styles o.-ltuu mi „ . 

^nhK^U, ^ —.us ,one «- --; [DiagB] 

Matt « and Go*.: titivated locally aud »«t u «teed at 

Tripe extend** northward, to C «; plant* for to ^ ™& ** 
LSoTelseUereNnd l««lly natural^- 

,, r Plate XVII 

2. s. aueupana L- ] 

Pynw tmcupar.a. (L.j hm-ii. 

leaves Pinnate, with 5-7 P^of toalMs, loalieM sometimes rounded.. 

le , wlth few or .. «, ^^- d — rM Br ,„,;.. 

Ithrtla; Wed znubor (Penza), vd> rare, .v 
Mwtof Europe; VI'. Asia; N. Africa. 

,10. Eriobolrya Undley 

Ev^-ecn shrubs or tre ?S ^^"^ ^5?-^ XwV fiSS[| 

1 C r a tew large seeds. 

1. E. japoiii-is (Thumb.) Lindley 

Plate XVIl 

Maspli' ' 

■dmlito, ™Ml"''- 6 ™~' l ™ff S l LS e e r p.iS Jut, tt ...UowUh, Fruit 3-0 «! ■; 

"::«u , « — ..u .^ - - — «» « 

native of C. China. :.| 

11. Mcspilus L. ..--^ 

1. >1. germaiiU-a L. 

Plate XVII 

Fomm il-lipp o Naspli tedeschl; 

linear-triangular. Petals white. *mu <? 
FJ. 3-5. 


Damp valleys. MoMa; rare, Buskott (Gulia; Borg); Eahrija (Borg). G020: between 
Qalu ;uid Nadur (Heads; Borg); Qala and Fergla (Gulia; Berg). 

S.E. Europe, extending 
natural-sad el sew Here. 

Co Sartiegriii and Sicilia; S.W. Asia; cultivated and 

12. Crataegus L 

■Deciduous usually spiny shrubs or small trees. Leaves simple, lobed or pinnatifid, 
serrate. Stipules persistent. Flowers in corymbs; Petals obovatc, white, rarely pink; 
stamens 5-25; carpels 1-5; tree on the ventral side, walls stony in fruit; styles 1-5; 
ovule.; 2. Fruit usually with mealy flesh, red, yellow or black; pyrenes 1-5, pedicels and Iiypa lithium, glabrous or with 

stniisjiit patent hairs 

Twigs; ividicfcli? and hypantliium densely tomentose 

i. V. iixwnfigyiia Jatfj.. 

C. ox>i".caniha L. . ■ ■ 

1. monogyiia 

2, ivzarolus 


. Shmb or .sinsll tree up to 10 m \A?,'~: spines 7-20 mm long, Leaves obo.vate 

to l'homi'i':. . curieato. disnoio)'o?is: \ob.ui '•'•-7, oblong, acute or subobtuso, entire or 

■sparsely tiootlied near the apex, extending ^ of the way to the midrib, the 

'.■.sinuses .usually -open and deep; .stipule;; entire, lanceolate-sub id ate. Flowers 3-15 

■■ mm ■ irt' dinnieter. Style 1. Fruit fi-10 mm long, dark or bright red, crowded by 

iclet'exec! sc;.>sh whieh arc usually slighti;' longer than wide; pyrene 1. PI. .3-5. 

■ Vailey'Wi'-fojm- Malta- t'rc"iient (Q. LaiiLraoco), as at Ta' Baldu, Wied Ghomor, 
Wied Qirda, Girgenti (S. ft C.G.; Borg); Wied Babu, Wied Ballut (G.IX); Biiskett, 

■Wied . Incita, Ghajn U-Kbira, Wied Haii'un {Borg; Wolseley); Mellieha (Borg; 
Kramer & Westra). G020: Xlendi (S. & C.G.; Borg); Girgenti (Penza). 

Most of Europe; Mediterranean- region; W. Asia, 


Plate XVII 

Crete Hawthorn 

Shrub: twigs tomentose: spines few. Leaves 30-50 x 25-40 mm, rhombic to 
: obpvate-oblong, cuneate, eoriaceous, subglabrous or glabrous, glossy green above; 
lobes 3 (-51, subobtuse, entire; petiole up to 12 mm; istipules falcate, coarsely 
serrate. Hypynthium and pedicels densely tomentose. Corymb of flowers lax, 
fi able went; flowers 13-16 mm in diameter; sepals shortly acuminate; styles 1-2 
ty). Fruit 1-15 mm in diameter, globose to pyrlform, brick-red to yellowish- 
orange, crowned by defleited sepals; pyrenes 3-5. Fl, 3-4. 

■Valley bottoms. Malta: Wied Qirda, Wied Babu, Ta' Baldu (S. & C.G.; Borg); 
. Buskett, Wied il-Kbif, Girgenti (Borg); Wied Anglu (Wolseley). Gozo: Rfgarf 
ix-Xini (S, & C.G; Borg); Xlendl (Kramer & Westra; Wolseley). 

'■Cultivated for its edible fruits in S. Europe; native 0/ Crete. 


Stipules present, often small and caducous. Flowers 5-merous. Hypanthium con- 
cave er tubular with a single free carpel at the base; epicalyx absent; stamens 
"numerous.. Fruit a 1-sceded drupe. 








13. Primus L. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, usually cremate or serrate, petiohde. Stipules 
free, narrow, more or Jess scarious, often deciduous. Flowers 5-merous. solitary 
or in clusters^ umbels, corymbs or racemes. Petals pink or white. 

1. Ovary and fruit hairy 2 

Ovary and fruit glabrous a , 

2, Leaves broadly ovale to suborbicular, convolute in 

Leaves at least twice as long as wide, longitudinally 

folded in bud 

3, Petals usually deep pink through anthesis; mesocarp 
succulent; endocarp _j.. globose, deeply sulcate 

Petals white or pale pink when expanded; mesocarp 
coriaceous; endocarp compressed, pitted 

'I. Flowers in short corymbs of 3-10 

Flowers solitary or in clusters or umbels 

5. Pedicel at least twice as long as ripe .fruit; flowers 
in sessile umbels with many bud scales at base of 

Pedicels shorter than ripe fruit; flowers solitary or 
in clusters without bud scales at base of cluster 

0. Petals pink 
Petals white 

7. Uark blackish: fruit 10-15 mm long, more or Jess 
erect; flowers solitary, appearing before leaves 
Bark brownish; fruit 20 mm long or more, pendulous; 
flowers in clusters of. 2-3, appearing with the leaves 




e eras us 

1. pcrsica 

4. spin os a 
.5. don'icstica 

Subgen. Amygdaius (L.) Focke 

Deciduous; leaves longitudinally folded in bud. Shoots with terminal bud Flowers ■ 
subsessile in clusters of L3, appearing before the leaves on shoots of the pre- 
vious year's growth, each flower-bud flanked by 2 leaf buds. Fruit usually 
pubescent or tomentose; endocarp sulcate or pitted, 

L V. pcrsica (L.) Batsch Hp.wTm 


Tree up to 6 m high, with straight glabrous, reddish, angular twigs. Leaves- 
5-15 x 2-4 cm, oblong-lanceolate, acute to acuminate, serrulate, glabresmit: 
Flowers subsessile, mostly solitary; hypanthium about as wide as long; sepals 
toir.onf.09e; petals 1.0-20 mm long, deep (rarely pale) pink. Fruit 40-80 ram long, 
velutinous (glabrous in var. nuefjjersiea <Borkh-) C.K. Schneider, the Nectarine 
Nuciparsika) - yellow or pale green, tinged with red; mesocarp succulent, pale 
green or orange; endocarp deeply sulcate. Fl. 3-4. 

Malta, Gozo and Comino: cultivated extensively for its fruits, both as a field 
crop and in gardens (Berg; Wolseley). 


Extensively cultivated in S. & S.C. Europe, and many other parts of 
locally naturalised; native of China, 


%■ P. dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb 
;..': P. amygclaluR Batsch 


■:;■'■ fjlirub or tree up to 8 m high, in wild plants spiny and intricately branched, 

■in cultivated plants with straight spineless branches. Leaves 4-12 .-; ill-'j cm, 

iblong- lanceolate, crenate-serrale, glabrous. Flowers mostly in pairs; hwifirilh.ium 

l^roadly campanul»te; sepals tomentose at least on the margin; pet v.;:-, ■-■., W nun 

fiSpjng, bright pink iu bud, fading to Palo pink or almost white. Fruit 33 -SO mm 

fl&JTgr ovoid-oblong, compressed, tomentose, grey-green; mesocnr;:- cwiv.reous, 
Seyeritually splitting and separating away from "the finely pitted, ticcie:' -ndC'Cani, 

gSSfoKtJ, .Gozo and Comino: frequently cultivated for its edible scads ;r-: ; often 

j pVmaU'rali.sed in the valley;- i.Horr:: VWlse'ey) 

^Extensively cultivated and frequently naturalised iu the iVfeclitervor-se 
Native of C. and S,W. Asia. 

§|.-.',," ■ . Subgen. Franus 

Jjeeiduous; leaves convolute in bud. Shoots without terminal bud. Fir, 
|eSsile : or shortly pedicellate, solitary or in small, axillary clusters: fi; 
PjjjjfitHout accompanying leaf buds. Hypanthium broadly eainpsnulate, Frn 
"^.'glabrous, often pruinosc; mesocarp succulent; endocarp smoolti ;>r 
| rugfisc. 

|£J& V. anijeniaea h. i 

§? ■ " ■ 

Baffi^ . Shrub or small tree 3-fi (-10) in high, glabrous except for (he fj 
pffitiit;- young twigs and young leaves reddish. Leaves 5-10 x 5-8 cr.r, fc-:o;<. 
fSti sub orbicular, acuminate to cuspidate, serrate, truncate or subcords 
ijtee; petiole 2-4 cm' long. Flowers subsessile, solitary or in pair.-;. 
||y&re. the leaves; hypanthium and calyx hairy; petals .i(X!5 mm lovfg, 
jpi'-'/ery pinK. Fruit 4-S cm long, subglobose, velutinous, reddish orange ! 
5 ':e 2 warp orange-yellow; endocarp lenticules smooth, with 3 narrow rid 
-?--He margin. Fl. 3-4. 
iK : 

ifflpifa and Gozo: frequently cultivated for its edible fruits and often f 
|ewn- ' (Borg) . 
C ■'' 

Cultivated as a Held crop in S. & S.C. Europe, lot ah J naturalised; ;iat 
>*A?iJ and China. 

g;!J; ' P. spinosa L. Prima ^alva^ga 

P.rajn iax-xowk 
F.lndilhiji'i''., Sloe 

K-,-' Dense shrub up to 4 m high, spreading by suckers and with .icusiierou.;, 
;,-•#, aricate, intricate, spiny branches; bark blackish; youn™ twigs us us Sly pitbes- 
. cent Leaves 2-4 em long, obovate to oblanceolate, finely crenate or serrate, 
puneate at the base, dull green and glabrous above, usually pubescent on the 
Ifaiiris beneath. Flowers mostly solitary, appearing before the leavas, very 
^iiimernus; pedicels e. 5 mm long, glabrous; petals 5-8 mm long, white. Fruit 
B|||M5 mm long, globose, ereet, bluish-black, very pruinosc, acid and as tr in gent; 


il us\ 



•■■■ ha i. 

\ l "; rJ.L '■'. 






te a t 





^ -:>r 

:e ye.- 


Sfi^ * 




L .'i«e y> 

F C. 

- * in ^ B-8 mm: nearly 
i- uiv rupoee, stone <-J" su - v 
,„ni-li nr silently ■ IU B Ul ' 

.-.,,,0 ^ubglobosy, smooth or J* t. 

^ "" " "■ * , »,0, -B» E ). »- — OMS * M 
„ ,. -,il occasionally "' ,. ^ J 


Klll , P e esn-pt Ite «««™ north. 

s . V. dis™^'-* 4 -" 11 ■ Ej ' 

Plate XVil 

■'■ - ■ mi, straight sp« ieles -^ 

,,..'* but in wild P^» ta .^ te d n ull usually pu*» « « I. J^ hm6> den> clj 

v "S^l S- to ^"^ ££what rugose. Fl. 3-4. ^ 

- n„ rvihiriilisea (isoie/- 

srass* .. ..— ^ • 


3-10, which terminate short, lateral, leafy shoots; pedicels c. 10 mm Jong; 
hypanthium campamtlate. Petals 5-8 mm long, white. Fruit 8-10 mm long, ovoid, 
Mack; mesoearp thin, bitter; endoearp smooth, Fl, 3-4, 

Dry hillsides. Malta: introduced in 1905, naturalised in the Buskett valley (Borg). 

C. k S. Europe; W. Asia; naturalised in N-. America. 


Trees, shrubs or herbs. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple to 2-pinnate, 
stipulate. Flowers usually hermaphrodite, usually 5-rnerous. Sepals usually united. 
Petals free or somewhat connate. Stamens usually 10, sometimes less than 10 
ir numerous. Ovary a single unilocular carpel; style 1. Fruit a dehiscent, 2- 
valved or indehiscent, occasionally lomentaceotis legume. Seeds usually without 

A large number of species, both native and introduced, are cultivated for 
food, fodder and for ornament. Those most frequently utilised as food are to 
■ be found in Cicer, Lens, Phasvoius, Pisum and Vicia., The edible part is usually 
.the seafl or legume or both. Species of th ess genera and many others, particularly 
yAnthyllh, C'erqtonia, Coronilla, Lathyrus, Lotus, MedicagOj Melilotus, Scorpiurus, 
'''1'rifolium and Trigonella are cultivated (about 12,000 acres J for fodder or 
^planted to improve pasture. 

Cultivated ornamental plants are to be found in the majority of European 
genera, ' 


1W) ' , plrt , of the world an, ^ei, n^hsed 

,, C rop In M* 1 * palt • ■ 


Amarena ■& 

Dwarf Chortfe 

a** *« *:.• s te « f'ow°" « hi". rr. »° ; wi.™™ <— « 

ff,Wv cultivated for US frmt . -^ 

^r.iT. qW. Asia. - ■- * ^^a«a 

Maimlcb Chcrrj| 

'■ ::rt b L, » f «ws,^ -~^ r&r. S3 

dightiy pub«5cent bcneai- 



1. Stamens iiumerous. free, longer than the corolla 

Semens not more than 10, the filamerits often 
';.■■ partly or completely united, usually sliortev than the 
corolla ' 

: : 2. Corolla absent; stamens 0, tec 

Corolla present; stamens more than .5 or filaments 
rt united 

Pi>3. Leaves consisting of a tendril only (but with large 
.leuMike stipules) 
Leaves not consisting of a tendril only 

|(i;i At least some leaves pari pinnate, impat'innate or 
digitate; leaflets 2, 4 or more 

Leaves simple, 1-foliolate or 3-folioiate (at least in 
the upper leaves) 

|Si- Leaves paripinnate, rachis often ending in a spine 
or tendril 
Leaves imparipinnate or digitate 

.Stem and leaves glandular-pubescent 
Stem ami leaves not glandular-pubescent 

Stem winged 
.Stem not winged 

Leaflets pa rail el -veined 
Leaflets pi nnately- veined 


3. Acacia 

'Z. Cera ton ki 

13. Lathyrus 
















!>. Calyx teeth all equal and at least twice as long as 
the tube 

At least 2 calyx-teeth less than twice as long as the 

10. Calyx- teeth not leaf-like; stipules not more than 2 
em long 

Calyx-teeth more or less leaf-like; stipules up to 10 
cm long 

11. Principal lateral reins el the leaflets terminating 
at the margin, often in a tooth 

Lateral veins of the leaflets anastomosing and not 
reaching the margin 

12. Variously hairy and glandular, sometimes sparsely 

Glabrous or esc cut, eglandular 

13. Racemes pendulous, 10-20 em long 
Itaccmes erect; not more than 10 em long 

14. Flowers in umbels or clusters, the pedicels arising 
from the same point 

Flowers in racemes, of condensed panicles, or solitary 

1.3. Legume lomentaceous 

Legume dehiscent or indehisoenl, not kimentaceoiis 

10. Keel obtuse; legume strongly reticulate- veined 

Keel acute; legume not or only faintly reticulate- 

17. Segments of the legume linear or oblong, straight or 
slightly curved 

Segments -of the legume lunate, or horseshoe-shaped. 
to rectangular with a semicircular to orbicular sinus 
which has a curved protuberance at its base. 

18. Keel not beaked . 
Keel beaked 

1.3. All leaves with 2 pairs of leaflets: legume linear or 
oblong, straight or curved 

Lower leaves simple; upper leaves with 2-3 pairs of 
leaflets; legume spirally twisted and flattened so that 
it is circular in outline 

20. Leaflets distinctly parallel-veined 

Lealets pinnately veined or the lateral veins obscure 

21. Legume lomentaceous 

Legume not lomentaceous 

22. Flowers solitary, axillary 
Racemes (2-1 4- to many-fiowered 


12. Lens 



Pi sum 


Tri foil u ns 

Robin ia 

2-1. Ornltliftjniji 

25. CoroniHa 



20. Lotus 

me '24. 





Hymen oca t pus 'f 


Leaves pari pinnate, usually with a tendril at least on 
the upper leaves 

Leaves imparipiimatc, without a tendril 
Leaves with c,n pairs of leaflets and a terminal leaf- 
Leaves with 5 leaflets 

' i^l'^ J"? 2 , (;m long - simp]B > suborbieulai-. cordate- 
adaxial petal innermost iL< - ! 

Leaves 3-folio.late or simple, but never suborbi,.„i ,- 
and cordate; adaxial petal outermost subo,b,u " ai 

Principal lateral veins of the leaflets terminating at 

the margin; leaflets often toothed ^V-iMuiit at 

-Principal lateral veins of the leaflets anastomosing and 

not reaching the margin, sometimes obscure- ]^ r ££ 

■ not toothed (leaves sometimes caducou ■ or'rSceH 
to spinchpped phyilodc) 'c«uc« s 

Plant glandular-pubescent at least above 
Plant not glandular-pubescent 

. Stamens monadelphous; legume straight or ve,-v 

■ slightly curved ■ 

; Stamens diadelphous; legume falcate to spirally coiled 

At least some petal-daws adnate to the. slaminal *„ bc - 
corolla usually persistent in fruit ^mmdi ..joe, 

decfduous WS hW ft "° m Ule Stallli,lal lube -' ™^ 

Filaments of at least S stamens dilated at (lie <mev 
I'llaments all .filiform 

Legume coiled in j. or more turns of a spiral 
. Legume straight or curved 


U. View 

7- Astragalus 
21!. Lotus 

L Cerei.s 

i.l (fmniif! 
IS. IWetSitago 

lit 'iTiio'iuni 

if!- Trifuli,,,.. 
- : ft. iVtcdJcagf 

■ ■ Legume obovate or ovate to suhglobose 

Legume oblong, oblong-fa lea I.e. oblong-reniform veni 
form or variously curved 

Corolla blue 

Corolla white or yellow 

;' : Legume linear or oblong., at least 3 times as lone <i s 

Legume ovate or obovate to suhglobose or reniiorm 
less than 3 times as long as wide 

.Spiny shnlb 
Plant not spiny 

Leaflets stipcllatc; leaves 3-folioIal.e 

Leaflets not stipe] Jafe: leaves simple or 3-folioIate 


f«- Melilwius 

IS. ilJcdilS-g-n 

1/. TriRov>c(Ia 

17. Tl'igOllL'IlH 

.Eft. Sledltago 

-'.'I. Antfcy!!i* 
(i. Ptiiiseohc; 





u . 





^ 1Rl c or 1-toliolatc, sometimes very-small 

■VI- jCii^iL kS(J!;1C lt«V"-> 

' Shrute or perennial Herbs woody at base 

,"■ >iMual herbs 

iricfehie(.«n f - . 

j^yf'o^-no; or W-.j- 
«■ I*™ S,-eSoo« 

4 j sm-.-ubs. or trees 

Herbs _ p to 12 mm 

- ov+Pri at the base o( the P«"" 

» sraysaa**-- aaantt . tothetee 

10. free (in u-« u i 

5. S^artiuin 

13, L;itkyrus 
26. Scorpiunts 
S. psoralen 

25. Coronilla 

4, Anagyris 

■23. A*thyHis 



40 '■* 

42-< : 


teeth; petals 0; stamens 5, Legume linear-oblong, compressed, indehiscent with 
a sugary pulp between tlie seeds. Seeds numerous. 

■1. C. siJlqua L. 

Plate XVIII 



20, Lotus 
21. T»tragonololtus:j| 

, . — rphic SeP^^jf^^^any not .ore tha| 

1. Cercis L. .^ 

t ~wes simple, digitately Yf ^.^Sanulll 
Deciduous tree. <* ** (i S«* ^rSSS^I 

L c. silionas.tvam L. suborbicuW 

obtiwe or emiffiEinale. cortd bi0WIlj ^labrona. 

2. Ceratonia L. ^.^js 

,. ■ HS Evc r g reen trees or shrubs. ^^aXk^Hll 
^^^"^Wer^iort, Hilary rtteme, Calyx 
minute. cad^ous, * y , 


Tree or shrub up to 10 m high. Leaflets 2-5 pairs, 30-50 x 3040 mna, elliptical 
or cbovate to suborbicular, coriaceous, dark green arid shining above, pale green 
beneath. Flowers green. Legume 10-20 x 1.5-2 -cm. brownish- violet, pendulous. 

Wk:; ,H. 10-11, 

Malta, Gozo and Comino: commonly cultivated (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; 
.'Wolseley), and often associated with farmsteads on the coralline formations; 

naturalised elsewhere where it is. protected from goats by valleys arid precipices 
• (Wolseley). 

Native to the Mediterranean region but also extensively cultivated for fodder 

■ and widely naturalised, so that the limits as a native tree are hard to determine, 

Flowers actinomorphic. Sepals and petals valvate. Stamens numerous, free, 
;■ 3. Acada Miller ... 

■ 'T, ■ f 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves 2-. pinnate and dorsiventral in the juvenile state and 
■remaining so in the adult state or some reduced to simple phyllodes; stipules 

■ rudimentary or becoming large spines. Flowers small, yellow to white, incylin- 
'■■ttrica 1 spikes or in globose capitula arranged in. racemes or panicles; calyx and 
.^'teroUa 4- to 5-merous; stamens numerous, free, long and conspicuous. Legume 
:: usually dehiscent. Seeds with a filiform funicle en dins in a cupuliform strophiole. 

;,i. A. cyanophylla Lindley 

Blue-leaved Acacia 

Tree up to 10 m high; bark smooth, grey, later greyish brown and fissured, 
■Twigs glaucous, pendulous. Phyilodes 10-20 (-35) x 0.6-2 (a) cm (up to 8 cm 

fevide, ovate-undulate on suckers), linear: to lanceolate, not or scarcely falcate, 

Igisiibacute, more or less glaucous, i-veined, Capitals 1045 mm in diameter, in 
Ssftort racemes of 2-6. Flowers bright yellow. Legume 80-120 x 4-8' mm, compressed, 

J?$istinetly constricted between the seeds, glaucous when young, later brownish. 

Ig^niele short, whitish. FI, 3-4. 

'0titt&:' widely cultivated in gardens, and also in plantations, 
fgSIaUve of western Australia. 


plowers zygomorphic. Sepals and petals imbricate; the adaxial petal (standard) 
^outermost, the 2 lateral petals (wings) free, the 2 lower petals innermost and 
spirally partially adhering to each other by means of interlocking hairs on the 
nSrgin to form the keel. Stamens 10, rarely 5, free, or more usually all or a 
|^ the filaments united. 

4. Anagyris L, 

|-Shrubs. Leaves 3-foIiate; stimiles connate, leaf-opposed. Flowers in short axil- 
||ry. racemes. Calyx campanulate, sub- bilabiate, stamens free. Legume stipitate, 
g&nstricted and septate between the seeds, compressed, dehiscent. Seeds few. 





1. A, fcxitida L. Plate XVIII Pula tal-Klieb !| 

Stinking Bean TrcfoiLl 


Foetid shrub up to 4 m high. Leaflets .'JO-70 x 10-30 mm. elliptical" orl 
lanceolate-elliptical, sub-obtuse, mucromilate; stipules c. 5 mm long. Corolla; 
18-23 mm long, yellow, the standard much shorter than the wings and keel,." 
often with a black spot. Legume 10-30 x 1.5-2 cm. Seeds violet or yellow, Fl. 12-3..-S 

Rocky valleys, Malta: rare (G. Lani'ranco), as. at Wied il Gliasel. Wied jJ-MadIiemsj@ 
Mtahleb. Buskett (S, & CO.; Borg); Wiedf Qird.a (Godfrey; S. & C.G.; BorgijS 
Wied il-H* (Borg; S. & C.G.); Banrija, Mtarfa (Eorg); Wied Anglu, Wied Ifostt 
(Wolseley); Ghallis (Gauci). Goto: Kcrcem (Kramer & Westr.i). > : $ 

Mediterranean region to Arabia. '..'■; 

5. Spai'tiimi L, ■} 

Unarmed shrubs. Leaves 1 -foliate. Flowers in lav, terminal leafless, manyM 
flowered racemes. Calyx spathe-Uke, split above, irregularly unilabiate (rarely J 
bilabiate)) wtth 5 short teeth; corolla yellow; stamens monodclphous. LegumeS 
linear-oblong, dehiscent, subseptate between the seeds. Seeds numerous, estro-r 
phioiate. ■•'}[ 

h S. juneeum L. Plate XVEII Genista safra ■: 

Spanish Broom;; 

Shrub up to 3 m high (or more in cultivation). Branches cylindrical, striate^ 
meduDatcd, flexible, glaucous -green, glabrous. Leaves 10-30 x 2-5 mm, sparse^ 
oblong-linear to lanceolate, glabrous above, ap pressed -sericeous beneath, .subjj 
sessile, caducous. Flowers showy, sweet-scented, borne singly. Pedicels with 4 : 
small caducous bract at the base and two bracteolcs at the apex. Corolla 20-3^ 
mm long. Legume flat, sericeous, becoming glabrous. Seeds 10-18. FJ. 4-5. X 

Rocky valleys. Malta: rare, Gftajn ii-Kbira (Borg;; Penza); Buskett at il-bosk-; 
(Gauci). Cozo; Mgarr ix-Xini (S. & C.G.; Borg). v 

Mediterranean region and Canary Islands; cultivated and naturalised elsewhere; 

6. Robinia L. ■ :■! 

Deciduous trees or shrubs. Leaves imparipinnate; stipels oftew present; spinose; 
stipules usually present. Flowers in pendulous, axillary racemes; calyx cam;' 
panulate. slightly bilabiate; corolla white, pink or purple; stamens diadelphous.; 
Legume linear to oblong, compressed, dehiscent. Seeds 3-10. 

Ife ". Astragalus L. 

yinnuat or perennial herbs or small shrubs. Leaves imparipinnate or pariphmave. 
^sometimes terminating in a spine; leaflets entire. Flowers in racemes or a-riilprv 
■ flusters, sessile or pedicellate. Calyx infundibulitorm, tubular or earnparuilal.e. 
^sometimes inflated in fruit, with distinct, equal or unequal teeth* keel not 
,- ; raueronate at apex (very rarely adaxially mueronate); stamens 10, d.tadclpVious 
(very rarely 5, monodelphous); stigma and style glabrous. usually 
, dehiscent, very varied in shape, and texture, glabrous or bairv, unilocular V> 
gbilocular. Seeds 1-many. 

A-. Legume 7-15 mm long; stems procumbent 
Legume 20-50 ram long; stems erect 

■2-., Legume more or less straight, not laterally com- 
pressed, valves keeled; hairs on stems and' leaves 

:■'■. medifixed, one arm shorter than the other 

Mature legume curved in a semicircle, laterally com- 
nressed. valves not keeled; hairs on stems and' leaves 

, simple, basifixed 

sesa wens 

I. looctieus 

^1. barnesus 

A. Pine tic us L. 

Plate XIX 


1. It. pseutl.acacia L. 

Plate XVin 

A deciduous tree up to 27 m high. Lealets 3-10 pairs, 25-45 x 12-25 mm;; 
elliptical or ovate, glabrous or subglabrous; usually with stipular spinels 
Racemes 10-20 cm long, many-flowered. Corolla 15-20 mm long, white, the base?; 
ot the standard yellow. Legume 5-30 x c. 1 era, glabrous, ;-. 

MHUa'. cultivated and naturalised in gardens as at San Anton, Eusfceft, and Argoiti:' 1 ; 
(Borg; Wolseley). 

Native of C. and E. North America; widely planted and extensively naturalised, 
through much of Europe, 


Kah\ Mess Mean 
Yellow MUk- vetcri 

_ Stems up to 00 cm high ascending or erect. Leaves 2-10 cm lojif- leaflet*- 
fe&l.G pairs, ovate or obovate, emargmate, densely hairy beneath, sparsely s« 
jpabove. Peduneles half as long as leaves; racemes dense with 5-15 flowers. Calw 
p*c::5 mm long, the teeth as long as the tube. Corolla yellow, standard ■';!-':) 4 Vm 
s&yong; wings longer than keel. Legume 2040 x (»-) 7-8 mm, oblonV, 1risv^,]ia S - 
^feiin transverse section, grooved beneath; hcafc hooked: valves keeled"'" with short 
^■ffltipressed hairs. Fl. 3-5, 

spft'alleys and fallow fields. Malta .and Gozo: 
jjp&anfruneo; Wolseley) ComUio; iS. ft C G ■ 
J0U- . ■ 
..„ ^Mediterranean Region; W. Asia; Madeira. 


Borg ) . 

: 2." A. sesamens L, 

IS. fr CO.; GD.; Borg; R, 

Small-flowered Milk-vetch 
rjm long: 

LiMKL^. . 

g|);>.. Stems ur> to 30 cm high, pi-ocumbent or ascending. Leaves 

'"^Kfe Jcafiets 3 ' 11 P airs -- onl <»iK to obovate, obtuse or emarginate, sparse] v hairy on 
"j*)fh surfaces. Peduncles half as long as to slightly longer than leaves, racemes 
gf&iilenso, subsessile. with 5-10 flowers. Calyx 5-G mm long, the teeth as long as the 
^-tiibe. Corolla yellowish, standard 8-9 mm, sometimes bluish. Legumes (7-) io-IS 
Eobinja : '-M |ft*' s " 4 mm > strictly erect, lanceolate, almost straight, laterallv compressed, sratveiv 
False Acacia: 1 il^^dorsivent rally compressed at base; beak e. 2 mm, curved: valves with appressed 
fehairg. Fl, 3-4. 

^%asfe ground and rocky arid plvieos. Malta and Gozo: frequent along country 
gs-toads. (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). Commotio: (Duthie; Borg). 

||?R. k W. Mediterranean region extending to S. Portugal and S. Bulgaria; N, &: W. 


: S^K'-3. A - bamosus L. Southern Milk-vei^h 

'•M W;c:' Stems un to 60 cm hiRh, Leaves 5-10 (-15) em lone: leaflets f'-ll ijairs, 
^'"p g^ablong-obovate, emarginate or truncate, hairy beneath, glabrous or subglabrous 

■■■^ m^ ■ us 


above. Peduncles half as long as leaves; racemes fairly dense, with 5-14 flowers. 
Calyx 5-S mm long. Corolla yel ow; standard 7-8 mm long; stamens 10, Lecurae 
20-50 x 2-3 mm, linear, acuminate at apex, curved for about a semicircle, 
laterally compressed; beak short; valves not keeled, almost smooth, with shori' 
appressed hairs. Fl, 2-5. 

Fields ;>mong crops, gardens and waste ground. Malta, Gaza and Comino: common 
(S, & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley). Commotio: (Duthie; Borg). 

Mediterranean Region; C. & W. Asia; Canary Islands. . 

8. Psoralen L. 

Feronniai herbs or shrubs. Leaves trifoliate (in European speries) glandular- '^ 
punctate; stipules small, tree. Flowers in axillary heads or racemes, with a pair -'-M 
of 3-flcf bracts at the base. Calyx eampnmilate, with G unequal teeth; corolla iH 
blue-violet to white; keel obtuse; staments monadelphous. Legume indehiscent- 
1-seeded. ' 

1. P. bitiiminosa L, 

Plate XIX 

Silia q^lranija 
Silla salva&jja 
Blue Pscralea 

Stems 20-100 cm high, sparsely to densely pubescent, smelling of bitumen. 
Leaflets 10-150 x 3-20 (-30) mm, linear-lanceolate to ovate-orbicular,, entire.' 
Flowers in heads; the peduncles usually longer than the leaves. Corolla 15-201 
mm long, blue-violet. Legume ovoid, compressed, with a falcate beak up to 15' 
mm long. PI. 2-5. "■■ 

Malta, Gozo unci Comhio: very common everywhere (S. & C.G.; Eorg; Wolseley) :- ; 
Mediterranean region; W. Asia; Canary Islands. 

9. Phaseoliis L. 

Annual or perennial, usually climbing herbs. Leaves 3-fehote; stipels present- 
stipules small. Flowers in axillary racemes. Calyx campamilate, bilabiate; coroliayJl 
variously coloured; keel with a spirally coiled beak; stamens diadelphous: style-S 
hairy on the inside; stigma oblique. Legume linear-oblong, dehiscent. Seeus :-g 
usually numerous. 

1. P. vulgaris L. 

French Be ari 

Annual up to 4 m high. Leaflets 3-10 x 4-G cm, ovate- orbicular, acuminate.' 
Racemes shorter than loaves, up to 6-flowercd. Corolla 10-18 mm long, white,,- 
pink or purple; beak oJ: keel forming 2 turns of a spiral. Legume up to 50 r' 
2.5 cm, brown. FI. 4-9. ■' :■ ■ 

Malta and Gozo: extensively cultivated in many varieties (Borg, Wolseley). Fil'st/J 
recorded in the Tarxien Cemetery deposits o<f the bronze-age (Trumps, 19G&J. " 

Native of S. America; cultivated in many parts of the world. :' 

10. Cicer L. ' 

Annual or perennial herbs with glandular hairs. Leaves usually imparipinnat^fj 
rarelv paripinnate and terminated by a tendril; stipules herbaceous. Flowers* 
solitary or in axillary racemes. Calyx gibbous at base, bilabiate, but sometimes^ 


■i^'^rr^sv^L-s'^'™' —*— = -i. «~. 

L C, arietinium L. 

Plate XIX 


trect, pubescent annual 20-50 (-100) cm hioh r c -„- Q 

.-3-8 pairs, 8-18 x S-1U mm, ovate or elliptic.! Kv * % ^Mnnnate; leaflets 

than leaves, 1-flowored dak™ «n*)U i ■ J . py toothe & Peduncles shorter 

p^tawy „ ti „ „, s . w . ^ culllvatol amvfmt ^ Medllmnean Pesion 

11. Vicia L. 

fe-all round or on t^lo^^^Z^^I^L^^ ^ ^ ^ 
| Pressed, dehiscent. Seeds usually 2 ir more. g ^ ° r Iess obio ^ »* 

■especially in S. Europe. my 0tJ,er s P eCi °S are cultivated locally, 

S 1 - Krt™ S6SSile « -ith peduncle shorter than 


?-. 5v 


ft^^ p , ubesc ^t on the back 
Standard glabrous on the back 

At least the uppXTvef wTth i'SUu™" 

SS?o?Sya X - t,,be " 0t ° bIi <^ «« -lyx teeth 
\v!n? a ve],^ IOW S(,metirae « Effused with purple- 

ss.r.°i ;~z P r biack tip 

Sate V?££ f V«™<**te, — nate 

te at ICast 4 Mm wd e, ovate, elliptical or 


9. Paanonica 

15. faba 

12. lutea 

11. pereffrina 
II Harbonensis 












* ■:**.: * 

7. Leaflets of the upper leaver 3-many pairs; wings and 
keel purple 
Leaflets I-:! pairs; wings and Keel whitish 

S. Cijlvx-tctth!, all equalling or longer than tube 

Caiy>- ■ l.e«fli unequal, at least i.ho upper shorter than 

1 Llijf-i 

3. Leaves without a tendril; legume forulose 

At least the upper leaves with a tendril: legume not 

10. sativa 
lit. hlthynica 

4. eniiia 



V. vJHosa Roth. 

Loddor Vetch 


0. hirsufca 
8. leueantha 

7, teiiuissfma 

8. tefrasperma 

Covins 2-4 (-[>) ram long; seeds usually 2 
Ccmia (MO mm long; seeds S-B 

11. Co-roils 5-0 mm Jong; whitish or pale purple; racemes 
3- to S-flowerod 

Cnrolia :-! mm or more, rarely smaller and then vioIeC 
racetBes 30- to 40-Ilowered 

12. Iiarer,^* <\.-\ 2 to 5-flowered, longer than leaves: 
buutn 1/12 - ■? of the circumference of the seed 
Kaeemes I- or a- flowered, about equalling leaver 
lulum s oi tho circumference of the seed 

18. Stipules denticulate to serrate or bipartite 

■ Siipirte-. entire 

14. Stipules denticulate to serrate, not bipartite; racemes 
usually longer than leaves 
Stipule bipartite; racemes shorter than leaves 

15. Calyx only slightly, gibbous at base; limb of the 
standard usually as long as or longer than the claw 
Calyx strongly gibbous at base; limb of the standard 
aboin i as long as the claw 2 . viliosa 

Sect Cracca S.F. Gray. Leaflets usually numerous (more than 5 pairs)- flowers'' 
usually numerous in long-pedunculate racemes; calyx bilabiate, somewhat gib- 
boos at base; corolla usually large (more than 3.(1 mm long); slvle equally pubes- 

1. onobryehoides 
3. monantfia 

1, onobrychoides 

Animal 30-200 cm high. Leaflets 4-12 pairs,, linear to elliptical: stipules entire. 

: : )jg^^-' Calyx .strongly gibbous at the base; calyx-teeth unequal; corolla 1020 mm long, 

'""'*'" 1^$;, violet, purple or blue, sometimes with white or yellow wings; limb of {.lit- 

| standard c. 1. as long as claw. Legume 20-40 x (4-) 012 mm, brown, stipitnte. 

feP'Seeds 2 8; hilum 1/12 - 1/5 of the circumference! VI. 3-5. 
£?v : 

X,-! Two subspecies occur: Kubsp, varia (Host) Corb. I'V. dusyenrpa and-. 

"'"''."art Ten.) has the leaflets (8-) 10-30 x 2-8 mm; racemes 10- to 30- flowered ; anil 

wings violet, purple, blue or white; suhsp. pseudocrueca (llertol,) P.W. Mall li;is 

lQ.'-.'i'-^lSiftS'tfie IcaSets 5-20 x 1-S mm; racemes 3- to 10-flowered; and wings usually yellow. 

I'MclUr. rare tit Attar d (Borgl.; Wied GTiomor and Mnrsa (Lelieafa, Guli;;.' 1 . 
■ft 'and S. Europe: W. Asia; N, Africa. 

V-S. V. jn».«i!.ntli.a Ret?., subsp. triflora (Ten.) B.L. Burt.1. & V Lewi*. 

Mw! ile I'raneaii Ve-ri,cli 

KubginV.rous annual 30-fiO cm lush. Leaflets 5-S psiirs, 10-25 x l-t> im». "i'uxe.Mf- 
oblong; stipules bipartite. lobes entire. Calyx-teeth unequal, shorter than tube' 
'■:?H H|f' corolla pale purple. Legume 20-50 x 612 mm. yellow, glabrous. Seeds 3-7; liihun 
■ S tejtH ■ o f the ci r c.u mf ere n c e . PI . 4 - 5 . 
"*sb|pI5j ' ' ' 

W*\-Malta: rare among weeds in gardens at Attard (BorR). 

te: Mediterranean region. 

§§.? Sect Ei'vum iL.) S.F. Gray. Leaflets usually numerous fmove than ' 
fifc.. flowers f'HV, in long-pedunculate; calyx not ^i', at h:i.;;e 
«i:C usually less than 10 mm long; style glabrous or equally puheticeu I all 

1. V, twrn'hryclioides L. 

Saintfoin Vetch 'TM $ 

Glabrous or pubescent perennial 30-120 cm high. Leaflets 4-11 pairs 10-35 x 
1-4 mm, linear or oblong- lanceolate; stipules entire or with few teeth Racemes 
ii to lo-howered. Calyx-teeth unequal, the lower equalling the tube' corolla 
L7-U mm long violet with pale keel. Legume 25-40 x 5-7 mm, reddish- brown 
glabrous, slipitate. Seeds 5-10; hilura J - 1 of the circumference. PI. 3-4. 

Malta: rare and probably accidental in San Anton and other gardens in the 
neighbourhood (Borg). 

Mediterranean region. 



V. eryilia (L.) Willrt. 



Glabrous or pubescent annual 30-50 cm high. Leaflets 5 10 pairs, 5-15 * J-5 
|vi : mm, oblong or linear; stipules dentate. Racemes 2- to 12. flowered. Calyx- teotii 
equal, longer than the tube; corolla 6-10 mm long, pale purple, white at base. 
^tvWr- Legume 15-30 x 5-10 mm, pale brown, pubescent or sub glabrous, beaked. Seeds 
";.. m m Li. 3-5. 

3 s|^fe : ■' 

Cultivated as a forage plant and often naturalised. Malta and G-o.~o: ft-cquent fS. 
'Mf,- & C.G.: Eorg). ' 

Mcditerraneau region; W. Asia. 

5. V. Jctteanibii Biv, 

TUviwri- fruited Vetch 

1 sfc' 

Glabious or pubescent annual 30-50 em hish. leaflets 5 10 pairs, 5-15 x 

: ''^K?' : 'l' 5 mm. oblong or linear; stipules dentate. Racemes 2- to 12- flowered. Calyx 

IK'S'- teeth equal, longer than the tube; corolla 0-10 -mm long, pale purple, white at 

base. Legume 15-30 x 5-10 mm, pale brown, pubescent or siubglnbrous, beaked. 

Seeds 3-6. PL 3-4. 

J£> In valleys and sheltered places. Malta: frequent as at Ts' Baldu, MlaMeb ;.S. & 
i 3 |S C.G.' Borg); Wied Ballut, Wied Babu, Maqluba, Wied 2t>mbaq. Wied. 1-Gba.d 'urija, 


:£ W:-\ 123 


, « ™v Cireenti Wied Ineita (Borg); Wied Zem- 
Bosket, * (i-Kblr. a^i^K? laid (»«>. 

C Mediterranean region- 

Hairy Tare 
e. V. hirsute (L.) S.F. Gray ^ 13 ^ mm> 

Pubescent annual 20-70 cm NJ^^J'J^ \nearWolate, often with ■ ., 

•trss ££ r ^-^st -si^is s&£'*- — 

MaHfl: tMe at Wied ^^_ (B ^ . a A weed of nation throughout much > 

„ *„ f. 7fi° N--W. Asia; N - Africa, a w<= 
Europe to c. /u -n, 

'of the world. 

Slender Tare ; 

V ietrasporma var. S«rt^ i-<-w ^ ^ ^ 13 mm , 

12-17 x 3-4 mm, brown, glaorous 

circumference. Fl. 3-5. ■- Gne i na , Girgcnti, Wied; 

« *~ «n ?^'°Bi«^sisiiii»™« <=— « <o " s, '< 

■ s. & 'W. Europe. 

' - Rate XIX Smooth TareJ- 

H V. tetrasperma (L.) Schiebci S v Dairs 5-20 I 0,5-3 D^3 

Ijegume 9-J.G x J-J ""■"• . : ^ 

circumference. il- ^" d - rat , r T,snfranco; jWolseleJfcl 

« f „ iw° N in Fennoscandia and wussia, ^ 

Throughout Europe to 62 N. in r ,g 

V^llow-fruited VetcMf 
, V. ,— » CTBU «*. — «M I*- ™^ obM | 


■Malta: in fieids around the St. Vincent de Paul Hospital (Borg), 
C, & E; Europe extending to E. France; N, & E. Spain. 

10. V. sativa L. 

GiMejiii sewda 
Common Vetch 

Pubescent annual up to 8U cm High. Leaflets 3-8 pairs, 6-20 (-30) x 1-6 
mm, .linear to obovate, acute to retuse, mueronate, stipules dentate, usually 
with a dai-.k spot. Flowers 1-2 (-4) together; calyx-teeth equal, longer or shorter 
than tube; eorolla (8-) 10-30 mm long, purple. Legume 25-70 x (3-) 4-10 mm, 
usually black, glabrous or pubescent, breaking the calyx when mature. Seeds 
6-12; fiilum 1/5 - i of the circumference. FT. 2-5, 

Very variable. The Malta plants appear to belong to 3 subspecies. Kubsp. sativa 
has the leaflets oblong- cuvtsate to obcordate, truncate or emarginate; calyx- 
teeth as long as or longer than the tube; corolla 18-30 mm long; standard pink 
to dark reddish-purple, the wings darker; legume 35-70 x 6-11 mm, contracted 
between the seeds, brown or yellow- brown; usually hairy; and seeds 3.5-6.5 mm, 
-2n ■= 12. The cultivated form, subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh. (var, cuneata (Guss). Fiori; 
var. heteropkylla (G. Presi) Fiori) has the leaflets linear to oblong -euneate, 
acute, obtuse of truncate; calyx-teeth shorter than tube; corolhv (S-) 10-1S mm 
long; standard light reddish -: purple, the wings similar or somewhat darker; 
legume 23^55 x (2.5^) 3-6 mm, not contracted between the seeds, black or black- 
ish-brown, usually glabrous; and seeds 2-4 mm. 2w = 12, 14. Common on arid 
rock localities (Borg). Subsp. ampbfcarpn (Dorthes) Ascherson & Graebner (var. 
":«iiiphicarpa ^Doithes) is a plant with underground stcras bearing minute ap'ota- 
lous Sowers and white, irregularly ovate I or 2-seeded legumes c. 15 mm long; 
lea He is linear, acute to obcordate; calyx-teeth shorter than tube; corolla 20-Si 
; mm long; standard -dark reddish-purple, the wings iuach darker; l«;urne 25-35 
;x 4-6 mm, not contracted between the seeds, dark brown, usually glabrous and 
seeds 4.5-5 mm. Malta: Buskett (Duthie; Borg). 

■Widely cultivated as well ss native. Malta and Gozo: very common (£. & CO.; 
-Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). Coyiino: (Borg). 

■Throughout Europe to 69° N in 'Russia; W. Asia; N, Africa, 
■ill, V. [terc'grma L. 

Klendcr-Ieaved Vetch 

^ A ; Sparsely pubescent annual up to 100 cm high. Leaflets 3-7 pairs; 8-10 x 0.5-2 
ff? ;(r3) mm, linear, mucronate and retuse with acute lobes, so that the apex 
J|s;appears to be 3-lobed; stipules entire. Flowers solitary or 2 together. Calyx-teeth 
feU.neqi.ial,. the lowest equalling tube; corolla 10-16 mm long, purple. Legume 30-40 
fcix 8-12 mm, brown, pubescent. Seeds 4-6; hilum 1/10 -. 1/12 of the circumference. 

%;R 2-4. ■ 

j§|;- Shaded -.valleys. Malta: rare, Addolorata valley, Eusbett (S. & C.G.;. Borg); Wied 
'g/Scita (Borg), 

fejlediterranean region; W. Asia. 

y?. -V. Iinca L. 

incl. v^r. hirta Balbis ex Pers, 

Yellow Vetch 

Subglabrous to villous annuat up to GO cm high. Leaflets 3-10 pairs, 10-25 
||fr;i-5 mm, linear to oblong; stipules entire or dentate. Flowers 1-3 together. 
K : Sa(yx-tecth unequal, the lower longer than tube; corolla (15-) 20-35 mm long, 




yellow, often purple- lingua. Legume H0-4O x 8-14 mm, yetlowish-browv: to black,' 
pubescent, the hairs tuberculate at base, rarely glabrous. Seeds 3-0: hilura \ ' 
i of the circumference. 'In = J4, Fl, 3-4. 

Malta: Addolorata Cemetery (C.G.; Borg); Gtuijn Tullieba, Mauikata {Penza}, 

S. Europe, extending northwards to e, 52 n N in W.. C. & E. Europe; W. Asia. 

ilfe-L L. cullnaris Medicus 

Vie-in lews (Lj.) Cossoii & Germ. 


H- V. bifhyiiicn fL.) L. 

(lilbiena ftoxna- 

Glabrous or pubescent annual 2000 cnt high. leaflets 2-3 pairs, 20-50 x 2-2(j . 
mm, oblong-lanceolate to ovate; stipules dentate. Flowers 1-3 together, calyt 
teetb unequal, longer than tube: corolla 1(3-20 mm long, standard purple, wings'- 
and keel white. Legume '25-40 x 7-10 mm, brown or yellow, pubescent .Seeds 4-7; 
hilum 1/tt .. ]/7 of the circumference. 2« = 14. F.I. 3-4. 

Cultivated places, Malta: very rare; Otiajn il-Kbird ' f'S. & 'C.G.i; 
Anton gardens, A Hard (Borg). 

S. & W. Lurope; Asia Minor; Algeria. . . 

if. V. luirboueiisis L. Cilbiets.ii tiyo.vna ' ■ ■ 

inct var. serratijoUa (Jacq.) Fiori Narbonac Vetch ... 

Pubescent, erect annual 20-00 era high. Lower leaves without Undrils, leaf- 
lets 1-3 pairs, 20-50 x 10-'J0 ram, ovate or elliptical, obtuse or emarginale, entire 
or serrate; stipules c. JO mm long 1 , entire or dentate. Flowers 1-6 together. Calyx- 
teeth unequal, the lower longer than tube; corolla 10-30 mm long, tiers, purple. 
Legume 30-7(1 x 10-15 ram, -black or brown, glabrous with .tube reiii.fcS:e--d rotate,, 
pubescent margin- .Seeds 4-S = LR mm; Mima -J of the circumference. F!. 3-J. 

Malta: widely cultivated, rare as a native at Luqa [Armitage; s. & C.G.; Srirg);' 
Tarxjen, Girgenti, Marsa (Borg). 

C. & S, Europe; N. Africa; W, Asia. 

.......... Annual, .stems up to 40 (-30) cm high, patent-puheseenl. Leaves j^rr;et 

te-witliout tendril; leaflets 3-8 pairs, up to 20 x S mm, oblong or elliptical ;; : :ir 
p* : : oblong-lanceolate, entire: racemes about equalling leaves; calyx-feeib ni 
HjplS times as long as tube; corolla 4-7 mm long, pale blue or lilac. Legyissf- 
;.'x fi-12 mm. Fl. 3-5. 

KsiiWf« ailcl Gom; cultivated as a crop or along with wheat ('Bora.'. 

K; : Grig'm not known; widely cultivated in temperate and subtropical reeji'i'V:.. 

13. Lnthyrus L. 

^: -Annual or perennial herbs, often climbing by means of tendrils. Lc:>. : .-Ji ■.:< 

.,„ ., „ ^Sa||fepat'ipinnate and terminated by a tendril, rarely reduced to a tendril or ,:; g 

i^^-riT-i, a ' in ---.J^^gr-.jj']j e phyllode; leaflets usually distinctly parallel-veined; stipules uvr>:-:Uy 

'■23^R? i '--fcaeeous! Flowers in axillary racemes or ..solitary, axillary. Calyx £cu:;.x;m.: 

■ ■$& 0t ' 'W ■ hi J a bia te ; keel usually obtuse; stamens di a d el P hou s ; style pu b e s C en i. ::r 

'""''' gpf upper aide, rarely glabrous. Legume usually oblong, compressed, tl'.;'n'r^-.e ; .'; :■ ■ 
jj to 
i'i Hi 

; L :1JV 
>"aSS ■ 


if ;2- or more. 

15. V. firtia I.. 

Broad Bean- 

differs from V. narboneristi as .follows: plant more robust; leaves without'' 
tendril; leaflets 40-80 (-1(10) x 10-20 (-40) mm; corolla usually white with blaclc ■ 
wings; legume 80 200 x 10-20 mm, densely pubescent but becoming sparsely 
pubescent when mature; seeds 20-30 mm in doameter, ovoid-oblong compressed. 
Fl. 2-5. " 

Malta, Goto and Coviino: extensively eultivated for the edible seeds ;;na immature. 
legume and as ■ fodder (Borg; Wolseleyi : often naturalised near Tse-vj steads 

Cultivated in the Mediterranean region since prehisvorh: limes. 

12, Lens Miller 

Like '1'i.ein but calyx-teeth, e.quvj and at least twice as long as the tube; style, 
pubescent, on the upper side; legume strongly compressed: seeds flat, erbioulai'. 


: L Leaves without leaflets 

■ »;sBf'-- : " At ' lfcast tile u PPer le; ' V( - JS wi-fh i or more pairs of 

■3§| ^ ; --'. leaflets 

aSf,, : '.r-'-''-2. Stem winged, at least in the upper part 

'fS;.-. Stem not winged 

L§| ; ;-:1 Lower leaves without leaflets, the raeliis broadly 
"''"■ winged and resembling a leaf 

■;■ All leaves with 1 or more pairs of leaflets 

Wf:4. Upper leaves with 1-2 pairs of leaflets; corolla yellow; ' 

""""' dorsal suture of legume with 2 wings 

: Upper leaves with 2-4 pairs of leaflets; corolla purple 

gjSjs: ■.-■•■. lilac, white or pink wings: legume with no wings 

'■5. Wings violet or lilac; standard emarginaie: dorsal 
■ suture of legume channelled 

Wings while or pink; standard mueronate; dorsal 
suture of legume channelled 

Bi-:.'--'-B. Itacemes 1-3 flowered 

Flowers solitary 

■7. Corolla yellow, often tinge;! with red 

■ Corolla variously coloured, but never yellow 

g.. Corolla white, pink or blue 
Corolla red 

■Jl. Calyx-teeth as long or slighlly longer than the tube; 
legume with no keels on dorsal suture 
Calyx-teeth 2-3 times as long as the tube; legome 
with 2 keels on dorsal suture 

Jf. Hphaea 

10. oHuui* 

8. elynten.i*--:.- 
i). art'icu&his 

g or;.; on j 

:*, setii'olius 
-f, eieera 


3 0. Calyx pale purple; peduncles 2-5 mm long; seeds 
smooth with hilum less than 1/20 of the circum- 

Calyx red when fresh; peduncle 5-70 mm; seeds with 
hilum more than J/20 of the circumference 

11. Legume 3-7 mm wide, glabrous; seeds 8-15, smooth or 
slightly rugose; peduncles usually aristate 
Legi.smc 7-1 J mm wide, pubescent when immature; 
seeds 2-3, coarsely retjculate-rugose; . peduncles not 

ari suite 


;rjhiicricus Ret/. 

Plate- XIX 

2. inconspicous 

1. sphaericus 

sc lifolius 


Round Pea 

Glabrous cr pubescent annual; stem 10-50 cm high, not winged. Leaflets 
X yair. 20-SO (-100) x 1-7 mm, ■ linear to linear-lanceolate; stipules 6-15 x 0.5-1 
mm, linear,. senii-siigittat«. Flowers solitary; peduncles 5-20 mm long, aristate,; 
articulated neur the middle or. apex. Calyx teeth equal, as long as or slightly 
longer Uvan the tube; corolla 6-13 (.-10)' mm long, orange- red. Legume 30-70 x 
4-7 mm, brow;], glabrous, with 1 prominent longitudinal veins. Seeds .8-15, smooth-;. 
or slightly rugose; hilum i - 1/11 of the circumference, 'in = 14. PI, .3-5. . 

Among' un disturbed vegetation on rocky ground. Malta: uncommon (G. Lan- ■: 

.-franco)-, as at Mgiret Marsa, Cncjna (S. & C.G.; Borg); Bnskett (S. & C.G,; Borg;-.- 

Wolseloyi ; Addoiorata Cemetery, Verdala Park (Borg); Dirigli, San Pawl tat- : 

Targa (WoK-aiey), .'..._ 

C. and S. Europe;-- W.' Asia; N. & W. Africa; naturalised elsewhere. .' ', 

L. inconspicuKS L. 
Itscl. vac. urettus Las. 

Solitary-flowered Pea : 

' Glabrous annual; stem "J 0-30 cm high; '-not winged. Leaves-:. without or. with;;; 
a usually simple tendril; . leaflets 1 pair, 25-40 x' 1-4 mm,, linear-lanceolate; stipules;- 
7-10 x 0.5-2 mm. linear or lanceolate, semi -sagittate. Flowers solitary; peduncles.; 
2-5 Jiini long, ."irtictilatod near the base. or middle. Calyx teeth equal, as long" 
as tube; corolla 4-9 mm long, pale purple. Legume 30-60 x 2-5 mm, pale brown,' 
densely pubescent when young, glabreseent. Seeds 5-14, smooth; hilum '1/25 ■§ 
1/20 of the circumference. Fl. 2-4; '..-.i 

Malta: very r;:re; Verdala Park, Addolorata Cemetery (Borg). 

Mediterranean it-gion; W. Asia. 

L. seiifolriis L, 

Red Pea-- 

Glabrous annual; stem 10-fiO cm hiRli, narrowly winded. Leaflets 20-1)0 
0.6-3 (-ii mm, linear; stipules 2-15 x 0.2.-2 mm, linear, semi-safrittate. F'nwei.^1 
solitary; peduncles 10-40 mm long, articulated near the apex. Calyx-teeth slight]; 
unequal, its long as or slightly longer than the tube; corolla S-ll (-18) mjgj! 
long, orange-red. Legume 15-30 x 7-11 mm, pale brown, giabrescent, but persi£_ 
teutly pubescent on suture. Seeds 2-3, finely papillose; hilum 1/9 - J of tlifJl 
circumlererice. Fl. 4. 

Malta: very rare in quarries at Luqa (Armltage, S. & C.G.; Borg). 

S. Europe; Kritn; Algeria. 


*• L. cicera L. 

^ilbieiia tas-scrp 

^i^/^^'^^^; .SSK- ^- »T^" i .o 

middle o ape/aT- J^S** 7 '' Peduneles *K» ™ *£ *** ^lanceolate, 
(-20) mm long redd l^, eqi i ai ' 2 ' 3 tim ^ ™ S as f^l fl ™ !a , e <V iear th « 
2 keels on ri™, i purpIe - Le Sume 20-40 x \ in 1 i ' coi ' o!ii * (5-) 1q_u 

u i^r^ff . j,HtBre - Seeds ^ ™S£' hiS a s°^ g*™-. with 

Mediterranean region; W. Asia; 
5 - L. sativi* L. 

W. W. Africa. 

White Pea 

■ ■■■ Differs from ; ™™ ' , White Pea 

V 30-60 mm £™ ^ c ™ £s foilows: leasts 25-150 * * 7 M, ' mm . n , , 
: wide with 2 win^ 1 1 ,i 2 ? T 1 lm & white, pink or hi \J- L ™ m ' P^unclcs 

: Go^o; Cultivated -fs ■, f „ 

;/Wied Bingemma ( 3o ^ 0rBge crop aild o"P" Wd naturalised aa at Tit , Marrax . 

^^ted.for fodder iu.C,, S .' . and R aurope; widely ^u,,, " V n . "' 

™,.Liejj. ndtuiuused. Origin not 

;; -'ii L, ajiuuHs L. 

;^ : : ' Giabrous annual; st em 40 t^i ™ ^- ^ Annual p ea 

!**- », ,„„, Ctoj „ ,, KWr> - * • »-. — n. ,, 

I?" 1 ™"" ^-K: W. A SI a; N. „„.,, ,,"' 

g-:-;,:--.- ' ■ -^ ,llc -a, uiac a rones ia: 

;:?■ L, gorgoai Pari 

L. cfeero var. 9 orp ^ p arl 

Rare Pea 
^ ... -^abrous annual; stem 2f) fin ,™ h - > 

ll^ J) ■ 3 " 3 t'mes as Iohk a<!- +h« *,,i S ' artl culated near auev r»i w 11.1' 

M%iiine ^5-^o v « in s ; tne tube: corolla 1R-K mm i " |Jex ' *-ai.yx teeth 

|^e g na, Sieilia, Turkey- in -Europe, s.W. Asia. 






' ' ''*5f t 




L. elyruemtm L. 

,'j. tirtic.ulatu.s var. c.Jyme.'timn fu! 


Crimson Pea 

Glabrous annual; stem 30-100 cm higli, winged. Leaves with broad leaf-like 
petiole and ■ rhachis, the lower linear-lanceolate, without' leaflets, the upper 
with 2-4 (-5) pairs of leaflets, leaflets 20-00 (-80) x (3-) 0-11 (30) mm, linear 
to elliptical or lanceolate; stipules 9-18 x 2-6 mm, linear to ovate, semi : hastate, 
Racemes I- to 5-fio-wered. Calyx teeth, equal, shorter than tube; corolla 15-20 
mm long, crimson with violet or lilac wings, very rarely pale yellow; style 
aristate. Legume SO-70 x 5-12 mm, brown, glabrous, channelled on the dorsal 
sij+urs, not torulose. Seeds 5-7, smooth; hilum 1/7 ■ I ot the circumference. 

Malta: Buskett. Wied Inrita, Wardija, Pivales, etc. (Borg). Goto and Comma:. 

Mediterranean region. 

S. L. ariieulaius L, 

Gil hie na tas-Serp 
Southern Pea. 

Like L. cl' but leaflets 0.5-5 (-11) mm wide;, corolla with white 1 
or pink wings; style obtuse; legume 5-8 mm wide, not channelled on the dorsal 
suture, not torulose. Fl. 3-5. 

Among growing crops and in rocky places. Malta, Gozo and Conuno: frequent 
(S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley), 

Mediterranean region. 

10. L. ochnis (L.) IDC. 

Pale Pea 

Like L. clymenitm but the lower leaves ovate-oblong; upper leaves with 1-2' 
pairs of leaflets; leaflets 15-35 x 6-20 mm, ovate; stipules 6-12 mm long; racemes 
1- to 2-rlowered; cslyxtaet.h slightly unequal, he long as tube; corolla pale yellow; 
legume 40-GO-x 10-12 mm, with 2 wings on the dorsal suture. 2n = 1.4. Fl. 3-S: : 

Cultivated for its foliage and seeds: native in valleys and other rocky places. 
Malta, Gozo and Comino; Frequent (S. & C.G.; Borg. G. Lanfranco; Wolseley),' 

Mediterranean region. 

1.1- L, aphiicn L. 


Yellow Vetchling 

]'f. p:suri l. 

Like Latkyrus but stems' terete; calyx-teeth large and more or less leaf like; 
'.wings a fin ate to keel; style dilated at apex, longitudinally grooved with recurved 

1. P. sativum L. 

Plate XIX 


Glabrous annual up to 200 cm high. Leaflets 1-3 pairs, 2-7 x 1-4 man. subor'm- 
.'■ciilar to elliptical, or oblong; stipules tip to 10 x s cm, ovate to elliptical, semi- 
cordate at base, Raeemes 1- to 3~ flowered. Flowers 15-35 mm long, white to 
■pitiple.. Legume 30-120 x 10-25 ram, yellow or brownish, reticulate-veined. Seeds 
up to 10. Fl. 3-5. 

Two suhi-pe.cies occur; subsp. sativum (inc.I. P. arvevse L.) has the racemes 

shorter than or only slightly exceeding the leaves; flowers while or purple; 

seeds globose or somewhat angular, smooth or rugose, Malta: Ta' Baidu. Rabat, 
';&ahri]a (Borg); (Borg; Wolseley) and elsewhere. Gozo:, Ghajnsle- 
;]em (Borg); Pergla and elsewhere (Wolseley). Subs p. elat.isis (Bie.b.) Asc.herson h 

Graebtter: has the racemes exceeding the leaves; corolla lilac: or purple, 

seeds globose, granular. 

:'Mq.lta: B'aykatt, Dfngli, Siggiewi, Attard, Hemsija and elsewhere CEorg). 

£l;VS. Europe; cultivated elsewhere since prehistoric times for the edible seed 
;and for fodder, and often occurring as an escape from cultivation. 

IS. Ononis L. 

jvAiinunl cr perennial herbs, or dwarf shrubs, usually glandular- hairy. Leaves %■ 
■ foliate, sometimes simple or im pari pinnate, leaflets usually toothed; stipules 
i-ajtlhate to petiole. Flowers in panicles, spikes or racemes. Calyx campanulatc or 
/•;; tjlbular; corolla yellow, pink or purple, sometimes nearly while: keel more or 

■*lfflK»'Viess beaked; stamens monadelphous. Legume oblong or ovate, dehiscent. Seeds 

vl K'i ; many. 

Glabrous annual; stem up to 100 cm hiiih, angled. Seedling leaves with 1 pair 
of small leaflets', mature leaves without leaflets but with a tendril; stipules 
0-50 x 5-40 ram, ovate, hastate- Flowers usually solitary; peduncles 2050 mm 
long. Calyx-teeth equal, 2-3 times as long as the tube; corolla Ti-18 mm long, 
yellow. Legume 20-35 x 3.3 mm, brown, glabrous. Seeds t>-8; hiltim 1/10 of the 
circumference, 2n = 14. Fl. 3-5, 

In cultivated and native vegetation. Malta and Goso: common except in built 
up areas <S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Europe but only as an alien in the north; N. Africa; W. Asia. 


'■% Perennial; stems woody at least at base 
Annual; stems herbaceous 

:1 Legume torulose 
Legume not torulose 

1. natrix 

2. omithopodioides 




^; 3. Corolla 12-16 mm long, twice as long as calyx 

1% Corolla 5-14 mm long, equal to calyx or slightly longer 

[|S : : -4. Legumes e. 20 mm long; leaves 3-foliate 3. biflora 

i Legumes e. 8 mm long; leaves 1-foliate 7. vuricsata 

'5, Calyx eampanulate 

;■ Calyx tubular 

'%■ Calyx without prominent white veins; flowers with 

pedicels up to 5 cm long (i o!!fr>i>liy]Ia 

Calyx with prominent white veins; flowers subsessile s. mUissrm^ 

'7. Corolra yellow, standard with pink or red veins 5. viscosa 

Corolla pink or white, with or without purplish standard 


ft [4 cm long Une^ or oblong; pedicels 
Legume 5-o mm 'ons, 

4_ recIiauU 
8. nuirissimu 

Legume M mm «mg, U v.«, ^^ 

,ect. Natris Griseb. ^j^^nS" deflated. Legume oblong, 
fruiting pedicels usually moie or 

kala, Ramla ta' Marokk (GuUa; Borg). Gozc: between Xewkija and Mgarr ix-Xini 
i'S. & C.G,; Borg). 

Mediterranean region. 

4. 0. recHnata L. 

Small Resthairow 

1. 0. nat rix L. 

Plate XX 


Bush Restharrow 

in-Rft r-m hieh, densely .glandular- 1 

lon „ ve iiaw, frequently witn "so t miriutel y *1. «■ . 

E£<*2 mm in diameter, smootn m minuter* ^ ^ (qs2 ^^ 

Two sulkies °- r; ^^aS ^^t ^Jl^ 2^ 

as tire tube. f d Mellieha (S. & C '%|| 

Harvas (S. & <.-•<*., cl " Si 

Mediterranean region and W.. Europe. 
O. ornkfhopodittides L - 

Procumbent annual 2-15 cm high; stem villous and glandular-hairy. Leaves 3- 

foliate; leaflets 5-8 mm long, oblanceolate to ob ovate-orbicular. Primary branches 

.- of -.inflorescence up to 10 mm long, mitticous, l-flowered. Corolla 5-10 mm long, 

pink or purple, about equalling the calyx. Legume 8-14 mm long. Seeds up to 20, 

.0:5-1 mm in diameter, acutely tuberculate. PL 4-5. 

Rocky uncultivated waste land and fields. Malta, Gozo and Comino: frequent (Borg; 
■Lanfraneo; Kramer & Westra; Vvolseley), Cominotto: (Borg). 

•Mediterranean region, northwards to S. England. 

5, 0, vUcosa L. 

Sticky Restharrow 

Bird EostharroM 

O. omithopodioidcs L. ■ _ 3 .foliate; leaflet 

to is mra 1°«£>' obovate. to uu « 2 :fiowered, anstate, as ions hu ^ 

(K^mer&^estraKG^o. La £ 
BorgJ. Cmmm: not rare ^- 
Mediterranean region. 

3 . o. Mflorti Deaf. Leaves 3-foliat| 

Fields and grass* i Places, ffl « convent of St. u»e . : s 

Wied il-Kalkara iGD, S. & L.u j 


Two-flowered Restore j 

Erect annual 10-80 cm high; stems densely and softly hairy and glandular. 

'■JSaves 1- to 3-foiioIate; primary branches of the inflorescence shorter than leaves, 

^ng, variable, unequally eliipticat to obovate, obtuse. Primary branches of the 
_ : ^florescence 10-20 mm long, aristate, i-ilowcred. Corolla up to 12 mm long, yellow, 
l^'lhe standard frequently with red veins. Legume up to 20 mm long, not or only 

■'■slit sh tl y i nf 1 at ed , S eeds many, 1-1.5 m m i n d ia mete r , ye Ho w-b rown , acutely tuber- 

•'■eufate. 2tt = 32. FI. 3-6. 

>!rwo subspecies occur. Subsp. siefoeri '(Ressor ex DC). Sirj. is frequent and has the 

loaves 1- to 3-foliate; primary branches of the inflorescence shorter than leaves, 

Ipoften nearly muticous; flowers aggregated at apices of branches; corolla exceed- '.. 

||yi'n'g- calyx, standard often pink; legume rather longer than calyx, Ssp. viscosa is 

gjjtecorded from Go so above Wied Kanzira (I. Evans; Gauci) and has the leaves 1-3- 

Jitoiiolate; primary branches of inflorescence longer than leaves, arista 6-15 mm long; 

:-. core lis exceeding the calyx, yellow; legume exceeding calyx; seeds 'numerous. 

sfallow fields and uncultivated ground. Malta, Goto and Comino; very frequent 
pis'. & C.G,; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

ll'jMedileiTariean region. 

pijet. Ononis (Sect. Bugrana Griseb.). Flowers in racemes or very condensed 
panicles with the primary branches not more than 1.5 mm long; legume usually 
Select or patent, ovate or rhombic; seeds few. 

Kf : O. oligochylia Ten. Few-leaved Restharrow 

0. alba, oligophyUa (Ten.) Fiori 

B u--. Annual; stems 15-45 cm high; stems ascending or procumbent, branching from 
H$»'.base, villous and with scattered glandular hairs. Leaves Lfoliate, leaflets 10-45 
Jim .'Ion.?, usually lanceolate or oblong. Flowers borne singly at each node, in lax 
|&rrainai racemes; pedicels c. 5 mm long, up to 15 mm long after anthesis. Corolla 
tp&J3 imrt long, pink or whitish, exceeding the calyx. Legume 5 mm long, Seeds 
^jc*;'"*, c, 1.5 mm in diameter, minutely tuberculate. Fl, 5-6. 

i&flio:' rather rare,, towards, t.igatitija. between Rabat and Nadur, on the road 
Petween Raba* and Marsalfora' (5. & C.G ; Borg). 

Ipiiy, Sicilia. 





' S PM 


. ".■■■1'WsS-. 





V. 0.' variegate L, 

Villous Rea thai-row- 

s' I ■■ 

Mediterranean Res thai-row' 

Irocumbent or ascending annual 30-30 cm high; stems glandular-toraen^se ami 
villous. Leaves 1-foliate; leaflets 5-10 mm long, obovate. Flowers borne singly at 
each node m a lax terminal, often branched raceme; pedicels up to 4 mm lone 
corolla 12-14 mm long, yellow, muelt exceeding the calvx. Legume c Z mm lone"' 
heeds 10-14, c. 1,5 mm in diameter, reddish-brown, smooth, Fl, 4-5. 

Sandy maritime areas. Malta: rare, Marsastetla (Medlycott fide Gulia- Bom) Go'v : 
Ramla (S. & C.G.; Borg; Kramer & Westra). 

Mediterranean region. ;- 

8 O. milisshua L. 

Erect or procumbent annual; stems 15-(30 on high, somewhat tomentose or' 
nearly glabrous. Leaves 3-foliate; leaflets 10-20 mm long, obovate or elliptical' 
sometimes caducous; lower bracts 3-foliate, upper without leaflets, concave and- 
membranous. Flowers shortly pedicellate, borne singly at each node, in a dense'-' 
terminal raceme. Calyx-tube glabrous, with very prominent white vein,--,, margin^- 
of teeth gi-andular-ciliate. Corolla 10-12 mm long, pink, exceeding the enly- Legume' 
5-6 mm long, ovate. Seeds 2-3, 1.5-2 mm in diameter, dark brown, sp'lnulose. FT 

Sandy and clayey soils. Malta: rather rare (G. Lairfranco) , as at Gncjna SI Paul's' 1 : 
Bay, Mellieha, Mistra, Buskett (5. & C.G.; Borg); Wied il-Kalkara (GD; Borgi- BW 
zebbuga (Gulia; Borg); Mgieban (Gauci). G020: Marsalforn, Xlcndi (S & C G V/ 
Comino: Qala Sta Maria {S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley). ' ' ":' : 

Mediterranean region; Macaronesia, 

JG. MelilotiiE Miller 

Animal, biennial or short lived perennial herbs. Leaves 3-foliate; leaflets usually" 
toothed. Flowers in axillary racemes. Calyx-teeth subequal; corolla white or yellow, 
rarely tinged with blue or violet, deciduous, free from the stamina) tube- stamens 
diadejjihous, the filaments not dilated. Legume globose to obovoid, rarely lanceolate'- 
rhomboid, straight, indehiscent or very tardily dehiscent. Seeds 1-2. rarelv. more;' 

L Stipules of the middle leaf entire or minutely denticulate 
Stipules of the middle leaf toothed 

2. Corel 'a 2-3 mm long; legume 1.5-3 ram in diameter 
Corolla 4-5 mm long; legume 3.5-4 mm in diameter 

3. Legume reticulate- veined 
Legume concentric-striate 

4. Racemes much shorter than subtending leaf; legume 

Racemes in fruit at least as long as subtending leaf; 
legume rounded at apex 

5. Standard as long as or longer than keel; legume 
Standard shorter than keel; legumr, yellowish- brown 

6. Corolla 3-4 mm long; legume broadly sessile; 
leaflets oblong-cuneate 


2. indlca 

3. elegans 

1, italfca 

T. messanensis 

4, infesta 

.i. sulcata 



Corolla 4-8 mm long; legume stipulate. leaflets obovatc- 

1. M. italica (L.) Lam. 

G. seg?- talis 

Italian Toilet 

\, Erect, branched annual 2C-G0 cm hig'n. Lower leaflets orbicular -ovate, She u]>).tsr 
^narrower, all obtuse or truncate, serrate above middle. Stipules incise -deviate. 
■iiacemes 1.5-3 cm long, lax, many-flowered, elongating in fruit. Corolla S3 mm 
flong, yellow; standard longer than wings and keel. Legume 5-6 mm in d.iamcler, 
?globose, obtuse with an apieulus, strongly -reticulate- veined, yellowish or grcyish- 
Jbrcwn when ripe. Pi. 2-4. 

.Fields among crops. Malta: (GD; Gulia; Borg), 

^Mediterranean region. 

M. ludiea (L.) AH. 


Small IVleliiot 

gi»i--> : .- Erect or ascending annual 15-50 em high! Leaflets lanceolate-oblong, serrate. 
"Stipules sub-entir„e. Racemes dense, (I0-) many-flowered. Corolla 2-3 mm "long, pale 
fe|ellow; wings and keel equal, shorter than standard. Legume 1.5-3 mm in diameter, 
|||sub globose, strongly reticulate-veined, glabrous, whitish- grey when yomir;. Ft. 3-5. 

■'Cultivated places and field margins. Malta: frequent (G. Lajilranco). as si. Mtabieb, . 
pfTTa' Baldu, Marsa (S. & C.G.; Borg); Cospicua (Penza); Mrienel (Borg')- Comino: 
10$. & C:G.; Borg). 

jpEfilcditerraiiean region; W. Asia; introduced, elsewhere- 

||§^3.- M. etegsms Sal7jn. ex Ser. Elegant Mdilot 

Wi?- Erect annual 2Q-150 cm high; stem pubescent above. Lower leaflets obovate 
feorMeular, ^ c u PP er oblong, all obtuse or truncate, serrate. Lower stipules triangu- 
WJa? -lanceolate, the upper linear-setaceous, entire. Racemes 1.5-2 em long, las, 15- to 
|||§}3" flowered. Corolla 4-5 mm long, yellow; standard, and wings equal, shorter than 
" "IVeel; ovary glabrous. Legume 3.5-4 mm in diameter, obovoid, compressed, with 
^transverse or sigmoid veins, brownish yellow when ripe. Fl. 3-5. 

W0akta: rare (G. Lanfranco), as at Girgenti, Gfiajn il-Kbira. Siggiewj, Hemsrja (Borgl. 

pjW. & C. Mediterranean region. 

% M. infeste Guss. 


Round- fruited Melilot 

y.~- Erect or ascending, branched annual 30-50 cm high. Lower leaflets tnangular 
-■or cuneate-obovate, the upper oblong-euneate. Stipules semi -ovate or sagittate, 
-dentate. Racemes 2-3 cm long, lax, 15- to 50- flowered, elongating in fruit, Corolla 
;;!6':-7.5 mm long, yellow, standard and keel sub equal, shorter than wings; ovary 
glabrous. Legume 4r5 mm in diameter, subglobose or obovoid; contenlric-striate. 
l&litckish- brown when ripe. FI. 2-4. 

$8aMn: frequent (Borg; Wolseley) as at Girgenti, Ta' Baldu. St. Paul's Bay, Mellieh;; 
'fMtahleb, San Martin, Wardija, Bahrija, Hemsrja. Gazo: Nadur, Ramla, XJendi 

fiW. Mediterranean region. 


5. M. sulcata 'Lies!. Trew 

Mediterranean Melilot 

Erect, branuhed or simple annual 10-40 cm liigh. Leaflets oblong, cuneate, 
obtuse serrate Stipules dentate. Racemes 1-1.5. cm long, 8- to 25-flowered, elon- 
gating in fruit and thou as long as ob longer than the leaves. Corolla 3-44 mm 
long, yellow. Legume 3-4 mm in diameter, globose, concentric- striate, pale yellow 
or yellowish-mown when ripe. Fl. 1-5. 

Fields and dry grassy places. Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common (S. & C.G.; 
Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley), 

Mediterranean region, 
6. M. segetalis (Brat.) Ser. 


Corn Melitot 

Etest' annual 40--G0 cm high. Leaflets obovate-cuneate, obtuse, serrate. Low-. 
est stipules entire, the upper dentate. Racemes c. 3 em long, dense, 30-50-ftower- 
ed, c. 3 times as long as their subtending leaf. Corolla 4-8 mm long, yellow.; 
Legume 15 5.5 mm in diameter, oblong-globose, concentric-striate, yellow when; 

ripe. Fl. 2-5. 

Fields, valrieys and waste places. Malta, Gozo, Comino and Filfia: very common 
& C.G.; Earg), Comlnetto: (DufhSe; Borg; G. Lanfranco}. 


Mediterranean region . 

1VI. ii]esr;:mens>3 (L.)- AV 

Plate XX Trew 

Southern Melilot '■ 

Erect or ascending, br;u;ehed annual 20-40 urn high. Leaflets ob ovate -orbicular 
or laneeoiate-CLir-eate, se~-';.:e- Lower stipules triangular -lanceolate, denticulate,-., 
the upper lanceolate, ent're hut denticulate at base. Racemes 0.7-i cm long, 3- 
to 10-fiovvfyed, shorier than their subtending leaves. Corolla 4-5 mm long, yellow;, 
standard and keel subequn!, longer than wings. Legume 5-8 mm in diameter.,; 
oblique -ovo id, acute, coneeiuric-striate, ye Ho wish- brown when ripe. Fl. 2-5. ...- 

Fields, valleys and uncultivated ground. Malta- and Gozo: common and often; 
abundant where it occurs (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). Comino; (S; ; ; 
& C.G.; Borg). : H 

Mediterranean region. 

17. Trigonella L. j 

Annual. Leaves pinnately 3-foliate; leaflets usually toothed. Flwwers solitary ofe 
in sessile or pedunculate axillary heads or short racemes. Calyx teeth equal dfc 
unequal; corolla yellow, blue or purplish, free from the staminal tube, deciduousg 
stamens diadelphous or monadelphous; filaments not dilated. Legume usuallM 
linear or oblong, straight or curved, indehiscent or dehiscing along one suturay 
Seeds l-raany. 

1 . Corolla blue 
Corolla yellow 

2. Racemes sessile 
Racemes pedunculate 

i, foenum-graecuni;! 

■ -■■■^1 

3. monspeliacca 



2-2.5 mm lotig, teeth equal 
3-4 mm Jong, teeth unequal 

■saritima Deliie ex Poiret 

1. marjtima 

2. coraiculat* 

Sea Trigonella 

'-*^^^1^^^^^^.^^ MO". M-mm, ovate 
^umbellate, < 3 -> 5 to S^?' S?Z «ely l„iry beneath. Kac ernes 
ong T calyx 2-2.5 mm long me teeth h.K t 1 Cm long; P e ^<*ls M.5 m m 
long, yeilow. Legume iO-Io'^cTa i»^ * 1 , *■** tube; pedk;els "-5 mm 
^flexed, subglabroulbr ^arsely hairy C L-^ awh ? rt » t « X 
■jn cfeameter, ovoid, brown, sm0 oth M.' 2 4 ^ VemS ' SeeClS c " 1 m 

\JW-Pjaces near the sea. MaU a: Bteb " ^ (GD., S. & CG, Borg); SIieffia 

:C. Mediterranean r eg i n; N. Africa; S.W. Asia. 

T. eoi-niculata (L.) L. 

Horned Trigonella 

-■ o t(im „ „,., - , . "orneu Trigonella 

\iW x ^^T&i^Ste™^^^- » -^brous. Leaflets 
J^cemes ovate-oblong, 8- to 15 fW.w- °™ ', obluse ' soi netime s emarginate 
,3.;om long.. calyx 34 mm h Is ne L , C -\" P lQ G «"-*me; Pedicels c' 
W* tube; corolla G-7 mm on " S ' ° te ^ ]„ mt ?™*> as; long, as or shorter than 
;L5-) 23 mm, V^"^^^^^ than j iee1 ' ^gume 10-16 x 
glabrous with thin transve-se v^ns Seed t^ ^^ ; somewhat c ^ved, 
■2* = 1(3. Fl. -35. ^eecs 1-1,5 mm long, oblong, tuberculaie! 

||^- very rare, Wie d Babu ,UD; Borg); Marsaskala (Gulia; Borg). 

s/ ;.#lediten'anean region. 

$.• X. monspeiiaca L. 

Plate XX 

Hairy Trigonella 

Stems n t q- ' ^-"suiieua 

m^^'^^l^.^^^^^^X Leaflets 4-iO * 3-7 
^flowered, suhsesslle; pedicels im n 1 ^ 1 Rl ' ce , ffles subumbellate, 4- to 14- 
|»htly longer than X ffl- corolla C T m^ii 3 ^ ,^' 3 mm l6 ^' th « "eeth 
mm, pendulous, linear, slightly curtrl'n,,^^ yelloW " ^SUme 7-17 x 1-15 
|P.que .^ns. seeds c'l.^ br™ flne^ Se^la!? ' iFf?* WUh th ^ 

feott, Bugibba (Borg). G^- tobat in th/SI ?, W e fet ; Tar ^ ^rah Ghonoq, Bus- 
gorg; wolseley). Mno: (dSC? ^ <S ' & C ' G - E ^>^ Nadur, Xagl^ 

fe& S. Europe; N. Africa; W. Asia. 
|-; foen«n, &taecpin {|JloM Halacsy 

I" i st m Cultivated Trigonella 

langularo^UoVa^^nSt^^, 11 ^ Uafiets 8 ^° » ^ mm, ovate- 
fduncle, 1-2 (-5) cm long ^rarely "Cie^ T^ r* 8 ''^^ 10 * ^ »**>W: 
*m long, villous, the teeth afl/n^f^' ??. dlceIs q ' °' 5 mm lon S- Calyx 5-8 
m Legume (excluding 6 beak) ^U x T s ^ C ° roli ? n -' 13 <" 16 > °™ 'oi 
impressed, more or less straight vilL s ^S met ° ( r Patent, lanceolate 
m«n, Seeds e. 2. 5 mm ta "dl^^^^^^^ beak 

:< ; 137 






fill E ■: 



-' -: : ;--t-S» 


Sometimes cultivated or self-sown in fields and gardens. Malta; Girgenti, Siggiew 

Probably native of S.W. Asia; cultivated and'natu.ralised in Mediterranean region; 
K. Europe; .N. Africa. 

]8. Mfidicaso L, 

Annua) or perennial herbs or .small shrubs. Leaves 3-fol.iate, stipulate. Floweri. 
in axillary pedunculate racemes. Calyx campanidate, with 5 nearly equal teeth;. 
corolla caducous, usually yellow; stamens ciiadelplious; filaments filiform. Legume- 
longer than the calyx, nearly always mdehiscent, usually spirally coiled, sometimes'; 

laicals, reniform or almost straight, often spiny. Seeds l-sevcral. 

1. Margin of legume with one longitudinal vein, with : , 

which the transverse veins join, sometimes run- ■; 
n tog into spines, without a strong sub marginal 

vein ciose to the marginal one 2. 

Legume with a strong submarginal vein, or with ; 

a wide veinless border g' 

2. Legume more or less falcate or reniform 
Legume spirally coiled 

3. Perennial a stout woody stock- 

4. Margin of legume with distinct (usually long) spines 
Margin of legume without spines, occasionally 

with small rounded projections 

5. Legume glabrous /except sometimes for Jhe 
spines) and eglandular 

Legume pubescent and glandular 

(i. LfiKnme strongly pelviform 

Legume flat or convex at both ends 

7. Transverse veins of legume not becoming thick- 
ened towards the thin margin 

Transverse veins of legume becoming thickened 
towards the thick marginal vein 

8. White-torn en tose perennial; legume with a distinct 
hole through thy ccuire 

Annuals or nearly glabrous perennials; legume 
without a hole through the centre 

3. Legume in a lax spiral, the young legume pro- 
jecting from the calyx as soon as the petals have 

Legume in a very close spiral, the young legume 
concealed within the calyx when the petals have 

10. Legume with a wide veinless border, \ - {■ 
as wide as the radius of the spiral 


I. SupuJina 

inter tcxtst 

6. seutellata 


!). marina 

18. tenoi'cana 

'Legume with prominent transversa veins and no 
wide veinless border 

■'■sRil-i Leaflets nearly always wW'i ;: 'i;irk s,:>cL; marfiir.a 1 , 
.iifJ&t.-o ■■. vejn of legume sulectc, margin therefore with 3 

consul cuous grooves 

Leaflets never with a dark spot: marginal vein 

of legume not sulfate 

JSltep;" Legume discoid to shortly cylindrical, usually gta- 
5l|§||;>:" brous or nearly so; transverse veins curved Tuut 
not sigmoid, anastomosing freely 
Legume subglobose, sparsely villous and often 
glandular; transverse veins sigmoid, not anasto- 

Ifi. am! 


Miit- Legume with a veinless border i - I as wide 

as the radius of the spiral 

Legume without a wide veinless border. 

14. Lurijiniil;! 
35. mures 


3 3. 

Hgiil ;?t~ 

$if||SU-- Legume usually in a left-handed spiral; margin 
with 1 keel; spines usually short obtuse 
Legume always in a right-handed spiral; margin 
with 3 keels; usually long, acute 

y§H5.'. Legume densely glandular -pubescent 
f& '■'■ Legume glabrous or with sparse hairs 

■■■»S fer- 

0M ^?Jf>: Legume discoid to cylindrical, transverse veins 
,v ^ scarcely anastomosing 
6.:..-.;j^f;- : Legume globose to ellipsoid; transverse veins anas- 
tomosing freely near the submarginal vein 

gli?. Marginal and submarginal veins of legume con- 
""" ". fluent at maturity and forming a single acute or 
; S1&&' convex keel 

IHfe Marginal and submarginal veins of legume separ- 
ated by a distinct groove at maturity and so form- 
: ing 3 keels 

If l&ifc Racemes usually with more than 3 flowers, legume 
■^ P- glabrous, usually without spines; spines if pre- 
; <3 If- sent usuallv short > c °ni cal ; straight or uncinate 
• s *■•'' 

M fefc- Racemes usually with 1-3 ilowers; legume nearly 
tgmts-:' always sparsely villous, always spiny; spines 
usually long, curved 

l| tSgubgen. Itfedioago, Legume without a submarginal vein parallel ; with and 
■fM §£' the marginal vein; margin of legume usually thin. 

l£. !i ft era 'is 


10, truncal ul« 


;[osc Lo 

ihfh Iff. IumiKna L. 

Fig. 25 

Kefsl iswprl 
Slack Medick 

m P 

;!.■&£ ft , 

: M W-' More or less' pubescent annual or short-lived perennial 5-liO cm high. _ Lea- 

>*$ Pflets orbicular, obovate to rhombic- or o b long- eune ate, rounded to emargmatc, 

-% p usually apiculate; stipules lanceolate to ovate, serrate or entire. .-! it) 


lo 50-ilovveredl. Corona 2-3 mm long. Legume 1.5-3 mm in diameter reniSorm 
blacfc when ripe; transverse veins strongly curved, slightly anastomosing and 
forming an elongated network. Seed 1, black. 2n = 16. Fl, 3-5. 

