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Full text of "Encyclopaedia Dictionary Islam Muslim World, etc, Gibb, Kramer, scholars. 13 vols & 12 vols. 1960-2004.1875.2009."


For facility of Encyclopaedia use, since headings of entries there are generally in Arabic, Per- 
sian or Turkish, this list provides English references to either the main article in the Encyclopaedia 
or to the Index of Subjects proper, which groups all articles concerned with the subject under 
one heading. The main Encyclopaedia article is given here in bold type, the Subject Index 
heading is in capitals preceded by an arrow (e.g. Clove Karanful; but Spices -»■ Cuisine.food). 
The Index of Subjects follows the List of Entries on p. 1 9. Countries and names of dynasties or 
caliphates, which are included in extenso in the Index of Subjects, are not given in the following 

Abbreviations [in Suppl.] Abbreviations 

Ablution -»■ Ablution 

Abridgement Mukhtasar 

Abstinence Istibra' 

Academy Madjma' 'Ilmi 

Accident 'Arad 

Accounting -»■ Finance 

Acquisition Kasb 

Acrobat Djanbaz 

Act 'Amal; Fi'I 

Addax Mahat 

Administration -»■ Administration 

Admiral Kapudan Pasha 

Adoption -> Adoption 

Adultery -»■ Adultery 

Advance guard Tali'a 

Adverb Zarf 

Aesthetics 'Ilm al-Djamal 

Agency Wakala 

Agriculture -»■ Agriculture 

Aims (of the law) [in Suppl.] Makasid al- 

Album Murakka' 
Alchemy -»■ Alchemy 
Alfa-grass Haifa 1 
Algebra -»■ Mathematics 
Almanac Takwim 
Alms -»■ Alms 
Aloe Sabr 

Alphabet -»■ Alphabet 
Amazement Ta'adjdjub 
Amber Kahruba 
Ambergris 'Anbar 
Americas -»■ New World 
Amplification (of poetry) Takhmis 

Amulet Tamima 
Analogy Kiyas 

Anatomy -»■ Anatomy 

Anecdote Nadira 

Anemone Shakikat al-Nunian 

Angel -»■ Angelology 

Animal -»■ Animals 

Ant Naml 

Antelope -»■ Animals 

Anthology Mukhtarat 

Anthropomorphism -► Anthropomor- 

Antinomianism Ibaha (II) 

Antithesis Tibak 

Aphrodisiacs [in Suppl.] Mukawwiyat 

Apostasy -»■ Apostasy 

Appeal Isti'naf 

Apple Tuffah 

Apricot Mishmish 

Aqueduct -»■ Architecture.monuments 

Arabian peninsula ->■ Arabian Penin- 

Arabic -»■ Alphabet; Languages.afro- 
asiatic; Linguistics 

Arabicisation Ta'rib 

Arabism -> Panarabism 

Arachnoids ->■ Animals 

Arbitration Tahkini 

Arbitrator Hakani 

Archaeology -»■ Archaeology 

Architecture -»■ Architecture 

Archives ->• Administration 

Arithmetic -»■ Mathematics 

Armour [in Suppl.] Silah 

Army -»■ Military 



Arsenal Dar al-Sinaa 

Art ->■ Art 

Artemisia Shih 

Article Makala 

Articulation [in Suppl.] Lafz. 1 

Artisans ->• Professions.craftsmen and 


Ascendent al-Tali' 

Ascension to Heaven, Prophet's Mi'radj 

Ascensions al-Matali' 

Asceticism -»• Asceticism 
Assignation Haw a la 

Association Andjuman; Djam'iyya 

Associationism Shirk 
Astrolabe Asturlab 

Astrology ->• Astrology 

Astronomical handbook Zidj 

Astronomy ->• Astronomy 

Atheism Kafir 

Atomism Djuz' 

Attributes Sifa 

Autobiography -»• Literature.auto- 


Avarice Bukhl 

Babism ->• Sects 

Bacchism ->• Wine.bacchic poetry 

Backgammon Nard 

Bahais -► Bahais 

Balance al-Mizan 

Balance of powers Tawazun al-Sulutat 

Bamboo sugar Tabashir 

Band ->• Military.band 

Banking ->• Finance 

Barber [in Suppl.] Hallak 

Bargaining Sawm 

Barley Sha'ir 

Barracks Tabaka 

Barter Mu'awada 

Basques -> Basques 

Bat Watwat 

Bath ->• Architecture.monuments 

Battalion Tabur 


Beard, the Prophet's Lihya-yi Sherif 

Beauty c Ilm al-Djamal 

Bedding Mafrushat; Mifrash 

Bedouin ->• Bedouins 

Bee Nahl 

Beggar Sasan 

Belles-lettres ->• Literature 

Belomancy Istiksam 

Ben-nut Ban 

Bequest Wasiyya 

Berbers ->• Berbers 

Betrothal Khitba 

Bible ->• Bible 

Bibliography -> Literature.bibli- 


Bier Djanaza 

Biography ->• Literature.biographical 

Bird ->• Animals 

Birth control ->• Life Stages. 

Bitumen Mumiya' 
Blacksmith Kayn 
Blasphemy [in Suppl.] Shatm 
Blessing Baraka 
Blockprinting ->• Writing.manuscripts 

and books 
Blood [in Suppl.] Dam 
Blood-letter [in Suppl.] Fassad 
Blood-vengeance Kisas; Tha'r 
Boar, wild Khinzir 
Boat Safina 
Body Djism 
Book Kitab 
Bookbinding ->• Writing.manuscripts 

and books 
Bookseller Warrak 
Booktitle 'Unwan.2(=3) 
Boon-companion Nadim 
Booty ->• Military 
Botany ->• Botany 
Boundaries Takhtit al-Hudud 
Bow Kaws 
Bowing ->• Prayer 
Brand Tamgha; Wasm 
Bread Khubz 

Breadwinner [in Suppl.] Mu'insiz 
Bribery ->• Payments 
Brick Labin 
Bridal gift see Dower 
Bridge ->• Architecture.monuments 
Brigand Suluk 


Broadcasting Idha a 
Broker Dallal 
Buddhism -> Buddhism 
Buffalo [in Suppl.] Djamus 

Building Bina' 

Butcher [in Suppl.] Djazzar 

Butter al-Samn 

Byzantines -> Byzantine Empire 

Calendar -> Time 

Caliph Khalifa 

Caliphate -> Caliphate 

Call to prayer Adhan 

Calligraphy -► Art; Writing.scripts 

Camel -> Animals 

Camel-driver [in Suppl.] Djammal 

Camomile [in Suppl.] Babunadj 

Camphor Kafur 

Canal Kanat 

Candle Shama 

Candle-maker Shamma' 

Canines -> Animals 

Cannon Top 

Cap [in Suppl.] Kalansuwa 

Capitulations Imtiyazat 

Caravan ->■ Transport 

Carmathians -> Shiites.branches 

Carpet ->■ Art. tapestry; Prayer 

Cart 'Adjala; Araba 

Cartography ->■ Cartography 

Cattle Bakar 

Cause c IUa 

Cedar-oil Katran 

Cemetery Ma k bar a 

Ceramics -> Art.pottery 

Cession Havvala 

Chair Kursi 

Chamber, underground Sardab 

Chamberlain Hadjib 

Chameleon Hirba' 

Chancellery -► Documents 

Charity -^ Alms 

Charms -> Charms 

Cheetah Fahd 

Cheiropters Watwat 

Chemistry -^ Alchemy 

Chess Shatrandj 

Chest -^ Anatomy 

Child -^ Life Stages 

Childbirth -► Life Stages 

Childhood -> Life Stages 

Chintz Kalamkari 
Chirognomy al-Kaff 

Christianity -> Christianity 
Christians Nasara 
Chronogram Ta'rikh.III 
Church Kanisa 
Cinema Cinema 
Cinnamon [in Suppl.] Dar Sini 
Circumcision -^ Circumcision 
Cistern Hawd 
Citizen Muwatin 
Citrus fruits Narandj 
City (planning) [in Suppl.] Madina 
Civilisation Medeniyyet 
Clan Al 
Clay Tin 
Cleanliness Tahara 
Clime Iklim 
Cloak Khirka 

Cloak, the Prophet's Khirka-yi Sherif 
Clock Sa c a 
Clothing -^ Clothing 
Clove Karanful 
Cock Dik 

Codes -> Cryptography 
Codification (of the law) Tashri' 
Coffee Kahwa 
Coinage -► Numismatics 
Coitus Bah 
Coitus interruptus 'Azl 
Colour -> Colour 
Column 'Amud 
Comedians -^ Humour 
Commanding right see Forbidding wrong 
Commentary Sharh 
Commentary (Qur'anic) -> Qur'an 
Commerce -^ Finance 
Communications ->■ Communications 
Communism -^ Communism 
Community, Muslim Umma 
Companions (of the Prophet) -► 
Muhammad, the Prophet 


Compass Maghnatis.2; al-Tasa 

Concealment (of belief) Takiyya 
Concubinage -► Women 
Conference Mu'tamar 
Confessionalism Ta'ifiyya 
Confinement (of Ottoman princes) [in 

Suppl.] Kafes 
Congress Mu'tamar 
Conjunction Kiran 
Constellation -> Astronomy 
Constitution Dustur 
Consul Consul 
Consultation Shura 
Contraception Tanzini al-NasI 
Contract -> Law. law of obligations 
Cook Tabbakh 
Cooking -► Cuisine 
Cooperatives Ta'awun 
Copper Nuhas; and see Malachite 
Copts -► Christianity.denominations 
Copyist Warrak 
Coral Mardjan 
Cornelian c Akik 
Corpse Djanaza 

Corpse-washer [in Suppl.] Ghassal 
Corsair -► Piracy 
Corundum Yakut 
Cosmetics -► Cosmetics 
Cosmography -► Cosmography 
Cotton Kutn 
Country Watan 

Court (of law) Mahkama 

Court ceremony ->■ Court Ceremony 

Court hierarchy [in Suppl.] Martaba 

Courtier Nadim 

Couscous Kuskusu 

Cowrie Wada c 

Craftsmanship -> Professions 

Creation -> Creation 

Creditor Gharini 

Creed Akida 

Crescent Hilal 

Criticism, literary -^ Literature 

Crocodile Tinisah 

Cross al-Salib 

Crow Ghurab 

Crown Tadj 

Crucifixion Salb 

Crusades -> Crusade(r)s 

Crustaceans -> Animals 

Cryptography -> Cryptography 

Crystal see Rock-crystal 

Cubit Dhira' 

Cuckoo Wakwak.4 

Cuisine -► Cuisine 

Cumin Kanimun 

Cupper [in Suppl.] Fassad 

Currants Zabib 

Custody Hadana 

Custom -> Custom 

Customary law ->■ Law 

Cymbal Sandj 

Dactylonomy Hisab al-'Akd 

Dam -^ Architecture.monuments 

Dance Raks 

Dandy Zarif 

Date Nakhl 

Day Yawm 

Death -► Death 

Debt [in Suppl.] Dayn 

Debtor Gharim 

Deception (in law) Taghrir 

Declension IVab 

Declination al-Mayl 

Decoration ->■ Architecture; Art. 

decorative; Military 
Decree, divine al-Kada' wa '1-Kadar 
Decree of ruler Tawki' 

Deer Ayyil 

Definition Ta'rif 

Delegations Wufud 

Delusion Wahm 

Demography [in Suppl.] Demography 

Demon Djinn 

Dentistry -► Medicine 

Deposit Wadi'a 

Deposition [in Suppl.] Khal 1 

Deputisation Wakala 

Dervish -^ Mysticism 

Description Wasf 

Desert -> Deserts 

Devil Iblis; Shay tan 

Devotions Wird 

Dialect -► Languages.afro-asiatic. 



Diamond Almas 
Dictionary ->■ Dictionary 
Dill Shibithth 
Diplomacy ->■ Diplomacy 
Disease ->■ Illness 
Disputation ->■ Theology 
Dissolution Faskh 
Ditch Khandak 
Divination -> Divination 
Divorce -> Divorce 
Documents -> Documents 
Dog Kalb 

Donative coins Yadgar 
Donkey Himar 
Double entendre Tawriya 
Doubt Shakk 
Dove Hamam 
Dower ->■ Marriage 
Dragoman Tardjuman 
Dragon al-Tinnin 

Drama -> Literature 

Drawing ->■ Art 

Dreams ->■ Dreams 

Dress ->■ Clothing 

Dressmaker Khavvat 

Drinks -»■ Cuisine 

Dromedary ->■ Animals.camels 

Druggist al- c Attar 

Drugs -> Drugs 

Drum Darabukka; Tabl 

Drummer Tabbal 

Druze -»■ Druzes 

Dualism ->■ Religion 

Dulcimer Santur 

Duress [in Suppl.] Ikrah 

Dwelling Bayt; Dar 

Dye -> Dyeing 

Dyer -> Dyeing 

Dynasty -> Dynasties 

Eagle 'Ukab 

Earthquakes -> Earthquakes 

Ebony Abanus 

Eclipse Kusuf 

Ecliptic Mintakat al-Burudj 

Economics -> Economics 

Edict Farman 

Education -> Education 

Elative Tafdil 

Elegy Marthiya 

Elephant Fil 

Elixir al-Iksir 

Eloquence Balagha; Bayan; 

Emancipation -> Emancipation 

Embalming Hinata 

Emblem of sultan Tughra 

Emerald Zumurrud 

Emigration ->■ Emigration 

Emphatic phonemes Tafkhim 

Encyclopaedia Mawsu c a 

Endive [in Suppl.] Hindiba' 

Endowment, charitable Wakf 

Enjambment Tadmin 

Ephemeris Takwlm 

Epic Hamasa 

Epidemic Waba' 

Epigraphy -> Epigraphy 

Epistolography -> Literature. 


Epithet -i- Onomastics 

Equation (astronomical) al-Ta c dil; Ta c dil 

Equator Istiwa 5 
Equines ->■ Animals 
Eroticism -> Love.erotic 
Error Khata' 
Error, writing see Mistakes 
Eschatology ->■ Eschatology 
Esoteric sense al-Zahir wa '1-Batin 
Espionage see Spy 
Estate Day c a 
Eternity -> Eternity 
Ethics -" Ethics 
Ethnicity -> Ethnicity 
Ethnography -> Tribes 
Etiquette -> Etiquette 
Etymology Ishtikak 
Eulogy Madih 
Eunuch ->■ Eunuch 
Europeanisation Tafarnudj 
Evidence Bayyina 
Ewer [in Suppl.] Ibrik 
Exception Istithna' 
Executor Wasiyya 


Exegesis Tafsir 
Existence Wudjud 
Exoteric sense Zahir; al-Zahir wa '1- 

Expedition ->■ Military 
Expiation Kaffara 
Extremism Tatarruf 

Eye -> Anatomy; Evil Eye 

Faculty, university Kulliyya 

Faience Kashi 

Faith -> Faith 

Faith, profession of see Profession of faith 

Falconry -»■ Falconry 

Family 'A'ila 

Family planning Tanzim al-Nasl 

Fan Mirwaha 

Farming -> Agriculture 

Fasting -► Fasting 

Fate ->■ Predestination 

Fauna ->■ Animals 

Felines -► Animals 

Felt Lubud 

Female circumcision Khafd 

Fennec-fox Fanak 

Fennel [in Suppl.] Basbas 

Festival -> Festival 

Fief Ikta c 

Fifth, one- [in Suppl.] Khums 

Fig Tin 

Film Cinema 

Finance -> Finance 

Fine Djurm 

Fire Nar 

Firefighter Tulumbadji 

Fiscal system ->■ Taxation 

Fish -^ Animals 

Fishing Samak.3 

Five Khamsa 

Flag 'Alam; Sandjak 

Flamingo Nuham 

Hax Kattan 

Fleet, naval Ustul 

Flora -^ Flora 

Flower poetry Zahriyyat 

Flowers -^ Flora 

Flute [in Suppl.] Nay 

Fly Dhubab 

Folklore ->■ Folklore 

Food -^ Cuisine 

Fools, wise [in Suppl.] TJkala' al- 

Footprint, the Prophet's Kadam Sharif 
Forbidding wrong [in Suppl.] al-Nahy 'an 

Forest Ghaba 
Foreword Mukaddima 
Forgery (of coins) Tazyif 
Forgery (of writings) Tazwir 
Form, legal Wasf.2 
Form, linguistic [in Suppl.] Lafz.l 
Formulas -► Islam 
Fornication Zina 
Fortress ->■ Architecture.monu- 

Foundling Lakit 
Fountain Shadirwan 
Fowl Dadjadja 

Fox Tha'lab; and see Fennec-fox 
Fraction Kasr 
Frankincense Luban 
Fraud Taghrir 
Free will -^ Predestination 
Freedom Hurriyya; [in Suppl.] Azadi 
Freemasonry [in Suppl.] Faramush- 

khana; Farmasuniyya 
Fruit ->■ Cuisine.food 
Fundamentalism ->■ Reform. 

Funeral Djanaza 
Fur Farw 

Furnishings -»■ Furnishings 
Furniture [in Suppl.] Athath 
Furstenspiegel Nasihat al-Mulflk 


Gain Kasb 

Gambling -> Gambling 

Games -> Recreation 

Garden -> Architecture.monuments 

Gate ->■ Architecture.monuments 

Gazehound Saluki 

Gazelle (J nazal 

Gemstones -> Jewelry 

Gender studies -> Women 

Genealogy -»• Genealogy 

Generation, spontaneous Tawallud 

Generosity [in Suppl.] Karam 

Geography -»• Geography 

Geometry -* Mathematics 

Gesture Ishara 

Gift -► Gifts 

Giraffe Zarafa 

Girdle Shadd 

Glass -> Art 

Gloss Hashiya 

Goats [in Suppl.] G 
God Allah; Hah 
Gods, pre-Islamic -> Pre-Islam 
Gold Dhahab 
Goldsmith Sa'igh 
Gospels Indjil 
Government Hukuma 
Grains ->■ Cuisine.food 
Grammar Nahw 
Gratitude Shukr 
Greeks Yunan 
Greyhound see Gazehound 
Grocer Bakkal 
Guardianship Hadana 
Guild -»• Guilds 
Gum resins Samgh 
Gunpowder Barud 
Gymnasium Zurkhana 
Gynaecology -»• Life Stages 
Gypsies -> Gypsies 

Hadith -»• Literature.tradition- 

Hagiography ->■ Hagiography 
Hair -> Anatomy 
Hair, the Prophet's Lihya-yi Sherif 
Hairdresser [in Suppl.] Hallak 
Hamito-Semitic Ham 
Hand, right Yamin 
Handbook Tadhkira 
Handbook, astronomical Zidj 
Handicrafts -»• Art 
Handkerchief Mandil 
Harbour Mina' 
Harbourmaster Shah Bandar (and [in 

Suppl.] Shahbandar) 
Hare [in Suppl.] Arnab 
Headware -> Clothing 
Health -> Medicine 
Heart Kalb 
Heaven Sama' 
Hedgehog Kunfudh 
Hell ^Hell 
Hemerology Ikhtiyarat 
Hemp Hashish 

Hempseed Shahdanadj 
Henbane Bandj 
Henna Hinna' 

Heraldry -»• Heraldry 

Herbs -»• Cuisine.food 

Hereafter -> Eschatology 

Heresy -> Heresy 

Hippopotamus [in Suppl.] Faras al-Ma' 

Hire, contract of -> Law.law of 

Historiography -»• Literature. 

Holiness Kadasa 
Holy places -> Sacred Places 
Holy War Djihad 
Homeland Watan 
Homicide Katl 
Homonym Addad 
Homosexuality Liwat 
Honour 'Ird 
Hoopoe Hudhud 
Horn Buk 
Horse Faras 
Horseback rider Faris 


Horseback riding Furusiyya 

Horticulture -»■ Architecture. 


Hostelry -> Hostelry 
Houris Hur 
House see Dwelling 
Humour -> Humour 
Hunting -> Hunting 

Hydrology -> Hydrology 
Hydromancy Istinzal 
Hyena [in Suppl.] Dabu' 
Hymn Nashid 
Hyperbole Mubalagha 
Hypnotism Simiya'. 1 
Hypocrisy Riya' 

Ice-seller Thalladj 

Iconography -»■ Art 

Idol -»■ Idolatry.idols 

Idolatry -► Idolatry 

Illness ->■ Illness 

Illumination -> Art 

Image Sura 

Imagination [in Suppl.] Wahm.2 

Impurity Djanaba; Hadath 

Incubation Istikhara 

Independence Istiklal 

Indigo Nil 

Individual Shakhs 

Industry -»■ Industry 

Infanticide Wa'd al-Banat 

Infantryman Yaya 

Infidel Kafir 

Inflection Imala 

Inheritance -»■ Inheritance 

Inimitability (of Qur'an) I'djaz 

Injustice Zulm 

Ink Midad 

Ink-holder [in Suppl.] Dawat 

Inner dimension al-Zahir wa '1-Ba 

Innovation Bid c a 

Inscriptions -> Epigraphy 

Insects -> Animals 

Insignia ->■ Military.decorations; 


Inspection (of troops) Istirad 

Instrument Ala 

Instrument, musical -> Music 

Insulting the Prophet [in Suppl.] Shatm 

Insulting verse Hidja' 

Intellect c Akl 

Intercession Shafa'a 

Intercourse, sexual Bah 

Intercourse, unlawful sexual Zina 

Interdiction Hadjr 

Interest, bank Riba 

Interpolation (astronomical) al-Ta'dil 

bayn al-Satrayn 
Interpreter Tardjuman 
Interrogation Istifham 
Interruption Kat' 
Introduction Ibtida 5 ; Mukaddima 
Inventions -»■ Inventions 
Invocation Du'a' 
Ipseity Huwiyya 
Iris Susan 
Iron al-Hadid 
Irrigation -> Irrigation 
Islam -> Islam 
Ivory Adj 

Jackal Ibn Awa 
Jade Yashm 
Janissaries Yeni Ceri 
Japan(ese) al-Yabani 
Jasmine Yasamin 
Javelin Djerid 
Jerboa YarbO' 
Jewelry -► Jewelry 

Jews Banu Isra'il; Yahud 

Journalism -> Press 
Judaism -> Judaism 
Judge Kadi 
Jujube 'Unnab 
Juncture Wasl 
Jurisconsult -»■ Law.jurist 
Jurisprudence -*■ Law 


Jurist -> Law 

King Malik; Shah 
Kingdom Mamlaka 
Kinship Karaba 
Kitchen Matbakh 

Knowledge 'Ilm; Ma'rifa 
Kohl al-Kuhl 

Koran ->■ Quran 
Kurdish -> Kurds 

Labour see Trade union 

Labourers ->■ Professions.craftsmen 


Lakes -> Geography.physical 


Lamentation ->■ Lamentation 
Lamp Siradj 
Land -> Land 
Landowner Zamindar 
Language ->• Languages 
Largesse coins Yadgar 
Law -> Law 
Leader Za'im 
Leasing Kira' 
Leather Djild 
Legacy Wasiyya 
Legatee Wasi 
Legend ->■ Legends 
Lemon Narandj 
Lemon balm Turundjan 
Leprosy [in Suppl.] Djudham 
Lesbianism Sihak 

Letter(s) Harf; Huruf al-Hidja'; and for 
letters of the alphabet ->■ Alphabet 

Lexicography ->■ Lexicography 

Library ->■ Education, libraries 

Lice Kami 

Licorice Sus 

Life -> Life Stages 

Light NOr 

Lighthouse -> Architecture.monu- 


Lily Susan 

Linen Kattan; Khaysh 

Linguistics ->■ Linguistics 
Lion al-Asad 
Literature -> Literature 
Lithography Matbaa 
Liver Kabid 
Lizard Dabb 
Locust Djarad 
Lodge Zawiya 
Logic ->• Philosophy 
Longevity Muammar 
Louse see Lice 
Love -> Love 
Lute Saz; c Ud 
Lyre Kithara 

Mace Durbash 
Madman Madjnun 
Magic ->• Magic 
Magnet Maghnatis. 1 
Maintenance [in Suppl.] Nafaka 
Make-up -> Cosmetics 
Malachite al-Dahnadj 
Malaria Malarya 
Man Insan 
Man-of-war Ustul 

Mandrake Siradj al-Kutrub; Yabruh 

Manichaeism -> Religion.dualism 

Manifestation Tadjalli 

Manners -> Cuisine; Etiquette; Virtues 

and Vices 
Manumission ->■ Slavery 
Manuscript Nuskha 
Map Kharita 
Marble [in Suppl.] Rukham 
Marches al-Thughur; Udj 


Market Suk 
Market inspector Hisba 
Marquetry Zalidj 
Marriage -> Marriage 
Martyr Shahid 
Martyrdom ->• Martyrdom 
Marxism Mark(i)siyya 
Masonry Bina 5 
Mathematics ->• Mathematics 
Matter Hayula; Tina 
Mausoleum -> Architecture. 


Maxims, legal [in Suppl.] Kawa'id 

Mayor Ra'is 
Measurements -> Weights and 

Mechanics ->• Mechanics 
Mediation Shafa'a 
Medicine ->• Medicine 
Melilot [in Suppl.] Iklll al-Malik 
Melissa Turundjan 
Melody [in Suppl.] Lahn 
Memorandum Tadhkira 
Menstruation Hayd 
Merchants ->• Professions.craftsmen 


Mercury Zibak 
Messenger Rasul 
Messiah al-Masih 

Metallurgy ->• Metallurgy 
Metalware ->• Art 
Metamorphosis ->• Animals.trans- 


Metaphor Istiara 

Metaphysics ->• Metaphysics 
Metempsychosis Tanasukh 
Meteorology ->• Meteorology 
Metonymy Kinaya 
Metre Wazn.2 
Metrics ->• Metrics 
Migration ->• Emigration 
Militancy ->• Reform.politico- 


Military ->• Military 

Military rule [in Suppl.] Nizam 'Askari 

Milky Way al-Madjarra 

Mill Tahun 

Miller Tahhan 

Millet [in Suppl.] Djawars 

Minaret Manara 

Mineralogy ->• Mineralogy 

Miniatures ->• Art.painting 

Mint [in Suppl.] Fudhandj 

Mint (money) Dar al-Darb 

Miracle ->• Miracles 

Mirage Sarab 

Mirror Mir'at 

"Mirror for princes" see Furstenspiegel 

Misfortune Shakawa 

Misrepresentation (in law) Tadlis. 1 

Mistakes, writing Tashlf 

Modernism ->• Reform 

"Moderns", the [in Suppl.] Muhdathun 

Modes, musical Makam: [in Suppl.] Lahi 

Molluscs ->• Animals 

Monarchy ->■ Monarchy 

Monastery ->• Christianity; Mysticism 

Monasticism Rahbaniyya 

Money ->• Numismatics 

Money-changer [in Suppl.] Sarraf 

Money-changing [in Suppl.] Sarf 

Mongols ->• Mongolia 

Mongoose Nims 

Monk Rahib 

Monkey Kird 

Monogram, imperial Tughra 

Monotheism Tawhid 

Months -> Time 

Moon Hilal; al-Kamar 

Morphology Sarf; Tasrif 

Mosaics ->• Art 

Mosque ->• Architecture.monuments 

Mountain ->• Mountains 

Mountain goat Ayyil 

Mulberry Tut 

Mule Baghl 

Municipality Baladiyya 

Murder Katl 

Music ->• Music 

Musk Misk 

Mussel Sadaf 

Myrobalanus [in Suppl.] Haliladj 

Myrtle [in Suppl.] As 

Mystic ->• Mysticism 

Mysticism ->• Mysticism 

Myths ->• Legends 


Name Ism 
Narcissus Nardjis 
Narcotics ->■ Drugs 
Nationalisation Ta'mim 
Nationalism -► Nationalism 
Natron [in Suppl.] Bawrak 
Natural science -> Natural 

Nature -> Agriculture; Botany; 

Flora; Literature.poetry. 

Navigation -> Navigation 
Navy -> Military 
Nephrite Yashm 
New World -► New World 
Newspaper Djarida 
Nickname Lakab 

Night Layl and Nahar 

Night watch 'Asas 

Nightingale Bulbul 

Nilometer Mikyas 

Nobility (of character) [in Suppl.] Karam 

Nomadism -► Nomadism 

Nomen unitatis see Noun of unity 

Notables, tribal [in Suppl.] Mala' 

Noun Ism 

Noun of unity Wahda. 1 

Nourishment ->■ Cuisine 

Novel Kissa 

Nullity Fasid wa Batil 

Number -► Number 

Numerals -► Number 

Numismatics ->■ Numismatics 

Nunation Tanwin 

Oak 'Afs 

Oasis Waha 

Oath Kasam; Yamin 

Obedience (to God) Ta'a 

Obelisk -^ Architecture.monuments 

Oboe Ghayta 

Obscenity -► Obscenity 

Observatory ->■ Astronomy 

Obstetrics ->■ Medicine 

Ocean -► Oceans and Seas 

Octagon Muthamman 

Oil ->■ Cuisine.food; Oil 

Olive Zaytun 

Olive oil Zayt 

Omen Fa'I 

Oneirocriticism [in Suppl.] Ta'bir al- 

Oneiromancy -> Dreams 
Oneness Wahda.2 
Oneness of being Wahdat al-Wudjud 
Oneness of witnessing Wahdat al- 

Onomastics -^ Onomastics 

Onomatomancy Huruf, c Ilm al- 

Ophthalmology ->■ Medicine 

Opium Afyun 

Opposites Addad; Didd 

Optics -^ Optics 

Orange Narandj 

Orchestra Mehter; and see Band 

Order, military -► Military.decorations 

Order, mystical -^ Mysticism 

Organ Urghan 

Organs, body ->■ Anatomy 

Orientalism Mustashrikun 

Ornament Zakhrafa 

Ornithomancy c Iyafa 

Orphan Yatim 

Orthodoxy Sunna 

Oryx Lamt; Mahat 

Ostentation Riya' 

Ostrich Na'am 

Ottoman Empire ->■ Ottoman Empire 

Outward meaning Zahir; al-Zahir wa '1- 

Ownership Milk 


Paediatrics -> Life Stages 

Paganism -> Pre-Islam 

Painting ->■ Art 

Palace -> Architecture.monuments 

Palaeography -> Epigraphy; Writing 

Palanquin Mahmal 

Paleography see Palaeography 

Palm Nakhl 

Palmoscopy Ikhtiladj 

Panarabism -> Panarabism 

Pandore Tunbur 

Panegyric Madih 

Panislamism -> Panislamism 

Pantheism -> Religion 

Panther Namir 

Panturkism -> Panturkism 

Paper Kaghad 

Paper seller Warrak 

Papyrology -> Papyrology 

Papyrus Papyrus 

Paradise -> Paradise 

Parakeet Babbagha' 

Parasol Mizalla 

Parchment Rakk 

Parliament Madjlis 

Paronomasia Muzawadja; Tadjnis 

Parrot Babbagha' 

Partnership Sharika 

Party, political -> Politics 

Passion play Ta'ziya 

Past Madi 

Pastimes -> Recreation 

Pasture Mar'a 

Pastures, summer Yaylak 

Pastures, winter Kishlak 

Patriotism Wataniyya 

Patronymic Kunya 

Pauper Fakir; Miskin 

Pavilion -> Architecture.monuments 

Pay -> Payments 

Peace Sulh 

Peacock Tawus 

Peacock throne Takht-i Tawus 

Pearl al-Durr; Lu'lu' 

Pedagogy Tarbiya 

Pediatrics see Paediatrics 

Pen Kalam 

Pen-name Takhallus 

Penal law -> Law 

People Kawm; Sha'b 

Performers -> Professions.craftsmen 


Perfume -> Perfume 
Periodicals -»■ Press 
Persian -> Languages.indo- 

european.iranian; Linguistics 
Person Shakhs 
Personal status -*■ Law 
Petroleum -> Oil 
Pharmacology -> Pharmacology 
Philately -> Philately 
Philology -> Linguistics 
Philosophy -> Philosophy 
Phlebotomist [in Suppl.] Fassad 
Phonetics -> Linguistics 
Photography -► Art 
Physician -> Medicine 
Physics [in Suppl.] Tabi'iyyat 
Physiognomancy Kiyafa 
Physiognomy -> Physiognomy 
Pickpocket Tarrar 
Piety Wara'; [in Suppl.] Takwa 
Pig Khinzir 
Pigeon Hamam 
Pilgrimage -> Pilgrimage 
Pillar Rukn 
Pillars of Islam -> Islam 
Piracy -> Piracy 
Pirate -> Piracy 
Plagiarism [in Suppl.] Sarika 
Plague ->■ Plague 
Planet -> Astronomy 
Plants -> Flora 
Plaster Djiss 
Platonic love ->■ Love 
Pleasure-garden -> Architecture. 

Pledge Rahn 
Plough Mihrath 
Plural Djam c 
Poem -> Literature.genres. 

Poet Sha'ir 
Poetry -> Literature 
Poison Summ 
Pole al-Kutb 
Police -> Military 
Politics -> Politics 


Poll-tax Djizya 

Polytheism Shirk 

Pomegranate blossom [in Suppl.] 

Porcupine Kunfudh 
Port Mina' 
Porter Hammal 
Portmaster Shah Bandar (and [in Suppl.] 

Possession (by spirits) Zar 
Postal history ->■ Philately 
Postal service -»• Transport 
Potash al-Kily 
Pottery -»■ Art 

Powers, balance of Tawazun al-Sulutat 
Prayer ->• Prayer 
Prayer direction Kibla 
Prayer niche Mihrab 
Pre-emption Shu fa 
Pre-Islam -»• Pre-Islam 
Preacher Wa'iz 
Precious stones ->■ Jewelry 
Predestination -> Predestination 
Preface Mukaddima 
Pregnancy -»• Life Stages.childbirth 
Presentation issues (coinage) Yadgar 
Press -»• Press 
Primary school Kuttab 
Principles of grammar Usui 
Principles of jurisprudence Usui al-Fikh 
Principles of religion Usui al-Dln 

Printing Matba'a 

Printing, block ->■ Writing.manuscripts 


Prison Sidjn 

Prisoner -»■ Military 

Procedure, legal -»■ Law 

Processions Mawakib 

Profession of faith Shahada 

Professions -»■ Professions 

Profit Kasb 

Prologue Ibtida' 

Property -»■ Property 

Property owner see Landowner 

Prophecy ->■ Prophethood 

Prophet ->■ Muhammad, the Prophet; 

Prophethood -»• Prophethood 

Prose ->■ Literature 

Proselytism, Christian Tabshir 

Proselytism, Islamic -*■ Islam 

Prosody ->■ Literature.poetry; Metrics; 

Prostitution [in Suppl] Bigha' 

Protection Himaya; Idjara 

Proverb -»• Literature; Proverbs 

Pulpit Minbar 

Punishment -»• Law.penal law; Punish- 

Punning Tadjnis 

Purity Tahara 

Pyramid Haram 

Qat Kat 

Quadrant Rub' 

Quail Salwa 

Queen mother Walide Sultan 

Quicksilver Zibak 
Quiddity Mahiyya 
Quotation Tadmin 
Qur'an -»• QurXn 

Rabies see Dog 
Radicalism Tatarruf 
Raid -»• Raids 
Railway -»• Transport 
Rain prayer Istiska' 
Rain stone Yada Tash 
Rainbow Kaws Kuzah 
Raisins Zabib 

Ransoming [in Suppl.] Fida' 
Reading (Qur'anic) -»• QurXn 
Rebel [in Suppl.] Marid 
Rebellion ->• Rebellion 
Recitation ->• Qur'an. reading 
Reconnaissance force Tali'a 
Records ->• Administration 
Recreation ->• Recreation 



Reed Kasab 
Reed-pen Kalam 
Reed-pipe Ghayta; Mizmar 
Reflection Fikr 

Reform ->■ Reform 
Register ->■ Administration.records 
Religion -► Religion 
Relinquishment (of a right) [in Suppl.] 

Renewal Tadjdid 
Renewer Mudjaddid 
Renunciation Zuhd 
Repentance Tawba 
Representation, legal Wilaya. 1 
Reptiles ->■ Animals 
Republic Djumhuriyya 
Repudiation Talak 
Resemblance Shubha 
Resettlement [in Suppl.] Siirgiin 
Resurrection Kiyama 
Retaliation Kisas 
Retreat Khalwa 
Revelation Ilham; Wahy 
Revolt Thawra 

Revolution Thawra 

Rhapsodomancy Kur'a 

Rhetoric ->■ Rhetoric 

Rhinoceros Karkaddan 

Rhyme ->■ Rhyme 

Rice al-Ruzz 

Riddle Lughz 

Ritual (Islamic) 'Ibadat 

Rituals ->■ Rituals 

River -► Rivers 

Road ->■ Transport 

Robbery, highway Sarika 

Robe of honour Khil'a 

Rock-crystal Billawr 

Rod 'Asa; Kadib 

Rodents -> Animals 

Rooster see Cock 

Roots Usui; Usui al-Din; Usui al-Fikh 

Rosary Subha 

Rose Gul; Ward 

Rose-water [in Suppl.] Ma' al-Ward 

Ruby Yakut 

Rug -► Art.tapestry 

Sacred places ->■ Sacred Places 
Sacrifices -► Sacrifices 
Saddle, horse Sardj 
Saffron Zafaran 
Saint ->• Sainthood 
Sal-ammoniac al-Nushadir 
Salamander Samandal 
Sale, contract of ->• Law.law of obliga- 
Salt Milh 
Salt flats ->■ Geography.physical 


Sand Rami 

Sandal, the Prophet's [in Suppl.] al-Nai 

Sandalwood Sandal 
Sandgrouse Kata 
Sappan wood Bakkam 
Satire Hidja' 
Saturn Zuhal 
Scanning Wazn.2 
Scapulomancy Katif 
Scholars 'Ulama' 

School, legal [in Suppl.] Madhhab 

School, primary Kuttab 

Science ->■ Science 

Scorpion 'Akrab 

Scribe Katib; Yazidji; [in Suppl.] Dabir 

Scripts -► Writing 

Scripture Zabur 

Scripture, tampering with Tahrif 

Scrupulousness Wara' 

Sea -+ Oceans and Seas 

Seafaring -► Navigation 

Seal Khatam; Muhr 

Secret [in Suppl.] Sirr 

Secretary Katib; [in Suppl.] Dabir 

Sectarianism Ta'ifiyya 

Sects ->• Sects 

Sedentarisation [in Suppl.] Iskan 

Sedentarism -► Sedentarism 

Semitic languages Sam. 2 

Sense Hiss; Mahsusat 

Sermon Khutba 

Sermoniser Kass 

Servant Khadini 


Sesame Simsim 

Seven Sab' 

Seveners ->■ Shhtes.branches 

Sex Djins 

Sexuality ->■ Sexuality 

Shadow play Karagoz; Khayal al-Zill 

Shawm Zurna 

Sheep [in Suppl.] Ghanam 

Sheep-herder Shawiya 

Shell Wada'2 

Shiism ->■ Shiites 

Ship -i- Navigation 

Shoemaker [in Suppl.] Iskaf 

Shoewear -> Clothing 

Shrine Zawiya 

Shroud [in Suppl.] Kafan 

Sickness -> Illness 

Siege warfare Hisar 

Siegecraft Hisar; Mandjanlk 

Signature of ruler Tawki' 

Silk Harir 

Silver Fidda 

Silver coinage Warik 

Simile Tashbih 

Sin Khati'a: [in Suppl] Ithm; Kabira 

Singer -> Music.song 

Singing -> Music.song 

Skin blemish Shama 

Slander Kadhf 

Slaughterer [in Suppl.] Djazzar 

Slave Abd 

Slavery - 1 - Slavery 

Snail Sadaf 

Snake Hayya 

Snake-charmer Hawi 

Snipe Shunkub 

Soap Sabun 

Socialism Ishtirakiyya 

Society DJam'iyya 

Soda al-Kily; and see Natron 

Sodium Natrun; and see Natron 

Sodomy Liwat 

Son Ibn 

Song -> Music 

Sorcery -> Magic 

Soul Nafs 

Sphere Falak; al-Kura 

Spices -!• Cuisine.food 

Spider Ankabut 

Spoils (of war) -> Military.booty 

Sport -!• Animals.sport; Recreation 

Spouse Zawdj 

Springs -> Geography.physical 

Spy Djasus 
Squares, magical Wafk 
Stable Istabl 
Stamps -i- Philately 
Standard Sandjak; Sandjak-i Sherif 
Star -> Astronomy 
Statecraft Siyasa 
Stone Hadjar 
Stone, rain Yada Tash 
Stool Kursi 
Story Hikaya 
Storyteller Kass; Maddah 
Straits -^ Geography.physical 


Street Shari c 

Stronghold ->■ Architecture.monuments 

Substance Djawhar 

Succession (to the caliphate) Wali al-'Ahd 

Successors (of the Companions) Tabi'un 

Suckling -> Life Stages 

Sufism -> Mysticism 

Sugar Sukkar 

Sugar-cane Kasab al-Sukkar 

Suicide Intihar 

Sulphur al-Kibrit 

Sultan-fowl [in Suppl.] Abu Barakish.2 

Summer quarters Yaylak 

Sun Shams 

Sundial Mizwala 

Sunshade Mizalla 

Superstition -> Superstition 

Surety-bond Kafala 

Surgeon Djarrah 

Swahili -> Kenya 

Sweeper Kannas 

Syllable reduction Zihaf 

Symbolism Ramz.3 

Syntax Tasrif 


Tablet Lawh 

Tailor Khayyat 

Talisman Tamima, Tilsam 

Tambourine Duff 

Tampering (with Scripture) see Scripture 

Tanner [in Suppl.] Dabbagh 

Tapestry -> Art 

Tar Mumiya 5 

Tattooing al-Washm 

Taxation -> Taxation 

Tea Cay 

Tea-house [in Suppl.] Cay-khana 

Teaching -> Education 

Teak Sadj 

Teeth -> Medicine.dentistry 

Temperament [in Suppl.] Mizadj 

Tent Khayma 

Tenth see Tithe 

Textiles ->■ Art; Clothing. 


Thankfulness Shukr 

Theatre ->■ Literature.drama 

Theft Sarika 

Theology -> Theology 

Theophany Mazhar; Tadjalli 

Thief Liss 

Thistle Shuka'a 

Thought Fikr 

Tide al-Madd wa 'l-Djazr 

Tiles ->• Art 

Tiller Mihrath 

Time ->• Time 

Timekeeping ->■ Time 

Tithe TJshr 

Titulature ->■ Onomastics.titles 

Tobacco ->■ Drugs.narcotics 

Tomb -> Architecture.monuments 

Toothbrush Miswak 

Tooth-pick Miswak 

Torah Tawrat 

Tower Burdj 

Town Karya; Kasaba 

Toys -> Recreation.games 

Trade ->• Finance.commerce; Industry; 

Trade union Nikaba 
Tradition -> Literature.tradition- 

Transcendentalism Tashbih wa-Tanzih 
Transition (in poetry) Takhallus 
Transitivity Taaddi 
Translation -> Literature 
Transport -»■ Transport 
Travel ->• Travel 
Treasury ->■ Treasury 
Treaty ->■ Treaties 
Trees ->■ Flora 
Triangle Muthallath 
Tribal chief Sayyid 
Tribe ->• Tribes 
Tribute ->■ Treaties 
Trinity, divine Tathlith 
Trope Madjaz 
Trousers Sirwal 
Trumpet Buk 
Trust, charitable Wakf 
Tuareg Tawarik 
Turban Tulband 
Turkic languages ->■ Languages 
Turquoise Firuzadj 
Turtle Sulahfa 
Twelvers ->■ Shiites.branches 
Twilight al-Shafak 
Tyranny Zulm 

Uncle Khal 

Underground chamber Sardab 
University Djamia 
Uprising Thawra 

Urban milieux ->■ Urbanism 

Usurpation Ghasb 

Usury Riba 

Utterance [in Suppl.] Lafz. 1 

Utterances, mystical [in Suppl.] Malfuzat 


Vehicle -»• Transport, wheeled 

Veil -»• Clothing.headware 
Ventilation -»• Architecture.urban 
Venus Zuhara 
Verb Fil 
Vernacular -»• Languages.afro- 

asiatic.arabic.arabic dialects; 

Verse Aya 

Versifying [in Suppl.] Nazm. 1 
Veterinary science -»■ Medicine 
Vices -»• Virtues and Vices 
Vigils, night Tahadjdjud 

Vikings al-Madjus 

Villa, seashore Yali 

Village Karya 

Vine Karm 

Viol Rabab 

Viper Afa 

Virtues -»• Virtues and Vices 

Vizier Wazir 

Volcanoes -»• Geography.physical 


Vow Nadhr 

Voyage -»• Travel 
Vulture Huma; Nasr 

Wadis -> Geography.physical geogra- 
Wagon see Cart 
Walnut [in Suppl.] Djawz 
War Harb 

Wardrobe -»• Clothing 
Washer [in Suppl.] Ghassal 
Washing -»• Ablution 
Washing (of the dead) Ghusl 
Water Ma' 
Water-carrier Sakka' 
Waterhouse -> Architecture. 


Waterways -> Geography.physical 


Waterwheel Na'ura 

Weapon -> Military 

Weasel Ibn c Irs 

Weather -»• Meteorology 

Weaver al-Nassadj; [in Suppl.] Ha'ik 

Weaver-bird [in Suppl.] Abu Barakish.l 

Weaving -> Art.textiles 

Wedding c Urs 

Week ->■ Time 

Weighing (of coinage) Wazn. 1 
Weights -»• Weights and Measure- 
Welfare Maslaha 
Well -»• Architecture.monuments 
Werewolf Kutrub 
Wheat Kamh 
Wild Wahsh;Wahshi 
Wind -»• Meteorology 
Wine -»• Wine 
Winter quarters Kishlak 
Wisdom Hikma 
Witness Shahid 
Wolf Dhi'b 
Women -»• Women 
Wood Khashab 
Wool Suf 
World Alam 
Wormwood Afsantin 
Wrestling Pahlawan; Zurkhana 
Writing -> Writing 

Yoghourt Yoghurt 

Young Ottomans Yeni Othmanlilar 

Young Turks -> Turkey.ottoman period 


Zaydis -► Shiites.branches 

Zero al-Sifr 

Zodiac Mintakat al-Burudj 

Zoology -> Zoology 
Zoroastrianism -> Zoroastrians 


The Muslim world in the Index of Subjects is the world of today. What once was the greater 
realm of Persia is given here under Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Afghanistan, just as part of 
the region once governed by the Ottoman Empire is covered by individual countries in Eastern 
Europe and in the Near East. States established in the past century, such as Jordan and Leba- 
non, are given right of place. Countries with a long history of Islam, e.g. Egypt and Syria, have 
a subsection "modern period", where Encyclopaedia articles covering the 19th and 20th centu- 
ries have been brought together. 

The milddi year of death has been used for dating purposes. Thus, when an individual is 
listed as "15th-century", the dating refers to his/her year of death C.E. This method of dating is 
precise but regrettably unhelpful in some cases, as e.g. when an individual died in the very first 
years of a new century or when a person's major works date from the previous century. 

References in regular typeface are to Encyclopaedia articles; those printed in boldface type 
indicate the main article. Entries in capitals and following an arrow refer to lemmata in the 
Index of Subjects itself. Thus, in the case of 

Bedouins Badw; Bi'r; Dawar; Ghanima; Ghazw; al-Hidjar; Iha'r 

see also Liss; 'Urf.2.1; and -> Law. customary; Nomadism; Saudi Arabia; 
Tribes.arabian peninsula 

Badw; Bi'r; Dawar; Qhanlma; Qhazw; al-Hidjar, Tha'r refer to articles in the Encyclopaedia 
that deal primarily with Bedouins, Badw being the article on Bedouins; Liss and c Urf.2.I refer 
to an article or section of an article in the Encyclopaedia that contains information of interest 
relating to Bedouins; and Law.customary; Nomadism; Saudi Arabia; Tribes.arabian pen- 
insula refer the reader to analogous entries in the Index of Subjects. 

The notation "(2x)" that follows an article — for example: Lar (2x) — indicates that there are 
two separate articles in the Encyclopaedia under the same entry that have reference to the 
indexed subject. Duplicate articles — on one rare occasion, triplicates — of one and the same 
Encyclopaedia entry, usually under different entry headings and thus passing through unno- 
ticed by the Editors, as well as sections of larger articles added at a later date in the Supplement 
and lacking a reference in the main text, are indexed by the second occurrence of the article 
following the first in parentheses with the connective and, as, for example: Muhammad Bey 
'Uthman Djalal (and [in Suppl.] Muhammad 'Uthman Djalal). 

Below is the Index of Subjects proper, in which all Encyclopaedia articles are grouped under 
one or more general entries. For facility in finding an article on a specific word or topic (e.g. 
"abstinence" or "sports"), the reader is referred to the List of Entries on p. 1. 

Ablution Ghusl; Istindja 3 ; Istinshak; al-Mash c ala '1-Khuffayn; Tayammum; Wudu' 
see also Djanaba; Hadath; Hammam; Hawd; Hayd; Tahara 


Administration Band; Bayt al-Mal; Daftar; Diplomatic; Diwan; Djizya; Katib; [in Suppl.] 
Demography. I 

see also al-Kalkashandl. 1 ; al-SulI; c Umar (I) b. al-Khattab;/or specific caliphates or dynas- 
ties -> Caliphate; Dynasties; Ottoman Empire; and -»■ Andalusia; Egypt; India; Iran 
diplomatic -> Diplomacy 

financial c Ata"; Bayt al-Mal; Daftar; Dar al-Darb; Kanun.ii and iii; Kasb; Khazin; Khaznadar: 
Makhzan; Musadara.2; Mustawfi; Ruznama; Siyakat; Zimam 
see also Dhahab; Fidda; Hisba; Tadbir. 1 ; Wakf; and -»■ Numismatics; Ottoman Em- 
pire.administration; Payments 
fiscal -»■ Taxation 

functionaries 'Amil; Amin; Amir; Amir al-Hadjdj; 'Arlf; Dawadar; Djahbadh; Hisba; Ishlk- 
akasi; Kalantar; Katib; Khazin: Muahir; Mushrif; Mustakhridj; Mustawfi; Parwanaci; 
Ra'is; Sahib al-Madina; Wall; Wazir; [in Suppl.] Dabir 

see also Band; Consul; Fatwa; Fuyudj; Kotwal; Malik al-Tudjdjar; Mawla; Muwada c a.2; 
Wazlfa.l; and -»■ Law.offices; Military.offices; Ottoman Empire 
geography -»■ Geography.administrative 
legal -> Law 
military -> Military 
Mongol -»■ Mongolia.mongols 
Ottoman -»■ Ottoman Empire 
records Daftar.I; Kanun.iii 

and -»■ Documents; Ottoman Empire.administration 
archives Dar al-Mahfuzat al- c Umumiyya; Geniza 
and -»■ Ottoman Empire.administration 

Adoption [in Suppl.] e Ar; [in Suppl.] c Ar; Tabannin 
see also 'Ada. iii; Yatim.2.iii; [in Suppl.] Istilhak 

Adultery Kadhf; Li'an; Zina 

see also al-Mar'a.2 
punishment of Hadd 

Afghanistan Afghan; Afghanistan 

architecture -»■ Architecture.regions 

dynasties Ahmad Shah Durrani; Ghaznawids; Ghurids; Kart 

see also Zunbil; and -> Dynasties.afghanistan and india 
historians of Sayfl Harawi; [in Suppl.] Isfizari 
language -> Languages.indo-iranian.iranian 

modern period Djami'a; Dustur.v; Khaybar: Madjlis.4.B; Matba'a.5; [in Suppl.] Taliban 
see also Muhadjir.3 
statesmen c Abd al-Rahman Khan; Ayyub Khan; Dust Muhammad; Habib Allah Khan: 
Muhammad Dawud Khan: Shir c Ali; [in Suppl.] Aman Allah 
see also [in Suppl] Fakir of Ipi 
physical geography Afghanistan.! 

mountains Hindu Kush; Kuh-i Baba; Safld Kuh 

see also Afghanistan.! 
waters Dehas; Hamun; Harl Rud; Kabul. 1 ; Kunduz. 1 ; Kurram; Murghab; Pandjhir; [in 
Suppl.] Gumal 
see also Afghanistan.i; Zirih 
population Abdali; Cahar Aymak; Durrani; Ghalca; Ghalzay; Moghols; Mohmand; 
Tiirkmen.3; [in Suppl.] Demography .III; Hazaras; Kakar 


see also Afghan.i; Afghanistan.ii; Khaladj; Ozbeg.l.d; Waziris; [in Suppl.] Djirga 

ancient Bushandj; Bust; Dihistan; Djuwayn.3; Farmul; Firuzkuh.l; Khost; Khudjistan; 
Marw al-Rudh; al-Rukhkhadj; Talakan.l; Tukharistan; Walwalidj; Zabul; Zamln- 

districts Andarab.l; Badghis; Farwan; Kuhistan.3; Lamghanat 
regions Badakhshan; Dardistan; Djuzdjan; Ghardjistan; Ghur; Kafiristan; Khost; 
Nangrahar; Sistan; Zabul; [in Suppl.] Hazaradjat 
see also Pandjhir; Turkistan.2 
towns Andkhuy ; Balkh; Bamiyan; Djam; Farah; Faryab. 1 ; Gardiz; Ghazna; Girishk; 
Harat; Kabul.2; Kandahar; Karukh; Khulm; Kunduz.2; Maymana; Mazar-i Sharif; 
Rudhbar. 1; Sabzawar.2; Sar-i Pul; Shibarghan; Talakan.3; [in Suppl.] Djalalabad; 

Africa Lamlam; Zandj 

Central Africa Cameroons; Congo; Gabon; [in Suppl.] Cad 

see also Muhammad Bello; al-Murdjibi; Wakf.VIII; [in Suppl.] Demography.V 
for individual countries -> Chad; Congo; Zaire 
literature Hausa.iii; Kano; Sha c ir.5 and 6; Shi c r.7; Ta'rikh.II.5 
physical geography 

deserts Sahil.2 
population Kanuri; Kotoko; Shuwa; Tawarik; Tubu; Zaghawa 
East Africa Djibuti; Eritrea; Habesh; Kenya; Kumr; Madagascar; Mafia; Somali; Sudan; 
Tanzania; Uganda; Zandjibar; [in Suppl.] Malawi 

see also Emin Pasha; Musahib; Nikah.II.5; al-Nudjum; Shirazi; Zandj. 1; Zar.l; [in Suppl.] 

for individual countries -> Djibouti, republic of; Ethiopia; Kenya; Madagascar; 
Malawi; Somalia; Sudan; Tanzania 
architecture Manara.3; Masdjid.VI; Mbweni; Minbar.4 

see also Shungwaya 
festivals Mawlid.2; Nawruz.2 
languages Eritrea.iv; Habash.iv; Kush; Nuba.3; Somali.5; Sudan.2; Swahili; Yao 

see also Kumr; Madagascar 
literature Mi c radj.3; Somali.6; Ta'rikh.II.e (and [in Suppl.] Ta'rikh.II.S) 

see also Kitabat.6; and -+ Kenya. swahili literature 
mysticism Tarika.II.3; Ziyara.10 
physical geography 

waters Atbara; Bahr al-Ghazal. 1; Shebelle 
see also Bahr al-Hind; Bahr al-Zandj 
population 'Ababda; c Amir; Antemuru; Bedja; Beleyn; Bisharin; Dankali; Dja'aliyyun; 
Galla; Marya; Mazru'i; Oromo; Somali. 1; Yao; [in Suppl.] Demography.V 
see also Diglal; Lamlam; al-Manasir 
North Africa Algeria; Ifrikiya; Libiya; Maghariba; al-Maghrib (2x); Masharika; Tunisia 

see also al- c Arab.v; c Arabiyya.A.iii.3; Badw.II.d; Djaysh.iii; Ghuzz.ii; Hawz; Kharbga; 
Kitabat.4; Lamt; Leo Africanus; Libas.ii; Mahalla; Manu; Saff.3; Sipahi.2; c Urf.2.I.B; 
Wakf.II.3; [in Suppl.] c Ar; Mawlid; and -+ Dynasties.spain and north Africa 
for individual countries -> Algeria; Libya; Morocco; TuNisiA;/or Egypt -+ Egypt 
architecture -> Architecture.regions 
history [in Suppl.] Ta'rikh.II. 1 .(e) 

and -> Dynasties.spain and north Africa 


modern period Baladiyya.3; Djama'a.ii; Djarida.B; Hilal; Kawmiyya.ii; Sihafa.2 

and -> Algeria; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia 
mysticism Tarika.II.2; Wall.2; Zawiya.2 

see also Ziyara.4; and -> Mysticism.mystics 
physical geography Atlas; Reg; Rif; Sabkha; al-Sahra 3 ; Shatt; Tall; Tasili; Wadi.2 

and -► the section Physical Geography under individual countries 
population Ahaggar; Berbers; Dukkala; Khult; al-Ma'kil; Shawiya.l; Tawarik; Tubu; [in 
Suppl.] Demography .IV 

see also Khumayr; Kumiya; al-Manasir; Mandil; Moors; and -► Berbers 
Southern Africa Mozambique (and [in Suppl.]); South Africa 
see also [in Suppl.] Djarida.ix 
for individual countries -► Mozambique 
West Africa Cote dTvoire; Dahomey; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Liberia; Mali; Muritaniya; 
Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Togo 

see also Azalay; Kitabat.5; Kunbi Salih; al-Maghili; Malam; Muridiyya; Sudan (Bilad 
al-).2; Sultan.3; Tadmakkat; Takfir.2; Takidda; Takrur; 'Ulama'.?; Wakf.VIII 
for individual countries -> Benin; Guinea; Ivory Coast; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; 
Nigeria; Senegal; Togo 
architecture Kunbi Salih; Masdjid.VII 
empires Mande; Oyo; Songhay.3 

see also Muhammad b. Abi Bakr; Samori Ture; Takrur; 'Uthman b. Fudi 
languages Hausa.ii; Nuba.3; Shuwa.2; Songhay.l; Sudan (Bilad al-).3 

see also Fulbe; Kanuri; Senegal. 1 ; and -► Languages.afro-asiatic.arabic 
literature -► Africa.central africa 
mysticism Wali. 9; Zawiya.3; Ziyara.9 

and -+ Mysticism.mystics.african 
physical geography 

deserts Sahil.2 

mountains Futa Djallon; Tibesti 
oases Waha.2 
waters Niger 
population Fulbe; Hartani; Hausa.i; Ifoghas; Kunta; Songhay.2; Tawarik; Tukulor; 
Wangara; Yoruba; [in Suppl.] Demography.V 
see also Lamlam; Mande; Takrur 

Agriculture Filaha; Mar'a; Ra'iyya 

see also Mazra'a; Mugharasa; Musakat; Muzara'a; Takdir.2; Takwim.2; [in Suppl.] Akkar; 

and -> Botany; Flora; Irrigation 
agricultural cooperatives Ta'awun 

products Kahwa; Kamh; Karm; Kasab al-Sukkar; Khamr.2; Kutn; Nakhl; Narandj; al-Ruzz; 
Sha'ir; [in Suppl.] Djawars; Hindiba' 
see also Harir; and ->■ Cuisine.foods 
terms Agdal; Ba c 1.2.b; Ciftlik; Ghuta: Matmura 
tools Mihrath 
treatises on Abu '1-Khayr al-Ishbili; Ibn Wafid; Ibn Wahshiyya; al-Tighnari 

Albania Arnawutluk; Iskender Beg; Kara Mahmud Pasha 
see also Muslimun.l.B.4; Sami; and -► Ottoman Empire 
toponyms Ak Hisar.4; Awlonya; Delvina; Drac; Elbasan; Ergiri; Korea; Kruje; Lesh; Tiran; 
[in Suppl.] Ishkodra 


Alchemy Dhahab; Fidda; al-Iksir; al-Kibrit; al-Kimiya'; Zfbak 

see also Karun; Ma'din; al-Nushadir; Takwin; and -»• Metallurgy; Mineralogy 
alchemists Djabir b. Hayyan; Ibn Umayl; Ibn Wahshiyya; al-Razi, Abu Bakr; al-Tughra'i; 

[in Suppl.] Abu '1-Hasan al-Ansari; al-Djildaki 

see also Hirmis; Khalid b. Yazld b. Mu'awiya; [in Suppl.] al-Djawbari, 'Abd al-Rahim; 

Findiriski; Ibn Dakik al- c Id 
equipment al-Anbik; al-Uthal 
terms Rukn.2; Tabi'a.3; Zuhal; Zuhara 

Algeria Algeria 

see also 'Arabiyya.A.iii.3; 'Arsh; Halka; Zmala.3; and -»• Berbers; Dynasties.spain and 


architecture -»■ Architecture.regions.north Africa 
dynasties c Abd al-Wadids; Fatimids; Hammadids; Rustamids 

and ->■ Dynasties.spain and north Africa 
literature Hawfl; Malhun 

modern period Djami'a; Djarida.i.B; Hizb.i; Hukuma.iv; Ma'arif.2.B; MadjlisAA.xx; 
Sihafa.2.(i); [in Suppl.] Mahkama.4.xi 
reform Ibn Badis; (al-)Ibrahimi; Salafiyya. 1 (b) 
see also Fallak 
Ottoman period (1518-1830) c Abd al-Kadir b. Muhyi al-Din; Algeria.ii.(2); c Arudj; Hasan 
Agha; Hasan Baba; Hasan Pasha; al-Husayn; Husayn Pasha, Mezzomorto; Khayr al- 
Din Pasha 
see also Sipahi.2 
physical geography Algeria. i 

mountains c Amur; Atlas; Awras; Biban; Djurdjura; Kabylia; Wansharis 

see also Tasili 
salt flats Taghaza 
population Ahaggar; Algeria.iii; Berbers; Zmala. 1 

see also Kabylia; and -»■ Berbers 
religion Algeria.iii; Shawiya.l 

mystical orders 'Ammariyya; Rahmaniyya 

see also Darkawa; Ziyaniyya; and ->■ Mysticism.mystics.north African 

ancient Arshgul; Ashir; al-Mansura; Sadrata; [in Suppl.] Hunayn 
present day 

oases Biskra; Kantara. 1 ; al-Kulay c a.2. 1 ; Laghouat; Suf; Wargla; [in Suppl.] Gourara 
regions Hudna; Mzab; Sahil.l.b; Tuwat; Zab 

towns Adrar.l; al- c Annaba; Arzaw; c Ayn Temushent; Bidjaya; Biskra; Bulayda; 
Colomb-Bechar; al-Djaza J ir; Djidjelli; Ghardaya: Kal'at Bani c Abbas; Kal c at 
Huwwara; al-Kulay'a.2.2; Kustantina; Laghouat; al-Madiyya; Masila; Milyana; 
al-Mu'askar; Mustaghanim; Nadruma; Sa'ida; Sharshal; Sidi Bu 'l-'Abbas; 
Tadallis; Tahart; Tanas; Tebessa; Tilimsan; Tinduf; Tubna; Tuggurt; Wahran; 

Alms Khayr; Sadaka; Zakat 

see also Wakf 

Alphabet Abdjad; Harf; Hisab; HurQf al-Hidja' 

see also Djafr; Khatt: [in Suppl.] Buduh; and ->■ Writing.scripts 

for the letters of the Arabic and Persian alphabets, see Dad; Dal; Dhal; Djim; Fa 3 ; Ghayn; 


Ha'; Ha'; Hamza; Kaf; Kaf; Kha': Lam; Mim; Nun; Pa'; Ra'; Sad; Sin and Shin; Ta' and 
Ta'; lha'; Waw; Ya'; Za'; Zay 
secret -»■ Cryptography 

Anatomy Djism; Katif; Tashrih; [in Suppl.] Aflimun 

see also Ishara; Khidab; Kiyafa; Shama; [in Suppl.] Dam 

chest Sadr 

eye 'Ayn; al-Kuhl; Manazir; Ramad 

see also Za'faran.2; [in Suppl] Ma' al-Ward; and -»■ Medicine.ophthalmology; 

hair c Afs; Afsantin; Hinna'; Lihya-yi Sherif; Sha'r 

see also [in Suppl.] Hallak 
limb Yamin 
organs Kabid; Kalb 
teeth -»■ Medicine.dentistry 
treatises on 

Turkish Shani-zade 

and -»■ Medicine.medical handbooks/encyclopaedias 

Andalusia al-Andalus; Gharb al-Andalus; Moriscos; Mozarab; Mudejar; Shark al-Andalus 
see also Kitabat.3; Libas.ii; Ma'.7; al-Madjus; Moors; Muwallad.l; Safir.2.b; Sa'ifa.2; al- 
Thughur.2; and -»■ Dynasties.spain and north africa; Spain 

administration Diwan.iii; Kumis; Sahib al-Madina; Zahir 
see also Fata; Wakf.II.4 

architecture -»■ Architecture.regions 

art al-Andalus. ix 

conquest of al-Andalus.vi. 1 ; Musa b. Nusayr; Tarik b. Ziyad 

dynasties al-Murabitun.4; al-Muwahhidun; Umayyads.In Spain; Zirids.2; [in Suppl.] c Azafi 
see also al-Andalus.vi; (Banu) Kasi; Tawil, Banu; c Umar b. Hafsun; and -»■ Dynasties. 


reyes de taifas period (11th century) c Abbadids; Aftasids; 'Amirids; Dtju '1-Nunids; 
Djahwarids; Hammudids; Hudids; Muluk al-Tawa'if.2; Razin, Banu; Tahirids.2; 
Tudjib; [in Suppl.] Sumadih 

see also Balansiya; Daniya; Gharnata; Ibn Ghalbun; Ibn Rashik, Abu Muhammad; 
Ishbiliya; Kurtuba; Mudjahid, al-Muwaffak; Parias; al-Sid; Zuhayr 
governors until Umayyad conquest ' Abd al-Malik b. Katan; c Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiki; Abu 
'1-Khattar; al-Hurr b. c Abd al-Rahman al-Thakafi; al-Husam b. Dirar; Tudjib; 'Ubayd 
Allah b. Habhab; Yusuf b. c Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri 
see also al-Andalus.vi.2; Kalb b. Wabara; Musa b. Nusayr; al-Sumayl 
literature Aljamia; c Arabiyya.B .Appendix; Fahrasa 

and -»■ Andalusia.scholars.historians; Literature.poetry.andalusian 
mysticism ->■ Mysticism.mystics.andalusian 
physical geography -»■ Spain 

astronomers Abu '1-Salt Umayya (and Umayya, Abu '1-Salt); al-Bitrudji; Djabir b. Aflah; 
Ibn al-Saffar; Ibn al-Samh; al-Madjriti; Muhammad b. c Umar; al-Zarkali 
see also Zidj.iii.4 
grammarians Abu Hayyan al-Gharnati; al-Batalyawsi; Djudi al-Mawruri; Ibn al- c Arif, 
al-Husayn; Ibn c Asim; Ibn al-Iflili; Ibn Khatima; Ibn al-Kutiyya; Ibn Mada'; Ibn 
Malik; Ibn Sida; al-Rabahi; al-Shalawbin; al-Shantamari; al-Sharif al-Gharnati; al- 


Sharishi; al-Zubaydi; [in Suppl.] Ibn Hisham al-Lakhmi 

see also al-Shatibi, Abu Ishak; and -*■ the section Lexicographers below 
geographers Abu 'Ubayd al-Bakri; Ibn c Abd al-Mun c im al-Himyari; Ibn Ghalib; al-Idrisi; 

al- c Udhri; al-Warrak, Muhammad; al-Zuhri, Muhammad 
historians al-Dabbi, Abu Dja'far; Ibn al-Abbar, Abu 'Abd Allah; Ibn 'Abd al-Malik al- 

Marrakushi; Ibn Bashkuwal; Ibn Burd.I; Ibn al-Faradl; Ibn Ghalib; Ibn Hayyan; Ibn 

c Idhari; Ibn al-Khatib; Ibn al-Kutiyya; Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi; al-Makkari; al-Rushati; 

al-Warrak, Muhammad 

see also al-Shakundi; al-'Udhri; [in Suppl.] al-Suhayli; and -> Dynasties.spain and 


jurists al-Badji; al-Dani; al-Humaydi; Ibn Abi Zamanayn; Ibn 'Asim; Ibn al-Faradi; Ibn 
Habib, Abu Marwan; Ibn Hazm, Abu Muhammad; Ibn Kuzman.III and IV (and [in 
Suppl.] Kuzman.3 and 4); Ibn Mada'; Ibn Rushayd; c Isa b. Dinar; c Iyad b. Musa; al- 
Kalasadi; al-Kurtubi, Abu c Abd Allah; al-Kurtubi, Yahya; (al-)Mundhir b. Sa'id; 
Shabtun; al-Julaytuli; al-Turtushi; al- c Utbi, Abu c Abd Allah; al-Wakkashi; Yahya 
b. Yahya al-Laythi; [in Suppl.] Ibn Rushd; al-Nubahi 

see also al-Khushani; Malikiyya; Sa'id al-Andalusi; Shura.2; Shurta.2: [in Suppl.] 
Ibn al-Rumiyya 
lexicographers Ibn Sida; al-Zubaydi 
toponyms -> Spain 

Angelology Malaika; [in Suppl.] MalaM 

see also 'Adhab al-Kabr; Dik; Iblis; Karin; Ruhaniyya; Sihr 
angels c Azazil; Djabra'il; Harut wa-Marut; Israfil; 'Izra'il; Mikal; Munkar wa-Nakir; Ridwan 
see also al-Zabaniyya 

Animals Dabba; Hayawan 

see also Badw; (Djazirat) al- c Arab.v; Farw; Hind.i.l; Khasi; Marbat; [in Suppl.] Djazzar; 
and -> Zoology 
and art al-Asad; Fahd; Fil; Hayawan.6; Karkaddan; Ma'din; Namir and Nimr; [in Suppl.] Arnab 

see also Zakhrafa 
and proverbs Hay aw an. 2; Mathal 

and see articles on individual animals, in particular Af a; Dhi'b; Fahd; Ghurab; Kata; 
Khinzir; Kird; Lamt; Naml; Yarbu 1 

antelopes Ghazal; Lamt; Mahat 
arachnoids c Akrab; 'Ankabut 
bats Watwat 

birds Babbagha 1 ; Dadjadja; Dik; Ghurab; Hamam; Hudhud; Huma; Kata; Na c am; Nasr; 
Nuham; al-Rukhkh; Salwa; Shunkub; al-Ta'ir; Tawus; Toghril; c Ukab; Wakwak.4; 
[in Suppl.] Abu Barakish 

see also Bayzara; Bulbul; 'Iyafa; al-Ramadi; Sonkor; Timsah 
camels Ibil 

see also (Djazirat) al- c Arab.v; Badw.II.c and d; Karwan; Rahil; Wasm; [in Suppl.] 
Djammal; and -> Transport.caravans 
canines Dhi'b; Fanak; Ibn Awa; Kalb; Saluki; Tha'lab; [in Suppl.] Dabu 1 
crustaceans Sarafan 
domesticated Bakar; Fil; Ibil; Kalb; Khinzir; Nims; [in Suppl.] Djamus; Ghanam 

see also Shawiya.2; and -> Animals.equines 
equines Badw.II; Baghl; Faras; Himar; Khayl 

see also Faris; Furusiyya; Hazin; Ibn Hudhayl; Ibn al-Mundhir; Istabl; Marbat; 


Maydan; Mir-Akhur; Sardj 
felines 'Anak; al-Asad; Fahd; Namir and Nimr; Sinnawr 
fish Samak 

see also al-Ta'ir 
insects Dhubab; Djarad; Kami; Nahl; Naml; Namus.2; al-Ta'ir 
molluscs Sadaf 
reptiles Af a; Dabb; Hayya; Hirba'; Samandal; Sulahfa; Timsah 

see also Adam; Almas 
rodents Yarbu'; [in Suppl.] Fa'r 
sport Bayzara; Fahd; Furusiyya; Hamam; Khinzir; Mahat; [in Suppl.] Dabu' 

see also Cakirdji-bashi; Doghandji; Kurds.iv.C.5; and ->■ Hunting 
transformation into Hayawan.3; Kird; Maskh 

wild in addition to the above, see also Ayyil; Fanak; Fil; Ibn 'Irs; Karkaddan; Kird; Kunfudh; 
Zarafa; [in Suppl.] Arnab; Faras al-Ma 5 
see also Wahsh; and ->■ Hunting 

Anthropomorphism Hashwiyya; Karramiyya; Tashbih wa-Tanzih 

see also Bayan b. Sam'an al-Tamimi; Djism; Hisham b. al-Hakam; Hulmaniyya; al- 
Mukanna'; [in Suppl.] al-Mufaddal b. Salama 

Apostasy Mulhid; Murtadd 

see also Katl; [in Suppl.] al-Ridda; and -► Heresy 

Arabian Peninsula -> Bahrain; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; United Arab 
Emirates; Yemen; and the section Arabian Peninsula under Architecture.regions; 
Dynasties; Pre-Islam; Tribes 

Archaeology -► Architecture.regions; Epigraphy; and the section Toponyms under in- 
dividual countries 
Turkish archaeologists 'Othman Hamdi 

Architecture Architecture; Bina' 

see also Kitabat; Wakf; and -+ Military 
architects Kasim Agha; Khayr al-Din; Sinan 
decoration Fusayfisa'; Kashi; Khatt: Parcin-kari; Tughra.2(d) 
materials Djiss; Labin; [in Suppl.] Rukham 

see also Bina' 

aqueducts Kantara.5 and 6 
see also Fakir; Sinan 
baths Hammam; Hammam al-Sarakh 
bridges Djisr; Djisr Banat Ya'kub; Djisr al-Hadid; Djisr al-Shughr 

see also Dizful; Kantara; Sayhan 
churches -+ Christianity 
dams Band 

see also Dizful; Sawa.2.i; Shushtar; [in Suppl.] Abu Sinbil; and ->■ Hydrology 
gardens Bustan; Ha'ir 

see also Bostandji; Gharnata.B; Hawd; MaM2; Srinagar.2; Yali; and -> Flora; 
gates Bab; Bab-i Humayun; Harran.ii.d 
granaries [in Suppl.] Kasr.2.B 


lighthouses Manar; al-Nazur 

mausolea -> Architecture.monuments.tombs 

mills Tahun 

monasteries -> Christianity; Mysticism 

mosques Hawd; Kiilliyye; Manara; Masdjid; Mihrab; Minbar 

see also 'Anaza; Bab.i; Bahw; Balat; Dikka; Khatib; Musalla.2; Zawiya.l 
individual mosques Aya Sofya; al-Azhar; Harran.ii.(b); Husayni Dalan; Ka'ba; al- 
Karawiyyin; Kubbat al-Sakhra; Kutb Minar; al-Masdjid al-Aksa; al-Masdjid al- 
Haram; Zay tuna. 1 

see also Ankara; Architecture; Bahmanis; Dhar.2; Djam; Edirne; Hamat; Hims; 
Kazimayn; Kazwin; Ma'arrat al-Nu'man; Makka.4; Sinan 
obelisks Misalla 

palaces Saray; [in Suppl.] Kasr.2.A 
see also Balat 

individual palaces Ciraghan; Kasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi; Kasr al-Hayr al-Sharki; 
Kaykubadiyya; Khirbat al-Mafdjar; Khirbat al-Minya; Kubadabad; Mahall; al- 
Mushatta; Topkapi Sarayi; al-Ukhaydir; Y!ld!z Sarayi; [in Suppl.] Djabal Says; 
Kasr al-Mushash; Kasr Tuba; Kastal; al-Khuld 

see also Gharnata.B; Khirbat al-Bayda'; Kubbat al-Hawa J ; Lashkar-i Bazar 
pavilions Koshk 

see also Yali 
strongholds Burdj; Hisar; Hisn; Kasaba; Sur; [in Suppl.] Kasr.2 
see also al-'Awasim; Bab.ii; al-Kal c a; Ribat; al-Thughur; Udj 
individual strongholds Abu Safyan; Agra; Alamut.i.; Alindjak; 'Amadiya; Anadolu 
Hisari; Anamur; Anapa; Asirgarh; Atak; Bab al-Abwab; Bala Hisar; Balatunus; 
Barzuya; Baynun; Bhakkar; Canderi; Cirmen; al-Darum; Dja'bar; al-Djarba'; 
Gaban; Gawilgafh; Ghumdan: Gok Tepe; Golkonda; Hadjar al-Nasr; Hansi; 
Harran.ii.(a); Hisn al-Akrad; Hisn Kayfa; Istakhr; Kakhta; Kal'at Nadjm; Kal'at 
al-Shakif; Kalawdhiya; Kal c e-i Sefid; Kandahar; Kanizsa; al-Karak; Kawkab al- 
Hawa 1 ; Kharana; Khartpert; Kherla; Khotin; Khunasira; Kilat-i Nadiri; Koron; 
Koyul Hisar; Lanbasar; Luleburgaz; Mandu; Manohar; al-Markab; Mudgal: 
Narnala; Parenda; al-Rawandan; Rohtas; Rum Kal'esi; Rumeli Hisari; Sahyun; 
Shalbatarra; Softa; al-Subayba; Umm al-Rasas; Yeni KaFe; [in Suppl.] Badiya; 
Bubashtru; al-Dikdan; Firrim; Nandana 

see also Ashir; Bahmanis; Bidar; Dawlatabad; Diyar Bakr; Hims; Kawkaban.2; 
Khursabad; Mahall; Mahur; Thadi 
tombs Kabr; Kubba; Makbara; Mashhad; Turba 

see also Muthamman; Wali.4, 5 and 8; Zawiya; Ziyara 

individual buildings Baki c al-Gharkad; Golkonda; Harran.ii.(c); Makli; Nafisa; 
Radkan; Sahsaram; Tadj Mahall 

see also Abarkuh; Abu Ayyub al-Ansari; Abu Madyan; Agra; Ahmad al-Badawi; 
Ahmad Yasawi; Bahmanis; Barid Shahis.II; Djahangir; Ghazi Miyan; Gunbadh- 
i Kabus; Hims; Imamzada; Karak Nuh; Karbala'; Kazwin; al-Khalil; Kubbat al- 
Hawa'; Ma'arrat al-Nu c man; al-Madina; Sultaniyya.2; [in Suppl.] Mamluks.iii.a.A 
water-houses Sabil.2 

fire-pumps Tulumbadji 
fountains Shadirwan 
wells Ba'oli; Bi'r; BPr Maymun; Zamzam 
see also Hawd 

Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent Agra; Bahmanis; Barid Shahis.II; Bharoc; Bidar; 


Bidjapur; Bihar; Campaner; Dawlatabad; Dihll.2; Djunagafh; Ghaznawids; Ghurids: 

Golkonda; Hampi; Hansi; Haydarabad; Hind.vii; Husayni Dalan; Kutb Mlnar; Lahore; 

Lakhnaw; Mahall; Mahisur; Mandu.2; Mughals.7; Multan.2; Nagawr; Sind.4: 

Srinagar.2; Tadj Mahall; Tughlukids.2; Ucch.2; [in Suppl.] Nandana; f hatta.2 

see also Burdj.iii; Bustan.ii; Imam-bara; Lashkar-i Bazar; Ma\12; Makbara.5; Makli; 

Manara.2; Masdjid.H; Mihrab; Minbar.3; Mizalla.5; Muthamman; Parcin-kari; 

Africa -*■ Africa; for North African architecture, see below 
Andalusia al-Andalus.ix; Burdj.II; Gharnata; Ishbiliya; Kurtuba; Nasrids.2 

see also al-Nazur 
Arabian peninsula al-Hidjr; Ka'ba; al-Masdjid al-Haram 

see also Makka.4; San'a 5 ; Tahirids.3.2 
Central Asia Bukhara; Hisn.iii; Ilkhans; Samarkand. 2; Timurids.3.b 

see also Mihrab 
Egypt Abu '1-Hawl; al-Azhar; Haram; al-Kahira; Mashrabiyya. 1 ; Nafisa; [in Suppl.] 


see also Mihrab; Misalla; Misr; Sa'id al-Su'ada 3 ; al-Uksur; [in Suppl.] Abu Sinbil 
Fertile Crescent Baghdad; Dimashk; Harran.ii; Hims; 'Irak.vii; Kubbat al-Sakhra; al-Kuds; 

Ma'arrat al-Nu'man; al-Markab.3; al-Masdjid al-Aksa; al-Rakka; al-Ukhaydir; [in 

Suppl.] Badiya; Dar al-Hadith.I 

see also Kasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi; Kasr al-Hayr al-Sharki; Khirbat al-Mafdjar; Mihrab; 

al-Rawandan; [in Suppl.] Kasr al-Mushaah; Kasr Tuba; Kastal 
Iran Hisn.ii; Isfahan.2; Istakhr; Kazwin; Khursabad; Mashrabiyya.2; Radkan; al-Rayy.2; 

Safawids.V; Saldjukids.VI; Samanids.2(b); Sultaniyya.2; Tabriz.2; Tihran.IJ.b.ii; 

Tus.2; Waramin.2; Zawara; [in Suppl.] Iran.viii.(b) 

see also Kasr-i Shirin; Mihrab; Ribat-i Sharaf; Yazd.l; [in Suppl.] Makbara.4 
North Africa Fas; Fatimid Art; Hisn.i; Kal'at Bani Hammad; al-Karawiyyin; Zaytuna.l; 

[in Suppl.] Kasr.2 

see also 'Anaza; Bidjaya; Mihrab 
Southeast Asia Hisn.iv; Indonesia.v; Masdjid.III-V 
Turkey Adana; Ankara; Aya Sofya; Diwrigi; Diyar Bakr; Edirne; Harran.ii; Hisn Kayfa; 

Istanbul; Konya.2; Laranda; 'Othmanli.V; [in Suppl.] Istanbul.VIII 

see also Kaplidja; Kasim Agha; Khayr al-Din; Kbshk; Mihrab; Rum Kal'esi; Sinan; 

terms c Amud; c Anaza; Bahw; Balat; Iwan; Mukarbas; Mukarnas; Muthamman; Pishtak; 

Riwak; Saray; Sardab; Shadirwan; Tiraz.3 
urban Bab; Dar; Funduk; Hammam; Iwan; Kaysariyya; Khan.II; Madrasa.III; Masdjid; 
Musalla.2; Rab'; Selamlik; Shari'; Suk; Sur 

see also Kanisa; Saray; [in Suppl.] Mamluks.iii.a.B; and -> Sedentarism; Urbanism 
fountains -+ Architecture.monuments.water-houses 
ventilation Mirwaha; [in Suppl.] Badgir 

see also Khaysh; Sardab; Sind.4 

Armenia Arminiya; Rewan; Shimshat 

and ->■ Caucasus 

Art Arabesque; Fann; Fusayfisa 5 ; Kashi; Khatt; Khazaf; Kitabat; Lawn; Ma c din.4; Parcin- 
kari; Rasm; Taswir; Tiraz; Zakhrafa; Zalidj; Zudjadj 

see also Architecture; Billawr; Dhahab; Fidda; 'Ilm al-Djamal; Khatam; Muhr; Sura; and 
-> Animals.and art; Architecture; Writing.manuscripts and books 

calligraphy Khatt (and [in Suppl.]); Tughra 


see also 'Ali; inal; Kum(m)I; Murakka'; Nuskha; Tazwir; Timurids.3.a; and -► Writing 
calligraphers 'All Rida-i 'Abbasi; Hamza al-Harrani; Ibn al-Bawwab; Ibn Mukla; 
Muhammad Husayn Tabriz!; Mustakim-zade; Yakut al-Musta'simi 
ceramics -> Art.pottery 

decorative 'Adj; al-Asad; Djiss; Fahd; Hayawan.6; Hilal.ii; Ilkhans; al-Kamar.II; Mashrabiyya; 
Parcin-kari; Shams.3; Tawrik; Tiraz; 'Unwan.2; Yashm.2; Zakhrafa 
see also Kashi; Ma'din.4; [in Suppl.] Mamluks.iii.b 
drawing Rasm 

glass al-Kily; 'Othmanli.VII.d; Samanids.2(a); Zudjadj; [in Suppl.] Mamluks.iii.b.C 
handicrafts Kalamkari; [in Suppl.] Bisat; Dawat 

see also Haifa 3 
illumination 'Unwan.2; [in Suppl.] Mamluks.iii.b.D; and ->■ Writing 
metalware Bidar; Ilkhans; Ma'din.4; 'Othmanli.VII.b; Samanids.2(a); Timurids.3.d; [in Suppl.] 

Ibrik; Mamluks.iii.b.A 
mosaics Fusayfisa'; Kashi; Zalidj 
painting Taswir. 1 

miniatures Ilkhans; Mughals.9; Nakkash-khana; 'Othmanli.VIII 

see also Fil; Kalila wa-Dimna.16; Mandu.3; Mi'radj.5; al-Mizan.3; Murakka'; 
Rustam.2; Saki.3; Timurids.3.a; [in Suppl.] Djawhar; and ->■ Animals.and art; 

miniaturists Bihzad; Mansur; Matrakc!; Nakkash Hasan (Pasha); Rida 'Abbasi; 
Rida'i; Siyah-kalem; [in Suppl.] Lewni 
see also 'Ali; Lukman b. Sayyid Husayn 
modern painting Taswir. 3 
and ->■ Art.drawing 

painters Djabran Khalil Djabran; 'Othman Hamdi; Sipihri; [in Suppl.] Dinet; 
Eyyuboghlu, Bedri 
photography Taswir.2 

pottery Anadolu.iii.6; al-Andalus.ix; Fakhkhar; Ilkhans; Iznik; Kallala; Khazaf; Mina'i; 
'Othmanli.VII.a; Samanids.2(a); Sini; Timurids.3.c; Tin.2; [in Suppl.] Mamluks.iii.b.B; 
Oren Kal'e 
regional and period al-Andalus.ix; Berbers. VI; Fatimid Art; Ilkhans; 'Irak.vii; Mughals.8 
and 9; 'Othmanli.VII; Saldjukids.VI; Samanids.2(a); TimQrids.3.a; [in Suppl.] 
Iran.viii.(a); Khatt.vi; Mamluks.iii.b 
silhouette-cutting Fakhri 
tapestry Anadolu.iii.6; 'Othmanli.VI; Sadjdjada.2; 'Ushak.2; [in Suppl.] Bisat 

see also Karkaddan; Mafrushat; Mifrash; Milas.2 
textiles Harir; Kumash; Tiraz; [in Suppl.] Ha'ik 

see also Kalamkari; Kasab; Kattan; Kurkub; Mandil; al-Nassadj; and ->■ Clothing. 


production centres al-Andalus.ix; al-Bahnasa; Dabik; Tinnis 

see also Bursa; Ilkhans; Mughals.8; 'Othmanli.VI; al-Rayy.2; Samanids.2(a); Yazd.l; 
and ->■ Art.tapestry 
tiles Kashi 

see also Anadolu.iii.6 

Asceticism Bakka 3 ; Malamatiyya; Zuhd 

see also Khalwa; Manakib; [in Suppl.] Asad b. Musa b. Ibrahim; Salat-i Ma'kusa;/or ascet- 
ics ->■ Mysticism.mystics; Sainthood 

poetry Zuhdiyya 


Asia Almaligh; Baikal 

see also Baraba; Mogholistan 

Central -> Central Asia 

East Cam; Djawi; Indochina; Indonesia; Kimar; Malay Peninsula; Malaysia; Patani; Philip- 
pines; al-Shila; al-Sin; Singapore; Thailand; Tubbat; al-Yabani; [in Suppl.] Brunei 
see also Kitabat.8; Sanf; Shah Bandar.2; <Ulama\5; Wakf.VII.ii-vi; Wakwak; Wall.7; 
Zabadj; [in Suppl.] Demography. VIII; al-Mar'a; and -* Architecture. 


for individual countries -> China; Indonesia; Malaysia; Mongolia; Philippines; 

Thailand; for Japan, see al-Yabani;/or Tibet, see Tubbat 
Eurasia -> Europe 
South Bangala; Burma; Ceylon; Hind; Laccadives; Maldives; Mauritius; Minicoy; Nepal; 

Nicobars; Pakistan; Seychelles 

see also Ruhmi; Wakf.VII.i 

for individual countries -> Bangladesh; Burma; India; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka 

Assyria Khursabad; Nimrud; Ninawa.l; Zindjirli; [in Suppl.] Athur 

Astrology Ikhtiyarat; Kaws Kuzah; al-Kayd; Kiran; Mintakat al-Burudj; Munadjdjim; 
Nudjum (Ahkam al-); al-Tasyir 

see also Khatt; Za'irdja; Zidj; and -► Astronomy.celestial objects 
astrologers Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi; al-Biruni; Ibn Abi T-Ridjal, Abu '1-Hasan; Ibn al-Khasib. 
Abu Bakr; al-Kabisi; al-Khayyat, Abu c Ali; Masha' Allah; 'Utarid b. Muhammad; [in 
Suppl.] Yazidji 

see also Batlamiyus; and -> Astronomy; Divination 
terms al-Djawzahar; Hadd; Kat c ; Muthallath; Sa c d wa-Nahs (and al-Sa'dan'; Shakawa); al- 
Sahm.l.b; al-Tali c .2; al-Tinnin 

Astronomy Anwa 3 ; Asturlab; Falak; Hay'a; 11m al-Hay'a; al-Kamar.I; al-Kayd; Kusuf; al- 

Kutb; al-Madd wa T-Djazr; al-Madjarra; al-Manazil; Mintakat al-Burudj; al-Nudjum; Zidj 

see also Djughrafiya; Kibla.ii; al-Kubba; al-Kura; Makka.4; Mikat.2; Mizwala 

astronomers c Abd al-Rahman al-Sufl; Abu T-Salt Umayya (and Umayya, Abu '1-Salt); 'Ali 

al-Kushdji; al-Badi c al-Asturlabi; al-Battani; al-Biruni; al-Bitrudji; Djabir b. Aflah; al- 

Djaghmini; al-Farghani; Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi; Ibn Amadjur; Ibn al-Banna' al- 

Marrakushi; Ibn Trak; Ibn al-Saffar; Ibn al-Samh; Ibn Yunus; al-Kashi; al-Kh w arazmi. 

Abu DjaTar; al-Khazin; al-Khazini; al-Khudjandi: Kushiyar b. Laban; Kutb al-Din 

Shirazi; al-Madjriti; al-Mardini; al-Marrakushi; Muhammad b. Tsa al-Mahani; 

Muhammad b. 'Umar; al-Nayrizi; al-Shayzari; Taki al-Din; Thabit b. Kurra; al-Tusi, 

Nasir al-Din; c Umar Khayyam; 'Utarid b. Muhammad; al-Zarkali; [in Suppl.] 'Abd al- 

Salam b. Muhammad; Kadi-zade Rumi; al-Kuhi 

see also Batlamiyus; al-Falaki; Falaki Shirwani; Ibn al-Haytham; Kusta b. Luka; 
Sindhind; [in Suppl.] Ibn al-Adjdabi; and -> Astrology 
celestial objects 

comets al-Nudjum.III.b 

planets al-Kamar.I; al-Mirrikh; al-Mushtari; al-Nudjum. II; c Utarid; Zuhal; Zuhara 

see also Mintakat al-Burudj; Ru'yat al-Hilal; al-Sa c dan'; Takwim.l; al- c Uzza; Zidj 
stars and constellations 'Akrab; c Anak; al-Asad; Dadjadja; Fard.e; Kalb; Kird; Mahat; 
Mintakat al-Burudj; Muthallath; Na'am; Nasr; al-Nudjum; Radif.l; al-Sahm.l.c; 
Samak.9; Saratan.6; Shams.2; al-Shi'ra; Tadj; lha c lab; al-Tinnin; c Ukab; Zarafa; [in 
Suppl.] Arnab; Ghanam 


see also al-Kayd; Sa'd wa-Nahs {and al-Sa c dan'; Sriakawa); al-Sak; Sulahfa; al-Ta'ir 

chronology Ta'rikh.1.2 

observatory Marsad 

see also Udjdjayn; Ulugh Beg; 'Umar Khayyam 

terms al-Djawzahar; Istikbal; al-Matali'; al-Matla c ; al-Mayl; Mukabala. 1 ; Mukantarat; Nisf 
al-Nahar; Radif.l; Rub c ; Ru'yat al-Hilal; al-Sak; al-Samt; Shakkaziyya; Tabi c a.4; al- 
Ta'dll; al-Ta c dil bayn al-Satrayn; Ta'dll al-Zaman; Takwim.l; al-Tali c .l; Zldj 

Austria Bee; Nemce 
see also Muslimun.2.ii 

Babism -> Sects 

Bahais Bab; Babis; Baha 5 Allah; Bahais; Mashrik al-Adhkar; Nakd al-MIthak; Shawkl Efendi 
see also Lawh; Mazhar; [in Suppl.] Ansari 

Bahrain al-Bahrayn; al-Khalifa; Madjlis.4.A.x; Mahkama.4.ix; Sihafa. 1 .(xii) 

see also Karmati; 'Usfurids; 'Utub 
toponyms al-Manama; al-Muharrak; Yabrln 
see also al-Mushakkar 

Balkans Balkan; Rumeli; al-Sakaliba 

see also Tarika.II.6; Wali.4; Wardar; Woyvoda; and -* Europe.eastern Europe 
and Ottoman military Eflak; Martolos; Woynuk 

and -* the section Toponyms under Balkan states; Military.ottoman 

Bangladesh Bangala; Madjlis.4.C 

see also Bengali; Nadhr al-Islam; Satya Pir; [in Suppl.] Djarida.vii 
literature -* Literature.in other languages 
toponyms Bakargandj; Bangala; Bogra; Chittagong; Dhaka; Dinadjpur; Djassawr; Faridpur; 

Satga'on; Silhet; Sundarban 

see also Ruhmi; Sonarga'on 

Basques al-Bashkunish 

see also Ibn Gharsiya 

Bedouins Badw; Bi 5 r; Dawar; Ghanima; Ghazw; al-Hidjar; lha'r; [in Suppl.] Khuwwa 
see also Liss; 'Urf.2.I; Wasm; and -+ Law.customary; Nomadism; Saudi Arabia; 
Tribes.arabian peninsula 

writings on Rzewuski 

Benin Kandi; Kotonou; Kouande 

Berbers Berbers; Judaeo-Berber 

see also Kallala; Kissa.8; Libas.ii; Mafakhir al-Barbar; [in Suppl.] Siba; and -* Algeria 
y law 'Ada.ii; Kanun.iv 
see also c Urf 


customs Himaya.ii.il; Leff; Litham; Saff.3 

dynasties c Abd al-Wadids; c Ammar; Marinids; Midrar; al-Murabitun; al-Muwahhidun; Razln, 

Banu; Zlrids 
language -»■ Languages.afro-asiatic 
music Imzad 

religion al-Badjali; Berbers.III; Ha-Mim; Salih b. Tarif 
resistance Berbers. I. c; al-Kahina; Kusayla; Maysara 
rulers al-Irdjanl; [in Suppl.] Ziri b. 'Atiyya 
tribes al-Baranis; Barghawata; Birzal; al-Butr; Djazula; Ghaniya; GhubrinI; Ghumara: Glawa: 

Gudala; Haha; Hargha; Hawwara; Hintata; Ifoghas; Ifran; Iraten; Kutama; Lamta; 

Lamtuna; Lawata; Maghlla; Maghrawa; Malzuza; Masmuda; Massa; Matghara: 

Matmata; Mazata; Midyuna; Misrata; al-Nafusa; Nafza; Nafzawa; Sanhadja; Tawarik; 

Zanata; [in Suppl.] Awraba 

see also Shawiya.l; Sufriyya.2 

Bible Indjil; Tawrat 

and -»■ Christianity; Judaism 
biblical personages Adam; 'Amalik; Ayyub; Azar; c Azazil; Baram; Bilkis; Binyamin; Bukht- 
nas(s)ar; Daniyal; Dawud; Djabra'H; Djalut; Fir'awn; Habil wa-Kabil; Ham; Haman; 
Harun b. c Imran; Harut wa-Marut; Hawwa'; Hizkil; Ibrahim; Ilyas; 'Imran; Irmiya; 'Isa; 
Ishak; Isma'il; Kan'an; Karun; Kitfir; Kush; Lamak; Lazarus; Lut; Maryam; al-Masih; 
Musa; Namrud; Nuh; Rahil; Sam. 1 ; al-Samiri; Sara; Shamsun: Shamwil; Sha'ya; Shith; 
Sulayman b. Dawud; Talut; c Odj; Yafith; Yahya b. Zakariyya 5 ; Ya'kub; Yunus; Yusha c 
b. Nun; Yusuf; Zakariyya' 

see also Dhu '1-Kifl; al-Fayyum; Hud; Idris; Yadjudj wa-Madjudj; and -»■ Prophethood 
biblical toponyms Sihyawn 

see also Djudi; and -»■ Palestine/Israel 

into Arabic Faris al-Shidyak; Sa'adya Ben Yosef; al-Yazidji. 1 ; [in Suppl.] al-Bustani.2 

see also c Arabiyya.A.ii.l; Judaeo-Arabic.iii.B; Tawrat 
into Persian Abu '1-Fadl c Allami 
see also Judaeo-Persian.i.2 

Bosnia -+ (former) Yugoslavia 

Botany Adwiya; al- c Ashshab; Nabat 

and -+ Agriculture; Flora; Medicine; Pharmacology 
botanists Abu 'Ubayd al-Bakri; al-Dinawari, Abu Hanifa; Ibn al-Baytar; al-Tighnari; [in 
Suppl.] al-Ghafiki; Ibn al-Rumiyya 
see also Abu '1-Khayr al-Ishbili; Filaha; Nikula'us; al-Suwaydi 

Buddhism Bakhshi; Budd; Sumaniyya 

see also Bamiyan; al-Baramika. 1 ; Bilawhar wa-Yudasaf; Tafiri 

Bulgaria Bulgaria; Pomaks 

see also Kiiciik Kaynardja; Muhadjir.2; Muslimun.l.B.5 
physical geography 
waters Meric 
toponyms Burgas; Deli-Orman; Dobrudja; Filibe; Hezarghrad; KUstendil; Newrokop; Nikbuli; 
c Othman Pazar; Plewna; Ruscuk; Selwi; Shumnu; Sofya; Tatar Pazarcik; Tirnowa; 
Warna; Widin; Zishtowa 


Burma Arakan; Burma; Mergui; Rangoon; Zerbadis 

Byzantine Empire Bitrik; Kaysar; Rum 

see also Anadolu.iii.l and 2; Hiba.i; Iznik; Kalawdhiya; Kubrus; (al-)Kustantiniyya; al- 
Massisa; Mu'ta; Nauplion.l; Saracens; Umur Pasha; Wenedik; al-Zahir li-Fzaz Din Allah; 
and ->• Greece; Palestine/Israel; Syria; Turkey, in particular the section Toponyms 
allies Djaradjima; Djarrahids; Ghassan; al-Harith b. Djabala; Kinda.l; Sallh; [in Suppl.] 
Djabala b. al-Harith 
and ->• Tribes 
military Alay; Lamas-su; Malazgird.2; Naft.2; Tourkopo(u)loi; [in Suppl.] Dhat al-Sawari 
see also al- c Awasim; Cilicia; Sa'ifa.l; Sayf al-Dawla; al-Thughur.l 
battles Yarmuk.2 

Caliphate Ahl al-Hall wa 'l-'Akd; Bay'a; Hadjib.i; Harb.ii; Hiba.i; Imama; Kadib; Katib.i; 

Khalifa; Libas.i; Madjlis.l; Marasim.l; Mawakib.l; Shura.l; Wali al- c Ahd; Wazir 

see also Amir al-Mu'minin; Ghulam.i; Khil c a.ii; Lakab.2; Mai al-Bay c a; and ->• Court 

'Abbasids (750-1258) c Abbasids; Baghdad; Diwan.i; Hadjib.i; Khalifa.i.B; Marasim.l; 
Mawakib.l; Musadara.2; Musawwida; Nakib.l; Nakib al-Ashraf.l; Samarra 5 ; Wazir.I.l 
see also al-Abna'.III; c Ali b. c Abd Allah b. al- c Abbas; c Alids; Architecture.1.3; Dariba; 
Hashimiyya; al-Hashimiyya; Lakab.2; Libas.i.4; Rida.2; al-Shu c ubiyya; Sikka.2; Wali 
al- c Ahd; [in Suppl.] al-Khuld; Sha'ir.l.B; and ->■ Dynasties.persia 

caliphs Abu 'l-'Abbas al-Saffah; al-Amin; al-Hadi ila '1-Hakk; Harun al-Rashid; al-Kadir 
bi 'llah; al-Kahir bi 'llah; al-Ka J im bi-amr Allah; al-Mahdi; al-Ma'mun; al-Mansur; 
al-Muhtadi; al-Muktadi; al-Muktadir; al-Muktafi bi-llah; al-Muktafi li-Amr Allah; 
al-Muntasir; al-Mustadi 1 ; al-Musta c in (I); al-Musta c in (II); al-Mustakfi; al-Mustandjid 
(I); al-Mustandjid (II); al-Mustansir (I); al-Mustansir (II); al-Mustarshid; al-Musta c sim 
bi 'llah; al-Mustazhir bi 'llah; al-Mu c tadid bi 'llah; al-Mu c tamid c ala 'llah; al-Mu c tasim 
bi 'llah; al-Mutawakkil c ala 'llah; al-Mu c tazz bi 'llah; al-Muti c li 'llah; al-Muttaki li 
'llah; al-Nasir li-Din Allah, Abu 'l- c Abbas; al-Radi bi 'llah; al-Rashid; al-Ta'i c li- 
Amr Allah; al-Wathik bi 'llah; al-Zahir bi-Amr Allah 

see also c Abd Allah b. c Ali; Buran; al-Khayzuran bint c Ata' al-Djurashiyya; 
Muhammad b. c Ali b. c Abd Allah; al-Muwaffak; al-Rusafa.2 

viziers Abu c Abd Allah Ya c kub; Abu Salama al-Khallal; Abu c Ubayd Allah; c Adud al- 
Din; c Ali b. c Isa; al-Baramika.3; al-Baridi; al-Djardjara'i.1-3; al-Fadl b. Marwan; al- 
Fadl b. al-Rabi c ; al-Fadl b. Sahl b. Zadhanfarukh; al-Fayd b. Abi Salih; Hamid; 
Hibat Allah b. Muhammad; Ibn al-Alkami; Ibn al-Baladi; Ibn al-Furat; Ibn Hubayra; 
Ibn Khakan.2 and 3; Ibn Makhlad; Ibn Mukla; Ibn al-Muslima; Ibn al-Zayyat; al- 
Iskafi, Abu '1-Fadl; al-Iskafi, Abu Ishak; Isma c il b. Bulbul; al-Khasibi; al-Rabf b. 
Yunus; Rabib al-Dawla; al-Rudhrawari; Wahb, Banu; al-Zaynabi 
see also al-Djahshiyari; Hilal al-Sabi 1 ; Khatam; Wazir.I.l 

secretaries Ahmad b. Abi Khalid al-Ahwal; Ahmad b. Yusuf; c Amr b. Mas'ada; al-Hasan 
b. Sahl; Ibn al-Djarrah; Ibn Khakan.l and 4; Ibn al-Mashita; al-Muriyani 
see also Wahb, Banu; [in Suppl.] Sha'ir.l.B.ii 

historians of al-Djahshiyari; Ibn Abi '1-Dam; Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur; Ibn al-Djawzi; Ibn al- 
Nattah; Ibn al-Sa c i; Ibn al-Tiktaka; al-Mada'ini; Sabi'.(3).4; c Ubayd Allah b. Ahmad 
b. Abi Tahir; al-Ya c kubi 
see also al-Zubayr b. Bakkar 


other personages al-'Abbas b. c Amr al-Ghanawi; al-'Abbas b. al-Ma'mun; al-'Abbas b. 

Muhammad; c Abd Allah b. 'All; ' Abd al-Djabbar b. 'Abd al-Rahman; c Abd al-Malik 

b. Salih; Abu 'Awn; Abu Muslim; 'All al-Rida; Badjkam; Badr al-Kharshani; Bugha 

al-Kabir; Bugha al-Sharabi; Dulafids; al-Fath b. Khakan; Harthama b. A'yan; al- 

Hasan b. Zayd b. al-Hasan; Hatim b. Harthama; Humayd b. 'Abd al-Hamid; Ibn Abi 

'1-Shawarib; Ibn Buhlul; Ibn al-Djassas.II; Ibn Hamdun; Ibn Mahan; Ibn al-Mudabbir; 

Ibn al-Mu'tazz; Ibn Ra'ik; Ibn Thawaba; Ibrahim b. c Abd Allah; 'Isa b. Musa; 'Isa b. 

al-Shaykh; Kahtaba; al-Kasim b. 'Isa; Ma'n b. Za'ida; al-Mubarka'; Muhallabids; 

Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah (al-Nafs al-Zakiyya); Muhammad b. Tughdj al-Ikhshid; 

Muhammad b. Yakut; Mu'nis al-Fahl; Mu'nis al-Muzaffar; al-Muwaffak; Nasr b. 

Shabath; al-Natik bi '1-Hakk; al-Nushari; Rafi c b. Harthama; Rafi c b. al-Layth b. 

Nasr b. Sayyar; al-Rawandiyya; Rawh b. Hatim; Sadjids; Salih b. c Ali; al-Sarakhsi, 

Abu 'l- c Abbas; al-Sari; Shabib b. Shayba; Sulayman b. c Ali b. c Abd Allah; Sunbadh; 

al-lhaghri; 'Udjayf b. c Anbasa; Ustadhsis; al-Walid b. Tarif; al-Wathiki; Yahya b. 

c Abd Allah; Yahya b. Aktham; Yusuf al-Barm; Zawakil; Ziyad b. Salih al-Khuza'i; 

Zubayda bt. Dja'far; [in Suppl.] Abu Mansur b. Yusuf; Aytakh al-Turki; Badr al- 

Mu'tadidi; al-Damaghani, Abu c Abd Allah; al-Damaghani, Abu '1-Hasan; al-Ghitrif 

b. c Ata 3 ; Ibn Dirham; Sallam al-Tardjuman; Tughdj 
Fatimids (909-1171) Diwan.i and ii.(2); Fatimids; Hadjib.iv; Hidjab.II; al-Kahira; Khalifa.i.D; 
Libas.i.5; Marasim.l; Mawakib.l; Wazir.1.2 

see also Lakab.2; Sahib al-Bab; Sitr; Wasita; al-Wazir al-Saghir; Zimam 
caliphs Abu c Abd Allah al-Shi'I; al-'Adid li-Din Allah; al-Amir; al-'Aziz bi 'llah; al-Hafiz; 

al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah; al-Ka'im; al-Mahdi c Ubayd Allah; al-Mansur bi 'llah; al- 

Mu c izz li-Din Allah; al-Musta'li bi 'llah; al-Mustansir (bi 'llah); al-Zafir bi-A c da 3 

Allah; al-Zahir li-Pzaz Din Allah 

see also al-Walid b. Hisham 
viziers 'Abbas b. Abi '1-Futuh; al- c Adil b. al-Salar; al-Afdal b. Badr al-Djamali; al-Afdal 

(Kutayfat); Badr al-Djamali; Bahram; al-Bata'ihi; Dirgham; Djabr Ibn al-Kasim; al- 

Djardjara'i.4; Ibn Killis; Ibn Masai; Ruzzik b. Tala'i 1 ; Shawar; Shirkuh; Tala'i c b. 

Ruzzik; Yanis; al-Yazuri; [in Suppl.] Ibn Khalaf.2 

see also Wazir.1.2 
secretaries Ibn Mammati; Ibn al-Sayrafi; [in Suppl.] Ibn Khalaf, Abu '1-Hasan 
historians of Ibn al-Tuwayr; al-Makrizi; al-Musabbihi 

see also Djawdhar 
other personages Abu Yazid al-Nukkari; Bardjawan; Djawdhar; Djawhar al-Sikilli; Khalaf 

b. Mula'ib al-Ashhabi; al-Kirmani; Nizar b. al-Mustansir; al-Nu'man; Sitt al-Mulk; 

Tamim b. al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah; [in Suppl.] al-Ramli 

see also al-Farghani; Zafir al-Haddad 
Rightly-Guided Caliphs (632-661) Khalifa.i.A;Shura.l; [in Suppl.] al-Khulafa' al-Rashidun 
caliphs Abu Bakr; c Ali b. Abi Talib; 'Umar (I) b. al-Khattab; c Uthman b. c Affan 

see also Harura 3 ; Ibn Muldjam; Khalifa.i.A; al-Sakifa; al-Siddik; Tahkim; c Uth- 

maniyya; Wufud; [in Suppl.] al-Ridda; and ->■ MiLiTARY.BATTLES.633-660 
other personages Aban b. c Uthman; c Abd Allah b. al- c Abbas; c Abd Allah b. c Amir; c Abd 

Allah b. Sa c d; c Abd Allah b. Salam; c Abd Allah b. Wahb; c Abd al-Rahman b. c Awf; 

c Abd al-Rahman b. Samura; Abu '1-Aswad al-Du'ali; Abu Ayyub al-Ansari; Abu '1- 

Dunya; Abu c Ubayda al-Djarrah; al-Ahnaf b. Kays; al-Akra c b. Habis; c Amr b. al- 

c As; al-Ash c ari, Abu Musa; al-Ash'ath; al-Ashtar; al-Bahili; Habib b. Maslama; al- 

Ka'ka' b. c Amr; Khalid b. al-Walid; Muhammad b. Abi Bakr; al-Muthanna b. Haritha; 

Sa c id b. al- c As; Sulayman b. Surad; Usama b. Zayd; Yazid b. Abi Sufyan; Zayd b. 

lhabit; al-Zibrikan b. Badr 

and ->■ Muhammad, the Prophet.companions of and family of 


Umayyads (661-750) Dimashk; Diwan.i; Hadjib.i; Khalifa.i.A; Mawla.2.b; Umayyads; [in 
Suppl.] Badiya 

see also Architecture.1.2; Kays 'Aylan; Libas.i.4; Marwanids; Sufyanids; Umayya b. 
'Abd Shams; Umayyads.In Spain; c Uthmaniyya.4; Wufud; and -> Dynasties.spain and 


caliphs c Abd al-Malik b. Marwan; Hisham; Marwan I b. al-Hakam; Marwan II; Mu'awiya 
I; Mu'awiya II; Sulayman b. <Abd al-Malik; 'Urnar (II) b. <Abd al- c Aziz; al-Walid; 
Yazid (I) b. Mu'awiya; Yazid (II) b. <Abd al-Malik; Yazid (III) b. al-Walid 
see also Busir; al-Rusafa.3; al-Sham.2(a); Tahkim 

historians of 'Awana b. al-Hakam al-Kalbi; al-Azdi 
see also al-Ya'kubi 

secretaries c Abd al-Hamid; Yazid b. Abi Muslim; Ziyad b. Abihi 

other personages 'Abbad b. Ziyad; al-'Abbas b. al-Walid; 'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Malik; 
'Abd Allah b. Hammam; 'Abd Allah b. Hanzala; 'Abd Allah b. Khazim; 'Abd Allah 
b. Muti'; 'Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr; c Abd al- c Aziz b. al-Hadjdjadj; 'Abd al- c Aziz b. 
Marwan; c Abd al- c Aziz b. al-Walid; c Abd al-Rahman b. Khalid; 'Amrb. Sa'id; Asad 
b. 'Abd Allah; al-Asamm.l; Baldj b. Bishr; Bishr b. Marwan; Bishr b. al-Walid; 
Bukayr b. Mahan; Bukayr b. Wishah; Busr; al-Dahhak b. Kays al-Fihri; al-Djarrah 
b. 'Abd Allah; al-Djunayd b. 'Abd Allah; al-Hadjdjadj b. Yusuf; Hanzala b. Safwan 
b. Zuhayr; al-Harith b. Suraydj; Hassan b. Malik; Hassan b. al-Nu'man al-Ghassani: 
al-Hurrb. Yazid; al-Husayn b. Numayr; Ibn al-Ash'ath; Ibn al-Hadrami; Ibn Hubayra; 
Khalid b. c Abd Allah al-Kasri; Khalid b. Yazid b. Mu'awiya; Kulthum b. c Iyad al- 
Kushayri; Kurra b. Sharik; Kutayba b. Muslim; Ma'n b. Zalda; Masami'a; Maslama 
b. 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan; Maymun b. Mihran; Mu c awiya b. Hisham; al-Mughira 
b. Shu'ba; Muhallabids; Muhammad b. al-Kasim; Muslim b. c Ukba; Nasr b. Sayyar; 
al-Nu'man b. Bashir; Rawh b. Zinba'; Salm b. Ziyad b. Abihi; Shabib b. Yazid; 
Sulayman b. Kathir; Talhat al-Talahat; Tawwabun; al-Thakafi, Yusuf b. 'Umar; 
'Ubayd Allah b. Abi Bakra; c Ubayd Allah b. Habhab; 'Ubayd Allah b. 'Umar; 'Ubayd 
Allah b. Ziyad; c Ukba b. Nafi 1 ; Zayd b. c Ali b. al-Husayn; Ziyad b. Abihi; [in Suppl.] 
c Adi b. Artat; Radja 3 b. Haywa; Said b. Djubayr; Shamir b. Dhi '1-Djawshan 
see also al-Battal; Iyas b. Mu'awiya; [in Suppl.] al-Sufyani; Talib al-Hakk 
treatises on al-Kalkashandi. 1 

Cartography Kharita 

and -> Geography; Navigation 
cartographers al-Falaki; Ibn Sarabiyun; Mehmed Re'is; Piri Re'is 

Caucasus Adharbaydjan.ii; Arminiya; Daghistan; al-Kabk (and [in Suppl.]); al-Kurdj 

see also Djarida.iv; Kara Bagh; Muhadjir.2; Shirwan Shah 
mysticism Tarika.II.5; Wali.4 
physical geography 

mountains al-Kabk; [in Suppl.] Shah Dagh 

waters Alindjak; Gokce-tengiz; Kara Deniz; Kizil-iizen; Kuban; Kur; al-Rass; Safld Rud; 
population Abkhaz.2; Alan; Andi; Arci; Avars; Balkar; Cecens; Cerkes; Darghin; Dido; 
Ingush; Kabards; Kapuca; Karacay; Karata; Kaytak; Khaputs; Khemshin; Khinalug; 
Khunzal; Khvarshi; Kriz; Kubaci; Kwanadi; Lak; Laz; Lezgh; Noghay; Ossetians; Rus; 
Rutul; Tsakhur; Ubykh; [in Suppl.] Demography.VI 
see also Kumuk 

e to Russian conquest Hamza Beg; Shamil; Ushurma, Mansur 
see also Hizb.iv; [in Suppl.] al-Kabk.3.d 



ancient Alindjak; Arran; Badjarwan.l; Balandjar; Baylakan; Dwin; Saray; Shammakha: 

Shimshat; Shlrwan; Shiz 
present-day Akhiskha; Astrakhan; Bab al-Abwab; Baku; Bardha'a; Batumi; Derbend; 
Gandja; Kubba; Lankoran; Makhac-kal'e; Mukan; Nakhciwan; Shakkl; Tabarsaran; 
Talish; Tiflis; [in Suppl.] Djulfa.I; Oren Kal'e 

Central Asia Badakhshan; Caghaniyan; Kh w arazm; Ma wara' al-Nahr; Mogholistan 
see also Hayatila; Isma'il b. Ahmad; Kara Khitay ; Kazak; Nizak, Tarkhan; Timurids; Wakf.V; 
[in Suppl.] Atalik; Djulfa.I; Kh w adjas; and -> Dynasties.mongols; Mongolia; Onomas- 

for former republics of the USSR -> the section Toponyms below 
architecture -»■ Architecture.regions 

belles-lettres Tadjiki.2; and -> Literature.drama and poetry.turkish.in eastern Turkish 
former Soviet Union al-'Arab.iii.Appendix; Basmacis; Djarida.iv; Fitrat; Hizb.v; Khodjaev; 
Sadr al-Din c Ayni; [in Suppl.] Demography.VI 
and -> the section Toponyms below 
historians of c Abd al-Karim Bukhari 

see also Haydar b. C A1I 
mysticism -> Mysticism.mystics; Sainthood.saints 
physical geography 

deserts Karakum; Kizil-kum 

mountains Ala Dagh; Altai; Balkhan; Pamirs 

see also Copan-ata 
waters Ak Su; Amu Darya; Aral; Bahr al-Khazar; Balkhash; Caghan-rud; Cu; Hi; issik- 
kul; Kara-kol; Murghab; Sir Darya; Taraz; Turgay; Wakhsh; Zarafshan 
see also Su; [in Suppl.] MaMO 
population Baluc; Cawdors {and [in Suppl.] Cawdor); Emreli; Gagauz; Karakalpak; Khaladj: 
Kungrat; Kurama; Ozbeg; Tarancis; Tiirkmen.3; Yaghma; [in Suppl.] Demography.VI; 

see also Altaians; al- c Arab.iii. Appendix; Ghalca; Qhuzz; Karluk; Kazak; Kipcak; Kirgiz; 
Kuman; Kumidjis; Kun; Sart; Tadjik; [in Suppl.] Ersari 
reformism [in Suppl.] Islah.v 

ancient Abaskun; Abiward; Akhsikath; Ardjish; Balasaghun; Banakat; Farab; Firabr; 
Gurgandj; Kath; Kayalik; Marw al-Rudh; Marw al-S_hahidjan; Mashhad-i Misriyan; 
Nakhshab; Pishpek; Sayram; Shuman; Sighnak; al-Sughd; Suyab; Taraz; Utrar; Yeti 
Su; Zamakhshar; Zamm; [in Suppl.] Dandankan; Djand; Ilak; Isfidjab; Ishtikhan 

districts Atek; Karatigin; Shughnan; Wakhsh; [in Suppl.] Ura-tepe 

see also Akhal Tekke 
regions Farghana; Kh w arazm; Khuttalan; Labab; Mangishlak; Usrushana; Wakhan; 

[in Suppl.] Dasht-i Kipcak 
republics Tadjikistan; Turkistan.l; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan. 2; [in Suppl.] 

Kazakstan; Kirgizstan 
towns Ak Masdjid.2; Alma Ata; Amul.2; Andidjan; 'Ashkabad; Awliya Ata; 
Bayram c Ali; Bukhara; Cimkent; Djalalabad; Ghudjduwan; Hazarasp; Hisar; 
Kash; Khiwa; Khokand; Khudjand(a); Kish; Kubadhiyan; Marghinan; Mayhana; 
Ordubad; Ozkend; Pandjdih; Samarkand; Tashkent; Tirmidh; Tokmak; Turgay; 
Turkistan.3; Urgenc; [in Suppl.] Ura-tepe 


Chad Abeshr; Bagirmi; Borkou; Kanem; Kanuri; Wadai; Zaghawa; [in Suppl.] Cad 
and -► Africa.central africa 

Charms Afsun; Hidjab.IV; Kabid.4; Masha' Allah; Tamima; Tilsam; [in Suppl.] Buduh 
see also Kahruba; Karwasha; and ->• Magic 

Childhood ->• Life Stages 

China Djarida.v; Masdjid.V; al-Sin 

see also Bahadur; Khokand: Sini; Tibb.2; c Ulama\6; Ziyad b. Salih al-Khuza'i 
calligraphy [in Suppl.] Khatt.vi 
dynasties Kara Khitay 

see also Faghfur; Gurkhan; Ya'kub Beg; [in Suppl.] Kh w adjas 
literature [in Suppl.] aI-Sin.5 

literary figures Liu Chih; Ma Huan; Wang Tai-yu 
mysticism Tasawwuf.8 

see also al-Sin.4; Ma Hua-lung; Ma Ming-hsin; T'ien Wu; Wali.8 

officials P'u Shou-keng 
scholars c Ulama\6 

see also Tibb.2 
warlords Wu Ma 

for leaders in uprisings, see the section Uprisings below, for belle trists, see the section 
Literature above 
physical geography 

waters Ak Su; Hi; Tarim 
population Salar; Tarancis; Tungans; Yunnan.2 

ancient Bishbalik; Khansa; Shul.l: [in Suppl.] Koco 

present-day Ak Su; Alti Shahr; Kansu; Kashghar; Khanbalik; Khanfu; Khotan; Kuldja; 
Ning-hsia; Shansi; Shen-si; Sinkiang; Szechuan; Tubbat; Turfan; Yarkand; Yunnan; 
[in Suppl.] Komul 

see also Sandabil; Sin (Cin) Kalan; Turkistan.l; Zaytun 
treatises on 'Ali Akbar Khita'i 

see also [in Suppl.] Sallam al-Tardjuman 
uprisings Panthay 

see also Tunganistan 
leaders Ma Chung-ying; Ma Hua-lung; Ma Ming-hsin; Pai Yen-hu; T'ien Wu; Tu Wen- 
hsiu; Yulbars Khan 

Christianity Ahl al-Kitab; Dayr; Daysaniyya; c Isa; Kanisa; Maryam; Nasara; Rahib; al- 
Salib; Tathlith; [in Suppl.] Tabshir 

see also Dhimma; Djizya; al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah; Ifrandj; Karshuni; Kumis; Lahut and 
Nasut.2; Ma'althaya; [in Suppl.] Dawiyya and Isbitariyya; Fida 5 ; and -> Bible; Crusade(r)s; 
Europe; Languages.afro-asiatic.arabic.christian Arabic; Nubia 
apologetics Ibn Zur'a; al-Kindi, c Abd al-Masih 
churches Kanisa; Sihyawn 
see also Masdjid.I.B.3 

Anadolu.iii.4; al-Andalus.iv; Istanbul.vii.b; Mozarab; al-Sham.2(a) (271b-2a); 
Tur 'Abdin.3 
see also Fener 


denominations Kibt; Nasturiyyun; Ya'kubiyyun; [in Suppl.] Markiyuniyya; Maruniyya 
see also Djaradjima; and -> Judaism.jewish sects 
Catholics Bashir Shihab II; Ishak, Adlb; Sabundji; Sayigh, Fath Allah; Shaykhu, Luwls; 

Zakhir; [in Suppl.] Butrus Karama; Matar 
Copts Ibn al-'Assal; Ibn Mammati; Ibn al-Mukaffa'; Kibt; al-Makin b. al-'Amid; Mariya; 
al-Mufaddal b. Abi '1-Fada'il; [in Suppl.] Ibn Kabar; Ibn al-Rahib 
see also Sullam; Ta'rikh .I.l.vi; Ziyara.3; [in Suppl.] Ta'rikh.II.l.tg); and -> Egypt, 
toponyms; Nubia 
Greek orthodox Gagauz 

see also Patrik; Zakhir 
Jacobites al-Akhtal; Ibn al-'Ibri; Ibn Zur'a; al-Kutami; Yahya b. 'Adi; Yahya al-Nahwi; 

see also al-Kindi, 'Abd al-Masih; Patrik; Tur 'Abdin.3 
Marcionites [in Suppl.] Markiyuniyya 

Maronites Farhat; Istifan al-Duwayhi; al-Rayhani; Salim al-Nakkash; Tanyus, Shahin; 
al-Yazidji; Yusuf Karam; [in Suppl.] Abu Shabaka; al-Bustani; Maruniyya 
see also Bsharra; Duruz.ii; Patrik; and -> Lebanon 
Melkites Abu Kurra; al-Antaki; Mikha'il al-Sabbagh; al-Mukawkis; Sa c id b. al-Bitrik; al- 
Turk, NikQla; Yahya b. al-Bitrik; [in Suppl.] Ibn al-Kuff 
see also Mashaka; Patrik; [in Suppl.] Ta 3 rikh.II.l.(g) 
Monophysites ->• the sections Copts, Jacobites and Nestorians under this entry 
Nestorians Bukhtishu'; Hunayn b. Ishak al-'Ibadi; Ibn Butlan; Ibn al-Tayyib; al-Kindi, 
'Abd al-Masih; Matta b. Yunus; Nasturiyyun; Sabur b. Sahl; Yuhanna b. Sarabiyun; 
[in Suppl.] Prester John 

see also al-Tabari, c Ali b. Rabban; Tur 'Abdin.3; Urmiya.3 
Protestants Faris al-Shidyak; Mashaka; Sarruf; Sayigh, Tawfik; [in Suppl.] al-Bustani.2 

see also Nimr 
unspecified Bahdal; Ibn al-Tilmidh; al-Masihi; Petrus Alfonsi; Ukaydir b. c Abd al-Malik; 
[in Suppl.] Hubaysh b. al-Hasan al-Dimashki; Ibn al-Suka'i 
historiography [in Suppl.] Ta'rikh.II. 1 .(g) 

monasteries Dayr; Dayr al-Djathalik; Dayr Ka'b; Dayr Kunna; Dayr Murran; Dayr Sam'an; 

see also Khankah; Rahib; Tur 'Abdin.3 
writings on al-Shabushti 
persecutions Ghiyar; al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah; Shi'ar.4; Zunnar 
polemics Ahl al-Kitab; Tahrif 
anti-Jewish Petrus Alfonsi 

Christian-Muslim al-Su c udi, Abu '1-Fadl; al-Tabari, c Ali b. Rabban 
see also Zaynab bt. Djahsh 
pre-Islamic Abraha; c Adi b. Zayd; c Amr b. c Adi; c Amr b. Hind; Bahira; Bahram 

see also Ghassan; Lakhmids 
saints Djirdjis; Djuraydj 

20th-century al-Khuri; Sarruf; Shaykhu, Luwis; [in Suppl.] Abu Shabaka; Abyad; Matar 
see also al-Ma'luf; [in Suppl.] Tabshir 

Circumcision Khafd: Khitan 

see also c Abdi; c Ali; Kurds.iv.A.i; Mawakib.4.1 1; Wehbi Sayyidi 

Clothing Banika; Djallab; Farw; Kumash; Libas; Sirwal 

see also Ghiyar; Ihram; Khayyat; Khil c a; Kurds.iv.C. 1 ; Shi c ar.4; Tiraz; Zeybek; Zunnar; [in 
Suppl.] Kafan; and -> Mysticism.dress 


accessories Mandil; Mirwaha 

see also Shadd 
headwear Kawuklu; Tadj; Tulband; [in Suppl.] Kalansuwa 

see also Sharif.(5) 
veils Hidjab.I; Litham 
materials Farw; Harir; Kattan; Khaysh; Kutn; Suf; Tafta 

see also Fanak; Kalamkari; Kumash; Lubud; Mukhattam; and -► Art.textiles 
shoewear [in Suppl.] al-Na'l al-Sharif 

see also [in Suppl.] Iskaf 

Colour Lawn; Musawwida 

and ->• Dyeing 
colours Asfar 

see also Sharif.(5) 

Commonwealth of Independent States -»■ Caucasus; Central Asia; Communism; 
europe.eastern europe 

Communications Barid; Hamam; Manar 
see also Anadolu.iii.(5); and -> Transport 

Communism Hizb.i; Shuyu'iyya 

see also Lahuti; [in Suppl.] Sultan c Ali Ughli 

Congo Congo; al-Murdjibi 

Copts ->• Christianity.denominations 

Cosmetics Hinna'; al-Kuhl; al-Washm 
see also Khidab; and ->■ Perfume 

Cosmography 'AdjaHb; 'Alam; Falak; Kaf; SamaM 

see also Djughrafiya; al-Khadir: Kharita; al-Kura; Makka.4; and ->■ Astrology; Astron- 
omy; Geography 

treatises on al-Dimashki; al-Kazwini, Zakariyya'; al-Kharaki 
see also Kitab al-Djilwa 

Court Ceremony Marasim; Mawakib (and [in Suppl.]) 

see also Mizalla; Nakkara-khana; Sitr; Yadgar; and ->■ Monarchy.royal insignia 
bestowal of gifts Hiba; Khil'a; Nithar 
ranks [in Suppl.] Martaba 

Creation Ibda c ; Khalk 

see also Huduth al- c Alam; Insan; Takwin; Tawallud; Tin. 1 

Crete Ikritish 

see also Abu Hafs c Umar al-BallQti; Wenedik 

towns Kandiya 

Croatia ->■ (former) Yugoslavia 


Crusade(r)s Crusades; Tourkopo(u)loi; [in Suppl.] Dawiyya and Isbitariyya 

see also al-'Adil. 1 ; al-Afdal b. Badr al-Djamali; (Sirat) ' Antar; Ayyubids; Balak; Baybars 
I; Fatimids.5; Ifrandj; Kalawun; Kilidj Arslan I; Nur al-Din Mahmud b. Zanki; Salah al- 
Dln; al-Sham.2(a); Tughtigin; Wenedik; and -*■ the section Toponyms under Palestine/ 
Israel and Syria 

battles al-Mansura; Mardj al-Suffar; Nikbuli 

castles al-Darum; Harim; Hisn al-Akrad; Kal'at al-Shakif; Safitha 

conquests 'Akka; Anadolu.iii.l; 'Askalan; Ayla; Ghazza; Hayfa; Kaysariyya; al-Khalil: 
Kubrus.2; al-Kuds.10; Ludd; Ma'arrat al-Nu'man 

historians of Ibn al-KalanisI 

see also al-Nuwayri, Muhammad 

Cryptography Muamma: Ramz.2 
see also Kitabat.5; al-Sim 

Cuisine Matbakh; Tabkh 

drinks Cay; Kahwa; Khamr; Kumis; Mashrubat; Nabidh; Sherbet 

see also Nahl; Thalladj; Turundjan; Yoghurt; [in Suppl.] Cay-khana 
food Ghidha'; Kabid.5; Khubz; Kuskusu; Mishmish; Nakhl; Narandj; al-Ruzz; al-Samn; 
Sawik; Sha'ir; Sikbadj; Sukkar; Ta'am; Tin; Tuffah; Yoghurt; Zabib; Zayt; Zaytun [in 
Suppl.] Basbas; Djawz; Hays; Hindiba 1 

see also Filaha; Kamh; Madira; Milh; Nahl; Pist; Simsim; Tin.3; [in Suppl.] Ibn Shakrun 
fruit Mishmish; Nakhl; Narandj; Tin; Tuffah 
see also [in Suppl.] Hays 
dried fruit Tammam; Zabib 
grains Kamh; Kuskusu; al-Ruzz; Sha'ir 

see also Filaha; Khubz; Sawik; for granaries -> Architecture.monuments 
herbs Shibithth; Turundjan; [in Suppl.] Basbas 

see also Shih; Timsah 
meat Kabid.5 

stews Sikbadj 
oils al-Samn; Zayt 

spices Kammun; Karanful; [in Suppl.] Afawih; Dar Sini 
see also Karimi; Kus; Milh; Za'faran.l 
professions Bakkal; Tabbakh; Tahhan; Tammar 
prohibitions Ghidha'.iii and iv.7; Kahwa; Khamr; Mashrubat; Mayta; Nabidh 

see also Dhabiha.l; Hayawan.4; Nadjis; and -> individual articles under Animals 
table manners Ta'am 

Custom 'Ada; Adab; 'Urf 

see also Abd al-Rahman al-Fasi; 'AshuraMI; Hiba; Hidjab.I; Idjara; Khira; Mandil; c Urs.2; 
and -> Law.customary law 
tribal customs 'Ababda; al-Dhunub, Dafn; Khawa; Muwaraba; Tha'r; al-Washm; [in Suppl.] 
c Ar 
see also Idjara; Tahannuth; Zmala.2; [in Suppl.] Mala'. 2 

Cyprus Kubrus; Madjlis.4.A.xxiv 

see also Wenedik; [in Suppl.] Maruniyya 

towns Lefkosha; Maghosha 

(former) Czechoslovakia [in Suppl.] Ceh 

Death Djanaza; Hinata; Intihar; Kabr; Makbara; Mawt; Niyaha; [in Suppl] Ghassal; Kafan 
see also Gha'ib; Ghusl; Katl; Marthiya; Shahid; Takbir; Tasnim.2; and ->■ Architecture. 


Deserts al-Ahkaf; Biyabanak; al-Dahna'; Karakum; K!zil-kum; Nafud; al-Nakb; al-Rub c al- 
Khali; Sahil; al-Sahra'; Sina'; al-Tih 
see also (Djazirat) al- c Arab.ii; Badw.II; Harra; Khabra'; Reg; Samum; and - 1 - Geography. 


Dictionary Kamus 

see also Faris al-Shidyak; Sullam; and -► Lexicography 

Diplomacy Imtiyazat; Mubadele; Tardjuman 

see also Aman; Balyos; Beratli; Daftar; Hiba; Insha'; Katib; Kawwas; Mandates 
diplomatic accounts Ahmad Rasmi; Ibn Fadlan; Mehmed Yirmisekiz; Wasif; [in Suppl.] al- 

Ghazzal; Ibn c Uthman al-Miknasi 

see also Subhi Mehmed 
diplomats Consul; Elci; Safir.2 

see also Zahir 

Divination Kihana 

see also Djafr; Ibn Barradjan; Malahim; Nudjum (Ahkam al-); Shama; and ->■ Astrology; 
diviners c Arraf; Kahin 

practices Fa'l; Firasa; Ghurab; Hisab al-Djummal; Huruf; Ikhtiladj; Istiksam; 'Iyafa; al-Kaff; 
Katif; Khatt; Khawass al-Kur'an; Kiyafa; Kur c a; MaM; Riyafa; Wada c .3; Za'irdja 
see also Bukala; Ikhtiyarat; Mir'at 
treatises on Fal-nama; Ibn al-Banna' al-Marrakushi; Malhama; [in Suppl.] Ibn c Azzuz 
see also Djafr; Nudjum (Ahkam al-) 

Divorce Bara'a.I; Faskh; Sukna; al-Suraydjiyya; Talak 

see also c Abd.3; c Ada; Gha'ib: Hadana; Ibn Suraydj; 'Idda; c Iwad; Kasam; Li'an; al-Mar 3 a.2; 
Rapak; [in Suppl.] Nafaka; and -► Marriage 

Djibouti, republic of Djibuti; Tadjurra 
and -!• Africa.east africa 

Documents c Alama; Diplomatic; Farman; Insha'; Katib; Manshur; Papyrus; Sidjill; Tawki c . 1 ; 
Wakf.I.2.d; Wathika; Zahir; [in Suppl.] Dabir 

see also Bara'a.I; Kat c ; Shart. 1 ; Tughra; c Unwan; Yarllgh; and -► Administration.records; 
Ottoman c Ard Hal; Berat; Diplomatic. iv; Farman.ii; Irade; Khatt-S Humayun and Khatt-S 
Sherif; Sidjill.3; Telkhls 
see also Tughra.2.(b); and - 1 - Ottoman Empire.administration 

Dreams Ru'ya; [in Suppl.] Ta c bir al-Ru'ya 

DYNASTIES, Afghanistan and India 

see also Istikhara; Nubuwwa 

for dream interpretations, see individual articles on animals, in particular Ayyil; Baghl; 
Dabb; Fll; Ghurab; Saratan.5; Tha'lab; 'Ukab; Watwat; Yarbu' 
writings on al-DInawari, Abu Sa'id; Ibn Ghannam; Ibn Shahin al-Zahiri; Ibn Sinn; al-Wahrani 

Drugs Adwiya; [in Suppl.] Anzarut 

see also Kahruba; al-Kuhl; Tibb; and -► Medicine; Pharmacology 
narcotics Afyun; Bandj; Hashish; Kat; Shahdanadj 
see also Filaha.iii; [in Suppl.] al-Zarkashi 

tobacco Baha'i Mehmed Efendi; Tutun 

Druzes al-Darazi; Duruz; Hamza b. c Ali; al-Muktana; Shakib Arslan; al-Tanukhi, Djamal 

al-Din; [in Suppl.] Binn 

see also Hadd; MahkamaAii, iii and v; Ma'n; [in Suppl.] Dawr; Hinn; and -► Lebanon 
historians of Salih b. Yahya 

Dyeing c Afs; Hinna'; Kalamkari; Khidab; Nil; Wars; Za'faran 

see also Sha'r. 1 
dyer Sabbagh 

Dynasties Dawla; Hadjib; Mushir; Sultan 

see also Cashna-gir; Khadim al-Haramayn; Lakab; Libas.i; Malik; Marasim; Mashwara; 
Mawakib; Padishah; Parda-dar; TawkiM; Wall al-'Ahd; Zulm; [in Suppl.] Khal 1 ; and ->■ 
Administration; Onomastics.titles 
Afghanistan and India 'Adil-Shahs; Arghun; Bahmanis; Barid Shahis; Dihli Sultanate; 

Farukids; Ghaznawids; Ghurids; Hindu-shahis; 'Imad Shahi; Kart; Khaldjis; Kutb Shahi; 

Lodis; Mughals; Nizam Shahis; Sayyids; Sharkis; Surs; Tughlukids; [in Suppl.] 


see also Afghanistan.v.2 and 3; Awadh; Dawudpotras; Diwan.v; Hind.iv; Kh w adja-i 

Djahan; Lashkar; Marasim.5; Mawakib.5; Nithar; Rana Sanga; Samma; Tipu Sultan; 

Zunbil; and ->■ Architecture. regions; Military. indo-muslim; Onomas- 


'Adil-SMhs (1490-1686) 'Adil-Shahs; Bidjapur; Hind.vii.ix 
see also Talikota 

rulers Muhammad b. Ibrahim II 
historians of Shirazi, Rail' al-DIn 
Awadh Nawwabs (1 722-1856) Awadh 

rulers Burhan al-Mulk; Ghazi '1-DIn Haydar; Sa'adat 'Ali Khan; Safdar Djang; 

Shudja' al-Dawla 
viziers Mahdi 'Ali Khan 
Bahmanids (1347-1527) Bahmanis; Hind.vii.vii 
see also Bidar; Gulbarga; Peshwa 

rulers Humayun Shah Bahmani; Mahmud Shihab al-Din; Muhammad I; Muham- 
mad II; Muhammad III 
other personages Khalil Allah; Mahmud Gawan 
Barakzays (1819-1973) Afghanistan.v.3.B 

kings c Abd al-Rahman Khan; Dust Muhammad; Habib Allah Khan; Shir c Ali; [in 
Suppl.] Aman Allah 
Bengal Nawwabs 

rulers 'Ali Werdi Khan; Dja'far; Siradj al-Dawla 
see also Murshidabad 

DYNASTIES, Afghanistan and India 43 

Bengal Sultans (1336-1576) 

sultans Dawud Khan Kararani; Fakhr al-DIn Mubarakshah; Husayn Shah; Mahmud; 

Radja Ganesh; Rukn al-DIn Barbak Shah; Sikandar Shah 
historians of [in Suppl.] 'Abbas Sarwani 
Dihli Sultans (1206-1555) Dariba.6.a; Dihli Sultanate; Dlwan.v; Khaldjis; Lodis; Na'ib.l; 
Naklb.2; Sayyids; Surs; Tughlukids 
see also Burdj.III.2; Ulugh Khan 

sultans FIruz Shah Tughluk; Ghiyath al-DIn Tughluk I; Ghiyath al-DIn Tughluk 

Shah II; Iltutmish; Kaykubad; Khidr Khan; Kutb al-DIn Aybak; Mahmud; Ibrahim 

LodI; Mubarak Shah; Muhammad b. Tughluk; Muhammad Shah I Khaldji; 

Radiyya; Shir Shah Sur; [in Suppl.] Balban; Dawlat Khan LodI 

viziers Kafur (and Malik Kafur); Khan-i Djahan Makbul; Mi'an Bhu'a 

historians of Barani; al-Djuzdjanl; Nizami (and [in Suppl.] Hasan NizamI); Shams 

al-DIn-i Siradj c Afif 
other personages Mallu Ikbal Khan; [in Suppl.] c Abd al-Wahhab Bukharl; 'Ayn 
al-Mulk MultanI; Darya Khan Nohani; Ikhtisan 
see also 'All Mardan; Hulagu; Khaldjis; Samma 
Durrdnis (1747-1842) Afghanistan.v.3 
kings Ahmad Shah Durrani 
historians of 'Abd al-Karlm Munshi 
other personages Kamran Shah Durrani 
Fdrukids (1370-1601) Farukids 

rulers MIran Muhammad Shah I 
Ghaznawids (977-1186) 'Amid; Dlwan.v; Ghaznawids 
see also Hisar.iii 

rulers Alp Takin; Bahram Shah; Isma'Il b. Sebuktigin; Mahmud b. Sebuktigin; 
Mas'ud b. Mahmud; Mawdud b. Mas'Qd; Muhammad b. Mahmud b. Sebuktigin; 
viziers Ahmad b. Muhammad; Altuntash; al-Fadl b. Ahmad al-Isfara'ini; Hasanak; 

historians of Bayhaki; al- c Utbi.3 

see also al-Kashanl; Shabankara'i; [in Suppl.] Fakhr-i Mudabbir 
other personages Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khaldji; Shah Malik 
Ghurids (ca. 1000-1215) Ghurids 

rulers Djahan-suz; Muhammad b. Sam; Sayf al-DIn 

see also Nizami 
governors Tadj al-Din Yildiz 
Gudjardt Sultans (1391-1583) Gudjarat.c 
see also Ulugh Khan 

sultans Bahadur Shah Gudjarati; Mahmud 
historians of [in Suppl.] Hadjdji al-Dablr 
other personages Malik Ayaz 
Kalpi Sultans Kalpi 

sultans Mahmud Khan 
Kashmir Sultans (1346-1589) Kashmlr.i.4 

sultans Sikandar (But-Shikan); Zayn al- c Abidin; [in Suppl.] Caks 

see also [in Suppl.] Gul Khatun 
historians of [in Suppl.] Haydar Malik 
other personages [in Suppl.] Bayhaki Sayyids 
Khaldjis -> the section Dihli Sultans above 
Langah dynasty ofMultan (1437-1526) Multan 

44 DYNASTIES, Afghanistan and India — Anatolia and the Turks 

sultans Husayn Shah Langah I; Husayn Shah Langah II 
Lodls ->• the section Dihli Sultans above 
Madura Sultans (1334-1377) [in Suppl.] Madura 

sultans Djalal al-Dln Ahsan 
Mdlwd Sultans (1401-1531) Malwa 

sultans Dilawar Khan; Hushang Shah Ghuri; Mahmud 

see also Baz Bahadur 
viziers MedinI Ra'i 
other personages Malik Mughith 
Mughals (1526-1858) Dariba.6.b and c; Diwan.v; Mansab; Mughals; [in Suppl.] Ilahi Era 
see also Fawdjdar; Kotwal; Matbakh.4; Nithar; Sadr.5; Suba; Subadar; Sufiyana; 
Sulh-i kull; Suwar; Takht-i Tawus; Zamindar; [in Suppl.] Dagh u tashiha; 'Ibadat 
Khana; Sarkar. 1 ; Ta'alluk 

emperors Ahmad Shah.I; Akbar; Awrangzib; Babur; Bahadur Shah I; Bahadur Shah 
II; Djahandar Shah; Djahangir; Farrukh-siyar; Humayun; Muhammad Shah; Shah 
'Alam II; Shah Djahan; [in Suppl.] Rafi' al-Daradjat 

see also Darshan; Mumtaz Mahall; Nur Djahan; Tadj Mahall; Tuzuk; [in Suppl.] 
Muhammad Hakim Mirza 
viziers Ttimad al-Dawla 

secretaries Abu '1-Fadl c Allami; Muhammad Kazim 

historians of 'Abd al-Hamid Lahawri; Abu '1 Fadl c Allami; Bakhtawar Khan; 
Djawhar; Ghulam Husayn Khan Tabataba'i; 'Inayat Allah Khan: Isar-das; Kh w afi 
Khan: Muhammad Kazim; Muhammad Sharif; Musta'idd Khan; Mu'tamad Khan: 
Ni'mat Allah b. Habib Allah Harawi; Nur al-Hakk al-Dihlawi; [in Suppl.] 'Akil 
Khan Razi; Muhammad Salih Kanbo Lahawri 
see also Azfari; Bada'uni; Mahathir al-Umara' 
other personages 'Abd al-Rahim Khan; 'Ali Werdi Khan; Asaf Khan; Bakhtawar 
Khan: Bayram Khan: Burhan al-Mulk; Daniyal; Ghulam Kadir Rohilla; Hindal; 
Ttibar Khan; Ftikad Khan; c Iwad Wadjih; Kamran; Khan Djahan Lodi; Khusraw 
Sultan; Mahabat Khan; Makhdum al-Mulk (and [in Suppl.] c Abd Allah 
Sultanpuri); Man Singh; Mir Djumla; Mirza c Askari; Mirza c Aziz "Koka"; Murad; 
Murad Bakhsh; Murshid Kuli Khan; Nizam al-Mulk; Shafi'a Yazdi; Shah Mansur 
Shirazi; Sharif Amuli; al-Siyalkuti; Tipu Sultan; f odar Mai; Yusuf Khan Ridwi; 
Yusufi; [in Suppl.] Akbar b. Awrangzib; 'Akil Khan Razi; Ghazi Khan: Guran; 
'Inayat Khan (2x); Kasim Arslan; Muhammad Zaman Mirza 
see also Bara Sayyids (and [in Suppl.] Barha Sayyids); Marathas 
Nizam Shahids (1491-1633) Nizam Shahis 
see also Ahmadnagar; Talikota 
rulers Husayn Nizam Shah; Malik Ahmad Bahri 
other personages Malik c Ambar 
Sayyids -► the section Dihli Sultans above 
Sharki Sultans ofDjawnpur (1394-1479) Sharkis 

sultans Husayn Shah; Ibrahim Shah Sharki; Mahmud Shah Sharki; Malik Sarwar 
Suris -> the section Dihli Sultans above 
Tughlukids -► the section Dihli Sultans above 
Africa Fundj; Gwandu; Shirazi 

see also Bu Sa'id; Dar Fur; Kilwa; Songhay; Wadai.l; Zaghawa.(a) 
Anatolia and the Turks Artukids; Aydin-oghlu; Danishmendids; Dhu '1-Kadr; Eretna: 
Germiyan-oghullari; Hamid Oghullari; Inal; Isfendiyar Oghlu; Karaman-oghullari: 
Karasi; Menteshe-oghullari; 'Othmanli; Saltuk Oghullari; Sarukhan; Shah-i Arman; 

DYNASTIES, Anatolia and the Turks 45 

see also Burids; Derebey; Mangits; Mengucek; Ramadan Oghullari; and ->■ Onomas- 


Artukids (1102-1408) Artukids 

rulers Ilghazi; Nur al-DIn Muhammad; Timurtash b. Il-Ghazi 
Aydin-oghlu (1308-1425) Aydin-oghlu 

amirs Djunayd 
Ottomans (1281-1924) Othmanli 

see also 'Othman I; and -> Documents.ottoman; Military.ottoman; Ottoman 

Empire; Turkey.ottoman period 

sultans 'Abd al-'Aziz; c Abd al-Hamid I; 'Abd al-Hamid II; <Abd al-Madjid I; 'Abd 
al-Madjid II; Ahmad I; Ahmad II; Ahmad III; Bayazid I; Bayazid II; Ibrahim; 
Mahmud; Mehemmed I; Mehemmed II; Mehemmed III; Mehemmed IV; 
Mehemmed V Reshad; Mehemmed VI Wahid al-Din; Murad I; Murad II; Murad 
III; Murad IV; Murad V; Mustafa I; Mustafa II; Mustafa III; Mustafa IV; Orkhan; 
'Othman I; 'Othman II; 'Othman III; Selim I; Selim II; Selim III; Siileyman; 
Siileyman II 

see also Bab-i Humayun; Djem; Ertoghrul; Khadim al-Haramayn; Khalifa.i.E; 
Mashwara; Muhr.l; Mustafa. 1 and 2; Muteferrika; Rikab; Shehzade; Solak; 
Topkapi Sarayi; Yeni Ceri.3; [in Suppl.] Kafes; Lala 

women of Khasseki; Khurrem; Kosem Walide; Nilufer Khatun; Nur Banu; 
Safiyye Walide Sultan; Turkhan Sultan; Walide Sultan 

grand viziers Sadr-i A'zam 

see also Bab-i 'Ali; Basvekil; Kapi; c Othman-zade; Telkhisdji; Wazir.III 
14th century c Ali Pasha Candarli-zade; Djandarli 

15th century Ahmad Pasha Gedik; Dawud Pasha, Kodja; Djandarli; Khalil 
Pasha Djandarli; Mahmud Pasha; Mehmed Pasha, Karamani; Mehmed Pasha, 
Rum; Sinan Pasha, Khodja. 1 ; Zaghanos Pasha 

16th century Ahmad Pasha, Kara; c Ali Pasha Khadim; c Ali Pasha Semiz; Ay as 
Pasha; Cighala-zade Sinan Pasha; Derwish Pasha; Ferhad Pasha; Hersek-zade; 
Ibrahim Pasha; Ibrahim Pasha, Damad; Khadim Hasan Pasha Sokolli; Khadim 
Siileyman Pasha; Lala Mehmed Pasha (and Mehmed Pasha, Lala, Shahinoghlu); 
Lutfi Pasha; Mehmed Pasha, Lala, Melek-Nihad; Mesih Mehmed Pasha; Mesih 
Pasha; c Othman Pasha; Piri Mehmed Pasha; Riistem Pasha; Sinan Pasha, Khadim; 
Sinan Pasha, Khodja. 2; Siyawush Pasha. 1; Sokollu Mehmed Pasha 
17th century 'AH Pasha 'Arabadji; c Ali Pasha Guzeldje; c Ali Pasha Surmeli; 
Dawud Pasha, Kara; Derwish Mehmed Pasha; Dilawar Pasha; Hafiz Ahmed 
Pasha; Husayn Pasha; Ibrahim Pasha, Kara; Ipshir Mustafa Pasha; Isma'il Pasha, 
Nishandji; Kara Mustafa Pasha; Kemankesh; Khalil Pasha Kaysariyyeli; Khosrew 
Pasha, Bosniak; Kopriilu.I-III; Mehmed Pasha, Cerkes; Mehmed Pasha, Elmas; 
Mehmed Pasha, Gurdjii, Khadim; Mehmed Pasha, Giirdjii II; Mehmed Pasha, 
Okiiz; Mehmed Pasha, Sultan-zade; Mehmed Pasha, Tabaniyassi; Murad Pasha, 
Kuyudju; Nasuh Pasha; Redjeb Pasha; Siyawush Pasha.2; Siileyman Pasha, 
Malatyali; Yemishdji Hasan Pasha 

18th century c Abd Allah Pasha; c Ali Pasha Corlulu; c Ali Pasha Damad; c Ali 
Pasha Hakim-oghlu; Derwish Mehmed Pasha; Hamza Hamid Pasha; Hamza 
Pasha; (Damad) Hasan Pasha; (Seyyid) Hasan Pasha; (Sherif) Hasan Pasha; 
Ibrahim Pasha, Nevshehirli; Kahya Hasan Pasha; Khalil Pasha Hadjdji Arnawud; 
Koprulii.V; Mehmed Pasha, Baltadji; Mehmed Pasha, c Iwad; Mehmed Pasha, 
Melek; Mehmed Pasha, Muhsin-zade; Mehmed Pasha Rami (and Rami Mehmed 
Pasha); Mehmed Pasha, Tiryaki; Mehmed Pasha, Yegen, Giimrukcu; Mehmed 
Pasha, Yegen, Hadjdji; Raghib Pasha; Sa'id Efendi; Topal 'Othman Pasha. 1 

DYNASTIES, Anatolia and the Turks 

1 9th century and on Ahmad Waflk Pasha; c AH Pasha Muhammad Amln; Damad 

Ferld Pasha; Derwish Mehmed Pasha; Djawad Pasha; Fu'ad Pasha; Husayn 'Awni 

Pasha; Husayn Hilmi Pasha; Ibrahim Edhem Pasha; Ibrahim Hakki Pasha; c Izzet 

Pasha; Keciboynuzu; Khayr al-DIn Pasha; Khosrew Pasha, Mehmed; Kiiciik Sa'Id 

Pasha; Mahmud Nedlm Pasha; Mahmud Shewkat Pasha; Mehmed Sa'Id Ghalib 

Pasha; Midhat Pasha; Mustafa Pasha, Bayrakdar; Reshld Pasha, Mustafa; Tal'at 

Bey; [in Suppl.] Es'ad Pasha 
grand muftis Shaykh al-Islam.2 

see also Bab-i Mashlkhat; Fatwa.ii 

15th century Fenarl-zade; GuranI; Khosrew 

16th century Abu '1-Su'ud; Bostanzade.2; Ciwi-zade; Djamali; Kemal Pasha- 

zade; Khodja Efendi 

17th century Baha'I Mehmed Efendi; Es'ad Efendi, Mehmed; Kara-Celebi- 

zade.4; Sun' Allah; [in Suppl.] Yahya 

18th century Celebi-zade; Durrizade.1-4; Es c ad Efendi, Mehmed (2x); Hayati- 

zade.2; Mehmed Salih Efendi; PIri-zade 

19th century c Arif Hikmet Bey; Durrizade.5; Es'ad Efendi, Ahmed; Hasan Fehmi 


20th century Djamal al-DIn Efendi; Diirrizade, c Abd Allah; Mustafa Khayri 

high admirals 'All Pasha Guzeldje; Cighala-zade Sinan Pasha; Dja'far Beg; 

Djeza'irli GhazI Hasan Pasha; Hasan Pasha; Husayn Pasha; Ken'an Pasha; Khalil 

Pasha Kaysariyyeli; Khayr al-DIn Pasha; Piyale Pasha; 'Uludj 'All; Zaghanos 

Pasha; [in Suppl.] Kaplan Mustafa Pasha 

see also Ra'Is.3 
historians of 'Abdl; 'Abdl Efendi; 'Abdl Pasha; Ahmad Djewdet Pasha; Ahmad 

RasmI; 'All; 'All Amirl; 'Ashik-pasha-zade; 'Asim; 'Ata J Bey; al-Bakrl.l; Bidllsl; 

Bihishti; Celebi-zade; Ceshmlzade; Djalalzade Mustafa Celebi; Djalalzade Salih 

Celebi; Enwerl; Es'ad Efendi, Mehmed; Hasan Bey-zade; 'Izzi; Kara-celebi- 

zade.4; Katib Celebi; Kemal, Mehmed Namik; Kemal Pasha-zade; Khayr Allah 

Efendi; Lukman b. Sayyid Husayn; Lutfl Efendi; Matrakci; Mehmed Hakim 

Efendi; Mehmed Khalife b. Huseyn; Mehmed Pasha, Karamani; Mehmed Za'Im; 

Muhyi '1-DIn Mehmed; Na'ima; 'Othman-zade; Pecewi; Ramadan-zade; Rashid, 

Mehmed; Ruhi; Selanlkl; Shefik Mehmed Efendi; Shem'danl-zade; Sheref, c Abd 

al-Rahman; Silahdar, Findiklili Mehmed Agha; Solak-zade; Subhl Mehmed; 

Ta'llkl-zade; Tashkopriizade.2 and 3; Thiireyya; Tursun Beg; Urudj; 'Ushshakl- 

zade, Ibrahim; Wasif; Wedjlhl; Yakhshi Faklh; [in Suppl.] Kantimlr, Demetrius 

see also Hadidl; Shahnamedji; Waka'-niiwls 
other personages 

see also Shehzade; Yazidji 

13th century Sawdji. 1 

14th century 'Ala' al-DIn Beg; Badr al-DIn b. Kadi Samawna; Kasim.l; 

Sawdji.3; Shahin, Lala; Siileyman Pasha 

see also Torghud 

15th century Ahmad Pasha Kha'in; Ewrenos; Ewrenos Oghullari; Fenari-zade; 

Ibn 'Arabshah; Kasim.2 and 3; Kasim Pasha, Djazari; Musa Celebi; Mustafa. 1 

and 2; Suleyman Celebi; TImurtash Oghullari; Turakhan Beg; [in Suppl.] Khodja- 


16th century Bostanzade; Ciwi-zade; Derwish Pasha; Dja'far Celebi; Djalalzade 

Mustafa Celebi; Feridun Beg; Hamon; Kasim.4; Kasim Agha; Kasim Pasha; 

Kemal Rels; Khosrew Pasha; Korkud b. Bayazld; Mahmud Pasha; Mahmud 

DYNASTIES, Anatolia and the Turks — Arabian Peninsula 47 

Tardjuman; Mehmed Pasha, Biyikli; Mustafa.3; Mustafa Pasha, Kara Shahin; 
Mustafa Pasha, Lala; Mustafa Pasha al-Nashshar; Ozdemir Pasha; Pertew Pasha.I; 
PIri Re'Is; Ramadan-zade; Ridwan Pasha; Sari KUrz; Selman Re'Is; Shah Sultan; 
Shahin. Al; Sidi C AH Re 'Is; Sinan; Tashkopruzade. 1 ; Torghud ReMs; 'Ushshaki- 
zade.l; Uweys; [in Suppl.] Kha'ir Beg; Yemenli Hasan Pasha 
1 7th century Abaza; Hay dar-oghlu, Mehmed; Husayn Pasha; Kasim.5; Katirdji- 
oghli Mehmed Pasha; Ma'n-zada; Mehmed Khalife b. Hiiseyn; 'Othman Pasha, 
Yegen; Shahin, Al; Tifli; 'Ushshaki-zade. 1 ; Warwari c Ali Pasha; [in Suppl.] 
Ahmad Pasha Kiiciik; Coban-oghullari 

18th century Abaza; Ahmad Pasha; Ahmad Pasha Bonneval; Ahmad Rasmi; 
Djanikli Hadjdji c Ali Pasha; Mehmed Hakim Efendi; Mehmed Yirmisekiz; 
Paswan-oghlu; Patrona Khalil; Sari Mehmed Pasha; 'Ushshaki-zade. 1 
19th century Ahmad Djewdet Pasha; 'All Pasha Tepedelenli; Ayyub Sabri 
Pasha; Bahdjat Mustafa Efendi; Dawud Pasha (2x); D^awad Pasha; Fadil Pasha; 
Halet Efendi; Husayn Pasha; Ibrahim Derwish Pasha; Kabakci-oghlu Mustafa; 
Kozan-oghullarl; Mustafa Pasha, Bushatli; Pertew Pasha.II; Ridwan Begovic; 
Sadik Rif at Pasha; Shebsefa Kadin; Topal c Othman Pasha.2; [in Suppl.] Camondo 
20th century c Abd al-Hakk Hamid; Djawid; D^emal Pasha; Enwer Pasha; Fehim 
Pasha; Hasan Fehmi; c Izzet Pasha; Kazim Kadri; Kazlm Karabekir; Mukhtar 
Pasha; MUnif Pasha; [in Suppl.] Isma'il Hakki, Manastirli; c Izzet Holo 
Saldiuks of Rum (1077-1307) Saldjukids 

rulers Kayka'us; Kaykhusraw; Kaykubad; Kilidj Arslan I; Kilidj Arslan II; Kilidj 
Arslan III; Kilidj Arslan IV; Malik-Shah.4; Sulayman b. Kutulmish; Toghril Shah 
historians of Ibn Bibi 

other personages Ashraf Oghullari; Mu'in al-Din Sulayman Parwana; Sa c d al-Din 
Arabian Peninsula Bu Sa'id; Hamdanids; Hashimids (2x); al-Khalifa; Mahdids; Nadjahids; 
Rashid, Al; Rasulids; Sabah, Al; Sulayhids; Su'ud, Al; Tahirids.3; al-Ukhaydir, Banu; 
'Usfurids; 'Uyunids; Wahidi; Ya'rubids; Yu'firids; Ziyadids; Zuray c ids; [in Suppl.] 
Djabrids; Kathiri; Ku'ayti 
AlSa c ud(1746- ) Suud, Al 

rulers [in Suppl.] c Abd al-'Aziz; Faysal b. c Abd al- c Aziz 
see also Muhammad b. Su c ud 
Bit Sa'id (1741- ) Bu Sa'id 

sultans Barghash; Sa'id b. Sultan 
Carmathians (894-end 11th century) Karmati 

rulers al-Djannabl, Abu Sa'id; al-Djannabi, Abu Tahir 
Hashimids (1908-1925) Hashimids 
rulers Husayn (b. C A1I) 

see also c Abd Allah b. al-Husayn; Faysal I; Faysal II 
other personages Zayd b. al-Husayn b. 'All 
Rasulids (1229-1454) Rasulids 
see also Zabid 
historians of al-Khazradji 
other personages [in Suppl.] Ibn Hatim 
see also al-Sharif Abu Muhammad Idris 
Tahirids (1454-1517) Tahirids.3 

rulers 'Amir I; 'Amir II 
Zaydis (860- ) Rassids; Zaydiyya.3 

imams al-Mahdi li-DIn Allah Ahmad; al-Mansur bi 'llah, 'Abd Allah; al-Mansur 
bi 'Hah, al-Kasim b. 'AM; al-Mansur bi 'llah, al-Kasim b. Muhammad; al-Mu'ayyad 

48 DYNASTIES, Arabian Peninsula — Egypt and the Fertile Crescent 

bi 'Hah Muhammad; Muhammad al-Murtada li-Din Allah; al-Mutawakkil 'ala 
'llah, Isma'Il; al-Mutawakkil c ala 'llah, Sharaf al-DIn; al-Nasir li-Din Allah.II; 
al-Nasir li-Din Allah, Ahmad; al-Rassi; Yahya b. Hamza al-'Alawi; Yahya b. 
Muhammad; [in Suppl.] Abu '1-Fath al-Daylami; al-Hadl ila '1-Hakk; al-Mahdi 
li-Din Allah, al-Husayn 
see also Imama; al-Yaman.3.a 

for Zaydi imams of the Caspian ->■ Shiites.branches.zaydiyya 
other personages al-Mutahhar; al-Nasir li-Din Allah.II; al-Sharif Abu Muhammad 
Zuray'ids (1080-1173) Zuraylds 

viziers Bilal b. Djarir al-Muhammadi 
Egypt and the Fertile Crescent 'Abbasids; 'Annazids; Ayyubids; Baban; Burids; Fatimids; 
Hamdanids; Hasanwayh; Mamluks; Marwanids; Mazyad; Mirdas; Tulunids; 'Ukaylids; 
Umayyads; Zangids 
see also c Ammar; Begteginids; Djalili; Sadaka, Banu; and -> Egypt.modern 


'Abbdsids (750-1258) -^ Caliphate 
Ayyubids (1169-end 15th century) Ayyubids 
see also Rank 

rulers al- c Adil; al-Afdal; Bahram Shah; al-Kamil; al-Mu'azzam; al-Nasir; Salah 
al-Din; (al-Malik) al-Salih 'Irnad al-Din; (al-Malik) al-Salih Nadjm al-DIn Ayyub; 
Turanshah b. Ayyub; al-Zahir Ghazi 
see also Diwan.ii.(3) 
viziers Ibn al- c Adim; Ibn al-Athir.3; Ibn Matruh 

see also Wazir.1.3 
secretaries 'Imad al-Din; al-Kadi al-Fadil 

historians of Abu '1-Fida; Abu Shama; Ibn Shaddad; 'Irnad al-Din; al-Makrizi; al- 
Mansur, al-Malik 
see also [in Suppl.] Karatay 
other personages Abu '1-Fida; Aybak; Ibn al- c Assal; Karakush, Baha' al-Din; 
Karakush, Sharaf al-DIn; al-Muzaffar, al-Malik 
Burids (1104-1154) Burids; Dimashk 

rulers Tughtigin 
Fatimids (909-1 171) -> Caliphate 
Hamdanids (905-1004) Hamdanids 

rulers Nasir al-Dawla; Sayf al-Dawla; [in Suppl.] Abu Taghlib 
other personages Husayn b. Hamdan; Lu'lu' 
Ikhshidids (935-969) 
rulers Kafur 
viziers Ibn al-Furat.5 
other personages al-Sayrafi 
Mamluks (1250-1517) Dhu '1-Fakariyya; Diwan.ii.(4); Hadjib.iv; Hiba.ii; Khadim al- 
Haramayn; Khaznadar; Mamluks (and [in Suppl.]); Mashwara; Na'ib.l; Ustadar 
see also Harfush; Kumash; Mamluk; Manshur; Rank; Za'im; [in Suppl.] Mawakib; 


sultans Barkuk; Barsbay; Baybars I; Baybars II; Cakmak; Faradj; Hasan; Inal al- 

Adjrud; Ka'it Bay; Kalawun; Kansawh al-Ghawri; Khalil; Khushkadam; Kutuz; 

Ladjin; al-Mu'ayyad Shaykh; al-Nasir; (al-Malik) al-Salih; Sha'ban; Shadjar al- 

Durr; Tuman Bay 
administrators Fadl Allah; Ibn c Abd al-Zahir; Ibn Fadl al- c Umari; Ibn Ghurab; Ibn 

Hidjdja; Ibn al-Sadid (Ibn al-Muzawwik); Ibn al-Sadid, Karim al-DIn; al- 

DYNASTIES, Egypt and the Fertile Crescent — Mongols 49 

Kalkashandi.l; [in Suppl.] Ibn al-Suka'; Kha'ir Beg 
historians of Abu '1-Mahasin b. Taghribirdi; Baybars al-Mansuri; Ibn c Abd al-Zahir; 
Ibn Dukmak; Ibn Habib, Badr al-DIn; Ibn Iyas; Ibn Shahln al-Zahirl; al-MakrizI; 
al-Mufaddal b. Abi '1-Fada'il; al-Nuwayri, Shihab al-DIn; al-Safadi, al-Hasan; 
Shafi' b. 'All; al-Shudja'I; [in Suppl.] Karatay 
other personages Abu '1-Fida; al- c Ayni; Ibn Djama'a; Ibn al-Mundhir; Tankiz 
Marwdnids (983-1085) Marwanids 

rulers Nasr al-Dawla 
Mazyadids (ca. 961-1150) Mazyad; Sadaka, Banu 

rulers Sadaka b. Mansur 
Mirddsids (1023-1079) Mirdas 

see also Asad al-Dawla 
Tulunids (868-905) Tulunids 

rulers Ahmad b. Tulun; Khumarawayh 

see also Ibn al-Mudabbir. 1 
historians of al-Balawi; Ibn al-Daya 
other personages [in Suppl.] al- c Abbas b. Ahmad b. Tulun 
'Ukaylids (ca. 990-1169) 'Ukaylids 

rulers Muslim b. Kuraysh 
Umayyads (661-750) -► Caliphate 
Zangids (1127-1222) Zangids 

rulers Mas'Qd b. Mawdud b. Zangi; Mawdud b. c Imad al-DIn ZankI; Nur al-Din 

Arslan Shah; Nur al-Din Mahmud b. Zanki; Zangi 
viziers al-Djawad al-Isfahani 

see also Begteginids; Karim Khan Zand; Lulu', Badr al-Din 
historians of Ibn al-Athir.2 
other personages Shirkuh 
Mongols Batu'ids; Caghatay Khanate; Cingizids; Djanids; Giray; Ilkhans; Kara Khitay; 
Mongols; Shibanids 

see also Cubanids; Kazan; Ordu.2; Soyurghal; Tlmurids; [in Suppl.] Agahi; Diwan- 
begi; Djamal Karshi; Yurtci; and -► Law.mongol; Mongolia.mongols; Onomastics. 


