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ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

JUDAICA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

JUDAICA 



SECOND EDITION 



VOLUME 22 

Thematic Outline and Index 



Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief 
Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor 



MACIVIILLAN REFERENCE USA 

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ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition 

Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief 

Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor 

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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA 

Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief ; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. -- 2nd ed. 
v. cm. 
Includes bibliographical references and index. 
Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. 

ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) - ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) - ISBN 0-02- 
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4 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : 
alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) - 
ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02- 
865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865941-4 
(vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. 
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18: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865949- 
X (vol. 21: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 
1. Jews -- Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- 
DS102.8.E496 2007 
909'.04924 -- dc22 

2006020426 



978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 
978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 
978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 
978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 
978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 



978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 
978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 
978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 
978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 
978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 



ISBN-13: 

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978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 
978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 
978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 
978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 



978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 
978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 
978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 
978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 
978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 



978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 
978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 
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10 987654321 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Introduction to the Thematic Outline 

5 
Thematic Outline 



7 



Introduction to the Index 

V7 
Abbreviations of the Index 

281 

Index 

283 



INTRODUCTION TO THE THEMATIC OUTLINE 



The outline presented here is intended to provide a general view of the conceptual scheme of the Encyclopaedia. It is divided 
into five parts: I. History; II. Religion; III. Jewish Languages & Literature; IV. Jews in World Culture; V. Women. To show the con- 
ceptual components of the Encyclopaedia's coverage, each of these general parts is subdivided into a variety of sections and 
sub-sections. The categories used in this outline are intended to be heuristic and thereby serviceable in guiding users through 
the Encyclopaedia. Because the rubrics used as section headings are not necessarily mutually exclusive, certain entries in the 
Encyclopaedia are listed in more than one section. 



I. HISTORY 



II. RELIGION 



A.ANCIENT PERIOD 

1. BIBLE p. 7 

2. TALMUD p. 19 



A.JEWISH 



1. JEWISH LAW p. 187 

2. JEWISH RITUAL & OBSERVANCE p. 188 



3. SECOND TEMPLE AND LATE ROMAN PERIODS p. 26 3 . JEWISH THOUGHT & PHILOSOPHY p. 192 



B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 

1. GENERAL HISTORY p. 34 

a. Antisemitism p. 35 

b. Demography p. 36 

c. Economic History p. 36 

d. Zionism p. 37 

2. REGIONAL HISTORY 

a. Israel, Land and State of p. 39 

b. Byzantium p. 61 

c. Muslim Lands (incl. Islam) p. 61 

d. Asia and Africa p. 67 

e. Western Europe p. 68 

1. England & British Commonwealth p. 68 

2. France, Luxembourg & Belgium p. 78 

3. Germany & Austria p. 86 

4. Italy p. 101 

5. Netherlands p. 105 

6. Scandinavia p. 107 

7. Spain & Portugal p. 108 

8. Switzerland p. Ill 

f. Eastern Europe p. Ill 

1. Bulgaria, Albania & Armenia p. Ill 

2. Czechoslovakia p. 112 

3. Greece p. 115 

4. Hungary p. 115 

5. Poland p. 119 

6. Romania p. 125 

7. Russia & Former Soviet Union p. 127 

8. Yugoslavia p. 135 

g. United States p. 136 
h. Canada p. 171 

i. Latin America p. 173 

3. HOLOCAUST HISTORY p. 175 



4. RABBINICS p. 194 

5. KABBALAH & JEWISH MYSTICISM p. 214 

6. HASIDISM p. 217 

B. OTHER 

1. CHRISTIANITY p. 218 

2. ISLAM (see MUSLIM LANDS) 

3. KARAITES p. 220 

4. MARRANOS p. 221 

5. SAMARITANS p. 222 



III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE 

A. JEWISH LANGUAGES p. 222 

B. JEWISH LITERATURE p. 223 

C. HEBREW LITERATURE p. 223 
D.YIDDISH LITERATURE p. 228 



IV. JEWS IN WORLD CULTURE 

A. ART p. 232 

1. ARCHITECTURE p. 233 

2. CARTOONING p. 233 

3. PAINTING p. 234 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



4. PHOTOGRAPHY p. 237 

5. SCULPTURE p. 237 

6. OTHER p. 238 



B. LITERATURE 



1. BULGARIAN LITERATURE p. 239 

2. CZECHOSLOVAK LITERATURE p. 239 

3. DUTCH LITERATURE p. 239 

4. ENGLISH LITERATURE p. 239 

5. FRENCH LITERATURE p. 242 

6. GERMAN LITERATURE p. 243 

7. GREEK LITERATURE p. 245 

8. HUNGARIAN LITERATURE p. 245 

9. ITALIAN LITERATURE p. 246 

10. POLISH LITERATURE p. 246 

11. ROMANIAN LITERATURE p. 246 

12. RUSSIAN LITERATURE p. 247 



13. SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE p. 248 

14. SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE LITERATURE p. 248 

15. YUGOSLAV LITERATURE p. 248 

C. MUSIC & DANCE p. 249 

D. SCIENCE p. 257 

1. BIOLOGY p. 257 

2. CHEMISTRY p. 258 

3. ENGINEERING (incl. inventors) p. 260 

4. GEOLOGY p. 260 

5. MEDICINE & PHYSIOLOGY p. 260 

6. PHYSICS & MATHEMATICS 

(iNCL. ASTRONOMY & METEOROLOGY) p. 263 

7. OTHER p. 265 



V. WOMEN P . 266 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 



A. ANCIENT PERIOD 

1. BIBLE 

Main Surveys 

archaeology 

BIBLE 
HISTORY 

General Entries 

aaronides 

ABADDON 

ACROSTICS 

AGRICULTURAL LAND-MANAGEMENT METHODS AND 

IMPLEMENTS IN ANCIENT EREZ ISRAEL 
AGRICULTURE 
AKEDAH 
ALLEGORY 
ALTAR 
AM HA-AREZ 
ANCIENT OF DAYS 
ANGELS AND ANGELOLOGY 
ANOINTING 
ARCHAEOLOGISTS 

ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHITECTS 
ARCHIVES 
ARIEL 

ARK OF MOSES 
ARK OF NOAH 
ARK OF THE COVENANT 
AZAZEL 
BAAL WORSHIP 
BAHUR 
BALANCE 
BANNER 

BARRENNESS AND FERTILITY 
BDELLIUM 
BELIAL 
BIBLE CODES 
BITUMEN 
BREAD 

BURNING BUSH 
CANAAN, CURSE OF 
CENSUS 
CHEESE 
CHERUB 
CHIEFTAIN 
CITY 

CITY OF REFUGE 
CONCUBINE 
CONGREGATION 
COOKING AND BAKING 



COPPER SERPENT, THE 

CORVEE 

COSMETICS 

COVENANT 

CRAFTS 

CROWNS, DECORATIVE HEADDRESSES AND WREATHS 

CULT 

CULT PLACES, ISRAELITE 

CUPBEARER 

DAY OF THE LORD 

DEATH, KISS OF 

DECALOGUE 

DEEP, THE 

DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY 

DIVINATION 

DOLMENS 

DOOR AND DOORPOST 

DREAMS 

DRUNKENNESS 

EARTH 

EARTHQUAKE 

ECSTASY 

ELDER 

EMBALMING 

EPHOD 

ETHICS 

EUNUCH 

EUPHEMISM AND DYSPHEMISM 

EXILE, ASSYRIAN 

EXILE, BABYLONIAN 

FAMINE AND DROUGHT 

FIRE 

FISH AND FISHING 

FLAG 

FLESH 

FLOOD, THE 

FODDER 

FOOD 

GENEALOGY 

GEZER CALENDAR 

GOD, NAMES OF 

GOG AND MAGOG 

GOLDEN CALF 

GROVES, SACRED 

HAPAX LEGOMENA 

HAZAK 

HEBREW BOOK TITLES 

HIGH PRIEST 

HISTORIOGRAPHY 

HOLINESS CODE 

HOST OF HEAVEN 

HUNTING 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



7 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 
1. Bible 

General Entries (continued) 

IDOLATRY 

IMPALEMENT 

INCENSE AND PERFUMES 

IR HA-NIDDAHAT 

ISRAEL 

ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF 

JACHIN AND BOAZ 

JACOB, BLESSING OF 

JEALOUSY 

JESHURUN 

KEDUSHAH 

KING, KINGSHIP 

KIPPER 

LABOR 

LACHISH OSTRACA 

LANDMARKS 

LEPROSY 

LETTERS AND LETTER-WRITERS 

LEVITICAL CITIES 

LOTS 

LOVE 

MAGIC 

MANNA 

MATRIARCHS 

MENE, MENE, TEKEL, U-FARSIN 

MENORAH 

MESHA STELE 

MILK 

MILLSTONE 

MISHMAROT AND MAAMADOT 

MOLOCH, CULT OF 

MOON 

MOSES, BLESSING OF 

MYTH, MYTHOLOGY 

NAMES 

NASI 

NATIONS, THE SEVENTY 

NEHUSHTAN 

NETHERWORLD 

NOACHIDE LAWS 

NOMADISM 

NUMBERS, TYPICAL AND IMPORTANT 

OILS 

ORDEAL 

ORDEAL OF JEALOUSY 

OSSUARIES AND SARCOPHAGI 

OSTRACA 

PARABLE 

PARADISE 

PHOENIX 

PILLAR 

PILLAR OF CLOUD AND PILLAR OF FIRE 

PLAGUES OF EGYPT 

POETRY 



POISON 

POOR, PROVISION FOR THE 

POTTERY 

POVERTY 

PRECIOUS STONES AND JEWELRY 

PRIESTLY VESTMENTS 

PRIESTS AND PRIESTHOOD 

PROPHETS AND PROPHECY 

PROSTITUTION 

PROVERB 

PURITY AND IMPURITY, RITUAL 

RAIN 

RED HEIFER 

RIGHT AND LEFT 

ROD OF AARON 

ROD OF MOSES 

SALT 

SCEPTER 

SCRIBE 

SEA, SONG OF THE 

SEMITES 

SEPTUAGINT 

SERVANT OF THE LORD 

SHEKEL 

SHEWBREAD 

SHIPS AND SAILING 

SIGNS AND SYMBOLS 

SILOAM (OR SHILOAH) INSCRIPTION 

SIN 

SOAP 

STRANGERS AND GENTILES 

SUN 

SUNDIAL 

TABERNACLE 

TABLETS OF THE LAW 

TANAKH 

TARGUM 

TARTAN 

TEKHELET 

TEMPLE 

THRONE 

THUNDER AND LIGHTNING 

TIKKUN SOFERIM 

TITHE 

TOMBS AND TOMBSTONES 

TREASURE, TREASURY 

TRIBES, THE TWELVE 

UGARITIC 

URIM AND THUMMIM 

VULGATE 

WAR AND WARFARE 

WATCHERS 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

WELLS 

WIDOW 

wisdom; wisdom literature 

WOOD 

WORSHIP 

WRITING 



8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



YAVNEH-YAM, LEGAL DOCUMENT FROM 

YEAR 

YOKE 

ZADDIK 

Biblical Literature 

Books of the Bible 

AMOS 

chronicles, book of 
daniel, book of 
deuteronomy 
ecclesiastes 
exodus, book of 

EZEKIEL 

EZRA AND NEHEMIAH, BOOK OF 

GENESIS, BOOK OF 

HABAKKUK 

HAGGAI 

HOSEA, BOOK OF 

ISAIAH 

JEREMIAH 

JOB, BOOK OF 

JOEL 

JONAH, BOOK OF 

JOSHUA, BOOK OF 

JUDGES, BOOK OF 

KINGS, BOOK OF 

LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF 

LEVITICUS, BOOK OF 

MALACHI, BOOK OF 

MICAH 

MINOR PROPHETS 

NAHUM 

NUMBERS, BOOK OF 

OBADIAH, BOOK OF 

PENTATEUCH 

PENTATEUCH, SAMARITAN 

PROVERBS, BOOK OF 

PSALMS, BOOK OF 

RUTH, BOOK OF 

SAMUEL, BOOK OF 

SCROLL OF ESTHER 

SONG OF SONGS 

ZECHARIAH 

ZEPHANIAH 

Other Literature 

BOOK OF JASHAR 

BOOK OF LIFE 

BOOK OF THE COVENANT 

BOOK OF THE WARS OF THE LORD 

BOOKS OF THE CHRONICLES OF THE KINGS OF 

JUDAH AND ISRAEL 
HUMMASH 

shapira fragments 
Biblical Figures 

AARON 
ABDON 
ABEL 
ABIATHAR 



ABIEZER 

ABIGAIL 

ABIHU 

ABIJAH 

ABIMELECH 

ABIMELECH 

ABINADAB 

ABISHAG THE SHUNAMMITE 

ABISHAI 

ABNER 

ABRAHAM 

ABSALOM 

AC HAN 

ACHBOR 

ACHISH 

ACHSAH 

ADAH 

ADAM 

ADONI-BEZEK 

ADONIJAH 

ADONIRAM 

ADONI-ZEDEK 

ADRAMMELECH 

ADRIEL 

AG AG 

AGUR SON OF JAKEH 

AHAB 

AHAB 

AHASUERUS 

AHASUERUS-XERXES 

AHAZ 

AHAZIAH 

AHIJAH 

AHIJAH THE SHILONITE 

AHIKAM 

AHIMAAZ 

AHIMAN, SHESHAI, TALMAI 

AHIMELECH 

AHITHOPHEL THE GILONITE 

AHITUB 

AKHENATON 

AMASA 

AMAZIAH 

AMENOPHIS III 

AMNON 

AMON 

AMOS 

AMRAM 

AMRAPHEL 

ANAK, ANAKIM 

ANAMMELECH 

ANATH 

ANER, ESHKOL, AND MAMRE 

ARAUNAH 

ARIOCH 

ASA 

ASAHEL 

ASAPH 

ASENAPPER 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 
1. Bible 

Biblical Figures (continued) 

ASENATH 

ASHER 

ASHERAH 

ASHIMA 

ASHTORETH 

ATHALIAH 

BAAL-BERITH 

BAALIS 

BAASHA 

BALAAM 

BALAK 

BARAK 

BARUCH 

BARZILLAI 

BATH-SHEBA 

BELSHAZZAR 

BELTESHAZZAR 

BENAIAH 

BEN-HADAD 

BENJAMIN 

BETHUEL 

BEZALEL 

BILHAH 

BITHIAH 

BIZTHA 

BOAZ 

CAIN 

CALEB, CALEBITES 

CAMBYSES 

CANAAN 

CHEDORLAOMER 

CHEMOSH 

COZBI 

CUSH 

CUSHAN-RISHATHAIM 

CYRUS 

DAG ON 

DAN 

DANIEL 

DARIUS I 

DARIUS THE MEDE 

DATHAN AND ABIRAM 

DAVID 

DAVID, DYNASTY OF 

DEBORAH 

DELILAH 

DINAH 

DOEG 

EBER 

EGLON 

EHUD 

ELAH 

ELASAH 

ELDAD AND MEDAD 

ELEAZAR 



ELHANAN 

ELI 

ELIASHIB 

ELIEZER 

ELIHU 

ELIJAH 

ELIMELECH 

ELIPHAZ 

ELISHA 

ELISHAH 

ELISHEBA 

ELKANAH 

ELNATHAN BEN ACHBOR 

EN-DOR, WITCH OF 

ENOCH 

ENOSH 

EPHRAIM 

EPHRON 

ER 

ESARHADDON 

ESAU 

ESTHER 

ETHAN 

ETHBAAL 

EVE 

EVIL MERODACH 

EZRA 

GAAL 

GAD 

GAD 

GAD 

GEDALIAH 

GEHAZI 

GEMARIAH 

GERSHOM 

GERSHON, GERSHONITES 

GESHEM, GASHMU 

GIDEON 

GOIIM 

GOLIATH 

GOMER 

HABAKKUK 

HADAD 

HAGAR 

HAGGAI 

HAM 

HAMAN 

HAMMURAPI 

HAMOR 

HANANIAH SON OF AZZUR 

HANNAH 

HAVILAH 

HAZAEL 

HEBER 

HEMAN 

HEZEKIAH 

HEZIR 

HIEL 

HILKIAH 

HIRAM 



10 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



HOPHNI AND PHINEHAS 



HOPHRA 



HOSHEA 



HULDAH 



HUR 

HUSHAI THE ARCHITE 

ICHABOD 

IMMANUEL 

ISAAC 

ISAIAH 

ISH-BOSHETH 

ISHMAEL 

ISHMAEL 

ISSACHAR 

ITHAMAR 

ITTAI 

JAAZANIAH 

JABAL 

JABIN 

JACOB 

JAEL 

JAIR 

JANNES AND JAMBRES 

JAPHETH 

JAVAN 

JEDAIAH 

JEDUTHUN 

JEHOAHAZ 

JEHOAHAZ 

JEHOASH 

JEHOIACHIN 

JEHOIADA 

JEHOIAKIM 

JEHOIARIB 

JEHORAM 

JEHORAM 

JEHOSHAPHAT 

JEHU 

JEHU 

JEPHTHAH 

JEREMIAH 

JEROBOAM 

JEROBOAM II 

JESHUA 

JESSE 

JETHRO 

JEZEBEL 

JOAB 

JOASH 

JOCHEBED 

JOHANAN 

JOKTAN 

JONATHAN 

JONATHAN 

JOSEPH 

JOSHUA 

JOSIAH 

JOTHAM 

JOTHAM 

JUBAL 



JUDAH 

KETURAH 

KISH 

KOHATH AND KOHATHITES 

KORAH 

LAB AN 

LAMECH 

LEAH 

LEMUEL 

LEVI 

LOT 

MAACAH 

MACHIR 

MAHER SHALAL HASH BAZ 

MAHLON AND CHILION 

MANASSEH 

MANASSEH 

MARDUK 

MELCHIZEDEK 

MENAHEM 

MEPHIBOSHETH 

MERAB 

MERNEPTAH 

MERODACH 

MERODACH-BALADAN 

MESHA 

METHUSELAH 

MICA 

MICAH 

MICAIAH 

MICAIAH 

MICHAEL AND GABRIEL 

MICHAL 

MIRIAM 

MITHREDATH 

MORDECAI 

MOSES 

NAAMAH 

NAAMAN 

NABAL 

NABONIDUS 

NABOTH 

NADAB 

NAHASH 

NAHOR 

NAHSHON 

NAHUM 

NAOMI 

NAPHTALI 

NATHAN 

NAZIRITE 

NEBUCHADNEZZAR 

NEBUZARADAN 

NECO 

NEHEMIAH 

NEPHILIM 

NERGAL-SHAREZER 

NIMROD 

NOAH 

OBED 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



11 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 
1. Bible 

Biblical Figures (continued) 

OBED-EDOM 

OG 

OHOLIAB 

OMRI 

ONAN 

ONKELOS AND AQUILA 

OREB AND ZEEB 

ORPAH 

OTHNIEL 

PALTI 

PASHHUR 

PATRIARCHS, THE 

PEKAH 

PEKAHIAH 

PENINNAH 

PEREZ 

PHARAOH 

PHINEHAS 

POTIPHAR 

POTI-PHERA 

PUT 

PUTIEL 

QUEEN OF SHEBA 

RAB-SARIS AND RAB-MAG 

RAB-SHAKEH 

RACHEL 

RAHAB 

RAMSES 

RAPHAEL 

REBEKAH 

RECHAB AND BAANAH 

REGEM-MELECH 

REHOBOAM 

REHUM 

REPHAIM 

RESHEPH 

REUBEN 

REZIN 

RIMMON 

RIZPAH 

SAMSON 

SAMUEL 

SANDALFON 

SARAH 

SARGON II 

SAUL 

SENNACHERIB 

SERAIAH 

SERAPH 

SETH 

SETI I 

SHADRACH, MESHACH, ABED-NEGO 

SHALLUM 

SHALMANESER III 

SHALMANESER V 



SHAMGAR 

SHAMMAH 

SHAPHAN 

SHAREZER 

SHEALTIEL 

SHEBA BEN BICHRI 

SHEBNAH 

SHEM 

SHEMAIAH 

SHESHBAZZAR 

SHIMEI 

SHIPHRAH AND PUAH 

SHISHAK 

SHULAMMITE 

SIHON 

SIKKUTH AND CHIUN 

SIMEON 

SISERA 

SO 

SOLOMON 

SOLOMON, SERVANTS OF 

SUCCOTH-BENOTH 

TABEEL, THE SON OF 

TAMAR 

TAMMUZ 

TEMA 

TEMAN 

TERAH 

TERAPHIM 

TIBNI 

TIGLATH-PILESER III 

TIRHAKAH 

TUBAL-CAIN 

URIAH 

URIEL 

UZZAH 

UZZIAH 

VASHTI 

ZADOK 

ZEBAH AND ZALMUNNA 

ZEBULUN 

ZECHARIAH 

ZECHARIAH 

ZECHARIAH 

ZECHARIAH 

ZEDEKIAH 

ZEDEKIAH 

ZELOPHEHAD 

ZEPHANIAH 

ZERAH 

ZERAH THE CUSHITE 

ZERUBBABEL 

ZIBA 

ZILPAH 

ZIMRI 

ZIMRI 

ZIPPORAH 



PLACES AND PEOPLES 



ABEL SHITTIM 



12 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



ABEL, AVEL 

ABEL-BETH-MA AC AH 

ABEL-MAUL 

ABEL-MEHOLAH 

ACHOR, VALLEY OF 

ACHSHAPH 

ACHZIB 

ACRE 

ADAM 

ADORAIM 

ADULLAM 

AHLAB 

AI 

AKKAD 

ALALAKH 

ALMON 

ALMON-DIBLATHAIM 

AMALEKITES 

AMMON, AMMONITES 

AMORITES 

ANAB 

ANAHARATH 

ANATHOTH 

ARAM, ARAMEANS 

ARAM-DAMASCUS 

ARARAT 

ARGOB 

ARNON 

AROER 

ASHDOD 

ASHKELON 

ASHKENAZ 

ASHTAROTH, ASHTEROTH-KARNAIM, KARNAIM 

ATAROTH 

AVVIM 

AZEKAH 

AZNOTH-TABOR 

AZOR 

BAALAH 

BAAL-GAD 

BAAL-HAZOR 

BAAL-MEON 

BAAL-PERAZIM 

BAAL-ZEPHON 

BABEL, TOWER OF 

BABYLON 

BABYLONIA 

BAHURIM 

BASHAN 

BEER 

BEEROTH 

beersheba 

bene-berak 

besor, brook of 

bet aglayim 

bet(h)-anath 

bet(h)-cherem 

bet(h)-dagon 

bet(h)-eden 

bet(h)-el 



bet(h)-haram 

bet harodon 

bet(h)-horon 

bethlehem 

bet(h) lehem (Ha-Gelilit) 

bet(h)-nimrah 

bet(h)-rehob 

bet(h)-shean 

bet(h)-shemesh 

bet(h)-shittah 

bet yerah 

bet(h)-zur 

BEZEK 

CABUL 

CALNEH 

CANAAN, LAND OF 

CAPHTOR 

CARMEL 

CARMEL, MOUNT 

CHALDEA, CHALDEANS 

CHEBAR 

CHERITH 

CHINNERETH 

COZEBA 

CUSH 

CUTH, CUTHAH 

DAMASCUS 

DAN 

DEBIR 

DOBRATH 

DOR 

DOTHAN 

EBEN-EZER 

EBLA 

EDOM 

EDREI 

EGLON 

EGYPT 

EGYPT, BROOK OF 

EKRON 

ELAM 

EL-AMARNA 

ELATH 

ELEALEH 

ELTEKEH 

EMAR 

EN-DOR 

EN-GANNIM 

EN-HAROD 

EN-RIMMON 

EN-ROGEL 

EPHRATH 

EPHRON 

ERECH 

ESHTAOL 

ESHTEMOA 

ETAM 

EUPHRATES 

EZION-GEBER 

GALILEE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



13 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 
1. Bible 

Places and Peoples (continued) 

GARDEN OF EDEN 

GATH 

GATH-HEPHER 

GATH-RIMMON 

GAZA 

GEBA 

GEDERAH, GEDEROTH 

GEDOR 

GEHINNOM 

GERAR 

GERIZIM, MOUNT 

GEZER 

GIBBETHON 

GIBEAH, GEBA 

GIBEON 

GIBEONITES AND NETHINIM 

GILBOA 

GILEAD 

GILGAL 

GINNOSAR, PLAIN OF 

GIRGASHITES 

GITTAIM 

GOLAN 

GOSHEN 

GOZAN 

HABIRU 

HABOR 

HADID 

HADRACH 

HALHUL 

HAM 

HAMMATH 

HANNATHON 

HAPHARAIM 

HARAN 

HAROSHETH-GOIIM 

HAURAN 

HAVILAH 

HAVVOTH-JAIR 

HAZER, HAZERIM 

HAZEROTH 

HAZOR 

HEBRON 

HELIOPOLIS 

HEPHER 

HERMON, MOUNT 

HESHBON 

HITTITES 

HIVITES, THE 

HOLON 

HOR 

HORMAH 

HORONAIM 

HOUSE OF THE FOREST OF LEBANON 

HUKOK 



HULEH 

HURRIANS 

HYKSOS 

IBLEAM 

IJON 

IR-NAHASH 

IRON 

ISHMAELITES 

JABBOK 

JABESH-GILEAD 

JABNEEL 

JABNEH 

JAFFA 

JAHAZ, JAHAZA 

JANOAH, JANAH 

JAPHIA 

JARMUTH 

JATTIR, JETHIRA 

JAZER 

JEBUS, JEBUSITE 

JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF 

JERICHO 

JERUSALEM 

JEZREEL 

JEZREEL, VALLEY OF 

JOKNEAM 

JORDAN 

JOTAPATA 

JOTBATH, JOTHBATAH 

KADESH 

KANAH 

KARKAR 

KARNAIM 

KEDAR 

KEDEMITES 

KEDEMOTH 

KEILAH 

KENATH 

KENITE 

KERAK OR CHARAX 

KIDRON 

KINNERET, LAKE 

KIR HARESETH 

KIRIATH-JEARIM 

KISHON 

KITTIM 

LACHISH 

LEBANON 

LEBO-HAMATH 

LIBNAH 

LO-DEBAR 

LUZ 

LYDDA 

LYDIA, LYDIANS 

MAALEH AKRABBIM 

MACHPELAH, CAVE OF 

MADABA, MEDEBA 

MADON 

MAHANAIM 

MAKKEDAH 



H 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



MAMRE 

ma'on 
mareshah 

MARI 

MEDES AND MEDIA 

MEGIDDO 

MEMPHIS 

MERON 

MEROZ 

MESHECH 

MESOPOTAMIA 

MEUNITES 

MICHMASH 

MIDIAN, MIDIANITES 

MIGDOL 

MINNITH 

misrephoth-maim 
mizpeh; mizpah 

MOAB 

MOLADAH 

MORESHETH-GATH 

MORIAH 

MOUNT OF OLIVES 

MOZA, (HA-) MOZAH 

NAHALAL 

NAVEH 

NEBAIOTH 

NEBO 

NEGEV 

NETOPHAH 

NILE 

NINEVEH 

NOB 

NUZI 

ONO 

OPHEL 

OPHIR 

OPHRAH 

PADDAN-ARAM 

PARAH, PERATH 

PARAN 

PARVAIM 

PATHROS 

PEKOD 

PELLA 

PENUEL 

PERGAMUM 

PERIZZITES 

PHILISTINES 

PHOENICIA, PHOENICIANS 

PI-HAHIROTH 

PISGAH 

PITHOM 

PUNON 

QUE 

RABBAH 

RABBATH-AMMON 

RAFA 

RAMAH 

RAMAT RAHEL 



RAMOTH 

RAMOTH-GILEAD 

RAMSES 

RECHABITES 

RED SEA 

REHOB 

REHOBOTH 

REHOV, TEL 

REPHAIM 

REPHIDIM 

RESEN 

RIBLAH 

RIMMON-PEREZ 

RODANIM 

RUMAH OR ARUMAH 

SABEA 

SALCHAH 

SAMARIA 

SEIR, MOUNT 

SENAAH 

SEPHARAD 

SEPHARVAIM 

SHAALBIM 

SHAAR HA-GOLAN 

SHARUHEN 

SHECHEM 

SHEPHELAH 

SHIHIN 

SHIHOR, SHIHOR-LIBNATH 

SHILOAH, SILOAM 

SHILOH 

SHIMRON 

SHINAR 

SHUNEM 

SHUSHAN 

SIDON 

SIN, WILDERNESS OF 

SINAI 

SINAI, MOUNT 

SOCOH OR SOCO 

SODOM AND GOMORRAH 

SOREK, VALLEY OF 

SUCCOTH 

SUMER, SUMERIANS 

TAANACH 

TABOR, MOUNT 

TADMOR 

TAMAR 

TAPPUAH 

TARSHISH 

TEKOA 

TEMA 

THEBES 

THEBEZ 

TIGRIS 

TIMNA 

TIMNAH 

TIMNATH-HERES 

TIRZAH 

TOB 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



15 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 
1. Bible 

Places and Peoples (continued) 

TRANSJORDAN 

TYRE 

UGARIT 

UR 

UZ 

UZAL 

WADI AL-NATTUF 

WILDERNESS 

ZAMZUMMIM 

ZANOAH 

ZAPHON 

ZAREPHATH 

ZARETHAN 

ZEMARAIM 

ZERED 

ZEREDAH 

ZIKLAG 

ZION 

ZIPH 

ZOAN 

ZORAH 



Flora and Fauna 

ALGUM 

ALMOND 

ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE AND TALMUD 

APPLE 

BALSAM 

BARLEY 

BAY TREE 

BEAR 

BEE 

BEHEMOTH 

CALAMUS, SWEET 

CAMEL 

CAPER 

CAROB 

CASTOR-OIL PLANT 

CAT 

CATTLE 

CEDAR 

CENTIPEDE 

CHAMELEON 

CHICKEN 

CINNAMON 

CORAL 

CORIANDER 

COTTON 

CRANE 

CRIMSON WORM 

CROCODILE 

CUCUMBER 

CYPRESS 

DEER 

DOG 



DOVE 

DYE PLANTS 

EAGLE 

EBONY 

ELEPHANT 

FENNEL 

FIG 

FLAX 

FLEA 

FLOWERS 

FLY 

FOX 

FRANKINCENSE 

FROG 

GALBANUM 

GARLIC 

GAZELLE 

GECKO 

GNAT 

GOAT 

GOOSE 

GRASSHOPPER 

GULL 

HARE 

HAWK 

HEMLOCK 

HENNA 

HONEY 

HOOPOE 

HORNET 

HORSE 

HYRAX 

HYSSOP 

IBEX 

IVORY 

JACKAL 

JUNIPER 

KITE 

LAUDANUM 

LEECH 

LEEK 

LENTIL 

LEOPARD 

LEVIATHAN 

LION 

LIZARD 

LOCUST 

MANDRAKE 

MELON 

MILLET 

MOLE 

MOTH 

MOUSE 

MULBERRY 

MUSHROOMS 

MYRRH 

MYRTLE 

NIGHTINGALE 

NUT 

OAK 



16 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



OLEANDER 

OLIVE 

ONAGER 

ONION 

ORACH 

OSTRICH 

OWL 

PALM 

PAPYRUS 

PARTRIDGE 

PIG 

PINE 

PISTACHIO 

PLANE TREE 

PLANTS 

PLUM 

POMEGRANATE 

POPLAR 

QUAIL 

RAT 

RAVEN 

REED 

ROCKET 

ROSE 

SAFFRON 

SCORPION 

SHEEP 

SILK 

SKINK 

SNAKE 

SORGHUM 

SPARROW 

SPICES 

SPIDER 

SPIKENARD 

STORAX 

STORK 

SWIFT 

SYCAMORE 

TAHASH 

TAMARISK 

TEREBINTH 

THISTLES AND THORNS 

TORTOISE 

TRAGACANTH 

TURTLE DOVE 

VEGETABLES 

VINE 

VULTURES 

WEEDS 

WHEAT 

WILD BULL 

WILLOW 

WOLF 

WORM 

WORMWOOD 



Biblical Scholars 

aharoni, yohanan 
ainsworth, henry 



ALBRIGHT, WILLIAM FOXWELL 

ALT, ALBRECHT 

ANDREWES, LANCELOT 

ASTRUC, JEAN 

BADE, WILLIAM FREDERIC 

BAETHGEN, FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADOLPH 

BAUDISSIN, WOLF WILHELM, GRAF VON 

BAUER, HANS 

BAUMGARTEL, ELISE J. 

BAUMGARTNER, WALTER 

BECK(lUS), MATTHIAS FRIEDRICH 

BEEK, MARTINUS ADRIANUS 

BEN-ASHER, AARON BEN MOSES 

BEN-ASHER, MOSES 

BEN-NAPHTALI, MOSES BEN DAVID 

BENTZEN, AAGE 

BENZINGER, IMMANUEL 

BERGSTRAESSER, GOTTHELF 

BERTHOLET, ALFRED 

BLEEK, FRIEDRICH 

BONFRERE, JAQUES 

BUDDE, KARL FERDINAND REINHARD 

BUHL, FRANZ PEDER WILLIAM MEYER 

BUTTENWIESER, MOSES 

CASSUTO, UMBERTO 

CHEYNE, THOMAS KELLY 

COCCEIUS, JOHANNES 

COLENSO, JOHN WILLIAM 

COOK, STANLEY ARTHUR 

COOKE, GEORGE ALBERT 

CORNILL, CARL HEINRICH 

CROWFOOT, JOHN WINTER 

DAVIDSON, SAMUEL 

DEL MEDICO, HENRI E. 

DELITZSCH, FRIEDRICH 

DEUTSCH, EMANUEL OSKAR 

DIEZ MACHO, ALEJANDRO 

DILLMANN, AUGUST 

DOTHAN, TRUDE 

DRIVER, SAMUEL ROLLES 

DUBNO, SOLOMON BEN JOEL 

DUHM, BERNHARD 

DUPONT-SOMMER, ANDRE 

EERDMANS, BERNARDUS DIRKS 

EHRLICH, ARNOLD BOGUMIL 

EICHHORN, JOHANN GOTTFRIED 

EISSFELDT, OTTO 

ERMAN, JOHANN PETER ADOLF 

EWALD, HEINRICH GEORG AUGUST 

FEIGIN, SAMUEL ISAAC 

FINKELSTEIN, JACOB JOEL 

FISHBANE, MICHAEL 

FRANKFORT, HENRI 

FRYMER-KENSKY, TIKVA 

GALLING, KURT 

GARSTANG, JOHN 

GEDDES, ALEXANDER 

GELB, IGNACE JAY 

GESENIUS, HEINRICH FRIEDRICH WILHELM 

GEVIRTZ, STANLEY 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



17 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 
1. Bible 

Biblical Scholars (continued) 

GINSBERG, HAROLD LOUIS 

GINSBURG, CHRISTIAN DAVID 

GORDIS, ROBERT 

GORDON, CYRUS HERZL 

GRAF, KARL HEINRICH 

GREENBERG, MOSHE 

GREENFIELD, JONAS CARL 

GRESSMANN, HUGO 

GRUENBERG, SAMUEL 

GUNKEL, HERMANN 

GUTHE, HERMANN 

HALLO, WILLIAM 

HARAN, MENAHEM 

HELD, MOSHE 

HENGSTENBERG, ERNST WILHELM 

HITZIG, FERDINAND 

HOELSCHER, GUSTAV 

HOSCHANDER, JACOB 

HOTTINGER, JOHANN HEINRICH 

HRABANUS MAURUS 

HUPFELD, HERMANN CHRISTIAN KARL 

ILGEN, KARL DAVID 

JACOB BEN HAYYIM BEN ISAAC IBN 

ADONIJAH 
JACOB, BENNO 
JAMPEL, SIGMUND 
JEREMIAS, ALFRED 
JIRKU, ANTON 
KALISCH, MARKUS MORITZ 
KAUFMANN, YEHEZKEL 
KAUTZSCH, EMIL FRIEDRICH 
KEIL, KARL FRIEDRICH 
KENYON, KATHLEEN MARY 
KIRKPATRICK, ALEXANDER FRANCIS 
KITTEL, RUDOLF 
KUENEN, ABRAHAM 
KUGEL, JAMES 
LA PEYRERE, ISAAC 
LANDSBERGER, BENNO 
LEIBOWITZ, NEHAMA 
LEUSDEN, JOHANN 
LEVENSON, JON 
LEVINE, BARUCH 
LEWY, JULIUS 
LIGHTFOOT, JOHN 
LODS, ADOLPHE 
LOEWE, JOEL (BRILL) 
LOEWISOHN, SOLOMON 
LOISY, ALFRED FIRMIN 
LOWTH, ROBERT 

MACALISTER, ROBERT ALEXANDER STEWART 
MAHLER, EDUARD 
MALAMAT, ABRAHAM 
MARGOLIS, MAX LEOPOLD 



MARTI, KARL 

MAZAR, BENJAMIN 

MEINHOLD, JOHANNES FRIEDRICH 

MEYER, EDUARD 

MICHAELIS, JOHANN DAVID 

MILGROM, JACOB 

MOWINCKEL, SIGMUND OLAF PLYTT 

NATHAN, MORDECAI 

NICHOLAS DE LYRE 

NOTH, MARTIN 

NOWACK, WILHELM GUSTAV HERMANN 

ORLINSKY, HARRY MEYER 

PARROT, ANDRE 

PEDERSEN, JOHANNES 

pellicanus (Rubeaquensis), conrad 

PETRIE, SIR WILLIAM MATTHEW FLINDERS 

PFEIFFER, ROBERT HENRY 

POPPER, WILLIAM 

RAD, GERHARD VON 

REUSS, EDUARD 

ROSENMUELLER, ERNST FRIEDRICH KARL 

ROWLEY, HAROLD HENRY 

RYSSEL, VICTOR 

SANDMEL, SAMUEL 

SARNA, NAHUM 

SCHAEFFER, CLAUDE F. A. 

SEELIGMANN, ISAC LEO 

SEGAL, MOSES HIRSCH (ZEVl) 

SELLIN, ERNST 

SHAPIRO, DAVID S. 

SMEND, RUDOLPH 

SMITH, SIR GEORGE ADAM 

SMITH, JOHN MERLIN POWIS 

SMITH, WILLIAM ROBERTSON 

SPEISER, EPHRAIM AVIGDOR 

STEUERNAGEL, CARL 

TADMOR, HAYIM 

TALMON, SHEMARYAHU 

TAVUS, JACOB BEN JOSEPH 

THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA 

TIGAY, JEFFREY 

TORREY, CHARLES CUTLER 

tur-sinai (Torczyner), naphtali herz (Harry) 

TYNDALE, WILLIAM 

VATKE, WILHELM 

VAUX, ROLAND DE 

VOLZ, PAUL 

VRIEZEN, THEODORUS CHRISTIAAN 

WALTON, BRYAN 

WEILL, RAYMOND 

WEINGREEN, JACOB 

WEISS, MEIR 

WELLHAUSEN, JULIUS 

WETTE, DE, WILHELM MARTIN LEBERECHT 

WIENER, HAROLD MARCUS 

WINCKLER, HUGO 

WOOLLEY, SIR CHARLES LEONARD 

YEIVIN, SHEMUEL 

ZIMMERLI, WALTHER 



18 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



2. TALMUD 
Main Surveys 

MISHNAH 

talmud, babylonian 
talmud, jerusalem 

General Entries 

academies in babylonia and erez israel 

AGGADAH 

AHERIM 

ALEF 

ALLEGORY 

ALLUF 

ALPHABET, HEBREW, IN MIDRASH, TALMUD, AND 

KABBALAH 
AM HA-AREZ 
AMORA 
AMORAIM 
ANDROGYNOS 
ANGELS AND ANGELOLOGY 
ANOINTING 

ARK OF THE COVENANT 
BAHUR 

BARRENNESS AND FERTILITY 
BAT KOL 
BEI AVIDAN 
BEI-RAV 

BET HILLEL AND BET SHAMMAI 
BREAD 

CAPTIVES, RANSOMING OF 
CHEESE 

CHURCH FATHERS 
COSMETICS 
CROWNS, DECORATIVE HEADDRESSES AND 

WREATHS 
DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY 
DESKARTA 
DIVINATION 
DREAMS 
DRUNKENNESS 
EARTH 
EGGS 
ELDER 

EUPHEMISM AND DYSPHEMISM 
EVEN SHETIYYAH 
FIRE 

FISH AND FISHING 
FLESH 
FLOOD, THE 
GEMARA 
GENEALOGY 
GOD, NAMES OF 
GREEK AND LATIN LANGUAGES, RABBINICAL 

KNOWLEDGE OF 
HAVER, HAVERIM 
HAVER IR 

HEBREW BOOK TITLES 
HERMENEUTICS 
IDOLATRY 



INCENSE AND PERFUMES 

JEALOUSY 

KABBALAH 

KALLAH, MONTHS OF 

KEZAZAH 

LABOR 

LEKET, SHIKHHAH, AND PEAH 

LEPROSY 

LUZ OF THE SPINE 

MAGIC 

MAHOZA 

MAR 

MATA MEHASYA 

MISHMAROT AND MAAMADOT 

MNEMONICS 

MOON 

NAMES 

NARESH 

NEHUTEI 

OILS 

PARABLE 

PESHAT 

PILPUL 

PITTUM HA-KETORET 

POVERTY 

PRECIOUS STONES AND JEWELRY 

PROFANITY 

PROSBUL 

PROSTITUTION 

PROVERBS, TALMUDIC 

PUMBEDITA 

RAIN 

RESH KALLAH 

RIGHT AND LEFT 

SALT 

SEA, SONG OF THE 

SHAS 

SHEKANZIB 

SOAP 

SUN 

SURA 

SYNAGOGUE 

TALMID HAKHAM 

TALMUD 

TALMUD, BURNING OF 

TALMUD, MUSICAL RENDITION 

TALMUD AND MIDDLE PERSIAN 

CULTURE 
TANNA, TANNAIM 
TEN MARTYRS, THE 
THUNDER AND LIGHTNING 
TIGRIS 
TITLES 

USHA, SYNOD OF 
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 
WINE 
WRITING 
ZAKEN MAMRE 
ZUGOT 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



19 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 
2. Talmud (continued) 

Talmudic Literature 

Orders and Tractates 

ARAKHIN 

AVODAH ZARAH 

AVOT 

BAVA BATRA 

BAVA KAMMA 

BAVA MEZIA 

BEKHOROT 

BERAKHOT 

BEZAH 

BIKKURIM 

DEMAI 

DEREKH EREZ 

EDUYYOT 

ERUVIN 

GITTIN 

HAGIGAH 

HALLAH 

HORAYOT 

HULLIN 

KALLAH 

KELIM 

KERITOT 

KETUBBOT 

KIDDUSHIN 

KILAYIM 

KINNIM 

KODASHIM 

MAASEROT 

MAASER SHENI 

MAKHSHIRIN 

MAKKOT 

massekhet 

megillah 

me'ilah 

MENAHOT 

MIDDOT 

MIKVAOT 

MINOR TRACTATES 

MOED 

MOED KATAN 

NASHIM 

NAZIR 

NEDARIM 

NEGAIM 

NEZIKIN 

NIDDAH 

OHOLOT 

ORLAH 

PA RAH 

PEAH 

PESAHIM 

ROSH HA-SHANAH 

SANHEDRIN 



SEMAHOT 



SHABBAT 



SHEKALIM 
SHEVl'lT 



SHEVU OT 



SOFERIM 



SOTAH 



SUKKAH 
TAANIT 



TAMID 



TEMURAH 



TERUMOT 
TEVUL YOM 



TOHOROT 



TOHOROT 



UKZIN 



YADAYIM 
YEVAMOT 



YOMA 



ZAVIM 



ZERAIM 



ZEVAHIM 



Other Literature 

AGGADAT BERESHIT 

AVOT DE-RABBI NATHAN 

AVOT NEZIKIN 

BARAITA, BERAITOT 

BARAITA DE-MELEKHET HA-MISHKAN 

BARAITA DE-NIDDAH 

BARAITA OF 32 RULES 

BOOK OF LIFE 

DEUTERONOMY RABBAH 

ESTHER RABBAH 

EXODUS RABBAH 

GENESIS RABBAH 

LAMENTATIONS RABBAH 

LEVITICUS RABBAH 

MEGILLAT SETARIM 

MEGILLAT TAANIT 

MEGILLAT YUHASIN 

MEKHILTA DEUTERONOMY 

MEKHILTA OF R. ISHMAEL 

MEKHILTA OF R. SIMEON BEN YOHAI 

MIDRESHEI AGGADAH 

MIDRESHEI HALAKHAH 

PESIKTA DE-RAV KAHANA 

POLEMICS AND POLEMICAL LITERATURE 

RUTH RABBAH 

SEDER OLAM 

SIFRA 

SIFREI DEUTERONOMY 

SIFREI HA-MINIM 

SIFREI NUMBERS 

SIFREI ZUTA DEUTERONOMY 

SIFREI ZUTA NUMBERS 

SONG OF SONGS RABBAH 

TANHUMA YELEMMEDENU 

TOSEFTA 



20 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



Amoraim and Tannaim 

ABBA 

ABBA BAR AHA 



ABBA BAR AVINA 

ABBA BAR KAHANA 

ABBA BAR MARTA 

ABBA BAR MEMEL 

ABBA BAR ZAVDA 

ABBA BAR ZEMINA 

ABBA BEN ABBA HA-KOHEN 

ABBA BENJAMIN 

ABBA GURYON OF SIDON 

ABBA HILKIAH 

ABBAHU 

ABBA KOHEN BARDELA 

ABBA OF AKKO 

ABBA OSHAYA (Hoshaya) OF TIRIAH 

ABBA SAUL 

ABBA SAUL BEN BATNIT 

ABBAYE 

ABBAYE KASHISHA 

ABBA YOSE BEN DOSTAI 

abba yose ben hanin (Johanan) 

ADDA BAR AHAVAH 

AHA 

AHA BAR HANINA 

AHA BAR RAV 

AHA BEN JACOB 

AHAI 

AHAI BEN JOSIAH 

AIBU 

AKAVYAH BEN MAHALALEL 

AKIVA 

ALEXANDRI 

AMEIMAR 

AMMI BAR NATHAN 

AMRAM 

AMRAM HASIDA ("The Pious") 

ANAN 

ASHI 

ASSI 

ASSI, RAV 

AVDAN 

AVDIMI BAR HAMA 

AVDIMI OF HAIFA 

AVI A 

AVI MI 

AVIMI BEN ABBAHU 

AVIN 

AVINA 

AVIRA 

AVTALYON 

AZARIAH 

AZARIAH 

BAR HEDYA 

BAR KAPPARA 

BEBAI 

BEBAI BAR ABBAYE 

BENAAH 



BEN AZZAI, SIMEON 
BEN BAG BAG 
BEN HE HE 

BENJAMIN BEN JAPHET 
BEN KALBA SAVUA 

ben petura (Ben Peturi, Ben Peturin) 

BEN STADA 

BEN ZOMA, SIMEON 

BERECHIAH 

DANIEL HAYYATA 

DIMI 

DIMI OF NEHARDEA 

DOSA BEN HARKINAS 

DOSTAI BEN JUDAH 

DOSTAI BEN YANNAI 

ELEAZAR BEN ARAKH 

ELEAZAR BEN AZARIAH 

ELEAZAR BEN DAMMA 

ELEAZAR BEN HANANIAH BEN HEZEKIAH 

ELEAZAR BEN JUDAH OF BARTOTA 

ELEAZAR BEN MATYA 

ELEAZAR BEN PARTA 

ELEAZAR BEN PEDAT 

ELEAZAR BEN SHAMMUA 

ELEAZAR BEN SIMEON 

ELEAZAR BEN YOSE I 

ELEAZAR BEN YOSE II 

ELEAZAR BEN ZADOK 

ELEAZAR HA-KAPPAR 

ELEAZAR HISMA 

ELEAZAR OF MODl'lN 

ELIEZER BEN HYRCANUS 

ELIEZER BEN JACOB 

ELIEZER BEN YOSE HA-GELILI 

ELISHA BEN AVUYAH 

GAMALIEL (HA-ZAKEN), RABBAN 

GEBIHA OF BE-KATIL 

GIDDAL 

HAGGAI 

HAGGAI OF SEPPHORIS 

HALAFTA 

HALAFTA BEN SAUL 

hama (of Nehardea) 

HAMA BAR BISA 

HAMA BAR HANINA 

HAMNUNA 

HANA BAR HANILAI 

HANA BEN BIZNA 

HANAN THE EGYPTIAN 

hananiah (Hanina) 
hananiah (Hanina) ben hakhinai 
hananiah (Hanina) ben teradyon 
hananiah (Hanina) of sepphoris 
hanina (Hananiah) 

HANINA BAR HAMA 

hanina (Hinena) bar-papa (Pappi) 

HANINA BEN ABBAHU 
HANINA BEN ANTIGONUS 
HANINA BEN DOSA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



21 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 
2. Talmud 

Amor aim and Tannaim (continued) 

HANINA BEN GAMALIEL 

HANINA SEGAN HA-KOHANIM 

HELBO 

HEZEKIAH 

HIDKA 

HILLEL 

HILLEL 

HILLEL (II) 

HISDA 

HIYYA 

HIYYA BAR ABBA 

HIYYA BAR AVIN 

HOSHAIAH, RAV 

HUNA 

HUNA BEN AVIN HA-KOHEN 

HUNA BEN JOSHUA 

HUNA BEN NATHAN 

HUNA OF SEPPHORIS 

HUNYA OF BETH-HORON 

HUZPIT HA-METURGEMAN 

IDI 

IDI BAR AVIN 

ILAI 

ILAI 

ILFA 

ISAAC 

ISAAC BAR JOSEPH 

ISAAC BAR RAV JUDAH 

ISAAC BEN AVDIMI 

ISAAC BEN ELEAZAR 

ISAAC NAPPAHA 

ISHMAEL BEN ELISHA 

ISHMAEL BEN JOHANAN BEN BEROKA 

ISHMAEL BEN YOSE BEN HALAFTA 

JACOB 

JACOB BEN AHA 

JACOB BEN IDI 

jacob ben korshai (Kodshai) 

JEREMIAH BEN ABBA 

JOHANAN BEN BEROKA 

JOHANAN BEN GUDGADA 

JOHANAN BEN HA-HORANIT 

JOHANAN BEN NAPPAHA 

JOHANAN BEN NURI 

JOHANAN BEN TORTA 

JOHANAN BEN ZAKKAI 

JOHANAN HA-SANDELAR 

JONAH 

JONATHAN 

JONATHAN BEN AMRAM 

JONATHAN BEN ELEAZAR 

JOSEPH BEN HIYYA 

JOSHUA 

JOSHUA BEN HANANIAH 

JOSHUA BEN HYRCANUS 



JOSHUA BEN KORHA 

JOSHUA BEN LEVI 

JOSHUA BEN PERAHYAH 

JOSHUA HA-GARSI 

JOSIAH 

JOSIAH 

JUDAH 

JUDAH III 

JUDAH IV 

JUDAH BAR EZEKIEL 

JUDAH BAR ILAI 

judah bar shalom (ha-Levi) 

JUDAH BAR SIMEON 
JUDAH BEN BATHYRA I 
JUDAH BEN BAVA 
JUDAH BEN DOSOTHEOS 
JUDAH BEN GERIM 
JUDAH BEN HIYYA 

judah ben nahamani (Nahman) 

JUDAH BEN PEDAYA (Padah) 

JUDAH BEN SHAMMUA 

JUDAH BEN TABBAI 

JUDAH BEN TEMA 

JUDAH HA-NASI 

KAHANA 

LEVI 

LEVI BEN SISI 

MANI 

MAR BAR RAV ASHI 

MAR BAR RAVINA 

MARI BEN ISSUR 

MATTIAH BEN HERESH 

MATTNAH 

MEIR 

MEREMAR 

NAHMAN BAR RAV HUNA 

NAHMAN BEN ISAAC 

NAHMAN BEN JACOB 

NAHUM OF GIMZO 

NAHUM THE MEDE 

NAKDIMON BEN GURYON 

NATHAN HA-BAVLI 

NEHEMIAH 

NEHORAI 

NEHUNYA BEN HA-KANAH 

NITTAI OF ARBELA 

OSHAIAH RABBAH 

PAPA 

PAPI 

PAPPUS BEN JUDAH 

PHINEHAS BEN HAMA HA-KOHEN 

PHINEHAS BEN JAIR 

RABBA BEN MATNAH 

RABBAH BAR BAR HANA 

RABBAH BAR HANA 

RABBAH BAR HUNA 

RABBAH BAR NAHAMANI 

RABBAH BEN AVUHA 

RABBAH BEN SHILAH 

RABBAH TOSFAAH 



22 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



RAV 

RAVA 

RAVINA 

REHUMEI 

REUBEN BEN STROBILUS 

SAFRA 

SAMUEL 

SAMUEL BEN NAHMAN 

SAMUEL BEN SHILAT 

SAMUEL HA-KATAN 

shammai (Ha-Zaken) 

SHELA 

SHEMAIAH 

SHESHET 

SHILA OF KEFAR TAMARTA 

SIMEON BAR YOHAI 

SIMEON BEN ABBA 

SIMEON BEN ELEAZAR 

SIMEON BEN GAMALIEL I 

SIMEON BEN GAMALIEL II (of Jabneh) 

SIMEON BEN HALAFTA 

SIMEON BEN JEHOZADAK 

SIMEON BEN JUDAH HA-NASI 

SIMEON BEN LAKISH 

SIMEON BEN MENASYA 

SIMEON BEN NANAS 

SIMEON BEN NETHANEL 

SIMEON BEN PAZZI 

SIMEON BEN SHETAH 

SIMEON HA-PAKULI 

SIMEON HA-TIMNI 

SIMEON OF MIZPAH 

SIMLAI 

SYMMACHUS BEN JOSEPH 

TANHUM BEN HANILAI 

TANHUM BEN HIYYA 

TANHUMA BAR ABBA 

TARFON 

UKBA, MAR 

ULLA I 

YANNAI 

YESHEVAV THE SCRIBE 

YOSE 

YOSE BAR HANINA 

YOSE BEN AKAVYAH 

YOSE BEN AVIN 

YOSE BEN DORMASKOS 

YOSE BEN HALAFTA 

YOSE BEN JOEZER OF ZEREDAH 

YOSE BEN JOHANAN HA-TANNA OF JERUSALEM 

YOSE BEN JUDAH 

YOSE BEN KIPPAR 

YOSE BEN KISMA 

YOSE BEN MESHULLAM 

YOSE BEN ZIMRA 

YOSE HA-GELILI 

YOSE HA-KOHEN 

YUDAN 

ZADOK 

ZECHARIAH BEN AVKILUS 



ZE EIRA 

ze'iri (ben Hinna) 

Biblical Figures and Subjects 

AARON 

ABIATHAR 

ABIGAIL 

ABIMELECH 

ABISHAG THE SHUNAMMITE 

ABISHAI 

ABNER 

ABRAHAM 

ABSALOM 

AC HAN 

ADAM 

ADONIJAH 

AG AG 

AHAB 

AHIMELECH 

AHITHOPHEL THE GILONITE 

ALTAR 

AMALEKITES 

AMASA 

AMAZIAH 

AMMON, AMMONITES 

AMNON 

AMON 

AMORITES 

AMRAM 

ASA 

ASAHEL 

ASAPH 

ASHER 

BABEL, TOWER OF 

BALAAM 

BARUCH 

BATH-SHEBA 

BELSHAZZAR 

BENJAMIN 

BETHUEL 

BEZALEL 

BILHAH 

BOAZ 

CAIN 

CALEB, CALEBITES 

CHERUB 

COPPER SERPENT, THE 

DAN 

DANIEL 

DATHAN AND ABIRAM 

DAVID 

DEBORAH 

DELILAH 

DINAH 

DOEG 

EDOM 

ELDAD AND MEDAD 

ELI 

ELIEZER 

ELIHU 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



23 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 
2. Talmud 

Biblical Figures and Subjects (continued) 

ELIJAH 

ELIPHAZ 

ELISHA 

ELKANAH 

EN-DOR, WITCH OF 

ENOCH 

ENOSH 

EPHRAIM 

ESAU 

ESTHER 

EVE 

EZEKIEL 

EZRA 

GAD 

GARDEN OF EDEN 

GEHAZI 

GIBEONITES AND NETHINIM 

GIDEON 

GOLDEN CALF 

GOLIATH 

HAGAR 

HAM 

HAMAN 

HANANIAH SON OF AZZUR 

HANNAH 

HEZEKIAH 

HOSEA, BOOK OF 

HULDAH 

HUR 

HUSHAI THE ARCHITE 

ISAAC 

ISAIAH 

ISHMAEL 

ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF 

ISSACHAR 

ITHAMAR 

JABNEH 

JACOB 

JACOB, BLESSING OF 

JAEL 

JAIR 

JAPHETH 

JEHOIACHIN 

JEHOIADA 

JEHOIAKIM 

JEHORAM 

JEPHTHAH 

JEREMIAH 

JEROBOAM 

JERUSALEM 

JESSE 

JESUS 

JETHRO 

JEZEBEL 

JOAB 



JOB, BOOK OF 

JOCHEBED 

JONAH, BOOK OF 

JONATHAN 

JOSEPH 

JOSHUA 

JOSIAH 

JOTHAM 

JUDAH 

KETURAH 

KOHATH AND KOHATHITES 

KORAH 

LABAN 

LAMECH 

LEAH 

LEVI 

LOT 

MALACHI, BOOK OF 

MANASSEH 

MANASSEH 

MANNA 

MEPHIBOSHETH 

MERODACH-BALADAN 

MICAH 

MICHAEL AND GABRIEL 

MICHAL 

MIDIAN, MIDIANITES 

MIRIAM 

MORDECAI 

MOSES 

NAAMAN 

NABAL 

NABOTH 

NADAB 

NAHSHON 

NAOMI 

NATIONS, THE SEVENTY 

NAZIRITE 

NEBUCHADNEZZAR 

NEBUZARADAN 

NEHEMIAH 

NEPHILIM 

NETHERWORLD 

NIMROD 

NINEVEH 

NOAH 

OG 

OR PAH 

OTHNIEL 

PATRIARCHS, THE 

PENINNAH 

PEREZ 

PHARAOH 

PHILISTINES 

PLAGUES OF EGYPT 

POTIPHAR 

PROPHETS AND PROPHECY 

PSALMS, BOOK OF 

QUEEN OF SHEBA 

RACHEL 



24 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



RAHAB 

REBEKAH 

RED HEIFER 

RED SEA 

REHOBOAM 

REUBEN 

ROD OF AARON 

ROD OF MOSES 

RUTH, BOOK OF 

SAMSON 

SAMUEL 

SANDALFON 

SARAH 

SAUL 

SENNACHERIB 

SETH 

SHEBA BEN BICHRI 

SHEM 

SHIMEI 

SHISHAK 

SIMEON 

SINAI, MOUNT 

SODOM AND GOMORRAH 

SOLOMON 

TABERNACLE 

TABLETS OF THE LAW 

TAMAR 

TERAH 

TRIBES, THE TWELVE 

TUBAL-CAIN 

URIAH 

URIM AND THUMMIM 

VASHTI 

WELLS 

WILDERNESS 

ZECHARIAH 

ZECHARIAH 

ZEDEKIAH 

ZELOPHEHAD 

ZERAH THE CUSHITE 

ZERUBBABEL 

ZIMRI 

ZIPPORAH 



Other Figures 

abba gulish 
abba kolon 



ABBA UMANA 



ADMON BEN GADDAI 



AGRAT BAT MAHALATH 



AHASUERUS 
ALEXANDER THE GREAT 



ANTONINUS PIUS 



APOSTOMOS 



AVIN THE CARPENTER 
BAITOS BEN ZONIN 



BAVA BEN BUTA 



BEN TEMALYON 



BERURYAH 



CYRUS 



DAMA, SON OF NETINA 

EGLON 

ELISHA BAAL KENAFAYIM 

HABBAR, HABBAREI 

HADRIAN, PUBLIUS AELIUS 

HOMA 

HONI HA-MEAGGEL 

HOVAH 

IMMA SHALOM 

ISSUR GIYYORA 

IUDITH 

KAMZA AND BAR KAMZA 

MAHLON AND CHILION 

MARTHA 

MERCURY 

micaiah (Micah) 

NATHAN DE-ZUZITA RESH GALUTA 

PAPPUS AND JULIANUS 

PHINEHAS 

RACHEL 

RAPHAEL 

TAB I 

TITUS, FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS 

YALTA 



Flora and Fauna 

ALGUM 

ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE AND TALMUD 

ANT 

APE 

APPLE 

ASS 

BALSAM 

BAT 

BAY TREE 

BEAR 

BEE 

BEET 

BEHEMOTH 

BOX 

BROOM 

CABBAGE 

CALAMUS, SWEET 

CAMEL 

CAPER 

CAROB 

CASTOR-OIL PLANT 

CAT 

CEDAR 

CHICKEN 

CINNAMON 

CORIANDER 

COTTON 

CUMIN 

DEER 

DOG 

DOVE 

EAGLE 

ELEPHANT 

FENNEL 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



25 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 
2. Talmud 

Flora and Fauna (continued) 



FIG 

FLAX 

FLEA 

FRANKINCENSE 

GALBANUM 

GARLIC 

GAZELLE 

GOURD 

GRASSHOPPER 

HEMP 

HENNA 

HERBS, MEDICINAL 

HOOPOE 

HORNET 

HORSE 

HYSSOP 

IVY 

JACKAL 

JUJUBE 

KITE 

KOI 

LEECH 

LEEK 

LEGUMES 

LENTIL 

LEOPARD 

LETTUCE 

LEVIATHAN 

LIZARD 

LOCUST 

LOUSE 

MALLOW 

MASTIC 

MELON 

MILLET 

MOUSE 

MULBERRY 

MULE 

MUSHROOMS 

MUSTARD 

MYRRH 

MYRTLE 

NUT 

OLEANDER 

OLIVE 

ONAGER 

ONION 

ORACH 

OSTRICH 

PALM 

PAPYRUS 

PARTRIDGE 

PEACH 

PEACOCK 

PEAR 



PELICAN 



PEPPER 



PHEASANT 



PIG 

PINE 

PISTACHIO 

PLANTS 

PLUM 

POMEGRANATE 

POPLAR 

QUAIL 

QUINCE 

RADISH 

RAT 

RAVEN 

REED 

RICE 

ROCKET 

ROSE 

SAFFRON 

SHEEP 

SILK 

SNAKE 

SORGHUM 

SPARROW 

SPICES 

SQUILL 

SUMAC 

SYCAMORE 

TEREBINTH 

TORTOISE 

TURTLE DOVE 

VEGETABLES 

VINE 

VULTURES 

WHEAT 

WILD BULL 

WILLOW 

WOLF 

WORM 



3. SECOND TEMPLE AND LATE ROMAN PERIODS 
Main Surveys 

HISTORY 



General Entries 

abomination of desolation 

absalom, monument of 

agoranomos 

agricultural land-management methods and 

implements in ancient erez israel 
agriculture 
alabarch 

ANGARIA 

ANGLO-ISRAEL ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

ANTICHRESIS 

APOCALYPSE 

APOCRYPHA AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHA 

ARCHAEOLOGISTS 

ARCHAEOLOGY 



26 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



ARCHISYNAGOGOS 



OSSUARIES AND SARCOPHAGI 



ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHITECTS 



PALESTINE 



ARCHON 

ARNONA 

ASS WORSHIP 

AURUM CORONARIUM 

BOETHUSIANS 

BOULE 

CART AND CHARIOT 

CIRCUSES AND THEATERS 

CISTERN 

COINS AND CURRENCY 

CRAFTS 

CRUCIFIXION 

CYNICS AND CYNICISM 

DAVID, DYNASTY OF 

DEAD SEA SECT 

DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY 

DIASPORA 

DIONYSUS, CULT OF 

EMPEROR WORSHIP 

EPICUREANISM 

ESSENES 

ETHNARCH 

FISCUS JUDAICUS 

GERUSIA 

GLADIATOR 

GREEK AND LATIN LANGUAGES, RABBINICAL 

KNOWLEDGE OF 
GREEK LITERATURE, ANCIENT 
GYMNASIUM 
HASMONEAN BET DIN 
HASMONEANS 
HASSIDEANS 
HELLENISM 

HELLENISTIC JEWISH LITERATURE 
HERODIANS 
HEVER HA-YEHUDIM 
HIGH PRIEST 
HISTORIOGRAPHY 

HOLY CONGREGATION IN JERUSALEM 
JEW 

JUDEAN DESERT CAVES 
LETTERS AND LETTER-WRITERS 
LOGOS 
LOTS 

MACCABEE 
MAGIC 
MAIUMAS 
MENORAH 
MIKVEH 
MIN 

MONEY CHANGERS 
MOSES 

NAG HAMMADI CODICES 
NASH PAPYRUS 
NASI 

NICANORS GATE 
OIL OF LIFE 
ONYCHA 



PAPYRI 

PESHER 

PHARISEES 

PILGRIMAGE 

PILLAR 

POTTERY 

PRIESTS AND PRIESTHOOD 



PROCURATOR 

QUMRAN 

SADDUCEES 

SAMARITANS 

SANHEDRIN 

SECTS, MINOR 

SEEKERS AFTER SMOOTH THINGS 

SELEUCID ERA 

SEREKH 

SHEKEL 

SHIPS AND SAILING 

SICARII 

SOFERIM 

SONS OF LIGHT 

SYNAGOGUE 

SYNAGOGUE, THE GREAT 

TAX GATHERERS 

TEACHER OF RIGHTEOUSNESS 

TEMPLE 

TEMPLE MOUNT 

THERAPEUTAE 

TITHE 

TITUS, ARCH OF 

TOMBS AND TOMBSTONES 

TOPARCHY 

USHA, SYNOD OF 

WAR AND WARFARE 

WORSHIP 

XENOPHON OF LAMPSACUS 

YAH AD 

ZADOKITES 

ZEALOTS AND SICARII 

ZENO, PAPYRI OF 



LITERATURE 

ABRAHAM, APOCALYPSE OF 
ABRAHAM, OTHER BOOKS OF 
ABRAHAM, TESTAMENT OF 
ACRO, PSEUDO- 
ADAM, OTHER BOOKS OF 
ADAM AND EVE, BOOK OF THE LIFE OF 

aelian (Claudius, Aelianus) 

AHIKAR, BOOK OF 

ALEXANDRIAN MARTYRS, ACTS OF 

ARISTEAS, LETTER OF 

BARUCH, APOCALYPSE OF 

BARUCH, BOOK OF 

BARUCH, GREEK APOCALYPSE OF 

BARUCH, REST OF THE WORDS OF 

BEL AND THE DRAGON 

BEN SIRA, WISDOM OF 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



27 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 

3. Second Temple and Late Roman Periods 

Literature (continued) 

COPPER SCROLL 

DAMASCUS, BOOK OF COVENANT OF 
DANIEL, BOOKS OF 
DEAD SEA SCROLLS 
DISCIPLINE, MANUAL OF 
ENOCH 

ENOCH, ETHIOPIC BOOK OF 
ENOCH, SLAVONIC BOOK OF 
ESTHER, ADDITIONS TO THE BOOK OF 
EZEKIEL, APOCRYPHAL BOOKS OF 
EZRA, APOCALYPSE OF 
EZRA, GREEK BOOK OF 
HABAKKUK, PROPHECY OF 
HISTORIA AUGUSTA 
ISAAC, TESTAMENT OF 
JACOB, TESTAMENT OF 
JEREMIAH, EPISTLE OF 
JOB, TESTAMENT OF 
JOSEPH AND ASENATH 
JOSIPPON 

JUBILEES, BOOK OF 
JUDITH, BOOK OF 
LAMECH, BOOK OF 
LEVI, TESTAMENT OF 
MACCABEES, FIRST BOOK OF 
MACCABEES, SECOND BOOK OF 
MACCABEES, THIRD BOOK OF 
MACCABEES, FOURTH BOOK OF 
MANASSEH, PRAYER OF 
MOSES, ASSUMPTION OF 
MURABBAAT SCROLLS 
NAPHTALI, TESTAMENT OF 
NOAH, BOOKS OF 

PATRIARCHS, TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE 
PHILO 

PROPHETS, LIVES OF THE 
PSALMS, APOCRYPHAL 
ROMAN LITERATURE 
SCROLL OF ANTIOCHUS 
SEVENTY SHEPHERDS, VISION OF 
SIBYL AND SIBYLLINE ORACLES 
SOLOMON, PSALMS OF 
SOLOMON, TESTAMENT OF 
SOLOMON, WISDOM OF 

SONG OF THE THREE CHILDREN AND THE PRAYER OF 
AZARIAH 

susanna and the elders 
temple scroll 
thanksgiving psalms 
tobit, book of 
war scroll 

Places and Peoples 

ABILENE 
ACRA 



ACRABA 
ACRE 
ADASA 
ADIABENE 

ad or aim (Adora) 

AELIA CAPITOLINA 

AGRIPPINA 

AIJALON 

AKHBAREI 

ALAMAH 

ALEXANDRIA 

AMANA 

AMMATHA 

ANTHEDON 

ANTIOCH 

ANTIPATRIS 

ANTONIA 

APAMEA 

APHEK 

APOLLONIA 

ARABA 

ARAD 

ARADUS 

ARBATTA 

ARCHELAIS 

ARETHUSA 

ARPAD 

ASARAMEL 

ASHKELON 

ASSUR 

ATHRIBIS 

AVE DAT 

AZMON 

BABYLONIA 

BANIAS 

BASHAN 

BATHYRA 

BE-HOZAI 

bene-berak 
berenike 
bet(h)-anath 
bet(h)-cherem 
bet guvrin 

BETHANY 
BETHAR 

bet(h)-haram (Haran) 

bethbasi 

bethlehem 

bethleptepha 

bet(h)-horon 

bethphage 

bethsaida 

bethulia 

bet(h)-maon 

bet netofah 

bet(h)-shean 

bet shearim 

bet yerah 

bet zekharyah 

bet(h)-zur 



28 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



BIRIYYAH 

BITHYNIA 

BORSIPPA 

BOSPHORUS, KINGDOM OF 

BOZRAH 

BUTNAH 

CABUL 

CAESAREA 

CAESAREA IN CAPPADOCIA 

CAPERNAUM 

CAPITOLIAS 

CAPPADOCIA 

CARCHEMISH 

CARIA 

CARMEL, MOUNT 

CARTHAGE 

CHALCIS 

CHORAZIN 

CILICIA 

COELE-SYRIA 

COMMAGENE 

CTESIPHON 

CYRENE 

DAMASCUS 

DECAPOLIS 

DELOS 

DIBON 

DIUM 

DOBRATH 

DOK 

DOR 

DURA-EUROPOS 

EDESSA 

EDOM 

EGYPT 

EIN FASHKHAH 

EIN KEREM 

ELASA 

ELEPHANTINE 

ELUSA 

EMESA 

EMMAUS 

EN-GEDI 

EPHESUS 

EVEN HA-TOIM 

gadara (Gadar, Gader) 

GALATIA 

GALILEE 

GAMALA 

GAZA 

GEBA 

GERASA 

GERIZIM, MOUNT 

GEZER 

GINNOSAR, PLAIN OF 

GISCALA 

GOFNAH 

HAGRONIA 

HALHUL 

hammat-gader (Geder) 



HAMMATH 
HAPHARAIM 
HAR HA-MELEKH 
HEBRON 

herodium (Herodion) 

HESHBON 

HIERAPOLIS 

HORONAIM 

HULEH 

HUZAL 

HYRCANIA 

JABNEH 

JAFFA 

JAPHIA 

JAZER 

JERICHO 

JERUSALEM 

JEZREEL, VALLEY OF 

JORDAN 

JOTAPATA 

JUDEA 

KABRITHA 

KEFAR AKKO 

KEFAR GAMALA 

KEFAR HANANYAH 

KEFAR HATTIN 

KEFAR NEBURAYA 

KEFAR OTNAY 

KEFAR SHIHLAYIM 

KEILAH 

KENATH 

KERAK OR CHARAX 

KIDRON 

KINNERET, LAKE 

KITTIM 

LAODICEA 

LEGIO 

LEONTOPOLIS 

LYDDA (Lod) 

LYDIA, LYDIANS 

MACEDONIA 

MACHAERUS 

MACHPELAH, CAVE OF 

MADABA, MEDEBA 

MAGDALA 

MAMPSIS 

ma'on 
mareshah 

MASADA 

MERON 

MESENE 

michmash (Michmas) 

MILETUS 

modi'in (Modi'im) 

MOUNT OF OLIVES 
MOZA, (HA-) MOZAH 

naarah (Naaran) 

NABATEANS 
NABLUS 

NAIN 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



29 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 

3. Second Temple and Late Roman Periods 

Places and Peoples (continued) 

NARBATA 

NAVEH 

NEGEV 

NEHAR PEKOD 

NEHARDEA 

NISIBIS 

NIZZANAH 

ONIAS, TEMPLE OF 

ONO 

OSROENE 

PAMPHYLIA 

PARAH, PERATH 

PEKl'lN 



TIBERIAS 

TIMNATH-HERES 

TIRAT ZEVI 

TRACHONITIS 

TRANSJORDAN 

TUNIS, TUNISIA 

TYRE 

TYRE, LADDER OF 

TYRE OF THE TOBIADS 

USHA 

WADI DALIYA 

WESTERN WALL 

ZAPHON 

ZAREPHATH 

ZEREDAH 

ZION 

ZIPH 

ZOFIM 



PELLA 

PERSIA 

PETRA 

PHAROS 

PHASAELIS 

PHOTIS 

PHRYGIA 

RABBATH-AMMON 

RAFA 

RAMAT HA-GOLAN 

RAMAT RAHEL 

RECHABITES 

REHOBOTH 

SABEA 

SAFED 

SAMARIA 

SARDIS 

SARTABA 

SELEUCIA 

SENNABRIS 

SEPPHORIS 

SHALEM 

SHECHEM 

SHEPHELAH 

SHILOAH, SILOAM 

SHILOH 

SHION 

SHIVTAH 

SHUNEM 

SHUSHAN 

SICHAR 

SIDON 

SIKHNIN 

SINAI 

SPARTA 

SUSITA 

SYRIA 

TABGHA 

TABOR, MOUNT 

TADMOR 

TAMAR 

TEKOA 



Biographies 

abba sikra 

ABSALOM 

AGATHARCHIDES OF CNIDUS 

AGRIPPA I 

AGRIPPA II 

AGRIPPA, CAIUS JULIUS 

AGRIPPA, MARCUS VIPSANIUS 

ALARIC II 

ALBINUS, LUCCEIUS 

ALCIMUS 

ALEXANDER 

ALEXANDER BALAS 

ALEXANDER THE FALSE 

ALEXANDER THE GREAT 

ALEXANDER LYSIMACHUS 

ALEXANDER OF APHRODISIAS 

ALEXANDER POLYHISTOR 

ALEXANDER SON OF ARISTOBULUS II 

ALEXANDER THE ZEALOT 

ALEXANDRA 

ALEXANDRA 

ALEXAS 

aliturus (Alityros) 

AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS 

ANAN, SON OF ANAN 

ANAN BEN SETH 

ANANIAS AND HELKIAS 

ANANIAS BEN NEDEBEUS 

ANANIAS OF ADIABENE 

ANANIAS SON OF ZADOK 

ANDRONICUS SON OF MESHULLAM 

ANILAEUS AND ASINAEUS 

ANTIGONUS 

ANTIGONUS II 

ANTIGONUS OF CARYSTUS 

ANTIGONUS OF SOKHO 

ANTIOCHUS 

ANTIPAS, HEROD 

ANTIPATER II 

ANTIPATER 



30 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



ANTONINUS PIUS 

ANTONIUS DIOGENES 

ANTONIUS JULIANUS 

APION 

APOLLONIUS 

APOLLONIUS MOLON 

APPIAN OF ALEXANDRIA 

APULEIUS, LUCIUS 

ARCHELAUS 

ARDAVAN 

AREIOS I 

ARES 

ARETAS 

ARISTEAS 

ARISTOBULUS I 

ARISTOBULUS II 

ARISTOBULUS III 

ARISTOBULUS 

ARISTOBULUS 

ARISTOBULUS OF PANEAS 

ARISTON OF PELLA 

ARMILUS 

ARRIAN 

ARTAPANUS 

ARTAXERXES 

ARTEMION 

ASINIUS POLLIO, GAIUS 

ASMODEUS 

ATHRONGES 

AUGUSTUS 

AVTINAS 

AZIZ 

BACCHIDES 

BAGOHI 

BANUS 

BAR GIORA, SIMEON 

BAR KOKHBA 

BASSUS, LUCILIUS 

BATHYRA, SONS OF 

BEN LAANAH 

BEN SIRA, SIMEON BEN JESUS 

BEN ZIZIT HA-KASSAT 

BERENICE 

BEROSUS 

BET GARMU 

BET ZERIFA 

CAECILIUS OF CALACTE 

CAESAR, SEXTUS JULIUS 

CAIAPHAS, JOSEPH 

CALIGULA, CAIUS CAESAR AUGUSTUS 

CALLISTHENES 

CAPITO, MARCUS HERENNIUS 

CARACALLA, MARCUS AURELIUS 

ANTONINUS 
CASSIUS LONGINUS 
CELSUS 

CELSUS, AULUS CORNELIUS 
CENSORINUS 
CESTIUS GALLUS 
CHAEREMON 



CHARAX OF PERGAMUM 

CHARES 

CHOERILOS OF SAMOS 

CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS 

claudian (Claudius Claudianus) 

CLAUDIUS 

CLAUDIUS IOLAUS (Julius) 

CLEARCHUS OF SOLI 

CLEODEMUS MALCHUS 

CLEOMEDES 

CLEOPATRA 

CLEOPATRA OF JERUSALEM 

CONON I 

CONON II 

COPONIUS 

COSTOBAR 

CRASSUS, MARCUS LICINIUS 

CRINAGORAS OF CARYSTUS 

CUMANUS VENTIDIUS 

CYPROS 

CYPROS 

DAMASCIUS 

DAMOCRITUS 

DEMETRIUS 

DEMETRIUS 

DEMETRIUS I SOTER 

DEMETRIUS II 

DEMETRIUS III 

DIO CASSIUS 

DIO CHRYSOSTOM 

DIOCLETIAN, CAIUS VALERIANUS 

DIODORUS OF SICILY 

DIODOTUS-TRYPHON 

DIOGENES LAERTIUS 

DIOS 

DIOSCORIDES PEDANIUS 

DOMITIAN 

DORIS 

DOROTHEUS 

DRUSILLA 

ELEAZAR 

ELEAZAR BEN ANANIAS 

ELEAZAR BEN DINAI 

ELEAZAR BEN HARSOM 

ELEAZAR BEN JAIR 

ELEAZAR BEN MATTATHIAS 

ELEAZAR BEN SIMEON 

ELIONAEUS, SON OF CANTHERAS 

EMPEDOCLES 

EPICTETUS 

ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE 

EUHEMERUS 

EUPOLEMUS 

EUTROPIUS 

EZEKIEL THE POET 

FADUS, CUSPIUS 

FELIX, ANTONIUS 

FESTUS, PORCIUS 

FLACCUS, AVILLIUS AULUS 

FLACCUS, VALERIUS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



31 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

A. ANCIENT PERIOD 

3. Second Temple and Late Roman Periods 
Biographies (continued) 

FLAVIUS, CLEMENS 

FRONTO, MARCUS CORNELIUS 

FULVIA 

GABINIUS, AULUS 

galen (Galenus), claudius 

GEBINI 

GESSIUS FLORUS 

GLAPHYRA 

GORGIAS 

HADRIAN, PUBLIUS AELIUS 

hanamel (Hananel) 

HANNAH AND HER SEVEN SONS 

HAURAN 

HECATAEUS OF ABDERA 

HELENA 

HELIODORUS 

HELLADIUS OF ANTINOUPOLIS 

HERACLES 

HERACLITUS 

HERMIPPUS OF SMYRNA 

HERMOGENES 

HEROD 

HEROD I 

HEROD II 

HERODIAS 

HERODOTUS 

HEROD PHILIP I 

HEZEKIAH 

HEZEKIAH, THE HIGH PRIEST 

HOLOFERNES 

HOMER 

HONORIUS FLAVIUS 

HORACE, QUINTUS HORATIUS FLACCUS 

HYPSICRATES OF AMISUS 

HYRCANUS II 

hyrcanus, john (Johanan) 

ISHMAEL BEN PHIABI (PHABl) II 

IZATES II 

JACOB BEN SOSAS (Susa) 

jaddua (Jaddus) 

JANNES AND JAMBRES 

JANUARIUS 

JASON 

JASON OF CYRENE 

JOEZER, SON OF BOETHUS 

JOHANAN BEN JEHOIADA 

JOHANAN THE HASMONEAN 

JOHN THE ESSENE 

JOHN OF GISCALA 

JONATHAN BEN ANAN 

JONATHAN BEN UZZIEL 

JONATHAN THE HASMONEAN 

JONATHAN SON OF ABSALOM 

JOSEPH 

JOSEPH AND AZARIAH BEN ZECHARIAH 



JOSEPH BEN ELEM 

JOSEPH OF GAMALA 

JOSEPHUS FLAVIUS 

JOSHUA, SON OF SAPPHAS 

JOSHUA, SON OF SETH 

JOSHUA BEN DAMNAI 

JOSHUA BEN GAMLA 

JOSHUA BEN PHABI 

JUDAH, SON OF ZIPPORAI 

JUDAH THE GALILEAN 

JUDAH MACCABEE 

JULIAN THE APOSTATE 

JULIUS ARCHELAUS 

JULIUS CAESAR 

JULIUS FLORUS 

JULIUS SEVERUS 

JUSTIN 

JUSTUS OF TIBERIAS 

JUVENAL 

KETIA BAR SHALOM 

KIMHIT 

LAETUS 

LAMECH 

LAMPON AND ISIDOROS 

LIES, MAN OF 

LIES, PROPHET OF 

LION OF WRATH 

LIVY 

lucan (Marcus Annaeus Lucanus) 

LUCIAN OF SAMOSATA 

LUCUAS 

LYSANIAS 

LYSIAS 

LYSIMACHUS OF ALEXANDRIA 

MACROBIUS, AMBROSIUS 

MANETHO 

MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS 

MARIAMNE 

MARKAH 

MARSUS, C. VIBIUS 

MARTIAL 

MASTEMA 

MATTATHIAS 

MATTATHIAS BEN SIMEON 

MATTHIAS BEN THEOPHILUS 

MAXIMUS, MAGNUS CLEMENS 

MEGASTHENES 

MELEAGER OF GADARA 

MENAHEM THE ESSENE 

MENAHEM SON OF JUDAH 

MENANDER OF EPHESUS 

MENANDER OF LAODICEA 

MENELAUS 

MNASEAS OF PATARA 

MONOBAZ 

MUCIANUS, CAIUS LICINIUS 

MURASHUS SONS 

NERO 

NERVA 

NICANOR 



32 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



NICARCHUS 

NICHOLAS OF DAMASCUS 

NIGER OF PEREA 

NUMENIUS 

NUMENIUS OF APAMEA 

OBEDAS 

ODENATHUS AND ZENOBIA 

OENOMAUS OF GADARA 

ONIAS 

OVID 

PAUSANIAS 

PERSIUS 

PETRONIUS, PUBLIUS 

PETRONIUS ARBITER, GAIUS 

PHASAEL 

PHERORAS 

PHILIP OF BATHYRA 

philo (The Elder) 

PHILO OF BYBLOS 

PHILODEMUS 

PHILOSTRATUS 

PHINEHAS 

PHINEHAS BEN SAMUEL 

PLINY THE ELDER 

PLUTARCH 

POLEMON II 

POLEMON OF ILIUM 

POLYBIUS OF MEGALOPOLIS 

POMl(s), DE 

POMPEIUS TROGUS 

pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) 

POMPONIUS MELA 

PONTIUS PILATE 

POPPAEA, SABINA 

PORPHYRY 

POSIDONIUS 

PSEUDO-LONGINUS 

PSEUDO-PHOCYLIDES 

PSEUDO-SCYLAX 

PTOLEMY 

PTOLEMY 

PTOLEMY 

PTOLEMY THE BIOGRAPHER 

PTOLEMY THE GEOGRAPHER 

PTOLEMY MACRON 

PTOLEMY OF CHENNOS 

PTOLEMY OF MENDE 

PYTHAGORAS 

QUADRATUS, UMMIDIUS CAIUS 

QUIETUS, LUSIUS 

quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus) 

QUINTILIUS VARUS 

QUIRINIUS, P. SULPICIUS 

ROMAN EMPERORS 

RUFUS OF SAMARIA 

RUTILIUS NAMATIANUS 

SABINUS 

SALOME 

SALOME ALEXANDRA 

SANBALLAT 



SELEUCUS IV PHILOPATOR 

SENECA THE ELDER 

SENECA THE YOUNGER 

SEVERUS, ALEXANDER 

SEVERUS, SEPTIMIUS 

SEXTUS EMPIRICUS 

SHAPUR 

SILAS 

SILIUS ITALICUS, TIBERIUS CATIUS 

ASCONIUS 
SILVA, FLAVIUS 
SIMEON BEN BOETHUS 
SIMEON THE HASMONEAN 
SIMEON THE JUST 
SIMEON SON OF ONIAS I 
SOLINUS, CAIUS JULIUS 
SOSIUS, GAIUS 
STATIUS, PUBLIUS PAPINIUS 
STRABO 
SUETONIUS 
TACITUS 
TATTENAI 
TETRARCH 
TEUCER OF CYZICUS 
THALLUS 
THEMISTIUS 
THEODOSIUS 
THEODOSIUS I 
THEODOSIUS II 
THEODOSIUS OF ROME 
THEODOTUS 
THEOPHILUS 
THEOPHILUS 

THEOPHRASTUS OF ERESOS 
THEUDAS 

THRASYLLUS OF MENDES 
TIBERIUS JULIUS ALEXANDER 
TIBULLUS, ALBIUS 
TIMAGENES OF ALEXANDRIA 
TIMOCHARES 
TINNEIUS RUFUS 
TITANS 

TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS 
TOBIADS 

TRAJAN, MARCUS ULPIUS 
ULPIAN 

VALERIUS GRATUS 
VALERIUS MAXIMUS 
VARRO, MARCUS TERENTIUS 
VENTIDIUS, PUBLIUS (BaSSUS) 
VESPASIAN, TITUS FLAVIUS 
VIRGIL 

VITRUVIUS, POLLO 
WICKED PRIEST 
YANNAI, ALEXANDER 
ZADOK 

ZADOK THE PHARISEE 
ZAMARIS 
ZENODORUS 
ZOPYRION 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



33 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY (continued) 



B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 

1. GENERAL HISTORY 
Main Entries 

antisemitism 
community 
economic history 
education, jewish 

HISTORY 

WOMAN 

General Entries 

advertising 

age and the aged 

agriculture 

agudat israel 

alliance israelite universelle 

amenities, communal 

anthropology 

ANUSIM 

APOSTASY 

ARCHAEOLOGISTS 

ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHITECTS 

ARCHIVES 

ASSIMILATION 

AUTOGRAPHS 

AUTONOMISM 

AUTONOMY 

AUTONOMY, JUDICIAL 

AVELEI ZION 

BADGE, JEWISH 

BADHAN 

BANKING AND BANKERS 

BARBARIANS 

BARON DE HIRSCH FUND 

BATLANIM 

BEGGING AND BEGGARS 

BERLIN, CONGRESS OF 

BETH JACOB SCHOOLS 

BLACK DEATH 

BLINDNESS 

BOOKS 

BOOK TRADE 

BROKERS 

BUND 

CANDLE TAX 

CAPTIVES, RANSOMING OF 

CARDS AND CARDPLAYING 

CENSORSHIP 

CHARITY 

CHESS 

CHOLENT 

CHRONOLOGY 

CLASSICAL SCHOLARSHIP, JEWS IN 

COINS AND CURRENCY 

COMMUNISM 

COMMUNITY TOKENS 



CONFERENCES 

CONSTRUCTION 

CONTRACTORS 

COOKBOOKS 

COOPERATIVES 

COURT JEWS 

CRAFTS 

CRIME 

CRIMINOLOGY 

CRYPTO-JEWS 

DEMOGRAPHY 

DIAMOND TRADE AND INDUSTRY 

DISPUTATIONS AND POLEMICS 

DIVORCE 

DRESS 

DRUNKENNESS 

DYEING 

EDUCATION 

ELDER 

EMANCIPATION 

EPISCOPUS JUDAEORIUM 

EPITAPHS 

EUROPE 

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY, THE 

EXILARCH 

EXPULSIONS 

FAMILY 

FEDERATIONS OF COMMUNITIES, TERRITORIAL 

FINANCES, AUTONOMOUS JEWISH 

FLAG 

FOOD 

FORGERIES 

FOUNDATIONS 

FRANK, JACOB, AND THE FRANKISTS 

FRATERNAL SOCIETIES 

FREEMASONS 

FUR TRADE AND INDUSTRY 

GABBAI 

GALUT 

GAMES 

GENEALOGY 

GENIZAH 

GEOGRAPHY 

GHETTO 

GUILDS 

HAPSBURG MONARCHY 

HAREDIM 

HASKALAH 

HE-HALUTZ 

HEP! HEP! 

HERALDRY 

hevra (Havura) kaddisha 

HEVRAH, HAVURAH 

HISTORIANS 

HISTORIOGRAPHY 

HOSPITALS 

HUMOR 

INFORMERS 

INQUISITION 



34 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



INSURANCE 

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF JEWISH 

COMMUNAL SERVICE 
JEWISH AGENCY 

JEWISH-CHRISTIAN RELATIONS 
JEWISH IDENTITY 
JEWISH QUARTER 
JEWISH TELEGRAPHIC AGENCY 
JOURNALISM 
JUDAISM 
JUDAIZERS 
LABOR 

LANDSMANNSCHAFTEN 
LAWYERS 

LEAGUE OF NATIONS 
LEATHER INDUSTRY AND TRADE 
LIBERALISM 
LIBRARIES 

LIVESTOCK, TRADE IN 
MACCABI WORLD UNION 
MAGEN DAVID 
MANUSCRIPTS, HEBREW 
MAP MAKERS 
MEDINAH 
MEMORBUCH 
MENTAL ILLNESS 
MESSIANIC MOVEMENTS 
METALS AND MINING 
MIGRATIONS 
MILITARY SERVICE 
MINORITY RIGHTS 
MINTMASTERS AND MONEYERS 
MIXED MARRIAGE, INTERMARRIAGE 
MOTION PICTURES 
MUSEUMS 
NAMES 
NASI 

NEO-FASCISM 
NEO-NAZISM 
NEW LEFT 

NEWSPAPERS, HEBREW 
NUMERUS CLAUSUS 
NUMISMATICS 
OATH MORE JUDAICO 
OLYMPIC GAMES 
ORPHAN, ORPHANAGE 
ORT 

OZE (OSE) 
PARNAS 

PETROLEUM AND OIL PRODUCTS 
PHILANTHROPY 
PHILOSOPHY 
PINKAS 
PLETTEN 
POLITICS 
POPULATION 
PRESS 

PRINTING, HEBREW 
PROSTITUTION 



PSYCHOLOGY 

PUBLIC RELATIONS 

PUBLISHING 

RADANIYA 

SALONS 

SAMBATYON 

SAN REMO CONFERENCE 

SCOUTING 

SEAL, SEALS 

SELF-DEFENSE 

SELF-HATRED, JEWISH 

SEPHARDIM 

SERVI CAMERAE REGIS 

SETTLEMENT HOUSES 

SHABBETAI ZEVI 

SHADKHAN 

SHELUHEI EREZ ISRAEL 

SHIPS AND SAILING 

SHTADLAN 

SHTETL 

SICK CARE, COMMUNAL 

SLAVE TRADE 

SOCIALISM 

SOCIALISM, JEWISH 

SOCIETIES, LEARNED 

SOCIOLOGY 

SPORTS 

STAMPS 

STUDENTS' MOVEMENTS, JEWISH 

SUMPTUARY LAWS 

SYNAGOGUE 

TALMUD, BURNING OF 

TANZHAUS 

TAXATION 

TELEVISION AND RADIO 

TEN LOST TRIBES 

THEATER 

TITLES 

TITLES OF NOBILITY 

TRAVELERS AND EXPLORERS 

UNITED NATIONS 

UNIVERSITIES 

VIENNA, CONGRESS OF 

VITAL STATISTICS 

WANDERING JEW 

WORLD CONFERENCE OF JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS 

WORLD JEWISH ASSOCIATIONS 

WORLD JEWISH CONGRESS 

WORLD SEPHARDI FEDERATION 

WRITING 

YIHUS 



a. Antisemitism 
Main Surveys 

antisemitism 

General Entries 

blood libel 
boycott, anti-jewish 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



35 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
1. General History 
a. Antisemitism 

General Entries (continued) 

discrimination 

elders of zion, protocols of the learned 

host, desecration of 

NARA 

NEO-NAZISM 

NUMERUS CLAUSUS 

OZON 

RACE, THEORY OF 

ROZWOJ 

stuermer, der 

Biographies 

abraham a sancta clara 

carben, victor von 

chiarini, luigi 

christians pablo 

codreanu, corneliu zelea 

costa de mattos, vicente da 

cuza, alexander c. 

darquier de pellepoix, louis 

daudet, leon 

deckert, joseph 

dlugosz, jan 

drumont, edouard-adolphe 

eisenmenger, johann andreas 

endlich, quirin 

endre, laszlo 

este, joao baptista de 

farinacci, roberto 

fettmilch, vincent 

FOLIGNO, HANANEL (da) 

FRIES, JAKOB FRIEDRICH 

FRITSCH, THEODOR 

GHILLANY, FRIEDRICH WILHELM 

GOUGENOT DES MOUSSEAUX, HENRI 

GRAES, ORTWIN VAN DE 

GRATTENAUER, KARL WILHELM FRIEDRICH 

HUNDT-RADOWSKY, HARTWIG VON 

IGNATYEV, COUNT NIKOLAI PAVLOVICH 

ISTOCZY, GYOZO 

JELENSKI, JAN 

LAGARDE, PAUL ANTON DE 

LUEGER, KARL 

LUTOSTANSKI, HYPPOLITE 

MARR, WILHELM 

MAURRAS, CHARLES 

MICZYNSKI, SEBASTIAN 

MOJECKI, PRZECLAW 

ONODY, GEZA 

PREZIOSI, GIOVANNI 

PROUDHON, PIERRE JOSEPH 

ROHLING, AUGUST 

SCHOENERER, GEORG VON 

SESSA, KARL BORROMAEUS ALEXANDER 



SKARGA, PIOTR 
STOECKER, ADOLF 
SZALASI, FERENC 
VALLAT, XAVIER 
VOGELSANG, KARL VON 



b. Demography 
Main Surveys 
demography 
migrations 

mixed marriage, intermarriage 
population 
statistics 
vital statistics 



c. Economic History 

Main Surveys 

economic history 



General Entries 

advertising 
banking and bankers 
begging and beggars 
book trade 

BROKERS 

CANDLE TAX 

CHEMICAL CRAFTS AND INDUSTRIES 

CONSTRUCTION 

CONTRACTORS 

COOPERATIVES 

COURT JEWS 

CRAFTS 

DEPARTMENT STORES 

DIAMOND TRADE AND INDUSTRY 

DYEING 

FINANCES, AUTONOMOUS JEWISH 

FOUNDATIONS 

FUR TRADE AND INDUSTRY 

GLASS 

GUILDS 

INSURANCE 

LABOR 

LEATHER INDUSTRY AND TRADE 

LIVESTOCK, TRADE IN 

MARKET DAYS AND FAIRS 

METALS AND MINING 

MONEYLENDING 

PEDDLING 

PETROLEUM AND OIL PRODUCTS 

PUBLIC RELATIONS 

PUBLISHING 

RAILROADS 

SALT TRADE AND INDUSTRY 

SECONDHAND GOODS AND OLD CLOTHES, TRADE 

IN 
SPICE TRADE 
STOCK EXCHANGES 
SUGAR INDUSTRY AND TRADE 
TAILORING 
TAXATION 



36 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



TEXTILES 



TOBACCO TRADE AND INDUSTRIES 



TRADE AND COMMERCE 



WINE AND LIQUOR TRADE 



d. Zionism 

Main Surveys 

ZIONISM 



WIZO 

YOUTH ALIYAH 

z.s. (Zionist Socialists) 

ZEIREI ZION 

ZIONIST COMMISSION 

ZIONIST CONGRESSES 

ZIONIST ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA (z.O.A.) 

ZIONIST SOCIALIST WORKERS PARTY (s.S.) 



General Entries 

balfour declaration 
basle program 
benei moshe 

BERIHAH 

BETAR 

BILTMORE PROGRAM 

BILU 

BLAU-WEISS 

BNEI AKIVA 

DEMOCRATIC FRACTION, 

EMUNAH 

FARBAND 

GENERAL ZIONISTS 

GORDONIA 

HA-NOAR HA-IVRI-AKIBA 

HAOLAM 

HA-POEL HA-MIZRACHI 

HA-SHAHAR 

HA-SHOMER HA-ZAIR 

HA-TIKVAH 

HE-HALUTZ 

HE-HAVER 

HELSINGFORS PROGRAM 

HIBBAT ZION 

IHUD HABONIM 

JEWISH AGENCY 

JEWISH COLONIAL TRUST 

JEWISH COLONIZATION ASSOCIATION 

JEWISH NATIONAL FUND 

JEWISH STATE PARTY 

JUEDISCHER VERLAG 

KATTOWITZ CONFERENCE 

KEREN HAYESOD 

KHARKOV CONFERENCE 

LANGUAGE WAR (SPRACHENKAMPF) 

MAURITIUS 

MINSK CONFERENCE 

MIZRACHI 

ODESSA COMMITTEE 

PETROGRAD CONFERENCE 

POALEI ZION 

REVISIONISTS, ZIONIST 

SAN REMO CONFERENCE 

SELBSTEMANZIPATION 

SYKES-PICOT TREATY 

TERRITORIALISM 

TOR AH VA-AVODAH 

UGANDA SCHEME 

VATICAN 

WELT, DIE 



BIOGRAPHIES 

ABELES, OTTO 

AHAD HA-AM 

ALKALAI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON HAI 

ALLOUCHE, FELIX NISSIM SAIDOU 

BARUCH, JOSEPH MARCOU 

BATO, LUDWIG YOMTOV 

BEIN, ALEXANDER 

BEN-YEHUDA, ELIEZER 

BERLIAND, SHLOMO MEIR 

BERNSTEIN-KOGAN (Cohen), JACOB 

BIERER, RUBIN 

BIRNBAUM, NATHAN 

BLUMEL, ANDRE 

BLUMENFELD, KURT YEHUDAH 

BODENHEIMER, MAX ISIDOR 

BOEHM, ADOLF 

BOROCHOV, BER (Dov) 

BRANDT, BORIS (BaiTlch) 

BRODETSKY, SELIG 

BRUCK, GRIGORI 

BUCHMIL, JOSHUA HESHEL 

BUXBAUM, NATHAN 

CARPI, LEONE 

CHASANOWICH, JOSEPH 

CHASANOWICH, LEON 

COHEN, ISAAC KADMI 

COHEN, ISRAEL 

COWEN, JOSEPH 

DE LIEME, NEHEMIA 

DEEDES, SIR WYNDHAM 

DON-YAHIA, YEHUDAH LEIB 

DUGDALE, BLANCHE ELIZABETH CAMPBELL 

EDELSTEIN, JACOB 

EDER, MONTAGUE DAVID 

EHRLICH, JACOB 

EISLER, EDMUND MENAHEM 

ELIASBERG, MORDECAI 

FARBSTEIN, DAVID ZEVI 

FASTLICHT, ADOLFO 

FEIWEL, BERTHOLD 

FINKELSTEIN, CHAIM 

FINKELSTEIN, NOAH 

FISCHER, JEAN 

FITCH, LOUIS 

FRIEDEMANN, ADOLF 

FRIEDMANN, DESIDER 

FRISCH, DANIEL 

GASTER, MOSES 

GELBER, NATHAN MICHAEL 

GELLMAN, LEON 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



37 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
1. General History 

d. Zionism 

Biographies (continued) 

GESANG, NATHAN-NACHMAN 
GOLDBERG, BORIS 
GOLD BERG, ISAAC LEIB 
GOLDBLOOM, JACOB KOPPEL 
GOLDHAMMER-SAHAWI, LEO 
GOLDMAN, PAUL L. 
GOLDMANN, NAHUM 
GOLDSTEIN, ALEXANDER 
GOLDSTEIN, ANGELO 
GOODMAN, PAUL 
GORDON, AHARON DAVID 
GOTTHEIL, GUSTAV 
GOTTLIEB, YEHOSHUA 
GREENBERG, HAYYIM 
GREENBERG, LEOPOLD JACOB 
GROSS, NATHAN 
GROSSMAN, MEIR 
GRUENBAUM, YIZHAK 
GRUNBERG, ABRAHAM 
HALPRIN, ROSE LURIA 

hantke, arthur (Menahem) 

HARKAVI, YIZHAK 

HARTGLAS, MAXIMILIAN MEIR APOLINARY 

HECHLER, WILLIAM HENRY 

HELLMAN, JACOB 

HERBST, KARL 

HERLITZ, GEORG 

HERMANN, LEO 

HERRMANN, HUGO 

HERZL, THEODOR 

HESS, MOSES 

HICKL, MAX 

HODESS, JACOB 

HOFFMANN, JACOB 

HORODISCHTSCH, LEON 

IDELSON, ABRAHAM 

ISH-KISHOR, EPHRAIM 

JABOTINSKY, VLADIMIR (Ze'ev) 

JACOBSON, VICTOR 

JAFFE, BEZALEL 

JAFFE, LEIB 

JARBLUM, MARC 

JASINOWSKI, ISRAEL ISIDORE 

KAHN, FRANZ 

KALEF, YEHOSHUA 

KALISCHER, ZEVI HIRSCH 

KATZENELSON, NISSAN 

KATZNELSON, BERL (Been) 

KESSLER, LEOPOLD 

KIRSHBLUM, MORDECAI 

KISCH, FREDERICK HERMANN 

KITRON (KOSTRINSKY), MOSHE 

KLARMAN, YOSEF 

KLEE, ALFRED 



KLUMEL, MEIR 
KOKESCH, OZER 
KOMOLY, OTTO 
KORKIS, ABRAHAM ADOLF 
LANDAU, SAUL RAPHAEL 
LANDAU, SHEMUEL HAYYIM 
LANDAUER, GEORG 
LEVIN, SHMARYA 
LEWINSKY, ELHANAN LEIB 
LEWITE, LEON 
LICHT, ALEXANDER 
LICHTHEIM, RICHARD 
LINDHEIM, IRMA LEVY 
LIPSKY, LOUIS 

loewe, heinrich (Eliakim) 

MACCOBY, HAYYIM ZUNDEL 
MANDELSTAMM, MAX EMMANUEL 
MARMOREK, ALEXANDER 

motzkin, leo (Aryeh Leib) 

NATONEK, JOSEPH 
NEUMANN, EMANUEL 
NEWLINSKI, PHILIPP MICHAEL 
NISSENBAUM, ISAAC 
NORDAU, MAX 
NUROCK, MORDECHAI 
PASMANIK, DANIEL 

pinsker, leon (Judah Leib) 

REICH, LEON 
REVUSKY, ABRAHAM 
RINGEL, MICHAEL 
ROMANO, MARCO 
RONAI, JANOS 
ROTENSTREICH, FISCHEL 
RUFEISEN, JOSEPH 
RUPPIN, ARTHUR 
SACHER, HARRY 
SALZ, ABRAHAM ADOLPH 
SCHACH, FABIUS 
SCHACHTEL, HUGO-HILLEL 
SCHALIT, ISIDOR 

schapira, Hermann (Zevi-Hirsch) 

SCHECHTMAN, JOSEPH B. 
SCHENK, FAYE L. 
SCHLESINGER, AKIVA JOSEPH 
SCHLOESSINGER, MAX 
SCHOENFELD, JOSEPH 
SCHOOLMAN, BERTHA S. 
SCHWARZBART, ISAAC IGNACY 
SHRAGAI, SHLOMO ZALMAN 
SHREIER, FEIWEL 
SILVER, ABBA HILLEL 
SIMON, JULIUS 
SIMON, SIR LEON 
SOKOLOW, NAHUM 
SOMMERSTEIN, EMIL 
STAND, ADOLF 
STEINER, HANNAH 
STRICKER, ROBERT 
SYKES, SIR MARK 
SYRKIN, NACHMAN 



38 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



TAUBES, LOEBEL 

thon, osias (Jehoshua) 

TIOMKIN, VLADIMIR (Ze'ev) 
TORCZYNER, JACQUES 
TRIETSCH, DAVIS 

tschlenow, jehiel (Yefim Vladimirovich) 

USSISHKIN, ABRAHAM MENAHEM MENDEL 

VAN VRIESLAND, SIEGFRIED ADOLF (Zadok) 

WARBURG, OTTO 

WEISGAL, MEYER WOLF 

WEIZMANN, CHAIM 

WELTSCH, ROBERT 

WERNER, SIEGMUND 

WILENSKY, YEHUDAH LEIB NISAN 

WOLFFSOHN, DAVID 

WORLD LABOR ZIONIST MOVEMENT 

WORTSMAN, YECHESKIEL CHARLES 

YOFFE, ALTER 

ZIPPER, GERSHON 

ZISSU, ABRAHAM LEIB 

ZLATOPOLSKY, HILLEL 

ZLOCISTI, THEODOR 

ZUCKERMAN, BARUCH 



2. REGIONAL HISTORY 

a. Israel, Land and State of 
Main Surveys 

israel, land of 
israel, land of - climate 
israel, land of - flora and fauna 
israel, land of - geographical survey 
israel, land of - geology 
israel, land of - history 
israel, land of - physiography 
israel, state of - aliyah, absorption and 
settlement 



ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
ISRAEL, STATE OF 
COMMUNITIES 



- ARAB POPULATION 

- CULTURAL LIFE 

- DEFENSE FORCES 

- ECONOMIC AFFAIRS 

- EDUCATION 

- GOVERNANCE 

- HEALTH 

- HISTORICAL SURVEY 

- HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 

- LABOR 

- LEGAL AND JUDICIAL SYSTEM 

- POLITICAL LIFE AND PARTIES 

- POPULATION 

- RELIGIOUS LIFE AND 



israel, state of - welfare and social 
security 

General Entries 

agriculture 
aish hatorah 



ALIYAH 



ARCHAEOLOGISTS 

ARCHAEOLOGY 

ARCHIPHERECITES 

ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHITECTS 

ARMISTICE AGREEMENTS, ISRAEL-ARAB 

ART 

BI-NATIONALISM 

COINS AND CURRENCY 

COMMUNITY TOKENS 

COOPERATIVES 

CRIME 

CRUSADES 

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, ISRAEL 

DEW 

EARTHQUAKE 

ENTEBBE RAID 

EREZ ISRAEL 

FLAG 

GULF WAR 

HALUKKAH 

HAMAS 

HA-TIKVAH 

HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR PALESTINE 

HIZBOLLAH 

HOLY PLACES 

HOREV COMMISSION 

ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION 

INDEPENDENCE DAY, ISRAEL 

INTIFADA 

ISRAEL PRIZE 

ITINERARIES OF EREZ ISRAEL 

ITINERARIUM ANTONINI 

ITINERARIUM HIEROSOLYMITANUM OR 

ITINERARIUM BURDIGALENSE 
KAHAN COMMISSION 
KIBBUTZ FESTIVALS 
KNESSET 
LAVON AFFAIR 
LEBANON WAR 
MABARAH 
MACCABIAH 

MANDATE FOR PALESTINE 
MAPS OF EREZ ISRAEL 
MOSHAV 

MOSHAV SHITTUFI 
NATIONAL PARKS IN ISRAEL 
NATURE RESERVES IN ISRAEL 
NEW LEFT 
OLEI HA-GARDOM 
PALESTINE 

PALESTINE, INQUIRY COMMISSIONS 
PALESTINE, PARTITION AND PARTITION PLANS 
PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION 
PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY 
PATRIA 
PILGRIMAGE 
PRESIDENT OF ISRAEL 
PROJECT RENEWAL 
RISHON LE-ZION 
SAINT JAMES CONFERENCE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



39 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

a. Israel, Land and State of 

General Entries {continued) 

SALT 

shekel 

sheluhei erez israel 

sinai campaign 

six- day war 

stockade and watchtower 

sykes-picot treaty 

templers 

travelers and travels to erez israel 

UNSCOP 

VANUNU AFFAIR 

WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

WHITE PAPERS 

YOM HA-ZIKKARON 

YOM KIPPUR WAR 



Flora and Fauna 

ACACIA 

ALGUM 

ALMOND 

ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE AND TALMUD 

ANT 

ANTELOPE 

APPLE 

ASS 

BALSAM 

BARLEY 

BAT 

BEANS 

BEAR 

BEE 

BEET 

bittern (Heron) 

BOX 

BROOM 

BUFFALO 

BUZZARD 

CABBAGE 

CALAMUS, SWEET 

CAMEL 

CAPER 

CAROB 

CASTOR-OIL PLANT 

CAT 

CATTLE 

CEDAR 

CENTIPEDE 

CHAMELEON 

CINNAMON 

CITRUS 

CORAL 

CORIANDER 

COTTON 

CRANE 



CRIMSON WORM 

CROCODILE 

CUCUMBER 

CUMIN 

CYPRESS 

DEER 

DOG 

DOVE 

DYE PLANTS 

EAGLE 

EBONY 

ELEPHANT 

FENNEL 

FIG 

FLAX 

FLEA 

FLOWERS 

FLY 

FOX 

FRANKINCENSE 

FROG 

GALBANUM 

GARLIC 

GAZELLE 

GECKO 

GNAT 

GOAT 

GOOSE 

GOURD 

GULL 

HARE 

HAWK 

HEMLOCK 

HEMP 

HERBS, MEDICINAL 

HONEY 

HOOPOE 

HORNET 

HORSE 

HYENA 

HYRAX 

HYSSOP 

IBEX 

IVORY 

IVY 

JACKAL 

JUJUBE 

JUNIPER 

KITE 

LAUDANUM 

LEECH 

LEEK 

LEGUMES 

LENTIL 

LEOPARD 

LETTUCE 

LEVIATHAN 

LION 

LIZARD 

LOCUST 



40 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



LOUSE 

MALLOW 

MANDRAKE 

MASTIC 

MELON 

MILKWEED 

MILLET 

MOLE 

MONITOR 

MOTH 

MOUSE 

MULBERRY 

MULE 

MUSHROOMS 

MUSTARD 

MYRRH 

MYRTLE 

NIGHTINGALE 

NUT 

OAK 

OLEANDER 

OLIVE 

ONAGER 

ONION 

ORACH 

OSTRICH 

OWL 

PALM 

PAPYRUS 

PARTRIDGE 

PEACH 

PEACOCK 

PEAR 

PELICAN 

PEPPER 

PHEASANT 

PIG 

PINE 

PISTACHIO 

PLANE TREE 

PLANTS 

PLUM 

POMEGRANATE 

POPLAR 

QUAIL 

QUINCE 

RADISH 

RAT 

RAVEN 

REED 

RICE 

ROCKET 

ROSE 

SAFFRON 

SCORPION 

SHEEP 

SILK 

SKINK 

SNAKE 

SORGHUM 



SPARROW 



SPICES 



SPIDER 
SPIKENARD 
SQUILL 
STORAX 



STORK 

SUMAC 

SWIFT 

SYCAMORE 

TAHASH 

TAMARISK 

TARES 

TEREBINTH 

THISTLES AND THORNS 

TORTOISE 

TRAGACANTH 

TURTLE DOVE 

VEGETABLES 

VINE 

VULTURES 

WEEDS 

WHEAT 

WILD BULL 

WILLOW 

WOLF 

WORM 

WORMWOOD 



Places 

abu aweigila 
abu ghosh 
adullam region 

AIJALON 

ARABAH 

ARBEL 

AVELIM OR OVELIM 

BANIAS 

BASHAN 

BET NETOFAH 

BETHAR 

CARMEL, MOUNT 

DEAD SEA 

EN-DOR 

GERIZIM, MOUNT 

GESHER BENOT YAAKOV 

GILBOA 

GINNOSAR, PLAIN OF 

hammat-gader (Geder) 
hammath (Tiberias) 

HECHAL SHLOMO 

HEFER PLAIN 

HERMON, mount 

HULEH VALLEY 

JABBOK 

JEZREEL, VALLEY OF 

JORDAN 

JO TAB AH 

KINNAROT, VALLEY OF 

KINNERET, LAKE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



41 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

a. Israel, Land and State of 
Places (continued) 

KISHON 

LATRUN 

MAALEH AKRABBIM 

MACHPELAH, CAVE OF 

MEIR BAAL HA-NES, TOMB OF 

MIKVEH ISRAEL 

MOUNT OF OLIVES 

NEGEV 

ONO 

RAIN 

RAMAT HA-GOLAN 

RED SEA 

SHEPHELAH 

SINAI 

SODOM AND GOMORRAH 

SOREK, VALLEY OF 

TABOR, MOUNT 

TIMNA 

WESTERN WALL 

YARKON 

YARMUK 

ZION 



COMMUNITIES 

ABU GHOSH 
ACRE 



ADAMIT 

AFIKIM 

AFULAH 

ALFEI MENASHE 

ALLONEI ABBA 

ALLONEI YIZHAK 

ALLONIM 

ALMAGOR 

ALMAH 

ALUMMOT 

AMAZYAH 

AMIR 

AMIRIM 

AMMIAD 

AMMINADAV 

ANATHOTH 

APHEK 

APOLLONIA 

ARA 

ARABA 

ARAD 

ARARA 

ARIEL 

ARRABA 

ARTAS 

ASHDOD 

ASHDOT YAAKOV 

ASHKELON 



ATAROT 

ATHLIT 

AVIGDOR 

AVIHAYIL 

AYANOT 

AYYELET HA-SHAHAR 

AZOR 

BALFOURIYYAH 

BAQA al-gharbiyya; BAQA AL-SHARQIYYA 

BARKAI 

BAT HEFER 

BAT SHELOMO 

BAT YAM 

BEERI 

BEER ORAH 

BEEROT YIZHAK 

BEERSHEBA 

BEER TOVIYYAH 

BEER YAAKOV 

BEIT JANN 

BEIT JIMAL 

BEN SHEMEN 

BENE-BERAK 

BENEI AISH 

BENEI DAROM 

BENEI DEROR 

BENEI ZION 

BEROR HAYIL 

BET ALFA 

bet(h)-arabah 
bet(h)-dagon 
bet(h)-el 
bet eshel 
bet guvrin 
bet ha-emek 
bet halevi 
bet hanan 

BETHANY 
BET HERUT 
BET HILLEL 
BETHLEHEM 

bet (Bayt) IKSA 

BET KESHET 

bet(h) lehem (Ha-Gelilit) 

BET MEIR 
BET NEHEMYAH 
BET OREN 
BET OVED 

bet(h)-shean 
bet shearim 
bet(h)-shemesh 
bet(h)-shittah 
bet yannai 
bet yehoshua 
bet yerah 
bet yizhak 
bet yosef 
bet zayit 

BET ZERA 
BINYAMINAH 



42 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



BIRANIT 

BIRIYYAH 

BITAN AHARON 

BIZZARON 

BOZRAH 

CAESAREA 

DABBURIYYA 

DAFNAH 

DALIYAT AL-KARMIL 

DALIYYAH 

DALTON 

DAN 

DEGANYAH 

DEIR AL-BALAH 

DIMONAH 

DOBRATH 

DOR 

DOROT 

EFRAT 

EILAT 

EILON 

EILOT 

EIN FASHKHAH 

EIN GEV 

EIN HA-EMEK 

EIN HA-HORESH 

EIN HA-MIFRAZ 

EIN HA-NAZIV 

EIN HA-SHELOSHAH 

EIN HA-SHOFET 

EIN HOD 

EIN IRON 

EIN KEREM 

EIN SHEMER 

EIN VERED 

EIN YAHAV 

EIN ZEITIM 

EIN ZURIM 

ELAD 

ELATH 

ELYASHIV 

EMMAUS 

EN-GEDI 

EN-HAROD 

ESHTAOL 

ESHTEMOA 

EVEN YEHUDAH 

EVEN YIZHAK 

EVRON 

EYAL 

FASSUTA 

FURAYDIS, AL- 

GAATON 

GALILEE 

GALON 

GAN HAYYIM 

GANNEI TIKVAH 

GANNEI YEHUDAH 

GAN SHELOMO 

GAN SHEMUEL 



GAN SHOMRON 

GAN YAVNEH 

GAT 

GAZIT 

GEDERAH 

GELIL YAM 

GESHER 

GESHER HA-ZIV 

GEULEI TEIMAN 

GEULIM 

GEVA 

GEVARAM 

GEVAT 

GEVIM 

GEVULOT 

GEZER 

GIBBETHON 

GINNEGAR 

GINNOSAR 

GISCALA 

GIVAT ADA 

GIVATAYIM 

GIVAT BRENNER 

GIVAT HA-SHELOSHAH 

GIVAT HAYYIM 

GIVAT HEN 

GIVAT SHMUEL 

GIVAT ZE'EV 

GOFNAH 

GUSH ETZYON 

GUSH KATIF 

HA-BONIM 

HADERAH 

HADID 

HAFEZ HAYYIM 

HA-GOSHERIM 

HAIFA 

HALHUL 

HAMADYAH 

HA-MAPIL 

HANITAH 

HA-OGEN 

HA-ON 

HAREL 

HA-SOLELIM 

HAZER, HAZERIM 

HAZEVAH 

hazor (ha-Gelilit) 

HAZOR ASHDOD 
HA-ZOREA 

ha-zore'im 

HEBRON 

HEFZI BAH 

HELEZ 

HEREV LE-ET 

HERUT 

HERZLIYYAH 

HIBBAT ZION 

HOD HA-SHARON 

HOGLAH 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



43 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

a. Israel, Land and State of 
Communities (continued) 

HOLON 

HUKOK 

HULATAH 

HULDAH 

HULEH 

HURFAYSH 

ILANIYYAH 

JABNEEL 

JAFFA 

JENIN 

JERICHO 

JERUSALEM 

JERUSALEM, LEGAL ASPECTS 

JOKNEAM 

JOTAPATA 

KABRI 

KADIMAH 

KAFR KAMA 

KAFR QASIM 

KARMIEL 

KARMIYYAH 

KARNEI SHOMRON 

KAZIR HARISH 

KAZRIN 

KEFAR AZAR 

KEFAR BARAM 

KEFAR BARUKH 

KEFAR BIALIK 

KEFAR BILU 

KEFAR BLUM 

KEFAR DAROM 

KEFAR EZYON 

KEFAR GAMALA 

KEFAR GIDEON 

KEFAR GILADI 

KEFAR GLICKSON 

KEFAR HABAD 

KEFAR HA-HORESH 

KEFAR HA-MACCABI 

KEFAR HANANYAH 

KEFAR HA-NASI 

KEFAR HA-RO'EH 

KEFAR HASIDIM 

KEFAR HATTIN 

KEFAR HAYYIM 

KEFAR HESS 

KEFAR HITTIM 

KEFAR JAWITZ 

KEFAR KANNA 

KEFAR KISCH 

KEFAR MALAL 

KEFAR MANDI 

KEFAR MASARYK 

KEFAR MENAHEM 



KEFAR MONASH 



KEFAR MORDEKHAI 



KEFAR NETTER 
KEFAR PINES 



KEFAR ROSH HA-NIKRAH 



KEFAR RUPPIN 



KEFAR SAVA 



KEFAR SHEMARYAHU 

KEFAR SYRKIN 

KEFAR SZOLD 

KEFAR TAVOR 

KEFAR TRUMAN 

KEFAR URIYYAH 

KEFAR VITKIN 

KEFAR VRADIM 

KEFAR WARBURG 

KEFAR YASIF 

KEFAR YEHEZKEL 

KEFAR YEHOSHUA 

KEFAR YONAH 

KHAN YUNIS 

KINNERET 

KINNERET 

KIR HARESETH 

KIRYAT ANAVIM 

KIRYAT ATA 

KIRYAT BIALIK 

KIRYAT EKRON 

KIRYAT GAT 

KIRYAT-HAROSHET 

KIRYAT MALAKHI 

KIRYAT MOTZKIN 

KIRYAT ONO 

KIRYAT SHEMONAH 

KIRYAT TIVON 

KIRYAT YAM 

KISSUFIM 

KOKHAV YAIR 

LACHISH REGION 

LAHAVOT HA-BASHAN 

LAVI 

LEHAVIM 

LOHAMEI HA-GETTAOT 

LYDDA 

MAAGAN MIKHAEL 

MAALE ADUMIM 

MAALEH HA-HAMISHAH 

MAALOT TARSHIHA 

MAANIT 

MAAS 

MABAROT 

maghar, al- 
mahanayim 
majdal al-shams 
majd al-kurum 
makkabim-re'ut 

MANARAH 
MAOZ HAYYIM 
MASSADAH 
MASSUOT YIZHAK 



44 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



MAYAN BARUKH 



OR AKIVA 



MAYAN ZEVI 
MAZKERET BATYAH 



ORANIT 



OR HA-NER 



MAZLI AH 

MEI AMMI 

me'ir SHEFEYAH 

MEITAR 

MENAHEMIYYA 

MERHAVYAH 

MERON 

MESILLAT ZION 

MESILLOT 

METULLAH 

MEVASSERET ZION 

MIGDAL 

MIGDAL HA-EMEK 

Ml'lLYA 

MIKHMORET 

MISGAV AM 

MISHMAR HA-EMEK 

MISHMAR HA-NEGEV 

MISHMAR HA-SHARON 

MISHMAR HA-YARDEN 

MISHMAROT 

MIZPAH 

MIZPEH RAMON 

MIZRA 

MODl'lN 

MOLEDET 

moza, (ha-) mozah 

na'an 

NABLUS 

NAHALAL 

NAHALAT YEHUDAH 

NAHAL OZ 

NAHARIYYAH 

NAVEH 

NAZARETH 

NEGBAH 

NEHALIM 

NEHORAH 

ne'ot MORDEKHAI 

NESHER 

nes ziyyonah 

neta'im 

netanyah 

netiv ha-lamed-he 

NETIVOT 
NEVATIM 
NEVEH EITAN 
NEVEH YAM 
NEZER SERENI 
NIR AM 
NIR DAVID 
NIR EZYON 
NIRIM 
NIZZANAH 
NIZZANIM 
OFAKIM 
OMER 



OROT 

OR YEHUDAH 

PARDES HANNAH-KARKUR 

PARDESIYYAH 

PEKl'lN 

PETAH TIKVAH 

PORIYYAH 

QUNAYTIRA, AL- 

RAANANNAH 

RAFA 

RAMA, AL- 

RAMALLAH 

RAMAT DAVID 

RAMAT GAN 

RAMAT HA-KOVESH 

RAMAT HA-SHARON 

RAMAT HA-SHOFET 

RAMAT RAHEL 

RAMAT RAZIEL 

RAMAT YISHAI 

RAMAT YOHANAN 

RAMAT ZEVI 

RAMLEH 

RAMOT HA-SHAVIM 

RAMOT MENASHEH 

RAMOT NAFTALI 

REGAVIM 

REGBAH 

REHOVOT 

REKHASIM 

REVADIM 

REVIVIM 

RIHANIYYA, AL- 

RISHON LE-ZION 

RISHPON 

ROSH HA-AYIN 

ROSH PINNAH 

RUHAMAH 

SAAD 

SAFED 

SALCHAH 

SARID 

SASA 

SAVYON 

SEDEH BOKER 

SEDEH ELIYAHU 

SEDEH NAHUM 

SEDEH NEHEMYAH 

SEDEH WARBURG 

SEDEH YAAKOV 

SEDEROT 

SEDOT YAM 

SHAALBIM 

SHAAREI TIKVAH 

SHAAR HA-AMAKIM 

SHAAR HA-GOLAN 

SHADMOT DEVORAH 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



45 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

a. Israel, Land and State of 
Communities (continued) 

SHAMIR 

SHARONAH 

SHAVEI ZION 

SHEAR YASHUV 

SHEFARAM 

SHEFAYIM 

SHELOMI 

SHELUHOT 

SHIVTAH 

SHOHAM 

SHOMRAT 

SHORESH 

SHOVAL 

SHUNEM 

SIKHNIN 

SUSITA 

TAANACH 

TAL SHAHAR 

TAYYIBA, AL- 

TEKOA 

TEKUMAH 

TEL ADASHIM 

TEL AVIV- JAFFA 

TEL HAI 

TEL KAZIR 

TEL MOND 

TEL YIZHAK 

TEL YOSEF 

THEBEZ 

TIBERIAS 

TIRA, AL- 

TIRAT HA-CARMEL 

TIRAT ZEVI 

TIVON 

TUL KARM 

UDIM 

URIM 

USHA 

USIFIYYA 

YAD HANNAH 

YAD MORDEKHAI 

YAGUR 

YAKUM 

YAMMIT REGION 

YARDENAH 

YARKONAH 

YAVNEH 

YAVNEH 

YEDIDYAH 

YEHI AM 

YEHUD 

YEROHAM 

YESODOT 

YESUD HA-MAALAH 



YIZREEL 



YOTVATAH 



ZAREPHATH 
ZIKHRON YAAKOV 



ZOFIT 



ZORAH 



ZORAN 



ZUR MOSHE 
ZUR YIGAL 



Organizations 

ahdut ha-avodah 

ahdut ha-avodah-poalei zion 

AMIDAR 

BAR-ILAN UNIVERSITY 

BENEI BINYAMIN 

BEN-GURION UNIVERSITY OF THE NEGEV 

BEN-ZVI INSTITUTE 

BERIT HA-BIRYONIM 

BERIT SHALOM 

BETH HATEFUTSOTH 

BEZALEL 

BILU 

BNEI AKIVA 

CAMERI 

CANAANITES 

DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT FOR CHANGE 

EGGED 

EL AL 

ELITZUR 

EL-YAM 

EMUNAH 

EZ HAYYIM 

FARMERS FEDERATION OF ISRAEL 

FRIENDSHIP LEAGUES WITH ISRAEL 

GADNA 

GAHAL 

GEDUD HA-AVODAH 

GHETTO FIGHTER'S HOUSE 

GUSH EMUNIM 

HABIMAH 

HAGANAH 

HAIFA, UNIVERSITY OF 

HAIFA MUNICIPAL THEATER 

HA-KIBBUTZ HA-ARZI HA-SHOMER HA-ZAIR 

HA-KIBBUTZ HA-DATI 

HA-KIBBUTZ HA-MEUHAD 

HAMASHBIR HAMERKAZI 

HA-NOAR HA-OVED VE-HA-LOMED 

HA-OVED HA-ZIYYONI 

HAPOEL 

HA-POEL HA-MIZRACHI 

HA-POEL HA-ZAIR 

HA-SHOMER 

HA-TENUAH LE-MAAN EREZ ISRAEL HA- 

SHELEMAH 
HEBREW UNIVERSITY OF JERUSALEM 
HERUT MOVEMENT 
HEVRAT HA-OVEDIM 



4 6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



HIEROSOLYMITANISCHE STIFTUNG 



TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY 



HISTADRUT 



TNUVA 



HISTADRUT HA-OVEDIM HA-LE UMMIT 

HITAHDUT 

IHUD HA-KEVUZOT VE-HA-KIBBUTZIM 

INDEPENDENT LIBERAL PARTY 

IRGUN ZEVAI LEUMMI 

ISRAEL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES 

ISRAEL CHAMBER ORCHESTRA 

ISRAEL EXPLORATION SOCIETY 

ISRAEL LABOR PARTY 

ISRAEL MUSEUM 

ISRAEL PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA 

JERUSALEM INSTITUTE FOR ISRAEL STUDIES 

JERUSALEM PUBLISHING HOUSE, THE 

JEWISH AGENCY 

JEWISH BRIGADE GROUP 

JEWISH LEGION 

KACH 

KADOORIE 

KETER PUBLISHING HOUSE 

KIBBUTZ MOVEMENT 

LEO BAECK INSTITUTE 

LIBRARY, JEWISH NATIONAL AND UNIVERSITY 

LIKUD 

LOHAMEI HERUT ISRAEL (Lehi) 

MACCABI 

MAGEN DAVID ADOM 

MAHAL 

MALBEN 

MAPAI 

MAPAM 

MEKOROT WATER COMPANY 

MERETZ 

mo'ezet HA-POALOT 

NAHAL 

NATIONAL RELIGIOUS PARTY 

NETUREI KARTA 

NILI 

OHEL 

PALESTINE ECONOMIC CORPORATION 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 

PALESTINE OFFICE 

PALMAH 

PEACE MOVEMENTS, RELIGIOUS 

PEACE NOW 

PEEL COMMISSION 

PICA 

PO ALEI AGUDAT ISRAEL 

RAFI 

ROCKEFELLER MUSEUM 

SCHECHTER INSTITUTE OF JEWISH STUDIES, THE 

SCHOCKEN INSTITUTE 

SHAS 

SHINUI 

SOLEL BONEH 

TAHAL 

TARBUT 

TEACHERS ASSOCIATION IN ISRAEL 

TECHNION, ISRAEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 



TSOMET 
ULPAN 

vaad ha-pekidim ve-ha-amarkalim 
va'ad le'ummi 

vaad pekidei erez israel be-kushta 
weizmann institute of science 
writers association in israel 
yad vashem 

ZIM 



PUBLICATIONS 

AHDUT HA-AVODAH 

AL HA-MISHMAR 

BUSTENAI 

DAVAR 

DOAR HA-YOM 

DVIR 

GILYONOT 

GLOBES 

GOLDENE KEYT, DI 

HAARETZ 

HA-BOKER 

HA-LEVANON 

HA- MODI A 

ha-po'el ha-za'ir 
havazzelet 

HA-ZOFEH 
JERUSALEM POST 
JERUSALEM REPORT 
MAARIV 
TARBIZ 
UJ KELET 
YATED NEEMAN 
YEDIOTH AHARONOTH 

BIOGRAPHIES 

Academic Life 

ADAR, ZVI 

AHARONI, YOHANAN 

ALCALAY, REUVEN 

ALLON, GEDALYA 

AMIR, MENACHEM 

AMIRAN, DAVID 

AMITSUR, SAMSON ABRAHAM 

ANKORI, ZEVI 

ARIELI, YEHOSHUA 

ARNON, ABRAHAM 

ARUSI, ABRAHAM BEN MOSES HA-LEVI 

ASHTOR, ELIYAHU 

AUERBACH, ELIAS 

AUMMANN, ROBERT J. 

AVIGAD, NAHMAN 

AVINERI, SHLOMO 

AVINERI, YITZHAK 

AVIRAM, JOSEPH 

AVITZUR, SHMUEL 

AVI-YONAH, MICHAEL 

AVRUNIN, ABRAHAM 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



47 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

a. Israel, Land and State of 
Biographies 

Academic Life (continued) 

AYALON, DAVID 

BACHI, ROBERTO 

BAER, GABRIEL 

BAER, YITZHAK 

BANETH 

BAR-DAROMA, HAYYIM ZE'EV 

BAR-HILLEL, YEHOSHUA 

BAR-YOSEF, OFER 

BAUER, YEHUDA 

BEIN, ALEXANDER 

BEINART, HAIM 

BEIT-HALLAHMI, BENJAMIN 

BEN-ARIEH, YEHOSHUA 

BENAYAHU, MEIR 

BEN-DAVID, JOSEPH 

BEN-DOR, IMMANUEL 

BEN HAYYIM, ZE'EV 

BEN-SASSON, HAIM HILLEL 

BEN-SHAKHAR, GERSHON 

BENTWICH 

BENVENISTI, DAVID 

BEN-YEHUDA, ELIEZER 

BEN-YEHUDAH, BARUKH 

BERGER-BARZILAI, JOSEPH 

BERGMAN, SAMUEL HUGO 

BERGMANN, JUDAH 

BIALOBLOCKI, SAMUEL SHERAGA 

BILLIG, LEVI 

BIRAN, AVRAHAM 

BLAU, JOSHUA 

BLEJER, MARIO ISRAEL 

BONDY, RUTH 

BONFIL, ROBERT 

BONNE, ALFRED ABRAHAM 

braslavi (Braslavski), Joseph 

BRAVERMAN, AVISHAY 
BRAWER, ABRAHAM JACOB 
BRAWER, MOSHE 
BRINKER, MENACHEM 
CHOURAQUI, ANDRE 
CHURGIN, PINKHOS 
CONFINO, MICHAEL 
CORCOS, DAVID 
DALESKI, HILLEL 
DAN, JOSEPH 
DAVID D'BETH HILLEL 
DE VRIES, BENJAMIN 
DIAMANT, PAUL JOSEPH 
DINUR, BENZION 
DORON, ABRAHAM 
DOTAN, ARON 
DOTHAN, MOSHE 
DOTHAN, TRUDE 



DRAPKIN, ABRAHAM 

DRAPKIN, ISRAEL 

DVORZETSKY, MARK MEIR 

EISENSTADT, SAMUEL NOAH 

ELON, AMOS 

ELON, MENACHEM 

EPSTEIN, CLAIRE 

EPSTEIN, JACOB NAHUM 

ESTORI (ISAAC BEN MOSES) HA-PARHI 

ETTINGER, SHMUEL 

ETZIONI, AMITAI WERNER 

EVEN SHEMUEL, JUDAH 

EVEN-SHOSHAN, AVRAHAM 

FAITLOVITCH, JACQUES 

FEINBERG, NATHAN 

FEUERSTEIN, REUVEN 

FINKELSTEIN, ISRAEL 

FISH, HAREL (HAROLD) 

FRANK EL, YAAKOV 

FRANKENSTEIN, CARL 

FREIMANN, ABRAHAM HAYYIM (Alfred) 

FRIEDLAENDER, SAUL 

FRIEDMAN, SHAMMA 

FRIEDMANN, DANIEL 

FUKS, ALEXANDER 

FUNKENSTEIN, AMOS 

GAON, MOSES DAVID 

GARTNER, LLOYD P. 

GAVISON, RUTH 

GOITEIN, SHLOMO DOV (Fritz) 

GOLDMAN, ELIEZER 

GOLDSCHMIDT, ERNST DANIEL 

GOPHNA, RAM 

GOSHEN-GOTTSTEIN, MOSHE 

GOTTLIEB, EPHRAIM 

GRAJEWSKY, PINCHAS 

GRANOTT, ABRAHAM (GranOVSKy) 

GROSSMAN, AVRAHAM 

GULAK, ASHER 

GUTMAN, ISRAEL 

GUTMANN, JOSHUA 

HABERMANN, ABRAHAM MEIR 

HADDAD, EZRA 

HAKHAM, SIMON 

HALPERN, ISRAEL 

HARAN, MENAHEM 

HAREL, MENASHEH 

HEINEMANN, YIZHAK 

HELD, MOSHE 

HELFMAN, ELHANAN 

HERLITZ, GEORG 

HEYD, URIEL 

HIRSCHBERG, HAIM ZEW 

HOROWITZ, ISRAEL ZEEV 

IDEL, MOSHE 

KADDARI, MENAHEM ZEVI 

KAHANA, ABRAHAM 

kahane, isaak (Yizhak Ze'ev) 

KAHNEMAN, DANIEL 
KATZ, ELIHU 



4 8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



KATZ, ISRAEL 

KATZ, JACOB 

KAUFMANN, YEHEZKEL 

KAZNELSON, SIEGMUND 

KEMPINSKY, AHARON 

KIEL, YEHUDA 

KISTER, MEIR J. 

KLAR, BENJAMIN MENAHEM 

KLAUSNER, ISRAEL 

KLAUSNER, JOSEPH GEDALIAH 

KLEIN, SAMUEL 

KLEINMANN, MOSHE 

KOOK, SAUL HONE BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN 

KORIAT, ASHER 

KRAUS, PAUL ELIEZER 

KUTSCHER, EDWARD YECHEZKEL 

LANDAU, JACOB M. 

LAPIDOT, RUTH 

LEIBOWITZ, NEHAMA 

LEIBOWITZ, YESHAYAHU 

LEWY, YOHANAN 

LIEBERMAN, SAUL 

LIEBMAN, CHARLES (YESHAYAHU) 

LIPSCHUETZ, ELIEZER MEIR 

LISSAK, MOSHE 

LOEWINGER, DAVID SAMUEL 

LUNCZ, ABRAHAM MOSES 

MAHLER, RAPHAEL 

MAISELS, MOSES HAYYIM (Misha) 

MALAMAT, ABRAHAM 

MANHEIM, BILHAH 

MANI, EZRA 

MARGALIOT, MORDECAI 

MAYER, LEO ARY 

MAZAR, AMIHAI 

MAZAR, BENJAMIN 

MELAMED, EZRA ZION 

MOREH, SHMUEL 

MUNTNER, ALEXANDER SUESSMAN 

NAVON, DAVID 

NEUMANN, ERICH 

NOY, DOV 

OLSVANGER, IMMANUEL 

ORMIAN, HAYYIM 

PATINKIN, DON 

peri, hiram (Heinz) 

PIAMENTA, MOSHE 
PINES, NOAH 

pines, shlomo (Solomon) 

PLESSNER, MARTIN (Meir) 

posner, akiva barukh (Arthur) 

POZNANSKI, EDWARD 

PRAWER, JOSHUA 

PRESS, YESHAYAHU 

PROBST, MENAHEM MENDEL 

RABAN, AVNER 

RABIN 

RAND, YAAKOV 

RAVITZKY, AVIEZER 

RIEGER, ELIEZER 



RIVLIN, ELIEZER 
RIVLIN, JOSEPH JOEL 
ROSEN, HAIIM B. 
ROTENSTREICH, NATHAN 
ROTH, LEON 
SAFRAI, SHMUEL 
SALOMON, GAVRIEL 
SARFATTI, GAD 
SCHAECHTER, JOSEPH 
SCHALIT, ABRAHAM CHAIM 
SCHAPIRO, ISRAEL 

schirmann, jefim (Hayyim) 

SCHMELZ, USIEL OSCAR 

SCHOLEM, GERSHOM GERHARD 

SCHWABE, MOSHE (Max) 

SCHWADRON (SHARON), ABRAHAM 

SCHWARZ, YEHOSEPH 

SEGAL, MOSES HIRSCH (ZEVl) 

SERMONETA, JOSEPH BARUCH 

SHACHAR, ARIE 

SHAHAR, SHULAMIT 

SHILOH, YIGAL 

SHMUELI, EPHRAIM 

SHOHAM, SHLOMO-GIORA 

SHOHETMAN, BARUCH 

SHUVAL, JUDITH 

SILBERNER, EDMUND 

SIMON, AKIBA ERNST 

SIMONSOHN, SHLOMO 

SOMEKH, SASSON 

SPERBER, DANIEL 

SPIEGEL, NATHAN 

STEKELIS, MOSHE 

STERN, EPHRAIM 

STERN, MENAHEM 

SUKENIK, ELIEZER LIPA 

TADMOR, HAYIM 

TALMON, JACOB LEIB 

TALMON, SHEMARYAHU 

TARTAKOWER, ARIEH 

TA-SHMA, ISRAEL MOSES 

TCHERIKOVER, VICTOR (Avigdor) 

TELLER, ISRAEL 

TISHBY, ISAIAH 

tur-sinai (Torczyner),NAPHTALi herz (Harry) 

URBACH, EPHRAIM ELIMELECH 

URMAN, DAN 

USSISHKIN, DAVID 

VILNAY, ZEV 

WALLENSTEIN, MEIR 

WARBURG, GAVRIEL REUBEN 

WEIL, GOTTHOLD 

WEISS, ABRAHAM 

WEISS, MEIR 

WERBLOWSKY, RAPHAEL JUDA ZWI 

WERTHEIMER, SOLOMON AARON 

WIGODER, GEOFFREY 

WINNINGER, SOLOMON 

WIRSZUBSKI, CHAIM 

WISE, GEORGE SCHNEIWEIS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



49 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

a. Israel, Land and State of 
Biographies 

Academic Life (continued) 

WISTRICH, ROBERT 

WIZEN, MOSHE AHARON 

WORMANN, CURT 

YAARI, ABRAHAM 

YAARI, MENAHEM 

YADIN, YIGAEL 

YAHUDA, ABRAHAM SHALOM 

YARON, REUVEN 

YAVETS, ZVI 

YEFET, SARAH 

YEIVIN, ISRAEL 

YOVEL, YIRMIYAHU 

ZAND, MICHAEL 

ZULAY, MENAHEM 



Art 



ABSALON 



AGAM, YAACOV 

AMISHAI-MAISELS, ZIVA 

APPELBAUM, MOSHE 

ARDON, MORDECAI 

ARIKHA, AVIGDOR 

AROCH, ARIE 

ASCHHEIM, ISIDOR 

ATAR, HAIM 

AVNI, AHARON 

BACON, YEHUDA 

BAERWALD, ALEX 

BAR-AM, MICHA 

BARASCH, MOSHE 

BEERI, TUVIA 

BEN-ZVI, ZEEV 

BERGNER, YOSSL (Yosef L.) 

BERNSTEIN, MOSHE 

BEZEM, NAPHTALI 

BLUM, LUDWIG 

BOGEN, ALEXANDER 

BROWN, AIKA 

CASTEL, MOSHE ELAZAR 

COHEN, ELISHEVA 

COHEN GAN, PINHAS 

DANZIGER, ITZHAK 

DAVID, JEAN 

ELHANANI, ABA 

ELHANANI, ARYEH 

ENGELSBERG, LEON 

FEIGIN, DOV 

FIMA 

FRENKEL (FRENEL), ITZHAK 

GAD, DEVORAH 

GAMZU, HAYYIM 

GARBUZ, YAIR 

gardosh, kariel (Charles; "Dosh") 



GERSHUNI, MOSHE 
GIDAL, TIM 
GROSS, MICHAEL 
GRUNDMAN, ZWI 
GUTMAN, NAHUM 
HABER, SHAMAI 
HALEVY, YOSEF 
IDELSON, BENJAMIN 
JANCO, MARCEL 
KADISHMAN, MENASHE 
KAHANA, AHARON 
KARAVAN, DANI 
KARMI, DOV 
KAUFMANN, RICHARD 
KLARWEIN, JOSEPH 
KRAKAUER, LEOPOLD 
KUPFERMAN, MOSHE 
LAVIE, RAFFI 
LEVANON, MORDECAI 
LIFSCHITZ, URI 
LISHANSKY, BATYA 
LITVINOVSKY, PINHAS 
MAIROVICH, ZVI 
MANDL, SAADIA 
MANSFELD, ALFRED 
MELNIKOFF, AVRAHAM 
MERZER, ARIEH 
MOKADY, MOSHE 
MOREH, MORDECAI 
MOSKOVITZ, SHALOM 
NARKISS, BEZALEL 
NARKISS, MORDECHAI 
NEIMAN, YEHUDAH 
NIKEL, LEA 
OFEK, AVRAHAM 
OFIR, ARIE 
PALDI, ISRAEL 
PALOMBO, DAVID 
PANN, ABEL 
PINS, JACOB 
RAPAPORT, NATHAN 
RATNER, YOHANAN 
RAU, HEINZ 
RECHTER 
REZNIK, DAVID 
RUBIN, REUVEN 
RUBINGER, DAVID 
SAFDIE, MOSHE 
SCHATZ, BORIS 
SCHUMACHER, GOTTLIEB 
SEBBA, SHALOM 
SHARON, ARYEH 
SHEMI, MENAHEM 
SHEMI, YEHIEL 
SIMA, MIRON 
STEINHARDT, JAKOB 
STEMATSKY, AVIGDOR 
STERNSCHUSS, MOSHE 
STREICHMAN, YEHEZKIEL 
TAGGER, SIONA 



50 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



TALPIR, GABRIEL JOSEPH 

TEVET, NAHUM 

TICHO, ANNA 

TUMARKIN, IGAEL 

ULLMAN, MICHA 

WEILL, SHRAGA 

WOLPERT, LUDWIG YEHUDA 

YASKI, AVRAHAM 

ZARITSKY, YOSSEF 

ZVIA 

Literature 

ADELMAN, URI 

AGMON, NATHAN 

AGNON, SHMUEL YOSEF 

ALFES, BENZION 

ALMOG, RUTH 

ALONI, NISSIM 

ALTERMAN, NATHAN 

AMICHAI, YEHUDA 

AMIR, AHARON 

AMIR, ANDA 

AMIR, ELI 

APPELFELD, AHARON 

ARICHA, YOSEF 

ASHMAN, AHARON 

AVIDAN, DAVID 

AVIGUR-ROTEM, GABRIELA 

AVINOAM, REUVEN 

AVI-SHAUL, MORDEKHAI 

BALLAS, SHIMON 

BARASH, ASHER 

BARON, DEVORAH 

BARTOV, HANOCH 

BAR-YOSEF, YEHOSHUA 

BAT-MIRIAM, YOKHEVED 

BEER, HAIM 

BEILINSON, MOSHE 

BEJERANO, MAYA 

BEN-AMITAI, LEVI 

BEN-AMOTZ, DAHN 

BEN-GAVRIEL, MOSHE YAAKOV 

BEN-NER, YITZHAK 

BEN-YEHUDA, HEMDAH 

BEN YEHUDA, NETIVA 

BEN YIZHAK, AVRAHAM 

BEN-ZION, S. 

BERNSTEIN, ORI 

BIALIK, HAYYIM NAHMAN 

BRENNER, JOSEPH HAYYIM 

BROD, MAX 

BROIDES, ABRAHAM 

BROIDO, EPHRAIM 

BURLA, YEHUDA 

CARMI, T. 

CASTEL-BLOOM, ORLY 

CHOMSKY, DOV 

DAYAN, YAEL 

DOR, MOSHE 

ELMALEH, ABRAHAM 



EVER HADANI 



EYTAN, RACHEL 

FEYGENBERG, RAKHEL 

FINBERT, ELIAN-J. 

FRANKEL, NAOMI 

FRIEDMANN, DAVID ARYEH 

GALAI, BINYAMIN 

GELDMAN, MORDECHAI 

GILBOA, AMIR 

GILEAD, ZERUBAVEL 

GINZBURG, SIMON 

GOLDBERG, LEA 

GORDON, SAMUEL LEIB 

GOURI, HAIM 

GREENBERG, URI ZEVI 

GROSSMAN, DAVID 

GUR, BATYA 

GURFEIN, RIVKA 

HABIBI, EMIL 

HACOHEN, MORDECAI BEN HILLEL 

HAEZRAHI, YEHUDA 

HALKIN, SIMON 

HAMEIRI, AVIGDOR 

HAREVEN, SHULAMIT 

HAZAZ, HAYYIM 

HENDEL, YEHUDIT 

HOFFMANN, YOEL 

HOROWITZ, YAAKOV 

HOURVITZ, YA'lR 

JAFFE, ABRAHAM B. 