Koeky ground everywhere. Malta and Gozo: common (S. &.C.G.: Bora- G Lan- 
francu; Wolseley), 

Throughout Europe except the extreme north; N. Africa- W Asia- Atlantic 

Islands. ' 

2. M. ar&orea L. Fig. 25 Shrub Medick 

Sericeous sbrub 100-400 cm high. Leaflets obovate, euneate at base entire- 
or denticulate- at apex., stipules lanceolate, entire. Racemes very short' almost - 
capitate, 4- to Si-flowered. Corolla 12-15 mm long. Legume 12-15 mm in diameter, 
in a spiral with 1H turns, not spiny, retieulately veined, with a hole Uirouelr'f 
the centre. ■ .' 

Media: Cultivated for ornament as at Argotti Gardens (Wolseley); naturalised;. 
Addolorata ■ Cemetery. Buskett' (Borg). 

fiocky ground and fl , d 

memxta ( 8 & ca t * ita a " d G °*°: common »„ n . . 

."■ & I*-**., G, Lanfranco; Bore) " lumon ' wten associated v/ith w 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 
I ■'■.■«. M. scutulata (L.) Miner 

Fig. 25 

Meditevraneim . region; 

3. 'M.. orbicularis (L.) JBartal. 

More or less densely oi»„j , J Shield Medick 

Melheha (Guha; Borgh Cofflim . {Gl|Hl| 
s - Europe; W. Asia; N. Africa 

,;..'■ M. rugoisa Desr. 

P'g. 25 

Fig. 25 

Nefei . 

Mound- fruited Medick; 
Glabrous or sparsely hairy, procumbent annual. Stems 20-90 cm long* -11 
Leaflets obovatc-cuneate, dentate at the apex or in the uuper ■ j; stipules: "* 
laciniiue. Kaceraes 1- to 5-flowered. Corolia 2-5 mm long. Legume 10-17 <-2BJv 
mm in diameter in a spiral of 4-0 turns, not spiny, reticulately veined with 'M 
•a. hole through the centre. Fl. 3-9. 

Rocky ground and among crops. Malta, Gozo and Comhto: common (S. & C.G^'Pl 
Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

S. Europe; \V. Asia; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands, 

■; ih ^"^^ar-pubescent annual in <w u- Kugose JIediel < 

^ Woiseley). ^ **« -d Go; . fteqii „ nt (g & ^ ^ & ^_ 


4. M. iatertexta (L.) Miller 

Fig. 25 

■ Nefel -5 

Prickly Medick '^ 
Nearly obovate, cuneate, denticulate, sometimes with a dark spot; stipules"; 
ovate to ovate-lanceolate, incise- dentate. Racemes 1- to 7 (-10) - flowered^ 
Corolla (i-9 mm long. Legume 12-15 -mm in diameter, in a spiral of (3-) EJ-l(l;f 
turns, ovoid, cylindrical or rarely discoid convex at both ends, glabrous except'- 1 
often for the spines; transverse veins strong, anastomosing and forming it 
tangentially elongated network; spines usually 3-4 mm long, curved and iiji-Jig 
pressed to Segume. ~?~ 

Fields and valleys. Malta: infrequent (G. Lanfranco) as at Wardija, San Martin); 
Mtahleb, Gnejna, Ghajn Tuffieha, Wled Gemima, Ghajn Mula, Pwales, Mistrai! 
H3org); Wied il-Ghasn (Kramer & Westra). Gozo: Wied il-Lunzjata, Hamlil 
Nartur (Borg}. 

Mediterranean region. 

5. IY1. ciharis (L.) All, Fig. 25 Nefel 

Ciliate Medick/ 
Lifters from M. uitertexta as fellows; legume villous, with glandular hairfe 
spines usually shorter, less appressed, straight except for the more cr leisl 
curved apices. Fl. 3-5. 


Fig. 25 

Hairy Medick 

>; -U. obscura Ketz; M.. heUx Willd 

^STf'jF'-ss'aAi i» , l t* *-* 

:y:.¥lf . ' M Of! 1 + ^ in, x. , J 

f: Mediterranean region; AUantic Islands. 

|* M- niarltia L. 

Fig, 25 

1 . 141 m 




•■ »tf 



■'■-'■ -J-tdSf-i^J- ^ ■ 

'.if j . 


M. arbors 

M. lupulinn 

M. aculeata- 


'■ rfX 

W. rigiduLi 


M. scutcllaca 

M. tornata M, arabica 




M. minima 


M. orbicularis 

M. marina 




M. ciliarts '' ;" : 


jpt .'''diameter, in a spiral of 2-3 turns with a small hole through the middle, 
JpSjinttrical, densely white tomentose; sub marginal and marginal veins thick, with 
ifcows of short, conical spines. Fl. 3-5, 

ji.aiiciy sea shores. Malta: local (G. Lanfraneo). as at Ghadira (S. & C-G.;: Borg; 

|§pslan); Kramer & Westra); AFirax and the Marfa peninsula IS. Sz'C.G.; Borg; 

gT^olselsyl; Golden Bay (Haslam); Gnejna {S. & C.G.; Borg); St. George's Bay 

'0-QP, Berg); St, Thomas' Bay (Gnlia; Borg). C amino: Qala Santa Mari.ja (Duthie; 

porg) . 

M i '■ ■ 

^Shores of ibe Mediterranean, Black Sea and Atlantic to c, 48°N. 

Plate XX; fig. 25 

Medilerrnn can Mediek 

WMk. 11. truncafHla Gaertner 

Sparsely villous annual up to 50 cm high. Leaflets obovate or obeordatc. 
fpuncate, denticulate near the apex; stipules ovate-lanceolate to narrowly lanceo- 
®te, incise- dentate to laciniate in the lower half. Racemes 1- to 3 (-3) -flowered. 
^grolla 5-6 mm long. Legume 5-8 mm in diameter, in a spiral of 3-C> turns,, nyiin- 
'-fpeal, nearly always sparsely villous; spiny; transverse veins scarcely {inastomos- 
, joining a very thicic submarginai vein by the groove; spines up to mere 
.n half as long as the diameter of the legume, curved or uncinate, each 
IjKing partly from the margin and partly from the submarginai vein. Fl. 3-5. 

i^tisjds, valleys, rocky and waste ground. Malta, Goto »iid Camino: common, every- 
^liere (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley). 

pedi terra reari region north to W. France: Atlantic Islands. 
Hl M. rigWnla CL.) All. 


field Medick 

M. turbinate! 

M. litEoraJte^ 


Differs irom AT. truncatula- in having, corolla 6-7 mm legume Ji; a 
piral of 4-7 turns, discoid to. cylindrical, nearly always densely glandular-pubcs- 
'" tit rarely glab re scent, nearly always with spines; transverse veins strongly 
^iitved, scarcely anastomosing; submarginai veins at first separated from the 
■*"' Marginal- vein by a shallow groove, becoming confluent with it and forming a 
ffimvex margin when fully ripe; spines usually about half as long as the diameter 
"^the legume, somewhat curved, uncinate. ?.n = 14. 16. Fl. 3-5." 

pStky gro.ti.iifl. Malta: Selmim (Kramer Sk Westra ) . 

Blfediterranean region, 

¥&:'•■ ■■ 

Shis spewes may previously have- been confused with M. uciileata. 

Mi': . jf, littoral is Rohde ex Loisel. 

Fig, 25 

Nel'el ■ 
■Cuaatal Medici; 


M- polymorpha M. ten oreaf|§| 

■ ?0k m* 

"Sparsely villous annual up 40 (-110) cm. high. Leaflets obovate or obcor- 
Pfile, cuneate, dentate towards the apex; stipules lanceolate, incise' dentate. 
Racemes 1- to 6-flowered, Corolla 5-6 mm long. Legume 4-6 mm in diameter. 
fei.. spiral ot 3-6 turns, discoid to cylindrical, glabrous, spiny or not; transverse 
Kis nearly straight, scarcely anastomosing except near the submarginai vein; 
|ubmarginai vein at first separated from the marginal vein by a shallow groove, 
looming confluent with it and forming a keeled margin when fully ripe; sjjmes 
afying from short and conical to half as long as the diameter of the legume, 
ifelsiiig from the submarginai vein. Fl. 3-3. 


Fig- 2. 1 ). i r rmts of Meditago species 


I ":v.i 

... , and rocky "round. ' Malta, Gozo and Com**: cmmon * 
Fields garto vaUej* ^ 10 ^ y L ^ a]1(:o; Wolseley). 
everywhere (£). <* <-:■"■> Burt v - 

]■ ™ i- n w France - Atlantic Islands. 
Mediterranean legion extending to W. lranct, 

m „ 95 Straight- spiimed Medici; ; 

12. M. aeuleata Gaertner ,-,,„,! :,.» Moris; 

¥ turbinata var. f«l™f« (Gaeitnei> mohs, 
V to-bmata WOW., ntm (L.J All. ■ ^ ., .- 

mm In diameter, in a spiral of 3 " 7 t .^f ' f^^ent spiny or not; transverse; 

z : ::: B „ M „ »— , «« »—. -*■ «" —* 

(S; Vio: Ramla. Nadur, San Bias (BoigL 

(grooves, the lateral deeper and wider than the central; spines usually i - 'i 
as long as the diameter of the legume, deeply sulcate. Fj. 2-5. 

Moist valleys. Malta: rare (G. Lanfranco) as at Ghajn il-Kbira (S. & C.G.; BorgJ: 
^Meliieha (Dutliie; Borg). Gozo: Xlendi (S. & .CO.; Borg;. 

■Mediterranean region, north to Britain; \V. Asia; introduced elsewhere. 

i'.li-.. M. poIymorjjJia L. Fig. 25 

;. . M. hispida Gaertner; HI denticulala Willi. 

Net el 

Toothed Mediek 

^dUenanean region ending to Portugal and Bulgaria. 

Fig. 25 

zu Sauttiern Medid^ 

14. M. tiirbinata (L.) All. 

M («6emi!ot« iRetz.! Willi.. - 

Sp , rsely vUl„* annual - ^ ^ - v ^nSS dSCi^dentak, 
near the apex; stipules l^^f rf/^ on g. Legume 5-7 mm m. diamett , . 
Raceme. 1- to S-flowered. Co e a a -6 ™£ ™£ ^ g i ab r us, spmy; trant- 
in a spiral of 5-fl tnrns, ^ ^"^ViX^tomoaing, ending at a vcmles % 
verse veins slender, curvet , not oi rare ly ^^ forming^ 

S tire diameter of the legume. H. 3-5. ^ 

Glabrous or pubescent annual up to 40 cm higfi. Leaflets obovate to obcor- 
|jSdate,, cuneate, dentate near the apex; stipules lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 

i'feitiiate. Racemes 1- to 5 (-Si) -flowered. Corolla 3-4.5 mm long. Legume 4-8 (-10) 

fiflfii in diameter in a. lax spiral of Ik - 6 turns, usually glabrous and spiny; 

ritiansverso veins strong, anastomosing freely, at least near the suhraarginai 

|||S;em; subraarginai vein conspicuous, separated from the marginal vein by a 

fpeep groove, the margin consequently with 3 keels separated by 2 grooves, 

J&pines absent or up to more than the diameter of the legume in length, each 

!$arising from both the submarginal and marginal veins and therefore deeply 

pjieate. 2n = 14. PI. 1-6. 

Igields, gardens, valleys and ro;id edges. Malta, Gozo and Coviino; common (Borg). 
^ilmunr (Kramer & Weslra), 

p-Metiiterranean region north to Britain; Asia. 

Mediterranean' region emending to Portugal and Bulgaria. 

IS. M. mm-ex Wilkl. 

Fig. 25 

Spiny Medial 

- . ..f.,,..,!],; j^n^er and less {.oujlch. .„ 

spinas usiidiiy ■ '""t, 1 - 1 tluu . „ s a t Wied Incita*-; 

i .„rf i-r. vallevs Malta: not common, as at wieu .>, 

MecliteiTiiiiea-i 1 region- 

Fig. .25 

Spotted Medi5| 

!G. M. Ulrica iL-) Hudson ^^^^ ^^ 

SparsdY Pubescent to glabrou s an nual ^J 5 \l ih a dark spot. Racemg 

obcoriate, cuneate ^dentate ne« f^g Legu^ (i) 5-6 ™^»™SSe?| 

" <-°H 1 °*rA ^ wtelXJ to S ^rtly ^f trvTaSoS^ J 


id£.' . Mi. tanoreaita Ser. 

Fig. 25 

Italian Mediek 

sfe : ".. Sotfly pubescent annual 10-40 cm high. Leaflets -obovate, cuneute, dentate 

'pear the apex; stipules lanceolate, dentate near the base. Racemes 1- to 4-ilow- 

prW. Corolla 4-5 mm long. Legume c. 5 mm in diameter, in a lax spiral of 4-5 

0rns, shortly cylindrical, flat at both ends; transverse veins anastomosing to 

porni : a network, with a wide veinless border; turns of the spiral all stibequal and 

|j$!(i?y; spines in 2 rows, one upward- and one downward-pointing parallel to 

ie legume, nearly straight. Fi. 3-4. 

KmI rocky places. Malta:' Gharghur, Kordin (GD.; Borg); Cottonera (G.ulia; 


'■'Mediterranean region. 

!::; : M. minima (L.) Bartal 

Fig. 25 

Nefel Zghir 
Bur Medicli 

Rv- Villous annual up to 40 -tm high. Leaflets obovate or obcordate, 
State near the base. Racemes 1- to 6 (-8) -flowered. Corolla 4-45 mm Jong 
i;iittie 3-5 mm in diameter, in a lax spiral of 3-5 turns, subglobose, snarseiy 
pfius and somewhat glandular, nearly always sprny; transverse veins slender, 

feed, not anastomosing; submarginal vein wide, separated from the narrow, 
Js.-or convex marginal vein by a Wide groove; spines very short to longer than 
p: diameter of the legume, patent, usually uncinate, deeply sulcate at base. 2n 

'KteFl. 2-5. ■ 


M-rocky ground and waste places. Malta, Gozo and Comiwo: common (S: & C.G.; 

liSj'-G. Lanfranco; Wolsel-sy). Comiwotfo (DuthieJ. 

of Europe except the north; W. Asia; N. Africa; Canary Islands. 










...s'-SjSS 8 
•'."■ la 5 

ii '■■■M, 

rK ; i^M'F 


■^sM \ ■ 
:■ \-%m : 

■ : .-'"SSi 5 




iy. TWfoIIum L. 

Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, rarely somewhat woody. Leaves 3-roHoJalsp 
very rarely digitate with S f-S) leaflets; leaflets-. usually toothed. Flowers- :i.ita| 
heads ov short spikes, very rarely solitary. Calyx-teeth equal or unequal; petals^ 
persistent or deciduous, athiai.e to each other and to the ataminal tube; stamensj! 
cliacleliMious: all or 5 of the filaments dilated-.'' at the apex. Legume included'"!! 
the calyx or shortly exserted, rarely much- exceeding the calyx, inde hi scent".- " 
dehiscent by a ventral suture or by an indurated lid. Seeds 1-4 (-10). 

Fruiting heads subsessile; calyx more or less glo- 
bose. Innate, its 2 tipper teeth more or less con 

10. Fertile flowers 2-12. ■ sterile flowers developing 
after an thesis; fruiting heads oppressed to the 
ground or subterranean 
Fertile Sower3 usually numerous, sterile flowers abser 

lumen Ui sum 



1. Calyx with 5 (-8) veins; leaves often pinnately 3- 
foliolaLe; corolla always persistent and scarious 
In fruit 

Calyx with more- than 5 (-6)' veins, usually- 10. '20 
or mote; 1c:.lvc:; digltately 3-:foli«Iate: petals 
dssittiiOLis or riiarcescerit, ■ sometimes scarious 

2. Corolla 8-13 mm long 
Corolla 3-7 mm long 

3. Flowers sub-sessile; upper calyx-teeth shorter 
than upper limb of the calyx-tube 

Flowers with pedicels half as long as the calyx 
tube; upper : calyx-teetb as long as the upper limb 
■ of the calyx-tube 

4. Flowers subtended by small, sometimes connate, 
bracts; throat of ealy:: not closed by a ring of 
hairs or by an annular cv bilabiate callosity; legume 
usually 2. to S-seeded, included or exserted 
Flowers ebrac tea te but head sometimes involitcrate; 
throat of the calyx usually more or less closed 
by a ring of hairs' or an annular or bilabiate cal- 
losity at maturity; legume 1- to 2-seeded, almost 
always included in the calyx tube 

5. Calyx-tube not inflated in fruit 

Calyx-tube slightly to conspicuously inflated in fruit 

6. Corolla fi-9 mm long 
Corolla 3-4 mm long 

7. Perennial 

S. Fruiting calyx glabrous, inflated more or less 
equally on all sides; bracts prominent, glumaceous 
striate; heads pseud oterminal 

Fruiting calyx pubescent, tomentose cr lanatc 
(sometimes finally glabrescent), adaxially gib- 
bous; bracts inconspicuous and more or less con- 
cealed; beads lateral 

re pens 

9, campestre 

Zt nigrescens 
3. sulfocatum 

5. fragifenuu: 

sn unto sum 



4., J 


i- ]2 





*•■' .-■10. 


K ; ia. 



All or at least some calyces evidently 20-yeined, or 
the 20 veins completely obscured by dense 
sericeous hairs 
Calvs 10-veincd, or some calyces with Lip to 14 veins 

Stems less than 4 cm long; heads crowded 
Stems 5-40 cm long; heads solitary 

Corolla 7-8 mm long 
Corolla 12-15 mm long 


Heads sessile,, axillary or terminal, involucrate 
Heads pedunculate, terminal or axillary 

Lateral veins of the leaflets recurved and prominent 
at tiifi leaf margins 
Lateral veins not obvious 

Calyx- tube campaiiulate, glabrous or sparsely, hairy 
■above; leaflets 10-20 mm long 

Calyx-tube ovoid, densely hairy; leaflets 20-40 (-70) 
mm long 

Upper leaves alternate 

At least the two uppermost leaves opposite 

Corolla c. 4 mm long, much shorter than calyx 
Corolla 8-12 mm long, equalling calyx-teeth 

Leaflets 8-12 mm long, obcordate 

Leaflets (10-) 20-80 mm long., linear-lanceolate 

Calyx teeth 1- veined or 3-veined only at the base; 

corolla at least twice as long as the calyx 

Calyx teeth distinctly 3-veined to the middle or 

above; corolla equalling or slightly exceeding the 




che fieri 

11, sealmiiss 






sqim sues urn 




■ ' 21. 


a r reuse 



stella turn 





9. Fruiting heads more or less pedunculate; calyx 
pyriform, pubescent to tomentose, finally glabres- 
cent, its 2 xipper teeth evident, divergent 


H1-.22. Calyx-tube campanulale^ glabrous or sparsely hairy 
above; leaflets 10 20 mm long 
6. re$upinatum'''''9HBRi :V '''' ^alyx-tube ovoid, densely hairy; leaflets 20-40 (-70) 



s quaiii o siim 

Subgen. Lotoidea Pers.. Flowers subtended by free or united bracts (or short 
glandular hairs). Calyx-threat open, without a ring of. hairs or a callosity. 
Legume included in the calyx or exserted. Seeds (1-) 2-4 (-10). 

Sect. Lotoidea. Annus! or perennial. Flowers umbellate, rarely spicate, numerous, 
pedicellate, subtended by lanceolate, membranous bracts. Calyx-teeth unequal. 
Legume (1) 2- to 4 (-5) seeded. 

I. X. ifepercs L, 

White Clover 

Glabrous or giabrescent perennial, usually with extensively creeping stems 
rooting at the nodes. Leaflets usually bright green with either light or chirk- 
marks along the veins, or both; lateral veins translucent in the living plant. 
Stipules large, membranous, sheathing, contracted into a subulate apex. Heads 
usually globose. Flowers scented; calyx teeth narrowly lanceolate, tile 2 upper. 
Ioniser than the rest, separated by narrow acute sinuses; corulla 8-13 nun long, 
white or pink, becoming light brown and strongly deflexed after anthesis; 
standard ovate-lanceolate. Legume linear, compressed, constricted between the 
3-4 seeds, FL SS: 

Malta: W'ied Qirda (GD.; Borgt; Marsa (Gulia; Eorg). 

Europe to 71°N; W. Asia; N. Africa; introduced Iti S. Africa, Atlantic Islands, - ; 
America and E. Asia. 

2. T. nigrcscejis. Viv. 

Xnejn abjad 
Small White Clover 

Glabrous or giabrescent annual; stems fi-40 era high, often numerous, pro- : : 
cumbent, erect or ascending. Leaflets 8-15 (-25) mm long, obovate or obcordate.i- 
Stipules triangularUanceolate, acuminate. Heads 10-20 mm wide, globose, lax; 
peduncles longer than the leaves; pedicels equalling or longer than the calyx 
tube, defioxed in fi'uit. Calyx-tube lanceolate or linear, without wide sinuses- 
betweci *bn unrier teeth usually slightly longer than the others and :' equalling,; 
or exceeding the tube. Corolla 6-9 mm long, white j cream or*' -pink, becoming: 
brown. Legume i- to 5-secded. 2ii = 16. Fl, 3-5. 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta, Gozo and Com'tio: very common (£. & C.G,; : 
Eorg: G Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Eurooe; N. Africa; W. Asia. 

3. T. suffocation L. 

Plate XX 

Xnejn moltbi 
Suffocated Clover 

Giabrescent caespitose annual; stems 1-3 (-5) cm long, procumbent. Inter-." 
nodes rarely reaching 5 mm long. Leaflets 3-3 mm long, obovate-cuneate, eiiiar-: 
ginate; petioles lOfiO mm long; stipules ovate, acuminate. Heads 5-fi mm wide^i 
sessile, numerous, usually confluent, rarety somewnat separated, then ovate/-; 
Calyx sparsely pubescent at first, giabrescent; teeth all as long as the tube,,;: 
lanceolate or subulate, recurved: corolla 3-4 mm long, white; standard a little -v 
shorter than, the calyx. Legume 2-seeded. 

Id arid localities. Malta and Gozo: frequent (S. & C.G.; Eorg; G. Lanfranco;.^ 

Wolseley). 'Vjs 

Mediterranean region, north to England in the west. 


sect. Mistyllus (C p,fsn r> 

ns^i~ wi. 

;^o4.seS y0fl * SW - * **: teeth setac^, ^^2^^^^ 

T . spumusum L. 

Mediterranean Clover 

Sterns I0- 3 f-S0i r m n, Mediterranean Clover 

: ^jeng. bra ^y obovatlcuneatf^^ sr a r" dil ^ Le ^s 10-20 ( - 30 ) 

iume tilT^J 1 stations; eoro™ pink S h f? ntarm ' ,? lth traiia™ 
:. s ™ d_ t0 ^-seeded. Fl. 3-5. J ' sj! giitly exceeding the calyx. 

■ : Malt a: wied Balluta (GD.j Borgj. 
Mediterranean region; W Asia, 

T. fragiferuni L. 

; Usually more or less hairv „„ „■ , Strawberry Clover 

'm^22t^l Ut membranous: Heads 10 14 L^ 03 ' <«V obcordate. Stipules 
P Z I, -/ ™»> globose, ellipsoid ^3^;^ ^^l in flov er 

l^org), Qbajjar, Ramla, Mgarr (Borg); ' B ° rg,; Wled il-Lunzjata (Gulia; 

^Europe, to about 60° 30'N- W Ash- m "1 •■ ■ - 

■£■; ' w AMa - *■ Ai-ricn; Atlantic Islands. 

Is 1 '-; -T. resupinatum L. 

% Glabrous annual; stems 10 w / Pni , Reversed clover 

;|^ts 7-20 mm ionJ^oSte cu t r '°«™bem, ascending r erect 



; : ^m ■■!■ 

7. T. tomesUesuni L. Xnejn tar-raba 

Hop Trefoil 
Differs from T. rczupinatvAn in plant being caespitose; stems not more than ■ 
1.5 cm Jong, usually procumbent; fruiting beads 7-11 (-14) mm wide, su'jsessile; 
upper lip ot : calyx almost spherical in fruit, lanate, its two teeth .short and' 
usually concealed. PI, 4-5. 

Arid, rocky places. Malta, Gozo and Comino: frequent (S. & C.G.; Borg;. G, Lan-'-' 
franco: Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region; W. Asia. 

Sect. Cliromnsciitium Ser. Leaves often pinnately 3-f olio late. Bracts represented.' 
by a few. short, red glandular 'hairs. Calyx 5-veined, upper teeth shorter than 
lower. Corolla eventually darkening, persistent and scarious. Legume sta'Js'ejt 
slightly exceeding calyx, 1 (-2) seeded. 

TV aureawi Pollich 

T. agr atrium L. nom, ambiguum 
T; eampestr'e auct. 

Much- of Europe, but absent; from most of N., 

W. and Mediterranean region; 

9. T. campestrc Schrcber Xoebi Infiaxief 

Rough Clover 
Annual, stems up to 30 (-50) cm high, hairy, erect or ascending. Leaflets S-K) 
mm long, obovatc, the terminal' one petiolate. Sf.ip-ules semi-ovate, dilates! and 
round at the base. Heads up to 15 mm wide.dense, 20- to 30-fiowered; periicels 
half as long as the calyx-tube. Upper calyx-teeth as long as or shorter than 
the upper limb of the calyx-tube; lower calyx-teeth 1-2 times as long as the 
lower limb of calyx tube. Corolla (3-} 4-5 (-fi) mm long, yellow; limb of standard ':■■ 
broadly cochleare, sulcatc. Legume 3-B times as ' long as the stvle 2v = i<i-' : 
FI. 3-5. ~ 

Fields and rocky waste land. Malta; common everywhere {Borg; G. La n franco;' 

Europe, except, the extreme north and east; W Asia; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands: 
introduced in N. America. 

ftuhgen. Trilolinni Flowers ebracteate. Calyx throat visually more or less dosed 
with a ring of hairs or an annular or 2-Iobed callosity. Legume nearly always': 
included in the calyx-tube, 1- to 2-seeded. 

Sect Trifoliuiu. Heads usually spicate, rarely capitate. Flowers usually sessile. 


T. arvense L. 


Goiden Trefoil ■ 

Robust biennial; stems 15-30 (-40) cm high, manv, erect and branchrd" 
usually appresscd hairy. Leaflets up to IT, mm long, oblong-ovate or rhombic!'- 
widest near the middle, the terminal, one nearly sessile. Stipules lanceolate'.' 
ovate, not dilated below. Peduncles up to 50 mm' long, stout. equaMLifr or ex- : 
deeding the leaves. Heads up to 16 mm wide, dense, many-flowered. Flowers 
nearly sessile. Upper calyx-teeth shorter than the upper limb of. the calyx-tube.- 
Corolla. 6-7 mm long, golden-yellow; limb of standard obovate, sulcata. 2n ■= 16. 

This species is almost certainly not. in the Maltese Islands, but its description is' 
included as Borg does not separate it from T. campestre, and it may be pre- 
sent. * * . '■ 

Annual or biennial; stems 4-40 cm high, erect or diffusely branched, v, 

feddish- pubescent, rarely glabrescent. Upper leaves sessile, tbeir Jesuit 

|m-long, linear-oblong. Lower stipules lanceolate-subulate, the upper ;;>. 

sfrmnan ovate base. Heads up to 20 mm wide, numerous, ovoid iv ob]o:. f 

icijlate, with numerous, densely sericeous flowers. Calys 3.5-7 (-8) m~ 

ie. tube globose in fruit, often covered with dense lisivp, ri»v^y <da^' 

..ifeili 1-3 (-5) times as long as the tube, reddish, srbcq-i;i?, selaco.w, <•■''& 

Hfirs. Corolla c. 4 mm long, whitish or pink, much short-vr; the -c;;.-, 

l$$iBo; very rare at Kordin (GD; Eorg); Mellietia. and Cueina !GuJi«; 
'So'lorata Cemetery (Lan-franco). 


:■:/ 5-2fl 
.;, ped- 

l< l.or*:.; 

jpuighout Europe, except the extreme N.; W. 
©aura Used in N. America 

m: ■ 

t^.T. scabiiLiu L. 

U'ricii." .A + t;:.ii!.i-:: !:.:-'Lik1e; 

Xnejn in haxlet 
gT; Rough Clover 

H^Arinusi; stems 5-25 cm long, rigid, flexuous, numerous, procumbent or ascend- 
' T& Leaflets 5-1!) mm long, obovate-cuneafc, coriaceous, dentkulak:: lateral 
lis- recurved and prominent at the margins; Stipules ovate or oh Ion;,: wir.h 
feceous Epcx, entire. Heads 2-tZ mm in diameter, :;,r.:iv.:;. r ; io c :,tiy axillary, 
isile, globose, or ovoid, attenuate and scarcely clasped at the b;ise hy the stipule:;. 
I yx .persistent in fruit; teeth rigid, spinose, s'ighfiy recurved in fruit, the lowest 
"longer than the tube. Corolla '45 mm long, whitish, rarely pink, usually 
jjifaer than the calyx. 2« = 10. FI. 3-S.' 

Ilpisy uncultivated places, rnn-rlsitics. ■ Mail a, Cio?.t> ;u.ri Co-trdno: seijir;ori iivory 
fiire (S. & C.G.; G. Lanfranco: Borg). Cominvito (Out hie; Bon', 1 

^^JEurope from the Netherlands' southwards; Mediterranean region: Vv. .Asia: 
antic Islands, 

ffiiijts- from Wied G'homor, and Sllema oji Malta rjnd Ta' Ccni on <!o/.o haw 
a ■ .tl c scr: b ed by Borg us T. lucaniv.m Gaspare, ex G u s s . T h ey di ft' ■.'■ v ' r o m T . 
t0>rum ss follows: flowering heads ey'lln dried, more rearved calyx-te^tb. and 
St'corolla slightly exceeding the calyx: They may merit sub-specific rank. 

P--T. 'sleHalsm L, Ktitls 

\y Starry i.;lover 

■Annual; stems (2-) 8-20 (-35.) cm high, erect, simple ov branching from the 

|e; with dense patent hairs. Leaflets E-12 mm iong ; cbcordat.c, denticulate 

Sards- the apex; stipules ovate, obt\ise, acutely denticulate, the margio and 

bs bright green. Heads 15-25 mm wide, globose or ovoid; -peduncles (5) 150-lOtt 

"long, with appressed or patent hairs. Calyx-teeth twice, as long as the tube. 

iftient in fruit, 3-veined, triangular -la need ate with a subuh; to- acuminate apex. 

irblla 8-12 mm long, pink rarelv purple or vellow, equallitm the calvx. rarclv 

gejijlh longer, 2n = 14. VI. 3-5. " 

Selrfs, valleys and uncultivated rocky places. Malt^ Goro and Coif- bio; 
tiirion everywhere (S. & C.G.; Borg; G Lanfranco; Wolsclcyi, Coin-', 
rthie; Borg). 

liiikrranean region; W, Asia. 




T. pcaltsiso L 

Kcd Clover,; 

Perennial, e&cspitosii, move or less, hairy; stems 5-100 em high. Leaflets obovate;; 
or oolong-jaiiceoime to nearly oroicular, hairy below, oi ten giaorescerit above.; 
stipules triangular above, abruptly contracted into a setaceous usually ciliate-Sl 
point; upper stipules very wide. Heads ^U-^O.mjn wide; globose oi' ovoid, solitary^ 
or panva, uMuaiiy aessJa ana hiyoiucrale. Caiyx-tube 10- veined, usually appressefe| 
hairy; ieuth in angular 'with filiform apex, straight, eiliate, separated by..brosid|j 
sinuses, the loivest one about twice as long as. the tube. Corolla 12-15 mni lonj||| 
unua.ily reddish- purple or pink, rarely cream or while, (1-) 2 times as long ' si0 
the lowest easy:* teeth. Legume ovate, witU a thickened apex, 2b = 14. Fl. 4-5:|| 

Probably accidental. Malta; Wred Balluta (GD.; Borg); M'arsa, Marsaskala CGtili^ 

Throughout Europe except for parts ofihe south.' W. Asia; Algeria, Wideig 
cultivated, and introduced in other parts of the world. 

14. T. fctjjpgiecuni L. 

Bur Glo'rtiibs 

Annual, bright green, with numerous usually branched, glabrescent, er£e| 
■or ascending stems 5-40 cm high. Leaflets £-20 mm long, obovate-euneate, obi 
hairy. Stipules oblong, conspicuously veined; apex long, lanceolate or suoufa| 
herbaceous, hairy. Heads 12-20 mm wide, globose, rarely ovoid; peduncles up.]t 
J5 mm long in fruit. Calyx-tube with 20 conspicuous veins, glabrous or glabrespenlj 
rarely hairy; teeth 3.5-0 mm long; longer than the tube, prominently 5-vcinod ?ij' 
■Lriargulai . beJoiw, filttotro and hairy above. Corolla 7-8 mm long, pink, equalfiif. 
the calyx at anthesis, much shorter than the calyx in fruit. Legume ovate iiif 
a ihickerced apex. Fl. 4-fi. ■ :■"'! 

Eocky uncultivated ground and filed marghis. Malta: rather rare, St, Pauls _ 
''Va' BaJdu. Wied -Geriuroa (S. & C.G:; BorgM Mellieha (Reade; S. & C.G.; Bor 
Wied 11 Ghasel (Borg) ;■ Pwales, Wardija, Gba.jn Znutoer (Borg); Mtahleb [V 

selev), ' -.'jits! 



Mediterranean region: \V\ Asia; Atlantic Islands. 

13. T. Cijng(,shisn Guss, 

Crowded ClpVa 

Annual, items 1-3 cm long, numerous, stout, woody, procumbent, glabra^ 
Leaflets 5-9 mm long, narrowly cuneatc, deeply em arginate, obscurely denticul.ii!! 
densely appi'e'ns'l- pubescent above and beneath; petioles up to 30 mm 1© 
stipules membranous, broadly ovate, abruptly contracted into a short MJf§ 
Heads 8-10 mm. wide, pseudo-terminal and axillary, sessile, involucrate, more! 
less congested. Flowers mostly erect. Calyx-tube 20-veined, densely but sht)I 
puhuscent; ■ teeth nearly twice as long as the tube, subulate from .a narrow 
r.riangiilar base, glabrous and 5 veined below, with sparse, patent hairs '■■$$$ 
the middle. Corolla G-7 him long, white, not longer than the calyx, Fl. 4-5. ■;!§ 

Fields. Malta: Wied Ghomor (GD.; Borg); Cottonera (Gulia; Borgi. 

S. Italy; Sieilia, 

1(1 T. ehcrleri L. 

Southern. Glogj 

Annual, stems S-Id (-30) cm high, rarely branching above; hairs pat' 
Leaflets S-UO mm long, obcordate-cuneate, almost entire. Stipules lancecjl 
with a short, ovate-lanceolate, herbaceous and often recurved apex. Heads i?| 


Borg); Marsaskala (Gulia; 

s^st sr" ,2 " 5 mm ■«• <^£r°^T&s srss 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 

H. T. aiigustifoHiKu L. 

Xnejn tal-werqa irqioa 
/nmi'i'' l-i Narrow-leavcd Clover 

« " ^£mnr^^i^S^te v acute; Sef ^ceoSl^gf S* 
20-40 (-boj. mm long Cay* *S ^h™ d ? ^ onita! -^hdncal; peduncles (in 

XagFtra (Borg). ^orgj, i^o. U cenc, Mgarr ix-Xini ■ (S . & c g J ^ 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 

lTOm tha h ^ to ^e ape,. Tt may ffl ^t iS,^ L™™ ^ ^ eVe " ly c0iate 

-Matin: Koidin. Mtahleb, Wied Incita (S '* C r ■ r, ■' ■ 
(Borg). <b r & C.G., Borgr, Attard, Verdala, Dingli 

■ 'IS.. T. echinutum Bieb. 

Xnejn xeivki 
Soiny Clover 

!;:^^rSabS S^ iSV^ri™' ^ ™^"-— v to dens. Iv 

:*t Heads 8-15 mm in diameter in Lw^' f te ° r ^'^ceolBte: stipules 

-80) mm lo^. Fruiting cato with ^ tube A f ^ °^ globose; P^uncles a S 

:■ -conical. sn;irse i v hairy s 0lH ^ bl W ™ t"be 1.5-2 mm ] ong , campannlate or ob 

reaching the widened mout^oftbe tut^7t betWe,in tJly I0 veins not 
reined only at the base, sUff and %ri no % ^.^"f SUbul,te ' ^ned or S- 
fe and twlM ss ps th * nd tu s ^ no «^ Jowwt much longer than the 

at least fwpce as long as the caly^L^l^S T ^ Pi " k ' ° r ereara ' 

:.SS "" ,lear AWard (S - * C ^ »«»>:*- — (C ■* GO, 

|j: Balkan peuf, ]su]a extending to Italy and S. Houm 

isnia; W. Asia. 




19. T. squamosum; L. 

T. marilivivm Hudson 

Sea {'.'lover 

Annual; stems 10-40 cm long, procumbent or erect, ..hairy or glabreseeilt. 
tipper leaflets J.O-iiO x 6-8 mm., narrowly obovafce-cuneate or oblong. ■ often 
apiculale. Stipules linear, ihe free herbaceous part longer than the rte-t. i-Yinting 
heads 10-20 mill long, ovoid: peduncles rip to 2-.; rnm long. Fr;?!r;ng e:uyx tough, 
with a camp a "mi lave tube, glabrous or thinly hairy .-move too 10 veinr; ar.o furrow;'; 
disappearing below the dilated mouth.; teeth laneei-bite-ficurnnvjfe, ftp:-3Sf.linE. 
herbaceous, the lowest distinctly 3-veincri, iibout * as long as the tube. Covoll;; 
5-7 mm long, pale pink, exceeding the e.nlyx. Legume included, Fl. 4-5. 

Damp, grassy places. Malta: rare, Floriana, between Fiddien and Mi:s"iie!) (S. & 
CG;; Borg). 

Mediterranean region; W, Europe; W. Asia. 

20. T. squavrosum I.,. 

in el. var dispsscewn Tliuill. 

Sepdarrose Clover 

Robust annual, stems SO-SO cm high, erect or ascending, anpressed hairy ov 
glabrous. Leaflets 20-40 (-70) x S-1S mm, oblong. Stipules 20-50 mm long, with 
a herbaceous, linear, 3-veined, free apes; marginal hairs dilated at the base.' 
Heads 15-30 mm wide, ovoid; peduncles ((>-) 10-60 mm long. Calyx-tube ovoid, 
contracted at the mouth, densely bai.ry: teeth triangular-lanceolate, herbaceous, 
3-veined, the lowest wider, twice as long as the others, de-flexed in fruit, mar- 
ginal hairs dilated at the base, so that the calyx-teeth appear finely denticulate. 
Corolla 9-12 mm long, pale pink or white, equalling or slightly exesed.-ng Urj 
lowest calyx- to (>tli, Legume included. FI. 3-5. 

Grassy places. Malta: Tarxien near neolithic temple, first found April 3023 iBorgi. 

Mediterranean region, 

.Sect. Trichocephalum Koch. Heads capitate; flowers sessile, ebractoale, the outer 
fertile, the inner consisting of only sterile calyces. 

21 T. sub terra tiviini L. 

Xnejn mklfun 
Subterranean Trefoil 

Annual; stems rip to 20 (-30) cm long, numerous, procumbent. Leaflets' 
broadly obcordatc; petioles usually long; stipules semi-ovate. Fruiting heads 
glabrous, appressed or buried in the soil by the long deflexcd peduncles. Fer- 
tile flowers. 2-5(-7); corolla 8-14 mm long, whitish. Sterile flowers numerous,. 

developing alter anthesi.s, becoming strongly defiexed over the fruiting calyces, 
Legume 1-seeded, ovoid, somewhat exsorted. 2» = 15. Fl. 3-5. 

Arid, rocky and sandy places, Malta: local (G, Lanfrauco';, at Salini < \fiv. : .Uv^: 
S. & C.G.); fortifications of Valletta and Floriami (GD.: Borg}; Ta' Xbiex i'Guli;-;; 
Rorg); Buskett, Dingli, Naxxar (Borg.i. Gozo: Qala (Duthie; Borg;, Citadel ;it 
Rabat (Borg). 

Mediterranean region .and W. Europe. 


Wi p 

..;,» ^Annual or perennial herbs, often woody at base. Leave- wif 

,:M W$, the lowest pair resembling stipules, rarely one of iho lowest 

■■'■hS SiSlipufes membranous, minute. Flowers solitary c-r in head. 1 

-:j Stir tubuiar-cainyianuiatc. actinomorphic or hi in mate; kee! beaked: 
°-...t« . ■ ■ .... 

■'3 fe.plious. Legume cylindrical, sometimes compressed, 

20 Lotus L. 




■Wm , 

% Calyx more or !css bilabiate, the lateral teeth 
'■■' usually shorter than the rest, the upper teeth 
■'■ usually curved upwards 

Calyx not bilabiate, ihe teeth all more or less equai, 
■ but sometimes curved 

Annual; legume torulose, curved 

Perennial; legume straight or slightly curved 

an the 

i|| j&i 3, Lateral calyx-teeth obtuse, much siwter thi 
$' '&■■■ upper: keel with a short, curved beak 

Lateral calyx-teeth acute, only slightly shorter tha 
vw; ■ the upper; keel with a. long straight beak 

5-;4, Flowers usually borne singly; legume 4-S mm ii 
diameter, suleste on back 

Flowers usually borne in heads 2- to 0-fiowered; 
legume 1-3 mm in diameter, not sulfate on back 

Perennial herb with woody stock; corolla 3-18 mm 


Annual herb; corolla 5-8 mm long 

Jj. cornlcuiatus L, sensu lato 



G ban tux 
Conrm on 

Perennial herbs usually with woody stock. Calyx-teeth usually more »■: less 
FSf^, hut sometimes curved; Corolla S-1S mm long, yellow, sometimes orange 
'.'ix^K^fi red and yellow. Legume cylindrical, straight. .Seeds many. Li. "■$ 

B'~-. A widespread variable group containing diploid and tetrupJoki species, it 
3s; sometimes treated as a single species with a number of subsper'i~s anri y-si-Jeli-rs. 

^lilrftW Malta plants are probably referable to L. preslii Ten. 

•>1 ^-> 
v*5ll|v§S?a]leys and winter-wet places. Malta: local (G. Lanfranco) as at St. V'r--:.\V?, 'l'ss\, 
rM'tidien, Pwales, Salini (Borg); Wiad Balluia ;'GD.; Borg): IVltaWob ■'::;;;-: S. & 

jl^pG.); Ghadira (Sell). 

.. fi :c Throughout Europe; Asia. \". &• F. Africa. 

pa. ; ' L. edulis L. 

Plate XX 

Kdi.bie Birdsfoc- 

■jSS ?%?':■■ ' 

"" 1 fc"" 

; ?l & -Sparsely pubescent annual, 10-50 cm high. Leatlets 5-16 x 33-10 ;rrv: 

l - l: ' gsf- ob ovate- oblong. Heads 1- to 2- lowered; peduncles longer than iu;-vc 

- ■ llffeth subeaual, longer than tube. Corolla 10-1B mm, yellow. Legume :■!!)■ 

i|Sm : curved. 2n = 14. Fl. 3-5, 

;. Cvityx- 




Cultivated ground, field margins and waste places. Malta.'Gozo and Comino: very'; 
common (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Wolseleyj. Filfla: (S, & CO.: Eorg), 

Mediterranean region; S. Portugal. 

Grey BirdSfoot-trefaiR 


'■i. L. cytisoidcs L. 

Jj. eretteus var. ci/f-soides (L.) 
Perennial up to SO era high. Leaflets . 4-14 x 2-8 mm., obovate to obloug* 
obtuse, distinctly shorter than the upper. Corolla 0-7.5 mm long, the lateral teetff 
ol.Uuv;, distinctly shorter than thii upper. Corotl'-i 8-H- mm long, ^w.i;i?.Vii cv^aH 
gina'te; wings slightly, longer than keel; keel with a short curved purple beak] 
(about as long as the rest of the keel). Legume 20-50 x 1.5-2 mm, straight of; 
slightly curved, '2n = 14. Fl. 2-6. :;'; 

Maritime rocks. Mfliia: local (O. Laniranea). as at Vvied Eabu, Wied ii-2urrfeq, Sffij 
Paul's Bay. S:-in Martin, Ghajn TiiiTlena, Majesa (Borg). Gozo: Xlendi (Borgia 
Mghrv ix-Xirh (Borg; Kramer & Westr;\';. .^g 

Mediterranean region. •?> 

4. L. crcS-icus L. Ghantux tax-xtul*| 

Pertmiia) up to 50 cm high. Leaflets 7-18 x 4 8 mm, obovate to obloinj||| 
lanceolate, densely sericeous Heads (1-) 2-to fi-f!owered. Calyx 7.5-9 mm ,ldi|| 
the lateral teeth acute, almost, as .long as the upper. Corolla 12-18 mm leii^ 
standard entire; wings much longer than keel; keel with a long, straight, purjjigl 
beiik (up to twice as long ' as . the rest' o: the keel). Legume 20-50 x 1:5-2 mtfiji 
straight or slightly curved, ' Zn = '28. Fl. 2-6. :'"%a 

Maritime rooks. Malta, G-ozo aud Comino: common, often- abundant. (S. & C.&'ffll 
Borg; G, Lanfraneo; Wolselcy). Comi-uotto and Seimunelt: (Borgi. ■ "-$m 

Mediterranean region;. Portugal. 

Sea Birdsfoot-trefui'lll 

'■ --'^W 


5, L. holophiliis Boiss. & Spruner 
L. pvsillus' Viv.. non Medicus 

Pubescent annual 10-30 cm high.. Leaves sessile or shortly petioiate; leaflet^ 
3-7 s J..5-3 mm, oblong obovate. Heads 1-to 9-flowered; peduncles longer thS 
leaves. Lateral calyx-teeth slightly shorter than - upper. Corolla 5-8 (-9) ln|| 
long. Legume 20-30 x I.E-2 mm, slightly torulose; curved at apex: Fl, 3-4. 

Maritime sands and rocks. Malta: rare (G. Lanfraneo). as at peninsula of MsirJI 
MeOieha (S.'fe C.G.: Borg), G020; Ramla (Duthie; S, & C.G.; Borg); Qbajjar, sl| 
Bias (EoTgi. Comino: iS." & C.G.; Borg).. 

E Mediterranean region^ extending to Sieilia. 
fi. L. oriiHfiopndioidos L. 

Gliantux sieq 1-ghasfur ; :, f|| 
Clustered Bhdstoct-trefcil'fiF' 

Pubescent annual 10-50 cm high. Leaves petioiate; leaflets 8-30 x 4-h).iii| 
the upper 3 obovate to rhombic, the lower 2 ovate-rhombic, cordate to euri<ja|jj 
at base. Inflorescence 2-to :1 -flowered; peduncles equalling or slightly loiijis 
than leaves. Corolla 7-10 mm long. Lateral calyx- teeth very short, obtii's^ 
Legume 20-50 x 2-3 mm. torulose, curved. 'In = 14. Fl. 2-5. 

Fields, field margins and rocky wastes. Malta, Gozo and Comino: cotrmon ev£rj 
where' (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; WolseleyL 

Mediterranean region. 


21. Tetragonofolbus Scop. 

J-S-S SLJriSuS^^ff 1 !— "^ ^wers sohtary or ^ed- 
Ringed or keeled l m ^ 1 l ' r '^^verse-section, «rith tho angles 

4 T . juavitimus (L:) Roth 
if. Lotus sUiquosus L. 

1. mariiuiius 

2. biilorus 

2. puriJiu-eiis- 

4. tionjugatus 

Dragon's teeth 

^^^^^^^Z^slZ'l^ L °^ -«>■ ^ »'x 15 mm 
femger than leaves. Flowers »K ^ ™fi ** "^ohtiae.. Peduncles m ™ C fi' 
^ous- wing at tilG top _ LeS' 30 Go , f^ Styles , wlth a ^^teralmem 
|mngs c, 1 mm ^ide, 2« W 14 " e °- * 3 " 5 m ™- glabrous or subglabrous; 

pita; ■ Penza Herbarium. 
ffi ; (& -S. Europe. 
jp&-. T, bjflcrus ( Desr y Ker 

p,Diffefs from T * ' v ■ 'fivo'-aoweKd Drag en's teeth. 

^AS^ ?^3" < SoSf 1 B 7 /, n r ,J ) Sti ^ S -^.orhicuhr, obtuse- 
%« -x 4-6 mm, pubescent! Fl 35 J mm Iong ' deeiJ bri e^ "r^ge; leg^ 

KSfS SJ,^-' Ma ^ ^uha; Borg, Magh.a, (Borg). Go ^ 

ftaly; Sicilia; N ,W: Greece; N.Africa. 

Plate XX 

||r;T. ■ pui'pureus Moench 
"lotus tetragonolobus L 

Figgiela Hamra 
Crimson Dragon's teeth 

iff ■■'■ n Ki. ^uioaoii uragon s teetli 

fe-S mm, glabrous; wlngf' 2 C " mm 'wWe ' Fl 2^ at the tip ' Legume **° 
pS S,? 5 ' »*«■ G - -d co^ / common (S . & CG; Ewg; q 
|ur 0Pej ending northwards to C ,> 0N . iH ^^ w ^ n ^ 


::-k ; s; , 

■i.i>* ■. 





' ■ .v " 

.'Af ' 


'*. T. f.'fsitjti.-.iadis (L.) Link 
L@!w> coujugatus L. 

Solitary- flowered Dragon's- IsettsS 

1. A. bet-mantuae L. 

Plate XX 

. pubeseent annual 10-30 cm high. Leaflets up to 25 x 15 mm, ebdvate :6iJ 
o)xn'Sf.c-rbon:i!jic. acute or mueroiiate; stipules ovate, acute. Peduncles p h orte^fflj 
than or equalling leaves. Flowers solitary or paired; calyx-teeth 2-3 times $&$% 
long as ;.;ibe: corolla 10-20 mm long, bright red; style .with a unilateral meiij^_ 
bi-ano;is wing at the tip. Legume 20-40 x 3G mm, glabrous with 4 wings brfp 
kerfs up to 2 mm wide. Seeds 3-5 mm in diameter. Fl. '3-5. 


t.iUa: Kordhi, Wied Qirda, M'arsa (Gulia, GD; Borg). 

22. 'Hj'satiiocarpHs Savi 

Annus!. Leaves simple to imparl pinnate; stipules minute, membranous. I irf lores';^ 
rence capHate: calyx campanulate with 5 euuai teeth; keel beaked; stainen^l 
disdelnbous. ■ Legume indehiscent, spirally twisted and flattened so that tl.;-ig|S 
subcrbicubtr; outer margin membranous- winged. . ;'.-■& 

1. BL tfretiwatus (L.). Savi 

Plate- XX 

Spiny Kidney-velJajisF! 

Stems' up to 30 em high, densely patent- pubescent Lower leaver .sjmpl^ 
cbuvale oblong, upper with 2-3 pairs of leaflets, the terminal much larger tlffifcf 
the later;;!. Calyx-teeth filiform., much longer than tube; corolla. 5-7 him long.-f 
'Ledums 10-15 mm in diameter, trie outer margin oten toothed. Fl. 3-4. 

Cvzo: rare (G. Lanfranco), along the road from Rabat to Marsaiforn (S. & C'lkfi§ 
TV ITaiTax (Gulia'; Borg}; Ras il-Qala and Rdum il-Kbir near Ramla Bay fDut.hie. ' 
Borg.i; Qbaj.jar, Id-Dfiiir'ani (Borg) ; NuJ.'fara (G. Lanfraiico). ■. '.j 

Medilen-r.-nean region.. 

23. Anfhyllis L. 

Herbs or shrubs usually with imparip innate leiives.. rarely simple- or 3 fol)olate|| 
Stipules small, caducous. Flowers usually in dense heads, rarely in fascicles ; : ffl:|| 
borne singly in the bract axils. Calyx tubular, campanula te or constricted "n6a$:' 
the apex, with equal or unequal teeth; corolla variously coloured; stametis^ 
monadelphous, or the upper stamen free for Iialf its length. Legume sessile! 
or stisitate, frequently indehiscent or tardily dehiscent, usually completely- iri':T| 
eluded within the persistent culx. Seeds 1-many. : ; 

?hnib with woody branches 

Herbs sometimes slightly woody at base, but never 

e.uth woody branches 

Calyx unequally 5-toothed, the mouth oblique; 
legume J -seeded, or if 2-seeded than not con- 
stricted between the seeds 

Calyx more or less equally toothed, the mouth 
straight; legume 2-scecled, constricted between 
the seeds 


1. liermanniae 

2. vulneraria 

3. tetraphylla 

Hatha s-Sewda 
Yellow Kidney- vetch 

Shrub ut' to 50 cm high, with tortuous, woody branches; the end of the 
branches becoming spiny. Leaves simp-- or 3' foliolate; Icfitiets oblong spalbvib-i-c 

■or obioiig'-ovi'ite, sericeous above, strongly so beneath. J 'lowers solitary or in 
axillary favddes nf up to 3 flowers, forming an in temple:.! raceme. Cn]yx 3-S 

■ram lomj, tabular, the teeth triangular, much shorter than the sparsely seriee:ius 
tube. Cordla yellow. Seed 1, Ff. 3-0. 

.Arid rocky places, Malta, Goto and Cc!ifU;w: frequent (S. & C.G.; Berg; G. Lan- 
. franco; Wolseley). Cmnlnotto ('Dulliie; Borg). 

■Hcciil.eLT;ii , ;£ 

2, A. vameravin L. suesp. np.r.u?a <G. Beck) Lindb. 

Siila tal-blat 

Annus?., biennial or perennial. Lowermost leaves reduced to a terminal leaflet 

or im pari pin ate with a. much larger, terminal leaflet; upper leaves >;nparipi.rmate. 

etjuifclisie with H-13 leaflets. Heads manv-iiowered, subtended by 2 palmatisact 

■brails close beneath the flowers. Calyx, inflated at anthesis, constricted sit the 

'■red anex. with 5 unscmal teeth and Dieutb oblique. Corolla red or purple. Legume 

)1(-^ -seeded. Fl. 3 5. ' 

.''■Eocfey and avkl ground, somctiraos forml'.'g extensive red carpets. 'Mslia> Ccmi 
■and Coming: very common '(S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wclselay). 

The species occurs throughout Europe; W. Asia; N, Africa. Subsp. Is found 
in the C. .ft. W. Mcdherrauean region. 

A.. (eirspfcy»,». T.. 

Annua! Kidney vetch 

Procumbent- annual. -Stems villous to hirsute. Leaves impat'ipinuate, with 
■.(1-) 5 leaflets, the large, more or less obovate terminal leaflet much exceeding 
■ the small, lateral leaflets, hairy on- both surfaces, much less so above. Flowers 

in axillary fascicles of 1-7. Calyx 12-15 x 4.5-6 mm, inflated at an thesis, later 
:up to .12' mm wide, gibbous, especially so in fruit, densely sericeous, frequently 
-reddish near the apex, the teeth sub-qual, the mouth of the calyx straight. 

Corolla ' yellow, the keel often red at the apex. Legume usually 2-seedcd, con- 
stricted between the seeds. Fl. 3-5, 

In rocky, arid places. Mo.lta: locally frequent (G, LanfraneoL as -A Mart's, St. 
haul's Bay, Wied GerMma (S. & C.G.; Borg).; Wied Ghoraor (GD; S. & C.G.}.; 
■'Wied Ineita (Borg; Wolseley); roeky slopes around HaAar Qim, Wied il-Gbasel 

(Wolseley). Gozo: Wied ir-Riban, Wied Bhigemma (S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolscley); 
,-Pergla, Xagfira, Ta' rjeuc (Borg; Wolseley); Munxar (Wolseley). Commo: (Berg; 


P : : 'Mediterranean region. 

24. Omi tit opus L. 

Annual. Leaves imparipinnate; stipules smdl, free, linear. Flowers 5, in axillary 
heads. Calyx tubular or campanula te, with 5 equal teeth; keel obtuse; stamens 
diadelphous. Legume lomentareous; terete or compressed, usually constricted 
between segments, strongly reticulate. 


L 0. compresses J,. 

Plate XX 

Yellow Birds foot 

Pubescent; stems 10-50 cm high. Leaflets 7-18 pairs, oblong- elliptical or 
oblong lanceolate. Heads 3- to 5-flowcred; bracts with 7-9 leaflets. Calyx-teeth at 
least \ as long as the tube; corolla 5-8 mm long, yellow. Legume 20 L 50 mm long, 
curved, more or less compressed, not or only slightly contracted between the 
segments;- segments 5-8, oblong, beak 7 mm -long or more, curved. Fl. 2-5. 

Malta.: rura, Chain Dwieli, Kordin, Addolorata Cemetery (Borg). 

Mediterranean rejriori; Atlantic Islands. 

25. Coronilla L. 

Annual or perennial herbs or dwarf shrubs. Leaves imparl pinnate, rarely simple 
or trifoliate; stipules various, free, or connate. Flowers in axillary heads. Calyx 
earn pa judaic mere or Jess bilabiate; keel acute; stamens dia del pho us. Legume 
iomentaeeous, terete or longitudinally ridged or angled, not constricted between 
the segments. 

1. Annual; lower leaves simple or 3 foliolate, the ter- 
minal leaflet much larger than the lateral 
Shrubs; lower leaves imparipinhate, the leaflets 
more or less equal 

2. Corolla 14-20 mm long, claw of the standard 2-3 

times as long as the calyx- 

Corolla 7-12 nun long, claw of tlie standard equall- 
ing or slightly longer than the calyx 

1. C. umerus L, 

U. seorj>i r>ides 


1. emerus ■ 

2, valentina 

Pale Crown Vetch 

Sraall shrub tip to 100 (-200) cm. 'nigh. .Leaflets 2-4 pairs, 10-20 mm long, 
obovate, nyucronate, glance us; stipules 1-2 mm long; free, membrajious. Corolla 
14-20 mm long, pale yellow; claw of the standard 3-3 times as long as the 
caly:*. Legume 50-110 mm long; segments 312, 8-10 mm long. Fl. 2-4, 

Rare native in rocky valleys, but -frequently cultivated. Malta; Wied Babu (S. & 
C.G.; Borg); Wardija (GD. and Gulia; Bor^); Goko: Ta' Harrax (Borg). 

C. & S.E. Europe, extending locally to S. Norway, the Pyrenees and E. Spain; 
W. Asia; N. Africa: 

2 C, valcitlina L 

Plate XXI 

Shrubby Crown Vetch 

Smull shrub up to 1i)0 cm high. Leaflets 2-6 pairs, up to 20 mm long, obovate, 
emarginate; stipules free, deciduous. Heads 4-to 12-fiowered. Corolla 7-12 mm, 
long, yellow. Legume 10-50 mm long; segments 1-10, 5-7 mm long, fusiform, 
subcom pressed, with 2 obtuse angles. Fl. 2-4. 

Two subspecies are recorded. Subsp. valcntina has 3-0 pairs of leaflets; stipules 
5-10 mm long, herbaceous; legumes with 3-7 segments. Subsp. glauca (L.) Batt, 
has 2-3 pairs of leaflets; stipules 2-6 mm long, ovate or lanceolate, membranous; 
legume with 1-4 (-10) . segments. 


^ ! Ms 

Cnejna (Borg); Wied Qirda (Guha S & c °r - rf?,- ■*<$**&; Ghajn Tuifieha 
Mediterranean region. ' ' 

3- C. scoi-pioidcs (L.) Koch 

■ Xeht .LinifiabbH. Mon B 
Annual up to 40 em hi^h r. . " Cnwtl Vii:ch 

erwi. Corolla 4^ mml „ gvSJ^L oon ™ te > ^mbranou, H ^ s to ^rr iat ' 
.*««* more or 1,, ^«^g?T of L^S ^jf tf^% 

.=!%» f «£ n r^ to ™%:?-»? £ ™ne M M fa , ffM0 ; Comhlo 

Mediterranean rerion. w *.,„ S> ' Umf ™^ Wolseley). 

J! iK U f«r t^^^T^^team* small, .neater , woo 
: ^ 5. subequal teethr S« Sw- ^^^ C ^* t"™«™mwZ*£ 
:«a«ous laterally ^^ 

;■« d rectangular with a seraLircutr t„ I h , , UTIal0 t(i ' ^^hoe-shaped or flat 
:tuberance at i ts base enrZ™^ £* ""^ ^ which >* a."^ 

)} "S|2S«not more tha„ 5inin 

- 2ZT WMe than 5 ™» tons, with 2 or mors 

s - unisiliquosa 

'SSffVAir IOng; IeSUme gIabroUS <»' *'* very 




= H, ciJiata Willd, 

■V. ; Slender annual un to in ^™ v.; u , Lesser Horseshoe -Ve-frh 

I^Commoito (Borg). ^ m ™- Wied ji-Rihan (Borg). (S. & CO ; Borg) 

Mediterranean region. - 

■'■*■ H. multisiliqnosa L. 

Plate XXI 


% u SJender annual 10-60 cm high ieafi** , o M ^i-"owcr e d Horsesboe-Vetch 

J:: : ' - 161 

• A - 




' M'f 

■ ■■ : i'"V^^ H - : 


5-tt nini long. Legume 20-40 (-00) x 3-5 mm, curved so that the sinuses opcn : 
on the convex edge; segments with orbicular sinuses, glabrous or very sparsely 

papillose. 2n = 14. Fl. 3-5. '' .' 

Among growing crops, field margins, in valleys and uncultivated land. 
Malta, Goto and Comino: common !Eorg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 
Mediterranean region. 

3. H. i;nisiIk(Kosa L, Xintilla, Cintilli . '■'■ 

Single flowered Horseshoe -Vetch;'. 

Slender annual up to 40 cm high. Leaflets 3-7 pairs, 2-12 x 1-5 mm, linear? 
to obovate. Flowers usually solitary, axillary, sometimes 2 or 3 together andj 
shortly pedunculate. Corolla 4-7 mm lorg. Legume 15-40 x 4-5 mm; segments'' 
with an orbicular sinus, glabrous or sparsely papillose. Fl. 3-5. ■■■': 

Field margins and uncultivated land. Malta,. Goto and Comino: very commons! 
everywhere (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). '• Z 

2S. Hcdysarum L. 

Illtv.4""uat or- perennial herbs. Leaves imparipinnate; stipules Irr.c. or connate. 
|r : , Flowers in axillary racemes, Calyx campanulate, with 5 subequal teeth: corolla 
|V : :pitik, purple or violet, rarely white or yellow; staments diadelphous. Legume 
Jf -i omenta eeeus, more or less compressed, with up to 8 segments. Seeds I in each 
fe' : ". : segmeiit 

§/-. 1. Perennial, 30-100 cm high; legume glabrous 
Annual, 15-35 cm high; legume pubescent 

|f'-'l Corona S-1I mm long, 1J-2 times as long as the 

Sp fe% 'CoroJJa 4-2(1- mm long. 2J-!> times as long as the 
:i|| |||';;' ■ calyx ■ ■ 

.':!.■ H. ciwiiiniuiiiHii L. 

Mediterranean region. 

27. Stnrpturus L. 

Annual. Leaves simple, with 3-5 parallel veins; stipules free, linear. FiowersS 
solitary or in axillary heads. Calyx campanulate, with 3 equal teeth; corofel 
yellow or purplish: keel acute, stamens diadelphous. Legumes lomentos'e or :ifjp? 
dehiscent; curved or variously contorted, longitudinally ridged, usually wiftil 
spines or tubercles on the other ridges. ' .'■'.* 

Fruit smooth or with tubercles or spines on the 
outer ridges; flowers usually 2-5 in a head 

Fruit with capitate tubercles on the r.utcr ridges: 
flower;; solitary, rarely 2 together on ;i peduncle' 

S. muricatus L, 

''S. . L. 

Plate XXI 

1. muricatus 

2, vsrmscuUrfus 

Widna ■.■■'. 

Many-flowered Scorp in his ■ 


Stems up to 80 cm high, glabrous or pubescent with apprcssed or with natriil 
hairs. -Head' (1-1 2- to 5- flowered. Corolla 5-10 (-12) mm Ions. Legume with tniv 
ridges- smooth oi* the outer 4-8 tuberculat'c or spinose. Seeds lunate, attenuate at 
ends. 2n = 28. Fl. 3-5. \: ; :Bi| 

Fields, valleys, rocky and waste ground, m-tive and often cultivated as a forage;; 
plant, Malta, Gozo and Comwo: common everywhere (S. & C7G.; Borg; G, Lahsf; 
franco: Wolseley). Commotio: (Duthie; Borg). - : V. :; ' 

Mediterranean region. 
t- S. verm k'u Sat us L. 


Single -flowered Scorpiurus;' 

Stems up to 70 cm high, hirsute. Flowers solitary or rarely 2 together on a ■'., 
peduncle. Corolla 10-20 mm lonp. Legume with stout capitate tubercles on.t%- 
outer ritiges, Seeds elliptical or oblong. Fl. 3-4, ".'■)' 

Malta.: Wied Balluta (GD.l; Borg); Cottonera (Gulia; Borg). \ 

W, Mediterranean region. ' ■'* 

i(S2'- ' ;■; 

J. coronariiun 

2. sphiosissirrmrii 

3, glome ra turn 



p.-;:, : Perennial. 30-100 cm high, sparsely-appressed pubescent. Leaflets 3-3 pairs. 
jjj|£f5-3S x 12-13 mm, -elliptical to cbovate-orbicular. glabrous. or subglabrons above, 
Iteiibeseent beneath. Racemes 10- to 35-flowered, dense. Calyx sparsely to densely 
'ESplibeseent, the teeth about as long as the tube; corolla 12-15 mm long, bright 
ijfegf eddish- purpie- Legume with. 2-4, spinulose. hut otherwise glabrous segments. 2u 
U. Fl. 3-5. 

©Extensively cultivated as a forage plant. Malta, Gozo mid Comino ■ v<rv common 
¥0:& C.G.; Borg; G, Lanfranco; Wolseley), 

S:"C: & W. Mediterranean region. 



II. KpimosESSinium L: 

Silla salva&ga 
Spiny Sulla 

sws: ARni:g « J 5-35 cm high, appreased -pubescent. Leaflets (2-) 4-8 pairs. 5-12 -; 
g mlri , elliptical or oblong, subglabrous or pubescent. Racemes 2-to Kl-Iiowered. 
1 pjyx 4-6 mm long.' sparsely 'pubescent, tie teeth as long as or longer than 
liilfe- tube: . corolla S-ll nam Ions, white to pale pinkish- purple, U-2 limes as 
Jm as the calyx. Legume with 2-4 spinulose and pubescent segments, Fl, 3-5, 
.&V... ■ ■ 

tf'"^ rocl ^ r g^und. Malta: locally abundant at Maria (Wo'lsciev); Ahrax. Ghajn 
"Pffleba (Borg); Ghadira (Borg; Kramer & Westral; Qalet" Marku (Gauei). 
pE'emmo; abundant on the central highland (Borg; Wolseley).' terras ear* region. 

'R K'fotviejaium F.G. Dietrich Plate XXI 

11. civp'iiGivm Desf., non Burm, fil. 

Silla salv'cigsa 
Clustered . Sulla 

Differs J'rom H. spinosissimum as follows: leaflets somatomes obovate; corolla 
||I|;2.Q mm Jong", pinkish purple, 2^5 timei; ;ls long as the calyx. PL ,?-o. 

p|rid, roclfy peaces near the sea. Malta: locslly abundant as at Maria peninsula. 
'Marsaxlokfe, Delimara. Cnejna (S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley): Kellielia (Duthie; S. 

m& "C.G.; Borg; Wolseley); Ghain Tuffieha (Borg). Goto; "xiend 
pS'Dutfiie; S.&. C.G.; Ta' Cenc (Wolseley). 

i near the sea 

J 63 


Flowers 5-raeroifci. tor?*--- 

»s°ss p iss. 

■1. OxaKs L. 

, „ / g'j. f ]iate. with or ■:■' 

without ^"^^.^LHo^Mnce miliary, cymose, «»^ a % ls 5, frte, 

l. Flowers purplish or pmi 
jlowers yellow 

a . Aerial stem ^S^a. base of Plant 
Aerial stem abtenl, " u ' . ■ 

S. purpurea 

1. corwicwiata 

2. pes-caprac 

Yellow Oxalis. 

"' "jr SIS'' sr.K£f »f« ,$"«.«£ ffi™ p«s; % 

SS^e y !"sS2-^ S «,vH,^ .own. n - K «. . - fi| 

MliwW „< ™* *-.,&,« *.,,«"' (S '. & •■ " ■;: 

Lanfraneo). Cow: frequent. (*»*%> ■ ,-, 

Laniraneo;. i/u^- «—i— 

Tropin a-! warmer temperate regions of the world. 

2 O. pes-caprae L. 
0. cernua. Tliunb. 

Plate XXI 

Qares, Haxixa Inglii": 
African OxaUs 

\J prs ^1""" — — ■■■■' ^ 

. «™«» Tlmnb. ..,„,,,,, aoepIy-Mried bulb, ««[«| 

.»"* i°ssLS?S»=r£f « T — 3 Si SS34 


W0lSelt:yK . . ^uraUs^ in Mediterranean region and ^ 

Native of S. Africa; extensively naturalised m 

Europe. ■■■■■■; 


3. O, purpurea L. 
p. fcimilis Thunb.- 

Pubescent or villous caespitose 'perennial, with a bulb which, emits ad 
ascending subterranean stem bearing a rosette of leaves at soil level. Petioles 
3-10 long; leaflets S-23 x 9-30 mm, rhombic, obtuse, punctate and often purple 
beneath. Flowers solitary, infundibuliform; peduncles 1-10 cm; sepals lanceolate; 
petals 25-35 mm long, purplish -pink, white at base. Capsule c. 5 mm. long. 
Garden escape (Eorg; Wolseieyj. 

IVative 0/ S. -Africa, naturalised in S.W. Europe. 


Herbs, or r::rely small shrubs with soft stems. Leaves stipulate, usually lobed or 
divided, and sometimes more or less compound. .Flowers in cymes, umbels or 
spikes, S-merous, actinoiriorphic or somewhat zygomorphic. Sepals 5, free; 
petals 5, free; stamens obdip'ostemonous in two whorls of 5, some of them 
sometimes reduced to staminodes. Ovary superior, of 5 united carpels, separating 
in fruit into 5 1 -seeded mericarps; styles united in flower, sometimes separating 
in fruit. 

Several species and hybrids of 'gardeners' Geranium', Pelargonium, irdni S. Africa 
are commonly cultivated for ornament and occasionally escape and persist on 
"wails. .'■.'' 

..Leat'es palniately (rarely ternately) divided or 
lobed; beak of m erica rp straight or curved in a 
simple arc. sometimes absent 

Leaves pinnateiy divided or lobed; beak of meri- 
carp spirally twisted at maturity 

1. Geranium X. 

1. Geranium 

2. Erodium 

■;.ilerbs. Leav-as more or less orbicular in outline, palriiately (rarely ternately) 

globed or divided, many or ail of them basal; cauline leaves^ if-' present, usually 
p;:. opposite near base of stem, but often alternate in the infloresence. Inflorescence 

■cymose; ultijnate peduncles usually 2 -flowered. Flowers actinoinorphic. AH 
j| Stamens fertile. Stigmas S, filiform. 'JHericarps usually dehiscent, separating from 

;:the base upwards, usually retaining outer part of style in the form of a long 
Seak, of which the apex remains for a while attached to tJm central axis formed 

fby the still cohere tit inner parts of all 5 styles. 

; : ; in all species, except where the contrary is implied in the description, the 
Jjasai leaves (to which the descriptions refer) have long petioles; the eaiiline 
fc-ltaves, if present, have progressively shorter petioles and lamina often with 
gjewer lobes; all leaves bear rather short appressed hairs on both surfaces; and 
Ittie, sepals are hairy, obtuse to subacute, and mucronate or aristate. 

In the description below lobe is used to Indicate a primary division of the 
ye.if, segment a division of a lobe. Measurements of sepals refer to the fruiting 
Condition and include the arista. 

::1. Petals v-'ith conspicuous claw; sepals erect during 

\::;' . flowering 

\, :.■ ' Petals without distinct' claw; sepals more or less 

* patent during flowering 







- : ■ : X '•« ' 

2. Sepals keeled; leave? not deeply divided 

Sepals not ke el ed>. leaves very deeply divided so 
as to appear compound 

3. Petals 9-13 mm long; pollen orange; mericarps 
with rather few ridges 

Petals 5-9 mm long; pollen yellow; mericarps with 
numerous ridges 

4. Petals entire 

Petals 2-Iobed, emarginate or crenulate fit apex 

5. Mericarps (excluding style) glabrous 
Mericarps (excluding style.) hairy 

1. G. rotundifolhmi L. 

1. hidduws 

5. rofeeriiammi 

6. piiTnurcHBi : - 
1; rntumiiforium 

2. moSle 

3 dissectum ■'!■-. 

Round- leaved Crane's-bill 

:ValIeys, gardens and. shaded places. Malta and Gozo:. frequent (Borg; G. Lan- 
franco; Wolseley; Haslam). 

3J||OMost of Europe; S.W. Asia; N. Africa, Atlantic Islands, introduced elsewhere. 

;4, G. Iiicidnm I,. 

Shining Oane's--biR 

Annual; stems 10-10 cm high, erect or ascending, -with long and short hairs,"; 
both glandular and. eglandular mixed. Basal leaves 3-7.5 cm wide, Tilded oi .-; 
25-40% of the radius into 5-7 contiguous, cune ate lobes, which are deeply crenat^' 
or divided apiealiy into short obtuse segments; upper leaves mors deeply divided- 
"" more acute segments. Peduncles usually shorter than subtending leaves; 
Sepals 5-0 nim long, mucronate; petals 5-7 mm long, entire or very slightly i 
emarginate, pink. Mericarps hairy, without ridges. '2i:. = 26. Fl, 2-4. '.'.-' 

Fields, valleys and waste places. Malta: frequent (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. L;m franco';: 
Wolseley). -Gozo: common {S & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley). 

Most of Europe except the north; W. and C. Asia; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands;; 
introduced elsewhere. ■'.-■, 

Annual, shining green, often tinged with red, usually sparsely hair;.'. Stems 
jl" 10-40 cm high, erect or ascending. Leaves 2-R cm wide, divided for t>Si-7i>(jr of 
feitlie radius into 5 obovate-euneate lobes, which are crenat.c or shortly 3-firf at. 
gfiihe apex, with broad, obtuse, mucronate segments. Sepals 5-7 mm long", aristate, 
jfeerect and connivent during flowering, strongly keeled and with transverse 
p' ridges. Petals 8-10 mm long, with a well-marked claw longer than the obovate, 
^entire, pink limb. Mericarps usually separating without a stylar beak, laterally 
|| compressed, with 5 strong longitudinal ridges at apex, irregularly retieulate- 
|| ; rugose below; pubescent on upper and inner sides. 2k = 20. Fl. 2-5. 

Y0A walls, waste places and fields. Malta and Gozo: fGulia. without locality) ; 

JfiSiiskett, Wied Geriuma (Borg). 

E$?' : " ■. 

5. Most of Europe except the north-east; S.W. Asia; N. Africa; Madeira. 

2. G. moiie L. 

Plate XXI 

Dovesfoot Crane's-bill' 



Denselv pubescent, usually greyish-green annual, perhaps rarely perennial;/ 
stems 10-40 cm high, decumbent or ascending, branched from the base, witi}- 
long, soft white hairs and shorter, often glandular hairs. Basal leaves l.M- ■■'ciifc) 
wide, divided for 70<jfj of the radius iiito 5-7 obovate-cuneate. shortly S-fitiii 
lobes; uppermost leaves alternate, sessile; lowest leaves of inflorescence cofr? 
siderably exceeding subtending peduncle and with petiole considerably longer- 
tharc lamina. .Sepals 4-5 mm long, shortly mucronate; petals 3-U mm , lan$v 
deeply emarginate, pinkish purple. Filaments glabrous. Mericarps glabro-us,-- 
usually with transverse ridges, Fl. 2-4. ■ \' ; ;? 

Waste places and road margins. Malta and Gozo: very common (S. & C.G.; Borff;::.:'jJjg| 
Lanfranco; Wolseley). Comino (S, & C.G,; Borg). 

Europe except the extreme north; Asia; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands. 

3. G. dissecium L. 

Cut-leaved Crane's^ill';' 1 

Annual; stems 10-60 cm high, ascending or erect, usuallv with short cteflexeidji 
hairs. Leaves 2-5 cm wide, divided almost to the base into 5-7 contiguous, rhombic^ 
deeply pinratid lobes; segments linear-obloner. uppermost leaves opposite, .d'is^ 
tinctly petiolate. Peduncles shorter than the subtending leaves; pedicels and sepsjff.C 
densely pubescent with some of the hairs glandular; sepals 5-6 mm long, vritftr 
short s^Kt" Petals c, 5 mm long, purplish -pink. Mericarps hairy, without ridge'Sli* 
In = 22. FL 2-4. _ : % 

' ''■t'vr 

!■$. G. robcrtlanum L. 

Herb Ilobert 

,.,. Annual or biennial, often turning red, more or less hairy. Sterrw 1.0-50 cm 
high, procumbent or ascending. Leaves 3-8 cm wide, very deeply divided so 
2fas to appear compound, with 3(-5) principal divisions which are 2-p'rnnatisecf: 
pyith oblong, mucronate or apiculate segments. Pedicels with long, patent glan- 
felMar and deflexed eglandular hairs. Sepals 7-9 mm long, erect, lanceolate, 
.aristate, hirsute with stout hairs. Petals 9-13 (-15). ram long: limb 6-9 mm long, 

pflljovate-'cuneate, entire, bright pink, abruptly contracted to a narrow claw.' 
pp?pllen orange. Mericarps separating without stylar heak. hut remaining attached 

lite the axis by a strand of delicate fibres; with 1 or 2 strong transverse ridges 
Jgai'the apex and a few, low, irregular ridges forming an open reticulum else-' 
^fkfhere; ridges usually hairy.- 2« = 1)2, 63. Fl. 2-5. 

galleys and shady places. Malta: frequent (S. & C.G.: Borg; G, Lanfranco; 
It&blseley).; frequent (S. & CO.; Berg; Wolseley). Com-irco (Borgi. 

feast of Europe except the extreme north; Asia; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands. 

&. G, purpureum Vill. 

Purple Hero- Robert 

Digers from G: robertianum in having sepals ovate, mucronate or shortly 
jpfistate; petals 5-9 mm long, purplish -pink, with limb 3-5 mm lone;, ell.ipt.ic- 
Bp^long, longer than broad, and contracted. less abruptly to a relatively broader 
st'ciaw; pollen yellow; mericarps usually glabrous with about 4 strong, transverse 
fUitdges near the apex, and covered elsewhere by a close reticulum of lower 
'jfffit conspicuous ridges. 2n = 32. Fl. 2-5. 

pulleys and shady places: Malta: Buskett, Wied Incita (Borg!. 

& W. Europe, northwards to c. 52°N.; Atlantic Islands. 

2. Erodiun! L'Her. 

^jinual to perennial Iverbs, usually with Iierm aphrodite flowers; rarely dioecious, 

eaves mostly opposite, usually longer than- wide, pinnatifid to pinnate, or rarely 

Undivided, usually with appressed hairs. Inflorescence an umbel (rarely reduced 



Stitrmas 5. iilijCorrn. ■ 

'''° J! "''' . . ., rt ™».nt The msuarameots bdow reW 

^r^»w3H&s s .VSS S.TA 

2 Bracts at base of umbf:! - ? . - ., 
Bracts at base of umbe^ at «ast 3 

4 Apical pit, of merles without a furrow at the 
Scat Pit, «r -ericarp with a furrow at the- toe 

5 PeW* e. 15 nun *>»* ^ Jt P £, "^ 
5 lilhtwo »n S pl«ou5 lum«i « *e J^ 

Petals c 8 ram long, apical pus oi «» luu i 
out' furrows at the bass 
',, intercalary IcaSets present, much, smaller than the 
principal ones 
Intercalary leaflets absent 

7 plant caulescent 
Plait acauleseent 

8 . Moit of the leaflets : divided ^J«X 
So mW-rib; apical pits of mericarp glandular 

9, Annual or biennial 


2. liiciniatum 



ci con inn i 

riisMiii ;'L.j Willd. 

Mediterranean Stork's-bill 

■ Stems 5-50 cm high, with deflated hairs, at least near the base. Leaves 
ovate, very variably dissected. Umbels with 2-8 .flowers ; bracts 3 or more, ovate, 
.acute, brown, Sepals 5-7 bid long; petals 5-9 mm long; purplish. Mericarps 
3.34,5' mm long, with short, appre.ised. whitish hairs; apical pits small bat 
rather deep, covered with minute glands, without a furrow at the base. Beak 
3040 ram Ions. 2" = 20. Fl. 2-3. 

Fiolds and waste places'. Malta: Wied Ghomor (GD); Mtahleb, Wied fncita (Gulia; 
Borg'j; MeilieSa i-Outhie; Borg); Ghajn TuSieha (Borg), 


iT-g'on; W..Asia; Atlantic Islands 

■E, ladm'araiis (Cav.) Willd. 

F. c.hrti'iii var. laciniatum (Cav.) Fiori 

Cut-leaved Stork's- bill 

Annual or biennial, sterna 10-70 cm high, with defiexed hairs at least near the 
base. Leaves 2-7 em lor>g, oblong to broadly ovate, very variously dissected; 
undivided and irregularly serrate, or with 3 pinnatifid lobes, or almost bipin- 
jiatisect WiUr linear-lanceolate segments. Umbels with 4-9 flowers; bracts 2, sub- 
orbicular to reniiorm, glabrous, Brown; hairs, on. pedicels and sepals eglandular. 
Sepals 'e. 7 mm long, distinctly .muctonate; petals c. 7 mm long, purplish. Meri- 
.- carps 4,5-6.5 -mm long, with short, whitish hairs; apicalpits shallow, eglandular, 
without, a furrow at the base. Beak 35-iX) mm long. 2h = 20. PI. 4-6, 

Sandy places, Malta: rare (G. LanfrancOJ as at Marfa, Ghadira (S. & C.G.; Duthio; 
Borgj; St. Paul's Bay, Bahar ic r Cagnaq (Borg). Goto: Xlendi (S. & C.G.; Borg); 

. Ramla. (Duthfe; Borg); Qbajjar (Borg). 

: Mediterranean region, 

..''3. K. riiiiiiicoidcs (L.) L'Her. 
E. sublrUobum Jordan 

Plate XXI 

Glandular Stork's -bill 

Annual or biennial; stems 3-50 cm Jong, with deilexed hairs, often glandular. 
■ Leaves 2-1(1 x 1-5 oil, ovate to oblong, cordate, dentate, sometimes pinnatifid. 

Umbels wfth 3-7 flowers; bracts several, Ovate-orbicular, often hairy, whitish; 
J] airs on pedicels and sepals usually glandular. Sepals 5-7 mm long, petals 5-9 
: mm long, purplish. Mericarps 4-5 mm long, with white or brownish hairs; 

apical pits deep, usually glandular, with a wide, deep furrow at the base. Beak 
,18-35 mm long, in = 40. Fl. 14. 

Fields, valles and waste places. Malta, Gozo, Comma and Commotio: very common 
(Borg; G, Lanranco; Wolseley). 

-'Mediterranean region, extending northwards in W. France to 49°N, 

4. E. botrys fCavJ Bertot. 

Hairy Stork's-bill 

6. ciciitarium 

J. moschatuni 

6. ciciitarium 

8. acaule 

'■■ Caulescent annual; stems 5-40 cm high, with long, patent or deflexed hairs, 
leaves up to 5 cm long, usually appressed-setose, oblong or ovate, at least the 
; upper deeply pinnatifid or pinnatisect; lobes pinnatifid or dentate. Umbels with 
- : I-4 flowers; bracts ovate -lanceolate, acute, subglabrous, brown. Sepals 10-13 mm 
; : Jong; petals c. 15 mm long, violet. Mericarps 8-11 mm long, with ascending, 
;, ; wnftish hairs; apical pits deep, eglandular, with two furrows at the base, the 
i-iipper larger. Beak 80-110 mm long. 

109 ■ ' "" 


■ t .n : 

'$M i' 

n '". 


■' f ':iffil ; s- 

, t *-yV&iy£: '(■. 

vi'^SS: ^ 

."• .v.r* ; ' 

It 1 



Sand Stork'sML'! 

Gozo: two plants on Ta' Harrax in April 1859 (Gulia). 
Mediterranean region. 

5. E. ciconium (L.) L'Her. 

Annual or biennial, stem** 10-70 cm high with short, usually de-Wed arid* 
glandular hairs. Leaves up to 9 em long, pinnate at least near the base- leaflet^ 
pntnatisecL the ultimate segments dentate or pinnatifid; intercalary lobes pre-' 
sent. Umbels with 3-10 flowers; bracts ovate-lanceolate, densely hairy Sepa¥ ; - 
12- i 5 mm long, glandular-hairy; petals c. 8 mm long, bluish or lilac, with darker" 
vein'; Mericarps 3-11 ram long, with numerous whitish- hairs; apical pits deep -A 
18 f - „ g!£mdu!al% without a furrow at the base. Beak (J0-100 mm long, 2n =4 

Grassy places, Mn.Ua: Wied Balluta, Kordin, (GD,; Borg). '".'?> 

JWech'teivanean region, extending northwards to 48 G iV. in E. C. Europe- W ^ 

Asia. ' ■ "'■''■ 

<>, E. eicatarium (L.) L'Her. 

Common Stork's- bill J? 

Jsuaiiy tamescent and annual, often somewhat foetid; stems up to eOi-irioK 

iZl^t T V % S , Up , t0 15 - cm Itmg < pirmat3 ' with ™'«^ Indumentum, wll 
mtercaiary leaflets: leaflets pinnatifid to pinnate, but alwavs divided for S 

\ 7 J« r ay t0 , m i idr I b - Um,,cls wllh up t0 ]2 flow e r ^ ^acts brownish. .Sepal!': 1 
5-( mm long; petals 4-11 mm long, purple, lilac o r white. Mericarps 4-7 miri* 
long, wuh ascending- hairs; apical pits eglandular. Beak 10,70 mm long. Fl. 11-5.?: 

React margins and waste places. Malta, Gozo and Comino; verv common fBori^ 
Lt, uflfi franco; Tvols'eley), " . ■;/ 

Throughout Europe; temperate Asia; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands; introduced^ 

C 1 !3 GWrt £ 1*1* . ■ 

7. K moscliatuiii (L.) L'Her. 

Haxixa tai-misk 
Musk StorkVbill 

%-ie.ry . short, sparsely eglandular- pubescent. Umbels with 3-10 flowers; peduncles 
©glandular below; bracts several, ovate-lanceolate, snbglabrous, brown. Sepals 
^ long, with appressed eglandular hairs. Petals 7-12 mm long, lilac, equal,, 
without black patch. Mericarps 6-7 mm long with ascending white hMrs; apical 
pits eglandular, with a fairly distinct furrow at the base. 2n = 40. 

^Malta: rare, mentioned in Webb's herbarium (Berg). 

^Mediterranean region. 


flowers solitary, axillary, hypogynous, zygomorphic, hermaphrodite. S;yp;iis 5. 
"Xthe dorsal produced into a spur; petals 5, clawed; stamens S. tree. '.ii.ietiy.Eil; 
|;oyary 3-loeuIar, each loculus with 1 pendulous ovuie; placentation a:iila: style 
ji.,.. apicsil; ctigmas 3, linear. Fruit of 3 indchiscetit, 1-seeded cir]>-jj = , which 
Separate from the central axis when mature. 

|:..; 1. Tropaeotum L. 

gJSomewhat succulent herbs, procumbent or climbing by coiling ■ s;eH::;icn; leaves 
Alternate; stipules usually absent. 

&Kl: T. niajus L. 

Garden iX'asi'jrUum 

„-,J?i nfll, i al n 0r , bi ?™ tal * celling of musk. Stems 10-50 cm high, hispid winV 
uo^ally dctlcxcd hairs, dense above, sparse below. Leaves up to 20 cm Icrie'- 
oblong-lanceolate, pinnate almost throughout their length, without intercalary' 
leaiie.s; leaflets ovate, dentate- serrate or somewhat pinnatifid, the lower ones. 
remote Stipules brown. Umbels with 5-12 flowers; br aet s several, broadly ovata 
subacute, subg abrons, pale brown. Sepals 6-9 mm long; petals c. 15 mm Sv 
violet or purple. Mericarps 5-6 mm long, with patent, brown or white hairs''' 
apical pits very wide, glandular, with a wide,. deep furrow at the base Beak 20-4V' 
mm long, FI 12-5. 

Fields, waste places and road margins. Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common - : 
(Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Wolseioy). /: 

Mediterranean region; W. Europe; Atlantic Islands; introduced elsewhere. 