Batu'ids (1236-1502) Batu'ids 
see also Saray 

rulers Batu; Berke; Mangu-tlmur; Toktamish 
other personages Mas'udBeg 
Caghatayids (1227-1370) Caghatay Khanate 

rulers Burak Khan; Caghatay Khan; Tughluk Temiir 
historians of Haydar MIrza 
Djanids (1598-1785) Djanids 

rulers Nadhr Muhammad 
see also Bukhara 
Giray Khdns (ca. 1426-1 792) Giray 

rulers Dawlat Giray; Ghazi Giray I; Ghazi Giray II; Ghazi Giray III; Hadjdji Giray; 
Islam Giray; Kaplan Giray I; Kaplan Giray II; Mehmed Giray I; Mengli Giray I; 
Sahib Giray Khan I; Selim Giray I 

see also Kalghay; Mehmed Baghcesarayi; Mehmed Giray; Thabit 
Great Khdns (1206-1 634) Cingizids 

rulers Cinghiz Khan; Kubilay; Mongke; Ogedey 

other personages Kaydu; Mahmud Yalawac; Tarabi, Mahmud; Toluy; Toregene 

50 DYNASTIES, Mongols — Persia 

Ilkhanids (1256-1353) Ilkhans 
see also Sadr.2; Tuman 

rulers Baydu; Gaykhatu; Qhazan; Hulagu; Oldjeytu; Tegiider; Togha Temiir 
viziers Rashid al-Din Tabib; Sa'd al-Dawla 
historians of Djuwayni, 'Ala 5 al-Din; Hamd Allah al-Mustawfi al-Kazwini; Rashid 

al-Din Tabib; Wassaf 
other personages Djuwayni, 'Ala' al-DIn; Kutlugh-Shah Noyan 
Shaybdnids (1500-1598) Shibanids 

rulers c Abd Allah b. Iskandar; Abu '1-Khayr; Shibani Khan; [in Suppl.] Iskandar 

Khan b. Djani Beg; c Ubayd Allah Sultan Khan 
historians of Abu '1-Ghazi Bahadur Khan; [in Suppl.] Hafiz Tanlsh 
Persia Afrasiyabids; Afshar; Ahmadilis; Ak Koyunlu; Badusbanids; Bawand; Buwayhids; 
Djalayir; Dulafids; Fadlawayh; Farighunids; Hasanwayh; Hazaraspids; Ildenizids; Ilek- 
Khans; Ilyasids; Indju; Kadjar; Kakuyids; Kara-koyunlu; Karinids; Kawus; Kh w arazm- 
shahs; Kutlugh-khanids; Lur-i Buzurg; Lur-i Kucik; Mangits; Mar'ashis; Muhtadjids; 
Musafirids; Musha'sha'; Muzaffarids; Rawwadids; Sadjids; Safawids; Saffarids; 
Saldjukids; Salghurids; Samanids; Sarbadarids; Sasanids; Shaddadids; Shirwan Shah; 
Tahirids.l; Timurids; Zand; Ziyarids 

see also Ardalan; Atabak; 'Awfi; Cashna-gir; Daylam; Diwan.iv; Djalayir; Ghulam.ii; 
Hadjib.iii; Harb.v; al-Hasan b. Zayd b. Muhammad; Hiba.iv; Hisar.iii; Ilkhans; Iran.v; 
Kayanids; Marasim.3; Mawakib.3; Pishdadids; Shahi; Wakf.III; Wazir.II; and -* 
Legends.legendary dynasties; Onomastics.titles.persian 
Afshdrids (1 736-1 795) Afshar 
rulers Nadir Shah Afshar 
see also Takht-i Tawus 
historians of 'Abd al-Karim Kashmiri; Mahdi Khan Astarabadi 
Ak Koyunlus (1378-1508) Ak Koyunlu 

rulers Uzun Hasan 
Buwayhids (932-1062) Buwayhids 

rulers Abu Kalidjar; 'Adud al-Dawla; Bakhtiyar; Djalal al-Dawla; Fakhr al-Dawla; 
c Imad al-Dawla; Khusraw Firuz (and al-Malik al-Rahim); Madjd al-Dawla; 
Mu'ayyid al-Dawla; Mu'izz al-Dawla; Rukn al-Dawla; Samsam al-Dawla; Shams 
al-Dawla; Sharaf al-Dawla; Sultan al-Dawla; [in Suppl.] Baha 5 al-Dawla wa- 
Diya' al-Milla 
viziers al-'Abbas b. al-Husayn; Ibn 'Abbad; Ibn al-'Amid; Ibn Bakiyya; Ibn 
Makula.l and 2; al-Muhallabi, Abu Muhammad; Sabur b. Ardashir; [in Suppl.] 
'Abd al-'Aziz b. Yusuf; Ibn Khalaf.l; Ibn Sa'dan 
secretaries Hilal al-Sabi' (and Sabi'.(3).9); Ibn Hindu; Sabi\(3).7 
historians of S&b\\0).l 

other personages al-Basasiri; Fasandjus; Hasan b. Ustadh-hurmuz; Ibn Hadjib al- 
Nu'man; 'Imran b. Shahin; al-Malik al-'Aziz; [in Suppl.] Ibrahim Shirazi 
Dabuyids (660-760) 

rulers Dabuya 
DJaldyirids (1340-1432) Djalayir 
rulers Uways 

other personages Salman-i Sawadji 
Ildenizids (1137-1225) Ildenizids 

rulers Ildeniz; Ozbeg b. Muhammad Pahlawan; Pahlawan 
Ilek-Khdns (992-1211) Ilek-Khans 

see also Yaghma 
Kadjar s (1779-1924) Kadjar; Mushir al-Dawla 


see also Ka'im-makam-i Farahani; Madjlis al-Shura; and -+ Iran.modern period 
rulers Agha Muhammad Shah; Fath 'Ali Shah; Muhammad c Ali Shah Kadjar; 

Muhammad Shah; Muzaffar al-DIn Shah Kadjar; Nasir al-Din Shah 

see also Takht-i Tawus 
other personages 'Abbas Mirza; [in Suppl.] Amir Nizam; Hadjdji Ibrahim Khan 

Kalantar; Mirza Shafi 1 Mazandarani 
Khanate ofKhiwa Khiwa 

rulers Abu '1-Ghazi Bahadur Khan 

historians Mu'nis; [in Suppl.] Agahi 

Kjrarazm-Shahs (ca. 995-1231) Kh w arazm-shahs 

rulers Atsiz b. Anushtigin; Djalal al-Din Kh w arazm-shah: Ma'mun b. Muhammad; 

historians of Djuwayni; al-Nasawi 
other personages Burak Hadjib; Terken Khatun 
Muzaffarids (1314-1393) Muzaffarids 
rulers Shah-i Shudja' 
historians of Mu'in al-Din Yazdi 
Pahlawis (1926-1979) Pahlawi 
and -+ Iran.modern period 
rulers Muhammad Rida Shah Pahlawi; Rida Shah 
Sddjids (ca. 856- ca. 930) Sadjids 

rulers Abu '1-Sadj; Muhammad b. Abi i-Sadj; Yusuf b. Abi '1-Sadj Diwdad 
Safawids (1501-1732) Barud.v; Ishik-akasi; Ttimad al-Dawla; Kurci; Libas.iii; Safawids 
see also Haydar; Klzll-bash; Nuktawiyya; Sadr.4; Sadr al-Din Ardabili; Sadr al-Din 
Musa; Safi al-Din Ardabili; Soyurghal; Takkalu; Tiyul 
rulers c Abbas I; Husayn (and Sultan Husayn); Isma'il I; Isma'il II; Sulayman (Shah); 

historians of Hasan-i Rumlu; Iskandar Beg; Kum(m)i; Tahir Wahid 

see also [in Suppl.] Ibn al-Bazzaz al-Ardabili 
other personages Alkas Mirza; Hamza Mirza; al-Karaki; Madjlisi 

see also [in Suppl.] Lala; Mihman; Shahbandar 
Saffdrids (867 -ca. 1495) Saffarids 

rulers c Amr b. al-Layth; Ya'kub b. al-Layth 
Saldjuks (1038-1194) Amir Dad; Arslan b. Saldjuk; Atabak; Saldjukids 

see also Saraparda; an d ~* Dynasties. anatolia and the turks. saldjuks of rum 
rulers Alp Arslan; Bahram Shah; Barkyaruk; Mahmud b. Muhammad b. Malik- 
Shah; Malik-Shah. 1-3; Mas'ud b. Muhammad b. Malik-Shah; Muhammad b. 

Mahmud b. Muhammad b. Malik-Shah; Muhammad b. Malik-Shah; Ridwan; 

Sandjar; Toghril (II); Toghril (III); Tutush (I) b. Alp Arslan 

see also Caghri-beg; Silahdar; Toghril; Toghril (I) Beg 
viziers Anushirwan b. Khalid; Djahir; al-Kunduri; Madjd al-Mulk al-Balasani; al- 

Maybudi.3; Nizam al-Mulk; Rabib al-Dawla; [in Suppl.] Ibn Darust 
historians of al-Bundari; Tmad al-Din; Nishapuri; Rawandi; [in Suppl.] al-Husayni 
other personages Ak Sunkur al-Bursuki; Arslan-arghun; Ayaz; al-Basasiri; Buri- 

bars; Bursuk; Buz-abeh; Kawurd; Khalaf b. Mula'ib al-Ashhabi; Khass Beg; 

Kurbuka; Nizamiyya; Terken Khatun; al-Tughra J i; [in Suppl.] Ekinci 
Salghurids (1148-1270) Salghurids 

rulers Sa c d (I) b. Zangi 
Sdmdnids (819-1005) Samanids 

rulers Isma'il b. Ahmad; Isma'il b. Nuh; Mansur b. Nuh; Nasr b. Ahmad b. Isma'il; 

Nuh (I); Nuh (II) 

52 DYNASTIES, Persia — Spain and North Africa 

viziers BaFami; al-Mus'abi; al-'Utbi.l and 2; [in Suppl.] al-Djayhani 
historians of Narshakhi 

see also al-Sallami 
other personages Arslan b. Saldjuk; Simdjurids; [in Suppl.] al-Djayhani 
Tahirids (821 -873) Tahirids. 1 

rulers c Abd Allah b. Tahir; Muhammad b. Tahir; Tahir b. al-Husayn 
historians of Ibn al-Dayba c 

other personages Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah (b. Tahir) 
Timurids (1370-1506) Timurids 

see also Sadr.3; Soyurghal; Tuzuk 

rulers Abu Sa'id b. Timur; Baykara; Bay songhor; Husayn; Shah Rukh; Timur Lang; 
Ulugh Beg 

see also Khan-zada Begum 
historians of Ibn 'Arabshah; Kh w afi Khan; Shami, Nizam al-Dln; Sharaf al-Din 

'Ali Yazdi 
other personages Mir 'Ali Shir Nawa'i; Miranshah b. Timur; 'Umar-Shaykh Mirza 
Zands (1750-1794) Zand 

rulers Karim Khan Zand; Lutf 'Ali Khan 
see also Lak 
Ziydrids (931 -ca. 1090) Ziyarids 

rulers Kabus b. Wushmagir b. Ziy ar; Kay Ka'us b. Iskandar; Mardawidj; Wushmgir 
b. Ziyar 
Spain and North Africa 'Abbadids; 'Abd al-Wadids; Aftasids; Aghlabids; c Alawis; 'Amirids; 
'Ammar; Dhu '1-Nunids; ^ahwarids; Hafsids; Hammadids; Hammudids; Hudids; 
Husaynids; Idrisids; (Banu) Khurasan; Marinids; Midrar; al-Murabitun; al-Muwahhidun; 
Nasrids; Razin, Banu; Rustamids; Sa'dids; Tahirids.2; Tudjib; Umayyads.In Spain; 
Wattasids; Zirids; [in Suppl.] Sumadih 

see also 'Alama; Diwan.iii; Hadjib.ii and v; Hiba.iii; Hisar.ii; al-Hulal al-Mawshiyya; 
Karamanli; Khalifa.i.C andD; Lakab.3; Marasim.2; Mawakib.2; Parias; ShurafaM .III; 
Tawil, Banu; Wazir.1.4; Zahir; and -> Andalusia.conquest of and governors un- 
til umayyad conquest; Caliphate.fatimids 
'Abbddids (1023-1091) 'Abbadids; Ishbiliya 

rulers al-Mu'tadid bi 'llah; al-Mu'tamid ibn 'Abbad 

see also al-Rundi 
viziers Ibn 'Ammar, Abu Bakr 
c Abd al-Wddids (1236-1550) c Abd al-Wadids 

rulers Abu Hammu I; Abu Hammu II; Abu Tashufin I; Abu Tashufin II; Abu Zayyan 

I; Abu Zayyan II; Abu Zayyan III; Yaghmurasan 
historians of Ibn Khaldun, Abu Zakariyya'; al-Tanasi 
Aftasids (1022-1094) Aftasids 

rulers al-Mutawakkil 'ala 'llah, Ibn al-Aftas 

secretaries Ibn 'Abdun; Ibn Kabturnu (and [in Suppl.] Kabturnuh); Ibn Kuzman.II 
(and [in Suppl.] Kuzman.2) 
Aghlabids (800-909) al- c Abbasiyya; Aghlabids; Rakkada 

rulers Ibrahim I; Ibrahim II 
'Alawids (1631 - ) 'Alawis; Ka'id; Mawlay ; Shurafa'. 1 .III 

rulers 'Abd Allah b. Isma'il; 'Abd al-'Aziz b. al-Hasan; 'Abd al-Rahman b. Hisham; 
Hafiz ('Abd al-); (Mawlay) al-Hasan; Mawlay Isma'il; Muhammad III b. 'Abd 
Allah; Muhammad IV b. 'Abd al-Rahman; Muhammad b. Yusuf (Muhammad 
V); al-Rashid (Mawlay); Sulay man (Mawlay); [in Suppl.] Muhammad b. 'Arafa; 
Yusuf b. al-Hasan 

DYNASTIES, Spain and North Africa 53 

viziers Akansus; Ibn Idris (I); [in Suppl.] Ba Hmad; Ibn 'Uthman al-Miknasi 

historians of Akansus; Ibn Zaydan; al-Kardudi; al-Zayyani 

other personages Ahmad al-Nasiri al-Salawi {and al-Nasir al-Salawi); Ibn Idris 
(II); Khunatha 
Almohads (1130-1269) Hargha; al-'Ikab; Mizwar; al-Muwahhidun 

see also Tinmal; Zahir 

rulers c Abd al-Mu'min; Abu Ya'kub Yusuf; Abu Yusuf Ya'kub al-Mansur; Ibn 
Tumart; al-Ma'mun; al-Nasir 

historians of c Abd al-Wahid al-Marrakushi; al-Baydhak; Ibn Sahib al-Salat 
see also al-Hulal al-Mawshiyya 

other personages [in Suppl.] Ibn al-Kattan 

see also Abu Hafs c Umar al-Hintati; Ibn Mardanish 
Almoravids (1056-1147) Amir al-Muslimin; al-Murabitun 

see also al-Zallaka 

rulers 'Ali b. Yusuf b. Tashufin; al-Lamtuni; Tashufin b. 'All; Yusuf b. Tashufin 

secretaries Ibn 'Abdun 

historians of Ibn al-Sayrafi 

see also al-Hulal al-Mawshiyya 

other personages Ibn Badjdja; Ibn Kasi 
'Amirids (1021-1096) 'Amirids 

rulers c Abd al-Malik b. Abi 'Amir; al-Muzaffar 

viziers Ibn al-Katta c 

other personages 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abi 'Amir 
Djahwarids (1030-1070) Djahwarids 

other personages (al-)Hakam ibn 'Uk(k)asha; Ibn 'Abdus 
Hafsids (1228-1574) Hafsids 

secretaries Hazim 

historians of al-Hadjdj Hammuda 

other personages Ibn 'Arafa 
Hammadids (972-1152) Hammadids 

rulers Badis; al-Mansur; al-Nasir 
see also Kal'at Bani Hammad 
Hammudids (1010-1057) Hammudids 

viziers Ibn Dhakwan 
Hudids (1039-1142) Hudids 

rulers al-Mu 5 tamin 
Husaynids (1705-1957) Husaynids 

rulers Ahmad Bey; al-Husayn (b. 'Ali); Muhammad Bey; Muhammad al-Sadik 

ministers Khayr al-Din Pasha; Mustafa Khaznadar 
Idrisids (789-926) Idrisids 

rulers Idris I; Idris II 
Marinids (1196-1465) Marinids 

rulers Abu '1-Hasan; Abu 'Inan Faris 
Nasrids (1230-1492) Nasrids 

viziers Ibn al-Khatib 

other personages [in Suppl.] Ibn al-Sarradj; al-Nubahi 
Rustamids (777-909) Rustamids 

historians of Ibn al-Saghir 
Sa'dids (1511-1659) Sa'dids; ShurafaM.III 

rulers 'Abd Allah al-Ghalib; Ahmad al-Mansur; Mawlay Mahammad al-Shaykh 

DYNASTIES, Spain and North Africa — EDUCATION 

see also Mawlay 
viziers Ibn c Isa 

historians of 'Abd al- c AzIz b. Muhammad; al-Ifrani 
other personages al-Tamgruti; [in Suppl.] Abu Mahalli 
Tdhirids (1 1 th-12th centuries) Tahirids.2 
Tudjibids (1019-1039) Tudjib 

rulers Ma'n b. Muhammad; al-Mu c tasim 

historians of Ibn Hamadu 
Umayyads (756-1031) Umayyads.In Spain 

amirs and caliphs c Abd Allah b. Muhammad; c Abd al-Rahman; al-Hakam I; al- 
Hakam II; Hisham I; Hisham II; Hisham III; al-Mahdi; al-Mundhir b. Muhammad 
see also Madinat al-Zahra'; Mu'awiya b. Hisham; Rabad; al-Rusafa.4; al-Walid 
b. Hisham; [in Suppl.] Bubashtru; Sulayman b. al-Hakam al-Musta'in 
viziers Ibn c Alkama.2; Ibn Shuhayd 

see also Wazir.1.4 
secretaries c Arib b. Sa c d al-Katib al-Kurtubi; Ibn Burd.I 

other personages 'Abd al-Rahman b. Marwan; Ghalib b. 'Abd al-Rahman; Habib 
b. c Abd al-Malik; Hasday b. Shaprut; Ibn 'Alkama. 1 ; Ibn Dhakwan; Ibn al-Hannat; 
Ibn Kasi; Ibn al-Kitt; al-Mansur; Rabi' b. Zayd; Sakaliba.3; Subh; 'Umar b. Hafsun; 
Ziryab; [in Suppl.] Ziri b. c Atiyya 
Zirids (972-1 152) Zirids.l 

rulers Buluggin b. Ziri; al-Mu'izz b. Badis; Tamim b. al-Mu c izz 
historians of Umayya, Abu '1-Salt 
other personages Ibn Abi '1-Ridjal 
see also Kurhub 
Zirids of Granada (1012-1090) Zirids.2 

rulers c Abd Allah b. Buluggin; Zawi b. Ziri 

Earthquakes Zalzala 

for accounts of earthquakes, see also Aghri Dagh; Amasya; Antakiya; c Ashkabad; Cankiri; 
Cilicia; Daybul; Djidjelli; Erzindjan; Harra; Hulwan; Istanbul.VI.f; Kalhat; Kangfa; Kazwin; 
Kilat; Nishapur; al-Ramla 

Economics Bay 1 ; Kasb; Mai, Tadbir.l; Ta'mim 

see also Mudaraba; Ta'awun; Tidjara.3; and ->■ Finance 

Education Ma'arif; Tadris; Tarbiya 

see also c Arabiyya.B.IV; Idjaza 
educational reform -+ Reform 

institutions of learning Dar al-Hadith; Djami c a; Koy Enstitiileri; Kuttab; Madrasa; Maktab; 

see also Kulliyya; Sadr.(c); Sama c .2; Shaykh; Ustadh; and -+ Education. libraries 
individual establishments al-Azhar; Bay t al-Hikma; Dar al-Hikma; Dar al-'Ulum; Ghalata- 
sarayi; Harbiye; al-Karawiyyin.ii; al-Khalduniyya; Makhredj; Mulkiyya; al- 
Sadikiyya; Zaytuna; [in Suppl.] Institut des hautes etudes marocaines; Institut des 
hautes etudes de Tunis; Jamia Millia Islamia; Tibbiyye-i c Adliyye-i Shahane 


see also Aligarh; Deoband; Filaha.iii; al-Kahira; Lakhnaw; al-Madina.ii; Makka.3; 
Mustafa c Abd al-Razik; al-Mustansir (I); Nadwat al- c Ulama'; [in Suppl.] 'Abd al- 
Bari; c Abd al-Wahhab; Farangi Mahall 
learned societies and academies Andjuman; Djam'iyy a; Djem c iyyet-i Tlmiyye-i 'Othma- 
niyye; Institut d'Egypte; Khalkevi; Madjma' c Ilmi 
libraries Dar al-'Ilm; Maktaba 

see also 'AH Pasha Mubarak; Khazin; al-Madina.ii 
collections 'All Amiri (and [in Suppl.] C A1I Emiri); Es'ad Efendi, Mehmed; Khuda Bakhsh; 
al-Tur.l; [in Suppl.] c Abd al-Wahhab 
see also Geniza; and ->■ Literature.bibliographical 
librarians Ibn al-Fuwati; Ibn Hadjar al- c AskalanI; Ibn al-Sa c i; al-Kattani 
treatises on 

medieval al-Zarnudji 

modern-day Ergin, Osman; [in Suppl.] Tongug 

Egypt al-Kahira (and [in Suppl.] Misr.C.2.vi); Kibt; Misr; Nuba; al-Sa'id 

see also al-'Arab.iv; al-Fustat; and -> Christianity.denominations.copts; Dynasties. 


administration Dar al-Mahfuzat al- c Umumiyya; Diwan.ii; Kabala; Kharadj.I; Rawk 

see also Misr.D.l.b; Wakf.II.l; and -> Caliphate. 'abbasids and fatimids; 
Dynasties. egypt and the fertile crescent. mamluks; Ottoman Empire, 
architecture ->■ Architecture.regions 
before Islam Fir'awn; Manf; Misr.D.l; Nuba.2; Sakkara; [in Suppl.] Abu Sinbil 

see also al-Uksur 
dynasties 'Abbasids; Ayyubids; Fatimids; Mamluks; Muhammad C AH Pasha; Tulunids 

and -* Dynasties.egypt and the fertile crescent 
education al-Azhar; Dar al- c Ulum; Djami'a; Institut d'Egypte; Ma'arif . 1 .ii; Madjma' c Ilmi.i.2.b; 
Rifa'a Bey al-Tahtawi 
see also 'Ali Pasha Mubarak 
historians of Abu '1-Mahasin b. Taghrabirdi; 'Ali Pasha Mubarak; al-Bakri.2; al-Balawi; al- 
Damurdashi; al-Djabarti; Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam.4; Ibn Dukmak; Ibn Iyas; Ibn Muyassar; 
al-Kindi, Abu c Umar Muhammad; al-Makrizi; al-Nuwayri, Muhammad; Rifa c a Bey al- 
Tahtawi; al-Safadi, al-Hasan; Salim al-Nakkash; al-Suyuti; al-Wasifi; Zaydan, Djurdji 
see also [in Suppl.] Ta'rikh.II.l.fc); and -* Dynasties.egypt and the fertile cres- 
modernperiod Dariba.4; Djarida.i.A; Dustur.iii; Hizb.i; Hukuma.iii; al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun; 
Iltizam; Imtiyazat.iv; Madjlis.4.A.xvi; Mahkama.4.i; Misr.D.7 (and [in Suppl.] Misr.D.8 
andD.9); Salafiyya.2(a); Sihafa.l.(i); al-Takfirwa '1-Hidjra; Wafd; [in Suppl.] Nizam 

see also Baladiyya.2; al-Banna'; Madjlis al-Shura; Wataniyya 

poets al-Barudi; Fikri; Hafiz Ibrahim; Isma c il Sabri; Isma'il Sabri Pasha; al- 
Manfaluti; al-Mazini; Nadji; Nadjib al-Haddad; Nadjib Muhammad Surur; Salah 
c Abd al-Sabur; al-Sharkawi; Shawki; Shukri; Taha, c Ali Mahmud; [in Suppl] 
Abu Shadi; al- c Akkad 
writers of prose Ahmad Amin; Hafiz Ibrahim; Mahmud Taymur; al-Manfaluti; al- 
Mazini; Muhammad Husayn Haykal; al-Muwaylihi; Salama Musa; al-Sharkawi; 
Taha Husayn; Tawfik al-Hakim; Yahya Hakki; [in Suppl.] Abu Shadi; al- c Akkad; 


see also Farah Antun; Mayy Ziyada; Muhammad Bey 'Uthman Djalal (and [in 
Suppl.] Muhammad 'Uthman Djalal); and -> Literature.drama.arabic and 


influential persons Djamal al-Dln al-Afghani; al-Marsafi; Muhammad 'Abduh; Mustafa 
Kamil Pasha; al-Muwaylihi. 1 ; Rifa'a Bey al-Tahtawi; Salama Musa; al-Sanhuri, 'Abd 
al-Razzak; Sayyid Kutb; Shakir, Ahmad Muhammad; Shaltut, Mahmud; al- 
Subkiyyun; Taha Husayn; Umm Kulthum; [in Suppl.] Abu 'l-'Aza'im; al-'Adawi; 
al-Bakri; al-Biblawi; Djawhari, Tantawi; al- c Idwi al-Hamzawi; 'Illaysh 
see also Rashid Rida; and -+ the section Statesmen below 
Muhammad 'All's line c Abbas Hilmi I; 'Abbas Hilmi II; Fu'ad al-Awwal; Husayn Kamil; 
Ibrahim Pasha; Isma'Il Pasha; Muhammad c Ali Pasha; Sa'id Pasha; Tawfik Pasha; 
[in Suppl.] Bakhit al-Mutn al-Hanafi; Faruk 

see also 'Aziz Misr; Khidiw; 'Umar Makram; [in Suppl.] Da'ira Saniyya; Ib'adiyya 
statesmen 'Ali Pasha Mubarak; al-Barudi; Fikri; Isma'il Sabri Pasha; Isma'il Sidki; Lutfi 
al-Sayyid; Muhammad Farid Bey; Muhammad Nadjib; al-Nahhas; Nubar Pasha; 
Sa'd Zaghlul; al-Sadat; Sharif Pasha; 'Urabi Pasha; Yakan, 'Adli; [in Suppl.] 'Abd 
al-Nasir; Mahir, 'Ali 
see also Mustafa Kamil Pasha 
mystic orders Marwaniyya; Rifa'iyya; Tasawwuf.4; [in Suppl.] al-'Afifi; Demirdashiyya; 

see also Bakriyya; Khalwatiyya; Zar.2; and -> Mysticism 
Ottoman period (1517-1798) Dh u '1-Fakariyya; Kasimiyya; Kazdughliyya; Misr.D.6; 
Muhammad 'Ali Pasha; Shaykh al-Balad 
see also Hurriyya.ii 
beys 'Ali Bey; Muhammad Abu '1-Dhahab (and [in Suppl.] Abu '1-Dhahab) 
physical geography 
mountains al-Tur. 1 
oases al-Wahat 
waters Burullus; al-Nil; Timsah, Lake 

see also Mikyas; Rawda; al-Suways 
population 'Ababda; Kibt 

see also [in Suppl.] Demography .IV; and -> Christianity.denominations.copts 

ancient Adfu; Babalyun; al-Bahnasa; Burullus; Dabik; al-Kulzum; Manf; Shata; Tinnis 

see also al-Sharkiyya 

regions Buhayra; al-Fayyum; al-Gharbiyya; Girga; al-Sharkiyya; Sina 5 

see also al-Sa'id 
towns 'Abbasa; Abukir; Akhmim; al-'Allaki; al-'Arish; Asyut; Atfih; 'Ayn Shams; 
Banha; Bani Suwayf; Bilbays; Bulak; Busir; Dahshur; Dakahliyya; Damanhur; 
Dimyat; al-Farafra; al-Fustat; Girga; Hulwan; al-Iskandariyya; Isma'iliyya; Isna; 
al-Kahira (and [in Suppl.] Misr.C.2.vi); Kalyub; Kantara.3; Kift; Kuna; Kus; 
Kusayr; al-Mahalla al-Kubra; al-Mansura; Manuf; Port Sa'id; Rafah; Rashid; 
Sakkara; Samannud; Siwa.l; al-Suways; al-Tall al-Kabir; Tanta; al-Uksur; al- 
Ushmunayn; Uswan; al-Zakazik; [in Suppl.] Abu Za'bal 
see also al-Mukattam; Rawda 

Emancipation Hurriyya 

for manumission -> SLAVERY;/or women -> Women 


Emigration Djaliya; Hidjra 

see also al-Mahdjar; Muhadjir; al-Muhadjirun; Parsis; Sihafa.3; and ->■ New World 

Epigraphy Kitabat 

see also Eldem, Khalil Edhem; Hisab al-Djummal; Khatt; Musnad.l; Tiraz.3 
sites of inscriptions Libiya.2; Lihyan; Orkhon; al-Sawda 5 ; Sikilliya.4; Sirwah.l; Zafar 
see also Hadramawt; Saba'; Safaitic; Thamudic; [in Suppl.] Kahtanite 

Eschatology 'Adhab al-Kabr; Akhira; al-A'raf; Barzakh; Ba'th; Djahannam; Djanna; Djaza'; 
Dunya; Hawd; Hisab; Israfil; c Izra c il; Kiyama; Ma'ad; al-Mahdi; Mawkif.2; Munkar wa- 
Nakir; Sa'a.3; Zakkum 

see also Kayyim; Shafa c a; Shakawa; Yawm; al-Zabaniyya; and ->■ Death; Paradise 
hereafter Adjr.l; Akhira 

see also Dunya 
signs c Asa; Dabba; al-Dadjdjal; Yadjudj wa-Madjudj 
see also Ba c th; Sa c a.3 

Eternity Abad; Kidam 

Ethics Adab; Akhlak; Hisba 

see also Hurriyya; al-Mahasin wa '1-Masawi; Miskawayh; Tahsin wa-Takbih; Tanzim al- 
Nasl; Zarif; and ->■ Virtues and Vices 

Ethiopia Adal; Ahmad Gran; Awfat; Bali; Dawaro; Djabart; Djimma; Habash; Habashat 
see also Habesh; Kush; Shaykh Husayn; Zar.l; and ->• Africa.east Africa; Languages. 


historians of 'Arabfakih 

population c Amir; Diglal; Djabart; Galla; Marya; Oromo; Rasha'ida 

toponyms Assab; Dahlak; Dire Dawa; Eritrea; Harar; Masawwa'; Ogaden 

Ethnicity Maghariba; Masharika; Sart 

see also Fata; Ibn Gharsiya; Isma'il b. Yasar; Mawla; Saracens 

Etiquette Adab 

see also A'in; Hiba; and ->■ Cuisine.table manners; Literature.etiquette-literature 

Eunuch Khasi 

see also Khadim; Mamluk.3; Ustadh.l 


for imitation of see Tafarnudj; for translations from European works ->• Literature. 

Eastern Europe Arnawutluk; Balkan; Bulgaria; Ikrltish; Kubrus; Leh; Madjar; Yugoslavia; 
[in Suppl.] Ceh 

see also Bulghar; Hizb.v; Ibrahim b. Ya c kub; Muhadjir.2; Muslimun. 1 ; Rumeli; al-Sakaliba 
for individual countries ->• Albania; Bulgaria; Crete; Cyprus; (former) Czecho- 
slovakia; Greece; Hungary; Poland; (former) Yugoslavia; the section Russia be- 
low; and ->■ Balkans 

waters Itil; Tuna; Wardar; Yayik 

Russia Budjak; Kirim 

see also Bulghar; Djadid; Hizb.v; Kayyum Nasiri; al-Tantawi; [in Suppl.] al-Kabk.3 
dynasties Giray 

Muslim Communists [in Suppl.] Sultan 'Ali Ughli 

population Bashdjirt; Besermyans; Beskesek-abaza; Bukharlik; Burtas; Ceremiss; 
Cullm; Cuwash; Gagauz; Karapapakh; Lipka; Rus; Teptyar 
see also Kanghli; Khazar; Kimak; Pecenegs; al-Sakaliba 

ancient Atil; Saksin 

present-day Ak Kirman; Ak Masdjid. 1 ; Azak; Baghce Saray ; Isma c il; Kamanica; 
Karasu-bazar; Kasimov; Kazan; Kefe; Kerc; Khotin; Kilburun; Sughdak; Tiimen 
see also Yeiii Kal'e 
Western Europe al-Bashkunish; Burtukal; Ifrandj; Italiya; Malta; Nemce; Sardaniya 
see also Ibn Idris (II); Ibrahim b. Ya'kub; al-Madjus; Muslimun.2 
for individual countries ->• Austria; France; Italy; Portugal; Spain; and ->• Basques 
Arabic press in Sihafa.3 
Arabic printing in [in Suppl.] Matba c a.6 
waters Tuna 

Evil Eye 'Ayn, Tamima 

see also Karkaddan; and ->• Charms; Islam.popular beliefs 

Faith 'Akida; Iman; [in Suppl.] Takwa 
and -> Islam; Religion 

Falconry Bayzara; Cakirdji-bashi; Doghandji 
see also Toghril 

Fasting 'Ashura'; Ramadan; Sawm 

see also 'Id al-Fitr; Sufiyana; [in Suppl.] Puasa 
prayer during Ramadan Tarawih 

Fatimids ->• Caliphate 

Festival Id; Kanduri; Mawlid (and [in Suppl.]); Mawsim; Shenlik 

see also Matbakh.2 
festivals 'Ansara; c Ashura'.II; Bara Wafat; 'Id al-Adha; 'Id al-Fitr; Khidr-ilyas; Mihragan; 

Nawruz; Sultan al-Talaba (and Talaba) 

see also Ghadir Khumm: Kurds.iv.C.3; Lalish; Lebaran; Ra's al-'Am; Wali.9 
literature on Wehbi Sayyidi 

Finance Riba 

and ->■ Administration.financial; Law.law of obligations; Payments; Taxation 
accounting Muhasaba.2; Mustawfi 

see also Daftar; and ->• Administration.financial 
banking Kirad; Mudaraba; Riba; Suftadja; [in Suppl.] Sarraf 

see also Djahbadh; Sharika 
commerce Bay'; Imtiyazat; Kasb; Kirad; Shira 5 ; Tidjara 

see also Insha'; and ->• Industry; Law.law of obligations 


functions Dallal; Malik al-Tudjdjar; Shah Bandar {and [in Suppl.] Shahbandar); Tadjir; 
[in Suppl.] Sarraf 
see also Tardjuman 
marketplace Hisba; Suk 

see also [in Suppl.] al-Sunami 
trade Kahwa; Karimi; Kutn; Luban; Tin.3 

see also Kalah; Karwan; Kaysariyya; Kirman; Mina 3 ; Safawids.II; Szechuan; Tashaza; 
Tammar; 'Ukaz; Wenedik 

Arabic Bayt al-Mal; Makhzan 
Turkish Khazine; Maliyya 
partnerships Mufawada; Musharaka; Sharika 

terms c Ariyya; Bay'; Daman; Gharim; Hawala; Hiba; Kafala; Kirad; Mudaraba; Mufawada; 
Mukata'a; Mukhatara; Musharaka; Riba; Suftadja; [in Suppl.] Dayn; Sakk 
and -> Law.law of obligations 

Flora (Djazirat) al- c Arab.v; Bustan; Filaha; Hind.i.k 

and -> Architecture.monuments.gardens; Botany; Literature.poetry.nature 
flowers Nardjis; Shakikat al-Nu'man; Susan; Ward; [in Suppl.] Babunadj; Djullanar 

see also Filaha.iv; Lale Devri; Lalezari; Nawriyya; [in Suppl.] Ma 3 al-Ward; and -> 

Architecture.monuments.gardens; Literature.poetry.nature 
plants Adhargun; Afsantin; Afyun; Haifa 3 ; Hinna 3 ; Kammun; Karanful; Karm; Kasab; Na'am; 

Nabat; Sabr; Shibithth; Shih; Shuka'a; Sidr; Simsim; Siradj al-Kutrub (and Yabruh); 

Sus; Turundjan; Wars; Yasamin; Za'faran; [in Suppl.] Akunitun; As; Babunadj; Basbas; 

Djawars; Fadhandj; Hindiba 3 ; Iklil al-Malik 

see also Maryam; Nahl; Namir and Nimr; Nasr; Samgh; Sinnawr; Sirwal; Timsah; and 

-> Drugs.narcotics 
trees Abanus; 'Afs; Argan; Bakkam; Ban; Nakhl; Sadj; Sandal; Sidr; Tin; Tut; 'Unnaba; 

Zaytun.2; [in Suppl.] Djawz; Djullanar 

see also c Ayn Shams; Ghaba; Kafur; Kahruba; Katran; Luban; Samgh; Tha'lab; [in Suppl.] 

woods Abanus; Bakkam; Khashab; Sandal; c Ud.I 

see also Lamu; and ->■ the section Trees above; Navigation.ships and shipyards 

Folklore [in Suppl.] Takalld 

and -> Charms; Custom; Divination; Humour; Legends; Literature.folkloric 

France Arbuna; Fraxinetum 

see also Balat al-Shuhada 3 ; Muslimun.2; Rifa'a Bey al-Tahtawi; Sayigh, Fath Allah; al- 

Franks Ifrandj 

and -> Crusade(r)s 

Furnishings Mafrushat; Siradj; [in Suppl.] Athath 
see also [in Suppl.] Martaba 

Gambling Kimar; al-Maysi 

and -> Animals.sport; Recreation.games 

Genealogy Hasab wa-Nasab; Nasab; Sharif; Shurafa' 

see also 'Irk; Nakib al-Ashraf; Sharaf; and -> Literature.genealogical; Onomastics 

Geography Djughrafiya; Iklim; Istiwa'; Kharita; al-Kubba; Takhtit al-Hudud 
see also Maghrib; Makka.4; Mashrik 

for the geography of individual areas, see Adamawa; Adharbaydjan.i; Afghanistan.!; Ak 
Su; Algeria. i; Anadolu.ii; al-Andalus.ii and iii.2; (Djazlrat) al- c Arab.ii; Arminiya; 
Arnawutluk.3; c Asir; Bahr; Djazira; Filaha; Hammada; Indonesia; 'Irak; Iran; Libiya; al- 
Maghrib; Mazandaran.2; Muritaniya. 1 ; Nadjd.l; Niger. 1; Pakistan; Senegal. 1; al-Sham.l; 
Sistan.2; Somali.2; Tunisia.I.a; 'Uman.l; al-Yaman.2; Zab.l; [in Suppl.] Kazakstan.l; 
Radjasthan. 1 
administrative Kura; Mamlaka; Mikhlaf; Rustak.l; Shahr; Suba; Tassudj; Ustan 

see also Djund; Iklim; Wali 
geographers Abu '1-Fida; Abu 'Ubayd al-Bakri; 'Ashik; al-Balkhi, Abu Zayd; al-Dimashki; 
Ibn 'Abd al-Mun'im al-Himyari; Ibn al-Fakih; Ibn Ghalib; Ibn Hawkal; Ibn 
Khurradadhbih; Ibn Madjid; Ibn Rusta; Ibn Sarabiyun; al-Idrisi; al-Istakhri; al-Kazwini; 
al-Mas'udi; al-Muhallabi, Abu '1-Husayn; al-Mukaddasi; al- c Udhri; al-Warrak, 
Muhammad; Yakut al-Rumi; al-Zuhri, Muhammad 

see also Batlamiyus; Istibsar; Kasim b. Asbagh; al-Masalik wa '1-Mamalik; al-Sarakhsi, 
Abu 'l- c Abbas; [in Suppl.] al-Djayhani; Hudud al-'Alam 
literature Djughrafiya.IV.c and V; Surat al-Ard 

see also Turan; and -> Literature.travel-literature 
physical geography 
deserts -> Deserts 
mountains -> Mountains 
oases Waha 
salt flats Sabkha 

see also Azalay; Milh; Shatt;/or regional salt flats -> Algeria; Oman 
springs c Ayn Dilfa; 'Ayn MQsa; al-Hamma; Hasan Abdal 

see also Kaplidja 
volcanoes see 'Adan; Aghri Dagh; Damawand; Harra; Ladja'; al-Safa.2; [in Suppl.] Djabal 

wadis Wadi 

lakes Baikal; Bakhtigan; Balkhash; Burullus; Gokce-tengiz; Hamun; al-Hula; Issik- 
kul; Kara-kol; Timsah, Lake; Tuz Golu; Urmiya. 1 ; al-'Utayba; Wan. 1 ; Zirih 
see also Buhayra; al-Kulzum; and -»■ Oceans and Seas 
oceans and seas -»■ Oceans and Seas 
rivers -»■ Rivers 

straits Bab al-Mandab; Boghaz-ici; Canak-kare Boghazi 
terms Harra; Khabra'; Nahr; Reg; Rif; Sabkha; Shatt 

see also Sanf; Sarhadd; Wali 
urban Karya; Kasaba; Khitta; Mahalle; Medina; Rabad; Shahr; Shahristan 

see also Fener; Hayy; Khitat; Mallah; Shari'; and -> Architecture.urban; Seden- 
tarism; and in particular the larger cities in the section Toponyms under each country 

Gifts Hiba; Sila.3 

see also Bakhshish; Nithar; Pishkash; Rashwa; and ->■ Payments 


Greece Yunan 

see also Muhadjir.2; Muslimun.l.B.3; Pomaks 
Greek authors in Arabic translation -> Literature.translations; Philosophy.philoso- 


districts Karli-ili 

islands Coka Adasi; Egriboz; Korftiz; Levkas; Limni; Midilli; Nakshe; On Iki Ada; Para; 
Rodos; Sakiz; Santurin Adasi; Semedirek; Shey tanlik; Shire; Sisam; Tashoz; Zaklise; 
[in Suppl.] Yedi Adalar 
see also Djaza 3 ir-i Bahr-i Safid 
regions Mora, Tesalya 

towns Atina; Aynabakhti; Baliabadra; Dede Aghac; Dimetoka; Karaferye; Kawala; 
Kerbenesh; Kesriye; Kordos; Koron; Livadya; Menekshe; Modon; Nauplion; 
Navarino; Olendirek; Preveze; Selanik; Siroz; Tirhala; Wodina; Yanya; Yefii Shehir; 
[in Suppl.] Kuluz; Mezistre 
see also [in Suppl.] Giimiildjine 

Guilds Sinf 

Arabic Amin; c Arif; Futuwwa.ii and iii; Hammal; Harfush; Khatam; Khayyat; Sinf. 1 

see also Shadd; Shaykh; Sirwal 
Persian Sinf.2 

see also Ustadh.2 
Turkish Akhi; Akhi Baba; Anadolu.iii.6; Harir.ii; Ketkhuda.ii; Sinf.3; [in Suppl.] Ikhtiyariyya; 


see also Akhi Ewran; 'Alima; Ca'ush; Kannas; Mawakib.4.4; Muhr. 1 

Guinea Futa Djallon; Guinea; Konakry 
see also Sudan (Bilad al-).2 

Gypsies Cingane; Luli; Nuri 
see also al-Zutt 


Hadith -> Literature.tradition-literature 

Hagiography Manakib 

see also Wali; and -> Sainthood 
hagiographers Aflaki; 'Atal; al-Badisi.2; "Djamali"; Hasan Dihlawi; Ibn c Askar; Ibn Maryam; 
al-Ifrani; al-Kadiri al-Hasani, Abu c Abd Allah; al-Sharrat; al-Sulami, Abu c Abd al- 
see also Ahmad Baba; Bakikhanli; al-Kattani; Sinan Pasha, Khodja. 1 

Hell Ashab al-Ukhdud; Djahannam, Sa'ir; Sakar; Sirat; Zakkum 
see also al-A c raf; Shaytan.l; al-Wa'd wa '1-Wald; al-Zabaniyya 

Hephthalites Hayatila; Nizak, Tarkhan 

Heraldry al-Asad; Rank 

Heresy Bid'a; Dahriyya; Din-i Ilahi; Ghulat; Kabid; Kafir; Khubmeslhis; Mulhid; Zindik 

see also al-Salib; Takfir; Tanasukh; and ->■ Religion.dualism and pantheism 
heretics Abu 'Isa al-Warrak; Abu '1-Khattab al-Asadi; Bashshar b. Burd; Bishr b. Ghiyath 

al-Marisi; Ibn Dirham; Ibn al-Rawandi; Molla Kabid; Muhammad b. c Ali al-Shalmaghani 

see also Thabit Kutna; Waliba b. al-Hubab; and -+ Sects 
refutations of Ibn al-Djawzi, c Abd al-Rahman; [in Suppl.] Afdal al-Din Turka 

History -+ Literature, historical 

for the chronological history of dynastic events ->■ Caliphate; Dynasties;/*?/- the history of 
early Islam ->■ Caliphate. rightly-guided caliphs; Law.early religious law; 
MiLiTARY.BATTLES.622-632 and 633-660; Muhammad, the Prophet; for the history of 
regions, towns and other topographical sites, see the section Toponyms under individual 
countries; for the history of ideas ->■ e.g. Astronomy; Law; Linguistics; Mathematics; 
Philosophy; Theology 

Hostelry Funduk; Khan; Manzil; [in Suppl.] Mihman 
see also Ribat.l.b 

Humour al-Djidd wa '1-Hazl; Nadira 

see also Hidja'.ii; Mudjun 
comic figures Djuha; Ibn al-Djassas.II; Nasr al-Din Khodja 

humourists Ash'ab; al-Ghadiri; Ibn Abi c Atik; Ibn Daniyal; Kasab, Teodor; Sifawayh al-Kass; 
[in Suppl.] Abu 'l-'Anbas al-Saymari 

Hungary Budin; Egri; Esztergom; Istolni (Istoni) Belghrad; Madjar; Mohacs; Pecs; Pest; 
Sigetwar; Szeged; Szekesfehervar; [in Suppl.] Koszeg 
see also Bashdjirt; Kanizsa; Mahmud Tardjuman; Mezokeresztes; Muslimun.l.B.l; Ofen 

Hunting Sayd 

see also Kurds.iv.C.5; Samak; Shikari; Zaghardji Bashi; [in Suppl.] Segban; and ->■ Ani- 
mals; Falconry 
poetry Tardiyya 

see also Radjaz 
treatises on Kushadjim; [in Suppl.] Ibn Mangli 

see also al-Shamardal 
wild animals Fahd; Khinzir; Mahat; Na'am; Namir and Nimr; Saluki; [in Suppl.] Dabu' 

Hydrology Bi'r; Kanat; Ma 5 ; Ma'sir; Tahun 

see also Filaha; Kantara.5 and 6; Madjrit; al-Mizan.2; Sa'a.l; and -+ Architecture, 
monuments.dams; Geography. waters 

Idolatry Shirk; Wathaniyya 

idols Nusub; Sanam: Taghut. 1 ; al-Ukaysir 

see also Shaman; Zun; and ->■ Pre-Islam.in Arabian peninsula 

Illness Madjnun; Malarya; Ramad; Saratan.7; [in Suppl.] Djudham 

see also Kalb; Kutrub; Summ; and -*■ Plague 
treatises on Hayati-zade; Ibn Butlan; Ibn Djazla 

see also [in Suppl.] 'Ukala' al-Madjanin; and ->■ Medicine 

India Hind; Hindi 

see also 'Ada.iii; Balhara; Imam-bara; Matba'a.4; Sikkat al-Hadid. 1 ; and ->■ Literature; 
Military; Music 
administration Baladiyya.5; Dariba.6; Diwan.v; Djizya.iii; Hisba.iv; Katib.iii; Kharadj.IV; 

Pargana; Safir.3; Tahsil; Zamindar; [in Suppl.] Ta'alluk 

see also Kitabat.10; Ma\9; Wakf.VI; and -> Military.indo-muslim 
during British rule [in Suppl.] Mufassal 
agriculture Filaha.v 
architecture -> Architecture.regions 

belles-lettres ->■ Literature.in other languages and poetry.indo-persian 
cuisine Matbakh.4 
dynasties 'Adil-Shahs; Bahmanis; Barid Shahis; Dihli Sultanate; Farukids; Ghaznavids; 

Ghurids; Hindu-Shahis; 'Imad Shahi; Khaldiis; Kutb Shahis; Lodis; Mughals; Nizam 

Shahis; Sayyids; Sharkis; Tughlukids 

see also Awadh; Dar al-Darb; Rana Sanga; TIpu Sultan; Vidjayanagara; and -> 


education Dar al-'Ulum.c andd; Djami'a; Madjma 1 'Ilmi.iv; Madrasa.II; Nadwat al-'Ulama'; 

[in Suppl.] Farangi Mahall; Jamia Millia Islamia 

see also Ahmad Khan; Deoband; Mahmudabad Family; [in Suppl.] Muhammad 'Abd 

historians of Ghulam Husayn Khan Tabataba'i; Nizam al-DIn Ahmad b. al-HarawI; Sudjan 

Ray Bhandari 

see also Dja'far Sharif; al-Ma'bari; Mir Muhammad Ma'sum; and -> Dynasties. 


languages Gudjarati; Hindi; Hindustanis and ii; Lahnda; MarathI; Pandjabl. 1 ; Sind.3.a; Urdu. 1 ; 
[in Suppl.] Radjasthan.3 

see also Kitabat.10; and -> Languages.indo-iranian 
literature -> Literature 

modern period Djam'iyya.v; Hindustani.iii; Hizb.vi; Indian National Congress; Islah.iv; 
Kashmir.ii; Kawmiyya.vi; Khaksar; Khilafa; Madjlis.4.C; al-Mar'a.5; Nikah.II.3; [in 
Suppl.] Djarida.vii; Mahkama.5 

see also Mahsud; Mappila; Tablighl Djama'at; [in Suppl.] Fakir of Ipi; Khan, c Abd al- 
Ghaffar; and -> India.education 
e against the British Yaghistan 
Indian Mutiny Azim Allah Khan; Bakht Khan; Imdad Allah; Kanpur 
Khildfat movement Khilafa; Muhammad C A1I; Mushir Husayn Kidwa'I; Shawkat 
C A1I; [in Suppl.] c Abd al-Bari; Hasrat Mohan! 
see also Amir 'All; [in Suppl.] Khan, c Abd al-Ghaffar 
Nawwab Sayyid Siddik Hasan Khan; Salar Djang; [in Suppl.] Azad, Abu '1- 

see also Mahmudabad Family 
mysticism -> Mysticism.mystics; Sainthood.saints 
physical geography 

waters Djamna; Ganga 
see also Nahr.2 
population Bhatti; Bohoras; Dawudpotras; Djat; Gakkhaf; Gandapur; Giidjar; Habshi; Hind.ii; 
Khatak; Khokars; Lambadis; Mappila; Med; Memon; Me'6; Naitias; Parsis; Radjputs; 
Rohillas; Shikari; Sidi; [in Suppl.] Demography .VII 
see also Khodja; Marathas; al-Zutt 


Tamils Ceylon; Labbai; Marakkayar; Rawther 
religion Ahl-i Hadith; Barahima; Djayn; Hindu; Ibahatiya; Mahdawls; Pandj PIr; Sikhs; 
Tablighi Djama'at; [in Suppl.] PIrpanthi 

see also Kh w adja Khidr; Parsis; Ta'ziya; Yusuf Kandhalawi Dihlawi; Zakariyya 
Kandhalawi Saharanpuri; [in Suppl.] Andjuman-i Khuddam-i Ka c ba; and -*■ Mysticism; 
Sainthood; Theology 
reform Ahmad Brelwi; al-DihlawI, Shah Wall Allah; Isma'il Shahid; Karamat C A1I; Nanak; 
Titu Mir 

ancient Arur; Campaner; Chat; Djaba; Djandjira; Fathpur-sikri; HampI; Husaynabad; 
Kulam; Lakhnawti; al-Mansura; Mewaf; Nandurbar; Narnawl; Pandu'a; Shikarpur.2; 
Sldhpur; Sindabur; Slndan; Sumanat; Telingana; Tonk; TribenI; Wayhind 

and -»• Asia.south 

regions Assam; Bihar; Bombay State; Dakhan; Djaypur; Do'ab; Gudjarat; Hariyana; 
Haydarabad.b; Kamrup; Kashmir; Khandesh; Kuhistan.4; Ladakh; Ludhiana; 
Ma'bar; Mahisur; Malabar; Mew at; Muzaffarpur; Nagpur; Palamaw; Palanpur; 
Pandjab; Radhanpur; Rampur; Rohilkhand; Sundarban; Tirhut; Urisa; [in Suppl.] 
Djammu; Konkan; Radjasthan; Rohtak 

see also Alwar; Banganapalle; Baoni; Berar; Djodhpur; Hunza and Nagir; 
Udaypur; [in Suppl.] Sarkar.2 
towns Adjmer; Agra; Ahmadabad; Ahmadnagar; Aligarh; Allahabad; Ambala; 
Amritsar; Anhalwara; Arcot; Awadh; Awrangabad; Awrangabad Sayyid; 
A'zamgarh; Bada'un; Bala-ghat; Banda; Bankipur; Banur; Bareilly; Baroda; 
Benares; Bharatpur; Bharoc; Bhattinda; Bhopal; Bidar; Bidjapur; Bidjnawr; 
Bilgram; Bombay City; Bulandshahr; Burhanpur; Buxar; Calcutta; Canderi; 
Dawlatabad; Deoband; Dhar; Dharwar; Dihli; Diu; Djalor; Djawnpur; F^junagafh; 
Dyunnar; Dwarka; Faridkot; Farrukhabad; Faydabad; Firuzpur; Gulbarga; 
Gwaliyar; Hansi; Haydarabad.a; Hisar Firuza; Idar; Islamabad; Itawa; Kalpi; 
Kalyani; Kanawdj; Kafigfa; Kannanur; Kanpur; Karnal; Karnatak; Katahr; 
Khambayat; Khayrabad; Khuldabad; Kofa; Koyl; Lakhnaw; Lalitpur; Ludhiana; 
Madras; Mahim; Mahim; Mahur; Malda; Malwa; Mandu; Maner; Mangrol; 
Mathura; Mirath; Mirzapur; Multan; Mungir; Muradabad; Murshidabad; 
Muzaffarpur; Nadjibabad; Nagar; Nagawr; Nagpur; Naldrug; Nandef; Panipat; 
Parenda; Patan; Patna; Puna; Radjmahal; Raycur; Saharanpur; Sahsaram; 
Sarangpur; Sardhana; Sarkhedj; Shakarkhelda; Shikarpur.3; Sholapur; Sirhind; 
Srinagar; Sriangapattanam; Surat; Talikota; Thalner; Thana; f hanesar; f hatfa; 
Udgir; Udjdjayn; Warangal; [in Suppl.] Amroha; Elicpur; Ghazipur; Iric; Kalikat; 
Madura; Rohtak 

Indonesia Baladiyya.7; Dustur.xi; Hizb.vii; Hukuma.vi; Indonesia; Mahkama.6; Malays; 
Masjumi; [in Suppl.] Dariba.7; Hoesein Djajadiningrat; Sukarno 
see also c Ada.iv; Nikah.II.4; Pasisir; Prang Sabil; [in Suppl.] al-Mar'a.6 

architecture ->■ Architecture.regions 

education Djami'a; Pesantren 

literature Indonesia.vi; Kissa.6; Mi'radj.4; Sha c ir.7; Ta'rikh.II.7; [in Suppl.] Shi c r.5 
see also Kitabat.8; Malays; and -> Literature.poetry.mystical 

Muslim movements Padri; Sarekat Islam 
see also Sulawesi 

mysticism-^ Mysticism.mystics 


population Malays; Minangkabau; [in Suppl.] Demography .VIII 

see also Sayabidja 
religion ->■ Mysticism.mystics; Sainthood.saints 
festivals Kanduri; Lebaran 

see also [in Suppl.] Puasa 
recitation competitions [in Suppl.] Musabaka 
toponyms Ambon; Atjeh; Banda Islands; Bandjarmasin; Bangka; Batjan; Billiton; Borneo 
{and [in Suppl.]); Djakarta; Kubu; Kutai; Lombok; Madura; Makassar; Palembang; Pase; 
Pasir; Pontianak; Riau; Sambas; Sulawesi (and Celebes); Sumatra; Sunda Islands; 
Surakarta; Ternate; Tidore; [in Suppl.] Kalimantan; Mataram; Yogyakarta 
see also Zabadj 

Industry Harir; Kattan; Kutn; Lubud; Milh 

see also Bursa; al-Iskandariyya; Kaysariyya; Zonguldak 

Inheritance c Ada.iii; Akdariyya; c Awl; Fara'id; Mirath; al-Sahm.2; Wasiyya; Yatim.2 

see also Kassam; Khal; Makhredj; Mukhallefat; Tanasukh 
works on al-Sadjawandi, Siradj al-Din; al-Tilimsani.2; al- c Ukbari 

Inventions 'Abbas b. Firnas; Ibn Madjid; Musa (Banu); Sa c a. 1 

Iran al-Furs; Iran; Kurds; Lur 

see also al- c Arab.iii; Harb.v; Kitabat.9; Libas.iii; Zurkhana; and ->• Dynasties. Persia; 
Shiites; Zoroastrians 
administration Dariba.5; Diplomatic.iii; Diwan.iv; Ghulam.ii; Imtiyazat.iii; Katib.ii; Khalisa; 

Kharadj.II; Mahkama.3; Parwanaci; [in Suppl.] Shahbandar 

see also Kalantar; Wakf.III; and ->■ Iran.modern period 
agriculture Filaha.iii 
architecture ->■ Architecture.regions 
art ->■ Art.regional and period 
before Islam Anusharwan; Ardashir; Bahrain; Dara; Darabdjird; Dihkan; Djamshid; Faridun; 

al-Hadr; Hayatila; Hurmuz; al-Hurmuzan; Karinids; Kayanids; Kay Ka 3 us; Kay Khusraw; 

Khurshid: Kisra; Marzpan; Mazdak; Muluk al-TawaMf.l; Parwiz, Khusraw (II); 

Pishdadids; Sasanids; Shapur; Tahmurath; Yazdadjird III; [in Suppl.] Farrukhan 

see also Afrasiyab; Buzurgmihr; Hamadhan; Ikhshid; Iran.iv; Ispahbadh; Kasr-i Shirin; 

Kumis; al-Mada 5 in; al-Rayy; Rustam b. Farrukh Hurmuzd; Sarpul-i Dhuhab; Tansar; 

[in Suppl.] Dabir; and -> Zoroastrians 
cuisine [in Suppl.] Matbakh.3 
dynasties ->■ Dynasties.persia 
historians of Hamza al-Isfahani; Ibn Manda; al-Mafarrukhi; al-Rafi c i; Zahir al-Din Mar c ashi; 

[in Suppl.] al-Kummi 

and ->■ Dynasties.persia 
language ->■ Languages.indo-iranian 
literature ->■ Literature 
modernperiod Baladiyya.4; Djami c a; Djam'iyya.iii; Djarida.ii; Dustur.iv; Hizb.iii; Hukuma.ii; 

Iran.v.b; Islah.ii; Kawmiyya.iii; Ma'arif.3; Madjlis.4.A.iii; Madjma c 'Ilmi.ii; al-Mar'a.3; 

Shuyu c iyya.2; Takrib; [in Suppl.] Demography .III; Nizam c Askari.2; Sihafa.4 

see also Khaz'al Khan; Madjlis al-Shura; Mahkama.3; [in Suppl.] Amir Nizam; and ->■ 

Dynasties.persia.kadjars and pahlawIs; Shiites 
activists Fida 5 iyyan-i Islam; Kashani, Ayatullah; Kh w ansari. Sayyid Muhammad; Khiyabani. 
Shaykh Muhammad; Khurasani; Kucak Khan Djangali; Lahuti; Mahallati; Samsam 

66 IRAN 

al-Saltana; Talakani; [in Suppl.] Aka Nadjafi; Haydar Khan 'Amu Ughli; 'Ishki 
see also Djangali; Kurds.iii. C; Yazdl; Zayn al-'Abidin Maragha'i; [in Suppl.] Azadi; 
influential persons Kasrawi Tabrizi; Malkom Khan; Mutahhari; Na'ini; Nuri, Shaykh Fadl 

Allah; Sharfati, 'Ali; Tihrani; [in Suppl.] Aka Khan Kirmani; Khumayni 
statesmen Musaddik; Tabataba'i; Takizada; Wuthuk al-Dawla; [in Suppl.] Amir Kabir 
physical geography 
deserts Biyabanak 

mountains Ala Dagh; Alburz; Alwand Kuh; Bisutun; Damawand; Hamrin; Hawraman; 

see also Sarhadd 
waters Atrek; Bakhtigan, Hamun; Karkha; Karun; Mand; Ruknabad; Safid Rud; Shah 
Rud.l; Shapur; Shatt al- c Arab; Urmiya.l; Zayanda-Rud; Zirih 
see also Bahr Faris 
population Bakhtiyari; Bazukiyyun; Bilbas; Djaf; Eymir.3; Goklan; Guran; (Banu) Ka'b; Kara 
Gozlu; Kashkay; Kurds; Lam; Lur; Shabankara; Shahsewan; Shakak; Shakaki; Sindjabi; 

see also Daylam; Dulafids; Eymir.2; Firuzanids; Iran.ii; Kufs; Shulistan; Tat. 1 ; [in Suppl.] 
Demography .III 
religion Iran.vi; Safawids.IV 

and ->■ Mysticism.mystics; Sainthood.saints; Shhtes 

ancient Abarshahr; Ardalan; Arradjan; 'Askar Mukram; Badj; Bakusaya; Bayhak; 
Darabdjird; Daskara; Dawrak; Dihistan; Dinawar; al-Djazira; Djibal; Djiruft; Gurgan; 
Hafrak; Hulwan; Idhadj; Istakhr; (al-)Karadj; Khargird.2; Kumis; Kurkub; 
Mihragan.iv. 1 ; Narmashir; Nasa; Nawbandadjan; al-Rayy; Rudhbar.2; Rudhrawar; 
Saymara; Shapur; Shulistan; al-Siradjan; Siraf; Sisar; Suhraward; al-Sus; Talakan.2; 
Tarum; Tawwadj; Tun; Turshiz; Tus; Tusan; Urm; Ustuwa; Zarang; [in Suppl.] 
Arghiyan; Ghubayra 

islands al-Farisiyya; Tunb 

provinces Adharbaydjan; Balucistan; Fars; Gilan; Hamadhan; Isfahan; Khurasan; 
Khuzistan; Kirman; Kirmanshah; Kurdistan; Mazandaran; Yazd 
see also Astarabadh.2; Ruyan; Tabaristan 
regions Bakharz; Hawraman; Kuhistan.l; Makran; Sarhadd; Sistan; [in Suppl.] 
see also Gulistan 
towns and districts Abadah; Abarkuh; 'Abbadan; c Abbasabad; Abhar; al-Ahwaz; 
Amul.l; Ardakan; Ardistan; Asadabadh; Ashraf; Astarabadh.l; Awa; Bam; 
Bampur; Bandar 'Abbas; Bandar Pahlawi; Barfurush; Barudjird; Barzand; 
Birdjand; Bistam; Bushahr; Damghan; Dizful; Djannaba; Djuwayn.l and 2; 
Farahabad; Faryab; Fasa; Firuzabad; Fuman; Gulpayagan; Gunbadh-i Kabus; 
Hurmuz; Isfahan; Isfarayin; Kashan; Kasr-i Shirin; Kazarun; Kazwin; Kh w af; 
Khalkhal; Kh w ar; Kharag; Khargird.l; Khoi; Khurramabad: Khurramshahr; 
Kinkiwar; Kishm; Kucan; Kuhistan.2; Kuhrud; Kum; Lahidjan; Lar (2x); Linga; 
Luristan; Mahabad; Maku; Maragha; Marand; Mashhad; Miyana; Narak; Natanz; 
Nayriz; Nihawand; Nishapur; Rafsandjan; Ram-hurmuz; Rasht; Rudhbar.3; 
Sabzawar.l; Sahna; Sa'inKara; Sakkiz; Salmas; Sanandadj; Sarakhs; Sari; Sarpul- 
i Dhuhab; Sarwistan; Sawa; Shah Rud.3; Shiraz; Shushtar; Simnan; al-Siradjan; 
Somay; Sulduz; Sultanabad; Sultaniyya; Sunkur; al-Sus; Tabas; Tabriz; Tarum; 
Tihran; Turbat-i [Shaykh-i] Djam; Turkmen Cay (i); Urmiya.2; Ushnu; Waramin; 

Yazd; Zahidan; Zandjan; Zawa; Zawara; Zawzan; [in Suppl.] Bashkard; Biyar; 

Djardjarm; Djulfa.II; Hawsam; Ka'in; Khumayn 

see also Shahr; Shahristan; Tun; and -+ Kurds.toponyms 

Iraq 'Irak; Kurds 

see also al-'Arabiyya; Djalili; Lakhmids; Sawad; Shaharidja; [in Suppl.] Suk.5; and -+ 
Caliphate.'abbasids; Dynasties.egypt and the fertile crescent 
architecture -+ Architecture.regions 
before Islam -+ Pre-Islam.in fertile crescent 

historians of al-Azdi; Bahshal; Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur; Ibn al-Banna 5 ; Ibn al-Dubaythi; al- 
Khatib al-Baghdadi; 'Ubayd Allah b. Ahmad b. Abi Tahir 

see also Ibn al-Nadjdjar; [in Suppl.] Ta'rikh.II.l.(c); and -+ Caliphate.'abbasids; 
Dynasties.egypt and the fertile crescent 
modern period Djarida.i.A; Djami c a; Dustur.vi; Hizb.i; Hukuma.iii; Kurds. iii.C; 
Madjlis.4.A.iv; Madjma' c Ilmi.i.2.c; Mahkama.4.iv; Mandates; Sihafa.l.(vii); [in Suppl.] 
Nizam 'Askari.l.fc) 

see also Baban; Kut al- c Amara; al-Mawsil.2 

poets al-Akhras; al-Faruki; al-Kazimi, c Abd al-Muhsin; Ma'ruf al-Rusafi; Sha'ul; 

al-Zahawi, Djamil Sidki 
writers of prose Sha'ul 
monarchy Faysal I; Faysal II; Ghazi 

see also Hashimids 
opposition leaders Kasim c Abd al-Karim; Mustafa Barzani 
politicians al-Shahrastani, Sayyid Muhammad; Shina 
prime ministers Nuri al-Sa'id; Rashid c Ali al-Gaylani 
physical geography 
mountains Sindjar 

waters Abu T-Khasib; al-'Adaym; Didjla; Diyala; al-Furat; Khabur; al-Khazir; Shatt al- 
'Arab; al-Zab 
population Badjalan; Bilbas; Djubur; Dulaym; Lam; al-Manasir; Turkmen.3 

see also Shammar; [in Suppl.] Demography.III; and -+ Kurds 

ancient Abarkubadh; 'Akarkuf; c Alth; al-Anbar; Babil; Badjimza; Badjisra; Baduraya; 
Bakhamra; Baradan; Baratha; Bawazidj; Bihkubadh; Birs; Dayr 'Abd al-Rahman; 
Dayr al- c Akul; Dayr al-A'war; Dayr al-Djamadjim; Diyar Rabi'a; Djabbul; al-Djazira; 
Falludja; Haditha.I; Harba'; Harura 5 ; Hawiza; al-Hira; al-Kadisiyya; Kalwadha; 
Kaskar; Kasr ibn Hubayra; Khanikln; al-Khawarnak; Kutha; Kutrabbul; al-Mada'in; 
Niffar; Nimrud; Ninawa; al-Nukhayla; al-Rusafa.l; Samarra'; al-Taff; al-Ubulla; al- 
Warka 5 ; Wasit; [in Suppl.] 'Ukbara 
see also al-Karkh; Nusratabad; Senkere 

regions Bahdinan; al-Batiha; Maysan 

see also Lalish 
towns Altin Kdprii; c Amadiya; c Amara; 'Ana; 'Ayn al-Tamr; Badra; Baghdad; 
Ba'kuba; Balawat; Barzan; al-Basra; Dakuka 5 ; Daltawa; Diwaniyya; al-Falludja; 
Haditha.II; al-Hilla; Hit; Irbil; Karbala 5 ; Kazimayn; Kirkuk; al-Kufa; Kut al- 
'Amara; Ma'althaya; al-Mawsil; al-Nadjaf; al-Nasiriyya; Nusratabad; Rawandiz; 
Samarra'; al-Samawa.2; Senkere; Shahrazur; Sindjar; Suk al-Shuyukh; Sulay- 
maniyya; Takrit; Zakhu; [in Suppl.] Athur 
see also Djalula 5 ; and -> Kurds.toponyms 

Irrigation Band; Kanat; Ma'; Na'ura 

see also Filaha; Karun; al-Nahrawan; and -»■ Rivers 

water Ma' 

see also Hawd; Sabll.2; Sakka'; and^> Architecture.monuments; Hydrology; Navi- 
gation; Oceans and Seas; Rivers 

Islam 'Akida; Din; Djama'a; 'Ibadat; Islam; Masdjid; Muhammad; Murtadd; Muslim; Rukn. 1 ; 
Shi'a: Takiyya; Tawhid; Umma 

see also Islah; Ftikaf; Nubuwwa; Rahbaniyya; Shirk; Tawakkul; and -»■ Ablution; Alms; 
Fasting; Pilgrimage; Prayer; Qur'an; Theology 
conversion to Islam.ii 

early converts to -»■ Muhammad, the Prophet.companions of 
European converts Pickthall 
five pillars of Islam Hadjdj; Salat; Sawm; Shahada; Zakat 

see also 'Ibadat; al-Kurtubi, Yahya; Rukn.l; c Umra; [in Suppl.] Ramy al-Djimar 
formulas Allahumma; Basmala; Hamdala; In Sha' Allah; Masha' Allah; Salam; Subhan; 
Ta'awwudh; Tahlil.2; Takbir; Talbiya; Tashahhud; Tasliya 
see also Tashrik; [in Suppl.] Abbreviations 
popular beliefs c Ayn; Diw; Djinn; Ghul; Muhammad.2; Zar; [in Suppl.] c A'isha Kandisha; 

see also c Anka'; Shafa c a.2; and -»■ Law.customary law 
preaching Kass; Wa'iz 
proselytism Da'wa; Tablighi Djama'at 
Western studies of Mawsu c a.4 

Israel -»■ Palestine/Israel 

Italy Italiya; Kawsara; Killawriya; Rumiya; Sardaniya; Sikilliya; Wenedik 
and -»■ Sicily 

Ivory Coast Cote d'lvoire; Kong 

Jacobites -»■ Christianity.denominations 

Jewelry [in Suppl.] Djawhar 

see also Khatam 
pearls and precious stones c Akik; al-Durr; Kuh-i Nur; Lu'lu'; Mardjan; Yakut; Zumurrud 
see also Dhahab; Fidda; Hadjar; Kahruba; Ma c din.2.3 

Jordan Dustur.x; Hukuma.iii; Madjlis.4.A.vii; Mahkama.4.vi; Mandates; Sihafa. 1 .(vi); al- 


see also Taki al-Din al-Nabhani 
physical geography 

mountains al-Djibal; al-Tur.5 

waters al-Urdunn. 1 ; Yarmuk. 1 
population al-Huwaytat; al-Manasir 

see also [in Suppl.] Demography .III 
statesmen 'Abd Allah b. al-Husayn; Wasfi al-Tall 

see also Hashimids 

ancient Adhruh; Ayla; al-Balka 1 ; Djarash; al-Djarba'; al-Djibal; Fahl; al-Humayma; al- 

Muwakkar; Umm al-Rasas; Umm al-Walid 
present-day ' Adjlun; al-'Akaba; 'Amman; Bay t Ras; al-Ghawr. 1 ; Irbid.I; Ma'an; al-Salt; 
al-Shawbak; al-Zarka 1 ; [in Suppl.] Mafrak 

Judaism Ahl al-Kitab; Banu Isra'il; Tawrat; Yahud 

see also Filastin; Hud; Nasi 3 ; al-Samira; and -> Bible; Palestine/Israel 
communities al-Andalus.iv; al-Fasiyyun; Iran.ii and vi; Isfahan. 1; al-Iskandariyya; 

Istanbul. vii.b; al-Kuds; Lar.2; Mallah; Marrakush; Sufruy 
influences in Islam c Ashura\I 

see also Kibla; Muhammad.i.I.C.2 
Jewish personages in Muslim world c Abd Allah b. Salam; Abu c Isa al-Isfahani; Abu Naddara; 
Dhu Nuwas; Hamon; Hasday b. Shaprut; Ibn Abi '1-Bayan; Ibn Djami'; Ibn Djanah; Ibn 
Gabirol; Ibn Kammuna; Ibn Maymun; Ibn Ya'ish; Ibrahim b. Ya'kub; Ishak b. Sulayman 
al-Isra 3 ili; Ka c b b. al-Ashraf; al-K6hen al- c Attar; Masardjawayh; Masha' Allah; Musa b. 
'Azra; al-Radhaniyya; Sa'adya Ben Yosef; Sa'd al-Dawla; al-Samaw 3 al b. 'Adiya; 
Shabbatay Sebi; Sha'ul; Shina; Ya'kub Pasha; [in Suppl.] Camondo; Ibn Biklarish; Nissim 
b. Ya'kub, Ibn Shahin 

see also Abu '1-Barakat; Ka'b al-Ahbar; Kaynuka'; Kurayza; 'Uzayr; [in Suppl.] Samaw'al 
b. Yahya al-Maghribi, Abu Nasr 
Jewish sects 'Ananiyya; al-'Isawiyya; Karaites 
Judaeo-Christian sects SabFa.l 

see also Nasara 
Judaeo-Muslim sects Shabbatay Sebi 
Jewish-Muslim relations 

persecution Dhimma; Djizya; Qhiyar; al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah; al-Maghili; Shi'ar.4; Zunnar 
polemics Abu Ishak al-Ilbiri; Ibn Hazm, Abu Muhammad; al-Su'udi, Abu '1-Fadl; 'Uzayr; 
[in Suppl.] Samaw'al b. Yahya al-Maghribi, Abu Nasr 
see also Ahl al-Kitab; Tahrif; Yahud 
with Muhammad Fadak; Kaynuka'; Khaybar; Kurayza; al-Madina.i.l; Nadir 
see also Muhammad. LLC 
language and literature Judaeo- Arabic; Judaeo-Berber; Judaeo-Persian; Kissa.8; Risala. 1 .VII 
see also Geniza; Mukhtasar; Musammat; Muwashshah; Yusuf and Zulaykha.l; and 
-> Languages.afroasiatic.hebrew; Lexicography. lexicographers; Literature, 
in other languages 


Kenya Gede; Kenya; Kilifi; Lamu; Malindi; Manda; MazrQ'i; Mombasa; Pate; Siu 
see also Nabhan; Swahili; [in Suppl.] Djarida.viii; and -> Africa.east Africa 

Swahili literature Kissa.7; Madih.5; Marthiya.5; Mathal.5; [in Suppl.] Hamasa.vi; Nadira.2 
see also Mi'radj.3 
poets Shaaban Robert 
song Siti Binti Saad 

Koran -> QurXn 

Kurds Kurds 


see also Kitab al-Djilwa; and ->■ Iran; Iraq; Turkey 
for Kurdish press in Turkey, see [in Suppl.] Sihafa.5 
dynasties 'Annazids; Baban; Fadlawayh; Hasanwayh; Marwanids; Rawwadids; Shaddadids 

see also Kurds. iii.B 
Kurdish national movement Badrkhani; Kadi Muhammad; Kurds.iii.C; Mustafa Barzani 

see also Barzan; Mahabad 
languages Kurds. v; Tur 'AbdinAiii 
sects Sarliyya; Shabak; Yazldi 
toponyms Ardalan; Bahdinan; Baradust; Barzan; Djawanrud; Hakkari.2; Rawandiz; Sakkiz; 

Sanandadj; Sawdj-Bulak; Shahrazur; Shamdinan; Somay; Sulaymaniyya; Zakhu 

see also Kirkuk; Kurds.ii; Oramar; Shabankara; Slsar 
tribes D^af; Hakkari.l; Hamawand; Kurds.iii.B and iv.A.2; Lak.l; Shabankara; Shakak; 

Shakaki; Sindjabi 

see also Zaza 

Kuwait Eyarida.i.A; Dustur.xvi; al-Kuwayt; Madjlis.4.A.ix; Mahkama.4.ix; Sabah, Al; 


see also (^azirat) al- c Arab; al-'Arabiyya; Eyami'a; 'Utub 
toponyms al-Dibdiba; fin Suppl.] Ahmadi 
see also Karya al- c Ulya 

Lamentation Bakka 1 ; Niyaha; Rawda-kh w ani 

Land ->■ Property; Taxation 

in the sense of agriculture, see Filaha; in the sense of cooperative ownership, see Ta'awun; 
in the sense of surveying, see Misaha; Rawk 

Languages Lugha 

and ->■ Linguistics; Writing.scripts 
Afro-Asiatic Ham; Sam.2 

see also KarshunI; Ma'lula.2; Sullam 
Arabic Arabiyya.A 

see also Ibn Makki; Karwasha; Khatt: Madjma c 'Ilmi.i; al-SIm; Ta'rib; [in Suppl.] 
Hadramawt.iii; and ->■ Alphabet 

Arabic dialects Algeria.v; Aljamia; al-Andalus.x; Arabiyya.A.iii; 'Irak.iv; Judaeo- 
Arabic.i and ii; LIbiya.2; al-Maghrib.VII; Mahri; Malta.2; Muritaniya.6; al-Sa c id.2; 
al-Sham.3; Shawiya.3; Shuwa; Si'ird; Sudan.2; Sudan (Bilad al-).3; Tunisia.IV; 
Tur c Abdin.4.i; c Uman.4; al-Yaman.5 

see also Ibn al-Birr; Takrlt; al-Tantawi; c Utub; Zawdj.2 and [in Suppl.] 3; and ->■ 
Christian Arabic KarshunI; Shaykhu, Luwls 

see also c Arabiyya.A.ii.l; Tur c AbdIn.4 
Judaeo-Arabic ->■ Judaism.language and literature; Literature.in other 


Bantu Swahili; Yao 

Berber Berbers.V; Judaeo-Berber; Muritaniya.6; Siwa.2; Takbaylit; Tamazight; Tarifiyt; 

Tashelhit; Tawarik.2 

see also Mzab; Tifinagh 


Berber words in Arabic Afrag; Agadir; Agdal; Amenokal; Amghar; Argan; Ayt; 

see also Kallala; Rif.I.2(a); Tit 
Chadic Hausa.ii 

see also Wadai.2 
Cushitic Kush; Somali.5 
Ethiopian-Semitic Eritrea.iv; Habash.iv 
Hebrew Ibn Djanah 
Neo-Aramaic Tur c Abdin.4.ii 
North Arabian Lihyan; Safaitic; Thamudic 

and -»■ Epigraphy 
South Arabian Saba 5 ; [in Suppl.] Kahtanite 

see also Hadramawt; al-Harasis; al-Sawda 5 ; Zabur; and -► Epigraphy 
Modern South Arabian Mahri; Shihri; Sukutra.3 

see also al-Batahira; al-Harasis; [in Suppl.] Hadramawt.iii 
Teda-Daza Kanuri; Tubu.3 
Austronesian Atjeh; Indonesia.iii; Malays 
Ibero-Caucasian Andi; Beskesek-abaza; Cerkes; Daghistan; Darghin; al-Kabk; Kayyum Nasiri 

see also al-Kurdj; Tsakhur 
Indo-European Arnawutluk. 1 ; [in Suppl.] South Africa.2 
see also al-Kabk 

Indian Afghanistan. iii; Bengali. i; Ceylon; Chitral.II; Dardic and Kafir Languages; 
Gudjarati; Hind. iii; Hindi; Hindustani; Kashmiri; Lahnda; Maldives. 2; Marathi; 
Pandjabi.l; Sind.3.a; Urdu.l; [in Suppl.] Radjasthan.3 
see also Madjma' Tlmi.iv; Sidi; [in Suppl.] Burushaski 
Iranian Afghan.ii; Afghanistan.iii; Balucistan.B; Dari; Guran; Hind.iii; Trak.iv.b; 
Judaeo-Persian.ii; Kurds. v; Lur; Tadjiki. 1 ; Talish.2; Tat.2; Tur 'Abdin.4.iii; Zaza; 
[in Suppl.] Iran.iii 

see also Daghistan; al-Kabk; Kh w arazm; Madjma' Tlmi.ii; Ossetians; Shughnan; 
al-Sughd; [in Suppl.] Ishkashim 
Persian dialects Simnan.3 
(Niger-jKordofanian Nuba.3 

Nilo-Saharan Nuba.3; Songhay.l; Sudan.2; Wadai.2 
Turkic Adhari; Balkar; Bulghar; Gagauz; Khaladj.2; Turks.II (and [in Suppl.]) 

see also Afghanistan.iii; Daghistan; al-Kabk; Khazar; Madjma c Tlmi.iii; Sart; [in Suppl.] 

Law 'Ada; Dustur; Fikh; Tbadat; Idjma'; Kanun.i and iii; Kiyas; Mahkama; Shari'a; Tashri'; 
c Urf; Usui al-Fikh; [in Suppl.] Madhhab; Makasid al-Shari c a; Ra>y 
see also Ashab al-Ra 5 y; Hukuk; Siyasa.3; and ->■ Divorce; Inheritance; Marriage 
for questions of law, see 'Abd.3; Djasus; Filaha.i.4; Harb.i; Harir; In Sha' Allah; Intihar; 
Kabr; Kafir; Khalisa; Khitba; Ma'; al-Mar 5 a; Murtadd; Rada'; Rakid; Rashwa; Safar.l; 
Sha c r.2; Sura; al-Suraydjiyya; 'Urs.l.c; Wakf.1.3; Wilaya.l 
Anglo-Mohammedan law 'Ada.iii; Amir c Ali; Munsif; [in Suppl.] Mahkama.5 

see also Hanafiyya 
commercial law -»■ Finance; and see the section Law of Obligations below 
customary law 'Ada; Dakhil; Kanun.iv; Taghut.2; Tha'r; c Urf; [in Suppl.] Djirga 

see also Baranta; Berbers.IV; al-Mami; al-Mar'a.2; Musha 1 
early, pre-madhhab law Abu Hanifa; Abu Yusuf; al-Ash'ari, Abu Burda; 'Ata' b. Abi Rabah; 
al-Awza c i; Ibn Abi Layla.II; Ibn Shubruma; al-Layth b. Sa'd; Malik b. Anas; Maymun 

72 LAW 

b. Mihran; al-Nakha c I, Ibrahim; al-Sha'bl; al-Shafi'I; Shurayh; Sufyan al-lhawri; Yahya 

b. Adam; [in Suppl.] Fukaha' al-Madina al-Sab'a; Ibn Abi '1-Zinad; Sa'Id b. Djubayr 

see also [in Suppl.] Ra'y 
genres c Amal; Dustur; Fara'id; Fatwa; Hisba; Hiyal.4; Ikhtilaf; Nazila; Shart. 1 ; Sidjill.3; Usui 

al-Fikh; Wathlka; [in Suppl.] Kawa'id Fikhiyya 

see also Tabakat.C; Wakf.I.2.d and IV 
lbadl law 'Abd al- c Aziz b. al-Hadjdj Ibrahim; Abu Ghanim al-Khurasani; Abu Muhammad 

b. Baraka (and Ibn Baraka); Abu Zakariyya' al-Djanawunl; Ibn Dja'far 

see also al-Djaytali; MahkamaAix (Oman) 
in Southeast Asia Penghulu; Rapak; Shari c a (In South-East Asia); 'Ulama'.S; [in Suppl.] 

inheritance ->■ Inheritance 
jurisprudence Fatwa; Fikh; Idjab; Idjma 1 ; Idjtihad; Ikhtilaf; Istihsan; Kiyas; Maslaha; Nazila; 


see also Sadd al-Dhara'i c 
jurist Fakih; Mardja'-i Taklid; Mudjtahid; c Ulama 3 

see also Sharh.III; [in Suppl.] Ra'y 
Hanafi Abu Hanlfa al-Nu c man; Abu '1-Layth al-Samarkandl; Abu '1-Su c ud; al- c AmidI; 
al-Biharl; al-Djassas; al-Halabl; Hamza al-Harranl; Ibn c AbidIn; Ibn Buhlul; Ibn 
Ghanim; Ibn Kutlubugha; Ibn Nudjaym; Ibn al-Shihna; Kadi Khan; al-Kasanl; 
Kastallani; al-Kudurl, Abu '1-Husayn Ahmad; al-Marghinani; al-Muradi.2, 3 and A; 
al-Nasafi.4; al-Sadjawandi, Siradj al-DIn; al-Sarakhsi, Muhammad b. Ahmad; al- 
Shaybanl, Abu c Abd Allah; al-Shibll, Abu Hafs; al-TahawI; al-Ushl; Wankuli; [in 
Suppl.] Abu c Abd Allah al-Basrl; Abu '1-Barakat; al-Damaghani, Abu c Abd Allah 
Muhammad b. C A1I; al-Damaghani, Abu '1-Hasan 'All b. Muhammad; al-Khassaf; 
al-Sunami; Yahya 

see also c Abd al-Kadir al-KurasJii; al-Fatawa al-'Alamglriyya; Ibn Dukmak; al- 
Sayrafl; al-Taftazanl; Zahir 
Hanbali Ahmad b. Hanbal; al-Bahuti; al-Barbahari; Ghulam al-Khallal; Ibn c Akil; Ibn al- 
Banna 3 ; Ibn Batta al- c UkbarI; Ibn al-DjawzI; Ibn al-Farra'; Ibn Hamid; Ibn Kayyim 
al-Djawziyya; Ibn Kudama al-Makdisi; Ibn Muflih; Ibn Radjab; Ibn Taymiyya; al- 
Kalwadhanl; al-Khallal; al-Khiraki; al-Marwazi; al-Tufi; al- c Ukbari; al-Yunini; Yusuf 
b. c Abd al-Hadl 

see also c Uthman b. Marzuk; and -*• Theology 
Maliki Ahmad Baba; Asad b. al-Furat; al-BadjI; al-Bakillanl; BannanI; al-BurzulI; al-Dani; 
al-Fasi; Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam; Ibn Abi Zamanayn; Ibn Abi Zayd al-Kayrawanl; Ibn 
'Ammar, Abu 'l- c Abbas; Ibn 'Arafa; Ibn c Asim; Ibn al-Faradi; IbnFarhun; Ibn Hablb, 
Abu Marwan; Ibn al-Hadjdj; Ibn al-Hadjib; Ibn al-Kasim; Ibn Kuzman.III and IV 
(and [in Suppl.] Kuzman.3 and 4); Ibn Mada 1 ; Ibn Rushayd; Ibn Suda; al-lbshlhl( 1 ); 
Tsa b. Dinar; Tyad b. Musa; al-KabisI; al-Kalasadl; al-Kardudl; Kassara; Khalil b. 
Ishak; al-Khushani; al-Kurtubi, Abu c Abd Allah; al-Kurtubl, Yahya; Malik b. Anas; 
al-Manufi.4 and 5; al-Mazarl; Muhammad b. Sahnun; Sahnun; Salim b. Muhammad; 
al-Sanhurl, Abu '1-Hasan; Shabtun; al-Shatibl, Abu Ishak; Shihab al-DIn al-Karafi; 
al-TulaytulI; al-Turtushl; al- c UtbI, Abu c Abd Allah; al-WansharisI; Yahya b. Yahya 
al-Laythi; al-Zakkak; al-Zuhrl, Harun; al-Zurkanl; [in Suppl.] Abu Tmran al-Fasi; 
al-Azdl; Ibn Dakik al-'Id; Ibn Dirham; Ibn Rushd; al-Nubahi 
see also Ibn c Abd al-Barr; al-Kassar; Laklt; al-Sharlf al-Tilimsanl; al-Tilimsanl.l; 
and ->• Andalusiajurists 
Shafi'i al- c AbbadI; Abu Shudja'; Badjurl; al-BaghawI; al-Bulklnl; Dahlan; al-Djanadl; al- 
DjizI; al-Djuwaynl; Ibn Abi 'Asrun; Ibn Abi '1-Dam; Ibn c Akil; Ibn c Asakir; Ibn 
Djama c a; Ibn Hablb, Badr al-DIn; Ibn Hadjar al-Haytaml; Ibn Kadi Shuhba.l; Ibn 

Kasim al-Ghazzi; Ibn al-Salah; Ibn Suraydj; al-Kalkashandl; al-Kalyubl; al-Kazwini, 
Abu Hatim; al-Kazwini, Djalal al-Din; al-Kazwini, Nadym al-DIn; al-Kiya al-Harrasi; 
Makhrama; al-Mawardi; al-Mutawalli; al-Muzanl; al-NawawI; al-Rafi c I; al-Ramli; 
al-S_hafi c i; al-Shahrazuri; al-Shirazi, Abu Ishak; al-Subki; al-Sulami, 'Izz al-Din; al- 
Suiukl; al-Tabari, Abu '1-Tayyib; al-Tabari, Ahmad b. c Abd Allah; Zakariyya' al- 
Ansari; [in Suppl.] Abu Zur c a; Ibn Dakik al-Td; al-Zarkashi 
see also Abu Thawr; Dawud b. Khalaf; al-Isfarayini; al-Tabari, Abu Dja'far; al- 
Taftazani; al-Ziyadi 
Shiite -> Shiites 

Zdhiri Dawud b. Khalaf; al-Humaydi; Ibn Dawud; Ibn Hazm, Abu Muhammad; 
(al-)Mundhir b. Sa'id 

see also Sa c id al-Andalusi; [in Suppl.] Ibn al-Rumiyya 
law of obligations c Akd; c Ariyya; Bay c ; Daman; Dhimma; Fasid wa Batil; Faskh; Hiba; Idjab; 
Idjar; Inkar; c Iwad; Kafala; Khiyar; Kirad; Mu'amalat; Mu c awada.3; Mudaraba; 
Mufawada; Mugharasa; Musharaka; Rahn; Sulh; Wadi'a; Wakala; [in Suppl.] Dayn; 

see also c Amal.4; Dja'iz; Ghasb; Kabd.i; Kasam; Madmun; Suftadja; Wathika; Yamin; 
[in Suppl.] Ikrah 
contract of hire and lease Adjr; Idjar; Kira 3 ; Musakat; Muzara'a; [in Suppl.] Hikr; Inzal 
contract of sale Bara'a.I; Bay 1 ; Ikala; 'Iwad; Mu'awada.l; Muwada'a.l; Salam; Shira'; 
Tadlis.l; Taghrir; [in Suppl.] Darak; Sarf 

see also Darura; Ildja'; Mukhatara; Safka; Salaf; Sawm; Tidjara; [in Suppl.] Sarraf 
law of personal status Hadana; Hiba; c Idda; Mahr; Mirath; Nikah; Rida c ; Talak; Wakf; Yatim; 
[in Suppl.] Nafaka; Tabannin 

see also Wilaya.l; and -> Divorce; Inheritance; Marriage 
law of procedure c Adl; Amin; Bayyina; Da'wa; Gha'ib; Hakam; Ikrar; Kada 3 ; Mazalim; Shahid; 

Mongol Sadr.2; Yarghu; Yasa 

offices Fakih; Hakam; Hisba; Kadi; Kadi c Askar; Kassam; Mardja c -i Taklid; Na'ib. 1 ; Shaykh 

see also Amin; Fatwa; Khalifa.ii; Mahkama; Shurta 
Ottoman Bab-i Mashikhat; Djaza'.ii; Djurm; Fatwa.ii; c Ilmiyye; Kanun.iii; Kanunname; 
Kassam; Mahkama.2; Makhredj; Medjelle; Medjlis-i Wala; Mewlewiyyet; Narkh; 
Shaykh al-Islam.2; Sidjill.3; [in Suppl.] Mufettish 

see also Hanafiyya; al-Haramayn; c Ulama 3 .3; Wakf.IV (and [in Suppl.] Wakf.II.2); and 
-> Dynasties.anatolia and the turks.ottomans.grand muftis 
penal law c Akila; Diya; Hadd; Kadhf; Katl; Khata'; Kisas.5; Murtadd; Salb; Sarika; Ta c zir; 
c Ukuba; [in Suppl.] Shatm 

see also Djaza'.ii; Muhsan; al-Salib; Shubha; Sidjn; Tarrar; Tha'r; c Urf.2.II; Zina; [in 
Suppl.] Ikrah 
reform -> Reform 

schools Hanabila; Hanafiyya; Malikiyya; al-Shafi c iyya; Usuliyya. 1 ; al-Zahiriyya; [in Suppl.] 

see also Ibn Abi Layla; Sufyan al-Thawri; al-Tabari, Abu Dja'far; Wahhabiyya; Zaydiyya; 
[in Suppl.] Madhhab 
terms Ada 1 ; Adjr.2; c Adl; Ahkam; Ahl al-Hall wa 'l- c Akd; c Akd; Akdariyya; c Akika; c Akila; 
c Amal.3 and 4; Aman; c Amil; Amin; 'Ariyya; c Arsh; c Awl; 'Azima.l; Ba c 1.2.b; Baligh; 
Bara'a.I; Bay'; Bay'a; Bayyina; Burhan; Daman; Dar al- c Ahd; Dar al-Harb; Dar al-Islam; 
Dar al-Sulh; Darura; Da c wa; Dhabiha; Dhimma; Diya; Dja'iz; Djanaba; DjazaMi; Djihad; 
Djizya; Djurm; Fakih; Fara'id; Fard; Fasid wa Batil; Fasik; Faskh; Fatwa; Fay'; Fikh; 
Gha'ib; Ghanima; Gharim: Ghasb; Ghusl; Hadana; Hadath; Hadd; Hadjr; Hady; Hakam; 


Hakk; Hawala; Hayd; Hiba; Hiyal.4; Hukuk; Hulul; 'Ibadat; Ibaha.I; c Idda; Idhn; Idjab; 
Idjar; Idjma'; Idjtihad; Ihram; Ihya 5 ; Ikala; Ikhtilaf; Ikrar; Ildja 5 ; Inkar; Insaf; Istibra'; 
Istihsan; Isti'naf; Istishab; 'Iwad; Kabala; Kabd.i; Kada'; Kadhf; Kafa'a; Kafala; Kanun; 
Kanunname; Kasam; Katl; Khata 5 ; Khiyar; Kira 5 ; Kirad; Kisas; Kiyas; Li c an; Liss; Lukata; 
Madmun; Mafsul; Mahr; Maslaha; Mawat; Mawla.5; Mazalim; Milk; Mu'amalat; 
Mu'awada; Mudaraba; Mudjtahid; Mufawada; Mugharasa; Muhsan; Mukhatara; 
Munasafa; Musakat; Musharaka; Mut c a; Mutlak; Muwada'a.l; Muzara'a; Nadjis; Nafila; 
Nass; Nazila; Niyya; Rahn; Riba; Rukhsa.l; Sabab.2; Sadaka; Sadd al-DharaT; Safka; 
Sahih.2; al-Sahm.2; Salaf; Salam; Sarika; Sawm; Shahid; Shakhs; Shakk.l; Sharika; 
Shart.l; Shira 5 ; Shubha; Shuf a; Sidjn; Suftadja; Sukna; Sukut; Sulh; Sunna.2; Tadlis.l; 
Taghrir; Tahara; Taklid; Takllf; Talak; Talfik; Tashri c ; Tas c Ir; Ta'zir; Umm al-Walad; 
c Umum wa-Khusus; 'Urf; Usui al-Fikh; Wadi'a; Wakala; Wakf; Wasf.2; Wasiyya; 
Wathika; Wilaya. 1 ; WudQ 5 ; Yamin; Zahir; Za c im; Zakat; Zina; [in Suppl.] 'Akar; Darak; 
Dayn; Djabr; Gharuka; Hikr; Ikrah; Inzal; Iskat; Kawa c id Fikhiyya; Khal'; Madhhab; 
Makasid al-Shari'a; Mu'ahid; Muhallil; Nafaka; al-Nahy 'an al-Munkar; Ra'y; Sakk; 
Sanad; Sarf 
see also Bayt al-Mal; Hudna; Saghir; Shukr.2; Shura.2; Siyasa.3; Tahkim 

Lebanon Djarida.i.A; Dustur.ix; Hizb.i; Hukuma.iii; Lubnan; Madjlis.4.A.vi; Mahkama.4.iii; 
Mandates; Mutawali; Sihafa.l.(iii); Ta'ifiyya 

see also Baladiyya.2; Djaliya; Kays 'Aylan; al-Ma c luf; Tanyus, Shahin; Turkmen.3; Yusuf 
Karam; Za'im; [in Suppl.] Ahmad Pasha Kiiciik; al-Bustani; Demography.III; and ->■ 
Christianity.denominations.maronites; Druzes 

poets Faris al-Shidyak; Khalil Mutran; al-Ma'luf; Tu'ma, Ilyas; al-Yazidji; [in Suppl.] 
Abu Madi; al-Bustani.4 and 8 
see also al-Bustani.7; Nu'ayma, Mikha'il; al-Rayhani 
writers of prose al-Ma c luf; Nu'ayma, Mikha'il; al-Yazidji; [in Suppl.] al-Bustani.6 
see also Farah Antun; Mayy Ziyada; and ->■ Press 
education Djami'a; Ma c arif. 1 .iii 
governors Bashir Shihab II; Dawud Pasha; Djanbulat; Fakhr al-Din; Harfush; Shihab 

see also Ma'n; Ma'n-zada 
historians of Iskandar Agha 

see also [in Suppl.] Ta'rikh.II.l.(c) 
religious leaders Sharaf al-Din; Yusuf Karam; [in Suppl.] Musa al-Sadr 

see also Mutawali 

ancient c Ayn al-Djarr 

regions al-Bika c ; al-Shuf 

towns Ba'labakk; Batrun; Bayrut; Bsharra; Bteddin; Djubayl; Karak Nuh; Sayda; 
Sur; Tarabulus al-Sham 

Legends Hikaya 

and -> Bible.bibucal personages; Eschatology; QurXn.stories 
legendary beings 'Anka'; al-Burak; Diw; al-Djassasa; Djinn; Ghul; Hatif; 'Ifrit; Kutrub; Pari; 

Simurgh; c Udj; Zuhak 

see also al-Rukhkh 
legendary dynasties Kayanids; Pishdadids 

see also Firdawsi; Hamasa.ii 
legendary locations Damawand; Djudi; Ergenekon; Hush; Kizil-elma; Sawa.3; Wabar 


see also Turan; Wakwak 
legendary people Abu Righal; Abu Safyan; Abu Zayd; 'Adnan; Afrasiyab; Ahl al-Suffa; 

Amina; Asaf b. Barakhya; Ashab al-Kahf; Barsisa; al-Basus; Bilkis; al-Dadjdjal; 

Djamshid; Hablb al-Nadjdjar; Hanzala b. Safwan; Hind bint al-Khuss; Hirmis; Hushang; 

Ibn Bukayla; al-Kahina; Kahtan; Kawah; al-Khadir; Lukman; Mas'ud; Nasr al-Din 

Khodja: Sam; Satih b. Rabi'a; Shikk; Siyawush; Sulayman b. Dawud; Tahmurath; 

Yadjudj wa-Madjudj; [in Suppl.] al-D^aradatan'; Salman al-Farisi; al-Sufyani 

see also Akhi Ewran; c Amr b. c Adi; c Amr b. Luhayy; Ashab al-Rass; Kuss b. Sa c ida; 

Mu'ammar; Sari Saltuk Dede; Tursun Fakih; Zarka' al-Yamama; Zuhayr b. Djanab; 

and -> QurXn. stories 
legendary stories c Abd Allah b. Djud'an; Aktham b. Sayfi; Almas; al-Battal; Buhlul; 

Damawand; Djirdjis; Djudi; al-Durr; Fatima; al-Ghazal; al-Hadr; Ha'it al-'Adjuz; Haram; 

Harut wa-Marut; Hudhud; Isra'iliyyat; Khalid b. Yazid b. Mu'awiya; Kisas al-Anbiya 1 ; 


see also Wakwak 

Lexicography Kamus; Lahn al-'Amma 

see also Sharh.I; Sullam; and -> Linguistics 

for Andalusian lexicographers -> Andalusia 

Arabic Abu Zayd al-Ansari; al-Azhari; al-r^awaliki; al-Djawhari; Farhat; al-Firuzabadi; 
Ibn al-Birr; Ibn Durayd; Ibn Faris; Ibn Makki; Ibn Manzur; Ibn Sida; Ibn al-Sikkit; 
al-Kazzaz; al-Khalil b. Ahmad; Muhammad Murtada; Nashwan b. Sa'id; al-Saghanl, 
Radiyy al-Din; al-Shaybani, Abu c Amr (and [in Suppl.] Abu 'Amr al-Shaybani); al- 
Tahanawi; Tammam b. Ghalib; al-Yazidji.2 and 3; al-Zamakhshari; al-Zubaydi; [in 
Suppl.] Abu Ishak al-Farisi; al-Bustani.l and 2; al-Farabi; al-Shartuni 
see also Abu Hatim al-Razi; Akhtari; al-Raghib al-Isfahani; al-Tanukhi, Djamal al- 
Din; al-lha'alibi, Abu Mansur 'Abd al-Malik; [in Suppl.] Ibn Kabar 

Hebrew Ibn Djanah 

see also Judaeo-Arabic.iii.B 

Persian 'Abd al-Rashid al-Tattawi; Ahmad Wafik Pasha; Burhan; Sururi Kashani; Taki 
Awhadi; [in Suppl.] Dehkhuda 
see also Arzu Khan; Mahdi Khan Astarabadi; Rida Kuli Khan; al-Tahanawi 

Turkish Akhtari; al-Kashghari; Kazim Kadri; Ni'mat Allah b. Ahmad; Sami 
see also Es c ad Efendi, Mehmed; Lutfi Efendi; Riyadi; Shinasi; Wankuli 
terms Fard.b 

Libya Djami'a; Djarida.i.B; Dustur.xii; Libiya; Madjlis.4.A.xviii; Sihafa.2.(iv) 

see also 'Arabiyya.A.iii.3; al-Baruni; Karamanli; Khalifa b. 'Askar; Sanusiyya; and -> 


population -> Africa.north africa; Berbers 

ancient Sabra; Surt; Zawila 

oases Awdjila; Bahriyya; al-Djaghbub; Djawf Kufra; al-Djufra; Ghadames; Kufra 
regions Barka; al-Djufra; Fazzan 

see also Nafusa 
towns Adjdabiya; Benghazi; Darna; Djadu; Murzuk; Tarabulus al-Gharb 
see also Ghat 

Life Stages Hayat 


childbirth 'Akika; Al; Li'an; al-Mar'a^.c; Mawakib.4.2 

see also Rada c ; Wa'd al-Banat; and -> Medicine.obstetrics 
pregnancy Rakid; Waham 

birth control Tanzim al-Nasl 
suckling Rada' 

treatises on 'Arib b. Sa c d al-Katib al-Kurtubi 
childhood Baligh; Saghir; Yatlm 

see also Hadana; al-Shayb wa '1-Shabab; [in Suppl] Nafaka; and -> Circumcision; 
Education; Marriage 
old age Mu'ammar 

see also al-Shayb wa '1-Shabab; Shaykh; and -> Death 

Linguistics Lugha; Nahw; Tasrif; Usui 

see also Balagha; Bayan; Lahn al- c Amma; Sharh.I; and ->■ Languages; Lexicography 
biographies of al-Zubaydl 
8th century 'Abd Allah b. Abi Ishak; Abu c Amr al-'Ala 3 ; al-Akhfash.I; c Isa b. 'Umar; al- 

Khalil b. Ahmad; Kutrub; al-Mufaddal al-Dabbi; Sibawayhi; al-Shaybani, Abu c Amr 

(and [in Suppl] Abu 'Amr al-Shaybani); Yunus b. Habib 

see also [in Suppl.] Abu '1-Bayda' al-Riyahl 
9th century Abu Hatim al-Sidjistani; Abu 'Ubayd al-Kasim b. Sallam; Abu 'Ubayda; Abu 

Zayd al-Ansari; al-Akhfash.II; al-Asma'I; al-Bahili, Abu Nasr; DjudI al-Mawruri; 

al-Farra'; Ibn al-A'rabl, Muhammad; Ibn Sallam al-Djumahl; Ibn al-Sikklt; al-Kisa'I, 

Abu '1-Hasan; al-Layth b. al-Muzaffar; al-Mazini, Abu 'Uthman; al-Mubarrad; 

Muhammad b. Habib; al-Ru'asi; al-Yazidi.2; [in Suppl.] Abu 'l-'Amaythal 
10th century al-Akhfash.III; al-Anbari, Abu Bakr; al-Anbari, Abu Muhammad; al- c Askari.i; 

Djahza; al-Farisi; Ghulam Tha'lab; Hamza al-Isfahani; Ibn al-'Arif, al-Husayn; Ibn 

Djinni; Ibn Durayd; Ibn Durustawayh; Ibn Kaysan; Ibn Khalawayh: Ibn al-Khayyat. 

Abu Bakr; Ibn al-Kutiyya; Ibn al-Nahhas; Ibn al-Sarradj; al-Kali; Kudama; Niftawayh; 

al-Rummani; al-Sirafi; al-Tayalisi, Dja'far; Tha'lab; al-Zadjdjadj; al-ZadjdjadjI; al- 

Zubaydi; [in Suppl.] Abu Ishak al-Farisi; Abu Riyash al-Kaysi; Abu '1-Tayyib al- 

Lughawi; al-Hatimi; Ibn Kaysan; Ibn Miksam 
11th century al-Adjdabi; al-'Askari. ii; Ibn al-Birr; Ibn Faris; Ibn al-Hadjdj; Ibn al-Iflili; 

Ibn Makki; Ibn Sida; al-Kazzaz; al-Marzuki; al-Rabahi; al-Raba c i; al-Shantamari; 

Tahir b. Ahmad b. Babashadh; al-Wahidi; [in Suppl.] Abu Usama al-Harawi; al- 

12th century al-Anbari, Abu '1-Barakat; al-Batalyawsi; al-Djawaliki; al-Djazuli, Abu Musa; 

al-Hariri; Ibn Barri, Abu Muhammad; Ibn Mada'; Ibn al-Shadjari al-Baghdadi; al- 

Maydani; al-Tibrizi; al-Zamakhshari; [in Suppl.] Abu '1-Barakat; Ibn Hisham al- 

13th century al-Astarabadhi, Radi al-Din; Ibn al-Adjdabi; Ibn al-Athir.l; Ibn al-Hadjdj; 

Ibn al-Hadjib; Ibn Malik; Ibn Mu'ti; al-Mutarrizi; al-Shalawbin; al-Sharishi; al- 

'Ukbari; [in Suppl.] al-Balati, Abu '1-Fath 'Uthman; Ibn al-Adjdabi; al-Zandjant 
14th century Abu Hayyan al-Gharnati; al-Astarabadhi, Rukn al-Din; Fakhri; Ibn Adjurrum; 

Ibn c Akil, c Abd Allah; Ibn Barri, Abu '1-Hasan; Ibn Hisham, Djamal al-Din; Ibn 

Khatima; Ibn al-Sa'igh; al-Sharif al-Gharnati: Yahya b. Hamza al- c Alawi 
15th century al-Azhari, Khalid; Ibn 'Asim; al-Sanhuri, Abu '1-Hasan; al-Suyuti 
17th century c Abd al-Kadir al-Baghdadi 
18th century Farhat 
19th century Faris al-Shidyak; Ibn al-Hadjdj; al-Nabarawi; al-Yazidji.l 

see also Fu'ad Pasha 


20th century [in Suppl.] Arat; al-Shartuni 
phonetics Huruf al-Hidja'.II; Makharidj al-Huruf; Mushtarik; Sawtiyya; Tafkhim 

see also Hawl; Huruf al-Hidja'; Imala; Usui 

for Arabic and Persian dialects -* LANGUAGEs;/or the letters of the alphabet -> Alpha- 
terms Addad; Ala.i.; c Amil; c Atf; Dakhil; Djarn'; Fard.c; Fi'l; Gharib; Haraka wa-Sukun.ii; 

Harf; Hawl; Hikaya.I; Hukm.II; Hulul; Ibdal; Idafa; Idgham; Idmar; Tla.i; Imala; Trab; 

Ishtikak; Ism; Istifham; Istithna 3 ; Kasra; Kat'; Khabar; Kiyas.2; MadI; Ma'na.l; Mu'arrab; 

Mubalagha.a; MubtadaM; Mudari'; Mudhakkar; Mudmar; Musnad.2; Mutlak; 

Muwallad.2; Muzdawidj; Nafy; Nasb; Na c t; Nisba.l; Raf .1; Sabab.4; Sahih.3; Salim.2; 

Sarf; Shart.3; Sifa.l; Sila.l; Ta'addi; Tafdil; Tafkhlm; Takdir.l; Tamthil.l; Tanwin; 

Ta c rib; Ta'rif.2; Tasrif; Wad 1 al-Lugha; Wahda.l; Wasl; Wazn.2; Zarf; [in Suppl.] Hal; 


see also Basit wa-Murakkab; Ghalatat-i Meshhure; Huruf al-Hidja 5 ; Ta'lik 

Literature Adab; 'Arabiyya.B; 'Irak.v; Iran.vii; 'Othmanli.III; Tunisia.V; Turks. Ill; Urdu.2 
autobiographical Ibn TQlQn; Nu'ayma, Mikha'il; Salim; Sha'ul; Zaydan, Djurdji 

see also Shaybani; Tardjama. 1 ; Tuzuk 
bibliographical Bibliography; Fahrasa 

compilers Ibn Khayr al-Ishbili; Ibn al-Nadim; Katib Celebi; al-Ru'ayni; al-Tihrani; [in Suppl.] 

Isma'il Pasha Baghdadli 

biographical Fadila; Manakib; Mathalib; Tabakat; Tadhkira.2 and 3; Tardjama. 1; Tuzuk 

see also c Ilm al-Ridjal; Ma'athir al-Umara 3 ; Mughals.10; Shurafa'.2; Sila.2.II.c; and-* 

Hagiography; Literature. historical and poetry; Medicine. physicians. 


criticism [in Suppl.] Nakd 

classical Ibn 'Abbad; Ibn al-Athir.3; Ibn al-Mu'tazz; Ibn Rashik; Ibn Sharaf al-Kayrawani; 
Kudama; al-Sidjilmasi; [in Suppl.] al-Djurdjani; al-Hatimi 
and ->■ Rhetoric.treatises on 
modern Kemal, Mehmed Namik; Kopriilii; Kurd 'Ali; al-Mazini; Olghun, Mehmed Tahir; 

[in Suppl.] Alangu; Atac 
terms Mubalagha.b; Wahshi 
drama Masrah; Ta'ziya 

Arabic Khayal al-Zill; Masrah. 1 and 2 
see also 'Arabiyya.B.V 

playwrights Abu Naddara; Farah Antun; Ibn Daniyal; al-Kusantini; al-Ma c luf; 
Nadjib al-Haddad; Nadjib Muhammad Surur; al-Nakkash; Salah c Abd al-Sabur; 
Salim al-Nakkash; al-Sharkawi; Shawki; al-Yazidji.3; [in Suppl.] al-Bustani.l 
see also Ishak, Adib; Isma'il Sabri; Khalil Mutran; Muhammad Bey 'Uthman Djalal 
(and [in Suppl.] Muhammad 'Uthman Djalal); Shumayyil, Shibli; Tu'ma, Uyas 
Central Asian Masrah. 5 
Persian Masrah.4; Ta'ziya 

playwrights Muhammad Dja'far Karadja-daghi; [in Suppl.] Amiri; 'Ishki 
Turkish Karagoz; Kawuklu; Masrah.3; Orta Oyunu 

playwrights 'Abd al-Hakk Hamid; Ahmad WafTk Pasha; Akhund-zada; Djewdet; 
Karay, Refik Khalid: Kasab, Teodor; Kemal, Mehmed Namik; Khayr Allah 
Efendi; Manastirli Mehmed Rif at; Mehmed Ra'uf; Mizandji Mehmed Murad; 
Muhibb Ahmed "Diranas"; Musahib-zade Djelal; Oktay Rifat; Shinasi; [in Suppl.] 
Alus; Bashkut; Camlibel; Hasan Bedr al-Din 

see also Djanab Shihab al-Din; Ebuzziya Tevfik; Ekrem Bey; Kaygili, 'Othman 
Djemal; Khalide Edib; Mu'allim Nadji 

78 LITERATURE, drama — historical 

Urdu Masrah.6 

playwrights Amanat; [in Suppl.] Agha Hashar Kashmiri 
epistolary Insha'; Katib; Risala; [in Suppl.] Maktubat 
see also Sadr.(b) 
letter-writers c Abd al-Hamid; Ahmad Sirhindi; c Amr b. Mas'ada; al-Babbagha'; Ghalib: 
Haleti; al-Hamadhani; Harkarn; Ibn 'Amira; Ibn al-Athir.3; Ibn Idris.I; Ibn Kalakis; 
Ibn al-Khasib; Ibn al-Sayrafi; al-Kabtawri; al-Kadi al-Fadil; Kani; Khalifa Shah 
Muhammad; Kh w andamir; al-Kh w arazmi; al-Ma c arri; Makhdum al-Mulk Maniri; 
Mehmed Pasha Rami {and Rami Mehmed Pasha); Muhammad b. Hindu-Shah; Okcu- 
zade; Rashid al-Din (Watwat); Sa'id b. Humayd; al-Shaybani, Ibrahim; Tahir b. 
Muhammad; Tahir Wahid; al- c Utbi, Abu c Abd al-Rahman; al-Wahrani; Yusufi; [in 
Suppl.] c Abd al- c Aziz b. Yusuf; Amir Nizam; Ibn Khalaf; Muhammad Salih Kanbo 
Lahawri; al-Shartuni 

see also Aljamia; al-D^unayd; Ibn al- c Amid.l; Ibn al-Khatib; Mughals.10; Sudjan 
Ray Bhandari; al-Washsha'; [in Suppl.] Isfizari; Manshurat 
etiquette-literature Adab; al-Mahasin wa '1-Masawi 

see also al-Djidd wa '1-Hazl; Djins; Hiyal; Iyas b. Mu'awiya; Kalila wa-Dimna; Katib; 

Marzban-nama; Nadim; Suluk.l; Tufayli; Zarif 

authors Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi; al-Bayhaki; D^ahiz; al-Ghuzuli; Hilal al-Sabi'; al-Husri.I; 

Ibn c Abd Rabbih; Ibn Abi '1-Dunya; Ibn al-Mukaffa c ; al-Kalyubi; al-Kashani; al- 

Kisrawi; al-Marzubani; Merdjiimek; al-Nisaburi; al-Raghib al-Isfahani; al-Shimshati; 

al-Suli; al-Tanukhi, al-Muhassin; al-Washsha' 

see also al-D^ahshiyari; al-Kalkashandi.l; Shabib b. Shayba; al-Zarnudji 
folkloric Bilmedje; Hikaya; Nadira; [in Suppl.] Takalid 

see also Yahud.5; and ->■ the section Poetry. vernacular below; Proverbs 
genealogical Mathalib 
see also Tabakat 
genealogists al- Abiwardi; al-Djawwani; al-Hamdani; al-Kalbi.II; al-Kalkashandi. 1 ; Kasim 
b. Asbagh; al-Marwazi; Mus'ab; al-Rushati; al-Zubayr b. Bakkar; [in Suppl.] Fakhr- 
i Mudabbir 

see also Ibn Da'b; al-Kadiri al-Hasani; al-Kh w arazmi; Mihmindar 

for the genres of non-literary disciplines ->■ Astronomy; Law; Theology; etc. 
poetry Ghazal; Hamasa; Hidja'; Kan wa-Kan; Kasida; Khamriyya; al-Kuma; Madih; 
Malhun; Marthiya; Mathnawi; Mufakhara; Munsifa; Musammat; Muwashshah; 
Naka'id; Nawriyya; Shahrangiz; Sharki; Su'luk.II^ and III.2; Tadhkira.2 and 3; 
Tardiyya; Tardji c -band; Wasf. 1 ; Zadjal; Zahriyyat; Zuhdiyya; [in Suppl.] Habsiyya; 
Kifa; Nazm.l 

see also 'Arabiyya.B; Iran.vii; Rabi'iyyat; Saki.2; Shawahid; Takhmis; Wa-sekht 
prose Adab; Adja'ib; Awa'il; Badi c ; Bilmedje; Djafr; Fadila; Fahrasa; Hikaya; Ilahi; Insha'; 
Isra'iliyyat; Khitat; Kissa; Lahn al- c Amma; Lughz; al-Maghazi; al-Mahasin wa '1- 
Masawi; Makala; Makama; Manakib; Masa'il wa-Adjwiba; al-Masalik wa '1- 
Mamalik; Masrah; Mathalib; Mawsu'a; Mukaddima; Mukhtasar; Munazara; Nadira 
{and [in Suppl.]); Nasihat al-Muluk; Rihla; Risala; Sharh; Sila.2; Sira; Sunan; Tabakat; 
Tadhkira. 1 ; Tafsir; Tardjama; Uksusa; [in Suppl.] Arba'un Hadith; Malfuzat; Takriz 
see also Alf Layla wa-Layla (363b); 'Arabiyya.B; Bibliography; Djughrafiya; 
Fathname; Hayawan; Hiyal; Iran.vii; Malahim; Mathal; Shahnamedji; Zuhd; and ->■ 
Christianity.monasteries.writings on; Literature.tradition-literature; 
historical Isra'iliyy at; al-Maghazi; Tardjama. 1 ; Ta'rikh.II 

see also Fathname; Sahaba; Sila.2.II; and ->■ the sections Biographical, Maghdzl-litera- 

LITERATURE, historical 79 

ture and Tradition-literature under this entry 
Andalusian -> Andalusia 
Arabic Ta'rikh.II.l 

on countries/cities -► individual countries 

on dynasties/ caliphs -► individual dynasties under Dynasties 

universal histories Abu '1-Fida; Abu Mikhnaf; Akansus; al-Antaki; c Arib b. Sa c d 
al-Katib al-Kurtubl; al-'Ayni; al-Bakri.l and 2; al-Baladhuri; Baybars al-Mansuri; 
al-Birzali; Dahlan; al-Dhahabi; al-Diyarbakri; al-Djannabi; al-Djazari; al- 
Farghani; Hamza al-Isfahani; Hasan-i Rumlu; al-Haytham b. 'Adi; Ibn Abi 
Shayba; Ibn Abi TayyP; Ibn A'tham al-Kufi; Ibn al-Athir.2; Ibn al-Dawadari; 
Ibn al-Djawzi (Sibt); Ibn al-Furat; Ibn Kathir; Ibn Khaldun; Ibn Khayyat al- 
'Usfuri; Ibn al-Sa'i; al-Kalbi.II; Katib Celebi; al-Kutubi; al-Makin b. al-'Amid; 
al-Mas c udi; Miskawayh; Miinedjdjim Bashi; al-Mutahhar b. Tahir al-Makdisi; 
al-Nuwayri, Shihab al-Dln; Sa'id b. al-Bitrik; al-Tabari, Abu Dja'far; al-lha'alibi, 
Abu Mansur (and al-lha c alibl, Abu Mansur c Abd al-Malik); al-lhakafi, Ibrahim; 
Wathlma b. Musa; al-Ya'kubi; al-Yunini 
see also Akhbar Madjmu c a 

8th-century authors Abu Mikhnaf; c Awana b. al-Hakam al-Kalbi; Sayf b. c Umar 

9th-century authors al-Baladhuri; al-Fakihi; al-Farghani; al-Haytham b. 'Adi; Ibn 
'Abd al-Hakam.4; Ibn Abi Shayba; Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur; Ibn A'tham al-Kufi; 
Ibn Khayyat al- c Usfuri; Ibn al-Nattah; al-Kalbi.II; al-Mada'ini; Nasr b. Muzahim; 
al-Wakidi; Wathima b. Musa; al-Ya c kubi; al-Ziyadi 

10th-century authors c Arib b. Sa'd al-Katib al-Kurtubi; al-Azdi; Bahshal; al-Balawi; 
al-Djahshiyari; Hamza al-Isfahani; Ibn al-Daya; Ibn al-Kutiyya; Ibn Manda; Ibn 
al-Saghir; al-Kindi, Abu 'Umar Muhammad; al-Mas c udi; al-Mutahhar b. Tahir 
al-Makdisi; Said b. al-Bitrik; al-Tabari, Abu Dja'far; Waki'; al-Wasifi 

11th-century authors al-Antaki, Abu '1-Faradj; Ibn al-Banna 5 ; Ibn Burd.I; Ibn 
Hayyan; Ibn al-Rakik; al-Mafarrukhi; al-Razi, Ahmad b. 'Abd Allah; al-Tha'alibi, 
Abu Mansur 

12th-century authors al- c Azimi; Ibn al-Djawzi; Ibn Ghalib; Ibn al-Kalanisi; Ibn 
Sahib al-Salat; Ibn al-Sayrafi, Abu Bakr; Ibn Shaddad. Abu Muhammad; c Imad 
al-Din; Shirawayh; 'Umara al-Yamani 
see also al-Baydhak; Ibn Manda 

13th-century authors c Abd al-Wahid al-Marrakushi; Abu Shama; al-Bundari; al- 
Djanadi; Ibn Abi '1-Dam; Ibn Abi TayyF; Ibn al-'Adim; Ibn al-Athir.2; Ibn al- 
Djawzi (Sibt); Ibn Hamadu; Ibn Khallikan; Ibn al-Mudjawir; Ibn Muyassar; Ibn 
al-Nadjdjar; Ibn al-Sa'i; Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi; Ibn Shaddad, Izz al-Din; Ibn 
Shaddad, Baha 1 al-Din; Ibn al-Tuwayr; al-Makin b. al- c Amid; al-Mansur, al-Malik; 
al-Rafi'i; [in Suppl.] Ibn c Askar; Ibn Hatim 

14th-century authors Abu '1-Fida; Baybars al-Mansuri; al-Birzali; al-Dhahabi; al- 
Djazari; Ibn Abi Zar'; Ibn al-Dawadari; Ibn Dukmak; Ibn al-Furat, Nasir al-Din; 
Ibn Habib, Badr al-Din; Ibn c Idhari; Ibn Kathir, 'Imad al-Din; Ibn Khaldun; Ibn 
al-Khatib; Ibn al-Tiktaka; al-Khazradji, Muwaffak al-Din; al-Kutubi; al-Mufaddal 
b. Abi '1-Fada'il; al-Nuwayri, Shihab al-Din; al-Safadi, Salah al-Din; Shafi c b. 
'Ali; al-Sharif Abu Muhammad Idris; al-Wadi'ashi; al-Yunini 

15th-century authors Abu '1-Mahasin b. Taghribirdi; c Arabfakih; al-'Ayni; al-Fasi; 
Ibn 'Arabshah; Ibn Shahin al-Zahiri; al-Makrizi; al-Sakhawi 

16th-century authors al-Diyarbakri; al-Djannabi, Abu Muhammad; Hasan-i Rumlu; 
Ibn al-Dayba c ; Ibn Iyas; Ibn Tulun; Mudjir al-Din al-'Ulaymi; al-Nahrawali; al- 

1 7th-century authors c Abd al- c Aziz b. Muhammad; al-Bakri (b. Abi '1-Surur); Ibn 

) LITERATURE, historical 

Abl Dinar; Katib Celebi; al-Makkari; al-Mawza'I; al-Shilll 
18th-century authors al-Damurdashi; al-Hadjdj Hammuda; al-Ifrani; Miinedjdjim 

Bas_hi; al-Muradi.3 
1 9th-century authors Ahmad al-Nasiri al-Salawi {and al-Nasir al-Salawi); Akansus; 

'All Pasha Mubarak; Dahlan; al-Djabarti; Ghulam Husayn Khan Tabataba'I; Ibn 

Abi '1-Diyaf; al-Turk, Nikula; al-Zayyani 

see also al-Kardudi 
20th-century authors Ibn Zaydan; Kurd 'AH; [in Suppl.] Matar 
Indo-Persian Mughals.10; Ta'rikh.II.4 
on countries! cities ~* India 
on dynasties/caliphs -> individual dynasties under Dynasties. Afghanistan and 


13th-century authors al-Djuzdjani 

14th-century authors Barani; Shams al-Din-i Siradj 'Afif 

16th-century authors Abu '1-Fadl 'AllamI; Djawhar; Gulbadan Begam; Nizam al- 

Din Ahmad al-HarawI; [in Suppl.] 'Abbas Sarwani 
17th-century authors 'Abd al-Hamid Lahawri; Bakhtawar Khan: Firishta; Inayat 

Allah Kanbu; Mir Muhammad Ma'sum; Ni'mat Allah b. Habib Allah Harawi; 

Nur al-Hakk al-Dihlawi; Shirazi, Rafi c al-Din; [in Suppl.] c Akil Khan Razi; Hadjdji 

al-Dablr; Haydar Malik; Muhammad Salih Kanbo Lahawri 

see also Bada'uni 
18th-century authors c Abd al-Karlm Kashmiri; Kani c ; Kh w afi Khan; Ni'mat Khan: 

Sudjan Ray Bhandari 
19th-century authors 'Abd al-Karlm Munshi; Ghulam Husayn Khan Tabataba'I; 

Ghulam Husayn "Salim" 

see also Azfari 
Persian Ta'rikh.H.2; [in Suppl.] Cac-nama 
on Afghanistan -> Afghanistan 
on Iran -> Iran 

on dynasties/ caliphs -> individual dynasties under Dynasties. Persia 
universal histories Mirkh w and; Nizam-shahl; Sipihr 
10th-century authors Bal'ami.2; Hamza al-Isfahani' [in Suppl.] al-Kumml 
11th-century authors Bayhaki; Gardizi; al-Mafarrukhi 
12th-century authors Anushirwan b. Khalid; al-Bayhaki, Zahir al-DIn; Ibn Manda; 

[in Suppl.] Ibn al-Balkhi 
13th-century authors Djuwayni, 'Ala' al-DIn; Ibn Bibi; Ibn-i Isfandiyar; [in Suppl.] 

Hasan Nizami; al-Husayni 

see also al-Rafi'I 
14th-century authors Banakiti; Hamd Allah al-Mustawfi al-Kazwini; Shabankara'i: 

Wassaf; [in Suppl.] al-Aksarayi 
15th-century authors 'Abd al-Razzak al-Samarkandi; Hafiz-i Abru; Zahir al-DIn 

1 6th-century authors Bidlisi, Sharaf al-DIn; Djamal al-Husayni; Ghaffari; Haydar 

MIrza; Kh w andamir: Kum(m)i; al-Lari; Shami, Nizam al-DIn; [in Suppl.] Hafiz 


see also 'AH b. Shams al-DIn 
17th-century authors 'Abd al-Fattah FumanI; Haydar b. 'All; Iskandar Beg; Razi, 

Amin Ahmad; Tahir Wahid 
18th-century authors Mahdi Khan Astarabadi 

see also Isar-das 
19th-century authors 'Abd al-Karlm Bukhari; [in Suppl.] Fasa'I 

LITERATURE, historical — personages in literature 81 

Turkish Shahnamedji; Ta'rikh.II.3; Waka'-niiwis 

on the Ottoman Empire -> Dynasties. anatolia and the turks.otto- 


universal histories Sharih iil-Menar-zade 

see also Neshri 
15th-century authors 'Ashik-pasha-zade; Mehmed Pasha, KaramanI; Yakhshi Fakih 
16th-century authors 'All; Bihishti; Djalalzade Mustafa Celebi; Djalalzade Salih 
Celebi; Kemal Pasha-zade; Lukman b. Sayyid Husayn; Matrakci; Mehmed Za'im; 
Neshri; Selanlki; Seyfi 
see also Hadidi; Medjdi 
17th-century authors c AbdI; 'Abdi Pasha; Hasan Bey-zade; Hibri; Kara-celebi- 
zade.4; Katib Celebi; Mehmed Khalife b. Hiiseyn; Sharih iil-Menar-zade; 
Tashkopriizade.2; Wedjihi 
18th-century authors c Abdi Efendi; Ahmad Rasmi; Celebi-zade; Ceshmizade; 
Enweri; c Izzi; Miinedjdjim Bashi; c Othman-zade; c Ushshaki-zade, Ibrahim 
see also [in Suppl.] Kantimir, Demetrius 
19th-century authors Ahmad DJewdet Pasha; c Asim; c Ata 5 Bey , Tayyarzada; Es'ad 

Efendi, Mehmed; Kemal, Mehmed Namik; Khayr Allah Efendi; Wasif 
20th-century authors Ahmad Rafik; C A1I Amirl; (Mehmed) c Ata' Beg; Lutfi Efendi; 
Mizandji Mehmed Murad; Shems al-Din Giinaltay; Sheref, 'Abd al-Rahman; 
see also Hilmi 
in Eastern Turkish Abu '1-Ghazi Bahadur Khan; Bakikhanli; Mu'nis; [in Suppl.] 
hunting -> Hunting.poetry 
imagery -> the section Topoi and imagery below 

in other languages Afghan.iii; Aljamia; Bengali. ii; Berbers. VI; Beskesek-abaza; Bosna.3; 
Hausa.iii; Hindi; Indonesia.vi; Judaeo-Arabic.iii; Judaeo-Persian.i; Kano; Kissa.8; 
Lahnda.2; Lak; Masrah.6; Pandjabi.2; Shi'r.7; Sind.3.b; Somali.6; Tadjiki.2; Tashelhit.3; 
[in Suppl.] Shi c r.5 

for Chinese -> China; for Swahili -> Kenya; for Malaysian -> Malaysia; for Eastern 
Turkish languages -> the sections Literature.history.turkish, poetry. Turkish and 
prose.turkish; and -> Literature.poetry.mystical and translations 
Bengali authors Nadhr al-Islam; Nur Kutb al-'Alam 
Bosnian authors [in Suppl.] Ka'imi 

Hindi authors Malik Muhammad Djayasi; Nihal Cand Lahawri; Prem Cand; Sudjan Ray 
Bhandari; [in Suppl.] Kabir 
see also c Abd al-Rahim Khan; Insha'; Lalludji Lai 
Judaeo-Arabic authors Musa b. 'Azra; al-Samaw'al b. c Adiya; [in Suppl.] Nissim b. Ya'kub, 
Ibn Shahin 

and -> Judaism.language and literature 
Judaeo-Persian authors Shahin-i Shirazi 

and -> Judaism.language and literature 
Pashto authors Khushhal Khan Khatak 
Tatar authors Ghafuri, Medjid 
maghdzi-literature Abu Ma c shar al-Sindi; Ibn c A'idh; al-Kala l i; al-Maghazi; Musa b. c Ukba 

see also al-Battal; Sira 
personages in literature Abu Damdam; Abu '1-Kasim; Abu Zayd; Ali Baba; Ayaz; Aywaz.2; 
al-Basus; al-Battal; Bekri Mustafa Agha; Buzurgmihr; Dhu '1-Himma; Djamshid; Djuha; 
al-Ghadiri; Hamza b. c Abd al-Muttalib; Hatim al-Tal; Hayy b. Yakzan; Koroghlu; Manas; 
Nasr al-Din Khodja: Rustam; Sam; Sari Saltuk Dede; Shahrazad; al-Sid; Sindbad; Siyawush 

82 LITERATURE, personages in literature — poetry 

see also Tufayll; Yusuf and Zulaykha 
picaresque Makama; Mukaddi 
pilgrimage-literature -> Pilgrimage 

poetry Arud; Hamasa; Kafiya; Lughz; Ma'na.3; Mukhtarat; Muzdawidj; Sha'ir; Shi'r; Wazn.2; 
[in Suppl.] Nazm.l 

see also Rawi; Sharh.II; Takhallus.l; Ta'rikh.III; [in Suppl.] Sarika; for poetical genres 
-> Literature.genres.poetry; and ->■ Metrics 
Andalusian c Arabiyya.B. Appendix; Khamriyya.vi: Muwashshah; Nawriyya; Sha'ir. l.D; 
Zadjal; Zahriyyat.l 
anthologies al-Fath b. Khakan; al-Fihri; Ibn Bassam; Ibn Dihya; Ibn Faradj al- 

Djayyanl; al-S_hakundi 
8th-century poets Ghirbib b. 'Abd Allah 
9th-century poets 'Abbas b. Firnas; 'Abbas b. Nasih; al-Ghazal 

see also Ibn 'Alkama.2 
10th-century poets Ibn 'Abd Rabbih; Ibn Abi Zamanayn; Ibn Faradj al-Djayyani; 
Ibn Kuzman.I {and [in Suppl.] Kuzman.I); Mukaddam b. Mu'afa; al-Ramadi; al- 
Sharif al-Talik 
11th-century poets Abu Ishak al-Ilbiri; Ibn al-Abbar; Ibn 'Abd al-Samad; Ibn 
'Ammar; Ibn Burd.II; Ibn Darradj al-Kastalli; Ibn Gharsiya; Ibn al-Haddad; Ibn 
al-Hannat; Ibn al-Labbana; Ibn Ma J al-Sama 3 ; Ibn al-Shahid; Ibn Shuhayd; Ibn 
Zaydun; al-Mu'tamid ibn 'Abbad; Wallada 
see also Sa'id al-Baghdadi; al-Wakkashi 
12th-century poets al-A'ma al-Tutlli; Hafsa bint al-Hadjdj; Ibn 'Abdun; Ibn Baki; 
Ibn Kabturnu (and [in Suppl.] Kabturnuh); Ibn Khafadja: Ibn Kuzman.II and V 
(and [in Suppl.] Kuzman.2); Ibn al-Sayrafi; al-Kurtubi; al-Rusafi; Safwan b. Idris 
see also Musa b. 'Azra 
13th-century poets Hazim; Ibn al-Abbar; Ibn 'Amira; Ibn Sahl; Ibn Sa'id al- 

Maghribi; al-Kabtawri; al-Shushtari 
14th-century poets Ibn al-Hadjdj; Ibn Khatima; Ibn Luyun; Ibn al-Murabi'; al-Sharif 

see also [in Suppl.] al-Ru'ayni 
Arabic Ataba; Ghazal.i: Hamasa. i; Hidja'; Kan wa-Kan; Kasida.l; al-Kuma; Madlh.l; 
Maksura; Malhun; Marthiya.l; Mawaliya; Mawlidiyya; Mukhtarat. 1 ; Musammat.l; 
Muwashshah; Naka'id; Nasib; Ruba'1.3; Sha'ir.l; Shi'r. 1; Takhmis; Tardiyya; Tayf 
al-Khayal; 'Udhri; Zahriyyat.l; Zuhdiyya; [in Suppl.] Kit'a.l; Muhdathun 
see also 'Arabiyya.B.II; 'Ilm al-Djamal; Kalb.II; Mawlid; Muwallad.2; Su'luk; and 


anthologies al-Mu'allakat; al-Mufaddaliyyat; Mukhtarat. 1 

anthologists Abu '1-Faradj al-Isbahani; Abu Tammam; al-'Alami; al-Bakharzi; 
al-Buhturi; Di'bil; al-Hamdani; Hammad al-Rawiya; Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur; Ibn 
Dawud; Ibn al-Kutayba; Ibn al-Mu'tazz; Ibn al-Sayrafi; 'Imad al-Din; al-Nawadji; 
al-Sari al-Raffa'; al-Shayzari; al-Shimshati; al-Tha'alibi, Abu Mansur 'Abd al- 
Malik; [in Suppl.] Abu Zayd al-Kurashi; al-Bustani.3; Muhammad b. Sayf al- 
Din, Ibn Aydamir; al-Zandjani 
see also al-Tayalisi, Dja'far 
works Banat Su'ad; Burda.2; Madjnun Lay la. 1 ; al-Mu'allakat 
pre-lslamic poets ' Abid b. al-Abras; Abu Dhu'ay b al-Hudhali; Abu Du'ad al-Iy adi; 
Abu Kabir al-Hudhali; 'Adi b. Zayd; al-Afwah al-Awdi; al-Aghlab al-'Idjli; 
' Alkama; 'Amir b. al-Tufay 1; ' Amr b. al-Ahtam; 'Amr b. Kami'a; 'Amr b. Kulthum; 
'Antara; al-A'sha; al-Aswad b. Ya'fur; Aws b. Hadjar; Bishr b. Abi Khazim: 
Bistam b. Kays; Durayd b. al-Simma; al-Hadira; al-Harith b. Hilliza; Hassan b. 