KABAK, AARON ABRAHAM 

KADARI, SHRAGA 

KAHANA-CARMON, AMALIA 

KAMSON, YAAKOV (Jacob) DAVID 

KANIUK, YORAM 

KARNI, YEHUDA 

KARU, BARUCH 

KATZIR, JEHUDIT 

KENAN, AMOS 

KENAZ, YEHOSHUA 

KERET, ETGAR 

KIPNIS, LEVIN 

KISHON, EPHRAIM 

KLAUSNER, JOSEPH GEDALIAH 

KOVNER, ABBA 

KRAFT, WERNER 

KRAUS, OTA 

KURZWEIL, BARUCH 

K. ZETNIK 

LACHOWER, YERUHAM FISHEL 

LAMDAN, YIZHAK 

LAOR, YITZHAK 

LAPID, SHULAMIT 

LEVIN, HANOCH 

LIEBRECHT, SAVYON 

MATALON, RONIT 

MEGGED, AHARON 

MEITUS, ELIAHU 

MICHAEL, SAMI 

MIRON, DAN 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



51 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

a. Israel, Land and State of 
Biographies 

Literature (continued) 

MIRSKY, AARON 

MISHOL, AGI 

MOSSINSOHN, YIGAL 

OFEK, URIEL 

OREN, RAM 

OREN, YIZHAK 

ORLAND, YAAKOV 

ORLEV, URI 

ORPAZ AVERBUCH, YIZHAK 

OVSAY, JOSHUA 

OZ, AMOS 

PAGIS, DAN 

PENN, ALEXANDER 

PINCAS, ISRAEL 

RAAB, ESTHER 

RAGEN, NAOMI 

RAHEL 

RATOSH, YONATHAN 

RAVIKOVITCH, DALIA 

REICH, ASHER 

RIMON, JACOB 

RUEBNER, TUVIA 

SADAN, DOV 

SADEH, PINHAS 

SERI, DAN BENAYA 

SHABTAI, AHARON 

SHABTAI, YAAKOV 

SHAHAM, NATHAN 

SHAHAR, DAVID 

SHARED, GERSHON 

SHALEV, MEIR 

SHALEV, YITZHAK 

SHALEV, ZERUYA 

SHALOM, SHIN 

SHAMI, YITZHAK 

SHAMIR, MOSHE 

SHENHAR, YITZHAK 

shimoni (Shimonovitz), david 

SHIMONI, YOUVAL 
SHLONSKY, ABRAHAM 
SHOFMAN, GERSHON 
SILMAN, KADISH YEHUDA LEIB 
SIVAN, ARYE 
SMILANSKY, MEIR 
SMILANSKY, MOSHE 

smoli, eliezer (Smoler) 

SOBOL, YEHOSHUA 
SOMECK, RONNY 
STEINBERG, JACOB 
STERN, NOAH 
STRAUSS, ARYEH LUDWIG 
STREIT, SHALOM 
STURMANN, MANFRED 



SUSSMAN, EZRA 

SVERDLIK, ODED 

TABIB, MORDEKHAI 

TALPIR, GABRIEL JOSEPH 

TAMMUZ, BENJAMIN 

TCHERNOWITZ-AVIDAR, YEMIMAH 

TEMKIN 

TEVET, SHABBETAI 

TIDHAR, DAVID 

TOCHNER, MESHULLAM 

TSALKA, DAN 

TWERSKY, YOHANAN 

UKHMANI, AZRIEL 

UNGERFELD, MOSHE 

WALLACH, YONA 

WEINBERG, ZEVI ZEBULUN 

WERSES, SAMUEL 

WIESELTHIER, MEIR 

WOYSLAWSKI, ZEVI 

YAARI, YEHUDAH 

YALAN-STEKELIS, MIRIAM 

YEHOSHUA, AVRAHAM B. 

YEIVIN, YEHOSHUA HESCHEL 

YERUSHALMI, RINA 

YESHURUN, AVOT 

YIZHAR, S. 

YONATHAN, NATHAN 

YZRAELY, YOSSI 

ZACH, NATHAN 

ZARCHI, ISRAEL 

ZELDA (MISHKOVSKY) 

ZEMACH, SHLOMO 

ZMORA, YISRAEL 

Music 

ABILEAH, ARIE 

ADLER, ISRAEL 

ADMON, YEDIDYAH 

AGADATI, BARUCH 

AHARON, EZRA 

ALDEMA, GIL 

ALEXANDER, HAIM 

AMIRAN, EMANUEL 

ARBATOVA, MIA 

ARGOV, ALEXANDER (SASCHA) 

AROM, SIMHA 

ARONOVICH, YURI MIKHAYLOVICH 

ATZMON, MOSHE 

AVENARY, HANOCH 

AVIDOM, MENAHEM 

AVNI, TZEVI 

BARDANASHVILI, YOSEF 

BARENBOIM, DANIEL 

BAYER, BATHIA 

BEER, RAMI 

BEN-HAIM, PAUL 

BEN-HAIM, YIGAL 

BEN-SHABETAI, ARI 

BERGEL, BERND 

BERTINI, GARY 



52 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



BERTONOFF, DEBORAH 

BOEHM, YOHANAN 

BOSCOVITCH, ALEXANDER URIYAH 

BRAUN (BROWN), ARIE 

BRAUN, YEHEZKIEL 

BRONFMAN, YEFIM 

CHURGIN, BATHIA 

COHEN MELAMED, NISSAN 

COHEN, YARDENA 

DA-OZ, RAM 

DAUS, AVRAHAM 

DE PHILIPPE, EDIS 

DORFMAN, JOSEPH 

EDEN-TAMIR 

EHRLICH, ABEL 

engel, joel (Yuli Dimitriyevich) 

EVEN-OR, MARY 
FEIDMAN, GIYORA 
FISHER, DUDU 
FLEISCHER, TSIPPI 
FRIED (-BISS), MIRIAM 
GELBRUN, ARTUR 

gerson-kiwi, edith (Esther) 

GESHURI, MEIR SHIMON 
GILBOA, JACOB 
GOLDSTEIN, RAYMOND 
GOLINKIN, MORDECAI 
GRADENWITZ, PETER EMANUEL 
GRAZIANI, YIZHAK 
HAJDU, ANDRE 
HARRAN, DON 
HERSTIK, NAPHTALI 
HIRSH, NURIT 
HIRSHBERG, JEHOASH 
HOLDHEIM, THEODOR 
INBAL, ELIAHU 

jacobi, hanoch (Heinrich) 

JAFFE, ELI 

KADMAN, GURIT 

KALICHSTEIN, JOSEPH 

KARACZEWSKI, HANINA 

KATZ, RUTH 

KOPYTMAN, MARK RUVIMOVIC 

LAKNER, YEHOSHUA 

LEEF, YINAM 

LERER, JOSHUA 

LERER, SHMUEL 

LEVI, LEO 

LEVI, YOEL 

LEVI-AGRON, HASIA 

LEVI-TANNAI, SARA 

LIFSHITZ, NEHAMAH 

MAAYANI, AMI 

MANOR, EHUD 

MEDINA, AVIHU 

MEHTA, ZUBIN 

MINTZ, SHLOMO 

MIRON, ISSACHAR 

NAHARIN, OHAD 

NARDI, NAHUM 



H 



NATRA, SERGIU 
NAVON, ISAAC ELIYAHU 
NIKOVA, RINA 
NOY, MEIR 
OLIVERO, BETTY 
ORDMAN, JEANETTE 
ORGAD, BEN ZION 
OVED, MARGALIT 
PANOV, VALERY 
PARTOS, OEDOEN 
PELLEG, FRANK 
PERLMAN, ITZCHAK 
RAN, SHULAMIT 
RODAN, MENDI 
RONLY-RIKLIS, SHALOM 

salmon, karel (Karl Salomon) 

SALZMAN, PNINA 
SCHIDLOWSKY, LEON 
SEGAL, URI 
SETER, MORDECHAI 
SHAHAM, GIL 
SHALLON, DAVID 
SHELEM, MATTITYAHU 
SHEMER, NAOMI 
SHERIFF, NOAM 
SHILOAH, AMNON 
SHLONSKY, VARDINA 
SHMUELI, HERZL 
SMOIRA-COHN, MICHAL 
SOBOL, MORDECHAI 
STERN, MOSHE 
STERNBERG, ERICH WALTER 
TAL, JOSEF 
TALMON, ZVI 
TAUBE, MICHAEL 
WILENSKY, MOSHE 
YAMPOLSKY, BERTA 
YELLIN-BENTWICH, TELMA 
ZEFIRA, BRACHAH 
ZEHAVI, DAVID 
ZEIRA, MORDECHAI 
ZUKERMAN, PINCHAS 
ZUR, MENAHEM 

Popular Culture 

ALBERSTEIN, HAVA 

ALMAGOR, GILA 

ARAD, YAEL 

ARGOV, ZOHAR 

ARNOLD, PAULA 

ARTZI, SHLOMO 

BAKRI, MUHAMMAD 

BANAI FAMILY 

BAR, SHLOMO 

BARUCH, ADAM 

BEN, ZEHAVA 

BEN-AVI, ITHAMAR 

BERKOWITZ, MICKEY 

BERNSTEIN-COHEN, MIRIAM 

BRODY, TAL 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



53 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

a. Israel, Land and State of 
Biographies 

Popular Culture (continued) 

BURSTEIN 
CASPI, MATI 
CEDAR, JOSEPH 
CZERNIAK, MOSHE 
DAMARI, SHOSHANA 
DAYAN, ASSAF 

desheh, avraham (Pashanel) 

DZIGAN, SHIMON 

EINSTEIN, ARIK 

FINKEL, SHIMON 

FOX, EYTAN 

FRIDMAN, GAL 

FROMAN, IAN 

GAON, YEHORAM 

GEFFEN, AVIV 

GERSHON, PINCHAS 

GILADI, ALEX 

GITAI, AMOS 

GLOBUS, YORAM 

GNESSIN, MENAHEM 

GODIK, GIORA 

GOLAN, MENACHEM 

GOLDMAN, YAAKOV BEN ASHER 

HADDAD, SARIT 

HAGAI, BARUCH 

HA-GASHASH HA-HIVER 

HALEVY, MOSHE 

HANOKH, SHALOM 

HAZA, OFRA 

HEFER, HAYIM 

HENDEL, NEHAMA 

HITMAN, UZI 

IVGY, MOSHE 

KHOURI, MARRAM 

KLEIN, RALPH 

KONIG, LEA 

LEIBOWITZ, KEREN 

MARGALIT, MEIR 

MERON, HANNA 

MESKIN, AHARON 

MILLO, JOSEF 

MIZRACHI, SHIMON 

NINI, AHINOAM (NOA) 

OFIR, SHAIKE 

POLIKER, YEHUDA 

PORAT, ORNA 

RODENSKY, SHEMUEL 

ROSEN, YEHOSHUA 

ROTH-SHACHAMOROV, ESTHER 

ROVINA, HANNA 

SCHACH, LEONARD LAZARUS 

TOPOL, CHAIM 

YARKONI, YAFFA 



ZEMACH, NAHUM 
ZOHAR, MIRIAM 
ZOHAR, URI 

Public & Economic Life 

AARONSOHN 
ABRAHAM HA-LEVI 
ADLER-RUDEL, SALOMON 
AGRANAT, SHIMON 

agron (Agronsky), gershon 

AHARONOVITCH, YOSEF 
AHIMEIR, ABBA 
AKIROV, ALFRED 
AKZIN, BENJAMIN 
ALEXANDER, KOBI 
ALIAV, RUTH 
ALKAHI, MORDEKHAI 
ALMOG, YEHUDA 
ALMOGI, YOSEF AHARON 
ALONI, SHULAMIT 
ALOUF, YEHOSHUA 
ALTMAN, ARYEH 
ALLON, YIGAL 
AMIT, MEIR 
AMZALAK, HAYYIM 

antebi, albert (Avraham) 

ARAD, RON 
ARAN, ZALMAN 
ARAZI, YEHUDAH 
ARBELL, MORDECHAI 
ARENS, MOSHE 
ARIDOR, YORAM 
ARIEL, DOV 
ARIEL, JOSEPH 
ARISON, TED 
ARLOSOROFF, CHAIM 
ARTZI, YITZHAK 
ASSAF, MICHAEL 
AUSTER, DANIEL 
AVIAD, YESHAYAHU 
AVIDA, YEHUDA LEIB 
AVIGUR, SHAUL 
AVI-YITZHAK, DAN 
AVNERY, URI 
AVRIEL, EHUD 
AYALON, AMI 
BAK 

BAKSHI-DORON, ELIAHU 
BARAK, AHARON 
BARAK, EHUD 
BARAM, MOSHE 
BARAM, UZI 
BARATZ, JOSEPH 
BARAZANI, MOSHE 
BAR-ILAN, DAVID 
BARKATT, REUVEN 
BAR-LEV, HAIM 
BARNEA, NAHUM 
BARNETT, ZERAH 
BARTH, JACOB 



54 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



BAR-YEHUDAH, ISRAEL 

BAUM, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN AARON OF 

KAMENETZ 
BECKER, AHARON 
BEER, ISRAEL 
BEGIN, MENAHEM 
BEGIN, ZE'EV BINYAMIN 
BEHAR, NISSIM 
BEILIN, YOSSI 
BEINISCH, DORIT 
BEJERANO 
BELKIND 

BEN-AHARON, YIZHAK 
BEN-AMI, OVED 
BEN DOV, YAAKOV 
BEN-ELIEZER, BINYAMIN 
BEN ELIEZER, MOSHE 
BEN-GURION, DAVID 
BEN-HORIN, ELIAHU 
BEN-ISRAEL, RUTH 
BENJAMIN OF TIBERIAS 
BEN-NATAN, ASHER 
BEN-PORAT, MIRIAM 
BEN PORAT, MORDECAI 
BENTOV, MORDEKHAI 
BENTWICH 

BEN-YOSEF, SHELOMO 
BEN-ZVI, IZHAK 
BEN-ZVI, RAHEL YANAIT 
BEN-ZVI, SHLOMO 
BERAB, JACOB BEN HAYYIM 
BERENSON, ZVI 
BERLIGNE, ELIYAHU MEIR 
BERMAN, ADOLF ABRAHAM 
BERMAN, SIMEON 
BERNSTEIN, PEREZ 
BET-ZURI, ELIAHU 
BEYTH, HANS 
BIRAM, ARTHUR (Yizhak) 
BLAU, AMRAM 
BLAU, MOSHE 
BOGALE, YONA 
BOGER, HAYYIM 
BRILL, JEHIEL 
BURG, AVRAHAM 
BURG, YOSEF 
BUSEL, JOSEPH 
CARLEBACH, EZRIEL 
CARMEL, MOSHE 
CAROL, ARYEH 
COHEN, ELI 
COHEN, GE'ULAH 
COHEN, SHLOMO 
COHN, HAIM 
COHN-REISS, EPHRAIM 
COMAY, MICHAEL SAUL 
CHELOUCHE 
CHIZHIK 

DAGAN, AVIGDOR 
DANIN, YEHEZKEL 



DANKNER, AMNON 

DAYAN 

DAYAN, MOSHE 

DAYAN, YAEL 

DERI, ARYEH 

DICKENSTEIN, ABRAHAM 

DINITZ, SIMCHA 

DISKIN, MORDEKHAI 

DISKIN, MOSES JOSHUA JUDAH LEIB 

DISSENTCHIK, ARIE 

DIWAN, JUDAH BEN AMRAM 

DIZENGOFF, MEIR 

DOBKIN, ELIYAHU 

DOLGIN, SIMON ARTHUR 

DOR I, YAAKOV 

DREZNER, YEHIEL DOV 

DULZIN, ARYE LEIB 

DUSHKIN, ALEXANDER MORDECHAI 

eban, abba (Aubrey) 

EHRLICH, SIMHA 

EISENBERG, AHARON ELIYAHU 

EISENBERG, SHOUL 

EITAN, RAPHAEL ("Raful") 

ELATH, ELIAHU 

ELAZAR, DAVID 

ELAZARI-VOLCANI, YIZHAK 

ELDAD, ISRAEL 

ELIACHAR, MENACHE 

ELIAV, ARIE LOVA 

ELIAV, BINYAMIN 

ELIYAHU, MORDECHAI 

ELON, BINYAMIN 

ELON, MENACHEM 

ELYASHAR, JACOB SAUL BEN ELIEZER JEROHAM 

ENGLARD, YITZHAK 

EPSTEIN, IZHAC 

ESHKOL, LEVI 

ETTINGER, AKIVA JACOB 

EVENTOV, YAKIR 

EVRON, EPHRAIM 

EYTAN, WALTER 

FARBSTEIN, JOSHUA HESCHEL 

FEINBERG 

FEINSTEIN, HAYYIM JACOB HA-KOHEN 

FEINSTEIN, MEIR 

FELMAN, AHARON LEIB 

FELLER, SHNEYUR ZALMAN 

FISCHER, STANLEY 

foerder, yeshayahu (Herbert) 

FRANCO, AVRAHAM 
FREIER, RECHA 
FRUMKIN, ARYEH LEIB 
FRUMKIN, ISRAEL DOV 
GALIL, UZIA 
GALILI, ISRAEL 
GEDALIAH OF SIEMIATYCZE 
GERI, JACOB 
GILADI, ISRAEL 
GINOSSAR, ROSA 
GISSIN, AVSHALOM 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



55 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

a. Israel, Land and State of 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life (continued) 

GLIKIN, MOSHE 

GLUECKSOHN, MOSHE 

GLUSKA, ZEKHARYAH 

GLUSKIN, ZEEV 

GOLDBERG, ISAAC LEIB 

GOLOMB, ELIYAHU 

GORDON, AHARON DAVID 

GRAJEWSKI, ELIEZER ZALMAN 

GRANOTT, ABRAHAM (GrailOVSky) 

GROSSMAN, YIZHAK DAVID 

GRUENBAUM, YIZHAK 

GRUNER, DOV 

GUBER, RIVKA 

GUR, MORDECAI (Motta) 

GUTMANN, DAVID MEIR 

GVATI, CHAIM 

HABIBI, EMIL 

HACOHEN, DAVID 

HAKIM, ELIAHU 

HALPERIN, YEHIEL 

HALPERN, GEORG GAD 

HAMMER, ZEVULUN 

HANKIN, YEHOSHUA 

harari (Blumberg), hayyim 

HAREL, YISRAEL 

harman (Herman), AVR AH AM 

HARZFELD, AVRAHAM 

HATOKAI, ALDIN 

HAUSDORF, AZRIEL ZELIG 

HAUSNER, GIDEON 

HAVIV, AVSHALOM 

HAVIV-LUBMAN, AVRAHAM DOV 

HAZAN, YAAKOV 

HAZANI, MIKHA'EL YAAKOV 

HECHT, REUBEN 

HELPERN, MICHAEL 

HERMANN, LEO 

HERZOG, CHAIM 

HESHIN, SHNEUR ZALMAN 

HILLEL, SHELOMO 

HISIN, HAYYIM 

HOLZBERG, SIMCHAH 

HOOFIEN, ELIEZER SIEGFRIED 

HOREV, AMOS 

HOROWITZ, DAVID 

HOS, DOV 

HURVITZ, ELI 

HURWITZ, YIGAL 

IDELOVITCH, DAVID 

IDELSON, BEBA 

IRAQI, SHALOM JOSEPH 

ISRAEL 

ISRAELI, BENZION 



ITZIK, DALIA 
JAFFE, BEZALEL 
JAFFE, MAURICE ABRAHAM 
JAGLOM, RAYA 
JOFFE, ELIEZER LIPA 
JOFFE, HILLEL 
JOSEPH, DOV 
JOSEPHTHAL, GIORA 
KAHANA, KALMAN 
KAHANE, MEIR 
KALIR, AVRAHAM 
KAPLAN, ELIEZER 
KAPLANSKY, SHELOMO 
KASHANI, ELIEZER 
KASZTNER, REZSO RUDOLF 
KATZ, SHMUEL 
KATZAV, MOSHE 
KATZENELSON, YOSEF 
KATZIR, EPHRAIM 

katznelson, berl (Beeri) 

KATZNELSON, RAHEL 

KATZNELSON, REUBEN 

KATZNELSON, SHULAMIT 

KESSAR, ISRAEL 

KHOUSHI, ABBA 

KIRSCHENBAUM, MORDECAI 

KITRON (KOSTRINSKY), MOSHE 

KLARMAN, YOSEF 

KOHN, LEO 

KOL, MOSHE 

KOLLEK, THEODORE (Teddy) 

KORMAN, EDWARD R. 

KRAUSE, ELIYAHU 

KRINITZI, AVRAHAM 

KUBOVY (Kubowitzki), ARYEH LEON 

LAHAT, SHLOMO ("Chidl") 

LANDAU, ANNIE 

LANDAU, DAVID 

LANDAU, MOSHE 

LANDAUER, GEORG 

LAPID, TOMI 

LAPIN, ISRAEL MOSES FISCHEL 

LASKOV, HAYYIM 

LAUFBAHN, YITSHAK 

LAUTMAN, DOV 

LAVI, SHELOMO 

LAVON, PINHAS 

LEHMANN, SIEGRIED 

LEVI, MOSHE 

LEVI, SAID BEN SHALOM 

LEVI, SHABBETAI 

LEVIEV, LEV 

LEVIN, YIZAK MEIR 

LEVITT, ESTHER 

LEVONTIN, ZALMAN DAVID 

LEVY, DAVID 

LEWIN-EPSTEIN, ELIAHU ZEEV 

LEWINSKY, YOM TOV 

LIBAI, DAVID 

LIPKIN-SHAHAK, AMNON 



56 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



LISHANSKY, YOSEF 

LIVNAT, LIMOR 

LIVNI, TZIPI 

LOCKER, BERL 

LOEWENSON, JEAN (Hans) 

LOPOLIANSKY, URI 

LOTAN, GIORA 

LOURIE, ARTHUR 

LUDVIPOL, ABRAHAM 

LURIE, JOSEPH 

LURIE, TED 

LURIE, ZVI 

LUZ, KADISH 

MAGIDOR, MENACHEM 

MAIMON, ADA 

MAIMON, YAACOV 

MAISEL-SHOHAT, HANNAH 

MAKLEFF 

MAOR, GALIA 

MARGALIT, DAN 

MARGOLIN, ELIEZER 

MARGOLIN, JULII 

MARGOLIS-KALVARYSKI, HAIM 

MARMORI, HANOCH 

MAZUR, ELIYAHU 

MAZUZ, MENI 

MAZZUVAH 

MEEROVITCH, MENACHE 

MEIR, GOLDA 

MEIR BEN HIYYA ROFE 

MELCHIOR, MICHAEL 

MERIDOR, DAN 

MESHEL, YERUHAM 

METMAN-COHEN, YEHUDAH LEIB 

MEYUHAS, YOSEF BARAN 

mileykowsky, nathan (Netanyahu) 

MILO, RONI 

MINZ, BENJAMIN 

MIZRAHI, HANINAH 

MODAI, YIZHAK 

MOFAZ, SHAUL 

MOLLER, HANS AND ERICH 

MOSES, SIEGFRIED 

MOSSINSON, BENZION 

MOZES 

MUYAL, AVRAHAM 

NADAV, ZEVI 

NADDAF, ABRAHAM HAYYIM 

NAFTALI, PEREZ (Fritz) 

NAKAR, MEIR 

NAMIR, MORDEKHAI 

NAMIR, ORA 

NAVON, JOSEPH 

NAVON, YITZHAK 

NEBENZAHL, ITZHAK ERNST 

NEEMAN, YUVAL 

NEIPRIS, JOSEPH 

NETANYAHU, BINYAMIN 

NETTER, CHARLES 

NIEGO, JOSEPH 



NIMRODI 

NIR-RAFALKES, NAHUM 
NISSAN, AVRAHAM 
NISSIM, MOSHE 
NOVOMEYSKY, MOSHE 
NUROCK, MORDECHAI 
OFER, AVRAHAM 
OFNER, FRANCIS-AMIR 
OLMERT, EHUD 
OLSHAN, ISAAC 
OSSOWETZKY, O. YEHOSHUA 
PA'lL, MEIR 
PATT, GIDEON 
PEARLMAN, MOSHE 
PERES, SHIMON 
PERETZ, AMIR 
PERI, YAAKOV 
PERLMAN, SAMUEL 
PERSITZ, SHOSHANAH 
PEVZNER, SAMUEL JOSEPH 

pincus, louis arieh (Louis Abraham) 

PINKAS, DAVID ZVI 

POLLACK, ISRAEL 

PORUSH, MENAHEM & MEIR 

PROPPER, DAN 

PUKHACHEWSKY, MICHAEL ZALMAN 

RAAB, JUDAH 

RABBI BINYAMIN 

RABIN, YIZHAK 

RABINOVICH, ITAMAR 

RABINOWITZ, LOUIS ISAAC 

RABINOWITZ, YEHOSHUA 

RAGER (ijo), ITZHACK 

RAKOWSKI, PUAH 

RAMON, HAIM 

RAMON, ILAN 

RAPHAEL, GIDEON 

RAPHAEL, YIZHAK 

RAZIEL, DAVID 

RECANATI, ABRAHAM SAMUEL 

reik, havivah (Emma) 

REMEZ, MOSHE DAVID 
RIVLIN 

RIVLIN, YOSEF YIZHAK 
ROKACH, ELEAZAR 
ROKACH, SHIMON 
ROSEN, JOSEPH A. 
ROSEN, PINHAS 
ROSEN, SHELOMO 

rosenbaum, semyon (Shimshon) 

ROSENBLUM, HERZL 
ROSENFELD, SHALOM 
ROTEM, CVI (Zvi) 
RUBINSTEIN, AMNON 
RUPPIN, ARTHUR 
RUTENBERG, PINHAS (Piotr) 
SADEH, YIZHAK 
SALOMON, JOEL MOSES 
SAMUEL BEN SAMSON 

sanbar (Sandberg), moshe 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



57 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

a. Israel, Land and State of 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life (continued) 

SAPIR, ELIYAHU 

SAPIR, JOSEPH 

SAPIR, PINHAS 

SARID, YOSSI 

SARUM, ABRAHAM 

SASSON, ELIYAHU 

SCHILLER, SOLOMON 

SCHNITZER, SHMUEL 

SCHOCKEN 

SCHUB, MOSHE DAVID 

SENATOR, DAVID WERNER 

SHAHAL, MOSHE 

SHALEM, SAMUEL 

SHALEV, AVNER 

SHALOM, SILVAN 

SHALTIEL, DAVID 

SHAMGAR, MEIR 

SHAMIR, YITZHAK 

SHAPIRA, ABRAHAM 

SHAPIRA, HAYYIM MOSHE 

SHAPIRA, YESHAYAHU 

SHAPIRO, YAAKOV SHIMSHON 

SHARANSKY, NATAN (Anatoly) 

SHARETT, MOSHE 

SHARON, ARIEL ("Alik") 

SHAZAR, SHNEUR ZALMAN 

SHEETRIT, MEIR 

SHEINKIN, MENAHEM 

SHEMTOV, VICTOR 

SHENKAR, ARIE 

SHERF, ZEEV 

SHILOAH, REUBEN 

SHITRIT, BEHOR SHALOM 

SHOCHAT, ISRAEL 

SHOCHAT, MANIA WILBUSHEWITCH 

SHOHAT, AVRAHAM BEIGA 

SHOHAT, ELIEZER 

SHOMRON, DAN 

SHOSTAK, ELIEZER 

SHURER, HAIM 

SHWED, GIL 

SILBERG, MOSHE 

SIMHONI, ASSAF 

SIMON, ARYEH 

SMOIRA, MOSHE 

SNEERSOHN, HAYYIM ZEVI 

SNEH, MOSHE 

SOLIELI, MORDECAI (Max) 

SPITZER, MOSHE 

SPRINZAK, JOSEPH 

STAMPFER, JEHOSHUA 

STERN, AVRAHAM (Yair) 

STURMAN, HAYYIM 



SUPRASKY, YEHOSHUA 

SUSSMAN, YOEL 

SWET, GERSHON 

SZENES, HANNAH 

SZOLD, HENRIETTA 

TABENKIN, YIZHAK 

TABIB, AVRAHAM 

TAMIR, SHMUEL 

TARIF, AMIN 

TCHERNOWITZ, SAMUEL 

TEHOMI, ABRAHAM 

TEKOAH, YOSEF 

THON, YAAKOV YOHANAN 

TOLKOWSKY, SHEMUEL 

TOUROFF, NISSAN 

TRUMPELDOR, JOSEPH 

TSABAN, YAIR 

TSUR, JACOB 

TURNER, YAAKOV 

UZAN, AHARON 

UZIEL, BARUCH 

VALERO 

VAN LEER, LIA 

VAN VRIESLAND, SIEGFRIED ADOLF (Zadok) 

VARDI, MOSHE 

VITKIN, JOSEPH 

von weisl, ze'ev (Wolfgang) 

WALKOMITZ, SIMHAH HAYYIM 

WARHAFTIG, ZERAH 

WEINSHALL 

WEISGAL, MEYER WOLF 

WEISS, YAACOV 

WEITZ, NAPHTALI 

WEIZMAN, EZER 

WEIZMANN, CHAIM 

WERTHEIMER, STEF 

WILBUSCHEWITZ 

WITKON, ALFRED 

YAACOBI, GAD 

YAALON, MOSHE 

YAARI, MEIR 

YADIN, YIGAEL 

YADLIN, AHARON 

YAHIL, CHAIM 

YARIV, AHARON 

YARON, ZEVI 

YASSKY, HAIM N. 

YAVIN, HAYYIM 

YAVNEELI, SHEMUEL 

YELLIN 

YELLIN-MOR, NATHAN 

YESHAYAHU, ISRAEL 

YINNON, MOSHE 

YUDKOVSKY, DOV 

ZADOK, HAIM JOSEPH 

ZAMIR, YITZHAK 

ze'evi, REHAVAM 

ZEID, ALEXANDER 
ZEMER, HANNAH 
ZERUBAVEL, JACOB 



58 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



ZISLING, AHARON 

ZOREF, ABRAHAM SOLOMON ZALMAN 

ZUR, ZEVI 

zuri (Zuri-Szezak), jacob samuel 

ZUTA, HAYYIM ARYEH 

Religion 

BEKACHE, SHALOM 

EPSTEIN HA-LEVI, MOSES JEHIEL 

FAITUSI, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM 

FINKEL, ELIEZER JUDAH 

FRANCO, MOSES 

FRANK, ZEVI PESAH 

FRENKEL, IZHAK YEDIDIAH 

GALANTE, MOSES BEN JONATHAN (II) 

GOLINKIN, DAVID 

GOREN, SHLOMO 

GRUENHUT, ELEAZAR (Lazar) 

HACOHEN, RAPHAEL HAYYIM 

HADAYAH, OVADIAH 

HADUTA BEN ABRAHAM 

HA-LEVI, EZEKIEL EZRA BEN JOSHUA 

HALEVI, HAYYIM DAVID 

HALEVI, JOSEPH ZEVI BEN ABRAHAM 

HAMEIRI, MOSHE 

HAMMER, REUVEN 

HARLAP, JACOB MOSES BEN ZEBULUN 

HERZOG, ISAAC 

HIRSCHENSOHN 

HOROWITZ, SAUL HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI 

IBN JAMIL, ISAAC NISSIM 

ISRAELI, SHAUL 

KASOVSKY, CHAYIM YEHOSHUA 

KOOK, ABRAHAM ISAAC 

KOOK, ZEVI JUDAH BEN ABRAHAM ISAAC HA- 

KOHEN 
LAU, ISRAEL MEIR 

levi ben habib (Ralbah) 

LEVIN, ARYEH 

LEVY, JUDAH BEN MENAHEM 

MAIMON, JUDAH LEIB 

MALIK AL-RAMLI 

MALKHI, MOSES 

MALKHI, MOSES BEN RAPHAEL MORDECAI 

MASHASH, SHLOMO 

MEIR, JACOB 

MENAHEM BEN MOSES HA-BAVLI 

MENAHEM MENDEL OF SHKLOV 

MEYUHAS, MOSES JOSEPH MORDECAI BEN 

RAPHAEL MEYUHAS 
MEYUHAS, RAPHAEL MEYUHAS BEN SAMUEL 
MODAI, HAYYIM 
NATHAN BEN ABRAHAM I 
NATHAN BEN ABRAHAM II 
NATHAN OF GAZA 
NAVON, JONAH BEN HANUN 
NAVON, JONAH MOSES BEN BENJAMIN 
NAZIR, MOSES HA-LEVI 
NERIAH, MOSHE ZEVI 
NISSIM, ISAAC 



OUZIEL, BEN-ZION MEIR HAI 

PANIGEL, RAPHAEL MEIR BEN JUDAH 

PARDES, ELIYAHU 

PARDO, MOSES BEN RAPHAEL 

PORATH, ISRAEL 

RABINOWITZ-TEOMIM, ELIJAH DAVID BEN 

BENJAMIN 
RAPAPORT, DAVID HA-KOHEN 
RICHIETTI, JOSEPH SHALLIT BEN ELIEZER 
RISKIN, SHLOMO 
RUBIO, MORDECAI 
SALANT, SAMUEL 
SARNA, EZEKIEL 
SCHWARZ, YEHOSEPH 

SHAPIRA, ABRAHAN ELKANA KAHANA 
SONNENFELD, JOSEPH HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM 

SOLOMON 
STEINSALTZ, ADIN 
SUZIN, SOLOMON MOSES 
TOLEDANO, JACOB MOSES 
TOLEDO, MOSES DE 
UNTERMAN, ISSER YEHUDA 
URI BEN SIMEON OF BIALA 
VITAL, HAYYIM BEN JOSEPH 
WALDENBERG, ELIEZER JUDAH 
YIZHAKI, DAVID 
YOSEF, OVADIAH 
ZE'EVI, ISRAEL BEN AZARIAH 
ZEVIN, SOLOMON JOSEPH 
ZOLTY, YAACOV BEZALEL 

Science 

AARONSOHN 

abir (Abramovitz), david 

ADLER, SAUL AARON 

AGMON, SHMUEL 

AHARONI, ISRAEL 

AHARONOV, YAKIR 

AMIRA, BINYAMIN 

AMITSUR, SAMSON ABRAHAM 

APELOIG, YIZHAK 

ARNON, ISAAC 

ARNON, RUTH 

ASCHNER, MANFRED 

ASHBEL, DOV 

AVI DO V, ZVI 

AVIV, HAIM 

BEN-ABRAHAM, ZVI 

BENTOR, JACOB 

BERENBLUM, ISAAC 

BERGMANN, ERNST DAVID 

BERGMANN, FELIX ELIEZER 

BERNSTEIN, JOSEPH 

BIRK, YEHUDITH 

BOBTELSKY, MORDEKHAI (Max) 

BODENHEIMER, FREDERICK SIMON 

BONDI, ARON 

CEDAR, CHAIM 

CHET, ILAN 

COHEN, YIGAL RAHAMIM 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



59 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

a. Israel, Land and State of 
Biographies 

Science (continued) 

DEMALACH, YOEL 

DE VRIES, ANDRE 

DORON, HAIM 

DOSTROVSKY, ARYEH 

DOSTROVSKY, ISRAEL 

DUVDEVANI, SHMUEL 

DVORETSKY, ARYEH 

EFRAT, YAACOV 

ELDAR, REUVEN 

ELIAKIM, MARCEL 

ERLIK, DAVID 

EVENARI, MICHAEL 

FARKAS, LADISLAUS (Wllhelm) 

FEIGENBAUM, ARYEH 

FEINBRUN-DOTHAN, NAOMI 

FEINGOLD, DAVID SIDNEY 

FEKETE, MICHAEL 

FODOR, ANDOR 

FRAENKEL, ABRAHAM ADOLF 

FROHMAN, DOV 

FURSTENBERG, HILLEL (Harry) 

GINSBURG, DAVID 

GOLDBERG, ALEXANDER 

GOLDBERG, EMANUEL 

GOLDBLUM, NATAN 

HAAS, GEORG 

HALBERSTAEDTER, LUDWIG 

HALEVY, ABRAHAM 

HALPERIN, HAIM 

HALPERN, LIPMAN 

HANANI, HAIM 

HARARI, HAYYIM 

HARARI, OVADIAH 

HAREL, DAVID 

HA-REUBENI, EPHRAIM 

HERSHKO, AVRAM 

HESTRIN, SHLOMO 

HESTRIN-LERNER, SARAH 

HIRSHBERG, YEHUDAH 

JAMMER, MAX 

JAMMER, MOSHE 

JORTNER, JOSHUA 

KAGAN, HELENA 

KARPLUS, HEINRICH 

KATZIR, AHARON 

KATZIR, EPHRAIM 

KEDEM, ORA 

KLIGLER, ISRAEL JACOB 

KOGAN, ABRAHAM 

KORINE, EZRA 

KURREIN, MAX 

LEEUW, AVRAHAM DE 

LEIBOWITZ, JOSHUA O. 



LEVINE, RAPHAEL 
LEVITZKI, ALEXANDER 
LIBAI, AVINOAM 
LIFSON, SHNEIOR 

low (Lev), william ze'ev 

MECHOULAM, RAPHAEL 
MENDELSSOHN, HEINRICH 
MER, GIDEON 

MICHAELSON, ISAAC CHESAR 
MILLER, LOUIS 
MIROWSKI, MICHEL 

ne'eman, YUVAL 

NEUFELD, HENRY 

OLITZKI, ARYEH LEO 

OLLENDORFF, FRANZ 

OPPENHEIMER, HILLEL (Heinz) 

PADEH, BARUCH 

PEKERIS, CHAIM LEIB 

PICARD, LEO 

PNEULI, AMIR 

PRYWES, MOSHE 

RABIN, MICHAEL OSER 

RACAH, GIULIO (Yoel) 

RACHMILEWITZ, MOSHE 

RAGER, BRACHA 

RAHAMIMOFF, RAMI 

RAM, MOSHE 

RAMOT, BRACHA 

RAYSS, TSCHARNA 

REICHERT, ISRAEL 

REIFENBERG, ADOLF 

REINER, MARKUS 

REVEL, MICHEL 

ROM, YOSEF 

ROSEN, MOSHE 

SACHS, LEO 

SALITERNIK, ZVI 

SAMBURSKY, SAMUEL 

SELA, MICHAEL 

SHALON, RAHEL 

SHEBA, CHAIM 

SHECHTMAN, DAN 

SHELAH, SAHARON 

SHIFTAN, ZEEV 

SIMON, ERNST 

SINGER, JOSEF 

SONDHEIMER, FRANZ 

SOSKIN, SELIG EUGEN 

STEIN, RICHARD 

STEIN, YEHEZKIEL 

STEINBERG, AVRAHAM 

STOLLER, SAMUEL 

SUSSMAN, ABRAHAM 

TABOR, HARRY ZVI 

TALMI, IGAL 

VAN DER HOEDEN, JACOB 

VOET, ANDRIES 

VROMAN, AKIVA 

WAHL, ISAAK 

WALLACH, MOSHE (Moritz) 



REINHARD 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



WERTHEIMER, CHAIM ERNST 

WILCHEK, MEIR 

WILLNER, ITAMAR 

WINIK, MEIR 

WINNIK, HENRY ZVI 

WOOLF, MOSHE 

YONATH, ADA 

ZAIZOV, RINA 

ZARCHIN, ALEXANDER 

ZIV, JACOB 

ZOHARY, MICHAEL 

b. Byzantium 

Main Surveys 

byzantine empire 



General Entries 

circus parties 
constantinople 

KOILA 

Biographies 

BASIL I 

CONSTANTINE VII PORPHYROGENITUS 

HERACLIUS 

JUSTINIAN I 

leo in (the Isaurian) 

LEO VI, THE WISE 
MANUEL I COMNENUS 
MICHAEL II 

michael viii (Palaeologus) 

c. Muslim Lands (incl. Islam) 

Main Surveys 

arab world 

EGYPT 

IRAN 

IRAQ 

ISLAM 

LEBANON 

LIBYA 

MOROCCO 

OTTOMAN EMPIRE 

SYRIA 

TUNIS, TUNISIA 

TURKEY 

YEMEN 

General Entries 

abbasids 

AGGADAH 

AGHLABIDS 

AHL AL-KITAB 

ALAWIDS 

ALMOHADS 

ALMORAVIDES 

ARAB LEAGUE 

ARABIC LANGUAGE 

ASHURA 

AYYUBIDS 



BAHUZIM 

BERBERS 

BOYCOTT, ARAB 

BRETHREN OF SINCERITY, EPISTLES OF 

CAIRO TRIAL 

CALIPH 

CAPITULATIONS 

DAMASCUS AFFAIR 

DHIMMA, DHIMMI 

DOENMEH 

ESCHATOLOGY 

EXILARCH 

FATIMIDS 

FIQH 

GENIZAH, CAIRO 

GHETTO 

HADITH 

HAFSIDS 

HAMAS 

HANIF 

HIMYAR 

HIZBOLLAH 

HUD 

IBADIS 

ISRAELITE 

JADID AL-ISLAM 

JEWISH AND ISLAMIC LAW 

JIHAD 

KAKHYA 

KALAM 

KARIYAH, AL- 

KHARAJ AND JIZYA 

KIERA 

KORAN 

MAMLUKS 

MERINIDS 

MILLET 

MULUK AL-TAWA'lF 

muqaddim 
musta'rab, musta'rabs 

NAG ID 

omar, covenant of 

oriental literature 

orientalists 

ozar hatorah 

palestine liberation organization 

palestinian authority 

qaynuqa, banu 

qurayza, banu 

sa'dis 

SARRAF 

SATRAP 

SELJUKS 

SIJILL 

SUFISM 

UMAYYADS 

WATTASIDS 

YAHUD 

ZIRIDS 

ZIYANIDS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



61 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

c. Muslim Lands (inch Islam) (continued) 

Bible in Islam 

AARON 

ABRAHAM 

ADAM 

BALAAM 

BENJAMIN 

CAIN 

CANAAN 

DANIEL 

DAVID 

ELIJAH 

ELISHA 

ENOCH 

EVE 

EZEKIEL 

EZRA 

GOLIATH 

HAMAN 

ISAAC 

ISAIAH 

ISHMAEL 

JACOB 

JEREMIAH 

JERUSALEM 

JETHRO 

JOB, BOOK OF 

JONAH, BOOK OF 

JOSEPH 

JOSHUA 

KORAH 

LOT 

MIRIAM 

MOSES 

NEBUCHADNEZZAR 

NIMROD 

NOAH 

PHARAOH 

POTIPHAR 

QUEEN OF SHEBA 

SAMUEL 

SAUL 

SETH 

SOLOMON 

TERAH 



COMMUNITIES 

ABADAN 

ADEN 

AFGHANISTAN 

AGADIR 

AHWAZ 

AKABA 

AKRA 

ALEPPO 

ALEXANDRIA 



ALGERIA 

ALGIERS 

AMADIYA 

AMASIYA 

AMRAN 

ANKARA 

ANTIOCH 

ARABIA 

ARCILA 

ATLAS 

AYDIN 

AZEMMOUR 

BAB AL-ABWAB 

BAGHDAD 

BAHREIN 

BALKH 

ba'quba 

BASRA 

BAYHAN 

BAYRAMIC 

BEIRUT 

BENGHAZI 

BILBEIS 

BONE 

BOUGIE 

BURSA 

BUSHIRE 

CAIRO 

CANAKKALE 

CASABLANCA 

CONSTANTINE 

DAMANHUR 

DAMASCUS 

DAMAVAND 

DAMIETTA 

DAMIRA 

DEBDOU 

DEHOK 

DEMNAT 

DHAMAR 

DIYALA 

DJERBA 

DRA 

DUMUH 

EDESSA 

EDIRNE 

EL-ARISH 

EMESA 

EZINE 

FAIYUM 

FEZ 

GABES 

GALLIPOLI 

GAZA 

GAZA STRIP 

GILAN 

HABBAN 

HABIL 

HADRAMAUT 

HAMADAN 



62 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



HAY DAN 

HEJAZ 

HERAT 

HILLA 

HIRA 

HIT 

HONEIN 

HORMUZ 

IRBIL 

ISFAHAN 

ISKENDERUN 

ISTANBUL 

IZMIR 

IZMIT 

JAZIRAT IBN UMAR 

JORDAN, HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF 

JUBAR 

JUBAYL 

KAIROUAN 

KASHAN 

KAWKABAN 

KAZVIN 

KERMAN 

KERMANSHAH 

KHANAQIN 

KHAYBAR 

KHURASAN 

KIRKUK 

KOILA 

KURDISTAN 

LAPSEKI 

LAR 

MAHALLA AL-KUBRA 

MANAKHA 

MANISSA 

MANSURA 

MARDIN 

MARRAKESH 

MAWZA 

MAZANDARAN 

MEDINA 

MEKNES 

MERSIN 

MESHED 

MINYAT ZIFTA 

MOCHA 

MOGADOR 

MOSUL 

MZAB 

NAHRAWAN 

NAJRAN 

NEHARDEA 

NEHAVEND 

NISHAPUR 

NISIBIS 

OFRAN 

ORAN 

PAKISTAN 

PERSIA 

PORT SAID 



QALAT HAMMAD 

QASR IBN HUBAYRAH 

RAHBAH, AL- 

RAQQA AL- 

RIZAIEH 

ROSETTA 

RUWANDIZ 

SADAH 

SAFI 

SALE-RABAT 

SANA 

SANANDAJ 

SARUJ 

SAUDI ARABIA 

SHARAB 

SHARM-EL-SHEIKH, TIRAN ISLAND, AND TIRAN 

STRAITS 
SHIBAM 
SHIRAZ 
SHUSHAN 
SHUSHTAR 
SIDON 
SIJILMASSA 
SOUS 

SULEIMANIYA (AL-) 
SUNBAT 
TABRIZ 
TADEF 

tangier(s) 

TANTA 

TAYMA 

TEHERAN 

TLEMCEN 

TOKAT 

TRANSJORDAN 

TRIPOLI 

TRIPOLI 

TUAT 

TYRE 

'UKBARA 

WAS IT 

YARIM 

YEZD 



BIOGRAPHIES 

AARON BEN AMRAM 

AARON BEN BATASH 

AARON OF BAGHDAD 

ABBAS I 

ABBAS II 

ABD AL-HAQQ AL-ISLAMI 

ABD AL-MALIK IBN MARWAN 

ABDALLAH IBN SABA 

ABDALLAH IBN SALAM 

ABDALLAH, YUSEF 

ABDUL MAJID 

ABDULLAH IBN HUSSEIN 

ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC HA-KOHEN BEN AL-FURAT 

ABRAHAM BEN NATHAN 

ABU AL-MUNAJJA SOLOMON BEN SHAYA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



63 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

c. Muslim Lands (inch Islam) 
Biographies (continued) 

ABU 'iSA, ISAAC BEN JACOB AL-ISFAHIN-I 

ABU Sa'd AL-TUSTARI 

ADANI, MAHALAL 

ADANI, SAMUEL BEN JOSEPH (Yeshua) 

ADJIMAN 

AKBAR THE GREAT (Moghul) 

ALASHKAR, SOLOMON 

ALATON, ISHAK 

ALCEH, MATILDE 

AL-GHARID AL-YAHUDI 

ALI IBN SAHL IBN RABBAN AL-TABARI 

ALNAKAR, ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH 

alroy, david (Menahem) 

ALLOUCHE, FELIX NISSIM SAIDOU 

AMINA 

AMRAM 

ANGEL, SHEMAYAHU 

ARAFAT, YASSER 

ASAD, HAFIZ AL- 

ASHKENAZI, BEHOR 

ASHKENAZI, JONAH BEN JACOB 

ASHKENAZI, SOLOMON 

ASHRIKI, MORDECAI 

ASSEO, DAVID BEN ISAAC 

AVE MP ACE 

AVERROES 

AVICENNA 

AZANCOT 

BABAI BEN FARHAD 

BABAI IBN LUTF 

BACRI 

BALI, RIFAT 

BARAZANI, ASENATH 

BARUCH BEN SAMUEL 

BASRI, MEER 

BATALYAWSI, ABU MUHAMMAD ABDALLAH IBN 

MUHAMMAD IBN AL-SID AL- 
BATTAT, REUBEN 
BAYAZID II 
BELISHA 

BENAROYA, AVRAM 
BEN A YAH 
BENCHIMOL 
BENGALIL 
BENIDER 
BEN-KIKI 
BENOLIEL 
BENSUSAN 
BENVENISTE, MOSES 
BENWAISH, ABRAHAM 
BENZAMERO 
BEN ZAQEN 
BERGEL 
BESSIS, ALBERT 



BESSIS, JESHUA 

BONASTRUC, ISAAC 

BOUCHARA 

BOUZAGLO, DAVID 

BRUDO, ABRAHAM BEN ELIJAH 

BUSNACH 

BUSTANAI BEN HANINAI 

BUZAGLO 

cabessa (Cabeca, Cabecao) 
camondo (De) 

CANSINO 

CAPSALI, MOSES BEN ELIJAH 

CARASSO, EMMANUEL 

CARMONA, BEKHOR ISAAC DAVID 

CASTRO, ABRAHAM 

CAT TAN 

CATTAUI 

COHEN, JUDAH 

COHEN, LEVI-ABRAHAM 

CORCOS 

CORCOS, DAVID 

CORCOS, STELLA 

CHALOM, MARCEL 

CHOURAQUI 

CHRIQUI 

DANIEL BEN HASDAI 

DANIEL, MENAHEM SALIH 

DANON, ABRAHAM 

DARMON 

DARWISH, SHALOM 

DAYYAN 

DELMAR 

DELOUYA 

EDREHI, MOSES BEN ISAAC 

ELDAD HA-DANI 

ELEAZAR BEN JACOB HA-BAVLI 

ELIAS, JOSEPH 

EMANUEL 

EMRANI 

EPHRAIM BEN SHEMARIAH 

ESCAPA, JOSEPH BEN SAUL 

EZEKIEL BEN REUBEN MANASSEH 

FARABI, ABU NASR MUHAMMAD, AL- 

FARHI 

FARHI, MORIS 

FRANCO, GAD 

FREHA BAT AVRAHAM OF MOROCCO 

FRESCO, DAVID 

GABBAI 

GALANTE, ABRAHAM 

GALIPAPA, ELIJAH MEVORAKH 

GARIH, UZEYIR 

GEREZ, JOSEF HABIB 

GHAZALI, ABU HAMID MUHAMMAD IBN 

MUHAMMAD AL-TUSI AL- 
GHERON, YAKKIR MORDECAI BEN ELIAKIM 
GHEZ 

GOZLAN, ELIE 

HABIB, MOSES BEN SOLOMON IBN 
HABSHUSH, SHALOM BEN YAHYA 



6 4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



HAGIZ 

HAJJAJ, DANIEL 

HAKAM, AL- 

HAKIM BI-AMR ALLAH, AL- 

HALEVA, ISHAK 

HA-LEVI, EZEKIEL EZRA BEN JOSHUA 

HA-LEVI, SASSON BEN ELIJAH BEN MOSES 

HALFON, ABRAHAM 

HALFON BEN NETHANEL HA-LEVI ABU SAID (Dimyati) 

HAMON 

HANDALI, ESTHER 

HARARI, SIR VICTOR RAPHAEL 

HASAN, ABU ALI JEPHETH IBN BUNDAR 

HASDAI 

HASSAN 

hatchwell, sol (Suleika) 

HIBAT ALLAH, ABU AL-BARAKAT (NATHANEL) BEN 

ALI (ELl) AL-BAGHDADI 
HIBAT ALLAH, IBN JUMAY' IBN ZAYN 
HIBSHUSH, HAYYIM 
HOZIN, ZEDAKAH BEN SAADIAH 
HUBES, ROZET 
HUSSEIN 

husseini, hajj (Muhammad) amin 

IBN ABI AL SALT 

IBN AL-BARQULI 

IBN KILLIS, ABU AL-FARAJ Ya'qUB IBN YUSUF 

IBN SAHL, ABU ISHAQ IBRAHIM 

IBRAHIM IBN SAHL AL-ANDALUSI AL-ISRA'lLI (Abu 

Ishak) 

IBRAHIM PASHA 

IRAQI, SHALOM HA-KOHEN (al-Usta) 

iscandari 

jacob ben hayym talmid 

jacob ben zemah ben nissim 

javetz, barzillai ben baruch 

javid bey, mehmed 

jizfan, judah ben joseph 

joseph ben ahmad ibn hasdai 

joseph ben phinehas 

joseph hayyim ben elijah al-hakam 

joseph rosh ha-seder 

joshua ben abraham maimuni 

josiah ben jesse 

judah ha-parsi 

ka'b al-ahbar 

ka'b al-ashraf 

ka'b ben asad 

kabir, abraham salih al- 

kadoorie 

kadoorie, sasson 

kafah, yihye ben solomon 

kafah, yosef 

KAHINA 

KALAI, SAMUEL BEN MOSES 

KAMHI, JAK V 

KANETI, SELIM 

KARASU, ALBERT 

KAREH, SOLOMON 

KASABI, JOSEPH BEN NISSIM 



KAZIN, JUDAH BEN YOM TOV 

KAZIN, RAPHAEL BEN ELIJAH 

KEMAL MUSTAFA (ATATURK) 

KHOMEINI 

KIMHI, SOLOMON BEN NISSIM JOSEPH DAVID 

KINDI, ABU YUSUF YA'QUB IBN ISHAQ AL- 

KOHEN, ALBERT 

KOHEN, SAMI 

KORAH, AMRAM IBN YAHYA 

KORAH, SHALOM BEN YIHYE 

KRISPIN, JOSHUA ABRAHAM 

KUFA 

KUHAYL, SHUKR SALIM 

KUWAITI, SALEH 

LANIADO, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC 

LANIADO, RAPHAEL SOLOMON BEN SAMUEL 

LANIADO, SAMUEL BEN ABRAHAM 

LANIADO, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM 

LAPAPA, AARON BEN ISAAC 

LAWANI, DAUD 

lev (Lab; Leb), Joseph ben david ibn (Maharival) 

LEVI, MARIO 

LEVY-BACRAT, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON 

LEYON, AVRAM 

LONGO, SAADIAH 

LUMBROSO 

MACNIN 

MADMUN BEN JAPHETH BEN BUNDAR 

MAGHREBI-MAARAVI 

MALCHI, ESPERANZA 

MANSUR (al-) 

MANSURAH, SAADIAH BEN JUDAH 

MANSURAH, SHALOM BEN JUDAH 

MARHAB AL-YAHUDI IBN AL-HARITH 

MASHAALLAH B. ATHAN 

MASHAIRI, AL- 

MASHASH, SHLOMO 

MASLI AH §ALIH 

MASNUT, SAMUEL BEN NISSIM 

MA'TUK, SULAYMAN BEN DAVID 

MAYMERAN 

MELAMED, RAHAMIM REUVEN 

MELAMED, SIMAN TOV 

MENASCE, DE 

MENDA, ELIEZER 

MENDES 

MESHWI AL-'UKBARI 

MEVORAKH BEN SAADIAH 

mikha'Il, MURAD 

MIRIAM BAT BENAYAH OF YEMEN 

MIZRAHI, ASHER 

MIZRAHI, DAVID BEN SHALOM 

MIZRAHI, ELIJAH 

MOLCHO, DAVID EFFENDI ISAAC PASHA 

MONZON, ABRAHAM 

MORDECAI BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI 

MOSES BEN LEVI 

MOSES BEN MEVORAKH 

MOSSERI 

MOYAL, ESTHER 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



65 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

c. Muslim Lands (inch Islam) 
Biographies (continued) 

MUBARAK, MUHAMMAD HUSNI SA'lD 

MUBASHSHIR BEN NISSI HA-LEVI 

MUBASHSHIR BEN RAV KIMOI HA-KOHEN 

MUHAMMAD 

MUHAMMAD ALI 

NADER SHAH 

NAEH, BARUKH BEN MENAHEM 

NAHON 

NAHOUM, HAIM 

NAHRAI BEN NISSIM 

NAHUM, AARON SASSON BEN ELIJAH 

NAHUM, ELIEZER BEN JACOB 

NAJAR 

NAJIB AL-DAWLA 

NARBONI 

NASSER, GAMAL ABDUL 

NATHAN BEN ISAAC HA-KOHEN HA-BAVLI 

natronai ben havivai (Zavinai) 

NAWI 

NETHANEL BEN AL-FAYYUMI 

NETHANEL BEN ISAIAH 

NETIRA 

NEUMARK, EPHRAIM 

NISSIM, ABRAHAM HAYYIM 

NOM, IBRAHIM 

OBADYA, ABRAHAM 

OMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB 

PAHLAVI, MOHAMMAD REZA SHAH 

PAHLAVI, REZA SHAH 

PA LAC HE 

PALACHE, HAYYIM 

PALTIEL 

PARIENTE 

PARIUM 

PAS SI, DAVID 

QAZZAZ, MANASSEH BEN ABRAHAM IBN (AL-) 

RABI IBN ABI AL-HUQAYQ 

RACCAH, MAS'UD BEN AARON 

RASHID AL-DAWLA (al-Din) 

RENASSIA, YOSSEF 

ROSANES 

ROSANES, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL 

ROTE 

RYVEL 

Sa'aDI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON 

SAADIAH 

SAADIAH BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI 

Sa'd AL-DAWLA AL-SAFI IBN HIBBATALLAH 

SADAT, MUHAMMED ANWAR AL- 

SAHLAN BEN ABRAHAM 

SA'lD IBN HASAN 

SALADIN 

SALIH, ABRAHAM 

SALIH IBN YAHYA IBN JOSEPH 



SALIH, YAHYA BEN JOSEPH (MAHARIS) 

samama (Shemama), nessim 
samau'al ben judah ibn Abbas (ibn Yahya al- 
Magribi) 

SAMBARI, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC 
SAMRA, DAVID 
SAMUEL BEN ALI 
SAMUEL BEN AZARIAH 



-c 



SAMUEL BEN DANIEL ABU RABI A HA-KOHEN 
SAMUEL BEN HANANIA 
SAMUEL BEN HOPHNI 

samuel ibn adiya (al-Samawal ben Gharid ben 



Adiya) 



sanu, yaqub (James) 

SAPHIR, JACOB 

SARFATY 

SARMAD, MUHAMMAD SA'lD 

SASSON, AARON BEN JOSEPH 

SASSOON, SIR EZEKIEL 

SCIALOM, DAVID DARIO 

SEBAG 

SEFIRAH, SAADIAH BEN JOSEPH 

SELIM I 

SELIM II 

SERERO 

SERERO, SAUL 

SEROR 

SERUSI 

SERUYA 

SEVERUS 

SHAHIN 

SHAKI, ISAAC 

SHAMOSH, YIZHAK 

SHASHU, SALIM 

SHAUL, ANWAR 

SHEIKH, ABRAHAM BEN SHALOM HA-LEVI AL- 

SHEMARIAH BEN ELHANAN 

SHIMON, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH IBN 

SHINAH, SELMAN 

SHINDOOKH, MOSES BEN MORDECHAI 

SHOLAL, ISAAC HA-KOHEN 

sholal, nathan (Jonathan) ha-kohen 

SIBONI 

SID, SAMUEL IBN 

SITBON 

SOLAL 

SOLOMON BEN ELIJAH HA-KOHEN 

SOLOMON BEN HASDAI 

SOMEKH, ABDALLAH BEN ABRAHAM 

SONCINO 

SONCINO, JOSHUA 

STORA 

SUAREZ 

suleiman i (the Magnificent) 

SUMBAL, SAMUEL 

SUSAN, ISSACHAR BEN MORDECAI 

TABRIZI, MAHOMET ABU-BEKR-AT-BEN MAHOMET 

TAM IBN YAHYA, JACOB BEN DAVID 

TANUJI 

TANUJI, ISHMAEL HA-KOHEN 



66 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



TANUJI, JOSEPH BEN SHALOM HA-KOHEN 

TARAGAN, BEN-ZION 

TETUAN 

UKBA, MAR 

UMAYYA IBN ABI AL-SALT 

UZAN 

VALENSI 

VENTURA, MICHON (Moses) 

WAHB IBN MUNABBIH 

WANNEH, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM 

WAQQASA 

WUHSHA AL-DALLALA 

YIHYE, ISAAC HA-LEVI 

yudghan (Yehudah) 

YULY 

YUSUF ASAR YATHAR DHU NUWAS 



(masruq) 



ZAKHO 

ZECHARIAH AL-DAHIRI 

ZECHARIAH BEN BARACHEL 

ZECHARIAH BEN SOLOMON-ROFE 

ZILKHA 

ZILKHA, NAIM 

ZONANA 

ZUTA 

ZUTRA, MAR 



Scholars 

ayalon, david 
baer, gabriel 
billig, levi 
brunschvig, robert 
burckhardt, johann ludwig 
cazes, david 

GOITEIN, SHLOMO DOV (Fritz) 
GOLDENTHAL, JACOB 

goldziher, ignaz (Isaac Judah) 

HEYD, URIEL 
HIRSCHFELD, HARTWIG 
HOROVITZ, JOSEF 
KISTER, MEIR J. 
LANDAU, JACOB M. 
LEVI DELLA VIDA, GIORGIO 
LEWIS, BERNARD 
MANN, JACOB 
MAYER, LEO ARY 
MOREH, SHMUEL 
MUELLER, DAVID HEINRICH 
PIAMENTA, MOSHE 
ROMAN, JACOB BEN ISAAC 
ROSENTHAL, FRANZ 
SOMEKH, SASSON 
STERN, SAMUEL MIKLOS 
STILLMAN, NORMAN 
WEIL, GOTTHOLD 
WEIL, GUSTAV 

d. Asia and Africa 

Main Surveys 

AFRICA 



ASIA 
CHINA 
INDIA 
JAPAN 

GENERAL ENTRIES 

AFRICAN JEWISH CONGRESS 

BAYUDAYA 

BENE ISRAEL 

BENE MENASHE 

BETA ISRAEL 

HOUSE OF ISRAEL COMMUNITY 

IBO 

LEMBA 

MAKUYA 

MONGOLS 

TUTSI 

ZAKHOR 

COMMUNITIES 

AHMADNAGAR 

ALIBAG 

ASIA MINOR 

BENARES 

BOMBAY 

BURMA 

CALCUTTA 

CALICUT 

CANTON 

ceylon (Sri Lanka) 

CHENNAMANGALAM (Chennotty) 

CRANGANORE 

ERNAKULAM 

ETHIOPIA 

GOA 

HANGCHOW 

HARBIN 

HONG KONG 

INDONESIA 

KAIFENG 

KASHMIR 

KENYA 

KOBE 

KOCHI 

MADAGASCAR 

MADRAS 

MALAYSIA 

MANCHURIA 

MONGOLIA 

NAGASAKI 

NINGPO 

NINGSIA 

PEKING 

PHILIPPINES 

POONA 

SHANGHAI 

SINGAPORE 

SURAT 

THAILAND 

TIENTSIN 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



67 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

d. Asia and Africa 
Communities (continued) 

TOKYO 

TRANSOXIANA 

YANG-CHOU 

YOKOHAMA 

ZAMBIA 

zimbabwe 

Biographies 

abraham, david 

AI TIEN 

BENJAMIN, BARUCH BENZION 

BENJAMIN, YEHOSHUA 

BUCHANAN, CLAUDIUS 

CHAO 

DAVID, JOSEPH 

DIVEKAR, SAMUEL EZEKIEL 

EZEKIEL, MOSES 

EZEKIEL, NISSIM 

EZRA 

FERRIS, IRIS 

GANDHI, MOHANDAS KARAMCHAND 

HALLEGUA 

IRAQI, ELEAZAR BEN AARON HA-KOHEN 

JACOB, JACK FREDERICK RAPHAEL 

JOSEPH, SAUL ABDALLAH 

KADOORIE 

KADOORIE, LAWRENCE BARON 

KEHIMKAR, HAYIM SAMUEL 

KOBAYASHI, MASAYUKI 

KODER, SAMUEL SHABDAI 

KODER, SHABDAI SAMUEL 

kotsuji, setsuzo (Abraham) 

MARSHALL, DAVID SAUL 

MOTA, NEHEMIA 

RAHABI, EZEKIEL 

RAHABI, NAPHTALI ELIAHU 

RAHBAR, SAMUEL 

RAJPURKAR, JOSEPH EZEKIEL 

ROTENBURG 

SAMSON, BENJAMIN ABRAHAM 

SASSOON 

SCHERESCHEWSKY, SAMUEL ISAAC JOSEPH 

SENKO, YASUE 

sindabar (Sindabot) 

TALKER, EZEKIEL SAMUEL 
TOBIAS, MOSES 

e. Western Europe 

1) England & British Commonwealth 
Main Surveys 
australia 

ENGLAND 

ENGLISH LITERATURE 



IRELAND 



NEW ZEALAND 



SOUTH AFRICA 

SOUTH AFRICAN LITERATURE 



General Entries 

aliens act 

ARCHA 
ARCHPRESBYTER 

ascama (Ascamot) 

ASSIMILATION 

BATTLE OF CABLE STREET 

DEISTS 

EXCHEQUER OF THE JEWS 

JEW BILL 

PRESBYTER JUDAEORUM 

SAINT JAMES CONFERENCE 

COMMUNITIES 

ABERDEEN 

ADELAIDE 

AUCKLAND 

BALLARAT 

BATH 

BEDFORD 

BELFAST 

BIRMINGHAM 

BLOEMFONTEIN 

BRADFORD 

BRIGHTON 

BRISBANE 

BRISTOL 

BULAWAYO 

BURY ST. EDMUNDS 

CAMBRIDGE 

CANTERBURY 

CAPE TOWN 

CARDIFF 

CHANNEL ISLANDS 

CHATHAM 

CHRISTCHURCH 

COLCHESTER 

DUBLIN 

DUNEDIN 

DURBAN 

EAST LONDON 

EDINBURGH 

EXETER 

GATESHEAD ON TYNE 

GIBRALTAR 

GLASGOW 

GLOUCESTER 

HEREFORD 

HULL 

IPSWICH 

JAMAICA 

JOHANNESBURG 

KIMBERLEY 

KINGS LYNN 

LEEDS 



68 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



LEICESTER 



LIMERICK 



LINCOLN 
LIVERPOOL 



LONDON 



MANCHESTER 



MAURITIUS 
MELBOURNE 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 



NORTHAMPTON 



NORWICH 



NOTTINGHAM 
OUDTSHOORN 



OXFORD 



PENZANCE 



PERTH 



PLYMOUTH 

PORT ELIZABETH 

PORTSMOUTH 

PRETORIA 

ROCHESTER 

SALISBURY 

SCOTLAND 

SHEFFIELD 

SOUTH WEST AFRICA 

SOUTHAMPTON 

STAMFORD 

SUNDERLAND 

SWANSEA 

SYDNEY 

TASMANIA 

WALES 

WARWICK 

WINCHESTER 

WORCESTER 

YORK 

ZAMBIA 

ZIMBABWE 



ORGANIZATIONS 

AGUDAT HA-SOZYALISTIM HA-IVRIM 

ANGLO-JEWISH ASSOCIATION 

BOARD OF DEPUTIES OF BRITISH JEWS 

BRITISH ISRAELITES 

CENTRAL BRITISH FUND 

INSTITUTE OF JEWISH AFFAIRS 

JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF 

ENGLAND 
JEWS COLLEGE 
jews' TEMPORARY SHELTER 
MACCABEANS, ORDER OF ANCIENT 
PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 
UNITED SYNAGOGUE 
WIENER LIBRARY 

PUBLICATIONS 

HA-MEORER 
JEWISH CHRONICLE 
JEWISH WORLD 
ZEIT, DIE 



Biographies 

Academic Life 

ABRAHAMS, ABRAHAM 

ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL 

ADLER, ELKAN NATHAN 

AINSWORTH, HENRY 

ALDERMAN, GEOFFREY 

ALEXANDER, SAMUEL 

BACON, ROGER 

BALOGH, THOMAS, BARON 

BARNETT, LIONEL DAVID 

BAUMAN, ZYGMUNT 

BAUMGARTEL, ELISE J. 

BELOFF, MAX 

BERLIN, SIR ISAIAH 

BERNARD, EDWARD 

BEVAN, EDWYN ROBERT 

BLISS, FREDERICK JONES 

BOGDANOR, VERNON 

BOSHAM, HERBERT DE 

BRONOWSKI, JACOB 

BUECHLER, ADOLF 

CASTELL, EDMUND 

CESARANI, DAVID 

CHEYNE, THOMAS KELLY 

CHOTZNER, JOSEPH 

COHEN, CHAPMAN 

COHEN, RUTH LOUISA 

COHN, NORMAN 

COHN-SHERBOK, DAN 

COLENSO, JOHN WILLIAM 

COOK, STANLEY ARTHUR 

COOKE, GEORGE ALBERT 

COSTA ATHIAS, SOLOMON DA 

COWEN, ZELMAN 

COWLEY, SIR ARTHUR ERNEST 

CROOL, JOSEPH 

CROWFOOT, JOHN WINTER 

CUDWORTH, RALPH 

DAICHES, DAVID 

DANBY, HERBERT 

DAUBE, DAVID 

DAVIDSON, SAMUEL 

DEUTSCHER, ISAAC 

DEVONS, ELY 

DRIVER, SAMUEL ROLLES 

DUSCHINSKY, CHARLES (Jacob Koppel) 

EINZIG, PAUL 

ELIAS, NORBERT 

ELKIN, ADOLPHUS PETER 

ELTON, GEOFFREY RUDOLPH 

ETHERIDGE, JOHN WESLEY 

FERDINAND, PHILIP 

FILIPOWSKI, ZEVI HIRSCH 

FINCH, SIR HENRY 

FINLEY, SIR MOSES 

FISHMAN, WILLIAM 

FORTES, MEYER 

FOX, CHARLES 

FRANKEL, SALLY HERBERT 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



69 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

1) England & British Commonwealth 
Biographies 

Academic Life (continued) 

FRIEDLAENDER, MICHAEL 

GARSTANG, JOHN 

GEDDES, ALEXANDER 

GILBERT, MARTIN 

GINSBERG, MORRIS 

GINSBURG, CHRISTIAN DAVID 

GLUCKMAN, MAX 

GOLLANCZ, SIR ISRAEL 

GOODMAN, MARTIN DAVID 

GOODMAN, TOBIAS 

GREGORY, SIR THEODORE 

GRUENHUT, MAX 

GUEDALLA, PHILIP 

GUY, PHILIP LANGSTAFFE ORD 

HALPER, BENZION 

HART, HERBERT LIONEL ADOLPHUS 

HARTOG, SIR PHILIP JOSEPH 

HELLER, JOSEPH ELIJAH 

HERFORD, ROBERT TRAVERS 

HIMMELWEIT, HILDEGARD 

HIRSCHFELD, HARTWIG 

HOBSBAWM, ERIC JOHN ERNEST 

HYDE, THOMAS (Hydhis) 

ISRAEL, JONATHAN 

JACKSON, BERNARD 

JACOBS, JOSEPH 

JAHODA, MARIE 

JENKINSON, SIR HILARY 

JESSEY, HENRY 

JOLOWICZ, HERBERT 

KALDOR, NICHOLAS 

KALISCH, MARKUS MORITZ 

KATZ, DAVID S. 

KENYON, KATHLEEN MARY 

KIRKPATRICK, ALEXANDER FRANCIS 

KLEIN, HYMAN 

KOCHAN, LIONEL 

KOSMIN, BARRY 

KUSHNER, TONY 

LAKATOS, IMRE 

LAQUEUR, WALTER ZEEV 

LAWRENCE, THOMAS EDWARD 

LEVEEN, JACOB 

LEVI, DAVID 

LEVI, LEONE 

LEVY, REUBEN 

LEWIS, BERNARD 

LEWIS, I.M. 

LIGHTFOOT, JOHN 

LIPMAN, VIVIAN DAVID 

LIPSON, EPHRAIM 

LOEWE, HERBERT MARTIN JAMES 



LOEWE, LOUIS 

LOWTH, ROBERT 

LYONS, ISRAEL 

MACALISTER, ROBERT ALEXANDER STEWART 

MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON 

MACCOBY, HYAM 

MANNHEIM, KARL 

MARGOLIOUTH, DAVID SAMUEL 

MELVILLE, LEWIS 

MILIBAND, RALPH 

MOMIGLIANO, ARNALDO DANTE 

MONTAGU, MONTAGUE FRANCIS ASHLEY 

MYERS, CHARLES SAMUEL 

NADEL, SIEGFRED FREDERICK 

NAMIER, SIR LEWIS 

neubauer, adolf (Abraham) 

NOVE, ALEC 

OESTERLEY, WILLIAM OSCAR EMIL 

PALMER, EDWARD HENRY 

PARKER, JOHN 

PARKES, JAMES WILLIAM 

PATTERSON, DAVID 

PETRIE, SIR WILLIAM MATTHEW FLINDERS 

PEVSNER, SIR NIKOLAUS 

POCOCKE, EDWARD 

POCOCKE, RICHARD 

POLLARD, SIDNEY 

POPPER, SIR KARL RAIMUND 

POSTAN, MICHAEL MOISSEY 

PRAWER, SIEGBERT 

PRINGLE, MIA 

RADZINOWICZ, SIR LEON 

RAJAK, TESSA 

RAPHAEL, CHAIM 

REITLINGER, GERALD 

RICARDO, DAVID 

ROSENTHAL, ERWIN 

ROTH, CECIL 

ROWLEY, HAROLD HENRY 

RUBENS, ALFRED 

RUBINSTEIN, WILLIAM D. 

RUTLAND, SUZANNE 

SAMUEL, RAPHAEL 

SCHAMA, SIMON 

SCHAPERA, ISAAC 

SCHAPIRO, LEONARD 

SCHONFIELD, HUGH JOSEPH 

SELIGMAN, CHARLES GABRIEL 

SHONFIELD, SIR ANDREW 

SINGER, PETER 

SLOTKI, ISRAEL WOLF 

SMITH, SIR GEORGE ADAM 

SMITH, WILLIAM ROBERTSON 

SPENCER, JOHN 

SRAFFA, PIERO 

STARKEY, JOHN LLEWELYN 

STEIN, SIR AUREL 

STEINBERG, AARON 

TOVEY, DBLOISSIERS 

TRISTRAM, HENRY BAKER 



70 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



TRIVETH, NICHOLAS (Tlivetlis) 

TYNDALE, WILLIAM 

ULLENDORF, EDWARD 

VAN PRAAGH, WILLIAM 

VERMES, GEZA 

WAKEFIELD, ROBERT (Wakfeldus) 

WALSTON, SIR CHARLES 

WALTON, BRYAN 

WASSERSTEIN, BERNARD 

WEINGREEN, JACOB 

WEISS, JOSEPH G. 