8. E. awml* (L) Becherer & Thell. Stemless Stork's-Mll' 

E. ramanum (Burm. fil.) L'Her. *: 

Acaulescent perennial. Leaves up to IS cm long, oblong to ovate -lanceolate - 
pinnate without intercalary leaflets: leaflets ovate-elliptical to o vate -lanceolate"- 
pinnatifid or pinnatis'act, ultimate segments of leaves elliptic -lanceolate; petiole'- 


||i Glabrous annual or perennial. Leaves 4-15 cm long, peltate, orbicular, suben- 
|?.fire to somewhat angular or siniiate Flowers 3-6 cm in diameter, orange ov red 
fe; yellow, or parti-coloured; spur 2-4 cm long, straight, cylindrical; limb of 
petals orbicular, more or less equalling claw; 3 lower petals cilia te at baso. 

I'Vfidely cultivated. Malta: naturalised on waste ground at Salini and t\i\e where 

BNa'tivc from Peru to Columbia; widely cultivated in gardens for ona:i;t;il.. 


pftei'bs or shrubs. Leaves stipulate, usually pinnate, blowers henn aphrodite. 
pSsiially a ctinom orphic, (4-}5-merous. Disk present. Stamens usually twice as 
iSiiany as petals. Ovary superior, usually angled or winged. Fruit dry c,t Meshy. 

Flowers purple; stipules spinose 
Flowers yellow; stipules not spinose 

1, Fagonia L. 


Serbs; often with spinose stipules, Sepals 5. deciduous; petals 5. clawed, 
!j$E(ius. Disk inconspicuous; stamens 10. Ovary 5 angled. Fruit a capsule; 


^ivith endosperm, 
fe;i; F, CKeiic£\ L. 

Plate XXII 


V Almost glabrous, procumbent perennial 10-40 cm high. Steins Ijranchecl. 
angled and striate. Leaves opposite, trifolioiate, petiolal.e; leaflets S-la mm 
Ktting, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, asymmetrical, rather coriaceous', stipules 
^shorter than petioles, spinose. Flowers c. 10 mm in diameter, solitary, axillary. 
^Sepals acuminate; petals purplish. Fruit 8-10 mm long, (including the persistent 
jfestyle), the 5 loculi very sharply angled mid ciliate on the angles. Fi. 3-5. 


Ilaei^ fcrovuf Malta: r»re 

(G . Lan , ra ^), y ^^-^f &WestniJ 

hillside (Borg; 

MM'Uifc.i-'-:.!tea" region. 

Berts. Scimls 5, deciduous 
10. Ovary 5-io.bed-- irurt 


2 Tributus L. 

rn'i . 

1. T. 'U^'tOSUli 


Plater XXU 

Ghatba Salib 1-art -; 
L ,. _ Tribulus 'i 

nV ^ a u prostrate annua) «-«. - % S^»jJ. »JT%B?f ? 

^tVS ^ .*»- » - -- ^ Wofeeley); K , lkM - 

fersa, RloL.glbe railway *™ **$**£*££?&. & C.C: BorgK - 


, t ,V, o,. ^HsLnm,. Leave, -t K -^SS C 5| 
K r -:S-« S-mawitt, =* !rorao f i - :f t Xrl s^times with » WW*: 
K' joined r.t base); **«£ *t» * J^Sd! Styles usually free. ^ 

1, Limim 1-'- 

veined. Flowers 5 merom.Sc * dl * ^ e sUml uodes; filaments lumtei at .bm, 
£K? d^S^ ^es^en wi* « *»* **' ^ ™' 

less than 3.5 mm in dlameto 

yeilo-vv . diameter; petals 

Capsule 5"i 1 «i' e lh<ul J ' a 
blue, pink or rcfl 

t -„„ 1 9f <n in wide, with smooth mat-ins 
Leaves l-.J(-fj m 1VIUC ' . . mjmrtelv serrulate 

Leaves 1.5-3(-5> mm wide, with w™« h "' lit 9 
mai-EitiK, often inrolled 
Petal* ntafc or rod; sepals 7-9 mm long 
Petals blue; sepals 4-5.5 mm long 

usually with seabrid margins, Sepals 7-9 mm long, ovate, long-aciiiainaie, vvith 
wide, se.ariaus margins below and narrow, filiate margins above. Petals 2-2$ 
times as long as the sepals, pink or red. Stigmas linear. Capsule 4.3-0.5 mm in 
diameter, subglobose; beak 0,5-1 ram long, acuminate, Homostylnus. F!. 4-5, 

Sea shore, Malta: Giiajn Zejtuna near Meliiena (S. & CO.; Borgi. 

S. Italy; Sai'degna; Sieilia; N. Africa. 

3. trigyniun 

4. strfctum 

1. deeumbens 

2. Meiine 

L. bieime Miller 

L. awgasii/olittm Hudson 

Pate Flux 

, Biennial or perennial (rarely annual); stems G-60 em high., usually branched, 
slender; ascending or erect. Leaves .0.5-1.5 mm mde, linear or' liMiW-i&neeolate:,'' 
agminate, 1-to 3-veined. Sepals 4-5,5 mm long, subequal, OTale-aeusr.inate, with, 
a conspicuous mid-vein; margin of inner sepals scarious and ciliatc- margin 
o£ outer sepals entire. Petals S-3 times as-' long as sepals, blue. Stigmas linear. 
Capsule 4-S irvKi in diameter, subglobose; beak d l mm long, acuminate. Homo- 
stylous. In = 30. Fl. 4-5, 

Sandy sea-shores and inland. Mafia: rare CO. Lani'rancii), as at Rami -i talQortin, 
Maria (S. & ■ C.G.j Borg); Selmrrn (Duthie; S. & C.G.; Borg); Wred Incita i Penza). 
■ Comino; Bamla Sta. Marija (Gauci). 

Mediterratiean region; W. Europe; Atlantic Islands. 

L, trigynum L. 
li. gattiewiK L. 

Plate XX.iT 

South«r.n Fiax 

Glabrous annual; stems 10-30. cm high, erect or ascending. Leaves i-2( : 3) mm 
:,wide, linear-lanceolate to narrowly elliptical, with smooth margins. Sepals 3-4 

mm long, shortly acuminate with gland ul a r-cil late margins and setaceous apex. 
-Petals 4-Q mm long, yellow! Stigmas linear. Capsule c. % mm long, subglobose; 

beak c. 0.3 mm. Homostylous. Fl 3-5. 

Arid, rocky ground. Malta,: Gozo and Coniino.: Frequent (S. & CO.; Berg; G. 
Lanfraneo;WoIseIey). Commotio (Dutirie). 

Mediterranean region extending northwards to C, France and E. Csectiosloya'fcia;. 
W. Asia; Atlantic Islands. 

\. L. strictum L. 

Kittien tal-iroharbal 
Upright Flax 

1, 1j. ilut-'iiinbeiis Desf, 

Kittien .'■. ■ 

Ascending I'lax .:■, 


Annual; stems 10-45 cm high, erect, inconspicuously hairy below. Leaves 
: 1.5-3 i-5) mm wide; margins minutely serrulate, very rough, often inrolled. Sepals 
-4-6 ma long, ovate -lanceolate, leng-aeuminate, minytely serrulate and ^lai\dulav- 
ciliate. Petals 6-12 mm long, yellow. Stigmas capitate. Capsule 2-2.5 ram in 
:diameter, subglobose; beak c. 0.3 mm long. Homostylous. 2« =■■ IS. I'l. 35, 

. 5t is possible that two subspecies occur,' Subsp, strictnm has the sterns robust, 
^seldom branched below, inflorescence a .dense, spike-iike cyme or corymb; 

* flowers sessile or subsessile witli thick pedicels rarelj$ longer than tbe calyx, 
|~j;^\il)sp. corymbirlosan) (Reichenb.) Kouy has the stems slender, often branched 
"below; inflorescence lax; spreading; pedicels slender, eon ailing or longer than 
|>Jhe calyx. ■ - . . ■ 

Uncultivated nelds, rocky and arid places. Malta; frequent (S. & C.G.;' Bwg; G, 

1-: 173 

■SS3 ' (: 

•;<• ': 

« If i 
.**&■ i- 

m ■ 


Lanfrsncc; Wolseley; Kramer «-, Westra>. Gozo and Cowwo (S 5- rQ- 'JoV- 
Wolseley). Comniotto (Duthie; S. & C.G.; Borgl. 

Mediterranean region; W. Asia; Atlantic Islands. 


Dioecious or monoecious herbs or shrubs, often with latex. Leaves usually alter- 
nate, simple; usually stipulate. Flowers usually aetinomorphic, often apetaious- 
and sometimes without -sepals. Male flowers with one to many stamens with free: 
or connate filaments. Female flowers, with a usually 3-lociUar superior" ovary an*' 
A styles; disc usually present, annular, pulvinatc or cyathifornr ovules 1> in'' 
each lotTilus. Fruits a capsule often dehiscing explosively; seeds often cariin-i 

1. Inflorescence usually umbellate; flowers without 
perianth, in small groups surrounded by an in- 
volucre; latex present 

InOorescenee not umbellate; perianth present;- 
flower;; not surrounded, by a involucre: latex ab- 

2. Plant with stellate hairs 

■ Plant, glabrous cr with r/impie hairs 

3. Shrubs; leaves palmateiy lobed 

Kerbs., sometimes, woody at base; leaves entire 

4. Leaves alternate 
Leaves opposite 

5. Euphorbia 

2. Chrnzophora 
4. Ricinus 

1. Andraehne 
n. Merciirialls 

1. A. to'enMmdes L. 

Plate XXII 


M.ems up to 10 cm long, green, simple or little-branched, arising from a 

brown, .mueh-branchc^ stock, Leaves up to 10 mm Ions, obovnte or cllipiicrfll 
acute or subacute, entire, glaucous, closely and evenly spaced- oetiole 05-2 mni ■ 
long; stipules silvery, often rod at base. Petals yellowish. levies deeply 9-firi"' 
Capsule c. 2 mm in diameter, subglobose. glabrous; seeds t"muctrous v^liY' 
convex, punefulate back. Fl. 3-8. " " 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta: frequent in the vicinity of vrbim are-is (S- 
& C.G.; Boj-g; Wo'scfcy). 

Mediterranean region; W. Asia. 

.Chrozophora A. Juss. 

Monoecious. Annual herbs, covered with stellate hairs, Male flowers in terminal 
spike- ike racemes or in axillary fascicles; calyx 5-tid; petals 5: stamens 5-1D- 
monarlclpfums; rudimentary ovary absent. Female flowers solitary at the base 


i&f-the male; calyx 10-partite; petals absent or very small: ovary 3-locuIar: styles 
hi. 2-fid. 

C. Ifnctoria (L.) A. Juss. 

Plate XXII 

Southern Chvoznpho'r 

7 ^5"- : "" Want green or grey-green, rather thinly stellate-tomentose. Stems up to 50 
if l&m hi^'fl more or less branched. Leaves ovate or rhombic, entire or s.muate- 

si&dentati. subobtuse; euneate at base; petiole as long as to twice as long as 
llartima. Capsule mucronate, covered with peltate hairs; seeds c. 4 mm, rough. 

|Eifl. 5-10. 

fields and waste ground. Malta and Gozo: frequent (Bnrg; Wolseley). 
1 p^irtfediterrfin esn region; Asia. 

3, MwciU'ialis L, 

^[Jsaallv dioecious, herbs with watery sap. Leaves opposite, stipules small. Male 
Upiowers usually in clusters on long axillary; calyx-lobes 3; stamens 8-15. 
"^Female flowers axillary, solitary or in dusters, subsessile or pedunculate: calys 
Habes 3; styles 2. Fruit with 2 cells each with 1 seed. 

,1, HI. arcrma L. 

?late XXII 


Annual Mercury 

1. Andvaeljjie L. V:' 

Monoecious. Small shrubs. Flowers solitary or in small fascicles in the leaf-axils. 
Sepals 5-6. free or shortly connate; petals 5-fl, very small in male flowers. Male' 
flowers with 5-6 stamens, free or connate round the rudimentary ovary; glands'- 
between the petals and stamens, free or connate, round the rudimentary ovary;-- 
glands between the petals and stamens, free or connate. Female flowers with"; 
3-locular ovary and 3 free or shortly connate styles. ' ■■ v; 

■'■] Glabrous or sparsely pubesent annual. Stems 10-50 cm high, branched. 

Leaves 1.5-5 em long, ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, erenate-scrrate, with a petiole 
, E-13 mm long. Dioecious, rarely monoecious. Female flowers axillary, few, sub- 
fesssife; calyx-lobes triangular-ovate, acute. Fruit 2-3 x (2-)3--E mm, hispid, rarely 
jfciearly glabrous; seed c. 2 mm in diameter, ovoid, rugulose. :2n = .16. 4S, 64, 
'UjBO, %, 112. Fl. 111-5. 

^Cultivated ground and waste places. Malta. Goto and Comino; very common (S. 
S---& C.G.; Borg; Haslam; Wolseley). 

|illnst of Europe; W. Asia; N. Africa: Atlantic Islands. 
%;- 4, Ricinus L. 

fiiMoiioecio'.is shrubs or large herbs. Leaves alternate, deeply palmately lobed, 
flowers paniculate,- male above, female .below. Male flowers with membranous 
fi'perianth; stamens numerous; filaments repeatedly branched. Female Mower:.; 
iv.jth caducous, membranous perianth; ovary 3-locular. Seeds 3, carunculatc. 

VI: U. eimi^'tinis L. 

Plate XX?r 

Castor Oil Tree 

&' A'mnaf herb or shrub up to 4 in high. Leaves un to 00 cm long, peltate, 
^palmately 5- to 0-fid; lobes lanceolate, acuminate; irregularly dentate. Panicle 
P L rect Fruit 10-20 mm in diameter with long conical projections, or smooth. Seed 
"*"' M7 in. diameter., smooth, shiny, reddish-Lrown to blackish, marked in various 
shades of white, grey or brown. Caruncle large, Fl, 3-10. 

^K'eultivated in Hardens and naturalised in some valleys. Malta: in the ditches 
! ground the fortification of Valletta. St. Andrews (S. & C.G.; Bo.rg;. Uasium; 
IpWolseley); Wied In-cita f Wolseley); Wied il-Ghasel (Eorg; Wolseley). 

Native of the Tropics. Widely cultivated for the oil obtained from the seeds, and 

JfiiSp&ifi? crname-nt. 



roiW to ^^ i^ e ^ usUy ^unculate. . 

uviltes solitary in each L>^us. L1Jflbe l though 

™le Uowers in the cyatluum. 

Stipule, weS e^-I«av« usn.lly a^trta* »t the 

usually altemaw 

Rfpe seeds Kinooth 
.Ripe serfs rugulose 

' Capsule glabrous 
Capsule hairy 

i „,t,.,,i seeds '1-2 naii in diameter 

in. diameter ■ . ., 

-, ■ w ,vr oval*- sometime iwegur 

■ S^rSra- h^ned ,0, with ™ «* c 

Olavwis horned or *'M d Tra " 

<™ter margin , 

, S - nr ab S with S W»1 taa^^^. stt,Wl,,?,flaP ' 
iffi^.iWSSiSf shrubs; ^.ov^. 

■ entire 

7. awwuU si em V LSU " 11 ^.!£ li Sate, stems u«i«Ux 
Perennial herbs or s umU smraos, 


is. Seeds tuliei'oulate 
Seeds smooth 

Le^es very dense and closely inmate. 

S« not "closety imbricate 

Uaves ovate. subtalar or obovate, .«**««* 
S^Hfl^vrtthout distinct petioles. 


1. peplis 

Z, chamaesyce 
3.. juacutata 




4.' dead«wd*s' 

8, helioses pia 

7. puhescews 
6. splnvsa 

'9. aicpuica 
1*2. ]iej»lus. 

.';■■ ..'£ 



13. SeecU; yermimlate- rugose ■ H>. exigna 
Seeds ovoid- hexagon at with a longitudinal furrow 

on eath face U. sulcata 

14. Seeds ruguiose or pitted 15. 
Seeds smooth ifj. 

15. 4-7 axillary, rays in terminal umbel mere widely 
spaced, axillary rays present but not in whorl 

below terminal umbel 13. pinea 

(6-)8-3;>(-27) axillary rays aggregated to form a 
whorl below umbel and with 0-.10 more widely 
spaced axillary rays 

IS. 13-30(^0) axillary rays; capsule densely villous 

8^9 axillary rays; capsule glabrous 17. 

17. Leaves ovate to obovate, succulent, entire and 
adaxially concave 

Leaves linear-imiceolate to elliptic-oblong, minutely 

; Subgen. Chamaesyce Raftn. Usually; procumbent annual s. Leaves .stipulate; oppo- 
site, distichous, usually asymmetrical : at ■ base, netiolate Gyathia axillary or elus- 

itered, not In umbels. Glands often with petalojd appendages. Seeds without a 



3 7. 






1. .JE. peplis- L. 

Purple Spurge 

Procumbent, somewhat fleshy, glabrous annual, usually with 4 branches from 
the base; -branches up to 40 em high. Leaves (4-) 5-11 (-16) x' 2.54>(-10) mm, 
;. falcate-oblong, obtuse or emarginate, entire or almost so; base obliquely trim- 
'■'.sate; petiole 2-3 mm long. Stipules 1.5 mm long, subulate. Glands semicircular, 
: .reddish -br own, with small, paler appendages. Capsule (3-}3,5-4<t4.5) x 4-5 tnii, 
father deeply silicate, nearly ' smooth, : ' purplish.' Seeds 3 diameter, ovoid- 
^fiyriform, smooth, pale grey, occasionally brown -mottled. FL, 4-11. 

'iSsndy sea shore and fields near the sea. Malta: rare at Eamla ta* San Tumas 
3.S. .& C.G.; Borg); Marsaxlokk (GD.; Borg); Salini, Gnallis, Gtiajn Tuffieha. finejna, 
IMiellieha; St. Paul's Bay, Bahsar it-Caghaq (Borg). C-ozo: iismfe (S. & CO.; Borg; 
i/TSolseleyij Marsalforn, Qbajjar (Borg). Comino (Borg). 

rcsafit of Mediterranean and Atlantie north to S.W". England. 

,% E. chamaesyce L. 
E, cau?sce*s h. 

«e mm ugh a 
Small Spurge 

Procumbent, glabrous or villous annual with, branches up to 30 cm hign. 
Reaves (l-)3-7f-lll x (1-) 2.5-4.5 (-6) mm, asymmetrically ovate-suborbictilar to 
|gttli)ng, obtuse or emarginate, oblique at the base, nearly entire or obscurely 
|isrrulate; petiole e. 1 mm long. Stipules up to 1 mm long, triangular. Glands 
puborbicuiar, with small whitish appendages. Capsule 2x2 mm, rather deeply 
|sultate, smooth, glabrous to densely paten t-pubeseent. Seeds 1.2 mm in diameter, 
|&yoid-quadrangular, irregularly tuberculate-rugulose, greyish, PI. 5-11, 

IJBw) subspecies po.ssMy occur, Siib'sp.' chamaesyce is glabrous or pubescent; 
pave? less than 10 mm long, suborhicuiar-ovate, usually cmarginate, often entire; 



:::;p ! « i 

If ■■■ 

n. : . 


appendages not more than twice as wide as the glands, usually entire. Subsjv 
to as sinensis (DC.) Then, is villous; leaves usually up to 10 mm long, ovate-oblong : 
obtuse, serrulate; appendages more than twice as wide as the glands, oftcri 
3-lobed. - ■ 

Fields find gardens. Malta: frequent (S, & G.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley).-. 
Mediterranean region; W. Asia. 

E. maculaia L. 

Gemraugha hamra 
Spotted Spurge 

4. E. clendroides L, 

Plate XXII 

Tenghud tas-sigra.. 
Tree Spurge 

Herbs or shrubs. Glands transversely ovate, not trim- 1 
horns. Bracts present between male flowers. Capsule:: 

Sicilian Spurge; 

Glabrous shrub up to 150 cm high. Stems leafless below, densely leafy above," 
not persistent and spiny when dead. Leaves linear-Ian ceolate to ovate-lanceolate,; 
acute or acuminate, rarely obtuse, entire, Ray leaves ovate, as long as or longer';: 


■jmj ^thah the rays; raylet- leaves broadly obovate. Rays 5, short, diehotomous. Capsule 
"W fS^-34.8 mm long, glabrous, suleate, with low broad tubercles. Seeds 3 mm in 
i|li|l&meter, smooth, dark brown, shiny. FI. 11-6. 

felipcky places, Malta: occasional (G. Lanfraneo), as at Ta' Baldu, Wie<l Balm. 
g.'Mahleb, Dingl! (S. & C.G.; Borg); Wied i£-Zurrieci (Borg). 

Procumbent annual, with brandies up to 20 cm high. Stems pubescent,; 
Leaves (2-)4-7(-13) x (0.5)l-!i(-4) mm, ovate-oblong to oblong, slightly curved,-: 
obtuse or subacute, obliquely truncate at the base, serrulate near the apex,; 
sparingly putrescent above, more densely so beneath, usually with a purple\Y 
blotch on the midrib; petiole 0.5-1 mm long, shallowly silicate, smooth, sparsely;; 5 
covered with closely oppressed hairs, ^Jfeeds 0.8 mm in diameter, o void -qua draTv: 
gular, with 3-4 transverse furrows on each face, brownish. PI. 4-1.1, 

Fields and gardens. Malta: rare near Attard and San Anton (S. & C.G.; Borg),; 
Native of N. America; naturalised in S. and S,C. Europe, '■'■: 

Subgen. Esula Pers. Usually erect herbs or sometimes shrubs. Leaves exstipatatc,-'. 
usually alternate, symmetrical at base, sessile or subsessile. Cyattria almost*; 
always in umbels. .Glands without petaloid appendages. Seeds usually with a ear-C: 
uncle. .■:,: 

Sect. Pachycladae (Boiss.) '"'utin. Shrubs with stout branches. Leaves alternate, 
entire, present only on the <:urrent years growth. Glands sub orbicular, entire or; 
irregularly iobed. Capsule v.'ith indurated pericarp. Seeds smooth. 

f?Sicilia;' N. Africa, 

'£, E. spihasa L. 

:■ " . E. v i e U t e bs is Pari. 

Tenghud tax-Xagnn 
Spiny Spurge 

Stems up to 200 cm high, apparently dichotornously branched. Leaves 25-155.' s."; 
3-3 mm, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse- mucronul ate, Ray leaves like the eanline but? 
rather shorter and wider; raylet-leaves broadly rhombic, yellowish. Rays .5-8: '■ 
diohotomous. Glands' sub-orbicular, irregularly lobed. Capsule 5-6 mm Imig, the; 
valves laterally compressed, smooth or nearly so. Seeds 3 mm in diameter, '■ 
laterally compressed, grey. 2tt = 18. FI. 12-5. ■■>.: 

Rocky sid^s of VEilleys, Malta: freouent as at Wied il-Ghasel. Gnejna. Eingemma; ': 
(S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley); Wied Filep, Buskett, Dingli (Borg; Wolseley)^: 
Gozo: Xlendi, Mtarr. Wied Bineemma (S, & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley); Ta' Cen'EV. 
(Gulia; Borg; Wolseley); Qala, Nadur, San Bias (Borg; Wolseley). Camino- ($. &■ 
C.G.; Borg; Wolseley). : :;: ' 

Mediterranean region, - 

Sect, Heliuscopia Dumort. 
eate, emarginate or with 
with indurated pericarp. 

5. E. bivmiae Steudel 

: '.; ; . Glabrous, freely branched shrub 10-30 cm high. Dead branches and umbel- 
rays more or less persistent hut not pungent. leaves 5-15 (-20) mm long, 
Mail ceolate or linear-lanceolate, entire. Kay-leaves ob ovate, about as long as rays, 
p&blloivish. Enys-1-5, very short, each usually with 1 Capsule s-4 mm 
giii-' diameter, weakly sulcate, usually with long (rarely short) tubercles. Seeds 2-3 
sJnm in diameter, smooth, brown. 2b = 14. FI. 11-6. 
?K>- : -." " 

*S : Arid, roc&y places. Malta: frequent (G. Lanfraneo), as along the south-west 
JJebkstal cliffs (Borg; Wolseley); Wied Babu, St. Paul's Bay, Mar fa (S. & C.G.; 
fikirg): (S. & C.G.; Borg; Kramer & Westra; Haslam); Dingli (Spencer, 
**&'.'& G.G.; Borg; Wolseley); id-Dhar in Marfa area; Selmun area (Gsuci). Gozo: 
Jjfii'tween Wied ir-Rihan and Wied Bingemma (S. & C.G.); Nadur, Xaghra (Borg; 
Ifeolseley); Mgarr, Ta' Karrax, Dabrani (Borg), Camino: (S. & C.G.; Borg; Has) am; 

jfediterranean Europe. 

:' ; 7, E. pii btw.ens Vahl. Pubescent Spurge 

ii Densely pubescent to sub glabrous perennial up to 100 cm high. Stems stout, 
|s«netiincs with axillary rays. Leaves oblong -Ian ceolate to entire. Ray-leaves 

p&Hptieal to- obovate; raylet-leaves rhombic-ovate, subcordate at base, Rays 5-0. 
i^rsule (?r) $-4 mm long, deeply sulcate, villous or subglabrous, -with oblong 

JKercles. Seeds (1.5-J2-2.5 mm in diameter, dark brown, with paler, small, irregular 

ifKifecles. S« = 14. FI. 6-8.. 

$i'< ■. 

||tfipted larid. Malta: very rare at Cnien il-Kbir (S. & C.G.; Borg); Mars a (GD„ 
Stlf). Goao: rare at Xlendi (Gulia; Borg). 

Pp'd iter ran can region. 

pf'.K'. E. heliK^^Qpto L. 

Tenghud raddiena 
Stin Spurge 

Erect, glabrcscent annual, usually with a single stem 10-50 cm high. Leaves 
Rftii'ovate-spath'tiUte, obtuse, serrate in the upper half. Rays and raylet-leaves like 
jSkq'.csKline hut smaller. Rays 5, triehotomous then dichotomous. Capsule 2.5-3.5 
;grifp .in diameter. Seeds 2 mm in diameter., reticulate- rugose. In — 42. FI. 11-5. 

iifaste and cultivated places. Malta and Gozo: very common (S. & C.G.; Borg; 
ippiLanfranco; Wolseley). 
fe ■ ' 
^Hiiiost throu^hou; Europe; N. jWrica; Asia. 

Set Cyma'ospermurJi (Prokh) Prokh. Annuals; cauline leaves opposite or aRer- 
pite, capsule with indurated mesocarp; seeds ornamented. 



9. E, .aleppica L. 

Aleppo Spurge 

Glabrous or minuteln papillose, somewhat glaucous annual up to 40 cm high, 
sometimes with up to '30 basal branches, and l-9(-12) axillary rays. Leaves 10-25- 
(-50) xl)13(-5j mm, very dense and closely imbricate, linear-subulate to linear- 
obliiiiceolate, entire Ray leaves like the upper eauline, raylet leaves oyate-rhom- 
bie to trukrte or falcate, entire or irregularly toothed. Rays 2-4(-6), up to 5 
times dichotomous. Glands with 2 horns, the horns paler than the glands. Capsule 
2 mm in diameter, shallowly sulcate, more or less smooth. Seeds 1.5 mm in 
diameter, ovoid-tetiagonous, grey, with wfrite tubercles. Fl. 5-9. 

Cultivated fields. Malta: locally frequent (G. Lanfranco), as at Kordin, Marsa, 
zurrfcq, Luqa (S. & C.G.; Borg); Mdnia, Addolorata cemetery (S. & C.G:K Bus- 
kett Wardija, Girgenti, 'Chain Tuffiena, Banrija, 2ebbug (Borg). Gc.:o: Rabat, 
Ghajrisielem (Borg). 
C. and £. Mediterranean region. 

10. L\ exigua h. 

Tenghud'. rqiqa 
Dwarf 'S.j.-ge 

Glabrous annual up to 35 cm high, often much-branched from the base, with'; 
0-3 (rarely more) axillary rays. Leaves 3-2.5 x 1-2 mm, linear to oblong- curt eate;*; 
entire. Ray leaves like the upper eauline. ftayiet-leaves obliquely triangular- ovate-.;: 
lanceolate, rarely 1- to 2 -toothed on one side near the base. Rays 3-5, up to % 
times dichotomous. Glands with 2 horns, rarely the horns much reduced. Capsule--'; 
1.0-2 x 1.6 mm, shallowly sulcate, smooth but granulate oil the keels. Seeds l;2j'Hi 
.mm in diameter, ovoid-quadrangular, vermieulate-rugose, grey, 2k — 14. Fl. 1-3' 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta and G020: frequent fS. ■& CO.; Borg; G. LanJvlgj 
franco; Kramer &■ VVestra; Wolseley). Comino ■ (S. & C.G.; Borg). CominotW : ;~ 

Mu eh of Europe except the east; N. Africa. '.-. 

31. K. sulcata De Lens ex Loisei. 

E. exiyua var. rclusa Cav. 

Tenghud rqiqa : 
Furrowed Spurge!;^ 

Glabrous annual up to 10 cm high, often becoming much- branched frpjrig 
the base, with 0-1 axillary rays. Leaves 4-7 x 1-1.5 mm, linear to Unea.P;&|j 
oblanceolate, entire. Ray-leaves slightly larger than the upper eauline, Bayiet- " "" 
leaves like the ray leaves but somewhat wider. Rays (2*)34f-5), often inanyj-^ 
times dichotomous. Glands witjh 2 horns. Capsule 1.7 x 1.7 mm, deepih sulcata., 
smooth. Seeds 1.25-1.5 mm in diameter, ovoid- hexagonal, with a longitudinal'^- 
furrow on each face, pale grey, often darker in the furrows. Fl. 1-5. 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta and Gozo:\ common (Borg). 

S. W. Europe. 
12. E. peplus L. 

Tenghud taL gonrwh 
Petty Spurge ..-,.- 

Glabrous annual up to 40 cm high with 2 or more branches from the'bf&frfi 
and with 0-3 axillary rays. Leaves 5-25 x 3.15 mm, with petioles up to S ; ni.mfl* 
long, ovate, suborbicular or obovate, entire. Ray-leaves like the eauline biijp 
With shorter petioles. Raylet-leaves smaller, slightly obliquely ovate. Rays 3, ' : fM 
to 5 times dichotomous. Glands with 2 filform horns. Capsule 2x2 mm, sliafigj 


Cultivated and waste places MtOtn r»- ,,' ' 

6- ^»; Kramer an^S SeS ^'^ C °™ CS " & C ^' Borg. 

Most of Europe; W. Africa. 

& Peptoides Gouan appear* tn h* n j , 

»M"(f, G. Lanfranco; Sell; Wolseley) P U occm ' s m dry places in 

Sect ParaEas -Dtunort Anmial «,. ' » ■ 

E. pines L, 

Pine Spurge 

"■ « <-. A*<Ht«rrb ncan region: S.W. Europe. - 

.14. R. 

-wttibcEata Poir. 

Clustered Spurge 

P== G, SJ5 ~ £2*W SIS ^?SL'Sg: 

If *£™r^ Bab - <od; »«= ■«£ <«" ^r o,u n - " 

■-/ 5 ' K. paradas L. 

Tengfiud tar-ramel 


■ Mil 
• -.s 



iJ l|! 


:■ II- 

:-S?* ' [■ 

Ramla tat-Torri (Gauci). Gow: Ramla (S. & C.G.; Borg; Kramer & Westra: Wcrtl 
seley). Comino (S. & C.G.; Borg). ;:- : -i„ 

Coast of W. Europe and Mediterranean. >' : ; 

Sect. Esaia Pers. Perennial; cauline leaves alternate, ynnnate'y veined: glaruS 
truncate or with 2 horns; capsules with indurated pericarp; seeds smooth.'. ,.i 

ifi. E. tciraeina L. TengJiud tax-stuti'^ 

Coastal Spurge :[y'i 

''■ ""E^^ 

Glabrous perennial; stems up; to 70 cm high, simple or branched fromaii 
base and with 0-5 arillary rays. Leaves 15-40<-35) x 4-7i-ll) mm lineal 
lanceolate to elliptic- oblong, rarely linear, minutely serrulate. Ray-Ieaves reseat 
Wing the upper cauline. Raylet-Ieaves d el tate- rhombic, sometimes slightly asvt# 
metrical, occasionally coarsely serrulate. Rays 4-5, up to 5 times dkhotoifiniis* 
Glands with 2 long slender horns. Capsule 3-5 x 4-5 mm. deeplv suleate smooth 
Seeds 2-2,5 mm long, ovoid, pale grey. Fl. 4-9. *. -y; 

Sea shores Malta: rare (G. Lairfrauco), as at Gftadira (S. & C.G.; Borr--- \Ms C 'ev#^ 
Gozo: Ramla (S. & C.G.; Borg). A 

s ■■■• : 'i- 

Mediterranean region, .J; 

17. E. ehav;)c'ia<; L. 

E. melapetala Gasparr, 

Large- .Spurgellj 

; 1. Ruta L. 

, Perennial herbs, more or less woody below. Leaves alternate, 2-to 3- pin n bisect. 

©/Ultimate segments linear or obovate. Inflorescence cymose, bracteate. Sepals 

|r'.aiid petals 4, or frequently 5 in the central flower. Petals cucLilIatc, yellow, dentate 

jt?w ciliate or more rarely entire. Stamens twice as many as tbe petals: iii«raentr, 

"glabrous, attenuate. Capsule 4- to 5-lobed, deniscent. Styles connate. 

Petals fringed with long cilia 
^Petals denticulate, without long cilia 


R, chalepcnsts L. 

fl; Draeteosa DC. 

Plate XXII 

1. clsalrp<?Hfli:< 

2. gi-avoo'eji.s 

Wdil. RilR 

Densely tomentose, rarely glabrescent, glaucous, caespitose, perenhtal : sm&™ 
times with biennial stems up to 180 cm high, with 13-3OM0) axillary rl^f 
Leaves (W-)30-130 x 4-10U7) mm, linear to oblanceolate or occasionally oboM 
entire; those ..of the first years growth usually larger than those of the secrmfT 
Ray leaves hko the upper cauline. Rsylet leaves suborbicular deltaic, usually eou% 
nate in pairs at the base. Rays variable. Capsule 4-7 x '5-6 mm, deeply silicate^ 
smooth, densely villous. Seeds 2.5-S:S mm in diameter, ovoid, silver-grey, Fl y i$W 

Rocky sides of valleys. Malta,: Wied Ineita, Wied il-Ghasel. BiBgGmnn Busliettll 
(S. & CO.; Borg); Dingli, Wied Gerzuma (Borg), Girgenti (Wolseley) GoifrM 
Ramla. Xlendi, IV (Jenc (S. & C.G.; Borg); Wied Qasab (Gulia); Dwejra '&;■$§ 
C.G.); Borg; Kramer & Westra; Wolseley); San Dimitri, Mgarr is-Xini <Duth)#S! 
S. & C.G.; Borg), ': ; i ■', :: " 1, 

Mediterranean Europe; S.W. Asia. : 0!i'- 

RUTALHS ■;■:■. ^ 

XLIV. RUTACEAE . ■■ ;'; ; / : : 

Herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple or compound, dotted" 
with translucent glands, exstipulate, sometimes reduced to spines. Flowers usually" 
hermaphrodite and actinomorphic. Sepals. 4-5, free or connate below. Petals 4-5.S 
Disc present. Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals, rarely more, "'■■ 
free or rarely monadelphous. Ovary superior, usually syncarpous and often 4- to S>- 
loeular, but carpels occasionally united at the base on!y or rarely free StyleS-i 
as many as the carpels, free or connate. '-;.;': 

Herbs; fruit a capsule i jiuu, ' 

Trees or large shrubs: fruit fleshy 2 ', Citrus^ 

Subfam. RUTOIDEAE N-:^; 

Fruit a capsule, usually 4- to 5-valved. Seeds with endosperm, : .': 


* Whole plant foetid when bruised. Stems 20-60 cm. high, glabrous. Lower leaves 

£-more or less petiolate; ultimate segments 1.5-6 mm. wide, narrowly obtong- 

§larieeolate or obovate. Inflorescence lax; pedicels as long as or longer than the 

^■j 'capsule:, branches and pedicels glabrous, rarely a very few minute glands above: 

"^"bracts wider than the. subtended branch, the lower several times so, cordate- ovate. 

|jj.:Sepals glabrous, deltate-ovat.e. Petals oblong, fringed with cilia not as long as the 

fewidtn'of the petal. Capsule glabrous; segments acuminate. Fl. 3-<>. 

Jpfilockyand arid places. Malta, Gozo .and Comino; frequent on the coralline p:?te;rass 
fe'tS. & C G.;' Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). Commotio: 'S. & C.G.;' Borg). 

^jlediterranea n region; Atlantic Islands. 


ill Rut: 

"i% B. gravcolens L 

gs J '.'-! Glabrous thL'OUg"hout; stem 14-45 cm. high Lower leaves mere or less long- 
"" "petiolate, tbe uppermost subsessile; ultimate segments 2-ii mm. v-icic. larsceolate 

|?ia;. narrowly oblong or obovate, Iiifloresoencc rather Isk; pedicels as long as or 
l-.fenger than the capsule; bracts lanceolate, leaf-like. Sepals lanceolate. :.'.eute. 
"I'Petals oblong-ovatc, denticulate, undulate. Capsule glabroas; . segnients somewhat 

|Sparrowed above to an obtuse apex. Fl. 3-5. 

&3'-- : " 

^jJaMo: One.iny < Penza). 

^^Mediterranean region; perhaps native only in Balkan Peninsula and Iv.yi 
Jpffen grown in gardens from which it escapes. 


iVFruit a berry with a thick, 
iJSeeds without endosperm. 

Coriaceous rind or harder shell, and a juicy pulp. 

2, Citrus L. 

iJSiiiall tree:;. Vouns twigs with single spines in the leaf-axils, but. older branches 
fejttcn unarmed. Leaves alternate, simple, coriaceous, thin; lateral veins few. 
|Petioles often more or less winged or margined and articulated with the lamina, 
^{lowers white, solitary and axillary or in short axillary racemes. Sepals 4-5; 
petals (4-) 5 (-8). Stamens 4-10 times as .many as tile petals. Ovary usuallv 10- 
f'iifg-. IMocuIar; ovules in 2 rows. Seeds surrounded by stipitate, fusiform pulp- 

;s. AH species are cultivated particularly in W. Malta and E, Go«>: and are 
^probably derived from plants which are native in tropical -and subtropical parts 
gii: iof S. E. Asia. 







'1. Petiole terete or cai.'iiiaie.margined but not winged; fruit 

15-22 cm. in diameter I. medica 

Petiole distinctly winged; fruit .not more than 15 cm, .in 

d i.aiti eier 

2. Stamens generally more- than i times as many as the petals; 
fiowevs of two tiorLs, hermaphrodite and- functionally male 
& tamer; s about 4 times as 'many els the petals; flowers 
usually ■ all hermaphrodite 

3. Fruit acid; flowers tinged or streaked with purple 
Fruit insipidly sweet; flowers pure white 

4. Leaves -iarrowly elliptical; fruit rarely more than G.5 cm. 
in diameter; rind very easily detached from the segments 
Leaver broadly elliptical; fruit 7-15 em. in diameter, spherical 
or broadly ovoid; rind adhering to the segments 

5. Fruit KM 5 cm. in diameter 
Fruit 7..J-10 cm. in diameter 

(5, Fruit with bellow- and mammiform process at apex 

Fruit with more or less orange rind ancf no mammiform 


7. Fruit with a rough rind and bitter sour pulp; petioles 

obovate in outline (j. sinensis 

Fruit with a sweet taste and nearly smooth rind; petioles 

oblaiiceolate in outline 7. sinensis 

4, deli ci os a 


S. bei'samia 

1. C. me&sica L, 

Citron '- 

Small tree. Twig. 1 ; angular when young, soon terete, glabrous, with short; 
stout, axillary spines. Leaves glabrous, elliptic-ovate to ovate -lanceolate, crenate; 
to senate veins prominent on both surfaces. Petiole terete or narrowly margined.?: 
Flowers in short, few-flowered racemes, hermaphrodite or functionally mate;; 
petals often pink or purplish on the outer surface. Stamens very numerous,? 
coherent in groups of four or more. Fruit 15-25 cm',- Jong, 10- to ls-loculai&l' 
rind very thick, often rough and warty, yellow when ripe; pulp pale green or; 
yellow, acid or 1 sweetish. 

3. C. lunettii Kisso 

■Uk.eC.Kmon but ilowers pure white; fruit Porter/sweet. 

Malta and Gozo: cultivated (Borg). 

Sweet Lemon 

Malta and Gozo: cultivated (Borg). 

2. C. Limon (L.) Burm. fii. 
C -medica var. Km on L. 

Plate XXIII 

Lumi; ; ;- 

Small tree. Twigs angled when young, soon rounded, glabrous, with stout; 
axillary spines. Leaves broadly elliptical, acute, serrate or crenate. Petiole witfc; 
narrow wing or merely margined, distinctly articulated with the lamina. Flowed; 1 
solitary or in short, few-flowered racemes, hermaphrodite or functionally male; 
petals purplish-suffused on the outer surface. Stamens 1 25-40, coherent in groups;" 
Fruit 6. 5-12. 15 cm. in diameter, 9- to 10-locular, yellow when ripe, oblong or ; 
ovoid with a broad, low, mammiform process at apex; rind somewhat rough to < 
almost-smooth; pulp acid 

Malta and Goso: widely cultivated (Borg; Bo wen -Jo lies et al). . ,.f 

194 - ; i 

4- C, delidosn Ten. 

C. auTantium var. nobilis Lour Mandulina 

|^e; Bno thin, easily separateL^ JS£ ^^t^^Z 
.Malta and Qozq: widely cultivated (Borg). 

5. C. . paradisi Macfadyen 

C decumana L. :. "L a ring tar- r jus 

Spiny tree with rounded crown t,™ , Grapefruit 

! £« brolly elliptical, SrtTVoSnf ^' f gIabrous - ^ves 10-15 cm 
the apex; midrib glabrous. Petiole veruht^T ™ rdato at ihe b ^e, subacute "i 
mde Jtear the fop, obcordate n outnL f^ Wmged < fluently up to 15 mm 
: ctos or terminal racemes StoS, M M^^ g .^ low - ^^» »' al^S- 

S^ft C ^!° b0Se or ^Pyrifor m r"h ic £ Le wt «>-^-cm-...i n .-aian.eK 
coaise vesicles. ' " m mick < Pale yellow when ripe; pulp with 

: -Malta and Vow: cultivated (Borg). 

C C aMrae(fu m L. ■ 

Faringa tal'-batfcaljaw 

free with a rounded rmw„ -T, ■ 'Seville orange 

lender; apiary spLes " I^to 7 S^VT^ ^t? ^«g, soon terete with 

W cuneate to rounded betow pSj £ ^L^V^* 1 ' a «^^t at the 

to a wingless base. Flowers solitary or f p ,t ; b ^dly winged above, tapering 


ft-'??. C. ..sinensis (1,.) Osbeclt 

g. C. auTcidium var. . communis Borg. . Faringa helwa 

T -4h "' Sweet Orange 

P^^^^ir'SSuZ^^"^ ""V""' 8 ' »» -ore.., .,,» 

;»««. ,« Go „ : t „, tt „ ted (torg . tora jona> ei ^ ^^ 

; ■;*- C. bcrgami'ii Risso & Poiteau 

Small tree with winged petioles ami „m . Yellow Orange 

£■» ~ * «««,. a. wis, j- ajanitfs ar s c ra *™' 








Trees or shrubs with bitter bark. Leaves pinnate, alternate. Flowers actjnomorphw 
5-merous. Petioles free. Disc 10-lobed, Stamens 10 in male flowers, 2-3 ;j|j 
hermaphrodite flowers; filaments free. Ovary superior; carpels -5-6, more or less 
connate, unilocular, each with 1 ovule attached to the inner angle; styles '2.4, '[ 
connate. Fruit drupe-like, a berry or a group of samaras. 

1. Ailantlius Desf. 

Deciduous trees. Flowers polygamous, in large terminal panicles. Fruit a group Vf 

J. A. altissima (Miller) Swingle 

Plate XXIII 

Xumak falz .' "y 
Tree -of- Heav rat- 

Up to 20 meters high, freely suckcring. Bark smooth, grey. Leaves 45-60 cni;S 
long, glabrous or nearly so; leaflets 7-12 cm. long, 13-25, lanceolate-ovate, ibing='S 
acuminate, dilate, with 2-4 teeth near the base, each with a large gland bene'athjt 
Panicles 10-20 cm. long. Flowers 7-8 mm. in diameter, greenish. Samaras 2-4 cit^ 
long, reddish when young. Fl. 5-7. ^ : o'; 

Planted for ornament; occasionally naturalised. Malta: frequent fS. & C.G.; Boir'gjt 
G. I^nfranco; Sell; Wolseley); naturalised in many places as at Attard Rabat rpatfp 
fortifications of Valletta and Floriana (Wolseley). Gozo: (S. & C.G.j Borg),* 
naturalised in Mgarr valley (Wolseley). Comino: (S. & C.G.; Borg). vi' 

Native of China: cultivated and naturalised in tropical and temperate regions. 


Trees or shrubs. Leaves pinnate, alternate. Flowers actinornorphic, usually- benaa--'- 
phrodite, usually 5-merous. Petals free or connate at base. Stamens twice as matv|'; : 
as petals, monadelphous. Ovary superior, with 2-8 loculi; placentation axile; stylsj; 
1, Fruit a capsule, drupe or berry. : v£- 

1. Melia L. . ' -1 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves pinnate, alternate. Flowers actmomorphic, usually her|na;| 
phrodite, usually 5-merous. Petals free or connate at base. Stamens twice as many| 
as petals, monadelphous. Ovary superior, with 2-8 ioculi; placentation -a-xilo; ■ atyiq'^ 
1. Fruit a capsule, drupe or berry. ■";.% 

1. Polygala L. 

Small, perennial herbs, rarely annuals or small shrubs. Leaves usually alternate. 
entire or subentire. Flowers usually in terminal racemes, rarely in a:<;iiary 
■racemes or solitary in leaf-axils. Sepals unequal, the 2 inner (wings) much larger 
than the 3 outer. Petals 3, united proximally into a corolla-tube, free dis tally, tbe 
flower (keel) of different form from the 2 upper, and usually bearing- a Hmbrimfe 
crest. Filaments partly or wholly united into a tube, which is partly adnata to the 
corolla-tube. Gynophore often present, usually elongating in fruit. Stigma 2-lnbed, 

£*ohiy the posterior lobe receptive. Capsule compressed, usually v.L'ik b marginal 

"wing. Sesds hairy, with a usually 3-tobed s tropin ole. 

f 'Shrub 100-250 cm. high >- Kvmiiolia. 

:;5*M^I:;'Herb less than 10 cm. high -- t5i»ni;pcnaca 

-m |f--'-.' 

1ft * ■ P. myrtifolia L. Af-c;^ Milkwort 

Erect shrub 100-250 cm. high. Leaves 2.5-5 cm. long, obiong to obisVAte, obtuse. 

S?t -'Racemes short, few^ flowered, pseu do lateral; bracts persistent Wins.s :.s^;> rnn;. 

^|-'iong, violetpurple. Corolla 13-18 mm long, lilac, shading to deep violet a!' apex oi 

fjifceel; upper petals short, 2-lobed, the upper lobe reilexcd. Capsule, ** Lbptics 1- 

° orbicular, emarginate, narrowly wingea. 

f^Cultivated for ornament and occasionally sell-sown, Malta: (Borg; V>?\h 
©Native of S. Africa; cultivated for ornament in temperate regions. 

f—2l P. monspeliaca L, 

Plate XXIII 

Mcditeri'cne&n. iVliikwor! 

%£■'■ Erect annual. Leaves. 10-25 mm. long, lanceolate to Hncar-lancsiOJ-jho. acute. 
teSacemes terminal. Outer sepals c. 3 mm, long, linear-lanceolate, subequal; wirj&>; 

ivc. Lower 

1. M. azedcraeh Tj. 

Plate XXIII 

Ssgra tat-to sku-.; 
Indian Lilac-- .-.-':■; 

Up to 15 m. high. Bark furrowed. Leaves up to 30 cm. long, % pinnate; leaflets^; 
2.5-5 cm. long, ovate- Ian cool ate to elliptical, acute, serrate or lobed. Panicles iftiSfe 
cm. long. Flowers lilac, fragrant; petals c. 18 mm. long. Fruit 6-18 mm. in diameter,- 1 
subglobose. Fl, 3-5. : v : ; 

Widely planted for ornament. Malta: naturalised in many places (Borg; Wolseley)'?;; 
Native of S. and E. Asia; cultivated in hot and temperate regions. .;;.-* 


Leaves simple, exstipulate. Flowers hermaphrodite, zygomorphic, in spikes qi:>: 
racemes. Sepals 5, free; petals 3-5, more or less united; stamens 8, with fllameafiX'Sfll 
partly united. Ovary 2-locuIar, with 1 seed in each I ecu] us. 


jSaifcS mm. long, narrowly elliptical, acute, greenish- white, with 3 marginal vein:; and 
IS: Numerous lateral branches, not anastomosing. Corolla ahotit 4 mm. Ion 
fittest of keel large. Filaments united for most of their length, filiate a;* 
lohe of stigma large. Capsule sessile, obcordate. 2n = c.3S. Fl. 3-a. 

[#'krid, rocky places. Malta and Gozo: frequent (S. & C.G.; Rorg; ■(>.■ LHisfranco; 
iKramer & Westra). 

^Mediterranean region. 


p-r'rees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, usually pinnate or digitate. Ciiiyx usually 
||;5-partite; petals 5, rarely absent, free or more or less connate; ovary superior, 
**;i-ioeular, with 1 ovule; placentation basal or apical. Fruit a drupe. 

>V1, Mature leaves and young twigs hairy 

fc Mature leaves' and young twigs glabrous except sometimes 

V the petioles 

Leaves up to 15 cm. long; petals 
£'... Leaves 25 cm. or more; petals 5 

v i. Rhus L. 

[Polygamous or dioecious shrubs or small trees, often with resinoi 
leaked. Leaves digitate or pinnate. Flowers small, in axillary or fer 
^■Petals 5. Stamens 5. Placentation basal. Fruit with a short, non-pi 
^styles terminal. 



Pis tar* a 

js bark. Buds 
minal panicies. 
ymct-re pedicel; 


1, 1L eoriarui L. 

Plate XXIU 

Xuniak tal-Konza 

Wied 2nuber (Borg); Wied 

^ evergreen ^ - .mail tree UP to jj^ ^J^^^ 

nblone coarsieij cremate- serrate, sometime;, »iwi_ 1 j . e ence c . 10 cm. long, 
ffi'w^d^t least b* = jhe £*£»£££. ££2 Tvate, .reenislK peg 
^^SS^C^'u^rSirU, *-tly hispid, browmsh-puiph, 

Fl. 5-(i. 

Pocky ptoef. ■-Malta: rare at Hal Far (S.& C.G. 

Qirda (F-vaiis). 

Mediterrrcean region; W. Asia; Atlantic Islands. 

2. pistada L. 

u i- Tinfis with several scales. Leaves 

..abWt. 'Stamens 3-5. PlaceuU>t,on basal. 

1. teref)Snthus 

2, lentiscus 

Leaves -^riplnnate; panicles with long branches- 
Leaves pKr:.pi.nnntc; panicle spike-like 


,. p. te r cW «U.u S L. tn ' mniKll Leaves imparl pinnate; leaflets. ; 

Small- deciduous tree or shrub up to 5m Jgb. j^\ ml U™te, coriac^; 

ModUetrEJiean region. ■ ' 

2, 1*. Je>»tisf.«s 

Plate XXIII 


i „t, i a mm hifh Leaves paripinate; leaflets 1-5 i-x-- 

S^ai: e-^retceii tree ^\ lh ^\^ ™' ,S a e mU croiiate, coriaceous; Taclas.. 

0.5-1 cm.. i*-j 8-1 2 . '^^.""i'^S^ce compact, aplke-llke. Flowers ..; 

^^^ apicuIato - red tercre - 

p^ s!de^' valley. «««« ^™»^ ^l^'Has^rJ^S^SE 
(E & C.G.; Borg; Wolseteyt; Bus-sctt (H. & ^. ^ig, Qemima [Bor S ); : 

Cnf *n U-Kbir. Wied IU1W. Wied Incita '^* ol g£j - a (Haslam; WolseleyK; 
Wied tta^m, ^istra, Victoria ^mes (Wolse, ^ ™ cu l c M ^ arr 

Xaahra (Wolseley). 

i=i. Minor ^vria N. Africa, Somalia, Canaries. 
Mediterranean Europe, Asia Minor, Syria, «.-«., 


3. Schinus X. 

Polygamous trees or shrubs. Buds with several scales. Leaves pinnate. Ftowery in 
lateral and terminal panicles. Sepals 5. Petals 5. Stamens 10. Placentation apkai. 

Rachis unwinged; drupe 6-7 mm. in diameter, pink I, molfc 

Rachis winged in upper parts; drupe 4-5 mm. in diameter, 

bright red 2- lerebuUliifuha 

1, S. moHe L. 

Drooping False -pepper 

Evergreen tree or shrub usually up to 8 mm. high. Branches slender, pendulous. 
Leaflets 2.5-6 x 3-S mm., 7-13 pairs, linear-lanceolate, often serrate, pubescent 
when young; rachis unwinged. Inflorescence much-branched, lax. Flowers white. 
Drupe 6-7 mm. in diameter, globose, pinlL. 

Malta' and G-ozo: widely planted for ornament (Borg; Valletta). 

Native of C. and S. America; widely cultivated 

2. S. terebinthifolia Raddi 

Upright False-pepper 

Lit* S. molle but branches not pendulous; leaflets 10-20 mm. wide, 2-7 pairs; 
rachis winged in upper part; inflorescence dense; drupe 4-5 mm. in diameter, 
. bright red. 

Malta and Goi'o: widely planted lor ornament (Borg; Valletta), 

Native of S.W, Brazil, Paraguay; widely cultivated. 



Trees or shrubs with simple, usually stipulate leaves. Inflorescence eymose. Flowers 
vperigynous. Calyx 4- to 5-iobed, lobes vulvate in hud. Petals 4-5, often small, 
^sometimes absent, inserted at mouth of; hypanthium and often hooded over the 
. stamens. Stamens 4-5, alternating with the calyx lobes; anthers versatile; Ovary 
*; superior, 2-to 4-locuIar; ovules solitary. Fruit often fleshy. 

1. Stipules soft, often caducous 
Stipules spinescent, persistent 

;2. Young twigs puberulent; fruit dry, winged 
Young twigs glabrous; fruit fleshy, unwinged 

l. Faliurus Miller 

3, Bh&nmus 


1. Faliurus 

2. Ztslplms 

; Stipules spinescent. Flowers 5-merous, hermaphrodite. Styles 2-3. Fruit dry., 
hemispherical, with a wide membranous wing round the top. 

1. P. spfna-ehristi Miller 

Plate XXIV 

Xewk tal-kuruna 
Christ's Thorn 

'■.■.. : Nearly glabrous much branched shrub up to c. 3 m. high Twigs flexuous, 
■■puberulent when young. Leaves' 2-4 era, long, alternate and distichous, ovate, 
Verenate -serrate, shortly petiolate. Flowers in small, axillary, shortly pedunculate 
Byrnes. Fruit 18-SO mm, in diameter; wing undulate. Fl. 4-6. 



\'..:' r W \ 

■£:■■ ' 

■■ : '^\^' ^ ■ 

"I ■ 


Gozo: isolated plants in fissures of tie rock at YW^i <v>r.„ t, 

Westra). Argcrtti Gardens (W.ibeley). (Penza; Borg; Kramer *-! 

Mediterranean region; W, Asia. 

2. Zizyplms Miller 
Stipules spincscent Flowers 5-merous, hermaphrodite. Styles 2-3. Fruit a fleshy;! 

skiameter, obovoid,, compressed laterally, yellowish or sometimes blackish when 
■ripe; pyrenes 2. PI. 2-4, 

i'ftoeky places. Malta and Gozo: locally .frequent (S, & C.G.; Borg; CI. Laufnmco; 
■■l |i;Wolseley). 

■Mediterranean region. 


t. Z. j«ij«ha Miller 
Z. satwa Gaertner 

i'Shrubs usually diffuse and climbing by means of leaf-opposed tendrils. Leaves 

r . * -..y* ^/alternate, stipulate, usually paimately lobed or divided. Flowers small, actinonsor- 

Ti>" h '--'^ S : |ihie, in terminal or leaf-opposed cymes or panicles. Sepals 5, united: petals fi, 

Shrubs or small tr PP « „,^ rt a-' m .,- u ■ „, ■ Juoe v : | feree or united dis tally; stamens 5, nntepetalous. Ovary superior, 2-loeular; sty'e 

'ii Lot" ™ L? I?' hlgh - TW1ES fl «uous, glabrous when young ^ l^nd stisma 1: fruit a berry with 2-4 seeds. 

r^y SL iLwtJZr i^^ _<*f»* ^tuse, g l ;mduiar ^ n ^^;;|| ; ' t ^ L 

I feirk usually peeling itom old stems in long shreds. Leaves simple, usually 
,; palniately lobed. Petals cohering at the apex, falling at anthesis without separating. 
jf'A- 5-lcbcd, glandular disc present at base of ovary. 


shortly pctiolate. "Flowers '£w taTS ZZ*' obtuse ' f^ular-dentieulate, 
peduncle Drune lTr,™ „' r ■ , axillalv c yme which is longer than its 
MacKiblc F?l<| * n diameter, ovoid ^Won g , dark reddish or almost, 

(ZammitMacmpol). Be " U (b * & C - G ->> Mtaftleb (Wolseley); St. Paul's Bay 

Native of. Temperate Asia; naturalised in Mediterranean regions. 

3. Rliunuius L. 

stigmas small. £E" a dr^rf'th^*^^ ^ m<m °™' ^« 3 ^ ! 

1. R: alaicrnus L. 

1. alatemus : 

2. Jyeioidos 


Mediterranean Buckthorn- 

becoming black; pyrenes 3 Fl. 13 diaueter, not fleshy, obovoid, reddish 

Cultivated and naturalised. Malta- rare at valw „f ( i, n AJt , . „ A 

& C.G.; Wolselev)- Bi^k-Ptt n*™-' ™ i , , ""^ of the Addolorata Cemetery (S. 

^org); BaWtti-SK Sr^^SfS^S^SSe^y? ^^ 

Mediterranean region. 

KSf i L ' SnbSP< °™° idCS (M 'Tahandie. & Maire 
oteojd«s L. Pi ate SX IV 

Small Buckthorn 


Si').: V. vinifera L. subsp. v in if era 

Plate XXIV 

Grape Vine 

Stems up to 35 m, high, climbing over trees but in cultivation usually reduced 

Hby annual pruning to 1-3 m high. Leaves 5-15 cm. long, orbicular in outline, cordate, 

.^usually paimately 5- to 7- lobed, irregularly toothed, glabrescent above, often with 

^persistent tomentum beneath. Tendrils branched, normally occurring opposite 2 

.- m Bteaves out of every 3, Flowers numerous, in rather dense panicles, which replace 

-ss| pthe tendrils in the upper part of the stem. Calyx very strongly 5 -lobed. Petals e. 

"jsp-mm, long, pale green. Fruit 6-22 mm, long, ellipsoid to globose, green, yellow, 

?;ied or purplish -black, sweet; seeds 0-2, pyriform with a rather long beak. Fi. 4-5. 

p'h-e cultivated vine is, like most plauts long established in cultivation, impossible 
§«; accomodate satisfactorily in any orthodox taxonomie scheme. The vines of 
pSiirope -are certainly derived, at least in part, by selection from the wild vine 
~ : siibsp. sytvestris (C.C. Gmelin) Hegi, which is native in a large part of C. and 
..10. Europe (hut absent from Malta), though the practice of cultivation (and 
Ijberefore the cultivated clones) probably originated in S.W. Asia. During the last 
f^eiitury many species of Vitis have been introduced into F.urope from N. America. 
Illiese are more or less resistant to the attacks of Viteus vUifolii {'phylloxera'), a 
parasitic aphid which did immense damage to European vines from lf!fi7 onwards. 
ijfKiiiericaii vines are now used almost exclusively as stocks; the scions grafted on 
'Siiiese are either cultivars of the European vlire, or hybrids between it and 
|jtriierican species, or of purely American species and hybrids. In Borg's day there 
IJw.tre over 140 different kinds of Vine in the Maltese Islands of which at least 
v4Q:vrere local. 

f&iftn, Gozo and Comino: widely cultivated in many varieties especially in the 
■^western half of Malta for wine-making and fruit; frequently naturalised iti valleys 
!$ind field margins (Borg; Wolseley). 



fSerbs, shrutos or small trees with simple (but sometimes deeply palmatisect), 

|§|iiternatej stipulate leaves. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Bracteoles usually 

fptesent immediately below the calyx, forming an epicalyx. Sepals 5, united at the 



styles. Ovary aupe ; ' 4 ° l0Cldlrtda i capsule. 

free, Fruit a sehisocarp or a ^ A !*itJKm 

i E&icalys absent 

Epictilys present ■ ,•>. 

■„ +s hroadlv ovate to debate 

3 Epioalj'S segment*, btoaau 
Epical}* segmenU lin«« 

4 ■ Ernest figments 5 or more 

Epical?* segments- J~J _ ^ 

, staminal tube ^t% r^^TccUious pe'^ls 
in diameter, at ieat>i »«'» . 
or peduncles . _ least 30 nim . in 

nit*.ri at the base, at l««t m «ud 
Bplcalyx-sogmeni, t r«,.e ^ ot 

emargfcwtt; ep ca>vx-s ^ ^ or Mated, 

5£i2 grower *» *P«-. 

1, Mal£>P« L. 




1. M&toptf '' : '-';.fll 

2. Malta 

,., Epicaly^ segments .«^|| 

^iemas lateral, 1,lli0 „J> ;,-> -i elobose head. ::^ 

m«e. irregularly arranged m a S»o . . ^. mih M 

Plate XXv- . : ,gg 

Mrfilen-anem t«1o»; »■ Asla ' 

2. Malva L. 

white. Stigmas lateral, mu .... 


indehiscertt, dark, brown or black, arranged in a single whorl around the. short, 
conical or flattened apex of the receptacle. 

Many species are variable in indumentum and leaf-shape. In most the basal 
leaves are suben&re. Sepal-cttaractets refer to the iully open. flower, uuless tlw 
contrary is stated; itie measurements exclude die basal part of the sepal which it 
fused to others. 

1. Sepals linear to narrowly trianguIaT, more thaw three times 

as loug as wide ' 1. cretica 

Sepals ovate or triangular, riot more than 3 times as 

long as wide 'A. 

2. Petals 4-5 mm. iong, only slightly exceeding the sepals 4. parvi/ioRi 
Petals 9-30 mm, long, at least twice as long as the sepals a. 

3. Petals 12-30 mm, long, bright purple &r pink with 

darker veins ' 2. ■ sylveslris 

Petals 9-1.3 mm. long, pale lilac to whitish, without 

darker veins 3. »iiae«Evais 

1. iv. cretiea Cav. Hobbejia tat-toroq 

Mediterranean Mallow 

Erect annual up to 40 cm. high, more or less hispid with long patent hairs. 
Lower leaves sub orbicular, crenate or slightly lobed; upper leaves : usually deeply 
...divided into 3(-5) oblong, dentate lobes. Flowet-s axillary, on long pedicels. Epicalyx 
"segments 3, linear to narrowly triangular; sepals 7-10 mm. long, similar in shape; 
-.staminal tube glabrous. Mericarps glabrous; dorsal face flat, with- numerous 
■, small, transverse ridges; angles slightly winged. PI. 3-6, 

fArid waste places, roadsides and fields. M.oWa, Gom and Co«jitto; frequent (S. & 
:'C:G.; Borg; G, Lanfraueo; Wolseley). Commotio; (Duthie; Borg). 

^Mediterranean region. 

Jl'I. sytvestris L. Plata XXV Hobbejfei tar-raba 

&■';■. Common Mallow 

;■;; Biennial or perennial, with simple and steilate hairs Stems up to IM- m* 1 - 
£&gh, erect to decumbent, woody at the base. Leaves very variable in size, 
ji-emform to snborbicnlar- cord ate, more or less palmatiild, with 3-7, semicircular 
g^oblong. crenate lobes, E pi calyx- segments oblong-lanceolate to elliptical; sepals 
Stellate- pubescent beneath; petals 1^30 mm. long pink to purple, with darker 
p$ns, bearded. Mericarps glabrous or ' pubescent, strongly reticulate; dorsal face 
||at; angles sharp, but not winged, 2w = 42. Fl, 2-5. 

Mirid rocky places, fields and roadsides. Malta and Gozo: very common everywhere 
s|v.& C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraueo; Haskm; Wolseley; Kramer & Westra), 


^jafoughout most of Europe; N. Africa; Asia, 

||; M. nicaeeu^s All. Hobbejza mitiija 

SoutheiTi Mallow 
"Differs from M. sittoeatris as follows; annual or biennial; leaves semicircular in 
(iitlise, scarcely cordate; sepals usually glabrous beneath; petals 10-12 mm. long, 
ptale lilac without darker veins, glabrous or nearly so. Fl. 3-7, 

gjyaste places and roadsides. 

Malta and Go£o. - common (S. & C.G.; JBorg; G, 

piterranean region; VV. and C, Asia; introduced in C. and W. Europe, 


'.u ■- 

"■-t ; ' 

4. M. parviflora L, 

Hobbejia tal-warda y.ghirzii 
Least Mallow ;■■: 

Xlendi, Xaghra <Borg; Wolseley); Mgarr ix-Xin: 

Glabrous or pubescent annual; stems 20-50 cm. high, erect, with ascending;*! 
branches. Leaves long-petiolate, sub orbicular-cord ate, mostly with. 5-7, deltate&?. 
crenate lobes. Flowers in groups of 2-4; fruiting pedicels mostly less than JO;^; 
mm. long. E pi calyx-segments linear to lanceolate; sepals orbicular-deltate, wifflk 
short cilia or none, strongly accrescent patent, scarious in fruit; petals 4-5 mmf 
long, slightly exceeding the sepals, pale lilac-blue, glabrous; staminal tubs;--, 
subglabrous. Mcricarps glabrous or pubescent; dorsal face strongly reticulate; * 
angles slightly winged. Fl. 3-G. '.■:'.:>£ 

Fields and roadsides. Malta, Gozo and Comino: common (S, & C.G.; Borg; 'G,^ 
Lanfranco), ;.;"j 

Mediterranean region; S.W. Europe. .b; 

3. Lavatera L. ■■■■':% 

Herbs or soft-wooded shrubs usually stellate- pubescent. Flowers solitary or ■&% 
clusters in the leaf- axils. Epic alyx segments 3, more or less united at the basic J? 
at least, in bud. Petals em argin ate. Stigmas lateral, filiform. Fruit a schizocari);iQ 
mericarps numerous, 1-seeded, usually indehiscent, arranged in a single whorl. ';■ 

1. Flowers solitary in leaf axils ' 

Flowers in clusters 

Stems herbaceous; epicalyx segments shorter than sepals 
Stems woody in the lower part; epicalyx segments longer 
than sepals 


3. triniestrisj 1 

1, cr elicit ;; 

2. 'arbnrea ■ '■? 

1. L. cretica L. 

Cornish Mallow:? 

Annual or biennial, s tell :.te -pubescent to slightly hispid. Leaves up to 20 cm,.> 
Long, suborbicular-cordate, with 5-7, short lobes. Flowers in clusters of 2-8;;; 
pedicels unequal, shorter the subtending petiole. Epicalyx-segments c. (5 mni:~ 
long, free nearly to the 1. ase, ovate; sepals c. 8 mm. long, triangular- ovate, ) 
acuminate; petals 10-20 mm long, lilac, Meriearps 7-9(-ll), smooth or slightly;; 
ridged; angles rounded. Fl. 2-5. 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta: very frequent (S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley)'.::-! 
Gozo: frequent near Gha.jnivielem and Xewkija, rare elsewhere (Borg). C ominos: 
(Borg). ■':■■ 

Mediterranean region; W. Europe; Atlantic Islands. '■/:■'• 

2. L. arfoorea L. 

Piate XXV 

Hobbejia tas-si^ra 
Tree Mallow '■ 

Biennial up to 3 m. high, woody at the base; younger parts stellate-tomentose. -• 
Leaves up to 20 cm. long, orbicular, shortly 5- to 7-lobed. Flowers in clusters!; 
of 2-7; pedicels 1-2.5 cm. long, shorter than the subtending petiole. Epicalyx.: 
segments 8-10 mm, long, suborbicular to ovate -oblong, obtuse, longer than the' 
sepals, strongly accrescent, patent in fruit; sepals c. 4 mm. long, triangular, acute, 
connivent in fruit; petals 15-20 mm. long, lilac with purple veins and base, 
Mericarps 6-8, glabrous or tomentose; dorsal and lateral faces ridged; angles: 
sharp. Fl. 3-6. 

Rocky coasts, cultivated and waste places. Malta; locally frequent (G. Lanfranco), 
as at iurrieq, Florlana, Wied Ineita, Mdina (S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley); Wied ; 
Qirda, Birfcebbugia (Borg); Marfa (Wolseley). Gozo: Mgarr (S. & C.G.; Borg;;: 


plcy); Ghajnsielem, 


jjfprranean region; W. coast of Europe; Atlantic Islands. 

Ife Irimestrfs L. . „ . ... ,. 

Annual Mallow 

iimiBl; stems up to 120 cm. high, erect or ascending, mere or less -ilriaosc 
k^mrde or few-rayed dcilexed hairs. Leaves 3 H x 2 5-7 cm,, suborbiculav- 
slate, the upper somewhat 3- to 7-lobed. Flowers solitary in the leaf-axils- 
«s usually exceeding the subtending petiole. Epi calyx-segments shorter 
iirthe sepals, accrescent, united for most of their length, the free part broadly 
M ^cuspidate; sepals 9-14 mm. long, oblong-lanceolate, acute, connivent in 
s-Fj? eta '* Z4,i mm " lon 2> bri S nt pink. Mericarps c. 12, glabrous, ridged covered 
^disc-like expansion of the central axis; dorsal face rounded. Fl 4-7 

W^L c " ,tivated P'aces in the valleys. Malta: local (G. Lanfranco) a« at 
«fe: Wied Qirda, Cnejna, Buskctt, Pwales, Girgenti (S. & C G ■ Bore)' Grin in 
felia, Hemsija (Borg); Mdina (Zerara); Gnien il-Kbira fGD). GozoJ Zebbug 
ffldi.Pergla (Gulia; Borg). 

Ifierranean region. 

4, Althaea L. 

Us, Flowers rather small, usually distinctly pedunculate or pediciilate in 
•gies .or panicles. Epicalyx -segments fi-!>, uni^d at the base PcfaN obovate 
£s\<>r emarginate. Staminal tube terete, hairy. Stigmas lateral Mi-form" 
faparps mdehiscent, arranged in a single whorl, unilocular, 1-sceded. 

pifal; indumentum of simple and stellate hairs; anthers yellow 1, hirsutn 
|nnial; indumentum of stellate hairs only; anthers purpli'sh-red 2.' <tflicmalss 

s&^s Hobbejza suhja 

Hispid Marsh -mallow 

B|F' lnl u " to ,i0 cm - Wgh, with numerous, stiff, simple and some stellate 

■^Leaves suborbicular, cordate, crenate or dentate towards base of stem 

tang progressively more deeply lobed upwards; upper cauline leaves 

tetely 3- to 5-lobed; lobes linear, dentate or serrate. Stipules entire Flowers 

bey; pedicels longer than the subtending leaves. Epicalyx-segments lanceolate 

Mate, nearly as long as the calyx. Sepals lanceolate or ovate, long-acuminate' 

fin fruit. Petals c. 15 mm. long, scarcely exceeding the sepals, pinkish-lilac 

hers cllow. Mericarps glabrous, transversely rugose, with a fine longitudinal 

|iffl the dorsal face. Fl. 3-5. 

Jrpcky places. Malta: rare (G. Lanfranco), as at Wied Ineita Cnoina f'S & 
|| Borg); Pwales, Marfa, Ghajn Tuffieha (Borg); Ghar il-Kbir" 2ebbieh 
fSeley). Gozo: Wied ir-Rihan, Wied Bingemma (S. & C.G.; Borg)> Persia (Grlia- 
^j-Qala CDuthie); Xaghra, Nadur (Borg). Comino; frequent <S & CG ■ Bortri 
■Wiptto: (Duthie). '■' ' s " 

jfterranean regions; W. Asia 

.officinalis L, Marsh-mallow 

psnsely-grey- pubescent perennial «p to 200 cm. high; all hairs stellate Leaves 
Insular-ovate, acute, crenate -serrate, undivided or palmately lobed, often 



L - «. Fi. &■ . :;. 

Co^XlenfilValtey (GuliajBorg;. ^ 

Moat of Europe; W. Aftto; W. A« B . ■ ■ ;j 

5, Aleea t: _, :% A 

■ h ^ ««* stems. Flow«. »*««*£ ^Ue^^tgfa* 

or about MiuaUln? *fY< n K fi£«, W * «W»raiTP. ^™ n divided 

1. A. rose* I>- 

Bastun ta' Sari a«*«f3 

1 A -theopUrasti Medicus 

' a. aowewiae Gaertner 

Plate XXV 


A aokewi-ae Gaertner .*„ thorites* the older pii E 

r ,t annunl 50-100 cm. Mgh, the °^*f* **£ ■£"££ ^ W^^ 

petals 743 .""*■ '■°" b 1 , » ;v „ x( . ee dine the calyx, black, hirsute, *»»» .% 

yellow. MoncaXpB c 13, t^teea B 

p Aten t bea), Seeds Sneb tubulate. wd ott eu if 

Ma^ naturalised on the ***«*»» of Valletta 
in old gardens iBorg?. 

Meditemnean region; SJ8. B««P« ^ ^ 


7. Gossypiutu L, 

J'Shriibs or woody annuals, irregularly dotted with black oil-glands. Flo we K 
^solitary in the leaf -axils. Enicalyx-segments 3, free, broadly ovate to deltate, 
"ftordate. Calyx cupuiiform, with 9 short teeth or lobes. Styles united; .stig;:iaj 
"terminal, capitate more or less united. Fruit a 3- to 5-locuIar, loculiddal capsule; 
;seed3 numerous, hairy. 

;'■■; The cultivated eatUms (which include all the European plants} differ from 
-Ihe wi!d species in having flattened, twisted ('lint')' hairs on the seeds. This 
i character seems to have developed under the influence of- human selection The 
jjiara.e influence is responsible for the stabilisation of the annual habit, which is 
Ij<mi\<& only in cultivated plants, and which has- enabled the cultivation of cotton 
|ifo be tarried on in regions with a cold winter climate. 

pfeeth ol epiealyx -segments usually less than 3 times as long as wide; 
^filaments 1-2 mm. long, more or less equal : 1. herba'ceiim 

ss'feeth of epieaiyx- segments usually more than 3 times as long as 

fiiiMe; filaments 4-6 mm. long, the upper longer than the lower 2, hirsutuni 

e Almtihm Miller ->|| 

fc -fi. herbaceum L. 

Plate XXV 

Qoton Malti 
Hairless Cotton 

Weodi 1 annual 1-1.5 m, high, glabrous or sparsely hairy. Leaves c. 11 x 14 cm. 

BHiate, :with 8-7 lobes; lobes e. 5x5 cm., ovate -orbicular.' usually slightly 

jponstritted at the base. Epi calyx-segments 2-2.5 cm. long, broadly dettate-ovate 

j$fe : :; semicircular, usually at least as wide as long; margin with 6-8) triangular, acute 

.shortly acuminate teeth, usually less than 3 times as long as wide. Petals 

jjjSjliott' with purple claw. Filaments 12 mm, long, more or less equal. Capsule 

Bi5 era. in diameter, subglobose; shortly beaked. Fl. 7-9. 

|Mto: arid Gozo; cultivated since Phoenician times, -but now only in a small 

fe of Gozo. 

.'..''. i 

&t>ably originated in \V. Pakistan, now widely cultivated in temperate ana 

ppieal regions, ... 

gV-Gj'bitsiittHft L. ■ Qoton ta' Gallipoli 

;- . Hairy Cotton 

'■pilfers from G. herbaceum in being sometimes hairier; leaf -lobes broadly 

jj|i!n«ular to lanceolate, seldom consricted at the base and sometimes overlapping; 

|Saiyx-segment's c, 4.5 cm. long, triangular-ovate, with marginal, long-acuminate 

gh usually more than 3 times as long as wide; petals entirely yellow; filaments 4-6 

"long, the upper longer than the lower; capsule 4-G cm. in diameter, ovoid. 

m. . . ■ 

Sin; cultivated (Borg) not recently (Wolseleyi. Gozo: cultivated in some districts 


SJbably originated in Peru; cultivated in temperate and tropical regions. 

8, Hibiscus L, 

libs or shrubs. Flowers solitary in leaf-axils. Epicalyx segments 6-13, linear, 
S,,or united only at the base. Calyx persistent In fruit. Petals not emarginate, 
jjfes free above; stigmas large, capitate, wish long papillae. Fruit a 5-locular, 
jfiilieidal, subglobose, ovoid or shortly conical capsule; seeds reniform, numerous. 





1. II. trionum L. 

Plate XXV 

Yellow IIil)iscj$S 

Somewhat strigose- hispid annual; stems 10-50 era. high, erect to deeumjS 
branched. Leaves 4-7 cm. long, divided (except the lowest) more or less t«.i$j| 
base into 3(-o) oblong-lanceolate, usually deeply pinnatifid lobes. Ept.oajjjfi' 
segments 10-13, bearing long, simple hairs, Sepals united for most of if'* 
length, with conspicuous, dark purple veins, strongly accrescent membraa 
and vesicular in fruit. Petals villous, eneleired in calyx. Fl. 1-9. 

Cultivated; places, formerly in fields of cotton. Malta: Mellieha, GhLijn il-If 
(Gulia; Borg); illustrated from Argotti gardens plant (Wolseleyh Goza: Pc.% 
Wied il-Lunzjata (Gulia; Eorg). 

SE. and E.C. Europe; W. Asia; introduced elsewhere. 



Shrubs or hei'bs, with translucent glands containing essentia! oils and someiiBi|| 
red or black glands containing hypericin. Leaves simple, opposite, or rarelys|p 
whorls of 3-4. Flowers actinomorptu'e. Sepals imbricate in bud. Petals Sett 
contorted in bud. Stamens in fascicles or apparently indefinite. Ovary ' supclSgrl 
Piacentation axile or parietal. Seeds without endosperm. . ■" \~~* 

I. Hypericum L. 

Flowers hermaphrodite. Sepals <4-)5. Petals (4-5), yellow, sometimes tinged -. 
red. Stamens in 3 or 5 fascicles of (t-)3 to c. 125, sometimes altenmUng-^ 
sterile fascicles (fasciclodes), or in 15 irregular groups; fascicles, if 5, antepetalJSJ 
'■■' " one antepetalous and two (larger) antes epalo us. Ovary (2.-) 3- to- 5rto§tflr' i ' 

4 Sepals broadly imbricate; flowerless axillary shoots 
usually absent 

Sepals not, or only slightly imbricate; flowerless 
axillary shoots present 

5. Stems with 4 raised lines or wings 
Stems with 2 raised lines 

(j. Leaves neither undulate nor amplexicaul; branches 
of inflorescence ascending 
Leaves undulate, amplexieaul; branches of 
inflorescence patent 

I. H. acgypticuni L. 


if 3, 

or partly or completely 1-locular, ovules numerous. Styles (2)13-15, free. 

Fruit a capsule, rarely fleshy and more or less indehiscent. 


Glands are designated marginal if they protrude sufficiently to interrupt^! 
liire or the margin of a leaf, sepals or petals, intramarginal if they -abut'oir '" ' 
margin but do not interrupt its line, superficial if they are quite clear o'WtJ! 

In many species the ovary and capsule have glandular streaks or patcfiiesjjjsS 
the wall. These are referred to as vittae if flat or slightly swollen, and as v.6s-4$ 
if conspicously swollen. Vittae on or near the midrib of a carpel are describe d'lH 

1. Plant without red or black glands on leaves, sepals, 
petals or anthers 

Red or black glands present, at least on leaves, 
sepals or anthers 

2. Sepals with marginal or intramarginal black glands 
Sepals without marginal or intramarginal black glands 

3. Leaves hairy on both sides 
Leaves glabrous and smooth 


I. aegypticum 

2. pubeseens 

3. humlfusunv ' 

3. humiiusuni 

■I. teli-ap tern m 

5. perforatum 

fs. triqiscicifoliiini 


Shrubby St. John's wort 

Low, spreading shrub. Leaves 3-10 mm. long, elliptical to narrowly oblong, 

coriaceous, glaucous, often crowned and imbricate. Flowers solitary, sessile or 

subsessilc. Sepals erect, oblong. Petals s-14 mm. long, persistent. Stamens persistent. 

Ovary with numerous ovules in each loculas, 

■Maritime rocks and valleys. Malta: common in the south and south-west (S. & 
,C,G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). Goso and Comirio: (S. & C.G.: Borg; Wolsslevi. 

Islands and coasts of C. and "E. Mediterranean region. 

2 V H. pubeseens Boiss. 'Fexfiex sufi 

H. tomentnsttm auct., non L. Pubescent St. John's- wort ' 

Stems 10-90 cm. high, decumbent, rooting at the base, tomentose. Leaves 5-2-2 
-mm. long, oblong to ovate, hirsute to tomentose or crispate-pubeseenf. Inflorescence 
..corymbose to cylindrical, becoming elongate-monochasial, tomentose or crispaie- 

pubesccnt. Bracts not auriculate. Sepals 5-10 mm. long, lanceolate, arista te. hirsute 
/or tomentose, shortly glandular-eiliate and usually with sessile marginal black 

glands, without an apical gland. Petals 9-15 mm. long, with marginal black 
■glands. Fl. 4-7. 

.Rocky places, roadsides and waste places. Malta, Gozo and Coraiuo: common (Borg; 
: G. Lanfranco; Wolseleyi. 
S. Portugal; S. Spain; Sicilia. 

3, . -H. lmmifusum L, Trailing St. John's -wort 

Stems 3-30(-40) cm. high, decumbent or procumbent, branching and rooting 

at the base. Leaves 3-15(20) mm. long, patent or ascending, usually with 

translucent dots, the upper oblong to lanceolate, the lower obovate to oblanceolate. 

Sepals ovate to lanceolate, unequal, entire or with sessile marginal glands or 

black-glandular-ciliate or denticulate, usually with a few superficial black dots. 
■Petals equalling or up to twice as long as the sepals, very rarely with superficial. 
■black dots. Capsule equalling or slightly exceeding the sepals. 2rc = IB. Fl. 8-11. 
^Cultivated places. Malta: very rare (G. Lanfranco), as nt Hark El-Hamiem (GD); 

(Gulia without locality). Gozo: (Giilia without locality), 

\V. and C. Europe; Atlantic Islands. 

4. H. tctrapterum Fries Square-stalked Si. John's- wovt 

H. quadrangulwm L. nom. ambig. 

Stems (G-) 10-100 cm. high, erect from a decumbent, rooting base or rarely 
wholly procumbent, narrowly 4-winged. Leaves (4-)10-35(-40) mm. long, orbicular, 


ovate, broadly ubiong or broadly- elliptical cessile, with small translucent dols; 
margin usually plane. Sepals lanceolate or narrowly oblong, acute or acuminate, 
entire, sometimes with l-2(-4) marginal black dots, not red-tinged. 'In ■= 16. Fl. 4-8, 
jJamp valleys. Gaza: Pergla, Wiod il-Lunzjata (Borg). 
VV., S. and C, Europe; W. Africa; Madeira, 

5. H. perforatum i L. 

Perforate St, John's- wort 

Stems 10-10!) cm. 'high, erect from a decumbent, rooting base, 2-lined. Leaves 
. (5-)8-30(-35) mm. long, orate to linear, sessile cr subsessile, with obscurely 
reticulate venation and with numerous large translucent dots. Sepals lanceolate 
or oblong to linear, acute to acuminate or' shortly arista te, usually entire, .without 
or with a few superficial black dots. Petals with a few marginal black dots, 
sometimes also with superficial black dots or streaks Capsule with dorsal vittae 
and lateral, oblique vittae or vesicles. 2«' = 32, Fl. 4-6. 

Arid places. Malta; rare at Kordin (Borg). 

Throughout Europe except the extreme north; VV. Asia: N. Africa; Atlantic 


H. trl q uatri folium 

H. ci'sspu.™ L. 

Tuna Plate XXVI Fexfiex tar-raba 

Triangular-leaved St. John's-wort 

Stems 13-55 cm. high, erect or decumbent, 2-lined with divaricate branches. 
Leaves 8-15(-20) mm. long, lanceolate- triangular or rarely ovate- triangular to 
linear-oblong, amplexieaul, usually without reticulate venation, sometimes with 
medium to small 'translucent dots. Petals without Mack dots or rarely with one 
intramarginal dot. Capsule with longitudinal vittae or vesicles. Fl. 3-10. 

In fields especially after harvest, uncultivated places, and roadsides. Malta and 
Goto: common (S. & C.G.; Borg; Haslam; Wolseley). Camino: common (Borg; G. 
Lmfranco; Wolseley). 

E, Mediterranean region: W. Asia;, introduced elsewhere. 


Small shrubs or herbs. Leaves alternate, stipulate, usually unidivided. Flowers 
hermaphrodite, solitary. Sepals 5, persistent. Petals 5, free. Stamens 5, introrse, 
eonnivent round the ovary. Ovary superior, unilocular, with 3 placentas and 
numerous ovules. Fruit a 3-vatved capsule, seeds ehdospermie. 

1. Viola L. 

Leaves petiolate. Sepals prolonged into short appendages below the point of their 
insertion; corolla zygomorphic, the lower petal spurred; connectives of stamens 
with an apical appendage, the lower stamens spurred. Styles thickened above; 
stigma ol various shapes (beaked, bilobed, capitate). Seeds with an elaiosome. 
Flowers c. 1.5 cm. in diameter, violet or white 1. odorata 

Flowers c. 0.5 cm. in diameter, white 2. parvula 

1. V. odorata L. 

Plate XXVI Vjoli 

Sweet Violet 

Perennial 5-15 cm. high, with leaf-rosette and long, procumbent, rooting 
stolons. Leaves orbieular-renifonm, deeply cordate, widest at about the middle; 


style. Capsule pubescent. Fl. 2-4 ™rtital, Us length equalling diameter of 

(Duthie). >-°w S ), iJuSKett (Borg). Gozo; rare, in the Mgarr valley 

Most of Europe; W. Asia; N, Africa; Atlantic Islands, 

V. parvula Tineo 

V. tricolor ^sr, parvula (Tineo) 

Rock Pansy 

{ W« SSrb'ug^mS^ro fe *!?* ^ **™ <»■ ^ the 
deeply lobed. Bracts on upper third of »ld n/T oM r g - spathulate - Stipules 
appendages exceeding the SfC^ P Q 5 cm In df ^^ ^^^te; 
corolla scarcely exceeding calyx. 2b ■ = w diameter, . creawy white; 

■.Mrita: very rare, Kordin hill (Duthie; Borg); Attard, Lija (Borg). 
.IS: Europe. 


K^.feXw™ ;Sg^ ra ™^ gf ^T tendrils. Leaves alternate, usually 
|/ cup-shaped. SepaVSH' ^t^nlft^Jf' ^"^H**. H ^^m 
finally free. Corona inserted on the 1 , )h m"' ?£*" Petal ° id - Petals 5 < 
1 rows of long filaments 1 row J*W«lt n^ . ^ hypanthium, composed of L2 
|'.tl« hypanthium. Itamens uTua iv ! JtT^t^lZ ™™°nme Partially closing 
ferofteh on a long gynopLrrSl ocular W to v S ' * ™ - P f ?\ 0va "Pe>-ior, 
l^eroas; stigmas Ks-^t^.^^lg^S^X^/^^ 61 "^ 

I, Passiflora L. 
Pr^lfb^rf- ^ 16 ' *" CM <"* -mate to the gynophore. stigmas 

% P. eaerulea L. 

Plate XXVI 

Fjur tal-Passjoni 
Passion flower 

.m«Id ft . with a short horn on fhe itc" Pef^wH'tf 11 ' 6 0T , pS,e pM ™ «ie 
■'H.rple at the base, white in th- ,1 e lf,^lt ° r , ^ pink ' Coro "« rfull 
^rp.0. Fruit c. 5 cm . ln diamete^ ^^^1.^^ o^^™ <™ 

|S(wSeyf ClUtiVatSd f ° r .«""■»«* «* often semi-naturalised over old 
ft si Europt W ' S ° Uth America ' culth ' ated f- ornament elsewhere, particularly 




embryo; IXperm present. l0CUlla(M CK «- «"d S with more or : e „ curg 

1- Cistiii"^ 

Capsule with 5,6 or 10 valves; flowers white or pink 
Capsule with 3 valves; flowers yellow 

1. Clstas L. 

f Sely^urTto ln7 n ;I r m0, ', e ln "^ White to PurpH 8 h-«d. Ovary . SU ai|P' 
fWorm 10-lpcuUr; plantation axile, ovules orthotropous, tte fuhic^R; 

Flowers pink; style filiform 
Flowers white; style subsessile 

1. C. incanus L. 

Plate XXVI 

1. incanas 

2. 'nionspelicnsis''''"' 1 * 5. 