Thabit; Hatim al-Ta'I; Ibn al-Itnaba al-Khazradji; Imru' al-Kays b. Hudjr; Kays 
b. al-Khatim; al-Khansa 5 ; Lakit al-Iyadi; Lakit b. Zurara; al-Munakhkhal al- 
Yashkurl; Murakkish; al-Mutalammis; al-Nabigha al-Dhubyani; Salama b. 
Djandal; al-Samaw'al b. 'Adiya; al-Shanfara; Ta'abbata Sharran; Tarafa; Tufayl 
b. 'Awf; Uhayha b. al-Djulah; Umayya b. c Abi '1-Salt; c Urwa b. al-Ward; Zuhayr 
see also 'Arabiyya.B.I; Ghazal; Hudhayl; al-Mu'allakat; al-Mufaddaliyyat; 
Mufakhara.2; Naslb.2.a; Sha'ir.lA; al-Shantamari; Su'luk.II.4 

mukhadramun poets (6th-7th centuries) al- c Abbas b. Mirdas; c Abd Allah b. Rawaha; 
Abu Khirash; Abu Mlhdjan; c Amr b. Ma'dikarib; Dirar b. al-Khattab; Hassan b. 
Thabit; al-Hutay'a; Ibn (al-)Ahmar; Ka'b b. Malik; Ka c b b. Zuhayr; Khidash b. 
Zuhayr al-Asghar; Labid b. Rabi'a; Ma'n b. Aws al-Muzani; Mukhadram; 
Mutammim b. Nuwayra; al-Nabigha al-Dja c di; al-Namir b. Tawlab al-TJkli; al- 
Shammakh b. Dirar; Suhaym; [in Suppl.] Abu '1-Tamahan al-Kayni; Ibn Mukbil 
see also Hudhayl; Nasib.2.b; [in Suppl.] Muhdathun 

7th and 8th-century poets al-'Abbas b. al-Ahnaf; c Abd Allah b. Hamman; Abu 
c Ata J al-Sindi; Abu Dahbal al-Djumahl; Abu Dulama; Abu '1-Nadjm al-Tdjli; 
Abu Sakhr al-Hudhali; Abu '1-Shamakmak; Adi b. al-Rika'; al-'Adjdjadj; al- 
Ahwas; al-Akhtal; al- c Ardji; A'sha Hamdan; al-Ashdja c b. c Amr al-Sulami; Ayman 
b. Khuraym: al-Ba c ith; Bashshar b. Burd; Dhu '1-Rumma; Djamil; Djarir; Dukayn 
al-Radjiz; al-Farazdak; al-Hakam b. c Abdal; al-Hakam b. Kanbar; Hammad 
'Adjrad; Hamza b. Bid; Haritha b. Badr al-Ghudani; al-Hudayn; Humayd b. 
Thawr; Humayd al-Arkat; Ibn Abi c Uyayna; Ibn al-Dumayna; Ibn Harma; Ibn 
Kays al-Rukayyat; Ibn Ladja 1 ; Ibn al-Mawla; Ibn Mayyada; Ibn Mufarrigh; Ibn 
Mutayr; Ibn Sayhan; Tmran b. Hittan; c Inan; Isma'il b. Yasar; Ka'b b. Dju'ayl al- 
Taghlabi; Katari b. al-Fudja'a; al-Kumayt b. Zayd al-Asadi; al-Kutami; Kuthayyir 
b. c Abd al-Rahman; Layla al-Akhyaliyya; Mansur al-Namari; Marwan b. Abi 
Hafsa and Marwan b. Abi '1-Djanub; Miskin al-Darimi; Musa Shahawatin; 
Musawir al-Warrak; Muti c b. Iyas; Nubata b. c Abd Allah; Nusayb; Nusayb b. 
Rabah; al-Ra c i; Ru 3 ba b. al- c Adjdjadj; Safi al-Din al-Hilli; Safwan al-Ansari; 
Sahban Wail; Salih b. c Abd al-Kuddus; Salm al-Khasir; al-Sayyid al-Himyari; 
al-Shamardal; Sudayf b. Maymun; Sufyan al- c Abdi; Sulayman b. Yahya; Suraka 
b. Mirdas al-Asghar; Tahman b. c Amr al-Kilabi; Tawba b. al-Humayyir; Thabit 
Kutna; al-Tirimmah; al-Ukayshir; c Umar b. Abi Rabi'a; 'Urwa b. Hizam; c Urwa 
b. Udhayna; Waddah al-Yaman; Waliba b. al-Hubab; al-Walid.2; al-Walid b. 
Tarif; al-Walid b. c Ukba; Yazid Ibn Dabba; al-Zafayan; al-Zibrikan b. Badr; Ziyad 
al-A c djam; [in Suppl.] c Abd al-Rahman b. Hassan; Abu c Amr al-Shaybani (and 
al-Shaybani, Abu c Amr); Abu Hayya al-Numayri; Abu Huzaba; Abu Nukhayla; 
Bakr b. al-Nattah; al-Nadjashi 
see also Nasib.2.c and d; Su c luk.III.2; [in Suppl.] Muhdathun 

9th and 10th-century poets Aban b. c Abd al-Hamid; c Abd Allah b. Tahir; Abu '1- 
'Atahiya; Abu T-'Ayna'; Abu Dulaf; Abu '1-Faradj al-Isbahani; Abu Firas; Abu 
Nuwas; Abu T-Shis; Abu Tammam; Abu Ya'kub al-Khuraymi; al- c Akawwak; 
c Ali b. al-Djahm; al- c Attabi; al-Babbagha'; al-Basir; al-Buhturi; al-Busti; Di'bil; 
Dik al-Djinn; al-Himsi; al-Djammaz; al-Hamdani; (al-)Husayn b. al-Dahhak; Ibn 
al- c Allaf; Ibn Bassam; Ibn al-Hadjdjadj; Ibn Kunasa; Ibn Lankak; Ibn al- 
Mu'adhdhal; Ibn Munadhir; Ibn al-Mu c tazz; Ibn al-Rumi; al-Kasim b. c Isa; Khalid 
b. Yazid al-Katib al-Tamimi; al-Khalidiyyani; al-Khattabi: al-Khubza'aruzzi; al- 
Kisrawi; Kushadjim; al-Ma'muni; Muhammad b. c Abd al-Rahman al- c Atawi; 
Muhammad b. Hazim al-Bahili; Muhammad b. Umayya; Muhammad b. Yasir 
al-Riyashi; al-Mus'abi; Muslim b. al-Walid; al-Mutanabbi; Nasr b. Nusayr; Sahl 
b. Harun b. Rahawayh; Sa'id b. Humayd; al-Sanawbari; al-Sari al-Raffa'; al- 


Shimshati; Tahir b. Muhammad; Tamlm b. al-Mu c izz li-DIn Allah; c Ulayya; al- 
c UtbI, Abu c Abd al-Rahman; al-Warrak, Mahmud; al-Wa'wa' al-Dimashki; Yamut 
b. al-Muzarra'; [in Suppl.] Abu 'l-'Amaythal; Abu '1-Asad al-Himmani; Abu '1- 
Hasan al-Maghribi; Abu Hiffan; Abu 'l-'Ibar; Abu Riyash al-Kaysi; Abu Sa c d al- 
Makhzumi; Abu Shura'a; 'All b. Muhammad al-Tunisi al-Iyadi; Fadl al-Sha'ira; 
al-Fazari; al-Hamdawi 

see also al-Hamadhani; Ibn Abl Zamanayn; Nasib.2.d; Shahid; al-Suli; al-Tufayli; 

11th- 13th-century poets al-Abiwardi; 'Amid al-Din al-Abzari; al-Arradjani; al-Badi' 
al-Asturlabi; Baha' al-DIn Zuhayr; al-Bakharzi; Haysa Baysa; al-Husri.II; Ibn 
Abi '1-Hadid; Ibn Abl Hasina; Ibn al-'Aflf al-Tilimsanl; Ibn al-Habbariyya; Ibn 
Hamdis; Ibn Hayyus; Ibn Hindu; Ibn al-Kattan; Ibn al-Kaysarani.2; Ibn Khamis; 
Ibn Matruh; Ibn al-Nabih; Ibn Rashik; Ibn Sana' al-Mulk; Ibn al-Shadjari al- 
Baghdadi; Ibn Sharaf al-Kayrawani; Ibn Shibl; Ibn al-Ta'awidhi; al-Kammuni; 
Kurhub; al-Ma c arri; al-Marwazi; Mihyar; Muhammad b. c Ali b. 'Urnar; al- 
Rudhrawari; al-Saghani, c Abd al-Mu'min; Sa'id al-Baghdadl; al-Sharlf al-'Akili; 
al-Sharif al-Radi; Shumaym; al-Talla'fari; Tamim b. al-Mu c izz; al-Tarabulusi 
al-Raffa'; al-Tihami; al-Tilimsani.3; al-Tughra'I; 'Umara al-Yamani; al-Wasani; 
Zafir al-Haddad; [in Suppl.] Abu '1-Hasan al-Ansari; al-Balati, Abu '1-Fath 
'Uthman; al-BusM; al-Ghazzi; al-Is c irdi 
see also al-Khazradji; Nasib.2.d; al-Wathiki; Yakut al-Rumi 

14th-18th-century poets c Abd al-'Aziz b. Muhammad; c Abd al-Ghani; al-Bakri; 
al-Burini; Farhat; Ibn Abi Hadjala; Ibn 'Ammar; Ibn Hidjdja; Ibn Nubata; Ibn al- 
Sa'igh; Ibn al-Wannan; al-San c ani, Diya' al-Din; Su'udi; al-Warghi; al-Yadali; 
see also Khidr Beg; al-Shirbini; al-Wadi'ashi 

19th and 20th-century poets al-Akhras; al-Barudi; Fans al-Shidyak; al-Faruki; Fikri; 
Hafiz Ibrahim; Ibn Idris (I); Isma'il Sabri; Isma'il Sabri Pasha; Kaddur al- c Alami; 
al-Kazimi, c Abd al-Muhsin; Khalil Mutran; al-Khuri; al-Ma'luf; al-Manfaluti; 
Mardam.2; Ma'ruf al-Rusafi; al-Mazini; Nadji; Nadjib al-Haddad; Nadjib 
Muhammad Surur; Sa'id Abu Bakr; Salah c Abd al-Sabur; Sayigh, Tawflk; al- 
Shabbi; al-Sharkawi; Sha'ul; Shawki; Shukri; Taha, 'Ali Mahmud; Tu'ma, Ilyas; 
al-Tunisi, Mahmud Bayram; al-Turk, Nikula; Yakan, Muhammad Wali al-Din; 
al-Yazidji.1-4; al-Zahawi, Djamil Sidki; [in Suppl.] Abu Madi; Abu Shadi; al- 
c Akkad; al-Bustani; Butrus Karama; Ibn c Amr al-Ribati; Ibn al-Hadjdj; Kabbani 
see also Sha'ir.l.C; Shi'r.l.b 

transmission of Rawi 

transmitters Hammad al-Rawiya; Ibn Da'b; Ibn Kunasa; Khalaf b. Hayyan al- 
Ahmar; Khalid b. Safwan b. al-Ahtam; al-Kisrawi; al-Mufaddal al-Dabbi; 
Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. Dinar; al-Sharki b. al-Kutami; al-Sukkari; al-Suli; [in 
Suppl.] Abu c Amr al-Shaybani (and al-Shaybani, Abu c Amr) 
and -> Linguistics.grammarians.8th and <jth century 
bacchic -^ Wine 
Indo-Persian Mughals.10; Sabk-i Hindi; Sha c ir.4 

see also Pandjabi.2; and -> Literature.poetry.mystical and Persian 

11th-century poets Mas c ud-i Sa c d-i Salman; [in Suppl.] Abu '1-Faradj b. Mas'ud 

14th-century poets Amir Khusraw; Hasan Dihlawi; [in Suppl.] Hamid Kalandar 

16th-century poets Faydi; Xhana'i; [in Suppl.] Kahi; Kasim Arslan 
see also c Abd al-Rahim Khan 

17th-century poets Ghani; Qhanimat; Idraki Beglari; Kudsi, Muhammad Djan; 

LITERATURE, poetry 85 

Malik Kummi; Munir Lahawri; Nasir 'Ali Sirhindi; Naziri; Salim, Muhammad 

Kuli; Shayda, Mulla; Talib Amuli; Tughra, Mulla; [in Suppl.] Ghanimat Kundjahi 
18th-century poets Arzu Khan: Ashraf 'Ali Khan: Bidil; Dard; Hazin; Kani'; Makhfi; 


see also Tahsin 
19th-century poets Azfari; Ghalib: Rangin; [in Suppl.] Adib Pishawari 

see also Afsus 
love Ghazal; Nasib; Rakib; Shahrangiz; Turks.III.4; 'Udhri 

see also al-Marzubani; Nardjis; Shawk. 1 (a); Shawk, Tasadduk Husay n; and -> Love 
Arabic poets al-'Abbas b. al-Ahnaf; Abu Dhu'ayb al-Hudhali; Abu Nuwas; al- 

Ahwas; al- c Ardji; Bashshar b. Burd; Djamil al-'Udhri; Ibn Dawud; Ibn al- 

Dumayna; Ibn Mayyada; Ibn al-Nabih; Ibn Sahl; Ibn Zaydun; Imru' al-Kays; 

Kuthayyir b. c Abd al-Rahman; Layla al-Akhyaliyya; Mansur al-Namari; 

Murakkish-1; Nadji; Nusayb b. Rabah; al-Ramadi; Sa c id b. Humayd; Suhaym; 

'Urnar b. Abi Rabi'a; c Urwa b. Hizam; c Urwa b. Udhayna; al-Walid.2 

see also 'Inan; Madjnun Layla. 1; and -> Love.erotic 
Persian poets Hafiz; Muhtasham-i Kashani; Sa'di; Sa'ib; Shahriyar; Zulali-yi 

Kh w ansari 

see also Farhad wa-Shirin; Madjnun Layla.2; Shahid: Wamik wa 'Adhra'; Wis u 

Turkish poets 

see also Farhad wa-Shirin; Madjnun Layla.3 
Urdu poets Dagh; Mir Muhammad Taki; Shawk 

see also Madjnun Layla.4; and -> Love.erotic 

Arabic c Abd al-Ghani; al-Bakri, Muhammad; al-Bakri, Mustafa; al-Dimyati; al- 

Halladj; Ibn c Adjiba; Ibn 'Aliwa; Ibn al- c Arabi; al-Madjdhub; Makhrama.3; al- 


see also c Abd al-Kadir al-Djilani; Abu Madyan; al-Kadiri al-Hasani; al-Yafi'i; 

[in Suppl.] al-Hilali 
Central Asian Ahmad Yasawi 
Indian Baki bi 'llah; Bidil; Dard; "Djamali"; Hansawi; Husayni Sadat Amir; Imdad 

Allah; Malik Muhammad Djayasi; [in Suppl.] Hamid Kalandar; Kabir 

see also Bhita'i; Pandjabi.2; Sha c ir.4 
Indonesian Hamza Fansuri 
Persian Ahmad-i Djam; 'Attar; Baba-Tahir; Djalal al-Din Rumi; Fadl Allah Hurufi; 

Ghudjduwani: Humam al-Din b. 'Ala 3 Tabrizi; 'Iraki; Kamal Khudjandi; Kasim- 

i Anwar; Kirmani; Lahidji; Mahmud Shabistari; Sana'i; Shirin Maghribi, 

Muhammad; Sultan Walad; [in Suppl.] 'Arif Celebi; 'Imad al-Din 'Ali, Fakih-i 


see also Abu Sa'id b. Abi '1-Khayr; Kharakani; Shawk; [in Suppl.] Ahmad-i 

Turkish 'Ashik Pasha; Fasih Dede; Gulshani; Giilshehri; Huda'i; Munedjdjim Bashl; 

Nefes; Nesimi; Refi'i; Sari 'Abd Allah Efendi; Seza'i, Hasan Dede; Sheyyad 

Hamza; Yunus Emre; [in Suppl.] Eshrefoghlu; Esrar Dede; Rushani, Dede 'Umar; 

Siileyman Dhati 

see also Husam al-Din Celebi; Isma'Il al-Ankarawi; Isma'il Hakki; Kayghusuz 

Abdal; Khalili; Sultan Walad; Yazidji-oghlu 
nature Ibn Khafadja: Nawriyya; Rabi'iyyat; al-Sanawbari; Zahriyyat 

see also al-Walid.2; [in Suppl.] Ward 
Persian Ghazal.ii; Hamasa.ii; HidjaMi; Kasida.2; Khamsa: Madih.2; Malik al-Shu'ara'; 


Marthiya.2; Mathnawi.2; Mukhtarat.2; Musammat; Mustazad; Ruba'i.l; Shah- 
ranglz.l; Sha'ir.2; Shi'r.2; Takhallus.2; Tardji'-band; Zahriyyat.2; [in Suppl.] 
Habsiyya; Kit'a.2 

see also Radif.2; Safawids.III; Saki.2; Shaman; Sha'r.3; Sharif; Wa-sekht; Yaghma 
Djandaki; [in Suppl.] Mi'radj.6; Sawladjan; and-* Literature.poetry.indo-persian 


anthologies Mukhtarat.2; Tadhkira.2 

anthologists 'Awfi; Dawlat-Shah; Lutf 'Ali Beg; Taki Awhadi; Taki al-Din; 

[in Suppl.] Djadjarmi.2 
biographies Dawlat-Shah; Sam Mirza; Tadhkira.2; Taki al-Din; Wafa.4 
stories Barzu-nama; Farhad wa-Shirin; Iskandar Nama.ii; Kalila wa-Dimna; 

Madjnun Layla.2; Wamik wa c Adhra 5 ; Wis u Ramin; Yusuf and Zulaykha.l 
9th-century poets Muhammad b. Wasif 

see also Sahl b. Harun b. Rahawayh 
10th-century poets Baba-Tahir; Dakiki; Kisa'i; al-Mus'abi; Rudaki; Shahid; [in 

Suppl.] Abu Shakur Balkhi; Ma c ruf Balkhi 
11th-century poets Asadi; Azraki; Farrukhi; Firdawsi; Gurgani; Katran; Lami'i, 

Abu '1-Hasan; Manucihri; 'Unsuri 
12th-century poets 'Abd al-Wasi' Djabali; Anwari; Falaki Shirwani; Tmadi (and 

[in Suppl.]); Khakani; Labibi; Mahsati; Mu'izzi; Mukhtari; Sabir; Sana'I; Sayyid 

Hasan Ghaznawi; Shufurwa; Suzani; c Umar Khayyam; Zahir-i Faryabi; [in Suppl.] 

c Am c ak; Djamal al-Din Isfahani; Mudjir al-Din Baylakani 
13th-century poets 'Attar; Baba Afdal; Djalal al-Din Rumi; 'Iraki; Kamal al-Din 

Isma'il; Nizami Gandjawi; Pur-i Baha 5 ; Sa'di; [in Suppl.] Djadjarmi.l 

see also Shams-i Kays; Sudi 
14th-century poets 'Assar; Awhadi; Banakiti; Hafiz; Humam al-Din b. 'Ala 1 Tabrizi; 

Ibn-i Yamin; Tsami; Kh w adju; Nizari Kuhistani; Rami Tabrizi; Salman-i Sawadji; 

'Ubayd-i Zakani; [in Suppl.] Badr-i Caci; Djadjarmi.2; Tmad al-Din 'Ali, Fakih- 

i Kirmani 

see also Fadl Allah Hurufi; Hamd Allah al-Mustawfi al-Kazwini; Sudi 
15th-century poets Bushak; Djami; Fattahi; Hamidi; Katibi; Sayfi 'Arudi Bukhari; 

Sharaf al-Din 'Ali Yazdi; Shirin Maghribi, Muhammad; [in Suppl.] 'Arifi 

see also Djem 
16th-century poets Banna'i; Basiri; Fighani; Hatifi; Hilali; Muhtasham-i Kashani; 

Mushfiki; Naw'i; Sahabi Astarabadi; Sam Mirza; 'Urfi Shirazi; Wahshi Bafki 

see also Lukman b. Sayyid Husayn 
17th-century poets Asir; al-Damad; Kadri; Kalim Abu Talib; Kashif; Lahidji.2; 

Nazim Farrukh Husayn; Sa'ib; Sa'ida Gilani; Shawkat Bukhari; Shifa'i Isfahani; 

Tahir Wahid; Taki Awhadi; 'Unwan, Muhammad Rida; Zuhuri Turshizi; Zulali- 

yi Kh w ansari 

see also al-'Amili; Ghanimat; Khushhal Khan Khatak; [in Suppl.] Findiriski; 


18th-century poets Hatif; Hazin; Lutf 'Ali Beg; Nadjat; Shihab Turshizi; Wafa.2 

and 3 

see also Azad Bilgrami 
19th-century poets Furugh; Furughi. 1 and 2; Ka'ani; Kurrat al-' Ayn; Nashat; Rida 

Kuli Khan; Saba; Sabzawari; Shaybani; Shihab Isfahani; Surush; Wafa.5-9; 

Wakar; Yaghma Djandaki; [in Suppl.] Wisal 

see also Ikbal; Ka 3 im-makam-i Farahani; Sipihr; Wafa.4 
20th-century poets Bahar; Furughi. 3; Lahuti; Nafisi, Sa'id; Nima Yushidj; Parwin 

I'tisami; Pur-i Dawud; Rashid Yasimi; Shahriyar; Shurida, Muhammad Taki; 

LITERATURE, poetry 87 

Sipihri; Wuthuk al-Dawla; Yaghma'i; Yazdi; [in Suppl.] 'Arif, Mlrza; Ashraf al- 

Din Gilani; Dehkhuda; 'Ishki 

see also Ikbal 
Turkish Hamasa.iii; Hidja'.iii; Kasida.3; Khamsa; Koshma; Madih.3; Mani; Marthiya.3; 
Mathnawi.3; Mukhtarat.3; Musammat.l; Rabi'iyyat; Ruba'1.2; Shahrangiz.2; Shark!; 
Shi'r.3; Turks.III (and [in Suppl.]); [in Suppl.] Ghazal.iii 

see also Alpamish; 'Ashik; Ilahi; Karadja Ogblan; Ozan; Shahnamedji; Sha'ir.3; 
Tardji'-band; Therwet-i Fiinun; and -> Literature.poetry.mystical 
anthologies Mukhtarat.3; Tadhkira.3 

anthologists Ziya Pasha 
biographies 'Ashik Celebi; Latifi; Rida; Riyadi; Salim; Sehi Bey; Tadhkira.3; [in 

Suppl.] Mehmed Tahir, Bursal! 
stories Farhad wa-Shirin; Iskandar Nama.iii; Madjnun Layla.3; Yusuf and 

12th-century poets Ahmad Yuknaki; Hakim Ata 
13th-century poets Dehhani; Sheyyad Hamza 
14th-century poets Ahmadi; 'Ashik Pasha; Burhan al-Din; Gulshehri; Sheykh- 

oghlu; Yunus Emre 
15th-century poets Ahi; Ahmad Pasha Bursal!; Da c i; Firdewsi; Gulshani; Hamdi, 

Hamd Allah; Kasim Pasha; Kayghusuz Abdal; Khalili; Khidr Beg; Suleyman 

Celebi, Dede; Yazidji-oghlu 

see also Djem; Hamidi 
16th-century poets Agehi; c Azizi; Baki; Basiri; Bihishti; Dhati; Dja'far Celebi; 

Djalal Husayn Celebi; Djalalzade Mustafa Celebi; Djalalzade Salih Celebi; Fadli; 

Fakiri; Fawri; Ferdi; Fighani; Fuduli; Ghazali; Gulshani; Hadidi; Kara-celebi- 

zade; Kemal Pasha-zade; Khakani: Khayali; Korkud b. Bayazid; Lami'i, Shaykh 

Mahmud; Latifi; Lukman b. Sayyid Husayn; Me'ali; Medjdi; Mesihi; Mihri 

Khatun; Nazmi, Edirneli; Nedjati Bey; New c i; Rewani; Sehi Bey; Sururi.l; Suzi 

Celebi; Tashlidjali Yahya; Walihi 

see also Tashkopriizade. 1 
17th-century poets 'Ata'i; 'Azmi-zade; Baha'i Mehmed Efendi; Fasih Dede; Fehim, 

Undjuzade Mustafa; Haleti; Kara-celebi-zade; Kul Mustafa; Kuloghlu; Na'ili; 

Nazim, Mustafa; Nazmi, Sheykh Mehmed; Nef i; Niyazi; c Omer c Ashik; Riyadi; 

Sari c Abd Allah Efendi; Tifli; Wedjihi; Weysi; Yahya 

see also Tashkopruzade.3; [in Suppl.] Ka'imi 
18th-century poets Beligh, Isma'il; Beligh, Mehmed Emin; Celebi-zade; 

Ceshmizade; Fitnat; Gevheri; Ghalib; Hami-i Amidi; Hashmet; Kani; Mehmed 

Pasha Rami (and Rami Mehmed Pasha); Nabi; Nahifi; Nazim; Nedim; Nesh'et; 

Newres.l; c Othman-zade; Raghib Pasha; Seza'i, Hasan Dede; Thabit; Wehbi 


see also c Ushshaki-zade, Ibrahim 
19th-century poets 'Arif Hikmet Bey; 'Ayni; Dadaloghlu; Derdli; Dhihni; Fadil 

Bey; Fatin; Fehim, Suleyman; Ismail Safa; 'Izzet Molla; Kemal, Mehmed Namik; 

Layla Khanim; Menemenli-zade Mehmed Tahir; Mu'allim Nadji; Newres.2; 

Pertew Pasha.II; Redja'i-zade; Shinasi; Siinbul-zade Wehbi; Sururi.2; Wasif 

Enderuni; Ziya Pasha 
20th-century poets 'Abd al-Hakk Hamid; Djanab Shihab al-Din; Djewdet; Ekrem 

Bey; Hashim; Kanik; Kopriilii (Mehmed Fuad); Koryiirek; Layla Khanim; 

Mehmed c Akif; Mehmed Emin; Muhibb Ahmed "Diranas"; Nazim Hikmet; Oktay 

Rifat; Orkhan Seyfi; Ortac, Yusuf Diya; Sahir, Djelal; Tanpinar, Ahmed Hamdi; 

Tewfik Fikret; Yahya Kemal; Yiicel, Hasan c Ali; [in Suppl.] c Ashik Weysel; 

LITERATURE, poetry — prose 

Boliikbashi; Camlibel; Eshref; Eyyuboghlu; Govsa; Kisakurek 

see also Therwet-i Fiinun; [in Suppl.] Ergun; Findikoghlu 
in Eastern Turkish Adhari.ii; Babur; Bakikhanli; Burhan al-Din; Dhakir; Djambul 

Djabaev; Ghazi Giray II; Hamasa.iv; Hidja'.iii; Iskandar Nama.iii; Isma'il I; 

Kayyum Nasiri; Kutadghu Bilig; Lutfi; Mir c Ali Shir Nawa'i; Mu'nis; Sakkaki; 

Shahriyar; Yusuf Khass Hadjib; [in Suppl.] Mirza ShafT Wadih Tabrizi 
translations from Western langs. Isma'il Hakki 'Alishan; Kanik; Shinasi; Tewfik Fikret 
Urdu Ghazal.iv; Hamasa.v; HidjaMv; Kasida.4; Madih.4; Madjnun Layla.4; Marthiya.4; 
Mathnawi.4; Mukhtarat.4; Musammat.2; Musha'ara; Shahrangiz.3; Shi c r.4; Urdu.2 
see also Tardji'-band; Wa-sekht 
17th-century poets Nusrati 
18th-century poets Ashraf c Ali Khan; Dard; Djur'at; Mazhar; Sawda; Suz; Wali; 

[in Suppl.] Hasan, Mir Ghulam 

see also Arzu Khan; Tahsin 
19th-century poets Amanat; Anis; Azfari; Dabir, Salamat 'Ali; Dagh; Dhawk: 

Ghalib; Fakir Muhammad Khan: Hali; Ilahi Bakhsh "Ma'ruf '; Insha'; Mir 

Muhammad Taki; Muhsin c Ali Muhsin; Mu'min; Mushafi; Nasikh; Nasim; 

Rangin; Shawk, Tasadduk Husayn; [in Suppl.] Atish 

see also [in Suppl.] Azad 
20th-century poets Akbar, Husayn Allahabadi; Azad; Djawan; Ikbal; Muhammad 

c Ali; Rashid, N.M.; Ruswa; Shabbir Hasan Khan Djosh; Shibli Nu'mani; [in 

Suppl.] Hasrat Mohani 

see also Azurda 
vernacular Hawfi; Malhun; Mawaliya; Nabati; Zadjal 
see also Bukala; al-Sham.3 
prose Adab; Hikaya; Kissa; Makama; Mawsu'a; Mukaddima; Nasihat al-Muluk; Risala; Sharh; 
Tafsir; Uksusa; [in Suppl.] Nathr 

and ->■ the sections Etiquette-literature, Historical, and Travel-literature under this 
entry; Press 

for authors infields other than belles-lettres, see the respective entries 
Arabic 'Arabiyya.B.V; Hikaya.i; Kissa.2; Makala.l; Makama; Mawsu'a. 1; Mi'radj.2; 
Nahda; Nasihat al-Muluk. 1 ; Risala. 1 ; Sadj'.3; Sira Sha'biyya: Uksusa; [in Suppl.] Nathr 
and -> Literature.drama; Press 
works Alf Layla wa-Layla; 'Antar; Baybars; Bilawhar wa-Yudasaf; Dhu '1-Himma; 

Kalila wa-Dimna; Lukman.3; Sayf Ibn Dhi Yazan; Sindbad al-Hakim; 'Umar al- 


see also Sindbad; Tawaddud; [in Suppl.] Madinat al-Nuhas 
8th-century authors Ibn al-Mukaffa' 
9th-century authors al-Djahiz; al-Tha'labi, Muhammad; [in Suppl.] Abu 'l-'Anbas 

10th-century authors al-Hamadhani 
11th-century authors Ibn Nakiya; [in Suppl.] Abu '1-Mutahhar al-Azdi 

see also al-Tha c alibi, Abu Mansur c Abd al-Malik 
12th-century authors al-Hariri; al-Saymari; al-Wahrani; [in Suppl.] al-Djazari 
13th-century authors 

see also al-Sharishi 
14th-century authors Ibn Abi Hadjala 
15th-century authors 

see also al-Ibshihi 
1 7th-century authors al-Shirbini; al- Yusi 
18th-century authors al-Warghi 


19th-century authors al-Ma'luf; al-Yazidji. 1 ; [in Suppl.] al-Bustani.6 
20th-century authors Ahmad Amin; Farah Antun; Hafiz Ibrahim; Mahmud Tay mur; 

al-Ma'luf; al-Manfaluti; Mayy Ziyada; al-Mazini, Ibrahim; Muhammad Husayn 

Haykal; al-Muwaylihi; Nu'ayma, Mikhail; al-Rayhanl; Salama Musa; Sayyid 

Kutb; al-Sharkawi; Sha'ul; Taha Husayn; Tawflk al-Hakim; Tu'ma, Ilyas; al- 

Tunisi, Mahmud Bayram; Yahya Hakki; Zaydan, Djurdji; [in Suppl.] Abu Shadi; 

al-'Akkad; Lashin; al-Shartunl 

see also Djamil al-Mudawwar; al-Khalidi; Kurd c Ali; Shumayyil, Shibli 
Persian Hikaya.ii; Iran.vii; Kissa.4; Makala.2; Mawsu'a^; Nasihat al-Muluk.2; Risala.2; 
[in Suppl.] Mi'radj^ 

see also Safawids.III; and -> Literature.drama; Press 
works Bakhtiyar-nama; Dabistan al-Madhahib; Kahraman-nama; Kalila wa-Dimna; 

Madjnun Layla.2; Marzban-nama; Wamik wa 'Adhra' 

see also Nizam al-Mulk; Nizami 'Arudi Samarkandi 
11th-century authors Kay Ka'us b. Iskandar; Nasir-i Khusraw 
12th-century authors Hamidi; al-Kashani; Nasr Allah b. Muhammad; Nizami c Arudi 

Samarkandi; Rashid al-DIn (Watwat); al-Sam'ani, Abu '1-Kasim 
13th-century authors Sa c di 
14th-century authors Nakhshabi 
15th-century authors Kashifi 
16th-century authors 

see also Shem'i 
1 7th-century authors c Inay at Allah Kanbu 
18th-century authors Mumtaz 
19th-century authors Shaybani 

see also Furugh.2 
20th-century authors Bahar; Hidayat, Sadik; Nafisi, Sa c Id; Shaykh Musa Nathri; 

Talibuf; Zayn al-'Abidin Maragha'i; [in Suppl.] Al-i Ahmad; Bihrangi; Dehkhuda 
Turkish Hikaya.iii; Kissa.3; Maddah; Makala.3; Risala.3; Turks.III; [in Suppl.] Mawsu c a.3 
see also Bilmedje; Therwet-i Funun; and -> Literature.drama; Press 
works Alpamish; Billur Koshk; Dede Korkut; Kahraman-nama; Oghuz-nama; 

Yusuf and Zulaykha.2 

see also Merdjiimek; Sari Saltuk Dede 
14th-century authors Sheykh-oghlu 
15th-century authors Sheykh-zade.3 
16th-century authors Wasi 1 c Alisi 

see also Shem'i 
17th-century authors Nergisi; Weysi 
18th-century authors C A1I c Aziz, Giridli; Nabi 
19th-century authors Kasab, Teodor; Kemal, Mehmed Namik; Sami; Shinasi; Ziya 

Pasha; [in Suppl.] Caylak Tewfik 

see also Kissa.3(b); Therwet-i Funun 
20th-century authors Ahmad Hikmet; Ahmad Midhat; Ahmad Rasim; Djanab 

Shihab al-DIn; Ebiizziya Tevfik; Ekrem Bey; Fitrat; Hisar; Husayn Djahid; Husayn 

Rahml; Karay, Refik Khalid; Kaygili, 'Othman Djemal; Kemal; Kemal Tahir; 

Khalid Diya'; Khalide Edib; Layla Khanim; Mehmed Ra'uf; Oktay Rifat; c 6mer 

Seyf iil-Din; Orkhan Kemal; Reshad Nuri; Sabahattin Ali; Seza'I, Sami; Tanpinar, 

Ahmed Hamdi; Yahya Kemal; Ya'kub Kadrl; [in Suppl.] Atac; Atay; Esendal; 

Halikarnas Balikcisi; Mehmed Tahir, Bursal! 

see also Ahmad Ihsan; Ileri, Djelal Nuri; Inal; Isma'Il Hakki 'Alishan; Kissa.3(b); 

[in Suppl.] Eyyuboghlu 

90 LITERATURE, prose — tradition-literature 

in Eastern Turkish Babur; Rabghuzi; [in Suppl.] Agahl 
see also Timurids.2; Turks.III.6 
Urdu Hikaya.iv; Kissa.5; Urdu.2; [in Suppl.] Mawsu'a.5 
and -> Literature.drama; Press 
18th-century authors Tahsin 

19th-century authors Aman, Mir; Djawan; Fakir Muhammad Khan; Surur 
20th-century authors Ikbal; Nadhir Ahmad Dihlawi; Prem Cand; Ruswa; Shabbir 
Hasan Khan Djosh; Shibli Nu'mani; [in Suppl.] Azad 
proverbs in Mathal.4 

and -> Proverbs.collections of 
terms 'Arud; 'Ataba; Badi c ; Balagha; Bayan; Dakhil; Fard.a; Fasaha; Fasila; Ibtida'; Idjaza; 
Idmar; Iktibas; Intiha'; Irtidjal; Isti'ara; Kabd.iii; Kafiya; Kat c ; Kinaya; Luzum ma la 
yalzam; al-Ma c ani wa '1-Bayan; Madjaz; Ma'na.3; Mu'arada; Muzawadja; Radif.2; 
Radjaz.4; Shawahid; Sila.2; Ta'adjdjub; Tadjnis; Tadmin; Takhallus; Takhmis; 
Takhyil.l; Ta'rikh.III; Tashbih; Tawriya; Tayf al-Khayal; Wahshi; Wasf.l; [in Suppl.] 

and -> Literature.genres; Metrics; Rhetoric 
topoi and imagery Bukhl; Bulbul; Ghurab; Gul; Hamam; Hayawan.5; Insaf; al-Kamar.II; 
Kata; Nardjis; Rahil; Saki; Sham c a; Sha c r.3; al-Shayb wa '1-Shabab; [in Suppl.] Ward 
see also Ghazal.ii; c Ishk; Khamriyya; Rabi'iyyat; Zahriyyat 
tradition-literature Athar; Hadith; Hadith Kudsi; Hind.v.e; Sunan; Sunna; Usui al-Hadith; 
[in Suppl.] Arba'un Hadith 

see also Ahl al-Hadith; Hashwiyya; Khabar; Mustamli; Naskh; Riwaya; Sharh.III; 


authoritative collections Abu Da'ud al-Sidjistani; Ahmad b. Hanbal; Anas b. Malik; al- 

Bayhaki; al-Bukhari, Muhammad b. Ismail; al-Darakutni; al-Darimi; Ibn Hibban; 

Ibn Madja; Muslim b. al-Hadjdjadj; al-Nasa'i; al-Tayalisi, AbQ Dawud; al-Tirmidhi, 

Abu c Isa 

see also al-'Ayni; Ibn Hubayra 
terms al-Djarh wa '1-Ta c dil; Fard.d; Gharib; Hikaya.I; Idjaza; Isnad; Khabar al- Wahid; 
Mashhur; Matn; Mu'an'an; Munkar; Mursal; Musannaf; Musnad.3; Mustamli; 
Mutawatir.(a); Raf .2; Ridjal; Sahih.l; Salih; Sunan; Tadlis.2; Tadwin; Tawatur; 
Ihika; Umma.2 
see also Hadith; Ta'lik 
traditionists Rawi; Ridjal; Salih; Thika 
see also al-Ramahurmuzi 

7th century 'Abd Allah b. c Umar b. al-Khattab; Abu Bakra; Abu Hurayra; al- 
A'mash; Ibn Abi Layla.I; Ibn Mas'ud; Ka'b al-Ahbar; al-Khawlani, Abu Idris; 
al-Khawlani. Abu Muslim; [in Suppl.] Djabir b. 'Abd Allah 
see also c A'isha bint Abi Bakr; Umm Salama Hind 
8th century Abu 'l- c Aliya al-Riyahi; Abu Mikhnaf; al-Ash c ari, Abu Burda; Djabir 
b. Zayd; al-Fudayl b. c Iyad; Ghundjar; al-Hasan b. Salih b. Hayy al-Kufi; al- 
Hasan al-Basri; Ibn Abi Layla.II; Ibn Da'b; Ibn Ishak; Ibn al-Nattah; Ibn 
Shubruma; Ibn Sirin; 'Ikrima; al-Layth b. Sa c d; Maymun b. Mihran; Mukatil b. 
Sulayman; Nafi c ; al-Nakha'i, Ibrahim; Sa'id b. Abi Aruba; al-Sha'bi; Shu'ba b. 
al-Hadjdjadj; al-Suddi; 'Urwa b. al-Zubayr; Warka' b. c Umar; Yazid b. Zuray c ; 
al-Zuhri, Ibn Shihab; [in Suppl.] Abu c Amr al-Shaybani (and al-Shaybani, Abu 
c Amr); Ibn Djuraydj 
9th century Abu Nu c aym al-Mulal; Baki b. Makhlad; Ibn Abi Khaythama; Ibn 
Abi '1-Shawarib; Ibn Abi Shayba; Ibn 'A'isha.IV; Ibn Rahwayh; Ibn Sa'd; Ibn 
Sallam al-Djumahi; Ibrahim al-Harbi; al-Karabisi.2; al-Marwazi; Muslim b. al- 

LITERATURE, tradition-literature — wisdom-literature 91 

Hadjdjadj; Nu c aym b. Hammad; al-San'anl, 'Abd al-Razzak; Sufyan b. 'Uyayna; 

al-TayalisI, Abu Dawud; c Umarb. Shabba; Wakl< b. al-Djarrah; al-Wakidl; Yahya 

b. Ma'in; al-Ziyadl; Zuhayr b. Harb; [in Suppl] Abu <Asim al-Nabll; Asad b. 

Musa b. Ibrahim 

see also Ibn Khayyat al- c UsfurI; Ibn Kutlubugha; Yamut b. al-Muzarra c 
10th century Abu 'Aruba; al-Anbarl, Abu Bakr; al-Anbarl, Abu Muhammad; 

Ghulam T_ha c lab; Ibn al-'Allaf; Kasim b. Asbagh; al-Khattabl; al-Sarakustl; al- 

Sidjistanl; al-Tabarani; [in Suppl.] Ibn 'Ukda; al-Ramli 
11th century al-Hakim al-Naysaburl; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr; Ibn al-Banna'; Ibn Furak; 

Ibn Makula.3; al-Kabisi; al-Khatib al-Baghdadi; al-Sahmi; al- c Udhri 
12th century al-Baghawi; Ibn al-'Arabi; Ibn 'Asakir; Ibn Hubaysh; Ibn al- 

Kaysarani.l; Ibn al-Nadjdjar; al-Lawati; Razinb. Mu'awiya; al-Rushati; al-Sadafi; 

al-Sarradj, AbQ Muhammad; Shirawayh; al-Silafi; [in Suppl] al-Zamakhshari.2 

see also al-Sam'ani, Abu Sa c d 
13th century al-Dimyati al-Shafi'I; Ibn al-Athir. 1 ; Ibn Dihya; Ibn Farah al-Ishbili; 

al-Saghanl, Radiyy al-DIn; al-Tabari, Ahmad b. 'Abd Allah; [in Suppl] Ibn Dakik 

14th century al-Dhahabi; Ibn Kathir; al-Mizzi; al-Wadi'ashi 
15th century Ibn Hadjar al- c Askalani; al-Ibshihi.2; al-Kastallani; Mu'in al-Miskin; 


see also Ibn Kutlubugha 
20th century Shakir, Ahmad Muhammad 
Shiite 'Abd Allah b. Maymun; Dindan; Dja'far al-Sadik; Ibn Babawayh(i); al- 

Kashshi; al-Kazimi, 'Abd al-Nabi; al-Kulayni, Abu Dja'far Muhammad; Madjlisi; 

Muhammad b. Makki; Shah 'Abd al- c Azim al-Hasani; [in Suppl] Akhbariyya; 

al-Barkl; D^abir al-DjuTi 

see also Asma 3 ; al-Tihrani 

from Greek and Syriac Tardjama.2 

and ->• Medicine.physicians.greek; Philosophy.philosophers.greek 
from Middle Persian Ibn al-Mukaffa 1 ; Tansar; Tardjama.3 
from Western languages 

into Arabic Muhammad Bey c Uthman Djalal (and [in Suppl] Muhammad c Uthman 

Djalal); Sha'ul; Shumayyil, Shibll; Tardjama.4; al-Yazidji.5 
into Persian Muhammad Hasan Khan; Nafisi, Sa c id; SharfatI, c Ali; Tardjama.5 
into Turkish Isma'il Hakki 'Alishan; Kanik; Khalide Edib; Shinasi; Tardjama.6; 

Ziya Pasha 
travel-literature Djughrafiya.(d); Rihla 

authors 'Abd al-Ghani; al-'Abdari; Abu Dulaf; Abu Talib Khan; Ahmad Ihsan; C A1I Bey 
al-'Abbasi; c Ali Khan; al-'Ayyashi; Ewliya Celebi; Fans al-Shidyak; al-Ghassani; 
Ghiyath al-DIn Nakkash; Ibn Battuta; Ibn Djubayr; Ibn Idrls(II); Kurd 'All; Ma Huan; 
Mehmed Yirmisekiz; Nasir-i Khusraw; Shibll Nu c manl; SIdi C AH Re'is; al-Tamgrutl; 
Tamlm b. Bahr al-Muttawwi 1 ; al-Tidjanl, Abu Muhammad; al-TudjIbl; al-TunisI, 
Muhammad; al-TunisI, Shaykh Zayn al- c AbidIn; Yakut al-Ruml; al-Zayyanl; [in 
Suppl] al-Ghazzal: Ibn Nasir.3; Ttisam al-DIn; Mahammad b. Ahmad al-Hudigi 
see also Harun b. Yahya; Ibn Djuzayy; Ibn Rushayd; Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribl; Ibrahim 
b. Ya c kub; Khayr Allah Efendi; Leo Africanus; Zayn al-'Abidin Maragha'l; Zayn al- 
c Abidin Shirwani; [in Suppl] Sallam al-Tardjuman 
narratives [in Suppl] Akhbar al-Sin wa '1-Hind 
wisdom-literature al-Ahnaf b. Kays; 'All b. Abl Talib; Buzurgmihr; Hushang; Lukman; Sahl 
b. Harun b. Rahawayh; [in Suppl] Djawidhan Khirad 

92 LITERATURE, wisdom-literature — MALI 

see also Aktham b. Sayfi; Buhlul; al-Ibshihi; [in Suppl.] 'Ukala' al-Madjanin 
wondrous literature Abu Hamid al-Gharnati; 'Adja'ib; Buzurg b. Shahriyar; al-Kazwinl 
see also Ibn Sarabiyun; Kisas al-Anbiya'; Sindbad; [in Suppl.] Madinat al-Nuhas 

Love 'Ishk 

see also Ishara; Kalb.II; and ->■ Literature. poetry.love 
erotic Djins; Qhazal; Nasib; [in Suppl.] Mukawwiyat 

see also Abu Dahbal al-Djumahi; Abu Nuwas; Abu Sakhr al-Hudhall; al-'Ardji; Dayr; 

Dik al-Djinn al-Himsi; Djur'at; Fadil Bey; Hammad 'Adjrad; Ibn c Abd Rabbih; Ibn Faradj 

al-Djayyani; Ibn Kays al-Rukayyat; Ibn Matruh; Khamriyya; Waliba b. al-Hubab 
mystical 'Ashik; c Ishk; Shawk 

and ->• Literature.poetry.mystical; Mysticism 
platonic Qhazal.i.3; c Udhri 

see also Djamil al-'Udhri; Ibn Dawud; Kuthayyir b. c Abd al-Rahman; Layla al- 

Akhyaliyy a; Murakkish. 1 ; Nusayb b. Rabah; al-Ramadi; 'Umar b. Abi Rabi'a; c Urwa b. 

Hizam; al-Walid.2 
poetry -+ Literature.poetry.love 
treatises on al-Antaki, Da'ud; Ibn Hazm, Abu Muhammad; Rafi c al-Din; al-Tidjani, Abu 


see also Bukhtishu 1 


Macedonia -> (former) Yugoslavia 

Madagascar Madagascar; Massalajem 

and ->• Africa.east Africa 

Magic c Azima.2; Djadwal; Istinzal; Khassa; NIrandj; Rukya; Sihr; Simiya 1 ; Wafk; Yada 

Tash; [in Suppl.] Buduh 

see also Djinn.III; Hadjar; Huruf; Istikhara; Istiksam; Istiska 1 ; Kabid.4; al-Kamar.II; Katl.ii.2; 

Khawass al-Kur'an; Kihana; Kitabat.5; Ruhaniyya; Sidr; Zar; and -+ Charms; Divination 
magicians c Abd Allah b. Hilal; Sha'badha 

see also Antemuru 
treatises on al-Makkari; al-Zarkali; [in Suppl.] Ibn c Azzuz; al-Buni 

Malawi Kota Kota; [in Suppl.] Malawi 
and -> Africa.east africa 

Malaysia Malacca; Malay Peninsula; Malays; Malaysia 

see also Baladiyya.6; Djami c a; Indonesia; Kanduri; Kitabat.8; Partai Islam se Malaysia 
(Pas); Rembau; [in Suppl.] Mahkama.7.ii; al-Mar'a 
architecture -+ Architecture.regions 

literature c Abd Allah b. c Abd al-Kadir; Dawud al-Fatani; Hikaya.v; Kissa.6; Malays; Sha c ir.7; 
Ta J rikh.II.7; [in Suppl.] Shi c r.5 
see also Indonesia.vi 
states Penang; Perak; Sabah; Sarawak; Terengganu; [in Suppl.] Kelantan 
see also [in Suppl.] Kalimantan 

Mali Adrar.2; Ahmad al-Shaykh; Ahmadu Lobbo; Hamaliyya; Ka c ti; Mali; Mansa Musa 
see also Mande; Sudan (Bilad al-).2 


historians of al-Sa c dI 

ancient Tadmakkat 

regions Kaarta 

towns Bamako; Dienne; Gao; Segu; Timbuktu 

Mamluks Mamluks (and [in Suppl.]) 

see also Harfush; Manshur; Mihmindar; Rank; Yasa.2; and -> Dynasties.egypt and the 
fertile crescent; mllitary.mamluk 

Maronites ->■ Christianity.denominations; Lebanon 

Marriage Djilwa; Khitba; Mut'a; Nikah; 'Urs; [in Suppl.] Djabr 

see also c Abd.3.e; 'Ada.iii and iv.4; 'Arus Resmi; Fasid wa Batil.III; Gha'ib: Hadana; Kafa'a; 

Kurds.iv.A.l; al-Mar'a.2; Mawakib.4.3 and 5; Rada'; Shawwal; Sukna; Sukut; Wilaya.l; 

[in Suppl.] Nafaka; and -> Divorce 
dower Mahr; Sadak 

Martyrdom Fida'i; Mazlum; Shahid 

see also Habib al-Nadjdjar; (al-)Husayn b. 'All b. Abi Talib; Khubayb; Madjlis.3; Mashhad; 
Mas'ud; Ziyara.5; [in Suppl.] 'Abd Allah b. Abi Bakr al-Miyanadji 

Mathematics Algorithmus; al-Djabr wa '1-Mukabala; Hisab al-'Akd; Hisab al-Ghubar; c Ilm 
al-Hisab; Misaha; al-Riyadiyyat; [in Suppl.] c Ilm al-Handasa 
and -> Number 
algebra al-Djabr wa '1-Mukabala 
geometry Misaha; [in Suppl.] 'Ilm al-Handasa 
Greek Uklidis 

see also Balinus 
Islamic Abu Kamil Shudja c ; Abu '1-Wafa' al-Buzadjani; 'Ali al-Kushdji; al-Biruni; Ibn 
al-Banna' al-Marrakushi; Ibn al-Haytham; Ibn 'Irak; Ishak Efendi; al-Kalasadi; al- 
Karabisi.l; al-Karadji; al-Kashi; al-Kh w arazmi; al-Khazin: al-Khudjandi; Kushiyar 
b. Laban; al-Madjriti; al-Mardini; Muhammad b. 'Isa al-Mahani; Muhammad b. 
'Umar; al-Shirazi, Abu '1-Husayn; TMbit b. Kurra; al-Tusi, Nasir al-Din; c Umar 
Khayyam; c Utarid b. Muhammad; [in Suppl.] Kadi-zade Rumi; al-Kuhi; Samaw'al 
b. Yahya al-Maghribi, Abu Nasr 
see also Kusta b. Luka 
terms Fard.f; Kasr; Kat c ; Kutr; Mai; Manshur; Mukaddam; Musadara.l; Muthallath; al- 
Sahm. 1 .a; al-Ta c dil bayn al-Satrayn 
see also al-Mizan; [in Suppl.] Haliladj 

Mauritania Adrar.3; Atar; Hawd; Ma 5 al-'Aynayn al-Kalkami; Madjlis.4.A.xxii; Mflrita- 

niya; Sihafa.2.(iii) 

see also Dustur.xv; Lamtuna; al-Mami; Sudan (Bilad al-).2 
historians of al-Shinkiti; al-Yadali 

ancient Awdaghost; Ghana: Kunbi Salih; Shinkit 

present-day Nouakchott; Walata 


Mechanics Hiyal.2; al-Karastun; [in Suppl.] al-Djazari; Hiyal 

see also Ibn al-Sa'ati; 'Umar Khayyam; Urghan; and -► Hydrology 

Medicine Tibb 

and ->■ Anatomy; Drugs; Illness; Pharmacology 
centres of Blmaristan; Gondeshapur; Kalawun; [in Suppl.] Abu Za'bal 

see also Baghdad; Dimashk; al-Madina; [in Suppl.] Tibbiyye-i c Adliyye-i Shahane 

dental care Miswak 

see also 'Akik; Mardjan 
treatises on Hamon 

see also Ibn Abi '1-Bayan 
diseases -> Illness; Plague 

medical handbooks/encyclopaedias 'Ali b. al-'Abbas; al-Djurdjani, Isma'il b. al-Husayn; Ibn 
al-Nafis; Ibn Sina; al-Masihi; Shani-zade; al-Tabari, c Ali b. Rabban; Yuhanna b. 
Sarabiyun; al-Zahrawi, Abu '1-Kasim 
medicines Almas; c Anbar; al-Dahnadj; Dhahab; al-Durr; Fidda; Kafur; Katran; al-Kily; al- 
Kuhl; Luban; Maghnatis.l; Mardjan; Milh.2; Misk; Mumiya'; Sabun; Samgh; Tabashir; 
Za c faran.2; [in Suppl.] Bawrak; Haliladj 

see also Bazahr; al-Iksir; Kabid.3; Zi'bak; [in Suppl.] Afawih; Dam; for medicinal use 
of animal parts, food and plants or flowers, see specific articles under Animals, Cui- 
sine and Flora, respectively 
obstetrics c Arib b. Sa c d al-Katib al-Kurtubi 

and -► Life Stages.childbirth 
ophthalmology c Ayn; Ramad; Tibb 

see also [in Suppl.] Ma' al-Ward; and -»■ Anatomy.eye; Optics 
ophthalmologists c Ali b. c Isa; 'Ammar al-Mawsili; al-Ghafiki; Ibn Daniyal; Khalifa b. 
Abi '1-Mahasin 
see also Hunayn b. Ishak al-'Ibadi; Ibn al-Nafis; Ibn Zuhr.V 
physicians Djarrah; Hawi; [in Suppl.] Fassad 

see also c Ayn; Constantinus Africanus; Hikma; Kabid.3; Masa'il wa-Adjwiba; and -»■ 
Medicine.ophthalmology.ophthalmologists; Pharmacology 
biographies of Ibn Abi Usaybi'a; Ibn Djuldjul; Ibn al-Kadi; Ishak b. Hunayn 

see also Ibn al-Kifti 
7th century [in Suppl.] Ahrun; al-Harith b. Kalada 

and -> the section Physicians. Greek below 
9th century Bukhtishu'; Hunayn b. Ishak al- c Ibadi; Ibn Masawayh; Sabur b. Sahl; Yuhanna 
b. Sarabiyun 

see also Masardjawayh; al-Tabari, 'Ali 
10th century c Ali b. al- c Abbas; c Arib b. Sa'd al-Katib al-Kurtubi; Ibn Djuldjul; Ishak b. 
Hunayn; Ishak b. Sulayman al-Isra'ili; Kusta b. Luka; al-Razi, Abu Bakr; Sabi\(3); 
Sa'id al-Dimashki; [in Suppl.] Ibn Abi '1-Ash c ath 
11th century al-Antaki, Abu '1-Faradj; Ibn Butlan; Ibn Djanah; Ibn Djazla; Ibn al-Djazzar; 
Ibn Ridwan; Ibn Sina; Ibn al-Tayyib; Ibn Wafid; Ibn Zuhr.II; al-Masihi; al-Zahrawi, 
Abu '1-Kasim 
12th century Abu '1-Barakat; al-Djurdjani, Isma'il b. al-Husayn; Ibn Djamf; Ibn al-Tilmidh; 
Ibn Zuhr.III and IV; al-Marwazi, Sharaf al-Zaman; Umayy a, Abu '1-Salt; [in Suppl.] 
Ibn Biklarish; Samaw'al b. Yahya al-Maghribi, Abu Nasr 
see also Ibn Rushd 
13th century Ibn Abi '1-Bayan; Ibn Abi Usaybi'a; Ibn Hubal; Ibn al-Nafis; Ibn Tumlus; 
Sa'd al-Dawla; al-Suwaydi; [in Suppl.] Ibn al-Kuff 


14th century Hadjdji Pasha; Ibn al-Khatib; Ishak b. Murad; Kutb al-Din Shirazi 

15th century Bashir Celebi; Ya'kub Pasha 

16th century al-Antaki, Da'ud; Hamon; Yusufi 

17th century Hayati-zade 

18th century al-San'ani, Diya 5 al-Din; [in Suppl.] Adarrak; Ibn Shakrun al-Miknasi 

1 9th century and on Bahdjat Mustafa Efendi; Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Iskandarani; Shani- 

zade; Shumayyil, Shibli; [in Suppl.] c Abd al-Salam b. Muhammad 
Christian Bukhtishu'; Hunayn b. Ishak al-'Ibadi; Ibn Butlan; Ibn Masawayh; Ibn al-Tayyib; 

Ishak b. Hunayn; Kusta b. Luka; Sabi'.(3); Sabur b. Sahl; al-Tabari, c Ali; Yuhanna b. 

Sarabiyun; [in Suppl.] Ahrun; Hubaysh b. al-Hasan al-Dimashki; Ibn al-Kuff 
Greek Diyuskuridis; Djalinus; Rufus al-Afsisi; [in Suppl.] Ahrun; Bukrat 

see also Hunayn b. Ishak al- c Ibadi; Ibn Ridwan; Ibn al-Tayyib; Ishak b. Hunayn; 

Istifan b. Basil; Ustath; Yahya b. al-Bitrik; Yunan; [in Suppl.] Hubaysh b. al-Hasan 

al-Dimashki; Ibn Abi '1-Ash c ath 
Jewish Hamon; Ibn Abi '1-Bayan; Ibn Djamf; Ibn Djanah; Ishak b. Sulayman al-Isra J ili; 

Masardjawayh; Sa'd al-Dawla; Ya'kub Pasha; [in Suppl.] Ibn Biklarish 

see also Abu '1-Barakat; Hayati-zade. 1; Ibn Maymun 
Ottoman Bahdjat Mustafa Efendi; Bashir Celebi; Hadjdji Pasha; Hamon; Hayati-zade; 

Ishak b. Murad; Shani-zade; Ya'kub Pasha 

see also Hekim-bashi; [in Suppl.] Tibbiyye-i 'Adliyye-i Shahane 
surgery al-Zahrawi, Abu '1-Kasim 
terms Bimaristan; Djarrah; Hidjab; Kuwwa.5; Sabab.l; [in Suppl.] Mizadj; Mukawwiyat 

see also Hal 
veterinary Baytar; Ibn Hudhayl; Ibn al-Mundhir 

Melkites -»■ Christianity.denominations 

Mesopotamia -»■ Iraq 

Metallurgy Kal'i; Kharsini; Ma 'din 

see also Kalah; al-Mizan.l; and -*■ Mineralogy. mines 
metals Dhahab; Fidda; al-Hadid; Nuhas; Zi'bak 

and -»■ Mineralogy.minerals; Professions.craftsmen and tradesmen .artisans 

Metaphysics Ma ba'd al-Tabi'a 

see also 'Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi; Mahiyya; Mutlak 

Meteorology al-Athar al-'Ulwiyya 

see also Anwa'; Sadj'.2; [in Suppl.] Ibn al-Adjdabi 
weather magic Yada Tash 
winds Rih; Samum 

Metrics 'Arud, Wazn.2 


metres Mudjtathth; Mutadarik; Mutakarib; Mutawatir.(b); Radjaz; Ramal. 1 ; Sari'; Tawll; Wafir 
terms Dakhil; Fard.a; Kat'; Sabab.3; Sadr.(a); Salim.3; Watid; Zihaf 
treatises on Babur; al-Djawhari; al-Khalil b. Ahmad; al-Khazradji, Diya' al-Din; Mir 'Ali 
Shir Nawa'i; Shams-i Kays; al-Tibrizi 

Military Bahriyya; Djaysh; Harb; [in Suppl.] Nizam 'Askari 
see also Dar al-Harb; Djihad; Fathname; Ghazw 

architecture Ribat 

see also Tabaka; and ->• Architecture.monuments.strongholds 
army Djaysh; Isti'rad ( c Ard); Lashkar; Radlf.3 

see also Djasus; Saff.2; and ->• Military.mamluk and ottoman 
contingents Bazinkir; Djandar; Djaysh.iii.2; Djund; Ghulam; Gum; Kurci; Mahalla; 
Mamluk; Mutatawwi'a; Sipahi.2; Tabur; Tali'a; Tulb; Tuman. 1 ; [in Suppl.] Shallsh. 1 
see also Almogavares; Faris; and ->• Military.ottoman.army contingents 
band Nakkara-khana; Tabl-khana 

see also Mehter 

see also Shi'ar.l; Tugh; and -> Military.expeditions; Treaties 
before 622 Bu'ath; Dhu Kar; Djabala; Fidjar; Halima; Shi'b Djabala; Ubagh; [in Suppl.] 

see also Ayyam al-'Arab; Hanzala b. Malik; [in Suppl.] Silah. 1 
622-632 Badr; Bfr Ma'una; Buzakha; Hunayn; Khandak; Khaybar; Mu'ta; Uhud 

see also Malik b. c Awf; [in Suppl.] al-Ridda; Salman al-Farisi 
633-660 Adjnadayn; 'Akraba 5 ; al-Djamal; Djisr; Fahl; Harura'; al-Kadisiyya.2; Mardj al- 
Suffar; Siffin; Yarmuk.2; [in Suppl.] Dhat al-Sawari 

see also c Abd Allah b. Sa c d; c A'isha bint Abi Bakr; c Ali b. Abi Talib; al-Hurmuzan; 
Musaylima; al-Nahrawan; Rustam b. Farrukh Hurmuzd; Tahkim; [in Suppl] al-Ridda 
661-750 c Ayn al-Warda; Balat al-Shuhada'; Baldj b. Bishr; al-Bishr; Dayr al-Djamadjim; 
Dayr al-Djathalik; al-Harra; al-Khazir; Mardj Rahit; [in Suppl.] Wadi Lakku 
see also (al-)Husayn b. 'All b. Abi Talib; Kulthum b. c Iyad al-Kushayri; 
751-1258 al-Arak; Bakhamra; Dayr al-'Akul; Fakhkh; Haydaran; Hazarasp; Hittin; al- 
'Ikab; Kose Dagh; Malazgird.2; Shant Mankash; Taraz; Ubbadha; al-Zallaka; [in 
Suppl.] Dandankan 

see also Hadjar al-Nasr; al-Madjus; al-Mansur bi 'llah, Isma'il; Mardj Dabik 
1258-18th century c Ayn Djalut; Caldiran; Dabik; Djarba; Hims; Kosowa; Mardj Dabik; 
Mardj Rahit; Mardj al-Suffar; Mezokeresztes; Mohacs.a and b; Nikbuli; Panipat; 
Talikota; Tukaro'i; Wadi '1-Khaznadar; Zenta; [in Suppl.] Koszeg 
see also Aynabakhti; Bahriyya.iii; Fathname; Harb; Nahr Abi Futrus; 'Othman Pasha; 
Wenedik.2; Zsitvatorok 
after 18th century Abuklea; Atjeh; Ceshme; Farwan; Gok Tepe; Isly; Kut al-'Amara; 
MaysalQn; Nizib; Rif.II; al-Tall al-Kabir; [in Suppl.] al-Kabk.3.f and] 
see also al- c Akaba; Gulistan 
bodies 'Ayyar; DawaMr; Djaysh.iii.l; Futuwwa; Ghazi; al-Shakiriyya 

see also c Ali b. Muhammad al-Zandji; al-Ikhwan; Khashabiyya; Sarhang; and -> 
booty Fay 1 ; Ghanima: [in Suppl.] Khums 

see also Baranta; Ghazw; Khalisa; Pendjik; and -> Military.prisoners 
Byzantine ->■ Byzantine Empire; for battles fought between the Arabs and Byzantines ->■ 

Byzantine Empire.military 
decorations Nishan; Wisam 
expeditions Ghazi; Sa'ifa 

see also Ghazw 
Indo-Muslim Barud.vi; Ghulam.iii; Harb.vi; Hisar.vi; Lashkar; Sipahi.3; Suwar 

see also Isti'rad (Ard) 
Mamluk al-Bahriyya; Bahriyya.II; Barud.iii; Burdjiyya; Halka; Harb.iii; Hisar.iv; Mamluk; 
Tabaka; Wafidiyya; [in Suppl.] Shalish 
see also Amir Akhur; al-Amir al-Kabir; Atabak al- c Asakir; Cerkes.ii; 'Isa b. Muhanna; 


Khassakiyya; Kumash; Rikabdar; Silahdar; Tulb 
battles c Ayn Djalut; Dabik; Hims; March' Rahit; Wadi '1-Khaznadar 
navy Bahriyya; Dar al-Sina c a; Darya-begi; Kapudan Pasha; Lewend.l; Nassads; Ra'is.3; 
Riyala; Ustul 

see also 'Azab; Gelibolu; Katib Celebi; [in Suppl.] Dhat al-Sawari; and -> Naviga- 
tion.ships; Piracy; for Ottoman maritime topics -> Dynasties.anatolia and the 


offices Amir; 'Arif; Atabak al-'Asakir; Fawdjdar; Ispahbadh; Ispahsalar; Isti'rad ( c Ard); Ka'id; 

Mansab; Salar; Sardar; Sarhang; Shihna; Silahdar 

see also Amir al-Umara'; Darugha; Kadi 'Askar; Kurci; and -> Military.ottoman 
Ottoman Bab-i Ser'askeri; Bahriyya.iii; Balyemez; Barud.iv; Devshirme; Djebeli; Ghulam.iv; 

Harb.iv; Harbiye; Hisar.v; Musellem; Radif.3; Sandjak; Sipahi.l; Tersane; Tugh.2; c Ulufe; 

Yeni Ceri; [in Suppl.] Djebedji; Mu'insiz; Nizam c Askari.3 

see also c Askari; Dabtiyya; Gelibolu; Gum; Hareket Ordusu; Isti'rad (Ard); Kapidji; 

Karakol; Martolos; Mensukhat; Mondros; Nefir; Ordu; Pendjik; Timar; Zi'amet; and -> 


army contingents al-Abna'.V; c Adjami Oghlan; Akindji; Alay; 'Azab; Bashl-bozuk; Boliik; 
Deli; Devedji; Djanbazan; Eshkindji; Ghuraba'; Goniillii; Khasseki; Khumbaradji; 
Lewend; Nizam-i Djedid; Odjak; Orta; Woynuk; Yaya; Yefii Ceri; Yerliyya; Zeybek; 
[in Suppl.] Djebedji; Segban 
see also Akhi; Eflak; Martolos; Nefir; Sipahi.l 
battles Caldiran; Dabik; Kosowa; Mezokeresztes; Mohacs.a and b; Nikbuli; [in Suppl.] 
al-Kabk.3.f and] 
see also Wenedik 
officers Bayrakdar; Binbashi; Boliik-bashi; Ca'ush; Corbadji.l; Dabit; Darya-begi; 
Kapudan Pasha; Mushir; Rikabdar; Riyala; Zaghardji Bashi; [in Suppl.] Yuzbashl 
see also Sandjak; Silahdar 
pay 'Ata'; In'am; Mai al-Bay'a; Rizk.3; 'Ulufe 
police Ahdath; c Asas; Dabtiyya; Karakol; Shurta 

see also Dawa'ir; Futuwwa; Kotwal; Martolos; Nakib.2 
prisoners Lamas-su; Miibadele.ii; [in Suppl.] Fida' 

see also Sidjn; and -> Military.booty 
reform ->■ Reform.military 
tactics Harb; Hisar; Hiyal.l 

see also al- c Awasim; Fil; al-Thughur; and -> Architecture.monuments.strongholds 
terms Tadjmir; Za'im 
treatises on Ibn Hudhayl; al-Tarsusi; [in Suppl.] Fakhr-i Mudabbir 

see also Harb.ii; Hiyal.l 
weapons 'Anaza; 'Arrada; Balyemez; Barud; Durbash; Kaws; Mandjanik; Naft.2; Top; [in 
Suppl.] Silah 
see also 'Alam; Asad Allah Isfahani; Hilal.ii; Hisar; Kal'i; Lamt; Maratib 

Mineralogy Ma 'din 
see also al-Mizan. 1 
minerals Abu Kalamun; c Akik; Almas; Barud; Billawr; al-Dahnadj; Firuzadj; al-Kibrit; al- 

Kuhl; Maghnatis.l; Milh; Mumiya'; Natrun; Yakut; Yashm; [in Suppl.] Bawrak 

see also al-Andalus.v; Damawand; Golkonda; Hadjar; Kirman; Ma'din; Malindi; and -> 

Jewelry; Metallurgy 
mines al-'Allaki; Anadolu.iii.6; al-Andalus.v. 2; 'Araba; Arminiya.III; Badakhshan; Billiton; 

Bilma; Cankiri; al-Djabbul; Djayzan; al-Duru c ; Farghana; Firrish; Giimush-khane; Kalah; 

KaraHisar.2 and3; Kaysariyya; al-Kily; Kishm; Ma'din.2; al-Ma c din; Sofala; Zonguldak 


see also Fazughli; Filastin; Milh 
treatises on al-Suwaydi; al-Tlfashi 
see also 'Utarid b. Muhammad 

Miracles Karama; Mu'djiza 

see also Aya; Dawsa; Ma 5 al-'Aynayn al-Kalkami; Mi'radj {and [in Suppl.]); and ->■ Saint- 

Monarchy Malik; Mamlaka 

see also Darshan; Nasihat al-Muluk; S_hah; Tigin; and -*■ Court Ceremony 
royal insignia Mizalla; Sandjak; Saraparda; Shamsa; Tadj; Takht-i Tawus; Tughra 
see also Shams.3; Tamgha; Tugh 

Monasticism Rahbaniyya 

and ->■ Christianity.monasteries 

Mongolia Karakorum; Khalkha; Mongolia; Mongols 

Mongols Batu'ids; Caghatay Khanate; Cubanids; Djalayir; Djanids; Giray; Hayatila; Ilkhans; 

Kalmuk; Kara Khitay; Kuriltay; Mangit; Mongols 

see also Dughlat; Ergenekon; Khanbalik; Kishlak; Kubcur; Kungrat; Libas.iii; Otiiken; 

Timurids; Tuman.l; Ulus; Yaylak; and ->■ Dynasties. Mongols; Law. Mongol; 


administration Soyurghal; Yam; Yarllgh; [in Suppl.] Diwan-begi; Yurtci 

and ->■ Law.mongol 
battles c Ayn Djalut; Hims; Mardj Rahit; Wadi '1-Khaznadar 
historians of Djuwayni, 'Ala' al-Din; Hamd Allah al-Mustawfi al-Kazwini; Haydar Mirza; 

Rashid al-Din Tabib; Wassaf 

see also Tamim b. Bahr al-Muttawwi c ; and ->■ Dynasties.mongols; and the section 

Historians Of under individual dynasties 
physical geography 
waters Orkhon 


Morocco al-Maghrib 

see also 'Arabiyya.A.iii.3; Himaya.ii; Mallah; Rif.II; Sultan al-Talaba (and Talaba) 
architecture ->■ Architecture.regions.north Africa 
dynasties c Alawis; Idrisids; Marinids; Sa'dids; Wattasids 

see also Bu Hmara; Hasani; Shurafa'. 1 .III; Zahir; [in Suppl.] Ahmad al-Hiba; and ->■ 


historians of Ahmad al-Nasiri al-Salawi (and al-Nasir al-Salawi); Akansus; Ibn Abi Zar'; Ibn 
al-Kadi; al-Zayyani 

see also Ibn al-Rakik; al-Kattani; [in Suppl.] 'Allal al-Fasi; Mahammad b. Ahmad al- 
Hudigi; and ->■ Dynasties.spain and north Africa 
modern period Baladiyya.3; Djarida.i.B; Djaysh.iii.2; Dustur.xvii; Hizb.i; Hukuma.iv; 
Madjlis.4.A.xxi; Mahkama.4.x; Makhzan; Sihafa.2.(ii); [in Suppl.] Siba 

poets Ibn Idris (I); Kaddur al-'Alami; [in Suppl.] Ibn c Amr al-Ribati; Ibn al-Hadjdj 
education Djami'a; Ma c arif.2.C; Madjma 1 c Ilmi.i.2.d; [in Suppl.] Institut des hautes etudes 

reform Salafiyya.l(c); Tartib 


see also [in Suppl.] Muhammad b. c Abd al-Karim 
scholars al-Tadili 
statesmen [in Suppl.] 'Allal al-Fasi 

for sultans ->■ Dynasties.spain and north africa.'alawids 
physical geography al-Maghrib.I 
deserts al-Sahra' 
see also Reg 
mountains Atlas; Rif.1.2 
plateaux Hammada 
population Dukkala; Glawa; Hartani; Khult; Shawiya.l; [in Suppl.] Awraba 

see also al-Fasiyyun; al-Ma c kil; and ->■ Berbers 
religion al-Maghrib.VI 

mystical orders Darkawa; Hansaliyya; Hazmiriyyun; 'Isawa; al-Nasiriyya; Shadhiliyya; 
Wazzaniyya; [in Suppl.] Hamadisha 
for Djazuliyya, see al-Djazuli, Abu 'Abd Allah 

see also Sharkawa; Ziyaniyya; [in Suppl.] 'A'isha Kandisha; and ->■ Mysticism; 

ancient Anfa; Badis; al-Basra; Fazaz; al-Kasr al-Saghir; Nakur; Shalla; Sidjilmasa; 

Tamasna; Tinmal; Tit; Walili 

districts Tafilalt; Tazarwalt 

islands [in Suppl.] al-Husayma 

regions Dar c a; Figuig; Gharb; Hawz; Ifni; Rif.1.2; Spartel; al-Sus al-Aksa; Tadla; 

Wadi Nun; [in Suppl.] al-Sakiya al-Hamra' 
towns Agadir-ighir; Aghmat; al- c Ara J ish; Asfi; Asila; Azammur; Damnat; (al-)Dar 
al-Bayda'; al-Djadida; Dubdu; Fadala; Fas; Garsif; al-Kasr al-Kabir; al-Mahdiyya: 
Marrakush; Mawlay Idris; Melilla; Miknas; Ribat al-Fath; Sabta; Sali 
Shafshawan; Sufruy; al-Suwayra; Tamgrut; Tandja; Tarudant; Taza; Tittawin; 
Tiznit; Wadjda; Wazzan; [in Suppl.] Azru; Beni Mellal 
see also al-Hamra 5 ; Tit 

Mountains Adja' and Salma; Adrar.2; Aghri Dagh; Air; Ala Dagh; Aladja Dagh; Alburz; 
Altai; Alwand Kuh; c Amur; Atlas; Awras; Balkhan; Beshparmak; Biban; Bingol Dagh; 
Bisutun; Copan-ata; Damawand; Deve Boynu; Djabala; al-Djibal; Djudi; Djurdjura; Elma 
Daghi; Erdjiyas Daghi; Futa Djallon; Gawur Daghlari; Hadur; Hamrin; Haraz; Hawraman; 
Hindu Kush; Hira'; Hisn al-Ghurab; Hufash; al-Kabk; Kabylia; Karakorum; Kasiyun; 
Khumayr; Kuh-i Baba; al-Lukkam; Nafusa; Pamirs; Safid Kuh; al-Sarat; al-Sharat; Sindjar; 
Sulayman; Tibesti; Toros Daglan; al-Tur; Ulu Dagh; Wansharis; Zagros; [in Suppl.] Shah 
Dagh; al-Sharaf 

see also Hind.i.i; Kara Bagh; Tasili; Ihabir; and ->■ the section Physical Geography under 
individual countries 

Mozambique Kerimba; Makua; Mozambique (and [in Suppl.]); Pemba; Sofala 

Muhammad, the Prophet Hidjra; Hira'; al-Hudaybiya; Khaybar; Khuza'a; Kuda'a; Kuraysh; 
al-Madina.i.2; Mawlid; Mi'radj (and [in Suppl.]); Muhammad; Sahaba; Sunna; Tabi'un; 
Tulaka'; Ummi.2; Wufud 

see also al-Kur'an; Mu'akhat; al-Mu'allafa Kulubuhum; Nubuwwa; Nur Muhammadi; 
Sayyid; Sharaf; Sharif; Tahannuth; Tasliya; Wahy; [in Suppl.] Bay'at al-Ridwan; Mawlid.3; 
Shatm; and ->■ MiLiTARY.BATTLES.622-632 


belongings of Athar; al-Burak; Burda. 1 ; Dhu '1-Fakar; Duldul; Emanet-i Mukaddese; Kadam 

Sharif; Khirka-yi Sherif; Lihya-yi Sherif; [in Suppl.] al-Na c l al-Sharif 
biographies of al-Maghazi; Sira 

biographers Abd al-Hakk b. Sayf al-Dln; al-Bakrl, Abu '1-Hasan; Dahlan; al-Diyarbakri; 
al-Djawwani; al-Halabl, Nur al-Din; Ibn Hisham; Ibn Ishak; Ibn Sayyid al-Nas; 'Iyad 
b. Musa; Kara-celebi-zade.4; al-Kastallanl; Liu Chih; Mughultay; Muhammad Husayn 
Haykal; Mu'In al-Miskin; al-Tabrisi, Amln al-Din; al-Tanukhl, Djamal al-Din; Wahb 
b. Munabbih; Weysi; [in Suppl.] Dinet 

see also Hind.v.e; Ibn Sa'd; al-Khargushi; [in Suppl.] al-Suhayli 
companions of Sahaba 

see also Ahl al-Suffa; al-Salaf wa '1-Khalaf; Tabi'un; [in Suppl.] Shatm 
individual companions Abu Ayyub al-Ansari; Abu Bakra; Abu 'l-Darda J ; Abu Dharr: 
Abu Hurayra; 'AdI b. Hatim; 'Ammar b. Yasir; Anas b. Malik; al-Arkam; al-Ash'ari, 
Abu Musa; 'Attab; al-Bara' (b. c Azib); al-Bara 1 (b. Ma'rur); Bashir b. Sa'd; Bilal b. 
Rabah; Bishr b. al-Bara'; Burayda b. al-Husayb; Dihya; Djariya b. Kudama; Ghasil 
al-Mala'ika; Hashim b. c Utba; Hurkus b. Zuhayr al-Sa'di; Ibn Mas'ud; Ka'b b. Malik; 
Khabbab b. al-Aratt; Khalid b. Sa'id; Kutham b. al- c Abbas; Maslama b. Mukhallad; 
al-Mikdad b. c Amr; Mu'awiya b. Hudaydj; al-Mughira b. Shu c ba; Muhammad b. 
Abi Hudhayfa; Mus'ab b. c Umayr; al-Nabigha al-Dja c di; al-Nu'man b. Bashir; Sa c d 
b. Abi Wakkas; Safwan b. al-Mu c attal; Sa c id b. Zayd; Shaddad b. c Amr; Shurahbil b. 
Hasana; Talha; Tamim al-Dari; c Ubayd Allah b. al- c Abbas; c Ubayd Allah b. c Umar; 
c Ukba b. Nafi'; c Urwa b. Mas'ud; c Utba b. Ghazwan: c Uthman b. Maz'un; al-Walid 
b. c Ukba; Zayd b. Thabit; al-Zibrikan b. Badr; al-Zubayr b. al-'Awwam; Zuhayr b. 
Kays; [in Suppl.] Djabir b. c Abd Allah; Ibn Mitham 

see also al-Ka'ka 1 ; Khawlan.2; Kuss b. Sa'ida; Rawh b. Zinba'; Ubayy b. Ka c b; Usama 
b. Zayd; Uways al-Karani; 'Uyayna b. Hisn; Waraka b. Nawfal; Zayd b. c Amr; [in 
Suppl.] Khawla bt. Hakim 
family of al- c Abbas b. 'Abd al-Muttalib; c Abd Allah b. c Abd al-Muttalib; c Abd al-Muttalib b. 
Hashim; Abu Lahab; Abu Talib; 'Akil b. Abi Talib; 'All b. Abi Talib; Amina; Dja'far b. 
Abi Talib; Fatima; Halima bint Abi Dhu'ayb; Hamza b. c Abd al-Muttalib; (al-)Hasan b. 
'All b. Abi Talib; al-Hasan b. Zayd b. al-Hasan; Hashim b. 'Abd Manaf; (al-)Husayn b. 
'All b. Abi Talib; Rukayya; 'Ubayd Allah b. al-'Abbas; Umm Kulthum; Zayd b. Haritha 
see also Ahl al-Bayt; Sharif; Shurafa 5 ; and ->■ the section Wives below 
daughters Fatima; Rukayya; Umm Kulthum; Zaynab bt. Muhammad 
wives ' A'isha bint Abi Bakr; Hafsa; Khadidja; Mariya; Maymuna bint al-Harith; Safiyya; 
Sawda bt. Zam'a; Umm Salama Hind; Zaynab bt. Djahsh; Zaynab bt. Khuzayma 
opponents of Abu Djahl; Ka'b b. al-Ashraf; Umayya b. Khalaf; 'Utba b. Rabi'a; al-Walid b. 
see also Zuhra; [in Suppl.] Mala\2 

Music Ghina'; Kayna; Makam; Malahi; Musiki; Ramal.2; Shashmakom; [in Suppl.] Ika'; 

see also Lamak; al-Rashidiyya; Sama'.l 
composers ->■ the section Musicians below 

instruments Buk; Darabukka; Duff; Ghayta; Imzad; Kithara; Mi'zaf; Mizmar; Nefir; Rabab; 
Sandj; Santur; Saz; Tabl; Tunbur; 'Ud.II; Urghan; Zurna; [in Suppl.] Nay 
see also Mehter; Muristus; Nakkara-khana; Tabbal 
military ~" Military.band 

first centuries Ibn Muhriz; Ibrahim al-Mawsill; Ishak b. Ibrahim al-Mawsili; Ma'bad 


b. Wahb; Yahya al-Makkl; Yunus al-Katib al-Mughanni; Ziryab; [in Suppl.] 
'Allawayh al-A c sar; al-Dalal; Fadl al-Sha'ira 
see also al-Kasim b. c Isa 
13th to 16th centuries Safi al-Din al-Urmawi; Tansin; [in Suppl.] Habba Khatun 
17th and 18th centuries Isma'il Hakki; Solak-zade 

19th and 20th centuries al-Kusantini; Lahuti; Layla Khanim; Shewki Beg; Zeka'i 
flautists [in Suppl.] Barsawma al-Zamir 

lute players 'Azza al-Mayla J ; Djahza; Safi al-Din al-Urmawi; Sa'ib Khathir; Zalzal; Ziryab; 
[in Suppl.] 'Allawayh al-A'sar 

Andalusian al-Ha'ik; Umayya, Abu '1-Salt 
Egyptian Taktuka 
Indian Hind.viii; Khayal 

see also Bayazid Ansari; Tansin; [in Suppl.] Habba Khatun 
Kurdish Kurds.iv.C.4 
Persian Mihragan.iv.3 

see also Lahuti; Nakkara-khana 
Turkish Ilahi; Koshma; Mehter; Sharkl; Taksim; Turks.IV; Turku 

see also Layla Khanim; Mani; Nefir; Shewki Beg; Zeka'i Dede; [in Suppl.] Kantimir, 
song Ghina'; Khayal; Nashid; Nawba; Shashmakom; Turkii 

see also Abu '1-Faradj al-Isbahani; Hawfi; Ilahi; Mawaliya.3; Sha'ir.l.E 
singers 'Alima; Kayna 

see also 'A&hik; al-Baramika.5 
legendary [in Suppl.] al-Djaradatan' 
see also [in Suppl.] Habba Khatun 
early Islamic period c Azza al-Mayla'; Djamila; al-Gharid; Hababa; Ibn 'A'isha.I; 
Ibn Misdjah; Ibn Muhriz; Ibn Suraydj; Ma c bad b. Wahb; Malik b. Abi '1-Samh; 
Nashit; Ra'ika; Sa'ib Khathir; Tuways; [in Suppl.] al-Dalal 
during the 'Abbdsid caliphate Ibn Bana; Ibn Djami 1 ; Ibrahim al-Mawsili; Ishak b. 
Ibrahim al-Mawsili; Mukharik; Sallama al-Zarka'; Shariya; 'Ulayya; Yahya al- 
Makki; Yunus al-Katib al-Mughanni; [in Suppl.] Badhl al-Kubra 
mid- 13th to 19th centuries [in Suppl.] Habba Khatun 
20th century Siti Binti Saad; Umm Kulthum 
songwriters -> Music.musicians.composers 
terms Tarab; Taksim; Tik wa-tum; [in Suppl.] Ika'; Lahn 

see also Ustadh.l; Wadjd 
treatises on c Abd al-Kadir b. Ghaybi; Abu '1-Faradj al-Isbahani; al-Ha'ik; Ibn Bana; Ibn 
Khurradadhbih: Mashaka; (Banu '1-) Munadjdjim.4; Muristus; Mushaka; Safi al-Din 
al-Urmawi; al-Saydawi; al-Tadili; 'Urnar Khayyam; Yunus al-Katib al-Mughanni; [in 
Suppl.] al-Mufaddal b. Salama 
see also Abu '1-Mahasin b. Taghribirdi; inal; Malahi; [in Suppl.] Kantimir, Demetrius 

Mysticism Allah.III.4; Darwish; Dhikr; Ibaha.II; Karama; Murid; Murshid; Pir; SamaM; 

Shaykh; Tarika; Tasawwuf; Zuhd 

see also Sadjdjada.3; Sa'id al-Su'ada'; Ta'ifa; and -> Dynasties.persia.safawids 
architecture -> the section Monasteries below 
concepts Baka' wa-Fana 1 ; al-Insan al-Kamil; Ishrak; Lahut and Nasut; Tawakkul; Za 5 irdja.2 

see also Allah.III.4; al-Halladj.IV; Ibn al-'Arabi; al-Niffari; Uwaysiyya 
dervishes Darwish; Raks 


see also Tadj; [in Suppl.] Buk'a; and ->■ Mysticism.orders 
dress Khirka; Palahang; Shadd. 1 

early ascetics 'Amir b. 'Abd al-Kay s al-'Anbari; al-Hasan al-Basri; al-Fudayl b. 'Iyad; Ibrahim 
b. Adham; Ma'ruf al-Karkhi; Sari al-Sakati 
see also Bakka' 
literature [in Suppl.] Maktubat; Malfuzat; and ->■ Literature.poetry.mystical 

see also Zuhdiyya 
monasteries Khankah: Ribat.l.b; Tekke; Zawiya 
mystics Darwish; Murid; Murshid; Pir; Shaykh 
see also Pist; Wali; and ->■ Hagiography 

African (excluding North Africa and Egypt) 'Umar b. Sa'id al-Futi; [in Suppl.] al-Duwayhi 
see also Salihiyya; Sudan (Bilad al-).2; Tarika.II.3; Tasawwuf.9; Wali.9 and 10; 
Zawiya.3; Ziyara.9 and 10; [in Suppl.] al-Madjadhib; Mozambique 

Andalusian Abu Madyan; Ibn al- c Arabi; Ibn al-'Arif, Abu 'l-'Abbas; Ibn 'Ashir; Ibn 
Barradjan; Ibn Kasi; Ibn Masarra; al-Shushtari 
see also al-Talamanki 

Arabic (excluding Andalusian and North African) 'Abd al-Ghani; c Abd al-Kadir al-Djilani; 
'Abd al-Karim al-Djili; c Adi b. Musafir; Ahmad al-Badawi; 'Aydarus; al-Bakri, 
Muhammad; al-Bakri, Mustafa; Bishr al-Hafi; al-Bistami, c Abd al-Rahman; al- 
Damiri; al-Dasuki, Ibrahim b. 'Abd al- c Aziz; al-Dasuki, Ibrahim b. Muhammad; Dhu 
'1-Nun, Abu '1-Fayd; al-Dimyati, al-Banna'; al-Dimyati, Nur al-Din; al-Djunayd; al- 
Ghazali, Abu Hamid; al-Ghazali, Ahmad; al-Halladj; al-Harawi al-Mawsili; Ibn c Ata' 
Allah; al-Kazwini, Nadjm al-Din; al-Kharraz; al-Kurdi; al-Kushashi; Makhrama; 
al-Manufi; al-Muhasibi; al-Munawi; al-Muradi.l and 2; al-Niffari; al-Nuri; Rabi'a 
al-'Adawiyya al-Kaysiyya; al-Rifa'i; Sahl al-Tustari; al-Sarradj, Abu Nasr; al- 
Sha'rani: al-Shibli, Abu Bakr; Sumnun; 'Uthman b. Marzuk; al-Yafil; Yusuf b. c Abid 
al-Idrisi; Zakariyya' al-Ansari; [in Suppl.] Abu 'l-'Aza'im; al- c Adawi; al- c Afifi; al- 

see also Abu Nu'aym al-Isfahani; Abu Talib al-Makki; Ba 'Alawi; Bahrak; Bakriyya; 
Bayyumiyya; Fadl, Ba; Fakih, Ba; Fakih, Bal; Hurmuz, Ba; Kadiriyya; Marwaniyya; 
Sa'diyya; Shadhiliyya; al-Siddiki; Yashrutiyya; [in Suppl.] al-Bakri; Demirdashiyya; 
Sha'raniyya; and -> Mysticism.early ascetics 

Central Asian Ahmad Yasawi; Hakim Ata; Nakshband; al-Tirmidhi, Abu 'Abd Allah; 
TirmidhI; Zangi Ata; [in Suppl.] Ahrar 

see also Kalandariyya; Parsa'iyya; Tarika.II.5; Uwaysiyya; Wali. 5; Yasawiyya; [in 
Suppl.] Kh w adjagan 

Chinese ->• China 

Indian Abu 'Ali Kalandar; Ahmad Sirhindi; Ashraf ' Ali; Baha' al-Din Zakariyya; Baki bi 
'llah (and [in Suppl.]); al-Banuri; Budhan; Burhan al-Din Gharib; Burhan al-Din 
Kutb-i 'Alam; Ciragh-i Dihli; Cishti; Djahanara Begam; Djalal al-Din Husayn al- 
Bukhari; "Djamali"; Farid al-Din Mas'ud "Gandj-i-Shakar"; Gisu Daraz; Hansawi; 
Husayni Sadat Amir; Imdad Allah; Kalim Allah al-Djahanabadi; Kutb al-Din 
Bakhtiyar Kaki; Malik Muhammad Djayasi; Miyan Mir, Miyadji; Mubarak Ghazi; 
Muhammad Ghawth Gwaliyari; al-Muttaki al-Hindi; Muzaffar Shams Balkhi; Nizam 
al-Din Awliya'; Nizam al-Din, Mulla Muhammad; Nur Kutb al-'Alam; Shah 
Muhammad b. 'Abd Ahmad; f hanesari; [in Suppl.] 'Abd al-Bari; 'Abd al-Wahhab 
Bukhari; Bulbul Shah; Farangi Mahall; Gada'i Kambo; Hamid Kalandar; Hamid al- 
Din Kadi Nagawri; Hamid al-Din Sufi Nagawri Siwali; Hamza Makhdum; Kabir; 

see also 'Aydarus; Cishtiyya; Dara Shukoh; Dard; Djiwan; Hind.v; Khalil Allah 
(anJKhalil Allah But-shikan); Malang; Mughals.6; Nakshbandiyya.3; Shattariyya; 


Suhrawardiyya.2; Tarika.II.7; Tasawwuf.7; Wall.6; Ziyara.7; [in Suppl] Maktubat; 
Malfuzat; TabrizI, Djalal al-DIn 

Indonesian c Abd al-Ra'uf al-Sinkili; 'Abd al-Samad al-Palimbani; Hamza Fansuri; Shams 
al-Din al-Samatrani 
see also Tarika.II.8; Wall.7; Ziyara.8 

North African c Abd al-Kadir al-Fasi; c Abd al-Salam b. Mashish; Abu '1-Mahasin al-Fasi; 
Abu Muhammad Salih; Ahmad b. Idris; c Ali b. Maymun; al-'Ayyashi; al-Dakkak; 
al-Djazuli; al-Hashimi; Hmad u-Musa; Ibn 'Abbad; Ibn 'Adjiba; Ibn 'Aliwa; Ibn 
'Arus; Ibn Hirzihim; al-Kadiri al-Hasani; al-Kuhin; al-Lamati; Ma' al-'Aynayn al- 
Kalkami; al-Madjdhub; al-Sanusi, Abu 'Abd Allah; al-Sanusi, Muhammad b. C A1I; 
al-Sanusi, Shaykh Sayyid Ahmad; al-Shadhili; al-Tidjani, Ahmad; [in Suppl.] al- 
Asmar; al-Dila 1 ; al-Fasi; Ibn 'Azzuz; Mahammad b. Ahmad al-Hudigi 
see also 'Ammariyya; 'Arusiyya; Darkawa; Hansaliyya; Hazmiriyyun; al-Ifrani; 
'Isawa; Madaniyya; al-Nasiriyya; Rahmaniyya; Shadhiliyya; Tidjaniyya; Wali.2; 
Wazzaniyya; Zawiya.2; Ziyaniyya; [in Suppl.] Hamadisha; Tayyibiyya 

Persian 'Abd al-Razzak al-Kashani; Abu Sa'id b. Abi '1-Khayr; Abu Yazid al-Bistami; 
Ahmad-i f^am; 'Ala' al-Dawla al-Simnani; c Ali al-Hamadani; al-Ansari al-Harawi; 
Ashraf Djahangir; Baba-Tahir; Djalal al-Din Rumi; Fadl Allah Hurufi; Ghudjduwani; 
Hamdun al-Kassar; Hudjwiri; Ibn Khafif; 'Iraki; al-Kalabadhi; Kamal Khudjandi; 
Kasim-i Anwar; Kazaruni; Khalil Allah {and Khalil Allah But-shikan); Kharakani; 
al-Khargushi; Kirmani; Kubra; al-Kushayri.l; Lahidji.l; Mahmud Shabistari; Nadjm 
al-Din Razi Daya; Nakshband; Ruzbihan; Sa'd al-Din al-Hammu 5 i; Sa'd al-Din 
Kashghari; Sadr al-Din Ardabili; Sadr al-Din Musa; Safi; Sa'id al-Din Farghani; 
Sayf al-Din Bakharzi; Shams-i Tabriz(i); al-Suhrawardi, Abu '1-Nadjib; al- 
Suhrawardi, Shihab al-Din Abu Hafs; Sultan Walad; Tirmidhi; Zayn al-'Abidin 
Shirwani; [in Suppl.] 'Abd Allah b. Abi Bakr al-Miyanadji; Abu 'Ali; Ahmad-i Rumi; 
'Ayn al-Kudat al-Hamadhani; Ibn al-Bazzaz al-Ardabili; al-Sindi; Tabrizi, Djalal 

see also Djami; Madjlisi-yi Awwal; Nakahbandiyya.l; Ni'mat-Allahiyya; Safa- 
wids.I.ii; Tasawwuf.5 

Turkish Ak Shams al-Din; Alti Parmak; 'Ashik Pasha; Badr al-Din b. Kadi Samawna; 
Barak Baba; Bidjan; Emir Sultan; Fasih Dede; Fehmi; Gulshani; Giilshehri; Hadjdji 
Bayram Wali; Hiida'i; Husam al-Din Celebi; Isma'il al-Ankarawi; Isma'il Hakki; 
Kayghusuz Abdal; Khalili; Kutb al-Din-zade; Merkez; Niyazi; Seza'i, Hasan Dede; 
'Ushshaki-zade. 1; [in Suppl.] 'Arif Celebi; Eshrefoghlu; Esrar Dede; Rushani, Dede 
'Umar; Suleyman Dhati 

see also Ashrafiyya; Bakriyya; Bayramiyya; Bektashiyya; Djilwatiyya; Giilbaba; 
Ilahi; Khalwatiyya; Mawlawiyya; Nakshbandiyya.2; Sha'baniyya; Shamsiyya: 
Sunbuliyya; Tarika.II.5; Tasawwuf.6; 'Ushshakiyya; Wali.4 
orders Tarika.II 

individual orders 'Ammariyya; 'Arusiyya; Ashrafiyya; Bakriyya; Bayramiyya; Bayyu- 
miyya; Bektashiyya; Cishtiyya; Darkawa; Djilwatiyya; Hansaliyya; Hazmiriyyun; 
'Isawa; Kadiriyya; Kalandariyya; Khalwatiyya; Madaniyya; Marwaniyya; 
Mawlawiyya; Mirghaniyya; Muridiyya; Nakshbandiyya; al-Nasiriyya; Ni'mat- 
Allahiyya; Parsa'iyya; Rahmaniyya; Rifa'iyya; Sa'diyya; Salihiyya; Sanusiyya; 
Sha'baniyya; Shadhiliyya; Shamsiyya; Shattariyya; Suhrawardiyya; Sunbuliyya; 
Tidjaniyya; 'Ushshakiyya; Wazzaniyya; Yasawiyya; Yashrutiyya; Ziyaniyya; [in 
Suppl.] Demirdashiyya; Hamadisha; Kh w adjagan; Sha'raniyya 
for 'Adawiyya, see 'Adi b. Musafir; for 'Afifiyya, see [in Suppl.] al-'Afifi; for 
Ahmadiyya (Badawiyya), see Ahmad al-Badawi;/or Dasukiyya (Burhamiyya), see 
al-Dasuki, Ibrahim b. 'Abd al-'Aziz; for al-Djazuliyya, see al-Djazuli; for 


Gulshaniyya, see Gulshani; for Idrisiyya, see Ahmad b. Idris; for Kazaruniyya 

(Murshidiyya, Ishakiyya), see Kazaruni;/o/- Kubrawiyya, see Kubra;/w Yafi'iyya, 

see al-Yafi'i 

see also Nurbakhshiyya; Safawids.I.ii; Uwaysiyya; [in Suppl.] al-Madjadhlb; 

f Abdal; 'Ashik; Awtad; Baka 5 wa-Fana 5 ; Bast; Bishar'; Ca'ush; Darwish; Dawsa; Dede; 
Dhawk; Dhikr; Djilwa; Fakir; Fikr; al-Ghayb; Ghayba; Ghufran; Hadra; Hakika.3; Hakk; 
Hal; Hidjab.III; Hukuk; Hulul; Hurriyya; Huwa huwa; Ikhlas; Ilham; c Inaya; al-Insan 
al-Kamil; Ishan; Ishara; 'Ishk; Ishrak; Ithbat; Ittihad; Kabd.ii; Kafir; Kalb.I; Kalima; 
Karama; Kashf; Khalifa.iii; Khalwa; Khankah: Khirka; al-Kutb; Lahut and Nasut; 
Madjdhub; Manzil; Ma'rifa; Muhasaba.l; Munadjat; Murid; Murshid; Nafs; Odjak; 
Palahang; Plr; Pust; Pust-neshln; Rabita; Ramz.3; Ratib; Ribat; Rida. 1; Rind; Ruhaniyya; 
Rukhsa.2; Sabr; Sadr; Shath; Shawk; Shaykh; Shukr.l; Sidk; Silsila; Sultan.4; Suluk.2; 
Tadjalll; Ta'ifa; Tarika.I; Tekke; Terdjuman; Wadjd; Wahdat al-Shuhud; Wara c ; 
Wazifa.2; Wird; Wudjud.2; [in Suppl.] Buk c a; Ghawth; Mawkif; Sirr; Takwa.4 and 5; 
see also Celebi; Futuwwa; Giilbaba; Gulbang; Lawh; Lawn; Watan 

Nationalism Istiklal; Kawmiyya; Wataniyya; [in Suppl.] Ta c rlb.2 

see also Djangali; Khilafa; Pashtunistan; al-Shu'ubiyya; c Uruba; Watan; and ->• Panarabism; 
Panislamism; Panturkism; Politics.movements 

Natural Science al-Athar al-'Ulwiyya; Hikma; Masa'il wa-Adjwiba; Tabi'a; [in Suppl.] 

see also Nur. 1 
natural scientists al-BIruni; al-Dimashki; Ibn Badjdja; Ibn al-Hay tham; Ibn Rushd; Ibn SIna; 
Ikhwan al-Safa'; al-Kazwini; al-Marwazi, Sharaf al-Zaman 
and -»■ Alchemy; Astronomy; Botany; Metaphysics; Zoology 

Nature -»■ Agriculture; Botany; Flora; Literature.poetry.nature 

Navigation Djughrafiya; Isba c ; Kharita; Maghnatis.2; Manar; Milaha; MIna' 

see also al-Khashabat; Rih; al-Tasa 
ships Milaha (esp. 4); Nassads; Safina; ShinI; Ustul 

see also Bahriyya.2; Kelek; and ->• Military.navy 
shipyards Dar al-Sina c a; Tersane 
treatises on Ibn Madjid; Sidi 'All Re'is; Sulayman al-Mahri; al-Tadili 

see also Djughrafiya.IV.d; Milaha. 1 and 3 

Nepal Nepal 

Nestorians ->• Christianity.denominations 

New World Djaliya; Djarida.i.C; al-Mahdjar 

immigrants Djabran Khalil Djabran; al-Ma c luf; Nu'ayma, Mikha'il; al-Rayhani; [in Suppl.] 

Abu Madi; Abu ShadI 

see also Parsis; Tu c ma, Ilyas 


Niger Niger 

see also Sudan (Bilad al-).2 
physical geography Niger. 1 
toponyms Bilma; Djadu; Kawar 

Nigeria Hausa; Nigeria; Yoruba 

see also Djarida.vi; Fulbe; al-Kanemi; Kanuri; Nikah.II.6; Sudan (Bilad al-).2; and -> 


leaders Muhammad Bello; c Uthman b. FudI 

see also Gwandu; [in Suppl.] Mai Tatsine 

provinces Adamawa; Bornu 

towns Ibadan; Kano; Katsina; Kukawa; Sokoto 

Nomadism Badw; Horde; Ilat; Khawa; Khayma; Mar'a; Yoriik 

see also Bakkara; Baranta; Dakhil; Dawar; Hayy; Kayn; and -> Bedouins; Gypsies; Tribes 
nomadic ideology Ta'arrub 
nomadic possessions Khayma; Mifrash 

see also Khayl; Zmala.2 
residences Kishlak; Yaylak 

Nubia 'Aiwa; Barabra; Dongola; al-Maris; Nuba 

see also Bakt; Dar al-Sulh; Ibn Sulaym al-Aswani; al-Mukurra; Soba; and -► 

Egypt.toponyms; Sudan.toponyms 
languages Nuba.3 
peoples Nuba.4 

Number Abdjad; Hisab al- c Akd; Hisab al-Djummal; Huruf; c Ilm al-Hisab 

and -> Mathematics 
numbers Khamsa; Sab c 
see also al-Sifr 

Numismatics Dar al-Darb; Sikka; Tazyif ; Wazn. 1 

see also 'All Pasha Mubarak; Isma'Il Ghalib; Makayil; Nithar 
coinage Akce; Balish; Cao; Ceyrek; Dinar; Dirham.2; Fals; Hasani; Larin; Mohur; Pa'i; Para; 

Pawla; Paysa; Riyal; Rupiyya; Sadiki; Sahib Kiran; Shahi; Tanga; Tari; Warik 

see also Dhahab; Fidda; Filori; Hilal.ii; Sanadjat; Tamgha; WadaM; Yadgar; and -► 

Dynasties; Weights and Measurements 

for coinage in the name of rulers, see al-Afdal (Kutayfat); c Ali Bey; Ghazi '1-Din Haydar; 

Katari b. al-Fudja'a; Khurshid; al-Mansur, al-Malik Muhammad; Mustafa. 1; [in Suppl.] 

Farrukhan.2; for coinage under dynasties, see in particular Artukids; Barid Shahis; 

Kh w arazm-shahs; Lodis.5; Mughals.10; al-Muwahhidun; c Othmanli.IX; Rasulids.2; 

Safawids.VI; Saldjukids.VIII; Sikilliya.3; Sulayhids.2; Timurids.4; Yadgar; [in Suppl.] 

shell currency Wada c . 1 
special issues Yadgar 
mint localities Abarshahr; al-Abbasiyya; Andarab.l; AnI; Baghce Saray; Islamabad; Istakhr; 

al-Kurdj; Mah al-Basra; Mawlay Idris; Mazandaran.7; Wasit.4; [in Suppl.] Biyar; Firrim 
reform c Abd al-Malik b. Marwan; [in Suppl.] al-Ghitrif b. c Ata 3 

see also Tuman.2 
terms c Adl.2; Salam (and Salim.l); Tuman.2; Wazn.l 


Obscenity Mudjun; Sukhf 

Oceans and Seas Bahr; al-Madd wa '1-Djazr 

see also Kharita; and -*■ Cartography; Navigation 
waters Aral; Bahr Adriyas; Bahr Buntus; Bahr Fans; Bahr al-Hind; Bahr al-Khazar; Bahr al- 

Kulzum; Bahr Lut; Bahr Mayutis; al-Bahr al-Muhit; Bahr al-Rum; Bahr al-Zandj; 

Marmara Denizi 

Oil Naft.3 

see also Ta'mim 
for cooking oil -> Cuisine.food 
oilfields 'Abbadan; Abkayk; Altin Koprii; al-Bahrayn; al-Dahna'; al-Ghawar; al-Hasa; al- 
Katif; Kharag; Khuzistan; Kirkuk; Kirmanshah; al-Kuwayt; LIbiya; Nadjd.3; Ram- 
hurmuz; Ra 3 s (al-)Tannura; (al-)Zahran; [in Suppl.] AhmadI 
see also Djannaba; Fars; al-Khubar; Yanbu c 

Oman al-Ibadiyya.g; Madjlis.4.A.xiii; Mahkama.4.ix; Nabhan; Sihafa.l.(xiii); 'Uman 

see also [in Suppl.] al-Harithi 
dynasties Bu Sa'id; Ya c rubids 
physical geography 'Uman.l 
salt flats Umm al-Samim 
population 'Awamir; al-Batahira; al-Djanaba; al-Duru'; Hina; al-Hubus; al- c Ifar; (Banu) 
Kharus; Mahra; Mazru'i; Nabhan; Wahiba; [in Suppl.] 'Uman.iii 
and -> Tribes.arabian peninsula 

islands Khuryan-muryan; Masira 

regions al-Batina; Ra's Musandam; al-Rustak; al-Sharkiyya; Zafar; al-Zahira 
towns al-Buraymi; Hasik; 'Ibri; Kalhat; Maskat; Matrah; al-Mirbat; Nizwa; al-Rustak; 
Salala; Suhar 
see also (Djazirat) al- c Arab; Wabar.2; [in Suppl.] Gwadar 

Onomastics Ba; Ibn; Ism; Kisra; Kunya; Lakab; Nisba.2 

see also al-Asma 5 al-Husna; Oghul; Sikilliya.2 
epithets Ata; Baba; Ghufran; Humayun; al-Siddik; Tadj 

in form of address Agha; Akhund; Beg; Begum; Celebi; Efendi; Kh w adja; Khatun: 
Khudawand; Shaykh; Ustadh 
see also Akhi; Sharif.(3) 
proper names Ahmad; Dhu '1-Fakar; Huma; Marzpan; Mehemmed; Mihragan. iv.2; Sonkor; 
Iha'laba; Toghril 
see also al-Asad; Payghu; Yaylak 

African Diglal; Sultan.3; [in Suppl.] Mai 

Arabic c Amid; Amir al-Mu'minin; Amir al-Muslimin; Asad al-Dawla; c Aziz Misr; c Izz 
al-Dawla; c Izz al-Din; Khadim al-Haramayn; Khidiw; Malik; Mihmindar; Mushir; 
Sardar; Sayyid; Shaykh al-Balad; Shaykh al-Islam.l; Sultan. 1; Tubba c 
see also Dawla.2 
Central Asian Afshin; Ikhshid; Kosh-begi; Shar; [in Suppl] Atalik; Diwan-begi; Inak 
Indo-Muslim Asaf-Djah; Kh w adja-i Djahan; Khan Khanan; Nawwab; Nizam; Peshwa; 
Sahib Kiran; Sardar; Shar; Ulugh Khan 


Mongolian Noyan; Sahib Kiran; Tarkhan 

Persian Agha Khan; Ispahbadh; Ispahsalar; Ptimad al-Dawla; Kh w adja; Marzpan; Mir; 

Mirza; Molla; Padishah; Sadr; Salar; Sardar; Sarkar Aka; Shah; Tekfur; Ustandar 
Southeast Asian Penghulu; Sultan.2 
Turkish Alp; Beglerbegi; Damad; Darya-begi; Dayi; Giilbaba; Kh w adjegan-i Diwan-i 

Humayun; Khakan; Khan; Khudawendigar; Mir-i Miran; Mushir; Pasha; Payghu; 

Sadr-i A'zam; Shaykh al-Islam.2; Su Bashi; Tekfur; Tigin; Yabghu 

see also Corbadji; Terken Khatun; Tughra 

Optics Kaws Kuzah; Manazir 

see also Mir'at; Sarab 
works on Ibn al-Haytham; Kamal al-Din al-Farisi; Uklidis 
see also Kutb al-Din Shirazi 

Ottoman Empire Anadolu.iii.2 and 3; Ertoghrul.l; Istanbul; Lale Devri; Othmanli: 

see also Bab-i 'Ali; Hidjaz Railway; Pasha Kapusu; Shenlik; Tursun Fakih; [in Suppl.] 
Siirgiin; and -> Dynasties.anatolia and the turks; Europe.eastern; Law.ottoman; 
Military.OTTOMAn; and the section Ottoman Period under individual countries 
administration Beratli; Dabtiyya; Diwan-i Humayun; Eyalet; Imtiyazat.ii; Khass; Khazine; 
Mashwara; Millet.3; Mukhtar; Mulazemet; Mulazim; Mulkiyya; Nahiye; Nishandji; Re'is 
ul-Kiittab; Sandjak; Timar; Ulak; Zi'amet; [in Suppl.] Da'ira Saniyya 
see also Kada'; Ma'mur; Odjak; Wakf.IV (and [in Suppl.] Wakf.II.2); [in Suppl.] Nizam 
c Askari.3; and -+ Documents.ottoman; Law.ottoman; Military.ottoman 
archives and registers Basvekalet Arsivi; Daftar-i Khakani; Kanun.iii; Masraf Defteri; 
Miihimme Defterleri; Sal-name; Sidjill.3; Tahrir 
see also Daftar.III; Feridun Beg; Mahlul 
financial Arpalik; Asham; Bayt al-Mal.II; Daftardar; Dar al-Darb; Dirlik; Djayb-i 
Humayun; Duyun-i 'Umumiyye; Irsaliyye; Ka'ime; Khazine; Maliyye; Muhasaba.2; 
Mukhallefat; Musadara.3; Ruznamedji; Saliyane; Siyakat; c Ulufe; [in Suppl.] Sanad 
see also Bakhshish; Surra 
fiscal Dariba.3; Djizya.ii; Hisba.ii; Kharadj.IH; Muhassil; Miiltezim; 'Othmanli.II; Resm; 
Tahrir; Tapu; Tekalif; Timar; Zi'amet 
see also Mutasarrif; Shehir Ketkhiidasi 
agriculture Filaha.iv; Ma J .8; Ra c iyya.2 

and -+ Agriculture 
architecture -> Architecture.regions.turkey 

court ceremony Ca'ush; Khirka-yi Sherif; Marasim.4; Mawakib.4; Mehter; Selamllk 
cuisine Matbakh.2 
diplomacy Balyos; Consul; Elci; Hiba.v; Pence 

see also Beratli; Imtiyazat.ii; Kawwas; and -» Diplomacy 
education Ghalata-sarayi; Kiilliyye; Ma'arif.I.i; Makhredj; Mulkiyya; Sahn-i lhaman; Softa; 
[in Suppl.] Tibbiyye-i c Adliyye-i Shahane 
see also Harbiye; and -> Education; Reform.educational 
functionaries Ameddji; A'yan; Bazirgan; Bostandji; Bostandjl-bashi; Caklrdji-bashi; 
Cashnagir-bashi; Dabit; Dabtiyya; Daftardar; Dilsiz; Doghandji; Elci; Emin; Ghulam.iv: 
Hekim-bashi; Ic-oghlani; c Ilmiyye; Ka'im-makam; Kapu Aghasi; Kawwas; Ketkhuda.l; 
Khaznadar; Kh w adjegan-i Diwan-i Humayun; Ma'mur; Mewkufatci; Mlr-Akhur; Mushir; 
Mustashar; Mutasarrif; Nishandji; Re'is ul-Kiittab; Ruznamedji; Sadr-i A'zam; 
Shahnamedji; Shehir Emaneti; Shehir Ketkhiidasi; Tardjuman.2; Telkhisdji; Tulumbadji; 
'Ulama'J; Waka c -nuwis; Wali; Wazir.III; Yazidji; [in Suppl.] Segban 


see also 'Adjami Oghlan; 'Asas; Bala; Baltadji; Balyos; Birun; Enderun; al-Haramayn; 

Khasi.III; Khass Oda; Khasseki; Mabeyn; and ->■ Law. ottoman; Military. ottoman 
history 'Othmanli.I; [in Suppl.] Ta'rikh.II.l 

and -> Dynasties.anatolia and the turks.ottomans; Literature.historical. 

Turkish; Turkey.ottoman period; and the section Toponyms in the countries once 

falling within the Ottoman Empire 
industry and trade Harir.ii; Karwan; Kutn.2; Milh.3; 'Othmanli.II; Suk.7 

see also Ma'din.3; [in Suppl.] Sarraf 
law ->• Law.ottoman 
literature ->• Literature 
military -> Military.ottoman 
modernisation of Baladiyya. 1 ; Hukuma.i; Hurriyya.ii; Islah.iii; Ittihad we Terakki r^em'iyyeti; 

Madjlis.4.A.i; Madjlis al-Shura; Tanzimat 

and -> Turkey.ottoman period 
mysticism ->• Mysticism.mystics.turkish 
reform of Tanzimat; Yeni 'Othmanlilar 

Pakistan Djinah; Dustur.xiv; Hizb.vi; Hukuma. v; MadjlisAC; al-Mar'a.5; Pakistan; Urdu. 1 ; 
Ziya 5 al-Hakk; [in Suppl.] Djarida.vii; Mahkama.5; Nizam c Askari.4 
see also Ahl-i Hadith; Dar al- c Ulum.c; Djam c iyya.v; F^unagafh; Hind.ii and iv; Kashmir.ii; 
Kawmiyya.vi; Khaybar; Muhadjir.3; Pashtunistan; Sind.2; and ->■ India 
architecture ->• Architecture.regions 
education Djami'a 
language Urdu.l 

see also Pakistan; and ->• Language.indo-european.indo-iranian.indian 
literature Urdu.2 

and -> the subsection Urdu under Literature.poetry and prose 
physical geography 

see also Pakistan 
mountains Sulayman 
waters Kurram; Mihran; Zhob 
population Afridi; Dawudpotras; Mahsud; Mohmand; Mullagori; Waziris; Yusufzay; [in 
Suppl.] Demography. VII; Gurcani 
see also Djirga 
statesmen Djinah; Liyakat 'All Khan; Ziya' al-Hakk 

see also Mawdudi 

ancient Ciniot; Daybul; Kandabil; Khayrabad.ii; Turan 

districts Chitral; Hafizabad; Hazara; Kharan; Khayrpur; Kilat.2; Kohat; Kwatta; 

Mastudj; Sibi 
regions Balucistan; Dardistan; Deradjat; Dir; Djahlawan; Kacchi; Las Bela; Makran; 

Pandjab; Sind; Swat; Waziris 
towns Amarkot; Badjawr; Bahawalpur; Bakkar; Bannu; Bhakkar; Gudjranwala; 
Gudjrat; Hasan Abdal; Haydarabad; Islamabad; Karaci; Kilat. 1 ; Kusdar; Kwatta: 
Lahawr; Mastudj; Peshawar; Rawalpindi; Shikarpur.l; Sibi; Siyalkut; Ucch; Zhob; 
[in Suppl.] Gilgit; Gwadar 


Palestine/Israel Djarida.i.A; Filastin; Hizb.i; MadjlisAA.xxiii; MahkamaAv; Mandates; 

see also Djarrahids; Kays 'Aylan; al-Khalidi; al-Samira; Shahin, Al; Yashrutiyya; [in Suppl.] 
Demography.III; Wakf.II.2; and -* Crusade(r)s 
architecture Kubbat al-Sakhra; al-Kuds; al-Masdjid al-Aksa 

see also Kawkab al-Hawa' 
belletrists Sayigh, Tawfik 
historians of Mudjir al-Din al-'Ulaymi 
Ottoman period Zahir al- c Umar al-Zaydani 
physical geography 

deserts al-Nakb; SIna 5 

see also al-Tih 
mountains/ hills al-Tur.2, 3 and 4 

waters Bahr Lut; al-Hula; Nahr Abi Futrus; al-Urdunn. 1 ; Yarmuk. 1 

ancient Arsuf; 'Athllth; 'Ayn Djalut; Bayt Djibrin; al-Darum; Irbid.II; Sabastiyya.l; 


regions al-Ghawr.l; Mardj Ban! c Amir; al-Nakb 

towns l Akka; 'Amwas; 'Askalan; Baysan; Bayt Lahm; BIr al-Sab c ; Ghazza; Hayfa; 
Hittin; al-Khalil; al-Kuds; Ladjdjun; Ludd; Nabulus; al-Nasira; Rafah; al-Ramla; 
Riha. 1 ; Safad; Tabariyya; Tulkarm; Yafa 
see also Kaysariyya; Sihyawn 
under British mandate Filastin.2; Muhammad c Izzat Darwaza; [in Suppl.] Amin al-Husayni 
see also Mandates 

Panarabism Kawmiyya; Pan-Arabism; 'Uruba; [in Suppl.] al-Djami c a al- c Arabiyya; Ta c rib.2 

see also Wataniyya 
partisans of al-Kawakibi; Nuri al-Sa'id; Rashid Rida; al-Zahrawi, 'Abd al-Hamid; [in Suppl.] 

c Abd al-Nasir; Muhibb al-Din al-Khatib; Sati c al-Husri 

see also al-Kazimi, c Abd al-Muhsin 

Panislamism Kawmiyya; Pan-Islamism; al-Rabita al-Islamiyya 

see also Dustur.xviii; Islah.ii; Khilafa; Mu'tamar; Takrib 
partisans of c Abd al-Hamid II; Djamal al-Din al- Afghani; Fitrat; Gasprali (Gasprinski), Isma'il; 
Hali; Kucak Khan Djangali; Ma' al- c Aynayn al-Kalkami; Mehmed c Akif; Rashid Rida; 
Safar; [in Suppl.] Andjuman-i Khuddam-i Ka'ba; al-Bakri 
see also Djadid 

Panturkism Kawmiyya.iv; Pan-Turkism 

partisans of Gasprali (Gasprinski), Isma'il; Gokalp, Ziy a; Rida Nur; Su'awi, c Ali; Yusuf Akcura 
see also Turk Odjaghi 

Papyrology Kirtas; Papyrus 

see also Diplomatic.i.15; and -> Documents 

Paradise al- c Ashara al-Mubashshara; Dar al-Salam; Djanna; Hur; Kawthar; Ridwan; 
Salsabil; Tasnim. 1 
see also al-A c raf 

Payments Adjr.2; c Ata'; Djamakiyya; Hawala; In'am; Mai al-Bay c a; Ma'una; Rizk.3; Sila.3; 


Soyurghal; Surra; 'Ulufe 

see also Wazlfa.l; [in Suppl.] Sakk; and -> Treaties.tributes 
bribery Marafik; Rashwa 

Perfume Ban; Hinna 3 ; Kafur; Misk 

see also al- c Attar; Ma c din.4; 'Ud.I.l; [in Suppl.] Tughdj 

Persia ->■ Iran 

Pharmacology Adwiya; Akrabadhin; al-Saydana; Tibb 

see also Diyuskuridis; Djalinus; Nabat; and -> Botany; Drugs; Medicine 

pharmacologists Ibn al-Baytar; Ibn Samadjun; Ibn al-Tilmidh; Ibn Wafid; al-K6hen al- c Attar; 
Sabur b. Sahl; [in Suppl.] al-Ghafiki; Ibn Biklarish; Ibn al-Rumiyya 
see also al- c Ashshab; al- c Attar; al-Biruni; al-Suwaydi; Yahya b. al-Bitrik 

Philately Posta 

and ->■ Transport.postal service 

Philippines Philippines 

see also [in Suppl.] al-Mar'a; and -> Asia.east 

Philosophy Falasifa; Falsafa; Hikma; Ma ba c d al-Tabi'a; Mantik; Nazar 

see also 'Alam.l; Allah.iii.2; al-Makulat; Mukhtasar; Sharh.IV 
logic Mantik 

terms Ala.iii; c Arad; Dalil; Fasl; Fi'l; Hadd; Hakika.2; Hudjdja; Hukm.I; Huwa huwa.A; 
Mukaddam; Natidja; Shart.2; Ta c rif.l 
see also Kat c ; al-Sufista'iyyun 
philosophers Falasifa; [in Suppl.] Mashsha'iyya 

Christian Ibn al-Tayyib; Ibn Zur'a; Matta b. Yunus; Yahya b. c Adi; Yahya al-Nahwi 
Greek Aflatun; Anbaduklis; Aristutalis; Balinus; Batlamiyus; Buruklus; Djalinus; 
Fithaghuras; Furfuriyus; al-Iskandar al-Afrudisi; al-Sufista 3 iyyun; Sukrat; 

see also Hunayn b. Ishak al-'Ibadi; Isaghudji; Ishak b. Hunayn; Lawn; al-Makulat; 
Matta b. Yunus; Nikula'us; al-Shaykh al-Yunani; Ustath; Uthuludjiya; Yahya b. al- 
Bitrik; Yahya al-Nahwi; Yunan; [in Suppl.] Mashsha'iyya 

biographers of al-Shahrazuri, Shams al-Din 

9th century Abu '1-Hudhayl al- c Allaf; al-Kindi, Abu Yusuf; al-Sarakhsi, Abu '1- 
c Abbas 

see also Dahriyya; Falasifa; Lawn 
10th century Abu Sulayman al-Mantiki; al-Farabi; Ibn Masarra; al-Mawsili; al- 

Razi, Abu Bakr; [in Suppl.] al- c Amiri 
11th century Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi; Bahmanyar; Ibn Hazm; Ibn Sina; Miskawayh 
12th century Abu '1-Barakat; al-Batalyawsi; Ibn Badjdja; Ibn Rushd; Ibn Tufayl; 
al-Suhrawardi, Shihab al-Din Yahya; c Umar Khayyam 

see also al-Ghazali; Hayy b. Yakzan; Ishrakiyyun; al-Shahrastani, Abu '1-Fath 
13th century al-Abhari; Ibn Sab c in; al-Katibi; Sadr al-Din al-Kunawi; al-Shahrazuri, 
Shams al-Din; al-Tusi, Nasir al-Din 
see also Fakhr al-Din al-Razi 
14th century Djamal al-Din Aksarayi 
16th century al-Maybudi.2 


17th century al-Damad; al-Faruki, Mulla; Lahidji.2; [in Suppl.] Findiriski 

19th century Sabzawari; [in Suppl.] Abu '1-Hasan Djilwa 
Jewish Ibn Gabirol; Ibn Kammuna; Ishak b. Sulayman al-Isra'ili; Judaeo-Arabic.iii; Sa'adya 

Ben Yosef 

see also Abu '1-Barakat 
terms Abad; 'Adam; 'Akl; 'Amal.l and 2; Anniyya; Awwal; Baslt wa-Murakkab; Dhat; 
Dhawk; Didd; Djawhar; Djins; Djism; Djuz'; Fard.g; Hadd; Haraka wa-Sukun.I.l; Hay'a; 
Hayat; Hayula; Hiss; Huduth al-'Alam; Hulul; Huwiyya; Ibda'; Idrak; Ihdath; Ikhtiyar; 
c Illa.ii; c Inaya; Insaf; 'Ishk; Ishrak; al-Kada' wa 'l-Kadar.A.3; Kawn wa-Fasad; Kidam; 
Kuwwa.4, 6 and 7; Ma'ad; Mahiyya; Mahsusat; Malaka; Ma c na.2; Nafs; Nihaya; Nur.2; 
Sa'ada; Sabab.l; Shakhs; Shakk.2; Shay'; Shubha; Jafra; Takhyil.2; Tawallud; Tina; 
c Unsur; Wahda.2; Wahm; Wudjud.l; al-Zahir wa '1-Batin; Zaman.l; [in Suppl.] 

see also Athar.3; c Ayn; Dahriyya; Insan; Kat'; Kiyama; Siyasa.2; Takwin; and ->■ 

Physiognomy Firasa; Kiyafa; Shama; [in Suppl.] Aflimun 

and -> Anatomy; Divination 

Pilgrimage c Arafa; al-Djamra; Hadjdj, Hady; Ihram; Ka'ba; Mina; Mutawwif; al-Muzdalifa; 

Radjm; al-Safa.l; Sa c y; Shi'ar.l; Talbiya; Tarwiya; Tashrik; Tawaf; 'Umra; al-Wukuf; 

Zamzam; Ziyara 

see also Amir al-Hadjdj; Hidjaz Railway; Karwan; Kazimayn; Makka; lhabir; al- 

Tha'labiyya; [in Suppl.] 'Atabat; Darb Zubayda; Fayd; and -> Islam; Sacred Places 
pilgrimage literature Ziyara. 1 .d and e 

Piracy Kursan 

see also al-'Annaba; Djarba; Husayn Pasha (Kiiciik); Lewend; [in Suppl.] Kiiciik c Ali 

corsairs 'Arudj; Hasan Baba; Husayn Pasha, Mezzomorto; Kemal Re'is; Khayr al-Din Pasha; 
Selman Re'is; Torghud Re'is; c Uludj 'All; Umur Pasha 

Plague 'Amwas; Waba' 

see also Ibn Khaldun. Wali al-Din; and ->■ Death; Illness 
treatises on Ibn Khatima; Ibn Ridwan; al-Masihi 

Poland Leh 

see also Islam Giray; Kamanica; Kopriilii; Lipka; Muslimun.l.A.l; and ->■ Ottoman Em- 

Politics Baladiyya; Dawla; Djumhuriyya; Dustur; Himaya.2; Hizb; Hukuma; Hurriyya.ii; 
Istiklal; Kawmiyya; Madjlis; Makhzan; Mandates; Mashyakha; Medeniyyet; Musawat; 
Muwatin; Na'ib.2; Shura.3; Siyasa; Takhtit al-Hudud; Tawazun al-Sulutat; Thawra; 
Wataniyya; Zulm.2; [in Suppl.] Azadi; al-Djami'a al- c Arabiyya; Nizam 'Askari; Ta c rib.2 
see also Ahl al-Hall wa 'l-'Akd; Imtiyazat; Mashwara; Saltana; and ->■ Administration; 
Diplomacy; Ottoman Empire 
doctrines Hizb.i; Ishtirakiyya; Mark(i)siyya; Shuyu'iyya; Ta 5 mim; [in Suppl.] Hidjra; Ta c rib.2 
see also Musawat; Muslimun.4; Radj'iyya; Tawazun al-Sulutat; and -> Panarabism; 
Panislamism; Panturkism 
movements Djadid; Djangali; Istiklal; Ittihad we Terakki Djem'iyyeti; Khaksar; Khilafa; al- 
Rabita al-Islamiyya 


see also Fitrat; Hamza Beg; Hizb; Hurriyya.ii; Kucak Khan Djangali; Tatarruf; Thawra: 

'Urabi Pasha; [in Suppl.] c Abd al-Bari; and ->■ Panarabism; Panislamism; Panturkism; 

parties Demokrat Parti; Hizb; Hiirriyet we I'tilaf Firkasi; Partai Islam se Malaysia (Pas); 

Shuyu'iyya.1.2; Terakki-perver Djumhuriyyet Firkasi; Wafd 

see also Andjuman; Djam'iyya; (Tunali) Hilmi; Hizb.i; Ishtirakiyya; Khiyabani, Shaykh 

Muhammad; Leff; Lutfi al-Sayyid; Mark(i)siyya; Mustafa Kamil Pasha; Sarekat Islam; 

[in Suppl.] 'Abd al-Nasir; and -> Communism; Reform 
reform -> Reform 
terms Sha'b.2; Tatarruf; lhawra; Za'im; Zulm.2; [in Suppl.] Khar 

Portugal Burtukal; Gharb al-Andalus 

see also Habesh; and -> Andalusia; Spain 
toponyms Badja; Kulumriya; al-Ma c din; Mlrtula; Shantamariyyat al-Gharb; Shantarin; Shilb: 
Shintara; Ukshunuba; (al-)Ushbuna; Yabura; [in Suppl.] Kasr Abi Danis 

Prayer Adhan; Dhikr; Djum'a; Du'a'; Fatiha; Ikama; Khatib; Khutba; Kibla; Kunut; Ku'ud; 

Mahya; Masdjid; Mihrab; Mikat; Musalla; Rak'a; Ratib; Salat; Salat al-Khawf; Subha; 

Sutra; Tahadjdjud; Tarawih; Wazifa.2; Wird; Witr 

see also Amin; Dikka; Gha'ib; Gulbang; Isti'naf; Makam Ibrahim; al-Mash c ala '1-Khuffayn; 

Namazgah; Takbir; Tashahhud; and -»■ Ablution; Architecture. mosques; Islam 
bowing Sadjda 
carpet Sadjdjada 
collections of 

shiite Zayn al-'Abidin 
of petition Istiska'; Munashada 

Pre-Islam al-'Arab.i; (Djazirat) al-'Arab.vii; Arminiya.II.l; Badw.III; Djahiliyya; Ghassan: 
Kinda.l and Appendix; Lakhmids; Lihyan; Ma'in; Makka.l; Nabat; Rum 
see also Hayawan.2; Ilah; al-Kalbi.II; Libiya.2; and -> Assyria; Byzantine Empire; Idola- 
try; Military.battles; Zoroastrians 

customs! institutions 'Atira; Baliyya; Ghidha'.i and ii; Hadjdj.i; Hilf; Hima; Himaya; Istiska'; 
Kahin; Khafara; Mawla; Nusub; Rada'.2; Sadin; Tawaf; 'Ukaz; c Umra; c Urs; Wa'd al- 
Banat; [in Suppl.] al-Washm.l 
see also Fay 3 ; Ghanima; Ilaf; Karkur; Nar; Sada; Shayba; Tahannuth; Thabir 

gods Dhu '1-Khalasa; Dhu '1-Shara; Hubal; Isaf wa-Na'ila; Kaws Kuzah; al-Lat; Manaf; Manat; 
Nasr; Shams. 1; Shay' al-Kawm; Su'ayr; al-Sudjdja; Suwa c ; Taghut.1; Tafiri; al-Ukaysir; 
al-'Uzza; [in Suppl.] Wadd; Yaghuth; Ya'Qk 

see also Aghathudhimun; c Amr b. Luhayy; Djahiliyya; Hirmis; Hurmuz; Ilah; Ka'ba.V; 
al-Kamar.II; Mawkif.3; Rabb; Sanam; Shaytan; Zun 

in Arabian peninsula Abraha; (Djazirat) al- c Arab.i and vi; Bakr b. Wa'il; Djadhima al- Abrash; 
Ghumdan; Habashat; Hadjib b. Zurara; Hadramawt; Hashim b. c Abd Manaf; Hind bint 
al-Khuss; Hums; Kataban; Kayl; Kusayy; Kuss b. Sa c ida; Marib; Nusub; Saba'; Sadj'.l; 
Salhin; Ta'rikh.I.l.iv; Thadj; Tubba 1 ; 'Ukaz Yahud.l; [in Suppl.] Hadramawt.i 
see also Badw.III; Dar al-Nadwa; Hanif.4; Kinda.Appendix; Thabir; Zabur; and -> Idola- 
try; Literature. poetry.arabic; Military.battles; Oman.toponyms; Saudia 
Arabia.toponyms; Tribes.arabian peninsula; United Arab Emirates.toponyms; 

in Egypt -> Egypt.before islam 

in Fertile Crescent Khursabad; Manbidj; Maysan; Nabat; al-Zabba'; [in Suppl.] Athur 

see also Bitrik.I; Harran; Shaharidja; Shahrazur; Tadmur; [in Suppl.] Iyas b. Kabisa; 



Ghassdnids Djabala b. al-Ayham; Djillik; Ghassan; al-Harith b. Djabala; [in Suppl.] 

Djabala b. al-Harith 
Lakhmids 'Amr b. c Adi; 'Amr b. Hind; al-Hira; Lakhmids; al-Mundhir IV; al-Nu'man 
(III) b. al-Mundhir 
in Iran -> Iran.before islam 
in Southeast Asia [in Suppl.] Mataram. 1 
in Turkey Tafirl; Turks. 1. 1 

Predestination Adjal; Allah.II.B; Idtirar; Ikhtiyar; Istita'a; al-Kada' wa M-Kadar; 

Kadariyya; Kasb; Kisma 

see also 'Abd al-Razzak al-Kashani; Bada'; Dahr; Du'a'.II.b; Kada'; Shakawa 
advocates of Djabriyya; Djahmiyya; al-Karabisi.2; Sulayman b. Djarir al-Rakki; Zayd b. 'Ali 

b. al-Husayn 
opponents of Ghaylan b. Muslim; Kadariyya; Katada b. Di'ama; Ma c bad al-Djuhani 

Press Djarida; Makala; Matbaa (and [in Suppl.]); Sihafa 

Arabic 'Arabiyya.B.V.a; Baghdad (906b); Bulak; Djarida.i; Kissa.2; Makala. 1; al-Manar; 
Matba'a.l; al-Ra'id al-Tunusi; Sihafa 
see also Nahda; Zakhir 
journalism Abu Naddara; al-Baruni; Djabran Khalil Djabran; Djamal al-Din al- Afghani; 
Djamil; Faris al-Shidyak; Ibn Badis; Ishak, Adib; al-Kawakibi; al-Khadir; Khalil 
Ghanim; Khalil Mutran; Kurd 'Ali; Lutfi al-Sayyid; al-Ma c luf; Mandur; al-Manufi.7; 
al-Mazini; Mustafa c Abd al-Razik; al-Muwaylihi; al-Nadim, c Abd Allah; Nadjib al- 
Haddad; Nimr; Rashid Rida; Safar; Sa c id AbQ Bakr; Salama Musa; Salim al-Nakkash; 
Sarruf; Sha'ul; Shaykhu, Luwis; Shina; Shumayyil, Shibli; Taha Husayn; Yahya 
Hakki; al-Yazidji.2 and 3; Yusuf, c Ali; al-Zahrawi, c Abd al-Hamid; Zaydan, Djurdji; 
[in Suppl.] Abu Shadi; al-Bustani; Muhibb al-Din al-Khatib 
see also al-Mahdjar 
Indian Matba c a.4; [in Suppl.] Djarida.vii 

journalism Muhammad 'Ali; Ruswa; Shabbir Hasan Khan Djosh; [in Suppl.] Azad; Hasrat 

see also Nadwat al-'Ulama' 
Persian Djarida. ii. Makala; Matba'a.3; [in Suppl.] Sihafa.4 

journalism Furughi.3; Lahuti; Malkom Khan; Rashid Yasimi; Yaghma'i; Yazdi; [in Suppl.] 
Turkish Djarida. iii; Djem'iyyet-i c Ilmiyye-i 'Othmaniyye; Ibrahim Miiteferrika; Makala; 
Matba'a.2; Mesh c ale; Mizan; [in Suppl.] Sihafa.5 
see also Adhari.ii 
journalism Ahmad Ihsan; Ahmad Midhat; Djewdet; Ebiizziya Tevfik; Gasprali 
(Gasprinski), Isma'il; Hasan Fehmi; (Ahmed) Hilmi; Hisar; Husayn Djahid; Ileri, 
Djelal Nuri; inal; Kasab, Teodor; al-Kazimi, Mehmed Salim; Kemal; Kemal, Mehmed 
Namik; Khalid Diya'; Koprulu (Mehmed Fuad); Manastirli Mehmed Rif at; Mehmed 
c Akif; Mizandji Mehmed Murad; Orik, Nahid Sirri; Orkhan Seyfi; Ortac, Yusuf Diya; 
Rida Nur; Sahir, Djelal; Sami; Shinasi; Su c awi, c Ali; Tewfik Fikret; Yusuf Akcura; 
Ziya Pasha; [in Suppl.] Aghaoghlu; Atay; Caylak Tewfik; Eshref; Tahir Beg 
see also Badrkhani; Fedjr-i Ati; Khalil Ghanim; Sa c id Efendi 

Professions al- c Attar; Bakkal; Baytar; Dallal; Djanbaz; Djarrah; Hammal; Kannas; Katib; 
Kayn; Kayna; Khayyat; Mukari; Munadi; Munadjdjim; al-Nassadj; Sabbagh; Sa'igh; Sakka 5 ; 
Sasan; Sha c badha; Sha c ir; Shamma 1 ; Tabbakh; Tabbal; Tadjir; Tahhan; Tardjuman; Tarrar; 


Thalladj; Tulumbadji; 'Ulama'; Warrak; [in Suppl.] Dabbagh; Djammal; Djazzar; Fassad; 

Ghassal; Ha'ik; Hallak; Iskaf; Sarraf 

see also Asad Allah Isfahan!; Aywaz. 1 ; Khadim; Shawiya; Sinf; Ustadh; and -*■ Law.offices; 


craftsmanship Sinaa 
craftsmen and tradesmen 

artisans Sabbagh; Sa'igh; Warrak; [in Suppl.] Ha'ik; Iskaf 

labourers Hammal; Kannas; Kayn; Khayyat; Shamma'; Tahhan; [in Suppl.] Dabbagh; 

Djazzar; Ghassal; Hallak 
merchants al-' Attar; Bakkal; Mukari; Tadjir; Tammam; lhalladj; [in Suppl.] Djammal 

see also Tidjara; and -> Finance.commerce.functions 
performers Djanbaz; Kayna; Sha'ir.l.E; Tabbal 
see also al-Sim 

Property Mai; Milk; Ta c awun; Wakf; Zamindar; [in Suppl.] c Akar 

see also Munasafa; Shufa; Soyurghal; Tiyul; and ->• Taxation. taxes and tithe-lands 

Prophethood Nubuwwa; Rasul; Wahy 

and -> Muhammad, the Prophet 
prophets Adam; Alisa'; Ayyub; Harun b. Tmran; Hizkil; Hud; Ibrahim; Idris; Ilyas; Irmiya; 
Tsa; Ishak; Isma'il; Lut; Muhammad; Musa; Nuh; Salih; Shamwil; Sha'ya; Shith; 
Shu'ayb; Yahya b. Zakariyya 5 ; Ya'kub; Yunus; Yusha' b. Nun; Yusuf; Zakariyya' 
see also Fatra; Hanzala b. Safwan; 'Isma; Khalid b. Sinan; Lukman; Mubtada 5 .2; Zayd 
b. 'Amr; and ->■ Muhammad, the Prophet 
false prophets Ha-Mim; Musaylima; Sadjah; Tulayha 

lives of al-Kisa'i; Kisas al-Anbiya'; al-Thaiabi, Ahmad b. Muhammad; 'Umara b. 
Wathima; Wahb b. Munabbih; Wathima b. Musa 

Proverbs Mathal; Tamthil.2 

see also Iyas b. Mu'awiya; Nar; and ->■ Animals.and proverbs; Literature.proverbs in 
collections of Abu 'Ubayd al-Kasim b. Sallam; al-'Askari.ii; Hamza al-Isfahani; al-Maydani; 

Rashid al-Din (Watwat); Shinasi; al-Tha'alibi, Abu Mansur 'Abd al-Malik; al-Yusi; al- 

Zamakhshari; [in Suppl.] al-Mufaddal b. Salama 

Punishment 'Adhab; 'Ukuba 

in law Diya; Djaza'.ii; Hadd; Katl.ii; Kisas; Salb; Ta c zir; 'Ukuba 

see also 'Abd.3.i; Kaffara; Siyasa.l; and ->■ Law.penal law 
in theology 'Adhab; 'Adhab al-Kabr; Djaza'; Munkar wa-Nakir 

see also Kiyama; Maskh 
physical Falaka; Salb 

see also Radjm 

Qatar Katar; Madjlis.4.A.xi; MahkamaAix; Sihafa. 1 .(xi) 
toponyms al-Dawha; Hadjir; al-Zubara 
see also al-'Udayd 

QurXn Allah.i; Aya; Fasila; I'djaz; Kira'a; al-Kur'an; Mukatta'at; Mushaf; Naskh; Sura; 
Tafsir; Umm al-Kitab; [in Suppl.] Nazm.2 
see also 'Arabiyya.A.ii; Basmala; Fadila; Hamza; Indjil; Islah.i.B.l; Khalk.II; Khawass al- 

QUR'AN 115 

Kur'an; 'Umum wa-Khusus; Zayd b. Thabit 
commentaries Mukhtasar; Sharh.III; Tafsir; Ta'wil 
see also al-Zahir wa '1-Batin 
in Arabic c Abd al-Razzak al-Kashani; Abu '1-Fadl 'Allami; Abu Hayy an al-Gharnati; Abu 
'1-Layth al-Samarkandi; Abu '1-Su'ud; Abu c Ubayda; al- c Askari.ii; al-Baghawi; Baki 
b. Makhlad; al-Baydawi; al-Bulkini.4; al-Damad; al-Darimi; Djiwan; Fakhr al-DIn 
al-RazI; Faydi; Ghulam Husayn Khan Tabataba'I; GIsu Daraz; Gurani; Ibn Abi '1- 
Ridjal; Ibn 'Adjiba; IbnBarradjan; Ibn Kathir, Tmad al-Din; Isma'Il Hakki; al-Kalbl.I; 
Kallm Allah al-Djahanabadi; Kemal Pasha-zade; al-Kurtubi, Abu 'Abd Allah; al- 
Kushayrl.l; al-Mahalli; al-Maturldi; Mudjahid b. Djabr al-Makki; Mudjlr al-Din al- 
'Ulayml; Muhsln-i Fayd-i Kashani; Mukatll b. Sulayman; al-NIsaburi; al-Raghib al- 
Isfahani; al-Rummani; Sahl al-Tustarl; al-Shahham; al-Shahrastani, Abu '1-Fath; al- 
Sharif al-Radi; al-Suhrawardl, Shihab al-DIn Abu Hafs; al-Sulami, Abu c Abd al- 
Rahman; al-Suyuti; al-Tabari, Abu Dja'far; al-TabrisI, Amln al-Din; al-Tha'alibi. 
c Abd al-Rahman; al-Tha'labl, Ahmad b. Muhammad; al-Wahidl; al-Yadali; [in Suppl.] 
'Abd al-Wahhab Bukhari; Abu '1-Fath al-Daylaml; al-Asamm; al-Zamakhshari.2; 

see also 'Abd Allah b. al- c Abbas; Abu Nu'aym al-Mula'I; Ahmadiyya; al-'Alami; al- 

Dihlawi, Shah Wall Allah; Djafr; Djllwatiyya; HadjdjI Pasha; Hind.v.e; Ibn Mas'ud; 

Kutb al-Din Shirazi; al-Manar; al-Suddi; Sufyan b. 'Uyayna; al-Sulami, c Izz al-DIn; 

f hanesari.3; al-Tufi; Warka 3 b. 'Umar; [in Suppl.] Sa'id b. Djubayr 

late 19th and 20th centuries al-Alusi.2; Atfiyash; Mawdudi; Muhammad b. Ahmad 

al-Iskandarani; Muhammad Abu Zayd; Muhammad Farid Wadjdi; Sayyid Kutb; 

Shaltut, Mahmud; [in Suppl.] Djawhari, Tantawi 

in Persian Abu '1-Futuh al-Razi; al-Dawlatabadi; Djami; Kashifi; al-Maybudi.l; 

Musannifak; al-Taftazani 
in Turkish Ak Hisari.b 
in Urdu Ashraf c Ali 
createdness of Mihna 

see also Djahmiyya; al-Zuhri, Harun 
readers 'Abd Allah b. Abi Ishak; Abu 'Amr b. al-'Ala 1 ; al-A'mash; ' Asim; al-Dani; Hamza b. 
Habib; Ibn 'Amir; Ibn Kathir; 'Isa b. 'Umar; al-Kisa J i; Nafi' al-Laythi; al-Sadjawandi, 
Abu 'Abd Allah 

see also Abu 'l-'Aliya al-Riyahi; al-Darakutni; Hafs b. Sulayman; Ibn al-Djazari; Ibn 
al-Fahham; Ibn Mudjahid; Ibn Shanabudh; al-Kastallani; Makki; al-Malati; Mudjahid 
b. Djabr al-Makki; [in Suppl.] Ibn Miksam 
transmitters al-Yazidi. 1 
reading Ada'; Harf; Kat'; Khatma; Kira'a; Tadjwid 

see also al-Shatibi. Abu '1-Kasim; al-Sidjistani; Ta'awwudh; Tahadjdjud; Wasl; Yahya 
b. Adam; [in Suppl.] Lafz.2 
recitation competition [in Suppl.] Musabaka 
recensions 'Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr; 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan; Abu '1-Darda'; 'A'isha bint 
Abi Bakr; al-Ash'ari, Abu Musa; 'Asim; al-Dimyati; al-Hadjdjadj b. Yusuf; Ibn Mas'ud; 
Nafi' al-Laythi; Ubayy b. Ka'b 

see also Abu '1-Aswad al-Du'ali; 'Arabiyya.ii. 1 and 2; al-Husri.II; Warsh; Zayd b. Thabit 
stories 'Ad; Adam; Ashab al-Kahf; Ayyub; Bilkis; Dawud; Djalut; Fir'awn; Habil wa Kabil; 
Hawwa'; Ibrahim; 'Isa; al-Iskandar; al-Khadir; Lut; Maryam; Musa; Nuh; Sulayman b. 
Dawud; Yunus; Yusuf; Zakariyya' 
see also Kisas al-Anbiya'; Shaytan.2; al-Tha'labi, Ahmad b. Muhammad; Yafith; and 


suras al-Ahkaf; Ashab al-Kahf; Fatiha; al-Fil; Ghashiya; Kawthar; Lukman; al-Mu'aw- 


widhatan'; al-Muddaththir and al-Muzzammil; al-Musabbihat; Sadjda; al-Saffat; 


see also Hayawan.3; Sura 
terms Adjr. 1 ; Ahkam; 'Alam; Amr; al-A'raf; 'Asa; Ashab al-Kahf; Ashab al-Rass; Ashab al- 

Ukhdud; Aya; Bahira; al-Bahrayn; Ba'l; Bara'a; Baraka; Barzakh; Birr; Dabba; Da'wa; 

Dharra: Din; Djahannam; Djahiliyya; Djanna; Djinn; Dunya; Fakir; Fara'id; Fitna; Fitra; 

Furkan; al-Ghayb; Hadd; Hakk; Hanif; Hatif; Hawari; Hayat; Hidjab; Hisab; Hizb; 

Hudjdja; Hur; Iblis; Ilaf; Ilham; 'Illiyyun; Kaffara; Kafir; Kalima; Karin; Karya; Kawm; 

Kayyim; Khalk; KhatPa; Kiyama; Kursi; Kuwwa.2; Lawh; Madjnun; Makam Ibrahim; 

Milla; Millet; Miskin; Mithak; al-Munafikun. 1 ; Nadhir; Nafs.I; Nar; Rahma; Rizk; 

Rudju c ; Rukn; Sabr; Sadr; al-Saffat; Sahifa; Sakina; Salam; al-Salihun; Shakawa; 

Shakk.l; Shirk; al-Siddik; Sidjdjil; Sidjdjin; Sidrat al-Muntaha; Siradj; Sirat; Subhan; 

Sultan; Takhyil.3; Umm al-Kitab; Umm al-Kura; Umma.l; Ummi.l; Wahy; Yatim.l; 

al-Zabaniyya; Zabur; Zulm; [in Suppl.] Asatir al-Awwalin; Lafz.2; Mala'. 1 

see also Hikaya.I; Sabab.l; SamaM 
translations Kur'an.9 

see also Aljamia 
into English Ahmadiyya; Pickthall 
into Malay c Abd al-Ra'uf al-Sinkili 
into Persian al-Dihlawi, Shah Wall Allah 

see also Khatt.ii 
into Swahili Kenya (891a) 
into Urdu c Abd al-Kadir Dihlawi; Djawan; Rafi' al-Din 

Raids Baranta; Ghanima; Ghazw 

and -> Bedouins; Military.expeditions 

Rebellion Fitna; Thawra; [in Suppl.] Marid 

Recreation Cinema; Karagoz; Khayal al-Zill; Masrah; Orta Oyunu 

games Djerid; Kharbga; Kimar; La'ib; al-Maysir; Mukharadja; Nard; Shatrandj 

see also Ishara; Kurds.iv.C.5; May dan; and -> Animals.sport 
sports Cawgan; Pahlawan; Zurkhana 

Reform Djam c iyya; Islah 

see also Baladiyya; Hukuma; al-Manar; and -> Women.emancipation 
educational Ahmad Djewdet Pasha; Ahmad Khan; al-Azhar.IV; Habib Allah Khan; Ma'arif; 
Miinif Pasha; Nadwat al-'Ulama'; Yiicel, Hasan 'All; [in Suppl.] al-'AdawI; Muhammad 
c Abd Allah; Sati c al-Husri 
see also al-Marsafi 
financial Muhassil 
land Ta c awun 
legal Medjelle; Mirath.2; Nikah.II; Talak.II; Talfik; Tashri'; Wakf.II.5 

see also Djaza'.ii; Imtiyazat.iv; Mahkama; [in Suppl.] Makasid al-Shari'a 
reformers Abu 'l-Su'ud; Ahmad Djewdet Pasha; Kticiik Sa c id Pasha; al-Sanhuri, 'Abd al- 

see also Ileri, Djelal Nuri; Khayr al-DIn Pasha 
military Nizam-i Djedid 


-► Numismatics 
Ottoman Tanzimat 

politico-religious Atatiirk; Djamal al-Din al-Afghani; Ileri, Djelal Nuri; Ibn Badls; 
(al-)Ibrahimi; Isma c il Sidki; Kasim Amln; Khayr al-Din Pasha; Midhat Pash; 
Muhammad c Abduh; Muhammad Bayram al-Khamis; Nurculuk; Padri; Rashid Rida; 
Shaltut, Mahmud; al-Subkiyyun; Taha, Mahmud Muhammad; Taki al-Din al-Nabhani; 
[in Suppl.] c Abd al-Nasir 

see also Baladiyya; Bast; Djam'iyya; Dustur; Harbiye; Ibrahim Muteferrika; al-Ikhwan 
al-Muslimun; Islah; Mappila.5.ii; Salafiyya; Sha'b; al-Shawkani; Tadjdid; Takrib; [in 
Suppl.] Abu 'l-'Aza'im; and -> Politics 
militant al-Banna 1 ; Fida J iyyan-i Islam; Hamaliyya; Ibn Badis; al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun; 
Mawdudi; Sayyid Kutb; al-Takfir wa '1-Hidjra; Tatarruf; Usuliyya.2; 'Uthman b. 
see also Ibn al-Muwakkit; Mudjahid; [in Suppl.] al-Djanbihi 

Religion c Akida; Din; al-Milal wa'1-Nihal; Milla; Millet. 1 

see also Hanif; Tawhid; Umma; and -> Bahais; Buddhism; Christianity; Druzes; Is- 
lam; Judaism; Zoroastrians 
dualism Daysaniyya; Mani; Mazdak; Thanawiyya; Zindik 

see also Iran.vi; Kumun; al-Nazzam 
pantheism 'Amr b. Luhayy; Djahiliyya; Hindu; Ka'ba.V 

see also Haririyya; Hadjdj.i; Ibn al- c Arabi; Ibn al-'Arif; Kafiristan; Kamal Khudjandi; 
and -> Idolatry; Pre-Islam.gods 


religious communities Babis; Baha'is; Djayn; Duruz; Hindu; Islam; Madjus; Nasara; Sabi 5 ; 
Sabi'a; al-Samira; Sikhs; Sumaniyya; Yahud; Yazidi; Zindik 

see also al-Baramika. 1; Ibahatiya; Kitab al-Djilwa; al-Milal wa'1-Nihal; Millet; Nanak; 
al-Shahrastani, Abu '1-Fath; and -► Bahais; Buddhism; Christianity; Druzes; 
India. religion; Islam; Judaism; Sects; Zoroastrians 

Rhetoric Badi'; Balagha; Bayan; Fasaha; Hakika. 1 ; Ibtida'; Idjaza; Iktibas; Intiha 5 ; Isti'ara; 
Kinaya; al-Ma c ani wa '1-Bayan; Madjaz; Mubalagha; Mukabala.3; Muwaraba; Muzawadja; 
Muzdawidj; Ramz.l; Ta'adjdjub; Tadjnis; Tadmin; Takhyil.4; Tamthil.2; Tarsi'; Tashbih; 
Tawriya; Tibak 
see also Ishara 
treatises on al-'Askari.ii; Hazim; Ibn al-Mu'tazz; al-Kazwini (Khatib Dimashk); al-Raduyani; 
Rashid al-Din Watwat; al-Sakkaki; al-Sidjilmasi; Yahya b. Hamza al-'Alawi; [in Suppl.] 
al-Djurdjani; Ibn Wahb; al-Zandjani 

Rhyme Kafiya; Luzum ma la yalzam 
and -^ Literature.poetry; Metrics 

Rituals c Akika; 'Ansara; 'Ashura'; Khitan; Rawda-kh w ani; [in Suppl.] Ramy al-Djimar 
see also Bakka'; Hammam; al-Maghrib.VI; Zar; [in Suppl.] Dam; and -► Customs; 
Islam. five pillars of islam and popular beliefs 

Rivers Nahr 

see also Ma'sir; and -> Navigation 
waters al-'Adaym; 'Afrin; Alindjak; al- c Alkami; AmQ Darya; al- c Asi; Atbara; Atrek; Bahr 
al-Ghazal.l; Barada; Caghan-rud; Congo; Coruh; Cu; Dar'a; Daw'an; Dehas; Didjla; 
Diyala; Djamna; Djayhan; al-Furat; Ganga; Gediz Cayi; Goksu; al-Hamma; Hari Rud; 


Ibruh; Hi; Isly; Itil; Kabul. 1; Karkha; Karun; Khabur; Khalkha: al-Khazir: Kizil-irmak; 
Kizil-iizen; Kuban; Kunduz; Kur; Kurram; Lamas-su; Mand; Menderes; Meric; Mihran; 
al-Mudawwar; Nahr Abl Futrus; Niger; al-Nil; Ob; Orkhon; Ozi; al-Rass; Safid Rud; 
Sakarya; Sandja; Sayhan; Shatt al- c Arab; Shebelle; Sir Darya; Tadjuh; Taraz; Tarim; 
Terek; Tuna; Turgay; al-Urdunn. 1 ; (al-)Wadi al-Kabir; Wadi Yana; Wakhsh; Wardar; 
Yarmuk.l; Yayik; Yeshil irmak; al-Zab; Zarafshan; Zayanda-Rud; Zhob; [in Suppl.] 
Gumal; Irtish 

see also Hind.i.j; c Isa, Nahr; Urmiya.2; Zabadani; and ->■ the section Physical Geogra- 
phy under individual countries 

Romania Boghdan; Dobrudja; Eflak; Erdel; Isakca 

see also Budjak; Muslimun.l.B.2; [in Suppl.] Kantimir, Demetrius 

districts Deli-Orman 

islands Ada Kal c e 

towns Babadaghi; Bender; Biikresh; Ibrail; Kostendje; Medjidiyye; Nagyvarad; 
Temeshwar; [in Suppl.] Yash 

Russia ->■ Europe.eastern Europe 

Sacred Places Abu Kubays; al-Haram al-Sharif; Hudjra; Ka'ba; Karbala'; Kazimayn; al- 

Khalil; al-Kuds.II; al-Madina; Makka; al-Mukattam; al-Nadjaf; Tuba; Zamzam; [in Suppl.] 


see also Hawta; Hima; Kasiyun; Mawlay Idris; Mudjawir; Shah c Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani; 

Shayba; Wali; and ->■ Architecture.monuments; Sainthood 

for Hindus, see Allahabad; Buxar; Djunagafh; Dwarka; Ganga; Hasan Abdal; Surat; Udjdjayn 
pilgrimage to Ziyara 

Sacrifices 'Akika; 'Atlra; Baliyya; Dhabiha; Fidya; Hady; Kurban; Shi'ar.2 and 3 
see also Ibil; c Id al-Adha; Kaffara; Nadhr; [in Suppl.] Dam 

Sainthood Mawlid 

see also 'Ababda; Mawla.I; Ziyara; and ->■ Christianity; Hagiography; Mysticism 
saints Wali 

see also Karama; Ziyara; and ->■ Sacred Places 
African Shaykh Husayn 

see also Ziyara. 9 
Arabic Ahmad b. 'Isa; Ahmad al-Badawi; Nafisa 

see also Kuna; Ziyara. 1 and 2; and ->■ Mysticism.mystics 

North African Abu Muhammad Salih; Abu Ya'azza; c A J isha al-Mannubiyya; al- 
Badisi.l; al-Dakkak; al-Djazuli, Abu c Abd Allah; Hmad u-Musa; Ibn c Arus; al- 
Kabbab; Kaddur al-'Alami; al-Khasasi; Muhriz b. Khalaf; al-Sabti; al-Shawi; [in 
Suppl.] Hamadisha 

see also al-Maghrib.VI; Sab c atu Ridjal; Wali.2; Ziyara.4; and ->■ Mysticism, 
Central Asian Ahmad Yasawi; Uways al-Karani; Zangi Ata 

see also Wali.5; Ziyara.6; and ->■ Mysticism.mystics 
Indian Abu c Ali Kalandar; Ashraf Djahangir; Badi' al-Din; Badr; Baha' al-Din Zakariy y a; 


Cishti; Farid al-DIn Mas'ud "Gandj-i Shakar"; Ghazi Miyan; GIsu Daraz; Imam 

Shah; Kh w adia Khidr; Maghribi; Makhdum al-Mulk Manlri; Mas'ud; Nizam al-DIn 

Awliya'; Nur Kutb al-'Alam; Ratan; Shah Muhammad b. c Abd Ahmad; [in Suppl.] 