WIENER, HAROLD MARCUS 

WINTER, PAUL 

WISTRICH, ROBERT 

WITTGENSTEIN, LUDWIG 

WOLF, ABRAHAM 

WOLF, LUCIEN 

WOOLLEY, SIR CHARLES LEONARD 

ZELLICK, GRAHAM 

ZIMMERN, SIR ALFRED 

Art 

ABRAHAMS, IVOR 

AMSHEWITZ, JOHN HENRY 

AUERBACH, FRANK 

BARLIN, FREDERICK WILLIAM 

BENNETT, SALOMON YOM TOV 

BLACK, SIR MISHA 

BOMBERG, DAVID 

BRYER, MONTE 

CARO, SIR ANTHONY 

CASSAB, JUDY 

COHEN, BERNARD 

COHEN, HAROLD 

COOPER, ALEXANDER 

COSTA, CATHERINE DA 

DANIELS, ALFRED 

DAVIS, HENRY DAVID 

DUVEEN 

DUVEEN, JOSEPH, LORD 

ELKAN, BENNO 

EPSTEIN, SIR JACOB 

EZEKIEL, ABRAHAM EZEKIEL 

FEIBUSCH, HANS 

FOX, EMANUEL PHILIPS 

FREEDMAN, BARNETT 

FREUD, LUCIAN 

GAMES, ABRAM 

GERTLER, MARK 

GLUCK, HANNAH 

GOMBRICH, SIR ERNST 

HANSON, NORMAN LEONARD 

HART, SOLOMON ALEXANDER 

HERMER, MANFRED 

HILLMAN, DAVID 

INLANDER, HENRY 

KAHAN, LOUIS 

KANTOROWICH, ROY 

KEMPF, FRANZ MOSHE 

KESTLEMAN, MORRIS 



KIBEL, WOLF 

KOENIG, GHISHA 

KORMIS, FRED 

KOSSOFF, LEON 

KOTTLER, MOSES 

KRAMER, JACOB 

LANGDON, DAVID 

LASDUN, DENYS 

LE ROITH, HAROLD HIRSCH 

LIPSHITZ, ISRAEL LIPPY 

MENINSKY, BERNARD 

MEYEROWITZ, HERBERT VLADIMIR 

NEMON, OSCAR 

OPPE, ADOLPH 

RABIN, SAM 

RIE, DAME LUCIE 

ROGERS, CLAUDE MAURICE 

ROSENBERG, EUGENE 

ROTHENSTEIN (WILLIAM), MICHAEL 

ROTHENSTEIN, SIR WILLIAM 

SALAMAN 

SCHOTTLANDER, BERNARD 

SCHOTZ, BENNO 

SOLOMON, SIMEON 

SOLOMON, SOLOMON JOSEPH 

SONNABEND, YOLANDA 

STERN, IRMA 

SUTTON, PHILIP 

SZIGETI, IMRE 

TOPOLSKI, FELIKS 

TOWNE, CHARLES 

UHLMAN, FRED 

ULLMANN, ERNEST 

VINCZE, PAUL 

VOGEL, KAREL 

WALD, HERMAN 

weisz, victor ("Vicky") 

WERTHEIMER, ASHER 
WILSON, "SCOTTIE" 
WOLMARK, ALFRED 
ZEC, PHILIP 
ZIEGLER, ARCHIBALD 
ZVIA 

Literature 

AARONSON, LAZARUS LEONARD 

ABSE, DANNIE 

AGUILAR, GRACE 

ALVAREZ, ALFRED 

BARON, JOSEPH ALEXANDER 

BERGNER, HERZ 

BLAKE, WILLIAM 

BOAS, FREDERICK SAMUEL 

BROOKNER, ANITA 

BROWNING, ROBERT 

BYRON, GEORGE GORDON, LORD 

CECIL, HENRY 

CHARLES, GERDA 

CHAUCER, GEOFFREY 

COHEN, JOHN MICHAEL 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



71 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

1) England & British Commonwealth 
Biographies 

Literature (continued) 

CUMBERLAND, RICHARD 

DAVIDSON, LIONEL 

DICKENS, CHARLES 

D'lSRAELI, ISAAC 

ELIOT, GEORGE 

ELLMANN, RICHARD 

EMANUEL, WALTER LEWIS 

FALK, BERNARD 

FARHI, MORIS 

FARJEON, BENJAMIN LEOPOLD 

FEINSTEIN, ELAINE 

FISCH, HAROLD 

FRAM, DAVID 

FRANKAU 

GEORGE, WALTER LIONEL 

GERSHON, KAREN 

GLANVILLE, BRIAN LESTER 

GOLDHAR, PINCHAS 

GOLDING, LOUIS 

GOLLER, IZAK 

GORDIMER, NADINE 

GORDON, SAMUEL 

GROSS, JOHN JACOB 

HALL, OWEN 

HAMBURGER, MICHAEL 

HENRY, EMMA 

HUDSON, STEPHEN 

JACOB, NAOMI ELLINGTON 

JACOBSON, DAN 

JACOBSON, HOWARD 

JHABVALA, RUTH PRAWER 

JOSIPOVICI, GABRIEL 

KATZ, MENKE 

KERSH, GERALD 

KINROSS, ALBERT 

KOPS, BERNARD 

KROOK, DOROTHEA 

LANDAU, JUDAH LOEB (Leo) 

LEAVIS, QUEENIE DOROTHY 

LEE, SIR SIDNEY 

LEFTWICH, JOSEPH 

LEVERSON, ADA 

LEVERTOV, DENISE 

LEVINSON, OLGA 

LEVY, AMY 

LEVY, BENN WOLFE 

LEWIS, LEOPOLD DAVIS 

LIBERMAN, SERGE 

LITVINOFF, EMANUEL 

LYONS, ALBERT MICHAEL NEIL 

MANKOWITZ, WOLF 

MARCUS, FRANK 



MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER 

MARTIN, DAVID 

MERRICK, LEONARD 

MEYERSTEIN, EDWARD HARRY WILLIAM 

MIKES, GEORGE 

MILLIN, SARAH GERTRUDE 

MILTON, JOHN 

MULLER, ROBERT 

NASSAUER, RUDOLF 

PINTER, HAROLD 

PINTO, VIVIAN DE SOLA 

PYE, JAEL HENRIETTA 

RAPHAEL, FREDERIC 

RAPHAEL, JOHN N. 

RODKER, JOHN 

ROSENBERG, ISAAC 

RUBENS, BERNICE 

RUBENS, PAUL ALFRED 

RUBINSTEIN, HAROLD FREDERICK 

SASSOON, SIEGFRIED LORRAINE 

SCOTT, SIR WALTER 

SHAFFER, SIR PETER 

SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM 

SHULMAN, MILTON 

SILKIN, JON 

SINCLAIR, CLIVE 

SPIELVOGEL, NATHAN 

STEINER, GEORGE 

STERN, BERTHA GLADYS 

STRAUS, RALPH 

STRAUSS, GUSTAVE LOUIS MAURIC 

SUTRO, ALFRED 

SYMONS, JULIAN 

TARN, NATHANIEL 

WALEY, ARTHUR 

WATEN, JUDAH 

WESKER, ARNOLD 

WOLFE, HUMBERT 

ZANGWILL, ISRAEL 

Music 

ABRAHAM, GERALD 

AGUILAR, EMANUEL ABRAHAM 

BARNETT, JOHN 

BARNETT, JOHN FRANCIS 

BART, LIONEL 

BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS (Isaac) 

BRAHAM, JOHN 

COHEN, HARRIET 

COWEN, SIR FREDERIC HYMEN 

CRANKO, JOHN 

DU PRE, JACQUELINE 

ESPINOSA, EDOUARD 

FRANKEL, BENJAMIN 

HASKELL, ARNOLD LIONEL 

HESS, DAME MYRA 

ISSERLIS, STEVEN 

Jacobs, Arthur (David) 

KENTNER, LOUIS 
LEIGH, ADELE 



E 



72 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



LEONI, MYER 

MARKOVA, ALICIA 

NATHAN, ISAAC 

RAMBERT, DAME MARIE 

ROLL, MICHAEL 

ROSENTHAL, HAROLD (David) 

russell (Levy), henry 

SADIE, STANLEY (John) 

SALAMAN 

SAMUEL, HAROLD 

SCHWARZ, RUDOLF 

SOLOMON 

TERTIS, LIONEL 

wasserzug (Lomzer), hayyim 

WILLIAMS, CHARLES 

Popular Culture 

ABRAHAMS 
ALEXANDER, MURIEL 
BALCON, SIR MICHAEL 
BARNA, VICTOR 
BERGMANN, RICHARD 
BERGNER, ELIZABETH 
BERKOFF, STEVEN 
BERMANT, CHAIM ICYK 
BLOOM, CLAIRE 
BLUMENFELD, RALPH DAVID 
BROOK, PETER STEPHEN PAUL 
BROTHERS, RICHARD 
BUXTON, ANGELA 
CASTRO, JACOB DE 
COLLINS, LOTTIE 
DELFONT, BERNARD 
ELLIS, VIVIAN 
EPSTEIN, BRIAN 
FELDMAN, MARTIN 
FLANAGAN, BUD 
FRANKEL, WILLIAM 
GINGOLD, HERMIONE 
GOLDSMITH, LEWIS 
GOLOMBEK, HARRY 
GRADE, LEW, BARON 
GUNSBERG, ISIDOR 
HANBURY, LILY 
HANRAY, LAWRENCE 
HARVEY, LAURENCE 
HOWARD, LESLIE 
ISAACS, SIR JEREMY 
JACKSON, HARRY 
JAMES, DAVID 
JAMES, SIDNEY 
JAY, ALLAN 
KAY, BARRY 
KNOPFLER, MARK 
KORDA, SIR ALEXANDER 
KOSSOFF, DAVID 
LAWRENCE, GERALD 
LION, LEON M. 
LIPZIN, KENI 
LOM, HERBERT 



MANNHEIM, LUCIE 
MENDOZA, DANIEL 
MIESES, JACQUES (Jacob) 
MILLER, MARTIN RUDOLF 
MILTON, ERNEST 
MITCHELL, YVONNE 
MOSHINSKY, ELIJAH 
NEILSON, JULIA 
NEWTON-JOHN, OLIVIA 
NORSA, HANNAH 
PROOPS, MARJORIE 
REEVE, ADA 
REISZ, KAREL 
RENE, ROY 
SACHS, ANDREW 
SACHS, LEONARD 
SAVILLE, VICTOR 
SCHACH, LEONARD LAZARUS 
SCHLESINGER, JOHN 
SELLERS, PETER 
SLOMAN, HENRY (Solomon) 
SOFAER, ABRAHAM 
SOLOMONS, JACK 
STEINITZ, WILHELM 
SUZMAN, JANET 
SYLVIA, SARAH 
TEITELBAUM, ABRAHAM 
TZELNIKER, MEIR 
ULLMAN, TRACEY 
VAUGHAN, FRANKIE 
ZUKERTORT, JOHANNES 

Public & Economic Life 

AARON OF LINCOLN 

AARON OF YORK 

ABRAHAMS, ABRAHAM 

ABRAHAMS, GERALD 

ABRAHAMS, SIR LIONEL 

ADOLPHUS 

ALBU, SIR GEORGE 

ALEXANDER 

ALEXANDER, BERNARD 

ALEXANDER, MORRIS 

ALLENBY, EDMUND HENRY HYNMAN, 

VISCOUNT 
AMERY, LEOPOLD STENNETT 
ASHENHEIM 

ATTLEE, CLEMENT RICHARD, EARL 
AVIDA, YEHUDA LEIB 
BAGRIT, SIR LEON 

BALFOUR, ARTHUR JAMES, EARL OF 
BARD, BASIL JOSEPH ASHER 
BARNATO, BARNEY 
BARNETT, JOEL BARON 
BARON, BERNHARD 
BAROU, NOAH 
BAUME, PETER 
BEARSTED, MARCUS SAMUEL, FIRST 

VISCOUNT 
BEDDINGTON 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



73 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

1) England & British Commonwealth 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life {continued) 

BEER, RACHEL (Richa) 

BEIT, SIR ALFRED 

BELL, FRANCIS, SIR 

BENAS, BARON LOUIS 

BENDER, ALFRED PHILIP 

BENEDICT BEN MOSES OF LINCOLN 

BENISCH, ABRAHAM 

BENJAMIN, ERNEST FRANK 

BERGTHEIL, JONAS 

BERNSTEIN, SIDNEY LEWIS, BARON 

BEVIN, ERNEST 

BISCHOFFSHEIM 

BLAUBAUM, ELIAS 

BLOCH, HYMAN MORRIS 

BLOCH, SIR MAURICE 

BOAS, ABRAHAM TOBIAS 

BODLEY, SIR THOMAS 

BRAMPTON, EDWARD 

BRAUDE, JACOB 

BRISCOE, ROBERT 

BRITTAN, LEON, LORD 

BRODETSKY, SELIG 

BROUGHTON, HUGH 

BUNZL 

BURTON, SIR MONTAGUE 

CACERES, SIMON (Jacob) DE 

CARDOZO, AARON NUNEZ 

CARVAJAL, ABRAHAM ISRAEL (Antonio 

Fernandez) 

CASS, FRANK 

CASS, MOSES HENRY 

CASSEL, SIR ERNEST JOSEPH 

CAZALET, EDWARD 

CECIL, HENRY 

CHAMBERLAIN, HOUSTON STEWART 

CHAMBERLAIN, JOSEPH 

CHASKELSON, ARTHUR 

CHURCHILL, SIR WINSTON LEONARD 

SPENCER 
CLORE, SIR CHARLES 
COHEN 
COHEN 

COHEN, ABRAHAM 
COHEN, SIR ANDREW 
COHEN, ARTHUR 
COHEN, BARRY 
COHEN, ISRAEL 
COHEN, SIR JOHN EDWARD 
COHEN, LIONEL LEONARD, BARON 
COHEN, SIR ROBERT WALEY 
COHEN, SAMUEL HERBERT 
COHEN, SIMON 



CONDER, CLAUDE REGNIER 
COSTA 

COTTON, JACK 
COWEN, JOSEPH 

Crispin, gilbert (Gislebertus) 

CROMWELL, OLIVER 

CURRIE, EDWINA 

DANBY, MICHAEL 

DAVIGDOR 

DAVIS, SIR EDMUND 

DAVIS, EDWARD 

DAVIS, SIR ERNEST HYAM 

DE LIMA, JOSEPH SUASSO 

DE PASS 

DE VRIES, M. 

DEEDES, SIR WYNDHAM 

DELL, EDMUND 

DEUTSCH, ANDRE 

DIAMOND, JOHN, BARON 

DISRAELI, BENJAMIN 

DORMIDO, DAVID ABRABANEL (Manuel 

Martinez) 

DUGDALE, BLANCHE ELIZABETH CAMPBELL 

EDELMAN, MAURICE 

EDEN, SIR ANTHONY, EARL OF AVON 

EDER, MONTAGUE DAVID 

EINFELD, SYDNEY 

ELIAS LE EVESKE 

ELIAS, NEY 

ELYAN, SIR ISADORE VICTOR 

EZRA, DEREK, BARON 

FELDBERG, LEON 

FINESTEIN, ISRAEL 

FINK, THEODORE 

FINN, JAMES 

FISHER, SAMUEL, LORD 

FISHER, SIR WOOLF 

FONSECA, ALVARO DE 

FOX, BERNARD JOSHUA 

FOX, JACOB SAMUEL 

FRANCIA, FRANCIS 

FRANCO 

FRANKLIN 

FRANKS 

FREILICH, MAX MELECH 

GAMALIEL BEN PEDAHZUR 

GAWLER, GEORGE 

GELMAN, MANUEL 

GERTNER, LEVI AND MEIR 

GESTETNER, DAVID 

GIDEON, SAMSON 

GITLIN, JACOB 

GLUCKMAN, HENRY 

GLUCKSTEIN 

GOLDBLOOM, JACOB KOPPEL 

GOLDSMID 

GOLDSMID, ALBERT EDWARD WILLIAMSON 

GOLDSMID-STERN-SOLOMONS, SIR DAVID 

LIONEL 
GOLDSTONE, RICHARD JOSEPH 



74 



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GOLLANCZ, SIR VICTOR 

GOMPERTZ 

GOODMAN, PAUL 

GORDON, LORD GEORGE 

GRANT, BARON ALBERT 

GRAUMANN, SIR HARRY 

GREEN, PHILIP 

GREENBERG, LEOPOLD 

GREENBERG, LEOPOLD JACOB 

GUEDALLA, HAIM 

GUTNICK 

HAHN, KURT 

HAMBURGER, SIR SIDNEY 

HAMLYN, PAUL, BARON 

HARRIS, SIR DAVID 

HARRIS, SIR PERCY 

HART 

HART, DANIEL 

hassan, sir joshua (Abraham) 

HATRY, CLARENCE CHARLES 

HEILBRON, ROSE 

HENOCHSBERG, EDGAR SAMUEL 

HENRIQUES 

HENRY, MICHAEL 

HENRY OF WINCHESTER 

HERBSTEIN, JOSEPH 

HORE-BELISHA, LESLIE LORD 

HORT, ABRAHAM 

HOWARD, MICHAEL 

HUGH OF LINCOLN 

HYAMSON, ALBERT MONTEFIORE 

ISAAC OF SOUTHWARK 

ISAACS, SIR ISAAC ALFRED 

ISAACS, NATHANIEL 

ISH-KISHOR, EPHRAIM 

JACOBS, LAZARUS 

JACOBS, SIMEON 

JACOBSON, NATHAN 

JACOBSON, SYDNEY 

JAFFE, SIR OTTO 

JANNER, LORD BARNETT 

JESSEL, SIR GEORGE 

JOEL, SIR ASHER 

JOEL, SOLOMON BARNATO ("Solly") 

JOSCE OF YORK 

JOSEPH 

JURNET OF NORWICH 

KAGAN, JOSEPH, BARON 

KAHN, RICHARD FERDINAND, LORD 

KALLENBACH, HERMANN 

KALMS, SIR (HAROLD) STANLEY, BARON 

KARMINSKI, SIR SEYMOUR EDWARD 

KASRILS, RONNIE 

KAUFMAN, SIR GERALD 

KAYE, SIR EMMANUEL 

KENTRIDGE, MORRIS 

KENTRIDGE, SIR SYDNEY 

KIMCHE, JON 

KISCH 

KISSIN, HARRY, BARON 



KOPELOWITZ, LIONEL 

KUPER, SIMON MEYER 

LANDA, ABRAM 

LANDA, MYER JACK 

LANGERMANN, MAX 

LASKI 

LASKI, HAROLD JOSEPH 

LAUTERPACHT, SIR HERSCH 

LAWSON 

LEIBLER, ISI JOSEPH 

LEITNER, GOTTLEIB 

LEON, ANTHONY JAMES 

LEVENE, PETER, BARON 

LEVER, NORMAN HAROLD 

LEVEY, BARNETT 

LEVIN, NATHANIEL WILLIAM 

LEVIN SMITH, SIR ARCHIBALD 

LEVY, SIR ALBERT 

LEVY, BENJAMIN 

LEVY, SIR DANIEL 

LEVY, JOSEPH LANGLEY 

LEVY, MICHAEL ABRAHAM, BARON OF MILL 

HILL 
LEWIS, SIR GEORGE 
LEWIS, HYMAN 
LEWIS, SAMUEL 
LICORICIA OF WINCHESTER 
LINCOLN, TREBITSCH 
LINDO 

LITTMAN, JOSEPH AARON 
LLOYD GEORGE, DAVID 
LOPES 

LOVELL, LEOPOLD SOLOMON 
LOW 

LOWY, FRANK 
LYONS, SIR JOSEPH 
MACCOBY, HAYYIM ZUNDEL 
MAGNUS 

MAGNUS, SOLOMON WOLFF 
MAISELS, ISRAEL AARON 
MANCROFT 
MANDELSON, PETER 
MANNHEIM, HERMANN 
MARKS, HARRY HANANEL 
MARKS, SAMUEL 
MARKS, SIMON BARON 
MARRE, ALAN, SIR 
MATALON, ELI 
MAXWELL, ROBERT 
MAYER, SIR ROBERT 
MEDINA, SIR SOLOMON DE 
MEINERTZHAGEN, RICHARD HENRY 
MENDES 
MERTON 

MEYERSTEIN, EDWARD WILLIAM 
MICHAELIS, SIR ARCHIE 
MICHAELIS, SIR MAX 
MIKARDO, IAN 
MILLETT, SIR PETER, BARON 
MILLIN, PHILIP 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

1) England & British Commonwealth 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life {continued) 

MINC, HILARY 

MISHCON, VICTOR, BARON 

MOCATTA 

MONASH, SIR JOHN 

MOND 

MONTAGU 

MONTAGU, LILY 

MONTEFIORE, JOSEPH BARROW 

MONTEFIORE, JOSHUA 

MONTEFIORE, JUDITH 

MONTEFIORE, SIR MOSES 

MONTEFIORE, SEBAG-MONTEFIORE 

MOONMAN, ERIC 

MORRIS, HENRY HARRIS 

MORRIS, NATHAN 

MOSENTHAL 

MOSER, JACOB 

MOSER, SIR CLAUDE 

MOSES, MARCUS 

MOSS, CELIA AND MARION 

MYER, SIDNEY BAEVSKI 

MYERS, SIR ARTHUR MELZINER 

MYERS, ASHER ISAAC 

MYERS, SIR MICHAEL 

NATHAN 

NATHAN, DAVID 

NATHAN, HARRY LOUIS, BARON 

NATHAN, JOSEPH EDWARD 

NATHAN, MANFRED 

NATHAN, MULLA IBRAHIM 

NAVARRO, ABRAHAM 

NICHOLAS, EDWARD 

NORDEN 

OCHBERG, ISAAC 

OLIPHANT, LAURENCE 

OPPENHEIM, LASSA FRANCIS LAWRENCE 

OPPENHEIM, SALLY BARONESS 

OPPENHEIMER, SIR ERNEST 

PACIFICO, DAVID 

PAIVA, JACQUES 

PALGRAVE 

PATTERSON, JOHN HENRY 

PHILLIPS, SIR LIONEL 

PHILLIPS, MARION 

PICCIOTTO 

POLACK, JOEL SAMUEL 

PORTER, SIR LESLIE 

PRATT, RICHARD 

PRYNNE, WILLIAM 

PULVERMACHER, OSCAR 

PULZER, PETER G.J. 

RACHMAN, PETER 



RAISMAN, SIR ABRAHAM JEREMY 

RAPHAEL, ALEXANDER 

RATHBONE, ELEANOR 

RAYNE, SIR MAX, BARON 

READING 

READING, FANNY 

RIFKIND, SIR MALCOLM 

ROBSON, WILLIAM ALEXANDER 

RODRIGUES, BARTHOLOMEW 

ROSENBLUM, SIGMUND GEORGIEVICH 

ROTHSCHILD 

ROTHSCHILD, JAMES ARMAND DE 

ROTHSCHILD, NATHANIEL CHARLES JACOB, 

FOURTH BARON ROTHSCHILD 
SAATCHI, CHARLES 
SACHER, HARRY 
SALMON 

SALMON, ALEXANDER 
SALMON, CYRIL BARNET, BARON 
SALOMONS, SIR DAVID 
SALOMONS, SIR JULIAN EMANUEL 
SAMUDA, JOSEPH 

SAMUEL, EDWIN, SECOND VISCOUNT 
SAMUEL, HAROLD, BARON SAMUEL OF 

WYCH CROSS 
SAMUEL, HERBERT LOUIS, FIRST VISCOUNT 
SAMUEL, HOWARD 
SAMUEL, SIR SAUL 
SAMUEL, SYDNEY MONTAGU 
SAMUEL, WILFRED SAMPSON 
SAMUELSON, SIR BERNHARD 
SASSOON 
SASSOON, VIDAL 

SCHLESINGER, ISIDORE WILLIAM 
SCHOMBERG 
SCHON, FRANK 
SCHUSTER 
SCHWARZ, HARRY 
SCOTT, CHARLES PRESTWICH 
SEGAL, SAMUEL, BARON 
SELDEN, JOHN 
SELIG, PHINEAS 

SELIGMAN, HERBERT SPENCER 
SHERMAN, ARCHIE 
SHILL, LOUIS 

SHINWELL, EMANUEL, BARON 
SHORT, RENEE 

SIEFF, ISRAEL MOSES, BARON 
SIEFF, REBECCA 

SILBERMANN, ABRAHAM MORITZ 
SILKIN, LEWIS, FIRST BARON 
SILVERMAN, SIDNEY 
SIMON 

SIMON, SIR JOHN 
SIMON, SIR LEON 
SLATER, OSCAR 
SLOVO, JOE 
SMORGON 

SMUTS, JAN CHRISTIAAN 
SOLOMON 



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SOLOMON 

SOLOMON, BERTHA 

SOMEN, ISRAEL 

SONNTAG, JACOB 

SOSKICE, SIR FRANK 

SOUTHWOOD, JULIUS SALTER ELIAS, FIRST 

VISCOUNT 
SPEYER, SIR EDGAR 
SPIELMAN (-N) 
STEIN, LEONARD 
STERLING, SIR JEFFREY 
STERN 

STERN, SIR FREDERICK CLAUDE 
STERN, PHILIP COHEN 
STERNBERG, SIR SIGMUND 
STORRS, SIR RONALD 
STRAUSS, GEORGE RUSSEL, BARON 
SUGAR, SIR ALAN 
SUGERMAN, SIR BERNARD 
SUZMAN, HELEN 
SYKES, SIR MARK 
SYMONDS, PAUL 
TAYLOR, SIR PETER MURRAY 
THATCHER, MARGARET 
THORN, SIR JULES 
TOLAND, JOHN 
TONNA, CHARLOTTE E. 
TRASKE, JOHN 
TUCK, RAPHAEL 
VAN OVEN 
VOGEL, SIR JULIUS 
WAGG 
WALEY 

WARBURG, FREDERIK 
WARBURG, SIR SIEGMUND 
WARREN, SIR CHARLES 
WAY, LEWIS 
WEDGWOOD, JOSIAH CLEMENT, FIRST 

BARON 
WEIDENFELD, GEORGE, BARON 
WEINSTOCK, SIR ARNOLD, BARON 
WEIZMANN, CHAIM 

welensky, sir roy (Roland) 

WERTH, ALEXANDER 

WIGODER, BASIL THOMAS, BARON 

WILSON, SIR CHARLES WILLIAM 

WILSON, HAROLD 

WINGATE, ORDE 

WOLFENSOHN, JAMES D. 

WOLFF, GUSTAV 

WOLFSON, SIR ISAAC 

WOOLF, SIR HARRY, BARON 

WORMS, DE 

WYNN, SAMUEL 

XIMENES, SIR DAVID 

XIMENES, SIR MORRIS 

YARROW, SIR ALFRED 

YOUNG, DAVID IVOR, BARON YOUNG OF 

GRAFFHAM 
YOUNG, STUART 



Religion 

ABELSON, JOSHUA 

ABENDANA, JACOB BEN JOSEPH 

ABRAHAMS 

ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL 

ABRAMSKY, YEHEZKEL 

ADLER, HERMANN 

ADLER, MICHAEL 

ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS 

APPLE, RAYMOND 

ARTOM 

BOTEACH, SHMUEL 

BRASCH, RUDOLPH 

BRODIE, SIR ISRAEL 

CASPER, BERNARD MOSES 

COHEN, FRANCIS LYON 

DANGLOW, JACOB 

DAVIS, ALEXANDER BARNARD 

ELIJAH MENAHEM BEN MOSES 

EPSTEIN, ISIDORE 

FERBER, ZEVI HIRSCH 

GAON, SOLOMON 

GOLLANCZ, SIR HERMANN 

GRONER, DOVID YITZCHOK 

GRUNFELD, ISIDOR 

GRYN, HUGO 

HARRIS, CYRIL KITCHENER 

HERTZ, JOSEPH HERMAN 

HERZOG, ISAAC 

HIRSCHEL, SOLOMON 

HYAMSON, MOSES 

JACOB BEN JUDAH OF LONDON 

JACOBS, LOUIS 

JAKOBOVITS, IMMANUEL 

JOSEPH, MORRIS 

KAHANA, KOPPEL 

LEVI, JOHN SIMON 

MARGOLIOUTH, MOSES 

MATTUCK, ISRAEL ISIDOR 

MAYBAUM, IGNAZ 

MELDOLA, RAPHAEL 

MONTEFIORE, CLAUDE JOSEPH GOLDSMID 

MOSES BEN YOM-TOV 

NATHAN, ABRAHAM 

NIETO, DAVID 

NIETO, ISAAC 

ORNSTEIN, ABRAHAM FREDERICK 

PERLZWEIG, MAURICE L. 

PORUSH, ISRAEL 

RABINOWITZ, JOEL 

RABINOWITZ, LOUIS ISAAC 

ROBERT OF READING 

ROMAIN, JONATHAN A. 

ROSENBAUM, MORRIS 

SACKS, JONATHAN HENRY 

SCHIFF, DAVID TEVELE 

SCHONFELD, VICTOR 

SILVA, JOSHUA DA 

SINGER, SIMEON 

SOLA, DE 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

1) England & British Commonwealth 
Biographies (continued) 

Science 

ANDRADE, EDWARD NEVILLE DA COSTA 

AYRTON, HERTHA 

BACHARACH, ALFRED LOUIS 

BARNETT, SIR LOUIS EDWARD 

BERNAL, JOHN DESMOND 

BLOK, ARTHUR 

BODMER, SIR WALTER 

BONDI, SIR HERMANN 

BRAUDE, ERNEST ALEXANDER 

BRENNER, SYDNEY 

BRODETSKY, SELIG 

CARVALLO, JULES 

CHAIN, SIR ERNST BORIS 

COHEN, HENRY BARON 

COHEN, JULIUS BEREND 

COHEN, SIR PHILIP 

COPISAROW, MAURICE 

COSTA, EMANUEL MENDES DA 

FINLAY-FREUNDLICH, ERWIN 

FINNISTON, SIR HAROLD MONTAGUE (Monty) 

FOX, SIR JOHN JACOB 

FRANKLIN, ROSALIND ELSIE 

FREUD, ANNA 

FRIEDLANDER, KATE 

FRISCH, OTTO ROBERT 

FROHLICH, HERBERT 

GABOR, DENNIS 

GAUNSE, JOACHIM 

GOLDSTEIN, RICHARD FRANK 

GOLDSTEIN, SIDNEY 

GUTTMANN, SIR LUDWIG 

HART, ERNEST ABRAHAM 

HEILBRON, SIR IAN MORRIS 

JOSEPHSON, BRIAN DAVID 

KALNITSKY, GEORGE 

KATZ, SIR BERNARD 

KLEIN, MELANIE REIZES 

KLUG, AARON 

KORNBERG, HANS LEO 

KREBS, SIR HANS ADOLF 

KROTO, SIR HAROLD W. 

LACHMANN, SIR PETER JULIUS 

LEVINSTEIN, HERBERT 

LEVY, HYMAN 

LEWIS, SIR AUBREY JULIAN 

LEWKOWITSCH, JULIUS 

LOCKSPEISER, BEN, SIR 

LOEWE, FRITZ PHILIPP 

MARGULES, MAX 

MELDOLA, RAPHAEL 

MENDELSSOHN, KURT ALFRED GEORG 

MILLER, EMANUEL 



MORDELL, LOUIS JOEL 

NEUBERGER, ALBERT 

NOSSAL, SIR GUSTAV 

ORENSTEIN, ALEXANDER JEREMIAH 

PEIERLS, SIR RUDOLF ERNST 

PENN, JACK 

PEPPER, JOSEPH 

PERUTZ, MAX FERDINAND 

POLANYI, MICHAEL 

QUASTEL, JUDAH HIRSCH 

RAPHAEL, RALPH ALEXANDER 

ROSENHEAD, LOUIS 

Rosenheim, max (Leonard), baron 

ROSENHEIM, OTTO 

ROTBLAT, SIR JOSEPH 

ROTH, KLAUS FRIEDRICH 

ROTH, SIR MARTIN 

ROTHSCHILD, NATHANIEL MAYER VICTOR, 

LORD 
SALAMAN, REDCLIFFE NATHAN 
SCHRIRE, VELVA 
SCHUSTER, SIR ARTHUR 
SEMON, SIR FELIX 
SIMON, SIR FRANCIS EUGENE 
SINGER, CHARLES JOSEPH 
STENGEL, ERWIN 
SYLVESTER, JAMES JOSEPH 
TABOR, DAVID 
TABOR, HARRY ZVI 
TOBIAS, PHILLIP VALLENTINE 
TOLANSKY, SAMUEL 
VANE, SIR JOHN R. 
VOGEL, ARTHUR ISRAEL 
WEISS, JOSEPH JOSHUA 
WINSTON, ROBERT, BARON 
WOLFF, CHARLOTTE 
YOUNG, ALEC DAVID 
YUDKIN, JOHN 
ZUCKERMAN, SOLLY, LORD 

2) France, Luxembourg & Belgium 
Main Surveys 

BELGIUM 



FRANCE 



FRENCH LITERATURE 



GENERAL ENTRIES 

ALLIANCE ISRAELITE UNIVERSELLE 

ASSIMILATION 

FINALY CASE 

FRENCH REVOLUTION 

JEWISH STUDIES 

PASTOUREAUX 

SAINT-SIMONISM 

SANHEDRIN, FRENCH 



COMMUNITIES 



AGDE 



AGEN 



AIX-EN-PROVENCE 



78 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



ALBI 

ALES 

ALSACE 

AMMERSCHWIHR 

ANGERS 

ANGOULEME 

ANJOU 

ANTWERP 

APT 

ARLES 

AUVERGNE 

AUXERRE 

AVIGNON 

BAIGNEUX-LES-IUIFS 

BAR-LE-DUC 

BAYONNE 

BEAUCAIRE 

BEDARRIDES 

BELFORT 

BENFELD 

BERGHEIM 

BESANCON 

BEZIERS 

BIARRITZ 

BIDACHE 

BISCHHEIM 

BLOIS 

BORDEAUX 

BOULAY 

BOURG-EN-BRESSE 

BOURGES 

BRAY-SUR-SEINE 

BRESSE 

BRITTANY 

BRUSSELS 

BURGUNDY 

CADENET 

CAEN 

CAPESTANG 

CARCASSONNE 

CARPENTRAS 

CASTELSARRASIN 

CAVAILLON 

CHALONS-SUR-MARNE 

CHALON-SUR-SAONE 

CHAMBERY 

CHAMPAGNE 

CHARLEVILLE 

CHARTRES 

CHATEAU-LANDON 

CHATEAU-THIERRY 

CHINON 

CLERMONT-FERRAND 

CLUNY 

COLMAR 

COMTAT VENAISSIN 

CORBEIL 

CREMIEU 

DAMPIERRE-DE-LAUBE 

DAUPHINE 



DIGNE 

DIION 

DRAGUIGNAN 

DREUX 

ENSISHEIM 

EPERNAY 

ETAMPES 

ETTENDORF 

EVREUX 

FALAISE 

FOIX 

FONTAINEBLEAU 

FORCALQUIERS 

FRANCHE-COMTE 

GASCONY 

GEVAUDAN 

GHENT 

GRENOBLE 

GUEBWILLER 

HAGUENAU 

HAVRE, LE 

HEGENHEIM 

HYERES 

INGWILLER 

ISLE-SUR-LA-SORGUE, L 

IOIGNY 

JUNGHOLZ 

LANGUEDOC 

LIEGE 

LILLE 

LIMOGES 

LIMOUX 

LODEVE 

LONS-LE-SAUNIER 

LORRAINE 

LUNEL 

LUNEVILLE 

LUXEMBOURG 

LYONS 

MACON 

MANOSQUE 

MANS, LE 

MARSEILLES 

MELUN 

METZ 

MONTELIMAR 

MONTEREAU 

MONTPELLIER 

MORHANGE 

MULHOUSE 

NANCY 

NANTES 

NARBONNE 

NEVERS 

NICE 

NIMES 

NYONS 

OBERNAI 

ORANGE 

ORLEANS 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

2) France, Luxembourg & Belgium 
Communities {continued) 

PAMIERS 

PARIS 

PERPIGNAN 

PEYREHORADE 

PHALSBOURG 

POITIERS 

POITOU 

PONTOISE 

POSQUIERES 

PROVENCE 

PROVINS 

PUY (-EN -VELAY), LE 

RAMERUPT 

RHEIMS 

RIBEAUVILLE 

ROCHELLE, LA 

rosenwiller (Rosenweiler) 

ROSHEIM 

ROUEN 

ROUFFACH 

ROUSSILLON 

SAINT-DENIS 

SAINTES 

SAINT-GILES 

SAINT-JEAN-DE-LUZ 

SAINT-PAUL-TROIS CHATEAUX 

SAINT-REMY-DE-PROVENCE 

SAINT-SYMPHORIEN-DOZON 

SARREGUEMINES 

SAVERNE 

SAVOY 

SELESTAT 

SENLIS 

SENS 

SERRES 

SISTERON 

SOISSONS 

SOULTZ (Sulz) 

STRASBOURG 

TARASCON 

THIONVILLE 

TOUL 

TOULON 

TOULOUSE 

TOURAINE 



VESOUL 



VIENNE 



TOURS 



TRETS 



TREVOUX 



TROYES 
VALENCE 



VALREAS 



VERDUN 



VERDUN-SUR-GARONNE 



VILLEFRANCHE-DE-CONFLENT 

vitry (-en-Perthois) 

Organizations 

action francaise 

assembly of jewish notables 

centre de documentation juive 

contemporaine 
comite des delegations juives 
consistory 
les colloques des intellectuels juifs de 

langue francaise 
musee d art et de histoire du judaisme 
seminaire israelite de france 
societe des etudes juives 
union generale des israelites de france 

(U.G.I.F.) 

PUBLICATIONS 

CROIX, LA 

revue des etudes juives 
univers israelite 

Biographies 

Academic Life 

ABEL, LOUIS FELIX 

ABELARD, PETER 

ADLER, ALEXANDRE 

AFTALION, ALBERT 

ALKAN, ALPHONSE 

AMADO LEVY-VALENSI, ELIANE 

ANCHEL, ROBERT 

ARON, RAYMOND 

ARON, ROBERT 

ATTALI, JACQUES 

BADINTER, ELIZABETH 

BASCH, VICTOR GUILLAUME 

BEGIN, EMILE-AUGUSTE 

BENDA, JULIEN 

BENRUBI, ISAAC 

BENSOUSSAN, GEORGES 

BENVENISTE, EMILE 

BERGSON, HENRI LOUIS 

BLOCH, CAMILLE 

BLOCH, GUSTAVE 

BLOCH, JULES 

BLOCH, MARC 

BLUMENKRANZ, BERNHARD 

BODIN, JEAN 

BONALD, LOUIS GABRIEL AMBROISE, 

VICOMTE DE 
BONFRERE, JAQUES 
BREAL, MICHEL 
BRUNSCHVICG, LEON 
BRUNSCHVIG, ROBERT 
CAHEN, ISIDORE 
CAQUOT, ANDRE 
CHALIER, CATHERINE 



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CLERMONT-GANNEAU, CHARLES 

COHEN, GUSTAVE 

COHEN, MARCEL 

COHEN, ROBERT 

COHN, ALBERT 

DANIEL-ROPS, HENRI 

DARMESTETER, ARSENE 

DEPPING, GEORGES-BERNARD 

DERENBURG 

DERRIDA, JACQUES 

DIDEROT, DENIS 

DIDI-HUBERMAN, GEORGES 

DRAI, RAPHAEL 

DUPONT-SOMMER, ANDRE 

DURKHEIM, EMILE 

EISENMANN, LOUIS 

ERLANGER, PHILIPPE 

FINKIELKRAUT, ALAIN 

FOURIER, FRANCOIS MARIE CHARLES 

FRANCK, ADOLPHE 

FREY, JEAN BAPTISTE 

FRIEDMANN, GEORGES 

gaffarel (Gaffarellus), jacques 

GENEBRARD, GILBERT 

GHIRSHMAN, ROMAN 

GINSBURGER, ERNEST 

GLOTZ, GUSTAVE 

GOLDMANN, LUCIEN 

GOTTSCHALK, MAX 

GREGORY OF TOURS 

GUERIN, VICTOR 

GURVITCH, GEORGES 

HALBWACHS, MAURICE 

HALEVY, ELIE 

HALEVY, JOSEPH 

HALEVY, MEYER ABRAHAM 

HALPHEN 

HALPHEN, LOUIS 

HAUSER, HENRI 

HOLBACH, PAUL HENRI DIETRICH, BARON d' 

HOURWITZ, ZALKIND 

ISAAC, JULES MARX 

JANKELEVITCH, VLADIMIR 

KAHN, LEON 

KASPI, ANDRE 

KOJEVE, ALEXANDRE 

KRIEGEL, ANNIE 

LA BOETIE, ETIENNE DE 

LA PEYRERE, ISAAC 

LAMBERT, MAYER 

LE FEVRE DE LA BODERIE, GUY 

LEON, XAVIER 

LEVI, SYLVAIN 

LEVI ALVARES, DAVID 

LEVI BEN ABRAHAM BEN HAYYIM 

LEVINAS, EMMANUEL 

LEVI-PROVENCAL, EVARISTE 

LEVI-STRAUSS, CLAUDE 

LEVY, ARTHUR 

LEVY, BENNY 



LEVY-BRUHL, LUCIEN 

LEVY, ISIDORE 

LEVY, PAUL 

LODS, ADOLPHE 

LOISY, ALFRED FIRMIN 

MAES, ANDREAS 

MAUSS, MARCEL 

MERCIER, JEAN 

MONTESQUIEU, CHARLES LOUIS DE 

SECONDAT, BARON DE LA BREDE ET DE 
MOPSIK, CHARLES 
MORIN, EDGAR 
MUNK, SOLOMON 
NATHAN, MORDECAI 
NEHER, ANDRE 
OPPERT, JULES JULIUS 
OUAKNIN, MARC-ALAIN 
PALLIERE, AIME 
PARAF, PIERRE 
PARROT, ANDRE 
PASCAL, BLAISE 

pereire, emile (Jacob) and ISAAC 

PERELMAN, CHAIM 

PERROT, JEAN 

PLANTAVIT DE LA PAUSE, JEAN 

POLIAKOV, LEON 

POSENER, GEORGES HENRI 

POSTEL, GUILLAUME 

RABBINOWICZ, ISRAEL MICHEL 

RAOUL GLABER 

RAUH, FREDERIC 

REINACH 

RENAN, ERNEST 

REVAH, ISRAEL SALVATOR 

ROUSSEAU, JEAN JACQUES 

RUEFF, JACQUES 

SACY, ANTOINE ISAAC SILVESTRE DE 

SALVADOR, JOSEPH 

SAULCY, LOUIS FELICIEN DE JOSEPH 

CAIGNART 
SCALIGER, JOSEPH JUSTUS 
SCHEID, ELIE 
SCHUHL, PIERRE-MAXIME 
SCHWAB, MOISE 

SCHWARTZENBERG, ROGER-GERARD 
SCHWOB, MARCEL 
SEPHIHA, HAIM VIDAL 
SLOUSCHZ, NAHUM 
SPERBER, DAN 
STEIN, HENRI 

STRAUSS-KAHN, DOMINIQUE 
TRIGANO, SHMOUEL 
URI, PIERRE EMMANUEL 
VAJDA, GEORGES 
VAUX, ROLAND DE 

veil, lewis (Daniel) compiegne de 

VIDAL-NAQUET, PIERRE 
VINCENT, LOUIS HUGUES 
VOGUE, CHARLES EUGENE MELCHOIR, 
COMTE DE 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

2) France, Luxembourg & Belgium 
Biographies 

Academic Life (continued) 

VOLTAIRE 
WAHL, JEAN 
WEIL, SIMONE 
WEILL, RAYMOND 
WIEVIORKA, ANNETTE 
WILLIAM OF AUVERGNE 
WORMS, RENE 
ZAFRANI, HAIM 

Art 

ADLER, JULES 

ALDROPHE, ALFRED-PHILIBERT 

ALECHINSKY, PIERRE 

ASTRUC, ZACHARIE 

ATLAN, JEAN 

BACHI, RAPHAEL 

BERNSTEIN-SINAIEFF, LEOPOLD 

BLOC, ANDRE 

BRENNER, FREDERIC 

CALLE, SOPHIE 

CARO-DELVAILLE, HENRI 

DELAUNAY-TERK, SONIA 

FRIEDLAENDER, JOHNNY 

GRUMBACH, ANTOINE 

IZIS 

KAGAN, ELIE 

KIKOINE, MICHEL 

KISLING, MOISE 

KOLNIK, ARTHUR 

LE BE, GUILLAUME 

LEVY-DHURMER, LUCIEN 

LOEVENSTEIN, FEDOR 

MANE-KATZ 

marcoussis (Marcous), louis 

MEYER-LEVY, CLAUDE 
MILICH, ADOLPHE 
MONDZAIN, SIMON 

muter (Mutermilch), mela 

ORLOFF, CHANA 

pailes, isaac (Jacques) 

PERSITZ, ALEXANDRE 
PICART, BERNARD 
PISSARRO, CAMILLE 
PONTREMOLI, EMMANUEL 
PRESSMANE, JOSEPH 
RAY, MAN 
SIMON, JEAN HENRI 

soldi (-Colbert), emile-arthur 

SOUTINE, CHAIM 

TIM 

WIENER 

WILDENSTEIN 



ZAK, EUGENE 

Literature 

ABECASSIS, ELIETTE 

AREGA, LEON 

ARGENS, JEAN BAPTISTE DE BOYER 

BENICHOU, PAUL 

BERL, EMMANUEL 

BERNARD, TRISTAN 

BERNSTEIN, HENRI-LEON 

BERRI, CLAUDE 

BLANCHOT, MAURICE 

BLOCH, JEAN-RICHARD 

BLOCH-MICHEL, JEAN 

BLOY, LEON 

BOBER, ROBERT 

CHATEAUBRIAND, FRANCOIS RENE, 

VICOMTE DE 
CIXOUS, HELENE 
CLAUDEL, PAUL 
COHEN, ALBERT 
CREMIEUX, BENJAMIN 
CROISSET, FRANCIS DE 
DUVERNOIS, HENRI 
EYDOUX, EMMANUEL 

fleg, edmond (Flegenheimer) 

FOA, ESTHER EUGENIE REBECCA 

FRANCK, HENRI 

GARY, ROMAIN 

GOLL, YVAN 

GRUMBERG, JEAN-CLAUDE 

HALEVY 

HALEVY, ELIE HALFON 

HARRY, MYRIAM 

HERTZ, HENRI 

IKOR, ROGER 

JABES, EDMOND 

JACOB, MAX 

KAHN, GUSTAVE 

KESSEL, JOSEPH 

LACRETELLE, JACQUES DE 

LAHARANNE, ERNEST 

LANGFUS, ANNA 

LAZARE, BERNARD 

LEVY, BERNARD-HENRI 

LUNEL, ARMAND 

LUNEL, JACOB DE 

MANDEL, ARNOLD 

MAUROIS, ANDRE 

MEMMI, ALBERT 

MENDES, CATULLE 

MIKHAEL, EPHRAIM 

MILBAUER, JOSEPH 

MILOSZ, OSCAR 

MODIANO, PATRICK 

MONTAIGNE, MICHEL DE 

MORHANGE, PIERRE 

NEMIROWSKY, IRENE 

NEYRAC, PIERRE 

PEGUY, CHARLES-PIERRE 



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PEREC, GEORGES 

PORTO-RICHE, GEORGES DE 

PROUST, MARCEL 

RACINE, JEAN 

SACHS, MAURICE 

SARRAUTE, NATHALIE 

SCHEINERT, DAVID 

SCHULSINGER, JOSEPH 

SCHWARZ-BART, ANDRE 

SEE, EDMOND 

SPERBER, MANES 

SPIRE, ANDRE 

SUARES, ANDRE 

THARAUD, JEROME AND JEAN 

THEMANLYS, PASCAL 

VERCORS 

VIGEE, CLAUDE 

WEILL, ALEXANDRE ABRAHAM 

ZOLA, EMILE 

Music 

alkan (Morhange), charles henri-valentin 

BABILEE, JEAN 

BLOCH, ANDRE 

BLUM, RENE 

BREVAL, LUCIENNE 

CHAGRIN, FRANCIS 

COLONNE, JULES (Judah) EDOUARD 

DAVID, ERNEST 

DUKAS, PAUL 

ERLANGER, CAMILLE 

GEDALGE, ANDRE 

HALEVY, JACQUES (Francois) FROMENTAL 

ELIE 
JONAS, EMILE 
LEVY 

LEVY, LAZARE 
MACHABEY, ARMAND 
MILHAUD, DARIUS 
OFFENBACH, JACQUES 
ROLAND-MANUEL 

Rosenthal, manuel (Emmanuel) 

TUGAL, PIERRE 
WALDTEUFEL, EMIL 
WIENER, JEAN 
WOLFF, ALBERT LOUIS 

wormser, andre (Alphonse-Toussaint) 
Popular Culture 

AIMEE, ANOUK 

BACRI, JEAN-PIERRE 

BARBARA 

BAUR, HARRY 

BERNHARDT, SARAH 

BERNSTEIN, OSIP SAMOILOVICH 

BLOWITZ, HENRI GEORGES STEPHANE 

ADOLPHE OPPER DE 
BOBER, ROBERT 
DARMON, PIERRE 
ELKABBACH, JEAN-PIERRE 



EPSTEIN, JEAN 

HELD, ANNA 

HIRSCH, ROBERT PAUL 

JANOWSKI, DAVID MARKELOVICH 

KORENE, VERA 

LANZMANN, CLAUDE 

LELOUCH, CLAUDE 

LINDER, MAX 

MACIAS, ENRICO 

MARCEAU, MARCEL 

MNOUCHKINE, ALEXANDRE 

MOATI, SERGE 

OURY, GERARD 

RACHEL 

SIGNORET, SIMONE 

TARTAKOVER, SAVIELLY GRIGORYEVICH 

Public & Economic Life 

ABBA MARI BEN ISAAC OF ST. GILLES 

AGOBARD 

ALCAN, ALKAN 

ALPHONSE OF POITIERS 

ALTARAS, JACQUES ISAAC 

ANSPACH, PHILIPPE 

ANTOINE, NICOLAS 

ASHKENAZI, LEON 

ATTALI, BERNARD 

BADINTER, ROBERT 

BAIL, CHARLES-JOSEPH 

BAMBERGER, EDOUARD-ADRIEN 

BARRES, AUGUSTE MAURICE 

BEDARRIDE, ISRAEL (Isaiah) 

BEER-BING, ISAIAH 

BERNHEIM, LOUIS 

BERR, JACOB 

berr (de Turique), michel 

BERR ISAAC BERR DE TURIQUE 

BEUGNOT, AUGUSTE ARTHUR 

BIGART, JACQUES 

BISCHOFFSHEIM 

BLEUSTEIN-BLANCHET, MARCEL 

BLOCH, PIERRE 

BLUM, LEON 

BLUMEL, ANDRE 

BOKANOWSKI, MAURICE 

BOURGEOIS, JEAN 

BROGLIE, VICTOR-CLAUDE, PRINCE DE 

CALMER, MOSES ELIEZER LIEFMANN 

CASSIN, RENE SAMUEL 

CERFBERR, HERZ 

CERFBERR, MAXIMILIEN-CHARLES 

ALPHONSE 
CHARLEMAGNE 
CHARLES IV 
CHARLES V 
CHARLES VI 
CHILDEBERT I 
CITROEN, ANDRE GUSTAVE 
CLERMONT-TONNERRE, COUNT STANISLAS 

DE 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

2) France, Luxembourg & Belgium 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life {continued) 

CLOOTS, JEAN BAPTISTE DU VAL-DE-GR ACE, 

BARON DE 
CLOTHAIRE II 
COHEN, ISAAC KADMI 
COHEN, JOSEPH 
COLBERT, JEAN BAPTISTE 
COPE, JEAN-FRANCOIS 
CREHANGE, ALEXANDRE 
CREMIEUX, ISAAC ADOLPHE 
CUKIERMAN, ROGER 
DANIEL, JEAN 
DARMON, AMRAM 
DARQUIER DE PELLEPOIX, LOUIS 
DASSAULT, DARIUS PAUL 
DASSAULT, MARCEL 
DAUDET, LEON 
DAVIN DE CADEROUSSE 
DEUTSCH DE LA MEURTHE, HENRI 
DEUTZ, SIMON 

DRACH, PAUL-LOUIS-BERNARD (David) 
DRAY, JULIEN 
DREYFUS, ALFRED 
DRUMONT, EDOUARD-ADOLPHE 
DU BARTAS, GUILLAUME DE SALLUSTE 
EICHTHAL, GUSTAVE d' 
ELKANN, JEAN-PAUL 
ENNERY, JONAS d' 
ERLANGER, MICHEL 
ERRERA, PAUL JOSEPH 
FABIUS, LAURENT 
FISCHER, JEAN 
FITERMAN, CHARLES 
FOULD 

FURTADO, ABRAHAM 
GAMZON, ROBERT 
GINIEWSKI, PAUL 
GIROUD, FRANCOISE 

GOBINEAU, JOSEPH ARTHUR, COMTE DE 
GOUDCHAUX, MICHEL 
GOUGENOT DES MOUSSEAUX, HENRI 
GRADIS 

grandval (Hirsch-Ollendorf), gilbert 

YVES EDMOND 
GREGOIRE, HENRI BAPTISTE 
GRESH, ALAIN 
GRUMBACH, SALOMON 
GUNZBURG, NIKO 
GUTT, CAMILLE 
HAMON, LEO 
HYMANS, PAUL 
JAURES, JEAN LEON 
J AVAL 



john 11 ("The Good") 

JUSTER, JEAN 

KAHN, ALBERT 

KAHN, JEAN 

KAHN, LOUIS 

KARPEL, HERMAN 

KLEIN, THEODORE (Theo) 

KLOTZ, LOUIS-LUCIEN 

KOENIGSWARTER 

KOUCHNER, BERNARD 

KRASUCKI, HENRI 

KRIEGEL-VALRIMONT, MAURICE 

LAMBERT, AIME 

LAMBERT, RAYMOND RAOUL 

LANG, JACK 

LANGALLERIE, PHILIPPE GENTIL DE 

LAVAL, PIERRE 

LAZARD 

LAZAREFF, PIERRE 

LAZURICK, ROBERT 

LECACHE, BERNARD 

LEHMANN, LEONCE 

LEVAILLANT, ISAIE 

LEVEN, NARCISSE 

LEVY 

LEVY, ABRAHAM EUGENE 

LEVY, RAPHAEL 

LEVY, SAM SAADI 

LOUIS 

LUSTIGER, JEAN-MARIE ARON 

LYON-CAEN, CHARLES LEON 

MACHAUT, DENIS DE 

MALESHERBES, CHRETIEN GUILLAUME DE 

LA-MOIGNON DE 
MANDEL, GEORGES 
MANESSIER DE VESOUL 
MARITAIN, JACQUES 
MAURRAS, CHARLES 
MAYER, DANIEL 
MAYER, RENE 
MENDES-FRANCE, PIERRE 
MEYER,LEON 
MIRABEAU, HONORE GABRIEL RIQUETI, 

COMTE DE 
MIRES, JULES ISAAC 
MOCH, JULES 
MOCH, JULES SALVADOR 
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 
NAQUET, ALFRED JOSEPH 
NATHAN, VENGUESSONE 
NETTER, CHARLES 
NEVEJEAN, YVONNE 

Nostradamus (Michel de Nostre-Dame) 

OSIRIS, DANIEL ILLFA 

OULIF, CHARLES NARCISSE 

PEREIRE, JACOB RODRIGUES 

PHILIP 

PICARD, EDMOND 

PLANTIN, CHRISTOPHE 

PRISCUS 



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PROUDHON, PIERRE JOSEPH 

PULCELINA OF BLOIS 

RAPPOPORT, CHARLES 

RAYNAL, DAVID 

REINACH 

ROEDERER, COUNT PIERRE LOUIS 

ROTHSCHILD 

ROTHSCHILD, BARON EDMOND JAMES DE 

ROTTEMBOURG, HENRI 

rouleau, eric (Elie Rafoul) 

SCHILLER, ARMAND 

SCHRAMECK, ABRAHAM 

SCHUMANN, MAURICE 

SEE 

SEE, LEOPOLD 

STERN, JACQUES 

TORRES, HENRY 

TOUSSENEL, ALPHONSE 

VALABREGUE, MARDOCHEE GEORGES 

VALLAT, XAVIER 

VEIL, SIMONE 

VENEZIANI, EMMANUEL FELIX 

VIBERT OF NOGENT 

VIGENERE, BLAISE DE 

WAHL, JACQUES HENRI 

WIENER, ERNEST EDOUARD 

WORMSER, OLIVIER BORIS 

ZAY, JEAN 

Religion 

ABBA MARI BEN ELIGDOR 

BEBE, PAULINE 

BODO 

ELIEZER OF TOUL 

FARHI, DANIEL 

FARHI, GABRIEL 

HAYYIM BEN HANANEL HA-KOHEN 

HIRSCHLER, RENE 

ISIDOR, LAZARE 

JACOB BEN MOSES OF BAGNOLS 

JACOB OF MARVEGE 

JACOB OF ORLEANS 

JACOB OF PONT-SAINTE-MAXENCE 

JONATHAN BEN DAVID HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL 

JOSEPH BEN ASHER OF CHARTRES 

JOSEPH BEN BARUCH OF CLISSON 

JOSEPH BEN MOSES OF TROYES 

JOSEPH HAZZAN BEN JUDAH OF TROYES 

judah ben isaac (Sir Leon of Paris) 

JUDAH BEN MOSES HA-DARSHAN 
JUDAH BEN NATHAN 
KAHN, ZADOC 
KAPLAN, JACOB 
KARA, JOSEPH 

karmi (Cremieux) 

KIMHI, DAVID 

KIMHI, JOSEPH 

KLEIN, SALOMON WOLF 

KOKHAVI, DAVID BEN SAMUEL 

KRYGIER, RIVON 



LATTES, ISAAC BEN JACOB 

LATTES, JUDAH 

LEHMANN, JOSEPH 

LEVI BEN GERSHOM (Ralbag) 

LEVI, ISRAEL 

LEVY, ALFRED 

LEVY, ISAAC 

LEVY, SAMUEL 

LIBER, MAURICE 

LOEB, ISIDORE 

LUBETZKY, JUDAH 

MANOAH OF NARBONNE 

MEIR BEN ISAAC OF TRINQUETAILLE 

MEIR BEN SAMUEL OF RAMERUPT 

MEIR BEN SIMEON HA-ME'lLI 

MEIRI, MENAHEM BEN SOLOMON 

MENAHEM BEN HELBO 

MESHULLAM BEN JACOB OF LUNEL 

MESHULLAM BEN MOSES 

MESHULLAM BEN NATHAN OF MELUN 

MOSES BEN ABRAHAM OF PONTOISE 

MOSES BEN JACOB OF COUCY 

MOSES BEN JOSHUA OF NARBONNE 

MOSES OF EVREUX 

NETHANEL OF CHINON 

NISSIM BEN MOSES OF MARSEILLES 

OVADIA, NISSIM 

PEREZ BEN ELIJAH OF CORBEIL 

PROVENCAL, JACOB BEN DAVID 

rashi (Solomon ben Isaac) 

REUBEN BEN HAYYIM 
SAMSON BEN ABRAHAM OF SENS 
SAMSON BEN ISAAC OF CHINON 
SAMSON BEN JOSEPH OF FALAISE 
SAMSON BEN SAMSON OF COUCY 
SAMUEL BEN DAVID 

samuel ben meir (Rashbam) 

SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON OF FALAISE 

SAMUEL OF EVREUX 

SCHLETTSTADT, SAMUEL BEN AARON 

SHEMAIAH OF TROYES 

SIMEON BEN SAMUEL OF JOINVILLE 

SINZHEIM, JOSEPH DAVID BEN ISAAC 

SIRAT, RENE SAMUEL 

SITRUK, JOSEPH 

SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM OF 

MONTPELLIER 
SOLOMON BEN JUDAH "OF DREUX" 
SOLOMON BEN JUDAH OF LUNEL 
SOLOMON BEN MEIR 
TAM, JACOB BEN MEIR 

tibbon, ibn (Tibbonids) 

TOUATI, CHARLES 

TREVES, JOHANAN BEN MATTATHIAS 

ULLMANN, SALOMON 

VAEZ, ABRAHAM 

WARSCHAWSKI, MAX 

WEILL, MICHEL AARON 

WORMS, AARON 

YOM TOV OF JOIGNY 



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85 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

2) France, Luxembourg & Belgium 
Biographies (continued) 

Science 

ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON OF SAINT MAXIMIN 

ATLAN, HENRI 

BARUK, HENRI 

BERNHEIM, HIPPOLYTE 

BESREDKA, ALEXANDER 

BONFILS, IMMANUEL BEN JACOB 

CHARPAK, GEORGES 

COHEN TANNOUDJI, CLAUDE 

EPHRUSSI, BORIS 

ERRERA, LEO 

GERHARDT, CHARLES FREDERIC 

GOLDSCHMIDT, HERMANN 

HADAMARD, JACQUES SALOMON 

HAVA OF MANOSQUE 

ISAAC BEN TODROS 

JACOB, FRANCOIS 

LEVY, LUCIEN 

LIPPMANN, GABRIEL 

LIPSKI, ABRAHAM 

LWOFF, ANDRE MICHEL 

MEYERSON, EMILE 

MICHEL-LEVY, AUGUSTE 

MINKOWSKI, EUGENE 

MOISSAN, HENRI 

SCHWARTZ, LAURENT 

SIMON, PIERRE 

STEG, ADOLPHE 

STERN, ERICH 

WEIL, R. ADRIENNE 

WIDAL, FERNAND 

3) Germany & Austria 
Main Surveys 

AUSTRIA 

GERMAN LITERATURE 

GERMANY 



GENERAL ENTRIES 

AGRARIAN LEAGUE 

ARMLEDER 

HASIDEI ASHKENAZ 

JUDENPFENNIGE 

IUDEX JUDAEORUM 

LEIBZOLL 

MAGDEBURG LAW 

OPFERPFENNIG 

SCHUTZJUDEN 

TOLERANZPATENT 

WIENER GESERA 



COMMUNITIES 



AACHEN 



AHLEM 

AHRWEILER 

ALTENSTADT 

ALTONA 

ALZEY 

AMBERG 

ANDERNACH 

ANHALT 

ANSBACH 

ARNSTADT 

ASCHAFFENBURG 

ASHKENAZ 

AUGSBURG 

AURICH 

BACHARACH 

BADEN 

BADEN BEI WIEN 

BAIERSDORF 

BAMBERG 

BAVARIA 

BAYREUTH 

BERG 

BERLIN 

BIELEFELD 

BINGEN 

BOCHUM 

BONN 

BOPPARD 

BRANDENBURG 

BREISACH 

BREMEN 

BRUCHSAL 

BRUNSWICK 

BURGENLAND 

CARINTHIA 

CHEMNITZ 

CLEVES 

COBURG 

COCHEM 

COLOGNE 

CONSTANCE 

COTTBUS 

DARMSTADT 

DEGGENDORF 

DEUTSCHKREUTZ 

DEUTZ 

DORTMUND 

DRESDEN 

DUEREN 

DUESSELDORF 

DUISBURG 

DYHERNFURTH 

EINBECK 

EISENSTADT 

EMDEN 

ENDINGEN 

ERFURT 

ESSEN 

ESSLINGEN 

ETTLINGEN 



86 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



FLOSS 

FRANKFURT ON THE MAIN 

FRANKFURT ON THE ODER 

FREIBURG IM BREISGAU 

FRIEDBERG 

FUERTH 

FULDA 

GELNHAUSEN 

GELSENKIRCHEN 

GEMEN 

GIESSEN 

GLUECKSTADT 

GOERLITZ 

GOETTINGEN 

GOSLAR 

GOTHA 

GRAZ 

HAGEN 

HAGENBACH 

HALBERSTADT 

HALLE 

HAMBURG 

HAMELN 

HANAU 

HANOVER 

HEIDELBERG 

HEIDINGSFELD 

HEILBRONN 

HESSE 

HILDESHEIM 

HOHENAU 

HOHENEMS 

HOHENZOLLERN 

HOMBURG 

INGOLSTADT 

INNSBRUCK 

JEBENHAUSEN 

JUDAESAPTAN 

JUDENBURG 

JUELICH 

KAISERSLAUTERN 

KARLSRUHE 

KASSEL 

KEMPEN 

KIEL 

KISSINGEN 

KITZINGEN 

KLAGENFURT 

KLOSTERNEUBURG 

KOBLENZ 

KOENIGSBERG 

KORNEUBURG 

KREFELD 

KREMS 

KREUZNACH 

LANDAU 

LANDSHUT 

LAUINGEN 

LEIPZIG 

LINDAU 



LINZ 

lippe (-Detmold) 

LUEBECK 

LUENEBURG 

MAGDEBURG 

MAINZ 

MANNHEIM 

MARBURG 

mattersdorf (Mattersburg) 

MECKLENBURG 

MEININGEN 

MEISSEN 

MEMMINGEN 

MERGENTHEIM 

MERSEBURG 

MINDEN 

MOSBACH 

MUEHLHAUSEN 

MUENSTER 

MUNICH 

Nassau (-Usingen) 

NAUHEIM 

NIEDERSTETTEN 

NOERDLINGEN 

NORDHAUSEN 

NUREMBERG 

OETTINGEN 

OFFENBACH 

OFFENBURG 

OLDENBURG 

OPPENHEIM 

OSNABRUECK 

PADERBORN 

PALATINATE 

PASSAU 

PFORZHEIM 

POMERANIA 

PRUSSIA 

PULKAU 

RAVENSBURG 

RECKLINGHAUSEN 

REGENSBURG 

REUTLINGEN 

REXINGEN 

ROEDELHEIM 

ROTHENBURG OB DER TAUBER 

SAARBRUECKEN 

SALZBURG 

SAXONY 

SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN 

SCHNAITTACH 

SCHWEINFURT 

SEESEN 

SHUM 

SILESIA 

SOEST 

SPANDAU 

SPEYER 

STENDAL 

STRAUBING 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



87 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

3) Germany & Austria 

Communities (continued) 

STUTTGART 

STYRIA 

SULZBACH 

TALHEIM 

TAUBERBISCHOFSHEIM 

TESCHEN 

THURINGIA 

TRIER 

TUEBINGEN 

TYROL 

UEBERLINGEN 

ULM 

VIENNA 

VILLINGEN 

VORARLBERG 

WANDSBECK 

WARENDORF 

WEINHEIM 

WESTPHALIA 

WETZLAR 

WIENER NEUSTADT 

WIESBADEN 

WOLFENBUETTEL 

WOLFSBERG 

WORMS 

WUERTTEMBERG 

WUERZBURG 

WUPPERTAL 

XANTEN 

ZERBST 

ZWICKAU 



ORGANIZATIONS 

AKADEMIE FUER DIE WISSENSCHAFT DES 

JUDENTUMS 
ALLIANZ, ISRAELITISCHE, ZU WIEN 
BLAU-WEISS 
CENTRAL-VEREIN DEUTSCHER 

STAATSBUERGER JUEDISCHEN GLAUBENS 
CHRISTIAN SOCIAL PARTY 
CHRISTIAN-SOCIAL PARTY. GERMAN 
CONSERVATIVE PARTY, GERMAN 
DEUTSCHER PALAESTINA-VEREIN 
DEUTSCH-ISRAELITISCHER GEMEINDEBUND 
ESRA 

GESELLSCHAFT DER FREUNDE 
GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER 

WISSENSCHAFT DES JUDENTUMS 
HE-HALUTZ 
HEIMWEHR 

HILFSVEREIN DER DEUTSCHEN JUDEN 
HOCHSCHULE FUER DIE WISSENSCHAFT DES 

JUDENTUMS 



INSTITUTUM JUDAICUM DELITZSCHIANUM 
ISRAELITISCH-THEOLOGISCHE LEHRANSTALT 
JUEDISCHE FREISCHULE 
JUEDISCHER FRAUENBUND 
JUEDISCHER KULTURBUND 
JUEDISCHER VERLAG 

JUEDISCH-LITERARISCHE GESELLSCHAFT 
JUEDISCHE VOLKSPARTEI 
JUEDISCH-THEOLOGISCHES SEMINAR, 

BRESLAU 
KADIMAH 
KARTELL-CONVENT DER VERBINDUNGEN 

DEUTSCHER STUDENTEN JUEDISCHEN 

GLAUBENS 
KARTELL JUEDISCHER VERBINDUNGEN 
LANDJUDENSCHAFT 
NATIONALRAT 

OESTERREICHISCHE NATIONALBIBLIOTHEK 
PARLAMENTSKLUB, JUEDISCHER 
REICHSBUND JUEDISCHER FRONTSOLDATEN 
SCHUTZBUND, REPUBLIKANISCHER 
SONCINO GESELLSCHAFT DER FREUNDE DES 

JUEDISCHEN BUCHES 
STUDENTS' FRATERNITIES, GERMAN 
SWABIAN LEAGUE 

UNION, OESTERREICHISCH ISRAELITISCHE 
VERBAND DER DEUTSCHEN JUDEN 
VERBAND DER VEREINE FUER JUEDISCHE 

GESCHICHTE UND LITERATUR 
VERBAND NATIONAL-DEUTSCHER JUDEN 
VEREIN FUER KULTUR UND WISSENSCHAFT 

DES JUDENTUMS 
VEREIN ZUR ABWEHR DES ANTISEMITISMUS 
VEREINIGUNG FUER DAS LIBERALE JUDENTUM 

IN DEUTSCHLAND 
VOLKSPARTEI, JUEDISCHE 

ZENTRALRAT DER JUDEN IN DEUTSCHLAND 
ZENTRALSTELLE DER FUERSORGE FUER 

KRIEGSFLUECHTLINGE 
ZENTRAL-WOHLFAHRTSTELLE DER 

DEUTSCHEN JUDEN 

PUBLICATIONS 

ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG DES JUDENTHUMS 

ASEFAT HAKHAMIM 

C.V.-ZEITUNG 

HA-EMET 

HA-MAGGID 

HA-MEASSEF 

HA-SHAHAR 

HE-HALUTZ 

ISRAELIT, DER 

ISRAELITISCHES FAMILIENBLATT 

JESCHURUN 

JUDE, DER 

JUEDISCHE PRESSE 

JUEDISCHE RUNDSCHAU 

KEREM HEMED 

KOHELETH MUSSAR 

MENORAH 



88 



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MONATSSCHRIFT FUER GESCHICHTE UND 
WISSENSCHAFT DES JUDENTUMS 

NEUZEIT, DIE 

OESTERREICHISCHES CENTRAL-ORGAN FUER 
GLAUBENSFREIHEIT, CULTUR, GESCHICHTE 
UND LITERATUR DER JUDEN 

PHILO VERLAG 

SULAMITH 

ZUKUNFT 

Biographies 

Academic Life 

ABICHT, JOHANN GEORG 

ADLER, GEORG 

ADORNO, THEODOR W. 