Grey CisiUS'8 

Stems up to 100 era high, erect or- spreading. Leaves (1&-) 20-50(-70) x*3&i 
mm,, ovate or ellipttcal, often undulate, pinnately veined, green or greylfl 

^^Z\Z< ??T t ^ th ^ }at0 hairs > with the veitls impressed above artfl, 
f P T^,^pll^ e T i Pe , tl0 L eS 3 ' 1 ! mm ' tong - Cyffies *~ to 7 " flowered, -more. -««.-, 
Ie,s symmetrical Sepals 5., ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, with stellate hai^lPK" 
and Jong. -simple hairs. Flowers- 4-6 cm. in diameter, purplisivphTk. Fl tl . *?§fS 

Two subspecies are recorded. Subsp. incanus with the leaves 25-50 x (3-30 [tnirls 
undul^teSisS^ (L - Heyw6od wift the leaves 15 " 25 * 8-«S mm., distin^p 

Arid rocky slopes! Jfa«a: Wied Gerzuma, Ta' Baldu, St. Paul's Bay (S &Crpl 

i°n S M fl ^ n R ZZ dK> ,% (B °^ S) t ? wal * s «JD;-Borg>; Wied Hazrun (Wolselel? 
San Martin, Buskett (Penza); Selmim (Gaucl). Gozo; Cnim Imrik (S. & CC§| 

Mediterranean region. 

2. C. moMspclicnsis L, 

White Cistirc"! 

Compact bush up to 100 cm. high, erect, viscid. Leaves 15-50 x 4-8 mra s | 
linear-hmceolate or linear, 3-veined, green and sparsely pubescent above, densely" 1 : 
stellate-tomentose beneath, sessile. Cymes 2- to 8- flowered,' unilateral Sepals fe- 
ttle outer ovate, broadly cuneate at base. Flowers 2-3 cm. in diameter, white :: 3Hi ; 
Styles very short. In = IS. Fl. 3-5. 'Us 

Arid rockyslopes. Gom: very rare, frequent at Nadur, between Wied ir-Kihan ;imP 
Wied Bingemma (S. & C.G.; Borg; Gauci). . ; : Si 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands, ■ ■" 

2. Pumana (Dunal) Spach 

Dwarf shrubs. Leaves narrow, ovate -lanceolate to linear, acicular. alternate (rare'lyill 
opposite), stipulate to exstipulate. The two outer sepals small, the three inner? 11 " 
large, scanous, prominently veined. Petals yellow. Outer stamens sterile., mohili^ 


form. Style filiform, more or less geniculate at base. Capsule 3-veined. the v-dve-s 
usually patent after dehiscence. 

Leaves alternate, more or less equally spaced on the stem, not 

or scarcely reduced above 1- arah'ica 

Leaves opposite below, unequally spaced on the stem, more or less 
abruptly reduced above to form small bracts in the inflorescence 


Mediterranean "oek rose 

1. F. arabica (L.) Spach 
Helianthemum arabicum (L.) Pers. 

Much-branched, laxly caespitos, up to 35 cm. high. Leaves 15-12 x mm., 
alternate, ovale -to oblong-lanceolate, acute, flat, glandular -pubescent to giabre 
scent; stipules short. Flowers 1-7, forming a distinct, lax, inflorescence. Capsules 
(6-) 8- to 12- seeded; seeds reticulate-foveolate. Fl. 3-5. 

Arid, rocky places. Malta.; lncal(G, Lanfranco), as at St. Paul's Bay, iyieUlenK, St. 
George's (S. & C.G.; Borg); Hagar Qim, Marfa (S. & C.G.; Borg; Haslam; WoiseleyV 
Nadur (Wolseley); Wardija ridge (Gauci), Gozo: between Wied ir-Rihan .;>«d Wied 
BinSemma (S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley); Pergla (Wolseleyl. 

Mediterranean region. 

2, F. thymifolia (L.) Spach ex Webb Plate XX VI Thyme RiK-k-rnse 
Helianthemum thymifoliurii (L.) Pers. 

Up to 20 cm. high; stems erect or ascending. Leaves 5-1.1 x i>.;;-' mm., 
opposite at least below, linear, linear-lanceolate of narrowly elliptical, sjbkise or 
mucronate, glabrous, pubescent or glandular-pubescent, with stvor.tfe revolutc 
margins, stipulate, with small, leafy, axillary shoots. Inflorescence : : S- to 0- 
flowered; pedicels much longer than the subtending bracts. Capsule (4) fi ■■■needed. 
3b = 32, Fl. 3-5, 

Rocky arid places. Malta: locally abundant as at Pwales (S. & C.G.; Borg;: Tai- 
Gholja, Ta' Lawrenti (Borg); Buskett, St. Paul's Bay. Mtahieb (S. & C.G.; .liorg; 
Wolseley); Marta (Borg; Haslam); Oingh, Nadur, Mistra, Ghar il-Kbir (Wolseley); 
Melliena (Kramer & Westra); Wardija ridge (Gauei). Gozo: Ta' Ce.vic, Mgar;- ix- 
Xini IS. & C.G:; Wolseley); Wied ir-Rlhan, Wied Bingemma (S. &. C.G.; Borg: 
Wolseley); towards Qala, San Bias (Duthie; S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolse-eyi; Nadur 
(Borg; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region. 


Shrubs or small trees. Leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate. usually erieokl. 
Flowers solitary or in spike-like racemes, hermaphrodite, actinom orpine Sepals 
4-5, free or slightly united at the base; petals 4*5, free; stamens 4 to numerous. 
free or partly united. Ovary superior, of 3-5 carpels; placentation parietal. Fruit 
a septicidal capsule: seeds numerous, with numerous long, unicellar hajr>. 

1. Tamarix L. 

Leaves small, scale-like, amplexicaul or shcating. with immersed salt secreting 
glands. Flowers small, white or pink, in spike-like racemes, which may be borne 
on the growth of the current year, or of previous years, or both. Sepals and 
petals 4-5. Stamens 4-15, of which 4-5 are antesepalous and 0-10 liiitersistulons; 



■ -J.'.i 

-ifK-fs c^l-'v;>:e. in the species without antepetalous stamens there is a ...c.*. _o. 
ielsitehy. nectar-secreting, 4- to 5-Iobed disc between stamens and ovary. Styles 
3-4, short- Seed with a sessile tuft of hairs. 

Petals 2-3 mm long, at least some of them persistent 
Petals J.2ri-2 mm long, caducous 

1. T. africaJia Poire l 

Plate XX VI 

1. afrieana 
2. galliea 

African Tamarisk 

Common Tamarisk 

Treu with black or dark purple bark, glabrous except tor aldose bracts 
and iirforewence-ariB. Leaver 1.5-4 mm. long, acute. Racemes 30-00 x 5-8 mm., 
i"yv^i ^timss aesiival. Bracts triangular, obtuse to acuminate, usually 
exceeding the" calyx. Flowers white or' pink, 5-merous, wi ^u* the «nt*peta ou 
stamens Sepals ±.5- mm. long. Petals 2-3 mm: long, trull ate- ovate. Filaments 
expanded at the base and continent with lobes at the disc. 

Coastal areas. Ma ho." Wied il-Baruni in Marsascala {Gulia; ^^^aJBorg; 
Wolseley)- Ghadira, Golden Bay (Wolseley}. Goto: between Wiedir-Mhan and 
SKji Kami, (S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley); Wied^asab, D-AM ^trot . 
{Gulia; Borg); Sun Bias (Ciulla; Wolseley); Mgarr ix-Xim, Pergla (Wolseley). 

W.. and C. Mediterranean region. 

2. T. giitfjica L, 

Shrub or bushy tree, entirely glabrous with dark brown to dark purple bark 
Leaves i-3 mm. long. Bacemes 15,45 x 3-5 mm., rather lax, usually aestival, 
forming amides. Bracts linear to triangular, more or less mn- denticulate no 
exceeding the ^yx. Pedicel equalling the calyx. Flowers pink, twneroiis without 
antepetafous stamens. Sepals 0.75-1. «5 mm. long, entire. Petals 15-2 mm. long, 
elliptical to eiliptic-obovatc. Filaments 1 as in T. afrieana but disc smaller, less 
fleshy. II. ''-6. 

Malta- commonly planted as at St. Julian's down to Qyi-Si-Sana, Msida and Kalkara 
'iVjiJIetts): St. Paul's Bay (Wolseley). Gozo: Xlendi (Valletta); Marsalforn (Bom). 
Covi-ino: St.. Mary's Bay (Valletta; Wolseley)'. 
W. Mediterranean region: Atlantic Islands.; cultivated elsewhere. 


Herbs cr dwf shrubs. Leaves opposite- entire, often cricoid; stipules absent. 
FlowL u Ji; hermaphrodite. Sepal. 4-6, connate for ™™ ih ™^% a ^Z 
length Petals 4-6, dawcrl, wltli a scpJc-Uko appendage on the claw, ota^ ens 
dually G. in 2 whorls. Ovary superior, fenile only in tlie lower half. Mou:Iai. 

Seeds endospermous. 

I. Frankejfia L. 

Annua! or .crc^aL I«rs ^'^^^ ^L^^%£^^^ 
^^fly^^n'Z^ O^^^ot ,(-4) carpels; ripe capsule 
enclosed in calyx. 

j 4'inufV leaves obovate or oblong-spathulate, usually plane 
Perennial, woody at base; leaves with re volute margins, 

f: ;-j;icm;W linear m 1 linear-lanceolate 


2. Flowers scattered throughout the upper parts of the steins and 

branches, not confined to terminal corymbiform clusters 2. laevis 

Flowers confined to dense corymbiform clusters which are 

terminal on the main stems or branches 3. hirsula 

1. F. puiverulenta L. 

Annual Sea-heath 

Annual; stems up to 30 cm. high, procumbent, often mat-forming, rarely 
erect, sparsely or densely puberal en t. Leaves l-5(-8) x 0.5-4 mi, obovate to 
oblong-spathulatc, usually plane, glabrous or sparsely puberulent above, densely 
puberulent beiieath, without a white crust. Flowers crowded, secund, in short 
terminal and axillary spikes. Calyx 25A mm. long, puberulent cr subglahrous. 
Petals 3.5-5 mm, long, oblong to obovate, pale or .'deep 'violet. Fl. 3-7, 

Maritime rocks and sands. Malta, Gozo and Combio: common (S. ■&. C.G.; Boi-g; 
G. Lanfranco; Wolseley).' Commotio: (Dutlne; Borg). Filfla: (S. & C.G.; Borg). 

Mediterranean region; W. Asia; Atlantic Islands. 

.'2. F. laevis L. 

Plate XXVI 

Sea -heath 

Perennial; stems up to 40 cm. high, procumbent, much-branched, mat-forming, 
sparsaly or densely puberulent with hairs up to 0.1 (-G.2) ram. long. Leaves 2-5 
mm. long, glabrous or subglabrous above; puberulent beneath, sometimes covered 
by a white crust; margins revolute. Flowers solitary or in small clusters through- 
out the upper parts of the main stems and branches, not confined to terminal 
corymbiform clusters. Calyx 3-4(-5) mm. long, stJbglabrous, or puberulent, with 
hairs up to 0,2 mm. long in the lover part. Petals 4-6 mm. long, purplish or 
whitish. Fl. 3-7. 

Maritime rocks and sands. Malta, Gozo and Comino: "common (S; & C.G.; Borg; 
G. Lunfraneo; Wolseley). 

W. Europe; W. Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 

F. hirsuta L, 

F. laevis vnr hirsuta (L,) Fiori 

Hairy Sea- heath 

Perennial; stems up to 40 cm. long, procumbent, much branched, mat-iorming, 
densely puberulent or pubescent at least near apex, with hairs 0.1-1 mm, long. 
Leaves 2-8 mm. long, glabrous to puberulent above, puberulent beneath, without 
a white crust but sometimes with a powdery covering; margins revolute, or 
rarely some leaves plane. Flowers confined lo conspicuous, dense, corymbiform 
clusters terminal on the main stems and branches. Calyx 3.5-5 mm. long, s?)arsely 
puberulent to densely pubescent with hairs up to 05 mm. long. Petals 'i-6 mm. 
long, pale purplish or white. 

Maritime rocks and sands. Malta* Gozo, Comino, Cominetto and Filfla: common with 
F. laevis (Borg). 

S. B. Europe; Mediterranean region. 


Aquatic or marsh herbs. Leaves simple, opposite or whorled, stipulate. Flowers 
hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, hypogyngus, 2- to 5-merotis, solitary or in cymes! 
Sepals free or connate at base, as many as petals. Ovary superior, 2- to 5 locular; 
styles free; ovules numerous; placet: taiion axile. Fruit a septicida) capsule. 





. I. Elaline L. 

more 'or less 'j^'s^Z^ ^ef ^ *" ■«"»**»»*■ <*££ 

1- K. iD&eropoda Guss. Platp xyvt ■ <.- „ 

fi. ftlfdropfpOT. var. mocropodo (Guss ) Fiori Southern Waterwort 

shorter than sepals'; arftL s f^Sels 4 ^K^ 1 *** 18 S OTIlto ' ^° «* 
alransl s t ra i ght or asymetrica) y horseshoe snaned S'l ° r de P re ^ed. Seeds 
« long a, short arm; reticulations oT testa usu^Hv I^„ ° n 5 a ™ 2-2.5 times 
In winter- wet depressions on th* Jl , , y ^agonal at base of seed. 

^■WW SffiTSn a'BuS Scholia^ T^ **""* ™* "" 
>enc (Borg); Munw (Borg , .Wdslfey)/' Gh ° lja (Borg) - Go ^- Xlendi, Ta' 

W. Medi'erranean region and S.W. Europe. 


1. Ecballfnini A, Richard 

lowers in axi], ary race ^ es; st ™f* ' p 6 * - ™«1U a most rotate. 5-fld. Mai" 
■% 4, connate m pairs, Seeds numerous ° llte,X axillar y; staminodes 

!■ E. elstteriiini (L.) a. 

Bichards Pl a $e XX VH 

Faqqus il-hmir 
Stems ISHft ,. ,.- u * Squirting Cucumber 

^^ »M ™e to 

Corolla «t male flowers 18-20 mrr, iZ„ ,? ■ , etJ ' lm{Iul ate ; rather flesh v 
ovoid, very I>Md" e uJ£?.^ « « M cm;,™ 

Malta, Go», Co™**, and F^l; verT oLmo , Tbo^ r 7 "^ W 
Mediterranean region. common (Borg, G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley). 


«£% sssL ?™s »SF«™ ? " s -ss. a X, or b ?ffi 



i. Opnntia Miller 

jfppmcw!jfct woody; stems with short cylindrical or flattened, often tubercular 
■■M prints. Leaves small, subulate, caducous. Areoles bearing many glochids anS 

;-juSUaI!y longer stouter spines. Ovary spiny or spineless. Seeds hard, pale, more 

jsp- less discoid or angular. 

fir 0, fii-tfs-indica (L.) Miller' 

Hate XXV) 

Bajtar tax-Xewk 
Bajtar la' Giridja 

Prickly Pear 
Erect, .V5 m. high, with patent branches; joints 20-50 x 10-20 cm,, oblong to 
Sjpaihulate-oblong, Leaves 3 mm. long, subulate; areoles small, whitish; spines 
jfiisually 0, rarely 1-2. small, pale yellow or -white; glochids yellow, numerous. 
Ijaducous. Flowers 7-10 cm. in diameter, bright yellow; filaments pale yellow 
| ; Fruit 5-tt cm. long, ovoid or obovoid, with strongly depressed umbilicus, yellow, 
pert or parti-coloured, edible. Fl. 5-7. 

Cultivated on a large scale for its fruits and as a windbreak. Malta, Goto and 
r Cbmino: Jrequent (G. Lanfranco); probably widely naturalised but often also as a 
peli-e of cultivation (Borg; Wolseley; Haslam). 

fc&ive of Tropical America, but widely cultivated and naturalised elsewhere. 

|£|t : ni:mm» (L.) Miller with brownish glochids and fruit with a Hat umbilicus is 
ptiltrvated for its red fruits used in colouring food stuff (Borg), 



Herbs (ncm -European genera inelude trees and shrubs). Leaves simple, entire: 

Stipules minute or absent. Flowers hermaphrodite, regular, perigynous, 4--> to 

i^iiierous. solitary or in small cymes or clusters in the leaf-axils, rarely in terminal 

fiikes. Hypanthium pelviform to cylindrical. Epicalyx often present. Petals free, 

Ipiik or purple, inserted on lip of hypanthium; sometimes 0, Stamens 2-12, inserted 

fjjia tube of hypanthium. Ovary superior, 2- or 4-loeuIar; style single; stigma 

lapitafe. Fruit a capsule; seeds numerous, 

I. Lythruiii L. 

Jfinnua! or perennial; leaves alternate, opposite or whorled. Flowers usually 
j&merous (sometimes 4-or 5- merous); usually solitary in the leaf-axils, sometimes 
Ijiri pairs or in small, whorl-like cymes, which may form terminal spikes; each 
power shortly pedlcelate, with 2 bracteoles. Hypanthium usually tubular, some- 
ftimes short and wide. Epicalyx present. Petals usually present. Stamens 2-12. 
IpApsuIe usually se-iticidalty dehiscent with 2 valves, rarely dehiscing irregularly 
jprby 4 apical teeth. 

~in some species the flowers are trimornhically heterostylous, with the stamens 
Jjtetwo series of different length, and the stigma at a level below the anthers 
B'SE both series, or above them both, or between the two. 

Htlowers trimorphically heterostylous; stamens 12, at leasl: 
|5Mne of them exserted 

glowers homo sty I ous; stamens usually 4-6, included 


t. j nit ecu m 

2. hyssopifolla 

■ smi g^ s 0msii»»Si>sm^^Si3masm:^ : ': 

L junceum Banks & rio\andcv 
L. Qraej( : /«H.T«n- 

Plate XXVII 

Creeping Loosestrife 

L. graefferi .Ten. , b wilii' . . 

—m .«» w« ; mw» «» MM j? 

2. L. !«5s«pifo!iy L. ^ glabrous. Uave'< un;;: 

? S^it « "'^franco; Vol^V 

♦, v, A.I,,- Air** America; Australia, 
except the nor*;- W. A^w. Ali - t3 ' 


, k, Leave, sl^ ««"H °^?f bai^nf «SS 

^,S«aS?S*^5^ or , Hyrll „ -; 

i. Myrtns L. 
. , Piate XX.VU Mvr Ji e , ; 

j M cOlWlVtftUs «J- ' ■:■} 

white. Berry '"»« & 
when ripe. Fl. S-7. 


Malta: rare at Wardija <g v & C.G.; Gaud); Addolorata (S. & C.G.); Wied Gevzuma 
(S. &.C.G.; Borg); San Martin <GD.); Mellieha (Duthie); Wied Harun, Baskett 
(Borg); Girgenti (GaucD. 

Mediterranean region, aiid W\ Asia, but widely cultivated since ancient limes: 
the native range is therefore very uncertain. 

2. Eucalyptus L'Her. 

Trees with persistent or deciduous, smooth or fibrous bark. Leaves dimorphic; 
juvenile leaves opposite, sessile or shortly petiolate, often glaucous, frequently 
produced on mature trees in response ta wounding; mature leaves alternate, 
petiolate, pendulous, tough, rigid, with a prominent intramarginai vein, flowers 
in umbels or solitary, closed in bud fay the connate perianth segments forming a 
hemispherical or conical operculum which Jails oil when the flower opens. Fruit 
a capsule, opening by valves which are described as ixserted when they project 
beyond the rim of the capsule and enclosed when they remain below the rim. 

1, E. amygdalimis Labi). 
E. tongifolius auct. 

Narrow-leaved Eucalyptus 

Small to moderate- sized tree. Leaves linear to broadly lanceolate, acuminate, 
--entire. Umbels 4 to 8-flowered; peduncles terete. Operculum hemispherical. Fruit 
subgl oh os e -truncate; vglves enclosed or slightly "protruding. 

Malta: planted, Mosta Road, Public Garden at G2ira, Flo nana' ami Main Street. 
St. Julian's; Targa Gap, Burmarrad. Luqa. (Wolseleyk 

Native of Australia. 


Leaves not gland- dotted. Flowers perigvnous. Sepals 5-7, vulva te, 'persistent. Petals 

[5-7, imbricate and crumpled in bud. Ovary inferior, multi-Jocular; loculi super - 

prosed, the lower one&. with asils, the upper ones with parietal placental ion; styles 

£ -simple; ovules numerous^ 'Fruit oerry-Uke, with coriaceous exocarp and numerous 

;:seeds each surrounded by pulp. 

1. Puniea L 

j/5itnib or tree, sometimes spiny; twigs 4-angled 
H^-iUpuies absent. Flowers het maphrodite, terminal, 

llfcvt P. gru&atum L. 

Plate XXVII 

Leaves opposite; deciduous: 


V-V Spiny shrub or small tree. Leaves olilon^-ianeeolate to obovate, glabrous, 
■-entire; Flowers 30-40 mm, in diameter. Hypanthium coriaceous, reddish. Petals 
j^red, rarely white. Fruit 5-8 cm, in diameter, red dish -brown; pulp surrounding seeds 
^translucent, purple, yellowish or white, acid or sweet. Fl. 5-7. 

Cultivated for its fruit and widely naturalised on rocky slopes in valleys and 
|-slsewhere. Malta and G020; common (S. & C.G.; Borg; WolseleyL Camhio: ■ 

pative of S.W. Asia; widely cuitivated in the Mediterranean region. 



■ ' S W - 


Herbs ov shrubs. Flowers hermupl.irud.ite. aetinomorpTiie or weakly zygomorphkiL:' 
Kypantbium ("caIy.x-U;be") often present. Sepals 2,, 4 or 3, petal.; 0, 2, 4 or; : 5'.' '■' 
.Stamens 2 or-4 in. 1 whorl, or 8 or 10 in' 2 whorls; pollen connected in masses'* 
by viscons Style 1.; ovary !-, 2-, 4- or Saccular. Fruit a capsule, a berry-' 
or dry ;;ncl indehiscent. Seeds without endosperm.- ; < 

1. Epiioijiutu L. 

i.-ererinial her l;3, often fiowaiing in the first year. . overwinter ing by turionsi-or.. 
rosettes, which persist about the base of the previous year's stem, or by stolons:. 1 . 
Leaves alternate, opposite, or verticillate. Flowers actinomorphic or weakly zygo-'..-. 
morpli.ic, small to medium- sized, in a leafy raceme or spike, or axillary; hypanth'ial.'J 
tube short or. absent. Sepals 4, erect; petals 4/ white, pink or purple;' stamens -B;i 
in 2 whorl';;; stigma ciavatc or capitate and/ entire, or deeply 4-lobcd; ovary 'iS 
Jocular. Fruit a Ions ■and slender, loeufieidai capsule; seeds numerous, small, with;; 
a cnalaMi'LpIume of hairs (coma), ■■'■*■. 

Stigma 4-lobed 
Stigma entire 

1. E, parvifloumi Schreber 

Plate XXVII 

3, pa rv ft! occur 
2. tcU'ag«iiK!(ti'' 

Hoary WiliowhertJ.-. 

Overwintering by rosettes; stems up to 73 'cm. high, robust, usually -villous/: 
1 .caves i'-.5-10 x OJ-3 cm., oblong to .linear-lanceolate, subsessile, weakly scrruliii^:;^ 

ram. 'in diameter, obovoid. 2n 

Petals -eI -ti - 3Ti ris. long, purplish- nink. Seeds' c. 
FI, -1-10. 

Damp vullcya.: Malta: vara fit' Mtyhleb, Buskett (BorgJ. 

Europe, except the extreme north; N. Africa;. W. and C. Asia. 


E. tcirajjotiinii L 

S quare- s tal ke d Wilio whurlv 

OverVr-intering by rosettes; stems 5-310 cm. high, with elevated strigulose lirissjj 
■Leaves. 2-8 x O.otH cm., oblong or oblong- 1 an ceo lata, serrulate. ■■ Inr!o):eseeacC"|| 
greyish-pubescent. Petals :purplish-pink-. Capsule E5-8 em. ' long, Seeds t-1.5 -rc\m~M 
in diameter, obovoid. F1..4-I0.'- ■'■/:- 

Two subspecies are recorded. Subsp. leii'.agGmmi has the petals 2.5-7 ram. long ar^d;'- 
■the stigma surrounded by anthers at an thesis. Subsp. touraefortii (JViichaicfO/v 
Leveille has the petals 7-11,5 ■ mm. long and the stigma usually elevated abave-;: 
the anthers at an thesis. 

Damp valleys. Malta: u 
Bahriia, ("mien il-Kbiy, 

frequent .(G. Lank'anco), as at Girgenti, Mtahleb: Fiduiei.i/ 
Jan Martin, Cinsjna. Wied il-Qleign, Mellieha (BorgL ';' 

Europe except the extreme north; W. Asia. 


.Herbs w'lh exslvpulate leaves. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, 
or 4, small. Petals 0, 2 or 4, often caducous. Stamens 2, 4, or 8, 
anthers basifixed, 2-iocular. Ovary, inferior, 1- to 4- locular, with 
anatropous ovule in each loculus; styles 1-4, usually short; stigmas 

coarsely pappose.' . Fruit a drupe, or a seliizocarp separating 


1. JIjriophyitwiH L. 

■ Glabrous rhfeomalous, aquatic perennial herbs. Leases in w ho-l- of mh , -n,r 

:pmnausect with capillary segments. Inflorescence an emergent tit nT/ 

mostly unisexual, male above, female below SetMls fl 7/™ P ■ flowm 

-.^spicuous or absent in female iloweSMSn. W* ~rv S $ „S 

S£ "• " SllbseS31,e - F ™H er"™^ longit.udino.lib iX 4 l'-« 

I HI, vwticiflatum L 

Plate XXV LI 

Whnrled Waters 

.1' if oil 


ies ■ as 




.:'--Stems is(> jo 300 cm, long; perermaiiou by- clavate turions Leaves ■>, -- 
■■■*??>. <J'M-V £ a *!«*'. <"ten longer than internode" "e.mX -??' 

-Jong as the lowers.. A few hermaphrodite flowers usuallv pre^nt rVv-c- 
... »«. female Aowers. Petals 2.5 mm. in male fleers, "abserrHn f^^ % 
. .3. rruit c. .» mm. m diameter, subglobose, smooth, i,, =- 2H "i +o 

'.-Most of Europe; N. Africa; Asia; N. & S. America. 

i.;Ftowers "Hisexaul, in apiary 1- to 3-flowered clusters. Perianth m-s^t ivr-de 

-Futln-m^l/^'T 5 , 1 ^ 10 flow «*--with an inferior, unt ^ cuk , „ ^ 
■-.i'luit a. i;:n-hke drupe. Ovule solitary, basal. 

L Theligoiium L. 

.Annual, ;.iabrous and somewhat succulent herbs. Flowers. -rc-u "orh.-th'rf .v-.i- 
■:.-llowers globular, splitting into 2-5 lobes at anthers S ,^ i'„*i, I ■ '^ a,!lL ' 

:■■ tubular, minutely toothed perianth.. anlhMw. ilemdIc flowers wt[j ^ 

i.;1. T. cynocxainbe L. PJate xx Vri 

;V Ci/fiorrrartbc pj-osir(i.;e Gaerttisr 

Habaq il-iinie: :, ci.- 

Sepals 0,-. '%;: 
epipfitaSouii; -.- 
3 pcii'dent,:: 
feathery.-Sr'.' : 
into 1-sBedwl ■; 

; , foetid monoecious. Stems 5-30 cm. hi H h, ascending, swollen al ikmW t ,„^ 
: ovate cntne petiolate. the lower opposite, the u P ^r a i fen "t- ' J V k 
.■■^bran<ms sheathing. Male .flowers with a partite peri, nth a ^'us,a h" 7 r > 
■;^n,e ; ,, ; anuiers long, n.rrowiy Unear . Fruit c . 2 mm> / n dbmet^ "o-^ f.-;,^: the base of the perianth. 2n = 20. FI. 12-5.' ' °" ,!ri - r,dI1 ' ut: 

■■Wt-lls, rocks and stony places. Mc-iftv; common ,'s. £• CG- J3or«- G T ,nf, ,- - 

T.Kvamci- & V\^stra; Wolseley). G 0M and Cvm^.o: (S. &-C.G.; BorgV J - r!k '" K ^ 
. Medite:T-r;c;m region: Portugal. 



: n^ „ or . w " ( ' d)1 «"""»«: leaves alternate.. Flowers actinomorphic, sm iui r alv -, 
.snial-1 oi uichmentary; petals 5, free; stamens 5; ovary inferior. Fnnt a berry? 

1. Iledera L. 


otcly. climbing or creeping, with numerous adventitious root* 
-n: if .iie. t-YSLipmate, evergreen. Indumentum of stellate or peltate hairs! 


hermaphrodite, in umbels, which may be solitary or grouped in a racemose 
panicle. Sepals very small, deltate. Ovary 5-celIed, surmounted by a conspicuous, 
domed disc, terminating in a single, short style. Berry globose, with 2-5 rugose, 
whitish seeds. 

1. H, Jiclix L. 



Stem up to 30 m., climbing. or creeping. Young shoots and inflorescence densely 
covered with stellate to peltate hairs 0.15-0.4 mm. in diameter, each with (4-) 
fi-16 (-22) rays. Leaves shining, dark green, dimorphic; those of the flowering 
shoots (often absent in shady or cold situations) 6-12 x 2-12 cm., narrowly 
elliptical to suborbieular-eordale, entire; those of the non-flowering shoots up to 
15 x 15 cm. but usually much less, palmately (3-> 5-lobed, Petals 3-5 mm. long, 
yellowish-green, patent, later deflexed. Berry with 2-3 seeds. Fl, 9-11. 

Rocks and walls. Malta and Gozo: frequent in most valleys as at Cnejna, Girgenti, 
Buskett <S. & C.G.; Borg; Haslam; Wolseley); Addolorata Cemetery and Sa Maisoii 
Gardens (Wolseley); and in great quantity on the cliffs at Pergla (Wolseley). 
Cowsino: (Borg). Cultivated in gardens foil ornament, where eultivars differing 
mainly in size, shape and colour of leaves are known (Borg). 

1V,j C. & S'. Europe, northwards to GO in Norway, and extending eastwards t« 

Latvia and Ukraine; W, Asia. 


Herbs, rarely shrubs. Leaves alternate; lamina usually large and much-divided: 
petiole often inflated and sheathing at base. Stipules absent Inflorescence usually 
a compound umbel. Flowers epigynous, small, hermaphrodite or unisexual, the 
plant rarely dioecious. Sepals usually small or absent; petals 5, usually more 
or Jess 3-lobed, the middle lobe indexed; outer petals sometimes much larger 
than inner (radiate); stamens 5; : -carpels (1-) 2, usually attached to a central 
axis (carpophore), from which the mericarps separate at maturity; styles (1-) 2,'-'; 
often with a thickened base (stylopodium); ovule 1 in each loculus, pendulous. 
Fruit dry; pericarp membranous or exocarp variously indurated; endocarp rarely : 
woody. Mericarps usually joined by a narrow or wide commissure; each mericarp .. 
more or less compressed laterally or dorsally, with 5 longitudinal veins., usually 
with ridges over them, separated by valleculae or sometimes with 4 secondary 
ridges alternating with the primary; resin canals (vittae) usually present between 
the primary ridges and on tiro commissural face. 

In the following account the primary divisions of the leaves are referred to. 
as segments and the ultimate divisions, cut nearly or quite tot the midrib, as--. 
lobes. The lobes may themselves sometimes be deeply lobed. The leaves are never ■ 
truly pinnate, but are described as pinnate, for brevity, \v hen the lamina is 
divided to the midrib. Descriptions of umbels refer to the terminal, or other: ') 
well- developed umbels: lateral umbels are often smaller, with fewer rays, and' 
may be entirely male. Bracts are structures which subtend the primary branches , 
trans) of a compound umbel, and bracteoles are those which subtend the partial 
umbel, or the whole of a simple umbel. When the stylopodium is described, the . 
description refers to the stylopodium of a hermaphrodite flower. Description of'-'.- 
the ridges of the fruit refer to the primary ridges, unless otherwise specified. .'; 

Ripe fruit is essential for the certain identification of some geneva, though .; 
with a little experience the characters of the ripe fruit can oftea be deduced;^ 
from a careful examination of unripe fruit or even the ovary. Some genera 
which have the ripe fruit strongly compressed or winged (e.g. Peuc'e'danum) da :■ 
not show these characters when young. 






.' 12. 

1 n. 


crenate or d y enta d e rePeate(Ily divided > ™ «metlmes 

Tt. a f, l0 K bes Wine-tipped glaucous 
Leaf-lobes without spines gre en 

a female or hermTphrodTtt le fln fl 1 0Wers . clustered round 
more «ta3^^«* P^icels 


™, Sor'les^mS^^ 11 ^ ^ ™>«*°« 
and rounded l[ ft o£ r ™ ™» - thickened 

K'edr 1 ^ ^ " d ^« thickened or wing- 

Bracts () . 
Bracts numerous 

Flowers yellow 

Flowers white, pink, greenish- or yellowish -white 

S tt3an 3 f^es as long as wide 

f^lt and , bracteoles or f ew 
Bracts and bracteoles numerous 

ieSef S^ ^orbicular in outhne 

14. Bupleuriim 

1- Eryngium 
2. EcbJnophora 

3. Antiu-iseiis 
*. ScanFix 



24. Tordylimn 

22, Fernia . 

23. Feridago 

12. Kundmannia 




Fruit glabrous, not pricklv th n „„K . ' 

muricate or den se V napiiiose g Sometimes rugo,,, 
fruit pubescent, hiU P or^th prickles 
Fruit rugose 

*>«.««»» erap , *,.*. long , MInal rldees 


?-' Suiyrnium' 

11. Foeniculum 
18. Bidolfia 

9. Crithmum 
17. Petroseliuum 





«. Bifora 
21. Capnophyllnm 


IS. Fruit globose; mericarps not separating at maturity 
Fruit usually ovoid; mericarps .readily separating at 

19. Lowest leaves 1. pinnate or simple 
Lowest leaves 2-pinnate or 2-ternate 

20.' Stems; creeping and rooting at nodes 

■ Stems more or less erect, not rooting at nodes 

21. Bracts 0, or 1 simple bract 
Bracts 3-fid or pinnatisect v 

22. Bracteoles strongly dimorphic, some spathulate and 
of!. en inflated, some subulate 

Bracteoles all lanceolate, not dimorphic 

23. Rays 5-7 
Rays (6-) 10-60 

24. Bracts (0-) 5-6, narrowly triangular to ovate- 

. Doflescd bracts 3-fid or pinnatisect 

£3. Oilier raericarp of each fruit with straight prickles, 
inner mericarp tuberculate or with snort .conical 
Both mericarps similar 

£6. Fruit setulose ' or with patent hairs 
Fruit with prickles 

37. Rays 7-50; bracts absent or i 

Rays 1-5; bracts 2-4, longer than rays 

25. At least some bracts 3-fid or pinnatisect 
Bracts simple or 

3. Coriandrnm 







Am mi 


Amnio idles 






Co mum 



25. Torilis 

8. PimpinelJa 
15. Cuinitiuin 





Subf.-tm. Saaiculftideae. Leaves always cxstmubife. Endoearp soft: vittae ussually 
n resent in the rinc fruit. .Style surrounded by the annular of pelviform stylopo- '. 
dlum. Fruit usually scaly.- 

1, Eryiigiuni L. 

Glabrous herbs. Leaves ' entire to 3- pinnatisect. at least the urn^r --of'ly to • 
pungently spiny. Inflorescence usually branched; flowers sessile in ],c-misphe'<-jcal ; 
to cylindrical, capitula, at 'the base of which sire 3 or more, sofUy to»->n<i.y ' 
spmoscent bracts; entire 3. or 4-cuspidate bracteoles present at' least near tlio 
vainer, of the capitula. Senals rigid; petals less than 4 mm. long., erect, em Hamate ■ 
shorter than sepals. Fruit ovoid to sub globose, nearly always sparsely or densely'* 
covered with scales; mericarps plano-convex, slightly ridged; vhtae usually-' 
slender; carpophore absent. 

1. E. niaritinmm L. Plate XXX xev/k iv-ramel . 

Sea Kolly 

Perennial, perhaps sometimes monocarmc; stems 15-60 rai M K h erect 
branched above. Lamina of basal leaves 4-Jo x 5-15 cm., sub orbicular," truncate 
or cordate at base.. 3- (to 5-) Iobed, coriaceous, with coarse, patent, spinescent 
teeth; petiole equalling lamina, .un winged, entire. Inflorescence spreading, bluish, 


■ ^ 

|j £wit : h numerous, pedunculate, subglobosc capitula 1.5-3 cm. iti diameter. Bracts 
i| 2.5-4 cm. long, 4-7, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, with 1-3 pairs of broad, spinescent 

|§ |f'.teetti; bracteoles a -cusp id ate. Sepals 4-5 nin, long, ovate-hinoeobUo. fi visits. Fruit 
^'densely scaly. 'In — Iti. Ft. G-iO. 


l^aody sea shores. Malta: local (G. Lanfranco), as at Ghadira, the peninsuia o^ : 
;4larfa, 6nejna, Bahar ifi-Caghaq (S, fc C.G.; Wolseley); £t. 1'aui^ Kay i.v-inlia j ; 
k'GoIden Bay (Kaslam). Goto: frequent (Borgt; Ramla (S. & C.G.; Woiwley'i. 
ktomino: frequent (Borgt: Sta. ISIarija (&. & C.G.), 

'.Atlantic coasts .of Europe from Portugal to Shetland; ti. Scandinavia. North Se;; 
•■ty}& Baltic coasts to the Gulf of Bothnia; Mediterranean and Black Sea 1 .-:. 

vvSubfam. Apioideite. Leave;? always- exstipulate, ' Endoesrp self.; vii.tac 
> present in the ripe fruit. Style terminal on the styiopodmm. t'Yvnt never 


2. EchinopStora L 

3-pinnate. Sepals pungent, persistent,- often unequal w 



'(towers. Petals white or yellow, oblaneeolale, emarginate, the outer often larger; 
i.'spex intlexed.- Fruit ovoid-oblong; styles Ions, persistent, woody; r.idyij;; ir.w. 
^Indistinct; vittae solitary. 

■ S .L. 8. s-aisi^Es L. 

;;' ■ More er less pubescent perennial up to SO era. high. Lea 
fejobos thick; keeled beneath, sulcate above, spine-tipped. !'■; 



nnaui. rigid: 
1, mib^^-nt. 

pjracts and bracteoles 5-10, oblong-lanceolate to linear, 

tnose. Each nariial umbel 

';;; arse*:.; 
-il ;;c;v;;' 



IfWifh.a centra! hermaphrodite flower and a number of male flowers whos?e snore or 
!:,iess connate pedicels form. fin involucre round the fruit. Petals while, 0:- very 
Rarely pink, pubescent on the back, the outer .larger than the inner,. PL 6-9. 

IS.andy sea shores. Malta; rare (G. LanfraneoL at Ramsa tst.-Torri -f-S. ft- C.G.; 
^ : Borg.; Wolseley). Goto: Ramla (S.-& C.G.: Godfrey; P.orgh 

IMediteiranean -region. 

8. AnthriscKS Pers. 

Reaves 2- to 3-pinnate. Sepals minute or absent. Petals whiki. cm. 

I™ flexed. Fruit narrowly -oblong, rarely ovoid, with. a. usually wcU-ck 

^commissure constricted. Ridges confined to the beak; vittae -sslitarv 

|t A, cerefoHum (L.) HofTm. G 

■ V, r iry annua! up tc 70 cm. hl.^'b. Leaves 3- pinna to vvit" 
§2-6, more or less pubesccvit. Bracteoles linear. Fruit 
Slincar. with a prominent slender beak up to 4 mm. lo 
^than the stylopoclium, nearly erect. Fl. 4-5. 

pteiia; cultivated as a condiment (Borg); naturalised outside the Anrioii^-aift 
gCehietery (Wolseley). 

4, Seandix I,. 

RrSaves (1-) 2- to 3-pinnate, with narrow lobes. Urabels with few rays, sometimes 
Induced to one ray only. Sepals absent. Petals white, oblong, often very u-iu.-iuk' 
Js-' the outer flowers; apex, incurved or .in flexed. Fruit sub cylindrical, slightly 

Ktflrapressed latcralh-, beak un to four times as Tens r^ the secd-bcai'lnj; liar', 
jjjtlges prominent, slender; vittae very slender. 



d so!.;' 

a. Rays 

m its . 





!',"<!"; ?'cr 

&&iaii80sm!s&&i&&r> ■ 

1.. S. pec ten- veneris L- 

Up to ,0 ca, high. Leaves 2- tc ^-pmnat* UrtS^ncS maS/SmS^ 
abse* or rarely few, ^ted^eh es h mem branous ^ ^ peta 
irregularly diTided, with jagged l«lh , a n ^ ^^ ]arge d . 

sr b ^ -s^^» P>^« -'* of ^ more or less ^ ■ 

flattened dorsally. 2;i -•■ 16. Fl. 3-4. _ 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta; common (S ft CG, Borg; Wolseley). .Go*,. 
Went (S & C.G.J Borg; Wolseley). Comino: (Borg). 

„ 'c ^ i-„ r< Kuwia and the Mediterranean region; eastwards to 
Europe from S. Sweden L ^^ ff V N America, Chile, New Zealand etc. 
W. Himalayas; introduced in S. Africa, N. America, w. 

5 Coriaiidrum L. 
inconspicuous in fruit 

ft. radians Eieb. 

Southern Bifora 

X. C. sativum L 



Nattve of N. AlrM and W. Asia; cult.vated widely 


(i, Bifora Hpffm. 

Le „„ j. ,„ 2 -p,*.«; !..»» ..near .r X^^SS .^"phS* 

1. testicular 

2. radians 

1. ft 

tcsticulata (L.) R<H h 


Kosbor salvagg 
Mediterranean Bifora 

« annua, ^^■^^Z^^^^S^ 

,„!. not more than 03 mm. long G(!timi „, St. Paul'. ..: 

Wardija, PwaleS (Borg). 
Mediterranean region. 


Differs from B. tcsticulata as follows; lobes of upper leaves filiform; rays 
up to 25 mm, iongj 3-8; outer petals of marginal flowers much larger than others; 
fruit rugulose; unbeaked; style 1-1 ; .5 mm. long, at least twice as long as 
styiopodium. PI. 3-5. 

Malta: Gulia, without locality; not found since (Borg). 

S, & C. Europe; Caucasus; Asia Minor. 

7. Smyrnium . L. 

Lower leaves usually 2- to 3,ternate, upper usually simple. Sepals absent. Petals 
yellow, lanceolate to obcordate; apex indexed. Fruit ovoid or subgiobose, 
didymous. Ridges slender, the marginal usually inconspieuouous; vittae numerous, 

1, S. 'olnsatrMRi L. 

Plate XXIX 

Karfus il.hnur 

Glabrous biennial 50,150 cm. high. Ste'.n stout, solid, becoming hollow When 
o 1(1; upper branches often opposite, Leaves dark green and shiny; basal c. 30 cm. 
long, triangular^in outline, ternate; segments 1- to 2-,pinnate; lobes 10,00 mm, 
loii<*. rhombic- ovate, crenate-dentate and sometimes lobed; cauline leaves smaller 
and iess divided, with short, inflated petioles. -Kays .{3-)- 7-13 (-18). Bracts and 
bracteoles few, small, sometimes 0. Fruit 7-8 mm. long, black, 'in = 22. FI. 2-4. 

Shaded places in valleys and fiejds under oarob trees. Malta and Gozo; common 
everywhere (S. & ■ U.fcf.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). Comino: rare (Borg). 

Mediterranean region extending northwards to N.W: France; S.W. Asia; extensively 
.naturalized in Britain and Ireland. 

8. Plnipinella L 

Basui leitves usually entire, or trisect, sometimes 1- to 3-pinnate; mitjdle cauline 
usually 2- pinnate, with narrow lobes. Sepals usually minute. Petals white or yellow, 
rarely pink or uurplish, not or slightly emarginate; apex ihflexed. Fruit ovoid- 
oblong to subglobose, laterally compressed, constricted at the commissure. Kidges 
filiform, sometimes concealed by-hairsj setae or tubercles; Wttae '(2-) 3 (-4). 

Kays 7-15; fruit with short, appressed hairs 

Rays usually more than 13; fruit with long, patent hairs 

1. P. anisum L. 

1, anisum 
2. peregrina 

Anisi, Hlewwa 

Finely pubescent, strongly aromatic annual 15-50 cm. high. Stem terete, 
; striate, branched above. Lowest leaves reniform, incise- dentate or shailowly lobed; 
next leaves pinnate with 3-5, ovate or obovate, dentate segments; upper cauline 
leaves 2- to 3-pinnate, with linear-lanceolate lobes and narrow, sheathing petioles. 
Rays 7-15, sparsely puberulent. Bracts absent or 1; bracteoles usually few, filiform. 
Petals white. Fruit 3-5 mm. long, ovoid to oolong, shortly appressed-setbse. Fl. 4-5. 

■ Malta; cultivated for centuries for its aromatic fruit, sometimes sub-spontaneous 

Widely cultivated and often naturalised; native distribution unknown, but certainly 
of Asiatic origin. 


■ ■# • 

. i '■ * ?* ■ 

4 5 

P. peregrina L. 

Plate XXIX Sensiela 


Finely pubescent biennial 50-100 em. high. Lowest leaver simple, cordate, 
secrate: nest leaves. pinnate, the segments 5-S>, sub orbicular, more or Jess cordate 

at base, cren.ate; the upper cauline 2-pinnate, with linear, often recurved lobes- 
Yl&y:. S-"C. filiform.' setuiose. Uracts and braeteoles absent. Fruit c. 3 huts, in 
diameter, ovoid, with patent hair:;, Fl. 5-6. 

Field-margins and rocky ground, particular!;/ on '. the coralmo plateaus. 
Malta and Gozo: frequent (S. &i C.G.; Borg; G. Lan-Erancd; Wolseley). 

9. Ci-itlrnnii» L. 

Leaves 1- to 2- pinnate -with subteretc fleshy- segments. Sepals minute. Petals ■ 
ycliowish-gree-i, obcordate: apos iriilexod. Fruit ovoict-oblong, not compressed; 
iiaricarp. -spongy. Uidges thick- and prominent; vittae several.- 

L F. vulgar e Miiler 

Plate XXX 

I. C. mariUiauni L. 

Plate XXIX 

Busbies il-balisr 
Roc.k Samphire 

Glabrous perennial 15- BO cm. high, woody below. Leaves delta to in outline; 
lobes 1-5 cm. Ion?, linear-oblanceolate, subacute, Rays 8-36. rather stemf TSvacts- 
and braeteoles triangular-] anceolate to linear- lanceolate, ultimately dsflesed. Fruit 
5-S mm. long, yellowish or purplish. Fl. .6-0, 

Roc\y. coasts; occasion ally on walls inland, if alt. 7. and 'Gazo: . freq.ii.ent !S, & C,G; 
iiorg; G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley).. Cumin-o: (Borg; Woise.ley). 

Atlantic coast of. 'Europe, northwards to Scotland; Mediterranean and Black Sea 

10. Oeaanllie L. 

Leaves niimale or piiina.tisect.- Sepals acute, persistent. Petals white or- pale pink, 
notched, the outer radiating; apes' long, indexed. Fruit' ovni'J, cylindrical, .obcomeal 
or globose; commissure wide. Lateral ridges grooved- or thickened, sometimes 
obscure;' vittae solitary; v 

I. O. gloforJosa L. 

Plate XXIX 

llo mid-headed ■ Wate'!'-ciro»'.vort' 

Much branched perennial, rarely- snore than 50 em. high. Hoots with avoid 
Libers, distant, from stem. Stem hollow, groovcdi Basal leaves 2-pinnate; lobes 
grooved. Basal leaves 1- to 2 -pinnate; lobes linear, Cauline leaves pinnate or 
simple, linear -lane col ate; lobes linear to linear-lanceolate, umbels terminal: 
Peduncle longer than rays. Bays 5-7, slightly thickened in fruit. Fruit 3,54 mm., 
in diameter, elliptical. Styles at leas'; as long as fruit.. Fl. 3-5. 

■ Winter-wet places. Malta: frequent fG; Lanfranco): as at (Jncjna, Fiddien. Mlanleb, 
Wiod Qirda ($, & C.G.; Dorr, Wolseley); St. Paul's Bay (S. & C.G.; Chain Ilihana, 
Gftajn ■ Mala (Sorg); Wied Qlejg&a (Lanfraneo):. Bus'rett (Lanfraneo; Wolseley} ;'.. 
Wfed ta' 1-Isqof & Wied Qinnotta (Wolseley). Gozo: Ramla Valley {Borg; Wolseley!. ' 

W. Mediterranean region; Portugal; N. Atrica. 

II. Foenkuhim Miller 

Leaves 3- to 4-pinnate with long filiform lobes. Sepals absent. Petals yellnw, 
oblong, scarcely narrowed to the involute apex. Fruit ovoid-oblong, scarcely 
compressed. Ridges stout, prominent, the lateral somewhat wider than the others: 
vittae solitary. 




& k' 





. eLen 

Glabrous, glaucous perennial ov biennial up . to 25(5 em..higri. Hrcs. 
■shiny, developing a small hollow when old. Leaves more or ie>s Luar 
'outline, lobes usually 5-50 mm. long, iilii'own, a eliminate, cartilaginous 
■■usually widely spaced and not all lying in one plane; petioles of up;;; 
; usually 3-6 mm, long. Bays 4-30. Bracts and braeteoles usually (J. Lr 

■ iii in. long, ovoid-oblong; lateral ridges stare si v more prominent ).L:*; 
■Fl. 5-10, 

■Two subspecies are recorded. Subsp. vuigare is often bicimiai; tati'-ioij'" 
■more than 10 'mm. long, flaccid; terminal umbei nod' overtopped bii !ab: 

■ rays usually 12-25; fruit sweet tasting, Sometimes - cultivated a;- a 
■and or flavouring. Subsp. piperita™ (Ucria) Couiiiiho is perennial; 
/.seldom more than 10 mm. long, rigid and rather fleshy; terminal imf 

.overtopped by lateral ones; rays usually 4-1'J; fruit sharp tasting. 

.Arid rocky ground and abandoned fields. Malta, Ga;;o and CorrAna: .:oi'~f;v;>;L ■:';';. & 

,.C,G.; Borg; G, Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

■'.Usually maritime. Most of Europe except, the north, 'out probably native c^lv m 

'-'ihe 'south arid south-west; W. Asia; K. Africa. 

13. luvadmania Scop. 

Leaves -1- to 2-pinnate, with ovate segments. - Sepals; s-na!!, somewhat ^c^ice-nt, 
■Petals yellow, broadly ovate; apex involute. Fruit nearly cylindrical; 'R. : ;.ii;s;'-- sifpfier 
!.:tiiit prominent;' vittae numerous, irregularly' arranged. 

■\ K. 'sicula (L.) DC. Plate XXXVIII ■ . . ■'^;^.i:^ 

Glabrous perennial 20-70 cm. high. Lower loaves usunlly 2-j;:iiiiin!c Mii.r-. ;i r-vu'-' 
;'..'.of supplementary segments at the base o:E each pair or primary brAm-^s: h>h™ 
.'■'ovate, eremite-serrate, the lowest sometimes lobeo;. v<ppec cimiinp, I.e , ;t.v«L; I ■-,)■; wo-si .v.\ 
isfie- segments incise-serrate or lacerate. Umbels with o-'di) SL:beaual r;vy,=;, Rr^ct:- 
j.iand braeteoles numerous, linear. Fruit 0-10 mm. in diameter. Fl. •!-?,. 

|Arid. rocify, wasteland. Malta and Gozo: frequent; especially -in t'-e ^''V^cj'-l 
districts (S. k C.G,; Borg; Laniranso). 

Mediterranean region; extending to Portugal. 

13. Ccrti'jm L. 

;i ig^ Leaves 2- to 4- pinnate; lobes serrate or pirinaiifkl. Sepals absent. 
'** feehcordate; apes inilexed. Fruit subglobose, laterally compressed Ukig 

;■■! ■-.v.nne. 

■: often undulate-crispate; vittae absent. 
1. C, maculatum L. 

Plate XXXL 

Nearly glabrous annual or biennial 50-250 cm. high. Stem prumos; 
-,with reddish -brown spots below, hollow. ljea\'es up to SO " 40 cm., 

||in outline, 2- to 4-pinnale, soft, entirely glabrous; lobes 10-20 mm. Ion; 
lanceolate to deltaic, pinnatifid, coarsely serrate or crenate-serrate, Kays 
3ften puberulent. Bracts (0-)5-6, narrowly triangular to ovate-lanceolate, 
'i margin ^carious; biacteoles 3-6, on the outside, of the partial umbel 
-'at base and often connate. Fruit 2,5-8.5 mm. long. 
0aUa: Addolorata Cemetery (LM, Evans;' M. Gauci; Welsdey"'; 

Kpospital; Wied Iniita (CL Lanfranco). 

^Almost throughout Europe, except the extreme north. 


a. (ssuall.v 

a, oblonsj- 



, "iv'ul.cre.-J 

ml Csrn'iffi 

u ^*=wjiPLJSsjaK^s^j^i^ J ^ 

14. Bupleurum X. 

Leaves simple. Sepals usually absent. Petals yellow, riot emarginate; apex inflexed. 
Fruit usually ovoid or oblong. Ridges usually conspicuous; vittae 1-5. 

Leaves perfoliate; bracts absent; bracteoles suborbicular I. laiici folium 

2. semkomposltttm 

Leaves not perfoliate; bracts present though sometimes 
deciduous; bracteoles linear 

1. B. liiiicifniium Hornem. 

B. rotundifolmm var. subovatum (Link) Borg 

Widnet H-fenek 
Spear-leaved Hare's-ear 

Erect, glaucous, often purple tinged annual 15-75 cm. high. Leaves ovate- or 
oblong-lanceolate, often mucronate. Rays 2-3, (-5), often somewhat thickened at 
base and apex. Bracteoles 5-6, suborbicular, mueronate, shortly connate at base, 
yellowish- green and patent in flower, becoming whitish and connivent in fruit; 
veins conspicuous. Fruit 3-5 mm. long, ovoid-globose, blackish -brown, conspicuously 
■tubereulate. Pi. ^-5. 

Cultivated, places; occasionally on rocky wastes. Malta and Goza: locally frequent 
tS. & CO.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). Co-mino: (S, & C.G.; Borg). 

Mediterranean region north to C. Europe; W. Asia. 

B. serai com positum L. 
B. yktucum Robil.l. 

Plate XXVHf- 

Grey Hare's-ear 

Much-branched, spreading, glaucous annual up to 30 cm. high. Lower leaves 
spathulate to linpar, petiohtte, obtuse to acute; upper linear, sessile, semi- 
am pi exiciml, acuminate;; veins 3-5. Rays 3-6, filiform. Bracts 1/3 to 1/2 as long 
as the longest rays, linear, 3- veined; bracteoles exceeding the flowers, linear- 
ianceolate or. rarely narrowly elliptical, aristate; veins 3, very prominent. Fruit 
1.5-2 mm. in. diameter, subglobose or ovoid-oblong, covered with small whitisli 
papillae; ridges slender, inconspicuous. Fl. 3-4. 

Malta: rare between Qormi and Marsa (S. & C.G.; Borg). 

Mediterranean region; W. Asia, 

15. Cu milium L. 

Leaves 2-ternate. Sepals subulate, conspicuous, Petals white or pink, emarginate; 
apex long, inflexed. Fruit ovoid-oblong, dorsally compressed. Ridges filiform; the 
secondary more conspicuous; vittae solitary. 

).. C. eyminum L. 

Plate XXXI 


Slender annual, 10-50 em. high. Leaves with filiform lobes 2-5 era, long. Rays 
15, rather stout. Bracts 2-4, filiform or 3-fid, usually longer than the rays; 
bracteoles usually 3, very unequal. Flowers 3-5 In each partial umbel; pedicels 
stout. Fruit 4-5 ram. long, ovoid-oblong, setulose or glabrous. F3. 5-6. 

Malta, Gozo and Comino: cultivated for centuries and occasionally subspontaneous 

Native of N, Africa and S.W. Asia; cultivated in the Mediterranean region 
its fruits and more or less naturalized locally. 



16. Apium L. 

^wL Pil V lat , e ° r the Upper ternate ' Se P als ^n«te or absent .Petals whitish 
™^ arg i na T, te J apex retimes mflexed. Emit ovoid or eHipdc-oblonsr lateral v 
compressed. Ridges usually stout; vittae solitary P g ' utel * x] y 

Bracteoles absent 
Bracteoles 5-7... 

1. A. graveolens L. 

Plate XXXI 

L graveolens 
-. uodiflorum 

Wild Celery 

sutaXPjt^S^Z.'? T,™- "f"- "^ » «"<*■ <*™t=W smell. Stem 

£™. st injurs 3sr«ar*iia**fc , as 

Along water-courses. Variants are cultivated for the edible petioles fcelerv) 
Bol^ w^ ( w L ' miFa ™°>> as at Mtahleb, Fiddien, Ta' Baldu 6ne na ^ & C G ■' 
S. HHZrU11 (B ° rg; Wols ^ey). Gozo: XI en di Valley (S. & C.G. Bo7 g ' ; 

Coastal regions of much of the Old World and S. America; introduced elsewhere. 

2. A. nodiflorum (L.) Lag. 

Karfus tal-ilma 
Fools Water- cress 
Procumbent Marshworf. 

Procumbent or ascending perennial uu to ion ,. m m^u *<■'■, 
at the lower nodes. Leaves" f-pCate ^ segmenfa 1M»™ wS^T r00tin * 
to ovate, senate and often somewhat lohld P»rt,m n i ,, ^ 7 " 13 ' lttnc eolate 

often almost absent; umbels lea ^opposed Rav^ 312 W^ s E ortcr than rays > 
1 or 2; bracteoles 5-7, ovate or lanceolate LtY , t* S ■ USuaUy ab ««it, rarely 
Fruit r.5-2 ram. in ■ <0^^ j^^St^^S ?TTu U ' m - 

^.^^^Z^A",^^^ **"* ™*»> Chad, 

Much of Europe; S.W. Asia; N. Africa; introduced in N. America and Chile. 

17. Petroseiinum Hill 

1. P. crispum (Miller) W.W. Hill 
P. hortense auct. 

Plate XXXI 


Wild Parsley 

■»«JaS.ff^ri&Xi^ ^ W , ,m Wgh - Ste " te ^.-lid; branches 
Jobed, oLn 5 in cult vara vJ^^i ^ 1Q T mm - l0ng ' cune ^ 
entire or 3-fid; bracks 5-8 luiear „bt tt ^ aHoPped - . «W* 8-20. Bracts 1-3, 
Fruit 25-3 rani, in diaraeter, broad yS g -f"™^*- Petals ^Sowish. 


Cultivated as a herb; naturalised or native along streams- and in humid places" 
Malta: Gnejnn, Girgenti, (S. & C.G.; Borg). Goso: Xlendi valley (Wolseley). 

Cultivated mid naturalised in much of Europe; origin uncertain but perhaps- 
S.E. Europe or W. Asia. 

IS. Ititlolfia Mori.'; 

Leaves ■!-' pinnate, with filiform lobes, Sepals absent. Petals y.ellov*. ovate; apex 
infi excel, truncate. Frail ovoid- cylindrical, compressed laterally. Ridges slender, 

scarcely prominent; vittae solitary, -slender. 

It. sMrgrjium Moris 

Plate XXXI 

Busbies il-Qairm 

Glabrous, annual with stems. -Hl-1.00 cm. high. Leaves with long, divaricate lobes, ■ 
the upner often reduced to the inflated petiole. Umbel.-; with -10-60, slender, Ready ■ 
equal rays. Bracts and braetc-oles absent. Fruit 1.2-2.5 mm. in diameter. PI. 4-6. 

In fie Id' 9 firing crops. Malta; locally abundant (Berg; G. Lan franco): as. at Si. V 
Paul's B-;y:;;> Bin£ermna (S. & CO; (Siieina., Rabat . (Wolseley),' Goto': 
Nadnr (S; .& C.G.);. Xaglira (vVoisejey), Coviino: f.3org). ■ 

filediterrarrean region: W. Africa.- 

IB. .'AjjiJiii L, 

Leaves i-'io 3- pinnate or -female. -Sepals very small or absent. Petals white or 
yell ovists. obeordate;'the, outer larger; apes inlle.y.ed. Fruit ovoid or ovoid-oblong,'" 
slightly laterally compressed- constricted at the commissure.- Primary- ridges; 

filiform, iiroini.ncn.t' vitiac solitary. v 

Rays- patent or erec to-patent in'Hower, becoming 1 erect, 

thiclcened and indurate in fruit 

Rays paterst and slender in flower and fruit 

1, A.-visaaga (L.) Lam. 

2. majtis 

' Sand' Bulhvort' 

Refuel anneal o'r biennial up. to 1.00 cm. .high,. Lower leaves pinnate, others 2-' 
to- :)-pinn;{(t\ ail with narrowly linear or: filiform lobes. Rays' up to c. 350. slender' 
mid patent in (lower, becoming erect, thickened and indurate in fi'uit. Bracts 1-' 
.1.0 2-piunf.UKect. eeualiin??. '.of exceeding the rays; bracteolos subulate. Pedicels' 
erect stoiit. and rigid in fruit. Fruit 2-2.5 mm. in diameter. Fl. 5-10. 


waste ground. Malta: common (GD.; Gulia); not seen by later' 

Med: fen™ can region and Portugal; W. Asia. 

2. A. triajjuss L 

Plate XXXI 


Anrvui-.l 20 100 cm. hish, very variable in habit and leaf-dissection. Leaves 2- ' 
l.o 3- pinnate: lower usually with elliptical or ohovato. obtuse, serrate lobes; middle-. 
■.viui iaivrenl'ita. a cumin e.te, serrate to dentate, lobes; upper with linear, dentate 
'Jni-o-;. Hav-; '"-fin. slender and ereeto-pafent in flower and fruit. Bracts 3-fid or 
iiinuatisect, vb'Ji filiform lobes, sometimes entire; braeteoles lanceolate, acuminate 
to li-Uif.r-LjnceoIatc. Pedicels slender. Fruit c. 1.75 mm. in diameter. Fl. 4-fi. 

Cultivated vA waste places. Malta and Qozo: frequent (3. & C.G.; Bc^; G. 
Lanfraneo; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region; W. Asia: occasional weed elsewhere. 

20. Anmiojdes Adansoh 

Laves , P innate, with linear ™^.^^ S ^?%^ ^e/^U 
snbor^ieular lobe projecting on either side of lit .nle,c,, °° • ; , 

broadiv ovoid, laterally compressed, not constnclea *t th„ .oim.-i.-wut. 
filiform, swomiKent; vittae- solitarv. 

■ . , t-j.,^ yvvi Small Bulhvori 

- A ™mu fBi-ot.) Breistr. I'M* "^ 

" Peiro':c-^.nm ammoidsi (L,) Reichenb. .ii. 

■ . dlcds unequal. Fr nVt c. 1 mm . iq demote,, I' 1. .3-6, 

r ; r.VH -„* arid was'e places. Malta: common (Borg; G. La.rfraneo; Kramer 
f SS WoleSl.^ .™d-Comi M : ^ Sequent (Borg.. 
■Mediierrr^e^-i region,- extending to Porlagal, 

21. Capncpityllum-G'.ierlfje.i' 

prominent, .the lateral thicker thai. ^ do^a .n ^ somei ;m eS 

all transversely rugose-seabrid; vittae sol.t.ry, m oiic ..w. 

Plate XXXII 


all trans 
bstween them. 

1, C. pert^rhinm (L.) Lo?;e 

Krubera pvrcgrina (L.J Lowe 

ri--Vo^ annual 10-50 cm. high. Stem .solid, sukate. Loaf-segments broadly 
■uiaS^-U'"Wor lobed lanceolate to linear lobes. Ray, g*™* — ■ 
or few; bracteoles 4-6, shortly .triangular. Fruit 'l-o mm. ion?, .i t. ... 

iHeMc: rurfe. Ghajn Mula, G-hajn Rihalla (Bor.a). 

. W Tviedi-.crranean region: Atlwntie Islands. ■ 

2i. Ferdla "L. 

Prronriis' J eayes ?■ to 4-pinnate or -ternate. with usually ImeSr lobes Bracts 
« brakes absent or few. Sepals absent or ™»|ule^el .^cl^^ nrt 

■' numerous. 


Plate XXX 

Common Fcj- ] 

,,,- „„ l0 200 cm high or more, very robust. Leaves with eoii*pir.vimJS 
■ s heS^es ; ?aminT^neTy divided, with -linear lobes up to o» x o.»-> m.n, 


~*zu«;v.:G r <.&&&&gl'r*J*zf "- 

margins not distinctly revolute, upper leaves of the inflorescence progressively 
reduced 10 conspicuous sheathing bases only. Terminal umbel more or less sessile, 
surrounded by smaller lateral umbels on long peduncles, which may themselves 
have secondary lateral umbels. Bracts 0; bracteoles few, linear-lanceolate, 
deciduous. Terminal umbels with 20-40 rays. Fruit e, 15 mm. in diameter. Pi. 3-5. 

Two subspecies are recorded. Subsp. communis has the leaf-lobes not more than 
1 mm, wide and green on both surfaces. Subsp. glauca (L:) Rouy & Camus has 
the leaf-lobes up to 3 mm. wide, bright green above and distinctly glaucous 

Arid rocky places, abandoned fields and roadsides. Malta and Gozo: frequent (S. 
& C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). Comirto: common (S. & C.G.; Borg; 

Mediterranean region; Ethiopia; Atlantic Islands, 

23. Ferulitgtt Koeh 

Leaves 2- to 3(-4)r pinnate with filiform to linear-lanceolate lobes. Bracts and 
b fact e ol es well- developed and usually conspicuous. Sepals minute. Petals yellow. 
Fruit strongly compressed dorsaily, with more or less well developed lateral 
wings and filiform to distinctly winged dorsal ridges; vittae numerous. 

1. F. nodosa <L.) Boiss. 

Eastern Ferulago 

Erect, glabrous perennial c- 00 cm high. Stem very conspicuously swollen 
at the nodes. Leaves triangular in outline; lobes shortly linear. Bracts and 
bracteoles ovate-lanceolate, Fruit S-10 mm. long, with narrow, somewhat undulate 
lateral wings and narrow dorsal wings. PI, 3-6, 

Arid rocky hills. Malta: around Gfrajn il-Kbira (Delicata; Borg). 

K. Mediterranean region. 

24. TardyHuin L. 

leaves simple, pinnaiisect or pinnate. Sepals prominent, often unequal. Petals 
white or purplish, cuneate or clawed, outer larger and often 2-lobed; apex inflexed, 
Fruit orbicular or ovate -elliptical, strongly compressed dorsaily; margin strongly 
thickened, usually corrugated or lobed; dorsal ridges inconspicuous; vittae usually 


T, apulum L. 

Plate XXXII 

Haxiset it'trierah 
Mediterranean Hartwort 

Stout, softly and rather sparsely pubescent annual 20-50 cm. high. Stem 
densely hairy at base with sparse long hairs above, ridged, solid, branched. Leaves 
pinnate; lower with ovate, deeply crenate segments; uppermost with linear, entire 
segments. Rays S-H. Bracts and bracteoles much shorter than the rays; several 
subulate, stiffly cilia te. Outer flowers with one petal much larger than the 
others (4-6 mm.), more or less equally 2-lobed and appearing like % large petals. 
Fruit 5-8 mm, in diameter, with soft, vesicular hairs; wing with a thin inner- 
part; thickened mnrgm corrugated, minutely papillose, Fl. 2-4. 

Cultivated fields and waste places, Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common (3. ■ 
& C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfrunco; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region. 


Torilis Adanson 

^ ra^on^aJSst^S v^TJT^ '« « 
Imear to ovoid, narrowed t toromSr^^^'f ! '^ inflexed Frllit 
between the ridges usually fined wTh spinel or Se r^^ "hate, thegrooves 

y^«y lateral, leaf-oppos.d, peddles U p/ t o / ; ;■ ? 

sfSonz* 117 tel ' mim,i ° n Pec!und6;s ™ than 

I- nodosa 
L nrvensis : 

1- T. 

nodosa (L.) Gaertner 

Plate XXX11 

Knotted Hedge-parsley 

. ^"-« .ncujjv-jjiiismy 

dee^SnM sim^^^mS^r* 1 -^ ^ '' t0 * ™ te > ™* 
rays very short, generally concealed hv tVV^* p ! d UIlM °' ^af- opposed, - 
a capitate -appearance. Bracts ab sent to^Lf^l™ Z^k * hins the um ^ 
Petals pinkish-white: FruU 2 : 3 mni i ^Siw exce ' dm& the sessile flowers. 
Patent spines, the inner witn tuCle" t J 22 ™^ 5 ™^P with straight, 

Cuh^tecf and waste places. Mate and .. GoM; freW < s / & GG, Borg; G. 

I J,: Mediterranean region and W: Europe. 

; 2. T. Mveasfc <« ll(fcoll> .Link subsp . purpurea (Ten;) Hayelt 

. ' . : ■ , ■ Spreading Hedge-pars Joy 

; '« iSiSf S^^g d^pi?diS^n=^- ^^ le — ^"-absent 
v with linear-ianceolate to liSsegments toJ^^S^** ? ^ Ves 3-foIiolate, 
.reraotely serrate to subentire . CrtSly^^^K*!^ ^ mar ^> 
:v upper- small and less divided. Kays usuariv ? R™,f ?' leaVes Sirailar - bu * 
vfttiit>«.W i„. diameter, both mericarbs smnv «?■ ^ br f^ oles numerous, 
« tube^ate; rareiy the ^^^^ Xu^^J^ % 

i^-.^&^t^^*^ ^rg); d n GJ na (Codfery; S ; t c.G, 
g Mediterranean region; W. and C/ Europe. 
;-; 2(1. Daueus L. 

I ellipsoid to ovoid, cyhndncal ofsomewh^ ,n,? "f? °'' apeX inflcxe < 1 P ™it 

Inform, ciliato; secondarVr^ ^slngT^ ^S^ ^^ * 

pf^^ 11 SeCOndal ' y rMges oi ^ricarp dilated, confluent ' 

f "^. ■■ ' :■ L guttatiis 

,Mnes n secondary ridges of meficarp not coniiuent 

; at the base, not longer than the middle of the mericarp 2 . carot a 

T ' -225- 


D. guttatus Sibth. & Sm. 
D, bicolor Sibth. & Sm, 

Eastern Carrot 1 : 

Annual stems 20-80 cm. high, usually several, branched, erect or ascending, 
retrorse seabrid or sometimes hispid near the base. Lower leaves' 2-pinnate, the : 
segments divided into short, linear, acute lobes; upper leaves with linear segments. : 
Kays 8-25. Bracts usually longer than umbels, not deflexed, pinnatifid; bracteoles 
linear -setaceous. Petals 0.6-2.5 mm j long, white, those of the central flower of : 
the umbel and those of the central umbel usually dark purple. Fruit 2-4 mm.'iflf 
diameter; spines of the secondary ridges 1-2 times as long as the width oJ the-' 
mericarp. Fl. 4-7. 

Malta: collected at Todaro and Kalkara in lf)43 by Caruel (Borg), 

E, Mediterranean region. 

2, ». carota L. 

Plate XXXII 

Sfunnarija, Zunnarija salvagga. 
Wild Carrot 

Annual or biennial, variable in habit and branching; stems 10-100{-150) cnr.^ 
high, glabrous to hispid. Leaves 2-to 3-pinnate, rarely less divided, the segments : 
linear to lanceolate, glabrous to pubescent, thin or fleshy; upper cauline leaves 
often bract-like. Umbels concave, flat or convex, with a variable number of: 
rays. Bracts as long as the rays or shorter, L to 2-pinnatisect; bracteoles of outer 
partial umbels 3-sect, those of the inner simple. Petals white to purplish, often ■ 
with one or several flowers of the central umbel dark purple. Fruit 2-4 mm. in: 
diameter;: spines on the secondary ridges not longer than the width of The 
mericarps. 2v = 18. Fl. 4-5. 

Very variable. At least !) subspecies seem tc* be native to Malta, while subsp';- 
satiuiis is much cultivated. Subsp. carota has a white, slender Uproot, erect,; 
usually hispid stems; terminal umbel 5-15 cm. across, strongly contracted in fruit;: 
Subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcangeli is similar, but its tap-root is swollen, fleshv,;{ 
orange or whittstv. Subsp. hlspanicus (Gouan) Tfiell, has a white, slender' tapro'otyv 
sparsely pubescent, erect stem usually more than 30 cm. high and umbels eohveiv 
or only slightly contracted in fruit, Subsp. rupestris (Gouan) Heywood is similar 1 ; 
but with a procumbent .or ascending, densely hairy stem usually less tfiMvlO; 1 
cm. high. Subsp. rupestris is endemic^ to the Maltese Islands and Lampedusa and; 

Cultivated, waste and rocky places. Malta, Gnzo, Co-mi mo and Cominotto: common 
(S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Most of Europe; Asia; N. Africa; cultivated and naturalised in many other parts 
of the world. 

27. Pseudorlaya (Murb.) Murb. 

Leaves 2-to 3-pinnate, Bracts several, linear. Sepals conspicuous. Petals white 
or purplish, scarcely radiating; apex iinflexed. Fruit ellipsoid; primary ridges .\ 
filiform, ciliate; secondary ridges with 2-3 rows of glochidiate spines. 

1. P. pumila (L) Grande 

Plate XXXII 

Small Carrot 

Daucus pumilus (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link 

Densely hairy annual up to 20 cm. high, branched from the base. Leaves 2-t& 
3- pinnate, the segments divided into ovate lobes. Rays 2-5, unequal. Bracts 2-5. 
linear, acuminate, green, sometimes 3-fid; bracteoles linear-lanceolate. Petals 


white or purplish, the outer only slightly larger than the others. Fruit 7-10 s o-f> 
mm., ellipsoid; lateral secondary ridges with a prominent, smooth spines, widened 
at the base, the other secondary ridges with c. 18 narrow spines 2.5-3,5 mm. long. 

: 2n =. 16. Fl. 4-5. 

Maritime sands. Malta: locally frequent (G. Lanfranco), as at Gnejoa, Bahar ic- 
CaghacS {Borg; Wolseley); Mellieha, Maria peninsuin (S. & C.G.; Borg); Ghajn 
■ -Tuilieiia, Marsaskala (Borg). Qozo: Ramla IS. & C.G.; Borg; J. Evans); Qbajjsji.' 
(Borg). Comino: Sta. iViarua Bay (Borg). : 

Mediterranean region^ 



/Dwarf shrubs to smau trees; leaves simple, exstipulate, usually evergreen. Flowers 
-Hermaphrodite, actinomorphic (rarely slightly zygomorphie), in racemes or umbels, 
or solitary or in clusters in the leaf-axils. Petals usually united, Stamens twice 
as many as petals (rarely fewer), inserted on the receptacle of disc, but some 
times adnate to the extreme base of the corolla and failing with it; anthers 
,■; usually opening by pores; pollen usually in tetrads. Ovary superior (rarely 
inferior); placentation axile; style single. Fruit a capsule, berry or drupe. 

Ail European members of the family which have been investigated are 
mycorrhizal; the majority are calcifuge, and are especially characteristic of peaty 
soils and therefore notably absent from the Maltese islands. 

L Erica L. 

Dwarf to medium-siTed evergreen shrubs. Leaves whorled, often linear, or 
■apparently linear on account of revdlute margins; petiole short, appressed. 
|;S: Flowers 4(-5)- merous, in terminal umbels or racemes, or in axillary clusters o? 
Umbels, more or less aggregated into terminal or axillary racemes; pedicel with 
2 or more bracteoles. Sepals free, seldom petaloid, much smaller than corolla; 
corolla sympetalous, campanulate to urceolate, with lobes shorter than or equalling 
■rtube, persistent, in fruit; stamens 8(-10), inserted between the lobes of nectari- 
ferous disc. Fruit a loculicidal capsule; seeds numerous. 

1. Anthers included in the corolla 

Anthers exserted from the corolla, at least in part 

2. Pedicel 2-3 times as long as the sepals 
Pedicel about equalling the sepals 

I. E. sfcula Guss. 

Pentapera sicula (Guss.) Motsch 

1. sicu-a 


2. roultitfora 

3. Iterbaeea 

Sicilian Heath 

Compact, bushy, dwarf shrub; branches erect or ascending; young twigs 
densely pubescent. Leaves 6-9 mm. long, in whorls of 4(-5), linear, densely 
pubescent when young; margins revolute, contiguous, concealing the lower sur- 
face. Flowers (4-5) merous, in terminal umbels of 4-10; pedicel with 3 bracteoles 
-near the middle. Sepals 6 mm, long, ovate-lanceolate, pubescent, pink; corolla 
■:.-7-8 mm. long, urceolate, pubescent, white or very pale pink; anthers included, 
|f : without appendages. Ovary pubescent; stigma slightly capitate. 

Malta: recorded by Gulia (Borg); no specimens exist in the University herbarium. 

W, Sicily; Libya; Cyprus. 


-^tr^t^trfW^jMrt^iLaro-^J ^W^^ 

2. K. mullMora L. 


Lehjet ix-xili 
Savina ■ ' ; ■-. 

iaeuiterranean Heath 

Erect shrubs 30-80 (-250) cm. high, with rather stiff branches; young twigs 
minutely (jubfirulfciit. Leaves 0-11 mm. long, in crowded whorls of 4-5, patent, 
Smear, glabrous or very .slightly pubescent; margins rcvcliite, contiguous, 
completely concealing lower surface. Flowers in dense, terminal, elongate or 
capitate racemes; pedicel -1-12 mm. long, glabrous, with 3 small bracteoles at or 
below the middle. Sepals 2 mm. long, ovate -lanceolate, glabrous or finely ciliate; 
corolla 4-5.5 mm, Jong, cylindrical to narrowly campanulate, with eroct to patent 
lobes; anthers 1.5 mm. long, exserted, without appendages, with the two lobes 
closely contiguous 1 and parallel. Ovary glabrous; stigma scarcely wider than the 
style. Fl. 12-3. ■ 

Rocky hillsides and valleys, somewhat cak-iole, Malta: locally common (G. Lan- 
franco), as at Wied .Ineita, Wied Qirda, Wied Babu, Ta' Baldu (S. & C.G.; Borg; 
Wolseley); Wardija, Wied il-Gtiasel, Bugkett, Ta' . Laurenti, Girgenti, Tal-Gholja, 
iJingli, Aiirax (Borg). Gozo: less frequent as at Mgsrr ix-Xini, Xlerim, Ta' 'Ccrie 
.and Nacur (Borg). 

Mediterranean region east to Jugoslavia. 

ii. iioi'baceii L. 

E. earnea L. 

Pink Heath 

Dwari! shrub with procumbent stems and ascending flowering branches not 
mure than 25 cm. high: young twigs almost glabrous, bearing conspicuous ridges 
running from the hassv of each leaf downwards throughout the internode with 
nearly constant height and width. Leaves 5-8 mm. long, in whorls of 4, linear, 
with apparent. -margins minutely denticulate; margins revolute, closely contiguous, 
completely concealing the lower surface. Flowers in short, terminal leafy racemes; 
pedicel 2-4 mm. long, glabrous, with small bracteoles 5 mm. long s cylindrical with 
erect lobes, pink; anthers without appendages, usually completely exseried. Ovary 
glabrous; stigma scarcely wider than style,. Fl. 1-4. '..'.-■ 

RocSsy hillsides, calcieole. -Malta; record-eel at Wied Ger2uma by Gulia where "ii- 
was presumably introduced (Gulia; Borg). Occasionally Cultivated (Wolseley). 

Alps and S.C. Europe, northwards to E.G. Germany and eastwards to E. Austria, 
extending southwards to C. Italy and N. Albania. 



Herbs, rarely dwarf s hr it hs. Leaves exstlpulate, usually simple. Flowers 5(to 71- 
meroas, actinomorphic (rarely zygomorphic), sympetalous, hypogynoiis {rarely ; 
perigynoua). Stamens cpipetalous, opposite the corolla-lobes; stamhjodes some; 
times present. Ovary unilocular, withl-numerous ovules and basal, free-central: 
placenta; style simple; ovules with 2 integuments. Fruit a capsule. Seeds 
endospermic. ."..-■ ; : 

Flowers solitary in the axils of leaves; flowers red, blue 
or paler colours 

Inflorescence racemose; flowers white 

1. Anagailis ; 

2. Santohis ■-: 


r ,: ' ■ - 1 - Anagallis L. ' ■ ' ■ ■ 

^Se^ly^Sf Co^™ 6 ' ' *™>™ -.W soIitary „,.,_ 
crcumsci^. ,eeds 6-45, mS} l ° tttl \ or in ^ aih "™°™. Cai^S^ 

: | £ I. . A. arveiisls L. 


■•I * 

f-Iarira Tiaran), Vi>l 
Scarlet Pimpernel 

Annual or biennial r^i i„" "' Scarlet Pimpernel 

■^aneuiar, S3L? r e ^ J r« S^^»(-90)-m lu^h 

Two subspecies occur- sni-i ' 

Throughout the greater mrt n * *u 

Part oi the world with the exception of the tropin. '.". 
.2, Samolus L 

l- S. valerandi L „ "Psuie globose, valves 5. 

Hate' XXXIII ■. 

Harira tal-tima 
crook weed 

Cosmopolitan, though usually near the sea. 

Borg; Q. 


PL UMEAGINAEES . .. '\ .'>-■■ 


r^SSSj^ ™^^« *n*s. Leaves alternate ,r i^ i^/-"" " ; 


■ a* 


connate, epipetalous. Styles 5, free or connate at base, or 1, with 5 stigmalobes. 
Ovary superior, 1-locular. Fruit dry, membranous, 1-seeded, surrounded by calyx, 
indehiscent or with circumscissile or irregular dehiscence. 

.Stems leafy 

Leaves grouped in basal rosette or absent. 

1 . Plumbago 

2. Lliti onUl ill 

1. Plumbago L. 

Perennial herbs. Leaves alternate, simple. Inflorescence of (2-) 3- bracteatc, 
1 -flowered spikelets grouped in spikes terminal on branches. Calyx tubular, 
5-ribbed, scarious, the limb deeply 5-dentate; corolla with narrow tube and rotate 
limb; stamens free, style 1, with 5 stigmas. Fruit circumscissile near the base, 
dehiscing upwards into 5 valves. 

1. P. europaca L. 



Stems 30-100 cm, high, erect, much-branched. Leaves up to 5-8 x 3-4.5 cm., 
the lower long-petiolate, ovate to oblong, cordate, the upper sessile, oblanceolate 
to lanceolate or linear, acute, auriculate-amplexicaul, glandular- dentate, glabrous, 
farinose beneath. Calyx 5-7 mm. long, densely sti pi tate -glandular on ribs, the 
■teeth triangular; corolla tube li times as long as calyx, the lobes obovate, violet 
to lilac-pink. Fruit 5-8 mm. long, oblong to oblong-ovoid. Fl. 0-11, 

Wry* open habitats. Malta: local (G. Lanfranco), as between Qormi, Luqa and 
Qrendi, rare elsewhere (Borg); below Addolorata Cemetery (Wolseley); Siggieui 
plain, Bldnija (Gauci). 

P. auriculata Lam. (P. capensis Thumb.), African Plumbago, a native shrub 
of South Africa distinguished from 1 by its larger pale blue corolla {c. 25 mm. 
in diameter)) and linear fruit (c. 12-14 mm. long) is frequently cultivated for 
ornament in the Maltese Islands (Wolseley). 

2. Lhnonium Mill 

Perennial, rarely annual, herbs or small shrubs. Leaves usually in a basal rosette, 
densely ieafy branches sometimes present, the leaves often absent at anthesis. 
inflorescence a corymbose panicle, with terminal secund spikes, often with some 
'\on-flowenng 1 ranches, usually with a reddisk scale at the base of each branch. 
Spikes cf 3-bractcale, 1- to 5-flowered spikelets; inner and outer bracts external 
to fV s"ikelet. the middle one! internal and often inconspicuous. Calyx infun- 
'li'ii Yt ,rm. the limb scarious, usually coloured, 5-lobed, sometimes shortly dentate 
between the lobes. Corolla with a short tube, or the petals connate only at the 
Vase: mr-ir-"* in soviet st the base of the corolla; styles 5, glabrous) free or 
connate at the base; stigma filiform. Fruit a capsule, with opercutate or irregular 
dehiscence. , 

1. Leaves pinnately veined 

Leaves with single or parallel veins 

2, Inner bract with herbaceous keel, the midrib prolonged 
into a conspicuous acute point, the margin hyaline 

Inner bract with herbaceous keel, the midrib not ot 
shortly prolonged, the margin red dish- brown; hyaline 
margin absent or very narrow, not reached by the 


1. yulgare 

2. cosy reuse 

3 1 

,■>. raiuosjssiniimi 


'I. graeeum 

4. oleifoliuiu 
Common Sea-luvender 

3. Leaves 3- veined 
Leaves 1-veined 

4. Spikes 3-5(-S) cm. long, with 1-3 spikelets per cm,; 
spikelets straight, cylindrical; calyx narrowly conical 
after pollination with straight tube 
Spikes 2-4 cm. long, with 4 spikelets per cm.; spikelets 
arcuate, laterally compressed; calyx infundibuliform 
after pollination, with curved tube 

1. L. vu'g.are Miller subsp. serotinum (Reichenb.) Gams 
Static e limoniwrn L. 

Plant 15-70 cm, high, glabrous. Leaves 100-150 x 15-40 mm, oblanceolate- 
spathulate, usually mucronate, pinnately veined, usually erect in a sparse basa! 
rosette; petiole 2 mm. wide, I as long to as long as lamina. Flowering stem 
cylindrical; sterile branches few, or absent; non-flowering branches absent; scales 
6-18 mm. long. Spikes 1-2 cm. long, patent, with 6-8 spikelets per cm,; spikelets 
2-flowered. Inner bracts 2.7-5 mm, long; outer bract 0.9-2.7 mm, Jong, herbaceous. 
Calyx 3.f!-fi mm. Jong. Corolla (i-8 mm. long, reddish. FI. 7-9. 

Cultivated for the everlasting flowers. Malta: cultivated and frequently naturalised 
■m as at SI. George's Bay (Haslam) and Ftoriana (Borg; Haslam). 

3^ S. & W. Europe extending eastwards to c. 13° E. in N. Germany; IS". Africa; 
N, America. 

2. L. cosyrensc (Guss.) O, Kuntze Malta Sea-lavender 
Stat.ce' Tilt'niXta var. casVrensis (Guss.) Fiori 
Plant 15-50 cm. high. Leaves 20-25 x 2.5-3 mm., flat or slightly re volute, obtuse, 

in rosettes on somewhat woody basal branches 1-3 cm. long. Inflorescence up to 
25 cm. long; segments up to 2 cm., flexuous or rigid, diverging at an acute angle, 
greenish. Spikes 2-5 cm. long, lax, with 3-4 spikelets per cm.; spikelets 1-flowered, 
Inner bract 3.5{-4) mm. long; outer bract 1 mm. long, overlapping l/Bi-1/4 of 
the inner. Calyx 4 mm. long, exceeding the bract by 1.5 mm.; limb campanulate 
l/3-i as long as the tube; lobes 0.8 mm. 
Malta: rocky coastnl slopes. Hal Far (Borg). 

Lehjet ix-Xifi 
Reticulate Sca-)ave»dei- 

3, L. graeeum (Poiret) Rech. fil. subsp. divaricatunt 

(Rouy) Pignatti Plate XXXIII 

Statice minuta var. reticulata (L.) Reichenb. 

Plant 10-35 cm. high, glabrous, usually rough. Leaves 20-40 x 4-12 mm., linear- 
lanceolate to obovate-spathulate, usually on long woody basal branches and 
withered in summer, cauline leaves absent. Inflorescence usually with abundant 
non-flowering branches diverging at an angle of (45-) 60-90 (-120)°; segments 
12 cm. long, more than 0.7 mm. in diameter; scales 3-4 mm. long. Spikes 3-5(-R) 
cm. long, with 1-3 spikelets per em,; spikelets 1- to 5-flowered. Inner bracts 
5.5-fi(-8) mm. long, usually tuberculate, rounded dorsally, forming a wide, 
subpatent envelope around the flowers; outer bract 1.5-2.5(-3) mm. long, over- 
lapping 1/6-1/3 of the inner. Calyx 6-7 mm. long; limb 2/3 as long as the tune. 
Corolla 7-8 mm. long, violet. Fl. 5-10. 

Rocky coasts. Malta, Gozo and Comino: common (S. & C.G.; Borg; G, Lanfranco; 
Wolseley). Cominotto.' (S, & C.G.; Borg). 

Subsp. divaricatum in W. and C, Mediterranean region from Isla.s Baleares to 
Malta; species extends eastwards into W. Asia. 