Baba Nur al-Din Rishi; Gada'I Kambo; Gangohl; Hamid al-DIn Kadi Nagawrl; Hamid 

al-DIn Sufi Nagawrl Siwall; Kanbo 

see also Hasan Abdal; Pak Patan; Wali.6; Ziyara.7; and -> Mysticism.mystics 
Indonesian Ziyara.8 

and -> Mysticism.mystics 
Persian 'All al-Hamadani; Baba-Tahir 

see also Ziyara.5; and -> Mysticism.mystics 
Southeast Asian and Chinese Wali.7 and 8 
Turkish Akhl Ewran; Emir Sultan; HadjdjI Bayram Wall; Hakim Ata; Koyun Baba; Merkez; 

Sari Saltuk Dede 

see also Wali.4; Ziyara.6; and -*• Mysticism.mystics 
terms Abdal; Ilham 

Saudi Arabia (Djazlrat) al-'Arab; Djarida.i.A; Djami'a; Dustur.vii; al-Hidjar; al-Ikhwan; 
Madjlis.4.A.viii; MahkamaAvii; Sihafa. 1 .(viii); al-Su'udiyya, al-Mamlaka al-'Arabiyya; 
see also Ba 'Alawi; Badw; Baladiyya.2; Barakat; Makka; [in Suppl.] Demography .III; and 


before Islam ->■ Pre-Islam.in Arabian peninsula 
dynasties Hashimids (2x); Rashid, Al; Su'ud, Al 

and ->■ Dynasties.arabian peninsula 
historians of al-Azrakl; Dahlan; al-Fakihi; al-FasI; Ibn Fahd; Ibn Manda; Ibn al-Mudjawir; 
Ibn al-Nadjdjar; al-Samhudl 
see also al-Diyarbakrl 
physical geography Nadjd. 1 

deserts al-Ahkaf; al-Dahna'; Nafud; al-Rub c al-Khali 

see also Badw .II; Harra 
mountains Djabala; Hira'; Hufash; Radwa; al-Sarat; Thabir; al-Tuwayk 

see also Adja' and Salma 
plains 'Arafa; al-Dibdiba; al-Samman 
wadis al-'Atk; al-Batin; Bayhan; Bayhan al-Kasab; Djayzan; Fa'w; Hamd, Wadi al-; al- 

Rumma; al-Sahba'; Sirhan; Tabala; Turaba.l; Wadi Hanlfa 
waters Daw'an 
population -^ Tribes.arabian peninsula 

and ->■ the section Physical Geography above 
ancient Badr; al-Djar; Fadak; al-Hidjr; al-Hudaybiya; Kurh; Madyan Shu'ayb; al-Rabadha; 
al-Tha c labiyya; Wadi '1-Kura 
see also Fa'w 

districts al-Afladj; al-Djawf; al-Kasim; al-Khardj 

islands Farasan 

oases al-Dir c iyya; Dumat al-Djandal; al-Hasa; al-Khurma; al- c Uyayna 

regions 'Aslr; Bayhan; al-Hadina; Haly; al-Hawta; al-Hidjaz; Kurayyat al-Milh; 

Nadjd; Nafud; Ra's (al-)Tannura; al-Rub c al-Khali; Tihama 
towns Abha; Abkayk; Abu 'Arish; Burayda; al-Dammam; al-Djawf; Djayzan; al- 
Djubayl; al-Djubayla; Djudda; Fakhkh; Ghamid; Hayil; al-Hufuf; Huraymila; 
Karya al-Sufla; Karya al- c Ulya; al-Kasab; al-Katif; Khamis Mushayt; Khaybar; 


al-Khubar; al-Kunfudha; al-Madina; Makka; Mina; al-Mubarraz; Nadjran; 
Rabigh; al-Riyad; Tabala; TabQk; al-Ta'if; Tayma'; Turaba.2 and 3; al-'Ula; 
c Unayza; al-Yamama; Yanbu'; (al-)Zahran; [in Suppl.] Fayd; Sabya 
see also (Djazirat) al-'Arab; al-'Arid; Bisha; Dariyya 

Science c Ilm; Mawsu'a 

see also Ibn Abi Usaybi'a; Shumayyil, Shibli; [in Suppl.] al-Bustani; Ibn al-Akfani.3; Ibn 
Farighun; and -> Alchemy; Astrology; Astronomy; Botany; Mathematics; Mechan- 
ics; Medicine; Optics; Pharmacology; Zoology 

Sects 'Adjarida; Ahl-i Hadith; Ahl-i Hakk; Ahmadiyya; 'Alids; Azarika; al-Badjali; Bakliyya; 
Bih'afrid b. Farwardin; Bohoras; Burghuthiyya; Djabriyya; Djahmiyya; al-Djanahiyya; al- 
D^arQdiyya; Duruz; Fara'idiyya; Ghurabiyya; Haririyya; Hashishiyya; Hulmaniyya; 
Hurufiyya; al-Ibadiyya; Karmati; Karramiyya; Kaysaniyya; al-Khalafiyya; Kharidjites: 
Khashabiyya; Khattabiyya; Khodja: Khubmesihis; Khurramiyya; Kuraybiyya; Mahdawis; 
Mansuriyya; al-Mughiriyya; Muhammadiyya; Mukhammisa; Mutarrifiyya; al-Mu c tazila; 
Nadjadat; Nawusiyya; al-Nukkar; Nuktawiyya; Nurbakhshiyya; Nusayriyya; al-Rawandiyya; 
Rawshaniyya; Salmaniyya; Sarliyya; Satpanthis; Shabak; Shabashiyya; Shaykhiyya; 
Shumaytiyya; Sufriyya; Tablighi Djama'at; 'Ulya'iyya; 'Uthmaniyya; Yazidi; [in Suppl.] 
Dhikris; Pirpanthi 

see also Abu 'l-Ma'ali; c Ali Ilahi; Baba'I; Babis; Bayazid Ansari; Bishar'; Dahriyya; al- 
Dhammiyya; DIn-i Ilahi; Ghassaniyya; Ghulat; Ha-Mim; Imam Shah; 'Irak.vi; Kasrawi 
Tabrizi; al-Kayyal; Kazim Rashti; Kizil-bash; al-Malati; Mazdak; Mudjtahid.III; Salimiyya; 
Sultan Sehak; and -> Mysticism.orders 
Alids 'Abd Allah b. Mu'awiya; Abu c Abd Allah Ya'kub; Abu '1-Aswad al-Du'ali; Abu Hashim; 
Abu Nu'aym al-Mula 5 !; Abu Salama al-Khallal: Abu '1-Saraya al-Shaybani; 'Ali b. 
Muhammad al-Zandji; 'Alids; al-Djawwani; Hani 5 b. c Urwa al-Muradi; al-Hasan b. Zayd 
b. Muhammad; Hasan al-Utrush; Hudjr; al-Husayn b. c Ali, Sahib Fakhkh; Ibrahim b. al- 
Ashtar; Khidash; Muhammad b. c Abd Allah (al-Nafs al-Zakiyya); al-Mukhtar b. Abi 
'Ubayd; Muslim b. 'Akil b. Abi Talib; Sulaym b. Kays; Sulayman b. Surad; al-Ukhaydir, 
Banu; Yahya b. 'Abd Allah; Yahya b. Zayd; Zayd b. c Ali b. al-Husayn 
see also Dhu '1-Fakar; al-Djanahiyya; al-Djarudiyya; Ghadir Khumm; al-Ma'mun; Sharif; 
Zaynab bt. c Abd Allah al-Mahd; [in Suppl] al-Nadjashi; and ->■ Shiites 
Bdbism Bab; Babis; Kashani; Kurrat al-'Ayn; Mazhar; Muhammad c Ali Barfurushi; 
Muhammad c Ali Zandjani; Muhammad Husayn Bushru'i; Subh-i Azal 
see also al-Ahsa'i; Mudjtahid.III; Nuktat al-Kaf; al-Sabikun 
Druzes -> Druzes 

Hindu Barahima; Ibahatiya; Nanak; [in Suppl.] Pirpanthi 

Ibadis c Abd al-'Aziz b. al-Hadjdj Ibrahim; Abu Ghanim al-Khurasani; Abu Hafs 'Urnar b. 
Djami c ; Abu Hatim al-Malzuzi (and al-Malzuzi); Abu '1-Khattab al-Ma c afiri; Abu 
Muhammad b. Baraka; Abu '1-Mu'thir al-Bahlawi; Abu Zakariyya 5 al-Djanawuni; Abu 
Zakariyya 1 al-Wardjlani; Atfiyash; al-Barradi; al-BughtQri; al-Dardjini; Djabir b. Zayd; 
al-Djaytali; al-Djulanda; al-Ibadiyya; Ibn Baraka; Ibn Dja'far; al-Irdjani; al-Lawati; 
Mahbub b. al-Rahil al- c Abdi; al-Mazati; al-Nafusi; al-Shammakhi al-Ifrani; al-Tanawuti; 
al-Wisyani; [in Suppl.] Abu 'Ammar; al-Harithi; Talib al-Hakk 
see also c Awamir; Azd; Halka; al-Khalafiyya; (Banu) Kharus; and~> Dynasties.spain 
and north africa.rustamids; Law; Sects.kharidjites 
historians of Abu '1-Mu'thir al-Bahlawi; Abu Zakariyya' al-Wardjlani; al-Barradi; al- 
Bughturi; al-Dardjini; Ibn al-Saghir; Ibn Salam; al-Lawati; Mahbub b. al-Rahil al- 
c Abdi; al-Mazati; al-Salimi 
see also al-Nafusi 


Jewish -> Judaism 

Kharidjites Abu Bayhas; Abu Fudayk; Abu Yazid al-Nukkari; al-Dahhak b. Kays al-Shaybani; 

Hurkus b. Zuhayr al-Sa c di; 'Imran b. Hittan; Katari b. al-Fudja'a; Kharidjites; Kurra'; 

Ku'ud; Mirdas b. Udayya; Nafi' b. al-Azrak; al-Nukkar; Shabib b. Yazid; c Ubayd Allah 

b. Bashir; al-Walid b. Tarif 

see also 'Adjarida; Azarika; Harura'; al-Ibadiyya; Ibn Muldjam; Imama; Isti'rad; al- 

Mansur bl 'llah; Nadjadat; Sufriyya; al-Tirimmah; 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad; [in Suppl.] 

Shiite -> Shiites 

Sedentarism Sart; [in Suppl.] Iskan 

see also Sha'b.l; and -> Architecture.urban; Geography.urban 

Senegal Djolof; Senegal 

see also Muridiyya 
physical geography Senegal. 1 
toponyms Tuba; [in Suppl.] Dakar 

Sexuality c Azl; Bah; Djins; Khitan; Liwat; Sihak; [in Suppl.] Bigha 1 ; Mukawwiyat 

see also Djanaba; Khasi; Tanzim al-Nasl; and -»■ Adultery; Circumcision; Love.erotic 
treatises on al-Tifashi 

Shiites c Abd Allah b. Saba 3 ; c Alids; Ghulat; Imama; Isma'iliyya; Ithna c Ashariyya; Sab'iyya; 
Shi c a; Takiyya; Wilaya.2; Zaydiyya 

see also Abu '1-Saraya al-Shaybani; c Ali b. Abi Talib; c Ali Mardan; Madjlis.3; Ta'ziya; [in 
Suppl.] Batriyya; and -»■ Shiites.sects 
branches Isma'iliyya; Ithna c Ashariyya; Karmati; Nizariyya; Zaydiyya 
see also Hind.v.d; Imama; Sab'iyya; and -»■ Shiites.sects 
Carmathians (Djazirat) al- c Arab.vii.2; al-Djannabi, Abu Sa c id; al-Djannabi, Abu Tahir; 
Hamdan Karmat; al-Hasan al-A'sam; Karmati 
see also c Abdan; al-Bahrayn; Bakliyya; Da c wa; Shabashiyya 
Ismd'iliyya c Abd Allah b. Maymun; Abu c Abd Allah al-S_hi c i; Abu '1-Khattab al-Asadi; 
Allah.iii.l; (Djazirat) al- c Arab.vii.2; Bab; Batiniyya; Da c i; Da c wa; Fatimids; Haka'ik; 
Hind.v.d; Ibn c Attash; Ikhwan al-Safa 3 ; Imama; Isma'iliyya; Lanbasar; Madjlis.2; 
al-Mahdi 'Ubayd Allah; Mala'ika.2; Mansur al-Yaman; Maymun-diz; Sab'iyya; 
Shahriyarb. al-Hasan; al-Tayyibiyya; Yam; Zakarawayh b. Mihrawayh; [in Suppl.] 
Dawr; Satr 

see also Hawwa 3 ; Ikhlas; Masyad; Sab c ; Salamiyya; Sulayhids; Umm al-Kitab.2; al- 
Zahir wa '1-Batin; [in Suppl.] Pirpanthi; and -> Caliphate.fatimids; Shiites.imams 
authors Abu Hatim al-Razi; Abu Ya c kub al-Sidjzi; al-Kirmani; al-Mu'ayyad fi '1- 
Din; al-Nasafi.l; Nasir-i Khusraw: [in Suppl.] Dja'far b. Mansur al-Yaman 
and -> the sections Musta'll-Tayyibis and Nizdris below 
Musta'li-Tayyibis Bohoras; al-Hamidi; Lukmandji; al-Makrami; Makramids; 
Muhammad b. Tahir al-Harithi; Shaykh Adam; Sulayman b. Hasan; Sulaymanis; 
Tahir Sayf al-Din; al-Tayyibiyya; [in Suppl.] c Ali b. Hanzala b. Abi Salim; c Ali 
b. Muhammad b. Dja'far; AmindjI b. Djalal b. Hasan; Hasan b. Nuh; Idris b. al- 

see also Isma c iliyya 
Nizdris Agha Khan; Fida'i; Khodja; Mahallati; Nizar b. al-Mustansir; Nizariyya; 
Pir Sadr al-Din; Pir Shams; Rashid al-Din Sinan; Sabz c Ali; Shah Tahir; al- 
Shahrastani, Abu '1-Fath; Shams-al-Din Muhammad; Shihab al-DIn al-Husayni; 


al-Tusi, Nasir al-DIn; [in SuppL] Khayrkh w ah-i HaratI 
see also Sarkar Aka; Satpanthls 

of Alamut Alamut.ii; Buzurg-ummid; Hasan-i Sabbah; Hashishiyya; Nur al- 
DIn Muhammad II; Rukn al-Din Khurshah; [in SuppL] Muhammad III b. Hasan 
see also Fida'I 
Sevener Sab'iyya 
see also Sab c 
Twelver Imama; Ithna 'Ashariyya; Mudjtahid.II; Mutawali; al-Rafida; Usuliyya.l; [in 
SuppL] Akhbariyya 

see also Buwayhids; al-Zahir wa '1-Batin; and -> the sections Imams, Jurists and 
Theologians below 
Zaydiyya al-Djarudiyya; Mutarrifiyya; Zaydiyya; [in SuppL] Batriyya 

see also Imama; Rassids; and -> Dynasties. Arabian peninsula. zaydIs 
scholars al-Hasan b. Salih b. Hayy al-Kufi; Ibn Abi '1-Ridjal; al-Rassi; Sulayman 
b. Djarir al-Rakki; Yahya b. Hamza al-'Alawi; Zayd b. 'All b. al-Husayn; [in 
SuppL] Abu '1-Barakat; Abu '1-Fath al-Daylami; Ahmad b. c Isa; Dja c far b. Abi 
Yahya; al-Hakim al-Djushami 

for Zaydi imams of Yemen -> Dynasties.arabian peninsula. zaydis 
for Zaydi imams of the Caspian, see al-Hasan b. Zayd b. Muhammad; Hasan al- 
Utrush; Muhammad b. Zayd; al-Nasir li-Din Allah.I; al-lha'ir fi 'llah; Yahya b. 
c Abd Allah; Yahya b. Zayd; Zaydiyya. 2 
for others, see Ibn Tabataba 
doctrines and institutions Batiniyya; Djafr; Ka'im Al Muhammad; Khalk.VII; Madjlis.2 and 
3; al-Mahdl; Mala'ika.2; Mardja c -i Taklid; Mazhar; Mazlum; Mudjtahid.II; Mut'a.V; 
Radj c a; Safir.l; Tanasukh.2; Ta'wll; al-Zahir wa '1-Batin; [in SuppL] Ayatullah 
see also Adhan; Ahl al-Bayt; c Akida; Bab; Ghayba; Hudjdja; Imama; 'Ilm al-Ridjal; 
Imam-bara; Imamzada; Molla; Umm al-Kitab.2; Ziyara.l.a and 5; and -> Theology. 


dynasties Buwayhids; Fatimids; Safawids; Zaydiyya.3 
see also Musha'sha 1 ; al-Ukhaydir, Banu 

imams c Ali b. Abi Talib; c Ali al-Rida; al-'Askari; Dja'far al-Sadik; (al-)Hasan b. C AH b. Abi 
Talib; (al-)Husayn b. c Ali b. Abi Talib; Muhammad b. C A1I al-Rida; Muhammad b. c Ali 
(al-Bakir); Muhammad al-Ka'im; Musa al-Kazim; Zayn al- c Abidin; [in SuppL] 
Muhammad b. Isma'il al-Maymun 
see also Bab; Ghayba; Imamzada; Mala'ika.2; Mazlum; Rida.2; Safir. 1 

jurists al-'Amili; al-Damad; al-Hilli.l and 2; al-Hurr al-'Amili; Ibn Babawayh(i); Ibn 
Shahrashub; al-Karaki; Kashani, Ayatullah; Kashif al-Ghita 3 ; Kh w ansari. Sayyid Mirza; 
Kh w ansari. Sayyid Muhammad; Khiyabani, Shaykh Muhammad; Khurasani; al-Kulayni, 
Abu Dja c far Muhammad; Madjlisi; Madjlisi-yi Awwal; al-Mamakani; al-Mufid; 
Muhammad b. Makki; al-Murtada; Mutahhari; Na'ini; al-Shahid al-Thani; Sharaf al- 
Din; Shari'atmadari; Shirazi; al-Tabrisi, Abu Mansur; al-Tabrisi, Amin al-Din; Tabrisi; 
al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan; [in SuppL] Aka Nadjafi; Ansari; Bihbihani; Burudjirdi; 
Fayd-i Kashani; Ha'iri; Ibn Abi Djumhur al-Ahsa 3 I; al-Katifi; Khumayni; Musa al-Sadr 
see also c Akila; Mardja c -i Taklid; Molla; Mudjtahid.II; Mut c a.V; Usuliyya.l; [in SuppL] 

places of pilgrimage Karbala'; Kazimayn; al-Nadjaf; Samarra 3 ; [in SuppL] c Atabat; Kadamgah; 
see also Shah c Abd al- c Azim al-Hasani; Ziyara. 1 .a and 5 

rituals Rawda-kh w anl 

sects Ahl-i Hakk; c Alids; Bakliyya; Bohoras; Djabir b. Hayy an; al-Djanahiyya; al-Djarudiyya; 
Ghurabiyya; Hurufiyya; Ibaha.II; Kaysaniyya; Khashabiyya; Khattabiyya; Khodja; 


Khurramiyya: Kuraybiyya; Mansuriyya; al-Mughiriyya; Muhammadiyya; Mukhammisa; 
Mutarrifiyya; al-Mu'tazila; Nawusiyya; Nurbakhshiyya; Nusayriyya; al-Rafida; al- 
Rawandiyya; Salmaniyya; Satpanthls; Shaykhiyya; Shumaytiyya; Tawusiyya; 
c Ulya J iyya; al-Wakifa; [in Suppl.] Kamiliyya 

see also 'Abd Allah b. Saba'; Batiniyya; Bayan b. Sam'an al-Tamimi; Bektashiyya; 
Ghulat; Hind.v.d; Imam Shah; Kat'; al-Kayyal; Kazim Rashti; Kizil-bash; Mudjtahid.III; 
Musha'sha 1 ; Tawwabun; [in Suppl.] Ibn Warsand; and -> Bahais; Druzes; Sects. alids 
Kaysaniyya Abu Hashim; Kaysan; Kaysaniyya 

see also al-Sayyid al-Himyari 
Khattabiyya Abu '1-Khattab al-Asadi; Bashshar al-Sha'iri; Bazigh b. Musa; Khattabivya 

see also Mukhammisa; al-Samit 
Khurramiyya Babak; [in Suppl.] Badham 
Mukhammisa Mukhammisa 

see also al-Muhassin b. c Ali 
Shaykhism al-Ahsa'i; Rashti, Sayyid Kazim; Shaykhiyya 
terms ->• Theology.terms.shiite 

theologians al-Damad; al-Hilli; Hisham b. al-Hakam; al-Hurr al- c Amili; Ibn Babawayh(i); 
Ibn Shahrashub; al-Karaki; Kashif al-Ghita'; Kh w ansari. Sayyid Mirza; al-Kulayni, 
Abu Dja'far Muhammad; Lahidji.2; Mir Lawhi; al-Mufid; Mulla Sadra Shirazi; 
al-Nasafi.l; Shay tan al-Tak; Tabrisi; al-lhakafi, Ibrahim; al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al- 
Hasan; al-Tusi, Nasir al-Din; [in Suppl.] Akhbariyya; Ibn Abi Djumhur al-Ahsa'i; Ibn 

see also al- c Ayyashi; Hudjdja; Imama; Khalk.VH; Molla; Shari'ati, c Ali; and ->■ the 
section Jurists above 
traditionists ->■ Literature.tradition-literature.traditionists.shiites 

Siberia Sibir 
physical geography 

waters Ob; [in Suppl.] Irtish 
see also Tobol 
population Bukharlik; Tobol 
toponyms ->■ Europe. eastern Europe 

Sicily Benavert; Kalbids; Sikilliya 

see also Aghlabids.iii; Asad b. al-Furat; Fatimids; Tari 
local rulers Ibn al-Hawwas; Ibn al-Thumna 
poets Ibn Hamdis; Ibn al-Khayyat 
scholars Ibn al-Birr; Ibn al-Katta c ; Ibn Makki 

see also al-Idrisi 
toponyms Balarm; Benavent; Djirdjent; Kasryannih; Sirakusa 

see also al-Khalisa 

Slavery c Abd; Ghulam; Kayna; Khasi; Mamluk; Mawla; al-Sakaliba; Umm al-Walad 
see also Habash.i; Habshi; Hausa; Tdda.5; Istibra'; Khadim; Kul; Matmura; Sidi; [in Suppl.] 
Nafaka; and ->■ Music. song.singers 

manumission c Abd.3.j; Ttkname; Tadbir.2 

slave revolt Zandj.2 

Somalia Sihafa.l.(xv); Somali 

see also Habesh; Muhammad b. c Abd Allah Hassan; Ogaden; and ->• Africa.east Africa 
physical geography Somali.2 

religious orders Salihiyya 

see also Somali.4 

regions Guardafui 

see also Ogaden 
towns Barawa; Berbera; Hargeisa; Makdishu; Merka; Shungwaya; Zayla* 

South(-east) Asia ->■ Asia 

Soviet Union -»• Caucasus; Central Asia. former soviet union; Communism; 
europe.eastern europe; siberia 

Spain Aljamia; Almogavares; al-Burt; al-Busharrat; Moriscos 

see also Ibn al-Kitt; Ifni; al-'Ikab; and -*■ Andalusia; Dynasties. spain and north Africa 
physical geography al-Andalus.ii and iii.2 
see also Wadl.3 
mountains al-Sharat 

waters al-Hamma; Ibruh; al-Mudawwar; Shakura; Tadjuh; (al-)Wadi al-Kabir; Wadi Yana; 
[in Suppl.] Araghun; Wadi Lakku 

ancient Barbashturu; Bulay; Kastiliya.l; al-Madlna al-Zahira; Shaduna; Shakunda; 
Shakura; Shantabariyya; Takurunna; Talablra; Tudmir; [in Suppl.] Afrag; Balyunash 
see also Rayya 

islands al-Djaza J ir al-Khalida; Mayurka; Minurka; Yabisa 

regions Alaba wa 'l-Kila 1 ; Djillikiyya; Fahs al-Ballut; Finish; Kanbaniya; Kashtala; 

Navarra; Wadi '1-Hidjara; Walba; [in Suppl.] Araghun; al-Sharaf 
towns Alsh; Arkush; Arnit; Badjdjana; Balansiya; Balish; Banbaluna; Barshaluna; 
al-Basit; Basta; Batalyaws; Bayyana; Bayyasa; Bitrawsh; al-Bunt; Burghush; 
Daniya; Djarunda; Djayyan; al-Djazira al-Khadra'; Djazirat Shukr; Finyana; 
Gharnata: Ifragha; Ilbira; Ishbiliya; Istidja; Kabra; Kadis; Kal c at Ayyub; Karat 
Rabah; Kantara.2; Karmuna; Kartadjanna; al-Kulay c a; Kunka; Kuriya; Kurtuba; 
Labia; Lakant; Larida; Lawsha; LiyQn; Lurka; al-Ma c din; Madinat Salim; Madinat 
al-Zahra 5 ; Madjrit; Malaka; Marida; al-Mariyya; Mawrur; al-Munakkab; Mursiya; 
Runda; Sarakusta; Shakubiya; Shalamanka; Shaltish; Shant Mankash; Shant 
Yakub; Shantamariyyat al-Shark; Sharish; Shatiba; Tarifa; Tarrakuna; Tulaytula; 
Turtusha; Tutila; Ubbadha; Uklish; Urdjudhuna; Uryula; Wadi Ash; Washka; 
[in Suppl.] Ashturka 
see also al-Andalus.iii.3; Balat; Djabal Tarik; al-Kal c a; and -»• Portugal 

Sri Lanka Ceylon; Sarandib 
and ->■ India.population.tamils 

Sudan Dar Fur; Dustur.xiii; Hizb.i; Madjlis.4. A.xvii; al-Mahdiyy a; Sihafa. 1 .(ii); Sudan; [in 
Suppl.] Nizam c Askari.l.(d) 

see also Baladiyya.2; Fundj; Habesh; Nuba; and -> Africa.east Africa 
history [in Suppl.] Ta'rikh.II.8 

Mahdist period c Abd Allah b. Muhammad al-Ta'a'ishi; Khalifa.iv; al-Mahdiyya; c Uthman 
Dikna; [in Suppl.] Manshurat 

see also Awlad al-Balad; Dar Fur; Emin Pasha; Rabih b. Fadl Allah; Ta c a J isha; [in Suppl.] 



modern period 

influential persons Taha, Mahmud Muhammad 

see also al-Tunisi, Muhammad; al-Tunisi, Shaykh Zayn al-'Abidln 
physical geography 
waters al-Nil 
population 'Ababda; c Alwa; (Banu) 'Amir; Bakkara; Barabra; Dja'aliyyun; Ghuzz.iii; Nuba.4; 
Rasha'ida; Shaykiyya; Ta'a'isha; Zaghawa 
see also Bedja; Fallata 
religious orders MIrghaniyya 

see also [in Suppl.] al-Madjadhlb 

'Aydhab; Soba 
provinces Bahr al-Ghazal.3; Berber.2; Dar Fur; Fashoda; Kasala 
regions Fazughli; Kordofan 

towns Atbara; Berber.3; Dongola; al-Fashir; Kasala; KerrI; al-Khurtum; Omdurman; 
Sawakin; Shandi; Sinnar; al-Ubayyid; Wad MadanI; Wadi Haifa 

Superstition 'Ayn; Fa'l; Ghurab; Hinna'; Khamsa; Sada 
see also c Akik; Barih; Lakab 

Syria Dimashk; al-Sham 

see also [in Suppl.] Wakf.II.2; and -> Lebanon 
architecture -> Architecture.regions 
before Islam -> Pre-Islam.in fertile crescent 

dynasties 'Ammar; Ayyubids; Burids; Fatimids; Hamdanids; Mamluks; Umayyads; Zangids 
see also [in Suppl.] al-Djazzar Pasha; and -> Dynasties.egypt and the fertile cres- 
cent; Lebanon 
historians of al-'Azimi; Ibn Abi Tayyi'; Ibn al-'Adim; Ibn 'Asakir; Ibn al-Kalanisi; Ibn Kathir; 
Ibn Shaddad; Ibn Tulun; Kurd 'Ali; al-Kutubi; al-Yunini; Yusuf b. 'Abd al-Hadi; [in 
Suppl.] Matar 

see also [in Suppl.] Ta'rikh.II.l.(c); and -> Dynasties.egypt and the fertile cres- 
modern period Djarida.i.A; Djami'a; Dustur.ix; Hizb.i; Hukuma.iii; Madjlis.4.A.v; Madjma' 
'Ilmi.i.2.a; Mahkama.4.ii; Mandates; Maysalun; Salafiyya.2(b); al-Sham. 2. esp. (b) and 
(c); Sihafa.l.(iv); [in Suppl.] Nizam c Askari.l.(b) 
see also Baladiyya.2; Kurd 'Ali; Mardam.2; [in Suppl.] Demography .III 

poets al-Khuri; Mardam.2; [in Suppl.] Butrus Karama; Kabbani 
historians [in Suppl.] Matar 

statesmen al-Khuri; Mardam. 1 ; al-Zahrawi, 'Abd al-Hamid; al-Za'im 
physical geography al-Sham. 1 
mountains Kasiyun; al-Lukkam 

waters 'Afrin; al- c Asi; Barada; al- c Utayba; Yarmuk.l; Zabadani; [in Suppl.] Kuwayk 

ancient Afamiya; 'Arban; al-Bakhra'; al-Bara; Barka'id; Dabik; Diyar Mudar; Diyar Rabi c a; 
al-Djabiya; al-Djazira; Djillik; Manbidj; Namara.l; al-Rahba; Ra's al-'Ayn; Riha.2; 
al-Rusafa.3; Shayzar; [in Suppl.] Kurus 

districts al-Bathaniyya; al-Djawlan 

regions al-Ghab; Hawran; Kinnasrin.2; Ladja 3 ; al-Safa.2 


see also Ghuta 
>wns Adhri'at; Baniyas; Bosra; Buza'a; Dayr al-Z6r; Dimashk; Djabala; al- 
Djabbul; Djisr al-Shughr; Halab; Hamat; Harim; Hims; Huwwarin; Kanawat; 
Karkisiya; Khawlan.2; Kinnasrin.l; al-Ladhikiyya; Ma'arrat Masrin; Ma'arrat 
al-Nu c man; Ma'lula; Maskana; Masyad; al-Mizza; Namara.2 and 3; al-Rakka; 
Safitha; Salamiyya; Salkhad; Tadmur; Tartus; Zabadani 
see also al-Markab 

Tanzania Dar-es-Salaam; Kilwa; Mikindani; Mkwaja; Mtambwe Mkuu; Tanzania 

see also Swahili; and -> Africa. east africa 
Zanzibar Barghash; Bu Sa'Id; Kizimkazi; Zandjibar 
see also Tumbatu 

Taxation Badj; Bayt al-Mal; Dariba; Djizya; Kanun.ii and iii; Kharadj; Tahrir; Tahsil; Takslt; 
c Ushr; [in Suppl.] Darlba.7 

see also Dabt; Djahbadh; Ma'; Ma'sir; Ra'iyya; Takdir.2; Ta'rikh.I.l.viii; Zakat 
collectors c Amil; Dihkan; Muhassil; Miiltezim; Mustakhridj 

see also Amir; Tahsil 
taxes c Arus Resmi; 'Awarid; Bad-i Hawa; Badal; Badj; Bashmaklik; Bennak; Cift-resmi; 
Djawali; Djizya; Filori; Furda; Ispendje; Kharadj: Kubcur; Maks; Malikane; MM; 
Mukasama; Mukata'a; Pishkash; Resm; Tamgha; Tekalif; 'Ushr 
see also Hisba.ii; Kati'a; Wazifa. 1 
land taxes Bashmaklik; Bennak; Cift-resmi; Kharadj; MM; Mukasama; 'Ushr; [in Suppl.] 

see also Daftar; Daftar-i Khakani: Kabala; Kanun.iii.l; Rawk; Ustan 
tithe-lands Day'a; Ighar; Ikta'; Iltizam; Khalisa; Khass: Safi; Timar; Zamindar; Zi'amet 

see also Ba c 1.2.b; Dar al- c Ahd; Fay'; Filaha.iv; Za'im 
treatises on Abu Yusuf; al-Makhzumi; al-Tahanawi; Yahya b. Adam 
see also Abu 'Ubayd al-Kasim b. Sallam 

Thailand Patani; Thailand 
see also [in Suppl.] al-Mar J a 

Theology 'Akida; Allah; Din; Djanna; Tim al-Kalam; Imama; Iman; Kalam; al-Mahdl; 
Usui al-Din 

see also 'Alam.l; Hilal.i; and ->■ Islam 
disputation Masa'il wa-Adjwiba; Munazara; Radd; [in Suppl.] c Ibadat Khana 
see also Mubahala 
treatises on al-Samarkandi, Shams al-DIn 

Shiite Isma'iliyya; Ithna c Ashariyya; Karmati; Usuliyya.l; [in Suppl.] Akhbariyya 

see also Mu'tazila 
Sunni Ash/ariyya; Hanabila; Maturidiyya; Mu'tazila 

see also 'Ilm al-Kalam.II; Kadariyya; Karamat c Ali; Murdji'a; al-Nadjdjariyya 

terms Adjal; Adjr; c Adl; c Ahd; Ahl al-ahwa'; Ahl al-kitab; Akhira; c Akida; c Akl; 'Akliyyat; 

'Alam^.; c Amal.2; Amr; al-Aslah; Ba c th; Batiniyya; Bid c a; Birr; Da c wa; Din; Djama'a; 

Djaza 5 ; Djism; Du c a'; Fard.g; Fasik; FiT; Fitna; Fitra; al-Ghayb; Ghayba; Ghufran; Hadd; 

Hakk; Haraka wa-Sukun.1.2 and 3; Hisab; Hudjdja; Huduth al-'Alam; Hulul; Fdjaz; 


Idtirar; Ikhlas; Ikhtiyar; 'Illa.ii.III; Imama; Iman; Islam; 'Isma; Istita'a; Ittihad; al-Kada' 
wa '1-Kadar; Kaffara; Kafir; Kalima; Karama; Kasb; Kashf; Khalk; Khati'a; Khidhlan; 
Kidam; Kumun; Kunut; Kuwwa.3; Lutf; Ma'ad; al-Mahdi; al-Manzila bayn al- 
Manzilatayn; al-Mughayyabat al-Khams; al-Munafikun.2; Murtadd; Mutlak; Nafila; 
Nafs; Namus.l; Nur Muhammadi; Riya'; Rizk; Rudju'; Ru'yat Allah; Sabil.l; Shubha; 
Sifa.2; Ta'a; Tahsin wa-Takbih; Taklid; Takllf; Tanasukh; Tashbih wa-TanzIh; Tawallud; 
Tawba; Tawfik; Wara'; al-Zahir wa '1-Batin; Zulm; [in Suppl.] Hal; Ithm; Kabira; al- 
Nahy 'an al-Munkar; Takwa 

see also Abad; Allah.ii; In Sha' Allah; 'Inaya; Sura; and -> Eschatology; Quran.terms 
Shiite Bada 5 ; Ghayba; Ibda c ; Kashf; Lahut and Nasut.5; Mazhar; Mazlum; al-Munafikun.2; 
Nakd al-Mithak; Radj'a; al-Sabikun; Safir.l; al-Samit; Sarkar Aka; Tabarru 5 ; 
Tanasukh.2; Wasi 

and ->■ Shiites.doctrines and institutions 
theologians 'Ulama 5 
see also Sharh.III 
in early Islam Djahm b. Safwan; al-Hasan al-Basri; Wasil b. 'Ata 5 ; [in Suppl.] al-Asamm; 

al-Hasan b. Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya; Ibn Kullab 
Ash'ari al-Amidi; al-Ash'ari, Abu '1-Hasan; al-Baghdadi; al-Bakillani; al-Bayhaki; al- 
Djuwayni; al-Fadali; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi; al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid; Ibn Furak; al- 
Idji; al-Isfarayini; al-Kiya al-Harrasi; al-Kushayri; al-Sanusi, Abu c Abd Allah; al- 
Simnani; [in Suppl.] al-TQsi 

see also Allah.ii; c Ilm al-Kalam.II.C; Imama; Iman; [in Suppl.] Hal 
Hanbali c Abd al-Kadir al-Djilani; Ahmad b. Hanbal; al-Ansari al-Harawi; al-Barbahari; 
Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab; Ibn 'Akil; Ibn Batta al- c Ukbari; Ibn al-D^awzi; Ibn Kayyim al- 
Djawziyya; Ibn Kudama al-Makdisi; Ibn Taymiyya; al-Khallal 
see also Iman; and ->• Law 
Maturidi c Abd al-Hayy; Bishr b. Ghiyath; al-Maturidi 

see also Allah.ii; 'Ilm al-Kalam.II.D; Imama; Iman 
Mu'tazill c Abbad b. Sulayman; c Abd al-Djabbar b. Ahmad; Abu '1-Hudhayl al- c Allaf; 
Ahmad b. Abi Du'ad; Ahmad b. Habit; c Amr b. 'Ubayd; al-Balkhi; Bishr b. al- 
Mu'tamir; Dja'far b. Harb; D^a c far b. Mubashshir; D^ahiz; al-Djubba'i; Hisham 
b. c Amr al-Fuwati; Ibn al-Ikhshid; Ibn Khallad; al-Iskafi; al-Khayyat; Mu'ammar b. 
'Abbad; al-Murdar; al-Nashi 5 al-Akbar; al-Nazzam; al-Shahham; Thumama 
b. Ashras; al-Zamakhshari; [in Suppl.] Abu 'Abd Allah al-Basri; Abu '1-Husayn al- 
Basri; Abu Rashid al-Nisaburi; Dirar b. 'Amr; al-Hakim al-Djushami; Ibn Mattawayh 
see also Ahl al-Nazar; Allah.ii; Hafs al-Fard; Ibn 'Abbad, Abu '1-Kasim; Ibn Abi '1- 
Hadid; Ibn al-Rawandi; 'Ilm al-Kalam.II.B; Imama; Khalk. V: Lawn; Lutf; al-Ma'mun; 
al-Manzila bayn al-Manzilatayn; al-Wa 5 d wa '1-Wa'id; [in Suppl.] al-Asamm; Hal; 
Muhammad Ibn Shabib 
Shiite ->■ Shiites 

Wahhabi Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab; Ibn Ghannam 

Indo-Muslim 'Abd al-' Aziz al-Dihlawi; 'Abd al-Kadir Dihlawi; Ashraf ' Ali; Bahr al-'Ulum; 
al-Dihlawi, Shah Wall Allah; al-'Imrani; 'Iwad Wadjih; [in Suppl.] 'Abd Allah 
Sultanpurl; Farangi Mahall 

see also Hind.v.b; al-Ma'bari; Mappila; Sulh-i kull; Tablighi Djama'at; 'Ulama'.4 
Christian Ibn Zur'a; Yahya b. 'Adi; Yahya al-Nahwi 

and ->■ Christianity.denominations 
Jewish Ibn Maymun; Sa'adya Ben Yosef 

19th and 20th centuries Muhammad 'Abduh; Muhammad Abu Zayd 
see also Sunna.3 


Time Abad; Dahr; Kidam; Zaman 

see also Ibn al-Sa'ati 
calendars Djalali; Hidjra; Nasi 3 ; Ta'rikh.I; [in Suppl.] Ilahi Era 

see also Nawruz; Rabi' b. Zayd; Sulayman al-Mahri; Takwim; 'Umar Khayyam 
day and night 'Asr; 'Atama; Layl and Nahar; al-Shafak; Yawm 

see also Ta'rikh.I. 1 .iii; Zidj 
days of the week Djum'a; Sabt 

see also al-Kamar 
Islamic al-Muharram; Rabi c ; Radjab; Ramadan; Safar; Sha'ban; Shawwal 

see also Ta'rikh.I. 1 .iii 
Syrian Nisan; Tammuz; Tishrin 
Turkish Odjak 
timekeeping Anwa'; al-Kamar; Mikat; Mizwala; Sa'a.l 

see also Asturlab; Ayyam al-'Adjuz; Hilal.i; Rub c ; Ta'dil al-Zaman 

Togo Kabou; Kubafolo; Togo 

Transport Nakl {and [in Suppl.]) 

and -> Animals.camels and equines; Hostelry; Navigation 
caravans Azalay; Karwan; Mahmal; c Ukayl.2; [in Suppl.] Djammal 

see also Anadolu.iii.5; Darb al-Arba'in; Khan 
mountain passes Bab al-Lan; Biban; Dar-i Ahanin; Deve Boynu; Khaybar 

see also Chitral 
postal service Barid; Fuyudj; Hamam; Posta; Rakkas; Ulak; Yam 

see also Anadolu.iii.5 
stamps Posta 
railways Hidjaz Railway; Sikkat al-Hadid 

see also Anadolu.iii.5; al-Kahira (442a); Khurramshahr; Zahidan 
roads Shari'; [in Suppl.] Tarik 
wheeled vehicles c Adjala; Araba 

Travel Rihla; Safar 


supplies Mifragh 

and -+ Nomadism 

Treasury Bayt al-Mal; Khazine; Makhzan 

and ->■ Administration.financial 

Treaties Bakt; Kiiciik Kaynardja; Mandates; Mondros; Muahada; Turkmen Cay (i); 


see also Dar al- c Ahd; Hilf al-Fudul; Mithak-i Milli; Tudmir 
tributes Bakt; Parias; [in Suppl.] Khuwwa 
and -► Taxation 

Tribes 'Alia; 'Ashira; Hayy; Kabila; Sayyid 

see also c Asabiyya; Hilf; Khatib; Sharif.(l); Shaykh; [in Suppl.] Bisat.iii; Iskan; al-Ridda; 
Siirgiin; and ->■ Custom.tribal customs; Law.customary law; Nomadism; and the sec- 
tion Population under entries of countries 

Afghanistan, India and Pakistan Abdali; Afridi; Bhatti; Cahar Aymak; Dawudpotras; Djat; 


Durrani; Gakkhaf; Gandapur; Ghalzay; Giidjar; Khatak; Khokars; Lambadis; Mahsud; 
Me'6; Mohmand; Mullagori; Samma; Sumera; Wazlris; Yusufzay; [in Suppl.] Gurcani; 
Kakar; Sulayman Khel 
see also Afghan.i; Afghanistan.ii 
Africa 'Ababda; 'Amir; Antemuru; Bedja; Beleyn; Bishann; Dankali; Dja'aliyyun; Kunta; 
Makua; Marya; Mazru'I; Shaykiyya; Zaghawa 

see also Diglal; Fulbe; al-Manasir; Mande; for North Africa, see the section Egypt and 
North Africa below 
Arabian peninsula 

ancient 'Abd al-Kays; al-AbnaU; c Ad; 'Akk; 'Amila; 'Amir b. Sa'sa'a; al-Aws; Azd; 
Badjila; Bahila; Bakrb. Wa'il; Dabba; Djadhima b. c Amir; Djurhum; Fazara; Ghani 
b. A'sur; Ghassan; Ghatafan; Ghifar; Hamdan; Hanifa b. Ludjaym; Hanzala b. Malik: 
Harith b. Ka'b; Hawazin; Hilal; c Idjl; Iram; Iyad; Kalb b. Wabara; al-Kayn; Khafadj; 
Khath'am; al-Khazradj; Kilab b. Rabi'a; Kinana; Kinda; Khuza'a; Kuraysh; Kushayr; 
La'akat al-Dam; Lihyan.2; Ma'add; Ma'afir; Mazin; Muharib; Murad; Murra; Nadir; 
Nawfal; Riyam; Sa c d b. Bakr; Sa c d b. Zayd Manat al-Fizr; Salih; Salul; Shayban; 
Sulaym; Taghlib b. Wa'il; Tamim b. Murr; Tanukh; Tasm; Taym Allah; Taym b. 
Murra; Thakif: Ihamud; 'Udhra; 'Ukayl.l; Yafi'; Yarbu 1 ; Yas; [in Suppl.] Kathiri: 

see also Asad (Banu); Habash (Ahabish); al-Hidjaz; Makhzum; Musta'riba 
Muta'arriba; Nizar b. Ma'add; Numayr; Rabi'a (and Mudar); Shayba; Tha'laba; al- 
Ukaysir; Wabar; Wufud; Zarka' al-Yamama; Zuhayr b. Djanab; Zuhra; [in Suppl.] 
A'yas; al-Ridda 
present-day 'Abdali; 'Akrabi; c Awamir; c Awazim; Banyar; al-Batahira; Bukum; al- 
Dawasir; al-D_hi J ab; Dja'da ( c Amir); al-Djanaba; al-Duru c ; Ghamid; Hadjir; Hakam 
b. Sa c d; Hamdan; al-Harasis; Harb; Hashid wa-Bakil; Hassan, Ba; Hawshabi; Hina; 
al-Hubus; Hudhayl; Hudjriyya; Hutaym; al-Huwaytat; al- c Ifar; Kahtan; Khalid; 
(Banu) Kharus; Khawlan; Kuda'a; Madhhidj; Mahra; al-Manasir; Mazru c i; Murra; 
Mutayr; Muzayna; Nabhan; Ruwala; Shammar; Shararat; Subay c ; Subayhi; Sudayri; 
Sulayb; lhaklf; c Utayba; Wahiba; Yam 

see also (Djazirat) al- c Arab.vi; Badw; al-Hidjaz; Shawiya.2; 'Utub; al-Yaman.4 
Central Asia, Mongolia and points further north Cawdors; Dughlat; Emreli; Gagauz; Goklan; 
Karluk; Kungrat; Mangit; Mongols; Ozbeg; Pecenegs; Salur; Sulduz; Tatar; Tobol; 
Toghuzghuz; Turkmen; Turks.1.2; Yaghma; [in Suppl.] Sarik; Yomut 
see also Ghuzz; Ilat; Kayi; Khaladj; Kishlak; Yaylak 
Egypt and North Africa c Ababda; Ahaggar; al-Butr; Djazula; Dukkala; Ifoghas; Khult; Kumiya; 
al-Ma c kil; Mandil; Riyah; Zmala 
see also Khumayr: and ->■ Berbers 
Fertile Crescent 

ancient Asad; Bahra 3 ; Djarrahids; Djudham; Lakhm; Muhanna; al-Muntafik.l; Taghlib 
b. Wa J il; TayyP; Waththab b. Sabik al-Numayri; [in Suppl.] al-Namir b. Kasit 
see also Tanukh.2; al-Ukaysir; Unayf 
present-day 'Anaza; Asad (Banu); Badjalan; Bilbas; Dafir; Djaf; Djubur; Dulaym; 
Hamawand; al-Huwaytat; Kurds.iv.A; Lam; al-Manasir; al-Muntafik.2; Sakhr; 

see also al-Batiha; Shawiya.2 
Iran BazQkiyyun; Bilbas; Djaf; Eymir.2 and 3; (Banu) Ka c b; Kara GozlQ; Kurds.iv.A; Lak; 
Lam; Shahsewan; Shakak; Shakaki; Sindjabi 
see also Daylam; Dulafids; Firuzanids; Goklan; Ilat; Shulistan 
Turkey Afshar; Bay at; Bayindir; Begdili; Cepni; Doger; Eymir.l; Kadjar; Kayi; Takhtadji; 
Takkalu; Torghud; Yoriik; [in Suppl.] Cawdor 


see also Shakak; Shakaki: Tamgha 

Tunisia Baladiyya.3; Djami'a; Djam'iyya.iv; Djarida.i.B; Dustur.i; Hizb.i; Hukuma.iv; 
Istiklal; al-Khalduniyya: Ma'arif.2.A; MadjlisAA.xix; Salafiyya.l(a); Tunisia; [in Suppl.] 
Demography. IV; MahkamaAxii 
see also Fallak; Himaya.ii; Khalifa b. 'Askar; Safar; [in Suppl.] Inzal; and -> Berbers; 


historians of Ibn Abi Dinar; Ibn Abi '1-Diyaf; Ibn 'Idhari; [in Suppl.] c Abd al-Wahhab 

see also Ibn al-Rakik; al-Tidjani, Abu Muhammad; and -*■ Dynasties. Spain and north 



educational al-Sadikiyya; Zaytuna; [in Suppl.] Institut des hautes etudes de Tunis 

see also [in Suppl.] c Abd al-Wahhab; Kabadu 
musical al-Rashidiyya 
press al-Ra'id al-Tunusi; Sihafa.2.(v) 
language c Arabiyya.A.iii.3; Tunisia.IV 
literature Malhun; Tunisia.V; and ->■ Literature 

belletrists Sa c id Abu Bakr; al-Shabbi; al-Tunisi, Mahmud Bayram; al-Tunisi, Muhammad; 
nationalists al-Tha c alibi, c Abd al-'Aziz; [in Suppl.] al-Haddad, al-Tahir 
Ottoman period (1574-1881) Ahmad Bey; al-Husayn (b. c Ali); Husaynids; Khayr al-DIn Pasha; 
Muhammad Bayram al-Khamis; Muhammad Bey; Muhammad al-Sadik Bey; Mustafa 
Khaznadar; Tunisia.II.c; [in Suppl.] Ibn Ghidhahum 
physical geography Tunisia.I.a 

pre-Ottoman period c Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri; Aghlabids; Hafsids; Hassan b. al-Nu'man al- 
Ghassani; (Banu) Khurasan; Tunisia.II.b 
and ->■ Berbers; Dynasties.spain and north africa 

ancient al- c Abbasiyya; Haydaran; Kal c at Ban! Hammad; Manzil Bashshu; Rakkada; 

Sabra (al-Mansuriyya); Subaytila 

districts Djarid 
islands Djarba; Karkana 

regions Djazirat Sharik; Kastiliya.2; Nafzawa; Sahil.l 

towns Badja; Banzart; Halk al-Wadi; Kabis; al-Kaf; Kafsa; Kallala; al-Kayrawan; 
al-Mahdiyya; Monastir; Nafta; Safakus; Susa; Tabarka; Takruna; Tunis; Tuzar; 

Turkey Anadolu; Arminiya; Istanbul; Kara Deniz; Turks.1.5 
see also Libas.iv; and ->■ Ottoman Empire 

architecture ->■ Architecture.regions 

dynasties ->■ Dynasties.anatolia and the turks; Ottoman Empire 

language ->■ Languages.turkic 

literature ->■ Literature 

modern period (1920- ) Baladiyya.l; Demokrat Parti; Djami c a; Djarida.iii; Djumhuriyyet 
Khalk Firkasi; Dustur.ii; Hizb.ii; Ishtirakiyya; Khalkevi; Koy Enstitiileri; Kurds.iii.C; 
MadjlisAA.ii; Mithak-i Milli; Shuyu c iyya.3; Terakki-perver Djumhuriyyet Firkasi; 
Turks.1.5; [in Suppl] Demography.III; Nizam c Askari.3; Sihafa.5 
see also Djam c iyya.ii; IskandarQn; Islah.iii; Ittihad we Terakki Djem'iyyeti; Karakol 
Djem'iyyeti; Kawmiyya.iv; Kemal; Kirkuk; Ma'arif.l.i; Maliyye; Nurculuk; Yuzellilikler; 
and -" Literature; Press 

educators [in Suppl.] Ismail Hakki Baltadjioghlu; Tongue 

religious leaders Nursi 

statesmen/women Atatiirk; Cakmak; Husayn Djahid; Ileri, Djelal Nuri; Kazim Karabekir; 
Khalide Edib; Koprlilii (Mehmed Fuad); Mehmed 'Akif; Menderes; Okyar; Orbay, 
Hiiseyin Ra'uf; Shems al-Din Giinaltay; Sheref, c Abd al-Rahman; Yegana, 'Ali Miinif; 
Yucel, Hasan 'Ali; [in Suppl.] Adlvar; Aghaoghlu; Atay; Esendal; ismet inonii; Ozal 
see also Cerkes Edhem; Gokalp, Ziya; Hisar; and -»■ Turkey.ottoman period.young 


mysticism -»■ Mysticism.mystics; Sainthood.saints 

Ottoman period (1342-1924) Hizb.ii; Istanbul; Ittihad-i Muhammedi Djem'iyyeti; Ittihad we 
Terakki Djem'iyyeti; Ma'arif. 1 .i; Madjlis.4. A.i; Madjlis al-Shura; Matbakh.2; Othmanli; 
Turk Odjaghi; Yeni 'Othmanlilar; [in Suppl.] Nizam c Askari.3 

see also Aywaz.l; Derebey; Djam'iyya.ii; Khalifa.i.E; [in Suppl.] Demography .II; Djalali; 
and -»■ Ottoman Empire 
Young Ottomans and Young Turks Yeni 'Othmanlilar 

see also Djam'iyya; Djewdet; Dustur.ii; Fadil Pasha; Hukuma.i; Hurriyya.ii; Ittihad 
we Terakki Djem'iyyeti 

individuals Djawid; Djemal Pasha; Enwer Pasha; (Tunali) Hilmi; Ishak Sukuti; 
Kemal, Mehmed Namik; Mizandji Mehmed Murad; Niyazi Bey; Sabah al-Din; 
Shiikrii Bey; Su'awi, 'Ali; Tal'at Bey; Yegana, c Ali Miinif; Yusuf Akcura; Ziya 
physical geography 

mountains Aghri Dagh; Ala Dagh; Aladja Dagh; Beshparmak; Bingol Dagh; Deve Boynu; 
Elma Daghi; Erdjiyas Daghi; Gawur Daghlari; Toros Daglan; Ulu Dagh 
see also Tur 'Abdin 
waters Boghaz-ici; Canak-kal'e Boghazi; Coruh.I; Djayhan; Gediz Cayi; Goksu; Kizil- 
irmak; Lamas-su; Marmara Defiizi; Menderes; al-Rass; Sakarya; Sayhan; Tuz Golii; 
Wan. 1 ; Yeshil irmak 
population Yortik; Zaza; Zeybek; [in Suppl.] Demography .II 

see also Muhadjir.2; Tiirkmen.3 
pre-Islamic period -»■ Pre-Islam; Turkey.toponyms 
pre-Ottoman period Mengiicek 

see also Kitabat.7; and -> Dynasties.anatolia and the turks; Turkey.toponyms 

ancient 'Ammuriya; Ani; Arzan; 'Ayn Zarba; Baghras; Balis; Beshike; Buka; al-Djazira; 
Duluk; Dunaysir; Harran; Ladhik.l; Shabakhtan; Sis; Sultan 6nu; Torghud Eli 
see also Diyar Bakr; Shimshat 

districts Shamdinan; Terdjan; Yalowa 

islands Bozdja-ada; Imroz 

provinces Aghri; Coruh; Diyar Bakr; Hakkari; Icil; Kars; Kastamuni; Khanzit; 

Kodja Eli; Mush; Newshehir; Tundjeli 
regions al-'Amk; Cilicia; Dersim; Diyar Mudar; Djanik; Menteshe-eli; Teke-eli; 

Tur 'Abdin; Tutak 
towns Ada Pazari; Adana; Adiyaman; Afyun Kara Hisar; Ak Hisar. 1 and 2; Ak 
Shehr; Akhlat; Ala Shehir; Alanya; Altintash; Amasya; Anadolu; Anamur; 
Ankara; Antakiya; Antalya; 'Arabkir; Ardahan; Artvin; Aya Soluk; Ayas; Aydin; 
'Ayntab; Aywalik; Babaeski; Bala; Bala Hisar; Balat; Balikesri; Balta Limani; 
Bandirma; Bayazid; Bayburd; Baylan; Bergama; Besni; Beyshehir; Bidlis; Bigha; 
Biledjik; Bingol; Biredjik; Birge; Bodrum; Bolu; Bolwadin; Bozanti; Burdur; 
Bursa; Cankiri; Cataldja; Ceshme; Colemerik; Corlu; Corum; Denizli; Diwrigi; 


Diyar Bakr; Edirne; Edremit; Egin; Egridir; Elbistan; Elmali; Enos; Eregli; Ergani; 
Ermenak; Erzindjan; Erzurum; Eskishehir; Gebze; Gelibolu; Gemlik; Giresun; 
Goksun; Gordes; Giimiish-khane; al-Haruniyya; Hisn Kayfa; Iskandarun; Isparta; 
Istanbul {and [in Suppl.]); Iznik; Kara Hisar; Karadja Hisar; Kars; Kastamuni; 
Kaysariyya; Kemakh; Killiz; Kirk Kilise; Kirmasti; Kirshehir; Koc Hisar; Konya; 
Koprii Hisari; Koylu Hisar; Kozan; Kula; Kutahiya; Ladhik.2 and 3; Laranda; 
Luleburgaz; Maghnisa; Malatya; Malazgird.l; Malkara; Ma c murat al- c Aziz; 
Mar'ash; Mardin; al-Massisa; Mayyafarikin; Menemen; Mersin; Merzifun; Milas; 
Mudanya; Mughla; Mush; Nasibin; Newshehir; Nigde; Niksar; Nizib; Oramar; 
c Othmandjik; Payas; Rize; al-Ruha; Sabandja; Samsun; Sail; Sarudj; Si c ird; Silifke; 
Simaw; Sinub; Siwas; Siwri Hisar; Sogud; Sumaysat; al-Suwaydiyya; Tall Bashir; 
Tarabzun; Tarsus; Tekirdagh; Tire; Tirebolu; Tokat; Tundjeli; 'Ushak; Wan.2; 
Wezir Kopru; Wize; Yalowa; Yeni Shehir; Yeshilkoy; Yozgat; Zaytun; Zindjirli; 
Zonguldak; [in Suppl.] Ghalata; Izmid; Izmir; Kaysum 
see also Fener; Karasi.2; (al-)Kustantiniyya 


Umayyads -»■ Caliphate; Dynasties.spain and north Africa 

United Arab Emirates al-Kawasim; MadjlisAA.xii; Mahkama.4.ix; Sihafa.l.(x); [in 
Suppl.] al-Imarat al- c Arabiyya al-Muttahida 

population Mazru'i 

see also Yas; and -* Tribes.arabian peninsula 
toponyms Abu Zabi; al-D^iwa'; Dubayy; al-Fudjayra; Ra's al-Khayma; al-Sharika; Sir Bani 

Yas; Umm al-Kaywayn; al-Zafra; [in Suppl.] c Adjman 

see also (Djazirat) al-'Arab; al-Khatt; Tunb; al- c Udayd 

Urbanism -> Architecture.urban; Geography.urban; Sedentarism 

for city planning, see [in Suppl.] Madina; for rowdy urban groups, see Zu"ar;/or urban 
militia, see Ahdath 

(former) USSR -> Caucasus; Central Asia. former soviet union; Communism; 
Europe.eastern europe; Siberia 

Virtues and Vices 

virtues c Adl; Dayf; Futuwwa; Hasab wa-Nasab; Hilm; Trd; Muru'a; Sabr; Zarif; [in Suppl.] 


see also Sharaf; Sharif and -* Ethics; Humour 
vices Bukhl 

see also Kaffara; and -> Adultery; Drugs.narcotics; Gambling; Law.penal law; 

Obscenity; Wine 


Weights and Measurements Aghac; Arpa; Dhira c ; Dirham. 1 ; Farsakh; Habba; Isba c ; Istar; 


Makayil; Marhala; Mikyas; Misaha; al-Mizan; Sa<; Sanadjat; Tola; Tuman.2; Wazn.l; [in 

Suppl.] Gaz 

see also al-Karastun 

Wine Khamr; SakI 

see also Karm 
bacchic poetry Khamriyya 

Arabic Abu Nuwas; Abu Mihdjan; Abu '1-Shis; c Adi b. Zayd; Haritha b. Badr al-Ghudani: 
(al-)Husayn b. al-Dahhak; Ibn al-'Afif al-Tilimsani; Ibn Sayhan; Tamlm b. al-Mu'izz 
li-DIn Allah; Tamim b. al-Mu'izz; al-Walid.2 

see also al-Babbagha'; Ibn al-Farld; Ibn Harma; al-Nawadji; Yamut b. al-Muzarra' 
Turkish Rewani; Riyadi 
boon companions Ibn Hamdun; al-Kashani; Khalid b. Yazld al-Katib al-Tamlmi 
see also Abu '1-Shis; 'All b. al-Djahm 

Women c Abd; Harim; Hayd; Hidjab.I; c Idda; Istibra 3 ; Khafd; al-Mar'a; Nikah; Sihak; [in 
Suppl.] Bigha 3 

see also c Arus Resmi; Bashmaklik; Khayr; Khidr-ilyas; Litham; Tunisia.VI; c Urf.2.II; 
Zanana; and -+ Divorce; Life Stages.childbirth and childhood; Marriage 
and beauty al-Washm 

and ->• Cosmetics 
and literature al-Mar'a. 1 

see also Kissa; Shahrazad 
Arabic authors al-Ba'uni.6; Hafsa bint al-Hadjdj; c Inan; al-Khansa 3 ; Layla al-Akhyaliyya; 
Mayy Ziyada; 'Ulayya; Wallada; al-Yazidji.4; [in Suppl] Fadl al-Sha c ira 
see also c Abbasa; 'Atika; Khunatha; Kissa.2; Shilb; Uksusa 
Persian authors Kurrat al-'Ayn; Mahsati; Parwin Ttisami 

see also Gulbadan Begam; Makhfi 
Turkish authors Fitnat; Khalide Edib; Layla Khanim (2x); Mihri Khatun 
see also Kissa. 3(b) 
and religion Tax 

mystics c A'isha al-Mannubiyya; Djahanara Begam; Nafisa; Rabi'a al- c Adawiyya al- 
see also Wali.5 
concubinage c Abd.3.f; Khasseki; Umm al-Walad 

emancipation Kasim Amin; Malak Hifni Nasif; Sa'id Abu Bakr; Salama Musa; Talak.II.3; 
[in Suppl.] al-Haddad, al-Tahir 

see also Hidjab; Ileri, Djelal Nuri; al-Mar'a; Wuthuk al-Dawla; al-Zahawi, Djamil 
Sidki; [in Suppl.] Ashraf al-Din Gilani 
influential women 

Arabic c A J isha bint Talha; Asma 5 ; Barira; Buran; Hind bint 'Utba; al-Khay zuran bint ' Ata' 
al-Djurashiyya; Khunatha; Shadjar al-Durr; Sitt al-Mulk; Subh; Sukayna bt. al- 
Husayn; Zubayda bt. Dja'far; [in Suppl.] Asma' 
see also al-Ma'afiri; Zumurrud Khatun; and -> Muhammad, the Prophet.family 


Indo-Muslim Nur Djahan; Samru 

Mongolian Baghdad Khatun; Khan-zada Begum; Toregene Khatun 

Ottoman c Adila Khatun; Khurrem; Kosem Walide; Mihr-i Mah Sultan; Nilufer Khatun: 

Nur Banu; Safiyye Walide Sultan; Shah Sultan; Shebsefa Kadin; Turkhan Sultan 

see also Walide Sultan 
Turkish Terken Khatun; Zumurrud Khatun 


legendary women al-Basus; Bilkis; Hind bint al-Khuss 

see also Asiya; Zarka' al-Yamama 
musicians! singers c Azza al-Mayla'; Djamila; Hababa; Ra'ika; Sallama al-Zarka'; Shariya; 

Siti Binti Saad; c Ulayya; Umm Kulthum; [in Suppl.] Badhl al-Kubra; al-Djaradatan'; 

Fadl al-Sha'ira; Habba Khatun 

see also 'Alima; Kayna; Taktuka 
mystics ->■ the section And Religion above 

Writing Khatt (and [in Suppl.]) 

see also Ibn Mukla; Kitabat; and ->• Art.calligraphy; Epigraphy 
manuscripts and books Daftar; Hashiya; Kitab; Mukabala.2; Nuskha; Tadhkira; Ta'lik; 
Tashlf; Tasnif; Tazwir; 'Unwan; Warrak; [in Suppl.] Abbreviations 
see also Kat c ; Maktaba 
blockprinting Tarsh 

bookbinding Ilkhans; Kitab; Nuskha; 'Othmanli.VII.c; [in Suppl.] Mamluks.iii.b.D.iii 
booktitles c Unwan.2(=3); Zubda 
materials Djild; Kaghad; Kalam; Khatam; Kirtas; Midad; Papyrus; Rakk; [in Suppl.] Dawat 

see also c Afs; Afsantin; Diplomatic; Ilkhans; Ma c din.4 
scripts Khatt; Siyakat; Tawki c .2; Tifinagh; Tughra.2(d) 

see also Nuskha; Swahili; Taiik; Warrak; Zabur; and ->• Art.calligraphy; Epigraphy 

for Persian scripts, see [in Suppl.] Iran.iii.f.ii.V 

for non-Arabic, non-Latin scripts, see [in Suppl.] Turks.II.(vi) 

Yemen Djarida.i.A; Dustur.viii; MadjlisAA.xiv and xv; MahkamaAviii; Sihafa.l.(xiv); 
Yahya b. Muhammad; al-Yaman: [in Suppl.] Nizam c Askari. 1 .(e) 

see also c Asir; Isma'iliyya; Mahri; Makramids; Taghut.2; c Urf.2.I.A.2; [in Suppl.] Abu 
Mismar; and ->• Dynasties.arabian peninsula 
architecture -> Architecture.regions 
before Islam al-AbnaMI; Abraha; Dhu Nuwas; (^azirat) al- c Arab; Habashat; Hadramawt; 

Kataban; Kayl; Marib; al-Mathamina; Saba 3 ; al-Sawda 5 ; Wahriz; Yazan; [in Suppl.] 


see also [in Suppl.] Badham 
British protectorate of Hadramawt period (1839-1967) c Adan; Wahidi 

see also [in Suppl.] Hadramawt.ii.l; Kathiri; Ku'ayti 
dynasties Hamdanids; Mahdids; Rasulids; Sulayhids; Tahirids.3; Yu'firids; Zaydiyya.3; 

Ziyadids; Zuray'ids; [in Suppl.] Kathiri; Ku'ayti 

see also Rassids; and -► Dynasties.arabian peninsula 
historians of al-^anadi; al-Khazradji; al-Mawza'i; al-Nahrawali; al-Razi, Ahmad b. c Abd 

Allah; al-Sharif Abu Muhammad Idris; al-Shilli; c Umara al-Yamani 

see also Ibn al-Mudjawir 
language al-Yaman.5; [in Suppl.] Hadramawt.iii 

and -► Languages.afro-asiatic.arabic and south Arabian 
Ottoman periods (1517-1635 and 1872-1918) Mahmud Pasha; al-Mutahhar; Ozdemir Pasha; 

Rldwan Pasha; [in Suppl.] Yemenli Hasan Pasha 

see also Baladiyya.2; Khadim Suleyman Pasha 
physical geography 

mountains Hadur; Haraz; Hisn al-Ghurab; al-Sarat; Shahara; Shibam.4; [in Suppl.] al- 


see also al-Yaman.2 
wadis Barhut; al-Kharid; al-Sahul; Turaba.l 
population 'Abdali; 'Akrabi; Banyar; Hamdan; Hashid wa-Bakil; Hawshabi; Hudjriyya; 
Kahtan; Khawlan; Madhhidj; Mahra; Yafi c 

see also Yam; al-Yaman.4; Yazan; and -> Tribes.arabian peninsula 

ancient al-'Ara; Shabwa; Sirwah; Zafar 

see also Nadjran 

districts Abyan; c Alawi; 'Amiri; 'Awdhali; Dathlna; Fadli; Haraz; Harib; al-Hayma; 

islands Kamaran; Mayyun; Sukutra 

regions 'AwlakI; Hadramawt; Lahdj; al-Shihr; Tihama; [in Suppl.] Hadramawt.ii 
towns c Adan; c Athr; Bayt al-Fakih; Dhamar; Ghalafika; Habban; Hadjarayn; Hami; 
Hawra; al-Hawta; al-Hudayda; Ibb; 'Irka; Ka'taba; Kawkaban; Kishn; Lahdj; al- 
Luhayya; Marib; al-Mukalla; al-Mukha; Rayda; Sa'da; al-Sahul; San'a'; Say'un; 
Shahara; al-Shaykh Sa c id; Shibam; al-Shihr; Ta'izz; Tarim; al-Tawila; Thula; 
Zabid; Zafar; [in Suppl.] 'Inat 
see also (Djazirat) al-'Arab 

(former) Yugoslavia Dzabic; Khosrew Beg; Muslimun.l.B.6; Pomaks; Ridwan Begovic; 
Yugoslavia; [in Suppl.] Handzic; Malkoc-oghullari 
see also c Omer Efendi; Topal 'Othman Pasha.2 
literature ->■ Literature.in other languages 

provinces [in Suppl.] Dalmatia 
regions Yeni Bazar. 1 

republics Bosna; Karadagh; Kosowa; Makadunya; Sirb 

towns Ak Hisar.3; Aladja Hisar; Banjaluka; Belgrade; Eszek; Ishtib; Karlofca; Livno; 
Manastlr; Mostar; Nish; Okhri; Pasarofca; Pirlepe; Prishtina; Prizren; Raghusa; 
Sarajevo; Siska; Travnik; Uskiib; Waradin; Yeni Bazar.2; [in Suppl.] Semendire 
see also Zenta 

Zaire Katanga; Kisangani 
Zanzibar -+ Tanzania 

Zoology Hayawan.7 

and ->■ Animals 
writers on al-Damiri; al-Marwazi, Sharaf al-Zaman 
see also al-Djahiz 

Zoroastrians Gabr; Iran.vi; Madjus; Mobadh; Zamzama 

see also Bih'afrid b. Farwardin; Ghazal.ii; Gudjarat.a; Parsis; Pur-i Dawud; Sarwistan; Shiz; 

al-Sughd; Sunbadh; Ta'rikh.I.l.vii; Ustadhsis; Yazd.l; Zamzam; Zindik 
dynasties Masmughan 
gods Bahram 


The entries in this Glossary are listed alphabetically following the Roman alphabet. The 
entry appears where possible under the singular form of the word, with the plural form, 
provided it was found in the Encyclopaedia, following in parentheses. If the plural form 
has the more important technical meaning, or the singular was not specified in the 
Encyclopaedia, the plural form will have an entry of its own. 

Although the root system common to Semitic languages is for the most part ignored, 
some terms, such as adjectives, plurals, adjectival plurals, etc. of a word, will be included 
under that word's entry, e.g. 'askari is included under 'askar, 'akliyydt is included under 
'akl, etc. Where it might not be obvious to someone searching alphabetically, and for 
facility of use, a cross-reference in the Glossary is provided, e.g. 

furu' -► far' 

Entries marked in bold refer to articles in the Encyclopaedia. All cross-references to 
entries within the Glossary are given in small capitals. A term made up of more than one 
component, as e.g. ahl al-'ahd, is generally listed under the first element; thus ahl al-'ahd 
is found under ahl. 

Where found in the Encyclopaedia, the term's etymological origin has been noted; see 
the List of Abbreviations on p. 139. The transcription in the Glossary follows for the most 
part that of the Encyclopaedia. Certain words such as Baghdad and sultan, which are now 
part and parcel of the English language, have not been transcribed, and for easy recogni- 
tion, Qur'an is written thus and not as Kur'an. In words of Berber or North African ori- 
gin, a schwa has been used to reproduce a neutral vowel. 

The index is not comprehensive; multiple page references are given only for pages that 
note a significantly different definition or translation from one already listed, or for those 
pages that treat the term more than just in passing. 

a'aban (Mor) : a large outer wrap for Berber men. V 745b 
ab (P) : water; and -* abdar-bashI; abshar 

♦ ab-anbar -+ misna'a 

♦ ab-i gusht (P) : a stew on the basis of mutton stock, which seems to have become 
the staple of the poor in the course of the 19th century. XII 611a 

aba : roughly-spun cloth. X 371b 

'aba' (A), or 'abd'a : a coat, shoulder mantle, worn by both sexes in the Arab East. V 

'aba'a -+ 'aba' 

abad (A) : time in an absolute sense. I 2a 

In philosophy, ~ or abadiyya is a technical term corresponding to d(p0apt6<;, meaning 
incorruptible, eternal a parte post, in opposition to azal or azaliyya. I 2a; V 95a 

♦ abadi (A) : 'having no end'. I 333a 

♦ abadiyya -► abad 


ab'adiyya (A, pi. abd'id), or ibadiyya : uncultivated or uncultivable land in Egypt under 
Muhammad c Ali; estates reclaimed from lands uncultivated at the time of the 1813-14 
cadaster and granted on favourable terms. II 149a; XII 379a 

abadjad -»■ abdjad 

abanus (A, P, T, < Gk) : ebony wood. I 3a 

abardi -»■ bardi 

'abaya (Alg) : a sleeveless, long overblouse for men; a sleeveless, flowing dress for 
women. V 745b 

abayan (A) : in zoology, the prawn and the shrimp. IX 40a, where many more synonyms 
are given 

'abaytharan (A) : in botany, a type of artemisia, also called rayhdn al-tha'alib 'the 
foxes' basilicum'. IX 435a 

'abbadiyya -> shakkaziyya 

abbala : camel nomads in the central Sudan belt of Africa. IX 516a 

'abbas (Alg) : a verb signifying in Algeria 'to go among the peasants to levy contribu- 
tions of grain, butter, dried fruits, etc' in the name of Abu 'l-'Abbas al-Sabti, a 
renowned Moroccan saint of the 12th century. VIII 692a 

'abbasi (P) : in numismatics, a Safawid coin introduced by Shah 'Abbas I, the value of 
which was 4 §hahi, 200 dinars, 50 per tuman. It remained the normal Persian denom- 
ination for most of the remainder of the dynasty. VIII 790a; IX 203b 

♦ 'abbasiyya (Mor) : in Morocco, charitable gifts of grain, fritters, fruit, meat or 
fish, made to the poor in the name of Abu 'l-'Abbas al-Sabti, a renowned Moroccan 
saint of the 12th century. VIII 692a 

'abd (A, pi. c abld) : a slave, in particular a male slave, a female slave being termed ama 
(pi. ima'). I 24b 
In theology, ~ means 'the creature'. In the Qur'an, the angels are also called ~. IV 82b 

♦ 'abd kinn (A) : a slave born in his master's house; later applied to the slave over 
whom one has full and complete rights of ownership. I 25a, 

♦ 'abd mamluka (A) : a purchased slave. I 25a 

♦ 'abid al-bukhari (A) : descendants of the black slaves who had been imported in 
large numbers by the Sa'dids into Morocco. I 34b; I 47a; I 356a 

♦ 'abid al-shira' (A) : black Sudanese slaves bought for the army under the 
Fatimids. II 858b 

abda'a -»■ ithtoaghara 

abdal (A, s. badal) : in mysticism, the highest rank in the sufi hierarchical order of 

saints (syn. ghawth). I 69b; generally accepted as the fifth place descending from the 

kutb. I 94b; ascetic or pietistic persons who are regarded as intercessors and dispensers 

of baraka. VIII 498a 

In the Ottoman empire, ~ was used for the dervishes in various dervish orders. I 95a; 

later, when the esteem enjoyed by the dervishes declined, ~ (and budald', s. badll, both 

used as a singular) came to mean 'fool' in Turkish. I 95a 
abdar-bashi (P) : in Safawid times, an official in the royal kitchen in charge of drinks. 

XII 609b 
abdjad (A), or abadjad, abu djad : the first of the mnemotechnical terms into which the 

twenty-eight consonants of the Arabic alphabet are divided. I 97a 
abik (A) : a runaway slave. I 26b 
'abkari (A) : a genie of great intelligence. IX 406b 
abna' (A, s. ibn) : sons 

As a denomination, it is applied to two tribes, viz. the descendants of Sa'd b. Zayd 

Manat b. Tamim, and the descendants born in Yaman of Persian immigrants. I 102a; 

X 173a; XII 115b 

ABNA' — ABU 143 

♦ abna 5 al-atrak (A) : a term sometimes used in the Mamluk sultanate to designate 
the Egyptian or Syrian-born descendants of the Mamluks. I 102a; and ->■ awlad al-nas 

♦ abna' al-daraza (A) : lit. sons of sewing, a proverbial expression current in the 
'Abbasid period to refer to the tailors of Kufa, who had taken part in the revolt of Zayd 
b. c Ali against the Umayyads (120-2/738-40). IV 1161a 

♦ abna' al-dawla (A) : a term applied in the early centuries of the 'Abbasid 
caliphate to the members of the 'Abbasid house, and by extension to patrons (mawdll, 
s. mawla) who entered its service and became adoptive members. I 102a; Khurasanian 
guards and officials in the 'Abbasid caliphate. V 57b 

♦ abna-yi sipahiyan (T) : a term sometimes used in formal Ottoman usage, in place 
of the more common sipahi oghlanlarl (-> dort boluk), to denote the first of the six 
regiments of cavalry of the standing army. I 102a 

♦ abna 1 al-watan (A) : inhabitants, natives, compatriots. XI 175b 
abrak -> barka' 

abramis (A) : in zoology, the bream. VIII 1023a 

abshar (P) : in Muslim India, large water chutes, made of inclined and carved marble 
slabs, which intercepted the flow of water in the long channels that ran the entire length 
of gardens, providing the transition from one level to another. IX 175a 

abu (A) : father 

♦ abu barakish (A) : a name, no longer in use, given to two birds with brilliant 
plumage: the Franciscan or Grenadier weaver-bird, or Durra-bird (Euplectes oryx fran- 
ciscana), and the Porphyrion or Blue Taleva/Purple Gallinule (Porphyrio porphyrio), 
better known as the Sultan-fowl. In the Hidjaz, ~ was used in place of birkish to denote 
the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), also called shurshur. XII 19a; and -> hirba' 

♦ abu '1-bayd -> salka' 

♦ abu buz (A) : 'having a snout', a simple but functional transport vessel, driven 
by a motor, with a prow which resembles that of a schooner and with a square stern, 
built in Oman. VII 53b 

♦ abu dhakan (A) : in zoology, the goat fish or mullet (Mullus barbatus). VIII 1021a 

♦ abu djad -> abdjad 

♦ abu 'l-hawl (A) : lit. father of terror; Arabic name for the sfinx of Giza. I 125b 

♦ abu ishaki -> firuzadj 

♦ abu kalamun (A) : originally, a certain textile of a peculiar sheen, then a pre- 
cious stone, a bird, and a mollusc. In Persian, ~ is said to have the meaning of 
chameleon. I 131a 

♦ abu karn (A) : in zoology, the unicorn fish (Naseus unicornis). VIII 1021a; and 
-> karkaddan 

♦ abu marina (A) : in zoology, the monk seal. VIII 1022b 

♦ abu mihmaz (A) : in zoology, the ray or skate. VIII 1022b 

♦ abu minkar (A) : in zoology, the half-beak (Hemiramphus). VIII 1021a 

♦ abu minshar (A) : in zoology, the sawfish (Pristis pristis). VIII 1021a 

♦ abu mitraka (A) : in zoology, the hammer-head shark (Sphyrna zygaena). Other 
designations are bakra, mitrdk al-bahr, and samakat al-Iskandar. VIII 1021a; VIII 

♦ (a)bu mnir (A) : in zoology, the seal. VIII 1022b 

♦ (a)bu nawwara (A) : lit. the one with the flower; in zoology, a Saharan name 
which is used for the hare as well as for the fox. XII 85b 

♦ abu '1-rakhwa -» salwa 

♦ abQ sansun (A) : in zoology, the sansun kingfish. VIII 1021b 

♦ abu sayf (A) : in zoology, the swordfish {Xiphias gladius). VIII 1021a 

♦ abu shinthiya ->■ shih 

♦ abu sunduk (A) : in zoology, the coffer fish (Ostracion nasus). VIII 1021a 

♦ abu thalalhjn -»■ salka' 

abyad (A) : the colour white; also, saliva, a sword, money, and paradoxically, in Africa, 
coal. In the Qur'an, ~ and aswad express the contrast between light and dark rather 
than white and black. V 700a, where are listed many other terms to denote white; and 
->■ ZAHR 

'ad (A) : from the expression min al-'dd, it has been suggested that ~ means 'the ancient 
time' and that the tribe 'Ad arose from a misinterpretation of this. I 169b 

♦ 'adi : very ancient. I 169b 

'ada (A), or 'urf : a (pre-Islamic) custom; customary law. I 170a; I 744b; I 1179a; IV 
155a ff.; VIII 486a 

ada' (A) : lit. payment, accomplishment. 

In law, ~ is a technical term to designate the accomplishment of a religious duty in the 
time prescribed by the law, a distinction being drawn between the perfect accomplish- 
ment, al-add' al-kdmil, and the imperfect, al-add' al-nakis. I 169b 
In the reading of the Qur'an, the traditional pronunciation of the letters (syn. kira'a). 
I 169b 

adab (A, pi. dddb) : originally, a habit, a practical norm of conduct, equivalent to 
sunna; during the evolution of its sense, ~ came to mean an ethical 'high quality of 
soul, good upbringing, urbanity and courtesy', in contrast to Bedouin uncouthness. 
From the first century of the hidjra, it came to imply the sum of intellectual knowl- 
edge which makes a man courteous and 'urbane', based in the first place on poetry, 
the art of oratory, the historical and tribal traditions of the ancient Arabs, and also on 
the corresponding sciences: rhetoric, grammar, lexicography, metrics. As a result of 
contact with foreign cultures, this national concept of ~ gradually came to include a 
knowledge of those sections of non-Arab literature with which Arab Muslim civilisa- 
tion became familiar from the early 'Abbasid period; it widened its Arab content into 
humanitas without qualification. In the modern age ~ and its plural dddb are synonyms 
of literature. I 175b 

In mysticism, the norms of conduct which govern relations between master and disci- 
ples, and those between the disciples themselves. IV 94b 

In military science, the plural form dddb is a synonym of hiyal, strategems in war. Ill 

♦ adab al-djadal : in theology and law, a method of debating in which were discussed 
questions that were controversial. It was not a matter of finding the truth, but of con- 
vincing the opponent of the greatest possible probability which one believes to have 
found. VII 566a 

adak ->■ nadhr-niyazmanlik 

'adala (A) : the quality of 'adl; the state of a person who in general obeys the moral 

and religious law. I 209b 

In public law, ~ is one of the principal conditions for carrying out public functions, 

while in private law, ~ belongs to the theory of evidence. I 209b 
'adam (A) : the absence of existence or being, used by the Muslim philosophers as the 

equivalent of Aristotle's azEpr\oiq. I 178b; V 578b 
adan (J, Sun) : the Javanese and Sundanese form of adhan. VI 675b 
'adas (A) : in botany, lentils, one of the winter crops in mediaeval Egypt. V 863a 
adat (Mai, < A 'Ada) : a custom, usage, practice; customary law, the juridical customs 

of Indonesia. I 173a; for taxes and tolls having to do with adat, e.g. adat cap, adat 

hakk. al-kalam, adat hariya, adat kain, etc., XII 200b 
adat (A, N.Afr ddya) : in the Sahara of southern Morocco and Algeria, small basins 

where the limestone of the hammadas has dissolved. Ill 136b 


addad (A, s. didd) : lit. opposites; in linguistics, words which have two meanings that 

are opposite to each other. I 184b 
'addan (A) : in Syria, a conventional rotation, according to which the distribution of the 

separate sections of water in the irrigation of the ghuta is carried out. II 1105b 
'adet-i aghnam -> koyun resmi 
'adhaba (A, Egy dhu'dba) : the loose end of the turban, which usually hangs behind 

from the turban. The usual length is four fingers long between the shoulders. X 611b; 

X 612a; in mysticism, one of the initiatory rites is the practice of letting the ~ hang 

down (irkhd' al-~). X 246a 
'adhab (A) : 'torment, suffering, affliction', inflicted by God or a human ruler. I 186b 

♦ adhab al-kabr (A) : in eschatology, the punishment in the tomb. I 186b; V 236b 
adhan (A, T ezari) : 'announcement'; as technical term, ~ indicates the call to the divine 

service of Friday and to the five daily prayers. I 187b; II 593b; VI 361b; VIII 927b 

♦ ezan adi (T) : the regular name of a child, chosen at leisure by the family and 
bestowed, with a recitation of the adhan, a few days after birth. IV 181a 

adhargun (P, A adharyuri) : lit. flame-coloured; a plant about 2-3 feet high with finger- 
long elongated leaves, of a red-yellow colour, and malodorous blossoms with a black 
kernel, thought to be either the Buphthalmos or the Calendula officinalis 'marigold'. 
I 191b 

c adhra' -> sunbula 

c adj (A) : ivory, exported in the Islamic period in all probability solely from East Africa. 

'adja'ib (A) : 'marvels', especially the marvels of Antiquity, e.g. the Pharos of 
Alexandria. I 203b 

In the Qur'an, the ~ denote the marvels of God's creation. I 203b; II 583b 
In geographical literature, the ~ form a peculiar literary genre, reaching its full devel- 
opment in the cosmographies of the 8th/ 14th century. I 203b 

adjal (A) : the appointed term of a man's life or the date of his death; the duration of 
existence. I 204a 

'adjala (A) : the generic term for wheeled vehicles drawn by animals; carriage. In 
Mamluk Egypt, ~ was supplanted by c araba as a generic term. In modern Egypt, ~ is 
now the word for bicycle. I 205a 

'adjam (A) : people qualified by 'udjma, a confused and obscure way of speaking, as 
regards pronunciation and language, i.e. non-Arabs, primarily the Persians. I 206a 

♦ adjami oghlan (T) : 'foreign boy', the term applied to Christian youths enrolled 
for service in the Ottoman sultan's palace troops. I 206b; II 1087a; IV 242b 

♦ 'adjamiyya (A) : the term used for the writing of non-Arabic languages in Arabic 
characters. I 207a; I 404b; and ->• aljamia 

adjarib -*■ mazru c an 

adjdha' (A), or al-djidhd' ■ the name for the group formed by four children of 'Awf b. 
Ka'b, one of whose families held an office related to the Meccan pilgrimage which in 
later times was considered one of the greatest merits of the Tamim. X 173a 

adjir (A) : in the hierarchy of guilds, an apprentice (syn. mubtadi'). Other levels were 
worker, sani', and master, mu'allim or usta. IX 644b; IX 794a 

adjlaf -> atraf 

adjnad ->• djund 

adjsad -> djasad 

adjr (A, < Akk) : reward, wages, rent. 

In theology, the reward, in the world to come, for pious deeds. I 209a 
In law, ~ denoted in Mecca, in the time of the Prophet, any payment for services ren- 
dered. Later, the term was restricted to wages or rent payable under a contract of hire, 
idjara. I 209a 

146 ADJR — <AFS 

♦ adjr al-mithl (A) : in law, the remuneration in a contract to hire that is determined 
by the judge. Ill 1017a 

♦ adjr musamma" (A) : in law, the remuneration in a contract to hire that is fixed 
in the contract. Ill 1017a 

adjurr (A, < P agur ?) : baked brick, used notably in public baths; of varying dimen- 
sions, and sometimes cut on an angle or partly rounded off, ~ is used in parts of build- 
ings where accuracy of line is important (pillars, pedestals, stairways, etc.) and 
functions as horizontal tying material alternating with courses of rubble to maintain 
regularity of construction. I 1226b; V 585b 

c adjuz (A) : in prosody, the name for the second hemistich of an Arabic poem. I 668b; 
VIII 747b; the name of the last foot of a verse. VIII 747b; another meaning of ~ in 
prosody occurs in the context of mu'akaba, to describe the case of e.g. in the ramal 
metre, the foot fd'ilatun having its last cord -tun shortened, thus fd'ildtu, when the first 
cord fa- of the following foot is not shortened. VIII 747b 

♦ 'adjuz hawazin (A), or a'djdz hawdzin : 'the rear part of the Hawazin'; in early 
Islam, those tribes, viz. the Nasr b. Mu'awiya, Djusham b. Mu'awiya and Sa'd b. Bakr, 
that did not rebel in the ridda. XII 693a 

'adjwa -»■ tamr 

'adjz (A) : in medicine, impotence. XII 641a 

c adl (A) : justice; rectilinear, just. 

In Mu'tazilite doctrine, ~ means the justice of God and constitutes one of the five fun- 
damental dogmas. I 209a; I 334b; I 410a; III 1143b 

In law, - (pi. 'udut) is a person of good morals, the 'udiil being the scriveners or 
notaries in the judiciary administration. In public law, ~ is one of the principal condi- 
tions for carrying out public functions, and in private law, it is a principal condition of 
a witness for the bringing of evidence. I 209a ff.; IX 207a; professional witness in the 
law courts. VIII 126a; IX 208a 
In numismatics, ~ means 'of full weight'. I 210a 

adrama (al-sabiyy) -»• ithihaghara 

adrar (B) : 'mountain', Berber geographical term applied to a number of mountainous 
regions of the Sahara. I 210b 

adwiya -»• dawa' 

afa (A) : in zoology, the viper; also other similar kinds of snakes. Most sources state 
that ~ denotes the female, with the male being called uf'uwdn, but ~ is always 
employed in a generic sense. I 214b 

afadhan -»• kuniya 

afarika : the descendants of the Graeco-Romans and the latinised Berbers, mostly Christians, 
living in Gabes in Tunisia in the 3rd/9th century. They were no longer mentioned as a 
separate ethnic group by the 7th/13th century. IV 338b ff.; X657b 

afawih (A, pi. of afwdh, s. fuh) : spices, aromatic substances added to food and bever- 
ages to increase pleasant flavour and promote digestion (syn. masdlih). The meaning 
of ~ is not sharply marked off from 'itr, lib 'scents' and 'akkdr 'drugs'. XII 42a, where 
many spices are listed 

afghani (A) : in numismatics, a coin introduced in Afghanistan by Shir 'Ali in place of 
the rupee. IX 446b 

'afis (A) : the quality of food being pungent. II 1071b 

afrag (B 'enclosure') : in Morocco, an enclosure of cloth, which isolates the encamp- 
ment of the sovereign and his suite from the rest of the camp. ~ corresponds to the 
Persian sardca or saraparda. I 236a; V 1206a 

c afs (A) : in botany, the gall, an excrescence which forms on certain kinds of trees and 
shrubs as the result of the sting of various insects. The Arabic term was probably 

<AFS — AHBAR 147 

applied to the oak-gall in particular, but also denotes the fruit of the oak or a similar 

tree and the tree itself. I 239a; X 665b 
afsantin (A, < Gk), or afsintin, ifsintin : in botany, the common wormwood (Artemisia 

absinthium); other similar kinds of plants. In medicine, ~ is often called kashuth rumi. 

I 239b; IX 434b; and -» shIh 
afshin : a pre-Islamic title borne by princes in Central Asia. I 241a 
afsun (P) : charm, incantation; now used in Iran to designate especially a charm against 

the biting of poisonous animals. I 241b 
'afur (A) : a sand devil; the word has an echo of 'ifrIt in it. Ill 1038a 
c afw -> GHUFRAN 
afwah -> afawIh 

afvun (A, < Gk) : opium; in Iran and Turkey often called tiryak 'antidote'. I 243a 
agadir (B, < Ph gadir) : in North Africa, one of the names of a fortified enclosure 

among the Berbers, also called kasr (gasr), temidelt, ghurfa, kal'a (gelda), and igherm 

(pi. igherman). I 244b; XII 512b 
agdal (A, < B) : pasturage reserved for the exclusive use of the landowner. I 245b 

In Morocco, ~ has acquired the sense of a wide expanse of pasture lands, surrounded 

by high walls and adjoining the sultan's palace, reserved for the exclusive use of his 

cavalry and livestock. I 245b; I 1346b; V 1206a; gardens. IV 685b 
agha (T, P aka) : in Eastern Turkish, 'elder brother', 'grandfather', 'uncle', 'elder 

sister'. I 245b; in Persian, ~ sometimes signifies eunuch. I 246a 

In Ottoman times, ~ meant 'chief, 'master', and sometimes 'landowner'. As a title ~ 

was given to many persons of varying importance employed in government service, 

usually of a military or non-secretarial character, and came to be also used for eunuchs 

in the harems of the sultans of Constantinople. I 245b; V 472b 
aghac (T) : in Ottoman Turkish, a 'tree', 'wood'. In Eastern Turkish, ~ means both 'the 

male member' and a measure of distance, a parasang, three times the distance at which 

a man standing between two others can make himself heard by them. I 247a 
aghani -> maghani 

aghit (T) : in Turkish folklore, lyrical compositions expressive of grief. They commem- 
orate the deceased and treat of general aspects of death or express sorrow over collec- 
tive calamities. VI 610a 
aghlaf, aghral -> alkhan 
aghrem (B) : 'settlement'. X 78a 
aghriba (A), or aghribat al-'arab : lit. the crows [of the Bedouin]; a designation in early 

Islam for poets of negroid maternal ancestry. IX 864a; an outcast [from a tribe]. X 

aghrum (B) : bread. V 41b 
aghtham -> shayb 

agurram (B) : among the Berbers of Morocco, the name for a saint. V 1201a 
ahabish (A) : Abyssinians (-> habash); companies or bodies of men, not all of one 

tribe. Ill 7b; possibly the Meccan militia of slaves of Ethiopian origin in the period 

immediately before the hidjra. I 24b, but see III 8a 

The word is also applied to men who formed a confederacy either at a mountain called 

al-Hubshi or at a wadI called Ahbash. Ill 7b 
ahad (A, s. ahad) : in the science of Tradition, ~ are Traditions from a relatively small 

number of transmitters, not enough to make them mutawatir. Ill 25b; an isolated 

report. X 932a; and -> fard 
ahal (Touareg), or tende : grand parties held by unmarried young people in Touareg 

society. X 380a 
ahbar -> Kissls 

148 <AHD AHL 

'ahd (A, pi. 'uhud) : 'joining together'; a contract. I 255a; a written designation of 
succession left by a caliph from the time of the Umayyad caliph c Abd al-Malik 
onwards. I 255b; IV 938b; XI 126a; and -> ahl al- c ahd; walI al-'ahd 
As a Qur'anic term, - denotes God's covenant with men and His commands, the reli- 
gious engagement into which the believers have entered, political agreements and 
undertakings of believers and unbelievers towards the Prophet and amongst each other, 
and ordinary civil agreements and contracts. I 255a 

In law, ~ is generally restricted to political enactments and treaties. I 255a; land which 
had capitulated before conquest was known as ~ land. IV 14b 

In mysticism, ~ is the covenant, consisting of religious professions and vows which 
vary in the different orders, with which the dervish is introduced into the fraternity. II 

In the science of diplomatic, ~ was a supreme grade of appointment, which concerned 
only the highest officials. It has fallen into disuse since the time of the Fatimids. II 302b 
In Christian Arabic, al-'ahd al-'atik is the term for the Old Testament, and al-'ahd al- 
djadld the term for the New Testament. I 255a 

♦ 'ahdname (T) : in the Ottoman empire, the document drawn up to embody the 
covenant, 'ahd, made with a harbI. The items in an ~ are called 'uhud, or shurut 
(s. shart). Ill 1179b; treaty of dependence. IX 483b 

ahdab (A) : hunchback. I 161a 

ahdath (A) : lit. young men; a kind of urban militia, whose function was that of a 
police, which played a considerable role in the cities of Syria and Upper Mesopotamia 
from the 4th/10th to the 6th/12th centuries. I 256a; I 1332b; II 963a; VIII 402a; arbi- 
trary actions at odds with the divine Law. I 384a 

In Safawid Persia, the ~ were the night patrols in the cities, also called gezme and 
'asas. I 687a 

ahfara -> ithihaqhara 

'ahira (pi. 'awahir) -> baqhiyy 

ahkaf (A) : the title of sura xlvi of the Qur'an; in geography, a term variously trans- 
lated as 'curved sand dunes', the name of a sand desert in Southern Arabia, and the 
whole of al-Ramla or just its western half. I 257a 

ahkam (A, s. hukm) : judicial decisions. I 257a; juridical and moral rules. IV 151b; 
astrological signs. VII 558a 

♦ al-ahkam al-khamsa (A) : in law, the 'five qualifications' (obligatory, recom- 
mended, indifferent, reprehensible, forbidden), by one or the other of which every act 
of man is qualified. I 257b; IX 324b; X 932a 

♦ ahkam al-nudjum (A) : astrology (-> nadjm). VII 558a 

♦ ahkami (A), or munadjdjim : an astrologer who interprets the astrological signs. 
VII 558a 

ahl (A, pi. ahdl) : family, inmates, people, meaning those dwelling in a defined area but 
not specifically a nation. I 257b; IV 785b; in the tribal structure of the Bedouin, ~ (syn. 
al) denotes offspring up to the fifth degree. I 700b; in combinations, ~ often means 
'sharing in a thing, belonging to it' or 'owner of the same'. I 257b; in its plural form, 
al-ahall means the indigenous, autochthonous peoples. XI 175a 

♦ ahl al-'aba' -»■ ahl al-bayt 

♦ ahl al- c ahd (A) : non-Muslims living outside the Islamic state. The term was 
extended occasionally to both the musta'min, the foreigner granted the right of living 
in Islamic territory for a limited period of time, and the dhimmI. I 255b 

♦ ahl al-ahwa' (A) : term applied by orthodox theologians to those followers of 
Islam whose religious tenets in certain details deviate from the general ordinances of 
the sunni confession. I 257b 

AHL 149 

♦ ahl al-(bahth wa 'l-)nazar (A) : 'those who apply reasoning', a term probably 
coined by the Mu'tazila to denote themselves; later, it came to mean careful scholars 
who held a sound, well-reasoned opinion on any particular question. I 266a 

♦ ahl al-bayt (A) : lit. the people of the house, viz. the family of the Prophet. The 
term has been interpreted variously; the current orthodox view is based on a harmon- 
ising opinion, according to which the term includes the ahl al-'aba' (the Prophet, 'Ali, 
Fatima, al-Hasan and al-Husayn) together with the wives of the Prophet. I 257b; II 
843b; IX 331a; among the shi'a, the ~ (which they call by preference Htra) is limited 
to the ahl al-kisa' and their descendants. I 258a; IX 331a 

♦ ahl al-buyutat (A) : those who belong to Persian families of the highest nobility; 
later, the nobles in general. I 258b 

♦ ahl al-dar (A) : lit. the people of the house; the sixth order in the Almohad hier- 
archy. I 258b 

♦ ahl al-da'wa -> madhhab 

♦ ahl al-dhikr (A) : 'possessors of edification', a Qur'anic term signifying witnesses 
of previous revelations. I 264a 

♦ ahl al-dhimma -> dhimma 

♦ ahl al-djama'a (A) : lit. the people of the community, an alternative of the appel- 
lative ahl al-sunna wa 'l-g^amd'a, an early designation of one of the warring parties at 
Siffin, and one of the 73 factions into which the Islamic community will be divided 
and the only one which will eventually attain salvation. IX 880b 

♦ ahl al-fadl (A) : aristocrats, in contrast to the rude and untutored masses (arddhil, 
sufahd', akhissa'). IX 330a 

♦ ahl al-hadith (A), and ashdb al-hadlth : the partisans of Traditions, hadIth; tra- 
ditionists, as opposed to the ahl al-ra'y. I 258b 

♦ ahl al-hall wa 'l-'akd (A) : 'those who are qualified to unbind and to bind'; term 
for the representatives of the Muslim community who act on its behalf in appointing 
and deposing a caliph or another ruler. I 263b 

♦ ahl al-harb -> harbI 

♦ ahl al-ikhtiyar -> ikhtiyar 

♦ ahl al-ithbat (A) : 'people of the firm proof; an appellation for Dirar b. 'Amr and 
his school by al-Ash'ari. Ill 1037a; III 1144a 

♦ ahl al-ithnayn -> thanawiyya 

♦ ahl al-kanif (A) : the poor and needy members of a tribe. X 910a 

♦ ahl al-kibla (A) : the people of the kibla, viz. the Muslims. I 264a 

♦ ahl al-kisa' (A) : the people of the cloak, viz. the Prophet and his daughter 
Fatima, his son-in-law c Ali, and his grandsons al-Hasan and al-Husayn, whom the 
Prophet sheltered under his cloak. I 264a; IX 331a 

♦ ahl al-kitab (A) : lit. the people of the Book, viz. Jews and Christians, and later 
also extended to Sabeans, Zoroastrians and, in India, even idolaters. I 264b; IV 408b 

♦ ahl al-kiyas (A) : the name given to the Mu'tazila by their adversaries. II 102b 

♦ ahl al-kudya (A) : 'vagabonds', one of the numerous terms for 'rascals, scoun- 
drels' in the mediaeval and modern periods. XI 546a 

♦ ahl al-madar (A) : people who lived in mud-brick houses in Arabia at the rise of 
Islam. I 608b; V 585a 

♦ ahl al-madhhab -+ madhhab 

♦ ahl al-milla -> milla 

♦ ahl al-nass -> ikhtiyar 

♦ ahl al-nazar -> ahl al-(bahth wa 'l-)nazar 

♦ ahl al-ra'y (A), and ashdb al-ra'y : partisans of personal opinion, as opposed to 
the traditionists, ahl al-hadith. I 692a 


♦ ahl al-suffa (A) : a group of the Prophet's Companions who typify the ideal of 
poverty and piety. I 266a 

♦ ahl al-sunna (A) : the sunnis, i.e. the orthodox Muslims. I 267a; III 846a; IV 
142a; party of the orthodox traditionists. I 694a; I 1039b; and -»■ ahl al-djama'a 

♦ ahl al-taraf > kabIli 

♦ ahl al-taswiya (A) : in early Islam, advocates of equality between non-Arabs and 
Arabs. IX 514a 

♦ ahl al-tathniya -»■ thanawiyya 

♦ ahl al-tawhid (A) : 'monotheists', the definition used by certain authors for the 
totality of Muslims, and by other groups, such as the Mu'tazila and the Almohads, for 
themselves. X 389a 

♦ ahl al-wabar (A) : Bedouin living in tents of camel's-hair cloth in Arabia at the 
rise of Islam. I 608b; V 585a 

♦ ahl-i hadith (A) : a designation used in India and Pakistan for the members of a 
Muslim sect, who profess to hold the same views as the early ahl al-hadIth and not 
be bound by any of the four sunni legal schools. I 259a 

♦ ahl-i hakk (A) : 'men of God', a secret religion prevalent mainly in western 
Persia. They are also called c Ali Ilahi, but this is an unsuitable title. The central point 
in their dogma is the belief in the successive manifestations of God, the number of 
these being seven. I 260a 

♦ ahl-i waris (Mai, < P, < A) : inheritors, used among the Muslims of Indonesia. 
I 267a 

♦ ahll -»■ WAKF KHAYRl 

♦ ahliyya (A) : a diploma from al-Azhar after a minimum of 8 years of study. I 
818a; primary education, with tahsll (secondary) and 'dlimiyya (higher) following. XI 

In law, the legal capacity of an individual to be a subject of the law, either a right- 
acquiring capacity, ahliyyat wudjub, or an execution capacity, ahliyyat idd'. IX 248a; 

XI 208a; in Persian modern legal language, ahliyyat is used to mean nationality. IV 

ahlaf (A, s. hilf) : a group formed by all but one of Zayd b. c Abd Allah's descendants. 

X 173b 
ahliladj -»■ halIladj 
ahliyya(t) -»■ ahl 
ahmal (A) : one of two groups (al-ahmal) formed by the sons of Yarbu c b. Hanzala, 

which was made up of four sons born by the same mother; three other sons formed a 

group called al-'ukad (or al-'ukada'). X 173b 
ahmar (A) : the colour red, the colour for which Arabic terminology is the richest. V 

700b, where many synonyms are given; and -»■ zahr 
ahmas, ahmasi, ahmasiyya -»■ hums 

ahnaf (A) : the characteristic of having misshapen feet. I 303b 
ahu : gazelles, or deer, on the island of Samos. IX 679b 
ahwad (A) : in agriculture, the small squares into which a field is divided, which the 

water reaches by channels. IV 683b 
'a'id -»■ wusla 

'a'ila (A) : family, given way today mostly to usra. I 305b 
a'in (P) : 'law, rite, institution', found in a title translated from Pahlawi into Arabic by 

Ibn Mukaffa' in the middle of the 2nd/8th century, and in later titles on Persian Islamic 

history. I 306b 
ak bircak -»■ ak sakal 
ak darya -+ ak su 


ak sakal (P) : 'grey-beard', the elder of a Shahsewan group. Women elders were known 
as ak bircak 'grey hairs'. IX 224a 

ak su (T) : white water; as a technical term, ~ denotes the original bed of a river (syn. 
ak darya). 1313b 

aka -»■ agha 

akaba (A, pi. 'ikab) : a mountain road, or a place difficult of ascent on a hill or accliv- 
ity. The best-known place of this name is al-'akaba, between Mina and Mecca, where 
the ritual stone-throwing of the pilgrimage takes place. I 314b 

c akal (A), or brim : ringed cord or rope to go over the headscarf worn by men. V 740b; 
X 611b 

'akar (A) : in law, ~ denotes immovable property, such as houses, shops and land, and 
as such is identical with 'realty' or 'real property' (ant. mdl mankul). The owner of ~ 
is also deemed to be the owner of anything on it, over it or under it, to any height or 
depth. XII 55a 

'akawwak (A) : thick-set. I 315b 

akbaba -* nasr 

akce (T) : 'small white', in numismatics, the name for the Ottoman silver coin referred 
to by European authors as aspre or asper. I 317b; II 119a; V 974a; VIII 978a 
In Ottoman administration, taxes and dues (riisum, -► rasm) which were paid in cash 
were often called ~. VIII 486a 

'akd (A) : the legal act, especially that which involves a bi-lateral declaration, viz. the 
offer and the acceptance. I 318a 

In the science of diplomatic, ~ is used for contract (syn. 'ahd, mithak), in particular 
a civil contract, often more clearly defined by an additional genitive, such as 'akd al- 
nikdh, 'akd al-sulh, etc. II 303a 

In rhetoric, ~ 'binding' denotes the iktibas when it is put into verse and its source is 
indicated. Ill 1091b 

In archery, ~, or kafla, denotes the lock, locking, sc. the position on the bow-string of 
the fingers of the right hand, and especially that of the thumb in the 'Mongolian' tech- 
nique of locking. IV 800b 

In grammar, the nexus linking the two terms of the nominal and verbal phrases. IV 

In astronomy, ~ means node (syn. c ukda), and it is often used, in combination with ra's 
and dhanab, instead of djawzahar to indicate the two opposite points in which the 
apparent path of the moon, or all planets, cuts the ecliptic. V 536a 

akdar (A) : troubled, obscure; for some Muslim scholars, the origin of the name 
akdariyya for a difficult question of law. I 320b 

♦ akdariyya (A) : in law, the name of a well-known difficult question about inher- 
itance, viz. whether a grandfather can exclude a sister from her inheritance in the case 
of a woman leaving behind as her heirs her husband, her mother, her grandfather, and 
her sister. I 320a 

'akf (A) : a word used in the Qur'an to designate the ceremonial worship of the cult and 
also the ritual stay in the sanctuary, which was done, for example, in the Meccan tem- 
ple. VI 658a 

akhawi (Touareg) : a woman's camel saddle, provided with semi-circular hoops attached 
to the side, used by the Touareg of the Sahara. HI 667a 

akhbar -> khabar 

♦ akhbari (A) : an historian. XI 280b 

♦ akhbariyya (A) : in Twelver shi'ism, those who rely primarily on the Traditions, 
akhbar, of the imams as a source of religious knowledge, in contrast to the usuliyya, 
who admit a larger share of speculative reason in the principles of theology and reli- 
gious law. XII 56b 

152 AKHDAR — 'AKlDA 

akhdar (A) : the colour green, an adjective also associated with the notion of darkness, 
since it sometimes denotes black, dark, grey. V 700b; and -»■ zahr 

akfani -»■ kafan 

akhfash (A) : nyctalope, or devoid of eyelashes. I 321a 

akhi (T < aki 'generous') : a designation of the leaders of associations of young men 
organised as guilds in Anatolia in the 7th-8th/l 3th- 14th centuries, who adopted the 
ideals of the futuwwa. I 321a; II 966b ff.; a Turkish trade guild. IX 646a; one of 
three grades in the ~ organisation, denoting the president of a corporation of fitydn 
(s. fata) and owner of a meeting-house, zawiya. I 322b; II 967b; one of nine cate- 
gories in the trade guild, itself divided into six divisions: the first three divisions were 
ashab-tark, the experienced, and the last three, nakibler, the inexperienced. IX 646a 

akhira (A) : the life to come, the condition of bliss or misery in the hereafter. I 325a 

akhissa' -»■ ahl al-fadl 

akhlafa (A) : a verb conveying the notion 'he [the child] passed the time when he had 
nearly attained to puberty'. VIII 822a 

akhlak (A, s. khuluk 'innate disposition') : in philosophy, ethics. I 325b 

akhmas -»■ takhmis 

akhnif (A), or khnlf : a short Berber cape of black wool, woven in one piece, with a 
large red or orange medallion on the back, hooded for men, unhooded for women. II 
1116a; V 745b 

akhras (A) : mute. I 330b 

akhriyan (< Gk 'agarlnos 'Hagarene') : the self-designation, documented from 835/1432, 
by the Muslim Bulgarians living in the central Rhodoe between Nevrokop and 
PazardZik, but having been adopted by the Ottomans to describe somewhat dubious 
converts in the Balkans in a pejorative sense, it fell out of use, to survive only as a 
Rumelian term. X 698b 

akhtabegi -»■ akhurbeg 

akhtal (A) : loquacious. I 331a 

akhtam (A, s. khatm) : in Tunisia, a ceremony stemming from Hafsid days of the 'clos- 
ing' of public readings of the canonical collections of al-Bukhari and Muslim and of 
the Shifa' of al-Kadi 'Iyad, readings which finish on 27 Ramadan in the Great Mosque 
in the presence of the head of state himself. X 657a 

akhund (T, P) : a title given to scholars; in Persian it is current since Tlmurid times in 
the sense of 'schoolmaster, tutor'. I 331b 

akhur-salar -*■ salar 

akhurbeg (IndP) : under the Dihli sultanate, the superintendent of the royal horses, there 
being one for each wing of the army. Under the Mughals, this officer was known as 
the dtbegi or akhtabegi. V 689b 

'akib (A) : in law, a descendant. A charitable endowment that was characterised as mu'akkab 
'for a descent group' was understood to apply to two or more generations of lineal 
descendants who qualified as beneficiaries simultaneously. XI 70b 
In anatomy, the heel. XI 254b 

c akid (A) : a leader of a Bedouin raid. II 1055a; among the Jordanian tribes, in early 
modern times, a specific leader of raids at the side of the chief, known in full as ~ al- 
ghazw. IX 115b 

In 19th-century Sudan, an imperial proconsul, a category of functionaries that differed 
from the older royal courtiers not only in the great diversity of their ethnic origin but 
also in that they were allowed to absent themselves for extended periods from the pres- 
ence of the king. XI 11a 

'akida (A, pi. c akd'id) : in theology, creed; doctrine, dogma or article of faith. I 332b; 
IV 279b 

'AKlK — AKLIGH 153 

c akik (A) : cornelian; the name has been transferred to any kind of necklace which is 

of a red colour. I 336a; VIII 269a 
akika (A) : the name of the sacrifice on the seventh day after the birth of a child; also, 

the shorn hair of the child, which is part of the seventh-day ritual. I 337a; IV 488a; 

VIII 824b 
'akil (A, pi. 'ukkdl) : 'sage'; in law, compos mentis. IX 63a; and ->■ 'ukala' al- 


Among the Druze, a member initiated into the truths of the faith; those not yet initi- 
ated, yet members of the community, are called djuhhdl (-> djahil). II 633a 

akila -► ikla 

akila (A, pi. 'awdkil) : in penal law, the group of persons upon whom devolves, as the 
result of a natural joint liability with the person who has committed homicide or 
inflicted bodily harm, the payment of compensation in cash or in kind, the diya. I 29a; 
I 337b 

akin ->■ zbiraw 

♦ akindji (T) : irregular cavalry during the first centuries of the Ottoman empire, 
based on and primarily for service in Europe. I 340a 

akit (A) : sour-milk cheese, made by pre-Islamic Arabs. II 1057b; X 901a 

akkar (A, < Ar; pi. akara) : lit. tiller, cultivator of the ground; term applied to the peas- 
antry of Aramaean stock in Syria and Iraq with a pejorative sense. XII 58b 

c akkar ->■ afawIh 

'akl (A) : reason; intellect or intelligence. I 341b; IV 157a 

In neoplatonic speculation, ~ is the first, sometimes the second, entity which emanates 
from the divinity as the first cause, or proceeds from it by means of intellectual cre- 
ation. I 341b 

In scholastic theology, ~ is a natural way of knowing, independently of the authority 
of the revelation, what is right and wrong. I 341b 

To the philosophers of Islam, who followed Aristotle and his Greek commentators, 
more especially Alexander of Aphrodisias, ~ is that part of the soul by which it 'thinks' 
or 'knows' and as such is the antithesis of perception. The Muslim philosophers recog- 
nised a hierarchy of separate intelligences ( c ukul mufdrika), usually ten in number, each 
lower one emanating from the higher. I 341b 

In penal law, ~ (pi. 'ukul) is the compensation in cash or in kind required by the 
c akila in cases of homicide or instances of bodily harm. I 338a; and ->■ diya 
In prosody, a deviation from the proper metre, in particular a missing la in the foot 
mufd'a[la]tun. I 672a; a case of zihaf where the fifth vowel is elided. XI 508b 
In Druze hierarchy, the highest of the five cosmic ranks in the organisation. II 632a 

♦ al- c akl al-awwal (A) : in c Abd al-Razzak al-Kashani's mystical thought, the Universal 
Reason, which proceeds by a dynamic emanation from God. This is a spiritual sub- 
stance and the first of the properties which the divine essence implies. I 89b 

♦ 'akliyyat (A) : a technical term in scholastic theology, signifying the rational (and 
natural) knowledge which the reason can acquire by itself. According to the Mu'tazili 
tradition and Sa'adya al-Fayyumi, ~ denotes that which is accessible to the reason and 
especially, on the ethical level, the natural values of law and morals. The term also 
denotes a genus of theological dissertations, going back to the 6th/12th century. I 342b 

aklaf ->■ ALKHAN 
aklam ->■ kalam 
aklat al-mahabba (A) : a feast-day meal among the Sarliyya in northern Iraq, once 

every lunar year, to which everyone contributed a cock boiled with rice or wheat. IX 


akligh ->■ MUSAFFAHAT 

154 AKRA' 'ALAM 

akra' (A) : bald. I 343a 

akrab (A, pi. 'alcdrib) : in zoology, the scorpion. I 343b 
In astronomy, al-~ is the term for Scorpius, one of the twelve zodiacal constellations. 
I 343b; VII 83b 

akrabadhin (A, < Syr) : a title of treatises on the composition of drugs; pharma- 
copoeias. I 344a 

aksakal : in traditional Ozbeg society, the respected older headman of a village, who 
mediated disputes. VIII 233b 

aksima : a term usually translated as 'liquid, syrup', but, since one of the recipes men- 
tions the presence of yeast among the ingredients of this drink, it must presumably be 
a variety of sweetened beer such as fukka'. VI 721b; IX 225a 

akunitun (A, < Gk) : in medicine, a particularly deadly poison originating from a plant 
root. Synonyms are khanik al-nimr, khanik al-dhi'b, kdtil al-nimr, nabbdl, and blsh. XII 

akwal (A, B agwdl, gulldl) : a goblet-shaped drum, about 60 cm long, still to be found 
in the Maghrib. In Tripolitania, a similar instrument called the tabdaba is used. X 33a 

al (A) : a clan, a genealogical group between the family and the tribe. Later, ~ came to 
mean the dynasty of a ruler. I 345b; a demon who attacks women in childbed, a 
personification of puerperal fever. I 345b; in Persian administration, a royal seal. XI 
192b; and -► ahl; sarab 

ala (A, pi. dldt) : an instrument, utensil. 

In grammar, ~ is found in expressions as dlat a/-TA c RiF, instrument of determination, 

and dlat al-tashbih, instrument of comparison. I 345b 

In the classification of sciences, dldt is the name of such attainments as are acquired 

not for their own sake, but 'as a means to something else'. I 345b 

In philosophy, ~ is another term for logic, following the peripatetic view that it is an 

instrument, not a part, of philosophy. I 345a 

For ~ in Moroccan music, -» qhina' 

a'la (A) : higher; al-a c ld is used as an epithet to differentiate between the patron and the 
client, when both are referred to as mawla. I 30b 

alaaqad (Somali) : in Somali society, a woman specialist who relieves people of spirits 
through the performance of a ritual. IX 723b 

alaba (A) : a geographical term used to denote the northern part of the Iberian penin- 
sula beyond the left bank of the upper valley of the Ebro. I 348b 

♦ alaba wa '1-kila' (A) : a geographical expression used in the 2nd-3rd/8th-9th cen- 
turies to denote that part of Christian Spain which was most exposed to the attacks of 
summer expeditions sent from Cordoba by the Umayyad amIrs. I 348b 

alabalgha (A) : the trout. VIII 1021a 

alacigh (P) : the dwelling of the Shahsewan in Persia, which is hemispherical and felt- 
covered; within each one lives a household of on average seven or eight people. IX 

aladja (T) : chintz with coloured stripes; used in many geographical names. I 348b; V 
560a ff. 

'alaf (A) : fodder. XI 412a; and -* 'ulufe 

'alam (A, pi. a'ldm) : signpost, flag (syn. liwa\ raya). I 349a 

♦ 'alamdar -» sandjakdar 

♦ c alem-i nebewi -> sandjak-i sherif 
'alam (A, pi. 'dlamun, 'awdlim) : world. I 349b 

♦ 'alam al-djabarut (A) : 'the world of (divine) omnipotence', barzakh, to which 
belong, according to al-Ghazali, the impressionable and imaginative faculties of the 
human soul. I 351a 

♦ 'alam al-malakut (A) : a Qur'anic term for 'the world of Kingdom, of Sover- 
eignty', the world of immutable spiritual truths, and hence of the angelic beings, to 
which are added all of Islamic tradition, the Preserved Table, the Pen, the Scales, and 
often the Qur'an. I 351a 

♦ c alam al-mulk (A) : a Qur'anic term meaning 'the world of kingship', i.e. the 
world of becoming, the world here below. I 351a 

alama (A, T 'aldmet) : emblem, presented by early Islamic rulers to their close pages 
as a sign of honour. VIII 432b 

In the science of diplomatic, the signature of the person drawing up the document, part 
of the concluding protocol in the classical period. II 302a; X 392b 
In the Muslim West, a mark of ratification or initialling, on all official chancery doc- 
uments. I 352a; the formula of authorisation (wa 'l-hamdu U-lldhi wahdah), written in 
large lettering at the head of despatches and commissions. II 331b 
For ~ in dating, -»■ madkhal 

alap (H) : the introductory improvisation, the first part in a performance of classical or 
art music of India. Ill 454a 

c alas (A) : in agriculture, a variety of wheat. II 1060b 

alat ->■ ala 

c alath (A) : in botany, the wild endive (hindibd' barrl), known under a variety of names: 
ghalath, ya'did, bakla murra, tarkhashkuk and variants. XII 370b 

alay (T, prob. < Gk allagion) : in Ottoman usage, a troop, a parade, and hence a crowd, 
a large quantity. It was used from the time of the 19th-century military reforms to 
denote a regiment. I 358a 

♦ alay-beyi ->■ za'im 

'alaya (A) : in Oman, the upper quarter of a wadi or water channel, frequently occupied 
by a tribe in traditional rivalry with another tribe occupying the lower quarter, sifdla. 
XII 818a 

albasti : in Ozbeg folk tradition, a witch-like djinn. VIII 234b 

'alem ->■ 'alam 

alif ->■ HAMZA 

♦ alif al-kat' -> kat' 

♦ alif maksura (A) : a long a not followed by hamza. XI 222a 
'alirn ->■ fakIh; 'ulama 5 

♦ alima (A, pi. 'awdlim) : lit. a learned, expert woman, ~ is the name of a class 
of Egyptian female singers forming a sort of guild, according to sources of the 18th 
and 19th centuries. I 403b 

♦ 'alimiyya ->■ ahliyya 

'aliya (A, pi. 'awdll) : grand master, the highest rank in the game of chess. IX 367a 

aljamia (Sp, < A al-'adjamiyya 'non-Arabic') : the name used by the Muslims of 
Muslim Spain to denote the Romance dialects of their neighbours in the north of the 
Iberian peninsula. In the later Middle Ages, ~ acquired the particular meaning which 
is attributed to it today: a Hispanic Romance language written in Arabic characters. 
The literature in ~ is termed aljamiada. 1 404b 

alkhan (A) : a term for 'uncircumcised' in the ancient language (syn. aklaf, aghlaf, 
aghral). V 20a 

allah (A) : God, the Unique One, the Creator; already to the pre-Islamic Arabs, ~ was 
one of the Meccan deities, possibly the supreme deity. I 406a 

♦ allahumma (A) : an old formula of invocation, used in praying, offering, con- 
cluding a treaty and blessing or cursing. I 418a 

c alma -»■ ghaziya 

almas (A, < Gk) : in mineralogy, the diamond. I 419a 


almogavares (Sp, < A al-mugbawir) : the name given at the end of the Middle Ages to 
certain contingents of mercenaries levied from among the mountaineers of Aragon. I 

alp (T) : 'hero', a figure which played a great role in the warlike ancient Turkish soci- 
ety (syn. batur (-> Bahadur), sokmen, capar); used also as an element in compound 
proper names or as a title by Saldjuk and subsequent rulers. I 419b 

altin (T), or altun : in mineralogy, gold, also used of gold coins. I 423b 

alu-yi malkum (P) : lit. plums of Malcolm; potatoes, introduced into Persia in the 18th 
century, called after Sir John Malcolm the British envoy, who is commonly but prob- 
ably erroneously thought to have brought them. XII 610b 

aluka -> ma'luka 

aluwi (A, < Gk) : the aloe drug, i.e. the juice pressed from the leaves of the aloe. VIII 

alwan (A) : in music, a lute with a long neck and plucked strings. VI 215b 

alya (A) : the fat tail of a sheep. II 1057b; XII 318a 

ama -> 'abd 

'ama (A) : in the mystical thought of 'Abd al-Karim al-Djili, the simple hidden pure 
Essence before its manifestation, one of the important scales or 'descents' in which 
Absolute Being develops. I 71a 

amad (U) : in Urdu poetry, the part of the elegy, marthiya, where the army's prepara- 
tion for battle is described, sometimes including a detailed description of the hero's 
horse. VI 611b 

'amal (A) : performance, action. I 427a; II 898a; 'that which is practised', the moral 
action in its practical context and, secondarily, the practical domain of 'acting'. I 427b 
In law, ~ is judicial practice. I 427b 

As a legal and economic term, ~ denotes labour, as opposed to capital. I 428a 
In later Muslim administration, ~ means 'fief. IX 153b; region. IX 739a 

♦ 'amal bi '1-yad (A), or 'amal al-yad : in medicine, the early expression for 
surgery, later replaced by djirdha. II 481b 

♦ 'ilm 'amali -* 'ilm 

♦ 'amaliyya (A) : the practical sciences, viz. ethics, economics and politics, as 
determined by the philosophers. I 427b 

'amala (A) : an administrative allowance, e.g. that given to an amir. I 439a 

'amama -* 'imama 

aman (A) : safety, protection. 

In law, a safe conduct or pledge of security by which a non-Muslim not living in 
Muslim territory becomes protected by the sanctions of the law in his life and property 
for a limited period. I 429a; II 303b; III 1181b; and -► idhn 

'amar al-dam (A) : among the Bedouin of Cyrenaica and the Western Desert of Egypt, 
the vengeance group, which also functions as a blood-money group. Among the 
Ahaywat Bedouin of central Sinai and their neighbours, the vengeance and blood- 
money group is called a damawiyya or khamsih. X 442b f. 

amarg -> tarab 

'amari -» hawda 

amazzal (B), and amzyad, amhaz, amhars, awrith : an institution concerning an individ- 
ual, occurring in the case of a stranger to the group who, usually after committing 
some offence in his own clan, has imposed the 'ar 'transfer of responsibility', and 
obtained the protection of another group which he makes henceforward the beneficiary 
of his work. The stranger becomes ~ when his protector has given to him in marriage 
his own daughter or another woman over whom he holds the right of djabr. XII 79b 

'AMD — AMIR 157 

c amd (A) : in law, an intentional act; one that is quasi-deliberate is called shibh 
(-» shubha) 'amd. II 341a; IV 768b; IV 1101b 

ameddji (T, < P dmad) : an official of the central administration of the Ottoman empire, 
who headed the personal staff of the re'Is ul-kuttab 'chief Secretary'. The office 
seems to have come into being later than the 17th century and increased in importance 
after the reforms. I 433a; II 339a; referendar or reporter of the Imperial Diwan. VIII 

amenokal (B) : any political leader not subordinate to anyone else. The title is applied 
to foreign rulers, to high-ranking European leaders, and to the male members of cer- 
tain noble families; in some regions of the Sahara, ~ is also given to the chiefs of small 
tribal groups. I 433b; X 379a 

amghar (B) : an elder (by virtue of age or authority); ~ is used for different functions 
among the various Berber tribes. I 433b; X 379a 

amhars -> amazzal 

amhaz -» amazzal 

'amid (A) : lit. pillar, support; a title of high officials of the Samanid-Ghaznawid admin- 
istration, denoting the rank of the class of officials from whom the civil governors were 
recruited. I 434a; under the Saldjuks, an official in charge of civil and financial mat- 
ters. VI 275a; a designation for the tribal chief (syn. 'imdd). IX 115b 

c amil (A, pi. 'umrndl, 'awdmil) : a Muslim who performs the works demanded by his 
faith; as technical term, it came to denote tax-collector, government agent; (provincial) 
governor [in North Africa and Spain] in charge of the general administration and 
finance. I 435a; financial administrator. I 19b 
In law, the active partner in a mudaraba partnership. I 435a 

Among the Bohoras sect in India, ~ denotes a local officiant appointed by the head of 
the sect to serve the community in respect of marriage and death ceremonies, and rit- 
ual prayer. I 1255a 

In grammar, ~ signifies a regens, a word which, by the syntactical influence which it 
exercises on a word that follows, causes a grammatical alteration of the last syllable 
of the latter. I 436a; IX 360a; IX 527b 

♦ 'awamil al-asma 1 (A) : in grammar, the particles governing nouns. Ill 550a 
amin (A) : safe, secure; with the more frequent form amin, a confirmation or corrobo- 
ration of prayers, Amen. I 436b; (pi. umand') trustworthy; an overseer, administrator. 
I 437a; VIII 270b 

As a technical term, ~ denotes the holders of various positions 'of trust', particularly 
those whose functions entail economic or financial responsibility. I 437a; and -*■ emin 
In law, ~ denotes legal representatives. I 437a 

In the Muslim West, ~ carried the technical meaning of head of a trade guild, which in 
the East was called 'arif. I 437a 

♦ amin al-'asima (A) : the chairmen of the municipalities of Damascus, Beirut, Baghdad 
and Amman, thus called in order to emphasise their particular importance in relation 
to the seat of the government; elsewhere in the Arab East, the original designation, 
ra'is al-baladiyya, is retained. I 975b 

♦ amin al-hukm (A) : the officer in charge of the administration of the effects of 
orphan minors (under the early 'Abbasids). I 437a 

amir (A, pi. umard'; T emir) : commander, governor, prince. I 438b; a person invested 
with command (amr), and more especially military command. I 445a; III 45b; IV 941 ff. 

♦ amir akhur (A) : the supervisor of the royal stables. I 442b; IV 217b; and -» 


♦ amir dad (P) : the minister of justice under the Saldjuks. I 443b 


♦ amir djandar (< P) : in Mamluk Egypt, 'Marshal of the Court', under whose com- 
mand the rikabdar 'groom' was. VIII 530a 

♦ amir al-djuyush (A) : the commander-in-chief of the army. XI 188a 

♦ amir al-hadjdj (A) : the leader of the caravan of pilgrims to Mecca. I 443b 

♦ al-amir al-kabir, or amir kabir -»• atabak 

♦ amir madjlis (A) : the master of audiences or ceremonies. Under the Saldjuks of 
Asia Minor, the ~ was one of the highest dignitaries. Under the Mamluks, the ~ had 
charge of the physicians, oculists and the like. I 445a 

♦ amir al-mu'minin (A) : lit. the commander of the believers; adopted by 'Umar 
b. al-Khattab on his election as caliph, the title ~ was employed exclusively as the pro- 
tocollary title of a caliph until the end of the caliphate as an institution. I 445a 

♦ amir al-muslimin (A) : lit. commander of the Muslims; title which the Almo- 
ravids first assumed. I 445b 

♦ amir shikar (A) : an institution, first known as amir al-sayd 'master of the 
chases', established by the Umayyads. I 1152a 

♦ amir silah (A) : the grand master of the armour. Under the Mamluks, the ~ was 
in charge of the armour-bearers and supervised the arsenal. I 445b 

♦ amir al-umara' (A) : the commander-in-chief of the army. I 446a; II 507b 

♦ amiri (A) : a cotton product from Kh w arazm that enjoyed a great reputation. V 

♦ al-umara' al-mutawwakun -> sahib al-bab 
'amir -» dayman 

amladj (A) : in botany, the fruit of the Phyllanthus emblica, which was useful against 
haemorrhoids. The Arabs and Europeans in the Middle Ages mistook it for a myrobal- 
anus. XII 349b 

'amluk (A) : the offspring of a djinn and a woman. Ill 454b 

'aram (A, pi. a'mdm) : paternal uncle. IV 916b 

♦ 'amm waddah (A) : a child's game described as searching (in the dark) for a very 
white bone tossed far away, with the finder being allowed to ride upon his playmates. 
The Prophet is said to have engaged in this as a child. V 615b 

amma (A), or ma'muma : a wound penetrating the brain; a determining factor in the pre- 
scription of compensation following upon physical injury, diya. II 341b 

'amma (A, pi. 'awamm) : the plebs, common people. I 491a; I 900a ff.; IV 1098a; V 
605b; and -> khass 

♦ 'ammi (A) : one who is secular in religious matters. IX 185b; among the Twelver 
Usuliyya, a lay believer. VIII 777b; one not trained in the law. IX 324b 

♦ 'ammiyya (A) : a revolt among the common people. IX 270b 
amr (A) : as Qur'anic and religious term, divine command. I 449a 

For ~ in Ottoman Turkish, -> emr 

amrad (A) : a handsome, beardless youth. XI 126b; XII 598a 

'amud (A, pi. c umddn) : a tent pole; a monolithic column and capital; a constructed pil- 
lar. I 457b; IV 1148a; the main stream of a river, in particular the Nile, as distin- 
guished from the minor branches and the canals. VIII 38a 

♦ 'amud al-kasida -»■ musammat 
amzwar -» mizwar 

amzyad -> amazzal 

ana : originally, an Indian money of account, a sixteenth share, one rupee being 16 ~. 

Later, the name was given to an actual coin. VI 121b 
'ana -> istihdad 
'ana' -» djalsa; kira' mu'abbad 
'anadil (A) : a despised class of workmen, including such professions as barber, butcher, 

cupper, etc. IV 819b 

'ANAK — ANMAT 159 

'anak (A) : in zoology, ~ or 'anak al-ard denotes a kind of lynx, the caracal (< T 

karakulak). I 481a; II 739b; IX 98b; X 224a; and -► sakhla 

In astronomy, 'andk al-ard is y Andromedae and 'anak al-bandt is the C, of the Great 

Bear. I 481a 
anayasa -► kanun-i esasI 
anaza (A) : a short spear or staff, syn. harba. I 482a; XII 735b; and -► karkaddan 

In North Africa, ~ survives as an architectural term signifying an external mihrab for 

those praying in the court of the mosque. I 482a 
anba (A) : in al-Buraymi in Arabia, the term for mangoe (syn. hanb). I 540b; in India, 

a kind of sweet lemon, the fruit of which is salted while still green. VII 962b 
'anbar (A) : ambergris (ambra grisea), a substance of sweet musk-like smell, easily 

fusible and burning with a bright flame, highly valued in the East as a perfume and 

medicine. I 484a; a large fish, also called bdl, which swallows a form of ambergris 

called al-mablu' 'swallowed ambergris' or 'fish-ambergris', which floats on the sea; the 

sperm-whale. I 484a; VIII 1022b 

♦ 'anbar shihri (A) : ambergris. IX 439a 
anbata (A) : a verb which conveys the meaning 'his [a boy's] hair of the pubes grew 

forth, he having nearly attained the age of puberty'. VIII 822a 
anbik (A, < Gk) : in alchemy, the part known as the 'head' or 'cap' of the distilling 

apparatus (syn. ra's); also, the additional faucet-pipe which fits onto the 'cap'. I 486a 
'andam -► bakkam 
andargah (P, A mustaraka 'stolen') : epagomenae, the five odd days added at the end 

of the Persian year as intercalary days. II 398a; generally known in Persian as the 'five 

Gathas (pandj gdh) or 'stolen' (duzdidha) days. X 261b; also known as lawdhik 

'appendages'. X 267a 
andarz (P) : wisdom literature. X 231a 
andjudhan -► hiltIt 
andjuman (P, T endjiimen) : meeting, assembly, army. I 505a; for its modern use -► 


anf (A) : in music, the nut of the c ud. X 769b 

anfiya -► su'Ot 

anflus -> mizwar 

angham (A, s. naghm) : in music, musical modes. IX 101a 

angusjit (P) : fingerbreadth; a unit of measurement under the Mughals which was stan- 
dardised at 2.032 cm by the emperor Akbar at the end of the 10th/16th century. II 232a 

angust : in zoology, the crawfish, spiny lobster (Palinarus vulgaris), also known as 
ankush. IX 40a, where many more synonyms are given 

anguza (Pash), or hing : in botany, term for the Ferula assafoetida, very abundant in 
Afghanistan. I 223a 

'anka' (A) : a fabulous bird approximating the phoenix, in all likelihood a type of heron. 

In music, an ancient instrument described as having open strings of different lengths 
but identically situated bridges. The name suggests a long-necked instrument, probably 
a trapezoidal psaltery, one species of which was known later as the kanun. VII 191a 

ankabut (A) : spider. I 509a; and -> samak 'ankabut 
In astronomy, a movable part on the front of the astrolabe. I 723a 

ankad (A) : a generic name for the tortoise and the hedgehog. V 389b 

ankalis (A, L Anquilla) : the eel. VIII 1021a 

ankush -► angust 

anmat (A) : large carpets with fringes, said in a Tradition to have been the subject of 
considerable expenditure by the Prophet for a wedding. X 900a 


anniyya (A) : an abstract term formed to translate the Aristotelian term to oti 'thatness' 
of a thing (syn. al-anna); ~ is also used for non-existential beirig. I 513b 

ansab -» nusub 

ansar (A) : 'helpers'; those men of Medina who supported Muhammad. I 514a 

'ansara (A) : the name of a festival. Among the Copts, ~ is the name for Pentecost, 
while in North Africa, ~ denotes the festival of the summer solstice. I 515a 

ans_huyah (A, < Sp anchoa), or andjuyah : in zoology, the anchovy (Engraulis boelema). 
VIII 1021a, where many synonyms are found 

c antari (A) : in Egypt, a story-teller who narrates the Romance of c Antar. I 522a; (< T) 
a short garment worn under the kaftan; a lined vest ranging from short to knee length, 
worn by women. I 522a; V 740b 

anwa' (A, s. naw') : a system of computation based on the acronychal setting and heli- 
cal rising of a series of stars or constellations. I 523a; VIII 98a; VIII 734a 

'anz (A), or sqfiyya : a one-year old female goat, called thereafter, progressively, thanl, 
rabd'l, sadls and, after seven years, sdligh. XII 319a 

anzarut (A) : in botany, a gum-resin from a thorn-bush which cannot be identified with 
certainty. It was used for medical purposes. XII 77b, where synonyms are found 

apa : 'older sister', an important term in Ozbeg kinship terminologies. VIII 234a 

apadana (MidP) : in architecture, a hypostile audience-hall of the Persian kings. I 609b f. 

'ar (A) : shame, opprobrium, dishonour. XII 78a 

In North Africa, ~ presupposes a transfer of responsibility and of obligation, arriving 
at a sense of 'protection' for the suppliant, in default of which dishonour falls on the 
supplicatee, who is obliged to give satisfaction to the suppliant. The most simple trans- 
fer is by saying 'ar 'alik 'the ~ on you', and making a material contact with the per- 
son to whom the appeal is made, for example touching the edge of his turban or laying 
one's hand on him or his mount. ~ is also used towards saints, to whom sacrifices are 
offered to obtain their intercession. Ill 396a; XII 78a 

'arab (A) : Bedouins; Arabs. The tribes that were the first to speak Arabic after the con- 
fusion of the tongues at Babel are known as al-'arab al-'driba, in contradistinction to 
al-'arab oZ-muta'arriba (sometimes al-musta'riba), referring to the descendants of 
Isma'il who learned Arabic by settling among the 'true' Arabs. X 359b 

♦ al- c arab al-ba'ida (A) : the legendary extinct tribes of the Arabs. X 359a; XI 5a; 
XI 461a 

♦ c arabi -> kata; for - (hadrami), -» sukutrI 

♦ 'arabiyya (A) : the Arabic language. I 561b; and -» 'araba 

'araba (T, < A 'arrada), or 'arabiyya : a cart, introduced into Mamluk Egypt. Its name 
supplanted 'adjala in popular use as a generic term for carriage. I 205b; I 556b 

♦ 'araba pazari (T) : in certain Rumelian towns under the Ottomans, a market pre- 
sumably located on the outskirts of the town or along a major road. IX 797a 

♦ 'arabiyyat hantur (Egy, < Hun hinto), and 'arabiyyat kdrro (< It carro) : a cab. I 

'arad (A, pi. a'rdd) : the translation of the Aristotelian term o-uhPePtikck; 'accident', 
denoting 1) that which cannot subsist by itself but only in a substance of which it is 
both the opposite and the complement, and 2) an attribute which is not a constituent 
element of an essence. I 128b; I 603b 

aradhil -> ahl al-fadl 

a'radj -» 'ardja 

a'raf (A, s. 'urf) : 'elevated places'; a term used in the Qur'an, in an eschatological 
judgement scene, and interpreted as 'Limbo'. I 603b 

'ara'igh (A) : brushwood huts, in Western Arabia. I 106b; trellises of grape vines. I 604b 

arak (A) : in medicine, insomnia. XI 563a 

arak -> kabath 

'ARAK — 'ARID 161 

'arak (A) : wine made from the grape. VI 814b 

'arakcin -»• 'arakiyya 

'arakiyya (A) : a skull cap, often embroidered, worn by both sexes by itself or under the 
head-dress in the Arab East; called 'arakcin in 'Irak. A synonym on the Arabian penin- 
sula is ma'raka. V 740b ff.; X 611b; in the Turkish Kadiri dervish order, a small felt 
cap which the candidate for admission to the order brought after a year and to which 
the shaykh attached a rose of 18 sections; the cap is then called tad}. IV 382b; in ear- 
lier times in Syria ~ was a sugar cone-shaped cap adorned with pearls worn by women. 
X 611b 

arandj (A) : a cotton product from Kjfarazm that enjoyed a great reputation. V 555a 

'arasa (A) : in Mamluk times, an open unroofed space used e.g. for storing cereals. IX 

arasta -»• pasazh 

arba'iniyya -»• Cilia 

arba'un (A) : forty. 

arba'un hadith™ (A, T kirk hadith, P cihil hadith) : a genre of literary and religious 
works centred around 40 Traditions of the Prophet. XII 82b 

ard (A) : earth, land. 