ALBERTUS MAGNUS 

ALT, ALBRECHT 

ALTMANN, ALEXANDER 

ARENDT, HANNAH 

ARNHEIM, HEYMANN 

ARONIUS, JULIUS 

ASCHAFFENBURG, GUSTAV 

ASCHER, SAUL 

ASHER, DAVID 

AVE-LALLEMANT, FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN 

BENEDICT 
BAER, SELIGMAN ISAAC 
BAER, YITZHAK 

BAETHGEN, FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADOLPH 
BAUMGARDT, DAVID 
BAUMGARTEN, EMANUEL MENDEL 
BECHER, SIEGFRIED 
BECK, MICHAEL 
BEER, MAX 

beer, peter (Perez) 
bendavid, lazarus (Eleazar) 

BENFEY, THEODOR 

BENJACOB, ISAAC 

BEN ZE'EV, JUDAH LEIB 

BENZINGER, IMMANUEL 

BERGSTRAESSER, GOTTHELF 

BERLINER, ABRAHAM 

BERNFELD, SIEGFRIED 

BIALOBLOTZKY, CHRISTIAN HEINRICH 

FRIEDRICH 
BIRNBAUM, NATHAN 
BISCHOFF, ERICH 
BLEEK, FRIEDRICH 
BLOCH, ERNST 
BLOCH, JOSEPH 

BLOGG, SOLOMON BEN EPHRAIM 
BLUMENFELD, WALTER 

BODENSCHATZ, JOHANN CHRISTOPH GEORG 
BOESCHENSTEIN, JOHANN 
BOHL (Bohlius), SAMUEL 
BONDY, CURT 
BONN, MORITZ JULIUS 
BORCHARDT, LUDWIG 
BRANN, MARCUS 
BRAUNTHAL, JULIUS 



BREITHAUPT, JOHANN FRIEDRICH 

BRESSLAU, HARRY 

BRILL, ABRAHAM ARDEN 

BRILLING, BERNHARD 

BRUNNER, CONSTANTIN 

BRUNSWIG, ALFRED 

BUDDE, KARL FERDINAND REINHARD 

BUEDINGER, MAX 

BUHLER, CHARLOTTE 

CALLENBERG, JOHANN HEINRICH 

CAPITO, WOLFGANG FABRICIUS 

CARO, GEORG MARTIN 

CASSEL, DAVID 

CASSEL, PAULUS STEPHANUS (Selig) 

CASSIRER, ERNST 

COHEN, ARTHUR 

COHEN, HERMANN 

COHN, GUSTAV 

COHN, JONAS 

COHN, LEOPOLD 

CORNILL, CARL HEINRICH 

DALMAN, GUSTAF HERMANN 

DANZ, JOHANN ANDREAS 

DAVID, MARTIN 

DAVIDSOHN, ROBERT 

DELITZSCH, FRANZ (Julius) 

DELITZSCH, FRIEDRICH 

DESSAU, HERMANN 

DESSOIR, MAX 

DEUTSCH, EMANUEL OSKAR 

DILLMANN, AUGUST 

DUBISLAV, WALTER ERNST OTTO 

DUEHRING, KARL EUGEN 

DUHM, BERNHARD 

ECKHART, MEISTER 

EHRENBERG, VICTOR LEOPOLD 

EICHHORN, JOHANN GOTTFRIED 

EISLER, RUDOLF 

EISSFELDT, OTTO 

ELBOGEN, ISMAR 

ENGELMANN, SUSANNE CHARLOTTE 

ERMAN, JOHANN PETER ADOLF 

ESCHELBACHER, JOSEPH 

EUCHEL, ISAAC ABRAHAM 

EWALD, HEINRICH GEORG AUGUST 

FAGIUS, PAULUS 

FICHTE, JOHANN GOTTLIEB 

forster, johann (Forsthemius) 

FRANKFURTER, SOLOMON FRIEDRICH 
FRANKL, PINKUS FRITZ (Pinhas) 
FRAUENSTAEDT, JULIUS 
FREIMANN, ARON 
FREIMANN, JACOB 
FRENSDORFF, FERDINAND 
FRENSDORFF, SOLOMON 
FREUDENTHAL, JACOB 
FRIEDJUNG, HEINRICH 
FRIEDLAENDER, MORITZ 
FRIEDLAENDER, OSKAR EWALD 
FRIEDRICHSFELD, DAVID 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

3) Germany & Austria 
Biographies 

Academic Life (continued) 



FRIES, JAKOB FRIEDRICH 
FUERST, JULIUS 
GALLING, KURT 
GANS, EDUARD 
GEIGER, ABRAHAM 
GEIGER, BERNHARD 

geiger, lazarus (Eliezer Solomon) 

GEIGER, MORITZ 

GELBER, NATHAN MICHAEL 

GESENIUS, HEINRICH FRIEDRICH WILHELM 

GHILLANY, FRIEDRICH WILHELM 

GOLDENTHAL, JACOB 

GOLDSCHEID, RUDOLF 

GOLDSCHMIDT, LAZARUS 

GOLDSCHMIDT, RICHARD HELLMUTH 

GOLDSTEIN, JULIUS 

GOMPERZ, THEODOR 

GRAETZ, HEINRICH 

GRAF, KARL HEINRICH 

GRESSMANN, HUGO 

GRUENBAUM, MAX 

GRUENHUT, MAX 

GRUNWALD, MAX 

GUMPLOWICZ, LUDWIG 

GUNKEL, HERMANN 

GUTHE, HERMANN 

GUTTMANN, JACOB 

GUTTMANN, JULIUS 

HALLO, WILLIAM 

HANAU, SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN JUDAH 

LOEB HA-KOHEN 
HEGEL, GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH 
HEICHELHEIM, FRITZ MORITZ 

heidenheim, wolf (Benjamin Zeev) 

HEINEMANN, FRITZ 
HEINEMANN, JEREMIAH 
HELLER, HERMANN 
HELLER, JOSEPH ELIJAH 
HELLER, THEODOR 

HENGSTENBERG, ERNST WILHELM 
HEPPNER, ARON 
HERDER, JOHANN GOTTFRIED 
HERZ, MARCUS 
HERZFELD, ERNST EMIL 
HERZOG, DAVID 
HEYMANN, FRITZ 
HILDESHEIMER, HIRSCH 
HIRSCH, JULIUS 
HIRSCH, MENDEL 
HIRSCHFELD, GUSTAV 
HIRSCHFELD, HEINRICH OTTO 
HOELSCHER, GUSTAV 



HOENIGSWALD, RICHARD 

HORKHEIMER, MAX 

HOROVITZ, JOSEF 

HOROVITZ, SAUL 

HRABANUS MAURUS 

HUPFELD, HERMANN CHRISTIAN KARL 

HUSSERL, EDMUND GUSTAV ALBRECHT 

ILGEN, KARL DAVID 

ISAACSOHN, SIEGFRIED 

ITELSON, GREGOR 

JEREMIAS, ALFRED 

JERUSALEM, KARL WILHELM 

JERUSALEM, WILHELM 

JIRKU, ANTON 

JOEL, KARL 

JOST, ISAAC MARCUS 

KAHLE, PAUL ERNST 

KANT, IMMANUEL 

KANTOROWICZ, ERNST HARTWIG 

KASTEIN, JOSEF 

KATZ, DAVID 

KAUFMANN, DAVID 

KAUFMANN, FELIX 

KAUFMANN, FRITZ 

KAUTZSCH, EMIL FRIEDRICH 

KAYSERLING, MEYER (Modtz) 

KEIL, KARL FRIEDRICH 

KELLNER, LEON 

KIRCHHEIM, RAPHAEL 

KITTEL, RUDOLF 

KLEMPERER, VICTOR 

KOEBNER, RICHARD 

KRACAUER, ISADOR 

KRACAUER, SIEGFRIED 

KRAUSS, FRIEDRICH SALAMO 

KRAUSS, SAMUEL 

KRONER, RICHARD 

KRUG, WILHELM TRAUGOTT 

LAGARDE, PAUL ANTON DE 

LANDAUER, GUSTAV 

LANDAUER, MEYER HEINRICH HIRSCH 

LANDAUER, SAMUEL 

LANDSBERGER, BENNO 

LANDSHUT, SIEGFRIED 

LANDSHUTH, ELIEZER (Leser) 

LASK, EMIL 

LASSON, ADOLF 

LAZARUS, MORITZ 

LEBRECHT, FUERCHTEGOTT 

LEHMANN-HAUPT, CARL FRIEDRICH 

LESSING, THEODOR 

LEVISON, WILHELM 

LEWIN, KURT ZADEK 

LEWKOWITZ, ALBERT 

LEWY, JULIUS 

lidzbarski, mark (Abraham Mordechai) 

LIEBERMANN, FELIX 
LIEBERT, ARTHUR 
LIEBMANN, OTTO 
LIPMANN, OTTO 



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LOEWE, JOEL (BRILL) 

LOEWE, VICTOR 

LOEWENTHAL, EDUARD 

LOEWITH, KARL 

LOEWY, EMANUEL 

LOWE, ADOLPH 

LUSCHAN, FELIX VON 

MAIMON, SOLOMON 

MANNHEIM, KARL 

MARCK, SIEGFRIED 

MARCUS, AARON 

MARCUS, ERNST 

MARKUS, LUDWIG 

MARX, KARL HEINRICH 

MAUTNER, KONRAD 

MAYER, GUSTAV 

MEINHOLD, JOHANNES FRIEDRICH 

MEISL, JOSEPH 

MENDELSSOHN 

MENDELSSOHN, MOSES 

METZGER, ARNOLD 

MEYER, EDUARD 

MICHAELIS, JOHANN DAVID 

MISES, LUDWIG EDLER VON 

MITTWOCH, EUGEN 

MOMMSEN, THEODOR 

MUELLER, DAVID HEINRICH 

MUENSTER, SEBASTIAN 

MUENSTERBERG, HUGO 

MYNONA 

NACHOD, OSKAR 

NAFTALI, PEREZ (Fritz) 

NELSON, LEONHARD 

neubauer, jacob (Jekuthiel) 

NIETZSCHE, FRIEDRICH WILHELM 

NOELDEKE, THEODOR 

NOTH, MARTIN 

NOWACK, WILHELM GUSTAV HERMANN 

NUSSBAUM, ARTHUR 

NUSSENBLATH, TULO 

OBERMEYER, JACOB 

OLSHAUSEN, JUSTUS 

OPPENHEIMER, FRANZ 

OPPERT, GUSTAV SALOMON 

OTTENSOSSER, DAVID 

OTTO, RUDOLPH 

pellicanus (Rubeaquensis), conrad 

PERLBACH, MAX 

PERLES 

PHILIPPSON 

PICK, HAYYIM HERMANN 

PINNER, FELIX 

pistorius (de Nida), johannes 

POLOTSKY, HANS JACOB 

popper, josef (Lynkeus) 

POPPER, SIR KARL RAIMUND 
PRIBRAM, ALFRED FRANCIS 
RAD, GERHARD VON 

RECKENDORF, HERMANN SOLOMON 
REICH, WILHELM 



REICHENBACH, HANS 

REINACH, ADOLF 

REUSS, EDUARD 

RICHTER, ELISE 

RICHTER, RAOUL 

RIESS, LUDWIG 

ROEHRICHT, REINHOLD 

ROSENMUELLER, ERNST FRIEDRICH KARL 

ROSENTHAL, LESER 

ROSIN, DAVID 

RUEHS, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH 

RYSSEL, VICTOR 

SAALSCHUETZ, JOSEPH LEWIN 

SACHS, MICHAEL 

SALFELD, SIEGMUND 

SALOMON, ALICE 

SALOMON, GOTTFRIED 

SAMTER, ERNST 

SATANOW, ISAAC 

SCHEFTELOWITZ, ISIDOR 

SCHELER, MAX FERDINAND 

SCHELLING, FRIEDRICH WILHELM JOSEPH 

SCHICK, CONRAD 

SCHICKARD, WILHELM (Guillidmiis) 

SCHOEPS, HANS JOACHIM 

SCHUBERT, KURT 

SCHUDT, JOHANN JAKOB 

SCHUERER, EMIL 

SCHWAB, HERMANN 

SELLIN, ERNST 

SELZ, OTTO 

SIEVERS, EDUARD 

SIMMEL, GEORG 

SIMSON, BERNHARD VON 

SIMSON, PAUL 

SMEND, RUDOLPH 

SOMBART, WERNER 

SPANIER, ARTHUR 

SPATH, JOHANN PETER 

SPITZER, HUGO 

STEIN, ARTHUR 

STEIN, EDITH 

STEIN, LUDWIG 

STEINSCHNEIDER, MORITZ 

STEINTHAL, HERMANN HEYMANN 

STERN, ALFRED 

STERN, FRITZ 

STERN, MORITZ 

STERN, WILLIAM 

STERNBERG, KURT 

STERN-TAEUBLER, SELMA 

STEUERNAGEL, CARL 

STOBBE, OTTO 

STRACK, HERMANN LEBERECHT 

STRAUSS, LEO 

SUEDFELD, GABRIEL 

SULZBACH, ABRAHAM 

SULZBACH, WALTER 

TAEUBLER, EUGEN 

THIEME, KARL 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

3) Germany & Austria 
Biographies 

Academic Life (continued) 



THOMSEN, PETER 
TRAUBE, LUDWIG 
VATKE, WILHELM 
VELTWYCK, GERARD 
VOLZ, PAUL 

WACHSTEIN, BERNHARD 
WAGENSEIL, JOHANN CRISTOPH 
WAHLE, RICHARD 
WAISMANN, FRIEDRICH 
WALZER, RICHARD RUDOLF 
WARBURG, ABY MORITZ 
WATZINGER, CARL 
WEIDENREICH, FRANZ 
WEIGAND, THEODOR 
WEIL, ERIC 
WEININGER, OTTO 
WELLHAUSEN, JULIUS 

weltsch, felix (Baruch) 

WENDLAND, PAUL 

WERTHEIMER, JOSEPH, RITTER VON 

WERTHEIMER, MAX 

WETTE, DE, WILHELM MARTIN LEBERECHT 

WINCKLER, HUGO 

WINTERNITZ, MORITZ 

WITTGENSTEIN, LUDWIG 

WOLF, GERSON 

WOLF, JOHANN CHRISTOPH 

WORMS, ASHER ANSHEL 

WRESCHNER, ARTHUR 

WUENSCHE, AUGUST KARL 

ZEDNER, JOSEPH 

ZOLLSCHAN, IGNAZ 

ZUCKERMANN, BENEDICT 

ZUNZ, LEOPOLD 



FREUNDLICH, OTTO 

GODAL, ERIC 

GRUNDIG, LEA AND HANS 

HALLO, RUDOLF 

HEARTFIELD, JOHN 

HEINE, THOMAS THEODOR 

HENSCHEL BROTHERS 

HERLINGEN, AARON WOLF 

HIRSCHFELD-MACK, LUDWIG 

KAHNWEILER, DANIEL-HENRY 

KATZ, HANNS LUDWIG 

KAUFMANN, OSKAR 

KIRSCHSTEIN, SALLI 

KIRSZENBAUM, JESEKIEL DAVID 

KRESTIN, LAZAR 

LEVY, RUDOLF 

LIEBERMANN, MAX 

LILIEN, EPHRAIM MOSES 

LISMANN, HERMANN 

MAGNUS, EDUARD 

MEIDNER, LUDWIG 

MENDELSOHN, ERIC 

MESSEL, ALFRED 

NUSSBAUM, FELIX 

NUSSBAUM, JAKOB 

OPPENHEIM, MORITZ DANIEL 

OPPENHEIMER, JOSEPH 

ORLIK, EMIL 

OSBORN, MAX 

RINGL & PIT (STERN, GRETE; ROSENBERG 

AUERBACH, ELLEN) 
SALOMON, CHARLOTTE 
SALOMON, ERICH 
SEGAL, ARTHUR 
STRNAD, OSKAR 
STRUCK, HERMANN 
TRIER, WALTER 
URY, LESSER 
WOLF, GUSTAV 
WOLLHEIM, GERT 
WOLPERT, LUDWIG YEHUDA 
ZADIKOW, ARNOLD 



Art 

ABRAMSON 

ADLER, FRIEDRICH 

ARON 

BARTHOLDY, JACOB 

BENDEMANN, EDUARD JULIUS FRIEDRICH 

BENDIX, BENEDICT HEINRICH 

BIRNBAUM, MENACHEM 

BLAU, TINA 

BLOCH, MARTIN 

CASSIRER, PAUL 

COHN-WIENER, ERNST 

EISENSTAEDT, ALFRED 

ELKAN, BENNO 

FLECHTHEIM, ALFRED 

FRANK, JOSEF 

FREUND, GISELE 



Literature 

ADLER, HERMANN 

ADLER, PAUL 

AICHINGER, ILSE 

ALTENBERG, PETER 

AMERY, JEAN 

ANDERS, GUNTER 

AUERBACH, ERICH 

AUERNHEIMER, RAOUL 

AUSLAENDER, ROSE 

AVIGDOR BEN SIMHAH HA-LEVI OF GLOGAU 

BAB, JULIUS 

BECKER, JUREK 

BEER, MICHAEL 

BEER-HOFMANN, RICHARD 

BEN-CHORIN, SHALOM 

BENJAMIN, WALTER 



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BERENDSOHN, WALTER A. 

BERG, LEO 

BERMANN, RICHARD ARNOLD 

BETTAUER, HUGO 

BIEBER, HUGO 

BLUMENTHAL, OSKAR 

BORCHARDT, RUDOLF 

BRAUN, FELIX 

BROCH, HERMANN 

BRUCKNER, FERDINAND 

CALE, WALTER 

CELAN, PAUL 

DOEBLIN, ALFRED 

DOMIN, HILDE 

DONATH, ADOLPH 

EHRENSTEIN, ALBERT 

EINSTEIN, CARL 

ELOESSER, ARTHUR 

FEUCHTWANGER, LION 

FRANK, BRUNO 

FRANKL, LUDWIG AUGUST 

FRANZOS, KARL EMIL 

FRIED, ERICH 

FRIEDELL, EGON 

FRISCH, EFRAIM 

FULDA, LUDWIG 

GEIGER, LUDWIG 

GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG VON 

GOLDSTEIN, MORITZ 

GOLL, CLAIRE 

gronemann, samuel (Sami, Sammy) 

GUMPERT, MARTIN 
GUNDOLF, FRIEDRICH 
GUTZKOW, KARL FERDINAND 
HAAS, WILLY 
HABE, HANS 
HASENCLEVER, WALTER 
HEILBORN, ERNST 
HEIMANN, MORITZ 
HEINE, HEINRICH 
HERMANN, GEORG 
HERMLIN, STEPHAN 
HESSEL, FRANZ 
HEYM, STEFAN 
HEYMANN, WALTHER 
HEYSE, PAUL 

HILDESHEIMER, WOLFGANG 
HILSENRATH, EDGAR 
HIRSCHFELD, GEORG 
HITZIG, JULIUS EDUARD 
HOCHHUTH, ROLF 
HOCHWAELDER, FRITZ 
HOFMANNSTHAL, HUGO VON 
HOLITSCHER, ARTHUR 
HOLLAENDER 
HONIGMANN, BARBARA 
JACOB, HEINRICH EDUARD 
JACOBOWSKI, LUDWIG 
JELINEK, ELFRIEDE 
KAHANE, ARTHUR 



KALEKO, MASHA 

KALISCH, DAVID 

KAUFMANN, FRITZ MORDECAI 

KAYSER, RUDOLF 

KERR, ALFRED 

KESTEN, HERMANN 

KLEIN, JULIUS LEOPOLD 

KOESTLER, ARTHUR 

KOLMAR, GERTRUD 

KOMPERT, LEOPOLD 

KOREFF, DAVID FERDINAND 

KORNFELD, PAUL 

KRAMER, THEODOR 

KRAUS, KARL 

KROJANKER, GUSTAV 

KUH, EPHRAIM MOSES 

LANDSBERGER, ARTHUR 

LASKER-SCHUELER, ELSE 

LAZARUS, NAHIDA RUTH 

LEONHARD, RUDOLF 

LESSING, GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM 

LEWALD, FANNY 

LIPINER, SIEGFRIED 

LISSAUER, ERNST 

LORM, HIERONYMUS 

LOTHAR, ERNST 

LOTHAR, RUDOLF 

LUBLINSKI, SAMUEL 

LUDWIG, EMIL 

MANN, THOMAS 

MARCUSE, LUDWIG 

MARGUL-SPERBER, ALFRED 

MAUTHNER, FRITZ 

MEHRING, WALTER 

MEYER, RICHARD MORITZ 

MOMBERT, ALFRED 

MOSENTHAL, SALOMON HERMANN 

MUEHSAM, ERICH 

NADEL, ARNO 

NEUMANN, ALFRED 

NEUMANN, ROBERT 

PAULI, JOHANNES 

PERUTZ, LEO 

PICARD, JACOB 

POLGAR, ALFRED 

REHFISCH, HANS JOSE 

REICH-RANICKI, MARCEL 

ROBERT, LUDWIG 

RODA RODA, ALEXANDER 

RODENBERG, JULIUS 

ROESSLER, CARL 

ROTH, JOSEPH 

RUBINER, LUDWIG 

SACHS, NELLY 

SALTEN, FELIX 

SAPHIR, MORITZ (Moses) GOTTLIEB 

SCHERLAG, MARK 

SCHILLER, FRIEDRICH VON 

SCHNITZLER, ARTHUR 

SCHWIEFERT, PETER 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

3) Germany & Austria 
Biographies 

Literature {continued) 

SEGHERS, ANNA 
STERNHEIM, CARL 
STRICH, FRITZ 
SUESSKIND VON TRIMBERG 
SUSMAN, MARGARETE 
TOLLER, ERNST 
TORBERG, FRIEDRICH 
TREBITSCH, SIEGFRIED 
TUCHOLSKY, KURT 
URY, ELSE 

VAN HODDIS, JAKOB 
VIERTEL, BERTHOLD 
WALDEN, HERWARTH 
WALDINGER, ERNST 
WASSERMANN, JAKOB 
WEISS, ERNST 
WEISS, PETER 
WERFEL, FRANZ 
WIHL, LUDWIG 
WINDER, LUDWIG 
WOLF, FRIEDRICH 
WOLFENSTEIN, ALFRED 
WOLFSKEHL, KARL 
WOLFSOHN-HALLE, AHARON 
ZUCKERMANN, HUGO 
ZUCKMAYER, CARL 
ZWEIG, ARNOLD 
ZWEIG, STEFAN 

Music 

ABRAHAM, OTTO 
ADLER, GUIDO 
BEDA 

BEER, AARON 
BEKKER, PAUL 
BIE, OSCAR 
BIRNBAUM, EDUARD 
BLECH, LEO 
BRUELL, IGNAZ 
DAVID, FERDINAND 
DESSAU, PAUL 
DEUTSCH, OTTO ERICH 
EISLER, HANNS 
FISCHOFF, JOSEPH 
GEIRINGER, KARL 
GERNSHEIM, FRIEDRICH 
GOLDSCHMIDT, HUGO 
HELLER, STEPHEN 
HENLE, MORITZ 

herz, henri (Heinrich) 

HILLER, FERDINAND 
HINRICHSEN 



HOLLAENDER 

JACOBSTHAL, GUSTAV 

JADASSOHN, SALOMON 

JAPHET, ISRAEL MEYER 

KINSKY, GEORG LUDWIG 

KOHN, MAIER 

KOLISCH, RUDOLF 

LEICHTENTRITT, HUGO 

LEVI, HERMANN 

LIPSCHITZ, SOLOMON BEN MOSES 

LUCCA, PAULINE 

MARX, ADOLF BERNHARD 

MENDEL, HERMANN 

MENDELSSOHN, ARNOLD 

Mendelssohn, felix (Jakob Ludwig Felix) 

MENDELSSOHN HENSEL, FANNY CAECILIE 

MEYER, ERNST HERMAN 

MEYERBEER, GIACOMO 

MOTTL, FELIX JOSEF 

NADEL, ARNO 

OCHS, SIEGFRIED 

SACHS, CURT 

SCHLESINGER 

SCHOENBERG, ARNOLD 

SCHOENE, LOTTE 

SILBERMANN, ALPHONS 

STERN, JULIUS 

STRAUSS, JOHANN 

SULZER, SOLOMON 

ULLMAN, VIKTOR 

UNGER, MAX 

WAGNER, RICHARD 

WALTER, BRUNO 

WEILL, KURT 

WOLFF, HERMANN 

Popular Culture 

ABARBANELL, LINA 
BARNAY, LUDWIG 
BARNOWSKY, VIKTOR 
BERGMANN, RICHARD 
BERGNER, ELIZABETH 
BRAHM, OTTO 
CHRONEGK, LUDWIG 
DAWISON, BOGUMIL 
DESSOIR, LUDWIG 
DEUTSCH, ERNST 
GIEHSE, THERESE 
GRANACH, ALEXANDER 
HOMOLKA, OSCAR 
JESSNER, LEOPOLD 
KOLISCH, IGNAZ VON 
KORTNER, FRITZ 
LANG, FRITZ 
LUX, STEFAN 
MARLE, ARNOLD 

massary, fritzi (Friedrike Massarik) 

MIESES, JACQUES (Jacob) 
OPHUELS, MAX 
PALLENBERG, MAX 



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POMMER, ERICH 

RAINER, LUISE 

REICHER, EMANUEL 

RICHTER, HANS 

SCHILDKRAUT, RUDOLPH 

SONNENTHAL, ADOLF, RITTER VON 

SPIELMANN, RUDOLF 

STERN, ERNEST 

TARRASCH, SIEGBERT 

WALBROOK, ANTON 

WEIGEL, HELENE 

Public & Economic Life 

AARON SIMEON BEN JACOB ABRAHAM OF 

COPENHAGEN 
ABELES, OTTO 

ABRAHAM A SANCTA CLARA 
ADENAUER, KONRAD 
ADLER, FRIEDRICH 
ADLER, MAX 
ADLER, VICTOR 
AHLWARDT, HERMANN 
AMNON OF MAINZ 
ANDREW OF RINN 
ARENDT, OTTO 
ARNDT, ADOLF 
ARNDT, ERNST MORITZ 
ARNHEIM, FISCHEL 
ARNSTEIN 
ASHER, ABRAHAM 
AUERBACH, BERTHOLD 
AUERBACH, ISRAEL 
AUERBACH, PHILIPP 
AUSPITZ 
BACHARACH 
BACHER, EDUARD 
BADT, HERMANN 
BADT-STRAUSS, BERTHA 
BAECK, LEO 
BAERWALD, MORITZ 
BAIERSDORF, SAMSON SOLOMON 
BALLIN, ALBERT 
BAMBERGER, LUDWIG 
BAMBUS, WILLY 
BAUER, OTTO 
BAUM, HERBERT 
BECKER, JULIUS 
BEER, BERNHARD 
BEHREND, JACOB FRIEDRICH 

behrends (Behrens), leffmann 

BENEDIKT, MORITZ 
BENISCH, ABRAHAM 
BERNAYS 

BERNHARD, GEORG 
BERNSTEIN, ARNOLD 
BERNSTEIN, ARON DAVID 
BERNSTEIN, EDUARD 
BIEDERMANN, MICHAEL LAZAR 
BIENENFELD, FRANZ RUDOLF 
BIENENSTOCK, MAX 



BING 

BISCHOFFSHEIM 

BISMARCK, PRINCE OTTO VON 

BLAU, BRUNO 

BLEICHROEDER 

BLUM, JULIUS 

BLUMENFELD, KURT YEHUDAH 

boerne, ludwig (Loeb Baruch) 

BORCHARDT, LUCY 

BRANDT, WILLY 

BRAUN, ADOLF 

BREIDENBACH, WOLF 

BREITNER, HUGO 

BUBIS, IGNATZ 

BUCHHOLZ, CARL AUGUST 

BURCHARDT, HERMANN 

BURG, MENO 

CALWER, RICHARD 

CASPARY, EUGEN 

CASTIGLIONI, CAMILLO 

CHARLES IV 

CHARLES VI 

COHN, EMIL MOSES 

COHN, OSCAR 

COHN-BENDIT, DANIEL 

COUDENHOVE-KALERGI, HEINRICH VON 

CUSA, NICHOLAS OF 

DECKERT, JOSEPH 

DENIS, ALBERTUS 

DERNBURG 

DEUTSCH, SIMON 

DOHM, CHRISTIAN WILHELM VON 

DOLLFUSS, ENGELBERT 

DREYFUS 

DULCEA OF WORMS 

EHRENSTAMM 

EHRLICH, JACOB 

EICHTHAL-SELIGMANN 

EISENMENGER, JOHANN ANDREAS 

EISLER, GERHART 

EISNER, KURT 

EISS, ALEXANDER VON 

ELIEZER BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI 

ELLENBOGEN, WILHELM 

ELLSTAETTER, MORITZ 

EMIN PASHA 

ENDLICH, QUIRIN 

ENGELBERG, HAYYIM OF 

ENSHEIM, MOSES 

EPHRAIM 

EPHRAIM, VEITEL HEINE (Hayyim) 

EPPSTEIN, PAUL 

ERLANGER 

ESKELES 

FEDER, ERNST 

FEIWEL, BERTHOLD 

FERDINAND 

FETTMILCH, VINCENT 

FISCHER, BERNARD 

FISCHER, RUTH 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

3) Germany & Austria 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life (continued) 

FISCHER, SAMUEL 

FISCHHOFF, ADOLF 

FLESCH 

FRAENKEL 

FRAENKEL, ELKAN 

FRAENKEL, ISAAC SECKEL 

FRAENKEL, LEVI BEN SAUL 

FRANCIS I 

FRANCIS JOSEPH I OF HAPSBURG 

FRANKENBURGER, WOLF 

FREDERICK I 

Frederick 11 (the Great) 

FREDERICK II OF BABENBERG 
FREDERICK III OF HAPSBURG 
FREDERICK II OF HOHENSTAUFEN 
FREDERICK WILLIAM 
FREIER, RECHA 
FRIED, ALFRED HERMANN 
FRIEDEMANN, ADOLF 
FRIEDLAENDER, DAVID 
FRIEDMANN, DESIDER 
FRIEDMANN, PAUL 
FRITSCH, THEODOR 
FUERSTENBERG, CARL 
FUERTH, HENRIETTE 
GALINSKI, HEINZ 

geiger, solomon zalman (ben Abraham) 

GELDERN, SIMON VON 

GELDERN, VAN 

GERSTEIN, KURT 

GLASER, JULIUS ANTON (Joshua) 

GLUECKEL OF HAMELN 

GOLD, HUGO 

GOLDHAMMER-SAHAWI, LEO 

GOLDSCHMIDT, HENRIETTE 

GOLDSCHMIDT, JAKOB 

GOLDSCHMIDT, JOHANNA SCHWABE 

GOLUCHOWSKI, AGENOR, COUNT 

GOMPERZ 

GOSLAR, HANS 

GRATTENAUER, KARL WILHELM FRIEDRICH 

GROSS, ADOLF 

GROSSMANN, KURT RICHARD 

GRUEBER, HEINRICH 

GRYNSZPAN, HERSCHEL 

GUTMANN, EUGEN 

GUTMANN, WILHELM, RITTER VON 

HAAS, LUDWIG 

HAASE, HUGO 

HABER 

HAHN, ALBERT L. 

HAHN, KURT 



HAINDORF, ALEXANDER 
HARDEN, MAXIMILIAN 
HARDENBERG, KARL AUGUST VON 
HARTMANN, MORITZ 
HEINE, SOLOMON 
HENLE, ELKAN 
HENRY IV 

hermanus quondam judaeus (Herman 
of Scheda) 

HERZ, HENRIETTE 

HERZ, LEOPOLD EDLER VON (Lippold) 

HERZBERG, WILHELM (ZeW) 

HERZL, THEODOR 

HESS, MICHAEL 

HESS, MOSES 

HILFERDING, RUDOLF 

HILLER, KURT 

HILLESUM, ETTY 

HIRSCH, ARON SIEGMUND 

HIRSCH, BARON MAURICE DE 

HIRSCH, OTTO 

HIRSCHFELD, EPHRAIM JOSEPH 

HIRSHEL, MEYER 

HOENIGSBERG 

HOFER, ANDREAS 

HOFMANN, ISAAC LOEW 

HOLLAENDER, LUDWIG 

HOMBERG, NAPHTALI HERZ 

HUMBOLDT, WILHELM VON 

HUNDT-RADOWSKY, HARTWIG VON 

ISAAC 

ISRAEL, WILFRID 

ITZIG, DANIEL 

JACOB, BERTHOLD 

JACOBSOHN, SIEGFRIED 

JACOBSON, ISRAEL 

JACOBY, JOHANN 

JAECKLIN, JUD 

JAFFE, MEIR OF ULM 

JOSEPH II 

JOSEPH BEN GERSHON OF ROSHEIM 

KAHN, BERNARD 

KANDLEIN OF REGENSBURG 

KANTOR, JUDAH LEIB 

KANTOROWICZ, HERMANN 

KARMINSKI, HANNAH 

KARSEN, FRITZ 

KASKEL 

KATZ, ALBERT 

KAUFFMANN, ISAAC 

KAULLA 

KELSEN, HANS 

KLANG, HEINRICH 

KLEE, ALFRED 

KOENIGSWARTER 

KOKESCH, OZER 

KREISKY, BRUNO 

KREMENETZKY, JOHANN 

KUH, ANTON 

KURANDA, IGNAZ 



96 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



LABAND, PAUL 

LADENBURG 

LAEMEL, SIMON VON 

LANDAU, EUGEN 

LANDAU, JACOB 

LANDSBERG, OTTO 

LASKER, EDUARD 

LASSALLE (LASSAL), FERDINAND 

LEHMANN, BEHREND 

LEHMANN, EMIL 

LEICHTER, KAETE PICK 

LEIDESDORFER 

LEMLEIN, ASHER 

LEOPOLD I 

LEVI, BEHREND 

LEVI, PAUL 

LICHTHEIM, RICHARD 

LIPPOLD 

loewe, heinrich (Eliakim) 

LOEWE, LUDWIG AND ISIDOR 

LOEWENSTEIN, KURT 

LORJE, CHAIM 

LUEGER, KARL 

LUSTIG, MOSES 

LUTHER, MARTIN 

LUXEMBURG, ROSA 

MAGNUS, MARCUS 

MARIA THERESA 

MARR, WILHELM 

MARX, KARL 

MAXIMILIAN 

MELANCHTHON, PHILIPP 

MELCHIOR, CARL 

MENDELSSOHN 

MENDELSSOHN-VEIT-SCHLEGEL, DOROTHEA 

MERTON 

MERZBACHER 

MERZBACHER, GOTTFRIED 

MESSEL 

METTERNICH, PRINCE KLEMENS WENZEL VON 

MEYER, PAULUS (Pawly) 

MICHAEL, HEIMANN JOSEPH HAYYIM 

MICHEL, JUD 

MODEL, MARX 

MOND 

MORAWITZ, KARL RITTER VON 

MORGENSTERN, LINA 

MOSER, MOSES 

MOSES, SIEGFRIED 

MOSSE 

MOSSNER, WALTHER VON 

MUELLER-COHEN, ANITA 

MUHR, ABRAHAM 

NACHMANN, WERNER 

NACHOD, JACOB 

NATHAN, PAUL 

NEUMEYER, ALFRED 

NEUMEYER, KARL 

NIEBUHR, KARSTEN 

OESTERREICHER, TOBIAS VON 



OFNER, JULIUS 

OLLENDORFF, FRIEDRICH 

OPPENHEIM 

OPPENHEIM 

OPPENHEIM, LASSA FRANCIS LAWRENCE 

OPPENHEIMER, JOSEPH BEN ISSACHAR 

SUESSKIND 
OPPENHEIMER, KARL 
OPPENHEIMER, SAMUEL 
OSIANDER, ANDREAS 
PAPPENHEIM, BERTHA 
PERNERSTORFER, ENGELBERT 
PHILIPPSON 
PICK, ALOIS 

PICK, HAYYIM HERMANN 
POPPER, SIEGFRIED 
PREUSS, HUGO 
RABINOWICH, SARAH 
RATHENAU, EMIL 
RATHENAU, WALTHER 
REDLICH, JOSEPH 

REUTER, PAUL JULIUS, BARON VON 
RIEGNER, GERHART 
RIESSER, GABRIEL 
RIESSER, JACOB 
RINDFLEISCH 
ROCKER, RUDOLF 
RODE, WALTHER 
ROSENBERG, ARTHUR 
ROSENBERG, LUDWIG 
ROSENTHAL, PHILIPP 
ROTHSCHILD 

rudolf i (of Hapsburg) 

RUMPLER, EDUARD 
SCHACH, FABIUS 
SCHACHTEL, HUGO-HILLEL 
SCHAEFFER, HANS 
SCHALIT, ISIDOR 

schapira, Hermann (Zevi-Hirsch) 

SCHLEIERMACHER, FRIEDRICH 
SCHLESINGER 
SCHLESINGER, KARL 
SCHMID, ANTON VON 
SCHOCKEN 
SCHOCKEN, SALMAN 
SCHOENERER, GEORG VON 
SCHOLEM, WERNER 

schottlaender, bendet (Benedict) 

SEETZEN, ULRICH JASPER 

SEIPEL, IGNAZ 

SERING, MAX 

SESSA, KARL BORROMAEUS ALEXANDER 

SHLOM THE MINTMASTER 

SICHROVSKY, HEINRICH VON 

SIMON, HEINRICH 

SIMON, JAMES 

SIMSON, MARTIN EDUARD VON 

SINGER, PAUL 

smol (Samuel) 

SOMARY, FELIX 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

3) Germany & Austria 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life (continued) 

SOMMER, EMIL VON 

SONNEMANN, LEOPOLD 

SONNENFELS, ALOYS VON 

SPEYER 

SPIEGEL, PAUL 

SPITZER, KARL HEINRICH 

SPRINGER, AXEL 

STAHL, FRIEDRICH JULIUS 

STAHL, HEINRICH 

STAUB, HERMANN 

STEIN, BARON KARL VOM ZUM 

STEINBACH, EMIL 

STEUSS, DAVID 

STOECKER, ADOLF 

STRECKFUSS, ADOLF FRIEDRICH KARL 

STRICKER, ROBERT 

STRISOWER, LEO 

STROUSBERG, BETHEL HENRY 

SYNGALOWSKI, ARON 

TEKA 

THEBEN (MANDL), JACOB KOPPEL 

TIETZ 

TODESCO, HERMANN 

TREITSCHKE, HEINRICH VON 

TRIETSCH, DAVIS 

trithemius, johannes (Tritheim) 

ULLSTEIN 

UNGER, JOSEF 

VAN DAM, HENDRIK GEORGE 

VARNHAGEN, RAHEL 

VEIT 

VEIT, MORITZ 

VEITH, JOHANN EMANUEL 

VOGELSANG, KARL VON 

WARBURG 

WARBURG, MAX 

WASSERMANN, OSKAR 

WEICHMANN, HERBERT 

WENCESLAUS IV 

WERTHEIM 

WERTHEIMER, SAMSON 

WETZLAR VON PLANKENSTERN 

WIDMANSTETTER, JOHANN ALBRECHT 

(Widmanstadius, Lucrecius) 

WINKLER, LEO (Jlldah) 

WOLF, FRUMET 

WOLFF, BERNHARD 

WOLFF, JEANETTE 

WOLFF, THEODOR 

WRONSKY, SIDDY 

WUNDERLICH, FRIEDA 

YORK-STEINER, HEINRICH ELCHANAN 



ZLOCISTI, THEODOR 

Religion 

ADLER 

ADLER, LAZARUS LEVI 

ADLER, SAMUEL 

BLOCH, PHILIPP 

BRUNA, ISRAEL BEN HAYYIM 

DEUTSCH, IGNAZ 

DEUTSCH, ISRAEL 

DIENEMANN, MAX 

DUEREN, ISAAC BEN MEIR 

EGER, AKIVA BEN MOSES GUENS 

EGER, AKIVA BEN SIMHAH BUNIM 

eger, samuel (Perez Sanwel) ben judah 

LOEB 
EHRENTREU, HEINRICH 
EINHORN, DAVID 

ELIEZER BEN NATHAN OF MAINZ 
EPPENSTEIN, SIMON 
EPSTEIN, JEHIEL MICHAL BEN ABRAHAM 

HA-LEVI 
ETTLINGER, JACOB 
FORMSTECHER, SOLOMON 

FRAENKEL, DAVID BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH 
FREUDENTHAL, MAX 
GLOGAU, JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN ASHER 

LEMMEL HA-LEVI 
GUEDEMANN, MORITZ 
HAGOZER, JACOB AND GERSHOM 
HAHN, JOSEPH BEN MOSES 
HAHN, JOSEPH YUSPA BEN PHINEHAS 

SELIGMANN 
HALBERSTADT, ABRAHAM BEN MENAHEM 

MENKE 
HALBERSTADT, MORDECAI 
HAMBURG, ABRAHAM BENJAMIN (Wolf) 
HAMBURGER, JACOB 

hayyim (Eliezer) ben isaac "or zarua" 

HAYYIM BEN JEHIEL HEFEZ ZAHAV 
HAYYIM JUDAH BEN HAYYIM 
HAYYIM PALTIEL BEN JACOB ("Tola'at") 
HEILBUT, ELEAZAR LAZI BEN JOSEPH BEN 

LAZI 
HEILPRIN, SAMUEL HELMANN BEN ISRAEL 
HERXHEIMER, SALOMON 
HERZFELD, LEVI 
HESS, MENDEL 

hildesheimer, azriel (Israel) 

HILDESHEIMER, MEIR 
HIRSCH, SAMUEL 
HOESCHEL (Joshua) BEN SAUL 
HOFFMAN, JACOB 
HOFFMANN, DAVID ZEVI 
HOLDHEIM, SAMUEL 
HOROVITZ, JACOB 
HOROVITZ, MARCUS 

HOROWITZ, ISAAC HA-LEVI BEN JACOB JOKEL 
HOROWITZ, LAZAR BEN DAVID JOSHUA 
HOESCHEL 



98 



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HOROWITZ, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN PHINEHAS HA- 

LEVI 
ISSERLEIN, ISRAEL BEN PETHAHIAH 
IACOB BEN YAKAR 
IACOB OF VIENNA 
IAMPEL, SIGMUND 
IOEL BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI 
IONAS, REGINA 

IOSEPH BEN IOSHUA MOSES OF FRANKFURT 
JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS BEN MEIR 
JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS BEN MOSES OF MAINZ 
IUDAH LEIB BEN ENOCH ZUNDEL 
KALONYMUS 

KAMINKA, ARMAND (Aaron) 
KANN, MOSES 
KARGAU, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN NAPHTALI 

HIRSCH 
KIRSCHSTEIN, MORITZ 
KISCH, ALEXANDER 
KLAUSNER, ABRAHAM 

kley, eduard (Israel) 

KOHN, ABRAHAM 

KRONER, THEODOR 

LAZA OF FRANKFURT 

LEHMANN, MARCUS 

LEWIN, ADOLF 

LIPSCHUTZ, ISRAEL BEN GEDALIAH 

LOEWENSTEIN, LEOPOLD 

MANNHEIMER, ISAAC NOAH 

MAYBAUM, IGNAZ 

MEKLENBURG, JACOB ZEVI 

MENAHEM BEN JACOB 

MENAHEM OF MERSEBURG 

MESHULLAM ZALMAN HA-KOHEN 

MEYER, SELIGMANN 

MINTZ, MOSES BEN ISAAC 

moellin, jacob ben moses (Maharil) 

MORDECAI BEN HILLEL HA-KOHEN 

MUNK 

NOBEL, NEHEMIAH ANTON 

OPPENHEIM, BEER BEN ISAAC 

OPPENHEIM, JOACHIM 

POPPERS, JACOB BEN BENJAMIN HA-KOHEN 

PRIJS, JOSEPH 

PROTESTRABBINER 

RABBINER-SEMINAR FUER DAS ORTHODOXE 

JUDENTUM 
RIEGER, PAUL 

RITTER, IMMANUEL HEINRICH 
ROSENHEIM, JACOB 
ROSENTHAL, LUDWIG A. 
SACHS, MICHAEL 
SALOMON, GOTTHOLD 
SAMSON BEN ELIEZER 
SAMSON HA-NAKDAN 

SAMUEL BEN KALONYMUS HE-HASID OF SPEYER 
SAMUEL BEN NATRONAI 
SCHMIEDL, ADOLF ABRAHAM 
SELIGMANN, CAESAR 
SIMEON BAR ISAAC 



SIMHAH BEN SAMUEL OF SPEYER 

SOLOMON BEN SAMSON 

SONDERLING, JACOB 

SPITZER, SOLOMON 

STADTHAGEN, JOSEPH 

STEINHARDT, JOSEPH BEN MENAHEM 

STEINHARDT, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN 

SIMEON 
STERN, SIGISMUND 
SUTRO, ABRAHAM 
TAGLICHT, DAVID ISRAEL 
THEODOR, JULIUS 
TYRNAU, ISAAC 
VOGELSTEIN 
WEIL, JACOB BEN JUDAH 
WEIL, NETHANEL BEN NAPHTALI ZEYI 
WESEL, BARUCH BENDET BEN REUBEN 
WEYL, MEIR BEN SIMHAH 
WINTER, JACOB 

Science 

ABEL, EMIL 

ABRAHAM, KARL 

ABRAHAM, MAX 

ADLER, ALFRED 

ALBU, ISIDOR 

ARCO, GEORG WILHELM ALEXANDER HANS, 

GRAF VON 
ARONS, LEO 

ASCHERSON, PAUL FRIEDRICH AUGUST 
ASKENASY, EUGEN 
ASKENASY, PAUL 
AUERBACH, LEOPOLD 
BAEYER, ADOLF VON 
BAGINSKY, ADOLF ARON 
BAMBERGER, EUGEN 
BAMBERGER, HEINRICH VON 
BARANY, ROBERT 
BECHHOLD, JACOB HEINRICH 
BEER, WILHELM 
BENEDIKT, MORITZ 
BERENDT, GOTTLIEB MICHAEL 
BERL, ERNST 
BERNSTEIN, JULIUS 

BERSON, ARTHUR JOSEPH STANISLAV 
BESSELS, EMIL 
BILLROTH, THEODOR 
BLANCKENHORN, MAX 
BLAU, FRITZ 
BLOCH, IWAN 
BORN, MAX 
BREDIG, GEORGE 
BRESSLAU, ERNST 
BREUER, JOSEPH 
BUCKY, GUSTAV 

CANNSTADT, KARL FRIEDRICH 
CANTOR, MORITZ BENEDICT 
CARO, HEINRICH 
CARO, NIKODEM 
COHN, BERTHOLD 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



99 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

3) Germany & Austria 
Biographies 

Science (continued) 



COHN, FERDINAND JULIUS 

COHN, FRITZ 

COHN, LASSAR 

COHNHEIM, JULIUS 

CONRAD, VICTOR 

COURANT, RICHARD 

CREIZENACH, MICHAEL 

DEMBER, HARRY L. 

DESSAUER, FRIEDRICH 

DEUTSCH, FELIX 

DONATH, EDUARD 

EDINGER, LUDWIG 

EDINGER, TILLY 

EHRENFEST, PAUL 

EHRLICH, PAUL 

EINSTEIN, ALBERT 

EISENSTEIN, FERDINAND GOTTHOLD 

EISSLER, KURT R. 

EITINGON, MAX 

EMBDEN, GUSTAV 

FEDERN, PAUL 

FENICHEL, OTTO 

FINKELSTEIN, HEINRICH 

FRANCK, JAMES 

FRANK, ALBERT RUDOLPH 

FRANKEL, HEINRICH WALTER 

FRANKENTHAL, KATE 

FRANKL, VIKTOR E. 

FREUD, ANNA 

FREUD, SIGMUND 

FREUND, MARTIN 

FRIEDEMANN, ULRICH 

FRISCH, OTTO ROBERT 

FROEHLICH, ALFRED 

GOLDSCHMIDT, GUIDO 

GOLDSCHMIDT, HANS 

GOLDSCHMIDT, RICHARD BENEDICT 

GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR 

GOLDSTEIN, EUGEN 

GOLDSTEIN, KURT 

GOTTLIEB, BERNHARD 

GRUEN, ADOLF 

GRUENSTEIN, NATHAN 

GUMPERT, MARTIN 

HAAS, FRITZ 

HABER, FRITZ 

HALBERSTAEDTER, LUDWIG 

HANNOVER, RAPHAEL LEVI 

HARTMANN, HEINZ 

hausdorff, felix (Paul Mongre) 

HEIDENHAIN, RUDOLF 
HENLE, JACOB 



HENSEL, KURT 

HERTZ, GUSTAV 

HERZOG, REGINALD OLIVER 

HIRSCH, AUGUST 

HIRSCH, RACHEL 

HIRSCHBERG, JULIUS 

HIRSCHFELD, MAGNUS 

HITSCHMANN, EDWARD 

HOFF, HANS 

HOFFER, WILLI 

HURWITZ, ADOLF 

JACOBI, KARL GUSTAV JACOB 

JACOBI, MORITZ (Moses) HERMANN 

JACOBSON, PAUL HEINRICH 

JADASSOHN, JOSEF 

JELLINEK, KARL 

KOREFF, DAVID FERDINAND 

KRISTELLER, SAMUEL 

KRONECKER, LEOPOLD 

LADENBURG, ALBERT 

LANDAU, EDMUND 

LANDSTEINER, KARL 

LASSAR, OSCAR 

LESS, EMIL 

LIEBEN, ADOLPH 

LIEBEN, ROBERT VON 

LIEBERMANN, CARL THEODOR 

LILIENTHAL, OTTO 

LIPPMANN, EDMUND OSKAR VON 

LIPPMANN, EDUARD 

LIPSCHITZ, RUDOLF OTTO SIGISMUND 

LOEW, MORITZ 

LOEWE, FRITZ PHILIPP 

LOEWI, OTTO 

LONDON, FRITZ 

LUNGE, GEORG 

MAGNUS, HEINRICH GUSTAV 

MAGNUS, PAUL WILHELM 

MAGNUS, RUDOLPH 

ma'or KATAN 

MARCKWALD, WILLY 

MARCUS, SIEGFRIED 

MEITNER, LISE 

METCHNIKOFF, ELIE 

MEYER, HANS JOHANNES LEOPOLD 

MEYER, RICHARD JOSEPH 

MEYER, VICTOR 

MEYERHOF, MAX 

MEYERHOF, OTTO 

MICHAELIS, LEONOR 

MINKOWSKI, HERMANN 

MUNK, HERMANN 

NEUBERG, GUSTAV EMBDEN CARL 

NEUBURGER, MAX 

NEUGEBAUER, OTTO 

NOETHER 

OPPENHEIM, HERMANN 

OPPENHEIM, PAUL LEO 

OPPENHEIMER, CARL 

PAGEL, JULIUS LEOPOLD 



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PANETH, FRIEDRICH ADOLF 

PICK, ALOIS 

PICK, ERNST PETER 

PINNER, ADOLF 

PLAUT, HUGO CARL 

PRAGER, RICHARD 

PREUSS, JULIUS 

PRINGSHEIM, HANS 

RANK, OTTO 

REIK, THEODOR 

REMAK 

ROMBERG, MORITZ HEINRICH 

ROSENBUSCH, KARL HARRY FERDINAND 

ROSENHEIM, ARTHUR 

ROTHSCHILD, FRIEDRICH SALOMON 

RUEDENBERG, REINHOLD 

SACHS, JULIUS 

SACKUR, OTTO 

SAKEL, MANFRED JOSHUA 

SALOMON-CALVI, WILHELM 

SCHILDER, PAUL FERDINAND 

SCHLESINGER, GEORG 

SCHOENBERG, ALEXANDER JULIUS WILHELM 

SCHOENHEIMER, RUDOLPH 

SCHWARZSCHILD, KARL 

SEMON, RICHARD WOLFGANG 

SENATOR, HERMANN 

SIMON, SIR FRANCIS EUGENE 

SORAUER, PAUL KARL MORITZ 

SPIEGEL-ADOLF, MONA 

SPIRO, KARL 

STEINACH, EUGEN 

STEKEL, WILHELM 

STERN, OTTO 

STILLING, BENEDICT 

STRASBURGER, EDUARD 

STRAUS, RAHEL 

STRAUSS, BENNO 

STRAUSS, EDUARD 

SUESS, EDUARD 

TANDLER, JULIUS 

TAUSK, VIKTOR 

TOEPLITZ, OTTO 

TRAUBE, ISIDOR 

TRAUBE, LUDWIG 

TRAUBE, MORITZ 

TRAUBE, WILHELM 

UNNA, PAUL GERSON 

VALENTIN, GABRIEL GUSTAV 

WALLACH, OTTO 

WALLICH 

WARBURG, OTTO 

WARBURG, OTTO HEINRICH 

WASSERMANN, AUGUST VON 

WEIDNER, PAULUS 

WEIGERT, CARL 

WEIGERT, FRITZ 

WIGNER, EUGENE P. 

WILLSTAETTER, RICHARD 

WOLFF, CHARLOTTE 



WORMS, ASHER ANSHEL 
ZUCKERKANDL, EMIL 



4) Italy 

Main Surveys 



ITALIAN LITERATURE 



ITALY 



General Entries 



COLLEGIO RABBINICO ITALIANO 



DIENCHELELE 



FINZI-NORSA CONTROVERSY 
GORNI 



MONTI DI PIETA 



MORTARA CASE 



RIVISTA ISRAELITICA 



VESSILLO ISRAELITICO, IL 



COMMUNITIES 

ACQUI 

AGRIGENTO 

ALESSANDRIA 

ALGHERO 

AMALFI 

ANCONA 

APULIA 

AQUILA 

AQUILEIA 

AREZZO 

ASCOLI PICENO 

ASTI 

BARI 

BASSANO 

BENEVENTO 

BERGAMO 

BOLOGNA 

BOLZANO 

BOZZOLO 

BRESCIA 

BRINDISI 

CAGLIARI 

CALABRIA 

CAPUA 

CASALE MONFERRATO 

CATANIA 

CATANZARO 

CENTO 

CESENA 

CHIERI 

CIVIDALE 

COMO 

CONEGLIANO 

CORSICA 

COSENZA 

CREMONA 

CUNEO 

FAENZA 

FANO 

FERRARA 

FINALE EMILIA 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

4) Italy 

Communities (continued) 

FLORENCE 

FORLI 

FOSSANO 

FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA 

GAETA 

GENOA 

GORIZIA 

IMOLA 

ISTRIA 

LECCE 

LEGHORN 

LODI 

LOMBARDY 

LUCCA 

LUGO 

MALTA 

MANTUA 

MARSALA 

MERANO 

MESSINA 

MILAN 

MODENA 

MONCALVO 

NAPLES 

ORIA 

ORVIETO 

OSTIA 

OTRANTO 

PADUA 

PALERMO 

PARMA 

PAVIA 

PERUGIA 

PIACENZA 

PIEDMONT 

PIOVE DI SACCO 

PISA 

POMPEI 

RAVENNA 

RECANATI 

REGGIO DI CALABRIA 

REGGIO EMILIA 

RIMINI 

riva (di Trento) 

ROME 

ROVIGO 

SABBIONETA 

SALERNO 

SALUZZO 

SAN DANIELE DE FRIULI 

SAN MARINO 

SAN NICANDRO 

SARDINIA 



SENIGALLIA 

SICILY 

SIENA 

SIPONTO 

SPOLETO 

SYRACUSE 

TARANTO 

TRANI 

TRAPANI 

TRENT 

TREVISO 

TRIESTE 

TURIN 

TUSCANY 

URBINO 

VENICE 

VENOSA 

VERCELLI 

VERONA 

VICENZA 

VITERBO 

VITTORIO VENETO 



Biographies 

aaron of pesaro 
abrabanel 

abrabanel, benvenida 
abraham ben hayyim, the dyer 
abraham ben isaac ben garton 
adelkind, israel cornelius 

ALATINO 
ALATRI, SAMUEL 

alatrini (Alatrino) 

ALDO MANUZIO 

ALMAGIA, ROBERTO 

ALMANSI 

ALMANZI, JOSEPH 

AMBRON, SHABBETAI ISAAC 

ANCONA 

ANCONA, CESARE d' 

ANCONA, MARIO 

ANCONA, VITO d' 

ARBIB 

ARPA, ABRAMO DALL' 

ARTOM 

ARTOM, CESARE 

ASCARELLI, DEBORAH 

ASCARELLI, TULLIO 

ASCOLI 

ASCOLI, ETTORE 

ASCOLI, GRAZIADIO ISAIA 

ASSEMANI 

AZEGLIO, MASSIMO TAPARELLI, MARCHESE D 

AZULAI 

BACHI, ARMANDO 

BACHI, RICARDO 

BAK 

BALMES, ABRAHAM BEN MEIR DE 

BARTOLOCCI, GIULIO 

BARUCH, JACOB BEN MOSES HAYYIM 



102 



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BARZILAI 



BASEVI 



BASSANI, GIORGIO 

BASSANO 

BEDARIDA, GUIDO 

BELFORTE, SOLOMON 

BEMPORAD, AZEGLIO 

BEMPORAD, ENRICO 

BENEVENTO, IMMANUEL BEN JEKUTHIEL 

BENJAMIN NEHEMIAH BEN ELNATHAN 

BERNHEIMER, CARLO 

BLAYER, PIETRO 

BOCCACCIO, GIOVANNI 

BOLAFFI, MICHELE 

BOLAFFIO, LEONE 

BOMBERG, DANIEL 

BONAVENTURA, ENZO JOSEPH 

BORGHI, LAMBERTO 

bozecco (Bozecchi), benjamin ben judah 

BRAGADINI 

BRUNETTI, ANGELO 

CAGLI, CORRADO 

CALIMANI, SIMHA BEN ABRAHAM 

CAMERINI, EUGENIO SALOMONE 

CAMMEO, FEDERICO 

CANTARINI 

CANTONI, ALBERTO 

CANTONI, LELIO (Hillel) 

CANTONI, RAFFAELE 

CAPON, AUGUSTO 

CAPSALI, ELIJAH 

CARPI, LEONE 

cassuto, umberto (Moses David) 

CASTELLAZZO, MOSES DA 
CASTELLI, DAVID 
CASTELNUOVO, ENRICO 
CASTELNUOVO-TEDESCO, MARIO 
CASTIGLIONI, HAYYIM (VittOHO) 
CATTANEO, CARLO 

ci vita, davit (David) 

COEN, ACHILLE 

COEN, GRAZIADIO VITA ANANIA 

COHEN 

COLOGNA (DE), ABRAHAM VITA 

COLOMBO, SAMUEL 

COLOMBO, YOSEPH 

colon, Joseph ben solomon (Maharik) 

COLORNI, VITTORE 

COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER 

CONAT, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON 

CONCIO, JOSEPH BEN GERSON 

CONEGLIANO 

CONSIGLl(o), AVTALYON (Ottavio) BEN SOLOMON 

CORCOS, VITTORIO 

DA VERONA, GUIDO 

DANTE ALIGHIERI 

DATO, MORDECAI BEN JUDAH 

DE BENEDETTI, ALDO 

DE ROSSI, GIOVANNI BERNARDO 

DEBENEDETTI, GIACOMO 



del banco, anselmo (Asher Levi Meshullam) 

DELLA SETA, ALESSANDRO 

DELLA TORRE, LELIO (Hillel) 

DEL MONTE, CRESCENZO 

DEL VECCHIO 

DEL VECCHIO, SHABBETAI ELHANAN BEN ELISHA 

DESSAU, BERNARDO 

DI GARA, GIOVANNI 

DIENNA, AZRIEL BEN SOLOMON 

DIRINGER, DAVID 

DISEGNI, DARIO 

DONATI, ENRICO 

DONATI, LAZZARO 

DONNOLO, SHABBETAI 

EGIDIO DA VITERBO 

ELIJAH BEN SHABBETAI BEER 

ELIJAH OF LA MASSA 

ELIJAH OF PESARO 

ENRIQUES, PAOLO 

ERRERA, CARLO 

FALCO, MARIO 

FANO 

FANO, GUIDO ALBERTO 

FARINACCI, ROBERTO 

FIGO, AZARIAH 

FINZI 

FINZI, GIUSEPPE 

FIORENTINO, SALOMONE 

FOA 

FOA, RAIMONDO 

FOLIGNO, HANANEL (da) 

FORMIGGINI, ANGELO FORTUNATO 

FORTI, BARUCH UZZIEL BEN BARUCH 

FORTI, JACOB RAPHAEL HEZEKIAH BEN 

ABRAHAM ISRAEL 
FRANCES, JACOB BEN DAVID 
FRANCHETTI, RAIMONDO 
FRIZZI, BENEDETTO 
FUBINI, GUIDO 
FUBINI, MARIO 
GABBAI 
GALLICO 
GENTILI 

GERSHON, ISAAC 
GHIRONDI, MORDECAI SAMUEL BEN BENZION 

ARYEH 
GINZBURG, NATALIA 
GIOVANNI MARIA 

giustiniani, agostino (Pantaleone) 

GIUSTINIANI, MARCO ANTONIO 

GRAZIANO, ABRAHAM JOSEPH SOLOMON BEN 

MORDECAI 
GUASTALLA, ENRICO 
GUGLIELMO DA PESARO 
GUIDACERIO, AGACIO 
GUNZENHAUSER, JOSEPH BEN JACOB 
HALFANUS 
IBN YAHYA, GEDALIAH BEN JOSEPH 

imbonati, carlo giuseppe (Imbonatus) 
immanuel (ben Solomon) of rome 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 
e. Western Europe 

4) Italy 

Biographies (continued) 

ISAAC BEN JACOB MIN HA-LEVIYYIM 

ISHMAEL BEN ABRAHAM ISAAC HA-KOHEN 

JAGEL, ABRAHAM BEN HANANIAH DEI GALICCHI 

JARE 

JEDIDIAH (AMADIO) BEN MOSES OF RECANATI 

JERAHMEEL BEN SOLOMON 

JESI, SAMUEL 

JOEL, OTTO J. 

JOHN OF CAPUA 

JOSEPH HA-KOHEN 

JOSHUA BOAZ BEN SIMON BARUCH 

LATTES 

LATTES, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC 

LATTES, DANTE 

LATTES, ISAAC JOSHUA 

LERMA, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL 

LEVI, BENEDETTO 

LEVI, CARLO 

LEVI (GRAZIADIO), DAVID 

LEVI, DORO 

LEVI, EUGENIO 

LEVI, GIORGIO RENATO 

LEVI, GIULIO AUGUSTO 

LEVI, GIUSEPPE 

LEVI, MARIO GIACOMO 

LEVI, PAOLO 

LEVI, PRIMO 

LEVI-BIANCHINI, ANGELO 

LEVI-CIVITA, TULLIO 

LEVI DELLA VIDA, GIORGIO 

LEVI-MONTALCINI, RITA 

LEVI-PEROTTI, GIUSTINA 

LIUZZI 

LOLLI, EUDE 

LOMBROSO, CESARE 

LOPEZ, SABATINO 

LORIA, ACHILLE 

LUZZATTI, LUIGI 

LUZZATTO 

LUZZATTO, EPRRAIM 

LUZZATTO, GINO 

LUZZATTO, ISAAC 

MAGINO, MEIR 

MALACHI BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN 

MALVANO, GIACOMO 

MANETTI, GIANNOZZO 

MANIN, DANIELE 

MANTINO, JACOB BEN SAMUEL 

MARGULIES, SAMUEL HIRSCH 

MARINI, SHABBETHAI HAYYIM (Vita) 

MARLI, SAMUEL (RAPHAEL) BEN MAZLIAH 

MASSARANI, TULLO 

MASSARANO, JACCHINO OR ISACCHINO 



MAYER, SALLY 

MEIR BEN EPHRAIM OF PADUA 

MICHELSTAEDTER, CARLO 

MILANO, ATTILIO 

MINZ, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI 

MINZ, JUDAH BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI 

MITHRIDATES, FLAVIUS 

MODENA, ANGELO 

MODENA, AVTALYON (da) 

MODENA, FIORETTA DI 

modena, leone (Judah Aryeh) 

MODIGLIANI, AMEDEO 

MODIGLIANI, VITTORIO EMANUELE 

MOMIGLIANO, ARNALDO DANTE 

MOMIGLIANO, ATTILIO 

MOMIGLIANO, FELICE 

MONDOLFO, RODOLFO 

MORAVIA, ALBERTO 

MORPURGO 

MORPURGO, GIUSEPPE 

MORPURGO, RACHEL 

MORPURGO, SALOMONE 

MORPURGO, SAMSON BEN JOSHUA MOSES 

MORTARA, LODOVICO 

MORTARA, MARCO 

MOSCATI, SABATINO 

MOSES OF PALERMO 

MUSOLINO, BENEDETTO 

MUSSAFIA, ADOLFO 

MUSSOLINI, BENITO 

NATHAN, ERNESTO 

NATHAN BEN JEHIEL OF ROME 

neppi, hananel (Grazziadio) 

NORZI 

NORZI, JEDIDIAH SOLOMON RAPHAEL BEN 

ABRAHAM 
NUNES VAIS 
OLIVETTI 

OLMO, JACOB DANIEL BEN ABRAHAM 
ORVIETO, ANGIOLO 
OTTOLENGHI 
OTTOLENGHI, GIUSEPPE 
OTTOLENGHI, JOSEPH BEN NATHAN 
OTTOLENGHI, MOSES JACOB 
PACIFICI, ALFONSO 
PACIFICI, RICCARDO 

pagnini, santes (Xanthus Pagninus) 

PAPERNA, ABRAHAM BARUCH 

PAPO, SAMUEL SHEMAIAH 

PARDO, JOSEPH 

PARENZO 

PASTA, GUIDITTA 

PERGOLA, RAPHAEL DE LA 

PERREAU, PIETRO 

PESARO, ABRAMO 

PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA, GIOVANNI 

PIPERNO BEER, SERGIO 

PISA, DA 

PITIGRILLI 

POLACCO, VITTORIO 



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PONTECORVO, BRUNO 

PORTALEONE 

PORTALEONE, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID II 

PORTO 

PORTO, ABRAHAM MENAHEM BEN JACOB HA- 

KOHEN 
PORTO-RAFA, MOSES BEN JEHIEL HA-KOHEN 
PREZIOSI, GIOVANNI 

PROVENCAL, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID 
PROVENCAL, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM 
PROVENCAL, MOSES BEN ABRAHAM 
PUGLIESE, EMANUELE 
PUGLIESE, UMBERTO 
RABBA, MENAHEM 
RAPHAEL, MARK (Marco) 
RASSEGNA MENSILE DI ISRAEL, LA 
RAVA, MAURIZIO 
RECANATI 

REGGIO, ISACCO SAMUEL 
REUVENI, DAVID 
REVERE, GIUSEPPE PROSPERO 
RIETI 

RIETI, MOSES BEN ISAAC DA 
ROGERS, ERNESTO 
ROMANELLI, SAMUEL AARON 
ROMANIN JACUR, LEONE 
ROMANIN, SAMUELE 

ROMANO, JUDAH BEN MOSES BEN DANIEL 
ROSSELLI 

ROSSI, MADAMA EUROPA DE 
ROSSI, SALAMONE DE 
SABA, UMBERTO 
SACERDOTE, DAVID 

SACERDOTI, ANGELO-RAPHAEL CHAIM 
SAMEGAH, JOSEPH BEN BENJAMIN 
SANGUINETTI, AZARIAH HAYYIM 
SARAVAL 

SARAVAL, JACOB RAPHAEL BEN SIMHAH JUDAH 
SARAVAL, JUDAH LEIB 
SARFATI 

SCHANZER, CARLO 
SCHIFF, HUGO 
SEGRE 

SEGRE, ARTURO 
SEGRE, BENIAMINO 
SEGRE, CORRADO 
SEGRE, EMILIO GINO 
SEGRE, GINO 
SEGRE, JOSHUA BENZION 
SEGRE, ROBERTO 
SEGRE, SALVATORE 
SERENI, ANGELO PIERO 
SERENI, ENZO HAYYIM 

servi, flaminio (Ephraim) 

SESSO, SALAMONE DA 

SFORNO, OBADIAH BEN JACOB 

SIERRA, SERGIO JOSEPH 

SILANO 

SINIGAGLIA 

SINIGAGLIA, LEONE 



SIXTUS OF SIENA 

SOAVE, MOISE 

SONCINO 

SONNINO, SIDNEY 

SULLAM, SARA COPPIO 

SVEVO, ITALO 

TEDESCHI 

tedeschi (Tedesco), MOSES ISAAC BEN SAMUEL 

TERNI, DANIEL BEN MOSES DAVID 

TERRACINI, BENVENUTO ARON 

TERRACINI, UMBERTO ELIA 

TIVOLI, SERAFINO DA 

TOAFF 

TRABOT 

TREMELLIUS, JOHN IMMANUEL 

TREVES, EMILIO 

TREVES, JOHANAN BEN JOSEPH 

VALABREGA, CESARE 

VENTURA, RUBINO 

VITERBO, CARLO ALBERTO 

VITTA, CINO 

VIVANTE, CESARE 

VIVANTI, DAVID ABRAHAM 

VIVANTI CHARTRES, ANNIE 

VOLLI, GEMMA 

VOLTERRA 

VOLTERRA, EDOARDO 

VOLTERRA, MESHULLAM BEN MENAHEM DA 

VOLTERRA, VITO 

WOLLEMBORG, LEONE 

YAISH, BARUCH BEN ISAAC IBN 

ZEVI, BRUNO 

ZIFRONI, ISRAEL BEN DANIEL 

ZOLLER, ISRAEL 

5) Netherlands 
Main Surveys 

dutch literature 
netherlands, the 

General Entries 

felix libertate 

Communities 

amsterdam 
hague, the 

Biographies 

abendana, isaac sardo 

abendana, jacob ben joseph 

abraham, samuel 

abraham bar jacob 

alting, jacobus 

amelander, menahem mann ben solomon 

HA-LEVI 
ANDRADE, VELOSINO JACOB DE 
ASSCHER, ABRAHAM 
ASSER 

ATHIAS, JOSEPH AND IMMANUEL 
BEEK, MARTINUS ADRIANUS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

5) Netherlands 

Biographies (continued) 

BELINFANTE 

BELINFANTE, ISAAC BEN ELIAH COHEN 

BENVENISTE, IMMANUEL 

BERGH, VAN DEN 

BERLIJN, ANTON (Aron Wolf) 

BLANKENSTEIN, MARCUS VAN 

BOAS 

BOAS, HENRIETTE 

BOUWMEESTER, LOUIS FREDERIK JOHANNES 

BRANDON, OHEB ISAAC 

BREGSTEIN, MARCEL HENRI 

BRUGGEN, CARRY VAN 

CACERES, ABRAHAM 

campen (Campensis), johannes van 

CAMPEN, MICHEL HERMAN VAN 
CASTRO TARTAS, DAVID DE 
CITROEN, ROELOF PAUL 
COCCEIUS, JOHANNES 
COHEN, BENJAMIN 
COHEN, DAVID 
COHEN, ERNST JULIUS 
CORREA, ISABEL REBECCA DE 
COSTA, ISAAC DA 
COSTA, URIEL DA 

cunaeus (Van der Cun), petrus 

DA COSTA, JOSEPH MENDES 

davids, aaron issachar (Bernard) ben nahman 

DE CHAVES, AARON 

DE KLERK, MICHEL 

DE LIEME, NEHEMIA 

DICKER-BRANDEIS, FREDERIKE 

DOZY, REINHART PIETER ANNE 

DRUSIUS, JOHANN CLEMENS 

DUQUE, SIMON DAVID 

EERDMANS, BERNARDUS DIRKS 

ELKERBOUT, BEN 

ELTE, HARRY 

EMPEREUR, CONSTANTIN l' 

ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM 

ERPENIUS, THOMAS 

FRANK, ANNE 

FRANKFORT, HENRI 

FRANKFURTER, MOSES 

FRIEDE, SHALOM 

GANS, MOZES ("Max") 

GASKELL, SONJA 

GODEFROI, MICHAEL HENRI 

GOUDEKET, MAURITS 

GOUDSMIT, JOEL EMANUEL 

GROTIUS, HUGO 

HAAN, JACOB ISRAEL DE 

HAAN, MEIJER DE 

HARTOG, LEVIE DE 



HEIJERMANS, HERMAN 

HERTZVELD-HIJMANS, ESTELLA 

HERZBERG, ABEL JACOB 

HEYMANS, GERARDUS F. 

HILLESUM, JEREMIAS 

HIRSCHEL, LEVIE (Louis) 

HOND, MEIJER DE 

HORODISCH, ABRAHAM 

ISRAELS, JOZEF 

JACOBS, ALETTA 

JITTA, DANIEL JOSEPHUS 

JONG, LOUIS DE 

KANN, JACOBUS HENRICUS 

KLEEREKOPER, ASSER BENJAMIN 

KOENIGSWARTER 

KUENEN, ABRAHAM 

LARA, ISAAC COHEN DE 

leeuw, jacob ben hayyim (Heymann) DE 

LEHREN 

LEMANS, MOSES 

LEUSDEN, JOHANN 

LIMBURG, JOSEPH 

LIPSCHUTZ, SOLOMON BEN MORDECAI 

LOEWENSTAMM 

LOGGEM, MANUEL VAN 

MAARSEN, ISAAC 

MANASSEH BEN ISRAEL 

MEIJER, JACOB 

MEIJERS, EDUARD MAURITS 

MENDELS, MAURITS 

MEYER, JONAS DANIEL 

MINCO, MARGA 

MIRANDA, SALOMON RODRIGUES DE 

MONTEZINOS, DAVID 

MORTEIRA, SAUL LEVI 

MULDER, SAMUEL ISRAEL 

MULISCH, HARRY 

MUSSERT, ANTON ADRIAAN 

NIEROP, VAN 

ONDERWIJZER, ABRAHAM BEN SAMSON HA 

KOHEN 
OPPENHEIM, JACQUES 
ORNSTEIN, LEONARD SALOMON 
PALACHE, JUDAH LION 
PEREIRA DE PAIVA, MOSES 
PINTO, DE 
PINTO, ISAAC DE 
POLAK, GABRIEL ISAAC 
POLAK, HENRI 
POLAK, LEONARD 

PRAAG, SIEGFRIED EMANUEL VAN 
PRESSER, JACOB 
PRINS, LIEPMAN PHILIP 
PROOPS 
QUERIDO, ISRAEL 

reland, adrian (Hadrian) 

REMBRANDT VAN RIJN 
REVESZ, GEZA 
ROEST, MEIJER MARCUS 
ROSENBERG, LAZAR 



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SANDBERG, WILLEM JACOB 
SARPHATI, SAMUEL 
SCHULTENS, ALBRECHT 
SCHUSTER, AARON 
SEELIGMANN, ISAC LEO 
SEELIGMANN, SIGMUND 
SOLA, DE 

SPATH, JOHANN PETER 
SPINOZA, BARUCH DE 
SUASSO 

surenhuis, wilhelm (Guilielmus) 

SURGUN, ISAAC 

TEMPLO, JACOB JUDAH (ARYEH) LEON 

TIRADO, JACOB 

URI BEN AARON HA-LEVI 

VAN DER HOEDEN, JACOB 

VAN RAALTE, EDUARD ELLIS 

VAN VRIESLAND, VICTOR EMANUEL 

VISSER, LODEWIJK ERNST 

VOS, ISIDOR H. J. 

VRIEZEN, THEODORUS CHRISTIAAN 

VROMAN, LEO 

WAGENAAR, LION 

WAGNER, SIEGFRIED 

WEINREB, FRIEDRICH 

WERTHEIM, ABRAHAM CAREL 

WIJNKOOP, DAVID 

6) Scandinavia 
Main Surveys 

DENMARK 

FINLAND 

NORWAY 

SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE 

SWEDEN 

COMMUNITIES 

COPENHAGEN 
MALMO 
OSLO 
STOCKHOLM 

BIOGRAPHIES 

ABRAHAMS, NICOLAI CHRISTIAN LEVIN 
ADLER, DAVID BARUCH 

aslakssen, cort (Aslacus, Conrad) 

BALLIN, JOEL 
BALLIN, MOEGENS 
BALLIN, SAMUEL JACOB 
BENDIX, VICTOR EMANUEL 

benkow, jo (Josef Elias) 

BENTZEN, AAGE 
BERNADOTTE, FOLKE 
BESEKOW, SAMUEL 
BOHR, NIELS HENRIK DAVID 
BORCHSENIUS, POUL 
BORGE, VICTOR 
BRANDES, CARL EDVARD 
BRANDES, GEORG 
BRANDES, LUDWIG ISRAEL 



BRICK, DANIEL 

BUHL, FRANZ PEDER WILLIAM MEYER 

COHEN, EMIL WILHELM 

COHN, CILLA CYPORA 

COHN, GEORG ARYE 

EDELMANN, RAPHAEL 

EIBESCHUETZ, SIMON AARON 

EITINGER, LEO S. 

ELKAN, SOPHIE 

EMSHEIMER, ERNST 

FEIGENBERG, MEIR 

FISCHER, JOSEF 

FOIGHEL, ISI 

FRAENKEL, LOUIS 

FRIEDMANN, JANE 

GLUECKSTADT, ISAAC HARTVIG 

GOLDSCHMIDT, HEINRICH JACOB 

GOLDSCHMIDT, MEIR ARON 

GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR MORITZ 

GONDOR, FERENC 

goteborg (Gothenburg) 

GRANDITSKY, PALLE 

GRUENBAUM, HENRY 

HAMBRO, JOSEPH 

HANNOVER, ADOLPH 

HECKSCHER, ELI FILIP 

HEDEGARD, OSKAR DAVID LEONARD 

hertz, henrik (Heyman) 

HURWITZ, STEPHAN 

ISAAC, AARON 

ISENSTEIN, KURT HARALD 

JACOBSEN, ARNE EMIL 

JACOBSON, LUDVIG LEVIN 

JAKOBSON, MAX 

JAKUBOWSKI, JACKIE 

JOSEPHSON 

KAUFMANN, HANNE 

KLEIN, GEORGE 

LAMM, MARTIN 

LEVERTIN, OSCAR IVAR 

LEVIN, POUL THEODOR 

LEVY, LOUIS 

MANNHEIMER, THEODOR 

MELCHIOR 

MELCHIOR, MARCUS 

MELCHIOR, MICHAEL 

MEYER, LUDWIG BEATUS 

MEYER, TORBEN LOUIS 

MOTTELSON, BENJAMIN R. 