^ K*MDittseMts*iw&fca*!tf^*$i#*±^ , *3*i'W WTtfg&H&fFptJci^ 3*» VJiS vS?-' h 'a '^ 

4 fe -r:S»?«»S., BO 

Violet Sea Lavenclqr 

Branched Sea-lavender-, 

10 55 x '-4-9 inm " linear " : 
■■*w 15-30 cm. high, glabrous, sniooli. Reaves . flowerln g brandies 

,-',^X In basal rosettes. inflorescence 10 ;'f n ^= segments 15 S5 mm, long, 

ouu^ins tv* ^y*. oat« ^ --r a ; ,„ 3 ^ tW tuLe/in. o-u. ■ 

Ca!y* ^ «^- !:>rl - v ' ul " t ' '■ " ' " 1nn , Bo ,,,. Q i, an franeo; Wolseley). 

Commotio; [Borg!- ■ ■-' 

Mediterranean region. 

S. L. ramaidssiiniuu. (Poimt) Mure Qn . rthu iate or subspathulate, 

£7 mm. long, pale pink. FI. 5-H. . 
mma ■■Vomsx ir-BXti (Delicaia). 
Mediterranean region. 


,,„,. ^^ ™ or .hrub S; Leave, oPPPSit, ^^^^^Sg: 
S S^oaite. -rely ^g,^^ ^petaleu. g«g?^. 


usually short 01 ^"^ bftrry; seeds 1-4. , . 

crpaiile, a samara, a drupe u . s 1( , liaxinus 

Leave, ptonate; rruit Wg» a term Inal wing ,. otea . 

Leaves simple; -l™* a diupe 

1. Fraxihus- L, 

more or less cus unci ptuua, ...... 

dis tally- '■■ 

■f .- angusilfolLt Vald 

F. e resistor ' auct. 

Plate XXXUI 

Fraxxnu ■ ., 

Narrow-leaved Ash'-, cimeaLc am. c.iu 

usually ,3js. manj as the lateral veins; raehis glabrous. Leaflets .of .juvenile .trees 
7-15, 8-30 x'5t!7 mm.., obovate to ovate, obtuse to acute at apex. Calyx .and corolla 
absent. Samara" 20-43 (-50) x li-li) mm.', the wing oblong-obeordyte to lanceolate. 
2» = 4G. ..,.-■■ 

Mai' a: Buskett valley (Borg; Wolseley; Haslam). 
S. and E.C, Europe. 

2. OJea L. 

Evergreen trees or shrubs. Twigs terete or quadrangular, not flattened Lit .the 
node3. Leaves opposite, simple, .lanceolate to obbvate, entire, . coriaceous. Flowers 
herni aphrodite, arranged in many-flowered axillary or terminal racemes or 
panicles. Calyx small, tetramei-ous, toothed or shallowly lobed; corolla subrotate, 
tetramerous, with the lobes slightly longer than broad and indLipiicate-valvate- hi 
bud; stamens epipetalous; anthers; large; .filaments- short. Fruit air oleagi nous- 

1. O. europaea L, 



' Olive- 


A very long-lived tree up. to 15 m. high, with a bread crown and a thick 
trunk, sometimes a shrub; bark grey, - finely fissured; twigs" lepitiote, grey; -buds 
very small, lepidotosericeous, greyish. Leaves (1G-)2GS0 x "(3-) 5-15 (-20) mm., 
. subsessile, mucronate. dark greyish -green and glabrous above, light g?ey and 
densely- ■ lepido'te beneath. Inflorescence axillary. Corolla White. Drupe 18-35 x 
6-20 slim., oblong to subglobose, green when unripe, becoming Muck, Lrownisfi- 
green or rarely ivory-white. 2j-i *- 46. Fi. .3-5. 

Wild plants (var, silvestris Bret.) differ frdni the cultivars mainly in the spiny 
lower and small leaves and drupes. Many cultivars ' (var. europa.en) 
hare bean selected for their edible fruit, used also us a source of oil. 

Cultivated and naturalised. Malta: formerly extensively cultivated as indicated by 
the place names gebbug and 2ejtun (Abela); now, rare as at Wm&r>d, Vs 7 -ed 
Has-Saptan, below Mdina, above Chadwi^k Lakes (Wolseiey) ■; Buskett (Boig; 
Wolseley); Salini, Bajda ridge (Bowen-Jones et all. Gozo; Xev^.kija (V/oIscisyj. 

Me cli terra nean region; cultivated in many other parts of the. world. 



Glabrous, bitter -tasting- herbs. Leaves opposite (very rarely some alternate). 
entire, exstipulate, usually sessile and often connate at the base! Flowers 
hermaphrodite, 4- to E)-(to 32-) me'rous, actinomorphic. Calyx mdrc or loss deeply 
lobed. Corolla sympetalous; lobes contorted in bud. Stamens inserted on the 

.. corolla.- tube. Ovary superior, l-I ocular,; with 2 parietal placentae, rarely almost 1 
2-loeular owing to the intrusive placentae; ovules numerous. Fruit' a septicidal 

. capsule. 
Flowers yellow, (i- to 8-merous 1. Iilad;stohia 

Flowers pinkish- purple, 4- to 5-merous 2. Ce«;:i5irittr:« 

. ' ■ X. Biaekstonia Hudson : 

Annual herbs. Calyx deeply divided into 6-12 lobes. Corolla rotate, yellow; tube 
: short; lobes -£-12, Anthers basifixed, obloKg to linear, not or scarcely -.twisting- 
spirally after dehiscence. Style filiform, cad.ucous; stigma ^-lobed. 


■ : . ,^ 


l. B, perfoliate (L.) Hudson Plata XSXIII ...... Yellow-wort: 

CkloTa perfoliata (L.) L. et var. serotina (Koch, ex Reichenb.) Ces. 

Erect, glaucous annual 10-60 cm. high. Leaves 5-30 mm. long, ovate to triangular, 
the basal obtuse, not connate at base, the cauline acute, connate or rarely free: 
at base. Flowers (6-)8-35 mm. long, yellow. Calyx-tube very short; lobes 6-12, 
linear to lanceolate. Lobes of stigma erect at aiithesis, becoming patent later, 
2b = 20, 40. Fl. 3-5, 

It is probable that all the plants of the Maltese Islands are referable to subsp, 
serotina (Koch ex Reichenb.) G. Beck. 

Rocky plateaus and valleys. Malta, Gozo and Comino: frequent (S. & C.G.; Borg; 
G. Lanfranco; Wolseley), Cominotto: (Duthie; Borg). 

W. & C. Europe; Mediterranean region, naturalised in New Zealand. 

2, Centau riii it t Hill 

Flowers in dichasial, corymbiform or spiciform cymes. Calyx tubular, deeply divided 
into 5(-4), keeled, linear, aeute lobes. Corolla pinkish-purple, rarely white or yellow, 
inf undibuliform. Anthers linear or oblong-linear, twisting spirally after dehiscence. 
Ovary with a short, filiform, persistent style with 2 caducous stigmas. Nectaries 
at the base of the ovary absent. 

1. Flowers in a spiciform cyme 

Flowers in a corymbiform or dichasial cyme 

2. Annual or biennial with a basal leaf-rosette; flowers 
sossile or subsessile in a corymb if orm cyme; corolla- 
lobes usually longer than 415 'mm. 

Annual usually without a basal leaf-rosette; flowers 
usually pedicellate in usually dichasial cymes; corolla 
lobes 2-4 mm. 

3. Stem with 3-4 interhodes, branched in the lower part; 
branches patent 

Stem with 5-9 internodes, branched in the upper part, 
branches strict 

1. C. crythraea Rafn 

Erythrael centaurium auct. 


4. spiratum 

1. erythraca 

2. pule helium 

3. tenuiflorupt 

Common Centuary 

Annual or biennial (2^)10-60 cm. high. Stems usually solitary) sometimes 
several, usually branched above. Rosette leaves 1-5 x 0.8^2 cm, obovate or 
elliptical, usually obtuse, 3- to 7^veined; cauline leaves usually smaller, elliptical; 
obtuse, 3-veined, not conspicuously decreasing upwards. Upper part of stem, 
bracts and calyx glabrous «r scaberulous. Flowers of variable size in a more 
or less corymbiform cyme. Calyx 1 as long as the corolla tube Stamens inserted 
at apex of corolla-tube. Fl, 4-fi, 

Rocky plateaus and valleys. Malta: St. Paul's Bay, St. Andrews, Balluta near Mdlna 
(S. & C.G.); Wied Ineita, MtaTileb (S. & C.G.; Borg); Ghajii il-Kbira, Girgenii. 
Salini, Magritab, Ballut tal-Wardija. San Martin, Verdala Park, Buskett (Borg, Gil 
Lanfranco). Goto: on th'e Plateaux between Wied Bingemma, Wied ir-Rihan and 
Wied Qorrot (S. & C.G.; Borg); Ta' Cenc, Mgarr ix-Xini (Borg). Comlno: frequent 
(S. & CO.; Borg). 

Europe from Sweden southwards; Mediterranean region; W. Asia; Atlantic Islands; : 
naturalised in N. America. 

"2. C. puk'heilum (Swartz) Druce 

Eryinruea ptuchelta kawar/;) i-ries 

Oentawrija ighira 
Lesser Centaury 

Annuals without a basal rosette, stem 2-15 cm, high, usually diehotomously 
branched, with 2-4 internodes usually not elongated. Leaves O^i-l.S x (1,1-1 cm,, 
ovate or ovate -lanceolate, acute, increasing in length upwards. Flowers 10-12 mm, 
in diameter, in a lax, dicnasiai cyme on sfiort pedicels (c. 2 mm. long) or solitary 
(sometimes 4-merous in small, aeiicatC, luiuiancireu plants). i^aiyx nearly 
equalling the corolla -tube. Co roll a -lobes 2-4 mm, long, 2n — 36. 

Rocky plateaus and valleys, c specially near the coast. Malta, Gozo and C amino; 
common (Borg, Laniranco) . 

Europe (except Iceland); Mediterranean region; W. & C. Asia; Atlantic Islands; 
naturalised in N. America. 

Slender Centaury 

3.: C. tcnuiflorum ufofimans. & Link) Fritscli 

Erythraea pulchella var, tenuijiora iHon'mans. & Link) Ces. 

Annual 15-25 (-40) cm. high, wilihout or with a weak basal leaf -rosette. Stem 
with 5-9 internodes, branched above; branches strict Cauline leaves 1-2.5 x 0.8 
1 cm., ovate or elliptical, obtuse or subacute, increasing in length upwards. 
Flowers 12-14 die in diameter, in a moie or loss dense dichasial cyme, on 
pedicels c. 2 mm, Jong. Calyx nearly equalling the corolla-tube. Co re 11 a- lobes 34 
mm. long. Fl. 4-7. 

Open, grassy places. Malta: Buskett, Wied Incita (Borg). 

Atlantic coasts and M«diterane;m region; W. Asia, 

C. spieatum (L.) Fritsch 
Erythraea spicata (L.) Pers. 

Spiked Centuary 

Annual or biennial with a basal leaf-rosette. Stein 10-40 cm. high, usually 
blanched at the base or from the middle. Rosette leaves broadly ovate, caducous. 
Cauline leaves elliptic-oblong or lanceolate, 3- to indistinctly 5-veined. Flowers 
12-14 mm. long, sessile, distant in a spiciform cyme. Calyx nearly equalling the 
corolla-tube. Corolla-lobes 4.5. x 1.7-2 mm. Corolla-tube 7^!) mm. long. In ^ 22. 
'Fl. 5-8. 

Coastal places especially on the clay. Malta: frequent at Salini, St. Paul's Bay, 
Mellieha, St, Andrews, Marsa, Buskett and Ghajn il-Kbira (Borg, Lanfranco). Gozo: 
Wied BLunzjata, Wied ir-Ramla, near Chambray (Borg). 

Atlantic coasts and Mediterranean region; W. & C. Asia. 


Small trees, shrubs or herbs, with poisonous latex. Leaves simple, exstipulate, 
with glands in or above the axils. Flowers solitary, or in cymes, hermaphrodite, 
actinom orphic, 5-merous. Corolla with oblique lobes, contorted in bud. Stamens 
5; anthers introrse, closely surrounding the stigma. Carpels 2, usually free below, 
united into a single style above. Fruit of two fusiform follicles, usually opening 
by the ventral suture; rarely only one follicle developing. 

|f .-Flowers in terminal corymbs 
Flower solitary, axillary 

1. Nerlum 

2, Vfuca 



■> ■ s ^ilc ■* t% ?_jte&?y>i£vi?- i^id ** ''- ^ ? 

1. Neriu*" k- 

Slimfe or . rt.W. Leaves opijosUo or m* L. ^ . niuft ^ lform above, 

iioicsewice terminal,- coiT^e. Coi ^' 5^^. scales; , obC5 yerl^p;n^« toe 

tetbroat wi^ and open, «\* * ^£ j^^ht sterna. ■ Disc absent, Eludes- 

■ right m bud. Anther, ^pcnaaffed, ^ m ^™^ s . J^ntoae, UPiuUiy «r^ 

jL J*. OK'-liBiJfi' 

Plate'- XXXIX 


. UtetinUer 

dik! eisiwlaej'e r.Woisoley). 

Am her appendages 

hlalia: cultivated eil^i»i ! eb 
(Hasiam; Wolseleyj; ^ari^ 
Gozo: Xfifitli-a, rJaai:r 

ji-!ed;l:emmcan regies- 

hairo above the in«rciwi al * ^™ - b overlapping ^ ^ i0 ^ i! \^ : 
at the mouth; lobes "^"V * * oMbV, i laments bent abtxrptiy- av b**. 

Stamps inserted hali-way to t ™ ^» fla p-iil^a P pe;KU^-Car*els 

anthers with me coJinertno ^ as ^ ( .^-^ Alleles -patent. Sec..: .C^rcc. 
With 4-8 ovules alternating w.,,1^ "-■<-.-■*-<*■ - ''.■..-.,,- 

Greater Fe-nwiiiiiik 
'< V majsi' I'. ' ■ ■ ■ ... '-..,-■ 

overwintering. . Leav^ .2^ * -£ ^' w lth Hairs 0.1.-1 mm. -tons. * «'« 

lanceolate), evergreen, ,bfc ^^v^ thaa lhe su[ jtendii)g leaves. Cal^-io^,, 

■ steKS up to 30 «c. <»gu. ^^j>"i L °r' tiro margin. dmsciy cmale w*ch W 

7-17 mm- long, very ■ narr<> »i, -t » a^V '-j-^ b ^ go mm> la diameter, usually, 

. W . & C. M«Hten- a .*an re^n; flatly naturalised cfoew^. 


Filament* wlti" anils W ;?» u ? h VX Kef». uolt«,<i f I"- "."« ■"JJSS. : 

sefJiieJils inserted fet or near mc "»^' p ii e ii in pollima, rarely m tetraos,, 

oiteotriy one dev,i, P m 2 . Seeds comose at apex. 

236 : . . 

Corona single, with 5 segments 
Corona double, with 10 segments 

1. Pellet a 

2. Cynanchum 

1. V eriploca L. 

Shrubs, us'jaily with more or less twining stems. Leaves opposite. Flowers in 
axillary cymes. Corolla contorted in bud; lobes more or" less erect at" anthesis. 
Corona single, with 5 free, abaxiaily awned segments. Anthers adjacent to, but 
not adnate to the stigma, opening by longitudinal slits. Follicles cylindrical, slight- 
ly sulcata not spiny. 

1. P. lawigata Aifon 

Plate XXXIV 

Sigra tul-fiarir 

Stems J.5-3 m. high, erect, sometimes twining at apex. Leaves 1-3.5 x 0.2-0.6 
cm,, sijbsessiie, oblanceoiate to linear, more or less obtuse, cuneate at base, 
glabrous, somewhat coriaceous, subserssile. Cymes .few-flowered. Corolla c. 1 cm. 
in diameter; lobes oblong, obtuss^^green outside, green, purple-brown and white 
inside; margins not deflexed at anthesis. Arms of corolla deflexetl,. green. Anthers 
smooth. Follicles 5-10 cm. long. Seeds c. 7 x 3 mm., coma c. 40 mm, long. FL 
Spring and Autumn: 

Cliffs and .dry rocUy places. ■■Malta:' local (G. Lar.franco), as at Wied Babu and 
cliffs ovu;'ic:>King Ghar Lapsi {S. & C,G,; Sorg; Wolseley); WiecJ Incifa, Wied il- 
Ghasel, Dihgii (S. & C-G,; -fiorg.) ; Mis tra, cliffs below HagarQim (Wolseley), Goso; 
Ta' teni- (GuJia; Borg); Xlendi, Mgarr ix-Xini (Borg; Wolseley); Chambray, Ta' 
Cardan (Borg).; West oi Ta' (Wolseley). 

C. and "K-. .Mediterranean region. 

2. C'j'naiicliuiu L. 

Wooclj'.'climber.s. leaves opposite, herbaceous. Flowers in axillary and terminal 
umbels. Corolla contorted in bud; lobes patent at anthesis. Corona double, with 
20 free segments. Anthers aclnate to stigma, opening apic ally. Follicles fusiform, 

.1. C. scutum L. 

Hairless Cy nan chum 

Glabrous. Stems up to 3 m. Iijgh, slender, twining. Leaves 2-15 x 1.5J0 cm., 
petiolate, ovate, sagittate, acute; petioles 1-5 cm. long. Ujnbels few- to many- 
flowerea,* peduncles -l-S cm. long. Corolla 7-12 mm. in diameter/ white or pink, 
glabrous; lobes c 5 x ■■■! nim,, linear, subacute. Corona -segments ' triangular. Fol- 
licles c. 8 jl cm, Fl. G-y. 

Malta: very rure, Marsaskala (Giilia; Borg). 

Mediten-a near, region; \V. Asia. 


Herbs (*■■ dwarf shrubs. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 4-12, stipulate, the stipules 
sometimes lr:af'-li!fe, simple, entire. Flowers in spikes, heads, cymes, corymbs or 
panicles, hermaphrodite or male. Calyx 4- or 5(-6J- toothed, or absent; Corolla 
3- to Srlob'ed, actinomorphic, rotate, infunclibuliform or hy p o era teri form. Stamens 
4-5, epipetsioiis on the corolla-tube arid alternating with the lobes. Ovary inferior, 
usually 2-loeular; ovules I-to numerous per locule; styles simple or "2- lid. Fruit 
Ueshy or dry, dividing into 1-2 meriearps. Seeds endospermic. 


i^K is 

'ft : 

: # ) 

1. Leaves opposite with small stipuies; dwarf shrub 
Leaves and leaf-like stipules in whorls of 4 or more 

2. Corolla tube longer than lobes 

Corolla tube equalling or shorter than lobes 

3. Flowers in dense spikes, usually with only 1 sessile 
flower in the axi] of each bract 

Flowers in cymes, panicles or heads 

4. Cal yx pj. esentj 4 _ io ^ toothed> persistelU in fmJt 
Calyx an indistinct annular ridge 

5. Leaves and stipules setaceous, unequal 

Leaves and leaf-like stipules equal and not setaceous 

6. Corolla 5-lobed; fruits black and fleshy 
Corolla 4-lobed; fruits usually dry, not black 

1. Putoria 


Leaves and leaf-like stipules in whorls of more than 

Leaves and leaf -like stipules in whorls of 4 

. 1. Putoria Pers. 

3. CruciancJla- 

2. Sherardia 

4, Aspcrula 

5. Galium 

J. Rubia 

5. Galium 
S. ValanHa 

Dwarf ^shrubs Leaves opposite; stipules 2, small, free. Flowers in small heads"- 

wlJ *> ^ T S ^f nt ! n fruit; corol]a with a lt,n £ tu^. and 5 lobe? s ug£ 
filiform. l-ruit fleshy, 2-locular with 1 seed in each locuius. sugmas. 

1- P. calabrica (L. fii.) Pers. 

Plate XXXV 

Stinking Madder 

L S. arvensis L. 

Plate XXXV 

Harxa.jja tal-gnelieqi 
Field Madder 

orirti^ S T Z t0 , 40 Cm ! long ; P roc umhent, somewhat scab rid with small deflexed 
prckles Lower leaves obovate-euspidate soon dead; upper leaves 5-20 x iTZ 

2 7 mm^V^r^ ^ 4 - t0 ^wered. CorolK S lon^Hlae Cit 
1-7 mm. m diameter, scabrid. 2n = 22. Fl. 2-5, rruu 

ev U eShere gr (S Un i a cc .^Bo^^T ™' G ™* nACoMi ™ ™ ry co ~ 
MfaT% CG.; Borg)'. *' °' Lanfranco ' Wolseley). CominoUo: (Borg), 

Almost throughout Europe; N. Africa; W. Asia. 



,w , l branched, forming mats up to 1 m. in diameter, foetid, glabrous to 
densely puberulent. Leaves 10-20 x c. 3 mm., obovate to elliptic-lanceolate obtuse^ 
wnh revotute margins; stipules c. 1 mm. long; ovate. Corolla iff 15 mm. Ion- S 
the lobes 3-4 mm, long, linear- lanceolate. Fruit, c. 5 mm. long, blact F\ f& 
Pocky valleys. Malta: very rare (G. Lartrranco), at Wied il-Ghasel (S A Cc- 
Borg; Wolseley); Selmun (I. Evans). Commo; San Niklaw Bay (Gauci) " 

Mediterranean region. 

2, Sherardia L, 

Annuals Leaves in whorls of 4-6. Flowers in small terminal heads with ,,» tn m 

SSed merLrps" *** "™ 1 * tobeB; SUg ™> ^^ ™ ** composed *:% 

■ 3. Crucianella L. 

Annual or woody perennials. leaves and leaf-like stipules in whorls of 4-6 or 
more. Inflorescence a spike; flowers hermaphrodite, usually single and sessile, or 

■ very shortly pedunculate, in the axils of a bract and subtended by two bracteoles 

at the base. Calyx absent. Corolla infundibuliform; tube narrow, 3-6 times as 

: ioiig as the 4-5 lobes; lobes usually with incurved awn at apex. Style bifid; 

^branches unequal; stigma capitate. Fruit dry, glabrous, smooth to tuberculate; 

nriericarps usually 2 narrowly ovoid, 1-seeded. 

Perennial, woody at base; spilic 1-3 cm. liigli 
Annual; spike i5(-25> cm. high 

1, C, maritJma L. 
C. rupestris Guss. 

Plate XXXV 

1. iiiuritirtia 

2. latifolia 

Sea Crucianeila 

Procumbent-ascending woody perennial; stems 10-50 cm. long; whitish, glabrous, 
.smooth. Leaves and leaf-like stipules 4-10 x 14 mm., in whorls of 4, ovate- 
lanceolate, mucronate, coriaceous and white-margined, often densely imbricate, 
: somewhat pungent. Spike 1-3 cm, high; bracts 6-10 x 3-7 mm., ovate, free; 
bracteoles shorter than bracts, plicate, more or less connate at base. Corolla 
'10-13 x 2-3 mm., 5-lobed, yellow, exceeding the bract. 2«. = 22. Fl. 4-fi. 

Maritime rocks and sands. Malta: frequent (G: Lanfranco), as along the coast 
from St. Julians to MelHeha (S, & C.G : ; Borg; Wolseley); Mtahleb (S. & C.G; 
Borg); Ma rf a ridge, Giiejna, Wied Babu (Borg; Wolseley); Ghajn Tuffjsha, ISaivrija, 
• Dingli and elsewhere (Borg). Gozo: Dw.ejra, Marsalforn, Ta" fceric (S, &. C.G ; 
Borg; Wolseley); Mgarr ix-Xini. Qala, Qbajjar, Hamla (Borg). Ccmitio: (Borg; 
Wolseley). Comijio((o: (Duthie; Borg). • 

W. Mediterranean region and Iberian peninsula. 
2. C. latifolia L. 

Broad-leaved CrucianeLla 

Annual, Stems 8-30 cm. long, slightly pub erulant- scab rid. Leaves and leaf-like 
stipules ljO-25 x 1-4 mm., in whorls of 4-6, the lowermost obovate-elliptical, the 
upper lanceolate to linear, with revolute margins. Spike 15 (-25) cm, x 1.5-2.5 mm.; 
internodes (3-) 4-4.5(^5) mm. long, bracts 5-8 x 2-3 mm., ovate- lanceolate, 
acuminate, strongly appressed, their base somewhat inflated and with enlarged 
epidermal cells, more or less connate by a hyaline membrane; bracteoles linear, 
much narrower and shorter than bracts; flowers sessile. Corolla 5-7.5 x c. 0.8 mm., 
4-lobed, yellowishj somewhat exceeding the bracts. 

Malta: Sliema according to Delicata (Borg). 

Mediterranean region. 

4. Asperula L. 

Annual to perennial herbs or dwarf shrubs. Sterns more or less distinctly 4-angted 
and not retrorsely aculeolate. Leaves in pairs or in whorls of 4-6. Inflorescence 
of panicles or capitula; ultimate branches with bracts and sometimes bracteoles. 
Flowers hermaphrodite, 3-4 <-5)-merous. Calyx absent or consisting of short teeth. 
Corolla usually hypo era teriform to infundibuliform. Stigmas capitate. Ovary and 
fruit oblong to globose, never with hooked hairs; fruit dry. 

Corolla-tube 2-3 times as long as lobes 
Corolla tube 1-2 times as long as lobes 

1. arista ta 

2. cynanchica 



A. cynavchica var. aristata (L. fit.) Fieri 

Southern Squinaneywort 

10-60 cm. hfgh, often shortly r*PiUo* -W bc ^ h sh0 rt hyaline apex usually 

Leaves 1340 x 0.5-2 mm,, Itracw late to hnear vntn \,° Mlla \ ypaml t e riform to 

,,1-0.2 mm. Inflorescence ^fvbranche-d ^ ^Vtfmes a on/as lohes, Fnut 

narrowly inland ibuliform; tube (lj -) 2-J 1-4; nmu 

papillose, rarely hairy. 

Among -low '^ubs. «-■ rare <G. Lanfranco>, a, at Wied In.ita, Wied Musta ■ 

iliorg.i'. ■ ■ 

S Europe: ^. Africa. 

, , ^meut. ■ .Plate XXXV Scminancywort 

" Wei Vr. (owfllflma IWuldst.- & Kit). Borg . 

Mostly more or less laxly cacspUose, f eeh ^S^ST^S- S 
or less numerous non-flowering « h oot S but without J^Me a ^ 

M>-50 cm. high- ascending to erect * *^?_°™ *^ -4 time* as long as leaves. 
hairs llt *t^ subgUibrou* above; middle ^ od £ * Vr u g hout narrowly Ian- (13-) HJ-S5 <,^) » "^li^ thill. J of width of leaf;: margm 
ceoiale to linear. U «rto; mi dub , c °^; ^^^.^^'Vuch-branehecl: pedicels 0-1 mm. 

<- ,<■■■ io '*. p-n ■ RorS: G. Latiiranco; 

liocXy arid Places. Malta and G«o; frequent (S. & C.G, Bor B , 


'IhroiighoU,. Europe except the norili; Caucasus. 

5. Galium L. 

9SC ri D lio !H of leaves refer both to the. leaves and to the leaf-like stipules 
vd'.h wttkh itiey are associated. 

r.civi'-'iiai , i 

with forwanlly-dire.ct.ed projections 
retrorsely aculeolate 


-..<-, m -n wide; partial inflorescence mostly 
iVccvrtila greenish- white to white; fruits ■ 

Mv-^US-2.5 mm. wide; partial inflorescences 1-2 
flowed; corolla yellowish; fruit, 1.3-1., mm. 

Leaver plabrous above; peduncles and pedi «ls 

t', J- i -,n-l (l«fle-ied aftev an thesis; fruit veiruecte 
T U n S ^1'vrv n n- above; peduncle, and pedicel 
ScMer ar^'raignt (or .only bent just 



? t , trie ornu turn 



be nc a ill the fruit); fruit with hooked bristles or 

4. Corolla O.S-1.3 mm. in diameter; fruit (excluding 
rigid hairs) 2-3 mm., with rigid hairs or more or 
less smooth 
* Corolla 1.5-1.7 mm. in diameter; fruit 3-5 mm., 
always with dense, hooked, rigid hairs. 

1, G. spurium L. 

1. spurium 

2. sparine 

False Cleavers 

Stems 10-100 (-100) em., scrambling, weak to rather atout, retrorse-aculeolate, hairy 
at the nodes. Leaves (20-) 30 35 x 2.5-4 mm, in whorls of 6-10, narrowly oblan- 
ceoiate, JoTTg-awned, more 'or less hairy above; margin and midrib with rigid back- 
wardly directed projections and rigid hairs beneath, margin more or less revolute. 
Inflorescence narrowly ovoid to cylindrical (rarely reduced); partial inflorescences 
1- to 7- flowered; longer than the leaves: peduncles and pedicels patent, straight 
but often sharply bent just under the fruit. Corolla 0.8-1.3 mm. in diameter, 
greenish -white, glabrous; lobes acute. Fruits 2-3 mm., smooth (var. spurium) or 
with dense hooted hairs without tubercuiate bases (var. vailinJitii (DC.) Gren). 
2» = 20. Fi, 3-5: 

Malta and .Gozo: .fraque sit (Borg; (J. OiU'raHco). 

Most of EUrope; N., W. &. C. Asia. 

2. O, SIMM'ilK' L, 

Plate XXXV 


Like G. spuriv.m hut stems (20-) E0-1E0 cm. high, often stout and more hairy af 
the rtode:;; lenves 30-50 x 3-8 mm;, in whoils of (j-9, narrowly to widely oblanceolate, 
very abruptly contracted at the apex (especially the lower); corolla 1.5-1.7 em. in 
diameter/ white; fruits 3-5 mm., with dense hooked hairs with swollen bases. 2w ■ 
= 42, 44 r 4S.-62. 'fiO., 68. F.l. 3-5; 

Valleys and cultivated places, especially orchards. Malta and Gozo; 
.& C.G.: Borg; Wolseley). 

Througliout most of Europe; N. & W. Asia. 

a. (■. tri^ornutum Dandy 

G. tv iconic Stokes pro : parte 

frequent (S. 

Corn Cleavers 

Stems 10-SiO (-100) cm. high, scrambling stout, retrorse-aculeolate and very rough. 
Leaves 10-40 'x 2.5-8 mm., in whorls of fi-8, narrowly obianceol ate, long-awned, 
glabrous above, margin and midrib with rigid, retrorse projections beneath, the 
margin not revolute. Inflorescence long; partial inflorescences (l-)3-to 5(-7)- 
flowered. scarcely longer than the leaves; peduncles (5-)8-*15(-20) mm, long, 
pedicels 1-8 mm. long, curved distinctly inwards and downwards after flowering. 
Flowers hermaphrodite, the lateral often male. Corolla 1-1.7 mm. in diameter, 
glabrous, white; lobes with a long acute apex. Fruits 3-5 mm,, with numerous 
acute papillae. 2-a — 44. Fl. 3-4. 

Valleys and cultivated places. Malta and Gozo: common (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. 
Lairi'ranco; WoZseleyJ. 

fv, w; & C. Europe: S.W. U.S,S:H.; Mediterranean region; casual in north and 
cast E'^rype, 



4. G. vesrrucosuin Hudson 

G. saccharatum AIL; G-. valanUa Weber 

Southern Clears 

Stems 5-50 em. high, erect to ascending, with retrorse projections. Leaves 5 17 x 
3.5-5 mm., in whorls of 5-6(7), lanceolate, awned, glabrous above; margin and 
midrib beneath with rather stiff forwardly directed projections, the margins not 
.revoluie. Inflorescence oblong; partial inflorescences mostly 5-flowered. shorter 
than the leaves; pedicels 1-3 mm. long, deflexed after flowering. Central flowers 
of the cyme hermaphrodite, the lateral male. Corolla (L) 2-2.5 mm. in diameter.' 
greenish-white to white, glabrous; lobes acute. Fruits 4-f> aim., . prominently 1 
verrucose. 2n = 22. Fl. 1-5. ' ' ' ": 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta and Goto: very common (S. & C.G.; Borg; G, 
Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region; naturalised in C Europe 

5. G. murale (L.) All. Harxajja safra ,\ 

Yellow B.edst'raw 

Stems- '5-20 cm. high, procumbent or ascending from a much-branched' fosse, !■ 
usually without long lateral branches above, smooth or with retrorse projections; 
also with patent haiis above. leaves. 4-10 x 0.8-2.5 mm., in whorls of 4-6, widely;-. 
to narrowly obi anceo late; shortly awned, pubescent or glabrescent. iiiiloresceiice- 
cyiindrical, few-flowered, with 1-4 flowers in each whorl, in 2-flowered partial": 
inflorescences or solitary; pedicels 0:5-1.5 mm, long, shorter than the bracts; 
deflexed after anthosis. Corolla c. 0.7 mm. in diameter, yellowish, glabrous: .or -'.'■ 
somewhat hairy externally; lobe's' acute. Frait 1.3-1.3 mm., cylindrical, curved 'anifl 
separated from one another, often unequal, and with hooked, rigid hairs especial-.'-; 
ly towards the apex, rarely glabrous. 2n = 44. Fl. 3-4. 

"Arid, rocky places. Malta, Gozo and Camino: common (S. &. C:G.; Borg; Woisoley-I. 

Mediterranean region. 

G. Vacantia 1... 

Herbaceous perennials or annuals. Leaves and leaf-like stipules in whorls -of ""A,': 
with 1 main vein only. Inflorescence leafy, narrow, hardly branched, with "whorls,/- 
of short, axial, 3-ffowered cymes; central flower hermaphrodite with 4-lobed co- 
rolla, lateral flowers male with 3-1 obed corolla. Peduncles and pedicels refiexed ■; 
between leaves and stinules, coalescing, enlarging and encircling fruit, with 
bristles or hooks on outside. Calyx absent. Corolla whitish, rotate; stigma ea'riitate.-'.- 
Fruit dry, papillose or glabrous; mericarps 1-2, usually remaining within peduncle 
and pedicel cavity. '-.-'■ 

Lower inte modes up to 25 mm. long, hispid 1. hispida. 

Lower internodes up to 12 mm. long, glabrous or ..■■'.' 

pubescent 2. muralis 

1. V. hispida L. 

Plate XXV 

Hairy Valantia 

Annual. Stems S-2ff era high; lower internodes up to 25 mm. long, much 
abbreviated in inflorescence, more or less scabrid-hispid, particularly above. 
Leaves and stipules 6-10 x 2-3.5 mm., narrowly ohovate to oblanceolate, usually 
strongly mucronate. Peduncle and pedicels broadly coatescent; usually strongly 
thickening, tightly encircling the fruit, dorsally with about 15-25 straight bristles 
Hermaphrodite flowers 1,5-2 mm. in diameter, more or le^s cup-shaped. Fruit. 
usually 2, 1.1-1.4 mm. in diameter, papillose. 2w = 18. Fl. 3-4. 

Gozo: Ramla Bay (Duthie; S. & C.G.: Borg). Comino: (Borg). Commotio: (DulMe). 
Mediterranean region; W. Asia to Ethiopia. 

1. V. nmralis L. 

Plate XXXV 


s la "nil 

Differs from V. hispida in plant being smi-dler, stems ususliy not. more i-lij.ti: 
'^'■:-15 «rm high, ini'^rnadas up to about 12 mm. long, giabresctmL more ar -a--.., 
^■pubescent only towards the apex; leaves and stipules .-i-tt.5 ;; 2 a.5 mm,, ouulss; 
"peduncle and pedicels coatescent and strongly thickening, dorsaiJy . v»iui conspicuous horn; horn and pedicels with hooked bristles; hermaphrodite flowers 
'"% 1.0-1:6 mm. in diameter; fruit usually 1, 1.0-1,2 mm. in diameter, smooth. 2i;. -■■ 
II 18, Kl. 2-5. 

Walls, rocky ground and dry waste places. Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common 
!(S. &'C;G.; Borg; G, Lanfranco; Wolseley). Commotio: (Duthie; Borg). Sel-rraweit: 

: Mediterranean region. 

7. Rubia L 

Perennials. Leaves in whorls of 4-6, -at least above, with small prickle:; en the 
:; margin and midrib beneath. Flowers in axillary cymes or panicles. Calyx minute 
5 -or absent; corolla with- short tube and usually 5 lobes; stigma capita (e. ^ruit 

fleshy, usually with only one 1-seeded mericarp developing. 

: 1. R. peregrina L. 

Plate XXXV 

Ifarsajja salvaggii 
Wild. Madder 

Stem 30-120 cm. high, climbing, glabrous or pubescent, with small deflexed 
pricier lower part of stem woody and persistent. Leaves 15-60 x 3-20 rem., in 
whor's of 4-6, linear to broadly ovate-elliptical, coriaceous, the lateral veins obscure. 
"Cvmes 4-10 cm. high, many-fiowered, exceeding the leaves. Corolla 4-tl mm. in 
-,-- dfamoter, yellowish-green; lobes 2-3 mm. long, cuspidate; anthers 0.2-O.d mm. long, 
|i orbicular-ovate to suborbicular. Fl. 4-6. 
-Rocky ground and amongst shrubs. Malta: locally frequent (S. & C.G:) ;js at 
W--Buskefi Ahrax; Mellieha, tinien Ingraw, Ghajn Tuffieha, Majesa, Rahri.p, emen 
iW-ilKbir. Girgenti, Wied Bahu, Wied Ineita, Wied il-Ghasel. Wied Filep iborgj. 
■'.Sm'-.GQZo: Xlendi, Mgarr ix-Xini. Gnien Xibla, Nadur (Borg). 

Mediterranean region; W. Europe. 


-Herbs or shrubs. SfSm often climbing. Leaves alternate, exstinuU-ite. Flowers 
W actinomorphic, hermaphrodite, in terminal or axillary inflorescences, sometimes 
1 ! solitary Sepals 5, usually free. Corolla infundibuliform, tubiform or campanuMe. 
1 usually Sloped or angled. Stamens 5, alternating with corolla-lobes. Ovary 1- to 
4-locular; ovules 1 or 2 in each locuus; style terminal. Fruit a capsule. Seeds 
: endospermie, 

Plant a twining parasite with haustoria, not green, 

more 'or less glabrous 

Plant free-living, green or covered with hairs 

4. Cuseuta 



Corolla 3-5 mm. in diameter, divided to about Paliway 
Corolla more than 5 mm. in diameter, scarcely lobeU 

Bracteoles broad, leaf partly obscuring the 1 sepals 

Keolea lanceolate io filiform, not or scarcer 

obscuring the sepals 

^ttp-ia with 2 filiform to cylindrk-dHvate lobes; pollea- 

Vraijis iricolpatc, more or less smooth 

Sm with 1-3 globose lobes; pollen grams 

pantoporate, spinous 

I. Qilystegia H.Br. 

3. Cressa 
I. Calystegla 

■2. Coiivoh'Ulus 
5. Ipoiuuea 

C. silvatiea (Kit.) Griseb. 
Convolvulus sepimn var, infiatus Desf. 

Great Bindweed. 

pantoporate; exine more or less smooth. 

1 Stems not or weaKly twisting, procumbent; leaves ^ so ldaneHa 

^'strongly listing -d climbing; leaves not reniform 
2. Bracteoles rarefy ™ Jg,""^ batefcoTolla rareiy 


r^S Itamt^S^mrl long 3 . «Iv.««- ■ 

Leblieb tal-bahar 
Sea Bindweed 

„ ^ W iflfil cm long procumbent, not or weakly twisting, 
.-mtliors 4-6 mm. Jung. 2n - 22. Fl. 4-a. 

1. c. soIdanoL'a <L.) R- Br. 

Coast; of a large -part of -the world. 

C; sepium (L.) ft. Br. 
Conv'ulwidus septum L. 


Leblieb kuir 
Hedge Bindweed 

v, 1( <w P ,™<i!roiiKlv twisting and climbing, Leaves more or 
Glabrous or pubescent Stems strongly p ™ s K ^^^ a narrow repund wing. 

srs srwr ss?-^ S r" or *" s ' a ™" s "" ™* 

long; anthers 4-8-5 mm. long. 2n = 22. II. 5-b. 

*„«* shaded wall, and water channel, Ha^tt (Borg; Wolseley). 

Widely distributed in temperate regions. 


Glabrous. Stems strongly climbing. Leaves more or less sagittate; sinus round- 
ed witft divergent or occasionally parallel sides. Peduncle without a narrow- 
repand wing, Bracteoles 14-32 (-3SJ mm. wide when flattened, overlapping, closely 
investing the calyx and almost completely concealing it, weakly to strongly sac- 
cate at the base, subacute to broadly rounded or emarginate at the apex, corolla 
usually. SO-SO mm. in diameter, white; occasionally the outside of the centre-band 
only of each lobe suffused with pink. Stamens 4-37(-40) mm. long; anthers 6-8 
mm. long. 2« = 22. PI. 5-6. 

Malta: (mien il-Kbir (Borg). 

Mediterranean region; wideiy naturalised in Europe, 

2. Cou vol vulus L, 

Annual or perennial herbs or small shrubs up to 100 cm. high; steins erect, 
trailing or twining, sometimes with latex. Leaves simple, usually entire, alternate. 
Flowers solitary or in terminal or axillary inflorescences with 2 minute to leafy 
bracteoles. Corolla funnel -shaped, glabrous except for live external usually 
pubescent stripes often of a different colour. Stamens inserted on the base of the 
corolla tube, included; filaments dilated and often glandular- pubescent proximally. 
Ovary 2-loeular; ovules 2 in each loculus; stigma 2-lobed, the lobes filiform to 
cyiindric-clavate. Capsule usually 4-soeded, I-to 2-celled. Pollen grains tricoipate, 
exine not spinous. 

1. Leaves very abruptly narrowed into a distinct petiole 
Leaves sessile or gradually tapered into a petiole 

2. Upper leaves and bracts vary deeply divided 
Upper leaves and bracts net divided 

3. Annual or shortlived perennial; corolla up to .12 mm. 
long; blue 

>■'. ■:.«; -i-u with stout often woody rootstock; corolla 
0-25 mm. long, white to pink 

'1. Annuals and short-lived perennials, entirely 
Perennial; shoots woody below, .herbaceous above 

5. dorolia 15-40 mm. long 
Corolla 7-10 mm'.- long 

G. At least lowest part of stem with mostly patent hairs 
Shoots sericeous, sometimes with some patent hairs 

7. Extreme base of leaves at base of their s tem scarcely 
broadened and searious 

Extreme base of leaves at base of main stem 
broadened and scarious 

J. C. oleifolius Besr, 

C. cneorum sensu Borg '■ 

Densely sericeous, erect or spreading, branched perennial 5-30 cm. high, woody 
in the lower parts. Leaves filiform to linear, attenuate at base, herbaceous and 


8. althaeoides 

6. situlus 

7. arvensis 



4, tricolor 

5. pentapetaloides 

l;. canEUDra'fi 

1. oleifolius 

2. lineatus 

Pink Bindweed 

ir'j.-- 'I; 


• : iF : -' 

scarcely broadened at the extreme base. Flowers in terminal heads, often diffuse 
and branched: peduncles absehi or very short, usually hidden. Outer sepals 
lanceolate to broadly ovate, obtuse to sharply acuminate, inner acuminate to 
cuspidate. Corolla 13-25 mm. long, usually pink. Capsule shorter than calyx when 
ripe. FI. 3-10. 

Open ground not far from the sea. Malta; locally frequent (G. Lanfraneo; 
Wolseley) as at Gne.jha, Ghajn Tuffieha, Mtafileb, St. Paul's Bay, Mistra, Mellieha, 
Eahrija, Wied Geriuina (Borg). Gazo; Xaghru, Madur, Qala (Borg) and elsewhere 

5. C. pen tape taloides L. 

E. Mediterranean region. 

C. Hneatus L. 

Leblieb abjad 
Narrow-leaved Bindweed 

Densely sericeous perennial 3-25 cm. high, with woody stock arid usually 
procumbent or ascending herbaceous stems. Leaves linear to elliptical or oblan- 
ceolate, attenuate at base, basal leaves on each shoot broadened and s carious at 
the extreme base. Peduncles terminal and axillary, much shorter than bracts, 1- 
to sever a I -flowered. Outer sepals linear to lanceolate, convex on the back below, 
cuneate to rounded at base, acute to acuminate. Corolla 12-25 mm: long, pink. 
Ovary and capsule pubescent. Fl. 3-6. 

Arid waste ground mar the sea. Malta; frequent on the N.E, side of the Island 
(S. & C.G.; G. Lanfraneo; Borg); Bahar rc-Caghaq (Penza). Gozo; abundant in 
many places (S. & C.G.; Borg; Penza). Comino: (S. & C.G.). 

Mediterranean region; W. & C. Asia. 

3, C. cantahrica L. 

Southern Bindweed 

Pubescent perennial (with many patent hairs at least below) with woody 
stock and erect herbaceous stems 10-50 cm. high. Leaves scarious at the extreme 
base. Peduncles terminal and axillary, the lower longer than subtending bracts, 
1- to several-flowered. Outer sepals lanceolate to oblanceolate, convex on the 
back below, cuneate to rounded at base, acute to acuminate. Corolla 13-25 mm: 
long, pink. Ovary and capsule pubescent. 2n = 30, Fl. .4-6. 

Rocky plateaus. Malta: Mtahleb (GD. 
Ghemieri (Haslam), 

Mediterranean region. 
4. C. tricolor L. 

S. & C.G.; Borg); Ghajn Tuffieha (Borg); 

Leblieb ikhal 
Three-coloured Bindweed 

Herbaceous annual or short-lived perennial up to 60 em, high. Leaves sessile, 
mostly obovate to oblanceolate. Peduncle and pedicel together several times 
longer than calyx, 1 -flowered. Sepals with distinct distal and proximal regions, 
pubescent, herbaceous, obtuse to acuminate. Corolla 15-40 mm. long, usually with 
basipetally zoned blue, white and yellow bands. Capsule pubescent. Fl. 4-5. 

Cultivated places; occasionally planted. Malta: rare (G. Lanfraneo). as at Ballut, 
Tarxien, fcejtun, St. Paul's Bay (S. & C.G.; Borg); Marsa (S, & C.G.); Buskett, 
Wardija, Pwales (Borg); Wied Babu (Lanfraneo). 

Mediterranean region. 

Leblieb /gliir 

T w o -co tou r e d B hid wee d 

Herbaceous annual or short-lived perennial up to 30 cm. high. Leaves sessile, 
mostly linear to oblanceolate. Peduncle and pedicel together several times longer 
than calyx, 1-Sowered. Sepals elliptic-ovate, glabrous, obtuse and miic.ronate. 
Corolla 7-10 mm. long, usually blue distally and yellow proximally. Fl. 3-S. 

PLOcky uncultivated places, Malta. Gozo and C amino: frequent (S, & C.G.; Borg, 
G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley}. 

Mediterranean Europe, W, Asia: 

6 C siculus L Leblieb tal-werqa tleq(( 

Blue Bindweed 

Sparsely pubescent annual or short-lived perennial; stems 10-60 cm. long, 
slender, trailing (rarely twining), herbaceous. Leaves petiolnte, lanceolate to 
ovate cordate or rarely truncate, entire. Peduncles axillary, usually shorter than 
the bracts, l-(to 2-) flowered. Sepals acute to acuminate, pubescent. Corolla /-12 
mm. long, blue. Fl. 3-6. 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta and Gozo: frequent (S. & GG.; Borg; G 
Lanfraneo; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region, Atlantic Islands. 
7. C. arvensis L. 

Leblieb tar -rah a' 
Field Bindweed 

Glabrous or pubescent perennial; stems up to 200 cm. long, slender, trailing 
or twining, herbaceous. Leaves petiolate, triangular or- ovate-oblong to hneav. 
hastate to sagittate, more or less entire. Peduncles axillary, often about, as org 
as bracts 1- to 2 (-3) -flowered. Sepals obtuse to emarginate, and often aniculate. 
Corolla 10-25 mm. long, white or pink. Ovary glabrous, 2n = 50, FI. 3-10. 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta. Gozo and Comino: very common (S. 
Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley). 

Throughout the temperate regions of both hemispheres. 

& C.G.: 

8, C. aMhaeoides L. 

Plate XXXIV 

Leblieb roza 
Mallow Bindweed 


Pubescent perennial; stems up to 100 cm. long, slender, trailing or tw iung. 
herbaceous. Leaves petiolate, very variable but at least the upper deeply lot el 
and cordate to sagittate. Peduncles axillary, usually much longer than bracts 
1 to 3 (5) - flowered. Sepals variable, acute to rounded. Corolla 25-40 mm. long, 
usually pink. Fl. 3-6, 

Two subspecies occur. Subsp. althaeoides is robust with relatively broad and 
Sallow leaf-lobes, and sepals (7-) M (-10) mm. long. Subsp. ™f ™ Sm) 
Stace (C. elegantissimus Miller) is slender with relatively narrow, deep leaf-lobe*, 
and sepals (6-) 7-8 (-9) mm. long. 

Rocky wastes, valleys and walls of fields, Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common 
(S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley). Commotio: (I Jut hue). 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 


3. Cr«ssa L. 

Annual or perennial, often somewhat woody at the base. Leaves sessile, simple, 
entire, alternate, flowers in short, terminal, congested racemes, with 2 sman 
bracteoles. Corolla divided to about halfway into p, spreading, pubescent lobes. 
Stamens inserted about the middle of the corolla-tube, glabrous, exserted. Ovary 
2-Jocuiar; ovules 2 in each loculus; Styles 2, exserted; tsigmas capitate. Capsule 
usually 1 -seeded.. Pollen grains trieblpate; exime not spinous. 

1. C. cretica L. 

Plate XXXV 

Mediterranean Bindweed 

Stems up to 30 (-50) cm. high, greyish-pubescent, erect or procumbent, much- 
branched. .Leaves 2-10 mm. long, lanceolate to ovate, cordate or rounded at base, 
subacute to acuminate, merging into the bracts. Flowers 3 ; 5 mm. in. diameter, 
Whitish-pink or yellow, persistent. Fl. 5-7. 

■'Clayey and moist soils near the sea. Malta; infrequent (G. Lanfraneo.) as at 
Salini, Ghadira Is-Sai'ra, Bahar ie-caghaq to Dragonara Point (Borg; Woiseley); 
St. Paul' si- Bay, Bugibba, JMellieha (Bor£); .Ghadira (Gauci). Gozo; Marsalforn, 
Qbajjar. Zebbug, Wied i/-^ejt (Borg). 

Mediterranean region north to S.E.. Bulgaria and south to Madagascar. 

i. Cuscuta L. 

Herbaceous parasites, usually annual. Stems twining with ha us tor la. Leaves re- 
duced to minute' scales. inflorescences cymose, spike-like, umbellate or capL 
tulate. Flowers (3-)4- to S^merous, small, white, yellowish or reddish. Stamens 
inserted in the throat of corolla-tube. Hypo stain in al scales are attached at the 
base or the corolla-tube opposite the stamens. Ovary 2-ceIled, each cell containing 
2' anatropous ovules. Styles free or united. Stigmas capitate or- elongate. Fruit 
a circumcissile capsule dehiscing by an irregular or regular line near base, 
or remaining closed. Seeds 4 or fewer. Embryo filiform surrounded by a 
eartilagenous endosperm. Cotyledons rudimentary or absent. 

C. epilhynium (L.) L, subsp, epithymum 
C, trifolii Bab.; C- alba. J & C. PresI 

Plate XXXIV 


Stems slender, much-branched, often reddish or purplish; flowers (2.5-) 3-4(-5)' 
into, (rarely 2.5 mm.) long, 5-merous, mostly sessile, sometimes shortly pedieillate; 
dense, globose glomerules 7-10 mm, in diameter, each glomerule with subacute 
bract at its base. Calyx usually shorter than corolla-tube, not fleshy; corolla lobes 
patent, triangular, acute, rarely acuminate, mostly shorter than campanula te tube. 
Stamens exserted; anthers often purphsh J tinged. Scales snath ulate, shorter than 
tube, fimbriate, connivont over the ovar. Styles (including s(igmas) about as 
long or much longer than the subglobose ovary, exserted. Capsule cireumsessile. 
enveloped by the corolla. Seeds c. 1 mm. in diameter. 2n =■ 14. Fl. 1>4. 

On various shrubs and herbs; most frequently associated with UrgiYiea viaritima, 
Asphddehis -niicrocarpus and Narcissus' tazeMa-- also Thymus capitatus and other 

shrubs. ■ 

Malta and Gozo: frequent (S.. & CO.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; "Woiseley; Haslam). 
Comino: (Borfil , 

Almost throughout Europe, except the north; C. & W. Asia; N. Africa. 

Cuseuta viiotiogyna Vahl found on rose bushes hi Attard in 1910 was prcbably 

casual (Borg). 



-I ■ 


1 ' 

3. IpOnmea 
or ■luMfonn, scarcely lobed morfor ie« tith r? mm - lon ^ "tfundibuliform 

Many-Coloured Morning Glory 

I. acuminata. (Va.hl) Roomer & Sehultes 

Plate XXXIV 

lanceolate, gradually tanerinE from nm.- ti™ i, -^ p mra - loil S, 

.e-jg^rf mm ir d=er, SX^S ^^r^t^T^ 

Malta; frequently cultivated; naturalised In . the Gir^nti valley (^olseiov^ 
Native of the Tropics; cultivated and naturahsed elsewhere. 


^^ ^^tr^Z"^^^' eutir f V P-nat^ect, exstipuiate. 
solitary, ^i^o^ P ^n ^^^'^T°f ^J?™ 1 "** «times 
Corolla' sympetalous, InfundW ™ \Zpanulte T'ro^^ , t^ 7 diVWe[l 
Stamens as many as corolla lobe L ^iLlt , ate '-,?A l ? tat V ]oi ><x imbricate. 
Ovary superior, 1- to -locular ovu^ ?t ng Wlth ^^ amher ? versatile, 
stigmas usuah> capitate Fr m ±li , ""S 1 * ,°" e ™* placeilta .' styles L-2: 
and septicidal withTvalves or hVe^'deh," ^ * * locu ™ 

1. Wigandia Kunth ; 

Srj£^ inflorescences, 

the lobes. Corolla witb short rS „1^ '' without appendages between 

^^^^IZ^^^^S^ Bir,ebbu,a (Borg, Woiseley); St ;; 
1". W. caraeasana Kunth' p, atp X yvv 

Erect, hispid herb 200-300 cm. high Leaves c «5 ' x\, fm \ "T^ 
netiolate, coarsely crenate-serrate venmLiv wL IT 3 ^ cm -' 0Vilte ' obtuse, 
lanceolate. Corolla c. 20 mm Ton^ thr n™b U, be «>f heath. Calyx-l.bcs linear- 
exserted. Capsule o^^^^^ff^^^ * St " shor, y 

Locally naturalised in W. Medit C rr a nean region; native from Mexico to Columbia. 




4-locular; style usually simple, arising from between the 4 lobes of the ovary 
(gynobasic), rarely terminal. Fruit of 2 or 4 nutlets (rarely 1 or 3 by abortion). 
Seeds usually without endosperm; embryo straight or curved, 

1. Corolla distinctly zygomorphic 
Corolla more or less actinomorphie 

2. Style terminal 
Style gynobasic 

3. Corolla tubular 
Corolla rotate with short tube and longer limb 

Nutlets fused into 2 separate pairs 
Nutlets 4 

Nutlets with a distinct pseudostrophiolar ring around 

the base 

Nutlets without a distinct pseudostrophiolar ring 

Corolla yellow 
Corolla white or purplish 

Nutlets with a distinct pseudostrophiolar ring at base; 

Nutlets without a distinct pseudostrophiolar ring; 
smooth and shiny 

Scales at apex of tube papillose or hairy 
Scales smooth, glabrous 

Limb of eorolla up to 3 mm. in diameter 

Limb of corolla 7-9 mm. in diameter with distinct 

reticulate venation 



E chin m 























10. Cynoglossum 

Subfam. Hello tropio id eac. Style terminal, with a wide, glandular ring below 
anex • 



1. Heliotr opium L. 

Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes woody at the base. Flowers; in terminal or 
pseudoaxiilary ebracteate and branched cymes. Calyx lobed usually to the base. 
Corolla hypocrateriform; tube usually without scales in the throat; limb lobed 
more or less to base, usually with teeth. Stamens included. Style included, usually 
wiry s»mrt' stigma large and disc-like, or conical to subulate, entire or 2- to 4- 
lobed. Fruit dry, spJitting into 4 or 2 nutlets, or Lseeded and remaining entire. 

Calyx lobed to the base, not concealing the 4 free nutlets 
and persisting after they fall 

Calyx lobed to less than \ of its length, almost concealing 
the single seeded fruit and falling with it 

1. H. eurnpaeum L. 

Plate XXXV 

1. europacum 

2. supinum 

Vanilja bajda 
Common Heliotrope 

Annual; sterns 4-40 cm, high, erect or ascending, usually branched, appressed- to 
ereeto- patent-pubescent. Leaves up to 5.5(-6,5) x 2.8 (-3.5) cm., ovate to elliptical, 
cuneate to almost rounded at the base, rounded to subacute at the apex, appressed 
pubescent; petiole up to 3.5 cm. long. Flo weTS scentless; sepals 1,8-3.5 x 0.4-0.8 
mm., linear-oblong or narrowly triangular, irregularly patent-pubescent, usually 
patent soon after anthesis. Corolla 2-5 mm, long, at least the limb white, limb 

Dwarf Heliotrope 

24(-5) mm. in diameter. Anthers 0.7-1 ram. long, inserted in middle of corolla- 
tube. Stigma linear- subulate, deeply or shallowly divided into 2(-4) lobes at apex 
or rarely entire, usually glabrous. Fruit splitting into 4 nutlets, glabrous or 
pubescent, usually rugose. Fl. 4-10, 

Weed of cultivation and waste places. Malta and (iozo: very common everywhere 
(S, & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Haslam; Wblseley). Comino: (S. & C.G.; Borg). 

S, & F. Europe; W. & C. Asia; N. Africa; naturalised elsewhere. 
2. H. snpinum L. 

Annual, branched at the base, the central branch erect, the lateral procumbent 
Leaves up to 3.5 x 2 cm., narrowly elliptical to suborbicular, rounded or cuneate 
at base, whitish- pubescent at least beneath, the veins conspicuously impressed 
above; petiole 0.3-1. 5(-2) cm. long. Calyx 2-2.5 mm. long, lobed for less than -\ 
of its length, tubular, accrescent in fruit and becoming pyriform, closely enfold- 
ing the fruit and falling with it. Corolla 2.5-3 mm. long, the limb white, .Style 
almost as long as stigma, inserted slightly obliquely on the ovary; stigma conical, 
hairy, often shallowly bifid. Fruit a single one-seeded nutlet. Fl. o-fi, 

Sandy ground. Gozo: rare at Dwejra (S. & C.G.; Borg). 

S. Europe, N, & Tropical Africa; W. Asia to India. 

Subfam. Iiomglnoidae; Sytle gynobasic, without a glandular ring. 

2. Neatostema LM. Johnston 

Annual herbs; Howers in terminal leafy eynies, sometimes heiemstylrms. Calyx 
5-lobed more or less to the base, accrescent. Corolla yellow, infundibuliform, tube 
with a ring or 5 clusters of hairs in the throat; and with an annulus at the base. 
Stamens inserted just above the annulus; nutlets 4, detaching completely from 
the gynobase, brown, tuberculate. 

1, N. apuium <L.) I.M. Johnston 
Lithospcrmum apulum, (L.) Vahl 

Plate XXXV 

Yellow Gromwell 

Stems 3-30 cm, high, solitary to many, erect, hispid, corymbosely branched 
above. Leaves up to 7 x 0.5 em., with rigid hairs mainly on the margins; cauline 
linear or oblong- linear, erect, sessile, acute; basal linear or oblong- spa thu late, 
attenuate into petiole. Cymes dense. Calyx 3.5-4 mm. *ong; lobes linear, acute, 
hispid outside, softlv wh'te-hairy inside, triangular in fruit. Corolla 6-6.5 mm. 
long; tube slightly exceeding calyx; lobes of limb gland ular-puberulent on both 
surfaces. Sty! ps 0.25-0.5 mm. long. Nutlets J. 5-7.75 mm., subtetrahedral. contracted 
at the beak, flat dorsally, keeled ventrally. 2n = 28. Fl. 3-4. 

Arid, rocky r>'-"'es. Malta- rare, Kordin. Mtahleb, Wardija, St. Andrews (.Uoi'»).' 
Ghar il-Kbir (Wolseloy); Ghajn 1-Istas (Kramer and Westra); Qala Hill (G. Lan- 

Mediterranean region. 

3. Buglossnides Moench 

Annual or perennial herbs or dwarf shrubs; flowers in terminal, leafy cymes, 
sometimes heterostylous. Corolla white, blue or purple, infundibuliform or 
hypocrateriform, with 5 longitudinal bands of hairs inside; tube without invagi- 



nations and a sometime, discontinuous annulus at the base ^^ n i£d Nut' 
inserted at middle to base of throat. Style simple, gynobasic; stigma 2-lobed Nut- 
lets 4, detaching completely from the gynobase, usually smooth, sometime tubei- 
euiate, white and shining. 

1. B. iirven«. (L.) l.M. Johnston subsp. arvense Plate XXXV Cam Cromwell 

Lithospermvm arvense L. 

Annual; 'stems 10-50(-90> cm High, solitary, usually erect, sometimes ^ranched, 
sparseln Hispid. Cauline leaves up to 9<-10) mm. wide, oblong, ob ovate-oblong : 01 
oolong-spaihulate to linear, crowded, the others oblong to linear, acute or sub- 
acute, usually ereet. Cymes solitary or paired. Caiyx-Iobes linear or linear-lan- 
ceolate, unequal, acute. Corolla tt-Y M mm. long, white with a blue mm at about 
the middle of the tube, rarely purplish. Slamens inserted below the middle of the 
corolla tube. Pedicels cylindrical in fruit. Nutlets brownish, hard. *I. 1-j. 

Fields in agricultural areas. Malta and Goto: frequent (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. han- 

i'ranco; WoJseleyj. 

Most of Europe; -Asia to SS..W. India. 

i. Cerintlie : L. 

■iimual biennial or perennial herbs, glabrous or glabrescent but alien with white 
tubercles usually more or less glaucous. Mowers in terminal, usually branched, 
bracteate cymes." Calyx lobeel halfway to base or more into equal or unequal iooes, 
accrescent. Corolla yellow, usually tinged with violet or red, art Isomorphic, more 
or less tubular, without scales; tube about as long as limb; limb with lobes shorter 
than or almost as long as the rest of the corolla. Staffleni_ included, or sUehUy 
oxserted' tilyments inserted at apex of tube; antliers appendieulate at base, btyie 
"viiobnsi'c usually exserted- stigma capitate or emarginate. Nutlets fused in two 
separate pairs, each pair ovoid, dark brown or blackish, shiny, slightly beaked, 
smooth, with a fiat base. . ■ . 

1. C. major L. 

Plate XXXVI 

.Large Cerinthe 

annual- stems 15-60 cm. high. Lower leaves obovate-spathulat*;, petiolate, abate 
tubei-c.ulate- the upper ovate -lanceolate, cordate at base. Bracts ovate, subcordate 
at base often reddish-glaucous equalling or longer than ca]yx ; Calyx-lobes acute 
eitiate. Corolla 13-30 x 5-8 mm., slightly saccate, straight, yellow with a reddisn 
brown ring in the throat, sometimes cream distally, or dark red throughout, 
more than twice as long a.'; calyx; lobes ovate, sharply recurved at apes. Nutlets 
blaeiush. 2« = IB. 

Damp or shady places. Malta: locally abundant as at Wied Qirda (G. Laiifrauco), 
Wied iz-zurrieq. Mellieha, Ahrax (Borg); Wied InCita; Wied Bab« 3 Buskett, cmejna 
(Borg; Wu'lseley); Fioriana, Mistra Valley (Haslam); Wied il-Ghasel, valleys of the 
Victoria lines, Kigret, Fiddien (Wolsoley). 

Mediterranean region. 

5. lithium L. 

Annual, biennial or perennial usually stout, hispid herbs or shrubs, indumentum 
of tuburcle-based rigid hairs and usually short, apnressed or patent hairs. 
Inflorescence of spike-like or paniculate, unilateral bracteate cymes, often much 
enlarging in fruit. Calyx lobed almost to the base, sometimes accrescent. Corolla 
blue, purple, yellow or white, broadly to narrowly infundibuliform, with straight 


tube and usually oblique, open throat, more or less hairy outside; usually with an 
annulus oi' 1.0 minute scales or tufts of hairs, or sometimes a flange-like membrane, 
at the base, but without scales or invaginations above. Stamens unequal, included 
or exserted, inserted below middle of corolla. Style exserted; stigma capitate or 
bifid. Nutlets ovoid-trigonous", erect, rugose, with flat base. 

1. All stamens completely included in the corolla-tube 
At least 1-2 stamens exserted from the coroda-tube 

2. Calyx 6-S mm, long at antnesis, up to 15 mm. long in 
fruit with teeth 3-6' mm. wide at the base 
Calyx 5-7 mm. long at anthesis, up to 10 mm. long m 
fruit with teeth 2-3 mm. wide at the base 

3. Corolla flesh-coloured or yellowish- or bluish- white 

Corolla blue, reddish-purple or pink-carmine turning 
blue-purpie (reddish to blue or purple when dry) 

4. Corolla 7-10 mm. long. 
Corolla 1140 mm, long 

.5. Corolla subglabrous, hairy on veins and margins only; 
basai leaves with prominent lateral veins 

Goroiia -f uniformly hairy; basal leaves without 
prominent lateral veins 

1, E- tali cum L. 

Erect, hispid biennial 40-100 cm. high, usually with a single or a dominant 
flowering stem. Basal leaves 200-350 x 15-40 mm., lanceolate, with appressed, sott 
bulbous-based hairs; cauline leaves more or less narrowly elliptical. Inflorescence 
spike-like or much branched and pyramidal. Calyx 6-7 mm. long. Corolla 10-12 mm. 
long, very narrowly infundibuliform, yellowish^ or bluish-white, with 4-d long- 
exserted stamens; filaments pale. 2n. = 16. Pi. 4-6. 

ftoadsides in the country. Malta; local (G, LanfranedL as at St. Paul's Bay, Mtah- 
leb, Gnejna, Girgenti (S. & C.G.; Borg); Ta' Baldu, Wardija, Chajn Tuffieha, 
Meliieha, Ghajn il-Kbira, Bahrija (Borg) ; Buskett (Penza); Bingemma Gap, Bati- 
rija (Haslam). Gozo: Mgarr ix-XinL Marsalforn (S. & C.G.; Borg); Xlendi (Borg). 

C, Europe; Mediterranean region. 







. 1. 










iaiv' i 

Lsien il-fart febir 
Italian Vi per s-bu gloss 

■9 t 

2. E. vulgare L. 


Erect hispid biennial 20-90 cm. high, with 1- to several-flowering stems. Leaves 
with rather soft, appressed bulbous-based hairs; the basal and lower cauline 50-150 
x 10-20 mm., elliptical to lanceolate, attenuate and petlolate at base; the upper 
narrowly lanceolate, sessile. Inflorescence more or less spike-like to paniculate. 
Calyx 5-7 mm. long. Corolla 10-19 mm. long, blue to bluish violet, 
with 4-5 longer exserted stamens. 2n = 16, 32. PI. 3-4, 

Malta: Wied Incita (Delicata; Borg). 

Most of Europe; W. Asia. 


3. E. plantagtncum L. Plate. XXXVII , Lsien il-fart v.K-la 

Purple Vipers' -bag! oss 
Erect softly hairy annual or biennial 20-fiO cm, high, with l- to many flowering 
stems. Basal leaves 50-r4Q x c. 15 mm., ovate, with prominent lateral ' veins and 
sort approved [iLii^oasi-tji^ed nans;" caunne leaves ooiung to lanceolate, trie upper- 
most more or less cordate at the base, lniioresce nee usually branched. Calyx v-1.) 
mm, long at an thesis, .up to 15 mm. long in fruit. Corolla iw-au mm. Iurij;.. 
infundirjuliforrn, pu'ipiu, nairy on veins and margins only, usually with 'L exserted 
stamens, 2n — 16. I'l. 3-5. 

Roadsides in the counity. Malta: rare (G. Laniranco), as at Wied Tncita, Buskett 
(S. & C.G.; Borg); Rabat (S. & C.G.; Borg; Haslam; Wolseley); Mgarr (Si. 
& C.G.; Borg; Wolseley); Bhigemma (Wolseley}; Ta" Qali CGauci}. 
Mediterranean region extending into C, Europe; ■ W. Asia; Atlantic Islands. 

E. sabulicola Pomel 
H. conjusnm ae Coiney 

Sand Viper' 

Procumbent, ascending or erect, hispid biennial or perennial 15-50 ctn. high, 
with several to many flowering stems. Basal leaves ovate to obovate; catiline leaves 
oblanccoiatc to spathuiate, attenuate and subpetiolate at base, witn more or ie:;s 
dense, white, appressed or patent bulbous-based hairs. Inflorescence more or less 
branched, laxly panic ui ate. Calyx 6-10 mm. long at /an thesis.; up to 16 mm. long iin 
iruit, with dense white, bulbous-based hairs. Corolla 12^22 mm. long, mfundiouli- 
form, dark blue or pinkish- to bluish-pur pie, usually with 1-2 stamens asserted; 
filaments sometimes sparsely hairy. Fl. 4-5. 
Malta: Cmcjna (Pelicata; Borg). 
W. Mediterranean region. 

5. E. parviihJrum Moench 

Lsien il-fart zghir 
Smail-iiowei'eu . Viper' s-hugljss . 

Hispid annual or biennial ]0-'10 cm. high, with several to many ascending or 
ereet flowering stems.' Leaves with sparse to dense appressed bulbous-based hairs; 
the basal 55-120 x 5-25 mm., spathuiate to oblanceelate, long-pctiolate; the cauiine 
otaovate or oblong, the uppermost Sessile. Calyx 6-8 mm. long at anthers, up/to. 
15 mm. long, with wide segments ih fruit. Corolla 10-13 mm. long, dark Lido, with 
all stamens included. Fl. 1-6. 

Along paths, on walls and in uncultivated places. Malta, Gozo, C amino: very com- 
mon (S, & C.G.; Borg; G. Laniraneo) Haslam; Wolseley). Filfla: (S. & C.G.; Borgi 
Mediterranean region. 

S. E. arenarium Guss. 

Lsien il-fart tax-xtut 
Coastal Viper's-bugloss 

Hispid biennial 10-25 cm. high, with several to many ascending flowering 
stems. Leaves with whitish, short appressed bulbous-based hairs; the basal 50-80 
x 5-14 mm,, spathuiate, long-petiolate; the cauline spathuiate, elliptical or oblong, 
the uppermost sessile. Calyx 5-7 mm. long at anthesis, up to 10 mm. long in fruit, 
with the lobes remaining narrow. Corolla 6-11 mm. long, dark blue with all the 
stamens included. Fl. 2-6. 

Uncultivated places and roadsides especially near the sea. Malta and Gozo; common 
(S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). Camino: (Duthie; S. & C.G.; Borg). 
Commotio; (Borg). 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 

6. Symphytum L. 

Perennial, usually hispid herbs. Flowers in short ebracteate terminal cymes which 
often elongate in fruit Calyx campanulate, accrescent, regularly 5-Iobed or 5- 
toothed to \ or almost to base. Corolla cylindrical, slightly campanulate- dilate 
above, with a short, triangular to semicircular lobes not more than .1/3 its long as 
the rest of the corolla; scales at least twice as long as wide, with marginal 
papillae or hairs. Stamens included, inserted at about the middle of the corolla 
tube, without appendages; filaments glabrous, not more than 1\ times as long 
as anthers. Style gynobasic, exserted stigma very small. Nutlets 4. ovoid, erect, 
sometimes curved, usually verruculose and reticulate -rugose, concave at the base 
with a thickened pseudostrophiolar ring with small teeth on the lower margin. 

1. S. officinale L, 

Plate XXXVI 

Wit! net il-gnomcr 

Common Conn rev 

.Stock stout, vertical, branched. Stem <30-)50-12Q cm. high, stout, erect, often 
branched. Leaves large, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, acuminate; the midrile and 
upper sessile, often decumbent. Cymes many-flowered. Calyx lobed to .ii-4/5. with 
lanceolate lobes. Corolla 12-18 mm. long, purple-violet or dirty pink or white, 
with short deiiexed lobes. Scales broadly triangular- lanceolate, the lower marginal 
papillae shortly cylindric- conical, the upper much smaller and shorter, 'all dense. 
Stamens with connective projecting beyond thecae; filaments as wide as anther. 
Nutlets 5-6 mm. long, -black, very smooth, shiny. In = 24,26,c.3f> ,40,48. Fi. .12-5. 

Damp shady places. Malta: very rare, Wied Babu <GD.; Borg); Wied iz-Sur.rieq 

Much of Europe. 

7. Anchusa L. 

Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, rarely woody at the base. Flowers in socuhd 
racemes, bracte ate usually throughout. Calyx tubular- campanulate in Ilowsr. more 
or less accrescent in fruit, regularly 5-lobed from ^ almost to base. Corolla pjjrjjie. 
blue, yehow or white, with cylindrical, straight or curved tube and rotate to 
campanulate limb divided into 5 equal or unequal lobes; 5 we 11- developed, ovate 
or oblong, papillose or hairy scales present at apex of tube. Anthers included or 
partly exserted. Nutlets 4, erect or oblique, reticulate or rugose, usually weakly 
and densely tuberculate; hilum basal, surrounded by a more or less thir;]tenecl 
pseudostrophiolar ring. 


A, aztivea Miller 
A. italica Ketz. 

Plate XXXVI 

Lsien il-fart tar-raba 
Purple Alkanct 

Perennial, hispid with dense, patent, rigid or soft, often tub eroul ate- based 
hairs; stems 20-150 cm. high, erect Leaves (50-)100-30G x (10-) 15-30 mm. Cymes 
many; pedicels 1-3 mm, long, up to 10(-t5) mm, long in fruit; bracts shorter 
than calyx. Calyx G-S(-IO) mm. Ijng, up to 18 mm. long in fruit, divided almost 
to the base into linear, acute ]oi;fy. Corolla violet or deep blue; tube fi-io mm. 
long, slightly exceeding or short|f than calyx; limb (8-) 10-15 mm. in diameter; 
stamens inserted at the apex oOube, overlapping scales. Nutlets (o-)7-10 x 2-3 
mm., oblong or oblong- obovo id, Jyect, Fl. 3-7. 

Fields especially on the clay. Malta; locally abundant on the north and west side 
(S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). Gozo: rare (S. & C.G). Comma: 
Sta, Marija (Wolseley). 
S. Europe, W. Asia; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands. 



8. iiorago L. 

4m iL A perennial herbs. Flowers in branched usually braeteate cymes; pedicels 
uStt Patent or deflexed in fruit Calyx accrescent in fruit, ^^J; 
iobed lA.ost to the base. Corolla rotate to campanula^; tube short or absent 
limb divided to the base into 5 lobes; scales exserted, short, ^arginate etabrou^ 
Anthers exserted, connived, mucronateV, filaments inserted "^ f "£ 4^*°/ 
corolla flattened with a long narrow appendage at the apex Nutlets 4 erect, 
obovthd rugose- base concave, surrounded by a thickened pseudostrophiolar rmg. 

1. 15. officinalis L. 

Plate XXXVI 


Hispid annual; stems 15^70 cm. high, erect, robust, often branched. Basal 
leaves 5-20 cm. long, ovate to lanceolate, petiol ate; upper cauhne s essUe, amplexr- 
eaul. Cymes lax; pedicels 5-30 mm, long, stout, patent or deflexed after anthes s 
Calyx 8-15 mm. long in flower, up to 20 mm. long in fruit; lobes linear -lanceolate, 
acute, coimivciit in fruit. Corolla rotate, clear blue, rarely white; tube very shoil 
or almost absent; lobes of limb 8-15 mm. long, lanceolate, acute. Nutlets 7-10 
mm. long, oblong-obovoid. 2n~ 16. Fl. 1-5. 

Waste -places, roadsides and fields. Malta, Qozo and Comirto; very common every- 
where (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Haslam; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region to C. Europe; widely cultivated and naturalised elsewhere. 

9. Myosotis L, 

Annual or perennial herbs. Flowers in usually paired cyme, which are usually 
ebracteate or sometimes bracteate below. Calyx more or less accrescent m iruit 
regularly 5-lobed, flat or slightly concave, usually blue (sometimes white yellow 
01 yellow and blue); scales 5, usually included, papillose, white or ydlow. stamens 
usually included, with a terminal ligulate appendage; filaments inserted about the 
middle of the tube. Style filiform, stigma capitate. Nutlets A, ovoid erect more 
or Jess compressed, smooth and shiny, brown to black, often with a distinct rim, 
area of attachment usually small, sometimes with a spongy or ligulate appendage. 

1. m. MmMtasima Roche!. Widniet ibgurdien 

M. Wspida Schlecht.; li. cdUiiw auct. . Larly i'orget-me not 

J " T ' r Annual Stems up to 40 cm. high. Rosette leaves up to 4 x I cm., lanceolate, 
obtuse; leaves with soft, patent straight hairs. Stem with soft, at base patent, 
above appressed, straight) hairs. Inflorescence lax, ebracteate; pedicels in iruit 
scarcely longer than calyx, patent, more or less straight. Calyx up to 4 mm: long 
in fruit divided to hallway, half-open, with many often deflexed hooked hairs 
at the base deciduous. Limb of corolla up to 3 mm. in diameter, saucer- shaped, 
bright blue' Nutlets 1.2 x 0.7 mm., brown, without rim; attachment urea usually 
idled with spongy tissue. Fl. 3-5. 
Malta: collected by Delicate at St, Julians in 1847, not recorded since. 

Most of Europe; W. & C. Asia; Africa. 

10. Cynoglossum L. 

Biennial, perennial or rarely annual herbs. Mowers in "^"^5"^^^ 
Calyx 5-lobed almost to the base, accrescent. Corolla with shor cyj ^"cal to 
infundlbuUform tube and rotate limb, with 5 scales closing the throat, Stamens 


included, inserted at or above the middle of the tube. Style gynobasie, included; 
stigma small, subcapitate. Nutlets ovoid to subglobose, glochidiate, the external 
surface convex, flat or slightly concave, sometimes with a distinct border and disc. 

1, C. creilcimi Miller Plate XXXVII Lsien il-Kcib 

Southern Houud's -tongue 

Biennial: Stems (20-) 30-G0 cm. high, hirsute to tomentose. Cauline leaves 
obiong to lanceolate, shortly petiolate to amplexicaul, densely hairy on both sur- 
faces. Cymes ebracteate. Calyx-lobes fi-S mm. long, oblong, hirsute. Corolla 7-9 
mm. long, deep blue, with distinct reticulate venation; tube broadly jiifundibuli- 
forni; limb about as long as tube, divided to about halfway, the lobes glabrous. 
Stamens inserted in lower part of tube. Nutlets' 5-7 mm. in diameter, ovoid, with- 
out a distinct border; external face convex, densely and unequally glochidiate. 
fl. 2-5. 

Dry places in the valleys. Malta: locally frequent (G. Lanfraneo), as at Wied Qirda, 
Wied Babu, Wied Inctta, Cnejna, St. Paul's Bay (S. & C.G.; Borg); Wardija, San 
Martin, BusKett (Borg); Bahrija (Hasiam); Wied il-Gh a sel, Chad wick Lakes 
(Wolseley). Gvw: Mgurr, Ta' Cenc, Xlendi (S. & C.G.). 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 


Herbs or shrubs with opposite or verticiljate leayes. Flowers hermaphrodite, 
4-5-merous, weakly zy go mo rphic. Ca'/x usually small. Corolla with a rotate limb'. 
Ovary superior, initially 1-locular but becoming 2- to 4-locular hy the development 
of false sepra: style terminal; ovules usually I in each loculus. Fruit usually a 
drupe j rarely a capsule or dividing into 2 or 4 1-secded pyrenes. 

3. Shrubs witb digitate leaves 1. Vitex 

Herb with remotely serrate or deeply incised 1- to 2- 
pinnatihd leaves 

2. Calyx with 5 nearly equal teeth; fruit of 5 nutlets' 2. Verbena 

Calyx 2-iipped; fruit of 2 nutlets 3, Lippia 

1. Vitex L, 

Shrub with digitate leaves. Flowers in cymes forming a terminal paniculate or 
spikeHIike inflorescence. Corolla 2-Iipped, the upper Jip with 2, the lower with 3 
lobes. Stamens exserted. Fruit a small drupe. 

I. V, agiiuSTcastus L. 


Sigret h-virgi 
. ..,...-. Virgin Bush 

Shrub 1-2 m. high, fragrant; Voung twigs with 4 obtuse angles, grey-puberulent. 
Leaves petiolate, with 5-7 stipitate leaflets; leaflets 1.5-10 cm. long, linear-lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, entire, whitish- tomentose beneath, glabrous above. Calyx and 
outside of corolla tomentose. Corolla 8-10 mm. long, blue or pink. Drupe globose, 
reddish black, little longer than the calyx. Fl, 5-y. 

Valleys, Malta: rare (G. Lanfraneo), as at Wied il-Baruni in Marsaskala (S. & 
C.G.; Borg); Wied Hairun, Mtahleb (Borg); Bahrija (Borg; Wolseley); U-Mejda 
outside Rabat (Dennis Wolseley). Gozo: Ramla, Wied Blngemma, Daftlet Qorrot 
(S. & C.G.J Borg); San Bias, Buskett, itebbug (Borg); Mgarr ix-Xirtl (Borg; Kramer 
& Westra; Wolseley); Pergia, Wied Hanaq (Wolseley), Dwejra (Gauci). 

Mediterranean region, W. Asia to Iran, 



* :1 

2. Verbena L. 

Annual or perennial hcrba or small shrubs. Leaves opposite or rarely in whorls 
of 3. Flowers in bracteate spikes, usually arranged in panicles or ; corymbs. Calyx 
tubular, 5-ribbed and unequally 5-dentate. Corolla hypo crateriform, weakly bila- 
biate, . with obtuse or emarginate lobes, Stamens inserted at about the middle of 
the corolla-tube, included, Stigma unequally 2- lobed. Fruit, separating at maturity 
into 4 nutlets. 

1. V. officinalis L. 



Perennial 30-60(-i00) cm. high; stems longitudinally ribbed, seabrid on the 
angles and diffusely branched. Leaves more or less rhombic, strigulose, the lower 
4-fi x 24 cm., petiolate, deeply incised, lyrate to 1- to 2- pinnatifld^ the upper 
smaller, sessile and subentire or entire. Spikes terminal, long-pedunculate, solitr 
ary or in a very lax panicle; bracts ovate- acuminate, ciliale, at the most reaching 
half the length of the calyx. Nutlets. 1.5- 2 mm, in diameter, reddish-brown with 
4 to 5 longitudinal ribs on the hack. 2» = 14. Fl. 4-12. 

Waste places and road margins. Malta and Gozo: common {S. & C.G.; Borg; G. 
Lanfranco; Wolselcy). Comino: rare (Borg). 

Europe, northwards to c. 54°N.; N. Africa; W. Asia to Himalaya; introduced else- 

3. Lippia L. 

Shrubs or herbs with simple leaves . Flowers in spikes. Corolla weakly 2-lipped. 
Stamens included. Fruit of 2, 1-seeded nutlets, 

1, C. nodiflora (L.) Michx 

Perennial herb with procumbent, non-flowering stems rooting at the nodes, 
and ascending flowering stems 15-30 em. long. Leaves 1-2.5 cm. long, obovate to 
oblanceolate, with a long-cuneate base, remotely serrate in the distal half. Flowers 
in short, stout, axillary spikes 5-7 mm. in diameter; peduncles much exceeding the 
subtending leaves. Calyx lobed almost to the base: Corolla 2 mm, in diameter, 
sparsely pubescent without, white; lobes subequal. ST. 6-7. 

Malta: Msida -t'l.M. Evans & Gauci). 

Mediterranean region, 

L. vitriodora Kunth, (WizaJ a, small tree, is frequently planted in gardens (Borg). 
A native of Chili. 


Annual or perennial monoecious herbs with opposite leaves. Flowers axillary. 
Perianth absent. Stamen 1. Ovary 4-locular, with 1 anatropous, pendulptis ovule 
in each loculus. Styles 2, 
with fleshy endosperm. 

filiform. Fruit separating into (2-) 4 mericarps. Seeds 

' 1. CiiOUriche L. 

Submerged amphibious or terrestial herbs, with axillary glandular scales, and 
sometimes with peltate cauline hairs, otherwise glabrous. Leaves simple. Flowers 
solitary, or 1 mile and I female flower in the same leaf-axil, Bracteoles or 2 


(in European species), membranous. Anthers renifoms, lVfesricarps v/it;i v-iurK^r.!, 
keeled or pinged margin. 

3 of the 5 well defined European groups of species apparently occur in Vialui. 
Hybridisation between species of different groups is unknown. The amphibious 
species are very variable, and identification is made difficult because- of tho 
vegetative similarity of different species when growing in similar habitats. 

Ripe fruits are essential for identification; the anatomical details of the 
mericarps can easily be observed after stripping off the outer layer ot ceils. In 
species 2-4, peltate hairs are present on the stems; their shape and the number 
of cells in the disk are of diagnostic importance. All species except .1 can occur 
in the terrestial form on mud; the habitat given is for the aquatic form. Terrestial 
forms may be annual. 

1. Terrestial 2. 
Aquatic -i. 

2. Mericarps winged only at apex; fruit obovate, rarely 
slightly elliptical 

Mericarps winged from base to apex; fruit suborbicular 
or slightly longer than wide 

3. Persistent styles erect or recurved, not appressed 
to sides of fruit 

Persistent styles deflexed and appressed to sides of 

4. All leaves submerged 
Upper leaves spathulate, foining a floating or aerial 

5. Leaves transparent; wing of mericarp, if present v.-R". 
ct least 2 rows of cells; styles deciduous 
Leaves not transparent; wing of merk'arp with 1 row 
of cells; persistent styles appressed to sides of fruit 

8, Flowers submerged; pollen grains colourless; persistent 
styles appressed to sides of fruit 
Flowers aerial; pollen grains yellow; persistent styles 
not appressed to sides of fruit 7. 

7. Mericarps winged from base to apex; fruit 1,4-1.75 mm. 

in diameter, suborbicular, brown 2. slagnahs 

Mericarps winged only at apex; fruit 1-(1.5) mm. in 

diameter, obovate or broadly elliptical, blackish 3. oalustris 

(a) Always submerged. Leaves more or less linear, transparent. Cauline hairs 
absent. Flowers solitary. Bracteoles absent. Stamens erect before and after 
dehiscence, scarcely elongating; anther-wall with thin-walled cells; pollen grains 
colourless without exine. Wing of mericarp, if present, composed at least in pari 
of 2 or more rows of polygonal cells. Basic chromosme number x ~vS- 







ft! ■ 











h rati a 

C. truncata Guss. Plate XXXVIII 

C. palustrls var. autumftdis auct. 

Southern Water-sUrwort 

Leaves widest at base and tapering towards apex, or more or less elliptical, 
shallowly emarginate or truncate. Styles patent or defiexed, deciduous. Fruit 1-1.2 


X 1.3-l.tJ mm., wider than long, subsessile or stalked; mericarps not or only 

narrowly winged. VI. 2-4. 

Temporary pools on tile coralline limestone. Malta: frequent at V/ied Infcita (S, 
& C.G.; Borg), Wi.ed il-UTiasel, San Pawl tat-Targa (Borg; Wolseley), Nigret 

fWoJseieyi. Guzo; Dwe.jra (Borg), Munxar (Wolseley). 

S. & W. Europe. 

(b) Three forma: submerged and sterile; aquatic with floating rosette; and ter- 
restial. Submerged leaves not transparent. Disc of cauline hairs of 8-15 cells. 
Flowers solitary or I male and 1 female flower in the same leal'- axil. Bracteoies 
2. Stamen recurved and elongating after dehiscence; anther-wall with thickened 
cells; pollen-grains yellow, with exine. Wing of mericarp, if present, composed oC 
a single row of radially elongated cells, Basic sbromosome number x . = 5. 

C. stagualis Scop.. 

■(.'. palustris vor. statjnalis (Scop.) Fiofi 

Common Water -star wort 

Submerged leaves narrowly elliptical; floating rosettes with c, ti broadly 
elliptical or suborbicular, p;ile green leaves. In terrestrial form, leaves small, 
broadly elliptical or sub orbicular, pale green. Disc of cauline hairs orbicular, of 
8-10(il2) cells. Flowers solitary, or 1 male and 1 female flower in the same leaf- 
axil. Pollen-grains subglobose. Fruit 1.75 x 1.6-1. S mm., stiborbicular, pale brown- 
ish, deeply grooved between the divergent mericarps; mericarps broadly winged, 
radial thickening of cells of wing- often weakly developed. Styles in aquatic form 
erect or patent, in t er res ttal form arcuate-recurved. 2m = 10. PI 2-4. 

Springs and still or slow moving water. Malta: (Gulia; fiorg). 

Most of Europe; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands. 

3. V. juilustns Ij. 

C. palnstris var. vema (L.) Borg 

Submerged leaves very narrowly linear; floating rosettes with elliptical or 
subcuticular leaves; in terrestrial 'form, leaves small, elliptical. Disc of cauline 
hairs orbicular, of 12-15 cells. Usually 1 male and 1 female (lower in the same 
leaf-axil; pollen grains subglobose; styles erect, caducous. Fruit 1{-1.5) mm. in 
diameters obovate, rarely elliptical, blackish; mericarps winged only at apex, the 
ceils} ol tho wing thiofcened on radial walls, not tapering. 2n = 20. Fl. 2-4, 

Still, shallow water. Goso: (Gulia; Borg). 