♦ ard amiriyya (A) : in law, land to which the original title belongs to the State, 
while its exploitation can be conceded to individuals. II 900b 

♦ ard madhuna (A) : an expression occasionally heard in Saudi Arabia which is 
used to distinguish the sands of al-Dahna' from those of al-Nafud, the colour of which 
is said to be a lighter shade of red; ~ is also equated with ard mundahina 'land only 
lightly or superficially moistened by rain'. II 93a 

♦ ard mamluka (A) : in law, land to which there is a right of ownership. II 900b 

♦ ard matruka ->■ matruk 

♦ ard mawat -*■ mawat 

♦ ard mawkufa (A) : in law, land set aside for the benefit of a religious endowment. 

♦ ard mundahina ->■ ard madhuna 

'ard (A) : review of an army or troops. I 24a; petition. IX 209a; and ->■ isti'rad 
In astronomy, planetary latitude. XI 504a 

♦ 'ard hal (T) : petition, used in the Ottoman empire. I 625a 

♦ 'ard odasi (T) : in Ottoman palace architecture, the audience hall. IX 46b 
'ardja (A) : lame; in prosody, ~ is used to designate the unrhymed line inserted between 

the third line and the last line of a monorhyme quatrain, ruba'I. The composition is 
then called a'radj. VI 868a 

ardjawan (< P ?) : a loan-word in Arabic, the colour purple. V 699b 

arekkas (Kabyle, < A rakkas) : a simple contrivance of a water-mill made from a pin 
fixed on a small stick floating above the moving mill-stone; this pin, fixed to the trough 
containing grain, transmits a vibration to it which ensures the regular feeding of the 
grain into the mouth of the mill. VIII 415b 

argan (B) : in botany, the argan-tree (argania spinosa or argania sideroxylon), growing 
on the southern coast of Morocco. I 627b 

arghul (A) : a type of double reed-pipe which has only one pipe pierced with finger- 
holes, while the other serves as a drone. The drone pipe is normally longer than the 
chanter pipe. When the two pipes are of equal length, it is known as the zummara. 
The - is played with single beating reeds. The drone pipe is furnished with additional 
tubes which are fixed to lower the pitch. In Syria, the smaller type of ~ is called the 
mashura. VII 208a 

'arid (A, pi. 'urrad) : the official charged with the mustering, passing in review and 
inspection of troops. Ill 196a; IV 265a ff. 


♦ c arid-i mamalik (IndP) : the head of the military administration in Muslim India. 
He was also known as sdhib-i diwan-i 'ard. The Mughal name was mlr bakhshl. As a 
minister, he was second only to the wazir. He was the principal recruiting officer for 
the sultan's standing army; he inspected the armaments and horses of the cavalry at 
least once a year, kept their descriptive rolls, and recommended promotions or punish- 
ments accordingly. The ~ was also responsible for the internal organisation and the dis- 
cipline of the standing army and the commissariat. V 685b 

'arid ->• c atOd 

♦ 'arida (A) : a subtraction register, for those categories where the difference 
between two figures needs to be shown. It is arranged in three columns, with the result 
in the third. II 78b 

'arif ->■ suf! 

'arif (A, pi. 'urafa') : lit. one who knows; a gnostic. IV 326a; as a technical term, 
applied to holders of certain military or civil offices in the early and mediaeval peri- 
ods, based on competence in customary matters, 'urf. I 629a 

In education, a senior pupil, monitor, who aided the teacher in primary schools. V 568a 
In the Muslim East, ~ was used for the head of the guild. I 629b 
In Oman and trucial Oman, ~ is the official in charge of the water distribution. IV 532a 
Among the Ibadiyya, the plural form 'urafa' are experts (inspectors, ushers) appointed 
by the assistant of the sjjaykh, khalifa. One of them supervised the collective recita- 
tion of the Qur'an, another took charge of the communal meals, and others were 
responsible for the students' education, etc. Ill 96a 

arika ->• minassa 

'arish (A), and 'arsh : in pre-Islamic Arabia, a simple shelter. IV 1147a 

'ariyya (A, pi. c araya) : in law, fresh dates on trees intended to be eaten, which it is per- 
mitted to exchange in small quantities for dried dates. VIII 492a 

'ariyya (A) : in law, the loan of non-fungible objects, distinguished as a separate con- 
tract from the loan of money or other fungible objects. ~ is defined as putting some- 
one temporarily and gratuitously in possession of the use of a thing, the substance of 
which is not consumed by its use. I 633a; VIII 900a 

ark (P) : citadel. X 484b 

arkan ->• rukn 

arkh ->• fazz 

arma (Songhay, < A rumdt 'arquebusiers') : a social class made up of the descendants 
of the bashas who in the early 19th century maintained a weak state around the Niger 
river with their headquarters at Timbuktu. X 508b 

armatolik (T) : an autonomous enclave, institutionalised on Greek territories in the 
Ottoman empire due to gradually deteriorating conditions of banditry. X 421a 

arnab (A, pi. aranib) : in zoology, the hare. XII 85b 

In astronomy, ~ is the Hare constellation found beneath the left foot of Orion, the leg- 
endary hunter. XII 85b 
For in anatomy, ->• arnaba 

♦ arnab bahri (A) : in zoology, the term for aplysia depilans, a nudibranch mollusc 
of the order of isthobranchia, found widely in the sea. XII 85b 

♦ arnaba (A) : in anatomy, the tip (e.g. of the nose, arnabat al-anf). V 769a 

In music, ~, or rabab turkl, is a pear-shaped viol with three strings, which in Turkey 
appears to have been adopted from the Greeks, possibly in the 17th century, and which 
plays a prominent part in concert music today. VIII 348a 
arpa (T) : barley. I 658a 

♦ arpa tanesi (T) : a barley grain, used under the Ottomans to denote both a weight 
(approximately 35.3 milligrams) and a measure (less than a quarter of an inch). I 658a 


♦ arpalik (T) : barley money, used under the Ottomans up to the beginning of the 
19th century to denote an allowance made to the principal civil, military and religious 
officers of state, either in addition to their salary when in office, or as a pension on 
retirement, or as an indemnity for unemployment. In the beginning it corresponded to 
an indemnity for fodder of animals, paid to those who maintained forces of cavalry or 
had to look after the horses. I 658a 

'arrada (A) : a light mediaeval artillery siege engine, from which the projectile was dis- 
charged by the impact of a shaft forcibly impelled by the release of a rope. I 556b; I 
658b; III 469b ff.; and --> mandjanik 

'arraf (A) : eminent in knowledge, a professional knower; a diviner, generally occupy- 
ing a lower rank than the kahin in the hierarchy of seers. I 659b; IV 421b 

arrang (A, < Sp arenque), or ranga, ranka : in zoology, the herring. VIII 1021a 

arsh (A) : in law, the compensation payable in the case of offences against the body; 
compensation in cases of homicide is termed diya. II 340b 

'arsh (A) : throne of God. V 509a; in North African dialects, 'tribe', 'agnatic group', 
'federation'. I 661a; IV 362a; and -> 'arsh 

In Algerian law, the term given, during about the last hundred years, to some of the 
lands under collective ownership. I 661a 

arshin (P) : roughly 'yards', a unit of measurement. X 487a 

'arsi (A) : in mediaeval 'Irak, a beggar who stops the circulation of blood in an arm or 
leg so that people think the limb is gangrenous. VII 494a 

arsusa -»■ ursusa 

aru (B, pi. irwan) : the Berber equivalent of tdlib, student, from whom the Ibadiyya of 
the Mzab recruit their 'azzaba for the religious council. Ill 98b 

'arud (A) : in prosody, the last foot of the first hemistich, as opposed to the last foot 
of the second hemistich, the darb. I 667b; IV 714b; VIII 747b 

♦ 'ilm al-'arud (A) : the science of metrics, said to have been developed by al- 
Khalil of Mecca. I 667b; IV 57a; VIII 894a 

'arus (A) : the term for both bridegroom and bride, though in modern usage, ~ has been 
supplanted by 'aris for bridegroom and 'arusa for bride. X 899b; and -»■ sabi' al-'arus 

♦ 'arus resmi (T) : an Ottoman tax on brides. The rate varied depending on 
whether the bride was a girl, widow, divorcee, non-Muslim, Muslim, rich or poor. In 
some areas, it was assessed in kind. The tax, which seems to be of feudal origin, is 
already established in the kanuns of the 15th century in Anatolia and Rumelia, and 
was introduced into Egypt, Syria and 'Irak after the Ottoman conquest. It was abol- 
ished in the I9th century and replaced by a fee for permission to marry. I 679a 

aruzz -> ruzz 

♦ aruzz mufalfal (A) : a very popular mediaeval dish which resembled a type of 
Turkish pilaw. Made with spiced meat and/or chickpeas or pistachio nuts, the dish may 
contain rice coloured with saffron, white rice alone, or a combination of both. A vari- 
ation of this dish, made from lentils and plain rice, was called al-muajaddara and is 
similar to the modern preparation of the same name. VIII 653a 

♦ al-aruzziyya (A) : a mediaeval dish containing meat and seasonings (pepper, dried 
coriander and dill), into which a small amount of powdered rice was added during 
cooking, and washed (whole) rice towards the end of the preparation. VIII 653a 

arwah -> ruh 

ary (A) : honey ( > T an 'bee'). VII 906b 

arzal -» atraf 

as (A, < Akk) : in botany, the myrtle (Myrtus communis). IX 653a; XII 87a 

'asa (A) : a rod, stick, staff (syn. kadIb). Among the ancient Arabs, ~ was in common 
use for the camel herdsman's staff. In the Qur'an, it is used a number of times, in par- 
ticular for Moses' stick. I 680b; and -> shaghaba 


♦ shakk al-'asa (A) : 'splitter of the ranks of the faithful'; under the Umayyads, a 
term used to characterise one who deserted the community of the faithful and rebelled 
against the legitimate caliphs. VII 546a 

'asaba (A) : male relations in the male line, corresponding to the agnates. I 681a; IV 
595b; VII 106b 

♦ 'asabiyya (A) : spirit of kinship in the family or tribe. Ibn Khaldun used the con- 
cept of this term as the basis of his interpretation of history and his doctrine of the 
state; for him it is the fundamental bond of human society and the basic motive force 
of history. I 681a; II 962b; III 830b; factional strife. IV 668b; affiliation to a tribal fac- 
tion (syn. na'ra, $hahwa, nihla). IV 835a 

asad (A, pi. usud, usud, usd) : in zoology, the lion; in astronomy, al-~ is the term for 

Leo, one of the twelve zodiacal constellations. I 681a; VII 83a 
asaf (Ott) : in the Ottoman empire, a synonym for wezir (->• waz!r). XI 194b 
'asa'ib (A) : the 'troops', 500 in number, the eighth degree in the sufi hierarchical order 

of saints. I 95a; and ->• 'isaba 
'asal -»■ 'ikbir 

c asal (A) : in botany, the rhododendron. VII 1014b 
asala (A) : authenticity. X 365b 
asaliyya -> dhawlakiyya 
asamm (A) : deaf; in mathematics, the term used for the fractions, such as 1/11 or 1/13, 

which cannot be reduced to fractions called by words derived from names of their 

denominators, such as 1/12, which is half one sixth, 'sixth' being derived from six. Ill 

asarak (A, < B asarag) : in urban geography, great main squares enclosed in the walls 

of the kasaba in the Maghrib, where the people could assemble for the festivals and 

the army participate in ceremonies. IV 685a 
'asas (A) : the night patrol or watch in Muslim cities. Under the Ottomans, the ~ was 

in charge of the public prisons, exercised a kind of supervision over public executions, 

and played an important role in public processions. He received one tenth of the fines 

imposed for minor crimes committed at night. I 687a; IV 103b 

In North Africa, the ~ assured not only public security but also possessed a secret and 

almost absolute authority in the important affairs of the community. He kept guard at 

night in the central market, at warehouses and on the ramparts till the advent of the 

French. I 687b 
asatir ->• tjstura 

c asb (A) : the semen of a stallion. IV 1146a 
c asb (A) : in early Islam, a Yemenite fabric with threads dyed prior to weaving. V 735b 

In prosody, a deviation from the proper metre, in particular a missing fatha in the foot 

mufd'al[a]tun. I 672a; a case of zihaf where the fifth vowelled letter of the foot is 

rendered vowelless. XI 508b 

♦ c asba (A) : a folded scarf worn by women in the Arab East. V 740b 
asba c -> isba' 

asbab ->■ sabab 

asefru (B, pi. isefra) : a genre of oral poetry popular in Kabylia, a Berberophone area 
of Algeria, consisting of a sonnet of nine verses grouped in three strophes rhyming 
according to the scheme a a b. Another poetic genre is the so-called izli, a song of two 
or three couplets in rhyme, whose production is anonymous. X 119a 

asfal (A) : lower; al-asfal is used as an epithet to differentiate between the patron and 
the client, when both are referred to as mawla. I 30b 

asfar (A) : yellow; also, in distinction from black, simply light-coloured. I 687b; V 700b 


♦ banu '1-asfar (A) : the Greeks; later, applied to Europeans in general, especially 
in Spain. I 687b; V 700b 

ash -► toy 

ashab (A, s. sahib) : followed by the name of a locality in the genitive, ~ serves to refer 
to people who are companions in that particular place. Followed by a personal name 
in the genitive, ~ is, alongside the nisba formation, the normal way of expressing the 
'adherents of so-and-so' or the 'members of his school'. When followed by an abstract 
noun in the genitive, ~ denotes adherents of a specific concept. VIII 830b; and ->■ 
sahaba; sahib 

♦ ashab al-arba' (A) : in Mamluk times, night patrols coming under the authority of 
the chief of police, wall I 687a 

♦ ashab al-asha'ir (A) : the four mystical orders of the Burhamiyy a, Rifa'iyy a, Kadiriyy a 
and Ahmadiyya, according to Djabarti. II 167a 

♦ ashab al-hadith -> ahl al-hadIth 

♦ ashab al-ithnayn ~> thanawiyya 

♦ ashab al-kahf (A) : 'those of the cave', the name given in the Qur'an for the 
youths who in the Christian West are usually called the 'Seven Sleepers of Ephesus'. 
I 691a; IV 724a 

♦ ashab al-nakb -> nakb 

♦ ashab al-rass (A) : 'the people of the ditch' or 'of the well'; a Qur'anic term, 
possibly alluding to unbelievers. I 692a; III 169a 

♦ ashab al-ra'y -► ahl al-ra'y 

♦ ashab al-sath (A), or sutuhiyya : 'the roof men', designation for the followers and 
disciples of the 7th/13th-century Egyptian saint Ahmad al-Badawi. I 280b 

♦ ashab al-shadjara (A) : 'the men of the tree'; those who took the oath of alle- 
giance to the Prophet under the tree in the oasis of al-Hudaybiya, as mentioned in Q 
48:18. VIII 828a; XII 131a 

♦ ashab al-ukhdud (A) : 'those of the trench'; a Qur'anic term, possibly alluding 
to unbelievers. I 692b 

♦ ashab-tark -► akhi 
asham -► salka c 
asham ->■ esham 

ashar -> sahra' 
ashara -> awma'a 
c ashara (A, pi. 'ashr) : ten. 

♦ al-ashara al-mubashshara (A) : the ten to whom Paradise is promised. The term 
does not occur in canonical Traditions and the list of names differs, Muhammad 
appearing in only some. I 693a 

♦ al-'ashr al-uwal (A) : the first ten nights of a month, each month being divided 
into three segments of ten. The other segments are respectively al-'ashr al-wusat and 
al-'ashr al-ukhar, with the latter sometimes only nine nights in 'defective' months. X 

ashbah (A, s. shibh) : component of a book title, al-Ashbah wa'l-nazd'ir, of some of the 
most influential kawa'id works of the later period, ~ referring to cases that are alike 
in appearance and legal status, with naia'ir (s. nazlr) denoting cases that are alike in 
appearance but not in legal status. XII 517a 

ashdji (T) : lit. cook; an officer's rank in an orta, subordinate to that of the Corbadji, 
or 'soup purveyor'. VIII 178b 

ashhada (A) : a technical term of childhood, said of a boy (or girl: ashhadat) who has 
attained to puberty. VIII 822a 

166 'ASHIK — 'ASIR 

ashik (A) : lover; a term originally applied to popular mystic poets of dervish orders. 
It was later taken over by wandering poet-minstrels. Their presence at public gather- 
ings, where they entertained the audience with their religious and erotic songs, elegies 
and heroic narratives, can be traced back to the late 9th/15th century. I 697b; III 374a; 
IV 599a; V 275a ff. 

'ashikh (Azeri Turkish, < 'ashik) : in Azeri literature, a genre of folk-literature compris- 
ing romantic poems, which made great advances in Adharbaydjan in the 17th and 18th 
centuries and formed a bridge between the classical literary language and the local 
dialects. I 193b 

c ashir (A, pi. 'ushshdr) : in early Islam, a collector of zakat from Muslim merchants as 
well as imposts on the merchandise of non-Muslim traders. The institution is attributed 
to c Umar, but in the course of time, the ~ acquired an exceedingly unavory reputation 
for venality. XI 409a 

'ashira (A) : usually a synonym of kabIla 'tribe', ~ can also denote a subdivision of 
the latter. I 700a; IV 334a 

'ashiyya (A), and variants : a word loosely taken in the sense of evening, although it 
used to designate more precisely the end of the day, nahar. In this sense it was the 
opposite of duha. V 709b 

ashl (A, P tanab) : rope; a unit of measurement equalling 39.9 metres. II 232b 

ashlhi (B, pi. ishlhiyen), or ashlhiy : a native speaker of Tashelhit. X 344b 

ashpazkhana (P, A matbakh) : kitchen (P ash 'soup', ashpaz 'cook'), which term was 
not in general used before the 19th century, matbakh being the common term. XII 608b 

c ashr ->■ 'ashara 

'ashraf ->■ watwat 

ashraf (A, s. sharIf) : in India, ~ denoted Muslims of foreign ancestry. They were fur- 
ther divided into sayyid (those reckoning descent from the Prophet through his daugh- 
ter Fatima), shaykh (descendants of the early Muslims of Mecca and Medina), mughal 
(those who entered the subcontinent in the armies of the Mughal dynasty), and paihdn 
(members of Pashto-speaking tribes in north-west Pakistan and Afghanistan). Ill 411a; 
IX 330b; and -»■ sharIf 

ashrafi (A) : in numismatics, a Burdji Mamluk gold coin, the coinage of which was con- 
tinued by the Ottomans after their conquest of Egypt and Syria. VIII 228b; an Ottoman 
gold coinage, introduced under Mustafa II to replace the discredited sultanI. VIII 
229b; an Ak Koyunlu gold coin, copied exactly on the Burdji Mamluk ~. Its weight 
was ca. 3.45 g. VIII 790a; in Safawid Persia, all the gold coins were popularly called 
~ , but there were actually several different varieties to which the name was given, 
which were distinguished from one another by their weights rather than by their 
designs or legends. The true ~, used by Isma'il as a standard for his gold coinage, 
weighed 18 nukhuds (approximately 3.45 g), and had its origin in the weight of the 
Venetian gold ducat. VIII 790b 

'ashshab (A) : from c ushb, a fresh annual herb which is afterwards dried and, in med- 
ical literature, denotes simples, ~ means a gatherer or vendor of herbs; a vendor or 
authority on medicinal herbs. I 704a 

c ashura' (A, < Heb) : the name of a voluntary fast-day, observed on the 10th of 
Muharram. I 265a; I 705a; XII 190a; in South Africa, a festival commemorating the 
martyrdom of al-Husayn, the grandson of the Prophet. IX 731a 

'asida (A) : a meal of barley and fat. X 901b 

asil (A) : a term used in reference to the time which elapses between the afternoon, c asr, 
and sunset; in the contemporary language this word tends to be employed for the 
evening twilight. V 709b; and -»■ kafala 

c asir (A) : lit. captive, term also sometimes used for slave. I 24b 


asitane -* tekke 

'askar (A) : army, in particular one possessing siege artillery. II 507a; 'garrison settle- 
ments' (syn. mu'askar, ma'askar) founded in the Arab East during the caliphate period. 
IV 1144a 

♦ askari (A, < 'askar; T 'askerl) : in Ottoman technical usage a member of the 
ruling military caste, as distinct from the peasants and townspeople; ~ denoted caste 
rather than function, and included the retired or unemployed ~, his wives and children, 
manumitted slaves of the sultan and of the ~, and also the families of the holders of 
religious public offices in attendance on the sultan. I 712a; IV 242a; IV 563a; IX 540a 

'askeri -* 'askarI 

askiya (Songhay) : a dynastic title of the Songhay empire of West Africa, first adopted 
in 898/1493 by Muhammad b. Abi Bakr. IX 729b 

asl (A, pi. usul) : root, base. Ill 550a; ancestry. XI 276b 

In grammar, a basic form, concept or structure, with a wide range of meanings extend- 
ing over phonology, morphology and syntax, e.g. a standard phoneme in contrast with 
an allophone; a root-letter in the derivational system; a radical consonant opposed to 
an augment; etc. When used in the plural, the fundamental principles of grammar as a 
science. X 928b, where more definitions of ~ are found 

In classical Muslim administration, ~ is the estimated figure, as opposed to the amount 
actually received, istikhradj. II 78b 

In dating, ~ is the number of days in a given number of completed years. X 268b 
In military science, usul were the theoretical divisions of the army into five elements: 
the centre (kalb), the right wing (maymana), the left wing (maysara), the vanguard 
(mukaddama), and the rear guard (sdka). Ill 182a 

In music, the usul are the basic notes which, with the pause, make up the cycles of an 
Ika'. XII 408b; metres. IX 418a 
In astronomy, the epoch position (L radix). XI 503b 

In law, because early kawa'id were collected under the title of usul, ~ acquires, min- 
imally, a fourfold meaning: an act that has already been legally determined and now 
serves as a 'model' for similar cases; a scriptural pronouncement considered decisive 
for the legal determination of a given act; a legal principle; and a source of the law. 
XII 517a; and ->■ wasf 
For usul in prosody, ->■ far' 

♦ usul al-din (A) : the bases (or principles) of the religion. If usul meant the same 
here as in usul al-fikh, the two expressions would be synonymous, for the theologian 
goes back to the same authorities as the jurist to justify his interpretation of dogma; 
instead in ordinary usage ~ represent not the sources of theological judgement but, in 
some way, the judgement itself, thus the science of ~ is another way of designating 
'Urn a/-KALAM. X 930b 

♦ usul al-fikh (A) : the 'roots' or sources of legal knowledge, viz. the Qur'an, 
sunna, consensus and analogy. II 887b; X 323b; X 931b; legal theory. II 182b 

♦ usul al-hadith (A) : the principles of hadIth; the disparate disciplines the mas- 
tery of which distinguished a true scholar of hadith from a mere transmitter. The term 
-was never satisfactorily defined nor differentiated from similar ones like 'ulum (or 
'Urn) al-hadith, istildh al-hadith, etc. There are instances of 'Urn al-riwaya being used 
as a synonym. X 934a 

♦ usuliyya ->• akhbariyya 

aslah (A) : most suitable or fitting; in theology, the 'upholders of the aslah' were a 
group of the Mu'tazila who held that God did what was best for mankind. I 713b 

aslami (A) : a term used to designate first-generation Spanish converts, who were for- 
merly Christians, whereas the term isldmi was reserved for the former Jews. VII 807b 

asma ->■ ism 

asmandjuni -> yakut akhab 

asmar (A) : in physiognomy, a dark brown, or black, complexion. XI 356a 

asmar ->■ khurafa 3 

asp-i daghi (IndP) : under the Mughals, a payment in accordance with the actual num- 
ber of horsemen and horses presented at muster, unlike the bar-awardi, a payment 
based on an estimate. IX 909a 

asparez : a race-course. X 479a 

'asr (A) : time, age; the (early part of the) afternoon. This period of day follows that of 
the midday prayer, zuhr, and extends between limits determined by the length of the 
shadow, but is variable, according to the jurists. I 719a; V 709b 
♦ salat al-'asr (A) : the afternoon prayer which is to be performed, according to the 
books of religious law, in between the last time allowed for the midday prayer, zuhr, 
and before sunset, or the time when the light of the sun turns yellow. According to 
Malik, the first term begins somewhat later. I 719a; VII 27b; VIII 928b 

'assalat -> 'ikbir 

'assas (A) : night-watchman. This term is used particularly in North Africa; at Fez at 
the beginning of the 20th century, ~ also was used for policemen in general. I 687b 
In the Mzab, ~ is used for the minaret of the Abadi mosques. I 687a 

astan (P) : in mediaeval administration, a province. I 2b; a district. I 3a 

asturlab (A, < Gk), or asturlab : astrolabe. The name of several astronomical instru- 
ments serving various theoretical and practical purposes, such as demonstration and 
graphical solution of many problems of spherical astronomy, the measuring of altitudes, 
the determination of the hour of the day and the night, and the casting of horoscopes. 
When used alone ~ always means the flat or planispheric astrolabe based on the prin- 
ciple of stereographic projection; it is the most important instrument of mediaeval, 
Islamic and Western, astronomy. I 722b 

asturu (A, < Gr) : in zoology, the oyster. VIII 707a 

aswad (A) : the colour black. V 705b; and -> abyad 

ata (T) : father, ancestor; among the Oghuz, -was appended to the names of people 
who had acquired great prestige. ~ can also mean 'wise', or even 'holy', 'venerated'. 
I 729a; XI 114a 

'ata' (A) : lit. gift; the term most commonly employed to denote, in the early days of 
Islam, the pension of Muslims, and, later, the pay of the troops. I 729a 

'ataba (A, pi. 'atabat) : doorstep. 

In (folk) poetry, ~ (or farsfja 'spread, mat') is used to designate the first three lines of 
a monorhyme quatrain (a a a a), or each of the three lines, when insertions have been 
made between the third line and the last, e.g. as in a a a x a. The last line is then 
called the ghatd 'cover' or, in longer compositions, the tdkiyya 'skull-cap'. VI 868a 
In its plural form, more fully 'atabdt-i 'dliya or 'atabdt-i mukaddasa, 'atabdt designates 
the shi'i shrine cities of 'Irak (Nadjaf, Karbala 1 , Kazimayn and Samarra) comprising 
the tombs of six of the imams as well as a number of secondary shrines and places of 
visitation. XII 94a 

'ataba (A) : a modern Arabic four line verse, common in Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia 
and 'Irak, in a sort of wafir metre. The first three lines not only rhyme, but generally 
repeat the same rhyming word with a different meaning. The last line rhymes with the 
paradigm ~ 'lovers' reproach', the last syllable of which is often supplied without mak- 
ing sense. I 730b 

atabak (T atabeg) : the title of a high dignitary under the Saldjuks and their successors; 
under the Turks, a military chief. I 731a; commander-in-chief of an army (syn. amir 
kabir). I 138a; I 444a 

ATABAK — 'ATlRA 169 

♦ atabak al-'asakir (T, A) : commander-in-chief of the Mamluk army, who after 
the decline of the office of the viceroy, nd'ib al-saltana, became the most important 
amIr in the Sultanate. I 732b 

'atala (A) : in archery, a powerful Persian bow which is very curved. IV 798a 

atalik (T) : a title which existed in Central Asia in the post-Mongol period meaning in 
the first place a guardian and tutor of a young prince, then a close counsellor and 
confidant of the sovereign. It was synonymous with atabeg (-»■ atabak). I 733b; XII 

atalikat (Cau) : a custom among the Cerkes tribes of the Caucasus, which consisted of 
having children raised from birth (boys until 17-18 years) in the families of strangers, 
often vassals. This created a sort of foster brotherhood which served to tighten the feu- 
dal bonds and unite the various tribes. II 23a 

atam (A) : a fabulous marine creature mentioned by mediaeval Arab authors. It lurks in 
the Sea of China, has the head of a pig, is covered with a hairy fleece instead of scales, 
and shows female sexual organs. VIII 1023a 
atama (A) : the first third of the night from the time of waning of the red colour 
of the sky after sunset, shafak. I 733b; a variant name given to the salat al-'isha' 
(-»• 'isha'). VII 27a 

atan -»■ himar 

atay -»■ Cay 

atbegi -»■ akhurbeg 

c atf (A) : connection; in grammar, ~ denotes a connection with the preceding word. 
There are two kinds of ~ : the simple co-ordinative connection, 'atf al-nasak, and the 
explicative connection, 'atf al-baydn. In both kinds, the second word is called al-ma'tuf 
and the preceding al-ma'tuf 'alayhi. I 735b 

In rhetoric, ~ as used by al-'Adjdjadj, in the sense of 'folding back' or 'adding on', 
may have meant paronomasia. ~ seems to be take up again in the term ta'attuf of Abu 
Hilal al-'Askari. X 68b 

♦ 'atfa -»■ shari' 

athar (A) : trace; as a technical term, it denotes a relic of the Prophet, e.g. his hair, 
teeth, autograph, utensils alleged to have belonged to him, and especially impressions 
of his footprints, kadam. I 736a 

In the science of Tradition, ~ usually refers to a Tradition from Companions or 
Successors, but is sometimes used of Traditions from the Prophet. I 1199a; III 23a 
In astrology, ~ is also used as a technical term in the theory of causality, with refer- 
ence to the influence of the stars (considered as higher beings possessing a soul) on the 
terrestrial world and on men. I 736b 

athath (A) : lit. belongings, ~ means various household objects and, especially in mod- 
ern Arabic, furniture. XII 99a 

athman (A) : gold and silver (on which zakat is due), also 'ayn, nakd, nddd. XI 413a 

'aththari (A, < the name of the deity 'Athtar) : a term equivalent to ba'l 'unwatered cul- 
tivated land'. I 969a 

'atif -»■ MUSALLl 

'atik (A) : a pure-bred horse, as opposed to a work horse, birdhawn. XI 412b; and 

-»■ 'ITK 

'atika (A) : in archery, an old bow whose wood has become red. IV 798a 

'atiki (A, < Kabr 'Atika, a concentration of textile workshops in Damascus) : in the 

llth/17th century, a Syrian fabric, sufficiently renowned to be exhibited in the markets 

of Cairo. IX 793b 
'atira (A) : among the Arabs of the djahiliyya, a ewe offered as a sacrifice to a 

pagan divinity, as a thanksgiving following the fulfillment of a prayer concerning in 

particular the increase of flocks. Also called radjabiyya, since these sacrifices took 
place in the month of Radjab. I 739b; XII 317a 

atishak : in medicine, syphilis. VIII 783a; X 457b 

atlal (A) : the remains or traces of former encampments; in literature, a trope in the 
nasIb section of the kasIda. XII 

atmadja -> CakSr 

atraf (IndP, < A) : a term used to designate the higher stratum of the non-ASHRAF pop- 
ulation of India, which consists for the most part of converts from Hinduism, embrac- 
ing people of many statuses and occupations. The terms adjldf and arzal (or ardhdl) 
are used to designate the lower stratum. Ill 411a; IX 330b 

In the science of Tradition, a so-called ~ compilation is an alphabetically-arranged col- 
lection of the Companions' musnads, with every Tradition ascribed to each of them 
shortened to its salient feature (-»• taraf), accompanied by all the isnad strands sup- 
porting it which occur in the Six Books and a few other revered collections. VIII 518b 

'attabi (A) : a kind of silk-cotton cloth, woven around 580/1184 in 'Attabiyya, one of 
the quarters of Baghdad. I 901b 

'attar (A) : a perfume merchant or druggist; later, as most scents and drugs were cred- 
ited with some healing properties, ~ came to mean chemist and homeopath; sometimes 
dyers and dye merchants are also known by this term. I 751b 

In India, ~ denotes an alcohol-free perfume-oil produced by the distillation of sandal- 
wood-oil through flowers. I 752b 

attun (A) : a kiln used for firing bricks, similar to that of the potters, consisting of a fur- 
nace with a firing-room on top. V 585b 

c atud (A), or 'arid : a one-year old male goat, called, progressively, djadha' or tays when 
two years old, then thanl, rabd'i, sadls and, after seven years, saligh. XII 319a 

atum (A) : in zoology, the dugong, one of the sirenian mammals or 'sea cows'. Other 
designations are malisa, ndka al-bahr, zdlikha, and hanfd'. VIII 1022b; the caret or 
caouane turtle (Caretta caretta) (syn. hanfd'). IX 811a 

awa'il (A, s. awwal 'first') : a term used to denote e.g. the 'primary data' of philo- 
sophical or physical phenomena; the 'ancients' of either pre-Islamic or early Islamic 
times; and the 'first inventors' of things (or the things invented or done first), thus giv- 
ing its name to a minor branch of Muslim literature with affinities to adab, historical, 
and theological literature. I 758a 
♦ awa'il al-suwar -»■ fawatih al-suwar 

awaradj (A) : in classical Muslim administration, a register showing the debts owed by 
individual persons and the instalments paid until they are settled. II 78b; VIII 652a 

'awarid (A) : a term used under the Ottomans down to the second quarter of the 19th 
century to denote contributions of various types exacted by the central government in 
the sultan's name. The Ottoman fief-system and the institution of the wakf deprived 
the government to a great extent of the vast revenues. Therefore it resorted, at first in 
emergencies and later annually, to the imposition of the ~, either in cash or in kind. 
I 760a; IV 234b; VIII 486b 

awarik (A) : 'eaters of ardk leaves', the name of a famous breed of white camels raised 

by the Bedouin living near the oasis of Bisha, in western Arabia. I 541a; I 1239b 
awasim (A, s. 'dsima) : lit. protectresses; strongholds in the frontier zone extended 
between the Byzantine empire and the empire of the caliphs in the north and north-east 
of Syria. Those situated more to the front were called al-thughur. I 465b; I 761a; X 
446b; a separate government founded by Harun al-Rashid in 170/786-87, made up of 
the frontier strongholds which he detached from the Djazira and djund of Kinnasrin. 
I 761a; II 36a 

awaz -> BAHR 


'awbar (A), or hawbar : in zoology, the whelp of the cheetah. II 740b 

awbash (A) : 'riff-raff', the name given to groups of young men who were considered 
elements of disorder in mediaeval Baghdad. II 961b 

awdj (A, < San ucca; pi. awdjdt) : in astronomy, the apogee, the farthest point in a 
planet's orbit. The lowest point, the perigee, is called hadld. VIII 101b; IX 292a; XI 

awhaz (A) : attendants (who, al-Hamdani writes, stood at the gates of the ancient town 
of Zafar in Yemen and acted as guards). XI 380a 

awka -> wuka 

awka'a -»■ waka'a 

awkaf -»• wakf 

'awl (A) : lit. deviation by excess; in law, the method of increasing the common denom- 
inator of the fractional shares in an inheritance, if their sum would amount to more 
than one unit. I 764b 

awlad (A, s. walad 'child') : sons, children; for the many other designations for child- 
hood and its subdivisions, VIII 821b ff. 

♦ awlad al-balad (A) : the term used during the Sudanese Mahdi period (1881-98) 
to designate persons originating from the northern riverain tribes. Under the Mahdi 
Muhammad Ahmad, they became the ruling class but gradually lost their status under 
his successors. I 765a; V 1250a 

♦ awlad al-nas (A) : lit. children of the people; the term used among the Mamluks 
for the sons of mamluks who could not join the exclusive society of the Mamluk upper 
class. Only those who were born an infidel and brought as a child-slave from abroad, 
were converted to Islam and set free after completing military training, and bore a non- 
Arab name, could belong to that society. The ~ were joined to a unit of non-mamluks 
called the halka, which was socially inferior to the pure mamluk units, and formed 
there the upper stratum. The term abna 5 al-atrak was sometimes used as an alterna- 
tive. I 102a; I 765a; III 99b 

awma'a (A) : to notify with a gesture, syn. ashara. XII 601a 

awrith -»■ amazzal 

awtad (A, s. watid 'tent peg') : in prosody, one of two pairs of metrical components 
distinguished by al-Khalil. The ~ consist of three consonants each and are called watid 
rnadjmu' (when the first two consonants are 'moving', i.e. have a short vowel, and the 
last 'quiescent') and watid mafruk (when the first and the third consonants are 'mov- 
ing' and the middle one 'quiescent'). I 670b; XI 181b; two other types are denned by 
al-Farabl and al-Kartadjanni as, respectively, ~ mufrad (a sabab khafif + one vowel- 
less letter) and ~ mutadd'if (two vowelled + two vowelless letters), both outside tradi- 
tional 'arud. XI 181b 

In mysticism, - (s. watad; syn. c umud) 'stakes' is the third category of the hierarchy 
of the ridjal al-ghayb, comprising four holy persons. I 95a; I 772a 

awtar (A, s. watar) : in music, the strings of a musical instrument. VI 215b; X 769b 

c awwa' (A) : in mediaeval 'Irak, a vagabond who begs between sunset and the evening 
worship, at times singing. VII 494a 

awwal (A, pi. awa'il) : first. 

In philosophy, -was brought into Muslim thought by the Arab translators of Aristotle 
and Plotinus to indicate either the First Being or the First Created. I 772a 

♦ awwaliyya (A) : an abstract noun derived from awwal indicating the essence of 
'that which is first'. Its plural awwaliyyat means the First Principles in the order of 
knowledge, i.e. the propositions and judgements immediately evident by themselves. I 

awzan (A, s. wazn) : in music, a Turkish instrument popular with the Mamluk sultans 

172 AWZAN — 'AYSH 

of Egypt. Ibn Ghaybi places it among the lutes of three strings and says that it was 
played with a wooden plectrum by Turkish minstrels. X 769b 

♦ awzan al-shi'r (A) : in prosody, deviations in the metrical forms, e.g. shortening 
of the metre. I 671a; VIII 667b 

aya (A, pi. dydt) : sign, token; miracle; a verse of the Qur'an. I 773b; V 401b; miracle 
of the prophet, as opposed to miracle of God's friends, or saints, karama. XI 110a 

♦ ayatullah (A, < dyat Allah) : lit. miraculous sign of God; a title with a hierarchi- 
cal significance used by the Twelver sjii'is, indicating one at the top of the hierarchy, 
amongst the elite of the great mudjtahids. XII 103b 

a'yan (A, s. c ayn) : notables, the eminent under the caliphate and subsequent Muslim 
regimes. I 778a; II 640b 

Under the Ottomans in the eighteenth century, ~ acquired a more precise significance 
and came to be applied to those accorded official recognition as the chosen represen- 
tatives of the people vis-a-vis the government, later to become local magnates and 
despots. I 778a ff.; II 724a; III 1187b 

In philosophy, ~ is used for the particular things that are perceived in the exterior 
world, as opposed to those things that exist in the mind. I 784a 

♦ a'yaniyye (T) : in the Ottoman period, a fee paid by the a'yan to obtain docu- 
ments from the provincial governors according them official recognition as the chosen 
representatives of the people vis-a-vis the government. I 778b 

c ayb (A) : a fault in a person. IV 1100b; and ->■ kabara 

ayfd ->• shawka 

ayhukan (A) : in botany, wild rocket. VII 831a 

aykash (A) : a system according to which the tdlibs 'students' of North Africa use the 

numerical value of letters for certain magical operations; a specialist in this technique 

is called in the vernacular yakkdsh- I 97b 
aym (A) : in zoology, a large snake, called yaym on the Arabian peninsula. I 541b 
'ayn (A) : eye; evil eye; the thing viewed; source. I 784b; a flowing spring. I 538b; 

observer, spy. II 486b 

In Algeria, in the region of Oued Righ, and in Libya, in the eastern parts of the Shati, 

~ is an artesian well, formerly dug by specialists and very fragile, but now drilled and 

harnessed according to modern techniques. I 1232a 

In the mediaeval kitchen, ~ is the top of an oven which could be opened or closed to 

adjust the oven's temperature. A synonym is jam. VI 808a 

In mysticism, ~ is used to indicate the super-existence of God's deepest essence. I 785a 

In music, the sound-hole of an c ud. X 769b 

In law, physical goods. XI 60b; and ->■ athman 

For ~ in numismatics, ->■ warik 

♦ 'ayn al-kitt (A) : 'cat's eye', in botany, applied to five plants: the Corn camomile 
{Anthemis arvensis), Camomile (A. nobilis), Wild camomile {Matricaria chamomilla), 
Water speedwell {Veronica anagallis aquatica), and Minor phalaris {Phalaris minor). 
IX 653a 

♦ 'ayn al-yakin (A) : 'the contemplation of the evident'; a mystical term which can 
be used in the double sense of intuition, i.e. the pre-rational sense of intuitive under- 
standing of the philosophical first principles, and the post-rational sense of the intuitive 
understanding of super-rational mystical truth. I 785a 

♦ 'ayna' (A) : 'with big, black eyes', used in poetry to describe the oryx and addax 
antelope. V 1227b 

ayran (T) : a cool refreshing drink made from yoghurt and water, called dugh in 

Persian and lassi in India. XI 337b 
'aysh -> kuskusu 

AYT — AZYAB 173 

ayt (B) : 'sons of, used either in compounds, or before a proper noun to indicate a tribe. 
I 792a 

aywaz (T, < A Hwad) : a term applied to the footmen employed in great households in 
the later Ottoman empire. They were generally Armenians of Van, sometimes Kurds; 
Greeks are also said to have been among them. Their duties included waiting at table, 
filling and cleaning the lamps and doing the shopping for the household. I 792a 

ayyam ->• yawm 

'ayyar (A) : lit. rascal, tramp, vagabond; a term applied to certain warriors who were 
grouped together under the futuwwa in 'Irak and Persia from the 9th to the 12th cen- 
turies, on occasions appearing as fighters for the faith in the inner Asian border regions, 
on others forming the opposition party in towns and coming into power, indulging in 
a rule of terror against the wealthy part of the population. I 794a; I 900b ff.; II 961b; 
VIII 402a; VIII 795b; VIII 956a 

ayyil (A) : in zoology, the mountain goat. The descriptions given by the zoologists, how- 
ever, apply rather more to the deer, but in pre-Islamic and early Islamic poetry, ~ may 
actually mean the mountain-goat, since the deer probably never existed on the Arabian 
peninsula. I 795a 

c azab (A, T c azeb) : lit. an unmarried man or woman, a virgin; the term applied to sev- 
eral types of fighting men under the Ottoman and other Turkish regimes between the 
13th and the 19th centuries, who were forbidden to marry before retirement. I 807a; 
Ottoman light infantry. IX 128b 

'azaba (A, < 'isaba ?) : a headdress with pearls and gold worn in Morocco and Egypt. 
X 611b 

azal (A) : eternity; in philosophy, ~ or azaliyya is a technical term corresponding to 
dYevn-tcx;, meaning ungenerated, eternal a parte ante; Ibn Rushd used azaliyya for 
'incorruptible'. I 2a; V 95a; and ->• dahriyya 

azala (A) : a special unit of 100 cubic cubits 'of balance', used in mediaeval c Irak to 
count the volume of earth, reeds and brushwood which had to be transported when con- 
structing and upkeeping raised canal banks. V 865a 

a'zam -> mu'azzam 

azalay (B) : a term for the great caravans made up of several thousand dromedaries 
which carry the salt from the salt deposits of the Southern Sahara to the tropical 
regions of the Sahel in spring and autumn. I 808b; I 1222a 

azaliyya ->• azal 

'azaliyyat (A) : in zoology, the order of saurians. X 510a 

azhari -> firuzadj 

c azib (A), or c azl, hanshlr : 'latifundium', a form of land tenure in ancient North Africa. 
I 661a; lands owned by a zawiya which are let out and whose profits are shared with 
the tenants {'azzab). V 1201b 

azima (A) : determination, resolution, fixed purpose; in religious law, ~ is an ordinance 
as interpreted strictly, the opposite of rukhsa, an exemption or dispensation. I 823a 
In magic, ~ is an adjuration, or the application of a formula of which magical effects 
are expected. I 823a 

c aziz (A) : powerful, respected; in the science of Tradition, a Tradition coming from one 
man of sufficient authority to have his Traditions collected when two or three people 
share in transmitting them. Ill 25b 

'azl (A) : coitus interruptus. I 826a; X 198b; and ->• 'azIb 

azr -> izar 

azrak (A) : the colour blue, also having the sense of 'livid, haggard'. Its plural, zarakim, 
designates snakes. V 700a 

azyab (A) : in Yemen, the southeast wind. I 180b; the north-east wind. VII 52a 


'azzaba (A, s. 'azzabi) : 'recluses', 'clerks'. 

Among the Ibadiyya, members of a special council, halka, presided over by a 
shaykh, who were distinguished from the laity by their tonsure (they had to shave 
their heads completely) and by their simple white habits. Their lives were subject to a 
severe discipline; they were governed by a strict moral code and any misdemeanour 
was punished immediately. Ill 95a 

ba (A) : a genealogical term used in South Arabia to form individual and (secondarily) 
collective proper names. I 828a 

♦ ba-shar c (P) : lit. with law, i.e. following the law of Islam; one of the two cate- 
gories into which dervishes in Persia are divided. The other is bI-shar'. II 164b 

ba c (A), or kama : a basic measure of length consisting of the width of the two arms 
outstretched, i.e. a fathom, canonically equal to four dhira's (199.5 cm) or approxi- 
mately 2 metres, and thus the thousandth part of a mile. In Egypt, the ~ is four 'car- 
penter's' cubits, or 3 metres. I 535b; II 232b; VII 137b 

ba"adjun (A) : 'cleavers', according to e.g. Ibn Khaldun, magicians who had only to 
point their finger at a piece of clothing or a skin, while mumbling certain words, for 
that object to fall into shreds; with the same gestures, fixing upon sheep, they could 
instantaneously cleave them. VIII 52b 

bab (A) : gate. I 830a 

In early shiMsm, ~ denotes the senior authorised disciple of the imam, and among the 
Isma'iliyya, ~ is a rank in the hierarchy, denoting the head of the da'wa and thus the 
equivalent in Isma'ili terminology of the dd'i al-du'dt. I 832b; and -»• safir 
Among the Babis, ~ is the appellation of the founder, Sayyid c Ali Muhammad of 
Shiraz. I 833a 

♦ bab-i c ali (T) : the (Ottoman) Sublime Porte, the name for the Ottoman govern- 
ment. I 836a 

♦ bab-i humayun (T) : lit. Imperial Gate, the principal entrance in the outer wall 
of the sultan's New Serail. I 836b 

♦ bab al-'ilm (A) : 'the gate of knowledge', the title given to the Musta'li-Tayyibi 
Isma'ili savant of India Lukmandji b. Hablb (d. 1173/1760) by the thirty-ninth da'I. V 

♦ bab marzuk (A) : 'lucky door', the term used for the hyena by the Arab nomads 
of the Sahara regions. XII 173b 

♦ bab-i mashikhat (T) : the name for the office or department of the shaykh al- 
islam under the Ottomans in the 19th century. I 837b 

♦ bab al-sa'adet (T) : lit. the Gate of Felicity, the gate leading from the second into 
the third court, proceeding inward, of the imperial palace of the Ottomans. II 697b 

♦ bab-i ser c askeri (T) : the name for the War Department in the Ottoman empire 
during the 19th century. I 838a 

baba -»• murshid 

babbagha' (A), or babghd' : in zoology, both parakeet and parrot. The term represents 
both female and male, singular and collective. I 845b 

babgha' -»• babbagha' 

babr (A, pi. bubur) : in zoology, the tiger. II 739a 

babunadj (A, < P bdbuna) : in botany, the common camomile, primarily Anthemis 
nobilis, also called Roman camomile, but also Matricaria chamomilla and other vari- 
eties. XII 1 14b 

BAD-I HAWA — BAD? 175 

bad-i hawa (T), or tayyarat : lit. wind of the air; a general term in Ottoman fiscal usage 
for irregular and occasional revenues from fines, fees, registration, charges, and other 
casual sources of income which appeared for the first time in the first quarter of the 
10th/16th century and continued through the 18th century. I 850a; II 147a; VIII 487b; 
IX 474a 

bada' (A) : appearance, emergence. 

In theology, the alteration of God's purpose. I 265b; the emergence of new circum- 
stances which cause a change in an earlier ruling. I 850a 

badahandj -> badgir; malkaf 

badal (A, T bedel) : substitute; and -»■ abdal; c iwad 

In the Ottoman empire, a term used to denote a contribution made by a tax-payer in 
lieu of his performing some service for the government or furnishing it with some com- 
modity. These special 'substitute' cash contributions were exacted when either the sub- 
jects failed to fulfil their obligations or the government forwent its rights in this regard. 
I 760b; I 855a; II 147a 

In Afghanistan, ~ means revenge by retaliation, vendetta, and is one of the three main 
pillars of the special social code of the Afghans. I 217a 
In grammar, a variant. V 804a 

♦ bedel-i c askeri (T) : an exemption tax in the place of enrollment in the national 
service. VIII 201a 

badan (A) : body, in particular the human body, often only the torso. II 555a; in medi- 
aeval Islam, a short, sleeveless tunic from cotton or silk, worn by both sexes and usu- 
ally associated with the Arabian peninsula, but it has been shown to have also been a 
fairly common article of feminine attire in mediaeval Egypt. V 739a; as badana, a 
seamless robe made from linen and gold thread, recorded as having been made for the 
Fatimid caliphs. X 532a 

In seafaring, ~ is used to designate a kind of boat typical of Northern Oman which is 
constructed according to two models: one for fishing, the other for the transportation 
of goods and for cabotage. This is the typical boat with an entirely sewn hull in order 
to avoid damage in case of a collision with reefs at water level. VII 53b 
As zoological term, -> wa'l 

♦ badana -»■ badan 
badandj -»■ badgir 

badda' (Bed) : among the Sinai Bedouin, a composer adept at spontaneous improvisa- 
tion. IX 234b 

badgir (P), or bdd-gir : lit. wind-catcher; an architectural term used in Persia for the 
towers containing ventilation shafts and projecting high above the roofs of domestic 
houses. In mediaeval Arabic, the device was known as badahandj or badandj. V 665b; 
IX 49b; XII 115a 

badhadj -> sakhla 

badhaward -> shawka 

badhik (A) : in early Islam, a prohibited product prepared by means of grapes. IV 996b 

badhindjan (A) : in botany, the aubergine, one of the summer crops in mediaeval Egypt. 
V 863a 

badhr al-kattan (A) : in botany, linseed. IX 615a 

badhrundjubuya ->■ turundjan 

badi' (A) : innovator, creator, thus, one of the attributes of God. I 857b; III 663b 
In literature, ~ is the name for the innovations of the 'Abbasid poets in literary figures, 
and later for trope in general. I 857b; IV 248b; V 900a; XII 650a 

♦ badi'iyya (A) : in literature, a poem in which the poet uses all kinds of figures of 
speech. I 858a; I 982b 


♦ c ilm al-badi' (A) : the branch of rhetorical science which deals with the beau- 
tification of literary style, the artifices of the ornamentation and embellishment of 
speech. I 857b; I 982b 

badiha -> irtidjal 

badiya (A) : in the Umayyad period, a residence in the countryside, an estate in the 

environs of a settlement or a rural landed property in the Syro-Jordanian steppeland. 

XII 116b 
ba'diyya -> iftitah 
badj (A, < P bdzh) : a fiscal technical term among the Turks, ~ was applied to various 

forms of tax as well as being used for 'tax' in general. I 860b; II 147a 

♦ badj-i buzurg (T, < P) : in the Ilkhanid and Djala'irid periods, the customs-duty 
levied on goods in transit through or imported into the country. I 861b 

♦ badj-i tamgha (T, < P) : in the Ilkhanid and Djala'irid periods, the tax levied on 
all kinds of goods bought and sold in cities, on woven stuffs and slaughtered animals; 
it is normally referred to as tamgha-i siydh 'black tamgha'. I 861b 

♦ badjdar (T, < P) : in the Ilkhanid and DjalaMrid periods, a tax collector, who 
collected tolls at certain places according to a tariff fixed by the central government. 
I 861a 

badjdja -»■ sudjdja 

badjra : the common Indian river-boat, a sort of barge without a keel, propelled by poles 

or by oars, on the deck of which cabins might be mounted. VII 933a 
badr -> kamar 

♦ badra (A) : the skin of a lamb or goat capacious enough to contain a large sum 
of money. In numismatics, the usual amount reckoned as a ~ was 10,000 dirhams (this 
figure was considered by the Arabs to represent both the perfection and the ultimate 
limit of numeration). It was thus analogous to the tuman. X 620a 

badrundjubuya -► turundjan 

badw (A) : pastoral nomads of Arabian blood, speech and culture, the Bedouin. I 872a 

bagh (P) : term for a suburban palace in Timurid times, meaning a park or estate with 

building and gardens. IX 46a 
bagbbur -> faghfur 
baghdadi -> sab'anI 

baghghal (A) : a muleteer, also known as mukari or hammdra, who emerged as a dis- 
tinct group of transport workers during the 'Abbasid period. XII 659a 
baghi -> bughat; mulhid 
baghiyy (A, pi. baghdyd), and mumis, 'dhira, zdniya : prostitute. A more vulgar word 

was kahba, from the verb 'to cough', because professional prostitutes used to cough to 

attract clients. XII 133a 
baghl (A, fern, baghla, pi. bighdl) : mule; hinny (offspring of a stallion and she-ass). 

I 909a 

In Egypt, the feminine form baghla (pi. baghaldt) also denoted a female slave born of 

unions between sakaliba and another race. I 909a 

♦ baghl al-samman -> salwa 

♦ baghla (< Sp/Por bajel/baxel) : in the Gulf area, a large sailing ship used in the 
Gulf of Oman and the Indian waters. VIII 811b; and -> baqhl 

♦ baghli (A) : the earliest Arab dirhams which were imitations of the late Sasanian 
drahms of Yezdigird III, Hormuzd IV and (chiefly) Khusraw II; c Abd al-Malik's mon- 
etary reforms in 79/698-9 drastically altered the style. II 319a 

baglama -> saz 
bagsi -> ozan 

bagtal : a word used in Lak society to designate the khan's family and the nobility. 
V 618a 

baghy (A) : encroachment, abuse. XI 567b 

bah (A), and wat' : coitus. I 910b; and -> djima' 

bahadur (Alt) : courageous, brave; hero. Borrowed into many languages, ~ also fre- 
quently appears as a surname and an honorific title. I 913a; and -»■ sardar 

bahak (A) : in medicine, vitiligo. V 107a; and -> djudham 

bahar -► nardjis 

bahira (A) : the name in the pre-Islamic period for a she-camel or ewe with slit ears. 
I 922a 

bahit -> shadhana 

bahlawan ->■ pahlawan 

bahluli ->• tanka 

bahma ->■ sakhla 

bahr (A, pi. buhur) : a place where a great amount of water is found. Accordingly, ~ 
is not only applied to the seas and oceans but also, uniquely, because of its outstand- 
ing size, to the Nile. I 926b; VII 909b; VIII 38a 

The plural buhur means, in prosody, the ideal metric forms as given in the circles 
devised by al-Khalil. I 671a; VIII 667b; XI 200b; in music, secondary modes, along- 
side main modes (anghdtn) and dwdz modes. IX 101a 

♦ 'ilm al-bahr (A) : the art of navigation, also known as c ulum al-bahriyya. VII 51a 

♦ al-bahrayn (A) : lit. the two seas; a cosmographical and cosmological concept 
appearing five times in the Qur'an. I 940b 

♦ bahriyya (A) : the navy. I 945b; XII 119b 
bahradj (A) : in numismatics, counterfeit money. X 409b 

bahramani (A) : the deep red colour (Rubicelle, Escarboucle) of the ruby, also called 

rummdni (defined at the present time as 'carmine' or 'pigeon's blood'). XI 262b 
baht (A) : in the Arabian Nights, the name of a city, made up of ~ stone, whose effect 

is mad laughter leading to death. XII 552b 
bahth (A) : study, examination, inquiry. I 949a; and -> ahl al-(bahto wa 'l-) nazar 
bahw (A) : an empty and spacious place extending between two objects which confine 

it; the axial nave in a mosque, ~ is a term primarily belonging to the vocabulary of 

Western Muslim architecture. It also is defined as a tent or pavilion chamber situated 

beyond the rest. I 949b 
bahzadj (A), or barghaz : in zoology, the calf of the oryx or addax antelope at birth. If 

it is completely white, it is called marl. V 1227b 
ba'idj ->■ KHANNAK 
ba'ika -> hasil 

ba'in (A) : in law, an irrevocably divorced woman. Ill 1011b 
ba'in ->■ ba'oli 
ba'ir (A) : the individual camel, regardless of sex, as opposed to ibil, the species and 

the group. Ill 666a 
bak'a (A) : a term applied especially to a place where water remains stagnant. I 1292b; 

and ->■ buk'a 
baka' wa-fana' (A) : 'subsistence' and 'effacement', sufi terms referring to the stages of 

the development of the mystic in the path of gnosis. I 951a; IV 1083b; VIII 306b; VIII 

bakalaw (A, < Sp bacallao), with var. bakalyu, bakala, bakldwa : the stockfish. VIII 

bakar (A) : cattle; mediaeval Arab authors distinguished between the domestic ~ ahll 

and the wild ~ wahshi, meaning either the mahd (Oryx beatrix) or the ayyil, or even 

the yahmur 'roedeer' and the thaytal 'bubale antelope'. I 951b 
bakhil ->• bukhl 


bakhnuk (Tun) : an embroidered head shawl for women, worn in Tunisia. V 745b 
bakhshi (< Ch po-che ?) : a Buddhist priest, monk; later 'writer, secretary', a term stem- 
ming from Mongol administrative usage. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it came to 
mean a wandering minstrel among the Turkomans and the Anatolian Turks. I 953a; 
bard. I 422a; X 733a f.; and -> bakhshi 
In Persia, a subdistrict or county. VIII 154a; VIII 586a 

♦ bakhshi al-mamalik (IndP), or mir-bakhshi : in Mughal India, more or less the 
equivalent of the classical 'arid, the official charged with the mustering, passing in 
review and inspection of troops. IV 268b; V 686a; IX 738b 

bakhshi : in traditional Ozbeg society, a practitioner of shamanistic healing, especially 
the removal of spirits. He often was a molla learned in the Qur'an. Synonyms are 
parikjfan or du'akjpan. VIII 234b; as bakhshi, a shaman in Kazakh, Kirghiz, Ozbeg 
and Tadjik society. X 733b 

bakhshish (P) : a gratuity bestowed by a superior on an inferior, a tip or 'consideration' 
thrown into a bargain, and a bribe, particularly one offered to judges or officials. Under 
the Ottomans, ~ came to mean the gratuity bestowed by a sultan upon his accession 
on the chief personages of state, the Janissaries and other troops of the standing army. 
I 953a 

bakk (A) : in zoology, a bug. II 248a; IV 522a 

bakka' (A) : lit. weepers; in early Islam, ascetics who during their devotional exercises 
shed many tears. I 959a 

bakkal (A) : retailer of vegetables; grocer (syn. khaddar). I 961a, where many syn- 
onyms used regionally are listed 

bakkam (A, < San) : sappan wood, an Indian dye wood obtained from the Caesalpinia 
Sappan L. The Arabic equivalent frequently given by Arab philologists is 'andam, 
which, however, denotes the dragon's blood, a red gum exuding from certain trees. I 

bakkara : cattle nomads in the central Sudan belt of Africa. IX 516a 

bakla ->■ 'alath 

bakradj (A) : the traditional coffee pot (syn. dalla), one of a number of traditional 
kitchen utensils used still in rural regions, along with the coffee cup, findjan, and many 
more articles. Terms for these items vary from one area to another. XII 776b 

bakt (A, < Lat pactum, Gk) ; an annual tribute yielded by Christian Nubia to the 
Muslims. I 32a; I 966a 

bal -> 'anbar 

ba'l (A) ; master, owner, husband; in law, ~ denotes unwatered tillage and unwatered 
cultivated land. I 968a 

♦ ba'Ii (A) : as an adjective, frequently attached to the name of a vegetable or fruit; 
in such cases, it stresses the good quality. At Fez, ~ describes a man, avaricious, dry 
and hard, while the feminine ba'liyya is applied to a succulent fig. I 969b 

bala (Yem) : a folk poetry genre for men in northern Yemen tribal areas, usually impro- 
vised and sung at weddings and other celebrations. IX 234a f. 

bala (P) : height, high; since 1262/1846 the term for a grade in the former Ottoman 
Civil Service, to which the Secretary of State and other senior officials belonged. I 

balad -> shaykh 

♦ baladiyya (A) : municipality; the term used to denote modern municipal institu- 
tions of European type, as against earlier Islamic forms of urban organisation. I 972b 

♦ baladiyyun -> shamiyyun 

balagha (A) : eloquence. I 858a; I 981b; I 1114a; II 824a; to Kazwini (d. 1338), ~ was 
the term for the science of rhetoric as a whole. I 1116a 


balam (A) : a typically 'Iraki term for a barque which has both bows and stern pointed 
in shape, with a flat deck and a capacity of transporting from 5 to 10 tons, and is used 
on the Euphrates river. VII 53b 

In zoology, a term for anchovy, found again in the Latinised term to specify a sub- 
species limited to a particular region (Engraulis boelema), and for the sand-smelt, both 
small fish. VIII 1021b; VIII 1023a 

balamida (A, < Pelamys) : in zoology, the pelamid, also called bunit, the bonito. VIII 

balat (A, < L or Gk palatium) : a paved way; flagging; the term most usually applied 
to the naves of a mosque. I 950a; I 987b; I 988a; palace. IX 44a 
♦ balata (A) : a 'flag-stone' of any kind of material serving to pave the ground or 
to bear a monumental or memorial inscription. I 987b 

balgham (A, < Gk) : phlegm, one of the four cardinal humours. XII 188b 

baligh (A) : in law, major, of full age. I 993a 

baliladj (P) : in botany, a variety of myrobalanus (Terminalia bellerica). XII 349b 

balish (P 'cushion') : a 13th-century Mongolian monetary unit, coined both in gold and 
silver. It was in use particularly in the eastern part of the empire. Its value was 
assessed at 6,192 gold marks. I 996b 

baliyya (A, pi. balaya) : a name given, in pre-Islamic times, to a camel (more rarely a 
mare) tethered at the grave of his master and allowed to die of starvation, or some- 
times burnt alive. Muslim tradition sees in this practice proof of the pre-Islamic Arabs' 
belief in resurrection, because the animal thus sacrificed was thought to serve as a 
mount for its master at the resurrection. I 997 a 

ba'liyya -*■ ba'l 

ballut (A, pi. baldlita) : in botany, acorn, fruit of the oaktree. II 744a 

balshun (A) : in zoology, the heron. I 1152b 

baltadji (T) : a name given to men composing various companies of palace guards 
under the Ottomans down to the beginning of the nineteenth century. The ~ was orig- 
inally employed in connection with the army in the felling of trees, the levelling of 
roads and the filling of swamps. The term was used alternatively with the Persian 
equivalent, tabardar, both meaning 'axe-man', and hence 'woodcutter', 'pioneer', 'hal- 
berdier'. I 1003b 

balyemez (T, < Ger Faule Metze) : lit. that eats no honey; a large caliber gun, which 
name (probably a jesting and popular transformation of the famous German cannon 
'Faule Metze' of the year 1411) came to the Ottomans through the numerous German 
gun-founders in the Turkish services; the ~ was first introduced into the Ottoman army 
in the time of sultan Murad II. I 1007b; I 1062b 

balyos (T, < It bailo) : the Turkish name for the Venetian ambassador to the Sublime 
Porte. With the generalised meaning of European diplomatic or consular agent, the 
word is also encountered in some Arabic dialects and Swahili. I 1008a; II 60b 

bamm -> zir 

ban (A, P) : the ben-nut tree (Moringa aptera Gaertn.), the wood of which was used 
for tent-poles. Its fruit, called shu', was a commodity and greatly in demand. The ~ 
was used as a simile by poets for a tender woman of tall stature. I 1010b 

bana -> Ilidja 

banafsadj (A) : in botany, the violet ( > banafsacjji 'violet-coloured'). V 699a 

banat na'sh -> bint 

band (P) : anything which is used to bind, attach, close or limit; a dam built for irriga- 
tion purposes. I 1012a; in Persian literature, each of the single separating verses of a 
tardjI'-band; also loosely used to designate each complete stanza, which usage is 
more common. X 235b 


bandar (P) : a seaport or port on a large river. The word ~ passed into the Arabic of 
Syria and Egypt where it is used in the sense of market-place, place of commerce, 
banking exchange and even workshop. I 1013a 

bandayr (Alg, < Goth pandero), or bandlr : in Algeria, a round tambourine with snares 
stretched across the inside of the head, probably called ghirbal in the early days of 
Islam. II 620b 

bandish : the composition, the second part in a performance of classical or art music of 
India, which in vocal music may be khayal, dhrupad, tarana or one of several more 
modern forms; in instrumental music, as played on the stringed instruments, sitdr and 
sarod, it is generally called gat. Ill 454a 

bandj (A, P bang, < San) : henbane, a narcotic drug. In the popular dialect of Egypt, 
~ is used for every kind of narcotic. I 1014b; III 266b 

bandjara : a term used in India to designate dealers rather than mere commissariat car- 
riers, who travelled all over the country with large droves of laden cattle and regularly 
supplied the Indian armies and hunting camps. VII 932b 

bang -> bandj 

banika (A, pi. bana'ik) : originally, in early Arabic, any piece inserted to widen a tunic 
or a leather bucket; in the Arab West, -was used for a kind of man's tunic and, more 
frequently, for an element of women's hair-covering. In Algiers, ~ is still used for a 
kind of square headdress, provided with a back flap, which women use to cover their 
heads to protect themselves against the cold when leaving the baths. I 1016a 
In Morocco, ~ means a dark padded cell; a closet serving as an office for a 'minister'. 
I 1016b 

banish (A), or banish : a wide-sleeved man's coat, worn in the Arab East. V 740b 

banna'I -> hazar-baf 

banoyta -> dardar 

banuwani : in mediaeval 'Irak, a vagrant who stands before a door, rattles the bolt and 
cries 'O Master', in order to get alms. VII 494a 

ba'oli (U, H), and ba'ln : a step-well in Muslim India, usually found at the principal 
shrines associated with Cishti pirs (~* murshid). They are meant for the use of men 
and animals. I 1024a; V 884b; V 888b 

bar-awardi (IndP) : lit. by estimate; under the Mughal emperor Akbar, the payment at a 
rather low rate made in advance for a contingent of a size less than the titular rank, 
ultimately coming to define the number of the second or sawar (-> suwar) rank. IX 

bara wafat (U) : a term used in the subcontinent of India for the twelfth day of Rabi' 
I, observed as a holy day to commemorate the death of the Prophet Muhammad. I 

bara'a (A) : release, exemption; freedom from disease, cure; in law, ~ is the absence of 
obligation; bard'at (al-dhimma) means freedom from obligation. I 1026b 
As a Qur'anic term, ~ also means the breaking of ties, a kind of dissociation or excom- 
munication, which theme was developed by the Kharidjites as being the duty to repu- 
diate all those who did not deserve the title of Muslim. I 207a; I 811a; I 1027b 
In classical Muslim administration, a receipt given by the djahbadh or khazin to tax- 
payers. II 78b; XI 409b; ~ has been increasingly employed in a concrete sense to 
denote written documents of various kinds: licence, certificate, diploma, demand for 
payment, passport, a label to be attached to a piece of merchandise, a request or peti- 
tion to the sovereign. I 1027a 

In the science of diplomatic, ~ (syn. risala) in Morocco was a letter addressed to a 
community, in order to announce an important event, or in order to exhort or to 
admonish. It was generally read from the minbar in the mosque on Friday. II 308a 

♦ bara'at al-dhimma -»■ bara'a 

♦ bara'at al-tanfldh (A) : the consular exequatur. I 1027b 

♦ bara'at al-thika (A) : diplomatic 'credentials'. I 1027b 

bara'a (A) : in prosody, 'virtuosity', the ability to make intricate conceits appear natural, 
one of a tripartite typology of poets, the other two being tab' 'natural talent' and sind'a 
'artfulness'. XII 654a 

♦ bara'at al-istihlal (A) : in rhetoric, the 'skilful opening', an introduction that con- 
tains an allusion to the main theme of the work. Ill 1006a 

baradari (H) : a term, also applied to Muslim buildings in India, for a hall with twelve 
adjacent bays or doors, three on each side; ~ was figuratively used to designate 'sum- 
mer house' as well. V 1214b 

baraka (A) : (divine) blessing; in practice, ~ has the meaning of 'very adequate quan- 
tity'. I 1032a 

In the vocabulary of the Almohads, ~ was used in the sense of 'gratuity which is added 
to a soldier's pay'. I 1032a 

baramis (A, < L Abramis brama) : in zoology, the bream. VIII 1021a 

barandj : 'coloured', melons from Kh w arazm. X 435b 

baranta (T) : an Eastern Turkish term, though now regarded as old-fashioned, for 
'foray, robbery, plunder', 'cattle-lifting'. I 1037b 

Among the nomad Turkish peoples, ~ once represented a specific legal concept involv- 
ing a notion of 'pledge, surety', e.g. the appropriation of a quantity of his adversary's 
property by a man who has been wronged, in order to recover his due. I 1037b 

baras (A, pi. abras) : in medicine, a term used for leprosy, but could be applied to other 
skin diseases as well. V 107a; XII 271a; and -> djudham 

barastuk -> barasudj 

barasudj (A, < P parastug) : in zoology, the mullet. Variants are barastuk and tarastudj. 
VIII 1021a 

barat (K) : in the yazidI tradition, little balls of dust from the Lalish area made with 
water from the Zamzam spring, which have great religious significance. XI 315a 

barata (T) : a special type of headdress, kulah, of woollen cloth in the shape of a 
sleeve whose rear part fell on the back, worn by palace domestics in Ottoman Turkey. 
V 751b 

barba (A, < C p'erpe 'temple') : name given by the Egyptians to solidly constructed 
ancient buildings of pagan times. I 1038b 

barbat (P, < bar 'breast' and bat 'duck') : in music, a lute whose sound-chest and neck 
were constructed in one graduated piece, unlike the c ud, whose sound-chest and neck 
were separate. Arabic authors generally do not discriminate between the two instru- 
ments. X 768b 

barbusha (B) : a variety of couscous, made with barley semolina. This is called sikuk in 
Morocco. V 528a 

barda (A) : in zoology, the pink sea-bream, whose Arabic term is found again in the 
Latinised nomenclature to specify a sub-species limited to a particular region (Chryso- 
phrys berda). VIII 1021a 

bardi (A), warak al-~ and abardl : the term for papyrus. VIII 261b; VIII 407b 

bardjis -> mushtarI 

bargah : guy ropes, used to support the Mongol ruler's large tent. IX 45b 

bargir-suwar -> suwar 

bari' (A) : creator; one of the names of God (syn. khalik). According to the Lisdn al- 
'Arab, ~ is he who creates without imitating a model, and is nearly always used for 
the creation of living beings in particular. IV 980b 

182 BARlD — BASHA 

barid (Ass, < L veredus I Gk beredos) : postal service; post horse, courier, and post 
'stage'. I 1045a; II 487a; III 109b 

barih (A) : a term applied to a wild animal or bird which passes from right to left 
before a traveller or hunter; it is generally interpreted as a bad omen. I 1048a; 'that 
which travels from right to left', one of the technical terms designating the directions 
of a bird's flight, or an animal's steps, which play an important part in the application 
of divination known as fa'l, tira and zadjr. II 760a 

bariyya ->• khalk 

bariz (A) : visible; in grammar, often contrasted at a syntactical level with mustatir 'the 
concealed', for the pronouns in particular. XII 546a 

bark (A) : lightning; telegraph. I 573a 

barka" (A), and abrak : a Bedouin term from the Arabian peninsula denoting a hill 
whose sides are mottled with patches of sand. I 536b 

barma'iyyun (A), or kawdzib : the amphibian mammals, such as the seal, the walrus, the 
sea lion etc. VIII 1022b 

barnamadj -> fahrasa 

barni (A) : a variety of dates. XII 366b 

baro (Oromo) : a hymn with alternate verses. IX 399a 

barrakan (N.Afr) : a heavy wrap worn by men in Tunisia in mediaeval times. V 745a; 
a large enveloping outer wrap for both sexes in present-day Libya. V 745b 

barrani (A), or muddf : one of the three main sources of revenue for the Egyptian 
government in the years immediately preceding the Napoleonic invasion of 1798, ~ 
were extraordinary taxes, the payment of which was demanded by the multazims (-> 
multezim) to increase their profits; they were collected regularly despite their illegal- 
ity. II 148a; newly-arrived rural immigrant, in Oran contrasted with the oldest immi- 
grants, the Oulad el-bled. XI 51a 

barraz ->• mubariz 

barsha (A) : a term, used round the South Arabian coasts, for a long, covered boat; also 
applied to large warships (cf. Ott barca, < It bargia, barza). VIII 811b 

barsim ->• katt 

barud (A, < Ar ?) : saltpetre; gunpowder. I 1055b 

barzakh (A, P) : obstacle, hindrance, separation. 

In eschatology, the boundary of the world of human beings, which consists of the heav- 
ens, the earth and the nether regions, and its separation from the world of pure spirits 
and God; Limbo. I 1072a 

basal (A) : in botany, onions, one of the winter crops in mediaeval Egypt. V 863a 

basbas (A), or rdziydnadj : in botany, the fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), in North Africa 
termed bisbds, which in the Eastern countries means the red seed-shell of the nutmeg 
{Myristica frangrans). I 214b; XII 128b 

♦ basbasa (A) : in botany, nutmeg. XII 128b 
basli (T) : head, chief. 

♦ bash kara kullukdju (T) : lit. head scullion; in Ottoman times, an officer's rank in 
an orta, subordinate to that of the Corbadjj, or 'soup purveyor'. VIII 178b 

♦ bashi-bozuk (T) : lit. leaderless, unattached; in the Ottoman period, ~ was 
applied to both homeless vagabonds from the province seeking a livelihood in Istanbul 
and male Muslim subjects of the sultan not affiliated to any military corps; from this 
last usage, ~ came to signify 'civilian'. I 1077b; IX 406b 

basha (T) : a Turkish title, not to be confused with pasha, nor with the Arabic or old 
eastern pronunciation of it. Put after the proper name, it was applied to soldiers and 
the lower grades of officers (especially Janissaries), and, it seems, also to notables in 
the provinces. VIII 281b 


basharush ->■ nuham 

bashi-bozuk -> bash 

bashir (A) : in zoology, the polypterus Bichir. VIII 1021a; and ->■ nadhIr 

bashmaklik (T) : a term applied in 16th and 17th-century Ottoman Turkey to fief rev- 
enues assigned to certain ranks of ladies of the sultan's harem for the purchase of their 
personal requirements, particularly clothes and slippers. I 1079b 

bashtarda (T, < It bastarda) : the term for the great galley of the commander-in-chief of 
the Ottoman navy. The principal types of Ottoman ships in the period of the oared ves- 
sels were the kadirgha (< Gk katergon) 'galley', the kallte 'galliot', and the firkate 
'frigate'. Although the ~ was not the largest unit of the fleet, it was a galley larger 
than the galea sensile (T kadirgha or cektiri), but smaller than the galeazza or galiass 
(T mawna). I 948a ff.; VIII 565a; VIII 810b 

bashtina ->■ Ciftlik 

bashwekil ->■ sadr-i a'zam 

basit (wa murakkab) (A) : simple (and composite), the translation of Gk ankovq and 
ODvGexoi;. Used as such in pharmacology, in grammar, philosophy and medicine, 
mufrad is found for basit, and in logic, mathematics and music, mu'allaf is more com- 
monly used for murakkab. I 1083b; and -» murakkab 

In prosody, the name of the second Arabic metre, formed by the two feet mustaf'ilun 
fa'ilun. I 670a; I 675a 
♦ basita ->■ mizwala 

baskak (T) : governor, chief of police. VIII 281a 

Among the Mongols, an official whose main duty was to collect taxes and tribute; the 
commissioners and high commissioners sent to the conquered provinces (or the West 
only?), notably in Russia. Its Mongol equivalent was darugha or darogha. VIII 281a; 
IX 438a 

basmala (A) : the formula bi'srri llah! l-rahmart l-rahim\ also called tasmiya. I 1084a; 
III 122b; V411b 

bast (P) : sanctuary, asylum; a term applied to certain places (mosques and other sacred 
buildings, especially the tombs of saints; the royal stables and horses; the neighborhood 
of artillery) which were regarded as affording inviolable sanctuary to any malefactor, 
however grave his crime; once within the protection of the ~, the malefactor could 
negotiate with his pursuers, and settle the ransom which would purchase his immunity 
when he left it. I 1088a 

bast (A) : in mysticism, a term explained as applying to a spiritual state corresponding 
with the station of hope, 'expansion'. I 1088b; III 361a; IV 326a 
In mathematics, the part or the numerator of a fraction (syn. sura, makhraaj). IV 725b 

basur (A, pi. bawaslr) : in medicine, haemorrhoids. X 784a 

bata'in (P) : a cotton cloth, produced in Zarand in Iran, which appears to have been used 
as lining for clothes. Called al-Zarandiyya it was taken to Egypt and the most distant 
parts of the Maghrib. V 151a 

batana ->■ dJarf 

ba'th (A) : lit. to send, set in motion; in theology, ~ denotes either the sending of 
prophets or the resurrection. I 1092b 

bathn (A) : on the Arabian peninsula, a small, deadly but innocent-appearing snake liv- 
ing in the sands. I 541b 

batiha (A, pi. bata'ih) : marshland, the name applied to a meadowlike depression which 
is exposed to more or less regular inundation and is therefore swampy. In particular, it 
was applied in the 'Abbasid period to the very extensive swampy area on the lower 
course of the Euphrates and Tigris, also called al-bata'ih. I 1093b 

batil -» fasid; radhI 

184 BATIN — BAY' 

batin (A) : in Isma'ili theology, the inner meaning of sacred texts, as contrasted with the 
literal meaning, zahir. I 1099a 

♦ batiniyya (A) : the name given to the Isma'ilis in mediaeval times, referring to 
their stress on the batin, and to anyone accused of rejecting the literal meaning of such 
texts in favour of the batin. I 1098b; XI 389b 

batman (P) : a measure of capacity introduced in Persia in the 15th century, equal to 
5.76 kg. This was apparently the standard weight in most Persian provinces under the 
rule of the Safawids. VI 120a 

batn (A, < Sem 'stomach', cf. Heb 'uterus'; pi. butun) : in Arabic 'a fraction of a tribe', 
designating a uterine relationship; in geography, ~ is used in geographical names with 
the meaning of 'depression, basin'. I 1 102a; the plural form al-butun was used to refer 
to the two sons of Sa'd b. Zayd Manat, Ka'b and c Amr, who were not among the group 
called a/-ABNA>. X 173a; sub-tribe. XI 101b 

batr ->■ batt 

batra' (A) : in early Islam, a term for a Friday sermon, khutba, lacking the hamdala. 
Ill 123a; as al-batra', or al-butayra', 'the truncated speech', the name for Ziyad b. 
Abihi's inaugural speech as governor, which though considered a masterpiece of elo- 
quence, did not praise God and did not bless the Prophet. XI 520b 

batrakh : botargo, a fish delicacy like caviar, khibydra, not widely consumed in Arab 
countries. VIII 1023a 

batt (A), or batr : in medicine, an incision (for the removal of morbid matter). II 481b 
In zoology, a duck. IX 98b 

battal (A) : idle, inactive, in particular, a discharged, dismissed or exiled member of the 
Mamluk military nobility. V 332b 

batur ->■ alp 

ba'ud (A) : in zoology, the gnat. II 248a; mosquitos. IV 522a 

bavik (K), or mal : a Kurdish extended family, consisting of a group of houses or house- 
hold or family in the strict sense of father, mother and children. The union of many 
baviks constitutes the clan, or ber. V 472a 

bawarid (A) : cooked green vegetables preserved in vinegar or other acid liquids. II 
1064a; cold vegetable dishes, prepared also from meat, fowl and fish; frequent ingre- 
dients were vinegar and a sweetening agent, sugar or honey. X 31b 

♦ bawaridiyyun : makers and sellers of bawarid. II 1064a 

bawrak (A, < P bura), and burak : natron, sesqui-carbonate of soda. It was found either 
as a liquid in water or as a solid on the surface of the soil. XII 130b; borax. VIII 111b 

bay (A, T beg) : name applied to the ruler of Tunisia until 26 July 1957, when a 
Republic was proclaimed in Tunisia. I 1110b; and -+ bey 

♦ bay al-amhal : in Tunisia, the heir apparent to the Bey and head of the army until 
the advent of the Protectorate. I 1111a 

bay' (A) : in law, a contract of sale, which is concluded by an offer, idjab, and accep- 
tance, kabul, which must correspond to each other exactly and must take place in the 
same meeting. I 1111a 

♦ bay 1 al-'araya ->■ bay 1 al-muzabana 

♦ bay 1 al-bara'a (A) : in law, a sale without guarantee wherein the seller is freed 
from any obligation in the event of the existence, in the sale-object, of such a defect 
as would normally allow the sale to be rescinded. I 1026b 

♦ bay' al-gharar (A) : 'dangerous or hazardous trading', in law, a prohibited trans- 
action, an example of which is bay' habal al-habala, namely, the sale of a pregnant 
she-camel for slaughter with the prospect that it may produce a female young one, 
which will again bear young. X 468a 

♦ bay' habal al-habala ->■ bay' al-gharar 

♦ bay' al-hasat -»■ bay' al-munabadha 

♦ bay' ilka' al-hadjar ->■ bay' al-munabadha 

♦ bay' al-'ina (A), or 'Ina : in law, a 'sale on credit', also known as mukhatara. 
VII 518b; VIII 493a 

♦ bay' al-mu'awama (A) : in law, the purchase of the yield of palm-trees for two 
or three years in advance, an example of the sale of things which are not yet in exis- 
tence at the time of the contract and thus prohibited. X 467b 

♦ bay' al-mulamasa (A) : in law, a prohibited transaction concluded without the 
goods being seen or examined beforehand, the covered goods being simply touched 
with the hand. X 468a 

♦ bay' al-munabadha (A) : in law, a prohibited sale in which the exchange is irrev- 
ocably concluded by the two parties handing over the goods without seeing or testing 
them beforehand. Another form of this transaction is bay' al-hasat or bay' ilka 5 al- 
hadjar, when as a sign of the conclusion of the agreement, a small stone is handed over 
in place of the goods. X 468a 

♦ bay' al-muzabana (A) : in law, a transaction during which any goods the weight, 
size or number of which is not known is sold in bulk for a definite measure, weight 
or number of another commodity. It is a prohibited sale but according to Tradition, one 
exception was allowed, when a poor man who does not possess a palm-tree of his own, 
in order to procure for his family fresh dates, purchases for dried dates the fruit of a 
palm on the tree, but it has to be valued. Such a sale is termed bay' al-'araya. X 467b 

♦ bay' al-muzayada (A) : in law, an auction, which is only permitted in three cases: 
in direst poverty, in sickness or when deeply in debt. X 467b 

♦ bay' al-'urban (A), or bay' al-'urbun : in law, a form of prohibited sale in which 
an earnest-money is given which belongs to the vendor if the transaction is not carried 
through. X 467b 

♦ bay' bi'1-istighlal -»■ gharuka 

♦ al-bay' bi'1-wafa' (A) : in law, a 'conditional sale' of part of the plot of a debtor 
to the lender, to be nullified as soon as the debt is redeemed. XII 322b 

♦ bay'atan fi bay'a (A) : in law, a double sale, which is a legal device to get around 
the prohibition of interest. An example is the transaction called mukhatara, where e.g. 
the (prospective) debtor sells to the (prospective) creditor a slave for cash, and imme- 
diately buys the slave back from him for a greater amount payable at a future date; 
this amounts to a loan with the slave as security, and the difference between the two 
prices represents the interest. Ill 511b; VII 518b 

bay'a (A) : a term denoting, in a very broad sense, the act by which a certain number 
of persons, acting individually or collectively, recognise the authority of another per- 
son. I 1113a; II 302b; VI 205b 

♦ bay'at al-harb (A) : 'the pledge of war', the name of a promise given to the 
Prophet at 'the second 'Akaba' in 622 by seventy-three men and two women who 
promised to defend Muhammad, if necessary, by arms. I 314b; V 995b 

♦ bay'at al-nisa' (A) : 'the pledge of the women', the name of a meeting between 
the Prophet and twelve men from Medina at 'the first 'Akaba' in 621 where the latter 
formally accepted Islam and made certain promises. I 314b; V 995b 

♦ bay'at al-ridwan (A) : the name given to an oath of allegiance exacted by the 
Prophet from some of his followers during the Medinan period. XII 131a 

bayad (A) : 'blank book', a technical term in literature referring to a sort of anthology 

in the form of an informal notebook with poetical fragments. VII 529a 

In medicine, the affected skin of the leper. X 510a 
bayad (A), or bayyad : a silurus of the Nile, whose Arabic term is found again in the 

Latinised nomenclature to specify a sub-species limited to a particular region (Bagrus 

bajad). VIII 1021a 


bayan (A) : lucidity, distinctness, clarity. 

In rhetoric, a near syn. of balagha 'eloquence'; husn al-baydn means distinctiveness 

(of expression). I 1114a; VIII 614b; and -> al-ma c anI wa 'l-bayan 
bayat (A) : a night-attack (of a raiding group of Bedouin). II 1055b 
bayd al-kitt (A) : 'cat's testicles', in botany, the variety Astragalus sieberi of the genus 

Milk vetch. IX 653b 
bayda (A) : in clothing, properly an iron helmet (also khudha, < P /child) from their 

resemblance in shape to an ostrich egg, but, according to al-Kattani, also a turban. X 

611b; XII 735b; and -> mighfar 
baydak ->■ shatrandj 
bayina (A) : a bow which uses too long an arrow, this being considered a fault because 

it reduces the draw and consequently makes the shot less powerful. IV 798a 
bayirat (A) : in law, lands that have been abandoned, which raised the question whether 

such lands should pay land tax. IV 1036a 
bayn (U) : in Urdu poetry, the part of the elegy, marthiya, where the martyr's family, 

the poet himself and all believers are lamented. VI 611b 

♦ bayniyya (A) : 'intermediary'; in grammar, a division of consonants in between 
the occlusive and the constrictive, designating the letters ', I, m, n, r, w, y, alif. The 
term ~ is recent, from 1305/1887; the ancient practice was to say e.g. 'those which are 
between the shadIda 'occlusive' and the rikhwa 'constrictive". Ill 599a 

bayrakdar (T bayrak, P ddr) : 'standard-bearer', under the Ottomans, applied to vari- 
ous officers of both the 'feudal' and the 'standing' army and to certain hereditary chief- 
tains of Albania. I 1134b 

bayt (A, pi. buyut) : dwelling; covered shelter where one may spend the night. In pre- 
Islamic Arabia, the ~, or bayt sha'ar, was a tent of goat's hair and of average size. It 
served as a dwelling for breeders of small livestock (that is to say, of numerous 
Bedouin). I 1139b; II 113b; IV 1147a; and -> dar; ~ may sometimes designate a 
'sanctuary'; thus, when used with the definite article, al-bayt, or al-bayt al-hardm, al- 
bayt al-'atlk, it signifies the holy place at Mecca. I 1139b 

In prosody, ~ (pi. abydt) is a line of poetry consisting of two clearly distinct halves 
called misra'. I 668a; two hemistichs with between 16 and 30 syllables and a caesura. 
VIII 583a 

In the game of chess or backgammon, the term for a field on which a piece stands. 
VII 963a; IX 366b 

In archery, a sector or 'house' of the bow, thus the upper limb is called bayt a c ld, also 
called bayt al-ramy 'house of shooting' because the shot is made according to this 
plan. The lower limb is the 'lower house' {bayt asfal) or 'house of perpendicularity' 
{bayt al-iskdt), i.e. that which falls away towards the ground. IV 799a 

♦ bayt al-ibra -> ibra 

♦ bayt maftuh (A) : in architecture, a multi-courtyard house. VI 809a 

♦ bayt al-mal (A) : the 'fiscus' or treasury of the Muslim state. The notion of pub- 
lic as distinct from private ownership and the idea of properties and monies designed 
to serve the interests of the communities is said to have been introduced first by 'Urnar 
b. al-Khattab; coupled with the institution of the dIwan, it marks the starting point of 
the ~ as the state treasury. Previously the term designated the depository where money 
and goods were temporarily lodged pending distribution to their individual owners. In 
the administration of the later caliphate, the term makhzan seems to have almost 
replaced the ~, which reflects the proportionate increase of presentations in kind and 
the diminution of fiscal receipts in hard cash. I 1141b 

♦ bayt al-maldji (Alg) : the trustee of vacant estates, a member of the council gov- 
erned by the dey. I 368a 

BAYT — BEG 187 

♦ bayt al-sadjdjada (A) : in modern Egyptian usage, the central office of a sufi 
order, serving as the residence and the office of the order's shaykh or his senior aide, 
wakil. VIII 744a 

♦ bayt al-ta c a (A) : in Egypt and Sudan, the institution of police-executed enforced 
obedience of rebellious wives, abolished since the late 1960s. VIII 32a 

♦ al-abyat al-mushadjdjara (A) : in prosody, verses which can be read from begin- 
ning to end and from end to beginning. IX 461a 

baytar (A, < Gk) : veterinary surgeon. I 1149b 

bayyara (A) : a cesspool. V 1007a 

bayyaz (A), and bayydzl, biydz, bdziyy, bayzarl : Spanish-Maghribi terms for hawker, 
which frequently gave way to tayyar, or sakkar 'falconer'. I 1152b 

bayyina (A, pi. bayyindt) : clear, evident. 

In the Qur'an, ~ appears as a substantive, meaning 'manifest proof. I 1150b 
In law, ~ denotes the proof per excellentiam — that established by oral testimony — , 
although from the classical era the term came to be applied not only to the fact of giv- 
ing testimony at law but also to the witnesses themselves. I 1150b 

bayzara (A, < P bdzydr 'ostringer') : the art of the flying-hunt; falconry. I 1152a 

baz (T) : a common word for coarse cotton cloth in various Turkish dialects. V 557a 

baz (P) : in zoology, goshawk. I 1152a 

bazahr (A, < P pd(d)-zahr 'against poison') : bezoar, a remedy against all kinds of poi- 
sons, highly esteemed and paid for up to the 18th century. The bezoar-stone, a gall 
stone, is obtained from the bezoar-goat (Capra aegagrus Gin.). I 1155b 

bazand (A) : a pre-Islamic word for raised canal banks in mediaeval 'Irak. V 865a 

bazar (P, T pdzdr) : syn. of suk, in some villages in Afghanistan, ~ is used for the town 
itself, in its entirety. IX 789a 

♦ bazar-i khass (IndP) : in Muslim India, the market on the principal streets of the 
city. IX 800b 

♦ mina bazar (IndP) : in Muslim India during the Mughal period, a market in the 
nature of a fete, arranged in the palace, in which the ladies of the nobles set up shops 
and the Emperor, along with his queens, made purchases. IX 801a 

bazinkir (T or P) : slave-troops equipped with fire-arms; a term current during the late 

Khedivial and Mahdist periods in the Sudan. I 1156b 
bazirgan (T, < P 'merchant') : under the Ottomans, ~ was applied to Christian and 

especially Jewish merchants, some of whom held official appointments in the Ottoman 

palace or armed forces. I 1157a 

♦ bazirgan-bashi (T) : under the Ottomans, the chief purveyor of textiles to the 
Imperial household. I 1155b 

bazr (A, pi. buzur) : in anatomy, the clitoris. IV 913a 

♦ bazra' (A) : a woman who is affected by clitorism, or is believed to be so. An 
uncircumcised woman is called lakhnd'. Expressions such as ibn at— or ibn al-lakhnd' 
meaning in effect 'son of the uncumcised woman' are considered injurious. IV 913a 

bazuband -> sa'id 

bazz -> KUMASH 

bazzaz (A, T bezzdz) : a textile dealer, cloth merchant. V 559b; XII 756b 

bedestan (T), or bedesten, bezzdzistdn : the centre of a city's economic life as the place 

of business of the leading merchants, and the centre for financial transactions, where 

valuable imported wares were sold. IV 227a; X 414a 
bad'iyya (B) : in North Africa, a sleeveless vest for men; in Morocco, a sleeveless 

khaftan for women. V 745b 
beg (T) : a title, 'lord', used in a number of different ways. Under the Ilkhans, ~ was 

sometimes used for women, and under the Mughals the feminine form, begam(-> 


begum), was common. Under the Ottomans, ~ was in wide use for tribal leaders, high 
civil and military functionaries, and the sons of the great, particularly pashas. I 1159a; 
and -> bey; ulu beg 

♦ begum (IndP), and begam : feminine of beg, and an honorific title of the royal 
princesses under the Mughals. I 1161a 

♦ beglerbegi (T), or beylerbeyi : a title, 'beg of the begs', 'commander of the com- 
manders'. Originally designating 'commander-in-chief of the army', ~ came to mean 
provincial governor and finally was no more than an honorary rank. I 1159b; II 722a ff. 

♦ beglerbegilik (T) : a term used for an administrative division in the Ottoman 
empire until it was replaced by eyalet. Thereafter, - continued to be used for the 
office of a beglerbegi. II 722a 

bekci (T) : a watchman who, by a decree of 1107/1695, patrolled the quarters, mahalle 
(-> mahalla), in Ottoman Istanbul with a lantern in his hands and arrested any 
strangers found there after the bed-time prayer. The ~ became a characteristic figure in 
the folklore of Istanbul. IV 234b 

beledi -> kassam 

balgha (B) : flat slippers, usually pointed at the toe, but sometimes rounded, worn by 
both sexes in North Africa. V 745b 

beluk : a vocal art in West Java which marks religious, family and agrarian rites, and 
which is in the course of disappearing. VIII 153b 

belwo (Somali) : in Somali literature, a genre of poetry dealing specifically with the 
theme of love, developed during the late 1940s and 1950s, which grew into an impor- 
tant vehicle for the expression of nationalist, anti-colonial feeling. A similar genre is 
heello. IX 726a 

ben-'amma (A) : among the Arabs of Transjordania, a form of agreement, the object of 
which is to establish a state of peace between tribes. Ill 389a 

bendahara (Mai) : the Chief Minister in Malay sultanates, the highest dignitary after the 
sultan. He is followed by the penghulu bendahari, who is responsible for maintain- 
ing the sacred traditions, the temenggung, responsible for security, and the laksamana, 
the supervisor of the fleet. IX 852a 

bender (A) : in music, a sort of big tambourine without bells. IV 382b 

benlak -> bennak 

bennak (T, < A banaka ?), or benlak : an Ottoman poll tax paid by married peasants 
possessing a piece of land less than half a cift (-> ciftlik) or no land. The former were 
also called simply ~, or in full ekinlii bennak. I 1169b; II 32b; and -* djaba 

ber (K) : the Kurdish clan, formed by the union of many extended families, bavik. A 
collection of ~ constitutes the tribe. V 472a 

berat (T, < A bara'a) : a term in Ottoman Turkish denoting a type of order issued by 
the sultan. In its more limited sense, ~ meant also 'a deed of grant', 'a writ for the 
appointment to hold an office'. All appointments throughout the empire whether that of 
a high-ranking pasha, even that of the Syrian Church bishops, or that of a low -rank- 
ing employee of a mosque, were effected by a ~. Its constant attribute was sherif or 
humdyun 'imperial'. I 1170a 

♦ beratli (T) : holder of a berat; a term applied in the late 18th and early 19th 
centuries to certain non-Muslim subjects of the Ottoman empire, who held berdts, con- 
ferring upon them important commercial and fiscal privileges. These berdts were dis- 
tributed by the European diplomatic missions in abusive extension of their rights under 
capitulation. I 1171b 

barbukji (Alg) : a variety of couscous, with fine grain, eaten cold, without butter, and 

moistened with a little milk. V 528a 
beshlik -> ceyrek 

BESTE — BlGAR 189 

beste (T) : a vocal composition in four verses each followed by the same melodic pas- 
sage. IX 876a 

bey (T) : var. of beg, title given to the sons of pashas, and of a few of the highest civil 
functionaries, to military and naval officers of the rank of colonel or lieutenant colonel, 
and popularly, to any persons of wealth, or supposed distinction. I 1159a; II 507b; V 
631a; the name applied to the ruler of Tunisia until 26 July 1957 when Bey Lamine 
was deposed and the Republic was proclaimed. I 1 1 10b 

♦ beylerbeyi -»■ beglerbegi 

♦ beylik (T) : a term denoting both the title and post (or function) of a bey, and 
the territory (or domain) under his rule. Later, by extension, it came to mean also 
'state, government', and, at the same time, a political and administrative entity some- 
times enjoying a certain autonomy. In North Africa, the term is used in the former 
Ottoman possessions, but not in Morocco or in the Sahara, and refers to government 
and administrative authority at every stage. I 1191a; II 338b 

In Ottoman administration, the most important of three offices into which the Ottoman 
chancellery was divided, the ~ saw to the despatch of imperial rescripts, orders of the 
viziers, and in general all ordinances other than those of the department of finance. 
VIII 482a 

beza : a type of salt in the salt works near Bilma, in Niger, ~ is in the form of crystals 
and, not treated in any way, is used for human consumption. I 1221b 

bezzazistan -> bedestan 

bhakti (H) : a north Indian movement, sometimes seen incorrectly as a Hindu reaction 
seeking to strengthen Hinduism against the advancing pressure of conversions to Islam. 
Ill 456b 

bhang (< San bhahga, A bandj, P bang) : in India, a product of the dried leaves of 
hemp reduced to powder and mixed with flour and spices, originally eaten but later 
more commonly smoked. Ill 266b; VI 814b 

bi-la kayf (A) : lit. without how, i.e. without specifying manner or modality; in theology, 
a doctrine taking a central position between those who interpreted the anthropomorphic 
expressions in the Qur'an literally and those who interpreted them metaphorically. I 333b 

bi-shar' (bishar') (P) : lit. without law, i.e. rejecting not only the ritual but also the 
moral law of Islam; one of the two categories into which dervishes in Persia are 
divided. The other is ba-shar'. The term seems primarily to denote the adepts of the 
Malamatiyya sufi sect. I 1239b; II 164b 

bi c a -> kanIsa 

bibi (T) : originally, 'little old mother', 'grandmother', 'woman of high rank', ~ was 
used in Ottoman Turkish in the sense of 'woman of consequence', 'lady', and in 13th- 
century Khurasan as a title for women of distinction. I 1197b 

bid c a (A) : innovation, a belief or practice for which there is no precedent in the time 
of the Prophet. I 1199a; IV 141b 

♦ bid'at (T) : dues in contradiction to the shari'a or to Ottoman administrative prin- 
ciples, which nevertheless continued to be levied either by the State or TlMAR-holders, 
e.g. the bid'at-i khinzir 'pig-tax' which provided the treasury with a large revenue. II 
147a; VIII 486b 

♦ bid'at marfu'e (T) : in Ottoman administration, pre-conquest taxes and dues that 
were abolished by the sultan's specific order. VIII 486b 

♦ bid'at ma'rufe (T) : in Ottoman administration, pre-conquest taxes and dues that 
were customarily recognized. VIII 486b 

bidar (A) : in Oman and Trucial Oman the official subordinate to the 'arif, the latter 

being in charge of the water distribution. IV 532a 
bigar -> hashar 

190 BIGHA — BlRUN 

bigha : a standard measure of area in Muslim India, divided into twenty bIswa. The ~ 
varied considerably by region, with a distinction between a larger (pakka) and a 
smaller (kacca) measure. VII 140a 

bigha' (A) : the Qur'anic term for prostitution. XII 133a 

bikasin ->■ shunkub 

bikr (A) : a virgin girl. Ill 17a; X 901b 

billawr (A, < Gk ?) : in mineralogy, rock-crystal. I 1220b 

bilmedje (T) : the name given to popular riddles among the Ottoman Turks. I 1222a 

bilyun (Mor), or gersh : a coin with the value of a twentieth of a douro or riyal. Ill 

bimaristan (P) : a hospital; in modern usage, a lunatic asylum. I 1222b 

bina' (A) : building, the art of the builder or mason. I 1226a 

In grammar, the state of a word that is fixed to one final short vowel or to none at all, 
and thus the opposite of i'rab. Ill 1249b; and ->■ wazn 

binbashi (T) : 'head of a thousand'; a Turkish military rank. It appears as early as 
729/1328-29 among the Western Turks. Although it was not much used in the regular 
Ottoman forces of the classical period, it reappeared in the 18th century when it des- 
ignated the officers of the newly raised treasury-paid force of infantry and cavalry. 
From the end of the 18th century, it became a regular rank in the new European-style 
armies. I 1229a; VIII 370b 

binish (T) : a kind of very full caftan with wide sleeves, worn most frequently as a trav- 
elling or riding garment in the Ottoman period. V 752a; all public appearances of the 
sultan, whether on horseback or in a boat. VIII 529a 

binn : a Druze term denoting one of a number of earlier races or sects, said to have 
been a group of inhabitants of Hadjar in the Yemen who believed in the message of 
Shatnil, the incarnation of Hamza in the Age of Adam. XII 135b 

bint (A, pi. banat) : daughter. 

♦ bint labun (A) : a female camel in its third year. XI 412a 

♦ bint makhad (A) : a female camel in its second year. XI 412a 

♦ banat na'sh (A) : in astronomy, the Plough (8e£t| Ursae Majoris). VII 51a 

bi'r (A, pi. abyar) : well; cistern, reservoir; even any hole or cavity dug in the ground, 
whether containing water or not. I 538b; I 1230a 

birdhawn (A, pi. barddhin) : in zoology, 'of common parentage', one of four classi- 
fications of a horse, usually used for the draught-horse or pack-horse. II 785b; nag of 
non-Arab stock. IV 1 143b; IV 1 146a 

birdjas (A) : during the early 'Abbasid period, a kind of equestrian game, in which the 
contestant had to get his lance-point through a metal ring fixed to the top of a wooden 
column, thus revealing his skill or otherwise in controlling his horse and aiming his 
weapon. IV 265b 

birindj ->• shabah 

birindjasaf ->■ shIh 

birka (A) : an external cistern; fish pond. VIII 816a; VIII 1022a 

At Fez and Rabat and in Tunisia, a special (slave) market, existing until well into the 
20th century. I 35a 

birkish ->■ abu barakish 

birr (A) : a Qur'anic term meaning 'pious goodness'. I 1235b; charitable gift. VIII 712a 

birsam : in medicine, pleurisy. IX 9b 

birsim (A) : in botany, Egyptian clover. VI 163a 

birun (P) : outside; in Ottoman Turkish, the name given to the outer departments and 
services of the Ottoman imperial household, in contrast to the inner departments, 
known as enderun. The ~ was thus the meeting-point of the court and the state and, 


besides palace functionaries, included a number of high officers and dignitaries con- 
cerned with the administrative, military, and religious affairs of the empire. I 1236a; II 

bisat (A, pi. bust, busut, absita) : a generic term for carpet. XII 136a 

bisbas -> basbas 

bish -> AKUNlTUN 

bishar' -> bI-shar c 

bishara (A) : equivalent used for Greek evangelium 'announcement of good news', found 
for the first time in Freytag's Arabic-Latin dictionary. XII 772a 

bisht (A) : a mantle, jacket, worn by both sexes in Syria and Palestine. V 740b 

bissasfaltus -» mumiya' 

biswa : a standard measure of area used in Muslim India, divided into twenty blswdnsd. 
In turn, twenty -was one bigha. The ~ varied considerably by region. VII 140a 

bit' (A) : mead, an alcoholic drink consisting of a mixture of honey and wine. The 
Egyptians used to be very fond of it in mediaeval times. VI 720a; VII 907b; hydromel. 
IV 998a 

biti (T) : an Ottoman sultan's order, more or less obsolete after 1500. I 1170a 

bitikci (T) : secretaries in Mongolian Persia, especially in the military administration, 
who were especially knowledgeable in Turkish or Mongolian. It was their task to trans- 
late into these two languages original documents probably written in Persian, and in 
'Irak also in Arabic. I 1248b; IV 757a 

bitrik (A, < L Patricius) : patriciate; an honorary dignity, not connected with any office, 
and conferred for exceptional services to the state. In the history of the Arabs before 
Islam, only two Ghassanid dynasts, viz. al-Harith b. Djabala and his son al-Mundhir, 
are known to have received this much coveted Roman honour. The term found its 
way into Muslim literature, and in the military annals of Arab-Byzantine relations, it 
became the regular term for a Byzantine commander. I 1249b; V 620a 

bittikh ('ayn) al-nims -> nims 

biwe resmi (T) : under the Ottomans, the ispendje tax paid by widows at the rate of 6 
akCes per person. II 146b 

bocca : a mini-community, specific to the Wansharis massif in central Algeria, whose 
administrative coverage often corresponds to a cleared area. XI 139a 

boliik (T) : in Eastern Turkish and in Persian, ~ designated a province or region. I 

In Ottoman Turkey, from the time of the reforms on, ~ designated units of infantry or 
cavalry of the standing army. I 102a; I 1256a; II 1097b; II 1121a; and -> dort boluk 

♦ boluk-bashi (T) : the title given to the commanders of the boluks of the agha. 
The ~ was mounted and had an iron mace and a shield tied to his saddle; when the 
sultan left the Palace for the mosque, the ~ was present wearing ornate clothes and 
holding in his hand a reed instead of a spear. I 1256b 

bork (T) : the most widespread Turkish head-gear in Ottoman Turkey, the ~ was in a 
cone or helmet shape, raised in front and decorated at the base with gold braid; officers 
wore it decorated in addition with a plume. V 751b 

boru (T), and nefir : a trumpet without holes which could produce five notes within an 
ambitus of one and a half octaves. Older borus were apparently made of bronze, but 
by the 10th/ 16th century brass was in use. VI 1007b 

bostandji (T, < P bustan 'garden') : a term applied in the old Ottoman state organisa- 
tion to people employed in the flower and vegetable gardens, as well as in the 
boathouses and rowing-boats of the sultan's palaces. The ~s formed two odjaks 'army 
units'. I 1277b; IV 1100b; soldier-gardener. X 568b 

♦ bostandji-bashi (T) : the senior officer of the odjak of the bostandjis. As the 


person responsible for the maintenance of law and order on the shores of the Golden 
Horn, the Sea of Marmora and the Bosphorus, he used to patrol the shores in a boat 
with a retinue of 30 men, as well as inspect the countryside and forests around 
Istanbul. He was very close to the sultan. I 1278b 

brim -> 'akal; hakw 

budala' -»■ abdal 

budd (A, P but; pi. bidada) : a temple, pagoda; Buddha; an idol. I 1283b 

budjadi (A, < abdjdd) : in North Africa, used for 'beginner', literally, 'one still at the 
abecedarian stage'. I 98a 

budna -> sinam 

buduh (A) : an artificial talismanic word formed from the elements of the simple three- 
fold magic square. The uses of the word are most various, to invoke both good and 
bad fortune, but by far the most common use is to ensure the arrival of letters and 
packages. II 370a; XII 153a 

bughat (A, s. bdghl) : 'rebels'; in law, sectarian-minded Muslims who reject the author- 
ity of the ruler, considered by the Zaydis and Imamis as unbelievers, but by the Sunnis 
as erring Muslims. IV 772a; IX 205a 

bughtak : a bonnet worn by Ilkhanid princesses. It consisted of a light wood frame cov- 
ered with silk, from the top of which protruded a long feather. The ~ could be orna- 
mented with gold and precious stones and sometimes had a long train which hung 
down behind. V 748b; X 611b 

buhar (A) : in zoology, the diacope, whose Arabic term is found again in the Latinised 
nomenclature to specify a sub-species limited to a particular region (Diacope bohar). 
VIII 1021a 

buhayra (A, dim. of bahrd) : lake. In North Africa, ~ (bherd) denotes a low-lying plain; 
its most common meaning, however, is 'vegetable garden, field for market gardening'. 
I 1288a 
In Almohad times, ~ meant an irrigated garden. I 1288a 

buhur ->■ BAHR 

buk (A) : in music, the generic name for any instrument of the horn or trumpet family. 
I 1290b; a kind of reed-pipe that became quite famous in Western Europe. The origi- 
nal ~ was a horn or clarion, and was made of horn or metal. Pierced with holes for 
fingering, and played with a reed, the ~ evolved into a new type of instrument, some- 
what similar to the modern saxophone. VII 207b 

buk'a (A), or bak'a : a region which is distinguishable from its surroundings, more par- 
ticularly a depression between mountains. I 1292b; a patch of ground marked out from 
adjoining land by a difference in colour, etc. or a low-lying region with stagnant water. 
XII 154a 

In the central and eastern parts of the Islamic world, ~ acquired the sense of 'dervish 
convent', 'mausoleum' or in general 'a building for pious, educational or charitable 
purposes'. IX 474b; XII 154a 

bukala (Alg) : a two-handled pottery vase used by women in the course of the divina- 
tory practices to which it gave its name. I 1292b; HI 290a 

bukalamun (A) : a coloured (violet, red and green) cloth, with a moire, watered-silk 
effect, produced in the Tinnis workshops and especially prized by the Fatimid court in 
Cairo. X 532a 

bukhl (A) : avarice, the person who practices it being called bakhll or, less often, bdkhil. 
I 1297b 

bukht (A, s. bukhti, pi. bakhdti) : in zoology, the species produced as a result of the 
crossing of two-humped stallions with Arab female camels; it did not breed and was 
mainly used as a beast of burden. Ill 665 b 


bukir (A) : in zoology, a kind of bird. I 168b 

bukra -> ghudwa 

buku (Sw?) : in zoology, the Zanzibar Pouched Rat (cricetomys gambianus Cosensi), 

reported to be nearly three feet long from snout to the end of the tail. XI 448b 
bukubulbis (A) : in zoology, the barbel. VIII 1021a 
bularghuci -> yurtC! 
bulbul (A) : in zoology, the Syrian nightingale. I 541b; I 1301a 

♦ bulbula ->■ ibrIk 

bulka (A) : in mineralogy, piebaldness, uneven colouring which is a defect or impurity 

in a gem. XI 263a 
bullayk (A) : in prosody, term used by Safi al-Din al-Hilli for a zadjal that is jocular 

or obscene. XI 373b 
buluk (P, pi. bulukdf) : a district, in particular a district watered by river water. V 873b f. 
bumi ->■ ZAMINDAR 
bunbuk -» khinzir al-bahr 

bunduk (A) : in botany, the parasol pine. V 50b; and -» raws al-bunduk 
bunica (P) : in Persia, a group assessment, on the basis of which taxes were levied 

on the craft guilds. The tax based on this assessment was subsequently allocated among 

the individual members of the guild. This form of tax was abolished in 1926. II 151b; 

the right to exercise a trade, given to some guilds, was called hakk al-~. IX 645b 
bunit ->■ balamida 
bunn (A) : in zoology, the carp. VIII 1023a; and -»■ kahwa 

♦ bunni al-Nll (A) : in zoology, the Nile barbel, whose Arabic term is found again 
in the Latinised nomenclature to specify a sub-species limited to a particular region (Barbus 
bynni). VIII 1021b 

burak -» bawrak 

burd -»■ burda 

burda (A), or burd : a wrap of striped woollen cloth produced in the Yemen, before 
and during the Prophet's time, usually worn by men. I 1314b; III 316a; V 734a 

burdj (A, pi. burudj) : a square or round tower, whether adjacent to a rampart or iso- 
lated and serving as a bastion or dungeon; masonry pier of a bridge. I 1315a; a move- 
able tower, used as a siege instrument. Ill 473a; a pigeon-house. Ill 109a 
In astronomy, each of the twelve signs of the zodiac. I 1315a; and -»■ mintakat al- 
In music, ~ denotes a mode. I 1315a 

♦ burdj-i kabutar (P) : pigeon towers, the construction of which on the fertile plain 
around Isfahan was encouraged by Shah 'Abbas so that he could heavily tax the guano 
harvest. XII 457a 

burdjas (A) : a chivalrous duel with lances, an equestrian sport regularly practised in the 
6th-7th/12th-13th centuries. II 954a 

burdjin (A) : in botany, the name of one of five varieties of the red jujube; it has small 
fruits with a violent astringency, spreads on the ground and grows to the height of sit- 
ting. X 868b 

burdjuma (A) : 'knuckle'; in its plural form, baradjim, was the term for five (or six or 
four) components of the Hanzala b. Malik group, the less numerous ones, against their 
brothers, three other sons of Hanzala, X 173b 

burghul (A, T bulgur) : crushed wheat, considered a dish of the poor. II 1067a 

burghuth (A) : in zoology, fleas, diptera of the pulex family. IV 522a 

♦ burghuth al-ma' (A) : in zoology, the water-beetle (Daphnia pulex). VIII 1022a 
burhan (A) : decisive proof, clear demonstration; a Qur'anic term signifying a brilliant 

manifestation, a shining light from God. In correlation, ~ is also the decisive proof 


which the infidels are called upon to furnish as justification of their false beliefs. I 


In law, ~ refers to the quality of certitude (based upon an argument of authority, which 

can be either a scriptual text or the eye-witnessing of an obvious fact) which is proper 

to reasoning 'in two terms', in order to prove the radical distinction between or the 

identity of two comparable 'things'; it is found especially in al-S_hafi'i, Ibn Hanbal and 

Dawud. I 1326b 

In logic, ~ came to designate syllogistic demonstration. I 1327a 
buri (A) : in zoology, the grey mullet. I 168b; VIII 1023a 
burku' (A) : in early Islam, a woman's face veil consisting of a fabric suspended from 

the centre front of the headband by a string creating a mask-like effect. It is still worn 

by married women among the Sinai Bedouin. V 735a 

In military science, a chamfron or armour for the horse's head (syn. kashka, sari, tishtaniyya). 

XII 739a 
burnus (A) : a sort of high cap or bonnet, worn in the Prophet's time. Already this early, 

the ~ must also have designated by extension a woollen hooded cloak. V 734b; X 612a 
burt (A, < L portus) : 'gate', the northeastern border of Muslim Spain, called as such 

by the geographers, although they differed as to where it lay. I 1337a 
burtukal, burtukaliyyat -> narandj 
burtul[la] (A; P pertele) : in clothing, a high cap; with the pronunciation bartala, a low 

skullcap. In modern parlance, it means the taqj of a bishop. X 612a 
burume (T) : 'one with a coat of mail', in the Ottoman army, a qJEBELI who held a 

timar of above 2,000 akCes. II 528b; a coat of mail consisting of linked steel rings 

that a djebelii who enjoyed a timar above 3,000 akCes. X 503a 
bus (A) : a term used in addition to the general term lawn 'colour' for a notion of 

brightness, of clear colour. V 699b 
bush (A) : a variety of 'aba' made in North Syria. V 740b 

♦ bushi (A), or pushi : a black face veil worn by women in Iraq. V 740b 
bushaki -»• fIruzadj 

busht (A) : woollen wraps. IX 765a 

busr -> TAMR 

bussadh -»• marqjan 

bustan -> bostanqj! 

butak (A, pi. bawatik) : in chemistry, a melting-pot. V 114b 

butta (A) : a measure used in Egypt for weighing flour. The ~ was equal to 50 Egyptian 
ratls, i.e. 22.245 kg. VI 119a 

biiyiik kirpi -> kunfudb 

buyuruldu (T) : an order of an Ottoman grand vizier, vizier, beglerbegi, defterdar 
(-»■ daftardar), or other high official to a subordinate. A ~ is of two main types: a 
decision written in the margin of an incoming petition or report, or an order issued 
independently. It deals with various administrative matters, especially appointments, grants 
of fiefs, economic regulations, safe-passage, etc. I 1357b 

buyutat (P) : under the Safawids, the Royal Household, which was divided into a num- 
ber of offices and workshops. II 335a; in Muslim Spain, the most influential families. 
XI 191b 

buz (A) : snout. 

♦ abu buz -> abu bCz 

buz-kashi (P) : in Afghanistan, the equestrian sport of 'goat-dragging'. IV 1144b 

buzuk -»• tunbur 

buzurg -»• badj-i buzurg; shashmakom 


cabutra (P) : in Mughal architecture, a platform. X 59b 

cadirkhayal (T) : one of two varieties of puppet theatre in Central Asia, a marionette 

show with full-bodied miniature marionettes suspended and activated from above on 

strings. VI 765a 
cadur -> ru band; shawdar 
caghana (T) : in music, the 'Jingling Johnny' (Fr chapeau chinois, Ger Schellenbaum), 

now superseded by the portable glockenspiel. X 37b 
cahar (P) : four. 

♦ cahar bagh (P) -» bagh 

♦ cahar suk -» suk 

♦ cahar tak (P) : the mostly diminutive Sasanian fire temple with four axial arched 
openings. Set in the midst of a large open space, it served to house the sacred fire. 
This layout obviously lent itself to Muslim prayer, and literary sources recount how 
such fire temples were taken over and converted into mosques. The domed chamber, 
characteristic of Iranian mosques, derives from the ~. VI 684a 

♦ cahartar -»■ tar 

caklr (T) : a merlin and falcon, one of the birds of prey making up the traditional sport 
of hawking at the Ottoman court. The others were the shdhin 'peregrine falcon' and 
the atmaaja 'sparrow-hawk'. II 614b 

♦ cakirdji-bashi (T) : chief falconer, a high official of the Ottoman court and head 
of the whole organisation of hawking. II 6a; II 614b 

cakshir (T, A shakshlr) : Turkish-style pantaloons, underdrawers, worn by both sexes in 
Egypt, Syria and Palestine. V 740b 

calish -»■ SHALISH 

calpara -»■ musaffahat 

candi : a temple of either Hindu or Buddhist intention, ultimately of Indian origin but 
modified by Indonesian religious concepts. The ~ has been proposed as one of the ori- 
gins of the basic Indonesian mosque. VI 701b 

cankri : a word used in Lak society to designate children of marriages between bagtals 
and women of lower social orders. V 618a 

cao (P, < Ch ts'au) : the name given to paper currency in circulation in Iran for about 
two months in 693/1294. It was made of the bark of the mulberry tree, was oblong in 
shape, and bore the shahada. II 14a 

capar -»■ alp 

capuk -* TUTUN 

carkh -» sang 

♦ carkh-kaman (P) : a multiple-firing arbalest, borrowed from the Mongols. IV 798a 
carkhadji -»■ karaghul 

carpara -»■ musaffahat 

carshi (T) : in Ottoman times, common term for both individual business locales and 
covered markets, which may encompass over a hundred shops, contrasting with pdzar, 
an open-air market held once or several times a week. IX 796b 

cartar -»■ tar 

cashna-gir (P, A dhawwdk) : 'taster', the title of an official, generally an amIr, at the 
court of the Muslim sovereigns from the time of the Saldjuks. The title does not appear 
to be found under previous dynasties, although caliphs and princes did undoubtedly 
have overseers for their food. The term ~ is also found as the name of a kind of crys- 
tal decanter. II 15a 


♦ cashnagir-bashi (T) : 'chief taster', a high official at the Ottoman court. A doc- 
ument dated 883/1478-9 lists 12 tasters as subordinate to the ~. Later, the number 
employed rose considerably, reaching as high as 117. By the 18th century, the ~ had 
clearly fallen in status and had responsibilities more related to the preparation of food. 
II 15a; an Ottoman court dignitary, whose duty it was to assist the sultan in mounting 
his horse by holding him under the arm or under the armpit. VIII 529b 

catr (P), or citr : a term used in the Iranian cultural sphere to designate a parasol held 
over the sovereign and considered as one of the insignia of rank. In this, it is the syn- 
onym of the Arabic mizalla. VII 192b; the variant citr gave rise to the Arabicised 
forms ajitr and shitr which were used in the Mamluk sultanate. VII 192a 

ca'ush (T) : officials staffing the various Ottoman Palace departments; low-ranking mil- 
itary personnel. In Uygur, ~ refers to a Tou-kiu ambassador. In North Africa, it is still 
seen in its Arabic form of sha'ush, where it means a court usher or mace-bearer. II 16a 
Under the ancient Turks, the Saldjuks, the Ayyubids and the Mamluks, the ~ formed 
a privileged body under the direct command of the ruler; under the Ottomans, they 
were part of the official ceremonial escort of the sultan on his departure from the 
palace or when he had an audience with foreign dignitaries. Their services were also 
used as ambassadors or envoys by the sultan or his grand vizier. The ranks of ~ and 
ca'ush wekili were used in the cavalry and the navy at the beginning of the 19th cen- 
tury. After the army reorganisation in 1241/1826, a ~ held the equivalent rank of a 
sergeant. II 16a 

In certain religious sects, the term designates a grade in the hierarchy of the sect. II 

cawgan (P) : the stick used in polo. The term is also used in a wider sense for the game 
itself, which originated in Persia and was generally played on horseback, though some- 
times on foot; ~ was also used for any stick with the end bent back, particularly those 
for beating drums. II 16b 

cawk : in Muslim India, a market usually located at places where four roads met. IX 

cay (P) : tea, introduced to sultan Mawlay Isma'il in Morocco in ca. 1700; ~ is vari- 
ously termed atay, tdy, shay and shahl, in different parts of the Islamic world. II 17b 

♦ cay-khana (P) : lit. tea-house, ~ covers a range of establishments in Iran serving 
tea and light refreshments. The term kahwa-khana 'coffee-house' is used synony- 
mously, although coffee is never served. XII 169a 

cebken ->■ Cepken 

cedik (T) : an indoor shoe with a low leg, worn in the Ottoman period. It was most 
often made in yellow Moroccan leather, with a supple sole. V 752b 

cektiri -*■ bashtarda 

celebi (T) : a term of unknown origin applied to men of the upper classes in Turkey 
between the end of the 13th and the beginning of the 18th century, as a title primar- 
ily given to poets and men of letters, but also to princes and heads of a sufi order; ~ 
is the most general title of the head of the Mawlawi order of dervishes. II 19a; VI 
883a; its Syrian and Egyptian variant, shalabi or djalabl, has the meaning of 'barbar- 
ian'. II 19a 

celtukdji (T) : in the Ottoman empire, a rice grower with a special status as labourer of 
the sultan on the state's rice fields. They are also listed in the surveys as kiirekdfi or 
ortakaji. The condition of a ~ was quite onerous, since apart from the hardships borne 
by him in irrigating and cultivating the rice, he had to surrender half of his production 
to the state treasury. V 880a 

cepken (T), or cebken, sallama : a short caftan with sleeves, buckled and bordered, worn 
as an outer garment in the Ottoman period. V 752a; XI 494a 


ceshme (T, < P) : one of two kinds of water fountains (->■ sabIl) in Istanbul. The - is 
self-service, the water being received from a tap above a basin, while the other, called 
sebil, is served by an attendant behind a grill. The ~s of Istanbul are mural fountains 
which consist of a recessed niche framed by a rectangle with a protruding basin, made 
of carved white marble. II 26a; VIII 682a 

cewgan (T) : a crescent-shaped, jingling rattle with bells, one of two types of brass per- 
cussion supporting the drum of the musical ensemble mehter. VI 1008a 

ceyrek (T, < P caharyak) : a quarter of an hour; a coin, also known as beshlik, or five 
piastre piece. The silver ~ had a fineness of 830, weighed 6.13 grams and measured 
24 mm in diameter. II 28b 

chadjdja : an architectural feature found in Indian mosques, namely, the eaves pent to 
throw off monsoon water and increase shade. VI 690b 

chatri (H, < San, dim. of chattra) : lit. umbrella; an Indo-Muslim architectural form of 
the Chattra, sc. small, canopied structures placed at the junctions of the chemin de 
ronde of a fortification, or as decorative elements at roof level on mosque, tomb or 
other building, or as simple cover of an inhumation less imposing than a tomb proper. 
The characteristic form is that of a domed canopy supported on four strong pillars, with 
heavy protecting eaves. Ill 442b ff.; VII 195a 

chattra ->■ chatrI 

cheng (Ch) : a Chinese musical instrument which was probably not used by Islamic peo- 
ples, although known to them. The ~ was made of tubes of reed joined together. It was 
blown through a tube and the notes were obtained by fingerholes. VII 208b 

chiao-chu -► tao-chang 

chundawand (H) : a custom among Indian Muslims by which the group, being the sons 
of each wife, is entitled to its allotted portion of the inheritance until the extinction of 
its last member. I 172a 

cift-resmi (T) : the basic land tax in the Ottoman empire paid in principle by every 
Muslim peasant possessing one cift (->■ Ciftlik). Depending upon the fertility of the 
soil, it was originally levied in the lands conquered from the Byzantines in Western 
Anatolia and Thrace, on both Muslim and Christian peasants alike, although in other 
parts of the empire, the Christians were subjected to a different tax. The Kanunname 
of Mehemmed II specifies that the rate of the tax was 22 akCes, the equivalent of 
seven services for the TlMAR-holder. II 32a; VII 507b; VIII 486b 

cifte nakkare ->■ nakkara 

ciftlik (T, < P djuft 'pair' + Turkish suffix life), or cift : farm. 

In Ottoman times it designated, at first, a certain unit of agricultural land in the land- 
holding system, and then, later on, a large estate. Originally, it was thought of as the 
amount of land that could be ploughed by a pair of oxen; it applied to a holding of 
agricultural land comprising 60 or 80 to 150 donums, the size depending upon the fer- 
tility of the soil. In the Slav areas of the Ottoman empire, the term bashtina was often 
substituted for ~. II 32b 

cihra (U) : descriptive rolls for the soldiers of the Indian army, introduced by Akbar to 
check evasions of military obligations. XII 176b 

In Urdu poetry, ~ denotes the introductory verses of the elegy, marthiya, setting the 
tone with no restrictions as to details. VI 611b 

cile -» DEDE 

cilim -> NARDJlLA 

cilia (P, A al-arba'iniyya) : a quadragesimal fast. 1 1 122a; forty days of spiritual confinement 
in a lonely corner or cell for prayer and contemplation; one of the five main Ci&hti sufi 
practices adopted in order to harness all feelings and emotions in establishing commu- 
nion with God. II 55b; IV 991a 


♦ cilla-i ma'kus (P) : the inverted Cilla, performed by tying a rope to one's feet 
and having one's body lowered into a well, and by offering prayers in this posture for 
forty days. II 55b 

cimshirlik -> kafes 

ciragh (T, pi. ciraghan) : a means of illumination, such as candle, torch or lamp. 
Cirdghdn festivities, in which tulip gardens were illuminated with lamps and candles, 
were held at a palace on the European side of the Bosphorus of the same name. II 49a 

cit (P, T, H chini) : chintz, a popular British imitation of Indian muslin that enjoyed 
demand in the Ottoman empire after 1780. V 564a 

citak (Serb 'coarse', pi. citaci) : in some parts of southern Serbia and Bulgaria, desig- 
nation of Bulgarian Muslims, said sometimes to be only given to Serbs converted to 
Islam; ~ seems to be, however, limited to Turks in the two countries. VIII 320a; in for- 
mer Yugoslavia, the designation of Muslims speaking Serbo-Croat, Macedonian or 
Albanian, who are largely of South Slavonic stock converted to Islam under the 
Ottomans from the 9th/15th century onwards. An alternative, gadjal, was used less 
often by also pejoratively. X 697b ff. 

citr -> Catr 

cizme (T) : the most widespread shoes in Turkey during the Ottoman period, with a high 
leg reaching up as far as the knee and a supple sole. V 752b 

cogiir -> Cugur 

corbadji (T) : lit. soup-provider; the commander of eight units of infantry or cavalry, 
boluk, in the Galipoli odjak. I 1256a; the title applied among the Janissaries to com- 
manders of the ortas and the agha boliikleri. The title of ~ was also given to the vil- 
lage notables who entertained travellers. Later, until a half-century ago, it became an 
appellation of merchants and rich Christians. II 61b; VIII 178b 

♦ corbadji kecesi (T) : the crested headdress generally worn on ceremonial occa- 
sions by the Corbadji, also called kalafat. Its crest was made either of cranes' feath- 
ers or of herons' feathers. II 61b 

♦ corbadji yamaghi (T) : the aide to the Corbadji. II 61b 

cot (P) : the pair of oxen used for labour; the work carried out by the peasant in one 

day. V 473a 
cub (P) : wood; and -> tutun 

♦ cub-i cini (P) : the china root, considered a universal cure, and which the Safawid 
physician 'Imad al-Din stated cured infertility, opium addiction, baldness, rheumatism 
and haemorrhoids. VIII 783b; X 457b 

cugur (T) : a musical instrument of the pandore type, with five strings and a wooden 
belly. It was invented by Ya'kub Germiyani of Kutahiya, and was used by the 
Janissaries. X 626a; as gogiir, a variant of the saz 'lute', originally from eastern 
Turkey and Adharbaydjan, characterised by a shorter neck and with a total length of 
about 100 cm. IX 120a 

cukadar (T) : in the Ottoman empire, a valet-de-chambre at the palace. IX 706b 

cul : loess dune. IX 431a 

cumak (T) : the club or mace. X 595a 

cupan (P) : 'herdsman, shepherd', a term adopted by Turkish peoples in close contact 
with the Iranian language-area. II 69a, where also can be found many words, chiefly 
plant names, in which coban forms a compound 

♦ cupanbegl (P) : a tax on flocks and herds, levied in 9th/15th-century Persia. It was 
possibly synonomous with kubCur. IV 1042a 

CUptik -► TUTUN 


dabb (A) : in zoology, the thorn-tail lizard {Uromastix spinipes). II 70a 

dabba (A, pi. dawdbb) : in zoology, any living creature which keeps its body horizon- 
tal as it moves, generally a quadruped, in particular, a beast of burden or pack animal: 
horse, donkey, mule, or camel. II 71a 

dabbaba (A) : penthouse, a siege instrument, mainly a Frankish weapon. Ill 473a ff.; tes- 
tudine. Ill 472a 

dabbagh (A) : the profession of a tanner. XII 172a 

dabbus : in music, a wooden sceptre, to the head of which is attached a number of 
chains with jingling pieces of metal fixed loosely in the links, used by the dervish. IX 

In Mamluk terminology, fann al-dabbus is the mace game, one of the branches of 
horse-riding. II 955a 

dabdab, dabdaba -»■ tabl al-markab 

dabib (A) : 'crawling', in literature, a theme originating in pre-Islamic poetry where it 
was possible to crawl under the tent in order to approach a woman but became purely 
conventional with later urban poets. V 778b 

dabiki : a type of material, manufactured more or less everywhere but stemming origi- 
nally from a locality in the outer suburbs of Damietta called Dabik. II 72b; cloth made 
essentially from linen and often stitched with gold or silk. X 532a 

dabir (P) : scribe, secretary, used as the equivalent in the Persian cultural world, includ- 
ing the Indo-Muslim one during the sultanate period, of the Arabic katib. The head of 
the Correspondence ministry in the Dihli sultanate was called dabir-i khdss. IV 758b; 
XII 173a; and -»■ c umdat al-mulk 

♦ dabir-i sara (IndP) : in the Dihli sultanate, the registrar of the palace. IV 759a 
dabit (A, T zabit) : an Ottoman term for certain functionaries and officers; later, officers 

in the armed forces. Originally, ~ designated a person in charge or in control of a mat- 
ter or of (? the revenues of) a place. By the llth/17th century, it was already acquir- 
ing the technical meaning of army officer, and in the 12th/18th century, it was in 
common use in this sense. II 74a 

In Persia, in the smaller ports, a tribal chief or goverment official who managed the 
port's customs. XII 717a 
For ~ in the science of Tradition, -* sahih 

dabr -»■ nahl 

dabt (A) : the assessment of taxable land by measurement, applied under the later Dihli 
Sultanate and the Mughals. II 74b; II 155b 

♦ dabtiyya (A, T zabtiyye) : a late Ottoman term for the police and gendarmerie. 
II 74b 

dabu' (A, < Sem; P kaftdr, T sirtlan, B ifis), and dab' : in zoology, the hyena. From this 
generic term, other terms have been derived to differentiate the male, dib'dn (alongside 
dhlkh), and female, dib'dna. The cub is called fur'ul. XII 173b, where can be found 
other synonyms 

dabur (A) : in meteorology, the west wind. VIII 526b 

dad (A) : the fifteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed d, with the numerical 
value 800. Its definition presents difficulties but the most probable is: voiced lateralized 
velarized interdental fricative (in Arabic: rikhwa madjhura mutbaka). II 75a 

dadjadja (A) : in zoology, the domestic fowl. II 76a 

In astronomy, the constellation of the Swan, also called al-Td'ir. II 76a 


♦ dadjadjat al-bahr (A), dadjadjat al-kubba : (in local pronunciation, didjddja), 
certain kinds of fish. II 76a 

♦ dadjadjat al-ma' -»■ shunkub 

dadjdjal (A, < Syr) : lit. deceiver; the personage endowed with miraculous powers who 
will arrive before the end of time and, for a limited period of either 40 days or 40 
years, will let impurity and tyranny rule the world. His appearance is one of the proofs 
of the end of time. II 76a; IV 408b 

dadjin (A) : among the pre-Islamic Arabs, a sheep kept near the house and especially 
fattened for the table. II 1057b 

♦ dadjina -» kayna 

dadjr (A), or dudjr, dudjur : in mediaeval agriculture, the wooden cross-beam of the 
ancient tiller to which the ploughshare was fixed by means of a strap of iron; some- 
times the dual (dadjrdn) can be found, because it was in two parts with one joined to 
the other by another strap and/or a cord. VII 22a 

daf (A) : in law, the reply, and, by extension, every reply made by a party in contra- 
diction of a plea raised by his opponent. II 171b 

dafa'ir (A, s. dafira), or ghadd'ir : locks of hair. IX 312a 

dafn al-dhunub (A) : burial of offences; a nomadic practice which consists of a make- 
believe burial of the offences or crimes of which an Arab is accused. II 248a; IV 407a 

daf tar (A, < Gk; T defter) : a stitched or bound booklet, or register, more especially an 
account or letter-book used in administrative offices. According to the administrative 
tradition, Khalid b. Barmak introduced the register into the central administration dur- 
ing the reign of al-Saffah; until that time, records were kept on papyrus, suhuf. I 1090a; 
II 77b 

♦ daftar-i awaridja : a cash-book, showing the balance of moneys in hand, one of 
the seven main registers on which the Ilkhanid system of book-keeping was based. II 

♦ daftar-i derdest : one of the auxiliary registers used in the Ottoman period along- 
side the daftar-i khakani to note changes, the ~ was a list of the villages or towns 
constituting the nucleus of the military fiefs and showing the successive changes which 
each fief had undergone. II 82b 

♦ daftar-i idjmal : one of the auxiliary registers used in the Ottoman period along- 
side the daftar-i khakanI to note changes, the ~ was a summary based on the 
detailed register, omitting the names of the inhabitants and giving the revenues only as 
lump sums for each unit. II 82a; X 113a 

♦ daftar-i khakani : the collection of registers in which were entered, during the 
Ottoman period, the results of the surveys made every 30 or 40 years until the begin- 
ning of the llth/17th century, containing primarily lists of the adult males in the vil- 
lages and towns, their legal status, their obligations and privileges, and the extent of 
the lands which they possessed, information on the way in which the land was used, 
and fiscal information with regard to revenues of the country. The ~ cannot be called 
a land-register; the land-register, in the modern sense of the term, was established in 
Turkey only from the second half of the 19th century. II 81b 

♦ daftar-i mufradat : a budget register showing the income and expenditure by 
cities, districts and provinces under the Ilkhanids, one of the seven main registers on 
which their system of book-keeping was based. II 81a 

♦ daftar-i ruznamce : one of the auxiliary registers used in the Ottoman period 
alongside the daftar-i khakani to note changes, the ~ was a 'day-book', into which 
the deeds of grants issued to new fief-holders were copied as they occurred. II 82b 

♦ daftar-i tahwilat : an off-shoot of the daftar-i tawdjihat, a register dealing with 
disbursements for stocks and running expenses in state establishments and enterprises 


under the Ilkhanids, one of the seven main registers on which their system of book- 
keeping was based. II 81a 

♦ daftar-i ta'lik -»■ ruznamadj 

♦ daftar-i tawdjihat : a register of disbursements under the Ilkhanids, one of the 
seven main registers on which their system of book-keeping was based. II 81a 

♦ daftardar (P, T defterdar) : keeper of the daftar; an Ottoman term for the chief 
finance officer, corresponding to the mustawfi in the eastern Islamic world. The title 
~ seems to originate with the Ilkhanids who appointed persons to make and keep the 
registers. The office of ~ was renamed maliyye (Ministry of Finance) in 1253/1838, 
although the term remained in use for provincial directors of finances. II 83a 

♦ daftarkhane (T) : under the Ottomans, the archives of the register-office to which 
the old registers were consigned each time a new survey was made. II 82b 

♦ defter-i mufassal -»■ tahrir 

dagh u tashiha (IndP) : a term used in Muslim India for the branding of horses and 
compilation of muster rolls for soldiers, introduced by Akbar in order to check all eva- 
sions of military obligations. V 685b; XII 176b 

daghta (A) : pressure; in the religious sense, the pressure applied in the tomb by the 
questioning asked of one's religion. I 187a 

daha' (A) : the period corresponding to the sun's progress over the second quarter of the 
diurnal arc. It comes to an end at midday. V 709b 

dahan band (P) : a face veil consisting of a small, white mask covering only the mouth 
and chin. It was worn in the Timurid period. V 749a 

dahi : a title in Serbia under the Ottomans, derived from day!. IX 671b 

dahik (A) : risibile. V 1261b 

In anatomy, the pre-molar. VI 130a 

dahiya (A, pi. duhdt) : statesman. XI 521b 

dahiyya (A) : the name for the animal sacrificed on the occasion of the feast of the 10th 
day of Dhu '1-Hidjdja. II 213a; in the Negev and other parts of former Palestine, ~ is 
used synonymously with fidya to designate a blood sacrifice made in the interests of 
the living for purposes of atonement. II 884a 

dahnadj (A, P dahna, dahana, T dehne-i frengi) : in mineralogy, malachite, green 
copper-ore. II 92a 

dahol : a Kurdish bass drum which is beaten on both sides. V 478a 

dahr (A) : time in an absolute sense. I 2a; infinitely extended time. II 94b 

♦ dahriyya : holders of materialistic opinions of various kinds, often vaguely denned; 
philosophers of Greek inspiration. They were called the azaliyya by the Ikhwan al- 
Safa'. I 128a; II 95a; II 770b 

dahul (A) : oviparous, like the female ostrich, who scratches and flattens in the sand a 
shallow hole (udhi) in which to lay her eggs. VII 829a 

dahya -»■ kishsha 

da'i (A) : 'he who summons' to the true faith, a title used among several dissenting 
Muslim groups for their chief propagandists; it became especially important in the 
Isma'IlI and associated movements, where it designated generically the chief authorised 
representatives of the imam. The title ~ came to mean something different in each of 
the sects which issued from the classical Fatimid Isma'ilism. II 97b 

da'if (A, pi. du'afd') : weak (syn. wad?); unable to bear arms, as opposed to sharif. IX 

In the science of Tradition, the term for a weak Tradition, along with sakim, infirm. Ill 
25a; Traditions without any claim to reliability. VIII 983b 

In modern South Arabia, the plural form du'afd' denotes non-arms bearers, a group 
comprising builders, potters and field workers. VII 145a; and -»■ miskin 

202 DA'IR — DALK 

da'ir (A) : in astronomy, the time since rising, fadl al-~ being the 'hour-angle'. XI 505b; 
and -> da'irat al-zill 

♦ da'ira (A) : in music, with duff, a generic name for tambourine, but reserved for 
a round type; a round tambourine with small bells attached to the inside of the shell 
or body, sometimes attached to a metal or wooden rod fixed across the inside of the 
head. This instrument is popular in Persia and Central Asia. II 621a; and ->■ dawa'ir; 

♦ da'irat al-ma'arif (A) : an expression with the double meaning 'Department of 
Education' and 'encyclopaedia'. As of the 1960s Arab countries of the former Ottoman 
empire had replaced ma'arif with tarbiya for 'education'. V 903a 

♦ da'ira saniyya (T) : the term used in the Ottoman empire during the last quarter 
of the 19th century for the administration of crown lands. XII 179a 

♦ da'irat al-zill (A) : in astronomy, the cross-section of the shadow of the earth dur- 
ing an eclipse of the sun or moon. V 536a 

dakhil (A) : in the Ottoman empire, one of two categories of viziers, the ~ sitting in the 
imperial dIwan in Istanbul and the khdridj who sat in the provinces. XI 197a; and -»■ 


dakhil (A) : interior, inward, intimate; hence 'guest, to whom protection should be 
assured' and, 'stranger, passing traveller, person of another race'. II 100a; XII 78b 
In philology, ~ denotes a foreign word borrowed by the Arabic language. II 100a; VII 

In metrics, ~ is a term denoting the consonant preceding the rhyming consonant, the ~ 
itself being preceded by an alif. II 100a; IV 412a 

dakik (A) : in culinary matters, meal. X 788b 

dakka -»■ dikka 

dakkak (A) : a miller. XII 758a 

dakkur (A, pi. dakakira), or dakkur (pi. dakdklr) : fetish. XI 177a 

dal (A) : the eighth letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed d, with the numerical value 
4. It is defined as voiced dental occlusive. II 101a 
For ~ in Persian zoology, -»■ nasr 

dalang (Mai, Ind) : puppetmasters. IX 245a 

dalal (A) : in rhetoric, the plural daldldt can mean semantics of individual words and 
sentences. V 901a; and -»■ tasharruf 

dalay (Mon), or dala : a term applied in Ilkhanid Persia originally to the subjects of the 
Great Khan came to be applied to land which belonged immediately to the ruler. The 
term rapidly went out of use. IV 975b 

dalil (A, pi. dala'il) : sign or indication; proof. II 101b; the demonstration of that which 
is not immediately and necessarily known. Ill 544a 

In Medina, the ~ (pi. adilld') is a guide who is responsible for the physical needs of 
the pilgrim, such as food, lodging and local transport. V 1004a 

daliya (A) : a kind of draw-well still in use in Egypt and other eastern countries for rais- 
ing water for irrigation. It usually consists of two posts about five feet in height. These 
posts are coated with mud and clay and then placed less than three feet apart. They 
are joined at the top by a horizontal piece of wood, in the centre of which a lever is 
balanced. The shorter arm of the lever is weighted, while at the end of the longer arm 
hangs a rope carrying a leather pail. The peasant stands on a platform on the river bank 
and pulls down the balanced pole until the pail dips into the water and is filled. A 
slight upward push, which is helped by the counterweight, raises the bucket above the 
irrigation canal, into which it is emptied. V 863b 

dalk (A) : a ritual ceremony of appeasing the djinn in Iraq, carried out by pouring 
water mixed with sugar and salt. XII 777a 

dalla ->■ BAKRADJ 

dallal (A), or simsar : lit. guide; in law, ~ indicates a broker, an agent, 'the man who 
shows the purchaser where to find the goods he requires, and the seller how to exact 
his price'. Women are also found taking the part of agents. Known as dalldla, they act 
as intermediaries for harems of a superior sort. II 102b 

In the Muslim West, the ~ is exclusively an intermediary who, in return for remuner- 
ation, sells by public auction objects entrusted to him by third parties. In the large 
towns, they are grouped in specialised guilds. II 102b 

dallala -> dallal 

dallina ->■ dillIna 

dalw (A) : a 'water bucket', in ancient Arabia, said to be made mostly from the hides 
of two young camels, in which case the bucket may be called ibn adimayn. I 1230a; 
I 1231b 

In astronomy, al-~ is the term for Aquarius, one of the twelve zodiacal constellations. 
VII 84a 

dam (A, pi. dimff) : blood; blood-guilt. XII 188b 

In botany, ~ al-akhawayn 'the blood of the two brothers' is used for dragon's-blood. 
IX 808b 

♦ damawiyya ->■ 'amar al-dam 
dam ->■ paysa; walI 'l-dam 

damad (P) : son-in-law, title used by sons-in-law of the Ottoman sultans. II 103a 
damama : a kettle-drum, probably of a smaller size than the kurga. X 34a 
daman (A) : in law, ~ is the civil liability in the widest meaning of the term, whether 
it arises from the non-performance of a contract or from tort or negligence. In the sense 
of suretyship, guarantee, ~ is a liability specially created by contract. In a wider sense, 
it is used of the risk or responsibility that one bears with regard to property of which 
one enjoys the profit. II 105a; and -> kabd daman 

In a financial sense, ~ stands for 'farming' (of taxes). The tax-farmer, damin, pays 
annually to the State a contracted sum, less than the calculated revenue from the tax, 
and afterwards undertakes its recovery on his own account. The State is assured of a 
precise and immediate return from the pockets of rich individuals but loses a portion 
of the money paid by the tax-payer and the control of operations. I 1 144b; II 105b; III 
323b; and ->■ kabala 

♦ daman al-adjir (A), or daman al-sunnd' : in law, the liability for the loss or dam- 
age caused by artisans. II 105a 

♦ daman al-darak (A) : in law, the liability for eviction. II 105a; the guarantee 
against a fault in ownership. XII 198a 

♦ daman al-ghasb (A) : in law, the liability for the loss of an object taken by 
usurpation. II 105a 

♦ daman al-mabi' (A) : in law, the liability for the loss of an object sold before the 
buyer has taken possession. II 105a 

♦ daman al-rahn (A) : in law, the liability for the loss of a pledge in the possession 
of the pledgee. II 105 a 

♦ daman al-sunna' ->■ daman al-adjir 

damani (A) : a variety of apple (from Daman in Mesopotamia), said to be proverbial 
because of its redness, one of a number of varieties praised by the geographers, most 
named, as the ~ apple, after their provenance, e.g. al-isfahdni, al-kufanl, etc. X 587b; 
and ->■ ghalk 

damin ->■ daman 

damir (A) : a woman's jacket with short sleeves, worn in Syria and Palestine. V 740b 

204 DAMIR — DAR 

damlr (A) : in grammar, as ~ muttasil 'bound pronoun' and its opposite, ~ munfasil 'sep- 
arate, independent pronoun'. XI 173a; and ->■ mudmar 

damma (A) : in grammar, ~ denotes the short vowel u. Ill 172a 

dammusa (A) : on the Arabian peninsula, the slippery sand-swimming skink. I 541b 

damus, damus : a brick vault. I 207b; crypt. XI 488b 

da'n (A) : in zoology, sheep. XI 411b 

dana-farang (H, < P) : malachite. VIII 269a 

dananir ->■ dinar 

dandi : a (West-African) locally-woven cloth. XI 8a 

dandi (H) : a simple kind of litter used in India for transporting people. It was essen- 
tially a hammock slung from a pole. VII 932a 

danishkada ->■ kulliyya 

dann (A, pi. dinari) : an amphora with tapered base, in which the fermentation of grapes 
takes place. IV 997b 

♦ danniyya ->■ kalansuwa 

dar (A) : (dwelling place), house. The two words most commonly used to designate a 
dwelling place, bayt and ~, have etymologically quite different meanings. Bayt is, 
properly speaking, the covered shelter where one may spend the night; ~ (from ddra 
'to surround') is a space surrounded by walls, buildings, or nomadic tents, placed more 
or less in a circle. II 113b; palace, large dwelling complex. IV 1016b; VIII 344a 
In the 5th/llth and 6th/12th centuries in Baghdad and Damascus, ~ was the name 
borne by the large depots with the name of the commodity for which the establishment 
was noted. IV 1015a 

♦ dar al-'ahd (A) : 'the land of the covenant'; considered by some Muslim jurists 
as a temporary and often intermediate territory between the dar al-islam and the dar 
al-harb. II 116a 

♦ dar al-damana (A) : among the Wazzaniyya, a Moroccan sufi order, the 'house 
of warranty', which the founder's eldest son Sidi Muhammad made the order's 
zawiya, meaning that the baraka of the shurafd' (->■ sharif) was sufficient to save 
any sinner from the Last Judgement. XI 201b 

♦ dar al-darb (A) : the mint, the primary function of which was to supply coins 
for the needs of government and of the general public. At times of monetary reforms, 
the ~ also served as a place where obliterated coins could be exchanged for the new 
issues. The large quantities of precious metals which were stored in the ~ helped to 
make it serve as an ancillary treasury. I 24a; II 1 17b; and -»• darbkhane-i 'amire 

♦ dar al-hadith (A) : a term first applied to institutions reserved for the teaching 
of hadith in the 6th/12th century. Until these special institutions were set up, the 
teaching of hadith, as of other branches of religious learning, was carried out in the 
mosques. II 125b; V 1129a; XII 195a 

♦ dar al-harb (A) : the territories under perpetual threat of a missionary war, 
djihad. The classical practice of regarding the territories immediately adjoining the 
lands of Islam as the ~ and inviting their princes to adopt Islam under the pain of inva- 
sion, is reputed to date back to the Prophet. Classically, the ~ includes those countries 
where the Muslim law is not in force, in the matter of worship and the protection of 
the faithful and the dhimmis. I 26a; II 126a; II 131b 

♦ dar al-hikma (A) : 'the house of wisdom', a term used by Arab authors to denote 
in a general sense the academies which, before Islamic times, spread knowledge of the 
Greek sciences, and in a particular sense the institute founded in Cairo in 395/1005 by 
the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim. II 126b; II 859b; V 1125b 

♦ dar al-'ilm (A) : 'the house of science', the name given to several libraries or 
scientific institutes established in eastern Islam in the 3rd/9th and 4th/10th centuries. 