MOWINCKEL, SIGMUND OLAF PLYTT 

MUNK, KAJ 

NARROWE, MORTON 

NATHANSEN, HENRI 

NATHANSON, MENDEL LEVIN 

OPPENHEJM, RALPH GERSON 

PEDERSEN, JOHANNES 

QUISLING, VIDKUN ABRAHAM LAURITZ 

RUBENSON, ROBERT 

RUBIN, EDGAR 

SALOMON, GESKEL 



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107 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

6) Scandinavia 
Biographies (continued) 

SALOMON, JULIUS 
SALOMONSEN, CARL JULIUS 
SCHUCK, JOHAN HENRIK EMIL 
SIESBY, GOTTLIEB ISASCHAR 
SIMONSEN, DAVID JACOB 
TAU, MAX 

TYCHSEN, OLAUS GERHARD (Oluf) 
VALENTIN, HUGO MAURICE 
WARBURG, KARL JOHAN 
WARRENS, ROSA 

WERGELAND, HENRIK ARNOLD 
WOLFF, ABRAHAM ALEXANDER 
YSANDER, TORSTEN 
ZACHARIAS, JOHN 

7) Spain & Portugal 
Main Surveys 
portugal 

SPAIN 

SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE LITERATURE 



General Entries 

adelantados 
alboraycos 

ANUSIM 

arraby moor 

auto da fe 

barcelona, disputation of 

berurei averah 

calatrava 

conversos 

crypto-jews 

inquisition 

limpieza de sangre 

rab de la corte 

tortosa, disputation of 

Communities 

agramunt 
aguilar de campoo 

ALAGON 

ALBA DE TORMES 

ALBARRACIN 

ALCALA DE HENARES 

ALCANIZ 

ALCOLEA 

ALJAMA 

ALMAGRO 

ALMERIA 

ASTORGA 

AVI LA 

AZORES 

BADAJOZ 



BALAGUER 

BARBASTRO 

BARCELONA 

BAZA 

BEJA 

BELMONTE 

BESALU 

BIEL 

BRAGANZA 

BRIVIESCA 

BUITRAGO 

BURGOS 

BURRIANA 

CADIZ 

CALAHORRA 

CALATAYUD 

CANARY ISLANDS 

CARMONA 

CARRION DE LOS CONDES 

cartagena (Cartageni) 

CASTELO BRANCO 

CASTELLON DE LA PLANA 

CASTROJERIZ 

CEA 

CERVERA 

CEUTA 

CIUDAD REAL 

CIUDAD RODRIGO 

COCA 

COIMBRA 

CORDOBA 

CORUNNA 

COVILHA 

CUENCA 

CHAVES 

CHILLON 

DAROCA 

DENIA 

DUENAS 

ECIJA 

ELCHE 

ELVIRA 

ESCALONA 

ESTELLA 

EVORA 

FARO 

FRAGA 

FUNES 

GERONA 

GRANADA 

GUADALAJARA 

GUADALUPE 

HARO 

HERRERA DE PISUEGRA 

HIJAR 

HUESCA 

HUETE 

IBIZA AND FORMENTERA 

ILLESCAS 

J AC A 



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JAEN 

JATIVA 

JEREZ DE LA FRONTERA 

LAGOS 

LEIRIA 

LEON 

LERIDA 

LISBON 

LUCENA 

LLERENA 

MADRID 

MAJORCA 

MALAGA 

MAQUEDA 

MEDINA DE POMAR 

MEDINA DEL CAMPO 

MEDINACELI 

MERIDA 

MINORCA 

MIRANDA DE EBRO 

MONCORVO 

MONTCLUS 

MONTIEL 

MONZON 

MURCIA 

MURVIEDRO 

NAJERA 

OCANA 

OLMEDO 

OPORTO 

ORENSE 

ORIHUELA 

PALENCIA 

PALMA, LA 

PAMPLONA 

PECHINA 

PLASENCIA 

SAHAGUN 

SALAMANCA 

SANTA COLOMA DE QUERALT 

SANTAREM 

SARAGOSSA 

SEGORBE 

SEGOVIA 

SEPULVEDA 

SETUBAL 

SEVILLE 

SICILY 

SIGUENZA 

SORIA 

TALAVERA DE LA REINA 

TARAZONA 

TARRAGONA 

TARREGA 

TAUSTE 

TERUEL 

TOLEDO 

TOMAR 

TORTOSA 

TRUJILLO 



TUDELA 

VALENCIA 

VALMASEDA 

VALLADOLID 

VICH 

VILA REAL 

VILLADIEGO 

VILLAFRANCA DEL PANADES 

VITORIA 

ZAMORA 



Biographies 

abenmenasse 

ABENSUR 

ABENVIVES 

ABNER OF BURGOS 

ABOAB 

ABRABANEL, ABRAVANEL 

ABRAHAM EL-BARCHILON 

ABRAHAM OF BEJA 

ABRAHAM OF SARAGOSSA 

ABRAHAO, COJE 

ABU AL-FADL HASDAY 

ABUDARHAM 

ABULAFIA 

ABULAFIA, SAMUEL BEN MEIR HA-LEVI 

ABULAFIA, SAMUEL HA-LEVI 

AFFONSO 

ALCONSTANTINI 

ALFONSO 

ALFONSO DE ESPINA 

ALFONSO DE OROPESA 

ALFONSO OF ZAMORA 

alfonsus bonihominis (Buenhombre) 

AL-MANSUR AL-YAHUDI 

ALMOSNINO 

ALTARAS 

ALVAREZ GATO, JUAN 

AMADOR DE LOS RIOS, JOSE 

AMZALAK, MOSES BENSABAT 

ANTONIO 

ARAGAO, FERNAO XIMENES DE 

ARDUT 

arias montano, benito 
arragel, moses 
at(h)ias 

AUB, MAX 

AVENDAUTH 

AVI LA, DE 

AVILA, PROPHET OF 

BAENA, JUAN ALFONSO DE 

BARRIOS, DANIEL LEVI (Miguel) DE 

BENARUS, ADOLFO 

BENJAMIN (BEN JONAH) OF TUDELA 

BENOLIEL, JOSEPH (Jose) 

BENREMOKH 

BENSAUDE 

BENVENISTE 

BENVENISTE, ABRAHAM 

BENVENISTE, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

e. Western Europe 

7) Spain & Portugal 

Biographies (continued) 

BENVENISTE, SAMUEL 

BENVENISTE, SHESHET BEN ISAAC BEN JOSEPH 

BENVENISTE DE PORTA 

BENZAMERO 

BIBAGO, ISAAC 

BONJORN, BONET DAVI(d) 

BONSENYOR, JUDAH (Jafuda) 

BOTAREL, MOSES BEN ISAAC 

BRANDAO, AMBROSIO FERNANDES 

CANTERA BURGOS, FRANCISCO 

CARRASCON, JUAN 

CASTRO QUESADA, AMERICO 

CAVALLERIA, DE LA 

CERVANTES SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE 

CHARLES V 

CHAVES 

CORDOBA, ALONSO FERNANDEZ DE 

COSTA DE MATTOS, VICENTE DA 

COTA DE MAGUAQUE, RODRIGO DE 

CRESCAS 

CRESQUES ABRAHAM 

CRESQUES DE VIVERS 

DESMAESTRE, JONAH 

DIEZ, MACHO ALEJANDRO 

ECIJA, JOSEPH (Yucaf) DE 

ELEAZAR 

ENRIQUEZ GOMEZ, ANTONIO 

ENRIQUEZ, ISABEL 

ESCUDERO, LORENZO 

FALAQUERA 

FALAQUERA, NATHAN BEN JOEL 

FERDINAND AND ISABELLA 

FERNANDES VILLAREAL, MANOEL 

FERRIZUEL, JOSEPH HA-NASI 

FLORETA CA NOGA OF ARAGON 

FOREIRO, FRANCISCO 

GALIPAPA, HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM 

GALIPAPA, MAIMON 

GAMA, GASPAR DA 

gavison (Gavishon) 

GEDALIAH, JUDAH 

GERONDI, ISAAC BEN JUDAH 

GERONDI, JACOB BEN SHESHET 

GERONDI, MOSES BEN SOLOMON DESCOLA 

GERONDI, SAMUEL BEN MESHULLAM 

GERONDI, SOLOMON BEN ISAAC 

GIKATILLA, ISAAC IBN 

GIKATILLA, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM 

GIKATILLA, MOSES BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN 

GODINEZ, FELIPE 

GOLLUF, ELEAZAR 

GRACIAN, SHEALTIEL BEN SOLOMON 

HABIBA, JOSEPH 



HAMON 

HANOKH BEN MOSES 

HASSAN 

HASSAN IBN (Mar) HASSAN 

HAYYIM BEN SAMUEL BEN DAVID OF TUDELA 

HAYYUN, ABRAHAM BEN NISSIM 

HAYYUN, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM 

HISDAI IBN SHAPRUT 

HUARTE DE SAN JUAN, JUAN 

IBN ABBAS, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL II 

IBN ALFAKHAR 

IBN BIKLARISH, JUNAS (Jonah) BEN ISAAC 

IBN DAUD, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID HALEVI 

IBN HASAN, JEKUTHIEL BEN ISAAC 

IBN JANAH, JONAH 

IBN JAU, JACOB 

IBN MIGASH, JOSEPH BEN MEIR HA-LEVI 

IBN MUHAJIR, ABRAHAM BEN MEIR 

IBN SAID, ISAAC 

IBN SHOSHAN 

IBN VERGA, SOLOMON 

IBN WAQAR 

IBN ZADOK, SOLOMON 

IBRAHIM IBN YAQUB OF TORTOSA 

ISRAELI, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH 

ISRAELI, ISRAEL 

JACOBSON, KURT 

JEHOSEPH HA-NAGID 

JEWESS OF TOLEDO 

JOHN 

JONAH BEN ABRAHAM GERONDI 

JOSEPH BEN JUSTU OF JAEN 

JUAN DE CIUDAD 

JUDAH BEN BARZILLAI AL-BARGELONI 

KAMNIEL, ABU AL-HASAN MEIR IBN 

LABI, SOLOMON (iBN) 

LA GUARDIA, HOLY CHILD OF 

LEON, LUIS DE 

LEVY 

LORKI, JOSHUA 

MAIMI, SIMON 

MANUEL I 

MARTINEZ DE OVIEDO, GONZALO 

MARTINEZ, FERRANT 

MARTINI, RAYMOND 

MELAMED, MEIR 

MENAHEM BEN JACOB IBN SARUQ 

MILLAS VALLICROSA, JOSE MARIA 

MONTORO, ANTON DE 

MOSES BEN HANOKH 

MOSES HA-KOHEN OF TORDESILLAS 

NAHMIAS, IBN 

NAHMIAS, JOSEPH BEN JOSEPH 

NAVARRO 

NIFOCI, ISAAC 

NISSIM BEN REUBEN GERONDI 

OHEV BEN MEIR HA-NASI 

ORABUENA 

orobio de castro, isaac (Balthazar) 
pablo de santa maria (el Burguense) 



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PARHON, SALOMON BEN ABRAHAM IBN 
PEREZ BAYER, FRANCISCO 
PETRUS ALFONSI 

picho (Pichon), Joseph 

PORTELLA, DE 

ravaya (Ravaylla) 

RECCARED 

REMOS, MOSES BEN ISAAC 

RIBEIRO DOS SANTOS, ANTONIO 

RIBEIRO SANCHEZ, ANTONIO 

RIMOCH, ASTRUC 

ROSALES, JACOB 

rosales, jacob hebraeus (Immanuel Bocarro 
Frances) 

ROSANES 

samuel ha-nagid (Ismail Ibn Nagrela) 

SANCHES, FRANCISCO 

SANCHEZ, GABRIEL 

SANTANGEL, LUIS DE 

SARDI, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC 

SARMIENTO, PEDRO 

SCHWARZ, SAMUEL 

SENEOR, ABRAHAM 

SHALOM, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC BEN JUDAH BEN 

SAMUEL 
SILVA, ANTONIO JOSE DA 
SISEBUT 

TAMAKH, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI 
TARONJI Y CORTES, JOSE 
TORQUEMADA, TOMAS DE 
TORRES, LUIS DE 
VECINHO, JOSEPH 
VERA Y ALARCON, LOPE DE 
VIDAL, CRESCAS 
VIDAL YOM TOV OF TOLOSA 
VIEIRA, ANTONIO 
VILLAREAL 
VIVES, JUAN LUIS 

XIMENES DE CISNEROS, FRANCISCO 
YOM TOV BEN ABRAHAM ISHBILI (Rltba) 
ZACUTO, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL 
ZARZA, SAMUEL IBN SENEH 

zarzal (Zarzab), Abraham ibn 

ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI 



8) Switzerland 
Main Surveys 

switzerland 

Communities 

AARGAU 

BASLE 

BERNE 

BIEL 

ENDINGEN AND LENGNAU 

FRIBOURG 

GENEVA 

GROCK 

LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS 

LAUSANNE 



LUCERNE 
NEUCHATEL 
SAINT GALL 
SCHAFFHAUSEN 
ZURICH 

BIOGRAPHIES 

BAUMGARTNER, WALTER 
BERTHOLET, ALFRED 
BIBLIANDER, THEODOR 
BLOCH, ROLF 
BRUNSCHVIG, GEORGES 
BURCKHARDT, JOHANN LUDWIG 

buxtorf, johannes (The Elder) 
buxtorf, johannes (The Younger) 

COHN 

DEUEL, HANS ERWIN 

DREIFUSS, RUTH 

DREYFUS 

DUNANT, JEAN HENRI 

FARBSTEIN, DAVID ZEVI 

FEIGEL, SIGI 

FRAENKEL, JONAS 

GAON, NESSIM DAVID 

GIVET, JACQUES 

GOETSCHEL, JULES 

GUGGENHEIM, CAMILLE 

GUGGENHEIM, PAUL 

GUGGENHEIM-GRUENBERG, FLORENCE 

HEILPERIN, MICHAEL ANGELO 

HERSCH, JEANNE 

HOTTINGER, JOHANN HEINRICH 

JEHOUDA, JOSUE 

KRONECKER, HUGO 

MARTI, KARL 

MAYER, SALY 

PAULI, WOLFGANG 

REICHSTEIN, TADEUS 

SAGALOWITZ, BENJAMIN 

SCHACHNOWITZ, SELIG 

SCHNITZER, ADOLF 

STAROBINSKI, JEAN 

TEITLER, SAMUEL 

ULRICH, JOHANN CASPAR 

varlin (Guggenheim, Willy) 

WINTERSTEIN, ALFRED 
ZIMMERLI, WALTHER 

f. Eastern Europe 

1) Bulgaria, Albania & Armenia 
Main Surveys 



ALBANIA 



ARMENIA 



BULGARIA 



BULGARIAN LITERATURE 



COMMUNITIES 



ARDASHIR 



DURAZZO 



KOLAROVGRAD 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

/ Eastern Europe 

1) Bulgaria, Albania & Armenia 
Communities (continued) 

KYUSTENDIL 

nikopol (Nikopolis) 
pleven (Plevna) 

PLOVDIV 

RUSE 

SAMOKOV 

SOFIA 

STARA ZAGORA 

VALONA 

VARNA 

VIDIN 

Biographies 

belev, alexander 
canetti, elias 
herbst, karl 
kalef, yehoshua 
petrov, valery 
romano, marco 
rosanes, solomon abraham 
sarah of turnavo 
wagenstein, angel 

2) Czechoslovakia 
Main Surveys 
czechoslovakia 
czechoslovak literature 

General Entries 

abrahamites 

afike jehuda 

bar kochba association 

cechu-zidu, svaz 

czech memorial scrolls, the 

familiants laws (Familiantengesetze) 

GESELLSCHAFT DER JUNGEN HEBRAEER 

HILSNER CASE 

KULTUSVEREIN 

LANDESJUDENSCHAFT, BOEHMISCHE 

POLITISCHE GEMEINDE 

SELBSTWEHR 

SLANSKY TRIAL 

ZIDOVSKA STRANA 

COMMUNITIES 

ALISTAL 
AUSTERLITZ 
BANSKA BYSTRICA 
BARDEJOV 

bechyne (Bechin) 
benesov (Beneschau) 

BOHEMIA 

boskovice (Boskowitz) 



BRANDYS NAD LABEM 

BRATISLAVA 

BR EC LAV 

BREZNICE 

BRNO 

BUCOVICE 

BUDYNE NAD OHRI 

BZENEC 

CARLSBAD 

CESKA LIPA 

CESKE BUDEJOVICE 

CHEB 

CHODOVA PLANA 

CHOMUTOV 

DOLNI KOUNICE 

DOLNI KUBIN 

DUNAJSKA STREDA 

GALANTA 

GOLCUV JENIKOV 

HERMANUV MESTEC 

HLOHOVEC 

HODONIN 

HOLESOV 

HRANICE 

HROZNETIN 

HUMENNE 

HUNCOVCE 

IVANCICE 

JABLONEC NAD NISOU 

JEMNICE 

JEVICKO 

JIHLAVA 

JINDRICHUV HRADEC 

KADAN 

KASEJOVICE 

klatovy (Klattau) 
kojetin (Kojetein) 

KOLIN 

KOLODEJE NAD LUZICI 

KOMARNO 

KOSICE 

KOSOVA HORA 

KROMERIZ 

KYJOV 

LAZNE KYNZVART 

LIBEREC 

LIPNIK NAD BECVOU 

LIPTOVSKY MIKULAS 

LITOMERICE 

LOSTICE 

LOUNY 

LUCENEC 

LUKA 

MARIENBAD 

MICHALOVCE 

MIKULOV 

MIROSLAV 

MLADA BOLESLAV 

moravia (Morava) 

MORAVSKE BUDEJOVICE 



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MORAVSKY KRUMLOV 

MOST 

NACHOD 

NITRA 

NOVE MESTO NAD VAHOM 

NOVE ZAMKY 

NOVY BOHUMIN 

NOVY BYDZOV 

NOVY JICIN 

olomouc (Olmuetz) 

OPAVA 

OSOBLAHA 

PEZINOK 

PIESTANY 

PILSEN 

POBEZOVICE NA SUMAVE 

pohorelice (Pohrlitz) 

POLNA 

PRAGUE 

PRESOV 

PROSTEJOV 

ROUDNICE NAD LABEM 

SLOVAKIA 

SOBEDRUHY 

TABOR 

tachov (Tachau) 
teplice (Teplice-Sanov) 

TOPOLCANY 

trebic (Trebitsch) 
trencin (Trencsin) 

TREST 

TRNAVA 

TURNOV 

UDLICE 

UHERSKE HRADISTE 

UHERSKY BROD 

USOV 

USTEK 

USTI NAD LABEM 

VOTICE 

YEDINTSY 

ZATEC 



Biographies 

abeles, simon (Simele) 

ASKENAZY, LUDVIK 

BAK 

BASS, SHABBETAI BEN JOSEPH 

BASSEVI OF TREUENBERG (TreUdlburg), JACOB 

BAUM, OSCAR 

BEER, SAMUEL FRIEDRICH 

BERGEL, JOSEPH 

bondy, bohumil (Gottlieb) 

BONDY, FILIP 
BONN, HANUS 
BOR, JOSEF 
BRECHER, GIDEON 
BRETHOLZ, BERTHOLD 
BROD, MAX 
CZECH, LUDWIG 



DAGAN, AVIGDOR 

d'elvert, CHRISTIAN RITTER VON 

DEMETZ, PETER 

DEUTSCH, ALADAR 

DOBRUSCHKA, MOSES 

DOBRUSCHKA-SCHOENFELD 

DOSTAL, ZENO 

EDELSTEIN, JACOB 

EHRENFELD, NATHAN 

EIDLITZ, LEOPOLD 

EISLER, EDMUND MENAHEM 

EISLER, MORITZ 

EISNER, PAVEL (Paul) 

ELIEZER BEN ISAAC 

ELIJAH OF PRAGUE 

FEDER, RICHARD 

feigl, bedrich (Friedrich) 

FEUERSTEIN, BEDRICH 
FIRT, JULIUS 
FISCHER 

fischer, carolus (Karl) 

FISCHER, OTOKAR 
FLEISCHMANN, GISI 
FORMAN, MILOS 

FRANKL-GRUEN, ADOLF ABRAHAM 
FRIEDER, ARMIN 
FRITTA 

FRYD, NORBERT (Nora) 
FUCHS, ALFRED 
GAL, FEDOR 
GALSKY, DESIDER 
GELLNER, FRANTISEK 
GLASER, EDUARD 
GOLDFLAM, ARNOST 
GOLDSTEIN, ANGELO 
GOLDSTUECKER, EDUARD 
GOTTLIEB, FRANTISEK 
GROSMAN, LADISLAV 
GRUENWALD, MORITZ 
GUTFREUND, OTTO 
GUTTMANN, ROBERT 
HAAS, HUGO 
HAAS, LEO 

HAAS, SOLOMON BEN JEKUTHIEL KAUFMANN 
HELLER, YOM TOV LIPMANN BEN NATHAN HA 
LEVI 

hock, simon (Sinai) 

HOFFMANN, CAMILL 
HOSTOVSKY, EGON 

illowy (Illovy) 

JACOB BEN ABRAHAM SOLOMON 

JACOBUS APELLA VICEDOMINUS 

JAKOBOVITS, TOBIAS 

JAKOBSON, ROMAN 

JEITELES 

JELLINEK, HERMANN 

JOEL, RAPHAEL 

JOSEPH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI 

JUSTITZ, ALFRED 

KAFKA, BRUNO ALEXANDER 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

/ Eastern Europe 

2) Czechoslovakia 

Biographies (continued) 

KAFKA, FRANTISEK 

KAFKA, FRANZ 

KAHN, FRANZ 

KAPPER, SIEGFRIED (Vitezslav) 

KARA, MENAHEM BEN JACOB 

KAREL, RUDOLF 

karpeles, gustav (Gershon) 

KAUDER, SAMUEL JUDAH BEN DAVID 

KISCH 

KISCH, EGON ERWIN 

KISCH, GUIDO 

KLEMPERER, GUTMANN (Gumper) 

KLIMA, IVAN 

KNIEZA, EMIL 

KOHEN 

KOHN, JINDRICH 

KOHN, SALOMON 

KOHN, THEODOR 

KOLMAN, ARNOST (Ernest) 

KORNFELD, AARON BEN MORDECAI BAER 

KRAUS, FRANTISEK R. 

KRAUS, IVAN 

KRAUS, OSKAR 

KRAUS, OTA 

KUGEL, HAYYIM 

KUH, DAVID 

KULKA, ERICH 

LANDAU, MOSES 

LANDSOFER, JONAH BEN ELIJAH 

LANGER, FRANTISEK 

LANGER, JIRI MORDECHAI 

LAUB, GABRIEL 

LEDA, EDUARD 

LEDERER, ABRAHAM 

LEDERER, FRANCIS 

LICHTENSTADT, ABRAHAM AARON 

LICHTENSTADT, BENJAMIN WOLF BEN JUDAH 

LIEBEN, KOPPELMANN 

LIEBEN, SALOMON 

LIEBEN, SALOMON HUGO 

LISTOPAD, FRANTISEK 

LOEBL, EUGEN 

LOEW-BEER 

LOEWENSTEIN, NATHAN 

LOEWISOHN, SOLOMON 

LONDON, ARTUR 

LUSTIG, ARNOST 

MAHLER, ARTHUR 

MARGULIES, EMIL 

MASARYK, JAN GARRIGUE 

MASARYK, THOMAS GARRIGUE 

MEISEL, MORDECAI (MARCUS, MARX) BEN SAMUEL 

MILLER, MARTIN RUDOLF 



MUELHAUSEN, YOM TOV LIPMANN 

MUSIL, ALOIS 

OLBRACHT, IVAN 

ORNEST, OTA 

ORTEN, JIRI 

OSTRAVA 

PASCHELES, WOLF 

PAVEL, OTA 

PETHAHIAH OF REGENSBURG 

PETSCHEK 

PICK, JIRI ROBERT 

PLACZEK, ABRAHAM 

POLACEK, KAREL 

POLAK, JACOB EDUARD 

POPPER 

PREMYSL OTTOKAR II 

PROSTITZ, ISAAC BEN AARON 

QUETSCH, SOLOMON 

RAKOUS, VOJTECH 

RETI, RICHARD 

ROTTOVA, INNA 

RUDOLF II 

RUFEISEN, JOSEPH 

SALUS, HUGO 

SCHMOLKA, MARIE 

SCHORSCH, GUSTAV 

SHAHOR 

SICHER, GUSTAV 

SIDON, KAROL EFRAIM 

SIMONE, ANDRE 

SINGER, LUDVIK 

SPIEGEL, LUDWIG 

SPITZER, JURAJ 

STEIN, AUGUST 

STEINER, HANNAH 

STEINER-PRAG, HUGO 

STEINHERZ, SAMUEL 

STRANSKY, JAROSLAV 

SZOBEL, GEZA 

TELLER, ISSACHAR BAER 

TEWELES, JUDAH 

THIEBERGER, FRIEDRICH 

TIGRID, PAVEL 

TREBITSCH, ABRAHAM 

UHDE, MILAN 

UTITZ, EMIL 

VOGEL, KAREL 

VOHRYZEK, JOSEF 

VOSKOVEC, GEORGE 

VRCHLICKY, JAROSLAV 

WEBER, KOLOMAN 

WEIL, JIRI 

WEINBERGER, JAROMIR 

WEINER, RICHARD 

WEINMANN, JACOB 

WEISS, JIRI 

WESSELY, WOLFGANG 

WINTER, GUSTAV 

ZELENKA, FRANTISEK 

ZEYER, JULIUS 



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ZIDEK, PAVEL 

3) Greece 

Main Surveys 

GREECE 

greek literature, modern 

General Entries 

romaniots 

Communities 

ARTA 

ATHENS 

CANEA 

CHALCIS 

CHIOS 

CORFU 

CORINTH 

CRETE 

CUOMOTINI 

CYPRUS 

didymoteikhon (Didymotica) 

DRAMA 

EPIRUS 

IOANNINA 

KASTORIA 

KAVALLA 

KORONE 

KOS 

LARISSA 

MODON 

NAUPAKTOS 

PATRAS 

PHLORINA 

RETHYMNON 

RHODES 

SALONIKA 

SERRAI 

SPARTA 

THEBES 

tr ikk ala (Trikala) 

VEROIA 
VOL OS 
XANTHI 
ZANTE 



Biographies 

afia, aaron 

alhanati, david 

almosnino, moses ben baruch 

arditi, albert judah 

balbo, michael ben shabbetai cohen 

belleli, lazarus menahem 

ben-aroya, avraham 

bensanchi, mentesh (Mordecai) 

CAIMIS, JULIUS 
CAIMIS, MOISIS 
DALVEN, RACHEL 
ELAZAR, YAAKOV 
ELIYIA, JOSEPH 



ESTROSA, DANIEL 
FRANCO, MOSES 

hayyim (Ben) shabbetai (Maharhash) 

IBN ARDUT, HAYYIM JOSEPH BEN AZRIEL HA- 

KOHEN 
IBN YAHYA, GEDALIAH BEN TAM 
ISTRUMSA (IstrUSa), HAYYIM ABRAHAM 
JABEZ 

Joseph david (Salonika) 

KALA'l, MORDECAI BEN SOLOMON 
KAPUZATO, MOSES HA-YEVANI 
KORETZ, ZVI 
LEVI, ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH 

levi (Bet ha-Levi), isaac ben solomon 

LEVI, JACOB BEN ISRAEL 

levi (Bet ha-Levi), solomon ben isaac 

LEVI, SOLOMON BEN ISAAC (II) 

MAESTRO, YAAKOV 

MALKHI, EZRA BEN RAPHAEL MORDECAI 

MATSAS, JOSEPH 

MATSAS, NESTORAS 

MOISSIS, ASHER 

MOLHO, ISAAC RAPHAEL 

MOTAL, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB 

NEHAMA, JOSEPH 

NOVITCH, MIRIAM 

PERAHYAH, AARON BEN HAYYIM ABRAHAM 

HA-KOHEN 
PERAHYAH, HASDAI BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN 
QUERIDO, JACOB 
RAZON, JACKO 

RECANATI, ABRAHAM SAMUEL 
RECANATI, LEON 
ROMANUS I LECAPENUS 
SALEM, EMMANUEL RAPHAEL 
SCHIBY, BARUCH 
SCIAKI, JOSEPH 

tekinalp, munis (Kohen, Moiz) 

ZARCO, JUDAH 

4) Hungary 

Main Surveys 
hungarian literature 

HUNGARY 

General Entries 

arrow cross party 

ben chananja 

egyenloseg 

izraelita magyar irodalmi tarsulat 

(IMIT) 
LANDESRABBINERSCHULE 
MAGYAR ZSIDO SZEMLE 
MULT ES JOVO 
PRAEFECTUS JUDAEORUM 
STATUS QUO ANTE 
UJ KELET 

Communities 

ABONY 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

/ Eastern Europe 

4) Hungary 

Communities (continued) 

ALBERTI-IRSA 

ASZOD 

BAJA 

BALASSAGYARMAT 

BEKESCSABA 

BELED 

BERETTYOUJFALU 

BODROGKERESZTUR 

BONYHAD 

BUDAPEST 

DEBRECEN 

EGER 

ESZTERGOM 

GYONGYOS 

GYOR 

HODMEZOVASARHELY 

KAPOSVAR 

KECSKEMET 

KISVARDA 

KOSZEG 

MAKO 

MISKOLC 

NAGYKANIZSA 

NYIREGYHAZA 

PAKS 

PAPA 

PECS 

PESTSZENTERZSEBET 

SATORALJA UJHELY 

SOPRON 

SZEGED 

SZEKESFEHERVAR 

SZOLNOK 

SZOMBATHELY 

TISZAESZLAR 

VAC 

VESZPREM 



Biographies 

acsady, ignac 
aczel, tamas 

ADAM, LAJOS (Louis) 

ADLER, MORITZ 

AGAI, ADOLF 

AKIVA BEN MENAHEM HA-KOHEN OF OFEN 

ALCONIERE, THEODORE 

AMIGO 

AUER, LEOPOLD 

BACHER, WILHELM 

BAKY, LASZLO 

BALAZS, BELA 

BALLAGI, MOR 

BANOCZI 



BARACS, KAROLY 

BARNA, VICTOR 

BATO, LUDWIG YOMTOV 

BAUMGARTEN, SANDOR 

BAUMHORN, LIPOT 

BECK, KARL ISIDOR 

BECK, WILLY 

BENJAMIN, LASZLO 

BEREGI, ARMIN BENJAMIN 

BEREGI, OSZKAR 

BERENY, ROBERT 

BERNSTEIN, BELA 

BETTELHEIM 

BETTELHEIM, SAMUEL 

BIHARI, ALEXANDER 

BIRO, LAJOS 

BLAU, LUDWIG LAJOS 

BLUM, AMRAM BEN ISAAC JACOB 

BOHM, HENRIK 

bokros-birman, dezso (Desiderius) 

BRAND, JOEL JENO 
BREYER, JULIUS (Gyilla) 
BROD, DOVIDL 

brody, heinrich (Hayyim) 

BRODY, LASZLO 

BRODY, LILI 

BRODY, SANDOR 

BRODY, ZSIGMOND 

BRUCK, LAJOS 

BRUCK, MIKSA 

BUECHLER, ALEXANDER 

CHAROUSEK, RUDOLPH 

CHORIN, AARON 

CSERGO, HUGO 

CSERMELY, GYULA 

CZOBEL, BELA 

DEAK, FERENCZ 

DENES, BELA 

DERY, TIBOR 

DEUTSCH, DAVID BEN MENAHEM MENDEL 

DEUTSCH, ELIEZER HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM 

DEUTSCH, JUDAH JOEL 

DOCZY, LAJOS 

dukes, Leopold (Judah Loeb) 

DUSCHINSKY, JOSEPH ZEVI BEN ISRAEL 

EGER, SIMHAH BUNIM BEN MOSES 

EHRENFELD 

EHRENFELD, SAMUEL BEN DAVID ZEVI 

EHRENREICH, HAYYIM JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS 

EINHORN, IGNAZ 

EISLER, MATYAS 

ELEK, ARTUR 

EMOD, TAMAS 

ENDRE, LASZLO 

ENGEL, JOZSEF 

ENGELMANN, GABRIEL 

EOTVOS, BARON JOZSEF 

EPPLER, SANDOR 

FALK, MIKSA 

FALUDY, GYORGY 



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FEJER, LEOPOLD 
FEJTO, FRANCOIS 
FELEKY, GEZA 
FENICHEL, SAMUEL 
FENYES, ADOLF 
FENYO, LASZLO 
FENYO, MIKSA 
FERENCZI, SANDOR 
FISCHER, ANNIE 
FISCHER, GYULA 
FISCHER, MORITZ VON 
FLEISCHER, JUDAH LOEB 
FOLDES, JOLAN 
FRANKEL, LEO 
FRANKL, ADOLF 

frenk, beer (Issachar Dov) 

FREUND, VILMOS 
FRIED, AARON 
FRIEDMAN, DENES 
FRIEDMANN, ABRAHAM 
FRIEDMANN, MORITZ 
FUCHS, MOSES ZEVI 
FUST, MILAN 
GABOR, ANDOR 
GABOR, IGNAC 
GELLERI, ANDOR ENDRE 
GELLERT, OSZKAR 
GERO, ERNO 
GISZKALAY, JANOS 
GLASNER, MOSES SAMUEL 
GLUECK, ABRAHAM ISAAC 
GOITEIN, BARUCH BENEDICT 
GOLDBERGER, IZIDOR 

goldziher, ignaz (Isaac Judah) 

GRISHABER, ISAAC 

gross, heinrich (Henri) 

GRUENFELD, JUDAH 

GRUENHUT, ELEAZAR (Lazar) 

GRUNVALD, PHILIP (Flllop) 

GRUNWALD, AMRAM 

GRUNWALD, JUDAH 

GUENZLER, ABRAHAM 

GUTTMANN, MICHAEL (Mihaly) 

HAJDU, MIKLOS 

HAJNAL, ANNA 

HAJOS, ALFRED 

HATVANY-DEUTSCH 

HAVAS, GEZA 

HAY, GYULA (Julius) 

HAZAI, SAMU 

HEGEDUS, ARMIN 

HELLER, BERNAT 

HELLER, JUDAH 

HELTAI, JENO 

HERTZKA, THEODOR 

H EVE SI, LAJOS (Ludwig) 

HEVESI, SANDOR 

HEVESI, SIMON 

HIRSCHLER, IGNAC 

HIRSCHLER, PAL 



HOROVITZ, LEOPOLD 

HOROWITZ, SHRAGA FEIVEL HA-LEVI 

HUGO, KAROLY 

IGNOTUS, HUGO 

ILLES, BELA 

ISTOCZY, GYOZO 

IVANYI-GRUNWALD, BELA 

JAKAB, DEZSO 

JAMBOR, FERENC-IOSEF 

JASZI, OSZKAR 

JEREMIAH BEN ISAAC 

JOAB BEN JEREMIAH 

JONATHAN BEN JACOB 

JOSEPH SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN MEIR 

JUNGREIS, ASHER ANSHEL 

KACZER, ILLES 

KADAR, JAN 

KAHANA, JEHIEL ZEVI BEN JOSEPH MORDECAI 

KAHANA, NAHMAN 

KARACSONY, BENO 

KARDOS, ALBERT 

KARDOS, LASZLO 

KARINTHY, FERENC 

KARMAN, MOR 

KATZ, MENAHEM 

KAUFMANN, ISIDOR 

KECSKEMETI, ARMIN 

KECSKEMETI, GYORGY 

KECSKEMETI, LIPOT 

KELEN, IMRE 

KELETI, AGNES 

KEMENY, SIMON 

KERTESZ, ANDRE 

KERTESZ, IMRE 

KERTESZ, ISTVAN 

KESZI, IMRE 

KISS, JOZSEF 

KITTSEE, HAYYIM BEN ISAAC 

KITTSEE, JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN SAMUEL 

KLEIN, MORITZ 

KLEIN, SAMUEL SHMELKA 

KLEIN, WILHELM 

KOBOR, TAMAS 

KOHLBACH, BERTALAN 

KOHN, SAMUEL 

KOHUT 

KOMAROMI CSIPKES, GYORGY 

KOMLOS, ALADAR 

KOMOLY, OTTO 

KOMOR, ANDRAS 

KONRAD, GYORGY 

KORMENDI, FERENC 

KORNFELD, ZSIGMOND 

KOSSUTH, LAJOS 

KRAUSS, JUDAH HA-KOHEN 

KRAUSZ, ZSIGMOND 

KUN, BELA 

KUNFI, ZSIGMOND 

KUNSTADT, ISAAC (Ignaz) BEN ELIEZER LIPMAN 

LAJTA, BELA 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

/ Eastern Europe 

4) Hungary 

Biographies (continued) 

LAKATOS, LASZLO 

LANCZY, GYULA 

LANCZY, LEO 

LANDAU, NATHAN 

LASZLO, PHILIP ALEXIUS DE LOMBOS 

LEIMDOERFER, DAVID 

LENGYEL, JOZSEF 

LENGYEL, MENYHERT (Melchfor) 

LENKEI, HENRIK 

LEVAI, JENO 

LICHTENSTEIN, HILLEL BEN BARUCH 

LOEW, IMMANUEL 

LOEW, LEOPOLD (LipOt) 

LOEWENTHAL, JOHANN JAKOB 

LOEWINGER, DAVID SAMUEL 

LOEWY, ISAAC 

LUKACS, GEORG (Gyorgy) 

MAHLER, EDUARD 

MAJOR, ERVIN 

MAKAI, EMIL 

MALNAI, BELA 

MARCZALI, HENRIK 

markovits, rodion (Jakab) 

MARTON, ERNO JECHEZKEL 

MENDEL 

MERAY, TIBOR 

MEZEI, MOR 

MEZEY, FERENC 

MEZOFI, VILMOS 

MODERN, JUDAH 

MOHACSI, JENO 

MOHOLY-NAGY, LASZLO 

MOLNAR, AKOS 

MOLNAR, FERENC 

MUENZ, MOSES BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI 

MUNKACSI, BERNAT 

MUNKACSI, ERNO 

NAGY, ENDRE 

NAGYBACZONI-NAGY, VILMOS 

NAMENYI, ERNEST (Em6) 

NATONEK, JOSEPH 

NEMETH, ANDOR 

ONODY, GEZA 

ORMODY, BERTALAN 

OSVAT, ERNO 

PALAGYI, LAJOS 

PALAGYI, MENYHERT (Melchior) 

PAP, KAROLY 

PATAI, JOZSEF 

PECHI, SIMON 

PERLES, ISAAC MOSES 

PERLMUTTER, IZSAK 

PLAUT, HEZEKIAH FEIVEL 



POLLAK, MIKSA 

POLLAK, MOSES HA-LEVI 

QITTNER, ZSIGMUND 

RADNOTI, MIKLOS 

RADO, ANTAL 

RAKOSI, MATYAS 

RAPOPORT, BENJAMIN ZEEV WOLF HA-KOHEN 

BEN ISAAC 
REICH, IGNAC 
REICH, KOPPEL (Jacob) 
REICHARD, PIROSKA 
REVESZ, BELA 
REVICZKY, IMRE 
RICHTMANN, MOZES 
RONAI, JANOS 

ROSENBAUM, MOSES HAYYIM LITS 
ROSENTHAL, NAPHTALI 
ROZSAVOLGYI, MARK 
SALAMON, ERNO 
SANDOR, PAL 
SCHEIBER, ALEXANDER 
SCHICK, MOSES BEN JOSEPH 
SCHILLER-SZINESSY, SOLOMON MAYER 

schiper, ignac y (Yizhak) 

SCHLESINGER, AKIVA JOSEPH 
SCHOENFELD, JOSEPH 

schreiner, martin (Mordechai) 

SCHWAB, LOW 

SCHWARTZ, ABRAHAM JUDAH HA-KOHEN 
SCHWARTZ, JOSEPH HA-KOHEN 
SCHWARTZ, PHINEHAS (Pinhas) SELIG HA- 
KOHEN (Sigmund) 

SCHWEITZER, EDUARD VON 

SCHWERIN-GOETZ, ELIAKIM HA-KOHEN 

SEIBER, MATYAS GYORGY 

SHAG, ABRAHAM 

SIDON, SIMEON 

SILBERSTEIN, DAVID JUDAH LEIB 

SILBERSTEIN-OTVOS, ADOLF 

SIMON, JOSEPH 

SIMON, TAMAS 

SINGER, ABRAHAM 

SINGER, JOSEPH 

SINGER, PESAH 

SOMLYO, ZOLTAN 

SOMOGYI, BELA 

SONNENFELD, SIGISMUND 

SPIRO, GYORGY 

STEIN, ELIEZER LIPMAN 

STERN, JOSEPH 

STERN, MENAHEM 

STERN, SAMUEL MIKLOS 

SZABO, IMRE 

SZABOLCSI, BENCE 

SZABOLCSI, LAJOS 

SZABOLCSI, MIKSA 

SZALASI, FERENC 

SZANTO, GYORGY 

SZANTO, SIMON 

SZEKELY, EVA 



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ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



SZENDE, PAL 
SZENDE, STEFAN 
SZENES, BELA 
SZENES, ERZSI 
SZENES, HANNAH 
SZEP, ERNO 
SZERB, ANTAL 

szerencses, imre (Fortunatus) 

SZILAGYI, GEZA 
SZILARD, LEO 
SZOMORY, DEZSO 
SZTOJAY, DOME 
TABAK, SOLOMON LEIB 

tabor (Tabori), paul 

TABORI, GEORGE 
TENNENBAUM, JACOB 
TUROCZI-TROSTLER, JOZSEF 
UJVARI, PETER 
ULLMANN, ADOLPH 
ULMAN, ABRAHAM 
UNGAR, JOEL OF RECHNITZ 
VADASZ, LIPOT 
VAGO, JOZSEF 
VAGO, LASZLO 
VALYI, PETER 

vambery, arminius (Vamberger, Hermann) 

VANDOR, LAJOS 

VARNAI, ZSENI 

VAS, ISTVAN 

VAZSONYI, VILMOS 

VEIGELSBERG, LEO 

VENETIANER, LAJOS (Ludwig) 

VESZI, ENDRE 

VESZI, JOZSEF 

VIHAR, BELA 

VOGEL, SIMON 

WAHRMANN, ISRAEL 

WAHRMANN, MORITZ 

WEINER, LEO 

WEISS, JOSEPH MEIR 

WEISS, MANFRED 

WEISZ, MAX 

WELLESZ, JULIUS 

WERTHEIMER, EDUARD VON 

ZELK, ZOLTAN 

ZIEGLER, IGNAZ 

ZIPSER, MAJER 

ZOLD, MARTON 

ZSIGMOND, EDE 

ZSOLDOS, JENO 

ZSOLT, BELA 

5) Poland 

Main Surveys 

lithuania 

POLAND 

polish literature 

General Entries 

agriculture 



AGUDDAT AHIM 



ARENDA 

haller's ARMY 

JABLONNA 
KOROBKA 



MORGENTHAU COMMISSION 



SAMUEL COMMISSION 
STEIGER TRIAL 



UGODA 



COMMUNITIES 

ALEKSANDROW LODZKI 

AUGUSTOW 

BEDZIN 

BELCHATOW 

BELZYCE 

BIALA 

BIALA PODLASKA 

BIALYSTOK 

BIELSKO 

BIELSK PODLASKI 

BILGORAJ 

BOCHNIA 

BOJANOWO 

BRESLAU 

BRODY 

BRZEG 

BRZESC KUJAWSKI 

BRZEZINY 

BUCHACH 

BUSK 

BYDGOSZCZ 

BYTOM 

CHECINY 

CHELM 

CHMIELNIK 

CHORZOW 

CHRYZANOW 

CIECHANOW 

CRACOW 

CZESTOCHOWA 

DABROWA GORNICZA 

drogobych (Drohobycz) 
dzialoszyce (Dzialoshitz) 
elblag (Elbing) 

GABIN 
GALICIA 

Gdansk (Danzig) 

GLIWICE 

GLOGAU 

GNIEZNO 

GORA KALWARIA 

GORLICE 

GORZOW WIELKOPOLSKI 

GOSTYNIN 

GRAJEWO 

GREAT POLAND 

GRODZISK MAZOWIECKI 

GRODZISK WIELKOPOLSKI 

GROJEC 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

f. Eastern Europe 

5) Poland 

Communities (continued) 

HALICZ 

HRUBIESZOW 

INOWROCLAW 

IZBICA LUBELSKA 

JANOW LUBELSKI 

JAROSLAW 

JASLO 

JEDRZEJOW 

JONAVA 

j ur bark as (Jurburg) 

KALISZ 

KALUSZYN 

KALVARIJA 

KATOWICE 

KAUNAS 

KEDAINIAI 

KELME 

KIELCE 

KLODAWA 

kock (Kotsk) 

KOLBERG 
KOLO 
KONIN 
KONITZ 

konskie (Konsk) 

KONSKOWOLA 
KORNIK 

kozienice (Kozenitsy) 

KOZLE 

KRASNIK 

KRASNYSTAW 

KRETINGA 

KROSNO 

KROTOSZYN 

KRYNKI 

KRZEPICE 

kupiskis (Kupiskiai; Kupishki) 

KUTNO 

KYBARTAI 

LANCUT 

LASK 

LEBORK 

LECZNA 

LECZYCA 

LEGNICA 

LELOW 

LESKO 

LESSER POLAND 

LESZNO 

LEZAJSK 

LIPNO 

LODZ 



lomza (Lomzha; Lomzhe) 
losice (Lositsy) 

LOWICZ 

LUBACZOW 

LUBARTOW 

LUBLIN 

LUBRANIEC 

LUKOW 

LUTOMIERSK 

LYCK 

MAKOW MAZOWIECKI 

MARIJAMPOLE 

MEMEL 

MIEDZYRZEC PODLASKI 

MIELEC 

MINSK MAZOWIECKI 

mlawa (Mlwa; Mlava) 

NAROL 

NASIELSK 

NOWY DWOR MAZOWIECKI 

NOWY SACZ 

OLESNICA 

OLKUSZ 

OPATOW 

OPOCZNO 

OPOLE LUBELSKIE 

ostroleka (Ostrolenka) 

OSTROW MAZOWIECKA 

os trow i ec (Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski) 
oswiecim (Auschwitz) 

OTWOCK 

OZORKOW 

PABIANICE 

panevezys (Panevezhis) 

PARCZEW 
PEREMYSHLYANY 
PIASECZNO 
PINCZOW 

piotrkow (Piotrkow-Trybunalski) 

PLOCK 

PLONSK 

PLUNGE 

POZNAN 

PRZEDBORZ 

PRZEMYSL 

PRZEWORSK 

PRZYSUCHA 

PRZYTYK 

PULAWY 

PULTUSK 

RADOM 

RADOMSKO 

RADYMNO 

RADZYMIN 

radzyn (Radzyn-Podlaski) 

RASEINIAI 

rawicz (Rawitsch) 

ROKISKIS 

ropczyce (Ropshits) 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



ROZWADOW 



WRONKI 



RYMANOW 



WYSZKOW 



RYPIN 
RZESZOW 

sakiai (Shakyai, Shakay) 

SAMBOR 

SAMOGITIA 

SANDOMIERZ 

SANOK 

SEDUVA 

SIAULIAI 

SIEDLCE 

SIEMIATYCZE 

SIERADZ 

SIERPC 

SKARZYSKO-KAMIENNA 

SKIERNIEWICE 

SKUODAS 

SOCHACZEW 

SOKOLKA 

SOKOLOW PODLASKI 

sosnowiec (Sosnovets) 

SREM 

STASZOW 

STETTIN 

STOPNICA 

STRYKOW 

SUWALKI 

SWIDNICA 

SZCZEBRZESZYN 

SZCZERCOW 

SZYDLOWIEC 

TARNOBRZEG 

tarnogrod (Tarnograd) 

TARNOW 
TAURAGE 

telsiai (Telshi; Telschen) 

TOMASZOW LUBELSKI 

TOMASZOW MAZOWIECKI 

TORUN 

TROKI 

TRZCIANKA 

TYKOCIN 

TYSZOWCE 

UKMERGE 

UTENA 

VILKAVISKIS 

VILNA 

VIRBALIS 

WARSAW 

WEGROW 

WIELICZKA 

WIELUN 

WISLICA 

WLOCLAWEK 

WLODAWA 

WODZISLAW 

WOLBROM 

WOLOMIN 



WYSZOGROD 
ZABLUDOW 
ZABRZE 
ZAGARE 

zambrow (Zambrov) 

ZAMOSC 

ZARASAI 

ZAWIERCIE 

ZDUNSKA-WOLA 

ZELECHOW 

ZELOW 

zgierz (Zgerzh) 

ZHMERINKA 

ZMIGROD NOWY 

ZUELZ 

ZWOLEN 

ZYCHLIN 

ZYRARDOW 



ORGANIZATIONS 

CENTOS 

COUNCIL OF FOUR LANDS 

COUNCILS OF THE LANDS 

endecja (Endeks) 

FOLKSPARTEI (POLAND) 

GORDONIA 

HA-NOAR HA-IVRI-AKIBA 

HE-HALUTZ 

JEWISH HISTORICAL INSTITUTE, WARSAW 

JEWISH SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY 

MAHZIKE HADAS 

MINORITY BLOC 

NARA 

OZON 

PPS 

ROZWOJ 

SEJM 

SHOMER ISRAEL 

TOZ 

VILNA TROUPE 



Publications 

beobachter an der weichsel 

CHWILA 

HA-ASIF 

HA-BOKER 

HA-KARMEL 

HALICZ 

HA-MIZPEH 

HAYNT 

HA-ZEFIRAH 

HA-ZOFEH 

IZRAELITA 

JAFFE 

JEKELES 

MOMENT, DER 

NASZ PRZEGLAD 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

f. Eastern Europe 

5) Poland 

Publications (continued) 

nowy dziennik 

Biographies 

Academic Life 

ASKENAZY, SIMON 
ATLAS, ELEAZAR 

balaban, meir (Majer) 

BISLICHES, MORDECAI LEIB 

BODEK, JACOB 

BORNSTEIN, HAYYIM JEHIEL 

BUBER, SOLOMON 

BUCHNER, ABRAHAM 

CHAJES, SAUL 

CHARNA, SHALOM YONAH 

CHATZKELS, HELENE 

CHWISTEK, LEON 

DEMBITZER, HAYYIM NATHAN 

DICKSTEIN, SZYMON 

EDELMANN, SIMHAH REUBEN 

FEINSTEIN, ARYEH LOEB 

FRENK, EZRIEL (Azriel) NATHAN 

FRIEDBERG, BERNARD 

FRIEDMAN, PHILIP 

GLUSK, ABRAHAM ABBA 

GOLDBERG, BAER (DOV) BEN ALEXANDER 

GOLDBERG, BORIS 

GOLDBLUM, ISRAEL ISSER (Isidore) 

GOLDENBERG, BAERISH 

GORDON, JACOB 

HALBERSTAM, SOLOMON (Zalman) HAYYIM 

HALEVY, ISAAC 

HANDELSMAN, MARCELI 

HERSCHBERG, ABRAHAM SAMUEL 

HURWITZ, JUDAH BEN MORDECAI HA-LEVI 

HURWITZ, PHINEHAS ELIJAH 

ILNAE, ELIEZER ISAAC 

JAWITZ, ZEEV 

KALECKI, MICHAL 

KAMENETZKY, ABRAHAM SHALOM 

KATZ, BENZION 

KATZENELLENBOGEN, ZEVI HIRSH (Naphtali) 

KIRSCHBAUM, ELIEZER SINAI 

KOTARBINSKA, JANINA 

KRESSEL, GETZEL 

KROCHMAL, ABRAHAM 

KROCHMAL, NACHMAN 

LAUTERBACH, ASHER ZELIG 

LIPSCHITZ, JACOB HA-LEVI 

MAGGID-STEINSCHNEIDER, HILLEL NOAH 

MANASSEH BEN JOSEPH OF ILYA 

MARK, BERNARD (Berl) 

MARK, YUDEL 

MICZYNSKI, SEBASTIAN 



MIESES, FABIUS 

MIESES, MATTHIAS 

MOHR, ABRAHAM MENAHEM MENDEL 

NUSSBAUM, HILARY (Hillel) 

OBERMANN, JULIAN JOEL 

PELTIN, SAMUEL HIRSH 

PINELES, HIRSCH MENDEL BEN SOLOMON 

(Shalosh) 
plungian (Plungiansky), MORDECAI 

POSNANSKI 

RABBINOWITZ, SAUL PHINEHAS 

REICHERSON, MOSES 

REIFMANN, JACOB 

RUBIN, SOLOMON 

SACHS, SENIOR 

SCHAFF, ADAM 

SCHOENHACK, JOSEPH 

SCHORR, JOSHUA HESCHEL 

SCHULMAN, KALMAN 

SHATZKES, MOSES AARON 

simchoni (Simchowitz), jacob naftali 

HERTZ 
STEIN, EDMUND MENAHEM 
TCHERIKOWER, ELIAS 
TRUNK, ISAIAH 
TUGENDHOLD, JACOB 
TYKOCINSKI, HAYYIM 
WETTSTEIN, FEIVEL HIRSCH 
ZAMENHOF, LUDWIK LAZAR 
ZHITLOWSKY, CHAIM 

Art 

CENTERSZSWER, STANISLAWA 
FEUERRING, MAXIMILIAN 
GOTTLIEB, MAURYCY 
HIRSHENBERG, SAMUEL 
PILICHOWSKI, LEOPOLD 

Literature 

ADALBERG, SAMUEL 
BEHR, ISSACHAR FALKENSOHN 
BIEGELEISEN, HENRYK 
BRANDSTAETTER, ROMAN 
BRANDYS, KAZIMIERZ 
BRAUN, MIECZYSLAW 
BRZECHWA, JAN 
DRZEWIECKI, HENRYK 
FELD, ISAAC 
FELDMAN, WILHELM 
GORSKA, HALINA 
GRAY, MARTIN 
GRYDZEWSKI, MIECZYSLAW 
GRYNBERG, HENRYK 
HEMAR, MARIAN 
HERTZ, BENEDYKT 
JASIENSKI, BRUNO 
JASTRUN, MIECZYSLAW 
JUNOSZA, KLEMENS 
KLACZKO, JULIAN (Judah) 
LEC, STANISLAW JERZY 



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LESMIAN, BOLESLAW 
MICKIEWICZ, ADAM 
MORGENSTERN, SOMA 
NOWACZYNSKI, ADOLF 

orzeskowa (Orzesko), eliza 

PEIPER, TADEUSZ 
ROZEWICZ, TADEUSZ 
RUDNICKI, ADOLF 
SCHULZ, BRUNO 
SLONIMSKI, ANTONI 
STANDE, STANISLAW RYSZARD 
STERN, ANATOL 
STRYJKOWSKI, JULJAN 
SZENWALD, LUCJAN 
TUWIM, JULIAN 
WAT, ALEXANDER 
WAZYK, ADAM 
WINAWER, BRUNO 
WITTLIN, JOZEF 
WOROSZYLSKI, WIKTOR 
WYGODZKI, STANISLAW 

Music 

ALTSCHUL, JOSEPH 
BERGSON, MICHAEL 
SZERMAN, PINCHAS 
WEINTRAUB, SOLOMON 
WIENIAWSKI, HENRI 

Popular Culture 

FORD, ALEXANDER 

KAMINSKI 

KIRSZENSTEIN-SZEWINSKA, IRENA 

MOREWSKI, ABRAHAM 

POLANSKI, ROMAN 

ROTBAUM, JACOB 

RUBINSTEIN, AKIVA 

SAMBERG, ISAAC (Aizik) 

SATZ, LUDWIG 

TURKOW 

Public & Economic Life 

DLUGOSZ, JAN 

FEDERBUSCH, SIMON 

FORTIS, ABRAHAM ISAAC 

GOLDMAN, BERNARD 

GORDON, ABRAHAM 

GORDON, DAVID 

GOTTLIEB, HEINRICH 

GOTTLIEB, HIRSCH LEIB 

GOTTLIEB, YEHOSHUA 

GRABSKI, STANISLAW 

GRAEBER, SCHEALTIEL EISIK 

GROSS, NATHAN 

GROSSER, BRONISLAW 

GRUENBAUM, YIZHAK 

HARTGLAS, MAXIMILIAN MEIR APOLINARY 

HAUSNER, BERNARD 

HERSCH, PESACH LIEBMAN 

HERZBERG-FRAENKEL, LEO 



HIRSCHHORN, SAMUEL 

HIRSZOWICZ, ABRAHAM 

HOROWITZ, SAMUEL BEN ISAIAH ARYEH 

LEIB HA-LEVI 
JELENSKI, JAN 
JOGICHES, LEON 
JOSELEWICZ, BEREK 
JOSKO 

JOZEFOWICZ 
KAHNSHTAM, AHARON 
KALLIR, MEIER 
KATZ-SUCHY, JULIUSZ 
KIRSCHBRAUN, ELIJAH 
KLUMEL, MEIR 
KOLISCHER, HEINRICH 
KON, FELIKS 
KOPELSON, ZEMAH 
KORCZAK, JANUSZ 
KORKIS, ABRAHAM ADOLF 
KOSCIUSZKO, TADEUSZ 
KOVNER, ABBA 
KRONENBERG 
LACHS, MANFRED 
LANDAU, LEIB 

LANDAU, SHEMUEL HAYYIM 
LEKERT, HIRSCH 
LELEWEL, JOACHIM (Ignacy) 
LEVIN, YIZAK MEIR 
LEWIN, GERSHON 
LEWITE, LEON 
LEWKO, JORDANIS 
LIBER, MARC 
LIEBERMAN, HERMAN 
LIEBERMANN, AARON SAMUEL 
LILIENBLUM, MOSES LEIB 
LITAUER, JAN JAKUB 
LITWAK, A. 
LONDON, SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN MOSES 

RAPHAEL 
LUTOSTANSKI, HYPPOLITE 
MAYZEL, MAURYCY 
MEISELS, DOV BERUSH 
MENAHEM MENDEL BEN ISAAC 
MIESIS, JUDAH LEIB 
MIKHALEVICH, BEINISH 
MILL, JOSEPH SOLOMON (John) 
MOJECKI, PRZECLAW 
MOND, BERNHARD STANISLAW 
MOTKE HABAD 
MUSZKAT, MARION (Max) 
MUTNIK, ABRAHAM 

nachmanovich (Nachmanowicz) 

NATANSON, LUDWIK 
NEUFELD, DANIEL 
ORGELBRAND, SAMUEL 
OSTROPOLER, HERSHELE 
PAWLIKOWSKI, JOZEF 
PESAHSON, ISAAC MORDECAI 
PIATTOLI, SCIPIONE 
PILSUDSKI, JOZEF 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

f. Eastern Europe 

5) Poland 

Biographies 

Public & Economic Life (continued) 

PINES, MEYER ISSER 
PLOTNICKA, FRUMKA 
POPPER-BOZIAN, WOLF 

portnoy, jekuthiel (Noah; Yuzef) 

POTOCKI, VALENTINE 

PROHOVNIK, ABRAHAM 

PRYLUCKI, NOAH 

PRYLUCKI, ZEVI HIRSCH 

PRYSTOR, JANINA 

RAKOWSKI, PUAH 

RAWNITZKI, YEHOSHUA HANA 

REICH, LEON 

REINMANN, SALOMON 

RINGEL, MICHAEL 

ROMM 

ROSEN, MATHIAS 

ROSENTHAL, PAVEL (Phlhas) 

ROSMARYN, HENRYK 

ROTENSTREICH, FISCHEL 

RUMKOWSKI, CHAIM MORDECHAI 

SALZ, ABRAHAM ADOLPH 

SAWICKI, JERZY 

schenirer (Schnirer), sarah 

SCHRENZEL, MOSES 
SCHUSSHEIM, AARON LEIB 
SCHWARZBART, ISAAC IGNACY 
SHABAD, ZEMAH 
SHULMAN, VICTOR 

SLAWOJ-SKLADKOWSKI, FELICJAN 
SLUCKI, ABRAHAM JACOB 
SLUTZKI, DAVID 
SMOLAR, HERSH 
STAND, ADOLF 
STYBEL, ABRAHAM JOSEPH 
SUROWIECKI, WAWRZYNIEC 
SZER, SEWERYN 
SZERESZEWSKI, MOSES DAVID 
SZYR, EUGENIUSZ 
TAMARES, AARON SAMUEL 
TAUBES, LOEBEL 
THON, ALBERT 

thon, osias (Jehoshua) 

TREPPER, LEOPOLD 

WEICHERT, MICHAEL 

WILENSKY, YEHUDAH LEIB NISAN 

Religion 

DREYZL, LEAH 

eisenstadt, meir (Maharam Esh) 

EISENSTADT, MENAHEM ZEVI 
ENGEL, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH 



ETTINGER, MORDECAI ZE EV BEN ISAAC 

AARON SEGAL 
EZEKIEL FEIVEL BEN ZE'EV WOLF 
FALK, JOSHUA BEN ALEXANDER HA-KOHEN 
FEIGENBAUM, ISAAC HA-KOHEN 
GESUNDHEIT, JACOB BEN ISAAC 
GOMBINER, ABRAHAM ABELE BEN HAYYIM 

HA-LEVI 
HANOKH ZUNDEL BEN JOSEPH 
HARIF HA-LEVI 

HOROWITZ, ABRAHAM BEN ISAIAH 
HOROWITZ, ISAIAH BEN JACOB HA-LEVI 
HOROWITZ, PHINEHAS BEN ISRAEL HA-LEVI 
HOROWITZ, SARAH REBECCA RACHEL LEAH 
ISAAC BEN BEZALEL OF VLADIMIR 
ISAAC BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI 
JOEL BEN MOSES GAD 

JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI GERSHON HA- 
KOHEN OF CRACOW 
JOSEPH BEN MOSES OF KREMENETS 
JOSEPH BEN MOSES PHINEHAS 
JOSEPH SAMUEL BEN ZEVI OF CRACOW 
JOSHUA HOESCHEL BEN JOSEPH OF 

CRACOW 
JUDAH BEN NISSAN 
KAHANA, SOLOMON DAVID 
KLEPFISH, SAMUEL ZANVIL 
KOWALSKY, JUDAH LEIB 
KRENGEL, MENAHEM MENDEL 
KRISTIANPOLLER 
LEWYSOHN, ABRAHAM 
LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER 

LIPMAN 
LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM JEKUTHIEL 

ZALMAN BEN MOSES JOSEPH 
LIPSCHITZ, SOLOMON ZALMAN 
LUBLIN, MEIR BEN GEDALIAH 
MAISEL, ELIJAH HAYYIM 
MALAKH, HAYYIM BEN SOLOMON 
MARGOLIES, ISAAC BEN ELIJAH 
MEHLSACK, ELIAKIM BEN JUDAH HA- 

MILZAHGI 
MEISELS, DAVID DOV 
MEISELS, DOV BERUSH 

MESHULLAM PHOEBUS BEN ISRAEL SAMUEL 
MICHAELSON, EZEKIEL ZEVI BEN ABRAHAM 

HAYYIM 
MORDECAI BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH OF 

KREMSIER 
MOSES BEN ISAIAH KATZ 
PERLMUTTER, ABRAHAM ZEVI 
PLOTZKI, MEIR DAN OF OSTROVA 
POLLACK, JACOB BEN JOSEPH 
RAPOPORT, ABRAHAM BEN ISRAEL JEHIEL 

HA-KOHEN 
RAPOPORT, SOLOMON JUDAH LEIB 

reizes (Reizeles) 

ROSANES, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN ISSACHAR 
BERISH 



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rozin (Rosen), Joseph 

RUBINSTEIN, ISAAC 

SAMUEL BEN URI SHRAGA PHOEBUS 
SCHMELKES, GEDALIAH BEN MORDECAI 
SCHOR, EPHRAIM SOLOMON (THE ELDER) 
BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH 

schorr, moses (Mojzesz) 

SHALOM SHAKHNA BEN JOSEPH 

SHAPIRA, MEIR 

SHIFRAH OF BRODY 

SHRAGAI, SHLOMO ZALMAN 

SIRKES, JOEL 

SLONIK, BENJAMIN AARON BEN ABRAHAM 

SOCHACZEW, ABRAHAM BEN ZE'EV NAHUM 

BORNSTEIN OF 
TRUNK, ISRAEL JOSHUA 
WEINGARTEN, JOAB JOSHUA 
ZEMBA, MENAHEM 
ZUENZ, ARYEH LEIB BEN MOSES 

Science 

CALAHORA 
DICKSTEIN, SAMUEL 
HIRSZFELD, LUDWIK 
INFELD, LEOPOLD 
MARMOREK, ALEXANDER 
PARNAS, YAKUB KAROL 
STEINHAUS, HUGO DYONIZY 
STERN, ABRAHAM JACOB 

6) Romania 

Main Surveys 

ROMANIA 



ROMANIAN LITERATURE 



GENERAL ENTRIES 

ADAM 
AGRICULTURE 

c.d.e. (Comitetul Democratic Evreiesc) 

EGALITATEA 

HASEFER 

IRON GUARD 

LUMINA 

REVISTA CULTULUI MOZAIC 

COMMUNITIES 

ALBA IULIA 

ARAD 

BACAU 

BAIA-MARE 

BANAT 

BARLAD 

BENDERY 

BEZIDUL NOU 

bistrita (Bistritz) 

BORSA 
BOTOSANI 
BRAILA 
BRASOV 



BUCHAREST 

BUHUSI 

BUKOVINA 

BURDUJENI 

BUZAU 

CAMPULUNG MOLDOVENESC 

CAREI 

CLUJ 

CONSTANTA 

CRAIOVA 

DARABANI 

DEJ 

DOROHOI 

FAGARAS 

FALTICENI 

FOCSANI 

galati (Galatz) 

GERTSA 

GURA-HUMORULUI 

HARLAU 

HUSI 

IZMAIL 

JASSY 

KALARASH 

KAUSHANY 

LUGO J (LugOS) 

marghita (Margit(t)a) 

MIHAILENI 
MOINESTI 
MOLDOVENESC 
NASAUD 

NASNA 

oradea (Oradea Mare) 

ORSOVA 
PASCANI 

piatra-neamt (Piatra) 

PLOESTI 

radauti (Radautz) 

REBREANU 

reghin (Reghinul Sasesc) 
rezina (Rezinz) 

ROMAN 

RYSHKANY 

SALONTA 

SATU-MARE 

SEINI 

SIBIU 

SIGHET 

SIMLEUL-SILVANIEI 

SIRET 

soroki (Soroca) 

STEFANESTI 

SUCEAVA 

SULITA 

TALMACIU 

TARGU-MURES 

teleneshty (Telenesti) 

TIMISOARA 
TIRASPOL 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

/ Eastern Europe 

6) Romania 

Communities (continued) 

TIRGU NEAMT 

TIRGU-FRUMOS 

TRANSYLVANIA 

TURDA 

VAD RASHKOV 

VASLUI 

VATRA DORNEI 

VISEUL DE SUS 

zguritsa (Zgurita) 

Biographies 

adelstein-rozeanu, angelica 

aderca, felix 

antonescu, ion 

antonescu, mihai 

axelrad, avram 

baltazar, camil 

bally, davicion 

bally, isaac david 

banu§, maria 

baranga, aurel 

barasch, julius (Judah) 

BENADOR, URY 

benjamin ii (Israel Joseph) 

BERLIAND, SHLOMO MEIR 

BLANK, MAURICE 

BLECHER, MARCEL 

BOGDAN, CORNELIU 

BONCIU, H. 

BRAHAM, RANDOLPH L. 

BRAUNER, HARRY 

BRESLASU, MARCEL 

BROCINER, JOSEPH 

CAJAL, NICOLAE 

CALIN, VERA 

CALUGARU, ION 

CARMILLY-WEINBERGER, MOSHE 

carp, horia (Jehoshua) 

CARP, PAULA 

CASSIAN, NINA 

CELAN, PAUL 

CILIBI, MOISE 

CODREANU, CORNELIU ZELEA 

CORNEA, PAUL 

COSASU, RADU 

CROHMALNICEANU OVID S. 

CUZA, ALEXANDER C. 

DAN, SERGIU 

DOBROGEANU-GHEREA, CONSTANTIN 

DOMINIC, ALEXANDRU 

DORIAN, DOREL 

DORIAN, EMIL 

DUDA, VIRGIL 



ebner, meir (Mayer) 

FELLER, SHNEYUR ZALMAN 
FERARU, LEON 
FILDERMAN, WILHELM 
FONDANE, BENJAMIN 
FURTUNA, ENRIC 
GALACTION, GALA 
GASTON-MARIN, GHEORGHE 
GHELERTER, LUDWIG LITMAN 
GRAUR, ALEXANDRU 
GRAUR, CONSTANTIN 
GRUENBERG, KARL 
GURIAN, SORANA 
HAIMOVICI, MENDEL 
HALEVY, MEYER ABRAHAM 
HASKIL, CLARA 
HEFTER, ALFRED (Hidalgo) 
IACOBESCU, D. 
IONESCO, EUGENE 
IOSIFESCU, SILVIAN 
ISER, JOSIF 
ISOU, ISIDORE 
JANCO, MARCEL 
JUSTER, GEORGE 
LAVI, THEODOR 
LAZAR, SAMSON 
LAZAREANU, BARBU 
LECCA, RADU 
LIPPE, KARPEL 
LUC A, B. 

LUDO, ISAC IACOVITZ 
MAIORESCU, GEORGE TOMA 
MAXY, MAX HERMAN 
MILIAN, MAXIMIN 
MIRODAN, ALEXANDRU 
MONDA, VIRGILIU 
MUGUR, FLORIN 
NEMTEANU, BARBU 
NIEMIROWER, JACOB ISAAC 
PANA, SASA 
PAUKER, ANA 
PELTZ, ISAC 
PINELES, SAMUEL 
POPPER, JULIUS 
PORUMBACU, VERONICA 
PROBST-KRAID, RIZA 
PSANTIR, JACOB 
RELGIS, EUGEN 
ROMAN-RONETTI, MOISE 
ROSEN, MOSES 
RUDICH, MAYER 
SAFRAN, ALEXANDER 
SAFRAN, BEZALEL ZE'EV 
SAFRAN, JOSEPH 
SAINEANU, LAZAR 
SANIELEVICI, HENRIC 
SCHWARZFELD 
SEBASTIAN, MIHAIL 
SEMILIAN, SAVIN SOLOMON 
SERBU, IERONIM 



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SERGHI, CELLA 

SEVER, ALEXANDRU 

SILVIU, GEORGE 

SIMA, HORIA 

SOARE, IULIA 

SPINA, GERI 

STERN, ADOLPHE 

STEUERMAN, ADOLF RODION 

SULITEANU, GISELA 

TELLER, ZEVI LAZAR 

TERTULIAN, NICOLAE 

TOMA, A. 