Much of Europe. 

(e) Three fruiting forms: submerged; aquatic with floating rosettes; and terrestial. 
Submerged leaves not transparent. Disc of cauline hairs of (8-) 12 -20 cells. Flowers 
solitary, Bracteoies 2, deciduous or absent. Stamen recurved towards one of th< 
deiiexed styles; anther-wall with thin-walled cells; pollen-grains colourless, with- 
out exine. Whig .of mericarp composed of a single row of short cells with thicken- 
ing on the radial and proximal walls, Basic chromosome number x = ?7. 

4.. C. bruiia Petagna 

C. palustris var. pcdunculata {DC. ) Fiori 

Usually slender. Submerged leaves linear, not widened at apex, often irregu- 
larly emarginafie; floating rosettes with elliptical, dark green leaves. Disc of cauline 


^5 «', ^ jwmewha'- regular in outline, of 8-18 ceils. Pollen-grains 
subgiubose. Styles deiiexed, appressed to sides of fruit Fruit 1-14 x 1-1 2 mm 
s;ubo™iar or slightly longer than wide, subsessile in aquatic form with s^alk 
up to 13 mm. long in terrestial form. Mericarp mostly broadly winged: 

Still, often shallow water. Gozo: Ta' Cone, very rare (Gulia; Eorg), 
W. '&, S. Europe. 


^™- S -f° r S rUbS ' ° ften glanduia ^ ancf aromatic. Leaves usually simple, e.xstipulate 
op o,ite. Flowers zygomorphic, usually in contracted and modified cymes i the 
ax s of opposite bracts or floral leaves, forming pseudowhorls called verticil 1 asters 
which m turn are arranged in simple or compound spike-like cymose, corymbose 
pamculate or capitate inflorescences; rarely fn true cymes. Bracts leaf-like, or much 
reduced or modified (usually called floral leaves when conspicuous), Bracteoles 
usually small sometimes absent. Calyx usually 4_ or 5-lobed. often 2 lipped with 

Sdobed often 2-hpped with the upper lip 2-lobed and the lower Up 3-lobed rarely 
the Slobes fonniiis the lower lip. Stamens usually 4, didynamous, rarely 2 Ovary 
superior, 2-earpelIate but appearing equally 4-lobed when mature due, to further 
partition; style single, usually branched above and gynobasje. Fruit of four 1-seeded 

Sexual dimorphism occurs in several genera, with female (lowers which are 
normally smaller, occurring in addition to tfce usual hermaphrudile flowers on the 
same or on different plants. 

The calyx may be entire or shallbwly to deeply lobed or toothed and in the 
key, the calyx-tube is regarded as extending from the base of the 'calyx up to 
the lowermost sinus. The number of veins refers to the lower part of the tu'be. 


Corolla more or less Flipped, the upper lip much 

reduced or absent. 

Corolla with 5 lobes or distinctly 2-lipped 

2. Upper lip of corolla present, entire or consisting of 
2 small teeth; corolla tube with a ring of hairs inside 
Upper lip of corolla absent, corolla tube glabrous 

3. Fertile stamens 2 
Fertile stamens 4 

4. Upper lip of corolla concave and bifid; stamens with 2 
fertile cells 

Upper tip of corolla distinctly hooded (concave)- 
stamens with 1 fertile cell ' 

5: Calyx a ctinom Orphic with more or less equal teeth 
Calyx zygomorphic with teeth differing in length and 

6. Corolla 2-lipped 

Corolla with 5(A) subequallobes 



1- Ajuga 
2. Teucrlum 

16. Rosmarinus 

17. Salvia 



7. Upper lip entire and distinctly hooded 
Upper lip bifid, or very short; flat or concave 

8. Stamens longer than corolla; filaments diverging 

Stamens longer than corolla; filaments converging 
or parallel 

9. Annual herb up to 30 em. high 

Perennial herbs or shrubs up to 130 cm. high 

TO. Corolla 23-35 mm. long, yellow 

Corolla 10-14 mm. long, lilac or white 

1 1. Calyx with 10 teeth 
Calyx with -5 teeth 

12. Upper lip of corolla less than 6 mm. long, entire 
Upper !ip of corolla ftiore than 6 mm. long, bifid 

1,1 Stamens 4, included 

Stamens 4, exsarted except In some hybrids and 
female flowers 

14, Stamens diverging and exserted 
Stamens parallel and included 

15. Inflorescence of pedunculate cymes 
Inflorescence of verticillasters 

10. Verticillasters l(-2) flowered . 
Verticillasters 4-12 (lowered 

17. Leaves 10-25 x 15-12 mm.; calyx 10-veined 
Leaves 20-RO x 15-50 mm!; calyx 1.3- veined 

1. Ajuga L. 

Annual or perennial herbs. Calyx more or less actinoniorphic with 10 or more 
veins. Upper lip of the corolla usually very short; lower lip 3-lobed; corolla-tube 
with a rinft of hairs on the inside. Stamen;; 4, the outer 2 longer than the inner 
2, all usually exserted. Nutlets reticulate-veined or transversely rugose. 



Origan um 










' .12. 











Calami nt ha 







Valij;;,. Ilatia: rare as at Wied Bsiluta (GD.; Borg}; S.ui Anton (Borg). Gozo: 
Xlendi (Gulia). 

1. Leaves 3 partite with linear sometimes 3-fid lobes 
Leaves entire, toothed or shallowly lobed 

2. Leaves 10-40 mm. wide, ovate 
Leaves 3-6(-8) mm. wide, linear 

3. chainaepitys 

1. rep tans 

2. iva 

1. A. reptuns L. Bugle 

Rhizomatous perennial with long stolons; stems 10-40 cm. high, pubescent on 
opposite faces, alternating at each node, sometimes glabrous at the base. Lower 
p~— , Q ~ -=;.oo ^ if).^n r*n\„ r.vnte. entire or emanate. Bracts ovate, often tinged with 
blue, the upper shorter than the flowers. Whorls crowded, usually 6-flowered. 
Cany.! i-b tiiu. long, tne teeth as long as or slightly shorter than the tube. Corolla 
14-17 mm. long, blue, rarely pink or white, tube exceeding calyx; upper lip entire. 
Stamens exserted, -filaments hairy. Fl. 1-4. 


Southern Bugle 

Most of Europe northwards to c. (52° N.; S.W. Asia; N. Africa. 

2. A. iva (L.) Schreber 
incl, var pse«rio-«>a Rob. et Cast 

Cae.jpitose perennial; stems 5-20 cm. high, woody at base, usually much- 
branched, villous or lanate-villous. Leaves 14-35 x 3-6 (-8) mm., linear or linear- 
oblong, entire or with 2-6 short lobes. Bracts similar to the leaves, exceeding the 
flowers. Flowers 2-4 at each node. Calyx 3.5-4.5 mm. long, the teeth as long as 
or shorter than the tube. Corolla 12-20 mm. long, purple, pink or yellow; tube ex- 
ceeding calyx; upper lip entire. Stamens exserted; filaments hairy. Fl, l-fi. 

Rocky wastes and roadsides. -Malta, Gozo and Comma: frequent (S. & C.G.; Borg: 
G. Lanfranco; Wolseley), 

Mediterranean region, 

3. A, cbaniaepitys (L.) Schreber GrotimLpine 

Annual or short-lived perennial; stem ■■ G -SO cm. high, usually much-branched, 
glabrous to densely lanate-villous. Leaves 3-partite with linear segments 0.5-3 (-4) 
mm. wide, the segments sometimes 3-M, Bracts similar to the leaves. Flowers 2-4 
at each node. Calyx 4-6 mm! long, the teeth as long as or shorter than the tube. 
Corolla yellow with red or purple markings, rarely entirely purple; tube about 
equalling calyx; upper lip entire. Stamens exserted; filaments hairy. FL 3-4. 

Malta: Wied Ballut and Wied Babu according to Delicata and Gulia (GD; Borg). 

Europe e::;ept the north and most of the islands; W, Asia; N. Africa. 

2. Teuci'ium L. 

Herbs or shrubs. Calyx tubular or campanulate, bilabiate or regular, . 5-toothed, the 
teeth equator the upper largest. Corolla with one 5-Iobed lip; tube usually includ- 
ed in the calyx, without a ring of hairs within. Nutlets smooth or reticulate. 

1. Branches ending in spines which are leafless or with 
very small leaves 
Not spinose 

2. Leaves entire 
Leaves crenate, serrate or lobed 

3. Herbs, not woody at base 
Dwarf shrubs 

4. Rhizomatous; stems woody at base only 
Not rhizomatous; stems woody except or ultimate 

1. T. fruiieans L. 


.}. up inn sum 

1. friiticarcs 

2. scordium 

4. chamaedrys 

5, flavnm 


Evergreen Germ and er 

Evergreen shrub up to 250 cm. high. Twigs 4- angled, white-tomentose. Leaves 
lanceolate to ovate, entire, flat, shortly p etiolate, white- or reddish- torn cut ose 
beneath, glabrous and shining above. Verticillasters 2 flowered; brads loaf-like, 

263 ■ 

Calyx shortly campanulas, outside, glabrous within. .Coi-dUa 15-25 
ram. long, blue or lilac; stamens long-exserted. Fl. l-t>. 

llociy places and old wails. Malta, Goto and ComftK): very common (S-'ft C.G.; 
Borg-, G. L-Kufranco; Wolseley; Haslam). Commotio: (Dulme). 

Mediterranean region. 

2. T. scordhm, L. sub., s-dioides (S^ber) M„irc & ^^ ^^ 

Sofl Jy hriry to suhglabrou,, stcloniferous ^.ual^,* of^arlie when 
,rushed. Stolon, usually densly cover* djth ^^ to ^ r i^-dentate. 
often freely branched Leave. ; ovaw to ob on* o °^^^ nt s ^ iamplej:ka ul, leaves 
sessile or subs.csssle. Leaves of the mam stem un ^ w. like bracts which are 

exceeding 'calyx. 2n - 32. Fl, 4-8. ., ■ 

E™SS ^."'Vw%..»J«t. (Cute B».>. 

5, 'X. tluvum L. 

3. T. spinusiini' L: 

Spiny Germander 

Pubescent or villous, f ^^J^iJ^^^^^^S^ 
the branches apinose and more or ^^^flf" " "^g L a U, entire. Flowers 
oblon*. narrowed at base, ^^errate al£ ^isttSt u,™ eTves. Calyx -6-7 mm. 
solitary or 4-8 together m «f ." ™ the others 2-2.5 mm. long, 

resupfflatc; tube included in the caylx. 11. o-7. 

0n the Coralline plateaus. ««, J^Sf^' ^ ^ ^ "' 

cent, Ta' ■ Karrnx according to Guha i-Uilw, tforgj. 

W. Mediterranean region. 

Wail Germander 
4. T, chatsiaedi-ys L. ... ' 

Shortly villous, rhi.omatous dwarf shrub ^=^5^^^^^ 
high. Leaves up to 2x1 c"\j"> oblong »' ; b «^7^ lutiMUS beneat h. 
serrate with obtuse teeth, ,«' ™^^ Cg villous and glandular; teeth 

purple, rarely white, hairy. FL ^~ 

l tfflBfl .-.r. W e, Balluta CGD, Bo«). Go.o: rare, Xlehdi wording to Guha (Guha, 


Mediterranean « B «,«, northwards to the Netherlands, S. Poland and S.C. «. 


Yellow Germander 

Small, stout hairy shrub with annual flowering stems up to 50 cm. high. 
Leaves up to 3 x 2 cm,, ovate, c re nate -serrate, sometimes sparsely and shall owiy 
so, InfloresceiR'e dense to lax. Calyx (0-) 8-9 mm. long, hirsute or shortiy villous 
and glandulan teeth c. f as long as to nearly as long as tube, triangular with a 
prominent midrib. Corolla 14-18 mm. long, yellowish or purple, villous, Fl. 4-7. 

Rocky ground. Malta and Gozo: very frequent (S, & CD,; Borg; 
Haslam; Wolseleyh Core; no: frequent (Borg; Wolseley; Gauci). 

G. Lan franco; 

Mediterranean region. 

3. Prasfum L. 

Shrub. Verticillasters -reduced to a single flower (rarely 2) in the axils of floral 
leaves, forming terminal racemes. Calyx eampanulate, flipped, 10-veined; upper 
Zip 3-lobed, the lower deeply 2-fid; all the lobes leaf-like. Corolla 2-h'pped; tube 
with a ring of scale-like hairs inside; upper lip entire, the lower 3-lobed, Stamens 
didynamous, parallel; anther cells divergent Style 2-fid, the branches subequal, 
subulate. Nutlets drupe-liice. 

1. T. majus L. 

Plate XXX VIII" 

Te sqalli 
Mediterranean Prasium 

Stems up to 1 m. high j erect, divaricately branched, glabrous or glabrescent, 
rarely hirsute. Leaves 20-40 x 8-20 mm., ovate to ovate -Ian ceo late, acute and 
rnucrouate, crenate or crenateserrate, the lower cordate and the upper truncate 
at the base, usually glabrous; petiole 10-18 mm. long. Floral leaves like the eauline 
but smaller, or the upper entire. Calyx accrescent, up to 2.5 cm. long in fruit, 
pub eru lent- glandular or glabrous; lobes ovate to ovate-laneeolate, aristate. Corolla 
17-20 mm. long white or lilac; upper lip oblong, obtuse; lower Up with the middle 
lobe largest. Nutlets 3-4 mm. long, ovoid, trigonous, black. 2m = 34. Fl. i-o. 

Rocky places, but not arid. Malta and Gozo: common (Borg; G. Lahi'ranco; 
WolseleyL Comino: v.atiey behind Sta Marijy (Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region. 

4. MarrubltHH L. 

Perennial herbs. Stems erect, simple or branched. Leaves simple. Flowers in 
verticillasters. Bracts usually present, ascending from a defiexed base. Calyx nar- 
rowly obconical, usually 10-ribbed or striate, with 5-10 teeth; tube densely hairy 
inside at the mouth. Corolla bilabiate, the upper lip straight, bifid, the lower lip 
3-tobed; tube included, with an uneven ring o? hairs or glabrous wltthn. Stamens 
4 parallel, the outer pair longer, all included in the corolla-tube!; anther cells 
diverging. Nutlets ovoid- triquetrous, truncate at apex. 

1. M. vulgare L. 


Marrubija bajda 
White Hore bound 

Stems up to 45 cm. high, with many short nomfiowering branches, white: 
lanate at least below. Leaves orbicular to broadly ovate, subcordate or rounded 
at base, deeply and. irregularly crenate, sparsely tomentose to subglabrous above, 
more densely tomentose beneath; petioles of lower leaves shorter than the lamina. 
Verticillasters globose, many-flowered, distant. Bracts subulate, villous-phimose. 



Calyx-tube 3-4 mm. long, obscurely 10-striate, villous-pubesceiit; teeth 10, shorter 
than corolla, equal, patent, hamate, villous beneath, glabrous above. Corolla ex- 
ceeding- calyx-teeth, white. 2w = 3*. Fl. 4-G. 

Waste places.- Malta: infrequent <G. Lanfranco) as at Mdina, Bahrija (S. & C.G.; 
Borgt; Gharghur, Selmun (GD.; Borg); Wied il-Lunzjata, Wardija (Gulia; Borg); 
Liklin, Tirxien, Attard (Borgt; Addolorata Cemetery (Borg; Wolseley). Gozo: 
Rabat, Gran Castello (Borg). 

Mediterranean region northwards to England, a. Sweden and C, Russia; W. Asia; 
Atlantic Islands. 

5. Sideritis L. 

Annual, or perennial "herbs with woody base, or small shrubs. Verticill asters 2- to 
many-flowered; bracts leaf-like or not; bracfeoles absent, Calyx eampanulate, 10 
veined, 5- toothed, the teeth equal or the upper larger than the 4 lower. Corolla 
usually yellow; tube not exceeding calyx; upper lip patent, more or. less flat, 
entire to bilid; lower lip 3-iobed. Stamens included in corolla-tube. Nutlets round- 
ed at apex. 

1. S. romatlil L. 

Plate XXXVlfl 

Common Sideritis 

Villous lanate annua! up to 30 cm. high. Stems eglandular. Leaves 10-25 x 
5 12 mm., oblong-ovate, dentate or erenate-dentate; Verticill asters Cj 6-flowered, 
distant. Calyx B-10 mm. long, 2-lipped; upper tooth broadly ovate, lower lanceolate, 
all aristate. Corolla 7rl0 mm, long, yellow, white or purple, equalling or slightly 
exceeding calyx: Fl, 3-S. 

Arid, rocky, waste ground. .Malta,. Gozo and Comino: very frequent (S. & C.G:; 
Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley), 

Mediterranean region. 

6. Phlomis L. 

Herbs or shrubs. Leaves petiolate. Flowers in few- to many-flowered verticill asters 
in the axils of reduced upper leaves. Bracts narro^ differing markedly from the 
leaves. Calyx tubular, 5- to 10-veined, 5-toothed. Corolla bilabiate, the upper lip 
erect or arcuate, emarginate, the lower lip patent, 3-lobed. Stamens 4, included 
or exserted; anther cells diverging. Style bifid. Nutlets trigonous, glabrous or 

I. P. fniticosa L. 


Salvjun, Salyja tal-Madonna 
Woody Phlomis 

Shrub up to 1'30 cm. high. Basal leaves 3-9 cm. long, elliptical, lanceolate or 
lanceolate-ovate, truncate or cuneate at base, entire or crenulate, coriaceous, 
shortly tomentose above, white-tome n to se beneath; petioles up to 4 cm. long. Floral 
leaves predominantly lanceolate, obtuse at apex, Verticill asters (5-)15-to 35- 
Ilowered. BracSs 10-12 x (2-)3-7 mm., obovate, ovate -lanceolate, oblancoolate or 
elliptical, acuminate, tomentfose and Ciliate with hairs 2-3 mm. long. Calyx 10-19 
mm. long, tomentose not ciliate; calyx-teeth l-3.5(-4) mm. long, subulate. Corolla 
23-35 mm. long. 2n = 20. Fl. 3-6. 

Rockh plateaus and sides of valleys. Malta: locally common (G. Lanfranco), as at 
Wied Incita. Wied il-Ghasel. Mellicha (S. & C.G,; Borg; Wolseley); Misrah Ghonoq, 
Majesa, Ahrax, Busk-ett, Dingli (Borg; Wolseley); "offriet ir-Rizz, Wied Anglu 


(Wolseley); Eingemma (Murrry; Wolseley); Wied Kesri. Victoria Lin-s (Oaue!). 
H, Europe. 

7. Lamium L. 

Annual or perennial herbs. Flowers in dense whorls in the axils of le, v^Iikc 
hracts Calvx tubular or eampanulate. 5-veined, with 5 equal oi subeqiial teeth. 
Corola wh te ptakor purple, 2-lipped; upper lip forming a hood; lower Up ob cor- 
date or broadly obovate with small or minute lateral lobes, rarely without lateral 
lobes. Anther cells divaricate. Nutlets trigonous, truncate at apex, 

J. L. amplexicaule L. sutap. amplexicaule '. Plate XXXVIII Menbit Dead-nettle 

Sparsely to densely pubescent annual up to 30(-40) cm high Leaves 745 x 
7-23 mm orbicular or ovate -orbicular, crenate or lobed, with obtuse lobes. Bracts 
L to OT^t 40 mm. long, usually wider ihan long, shallowly lobed, sessile or sub- 
rt son^vhat amplexicaul. Calyx 5-7 mm. long, the teeth .shorter ^longer 
than the tube. Corolla 14-20<-2S) mm. long, pinkish -pur pie; tube 10-14 mm. lor 
Snctly exceeding calyx; upper lip 3-5 mm long, entire; lateral lobes ™™ <» 
absent; lower lip 1.5-2.5 mm. long, obcordatc. Anthers hairy. 2*. - IK. Fl, 12-4. 
in fields and gardens amongst growing crops, and in waste places- 
Mm!: common is* & C.G,, Borg; G. Lanfranco); ^^ n £%**™t & T<y? 
area (Wolseley). Gozo and Comino: less common (Borg); Wied Qorrol (S. & C.G.). 

Europe to c. 69° 50' N.; W. Asia; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands. 

8. Ballota L. 

Small shrubs or perennial herbs. Stems erector ascending branched from the 
ba e Leaves simple. Flowers purple or lilac, the upper lip white, rarely all white, 
Axillary whorls Calyx 10-veined, limb undulate, or with 5 Serena turns or teeth, 
theTobes more or less mucronate or gradually narrowed into an awn rarely en- 
tire CovolTa ube included or subincluded, with a ring of hairs inside. Stamens 
parallen^ Pouter. pair the longer; anther cells diverging. Nutlets oblong, rounded 
lit apex. 

Mar-rub.) a sewda 
Black Ho rebound 

L B. nigr;; 

«:ubsD uncina'.a (Fiori & Beguiiiot) Patzak 
Plate XXXVin 

Perennial up to 130 cm. high.: Stems pubescent to subglabrous, Lower caul.ine 
leaves 3-8 x 2 6 cm, cordate to cuneate at base, ovate or ovate^blong: petiole 
"iX short, rarely up to H) mm. long. Bracteoles 7-9 mm. long, subulate or filr- 
form membranous: Whorls raany-flowcred. Calyx 7-13 mm. long; limb regular* 
denteteT lobe, 5 awned ov mucronate. Corolla 10-14 mm. long, lilac or white, in 
= 22 Fl 4-J1. 

RnrW waste nl=c-s Malta- r?re (G., as at Dingli, Ghemieri (S. & C.G.; 
llfl ZS4^P W al«. St. Paul's Bay (Borg); Selmun (GD Borg) ; Sa Maison 
Siileri ; Addolorata Cemetery valley ^rg; Wol^i. Go«»: Munxar^apuchin 
convent (S. ■& C.G.; Borgi; Xlendi (Haslam; Wolseley), Xe^kLia {Wo.sele.M. 
Most of Europe, Mediterranean region, Subsp. im C inata is confined to the south- 
ern part, of the range. 

9. Stacliys h. 

Annual or perennial herbs or small shrubs. V^<^^-^^^ 
(rarely reduced to a solitary flower), m dense ar lax spike-hke. tardy capnaiitorro. 


inflorescences. Calyx tubular or campaniilate with 5 equal teeth, rarely slightly 
2-lipped, 5- to 10-vemed. Corolla 2-lipped; upper lip flat or hooded; .lower lip 
3-lobed. Outlets obovoid or oblong, rounded at apex. 

1. $. ocvmasii'itni (L.) Briquet 
S.'hiria L. 


Hairy Woundwort 

Erect hirsute annual 20-50 cni high. Leaves 10-50 x 7-40 mm.,. oMong-ovate to 
broadly ovale, obtuse, slightly cordate at base., cienate serrate, hirsute. Whorls. 4- 
to G-flowcrecl, remote or the upper crowded. Calyx 7-10 ran. .long; hirsute, the 
teeth, equal, as long as or longer than the tube. Corolla 12-113 mm. long, white; 
the tube shorter than calyx; upper lip e. 6 mm. long, bifid; lower lip e. 7 mrn. 
long. in. 3-g, 

Valleys. Malta: (G. Lan franco), as at Mtahleb. (jnejna, Buskett, Kordin, Wied 11- 
Ghasei (S. & C.G.; Borg.i ; Wicd. Incfia (S, & C.G.; Borg; WolseleyJ. Gozo; rare,. 
Pergla. [Gulia; Burgj; Nadur (Borgj ; Mgarr ix-Xini (Evans); Dai'sfct Qorrot 

S.W. Europe, Italy; once recorded from Kriti; Atlantic Islands. 

10.. Melissa L. . 

Perennial herbs, Ve's tic ill asters few- to many-flowered, in the axils of reduced 
upper leaves. Bracts narrow. Calyx eampanuiate, 2-lipped, 13-veined; upper lip flat- 
tened, 3-toothed; lower lip 2-toothed. Corolla 2-lipped, the tube curved and dilated 
above the middle, without a ring of hairs inside; upper lip erect, sometimes 
slightly hooded, emarginate; lower lip 3-Iobed. Stamens didynamous, included, con- 
vergent; anther cells divergent. St jle branches subequal, subulate. Nutlets gblong- 
obovoid, obtuse, smooth. 

M. ollich talis L, 

Plate XXXIX 

Melissa, Naghniegh in-nahal, Burieha 

llhizome short. Stem 20-150 cm. high, erect, branched, shortly g.landular- 
puberuIenE. and with sparse or dense, long, patent eglandular hairs or glabrescem. 
Leaves 29 x 1.5-7 cm., broadly ovate to rhombic or oblong, obtuse or acute, more 
or less deeply crenate xcept at the base; petioles up to 4 cm. long. Floral leaves 
erenate serrate, Verticill asters 4- to 12-Howered; peduncles short or absent. 
Pedicels 1-3 mm. long. Bracteoles 2-5 mm, long, ovate to linear, entire, acuminate. 
Calyx 7-9 mm. long, with long, patent, eglaudular and short glandular hairs; teeth 
of lower lip lanceolate -triangular. Corolla 8-15 mm. long, pale yellow, fading to 
White or pinkish. Nutlets 1.5-2 mm. in diameter, brown. 2» = 32,84. Fl. 5-7. 

The plants of the Maltese Islands are probably all referrable to subsp. altissima 
(Sm.) Areangoli. 

Vallevs and shady places, also cultivated. Malta: rare. San Martin, Pwales (S. 
& C.G.; Borg); Buskelt (Borg). Gozo: rave, Xlendi <S. & C.G.; Borg); Pergla 
(Gulia. Borg.i. 

Throughout Europe except for parts of the north; W. Asia; N. Africa, 
Subsp. altissima in confined the southern part of this area. 

1*. CafawhUha Miller 

Perennial herbs, sometimes woody at base. Flowers in opposite, axillary, usually 
pedunculate cymes; bracts similar to the leaves. Calyx tubular, 13-veined, more or 
less 2-lipped, the tipper lip 3-toothed, the lower lip 2-toothed and longer than the 


upper; tube straight, not gibbous, hairy in the mouth. Corolla 2-lipred; upper lip 
l^Zl y /. emal f * late ; J ™«- itt> 3-lobed, the middle lobe the largest; tube straigh 

C. nepeCa fL.) Savi pjate XXXIX 

S&ureja nepeta {Lj Seheelo 

Lesser Calamint 

Sparser- to densely pubescent perennial 30-EO cm. high. Leavos 10-20 (-25) x 
8- U mm, oroadly ovate, obtuse, subentire or Slowly eremite serrate with £ to 
n'^* 1 ?X a:; f ^f C T^ 5 ' t0 "^^ered; peduncle 0-5 M0) mm long 
n ,li ^f " br f hcS f 5 ° ,E long. Calyx 3-S x 1.5(-2) mm., sparsely to densely 
pubenilant or pubescent, the hairs in the mouth exserted; u PP 3r fceth 051 mm 
lona, broaaly triangular; ■ lower teeth P.2 mm. long, puberulent rsrely with al™: 
iong cilia. Corolla 10-15 mm. long, white or lilac. In =■ 20, 24. Fl, 5-11. 

All the plants from the Maltese Islands are probably referable to subsp 
glandii^osa (Req } P.W. Ball, 

Roadsides and other waste places. Malta and Gozo: frequent 'S & C G • Bore- G 
Lanirancc;: Hasiam, Wolseley). ■ « ^ ■» wij, u. 

Mediterranean region extending northwards to c. 54° 30' N. 

12. Mieromeria Bentham 

Perennial herbs or dwarfs shrubs. Flowers in verticill asters or in las cymes- brads 
similar to the leaves. Calyx tubular 13 (-15) -veined, sometimes actinomorphie and 
straight, sometimes zygomorphic and somewhat curved, scarcely gibbous and some 
what 2-hpped with rather unequal teeth, hairy or glabrous in the mouth. Corolla 
2-lipped, with straight tube. Stamens shorter than corolla, curved, convergent 
vStyle-branches unequal, subulate. ^ 

Verticil (asters with 16 flowers 
Verticil lasters with 6-18 flowers 

1. M. microphylla (D'Urv.) Bentham Plate XXXVIII 

1. inicrophtilla 

2. grueca 

Small-leaved Mieromeria 

™. if, l^ 1 '^ t0 solMWnat Pubescent dwarf shrub 10-30 cm. high, with more 
™m Tt "'IT' ^"^ or amending, often branched stems, ifaves 3 e 

Z o'rJZ S l*lT£V° el ' PtiCa J' th i^^ sometimes narrowly elliptical, round- 
ed or cuneato at base, acute, entire, flat, subsessile. Verticillasters with 1-6 usually 

C^l^f^rf^ Peduncles or pedicels e. J as long as subTerfdirig "eaves" 
utll i, " , ? • ng ' Pftentpubescent villous in throat; teeth c. i as long as 
tube^lanceolate-acummafe to -subulate, unequal. Corolla 5-8 mm. long! purple! 

?™ a w a ,' M(il ? a 'n Ga ".° alld c °r"<*<>: wry common (S. & C.G.; Borg- G Lan- 
franco; Wolseley). Commotio; (Duthie). S ' 

S. Italy, Sicilia; Kriti and Karpathos. 

2. M. graeca (LJ Bentham Pink Mieromeria 

Sparsely, pubescent, to hirsute or : hispid dwarf shrub M-gO' cm- '' high with 
nzny erect or ascending, .usually simple stems. Leaves 5-12 " rmn., the 'lower 


ovate, acute, the upper lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, with revolule iiuii/gins. 
Vertieillasters shortly pedunculate with (2-)fi-13, more or less erecto-patent, 
shortly pedicellate flowers, usually about equalling the subtending leaves; bracts' 
moslily not more than $ as long as calyx. Calyx' (2-)3-5 mm . long, villous in throat; 
teeth i-ji as long as tube, lanceolate-subulate, unequal. Corolla 6-8(13) mm. long 
purplish. Nutlets obtuse or shortly apieulate/ Fl, 3-7. 

Rocky ground. Malta: Wied Bal'.uta. GJiajn iJKbira (CD.; Borg) 
Mediterranean region. 

13. Origanum L. " 

Small shrubs or annual, biennial or perennial herbs. Verticil tasters with Jew- to 
many- flowers, aggregated into short terminal or lateral spicules: spicules arranged 
in pantieiilate, cyrno:;e or cerymbiform inflorescences. Bracts distinct from leaves, 
imbricate, often conspicuous, coloured: Calyx campanulate or turbinate, 2-Iipped. 
and either with 5 equal teeth, or entire, obliquely truncate at apex or 1 -lipped and 
deeply slit on one side. Corolla 2-lippcd, th^ upper lip entire or e marinate; lower 
lip 3-lobed. Stamens didynamous, exserted or included; anther cells divergent. 
Style-branches equal. 

1. Calyx 2- lipped 

Calyx with 5 nearly equal teeth or 1- lipped and with 
a deep split on one side 

2, Calyx with 5 nearly equal teeth 

Calyx 1 -lipped, ' with a deep split on one aide 

1. O. vulgure L. 

3. dtctaninus 

1. vulgare 

2. onite's 


Woody rhizomatous perennial; stems, up to 90 cm, high or more, branched 
above, pubescent, hirsute or velutinous (rarely glabrous). Leaves 10-40 (-50) x 4-25 
mm,, ovate, entire or shallowly crenate- serrate, glabrous or hairy, glandular 
punctate, petiolate. Spicules 5- 30 mm, long, ovoid, oblong or prismatic^ forming 
a corymb or panicle. Bracts 4-5 mm. long, ovate, hairy or glabrous, eglandular or 
sparsely glandular, usually violet- pur pie, varying to greenish. Calyx hairy or 
glabrous. Corolla 4-7 mm. in diameter, white or purplish-red. 2n = 30, ?32. Fl, 5-8. 

Malta: cultivated as a pot-herb, naturalised in gardens and around farm-houses 
as at iSiggiewi and Qormi (Borg). 

Throughout most of Europe; N. & "W. Asia. 

2. O. .ntii'es L. 

White Marjoram 

Small shrub with stems up to 60 m. high, erect, densely papillose and hirsute. 
Leaves 5-22 x 4-12(-17) mm., ovate or orbicular-ovate, rounded or cordate at the 
base, acute or shortly acuminate nt the apex, entire or remotely serrate, papil- 
lose and villous, glandular-punctate, with the nerves somewhat raised on lower 
surface; lower leaves petiolate, the others sessile. Spicules 4-10 mm. long, ovoid, 
oblong or prismatic, very compaet s forming a terminal, dense, corymb 2-8(-10) 
cm in diameter. Bracts 3-3.5. mm., somewhat longer than the calyx, the lower 
ovate, acute, the upper orbicular-ovate, obtuse , pubemlent. Calyx 2.75-3 mm. long, 
1-lipped, ovatespathulale, split anteriorly, entire or minutely 3-dentate, sub- 


glabrous, glandular-punctate, ciliate. Corolla 4-.S.5 mm. long, white, Nutlets 
I mm. long, oblong -ellipsoid. 2v, = 30, Fl. 5-S. 
Malta: Marsa on disturbed ground (Wolselay). 
Mediterranean region . 

3. O. dlctanmus L. 


White-lanate dwarf shrub up to 20 cm. high. Leaves 13-25 x 12-25 mm., broadly 
ovate to orbicular, entire, lanate, the veins raised, conspicuous; lower .esves 
shortly petiolate. Spicules in group of W0, dense, ovoid or oblong, arranged m 
opposite pedunculate pairs, in lax panicle. Bracts 7-10 ^/W^ ■ '"^ 
than the calyx. Upper lip of calyx subentire, the lower shallowly toothed. Coio.U 
pink the tube twice as long as the calyx. FL 5-8. 

Rocky Places. Malta; very rare at cmien 11-Kblr where it was probably a casual (K. 
& C.G.; Borg), 

14. Thymus L. 

Small shrubs or perennial herbs, woocly at- least at base. Verticil la sters !- to 
many-flowered, often crowded into a terminal capitate m florescence^ bracts Un- 
like or not Calyx cylindrical to campanulate, usually 2-hpped with the 3 uppci 
teeth different from the lower; tube straight, not gibbous, haixym the hroa . 
Corolla 2-lipped with straight tube. Stamens usually exserted, straight, riiveige-nt. 
Nutlets ovoid, smooth. 

Mediterranean Thyme 

Dwarf shrub ■ 20-30 (-150) cm. high, with ascending Lo erect woody brunches 
bearing axillary leaf -clusters (often the only leaves during the dry season). 
Leaves of long shoots W0 x L.1.2 mm., sessile, linear, acute subglabrous, sparse^ 
ciliate at base; lateral veins not visible. Inflorescence onlon^-comca!; bracts c. 
6x2 mm., imbricate, ovate to lanceolate, greenish, ciliate; bracteoles c. b nim. 
long similar to the leaves. Calyx c: 5 mm. Ions, the upper lip snorter than Ihe 
lower, all teeth ciliate. Corolla up to 10 mm. long, purplish-pmk. Lie upper !ip 
bifid, 2m = 30. Fl. 5-8. 

Rocky arid places. Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common (S. & C.G.; Borg,: G. 
Lanfranco; Haslam; Wolseley). 

1. T. capiiatus (L.) Hoifmanns. & Link Plate XXXIX 

Mediterranean region. 

15, Mentha L. 

Perennial herbs with a characteristically scented foliage and cree in h ik 
Flowers hermaphrodite or female, on the same or different plants, us u.,Hy in 
dense and many-flowered verticill asters, sometimes forming a long, spite or a 
terminal head. Calyx actinomorphic or weakly 2-lipped, tubular or campanulate, 
10-13-veined, with 5. subequal or rarely unequal teeth. Corolla weakly 2-lipped: 
with 4 subequal lobes, the upper lobe wide and dually emargmate; tube shorter 
than calyx. Stamens about equal, divergent or ascending under the uppei Up 
of corolla exserted in some hybrids and in female flowers. Styles-branches 
subequal. Nutlets ovoid, smooth, reticulate or tuberculate. 

Calyx hairy in throat, with distinctly unequal teeth 
Galyx glabrous in throat, with more or less equal teeth 


I. pulcgimn 

% Leaves distinctly petiolate; flowers in a head or oblong; 
sniltr: 12-20 mm. in diameter 

LeavsK sessile (rarely shortly petiolate below); flowers 
in a ?p.iUt; 5-i5 mm. in diameter 

3. Stem arid leaves hairy 

Stem t;r:d 'loaves glabrous or sparsely ,iairj 

2. aquatics 

3. suaveolens 

4. spicata 

long hairy, camp an ul ate; teeth subequal. Pedicels hairy. Corolla whitish or pink. 
Fertile anthers 0.28-0.38 mm. long. Nutlets 0.57-0.75 mm. long, dark or 
reddish-brown, strongly rediculate or rugose. 2w = 24, VI, 5-10. 

Shady places. Malta: rare, Gnieir il-Kbir, Buskett, San Anton (S. & C.G.; Borg). 

Mediterranean region and W. Europe; cultivated as a pot-herb. 


J-L iJiik-.i-H^Eii L- 

Plate XXXIX 


4, M. spicata L. 
M. viridis (L.) L. 

Spear Mint 

Subserous to tomentose perennial 10-40 cm. high, with P ungent a con stem, 
procumbent to ascending. Leaves S-30 x 4 ; K », narrowly dipt ^1, » ate 
it base, rarely suUurbicular, .shortly petiolate, entire or with up to t teeth on 
each 1i<K hairy at least beneath. Bracts like the leaves, usually smaller Calyx 
(S M mm. Ion* teeth eiliate, the lower teeth subulate, the upper shorter and 
wiLcZila (4-14.5-B mm. long, lilac. Stamens everted or included, for lie 
anthers 0.4 mm. long. Nutlet* 0.5-0.73 mm. long, pale brown. 2tt - 20. PI. j-8. 
Cultivated and waste places. Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common everywhere. CS, 
& C.G.; Borg; G. Lani'raneo; Haslam; Wolseley). 
Mediterranean region north to Ireland and C. Poland, 

<> iu . s «, s .,>-'-i i Naghnieh salvagg 

"■ M " W™^* K Naghnieh tai-iwiemel 

Water Mint 

Subghibrous to tomentose, often purplish perennial . (10-)20-BO em. high, with 
stron- scent. Rhizomes usually epigeal, green-or purple-tinged, not. very brittle 
with small, usually reniorni leaves. Leaves (15)30-90 x (10-)15-40 mm,; ovate to 
vate-Lnicolate. usually truncate, petiolate, serrate, inflorescence of 2-3 congested 
verticillastcrs with inconspicuous bracts. Calyx (2.5-)3-4 mm. long, tubu a r, w h 
subulate- or narrowly triangular teeth. Pedicels hairy. Corolla lilac. Nutlets iwie 
brown. 2n ■-■■ 96.--FI, 'fi-11. 

Marshy places. Malta: very rare (G. Laniranco), as at Buskett (S. & C.G.; Borg); 
Marsa (GD.; S. & C.G.; Borg). 
■Kurope, northwards to e. 63- N. in Sweden; ' S.W. Asia; N. and S. Africa; Madeira. 

M, sttineoJ.eiis Ehrh, 

M. rotuudifvlia auct. 

Round -leaved Mint 

Mairy perennial 40-100 cm. high, with characteristic sickly-sweet scent. Rhizome 
hairy, usually epigeai, with very small rugose leaves. First aerial stems of year 
hairy Stem erect, branched above the middle, sparsely ha.ry to densely white- 
tomentose. Middle cauline leaves (15-)30-45 x (10->2M0 mm sessile or very 
shortly petiolate, strongly rugose, ovate- oblong, oblong to suborbici ular . o btuse 
cuspid-ate or rarely acute, widest near the base, serrate with 10-20 teeth (but 
often apparently eremite due to the teeth being bent down towards the under- 
side of the leaf), hairy above, usually grey-or white- tomentose to -lanate beneath, 
the hairs on the lower surface branched, with the basal cell 43-57 /jt in diameter. 
Inflorescence of many, usually congested verticiil asters forming a terminal spike 
40-90 x 5-10 mm., often interrupted below and usually branched. Calyx \-l mm. 


Glabrous to hairy perennial with sweet scent, less frequently with pungent 
scent or musty. Middle cauline leaves (30-50-90 x (7-)15-30 mm, lanceolate or 
lanceolate- ovate, smooth or rugose, rarely 40-60 x 25-40 mm, ovate or ovate- 
oblong, strongly rugose, widest near the base, serrate, with regular teeth (rarely 
the whole leaf strongly crispate). Fl. 5-8. 

Malta: Cultivated as a pot-herb and often naturalised (Borg). 

Origin unknown, but probably arose in cultivation. Naturalised through a large 
part of Europe, 

16. Rosmarinus L: 

Evergreen shrubs. Leaves linear, sessile, coriaceous, with revolute margins. Verti- 
cillasters few-flowered, in short axillary racemes. Bracteoles O. Calyx eampanuiate. 
2-lipped, sine upper lip entire^ the lower 2-iobed. Corolla 2-lipped, esserted, the 
upper lip strongly concave and bifid, the lower triRd with cochlcarirorm middle 
lobe. Stamens* 2, clearly exserted, parallel, the filaments with small, lateral, re- 
curved tooth near the base; anthers l-locular. Style long, incurved, unbranchetl. 
Nutlets ovoid, smooth. 

1. R. oliidna'.is L. 

Plate XXXIX 


Up to 2 m. high, with erect, ascending or prostrate branches, strongly aromatic. 
Leaves 15-40 x 1.2-3.5 mm., bright green and rugulose above, white- tomentose 
beneath. Peduncles and pedicels stellate-tomentose; calyx 3-4 mm. long, green or 
purplish and sparsely tomentose when young, later 5-7 mm. long, subglabrous and 
distinctly veined. Corolla KO-12 mm. long, pale blue (rarely pink or white). 
Nutlets brown. Flowers throughout the year. 

Arid roelty places. -Mai ta; rather rare (G. Lanfranco), as at Gnejna, Bahrija, Wied 
fiazruii, Dwejra, Wied Gerzuma, Mellieha (Borg); Wied Babu (S. & C.G.; Borg; 
Haslam; Wolseley); Wied Qirda, Bingemma (S, & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley); Buskett 
(Borg; Haslam); Wied Il-BaUut, Wied il-Kbir (Gauci): Gozo: Wied Bingemma, Wied 
lr-Rifian, (S, & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region. 

17. Salvia L. 

Herbs or shrubs. Flowers in axillary verticillasters (rarely cymes). Calyx 2-lipped. 
the teeth unequal;, lower lip deeply 2-fid or -dentate; upper lip 3-dentate, rarely 
subentfre. Corolia 2-lipped; upper lip straight or falcate; lower lip 3-)obed, the 
the middle lobe the largest; tube straight or invaginated, with or without a ring 
of hi;irs inside. Stamens 2; connective usually articulating with the filament, one 


arm with a fertile cell, the other mem or less sterile, often expanded and flattened 
distally (dolabriform). Nutlets 4 or iewer. 

1. Leaves simple 

At least basal leaves pinnatilid or lobed 

2. Corolla 16-25 mm. long 
Corolla 6-I0C-15) mm. long 

I. S. officinalis L, 

1. officinalis 


2. triloba 

3. verbenaca 

Common Sage 

Shrub up to 60 cm. high. Stems erect with numerous p ate nt-t omen tose branch- 
es, ttfaves simple, petiolate, oblong, more or less narrowed at base, rugose, white 
pubescent beneath, greenish above, densely, pubescent when young, Vesticillasters 
with 5-10 flowers. Calyx- 10-14 mm. long, pubescent, glandular-punctate. Corolla up 
to 35 mm, long, violet-blue, pink or white. Fl. 4-6. 

Cultivated as a pot herb; also native in rocky arid places. Malta: rare (G. Lan- 
franco), as at Mtahleb, Gnien il-Kbir, Buskett (S. & CO.; Borg); E.atirija (Borg). 

Mediterranean region. 

2.- S. triloba L. fil. 

Three-lobed Clary 

Shrub up to 120 cm.- high. Stems appressed while-tomentose. Leaves simple, 
or pinnate with . 1-2 pairs of ovate lateral segments and a large oblong- elliptic 
terminal segment, petiolate, rugose, eglandutar, grey- canes cent beneath, greenish 
above. Vertici 11 asters with '2-6 flowers. Calyx 5-8 mm. long, campanula!*, toothed, 
often purple, glandular or eglandular- pubescent. Corolla I8-?,5 mm long, lilac or 
pink, rarely white. Fl, 5-8. 

Cultivated as a pot-herb. Malta; rare at Luqa, often naturalised in old gardens 

C. & E. Mediterranean, region. 

S. verbenaca L. 

S. clandestina L, 

Plate XXXIX 

Salvja salvagga 
Salvja tal-Madonna 
Wild Clary 

Perennial 10-80 cm, high. Stems erect, simple or branched, eglandular- 
pubescent below, and more or less glandular above! Leaves more or less pinnatilid 
with broad lobes, oblong to ovate. Inflorescence dense or lax; verticil las ters with 
6-10 flowers. Bracts less than J as long as calyx, green; pedicels 2^3 mm. long. 
Flowers hermaphrodite or female, sometimes deistogamous. Calyx 6-8 mm. long, 
glandular or eglandular, enlarging slightly in fruit; Corolla 6-10(-15) mm. long, 
blue, mauve or violet. Fl. 10-5. 

On exposed rocky ground, roadsides and waste places. Malta, Gozo and Comino.' 
common (S. & C.G.: Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Haslam; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region and W. Europe, 


Herbs or shrubs. Leaves simple to pinnate, exstipulate. Flowers actinpmorphic or 
isomorphic, hermaphrodite. Calyx (3-) 5(.-8)- lobed or- toothed. Corolla 3- (6- or 

10 : ) lobed, rarely sub en tire, rotate to campanulate, infundibuliform or tubular; 
lobes valvate or plicate in bud. Stamens 5(-6}, adnate to the corolla-tube and 
alternating with the lobes. Ovary superior, with 2 (rarely more) loculi; style 
simple; stigma terminal, entire or 2-lobed. Fruit a capsule or berry, usually 
2-locular, Seeds numerous, rarely 2-11. 

Many members of this largely extra-European family are grown, for their 
agricultural or horticultural value and it is often very difficult to assess accuratc'y 
the status of the frequent escapes from cultivation. 

1. Anthers connivent 
Anthers not connivent 

2. Corolla campanulate 
Corolla rotate 

■3. Anthers dehiscing by terminal pores; corolla white 
or purple 
Anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits; corolla yellow 

4. Flowers in panicles 
Flowers solitary, in pairs or small clusters, sometimes 
grouped into spikes 

5. -Shrubs 
Herb, often woody at. base 

6. Spiny shrub; corolla 10-15 mm. long, violet 
Shrubby perennial; corolla 110-180 mm. long, white 

7. Fruit a capsule 
Fruit a berry 

6. Flowers in a dense terminal spike 
Flowers solitary in the leaf-axils 

•J. Calyx divided almost to the base 
Calyx divided to -J way or less 







So Ian urn 




Nicotian a 



3. Hyoscyamiis 

8. Datura 

I. Nicantfra 

5. Fbysalis 

1. Nicimdriii Adanson 

Glabrous annual. Leaves alternate, simple. Flowers .actinomorphic. .solitary. Calyx 
strongly accrescent, divided almost to base. Corolla campanubitu, iirac to blue. 
Stamens 5, fertile, inserted at base of corolla, included; anthers dehiscing lontfi 
tudinally. Stigma capitate. Fruit a 3- to 5-locuIar, thin walled, dry berry. 

1. Is'; physaloidcs (L.) Gaertner 

Apple-of -Peru 

Stems i0-80f-200) cm. high. Leaves 4-15(-S7) x 2 10(30) cm., elliptic-lan- 
ceolate to ovate, cune ate at base, obtuse to acute, coarsely and irregularly sinuate- 
serrate or-dentate sometimes somewhat lobeel near base. Fedunclr. 1.5-3.(1' cm. 
long. Calyx 10-20 mm. long, up to 3d mm. long in fruit, the lobes orate, cuspidate- 
acuminate, green or scatlous; corolla 2-4 cm. in diameter. Berry c, !..o cm, in 
diameter, globose, brown. Fl. 0-0. 

Jlfulta: self-sown since 1902 in San Anton gardens and elsewhere (Borg), 



Widely cultivated as a garden ornamental and locally naturalised in C., W. and 
S. Europe; casual elsewhere. Native of Peru. 

2, Lycium L. 

Usually spiny shrubs, Leaves alternate or in clusters, shortly petiolate, entire. 
Flowers solitary or in small clusters in the leaf-axils, pedicellate. Calyx cupuli- 
form, regularly 5-dentate, or 2-iipped with 2-3 teeth connate. Corolla infundibuli- 
form or subcylindrical. Stamens Inserted in throat, of corolla-tube. Stigma shal- 
iowly 2-lobed. Emit u berry. 

Leaves usually widest above the middle, corolla lobes 
s-i as long as the tube 

Leave. 1 ; usually widest below the middle; corolla lobes 

slightly longer than the tube 

I. L, etiropacuni L, 

Plate XXXIX 

1. euro pact! in 

2, chinense 

Mediterranean Tea- tree 

'Plant' 1-4 m. high; branches rigid, very spiny; spines stout. Leaves 20-50 x 3-3.0 
mm., usually oblanceolate. Flowers solitary or in clusters of 2(-3). Calyx 2-3 mm. 
long, 5-dentate or 2-lipped. Corolla 11-13 nun. long, narrowly infundibuliform, pink 
or white; lobes 3-4 mm. long. Stamens usually exserted; filaments glabrous, some- 
what unequal. Fruit red. Fl. 4-5. 

Rocky places and field walls. Malta: rare, Wardfja, Gfiemieri (S. & C.G.; Borgl; 
Meriebali. Fort Msnool. fortifi eat ions of Valletta and Floriaiia (Burg); L-Ahrax ta' 
Cewwa, Maghtab near Ghallis (Wolseley). Gozo: Wied il-Ghasri (S. & C.G.; Borg), 

Mediterranean region. 

2. L. ehinense Miller 

Chinese Tea-tree 

Plant up. to 2.:) m. high; stems arcuate; spines slender, few. Leaves 10-140 x 
5 -CO mm., the lower much larger than the upper, lanceolate to ovate, usually 
widest below the middle. Calyx 3 mm. long. Corolla 10-15 mm. long; broadly in- 
fundibuliform, the tube narrowly cylindrical at base for c. 1.5 oral, purple, be- 
coming brownish; lobes c. 5-S mm. long. Stamens long- exserted; filaments with 
dense tuft or hairs: at base. Fruit red. FI, 4-7. 

Malta: Naturalised in Valletta Main Ditch 1905, spreading to other ditches and 
i'ortificfitions in Valletta, Floriana, Msida, Sliema and St. Julians (Borg); ditch 
below Mdina (Gaiici). 

Native of E. Asia; planted and naturalised in Europe. 

3. Hyoscyamus L. 

Annual, biennial ur perennial herbs, often viscid. Leaves simple, sessile or 
petiolate. Flowers solitary, axillary, often grouped into bracteate spikes or racemes. 
Calyx campanulate-tubular, 5-dentate, 10- or more-veineri, accrescent. Corolla 
usually broadly infundibuliform, with 5 obtuse lobes. Stamens usually 
slightly exserted, inserted at base of corolla-tube. Ovary bilocular. Fruit a capsule 


1. niger 

2. albus 


included in the calyx, circumscissile; seeds numerous, renifonn to orbicular. 

CauIIne leaves sessile, the basal petiolate; corolla usually 
with dark purple veins 

Leaves all petiolate; corolla without purple veins but 
sometimes with purplish throat 

1. H. niger L, 

Viscid, velutinous, foetid annual or biennial; stem (10-)30- 80 cm high erect 
simple or branched. Leaves (5-) 15-20 cm. long, ovate to ovate-oblong entire to 
angled, coarsely dentate or deeply incised, soft, the basal forming a rosette 
petiolate, the caulme amplexicaul, sessile. Flowers subsessile, in a dense unilateral 
spike; bracts leaf-like. Calyx 1-1.5 cm. long, 10-veined; teeth triangular, acute- 
fruiting calyx ventricose towards base, with acute teeth. Corolla 2-3 cm in dia- 
meter, slightly zygomorphic, pale yellow, usually with dark purple veins. Anthers 
2-3 mm. long, purple. 2n — 34. F). 4-7. 

Malta: Attard railway line, 1927 (Borg). 

Almost throughout Europe; W. Asia; 1ST. Africa. 

2. H, albus L. plate XXXIX ' Mamma zejza 

: , White Henbane 

Viscid annual, biennial or perennial; stem SfrflO em. high, woody below when 
perennial* erect, branched, densely glandular- villous, the hairs patent. Leaves 4-10 
x 3-8 cm, orbicular-ovate, obtuse, cuneate to cordate at base, incised- dentate with 
wide rounded teeth, sparsely glandular-villous; petiole 2.5-5(-12) cm, long, nar- 
rowly winged. Flowers sessile except the lowest, in a dense unilateral spike- 
bracts leaf-like. Calyx 1-1,5 em. long, densely glandular-villous; teeth 3 mm. long^ 
broadly triangular; fruiting calyx 2-2,5 cm. long; venticose below, hyp oc rate riform 
above, distinctly lsto 20-ribbed, with short, triangular, acute, teeth. Corolla 3 cm. 
long, tubular-campanuiate, somewhat zygomorphic, glandular-villous externally 
throat greenish or dark purple. Stamens included to sligtly exserted; anthers 2-3 
mm. long, white or purple. Flowers .all the year round. 

Arid waste places. Malta, Gozo and Comino: common (S. & C.G.; Borg- G Lah- 
franco; Wolseley), ' 

Mediterranean region. 

4, Witba»:a Pauquy 

Shrubs. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple, entire, petiolate. Flowers solitary or 
in clusters, axillary. Calyx campanulate, 5-dentate, accrescent. Corolla campanulate, 
5-dentate. Stamens ■ S, equal, included, inserted near base of corolla- anthers de- 
hiscing longitudinally. Ovary bilocular, with nectary at base. Fruit a globose berry 
surrounded by inflated, persistent calyx; seeds numerous, stibreniform 

1. W, somnifera (L.) Dunal 
PhysaMs somnifera ~L, 

Mediterranean Withania 

Stem 60-120 cm. high, erect, branched, woody below, greyish steliate-tomentose 
leaves 3-10 x 2-7 cm., ovate to obovate or oblong, acute to obtuse, cuneate at base, 


subglabrous above, stellate- torn en tose, beneath; petiole 1-2 em. long. Flowers in 
clusters of 4-S: pedicels tip to 5 mm. long. Calyx e. '§ mm, long, densely stejlate- 
tomentose, with triangular teeth; fruiting calyx 10-20 x 8-10 mm, lanceolate, 10- 
ribbed. CoTOlla e. 5 mm', long, Stamens connivent; anthers c. 1 mm. 
long, ovate. Berry 5-8 mm. in diameter, shining, bright red; seeds reticulate, red- 
dish-brown. 2b = 48. Fl. 5-9. 

Malta; Cultivated and long naturalised in gardens as at San Anton {Borg). 

Mediterranean region; W. and C. Asia; nearly all of Africa. 

5. Physalis L. 

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves alternate, opposite or ternafo, petiolate. Flowers 
solitary, axillary. Calyx, campanulate, 5-dentate, accrescent. Corolla 5-lobed; rotate 
or broadly campamiiate. Stamens 5, inserted near top of short corolla tube, ex- 
scrterl; anthers dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary biloeular. Fruit a berry, surround- 
ed and usually much exceeded by the inflated calyx; seeds numerous, subor- 
bieular to reniform. 

1. P. peruviana L. 

■ P. pwbescc-ns var. peruviana L, 

Tuffieh tal-fanali 
Peruvian Cape Gooseberry 

Perennial, with dense indumentum of multicellular hairs; stem 30-100 cm, 
high, simple or branched above. Leaves (5-) 7-11 (-115) x 4-7(-9) cm., broadly ovate, 
acuminate, cordate at base, entire or slightly dentate; petiole !>4cm. long. Pedicels 
7 mm, long. Calyx 8-9 mm. long; teeth * total length, acuminate, Corolla 15-25 mm, 
in diameter, subentire, yellow with dark purple markings. Anthers 3.5-4 mm. Ions, 
purple; filaments purple: Fruiting calyx 30-50 mm. long, green, pubescent; berry 
12-20 mm. long, yellow. Fl. 5-6. 

Malta: cultivated and sometimes naturalised as at GiVejna, Ballut, Ta' Baldu, San 
Martin, San Anton (S. & C.G.); Attard, Wardija {Borg). 

Native of South America: Cultivated for its edible fruits and locally naturalised 
ii C. and S,. Europe. 

6.' Solatium L, 

.HJerfes or shrubs, sometimes scrambling or climbing, usually hairy, often with 
prickles. Leaves alternate, or in pairs, simple to pinnate. Inflorescence axillary, 
extra-axillary or leaf-opposed, of I or more helicoid cymes, usually becoming 
scorpioid, sometimes cymose umbels, rarely reduced to a single flower; peduncle 
absent, simple or dichotomously branched. Calyx campanulate, usually 5-fid. Co- 
rolla rotate; limb orbicular or pentagonal to stellate, often recurved. Stamens in- 
serted on throat of corolla-tube; anthers exserted, usually connivent, in a cylnr 
drieal to ovoid or conical column, dehiscing by 2 terminal pores, later splitting de- 
currently and introrsely. Ovary 2-locular; styles simple; stigma entire to bifid. 
Fruit a succulent to dry beny, 2-to 4-loeular; seeds numerous, small, ovoid, com- 

Shrubby perennial; stems ^vith stout yellow prickles 
Subglabrous to villous annuals, without prickles 

Leaves interruptedly ini pari pinnate; 
stolons and tubes present 



4. sodomaeum 

3. tuberosum 

Leaves entire to sinuate-dentate; stolons and tubes 

Cymes (3-)5- to 10-flowered; peduncles (TO-) 10-28 mm. 
long; berry globose or wider than long, black or green 
Cymes 3- to 5- flowered; peduncles (4-) 7-13 (-19) mm. 
long; berry usually longer than wide, red, orange or 

3. nigrum 
2. Inteiun 

1. S, nigrum L. 

Plate XL Gheneb id-dih 

Black Nightshade 

Sub glabrous to villous annual up to 70 cm. high, with simple hairs; stems 
decumbent to erect. Leaves 2.5-7 x 2-4.5(-R) cm., ovate-rhombic to lanceolate, 
entire to sinuate-dentate. Cymes (3-)5- to 10-flowered, lax, solitary; peduncles 
(10-)14-28 mm. long, usually erecto-patent in fruit, the pedicels usually much 
shorter, recurved in -fruit.- Calyx 3i3.5 mm. long, slightly accrescent, deftexed or 
adhering to base of berry; lobes usually ovate. Corolla (8-> .1.0-14 (-1 8) mm. in 
diameter, usually H-3 times as long as calyx, white. Anthers 1.5-2.5 mm. long, yel- 
low. Berry &-10 mm. in diameter, usually wider than long, dull black or green; 
seeds 1.7-2.4 mm, long. 2n- 72, Flowers all the year round. 

Waste places and road margins. Malta; Gozo and Comim; frequent (S. & C.G.; 
Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Throughout most of the world as a weed of cultivation. 

2. S, luteum Miller subsp. lutcum 
S. nigrum var. miniatum Bernh. 

Ghneb id-dib 
Yellow Nightshade 

Subglabrous to pubescent annual up to oO em, high, with simple, glandular 
hairs, usually appressed; stems angled, with dentate ridges, decumbent to erect. 
Leaves 2-7 x 3.5-4 cm., rhombic to ovate -lanceolate, entire to sinuate-dentate. 
Cymes 3- to 5-flowered, lax, solitary; peduncles (4-)7-l3(-19) mm. long, the pedieels 
often longer and dcflexed in fruit; Calyx 1-2,5 mm, long, slightly accrescent, 
deflexed or adhering to base of berry; lobes triangular. Corolla S-1G mm, in 
diameter, 3-5 times as long as calyx, white. Anthers 1.5-2,5 mm. long, yellow. Berry 
(vlO mm. in diameter, usually longer than wide, red, orange or yellow; seeds 1..G-2 
mm. In diameter. 2ti = 48. Fl. 4-11. 

Waste places and disturbed ground. Malta: frequent in the same localities as £. 
n : grv.m (Borg; G. Lanfranco). 

Most of Europe; W. Asia; N. Africa. 

S. tuberosum L. 



Sparsely pubescent annual with simple, appressed hairs, with underground stolons - 
bearing terminal tubers; stems 30-80 (-150) cm, high, erect, branched, succulent, 
winged. Leaves mteruptedly imparipinnate, with 3-5(-7) pairs of ovate, acuminate 
leaflets between which are smaller, unequal, ovate to orbicular leaflets; petiole with 
auricular or semi-lunate false stipules at base. Cymes many- flowered, 2-4 on 
axiHary to extra-axillary branched peduncles 50-100 mm. long; pedicels 20-35 mm. 
long, usually articulated in middle half. Calyx 5-10 mm. long; teeth lanceolate, 


acuminate. Corolla 25-35 (-40) mm. in diameter, orbicular to pentagonal, white, 
purple or blue to violet or pinkish. An thers 6-7 mm. long, yellow to orange. Berry 
20-40 mm. in diameter, more or less globose, succulent, greenish to purplish. 'In 

=■ 48. . • ' 

Malta and Guso: extensively cultivated for its edible tubers, for home consumption 
and export, on 35-20*^ of cultivated land (Borg; Bowen-Jones et al). 

Native of S. America. 

4. S. sodomaeum L. Brown Nightshade 

Shrubby perennial: stem 50-300 cm. high or more, stout, erect, much -branched, 
sparsely stellate-pubescent, with many straight, wide-based yellow prickles up to 
1.5 em. long. Leaves 5-13 x 43 cm., more or less ovate, pin natisect almost to 
midrib, with many prickles, sparsely stellate -hairy above more densely so beneath; 
lobes rounded, sinuate; petioles 1-3 cm. long. Cymes few-flowered, solitary, extra- 
axiiinry, sessile; pedicels c. 10 m. long, elongating and recurved in fruit; upper 
flowers smaller, male. Calyx 5-7 mm. long, accrescent in hermaphrodite flowers; 
lobes lanceolate. Corolla 25-30 mm. in diameter, orbicular-pent agonal, pale violet: 
Anthers 5-6 mm. long, equal. Berry 15-30 mm. in ciiameterj globose, dry, yellow 

to brown, shining. 2« 

24. Ft. 4-10. 

Waste places. Malta: Mosta near Victoria Lines, Sari Pawl tat-Targa (Borg); Argotti 
gardens (Wolseley), 

Mativo of Africa; widely naturalised in S, Europe. 

(S. eUieagni folium Cav, a perennial herb or dwarf shruo with dense whitish stellate 
tomentum and scattered reddish prickles on stem; leaves 4-10<-16) x 2.5(-4) cm., 
more or less linear, entire to shailowly sinuate; anthers 7-9 mm. long, has been 
recorded by G, Lanfranco around Harbour areas in Malta). 

7. Lycopei'sicum Miller 

Erect to decumbent, branched annuals with glandular aromatic indumentum. 
Leaves interruptedly inparipinnate. Flowers in one or more extra-axillary, often 
leaf-opposed, mono eh a si al cymes; peduncles simple or dicholomousiy branched; 
pedicels articulated near the middle, deflexed in fruit Calyx 5-1 obed, divided al- 
most to base, accrescent, deflexed in fruit. Corolla rotate, with 5(G)'-3bbed limb, 
yellow. Stamens inserted on throat of corolla; filaments very short; anthers united 
laterally, with intr'orse, longitudinal dehiscence, and with connective prolonged 
into a prominent sterile beak. Style straight. Fruit a 2- to 3-(to multiHocular 
berry; seeds numerous, elliptical, compressed, enclosed in a mueilaginpus sheath. 

1. L. csculentuai Miller Plate XL Tadam 


Plant villous. Leaves at least 20 cm. long; leaflets ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 
irregularly incised- serrate to pinnatisect, somewhat glaucous beneath. Cymes 3- to 
20-flowered. Corolla up to 2.5 cm. in diameter. Berry 2-10 cm in diameter, globose, 
ovoid, pyriiorm, depressed or irregular with bulges and ridges, densely glandular- 
villous when young, becoming glabrous, red to pink or yellowish; seeds papillose 
2n = 24. 

Widely cultivated, naturalised locally. Malta: cultivated at farmsteads and locally 
as at MtaTilcb. Fiddien Valleh (Wolseley); Marfa, Meflieha, Wied il-Ghasel (Bowen- 
Jones et al). Gozo: extensively cultivated as at Ramla, San Bias and Dahlet Qorrot 


(Bowen-Jones et al; Wolseley); naturalised at Xlendi (HaslamL 

Native of S. and C. America. Widely cultivated arid sometimes naturalised in 
many parts of the Old and New World. 

8. Datura L. 

Erect annuals. Leaves alternate, simple, shortly petiolate. Flowers actinomorphic, 
solitary, axillary. Calyx tubular, often 5-angled, 5-dentate, circumsc issue often flow- 
ering, the upper part deciduous, the lower part persisting as disc or cup under 
the fruit. Corolla tubular or infundibuli form, much exceeding calyx, the limb 
5(-l0) lobed. Stamens 5, equal, included or exserted; inserted near base of corolla- 
tube; anthers dehiscing longitudinally: Stigma 2-lobed. Ovary 2-loCular, sometimes 
4-locuIar at base. Fruit a capsulie, dehiscing regularly by 4 valves or irregularly; 
seeds many. 

1. D. m-Btri L. Plate XL Stramonium afaj ad 

Garden Thorn" Apple 

Plant 30-200 cms. high, or more, glabrous. Leaves 5-lfi x 3,5-11 cm., ovate, 
unequally truncate to cuneate al base, entire. Calyx 60-95 mm. long, the teeth 11-23 
mm. long, unequal, linear -triangular, acute; corolla 11-18 cm. long, . cylindrical, 
white, the limb 5-dehtate; style 13-17 mm. long. Capsule 5.5-6.5 cm. in diameter,' 
ovoid, with short spines or tubercles. FL 5-12. 

Malta: frequently cultivated for ornament (Borg; Wolseley), locally naturalised as at 
Valletta Maiu Ditch, San Anton (Borg). 

Origin unknown. Frequently cultivated and locally naturalised in the Mediterranean 

3. Ntcotiana L. 

Annual to perennial herbs, rarely shrubs, Leaves alternate, simple. Flowers acti- 
nomorphic or zygomorphic, in terminal panicle or false-raceme. Calyx subgloOose 
to cylindrical, sometimes campamilate or cupulifonn, 5-deutate persistent often 
somewhat inflated in fruit. Corolla tubular or in fun dib aliform; ii mb 5 .jobed 
(rarely subentire). Stamens 5, subequal or 1 shorter, included or rarely slightly 
exserted; anthers dehiscing longitudinally. Stigma capitate. Fruit a capsLii«° de- 
hiscing by 2 or 4 distal valves; seeds many. 

1. N. glaaca H.-C. Graham Plate XL Tahakk tas-Swar 

Glaucous Tobacco 
Glabrous shrub (l-)2-0(-10) m : high. Leaves 5-25 cm. long, elliptical to lan- 
ceolate or ovate, acute, cuneate to subcordate at base, entire to somewhat sinuate 
glaucous; petiole not winged. Flowers numerous in a lax panicle. Calyx 10-15 mm' 
long, tubular, with triangular, acute, equal teeth, much shorter than the tube 
Corolla (25-)30-40(-45) mm. long, tubular, yellow, the limb 2-4 mm. Ion" shortly 
5- toothed; stamens subequal, included, inserted in basal i of corolla-tube Capsule 
7-10 mm. long, ellipsoid. Fl. 4-10. 

anSo* g>° C^Srg^San^SlSr * ^ "" °» ^ W ^ 
K? MedlSe^gfon" 1 " ^"^ '" " a, ™ t ^ * W * MtUnUiMd 


(N. lon-giflura Cavanilles an annual or short-lived perennial, with corolla tube 40-120 
mm. long h^s been recorded by G. Lanfranco in waste places in the north of Malta). 


Herbs, rarely shrubs. Leaves simple (though sometimes deeply lobed), exstipulato, 
alternate or opposite (rarely all basal, or the uppermost wborled ). Flowers zygo- 
moronic (though sometimes only very slightly), usually in bract eate spikes or 
racemes, less often solitary in the leaf- axils or "in cymes;. Calyx usually 4- or 5- 
lobcd, sometimes 2-lipped. Corolla (4)5 {8)-lobed or 2-lipped. Stamens usually 2 
or 4, rarely 3,5 .or 6-8; staminodes sometimes present.; Ovary superior, 2-16cular 
(sometimes Mocular in upper part and rarely throughout); style single- stigma 
usually capitate. Fruit a capsule; seeds usually numerous, 

1. Corolla shortly tubular, limb rotate, 4-5 lobed 
Corolla tubular, more or less distinctly 2-lipped 

2. Fertile stamens 4 or 5 
Fertile stamens 2 

3. Corolla-tube with a spur, pouch or gibbosity at the 
base on the ad axial side 

Corolla-tube symmetrical at base, without spur, pouch 
or gibbosity 

4. Capsule dehiscing by longitudinal slits 
Capsule dehiscing by 2-3 apical pores 

5. Leaves palmately veined, reniform to sub orbicular 

Leaves not palmately veined, usually narrow, more or 
less sessile 

6. Corolla-tube with a narrow spur at the base 
Corolla-tube with a broad pouch at the base 

7. Perennial; calyx more or less equally lobed, longer 
than corolla-tube 
Annual; calyx unequally lobed, longer than corolla-tube 

Corolla -tube subglohose 


Cor oil a t lube parallel-sided 

spike-lilte racemes 

flowers pedicellate in lax 
flowers subsessile in a 




Verba scum 

















Seeds i>-2 mm. in diameter, longitudinally ridged or 


Seeds c. 0,5 mm. in diameter smooth or finely reticulate 



1. Verbascum L. 

Herbs, vcjt rarely small shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate (very rare'y opposite), 
the basal forming a rosette. Flowers aetinomorphic or very slightly zytforaorphic, 
in terminal racemes, spikes or panicles. Calyx equally 5-lobecI. Corolla usually 
yellow, with a very short tube and a rotate, nearly equally 5-iobed limb. Stamens 
4 or 5 (sometimes 4 fertile and I staminode); filaments usually villous. Capsule 
septicidal; seeds numerous, oblong-pyramidal, alveolate. 


J . Plant glandular-pubescent; cOrolla 40-50 mm, in 

Flant grey-yellow tomentose: corolla 12-35 mm. in 

2. Calyx 8-12 mm. long; filament hairs white 
Calyx 2-4 mm. long; filament hairs violet 

1. crehca 

2. thapsus 

3. siuuatwm 

V. cretica (L.) Cav. 
Celsia cretica L. 

Glandular Mullein 

Biennial, glandular-pubescent and also with somewhat longer non-glandular 
hairs; stem 40-150 cm. high. Basal leaves 15-25 x 4-7 cm,, oblong, cvenate-dentate 
to somewhat pinnatifid. Inflorescence simple. Bracts .'2-25 mm. long, ovate, acumin- 
ate,, serrate; pedicels 3-6 mm. long. Calyx 8-15 mm. long; lobes serrate. Corolla 
40-50 mm, in diameter; stamens 4, without staminode, unequal, the lower with 
decurrent anthers; 5-6 mm. long; filament- hairs violet. Style 20-25 mm, long. Capsule 
9-15 mm, long, ellipsoidal- globose. Ft. .4-6. 

Valleys and cultivated places, sporadic. Malta: rare. Girgenli (S. & .C.G.; Borg; 
Gauci); Ghajti il Kbira (Borgl. Gozo: finien imrik (S. & C.G.; Borg); Pergla {Gulia: 

W. Mediterranean region. 

2, V. thapsus L. Great Mullein 

Biennial, more or less densely grey-tomentose; stem 30-200 cm. high. Basal 
leaves 8-50 x 2.5-14 cm,, elliptic-to obov ate- oblong, obtuse, entire or finely crenate; 
upper cauline leaves decumbent, inflorescence usually simple. Bracts 12-18 mm, 
long, ovate to lanceolate, acuminate; pedicels partly adnate to the stem. Calyx 
8-12 mm. long; lobes lanceolate. Corolla 12-35 mm. in diameter. Stamens 5. 
the upper with villous filaments the lower with glabrous to villous filaments 
and decurrent anthers; filament-hairs while. .Stigma capitate. Cai>su!e. 7-1.0 mm. 
long, c Hip tic-ovoid, 2n = 34. 36. Fl. 5-3. 

Naturalised in gardens and elsewhere.. .Malta: San. Anton 
Ballut, Corradlno (CD.; Borg). Gozo: Marsslforri (Guliav 

Most of Europe except the extreme north; Asia. 

sS. & C.G.; Borg); W'ied 

3. V. siauatuin L. 

Plate XLI 

Xatbet 1-andar 
Wavy-leaved Mullein 

Biennial, shortly but densely grey-to yellow-tomcntose, sometimes glandular in 
inflorescence; stem 50-100 cm. high. Basal leaves 15-25 x 6-15 cm., oblong-spat- 
hulate, sinuate- pin natifid, often somewhat undulate, sessile or very shortly petiol- 
ate. Inflorescence freely branched, lax. Bracts 3-8 mm. long, cordate -deltate, short 
ly cuspidate; longest pedicels 2-5 mm. long. Calyx 2-4 mm. long; lobes lanceolate. 
Corolla 15-30 mm. in diameter. Stamens 5; anthers all reniform; filament hairs 
violet. Capsule 2,5-4 mm. in diameter, subglobose. 2n. - 30. FL a-S. 

Fields and waste places, particularlv roadsides. Malta, Gozn and -Comino: ■ frequent 
(S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; WolseleyV. 

Most of Europe; N. Africa; W. Asia 


2, Scrophularia L. 

Herbs or small shrubs; sterns erect or ascending, 4-angled or terete. Leaves usually 
opposite, entire to 2-pinnatisect. Flowers in cymes (sometimes reduced to a single 
ilower) in the axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts, forming more or less distinct 
terminal panicles or racemes. Calyx equally 5-lobed. Corolla with a short, more 
or less globose tube and usually 2-Hpped limb. Fertile stamens 4; the fifth {adaxial) 
stamen usually represented by a scale-like staminode, rarely absent. Fruit a 
septicidal capsule. Seeds numerous, ovoid, rugose. 

Stems not winged 1 on the angles; calyx lobes acute with- 
out scarious margin 1, peregrinu 

Stems winged on the angles; calyx lobes more or less 

dentate with broad scarious margin 2. auric nlaia 

I. S. peregrin a L. 

Plate XLII 

Fiswiet il-Kelb, 
Brown Fig wort 


Glabrous or-subglabrous- annual; stems 15-90 cm. high. Leaves up to 16 % G cm.< 
ovate, irregularly serrate, acute to subobtuse, cordate, truncate, rarely rounded at 
the base. Bracts mostly ieaf-liko; pedicels 2-3 times as long as' ca'lys, glandular. 
Caiyx lobes ovate-lanceolate, acute; margin not scarious. Corolla 6-9 mm. long; dark 
red to purplish -brown, Stamiriode obovate-orbicidar, obtuse. Capsule c. G mm. 
long, sub globose, subacute. Fl. 3-5. 

Cultivated ground and shaded waste place's. Malta, Goto ;.aud Govuno: common (S. 
& C.G.; Borg;. G. Lani'ranco; Woiseley). 

Mediterranean region. 

2. S. aurlculafa L, 

S, ti'juaz'ica- auct.., non L. 

Water Fig wort 

Glabrous, rarely somewhat pubescent perennial; rhizome not nodular; stem 
50-100 cm. high, 4-anglod, the angles produced into wings c. 1 mm. wide. Leaves 
5-12 (-25) cm. long, simple or with one (rarelj; more) pairs of small lobes at the 
base, ovate to elliptical, crenate, the lower obtuse, the upper subacute, truncate 
to subeordato at base. Bracts mostly linear, not leaf-like; pedicels up to twice as 
long as calyx, glandular. Calyx-lobes ovate-orbicular, serrate, glabrous; margin 
broadly scarious. Corolla ( 5-) 7-9 ' mm.- long, greenish, with purplish-brown upper 
lip. Stamiriode more or less orbicular, scarcely emarginate. Capsule 46 mm. long, 
subglobose, obtuse, roueronate. 2n = 73,80. Fl. 4-5. 

Shady, damp places, occasionally occurring in gardens and irrigated ground. Malta." 
Gnieii il-kbir i'S. & CO.; BorgV; Ghajn il-Kbir, Mellieha (Borg); Banrija IGauci). 

W. .Europe; N.YV, Africa. 

3. Antirrhinum L. 

Dwarf shrubs, or perennial herbs somewhat woody at the base, leaves simple, 
entire, pinnately veined, variable in arrangement but usually opposite below and 
alternate above. Flowers zygomorphic, in terminal, bracteate racemes, or solitary 
in the axileoi: foliage- leaves. Calyx deeply and more or less equally 5-lobed, 
shorter than corolla-tube. Corolla glandular-pubescent outside; tube cylindrical, 
wide, produced abaxially at the base into a short pouch; limb 2-lipped, the upper 


lip 2-lobed, the lower 3-lobed and with a prominant palate which closes the mouth 
of the tube at its base. Stamens 4, didynamous, included in corolla-tube. Stigma 
capitate. Capsule with unequal loduli, the adaxial longer, narrower above, and 
dehiscing with 1 a single apical pore, the abaxial shorter, wider above, and with 2 
apical pores. 

Corolla 17-25 mm, long, pale yellow, rarely striped with red 1. siculum 

Corolla 30-45 mm. long, pink or purple 2.. ma jus 

1. A. siculum Miller 

Papocci bojod, Ras il-mewt 
Sicilian Snapdragon 

Perennial herb, glabrous except for glandular- pubescent inflorescence. Stems 
20-60 cm, high, erect, freely branched, often with many of the branches represented 
by' short, axillary tufts of leaves. Leaves 20-60 x 2-6 mm., linear to narrowly el- 
liptical, opposite below, alternate above, the lower bracts transitional to foliage- 
leaves, the upper c. 5 mm, long, about equalling pedicel: Calyx-lobes 5 mm. long, 
ovate-lanceolate, subacute. Corolla 17-25 mm. long, pale yellow, rarely striped with 
red, Capsule 10-12 mm. long, ovoid, glandular-pubescent. 

Rocks and walls, Malta, Gozo and .Comma: common (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; 

Sicily, . ?S.W, Italy; naturalised elsewhere. 

2. A. majus L. 

Plate XLI 

Papocci yowior, Ras il-baqra 

Perennial herb, glabrous below, glabrous or glandular- pubescent in inflor- 
escence. Stems up to 120 cm. high, erect. Leaves 10-70 x 7-25 mm., linear to 
ovate-lanceolate, 2.8-12 times as long as wide, distinctly cuneate at base. Bracts 
2-8 mm. long, ovate. Pedicels 2-6 mm. long. Calyx-lobes 6-8 mm. long, ovate to su- 
borbicular, obtuse. Corolla 30-45 mm.. long, usuaUy pink or purple. Capsule 10-15 
mm. long, oblong, glandular-pubescent of glabrous. Fl. 1-10. 

Two subspecies occur. Subso. tna.iiis has stems erect, branched: leaves 30-70 x 5-20 
mm., elliptic-lanceolate to linear-oblong, widest near the middle, the upper ones 
alternate: inflorescence glandular-mibescent: oor«l!a 33-45 mm. Ions, purplish-pink 
with yellow palate, rarely (var, striatum (DC.) Bentham) pale yellow veined with 
red. Subsp, tnrUioswm (BofiC) Rouv has stems erect or struggling: Eomet'tnes with 
twining branches: leaves 10-60 x 1-5M0) mm., linear to linear -oblong, the under- 
most often opposite; inflorescence glabrous or glandular-pubescent; corolla 30-37 
mm. long, purplish -pink, with white or yellow palate. 

Rocky ground and old field walls. ■ Malta: frequent IS. & C.G.: Borg; Wolseley). 
Goto: less frequent (Borg). Comino: Borg). 

W, Mediterranean region; naturalised, elsewhere. Commonly cultivated in many 
colour and habit varieties. 

<1, Misopates Raiin. 

lake Antirrhinum hi't anmrl' c-i)vx-lnbe t ! conspicuously nnequ-il j>11 longer than 
the corolla-tube; seeds somewhat flattened, with one face smooth, keeled, and pro- 
duced iMto a nnrrnw ""ing. the other finely tuberculate and with a wide, raised, 
sinuate, papillose borcor. 


I. M. orontium <'L.) Rafin. 

Plate XLI Papoeci rftiqa, Fapocci tar-raba 

, Lesser Snapdragon 

Stem erect, 20-75 cm. .high, sparingly branched, glandular-intber-uieut. Leaves 
20-45 x 2-7 nun., linear to oblong-elliptical, subacute, shortly peticlatev opposite 
below, alternate above. Flowers in a usually lax, terminal raceme; bracts similar 
to leaves but decreasing in size upwards; pedicles very short in ilower, up to 4 mm. 
long in fruit. Calyx 10-18 mm. long; lobes linear, the longest about 1.5 times as 
long as the shortest. Corolla 12-20 (-30) mm. long, pink or white. Capsule S--.9 mm. 
in diameter, ovoid, gibbous. 2n = 16, .FL 3r6. 

Cultivated .snd ecct-siensily waste, phtces. Malta and Gozo: i'requer.t <&. & C.G.; 
Borg; G, Lanfraneo; Wolseley).- 

Europe (except Iceland and Faeroes, casual in Norway) and the Mediterranean 
region, extending east to the Himalayas and south to the Canaries and Abyssinia. 

5. Kickxia Dumort, 

Annual or perennial herbs; stems usually procumbent or climbing. Leaves alternate 
■ the lowest sometimes opposite!, ovate; hastate or sagittate. Flowers zygomorphk ; 
solitary in loaf -axils (rarely aggregated intc spike like racemes on lateral braiK-b 
es). Calyx with 5 subequal lobes. Corolla and stamens as in .Linaria. Capsule more 
or less globose, with 2 eojiuii'J. Icc.ulL each opening by a single large pore with 
detachable Yd. feeds slveclate or tuberculate. 

1. All leaves rounded or cordate at the base, without 

lobes or- auricles 3.' spuria 

At least some leaves hastate or sagittate ■ -?.- 

2. Seeds tuberculate; wall of capsule rather thick and 

rigid; sour strongly curved L etmimitl-iki 

Seeds alveolate; wall of capsule thiit,- not rigid; spur 

more or less straight 2. elatine 

1. K. . ccramutata- (Bernh. ex Reichenb. } Fritsch Plate XU Xatbet l-art 

Linaria- cominutatn. Bernh. ex Reichenb. Mediterranean Fluellen 

Perennial; stems 20-70 cm, long, numerous, procumbent, rooting, glandular- 
villous. Leaves villous, the lower broadly ovate, the middle and upper ovate-has- 
tate to lanceolate-sagittate; petiole not more than half as tonj^ as lamina. Pedicels 
up to 3 cm, long in flower, filiform, glabrous, patent. Calyx 4-5 mm. long; lobes 
linear-lanceolate, acute, hispid. Corolla -11-15 mm. long, whitish with bhiish-violet 
upper lip, yellow lower lip and purple-spotted palate; spur strongly curved. Capsule 
2.5-4 mm. long, globose, wall rather thick and rigid. See<!s 0.75 - i. mm. in diameter. 
Uiberculate; FL 0-9. 

Walls of fields and cultivated wasf'3 places. Malta: locally frequent (G. Lanfraneo; 
Wolseley), as at. Mcmsija, Rabat, Fiddien (Borg). 

Mediterranean region, extending to S.E. Bulgaria. 

K. clatinc (L.) Dumort. 
Linaria elatine (L.) Miller 

Xatbet l-art 

Sharp -leaved Fluellen 

Glandular-mibeseent. to- hirsute annual; stems branched from the base. Leaves 
ovate, sagittate or hastate; petiole not more than half as long as lamina. Calyx- 


lobes lanceolate, acuminate. Corolla 7-15 mm. long, yellowish or bluish, with 
violet upper lip. Capsule 4-4.5 mm, long, seeds alveolate, FL (j !>. 

Two subspecies occur. Subsp. elatine has main branches decumbent, weak, often 
rather sparsely hairy; secondary branches lew or none; leaves acute to mucronate, 
mostly hastate but the uppermost sagittate. Pedicels glabrous except just below 
the flower, 2-6 times as long as the calyx in flower, u» to 3 cm, long in fruit; 
corolla 7-10 irm, Ic-Tg. Sn = .?(?. Subrp. crinafa fMabiil.e! W. Greutev <7Ariaria 
suberi Reichenb.) has the main branches ascending relatively stout, dense? v 
hairy, usually with several short- patent, fowcring secondary branches; leaves 
more or less obtuse, (he lower ovate to indistinctly hastate, the middle and uppi;r 
usually hastate; pedicels hairy throughout, 2.5-3 times as long as c;dyx in flower, 
not more Uian 2 cm. long in fruit j corolla up to. 15 mm, long. 

In fields after -harvest. Malta-: locally freruent <'G. Lan'ranco:-, as at Siggiewr, 
Ta' Briia, 2ebbug, Most a; Buslcelf. Hemsija fEorg). Goto:' Xhndi. Kutisar 

Europe, except Iceland and 
naturalised in N. America. 

Facrces; Mediterranean region; AiL.irdic islands; 

K. spuria (L.) Dumort, 

. Linaria spuria (L.) Miller 

Xetbef lart 
Round-leaved Fluellen 

Glandular-pubescent to -villous annual; stems 20-50 cm. high, decumbent. 
Leaves up to 7.5 cm. long, entire or remotely denticulate, the lower broadly ovate. 
truncate or rounded at base, obtuse, the middle and upper ovate-lanceolate to 
suborbicular-eordate, mucronate; petiole very short. Pedicels 1-3 cm. in flower, 
villous. Calyx-lobes accrescent, acute, more or less cordate at base in fruit. Corolla 
10-15 mm, long, yellow, with deep purple upper lip; spur curved. Capsule depressed- 
globose. Seeds oblong-ellipsoid, alveolate. Fl. 5 0. 

All the plants of the Maltese Islands are probably referable to subsp. iritc.f;«*:foiia 
(Brot:) M. Fernandes. 

In fields after harvest. Malm and Gozo: frequent CS. & C.G.: Ror;;; G. Lanfraneo; 

S., W. & C. Europe; Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 

fi. Cytubalaria Hill 

Herbs,, normally short-lived perennials but often flowering in their first year and 
sometimes behaving as annuals; stems procumbent to' decumbent. Leaves veniform 
to Kiiborbicular, petiolate, palmately veined, entire to palmat.cly lobd. Flowers ■ xyya- 
morphie, solitary in leaf-axils. Calyx deeply 5-lobed; segments somewhat unequal. 
Corolla, stamens and capsule as in Liv.aria. Seeds usually fairly niunerous, various- 
ly tuberculate, rigid or alveolate. 

1. C. miiralis P. Gacrtii., B. Mayer & Scherb. Plate XL! Ivy-leaved Toadflax 
Linaria cyrnbalaria (L.) Miller 

Glabrous to villous; Stems up to GO cm. high: middle and upper intc.rnodes 
about equal. Leaves up to 55 x 65 mm., but more usually c, VI s 13 mm., alternate, 
reniform to semicircular, rarely suborbicular, with 5-7 rounded to deltate, often 
mucronate lobes. Calyx 2-2,5 mm. long. Corolla 9-15 mm. long, lilac to violet wills 
yellow palate, rarely white; spur 1.5-3 mm. long, about as long as ca'yx. Capsule 


glabrous, usually exceeding calyx. Seeds c, 1 mm. long, broadly ellipsoid to 
giooose. biaex, ornamented with high, acute ridges and usually a few tubercles. 

'M = 14. El. 2-4. 

■ Shadv walls and rocks. Malta: rare (G. Lanfranco}, as at Wied Babu, Fawwara, 
St.. Julians (GO.; Borg}; Attard, Mosta, Balkan (Borg); Adollorata cemetery, Ar- 
goiti gardens (Gauci). 

Native in S. Alps, W. Jugoslavia, C. & S. Italy and Sicilia; cultivated for ornament 
and naturalised elsewhere, 

(Cliaenorhinmu minus (L.) Lange was found at Wied Babu by Zerafa and by 
Penza In lfliSt (Borg.i. 

7. Linaiia Miller 

Annual to perennial herbs; leaves simple, entire, sessile, usually narrow, variable 
in arrangement but usually verticillate below and alternate above. Flowers nygb- 
morphic, in terminal, braeteate racemes or spikes, rarely solitary in the axils of 
foliage-leaves. Calyx deeply, often unequally 5 -lo bed, the adaxial lobes usually 
the longest, very rarely the shortest. Corolla usually glabrous except for the palate; 
tube cylindrical, produced at the base into a conical or cylindrical spur; limb 
2-Johed. the lower 3-lobed, with at its base a more' or less prominent, usuaiiy 
pubescent, palate which usually closes the mouth of the tube. Stamens 4, didy- 
namons, included In the 'corolla-tube. Capsule more or less globose, with equal 
loculi, dehiscing by meridional fissures in the apical half. Seeds numerous. 

i. Flowers subsess.ile; corolla 20-30 mm, long 

Flowers pedicellate, at least in fruit; corolla 12-17 mm. 