The most important ~ was the one founded in Baghdad by the vizier Abu Nasr Sabur 
b. Ardashir in the last quarter of the 4th/10th century, with more than 10,000 books on 
all scientific subjects. It was burnt down when the Saldjuks reached Baghdad in 
447/1055-56. II 127a 

♦ dar al-islam (A) : 'the land of Islam', the whole territory in which the law of 
Islam prevails. Its unity resides in the community, the unity of the law, and the guar- 
antees assured to members of the umma. In the classical doctrine, everything outside ~ 

iS DAR AL-HARB. II 127b 

♦ dar al-kharadj (A) : a brothel, in the Muslim West. XII 134a 

♦ dar al-ma'arif (A) : schools founded by the Ottoman sultan c Abd al-Madjid I in 
1849. I 75a 

♦ dar al-mulk (A) : the private quarters of the caliph and his close associates in 
Muslim Spain. IX 45a 

♦ dar al-nadwa (A) : the name of a town hall in Mecca in the time of the Prophet. 
II 128b 

♦ dar al-salam (A) : 'the abode of peace', a name of Paradise in the Qur'an; also 
a name for the city of Baghdad. II 128b 

♦ dar al-sina'a (A), or dar al-san'a : an industrial establishment, workshop; the 
term is always applied to a state workshop, e.g. under the Umayyads in Spain to estab- 
lishments for gold and silver work intended for the sovereign, and for the manufacture 
and stock-piling of arms. The most widely-used sense is that of an establishment for 
the construction and equipment of warships, giving rise to the word 'arsenal' in the 
Mediterranean languages. II 129b; XII 120a 

♦ dar sini -* darsInI 

♦ dar al-sulh (A) : 'the house of truce', territories not conquered by Muslim troops 
but by buying peace by the giving of tribute, the payment of which guarantees a truce 
or armistice. The Prophet himself concluded such a treaty with the Christian popula- 
tion of Nadjran. II 131a 

♦ dar al-'ulum (A) : 'the house of sciences', an establishment for higher instruc- 
tion founded in 1872 by c Ali Pasha Mubarak, whose aim was to introduce students of 
al-Azhar to modern branches of learning; the religious institutions at Deoband and Lucknow. 
I 817b; II 131b 

♦ dar al-wakala (A) : 'the house of procuration or agency', term for the urban car- 
avanserai before this became a synonym for funduk, which itself at the end of the 
7th/13th century began to be replaced by khan as a designation for suburban hostel- 
ries. IV 1015a 

darabukka : in music, a vase-shaped drum, the wider aperture being covered by a mem- 
brane, with the lower aperture open. In performance it is carried under the arm hori- 
zontally and played with the fingers. II 135b; the ~ has come to have a variety of 
names east of Morocco, e.g. the dirridj, darbuka, dirbakka, darabukka and even tabla. 
In Persia ~ is known as the dunbak or tanbak. X 33a 

daradj (A) : in zoology, the courser, nearly ubiquitous in the Arabian desert. I 541b 

dara'ib, or 'awd'id : the customary law of the Bedouin of the Western Desert and 
Cyrenaica. X 889b 

darak -* daman al-darak 

daraka (A, > adarga) : in military science, a shield, probably made from hide stretched 
over a wooden frame (syn. turs, djunna, midjann). V 651b; XII 736a 

darara bashu : in Ethiopia, at the tomb of Shaykh Nur Husayn, a black stone that the 
shaykh is believed to have brought back with him from Mecca, which is kissed and 
touched as part of the ceremony of ziyara. XI 539b 

daray, hindi : in music, the Indian bell. X 35a 


darb -»• shari' 

darb (A) : in prosody, the last foot of the second hemistich, as opposed to the last foot 

of the first hemistich, the 'arud. I 672b; IV 714b; VIII 747; and -> isba' 

In mathematics, ~ is the term used for multiplication. Ill 1139b 

In the art of the book, a cancellation. X 408b 

For ~ as lithomancy, ->■ tark 

♦ darb khane, darrabkhane -» darbkhane-i 'amire 

♦ darb al-raml -»• raml 

♦ darb al-sad'a (A) : shell-divination. VIII 138b 

♦ darb al-silah (A) : 'body piercing', one of the deeds transcending the natural 
order, khawdrik al- c dddt, practiced by the Sa'diyya order. VIII 728b 

♦ darbkhane-i 'amire (T), or darrabkhane, nukrakhdne, ddr al-darb : the Ottoman 
mint. II 118a 

darbazin (A) : a balustrade. VI 662a 

dardar (< sardar) : 'sultan' in Tagorri, an 'Afar dialect in Tadjura. The ~ is assisted 

by a banoyta 'vizier', which two functions alternate within two clans, the Burhanto and 

Diinite. X 72b 
dargah (P) : lit. place of a door; royal court, palace in Persia; in Muslim India, ~ is 

used to designate a tomb or shrine of a plr (-»• murshid). II 141b; IV 26a; VI 125b; 

VIII 954a 

dari (P) : the court language, and language of government and literature, in pre-Islamic 

Persia. II 142a; IV 55a; XII 429b 

In India, ~ is used to designate the normal floor-mat, a flat-woven pile-less rug of thick 

cotton. VIII 742a 
dari (A) : in the mediaeval eastern Muslim world, the perfume merchant. IX 100b 
dariba : in Muslim India, a short lane or street, usually one where betel leaves were sold. 

IX 800b 

dariba (A) : a tax, applied in particular to the whole category of taxes which in prac- 
tice were added to the basic taxes, zakat, qjizya and kharadj. Apart from d/izya, 
these taxes form the basis of the official fiscal system of Islam and are essentially con- 
cerned with agriculture and stock-breeding. II 142b; XII 199b; an urban tax on build- 
ings. V 1199a 

daridja (A) : the colloquial Arabic language (syn. al-lugha al-'dmmiyya). I 561b 

darih -»• kabr 

darim -»• hayiham 

darrab (A) : a minter, one of the craftsmen employed as staff in the mint who carried 
out the actual coining operation. II 1 1 8a 
In Muslim Spain, ~ was the term used for night-watchman. I 687b 

♦ darrabkhane -»• darbkhane-i 'amire 

dars (A, pi. durus) : lesson, lecture; in mediaeval usage, ~ meant 'a lesson or lecture on 
law'. V 1124b; a class, consisting of lecture and dictation. X 80b 

darshan (San) : the (Hindu) ceremonial appearance of a king to his subjects, adopted 
by the Mughal emperor Akbar and his immediate successors. It was abandoned by 
Awrangib in 1078/1668. II 162a 

darsini (A, < P ddr cini) : Chinese cinnamon, Cinnamomum cassia, although it cannot 
be established with certainty with what original plant ~ is to be associated. In pharma- 
cognosy texts Cinn. cassia is also rendered by salikha, which allegedly is not identi- 
cal with ~ . XII 197a 

darugha (P, < Mon) : originally a chief in the Mongol feudal hierarchy, ~ is first met 
in Persia in the Ilkhanid period. In his main capacities he belonged to the military hier- 
archy. In Safawid Persia, his functions were sometimes those of a governor of town, 


but more commonly those of a police officer, his duties to prevent misdeeds, tyranny, 
brawls, and actions contrary to the shari'a. In the 12th/18th and 13th/19th centuries, his 
function at times superseded even that of the muhtasib (-»■ hisba). At the beginning of 
the Constitutional period, most of his duties were taken over by the municipalities and 
the police force. In some cases, the ~ was appointed to collect taxes or to control cer- 
tain ethnic minorities; ~ was also used to denote a kind of head clerk controlling the 
staff of the larger government departments in Safawid Persia. II 162a 
In Muslim India, ~ denoted an official in the royal stables; the British used it to des- 
ignate the native head of various departments and, later, the local chief of police. II 

darura (A), and idtirar : necessity; in law, ~ has a narrow meaning: what may be called 
the technical state of necessity (resulting from certain factual circumstances which may 
oblige an individual to do some action forbidden by the law), and a wider sense: to 
describe the necessities or demands of social and economic life, which the jurists had 
to take into account in their elaboration of the law which was otherwise independent 
of these factors. The legal schools agree that prohibitions of a religious character may 
be disregarded in cases of necessity and danger, while most of the offences committed 
under the rule of necessity are excused without any form of punishment. However, 
murder, the amputation of a limb, and serious wounding likely to cause death, irrespec- 
tive of the circumstances, are never excused. The term in its wider sense signifies prac- 
tical necessity, the exigencies of social and economic life. It takes into consideration 
the existence of rules and whole institutions in Muslim law which reasoning by strict 
analogy would have condemned. II 163b 

darwa (A) : a typical style of hairdressing used by an Arabic-speaking tribe of Bedja 
origin in Upper Egypt with branches in the northern Sudan. I lb 

darwaza (P) : in architecture, a gatehouse. X 59a 

darwish (P) : a mendicant, dervish; a member of a religious fraternity. II 164a 

darya-begi (T), or deryd-beyi : 'sea-lord', a title given in the Ottoman empire to certain 
officers of the fleet, who usually held their appointments for life and transmitted them 
to their sons. II 165b 

dasatin (A) : in music, the frets of an 'ud. X 769b 

dashisha -> simat 

♦ dashisha kubra (A) : the endowments made for the Holy Cities by the Mamluk 
sultans Djakmak and Ka'itbay; under the Ottomans, Murad III made a new endowment 
called the dashisha sughrd. XI 66b 

dasht : steppe, e.g. dasht-i Kipcak, the Kipcak Steppe, the great plains of Southern 
Russia and western Kazakhstan. IX 61a; XII 203b 

dasim (A) : the quality of foods being oily and greasy, similarly samin 'rich in fats'. II 

dasini -> yazidI 

dasitan (Ott) : in literature, the brief verse section in praise of the dynasty appended to 
the longer didactic poem Iskender-ndme by the poet Ahmedi. X 291a 

dastaban (P, N.Afr kuffdz) : the glove used by a falconer during the hunt. I 1152b 

dastak -+ mikwam 

dastan (U, P destdn) : in Urdu literature, a collection of short stories within a 'frame', 
recited to general audiences as well as to royal courts and rich households. They are 
the Urdu equivalents of Arab collections like Alf layla wa-layla and Sirat 'Antar and 
can be considered precursors of modern Urdu fiction. Ill 119a; III 375b; V 201b 
In Turkish literature, the Persian term destdn is used for the ancient popular epics in 
syllabic verse, transmitted orally, as well as the first verse chronicles of epic type. Ill 
1 14b; IX 844a; X 733b 


♦ destandji (T) : one of two groups of Turkmen bards, a relater of epics; the other 
group is made up of the tirmedji, who sings poems (tirme) on various themes. 

dastar (P) : the turban cloth, also known as mayzar. X 611a 

dastur (P, A dustur) : a Persian term which in the period of the classical caliphate 

came to be used as a synonym of kanun in the sense of 'tax-list'. IV 558a; in the 

Safawid period, ~ is defined as a Zoroastrian priest who knows the Avesta and the 

Zand, the Middle Persian literature, and has the authority to command laymen 

(behdlns) to do religious works. VII 215b 

In classical Muslim administration, ~ is a copy of the djamd'a made from the draft. II 


In East Africa, ~ is the term used for custom and customary law, synonymous with 

'Ada. I 170a 

♦ dastur al-'amal (P) : a detailed assessment of revenue, prepared and sent annually 
by the mustawfis of the central government in Persia to the provinces, on the basis 
of which the provincial mustawfis allocated the tax demand among the provincial pop- 
ulation. II 151a 

daw' -> nur 

da'wa (A) : call, invitation; propaganda. II 168a; pretension. IX 432a; and -> da' wet 
In the Qur'an, ~ is the call to the dead to rise from the tomb on the day of Judgement. 
II 168a 

In the religious sense, ~ is the invitation addressed to men by God and the prophets, 
to believe in the true religion, Islam. The concept that the religion of all the prophets 
is Islam and that each prophet has his own ~, was developed by the Isma'ilis. II 168a 
In its politico-religious sense, the ~ denotes the invitation to adopt the cause of some 
individual or family claiming the right to the imamate over the Muslims, thus the 
'Abbasid ~, which was, strictly speaking, propaganda for a member of the Prophet's 
family, and Isma'ili ~, propaganda for the imam, who alone could give mankind good 
guidance. II 168a 

Among the Isma'ilis, ~ is one of nine periods of instruction which completed the ini- 
tiation of Isma'ili neophytes. II 169b; IV 203b 

♦ al-da'wa al-djadida (A), or da'wa djadlda : the branch of Isma'ilis, known as the 
Nizaris, who refused to recognise Musta'li after the death of al-Mustansir in 487/1094. 
They are now represented by the Khodjas. II 170b; III 254a 

♦ al-da'wa al-kadima (A) : the branch of Isma'ilis, known as the Musta'lis or 
Tayyibis, who followed Musta'li after the death of al-Mustansir in 487/1094. They are 
now represented by the Bohoras in India. II 170b 

♦ da'wat (IndP) : the communal administration of the Yemeni SulaymanI sect, 
which split off from the Bohoras in the 10th/16th century. I 1255a 

♦ da'wat-i sama' (IndP) : in the Shattari mystic ideology, the control of heavenly 
bodies which influenced human destiny. IX 370a 

da'wa (A) : action at law, case, lawsuit. II 170b 

In hunting, a live calling bird. IV 745a 
dawa' (A, pi. adwiya) : every substance which may affect the constitution of the human 

body; every drug used as a remedy or a poison. I 212b; gunpowder. I 1056a 

♦ adwiya mufrada (A) : simple drugs. I 212b; V 251b; and ->■ saydana 

♦ adwiya murakkaba (A) : composite drugs. I 212b; V 251b; and -> saydana 
dawadar (P) : the bearer and keeper of the royal inkwell, which post was created by 

the Saldjuks. It was held by civilians. II 172b; secretary. VIII 432a; and ->• dawatdar 
dawahi (A), or dawahi 'l-Rum : 'outer lands' (of the land of the Greeks), constituting a 
kind of no-man's land in the Arab-Byzantine frontier regions. X 446b 


dawa'ir (A, s. da'ira) : circles. 

In the science of metrics, the ~ are the five metric circles used by al-Khalil for the 
graphic presentation of the sixteen metres. They are arranged according to the number 
of consonants in the mnemonic words of the metres which compose them. I 669b 
In Algeria, a group of families attached to the service and person of a native chief. 
Before the French conquest, ~ denoted especially four tribal groups encamped to the 
south-west of Oran and attached to the service of the bey of that city. They were 
organised as a militia. II 172b 

dawar (A) : an encampment of the Arab Bedouin in which the tents are arranged in a 
circle or an ellipse around the open space in the middle where the cattle pass the night. 
In North Africa, this arrangement is called duwdr or dawwar. II 174b; XII 318b 
In Algeria, douar has lost its original meaning, and is employed to designate an admin- 
istrative area, either nomad or sedentary, placed under the authority of the same chief. 
II 175a 

According to Ibn al-Kalbi, ~ is the procession that the Arabs made around the ansab 
'sacred stones', which served as replicas of the Black Stone of the Ka'ba. VIII 155b 

dawat (A) : ink-holder, inkwell (syn. mihbara); ~ is also used for miklama 'the place 
for keeping the pen', and for kalamdan 'penbox'. IV 471b; V 988b; XII 203b 

♦ dawatdar (IndP) : the keeper of the sultan of Delhi's inkpot or inkhorn. IV 759a; 
and -» DAWADAR 

da'wet (T, < A da'wa) : in the science of Turkish diplomatic, the invocation composed 
of the formula containing the name of governor (the Bey's name), ranging from the 
simplest huwa to the longest titles. II 314b 

dawiyya (A, O.Fr devot) : the Knights Templars, one of the Frankish military orders, 
known to the Arabs from their experiences with the Crusaders. The Knights Hospital- 
lers, known to the Arabs as Isbitdriyya, was another such order. XII 204b 

dawla (A) : turn, reversal (especially in battle); victory; the reign of the MahdI. From 
the middle of the 3rd/9th century, ~ attained the meaning of 'dynasty, state', still in 
force today. Al-dawla is used as the second element in titles; its earliest usage was 
noted at the end of the 3rd/9th century. II 177b; IV 293b; V 621b ff. 

dawm (A) : in botany, the gingerbread tree, a palm which on occasion replaces the date 
palm in the Gulf. I 540a; the edible fruit of the jujube, called ~ by the Bedouin of 
Arabia and kunar by the townsmen. I 540b 

dawr (A, pi. adwar) : lit. revolution, period; the periodic movement of the stars. 

In shi'ism, ~ is for the extreme sects the period of manifestation or concealment of God 
or the secret wisdom. XII 206b 

In music, ~ denotes one of two cycles which make up an ika\ each of which is com- 
posed of several basic notes and a pause. XII 408b 

♦ dawr al-kashf (A) : 'period of manifestation', the period for the Isma'iliyya before 
the dawr al-satr, during which the twelve angels of the zodiac kept the unadulter- 
ated pure unity of God, tawhid. At the end of time, the ka'im will bring forth a new 
~. XII 206b 

♦ dawr al-satr (A) : 'period of concealment', the period for the Isma'iliyya from 
Adam to the ka'im, the last speaking prophet. A synonym is al-dawr al-kabir. XII 206b 

dawsa (A) : lit. trampling; a ceremony formerly performed in Cairo by the shaykh of 
the Sa'di order, consisting of the shaykh riding over the members of the order on horse- 
back. It was believed that by such physical contact, the baraka of the shaykh was 
communicated to his followers. II 181b; VIII 525b; VIII 728b 

dawshan (A) : in the context of Yemen, a sort of tribal herald, considered a menial job. 
XI 277a 


dawudu : a land-leasing system in Kurdish Iran, in which the landowner, in return for 
supplying earth and seed, takes two-tenths of the harvest. V 473b 

dawul -> TABL 

dawwar -> dawar 

day c a (A, pi. diya') : estate. 

In its fiscal context, ~ denotes an estate subject to tithes. The holder of the ~ was not usu- 
ally its cultivator, and the peasant rents went for the greater part to the holder of the 
~ . II 187b 

♦ diya' al-khassa (A), diya' al-sultdn and diya' al-khulafd' : the private estates of 
the caliph in early Islamic times. IV 972b 

daydaban (A, < P dldebdri) : a term applied at different times to certain categories of 

sentinels, watchmen, inspectors, etc. II 189a 
dayf (A) : guest; host, which meaning, however, occurred later. II 189a 
dayi (T) : lit. maternal uncle; an honorific title used to designate official functions in the 

Regencies of Algiers and Tunis. II 189a; title of the Janissary rulers of Algiers, Tunis 

and Tripoli in North Africa. IX 671b 
dayman (A) : lit. always; said after finishing a cup of coffee to thank the host, one of 

several customs associated with coffee drinking, another being the saying of 'amir (lit. 

fully inhabited) when finishing drinking coffee in a house of a bereaved person. XII 

dayn (A, pi. duyun) : debt; claim; in law, an obligation, arising out of a contract (loan, 

sale, transaction or marriage) or out of a tort requiring reparation. I 29a; XII 207a 

♦ dayn fi dhimma (A) : in law, an obligation which has as its object a personal 
action. XII 207a 

♦ dayn fi 'l-'ayn (A) : in law, an obligation which has as its object a non-fungible, 
determinate thing. XII 207a 

♦ duyun-i 'umumiyye (T) : the Ottoman public debt; more particularly the debt 
administration set up in 1881. II 677a 

dayr (A, < Syr) : a Christian monastery, which continued functioning after the Arab 
conquest of the Middle East. They were often named after a patron saint or founder 
but also occasionally after the nearest town or village or a feature of the locality. II 
For its meaning in Somalia, ->■ gu' 

♦ (A) : in prosody, a poem describing evenings spent in a convent or monastery. IV 

dayra -> zmala 

daysam (A) : the first swarm that leaves with the young queen bee (syn. lath, rid', tard). 
VII 907a 

daywan (A) : in zoology, the Fettered cat (Felis ocreata), and also used for the Euro- 
pean wild cat (Felis sylvestris lybica) and the Sand cat (Felis margarita). IX 651b, 
where are listed synonyms 

dayzan (A) : a man who marries his father's widow (the marriage is called nikah al- 
makt), a practice which the Qur'an disapproves of. VI 476b 

dede (T) : lit. grandfather, ancestor; a term of reverence given to the heads of darwish 
communities. II 199b; a member of a religious order resident in one of the cells of the 
dargah or zawiya, who has fulfilled his tile (period of trial) and been elevated to the 
rank of dervish. VI 884a 

In western Turkish heroic tales, ~ is used for the rhapsodes. II 199b 
In Istanbul and Anatolia, ~ was also used as a term of respect for various wonder- 
working holy men. II 200a 

In the terminology of the Safawid order, ~ denoted one of the small group of officers 
in constant attendance on the murshid. II 200a 


defter -> daftar 

deglet nur -> ghars 

deli (T) : 'mad, heedless, brave, fiery', a class of cavalry in the Ottoman empire, formed 
in the Balkans at the end of the 9th/15th century or the beginning of the 10th/16th cen- 
tury. Later, they were officially styled as delil (guides) but continued to be popularly 
known by the their original name. Called ~ on account of their extraordinary courage 
and recklessness, they were recruited partly from the Turks and partly from the Balkan 
nations. They became brigands in the 12th/18th century and were disbanded in the 13th/19th 
century by sultan Mahmud II. II 201a 

demirbash (T) : lit. iron-head; the movable stock and equipment, belonging to an office, 
shop, farm, etc. In Ottoman usage ~ was commonly applied to articles belonging to the 
state and, more especially, to the furniture, equipment, and fittings in government 
offices, forming part of their permanent establishment. II 203b; ~ also means stubborn 
or persistent, and was applied by the Turks to King Charles XII of Sweden, possibly 
in this sense or to indicate his long frequentation of Turkish government offices. II 

derbend (T) : a mountain pass, defile. XI 114b 

derebey (T) : 'valley lord', the Turkish designation of certain rulers in Asia Minor who, 
from the early 12th/18th century, made themselves virtually independent of the Otto- 
man central government in Istanbul. Ottoman historians usually call them mutaghallibe 
'usurpers', or khaneddn 'great families'. The best known ~ families are the Kara 
'Othman-oghlu of Aydin, Manisa and Bergama in western Anatolia, the Capan-oghlu 
of Bozok in central Anatolia, and the family of 'Ali Pasha of Djanik in eastern 
Anatolia or Trebizond and its neighbourhood. II 206b 

dergah -> tekke 

derya-beyi ->• darya-begi 

destan(dji) -> dastan 

destimal (T) : lit. napkin; in relation to relics of Islam, the gauze with inscriptions 
printed on it in which some objects holy to Islam are kept at the Istanbul University 
Library. The ~ was specially made for the visits to the Holy Mantle organised by the 
Sultan-Caliph on 15 Ramadan. V 761b 

devedji (T, P shuturbdn) : 'cameleer', the name given to certain regiments of the corps 
of Janissaries. II 210b 

devekushu ->■ na'am 

devshirme (T) : the term in the Ottoman period for the periodical levy of Christian chil- 
dren for training to fill the ranks of the Janissaries and to occupy posts in the Palace 
service and in the administration. The earliest reference to the term appears to be con- 
tained in a sermon delivered by Isidore Glabas, metropolitan of Thessalonica, in 1395. 
By the end of the 10th/16th century, the system began to show signs of corrupt prac- 
tices by the recruiting officers. By the beginning of the llth/17th century, the ranks of 
the Janissaries had become so swollen with Muslim-born 'intruders' that frequent 
recruitments were no longer necessary. The system, however, continued at least till 
1150/1738, but sporadically. I 36a; I 268b ff.; II 210b; II 1086a ff. 

dey (Alg, < T day!) : a ruling power in Algeria, who succeeded the aghas of the army 
corps and ruled until the capture of Algiers by France. I 368a; and -> day! 
♦ deynek (T) : a commander's baton or cane, carried by a number of high Ottoman 
navy officers. It was also called sadafkdri c asd, because it was encrusted with mother 
of pearl of different colours. VIII 565b 

dhabh (A) : one of the two methods of slaughtering animals according to Muslim law 
by which the animal concerned becomes permissible as food. It consists of slitting the 
throat, including the trachea and the oesophagus (there are divergencies between 
the schools in respect of the two jugular veins); the head is not to be severed. At the 


moment of slaughter, it is obligatory to have the necessary intention and to invoke the 
name of God. Preferably the victim should be laid upon its left side facing in the direc- 
tion of the kibla. II 213b 

dhabiha (A) : in law, a victim (animal) destined for immolation in fulfilment of a 
vow, for the sacrifice of 'akIka, on the occasion of the feast of the 10th day of Dh u 
'1-Hidjdja, or in order to make atonement for certain transgressions committed during 
the hadjdj. II 213a; XII 221b 

dhabl (A) : in botany, the shell of the tortoise, highly valued for the manufacture of 
combs and bracelets, masak. IX 811a 

dhahab (A) : in mineralogy, gold. II 214a 

♦ dhahabiyya (A) : a Nile vessel, especially known in the 19th century. VIII 42b 
dhaka'a (A) : the strict ritual of slaughtering the dhabIha which must be followed and 

which does not differ in form from the ritual slaughter of animals permitted as food. 
II 213a 

dhal (A) : the ninth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value 700, repre- 
senting the voiced interdental fricative (rikhwa maajhura). II 217b 

dhanab (A) : tail. 

In astronomy, ~ or dhanab al-tinnin 'the dragon's tail' refers to the waning node, one 
of the points where the moon passes through the ecliptic during an eclipse of the moon. 
V 536a; VIII 101b; X 531a; and ->■ kawkab al-dhanab 

♦ dhanab al-dadjadja -*■ radif 

♦ dhanab al-kitt (A) : 'cat's tail', in botany, the Bugloss (Anchusa italica) and the 
Goldylocks (Chrysocoma). IX 653a 

♦ dhanab al-sirhan -»■ al-faqjr al-kadhib 

dhanb (A, pi. dhunub) : sin. Synonyms are khati'a, sayyi'a, which is an evil action, and 
ithm, a very grave sin, a crime against God. IV 1106b; and -» dafn al-dhunub 

dhara'i' (A) : a method of reasoning to the effect that, when a command or prohibition 
has been decreed by God, everything that is indispensable to the execution of that order 
or leads to infringement of that prohibition must also, as a consequence, be com- 
manded or prohibited. I 276a 

dhararihi (A) : in mediaeval 'Irak, a vagrant feigning serious wounds for begging pur- 
poses. VII 494b 

dharih (A) : in architecture, a silver enclosure, which surrounds a shi'i shrine. XI 533a 

dharr -»■ naml 

♦ dharra (A) : a term denoting in the Qur'an the smallest possible appreciable 
quantity, interpreted by the commentators of the Qur'an as: dust which remains cling- 
ing to the hand after the rest has been blown off, or weightless dust, seen when sun- 
light shines through a window; the weight of the head of a red ant; the hundredth part 
of a grain of barley; or atom, -was not generally used to denote the philosophical 
atomism of Democritus, Epicurus and the Muslim 'atomists'. In its stead, the two tech- 
nical terms djuz' and djawhar fard were preferred. Modern Arabic does render atom 
with ~. II 219b 

dhat (A) : thing; being, self, ego. 

In philosophy, ~ is most commonly employed in two different meanings of substance 
and essence, a translation of the Greek ovaia. When used in the sense of 'substance', 
it is the equivalent of the subject or substratum and is contrasted with qualities or pred- 
icates attributed to it and inhering in it. In the second sense of 'essence', it signifies 
the essential or constitutive qualities of a thing as a member of a species, and is con- 
trasted with its accidental attributes (-» 'arad). Some Muslim philosophers distinguish, 
within the essence, its prior parts from the rest. II 220a; V 1262a 
In Muslim India, ~ was one of the two ranks into which the mansabdar (-> mansab) 


was divided, the other being suwdr. The rank of ~ was meant for calculating one's 
salary according to the sanctioned pay scale. V 686a 

♦ dhat al-anwat (A) : 'that of the suspended things', among early Muslims, the 
name for the sidr tree. IX 549b 

♦ dhat al-halak (A) : an armillary sphere, constructed by 'Abbas b. Firnas in 9th- 
century Muslim Spain. I lib 

♦ dhat al-nitakayn (A) : 'she of the two girdles', the nickname of Asma\ elder half- 
sister of 'A'isha and wife of al-Zubayr. XI 550b 

♦ dhati (A) : essential; the conceptually and ontologically prior part of the essence 
of a thing. II 220b; V 1262a 

dhawk (A) : taste; insight or intuitive appreciation. II 221a; direct experience. II 1041a 
In philosophy, ~ is the name for the gustatory sense-perception which, according to 
Aristotle, is a kind of sub-species of the tactual sense, localised in the gustatory organ, 
the tongue. It differs, however, from tactual sense because mere contact with skin is 
not sufficient for gustation to occur. II 221a 

In aesthetics, ~ is the name for the power of aesthetic appreciation, something that 
'moves the heart'. II 221a 

In mysticism, ~ denotes the direct quality of the mystic experience. The metaphor of 
'sight' is also often used, but ~ has more qualitative overtones of enjoyment. II 221a 

dhawlak (A) : tip (of the tongue). VI 130a; VIII 343a 

♦ dhawlaki (A) : 'pointed'; in grammar, for al-Khalil, those consonants that are pro- 
duced with the tip of the tongue, such as the r. VIII 343a 

♦ dhawlakiyya (A), and asaliyya : in grammar, two terms used by al-Khalil to indi- 
cate articulation with the tip of the tongue but specifying only the form of the tongue. 
Ill 598a 

dhawu T-arham (A) : relatives in the maternal line; in law, a third class of heirs recog- 
nised only by the Hanafi and Hanbali schools of law, who can only succeed to an 
inheritance in the total absence of any representative of the fixed-shares heirs and the 
'as aba. IV 916b 

dhawwak ->■ Cashna-gir 

dhayl (A, pi. dhuyul, adhyal) : 'tail', a continuation of a text, simultaneously attached to 
the work of which it is the 'appendix' and detached from it. IX 158b; IX 603b f.; X 
277a; and ->■ mudhayyal 

♦ dhayl al-kitt (A) : 'long cat's tail', in botany, either the Cat's tailgrass {Phleum 
pratense) or Alfagrass (Lygeum spartum). IX 653a 

dhi'b (A) : in zoology, the wolf, and, in local usage, the jackal. II 223a 

dhikh -»■ dabu' 

dhikr (A) : 'remembering' God, reciting the names of God; the tireless repetition of an 

ejaculatory litany; a religious service common to all the mystical fraternities, performed 

either solitarily or collectively, also known as hadra, 'imara, or simply madjlis. II 164b; 

II 223b; II 891b; IV 94b; X 245a; a discourse. IX 112a; the revelation sent down to 

Muhammad. V 402a 

♦ dhikr-i 'alaniyya -»■ dhikr-i dil 

♦ dhikr al-'awamm (A) : the collective dhikr sessions. II 224a 

♦ dhikr-i dil (P) : the dhikr of the heart, as opposed to a public one {dhikr-i 
'alaniyya, or dhikr-i tan). As practiced by al-Hamadani, the first figure of the Kh w adjagan 
sufi movement, it was accompanied by the prolonged holding of the breath. XII 521a 

♦ dhikr-i djahr (< A) : a practice of reciting the names of God loudly while sitting 
in the prescribed posture at prescribed times, adopted by the Cishti mystics. II 55b; as 
~ djahri, repetitive oral prayer, called '- of the saw' (T arra) (in Arabic, ~ al-minshar), 
which practice gave the Yasawiyya the name of Djahriyya. XI 295a 


♦ dhikr-i khafi (< A) : a practice of reciting the names of God silently, adopted by 
the Cishti mystics. II 55b 

♦ dhikr al-khawass (A) : the dhikr of the privileged (mystics who are well ad- 
vanced along the spiritual path). II 224a 

dhimma (A) : the term used to designate the sort of indefinitely renewed contract 
through which the Muslim community accords hospitality and protection to members 
of other revealed religions, on condition of their acknowledging the domination of 
Islam; the beneficiaries of the ~ are also collectively referred to as the ~, or ahl al- 
dhimma. Originally only Jews and Christians were involved; soon, however, it became 
necessary to consider the Zoroastrians, and later, especially in Central Asia, other 
minor faiths not mentioned in the Qur'an. II 227a 

In law, ~ is a legal term with two meanings: in legal theory, - is the legal quality 
which makes the individual a proper subject of law, that is, a proper addressee of the 
rule which provides him with rights or charges him with obligations. In this sense, it 
may be identified with legal personality (fi 'l-dhimma 'in personam'). The second 
meaning is that of the legal practitioners and goes back to the root of the notion of 
obligation. It is the fides which binds the debtor to his creditor. II 231a; XII 207a; 
abstract financial responsibility. I 27a 

♦ dhimmi (A) : the beneficiary of the dhimma. A ~ is defined as against the 
Muslim and the idolater; and also as against the harbl who is of the same faith but 
lives in territories not yet under Islam; and finally as against the musta'min, the for- 
eigner who is granted the right of living in an Islamic territory for a short time (one 
year at most). II 227a 

dhira' (A) : cubit, a basic measure of length, being originally the length of the arm from 
the elbow to the top of the middle finger. The name ~ is also given to the instrument 
used for measuring it. One ~ was 24 isba', although the cubit was not always used 
with great precision and a considerable number of different cubits were in common use 
in Islam, e.g. the legal cubit, the black cubit, the king's cubit, and the cloth cubit. II 
231b; VII 137b 

A minor branch of a river, also called khalldi, as distinguished from the main stream 
{'amud). VIII 38a 
In anatomy, the arm. XII 830b 

dhrupad -»■ bandish; khayal 

dhu'aba ->■ Adhaba 

dhubab (A) : in zoology, the fly. II 247b 

♦ dhubabl (A0 : a variety of emerald, which when drawn near a snake's eyes, make 
them bulge out of their sockets and burst. Other types of emeralds were experimented 
with but did not have the same effect. XI 570a 

dhubban (A) : the term used in navigation to designate the standard angular distance of 

four fingers, isba's, wide, i.e. a handbreadth. IV 96b; VII 51a 
dhura (A) : in botany, the great sorghum {Sorghum vulgare), also called Indian millet, 

djdwars hindl. IV 520a; XII 249b 
dhurr -»■ kamh 
dhurriyya (A) : the descendants of c Ali, one of a class of noble blood, sharaf, that 

existed in Egyptian terminology of the 9th/15th century. IX 332a 
dibaca (P) : in prosody, a conventional introduction. IV 1009b 
dlbadj (A, < P) : silk brocade. Ill 209b 

♦ dibadja -► 'unwan 
dib'an -> dabu c 

dibdiba (A) : any flat, firm-surfaced area; the term is related to the classical dabdaba, 
referring to the drumming sounds of hooves on hard earth. II 248b 

DIBS — DIN 215 

dibs (A) : syrup, molasses; a treacle of grapes, carob, etc. I 69a; II 1062b; IX 804b 

dibshi -» djihh 

didd (A, pi. addad) : contrary; one of the four Aristotelian classes of opposites, viz. rel- 
ative terms, contraries, privation and possession, and affirmation and negation. II 249a; 
and -> addad 

diffiyya (A) : a heavy winter cloak for men, worn in Egypt. V 740b 

difla (A) : in botany, the oleander. IX 872b 

dig-i djQsh -» TASHARRUF 
dih -» TIK WA-TUM 

dihkan (A, < P dehkdn) : the head of a village and a member of the lesser feudal nobil- 
ity of Sasanian Persia. They were an immensely important class, although the actual 
area of land they cultivated was often quite small. Their principal function was to col- 
lect taxes. In Transoxania, the term was applied to the local rulers as well as the 
landowners. The spread of the ikta c system in the 5th/l 1th century and the depression 
of the landowning classes diminished the position and influence of the ~, and the term 
acquired the sense of peasant, which is its meaning in modern Iran. I 15b; II 253b; V 

dihliz (A) : the palace vestibule where the ruler appeared for public audience. VIII 3 1 3b 

dik (A) : in zoology, the cock, of which several kinds (hindl, nabatl, zandji, etc.) are 
mentioned in the sources. II 275a 

dikk -> KATTAN 

dikka (A), or dakka : a platform in a mosque near the minbar to which a staircase leads 
up. This platform is used as a seat for the muezzin when pronouncing the call to prayer 
in the mosque at the Friday service. Mosques of the Ottoman period have their ~ in 
the form of a rostrum against the wall opposite the mihrab. II 276a; VI 663a; and -> 


♦ dikkat al-muballigh -» muballigh 
dil c -» djabal; sak; shay' 

dilk (A) : the patched garment of sufis, also worn by clowns. V 740b 

dillina (A, < Gk), or dalllna : the flat mussel (Tellina planata). VIII 707a; its export as 
pickled mussels from Rosetta, in Egypt, was mentioned by the mediaeval geographer 
al-Idrisi. VIII 438a 

dilsiz (T, P bizabdn) : lit. tongueless; the name given to the deaf mutes employed in the 
inside service of the Ottoman palace, and for a while at the Sublime Porte. Established 
in the palace from the time of Mehemmed II to the end of the sultanate, they served 
as guards and attendants, and as messengers and emissaries in highly confidential mat- 
ters, including executions. II 277a 

dimak (A, < P dima 'cheek'), or daymak : in archery, the 'arrow-pass', sc. the side of 
the handle continuous with the the part facing the archer as he shoots (wadjh). IV 799a 

din (A, pi. adydn) : religion; the obligations which God imposes on man; the domain of 
divine prescriptions concerning acts of worship and everything involved in it. II 293b; 
IV 171b 
For ~ as second element in titles, V 621b ff. 

♦ din al-hakk (A) : a Qur'anic expression denoting 'the religion of Truth'; the 
revealed religion; the religion of the golden mean. II 294b 

♦ din-i Hani : the heresy promulgated by the Indian Mughal emperor Akbar in 989/ 1 58 1 , 
as a result of his discussions with learned men of all religions, which he vainly hoped 
would prove acceptable to his subjects. The new religion was related to earlier alfi 
heretical movements in Indian Islam of the 10th/16th century, implying the need for 
the reorientation of faith at the end of the first millennium of the advent of the Prophet 
I 317a; II 296a 


dinar (A, < Gk; pi. dananir) : Muslim gold coin issued by the Umayyad caliph c Abd 
al-Malik b. Marwan, to replace the Byzantine denarius. There are earlier types of 
dinars dating from ca. 72/691-2, but the coinage reform of 'Abd al-Malik drastically 
affected the style which it would henceforth have. I 77b; II 297a; V 964a ff. 

♦ dinar dhahabi (A) : a double dInar, of a weight of 4.57 gr, struck first by the 
Almohads. The traditional dinar was called dinar fiddi or 'ashri in the Marinid sources. 
VI 573a 

♦ dananir al-sila (A) : special coins, presentation issues, struck for non-currency 
purposes. XI 228b 

dir' (A), or sard, zarad, muzarrad (< P zard) : in military science, protective body 
armour in the shape of coats of mail, which were considered valuable in desert fight- 
ing in the pre-Islamic period. XII 735b 

diraya (A) : the term used by al-Ramahurmuzi to distinguish transmissions of Traditions 
by people who have learned to discern between all transmission minutiae, from those 
by people who merely transmit without paying proper heed to all sorts of crucial details 
in isnad as well as contents of Tradition, which he terms riwdya. VIII 421a; X 934a 

dirham (A, < Gk) : the name indicates both a weight and the silver unit of the Arab 
monetary system, used from the rise of Islam down to the Mongol period. II 319a; V 
964a ff.; VI 118a 
In early mathematics, -was the term used for the absolute number. II 361a 

♦ dirham warak (A), or dirham aswad : in numismatics, so-called black dirhams, 
which were described as 'rough, uneven, small rectangles or squares of low silver con- 
tent, the weight of which depended on the haphazard way the cold chisel of the flan 
cutter fell'. XI 199b 

dirlik (T) : living, livelihood; a term used in the Ottoman empire to denote an income 

provided by the state, directly or indirectly, for the support of persons in its service. It 

is used principally of the military fiefs, but also applies to pay, salaries, and grants in 

lieu of pay. II 322a; IX 656a 
dirra (A) : a whip of ox-hide, or of strips of hide on which date-stones have been 

stitched. X 406b 
dirridj (A), or durraydj : a drum. II 135b; X 33a; a lute with a long neck and plucked 

strings. VI 215b; and ->■ darabukka 
dirs (A, pi. adrds, duriis), and shibrik (pi. shabdrik) : in zoology, the kitten of both wild 

and domestic cats. IX 651b; the young of the jerboa. XI 283b 
dirwa (A) : a typical style of hairdressing, which has given rise to the nickname Fuzzy- 

wuzzy, practised by the c Ababda tribe of Upper Egypt. I lb 
diw (P) : the name of the spirits of evil and of darkness, creatures of Ahriman, the 

personification of sins, whose number is legion. II 322b 
di'wa -*■ ISTILHAK 
diwan (A) : a register; an office. I 801b; I 1145b; II 323a; IV 937b 

In literature, a collection of poetry or prose. II 323a 

For a list of diwdm not listed below, II 328b ff. 

♦ diwan al-badal : under the Mamluks, a special department established to facilitate 
the exchange of feudal estates of the members of the halka against payment or com- 
pensation which had become usual after the death of the Mamluk al-Nasir Muhammad. 
Ill 99b 

♦ diwan-begi : the title of high officials in the Central Asian khanates in the 16th- 
19th centuries. XII 227b; among the Timurids, the office of secretary of the diwan or 
chief of the secretariat of the diwan. VIII 481b 

♦ diwan efendi : in the Ottoman empire, chancellor of the Admiralty. VIII 422a; in 
the Ottoman provinces, an important official attached to the wall. In Egypt, under 


Muhammad 'All, the ~ became a kind of president of the council of ministers. VIII 

♦ diwan rakamlari (T) : term for the siyakat numerals, in effect the 'written out' 
shapes of the numerals in Arabic, reduced to a skeletal and schematised form. IX 693a 

♦ diwan-i humayun (T) : the name given to the Ottoman imperial council founded 
by Mehemmed II after the conquest of Istanbul, which, until the mid-1 lth/17th century, 
was the central organ of the government of the empire. II 337b 

♦ diwani (A) : in land management, land held by the ruler as head of state as 
opposed to crown land. IV 974b 

In calligraphy, a form of Arabic script which consisted of letters and particular signs 
devised from abbreviations of the names of numbers. It was already in use during the 
'Abbasid caliphate by the army of scribes and accountants working in the Treasury, 
although according to Turkish sources, the ~ script was allegedly invented for writing 
official documents and registers of the dIwan-i-humayun. Djall diwani is a variant 
type of ~ with the letters written within each other. It flourished from the 9th/15th cen- 
tury onwards. I 1145b; II 315b; IV 1125b; VIII 151b; and -» tawkI' 

diya (A), or 'akl, ma'kula : in law, a specified amount of money or goods due in cases 
of homicide or other injuries to physical health unjustly committed upon the person of 
another. It is a substitute for the law of private vengeance. In its restricted and most 
usual sense in law, it means the compensation which is payable in cases of homicide. 
I 29a; I 171b; I 338a; II 340b; V 180a 

diyamlrun : in medicine, a robb, made from mulberry juice for swellings of the mouth 
and for angina. X 752a 

diyanay (P) : an ancient type of double reed-pipe. Its two pipes have been described as 
being of equal length, each of which is pierced by five finger-holes, which gave an 
octave between them. According to al-Farabi, the ~ was also called the mizmdr al-muthanna 
or muzdwadj. VII 208a 

dja'ala -> dju'l 

dja'ba (A) : in archery, a fairly large, leather quiver having a lid fixed by means of a 
cord, mikhdhaf. IV 799b 

djaba (T), or djabd benndk : in Ottoman times, married peasants possessing no land. I 

djabaduli (Mor), or djdbddur : a full-length, caftan-like garment with either no buttons 
or a single button in front. V 745b; a short tunic worn over a waistcoat. XI 543b 

djabadur -► djabaduli 

djabal (A, pi. djibal) : a massive mountain, rocky hillock; other synonyms in common 
use among the Bedouin in Arabia are diV (pi. dulu', dil'dn), hazm, which is usually 
lower than a ~, abrak (pi. burkdri) and barka' (pi. burk). Promontories jutting out from 
the island escarpments are called khashm 'nose' (pi. khushum). I 536b; II 534b; the 
name for a very large ruby, of which three were known to have been bought by the 
'Abbasid caliphs al-Mansur, al-Mahdi and al-Mutawakkil. XI 263b 

djabbadha -► sarafsar 

djabbana (A, pi. djabbdndt) : a piece of unbuilt land serving, i.a., as a meeting place and 
a cemetery. V 23a; V 347a; and -► makbara 

djabbar -> djawza' 

djabha -► sudjdja 

djabi (A) : a collector of the sadaka tax. X 50b 

djabih (A) : 'that which comes from in front', one of the technical terms designating the 
directions of a bird's flight, or an animal's steps, which play an important part in the 
application of divination known as fa'l, tIra and zadjr. II 760a; and -► natih 


djabr (A) : compulsion. I 27b; and -> djabriyya 

In law, ~ is compulsion in marriage exercised upon one or other of the prospective 

partners. XII 233a 

In medicine, minor or simple surgery. II 481b 

♦ al-djabr wa M-mukabala (A) : originally two methods of transforming equations, 
later, the name given to algebra, the theory of equations. II 360b 

♦ djabriyya (A), or mudjbira : the name given by opponents to those whom they 
alleged to hold the doctrine of djabr 'compulsion', viz. that man does not really act 
but only God. It was also used by later heresiographers to describe a group of sects. 
The Mu'tazila applied it to traditionists, Ash'arite theologians and others who denied 
their doctrine of kadar 'free will'. II 365a; III 1 142b 

♦ djabriyyun (A) : in the writings of the Ikhwan al-Safa' (4th/10th century), the 
name of the representatives of the branch of mathematics called a/-DJABR wa 'l-mukab ala. 
II 361b 

djadal -► adab 

♦ djadaliyyun (A) : controversialists. X 440b; and -> adab 
djadha' ->• *atud 

♦ djadha'a (A) : a female camel in its fifth year. XI 412a 
djadhba (A) : in mysticism, divine attraction. VIII 306b; IX 863a 
djadhi -> za'faran 

djadhidha (A) : in agriculture, wheat husked and crushed. II 1060b 

djadhr (A) : in mathematics, ~ is the term used for the square root. Ill 1139b 

djadi -> za'faran 

djadid (A, T djedld) : new, modern. II 366a 

In Persian prosody, the name of a metre of rare occurrence, said to have been invented 
by the Persians. I 677b 

In Central Asia and among the Muslims of Russia, the name of a reform movement 
(followers of the usul-i djedldfe] 'the new methods') in the 19th and 20th centuries. II 
366a; XII 466b 

djadwal (A), or khatim : a scientific table. XI 497b 

In sorcery, quadrangular or other geometrical figures into which names and signs pos- 
sessing magic powers are inserted. These are usually certain mysterious characters, 
Arabic letters and numerals, magic words, the Names of God, the angels and demons, 
as well as of the planets, the days of the week, and the elements, and lastly pieces 
from the Qur'an. II 370a 
For ~ in the Ottoman context, -> khark 

♦ al-djadwal al-mudjarrad (A) : in dating, a double-argument table used for the cal- 
culation of maddkhil (->• madkhal) from which the initial week day can be read off 
directly for every month of every year within the respective cycles. X 270b 

djady (A) : lit. kid; in astronomy, al- ~ is the term for Capricorn, one of the twelve zodi- 
acal constellations. VII 84a; and -> sakhla 

dja'fari -> kaghad 

djafir (A) : in archery, one of the terms for quiver. IV 800a 

djafna -> mi'djan 

djafr (A) : the generic name for an esoteric literature of apocalyptic character which 
arose as a result of the persecution which the descendants of c Ali and Fatima had suf- 
fered. Later, deviating from its original form of esoteric knowledge, reserved for the 
successors and heirs of c Ali, it became assimilated to a divinatory technique accessible 
to the wise whatever their origin, particularly mystics, consisting of speculations based 
on the numerical value of the Arabic letters. II 375b; IV 1 1 29a; and -> sakhla 


djaghana (A, < P caghana) : in music, a jingling instrument of small cymbals attached 

to a frame, in Europe given the name Chapeau Chinois or the Jingling Johnny. Another 

name for it is zilll mdsha. IX 10a ff. 
djagir : land given or assigned by governments in India to individuals as a pension or 

as a reward for immediate services. The holder of such land was called ajdgirddr. II 

378b; IX 581a 

♦ djagirdar ->■ djagIr 

djah (P) : in astronomy, the north pole, used by Islamic navigators of the Indian Ocean. 

The term was also used for the Pole Star. V 543a; VII 51a 
djahannam (A) : hell. I 334b; II 381b; and ->■ sa'ir 
djahardah ->■ shahardah 
djahbadh (P, pi. djahdbidha) : a financial clerk, expert in matters of coins, skilled 

money examiner, treasury receiver, government cashier, money changer or collector. I 

1144b; II 382b; the functionary in the Treasury whose task it was to prepare the 

monthly statement of income and expenditure. II 79b 
djahfal ->■ kurdus 
djahil (A, pi. ajuhhdl) : 'ignorant'. Among the Druze, members of the community not 

yet initiated into the truths of the faith; the initiated are the 'ukkdl. II 633a 

♦ djahili (A) : 'pre-Islamic'; in Sayyid Kutb's book Ma'dlim fi 'l-tarik, ~ means 
'barbaric', 'anti-Islamic', 'wicked', and implies apostasy from Islam, punishable by 
death. IX 1 17b 

♦ djahiliyya (A) : the term for the state of affairs in Arabia before the mission 
of the Prophet; paganism; the pre-Islamic period and the men of that time. II 383b 

djahmarish (A) : a term used for a female hare while suckling. XII 84b 

djahr ->• dhikr-i djahr 

djahwash (A) : a child who has passed the stage of weaning. VIII 822a 

dja'ifa (A) : a wound penetrating the interior of the body; a determining factor in the 
prescription of compensation following upon physical injury, diya. II 341b 

dja'ila ->■ dju'l 

dja'iz (A) : permissable; in law, the term preferred by Hanafi authors to specify that the 
juridical act was legitimate or licit, in point of law, apart from its being valid, sahih, 
or not. Other schools also use it to denote the revocability of e.g. a contract. II 389b 
In logic, ~ means what is not unthinkable. II 390a 

In the vocabulary of tents, ~ is the main ridge piece, which was of considerable impor- 
tance. IV 1 147b 

♦ dja'iza ->• sila 
djalabi ->■ CelebI 

djalali (P) : the name of an era founded by the Saldjuk sultan Malikshah b. Alp Arslan, 
called after his title Djalal al-Dawla, although it is sometimes termed maliki; a calen- 
dar used often in Persia from the last part of the 5th/Hth century onwards. II 397b; 
VI 275b; X 267b 

In Ottoman Turkish, a term used to describe companies of brigands, led usually by idle 
or dissident Ottoman army officers, widely spread throughout Anatolia from about 999/1590 
but diminishing by 1030/1620. IV 499a; IV 594a; XII 238a 

djalam (A) : shears. XII 319a; a strain of sheep in the time of Djahiz found in Ta'if, 
which was very high on its hooves and had a fleece so smooth that it appeared bald. 
XII 318a 

djalba (A, < Por/Sp gelbalgelva) : a large type of barque used by Arabs on the Arabian 
Sea and Indian Ocean shores. Ibn Djubayr observed that they were stitched together 
with coir, i.e. coconut palm fibres. VIII 811a 


djall (A), or djalll : a name given to every large type of script, but more specifically 
used for the large type of ihuluih. It was used for large-sized frames and also for 
public buildings and their inscriptions. IV 1123b; V 224a 

♦ djall diwani ->■ dIwanI 
djalil -> djali 

djalish (A, < T calish 'battle'), also written shalish : in military science, the vanguard 
of an army, as described during the battle of Hittin in 584/1187, syn. talI'a, mukad- 
dama; also during the Mamluk period, a special flag hoisted over the tablkhdna to 
make known the decision to dispatch a large expedition against a strong enemy. Ill 
184a; XII 722a 

djaliya (A, pi. djawalI) : the term used for the Arabic-speaking communities with spe- 
cial reference to North and South America. II 403b; II 470b 

djallab (A) : 'importer', slave-trader. I 32b; I 929a; an outer garment used in certain 
parts of North Africa, variant of djallabiyya. II 404b; sheep merchant. XII 316b 

♦ djallabiyya (A) : in Morocco and the west of Algeria, a hooded outer robe with 
long sleeves, originally worn by men only, now by both sexes. II 404b; V 745b; in 
Egypt, the loose body shirt still commonly worn by men, pronounced gallabiyya. V 

djallala (A) : a 'scatophagous animal', mentioned in Tradition and developed in fikh 

with regard to the prohibition of certain foods. II 1069b; V 8b 
djalsa (A), and c and', zina : in Morocco, the prevalent system of perpetual lease by 

wakf of dilapidated shops and workshops, whereby the tenant makes the necessary 

repairs, pays an annual rent and thus acquires the perpetual usufruct of the property. 

XII 369a 

♦ djalsat al-istiraha (A) : in the Islamic ritual prayer, the return to the sitting posi- 
tion after the second inclination, rak'a, which practice is common among the Hanbalis 
and the Shafi'is, and now also widespread among Maliki worshippers. VIII 929b 

djaltita -»• faltIta 

djalwa -»• djilwa 

djam' (A), or djamd'a : in grammar, the plural for units numbering three or more. II 
406b; VIII 990b 

In mysticism, ~ is contrasted with fark 'separation', and denotes seeing all things as 
brought together through God's reality. XI 38a 

djama-dar ->■ djamdar 

djama'a (A, T djemd'a) : meeting, assembly. 

In religion, the community (of believers). II 41 la; the common practices and beliefs of 
the Companions. II 295a 

In North Africa, as djemaa, ~ denoted local administrative assemblies, which owned 
property collectively. II 412b; IV 362a 

In Morocco, a tribal assembly of men able to bear arms, which dealt with all the busi- 
ness of the tribe, civil, criminal, financial and political. V 1 198b 
In the Ottoman empire, as djemd'at or piyddegdn, one of three principal subdivisions 
of the Janissary corps, later expanded to 101 regiments, for those created before 
Mehemmed's time. The other two were the segbdn, a small corps of keepers of the 
palace hounds, and the boluk or agha boliikleri. XI 323b 
For ~ in grammar, -»• djam 1 

djamad -»■ ma'din 

djamahat (P, < A djamd'a) : among the Shahsewan in Persia, a community which moved 
and camped as a unit during the autumn migration in October and the spring migra- 
tion in May, performing many religious ceremonies jointly. IX 224a 

djamakan (T) : a disrobing chamber in the Ottoman sultan's palace. X 567a 


djamakiyya (A, < P) : salary; originally, that part of the regular salary given in dress 
or cloth; under the Mamluks, ~ denoted the part of the salary given in money. II 413b; 
a grant. IX 269a 

djamal (A, Heb gimel) : in zoology, the male camel, sometimes used equally with ibil 
for the species. Ill 666a 

♦ djamal al-bahr (A), or kuba' : in zoology, the humpbacked whale. VIII 1022b 
djamalun (A) : in architecture, a gable roof. I 616a 

djamdar (A, < P djdma-ddr 'clothes-keeper') : 'platoon commander', the lowest com- 
missioned rank in the Indian Army. It also denotes junior officials in the police, cus- 
toms, etc., or the foreman of a group of guides, sweepers. II 421b 

♦ djamdariyya (A) : under the Mamluks, the keepers of the sultan's wardrobe. II 
421b; VIII 432a 

djamedan (T) : a short, trimmed waistcoat without sleeves, worn as an outer garment in 
the Ottoman period. V 752a 

djami' (A, pi. djawdmi') : mosque; and ->■ masdjid djami' 

In philosophy and science, the plural form, djawdmi', is used to denote the com- 
pendium or handbook. VII 536b; djawdmi' is also used for the 'short' recension of Ibn 
Rushd's commentary on Aristotle's works. VII 539a; summaries. X 454b 

♦ djami' al-hisab (A) : the master-ledger of the Ilkhanids, from which the annual 
financial reports were prepared, one of the seven main registers on which their system 
of book-keeping was based. II 81b 

♦ djami' al-sadaka (A) : an alms collector, one of the 'representatives' despatched 
to Yemen under the early regimes. XI 272a 

djami'a (A) : an ideal, a bond or an institution which unites individuals or groups; uni- 
versity. II 422b; in modern usage, ~ has also been used to characterise a political, 
united movement; more specifically, ~ signifies the political unification of Muslim 
states. VIII 359b ff. 

djam'iyya (A, T djem'iyyet; P andjuman) : society; association. This term was perhaps 
first used to refer to the organised monastic communities or congregations which 
appeared in the Uniate Churches in Syria and Lebanon. In the middle of the 19th cen- 
tury, ~ came into more general use, first in Lebanon and then in other Arabic-speak- 
ing countries, to refer to voluntary associations for scientific, literary, benevolent or political 
purposes. By the middle of the 20th century, hizb had replaced ~ to refer to political 
movements and organisations. II 428b; III 514b ff. 

djammal (A) : camel-driver or cameleer; also an owner and hirer of camels, and a 
dealer in camels. XII 241b 

djamra (A, pi. djimdr) : pebble. II 438a; tribe. VIII 381a; ~ is the name given to the 
three places (al-djamra al-uld, al-djamra al-wustd, djamrat al-'akaba) where pilgrims 
returning from 'Arafat during the pilgrimage stop to partake in the ritual throwing of 
stones. II 438a; III 36a; VIII 379a 

♦ djamarat al-'arab (A) : tribes that never allied themselves with others. VIII 120a; 
X 173b; the groups of Bedouin tribes. VIII 379a 

djamuh (A) : in the terminology of horse-riding, a horse that checks its head to escape 
from control by the hands. II 953b 

djamulyan -► gonullu 

djamus (A, < P gdv-i mlsh 'bull-sheep') : in zoology, the Indian buffalo or water buf- 
falo (Bubalus bubalis). XII 242b 

In Algeria, ~ designates women's bracelets carved from the horns of the water buffalo. 
XII 244a 

♦ djamus al-bahr (A) : in zoology, the hippopotamus, to some writers. XII 244a 

♦ djamus al-khala' (A) : in zoology, the African buffalo (Syncerus coffer), called 
thus by the Sudanese. It was unknown to the Arab writers. XII 242b 


djanaba (A) : in law, the state of major ritual impurity, caused by marital intercourse, 
to which the religious law assimilates any effusio seminis. II 440b; VIII 929a 

djanah (A) : wing; in botany, ~ al-nasr 'vulture's wing' is the Cardoon (Cynara cardun- 
culus). VII 1014b 

djanaza (A) : corpse, bier, or corpse and bier, and then, funeral. II 441b 

djanbaz (P, Egy ganbddhiya) : an acrobat, especially 'rope-dancer'; soldier; horse- 
dealer. II 442b 

♦ djanbazan : the name of a military corps in the Ottoman empire, serving only in 
time of war, in the vanguard, and charged with dangerous tasks. It was abolished 
towards the end of the 16th century. II 443a 

djandar (P) : the name of certain guards regiments who provided the sovereign's body- 
guard from the Saldjuks on. II 444a; V 685a 

djandji dalem (J) : 'the royal promise', a term in Java for the ta'lik-talak institution. 
I 173b 

djang (U) : in Urdu poetry, the part of the elegy, marthiya, where the battle is de- 
scribed, with stress on the hero's valour and often including a description of his sword. 

VI 611b 

djanin (A) : the term for the child in its mother's womb; foetus. VIII 821b 
djank (A) : in music, the harp. II 1073b; IX 10a 
djanki (P) : council of state. XI 194a 
djanna (A) : garden; Paradise. II 447a 

♦ djannat al-khuld (A) : 'the garden of eternity', i.e. Paradise. XII 529b 
djantita -> faltita 

djanub (A) : in meteorology, the south wind. VIII 526b 

djar -> iqjara 

djarab (A) : in medicine, scabies. V 107a; VIII 783a; IX 902b; X433a 

♦ djarab al-'ayn -> ramad hubaybI 

djarad (A, s. djardda) : in zoology, locusts. For the different stages of the locust's 
development, Arabic has special names, such as sirwa, dabd, ghawghd', khayfdn, etc., 
which, however, are variously denned. II 455a; and -> kayna 

djara'id (Tun) : a pair of men's leather leggings. V 745b 

djaras (A, pi. adjrds) : in music, the cup, bowl or cone-shape bell; the sphere-shaped bell 
was called the djuldjul. ~ also stood for a large bell, djuldjul meaning a small bell. A 
collection of these bells, on a board or chain, is known as a tabla. IX 10b f. 

djardak, djardhak -> raghif 

djarf (A) : one of a number of terms for a seine or drag-net, i.e. a large pouched net 
used for fishing on the high seas, also called djdruf, djarrdfa, kattd'a and batdna. VIII 

djarh (A) : in law, the contestation that a witness is c adl. I 209b 

♦ al-djarh wa 'l-ta c dil (A) : lit. disparaging and declaring trustworthy; in the sci- 
ence of Tradition, a technical phrase used regarding the reliability or otherwise of tra- 
ditionists. II 462a; VIII 515a 

djarib (A) : the basic measure of area in earlier Islamic times, which, as well as being 
a measure of capacity for grain, etc., equal to four kafIzs, became a measure of sur- 
face area, originally the amount of agricultural land which could be sown with a djarlb's 
measure of seed. The extent of the ~ of area varied widely. Canonically, it was made 
up of 100 kasabas, hence approx. 1600 m 2 . VII 138a 

djarid (A) : the firm central stem of the palm which, when stripped of the leaf, is used 
for different purposes. Used in the manner of a javelin, the ~ gave its name to djerid, 
the well-known equestrian sport so popular in Abyssinia, the Near East and Turkey. 

VII 923a 


♦ djarida (A, pi. djard'id) : lit. leaf; a usual term in modern Arabic for a newspa- 
per, the adoption of which is attributed to Faris al-Shidyak (syn. sahifa, usually used 
in the pi. suhuf). II 464b; XII 247a; in Sicily, a document which set out the different 
legal and social levels, defining the status on the one hand of the people of the coun- 
tryside, having limited rights, and on the other that of the urban classes. IX 585b 

♦ al-djarida al-musadjdjala (A) : in classical Muslim administration, the sealed reg- 
ister. II 79a 

♦ al-djarida al-sawda 5 (A) : in classical Muslim administration, the central register 
of the army office prepared annually for each command, showing the names of the sol- 
diers, with their pedigree, ethnic origin, physical descriptions, rations, pay, etc. II 78b 

djarih (A, pi. ajawdrih) : a 'beast of prey', used in hawking. I 1152a 

djarima (A), or djurm : a sin, fault, offence; in modern law, the technical term for 

crime. II 479b 

In Ottoman usage, in the forms ajeiime and ajereme, fines and penalties. Other pre- 
scribed fines were called klnlik and gharamet. II 479b; II 604a 
djariya (A) : maidservant, female slave. I 24b 
djarkh (A, < P carkh) : a crossbow. II 506b; an individual arbalest whose bow is drawn 

back by means of a wheel (whence its name); by this, very long arrows, approaching 

the length of javelins, could be fired. IV 798a 
djarm ->■ garmsIr 
djarr (A), or khafd : in grammar, the genitive case. Ill 1008a 

In mediaeval agriculture, the trace, which attached the beam of the ploughshare to the 

centre of the yoke (nlr). VII 22b 

♦ djarr al-djiwar (A) : in grammar, a term denoting 'attraction of the indirect case'. 
II 558b 

djarrah (A) : in medicine, surgeon. II 481b 

djarrar (A) : 'he who drags (someone) along'; in military terminology, the commander 

of 1,000 men. X 91a; an army corps. IV 1144b 

In the context of the pilgrimage, ~ is the name given to the few mutawwifiln (->• 

mutawwif) who worked outside the special guild. They dealt primarily with pilgrims 

too poor to hire the services of a bona fide mutawwif. VI 171a 
djars (A, pi. adjrds) : in grammar, the result of the application of the articulatory organs 

to the place of the 'cutting', makta c . Ill 597b 
djarusha (A) : the ancient tribulum, a technique using animal power motivating sharp 

stones and iron blades for threshing corn. X 411a 
djasad (A, pi. aajsdd) : body, in particular that of a higher being such as an angel. II 


♦ adjsad (A) : in alchemy, the metals, corresponding to Gk to aconata. V Ilia 
dja'sh (A) : in archery, a light and weak bow which, contrary to the katum, vibrates 

when loosed. IV 798a 
djashankiriyya ->■ ustadar 
djass (A) : gypsum manufactured in the town of Si'ird, which was used in the building 

of local houses. IX 574b 

♦ djassas (A) : a seller of gypsum. XII 759a 

djasus (A) : spy; in particular, a spy sent among the enemy. II 486b 

djati (H) : an Indian musical term for modes, constructed on heptatonic series of notes, 

murcchana. Ill 452b; caste. Ill 459b 
djawab ->• shart 
djawad (A) : in zoology, the 'excellent runner', one of the more precise terms for a 

horse. IV 1143b 
djawali (A, s. ajdli) : lit. emigres; and ->• djaliya 


As a fiscal term, ~ came to mean the poll-tax levied on non-Muslims, djizya. II 490a; 

II 561a 
djawami' -»• djami' 

djawars (A, < P gdwars) : in botany, millet (Panicum miliacewri). XII 249b 
djawarsh (A, pi. djawarish) ■ in medicine, a stomachic. IX 805a; XI 381b 
djawarshin (A) : in medicine, an electuary. XII 641a 
djawf (A) : in geography, a depressed plain, sometimes replaced by djaww, a basin with 

a spring well. II 491b; VIII 1048b 
djawlakh (P) : sack-cloth, probably the origin for the name, arising from the founder's 

distinctive garb, of the Djawlakiyya movement that penetrated into Anatolia in the first 

half of the 7th/13th century. IV 473b 
djawhar (A, < P) : jewel; atom. II 494b; XII 250b 

In philosophy, the technical term for otxria 'substance'. I 784b; II 493a 
djawka (A, pi. djawkat) : in Lebanon, a troupe accompanying the zadjal poet, with 

whome they engage in poetic duelling at festivals. XI 376a 
djawr (A) : oppression. XI 567b 
djawshan (A, P) : in military science, a lamellar armour, popular throughout most 

Islamic countries but the Islamic West by the 12th century. XII 737b 
djawun -»• hawun 
djaww -»• DJAWF 

djawwala (A) : globetrotter. I 116a 
djawz (A, < P gawz) : the nut in general, and the walnut (Juglans regia) in particular. 

XII 264a; the walnut tree. VIII 732b; for many fruits combined with ~, XII 264b 

♦ djawzahar (A, < P djawz cihr 'nut-shape'), tinnin, or 'ukda (< Gk) : in astron- 
omy, the two opposite points in which the apparent path of the moon, or all planets, 
cuts the ecliptic. In course of time, these points come to move on to the ecliptic. In 
texts dating from the 5th/llth century, ~ also indicates the circulus pareclipticus of the 
moon; and the nodes of the orbit of any of the five planets. II 501b; V 536a; VIII 
101b; and -»• falak al-djawzahar 

djawza 5 (A) : in astronomy, al-~ is the term for Orion, the stellar figure, replaced by the 
translators with al-djabbar, and Gemini, one of the twelve zodiacal constellations, also 
called al-taw'aman. VII 83a 

djawzal (A, pi. djawdzil) : the chick of a sandgrouse, kata. IX 744b 

djayb -»• djIb 

♦ al-djayb al-ma c kus -»■ sahm 

♦ al-djayb al-mustawi -»• sahm 

♦ djayb-i humayun (T) : the privy purse of the Ottoman sultans, which contents 
provided for the immediate needs and expenses of the sovereign. II 502b 

djaysh (A) : army. II 504a 

In the south of Algeria and Morocco, djish means an armed band to go out on an 
ambush, ghazw, against a caravan or a body of troops. When the ~ consisted of sev- 
eral hundred men, it was called a harka. II 509b 

In Morocco, djish (pronounced gish), denotes a kind of feudal organisation in the 
Moroccan army. II 509b 

djaza' (A) : recompense both in a good and in a bad sense, especially with reference to 
the next world. II 518a 

In Ottoman usage, ~ means punishment. II 518a; and -»• kanun-i djaza'i 
For ~ in grammar, -»• shart 

♦ djaza'ilci : tribal levy, as e.g. that known as the Khyber Rifles, paid by the gov- 
ernment of India for the protection of the Khyber in the late 19th century. I 238a; and 



djazira (A) : island; peninsula; territories situated between great rivers or separated from 
the rest of a continent by an expanse of desert; a maritime country. II 523a 
Among the Isma'ilis, ~ is the name of a propaganda district. II 523a 

djaziza -»■ djazzaz 

djazm (A) : in grammar, quiescence of the final harf of the mudari'. Ill 173a 

djazz -»■ ihfa' 

djazzar (A) : a slaughterer of camels, sheep, goats and other animals. Today, ~ is syn- 
onymous with kassdb and lahham, the two terms for butcher, but in mediaeval times, 
they formed a distinct group of workers. XII 267a 

djazzaz (A) : a shearer of wool-bearers. The shears he uses are called djalam and the 
wool obtained djaziza. XII 319a 

djebedji (T) : the name given to a member of the corps of 'Armourers of the Sublime 
Porte', which had charge of the weapons and munitions of the Janissaries. The corps 
was closely associated with the Janissaries, and was abolished together with the latter 
in 1241/1826. I 1061b; XII 269b 

djebe (T) : in Ottoman army usage, a simple armour perhaps made of metal plates, 
which a djebeli who enjoyed a small tImar as low as 730 akCes had to wear. X 503a 
♦ djebeli (T), or djebelii : an auxiliary soldier in the Ottoman empire, mostly of 
slave origin. II 528b; man-at-arms. IX 656b; a fully-armed auxiliary horseman. X 503a 

djedhba -»■ hal 

djerid (A) : a wooden dart or javelin used in the game of the same name, popular in 
the Ottoman empire from the 10th-13th/16th-19th centuries. The game consisted of a 
mock battle in the course of which horsemen threw darts at one another. II 532a 

dji'al ->• dju'l 

djib (A, < San jiva 'bow-string, half chord') : in mathematics, often misread as djayb 
'breast-pocket', this transcription from Sanskrit led to Eng 'sine' (< L sinus 'breast'). 

djibaya (A) : the collection of taxes. X 307b; XI 532b 

djidar -»■ lu'ama 

djidd (A) : a common ancestor (which links different sections of a tribe). XI 276b 

djiddaba (A) : in zoology, the djeddaba kingfish, whose Arabic term is found again in 
the Latinised nomenclature to specify a sub-species limited to a particular region 
(Caranx djeddaba). VIII 1021b 

djidha' -»■ adjdha' 

djidhr (A) : root; in mathematics, ~ is represented by the area of a rectangle having the 
side of the square as its length and the unit as its width. II 360b 

djiflik (T, pi. djafalik) : land given by Muhammad 'AM and his successors to themselves 
or to members of their family. XII 179a 

djihad (A) : an effort directed towards a determined objective; a military action with the 
object of the expansion of Islam and, if need be, of its defence. II 64a; II 126a; II 
538a; III 180a fif.; IV 772a; VIII 495a ff.; IX 845b 

djihh (Nadjdi A) : in botany, the term for watermelon in Nadjd (habhab in the Hidjaz, 
dibshl in the south). I 540b 

djika (P) : a plume, for a headdress. XI 192b 

djild (A), or adlm : leather; parchment. Synonyms of the latter meaning are warak, 
kirtas, rakk or rikk. II 540a; VIII 407b 

djilfa (A) : the nib of a reed-pen. IV 471a 

djillaya (A) : an embroidered coat-like outer garment, a wedding costume, worn by 
women in Syria and Palestine; in Yemen, a man's marriage caftan. V 741a 

djilwa (A) : the ceremony of raising the bride's veil, and the present made by the hus- 
band to the wife on this occasion. II 542b 


In mysticism, ~ (or djalwa) is the name of the state in which the mystic is on coming 
out of seclusion, khalwa. II 542b 

djim (A) : the fifth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value 3, represent- 
ing the g (occlusive, postpalatal, voiced, shadlda madjhura). II 543b 

djima' (A) : coitus (syn. bah). XII 641a 

djimat (Mai) : an amulet, in particular a written one. II 545a 

djinas (A) : paronomasia; -»• tadjnIs 

♦ djinas al-kalb (A) : in literary theory, an imperfect paronomasia whereby there is 
difference in the arrangement of the letters, e.g. the juxtaposition of fath and hatf. 
When the two words occur at the beginning and the end of the verse, it is called 
mudjannah. X 69b 

♦ djinas al-khatt -»• musahhaf 

djindar (T) : the second animal in the row of mules forming the caravans that used to 
operate in Anatolia. IV 678b 

djinn (A) : a Qur'anic term applied to bodies composed of vapour and flame, who came 
to play a large role in folklore. II 546b; III 669a; V 1101a; and -»• 'amluk; hinn; 

djins (A, < Gk) : genus; race. II 550a; sex. II 550b 

Under the Circassian rule in the Mamluk period, al-djins, meaning the Race, denoted 
the Circassian race. II 24b 

In music, ~ denotes the 'form' of the Ika', whose metrical patterns were chosen by the 
musician by modifying the basic notes. The early music schools knew seven or eight 
forms. XII 408b 

djiraha -»• 'amal bi 'l-yad 

djiraya (A) : salary, in the terminology of the Azharis during the Ottoman period; orig- 
inally, a number of loaves of bread sent daily by the Ottoman sultan to someone. II 

djirdjir (A) : in botany, rocket (Eruca sativa). IX 653a 

djirga (Pash) : an informal tribal assembly of the Pathans in what are now Afghanistan 
and Pakistan, with competence to intervene and to adjudicate in practically all aspects 
of private and public life among the Pathans. I 217a; V 1079a; XII 270a 

djirm (A) : body, in particular the heavenly bodies. II 554b 

djirrat (A) : in Cishti mysticism, a ~ is a mystic who visits kings and their courts and 
asks people for money. This was considered an abuse, along with the status of a 
mukallid (a mystic who has no master), as contact with the state in any form was not 
permitted. II 55b 

djisan -»• za'faran 

djish -»• djaysh 

djism (A) : body. II 553b; for synonyms, -»• badan; djasad; djirm 

♦ djism ta'limi (A) : mathematical body; a term used by Aristotle in contrast to 
djism tabVi 'physical body'. II 555a 

♦ djismiyyat (A) : a term employed by Abu '1-Hudhayl to denote the corporeal 
pleasures of Paradise. II 449b 

djisr (A, pi. djusur) : a bridge of wood or of boats. II 555a; IV 555a 

In mediaeval Egypt, the plural djusur is used for 'irrigation dams', of which there were 
two types: the small irrigation dams (al-djusur al-baladiyya), important for conveying 
water from one field to another in the village, and the great irrigation dams (al-djusur 
al-sultaniyya), constructed for the provinces. V 862b 

djiss (A) : plaster. II 556b 

djitr -»• MIZALLA 

djiwar (A) : protection of another tribe; neighbourhood. I 429b; I 890b; II 558a; IX 
864b; and -» djarr al-djiwar 


djizya (A) : the poll-tax levied on non- Muslims in Muslim states. II 490a; II 559a 

djonk (T) : a manuscript collection of folk poetry. VIII 171b 

dju c (P) : hunger; in mysticism, voluntary hunger was one of the foundations of the 

Khalwatiyya order. IV 992a 
dju'aydi -> harfush 

♦ dju'aydiyya (A) : the populace. XI 546a 

djubba (A) : a woollen tunic with rather narrow sleeves, worn over the shirt, kamIs, by 
both sexes in the time of the Prophet. V 733b; a coat-like outer garment worn by both 
sexes today in the Arab East. V 741a; in Tunisia, ~ denotes a full-length, sack-like 
chemise without sleeves. V 745b; a gown. IX 765a 

djubn (A) : a mild cheese; its residual whey is termed ma' al-djubn. XII 318b 

djudham (A) : in medicine, leprosy. Other terms for the disease, depending on the 
symptoms, were baras, bahak, wadah and kawdbi. XII 270b; for more euphemisms, 
XII 271a; elephantiasis. V89b; X 433a; impetigo. VII 1014a 

djudi (A) : a large, sea-going ship. Ill 324b 

dju'dju' -> SADR 

djughrafiya (A, < Gk) : geography; in mediaeval Arabic, geography was termed surat 
al-ard or kaf al-ard, with ~ being explained as 'map of the world and the climes'. The 
Arabs did not conceive of geography as a science, and the use of ~ for geography is 
a comparatively modern practice. II 575b 

djuhhal -> djahil 

djuhlul ->■ SHUNKUB 

djuhud (A) : in theology, denial of God. XI 478a 

djukandar (P) : an official responsible for the care of the Cawgans and for the conduct 
of the game of polo. II 17a 

djukh (A), or djukha : a wide-sleeved coat worn by men in the Arab East. V 741a; a 
long, woollen outer robe without sleeves or collar which is closed by a single button 
at the neck worn by men in North Africa. V 745b 

dju c l (A), or dji'dl, dja'dla, dja'ila : in early Islamic warfare, a kind of contract, regarded 
as degrading, received by mercenary irregulars often drawn from tribal splinter-groups 
and led by their own chieftains; ~ also served to designate the sum, levied in advance, 
as insurance against failure to participate in an obligatory razzia. VIII 496b 

djulab (P) : rose julep. XII 550b 

djulaha : in India, a low Muslim weaver caste. XII 483a 

djulahik -* kaws al-bunduk 

djulandjubin (P) : rose honey. XII 550b 

djulban (A) : in botany, bitter-vetch, one of the winter crops in mediaeval Egypt. V 863a 

djuldjul -> DJARAS 

♦ djuldjulan -> simsim 
djull -> WARD 

djulla -> KABUSH 

djullanar (A, < P gul-i andr) : in botany, the blossom of the wild pomegranate tree, 
also called al-mazz. XII 277a 

♦ djullanar! (A) : the deeply saturated yellow colour of the yellow sapphire. XI 

djulus (A, T djiilus) : accession to the throne. XII 504a 

djum'a -> yawm al-djum c a 

djumhuriyya -> mashyakha 

djumla (A, pi. djumal) : in law, a term meaning a general Qur'anic statement made more 

specific only by a hadIth which supplies a more precise definition, as opposed to 

nass. VII 1029a 


In grammar, a sentence. IX 526a 

Its plural form diurnal denotes a compendium or handbook, especially in grammar. VII 

djummar (A) : the pith of the palm-tree, eaten by pre-Islamic Arabs. II 1058b 
djummayz ->■ tIn 
djund (A, pi. adjndd) : an armed troop. Under the Umayyads, ~ was applied especially 

to (Syrian) military settlements and districts in which were quartered Arab soldiers who 

could be mobilised for seasonal campaigns or more protracted expeditions. Later, ~ 

took on the wider meaning of armed forces. II 601a; IX 263b 

Under the Mamluks, ~ is sometimes applied to a category of soldiers in the sultan's 

service, but distinct from the personal guard. II 601b 

For geographers of the 3rd/9th and 4th/10th centuries, the plural adjndd denoted the 

large towns. II 601b; V 125a 
djundub (A) : in zoology, the locust. V 566b 

djung (P) : lit. boat; an informal notebook with poetical fragments. VII 529a; VII 602a 
djuni ->■ kata 
djunna ->■ daraka 

djunub (A) : in law, a person who is in a state of major ritual impurity. II 440b 
djura ->■ tunbur 
djuradh (A, pi. djirdhdn, djurdhdri) : in zoology, a term defining all rats of a large size 

without distinction of species. XII 285b 

♦ djuradban (A) : 'the two rats', the name of the two symmetrical dorsal muscles 
of the horse. XII 286b 

♦ djurdhana (A) : the name of a variety of date, on the Arabian peninsula. XII 286b 
djuraydi '1-nakhl (Ir) : 'palm-tree rat', a term used in 'Irak to designate the ichneumon 

or Egyptian mongoose, sub-species persicus or auropunctatus. VIII 49b 

djurdjunadji (T) : a comic dancer. VIII 178b 

djurm ->■ DJARlMA 

djurn ->■ ha win 

djurnal (A) : under Muhammad 'Ali of Egypt, a 'daily administrative report'; the term 
was borrowed during the reign of Ottoman sultan 'Abd al-Hamid I to denote written 
denunciations. I 64a 

djuruf (A) : in Yemen, caves hewn out of the rock. X 449b 

djusur ->■ djisr 

djuz' (A, pi. adjzd') : part, particle; a technical term used in scholastic theology (kaldm) 
and philosophy to describe the philosophical atom in the sense of the ultimate (sub- 
stantial) part that cannot be divided further, sometimes also called al-djuz' al-wdhid. II 
220a; II 607b 

In prosody, the eight rhythmic feet which recur in definite distribution and sequence in 
all metres. I 669b 

In the science of the Qur'an, ~ is a division of the Qur'an for purposes of recitation. 
II 607b 
In literature, a booklet. XI 354b 

djuz shikastan (P) : 'breaking the nut', a rite performed by the superior of the C AH-Ilahis. 
X 398a 

djuzaf (A) : in law, buying or selling provisions wholesale without fixing weights and 
measures. X 467b; unascertained quantities. XII 703b 

djuzazat (A) : index cards, as for example the collection in the Egyptian Academy of 
Science that was prepared for the historical dictionary and for the dictionary of tech- 
nical and scientific terms. V 1092b 

DO'AB — DU'A' 229 

do'ab (P) : lit. two waters; in the subcontinent of India, ~ is generally applied to the 
land lying between two confluent rivers, and more particularly to the fertile plain 
between the Jamna and the Ganges in present Uttar Pradesh in India. II 609b; XI la 

dogah -> SHASHMAKOM 

doghandji (T) : falconer. Hawking was a favourite traditional sport at the Ottoman 
court. II 614a 

doha : in Indo-Persian poetry, couplet. XII 483a 

dokkali (B) : woollen and cotton wall covers, once a major craftsmanship in Adrar, 
Algeria. I 210b 

dolab (T) : a swivel-box, through which servant in Ottoman Turkish houses of the upper 
class communicated with the women's apartments. IV 899a 

dolama (T) : a caftan worn by the least important Ottoman palace servants, which had 
a long robe, fastened in front, with narrow sleeves. V 752a 

doli (H) : a litter used in India for transporting people. It is a simple rectangular frame 
or bedstead, usually suspended by the four corners from a bamboo pole and carried by 
two or four men; when used by women there are usually curtains hanging from the 
bamboo. The ~ was much used for the transport of sick persons, and in war to carry 
casualties off the battlefield. A form where the frame is supported on two poles is used 
as the bier to transport a corpse to the burial-ground. VII 932a 

dombra : a lute used in Kazakhstan, with two or three strings. X 733b 

donadon (K), or kirds gihorrin 'changing one's shirt' : reincarnation, a belief of the 
yazIdI religion. XI 314a 

donanma (T) : a fleet of ships, navy; the decoration of the streets of a city for a Muslim 
festival or on a secular occasion of public rejoicing such as a victory, and, more par- 
ticularly, the illumination of the city by night and the firework displays which formed 
part of these celebrations. II 615a 

doniim (T, A dunam) : the standard measure of area in the Turkish lands of the Ottoman 
empire and the Arabic lands of 'Irak, Syria and Palestine directly under Ottoman rule 
until 1918, originally considered to equal one day's ploughing. In Turkey it equalled 
939 m 2 (approx. 1,000 sq. yards), but in the 19th century the new ~ was equated with 
the hectare; in 1934 the metric system of weights and measures was officially adopted 
by the Turkish Republic. In Syria and Palestine in recent times, the ~ is 1,000 m 2 = 
0.247 acres, while in Iraq a larger ~ of 2,500 m 2 is used, despite the official adoption 
of the metric system in 1931. II 32b; V 474a; VII 138a 

dort (T) : four. 

♦ dort boliik (T), or bolukat-i erba'a : a collective name for the four lowest cavalry 
regiments of the kap! kullarl They were regarded as inferior in comparison to the 
remaining two higher divisions, the sipdhi oghlanlarl and the sildhddrlar. II 1097b 

♦ dort kapi (T) : 'four doors', a doctrine of the Bektashiyya, comprising tarlka, 
hakika, ma'rifa and sharVa. X 332b 

♦ dortluk (T) : in Turkish prosody, a strophe consisting of four lines, hence synony- 
mous with the term ruba'I in its broader sense. VIII 580b 

doston (Taj) : a lyrical epic poem. X 65b 

drafsh-i kawiyan (P) : the Iranian national flag; according to legend, it was the apron of 
the blacksmith Kawah, who brought about the fall of the tyrant Zohak. IV 775 a 

du'a' (A, pi. ad'iya) : appeal, invocation (addressed to God) either on behalf of another 
or for oneself, or against someone; hence, prayer of invocation. II 617a 
In the science of diplomatic, ~ is the formula of benediction for the addressee. II 302a; 
II 314b 

In prosody, ~ is the sixth and final section of a kasIda, wherein the poet implores God 
for the prosperity of the sultan or person to whom the poem is addressed and expresses 
his thanks for the completion of the work. IV 715b; V 956b; V 960a 

♦ du'a' al-wasila ->• tasliya 

♦ du c akh*an ->• bakhshI 
dubayti -> ruba'I 

dubb al-bahr (A) : in zoology, the sea lion, also called asad al-bahr and bakrat al-bahr. 

VIII 1022b 
dubba 3 -► kuththa' 

dud al-kazz (A) : in zoology, the silkworm. X 752a 
dudjr ->• dadjr 
dudjur -» DADJR 
duff (A) : in music, the generic term for any instrument of the tambourine family. II 


dugh -► AYRAN 

diigiin -> toy 

duha (A) : 'forenoon', the first part of the day, up to the moment when the sun has tra- 
versed a quarter of the diurnal arc. II 622b; V 709b 

♦ salat al-duha (A) : a sixth prayer performed in some circles, on top of the five 
compulsory prayers, at the same time before midday as the c asr was performed after 
midday. VII 28a 

duhn (A, pi. adhdn) : oil extracted from any plant other than the olive. XI 486a 

♦ duhn al-hall (A), or sallt djuldjuldn, shlradj (P shlra) : the oil of sesame. IX 615a; 
XI 486a 

duhul (A, P dohol) : a drum with a shorter body than the long-bodied cylindrical drum, 

mentioned by Nasir-i Khusraw as one of the martial instruments of the Fatimids. In 

Egypt of modern times it is known as tabl al-baladl. X 33b 
duka (Tun) : a pointed bonnet for women. V 745b 
dukhan ->• tutun 
dukhla (A) : 'entering', consummation of a marriage. The wedding night was known as 

laylat al-~. X 903a; X 905b 
dukhn (A) : in botany, the small sorghum (Pennisetum spicatum) widespread in the 

Sudan and also called Moorish millet. XII 249b 
dukmak (A) : in zoology, a silurus of the Nile, the Euphrates and the Niger, whose 

Arabic term is found again in the Latinised nomenclature to specify a sub-species lim- 
ited to a particular region (Bagrus docmac). VIII 1021b 
dulab (P, pi. dawdlib) : a water-wheel. Al-Mukaddasi (4th/10th century) noted that there 

were many alongside the banks of the Nile for irrigating orchards during the low 

waters. According to him, the kddus was the bucket. V 863b f. 
dulband ->• tulband 
dum (A) : in botany, jujube-like fruits of the Ziziphus trees, highly valued for food. IX 

du'mus (A) : the maggot. VIII 1022a 
dunam ->• donum 
dunbak, or tanbak ->■ darabukka 
dundj -► c ikbir 
dunya (A) : lit. nearer, nearest; in theology, this (base) world, as opposed to din and 

the correlative akhira. II 295a; II 626b 
durab (A) : in zoology, the chirocentrus, whose Arabic term is found again in the 

Latinised nomenclature to specify a sub-species limited to a particular region (Chirocentrus 

dorab). VIII 1021b 
durada (A, < Sp dorado) : in zoology, the goldfish {Spams aurata). VIII 1021a 
durar -> durr 
durbash (P) : lit. be distant; the mace or club used as an emblem of military dignity, 

and in Persian and Turkish usage, the functionary who carries the mace. II 627b 


durka'a ->• ka'a 

durr (A), or durar : pearl. II 628a; artistic poetry of high quality. IX 448b; and -> 
lu'lu 3 

durra'a (A) : the gown worn by a secretary (kdtib) in mediaeval times. IV 756a; in Syria 
and Palestine, a woman's outer coat, open in front, sometimes synonymous with 
djubba. V 741a; in North Africa, a long robe with sleeves for both sexes. V 746a 

durud ->• TASLIYA 

dus : in metallugry, cast iron. V 971b 

dushab (P) : in the mediaeval Near East, a drink from syrup or from preserves of fruit 
which is sometimes non-alcoholic, but which is frequently mentioned in the context of 
drinks which can ferment and become alcoholic. VI 720b 

dushakh (P) : a crown-like hat with a pointed rim on either side, worn by men of high 
rank in Saldjuk Persia and of Inner Asian, Turkish origin. V 748a 

dustur (A) : originally from Persian, ~ seems originally to have meant a person exer- 
cising authority, whether religious or political. Later, ~ acquired a specialised meaning, 
designating members of the Zoroastrian priesthood. The word occurs in Kalila wa- 
dimna in the sense of 'counsellor'. More commonly it was used in the sense of rule or 
regulation, and in particular the code of rules and conduct of the guilds. In Arabic, ~ 
was employed in a variety of meanings, notably 'army pay-list', 'model or formulary', 
'leave', and also, addressed to a human being or to invisible djinn, 'permission'. In 
modern Arabic, ~ means constitution. II 638a; and -»■ dastur 

Under the Ayyubids, ~ meant a legal release from a campaign. The term gradually died 
out in the period of the Mamluks. Ill 186b 
In astronomy, a circular instrument, known also as a/-§HAKKAZiYYA. V 84a 

♦ dustur (T) : principle, precedent, code or register of rules; applied in particular to 
the great series of volumes, containing the texts of new laws, published in Istanbul (and 
later Ankara) from 1279/1863 onwards. II 640a 

♦ dustur-i mukerrem (T) : one of the honorific titles of the grand vizier of the 
Ottoman empire. II 638a 

dutar (T), variants dotar, dutar : in music, a lute with two strings. VIII 234b; X 733b f. 

duwar ->• dawar 

duwwama (A) : the game of tops (syn. khudhruf). V 616b 

duyun ->• dayn 

duzale : a Kurdish flute with two pipes of reed or bird bone, pierced with holes and 

whose mouthpiece has a kind of vibratory tongue. The sound resembles that of the 

Scottish bagpipes. V 478a 
duzdidha -> andargah 
diizen (T) : in music, the tunings [of the lute]. IX 120b 

efe (T) : the chief of the Zeybek or Turkish mountaineers in Western Anatolia. His word 
was law, even to the extent of whether one could marry another. His assistant was 
called kizan. XI 493b 

efendi (T, < Gk) : an Ottoman title, already in use in the 7th/13th and 8th/14th centuries 
in Turkish Anatolia. A 16th-century fatwa applied the term to the owner of slaves and 
slave-girls. Later, ~ became increasingly common in Ottoman usage as a designation 
of members of the scribal and religious, as opposed to the military, classes, in partic- 
ular of certain important functionaries. During the 13th/19th century, although the 
Ottoman government made attempts to regulate the use of the term by law, ~ was used, 


following the personal name, as a form of address or reference for persons possessing 
a certain standard of literacy, and not styled bey or pasha; - thus became an approx- 
imate equivalent of the English mister or French monsieur. In 1934 it was finally abol- 
ished, but has remained in common use as a form of address for both men and women. 
I 75a; II 687a 

eflak (T, < Ger Wallach) : under the Ottomans, ~ denoted the Balkan Rumanians and 
those north of the Danube. II 687b; II 915a 

efsane (T, < P afsdna) : legend; completely fantastic story, fabricated or superstitious. 
Ill 373b 

eklan -»• imqhad 

elci (T) : envoy, messenger; in Ottoman diplomacy, the normal word for ambassador, 
although sefir (< A safir) was used. II 694a; and ->■ maslahatguzar; safIr 
In eastern Turkish, ruler of a land or people. II 694a 

elifi nemed (T) : a woollen initiatic girdle, worn by the Mewlewis, so called because 
with its tapering end when laid out flat, it resembled the letter alif. They also wore a 
second type of woollen girdle, the tighbend, during their dance, in order to hold in 
place the ample skirt of the garment known as the tennure. IX 167b 

emanet (T) : the function or office of an emin. II 695b; the system of collection of 
mukata'a revenues directly by the emin. II 147b 

♦ emanet-i mukadesse (T) : the name given to a collection of relics preserved in 
the treasury of the Topkapi palace in Istanbul. II 695b 

♦ emaneten (T) : one of three principal ways in which mining activity was organ- 
ised in the Ottoman empire, the others being iltizamen and ihale; ~ meant the direct 
administration of mines or mining districts through state-appointed superintendents. V 

emin (T, < A amin) : an Ottoman administrative title usually translated intendant or 
commissioner. Primarily, an ~ was a salaried officer appointed by or in the name of 
the sultan, to administer, supervise or control a department, function or source of rev- 
enue. The term is used also of agents and commissioners appointed by authorities other 
than the sultan, and at times, by abuse, the ~ appears as tax-farmer. II 695b 

emr (T, < A amr) : a term denoting a general order issued in the name of the Ottoman 
sultan, as well as a special order which decreed the issue of a berat. I 1170a 

enderun (T) : inside. 

Under the Ottomans, ~ was used to designate the inside service (as opposed to birun, 
the outside service) of the imperial household of the Ottoman sultan, comprising four 
departments, viz. the Privy Chamber, the Treasury, the Privy Larder, and the Great and 
Little Chambers. II 697b; IV 1097a 

entari (T) : a kind of caftan, worn in the Ottoman period under the real caftan and fur, 
descending as far as the ankle or covering the knee. V 752a 

enzel (Tun, < A inzal) : in law, a perpetual lease system found not only on 'habous' 
(inalienable property, the yield of which is devoted to pious purposes) but also on pri- 
vate, mulk, properties, peculiar to Tunisia. XII 369a; XII 423a 

eren ->■ ermish 

ermish (T, < 'to reach, attain') : with baba, ata, eren and yatir, a term for saint in the 
Turkish world. 

esham (T, < A asham, s. sahm 'share') : the word used in Turkey to designate certain 
treasury issues, variously described as bonds, assignats and annuities. Although the ~ 
reverted to the state on the death of the holder, they could be sold, the state claiming 
a duty of one year's income on each such transfer. The ~ were introduced in the early 
years of the reign of Mustafa III and the practice was continued by later sultans; their 
purpose and names varied from time to time. I 692b 


eshkindji (T), or eshktindji : a term in the Ottoman army denoting in general a soldier 
who joined the army on an expedition. As a special term, ~ designated auxiliary sol- 
diers whose expenses were provided by the people of peasant, re'aya (-> ra'iyya), sta- 
tus. From the mid-10th/16th century, the ~ lost importance and gradually disappeared. 
II 714b; cavalry participating in the campaigns. X 503a 

esrar : a pandore viol from India, with the tawus one of the two best-known examples. 
The ~ has a membrane on its face and has five strings played with the bow together 
with a number of sympathetic strings. VIII 348b 

eyalet (T, < A iydla) : in the Ottoman empire, the largest administrative division under 
a governor-general, beglerbegi. An ~ was composed of sandjaks, which was the 
basic administrative unit. The ~ system was replaced by that of wilayet in 1281/1864. 
I 468b; I 906b; II 721b 

ezan -> adhan 

fa' (A) : the twentieth letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed /, with the numerical 

value 80. It is defined as fricative, labio-dental, unvoiced. II 725a 
fada'il (A, s. fadila) : lit. virtues, a genre of literature exposing the excellences of things, 

individuals, groups, places, regions and such for the purpose of a laudatio. II 728b; VI 


In Mamluk terminology, ~, or kamalat, was often applied to the exercises necessary for 

the mastery of horse-riding. II 954b 

♦ fada'il al-af al (A) : in the science of Tradition, a genre consisting of Traditions 
that list human actions which are believed to be particularly pleasing to God. VIII 983a 

fadan (A) : a word that seems to have been applied at the same time to the yoke, to the 
pair of oxen and to the implement that they pull to till the land, i.e. the tiller. An 
evolved form, faddan, came to designate also the area that a pair of oxen could till 
in a given time. VII 21b 

faddan (A) : a yoke of oxen; the standard measure of land in Egypt in former times. It 
was defined by al-Kalkas_handi (9th/15th century) as equalling 400 square kasabas, i.e. 
6,368 m 2 . Since 1830, the ~ has corresponded to 4200.833 m 2 . VII 138a 

fadhlaka (A, < fa-dhdlika) : in mathematics, the sum, total. Besides being placed at the 
bottom of an addition to introduce the result, ~ is also employed for the summing up 
of a petition, report, or other document. By extension, ~ acquired the meaning of com- 
pendium. II 727b 

fadikh (A) : a kind of date, from which wine was made. IV 995b; a drink composed of 
fruits (dates, etc.) mixed in water. VI 720b; an intoxicating drink made from different 
kinds of dates. VII 840a 

fadila -> fada'il 

fadjdja' -> far c 

fadjr (A) : dawn, daybreak. 

♦ al-fadjr al-kadbib (A), or al-subh al-kddhib : lit. the false dawn; the Arabic term 
for the column of zodiacal light which is a symmetrically converse phenomenon in the 
circadian cycle (syn. dhanab al-sirhdn 'the wolf's tail') during which prayers are for- 
bidden. It is followed by the 'true dawn', al-subh al-sddik. VIII 928b; IX 179b 

♦ salat al-fadjr (A) : the morning prayer which is to be performed in the period 
from daybreak, or 'the true dawn', when faces can still not yet be recognised, until 
before sunrise. VII 27b; VIII 928b 

fadl -> da'ir; rahma; sila 

fafir (Egy) : in Egypt, the term used for papyrus. VIII 261a 

faghfur (P), or baghbur : title of the emperor of China in the Muslim sources. II 738a 

♦ faghfuri : Chinese (porcelain). The term has entered Modern Greek in the sense 
of porcelain, and also Slav languages, through the Russian farfor. II 738a; III 345b 

faghiya, faghw -*■ hinna 1 

fahd (A, < Gk or L pardus ?; P yuz) : in zoology, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). II 

fahisha (A) : a sin. XI 509a 

fahl (A, pi. fuhul) : lit. stallion; in literature, a term given to a powerful poet. I 405b; 
XII 648b 

fahm ->■ idrak 

fahm (A) : in mineralogy, coal, used in early Islam as fuel for ovens while its ashes 
were utilised as a cleaning agent. V 1 1 8a; V 965a; a sort of charcoal. VII 886a 

fahrasa (A, < P fihrist) : the name given in Muslim Spain to kinds of catalogues, in 
which scholars enumerated their masters and the subjects or works studied under their 
direction. Synonyms of this term are: barndmadj, thabat, mashlkha (mashyakha) and 
mu'djam. The genre, which appears to be a particular speciality of the Andalusians, 
should be associated with the transmission of hadIih. I 96b; II 743b 

fa'il (A) : in grammar, the agent. VIII 384a 

fa'it (A), or fawdt : continuation of a work (syn. sila), but connoting discontinuity in 
relation to the original work. IX 604a 

faM? ->■ AL-MAL AL-HURR 

fak c (A) : on the Arabian peninsula, truffles. I 540b 

fakhkhar (A) : earthenware vase, pottery, ceramics, produced by practically every coun- 
try in the Islamic world. II 745a 
fakhr (A) : self-praise. VIII 376b 

♦ fakhriyya (T, < A) : in Turkish prosody, ~ is the last but one section of a kasida, 
wherein the poet praises himself. IV 715b 

faki' (A) : said of the child who has become active, and has started to grow. VIII 822a 

fakih (A, pi. fukahd') : in its non-technical meaning ~ denotes anyone possessing knowl- 
edge, fikh, of a thing (syn. 'dlim, pi. 'ulamd'). II 756a 

In law, ~ became the technical term for a specialist in religious law and in particular 
its derivative details, furu'. In older terminology, however, ~ as opposed to c dlim 
denotes the speculative, systematic lawyer as opposed to the specialist in the traditional 
elements of religious law. II 756a; and ->■ mutafakkih 

In several Arabic dialects, forms like fikl have come to denote a schoolmaster in a 
kuttab or a professional reciter of the Qur'an. II 756a 

fakir (A, pi. fukard') : a needy person, a pauper; its etymological meaning is 'one whose 
backbone is broken'. 

In mysticism, a ~ is a person 'who lives for God alone'. Total rejection of private 
property and resignation to the will of God were considered essential for the ~ who 
aspired to gnosis. II 757b 

In irrigation terminology (pi. fukur), the water outlet of a canal, kanat; a well or group 
of wells linked by a gallery. IV 532b 

fakk -»■ iwan 

fakkak (A) : the individual who devotes himself totally or episodically to the ransoming 
of Muslims held captive by infidels; in the Muslim West by the 13th century, ~ came 
to denote the man who liberates a captive, whether Muslim or not, as an extension of 
the equivalent appearing in a Christian context, called alfaqueque in Castillian. XII 


fakkus (A) : in botany, unripe melons, one of the summer crops in mediaeval Egypt. V 

fakr (A) : poverty. XI 141b 

fa'l (A) : an omen, appearing in varied forms, ranging from simple sneezing, certain 
peculiarities of persons and things that one encounters, to the interpretation of the 
names of persons and things which present themselves spontaneously to the sight, hear- 
ing and mind of man. II 758b 

♦ fal-name (P) : book of divination, consulted in the Muslim East (especially in 
Iranian and Turkish countries) in order to know the signs or circumstances that are aus- 
picious for some decision. II 761b 

faladj (A, pi. aflddj) : the term used in Oman, Trucial Oman, and Bahrain to designate 
an underground aqueduct with surface apertures to facilitate cleaning. This type of 
aqueduct, which may be of Persian origin, is now called sakI (pronounced sddji, pi. 
sawddji) in al-Afladj, the district in Nadjd which takes its name from ~. I 233a; I 539a; 
IV 531b 

falak (A, pi. aflak) : sphere, in particular the Celestial Sphere. II 761b; VIII 101b 

♦ falak al-awdj -»■ al-falak al-kharidj al-markaz 

♦ falak al-burudj (A) : in astronomy, the term for L. ecliptica. II 762b 

♦ falak al-djawzahar (A) : in astronomy, the massive ball into which, according to 
Ibn al-Haytham, the moon is inserted, and which carries it along as it moves. V 536a 

♦ al-falak al-hamil (A) : in astronomy, the deferent. II 762b; IX 292b 

♦ al-falak al-kharidj al-markaz (A), or falak al-awdj. : in astronomy, the term for L. 
excentricus. II 762b 

♦ al-falak al-ma'il (A) : in astronomy, the term for L. circulus obliquus (or 
deflectens). II 762b 

♦ al-aflak al-ma'ila 'an falak mu'addil al-nahar (A) : in astronomy, the term for the 
circles parallel to the equator. II 762b 

♦ falak mu'addil al-nahar (A) : in astronomy, the term for L. circulus aequinoctialis 
(the celestial equator). II 762b 

♦ al-falak al-mumaththal li-falak al-burudj (A) : in astronomy, the term for L. cir- 
culus pareclipticus. II 762b 

♦ al-falak al-mustakim (A) : the astronomical term for L. sphaera recta, the celes- 
tial sphere as appearing to the inhabitants of the equatorial region, where the celestial 
equator passes through the zenith. II 762b 

♦ falak al-tadwir (A) : in astronomy, the epicycle. II 762b; IX 292b 

falaka (A) : an apparatus used for immobilising the feet in order to apply a bastinado 
on the soles of the feet. The ~ existed in three different forms: a plank with two holes 
in it, of the pillory type; two poles joined at one end; or a single, fairly stout pole with 
a cord fixed at the two ends. In the Muslim East, especially among the Turks, the ~ 
was used as an instrument of torture, while in North Africa its use was confined to the 
schoolmaster. II 763b 

falasifa (A, < Gk; s. faylasuf) : the Greek thinkers; philosophers. II 764b 

falidj (A, pi. fawdlidj) : the camelus bactrianus, or camel proper, with two humps. Ill 
In medicine, hemiplegia. V 89b; VIII Ilia; IX 8a 

falidja (A), and shukka : bands of hair or wool forming the awning of an Arab tent. 
They were sewn side-by-side and formed a rectangle. Those that were placed at the 
two edges, that is, those that form the larger side of the rectangle, were called kisr or 
kasr. IV 1147b 

fallah (A, pi. falldhin) : ploughman; member of the sedentary rural population. I 575a; 
II 899a 


fallak (A, B fellaga) : brigands and subsequently rebels in Tunisia and Algeria. 
Originally the term was applied to individuals who wished to escape punishment, to 
deserters, and to fugitive offenders, who eventually formed bands supporting them- 
selves by brigandage. The uprising brought about by Khalifa b. 'Askar in southern 
Tunisia in 1915 gave new meaning to the word. Later, the incidents which occurred in 
Tunisia between 1952 and 1954, as well as the Algerian rebellion in 1954, made the 
term popular again. II 767b 

fallata : term, strictly signifying the Fulani, used in the Nilotic Sudan for Muslim immi- 
grants from the western bildd al-suddn, and in particular those from northern Nigeria, 
many of whom are primarily pilgrims en route to Mecca. ~ has largely superseded the 
older takdrir or takdrna. II 767b 

fals (A, pi. fulus) : the name of the copper or bronze coin, regardless of its size or 
weight. II 768a 

In astronomy, a small ring placed under the wedge at the front of the astrolabe to pro- 
tect one of the movable parts of the instrument, the 'spider', and ensure a smooth turn- 
ing. I 723a 

falsafa (A, < Gk) : Greek thought; philosophy. ~ began as a search by Muslims with 
s_hi'i leanings for a coherence in their intellectual and spiritual life, evolving later to 
grow closer to orthodox kalam and finally fusing with it. II 769b 

falta (A) : a precipitate, arbitrary act, excusable only because God had bestowed success 
on it. IX 422a 

faltita (A), or dialtlta, diantlta : a skirt of Spanish origin worn mainly by Jewish and 
Andalusian women in the Muslim West. V 746a 

fam -> c ayn 

fana' -> baka' wa-fana' 

fanak (A, < P; pi. afndk) : in zoology, the fennec-fox (Fennecus zerda), in the Muslim 
West, and the Corsac or Karagan Fox (Vulpes corsac, < T kursdk), in the Muslim East. 
However, in the imagination of all the authors who used the word, ~ must have meant 
the mink (Mustela lutreola), whose pelt was greatly esteemed in the luxury fur-trade. 
II 775a 

fani -> pIr 

fanid -> sukkar 

fann (A) : the modern name for art. II 775b 

♦ fann al-multazim (A) : committed art, that is, art that shows social concern, first 
examples of which are to be found after the Suez crisis in Egypt. X 365b 

fa'r (A, pi. fi'rdn, fi'ara, fu'ar) : in zoology, the majority of types and species of the 
sub-order of the Myomorphs; the family of Soricids. XII 285b, where can be found 
many synonyms and varieties 

♦ fa'r fir'awn (A) : lit. Pharaoh's rat; in Egypt, with the geographical sub-species 
pharaonis, the ichneumon or Egyptian mongoose, sometimes called kitt fir'awn 
'Pharaoh's cat'. VIII 49b 

far c (A, pi. furu') : a branch; in archery, a self-bow (syn. fadidjd', fidpv, munfadjd). IV 

In fiscal law, ~ was a supplementary increase, discovered or invented in the course of 
history, upon the official taxes for the defrayal of attendant expenses or any other rea- 
son. I 1144a; IV 1041a; and -> furu 1 al-fikh 

In military science, furu' are the operations by the irregulars, who do not form part of 
the army proper but who may play a part in the preliminaries and on the fringes of the 
battle. Ill 182a 

In prosody, iht furu' are the modifications in the feet of the metres, due to deviations, 
e.g. mu[s]taf'ilun becomes mutaf'ilun when its sin is lost, the 'normal' foot being part 

FAR' — FARD 237 

of the usul (->■ asl) form of the feet, and the altered foot, one of the furu'. I 671b 
As a literary topos, ~ denoted thick, soft and fragrant hair. IX 313a 

♦ furu c al-fikh (A) : in law, the body of positive rules derived from the sources of 
legal knowledge, usul al-fikh (-»• asl). I 257b; II 889b; IX 323b 

fara'a (A, pi. furu') : the firstling of a flock or herd, sacrificed in the pre-Islamic period 
during the month of Radjab as an invocation to the deities to increase the number of 
flocks. VIII 373b 

faradjiyya (A) : a long-sleeved man's robe in Egypt. V 741a; a green robe. XII 612b; 
the Moroccan variant faradfiyya (B tafaradjit) is a very light gown with a deep slit at 
the breast which may or may not have sleeves and is worn under the khaftan or gar- 
ment by both sexes. It also comes in a half-length version called nuss faradjiyya. V 

faraid (A, s. farlda) : lit. appointed or obligatory portions; as a technical term, ~ means 
the fixed shares in an estate which are given to certain heirs according to the provi- 
sions of Muslim law. The whole of the Islamic law of inheritance is called 'Urn al- 
fara'id. II 783a; VII 106b 

farakh (P) : a type of cloth brocade, which along with a type called mushti was manu- 
factured especially in Yazd. XI 304a 

faramush-khana (P) : in Iran, a centre of masonic activities, freemasonry seemingly 
having come over from India where the first lodge was founded by the British in 1730. 
XII 290a 

faras (A) : in zoology, the horse (Equus caballus) in the sense of saddle-horse, the rider 
of which is termed faris. II 784b; II 800a; IV 1 143b; the chesspiece. IX 366b 
In astronomy, a wedge which is fitted into a slit in the narrow end of the broadheaded 
pin at the front of the astrolabe to prevent the pin from coming out. I 723a; a 'cav- 
allo'. X 367b 

♦ faras al-bahr (A) : in zoology, the bellows fish (Centriscus). VIII 1021a 

♦ faras al-ma' (A) : in zoology, the hippopotamus. XII 294a 
farasha (A, P parwdna) : in zoology, the moth. IX 282a 

farat (A) : lit. dying before one's parents; a child who dies before reaching maturity. 
VIII 821b 

fard (A, pi. afrdd) : 'only, solitary, unique, incomplete, incomparable'; in prosody, ~ 
denotes a line of verse taken in isolation (intact or reduced to a single hemistich). II 

In lexicography, afrdd are the words handed down by one single lexicographer, as dis- 
tinct from ahad and mafarid. II 790a 

In the science of Tradition, ~ is synonomous with gharib mutlak and means a Tradition 
in which the second link of the chain of those who have transmitted it is only repre- 
sented by a single transmitter. II 790a; ~ is used of an isnad with only one transmit- 
ter at each stage, or of a Tradition transmitted only by people of one district. Ill 25b 
In astronomy, ~ denotes the star alpha in Hydra, al-shudjd', and hence the most bril- 
liant. II 790a 

In arithmetic, al-'adad al-fard is the odd number (from 3 upwards, inclusive), as 
opposed to the even number, al-'adad al-zawdj. II 790a 

In theology and philosophy, ~ denotes the species, as restricted by the bond of individ- 
uation. II 790a 

In mysticism, al-afrdd are seven in number and occupy the fourth category in the hier- 
archy of the saints. I 95 a 

fard (A), or farida : lit. something which has been apportioned, or made obligatory; as 
a technical term in religious law, ~ is a religious duty or obligation, the omission of 
which will be punished and the performance of which will be rewarded. It is one of 


the so-called al-ahkdm al-khamsa, the five qualifications by which every act of man is 
qualified. II 790a; VIII 486b 

♦ fard 'ayn (A) : the individual duty such as ritual prayer, fasting, etc. II 790a; VIII 

♦ fard kifaya (A) : the collective duty, the fulfilment of which by a sufficient num- 
ber of individuals excuses others from fulfilling it, such as funeral prayer, holy war, 
etc. II 539a; II 790a; VIII 497b 

farhang (P) : politeness, knowledge, education; dictionary. 

In recent decades, ~ has come to be used also in the sense of culture, while farhan- 
gistdn has been adopted for 'academy'. V 1095b 

farhangistan -» farhang 

farida ->■ fara'id; fard 

faridj -> katum 

farik -»• saff 

farina (A) : a soft variety of wheat, grown in Algeria. The indigenous hard variety, 
triticum durum, was known as gemh. IX 537b 

farir -> fazz; sakhla 

faris (A, (pi. fursdn, fawdris) : the rider on horseback (and thus not applicable to a man 
riding a camel or mule), implying, in contrast to rdkib 'horseman', the valiant, the 
champion, the intrepid warrior. II 800a 

fark (A, (pi. furuk) : like fasl, separation, difference; in law, the decisive difference that 
brings about a different legal determination, hukm, that is, that indicates the difference 
between outwardly similar cases. XII 517a 

farkad (A) : in astronomy, the star 'the oryx calf (= Phercad), y Ursae minoris, and with 
the associated (3 Ursae minoris together form al-farkadayn (= Elfarcadin) 'the two 
calves', the 'guardians' of the North Pole. V 1230a; VII 51a; and -»• fazz 

farman (P, T fermdn) : originally command, but by the 9th/15th century, ~ had come 
to denote the edict or document, as issued by the ruler, itself. There were many syn- 
onyms, such as hukm, mithdl and rakam, which later came to designate a document 
issued by authorities of lower rank. II 309a; II 803a 

♦ farman-i bayadi : in the Mughal period, a confidential and important farman, not 
involving a sum of money, which received only a royal seal and was folded and dis- 
patched in such a way that its contents remained private to the recipient. II 806a 

farmasuniyya (A) : freemasonry. XII 296a; and -> faramush-khana 
farran (A) : an oven-worker. V 41b 

In Morocco, a communal oven. V 41b 
farrash (A) : lit. spreader of the carpets; a servant who looks after the beds and the 

house generally. IV 899a; an attendant in a library. VI 199a; and -» yurtCi 
farrudj (A) : a robe similar to the kaba', but slit in the back, worn in the Prophet's time. 

farsakh (P), and farsang : a measure of distance on a time basis, originally the distance 

which could be covered on foot in an hour: approx. 5.94 km for cavalry, and 4 km for 

foot-soldiers. In present-day Iran, the ~ is now fixed at precisely 6 km. II 812b 
farsang -»• farsakh 
farsha -»• 'ataba 
farsi (P, A), also pdrsi : in linguistics, the name for modern Persian, the official language 

of Iran. --/ darl or simply darI is also used in native sources, referring to the oldest 

and most respected variety of (Classical) literary Persian or simply as an equivalent of 

~. XII 427a ff. 

♦ farsi-nigari (P) : a simple Persian style of writing, with a minimum of Arabic loan 
words. XI 238b 


♦ farsi-i 'amiyana (P) : Persian as it is written and spoken in Tehran, which is 
becoming the common spoken standard all over Iran. XII 433b 

♦ farsi-i bastani (P) : denomination for 'old archaic' modern Persian vs. farsi-i naw, 
a 'new' variety, sometimes found in scholarly publications. XII 428b 

♦ farsi-i naw -> farsI-i bastani 

farudiyya (A) : a square kerchief bound around the cap by women in Egypt. V 741a; X 

farw (A), or farwa : a fur; a garment made of, or trimmed with, fur. Although farwa 
can mean also a cloak of camel-hair, it is likely that this term in ancient poetry refers 
to sheepskins with the wool left on (in Morocco called haydura), used as carpets, to 
cover seats, or for protection against the cold. II 816b 

fa's ->■ HAKMA 

fasaha (A) : clarity, purity; in rhetoric, ~ is the term for the purity and euphony of lan- 
guage, and can be divided into three kinds: fasahat al-mufrad, with respect to a single 
word when it is not difficult to pronounce, is not a foreign or rare word and its form 
is not an exception to the usual; fasahat al-kaldm, with respect to a whole sentence, 
when it does not contain an objectionable construction, a discord, an obscurity (through 
a confusion in the arrangement of the words) or a metaphor too far-fetched and there- 
fore incomprehensible; and fasahat al-mutakallim, with respect to a person whose style 
conforms to the above conditions. I 981b; II 824a 

fasd (A) ; in medicine, bleeding. II 481b; XII 303b; and -> fassad 

fasht (A, pi. fushut), or kut'a, nadjwa : the term for reef in the Persian Gulf. I 535b 

fasid (A) : in law, a legal act which does not observe the conditions of validity stricto 
sensu required for its perfection; vitiated and therefore null. Only in the Hanafi school 
of law is ~ distinct from bdtil 'null and void', where it denotes a legal act which lacks 
one of the elements essential for the existence of any legal activity. I 319a; II 829b; 
VIII 836a; IX 324b 

fasik (A) : in theology, one who has committed one or several 'great sins'. According 
to the Mu'tazila, who elaborated the thesis of the so-called intermediary status, the ~ 
is not entirely a believer nor entirely an infidel, but 'in a position between the two' (fi 
manzila bayna ' l-manzilatayn). Al-Ash'ari maintained the same opinion, but added that 
if the ~ was a believer before becoming a sinner, the 'great sin' committed will not 
invalidate his standing as a believer; this position was adopted by the sunnis as a 
whole. II 833a 
In law, ~ is the opposite of 'adl, a person of good morals. I 209b; II 834a 

fasil (T) : a term in Ottoman music which in its classical form can be defined as a vari- 
able selection of pieces, usually by different composers, fitting into a series of pre- 
scribed slots organised in such a way as to emphasise, within the overall unity of 
mode, contrast and variety. It thus alternates between instrumental and vocal, unmea- 
sured and measured, and juxtaposes vocal pieces using contrasting rhythmic cycles. VII 
1043a; X 143b 

fasil ->■ iha'lab 

fasil (A) : in architecture, an intervallum. I 616a 

♦ fasila (A) : an object which is separated, like a young animal when weaned, and 
a palmtree sucker when transplanted; also the smallest 'section' of a tribe, the closest 
relatives. II 835a 

fasila (A, pi. fawasil) : a separative; in prosody, ~ denotes a division in the primitive 
feet, meaning three or four moving consonants followed by one quiescent, e.g. katalat, 
katalahum. II 834b; VIII 667b; and -+ sadj' 

In Qur'anic terminology, ~ signifies the rhymes of the Qur'anic text. II 834b; VIII 614b 
In music, ~ denotes the pause which, with the basic notes, makes up the rhythm, Ika'. 
XII 408b 

faskh (A) : in law, the dissolution of any contractual bond whatever, effected, as a rule, 
by means of a declaration of intention pronounced in the presence of the other con- 
tracting party, or by judicial process. The term is to be distinguished from infisdkh 
which comes about without the need of any declaration or judicial decree. Dissolution 
of marriage open to the wife or her relatives is by way of ~, while the dissolution of 
marriage by the man is talak. II 836a; III 1056b; and -> naskh 

♦ faskha : in Mauritania, the dowry supplied by the family of the bride when she 
joins the conjugal home. VI 313a 

faskiyya -► sahrIdj 

fasl (A, pi. fusul) : separation, disjunction; in logic, ~ is 'difference', and, in particular, 
'specific difference', the third of the five predicables of Porphyry. For logicians, ~ 
stands both for every attribute by which one thing is distinguished from another, 
whether it be individual or universal, and, in transposition, for that by which a thing 
is essentially distinguished. II 836b; and ->■ sjja'Ira 

In its plural form, fusul is employed in philosophy and science to denote aphorisms or 
short chapters. VII 536b; in literature, brief sentences or paragraphs in rhymed prose. 
X 427a; in shadow-play terminology, the acts into which plays are divided. IV 1136b 

♦ al-fasl al-'amm (A) : 'common difference', a term in logic for what allows a thing 
to differ from another and that other to differ from the former; equally it is what allows 
a thing to differ from itself at another time. This is the case of separable accidents. II 

♦ al-fasl al-khass (A) : 'particular difference', a term in logic for the predicate 
which is necessarily associated with accidents. II 837a 

♦ fasl al-sulutat ->■ tawazun al-sulutat 

♦ fasli (A) : 'seasonal', the term employed by Muslim rulers in India to designate 
a variety of indigenous calendars. X 263b 

fass ->■ kasab(a) 

fassad (A) : lit. phlebotomist; in mediaeval Islamic society, the practitioner of fasd who 
bled veins of the human body and performed circumcisions for men and women. A 
similar profession was cupping, hiajdma, which was performed by a hadj.dj.am but was 
less popular and enjoyed less status: the cupper was a much-satirised character in 
Arabic tales. XII 303b 

fata (A, pi. fitydri) : a boy, manservant; slave. I 24b; and ->■ futuwwa 

In the mediaeval Muslim East, the fitydn (syn. 'ayydrun; -*■ 'ayyar) were private 
groups, recruited from the depressed classes, which played the role of 'active wing' of 
the popular oppositions to the official authorities. I 256b; VIII 402a 
In Muslim Spain, ~ was the slave employed in the service of the prince and his house- 
hold, or of the hadjib, who held an elevated rank in the palace hierarchy. II 837a 

♦ al-fatayan al-kabiran (A) : the two majordomos under whose control the entire 
management of the princely household in Muslim Spain was placed. II 837a 

fath al-kitab (A) : bibliomancy, a form of sorcery. VIII 138b 
fatha (A) : in grammar, ~ denotes the short vowel a. Ill 172a 

In North Africa, ~ is a slit in the qjallabiyya at the top of the armlets through which 

the bare forearm can be thrust. II 405 a 

For ~ in prayer, -> fatiha 
fath name (T) : an Ottoman official announcement of a victory; a versified narrative of 

exploits, written by private persons as a literary exercise. II 839a 
fatiha (A, pi. fawdtih) : the opening (sura); designation of the first sura of the Qur'an; 

(or fatha) a prayer ceremony in certain Arab countries, particularly in North Africa, in 

which the arms are stretched out with the palms upwards, but without any recitation of 

the first sura. II 841a; V 409b; V 425a 


♦ fawatih al-suwar (A), and awd'il al-suwar, al-huruf al-mukatta'dt : 'the openers 
of the suras', a letter or group of letters standing just after the basmala at the begin- 
ning of 29 suras and recited as letters of the alphabet. They are generally referred to 
in European languages as 'the mysterious letters'. V 412a 

fatik (A, pi. futtdk) : a killer, a syn. of su'lOk, or category into which the su'luk fell. 
IX 864a 

fatim (A) : a child weaned or ablactated. VIII 822a 

fatir -> khamIr 

fatra (A) : a relaxing; an interval of time, more particularly with respect to the period 
separating two prophets or two successive messengers. In its more current usage, ~ is 
applied to the period without prophets from the time of Jesus Christ to Muhammad. In 
later times, ~ was also applied, by analogy, to periods of political interregnum. II 865a; 
a suspension of (Qur'anic) revelation. XI 143a 

fattama -► shamla 

fatur (A) : the meal marking the end of the fast of Ramadan. IX 94b 

fatus (A), or hut al-hayd : a fabulous marine creature mentioned by mediaeval Arab 
authors. It shatters the ships which it encounters, but is put to flight when the sailors 
hang from the peripheral points of the vessel rags stained with menstrual blood, hayd. 
VIII 1023a 

fatwa (A) : in law, an opinion on a point of law. II 866a; II 890a 

fawat ->• fa'it 

fawatih ->• fatiha; iftitah 

fawdjar : under the Dihli sultanate, the superintendant of elephants, who, among other 
things, was ordered to train them to stand firm at the sight of fire and in the noise of 
artillery. V 690a 

fawdjdar (IndP) : an executive and military officer, the administrative head of a district, 
sarkdr, in the Mughal administration of India. I 317a; II 868a 

fay' (A) : in pre-Islamic times, chattels taken as booty. II 869a; in early Islam, ~ were 
the immoveable properties acquired by conquest, a foundation in perpetuity for the 
benefit of successive generations of the community, in contrast to the moveable booty, 
ghanima, which was distributed immediately. I 1144a; IV 1031a; spoils of war. VIII 

In the terminology of time, ~ denotes the shade in the east which, when it moves from 
the west (where it is called zill) to the east, marks midday. V 709b 

fayd ->• ifada 

fayda ->• rawda; sahib al-fayda 

faydj (A, < P; pi. fuyudj) : a courier of the government postal service and also com- 
mercial mail serving the population at large. It was a common term all over North 
Africa and Egypt during the 5th/llth and 6th/12th centuries, while on the Egypt-Syria 
route the word kutubi, letter-bearer, was used. I 1044b; II 969b 

♦ faydj tayyar (A) : express courier. II 970b 
faylak ->• kurdus 

faylasuf (A) : a philosopher; in popular language, ~ is applied in an uncomplimentary 

sense to freethinkers or unbelievers. II 872a 
fayruzadj ->• firuzadj 
faza : in Arabia, the name the Tiyaha give to a tent whose ridge-pole rests on a row of 

two poles. The Sba' use mgawren or garneyn. IV 1148a 
faz'a (A) : a counter-attack (of a raiding group of Bedouin). II 1055b 
fazz (A), farir, farkad, djawdhar : in zoology, the calf of the oryx or addax antelope 

from birth until its weaning. A male bull calf has the arkh (and variants) and the adult 

male shat. The old bull is termed karhab. V 1227b 


fazz (A) : water which is still drinkable, found in the stomach of camels. Ill 666b; and 

-»■ FlL AL-BAHR 

fellaga -> fallak 

ferman ->■ farman 

farmla (Alg) : a vest for elderly men in Algeria. V 746a 

fida' (A) : the redemption, repurchase, or ransoming of Muslim prisoners or slaves held 
by unbelievers. Ill 183a; VIII 502a; XII 306b 

fidam (A) : a piece of linen cloth which protected the mouth, worn by Zoroastrian 
priests, but often also by the cup-bearer, saki, for whom it served as a filter for tast- 
ing the drink and to help him know the precise taste. VIII 883b; X 612a 

fidawl (A, < fida'i) : one who offers up his life for another. Among the Nizari Isma'ilis, 
~ was used of those who risked their lives to assassinate the enemies of the sect. II 
882a; VIII 442a 

In Algeria, ~ means a narrator of heroic deeds. II 882a 

During the Persian revolution of 1906-7, the term was applied in the first place to the 
adherents of the republican party, later to the defenders of liberal ideas and the consti- 
tution. II 882a 

♦ fidawiyya (Alg) : a tale or song of heroic deeds. II 882a 
fidda (A) : in mineralogy, silver. II 883a 

fidjar (A) : sacrilege; known particularly in the name harb al-fidjdr 'the sacrilegious 
war', a war waged towards the end of the 6th century AD during the holy months 
between the Kuraysh and Kinana on the one side and the Kays-'Aylan on the other. II 

fidjw -> far 1 

fidya (A) : a general designation among Syro-Palestinians for a blood sacrifice made for 
purposes of atonement, practised in the interests of the living. II 884a; a Qur'anic term 
to denote the fast which compensates for the days of Ramadan in which fasting has 
not been practised, or to denote the impossibility of purchasing a place in Paradise. XII 
306b; a minor kaffara or compensation, to be paid when one has taken advantage of 
one of five dispensations. IX 94b 

♦ fidyat al-mulk (P, < A) : in taxation matters, an additional levy of one-tenth from 
landed estates, decreed, and later abolished, by the Salghurid ruler Sa'd b. Zangi. IV 

fikh (A) : understanding, knowledge, intelligence, and thus applied to any branch of 
knowledge (as in fikh al-lugha, the science of lexicography); the technical term for 
jurisprudence, the science of religious law in Islam. In addition to the laws regulating 
ritual and religious observances, containing orders and prohibitions, ~ includes the 
whole field of family law, the law of inheritance, of property and of contracts and 
obligations, criminal law and procedure, and, finally, constitutional law and laws reg- 
ulating the administration of the state and the conduct of war. II 886a; IX 322b 
In older theological language, ~ was used in opposition to 'ilm, the accurate knowl- 
edge of legal decisions handed down from the Prophet and his Companions, and was 
applied to the independent exercise of the intelligence, the decision of legal points by 
one's own judgement in the absence or ignorance of a traditional ruling bearing on the 
case in question. II 886a 

fikr (A, pi. afkdr) : thought, reflection; in mysticism, ~ is used habitually in contrast to 
dhikr: in the performance of ~, the sufi, concentrating on a religious subject, medi- 
tates according to a certain progression of ideas or a series of evocations which he 
assimilates and experiences, while in dhikr, concentrating on the object recollected, he 
allows his field of consciousness to lose itself in this object. II 891b 


fikra (T) : a kind of short news item generally of entertaining nature, combining anec- 
dote with comment on some matter of contemporary importance. VI 94b 
fil (A, < P pit) : in zoology, the elephant. II 892b; the bishop in chess. IX 366b 

♦ fil al-bahr (A) : in zoology, the elephant seal; the walrus, also called fazz. IV 
648b; VIII 1022b 

fi'l (A) : act, action, opposed in noetics and metaphysics to kuwwa 'potentiality, power'. 
II 898a; V 578a 

In grammar, the verb. II 895b; and ->• ism al-fi'l 

In logic, ~ is one of the ten categories, actio as opposed to passio. II 898a 
In theology, ~ designates the action of God ad extra, 'what is possible (not necessary) 
for God to do'. II 898b 

♦ fi'l al-ta'adjdjub (A) : in grammar, the verb of surprise. IX 528a 
filaha (A) : lit. ploughing; the occupation of husbandry, agriculture. II 899a 

♦ filahat al-aradin (A) : agronomy. II 902a 

♦ filahat al-hayawanat (A) : zootechny. II 902a 

filawr (A), or hddjur : in mediaeval 'Irak, a beggar or vagrant who simulates a hernia 
or ulcer or tumour or some similar affliction with his testicles or anus, or with her 
vulva, in the case of a woman. VII 494a 

filk (A), also sharidj : in archery, a bow consisting of a single stave split length-wise 
and spliced with glue. IV 797b 

filori (T) : the Ottoman name for the standard gold coins of Europe; a local Balkan tax 
amounting to one ~, imposed on the semi-nomadic Vlachs of the Balkans, in which 
sense it is usually referred to as resm-i filori. II 914b ff.; VIII 487a 

filw (A) : a foal between birth and one year of age. II 785a 

fi'ma : transversal associations, in 'Afar society, which counterbalance tribal divisions. 
X 71b 

findjan (A) : in clothing, a headdress worn by women in Cairo and Syria, gilt below and 
decked with pieces of silver. X 612a; and -»■ bakradj 

firandj ->• ifrandj 

firasa (A) : physiognomancy, a technique of inductive divination which permits the fore- 
telling of moral conditions and psychological behaviour from external indications and 
physical states, such as colours, forms, and limbs. II 916a; V 100a; clairvoyance. XI 

fir'awni ->• kAghad 

firda -»■ furda 

firdjardat (A, < MidP fragard 'chapter, section') : a type of poems, as defined by Hamza 
al-Isfahani in a commentary on a verse by Abu Nuwas. XI 210a 

firfir (< G ?) : a loan-word in Arabic for the colour violet. V 699b 

firind (A, < P) : damascening, or a pattern drawn on a sword. V 972a; VIII 237a 

firk -»■ wakIr 

firka (A) : sect. The ~ nddjiya is the sect that alone will be saved out of the 73 into 
which the community will be divided, according to a Tradition. VIII 990a; XI 103a 

firkate -> bashtarda 

firsad -»■ tut 

firuzadj (P), or fayruzadj : in mineralogy, turquoise, mined in the Sasanid period and 
even earlier around Nishapur. There are different kinds, distinguished by colour; the 
best kind was considered to be the bushdki (i.e. Abu lshaki) and the finest variety of 
this, the sky-blue azhari. ~ is explained as 'stone of victory' whence it is also called 
hadjar al-ghalaba. II 927b; VIII 112a 

firz, or firzdn -> shatrandj 

risk (A) : moral deficiency. XI 567b 


fiskiyya (A, pi. fasakl) : a small basin which collected water from the shadirwan. IX 

fitam -» SAKHLA 
fitna (A) : putting to the proof, discriminatory test; revolt, disturbance; civil war; a 

Qur'anic term with the sense of temptation or trial of faith, and most frequently as a 

test which is in itself a punishment inflicted by God upon the sinful, the unrighteous. 

The great struggles of the early period of Muslim history were called ~. II 930b 
fitra (A) : a Qur'anic term meaning 'a kind or way of creating or of being created', 

which posed serious theological and legal difficulties for the commentators. II 931b; 

'common to all the prophets' or 'part of the general sunna or religion'. IX 312b 

In law, the amount of zakat paid. XI 418a 
fityan -» fata 

♦ fityani (A) : a variety of couscous which is prepared by cooking grain in gravy 
and which is sprinkled with cinnamon. V 528a 

fizr -» KATf 

foggara (Alg, < A fakkara; pi. fgdgir) : a term used in southern Algeria to designate a 

kandt, a mining installation or technique for extracting water from the depths of the 

earth. IV 529a; a subterranean drainage channel. XII 328b 
frenk-khane (T) : in 19th-century Ottoman cities, a building in a European style, 

intended to house European merchants during their more or less extended stays. IX 

frimla (N.Afr) : a corselet for women in Algeria; an embroidered bolero in Libya. V 

fudhandj (A, < P, < H pudana) : in botany, mint. The Arabic nomenclature for mint is 

abundant; other names are habak, nammdm, for water-mint, and na'na' or nu'nu', pep- 
permint. XII 309b 
fudjl (A) : in botany, the radish, one of the summer crops in mediaeval Egypt. V 863a 
fuduli (A) : in law, an unauthorised agent. VIII 836a; XI 208a 
fuh -» AFAWlH 
fuhsh -» SUKHF 

fuhQl -» FAHL 
fQk -» TAFWlK 

fukayaha -»• sandj 

fukiyya : a body shirt for men worn under the djallabiyya in Morocco. V 746a 

fukka' (A) : a sparkling fermented drink, almost a 'beer'. It was frequently sweetened 

and flavoured with fruit, so that one might call ~ the mediaeval equivalent of shandy 

or almost so. VI 721a; IX 225a; X 32a; XI 369b 
ful (A) : in botany, beans, one of the winter crops in mediaeval Egypt. V 863a 

♦ ful mudammas -»■ ta'miyya 
fuladh -» hadid 

fulk (A) : a Qur'anic term for ship, used inter alia of Noah's ark and the ship from 
which Jonah was thrown. IV 870b; VIII 808a 

full -» YASAMlN 

funduk (A, < Gk) : a term used, particularly in North Africa, to denote hostelries at 

which animals and humans can lodge, on the lines of caravanserais or khans of the 

Muslim East. II 945a; IV 1015a; IX 788b 

In numismatics, an Ottoman gold coin. VIII 229b 
furanik : messengers in the postal service in the 'Abbasid period. I 1045b 
furar -» sakhla 
fur da (A) : a term used interchangeably in Ottoman documents and Arabic texts with 

fir da, with reference to personal taxes; the ~ was attested in Ottoman Egypt after 1775 


as one of the many illegal charges imposed on peasants by soldiers of the provincial 
governors. II 948a; an emporium. XII 507a; and -»■ mIna 5 

♦ furdat (firdat) al-ru'us (A) : a personal tax in Egypt under Muhammad 'All 
amounting to 3 per cent on known or supposed revenue of all the inhabitants, paid by 
all government employees, including foreigners, by employees of non-government 
establishments, by the fallahln (-»• fallah), and by artisans and merchants. II 149a; II 

♦ firdat al-tahrir (A) : in Ottoman Egypt, the name for the comprehensive levy 
which in 1792 replaced all the illegal charges imposed on peasants by soldiers of the 
provincial governors. II 948a 

furdj -»• KATUM 

furfur -»• SAKHLA 

furkan (A, < Ar) : a Qur'anic term, which poses problems of interpretation, and has 
been variously translated as 'discrimination', 'criterion', 'separation', 'deliverance', or 
'salvation'. II 949b; X 318a 

furn (A) : a communal oven, in technical usage corresponding to kusha 'lime-kiln'. V 
41b; X 30b 

furs (A) : one of two terms, the other being 'adjam, to denote the Persians. II 950b 

funY -»■ far' 

fur'ul -»• dabu' 

furiisiyya (A) : the whole field of equestrian knowledge, both theoretical and practical. 
Treatises on ~ by actual horsemen, veterinary surgeons or riders appeared at a late 
stage in Arabic literature, many repeating passages from earlier works written by 
philologists, but also with added pages on riding, describing various methods and prin- 
ciples co-existing in the Muslim world. II 953b 

fusayfisa' (A, < Gk) : in art, mosaic. I 610b; II 955a 

fustan (A) : in dress, the term for the European dress worn by women; a European suit 
(takm) might also be worn by women who eschew the traditional mildya. XII 776a 

fustat (A, < Gk) : a small hair tent used by travellers. II 957b; IV 1 147a 

fusul -»• fasl 

futa : in mediaeval Islam, a long piece of sari-like cloth originating in India and serv- 
ing a variety of functions: as a loincloth, apron, and a variety of headdress. V 737b; a 
simple cloth with a seam, fastened in front and behind to the girdle, tikka (modern 
dikka). IX 676b 

futurifu : in Gao, in West Africa, a horn, invented by the Askiya Muhammad Bunkan 
(d. 1537). X 36b 

futuwwa (A, T futuwwet) : a term invented in about the 2nd/8th century as the counter- 
part of muruwwa (-»• murua), the qualities of the mature man, to signify that which is 
regarded as characteristic of the fata, young man; by this term it has become custom- 
ary to denote various movements and organisations which until the beginning of the 
modern era were widespread throughout all the urban communities of the Muslim East. 
I 520a; II 961a 

futya (A), or ifta' : the act of giving an opinion on a point of law, fatwa; the profes- 
sion of the adviser. II 866a 

fuwwa (A) : in botony, madder. X 118a 

fuyudj -»• FAYDJ 

gabr (P) : a term of doubtful etymology, denoting Zoroastrians, and used generally in 
Persian literature. II 970b 

♦ gabri : in art, ceramic ware developed in Persia. The ornamentation of this ware, 
produced by means of larger or smaller scratches in the slip that covers the body under 
the transparent partly coloured glaze, consists of schematic representations, recalling 
the ancient culture of Persia, notably of fire altars, as well as of men and beasts, birds, 
lions and dragons depicted in a curiously stylised manner. II 746a 

gadjal -> Citak 

gam : a pace, a unit of measurement. X 43b 

gandj : in Muslim India, a grain market. IX 800b 

gandu (Hau) : the Hausa extended family, a largely self-supporting unit based on agri- 
culture and formerly dependent on slave labour. Ill 277b 

gandura (N.Afr) : a full-length tunic with short sleeves, worn by men in southern 
Morocco and by both sexes in Algeria. V 746a 

gara -»■ kara 

gargadj (IndP) : in Mughal India, a movable tower used in sieges. These towers were 
very strong structures with solid beams covered by raw hides, tiles, or earth to protect 
them from the liquid combustibles thrown by the garrison; they could be destroyed only 
by hurling heavy stones or by a sortie. Ill 482a 

garmsir (P, A djarm) : in geography, a term used to denote hot, desert-type or subtrop- 
ical lowland climates; in Arabic, ~ is particularly used for the hot, coastal region of 
the Persian Gulf shores and the regions bordering on the great central desert. V 183a 

garneyn -> faza 

gat -> BANDISH 

gattaya (B) : a kind of mat of plaited hair, which is worn very long and grown only 
from the top of the cranium, the remainder of the head being shaved. The wearing of 
the ~ is a local custom absorbed by the 'Isawi order. IV 95a 

gaw-band (P) : the person who worked draft oxen. XI 305a 

gawd (P) : a usually octagonal pit in the centre of a traditional gymnasium, zurkhana. 
about a metre deep, in which the exercises take place. The ~ is surrounded by specta- 
tor stands, of particular importance being the sardam, an elevated and decorated seat 
reserved for the director, murshid, whose function is to accompany the exercises with 
rhythmic drumming and the chanting of verse from classical Persian poetry. XI 573a 

gawdar (P) : cattle-raiser. IX 682b 

gay tan : corduroy. X 371b 

gaz (P) : a measure of length in use in Iran and Muslim India, the Persian cubit, dhira 1 . 
of the Middle Ages, either the legal cubit of 49.8 cm or the Isfahan cubit of 79.8 cm. 
Until recently, a ~ of 104 cm was in use in Iran. II 232a; XII 313b; in 1926 an attempt 
was made to equate the traditional Persian measures with the metric system, so that the 
~ was fixed at 1 m; after 1933 the metric system was introduced but the older mea- 
sures nevertheless remained in popular use. VII 138a 

In Muslim India, sixty ~ formed the side of the square bIgha, a traditional measure of 
area. Five thousand ~ made the length of a kuroh (Persian) or krosa (Sanskrit), the 
traditional measure of road-length. XII 313b 

In botany, tamarisk. XI 303a; a very hard and solid wood, used for cabinet- making and 
for timber framing. V 669b 

♦ gaz-i ilahi : a measure introduced by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 994/1586, 
equal to ca. 32 inches. IV 1055b; XII 313b 

GAZ GHALl 247 

♦ gaz-i mukassar (P) : the 'shortened' cubit of 68 cm, used for measuring cloth. II 

♦ gaz-i shahi (P) : the 'royal' cubit of 95 cm, in use in 17th-century Persia. II 232a 
gecid resmi (T) : tolls levied in the Ottoman empire at mountain passes and river fords. 

II 147a 

gedik (T) : lit. breach; in law, a form of long-term lease arrangement of wakf property 
in Egypt, which involved, in addition to perpetual lease, the ownership and use of tools 
and installations of shops and workshops. XII 369a; in the Ottoman period, the right 
to exercise a craft or a trade, either in general or, more frequently, at a special place 
or in a specific shop. They were inheritable if the heir fulfilled all other conditions for 
becoming a master in the craft. VIII 207a; IX 542a; IX 798a; XII 421a 

geguritan -»■ singir 

gemh -»■ farina 

geniza (Heb) : a place where Hebrew writings were deposited in order to prevent the 
desecration of the name of God which might be found in them. As a term of scholar- 
ship, ~ or Cairo geniza, refers to writings coming from the store-room of the 'Syna- 
gogue of the Palestinians' in the ancient city of Fustat. II 987b 

gerebeg (J) : a grand parade that takes place in certain areas in Java after the c Id prayers 
at the end of Ramadan, with as its centerpiece a magical 'mount of blessing' that con- 
veys some of the sultan's mystical power. XII 682b 

gersh -> bilyun 

gezme -»■ ahdath 

ghaba (A) : forest. II 991a 

ghabani (A), or ghabdniyya : a head scarf with an embroidered pattern of lozenges, worn 
by both sexes in the Arab East. V 741a 

ghabghab (A) : in zoology, an animal's dewlap. VII 22b 

ghabn fahish (A) : in law, the concept of excessive loss, which is the only means by 
which a contract can be challenged in the case of fraud. I 319a 

ghadaf -> kata 

ghada'ir -»■ dafa'ir 

ghadat (A) : a variant name for the saldt al-fadjr (-> fadjr). VII 27a 

ghaddar (A) : a traitor. XII 830a 

ghadjar (A) : gypsies. IX 235b 

ghadus (A, < L Gadus) : in zoology, the cod. VIII 1021a 

ghafara ->■ khuwwa 

ghaffar, ghafur -> ghufran 

gha'ib (A) : absent; in law, usually the person who, at a given moment, is not present 
at the place where he should be. But, in certain special cases, the term is applied also 
to the person who is at a distance from the court before which he was to bring an 
action or who does not appear at the court after being summoned. II 995b 

♦ salat al-gha'ib (A) : the name given to the prayer said for a dead person whose 
body cannot be produced. II 996a 

gha'ira -> zahira 

ghalath ->■ 'alaih 

ghalca (P) : an imprecise designation of those mountain peoples of the Pamirs who 
speak Iranian languages; a term used in English for the Iranian Pamir languages. The 
word, though of uncertain origin, has different meanings in different languages: 'peas- 
ant' or 'ruffian' in New Persian, 'squat, stupid' in Tadjiki; in old Yaghnabi, 'slave'. II 

ghali -> ghulat; kalI 


ghalk (A) : in meteorology, a closed period during the middle of the ~ season; before 

this was awwal al-~ and after it the ddmdnl seasons. VII 52a 
ghalla (A) : income. XI 414b 
ghalta (A, pi. ghalatdt) : error. 