TRIVALE, ION 

TZARA, TRISTAN 

VEREA, ADRIAN 

VICOL, ADRIAN 

VORONCA, ILARIE 

WALD, HENRI 

WECHSLER, MAX 

WEISS, AURELIU 

ZISSU, ABRAHAM LEIB 

7) Russia & Former Soviet Union 
Main Surveys 

RUSSIA 

RUSSIAN LITERATURE 



GENERAL ENTRIES 

AGRICULTURE 
ASSIMILATION 
CANTONISTS 
COSMOPOLITANS 
CRIMEAN AFFAIR 

doctors' PLOT 

DUMA 

GERY 

HAIDAMACKS 

JEWISH STUDIES 

KAZYONNY RAVVIN 

KHAZARS 

KRIMCHAK LANGUAGE 

KRIMCHAKS 

MAY LAWS 

MOUNTAIN JEWS 

PALE OF SETTLEMENT 

PETROGRAD CONFERENCE 

POGROMS 

REFUSENIKS 

SARKIL 



communities 

abkhaziya (autonomous soviet socialist 

republic) 
aleksandriya 
aleksandriya 

ANANYEV 

ANAPA 

ARCHANGEL 

ARMENIA 

ARTEMOVSK 



ASHKHABAD 

ASTRAKHAN 

ATAKI 

ATIL 

AZERBAIJAN 

BAKHCHISARAI 

BAKU 

BALANJAR 

BALTA 

BAR 

BARANOVICHI 

BATUMI 

BAUSKA 

BELARUS 

BELAYA TSERKOV 

BELGOROD -DNESTROVSKI 

BELORUSSIA 

BELTSY 

BELZ 

BERDICHEV 

BERDYANSK 

BEREGOVO 

BERESTECHKO 

BEREZA 

BEREZHANY 

BEREZINO 

BEREZOVKA 

BERSHAD 

BESSARABIA 

BIROBIDZHAN 

BIRZAI 

BIRZULA 

BOBROVY KUT 

BOBRUISK 

BOGUSLAV 

BOJAN 

bolekhov (Bolechow) 

BORISLAV 

BORISOV 

BRAILOV 

BR AS LAV 

BRATSLAV 

BREST-LITOVSK 

BRICEVA 

BRICHANY 

BRYANSK 

BUKHARA 

BYKHOV 

CAUCASUS 

CHERKASSY 

CHERNIGOV 

CHERNOBYL 

CHERNOVTSY 

CHORTKOV 

CHUDNOV 

CHUFUT-KALE 

COURLAND 

CRIMEA 

DAUGAVPILS 

DAVID -GORODOK 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

/ Eastern Europe 

7) Russia & Former Soviet Union 
Communities (continued) 

DERAZHNYA 

DERBENT 

DISNA 

DIVIN 

DNEPROPETROVSK 

dokshitsy (Dokszyce) 

DOLGINOVO 

DOLINA 

DOMBROVENI 

DONETSK 

DRUYA 

DUBNO 

DUBOSSARY 

DUBROVNO 

DUNAYEVTSY 

DYATLOVO 

ESTONIA 

FALESHTY 

FEODOSIYA 

GADYACH 

GAISIN 

GEORGIA 

GLINYANY 

GLUBOKOYE 

GLUSSK 

GOLOVANEVSK 

GOMEL 

GORKI 

GORODENKA 

GORODOK 

gorodok (Grodek Wilenski) 

GRODNO 

GROZNY 

ILINTSY 

ILYA 

IRKUTSK 

IVANOVO 

IVYE 

IZMAIL 

IZYASLAV 

JAUNIJELGAVA 

JEKABPILS 

JELGAVA 

KALININDORF 

KALINKOVICHI 

KALUSH 

KAMENETS-PODOLSKI 

kamenka-bugskaya (Strumilovskaya) 

KANEV 

KARASUBAZAR 

KAZAKHSTAN 

KAZAN 

KAZATIN 



KERCH 

KHARKOV 

KHERSON 

KHMELNIK 

KHOREZM 

KHOROL 

KHOTIN 

KHUST 

KIEV 

KILIYA 

kirovograd (Kirovo) 

KISHINEV 

KLETSK 

KLINTSY 

KOBRIN 

KOIDANOVO 

KOKAND 

kolomyya (Kolomea; Kolomyja) 

KOMARNO 

KONOTOP 

KORETS 

KOROSTEN 

KORSUN-SHEVCHENKOVSKI 

KOSOV 

KOTOVSKOYE 

KOTOVSKOYE 

KOVEL 

KRASLAVA 

KRASNODAR 

KRASNOYE 

KREMENCHUG 

KREMENETS 

KRICHEV 

KRIVOI ROG 

KRIVOYE OZERO 

KRUSTPILS 

KUBA 

KUIBYSHEV 

KURSK 

KUTY 

KYRGYZSTAN 

lachva (Lachwa) 

LATVIA 

leovo (Leova) 

LEPEL 

LESHNEV 

LETICHEV 

LIDA 

LIEPAJA 

LIOZNO 

LIPKANY 

LIPOVETS 

LITIN 

LUBAVICH 

LUBNY 

LUDZA 

LUGANSK 

LUTSK 

lvov (Lemberg) 

LYADY 



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LYAKHOVICHI 



POLOTSK 



LYUBOML 

MAKAROV 

MARCULESTI 

medzibezh (Medzibozh) 

MELITOPOL 
MERV 

mezhirech (Mezhirichi) 

MINSK 

MIR 

MOGILEV 

MOGILEV-PODOLSKI 

moldova (Moldavia) 

MOLODECHNO 

MONASTYRISKA 

MOSCOW 

MOSTISKA 

MOZYR 

MSTISLAVL 

MUKACHEVO 

nadvornaya (Nadworna) 

NEMIROV 

NESVIZH 

NEZHIN 

NIKOLAYEV 

NOVAYA USHITSA 

NOVGOROD -SEVERSK 

NOVOGRUDOK 

NOVOSELITSA 

NOVOZYBKOV 

NOVY DVOR 

NOVY OLEKSINIEC 

ODESSA 

OLESKO 

OLGOPOL 

OLYKA 

OMSK 

ORDZHONIKIDZE 

OREL 

orgeyev (Orhei) 

ORSHA 
OSHMYANY 

ostrog (Ostraha) 

OSTRYNA 

OVRUCH 

OZERY 

PALANGA 

PAVLOGRAD 

PAVOLOCH 

PEREYASLAV-KHMELNITSKI 

PERVOMAISK 

PINSK 

PIRYATIN 

POCHEP 

PODGAITSY 

PODKAMEN 

PODOLIA 

podvolochisk (Podwloczyska) 
pogrebishchenski (Pogrebishche) 

POLONNOYE 



POLTAVA 

PRILUKI 

PROSKUROV 

PRUZHANY 

RADOMYSHL 

radoshkovichi (Radoszkowice) 

RADUN 

RADZIWILLOW 

RECHITSA 

rezekne (Rezhitsa) 

RIGA 

ROGACHEV 

ROGATIN 

ROMNY 

ROSTOV 

ROVNO 

ROZDOL 

RUZHANY 

SADAGORA 

samandar (Khazar) 

SAMARKAND 

SARATOV 

SARNY 

SASOV 

SATANOV 

SEKIRYANY 

SEVASTOPOL 

SHARGOROD 

SHCHEDRIN 

SHEPETOVKA 

SHKLOV 

SHPOLA 

SIBERIA 

SIMFEROPOL 

SKALAT 

SKIDEL 

SKOLE 

SKVIRA 

SLAVUTA 

SLONIM 

SLUTSK 

SMELA 

SMOLENSK 

smorgon (Smorgonie) 

SNYATYN 

SOKAL 

STAN I SLAV 

STARODUB 

STARO-KONSTANTINOV 

STOLBTSY 

STOLIN 

STOROZHINETS 

ST. PETERSBURG 

stry (Stryj) 

SUBCARPATHIAN RUTHENIA 

SVISLOCH 

TADZHIKISTAN 

TAGANROG 

TALLINN 



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129 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

/ Eastern Europe 

7) Russia & Former Soviet Union 
Communities (continued) 

TALNOYE 

TARNOPOL 

TARTU 

TARUTINO 

TASHKENT 

TIFLIS 

tlumach (Tlumacz) 

TOLSTOYE 

TOMASHPOL 

TOMSK 

torch in (Torczyn) 

TUCHIN 
TUKUMS 
TULCHIN 
TURKA 

tysmenitsa (Tysmienica) 

UFA 

UKRAINE 

UMAN 

UZBEKISTAN 

UZHGOROD 

VAD RASHKOV 

VALEA-LUI-VLAD 

VASILKOV 

VELIZH 

VENTSPILS 

VERKHNEUDINSK 

VINNITSA 

VISHNEVETS 

VITEBSK 

VIZHNITSA 

VLADIMIR VOLYNSKI 

VLADIVOSTOK 

VOLHYNIA 

VOLKOVYSK 

VOLOZHIN 

VOL PA 

VORONEZH 

VOZNESSENK 

VYSOKOYE 

YALTA 

YAVOROV 

YEFINGAR 

YEVPATORIYA 

ZABOLOTOV 

ZALESHCHIKI 

ZAPOROZHE 

ZASTAVNA 

ZBARAZH 

ZBOROV 

zelva (Zelwa) 

ZHDANOV 
ZHIDACHOV 



ZHITOMIR 



ZHMERINKA 



ZHOLKVA 
ZHURAVNO 



ZLATOPOL 



ZOLOCHEV 



ZOLOTONOSHA 



ZVENIGORODKA 



ORGANIZATIONS 

AM OLAM 

ANTI-FASCIST COMMITTEE, JEWISH 

BENEI MOSHE 

DECEMBRISTS 

DEPUTIES OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE 

FOLKSPARTEI 

HE-HALUTZ 

INDEPENDENT JEWISH WORKERS PARTY 

JEWISH SOCIALIST WORKERS PARTY 

JEWISH SOCIETY FOR HISTORY AND 

ETHNOGRAPHY 
KOMZET 
NES ZIYYONAH 
NEW ISRAEL 
OCTOBRISTS 
ODESSA COMMITTEE 
SOCIETY FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF FULL CIVIL 

RIGHTS FOR THE JEWISH PEOPLE IN RUSSIA 
SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF CULTURE 

AMONG THE JEWS OF RUSSIA 
UNION OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE 
UNITED JEWISH SOCIALIST WORKERS PARTY 
VOZROZHDENIYE 
YEKOPO 

YEVREYSKI KOMISSARIAT 
YEVSEKTSIYA 
ZIONIST SOCIALIST WORKERS PARTY 



PUBLICATIONS 

EYNIKEYT 

HA-MELIZ 

HA-SHILOAH 

HA-YOM 

MORIAH 

RAZSVET 

SOVETISH HEYMLAND 

VOSKHOD 

BIOGRAPHIES 

Academic Life 

ABRAMOWICZ, DINA 

ADMONI, VLADIMIR GRIGORYEVICH 

AGURSKY, MIKHAIL 

AMUSIN, JOSEPH 

ANISIMOV, ILYA SHERBATOVICH 

BERLIN, ISRAEL 

BERLIN, MOSES 

BERSHADSKI, SERGEY ALEXANDROVICH 

BOGORAZ, VLADIMIR GERMANOVICH 

BORISOV, ANDREY YAKOVLEVICH 



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BOROVOY, SAUL YAKOVLEVICH 

BRAUDO, ALEXANDER ISAYEVICH 

BUCHBINDER, NAHUM 

CHORNY, JOSEPH JUDAH 

CHWOLSON, DANIEL 

DEBORIN, ABRAM MOISEYEVICH 

DUBNOW, SIMON 

EDELMANN, ZEVI HIRSCH 

ELKIND, ARKADI DANILOVICH 

FRANK, SEMYON LYUDVIGOVICH 

GALANT, ELIAHU (Itya) VLADIMIROVICH 

GAPONOV, BORIS (Dov) 

GINSBURG, SAUL 

GOLDSTEIN, SALWIAN 

GORDIN, JACOB 

GRANDE, BENZION MOISEEVICH 

GURLAND, HAYYIM JONAH 

harkavy, albert (Abraham Elijah) 

HERZENSTEIN, MIKHAIL YAKOVLEVICH 
HESSEN, JULIUS ISIDOROVICH 
HORODEZKY, SAMUEL ABBA 
HOROWITZ, HAYYIM DOV 
ISRAELSOHN, JACOB IZRAILEVICH 

jochelson, vladimir (Waldemar) 

KAHANA, DAVID 

KATZENELSON, JUDAH LEIB BENJAMIN 

KIRZHNITZ, ABRAHAM 

KLATZKIN, JACOB 

KOIGEN, DAVID 

KOKOVTSOV, PAUL KONSTANTINOVICH 

LEKHNO, DAVID 

LEONTOVICH, FEDOR 

LESTSCHINSKY, JACOB 

LEVIN (Lefin), MENAHEM MENDEL 

LEVIN, MAKSIM GRIGORYEVICH 

LEVINSOHN, ISAAC BAER 

LIBERMAN, YEVSEY GRIGORYEVICH 

LOTMAN, YURI MIKHAILOVICH 

LOZINSKI, SAMUEL 

LURIA, ALEXANDER ROMANOVICH 

LURIA, DAVID BEN JACOB AARON 

MAGGID, DAVID 

MANDELSTAMM, BENJAMIN 

MANDELSTAMM, LEON 

MAREK, PESACH (Piotr) 

MARGOLIN, MOSES 

MARKEL-MOSESSOHN, MIRIAM 

MARKON, ISAAC DOV BER 

MARSHAK, SAMUEL YAKOVLEVICH 

minor, solomon zalman (Zalkind) 

MITIN, MARK BORISOVICH 

NEKLYUDOV, NICOLAI ADRIANOVICH 

NEVAKHOVICH, JUDAH LEIB 

NIKITIN, VICTOR 

ORSHANSKI, ILYA (Elijah) GRIGORYEVICH 

OSTROGORSKI, MOSES 

PEREFERKOVICH, NEHEMIAH 

PINSKER, SIMHAH 

POSENER, SOLOMON 

RABINOVICH, YEHUDAH LEIB (Leon) 



RABINOWITZ, ZEVI HA-COHEN 

RAFFALOVICH, ARTHUR GERMANOVICH 

RUBINSTEIN, SERGEY LEONIDOVICH 

SHESTOV, LEV 

SLATKINE, MENAHEM MENDEL 

SOLOVIEV, VLADIMIR 

SOSIS, ISRAEL 

STANISLAVSKY, SIMON JUDAH 

STERNBERG, LEV YAKOVLEVICH 

SUBBOTIN, ANDREY PAVLOVICH 

VARGA, YEVGENI SAMOILOVICH 

VINNIKOV, ISAAC N. 

VOLYNSKI, AKIM LEVOVICH 

VYGOTSKI, LEV SEMYONOVICH 

WARSHAWSKY, ISAAC 

WEISSENBERG, SAMUEL ABRAMOVICH 

WIENER, SAMUEL 

WILENSKY, MICHAEL 

WUNDERBAR, REUBEN JOSEPH 

ZAND, MICHAEL 

zeitlin (Zeitlis), JOSHUA 

ZEITLIN, WILLIAM (Zeev) 
ZHIRMUNSKY, VIKTOR MAKSIMOVICH 

Art 

AIZENBERG, NINA 
ALTMAN, NATHAN 

antokolski, mark (Mordecai) 

ASKNAZI, ISAAC LVOVICH 

AXELROD, MEYER 

BAKST, LEON 

CHAPIRO, JACQUES 

GRILICHES, AVENIR 

GUENZBURG, ILYA YAKOVLEVICH 

JUDIN, SAMUEL 

KAPLAN, ANATOLI LVOVICH 

KUZKOVSKI, JOSEPH 

LEVITAN, ISAAC ILITCH 

lissitzky, el (Lazar) 

NEIZVESTNY, ERNST 
PAOVLOTZKY, RAUL 
PASTERNAK, LEONID OSIPOVICH 
PEVSNER, ANTON AND NAUM NEHEMIA 

(Gabo) 

RABIN, OSCAR 
RYBACK, ISSACHAR 
SEROV, VALENTIN 
SOUTINE, CHAIM 
TATLIN, VLADIMIR E. 
ZHITNITSKI, MARK 

Literature 

AGURSKY, SAMUEL 
AIKHENVALD, YULI ISAYEVICH 
AIZMAN, DAVID YAKOVLEVICH 
ALDANOV, MARK 

ALIGER, MARGARITA YOSIFOVNA 
ALTAUZEN, YAKOV MOYSEYEVICH 
ANTOKOLSKI, PAVEL GRIGOREVICH 
AVERBAKH, LEOPOLD LEONIDOVICH 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

/ Eastern Europe 

7) Russia & Former Soviet Union 
Biographies 

Literature (continued) 

BAAZOV, HERZL 

BABEL, ISAAC EMMANUILOVICH 

BAGRITSKI, EDUARD GEORGIYEVICH 

BELINKOV, ARKADII VIKTOROVICH 

BELOV, A. 

BEN-ADIR 

BEN-AMMI, MORDECAI 

BILL-BELOTSERKOVSKI, VLADIMIR NAUMOVICH 

BOGROV, GRIGORI ISAAKOVICH 

BRIK, OSIP MAKSIMOVICH 

BRODSKI, YOSIF 

BYADULYA-YASAKAR, ZMITROK 

CHAKOVSKI, ALEXANDER BORISOVICH 

CHERNY, SASHA 

DANIEL, M. 

DANIEL, YULI MARKOVICH 

DOLMATOVSKI, YEVGENI ARONOVICH 

DOMALSKY, I. 

DUBNOW-ERLICH, SOPHIA 

EHRENBURG, ILYA GRIGORYEVICH 

EICHENBAUM, BORIS MIKHAILOVICH 

FEYGENBERG, RAKHEL 

FRIEDLAENDER, SOLOMON JUDAH 

FRUG, SHIMON SHMUEL 

GALICH, ALEXANDR ARKADYEVICH 

GEKHT, SEMEN GRIGOREVICH 

GERSHENZON, MIKHAIL OSIPOVICH 

GILELS, EMIL GRIGORYEVICH 

GINSBURG, EVGENIA SEMIONOVNA 

GODINER, SAMUEL NISSAN 

GOLODNY, MIKHAIL 

GORDON, SHMUEL 

GORKI, MAXIM 

GORSHMAN, SHIRA 

GRANIN, DANIEL ALEKSANDROVICH 

GROSSMAN, LEONID PETROVICH 

GROSSMAN, VASILI SEMYONOVICH 

GUKOVSKY, GRIGORY ALEKSANDROVICH 

ILF, ILYA 

ILIN, M. 

INBER, VERA MIKHAILOVNA 

ISBAKH, ALEXANDER ABRAMOVICH 

KANNEGISER, LEONID AKIMOVICH 

KANOVICH, GRIGORY 

KASSIL, LEV ABRAMOVICH 

KAVERIN, BENJAMIN ALEKSANDROVICH 

KAZAKEVICH, EMMANUIL GENRIKHOVICH 

KHODASEVICH, VLADISLAV FELITSIANOVICH 

KIPEN, ALEKSANDR ABRAMOVICH 

KIRSANOV, SEMYON ISAAKOVICH 

KIRSHON, VLADIMIR MIKHAILOVICH 

KNUT, DOVID 



KOROLENKO, VLADIMIR GALAKTIONOVICH 

KOZAKOV, MIKHAIL EMMANUILOVICH 

KRYMOV, YURI 

KUSHNER, ALEKSANDER SEMENOVICH 

LERNER, JOSEPH JUDAH 

LESKOV, NIKOLAY SEMYONOVICH 

levanda, lev (Leo; Yehudah Leib) 

OSIPOVICH 
LIBEDINSKI, YURI NIKOLAYEVICH 
LIVSHITS, BENEDIKT KONSTANTINOVICH 
LUNTS, LEV NATANOVICH 
MAMISTABOLOB, ABRAHAM 

MANDELSHTAM, NADEZHDA YAKOVLEVNA 
MANDELSHTAM, OSIP EMILYEVICH 
MINSKI, NIKOLAI MAXIMOVICH 
NADSON, SEMYON YAKOVLEVICH 
NOTOVICH, OSIP KONSTANTINOVICH 
NUSINOV, ISAAC 
OSIPOVICH, NAHUM 

PARNAKH, VALENTIN YAKOVLEVICH 
PASTERNAK, BORIS LEONIDOVICH 
RABINOVICH, OSIP ARONOVICH 
SELVINSKI, ILYA LVOVICH 
SHKLOVSKI, ISAAC VLADIMIROVICH 
SLONIM, MARC 

SLONIMSKI, MIKHAIL LEONIDOVICH 
SLUTSKI, BORIS ABRAMOVICH 
SOBOL, ANDREY MIKHAILOVICH 
SVETLOV, MIKHAIL 
SVIRSKI, ALEXEY IVANOVICH 
TUR BROTHERS 

TYNYANOV, YURI NIKOLAYEVICH 
UTKIN, JOSEPH PAVLOVICH 
WENGEROFF, PAULINE 

WENGEROFF, SEMYON AFANASYEVICH 
YAHUDI, YUSUF 

YEVTUSHENKO, YEVGENI ALEXANDROVICH 
YUSHKEVICH, SEMYON SOLOMONOVICH 

Music 

ABELIOVICH, LEV MOYSSEYEVICH 

abrass, osias (Joshua) 

ALSHVANG, ARNOLD ALEKSANDROVICH 

ARONOVICH, YURI MIKHAYLOVICH 

BABIN, VICTOR 

BACHMANN, JACOB 

BARSHAI, RUDOLPH 

BELY, VICTOR ARKADYEVICH (AronOVich) 

BEREGOVSKI, MOSHE 

BLUMENTHAL, NISSAN, 

BRODSKY, ADOLF 

BRUSSILOVSKY, YEVGENI GRIGORYEVICH 

CHAGY, BERELE 

CHERNIAVSKY 

DAVYDOV, KARL YULYEVICH 

DUNAYEVSKI, ISAAC OSIPOVICH 

EIFMAN, BORIS 

engel, joel (Yuli Dimitriyevich) 

GEROVICH, ELIEZER MORDECAI BEN ISAAC 
GLIERE, REINHOLD MORITZEVICH 



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GNESIN, MIKHAIL FABIANOVICH 

KOGAN, LEONID BORISSOVICH 

KROSHNER, MIKHAIL YEFIMOVICH 

LAMM, PAVEL ALEKSANDROVICH 

LIFSHITZ, NEHAMAH 

LITINSKI, GENRIKH ILYICH 

MESSERER, ASAF MIKHAILOVICH 

MINKOWSKI, PINCHAS 

NOWAKOWSKI, DAVID 

OISTRAKH, DAVID FEDOROVICH 

PANOV, VALERY 

PLISETSKAYA, MAYA 

RUBINSTEIN, IDA 

SLONIMSKY, SERGEI MIKHAILOVICH 

SPIVAKOVSKY, TOSSY 

STEINBERG, MAXIMILIAN OSSEJEVICH 

TSFASSMAN, ALEXANDER NAUMOVICH 

VEINBERG, MOISSEY SAMUILOVICH 

VEPRIK, ALEXANDER MOISEYEVITCH 

WEINBERG, JACOB 

ZHITOMIRSKI, ALEXANDER MATVEYEVITCH 



Popular Culture 



ABRAMOWITZ, BINA 

BERNSTEIN, OSIP SAMOILOVICH 

BOLESLAVSKI, ISAAC 

BOTVINNIK, MIKHAIL 

BRONSTEIN, DAVID 

DONSKOY, MARK SEMENOVICH 

EISENSTEIN, SERGEI MIKHAILOVICH 

FLOHR, SALO 

FRIED, LAZAR 

GOLDENBURG, SAMUEL 

GOMELSKY, ALEXANDER 

GOROKHOVSKAYA, MARIA 

GRANOVSKY, ALEXANDER 

GUZIK, HANNA 

KALIK, MIKHAIL 

KASPAROV, GARY 

KORCHNOY, VIKTOR LVOVICH 

KRISS, GRIGORY 

LEONIDOV, LEONID MIRONOVICH 

LOYTER, EFRAIM BARUKHOVICH 

MIKHOELS, SOLOMON 

MOSCOVITCH, MAURICE 

NIMZOVITCH, AARON 

RAYKIN, ARKADI ISAAKOVICH 

RUNITSCH, OSSIP 

SLUTSKAYA, IRINA 

TAL, MIKHAIL 

VERTOV, DZIGA 

Public & Economic Life 

ABRAMOVICH, ROMAN ARKADYEVICH 

ABRAMOWITZ, GRIGORI 

ABRAMOWITZ, RAPHAEL 

ACOSTA, JOAN D 

ALEXANDER 

AMSTERDAM, ABRAHAM MEIR 

ARONSON, GRIGORI 



ASHANSKI, ABEL-AARON ITSKOVICH 

AXELROD, LUBOV 

AXELROD, PAVEL BORISOVICH 

AZARKH, RAISA MOYSEYEVNA 

AZEFF, ZEVNO FISHELEVICH 

BAKST, NICOLAI (Noah) IGNATYEVICH 

BAKUNIN, MIKHAIL ALEKSANDROYICH 

BARATZ, HERMANN (Hirsch) 

BARBASH, SAMUEL 

BARZILAI, YEHOSHUA 

BEILIS, MENAHEM MENDEL 

BELKOWSKY, ZEVI HIRSCH (GrigOli) 

BEREZOVSKY, BORIS ABROMOVICH 

BERMANN, VASILI (ZeW Wolf ) 

BERNSTEIN, NATHAN OSIPOVICH 

BERNSTEIN-KOGAN (Cohen), JACOB 

BIENSTOK, JUDAH LEIB 

BIKERMAN, JOSEPH 

BLIOKH, IVAN STANISLAVOVICH 

BLUMENFELD, EMANUEL 

BLUMENFELD, HERMANN FADDEYEVICH 

BOGROV, DMITRI 

BONNER, ELENA GEORGIEVNA 

BOROCHOV, BER (Dov) 

BORODIN, MICHAEL MARKOVITSCH 

BRAFMAN, JACOB 

BRAMSON, LEON (Leonty) 

BRANDT, BORIS (Bamch) 

BRAUN, ABRAHAM 

BRODSKI 

BRUCK, GRIGORI 

BRUTZKUS, BORIS DOV 

BRUTZKUS, JULIUS 

BUCHMIL, JOSHUA HESHEL 

BULAN 

BUNIN, HAYYIM ISAAC 

CATHERINE II 

CHMIELNICKI, BOGDAN 

DAN, FYODOR ILYICH 

DASHEWSKI, PINHAS 

DENIKIN, ANTON IVANOVICH 

DERZHAVIN, GABRIEL ROMANOVICH 

deutsch, leo (Lev Grigoryevich) 

DIMANSTEIN, SIMON 
DISKIN, CHAIM 

dobin, shimon (Shimoni) 

DRAGUNSKI, DAVID ABRAMOVICH 
DUBIN, MORDECAI 
DUBNOW, ZE'EV 
DYMSHYTS, VENIAMIN E. 
EFRON, ILYA 
EHRLICH, EUGEN 

eichenbaum (Gelber), jacob 

EISENSTADT, ISAIAH (Isay) 

EISMANN, MOSES 

ELIASBERG, MORDECAI 

ESTHER 

FEINBERG, DAVID 

FOMIN, YEFIM MOISEYEVICH 

FRIEDLAND 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

/ Eastern Europe 

7) Russia & Former Soviet Union 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life (continued) 

FRIEDMAN, NAPHTALI 
FRUMKIN, BORIS MARKOVICH 
FUENN, SAMUEL JOSEPH 
GAMARNIK, YAN BORISOVICH 

gelfond (Gelfand), Alexander 
lazarevich (Israel) 

GERSHUNI, GRIGORI ANDREYEVICH 
GOLDBERG, ISAAC LEIB 
GOLDBERG, J. B. 

GOLDENBERG-GETROITMAN, LAZAR 
GOLDENWEISER, ALEXANDER 

SOLOMONOVICH 
GOLDSTEIN, ALEXANDER 

GOLITSYN, COUNT NIKOLAI NIKOLAYEVICH 
GOTS 

GOZHANSKY, SAMUEL 
GRULEV, MIKHAIL VLADIMIROVICH 
GRUNBERG, ABRAHAM 
GRUSENBERG, OSCAR OSIPOVICH 
GUENZBURG 
GUENZBURG 
GUREVICH, MOSHE 
GUSEV, SERGEI IVANOVICH 
GUSINSKY, VLADIMIR ALEXANDROVICH 
HELFMAN, HESSIA MEYEROVNA 
HESSEN, JOSEPH VLADIMIROVICH 
HORODISCHTSCH, LEON 

HOROWITZ, AARON JUDAH LOEB (Leon) 
IGNATYEV, COUNT NIKOLAI PAVLOVICH 
JASINOWSKI, ISRAEL ISIDORE 
JOFFE, ADOLPH ABRAMOVICH 
JOSEPH 

KAGANOVICH, LAZAR MOISEYEVICH 
KAHAN, BARUCH MORDECAI 
KAMENEV, LEV BORISOVICH 
KATKOV, MIKHAIL NIKIFOROVICH 
KATZENELSON, NISSAN 
KAUFMAN, AVRAHAM YOSIFOVICH 
KHODORKOVSKY, MIKHAIL BORISOVICH 
KOL'TSOV, MIKHAIL 
KOSSOVSKI, VLADIMIR 
KOSTOMAROV, NIKOLAI IVANOVICH 
KREININ, MEIR 
KREISER, JACOB GRIGORYEVICH 

kremer, arkadi (Aaron, Alexander) 

KRUSHEVAN, PAVOLAKI 

KULISHER 

KUPERNIK; ABRAHAM 

KURSKY, FRANZ 

LANDAU, ADOLPH 

LANDAU, GREGORY ADOLFOVICH 

LARIN, YURI 



LASERSON, MAX 

LATZKY-BERTHOLDI, JACOB ZE'EV WOLF 

(Wilhelm) 

LENIN, VLADIMIR ILYICH 

LESTSCHINSKY, JOSEPH 

LEVIN, EMANUEL 

LEVIN, SHMARYA 

LEVINE, EUGENE 

LEVIN-SHATZKES, YIZHAK 

LIPMAN, LEVI 

LITVINOV, MAXIM MAXIMOVICH 

LOZOVSKI, SOLOMON ABRAMOVICH (Dridzo) 

LUBARSKY, ABRAHAM ELIJAH 

LVOVICH, DAVID 

MANDELBERG, AVIGDOR (Victor) 

MANDELSTAMM, MAX EMMANUEL 

MANEVICH, LEV YEFIMOVICH 

MARGOLIN, ARNOLD 

MARTOV, JULIUS 

MAZEH, JACOB 

MEDEM, VLADIMIR 

MEISEL, NOAH 

MEKHLIS, LEV ZAKHAROVICH 

minor, osip s. (Joseph) 

MINTZ, PAUL 

MORDOVTSEV, DANIIL LUKICH 

MORDVINOV, NICOLAI SEMIONOVICH 

morgulis, manasseh (Mikhail) 

MYSH, MICHAEL 
NAIDITSCH, ISAAC ASHER 
NATANSON, MARK 
NEVZLIN, LEONID 
NICHOLAS 

nisselovich, Leopold (Eliezer) 

NOTKIN, NATA 

NOVOMEYSKY, MOSHE 

NOVOSILTSEV, NICOLAI NIKOLAYEVICH 

NUDEL, IDA 

NUROCK, MORDECHAI 

OBADIAH 

OLGIN, MOSHE J. 

PASSOVER, ALEXANDER 

PAUL I 

PERETZ, ABRAHAM 

PERGAMENT, OSIP YAKOVLEVICH 

PETLYURA, SIMON 

pinsker, leon (Judah Leib) 

PLEHVE, VYACHESLAV KONSTANTINOVICH 

VON 
POBEDONOSTSEV, KONSTANTIN PETROVICH 
POLYAKOV 

PORTUGALOV, BENJAMIN OSIPOVICH 
RADEK, KARL 
RAFES, MOSES 

RATNER, MARC BORISOVICH 
REVUSKY, ABRAHAM 

Rosenthal, leon (Judah Leib) 

SCHATZ-ANIN, MAX 
SCHWARZ, SOLOMON 
SHARANSKY, NATAN (Anatoly) 



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SHEFTEL, MIKHAIL 

SHMUSHKEVICH, YAACOV 

SILBERFARB, MOSES 

SLIOZBERG, HENRY 

SLONIMSKI, LEONID ZINOVYEVICH 

SPEYER, BENJAMIN 

STALIN, JOSEPH VISSARIONOVICH 

STEINBERG, ISAAC NAHMAN 

STERN, BEZALEL 

STERN, GRIGORI 

STIEGLITZ 

SVERDLOV, YAKOV MIKHAILOVICH 

syrkin, joshua (Grigory) 

SYRKIN, MOSES NAHUM SOLOMONOVICH 

TARNOPOL, JOACHIM HAYYIM 

TEITEL, JACOB 

TEMKIN, ASHER 

TIOMKIN, VLADIMIR (Zeev) 

TROTSKY, LEV DAVIDOVICH 

TSHEMERISKI, ALEXANDER (Solomon) 

UVAROV, SERGEY SEMYONOVICH 

VARSHAVSKI, ABRAHAM 

VINAWER, MAXIM 

VOZNITSYN, ALEXANDER ARTEMYEVICH 

WALDMANN, ISRAEL 

WEINRUB, MATVEY 

WEINSTEIN, AARON 

WEIZMANN 

WITTE, SERGEY YULYEVICH, COUNT 

YAKIR, YONAH 

YAROSLAVSKY, YEMELYAN 

ZAK, ABRAM 

ZAM, ZVI HERZ 

ZASLAVSKY, DAVID 

ZEDERBAUM, ALEXANDER 

ZEITLIN, HILLEL 

ZEMLYACHKA (Zalkkld), ROZALIYA 

SAMOYLOVNA 
ZINOVIEV, GRIGORI YEVSEYEVICH 
ZLATOPOLSKY, HILLEL 
ZUCKERMANN, ELIEZER 
ZUNDELEVITCH, AARON 

Religion 

ABU 'iMRAN AL-TIFLISI 
EPSTEIN, BARUCH HA-LEVI 
JEWNIN, ABRAHAM JONAH 

lilienthal, max (Menahem) 

MASKILEISON, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH LEIB 
MOSES OF KIEV 
OLSCHWANGER, ISAAC WOLF 

rabinowich (Rabinowitsch), eliyahu 

AKIVA 
ROSEN, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC 
SCHLIEFER, SOLOMON 
SERL BAS JACOB BEN WOLF KRANZ 
SILBERSTEIN, SOLOMON JOSEPH 
VOLOZHINER, HAYYIM BEN ISAAC 
VOLOZHINER, ISAAC BEN HAYYIM 
WIERNIKORSKI, JUDAH 



YOFFEY 

ZIRELSON, JUDAH LEIB 

Science 

ABELMANN, ILYA SOLOMOVITCH 

ABRAMOWITZ, EMIL 

ALFEROV, ZHOREZ I. 

BAKST, NICOLAI (Noah) IGNATYEVICH 

CYON, ELIE DE 

FRANK, ILJA MIKHAILOVICH 

FREIDLINA, RAKHIL KHATSKELEVNA 

FRENKEL, JACOB ILICH 

FROLKIS, VLADIMIR VENIAMIOVICH 

FRUMKIN, ALEKSANDR NAUMOVICH 

GELFAND, IZRAIL MOISEVICH 

GELFOND, ALEKSANDR OSIPOVICH 

GINZBURG, VITALY LAZAREVICH 

GRINBERG, ALEKSANDER ABRAMOVICH 

GUREVICH, MIKHAIL IOSIFOVICH 

GURWITSCH, ALEXANDER GAVRILOVICH 

JOFFE, ABRAHAM FEODOROVICH 

KABACHNIK, MARTIN IZRAILOVICH 

KANTOROVICH, LEONID 

KAZARNOVSKI, ISAAC ABRAMOVICH 

LANDAU, LEV DAVIDOVICH 

LIPKIN, YOM TOV LIPMAN 

LOEWINSON-LESSING, FRANZ YULYEVICH 

MANDELSHTAM, LEONID ISAAKOVICH 

PIROGOV, NIKOLAI 

RABINOVICH, ISAAK MOSEYEVICH 

ROGINSKI, SIMON ZALMANOVICH 

SAMOILOVICH, RUDOLPH LAZAREVICH 

STERN, LINA SOLOMONOVNA 

TALMUD, DAVID L. 

TAMM, IGOR YEVGENYEVICH 

VEKSLER, VLADIMIR 

ZELDOVICH, YAKOV BORISOVICH 

ZENKEVICH, LEV ALEKSANDROVICH 

ZILBER, LEV ALEKSANDROVICH 

8) Yugoslavia 
Main Surveys 

yugoslavia 
yugoslav literature 

communities 

ADA 

BANJA LUKA 

BELGRADE 

DUBROVNIK 

LJUBLJANA 

MARIBOR 

MONASTIR 

NIS 

NOVI SAD 

OCHRIDA 

osijek (Eszek) 

RIJEKA 

SARAJEVO 

SENTA 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

/ Eastern Europe 

8) Yugoslavia 

Communities (continued) 



ROMANO, SAMUEL 
ROTEM, CVI (ZVI) 
SAMOKOVLIJA, ISAK 
SINKO, ERVIN 
TISMA, ALEKSANDAR 
VAJS, ALBERT 



skoplje (Skopje) 

SOMBOR 

SPLIT 

SUBOTICA 

TRAVNIK 

VARAZDIN 

VINKOVCI 

ZAGREB 

ZEMUN 

ZENICA 

zrenjanin 

Biographies 

albahari, david 

albala, david 

alcalay, isaac 

alkalai, david 

alkalaj, aron 

baruh, bora 

bihalji merin, oto 

davico, hajim s. 

davico, lujo 

davico, oscar 

david, filip 

debrecenji, jozef 

dohanj, julije 

erlich, vera stein 

eventov, yakir 

feldman, miroslav 

finci, eli 

freiberger, miroslav salom 

glid, nandor 

gottlieb, hinko 

habillo, elisha 

hajim, jisrael 

herman, oskar 

ivanji, ivan 

jun-broda, ina 

kadelburg, lavoslav 

kamhi, leon 

kis, danilo (Daniel) 

KONFINO, ZAK 
LEBOVIC, DJORDJE 
LEVI, MORITZ 
LICHT, ALEXANDER 
LIVNI, HILLEL 
LOEWENTHAL, ZDENKO 
MANDL, SAADIA 
NAHMIJAS, DANILO 
NAJMAN, JULIJA 
OFNER, FRANCIS-AMIR 
PAPO, IZIDOR JOSEF 
PIJADE, MOSA 



g. United States 

Main Surveys 



AMERICA 



UNITED STATES LITERATURE 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



General Entries 

agriculture 

ART 

ASSIMILATION 

BLACK-JEWISH RELATIONS IN U.S. 

CEMETERY 

CHOIRS 

CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM 

FAMILY, AMERICAN JEWISH 

GALVESTON PLAN 

HISTORIOGRAPHY 

HOSPITALS 

JEWISH STUDIES 

LABOR 

LOEB-LEOPOLD CASE 

NEW LEFT 

NEWSPAPERS, HEBREW 

PITTSBURGH PLATFORM 

POLLARD AFFAIR 

RABBINICAL TRAINING, AMERICAN 

RECONSTRUCTIONISM 

REFORM JUDAISM 

ROSENBERG CASE 



COMMUNITIES 

AKRON 

ALABAMA 

ALASKA 

ALBANY 

ALBUQUERQUE 

ANN ARBOR 

ARIZONA 

ARKANSAS 

ATLANTA 

ATLANTIC CITY 

AUSTIN 

BALTIMORE 

BERGEN COUNTY 

BIRMINGHAM 

BOSTON 

BRIDGEPORT 

BROWARD COUNTY 

BUFFALO 

CALIFORNIA 

CAMDEN 

CHARLESTON 

CHARLOTTE 



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CHICAGO 

CINCINNATI 

CLEVELAND 

COLORADO 

COLUMBUS 

CONNECTICUT 

DALLAS 

DAYTON 

DELAWARE 

DENVER 

DETROIT 

DURHAM 

EL PASO 

ESSEX COUNTY 

FALL RIVER 

FLORIDA 

GARY 

GEORGIA 

HARRISBURG 

HARTFORD 

HAWAII 

HOUSTON 

HUDSON COUNTY 

IDAHO 

ILLINOIS 

INDIANA 

INDIANAPOLIS 

IOWA 

JACKSONVILLE 

KANSAS 

KANSAS CITY 

KENTUCKY 

KIRYAS JOEL 

LAKEWOOD 

LANCASTER 

LAS VEGAS 

LEE AND CHARLOTTE COUNTIES 

LEHIGH VALLEY 

LONG BEACH 

LOS ANGELES 

LOUISIANA 

LOUISVILLE 

MADISON 

MAINE 

MARYLAND 

MASSACHUSETTS 

MEMPHIS 

MIAMI-DADE COUNTY 

MICHIGAN 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY 

MILWAUKEE 

MINNEAPOLIS-SAINT PAUL 

MINNESOTA 

MISSISSIPPI 

MISSOURI 

MONMOUTH COUNTY 

MONTANA 

MORRIS AND SUSSEX COUNTIES 

NAPLES AND COLLIER COUNTIES 

NASHVILLE 



NEBRASKA 

NEVADA 

NEW BEDFORD 

NEW BRUNSWICK 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

NEW HAVEN 

NEW JERSEY 

NEW LONDON 

NEW MEXICO 

NEW ORLEANS 

NEW SQUARE 

NEW YORK CITY 

NEW YORK STATE 

NEWPORT 

NORFOLK 

NORTH CAROLINA 

NORWALK AND WESTPORT 

OAKLAND 

OHIO 

OKLAHOMA 

OMAHA 

ORANGE COUNTY 

OREGON 

ORLANDO 

PALM BEACH COUNTY 

PALM SPRINGS 

PASSAIC -CLIFTON 

PATERSON 

PENNSYLVANIA 

PHILADELPHIA 

PHOENIX 

PITTSBURGH 

PORTLAND 

RHODE ISLAND 

RICHMOND 

ROCHESTER 

ROCKLAND COUNTY 

SACRAMENTO 

SAN ANTONIO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA 

SAN GABRIEL AND POMONA VALLEY 

SAN JOSE 

SANTA CRUZ 

SARASOTA 

SAVANNAH 

SCHENECTADY 

SCRANTON 

SEATTLE 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

SPRINGFIELD 

ST. LOUIS 

ST. PETERSBURG 

STAMFORD 

SYRACUSE 

TALLAHASSEE 

TAMPA 

TENNESSEE 

TEXAS 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 
g. United States 

Communities (continued) 

TOLEDO 

TRENTON 

TUCSON 

UNION COUNTY 

UTAH 

UTICA 

VERMONT 

VINELAND 

VIRGINIA 

VIRGIN ISLANDS 

WASHINGTON 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 

WEST VIRGINIA 

WESTCHESTER COUNTY 

WILKES-BARRE AND KINGSTON 

WILMINGTON 

WISCONSIN 

WORCESTER 

WYOMING 

YOUNGSTOWN 



organizations 

america-israel cultural foundation 
american academy for jewish research 
american association for jewish education 
american council for judaism 
american gathering of jewish holocaust 

survivors 
american israel public affairs committee 

(aipac) 
american jewish archives 
american jewish committee 
american jewish conference 
american jewish congress 
american jewish historical society 
american sephardi federation 
american society for jewish music 
american zionist movement (azm) 
amit: mizrachi women's organization of 

AMERICA 

anti-defamation league 

association for jewish studies 

baltimore hebrew university 

b'nai b'rith 

board of delegates of american israelites 

bonds, state of israel 

brandeis university 

brandeis-bardin institut 

brith abraham 

center for jewish history 

central conference of american 

RABBIS 
CITY OF HOPE NATIONAL MEDICAL CENTER 
CLAL 



COALITION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF JEWISH 

EDUCATION 
CONFERENCE OF PRESIDENTS OF MAJOR 

AMERICAN JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS 
CONFERENCE ON JEWISH SOCIAL STUDIES 
CONGRESS FOR JEWISH CULTURE 
COUNCIL OF JEWISH FEDERATIONS AND WELFARE 

FUNDS 
DROPSIE UNIVERSITY 
EDAH 
EMMA LAZARUS FEDERATION OF JEWISH 

women's CLUBS 

ETHICAL CULTURE 

FARBAND 

FREE SONS OF ISRAEL 

GRATZ COLLEGE 

HADASSAH, THE WOMENS ZIONIST 

ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA 
HAVURAH 
HEBREW COLLEGE 

HEBREW IMMIGRANT AID SOCIETY 
HEBREW THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE 
HEBREW UNION COLLEGE-JEWISH INSTITUTE OF 

RELIGION 
HE-HALUTZ 

HERZLIAH HEBREW TEACHERS' INSTITUTE 
HILLEL 

HISTADRUT IVRIT OF AMERICA 
INDUSTRIAL REMOVAL 

INSTITUTE OF SOUTHERN JEWISH LIFE 
INSTITUTE OF TRADITIONAL JUDAISM, THE 
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF JEWISH 

GENEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES 
INTERNATIONAL LADIES GARMENT WORKERS 

UNION 
ISRAEL POLICY FORUM 
JEWISH AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 
JEWISH BOOK COUNCIL 
JEWISH CAMPING 
JEWISH COMMUNAL SERVICE ASSOCIATION OF 

NORTH AMERICA 
JEWISH COUNCIL ON PUBLIC AFFAIRS 
JEWISH CULTURAL RECONSTRUCTION 
JEWISH EDUCATION SERVICE OF NORTH AMERICA 
JEWISH LABOR COMMITTEE 
JEWISH MUSEUM 

JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA 
JEWISH SOCIALIST VERBAND 
JEWISH TEACHERS' SEMINARY AND PEOPLE'S 

UNIVERSITY 
JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA, 

THE 
JEWISH WAR VETERANS OF THE UNITED STATES 

OF AMERICA 
LABOR ZIONIST ALLIANCE (AMEINU) 
LAURA AND ALVIN SIEGAL COLLEGE OF JUDAIC 

STUDIES 
LEAGUE FOR ISRAEL, THE AMERICAN JEWISH 

MAGNES MEMORIAL MUSEUM 
MENORAH ASSOCIATION AND MENORAH JOURNAL 



138 



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NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOVIET JEWRY 
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 
NATIONAL FEDERATION OF TEMPLE SISTERHOODS 
NATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR JEWISH CULTURE 
NATIONAL HAVURAH COMMITTEE 
NATIONAL JEWISH CENTER FOR IMMUNOLOGY 
NATIONAL JEWISH DEMOCRATIC COUNCIL 
NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AMERICAN JEWISH 

HISTORY 
NATIONAL YIDDISH BOOK CENTER 
NEW ISRAEL FUND 
PIONEER WOMEN 
POALEI AGUDAT ISRAEL 
PROGRESSIVE JEWISH ALLIANCE 
RABBINICAL ALLIANCE OF AMERICA 
RABBINICAL ASSEMBLY 
RABBINICAL COUNCIL OF AMERICA 
RECONSTRUCTIONIST RABBINICAL COLLEGE 
REPUBLICAN JEWISH COALITION 
SIMON WIESENTHAL CENTER 
SKIRBALL CULTURAL CENTER 
SPERTUS INSTITUTE OF JEWISH STUDIES 
STUDENT STRUGGLE FOR SOVIET JEWRY 
SYNAGOGUE COUNCIL OF AMERICA, THE 
TIKKUN 

torah umesorah 

touro college 

union of councils for jews in former 

soviet union 
union of orthodox jewish congregations 

of america 
union of orthodox rabbis of the united 

states and canada 
union of reform judaism 
union of sephardic congregations 
united jewish communities 
united states holocaust memorial museum 
united synagogue of america 
university of judaism 
vaad ha-hatzalah 

women's league for conservative judaism 
workmen's circle 
yeshiva university 
yeshivas chovevei torah 
yiddisher kultur farband 
young israel, the national council of 
young judaea 
zionist organization of america (z.o.a.) 



Publications 

american hebrew, the 

american israelite 

american jewess 

arbeiter-zeitung 

artscroll 

commentary 

die deborah 

jewish daily forward 

jewish day 

jewish messenger, the 



JEWISH MORNING JOURNAL 

JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

JEWISH WOMAN, THE 

LILITH 

MENORAH ASSOCIATION AND MENORAH JOURNAL 

MIDSTREAM 

MORNING FREIHEIT 

TIKKUN 

TSUKUNFT 

BIOGRAPHIES 

Academic Life 

ABELSON, HAROLD HERBERT 

ABRAHAMSEN, DAVID 

ABRAM, MORRIS BERTHOLD 

ABRAMOVITZ, MOSES 

ABRAMOWICZ, DINA 

ACKERMAN, NATHAN WARD 

ADELSON, HOWARD LAURENCE 

ADLER, CYRUS 

ADLER, FELIX 

ADLER, MORTIMER JEROME 

ADLER, SELIG 

ADLERBLUM, NIMA 

AGUS, IRVING ABRAHAM 

AIKEN, HENRY DAVID 

AKERLOF, GEORGE 

ALEXANDER, FRANZ 

ALMOND, GABRIEL ABRAHAM 

ALTMAN, OSCAR LOUIS 

APTER, DAVID ERNEST 

ARENDT, HANNAH 

ARNSTEIN, WALTER LEONARD 

ARROW, KENNETH JOSEPH 

ASKOWITH, DORA 

AUERBACH, CARL, A. 

AUSUBEL, DAVID PAUL 

AUSUBEL, NATHAN 

BAILYN, BERNARD 

BAKAN, DAVID 

BAMBERGER, FRITZ 

BAND, ARNOLD 

BARDIN, SHLOMO 

BARON, SALO (Shalom) WITTMAYER 

BASKIN, JUDITH 

BAUMGARDT, DAVID 

BECKER, GARY STANLEY 

BEER, GEORGE LOUIS 

BELL, DANIEL 

BENARDETE, MAIR JOSE 

BENDIX, REINHARD 

BENEDEK, THERESE F. 

BEN-HORIN, MEIR 

BERENBAUM, MICHAEL 

BERGER, DAVID 

BERGSON, ABRAM 

BERKOVITS, ELIEZER 

BERKSON, ISAAC BAER 

BERNARD, JESSIE 

BERNSTEIN, HARRY 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Academic Life {continued) 

BERNSTEIN, SIMON 

BESSO, HENRY 

BETTELHEIM, BRUNO 

BIALE, DAVID 

BICKERMAN, ELIAS JOSEPH 

BIDNEY, DAVID 

BIEBER, MARGARETE 

BILDERSEE, ADELE 

BIRNBAUM, PHILIP 

BLACK, MAX 

BLAU, JOSEPH LEON 

BLAU, PETER MICHAEL 

BLOCH, HERBERT 

BLONDHEIM, DAVID SIMON 

BLOOM, SOLOMON FRANK 

BLOOMFIELD, LEONARD 

BLOOMFIELD, MAURICE 

BLUM, JEROME 

BOAS, FRANZ 

BOAS, GEORGE 

BOKSER, BARUCH 

BOORSTIN, DANIEL J. 

BORAH, WOODROW WILSON 

BOSKOFF, ALVIN 

BOYARIN, DANIEL 

BRODSKY, STANLEY L. 

BRONFENBRENNER, MARTIN 

BROUDY, HARRY SAMUEL 

BROWNING, CHRISTOPHER 

BRUNER, JEROME 

BUHLER, CHARLOTTE 

BUNZEL, RUTH LEAH 

BUTLER, JUDITH 

BUTTENWIESER, MOSES 

CAHNMAN, WERNER J. 

CALABRESI, GUIDO 

CANTOR, NORMAN FRANK 

CAPLAN, HARRY 

CARLEBACH, ELISHEVA 

CARMILLY-WEINBERGER, MOSHE 

CHAZAN, ROBERT 

CHEIN, ISIDOR 

CHERNISS, HAROLD 

CHESLER, PHYLLIS 

CHOMSKY, NOAM AVRAM 

CHOMSKY, WILLIAM 

CHOPER, JESSE 

COHEN, BOAZ 

COHEN, GERSON D. 

COHEN, I. BERNARD 

COHEN, MORRIS RAPHAEL 

COHEN, NAOMI W. 

COHEN, NATHAN EDWARD 



COHEN, SAUL BERNARD 

COHEN, SHAYE J.D. 

COHEN, WILBUR JOSEPH 

COLEMAN, EDWARD DAVIDSON 

COLM, GERHARD 

COSER, LEWIS A. 

COSER, ROSE LAUB 

CREMIN, LAWRENCE ARTHUR 

DAVIDSON, ISRAEL 

DAVIS, DAVID BRION 

DAVIS, MOSHE 

DAVIS, NATALIE ZEMON 

DAWIDOWICZ, LUCY 

DEINARD, EPHRAIM 

DELOUGAZ, PIERRE PINCHAS 

DENMARK, FLORENCE LEVIN 

DEUTSCH, GOTTHARD 

DIAMOND, SIGMUND 

DIESENDRUCK, ZEVI 

DIMITROVSKY, CHAIM ZALMAN 

DINER, HASIA 

DINITZ, SIMON 

DONIGER, WENDY 

DORFF, ELLIOT N. 

DORFMAN, JOSEPH 

DRACHSLER, JULIUS 

DUBERMAN, MARTIN 

DUKER, ABRAHAM GORDON 

DWORKIN, RONALD 

EATON, JOSEPH W. 

ECKARDT, ROY A. 

EDMAN, IRWIN 

EDWARDS, PAUL 

EFROS, ISRAEL ISAAC 

EHRLICH, ARNOLD BOGUMIL 

EISEN, ARNOLD 

EISENSTADT, ABRAHAM SELDIN 

EISENSTEIN, JUDAH DAVID 

ELAZAR, DANIEL J. 

EMBER, AARON 

EMERY, RICHARD WILDER 

ENDELMAN, TODD 

EPSTEIN, ABRAHAM 

EULAU, HEINZ 

EZEKIEL, MORDECAI JOSEPH BRILL 

FABRICANT, SOLOMON 

FARBER, MARVIN 

FEIGIN, SAMUEL ISAAC 

FEIGL, HERBERT 

FEILER, ARTHUR 

FEIS, HERBERT 

FELDMAN, LOUIS 

FELLNER, WILLIAM JOHN 

FERNBERGER, SAMUEL 

FEUER, LEWIS SAMUEL 

FILLER, LOUIS 

FINE, REUBEN 

FINE, SIDNEY 

FINER, HERMAN 

FINKEL, JOSHUA 



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FINKELSTEIN, JACOB JOEL 
FISCHEL, WALTER JOSEPH 
FISCHER, LOUIS 
FISCHER, STANLEY 
FISHBANE, MICHAEL 
FISHMAN, JOSHUA AARON 
FLEXNER 

FLEXNER, ABRAHAM 
FLUSSER, DAVID 
FOX, MARVIN 
FREEDMAN, JAMES 
FREIDUS, ABRAHAM SOLOMON 
FRIED, MORTON HERBERT 
FRIEDLAENDER, ISRAEL 
FRIEDMAN, LEE MAX 
FRIEDMAN, MILTON 
FRIEDMAN, SHAMMA 
FRYMER-KENSKY, TIKVA 
GANDZ, SOLOMON 
GARTNER, LLOYD P. 

gay (Froehlich), peter jack (Joachim) 

GELB, IGNACE JAY 

GERSHOY, LEO 

GEVIRTZ, STANLEY 

GILBERT, FELIX 

GILBERT, MILTON 

GILLIGAN, CAROL 

GILLMAN, NEAL 

GINOTT, HAIM G. 

GINSBERG, HAROLD LOUIS 

GINSBURG, NORTON SIDNEY 

GINZBERG, ELI 

GINZBERG, LOUIS 

GITIN, SEYMOUR 

GLATZER, NAHUM NORBERT 

GLAZER, NATHAN 

GLOCK, CHARLES 

GLUECK, NELSON 

GLUECK, SHELDON 

GOFFMAN, ERVING 

GOITEIN, SHLOMO DOV (Fritz) 

GOLB, NORMAN 

GOLDBERG, HARVEY 

GOLDENWEISER, ALEXANDER ALEXANDROVICH 

GOLDENWEISER, EMANUEL ALEXANDROVICH 

GOLDIN, JUDAH 

GOLDMAN, ERIC FREDERICK 

GOLDMAN, HETTY 

GOLDMAN, MARTIN 

GOLDSMITH, RAYMOND WILLIAM 

GOODENOUGH, ERWIN RAMSDELL 

GOODMAN, NELSON 

GOODMAN, PAUL 

GOOR, YEHUDAH 

GORDIS, ROBERT 

GORDON, CYRUS HERZL 

GORDON, MILTON M. 

GORNICK, VIVIAN 

GOTTHEIL, RICHARD JAMES HORATIO 

GOTTSCHALK, LOUIS REICHENTAL 



GOTTSCHALL, MORTON 

GOULD, SAMUEL BROOKNER 

GRAYZEL, SOLOMON 

GREEN, ARTHUR 

GREENBERG, JOSEPH 

GREENBERG, MOSHE 

GREENFIELD, JONAS CARL 

GREENSTONE, JULIUS HILLEL 

GROSS, CHARLES 

GURALNIK, DAVID 

GURWITSCH, AARON 

GUTMANN, AMY 

GUTTMACHER, MANFRED 

GUTTMAN, LOUIS 

HABER, SAMUEL L. 

HABER, WILLIAM 

HADAS, MOSES 

HALKIN, ABRAHAM SOLOMON 

HALLE, MORRIS 

HALPERN, BENJAMIN 

HAMEROW, THEODORE STEPHEN 

HANDLIN, OSCAR 

HANFMANN, GEORGE MAXIM ANOSSOV 

HARRIS, MARVIN 

HARRIS, ZELLIG SABBETAI 

HARRISSE, HENRY 

HARTMAN, GEOFFREY 

HAUPT, PAUL 

HAUSER, PHILIP MORRIS 

HEILBRUN, CAROLYN G. 

HEILPRIN 

HELLER, HAYYIM 

HELLMAN, CLARISSE DORIS 

HENRY, JULES 

HERBERG, WILL 

HERSKOVITS, MELVILLE JEAN 

HEXTER, JACK H. 

HILBERG, RAUL 

HIMMELFARB, GERTRUDE 

HIRSCHMAN, ALBERT OTTO 

HOFSTADTER, RICHARD 

HOOK, SIDNEY 

HOSCHANDER, JACOB 

HOSELITZ, BERTHOLD FRANK 

HURWITZ, SAMUEL JUSTIN 

HUSIK, ISAAC 

HYMAN, HAROLD MELVIN 

HYMAN, PAULA E. 

INKELES, ALEX 

INSDORF, ANNETTE 

JACOBSON, ANNA 

JANOWITZ, MORRIS 

JANOWSKY, OSCAR ISAIAH 

JASNY, NAUM 

JASTROW 

JONAS, HANS 

JOSEPH, SAMUEL 

JOSEPHSON, MATTHEW 

JUSTMAN, JOSEPH 

KABAKOFF, JACOB 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Academic Life (continued) 

KAGAN, SOLOMON ROBERT 

KAHLER, ERICH 

KAHN, ALFRED JOSEPH 

KAHNEMAN, DANIEL 

KALLEN, HORACE MEYER 

KANDEL, ISAAC LEON 

KANTOR, JACOB ROBERT 

KANTOROWICZ, ERNST HARTWIG 

KAPLAN, ABRAHAM 

KARPF, MAURICE JOSEPH 

KATSH, ABRAHAM ISAAC 

KATZ, DANIEL 

KATZ, SOLOMON 

KATZ, STEVEN T. 

KAUFMANN, FELIX 

KAUFMANN, WALTER 

KELLER, MORTON 

KEMPNER, ROBERT MAX WASILII 

KEYSERLING, LEON H. 

KIRCHHEIMER, OTTO 

KLEIN, LAWRENCE ROBERT 

KOBRIN, SOLOMON 

KOFFKA, KURT 

KOHN, HANS 

KOHS, SAMUEL CALMIN 

KOMAROVSKY, MIRRA 

KONVITZ, MILTON RIDVAS 

KRAMER, SAMUEL NOAH 

KRAUS, MICHAEL 

KRIEGER, LEONARD 

KRIPKE, SAUL 

KRIS, ERNST 

KRISTELLER, PAUL OSKAR 

KRISTOL, IRVING 

KUBLIN, HYMAN 

KUGEL, JAMES 

KUHN, THOMAS S. 

KUZNETS, SIMON 

LAMM, NORMAN 

LANDES, DAVID SAUL 

LANDES, RUTH 

LANGER, LAWRENCE 

LAZARSFELD, PAUL F. 

LAZEROWITZ, MORRIS 

LEA, HENRY CHARLES 

LEAF, HAYIM 

LEHMANN, KARL 

LEHRMAN, DANIEL 

LEISERSON, WILLIAM MORRIS 

LENGYEL, EMIL 

LEON, HARRY JOSHUA 

LERNER, ABBA PETACHJA 

LERNER, GERDA 



LERNER, MAX 

LERNER, RALPH 

LESLAU, WOLF 

LEVENSON, JON 

LEVENSON, JOSEPH RICHMOND 

LEVIAS, CASPAR 

LEVIN, A. LEO 

LEVIN, NORA 

LEVINE, BARUCH 

LEVY, HARRY LOUIS 

LEVY, LEONARD WILLIAMS 

LEVY, MARION JOSEPH, JR. 

LEWIN, KURT ZADEK 

LEWIS, OSCAR 

LIBOWITZ, SAMUEL NEHEMIAH 

LICHTENSTEIN, WALTER 

LIEBERMAN, MYRON 

LIEBERMAN, SAUL 

LIPSET, SEYMOUR MARTIN 

LIPTZIN, SOL 

LOEWENSTEIN, KARL 

LOPEZ, ROBERT SABATINO 

LORGE, IRVING 

LOWE, ADOLPH 

LOWE, ELIAS AVERY 

LOWIE, ROBERT HARRY 

LUBIN, ISADOR 

LUBIN, SIMON JULIUS 

MACHLUP, FRITZ 

MAIER, JOSEPH 

MAISELS, MOSES HAYYIM (Misha) 

MALACHI, ELIEZER RAPHAEL 

MALKIEL, YAKOV 

MALLER, JULIUS BERNARD 

MALTER, HENRY 

MANDELBAUM, DAVID GOODMAN 

MANN, JACOB 

MANUEL, FRANK EDWARD 

MARCUS, JACOB RADER 

MARCUS, JOSEPH 

MARCUS, RALPH 

MARCUS, RUTH BARCAN 

MARCUSE, HERBERT 

MARGET, ARTHUR W. 

MARGOLIS, MAX LEOPOLD 

MARKOWITZ, HARRY M. 

MARSCHAK, JACOB 

MARWICK, LAWRENCE 

MARX, ALEXANDER 

MASLOW, ABRAHAM H. 

maximon (Maximowski), shalom dov ber 

MAYER, ARNO JOSEPH 

MEDNICK, MARTHA TAMARA SCHUCH 

MENES, ABRAM 

MERTON, ROBERT C. 

MERTON, ROBERT KING 

MEYER, MICHAEL 

MEYERHOFF, HANS 

MILGRAM, STANLEY 

MILGROM, JACOB 



142 



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MISES, LUDWIG EDLER VON 

MODIGLIANI, FRANCO 

MONIS, JUDAH 

MOORE, GEORGE FOOT 

MORENO, JACOB 

MORGENSTERN, OSKAR 

MORGENTHAU, HANS JOACHIM 

MORRIS, RICHARD BRANDON 

MORTON, LOUIS C. 

MOSSE, GEORGE L. 

MYERHOFF, BARBARA 

NADLER, MARCUS 

NAGEL, ERNEST 

NASATIR, ABRAHAM PHINEAS 

NATHAN, ROBERT ROY 

NAUMBURG, MARGARET 

NEISSER, HANS PHILIPP 

NELSON, BENJAMIN 

NEMOY, LEON 

NETANYAHU, BENZION 

NEUGARTEN, BERNICE L. 

NEUSNER, JACOB 

NEWMAN, AUBREY 

NUSSBAUM, ARTHUR 

OKO, ADOLPH S. 

OPLER, MARVIN KAUFMANN 

OPLER, MORRIS EDWARD 

ORLINSKY, HARRY MEYER 

OSCHINSKY, LAWRENCE 

OSTROLENK, BERNHARD 

PAP, ARTHUR 

PASSOW, AARON HARRY 

PATAI, RAPHAEL 

PEIXOTTO, JESSICA BLANCHE 

PERLBERG, ABRAHAM NATHAN 

PERLMAN, JACOB 

PERLMANN, MOSHE 

PETEGORSKY, DAVID 

PFEFFER, LEO 

PFEIFFER, ROBERT HENRY 

PINSON, KOPPEL S. 

PIPES, RICHARD EDGAR 

POLANYI, KARL 

POMERANTZ, SIDNEY IRVING 

POPPER, WILLIAM 

POWDERMAKER, HORTENSE 

PRIBRAM, KARL 

PUTNAM, HILARY 

RADIN, PAUL 

RAISZ, ERWIN J. 

RAPPAPORT, ARMIN H. 

RAPPAPORT, ROY 

RATNER, SIDNEY 

RAZRAN, GREGORY 

REDL, FRITZ 

REICH, ROBERT BERNARD 

REICH, WILHELM 

REINHARZ, JEHUDA 

REVEL, BERNARD 

RIESMAN, DAVID 



RISCHIN, MOSES 

RIVKIN, ELLIS 

RIVKIND, ISAAC 

RIVLIN, HARRY N. 

ROBACK, ABRAHAM AARON 

ROBINSON, EDWARD 

ROBISON, SOPHIA 

RODELL, FRED M. 

RODIN, JUDITH 

ROHEIM, GEZA 

ROSE, ARNOLD MARSHALL 

ROSENBACH, ABRAHAM SIMON WOLF 

ROSENBAUM, JONATHAN 

ROSENTHAL, ERICH 

ROSENTHAL, FRANZ 

ROSENTHAL, JUDAH 

ROSENTHAL, WILLIAM 

ROSKIES, DAVID 

ROSTOW, EUGENE VICTOR 

ROSTOW, WALT WHITMAN 

ROWE, LEO STANTON 

RUBINOW, ISAAC MAX 

RUDAVSKY, DAVID 

SACHAR, ABRAM LEON 

SACHS, HANNS 

SACHS, JULIUS 

SAHLINS, MARSHALL 

SALOMON, ALBERT 

SAMUELSON, PAUL ANTHONY 

SANDMEL, SAMUEL 

SAPIR, EDWARD 

SARNA, JONATHAN 

SARNA, NAHUM 

SAXON, DAVID STEPHEN 

SCHAECHTER, MORDKHE 

SCHAFER, STEPHEN 

SCHAPIRO, JACOB SALWYN 

SCHAPPES, MORRIS U. 

SCHARFSTEIN, ZEVI 

SCHEFFLER, ISRAEL 

SCHEINDLIN, RAYMOND 

SCHIFFMAN, LAWRENCE 

SCHOLES, MYRON 

SCHRECKER, PAUL 

SCHWARTZ, ANNA JACOBSON 

SELIGMAN, EDWIN ROBERT ANDERSON 

SEMMEL, BERNARD 

SHANKS, HERSHEL 

SHAPIRO, DAVID S. 

SHAPIRO, HAROLD 

SHAPIRO, HARRY LIONEL 

SHARFMAN, ISAIAH LEO 

SHATZKY, JACOB 

SHEFFER, HENRY M. 

SHILS, EDWARD 

SHUB, DAVID 

SHULIM, JOSEPH ISIDORE 

SHULVASS, MOSES AVIGDOR 

SIMON, HERBERT ALEXANDER 

SINGER, MILTON B. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Academic Life {continued) 

SKLARE, MARSHALL 

skoss, solomon leon (Zalman Leib) 

SLAVSON, SAMUEL RICHARD 

SLONIMSKY, HENRY 

SMELSER, NEIL JOSEPH 

SMITH, JOHN MERLIN POWIS 

SMITH, JONATHAN 

SMITH, MORTON 

SNYDER, LOUIS LEO 

SOLOW, ROBERT MERTON 

SONNE, ISAIAH 

SORKIN, MICHAEL 

SOVERN, MICHAEL IRA 

SPEISER, EPHRAIM AVIGDOR 

SPIEGEL, SHALOM 

SPIEGELBERG, HERBERT 

SPIER, LESLIE 

SPIRO, MELFORD ELLIOT 

SPITZER, LEO 

SPOEHR, ALEXANDER 

STARR, JOSHUA 

STEIN, HERBERT 

STERN, BERNHARD JOSEPH 

STERN, FRITZ 

STIGLITZ, JOSEPH 

STILES, EZRA 

STILLMAN, NORMAN 

STRAUSS, LEO 

SULZBACH, WALTER 

SWADESH, MORRIS 

SZAJKOWSKI, ZOSA 

TANNENBAUM, FRANK 

TAUBENSCHLAG, RAPHAEL 

TAUSSIG, FRANK WILLIAM 

TAX, SOL 

TCHERNOWITZ, CHAIM 

TEC, NECHAMA 

TIGAY, JEFFREY 

TITIEV, MISCHA 

TOBACH, ETHEL 

TOBY, JACKSON 

TORREY, CHARLES CUTLER 

TREFOUSSE, HANS LOUIS 

TRIBE, LAWRENCE H. 

TRUNK. ISAIAH 

TUCHMAN, BARBARA WERTHEIM 

TUMIN, MELVIN MARVIN 

TWERSKY, ISADORE 

UNGER, IRWIN 

VINER, JACOB 

WALZER, MICHAEL 

WAXMAN, MEYER 

WECHSLER, DAVID 



WECHSLER, HERBERT 

WEINBERG, GLADYS DAVIDSON 

WEINBERG, SAUL S. 

WEINREICH, URIEL 

WEINRYB, BERNARD DOV SUCHER 

WEISBERGER, BERNARD ALLEN 

WEISS, ALBERT PAUL 

WEISS, PAUL 

WEISS-ROSMARIN, TRUDE 

WERNER, HEINZ 

WHITE, HARRY D. 

WHITE, MORTON GABRIEL 

WIENER, PHILIP PAUL 

WIERUSZOWSKI, HELENE 

WIRTH, LOUIS 

WISCHNITZER, MARK 

WISSE, RUTH 

WOLF, ERIC ROBERT 

WOLFE, ALAN 

WOLFE, BERTRAM DAVID 

WOLFF, WERNER 

WOLFSON, ELLIOT 

WOLFSON, HARRY AUSTRYN 

WOLFSON, THERESA 

WUNDERLICH, FRIEDA 

YERUSHALMI, YOSEF HAYIM 

YOUNG, JAMES 

YOUTIE, HERBERT CHAYYIM 

ZEICHNER, OSCAR 

ZEITLIN, SOLOMON 

Art 

ABRAMOVITZ, MAX 
ADLER, DANKMAR 
ADLER, SAMUEL M. 
AGREST, DIANA 
ALSCHULER, ALFRED 
ARBUS, DIANE NEMEROV 
ARNOLD, EVE 
ARONSON, DAVID 
AVEDON, RICHARD 
BAIZERMAN, SAUL 
BARNET, WILL 
BASKIN, LEONARD 
BENN, BEN 

ben-zion (Weinman) 

BERENSON, BERNARD 
BERNSTEIN, THERESA 
BING, ILSE 
BLOOM, HYMAN 
BLUME, PETER 
BOLOTOWSKY, ILYA 
BOROFSKY, JONATHAN 
BOURKE-WHITE, MARGARET 
BRENNER, VICTOR 
BREUER, MARCEL (Lajos) 
BRUNNER, ARNOLD 
BUNSHAFT, GORDON 
CAPA, CORNELL 
CAPA, ROBERT 



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CARVALHO, SOLOMON NUNES 
CHAST, ROZ 
CHICAGO, IUDY 
CRUMB, ROBERT 

csupo, gabor (and Irene Klasky) 

DAVIDSON, IO 
DINE, IIM 

eidlitz (Abraham Moses), zerah ben meir 

EILSHEMIUS, LOUIS 
EISENMAN, PETER D. 
EISENSTAEDT, ALFRED 
EISNER, WILL 
EIZENBERG, IULIE 
ELDER, WILL 
ELISOFON, ELIOT 
ERWITT, ELLIOTT 
ETTINGHAUSEN, RICHARD 
ETTLINGER, MARION 
EZEKIEL, MOSES JACOB 
FEIFFER, JULES 
FERBER, HERBERT 
FLEISCHER, MAX 
FRANK, ROBERT 
FRANKENTHALER, HELEN 
FREED, JAMES INGO 
FRELENG, I. J. 
FRIEDLANDER, LEE 
FURST, MORITZ 
GANDELSONAS, MARIO 
GEHRY, FRANK O. 
GIKOW, RUTH 
GOLDBERG, BERTRAND 
GOLDBERG, RUBE 
GOLDIN, NAN 
GOLDWATER, JOHN 
GOLUB, LEON 
GOODMAN, PERCIVAL 
GORLIN, ALEXANDER 
GOTTLIEB, ADOLPH 
GREENBERG, CLEMENT 
GROPPER, WILLIAM 
GROSS, CHAIM 
GUTMANN, JOSEPH 
HALSMAN, PHILIPPE 
HAMMER, ARMAND 
HARKAVY, MINNA 
HIRSCH, JOSEPH 
HIRSCHFELD, AL 
HIRSHFIELD, MORRIS 
JACOBI, LOTTE 
KAHN, ALBERT 
KAHN, ELY JACQUES 
KAHN, LOUIS I. 
KALMAN, TIBOR 
KANE, BOB 
KANE, GIL 

KANOVITZ, HOWARD 
KATZ, ALEX 
KERTESZ, ANDRE 
KIESLER, FREDERICK JOHN 



kirby, jack (Kurtzberg) 

KITAJ, R. B. 
KLINE FRANZ 
KOLB, LEON 
KRASNER, LEE 
KRUGER, BARBARA 
KURTZMAN, HARVEY 
LAPIDUS, MORRIS 
LASANSKY, MAURICIO 
LASSAW, IBRAM 
LAZARUS, MEL 
LEE, STAN 
LEIBOVITZ, ANNIE 
LEVINE, JACK 
LEVITT, HELENE 
LEWITT, SOL 
LIBESKIND, DANIEL 
LICHTENSTEIN, ROY 

lipchitz, jacques (Chaim Jacob) 

LIPTON, SEYMOUR 
LOUIS, MORRIS 
LOZOWICK, LOUIS 
MANSO, LEO 
MARGO, BORIS 
MARGOULIES, BERTHA 
MARIL, HERMAN 
MARK, MARY ELLEN 
MARYAN 
MEIER, RICHARD 
MENDELSOHN, ERIC 
MENKES, ZYGMUNT 
MEYEROWITZ, JOEL 
MOISE, THEODORE SYDNEY 
MOSLER, HENRY 
MYERS, MYER 
NADELMAN, ELIE 
NEUTRA, RICHARD JOSEPH 
NEVELSON, LOUISE 
NEWMAN, ARNOLD 
NEWMAN, BARNETT 
NEWTON, HELMUT 
OLITSKI, JULES 
OPPER, FREDERICK BURR 
PANOFSKY, ERWIN 
PEARLSTEIN, PHILIP 
PENN, IRVING 
PLACHY, SYLVIA 
POLSHEK, JAMES 
RATTNER, ABRAHAM 
RAY, MAN 
REDER, BERNARD 
REISS, LIONEL 
RIVERS, LARRY 
ROSE, HERMAN 
ROSENBERG, HAROLD 
ROSENTHAL, MAX 
ROTHKO, MARK 
ROTHSTEIN, IRMA 
RUBIN, GAIL 
SAITOWITZ, STANLEY 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Art (continued) 

SCHAMES, SAMSON 
SCHANKER, LOUIS 
SCHAPIRO, MEYER 
SCHINDLER, RUDOLPH M. 
SCHOR, ILYA 
SCHWARTZ, FREDERIC 
SCHWARTZ, MANFRED 
SEGAL, GEORGE 
SELIGMANN, KURT 
SERRA, RICHARD 
SEYMOUR, DAVID 
SHAHN, BEN 
SHUSTER, JOE 
SIEGEL, JERRY 
SIMON, SIDNEY 
SISKIND, AARON 
SOYER, MOSES 
SOYER, RAPHAEL 
SPERO, NANCY 
SPIEGELMAN, ART 
SPIRO, EUGEN 
STEIG, WILLIAM, SHREK 
STEINBERG, SAUL 
STERN, ROBERT A.M. 
STERNE, HEDDA 
STERNE, MAURICE 
STIEGLITZ, ALFRED 
STRAND, PAUL 
TEWI, THEA 
TIGERMAN, STANLEY 
TWORKOV, JACK 
WALKOWITZ, ABRAHAM 
WEBER, MAX 
WEEGEE 
WILSON, SOL 
WINOGRAND, GARRY 
ZORACH, WILLIAM 
ZUCKER, JACQUES 

Literature 

ABRAMS, MEYER 

ADAMS, HANNAH 

ADLER, RENATA, ESSAYIST 

ALTER, ROBERT B. 

ANGOFF, CHARLES 

ANTIN, MARY 

APPLE, MAX 

ASIMOV, ISAAC 

AUSLANDER, JOSEPH 

AUSTER, PAUL 

BAUM, VICKI 

BEHRMAN, SAMUEL NATHANIEL 

BELLOW, SAUL 



BERCOVICI, KONRAD 

BERCOVITCH, SACVAN 

BLANKFORT, MICHAEL S. 

BLOOM, HAROLD 

BODENHEIM, MAXWELL 

BRINIG, MYRON 

BRODY, ALTER 

BRONER, ESTHER M. 

BRUSTEIN, ROBERT SANFORD 

BUKIET, MELVIN JULES 

BUSCH, CHARLES 

CAHAN, ABRAHAM 

CAHAN, JUDAH LOEB (Lewis) 

CALISHER, HORTENSE 

CHABON, MICHAEL 

CHAYEFSKY, PADDY 

CHODOROV, EDWARD 

CHODOROV, JEROME 

COHEN, ARTHUR A. 