2, Spur short, 1.5-3 mm. long 
Spur long, '7-11 mm. long 

3. Spur 7-8 mm. long; corolla bluish 
Spur 8-11 mm. long; corolla white 

2. L. pseutloiaxillora Lojac. 

2. triphylla 

4. arvensis 

1. pseud olaxiflora 

3. chalcpensis 

Malta Toadflax 

Glabrous annual; stems 5-22 cm. long, many decumbent, simple. Leaves up to 
10 x 4 mm.: elliptical to narrowly oblaneeolate, subacute, verticillate below, alter- 
nate above. Racemes capitate, with 1-5 flowers; pedicels c. (3 mm; long, much 
longer than bracts. Calyx 3-4,5 mm. long; lobes narrowly oblong, subacute, un- 
equal. Corolla 15-17 mm. long, mainly blue; spur 7-8 mm. long, straight; lobes of 
upper lip erect. Capsule 3,5-5 mm. in diameter. Seeds 0,6-0.9 mm. in diameter, ovoid - 
subreirifonm, slightly flattened, strongly ruminate, black. Fl. 3-5, 

Old walls and rocky arid plaees. Malta: frequent (S. & C.G,; G. Lanfranco) as at 
Valletta Glacis, Delimara, Minsija, Bingemma, Selmun, Qrendi near Wied Host 
(Borg); Wardija at il-Qolla, Mellieha at Qasam Barrani (Gauct). Gozo: Cgautija, 
Nadur (Borg); Gran Castello .(Borg; E. Lard' Banco). Co-mind: (Borg); Cominotto: 

(Dutbie; Berg). ■ 

Three-coloured Toadflax 

Linosa and Lampedusa. 

■I. L. triphylla (L.) Miller Plate XLI 

Glabrous somewhat glaucous annual; stems. 10-43 '(-65) cm. high, usually single, 
erect, simple or branched above, stout. Leaves 15-35 x 10-25 cm., elliptical or oho v- 


ate, truncate or semi aplexi caul at base, mostly verticillate but some opposite or 
alternate. Racemes fairly dense, greatly elongating in fruit; flowers subsessila. 
Calyx 9-12 mm. long; lobes ovate to lanceolate, obtuse to acute, unequal. Corolla 
20-30 mm. long i white (rarely pale yellow or violet), with orange palate and violet 
spur; spur 8-11 mm.. long, curved. Capsule c. 8 mm. in diameter. Seeds c. 1,5 
mm. long, pyramidal, strongly ruminate -alveolate, greyish brown, with acute angles. 
Fl. 2-4. 

Fields, especially among Sulla and in open places. Malta and Go?.o: frequent (S, 
& C.G.; Borg; G. Larr/ranco; Wolseloy), 

Mediterranean region. 

.3. L. chiilepcnsis (L.) Miller . Mediterranean Toadflax 

Glabrous annual; stern (10-)20-40 cm, high, usually single, simple or sparingly 
branched. Leaves 1335 s 1-2 mm., linear, subobtusc, alternate, Racemes ..yeryjisv, 
pedicels 1-2 mm. at antliesis, up to 4 rnm. in fruit, mostly shorter than bract,';. 
Calyx 710 mm. long; lobes linear, acute, unequal (the adaxial shorter). Corolla 
12-18 mm. long, white; spur 8-11 mm. lung, curved; mouth of tube open. Capsule 
45 mm, in diameter. Seeds -1.2 mm., pyramidal, strongly ruminate. Fl. 3-5. 

Fields and open places. Malta: B'Kara, Delimara, Kellieha (S. & G.G.; Borg); Wied 
il-Ghasel, Balluta (S. '& C.Gj; Wied . U-Gfcomor, Pwales (GD.); Buskett, Ve'ardija, 
San Martin, Ghajn Snuber, Qasam Barrani, Girgenti, Gnajn il-Kbira, Tarxien, Wied 

■ In tit a fEorg). '■"". _ '.""~ . 

Mediterranean region; W. Asia: 

'4- L. arvensis (L.) Desf. Field Toadflax 

Glaucous annual, glabrous except in inflorescence; stems 0-50 cm. high, erect. 
Leaves 7-20(-30) X 0.5-2 mm,, linear, verticillate. below, alternate above. Racemes 
glandular- pubescent, dense in flower, lax in fruit, bracts linear-oblong to ovate- 
elliptical; pedicels 1-2 mm. long. Calyx 3-4 mm. long; lobes linear-oblong to ovate- 
elliptical; pedicels 1-2 mm. Corolla 4-7 mm. long, pale lilac-blue; spur 1.5-3 mm. 
long, strongly curved. Capsule 4-6 mm. Seeds 1-1.5 mm,, suborbicular to reniforrn, 
dark brownish-grey; wing broad; disc smooth, minutely tuberculatc. Fl, H-5. 

Cultivated ground; particularly fields of Sulla (Borg), Malta: rare (G. Lanfranco). 
as at iejtun, Kalkara, Luqa (Borg). 

C. & S. Europe,- N. Africa; W. Asia; naturalised elsewhere. 

8. Veronica L. 

Herbs, sometimes woody at base. Leaves simple, entire to 2-pinnatiseet, opposite 
below, the floral usually alternate. Flowers in terminal or axillary racemes, or 
solitary in leaf-axils, slightly zygomorphie. Cayx. deeply divided into 4(-5) often 
unequal segments. Corolla rotate to campanulate; limb longer than tube, with 4 
somewhat unequal lobes. Stamens 2. Fruit a loculicida) and sometimes also 
septicidal capsule, more or less flattened at right angles to the septum. Seeds 
usually numerous. 

1, Flowers in axillary racemes (which if single and 

near the stem apex may appear terminal) % 

Flowers In terminal racemes 3, 


2. Flowering stems procumbent or ascending; leaves 

all petiolate 1. faccabunga 

Flowering stems more or less erect; upper leaves 

amplexicaul 2, anagallis-aquatica 

3. Flowers in racemes; stems usually more or less erect 3. arveusis 
Flowers solitary in leaf : axils; stems more or less 

4. Leaves 3- to 9-lobed; seeds more than 2 mm. in 

Leaves crenate or serrate; seeds less than 2 mm. in 

3. Calyx segments cordate- ovate, acute; capsule glabrous 6. hetlerifolia 
Calyx segments obovate, obtuse; capsule ciliate 7. cymbalaria 

15, Capsule with sparse, long glandular hairs only; co- 
rolla usually whitish 4. agvesUs 
Capsule with long glandular and shorter eglandulur 
hairs; corolla blue 5. polita 

Sect. Beccabunga (Hill) Dumort. 

I. V, beccafounga L. 


Glabrous perennial. SLems decumbent* rooting at the nodes. Leaves 10-40 mm. 
long, orbicular, ovate or oblong, obtuse* petiolate. subentire or shallowly erenate- 
serrate. Racemes up to 3 times as long as subtending leaves; bracts shorter than 
or about'» -.' Calyx-segments subecsual, more or less defiexed in 
fruit; corolla 5-7 mm. in diameter, pale to dark blue (rarely pink). Capsule 2-3 x 
2-4 mm., subglobosc, scarcely emarginate; style c. 2 mm. long. 2n — ISM- Fl, 3-8. 

Along stream. Malta; Ghajn il-Kbira (GD,; Borg). 

Throughout most of Europe; N. Africa; Temperate Asia. 

V. anaga! lis -aquatic a L. 

V.. anagallis h. 

Plate XLI-- 

Blue Water-Speedwell 

Perennial (rarely annual). Stem (i5-> rnl-GO(-lOO) cm. high erect, simple or 
much branched at the base, glandular-pubescent or glabrous. Leaves 20-100 mm. 
long, light green; the lower ovate, often petiolate, subentire, the upper ovate- 
lanceolate, more or less amplexicaul, irregularly serrate near the apes'. Hacemes 
up to 3 times as long as subtending leaves, erect-patent or patent; pedicels 4-7 
mm, long, erect, crccto- patent, or patent but distally erect. Calyx-segments erect 
in fruit, but not closelv appressed to capsule; corolla 5-10 mm, in diameter* blue 
with violet veins. Capsule 2.5-4 x 2.5-3.5 nwi., orbicular, ovate or elliptical; style 
1.5-2 mm. long. 2n = -36. Fl. 3-10. 

Along winter-running streams. Malta and Gozo: locally frequent (G. Lanfranco; 
Wolswleyl. as at Ghajn Mala. Ghajn RiTiana, Wied Qamiotta, rtnejna, Wied il-Lun- 
zjata (Borg); Chadwiek Lakes; Wied Incita (Haslam); Wied il-Hemsija (Gauci). 

Almost throughout Europe; Asia; N:E. & S. Africa; N. & S. America; New Zealand. 


Sect. Pocilla Dumort* 

3. V. arvensis K WaU ^^^^ 

™JS iL ! tefflS ( (2 - )5 ; 40 „ cm - ^h, simple to erect to much-branched and pr u . 
cumbent, pubescent and often slightly glandular. Leaves 2-15 mra long, iri,nj-;ilar- 
oyatc with truncate or weakly cordate base, cr en ate .-serrate pubescent or' sub- 
glabrous, the lower shortly petiolate. the upper sessile. Flower's in racemes- bracts 
longer than pedicels, the upper lanceolate, the lower ovate Caivx --sepmeirU b'tic- 
Capsule c. 3 x 3 mm., obcordate, flat, ciliate, usually eglanduf'ar stv] C r 1 mm 
long, scarcely exceeding sinus. Seeds c, 1 x-0.75 mm., elliptical.' fiat Zn = "14 is- 
Yi 2-4," . ' ' ' ' 

Gardens, old. walls, waste places, Malta: rather' i'rerjuei:!; ;,S. & C.G - How G 

Almost throughout Europe; C. & W. Asia; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands. 

4. V. agrcstls L. 

Green Field- Speedwell 

Pubescent annual. Stems 5-3.0 cm. high, procumbent or decumbent Leaves 
5-1S mm. long, longer than wide, shortly petiolate. ovate wild more or lo^s 
truncate base, crenate or erenate-serrate, mostly altern'Me but the lowest onuosite 
'Flowers solitary in leaf-axils; pedicels 5-1-5 mm. long, usually recurved in frei!. 
Calyx-segments 3-G mm. long, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 'sub obtuse, not overlapping 
at base; corolla 3-6 mm, in diameter, usually whitish with blue unjxir petal. Capsule 
3-4 x 4-6 mm., sparsely gland ular-hirsute, bilobed with parallel lobes and deep, 
narrow sinus; style c. 1.5 mm. long, not exceeding sinus, ^ee-ds c. 1..5 x 1.25 
mm., broadly elliptical, on one lace. 2n = 28. Fl. 14, 

Gardens and shady places, along country roads. Malta: [.recent (S. h C.G.: Borg; 
G. Lanfranco). 

Most of Europe; N. Africa; Asia Minor. 

5. V. poIHa Fries 

. V. didyma Ten, 

Grey Fiefd-Spcedwell- 

. Differs from Y. agresUs m leaves more regularly crenate -serratp the jow-r 
oitcn wiaec than long; calyx segments broadly ovate, often ovemr,pir^ nc-r bi-e- 
corolla blue; capsule with long glandular hairs and short, erisp-ite khmd'uV inrrs- 
styles 2 mm. long, clearly exceeding the wide sinus; 2 n == .14. is. F3 S-i '" ' '' 

Valleys: Malta: San Anton, Buskett, Ghajn 11-Kir.ra, gardens pf M^f-vC, L--j E»- 
■ fcirkara (Borg); Ta* Ealdu (S. &-C.G.). ' ' . "' 

Most of Europe; Temperate Asia; N. Africa, 

6. V. hederifolla L, T 

Ivy-!eaveU Speedwell 

Hairy annual. Stems 10-60 cm. long procumbent i^™„ % ,~ , , 

ciliate; corolla 2-3 mm. in diameter, pale b'ue Can.ulo c VI f J ' ,CUte *, S 'T 1 ^' 
shallowly 4-lobed, glabrous; style c^K'A t ?£* sub ^ ob ^- 
bicular, cup-shaped. 2n = is, 28, 36 54 F l 1?W * mm -' subor - 


Wyiis ;.iiid roeVy j?ro-u«ci. MaUa: occasional (G. Lanfranco), as at Wied il-Ghasel, 
Mdiriii (S. & C.G.; Bo:'g); Pieta, Wied Qii'da (GD, & Borg}; Attard, Msida (Borg); 
Buskett (Kramer & Wtrtrai. Gozo: Mgarr ix-Xfm (Borg)-; Qala, Rabat, by tha. 
bastions road tCauci). 

Most of Lurope; Temperate Asia.; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands. 

1. V. eyrabuhma Boilard Pale Speedwell 

ijiilV^- from V tied-erifolia in leaves 5- to globed, with subequal lobes; 
!«'di^o:=i"-rtn7eh exceeding loaves: calyx-segments 3-4 ram. long* obovate, obtuse; 
coreli- 4-S mm. long; capmie shallowly bilobed, ciliate; style c.1.5 mm. long. In 

- srj/i-!. i.'i. iy 5. 

1/ ■ijTrtirmita:^ IVieo Ascribed from Scicily and Malta, differs in its smaller 
fruit and flower, and its subglabrous capsule. . Jt may represent a distinct 


Rocky gromid, walls and waste places. ilfaJto and Goso: frequent (S.& C.G.; 3org; 

G. LaniTJinco).- 


ieaiv t'CKsor 

9. Jieliai'dia, AH, 

Annual, seiaiiwrasitii: herbs. Leaves opposite, sessile, simple. Flowers zygemor- 
phio. in terminal or axillary; brae teste, spike-like racemes, elongating in fruit. 

Calyx ventrleose'campanuiate. Corolla with a long tube and 2-lipped limb; lower 
lip longer ihii.ii the upper entire'- or emarginate, the lower 2-lobed. Stamens 4, 
didynamous: anthers hairy,' roueronate at base. Stigma clavate. Capsule iocuiicidal; 
seeds c. "1 mm. in .diameter, with several, narrowly winged longitudinal ribs and 

transversely striate between the ribs; hilum basal. '■ 

1. jj. trixago >%.). All 

Plate XLII 

Mediterranean Bart si a 

Glandular-pubescent; stems '20-50 cm. high, usually simple, erect. Leaves 15-80 
x 1-15 mm., linear to linear-lanceolate, obtuse to subacute, coarsely and obtusely 
serrate. Bracts like the leaves, decreasing in size upwards, the upper ovate, cor- 
date, entire. Calyx 8-iO mm., long; teeth triangular, less than i as long as tube. 
Corolla 20-25 mm. long, purple and white, rarely all white. Capsule subglobose, Fl. 

Waste ground and fallow fields, AT o Its and Goto: frequent tS. & C.G.; Borg; G. 
Lanlranco; Wolselay), Commo: common (S, & C.G.; Borg). 

Mediterranean region; W. Asia; .Atlantic Islands; S. America. 

10. Parentuccliia Viv: 

Annual, hemiparasitic herbs. Leaves opposite, sessile, simple. Flowers zygomorphic, 
in terminal or axillary, braeteate, spike-like racemes, elongating in fruit. Calyx 
tubular, 4-lobed, Corolla with a long tube, lower lip longer than upper; entire 
or emarginate, the lower 3-lobed. Stamens -4, didynamous; anthers hairy, raucron- 
ate at base. Stigma capitate. Capsule loculicidal; seeds c. 0.5 mm,, smooth; hilum 


i j 


P. viseesa (L.) Caruel 

Bartsia viscosa L. 

Plate XLII 

Yellow. Bfirtsiti 

Eiteet glandular-hairy annual; stems 10-50 cm. high usually simple. Leaves 
10-30 x 3-15 mm,, oblong to lanceolate, acute to subacute, coarsely serrate. Bracts 
like the leaves, but decreasing in size upwards. Calyx 10-16 mm. long; teeth linear- 
lanceolate, nearly as long as tube; Corolla 1G-24 mm. long,.- pubescent, yellow, 
caducous. Capsule 7-0 mm, long, pubescent. 2k — 48. Fl. .3-3. 

Abandoned fields and uncultivated places in country areas. Malta: frequent (S. 
& C.G.; Borg; G. Lani'ranco; Wolseley). Gqzo; Ghajnsielem, Mgarr ix-Xini (Borg). 

S. & W. Europe, north to S.W. Scotland; 'Mediterranean region; Acorcs, Canaries. 


Differs from S.crophuldriaeeae chiefly in the hardened and toughened fumble, 
which often developed into a 'jaculator forejecting the feeds, and almost always 
in the absence of endosperm. In addition the leaves are always opposite, coloured 
bracts are often present, the corolla is strongly ■ zygomorphic, the stamens often 
unequally 1-locular or only 1-locular and the style unequally bilobed. 

Basal leaves pinnatifid 
Leaves all entire 

1. Acanthus 

2. Jusiicia 

1. Acanthus L. 

Robust perennial herbs or small shrubs. Stems single, terete, erect, unbranched. 
Leaves mostly basal, pinna tin d to phmatisect. Stipules absent, flowers in dense 
terminal cylindrical spikes. Bracts large, spinose-dentate; bracteoles entire, lan- 
ceolate to linear. Calyx 4-lobed, with large upper and lower lips and small lateral 
.lobes. Corolla 1-lipped (upper lip absent), 3-lobed; tube short: Stamens 4, included; 
anthers lkeUed a connate in pairs. Fruit a septiddal capsule.! 

A. mollis L, 

A. spinulosus Host 

Plate XLII 

Hahnew'ija, Brankorsina 
Common Boar's Brcecli 

Stems 30-80 cm. high. Leaves glabrous to puberulent; basal c, 30 x 15 cm!, 
oblong-ovate; pinnatifid, the lobes not narrowed at the base, ineise^dontate, iong- 
petiolate; cauliue 1-3 cm. long, few, more or less ovate, spi nose- dentate, more or 
less sessile-. Bracts c. 4 cm. long, ovate, glabrous. Calyx 4-5 em. long, glabrous. 
Corolla 4-5 cm. long, whitish with purple veins. 2ij. = 36. Fl. 3 : 6v 

Sheltered rocky ground. Malta and Goso: frequent (S. & C.G!; Roi'g; G Lanfranco- 

Mediterranean region. 

2. Justiciu L. 

Woody shrub. Stems much branched. Leaves entire. Stipules absent. Flowers in 
dense cyniose panicles. Bracts and bracteoles large, often overlapping the calyces, 
oblong or linear, patent. Calyx campanulate, deeply 5-toothed, the two anterior 
teeth coherent. Corolla tube shore, limb long, 2-Iipped, upper lip helmet-like 
subentire, lower lip pa tent- re curved, 3-lobed, with larger middle lobe and convex 
palate. Stamens 2, not exserted; anthers 2-eelted. Fruit a 2-eeilod capsule. 


t. J. sitUialoda L. 

plate XLII 


J. adhaloda *-- . Leaves 

Stems I-B n, Mgh, P^bl-uS SccS cmmngVacts -10-13 
elliptical, obtuse to aeummate S , P«hJ»l ^m long, white, the lower lip with 
mm. long, ovate to obova e. corona _ c. ^ 2g m ]ong 

transverse, pink bands. Stamens glataow,. Cap*«le * ^ 

Wattii frequently planted «,« "f^elS 
and Argot.ti, and also in gardens (ttolselcy ■ . 
Native of Tropical Asia; naturalised in Sicily. 


Perennial (rarely annual) ^^S^^^ 

phanerogamic plants ^HS u St ?^' Flowers in a termina 

pie. Leaves: alternate, /cale^e o ten ^ CL y dl tubulaT - cup-shaped or 

to i= ^ ^/ssjsfc sr.A. fsss: ■ 

numerous, embryo minute. 

I Orobanche L. 

divided, usually deeply, into 2 la ™ r *^ e | at Ve ast as long as the upper. Stamens 
formation as to annual or perennial habit. 

Each flower subtended by 2 bracteoles (more or less 
adnate to calyx), as well as by a bract 

Bracteoles absent 
2 -lnS™"^ ^nsely hairy 
,. calyx-teelh not more than H times as , long as the 

Syx-teeth 2-3 times as long as the tube 

4. Stigma purple or dark red «t^he* 

Stigma yellow, orange or white OareJj pii" J 
an the sis 

5 Lower lip of corolla glandular- cil late 
" lower lip of corolla not ciliate 

6 Corolla shining dark red inside, mostly dark red or 
Slatfsbining dark ^ i-^u^lly white or 
pale yellow outside at least towards the base 

7 S£ gSus or glandular-pubescent 



1. ramosa 

2. lavandulaeea 

3, schuHzii 


13. earyopliyHacea 


14, sail guinea 

(J. pubescens 

S. Bracts 10-20 mm. long; filaments inserted ^6-5 mm, 
above base of corolla 

Bracts 7-15 mm. long; filaments inserted 2 3 aim. 
above base of corolla 

9. Corolla-tube narrowed to the mouth: on HeiUr.a 
Corolla-tube cylindrical or campanulate, or constricted 
some distance below the inoutii 

10. Corolla becoming conspicuously inflated, searious and, 
shining at base 
Corona not as above 

■11. Corolla 20-30 mm, long 
Corolla 10-J 8 mm. long 

12. Filaments with wide more or less deltaic base; spike 
not more than 3 times as long as wide 
Filaments gradually and only slightly widened towards 
the base; spike 4-K times as long as wide 

13. .Stigma yellow 

Stigma orange, to purple 

9. loricafa. 
10. miiutr 
12. he-ierae 

4. ceniua 
5.' crcnata 

7. densiJiora 

8. eanescens 
U. ciausomas 



J 3. 

.Sect. Truwtychnn Wallr, Stems simple or branched.- Flowers pedicellate or sessile, 
2 bracteoles present, adnate to calyx. Calyx with cylindrical to cam pan ul ate time 
and 4 sab equal teeth, rarely with a fifth, much smaller tooth. Corolla white, cream, 
blue or violet, constricted below the middle near the insertion or the fdamcob;: 
upper lip 2-iobed, 

1. O. ramosa L. 

Budebbus qasir 
Hemp Broomrape 

Stems 5-30(-40) x 0.15-0.4. (0.(i) cm, high, swollen at tile base, simple or 
branched, glandular-pubescent. Leaves S-S(-IO) mm. long, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 
acute. : Inflorescence 2-25 cm.. Jong, lax or dense, glandular -pubescent; bracts 
fi-8(-10) -mm. long, ovate-lanceolate; bracteoles linear-lanceolate, about equalling 
calyx; pedicels l-5(-8).mm, long: Calyx fi-K mm. long. Corolla .10-22 mm. long, 
glandular-pubescent, suberect and inflated at base, ereC'to : patenL and tubuJar-in- 
fundibuliform dist ally, whitish at base, cream, blue or violet, disially, rarely white 
throughout; lower lip somewhat deflexed, with suborbieiilar to elliptical, entire or 
denticulate lobes. Filaments glabrous, or hairy at the base, inserted 3-6 ram. above 
base oi< corolla; anthers glabrous, or sparsely hairy at the base. Stigma white. 
cream or pale blue. Capsule 6-7(10} mm. in diameter, 2n = 34, PL 4-5. 

Three subspecies are/recorded. Subsp. muteli (P.W. Schutte) Coutinho iKopsia 
mnteli (F.W, Sehultz) B&guiuot) with the corolla f. 1.5-) 18-22 mm. long-, and subsp. 
ranmsa fKopsia ramosa (L.) IlumorO and subsp nana (Reuter) Coutinho (Kopsia 
muteli var. melitensis G: Beck) with the corolla 10-15 (-17) mm. long, subsp. r&mnsa 
having the corolla whitish to blue or lical and calyx teeth-acuminate, shorter from 
the tube j and subsp. nana with a yellow corolla and calyx teeth filiform -subulate 
as long as the tube. 

On a wide variety of hosts in arid places, Malta, Gozo and Cow>io: common f'S. 
& C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region; W. & C. Asia; Ethiopia. 


O. iavciidulacea Eeichcnb. 

Kopaia lave-iKinUii-cj. (Reiehenb.) Came! 

Budebbus vj<ila 
Lavender Broomrape 

equalling or slightly longer man i"'^-- J» mtcnt and narrowly eoniparuil- 

ifi.22 mm. long, glandular -hairy, ^rect »!. ba£ 1 ate ^ ^' d ^ ^ dista)ly . 

Kb Capsule (i-7 mm. In charneler. Fl. 4-5. , c 

■.■i„i«. ,vf hn<.- tc - sro*t -commonly Psora lea bituwiuoso. Malta; occasional US. 

fcrT ^ PaX^v B^iZ SeL, Mellieha,. Mtahleb, tineina, Wied Inma, 

EorgV; Pevgia (Berg), Muircan (Kramer & .Ifto&traK 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 

Blue Broomtape 
3 O. snuitzii Mute! 

Kojisia sftiitfzH (Mutel'i Beguinot 

Stems' 10-GO * 0.4-0.* cm, swollen at bas^g* i^atffpikt^ x W 
pubescent. Leave, 5-10 mm.' long, «— ovate to ^^^ lanceolate; 
cm., dense above, lax below, S^il^ha ny, bwifc .8-12 ™m » g, ^^ 

bract*** Imoar.a potato shghtly^ h o££ *»^{ W * ^^ linear- 
shortly pffhcellute. C-ityx b-i-J mm. 101%, ^ glandular nairy, ereeto- 

lanceo.ate wit h subulate a P <^^v ^r^traigh, white at base,' blue to 
patent, tubular to narrowly campa ™ ^< " carl ^ t to B acum matc. Filaments glab- 
^IS^ -the. hairy, Stigma 

white Curisule 7-8 mnt. in diameter. Fl. 3-5. ■ — 

On U,e rol ol lu,la «o«, Vi«a *»* ^ ™ed Balluta ,GD, Borg,; 
Maghtab (Borgi. 

Mediterranean region.. .. .,,. t 

■ , ,,-, ' -, -,»„ w-iiiv 1 Stems simple. Flowers sessile, without 

Up 2-loliecl to entire. 

i. O. eemua Loeft. 

Dro oping Broomrape 

bract. 7-12 mm long, ^'a^^ 7 £rX iandula'puberulent, 
more or less bidentatc. Corolla 12-20 ram . long, sp - " corl strieted and in- 
suhere.t, inflated and ^ l ^" a ™'XmTr omewhat delxed, violet-blue, 
fleeted near middle, the distal part patent or J»™£ Vilametits glabrous, or 

whitish. Capsule 8-10 mill. long. Fl. 4-5. 


On Composiiae and Solanaceae, .rarely on other herbs M«J:a; rare,'! 

C.G.; Eoi-jij; Mellieha, Buskeit gam^ris at i>a JViaJKO.n (.aorg .1 .. ijsrro: 
(S. & C.G.; Borg). 

Mediterranean region; W, & C, Asia; Australia, 

5. O, cronata Forsfeal 

Plate Xi.-il 

Budebbus tai-lul 
Bean Broomrape 

. Stems up to 50(-3G) x 12 cm., slightly "swollen at tire base, sparsely villous, 
usually, yellowish. Leaves 12-25 mm, long, linear-lanceolate, dense ivcloiv, sparse 
above. Spike up to 20{-5O) x -1 cm., dense above, often fax below, villous; bracts 
15 25; linear to ovate -lanceolate,, long-acuminate; dowers Iragrant. ualyx iy-20 mm. 
long; segments free, more or less' bidentate. Corolla 20-30 mm. long, subglabrous, 
white, somatimes tinged with lilac dlatally,- erec to -patent, straigiit or sligaviy. curv- 
ed, campanuiate; lips divergent, the lower with large, sub orbicular kfbuj, not 
ciliate. Filaments hairy, inserted 2-4 mm, above base 01 corolla; anthers glabrous. 
Stigma White, yehow or pinkish. Capsule 10-12 mm.: in dia meter. Fl. 3-5. 

Usually on leguminous crop-plants. Malta and Gazo: very common, often damaging 
a whole field oi : Vicia faba- (ful) (S, & C.G.; Borg; Woscley): Gotivino: (Borg; G. 
Lahfranco; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region; W. Asia. 

6. O. jjubeseens D'Urv. 

O. versicolor F.W: Schultz 

■Buijebbus mus-waf. 
Hairy Broomrape 

Stems 15-50 x 0.4-0.7 cm., variably swollen at base, glandular-pubescent .pale 
yellow, often tinged with pink. Leaves 10-^23 mm. long, oblong to linear-laaceolate. 
Spike 7-22 x 2-4 cm., rather lax, acuminate; calyx 8-10 mm. long, segments free 
or almost free, usually equally bifid. Corolla 10 J 20 mm. long, villous, pale yellow, 
tinged with violet aboye, erecto-patent, tubular, more or less uniformly curved; 
upper lip more or less entire; lower lip not or sparsely ciliate, the middle lobj 
the larger. Filaments hairy below, usually glabrous above, inserted 3-4 mm. 
above base of corolla; anthers glabrous. Stigma violet. Capsule 8-10 mm. in 
diameter, Fl. 4-5: 

On Composites arid Urn be llijer a e, perhaps also on Legurtiiuosae. Malta:, frequent 
at Wied Qirda, St! Paid's Bay, Ta' Baldu, Vvied Babu (S. & C.G.; Borg); Floriana 
(Borg); Magfitab (Gauci & E. Laulranco); Hal Bajjada (Rabat) (Wolseley), G07.0; 
Mgarr ix-Xini (S. & C.G.; Borg); Nadur (Borg). Comiuo; .(B. & GG.i: 

S.E, Europe extending locally westwards to S.E. France; S.W. Asia. 

7. O. detisillora Salzm, ex Reuter 

D ens e - lio we re d 'Er 6 om r a pe 

Stems 15-40 x 0.6-0,8 cm-, more or less strongly swollen at base, glandular- 
pubescent but more or less glabresceut below, ? reddish. Leaves 20-30 mm. long, 
oblong -lanceolate, acute. Spike 5-10 x 3-3,5 cm,, dense, glandular- pubescent to more 
or less villous; bracts 1520 mm. long, lanceolate, acuminate. Calyx 7-12 mm. long; 
segments free or shortly connate at base, unequally bifid. Corolla IQ-ia mm. long, 
glandular-puberulent to suhglabrous, yellowish, erecto-patent to more or less 
patent, tubular, slightly curved; upper lip emarginate to 2-lobed; lobes of lower 
lip subequal, not ciliate. Filaments sparsely hairy below, more or less glabrous 
above, inse'rted 1.54 mm. above base of corolla, with wide, more or less deiiate 
base; anthers glabrous. Stigma yellow. Capsule 8-9 mm. iii diameter. 


"■ii Lj1-.;s *i ■ilaphilus. Malta: rare on s;;.ndy sea shore at Mar-fa. Gbadira (S.-& 

C.G.; Borg). 

S. Portugi!!; S.W. Spain; Morocco. 

8, O. canesecns C. Presl 

bellow Broomrape 

Sterns 10-70 (-100) x 0.3-1 cm., variably swollen at base, gland ular- pubescent 
to villous, yellowish, more or less tinged with purple, red or brown. Leaves 10-25 
mm. long, ovate. Spike 3-30 x 2-4 em., usually lax below, more or less dense above, 
glandular- pubescent; bracts 10-20 mm, long, lanceolate, acuminate. Calyx 8-16 mm. 
long; segments usually unequally bifid. Corolla 12-18 mm. long, glandular -pubescent 
to subglabrous, yellow tinged with red; upper lip emarginate or 2-Iobed; lower 
lip with subequal lobes- filaments inserted 3-4.5 mm. above base of corolla, hairy 
below (sometimes sparsely), subglabrous above; anthers glabrous. Stigma yellow. 
Capsule 3-10 mm. Fl. 3-5, 

On Compositae. Malta: old cemetarlss at Floriana according to Delicata (Borg). 
C. and V„ parts of Mediterranean region. 

U. O. loifciifa Ecjchenb. 

O. plcridis F.W. Schultz ex Koch 

Ox-t.ongue Broomrape 

Stems 10-70(100) x 0.3-1 cm., variably swollen at bass, glandular-pubescent 
to villous, yellowish, more or less tinged with purple, red or brown. Leaves 1025 
mm. long, narrowly lanceolate. Spike 3-30 x 2-4 cm., usually lax below, more or less 
dense above, glandular-pubescent; bracts 12-20 mm. long, lanceolate, acuminate. 
Calyx 10-15 mm. long; segments, unequally bifid, rarely entire. Corolla 14-22 mm. 
long, glandular-pubescent or puberulent or subglabrous, white or pale yellow, 
tinged and veined with violet; upper lip emarginate to bifid; lobes of the lower 
lip subecnisl or the middle larger. Filaments inserted 3-5 ram above base of 
corolla. Stigma purple. Capsule 8-10 nim. in diameter. Zn = c. 38. Fl. 4-5. 

On Leguminosae. Umbelliferae and Comvositae. Malta: frequent (S. & C.G.; Borg), 
Gozo: (Berg). Comino:'(S, & CO.; Borg). 

S.., W. and C. Europe, extending to Denmark, N. Africa and Palestine. 

10, O. minor- Sm. 

Q. barbata sansu Borg 

Common Broomrape 

Stems 10-70 (-100) x 0-3-1 cm., variably swollen at base, glandular pubescent to 
villous, yellowish, more or less tinged with purple, red or brown. Leaves 10-25 
mm. longj ovate to linear- lanceolate. Spike 3-30 x 24 cm., usually lax beiow, more 
or less dense above, glandular-pubescent; bracts 7-15 mm. long, lanceolate, acum- 
inate. Calyx 7-12 mm. long; segments equally or unequally bidentate or entire, 
free. Corolla 10-18 mm, long, ereeto-patent to more or less patent, tubular or 
narrowly campanulate, curved or nearly straight, glandular-pubescent or sub- 
glabrous, pale yellow, usually tinged with dull violet distally; upper lip emarginate 
to 2-Iobed; lower lip with sube qua 1 lobes or the middle tlra largest, not ciliate. 
Filaments inserted 2-3 mm. above base of corolla, hairy below, subglabrous above; 
anthers glabrous. Stigma purple, rarely yellow. Capsule 8-10 mm. long. 2k = 38, 
Fl. 3-4. 

Parasitic mostly on Lcguminosae and Cofnposiias:, Malta: infrequent (Borg; G. 
Lanfranco). Gozo: more frequent as at TV cene, Mgarr ix-Xini, Sannat, Xlendi, 
Xaghra (.Borg). 
W„ S. & SC. Europe; S.W. Asia; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands. 


II. O. elausoiiis Pomel 

Glandular Broomrape 

Stems 15-40 x 0.3-0.5 cm., slightly swollen at base, glandular-pubescent, yellow- 
ish. Leaves 5-15 mm. long, ovate to lanceolate, acute. Spike dense, becommg 
more or less lax, glandular-pubescent; bracts 3-15 mm. long, ovate to lanceolate, 
acuminate. Calyx 5-8 mm. long; segments connate for abOLsi Ii;iU r/tiiaj- length, 
equally bifid with broadly triangular, acute teeth. Corolla ''!<;■-) J 5-15 nrm. long, 
glandular-pubescent, yellow, ereeto-patent, somewhat curved, the upper !.'-P mors 
or less entire, the. lobes of the lower lip subequal, no!, ciliate. Filaments sparsely 
hairy below, glabrous above, inserted (.!-} 3 mm. above base of corolla. Antissrs 
glabrous. Stigma orange to purple. Fl. 4-5, 

On Rubiacaae. . Malta: collected once at St. Paul's Ray (S. &- C.G.; Borg). 

Spain; Portugal; Malta; Algeria. 

32.. O. hederae Duby Tvy Broorarapc 

Stems 15-60 x 0.3-0,8 cm., usually strongly swollen at base, glandular- pubescent, . 
yellow to reddish-purple. Leaves 12-30 mm. long, oblong t-j lanceolate, acate. Spike 
10-40 x 2.5-4 cm,, lax, glandular-pubescent; bracts 13-22 mm. long, lanceolate.. 
acuminate. Calyx 10-15 mm. long; segments tree, entire, or unequ&ny bifid. Corcila 
10-22 mm. long, subglabrous, rarely glandular-pubescent, dull cream, (inged dista.iiy 
with reddish -purple, ereeto-patent, to more or less patent; tube somewhat inflated 
below, gradually narrowed to the mouth, nearly straight; lips patent, the upper 
entire to emarginate, the lower not ciliate, with middle lobe usually the larger. 
Filaments more or less glabrous, rarely somewhat hairy below, inserted ?,-i mm. 
above base of corolla; anthers glabrous. Stigma y si low. Capsule 10-12 mm. in 
diameter. 2n = 38. PI, 3-6. 

On Hetlera helix. M.att<i: in the ditches of Valletta and Floriana, San Anton. Bus 
kett. Ta' Baldu (Borg); Addolorata and Ta' Sraxia cemetery (Borg; G, Lanfranoo), 
Goto: rare at Mgarr (Borg). 

Mediterranean region, northwards to Iceland. 
13. O. wrydpliyllacca ^ ra - 

Stems 15-50 x 0.4-0.8 cm,, slightly swollen at base, glandular-hairy, yellowish 
or purplish. Leaves 15-30 mm. long, narrowly triangular-lanceolate, sent?. Spike 
6-20 x 2 5-4 cm., usually lax, glandular-pubescent, pink or pale yellow, variously 
tinged with dull purple, ereeto-patent. narrowly campanulate, uniformly curved; 
upper lip emarginate; lower lip with subequal, glandular-cih'ate lobe?. Filaments 
hairy, inserted l-3(-5) mm. above bas« of corelht; antiiers glabrous. Stigma purple.. 
Corolla 9-12 mm. in diameter, 2n = 38. Fl. 4-5. 

Malta: at San Anton according to Gulia (Borg). 

Europe, northward:-; to the Netherlands and S.C. Russia. 

.B.edsiraw Broomrape 

14. O. sanguimea C. Presl 
O. crinita Viv, 

Bloody Broomrape 

Stems 10-40 x 0.3-0.7 cm., swollen at base, yellow or purp- 
lish-red. ^Leaves 12-35 mm. long, narrowly lanceolate to linear-oblong, dense, cs 
pecially below. Spike 5-15 x c. 2.5 cm., glabdular pubescent, dense: bracts 8-15 
mm. long triangular-lanceolate, acuminate; flowers scentless. Calyx 7 -.10 mm. Jong: 


segments sliortly connate at base, unequally bilobed. Leaves -2,5-5 >l I'.'. 
obovat*. dark green above, obtuse and muerohate at ape;;,, serrate iii dist 
Flowers in dense (J) 5- to -8- flowered cynics; pedicels up to 10 mm. loiis*. s 
Calyx 2-3 mm. long, divided into lanceolate lobes. Coroila white, v.-ritii sma.U 
spots.; tube 4 5 mm. long; limb 10-12 mm. in diameter. Stamens E. i-Yuij i 
irrng; limb 1C 12 mm, in diameter. Stamens 5-. Fruit 4-6 mm. long, gSobcwo. 

Parasitic oii Leguminosae. Malta- and Gozo: very rare Maria; Mellieh-a 
■Ghatlira- (E. ranfraneo). 

South Europe mid Algeria. 

.a cm., 


-o mm. 
FI. 4-6. 



Shrubs or small trees. Leaves simple, entire, oxstipulate. Flowers hermaphrodite, 
li-merc-us. Calyx deepiy.lobed. Corolla with a. .short tube and weakly zygornorphic 
limb. Stamens 4-5, inserted on the corolla-tube and alternating with the lobes. 
Ovary superior, 2 in lij iocuiar; style filiform; ovules usually 1. or 2 in each 
io cuius. Fruit it drupe. 

1. Myoporum Solander ex G. Forster. 

.Evergreen trt?es or shrubs. Leaves .alternate . rarely opposite, entire or. serrate, 
wiifi numerous pellucid glands. Flowers small, axillary, solitary or clustered in 
cymes. Calyx 5-tobed. Corolla campanula! e-hypoeraterii'orm with a short tube 
and S patent lobes, often bearded. Stigma obtuse. Fruit a scarcely fleshy drupe. 

L M. te trim ds'um (Labill.) Domin 

Mi sewa-iii-m It, Br. 

Toothed Myoporum 

Shrub .up to & m. high; . bark brownish -grey, minutely fissured. Leaves' 2.5-5- x 
1-2.-5 cm., obovato, dark green above, obtuse and mucronate at apex, serrate 
in distal half. Flowers in dense <1 : )5- to D-flowered cymes; pedicels UP to 10 mm, 
long, slender. Calyx 2-3 mm. long, divided into lanceolate lobes. Corolla white, 
with small purple spots; Lube 4-5 ram, long; limb 10-1.2- mm. in diameter. Stamens 
5, Fruit 4-B mm;' long, globose. Ft. 4-6. 

Malta and Go~-o: planted i'or ornament along roads and sometimes found natural- 
ised IBorg). 

Native of Australia and. Tasmania. ' '■ 



Annual to perennial herbs! Leaves usually in basal rosettes, sometimes opposite or 
alternate, exslipulate. Flower (2-)4-numerous, ac tin amorphic, hermaphrodite or 
sometimes unisexual, bracteate, usually in spikes. Sepals connate at base, persistent. 
Corolla gamopetalous, scarious. Filaments long; anthers conspicuous. Ovary 
superior, 1-to 4-locu'lar; style 1; ovules 1- to many, axile or basal. a eircum- 
sc.issiie capsule or indehiseent; seed endospermic, with straight embryo, often 
■ mucilaginous when wet, 

1, Plantago L. 

Terresiial annuals, biennials or perennials. Leaves in basal rosettes, or opposite 
or alternate on branched. stems, Flowers 4-merous, in spikes on distinct peduncles. 


mostly hermaphrodite. Corolla-lobes usually patent or defle?:od, 
on corolla-tube. Ovary 2- to 4-loculai" ovules 2- many. Capsule 

Stamens inserted 

i. Stems long, leaves opposite 

Steins short, leaves alternate, forming a radical rosette 

2. Corolla tube glabrous 

2. Corolla tube hairy 

3. Seeds numerous 
■ ■ Seeds 2 '' 

4. Scapes sulcate 
Scales terete 

5. Perennial with branched stock 
Annual with simple stock 

G. Perennials with branched stock 

Annual with, simple stock (sometimes with several 


7. Leai'' axils more or. less glabrous 
Lea' axils densely villous 

8. Leaves with prominent median veins on the lower 

Leaves without prominent median veins 

. . : Subgen, Flawtago 
Leaves in basal rosettes or alternate. 

9. al'ra 

1. major 


■ 5. 



lance ola In 


Jag op us 







■ s. 





i. P. majsv L. 

Bi&btila kbira 
Greater Plantain 

Perennial with one or few rosettes. Leaves ■ .(1.5-).5-30(-40i.s (.t>.5-)3-I0(-15) cm.; 
lamina ovate or elliptical, distinctly 3- to 9-veiiied, obtuse, entire or irregularly 
dentate, glabrous or piiberiilent; petiole up to as long as lamina. Scapes usually 
several, (3)lO-50{-70) cm, long: equalling or exceeding leaves, erect or ascending, 
terete, with appressed or ereeto-patent hairs; spikes about as long as or shorter 
than the rest of scape, usually dense. Bracts 1-2 mm. long, ovate, glabrous, green, 
with narrow 7 scarious margin. Sepals 1.5-2,5 mm. long, exceeding bracts, obovate 
to ovate-elliptical, obtuse, green, with keeled mid-vein and scarious margin. 
Corolla-tube c. 2 mm. long, glabrous, persistent until fruiting; lobes c. 1 mm. 
long, lanceolate toovate, subobtuse, glabrous, yello wis h- white. Stamens 4-5 mm. 
long, exserted 2-3 mm,, anthers pale lilac, becoming yellowish. Capsule 2-4 mm. 
long, subglobose to conical; seeds (4-16-34, 1-1.5 mm. long, ellipsoid-trigonous, 
blackish -brown, weakly rugose. Fl, 3-11. 

Two subspecies occur. Subsp. major has the leaves with 5-9 veins and seeds 
(4-)8-10(-13). Subsp, intermedia (Godron) Arcangeli (var. paludosa Ledeh.) has 
the leaves with 3-5 veins and seeds 14-34, 

Damp, shady valley bottoms. Malta: local (G. Lanfranco), as at Buskett, Mtahleb 
(S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley}; Wied Geriuma, Girgenti, Gnejna, (S. & C.G.; Borg); 
Bahrjja, Gnien Ingraw, San Anton (Borg). Gozo: Xlendi, il-Lunzjata (S. & C,G.; 
Borg); Mgarr ix-Xini (Borg; Wolseley). : 

Europe; N. and C. Asia; naturalised throughout most of the world. 


2. F, coronopus L, 

Salib 1-art 
Buck's-horfl Plantain 

Annual, biennial or perennial with one or few rosettes. Leaves 3-2fi x 0.5-2 cm., 
numerousi all basal, linear to lanceolate in outline, dentate te 1- to a-piimatifid, 
occasionally entire, glabrous to sparsely pubescent, sessile, sheathing at base, 
densely tomentose in leaf axils, Hcapes numerous, 0.54 cm. high; arcuate-ascending 
or decumbent, shorter than or exceeding leaves, terete, more or less appressed- 
hairy. Spikes 1-5 s 0.3-0.5 tin., cylindrical, dense. Bracts 2.5-3 mm. long, not or 
scarcely exceeding the calyx, ovate, often long acuminate, sometimes ossvuse and 
oppressed, occasionally with spreading points, keeled with broad scarious lamina 
and stiffly ciliate margins. Sepals unequal, posterior 2 broadly ovate -obtuse, 
connate at least at base, with mid-vein Keeled and green and scarioas margins 
broad, colourless and with rigid eilia. Corolla tube c, 2 mm. loiig, pubescent, lobes 
c. 1 mm. long, ovate, acute or acuminate, without -a midrib, brownish. Stamens 
pale yellow. Capsule c. 4 mm. long, 3-iocu]ar. Seeds 3-6, c. 1 mm. 

Two subspecies occur. Subsp. coronopus has the scapes exceeding thra leaves and 
bracts abruptly attenuate into a long apex. 2n. = 10. Subsp. eomviiutata (Gwss.) 
Pilgcr has the scape shorter than or equalling tiie leaves and the bracts ovale and 
more or less acute, 2% -■■■ 20. 

Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common (S, & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 
Corrnnotto: (Duihie Borg). 

Coasts of Europe from Mediterranean to 8. Sweden; N. Africa; W. Asia; 
Islands; introduced in N. America, Australia, New Zealand. 


3. P. maciwhiza Foirct Perennial Buck's-hcro PliiUta'iii 

P. coronopus var. macrorhiza (Poiret) Fiori 

var'. ceratophyila (Hoffmans. & Link) Fiori 

Differs from P. c.oronopus in being perennial with woody rhizomes, often short- 
ly branched; tufted; leaves thick, rigid, obiong-spathulate to linear, with dentate 
margins as in P. c.oronopus, median vein not apparent; scape plus spike equalling 
or slightly longer than leaves; spikes 2-5(7) cm. long, usually narrowly -conical; 
bracts c. 4 mm: long, seta ceo us -a cumin ate, with spreading points. 2n =-30. Fl. 3-10 

Arid places, valleys and country roadsides^ Malta: rather rare at. Marfa 

Bahar ic-Caghaq (Borg). 

C. & W. Mediterranean region. 


4. P. scrraria L. 

Plate XT.JI 



Robust perennial with one or lew rosettes. Stems short and thick. Leaves 
numerous, 8.1i> x 0.6-1,5 cm., lanceolate, acute, regularly serrate, with 8-13 subulate- 
lanceolate teeth on both sides, diminishing towards apex of leaf; glabrous to 
pubescent, veins 3, conspicuous, base broad.- and sheathing. Scapes numerous c. 
5(-J8), 6-1S5 cm. long, equalling or exceeding leaves, arc uat-j-a seen ding to decum- 
bent, terete, more or less hairy. Spike (5-J6-10 x 0.3-0.4 em., narrowly cylindrical, 
dense. Bracts 2.5-3 mm. long, shorter than calyx, ovate, obtuse to subacute, with 
narrow keel and thick, rigidly ciliate, scarions margins. Sepals .unequal, dorsalty 
more or less hairy; posterior 3.5 mm. long, cymbiform with winged concave teal 
and more or less equal scarious margins; anterior sepals 3 m. long, almost fiat, 
with wide, thick, keel and scarious, unequal margins. Corolla tube 4 mm. long, 
narrow below, shortly villous; lobes 1.25-1.5 mm. long, narrow to widely OTate-acnte. 
Seeds 2-4, 1-1.5 mm. 2b == 10, Fl. 3-5. 


Valleys and waste-places, Malta, -Gozo and Comino: common (S. & C.G.; Borj 
G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region. 
5. P. lanceolata L. 

Bizbu'la sal 
Ribwort Pi; 


ap press sd- 
:!rt into a 
~evcra! or' 

sets £.5-3.5 
e. in-own, 
mm. iong, 

Perennial with several rosettes;' lateral, roots up to 0.75 mm. thick. Leave 1 
2-30 x 0.3-3.5 cm., usually linear lanceolate to lanceolate, acute, 3-tc 5-'{i:o 7-) veined 
entire or remotely and shallowly dentate, subglabrotts, more or less 
pubescent, or villous with white hairs, sessile or gradually nai.TO'.v 
petiole up to as long as the lamina, usually sheathing at base and win;.; 
villous in axils. Scapes 5-70 cm. long, about twice as long as leaves. 
many, erect, ascending or decumbent, strongly 5- sulcata, more or less 
hairy; spikes 0.5-5(-8) cm. long, globose, to cylindrical, very dense. Br 
mm., not or scarcely exceeding calyx, ovate, more or less acuinissa 
glabrous or shortly hairy, keeled with se.-irious margins.. Sepsis 
ovate, obtuse <>r greenish or brown with wide scarious margins, usuaiiy 
ciliate above, with prominent often shortly hairy keel; anterior sepals connate for 
JYiosi of their length but their midrib separate, Corolla-Lube 2 3 mm. long, gfsbraus: 
lobes 1.5-2.5 mm. long, lanceolate to ovate, acute or aeumhiate, i-rowris.h, gJ.Libvm';.' 
Stamens 5-8 mm. long, lanceolate to ovate, acute or acuminate, brownish, glabrous; 
ovate-ellipsoid; seeds 2, c. 2 mm. long, oblong, concave-convex blackish svnno'n 
shiny. 2n = 12. Fl, 3-5. 

Valleys and humid places. -Motto; locally common (G. Lanfranco), as al j-Jtahleb, 
Buskett (S. & C.G.; Borg; Wolseley); Fiddien, Gneina (S. & C.G., Borg!; Picta", 
Baftrija (Borg). Gozo; Wied il-Lunzjata (Borg). 

Europe; N, and C. Asia; introduced inmost other temperate coiuii.rios. l>;ss frequent 
in the tropics. 

G. P. lagppus L, 


Mediterranean Plantain 

Differs from P. lanceolata in plant being annual, with- one rosette. sometimes 
with stem up to 10(-20) cm. high; leaves usually remotely dentate, subgl.abrous to 
villous with yellowish hairs, densely villous in axils; scapes finely snlcnle (slraibi): 
bracts ovate-lanceolate, acute, together with the sepals densely viUous- in apical 
half with hairs protruding beyond .apex so that whole mfloresciincio appears viJios-s; 
corolla-lobes long-acuminate, usually sparsely hairy; capsule c. 2.5 mm. long; seeds 
c. 1.5 mm. in diameter, brown. 2» ~ 12. Fl. 2-5. 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common (&, & C.G.; 
Borg; G, Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 

7. P, albicans Ij. 

Downy PI a in tain 

Suhcaesnitose perennial with branches 1-7 cm. hitth densely covered with leaf 
bases and terminal rosettes. Leaves in rosettes at apex of branches. (;>-)5-i5 s 
{0,2 -10.5-0.8 (-1.3) cm,, linear-lanceolate to almost linear, acute, entire, often un- 
dulate, obscurely 3-veined, gradually narrowed at base and sheathing, sometimes 
somewhat petiolate. more or less densely sericeous-lanate. Scapes TO-Bii cm. long, 
about twice as long as leaves, erect or ascending, terete, tomentose; spikes 


f\-i?- x (} r-n lone, shorten rest of zes?c, dsn.v3 er lax above or interrupted 
beloiv EcactP 2.5-4.5 mm. long, ovate, obtuse, broadly kesled with wiae soanous 
p-iai-gi'-." <:i">Ttly v'lioua at least at spas, green or brownish. Sepals 3-4 ram. long, 
subdual, oblong-ovate, subobtuse, with wide scarious margins, weakly keeled to 
tiw apex visions towards apex. Corolla-tube 3-4 mm. long, ■ glabrous;; lo-es 2..)-d.& 
mm long, ovate, abruptly acuminate, pale brownish, glabrous. Stamens 7-10 mm. 
lorn* exwrtel 4-7 mm.; anthers white. Capsule c. 4 mm. long, ovoiu; se-eds 2, 
3.i?5' mm. Ions, cymbiform, concave-convex, brownish, slightly rough, scarcely. 
shinv 2n. --■ 20, ?3U. Fl. 4-5, 

Roadsides, -paths and walls. Mefe; rare at Xcmxija (S & C.G., Bor S>; ^loriana 
glacis- iG. LanEranco). Gozo: the citadel walls at Rabat (Duthie, S.. & C.G., Bug). 

MfidikCvreneuii region; W. Asia. 

K. V. fcsiisrts Ail 

'Hairy Plantain. 

At^uat with one or few rosettes. Leaves 2-7<-10j x 0.1-0.5 em., linear- lanceolate, 
iH- ; -ite. omhe or remotely denticulate, 3-veined, laxly to densely villous with more 
or less patent hairs, gradually narrowed at base and, sheathing. Scapes usually 
1 7, 3-.i.ih-15'j on. high, 'equalling or' longer than leaves, ascending or erect, terete,' 
dense'iv p-i'.ent hairy with both long and short, brownish hairs; spikes 1-2 (-4) 
cm loW, ovoid or oblong, dense. Bracts 3-6 mm. (the lower up to. 8 mm.) long, 
ohiong-'taiifooiate. subacute, with -scarious margin narrower .than greenish keel, 
villous, fepair: unequal, almost tree, subacute, keeled, villous, the anterior 4-5 mm. 
long, with -vcrv narrow scarious margin; the posterior 3-4 mm.- long., with wide 
scarious margin. CoroUa-tube c. 3.5 mm. long, glabrous; lobes c. 2 mm. long, ovate- 
Janoc-olate, acuminate, pale brownish. Stamens c, 5 mm. long, exscrted e, 2 mm., 
anthers white. Capsule c. 2.5 mm ; long, globose -oblong; seeds 2, c. 1.75 mm. long, 
broadly oblong-ellipsoid; pale brown, reticuiate-alveolate, dull, concave -crtnveM with 
narrow groove. 2n. = 10, Fl. 3-5. 

A ■■■id i=tnay places Malta: St, Andrews, St. Paul's Bay, Maria Peninsula (S. & C.G.; 
Borgh Itanar Ic-Oagliaq G3crg).. (iozo: TV tenc, Nadur, Xaghra (S. & C.G.; Borg); 

Ghajnsieism (Corg). 

Mediterranean region, W. Asia: ' 

S-ubgeii. P&yhian.* (.lussj 'Harms. Leaves opposite ■ on branched stems. 

». r. 

P. %,syaiv.m U 1762J non L. 1753. 

zerrighet il-brigtiet 
Glandular Plantain 

Annual; stems up to 50 em. high, erect, usually with ascending branches, 
straight shortly pubescent, with patent or ascending hairs, glandular- pubescent 
above Leaves 38 \ <H-0.3(-0.4) cm, linear or linear-lanceolate, obtuse, eratire or 
remotely dentate, not fleshy, pubescent. Peduncles 1-6 cm. long, scabrid puberulent 
with ascending hairs; spikes 0,54.5 cm. long, globose to ovoid-oblong. Bracts d.5-8 
mm long ovate lanceolate to lanceolate, acute or acuminate, with wide scarious 
margins below, without lateral veins. Sepals 3-4.5 mm. long, equal, oblanceolate, 
with wide scarious margins. Corolla-tube 3.5-4 mm. long, lobes, c, 2 mm. long, 
ovate-lanceolate, acute. Capsule c, 2 mm. long, ovoid; seeds c. 2.5 mm. in diameter, 
narrowly oblong, reddish or blackish-brown, smooth, shiny. 2b = 12. Fl. 1-5. 

Cultivated and waste places: Malta and Gazo: very common (S. & C.G.; Borg; G- 
Laniraneo; Wolseley). 
Mediterranean region; W. Asia, 




Woody plants (rarely herbaceous). Leaves opposite. Stipules 0, or small and adnate 
to petiole (rarely conspicuous). Inflorescence cymose. Flowers (3-)5-merous, 
epigynous, usually actinomorphic. Calyx small. Corolla gamopetalous. Stamens 5, 
epipetalous, alternating with corolla lobes; anthers longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 
1- to 5-carpellary; style 1 or absent; stigmas free or united. Ovules 1 to numerous, 
pendulous, anatropous. Friiit a berry, drupe or achene, rarely a capsule. Seeds 
endospermic, with small straight embryo! 

Leaves pinnate; fruit black 
Leaves simple; fruit red 

.1. Sambucus 
2. Lonicera 

J. Sambucus L. . 

Shrubs or small trees, rarely herbs. Stems with a large pith. Leaves pinnate, 
deciduous, stipulate or exstlpulate. Flowers (3-15- merous, small, regular, in 
cymose corymbs or panicles. Corolla rotate. Stament?5. Stigma sessile, 3' to 5-lobed, 
Ovary 3-5-Iocular. Fruit a drupe with 3-5 compressed, cartilaginous, 1- seeded 

Herb; stipule leafy, conspicuous 

Shrub or. small tree; stipules absent or very small 

1. cbulus 

2. nigra 

1. S. ebulus L. Sebbuqa salvagga 

Dwarf Elder 

Perenniah foetid, glabrous herb 60-200 cm. high, with creeping rhizome, stems 
many, stout,, erect, grooved, simple or little branched. Leaflets 5-13, 5-16 x 1-4.5 
cm., oblong or oblong -lanceolate, acuminate, sharply serrate. Stipules conspicuous, 
more or less ovate. Inflorescence flat-topped, 7-10 cm. in diameter, corymbose 
with 3 (-4) primary rays. Corolla white, sometimes pink tinged outside Anther 
purple. Fruit globose, black, 2w = 36. Fl, .4-5, 

Humid places. Malta: rare (G. Lanfranco) as at Giiien il-Kbir, Cnlen Fieres, Kordin 
(S. & C.G.; Borg); Wied tal-Isqof (Gauei). Go^o: Xlendi, Wied il-Lunsjata (S. & C.G.; 
Borg); Cnien Xibla, near Xaghra (Borg). 

C. and S. Europe extending northwards to the British Isles; Mediterranean region; 
W. Asia to Himalaya; Madeira (probably introduced). 

2. S; nigra L. 

Plate XLIII 

Sigra tas-Sebbuqa kbira 
Common Elder 

Shrub or small tree up to 10 m. high. Bark brownish-grey, deeply furrowed, 
corky. Stems often with vigorous, erect shoots from base, branches often arching. 
Twige stout, with prominent lonticels. Leaflets 5-7(-9), 4.5-2G118) x 2-6(-)0) 
cm., ovate, ovate-lanceolate or ovate r.'liiptis, acuminate, senate sparsely pubescent 
beneath. Stipules or very small, subulate. Inflorescence flat-topped, 10-24 cm. in 
diameter, corymbose with (4-5) primary rays. Corolla c. 5 mm. hi diameter, 
creamy-white. Anthers cream. Fruit 6-8 mm. in diameter, globose, usually black. 
2n = 36, FL 6-7. 


Formerly cultivated for medicinal purposes and associated with farmsteads. Malta: 
BusKett (Borg); Ba'firija (Bannja benooij: "wied Guar Dai am' (Gauei;. -Gazo: 
Giia.iiiSielem, ^ergla (Wolseley.!. 

Europe from Scandinavia southwards; W. Asia; N. Africa; Acores. . 

(Viburnum tinus L. is frequently cultivated lor ornament {Borg). 

2. Lrtnieera L, 

Shrubs or woody climbers. Leaves opposite, deciduous or rarely evergreen, entire, 
exsiipulate. Flowers in axillary pairs, terminal heads or whorls. Bracts usually 
present. Bracteoles free or connate, rarely absent. Corolla 5-lobed, regular, Slipped 
with a 4-lobed upper lip; tube sometimes gibbous. Stamens d. Stigma capitate. 
Ovary 2- to 3-(to 5-) locular, the walls of the ovaries of paired flowers sometimes 
united. Fruit a berry. 

1. L, implexa Aiton 

Plate XLU. 

Evergreen Honeysuckle 

Evergreen, much branched. Twigs glabrous, glaucous. Leaves 2-8 s. (1-) 2-4 
cm., ovate to oblong, acute or subacute and mueroruilate at apex, usually auriculate 
sit base, sessile or connate on the upper part of the twigs, dark green and shining 
above, glaucous beneath, usually glabrous. Inflorescence sessile, with' 2-6G9) 
flowers. Corolla (1.8-)2:5-4.5 cm. long, v/hitish-yellow, often tinged with red; tube 
3-4 times as long as limb, glanduiar-puberulent outside and pubescent within. 
Style sericeous. Berries red. Fl, 4-5. 

Rocky valleys amongst shrubs, Malta: locally frequent (G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 
as at Mtahleb, Ballut (S. & C.G.); Wied Bnbu, Ta' Baldu, Maqluba, Wied Geriuma 
(S. & C.G.; Borg); Buskett, Mellieha, Wardija, Ahrax, Pwales, Bahrija (Borg). 
G020; Mgarr ix-Xini, Wied Qorrqt (S. & C.G.; Borg); Mgarr near Fort Chambray, 
Nadur, Xlcndi (Borg). 

Mediterranean region. 

Lonicera eaprifolium L. is often cultivated in gardens (Borg). 


Anriual to perennial herbs, sometimes woody at the base, often with strong smel- 
ling rhizomes. Leaves opposite, whoried or basal, exstipulate. Inflorescence cymosc, 
often capitate. Flowers generally small, usually zygomorphic, hermaphrodite or 
unisexual. Calyx often inrolled in flower and forming a feathery pappus hi fruit. 
Corolla infundibuliform, the limb with (3-)5 mm. or less unequal lobes. Stamens 
1-4, inserted near the base of the corolla r tube, alternating'with corolla lobes. Ovary 
3-locular, 2 locull sterile, the other with 1\ pendulous ovule. Fruit dry, indeblscent, 
usually with a persistent, often accrescent calyx; seed 1, endospermic, with straight 

1. Corolla tube spurred near base or prominently gibbous 
near the middle, stamen 1 

Corolla tube without a spur , not or obscurely gibbous; 
stamens 2-3 

2, Corolla zygomorphic; stamens 2, or 3 with 2 connate 
Corolla actinomorphic; stamens 3 

. -30S 

3. Cctitrant litis 

1. Fed la 

2. Valerianclla 

1. F'erJia lii^oncb 

Annual. Leaves simple. Inflorescence cvpviso rmnv (■(,,-,-, ,■,-,( -i 

n.apbrodite. Calyx- seamen is 2-4. Cor. a S c" stb^u^Z Z^ 

1. V. cormicopiae (L.) Gaertner 

Plate XLUI 

Sicrtj il-iifiHiiema 

Plant glabrous, somewhat succulent. Stems 3-30 cm hi?h ,-..,v-,v ■-,, u ■ 
Leaves spathulate to eHipUcal, the lower 2-15 ™° i %, ' < t^i L " Sic 

Coro a ^lf mJT" Sma11 ?" ^ le > d ^ H ^"to. Peduncles' I il ^ ' n n, " 
Corolla 8-16 mm long, purple with pin kmarkmgs on the limb ArWie*- n Ji 
broadly ovoid; loculi usually larger than fertile. Fl. f£ jVliu " 1Lh ' U0i » l J 

Cultivated and' waste plaees.-AToKa, Go;o and Comino: very common i? fi C fi ■ 
Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley.) . ",irmj,jri ..„. ,>. t„i.„ 

Mediterranean region. 

2. Vaierianeila Miller . 

Small annuals with apparently dichoUnnous branching Firn-^ ^liW-,, ■ - 
forks of. the branches and in terminal hra-t^Y,; "' tn ^ dl * solitary . m tne 

t™^orfu,inel-shapet^m^™^ ^ !^ * 

actinomorphic not spurred or saccate 7^^^^'^^^ 
Lsceded loculus and two distant, but- sometimes smalt st^e l ™7a e ' 

'1. Calyx limb in fruit about as long as fruit, with 5 

tnanguUr ruminate lobes frequently hooked at ; ,«sx n c ., rrn - h 

Calyx limb in fruit, not as above ' t,m,nau 

2. Calyx in fruit with 3-D, distinct, but unequal, teeth 
Calyx in fruit subentire, inconspicuous, or absent 

3. Fruit nearly quadrangular in section 
Fruit ovoid or ovoid-obconical 

4. Calyx limb shorter than fruit 
Calyx limb more or less equalling fruit 

eric carp a 

1. caiiiiafe 

3. micro ear pa 

4, truncal;* 

I. V. carinata Lois. 

Keel-fruited Comsalat 

Plant 7-40 cm. high, slender, glabrous. Leaves 2-7 cm Ion- lower smff,nhf P 
upper oblong entire or somewhat dentate. Cymes capitate Flowers t Fn ml ^ 
lilac. Calyx indistin.tly 1-toothed. Fruit c. 2 x 0.75 mm. oblong r^arlt c adr™ 

Gozo: Mgarr (Gulia; Borg). 

W. & C. Europe; Mediterranean region. 

2. V. eriocarpa Desv. 

Plate XLTII 

Hairy-fruited Cnnisralad 

^^ Slm ^ ■■ 6 , V - J , ca ? nata in general appearance. Stems rather rough Cyme- verv 
dense. Calyx in fruit distinct, as broad as the fruit, oblique, strongly net v^inccl 


Small-fruited Cornsalad 

deeply 5-6-toothed, teetb su.beg.ual. Fruit c, 1 mm. long, oblong; more or toss 
lii^piu, fertile locuius many times larger than the distant sterile ones. 2w = 14. 
Fl. 3-4. 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta and Gozo: frequent (S. & C.G.; Borg; G, 
i,anfranco; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region. 

3. V. micro carp a. Lois. 
V, puberula DC. 

Stems 5-23 cm. high, glabrous, branches patent, dichotomous. Lower leaves 
oblong entire, upper linear, sometimes dentate below. Flowers in dense corymbs. 
Calyx 'limb short, entire, obliquely truncate, or with an ear-shaped, obtuse ap- 
pendage shorter than the fruit. Corolla blue. Fruit rather small, ovoid, puberulent, 
■ribbed on the lateral face, and with a P r o tr Lib e ranee and depression on the ventral 
one, FL 4-5: 

Malta: rare (G. Laniraneo), as at peninsula of Marfa in sandy ground near the 
sea (S. & C.G.; Borg). 

Mediterranean region. 

4. V. truncuta Betcke 

Oblique- fruited Cornsalad 

Stems 5-23 tin, high, erect, slightly rough at angles; branches patent, dichoto 1 
metis, frequently to base. Lower leaves oblong-obcvate, entire, upper linear- oblong, 
sometimes slightly dentate at base, hispid along margin and dorsal neryature. 
Flowers in dense corymbs: Calyx limb rather obliquely truncate, forming: an ear- 
shaped appendage, entire or nearly so. about as long as fruit. Fruit -rather, small, 
ovoid, puberulent, weakly reticulate -veined on back and crossed on each side by a 
prominent rib, with an oval protruberance on ventral face. FL 4-5, .; ■ 

Cultivated places. Malta: much less eommon than : V.-.eriocarpa, as at Wied Girg«ntl, 
Kalafrana, tebbieh, Gnejna (SI & C.G.; Borg). Gozo; Xlendi, neighbourhood of 
Nadur, Mgarr ix-Xini (S. & C.G.; Borgi. ,■■';' \'/]' ".:- 

W.. Mediterranean region. 

V. e.oronata (L.) DC. 

Crown Cornsalad 

Steins 10-40 cm. high, erect, angular, puberulent, branches patent, dichotoiuous 
at top. Leaves filiate, dentate or deeply pirmatifid at base, lower oblong, middle 
linear lanceolate, upper linear. Flowers in subglobose corymbs, dense; bracts 
lanceolate, acute, appressed, scarious-ciliate at margin. Calyx-limb glabrous, cam- 
panulate .erect, larger than fruit and about as long, lobes 6, triangular, acuminate, 
frequently hooked at apex. Fruit oval, hairy, convex on back where crossed by 
3 ribs, ventral face with oblong protruberance. sterile parts rather narrower than 
fertile. FL 3-6. 

Malta; very rare, Kordin (Gulia; Borg). Gozo; Mgarr, Ta' Cenc {Gulia; BorgL 
C. L'uropc; Mediterranean region; W. Asia, 


3. Ceatraiithus DC. 

Herbs, usually glaucous. Leaves entire or divided, the upper sessile, the lower more 
or less petiolate. Inflorescence a dichasial cyme; flowers bracteate. Calyx with 5-25 
linear segments inrolled in flower, having the appearance of an epigynous ring, 
and developing into a plumose pappus in fruit. Corolla-tube gibbous near the 
middle or spurred near the base with an internal longitudinal membrane* from tho 
insertion of the spur to the mouth. Stamen 1. Fruit a cypsela with 1 fertile 
locuius and 2 much reduced sterile loculi, dorsiventrally compressed with 1- and 
3-veined faces. 

Perennial; leaves entire or sinuate-dentate 
Annual; at least some leaves pinnatisect 

1. ruber 

2. calcitrapa 

1. C, ruber (L.) DC, 

Toppu tar-Regina 
Red Valerian 

Perennial. Stems 30-80 cm, high, ascending, usually branched 4 Leaves 37 x (0.5) 
1-3 cm., mostly lanceolate to ovate, obtuse to acuminate, patent; uppermost some- 
times irregularly dentate, amplexicaul. Corolla red, pink-lilac or white, the tube 
(5-)7-9(-10) mm. long; spur '(2-)5-7(-9) mm. long, 2n = 32. Fl. 4-7. 

Malta; cultivated and naturalised on old walls and in gardens (Borg). 

Mediterranean region; naturalised in C. & W. Europe, 

2. C. calcilrapa <L.) Dufr. 

Plate XLII 

Pink Valerian 

Annual. Stems 4-40{-75) cm. high, simple or branched. Leaves 1-5 x 1-3 em., 
orbicular to oboyate, at least the upper lyrate-pinnatii'id, the lobes entire to serrate! 
Corolla pink or white, gibbous or shortly spurred with the spur not exceeding the 
base of the tube; tube l-2<-3) mm. long. 2u = i2, : FL 3-5, 

Rocky!, places and valleys. Malta: local as at Floriana (S, & C.G.); Wied Ineita, 
Wied Babu, Wied Qirda, Ta' Baldu,. Cnejna (S. & C.G.; Borg); Buskett (Borg; E. 
Lanfranco); Bahrija, Wied Gerzuma (Borg); Wardija (Gauei); Wied Dalam 
(Wolseley). Gozo: Mgarr ix-Xini, Wied Qorrot, Wied ir-Rihan, Mgarr (S. & C.G.; 
Borg); Xlendi, Qala (Borg). 

Mediterranean region. 


Annual to perennial herbs, rarely shrubs. Leaves opposite or vertHH ate exsti 
pulate. Flowers m a dense, cymose capitulum subtended by involucral 'bracts 
otten with marginal flowers radiate, rarely in a spike of verticil I asters Flowers' 
hermaphrodite or female, usually zygomorphic, epigynous, each with a basal 
epicalyx ( involucel .) of connate bracteoles which may be expanded dis tally into 
a corona , often subtended by a receptacular scale. Calyx small cupuliform or 
divided into 4-5 teeth or numerous teeth or rigid hairs. Corolla-lobes 4-5, subequal 
or grouped in 2 lips. Stamens 2 or 4, epipetalous, alternating with corolla-lobes 
Ovary inferior, 1-locular; ovule 1, pendulous; stigma simple or 2-3obed. Fruit dry 
mdehiscent, enclosed in epicalyx and often surmounted by persistent calyx' seed 
1. endosnermic, with straight embryo. 

Stem with prickles 
Stem without prickles 

1. Dipsacus 

2. Scabiosa 


1. I) ipsa cms L. 

Stout, biennial herbs, with spiny stems more or Iks branched above. Leaves op- 
posite, oiten connate. Caprtulum globose ic subglobose, ovoid or cylindrical. In- 
volucral bracts in If 2 series, linear or lanceolate, erect to patent, with apical 
spine, lleeeptacular scales more or less spine-Lipped. Involucel more or less 4- 
angled, united with the ovary below and ending in a short more or less 4-lohed 
cup. Calyx cupuliform, cilia te, persistent in fruit Corolla with a long to. be, un- 
equally 4- fid. Achenes 4-angled, appressed-hairy. 

D. 'fullonti'm L. 

D,: sylvestris Hudson 


Stems 50-200 cm. high, stout erect, spiny on the angles. Basal loaves in a 
rosette, oblong-elliptical or obi a nee slate, entire; eauline leaves sessile, linear-lan- 
ceolate, cvena 're-serrate, connate at base. Capitula 3-8 em. in diameter, ovoid-cylin- 
drieal. Tnvolucral bracts linear, unequal, curved upwards, the longest equalling 
or exceeding the flowers, Receptacular scales spin ose-cili ate, with a rigid, recurved, 
apical spine, equalling the flowers. Corolla pinkish-purple. Achenes 3-4 mm,, light 
brown, sulcate. 2n = 16,18. Fl. 6-7. 

Malta: Wied Geriuma (GD.; Borg) . 

Much of Europe except the north; W. Asia; N. Africa; Atlantic Islands. 

.2. Seabiosa L. 

Annual to perennial herbs, rarely woody at base: Leaves opposite, simple or 
pinnate, often in non flowering basal rosettes. Capitula Jong-pedunculate, invulueral 
bracts herbaceous, 1- to 3-seriate. Receptacle 'hemispherical -to- cylindrical; recept- 
acular bracts usually linear-lanceolate. Invoiueel-tube cylindrical, 8-ribbed, ex- 
panded above into an orbicular or infundibuliform, seabrid crown with many, 
sometimes excurrent, veins. Calyx cupuliform below, the upper part usually 
prolonged into 5 rigid hairs. Corolla with 5 unequal lobes and a short tube, 
usually longer in marginal then central flowers. 

S. a tro purpurea 1.-, 

S. maritima L. 

Plate XIJII 

Southern Scabious 

Subglabrous or somewhat hirsute biennial. Stem 20-60 cm. high, branched. 
Lower leaves oblong- spathulate, entire or lyrate, long-petiolate; middle and upper 
leaves pinnatifid, with entire or dentate segments. Capitulum 20-30 mm. in 
diameter, oblong- ellipsoid in fruit. Involueral bracts narrowly lanceolate-, wider 
towards base, as long as or shorter than flowers. Corolla of marginal flowers 12-18 
mm, long, slightly longer than the central. lilac to dark purple. Involucre tube 
hispid or subglabrous; crown about as long as tube, broadly infundibuliform; 
calyx-hairs c. 3-5 limes as long as the crown, on long stipe. All fruits with long 
calyx-hairs. 2« = 16, Fl. 5 8, 

Roadsides and waste places. Malta and Gozo: common (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. 
Lanfranco; Haslam; Wolseley). Comtrto; rare (Borg; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region. 



Herbs or email shrubs, usually with late*. Leaves usually alternate -rstinuNLe' 

valyate. fatametis-free or connate, sometimes cplpetalcus. Disc somr.tVne= ue^ I ft 
Style 1; 8 i,gma 2.-5. Ovary inferior, 2- to fi-locuiar. Capsule dehlsciiiF 7* p"r- o : 
valves. Seeds numerous. 

1, Ovary and capsule cylindrical 

Ovary and capsule ..ovoid, globose or jwrii'onn 

2. Corolla tube more than 2' mm. wide; lobes usi'MJy 

Corolla-tube c. 1 mm. wide; lobes patent 

2. Legousia 

1. Campanula 
3. TrachfiJinm 

1. Campanrva L, 

Herbs. Inflorescence 1- to many-flowered. Ovary usually obconicsl or oblorc- 
obeomcal Calyx-lobes often longer than (he ovary, with or' without append^ 
between the lobes. Corolla campanula tc. tubular, infundibuHto™ or rotate usual 
ly blue, purple or lilac. Ovary 3- to 15-locidar. Slvle without a 'cli*e at' lis bi^e 
Capitula pendulous or erect, dehiscing by pores or valves 

1. C. erhms L. 

P?a!e XLIV 

Small BeMjovrer 

nd 1C ; , t W V ^ high ' dlchotomomly branched, weakly . W ular 

and .striate. Leaves 1-2 cm. long, alternate or opposite, with ri.-id ba rs ovaf^ n- 
obovatc, crenate-dentate, sometimes slightly lobed, KC site. Wowots tevmta-S iud 

37v" ffl ! e, , C ? 1,I - te , Cre(:t " aCl ' tc ' ^^'^ anthess shorter S tr 
Pl 3-5 " a mm ' lral ~ paIe bh,e ' C ^ sllle wrceolate, pendulous. 2n = 2H. 

CulUvated and waste places, rocks and old ^alls. Malta, Go« and tWino: .om- 

S Ta' BaHif'?wJS!lP- l^v^ W?*™^ ^ ^ss common as only seen 
aria Baldu (Wolseley) and Madhena (Haslam). 

Mediterranean region; W. Asia; Atlantic Islands. 

2, Legousia Durande 

Flowers in racemes or panicls. Calyx 5-fid. Corolla 5-fld, rotate or broadlv nm 
panulate. '..tameus 5; filaments not or scarcely dilated at base- an be7s fr"c 
Ovary cyindncal, many time, longer than wide. Style puberulen stf-ws ^ 
Capsule dehiscing by 3, upward curving valves hear the ap« 

1. L. hybi'ida CD Delarbre 
Specularia hybrida (L.) A- DC. 

Plate XLIV 


Shortly hispjd annual 10-25 cm. high. Leaves oblong or oblong-obovatc. stronglv 
undulate, the lower petiolate, the upper sessile, Flowers few, sessile most" n 
.small terminal clusters. Calyx-lobes c. | as long as the ovary at flowering Urn? 
linear-lanceolate acute or obtuse, erect or erecto-patent. Corolla 7 ™ f M » £ 
calyx-lobes, reddish- purple to lilac. Capsule 15-30 mm, narrowed at top. 
Arable fields among crops. Malta: rare at Sebbieh, twileq (S. '& C.G.; Borg:: 


Hal-Farvug (Gulia; S. & C.G.; Eorg; G. Lanfranco); Mgarr, Cnejna (Borg). Gozo: 
Madonna tal-Qala (Duthie; Borg). 

W. Europe; Mediterranean region. 

3, Traclieimni L. 

Flowers in corymbs. Calyx 5-fid. Corolla tubular, with 5 ovate lobes. Stamens 5; 
liiaments glabrous; anthers free, not or little exserted. Style exserted only near 
the apex; stigmas 2-3, small. Capsule dehiscing by 2-3 pores near the base. 

L T. eaentteum L. subsp. cacruleuin 


Almost glabrous perennial with stout stock. Stems up to ICO cm. high, Woody 
at base. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, biserrwte, usually ciliolate, petiolate. Corolla- 
tube 4-6 mm. long, very slender; lobes blue. Capsule pyriform, Fl. 5-9. 

Shaded wells. Malta: naturalised in old gardens as at San Anton, Buskett (Borg). 

W. Mealier raner.n region; often cultivated for ornament. 


Herbs or sometimes woody plants of Very diverse bah it; often with latex or oil- 
canals, rarely with both. Leaves exstipulat;e. Flowers small (florets), aggregated 
into heads (capitula) simulating a single larger flower and suifoundied by ■ a ualyx* 
like involucre of one or . more rows of brciete which vary greatly in number, 
arrangement, form arid consistency. Receptacle of the head /expanded and concave, 
fiat, convex or elongated- conical, pitted ■with -.the margins of the pits flat, dentatgi 
cilhito or dentate-cilia ts, each floret sometimes subtended by scales. Florets all 
similar or central and marginal -florets difterentj ; and then the ■central : florets 
usually hermaphrodite or rarely male, the outer female or rarely ; neuter, but 
very variable. Corolla gamopetajous. variable in form but in: three, main types (il 
tubular, actinojnorphic, the corolla-tube ^mounted by 5 more or less short, equal 
teeth (ii) tubular, 2-lipped; ' (hi) tigulatef'ithe corolla-tube prolonged only along 
one side as a strap-shaped 'ligule', usually" 3- or 5- toothed at its tip. Stamens 5, 
epipetalous; their anthers often sagittate or caudate below and often with terminal 
appendages, usually united laterally so that they form a closed cylinder round 
tlie style; dehiscence introrse, into the interior of the cylinder. Ovary inferior, 
1-celled, with 1 basal anatropous ovule having a single integument; style single 
below but branching above into 2 stigmatic arms of variable length and shape. 
Fruit an ociiene crowned by a pappus ol staple or plumose hairs in one or more 
rows, or ai a smaller number of membranous scales, or of teeth, or a continuous 
membranous ring, sometimes 0; sometimes with a slender beak between achene 
and pappus. Seeds non-endospermic, usually oily. 

fl. Plant without latex; inner florets never Ugulate 
Plant with latex; all florets Ugulate 

2. Leaves and involucral bracts never spiny; style not 
thickened below the branches 
Leaves and involucral bracts often spiny; style 
thickened below the branches 

At least some leaves opposite 
All leaves alternate or rosulate, 





4. Pappus of numerous hairs 
Pappus not of numerous hairs 

5. Pappus of scales 
Pappus absent 

6. Capitula unisexual 
Capitula hermaphrodite 

7. Ligules absent 

Ligules present) though sometimes small 

8. He ceptacular scales present 
Reeeptacular scales absent 

9. Scales subtending the outer row of florets only 
Scales subtending most or all of the florets 

10. Achenes with a pappus of numerous hairs 
Achenes without a pappus of numerous hairs 

■11. Involucral bracts in 1-2 rows, the ouier when present 
very small 
Involucral bracts in 3-many rows 

12 Anthers not sagittate and without filiform appendages 
at base 

Anthers sagittate, with 2 Aliform appendages at base 

13. Plant glabrous 
Plant tomentose 

14. Plant without glandular hairs - ..... 

Plant with numerous short glandular hairs 

15. Leaves not pinnatisect 

At least some leaves pinnatisect 

36, Plant grey to whitish silky-hairy; involucre less than 
4 mm. long 
Plant not silky-hairy; involucre more than 4 mm. long 

17. At least Some leaves 2- to 3- pinnatisect 
Leaves 1-pinnatisect 

18. Reeeptacular scales present 
Reeeptacular scales absent 

19. Ligules white or purplish 
Ligules yellow 

20. Capitula small; in corymbs 
Capitula medium, solitary on the ends of branches 

21. At least the outer achenes strongly winged; tubular 
florets often with 2 corolla-lobes longer than the 

'«"uai eS n0t Winged; coroJla tobes of tubular florets 










Xant liium 














Phag union 




5. Evas 

23. Artemisia 

23. Matricaria 
27. Tanacerum 

22. Achillea 

21. Anacychis 







22. Corolla oil tubular florets not saccate or sparred at IS 

Coi'oHa of tubular florets saccate or spurred at base 

23. Leaves pinnatisect 
Leaves not pi nn ails eet 

24. Corolla -tuho of inner florets compressed and some- 
times winged; outer achenes flat, winged 
Corolla-tube' of inner florets terete; outer achenes 
more or less triquetrous 

25. strongly arcuate to annular, murieate 
on. the back 

Inner achenes not strongly arcuate to annular, not 
murieate on the hack 

2(i. Involueral bracts in J row, sometimes with a few 29, 
shorter outer ones 
Involucral bracts in 2 or more rows 

27. Pappus of numerous hairs 
Pappus not of numerous hairs 

28. Ligules not yellow 
Ligules yellow 


Anthem is 














Plants glabrous 
Plants hairy 

Pappus Of I row of hairs 

Pappus of I row of hairs surrounded by a crenulatc 


31. Corona stipitate 
Corona sessile 

32. Leaves not pinnatisect 
Leaves pinnatisect 

33. Achenes strongly compressed 
Achenes angled or subterete 

34. Ligules yellow 
Ligules white 

35. Corolla of tubular florets compressed and winged 
below; pericarp with resin-canals 

Corolla of tubular florets un winged; pericarp without 

36. Ligules yellow 
Ligules white 

37. Achenes ribbed on ventral side only 
Achenes evenly ribbed all round 





Cup id aria 

2. Bellis 









24. Chrysanthemum 











j.'j. :it lwu-1 some pappus' aaivs more or less; pi^mosc- 
Papons si' simple hairs or scales 

3!t. Involucre less than 25 mm. long 
.Involucre more than 25 mm. long 

40. Athene* compressed 

Achent-3 more or less cylindrical 

4.M, Leaver wmte-tomentose beneath 

Leaves grey arachnoid pubescent beneath 

42. Achenes hairy 
Aehanes siabroua 

43. Receptacle glabrous 
Receptacle with hairs or scales 

44. -Pappus 25-40 mm. long 
Pappus Si-28 mm. long 

43, Leaves without spines 
Leaves with spines 

46. Receptacle with linear-subulate scaler 
Receptacle hairy but without scales 

4.7. Stems with spiny wings 
Stems without spiny wings 

48. Florets blue 

Florets yellow or purple 

49. Leaves glabrous, conspicuously white-veined above 
Leaves snbglabrous or ] ana te- arachnoid, not con- 
spicuously white-veined above 

50.' Leaves all basal, though flowering stems. may have a 
few small bracts 1 
Stems with at least one well-developed caulina leaf 

■ 51. Receptacle with scales 
Receptacle without scales 

52. At least some pappus hairs plumose 

Pappus of simple hairs, or scales, or both 

33. Perennial with long slender tubers; pappus hairs in 
1-2 rows 

Annual or perennial with taproot; pappus hairs in 
more than 2 rows 

54. At least some achenes with pappus partially or entire- 
ly of scales 

Pappus of simple hairs 

55. Stems unbranched, usually without bracts; achenes 
murieate above 


33. No to basis 



41. Cai'ltna 

34. Onupordon 



Ca rd ml cellus 









Cms laurel 

























Stems branched or unbranched, usually bracteate; 
achenes not muricate 

56. Achenes with a coronula below the beak 
Achenes without a coronula 

57, Invoiucral bracts in 2 rows, outer much shorter than 
inner; plant not stoloniferous nor with long iibrous 

Invoiucral braots in several rows; plant stoloniferous 
or with long fibrous rhizomes 

5S. Leaves glabrous or- nearly so 

Leaves with dense stellate hairs -on 'lower surface and 
simple egiandulQi' hairs throughout 

53. Thistle-like plants with spiny leaves 
Leaves not spiny 

60. Receptacle with scales which enclose the achenes 
Receptacle without scales 

.61. Pappus absent 

Pappus of scales ov hairs 

m. Achenes strongly compressed 
Achenes not compressed 

(53. Achenes beaked 

Achenes not beaked 

64. Pappus of uniform deciduous or persistent hairs 'at. 
least the outer involucral bracts with scarious 
margins ' 

Pappus of few, deciduous, rough hairs and more or 
less persistent softer hairs in fascicles; involucral 
bracts without scarious margins i..., : ,. 

Pappus of at least some achenes of scales \ 
Pappus of all achenes of hairs 

Receptacle with scales 
Receptacle without scales 

62. Chondrilla 

63. Crepls 




60. Lactuca 

57. Launaea 

59, Sonchus 

46. Catananche 

'Ligules blue or purplish 
Ligules yellow 

At least some pappus hairs plumose 
Pappus hairs simple 

>. Involucral bracts in 1 row 

Involucral bracts in 2 or more rows 

.' Leaves lobed 
Leaves entire 

Pnn«iii'! rrf ■; rows of deciduous hairs; plant hispid with 
hooked hairs 







57. ■ [■ 

















53. Picris 






Pappus of more than 2 rows of persistent hairs; plant 
glaurous or with soft hairs witnuuc tiuuKS 

72. Achenes with a coronula below the beak 
Achenes without a coronula 

73. Achenes densely villous 
Achenes not villous 

74. Receptacle with scales 
Receptacle without scales 

75. Receptacle with long, silky hairs equalling or ex- 
ceeding the florets 

Receptacle glabrous or with short hairs 

71). Achenes strongly rugose 
Achenes not rugose 

55. Scorzonera 
62. Chondrilla 




64. Ahdryala 

56. Reichardia 
63, Crepis 






No latex present; corolla of disk-florets never ligulate: 

Tribe EnpatorietaiC Cass. Leaves usually "opposite, simple. Capitula without ligules; 
florets all hermaphrodite; corolla not yellow. Receptacle without scales. Anthers 
obtuse at base. Style branches obtuse or clavate, finely papillose. Pappus of hairs. 