♦ ghalatat-i meshhure (T) : lit. well-known errors; solecisms brought about by 
phonetic changes, characteristic of Turkish, producing (drastic) modifications in Arabic 
and Persian loan-words and branded by the purists, e.g. beddwd < bdd-i hawd. II 997a 

ghammaz (A) : he who screws up his eyes, intriguer, one of the numerous terms in the 
mediaeval and modern periods for 'rascal, scoundrel'. XI 546a 

ghanam (A, pi. aghndm, ghuniim, aghdnim) : the class of small livestock with a predom- 
inance of either sheep or goats, according to country. Also, understood in the sense of 
'sheep-goat patrimony'. XII 316b 

ghanima (A), or ghunm : booty, in particular moveable booty, which was distributed 
immediately, as opposed to fay'. I 1144a; II 1005a; XII 316b 

gharamet -> djarIma 

gharanik (A) : cranes; in the Qur'an, 'the exalted ones', referring to the Arabian god- 
desses, al-Lat, al- c Uzza and Manat, the origin of the Satanic verses, or those which 
Satan inserted into the revelation, later abrogated by LIII, 21-7. V 404a 

gharar -»■ bay c al-gharar 

gharasa (A) : the act of planting. I 135b 

gharaza (A) : the act of pricking, as with a tattooing needle (misham, pi. mawashim). 
XII 830b 

gharib -»■ tali' 

gharib (A, pi. ghuraba 3 ) : lit. strange, uncommon; in philology, ~ means rare, unfamil- 
iar (and consequently obscure) expressions (syn. wahshl, hushi), and frequently occurs 
in the titles of books, mostly such as deal with unfamiliar expressions in the Qur'an 
andHADlTH. I 157b; II 1011a 

In the science of Tradition, ~ means a Tradition from only one Companion, or from a 
single man at a later stage, to be distinguished from gharib al-hadlth, which applies to 
uncommon words in the text, matn, of Traditions. Ill 25b 

♦ gharib mutlak -> fard 

gharim (A), or gharlm : in law, a debtor or creditor. II 1011b; XII 207b 

gharkad (A) : a kind of bramble. I 957b 

gharr -»■ taghrIr 

gharra 3 (A) : in zoology, the spotted dogfish. VIII 1022b 

ghars (Alg) : soft dates produced in the Suf, along with the variety known as deglet nur, 
which are harvested for export only. IX 763b 

gharuka (A) : in law, a system whereby a debtor landowner transfers part of his plot, 
and the right to cultivate it, as security on a loan until redemption. Other Arabic terms 
for the same system were rahn hiydzl and bay' bi ' l-istighldl, and in Ottoman Turkish 
istighldl. ~ is a form of usury, and as such prohibited by Islamic law. XII 322b 

ghasb (A) : in civil law, usurpation, the illegal appropriation of something belonging to 
another or the unlawful use of the rights of another. II 1020a 

ghashiya (A) : a covering, particularly, a covering for a saddle; one of the insignia of 
royal rank carried before the Mamluk and Saldjuk rulers in public processions. II 
1020a; VI 854a 

In the Qur'an, ~ is used metaphorically of a great misfortune that overwhelms some- 
one. II 1020b 

ghasil -> GHASSAL 

ghasil al-mala'ika (A) : 'washed by the angels', a term by which Hanzala b. Abi "Amir 
is known, referring to the fact that he died without having performed the ghusl fol- 
lowing sexual intercourse. IX 204b 


ghassal (A) : a washer of clothes and also of the dead, the latter more often known as 
ghasil. The social position of the corpse-washer was higher than that of the washer of 
clothes. XII 322b 

ghata -»• ataba 

ghatat ->■ kata 

ghatma' ->■ kata 

ghawgha' (A) : those who swarm like tiny beasts, one of the numerous terms in the 
mediaeval and modern periods for 'rascals, scoundrels'. XI 546a 

ghawr (A) : in geography, a depression, plain encircled by higher ground. II 1024b 

ghawt (Alg, pi. ghitdn) : a funnel-like excavation, in which date palms are planted in 
the Suf. IX 763b 

ghawth (A) : lit. succour, deliverance; an epithet of the head of the sufi hierarchy of 
saints (syn. badal). Some say that it is a rank immediately below the head, ktjtb, in 
the hierarchy. V 543b; XII 323b 

ghawwas (A) : a diver. XII 550a 

ghayb (A) : absence; what is hidden, inaccessible to the senses and to reason; in 
Qur'anic usage, with rare exceptions, ~ stands for mystery. I 406b ff.; II 1025a 
In mysticism, ~ means, according to context, the reality of the world beyond discur- 
sive reason which gnosis experiences. II 1026a 

♦ ghayba (A) : absence, occultation; and ->■ na'ib al-ghayba 

In mysticism, ~ is also used for the condition of anyone who has been withdrawn by 
God from the eyes of men and whose life during that period may have been miracu- 
lously prolonged. II 1026a; III 51b 

Among the Twelvers, ~ became a major historical period, divided into two parts: the 
lesser ~ (from 260/874 to c. 329/941) and the greater ~ (from the death of the fourth 
imam onwards). II 1026a; IV 277b 
In law, ~ is the state of being not present at the place where one should be. II 995b 

♦ ghayba munkati'a (A) : in law, an absence not interrupted by information on a 
person's existence; the continuous absence of a plaintiff. II 995b 

ghaydak (A) : lit. soft or tender; a term applied to a youth or young man; when applied 
to a boy, ~ signifies that he has not attained to puberty. VIII 822a 

ghayhab -»■ salka' 

ghaylam ->■ sulahfa 

ghaym (A) : in mineralogy, cloudiness, a defect or impurity in a gem. XI 263a 

ghayn (A) : the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed gh, with the numer- 
ical value 1,000. It is defined as a voiced postvelar fricative. II 1026b 

ghayta (< Fr guetter), or ghd'ita, ghayta : in music, a reed-pipe of two kinds, popular 
in Muslim Spain and North Africa. One is a cylindrical tube blown with a single reed, 
and the other is a conical tube blown with a double reed. The cylindrical tube instru- 
ment is known in Egypt as the ghlta. II 1027b; VII 207b 

ghaza-name ->■ menakib-name 

ghazal (A, T ghazel) : lit. flirtation; in prosody, an elegy of love; the erotic-elegiac 
genre. It has the rhyme scheme aa xa xa xa, etc. I 586a; II 1028a; X 719b; XII 323b 

♦ ghazel-i miilemma' (T) : in Ottoman poetry, a variant of the ghazal, which is 
written in alternating Turkish and Persian and/or Arabic hemistichs. X 917a; and -»■ 

♦ ghazel-i musammat (T) : in Ottoman poetry, a ghazal the verses of which, with 
the exception of the matla', have 'inner rhyme' in that the middle and end of their first 
hemistich rhymes with the middle of their second hemistich. X 719a 

ghazi (A, pi. ghuzai) : a fighter for the faith, a person who took part in a razzia, or raid 
against the infidels, ghazw; later, a title of honour, becoming part of the title of cer- 
tain Muslim princes, such as the amIrs of Anatolia and more particularly the first 


Ottoman sultans; soldiers of fortune, who in times of peace became a danger to the 
government which employed them. I 322b; II 1043b; VIII 497a 

♦ ghuzat al-bahr (A) : pirates. II 526a 

♦ ghaziya (A, pi. ghawdzl) : an Egyptian dancing-girl who sang and danced primar- 
ily in the streets, making a speciality of lascivious dances and often becoming a pros- 
titute. Today both the dancing-girl and the singer are called 'alma in the cities but in 
the rural areas the dancer is still known as ~. I 404a; II 1048a; in the past, the term 
for belly-dancer, today usually called rakkdsa. XII 778a 

ghazw (A, pi. ghizwdn) : an expedition, raid, usually of limited scope, conducted with 
the aim of gaining plunder. I 892a; II 509b; II 1055a 

♦ ghazwa (A, pi. ghazawdt) : a term used in particular of the Prophet's expeditions 
against the infidels. II 1055a; VIII 497a 

ghidha' (A, pi. aghdhiya) : feeding; food. II 1057a 

ghidjak : one of a type of viol used in Central Asia to accompany the bard, the others 
being kil kobuz, in Kazakhstan, and the kiak. X 733b 

ghifara (A, pi. ghafd'ir) : in clothing, in early times a red cloth with which women pro- 
tected their veil from the oil on the hair. In Muslim Spain, the name of a similar cap 
for men, who usually wore not turbans but ghafd'ir of red or green wool, whilst Jews 
wore a yellow one. X 612a; and ->■ mighfar 

ghila (A) : a nursing woman. VIII 824a 

ghilaf (A) : a sheath. IV 518b 

ghilman ->■ ghulam 

ghina ->■ kIna 

ghina' (A) : song, singing; music in its generic sense. In Morocco, the song is divided 
into folk or popular song, kariha, and the art song, ala or san'a, while in Algeria ~ is 
grouped under kaldm al-hazl and kaldm al-djidd. II 1072b f. 

ghirara (A) : a measure of capacity for grain in central Syria and Palestine in the medi- 
aeval period, of different size in every province, e.g. the ~ of Damascus contained 
208.74 kg of wheat, whereas the ~ of Jerusalem, at least at the end of the Middle Ages, 
weighed three times as much. IV 520a; VI 118b 

ghirbal (A) : a parchment-bottom sieve, which in the pre-Islamic period sometimes took 
the place of tambourines to supply rhythm. II 1073b; X 900b; and -► bandayr 

ghirnik (A), and kurki : in zoology, the crane. I 1152b 

ghirr (A) : an inexperienced person. X 93a 

ghita -► GHAYTA 

ghiyar (A) : the compulsory distinctive mark in the garb of dhimm! subjects under 
Muslim rule, described as a piece of cloth placed over the shoulder; the garment which 
bears the ~. II 1075b; V 744b 

ghizak -> KAMANDJA 

ghlala (Mor) : a sleeveless outer robe for women in Morocco. V 746a 

ghubar (A) : dust; in mathematics, ~ was the name for the immediate parents of the 
modern European numerals, while what are now called 'Arabic' numerals were known 
as 'Indian'. Sometimes the names were reversed, however, or both forms were called 
Indian or both called ~. Ill 1 140a; and -»■ hisab al-ghubar 

In calligraphy, ~ or ghubdri is a name given to every type of very small script difficult 
to read with the naked eye, but often found in the naskh script. IV 1124a 

ghubba (A, pi. ghabib) : a term in the Persian Gulf for an area of deep water, of 15 
fathoms or more. I 535b 

ghubban (A) : in zoology, the green scarus, whose Arabic term is found again in the 
Latinised nomenclature to specify a sub-species limited to a particular region (Scarus 
ghobban). VIII 1021b 


ghudfa (A) : a large head shawl for women, worn in the Hebron area. V 741a 

ghudwa (A), or bukra : in lexicography, a term used to denote the time which elapses 
between the morning twilight prayer, fadjr, and the sunrise. V 709b 

ghufran (A) : the verbal noun of 'to forgive', - refers to the two divine names, al-ghafur 
and al-ghaffdr 'the All-Pardoning One whose power to pardon is endless'. A frequent 
synonym is 'afw. II 1078b; IV 1107a 

ghul (A, pi. 0ldn, aghwal) : a fabulous being believed by the ancient Arabs to inhabit 
desert places and, assuming different forms, to lead travellers astray, to fall upon them 
unawares and devour them. Generally, a ~ is considered a male as well as a female 
being in the early sources. II 1078b 

ghulam (A, pi. ghilmdn; P pi. ghuldmdn) : a young man or boy; by extension, either a 
servant, sometimes elderly and very often, but not necessarily, a slave servant; or a 
bodyguard, slave or freedman, bound to his master by personal ties; or sometimes an 
artisan working in the workshop of a master whose name he used along with his own 
in his signature. Rulers owned an often impressive number of slave boys who served 
as attendants or guards and could rise to fairly high office in the hierarchy of the palace 
service, as well as others who formed a component of varying importance in the armed 
forces. I 24b; II 1079b; VIII 821b 

In falconry, a technical term for the hawker's assistant, who kept the aviary well pro- 
vided with pigeons and other game-birds and was responsible for the nourishment and 
training of the hawks. I 1 152b 

♦ al-ghUman al-khassa (A) : the personal guard of certain 'Abbasid caliphs. II 

♦ ghulaman-i khassa-yi sharifa (P) : 'slaves of the royal household', a cavalry reg- 
iment formed from the ranks of the Georgians and Circassians under the Safawids. II 
1083b; IV 36a; VIII 769a 

ghulaman -»■ ghulam 

ghulat (A, s. ghdli) : 'extremists', those individuals accused of exaggeration, ghulu, in 
religion; in practice, ~ has covered all early speculative shi'is except those later 
accepted by the Twelver tradition, as well as all later shi'i groups except Zaydis, ortho- 
dox Twelvers, and sometimes Isma c ilis. II 1093b 

ghuluw (A) : in literary criticism, overblown hyperbole. XII 655b 

ghumud (A) : in literary criticism, the 'obscurity' of poetry, in contrast to the 'clarity', 
wuduh, of prose. XII 655b 

ghunca (P) : in botany, the rosebud, a recurring image in eastern Islamic literature. II 

ghunna (A) : in Qur'anic recitation, the nasal sound of certain letters in excess of ordi- 
nary speech. X 73b 

ghura -»■ turshI 

ghurab (A, < L corvus) : in zoology, the crow. II 1096b 

In navigation, a large type of mediaeval Muslim galley (< Sp caraba), frequently men- 
tioned in accounts of the naval warfare between the Muslims and the Franks during 
Crusading and Mamluk times. In archaic Anglo-Indian usage, it yielded the term grab, 
a type of ship often mentioned, in the Indian Ocean context, from the arrival of the 
Portuguese to the 18th century. VIII 810a 

ghuraba' (A, T gturebd) : an Ottoman term for the two lowest of the six cavalry regi- 
ments of the kapI kullar!. The regiment riding on the sultan's right side was known 
as ghurebd'-i yemln and that riding on his left as ghurebd'-i yesdr. II 1097b 

ghurfa -> agadir 

ghurra (A) : the first day of the month, in historical works and correspondence. V 708a; 
a term used in Bedouin society for the young girl, who must be a virgin, white and 


free, given by the family of a murderer to a member of the injured family as compen- 
sation. In turn the latter forgoes his right of vengeance. VI 479b 
In law, ~ is a special indemnity to be paid for causing an abortion. I 29a; VIII 823b 

ghurub -> tali' 

ghuruk (? Mon) : in mediaeval Transoxania, a royal hunting ground. V 857b 

ghusl (A) : general ablution, uninterrupted washing, in ritually pure water, of the whole 
of the human body, including the hair. ~ applies also to the washing of the corpse of 
a Muslim. For the living, the essential ~ is that which is obligatory before performing 
the ritual daily prayers. II 1 104a; VIII 929a 

ghusn (A) : in prosody, separate-rhyme lines in each stanza of a muwashshah. VII 

ghuta (A) : the name given in Syria to abundantly irrigated areas of intense cultivation 
surrounded by arid land. It is produced by the co-operative activity of a rural commu- 
nity settled near to one or several perennial springs, whose water is used in a system 
of canalisation to irrigate several dozen or hundred acres. II 541a; II 1104b 

ghuzat ->■ GHAZl 

ginan (H, < San jndna) : in Nizari Isma'ilism, a poetical composition in an Indian ver- 
nacular, ascribed to various pIrs who were active in preaching and propagating the 
da'wa. The ~ resembles didactic and mystical poetry and is often anachronistic and 
legendary in nature. VIII 126a 

gireban, girivan ->■ shutik 

giriz (T), or girizgdh : in Turkish prosody, ~ is the passage marking the transition from 
the nasIb to the main part of the kasIda. IV 715b; and ->■ makhlas 

gitun (N.Afr) : the name given to shelters in North Africa made of sackcloth or pieces 
of material or of canvas produced in Europe. The name derives from the classical 
kaytun 'room in a bayt'. IV 1149b 

giwa : characteristic foot-gear of the Bakhtiyari tribeswomen. I 956a 

gnidra (Alg) : a light, lacy chemisette for women in Algeria. V 746a 

gobak (P) : among the Shahsewan in Persia, a 'navel' or descent group. IX 224a 

♦ gobek adi (T) : 'navel name'; in Turkey, a name given to a new-bom child by 
the midwife as she cuts the umbilical cord. IV 181a 

gocmen -> muhadjir 

goni (Kanuri) : one who has memorised the Qur'an, a term for saint in Chad and the 
Nilotic Sudan. XI 124a 

gonullii (T) : volunteer; in the Ottoman empire, ~ was used as a term (sometimes with 
the pseudo-Persian pi. goniilluydn, in Arabic sources usually rendered djamulydn or 
kamulyari) with the following meanings: volunteers coming to take part in the fighting; 
a 10th/16th-century organised body stationed in most of the fortresses of the empire, 
in Europe, Asia and Egypt; and an llth/17th-century body among the paid auxiliaries 
who were recruited in the provinces to serve on a campaign. II 1120b 

gorani -> poturi 

goruta ->■ yodjana 

gostermelik (T) : inanimate objects, without any direct connection with the shadow play, 
which are shown on the screen before the actual play in order to attract the interest of 
spectators and fire their imagination. IV 601b 

got-tikme (T) : a type of tent possessed by the Turkmen Yomut and Goklen tribes. The 
~ essentially is an 6y 'tent-house', but without the trellis walls, and regarded as infe- 
rior, though more portable. IV 1 150b 

gotba ->■ 'UDIYA 

gourbi (Alg) : a shack, a fixed dwelling used in the Algerian sedentarisation of nomads 
in the 20th century. IX 537b 


grab -■> ghurab 

gu' (Somali) : the season from April to June which is the 'season of plenty' in Somalia. 
The other seasons are xagaa (July-August), dayr (September-November) and jiilaal 
(December-March). IX 714b 

guban (Somali) : lit. burnt; a hot, dry region. IX 714a 

gudhar (P) : a restricted area of a guild in which it practised its trade. IX 645b; also 
gudhar, a passage. X 488a 

gul (P, T giil) : in botany, the rose, a recurring image in eastern Islamic literature. II 

Among the dervishes, giil signifies a particular ornament, fashioned from wedge-shaped 
pieces of cloth, on the top of a dervish cap, which distinguishes the head of a house 
of the order; in various contexts ~ is the badge of different dervish orders and of dis- 
tinct grades within the orders. II 1134a 

♦ giilbaba (T) : a title, with the sense of head of a Muslim cloister, tekke, of the 
Bektashi order. II 1133b 

♦ gulbang (P) : lit. song of the nightingale; in Turkish usage, giilbdng is applied to 
the call of the muezzin and to the Muslim war-cry. Under the Ottomans, ~ was used 
of certain ceremonial and public prayers and acclamations, more specifically those of 
the Janissary corps. II 1 1 35a; and -► terdjuman 

guldasta : in architecture, a shaft-like pinnacle, introduced in Tughlukid work as a pro- 
longation of the angle turret. VIII 315b 

gum (N.Afr, < A kawm) : the name given in the Arab countries of North Africa to a 
group of armed horsemen or fighting men from a tribe. They were given an official 
existence by the Turks in the former Regencies of Algiers and Tunis, who made them 
the basis of their occupation of the country, and were later used by the French to pacify 
the country. II 1138b 

♦ guma : a levy of gums, troops; a plundering foray; sedition, revolt. II 1138b 
gunbad (P) : a domed mausoleum. XI 114a 

gunbri (N.Afr, dim. gunlbrl) : in its most primitive form, with a gourd, shell, or wooden 
sound-chest, a skin or leather belly, and horsehair strings wihtout tuning pegs, the ear- 
liest form of the pandore, or tunbur, a long-necked lute-like instrument, known to us. 
It is to be found among the rural populations of North Africa from the Atlantic to the 
Nile. The North African name carries in its consonants n-b-r a trace of the old 
Egyptian word nefer. X 625a 

giiregen : 'royal son-in-law', a Cinggisid title that Timur Lang assumed after taking 
Saray Malik as his wife. X 511a 

gurizgah (T, < P) : in Turkish prosody, the device in which the real purpose of the 
kasida was revealed, either by openly naming the patron who was to be the subject 
of the encomium that followed immediately or by a clever allusion that rarely left any 
doubt as to the identity of the patron. V 957b; and -> makhlas 

guru (J) : in Malaysia and Thailand, a mystical teacher. VIII 294a; VIII 296b if. 

gzidan (K) : a Kurdish dance performed at the occasion of a festival celebrating the 
gathering of the mulberry harvest, which consists of sweeping the soil under the trees 
before the children climb them to shake them so as to allow the women to gather the 
berries. V 477b 


ha' (A) : the twenty-sixth letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed h, with numerical 

value 5. It is an unvoiced glottal spirant (in Arabic: rikhwa mahmusa). Ill la 
ha' (A) : the sixth letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed h, with numerical value 8. 

It is an unvoiced pharyngeal spirant (in Arabic: rikhwa mahmusa). Ill 2a 
hababawar ->• shakikat al-nu'man 
habak ->• fudhandj 
habal ->• bay' al-gharar 
haballak -» nakad 
habara (A) : a dark, silky enveloping outer wrap for women, worn in the Arab East. V 

habash (A), or habasha : a name said to be of south Arabian origin, applied in Arabic 

usage to the land and peoples of Ethiopia, and at times to the adjoining areas in the 

Horn of Africa. Ill 2b 

♦ habashat : a term found in several Sabaean inscriptions with apparent reference 
to Aksumite Abbyssinia, it has generally been assumed to apply not only to the terri- 
tory and people of the Aksumite empire but also to a south Arabian tribe related to the 
former and in close contact with them; incense-collectors, applicable to all the peoples 
of the incense regions, that is, of the Mahra and Somali coasts and Abyssinia proper. 
Ill 9a 

habat -> hawta 

habb (A) : grains, seeds. 

♦ habb al-na'am (A) : in botany, 'ostrich berries', the red fruit of the sarsaparilla or 
thorny bindweed (Smilax bona nox) of the liliaceae family. VII 830b 

♦ habb al-zalim -*■ yasamin 

habba (A) : lit. grain or kernel; as a unit of weight, a ~ was a fraction in the Troy 
weight system of the Arabs, of undefined weight. The most probable weight of the ~ 
in the early days of Islam was about 70-71 milligrammes (1.1 grains). Ill 10b 

habhab ->• djihh 

habbar -*■ rubah 

habib (A) : lit. beloved; al-Hablb is the usual Hadrami title of a sayyid. IX 115a; IX 

habis (A) : an anchorite, recluse. IX 574a 

habiz (SpA) : assumed to have been derived from ahbas pronounced with a variation in 
timbre, i.e. ahbis, a term denoting property intended for charitable use and converted 
into a non-transferable right, but one that is not recognised in the Andalusi juridical 
texts concerning mortmain. XI 75a 

habka -»• timsah 

habs -»• mawkuf; sidjn; 'urwa; wakf 

♦ habsiyya (P, < A) : in Persian literature, a poem dealing with the theme of 
imprisonment. The genre can also be found in Urdu poetry and in the Indian tradition 
of Persian poetry. XII 333b 

habshi : a term applied in India for those African communities whose ancestors origi- 
nally came to the country as slaves, in most cases from the Horn of Africa, although 
some doubtless sprang from the slave troops of the neighbouring Muslim countries. The 
majority, at least in the earlier periods, may well have been Abyssinian (->• habash), 
but the name was used indiscriminately for all Africans. In modern India, ~ is often 
heard applied in a pejorative sense to an Indian of dark skin, and also frequently to a 
man of Gargantuan appetite. Ill 14a 

HAD — HADl 255 

had (A) : in botany, comucala monacantha, which grows in dried-out basins in the 
Libyan Desert and provides excellent food for camels. V 352a 

hadaba (A) : on the Arabian peninsula, a plain with a mantle of gravel. I 536b 

hadak (A) : the black pupil (of the oryx and addax), which in contrast to the white of 
the eye was an image dear to the poets. V 1229b 

hadana (A), or hiddna : in law, ~ is the right to custody of the child. I 28b; III 16b 

hadath (A) : in law, minor ritual impurity, as opposed to major impurity, djanaba. A 
person who is in a state of ~ is called a muhdith and he can regain ritual purity by 
means of simple ablution, wupu J . Ill 19b; VIII 929a; ~ in its plural form, ahddth, 
means arbitrary actions at odds with the divine Law. I 384a 

hadd (A, pi. hudud) : hindrance, impediment, limit, boundary, frontier; in the Qur'an, 
~ is used (always in the pi.) to denote the restrictive ordinances or statutes of God. 
Ill 20b 

In law, ~ has become the technical term for the punishments of certain acts which have 
been forbidden or sanctioned by punishments in the Qur'an and have thereby become 
crimes against religion. The punishments are the death penalty, either by stoning or by 
crucifixion or with the sword; the cutting off of the hand and/or the foot; and flogging 
with various numbers of lashes, their intensity depending on the severity of the crime. 
Ill 20b 

In theology, ~ in the meaning of limit, limitation, is an indication of finiteness, a nec- 
essary attribute of all created beings but incompatible with God. Ill 20b 
In scholastic theology, philosophy and metaphysics, ~ is a technical term for definition, 
e.g. hadd haklkl, that which defines the essence of a thing, and hadd lafzl, that which 
defines the meaning of a word. Ill 21a 
In logic, ~ means the term of a syllogism. Ill 21a 

In astrology, ~ denotes the term of a planet or the unequal portion, of which there are 
five, each belonging to a planet, into which the degree of each sign of the zodiac is 
divided. Ill 21a 

Among the Druze, the main officers of the religious hierarchy are called hudud. The 
five great hudud 'cosmic ranks', adopted in a modified form from Isma'Ili lore, consist 
of the 'akl, the nafs al-kulliyya, the kalima, the sdbik, and the tali. II 632a; III 21a 

haddad (A, pi. haddddin) : a blacksmith. IV 819a; XII 756b 

hadduta ->■ uhdutha 

hadhadh (A) : in prosody, a deviation in the metre because of the suppression of a 
whole watid maajmu' (-► awtad), as in mutafa[" ilun] . I 672a 

hadhaf (A) : a strain of sheep in the time of al-Djahiz, with a black fleece and almost 
without a tail and ears, found in the Hidjaz and Yemen. Similar to the ~ was the kahd, 
with a russet-coloured fleece. XII 318a; a teal, or wild duck. IX 98b 

hadhafa (A) : a missile, recommended to throw between the legs of the galloping ani- 
mal in hunting manuals in order to hamstring an animal. V 1229b 

hadhdha 5 (A) : a sandal-maker, whose profession in pre-modern times had a low social 
status because working with leather was regarded as unclean. XII 463b 

hadhf (A) : in prosody, a deviation in the metre because of the suppression of a mov- 
ing and a quiescent consonant, a sabab khafif (->■ sabab), e.g. mafd'l[lun] . I 672a 
In rhetoric, the truncation of words. VIII 427a; ellipsis. XII 669a 

hadhw (A) : in prosody, the vowel immediately before the ridf. IV 412a 

hadi (A) : the name for the animal sacrificed in order to make atonement for certain 
transgressions committed during the hadjdj. II 213a 

hadi (A, pi. huddd') : the sporting pigeon; the sport of pigeon-flying (zadjl, zidjdl) was 
very popular from the 2nd-7th/8th- 1 3th centuries, among all the Muslim peoples. Ill 


hadia langgar (Ind, < A hadiyya) : a gift for the permission to cast the anchor, one of 

the tolls and taxes known in Atjeh in relation to sea trade. XII 200b 
hadid (A) : in metallurgy, iron; three kinds of iron were distinguished: natural iron, al- 

sdburkdn, and artificial iron, of which there were two kinds, the weak or female, i.e. 

malleable or wrought iron (P narmdhan 'soft iron') and hard or male, i.e. manufactured 

steel {fulddh). Ill 22b; V 971a 

♦ hadid sini -> talikun 
hadid -> awdj 

hadira (A) : in administrative geography, 'regional capital'. IX 36b 
hadith (A) : narrative, talk; al-hadith is used for Tradition, being an account of what 
the Prophet said or did, or of his tacit approval of something said or done in his pres- 
ence. Ill 23b; and ->■ ahl al-hadith; dar al-hadIih; khabar 

♦ hadith kudsi (A), and hadith ildhi, hadith rabbanl : a class of Traditions which 
give words spoken by God, as distinguished from hadith nabawl 'prophetical Tradi- 
tion', which gives the words of the Prophet. Ill 28b 

♦ hadith ilahi -»■ hadIih kudsi 

♦ hadith nabawi -»■ hadith kudsi 

♦ hadith rabbani -* hadith kuds! 

♦ hadith al-thakalayn (A) : a Tradition which refers to the two sources of guidance 
that Muhammad says he is leaving behind for the Muslims: the Qur'an and ahl al- 
bayt. IX 331b; XI 389a 

hadiyya (A) : a gift which in the Muslim East frequently implied an effort on the part 
of a person on a lower level of society to get into the good graces of a recipient of a 
higher social status, as opposed to hiba. In the Muslim West ~ is commonly used with 
the restricted meaning of a sumptuous gift offered to a sovereign, either by another sov- 
ereign or by a group of some kind, while in Morocco especially, ~ was an obligatory 
gift made to the sultan by his subjects, later becoming a supplementary tax. Ill 343a; 
III 346b; in Persia, ~ is a gift to an equal, and the normal expression for the exchange 
of presents on diplomatic missions. Ill 347b 

hadjal (A) : in zoology, the partridge. IX 98b 

hadjar (A) : stone; also applied to any solid inorganic body occurring anywhere in 
Nature. Ill 29b; and -► bay' al-munabadha 

♦ hadjar al-matar -> yada tash 

♦ hadjar al- c ukab (A) : 'eagle's stone', a stone-like substance found in the eagle's 
eyrie, which, when sucked, cures stammering. X 784a; also called hadjar al-nasr 'vul- 
ture's stone' and hadjar al-talk 'stone of confinement'. VII 1013b 

hadjar (A, Eth hagar 'town') : the normal word for 'town' in the epigraphic dialects of 

pre-Islamic South Arabia, now an element in place-names given to pre-Islamic town 

ruins in South Arabia. Ill 29b 
hadjdj (A) : the pilgrimage to Mecca, 'Arafat and Mina, one of the five pillars of Islam. 

It is also called the Great Pilgrimage in contrast to the c umra, or Little Pilgrimage. 

One who has performed the pilgrimage is called hadjdj or hddjdjl. Ill 31b; III 38b; and 


♦ hadjdj al-wada' (A) : the last pilgrimage of the Prophet, in the year 10/632. Ill 

hadjdjam -»■ fassad 

hadjib (A) : the person responsible for guarding the door of access to the ruler, hence 
'chamberlain'; a title corresponding to a position in the court and to an office the exact 
nature of which varied considerably in different regions and in different periods: super- 
intendent of the palace, chief of the guard, chief minister, a head of government. Ill 
45a; VIII 728a; XII 336b 


Among the Buyids, ~ was known as a military rank in the army, with the meaning of 
general. Ill 46b 

In Persian prosody, the internal radIf, which precedes the rhyme rather than follow- 
ing it. VIII 369a 

♦ hadjib al-hudjdjab (A), or al-hddjib al-kabir : the equivalent of the Persian sipah- 
sdldr (-> ispahsalar) or the Arabic amIr al-umara' found among dynasties like the 
Samanids, Buyids, Ghaznawids and Great Saldjuks. VIII 924a 

♦ al-hadjib al-kabir -> hadjib al-hudjdjab 

hadjin (A), or shihri : the 'mixed breed', whose sire is better bred than the dam, one of 
four classifications of a horse. II 785b 

hadjira -> zahira 

hadjis (A) : in Yemen, term for poetic inspiration. IX 235b 

hadjm (A) : in medicine, cupping without or after the scarification, shart. II 481b 

hadjr -> wisal 

hadjr (A) : prevention, inhibition; in law, the interdiction, the restriction of the capac- 
ity to dispose; ~ expresses both the act of imposing this restriction and the resulting 
status. A person in this status is called mahdjur (mahdjur 'alayh). I 27b; HI 50a 

♦ hadjra (A), or kuffa, tawlc : in astronomy, the outer rim on the front of the astro- 
labe, which encloses the inner surface and into which a number of thin discs are fitted. 

hadjur -> filawr 

hadr -> tahkik 

hadra (A) : presence; a title of respect; in mysticism, ~ is a synonym of hudur 'being 

in the presence of God'. Ill 51a; a communal dhikr exercise. IV 992b 

The regular Friday service of the dervishes is called ~. Ill 51; in North Africa, the 

dhikr recitation session. XI 468a 
hady (A) : oblation; a pre-Islamic sacrificial offering which survived in Islam under the 

name dahiyya. Ill 53b 
haff -> kushkush 
haffara (A) : in zoology, the wrasse, whose Arabic term is found again in the Latinised 

nomenclature to specify a sub-species limited to a particular region (Chrysophrys haf- 
fara). VIII 1021a 
ham" (A) : a cotton material stemming from Nishapur. V 555a 
hafir (A) : a horse, as used in Tradition prohibiting competitions of animals. V 109a; 

'horseshoe', a crescent-shaped ruby affixed to a piece of silk and attached to the top 

of the sovereign's turban, one of the caliph's insignia. VI 850a; hoof. IV 249b 
hafiz (A) : a designation for one who knows the Qur'an by heart. VIII 171a; a great tra- 

ditionist. IX 608a; and -> hirz 
hafr (A) : a dried-up well. X 788a 
hafshrusi ->■ kalb al-bahr 
haft-band (P) : in literature, a variety of tardjT- or tarkIb-band, particularly common 

in marthiyas, where each kasida part, khdna, comprises seven verses. X 235b 
haft-rangi (P) : in art, a glazed tile technique similar to cuerda seca in which the design 

is incised and/or drawn with a greasy substance to separate colours. X 520a 
haguza (Mor) : the name of a festival celebrated in Morocco, especially in the country, 

at the beginning of the solar year. V 1202a 
ha'ik (A, pi. haka), or hayyak : weaver (syn. nassddj). XII 340b 

In North Africa, ~, or hayk, tahaykt, is a large outer wrap, usually white, worn by both 

sexes. V 746a 
ha'ir (A) : a park or pleasure-garden, or zoological garden. Ill 71a 
hakam (A) : in law, an arbitrator who settles a dispute (syn. muhakkam). HI 72a 

♦ hakama ->■ sarafsar 


hakawati (A) : the professional storyteller of folktales. XII 775a 

hakham-bashi (T) : in the Ottoman period, a chief rabbi, sent from Istanbul and having 
access to the central government. V 335b 

hakika (A, pi. haka'ik) : reality; essence, truth; in rhetoric and exegesis, al-haklka is 
the basic meaning of a word or an expression, and is distinguished from madjaz, 
metaphor, and kayfiyya, analogy. Ill 75a; XII 653a 

In philosophy, ~ has an ontological and a logical meaning. The ontological meaning 
(haklkat al-shay') is best translated by 'nature' or 'essential reality'; the logical mean- 
ing (al-haklka al-'akliyya) is the truth which 'the exact conception of the thing' estab- 
lishes in the intelligence. Ill 75a ff.; V 1262a 

In mysticism, ~ is the profound reality to which only experience of union with God 
opens the way. Ill 75b 

♦ al-hakika al-muhammadiyya (A) : in the mystical thought of Ibn 'Arabi, the uni- 
versal rational principle through which the Divine knowledge is transmitted to all 
prophets and saints, also called ruh Muhammad. V 544a 

♦ haka'ik (A) : the Isma'ili term for their secret philosophical doctrines. I 1255b; 
III 71b 

hakim -> wali 

hakim (A, pi. hukamd'; T heklm) : sage; physician. 

♦ al-hukama' (A) : the ninth degree in the sufi hierarchical order of saints. I 95a 

♦ hekim-bashi (T) : in the Ottoman empire, the title of the chief palace physician, 
who was at the same time head of the health services of the state. Ill 339b 

hakk (A, pi. hukuk) : something right, true, just, real; established fact; reality. I 275a; 
III 82b; and -> ahl-i hakk; din al-hakk; rasm 

In law, ~ is a claim or right, as a legal obligation. Religious law distinguishes hakk 
Allah, God's penal ordinances, with hakk al-ddami, the civil right or claim of a human. 
Ill 82b; III 551b; hukuk, when used of things in law, signifies the accessories neces- 
sarily belonging to them, such as the privy and the kitchen of a house, and servitudes 
in general. Ill 551b 

In mysticism, ~ al-yakln is the real certainty which comes after the acquisition of visual 
certainty and intellectual certainty. Hukuk al-nafs are such things as are necessary for 
the support and continuance of life, as opposed to the huzuz, things desired but not nec- 
essary. Ill 82a-b; III 551b 

♦ hakk 'aynl (A) : in law, a real right, as opposed to hakk shakhsl 'personal right'. 
IX 495a 

♦ hakk al-djahabidha ->• mal al-djahabidha 

♦ hakk-i kapan ->• kapan 

♦ hakk-i karar (T) : a fixed charge in the Ottoman empire on parcels of land known 
as Ciftlik, which a peasant had to pay in order to obtain permission to sell or give up 
his land. II 907a; VIII 486a 

♦ hakk shakhsi -> hakk 'ayni 

♦ hakk al-shurb -> shurb 

♦ hukuk bayt al-mal (A) : assets of the Treasury; those monies or properties which 
belong to the Muslim community as a whole, the purpose to which they are devoted 
being dependent upon the discretion of the imam or his delegate. I 1 142a 

hakma (A) : in the terminology of horse-riding, the curb-chain of the bit, which is also 
composed of branches, shflkima, and a mouthpiece, fa's. II 954a 

hakura (A) : a type of garden. XI 89a; in Sahelian Africa, an estate granted by the sul- 
tan to religious scholars or notables. XI 99b 

hakw (A) : a binding for a waist wrapper, worn by both sexes on the Arabian peninsula 
(syn. brim). V 741a 

HAL — HALKA 259 

hal (A, pi. ahwal) : state, condition; in mysticism, a spiritual state; the actualisation of 
a divine 'encounter'. Ill 83b; trance; among the Hmadsha in North Africa, ~ is used 
for a light, somnambulistic trance, while a deeper, wilder trance is called djedhba. XII 
350b; and -»■ tarab 

In medicine, ~ denotes 'the actual functional (physiological) equilibrium' of a being 
endowed with nafs. HI 83b 

In grammar, ~ is the state of the verb in relation to the agent, its 'subjective' state. Ill 
83b; circumstantial qualifier. IX 527b 

In scholastic theology, ~ is the intermediate modality between being and non-being. Ill 
83b; a technical term employed by some 4th-5th/l 0th- 11th century Basran scholastic 
theologians, mutakallimun, to signify certain 'attributes' that are predicated of beings. 
1411a; II 570b; XII 343b 

♦ c ilm-i hal (T) : a genre in Ottoman literature, forming a kind of catechism of the 
basic principles of worship and of behaviour within the family and the community. 
VIII 211b 

hala (A, pi. huwal) : a term in the Persian Gulf for a low sandy islet which may be cov- 
ered at high tide. I 535b 
halak ->■ dhat al-halak 
halal (A) : in law, everything that is not forbidden. Ill 660b 

♦ halal al-dam (A) : in law, one who can be killed with impunity. IV 772a 
halam(a) ->■ kirdan 

halawi (A) : in zoology, the guitar fish, whose Arabic term is found again in the 
Latinised nomenclature to specify a sub-species limited to a particular region (Rhino- 
batus halavi). VII 1021b 

halazun (A) : in zoology, the general term for snail. VIII 707a 

half -»• kasam; musalsal al-half 

halfa' (A) : in botany, alfa-grass (Stipa tenacissima) and esparto-grass (Lygoeum spar- 
turn), two similar plants found in North Africa. The former is called in Tunisia ~ 
rusiyya or geddlm. A field of alfa is sometimes called zemla. Ill 92a, where can also 
be found dialectal terms used in the harvesting of both plants 

halib (A) : fresh milk, straight from the animal. XII 318b 

haliladj (P, San), or ahliladj, ihllladj : in botany, myrobalanus, the plum-like fruit of the 
Terminalia chebula-tree, found in South Asia and the Malayan archipelago. The Arabs 
knew five kinds of myrobalanus. XII 349a 

In mathematics, ~, but especially its variant ihllladj, was used to designate an ellipse. 
XII 349b 

halim (A) : a boy who has attained to puberty, or virility. VIII 822a 

halk -»• ISTIHDAD 

halka (A) : a circle; gathering of people seated in a circle; gathering of students around 
a teacher, hence 'course'. I 817a; III 95a; V 1129a 

Among the Ibadi-Wahbis of the Mzab, ~ was a religious council made up of twelve 
recluses, 'azzdba, presided over by a shaykh. Ill 95a 

Under the Ayyubids and Mamluks, a term for a socio-military unit which, during most 
of the period of Mamluk rule, was composed of non-Mamluks. Under Salah al-Din it 
seems to have constituted the elite of his army. I 765b; III 99a; and -► awlad al-nas 
In military science, ~ was the term used for the encirclement of the enemy in an 
increasingly tightening ring, a strategy employed by the Turkish and Mongol tribes in 
the field of battle. The same tactics were also very common in hunting, especially in 
the early decades of Mamluk rule. Ill 1 87b 

In astronomy, part of the suspensory apparatus of the astrolabe, the ~ is the ring which 
passes through the handle, c urwa, moving freely. I 723a 


halkiyya (A) : in grammar, a term used by al-Khalil to denote the laryngeals. Ill 598a 

hall al-manzum (A) : lit. dissolving the versified; in literature, turning poetry into prose. 
XII 649b 

halladj (A) : cotton carder; the carder separated the fibre from the seed by beating the 
cotton with a bow-like instrument called kemdn or yay. V 559a, where also can be 
found many names of artisans working with cotton in the Ottoman period 

hallak (A) : a barber, hairdresser (syn. muzayyin). XII 350a 

hallam (A) : a mediaeval dish made from kid or calf, boiled in vinegar until cooked, 
then soused overnight in a mixture of vinegar, cinnamon, galingal, thyme, celery, 
quince, citron and salt, and stored in glass or earthenware vessels. X 31b 

halush -> KALB AL-MAYY 

ham, hama -» sada 

hama ust (P) : 'All is He', in mystical thought on the subcontinent, the equivalent of 
wahdat al-wudjud. The opposite, wahdat al-shuhud, was said to maintain that 
'All was from Him' (hama az ust) or 'All is through Him' (hama bidust). X 318a 

hamada (Alg) : silicified limestone. XII 328a 

hamal (A) : lamb; in astronomy, al-~ is the term for Aries, one of the twelve zodiacal 
constellations, also called al-kabsh 'the ram' because of its 'horns'. VII 83a; XII 319a 

♦ hamalat al- c ilm (A), or nalcalat al- c ilm : lit. bearers of learning; among the 
Ibadiyya, the ~ were teams of missionaries who were sent out after completion of their 
training to spread propaganda in the various provinces of the Umayyad caliphate. Ill 

hamam (A, pi. hama'im, hamamat) : in zoology, any bird 'which drinks with one gulp 
and coos', that is, any of the family of the Columbidae: pigeons and turtle-doves. In 
the restricted sense, ~ denotes the domestic pigeons. Ill 108b, where are found many 
terms, in the different countries, for the many different types of birds; for hamam 
kawwdl, -» WAKWAK 

hamasa (A) : bravery, valour; in literature, the title of a certain number of poetic 
anthologies which generally include brief extracts chosen for their literary value. Ill 
1 10b; the boasting of courage, a subject of occasional verse. I 584b; the genre of the 
epic poem, although ~ has been replaced today by malhama in this sense. Ill 111b 
In Persian literature, ~ has come to denote a literary genre, the heroic and martial epic. 
Ill 112a 

♦ hamasiyya : in Turkish literature, ~ indicates an epic poem. Ill 1 14b 
hamasala (P) : allocations on the revenue of specific villages or districts, according to 

which the taxpayers paid their taxes, up to the amount stipulated, to the holder of the 
~ instead of to the government tax-collector. IV 1045a 
hamd (A) : praise; in Urdu religious literature, specifically praise of God. V 958a 

♦ hamdala (A) : the saying of the formula al-hamdu li 'Hah 'Praise belongs to 
God'. Ill 122b 

hamd (A) : in botany, on the Arabian peninsula, a bush and a prime source of salt 
needed by camels. I 540b; IV 1 143b 

♦ hamdiyyat -> narandj 
hamid -» karis 

hamil (A) : in astronomy, an eccentric deferent for the epicycle nested within the pare- 
cliptic, one of three postulated solid rotating orbs to bring about a planet's observed 
motions. XI 555a 

hamla (A) : in the Ottoman empire, the term used to designate the group of people at 
the rear of the Baghdad-Aleppo caravan. IV 679a; the charge of a wild animal. V 9a 

hammada (N.Afr) : large areas which are the outcrops of horizontal beds of secondary 
or tertiary limestone or sandstone (or calcareous or gypso-calcareous crusts of the qua- 
ternary era). Ill 136b 


hammal (A) : street-porter, bearer, who transports packages, cases, furniture, etc. on his 
back in towns and cities. In Istanbul, if two or more porters are required, a long pole, 
called sink in Turkish, is used to carry the heavy load. In Fas, the ~ mostly carries 
cereals; the Berber word for porter, of which there is a special guild, is zrzaya. Ill 139a 

♦ hammalbashi (P) : in Safawid Persia, beginning in ca. 1850, the collector of a 
port's customs fees. XII 717b 

hammam -»■ mukayyis; wakkad; zabbal 

hammara ->■ baqhqhal 

hamsaya (Pash) : in Afghanistan, a client attached to and living under the protection of 

a tribe. I 217a 
hamula (A) : a group of people who claim descent from a common ancestor, usually 

five to seven generations removed from the living. Ill 149b 
hamur (A) : in the Persian Gulf, term for the grouper. I 541b 
hamza (A) : the orthographical sign alif, which is the first letter of the Arabic alphabet, 

with numerical value 1. It is an unvoiced glottal occlusive. Ill 150a 

♦ hamzat al-wasl -»■ kat' 

hanak (A), or tahnlk al-'imama : a turban which was distinctively wound under the chin. 
Originally, the ~ was worn by the chief eunuchs of the Fatimid court, who were the 
amIrs of the palace. The caliph al-'Aziz was the first ruler to appear in the ~. This 
fashion was introduced into the East by the Fatimids from North Africa, where it still 
may be seen, especially in southern Algeria and Morocco. V 738a; for tahnlk, the way 
of pulling it under the chin, X 610a; X 614b; and -»■ ikti'at 
In anatomy, the palate. VI 130a 

hanb -»■ anba 

hanbal (A) : a rug made of coarse wool. IX 764b 

hanbala (A), or hunbu'a : the swaying and limping gait of the hyena, as described in 
pre-Islamic poetry. XII 174a 

handasa -»■ 'ilm 

hanfa' ->■ atum 

hanif (A, pi. hunafa') : in Islamic writings, one who follows the original and true 
(monotheistic) religion. In the Qur'an, ~ is used especially of Abraham. Ill 165 a; later 
Islamic usage occasionally uses ~ as the equivalent of Muslim. Ill 165b 

♦ hanifiyya (A) : the religion of Abraham, or Islam, especially when used by 
Christian writers. Ill 165b 

hanini (A) : a headdress, borrowed (both name and object) by the ladies of France and 
Spain in the 14th- 16th centuries (hen[n]in), and which is worn up to the present day 
by women among the Druse of the Lebanon and in Algeria and Tunis. X 58a 

hanit (A) : the child who has reached the age of reason. VIII 822a 

hanith -»■ tahannuth 

hannat (A) : a wheat merchant. XII 757b 

hanshal (A, s. hanshull) : small parties of Bedouin on foot. II 1055a 

hanshir ->■ c azIb 

hantam -»■ iklIl al-malik 

hanut (A) : a perfume or scented unguent used for embalming (hinata), consisting of 
sweet rush or some mixture (dharlra), musk, c anbar, camphor, Indian reed and pow- 
dered sandal wood. Ill 403b f. 

hanut (A, < Ar) : a tent. IV 994b 

hanzal (A) : in botany, colocynth {Citrullus colocynthis), also called kithtM' al-na'dm 
'the ostrich's cucumber'. V 1229a; VII 830b 

hara (A) : a quarter or ward of a town; in Morocco, used as a synonym of mallah, a 
special quarter for Jews. II 230a; III 169b; and -»■ shari' 


haraba (A) : a one-day battle among tribal factions; if it lasted longer than one day, it 

was called a kawn. IV 835a 
haraka (A) : motion; in philosophy, ~ is used for the Aristotelian notion of motion. Ill 


In grammar, ~ is a state of motion in which a harf 'letter' exists when not in a state 

of rest, sukun. It implies the existence of a short vowel, a, i, or u, following the letter. 

Ill 172a 

♦ haraki (A) : in modern-day terminology, 'activist', as in tafsir ~ 'activist exege- 
sis'. IX 118a 

haram (A) : among the Bedouin, a sacred area around a shrine; a place where a holy 
power manifests itself. I 892b; III 294b; III 1018a; the sacred territory of Mecca. I 
604a; IV 322a; V 1003a 

♦ al-haramayn (A) : the two holy places, usually Mecca and Medina, but occasion- 
ally, in Mamluk and Ottoman usage, Jerusalem and Hebron. Ill 175a 

♦ haramgah ->■ harIm 

haram (A, pi. ahrdm, ahrdmdt) : pyramid, pre-eminently the pyramid of Cheops and 
Chephren. Ill 173a 

haram (A) : a term representing everything that is forbidden to the profane and sepa- 
rated from the rest of the world. The cause of this prohibition could be either impurity 
(temporary or intrinsic) or holiness, which is a permanent state of sublime purity. IV 

♦ haramiyya (A) : 'bastards', currently 'highway bandits', one of the numerous 
terms in the mediaeval and modern periods for 'rascal, scoundrel'. XI 546a 

harb (A) : war. Ill 180a 

♦ harba -> c anaza 

♦ harbi (A), or ahl al-harb : a non-Muslim from the dar al-harb. I 429b; II 126b; 
HI 547a; VII 108b; IX 846a 

hareket ordusu (T) : 'investing' or 'marching' army. I 64a; the name usually given to the 
striking force sent from Salonica on 17 April 1909 to quell the counter-revolutionary 
mutiny in the First Army Corps in Istanbul. Ill 204a 

harf (A, pi. huruf ahruf) : letter of the alphabet; word. Ill 204b; in grammar, articula- 
tion of the Arabic language, a phoneme. Ill 597a; a Qur'anic reading; dialect. HI 205b 

♦ harf 'ilia (A), or mu'talla : in grammar, a 'weak' consonant, viz. the semi-vow- 
els alif, wdw, yd'. Ill 1129b; VIII 836b; VIII 990b 

♦ harf mutaharrik (A) : in grammar, an individual 'moving' consonant; a consonant 
with a vowel, as opposed to harf sdkin; a short syllable. I 669b 

♦ harf sakin ->■ harf mutaharrik 

♦ harfiyya (A) : a name for the cap of the turban. X 612a 

♦ huruf al-hidja 5 (A) : the letters of the alphabet. Ill 596b 

♦ huruf al-mu c djam (A) : in grammar, properly, those letters with diacritical points, 
but in practice ~ has become a synonym for huruf al-hiajd\ the letters of the alphabet, 
but referring solely to writing. Ill 597a 

♦ al-huruf al-mukatta'at -> fawatih al-suwar 

♦ al-huruf al-mutbaka ->■ itbak 

♦ c ilm al-huruf (A) : onomatomancy, a magical practice based on the occult prop- 
erties of the letters of the alphabet and of the divine and angelic names which they 
form. Ill 595b 

♦ hurufiyya (A) : in art, a movement of abstract art using Arabic calligraphy. X 

harfush (A, pi. hardflsh, hardfisha), sometimes kharfush : vagabond, ne'er-do-well, often 
used in the sense of ruffians, rascals, scamps. The term frequently appears from the 

7th/13th to the 10th/16th century in chronicles and other works dealing with the 
Mamluk domains of Egypt and Syria, where it denotes the lowest element in the strata 
of Mamluk society. During the Ottoman period ~ was replaced by dju'aydi as a gen- 
eral term for vagabond, beggar. Ill 206a; XI 546a 

harid (A) : in zoology, the parrot fish, whose Arabic term is found again in the Latinised 
nomenclature to specify a sub-species limited to a particular region (Scarus harid). VIII 

harim -► pIr 

harim (A, pi. hawarim) : a (female) camel which feeds from the harm bush. I 541a 

harim (A), also haramgah, zanana : a term applied to those parts of the house to which 
access is forbidden; hence more particularly to the women's quarters. Ill 209a 

harir (A, Ott ipek) : silk (syn. ibrisam, kazz); ~ occurs in the Qur'an, where it is said 
that the raiment of the people of Paradise will be silk, but Tradition and the schools 
of law traditionally forbid the wearing of silk to men, allowing it to women. Ill 209b 
♦ harira (A) : a gruel made from flour cooked with milk, eaten by pre-Islamic 
Arabs. II 1059a 

harir -► khurur 

harisa (A) : the term for a dish of meat and bulgur, but in Egypt a sweet pastry made 
of flour, melted butter and sugar. V 234b; XII 775b 

harish -► karkaddan 

harka -► djaysh 

harkaniyya (A) : a type of black turban, which the Prophet is said to have worn on his 
campaigns. The derivation of the term is uncertain: according to al-Suyuti, ~ stems 
from h-r-k 'to burn'. X 610a 

harmaliyyat (A) : in mineralogy, inclusion or patches looking like African rye, a defect 
in a gem. XI 570a 

harr -► karis 

harra (A, pi. hirar) : a basalt desert in Arabia, which owes its origin to subterranean 
volcanoes which have repeatedly covered the undulating desert with a bed of lava. I 
535a; III 226a; III 362a; IX 817a 

harraka (A) : 'fire ship'; ~ presumably denoted in origin a warship from which fire could 
be hurled at the enemy, but was soon used for passenger-carrying craft in Mesopotamia 
and also on the Nile. VIII 811a 

harratha -► kalb al-mayy 

hartani (A, < B ?; pi. hardtin) : name given in northwest Africa to a sedentary popu- 
lation of the oases in the Saharan zone; ~ is not applied in dialect exclusively to human 
beings, but is variously used for a horse of mixed breed, an ungrafted tree, a wilding, 
or a holding of land that is not free. Ill 230b 

harth (A) : crops. XI 412b 

harun (A) : in the terminology of horse-riding, a horse that refuses to walk forward. II 

harwala (A), or khabab : a more rapid pace than ramal. X 864b 

harz -> 'ibra 

hasab (A) : nobility, possessed by one (hasib) either with noble ancestry or acquired by 
the performance of memorable deeds of prowess or the display of outstanding virtues. 
Ill 238b 

hasan (A) : good; in the science of Tradition, one of three kinds of Traditions, in 
between sahih 'sound' and da'if 'weak' or sakim 'infirm'. ~ Traditions are not con- 
sidered as strong as sahih Traditions, but are necessary for establishing points of law. 
Ill 25a; a 'fair' Tradition, a genuine euphemism for mostly poorly authenticated 
Traditions. VIII 983a 


♦ hasani (A) : the name given in Morocco to the money minted on the orders of 
Mawlay al-Hasan from 1299/1881-2 onwards. A ~, or dirham hasani, is a coin with 
the value of a tenth of a douro. Ill 256a 

hasat -> bay' al-munabadha 

hashar : corvee labour, syn. bigar. XII 550a 

hasharat (A) : in zoology, insects; and -* hawamm wa-hasharat 

♦ hasharat al-ard (A), or khashdsh : in zoology, small animals which live on the 
ground. Ill 307b 

hashima (A) : a fracture of a bone; a determining factor in the prescription of compen- 
sation following upon physical injury, diya. II 341b 

hashimiyya (A) : a term commonly applied in the 2nd-3rd/8th-9th centuries to members 
of the 'Abbasid house and occasionally to their followers and supporters. Ill 265a 

hashish (A) : a narcotic product of Cannabis saliva, hemp. Ill 266a 

♦ hashishat al-nahl -> turundjan 

♦ hashishat al-sananir (A) : 'herb for cats', in botany, the labiate Balm (Melissa 
officinalis). IX 653a 

♦ hashishiyya (A) : the name given in mediaeval times to the followers in Syria of 
the Nizari branch of the Isma'ili sect. Carried by the Crusaders from Syria to Europe, 
the name appeared in a variety of forms in Western literature, and eventually found its 
way in the form of 'assassin' into French and English usage with corresponding forms 
in Italian, Spanish and other languages, used at first in the sense of devotee or zealot. 
Ill 267b 

hashiya (A, pi. hawashi) : margin; marginal note, super-commentary on the commen- 
tary, sharh; gloss. I 593a; I 816b; III 268b; the entourage of a ruler. Ill 269a 

hashm (A, P), or hashm-i kalb, afivddj-i kalb, kalb-i sultdni : a term used in the 7th/13th 
century to denote the Dihli cavalry, or the standing army at the capital. Ill 199a; V 
685a; and -> kabara 

♦ hashm-i atraf : in India during the Dihli sultanate, a term denoting the cavalry 
which the iKTA'-holders recruited from the regions in which they were posted, or from 
the garrisons under their command. Later, it was called the hashm-i bildd-i mamalik. V 

hashr (A) : in eschatology, the gathering. V 236a 

♦ hashr 'amm -> hashr khass 

♦ hashr khass (A) : 'specific resurrection'; among the Imamis, the resurrection that 
will involve believers and unbelievers only from Muhammad's community, and not 
from earlier communities, in contradistinction to the Resurrection, hashr 'amm. VIII 

hasht bihisht (P) : lit. eight paradises; a technical term in Mughal architecture used for 
a special nine-fold plan of eight rooms (four oblong [open] axial porches and four usu- 
ally double-storeyed corner rooms) arranged around a central (often octagonal) domed 
hall. VII 795a; IX 46b 

hashw (A) : 'stuffing'; 'farce', hence 'prolix and useless discourse'. I 671b; III 269b; 
and -* sila 

In prosody, ~ is a collective name for the feet of a verse other than the last foot of the 
first hemistich and the last foot of the second hemistich. I 671b 

♦ hashwiyya (A) : lit. those that stuff; a contemptuous term with the general meaning 
of 'scholars' of little worth, particularly traditionists. It is used of the ashab al-hadith 
(-»• ahl al-hadIth) who recognise as genuine and interpret literally the crudely 
anthropomorphic Traditions. I 410b; III 269b; IX 879b 

hasil (A), or ba'ika : in mediaeval Islam, a warehouse. IX 788b; IX 793b; a shop. IV 
In administration, revenue. IV 1055b; X 503b 


hasur (A) : one who leads a celibate life. X 12a 

hatar (A), or hitr, hutra : a band placed vertically around the awning of an Arab tent, 
in order to fill the space which separates it from the ground. IV 1 147b; and -> tarIka 

hatif (A) : an invisible being whose cry rends the night, transmitting a message; a 
prophetic voice which announces in an oracular style a future happening. Ill 273a; in 
modern Arabic, a telephone. Ill 273b 

hatim (A) : a semi-circular wall of white marble, opposite the north-west wall of the 
Ka'ba. The semi-circular space between the ~ and the Ka'ba, which for a time 
belonged to the Ka'ba, is not entered during the perambulation. IV 318a 

hawa'iyya ->■ hawI 

hawala (A) : lit. draft, bill; ~ is the cession, i.e. the payment of a debt through the trans- 
fer of a claim. Ill 283a; IV 405b; IX 770a 

In finance, ~ is an assignation on a mukataa, tax payment, effected by order of the 
ruler in favour of a third party. The term is used both for the mandate and for the sum 
paid. Ill 283b 

In Ottoman Turkish, ~ has the sense of a tower placed at a vantage-point; these tow- 
ers were sometimes built for blockading purposes near castles which were likely to put 
up a long resistance. Ill 285a 

hawamim (A), or hawamimdt : a name for the suras that begin with the initials ha-mim: 
xl-xlvi. IX 887b 

hawamm wa-hasharat (A) : in biology, crawling and swarming creatures, usually also 
including mice, rats, hedgehogs, lizards and snakes. X 378b 

hawanti (A) : in Muslim Spain, a shopkeeper in the suk, as opposed to the major trader, 
tadjir. IX 789a 

hawari (A, < Eth) : apostle; a bird in Sumatra, 'smaller than a pigeon, with a white belly, 
black wings, red claws and a yellow beak', mentioned by al-Kazwini. IX 699b f. 

♦ hawariyyun (A) : a collective term denoting twelve persons who at the time of 
the 'second 'Akaba' are said to have been named by Muhammad (or those present) as 
leaders of the inhabitants of Mecca. Ill 285a 

haway : a bird, which 'speaks better than a parrot', recorded in Mozambique by al- 
Kazwini in the 13th century. Presumably a mynah bird is meant. IX 699b 

hawbar ->■ awbar; rubah 

hawd (A, pi. ahwdd, hiyad) : a cistern or artificial tank for storing water; drinking 
trough, wash-basin. Ill 286b; V 888a 

In eschatology, the ~ is the basin at which on the day of the resurrection Muhammad 
will meet his community. Ill 286a 

♦ hawd al-sabll ->■ sabIl 

♦ hawd-i sultani (IndP), or hawd-i shamsi : the first lake built outside the capital 
city of Dihli, in the 7th/13th century, as a reservoir constructed for supplying drinking 
water to the city, but used for irrigation also. V 883b 

hawda : a term used in India to designate the litter on working and processional ele- 
phants, either a long platform from which the passengers' legs hang over each side, or 
a more elaborate boxed-in structure with flat cushions which afforded more protection 
during tiger and lion hunts. The seat on the back of processional elephants has the ~ 
covered by a canopy, often jewelled, and is known as 'amdri. VII 932b 

hawdal ->■ rubah 

hawdjam ->■ ward 

hawfi (A) : a type of popular poetry peculiar to Algeria, consisting of short poems of 
between two and eight verses which are sung by girls or young women. The genre is 
more commonly called tahwlf, which means the act of singing the ~. Ill 289b; IX 234a 

hawi (A, pi. hdwiyyun, huwa) : a snake-charmer or itinerant mountebank. Ill 291a 


hawi (A) : 'pertaining to air'; in grammar, an attribute of the letter alif which accord- 
ing to Sibawayh 'has some [exhaled] air'. For al-Khalil. the alif, wdw, and yd' were 
hawd'iyya, that is to say fi 'l-hawd' 'in the air [exhaled]', which could be said to be 
slightly different. Ill 291a 

hawidjar-bashi (P) : in Safawid times, an official in charge of supervising the poultry 
yard and scullery of the royal kitchen. XII 609b 

hawin (A) : the traditional mortar used for grinding coffee and spices (syn. djurn). XII 

hawir (A) : in botany, the indigo tree, whose dye is called nil. I 540b 

hawkal (A) : a jealous, impotent old man. V 552a 

hawl (A) : in law, a one-year holding period, a condition that applies in the obligation 
of zakat. XI 408a; XI 414a; and -> tarab 

♦ hawli (A) : a foal between one and two years of age. II 785a 

♦ hawliyya (A) : a term used in the Sudan and the horn of Africa to denote a feast 
held in honour of a saint. VI 896b; 

♦ hawliyyat (A) : in literature, the genre of annals. X 298b 
hawma : a district. IX 473a 

hawra' (A, pi. hur) : white, applied in particular to the very large eye of the gazelle or 

oryx; by extension, ~ signifies a woman whose big black eyes are in contrast to their 

'whites' and to the whiteness of the skin. Ill 581b 

In eschatology, the plural hur 'houris' is used in the Qur'an for the virgins of Paradise 

promised to the believers. II 447b; III 581b 
hawsh (A) : an unroofed burial enclosure, typically Cairene. IV 429b; in mediaeval 

Islam, an enclosed area, urban or suburban, of rural aspect, a yard of beaten earth, 

where cattle or poor immigrants could be accommodated. IX 788b 
hawshab -> khuzaz 
hawt (A) : in southern Arabia, a red and black twisted cord which a woman wears round 

her hips to protect her from the evil eye. Ill 294a 

♦ hawta (A), or habat : enclave, enclosure; in southern Arabia the name given to 
a territory placed under the protection of a saint and thus considered sacred. Ill 294a 

hawun (A) : in the mediaeval kitchen, a mortar to crush e.g. spices. A similar larger 
mortar (ajdwiln) was used for pounding meat and vegetables. VI 808b; X 114b 

hawz (A, > Sp alfoz 'district'; pi. ahwdz) : in North Africa, particularly Morocco, the 
territory, suburb, environs of a large town; in Tunisia, ~ had a fiscal sense. With al-, 
~ denotes exclusively the region of Marrakesh, the Haouz, a wide embanked plain 
drained by two wadis. Ill 300b 

hay'a (A) : shape, form, state, quality; configuration; in philosophy, predisposition, dis- 
position. Ill 301a 

♦ c ilm al-hay'a (A) : in astronomy, (a branch of) astronomy, dealing with the geo- 
metrical structure of the heavens. Ill 302a; III 1135a; VIII 105b; VIII 785b 

hay'ala (A) : the shi'i formula of the call to prayer. XI 479b 

hayat (A) : life. Ill 302a 

hayawan (A) : the animal kingdom; an animal or animals in general, including man, 

who is more precisely called al-hayawdn al-ndtik. Ill 304b 
hayd (A) : menstruation; menstrual blood. A discharge which exceeds the legal duration 

fixed for the menses is called istihdda. Ill 315b; VIII 1023a 
haydar (A) : 'lion'; by-name given to 'Ali b. Abi Talib. Ill 315b 

hayderi (T) : a short dervishes' garment without sleeves, stopping at the waist. V 752a 
haydura -> farw 
hayk -> ha'ik 

haykal (A, pi. haydkil) : in mysticism, the physical world as a whole as well as the plan- 
ets. II 555a; as a Qur'anic term, an entity in the story of the Creation that encloses the 

seas which surround the heavens and the earth and is itself enveloped by the kursI. 

IV 984a 
hayladj (A), or mutakaddim : 'significator', in astronomy, the 'advancing' planet or 

place. Along with the promissor, the succeeding or second (al-thanl) planet or place, it 

is used to calculate the tasyir arc. X 366b 
haylala (A) : the formula la ildha ilia 'Hah. X 465b 
hayr (A, pi. hayardt) : the name for the Great Pearl Banks, which stretch along nearly 

the entire length of the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf. I 535b 
hayra -> tahayyur 
hays (A) : a mixture of dates, butter and milk, associated with the tribal tradition of the 

Kuraysh and said to be among the favourite dishes of the Prophet. II 1059a; X 901a; 

XII 366b 
hays -> silb 
haytham (A) : in zoology, the young eaglet, male and female (syn. darim, tuladj and 

tulad). X 783b 
haythuthiyya -> kayfufiyya 
hayula (A, < Gk) : substance, primary matter; ~ is sometimes substituted for mddda and 

sometimes distinguished from it, but frequently the two terms are considered virtually 

synonymous. II 554a; III 328a; X 530a 
hayy (A) : clan, i.e. the primary grouping in nomadic life. I 306a; III 330a; in certain 

modern dialects, a quarter in a town or settlement, in particular that inhabited by the 

same ethnic or tribal element. Ill 330b 
hayya (A) : in zoology, snake, a generic name of the ophidians, embracing all kinds of 

reptiles from the most poisonous to the most harmless. Ill 334b 
hayyak -> ha'ik 

hazadj (A) : in prosody, the name of the sixth Arabic metre. I 670a; a metre of quanti- 
tative rhythm composed of a foot of one short and three longs repeated three times, 

hence four equal feet. VIII 579a 
hazar-baf (P) : lit. thousand-weave; in architecture, a glazing tile technique, also known 

as bannd'l 'mason-like', simulating the pattern of masonry, consisting of glazed bricks 

or ends of bricks, set into a matrix of unglazed bricks to form geometric and epigraphic 

patterns to cover large surfaces. X 520a 
hazarat : millenary cycles, a theory of Indian astronomy. I 139b 
hazawwar (A) : said of a boy who has become strong, and has served, or one who has 

nearly attained the age of puberty. VIII 822a 
hazi (A, < Ar) : an observer of omens; a generic term covering different divinatory and 

magical practices. IV 421b; one who divines from the shape of the limbs or moles on 

the face. I 659b 
hazir (A) : sour milk, despised by pre-Islamic Arabs. II 1057b 
hazira : in architecture, a funerary enclosure. X 520b 

hazliyya (A) : in prosody, a satirical, slanderous and obscene poem. XI 238b 
hazm -> djabal 
hazzab (A) : a person attached to certain mosques in Algeria, who had to recite a 

defined portion of the Qur'an, hizb, twice a day so as to achieve a complete recitation 

of the Qur'an in one month. Ill 513b 
hazzura (A, pi. hazzurat, hazdzlr) : a riddle, which with story-telling and jokes, nukat 

(s. nukta), are the most common and basic forms of entertainment among the Bedouin 

and the inhabitants of rural areas around the Middle East. XII 775a 


hedje (T) : in Turkish prosody, syllabic metre, usually of 1 1 syllables divided 6-5 with 
no caesura. VIII 2b 

heello ->■ belwo 

hees -> maanso 

hekim -> hakIm 

hel (A) : cardamom, frequently used to flavor coffee. XII 775b 

herbed (P) : a Zoroastrian who knows the Avesta and has been initiated as a priest. VII 

hiba (A) : a gift, especially that from a more highly placed person to one on a lower 
level of society, in contrast to hadiyya. Ill 342b 

In law, ~ is a gift inter vivos, a transfer of the ownership of a thing during the life- 
time of the donor, and with no consideration payable by the donee. Ill 350a 
♦ hiba bi-shart al-'iwad (A) : a gift with consideration, whereby the donee under- 
takes to compensate the donor. Ill 351a 

hibala (A, pi. habdyil), or uhbula : in hunting, a snare with a draw-net. IX 98b 

hibara (A) : in early Islam, a striped garment similar to the burda and said to be the 
favourite garment of the Prophet; also, a fabric. V 734a 

hibn ->■ rubah 

hibr -► midad 

hida' (A) : in zoology, the kite. I 1152b 

hidd (A, pi. hudud) : a term in the Persian Gulf for a sand bank. I 535b 

hidja° (A) : a curse; an invective diatribe or insult in verse, an insulting poem; an epi- 
gram; a satire in prose or verse. Ill 352b; a trivial mocking verse of an erotic and 
obscene content. VIII 376b; and -» hurOf al-hidja' 

hidjab (A) : the veil. I 306b; III 359a; the curtain behind which caliphs and rulers con- 
cealed themselves from the sight of their household, also known as sitara, sitr. Ill 
360a; an amulet which renders its wearer invulnerable and ensures success for his 
enterprises. Ill 361a 

In medicine, ~ is a membrane which separates certain parts of the organism, e.g. hidjab 
al-bukuriyya 'hymen', al-hiajdb al-hdajiz or hidjab al-djawf 'diaphragm', al-hidjdb al- 
mustabtin 'pleura'. Ill 359a 

In mysticism, ~ represents everything that veils the true end, all that makes man insen- 
sitive to the Divine Reality. Ill 361a 

hidjama -»■ fassad 

hidjar -» hidjra 

hidjazi -»■ 'udhrI 

hidjr -> hisan 

hidjra (A) : the emigration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in September 622; 
the era of the ~, distinguished by the initials A.H., beginning on the first day of the 
lunar year in which that event took place, which is reckoned to coincide with 16 July 
622. Ill 366a; ~ implies not only change of residence but also the ending of ties of 
kinship and the replacement of these by new relationships. VII 356a 
In the context of Saudi Arabia, ~ (pi. hidjar) is a Bedouin settlement, many of which 
were established by c Abd al- c Aziz b. 'Abd al-Rahman Al Su'ud to promote the seden- 
tarisation of the Bedouin of Saudi Arabia during the first quarter of the 20th century. 
Ill 361b; III 1064b; IX 904b 

In Yemen, an inviolable sanctuary recognized by the tribes that are linked to it, often 
by a formal agreement, and used by them as neutral territory. XI 276b 
In law, emigration to the dar al-islam, by Muslims residing in the dar al-harb. XII 

hidjran ->■ wisal 


hidjris -> rubah; tha'lab 

hidjwiyya (T, < A) : in Turkish literature, a satirical kasida attacking an enemy or 

someone of whom the poet disapproves. IV 715b 
hikava (A) : 'imitation', hence tale, narrative, story, legend. Ill 367a; in the Fihrist, ~ 

is used in the sense of a textual copy as well as an account of the facts, equivalent to 

riwaya. Ill 368b; and -> khabar 

In the science of Tradition, ~ implies a literal quotation, a verbatim reproduction, as in 

the expression hakaytu 'anhu 'l-hadith a hikayaf". Ill 368b 

In grammar, ~ means the use in a narrative of the verbal form which would have been 

used at the time when the event narrated took place. Ill 368b 

♦ hikayat i'rab (A) : in grammar, the exact repetition of a word used by a speaker 
with a vowel of declension no longer appropriate to its function in the new context. Ill 

♦ hikayat sawt (A) : onomatopoeia. Ill 368b 
hikka (A) : a female camel in its fourth year. XI 412a 

hikma (A) : wisdom; science and philosophy. Ill 377b; IX 879b; and -> dar al-hikma 
In the Qur'an, ~ is used in several Medinan passages for the revelation or part of it. 
V 402b 

hikr (A) : in law, one of the various forms of long-term lease of wakf property, com- 
mon in Egypt and Syria. Similar forms were called djalsa, enzel, gedik, idjaratayn, 
khuluww al-intifa' and nasba. XI 67b; XII 368b 

hilal (A) : the new moon, the crescent. Ill 379a; and -> tahlIl 

hilf (A) : a covenant, compact, especially that between quite separate tribes, conducing 
to the amalgamation of these tribes; friendship, and, by extension, oath. Ill 388b 
In pre-Islamic Arabia, the ~ was an institution which merged with that of wala', the 
admission of an individual to a clan; a second type of ~ consisted of the agreement 
between the clans within one tribe through which they settled on a common line of 
conduct; a third type of ~ could also be arranged between opposing clans within one 
group, or between different groups, for the accomplishment of a particular object. Ill 

hill (A) : in law, freedom of action in sexual matters. I 27a; the unconsecrated area out- 
side of the haram of Mecca. X 864b 

hilla (A, pi. hilal) : in Saudi Arabia, a shanty town that grew up around the main urban 
centres. X 944a 

hilm (A) ; justice and moderation, forbearance and leniency, self-mastery and dignity of 
bearing, as contrasted with djahl, the fundamental characteristic of the djahiliyya, and 
safah or safaha. Ill 390b; V 435a; discretion. IX 332b 

hiltit (A) : 'devil's dirt'; the latex of the asafoetida (andjudhan) which, when exposed to 
the air, hardens into a dirty-yellow gum resin. VIII 1042b 

hima (A) : lit. protected, forbidden place; in Arabia, an expanse of ground, with some 
vegetation, access to and use of which are declared forbidden by the man or men who 
have arrogated possession of it to themselves. II 1005b; III 294b; III 393a; IV 1 143b; 
VIII 495a; IX 817a 

himala -> hirz 

himar (A) : in zoology, the donkey (fern, atan, himara). Ill 393b 

♦ himar hindi (A) : 'white donkey', a term used by al-Djahiz for the rhinoceros, 
translated from the Greek. IV 647b 

♦ himar al-wahsh (A) : in zoology, the onager. V 1228a 

himava (A) : 'protection', from the pre-Islamic period given, in return for financial com- 
pensation, by a nomadic tribe to the settled inhabitants (syn. khafara), or the protec- 
tion by a superior of the property of the inferior, from whose point of view it is called 


taldjia. The institution of ~ is almost unrecognised by Islamic law, but was in fact 

important in classical Islamic society. Ill 394a 

In the context of mediaeval Islamic taxation, a supplementary tax levied by the police 

for their services. I 1144a; II 143b; III 394b 

In politics, ~ refers to various bilateral treaty agreements, particularly those contracted 

between Great Britain and the sheikhly rulers of states on the western seaboard of the 

Persian Gulf. Ill 395a 

In North Africa, ~ has been used officially of the protection exercised by a foreign 

Christian power over certain individuals, then over states. Ill 395a 

himl (A) : lit. load, a measure of capacity used in mediaeval Egypt for great quantities 
of various commodities. The ~ was reckoned at 600 Egyptian ratls, i.e. 266 kg, but 
as far as spices were concerned it consisted of 500 rath only, i.e. 222.45 kg. VI 119b 

hinad (A) : horses thinned down for horse-racing by being covered with blankets so that 
excessive weight was sweated off. II 953a 

hinata -»■ hanut 

hind (A) : in geography, ~ denoted regions east of the Indus as well as practically all 
the countries of Southeast Asia; only when used together with sind, which referred to 
Sind, Makran, Baluchistan, portions of the Panjab and the North-West Frontier 
Province, was the whole of mediaeval India meant. Ill 404b 

hindiba' (A) : in botany, cultivated endive {Cichorium endivia), particularly widespread 
in the Muslim West and known there under its Mozarabic name sharrdliya or its ara- 
bicised form sarrdkh; in Morocco, the Berber term tifdf is mainly used. XII 370b; 
chicory, one of the Prophet's preferred vegetables. II 1058a 

hindu (A) : name given to the largest religious community of India. HI 458b 

hing -»■ ANGUZA 

hinn (A) : an inferior species of QJINN, belief in which is accepted by the Druze. XII 

hinna' (A) : in botany, henna (Lawsonia alba), the whitish flower of which was called 
fdgtiya or faghw. Ill 461a 

hinta -»■ kamh 

hinth (A) : in law, perjury. IV 687b; X 99a 

hirba' (A) : in zoology, the chameleon. The female is most often called umm hubayn, 
while the male is referred to by a number of kunyas, the most frequent in Muslim 
Spain being abu bardkish. The idea of 'chameleonism', i.e. the ability to become invis- 
ible by turning the same colour as that of any object on which it happens to be, is 
termed talawwun. II 1059b; III 463a 

hirfa -»■ sinf 

hirkul (A), or mandra : in zoology, the finback. VIII 1022b 

hirmis -»■ karkaddan 

hirr -> sinnawr 

hirz (A) : a talismanic charm (pi. ahrdz), pronounced hurz in the Maghrib today. Other 
words for 'amulet' are hidjdb in Egypt, himdla, hdfiz, 'udha, mi'w adha amongst the 
Arabs of the Mashrik, yafta, nuskha and himdla amongst the Turks, and tilism amongst 
the Persians. X 500b 

In law, safe keeping, either by the guarding by a watchman or by the nature of the 
place, e.g. a private house. IX 62b 

hisab (A) : computation; in the Qur'an, the 'reckoning' which God will require on the 
Day of Judgement, yawm al-hisab. Ill 465a 

♦ hisab al-'akd (A), or hisab al-'ukad or al-'ukud, hisab al-yad, and hisab al-kabda 
bi 'l-yad : dactylonomy, digital computation, the art of expressing numbers by the posi- 
tion of the fingers. Ill 466a 


♦ hisab al-djummal (A) : a method of recording dates by chronogram, consisting 
of grouping together, in a word or a short phrase, a group of letters whose numerical 
equivalents, added together, provide the date of a past or future event. Ill 468a 

♦ hisab al-ghubar (A) : calculation by means of dust, a Persian method which 
owes its name to the use of a small board on which the calculator spread a fine layer 
of dust in which he drew ghubar numerals. Ill 468b 

♦ hisab hawa'i -»■ hisab maftuh 

♦ hisab al-hind (A) : calculation by means of the Indian numerals. Ill 466b 

♦ hisab maftuh (A), or hisab hawa'i : mental calculation. Ill 469a 

♦ hisab al-nim (A) : a divinatory procedure based upon the process of adding the 
numerical value of all the letters forming a word (in this case a proper name), by 
which it can be predicted which of the two rulers at war will be the victor and which 
the vanquished. Ill 468b 

♦ 'ilm al-hisab (A) : arithmetic. Ill 1138a 

hisan (A) : a term used to distinguish the pure-bred stallion from the pedigree brood- 
mare, which is called hidjr, since the word for horse, faras, is not specific. II 785a; 
IV 1143b 

hisar (A) : in military science, siege. Ill 469a 

In Turkish use, a castle, fortress, citadel, stronghold, a common component of place- 
names in Turkey. Ill 483a 

♦ hisar-eri (T) : in the Ottoman empire, guards in the fortresses. X 503a 

hisba (A) : the duty of every Muslim to 'promote good and forbid evil'; the function of 
the person, muhtasib, who is effectively entrusted in a town with the application of this 
rule in the supervision of moral behaviour and more particularly of the markets. Ill 
485b; VIII 402b; religious magistrature, judgeship. I 27b 
For the Ottoman empire, -+ ihtisab 

hisn (A) : fortress, a fairly common element in place-names. Ill 498a 

hiss (A) : in philosophy, sense-perception, sometimes used with the meaning of (individ- 
ual) sense. Ill 509a 

hitr -»■ HATAR 

hiyal (A, s. hila) : artifices, devices, expedients, stratagems; the means of evading a 
thing, or of effecting an object; mechanical artifices, automata; tricks of beggars and 
conjurors, etc. Ill 510b; XII 371b 

In law, circumventions of the law. I 28a; legal devices; the use of legal means for 
extra-legal ends. I 123b; III 159b; III 511a 

In military science, ~ (with synonyms maka'id and dddb) is a technical term for 
strategems of war. Ill 510b 

hiyasa (A) : a cloth belt with a silver plaque in the centre, worn by men in the Arab 
East. V 741a; a bridal girdle. X 904a 

hiyaza -*■ kabd 

hizam (A) : a belt or sash worn about the waist by both sexes in the Arab East. V 741a 

hizb (A, pi. ahzab) : a group, faction, a group of supporters; part, portion. Ill 5 1 3a; in 
modern Arabic, a political party. Ill 514a 

In Qur'anic studies, ~ indicates a definite portion of the Qur'an which a believer binds 
himself to recite. In certain countries, e.g. Egypt and those of North Africa, the Qur'an 
is divided into 60 hizbs, which are half the length of the 30 Djuz's attested from a 
very early period. Ill 513b 

In mysticism, ~ or wird (pi. awrdd) denotes the recitation of Qur'anic verses and 
prayers composed by the founder of the order at the beginning of the dhikr session. 
II 224a; X 245a; in Egypt, ~ denotes a religious fraternity, as well as the 'office' of 
each fraternity, consisting of the above-mentioned recital during the Friday service. 


From this meaning, ~ has come to mean formulae of 'supererogatory liturgy'. Ill 513b; 
ejaculatory prayer. XI 113a 

hoca -> KHA W DJA 

hoi (Mai) : a term used in Malaysia to denote a feast held in honour of a saint. VI 896b 

horde (Eng, < T ordu) : name given to the administrative centre of great nomad 
empires, particularly also to the highly adorned tent of the ruler; then to such nomad 
confederacies themselves, insofar as they formed a tenuous association linked to no 
particular place, substantially different in their way of life and government from the 
settled population, and inflicting considerable damage on this population by their 
marauding attacks. Ill 536a 

hoz ->■ TIRA 

hubara (A), or hubara : in zoology, the bustard. I 541b; II 1058b; IX 98b 

hubus ->■ WAKF 

hubut -> tali' 

huda' (A), or hida' : the camel driver's song. II 1073a 

hudabari (P) : in the time of the TImurids, term used in conjunction with soyurghal if 
the latter was on a permanent basis and not renewed annually. IX 732a 

hudhud (A) : in zoology, the hoopoe. Ill 541b 

hudjariyya (A, < hudjra 'room') : a term used in Egypt for the slaves who were lodged 
in barracks near to the royal residence. Under the Fatimids, they were organised into 
a sort of military bodyguard. II 507a; II 1080a; III 545b 

hudjdja (A) : a Qur'anic term meaning both proof and the presentation of proof, ~ is 
applied to a conclusive argument attempting to prove what is false as well as what is 
true; dialectical proof. Ill 543 b 

In shi'i theology, the ~ refers to that person through whom the inaccessible God 
becomes accessible, and sometimes to any figure in a religious hierarchy through whom 
an inaccessible higher figure became accessible to those below. In its more specialised 
meaning, ~ referred to a particular function within the process of revelation, sometimes 
identified with the role of Salman as witness to 'All's status as imam. Ill 544b 
Among the Isma'iliyya, ~ is a rank in the hierarchy, coming under the bab. The ~ con- 
ducted the da'wa, and was one of the greater da'Is, of whom there were twelve, or 
occasionally twenty-four. Each seems to have been in charge of a district. In some 
works, the ~ is also called the lahik. I 832b; II 97b; III 544b 

Among the Nizaris, ~ was used for Hasan-i Sabbah as visible head of the movement 
when the imam was hidden; later, it developed into one ~ who alone, by divine inspi- 
ration, could fully perceive the reality of the imam; eventually the - became simply the 
imam's heir-apparent. Ill 544b 

hudjra (A) : room, apartment; with al-, especially the room of 'A'isha where the 
Prophet, Abu Bakr and 'Umar were buried, now one of the holiest places of Islam. Ill 

hudna (A) : peace agreement; truce. I 24a; III 546b 

In law, ~ is equivalent to 'international treaty', whose object is to suspend the legal 
effects of hostilities and to provide the prerequisite conditions of peace between 
Muslims and non-Muslims, without the latter's territory becoming part of the dar al- 
islam. Ill 547a 

hudud ->■ HADD 

hudur ->■ hadra 

huduth (A) : the verbal noun of hadatha, which means 'to appear, to arise, to take 
place'. Ill 548a 

♦ huduth al-'alam (A) : in philosophy, both the existence of a thing, after its non- 
existence, in a temporal extension; and contingency, i.e. the fact of a being's existing 


after not having existed, but in an ontological or essential extension, which does not 

necessarily involve time. Ill 548a 
hufra -" wak'a 
huhu > WAKWAK 
hukama' ->■ hakIm 

hukk -»■ MAGHNATlS 

♦ hukka -»■ ibra; nardjila 

hukm (A, pi. ahkam) : decision, judgement. I 257a; effect. I 318b; injunction. VIII 667a; 
and -" FARMAN 
For ~ in law, ->■ ahkam 

In philosophy, ~ means the judgement or act by which the mind affirms or denies one 
thing with regard to another, and thus unites or separates them. Ill 549a; also, sensory 
intuition, where assent of the mind immediately follows perception. Ill 549b 
In grammar, ~ means the specific activity of a word, the proper function which the 
word performs at its basic position, martaba, in which it is placed. Ill 550a 
In Ottoman Turkish, ~ is also used in the sense of a special type of order, the docu- 
ments of which were to be dealt with separately by the administration and which, at 
present, are registered in the Turkish archives as a separate archival item, ahkam 
defterleri. I 1170b 

♦ hukm-i hasil : the sharing of the harvest; one of three methods of collecting land 
revenue under the Dihli sultanate. II 273a 

♦ hukm-i misahat : the measurement of the area under cultivation and assessment 
according to a standard rate of demand per unit area according to the crop sown; one 
of three methods of collecting land revenue under the Dihli sultanate. II 273a 

♦ hukm-i mushahada : the estimating of the probable yield of the harvest; one of 
three methods of collecting land revenue under the Dihli sultanate. II 273a 

hukna (A) : in hunting, the covered-over pit-trap, also called ughwiyya, mughawwdt, 

wadjra and dafina. V 9a; IX 98b 
hukr (A) : a tax on the lands used for pasture, paid by shepherds in Morocco during the 

Marinid period. VI 573b 
hukra ->■ shawi 
hukuk -»■ HAKK 
hukuma (A) : the act or office of adjudication by a sovereign, a judge or an arbitrator. 

I 384a; III 551b 

Under the Saldjuks, and in the Ottoman period, ~ denoted the office or function of gov- 
ernorship, usually provincial or local. Ill 552a 

In the Kurdish lands, the term hukumet stood for a number of regions listed among the 

components of certain Ottoman eyalets. Ill 552a 

In modern Arabic, ~ means government, which sense seems to have been first used in 

19th-century Turkey. In Persia, hukumat still has the more general sense of political 

authority. Ill 552a 

♦ hukumat, hukumet ->■ hukuma 
hukumdar (T, A) : a governor-general. IV 686b 
hula (A) : ornaments, personal jewellery. Ill 568b 

hulalliyya : a large dark wrap wound around the body with the upper parts pulled down 
over the shoulders and secured with pins, worn in Egypt. V 741a 

hulla (A) : a word which in the mediaeval period used to refer to a suit consisting of 
two or more garments. Today, it means 'a western suit of clothes'. V 737a 

hullan (A), or hulldm : the lamb or kid born of a Caesarian section. XII 319a 

hulm -> ru'ya 


hulul (A) : the act of loosing, unfastening, untying; resolving a difficulty; in scholastic 
theology and mysticism, an infusion of substance, the incarnation of God in a creature. 
In the thought of al-Halladj, ~ means an intentional complete union (in love), in which 
the intelligence and the will of the subject are acted upon by divine grace. Ill 102b; 
III 571a,b; IV 283a 

In grammar, ~ denotes the occurrence of the accident of inflection, i'rab. Ill 571b 
In law, ~ denotes the application of a prescription. Ill 571b 

In philosophy, ~ denotes both the inhesion of an accident in an object and the substan- 
tial union of soul and body. Ill 571b 

hulwan (A) : a succession tax paid by those heirs of the tax farmers (-> multezim) who 
desired to inherit tax farms. It was one of the taxes which formed an additional source 
of revenue for the Egyptian government in the years immediately preceding the 
Napoleonic invasion of 1798. II 148b; 'douceur', 'donative'. Ill 572a 

huma (P) : in zoology, the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), the largest of the birds 
of prey in the Old World. Ill 572a 

humayun (P) ; 'fortunate, glorious, royal'; used as an epithet of the ruler, but has in 
recent years become obsolete. Ill 574a 

hummus (A) : in botany, chick peas, one of the winter crops in mediaeval Egypt. V 

humra (A) : in medicine, erysipelas. IX 9b 

hums (A) : in pre-Islamic times, the holy families serving the local sanctuaries. II 
1059a; people observing rigorous religious taboos, especially Kuraysh. and certain 
neighbouring tribes. Although ~ is the plural of ahmas 'hard, strong (in fighting or in 
religion)', one of the ~ is called ahmasi, fern, ahmasiyya. The observance of the taboos 
was called tahammus. Ill 577b 

hunbu c a ->• hanbala 

huntuz (A) : in Morocco, a headdress worn by women, triangular in shape, made of 
linen, three inches long and broad and a span high, with silk and silver, the whole 
thing looking like a camel's hump. X 612a 

hur -> hawra' 

hurda (A) : the archer in a game of maysir. VI 924a 

hurmizd -> mushtari 

hurras (A) : a guard. XII 549b 

hurriyya (A, T hurriyyet) : an abstract formation derived from hurr 'free'. In a legal 
sense, ~ denotes freedom as opposed to slavery; through mysticism, where ~ appears 
as one of the guide-posts on the mystical path, and denotes basically the freedom of 
the mystic from everything except God and the devotion to Him, ~ came to occupy a 
significant position in Muslim metaphysical speculation. Ill 589a 

huruf, hurufiyya -* harf 

huruk ->• tali 1 

hurz ->■ hirz 

husayniyya ->■ takiya 

hush (A) : the country of the DJiNN, into which no human ventures; a fabulous kind of 
camels, which are the issue of a cross between ordinary camels and dj.inn stallions. Ill 
♦ hushi ->• gharib; wahshi 

husn (A) : loveliness, excellence; and -► bayan; takhallus 

hut (A, pi. ahwdt, hltan, in dialect, hiyuta) : a term often used to designate fish in gen- 
eral, but applied primarily to very large fish and cetaceans. VIII 1020b; and -> samak 
In astronomy, al- ~ is the term for Pisces, one of the twelve zodiacal constellations. 
VII 84a 

HUT — IBAHA 275 

♦ hut al-hayd -*■ fatus 

♦ hut musa (A), or hut musa wa-yusha' : lit. the fish of Moses [and of Joshua], in 
zoology, a name for the common sole (Solea vulgaris). VIII 1020b 

♦ hut sidna sulayman (A) : lit. the fish of our master Solomon, in zoology, a name 
for the common sole (Solea vulgaris). VIII 1021a 

♦ hut sulayman (A) : lit. the fish of Solomon, in zoology, a name for the salmon. 
VIII 1023a 

♦ hut Yunus (A) : lit. the fish of Jonah, in zoology, a name for the whale. VIII 

♦ hutiyyat (A) : in zoology, the marine mammals or cetaceans. VIII 1022b 
hurra -»■ hatar 

huwa huwa (A) : lit. he is he, or it is it; in logic, ~ means what is represented as 
entirely identical; modern logicians express this equation with =. Ill 642b 
In mysticism, ~ is the state of the saint whose perfect personal unity testifies to divine 
unity in the world. Ill 642b 

huwarat (A) : in mysticism, female attendants who received the donations of the female 
devotees. X 249b 

huwayriyya -»■ wardjiyya 

huwiyya (A) : ipseity, an abstract term formed to translate the Plotinian category of 
identity, xavr6xn<;, and the Aristotelian 6v 'being', although for the latter ~ is used inter- 
changeably with anniyya and wudjud. I 514a; III 644a 
In modern Arabic, ~ means 'identity'. Ill 644a 

huwiyya (A) : the most characteristic part of the ritual surrounding the yearly occasion 
of retreat of the Demirdashiyya order, in which the head of the order, a number of 
leaders and some members form a circle turning anti-clockwise while calling hu, hu. 
XII 208b 

huwwara (A) : the whitest flour, for baking bread. V 41b 

huzuz -» HAKK 

ibadat (A, s. 'ibada) : submissive obedience to a master, and therefore religious prac- 
tice, corresponding, in law, approximately to the ritual of Muslim law. Ill 647a; 'the 
religious acts which bring the creature into contact with his creator', while its counter- 
part, mu'amalat, signifies relations between individuals. VI 467a; acts of worship. IX 

♦ ibadat-khana (IndP) : a house of worship built by the Mughal emperor Akbar 
(1542-1605) where learned men of all religions assembled to discuss theological prob- 
lems. I 317a; XII 378a 

c ibadi (A) : Christian. I 196a 

ib'adiyya -» ab'adiyya 

ibaha (A) : originally, 'making a thing apparent or manifest', hence 'making a thing 
allowable or free to him who desires it'; in law, ~ was first used with regard to those 
things which every one is permitted to use or appropriate (and -»■ mubah); in a nar- 
rower sense, ~ denotes the authorisation, given by the owner, to consume (part of) the 
produce of his property. Ill 660b 

In theology, ~ is a term that is commonly applied to antinomian teachings (or actions) 
of certain sjii'i and sufi groups, as in the accusation ibahat al-maharim 'allowing the 
forbidden'. II 136b; III 662a; VIII 146a 

♦ ibahiyya -» shuyO'iyya 


'ibara (A) : in mysticism, the 'literal language', which is unsuitable for exoteric topics, 
in contrast to the coded language of ishara. XII 753a 

ibda c (A) : absolute creation; primordial innovation; the bringing into existence with 
nothing preceding, as opposed to khalk, the bringing into existence from an existing 
thing. Ill 663b 

ibdal (A) : replacement, mutation; in grammar, a term indicating both morphological 
features involving a mutation of a phonetic character, and doublets, e.g. madaha and 
madaha, which have the same meaning but differ from each other by a single conso- 
nant. Ill 665a; VIII 836b 

ibham (A) : in literary theory, amphibology. X 395b 

ibil (A) : in zoology, the collective noun for the dromedary (camelus dromedarius) and 
the camel proper (camelus bactrianus). Ill 665b; and -> ba'Ir; djamal 

ibn (A, pi. abna') : son. Ill 669b; descendant. VIII 163a 

♦ ibn adimayn -> dalw 

♦ ibn awbar (A) : in botany, the sand truffle. Ill 670a 

♦ ibn c irs (A) : in zoology, the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). II 739b; weasel. Ill 
670a; X 224a 

♦ ibn al-khiyaratayn (A) : 'the son of the elect', a designation by shi'is to the fourth 
imam of the Twelver shi'a since, according to a tradition of the Prophet, the Kuraysh 
are the elect of the Arabs and the Persians are the elect of the non- Arabs. XI 482a 

♦ ibn ya'kub (A) : lit. the son of Jacob; in zoology, a name for the common sargo 
{Diplodus sargus). VIII 1021a 

ibra (A) : a term used in navigation denoting the needle of a compass, hukka. The rose 
of the compass was known as bayt al-ibra and consisted of a circle divided into thirty- 
two rhumbs {akhndn) which were named after prominent stars whose risings and set- 
tings were approximately on these rhumbs. VII 51b 

♦ ibrat al-ra'i, or ibrat al-rahib -> shawka 
ibra' -*■ sulh al-ibra' 

'ibra (A) : the assessed value of the revenue on an estate. Ill 1088b; IV 557a; ~ may 
have originated simply as an extension of masaha and mukasama, the average annual 
value of the crop over a number of years, usually three, assessed by whatever method, 
being taken as the basis on which the tax was calculated. The term ~ is not met with 
after the early centuries and appears to have been replaced by harz, which, in the later 
centuries, seems usually to have meant not an average calculation made on the basis 
of three or more years, but an arbitrary valuation arrived at by the tax-collector, some- 
times, but not always, after an inspection of the crop during growth or harvest time. 
IV 1031b; IV 10388a 

ibrik (A) : in art, a term used for any kind of ewer, irrespective of function or mater- 
ial, but generally a vessel for pouring water or wine. Other terms for specific kinds of 
ewers are bulbula or kubra. V 989a; XII 406a 
In music, the neck (syn. 'unk) of the 'ud. X 769b 

ibrisam -*■ harir 

ibriz (A) : in numismatics, purified gold. Other laudatory terms for coins are djayyid 
'good, excellent', khalis, khdss, safi, surah 'pure (unmixed) metal', and sahh, the 
paraph or official mark on an 'Othmanli gold coin testifying to its authenticity. X409b 

ibrizim (P) : a type of silk from Khurasan. V 329a 

ibtida' (A) : introduction, prologue; in rhetoric, the ~ is one of the three sections of the 
poem or composition which should receive particular attention and should conform to 
certain criteria of style and content. The other two sections are takhallus 'transition', 
and the intiha' 'conclusion'. Ill 1006a; III 1246a 

In law, ~ is used as a technical term in the expression ibtidd""', meaning 'per se'. I 
339a; and -> isti'naf 


ic oghlani (T), or ic agha : lit. lad of the interior; the name given to the 'adjami oghlan 
after he was appointed to the sultan's household. I 206b; Ottoman term for those boys 
and youths, at first slaves, recruits and occasionally hostages, later free-born Muslims, 
who were selected for training in the palaces in Edirne and Istanbul in order to occupy 
the higher executive offices of the state. I 394a; III 1006b 

icazetname -»■ idjaza 

'id (A, < Ar) : festival. Ill 1007a 

♦ c id al-adha (A), and 'id al-kurbdn, 'id al-nahr : the 'sacrificial festival' during the 
yearly pilgrimage on 10 Dh u '1-Hidjdja. This festival is also known as al-'ld al-kabir 
'the major festival' as opposed to al-'ld al-saghir 'the minor festival, another name for 
'Id al-fitr. Ill 1007b; XII 317a; and -»■ lebaran 

♦ 'id al-fitr (A) : the 'festival of breaking the fast' of Ramadan on 1 Shawwal. Ill 
1008a; and -»■ 'Id al-adha; lebaran 

♦ c id al-kurban -»■ 'Id al-adha 

♦ 'id al-nahr -»■ 'Id al-adha 
Ida' -»■ tadmin; wadI'a 

i'dadi (T) : 'military preparatory' schools, founded by the Ottoman sultan 'Abd al- 
Madjid I in 1845. I 75a 

idafa (A, P ezdfe, T izdfet) : in grammar, the uniting of one term with another, the deter- 
minative complement or 'construct state', by which possession, material, etc. is 
expressed. The first term is called al-muddf, the second al-muddf ilayhi. Ill 1008a; for 
Persian ezdfe, XII 441a 

idara (A) : common name in the modern Islamic languages for administration, acquir- 
ing its technical significance during the period of European influence. Ill 1010b 

idbar -»■ ikbal 

'idda (A) : in law, the duration of widowhood, or the legal period of abstention from 
sexual relations imposed on widows or divorced women, or women whose marriages 
have been annulled, providing the marriage was consummated, before remarriage. I 
28a; I 172b; III 1010b; VIII 28a; VIII 836a 

iddigham -»■ idgham 

'idgah -»■ namazgah 

idgham (A), or iddigham : in grammar, the contraction of two similar consonants in a 
geminate. Ill 1013a; assimilation. VIII 121a; VIII 344a; VIII 836b; X 73b 

idjja' -»■ shatm 

idha'a (A) : broadcasting (mudhi' 'broadcaster', midhyd' 'microphone'), inaugurated in 
the Islamic world in Turkey in 1925. Ill 1014a 

idhar -»■ lidjam 

'idhar (A), or khatt : the down of a young man. IX 313b 

idhkhir (A) : in botany, a fragrant plant used to decorate houses and tombs, but also 
used by blacksmiths. IV 819b; and -»■ khamIl 

idhn (A) : authorisation, in particular, in law, the authorisation necessary to enable cer- 
tain types of incapable persons to conclude isolated legal transactions, and the general 
authorisation to carry out commercial transactions in a normal way. Ill 1016a 
In religious law, a safe conduct given by non-Muslims to a Muslim in their territory. 
For its opposite, -»■ aman. I 429b 

idjab -»■ bay' 

idjaba (A) : 'answer-poem', a genre of Arabic poetry. VIII 805a 

idjar (A), and idjdra : in law, a contract to hire, in particular the hiring out of a ser- 
vice and of movable objects, with the exception of ships and beasts which are used for 
transportation. Ill 1017a; V 126b; XII 691b 


idjara (A) : the granting of protection to a stranger according to ancient Arab practice; 
to ask for protection is istadjdra, and the djdr (pi. djirdn) is mostly the person pro- 
tected, but may also be the protector. Ill 1017b; and -»■ Idjar; idjaza 

♦ idjaratayn (A, T idjdreteyn) : a form of long-term leasing of wakf property, com- 
mon in Anatolia and all countries formerly part of the Ottoman empire since the 16th 
or 17th century. ~ contracts involved immediate payment of a lump sum as well as 
yearly, variable, rather low rents. XII 368b; a 'double rent' agreement, whereby a rel- 
atively high entry fine was paid, in exchange for which the tenant was allowed a lease 
which his heirs might inherit. IX 542a 

i'djaz (A) : lit. the rendering incapable, powerless; since the second half of the 3rd/9th 
century, the technical term for the inimitability or uniqueness of the Qur'an in content 
and form. Ill 1018a; V 426b; IX 887a 

idjaz (A) : in rhetoric, terseness. VIII 614b; X 79a 

idjaza (A) : authorisation, licence; and -»■ rika' 

In the science of Tradition, ~ means, in the strict sense, one of the methods of receiv- 
ing the transmission of a Tradition, whereby an authorised guarantor of a text or of a 
whole book gives a person the authorisation to transmit it in his turn so that the per- 
son authorised can avail himself of this transmission. Ill 27a; III 1020b 
In law, the qualification, upon culmination of one's legal education, to teach the law 
(~ // 'l-tadrls), issue a fatwa (~ // 'l-fatwa), or both. X 80b 

In modern Persian and in Ottoman Turkish, as icazetname, the term has come into 
modern use to mean 'certificate of fitness' (to teach). Ill 1021a 

In prosody, ~ (or idjara) is used for the substitution of an unrelated letter for the rawi, 
the rhyme letter. IV 412b 

In rhetoric, ~ is used both when a poet builds some lines or even a whole poem on a 
single line or hemistich suggested by somebody else, often a ruler, and when two poets 
compose alternately a hemistich or one or more lines of the same poem. When this is 
done in the form of a contest, the term tamlit (mumdlata, imldt) is found. Ill 1022a 

idjdhab -> tahayyur 

idjhab (A) : abortion, which is prohibited after quickening (nafkh al-ruh), usually at the 
end of the fourth month. X 199a 

idjma' (A) : in law, the third, and in practice the most important, of the sources of legal 
knowledge, being the unanimous agreement of the community on a regulation imposed 
by God. Technically, ~ is the unanimous doctrine and opinion of the recognised reli- 
gious authorities at any given time. I 259b; II 182b; II 887b; III 1023a; V 239a; IX 

idjmal (A) : a summary register. IX 123b f. 

idjtihad (A) : lit. effort; in law, the use of individual reasoning; exerting oneself to form 
an opinion in a case or as to a rule of law, achieved by applying analogy to the Qur'an 
and the custom of the Prophet. The opposite is called taklTd, the unquestioning accep- 
tance of the doctrines of established schools and authorities. I 259b; III 1026a; IX 324b 

♦ idjtihad fi '1-madhhab (A) : the creative development of the law within the broad 
structures of the madhhab. X 138a 

♦ idjtihad mutlak (A) : in law, the creative act of idjtihad through which the found- 
ing imams derived from the revealed sources a systematic structure of law. X 137b 

idjtima' (A) : in astronomy, the conjunction (mean or 'true') of the sun and moon. In 
astrology, ~ is sometimes employed to refer to the conjunction of the planets, although 
kiran is preferred. IV 259a 

In human psychology, ~ is the intermediary between the faculty of desire and the active 
power, the decision which follows after a hesitation between action and no-action, as 
a result of which one of the two prevails. According to others, ~ is the desire to act 
at its maximum intensity. V 577b 


idjtiza 5 (A) : in metrics, the shortening of vowels. XI 374a 

idma 5 * shi'ar 

idmar (A) : concealing; in grammar, ~ is used in the sense of 'imply'; it is used by 
grammarians when speaking about an unexpressed grammatical element, supposedly 
existent and active (ant. izhdr). With Sibawayh, ~ refers to the personal pronoun, which 
later became ^Z-mudmar, which was preferred over al-makni, the Kufan term. HI 

In prosody, ~ has taken on a technical meaning, denoting 'the quiescence of the ta' of 
mutafa'ilun in the KamiV . I 672a; III 1028a; a case of zihaf where the second vow- 
elled letter of the foot is rendered vowelless. XI 508b 

idradj (A) : in prosody, ignoring the caesura between hemistichs (syn. tadwlr). X 79a 

idrak (A, P dar-yaftan) : sensory perception; comprehension (syn. fahm); in philosophy, 
~ implies an adaequatio rei et intellectus. The whole philosophical problem of ~ is to 
find out what this adequation is, and how and where it is achieved. Ill 1028a 

idrar (A) : pension. XI 84b 

idtirab -»■ tarab 

idtirar (A) : compulsion, coercion, as opposed to ikhtiyar, freedom of choice. 

In theology, human actions carried out under compulsion were distinguished from those 
carried out of free choice; the latter were voluntary and the results of an acquisition, 
iktisdb (-»■ kasb). With al-Ash'ari, the opposite correlatives became no longer idtirdr- 
ikhtiydr, but idtirdr-iktisdb. In later Ash'arite theology, ~ is reserved for an action that, 
of itself, cannot take place. Ill 1037b; and -► darura 

ifada (A) : a term used for the running of the pilgrims from 'Arafat on the evening of 
the 9th of Dhu '1-Hidjdja after sunset in which they trace the road by which they had 
come from Mecca. Ill 36a; along with fayd 'course made in an enthusiastic manner', 
~ is used for the other courses than sa'y. IX 97b; and -»■ tawaf al-ifada 

iflas (A) : in law, bankruptcy. V 717b 

iflat ■-► ITLAK 

c ifr -»■ KHANZUWAN 

ifrad (A) : in the context of the pilgrimage, one of three methods of performing it, con- 
sisting of making the hadjdj alone, at the prescribed time, the c umra being performed 
outside the month of the pilgrimage or simply neglected. Ill 35a; III 53b; X 865b 

ifrandj (A), or firandj : the Franks. The name was originally used of the inhabitants of 
the empire of Charlemagne, and later extended to Europeans in general. In mediaeval 
times, ~ was not normally applied to the Spanish Christians, the Slavs or the Vikings, 
but otherwise it was used fairly broadly of continental Europe and the British Isles. 
Between the 16th and the 19th centuries, - came to designate European Catholics and 
Protestants. Ill 1044a 

ifrat (A) : among the shi c is, exaggeration in religion. IX 163b 

ifrikiya (A, < L) : the eastern part of the Maghrib, whence the name adopted by some 
modern historians for Eastern Barbary. It was sometimes confused with the whole of 
the Maghrib and sometimes considered as a geographically separate region. HI 1047a 

c ifrit (A, pi. c afdrit) : an epithet expressing power, cunning and insubordination, ~ occurs 
only once in the Qur'an, in the sense of rebellious. Later, in its substantive form, it 
came to mean a class of particularly powerful chthonian forces, formidable and cun- 
ning. In the popular tales, the ~ is a djinn of enormous size, formed basically of 
smoke; it has wings, haunts ruins and lives under the ground. ~ may be used of 
humans and even animals, and then expresses cunning, ingenuity and strength. In 
Egyptian Arabic, ~ also has the meaning of the ghost or spirit of a person deceased. 
Ill 1050a; IX 406b 

ifsintin -> afsantin 

ifta' -»■ FUTYA 


iftitah (A) : in the science of diplomatic, the introduction or introductory protocol of 
documents, whose individual parts (fawatih), according to al-Kalkashandi, are the bas- 
mala, hamdala, tashahhud, salwala (tasliya), saldm, and ba'diyya (arnmd ba'du). II 
302a; and -»■ tiraz 

ighal (A) : in rhetoric, epiphrasis. V 898a; and -> mubalagha 

ighar (A) : in classical Muslim administration, both an exemption or a privilege with 
respect to taxes, and the land which was covered by this privilege. The term became 
absorbed in that of ikta' in later centuries. Ill 1051a 

♦ ighara (A) : lit. raiding; in literature, the rather archaic procedure of a famous 
poet forcing a less famous one to give up a flawless line, because the more famous 
poet has a greater right to it. XII 647a; XII 707b 

igherm -»■ agadir 

ighrab -»■ istiqhrab 

ighrikiyya -> yunan 

ightala -»■ tadabbaba 

igretileme -> isti'ara 

ihale (T) : one of three principal ways in which mining activity was organised in the 
Ottoman empire, the others being emaneten and iltizamen. ~ meant the long-term 
concessionary leasing of state lands for purposes of mining exploration to licensed indi- 
viduals or mining companies. V 974b 

iham (P) : in prosody, double entendre. IX 90b; X 395a; and -»■ tawriya 

ihata (A) : in law and theology, integral truth. V 239b 

ihaza -> ustan 

ihdath (A) : an innovation in time; the act of bringing into existence a thing that is pre- 
ceded by a time. Ill 1051a 

ihfa' (A), or djazz : moustache. The verb used in cutting the ~ is kass. IX 312a f. 

ihliladj -»■ haliladj 

ihram (A) : the state of temporary consecration of someone who is performing the pil- 
grimage, HADjDj or c umra. The entering into this holy state is accomplished by the 
statement of intention, accompanied by certain rites, and for men, by the donning of 
the ritual garment. A person in this state is called muhrim. Ill 1052b 

ihranshafa (A) : to prepare to fight (said of a cock); to begin to pay a forfeit (said of a 
man). XI 546a 

ihsa' (A) : 'enumeration'; among the Nuktawiyya sect, ~ is used to designate the process 
of how, when a being rises or descends from one level of existence to another, the 
traces of his former existence are still visible and can be discerned by the insightful. 
VIII 115a; population census. X 307b 

ihsan (A) : in Mauritania, a contract for the loan of a lactiferous animal, the hiring of 
a young camel for the purpose of following a she-camel so that she continues to give 
milk. VI 313a; and -»■ ikhlas 

ihsan -»■ muhsan 

ihtida' (A) : orientation, e.g. as given by the stars (in nightly travel). VIII 97b 

ihtikar (A) : the holding up of or speculation in foodstuffs, condemmed by Tradition. X 

ihtisab (A, T) : an official term in the administration of the Ottoman empire, its basic 
meaning being the levying of dues and taxes, both on traders and artisans and also on 
certain imports, but it came to denote the whole aggregate of functions that had 
devolved upon the muhtasib (-> hisba). Ill 489a; licenses, providing part of the rev- 
enue of the tax system of the Ottoman period. V 334a 

ihtiyat (A) : in Turkish military usage, reserve of the regular army, to be contrasted with 
the redlf (-»■ radif) 'reserve army' or militia, created in 1834. VIII 370a 
In law, prudence in legal matters, characteristic of the Shafi'i school. IX 812b 


ihya' -»■ mawat 

ika' (A) : a term denoting musical metrics or rhythm in the sense of measuring the 
quantity of notes. The early Islamic ~ can be considered as a forerunner of mediaeval 
European mensura. XII 408b 

ikab (A) : penetration from sexual intercourse. XI 510a 

ikala (A) : in law, mutuus dissensus, a mutual agreement between the parties to put an 
end to a contract. I 319b; III 1056b 

ikama (A) : the second call to the salat, pronounced by the muezzin in the mosque 
before each of the five prescribed daily saldts and that of the Friday service. I 188b; 
III 1057a; VIII 927b; XI 269b 

ikbal (A) : in astronomy, in the expression al-ikbal wa 'l-idbdr, trepidation, the pre- 
sumed oscillation of the equinoxes. XI 504a 

'ikbir (A) : the bee-glue (syn. khatm, dundj), which with wax (sham') and honey ( c asal) 
is produced by the workers ('assdldt) among the bees. VII 907a 

ikdada (A) : a white kafiyya worn in summer in the Arab East. V 741a 

ikerzi (B) : a Berber turban consisting of a white cloth wound about the head leaving 
the crown uncovered. V 746a 

ikfa' (A) : in prosody, the substitution of a cognate letter for the rhyme letter, rawi, e.g. 
nun for mint. IV 412b 

ikhawa -> khawa 

ikhlas (A) : 'dedicating, devoting or consecrating oneself to something; ~ is pre-emi- 
nently an interior virtue of the faithful Muslim, whose perfection of adherence, and wit- 
ness, to his faith is gauged by ~ and ihsan 'uprightness in good'. The opposites of ~ 
are nifdk 'hypocrisy' and shirk 'associating others, or other things, with God'. Ill 
1059b; VIII 547a 

ikhshid (P) : a title given to local Iranian rulers of Soghdia and Farghana in the pre- 
Islamic and early Islamic periods. Ill 1060b 

ikhtiladj (A) : spontaneous pulsations, tremblings or convulsions of the body, particu- 
larly the limbs, eyelids and eyebrows, which provide omens the interpretation of which 
is known as 'Urn al-ikhtilddj 'palmoscopy'. Ill 1061a; V 100b 

ikhtilaf (A) : 'difference, inconsistency'; in law, the differences of opinion among the 
authorities of law, both between schools and within each of them. Ill 1061b 

ikhtira' (A) : in literary criticism, 'original invention', as differing from crude plagiarism. 
XII 656b 

ikhtiyar (A) : choice; and -»■ idtirar 

In philosophy, ~ means free preference or choice, option, whence power of choice, free 
will. Ill 1037a; III 1062a 

In law, ~ has the meaning of opinion freely stated. Ill 1062a 

In treatises on the imama, where ~ has the meaning of choice or election, it is custom- 
ary to contrast the ahl al-ikttiydr with the ahl al-nass, the supporters of free election 
with the supporters of textual determination. Ill 1063a 
In astrology, the auspicious days. X 366b 

♦ ikhtiyarat (A) : 'hemerologies and menologies' (L. electiones); in divination, hemerol- 
ogy, an astrological procedure whose aim is to ascertain the auspicious or inauspicious 
character of the future, dealing with years, months, days and hours. Ill 1063b; VIII 

In literature, ~ is a synonym of mukhtarat 'anthologies'. Ill 1064a; VII 528b 

♦ ikhtiyariyya (T, < A) : the elite or veterans of an Ottoman guild or army unit. 
XII 409b 

ikhwan (A) : brethren; the term most commonly used for darwish in Morocco and 
Algeria. II 164a; a religious and military movement of Arab tribesmen which had its 
heyday from 1912-1930 in Arabia. Ill 1064a 


♦ ikhwaniyya (A) : in prosody, a versified letter, in which protestations of friend- 
ship are found integrated with the theme of youth and of old age. IV 1005a; IX 387a 

ikindi diwani (Ott) : in the Ottoman empire, the afternoon dIwan, held in the Grand 

Vizier's own residence to take care of lesser affairs. XI 196b 
ikla (A), or akila : in medicine, either gangrene or cancer. X 911b 
iklab (A) : in Qur'anic recitation, the 'alteration' of a letter's sound. X 73b 

♦ iklaba (A) : in modern Mecca, the ceremony held to celebrate when a boy has 
read through the whole of the Qur'an (the ceremony after the half or one-third is called 
isrdfa). IV 1113a 

iklil al-malik (A) : in botany, the melilot (Melilotus officinalis) (infrequent syn. nafal, 
hantam, shadjarat al-hubb). In Muslim Spain, ~ was known under the Romance name 
kurunllla. XII 410a 

iklim (A, < Gk) : in geography, clime, climate; region. I 658a; III 1079b; V 398a 
In administrative geography, ~ was used for province or canton, the equivalent or a 
subdivision of a kura. This usage is peculiar to Syria and Upper Mesopotamia. Ill 
1077b; V 398a; zone. IX 36b 

In al-Mas'udi, ~ is used for the Persian keshwar, which refers to the seven great king- 
doms of the world. Ill 1077b 

ikrah (A) : in law, duress, of which there are two kinds: unlawful (ikrdh ghayr mashru') 
and lawful (ikrdh bi-hakk). Only the former is recognised by the Qur'an and has legal 
effects. I 319a; XII 410b 

ikrar (A) : in law, affirmation, acknowledgement; recognition of rights. The declarant is 
called al-mukirr, the beneficiary al-makarr lahu, and the object of the recognition al- 
mukarr bihi. I 28b; III 511b; III 1078a; IX 845b 
Among the Bektashis, the ceremony of initiation. IX 168a 

iksir (A, < Gk; pi. akdsir) : originally the term for externally applied dry-powder or 
sprinkling-powder used in medicine, ~ came to be used for the elixir, the substance 
with which the alchemists believed it possible to effect the transformation of base met- 
als into precious ones. Ill 1087b 

♦ iksirin (A) : in medicine, an eye-powder. Ill 1087b 

ikta' (A) : in fiscal administration, a form of grant, often (wrongly) translated as 'fief; 
the delegation of the fiscal rights of the state over lands to the military. I 1353a; II 
508a; III 1088a; IV 975a; IV 1043b 

ikti'at (A), or i'tidjdr : the opposite of tahnlk (-* hanak), or the way the turban-cloth is 
brought under the chin. X 614b 

iktibas (A) : 'to take a live coal (kabas) or a light from another's fire', hence to seek 
knowledge; in rhetoric, ~ means to quote specific words from the Qur'an or from 
Traditions without indicating these as quoted, found both in poetry and prose. Ill 
1091b; XII 664a 

iktiran (A) : in astronomy, conjunction. VIII 105a 

iktisab -> kasb 

ikwa' (A) : in prosody, faulty rhyme. II 1073b; the change of the vowel madjra, e.g. u 
with /'. IV 412b 

il (A, T /'/; pi. Ilat) : in Turkish, empire; district over which authority is exercised, ter- 
ritory; people; peace. Ill 1092a; in the Republican period, /'/ was introduced to replace 
vilayet for province. Ill 1092b; VIII 189a 

In Persian, ~ was used of 'tribesfolk' (syn. ulus), and by the 7th/13th century had 
become current with the meaning 'submissive, obedient'. Ill 1092b 

ila' (A) : in law, an 'oath of continence', the husband swearing in the name of God not 
to have sexual relations with his wife for at least four months. When this time had 
passed without a resumption of conjugal relations, the marriage was not automatically 

broken up except in Hanafi law, the other schools allowing the wife to judge the occa- 
sion for the severance, which would take place by a repudiation that the husband would 
pronounce, or that the kadi would formulate in his place. IV 689a; VI 478a; VIII 28a 

ilaf (A) : a Qur'anic term which probably refers to economic relations entered into by 
the Kurayshis well before the advent of Islam; the lexicographers define ~ as 'pact 
guaranteeing safety, safe conduct, undertaking to protect'. Ill 1093a 

ilah (A, pi. dliha) : deity; in pre-Islamic poetry, al- ~ was an impersonal divine name 
although for Christians and monotheists, it denoted God; by frequency of usage, al- ~ 
became Allah. Ill 1093b 

♦ ilahi (A) : in Turkish literature, a genre of popular poetry of religious inspiration, 
consisting of poems sung, without instrumental accompaniment, in chorus or solo dur- 
ing certain ceremonies, and distinguished from other types of popular religious poetry 
by its melody and use in ritual. Ill 1094a; 'divine [hymn]'. VIII 2b; and -->■ ta'rIkh-i 

♦ ilahiyyat (A) : in philosophy, ~ gained currency as denoting the whole mass of 
questions concerning God. I 415a 

c ilal (A, s. 'ilia 'cause') : diseases, defects; in poetry, one of two groups of metrical devi- 
ations (the other being zihaf), ~ appear only in the last feet of the two halves of the 
lines, where they alter the rhythmic end of the line considerably, and are thus clearly 
distinct from the hashw feet. As rhythmically determined deviations, ~ do not just 
appear occasionally but have to appear regularly, always in the same form, and in the 
same position in all the lines of the poem. I 671b 

In the science of hadIth, ~, usually rendered 'hidden defects', is a main approach of 
isnad criticism; it highlights links between certain pairs of transmitters which are sub- 
ject to dispute. VIII 515a 

Hat (P) : nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes, term first used in Ilkhanid times. Early 
Islamic geographers and historians refer to these tribes by the generic term al-akrdd, 
by which they mean not necessarily people of Kurdish race but non-Arab and non- 
Turkish tent dwellers and herdsmen. Ill 1095b f. 

c ilb -»• SIDR 

ilce (T) : district. VIII 189a 

ildja' -> taldji'a 

ilhad -> mulhid 

ilham (A) : lit. to cause to swallow or gulp down; a Qur'anic term denoting God's rev- 
elation to men individually, as opposed to His revelation to men generally by messages 
sent through the prophets, wahy. Ill 1119b 

illdja (T) : 'hot spring'; a bath served by a hot spring. Other synonyms are kaplidja, 
used primarily of the baths served by thermal springs in Bursa, and bana. II20b 

ilka ->■ kishsha 

ilka' -»• tarh 

'ilia (A, pi. 'Hal) : cause. Ill 1127b; in law, explanatory principle, the raison d'etre of 
the law. V 239a ff.; and ->■ harf 'illa; sabab 

'illiyyun (A, < Heb 'elyon) : a Qur'anic term meaning both the 'place in the book where 
the deeds of the pious are listed' and 'an inscribed book'. Ill 1132b 

'ilm (A) : knowledge; the result of laborious study. Ill 1133a; and ->■ hamalat al-'ilm 

♦ 'ilm al-aktaf -> katif 

♦ c ilm al-asarir (A) : in divination, chiromancy. V 100a 

♦ 'ilm 'amali (A) : in philosophy, practical knowledge, which comprises, according 
to al-Kh w arazmi, ethics, domestic economy and politics. I 427b; in theology, the knowl- 
edge of religious obligations, complete only when these obligations are fulfilled, as opposed 
to 'ilm nazari 'the knowledge of things'. Ill 1133b 

♦ 'ilm al-'aza'im (A) : the talismanic art, consisting of calling upon djinns and 
angels for the performance of some project. IV 264b; V 100b 

♦ 'ilm al-djamal (A) : aesthetics. Ill 1134a 

♦ 'ilm al-handasa (A) : in mathematics, geometry. XII 411b 

♦ 'ilm al-kafiya (A) : rhyme theory. VIII 894a 

♦ 'ilm nazari -> c ilm amalI 

♦ c ilm shar'i (A) : revealed knowledge. I 427b 

For other expressions with 'ilm, -»■ the final component. 

♦ 'ilmiyye (T) : the body of the higher Muslim religious functionaries in the 
Ottoman empire, especially those administering justice and teaching in the religious 
colleges. Ill 1152a; X 805a 

iltibas -> sabab 

iltifat (A) : in rhetoric, apostrophe, a stylistic device. V 898a 

iltizam (A) : a form of tax-farm used in the Ottoman empire. HI 1154a; and -> 


For ~ in prosody, -> luzum ma la yalzam; tadammun 

iltizamen (T) : one of three principal ways in which mining activity was organised in 
the Ottoman empire, the others being emaneten and ihale. ~ meant the farming out 
of mining revenues to investors on a short-term contract basis. The usual term for these 
contracts in the mining context was six years. V 974b 

Ima' -»■ ishara 

'imad -> 'amId 

imala (A) : in the science of phonetics, ~ stands for inflection, a palatalisation, produced 
by a rising movement of the tongue towards the prepalatal region. Ill 1162a; the incli- 
nation of the vowel a towards i. VIII 343b 

imam (A) : leader of the official prayer rituals, the salat. From the earliest days of 
Islam, the ruler was ~ as leader in war, head of the government and leader of the com- 
mon saldt. Later, as the ruler's representatives, the governors of the provinces became 
leaders of the saldt, just as they were heads of the kharadj. They had to conduct rit- 
ual prayer, especially the Friday saldt, on which occasion they also delivered the ser- 
mon, khutba. Starting from 'Abbasid times, the office devaluated; the ~ no longer 
represented a political office, but came to belong to the personnel of the mosque. Each 
mosque regularly had one. He had to maintain order and was in general in charge of 
the divine services in the mosque. VI 674b; VIII 927b 

In religious practice, the ~ is the transveral bead of a larger size on a rosary that sep- 
arates the groups of beads. IX 741b 

In the science of the Qur'an, al-imdm is the Median standard codex. V 408a 
In mathematics, the number with which the numerator of a fraction is in relationship 
(syn. makdm, mukhradj). IV 725b 

♦ imam al-difa' (A) : among the Ibadiyya, an imam invested by the people living 
in a state of secrecy, ahl al-kitmdn, to defend them in misfortune. Ill 658a 

♦ imam-bara (U) : lit. enclosure of the imams; a term used in Muslim India for the 
buildings where the s_hi'is assemble during Muharram and recite elegies on the martyr- 
dom of Hasan and Husayn. ni 1163a 

♦ imama (A) : the imamate, 'supreme leadership' of the Muslim community. Ill 

♦ imaman (A) : in mysticism, the two assistants of the kutb, the second category 
in the hierarchy of the saints. I 95a 

♦ imamzada (P) : the designation for both the descendant of a shl'I imam and the 
shrine of such a person. Ill 1169b 


'imama (A, pi. 'amd'im) : in Arab dress, the cloth wound round the cap, which term 
came to be used also for the whole headdress. In Algiers, it was pronounced 'amatna 
and was there an unwound turban, often given as a present to the wali of the woman 
one wished to marry. X 608b; X 611b; X 612b 

iman (A) : in theology, faith (in God). Ill 1170b; IV 171b ff. 

'imara -»■ dhikr 

♦ 'imaret (T, < A 'imam 'foundation') : soup kitchen, erected as a public conve- 
nience in Ottoman times. IV 1152a; V 333b; XI 88b; an oven. X 533a 

imazighan (B, s. amazigh) : 'proud ones' or 'proud ones of the West', the term the 
Berbers use to call themselves. X 644a; and ->■ imghad 

imda (T), or tewki'-i kadi : in Turkish diplomatic, the legal formula which was usually 
placed on the right side close to the first lines of the text of a copy stating (usually in 
Arabic) the conformity of the copy with the original. II 315b; and ->■ penCe 

imghad (Touareg) : in the Touareg strongly-classed society, vassals who have had to 
accept the supremacy of the nobles, imazhdghan, who are the uppermost class. Between 
the nobles and the vassals, although almost equal to the latter, are the maraboutic tribes 
who by virtue of their religious status do not participate in warfare and depend on the 
nobles for their defence. In the fourth place come the artisans, traditionally called 
blacksmiths (inadan) and the lowest-ranking of all are the negro slaves (eklan), owned 
by all four of the above-mentioned castes. X 379a 

imlat ->■ idjaza 

'imma (A) : properly, the style or form of winding the turban, then the turban itself. X 

immar, immara ->■ sakhla 

imsak (A) : in religious law, abstinence, e.g. from things which break the fast. IX 94b; 
and -»• IMSAKIYYA 

♦ imsakiyya (A) : modern religious time tables distributed for the whole month of 
Ramadan. They indicate in addition to the times of prayer, the time of the early morn- 
ing meal, suhur, and the time before daybreak (called the imsak) when the fast should 
begin. VII 30b 

imtilakh, -»• iojisa 5 

imtiyazat (A) : commercial privileges, (Ottoman) capitulations granted to non-Muslims 
living outside the dar al-islam. Ill 1178b 

imzad (B) : hair, fur; ~ denotes a musical instrument once in use among the Touareg 
noblewomen, generally compared to a violin, but held by the player on her thighs as 
she sat low down, just above the ground, with her legs tucked back. Ill 1195b 

in sha 5 allah ->■ istiihna' 

'ina ->■ bay' al-'Ina 

inadan -»• imghad 

inak (T) : a title which existed in various Turkic and Mongol states, belonging to the 
close retinue of the ruler. XII 419a 

in'am (A) : lit. favour, beneficence; applied more specifically to donatives, largesse, 
given to troops. Ill 1200b; VIII 398b 
In Persia, ~ was a present, usually of money, given from superiors to inferiors. Ill 347b 

'inan (A) : in law, ~ is best rendered as a limited investment partnership in which rela- 
tions between the partners are based on mutual agency alone and not mutual surety- 
ship; one of the two classes of commercial partnership among the Hanafis, the other 
being mufawada. VII 310a; sharikat 'inan means partnership in traffic, contracted 
when each party contributes capital. IX 348b; and ->■ lidjam 

♦ dhu'l-'inan (A) : in astronomy, the constellation of the Waggoner, also known as 
mumsik al-a'inna. XI 458a 


i'nat -»■ luzum ma la yalzam 

'inaya (A) : providence. Ill 1203a 

In c Abd al-Razzak al-Kashani's mystical thought, ~ covers kada' and kadar both, just 
as they contain everything that is actual; it is the divine knowledge, embracing every- 
thing as it is, universally and absolutely. I 90a 

In mysticism, ~ is used with the more precise meaning of divine 'benefaction' or of a 
'gift granted' by God. Ill 1203a 

in'az ->■ intishar 

indjil (A, < Gk) : gospel; in the Qur'an, ~ is used to refer to the Revelation transmitted 
by Jesus as well as the scripture possessed and read by the Christian contemporaries 
of Muhammad, i.e. the four Gospels; in current usage extended to mean the whole of 
the New Testament. Ill 1205a 

indju (Mon) : under the Mongols, royal estates granted as apanages to the Great Khan's 
relatives. Gradually the concept of ~ land became assimilated to existing concepts of 
crown lands and came to signify land over which the ruler had full rights of disposal 
and which he granted on a heriditary title to his family and others. Whether the 
grantees then had full rights of disposal themselves is not clear. Ill 1208a; IV 975b 

infaha (A) : rennet used to make cheese. XII 318b 

infak (A) : a type of olive oil made from green unripe olives. XI 486a 

infisakh -> faskh 

infitah (A) : lit. opening, in particular the 'Opening' of Egypt under Sadat to Western 
investment and expertise, to oil country investment, and to the previously-marginalised 
private sector of the country. XII 626a 

inhiraf (A) : in the moral sense, deviation. XI 567b; and -> samt 

inhisar (T, < A), and hasir : monopolies and restrictive practices of Ottoman guilds, the 
full term being inhisdr-i bey'i ve shird. These monopolies included restrictions concern- 
ing the number or kind of people allowed to perform a trade or profession, as well as 
limitations imposed on production or on commerce. XII 421a 

ini lit. younger brother (pi. iniyydt), term for the younger mamluk. X 7b 

inkar (A) : in law, denial, as when a person who is summoned by law to acknowledge 
a debt denies that he owes it. The transaction which puts an end to the legal conflict 
is called sulh 'aid inkar. Ill 1236b; IX 845b; and -»■ nahy 

inkilab, inkilap -> shaghaba; thawra 

insaf (A) : equity; in poetry, a genre, or at least a theme, also called ash'dr al-nasaf or 
ash'dr munsifa, indicating verses in which the poets praise the fervour and the valour 
in war of the rival clan and acknowledge that victory has been hard-won. Ill 1236b 
In ethics, ~ came to mean impartiality, objectivity, integrity, in short a complete ethi- 
cal code for the activity of the man of learning; also, a method of argument in which, 
instead of immediately asserting the inferiority or error of that which is being attacked 
in comparison with that being defended, both are placed on a fictitious equal footing 
although it is granted that one or the other is inferior or wrong. Ill 1237a 

insan (A) : man. Ill 1237a 

♦ al-insan al-kamil (A) : in mysticism, the concept of the Perfect Man. I 117b; III 

insha' (A) : the composition of letters, documents or state papers; later, a form of liter- 
ature in which were included style-books for chancery scribes, copy-books and letter 
manuals. II 306b; III 1241b; VIII 749b; and -> munsh! 

insi (A) : the part of the point of the nib of a reed-pen to the left of the incision, called 
thus, 'human', because it is turned towards the writer. IV 471a 

intidab -»■ mandates 

intadat (al-sinn) -»■ itothaghara 

intiha' ->■ ibtida' 

intihal (A) : in literary criticism, the ascription of others' verses to oneself. XII 707b 

intihar (A) : suicide. In Tradition literature, ~ is used to designate suicide by piercing 

or cutting one's throat. Ill 1246b 
intikal ->■ tanasukh 
intikal-i 'adi (T) : in the Ottoman empire before the llth/16th century, tapu land that 

was passed to sons and brothers. X 209b 
intishar (A) : in medicine, the erection of the penis (syn. in'dz), functional problems of 

which are generally known by the term istirkhd' al-kadib, paralysis or slackening of 

the penis. XII 641a 
inzal ->■ enzel; sahib al-inzal 
'ir ->■ KARWAN 
i'rab (A) : a technical term in grammar, sometimes translated as inflexion; however, 

there is no adequate term directly to translate ~. By ~ Arab grammarians denoted the 

use of the three short vowels at the end of the singular noun. I 569b; III 1248b 
irad-i djedid ->■ nizam-i djedid 
irada (A) : 'willingness'; in mysticism, a choice of affiliation with an order, whereby the 

aspirant (murid) puts himself under total obedience to a master who takes charge of 

his spiritual education. X 245b 

♦ irade (T) : lit. will; a term adopted in Ottoman official usage from 1832 to des- 
ignate decrees and orders issued in the name of the sultan. Later, under the constitu- 
tion, the sultan's function was limited to giving his assent to the decisions of the government 
and ~ remained in use for this assent. Ill 1250a 

'irafa (A) : in divination, the knowledge of things unseen or of things to come, on the 
basis of things visible or present. IV 421b; V 100b 

In administrative terminology, a unit headed by an 'arIf. I 629a; a small group of 
tribesmen massed together for the purpose of the distribution of the stipends. XI 520b 

'irak ->■ shashmakom 

♦ 'irak 'adjami (A) : from the late mediaeval period on, ~ indicated Iranian Media 
(called al-djibal by the ancient geographers), to distinguish it from 'irak 'arabl, 'Irak 
proper. I 206b 

♦ 'irakiyya (A), or 'irakya : a kind of reed-pipe which may have been the forerun- 
ner of the European rackett. It has a cylindrical pipe and is played with a double reed. 
VII 208a 

iram (A) : in geography, a pile of stones erected as a way-mark. Ill 1270a 

'irar (A) : the cry of the male ostrich, which has a different tone than that of the female, 
zimar. VII 829a 

c ird (A, pi. a' rod) : a term corresponding approximately to the idea of honour, but some- 
what ambiguous and imprecise; a strong army; a valley covered with palm trees. At 
the present day, ~ has become restricted to the woman and her virtue. IV 77a; VI 475a; 
among the Bedouin, a man's ~ is pledged when he extends his protection, e.g. to a 
guest, a protege or when he acts as a travelling companion. In this context, ~ or the 
protection to which the protector pledges his ~ is often referred to in North Africa as 
wadjh. X 890a 

In Tradition literature and poetry, ~ also has the meaning of the body of animals, or 
even of men; the parts of the body which sweat; the smell of a man or a woman. IV 

irdabb (A) : a measure of capacity for grain. Originally a Persian measure, the ~ was 
used in Egypt for a long time under the Ptolemies and the Byzantines, and is still in 
use today. The actual weight of the ~ varied depending on time and place. VI 1 19a 


irdaf (A) : in rhetoric, a term denoting implication, e.g. tawll al-nidjdd 'with long cross- 
belt', meaning 'tall in stature', because the one cannot go without the other. V 117a 

'irk (A, pi. 'uruk) : vein; root; race, stock. IV 78b 

In Tradition literature, ~ is found with the indiscriminate sense of artery and vein, 
blood; certain anomalies of birth. IV 78b 

In geography, ~ is used to describe the form masses of sand can take in Saudi Arabia. 
I 537a; in sub-Saharan Africa, ~ (Eng erg) designates great stretches of dunes, clothed 
with a herbaceous vegetation which stabilises the sands. VIII 837a 

♦ 'irk al-hayya (A) : 'serpent's root', a root of the melilot introduced from Syria 
into the Arab West and used there as an antidote against poisonous snakebites. XII 

♦ 'irk ('uruk) al-lu'lu' (A) : 'the veins of the pearl', designation for the mother-of- 
pearl. VIII 707a 

irsad (A) : in law, the use of public funds, excluding a private involvement in the trans- 
action, to sustain public or philanthropic services. XI 64b; XII 826a 
irsal (A) : the legislative function of prophecy. IX 812b; and -»• kabd 

♦ irsaliyye (T), or mdl-i irsdliyye : an Ottoman financial term applied to the annual 
'remittances' of cash and kind sent to the personal treasury of the sultan in Istanbul by 
the holders of the non-feudal sandjaks as well as by the governors of the non-feudal 
Arab provinces. The latter consisted of the balance left in each provincial treasury after 
the provincial expenditures and governor's salary were paid. IV 79b 

irti'ash (A) : in medicine, trembling. V 89b 

irtidad -»■ murtadd 

irtidja' -»■ radj'iyya 

irtidjal (A) : in pre- and early Islam, the improvising, extemporising of a poem or a 
speech. A synonym is badiha, with the slight difference being that in the case of 
badlha, the poet allows himself a few moments of thought. IV 80b 

iryala -»• riyala 

'isab -»• lidjam 

♦ 'isaba (A, pi. 'asd'ib), also c asb[a] : a headband worn by women in the Arab 
East. V 741a; among the Mamluks, the double camel hump-like erection on the turtur 
worn by men or women. X 611b; the cross or long bar in the Mamluk coat of arms. 
X 611a; under the Ayyubids and Mamluks in Egypt, the 'asd'ib sultdniyya were the 
flags of the sultan in the public processions, for the flags enveloped the head of the 
lance like a turban. X 612b; and -»• saff 

'isawiyya (A) : in Morocco, a simple, wide tunic consisting of a hole in the centre for 
the head and one at each side for the arms, made of striped wool and worn by men; 
also, a very ample blouse of strong cotton worn over other clothing. V 746a 

isba' (A), or asba' : in anatomy, the finger; as a measurement of length, ~ is the breadth 
of the middle joint of the middle finger, conventionally 1/24 of the cubit, dhira'. IV 
96b; a fingerbreadth and subdivision of the kabda, which is made up of four ~. II 232a 
In Arab navigational texts, ~ is the unit of measurement of star altitude. It was con- 
sidered to be the angle subtended by the width of a finger held at arm's length against 
the horizon. IV 96b 

In astronomy, ~ or isba' al-kusuf refers to the twelve equal parts, called fingers, which 
divided the diameter of the sun or of the moon in order to obtain a standard for mea- 
suring the amount of an eclipse. In the West one spoke of 'digits'. V 537a 
In music, ~ denotes the tonal mode; the rhythmic mode is called darb. II 1074a 

isbahbadh -»• ispahbadh 

isbahsalar -»• ispahsalar 


isbitariyya ->• dawiyya 

isfadruh ->• safr 

isfahsalar -> ispahsalar 

isfanakhiyya a spinach and meat dish. X 31b 

isfidruy ->• safr 

isfirni (A, < Gk Sphyraena), or safarna, safarndya : in zoology, the spet or barracuda. 

VIII 1021a 
'isha' (A) : evening or beginning of the night; a variant name given to the saldt al- 

maghrib. VII 26b 

♦ salat al-'isha 5 (A) : the evening prayer which is to be performed, according to the 
law books, from the last term mentioned for the saldt al-maghrib (-*• maghrib) till 
when a third, or half of the night has passed, or till daybreak. VII 27b; VIII 928b 

ishan (P) : in mysticism, ~ was formerly used in Central Asia in the sense of shaykh 

or murshid, teacher or guide, in contrast to murid, disciple or pupil. Since the very 

existence of ishdns was strongly disapproved of by the Soviet and Chinese authorities, 

the term is now obsolescent, if not obsolete. IV 113a 
ish'ar (A) : in pre-Islamic times, the custom of making an incision in the side of the 

hump of the camel marked for the sacrifice during the pilgrimage and letting blood 

flow from it. Ill 32b 
ishara (A) : gesture, sign, indication; in rhetoric, ~ acquired the technical meaning of 

allusion. IV 113b 

In mysticism, ~ is the esoteric language of the inexpressible mystical experience. IV 

114b; XII 752b; symbolic expression. VIII 139b; a silent gesture or sign (syn. lmd\ 

rami). VIII 428b 

For ~ in grammar, -> ism al-ishara 
isjiba' (A) : in metrics, one of the six vowels of the rhyme, to wit, the vowel of the 

dakhIl. IV 412a; the lengthening of vowels. XI 374a 

In poetry, the lengthening of short syllables, and the shortening of long syllables, espe- 
cially in end position. VII 811a 

In mineralogy, uniform, intense and deeply saturated colour (of a gem). XI 263a 
ishdad (A) : a woven, woollen belt, worn by both sexes in the Arab East. V 741a 
ishik-akasi (P) : a Safawid administrative term meaning 'usher'. The ~ was a minor 

court official who operated in two different branches of the administrative system, 

namely, the dIwan and the haram. IV 118b 
'ishk (A) : love, passion; the irresistable desire to obtain possession of a loved object or 

being. Ill 103a; IV 118b; X 776a 
ishkil (A) : in botany, the sea onion, a plant whose leaves are wide and thick, bent back, 

covered with a sticky liquid and whose ends are thorny. VIII 687b 
ishraf ->• tali' 
ishrak (A) : illumination; the name given to illuminative Wisdom, advocated by Shihab 

al-Din Suhrawardi. IV 119b 

♦ ishrakiyyun (A) : adepts of Shihab al-Din Suhrawardi's illuminative Wisdom, 
ishrak, used first, however, in a text by Ibn Wahshiyya in the 4th/10th century to 
denote followers of a hermetic tradition who had received some illumination which had 
placed their works above those of the Peripatetics, masha'iyya. The term can be applied 
without hesitation, however, to all of Suhrawardi's followers, who still exist in Iran 
today. IV 120b 

ishtikak (A) : in grammar, translated approximately as etymology or derivation by 
means of analogy, kiyas. In its general sense, ~ signifies 'taking one word from 
another', under certain denned conditions. IV 122a; IX 528a 


ishtirakiyya (A) : socialism. The word seems to have been first used in this sense in 
19th-century Turkish, but fell into disuse, and was replaced by sosyalist. Adopted in 
Arabic, it soon gained universal currency in the Arab lands. IV 123b 

ishuruni -> lashon 

iskaf (A, pi. asakifa), or iskafi : a shoemaker, who like other artisans who worked with 
leather, had a low social status in pre-modern times because his work was regarded as 
unclean. XII 463a 

iskan (A) : lit. coming into a peaceful state, settlement, the allocation of living quarters 
as space; in modern usage, 'sedentarisation' as a stage after a migratory or nomadic 
existence. XII 463b 

iskat (A) : in law, relinquishment, specifically of a right, divided into true relinquish- 
ment (~ mahd) and quasi-relinquishment (~ ghayr mahd). XII 466a 

iskemle (T) : stool. 