I, Eupatoriuni L, 

Perennial herbs or shrubs. Leaves usually opposite. Capitula few-flowered, in ter- 
minal corymbs or panicles. Involucral bracts few, loosely, imbricate in 2-3 rows. 
Receptacle flat, naked. Florets all tubular, hermaphrodite, aciuiomorphie, 5-merous. 
Achenes 3-angled; pappus of denticulate hairs in 1 row. 

1. E. esmnabmuni L. 


Perennial herb with woody footstock, 30-120 cm. high; stem erect, simple or 
shortly branched, downy. Basal leaves oblaneeolate, petiolate; eauline 3( J 5)- 
partite with elliptic, acuminate, dentate segments 5-10 cm. long, subsessile; branch 
leaves simple, ovate or lanceolate; all shortly hairy and gland-dotted. Capitula in 
dense terminal corymbs, each with 5-6 reddish^ mauve or white florets. Involucre 
c. 6 mm. long; bracts e. 10, oblong, purple-tipped, more or less scarious. Achenes 
blackish, gland-dotted; pappus whitish, 2w ==. 20. Fl. 4-10. 

Malta: naturalised on walls at San Anton and other old gardens (Borgi. 

Throughout Europe; W! and C. Asia; N. Africa. 

Tribe Astereae Cass. Leaves alternate, simple. Capitula with or without ligules; 
outer florets female or sterile, the inner hermaphrodite or male; ligules yellow, 
white or purple, the tubular florets most often yellow. Receptacle without scales. 
Anthers usually obtuse at base. Style branches flattened, acute or subobtuse; 
stigmatic surface marginal, usually not reaching apex. Pappus most often of hairs. 

2. Bellis L. 

Small annual or perennial herbs. Leaves alternate or basal, entire, to serrate-cren- 
ate. Capitula solitary. Involucral bracts in 2 rows, subequat, herbaceous. Receptacle 


conical to nearly fiat; scales absent Outer florets ligulate, female;, i-g^lcs toothed 
cr entire, patent, white often tinged with- purplish- crimson. Inner florets 4-or ii- 
lobe;], yellow; corolla- tube campamilate. Achenes compressed, with thickened 
margins; pappus absent, rarely representee! by a ring of veryshm rigid hairs. 

Annual: roots very slender; involucral bracts 2.3-3,5' mm. . 

long 1, annua 

Perennial; mots fleshy; involuerjd bracts (5-)7-TG mm. Ions 2- sysyestris Cyr, 

apex to an acute or mucronaie point, appresscd, the louge;:|; 5-3 i;;m. L^uii's vioiei,- 
blue, about as long as- the pappvs, more 'numerous tnau In.-. IlmjuI.-;™ L'.t;yn>.v. 'l;>, 
= a). F], 6-ii. 

Naturalised on roadsides and -in. waste i-bees. jlPci-i-Cis-. - common in the r-LK iG. 
Lanfranco: Gauci; Wolseley i . 

A nearly cosmopolitan weed of warm climates; native in C. & S. America. ■ 

B, annua L. 

Piste XLIV 

Annual . Daisy 

Shallow soil in reeky places, Malta, Goto and Cominb: very common (S, & C.G.; 
Borg; G. Lanfranco; Haslam; Wolseley), 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 
2. S. sylvesiris Cyr. 

Marge rst;< so.lvagga' 
Large Daisy 

Perennial .;,'J 3.0 cm. high Leaves (h>)30-l20 x 5-25 mm,, linear-oblong to 
narrowly obovate, remotely serrate to subentire; appresseoVpubescent at least when 
young, dark green, narrowed very gradual?'? -to a -short, scarcely distinct petiole. 
Capitula 20-40 rim, in diameter; receptacle conical to hemispherical. Involucrai 
bracts {5-J7-10 mm. long, oblong-lanceolate, mere or less acute. Ligules 8-14 mm. 
long, tinged with purplish-red beneath and often also above. Achenes oubescent, 
sometimes with a rudimentary pappus of short bristles. 2n ~ 36/54.- Fl. S-3. 

Valleys and damp places. Malta,. Gozo and-Comino: frequent. (S. & CO.; Borg; C. 
Lanfranco; Haslam; Wolseley), 

Mediterranean region. 

3. Aster L. 

Herbs, usually perennials. Leaves alternate or basal,, simple. Capitula small to 
medium, one to many in corymbs Gr panicles. Involucral bracts in 2 nearly equal 
rows or in 3 several rows, imbricate with the outer much shorter than the inner. 
Receptacle flat or convex. Outer florets ligulate, female or sterile, in 1. row (some- 
times absent); 3i Jules blue, violet, purple, pink or white. Inner florets tubular, 
hermaphrodite, yellow; Achenes oblong, usually compressed, more or less hairy 
and often glandular. Pappus-hairs scabrid, whitish to yellowish or reddish, often 
unequal, in 1 or 2 indistinct rows. 

T. A. smiamatus (Sprengcl) Hieron, 

A. subulatus sensu Lanfranco 

Plate XLIV 

Narrow-leafed Aster 

Annual or biennial 30-100 cm. high. Stem erect or ascending, glabrous. Leaves 
mostly linear or linear-lanceolate, entire. Capitula in symmetrical panicles. Involuc- 
rgl bracts in 3 rows, oblong or oblanceolate, tapered near the purplish, serrulate 


Herbs. Leaves alternate, simple, .Involucral bracts imbricate, scarcely ^ei-baceous. ■ 
Receptacle flat, without scales. Female florets numerous, in severe i series, with 
a- slender, tubular-filiform corolla, which is apicaily produced into a v<-:ry short, 
narrow, white or rarely pinkish ligule up to 1 mm. long, Hermaphrorijte florets 
few, fertile, mostly yellow; Anthers entire at base. Achenes ilsttcVieO, 1- Ic 2- 
veined or veinless. Pappus of capillary rigid, hairs. 

1. C. bonariensis (L.) Cronq. 
fcigcron crisjnts Bovirret 

Plate XL'fV 

ZagMigha sa.ivagga 
South American Fleahnps 

Annual up 250 cm. high, densely patent -hairy. Leaves numerous, narrow, 
oblanceolate, petiolate. Capitula often 10 mm. or more wide, in an elongate panicle. 
often with the side-branches overlapping the main axis. Involucre 4-0 mm. long. 
usually stiffly hairy, rarely glabrous or nearly so. Female florets 50-520 or more: 
ligules up to 0.3 mm. long. Zn - 36,51 PI, 12. 

Cultivated and waste places. Malta, Go-so' and' Comino: very common i'S, ft- C.G.; 
Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Native of S.. America: widely naturalised in the Mediterranean rcyic-u. 

Tribe Iiruleae; Cass. Leaves usually alternate, simple. Capitula with or without 
ligules; outer florets usually- female, the inner hermaphrodite or male; ligule^ 
usually yellow. Receptacle with or without scales. Anthers sagittate and caudate at 
base: Style branches flattened, rounded at apex; stigmatic surface marginal and 
spiced. Pappus usually of hairs. 

5, Evax Gaertner 

Dwarf, sometimes acaulescent annuals. Cauline leaves alternate or opposite. Capi- 
tula in semigjobose, sessile clusters of (1-1-10 with rosette-like rows of subtend- 
ing leaves. Receptacle of individual capitula not fragmenting when bracts are 
pulled off, sometimes uniting into a secondary receptacle; without, scales. Lively era! 
bracts appressed, long-persistent. Female florets many, in the axil a of briefs: 
hermaphrodite florets sterile, 2-5, in the middle of the receptacle. Aelienes 
dorsally compressed, usually papillose or hairy; pappus absent. 

1. E. pygmaea (L.) Pers. 

Plate XLIV 

Pjtjmy Cudweed 

Stem 2-4(-5) cm, high; lateral branches short, ascending. Cautinc leaves 7-10 x 
3 mm,; leaves forming rosettes round flower-clusters 10-15 x 2-5 mm:, oblong- 
obovate, obtuse or shortly acute, patent, more or less rigid, whitish Lumen lose; 2-3 
times as long as cluster. Clusters of capitula 5-J3 mm, wide, very compact, sub- 
glabrous. Involucral bracts 4-4.3 x 1,5 - 1.8 mm., brownish-yellow, htncoolals- 
obovate to obovate, cuspidate, with arista c. 1 mm, long, glabrous. Florets 1.3-1. fl 
mm, long. Achenes c. 1 mm. long, dark brown obovold, papillos. Fl. ?, -5. 


Arid and rocky places. Matto, Gozo and C.omi«o: very common (S. & C.G.; Borg; 
G. Lanfranco: Wolseley). Commotio: (Duthie; Borg). Selmuisett: (Borg). 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 

6. Filago L. 

Tomentose or lanate annuals. Leaves alternate. Capitula id pyramidal, ovoid or 
cylindrical, axillary and terminal clusters. Receptacle filiform, easily breaking from 
the cylindrical base and between the whorls of bracts when bracts are pulled off. 
Involucral bracts 8-5 (-6) in a vertical row, aristate or acute. Florets all tubular; 
outer female, fil'torm in 2 (o several rows in axils of bracts, without pappus, 
suhtended by scales; inner both female and hermaphrodite, or only hermaphrodite, 
jiertilc or stenle, witn or without pappus. Achenes slightly compressed laterally, 
j : ree, all similar. 

Leaves Imear-ianceolatc- to oblong-lanceolale, widest 
at the base or in the lower half; capitula in dense 
clusters of (15-)20-50(-60) 

Leaves linear-oblong to broadly obovate, widest in the 
upper half; capitula in more or less Lax clusters of 3-30 

Main stem usually well-developed, stiff, erect or as- 
cending: or plant procumbent with rigid branches; 

'cluster of capitula usually less numerous 
Cushion-plant ' with very short, much-branched main 
stem and procumbent slender branches; up to 150 
clusters of capitula 


1. vulgaris 

2. py rami data 

3. cossyrensis 
Common Cudweed 

1. F. vulgaris Lam. Plant XLV 

F. germanica L, non Huds. 

Stems F-35 (-40) rai. high, erect, more or less regularly branched above the 
middle Indumentum greyish -white, Leaves 1220 (-30) x 1-3L4) mm., linear-lan- 
ceolate to lanceolate, more or less undulate. Capitula 5 x 1.6 mm., more or less 
terete in dense/globose clusters of (15-) 2fr35(-40>, 10-12 mm. wide, not over- 
topped by subtending leaves. Involucral bracts 4-4.5 x 1.1 mm., lanceolate, straight 
in fruit -yellowish, usually red-tinged, with ■ a long yellow arista. Inner temale florets 
3' mm. "long, 20-25; hermaphrodite 2.8 mm- long, (l-)2-3(-4). Achene 0.5-0.8 x 0.2 
mm... oblong to ovoid, brown. 2v, — 2S. Fl. 4-5; 

Waste antJ rocky places. Malta,' .Gozo and Comino: common (S. & C.G.; Borg; 


Most of Europe except the north and east; N. Africa; Asia; Atlantic Islands, 

2. V. pyramidata L. Broad-leaved Cudweed 

F. spathidata auct., non C. Presi 

Steais (2-)5-30(-40) cm. high, rigid. Indunrentum greyish- white, appressed. 
Leaves (fl- 110-15 mm., spathulate, more or less flat. Capitula 4-6 x 2.5 mm, 
pyramidal sharply 5-angled, in clusters of 5-20, 612 mm. wide, overtopped by 
subtending leaves.: Involucral bracts 3-4.5 X 1.2 mm., 4-6 in each vertical 
row keeled, yellowish, without reddish colouration, softly lanate on the back, 
distinctly divergent in 'fruit, with a slightly recurved arista c. 1.5 mm. long. Inner 
female florets 5-7; hermaphrodite 2-2.5 mm. long, 4-7, Actrenes 0.5-0.8 mm., oblong- 
cylindrical to oblong-ob ovoid. 2n = 28. Fl. 4-5. 


{Two varieties occur. Var. pyiomidaia lias an erect, ascending or procumbent 
stein, branched from the base or above, with patent branches and rather long 
internodes; leaves 10-15 mm. long, oblong-ob ovate; capitula 5-6 mm. long, in 
clusters of 8-20, 8-114 ram, wide, not aggregated into a long series of aggregated 
clusters; inner female florets 2.5 mm. long. Var. prostrata (Fiori) Wagenitz has 
the stem branched from the base with procumbent branches and short internodes: 
leaves 6-12 mm. long; linear- oblong; capitula e. 4 mm. long, in clusters of 5-15, 
6-10 mm. wide, aggregated and forming a more or less continuous series; inner 
female florets 2-2.2 mm, long.) 

Dry places. Malta, -Gozo and Comino: common (S. & CXI.; Borg; G: Lanfraneo). 

Mediterranean region and W. Europe, 

F. cossyvensis Ltijac. 

P. germanica var. yassonei Lojac, 

Malta Cudweed 

Densely branched, caespitose cushion-p'ant .5-1(1 cm. wide; branches slender, 
procumbent, repeatedly branched, with up to 150 more or less aggregated clusters 
of capitula. Leaves 5-6 x 0.5-1 mm,, linear-oblong to linear -spathulate, those tub- 
tending the clusters up to as long as the clusters. Capitula 4 x 2-2.5 mm., 5-angled, 
in clusters of 5-12, (5-8 mm. wide. Involucral bracts 3.5-4 x 1-1-3 mm., with a re- 
curved arista 1.2-1.5 mm. long, the inner rather divergent in fruit. Inner female 
florets 1.3-2 mm. long, 1-4: hermaphrodite 1.5-1.7 mm. long, 5-6. Achenes 0.75 mm. 
long, Fl, 4-5. 

Calcareous ground near the sea. Malta: common, especially in the southern and 
western part (Borg). 

Lampedus^ and Pantollaria 

7. Phagmiloii Cass. 

Dwarf shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate; margins entire, erose or distantly toothed, 
Capitula usually solitary at the ends of branches. Involucral bracts imbricate, in up 
to 5 rows. Receptacle flat; scales absent. Florets yellowish, all tubular; outer female, 
the iimer hermaphrodite Achenes cylindrical, somewhat compressed or angled, 
without a bealt, usually hairy. Pappus hairs in 1-2 . rows, ■ simple, : free. 

1. Margin of middle involucral bracts undulate 
Margii'i ("if middle involucral bracts fiat 

2, Outer itivoiucra! bracts ovate to triangular, obtuse 
Outer involucral bracts narrowly triangular to linear- 
lanceolate, acute 

1. P. rupestre (L.) DC. 

P, ienorei C. Presl 

Plate XLIV 

3. saxatile 


1. rupestre 

2. gifaeeum 


Rock Phagnalon 

Dwarf shrub up to SO cm. high. Stems erect, lanate. Leaves 1040 mm. long, 
oblanceolate to obovate, densely lanate beneath, glabrescent or with occasional 
arachnoid hairs above, erose to remotely erose - dentate; margin somewhat 
revolute. Capitula solitary. Outer involucral bracts ovate to triangular, obtuse; in- 
ner lanceolate, acuminate, entire to erose. 2n — 18. Fl. 3-5. 

Cliffs, walls and coralline plateaus and slopes. Malta,- Gozo and Comino: common 
(S. & C.G,; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

W. & C. Mediterranean region. 


V. graces m Swiss. & Heldr. 

i-\ rv,pet:ir£ va.r. graectwn (Boiss. & Heldr.) Borg 

Eastern Phagnalon 

Dwarf slinib up to 30 cm, high. Stems ascending to erect, lanate. Leaves 18-25 
mm. long, oslanceolate to obovaie, densely lanate beneath, lanate to simglabMus 
above,.- irreguiailh sinuate-dentate to strongly erose-unuulate. Cap! tula solitary. 
Outer invoiucral bracts narrowly triangular, to lanceolate, acute, brownish: inner 
bracts linear -lanceolate, subacute, entire. FL 3-5. 

Arid and stony places in valley;;. Malta: frequent ' (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo). 
G020; frequent (Borg); Xlendi, Wi.ed Bingernma (S, & C.G.). C amino", frequent 

S.E.' Europe. 

P. :sajia(.ii-j (L.) Cass 

Mediterranean Phagnalon. 

■Dwsrf shrub up to SO cm. high. Stems ascending to erect, lanate. Leaves 25-35 
mm. long,, linear to I incsr-ob lanceolate, greenish, above with occasional woolly 
hairs, djim^ly laiiute beneath, .arose or rarely- remotely dentate; margin sometimes 
: re volute. Cnpitula solitary Middle Invoiucral bracts, linear-lanceolate, acute, margin 
undulate; inner bracts linear, -2n ='18. Fl; 3-5. 

Malta:- Ghadlra (Kramer .&' Westr.a'). ■ ' ■ 

Mediterranean region and S.W. Europe. 

8. MelicM-ysum Miiier 

ATinaiil, biennial or perennial herbs or suffruticose perennials, often iau-ite or- 
t.ovivarilose . Leaves alternate, ex stipulate-, simple and entire, Caps tula small, to 
tiieaiutu, solitary or aggregated into compound corymbs, .Involucre eyiindrical-- 
. campanula te to hemispherical; bracts numerous, imbricate, searious ana white or 
coloured at least dis tally. Florets- -yellow, all tubular, the outer female fewer than 
the inner hermaphrodite. Pappus of rough or shortly plumose hairs. 

II. nipesire (Kaffln.) DC,. 

H. inodorum var. r-iipesire Hafi'n, 

Plate XLV 

■ Sempreviva salvagga 
■Rook Helichrysum 

Non-aromatic. Flowering stems 10-60 cm, high, angular, white- torn en lose. Basal 
leaves 30-80 (-12(1) mm. long, crowded, patent, linear to narrowly lanceolate or 
oblanceolate, narrowest just above the base, white-tome ntosc on both sictes, with 
revolute margins; upper shorter, narrower and leas crowded, subereet or arcuate. 
Capi tula in a large corymb (3)3-7 em. across, compact and aub'globosc to lax and 
umbrella -like; involucre 4-7 mm. hi diameter, broadly ovoid to globose at first, 
becoming widely camps mj late; invoiucral bracts laxly imbricate, the outermost 
usually half as long as or more than half as long as the innermost, all ovate, acute- 
or the innermost oblong and obtuse; the outer searious down to the glabrous or 
somewhat lanate base, the inner searious above, coriaceous below; all shining 
vellow. Acheues dark brown, minut el v tubereuiate; pappus-hairs shortly plumose. 
FL 3-6. 

Sea Clifrs. Malta: Wied Babu (GB; Borg).. Gaza: Qala, Dwejra (Duthie; Godfrey; 
S. ■& C.G.; Borg; Gauci); Hagra tal-fteneral (Borg; Evans; Gauci); Balluta (Penza). 

W. and C. Mediterranean region. 

3. Inula L. 

Perennial, rarely biennial herbs,, or small shrubs, Leaves ivinvov, alternate, CapUuia 
solitary or in a corymbose or paniculate inflorescence. ?';rvoh;cral lira?!:; iii'iijncate, 
hi jiiany rows, Receptacle hat or slightly convex, without scales. Florets yellow, the 
outer, iigulate, female, the ligule often very, short, -ijubijiri!' florets h-crmajiJivocllte, 
Acheues angled, not beaked. -Pappus-hairs in 1 row, sinip'ic, rrec. 


cs 1 it is us t sides L. 

Plate XTIV 

Golden iiampluro 

■ Glabrous, rare.-y somewhat glandular small shrub up to 100 cm. high. Losves 
20-43-(-S0J s 2-4 (-9) mm., linear to. linear-lanceolate, fk-shy. entire or o-tooitcd at 
apes. Cap; tula, medium. Involucre hemispherical; outer bracts ;j-4 a 0,5-1. mm., 
l'urear, erect, the. inner fi-10 x 0.5-1 mm., linear-subuliitc. "Liguies '1.4.--2S w.m. long, 
exceeding the involucre. Acheues 2-3 mm.. long, hairy; papons with 3H .riiih;: hairs. 
2n = 1.8. Fl. 0-11. 

Moist, rocky places near the sea. Malta, Gozo, Cornice-, CowAnoiuy anri T<' : :'hla: 
common (S. ■ & C.G.; Borg; G. . Lanfranco; Hasiam; V»'o!se!ey; : leave.;- 'csiteii as 
a vegetable (S. & C.G.). ' 

Coasts of Mediterranean region and W. Kurope. 

10. Jasomu Cass. 

Like Inula but ligules sometimes absent; achenes ihsh'orra; pappus hrdrs in 2 
rows, the outer short, the inner long, denticulate. 

■1. .1. glutimissi (L.) DC- 




. Stem 



Plant with numerous short glandular and long ■ eK.Umdrj.lar ha : r: 
10 4S cm. high, simple or branched.. Leaves 1,5-30 rnm. Sang, lanceolate, 
erecto-patent, . sess.Ue. . Inflorescence eymosc-paniculate ■ or corymbose; c 
medium. Involucre c. 6 mm. long; outer bracts much shorter than inner: -.herbaceous, 
glandular; inner bracts searious, egl and liter, ciliate. .Lilies' absent; d;sc---f)!'cr.s 
yellow.. .Acheues -hairy, glandular at the apex; pappus reddish-brown, fl. 5-.10. 

Walls, rocky sides of valleys .and arid, stony places.- Melt a and Gixo: I'reqiierh. (8. 
& C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfraneo; Wolseley). Comma, and Sehauw.eit; CSorg-s. 

N. and E. Spain, S. France. Islas Baleares, Lampedusa. 
' 11. Cnpulaiia Gzen. & Godvon 

Like Inula but capitula medium to small; acheues cylindrical; pappu?-bairs in 2 
rows, the outer short, connate, forming a. crenulatc, stipltste corona, the. inner 
long, denticulate, 

■Ligules 10-13 mm, long, distinctly exceeding the involucre 
L'g'.iTes 4-7 mm. long, not or scarcely exceeding the 

I. C, viscosa (L.) Gren. & Godron 
Inula viscosa (L.) Alton 

Plate XLIV. 

1, viscosa 

'1. gv'fiveolcns 

Tii J] i era 

Sticky .Sam;.->lure 

Densely vise'd- glandular perennial 40-130 cm. high; stems woody at base. 
Lower leaves 30-70 x 2-30 mm., linear to oblong -lanceolate, acute, remotely deuti- 


eujatc; upper sessile, scmiamplexieaul. Capitula medium; involucre 6-8 mm. long; 
outer bracts 1-2 x 0.5-0.7 mm., linear -lanceolate, acute, erect; inner 6-8 x 0.6-0.8 mm. 
Ligules- 10-13 mm. long, distinctly exceeding the involucre. Achenes about 2 mm. 
long, hairy; pappus of 15 rigid hairs. 1m, = 1U, 34. Fl. 7-11. 

Waste places, walls and abandoned fields. Malta, Gozo and Comino: common (S. 
iSc C.G.; Borg; G. La n franco; Haslam; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean, region; Atlantic Islands. 

2, C. graVeolens (L.J Gren. & Godron 

Inula graveolens (L.) Desl. 

Lesser Samphire 

Erect, densely glandular annual 20-5 ! J cm. high, smelling of camphor. Lower 
leaves 20-75 x 2 -13 mm., lanceolate to oblong- lanceolate, entire or remotely 
denticulate, upper sessile, semiamplexicaul, Capitula small; involucre 4.7 mm. long; 
outer brads c. 3 x 0.5-1 mm., linear- triangular; inner 4-7 x 0.7-1 mm.., linear-lan- 
ceolate. Ligules 4-7 mm. long, not or scarcely exceeding the involucre. Achenes 
c. 2 mm. long, hairy; pappus with about 30 rigid hairs. 2» = 18,20. Fl. B-10. 

Cultivated and waste Iaiid. Malta, Gozo and Comino: very common (S. & C.G.; Borg; 
(.5. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean, region, north to N.W, France; W. Asia. 

12. Piilicarla Gaertner 

Like Inula but the pappus consisting of a row of more or less connate small scales 
surrounding hairs. 

■Basal leaves withered at anthesis; stolons present; capitula 
usually numerous 
Basal leaves green at anthesis; stolons absent; capitula few 

I, P. dysenl erica (I.,.) Gaertner 

Plate XLIV 

1. dysenterica 

2. odora 

Common Fleabane 

Perennial with scaly stolons. Stems 20-60 cm. high, lanate or tomentose, freely 
branched. Leaves oh long-Ian ceo late, the lowest petiolate, withered at anthesis, 
the others sessile, usually widest near the semi -amplexicaul, auriculate base; all 
undulate, remotely serrate, green and scabrid above, grey-tomentose beneath, 
Capitula usually numerous, 1.5-3 cm. in diameter, hemispherical; peduncles 1.5-2.5 
era. long, not thickened above, without or with 1 bract. Inyolucral bracts linear to 
subulate, more or less lanate and glandular. Ligules c. 5 mm, longer than the in- 
volucre, patent. Pappus of scales connate for more than | their length, surrounding 
14-20 hairs, Achenes c. 1.5 mm. long, hairy. 2n = 18, 20. Fl. 6-10. 

Dry places. Malta: rare (G. Lanfraneol, as at Buskett, Mosta (S. & C.G.; Borg); 
between Attard and Rabat (Borg; GTiajn il-Kbira (Wolseley). 

S., W. & C. Europe, extending northwards to Denmark; N. Africa, S.W, Asia. 

2. V. odora (L.) Keichenb. 

Mediterranean Fleabane 

Perennial with a short stock. Stems 20-70 cm. high, villous or lanate, simple or 
sparingly branched. Basal leaves ovate to ovate -lanceolate, shortly petiolate, green 
at anthesis; caulinc leaves oh long- lanceolate, semiamplexicaul, the lower auriculate, 
glandular-denticulate, green and scahrid "above, greyish- lanate beneath, Capitula 1 
to few, 2-3 cm. in diameter, hemispherical; peduncles 3-15 cm. long,, thickened above, 
usually' with several bracts. Involucral bracts linear, long-acuminate, rpore r less 







T^J n 1 glan f Ular ' t Lig " les c - 8 *»"■■ l«n& longer than involucre, patent Pappus 
^fZ= Q ^7r^o^ "^ SUrrM ™ 1() - 12 *"««■ ™*™* c. 2 mm.Zg! 

Mediterranean region. 


Pallets .(Cess.) Cass. 

T^L^^^SL^^L??^^^ <f™ting the bvanch 
P^^T* "^-"S-y"^; Sn^^^^elu'b^: 

X J-^SiSr ( M Gren^Son g^lS^^ 

the^aSXeS^Se^S SfS^^ S^obS 

Sancdf Wo^" 46 P]aCeS ' mUa ' G0 ™ and C0 ™^ ™ m ™» (Borg; G. Lan- 
Mediterranean region. '■'-.■ 

14, Astei'is.cus Miller 

J. A. aquaticus (L.) Less. 

Plate XLV 

Ghajn il-Baqra 
culta ^IfeoX inMu'rafbraSlo'20 S- , '""I """^ ""> *»* 

Coastal areas. Malta, Gozo and Comma- iVp-m^nt tc r n r -o -, '■ 

Wolseley). w " 10, Ire 'iuent (S. & C.G- Borg; G, Lanfranco: 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 

15. Heliaistlius L. 


1. II. Uiberosus L. 



rcrermiai; stems 100-281) rai. high, scabrid -hispid or glabrous, usually branched 
above. Rhizomes tubcroi.c;. Leaves. 100-2JJ0 x 79-120 mm,, ovate,. acuminate, coarsely 
seiTfite- seabrid above, whitish-pubescent beneath, narrowed into a winged petiole, 
the upper not much smaller. Capitula -iO-SO mm. in diameter, several, erect. 
lnvr:!uc:c:i bracts at least as long as the diameter cf the disk, more or less 
patent., lanceolate, aei.mikial.e_. ciliate, dark green. Receptacle convex/. 'Li gules 
.'ill-it) nun. long. ' mn-ev florsis yellow. Athene:; 5-6 mm, long, glabrous or hairy. 
Zn =■■= .102. . 

Mrdta and Goto: cu.Uiv 
naturalised (Berg).' 

Kative of IV. Amer 

eel for its tubers and occasionally escaping to become 

widely cultivated elsewhere. 
.16. Ambrosia L. 

Annual o:r perennial ■ herbs. Leaves mostly opposite. Capitula ■ unisexual, inconspi- 
cuous; jn'sla hemispherical, drooping, in terminal, ebraeteate racemes; female- in 
axils of the uppermost leaves, each with a single floret. Achene enclosed by the 
nut like involucre; pappus absent; involucre usually with small. spines or 'tubercles 
.near apex. 

1. A. martthua L 

Plate XLV 


.Sea Bagwood 

lirect. -branched, aromatic annual up to -.25 cm. high; Steins often, woody below. 
Leaves petiolate, deeply 2-pinnate, densely grey-hairy beneath; lobes ovate to 
"Ian cool ate. Male involucre 3 mm. in diameter, cup-shaped; bracts connate and 
erenately lobed: male flowers 10-15, corolla present. Female capitula in axillary 
clusters; fruiting involucre B-artgled, : with 5 conical tubercles; beak 0.5 mm, long; 
female dowers without corolla. Achenes obo.void, smooth. PI. G-Jl. 

Sandv -places by the sea; rarely inland. MaUa: rare f'G. Larifrancol, as at St. Paul's 
Hay, M-a!.li.cha. (S. & C.G.; Borg; Whlselcy); Salihi (S. & C.G.; Borg); Marsa (GD.; 
'Borg); Mar fa Peninsula (S. '& C.G.); Ghajn Rihana, Wied Qannota : Marsaskala, 
Ghajn. Tuffieha, Bugibba, Bahar ic^agSaq, Qalet Marku {Borg). -Gaza: Ramla 
fS. & G.G.); Marsalforn,. Qbajjar (Borg). 'Ccmino: (Borg}. 

■Mediterranean and Tropical African coasts. 

17. Xanihiiini L. ■ 

Annual herbs. Leaves alternate, entire or variously lobed. Capitula solitary or in 
axillary clusters, unisexual, the male above the female. Male capitula subglobose: 
involucral bracts in 1 row; receptacle, cylindrical, with scales; florets numerous; 
stamens 5; anthers free and hooked at apex; filaments connate; style and ovary 
rudimentary. Female capitula ovoid; involucral bracts in 2 rows, the outer small, 
free, the inner connate, coriaceous, oriekiy. ending in 2 ("rarely 1) beaks and 
forming a 2-1 ocular structure containing 2 florets, corolla absent; styles exserted 
through a hole on the inside of the beak near its base. Achenes ovoid; pappus 
absent. ■ 

Leaves long- petiolate, green beneath, without spines at 
base of petiole 1. 



Leaves sessile or shortly petiolate. white or g"ey tc:r mt;:;.^ 
beneath, with 1-2, 3-fid, vellow'' spines at* base' 'rarely 
replaced by small leaves) ' " " 2. spinorom 

1. X, struriiiilrfiim L, 

Plate XLV 

llniigh tlocidelmv 

KJcms 2f>120 cm.; high, usually branched, Leaves 'ong )>elick=te- 
lamina bvoaaly ovale to. triangular, with a 'cordate or ra.ralv euneate ba<=p «ni-ire' 
or with 3-;> wide, coarsely serrate lobes, green and wirn- sVir* ■■ii | 'i «.->=■'«■■! j-,-,-^ 
surtaces. Capitula in axillary clusters and sometimes ^ in 'a Ce'-wijrsi 'W" : "-V 
miloresecMe. the male above the female. Involucre in -»"it ^<th ';fAwi<"m 
hooded spines and. distinct beaks. F). 7-10. ' '"' " 

Vaiicy bottoms. Malta:, locally frequent (G. Lanfrancoj; as »■■ Ch^^--k T 'ikes 
(Gauci; Wol.seley), Wied il-Ghasei (Wblsel-ey;, 

C. & S. Europe, a .casual- further north; nrobably an eariv mtrochicucn fr-jm S 

X, s>i>itt<;5Km. 

Spin> CWikiebuv 

Stums 15-1.00 cm. high, much-brane'ned, with 1-2, stout, 3-fid. vedtr-v eW-nos 
in thejeaf-axtls, the spines rarely moire or less connate at th<J l«;s« or refiia^cd 
by leaf -fascicles. Leaves sessile, or -shortly, peiiolaie; lamina entire or-S-No S-fid 
dark green above, white or grey-tomentose beneath. Male capiuda in 'terminal 
inflorescences; female axillary. Involucre LO-l'i x(5-Smm. m fruit covered wiHi 
slender spines. 2w — 30.- Fl. 8-11.'- "' 

Maiia:.: Marsa. (S. & C.G.; Borg; Peiua).; Add.olorata Cemetccy {Borg) GVv' ftTar- 
salforn (S. & C.G.; Borg; Penpal. 

Native of >S, America; naturalised in many parts of the world. 

Tribe -An theiHMeae Cassj Leaves alternate, very' rarely opposite, simple or pirn- 
natisect.. Capitula with or without ligules; outer florets usually female or sterile,- 
the inner hemaphrodite or male; ligiiles usually white or yellow. Receptacle with 
or without scales. Anthers, usually obtuse, at base. Style-branches Irimeate and 
papillose at apex. Pappus absent or with a corona or auricle. 

IS, Anthemis L. 

Herbs or sometimes dwarf shrubs, with mere or less dense indumentum. Leaves 
alternate, usually divided; petiole frecmently pectinate-laci.niate at base. Capitula 
solitary, terminal, pedunculate, involucre usually hcrmispherieal to suhheraisplieric- 
al; bracts in several rows. Receptacle conical, more or less, convex- lieriiispberital 
or ovoid; scales usually present, at least in upper part of receptacle. Outer florets 
usually kgulate, female and. fertile, with compressed tube and patent, usually 2- 
to 3-dentatt; ligule. Inner florets hermaphrodite, tubular, 5-dentab;, numerous, 
yellow; tube nnf saccatje. Achenes more nr less compressed or terete; pappus 
absent or represented by a corona or auricle- 
Measurement of- length of stem includes the peduncle; length of leaves usually 
includes both petiole and lamina; length of peduncle is taken from the uppermost 
cauline leaf to the base of the eapitulum; length of ligules is that of the limb: 
measurements of achenes refer to. the achenes of the tubular florets; number of 
stria t ions on the achene include those of the' outer and inner side, including 
that corresponding to the median (but not to each of the four faces of the 


7ho primary divisions oi; tlie leaves 
ultimate divisions as lobes. 

a r^ referred to a:; gagjnsnts and the 

Receptacle without scales in the lower part; scales 

narrowly lanceolate to linear 

Receptacle with scales all over; scales wider 

At least the aehenes oi the . outer tubular florets 

granulate or tuber quia te 

Acheiies of the tubular florets not tuberculate or 


Invoiucrai bracts 

Involucral bracts more or less acute 

4. to tula 

3. secundiramca 

1. ai'vcu'sis 

2. tomenlosa 



Sect. Antkemis. Annual or biennial with much- branched stems. Peduncles some- 
times einvaie in fruit, inner involucral bracks Willi hyaline or sometimes Brownish- 
scarious margin and apex. Receptacle conical or sometimes hemispherical; re- 
cepi.acu.lar scales subpersistent, ending in a- short or slightly .rigid- .'point. Ligules 
white, rarely pink. Aohanes usually weakly 4-angled with smooth, granulate or 
rarely tuberculate ribs. 

A. a r ven sib L. 

Bebuna tar-raba' 
Corn Chamomile 

Sparsely hairy to densely pubescent annual, perhaps sometimes perennating. 
Stems ('1.5- ) '30-50 (HO) cm. high, usually more or less branched, often from the 
base, the basal branches as long as or longer than the main stem. Leaves obovate- 
oblong to obova-ie, 1- to 3- pinnatipartite or pinnatisect, not glandular-punctate, 
more or less hairy; lobes acute, mucron ate. involucral tracts hairy, oblong- or' 
obloiig-obovatc, obtuse, with hyaline to brown searious margin and apex. Recept- 
acuiar scales acuminate, Aehenes turbinate, (9-) 10 (-11) -ribbed; ribs obtuse, se- 
parated by narrow, deep furrows, smooth. 2«.= 18. Fl. 3-5. 

(Two subspecies occur. Subsp. aryensis lias the stems up to SO cm. high, usually 
much branched; leaves 15-5!) -x 6-15 mm,, rarely pink; and tubular florets c. 4 mm. 
long-. Subsp. iiicrassa'Sa .(Loisel.)' Nyman has wider leaves with elliptical lobes; 
peduncles somewhat arcuate; receptacle more elongate in fruit; receptacle scales 
abruptly acuminate; ligules up to 11 x 4 mm.; and tubular -florets .2-3. S mm. long). 

Fields and waste places. Malta, Gozo and Comma: common (S, & C.G.; Borg; G. 

Lanfrauco; Wolseley). ■ ■ ■ 

Most of Europe except the extreme north; N, Africa; S.-W. Asia. 

2. A. tomentosa L. 

A. peregina L. 

Woolly Chamomile 

Toincntose or lanate annual. Stems 2-3Q-<-45) cm. high, 1 to many, the central 
erect and rather shorter than the lateral, simple or divaricately branched. Leaves 
up to 45 cm. long, I- to 2 pinna tin d with cuneate-ovate to oblong, sometimes 
linear lobes. Capitula 15-37 mm. in diameter. Involucre hemispherical at anthesis; 
bracts lanate or more or less densely hairy, the outer bracts triangular- lanceolate, 
acute, the inner oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acute or subacute, with a rather 
narrow hyaline margin and apex. Ligulcs shorter than the diameter of the disk, 
sometimes absent. Corolla-tube not swollen. Receptacle 4-5 x 2.5-4 mm., conical; 
scales oblong to oblanceolate, shortly acuminate. Aehenes 1.5-2 mm. long, obeonie- 
a'l or obscurely obpyramidal, with more or less prominent ribs. PL 4-5. 







Sandy places by the sea, Malta; Siiema (Delicate; Borg). Cmtiino: (Gulia'j,' 
C. and E. Mediterranean region. 

it. A. securadivamea Biv. subsp. urvi.leana (DC.) R. Fernandas 

Plate XLV 

iiebuna tal-bahar 
Prostrate Chamomile 

Annual, stems procumbent, much branched from the base, the central stem 
and main branches somewhat thickened from base up to apex, but rarefy clavate. 
Leaves 1- to 2 -pinna Use ct, thick, glandular -punctate beneath. Involucre hemis- 
pherical, glabrous or sparsely hairy; bracts lanceolate, acute, the outer more than 
half as long as the middle. ; Recepi acuta r scales broadly obovate, cuneate, very 
shortly mucronate, hyaline, shorter than or equalling florets. Ligules usually pre- 
sent. Tubular florets swollen and spongy in the lower J. Outer aehenes obeonical, 
distinctly ribbed, more or less granulate, with a very short crenulate rim, the 
others nearly smooth, denticulate af apex. Fl. 3-6. 

Rocky places near the sea. Malta, Gozo and Comma;, common (S. &. C.G.; Borg; 
G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). Selmun: ' (Borg), 

. T'he species occurs in the C. Mediterranean. region; subsp. urvilleana .is endemic 
to the Maltese Islands and Lampedusa. 

Sect. Maruta- (Cass.) Griseb. Annual with branched, stems. Involucral bracts with 
pale brown or hyaline margin. Receptacle conical to hemispherical; rereptaeuiar 
scales narrowly lanceolate to linear, subulate, sometimes absent in the lo'.ver part, 
more or less caducous. Aehenes turbinate, circular in transverse sec tioiv with 
or without ribs. 

4. A. cotula L. 

Stinking Chamomile 

Annual (7-)20-50(-70) cm. high, thinly tomentose, glabrescent. Sterns eory- 
mbosely branched above. Leaves 15-65 x 5-30 mm,, ovate or ovate- oblong in out- 
line, irregularly 2- to 3-pinnatisect the lobes narrowly linear, with hyaline, acum- 
inate mucro, sparsely hairy, sometimes Sesby. Capitula 13-30 mm. in diameter: 
peduncles (2.5-)6-t5 cm. Jong, not thickened above. Involucre hemispherical: 
bracts more or less oblong, acute to obtuse, with pale brown^ searious margin. 
Receptacle 5 -8 x 1.5-3 mm., narrowly conical, without scales on the lower half; 
scales linear- sub ul ate, shorter than to equaling the florets. Ligules 5-14 mm. 
Ioue;, sometimes absent. Aehenes U-)1.3-18 mm, long, turbinate, slightly con- 
stricted at the apex, 8- to 11-ribbed, the ribs tuberculate or verruculose. 2n - IS. 
Fl. 3-G, 

Fields.. Malta: Marsa, Siiema (Delienta; Borg); Floriana, Pieta (Borg). 

Throughout much of Europe except the north; N. and W. Asia. 

IS. Chamiieiiieluin Miller 

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves 1- to 3-pinnatisect, alternate. Capitula medium, 
heterogamous, pedunculate. Involucral bracts in 2 to several rows, gradually dec- 
reasing jn size outwards. Receptacle convex to conical, with f^er.. (>>ter florets 
usually lipiilpte, female or sterile; Simulate florets with a compressed, 2-wingcd 
tube and white, natent, entire or minutely 2- to 3-deutate ligule: inner florets 
tubular, yellow, the tube saccate at base and enclosing the apex of the aehenes. 
Aehenes slightly compressed, weakly striate on inner face; pappus absent. 



Most cauline leaves 1-pmnatisect; involueral bracts 
greenish with -a ."wide scarious margin 

Most. eatdtne leaves .2- pin n a ti sect; involueral tracts with 
a dark brown margin and apex 

1. €. misi«rri (I,.) AT]. 
Anlsip.rrJs ■ni-x.t.n L. 

1. mixtitm 

2. fuscatum 
Branched ■ Chamomile 

Somewhat pubescent annua! ifj-go an, high, often much branched, with divaric- 
ate branches. Leaves oblong or narrowly oblong in outline, the lower 1- to 2- 
pinnaiiseet, the upper 1-pinnatisect to serrate, sessile; Jobes linear-lanceolate, 
entire or terra te, miicmriatc. Involucre -3-5 mm. long; bracts oblong, obtuse, 
.greenish, with a wide sCHrious margin, some what lanate, Liguies c. 10 mm, Jong. 
■Aehenes e. i mm. long. r'i. 3--5.- 

MalJn.'.-frsiiUi'iit TGuliah CKlra; St. Julian's s'Borg>. 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic hiands. 

C, lisNcstM) (Bret.) Tutin 
Aiit' pwcstwrt Bret. 

Dark Chamomile 

'GSahroi.i's kiiuaal 5-3!) cm. high, simple ■ or. little-branched with. ■ ascending, 
■branches. Leaves oblong in outline, usually 2- pirmatiscct', the lower pei.iolate, thy 
upper sessile and sometimes 1 -p inn ati sect; lobes acute. Involucre' 3.4 mm. long; 
bracts ovate, with, dark brown margin and apex, deflexed in fruit, Liguies 7A0- 
mm. Ion;;, FIl .3-fi. 

Malta: on the glacis" and ditches outside Forte de Bombes (S. & C.G.; Borg); 

en:;mean region. 

28. OatlM thus Ca 

Annus! herb. Leaves alternate, 1- |:n 2- pimiatiseet. Capituia. medium to. large, 
sessile. Invahieral bracts in 2 rows. .Receptacle corneal to oblong, with 'scales and 
hairs. Outer florets hgulate, sterile; inner florets tubular, gibbous at base and with 

a shortly Globed limb, hermaphrodite. Aehenes. obovoid-oblong/ subterete.; pappus 
absent. ..'■'' 

J-. C. artiblcnts (.!'.,.) Cass. 

African Cladanthus 

P.uberulent and. strong smelling. Leaves 2-3 cm, long, with linear lobes, petiol- 
ale, -the upper in a whorl, closely subtending the capituia. Primary stem short, 
2-6 branches arising immediately below the capitutum, each terminated by a 
eapilulum and again branching, Capituia hemispherical; involueral' bracts 7-10 mm. 
long, ovate-oblong, with a wide scarious appendage; reeepfaeular scales folded 
round the florets, villous on the inside. Liguies yellow. 

Malta: fenne by Count A. Caruaua Gatto in a field along the Mistra to ' Selmun 
road in ijvii, 1.925 (Borg). 

S. Spain; N. Africa, 

21. Anacycius L. 

Annua! or perennial herbs. Leaves (l-)2-to 3-pinnatiscct. alternate. Capituia pe- 
duneu'aie, heterogamous. Involueral bracts in few rows, the outer shorter than 
the inner. Receptacle ' convex or conical; scales present. Outer florets ligulatc, 







-jo us 







■ c 

■l l a< 





n m; 









n&'.C ; 

■ female or st.eiiSc, the Ilgule; entire or mir.utely ^-dentate, patent ■■')§■ rarely shor; 
and erect. Inner florets 5-iobed, yellow; corolla-tube ' or v.-insjert. 
Aehenes compressed, obovate.. outer 2-win^ed, inner e;fien unwme;ed: pappus 
absent, or scittioiiti and den ate, or of distinet scarier aerie.;. 
Liguies white; inner involueral bracts without a conspic- 
uous scai'Iovts appendage at the apex L I'iavj'.&is 
Liguies yellow, sometimes purplish beneath; inner in- 
volueral bracts with a conspicuous scarious appendage at 
apex 2. rasSiaiiis 

1. A. eJiivatus {Hesf.) Pees. White Auacycia: 

A. torn.erito.SMS DC. 

Mere or less villous annual up to 4!) em, high. Leaves ebhsng 
in outline, with linear, mucronulatc lobes; petioles flattened asd's: 
Capituia 15-20 mm. in diameter (excluding liguies).' Peduncles 
flowering. Involueral bracts lanceolate or, aeate 
without an appendage, greenish with a narrow white 'or piu' s 
seficeous-vHIotis. Liguies .usually ■ 7-14 mm. ionij, -while, obiane; 
and denticulate at apex, rarely very r.horS.. fHiter achencs b 
inner .achenes u.nwin°ed: pappus absent, Fl. fi-7. ■ . ■ 

Malta: near Luea (by the Poor House) (Borg). 
Mediterranean region. 

'.2. A. radiatns LoiseL. ' Flate XLV . Vcilovf Anacye.hjs 

I^ike A. clcveatus, but rip to 80 cm. h'iglv, ptfd'.mele'i not ijei'-flmiiig ei&vata; in- 
volueral bracts oblong, the inner with '.a large sc^.'.'iee.e ^.rnbriaia appendage yi; 
apex; liguies yelioiy, sometimes purplish banaath; the outer achcT'es with acute 
lobes at (lie top of the wings, th<j inner very narrowly winged. Fl. 4b. 

Malta: -tit. George's Bay, Giiajn Dwieh (Borg)'. 
Mediterranean region, 

22. Achillea L. 

Perennial herbs. Leaves entire to 3-pinnatifid, alternate. Capituia pedunculate. 
■rarely' shortly so. Involueral. bracts in -few. rows, the outer somewhat shorter ihan 
■ the inner, with scarious' margins.. -Receptacle convex or conical', stales r/ieseni. 

Outer florets ligulate, fcmaTe, the liguies more or less 3-dentate, patent or rarely 

;:hort. and erect. Inner florets hermaphrodite* 5Iebed, white, yellow or pink; 

coroHa-Ufee compressed, Aehenes compressed, oblong or obovaie; pappus a'osenV. 

1. A. ligustrrtt All. ' 'Ligunan Yarruw 

Stems (39)50-100 cm. high, simple, erect. Middle cauline leaves 2-:j x e. i.3 err;.. 
ovate in outline, plane, 2-pinnatifid, pubescent, the rhaehis sernewhat teethed; 
primary segments lanceolate in outline, irregularly pintiat.if.itl. Corymbs wdh 
many capituia.' Involucre 2.5-3(-4) x 1.5-2 mm.: bracts aj^pressed-pubcseeiil'. Lieules 
c. 1.5 mm .long,. white to pale yellow. 2k = ' 18. 

Borg states that A. millefolium forma co!ti;;n (Becker "3x Koch' 1 ilarg ivbs widely 
cultivated and rarely naturalised' in Malta and Gnzo. This plant now usually re- 
garded '-is a species. Jt. collina Becfeer ex Koch, .is confined mostly to V. Kiirope 
and seem? unlikely to have been cultivated in the Maltese Islands. The only speci- 
men seen, collected by E.D. Dickson in the fralds of Goao in 183-1 is A. hnmUcu 

AH and this ppeciea is described, .shove. A. ligustica is a widespread. Medi.teiranean 
plaiit.and there is no reason why it- should not have been native in. the >:fal!ese 



23, Chamomilla S.I'"', Gray 

Annual herbs. Loaves alternate, irregularly 2- to 3-pinnatisect, with numerous 
linaai' segments. Capitula small to medium, pedunculate or Hubsessile. Invoiucral 
bracts in two or more rows, with a scarious margin. Receptacle conical, hollow, 
without scales, Ligulato florets, when present, female, white; inner llorets tubular, 
4 or 5-lobed. Achenes mucilaginous when wet, slightly compressed, obliquely 
truncate a\;ove; dorsal -face convex; .ventral lace with 3-a narrow whitish'' lon- 
gitudinal ribs; pappus -absent, or in the- form of a small corona or more or 'less 
conspicuous auricle. 

Ligu'les present; tubular florets 5-lobed 
Lig-'jio3 absent; tubular florets l-iobeci 

C, recutita <L-j Rauschcrt 
MairicaHu recutita L, 

Piatt XLVI 


K a mum ilia 
Scented Mayweed 

■ Plsasently aromatic. Stems erect or ' ascending,' much-branched above. Leaves 
40-71) mm, long; .segments acute, well-separated. Capitula 8-12Q(-S0fi); peduncles 
3-10 ■ cm. lung. ■ Involucrai bracts with pale margins. Ligules 6-9 x 2-3 mm.-, soon 
defiexed, rarely absent; tubular florets yellow; upper part of tube eampaiiufate 
above a marked constriction, Achenes c. I. mm. long, pale greyish-brown, with 4-5 
thin rib;; on the ventral face; pappus usually very small or absent, but some- 
times especially in achenes from the ii gulate florets, forming a conspicuous, ir- 
regularly toothed auricle which may equal or exceed the achene. 2b = 18. Fl. 3-5. 

Malta and Gozo: wcrad in old gardens and waste places, but not common; formally 
cultivated inr medicinal purposes (S. & C.G,; Borg); Addolorata cemetery (fjaori). 

Most oF'Euvope; W. &■ C. Asia; introduced' elsewhere. 

2. C, aai'ca- (Loefl.) Gay ex Cosson & Kralik 

Golden Mayweed 

Stems 4-25 cm. high, slender, decumbent or ascending and often flexuous,. 
branched from the base, glabrous below, sometimes very sparsely pubescent below 
the c'ap.itulum. Leaves 5-25 x 3-10 mm,; segments numerous, capillary, mucronulate. 
Capitula 1-60, 4-7 mm. in diameter: peduncles 5-25 mm." long. Florets till tubular, 
7-ti mm. (slightly exceeding the auricle if present). Achene 0.6 0. 9 x 0,15-0.2 mm- 
(excluding auricle), pale to dark brown, with 3-5 thin ribs on the ventral ta'w; 
pappus either a short membranous rim or a conspicuous irregularly toothed 
scarious auricle 0.0-0-S mm. long. 'In = IE. Fl. 3-5. 

IVMtii: rare at Porte de Bomber, Floriana. (S. & C.G.; Borg). Gozo: bastions of 
Victoria (S. & C.G.); Gran Castello (Borg). 

Mediterranean region, local; W. &. C. Asia, 

24. Chrysanthemum L. 

Annual herbs. Leaves spiral lv arranged. Inflorescence of solitary ■ eaoi'tula at the 
cid of branches. Invnlucral liracts in sevorpl iinhricafe rows. Receptacle fiat, or 
slightly convex, naked. Ray florets iigulate, female; disk florets tubular, herma 


phrodite, all fertile. Achenes of 2 kinds; those of the ray florets with 2-3 often 
winged angles, those of disk florets cylindrical, all ribbed; pappus a membranous 
rim or 0; embryo anterior-posterior. 

1. C. segeSiiiii L, 

Lelluxj Jiigland. 

Corn Daisy, Corn Marigold 

Glabrous, glaucous annual. Stems 20-50 cm. high, simple or branched. Leaves 
20-SQ x 10-20 mm., rather fleshy; lower oblong, coarsely dentate or pinna tifid, 
narrowed to a- winged petiole; upper oblong,- dentate or subentire, sessile, semii 
am plexi caul. Capitula 35-65 mm. in diameter, solitary on branches, the long 
peduncles thickened upwards. Involucre 6-10 x 10-20 mm,; bracts broadly ovate, 
with broad, pale brown, scarious margins, Ray-florets broadly linear, golden 
yellow, about as long as the involucral bracts, disk-florets golden yellow. 
Achenes c. 2.5 mm. long. 2n = -IS, 3ft. Fl. 3-4. 

Cultivated places. Malta: rare (G. Lanfranco); as at Wied Ineita, Marsaskala, Kor- 
din, Busket.t (S. & C.G.; Borg); fcejtun, Girgenti, Ghajn il-Kbira (Borg), Gozo: 
more frequent, Ramla (S. & C.G.; Borg); Marsalforn (Haslam); Qala, adur (Gauci). 

Probably a native of the Mediterranean region and W", Asia; but established to 70° 
N. in Europe; introduced elsewhere. 

25. Pinardia Cass. 

Like Chrysanthemum but ray achenes with 3 winged angles and disk achenes 
tetragonous - compressed and winged alon^ the inner angle; all achenes glandular 
and striate. 

1. P. coroiiaria (L,) Less. Plate XLV 

Chrysanthemum . corowarittm ' L. 

Zigland, Lellux 
Crown Daisy 

Annual. Stems 20-60 cm. high, branched, very leafy. Leaves 20-60 x 10-35 mm.; 
lower oblong, 2-pmnatlfied, narrowed to the petioles; upper oblong, with acutely 
dentate lobes; Capitula 30-50 mm. in diameter, solitary at end of branches, on 
long peduncles thickened towards their apex. Involucre 6-12 x 7-22 mm.; bracts 
broadly ovate, obtuse, with brownish margin, Ligules usually yellow, sometimes 
yellowish-white or yellow at base with white or cream at apex. Achenes c. 2.5 
mm. long. FL 1-6. 

Fields and waste places Malta. Gozo and Comiwo: very common (S. & C.G.; Borg; 
G, Lanfranco; Haslam; Wolseley) . 

Mediterranean region; Atlantic Islands. 

26. LcucaiithcmUm Miller 

Annual or nerennial herbs. Leaves spirally arranged. Inflorescence of solitary 
capitula at the end of long branches. Involucral bracts in several, imbricate rows, 
Receptacle flat or slightly convex, naked, Ray florets Iigulate. female, fertile or 
sterile: disk florets tubular, hermaphrodite, fertile, Achenes all similar, or tho^e 
of rav florets compressed, with 10 micro oterous ribs, bearing enicarpic, myxogenic 
K'ands. with deen vallecidae each enclosing a voluminous secretary canal; pappus 
present or 0; embryo with transverse cotyledons, sac monosporic, 


Capitula 25-50 mm. in diameter 
Capitula 50-75 (-100) mm. in diameter 

1. L. vulgare Lam. 

Chrysanthemum leucartHiem-um L. 

1. 'vsilgarc 
■2. maximum 

hrf-To vox-en ces, rarely solitary. Tn.vohicral braefs in few 


Ox eye Daisy 

Perennial herbs, sparsely hairy or glabrous. Stems ' 20-70 em. high, simple or 
tranches'. Basal and lower stem leaves up to 50 mm., obiong-obovate to chovaie- 
spathulats, ercnate to dentate, with lorcj petioles; upper' leave.:!- obbng. obtuse 
■dentate -to pinnatifid, sessile, semi-amplexlcaul. Capiiuia 25-50 mm., in "diameter". 
solitary on long peduncles, involucre S-'fi -i- 12 20' mm.; bracts lanceolate to oblong! 
green with narrow dai'k scarious margins and tips. Ray-florets long, white- disk- 
florets yellow. Achenes 2-3 mm. long. Fl. -i-S. 
Malta, and Gozo: cultivated 
in other waste places . (Borg). ' 
Thrc-ugliout Eii rope.. 

n gardens en a' found as an escape on rubbish tips ant 

2. L, maximum' diamond)' DC. Shasta Daisy 

Chrysanthemum maximum- Ramond ■ ■' 

Like a large L, vulgare, stems 35-73 era. high; basal and lower eauline leaves 
' up to 230 mm. long,- involucre 10 11 x '20-25 mm., mid capitula SO-Taf-'i'OO) mm' 
in diameter. Fl. 4-8. 

Malta end Gozo: cultivated in gardens and found as sis escape on rubbish tips 
■ ■ and in other waste .places. (Borg; Wols^ley), 

'27.. Tsaacetiim L. 

. .Perennial, rarely animal herbs. Leaves spirally, arranged. 'Inflorescence of. corymbs. 

. Involucral bracts. in several., imbricate rows. Receptacle flat or slightly convex. 

■ naked. Florets >lt hermaphrodite or with female ■ ray florets and. hermaphrodite 
disk florets. Achenes all similar, obconical, with 5-10. i-ibs-. projecting ■ ' little and 
with no myxogenic cells; pappus a membranous iim; embryo with transverse coty- 
ledons, sac 4-spori.c, 

T. partbenimn (L.) Schultz Bin. 

Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) . Berinh. 


Strongly aromatic perennial herb. Stems 25-60 cm. high.- Leaves 25-80 x 30-50 
mm., lower ovate, pinnate, leaflets ovate, pinnatifid with dentate or lo'bed segments. upper less divided and with shorter petioles. Capitula 12-22 mm. in 
diameter, with long peduncles, in lax corymbs. Involucre 4-5 x 6-10 mm.; bracts 
lanceolate to oblong, bluntly keeled, downy, with narrow, pale scarious margins 
and laciniate tips. Ray florets white, short and broad; disk-florets yellow. Achenes 
c ; 1.5 mm. long. 2n '— 18. PI. 4-8. 

Malta -and Gozo: cultivated and, often found as an escape on rubbish tips and in 
waste places (Borg), 

Probably native in SE, Europe and S.W. Asia; cultivated elsewhere. 

28, Artemisia L. 

Herbs or sma'l shrubs, frequently aromatic. Leaves alternate. Capitula small, 
homogamous or heterogamous, usually pendulous, in elongate panicles or capitate 

hemispherical, without. ■ scales, sometimes hirsute. Florets all tubulrr. Ac- 
obovoid, subterete or compressed, smooth, finely striate or 2-ribbed; pappus a 
or sometimes a small scarious ring. 

ht to 

?xn ;■ 

1„ A. absinthium 1... 

Plate XLV1 


Aromatic, more or less sericeous perennial 30-30 cm. high. Leaves '1- to 3- 
pinnatisett, petiolate; lobes 5-20 x 1-6 mm,, usually obtuse. Capitula bcmispberlcal, 
nodding; in' a paniculate inflorescence. Involucre 2-3 sum. Icng;. wl.ti? hracts ob- 
long, herbaceous; inner ovate, Herbaceous, with a wide scarious .marshi. li.uc't?tacl.c. 
hairy. Corolla glabrous. 2n = 18. Fl. 6^3. 

flfalfa and Goze: originally naturalised in TV Eraxia Ceirretary and 'iie.ign.'JOi.:.tliO(.>3. 
from which It spread to many gardens and occasionally escapes (Byrj;; (Vols-aley). 

Most of Fjiirope; W. Asia, 

(A. asehoresceiis L., Woody Wormwood and A. aibu Turra (A. cmn.vk(Yrij.fa Vil!j. 
White Wormwood are frequently cultivated and sometimes found in neglected 
gardens (Borg; Gauei). Both are' white -torn en lose, aromatic perennials the former 
with the inner involucral bracts hairy all over, while those of the fitter have 
broad glabrous margins.) 

Tribe Seneeimieae Cass. Leaves- alternate, very rarely opposite, -amply o>: pbiiiati- 
sect. Capitula with or without liguies; outer florets usually female, the inner 
hermaphrodite or male; liguies. usually yellow. Receptacle without scslo:;. .Anlhers 
usually- sagittate but not caudate at base. Style branches truncate arid papillose at 
apes, sometimes .with a non-stigmatic upes. Pappus of. iiah'Li. 

2!!. Stnecio L. 

Herbs' or dwarf shrubs, with alternate leaves. Leaves not or scarcely tboslLiiig at 
the base. Capitula in corymbs, more, rarely solitary, Involucral bracts hi. 1-3 rows, 
.the outer .when present irregularly inserted at the bas& of the tapJhi i 'U'.Ti. 
ceptacle flat, without scales. Outer florets usually ligulate and female; nine.: florets 
hermaphrodite, tubular. Achenes usually more or less cylindrical, ribbed; pappus 
usually present, of simple or barbellate (rarely subplumose) hairs. 

One of the largest genera in the world, of cosmopolitan d 

Perennial; leaves densely white-felted beneath 
Annual; leaves glabrous, pubescent or cottony beneath 

Outer involucral bracts not more than 5; often 

Outer involucral bracts more than 8 

Usually prostrate or with ascending branches; leaves' 

often fleshy, basal obovatc, dentate; ray-florets usually 

we sent 

Erect; leaves not fleshy, basal oblong or lanceolate, 

pinnatifid; ray-flgrets usually absent 



S. tricolor (Willd.) Tod. 

S. cineraria DC. 

Plate XLVI 

2. ga 11 lews 

'3, leticniitliciiiifolius 

4. vulgaris 

Kromb U-bahar 
Silver Hag wort 

Dwarf shrub 25-50 (-100) cm. high. Stem much-branched at the base and 
sometimes also above, stout, densely wh it e-t omen lose, with the leaves mostly 
crowded towards the base of the flowering stems and forming rosettes on the 



ii»m- flowering shook. Leaves 40-150 x 25-70 mm., dentate to pinnate, densely white 
tomontose, greenish and glabresent above. Capitula manj : 12-15 mm. in 'diameter, 
in dense, compressed corymbs. Involucre 5-8 mm. long, outer bracts up to 5, 1-2 
mm. long. Ligules 10-13, 3-6 mm. long, yellow. Fl. 3-7. 

Rock fissures, wails and cliffs. Malta,. Gozo, Comino, Comineito, Selmunett and 
Filtia: common especially near the sea (S. & C.G.; Borg; G. L.-inlraneo; Haslam; 
Wolseley); but also inland us at Wied Incita, Mosta, Wied Qirda (Borg). 

W, & C. Mediterranean region; cultivated and naturalised elsewhere. 

(S. jacobaea L. (Common Ragwort) a tall plant up to 150 cm. high with 12-15 
conspicuous yellow ray -florets was -recorded by Duthie from Comino, but hot ac- 
cepted by Borg). 

;allicus Chaix 

Southern Ragwort 

tjiibgtaljrous or sparsely floceose annual up to 40 cm. high, usually with several 
branches from the base. Leaves rather thick, more or less pinnatisect, with linear- 
oblong, patent, remote, entire to pinnatifid segments; basal leaves petiolate; middle 
and upper ■ cauiine sessile, amplexicaul with dentate to laeiniate auricles. Inflore- 
scence sub corymbose with few capitals. Cam'tulum 1.5-22. mm, in diameter. In- 
velucval bracts 5-7 mm. long, linear-lanceolate, glabrous, concolorous; outer 
bracts often absent, sometimes 1-6, 1-2 mm. long, grading into few, remote pe- 
duncular bracts. Ligules e. 13, c. S mm. long, yellow. Achenes 2-2.5 mm. long, 
shortly subappressed-hairy on ridges. In = 20. PI. 12-5. 

Q<izo: near Chambray according to Gtilia <3org). 

MeUiUii-rariean region extending to Prance snd Bulgaria. 

S. itsucaBlheinlfoIius Poiret 

Coastal Ragwort 

Like S, gaUicus but often very fleshy; basal leaves usually obovate, dentate; 
cauiine leaves variously dissected, often coarsely pinna tid, with entire to shallowly 
dentate auricles; involucral bracts often black-tipped; outer bracts several, up to 
2 mm. long, usually blackish; ligulate florets sometimes absent (var. pygmaeus 

(DC:> Borg). Fl. 2-4. ' 

Walls and rocky places, usually not far from the sea. Malta: rare <G. Lanfranco), 
as at Ghar Hassan, Fort Manoel (Borg). Gozo: Hagra tal-General, Ras San Dimitri, 
Xlendi (BorgT; Dwejra (Borg; Gauci); Ta' Cenc (Borg; Wolseley). 

W. & C. Mediterranean region. 

-t. S. vulgaris L. Kubrita 

Haxixa tal-Kanali 

Subglabr'ous or somewhat floccose, rather succulent annual up to 40 cm. high, 
with weak, irregularly branched stems. Leaves coarsely pinnatifid with distant, 
obtuse, toothed lobes; basal and lower cauiine leaves oblanceolate in outline, 
shortly petiolate; middle and upper cauiine leaves oblong in outline, aurtculate- 
amplexicaut. Capitula numerous, 4-5 mm. in diameter, subsessile in dense, sub- 
corymbose clusters at anthesis; peduncles elongating in fruit. Involucre cylin- 
drical; bracts 5-8 mm. long, usually glabrous and often black-tipped; outer bracts 
S-10. 12 mm long, usually black-tipped, sometimes blackish throughout, Ligules 
usually absent, sometimes 6-12, yellow. 



Achenes 1.5-2{-2.5) mm. long, oppressed harry between ;::e ribs 2b = 40 Fl 12-5 
Cultivated and disturbed ground. Malta, Gozo and Comino: common (B & C Q ■ 
Borg; U. Laniranco; Wolseley). ' 

where gh0m Europe CXCei)t thc ex "'«ne north; Asia; N. Africa; introduced else, 

Tribe Calenduleae Cass, Leaves alternate, simple, Capitula win ligules; outer 
florets female, the inner hermaphrodite or male; corolla yellow or orange Re- 
ceptacle .without scales. Anthers sagitato but not caudate at base. Sty Je of 
female and male flowers undivided, the style-branches of the hermaphrodite 
flowers flattened, truncate and papillose at apex. Pappus absent, 

30. Calendula L, 

Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes woody at base, often glandular and aromatic 
Leaves alternate, simple; Inflorescence branched or unbranched. CErTES 
in 1-2 rows hnear, acuminate, sub equal, with narrow s carlo us margins Recept- 
acle flat, without scales. Capitula heterogamous, radiate. Outer florets ligulate 
yellow or orange, female, fertile. Inner florets tubular, yellow, orange, brown or 
violet-purple; functionally male and sterile. Anthers sagittate-caudate; filaments 
ireey Outer achenes narrowly beaked, and/or cymbiform, or 3-winged (tripteroid) 
the inner smaller, strongly falcate or almost annulate, tuberculate- rugose on the 
dorsal surface, usually un winged; pappus absent. 

1. Ligules usually less than twice as long as involucral 

bracts, rarely more than 18 mm. long; annual 3. arvensis 

Ligules usually twice as long as involucral bracts, 

frequently more than 18 mm. long 2 

2, Perennial, sometimes suffruticose; florets normally 
concolorous; outer (beaked) achenes often very long, 
spreading or loosely incurved 

Annual or biennial, or If perennial woody only at base; 
florets eoneoloruus or tubular, brownish; outer achene,* 
usually strongly incurved 

1. C, sufirutieosa Vahl 


1. sufirutieosa 

2. officinalis 


Woody Marigold 

™Jt £ cm » g c7 more ' usualI !f woody for some distance above base 

ereet,; ascendmg, diffuse or decumbent Leaves (15O2570M20) x (3- 18-30 (-40) mm' 
linear-lanceolate, oblanceolate, obovate or spathulate, glandular-pubescent or 
floccose-tomentose, usually rep and -dentate, occasionally subentire, the S ta- 
per ng to a slender base, the median sometimes am plexicaul, the upper reduced 
rather suddenly to small, subulate bracts or remaining large and leaf -like In- 
florescence often not much branched, sometimes elongate and rather hare.' Ca- 
pitula 2-5 (-6) cm, m diameter. Ligulate florets often '20 mm. long, usually more 
tnan twice as fong as the involucral bracts, yeJlow or orange; tubular florets 
more or less concolorous with ligules. Fruiting capitula with an outer row of 
patent {occasionally deflexed) or loosely incurved, narrowly beaked achenes un 
to 30 mm. ions, alternating with much shorter cymbiform or (rarely) tripteroid 
achenes. Fl. 9-6. 

( ^ ery variable.' At least three subsneei^s seem to occur. Subsp suffrut'eosa (C 
ofinnate var. ncpla sensu Borg) has the stems usually erect; leaves linear-lan- 
ceolate to narrowly oblanceolate, acuminate, often conspicuously repand-dentate, 


gre:::~i, giMd:.ib.L'-.pubescc:U; capitula 30 40 mm. '.in diamelo:-: outer (beaked) 
aehenes about 30 ■ mm'. . long, almost straight; patent or" deilexed. Subs p. hilgida 
(Raftn.) Ohle (C. officinalis var. fulgida (Rafm.t Borg) has the stems erect or 
diffuse; leaves sometimes thinly arachnoid-floccose, especially at margins, undulate 
or repancl-dentate; capitula 25-60(603 nim. in diameter; ligules orange, sometimes 
red at apex; outer aehenes usually long-becked, loosely incurved, glabrous or sub 
glabrous. Var. vielitensis Sommier & Caruana Gatto is either synonymous with 
subsp, fidgida or intermediate between it and subsp. snffrvtieosa. Subsp. maritijna 
(Guss.) MeiklefC. officinalis var, maritime/. (Guss.) Borg) has the stems procumbent 
or decumbent, 1'eafj; leaves densely and conspicuously glandular-pubescent, rather 
thick and fieshy, entire; or rarely sparingly denticulate; capitula 30-4CK-50} mm. 
in diameter; ligules yellow or . rarely orange; outer aehenes usually shortly 
rostrate, rather closely incurved, scabrid-pubescent.) 

Valleys, walls, .and rocky, stony, sandy- and 'waste pjaees, Malta, Oo.zo and C amino: 
frequent (S, & C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region. 

2. C. ofnrjtialis L. 

includ. var. hortensis Fiori 

Pot Marigold f ■ 

Annual, biennial or sometimes perennating, but if perennial .woody only at 
the base. Stems (I7-)20-50<-70) cm. high, erect, diffuse or procumbent, much 
branched, generally leafy almost to apex. Leaves (30-J70-140 (-170) x (10-)15-40(-00) 
mm., oblanceolate, na^wly obovate, oblong or spathulate, shortly acute or ob- 
tuse, glandular-pubescent or sometimes thinly arachnoid-floccose, usually suben- 
tire or undulate, occasionally remotely and often obscurely repand-den tat e, the 
lower tapering to a slender base, the median and upper often broadly amplest 
caul. Inflorescence repeatedly divided, often with large leaf-like bracts; peduncles 
usually short. Capitula (20-) 25-50 (-70) mm. in diameter. Ligules often 20 mm, long, 
twice as long as, or more than twice as long as involucra! bracts, yellow or 
orange: tubular florets usually more or less eoncblorous with ligules, sometimes 
brown. Fruiting capitula with or without an outer row of incurved (or rarely 
patent) narrowly boaked aehenes 20-50 mm. long, alternating with much shorter, 
eymbifbrm or (rarely) tripteroid aehenes. Fl, 1-6. 

Cultivated and often 'found on rubbish heaps and in waste places. Malta and Gozo: 
frequent (PjOrg; Hvislam; Wolselpy). 

Widely cultivated; origin unknown, 

fC, steHata Cav. which differs from C. officinalis in having the ligu late florets 
violet at apex, tubular florets violet- our pie; outer aehenes patent, beaked, or some- 
times with wide, coarsely wings, is almost certainly to be found in the Maltese 

3, C, arveiisis L. 

Plate XLVI 

Ruffejra tar-raba 
Field Marigold 

Very variable annual. Stems (5-)15-2Sf.30> em. high, often thinly araehnoid- 
flncco^e. f"-(yt or diffuse, usuallv much branched, Leaves '<■ 10-130,80 f -'100 ) x 
(4-)5-I4(-20) mm., nube^cent or thinly floccose, oblong or narrowly ohovate. acute 
or obtuse, with subentire or obscurely denticulate marsrins. Capitula 10-20 mm. 
in diameter. Lieules vellow or orange, usually less than 18 mra. long, often 
distinctly exceeding, but not twice as long as involucral bracts. Tubular florets 
eoncolorous with ligules or sometimes brown or violet- purple. Fruiting capitula 



usually with an- outer row of incurved, narrowly beaked aehenes l-liO inns. lorig 

alternating with broadly cymbiform aehenes 0-10 mm. long, the beaked schenes 

occasionally very long (up to 25 mm.) .anil conspicuous or rarely v/hnjly replace;! 
by cymbiform aehenes or annulate aehenes. Fl. 1.0 -S. 

Cultivated and waste places, Malta, Gozo and Com'.'un: common (S. 4V. C.G., Borg: 
G. Lanfranco; I-Iaslam; Wolseley). 

Mediterranean region north to C. Europe; W. & C. Asia. 

Tribe Cartluoae Hoffm. Leaves alternate, entire or pinnntvfM, often spiny. Capitula 
usually without ligules: florets ail hermaphrodite or the outermost female or 
neuter; "corolla purple or yellow. Receptacle' without, scale--, often hairy. 
Anthers usually caudate at base. Styles will)' a ring of hairs :>r a swpi'ing below 
the bifurcation of the branches- Pappus of hairs or scales. 

31. Cardtius L, 

Annual to perennial herbs with .spiny- winged stems. Leaves spiny-dentate, suben- 
tire to pinnatisect. Capitula many-flowered, depressed-globose to cylindrical: In- 
volucre glabrous to densely arachnoid -hairy; bracts in many (ravciy few) rows, 
more or less imbricate, spine-tipped. Receptacle densely risid-hairy. Florets purple, 
rarely Pink or white: corolla with -slender tube and equally lobed hmb or un- 
equally lobed : with one lobe longer than the others. Anthers sagittate, with 
slender, entire or lacerate tails, Aehenes 3-10 mm. long', glabrou:; shmy or drJf. 
smooth or with 5-10 ribs; pappus of many. rows of unequal rigid hairs, me mnci 
longest, ail united at base into a ring. 

Apical spines of teeth on stem wings up to 5 ram. long; 
corolla 15-17 mm. long 

Apical spines of teeth on stem wings up to 12 mm. long: 
corolla 10-12 mm. long 


C, pycnoccphalus L. Plate XLVI 

including var.brevisquamns (Fiovi) 
■■■. var. temiftorus ■ (Curt.) 

1. pyenoeejdwip.s- 
t. arabicas 

Xewk'iu:t'fl ighira 
Plymouth Thistle 

Annual herb Stem up to 80 cm. High, with stout ribs, aradioid-bairy grcy- 
iomentose distallr, winged, the wings with triangular teeth up to 5 mm. vide with 
an apical spine' up to a mm. long and 1-2 lateral pairs of sptnules set at 4;> ". Leaves 
soft sparselv hairy above, greyish-arachnoid beneath with mostly unicellular hairs; 
middle cauline oblanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, lobed for up tn \ of way to midrib. 
cauline. oblanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, lobed for up to I of way to msonb 
with 2-5 pairs of palmate lobes each with an apical spine up to 12 mm., 
with the veins raised in the distal half; petioles of lower leaves up to 1 as Ions as 
lamina Capitula 15-20 x 7-13 mm., cylindrical, solitary or 2-3 together ;u ends o:l 
branches, subsessile or peduncles up to 10G x 20 mm,, naked. greyish-iomentose. 
Involucre arachnoid-hairy; bracts imbricate, tapering into a spiniife up <o , .mm. 
lone the mid-vein raised, minutely verrueuiose on the back, abate: .miser bracts 
up to 11 times as long as middle,, faintly 3-veined in the distal halt, acuminate and 
tapering into- a mucro 0.5-1 mm. long, not scanous at margin. Corolla .-17 mm. 
ong; tube M mm. long, narrow, Aehenes 4-5 mm. long, compresses ,™o th; 
apical prominence: small/ shortly stalked a*d davate, entire. 2n - 62-fcf. H. .1-6. 
Roadsides and mber waste ground. Malta, Gozo and Comino: common (S. & CO.; 
Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley). 
Mediterranean region extending to Bulgaria. 


I, C :r- libit' us Jacu. subsp, mnmiarirtiis 
Plate XLVII 

C. -ntarvioratus Boiss. & Heldr. . 

(Boiss. & Heldr.) Kazmi 
Arabian Thistle 

Annual hcvb. Stem up to GO cm. high, with both stout and slender ribs more 
or less arachnoid-hairy; winged, the wings with tri an gula*' teeth up to ^ mm. 
wide with an apical spine up to 12 mm. long, and lateral spmes Leaves «***£. 
■™-n and slabrescent above, greyish arachnoid -hairy beneath with multicellular 
"nil uidfceuSr hairs: middle cauline lyrate-pinnatipartite for up to 4/5 of way to 
;ndr"b with 2': S pairs of triangular lobes, each with a strong apical spine uj; .to 
Lo mm. long and'with a few weaker lateral spines veins raised »»«*; C^ 
15-20 x 5-10 mm., cylindrical, subsessde and mostlj 2-5 together «* tn e a pex ot 
the stem. Involucral bracts »^£ ™» J J*^'^ SiXltaSe 

minutely serrulate but not scarious at t ,f m ™ m '^ Various margins. Corolla 

a ^"'£ JT2t.BSsn&f « "»■ -«' ■*•* »"" 

G. Lanfranco; Wolseley-) , 

C. & E. Mediterranean region. 

33. Galaetites Moench 

White-tomentose, annual herbs. Leaves alternate, white- veined.-. or .-variegated 
above white tomentose beneath, with spiny lobes or teeth. Capitula solitary or 
in corymbose cymes or clusters at ends of branches. Involucre ovoid; bracts im- 
bricate, the outer and middle terminating im a rigid, erec to-patent spine Re- 
r-enl'arlP densely hairy. Inner florets small, tubular, hermaphrodite; outer florets 
much enlarged' infundibuliform, sterile. Corolla purple to white. Achenes sub cylin- 
drical, striate, glabrous; pappus of white prumose hairs. 

■1. G. tomontosa Moench Hate XLVII 

Lupsia tjalactites (LJ O. Kuntze 

Xewk abjad 
Mediterranean Thistle 

Stems (8-J15-80 cm. high. Basal Leaves oblanceolate, serrate, petiolate, soon 
dccS cauhne leaves 40 180 x 10-80 mm., pinnatifid rarely undivided sag He 
a^d shortly decurrent, the spines lJW{-8) mm. long. Capitula pedunculate solit- 
ary m in a corymbose cyme; involucre 10-15 mm. long, arachnoid-pubescent, the 
brLts with SEniSi W uL 5-10 x 0.3-0.5 mm. Achenes g * 1, .5 ^. ye^owg 
pappus 3 to 4 times as long as the achene. In - 22. FI. 3-6 (rarely in wuiierj. 
Waste and cultivated places. Malta, Gtn6- and Comino: very common (S. & C.G.; 
Borg; G. Lanfranco; Haslam; Wolseleyh 
Mediterranean region; S.W. Europe; Atlantic Islands. 

33. Notobasis Cass. 

Spiny annuals. Leaves alternate, white-veined above, grey arachnoid -pubescent 
beneath with spinulose margins and spinose segments. Involucral bracts imbric- 
ate with a vitta and a very short apical spine. Florets hermaphrodite, purple, 
rarely white Anthers with basal appendages c. 0.3 mm. long. Achenes obliquely 
obovoid-globose, compressed, smooth, woody, with indistinctly margmate, truncate 
apex; pappus of numerous outer rigid plumose hairs and an Inner ring of short 
hairs connate at base. 


I. N* syiiaca (L.) Cass. Plate XLYI 

Ciruwm synacwm U,J Gaertner 

Xewk tax-Xitan 
'i-iorse 'rmsue 

Stems 20-60(-1BO) cm. high, usually branched and bluish above. Basal leaves 
herbaceous, elliptical, dentate to lobed, petiolate; c a uline coriaceous, lanceolate to 
oblong-lanceolate, pinnatifid, broadly auricula te-amplexicaul, the uppermost rigid, 
pinnatise.ct,. nearly reduced to strong spines, surrounding and exceeding the eapi- 
: tula, Capitula in elongate clusters or solitary/Involucre 17-23 x. 15 : 25 mm. Achenes 
c. 7 mm. long, pale brown; outer pappus hairs rigid., 13-15 mm. long, the inner 
i-2 mm, long. In = 34. Fl. 1-5. 

By paths and roadsides and in waste places. .Malta: common (S, & C.G.; Borg; 
GLanfrahCq; Wolseley). Goso: Sannat, Wiefl il-Lunzjata (S. & C.G.; Borg); Xlendi, 
Qbajjar (Borg) 

Mediterranean region;. S.W' Asia; Atlantic Islands. 

34. Onupordum L. 

Biennial herbs. Stems spiny-winged, or absent. Leaves dentate, pinnatilobeci to 
pinnatisect, rarely suben tire. Capitula globose to ovoid. Involucral bracts in several 
rows, coriaceous, densely imbricate at least near the base, spine-tipped, glabrous to 
puberulent, sometimes glandular. Receptacle glabrous, pitted, the pit deep with 
dentate 'margins^ Florets .reddish-purple, -rarely, pink or white; corolla-tube slender; 
limb ac tin omorpbic or saccate, Anthers with subulate apical appendages 4 Achenes 
4^S mm, long, sub tetragonal, 4- to 5-ribbed, glabrous, dull; pappus of scabrid or : 
plumose hairs' united into irring at hase, deciduous, 

1. : 0. urgolicutii Solas. Plate XLVII Argolian Cotton Thistle 

O. sibthorpianwm sensu Borg, non Boiss, & Heldr. 

Plant up to 150 cm. high, with multicellular hairsj more or less viscid. Stem 
brownish, sparsely hairy, densely and minutely glandular in the grooves; wings up 
to . R mm. wide, subpalmate, withi raised, somewhat reticulate yellowish veins 
beneath, tapering into a spine upjpto 5 nim.long^ Capitula 40-60 x (J0 : S0 mm., 
subgiobose, densely.- arachnoid- hairy; involucral bracts 35-45 mm, long, 5-7 mm, 
wide at base, tapering to a coriaceous, semicylindricat, patent or deflexed process. 
Corolla 25-30 mm. Jong. Achenes 4-5 mm. long, brownish- grey; pappus 8-10 mm. 
long. Fl. 36. 

Dryland waste, places. Malta,: infrequent (G. Lanfranco); as at Mdina, Mosta, St 
Paul's Bay, : Mtahleb, Mellieha, Msida- (S. & C.G.; .Borg); Ghajn Tuffieha, Ghajn 
Znuber (Borg); Bahrija; Fort San Leonardo (Gauci). Gozo: Sannat, Kigarr ix.Xmi 
(S. .& C.G.; Borg); Ramla (Borg). Comino: (Borg). 

C. & E. Mediterranean region, 

35. Cynara L. 

Perennial herbs; stem erect, striate to ribbed, sometimes absent. Leaves in a 
basal rosette or alternate, usually deeply divided and with spiny segments, Capi- 
tula solitary or in a little-branched, corymbose cyme, involucre ovoid to globose; 
bracts imbricate, glabrous, the outer and middle with a stout: spine or an ogate 
to triangular appendage at , the apex. Receptacle fleshy,: the scales setaceous, 
Florets all. hermaphrodite. Corolla purplish, blue ; or white, tubular, 5-fld; style 
long-exserted.:' Achenes obpyramidal or obo void -cylindrical, glabrous; pappus mul- 
tisoriate. the hairs connate at the base, plumose, dirty white. 
Leaf-segments spiny; involucral bracts with apical spine 
or spiny appendage l. carduuculus 


Leaf-segments unarmed or mueronulate; involucral bracts 
with large, cuspidate, apical' appendage' 

1. C. <-'ardujK-.ii Ins L-- 

Plate XLV1I 

2. scolymus 

Qaqocc tax-Xewk 

Stems 20-100 cm, high, Ianate. Leaves up to 30 x 35 cm., subcoriaceous, bright 
green and shortly t omen tose above, white- tdmentose beneath: segments ovate to 
lineardanceoJate, with rigid, yellow spines 15-35 mm. long at apex and clustered 
at base; lower leaves petiolate, the uppermost sessile, Involucre 45-60 x 40-50 mm., 
ovoid-globosc; bracts ovate to elliptical., gradually or abruptly narrowing into an 
credo-patent, spine 10-5.0 x 2-6 mm., glaucescent or purplish. Corolla blue, lilac 
or whitish. Achenes 6-8 x 3-4 mm., shiny, brown-spotted; pappus 25-40 mm. long. 
Fl. 3-6. 

Stony and waste places. Malta, Gozn and Comma: common (S.. fe C.G.: Borg).; 
IHarsahorn (Kramer & Westra). 

Mediterranean region; occasionally cultivated elsewhere for the leaves which are 
blanched arid eaten as a vegetable. 

2- C. scolymus L. 

C. carduncuhis var, 

aolymus . CL.) fi8?< 



Globe Artichoke 

Like C. cardunculus but stems up to 200 em, high, glabrescent; leaves up to 
SO x 40 cm., soft, glabrescent above, : greyish- tomentose beneath, with wide, un- 
armed or mueronulate segments; involucre 60-70 x 70-80 mm., the bracts- fleshy, 
with a : flattish apical appendage; appendage 15-40 x 12-35 mm., ovate to triangular! 
truncate, cuspidate or siuuateTtrmicule. 

Malta and Gozo:. widely cultivated as a vegetable (BorfiL 

Unknown in a wild state, hut probably originally derived from' C. eardiincuius 
in S.W. Europe or N. Africa; widely cultivated. 

3fi. Silybum Adanson 

Robust annual or biennial herbs, Leaves alternate, while-veined or variegated, 
with strongly spiny margins. Capitula solitary'. Involucre ovoid; bracts imbricate, 
the outer and middle with an apical, rigid-hairy to dentate appendage terminat- 
ing (at. least in the middle) in a long spine. Receptacle densely hairy. Florets 
all hermaphrodite. Corolla purple, deeply 5-fid, with a long tube. Achenes ovoid-' 
oblong, compressed, glabrous; pappus of white scabrid hairs united below into a 

1. S. marianuro (L.) Gaertner 

Plate XLVII 

Xewk baghli 
Milk Thistle 

Stems 20-150 cm. high, rarely shorter, glabrous or slightly arachnoid -pubescent. 
Basal leaves 25-50 x 12-25 cm., pinnatffid, glabrous or glabrescent, petiolate; 
cauline leaves smaller, less deeply divided, auriculate- am p lex i caul, sessile, with 
yellowish- white spines up to 8 mm. long. Capitula 25-40 mm. in diameter; peduncles 
long, e^ect, ebracteate or with few. small, leaf-like bracts; outer and middle in- 
volucral bracts with apnendages 8-15 x 6-10 mm;, gradually tapered into recurved, 
cornk.-uJ.ate spines 20-50 mm. long. Achenes 6-8 x 2,5-4 mm., shiny, black with 
grey spots: pappus 15-20 mm. long, 2n = 24. Fl. 4-7. 



Waste pla.ces, roadsides and occasionally fields. Malta- an.d Cozo: very common (S, 
& C.G.; Borg; G. Lanfranco; Wolseley), 

Mediterranean region; W. and C. Asia: Atlantic Islands; introduced elsewhere 

37. Crupin.a ( Cass, 

Slender, erect, annual herbs, corymbose! j branched above. Leaves. alternate, un- 
armed, gradually decreasing upwards, the basal simple, the cauline. pmnati.sect. 
Involucre cylindrical to ovoid; involucral bracts imbricate, unequal, oblnng-lan- 
ceolate, acute, lieceptacular scales linear-subulate. Inner florets hermaphrodite, 
5-fid; outer florets sterile, 3-fid. Corolla purple. Achenes subcylindrical- to com- 
pressed, puberulcnt at base, villous towards ape::, dark brown; pappus absent in 
the outer achenes, 2-serrate in the inner achenes, the outer series with very 
unequal, mimiteij scabrid hairs, the inner with 5-10 short scales. 

I; C. crupinaslrum (Moris) Vis. 

Piate XLVin 

Southern Crunina 

Stems 20-50 (-50) cm. high, leafy in the lower j to ■;-. Basal leaves oblong to 
obovate, entire to pinnatifid, scabrid, petiolate, soon decaying; cauline leaves 
scabrid, sessile, dentate to pinnatisect with lobes 1.5-3 mm. wide. Involucre 13-20 x 
5-10 mm. in flower, bracts pale green, sometimes purplish fiistallj. Achenes 3-4. x 
2-2.5 mm., usually compressed, with a linear, sub-lateral scar; pappus hairs golden 
brown, the scales oblong, truncate or trifid. ■ 2n = 28. Fl. 3.3 

Arid places. Malta: local (G. Lanfranco). as at Wied Qirda. St. Paul's Bay (S. & 
C.G.); Kordin (GD; Borg); Buskett, Ta' Laurent i, Pwales. Wied il-Kbir, Bahar ic, 
Caghaq, Maghtab (Borg); Wardrja (Gauci). 

Mediterranean region; W. Asia. 

38. Centaurea L. 

Annual to perennial herbs, rarely woody. Leaves alternate. Capitula solitary or in 
clusters. Involucral bracts numerous, usually imbricate, each with a membranous 
or scarious terminal appendage which is iaciniate, ciliate, dentate, pectinate or 
spiny, rarely entire. Receptacle more or less flat,