♦ iskemle aghasi (T), or iskemledjiler bashi : in Ottoman court life, an officer cho- 
sen from among the oldest grooms, whose duty was to carry a stool plated with silver 
which the sultan used in mounting his horse, when he did not prefer the assistance of 
a mute who went on his hands and knees on the ground. VIII 530b 

iskumri (A, < Gk Scomber) : in zoology, the mackerel. VIII 1021a 
islah (A) : reform, reformism; in modern Arabic, ~ is used for 'reform' in the general 
sense; in contemporary Islamic literature it denotes more specifically orthodox 
reformism of the type that emerges in the doctrinal teachings of Muhammad 'Abduh, 
in the writings of Rashid Rida, and in the numerous Muslim authors who are 
influenced by these two and, like them, consider themselves disciples of the Salafiyya. 
IV 141a 
islam (A) : submission, total surrender (to God). IV 171b 

In European languages, it has become customary to speak of Islam to denote the whole 
body of Muslim peoples, countries, and states, in their socio-cultural or political as well 
as their religious sphere. Modern Arabic often uses al-islam in a similar sense. IV 173b 

♦ islami ->• aslamI; Muslim 

ism (A, pi. asmd'), also c alam, ism 'alam : name; in Arabic-Islamic usage the full name 
of a person is usually made up of the following elements: the kunya, usually a name 
compound with abu 'father of, or umm 'mother of; the ~ ; the nasab, or pedigree, a 
list of ancestors, each being introduced by the word ibn 'son of (the second name of 
the series is preceded by bint 'daughter of, if the first name is that of a woman); and 
the nisba, an adjective ending in i, formed originally from the name of the individual's 
tribe or clan, then from his place of birth, origin or residence, sometimes from a school 
of law or sect, and occasionally from a trade or profession. A certain number of per- 
sons are also known by a nickname, lakab, or a pejorative sobriquet, nabaz, which 
when the name is stated in full, comes after the nisba. IV 179a 
In grammar, ~ is the technical term used to signify the noun. IV 181b 

♦ ism c ayn (A) : in grammar, the term used for a word denoting a concrete individ- 
ual, as opposed to an ism ajins, a generic word. I 785a 

♦ ism djins -> ism c ayn 

♦ ism al-fi'l (A) : in grammar, the nominal verb. IX 528a 

♦ ism al-ishara (A), or al-ism al-mubham : in grammar, the demonstrative noun. IX 

♦ ism mawsul (A) : in grammar, a relative noun. IX 528a 

♦ al-asma' al-husna (A) : lit. the most beautiful names, being the 99 names of 
God. I 714a 

'isma (A) : in theology, a term meaning immunity from error and sin, attributed by 
sunnis to the prophets and by shi'is also to the imams. IV 182b; IX 423a; ~ denotes 


also infallibility, in sunnism in respect of the community and in shPism in respect of 
the imams. IV 184a; VIII 95a 

ismakiyya (A) : systematic ichthyology. VIII 1020b 

isnad (A) : in the science of Tradition, the chain of authorities (syn. sanad) going back 
to the source of the Tradition, an essential part of the transmission of a Tradition. Ill 
24a; IV 207a; VIII 514b 

In grammar, ~ denotes the relationship between the musnad 'that which is supported 
by (the subject)', and the musnad ilayhi 'that which supports (the subject)', the rela- 
tionship of attribution or predication. IV 895b; VII 705a 

In the science of diplomatic, ~ means the decisive words an yu'hada ilayhi, etc. in let- 
ters of appointment. II 302a 

♦ isnad c ali (A) : lit. a high isnad, when there are very few links between the trans- 
mitter and the Prophet, or between him and a certain authority. Such a Tradition, the 
quality of which is known as 'uluww, is considered a valuable type on the ground that 
the fewer the links, the fewer the possible chances of error. Ill 26a; IX 607b 

♦ isnad nazil (A) : lit. a low isnad, when there are many links between the trans- 
mitter and the Prophet, or between him and a certain authority. The quality of such 
Traditions is called nuzul. Ill 26a 

ispahbadh (P, A isbahbadh) : army chief; the Islamic form of a military title used in 
the pre-Islamic Persian empires and surviving in the Caspian provinces of Persia down 
to the Mongol invasions. IV 207a 

ispahsalar (P, A isbahsalar, isfahsalar), and sipahsalar : army commander; the title 
given to commanders-in-chief and general officers in the armies of many states of the 
central and eastern mediaeval Islamic world. II 210b; IV 208a; VIII 769b; VIII 924a; 
in Muslim India, governor or viceroy. IX 738b 

ispendje (T, < SI yupanitsa), or ispenie : the Ottoman name of a poll tax levied on adult 
non-Muslim subjects and amounting usually to 25 akCes a year. Originally, ~ was a 
feudal peasant household tax in the pre-Ottoman Balkans; it extended into eastern 
Anatolia from 1540 onwards. II 146b; IV 211a; VIII 487a 

isra' -»• mPradj 

israfa -»• iklaba 

isra'iliyyat (A) : a term covering three kinds of narratives: those regarded as historical, 
which served to complement the often summary information provided by the Qur'an in 
respect of the personages in the Bible, particularly the prophets; edifying narratives 
placed within the chronological (but entirely undefined) framework of 'the period of 
the (ancient) Israelites'; and fables belonging to folklore, allegedly (but sometimes 
actually) borrowed from Jewish sources. IV 211b 

ist (A) : in anatomy, the arm. XII 830b 

istabl (A, < Gk; pi. istabldt, rarely asdbil) : stable, i.e. the building in which mounts 
and baggage animals are kept tethered; the actual stock of such animals belonging to 
one single owner. IV 213b 

istakhr (P) : a small cistern, used to irrigate the land in mediaeval Persia. V 869b 

istam (A) : in the mediaeval kitchen, a utensil used for stirring. Another utensil for the 
same purpose was the kasba fdrisiyya. VI 808b 

istar (A) : a weight in the apothecary's or troy system, taken over from the Greeks and 
usually estimated according to two different scales. On the one hand are the equations: 
1 istar - 6 dirham and 2 ddnak - 4 miihkal (an apothecary's stater); on the other, 
1 istar = 6 ] / 2 dirham = 4 ] / 2 mithkdl (commercial - in the East). IV 248b 

istPadha (A) : the practice for protecting oneself from the evil influence of Satan, by 
pronouncing a'udhu bi 'lldhi min al-shaytdn al-radjim. IX 408b 

istPana -»• tadmIn 


istiara (A, T igretileme) : in rhetoric, the term commonly used in the sense of 
metaphor. In the early period, ~ is used occasionally in the sense of 'borrowing of a 
theme by one author from another'. IV 248b; XII 650a; in Turkish literature, ~ is a 
class of trope in which the comparative elements of the relationship between objects 
are stressed in various degrees. V 1028a 

♦ isti'ara-i makniyya (Ott, mod.T kapah igretileme) ; in Turkish literature, an 
implicit metaphor, in which the comparison is achieved by reference to an attribute of 
an object without mentioning the object itself, 'a cool stream sang lullabies' . V 1028a 

♦ isti'ara-i musarraha (Ott, mod.T ag ik igretileme) : in Turkish literature, an explicit 
metaphor, in which the comparison is achieved by direct reference to an object, 'our 
lions are off to the battlefield'. V 1028a 

♦ isti'ara takhyiliyya (A) : in rhetoric, a specific type of metaphor, characterised by 
the lack of a substratum, as in 'the claws of Death', where the metaphor 'claws' is not 
tied by an underlying simile to a part of death since death does not have any part that 
could be likened to claws. X 129b 

istibda' (A) : a form of intercourse forbidden by the Prophet, consisting of a man who, 
fearing that he himself could not sire a robust offspring, placed his wife in the hands 
of a better progenitor. XII 133a 

istibdad (A) : absolutism. I 64a; XI 569b 

istibdal (A) : in law, dation in payment. XII 207b 

In wakf administration, a case in which the wakf administrator is authorised to divest 
the foundation of properties which are no longer useful and to acquire others in their 
stead. IX 542a; XI 62b ff. 

istibra' (A) : confirmation of emptiness; in law, ~ is a) the temporary abstention from 
sexual relations with an unmarried female slave, in order to verify that she is not preg- 
nant, on the occasion of her transfer to a new master or a change in her circumstances; 
and b) an action of the left hand designed to empty completely the urethra, before the 
cleaning of the orifices which must follow satisfaction of the natural needs. I 28a; I 
1027a; IV 252b 

istidlal (A) : in logic, proof by circumstantial evidence. VII 1051a 
In law, inductive reasoning. I 1326b; V 238b 
In theology, inference. I 410b 
In linguistic analysis, argumentation. VIII 894a 
In rhetoric, demonstration. V 898a 

istifa 3 (A) : in law, taking possession of goods (syn. kabd). X 467a 

istifham (A) : in grammar, interrogation, indicated simply by the intonation of the sen- 
tence or by two interrogative particles. IV 255a 

istighlal -+ QHARUKA 

istighrab (A) : in rhetoric, with ighrdb, the concept of 'evoking wonder', related to 
'feigned amazement' or tXadjdJUB. X 4a 

istishab al-hal (A) : in law, a presumption of continuity, a source of law that was 
accepted by al-Ghazali. X 932a 

istihada -* hayd 

istihdad (A) : shaving the pubis, 'ana. The syn. halk is used for shaving the buttocks 
(halkat al-dubur). IX 312b 

istihdar (A) : the invocation of djinns and angels and making them perceptible to the 
senses; spiritism. IV 264b; V 100b; and -* istikhdam 

istihkak (A) : in eschatology, 'merit' which, in Mu'tazili thinking, is attached to human 
deeds, bringing reward. Ill 465b 

In literary criticism, 'greater claim', one of the three ways a poet can avoid the charge 
of plagiarism. XII 708b 


istihsan (A) : in law, arbitrary personal opinion. I 730a; a method of finding the law 
which for any reason is contradictory to the usual kiyas, reasoning by analogy. Ill 
1237a; IV 255b; juristic preference. IX 324b 

istikama -> tali' 

istikbal (A) : in astronomy, the opposition of sun and moon, that is, the situation 
wherein their elongation from each other amounts to 180 degrees. IV 259a 
In astrology, ~ is sometimes employed to refer to the diametric aspect of the planets, 
although in general mukabala is preferred. IV 259a 

istikhara (A) : the concept which consists of entrusting God with the choice between 
two or more possible options, either through piety and submission to His will, or else 
through inability to decide oneself, on account of not knowing which choice is the most 
advantageous one. The divine voice expresses itself either by means of a dream or by 
rhapsodomancy, kur'a. IV 259b 

In literary texts, ~ is merely a pious formula for a request to God for aid and advice, 
with no ritual character. IV 260a 

istikhbar -> taksim 

istikhdam (A) : making a spirit do a certain thing, one of three procedures of spiritism. 
The other two are istinzdl 'making a spirit descend in the form of a phantom' and 
istihddr 'making a spirit descend into a body'. IX 570b; and -»■ tawriya 

istikhfaf (A) : in law, blasphemy. VII 248a 

istikjjradj (A) : in classical Muslim administration, the amount actually received, as 
opposed to the estimate, asl. II 78b; extracting money by force or violence. VII 724a 

istiklal (A) : separate, detached, unrestricted, not shared, or sometimes even arbitrary; in 
Ottoman official usage, ~ acquired the meaning of unlimited powers, e.g. in the terms 
of appointment of a provincial governor or military commander. In both Turkish and 
Arabic in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, ~ is commonly used in the sense of 
the independence of the holder of power from the restraints by either subjects or 
suzerain. IV 260b 

During the same period, under the influence of European political thought and practice, 
~ began to acquire the modern meaning of political sovereignty for a country or nation 
and, in Arabic, became primarily associated with the national independence movements 
among the Arabs. IV 260b 

istikrar (A) : in classical Muslim administration, an inventory of the army supplies 
remaining in hand after issues and payments have been made. II 79a 

istiksam (A) : in divination, belomancy, consultation of the throw of darts, three types 
of which were practised by the ancient Arabs. IV 263b; V 101a 

istil (A) : in mediaeval 'Irak, a vagabond who pretends to be blind for begging purposes. 
VII 494a 

isti'laf (A) : (gracious) remission. XI 75b 

istilah (A, pi. istildhdt) : in the works of early grammarians, in the discussion on lan- 
guage, ~ was used in the sense of a social institution tacitly accepted by its users; when 
opposed to asl al-lugha 'language', ~ denoted metalanguage. V 805b; Arabic words or 
caiques from the Greek which have assumed a technical meaning. II 765b; IV 696b 

istilhak (A), also di'wa : in law, the affiliation of an illegitimate child, as occurred in 
44/665 when Ziyad b. Abihi was officially recognised as the son of Abu Sufyan. XI 
520a; XII 475a 

istimalet (T, < A) : conciliation; an Ottoman policy in the conquered lands. X 505a 

isti'mar (A) : colonisation. XII 722b 

istimna' (A) : masturbation. IX 566a 

istimtar -> istiska' 


istinaf (A) : lit. recommencement, renewal; in law, in modern Arabic, appeal; in clas- 
sical law, ~ is used with its sense of recommencement with regard to the c ibadat, the 
religious duties, especially prayer, i.e. when the entire prayer, which has been inter- 
rupted by the occurrence of a ritual impurity, has to be begun again. In Maliki law, ~ 
is called ibtidd'. IV 264a 

istinbat (A) : in law, deduction (syn. istikhrddi al-hakk). V 238b 

istindja' (A) : in law, the purification incumbent upon the Muslim after the fulfilment 
of his natural needs. IV 264b 

istinshak (A) : in law, the inhaling of water through the nostrils at the time of the ablu- 
tions, wupu' and ghusl. IV 264b 

istinzal (A) : in divination, hydromancy. IV 264b; V 860a; and -> istikhdam 
In metallurgy, the smelting of ores to obtain metals. V 973a 

istirad (A) : the mustering, passing in review and inspecting of troops, also known as 
c ard, the official charged with this duty being known as the 'arid. IV 265a 
Among the Kharidjites, ~ is a technical term meaning the interrogation to which the 
enemies of these sectarians were subjected on falling into their hands; used, in a gen- 
eral sense, of religious murder, the putting to death of Muslims and pagans who 
objected to their still rudimentary doctrine. IV 269a; IV 1076b 

istirkha' -> intishar 

istishab (A) : in law, the principle by which a given judicial situation that had existed 
previously was held to continue to exist as long as it could not be proved that it had 
ceased to exist or had been modified. I 276a; IV 269b; IX 324b 

istishrak (A) : orientalism. XII 722b 

istiska' (A), or istimtdr : a supplication for rain during periods of great droughts, a roga- 
tory rite still practised at the present day (notably in Jordan and Morocco) and dating 
back to the earliest Arab times. I 109a; IV 269b; VIII 931a 

istislah (A) : in law, like istihsan, a method by which the otherwise usual method of 
deduction, analogy, is to be excluded in the preparation of legal decisions. IV 256b 

istisna' (A) : in finance, a manufacturing or 'made-to-order' contract, which, like mudaraba, 
musharaka, idj.dra (-> idjar), and murabaha, was designed by shari'a advisors to 
newly-created Islamic finance institutions as part of the profit and loss sharing of mod- 
ern-day banking. XII 691b 

istitaa (A) : in theology and scholastic theology, the term for the 'capacity' to act cre- 
ated by God in the human subject. I 413b; III 1063a; IV 271a 

istitala -> sifat al-huruf 

istitar -» mukashafa 

istithna' (A) : in a religious context, ~ refers to the saying of the formula 'if God wills', 
in shd' Allah. Ill 1 196a; VII 607a 

In grammar, ~ signifies 'exception', i.e. that one or more beings are excepted from the 
functions exercised in a complete sentence, as in 'everyone came except Zayd'. IV 

istiwa' {khatt al-) (A) : the line of equality, of equilibrium, that is to say, the equator, 
which divides the earth into two hemispheres, the northern and the southern, and joins 
together all those points of the globe where day and night are equal. IV 273a 

Ita' (A) : in prosody, a defect of the rhyme occurring when the same word in the same 
meaning is repeated in the rhymes of lines belonging to the same poem. It is permiss- 
able under certain circumstances. IV 413a 

Itar (A) : in archery, the act of stringing or bracing the bow. IV 800a 

itawa (A, < atd) : lit. gift; a general term met with, especially in pre- and proto-Islamic 
times, meaning a vague tribute or lump payment made, for example, to or by a tribe 
or other group; later, the word describes, sometimes in a denigrating way, a tip or 
bribe. IV 276a 

ITB — ITLAK 295 

itb (A) : a loose gown worn by women on the Arabian peninsula. V 741a 

itba' (A) : a particular form of paronomasia, constituted by the repetition of a qualify- 
ing term to which there is added a metaplasm, i.e. the deliberate alternation of a rad- 
ical consonant, usually the first, but never the third, e.g. hasan basan 'wonderfully 
attractive'. The first element is called matbit' or mutba\ and the second tdbi'. VII 823a 

itbak (A) : in grammar, velarisation; the huruf al-mutbaka are 'the emphatic consonants', 
that is, sad, id', to 1 and dad. Ill 598b; X 83a 

ithbat (A) : to witness, to show, to point to, to demonstrate, to prove, to establish, to 
verify and to establish the truth, to establish (the existence of something); in mysticism, 
~ is the opposite of mahw, the effacement of the 'qualities of habit', and denotes the 
fact of performing one's religious obligations. IV 277a; and ->• tashbIh 

ithm (A) : in theology, sin (-»• dhanb). XII 475a 

ithmid -»• kuhl 

ithnayn (A) : (of the) two; and -»• ihanawiyya 

♦ ithnayniyya (A) : in religion, duality. X 441a 

iththaghara (A) : a verb which means '[a boy] bred his central milk teeth or front teeth, 
or he bred his teeth after the former ones had fallen out' (Lane). Several terms refer 
to different stages of this process: shakka, tala'a, nadjama, nasa'a, intadat (al-sinn), adrama 
(al-sabiyy), ahfara, abda'a. VIII 822a 

i'tibar (A) : in the science of Tradition, the consideration of whether a transmitter who 
is alone in transmitting a Tradition is well known, or whether, if the Tradition is soli- 
tary by one authority, someone in the chain has another authority, or whether another 
Companion transmits it. Ill 26b 

i'tidal -»• TATARRUF 

i'tidjar -»• ikti'at 

i'tikad (A) : the act of adhering firmly to something, hence a firmly established act of 
faith. In its technical sense, the term denotes firm adherence to the Word of God. It 
may be translated in European languages by the words 'croyance', 'belief, 'Glauben', 
with the proviso that this 'belief is not a simple opinion or thought, but is the result 
of deep conviction. IV 279a 

i'tikaf (A) : a period of retreat in a mosque, a particularly commended pious practice 
which can be undertaken at any time. IV 280a 

i'timad (A) : in archery, the holding firmly in the left hand the grip or handle of the bow 
while the right-hand fingers make a good locking of the string, the two hands exerting 
equal force. IV 800b 

♦ i'timad al-dawla (A) : lit. trusty support of the state, a title of Persian viziers dur- 
ing the Safawid period and subsequently. IV 281b 

'ilk (A) : emancipation (of slave). The freedman is called 'atlk or mu'tak. I 29b; the spe- 
cial ceremony of release from servitude of a mamluk, who then became a member of 
the Mamluk household of the Sultan at the Cairo citadel. X 7b 

♦ c itk al-sa'iba (A) : in Maliki and Hanbali law, an ancient type of enfranchisement 
of the slave without patronage, which term refers to the pre-Islamic custom of turning 
loose in complete freedom one particular she-camel of the herd, protected by taboos. 
I 30b 

♦ Mtkname (T), 'itlkndme, 'hdkndme : an Ottoman term for a certificate of manu- 
mission, given to a liberated slave. IV 282b 

itlak (A) : in archery, the loose, loosing, the last and most important phase of shooting. 
There are three basic kinds of loosing: the mukhtalas, sakin and mafrOk. IV 800b 

♦ itlakat (A) : in the science of diplomatic, the name given to documents reaffirming 
decisions of former rulers; sometimes, however, they were simply called tawki'. II 
303b; II 306b 


♦ iflakiyya (A) : one of two main headings in the monthly and yearly accounting 
registers of the Ilkhanids, under which fell payments by provincial tax-farmers made to 
members of the court, palace servants, and the military. Ill 284a; and -»■ mukarrariyya 
'itr ->■ afawIh 

c itra -»■ AHL AL-BAYT 

ittiba 1 (A) : 'active fidelity' to the Traditions of both the Prophet and the salaf, a term 
preferred by reformists to taklld, which denoted the servile dependence on traditional 
doctrinal authorities that they rejected. IV 152a 

ittihad (A) : unity, association, joining together; in theology, the Christian incarnation 
of the Word in the person of Jesus, which concept is rejected by Muslims as being con- 
tradictory. IV 283a 
In mysticism, the mystic union of the soul with God. IV 283a 

ittisal (A), or wisal : in mysticism, a union of man and God which excludes the idea of 
an identity of the soul and God. IV 283a; the act of forming an amorous relationship, 
the equivalent of wusla. XI 210b; and ->■ tali 1 

ityan al-mayta (A) : necrophilia. IX 566a 

'iwad (A) : exchange value, compensation, that which is given in exchange for something; 
in law, ~ is used in a very broad sense to denote the counterpart of the obligation of 
each of the contracting parties in onerous contracts which are called 'commutative', that 
is, contracts which necessarily give rise to obligations incumbent on both parties. Thus 
in a sale, the price and the thing sold are each the ~ of the other. IV 286a 
In unilateral contracts, ~ (badal and thawdb are also used) is employed in a more 
restricted sense: it is applied to the compensation offered by one of the two parties who 
is not absolutely obliged to give any. IV 286a 

iwan (P, T eyvdn) : in architecture, a chamber or a hall which is open to the outside at 
one end, either directly or through a portico; an estrade or a raised part of a floor; a 
palace or at least some sort of very formal and official building; any one of the halls 
in a religious building, madrasa or mosque, which opens onto a courtyard. Art histo- 
rians and archaeologists have given ~ a technically precise meaning, that of a single 
large vaulted hall walled on three sides and opening directly to the outside on the 
fourth. IV 287a; a room enclosed by three walls, opening out in the whole width of 
the fourth side, like an enormous gaping flat-based ledge, and generally roofed by a 
cradle vault (semi-cylindrical). Although not without similarity to the Greek prostas, 
the ~ does seem to be a genuinely Iranian creation. It became a characteristic theme 
of Sasanid architecture. II 114a; and -»■ lIwan 

In the terminology of horse-riding, a light bit. Two other types of bit were used: the 
fakk, a snaffle bit, and the ndzikl, seemingly the equivalent of the modern bit used by 
the Spahis. II 954a 

iwazz (A) : in zoology, wild geese. IX 98b 

iyad -»■ nu'y 

c iyafa (A) : animal omens (zoomancy) and, in the strict sense, ornithomancy, that is to 
say, the art of divining omens in the names of birds, their cries, their flight and their 
posture. IV 290b 

iyala ->■ eyalet 

'iyan (A) : observation (bi '/— 'first-hand'). Ill 736a; XII 801a 

In the vocabulary of mediaeval agriculture, a strap of iron that attached the plough- 
share to the crossbeam. VII 22a 

izar (A), azr, mi'zar, izdr : a large sheet-like wrap worn both as a mantle and as a long 
loin cloth or waist cloth by pre-Islamic Arabs. Ill 1053a; V 732b; a large, enveloping 
body wrap for women in the Arab East or for both sexes in North Africa. V 741a; V 
746a; a fringed shawl worn by Jewish women in Morocco. V 746a; and -»■ rida 5 

izhar -> idmar 

izli -> ASEFRU 

'izlim -> nIl 

izran (B) : in Tarifiyt, the genre of short songs, a part of the traditional oral literature. 
X 242a 

jawi -> PEGON 
jiilaal -* gu' 

juru kunci (J) : 'key bearers'; in Java, the custodians of a holy tomb, who guard the 
proper rituals performed during a pilgrimage to the tomb. XI 537a 

ka c (A) : in topography, a depression on the fringes of the volcanic fields south of Syria, 
free of stones, with a diameter of several hundreds of metres. Such depressions prob- 
ably originated from volcanic eruptions of gas. V 593a 

ka'a (A) : in modern dwellings in Egypt, the principal room in the harIm, with a cen- 
tral space and lateral extensions. The walls surrounding the central space rise to the 
level of the terraces and carry a lantern which lights the interior. II 1 14b; an elongated 
hall with two axial Iwans and a sunken central area, usually square, known as the 
durka'a. IV 428b; VIII 545b 

♦ ka'a mu'allaka (A) : in architecture, a raised hall, a living unit located on the sec- 
ond floor. VIII 545b 

ka'ada (A) : 'those who sit down', term for the designation of the quietists in early Islam 
who abstained from overt rebellion and warfare against the ruling authority. I 207a; V 
572a; XII 505a 

ka'an -► khakan 

ka'b (A) : in mathematics, ~, or muka"ab, denotes the third power of the unknown quan- 
tity. II 362a; the cube root. Ill 1139b 
In anatomy, a knucklebone (pi. ki'db), used in very early Islam as dice. V 616b 

♦ ka c b ka'b (A) : in mathematics, the term for the sixth power. Ill 1 140b 

ka c ba (A) : the most famous sanctuary of Islam, called the temple or house of God, and 
situated in the centre of the great mosque in Mecca. The name ~ is connected with the 
cube-like appearance of the building. In former times the word also used to designate 
other similarly shaped sanctuaries. IV 317a 

kaba zurna -► zurna 

kaba -► kaba 1 

kaba' (A, < Sp capo or capa), or kaba : a cloak or cape worn by soldiers. Ill 100a; V 
739b; V 743b; a luxurious, sleeved robe, slit in front, with buttons, made of fabrics 
such as brocade. V 733b; V 748a ff. 

kaba'ir (A, s. kabira) : the 'grave sins', mentioned in the Qur'an, the exact definition of 
which remained variable. The ~ are distinguished from the saghd'ir 'lesser sins'. IV 

kabak (A, < T 'gourd'), or kabak : in archery, a small target. II 954a; in Mamluk ter- 
minology, a 'gourd' game (ramy al-kabak), one of the branches of horse-riding. II 
955a; IV 801a 


kabala (A) : in law, a guarantee, used mainly in connection with fiscal practice. It con- 
cerns the levying of the land-tax, kharadj, and that of special taxes, mukus (->■ maks). 
Local communities were held jointly responsible by the Treasury for the payment at 
the required time of the full amount of land-tax demanded. When individuals had 
difficulty in finding the necessary ready money immediately, an application was made 
to a notable to advance the sum required. The matter having generally been agreed in 
advance, this notable acted as a guarantor for the debt of the locality in question. This 
procedure constitutes the contract of ~, the offer being called takbll and the person 
named mutakabbil. I 1 144a; IV 323a; XI 75b 

Alongside its use with regard to taxation on land, ~, as well as daman in this con- 
text, occurs in a more permanent sense to signify the farming of special revenues, 
generally of mukus (-»■ maks), especially in towns, such as the sale of salt or the man- 
agement of baths or even of a local customs office. IV 324a 

kabar (A, < Eth kabaro) : an early term for a cylindrical drum with a single membrane. 

kabara (A), or ma'tab : among the Bedouin in the Western Desert and Cyrenaica, 
amends for offences against honour. They are known as hashm in 'Irak, hashm and c ayb 
in Northern Yemen, manshad in parts of the Central Region (the Sinai, Jordan and 
Palestine). X 890b 

kabas -»■ iktibas 

kabath (A) : the ripe fruit of the thorn tree arak (Capparis sedata). II 1058b 

kabbada -»■ sang 

kabbus -»■ mi'zaf 

kabd -»■ kabid 

kabd (A) : lit. seizure, grasping, contraction, abstention, etc., and used in the special 
vocabulary of various disciplines. 

In law, ~ signifies taking possession of, handing over. In Maliki law hiydza is more 
frequently used. Tasallum is also employed to mean the act of handing over. Taking 
possession is accomplished by the material transfer of the thing when movable goods 
are involved; by occupation when it is a question of real estate, but also symbolically 
by the handing over of the keys or title deeds of the property. Ill 350a; IV 325b 
In mysticism, ~ is a technical term used to denote a spiritual state of 'contraction' as 
opposed to 'expansion', bast. I 1088b; IV 326a 

In prosody, ~ is the suppression of the fifth quiescent letter in the feet fa'ulun and 
mafd'ilun which occurs in the metres tawll, hazadj, muddri' and mutakdrib, so that 
these feet are reduced to fa'ulu and mafd'ilun respectively. A foot suffering this alter- 
ation is called makbud. I 672a; IV 326b; XI 508b 

In the Islamic ritual prayer, ~ is the position assumed after the saying of the words 
"alldhu akbaf. The hands are placed on the base of the chest, the right hand over the 
left. The Imamis and the Malikis let the arms fall at this point: the position of sadl or 
irsal. VIII 929a 

♦ kabd amana (A) : in law, the term used for when the trustee, in regard to con- 
tracts which involve the temporary transfer of something from one contracting party to 
the other, is only held responsible if he has been at fault or in transgression, ta'addi, 
of the rules of the contract or of the customary dealings in such matters. IV 326a 

♦ kabd daman (A) : in law, the term used for when the trustee, in regard to con- 
tracts which involve the temporary transfer of something from one contracting party to 
the other, is held responsible for any loss arising in respect of the object, even through 
chance or circumstances over which he has no control. IV 326a 

♦ kabda (A) : a measure of length, equalling a handsbreadth, or one-sixth, of the 
cubit, dhira'. The ~ , in turn, consisted of four isba's. II 232a; VII 137b 

In archery, the grasp, sc. the position of the left hand (for a right-handed person) on 

KABD — KADA' 299 

the grip or handle of the bow. In order to distinguish this technique from that of the 
'akd, the authors sometimes call this more precisely al-kabda bi 'l-shamal. IV 800b 

kabid (A, according to lexicographers the only correct form), or kabd, kihd : in 
anatomy, the liver; through contiguity of meaning, ~ is also used to designate the parts 
of the body in the vicinity of the liver. Thus, for instance, in classical Arabic ~ can 
denote the surfaces of the body more or less close to the liver as well as the chest and 
even the belly. In the same way ~ is also frequently used to cover the middle, centre, 
interior (we would say heart) of something. IV 327a 

kabid (A) : the quality of food being astringent. II 1071b 

kabila (A) : in alchemy, the part known as the 'receiver' of the distilling apparatus. I 

kabila (A) : a large agnatic group, the members of which claim to be descended from 
one common ancestor; this word is generally understood in the sense of tribe. IV 334a 

♦ kabilat Su c aydiyyin (A) : a Turkmen community near Ba'labakk in Lebanon, 
which speaks a Turkish idiom and preserves a narrative of its origins that relates it 
vaguely to the Saldjuks and Ottomans. X 685a 

♦ kabili (A, pi. kaba'il) : a tribesman; in Yemen, one of various status groups which 
include the city dweller of tribal origin, 'arabi, and, at the bottom of the social order, 
those with menial occupations without tribal origin, called either banu 'l-khums 'sons 
of the fifth' or ahl al-taraf 'people of the extremity'. XI 277a 

kabili ->■ kabila 

kabir (A) : lit. large; designation for a tribal chief. IX 115b; an attorney under custom- 
ary law proceedings among the Bedouin in the Central Region of the Sinai, Jordan and 
Palestine. X 888b; and ->■ saqhTr 

♦ kabira (A, pi. kabd'ir) : in theology, a grave sin. 

kabr (A) : tomb; ~ was first applied to the pit used as a burial place for a corpse (as 
was the term darlh), giving rise to its habitual use in the text of numerous epitaphs 
containing the expression hddhd kabru . . . 'this is the grave of . . .'. Originally distin- 
guished from the term sanduk 'cenotaph', ~ had the more general meaning of the tumu- 
lus or construction covering the grave to bring it to notice, a custom current in Islamic 
countries from early times. IV 352a; ~ is used almost exclusively as a term that refers 
to the location of a tomb or to describe a simple grave with no architectural features 
attached to it. 

kabisa (A, < Ar) : intercalation, which compensates for the difference between the 
lunar and solar years. The plural form kabd'is was used for 'leap years'. X 258a,b 

kabsh ->■ hamal; sinnawr 

kabul -> bay'; raws 

kabus -> mi'zaf 

kabush (A), and shalil : in the terminology of horse-riding, a cloth worn by the horse. 
The terms tashdhir and djulla are confined to stable-cloths. II 954a 

kackun ->■ yawa 

kada' (A, T kaid') : originally meaning 'decision', ~ has in the Qur'an different mean- 
ings according to the different contexts, e.g., doomsday, jurisdiction, revelation of the 
truth, and predestination, determination, decree. IV 364b 

In theology, ~ means God's eternal decision or decree concerning all beings, that must 
be fulfilled in all circumstances, and the execution and declaration of a decree at the 
appointed time; sudden death. IV 364b 

In a religious context, ~ is the technical term for the neglected performance of religious 
duties, e.g. repeating prayers to make up for having omitted them at the appointed time, 
as opposed to ad a'. I 169b; IV 365a; IX 94b 

300 KADA 5 KADI 

In law, ~ stands for both the office and the sentence of a kadI 'judge'; ~ is also found 
in legal terminology with the meaning 'payment of a debt'. IV 364b ff. 
In 'Abd al-Razzak al-Kashani's mystical thought, ~ means the existence of the univer- 
sal types of all things in the world of the Universal Reason. I 89b 
In the Ottoman empire, kaiff meant not only the judgement of the kadi but also the 
district which his administrative authority covered. The term ~, denoting an adminis- 
trative district, has remained in use in the Turkish republic. IV 365a 

♦ al-kada 5 wa 'I-kadar (A) : when combined into one expression, these two words 
have the overall meaning of the Decree of God, both the eternal Decree (the most fre- 
quent meaning of kada 5 ) and the Decree given existence in time (the most frequent 
sense of kadar). Other translations are possible, for example, Icadd', predetermination; 
kadar, decree or fate, destiny, in the sense of determined or fixed. It is also possible 
to use kada' alone for decree in its broadest sense and define kadar more precisely as 
existential determination. The expression combining them is in general use and has 
become a kind of technical term of scholastic theology. I 413a; II 618a; IV 365a 

In Persian literature, kada' u kadar is a genre of poetry devoted to stories about the 
working of fate, fashionable in the 1 0th- llth/1 6th- 17th centuries. VI 834b; VIII 776a 

♦ kada 5 u kadar -»■ al-kada' wa 'l-kadar 

kadam (A) : in mysticism, 'priority', a principle arising in the second half of the 19th 
century in Egypt that implied the exclusive right of a sufi order to proselytise and to 
appear in public in an area if it could be proved that it had been the first to do so, i.e. 
that it had seniority (kidam). X 324a; and -»■ athar 

♦ kadamgah (A kadam 'foot', P gdh 'place') : lit. place of the [imprint of the 
Prophet's] foot, syn. kadam sharif; there are many such places all over the Arab lands 
and in Turkey, and they are especial objects of veneration in Muslim India, along with 
pandjagdhs 'places of the [imprint of the] palm of the hand', impressions of the hands 
of holy men. XII 501b 

kadar (A) : measure, evaluation, fixed limit; in its technical sense, ~ designates determi- 
nation, the divine decree in so far as it sets the fixed limits for each thing, or the mea- 
sure of its being. Ill 1 142b; IV 365b; and -»■ al-kada 5 wa 'l- kadar 
In c Abd al-Razzak al-Kashani's mystical thought, ~ is the arrival in the world of the 
Universal Soul of the types of existing things; after being individualised in order to be 
adapted to matter, these are joined to their causes, produced by them, and appear at 
their fixed times. I 89b 

kadasa (A) : holiness; beings that are pure, wholly unsullied or in touch with the divine. 
IV 372a 

kadb -»■ katt 

♦ kadba (A) : in archery, a quiver made from the nab' wood (Grewia tenax). IV 

kaddad (A, pi. kawddld) : a tiller of the soil. I 233b 

kaddah (A) : a flint-maker. XII 757a 

kadh (A) : in medicine, the operation for cataract. II 481b; X 456a 

kadhdhab -»■ salih 

kadhdhaf (A) : oarsman, part of the crew of the warships in the Muslim navy. XII 120a 

kadhf (A) : in law, a slanderous accusation of fornication, zina 5 , or of illegitimate 
descent; in the latter case, it amounts to accusing the mother of fornication. I 29b; IV 

kadi (A) : in law, a judge, a representative of authority, invested with the power of 
jurisdiction. In theory, the head of the community, the caliph, is the holder of all pow- 
ers; like all other state officials, the ~ is therefore a direct or indirect delegate, na 5 ib, 
the delegate retaining the power to do justice in person. The objective being the appli- 


cation of the law, which is essentially religious, the function of the judge is a religious 
one. In theory, his competence embraces both civil and penal cases, and includes the 
administration of mosques and pious endowments. His competence in penal matters, 
however, is restricted to the very few crimes envisaged by the law, their repression 
being currently undertaken by the police. II 890b; IV 373b 

♦ kadi 'askar (A) : judge of the army; an institution dating from the 2nd/8th cen- 
tury. Under Saladin, this institution was called kadi leshker. The position began to lose 
its importance after the middle of the 1 0th/ 1 6th century, when power passed into the 
hands of the grand mufti of Istanbul. It was finally abolished under the Turkish repub- 
lic. IV 375a 

♦ kadi 'l-djama'a (A) : kadI of the community of Muslims; a title which c Abd al- 
Rahman gave, between 138/755 and 141/758, to the kadi of the Spanish territory 
already conquered, until then known as kadi 'l-djund 'kadi of the military district'. 
Later, ~ became an institution similar to that of the kadi 'l-kudat. IV 374b; VI 2a 

♦ kadi 'l-djund -+ kadI 'l-djama c a 

♦ kadi 'l-kudat (A) : 'the judge of judges'; the highest position in the system of 
judicial organization of the Islamic state, which, when combined with the institution of 
the wizara (-> wazir), was the highest step under the authority of the caliph. The insti- 
tution of ~ was an adaptation of the Persian mobedan-mobed. I 164b; IV 374a; VI 2a 

♦ kadi leshker -> kadI 'askar 

kadib (A) : rod (syn. 'asd), one of the insignia of the sovereignty of the caliph. IV 377b 
In archery, a bow made of a stave all of a piece and unspliced, sc. a self-bow. IV 798a 
In music, a wand which supplied rhythm. II 1073b; a percussion stick. VIII 852b; IX 
In anatomy, the penis. XII 641a 

kadid (A) : in pre-Islamic Arabia, meat cut into thin strips and left to dry in the sun. II 

kadima (A) : a quill feather. XI 517a 

kadin -+ khasseki 

♦ kadinlar saltanati (T) : 'the rule of the women', the period from the mid- 10th/ 16th 
to the mid-1 lth/17th centuries, when royal women enjoyed a large measure of influence 
in the Ottoman empire. XI 130b 

kadirgha -> bashtarda 

kadkhuda : a giver of years. X 367b; and -> ketkhuda 

kadriya (A) : cedar-oil, extracted from cedarwood. IV 772b 

kadus (A, pi. kawddis) : the bucket used in the water wheel (dulab) on the banks of 
the Nile in mediaeval Egypt. V 863b 

In Fas, a pipe of a water channel, taking the water to individual houses; the special 
workers for the upkeep of the water channels were called kwadsiyya (< ~). V 877b 

kaf (A) : the twenty-second letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed k, with the numer- 
ical value 20. It is defined as occlusive, postpalatal, surd. IV 399a 

kaf (A) : the twenty-first letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed k, with the numerical 
value 100. It is defined as occlusive, uvulovelar, surd. IV 400a 

kafa (A) : nape of the neck. IX 312b 

kafa'a (A) : equality, parity and aptitude; in law, ~ denotes the equivalence of social 
status, fortune and profession (those followed by the husband and by the father-in-law), 
as well as parity of birth, which should exist between husband and wife, in default of 
which the marriage is considered ill-matched and, in consequence, liable to break up. 
I 27b; IV 404a; IV 1116b; and -> kufu 

kafala (A) : in law, an institution corresponding to some extent to the surety-bond, with 
the difference that the jurists distinguished two types of surety-bond: that for which the 


surety, kafil, is binding to secure only the appearance in court of the debtor, asll or 
makful; known as the kafala bi 'l-nafs, it is an institution peculiar to Islamic law. And, 
secondly, the kafala bi 'l-mal, by means of which the surety stands as a pledge to the 
creditor, makful lahu, that the obligation of the principal debtor will be fulfilled. IV 

kafan (A) : shroud, a cloth or cloths woven by an akfdnl, which the deceased's body is 
wrapped in, by a professional enshrouder, kaffdn, and then buried. Sometimes the 
corpse was borne without a bier or it could be carried in an open wooden coffin 
(sanduk, tabiit). XII 502b 

kafes (T) : lit. cage; the late but popular term for the area of the harem of the Topkapi 
Palace in which Ottoman princes of the blood (sheh-zadeler) were confined from the 
early 17th century onwards. In a more abstract sense, ~ is applied to the system 
whereby the rights of claimants to the Ottoman throne were determined. Of earlier 
usage is the appellation shimshirlik or cimshirlik 'the box shrub', a reference to the lit- 
tle courtyard planted with boxwood, at the northeast corner of the sultan's mother's 
courtyard. XII 503b 

♦ kafesi (T) : a dome-shaped kavuk 'cap', worn with a long turban forming folds 
fastened towards the base with a fine thread or pin. It was worn in Ottoman Turkey 
from the 17th century by the functionaries of the Defter (->■ daftar). V 751b 

kaff (A) : palm, paw; in divination, 'Urn al-~ is a process which belongs to the realm 
of physiognomy, designating more specifically chirognomy or the art of deducing the 
character of a person according to the shape and appearance of the hands. But the use 
of the term has become general. It also covers both chiromancy (the study of the lines 
of the hand), dactylomancy (prognostications drawn from the observation of the finger 
joints), and onychomancy (divination from the finger nails). IV 405b 
In prosody, ~ is a deviation in the metre because of the suppression of the 7th conso- 
nant, e.g. the nun of fd c ildtu[n]. I 672a; XI 508b 
For ~ in military science, ->■ sa'id 

♦ kaff al-'adhra' (A) : in botany, Anastatica hierochuntia, Cruciferae, the dried 
seed-heads of which can last for years and are blown around the desert, the seeds ger- 
minating when water is available. The plant, used as a birth charm, is also called kaff 
Fdtima bint al-nabl or kaff Maryam. VI 631b 

♦ kaff al-hirr (A) : in botany, the Corn crowfoot (Ranunculus arvensis) and the 
Asiatic crowfoot (R. asiaticus). IX 653a 

♦ kaff al-nasr (A) : 'vulture's foot', in botany, the Scolopender or Hart's tongue 
(Scolopendrium vulgare), and also the Water milfoil (Myriophyllum verticillatum). VII 

kaffal (A) : a locksmith. XII 757a 

kaffara (A) : Qur'anic term for an expiatory and propitiatory act which grants remission 
for faults of some gravity. IV 406b; IX 94b 

kafi (Pu) : a genre of Muslim Punjabi literature, comprising a lyric consisting of rhymed 
couplets or short stanzas having a refrain repeated after each verse, and normally fol- 
lowing the usual Indian poetic convention whereby the poet assumes a female persona, 
typically that of a young girl yearning to be united with her husband/love, allegorically 
to be understood as an expression of the soul's yearning for God. VIII 256a 

kafil ->■ KAFALA 

kafila ->■ karwan 

kafir (A) : originally, 'obliterating, covering', then, 'concealing benefits received', i.e. 
ungrateful, which meaning is found even in the old Arab poetry and in the Qur'an; the 
development of meaning to 'infidel, unbeliever' probably took place under the influence 
of Syriac and Aramaic. IV 407b 

♦ kafir ni'ma (A) : in theology, an unbeliever by ingratitude. XI 478a 

♦ kafirkub (A, < kafir + P kubidan) : lit. heathen-basher, i.e. a club; the term is 
testified, only in the plural kdfirkubdt, in 'Irak from the end of the 2nd/8th century, 
although al-Tabari cites it when describing the incidents arising in 66/685 during the 
revolt of al-Mukhtar. It seems to be a term born of a particular period and in a rela- 
tively circumscribed area which swiftly became obsolete. IV 44b; IV 411a 

kafiya (A, pi. kawdfin) : in prosody, rhyme. Originally, the word meant 'lampoon', then 
'line of poetry', 'poem'. These earlier senses survived in Islamic times after the word 
had also come to be used in the technical sense of 'rhyme'. The native lexicographers 
believe that 'rhyme' is the original and that 'line of poetry', 'poem' are secondary. IV 
411b; and ->■ sadj' 

♦ kafiya mukayyada (A) : fettered kafiya, a rhyme in which the rhyme consonant is 
not followed by a letter of prolongation. IV 412a 

♦ kafiya mutlaka (A) : loose kafiya, a rhyme in which the rhyme consonant is fol- 
lowed by a letter of prolongation or by a short vowel and a vowelled or quiescent ha'. 
IV 412a 

kafiyya (A, < It [sjcuffia; pi. kawdfi), or kufiyya : a head scarf, a rectangular piece of 
cloth of linen or silk in various colors, almost a yard square, worn by both sexes in 
the Arab East. The cloth is folded diagonally, the ends hang down or are tied below 
the chin, and above it the Bedouin sometimes and townsmen usually wind a turban. 
This form, which is known in Egypt since Mamluk times and is mentioned in the 
Arabian Nights, came into prominence again as part of the dress of the Wahhabis. V 
741a; X 613a 

kafiz (A) : a measure of capacity used in 'Irak and caliphal Persia for weighing small 
quantities of grain. Its actual weight varied. VI 119b f. 

kaff (A) : in a religio-political context, the quiescent attitude of some Kharidjite groups 
in early Islam (->■ ka'ada). XII 505a 

kaffan ->■ kafan 

kafi (P) : in Western Indian literature, a sung sufi lyric poem with a refrain repeated 
after each verse, first brought to perfection by Saccal Sarmast (d. 1242/1827) of 
Khayrpur in Upper Sind. V 611a 

kafla ->■ c akd 

kaftan -»■ khaftan 

kafur (A, < H karpura, kappura, Mai kapur) or kdfur, ka(f)ur : in botany, camphor, the 
white, translucent substance which is distilled together with camphor oil from the wood 
of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) indigenous to east Asia (China, 
Formosa, Japan). IV 417b; VIII 1042b 

The same word ~ (variants kufurrd, kifirrd, djufurrd etc.) also designates the integu- 
ment of the palm leaf or of the grapevine. IV 418a 

kaghad (A, < P), or kdghid : paper. After its introduction in Samarkand by Chinese pris- 
oners in 134/751, various kinds of paper were then made and it must be supposed that 
paper achieved some importance as early as the second half of the 2nd/8th century. 
Names for the different kinds of paper are: fir'awni, sulaymdnl, aja'fari, tahiri, and 
nuhi. IV 419b 

kaghan -»■ khakan 

kaghan (A) : in mediaeval 'Irak, a boy who acts as a male prostitute. VII 494a 

♦ kaghani (A) : in mediaeval 'Irak, a vagrant who gives out that he is demoniacally 
possessed or an epileptic. VII 494a 

kaghid ->■ kaghad 

kaghni (T) : a Byzantine wagon, used in mediaeval Turkicised Anatolia. I 205b 
kahar (IndP) : in the Mughal period, a bearer of different kinds of litters, classed as 
infantry. V 687a 

kahba (pi. kihdb) -> baghiyy 

kahd -»■ HADHAF 

kahhal (A) : in medicine, an oculist. I 388a; an ophthalmist. V 357a 

kahin (A) : a term of controversial origin. It appears to have been used by the 'Western 
Semites' to designate the possessor of a single function with related prerogatives: the 
offering of sacrifices in the name of the group, the representing of this group before 
the deity, the interpretation of the will of the deity, and the anticipation and commu- 
nication of his wishes. The Arab ~ combined the functions of sacrificer and guardian 
of the sanctuary, and those of the mantis and the augur, hence, it is possible to render 
~ by 'priest', in the sense of agent of the official cult. But the predominance of 
nomadism, where it was usually the head of the family or tribe who offered sacrifices 
and in which frequent migrations prevented the establishment of an official form of 
worship and fixed places of worship, weakened the first role of the ~ while favouring 
the development of the second, more in keeping with the expectations of most of his 
fellow-tribesmen. Thus it is virtually necessary to translate ~ as 'diviner' with the dual 
meaning of the Latin divinus, that is to say, 'one inspired' and 'prophet', without 
excluding his strictly priestly role in places where social conditions allowed it, such as 
at Mecca. IV 420b; and -»■ c arraf 

kahiriyya (A) : omnipotence (of God). I 89b 

kahiya -»■ ketkhuda 

kahraman -»■ karim 

kahruba (P), also kdhrabd' : yellow amber; today, ~ also used for electricity. IV 445b 

kahur (P) : in botany, a spiny shrub, enjoyed by camels. V 669b 

kahwa (A) : coffee; originally a name for wine, ~ was transferred towards the end of 
the 8th/14th century to the beverage made from the berry of the coffee tree; the word 
for coffee in Ethiopia, bun, has passed into Arabic in the form bunn, as a name of the 
coffee tree and berry. IV 449a; XII 775b 

♦ kahwaci-bashi (P) : in Safawid times, an official in the royal kitchen who headed 
the department of coffee making. XII 609b 

♦ kahwa-khana -»■ Cay-khana 
kahya -»■ ketkhuda 

ka'id (A, pi. kuwwdd) : an imprecise term, but one always used to designate a military 
leader whose rank might vary from captain to general. II 507b; IV 456a; designation 
for a tribal chief (referring to the chief's leadership in war). IX 115b 

♦ ka'id ra'sih (A) : 'governor of himself, a powerful ka'id who was removed from 
office and compelled to live at court, with the honour due to his rank. IV 456b 

ka'id (A) : lit. sitter; in shi'i terminology, the 'sitting' members of the family of the 
Prophet, who refused to be drawn into ventures of armed revolt, in contrast to the 
ka'im. IV 456b 

♦ ka'ida -»■ kawa'id 

ka'id (A), and khafif : a term applied to a wild animal or bird which approaches a trav- 
eller or hunter from the rear, one of the technical terms designating the directions of a 
bird's flight, or an animal's steps, which play an important part in the application of 
divination known as fa'l, tIra and zadjr. I 1048a; II 760a 

ka'if (A, pi. kdfa) : a physiognomist. I 28b 

ka'ila -»■ zahira 

ka'im (A) : lit. riser, the shi'i mahdI, referring both to the member of the family of the 
Prophet who was expected to rise against the illegitimate regime and restore justice on 
earth, and to the eschatological Mahdi. Synonyms in shi'i terminology are: ka'im dl 
Muhammad, al-kd'im bi 'l-sayf, al-kd'im bi-amr Allah, ka'im al-kiydma. IV 456b; V 

KA'IM — KALAM 305 

Among the Isma'iliyya, ~ is the name of the seventh 'speaking' prophet who will abro- 
gate Muhammad's shari'a and restore the pure unity, tawhid, of the times before 
Adam's fall. IV 203b; IV 457a; XII 206b 

♦ ka'im bi-a'mal (A) : in the science of diplomacy, the term for charge d'affaires. 

VIII 813a; and ->■ maslahatguzar 

♦ kaim-makam (T) : the title borne by a number of different officials in the 
Ottoman empire. The most important of them was the saddret kd'im-makami or kd'im- 
makdmi pasha who stayed in the capital as deputy when the grand vizier had to leave 
for a military campaign. The ~ enjoyed almost all the authority of the grand vizier, 
issuing fermdns (-> farman) and nominating functionaries, but he was not allowed to 
intervene in the area where the army was operating. IV 461b; colonel. X 872a 

In 1864 the ~ became the governor of an administrative district, and under the Repub- 
lican regime he continued to be administrator of such a distict. IV 461b 
In Ottoman Egypt, ~ was applied to the acting viceroy before Muhammad 'All Pasha, 
and under the latter to specific grades in the military and administrative hierarchies. IV 

kaime (T, < A) : the name formerly used for paper money in Turkey, an abbreviation 
for kd'ime-i mu'tebere. Originally, the word was used of official documents written on 
one large, long sheet of paper. IV 460a; debt certificate, issued in the summer of 1 840 
by the Porte, that was acceptable in government offices in payment of obligations. X 

ka'in (A, pi. kd'inat) : in speculative theology and philosophy, the existent thing. IV 

ka'k (A) : in the mediaeval Middle East, a pastry, to which dough sawik was added. 

IX 93b 

kakum (A) : in zoology, the ermine. II 817a 

kaka' (A) : a man whose foot-joints can be heard cracking as he walks; often found as 
a proper name in the early days of Islam. IV 463b 

kal'a (A) : castle, fortress. IV 467a; citadel. IX 411a; and ->■ agadir 

kalab (A) : in medicine, rabies. IV 490a; XII 189b 

kalab (A, pi. kawalib) : in the mediaeval kitchen, a mould. VI 808b 

In the religious terminology of metempsychosis, one of the terms for the body in which 
the spirit is incarnated. V 893b; X 182a 

kalaba ->■ shaghaba 

kalafat -»■ Corbadj! keCesi 

kalakil (A) : a name for the suras that begin with kul 'say:': lxxii, cix and cxii-cxiv. 
IX 887b 

kalam (A, < Gk Kalxnioc, 'reed'; pi. aklam) : the reed-pen used for writing in Arabic 
script. It is a tube of reed cut between two knots, sliced obliquely (or concave) at the 
thicker end and with the point slit, in similar fashion to the European quill and later 
the steel-pen. IV 471a 

In Ottoman usage, ~ (pronounced kalem) was used figuratively to designate the secre- 
tariat of an official department or service; it then came to be the normal term for an 
administrative office. This usage has survived in modern Turkish, and is also current 
in Arabic. IV 471b 

♦ kalam al-tumar -> mukhtasar al-tumar 

♦ kalamdan ->• daw at 

♦ kalamkari (< P kalam 'pen' + kdr 'work') : the hand-painted and resist-dyed cot- 
tons of India, known as chintz. IV 471b 

♦ aklam-i sitta (P) : 'six [calligraphic] styles', the main Islamic scripts, viz. 
muhakkak, rlhan, thuluth, naskh, tawkf, rikd'. IV 1123a 


kalam (A) : a word; in the Qur'an, ~ is found in the expression kalam alldh 'the Word 
of God'. IV 468b; ~, or 'ilm al-kalam, is also the term for 'theology', one of the reli- 
gious sciences of Islam and the discipline which brings to the service of religious 
beliefs discursive arguments. Ill 1141b ff.; a rational argument, defensive apologetics, 
or the science of discourse (on God). I 694a; IV 468b 
For ~ in music, -> ghina' 

kalan : a Mongolian tax, apparently a general term for occasional exactions of a 
specifically Mongol rather than Islamic character, imposed on the sedentary population 
by the Mongols and including some kind of corvee. VII 233b 

kalandar (T, < P ?) : 'a vagabond of scandously offensive behaviour'; the name given 
to the members of a class of wandering dervishes which existed formerly, especially in 
the 7th/13th century, in the Islamic world, within the area extending from Almalik in 
Turkestan in the east to Morocco in the west, practising in its extreme form the antin- 
omian way of life of Malamatiyya mysticism. ~ passed into Arabic also in the form 
karandal. IV 58b; IV 472b; VI 225b 

♦ kalandariyyat (P) : in Persian literature, a genre of poetry, named after the 
kalandar. Poems of this genre can be quatrains or may have a form intermediate 
between the kasIda and the ghazal. They are characterised by the use of antinomian 
motives referring to the debauchery of beggars and drunks. IV 58b; IX 4b 

kalansuwa (P, A, pi. kaldnis), and kalansuwa tawlla, tawlla or danniyya : the name for 
a cap worn by men either under the turban proper or alone on the head. Caps of dif- 
ferent shapes were called ~; varieties of ~ are turtur, burnus, ursusa, etc. X 609a; XII 
508a; a distinctive, tall, conical Persian hat, resembling a long amphora-like wine jar 
known as dann, worn in the mediaeval Islamic period. Its top was pointed. IV 940a; 
V 737b; X 612b; a pointed bonnet for men in Algeria and Tunisia. V 746a 

♦ kalansuwa bukrat (A) : in medicine, a particular kind of head bandage. XII 508b 

♦ kalansuwa nuhas (A) : the metal cap of the obelisk near Heliopolis. XII 508b 

♦ kalansuwa turab (A) : in modern Arabic, a chemical sublimating vessel. XI 508b 
kalantar (P) : a term used in the 8th/14th and 9th/15th centuries to mean 'leader', 

occurring especially with reference to the tribal and military classes. From the late 
9th/15th century onwards, ~ designates (i) an official belonging to 'civil' hierarchy in 
charge of a town or district or the ward of a town, (ii) the head of a guild, and (iii) 
the head of a tribe or sub-tribe. In its first sense, which is now obsolete, ~ sometimes 
overlapped or was synonymous with ra'Is, darugha, and ketkhuda. IV 474a 

kalawta (A), or kaluta : a kind of cap which is first mentioned in the Fatimid period. It 
was to become a standard item in Ayyubid and Mamluk times. V 738a; X 612b; in 
Persian, pronounced kulota, a veil worn by women or a child's cap. X 613a 

kalb (A) : in zoology, the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). IV 489b; wood-eating 
worms. IV 491b 

In the game of backgammon, the piece played with (P muhra). VII 963a 
For ~ in astronomy, IV 492a; IX 471b 

♦ kalb al-bahr (A), or hafshrusl : in zoology, the white whale. VIII 1022b; the dog- 
fish, also called the kawsadj or lakhm. IV 491b 

♦ kalb al-ma' (A) : in zoology, the otter; in the western Islamic world, ~ is the 
name for the beaver. IV 491b 

♦ kalb al-mayy (A) : in zoology, the mole-cricket (gryllotalpa vulgaris), also called 
hdlush or harrdtha. IV 491b 

kalb (A, pi. kulub) : heart. IV 486a; (A, P, T) false, base, impure. X 409a; and -> asl, 


♦ kalpazan (< P kalb-zan) : in numismatics, a counterfeiter of coins. X 409b 


kalba (P) : in Iran, a sausage, a popular food item introduced in the 20th century. XII 

kaldaniyyun (A) : the 'Chaldaeans', one of seven ancient nations according to al- 

Mas'udi, and consisting of several smaller nations whose common kingdom, in the 

Fertile Crescent and the Arabian peninsula, preceded that of the Persians and whose 

common language is Syriac. VIII 1007b 
kaldjiyan (T) : in Ottoman times, the worker in the mint who prepared the standard 

ingots by melting the metal. II 119a 
kalemiyye (T) : in the Ottoman empire, one division of the ruling elite, the men of the 

pen, later referred to as miilkiyye 'bureaucrats'. XII 675b 
kalewi -> kallavi 
kalghay : a title best known as indicating the deputy or heir apparent of the khans of 

the Crimean Khanate. Its linguistic origins are uncertain. IV 499b 
kali (T) : a type of carpet (variants ghdll, kitdll) manufactured at Kalikala (now 

Erzerum). Although ~ is generally considered to be Turkish in origin, it is unattested 

in ancient Turkish texts. It may therefore be of Iranian origin. XII 136a 
kal'i (A), or kala'l : in metallurgy, tin; the Arabic name, either after Kalah, a well 

known port on the peninsula of Malacca, or kaling, the Malayan word for tin, bears 

witness to the fact that tin had to be imported. IV 502a; V 964b; and ->■ rasas kal'I 

~ is also used for a type of sword which is often mentioned, especially in early Arabic 

poetry. This kind of sword is generally considered to be of Indian origin. IV 502b 
kalib (A) : in early Islam, the common ditch, into which e.g. c Utba b. Rabi'a was thrown 

when mortally wounded in the battle of Badr. X 944b 
kalima (A, pi. kalimdt) : the spoken word, utterance; ~ can also be extended to mean 

'discourse' and 'poem'. IV 508a; VIII 532a 

In Druze hierarchy, ~ is the third of the five cosmic ranks in the organisation. II 632a 

♦ kalimat al-tawhid (A) : the first article of the shahada (Id ildha ilia lldh). X 389a 

♦ kalimat-i kudsiyya (P) : 'holy sayings', eight adages or rules that are the essen- 
tials of Kh w adjagan doctrine and thought. XII 521b 

kalis (A) : in botany, the name of a plant, which seemed to represent a human head with 
a high cap. XII 508b 

kalite -»■ bashtarda 

kalkala -»■ sifat al-huruf 

kallab (A) : in numismatics, a counterfeiter of coins. X 409b 

kallabazi : the master of the hawking-pack, assisting the falconer or hawker, who sets 
his greyhounds on the gazelle or the hare. I 1152b 

kallavi (T), kalewi, or kal[l]ewi : a headdress reserved for dignitaries with the rank of 
pasha which, from the 18th century, became official head-gear in Ottoman Turkey. It 
was a kavuk with the body of a cone, worn with a white turban rolled around, draped 
and bulging in four places, decorated with a gold band. V 751b; 

kalpak (T) : busby, a kind of bonnet of lamb's fleece or woollen cloth decorated with 
lamb's fleece, worn by men and women in Ottoman Turkey. V 751b 

kaluk (A) : in the terminology of horse-riding, a horse of uncertain temper. II 954a 

kaluta -> KALAWTA 

kalyan -»■ nardjIla 

♦ kalyandar : a water pipe carrier, employed by people of rank. X 754a 

kalym : the purchase of the fiancee, a custom among the Cerkes tribes of the Caucasus 
which could only be avoided by resorting to abduction in case of refusal by the par- 
ents. The pretence of forcible abduction remains an essential rite in the marriage cer- 
emony. II 23 a 


kama -> ba c 

kamakh (A, pi. kawdmikh) : a variety of relish or condiment, served, several at a time, 

in small bowls into which bread or morsels of food could be dipped. X32a 
kamala (A) : a renewable seasonal contract covering two seasons, either summer-autumn 

or winter-spring, which engages a shepherd or goatherd. XII 319b; and -»■ fada'il 
kaman (P) : bow; in music, a violin bow. VIII 346b; VIII 348a 

♦ kamana : in India, a bamboo bow, used to cut marble. VIII 269a 

♦ kamandja (A, < P kamdnca, dim. of kaman), or more rarely shlshak (A, < P, T 
ghicak, ghidjak, etc., < San ghoshaka ?) : in music, the hemispherical viol, perhaps the 
best known form of viol in the Islamic east. The body consists of a hemisphere of 
wood, coconut, or a gourd, over the aperture of which a membrane is stretched. The 
neck is of wood, generally cylindrical, and there is a foot of iron, although sometimes 
there is no foot. In texts where both the ghidjak and the ~ are described, the former is 
a larger type of the latter, having, in addition to its two ordinary strings, eight sympa- 
thetic strings. In Egypt, the hemispherical viol is nowadays called rabdb misrl. VIII 

kamar (P) : a broad belt often red in colour, worn by men in the Arab East. V 741a; 
IX 167b 

kamar (A) : in astronomy, the moon; the full moon is termed badr. IV 518a 

kamh (A) : in botany, wheat; in Iraq ~ is called hinta and in Arabia dhurr. IV 519b; V 

kamil -»■ kaml 

kamil (A) : in prosody, the name of the fifth Arabic metre. I 670a 

kamin (A) : the rear-guard (of a raiding group of Bedouin). II 1055b; in military sci- 
ence, an ambuscade by a detachment of the army drawn up in a carefully chosen posi- 
tion near the rear-guard. Ill 202b 

kamls (A, < late L camisia), or kamlsa : a shirt-like dress worn by both sexes all over 
the Arab world. V 733b ff. 

kamish -> lule 

kaml (A) : lice; some maintain that ~ applies only to females and that for males the 
term is su'db (pi. si'bdn, which actually designates nits). All species of lice, including 
head-lice and body-lice, fall within this term. A man more prone than others to give 
rise to lice is called kamil. IV 521b 

kammun (A) : in botany, cumin (Cuminum Cyminum); -was also used as a generic 
term for other plants which bore aromatic or medicinal seeds: kammun armani or rumi 
was in fact caraway (Carum Carvi), also called kammun barri 'wild cumin'. ~ hulw 
was one of the names for aniseed, while ~ aswad was fennel-flower, properly called 
shuniz. IV 522a, where can be found more variants; kammun kirmdni is wild cumin 
(Lagoecia cuminoides). IX 653a 

kamta (A) : a red cloth, adorned with pearls, which Egyptian women twisted around 
their tarbusb. X 612b 

kamulyan -»■ gonullu 

kamus (A, < Gk) : dictionary; during the time of the Prophet, ~ was used for 'the bot- 
tom, the very deepest part of the sea', and later, following Ptolemy, geographers 
applied the term, in the form ukiydnus, to 'the mass of water surrounding the earth', 
more particularly the Atlantic Ocean. Al-Firuzabadi used ~ metaphorically as the title 
of his great dictionary, which name stuck, still carrying the sense of 'fullness, exhaus- 
tiveness' in contrast to mu'djam 'lexicon'. IV 524a 

kan wa-kan (A) : in literature, one of the seven post-classical genres of poetry. The 
genre was devised by the Baghdad! poets and its name derives from the formula used 
by story-tellers to open their narratives: 'there was and there was', i.e. 'once upon a 
time'. A ~ poem is in monorhyme with a long vowel after the rhyme letter. IV 528a 


kana'a (A) : contentment with little, one of the components of asceticism, zuhd. XI 

kan'ad (A) : in the Persian Gulf, term for the king mackerel. I 541b 

kanat (A, pi. kanawdt, kand, kunl, akniya) : a canal, irrigation system, water-pipe. Used 
also for a baton, a lance, etc., ~ originally meant reed. IV 528b; XII 735b 
In Persian, ~ is used today especially for underground water pipes, a mining installa- 
tion or technique using galleries or cross-cuts to extract water from the depths of the 
earth. By means of a gently sloping tunnel, which cuts through alluvial soil and passes 
under the water-table into the aquifer, water is brought by gravity flow from its upper 
end, where it seeps into the gallery, to a ground surface outlet and irrigation canal at 
its lower end. IV 529a 

kanbal -> miknab 

kanbiyatur (A) : Campeador (< L campeator), a title in Castilian Spain given to el-Cid. 
IX 533a 

kanbus -> mi'zaf 

kanbush -> kumash 

kandjifa (A) : playing cards, attested since Mamluk times. V 109a 

kanduri (P), or kandura : a leather or linen table-cloth; in India, ~ means also a reli- 
gious feast held in honour of a venerated person like Fatima, and as such was imported 
into the Indonesian archipelago, where it has become a feast given with a religious pur- 
pose, or at least in conformity with religious law. IV 540a; religious meal. IX 154a 

kanib (A, P kanab) : the hemp seed. Ill 266b 

kanisa (A, < Ar; pi. kand'is) : synagogue, church, temple; syn. bVa, which unlike ~ is 
found once in the Qur'an. IV 545a 

kannad-khana (P) : a confectioner's shop. XI 307a 

kannas (A) : lit. sweeper; a sanitary worker in the mediaeval Near East who swept pub- 
lic squares and other places such as prisons, dungeons and latrines, and transported 
garbage in boats or by other means to places outside the cities. The term is synony- 
mous with kassah; other terms used for the same occupation are sammdd and zabbdl 
'dung collectors'. IV 547b 

kannis -> shunkub 

kantara (A, pi. kandtir) : a bridge, particularly one of masonry or stone; an aqueduct 
(especially in the plural), dam; high building, castle. IV 555a 

kantawiyya (A) : the Kantaeans, a Mandaean sect. X 440a 

kantu : a type of salt in the salt works near Bilma, in Niger, ~ is moulded into loaves 
in hollowed out palm-trunks and used chiefly for the feeding of animals. I 1222a 

kanun (A) : a brazier. V 42b 

kanun (A, < Gk; pi. kawdnln) : a financial term belonging to the field of land-taxes; a 
code of regulations, state-law (of non-Muslim origin). IV 556a 

In fiscal administration, ~ refers both to the principles on which was based the assess- 
ment of taxes and to the resulting sum due from the taxpayer, either in the case of a 
single property or all the properties in one district taken together. In those provinces 
where many lands were assessed by the procedure of ~, this word came to mean a kind 
of fiscal cadaster. II 79a; IV 557a 

In Mongol administration, the 'Domesday Book of the Empire', the survey and assess- 
ment book. II 81b 

In law, kawdnln were at first regulations issued by the guardians of public order 
(especially the governors) in the fields of common law and penal law where the shari'a 
was silent. Under the Ottoman sultans, ~ came to be applied mainly to acts in the 
domain of administrative and financial law and of penal law. Nowadays, in all Middle 
Eastern countries, ~ denotes not only those codes and laws which are directly inspired 
by western legislation, such as civil and commercial law, administrative and penal law, 


but also those laws and codes which are confined to reproducing, albeit simplifying, 
the provisions of the shari'a. The word ~, however, has been replaced by la'iha (pi. 
lawd'ih) in Egypt and by nizam or tartib elsewhere. IV 556b 

In organisations, e.g. guilds in Ottoman times, ~ was used also for the statutes, which 
were drawn up by the guildsmen and registered with the kadi. IV 558b 
Among the Berbers, especially in Kabylia and the Aures, ~ was adopted to mean the 
customs, mainly as regards penal matters, pertaining to a particular village. IV 562a 
In music, the ~ is the present-day psaltery of the Arabs and Turks, a stringed musical 
instrument with a shallow, flat, trapezoidal sound-chest. It has fallen into disuse in 
Spain and Persia, where it was once very popular. It is, however, still a great favourite 
in North Africa, Egypt, Syria and Turkey, where it is to be found strung trichordally 
with from 51 to 75 strings. VII 191a 

♦ al-kanun al-asasi (A, T kdnun-i esdsl, P kanun-i asdsl) : 'basic law', the consti- 
tution. II 651b; II 659b; in Turkey, kanun-i esdsl was replaced by anayasa during the 
linguistic reforms in the Republic. II 640a ff.; IV 558b 

♦ kanun-i djaza'i (T) : in Ottoman usage, a penal code. II 518b 

♦ kanun al-hay'a (A) : 'the astronomical law', term used by al-Khudjandi for the 
sine law, because of its frequent use in astronomy. V 46a 

♦ kanun al-kharadj (A) : in fiscal administration, the basic survey in accordance 
with which the kharadj is collected. II 78b 

♦ kanunname (T) : in Ottoman usage, ~ generally referred to a decree of the sul- 
tan containing legal clauses on a particular topic. In the 9th/15th century the term yasakname 
had the same meaning. ~ was occasionally extended to refer to regulations which 
viziers and pashas had enacted, to laws which a competent authority had formulated or 
to reform projects. However, a ~ was like any normal kanun in that only a sultan's 
decree could give it official authority. IV 562a; Ottoman tax register. VIII 203b 

kanungo : in the Mughal empire, one of the three chief pargana officials, the others 
being the amin and the shikdar (->■ shikkdar), who were responsible for the pargana 
accounts, the rates of assessment, the survey of lands, and the protection of the rights 
of the cultivators. VIII 271a 

kapan (T, < A kabbdn 'a public balance', 'a steelyard') : an Ottoman term used to des- 
ignate the central 'markets' for basic commodities, which were established in Istanbul 
in order to ensure the authorities' control of the importation and distribution of the raw 
materials needed by the craftsmen and of the foodstuffs to provision the people, and in 
order to facilitate the collection of the tolls and taxes due to the state. IV 226b 
In Ottoman fiscal administration, ~ (or hakk-i kapan, resm-i kapan) was also the name 
for weighing duties levied at the public scales, paid in kind on cereals and dried veg- 
etables, and in cash on other produce. II 147a; III 489b 

kapanidja (T) : a sumptuous fur worn by the Ottoman sultan, with a large fur collar, 
narrow or short sleeves, decorated with fur below the shoulders, with straight supple- 
mentary sleeves, laced with frogs and loops in front. V 752a 

kapi (T) : lit. gate; by extension the Ottoman Porte, that is, the sultan's palace; ~ is also 
used for the grand vizier's palace and the seat of government. IV 568a 

♦ kapi aghasi ->• kapu aghas! 

♦ kapi kahyasi -> kap! kethudasi 

♦ kapi kethudasi (T), or kapi kahyasi : an agent, 'close to the Porte', of a high dig- 
nitary of an Ottoman subject or vassal. IV 568a 

♦ kapi kullari (T) : lit. slaves of the Porte; the sultan's troops. I 35b; IV 568a 

♦ kapidji (T) : the guard placed at the main gates of the Ottoman sultan's palace 
in Istanbul. IV 568a 

♦ kapiya cikma (T) : the appointment of 'adjam! oghlans to the palace service. I 


kaplidja (T), or illdja, kapludja, kabludja : the general term used in Turkey for a place 
where a hot spring is roofed over, as in a bath house. Ill 1120b; IV 569b, where are 
listed many more synonyms; and -► Ilidja 

kaptan -> kapudan; kapudan pasha 

kapu aghasi (T), or kapl aghast : the chief white eunuch and the senior officer in the 
Ottoman sultan's palace, until the late 10th/16th century. He was the sole mediator 
between the sultan and the world outside the palace, and had the authority to petition 
the sultan for the appointment, promotion and transfer of palace servants, aghas and 
it oghlans. II 1088a; IV 570b; IV 1093a 

kapudan (T, < It capitano), or kaptan : any commander of a ship, small or large, for- 
eign or Turkish. VIII 564b 

♦ kapudan pasha (T), or kaptan pasha, kapudan-i derya : the title of the comman- 
der-in-chief of the Ottoman navy, becoming current only ca. 975/1567. Earlier titles 
were derya begi and kapudan-i derya. The squadron-commander was known as kaptan, 
and the individual commander as re'is (-> ra'is). I 948a; IV 571b; VIII 564b 

In the 10th/16th century, the ~ became as well the governor of an eyalet, which con- 
sisted of a group of ports and islands. II 165 

♦ kapudan-i derya -»■ kapudan pasha 

♦ kapudana bey (T) : one of three grades of admiral, instituted when the naval hier- 
archy was organised under c Abd al-Hamid I, or later under his successor Sellm III. The 
other two were patrona bey 'vice-admiral' and riydla bey 'rear-admiral'. VIII 566b ff. 

kar (A, T) : a form of music known in Turkey (k'ar). I 67a; and -»■ sinf 
kar c -> kuththa' 

♦ kar'a (A) : in alchemy, the part known as 'cucurbit' of the distilling apparatus, 
the lower part of the alembic. I 486a; XII 550b 

kara (A, pi. kur) : in geography, a small, isolated flat-topped hill, known as gdra in 
North Africa. V 361b 

kara (T) : black, dark colour; strong, powerful. The former meaning is commonly meant 
when ~ is a first component of geographical names; the latter with personal names, 
although it may refer to the black or dark brown colour of hair or to a dark complex- 
ion. IV 572b 

karaba (A) : kinship; as a technical term, ~ seems to be of post-HiDJRA usage. In the 
Qur'an, and pre-Islamic poetry, the preferred term is kurba. The superlative al-akrabun 
is also found, with the meaning of the closest relatives, those who have a claim to 
inherit from a man. IV 595a 

karabatak (T) : a performance practice associated exclusively with the Ottoman music 
ensemble, mehter, consisting of the alternation of soft passages played by a partial 
ensemble with thunderous tutti passages. VI 1008a 

karabisi (A) : clothes-seller. IV 596a 

karaghul (Ott, < Mon; mod.T karakol) : lit. black arm; in Ottoman times, a patrol dur- 
ing military campaigns, sent out apart from the vanguard forces, carkhadjl, by the 
Ottoman army. The maintenance of security and order in different quarters in Istanbul 
was carried out by Janissary orders called kulluk. In modern Turkish, ~ became 
karakol, which is the common term for police station or patrol. IV 611a 

karaghulam : in the Ayyubid army under Salah al-DIn, a second grade cavalryman. I 
797b; VIII 468a 

karagoz (T) : lit. black eye; in literature, ~ is the principal character in the Turkish 
shadow play, and also the shadow play itself, which is played with flat, two-dimen- 
sional figures, manipulated by the shadow player, which represent inanimate objects, 
animals, fantastic beasts and beings, and human characters. IV 601a 

karakol ->■ karaghul 


karakul : lambskin. I 506a 

karam (A) : the qualities of nobility of character, magnanimity, generosity, all the 
virtues making up the noble and virtuous man. XII 511b; and -»■ sharaf 

karama (A, pi. karamai) : a marvel wrought by a saint, mostly consisting of miracu- 
lous happenings in the corporeal world, or else of predictions of the future, or else of 
interpretation of the secrets of hearts, etc. IV 615a 

karan (A) : in archery, a quiver made from pieces of leather put together in such a way 
that the air can circulate through interstices left so that the fletchings of the arrows do 
not deteriorate. IV 800a; and ->• kiran 

karandal -»■ kalandar 

karanful (A) : in botany, the clove. IV 626b 

kararit -»■ karrIta 

karastun (P ?) : an instrument made up of a long beam which has at one of its ends a 
stone as a weight. If the Armeno-Persian origin of the word is correct, the ~ must be 
a kind of lever or balance, very similar to the shaduf, the contrivance used for rais- 
ing water and still in use in certain eastern countries. IV 629a; the Roman balance or 
steelyard. IV 629a; V 529b; VII 195b 

karaz (A) : in botany, the acacia tree or fruit. VIII 1042b; XII 172a 

karbansalar -»■ karwan 

karbas (P) : a kind of coarse cotton weave, woven in many parts of the province of 
Kirman. V 152a 

karbus (A, pi. kardbis) : the pommel of a horse saddle, the cantel, or back pommel, 
being called mu'akhkhara or karbus mu'akhkhar. II 954a; IX 51a; the saddle rested on 
a pad, mirshaha, held in position by girths, hizam, and a breast-strap, labab. II 954a 

kard (A), or salaf : in law, the loan of money or other fungible objects. I 633a; VIII 
899b; the loan of consummation. I 26b 
In numismatics, clipping coins with scissors. X 409b 

♦ kard hasan (A) : in law, an interest-free loan. VII 671b; VIII 899b 

kardus (A, pi. karadis) : in military science, a squadron, an innovation which is said to 
have been introduced by Marwan II. Ill 182b; VIII 794a 

karhab -»■ fazz 

kari -> kira' 

karP ->■ kurra'; mukri' 

karib (A) : lit. near; in Persian prosody, the name of a metre, of rare occurrence, said 
to have been invented by the Persians. I 677b 

karif (K) : in the yazIdi tradition, an unrelated male on whose knees one has been cir- 
cumcised and with whom a life-long bond exists. XI 315b 

karih (A) : a foal between four and five years of age. II 785a 

kariha -»■ ghina' 

karim (A) : yellow amber, in Egypt (syn. kahraman); also, a fleet, especially a merchant 
fleet. IV 640b 

♦ karimi (A, < karim ?) : the name of a group of Muslim merchants operating 
from the major centres of trade in the Ayyubid and Mamluk empires, above all in 
spices. IV 640a 

karin (A) : a companion; in pre-Islamic usage, and in the Qur'an, a term for a man's 
spirit-companion or familiar. IV 643b; IX 407a 

♦ karina (A) : in Arabic literary theory, one of the terms used to indicate sadj' 
rhyme. VIII 737b; and -> kayna 

In Persian literature, ~ , or karlna-yi sdrifa, was used for a clue required to express the 
relationship between a madjaz 'trope', and the corresponding hakIka 'literal speech'. 
Such a clue is either implied in the context or specifically added, e.g. in shir-i 


shamshlrzan, where the adjective points to the actual meaning of 'valiant warrior'. V 

karis (A) : the quality of food being piquant, not always interchangeable with hdrr 'hot' 

or hamid 'sour'. II 1071b 
kariz : a term used in eastern and south-eastern Persia, Afghanistan, and Balucistan to 

designate a kanat, a mining-installation or technique for extracting water from the 

depths of the earth. IV 529a 

♦ karizkan ->■ mukannI 

karkaddan (A, < P kargaddri) : in zoology, the rhinoceros; ~ is the term for three vari- 
eties: the Indian rhinoceros, also called mirmis, ziba'rd/zib'ard and sindd; the rhinoc- 
eros of Java; and the rhinoceros of Sumatra (P nishdn). The African species was known 
to the Arabs well before Islam: the Black rhinoceros was called harlsh or khirtlt (also 
one of the many terms for the rhinoceros' horn), and Burchell's rhinoceros, hirmis, abu 
karn, umm karn and 'anaza. IV 647a 

♦ karkaddan al-bahr (A), or harlsh al-bahr : in zoology, the narwhal (Monodon 
monocews). IV 648b; VIII 1022b 

karkal (A) : in Mamluk times, the small receptacle in which water falls before flowing 
over the shadirwan; the channel itself was called silsal. IX 175b 

karkas (A) : in mediaeval times, a special kind of clay, appended by a cord to docu- 
ments and into which a seal ring was impressed. IV 1103b 

karkh (A, < Ar karka 'fortified city') : a word associated with various towns in areas 
of Aramaic culture before the Islamic conquest; in Baghdad, a specific area and more 
generally the whole of the west side below the Round City was called al-~. IV 652a 

karkjiana (P) : a workshop. V 312a 

karki (A) : in prosody, term used by Safi al-Din al-Hilli for a zadjal that contains lam- 
poons. XI 373b 

karkur (N.Afr, B akkur), more exactly karkur : a heap of stones, and, more especially, 
a sacred heap of stones. The cult of heaps of stones seems to come from a rite of trans- 
ference or expulsion of evil; the individual, picking up a stone, causes the evil of what- 
ever kind that afflicts him to pass onto it and gets rid of it by throwing it or depositing 
it with the stone on a place suitable for absorbing it. The accumulation of these expi- 
atory pebbles forms the sacred piles of stones which rise all along the roads, at difficult 
passes and at the entrances to sanctuaries. IV 655b 

karm (A) : in botany, the vine, grapevine. IV 659a; in art, karma is a vine-scroll frieze. 
I 611b 

karmati ->■ kufI 

karna : in music, a six- to eight-foot long piece of hollow bamboo with a cow's horn at 
the end. X 407a 

karoh ->■ krosa 

karr (A) : attack. 

♦ karr wa-farr (A) : in military science, the tactic of withdrawal and counter-attack. 
VIII 131a; XI 542a 

karram (A) : a vine-tender. IV 667a 

karranay in music, an instrument of the horn and trumpet type. X 35a 

karrita (Alg, < It carretta) : a cart and wagon; in the 16th century, its plural kararlt was 

used to designate Portuguese wagons. I 206a 
karsana ->■ kursan 

karghi (anc.T and Uy) : castle. IV 671b; Mongolian term for palace. V 858b 
karshuni (A, < Syr) : the name of the Syriac script used by the Christians of Syria and 

Mesopotamia for writing Arabic. IV 671b 


In India, ~ is applied to the Syriac script used for writing Malayalam, the vernacular 
language of the Malabar Christians. IV 671b 

karvan-kes_h -> karwan 

karwan (A, < P) : a caravan, composed of horses, mules, donkeys, and especially 
camels; in India, caravans for the bulk transport of grain were pulled by oxen. In the 
pre-Islamic period, the Arabs had for long used the word 'ir, and later the more usual 
word kdfila, which at the beginning of the lst/7th century was current for gatherings 
of traders, as the equivalent of ~ . IV 676b 

In the Ottoman period, the leader responsible for organising the ~ was called kervdn- 
bashl (in Persia and India, kdrvan-kesh or kdrbdnsdldr). IV 677b 

♦ karwansaray (P) : caravanserai. IX 44; and -»■ kaysariyya 

karwasha (A) : originally, the name of the argot of the Moroccans practising the trades 
of sorcerer and treasure-seeker in Egypt, today applied to the secret language of the 
Dakarna (s. Dakruni) of Sudanese origin installed in the Village of the Sudanese close 
to Madamud in Upper Egypt and elsewhere. A part of the vocabulary is of Moroccan 
origin, while the grammar is that of the spoken language of the region of Luxor. IV 

karya (A, T karye; pi. kurd) : a town, village; and -*■ nahiye 

As a Qur'anic term, ~ indicates an important town. Mecca, Medina, Sodom, Nineveh, 
and the coastal town are so called. IV 680a 

♦ al-karyatayn (A) : a Qur'anic term for Mecca and Medina. IV 680a 

♦ umm al-kura -> umm al-kura 
kas -»■ SANDJ 

♦ kasatan -»■ musaffahat 

kas'a in music, a small shallow kettledrum. X 35b 

kasab (A) : in botany, any plant with a long and hollow stem like the reed {Arundo 
donax), to which the term is especially applied. IV 682a; a coloured linen cloth man- 
ufactured at Tinnis, or a white one made at Damietta, or sometimes a cotton cloth 
made at Kazarun, out of which women's fine veils were woven, some set with precious 
stones. It can also mean a silken material, as well as a kind of brocade encrusted with 
little strips of gold or silver. IV 682b; X 532a 

In mineralogy, in the singular (kasaba), the best emeralds, which are extracted from 
the vein as one piece. The small ones extracted from the earth by sieving are called 
fass 'cabochon'. The beads cut from the latter are 'lentil-like', 'adasiyya. XI 570a f. 

♦ kasab al-bardi (A), or al-bardi : the papyrus reed. IV 682a 

♦ kasab al-djarira (A) : the sweet flag (or fragrant rush). IV 682a 

♦ kasab hulw -> kasab al-sukkar 

♦ kasab al-mass -> kasab al-sukkar 

♦ kasab al-sukkar (A), also kasab al-mass or kasab hulw : in botany, the sugar 
cane. IV 682b; V 863a 

kasaba (A, mod. T kasaba) : originally, the essential part of a country or a town, its 
heart. This usage occurs especially in the Muslim West, where it is also applied to the 
most ancient part of a town (syn. al-madina); later, a fortified castle, residence of an 
authority in the centre of a country or a town; principal town. Ill 498b; IV 684b; chef- 
lieu. V 311b 

In North Africa, ~ occurs in the sense of fortress-citadel (dialect: kasba). IV 685a 
In the Turkish Republic, a kasaba is a town with from 2000 to 20,000 inhabitants. I 
974b; and -> koy 

As a basic measure of length, ~ equalled a number of cubits varying between five and 
eight, but giving an average length of four metres. VII 137b; the ~ was predominantly 
used in surveying. In 1830 the ~ was established at 3.55 metres. II 232b 


kasam (A), and yamin, half : an oath. IV 687b 

In the Qur'an, ~ or its verb aksama apply, in general, to the oaths pronounced by God 
himself. IV 687b 

In law, ~ is the extrajudicial oath by which a person binds himself to do or not to do 
a certain specific physical or juridicial act, by invoking the name of God or one of the 
divine attributes. IV 687b 

kasama (A, < kasam) : in law, an oath by which is asserted the guilt or innocence of 
an individual presumed to have killed someone, repeated fifty times, either by the 
'asaba of the victim of a murder (Maliki school of law, where it is a procedure of 
accusation), or by the inhabitants of the place of the crime (Hanafi school of law, 
where it is a procedure for the defence of the one presumed guilty). IV 689b 

kasb (A) : in economic life, gain. IV 690b 

In theology, ~ means acquisition, appropriation. The verb kasaba is frequently found 
in the Qur'an, mainly with the sense of acquiring those rewards or punishments which 
are the fruit of moral acts. ~ has had a long history in the scholastic theology, espe- 
cially in the Ash'ari school, where ~ and iktisdb were employed to define that which 
reverted to man in a 'freely' accomplished and morally qualified act. Ill 1063a; IV 

kasba farisiyya ->• istam 

kasba ->■ kasaba 

kasdir ->■ rasas kal'I 

kash ->• yashm 

kasha'rir (A) : in medicine, the shivers. X 510a 

kashf (A) : in mysticism, the act of lifting and tearing away the veil (which comes 
between man and the extra-phenomenal world). IV 696b; VIII 429a; X 318b 
Under the Mamluks, the term -was used to designate a mission of amIrs from Cairo 
to Upper Egypt that consisted in guaranteeing security during harvests, inspecting the 
condition of the canals, and, to a growing extent, controlling the Bedouin. VIII 865a 

kasjii (P, T, < Kdshani) : in art, the tiles or trimmed pieces of faience serving to cover 
completely or partially the main fabric of buildings in a design principally decorative 
but also, at times, to protect them against humidity. IV 701a 

♦ kashi-kari (P) : a process of tile-decorating, whereby the design is reproduced on 
tiles of baked earth which are then painted, generally with different metal oxides, to 
become polychromatic, then rebaked. IV 702a 

♦ kashi-yi mu'arrak-kari (P), or simply mu'arrak-kdri : a technique of tile-decorat- 
ing, which consists of cutting, according to precise forms, pieces of monochrome ~ of 
different colours to compose a polychrome design. IV 701b 

kashif (A) : under the Ottomans, a district prefect. VIII 235a; ~ is still in use today in 

Egypt. VIII 865b 
kashik : in music, a rattle instrument, made up of two wooden spoons attached to each 

other, in the hollow of which are a number of small bells, used in Persia and Turkey. 

IX lib 
kashk (P) : a kind of whey. V 152b; a type of yoghurt. XII 608b 
kashka (T) : in western Turkish, the name given to a blaze on the forehead of animals 

such as horses, sheep and cattle; in Caghatay the word also means 'brilliant', 'gallant'. 

It is probable that kashkdy, the name of a Turkish people living in the Fars province 

of Iran, is related to one of these meanings. IV 705b 
kashkul (P) : an oval bowl of metal, wood or coconut (calabash), worn suspended by a 

chain from the shoulder, in which the dervishes put the alms they receive and the food 

which is given them. IV 706b 


In modern Arabic, ~ is sometimes used for a kind of album or collection of press cut- 
tings, as well as denoting a 'beggar's bowl'. IV 706b 

kashshaba (Mor) : a long sleeveless outer gown for men, and a long-sleeved flowing 
tunic with a deep slit down the breast for women, worn in Morocco. V 746a 

kashshafa ->■ talI'a 

kasht (A) : an erasure on a written document. X 408b 

kashuth rumi ->■ afsantIn 

kasib (A, pi. kawdsib) : a carnivore. II 739b 

kasida (A) : in poetry, a polythematic ode which numbers at least seven verses, but gen- 
erally comprises far more. It consists essentially of three parts of variable length: (1) 
an amatory prologue (nasIb) in which the poet sheds some tears over what was once 
the camping place of his beloved now far off; (2) the poet's narration of his journey 
(rahil) to the person to whom the poem is addressed; (3) the central theme, constituted 
by the panegyric of a tribe, a protector or a patron, or in satire of their enemies. The 
Arabic ~ is a very conventional piece of verse, with one rhyme and in a uniform metre. 
From the end of the 2nd/8th century onwards, the classical ~ gave birth to a whole 
series of autonomous poetic genres. All these genres are represented in independent 
pieces, to which the name of ~ continues often to be given, even though incorrectly. I 
583b; I 668a; IV 713b 

The Persian ~ is a lyric poem, most frequently panegyric. Quantitatively, a poem can- 
not be a ~ unless the number of its distichs exceeds fifteen and does not exceed thirty. 
The ~ comprises three parts: the exordium, the eulogy, and the petition. It is first and 
foremost a poem composed for a princely festival, especially the spring festival and the 
autumn one, and was connected with courtly life in Persia. IV 57b; IV 714a 
The Turkish ~ has the same rhyme scheme and metric patterns as the ~ in Arabic and 
Persian. The usual length of a Turkish ~ is between 15 and 99 couplets, but in fact, 
some longer ones exist. Theoretically, a complete Turkish ~ should contain six sec- 
tions: nasIb, taghazzul, girIzgah, madhiyya, fakhriyya and du'a', but invariably 
do not contain all of them. Very often, one or more are left out, the most frequent 
omissions being the taghazzul, fakhriyya and du'a' sections. IV 715b 
In Swahili, ~ normally refers to a poem praising the Prophet. V 963a 

♦ kasida bahariyya (A kasida and P bahdr) : in Urdu prosody, an ode with a pre- 
lude that was a description of spring. V 958b 

♦ kasida simtiyya ->■ musammat 

♦ kasida zadjaliyya ->■ malhun 

♦ kasida-yi madiha -»■ madIh 

kasim (A) : in geography, the sandy area where the ghadd bush abounds. IV 717a 

kasir (A, pi. kawdsir) : a rapacious predator, used in hawking. I 1152a; a day-hunting 
raptor. X 783b 

kasir (A) : in law, a person under guardianship. XI 208b 

kasir (A) : in North Africa, a refugee, like the tanib, but one entitled to make use of 
his prestige among his former group with which he has not severed all relations. XII 
78b; among contemporary nomads like the Ruwala', ~ indicates a mutual relationship 
between members of different tribes by which each grants protection against his fellow- 
tribesmen. Ill 1018a 

kasm (A) : a term for a land tax, in Syria and Palestine in the 10th/ 16th century, com- 
ing to a fifth, sometimes as much as a third, of the produce. VII 507b 

kasr (A) : in mathematics, a fraction. From the time of Ibn al-Banna' onwards, the Arab 
mathematicians distinguished five kinds of fractions: mufrad (simple), muntasib (frac- 
tion of relationship), mukhtalif (disjunct), muba"ad (subdivided), and mustathna (excepted). 
IV 725a 

KASR — KAT C 317 

In medicine, a fracture. II 481b 
In grammar, the sound of the vowel i. IV 731a 
For ~ in Bedouin culture, ->• falIdja 
kasr (A, pi. kusur) : residence of a ruler, palace, or any building on a larger scale than 
a mere home, used in particular for Umayyad desert palaces and frontier forts. In the 
Maghrib, pronounced tear, also a collective granary or store house. IX 44a; XII 512a; 
and ->• agadir 
In medicine, torticollis. X 788b 

♦ kasra (A) : in anatomy, the base of the neck. X 788b 

♦ kasriyya (A) : the palace guard of the Fatimids. IX 685b 

kasra (A) : in grammar, ~ denotes the vowel /', more specifically the written sign itself, 
kasr denoting the sound in question. Ill 172a; IV 731a 

kass (A, pi. kussds) : a popular story-teller or preacher, deliverer of sermons whose 
activity considerably varied over the centuries, from preaching in the mosques with a 
form of Qur'anic exegesis to downright charlatanism. IV 733b; X 274b; an older, if not 
the primary meaning of ~ is 'a kind of detective responsible for examining and inter- 
preting tracks and marks on the ground'; thus is it found twice in the Qur'an. V 186a; 
jester. IX 552b 

kassab -* djazzar 

♦ kassabci-bashi (P), or salldkhii-bdshl : in Safawid times, the butcher in the royal 
kitchen. XII 609b 

kassah -> kannas 

kassam (T, < A) : in Ottoman law, the title given to the trustee who divided an estate 
between the heirs of a deceased person. Ottoman law recognised two types of ~ , those 
under the kadi 'asker 'judge of the army', and the others employed locally in each 
kadI's court. The local ~ was called shehri or beledl. IV 735b; VI 4b 

♦ kassamlik ->■ kisma 

kassar (A) : a fuller; bleacher. IV 1161a; V 89b; laundryman. XII 757b; a term in the 
Persian Gulf for a projecting rock. I 535b 

kassas (A) : in parts of the Central Region (the Sinai, Jordan and Palestine), an expert 
who determines the amount due for a particular injury, as payment for amends in place 
of retaliation for homicide or bodily injury, known as mu'arrish in Yemen and nazzdr 
in the Western Desert. X 890b; and -+ kissa-kh w an 

kassl (A) : a striped fabric from Egypt containing silk, one of seven things forbidden by 
Muhammad in a Tradition. V 735b 

kast -> taksIt 

kat (A) : in botany, a smooth-stemmed shrub (Catha edulis, Methyscophyllum glaucum) 
that grows in East Africa and southwestern Arabia. Its leaves and young shoots 
(kaldwlt, s. kilwat) contain an alkaloid, katin, which produces a euphoric, stimulating, 
exciting but finally depressing effect when chewed or drunk in a decoction; it is widely 
used in Ethiopia, Djibouti, East Africa and Yemen. IV 741a 

kat' (A) : lit. cutting off; in the science of Qur'anic reading, ~ or wakf was the pause 
in reading, based on the sense or otherwise. Later, a distinction was made between the 
short pause for breath, and the other pauses, based on the sense; according to some, ~ 
indicated only the first; according to others only the second. IV 741b 
In grammar, ~ is used in the term alif al-kaf for the disjunctive hamza which, opposed 
to the hamzat al-wasl, cannot be elided. ~ further indicates the deliberate cutting, for 
a special purpose, between elements of a sentence which syntactically are closely con- 
nected. IV 742a; XI 172b 

In prosody, ~ indicates cutting short the ending of certain metrical feet, e.g., the short- 
ening of the metrical fd'ilun to fd'il. This shortened form is then called maktu'. IV 742a 

318 KAT — KATIB 

In mathematics, ~ is used in many terms: kaf zd'id 'hyperbola', kaf nakis 'ellipse', 

kaf mukafi 'parabola', and kaf mukafi mudjassam 'paraboloid'. IV 742a 

In astrology, ~ indicates scission. IV 742a 

In the science of diplomatic, ~ refers to the format of paper. Al-kaf al-kdmil was an 

in-folio format used for treaties, al-kaf al-'ada, a small ordinary format used for 

decrees and appointments of the lowest rank. IV 742b 

In logic, ~ means 'to assert something decisively or refute someone completely'. IV 


In medicine, the excision of soft diseased substance. II 481b 

In art, san'at-i kaf was the art of cutting silhouette, brought from Persia to Turkey in 

the 10th/16th century, and to the west in the llth/17th century, where at first, as in the 

east, light paper on a dark gound was always used. II 755b 

♦ kat' al-tarik (A), or muharaba : highway robbery or robbery with violence (syn. 
al-sirka al-kubra), which in certain circumstances is punished with death. IV 770a; V 
768a; IX 63a 

kata (A, pi. katawdt, katayat) : in zoology, the ornithological family of Pteroclididae or 
sandgrouse. The term is onomatopaeic for their cry. Three species are distinguished: 
the kudrl or 'arabi (Pterocles Lichtensteini), corresponding to the Lichtenstein's or 
Close-barred sandgrouse; the djuni or ghadaf ghatma' {Pterocles orientalis), the Black- 
bellied sandgrouse; and the ghatat (Pterocles alchata), the Large Pintailed sandgrouse. 
IV 743a 

kataba '1-kitab (A) : lit. he has written the book; a fabulous marine creature mentioned 
by mediaeval Arab authors. It lives in the Indian Ocean, and its juice produces an 
invisible ink legible only at night. VIII 1023a 

katani (A) : legumes. XI 413a 

katar (P) : a type of levelling board used in central Iran for the preparation of irrigation 
check banks, and operated by two men, one pulling and the other pushing. II 905b 

katf (A) : in prosody, a deviation in the metre because of the suppression of a sabab 
khafif, a moving and a quiescent consonant, and the preceding vowel, e.g. in 
mufa'alfatun]. I 672a 

kati' (A) : a family flock of ten to forty animals, called fizr if there are only sheep, and 
subba if there are only goats. XII 319a 

♦ kati'a (A, pi. kata'i') : a Muslim administrative term designating, on the one 
hand, those concessions made to private individuals on state lands in the first centuries 
of the hidjra, and, on the other hand, the fixed sum of a tax or tribute, in contradis- 
tinction to taxation by proportional method or some variable means. Ill 1088a; IV 
754b; IV 973a 

In early Islam, ~ was a unit of land, often a sizable estate, allotted to prominent indi- 
viduals in the garrison cities founded at the time of the conquests. V 23a 
katib (A, pi. kuttdb) : a secretary, a term which was used in the Arab-Islamic world for 
every person whose role or function consisted of writing or drafting official letters or 
administrative documents. In the mediaeval period, ~ denoted neither a scribe in the 
literary sense of the word nor a copyist, but it could be applied to private secretaries 
as well as to the employees of the administrative service. It can denote merely a book- 
keeper as well as the chief clerk or a Secretary of State, directly responsible to the sov- 
ereign or to his vizier. IV 754b; XII 720a 

In law, an author or compiler of legally-watertight formulae for use in shuriit (-> 
shart). IX 359a 

In Western and Spanish Arabic, ~ is an alternative name for 'Utarid, the planet 
Mercury. VIII 101a; XI 555a 

♦ katib al-sirr (A) : in Muslim administration, the private secretary. X 392b 


katlba (A) : in military terminology, a squadron. IV 1 144b 

katif (A, pi. aktdf) : in anatomy, the shoulder. IV 763a 

♦ c ilm al-katif (A), or c ilm al-aktaf : scapulomancy or omoplatoscopy, i.e. divination 
by the use of the shoulder-bones. This art forms a part of the practices of physiog- 
nomy. It is universal in scope, inasmuch as it provides for the foretelling of what will 
happen in the different regions of the earth towards which the four sides of the scop- 
ula are pointed according to the signs revealed by it. IV 763a; V 100a 

katifa (P) : a fabric made in Yazd, which was renowned for its excellence. XI 304a 

katih (P) : quickly prepared rice with clarified butter, eaten by the inhabitants of the 
Caspian provinces and especially Gilan. XII 611a 

katil al-nimr -> akunitun 

katil al-ra c d (A) : lit. victim of the thunder; a name for the quail, as ancient belief held 
that the quail would be inevitably struck down by stormy weather. VIII 1006b 

katir (P) : in tribal Persia of the 19th century, a sum of money, which was increased or 
diminished according to the prosperity or otherwise of the tribes and the power of the 
government to exercise authority over them. Ill 1105b 

katlrdji (T) : a muleteer. IV 766a 

katiran -> katran 

katkhuda -> ketkhuda 

katl (A) : killing, putting to death, used in the two principal meanings of the word, sc. 
the crime of murder and the punishment of execution. IV 766b 

katm (A) : a black dye which masks the red of the henna. IX 383b 

katma (T) : in the Ottoman empire, a device that brought water added to the main water 
conduits of the state wakfs to the city at certain specified points. The sultan gave his 
formal permission for this ~ water upon application and recognised ownership rights 
over this water. V 882b 

katra : in Muslim India, a term for a market, usually known after the commodity sold 
there. IX 800b 

katran (A), or kitran, katiran : tar obtained by dry distillation of organic substances; the 
residuum left after the distillation of tar, i.e. liquid pitch; cedar-oil extracted from 
cedarwood. The substance is obtained from several kinds of coniferous trees, especially 
the Cedrus Libani, and was used as a medicine. IV 772b 

katriya (Tun) : a lieutenant in the army in the Regency of Tunis. IX 657a 

katt (A), and kadb, barsim : in botany, alfalfa, a common crop raised in the shade of 
date palms in the Gulf. I 540a 

katta'a -> djarf 

kattab (A) : in the mediaeval period, a seller of saddles stuffed with straw. XII 759a 

kattan (A) : both flax and linen, in the early period usually called kubati 'Coptic [stuff]' 
since they were imported from Egypt. White and coloured linen, kasab and sharb, and 
brocaded linen, dikk, were produced and exported to Muslim and non-Muslim countries 
until the industry began to decline in the first half of the 7th/13th century, probably the 
consequence of the increasing import of European fabrics. IV 774a; V 863a 

katum (A), and faridj, furdj : in archery, a bow made from a single stave, hence it does 
not vibrate when loosed. IV 798a 

katun : in Ottoman Greece, a semi-permanent settlement of Albanian or Vlach cattle 
breeders. VIII 169b 

katwa -> NATTALA 

kavuk (T) : a rather high, variously-shaped cap, with a headband wound round it, worn 
by officers of the Janissaries; other professions had their own special ~, some with 
specific names. IV 806a ff.; the ~, whose height varied, normally had the form of 
a contracted or enlarged cylinder, flat or bulging; but there were also those which 


resembled a truncated cone or a cupola. The highest kavuks (40 to 60 cm) were kept 
rigid by means of a construction of metal bars or a kind of basket. They had a smooth 
or quilted surface and were trimmed with cotton to give the effect of relief or a dome 
shape with the quilting. V 751a 

kawabi -> djudham 

kawad -*• kisas 

kawa'id (A, s. ka'ida) : rules. X 929a; in law, kawa'id fikhiyya are the madhhab-inter- 
nal legal principles, legal maxims, general legal rules that are applicable to a number 
of particular cases in various fields of the law, whereby the legal determination 
(ahkam) of these cases can be derived from these principles. XII 517a 

♦ kawa'id aghlabiyya (A), also ~ akthariyya : in law, 'preponderant' rules, which 
outnumber the generally valid rules (kawa'id kulliyya), and are couched not in maxims 
but in questions, e.g. "Can a presumption be canceled by another presumption or not?" 
XII 517a 

♦ kawa'id istikra'iyya (A) : in law, legal principles that were arrived at by induc- 
tion ixomfuru' (-> far') decisions. XII 517b 

♦ al-kawa'id al-khams (A), also al-kawd'id al-kubra : in law, five principles that 
were accepted by all schools, attested since the 8th/14th century. XII 517b, where they 
can be found 

♦ al-kawa'id al-kubra ->■ al-kawa'id al-khams 

♦ kawa'id kulliyya ->■ kawa'id aghlabiyya 

♦ kawa'id usuliyya (A) : in law, hermeneutic principles formulated by the legal the- 
orists, which at times were not carefully separated from the kawa'id fikhiyya, XII 

kawamikh -> kamakh 

kawarir -> zudjadj 

kawazib -*• barma'iyyun 

kawda ->■ wada' 

kawl (A) : a description of a man who is strong in himself, with mukwi used when he 

owns a robust mount. V 576a 
kawkab (A, pi. kawdkib) : in astronomy, star; according to context, ~ can mean 'planet' 

specifically. VIII 97b; and ->■ murahik 

♦ kawkab al-dhanab (A), or (kawkab) dhu dhanab : in astronomy, 'star with a tail', 
a comet. VIII 102b 

♦ (al-kawakib) al-mutahayyira (A) : in the 'scientific' period of Arabic-Islamic 
astronomy which was based on translations from Greek, the common term in astron- 
omy for the five planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) without the Sun 
and Moon. VIII 101a; XI 555a 

♦ (al-kawakib) al-sayyara (A) : in the 'scientific' period of Arabic-Islamic astron- 
omy which was based on translations from Greek, the common term in astronomy for 
the five planets plus the Sun and Moon. VIII 101a; XI 555a 

♦ al-kawakib al-sufliyya (A) : in astronomy, the lower planets (below the Sun), 
Moon, Mercury and Venus. VIII 101b 

♦ al-kawakib al-thabita (A) : in astronomy, the fixed stars, known as simply al-thawabit. 
VIII 98a 

♦ al-kawakib al-'ulwiyya (A) : in astronomy, the upper planets (beyond the Sun), 
Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. VIII 101b 

♦ kawkaba (A, pi. kawkabdt), or sura, pi. suwar : in astronomy, constellation. VIII 

kawkal -»• wakwak 

kawkan (A) : in Hispano-Arabic, the usual term for snail. VIII 707a 


kawli (P) : in modern times, the general term for the gipsy in Iran, but a wide variety 
of names are used locally. V 818b 

kawl (A) : in music, a vocal form, at present in India a form of religious song. HI 453a 
Among the Yazldis, a sacred hymn, which together form a large corpus of texts rep- 
resenting the Yazidi counterpart to both the sacred and the learned traditions of other 
cultures. XI 314b 

♦ kawli (T, < A) : the 'word-member', one of two classes of the ordinary members 
of the akhI organization, yjgit, who made a general profession only, as opposed to the 
active 'sword-member', sayfi. I 323a 

kawm (A, pi. akwdm, akawim, akayim) : people; in literature sometimes applied to 
'men', used in opposition to nisd' 'women'. IV 780b; a term of tribal provenance used 
to denote a group of people having or claiming a common ancestor, or a tribe 
descended from a single ancestor. IV 781a; VIII 234a 

In Atjeh, ~ has acquired a peculiar form, kawom, and is used to mean 'all those who 
descend from one man in the male line'. IV 781a 

In North Africa, the ~ (goum) means a contingent of cavalry levied from a tribe, a 
practice continued by the French. IV 784b 

Under the Circassian rule in the Mamluk period, al-kawm, meaning the People, was 
applied only to the Circassians. II 24b 

In India, a term for the social division among the non-Muslim population, denoting dif- 
ferent groups such as the Bhatti, Tarkhan, Pindjara; it is debatable whether these should 
be called castes or not. Ill 411a 

♦ kawmiyya (A) : nationalism. IV 781a 

♦ kawmiyyat (A) : ethnic groups, the study of whihc is differentiated from folklore, 
khalkiyyat, or studies at the popular level. X 734b 

kawma -► kuma 

kawmani (A) : in tribal organisation, a member of an enemy faction. IV 835a 

kawn (A, pi. akwari) : in philosophy, generation, especially in the phrase kawn wa- 

fasad, generation and corruption, which renders Aristotle's De generatione et corrup- 

tione. IV 794b 

In scholastic theology, ~ is the advent in nature of the existent thing, the existentiali- 

sation of all corporal beings. IV 795a 

As tribal term, -► haraba 
kawom -*■ kawm 
kaws (A) : in meteorology, the south-west monsoon. VII 52a; the west wind (or dabiif), 

which, with the east wind (kabul, also called azyab), was the most important of the 

prevailing winds of the three periods in which navigation was possible during the mon- 
soons. VIII 527a 
kaws (A) : the bow, as used in archery. IV 795b, where are found many terms for the 

names of various kinds of bows and for the components of the bow 

In music, the bow of a stringed instrument. VIII 346a 

In astronomy, al— is the term used for the bow of Sagittarius (cross-bow), one of the 

twelve zodiacal constellations. VII 83b; VIII 842a 

♦ kaws al-bunduk (A) : 'pellet- or stone-bow', the archetype of the arbalest used 
solely for shooting birds and already known in the Prophet's time. The projectile used 
was a ball of hardened clay (djuldhik or bunduk). IV 797b; in Mamluk terminology, 
one of the branches of horse-riding. II 955a 

♦ kaws hidjazi (A) : a simple, wooden bow, either short or long, used by the pre- 
Islamic Arabs. IV 797b 

♦ kaws al-husban (A) : a hand bow adapted to shoot short arrows; it had therefore 
an arrow guide but no nut or locking mechanism. IV 798a 

322 KAWS — KAYL 

♦ kaws kuzah (A) : in meteorology, the rainbow (syn. kaws Allah, kaws rasitl 
Allah, kaws al-samd', kaws al-ghamdm, etc.). IV 803a f. 

♦ kaws al-rikab ->■ kaws al-ridjl 

♦ kaws al-ridjl (wa '1-rikab) (A) : the most common name in the Mamluk period 
for the cross-bow type of weapon; it seems to have been given to cross-bows of vari- 
ous sizes, including those employed in sieges. The kaws al-rikab had a stirrup in which 
the foot was placed. Ill 476a; IV 798a 

♦ kaws wasitiyya (A) : the Arab composite bow; the adjective does not stem from 
Wasit but from its proper sense of median, intermediate, probably with reference to the 
components of this bow. IV 797b 

♦ kaws al-ziyar (A) : the 'wheel cross-bow', which was operated like the ordinary 
cross-bow to shoot a powerful arrow, but requiring several men to operate it. Ill 469b; 
IV 798a 

kawsadj -»■ kalb al-bahr 

kawt -»■ kin a 

kawthar (A) : a Qur'anic word for the name of a river in Paradise or a pond which was 

shown to the Prophet at the time of his ascension to the Throne of God. IV 805b 
kawuklu (T) : lit. the man with the kavuk; a character of the Turkish orta oyunu 

theatre. IV 806a 
kawwakh (A) : in hunting, a stalker at a hut for the capture of sandgrouse. IV 745a 
kawwal -»■ zadjdjal 

♦ kawwali : a type of (sung) poetry known on the subcontinent. X 320a; mystical 
chants. XI 119a 

kawwas (A), or occasionally kawwds : bow-maker. IV 796b; a bowman, later, muske- 
teer, 'policeman-soldier', especially the one in the service of high-placed Turkish 
officials and foreign ambassadors. From this term is derived the French cawas and the 
German Kawasse. IV 808b 

In colloquial usage, both in Turkey and in other Islamic states, ~ denotes the servants 
and guards of foreign embassies. IV 808b 

kayd (A) : in astronomy, al-~ is the name of a fictitious star, whose earliest mention so 
far known is in Ibn Hibinta's al-Mughnl where it is listed as 'one of the stars with a 
tail'. IV 809b 

kayd (A) : in astrology, 'the clutch [of the ostriches]', the numerous small stars sur- 
rounding the star group udhi al-na'dm 'the nesting place of the ostriches'. VII 830b 

kayf (A) : state; discretion. 

♦ bi-la kayf (A) : in theological writings, when referring to sifdt khabariyya, attrib- 
utes of God based on the evidence of Qur'an and Tradition which should be under- 
stood ~, ~ was taken to mean 'without further comment' by the Hanbalis and other 
Tradition proponents close to them. Theologians, however, used ~ in the sense of 
'without qualifying God in a way only to be applied to His creation', presenting it as 
a middle course between a literal acceptance of the anthropological statements in 
Scripture (tashbih) and the metaphorical interpretation in the Mu'tazili sense (ta'til). 
X 344a 

♦ kayfiyya -»■ hakIka 

kayfufiyya (A) : philosophical-theological term used by the Karramiyya for 'the quality 
of God'. Another one of their terms, called by al-Baghdadi 'ibdrdt sakhlfa 'ridiculous 
expression', was haythutMyya 'the ubiquitousness of God'. IV 668b 
kaykab (A) : a wooden saddle-bow, on which the horse's saddle was built. IV 1145a 
kayl (A) : among the Sabaeans, in the pre-Islamic period, the leader of the sha'b, the 
grouping in their social organisation constituted of a number of clans; the ~ came from 
the dominant clan, but was himself subordinate to the king. IV 818b; a kinglet. IX 


kayn (A) : an artisan, workman; current usage reserves it above all for blacksmith. 
Since the men working at this trade usually belonged to the lowest stratum of the pop- 
ulation, ~ became a deprecatory term applied to slaves and was used as an insult in 
the desert. IV 819a 

♦ kavna (A, pi. kayndt, kiydn) : female singing slave. I 32b; IV 820b; other terms 
for the professional singing girl were dddjina, muddjina, musmi'a, karina, saduh (and 
sddiha), and djardda. II 1073a; IV 820b 

kaysar (A, < Gk) : the usual name in early Islam for the Roman and Byzantine 
emperor. It is always used without the article, like a proper name. IV 839a 

kaysariyya (A, < Gk; pi. kaydsir), also kaysdriyya : the name of a large system of pub- 
lic buildings laid out in the form of cloisters with shops, workshops, warehouses and 
frequently also living-rooms, originally distinguished from the suk 'market' probably 
only by its greater extent, and by having several covered galleries around an open 
court, while the suk consists only of a single gallery. At the present day, ~ is not infre- 
quently quite or almost identical in meaning with the Persian word kdrwdnsardy. IV 
840a; IX 796b; in mediaeval Islam, an imperial establishment for the protection of 
stages on major commercial routes. IX 788b 

In Algiers at the present day, ~ means barracks; after the first half of the 17th century 
it was used to denote the Janissaries' barracks. IV 841a 

kaysum -> shIh 

kaytun -> gItun 

kayy (A) : in medicine, cauterization by fire with the object of surgical incision. II 481b 

kayyan (A), or mukayyin : a profession in mediaeval Islam, consisting of acquiring 
young slaves fit to become kiydn 'female singing slaves', in forming them under strict 
rules and in hiring out their services to private persons. IV 822b 
For ~ in botany, -> yasamIn 

kayyas -> mukayyis 

kayyim (A, pi. kawama) : lit. he who stands upright; with bi, 'aid, li or the genitive 
alone, 'he who takes something upon himself, takes care of something or someone and 
hence also has authority over them'. This meaning of supervisor is found in all possi- 
ble applications: administrator of a pious foundation, of baths, superintendent of a tem- 
ple, caretaker of a saint's grave, etc. IV 847b; VI 677b; XI 63a; lessee of the steam 
bath. Ill 140b 

In eschatological literature, ~ denotes a provider, a husband, of a woman. IV 847b 
As adjective, 'commanding' or 'correct, right' (al-dln al-kayyim). IV 847b 

kayyum (A) : the title of the topmost saint, in the thought of Ahmad al-Sirhindl, of an 
invisible hierarchy of saints. V 545b; XI 118b 

kaza' -> kada 1 

kazaghand (A,P) : in miitary science, a protective mail hauberk which had its own 
padded lining and a decorative outer layer of cloth. XII 737b 

kazak (T) : independent; vagabond. IV 848a 

Under the Timurids, ~ signified the pretenders in contrast to the actual rulers, and also 
their supporters, who led the life of an adventurer or a robber at the head of their men. 
At the same time, ~ began also to be applied to nomad groups which separated from 
their prince and kinsmen and so came into conflict with the state; later, ~ had also the 
meaning of nomad, in contrast to the sedentary Sart population in Central Asia. IV 

The status of ~ is also regarded as a very old social institution of the nomad Turkic 
peoples. The word became the name of a political unit and later an ethnic designation 
by having been applied in the former meanings to those groups of the Ozbek tribal 
confederacy that had abandoned the khan Abu '1-Khayr and migrated to the north-east 


steppes of Turkistan, where they formed the core of the population of the present Kazakhstan. 

IV 848b 

kazanlik (T) : a cauldron, as e.g. found in the mausoleum of Ahmad Yasawi, used for 
preparing food for pilgrims and sufis. X 681a 

kazmak -» kazu 

kazu : the dredging of a canal, apparently from kazmak 'to dig'. XII 550a 

kazz -»• HARIR 

kebli -»• samum 

kehledan (T) : in Ottoman times, the worker in the mint who made the ingots into plates 
to be minted. II 119a 

kelek (T, A, < Akk kalakku), or kellek, kelik : a curious raft made of bags of goat's 
hair, which is already known from the sculptures of Nineveh and has hardly changed 
in the course of centuries. Particularly mentioned by travellers in Mesopotamia and 
Persia, ~ is said to be typical for the upper part of the Tigris. IV 870a; VIII 810b 

kelle push : a small white or red cloth cap, around which the turban can be twisted. X 

keman (T), or yay : a bow-like instrument used by Ottoman carders to separate the cot- 
ton fibre from the seed by beating with it, in order to make the cotton clean and fluffy. 

V 559a 

keniz (P) : a female slave. I 24b 

keris (Mai) : in the East Indies, a double-edged dagger or short sword, retained from 
pre-Islamic times and having an almost magical and pagan significance amongst a pop- 
ulation sometimes only superficially converted to Islam. XII 736b 

kervan-bash! -»■ karwan 

keshif (T) : in Ottoman administration, a detailed protocol compiled after damages to 
WAKF-owned buildings, e.g. a bedestan, due to fire, determining the expenses involved 
in reparation. IX 542b 

keshwar -»• iklim 

kaskas (N.Afr) : a conical vessel made of earthenware or plaited alfalfa, used in North 
Africa for the preparation of couscous. V 528a 

kaswa kbira (Mor) : an elegant wedding and festivity dress of Jewish women consisting 
of several parts, derived from the 15th-century Spanish dress style. V 746a 

ketkhuda (P, > T k y ahya), or katkhuda : master of the house, head of the family; hus- 
band, chief of a tribe, headman of a village; tithe-officer in a town. IV 8b; IV 893b; 
steward. I 278a; and -> kalantar 

In Ottoman administration, ~ designated someone who looked after the affairs of an 
important government official or influential person, i.e. an authorised deputy official. IV 

In Ottoman and Persian guilds, the head of a guild, who dealt with the material and 
administrative aspects of guild life. He was chosen by the guild nobles and his appoint- 
ment was confirmed by the kadI. IV 894a; IX 645b 

In North Africa, the form kdhiya was current in Tunisia until recent times to designate 
the subordinates of the caids, governors at the head of particular administrative divi- 
sions. In a more general way, kdhiya was in general use with the sense of 'assistant to 
a high official, president or director'. In Algeria, the kahya was a bey's lieutenant, but 
also a police superintendent and even a simple corporal in the army of amIr c Abd al- 
Kadir. The use of the term for a subordinate endowed it with the pejorative meaning 
of 'inferior quality'. IV 894b 

kha° (A) : the seventh letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed kh, with the numerical 
value 600. It is defined as a voiceless post-velar fricative. IV 894b 

khabab -» harwala 


khabal (A) : in medicine, possession, as in being possessed. XII 189b 
khabar (A, pi. akhbdr, akhabir) : a report, piece of information, especially of a histor- 
ical, biographical or even anecdotal nature. IV 895a; VI 350a; X 272b; from the 
8th/14th century onwards, ~ is used interchangeably with hadIth and hikaya in the 
sense of 'story'. Ill 369a; and -> sahib al- khabar; shi'r 

In the science of Tradition, ~ refers both to Traditions that go back to Muhammad and 
to Traditions that go back to the Companions or Successors. Ill 23b; IV 895a 
In Arabic grammar, the constituent parts of the nominal phrase, e.g. zayd"" karlm"", 
where zayd, the first term, is mubtada 3 , and karlm, the second one, is ~. IV 895b; pred- 
icate. VIII 384a 

♦ khabar al-wahid (A) : in the science of Tradition, a Tradition going back to a 
single authority. Synonyms are khabar al-dhdd (-> ahad, and III 25b), khabar al- 
infirad and khabar al-khdssa. IV 896a 

khabbaz (A) : a baker. V 41b; XII 756b 

khabl (A) : in prosody, a type of double deviation (zihaf), whereby there are two cases 
per foot, combining khabn and tayy. XI 508b 

khabn (A) : in prosody, a deviation in the metre because of the loss of the second con- 
sonant of a foot, e.g. the sin in mu[s]tafilun. I 672a; XI 508b 

khabra' (A, pi. khabdri) : in geography, a silt flat, as is common in the Syrian desert, 
which comprises part of Syria, Jordan and northern Saudi Arabia and is mostly com- 
posed of highly dissected terrain. The rainfall, which usually occurs in the form of sud- 
den cloudbursts, picks up a large amount of material from the erosion remnants and 
carries it inland downstream at high velocities. When such a stream reaches a gently 
sloping and wide open area, the ensuing loss in the velocity of the water stream causes 
the silts to be deposited. A ~ is the resulting silt flat. II 248b; IV 897b 
In Arabia, a hollow with an impervious bottom holding water for a while after rain. I 
538a; a small pond formed by rain. V 40a 

khabut (A) : in the terminology of horse-riding, a horse that stamps its fore-feet. II 953b 

khadam (A, pi. khuddam) : collective noun for 'free servants'; further used, often linked 
in paronomasia with hasham, to denote the partisans and entourage of a great man, 
above all, of a military leader or ruler. IV 899a,b 

khadang : a wood, probably birch, native to Cac (now Tashkent) in Central Asia. X 

khadd al-'adhra' (A) : lit. virgin's cheek; the name for the anemone in mediaeval 'Irak. 
IX 248b 

khaddar -> bakkal 

khadim (A, pi. khuddam) : a (free) servant, domestic; eunuch. I 33a; IV 899a; IV 
1087a; a female slave. I 24b 

In North Africa, ~ has acquired the specialised meaning of negress, while khdim is 
used for a domestic servant. I 24b; IV 899a 

♦ khadim al-haramayn (A) : lit. servant of the two holy places (that is, Mecca and 
Medina), a title used by a number of Mamluk and Ottoman sultans. IV 899b 

khadir, banu (A, s. khadiri) : a generic term in Nadjd for Arabs of dubious ancestry, 
i.e. not recognised as descendants of either 'Adnan or Kahtan, not to be taken as the 
name of a tribe. IV 905b 

khadira (A) : in botany, a productive palm tree which has lost its dates when they were 
still green. VII 923b 

klTadja (P, pi. kh"dajagdn) : a title used in many different senses in Islamic lands. In 
earlier times it was variously used of scholars, teachers, merchants, ministers and 
eunuchs. In mediaeval Egypt it was a title for important Persian and other foreign mer- 
chants. In Samanid times, with the epithet buzurg 'great', it designated the head of the 

administration; later, ~ was a title frequently accorded to viziers, teachers, writers, rich 
men, and merchants. In the Ottoman empire it was used of the ulema, and in the plural 
form kh"dajegdn designated certain classes of civilian officials (-> kh w adjegan-i 
dIwan-i humayun). In modern Turkey, pronounced hodja (modern orthography hoed) 
it designates the professional men of religion, but is used as a form of address for 
teachers in general. In Egypt and the Levant (pronounced khawdga or khawddja), it 
was used for merchants, then more particularly for non-Muslim merchants, and then as 
a more or less polite form of address for non-Muslims in general. IV 907a; IV 1092b 
In India, ~ designates those Isma'ilis who follow the Agha Khan. IV 907a; as khodja. 
the name of an Indian caste consisting mostly of Nizari Isma'ilis and some sunnls and 
Twelver shi'is split off from the Isma'ili community; in a looser sense, khodja refers to 
the Indian Nizarls in general. V 25b 

♦ kh w adja-i djahan : a title of high dignitaries in various sultanates of India, 
notably the sultanate of Dihli, the Bahmanids, and the sultanate of Madura. IV 907b 

♦ kh w adjas, or khddjas : the designation of two lineages of spiritual and political 
leaders in Eastern Turkistan, where they played a decisive role from the late 10th/16th 
century to the last quarter of the 19th century. XII 522b 

♦ kh w adjegan-i diwan-i humayun (Ott) : under the Ottomans, a title given to the 
heads of the imperial chancery. From the mid-1 lth/17th century, ~ was also given to 
various officials additional to the chief clerks of the diwan, whereby a century later, 
the numbers of people holding this rank grew to several times more than the holders 
of the actual office. IV 908b 

khafara (A) : 'protection', used, often together with himaya, to designate certain social 
practices. Orginally, it primarily denoted the protection which Arab tribes extended to 
merchants, travellers and pilgrims crossing their territories, often in return for payment 
or as part of an agreement. Later, the word's usage became extended to the 'protec- 
tion' in return for an obligatory payment exacted by various social groups from other 
groups or from richer individuals. IV 913a; and -> khuwwa 

khafd (A), or khifdd : female excision, corresponding to ktatn or khitan, the circumci- 
sion of boys. Under Islam, ~ has never been regarded as obligatory, but has been con- 
sidered as recommended. IV 913a; VIII 824b 
For ~ in grammar, -> djarr 

khafif (A) : in prosody, the name of the eleventh Arabic metre. I 670a; and -► ka'Id 

khafiyye (T, < A) : lit. secret (police); under the Ottoman sultan 'Abd al-Hamld II, ~ 
came to mean a network of espionage and informing, and included the whole range of 
informers and spies from the highest social levels to the lowest. I 64a 

khaftan (P), or kaftan, kuftdn : an ample, full-length robe with sleeves that buttons down 
the front. This originally Persian garment became extremely popular throughout the 
Arab world. V 737b 

khak (P) : earth; an inconspicuous grave with no solid shelter attached to it, ~ is known 
only from literary sources and plays no role in epigraphy or funerary architecture sim- 
ilar to that of turba, of which it is a translation. X 674a 

In Safawid administration, ~ db is the first water given to wheat, dun db the water 
given to wheat when it was nearly ripe, both requiring dues to be paid by the district 
to the mIrab. V 874a 

♦ khak-sar (IndP) : 'humble as dust', the name of a 20th century Indian movement 
for national regeneration. IV 916b 

khakan (T, < Mon kaghan or khaghan) : (supreme) ruler; ~ was applied by the Turks 
and the mediaeval Muslim geographers and historians to the heads of the various 
Turkish confederations, but also to other non-Muslim rulers such as the Emperor of 
China. IV 915a; VIII 621b; in the form ka'an it was borne by the successors of Cingiz- 
Khan, the Mongol Great Khans in Karakorum and Peking. IV 915a 


♦ khakanl (A) : a beggar in the time of al-Djahiz, who painted over his face in 
order to make it swell up; possibly a male prostitute. VII 494b 

khal (A, pi. akhwat) : maternal uncle, whether a full, consanguineous or uterine one. 

The paternal uncle is 'amm (pi. a' mam). IV 916a; and -> shama 
khal c (A) : in political science, deposition, forced abdication; in modern Arabic khala'a 
min al-'arsh or rafa'a min al-mansab is used. XII 524b 

In early Islam, exclusion of a tribe-member from his tribe by his kinsmen. IX 864b; X 
3a; and -> khalI' 
In medicine, luxation. II 481b 
khalaf -* al-salaf wa 'l-khalaf 

khalandj (A) : in botany, the high-growing poplar, greatly prized for bows. IV 1085b 
khali (A) : 'empty'; in the Ottoman empire, a term for uncultivated land. X 503b; and 

-> kali 
khali' (A, pi. khula'd') : in early Islam, one who has been disowned by his kinsmen for 
fear of accepting the consequences of his crimes, acquiring soon the meaning of shatir 
'a rebel who makes a conscious decision to practise evil'. IX 864a 
al-khalidat (A) : the 'Fortunate Isles', the Canaries. VII 962a 
khalidj (A) : a canal from a river. V 533b; IX 659a; and -* dhira' 
khalifa (A, pi. khulafd', khald'if) : caliph. As a title, after the first four caliphs (al- 
khulafa' al-rashidun), Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman and c Ali, ~ passed to the Umay- 
yads, then to the 'Abbasids. But it was also assumed by the Spanish Umayyad c Abd 
al-Rahman III and his successors as well as by shi'i Fatimids, the Hafsids and the 
Marinids. ~ was never officially transferred to the Ottoman sultans. IV 937a; ~ was 
also used as a title during the Sudanese Mahdist period (1881-1898). IV 952b 
In political theory, ~ is the title of the leader of the Muslim community. The full title 
is khalifat rasul Allah 'successor of the messenger of God'. IV 947b 
In mysticism, ~ may have any of the following meanings, all carrying the idea of vic- 
arship: the kutb or perfect man, al-insan al-kdmil, around whom the spheres of being 
evolve, upon whom the Muhammadan Reality, which is the hidden side of his own 
reality, irradiates; the successor of the (alleged) founder of an order or of the deceased 
leader of a group of mystics; a murId who, after having reached a certain stage of 
mystical perfection, is granted permission by his spiritual master to initiate novices and 
to guide them on the mystical path; the deputy of the head of an order in a particular 
area; the pre-eminent representative and principal propagator of an order in a particu- 
lar area acting independently. IV 950a; X 246a 

Among the Bektashiyya, ~ refers to a rank of spiritual achievement which could be 
attained only by those who had been ordained as bdbd, head of a tekke. IV 951b 
Among the Sanusiyya, ~ may denote the representative of the head of the order who 
has been sent on a mission to a zawiya. IV 952a 
Among the Nizari Isma'ilis, a plenipotentiary of the long-hidden imam. I 353b 

♦ khalifat al-balad (A) : in the Khatmiyya order, the term for the local khalIfa 
(syn. khalifat al-ndhiya). X 249b 

♦ al-khulafa' al-rashidun > khalIfa 

khalili (A) : name of highly esteemed grapes in the region of Samarkand. IX 1 10b 
khalis -> TARRAR 
khalis -> ibriz 

♦ khalisa (P, < A; pi. khdllsaajdt) : in Persia, crown lands, and lesser rivers, 
kanats and wells belonging to the crown. IV 972b 

Under the Dihli sultanate, ~ land was an area under direct revenue administration from 

which the troops could be paid in cash. II 272b 
khaliyya (A) : the hive of bees. VII 906b, where variants are found 
khaluk (A) : a perfume that is said to have left yellow stains. X 900b 


khalk (A) : creation, the act of creating (syn. bariyya); Creation. IV 980a; and -* ibda c 

♦ khalkdjilik (T) : democracy. VIII 219a 

♦ khalk al-insan (A) : human anatomy. IX 394b 

♦ khalkiyyat -+ kawmiyyat 
khalwa (A) : privacy, seclusion. 

In mysticism, ~ means 'retirement, seclusion, retreat', and, more specifically, 'isolation 
in a solitary place or cell', involving spiritual exercises. IV 990a; IX 300a; X 245a; 
XII 522a 

In law, the theory of ~ is that consummation between husband and wife is presumed 
to have occurred if they have been alone together in a place where it would have been 
possible for them to have had sexual intercourse. Ill 1011a 

In North Africa, ~ is used for a heap of stones where women, for purposes of a mys- 
tical nature, attach rags to reeds planted between the stones and where they burn ben- 
zoin and styrax in potsherds. IV 381b; V 1201b 
In Chad and the Nilotic Sudan, a Qur'anic school. XI 124b 

khalwatiyya (A) : a variety of 'aba 5 made in Hasbaya. V 741a 

khamil (A) : a silken robe with fringes, said to be part of Fatima's trousseau, along with 
a water-skin, kirba, and a cushion filled with rushes, idhkhir. X 900a 

khamir (A) : a leavened bread, an elided expression for khubz khamlr, as is the term for 
an unleavened bread, fatlr, for khubz fatlr. V 41b 

♦ khamira (A) : yeast. Ill 1087b 
khamis (A) : Thursday. IV 994a; IV 1009a 

In military science, the five elements into which the army is divided: the centre, right 
wing, left wing, vanguard, and rear guard. Ill 182a; IV 1144b; and -+ khamsa wa- 

khamisa (A) : a black garment with edging. IX 313a 

khammar -»• tidjara 

khamr (A, < Ar) : wine. IV 994b 

♦ khamriyya (A) : in prosody, a Bacchic or wine poem. This name does not seem 
to be attested in the mediaeval nomenclature of the genres. The usual expressions al- 
kawl fi 'l-khamr, lahu ma'dni fi 'l-khamr, wassdf li 'l-khamr, indicate the existence of 
themes, but do not include any willingness to organise them into an independent poem. 
IV 998a 

khamsa (A) : five; also, a piece of jewellery called 'the hand of Fatma' which is used 
as an amulet. I 786a; IV 1009a; XII 775b 

In Persian and Turkish literature, a set of five maihnawi poems, e.g. the five epic 
poems of Nizami of Gandja. Occasionally the term sitta, a set of six poems, is used 
for collections of the mathnawi poems of 'Attar and Sana'i. IV 1009b 

♦ khamsa wa-khamis (A) : a formula said against the evil eye. IV 1009a 
khamsih -> 'amar al-dam 

khan (T, P) : in Turkish, a title first used by the T'u-chiieh apparently as a synonym of 
kagban, the later khakan, with which its relationship is obscure; ~ was afterwards nor- 
mally applied to subordinate rulers. The term was applied to various ranks throughout 
Islamic history, surviving into modern times in much the sense of the English 'esquire'. 
IV 1010b; and -+ sultan 

In military science, a commander of ten thousand soldiers. IV 1019b 
In India today, a common affix to the names of Muslims of all classes and is often 
regarded as a surname. IV 1010b 

Of Persian origin, ~ designates both a staging-post and lodging on the main communi- 
cation routes, and a warehouse, later a hostelry in the more important urban centres. 
IV 228a; IV 1010b; sometimes the urban ~ would be not a structure, but a group of 


several specialised markets, like the Khan al-Khalili in Cairo, a collection of shops 
enclosed by two large gateways. IV 1015b 

♦ khan khanan (IndP) : a high military title in mediaeval Indo-Muslim usage, the 
highest title conferred on an officer of the state. IV 1019b; V 629b 

♦ khanazad : under the Mughals, a noble belonging to families previously con- 
nected with imperial service. VII 322a 

♦ khanedan -> derebey 

♦ khankah (A, < P khdnagah; pi. khawdnik, khdnkdhdt) : a building usually 
reserved for Muslim mystics belonging to a dervish order. The terms ribat, tekke and 
zawiya refer to establishments with similar aims. The usual translation of 'monastery' 
does not convey the complexity of the institution. IV 433a; IV 1025a; VIII 494a; X 

khana (P) : in literature, each single kasIda part of a tardjI'-band or tarkIb-band. X 

khanazir -> khinzIr 
khandak (A, < P) : ditch, trench, moat. Its most famous use is in the 'expedition of the 

~ ', in which Muhammad foiled a Meccan attempt to storm Medina in 5/627. IV 

1020b; another expedition involving a ~ was in 327/939 in Muslim Spain before 

Simancas at the river of Alhandega (< al-khandak). IX 304a 
khandjal -> zalzum 
khandjar (A) : in military science, a heavy dagger or short stabbing sword, which 

appears to have been of eastern Iranian or Turkish origin. XII 736b 
khanik (A) : choking. 

♦ khanik al-dhi'b -> akunItun 

♦ khanik al-fuhud (A) : in botany, a variety of aconite (Doronicum pardalianches), 
also called khanik al-namir (->■ akunItun); by metonymy, ~ has been extended to 
mean the effects of poisoning induced by this plant. II 740b 

♦ khanik al-nimr -> akunItun 

khannak (A) : in mediaeval Islam, a category of thieves, the strangler or assassin, who 
may have worked by suffocating his victim but may also have been a disembowler, 
bd'idj, or one who pounded his victim's head with a stone, rddikh. V 769a 

khansa' (A) : 'with a flat muzzle', in poetry, a description used for the oryx and addax 
antelope. V 1227b 

kh w ansalar (P) : the overseer of the food at the court of the Muslim sovereigns. II 15a; 
VIII 954a; steward. VIII 924b 

khanzuwan (A) : in zoology, the male pig, boar; the wild boar, whether under three 
years old, a three-year old, a four-year old or an old boar is called ran (pi. rutut), and 
'ufrl'ifr (pi. 'ifdr, a'fdr). V8a 

khar clni -> talikun 

khar pusht -> kunfuqh 

khara (A) : human excrement, used as fuel in the public baths of San'a'. IX 2b 

kharadj (A), and khasaf, naslf : a term in the vocabulary of colour meaning a mixture, 
a combination of two colours sometimes regarded as opposites. V 699b 

kharadj (A, < Gk) : tax, more specifically, land tax. IV 1030b; in mediaeval Persian 
usage and in the Ottoman empire, ~ also meant a tribute, taken from e.g. the peace 
agreements made after the victories of the Ottomans in the West. IV 1034a; IV 1055a 
In Ottoman usage, ~ denoted both the land tax and the poll-tax on the state's non- 
Muslim subjects. IV 1053b 

In the Muslim West, ~ was the tax imposed upon prostitutes, who were called 
kharddjiyydt or kharddjayrdt. XII 134a; and -> dar 
For ~ in India, ->■ muwazzaf 


kharaz (A) : in Mecca, the local name for the system of man-made underground chan- 
nels bringing sweet water to houses. VI 179a; and -»■ wada' 

kharbag -»■ kharbga 

kharbak (A) : in botany, the hellebore. IX 434b; IX 872b 

kharbasha (A) : to botch something, do untidy work. XI 546a 

kharbga (N.Afr) : in North Africa, a type of the game of draughts, played on a square 
board made up of holes marked out in the ground or in rock and having 49 compo- 
nent squares or 'houses'. According to the number of holes along each side, the game 
is called either khamiisiyya (5 holes) or sabu'iyya (7 holes). A player is known as 
kharbag or kharbagl. A different game called ~ uses a rectangle on which diagonals 
are traced. IV 1071b 

khardal (A) : a mustard sauce, containing saffron and other dried spice s. When mixed 
with brown vinegar, it was used to prevent the 'transformation' of fish. XI 381b 

khardj : an age group. X 7b 

khardja (A) : in prosody, the last line of a stanza; as used by Safi al-Din al-Hilll, all 
the lines with common rhyme. XI 373b 

khardjllk (T) : in the Ottoman period, a sum (usually 50 akce per person) collected 
annually by the eshkindji 'auxiliary soldier', from an assistant, yamak, to join the sul- 
tan's army on an expedition. II 714b 

kharfush -»■ harfOsh 

khargah : a trellis tent, serving as a private chamber for the Mongol ruler. IX 45b 

kharib (A, pi. khurrab) : a camel thief. V 768b; IX 864b 

kharidj (A) : in mathematics, a quotient. IV 725b; and -»■ dakhil 

♦ kharidji (A) : the epithet for a member of the sectarian group Kharidjites but, 
equally, a rebel in general, without any religious connotation. XII 598b 

kharidj (A) : in early Islam, a guessing game. V 616b 

kharif (A) : in India, the harvest collected after the end of the rains. II 909a; autumn 
crop. V 579b 

kharir -» khurur 

kharita (A, < Fr), or kharita : in modern Arabic, a map, for which several terms were 
used in mediaeval Arabic, e.g. djughrafiyd, surat al-ard, rasm al-ard, etc. IV 1077b 

khark (A, pi. khuruk) : in mineralogy, cavity, either filled with water, air, mud, raym, or 
sometimes worms, a defect or impurity in a gem. XI 263a 
In the vocabulary of Ottoman irrigation, a water-channel (syn. djadwal). V 878b 

kharkhara -» khurur 

kharm (A) : in prosody, the absence of the initial short syllable in the first line of a 
poem. X 389b; XI 27b 

kharraz (A) : a leather bag maker, whose profession in pre-modern times had a low 
social status because working with leather was regarded as unclean. XII 463b 

kharruba (Sic) : a small-sized stellate coin introduced in Sicily by the Fatimids, whose 
weight was theoretically 0.195 gr but which in practice varied between 0.65 and 1.25 
gr. IX 590a 

khars (A) : assessment of taxes. X 307b 

kharsini (A, < P khar clnl 'hard substance from China), also hadid sini : in metallurgy, 
a hard, highly-esteemed alloy, the constituents of which have not been established with 
certainty, but it is not zinc, as often assumed. According to the physcial qualities attrib- 
uted to it, ~ best corresponds to hard lead, i.e. an alloy consisting of a mixture of lead, 
antimony and small quantities of copper, iron and tin. IV 1084a 

khartawi (T) : a high, pointed kavuk, worn with a turban rolled around, whose end was 
often left free. It was worn in Turkey from the 17th century on. V 751b 

kharuf -> sakhla 

♦ kharuf al-bahr (A), or umm zubayba : the manatee, one of the sirenian mammals 
or 'sea cows'. VIII 1022b 

kharwar (P) : a donkey's load, a unit of weight which was widespread in the Persian 
lands in all periods. The Buyid ruler c Adud al-Dawla fixed it at 96.35 kg, but in later 
times a heavier ~ was introduced, weighing 288 kg; at present a ~ of 297 kg is wide- 
spread, although others are used. VI 120b 

khas -» YASHM 

khasaf -> kharadj 

khasf (A) : 'swallowing up', as e.g. in the apocalyptic prophecy figuring the Sufyani, an 
opponent of the Mahdi, of what would happen to a Syrian army by the desert between 
Mecca and Medina. XII 755a 

khashab (A) : in botany, wood. IV 1085a; the word used by the 'Utub for their boats. 

♦ khashaba (A, pi. khashabat; T lawh) : 'club', 'wooden beam'; a plate of wood 
through which a knotted string was threaded, the only instrument for measurement used 
in mediaeval Islamic navigation. The ~ was used for measuring the altitude of a star 
above the horizon. It was held at fixed distances from the eye using the knots placed 
on the string, and this enabled the height of the plate to measure different angular alti- 
tudes. The ~ originally represented the hand of the navigator held at arm's length. VII 
51a; and -> khashabiyya 

In the plural, khashabat was the name given to wooden pillars which in mediaeval 
times were driven into the seabed at the place where the Shatt al-'Arab empties into 
the Gulf, to guide sailors in danger of being drawn into a dangerous whirlpool and also 
on occasion to signal the approach of pirates. IV 1086a; and -> khishab 

♦ khashabiyya (A, < khashab, s. khashaba 'club') : 'men armed with clubs', an 
appellation for the mawall of Kufa who formed the main part of the followers of al- 
Mukhtar and took the field under his generals. IV 1086a 

khashash -> hasharat 

khashkhash (A) : in botany, the oppyx, or poppy (Papaver somniferum). I 243a; IX 
249a; IX 615a 

khashm -> djabal 

khashshab (A) : a wood-seller. XII 758b 

khasi (A, pi. khisyan) : castrated man, the man or animal who has undergone the abla- 
tion of the testicles; the complete eunuch, deprived of all his sexual organs, is a 
maajbub (pi. madjabib). I 33a; IV 1087a 

khasman (A, s. khasm, pi. khusum or khusamd') : in law, the (two) parties to a lawsuit, 
whereby each party is the khasm of the other. II 171a 

khasr -» al-na c l al-sharIf 

khass (A) : in botany, lettuce, one of the summer crops in mediaeval Egypt. V 863a 

khass (A, fem. khassa, pi. khawass) : 'personal, private, pertaining to the state or ruler', 
a term used in Ottoman administration. At first used interchangeably, later, khassa 
came to be used for the services and matters concerning the ruler and his palace, 
while ~ was used rather for the private estates of the ruler. IV 972b; IV 1094a; and -> 


In magic, khassa (pi. khawass), also khassiyya (pi. khassiyyat), in the meaning of 'sym- 
pathetic quality', is a recurring theme, indicating the unaccountable, esoteric forces in 
animate and inanimate Nature. It was believed that all objects were in relation to one 
another through sympathy and antipathy and that diseases could be caused and cured, 
good and ill fortune be brought about as a result of the relations of these tensions. IV 


Al-khdssa also denotes the elite, the notables, or the aristocracy, and is frequently men- 
tioned in one breath with its counterpart al-'dmma, which signifies commonalty, the 
plebs, or the masses. I 82b; I 491a; IV 1098a; IX 232a; in Isma'ili usage, the khdss 
were the elite who knew the batin, and the 'dmm, the ignorant generality. I 1099a 
Among the Yazidis, ~ is a holy figure (also mer; -» mIr). XI 314a 
For ~ in numismatics, -> ibrIz 
For ~ in Indian administration, -» dabir; khassa-niwIs 

♦ khass al-khass (A) : 'specific difference' or 'the particular of the particular', a 
term in logic for what constitutes the species. It is the simple universal attributed to 
the species in reply to the question: what is it in its essence in relation to its genus. II 

♦ khassa -> khass 

♦ khassa-niwis (IndP) : in the Dihli sultanate, the secretary attached to the court or 
on court duty. IV 759a 

♦ al-khassa wa 'l-'amma -> khass 

♦ khassat al-shams (A) : in astronomy, the mean solar anomaly. IX 292a 

♦ -khawass-i humayun (T) : in Ottoman administration, one of two types of khass- 
tImar, viz. imperial revenues, belonging theoretically to the sultan but actually within 
the public treasury. The other type, khawass-i wuzerd' and umera', was reserved for the 
members of the government and provincial governors. X 503a 

♦ khawass al-kur'an (A) : the art of drawing prognostications from verses of the 
Qur'an to which beneficial effects are attributed. IV 1133b 

♦ khawass-i wuzera' -»■ khawass-i humayun 

♦ 'ilm al-khawass (A) : the knowledge of the natural properties of the letters, based 
on alchemy. Ill 595b 

khassadar : a tribal levy; in the 1920s paid by the government of India to replace the 
Khyber Rifles, to ensure safety of the Khyber Pass. I 238b; and -> djaza'ilCI 

khassaf (A) : a cobbler. XII 526b 

khassakiyya (A) : under the Mamluks, the sultan's bodyguard and select retinue, con- 
sidered to be the most prestigious body within the Mamluk military aristocracy. IV 

khasseki (T, < P khdssagi, < A khass 'private, special, confidential') : a term applied to 
persons in the personal service of Ottoman rulers, both in the palace from the 10th/16th 
to the 13th/19th centuries, e.g. the sultan's concubines, whose number varied between 
four and seven. The favourites were honoured by the title of kadin. Those who bore 
him a child were called khasseki sultan; and in the military organisation, where the 
14th, 49th, 66th, and 67th companies or ortas of the Janissary corps were called 
khasseki or talari. IV 1100a; XI 130b 

♦ khasseki sultan -> khassekI 
khat' -> KHATA 5 

khata' (A) : a mistake, which is made in thought, speech or action (ant. sawdb 'what is 
correct'); hence in the field of knowledge, error; in that of action, omission, failure, all 
this, of course, unintentional. IV 1100b 
In logic, ~ denotes an error (ant. sawdb). IV 1101a 

In law, ~ or khat' is an unintentional action, an act contrary to law, in which the inten- 
tion of committing an illegal act is lacking, while the action itself may be deliberate 
(ant. 'amd). IV 768b; IV 1101b 

khatam (A, P muhr), or khdtim : a seal, signet, signet-ring; the impression (also khatrri) 
as well as the actual seal-matrix. ~ is applied not only to seals proper, engraved in 
incuse characters with retrograde inscriptions, but also to the very common seal-like 
objects with regular inscriptions of a pious or auspicious character; indeed, anything 
with an inscription stamped upon it may be called ~. II 306a; IV 1102b 


In Morocco, at the present time, ~ denotes also any kind of ring worn on the finger. 
IV 1105b 

♦ khatam al-wasiyyin (A) : a title among the Imamis referring to the Twelfth Imam, 
but also found as an epithet of c Ali. XI 161b 

khati'a (A, pi. khataya, khatVat) : in theology, a moral lapse, sin, syn. of dhanb. IV 

khatib (A, pi. khutaba') : among the ancient Arabs, the name for the spokesman of the 
tribe, often mentioned along with the sha'ir, the poet. The distinction between the two 
is not absolutely definite, but essentially is that the shaHr uses the poetic form while 
the ~ expresses himself in prose, often, however, also in saqj c 'rhymed prose'. IV 
1 109b; designation for a tribal chief. IX 115b 

In early Islam, with the advent of the khutba, the address from the minbar in the 
mosque, the ~ was given a specifically religious character. IV 1110a; preacher of the 
Friday sermon. VIII 955a 

khatim ->■ djadwal; khatam 

khatina (A) : a female circumciser, cutter of clitorises. Tradition attributes to the Prophet 
the expression mukatti'at al-buzur (s. bazr) which has a pejorative sense, but ~ and its 
syn. mubazzira do not seem to have a contemptuous connotation. IV 913a 

khatm -*• akhtam; c ikbir; khatam 

khatina (A, pi. ktitam), or khitma : the technical name for the recitation of the whole 
of the Qur'an from the beginning to end. IV 1112b; X 74b 

In classical Muslim administration, ~ is the statement of income and expenditure pre- 
pared and presented monthly by the djahbadh to the dIwan. II 78b 

♦ al-khatma al-djami'a (A) : in classical Muslim administration, the annual state- 
ment. II 78b 

khatt (A, pi. khutut) : writing, script. IV 1113a; the black or white lines on the hooves 
of wild cattle or on the flanks and the backs of stags (syn. rami). IV 1128b; and -* 


In divination, ~ (or rami) is the line which the geomancer traces on the sand when he 
is practising psammomancy. IV 1128b 

♦ khatt al-idjaza -► rika c 

♦ khatt al-istiwa' ->■ istiwa' 

♦ khatt-i humayun (Ott), and khatt-i sherlf : in Ottoman administration, the decrees 
and rescripts of the Ottoman sultans, and written by them personally. From the reign 
of Murad III onwards, the decrease in the power of the Grand Viziers to act indepen- 
dently in state affairs led to a system of obtaining a ~ for almost anything except triv- 
ial matters. IV 1131a 

♦ khatt-i mu'amma'i (P, T) : an artificial script used in both Persia and Turkey, ~ 
is the rearrangement of a hadith or some other important saying in a way which is 
difficult to read. IV 1126b 

♦ khatt-i shadjari (P, T) : 'tree-like writing', a name given by western scholars to 
an artificial script, applied to thuluth and used both in Persia and Turkey for writ- 
ing book titles, in which the letters bear a resemblance to the branches of a tree. IV 

♦ khatt-i sherlf ->• khatt-i humayOn 

♦ khatt-i sunbuli (T) : 'hyacinth script', a script invented by the Turkish calligra- 
pher 'Arif Hikmet (d. 1337/1918), in which the letters resemble a hyacinth and are also 
reminiscent of diwani letters. IV 1126b 

♦ al-khatt bi-raml (A) : in divination, geomancy. IV 1128b 

khattara (Mor, pop. khettara or rhettara) : a term used to designate the underground 
draining system, existing especially in Marrakesh, with wells sunk to a depth of 40 m. 
IV 532b 


khatti (A) : 'from al-Khatt' in Bahrayn or Hadjar, a description for a spear with a bam- 
boo or strong reed shaft, often made by a certain expert named Samhar, whence the 
appellation samhari. XII 735b 

khatun (T) : a title of Soghdian origin borne by the wives and female relations of the 
T'u-chiieh and subsequent Turkish rulers. It was employed by the Saldjuks and 
Kh w arazm-Shahs and even by the various Cingizid dynasties. It was displaced in 
Central Asia in the Timurid period by begum, which passed into India and is still used 
in Pakistan as the title of a lady of rank (-► begam). IV 1133a; X 419a 

khaul (J) : a celebration in Java, similar to the mawlid in the Middle East, held once 
a year to honour the day a saint passed away or was born. XI 537a 

khawa (A, < ikhdwa 'brotherliness') : a term formerly used on the Arabian peninsula 
for payments made in return for the right to enter alien territory and for protection 
while staying there. Similar payments made by pilgrim caravans on the way to the 
Holy Cities were called surra. IV 1133a 

khawarik al-'adat (A) : among the Sa'diyya Sufi order, deeds transcending the natural 
order, such as healing, spectacles involving body piercing, darb al-sildh, and, best 
known, the daws a. VIII 728b 

khawass al-kur'an -+ KHassa 

khawatim (A, s. khatimd) : in the science of diplomatic, the concluding protocal of doc- 
uments, consisting of the istiihna', the ta'rifch (dating), and the 'aldma (signature). II 

khawf -> SALAT AL-KHAWF 

khawkha (A) : private entrance to the mosque. IX 49b 

khawr (A) : on the Arabian peninsula, a term for an inlet in the Arabian shores of the 
Persian Gulf; a submarine valley. I 536a; XI 292b; also, a desert well with water too 
salty for humans to drink from. I 538b 

khawta' -+ khirnik 

khayal (A) : figure. IV 602b; also tayf al-~ or ~ al-tayf, phantasm of the beloved, a 
standard amatory topic of poetry. X 220a; X 400a 

In Ibn al- c Arabi's thought, an important term used as a corrective to c akl. X 318b 
In Indian music, the most important song form in the classical repertoire. It arose as a 
reaction to the traditional rigid and austere composition dhrupad. Its content deals pri- 
marily with religious and amorous themes, and consists of a relatively short set piece 
employed as the basis for improvisation. Ill 453b; IV 1136a 

♦ khayal al-zill (A) : 'the shadow fantasy', popular name for the shadow-play, pos- 
sibly brought over from south-east Asia or India and performed in Muslim lands from 
the 6th/12th to the present century. IV 602b; IV 1136b 

♦ khayala (A) : equitation, the art of horseback riding. IV 1143b 
khayashim (A, s. khayshum) : the nasal cavities. VI 130a; VIII 121a 

khayl (A, pi. khuyul, akhydl) : in zoology, the equine species. The term has no singu- 
lar, and like ibil 'camels' and ghanam 'sheep', is included in the category of collec- 
tives for domestic animals forming the basis of nomadic life. IV 1143a 

khaylaniyyat (A), or bandt al-md' : in zoology, the sirenian mammals or 'sea cows'. 
VIII 1022b 

khayma (A) : a tent; ~ was originally used to denote a rudimentary shelter, circular in 
construction, erected on three or four stakes driven into the ground with supporting 
cross-members covered with branches or grass. IV 1147a 

♦ khaymanegan (T) : lit. people living in tents; in Ottoman administration, any wan- 
dering subject who might come and exploit the land on a temporary basis, paying rents 
or tithes to the owner. VI 960a 


khayr (A) : charity, gifts in money or kind from individuals or voluntary associations 
to needy persons. In Islam, to make such gifts is a religious act. The word has the 
sense of freely choosing something, i.e. virtue or goodness, a service to others beyond 
one's kin. It also means goods such as property or things that have material value. IV 

♦ khayr wa-khidmat (A) : among the ahl-i hakk, an offering of cooked or pre- 
pared victuals, like sugar, bread etc., which with raw offerings of male animals (->• 
nadhr wa-niyaz) is an indispensable feature of a dhikr session. I 261b 

♦ khayri -»■ wakf khayrI 

khaysh (A, pi. khuyush, akhydsh, n. of unity, khaysha) '■ a coarse, loose linen made with 
flax of poor quality and used in the manufacture of sacks, wrappings and rudimentary 
tents; also, a kind of fan, still used in 'Irak, where it is now called by the Indian name 
pdnka. IV 1160b 

khayyat (A) : a tailor, dressmaker. IV 1161a 

khayzuran (A) : a rod, one of the insignia of sovereignty of the Umayyad caliphs in 
Muslim Spain. IV 377b; bamboo. IV 682a; VIII 1022a 

khazaf (A) : in art, ceramics. IV 1164b 

khazin (A, pi. khuzzdn, khazana) : lit. he who keeps safe, stores something away; a term 
for a quite menial and lowly member of the 'Abbasid caliphal household. IV 1181b; a 
keeper of books or librarian. IV 1182a; VI 199a 

As a term of mediaeval Islamic administration, ~ stands for certain members of the 
financial departments and also of the chancery; an archivist. Ill 304b; IV 1181b 
The plural khazana is found in the Qur'an and denotes the angels who guard Paradise 
and Hell. IV 1181b 

♦ khazindar, khaznadar (T) : in Mamluk usage, keeper of the treasury (var. of 
khizdnadar), an office originally given to an amir of forty but later upgraded and filled 
by an amir of 100. IV 186b; in Ottoman administration, a treasurer. XII 511b 

khazine (T, < A khazlna) : the Ottoman state treasury. IV 1183b; the annual income of 
a province sent to Istanbul. IV 1184b 

In popular language, ~ gradually took the form of khazne, and came to be used as a 
place for storing any kind of goods or for storing water. IV 1 1 83b; and -»■ khzana 

khazir (A), or khazlra : a gruel generally made from bran and meat cut up into small 
pieces and cooked in water, eaten by pre-Islamic Arabs. II 1059a 

khazl (A) : in prosody, a type of double deviation (zihaf), whereby there are two cases 
per foot, combining idmar and tayy. XI 508b 

khazna (A) : in music, the uppermost internode (of a flute). XII 667a 

khaznadar -»■ khazindar 

khazne -»■ khazine 

khazz (A) : a term for a mixture of silk and wool, but sometimes also used for silk. Ill 
209b; poplin. VII 17b; floss silk. XII 341a; black silk. X 609b 
In zoology, beaver (syn. kunduz). II 817a 

khazzan (A) : a type of sedentary merchant in mediaeval Islam, who, by means of stock- 
ing or de-stocking, plays on variations of price as influenced by space, time and the 
quantities of the commodities traded. IX 789a; a wholesaler. X 469a 

khel -»■ tira 

khettara ->• khattara 

khiba 1 (A) : a kind of tent, probably similar to the bayt in size, but distinguished from 
it by the camel hair (wabar) or wool that was used to make the awning. Apparently, 
it was the usual dwelling of the cameleer nomads. It is impossible to be certain whether 
the distinction between ~ and bayt corresponds to a different geographical distribution, 


to a contrast between two large categories of nomads in Arabia, or simply to different 
levels of life within one tribe. IV 1147a 

khibyara ->■ batrakh 

khida' (A) : trickery. IX 567b 

khidab (A) : the dyeing of certain parts of the body (and especially, in regard to men, 
the beard and hair) by means of henna or some similar substance. V lb; IX 3 1 2a; IX 

khidhlan (A) : in theology, a term applied exclusively to God when He withdraws His 
grace or help from man (ant. lutf). I 413b; V 3b 

khidiw (A, < P) : khedive, the title of the rulers of Egypt in the later 19th and early 
20th centuries. In a way, ~ was a unique title among the vassals of the Ottoman sul- 
tan, which the ambitious viceroy of Egypt sought precisely in order to set himself apart 
and above so many other governors and viceroys of Ottoman dominions. V 4a 

khidmatiyya (IndP) : in the Mughal infantry, the name given by Akbar to a caste of 
Hindu highway robbers, called mdwis, whom he recruited to guard the palace and con- 
trol highway robbery. V 686b 

khidmet (T) : one of seven services to be rendered by the ra'iyya to the TlMAR-holder 
such as the provision of hay, straw, wood, etc. II 32a; and ->■ khayr wa-kbidmet 

♦ khidmet akcesi (T), or malshet 'livelihood' : in the Ottoman tax system, service- 
money which government agents were allowed to collect for themselves as a small fee 
for their services. VIII 487b 

khidr (A, pi. khudur) : the section inside the Arab tent reserved for women. The term 
derives from the name of the curtain which separated this section from the rest of the 
tent. IV 1148a 

khifad ->■ khafd 

khil c a (A, pi. khila') : a robe of honour, also called tashrif. Throughout much of the 
mediaeval period, the term did not designate a single item of clothing, but rather a 
variety of fine garments and ensembles which were p