COHEN, ROSE GOLLUP 

COURNOS, JOHN 

DAHLBERG, EDWARD 

DAVENPORT, MARCIA 

DE CASSERES, BENJAMIN 

DEUTSCH, BABBETTE 

DOCTOROW, EDGAR LAWRENCE 

ELKIN, STANLEY 

EPHRON, NORA 

EPSTEIN, LESLIE 

EPSTEIN, MORRIS 

EPSTEIN, SEYMOUR 

FADIMAN, CLIFTON 

FALK, MARCIA 

FAST, HOWARD MELVIN 

FEARING, KENNETH 

FELDMAN, IRVING 

FERBER, EDNA 

FIEDLER, LESLIE AARON 

FINEMAN, IRVING 

FISH, STANLEY 

FRANK, WALDO DAVID 

FRANKEN, ROSE 

FRANKS, BILHAH ABIGAIL LEVY 

FREEMAN, JOSEPH 

FRIEDLAND, ABRAHAM HYMAN (Hayyim) 

FRIEDMAN, BRUCE JAY 

FUCHS, DANIEL 

GABRIEL, GILBERT W. 

GAMORAN, MAMIE 

GASSNER, JOHN 

GELBER, JACK 

GINSBERG, ALLEN 

GLANZ-LEYELES, AARON 

GLASS, MONTAGUE MARSDEN 

GLUCK, LOUISE 

GOLD, HERBERT 

GOLD, MICHAEL 

GOLDBERG, ISAAC 

GOLDEN, HARRY LEWIS 

GOLDMAN, WILLIAM 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



GOLDSTEIN, REBECCA 

GOODMAN, ALLEGRA 

GREEN, GERALD 

GREENBERG, JOANNE 

GREENBERG, SAMUEL BERNARD 

GROSSMAN, ALLEN 

HALPER, ALBERT 

HARRIS, MARK 

HART, MOSS 

HECHT, BEN 

HELLER, JOSEPH 

HELLINGER, MARK 

HELLMAN, LILLIAN FLORENCE 

HINDUS, MAURICE GERSCHON 

HIRSCH, ERIC DONALD 

HOBSON, LAURA Z. 

HOLLANDER, JOHN 

HOROVITZ, ISRAEL 

HOWE, IRVING 

HURST, FANNIE 

IGNATOW, DAVID 

ISAACS, JACOB 

ISAACS, SUSAN 

JAFFE, RONA 

JONG, ERICA 

JUDAH, SAMUEL BENJAMIN HELBERT 

KALMAN, MAIRA 

KANIN, GARSON 

KAPLAN, JOHANNA 

KAUFMAN, BEL 

KAUFMAN, GEORGE SIMON 

KAZIN, ALFRED 

KELLERMAN, FAYE 

KELLERMAN, JONATHAN 

KEMELMAN, HARRY 

KINGSLEY, SIDNEY 

KLEPFISZ, IRENA 

KOBER, ARTHUR 

KOCH, KENNETH 

KOMROFF, MANUEL 

KOPIT, ARTHUR 

KOSINSKI, JERZY 

KRAMER, LARRY 

KRAMM, JOSEPH 

KRANTZ, JUDITH 

KREYMBORG, ALFRED 

KRONENBERGER, LOUIS 

KUNITZ, STANLEY JASSPON 

KUSHNER, TONY 

LAURENTS, ARTHUR 

LAWSON, JOHN HOWARD 

LAZARUS, EMMA 

LEVERTOV, DENISE 

LEVIANT, CURT 

LEVIN, HARRY 

LEVIN, IRA 

LEVIN, MEYER 

LEWISOHN, LUDWIG 

LIEBERMAN, ELIAS 

LISITZKY, EPHRAIM E. 



LOWENTHAL, MARVIN 
MAILER, NORMAN 
MALAMUD, BERNARD 
MALTZ, ALBERT 
MAMET, DAVID 
MILLER, ARTHUR 
MOISE, PENINA 
NATHAN, GEORGE JEAN 
NEMEROV, HOWARD 
NEUGEBOREN, JAY 
NISSENSON, HUGH 
ODETS, CLIFFORD 
OLSEN, TILLIE 
OPPEN, GEORGE 
OPPENHEIM, JAMES 
ORNITZ, SAMUEL BADISCH 
OSTRIKER, ALICIA SUSKIN 
OZICK, CYNTHIA 
PALEY, GRACE 
PARKER, DOROTHY 
PERELMAN, SIDNEY JOSEPH 
PHILLIPS, WILLIAM 
PINSKY, ROBERT 
PLAIN, BELVA 
PODHORETZ, NORMAN 
POTOK, CHAIM 
POUND, EZRA LOOMIS 
PROSE, FRANCINE 
RAGEN, NAOMI 
RAHV, PHILIP 
RAND, AYN 

RAPHAELSON, SAMSON 
REZNIKOFF, CHARLES 
RICE, ELMER LEOPOLD 
RICH, ADRIENNE 
ROBBINS, HAROLD 
ROSEN, NORMA 
ROSENFELD, ISAAC 
ROSENFELD, PAUL 
ROSS, LILLIAN 
ROSTEN, LEO CALVIN 
ROTH, HENRY 
ROTH, PHILIP MILTON 
RUKEYSER, MURIEL 
SALINGER, JEROME DAVID 
SAMPTER, JESSIE ETHEL 
SAMUEL, MAURICE 
SCHISGAL, MURRAY 
SCHULBERG, BUDD WILSON 
SCHWARTZ, DELMORE 
SCHWARZ, LEO WALDER 
SEGAL, ERICH 
SEID, RUTH 
SERLING, ROD 
SHAPIRO, KARL JAY 
SHAW, IRWIN 
SHELDON, SIDNEY 
SHEVELOVE, BURT 
SHULMAN, MAX 
SIMON, KATE 



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147 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Literature (continued) 

SIMON, NEIL 
SINGER, HOWARD 
SKLAREW, MYRA 
SOLOTAROFF, THEODORE 
SONTAG, SUSAN 
SPEWACK, BELLA 
SPIEGELMAN, ART 
SPINGARN 
STEELE, DANIELLE 
STEIN, GERTRUDE 
STEIN, JOSEPH 
STERN, STEVE 
STINE, R. L. 
STONE, IRVING 
SUSANN, JACQUELINE 
TAYLOR, SIDNEY 
TOBENKIN, ELIAS 
TRILLIN, CALVIN, ESSAYIST 
TRILLING, DIANA 
TRILLING, LIONEL 
TUROW, SCOTT 
UNTERMEYER, LOUIS 
URIS, LEON 
WALLACE, IRVING 
WALLANT, EDWARD LEWIS 
WASSERMAN, DALE 
WASSERSTEIN, WENDY 
WEIDMAN, JEROME 
WELLER, MICHAEL 
WEST, NATHANAEL 
WOLFERT, IRA 
WOUK, HERMAN 

yarmolinsky, avrahm (Abraham) 

YEZIERSKA, ANZIA 
ZUKOFSKY, LOUIS 

Music 

ABRAVANEL, MAURICE (de) 

adler, larry (Lawrence) 

ADLER, RICHARD 
AMRAM, DAVID 
ARLEN, HAROLD 
AVSHALOMOV, JACOB 
AX, EMMANUEL 
BABBITT, MILTON 
BABIN, VICTOR 
BACHARACH, BURT 
BAUER, MARION EUGENIE 
BELL, JOSHUA 
BENDIX, OTTO 
BERGER, ARTHUR VICTOR 
BERK, FRED 
BERLINSKI, HERMAN 



BERNSTEIN, LEONARD 

BINDER, ABRAHAM WOLF 

BLITZSTEIN, MARC 

BLOOMFIELD-ZEISLER, FANNY 

BOLM, ADOLPH RUDOLPHOVICH 

BORIS, RUTHANNA 

BRAILOWSKY, ALEXANDER 

BRONFMAN, YEFIM 

BROOK, BARRY SHELLEY 

BROWNING, JOHN 

CHASINS, ABRAHAM 

CHUJOY, ANATOLE 

CHURGIN, BATHIA 

COHEN, JACOB RAPHAEL 

COHEN, SELMA JEANNE 

CONRIED, HEINRICH 

COPLAND, AARON 

DIAMOND, DAVID 

DIAMOND, LOUIS KLEIN 

DICHTER, MISHA 

EISENSTEIN, JUDITH KAPLAN 

ELLSTEIN, ABRAHAM (Abe) 

FARBER, VIOLA 

FELDMAN, MORTON 

FIEDLER, ARTHUR 

FLEISHER, LEON 

FOGELBERG, DAN 

FOSS, LUKAS 

FREED, ISADORE 

FRIEDMAN, DEBORAH LYNN 

FUCHS, LILLIAN 

GANCHOFF, MOSES 

GEIRINGER, KARL 

GERBER, MAYNARD 

GIDEON, MIRIAM 

GLASS, PHILIP 

GLUCK, ALMA 

GOLDMAN, EDWIN FRANKO 

GOODMAN, BENNY 

GOTTSCHALK, LOUIS MOREAU 

GOULD, MORTON 

GRAF, HERBERT 

GRAFFMAN, GARY 

GREENBERG, NOAH 

GRUENBERG, LOUIS 

HALPRIN, ANN 

HAMMERSTEIN 

HAYDEN, MELISSA 

HERRMANN, BERNARD 

HESKES, IRENE 

HOROWITZ, VLADIMIR 

HUROK, SOLOMON 

ISTOMIN, EUGINE 

JACOBI, FREDERICK 

KALIB, SHALOM 

KATZ, ISRAEL 

KAYE, NORA 

KENT, ALLEGRA 

KERN, JEROME DAVID 

KIDD, MICHAEL 



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KIRCHNER, LEON 

KIRSTEIN, LINCOLN 

KLEMPERER, OTTO 

KOLISCH, RUDOLF 

KOSTELANETZ, ANDRE 

LANG, PEARL 

LAPSON, DVORA 

LEAR, EVELYN 

LEFKOWITZ, DAVID 

LEVINE, IAMES 

LEVY, MARVIN DAVID 

LEWENTHAL, RAYMOND 

LEWITZKY, BELLA 

LIEBERSON, GODDARD 

LIEBLING, ESTELLE 

LIST, GEORGE 

LOESSER, FRANK 

LOEWE, FREDERICK 

LOWINSKY, EDWARD 

LUBIN, ABRAHAM 

LUBOSHUTZ 

MANNES 

MANNES, LEOPOLD 

MASLOW, SOPHIE 

MENDELSON, IACOB BEN-ZION 

MENKEN, ALAN 

MERRILL, ROBERT 

MILLER, MITCH 

MILSTEIN, NATHAN 

MLOTEK, CHANA 

NEWMAN, ALFRED 

NULMAN, MACY 

ORENSTEIN, ARBIE 

OVED, MARGALIT 

PEERCE, JAN 

PERAHIA, MURRAY 

PERLMAN, ITZCHAK 

PETERS, ROBERTA 

PLAMENAC, DRAGAN 

previn, andre (George) 

PUTTERMAN, DAVID 
QUELER, EVE 
RASKIN, JUDITH 
REICH, STEVE 
REISENBERG, NADIA 
RESNIK, REGINA 
RINGER, ALEXANDER 
ROBBINS, JEROME 
ROCHBERG, GEORGE 
RODGERS, MARY 
RODGERS, RICHARD 
ROGERS, BERNARD 
ROMBERG, SIGMUND 
ROSE, LEONARD 
ROSENBAUM, SAMUEL 
ROSS, HERBERT 
RUDEL, JULIUS 
RUDOLF, MAX 
SCHACHTER, CARL 
SCHIFRIN, LALO 



SCHLAMME, MARTHA 
SCHUMAN, WILLIAM HOWARD 
SCHWARTZ, STEPHEN 
SECUNDA, SHOLOM 
SERKIN, PETER 
SHAPERO, HAROLD 
SHARLIN, WILLIAM 
SHAW, ARTIE 
SIEGMEISTER, ELIE 

sills, beverly (Belle Silverman) 

SLATKIN, LEONARD 
SLONIMSKY, NICOLAS 
SOKOLOW, ANNA 
SONDHEIM, STEPHEN 
SPECTOR, JOHANNA 
SPIVACKE, HAROLD 
SPIVAKOVSKY, TOSSY 
STARER, ROBERT 
STARK, EDWARD 
STENN (STEEN), REBECCA 
STERN, ISAAC 
STYNE, JULE 
SZIGETI, JOSEPH 
TAMIRIS, HELEN 
TARUSKIN, RICHARD 
TAUBE, MOSHE 
TEMIANKA, HENRI 
THOMAS, MICHAEL TILSON 
TISCHLER, HANS 
TOCH, ERNST 
TOUREL, JENNIE 
TUCKER, RICHARD 
TURECK, ROSALYN 
VOLPE, ARNOLD 
WALDMAN, LEIBELE 
WALLENSTEIN, ALFRED 
WEILL, KURT 
WEINBERG, JACOB 
WEINBERGER, JAROMIR 
WEINER, LAZAR 
WEINSTOCK, HERBERT 
WEISGAL, ABBA JOSEPH 
WEISGALL, HUGO 
WEISSER, ALBERT 
WEISSER, JOSHUA 
WERNER, ERIC 
WINTERNITZ, EMANUEL 
WOHLBERG, MOSHE 
YASSER, JOSEPH 
ZEMACH, BENJAMIN 
ZILBERTS, ZAVEL 
ZIMBALIST, EFREM 
ZUKOFSKY, PAUL 

Popular Culture 

ABARBANELL, LINA 
ABBOTT, BUD 
ABEL, ELIE 
ABRAMOWITZ, BINA 
ABRAMS, CAL 



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149 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Popular Culture (continued) 



ABRAMSON, JESSE 

ACE, GOODMAN 

ADAMS, FRANKLIN PIERCE 

ADLER 

ADLER, HARRY CLAY 

ADLER, POLLY 

ADLER, STELLA 

ALBERT, MARV 

ALBERT, MILDRED 

ALCOTT, AMY 

ALDRICH, ROBERT 

ALEXANDER, JASON 

ALLEN, MEL 

ALLEN, WOODY, 

ALPERT, HERB 

ANTHONY, JOSEPH 

ARATON, HARVEY 

ARCEL, RAY 

ARCHERD, ARMY 

ARKIN, ALAN W. 

ARONSON, BORIS 

ARUM, ROBERT 

ASNER, EDWARD 

ATTELL, ABRAHAM WASHINGTON 

auerbach, red (Arnold Jacob) 

AVNET, JON 
AXELROD, ALBERT 
AXELROD, GEORGE 
AZENBERG, EMANUEL 
BACALL, LAUREN 

baer, max (Maximilian Adelbert) 

BAKSHI, RALPH 

BALABAN, BARNEY 

BALIN, MARTY 

BARA, THEDA 

BARR, ROSEANNE 

BARRIS, CHUCK 

BELASCO, DAVID 

BEN-AMI, JACOB 

BENJAMIN, RICHARD 

BENNETT, MICHAEL 

BENNY, JACK 

BENSON, ROBBY 

BERENSON, SENDA 

BERG, GERTRUDE 

BERG, JACKIE "kid" 

BERG, MOE 

BERGEN, POLLY 

BERGER, ISAAC 

BERGMAN, ALAN & MARILYN 

BERGMAN, ANDREW 

BERGNER, ELIZABETH 



BERKOW, IRA 

BERLE, MILTON 

BERLIN, IRVING 

BERMAN, PANDRO S. 

BERMAN, SHELLEY 

BERNARDI, HERSCHEL 

BERNHARD, SANDRA 

BERNSTEIN, ALINE 

BERNSTEIN, ELMER 

BERNSTEIN, HERMAN 

BERNSTEIN, SID 

BERNSTEIN, THEODORE 

BETTMAN, GARY 

BIKEL, THEODORE MEIR 

BIMSTEIN, WHITEY 

BISHOP, JOEY 

BLANC, MEL 

BLANK, LEON 

BLAU, HERBERT 

BLOCK, HERBERT LAWRENCE ("Herblock") 

BLOOMGARDEN, KERMIT 

BLUM, WALTER 

BOCK, JERRY 

BOGDANOVICH, PETER 

BOONE, RICHARD 

BORGE, VICTOR 

BOUDREAU, LOU 

BOZYK, MAX 

BRECKER BROTHERS 

BRENNER, TEDDY 

BRICE, FANNY 

BRODER, DAVID SALZER 

BRODERICK, MATTHEW 

BRODY, JANE 

BROOKS, ALBERT 

BROOKS, MEL 

BROOKS, RICHARD 

BROOKS, JAMES L. 

BROTHERS, JOYCE 

BROWN, LAWRENCE H. 

BRUCE, LENNY 

BRUCKHEIMER, JERRY 

BUCHWALD, ART 

BULOFF, JOSEPH 

BURNS, GEORGE 

BURROWS, ABE 

BURSTEIN 

BURSTYN, MIKE 

BUTTONS, RED 

CAAN, JAMES 

CAESAR, SID 

CAHN, SAMMY 

CANTOR, EDDIE 

CAPP, AL 

CARNOVSKY, MORRIS 

CARTER, NELL 

CHESS, LEONARD AND PHIL 

CHETWYND, LIONEL 

CHOPRA, JOYCE 

CLAYBURGH, JILL 



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CLURMAN, HAROLD 

COBB, LEE J. 

COEN, JOEL & ETHAN 

COHEN, ALEXANDER H. 

COHEN, ELLIOT ETTELSON 

COHEN, NATALIE 

COHEN, SASHA 

COHN, HARRY 

COHN, LINDA 

COLEMAN, CY 

COMDEN, BETTY 

COOPER, JACKIE 

COPELAND, LILLIAN 

COPPERFIELD, DAVID 

CORWIN, NORMAN LEWIS 

COSELL, HOWARD 

CRYSTAL, BILLY 

CUBAN, MARK 

CUKOR, GEORGE 

CURTIS, JAMIE LEE 

CURTIS, TONY 

CURTIZ, MICHAEL 

DA SILVA, HOWARD 

DANGERFIELD, RODNEY 

DANIEL, DAN 

DARVAS, LILI 

DASSIN, JULES 

DAVID, LARRY 

DAVIS, AL 

DAVIS, AL "BUMMY" 

DAVIS, SAMMY JR. 

DEMILLE, CECIL 

DEREN, MAYA 

DIAMOND, I.A.L. 

DIAMOND, NEIL 

DILLER, BARRY 

DONATH, LUDWIG 

DONEN, STANLEY 

DOUGLAS, KIRK 

DOUGLAS, MELVYN 

DOUGLAS, MICHAEL 

DREYFUSS, BARNEY 

DREYFUSS, RICHARD 

DYLAN, BOB 

ELFMAN, DANNY 

ELLIOT, "MAMA" CASS 

ELMAN, ZIGGY 

EPSTEIN, ALVIN 

EPSTEIN, CHARLOTTE 

EPSTEIN, JULIUS J. AND PHILIP G. 

EVANS, ROBERT 

FAIN, SAMMY 

FALK, PETER 

FEATHER, LEONARD 

FEINMAN, SIGMUND 

FELDSHUH, TOVAH 

FIELDS, DOROTHY 

FIELDS, JACKIE 

FINE, REUBEN 

FISCHLER, STAN 



FISHER, CARRIE 

FISHER, EDDIE (Edwin) 

FLAM, HERB 

FLECK, BELA 

FLEISCHER, NATHANIEL STANLEY 

FLEISHER, LARRY 

FORD, HARRISON 

FOREMAN, CARL 

FORMAN, MILOS 

FOX, WILLIAM 

FRANKENHEIMER, JOHN MICHAEL 

FRANKLIN, SIDNEY 

FREED, ALAN 

FREED, ARTHUR 

FRIEDKIN, WILLIAM 

friedman, benjamin (Benny) 

FRIEDMAN, KINKY 

FRIEDMAN, THOMAS 

FRIENDLY, FRED W. 

FROHMAN 

FULLER, SAMUEL MICHAEL 

FUNT, ALLEN 

GABEL, MAX 

GABLER, MILTON 

GABOR, JOLIE, MAGDA, ZSA ZSA, EVA 

GAINES, WILLIAM M. 

GARFIELD, JOHN (Jules) 

GARFUNKEL, ART 

GAYLORD, MITCHELL 

GEFFEN, DAVID 

GERSHWIN, GEORGE 

GERSTEN, BERTA 

GETZ, STAN 

GIBBS, TERRY 

GILBERT, BRAD 

GILBERT, MELISSA 

GILLMAN, SID 

GLICKMAN, MARTIN IRVING 

GLOBUS, YORAM 

GODDARD, PAULETTE 

GOLAN, MENACHEM 

GOLDBERG, MARSHALL "BIGGIE" 

GOLDBLUM, JEFF 

GOLDEN, JOHN 

GOLDENBERG, CHARLES "BUCKET" 

GOLDSTEIN, JENNIE 

GOLDSTEIN, RUBY 

GOLDWYN, SAMUEL 

GOODRICH, FRANCES AND HACKETT, ALBERT 

GORCEY, LEO 

GORDON, MAX 

GORDON, MICHAEL 

GORDON, SID 

GOREN, CHARLES HENRY 

GOTTLIEB, EDWARD 

GOULD, ELLIOT 

GRAHAM, BILL 

GRANZ, NORMAN 

GRAZER, BRIAN 

GREEN, ABEL 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Popular Culture (continued) 

GREEN, ADOLPH 

GREEN, SHAWN 

GREENBERG, HENRY BENJAMIN 

GREENE, LORNE 

GREENE, SHECKY 

GREENSPAN, BUD 

GREY, JOEL 

GROSSFELD, ABRAHAM ISRAEL 

GRUNFELD, ERNIE 

GRUNWALD, HENRY ANATOLE 

GUBER, PETER 

GUGGENHEIM, CHARLES 

GUTHRIE, ARLO 

HACKETT, BUDDY 

HALBERSTAM, DAVID 

HALL, MONTY 

HALMI, ROBERT 

HAMLISCH, MARVIN 

HAMMERSTEIN 

harburg, e.y. (Edgar "Yip") 

HARMATZ, WILLIAM 

HARNICK, SHELDON 

HARRIS, BARBARA 

HARRIS, JED 

HARRIS, SAM HENRY 

HARRISON, LESTER 

HART, KITTY CARLISLE 

HART, LORENZ 

HAWN, GOLDIE 

HEAD, EDITH 

HECKERLING, AMY 

HEINE-HEIMOWITZ, MORRIS 

HENRY, BUCK 

HENTOFF, NAT 

HERMAN, JERRY 

HERSH, SEYMOUR 

HERSHEY, BARBARA 

HERSHKOWITZ, VICTOR 

HERSKOVITZ, MARSHALL AND ZWICK, EDWARD 

hewitt (Horowitz), DON 

HILLER, ARTHUR 
HIRSCH, JUDD 
HOFFMAN, DUSTIN 

hollandersky, Abraham ("Abe the Newsboy") 

HOLLIDAY, JUDY 
HOLMAN, NATHAN 
HOLTZMAN, KENNETH DALE 
HOLZMAN, WILLIAM (RED) 
HOROWITZ, ISRAEL ALBERT 
HOUDINI, HARRY 
HOUSEMAN, JOHN 

Howard, moe, shemp and curly (Three Stooges) 

HUGHES, SARAH 



IAN, JANIS 

IRVING, AMY 

IRVING, JULES 

ISAACS, EDITH JULIET 

IZENBERG, JERRY 

JACOBS, HIRSCH 

JACOBS, BERNARD B. 

JACOBS, JAMES LESLIE 

JACOBS, JOE 

JACOBS, MICHAEL STRAUSS 

JACOBY, OSWALD 

JAFFE, SAM 

JAFFEE, IRVING 

JAGLOM, HENRY 

JAMES, HARRY 

JESSEL, GEORGE ALBERT 

JOEL, BILLY 

JOLSON, AL 

KAEL, PAULINE 

KAHN, MADELINE 

KAHN, ROGER 

KALICH, BERTHA 

KANE, CAROL 

KANIN, FAY 

KARAN, DONNA 

KARFF, MONA MAY 

KARP, MAX AND SOPHIE 

KASDAN, LAWRENCE 

KASHDAN, ISAAC 

KATZ, MICKEY 

KATZENBERG, JEFFREY 

KATZMAN, SAM 

KAUFMAN, ANDY 

KAUFMAN, BORIS 

KAUFMAN, PHILIP 

KAVNER, JULIE 

KAYE, DANNY 

KAZAN, LAINIE 

KEITEL, HARVEY 

KEMPNER, AVIVA 

KESSEL, BARNEY 

KESSLER, DAVID 

KING, ALAN 

KING, CAROLE 

KING, LARRY 

KLEIN, ANNE 

KLEIN, CALVIN 

KLEIN, MANNIE 

KLUGMAN, JACK 

KOLTANOWSKI, GEORGE 

KONITZ, LEE 

KOPPETT, LEONARD 

KOPPLE, BARBARA 

KORNHEISER, TONY 

koufax, sanford (Sandy) 

KRAMER, STANLEY E. 
KRASNA, NORMAN 
KRAYZELBURG, LENNY 
KRESSYN, MIRIAM 
KUBRICK, STANLEY 



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KUDROW, LISA 
LACY, STEVE 
LAEMMLE, CARL 

lahr, bert (Irving Lahrheim) 

LAMARR, HEDY 

LANDAU, MARTIN 

LANDESMAN, ROCCO 

LANDIS, IOHN 

LANDON, MICHAEL 

LANG, FRITZ 

LANSING, SHERRY 

LASKER, EMANUEL 

LASKY, IESSE L. 

LASSER, LOUISE 

LAUREN, RALPH 

LAVIN, LINDA 

LAWRENCE, STEVE AND GORME, EYDIE 

LE ROY, MERVYN 

LEACHMAN, CLORIS 

LEAR, NORMAN 

LEBEDEFF, AARON 

LEBOW, FRED 

LEDERER, ESTHER PAULINE 

LEHMAN, ERNEST 

LEIBER, IERRY AND STOLLER, MIKE 

LEONARD, BENNY 

LEONTOVICH, EUGENIE 

LERNER, ALAN IAY 

LESTER, RICHARD 

LEVANT, OSCAR 

LEVENE, SAM 

LEVENSON, SAM 

LEVIEN, SONYA 

LEVIN, BERNARD 

LEVINE, IOSEPH E. 

levinsky, battling (Barney Lebrowitz) 

LEVINSON, BARRY 

LEVY, MARV 

LEWIS, JERRY 

LEWIS, SHARI 

LEWIS, TED (Kid) 

LIEBERMAN, NANCY 

LIEBLING, A.J. 

LIPSYTE, ROBERT MICHAEL 

litvak, anatole (Michael) 

LITWACK, HARRY 
LOEW, MARCUS 
LORRE, PETER 
LORTEL, LUCILE 
LOUIS-DREYFUS, JULIA 
LUBITSCH, ERNST 
LUKAS, PAUL 
LUMET, SIDNEY 
LYONS, LEONARD 
MALTIN, LEONARD 
MANILOW, BARRY 
MANKIEWICZ, HERMAN 
MANKIEWICZ, JOSEPH LEO 
MANN, ABBY 
MANN, DANIEL 



MANN, DELBERT 

MANN, HERBIE 

MANNE, SHELLY 

MARTIN, TONY 

MARX BROTHERS 

MASON, JACKIE 

MATLIN, MARLEE 

MATTHAU, WALTER 

MAY, ELAINE 

MAYER, LOUIS BURT 

MAYSLES, ALBERT AND DAVID PAUL 

MAZURSKY, PAUL 

MEDVED, MICHAEL 

MENDES, SAM 

MENKEN, ADAH ISAACS 

MERCHANT, LARRY 

MERRICK, DAVID 

MESSING, SHEP 

MEYERS, NANCY JANE 

MEZZROW, MILTON (Mezz) 

MICHAELS, ALAN RICHARD 

MICHAELS, LORNE 

MIDLER, BETTE 

MILLER, MARVIN 

MIRISCH BROTHERS 

MIX, RONALD 

MODELL, ARTHUR B. 

MOGULESKO, SIGMUND (Zelig) 

MONROE, MARILYN 

MOONVES, LES 

MORRIS, ERROL 

MORRIS, WILLIAM 

MOSBACHER, EMIL JR. 

MOSTEL, ZERO 

MUNI, PAUL 

MURRAY, ARTHUR 

MYERS, LAWRENCE E. (Lon) 

NAZIMOVA, ALLA 

NEUWIRTH, BEBE 

NEVINS, SHEILA 

NEWMAN, PAUL 

NEWMAN, RANDALL STUART 

NICHOLS, MIKE 

NIMOY, LEONARD 

NORELL, NORMAN 

OCHS, PHILIP DAVID 

OVITZ, MICHAEL 

PAKULA, ALAN 

PALMER, LILLI 

PALTROW, GWYNNETH 

PAPP, JOSEPH 

PARKER, SARAH JESSICA 

PASTERNAK, JOSEPH 

PATINKIN, MANDY 

PATKIN, MAX 

PAUL, GABRIEL HOWARD 

PENN, ARTHUR 

PENN, SEAN 

PERRY, FRANK 

PERSOFF, NEHEMIAH 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Popular Culture (continued) 

PICON, MOLLY 

PIKE, LIPMAN E. (Lip) 

PODOLOFF, MAURICE 

POLLACK, SYDNEY 

POLLIN, ABE 

POMUS, DOC 

POVICH, SHIRLEY 

PREMINGER, OTTO LUDWIG 

PRINCE, HAROLD 

RADNER, GILDA 

RAFELSON, ROBERT 

RAMONE, JOEY 

RANDALL, TONY 

REDSTONE , SUMNER 

REED, LOU 

REESE, JIMMIE 

REINER, CARL 

REINER, ROB 

REINHARDT, MAX 

REINSDORF , JERRY 

REISER, PAUL 

RESHEVSKY, SAMUEL HERMAN 

RICH, BUDDY 

RICHARDS, MARTIN 

RICKLES, DON 

RITT, MARTIN 

RITZ BROTHERS 

RIVERS, JOAN 

ROBERTS, TONY 

ROBINSON, EDWARD G. 

RODNEY, RED 

ROSE, BILLY 

ROSE, MAURICE 

ROSEN, ALBERT LEONARD 

ROSENBLOOM, CARROLL 

rosenbloom, max ("Slapsie") 

ROSS, BARNEY 
ROSSEN, ROBERT 
ROTH, DAVID LEE 
ROTH, MARK 
RUDIN, SCOTT 
RUDNER, RITA 

rudolph, marvin ("Mendy") 

RYDER, WINONA 

SAHL, MORT 

SAKS, GENE 

SALITA, DMITRI 

SALTZMAN, HARRY 

SAMPRAS, PETE 

SANDLER, ADAM 

SAPERSTEIN, ABRAHAM M. ("Abe") 

SARACHEK, BERNARD (Red) 

SAVITT, RICHARD 



SCHAAP, RICHARD 
SCHACHT, ALEXANDER 
SCHARY, DORE 
SCHAYES, ADOLPH (Dolph) 
SCHECKTER, JODY 
SCHENKER, JOEL W. 

Schneider, alan (Abram Leopoldovich) 

SCHNEIDER, MATHIEU 
SCHWARTZ, MAURICE 
SCHWIMMER, DAVID 
SEDAKA, NEIL 

sedran (Sedransky), barney 

SEGAL, GEORGE 

SEINFELD, JERRY 

SELDES, MARIAN 

SELIG, ALLAN H. ("Bud") 

SELZNICK 

SEYMOUR, JANE 

SHAMSKY, ARTHUR LOUIS 

SHANDLING, GARY 

SHAPIRO, ESTHER 

SHATNER, WILLIAM 

SHAWN, DICK 

SHEAN, AL 

SHEARER, NORMA 

SHER, SIR ANTHONY 

SHERMAN, ALEXANDER ("Allie") 

SHERMAN, ALLAN 

SHERRY, LAWRENCE AND NORMAN BURT 

shore, dinah (Francis Rose) 

SHUBERT 
SHUSTER, JOE 
SIDNEY, SYLVIA 
SIEGEL, JERRY 
SILVER, JOAN MICKLIN 
SILVER, RON 
SILVERMAN, SIME 
SILVERS, PHIL 
SIMMONS, GENE 
SIMON, CARLY 
SIMON, PAUL FREDERIC 
SINGER, BRYAN 
SKULNIK, MENASHA 
SOBEL, BERNARD 
SODERBERGH, STEVEN 
SOLOMON, HAROLD 
SONNENFELD, BARRY 
SORKIN, AARON 
SPECTOR, PHIL 
SPELLING, AARON 
SPELLMAN, FRANK 
SPIEGEL, SAMUEL P. 
SPIELBERG, STEVEN 
SPITZ, MARK 
STAR, DARREN 
STARK, ALBERT ("Dolly") 
STEIN, JULES 
STERN, BILL 
STERN, DAVID 
STERN, HOWARD 



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STERNBERG, JOSEF VON 

STILLER, BEN 

STILLMAN, LOUIS 

STONE, OLIVER 

STONE, PETER 

STONE, STEVE 

STRASBERG, LEE 

STREISAND, BARBRA 

STRICK, JOSEPH 

STROHEIM, ERICH VON 

STRUG, KERRI 

SUSSKIND, DAVID 

TANENBAUM, SIDNEY HAROLD 

TAYLOR, ELIZABETH 

TAYMOR, JULIE 

THALBERG, IRVING GRANT 

THOMASHEFSKY, BESSIE 

THOMASHEFSKY, BORIS 

TOBACK, JAMES 

TODD, MIKE 

TORME, MEL 

TUCKER, SOPHIE 

ULLMAN, TRACEY 

WALD, JERRY 

WALETZKY, JOSH 

WALLACH, ELI 

WANAMAKER, SAM 

WARFIELD, DAVID 

WARNER 

WASSERMAN, LEW 

WEBB, JACK 

WEIN, GEORGE 

WEINSTEIN, HARVEY AND BOB 

WEISSLER, BARRY AND FRAN 

WEST, MAE 

WESTHEIMER, RUTH 

WILDER, BILLY 

WILDER, GENE 

WILPON, FRED 

WINGER, DEBRA 

WINKLER, HENRY 

WINKLER, IRWIN 

WINSTON, STAN 

WINTERS, SHELLEY 

WISE, ROBERT EARL 

WISEMAN, FREDERICK 

WOLPER, DAVID LLOYD 

WOOLF, BOB 

WYLER, WILLIAM 

WYNN, ED 

WYNN, KEENAN 

YARROW, PETER 

YOUNGMAN, HENNY 

ZASLOVSKY, MAX 

ZIEGFELD, FLORENZ 

ZIMBALIST, EFREM 

ZINNEMANN, FRED 

ZORN, JOHN 

ZUCKER, DAVID 

ZUCKER, JEFF 



ZUKOR, ADOLPH 

Public & Economic Life 

ABBELL, MAXWELL 
ABELSON, PAUL 
ABRAHAM 
ABRAHAMS, ISAAC 
ABRAMS, CHARLES 
ABRAMS, ELLIOTT 
ABRAMS, FLOYD 
ABRAMS, ROBERT 
ABRAMSON, JERRY EDWIN 
ABZUG, BELLA 
ACKERMAN, GARY 
ADAMS, ARLIN MARVIN 
ADAMS, JOHN 
ADLER, ELMER 
ADLER, EMANUEL PHILIP 
ADLER, JULIUS OCHS 
ADLER, MAX 
ALEXANDER, ABRAHAM 
ALEXANDER, BEATRICE 
ALEXANDER, MOSES 
ALLEN, ISAAC 
ALLEN, PAUL 
ALSCHULER, SAMUEL 

alter, eleanor (Breitel) 

ALTHEIMER, BENJAMIN 
ALTMAN, BENJAMIN 
ALTSCHUL, FRANK 
ALTSCHUL, LOUIS 
AMATEAU, ALBERT JEAN 
AMERICAN, SADIE 
AMRAM, DAVID WERNER 
AMSTERDAM, BIRDIE 
AMTER, ISRAEL 
ANNENBERG, WALTER H. 
ANSORGE, MARTIN 
APPELMAN, HARLENE 
ARONSON, ARNOLD 
ARVEY, JACOB M. 
ATRAN, FRANK Z. 
AUERBACH, BEATRICE FOX 
BAAR, EMIL 
BACHARACH 
BACHARACH, ISAAC 
BACHE 

BACKER, GEORGE 
BAERWALD, PAUL 
BAKER, EDWARD MAX 
BALLMER, STEVEN 
BAMBERGER, LOUIS 
BAMBERGER, SIMON 
BARNERT, NATHAN 
BARONDESS, JOSEPH 
BARRON, JENNIE LOITMAN 
BARSHEFSKY, CHARLENE 
BARSIMSON, JACOB 
BARUCH 
BAUM, MORTON 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life (continued) 

BAZELON, DAVID L. 

BEAME, ABRAHAM DAVID 

BECKELMAN, MOSES W. 

BECKER 

BECKER, EDWARD ROY 

BEDACHT, MAX 

BEHAR, NISSIM 

BEHRMAN, MARTIN 

BEILENSON, ANTHONY 

BELMONT, AUGUST 

BENDERLY, SAMSON 

BENESCH, ALFRED ABRAHAM 

BENJAMIN, JUDAH PHILIP 

BEN-VENISTE, RICHARD 

BERG, PHILIP 

BERGER, MEYER 

BERGER, SAMUEL R. 

BERGER, VICTOR 

BERKLEY, ROCHELLE 

BERKLEY, WILLIAM R. 

BERMAN, HOWARD 

BERMAN, JULIUS 

BERNAYS, EDWARD 

BERNBACH, WILLIAM 

BERNHEIM, ISAAC WOLFE 

BERNHEIMER, CHARLES SELIGMAN 

BERNSTEIN, CARL 

BERNSTEIN, LUDWIG BEHR 

BERNSTEIN, ZALMAN CHAIM 

BERNSTEIN, ZVI HIRSCH 

BETTMANN, BERNHARD 

BIALKIN, KENNETH 

BICKEL, ALEXANDER M. 

BIEN, JULIUS 

BIJUR, NATHAN 

BILLIKOPF, JACOB 

BINSWANGER, ISIDORE 

BISGYER, MAURICE 

BITTELMAN, ALEXANDER 

BLACK, ALGERNON 

BLACKSTONE, WILLIAM E. 

BLANK, ARTHUR 

BLAUSTEIN 

BLAUSTEIN, DAVID 

BLITZER, WOLF 

BLOCH 

BLOCH, CLAUDE 

BLOCK, H&R 

BLOCK, PAUL 

BLOOM, BENJAMIN SAMUEL 

BLOOM, SOL 

BLOOMBERG, MICHAEL 

BLOOMINGDALE 



BLUESTONE, JOSEPH ISAAC 

BLUHDORN, CHARLES 

BLUMENBERG, LEOPOLD 

BLUMENFIELD, SAMUEL 

BLUMENTHAL, GEORGE 

BLUMENTHAL, JOSEPH 

BLUMENTHAL, JOSEPH 

BLUMENTHAL, WERNER MICHAEL 

BOESKY, IVAN 

BOGEN, BORIS DAVID 

BOLTEN, JOSHUA B. 

BONDI, AUGUST 

BONDI, JONAS 

BONDY, MAX 

BOOKBINDER, HYMAN H. 

BORINSTEIN, LOUIS J. 

BOSCHWITZ, RUDOLPH ELI 

BOTEIN, BERNARD 

BOXER, BARBARA 

BOYAR, LOUIS H. 

BRANDEIS, LOUIS DEMBITZ 

BREITEL, CHARLES 

BRENNER, ROSE 

BRENTANO 

BRESLAW, JOSEPH 

BRESSLER, DAVID MAURICE 

BREYER, STEPHEN GERALD 

BRIN, SERGEY 

BROAD, ELI 

BROIDO, LOUIS 

BRONFMAN, EDGAR MILES 

BROWN, BENJAMIN 

BROWN, DAVID ABRAHAM 

BROWN, HAROLD 

BRUCKMAN, HENRIETTA 

buchalter, louis ("Lepke") 

BUERGENTHAL, THOMAS 

BURNS, ARTHUR FRANK 

BUSH, GEORGE HERBERT WALKER 

BUSH, GEORGE WALKER 

BUSH, ISIDOR 

BUSH, SOLOMON 

BUTTENWIESER 

BUTZEL 

CAHN, EDMOND NATHANIEL 

CALOF, RACHEL 

CANTOR, ERIC 

CANTOR, JACOB AARON 

CARDIN, BENJAMIN L. 

CARDIN, SHOSHANA 

CARDOZO 

CARDOZO, BENJANIN NATHAN 

CARNEGIE, HATTIE 

CARTER, JAMES EARL (Jimmy) 

CARTER, VICTOR M. 

CELLER, EMANUEL 

CERF, BENNETT ALFRED 

CHAIKIN, SOL 

CHERTOFF , MICHAEL 

CHIPKIN, ISRAEL 



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CHUDOFF, EARL 

CLINTON, WILLIAM IEFFERSON 

COHEN 

COHEN, ALFRED MORTON 

COHEN, BENIAMIN VICTOR 

COHEN, FANNIA M. 

COHEN, H. RODGIN 

COHEN, IOHN SANFORD 

COHEN, MARY MATILDA 

COHEN, PHILIP MELVIN 

COHEN, WILLIAM S. 

COHEN, WILLIAM WOLFE 

COHN, MORRIS MANDEL 

COHON, GEORGE 

COLE, KENNETH 

CONE 

COPPERSMITH, SAMUEL 

COWEN, PHILIP 

CROWN, HENRY 

CUBAN, MARK 

CULLMAN 

CUTLER, BRUCE 

CUTLER, HARRY 

DA COSTA, ISAAC 

DAMATO, ALPHONSE 

DARMSTADT, IOSEPH 

DAROFF, SAMUEL H. 

DASH, SAMUEL 

DAVIDSON, WILLIAM 

DAVIS, ABEL 

DAVIS, MARVIN H. 

DAVIS, SUSAN 

DE CORDOVA, IACOB 

DE HAAS, IACOB 

DE LA MOTTA, IACOB 

DE LEON 

DE LEON, DANIEL 

DE LUCENA 

DELL, MICHAEL 

DEMBITZ, LEWIS NAPHTALI 

DERSHOWITZ, ALAN M. 

DEUTCH, IOHN M. 

DEUTSCH, BERNARD SEYMOUR 

DICKSTEIN, SAMUEL 

DININ, SAMUEL 

DITTENHOEFER, ABRAM IESSE 

DORPH, SHELDON 

DREBEN, SAM 

DREXLER, MILLARD (Mickey) 

DROPSIE, MOSES AARON 

DUBINSKY, DAVID 

DUSHKIN, ALEXANDER MORDECHAI 

DYCHE, IOHN ALEXANDER 

EINSTEIN, LEWIS 

EISENHOWER, DWIGHT DAVID 

EISENMAN, CHARLES 

EISNER, MARK 

EISNER, MICHAEL DAMMANN 

EIZENSTAT, STUART 

ELCAN, MARCUS 



ELIAS, ELI 

ELKUS, ABRAM ISAAC 

ELLENSTEIN, MEYER C. 

ELLINGER, MORITZ 

ELLISON, LAWRENCE J. 

ELLSBERG, DANIEL 

ELLSBERG, EDWARD 

ENGEL, ELIOT L. 

EPSTEIN, IUDITH 

ETTENBERG, SYLVIA 

ETTING 

EVANS, ELI 

EVANS, IANE 

EZEKIEL, IACOB 

FACTOR, MAX 

FAIRSTEIN, LINDA 

FALK 

FARKAS, RUTH 

FEINBERG, ABRAHAM 

FEINBERG, KENNETH 

FEINBERG, ROBERT 

FEINGOLD, RUSSELL 

FEINSTEIN, DIANNE 

FEINSTONE, MORRIS 

FEITH, DOUGLAS J. 

FELDHEIM, PHILIPP 

FELDMAN, HERMAN 

FELDMAN, SANDRA 

FELLER, ABRAHAM HOWARD 

FELS 

FERKAUF, EUGENE 

FILENE 

FINEMAN, HAYYIM 

FINKELSTEIN, ARTHUR 

FISCHEL, ARNOLD 

FISCHEL, HARRY 

FISHER, DONALD 

FISHER, MAX M. 

FISHMAN, IACOB 

FLEISCHMANN, IULIUS 

FLEISHER 

FLEXNER 

FOREMAN, MILTON J. 

FORMAN, PHILLIP 

FORTAS, ABE 

FOXMAN, ABRAHAM 

FRAENKEL, OSMOND K. 

FRANK, BARNEY 

FRANK, ELI 

FRANK, IEROME 

FRANK, LEO MAX 

FRANK, RAY 

FRANKEL, HIRAM D. 

FRANKEL, LEE KAUFER 

FRANKEL, MARVIN E. 

FRANKEL, MAX 

FRANKEL, SAMUEL BENIAMIN 

FRANKENTHALER, GEORGE 

FRANKFURTER, FELIX 

FRANKS, DAVID 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life (continued) 

FRANKS, DAVID SALISBURY 

FRANKS, JACOB 

FRANKS, JACOB 

FREIBERG LIST 

FREUND, ERNST 

FREUND, PAUL ABRAHAM 

FREUND-ROSENTHAL, MIRIAM KOTTLER 

FRIEDAN, BETTY 

FRIEDENBERG, ALBERT MARX 

FRIEDENBERG, SAMUEL 

FRIEDENWALD 

FRIEDLANDER, ISAAC 

FRIEDLANDER, WALTER 

FRIEDMAN, HERBERT A. 

FRIEDSAM, MICHAEL 

FRIEND, HUGO MORRIS 

FRIENDLY, HENRY JACOB 

FRISCH, DANIEL 

FROST, MARTIN 

FUCHSBERG, JACOB D. 

FULD, STANLEY HOWELLS 

GADOL, MOISES 

GAER, FELICE 

GAMORAN, EMANUEL 

GANS, BIRD STEIN 

GARMENT, LEONARD 

GELB, ARTHUR 

GELLMAN, LEON 

GEORGE, MANFRED 

GERSHOVITZ, SAMUEL 

GERSONI, HENRY 

GERSTLE, LEWIS 

GERTZ, ELMER 

GIMBEL 

GINGOLD, PINCHAS M. 

GINSBERG, EDWARD 

GINSBERG, MITCHELL I. 

GINSBURG, RUTH JOAN BADER 

GITLOW, BENJAMIN 

GLICKMAN, DANIEL 

GLUCKSMAN, HARRY L. 

GOLD, BENJAMIN 

GOLDBERG, ARTHUR JOSEPH 

GOLDBERG, JEANNETTE MIRIAM 

GOLDIN, DANIEL SAUL 

GOLDMAN 

GOLDMAN, EMMA 

GOLDMAN, MAYER CLARENCE 

GOLDMAN, MOSES HA-KOHEN 

GOLDMAN, PAUL L. 

GOLDMANN, SIDNEY 

GOLDMARK 

GOLDSCHMIDT, NEIL EDWARD 



GOLDSMITH, HORACE WARD 

GOLDSMITH, SAMUEL ABRAHAM 

GOLDSTEIN, ABRAHAM SAMUEL 

GOLDSTEIN, FANNY 

GOLDSTEIN, JUDAH JAMISON 

GOLDWASSER, ISRAEL EDWIN 

GOLDWATER 

GOLDWATER, SIGMUND SCHULZ 

GOMEZ 

GOMPERS, SAMUEL 

GOODHART, ARTHUR LEHMAN 

GOODMAN, ANDREW 

GOODMAN, ARNOLD ABRAHAM, LORD 

GOTSFELD, BESSIE GOLDSTEIN 

GOTTESMAN 

GOULD, MILTON S. 

GRANT, LEE 

GRANT, ULYSSES SIMPSON 

GRATZ 

GRATZ, REBECCA 

GREENBAUM, EDWARD SAMUEL 

GREENBERG, HAYYIM 

GREENBERG, MAURICE 

GREENBLATT, ALIZA 

GREENE, HAROLD 

GREENEBAUM 

GREENFIELD, ALBERT MONROE 

GREENSPAN, ALAN 

GREENSTEIN, HARRY 

GROSSINGER, JENNIE 

GROSSMAN, STEVEN 

GROVE, ANDREW S. 

GRUBER, RUTH 

GRUENBERG, SIDONIE MATSNER 

GRUENING, ERNEST HENRY 

GUGGENHEIM 

GUINZBURG, HAROLD KLEINERT 

GUZIK, JACOB 

HACKENBURG, WILLIAM BOWER 

HAHN, MICHAEL 

HALLGARTEN 

HALPRIN, ROSE LURIA 

HAMMER, ARMAND 

HANDLER, MILTON 

HANDLER, RUTH MOSKO 

HARBY, ISAAC 

HARBY, LEVI MYERS 

HARDMAN, JACOB BENJAMIN 

HARMAN, JANE 

HARRIS, LOUIS 

HART, ABRAHAM 

HART, BERNARD 

HART, EMANUEL BERNARD 

HART, EPHRAIM 

HART, ISAAC 

HART, MYER 

HARTOGENSIS, BENJAMIN HENRY 

HASSENFELD, SYLVIA 

HAUSER, RITA 

HAY, JOHN MILTON 



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HAYES, ISAAC ISRAEL 

HAYS 

HAYS, ARTHUR GARFIELD 

HAYS, DANIEL PEIXOTTO 

HELD, ADOLPH 

HELLERSTEIN, ALVIN K. 

HELLMAN, ISAIAS WOLF 

HELMSLEY, LEONA 

HENDRICKS 

HENRY, JACOB 

HENSHEL, HARRY D. 

HERLANDS, WILLIAM BERNARD 

HERSTEIN, LILLIAN 

HERTZ, EMANUEL 

HEYDENFELDT, SOLOMON 

HILLMAN, BESSIE ABRAMOWITZ 

HILLMAN, SIDNEY 

HILLQUIT, MORRIS 

HIMMELSTEIN, LENA 

HIRSCH, SOLOMON 

HIRSCHMANN, IRA ARTHUR 

HIRSHHORN, JOSEPH HERMAN 

HOCHMAN, JULIUS 

HOENLEIN, MALCOLM 

HOFFMAN, CHARLES ISAIAH 

HOFFMAN, JEFFREY 

HOFFMAN, JULIUS JENNINGS 

HOFFMAN, PHILIP E. 

HOLBROOKE, RICHARD CHARLES 

HOLLZER, HARRY AARON 

HOLTZMAN, ELIZABETH 

HONOR, LEO L. 

HORNER, HENRY 

HOROWITZ, LOUIS J. 

HUMPHREY, HUBERT H. 

HURWICH, LOUIS 

HURWITZ, HENRY 

HYMAN, JOSEPH C. 

ICAHN, CARL 

INDYK, MARTIN 

ISAACS 

ISAACS, ISAIAH 

ISAACS, JOSEPH 

ISAACS, NATHAN 

ISRAEL, STEVE 

JACKSON, SOLOMON HENRY 

JACOBS, FRANCES WISEBART 

JACOBS, IRWIN 

JACOBS, ROSE GELL 

JACOBS, SOLOMON 

jacobson, edward (Eddie) 

JAFFA 

JAVITS, JACOB KOPPEL 

JEFFERSON, THOMAS 

JESSELSON, LUDWIG 

JOACHIMSEN, PHILIP J. 

JOEL, RICHARD 

JOHNSON, LYNDON BAINES 

JONAS, JOSEPH 

JONAS, NATHAN S. 



JORDAN, CHARLES HAROLD 
JOSEPHSON, MANUEL 
JOSEPHTAL, LOUIS MAURICE 
JUDAH 

kahane, meir 

kahn, alexander 

kahn, bernard 

kahn, dorothy c. 

kahn, florence prag 

kahn, julius 

kahn, otto hermann 

kalb, bernard 

kalb, marvin 

kalikow, peter 

kampelman, max m. 

kane, irving 

kanev, isaac 

kann, peter r. 

kantor, mickey 

kaplan, louis lionel 

kar-ben/lerner 

karmazin, mel 

karsen, fritz 

katz, label a. 

kaufman, irving r. 

kaye, judith 

kempner, harris 

kennedy, john fitzgerald 

kimmel, sidney 

kirstein, louis edward 

kissinger, henry alfred 

klapper, paul 

klein, julius 

klein, morton 

klein, philip 

klutznick, philip morris 

knefler, frederick 

knopf, alfred a. 

knopf, blanche wolfe 

kobler, franz 

koch, edward irving 

koenigsberg, moses 

kohl, herbert 

kohler, max james 

kopelman, arie 

koppel, ted 

kopplemann, herman paul 

kornfeld, joseph saul 

kosner, edward 

kozinski, alex 

kraft, louis 

kraus, adolf 

kravis, henry 

kravitch, phyllis a. 

kristol, william 

krock, arthur 

kross, anna 

krulewitch, melvin levin 

kuhn-loeb 

kunin, madeleine may 



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I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life (continued) 

KUNSTLER, WILLIAM 

KUNZ, JOSEF LAURENZ 

KURSHEEDT, ISRAEL BAER 

KURTZER, DANIEL CHARLES 

LA GUARDIA, FIORELLO HENRY 

LADEJINSKY, WOLF ISAAC 

LANSKY, MEYER 

LANTOS, TOM 

LASKER 

LAUDER, ESTEE 

LAUDER, RONALD 

LAURENCE, WILLIAM L. 

LAUTENBERG, FRANK 

LAUTERBACH, EDWARD H. 

LAWRENCE, DAVID 

LAWTON, SAMUEL T. 

LAZARD 

LAZARUS 

LEAVITT, MOSES A. 

LEFKOWITZ, LOUIS 

LEFRAK, SAMUEL J. 

LEHMAN 

LEHMAN, HERBERT HENRY 

LEHMAN, IRVING 

LEHMAN, WILLIAM 

LEIBER, JUDITH 

LEIBOWITZ, SAMUEL SIMON 

LEIDESDORF, SAMUEL DAVID 

LEIPZIGER, HENRY M. 

LELYVELD, JOSEPH 

LEMKIN, RAPHAEL 

LERNER, MICHAEL 

LESLIE, ROBERT L. 

LEVI, EDWARD H. 

LEVIN, CARL 

LEVIN, LEWIS CHARLES 

LEVIN, RICHARD 

LEVIN, SANDER 

LEVIN, THEODORE 

LEVIN-SHATZKES, YIZHAK 

LEVINSON, SALMON OLIVER 

LEVITAN, SOLOMON 

LEVITT 

LEVITT, ARTHUR SENIOR AND JR. 

LEVY, AARON 

LEVY, AARON 

LEVY, ALBERT J. 

LEVY, ASSER 

LEVY, CHAPMAN 

LEVY, HAYMAN 

LEVY, JEFFERSON MONROE 

LEVY, JONAS PHILLIPS 

LEVY, MOSES 



LEVY, MOSES 

LEVY, MOSES ELIAS 

LEVY, NATHAN 

LEVY, URIAH PHILLIPS 

LEW, JACOB 

LEWIN, NATHAN 

LEWIS, ANTHONY 

LEWIS, PETER B. 

LEWIS, SAMUEL ALEXANDER 

LEWISOHN 

LICHT, FRANK 

LIEBERMAN, JOSEPH 

LIEBMANN, ESTHER SCHULHOFF ARON AND JOST 

LILIENTHAL, DAVID ELI 

LIMAN, ARTHUR 

LINCOLN, ABRAHAM 

LINDHEIM, IRMA LEVY 

LINGLE, LINDA 

LINOWITZ, SOL MYRON 

LIPPMANN, WALTER 

LIPSKY, LOUIS 

LIT 

LITTAUER, LUCIUS NATHAN 

LIVERIGHT, HORACE BRISBIN 

LOEB, JAMES 

LONDON, MEYER 

LOPEZ, AARON 

LOURIE, NORMAN VICTOR 

LOVESTONE, JAY 

LOW, MINNIE 

LOWENSTEIN, ALLARD KENNETH 

LOWENSTEIN, SOLOMON 

LOWEY, NITA 

LOWN, PHILIP W. 

LURIE, HARRY LAWRENCE 

LYONS, EUGENE 

MACK, JULIAN WILLIAM 

MACKLOWE, HARRY 

MADISON, JAMES 

MAGNES, JUDAH LEON 

MAGNIN, MARY ANN COHEN 

MALKIEL, THERESA SERBER 

MALSIN, LANE BRYANT 

MANDEL, MARVIN 

MANN, FREDERIC RAND 

MANN, THEODORE R. 

MARCOSSON, ISAAC 

MARCUS, BERNARD 

MARCUS, DAVID DANIEL 

MARCUS, STANLEY 

MARGARETEN, REGINA 

MARGOLIN, ARNOLD 

MARGOSHES, SAMUEL 

MARIX, ADOLPH 

MARKEL, LESTER 

MARKS, HAYMAN 

MARKS, MARCUS M. 

MARSHALL, LOUIS 

MASSELL, SAM JR. 

MATZ, ISRAEL 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



MAYER, LEOPOLD 

MAYER, LEVY 

MAZER 

MAZUR, JAY 

MCDONALD, JAMES GROVER 

MEARS, OTTO 

MEDALIE, GEORGE ZERDIN 

MEED, BENJAMIN 

MEED, VLADKA 

MEIER, JULIUS 

MELTON, FLORENCE ZACKS 

MELTON, SAMUEL MENDEL 

MENKEN 

MESSINGER, RUTH 

MEYER, ANNIE NATHAN 

MEYER, BARON DE HIRSCH 

MEYER, EUGENE 

MEYERHOFF, HARVEY 

MEYERHOFF, JOSEPH 

MICHAEL, JAKOB 

MICHAEL, MOSES 

MICHELSON, CHARLES 

MIKVA, ABNER J. 

MILKEN, MICHAEL 

MILL, JOSEPH SOLOMON (John) 

MILLER, LOUIS E. 

MILSTEIN 

MINIS 

MINOW, NEWTON NORMAN 

MINSKY, LOUIS 

MOiSE, ABRAHAM 

MONSKY, HENRY 

MONTOR, HENRY 

MORDECAI, ALFRED 

MORDECAI, JACOB 

MOREEL, BEN 

MORGENTHAU 

MORRIS, NELSON 

MORSE, DAVID ABNER 

MORSE, LEOPOLD 

MORWITZ, EDWARD 

MOSES, MYER 

MOSES, RAPHAEL J. 

MOSES, ROBERT 

MOSKOWITZ, HENRY 

MOSS, JOHN 

MYERS, GUSTAVUS 

MYERS, MORDECAI 

MYERS, MOSES 

MYERS, SAMUEL 

MYERSON, BESS 

NAAR, DAVID 

NADLER, JERROLD 

NAGLER, ISADORE 

NATHAN 

NATHAN, MAUD 

NAUMBURG 

NELSON, LOUIS 

NEUBERGER, RICHARD LEWIS 

NEUMANN, EMANUEL 



NEUMANN, HENRY 

NEWHOUSE, SAMUEL IRVING 

NEWMAN, ISIDORE 

NEWMAN, JON O. 

NEWMAN, PAULINE 

NEWMARK 

NEWMYER, ARTHUR GROVER 

NILES, DAVID K. 

NIXON, RICHARD MILHAUS 

NIZER, LOUIS 

NOAH, MORDECAI MANUEL 

NONES, BENJAMIN 

NORMAN, EDWARD ALBERT 

NOVAK, ROBERT 

NOVY, JIM 

OCHS 

OHRBACH 

OPPENHEIMER, FRITZ E. 

ORTENBERG, ARTHUR 

OTTINGER, ALBERT 

PACHECO, RODRIGO BENJAMIN MENDES 

PACHT, ISAAC 

PACKMAN, JAMES JOSEPH 

PAD WAY, JOSEPH ARTHUR 

PALEY, WILLIAM SAMUEL 

PAM, HUGO 

PANKEN. JACOB 

PARNIS, MOLLIE 

PAT, JACOB 

PATRICOF, ALAN 

PEARL, DANIEL 

PEARLSTINE, NORMAN 

PEIXOTTO 

PEIXOTTO, JUDITH 

PEKARSKY, MAURICE 

PEKELIS, ALEXANDER HAIM 

PEMBER, PHOEBE YATES 

PERELMAN, RONALD O. 

PERLE, RICHARD N. 

PERLMAN, ALFRED EDWARD 

PERLMAN, HELEN HARRIS 

PERLMAN, SELIG 

PERSKY, DANIEL 

PESOTTA, ROSE 

PFORZHEIMER, CARL HOWARD 

PHILADELPHIA, JACOB 

PHILLIPS 

PHILLIPS, PHILIP 

PHILLIPS, REBECCA MACHADO 

PHILLIPSON, IRVING JOSEPH 

PILCH, JUDAH 

PINANSKI, ABRAHAM 

PINNER, MORITZ 

PINTO, ISAAC 

PISCO, SERAPHINE 

POGREBIN, LETTY COTTIN 

POLACHEK, VICTOR HENRY 

POLIER, SHAD 

POLLACK, MILTON 

POLLAK, WALTER HEILPRIN 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life (continued) 

POLYKOFF, SHIRLEY 

POMERANTZ, FRED 

POSNER, RICHARD A. 

POTOFSKY, JACOB SAMUEL 

PRAGER, DENNIS 

PRESSMAN, LEE 

PRITZKER 

PROSKAUER, JOSEPH MEYER 

PULITZER, JOSEPH 

RABB, MAXWELL MILTON 

RABINOFF, GEORGE W. 

RABINOWICZ, OSKAR K. 

RABINOWITZ, LOUIS MAYER 

RADIN, MAX 

RATNER, BRUCE 

RATNER, LEONARD 

RATSHESKY, ABRAHAM CAPTAIN 

RAUH, JOSEPH L. 

RAYNER, ISIDOR 

RAYNOR, BRUCE 

RAZOVSKY, CECILIA 

REAGAN, RONALD WILSON 

REDLICH, NORMAN 

REE, HARTVIG PHILIP 

REESE, MICHAEL 

REHINE, ZALMA 

REINHARDT, STEPHEN R. 

REMNICK, DAVID 

RENDELL, EDWARD 

RESNIK, JUDITH 

REVSON, CHARLES HASKELL 

RIBICOFF, ABRAHAM A. 

RICE, ISAAC LEOPOLD 

RICE, JAMES P. 

RICE, JOSEPH MAYER 

RICH 

RICH, MARC 

RICHARDS, BERNARD GERSON 

RICHMAN, JULIA 

RICKOVER, HYMAN GEORGE 

RIEGELMAN, HAROLD 

RIFKIND, SIMON HIRSCH 

RIKLIS, MESHULAM 

RIVERA, JACOB RODRIGUEZ 

RIVLIN, ALICE MITCHELL 

ROBINSON, JACOB 

ROBINSON, NEHEMIAH 

ROCKER 

RODKINSON, MICHAEL LEVI 

ROHATYN, FELIX G. 

ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN DELANO 

ROOSEVELT, THEODORE 

ROSE, ALEX 



ROSE, ERNESTINE POTOVSKY 

ROSE, MAURICE 

ROSEN, CARL 

ROSENBERG, ABRAHAM 

ROSENBERG, ABRAHAM HAYYIM 

ROSENBERG, ANNA MARIE LEDERER 

ROSENBERG, JAMES NAUMBURG 

ROSENBLATT, BERNARD ABRAHAM 

ROSENBLATT, SOL ARIEH 

ROSENBLOOM, SOLOMON 

ROSENBLUM, FRANK 

ROSENDALE, SIMON WOLFE 

ROSENFELD, SAMUEL 

ROSENMAN, SAMUEL IRVING 

ROSENSAFT, JOSEF 

ROSENSOHN, ETTA LASKER 

ROSENTHAL, ABRAHAM MICHAEL 

ROSENTHAL, BENJAMIN 

ROSENTHAL, HERMAN 

ROSENTHAL, IDA COHEN 

ROSENWALD 

ROSEWATER, EDWARD 

ROSS, DENNIS B. 

ROSS, STEPHEN 

ROSTOW, EUGENE VICTOR 

ROSTOW, WALT WHITMAN 

ROTHBERG, SAMUEL 

ROTHENBERG, MORRIS 

ROTHSCHILD, WALTER N. 

ROTHSTEIN, ARNOLD 

RUBIN, ROBERT 

RUBIN, SAMUEL 

RUBINSTEIN, HELENA 

RUBY, JACK 

RUDIN 

RUDMAN, WARREN BRUCE 

RUEF, ABRAHAM 

RUKEYSER, MERRYLE STANLEY 

SAB AN, HAIM 

SABATH, ADOLF JOACHIM 

SABSOVICH, H. L. 

SACHS 

SAFIRE, WILLIAM 

SAKOWITZ, BERNARD 

SALIT, NORMAN 

SALOMON, HAYM 

SALTZMAN, MAURICE 

SALVADOR 

SALZMAN, WILLIAM 

SAMUEL, RALPH E. 

SAND, LEONARD 

SANDERS, BERNARD 

SAPIRO, AARON 

SAPIRSTEIN-STONE-WEISS 

SARASOHN, KASRIEL HERSCH 

SARNOFF, DAVID 

SATINSKY, SOL 

SCAASI, ARNOLD 

SCHAKOWSKY, JANICE 

SCHANBERG, SYDNEY 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



SCHECHTMAN, JOSEPH B. 

SCHECK, BARRY 

SCHENK, FAYE L. 

SCHEUER, JAMES 

SCHIFF, ADAM 

SCHIFF, DOROTHY 

SCHIFF, JACOB HENRY 

SCHLESINGER, BENJAMIN 

SCHLOSSBERG, JOSEPH 

SCHMIDT, SAMUEL MYER 

SCHNEIDER, IRVING 

SCHOOLMAN, BERTHA S. 

SCHORR, DANIEL L. 

SCHOTTLAND, CHARLES IRWIN 

SCHRADER, ABE 

SCHULTZ, DUTCH 

SCHULTZ, HOWARD 

SCHUSTER, MAX LINCOLN 

SCHUSTERMAN, CHARLES AND LYNN 

SCHWAB, JOSEPH J. 

SCHWARTZ, DAVID 

SCHWARTZ, FELICE NIERENBERG 

SCHWARTZ, JOSEPH J. 

SCHWARZBERG, SAMUEL BENJAMIN 

SCHWIMMER, ROSIKA 

SEASONGOOD 

SEGAL, BERNARD GERARD 

SEGAL, LOUIS 

SEIXAS 

SELDES, GEORGE 

SELEKMAN, BENJAMIN M. 

SELIGMAN 

SELIGSBERG, ALICE LILLIE 

SELTZER, LOUIS BENSON 

SEMAN, PHILIP LOUIS 

SENIOR, MAX 

SHALOM, ISAAC I. 

SHANKER, ALBERT 

SHAPERO, NATE S. 

SHAPIRO, EZRA Z. 

SHAPIRO, IRVING SAUL 

SHAPIRO, ROBERT 

SHAPIRO, SAMUEL HARVEY 

SHAPP, MILTON J. 

SHAVELSON, CLARA LEMLICH 

SHAW, BENJAMN 

SHEFTALL 

SHEINDLIN, JUDITH 

SHEINKMAN, JACOB 

SHER, NEAL 

SHETZER, SIMON 

SHIPLACOFF, ABRAHAM ISAAC 

SHRODER, WILLIAM J. 

SHULMAN, HARRY 

SIEBERT, MURIEL 

SIEGEL, BENJAMIN ("BllgSy") 

SIEGEL, MARK 

SIGMAN, MORRIS 

SILBERBERG, MENDEL 

SILVER, EDWARD S. 



SILVER, HAROLD M. 

SILVERSTEIN, LARRY 

SIMON 

SIMON, JOSEPH 

SIMON, NORTON 

SIMONS, JAMES 

SIMSON 

SINGER, ISIDORE 

SINGER, ISRAEL 

SLAWSON, JOHN 

SLOMOVITZ, PHILIP 

SLOSS, MARCUS CAUFFMAN 

SOBELOFF, ISIDOR 

SOBELOFF, SIMON ERNEST 

SOFAER, ABRAHAM 

SOKOLOF, PHIL 

SOLARZ, STEPHEN JOSHUA 

SOLIS-COHEN 

SOLOMON, EZEKIEL 

SOLOMON, HANNAH GREENEBAUM 

SOLOMONS, ADOLPHUS SIMEON 

SONNEBORN, RUDOLF GOLDSCHMIDT 

SONNENFELDT, HELMUT 

SONNENSCHEIN, ROSA 

SOROS, GEORGE 

SPANEL, ABRAM NETHANIEL 

SPECTER, ARLEN 

SPEYER 

SPIEGEL, DORA 

SPIELVOGEL, CARL, AD, AMBASSADOR 

SPITZER, ELIOT 

SPORKIN, STANLEY 

SQUADRON, HOWARD MAURICE 

STACHEL, JACOB 

STARK, LOUIS 

STEIMER, MOLLY 

STEIN, HERMAN D. 

STEINEM, GLORIA 

STEINGUT 

STEINHARDT, LAURENCE ADOLF 

STEINHARDT, MICHAEL 

STERN, ELIZABETH 

STERN, HORACE 

STERN, JULIUS DAVID 

STERN, LEONARD 

STERN, LOUIS 

STERN, MAX 

STERNE, SIMON 

stokes, rose pastor ( Wieslander) 

STONE, DEWEY 

stone, i.f. (Isidore Feinstein) 

STONE, JULIUS 

STONE, RICHARD BERNARD 

STRASSFELD, SHARON 

STRAUS 

STRAUS, ROGER JR. 

STRAUSS, LEVI 

STRAUSS, LEWIS LICHTENSTEIN 

STRAUSS, ROBERT SCHWARTZ 

STROOCK 



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163 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Public & Economic Life (continued) 

STROUSE, MYER 

STRUNSKY, SIMEON 

STULBERG, LOUIS 

SULZBERGER, ARTHUR HAYS 

SULZBERGER, MAYER 

SUMMERS, LAWRENCE 

SUTRO, ADOLPH HEINRICH JOSEPH 

SWIG, BENJAMIN HARRISON 

SWOPE, GERARD 

SWOPE, HERBERT BAYARD 

SYRKIN, MARIE 

SZOLD, HENRIETTA 

SZOLD, ROBERT 

TAUBMAN, ALFRED A. 

TAUSSIG 

TEICHOLZ, BRUCE B. 

TERKEL, STUDS (Louis) 

TISCH 

TISHMAN 

TOBIAS, ABRAHAM 

TOBIAS, JOSEPH 

TORCZYNER, JACQUES 

TOURO, JUDAH 

TOUROFF, NISSAN 

TRAUB, MARVIN 

TRIGERE, PAULINE 

TRUMAN, HARRY S. 

UDIN, SOPHIE 

ULMAN, JOSEPH N. 

UNTERMYER, SAMUEL 

URIS 

UVILLER, HARRY 

VANCE, ZEBULON BAIRD 

VLADECK, BARUCH CHARNEY 

VOGELSTEIN, LUDWIG 

VOLCKER, PAUL 

VON FURSTENBERG, DIANE 

VORENBERG, JAMES 

VORSPAN, ALBERT 

WACHNER, LINDA 

WACHTLER, SOL 

WAGG, ABRAHAM 

WALD, LILLIAN 

WALDMAN, MORRIS DAVID 

WALINSKY 

Wallace, mike (Myron Leon) 

WALTERS, BARBARA 
WARBURG 

WASHINGTON, GEORGE 
WASSER, DENNIS 

WASSERMAN-SCHULTZ, DEBBIE 
WASSERSTEIN, BRUCE 
WECHSLER, JAMES A. 



WEIL, A. LEO 
WEIL, FRANK LEOPOLD 
WEILER, JACK D. 
WEILL, SANFORD 
WEINBAUM, MARK EFIMOVICH 
WEINBERG, HARRY 
WEINBERG, SIDNEY J. 
WEINER, ANTHONY D. 
WEINFELD, EDWARD 
WEINSTEIN, JACK B. 
WEINSTEIN, LEWIS H. 
WEINSTOCK, HARRIS 
WEISGAL, MEYER WOLF 
WEISS, MELVYN 
WEISS, SAMUEL ARTHUR 
WELLSTONE, PAUL DAVID 
WELSH, ARTHUR L. (Al) 
WERTHEIM, MAURICE 
WEXLER, ROBERT 
WEXLER, WILLIAM ABE 
WEXNER, LESLIE H. 

white, theodore h. ("Teddy") 

WIENER, ALFRED 

WIERNIK, PETER 

WILENTZ, ROBERT N. 

WILLEN, JOSEPH 

WILSON, WOODROW 

WINCHELL, WALTER 

WOLF 

WOLF, SIMON 

WOLFENSOHN, JAMES D. 

WOLPE, HOWARD ELLIOT 

WOOLF, LEONARD 

WURZWEILER, GUSTAV 

WYDEN, RONALD STEPHEN 

WYNN, STEVE 

WYZANSKI, CHARLES EDWARD JR 

YANKOWICH, LEON RENE 

YATES, SIDNEY R. 

YULEE, DAVID LEVY 

ZARITSKY, MAX 

ZELLERBACH 

ZEMURRAY, SAMUEL 

ZIMMERMAN, CHARLES SASCHA 

ZIVION 

ZLOTOWITZ, MEIR 

ZUCKER, HENRY L. 

ZUCKERMAN, BARUCH 

ZUCKERMAN, BEN 

ZUCKERMAN, MORTIMER 

ZUCKERMAN, PAUL 

ZUKERMAN, JACOB T. 

ZUNTZ, ALEXANDER 

Religion 

AARON, ISRAEL 
AARONSOHN, MICHAEL 
AARONSOHN, MOSES 
ABRAHAMS, ABRAHAM ISAAC 
ABRAMOWITZ, DOV BAER 



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ACKERMAN, PAULA 

ADAMS, THEODORE 

ADLER, JOSEPH 

ADLER, LIEBMANN 

ADLER, MORRIS 

ADLER, SAMUEL 

AGUS, JACOB BERNARD 

ALBUM, ZVI SHIMON 

ALPER, MICHAEL 

ALPERSTEIN, AVRAHAM 

ANGEL, MARC 

ARONOWITZ, BENJAMIN 

ARONSON, DAVID 

ARZT, MAX 

ASH, AVRAHAM J. 

ASHER, JOSEPH 

ASHINSKY, AARON MORDECAI HALEVI 

AVRUTICK, ABRAHAM 

AZUBY, ABRAHAM 

BAAR, HERMAN 

BACKMAN, JULES 

BAMBERGER, BERNARD JACOB 

BARISHANSKY, RAPHAEL 

BARNSTON, HENRY 

BARON, JOSEPH LOUIS 

BAUM, SHEPARD 

BAUMOL, JOSHUA 

BEERMAN, LEONARD 

BELKIN, SAMUEL 

BENJAMIN, RAPHAEL 

BERGER, ELMER 

BERKOWITZ, HENRY 

BERMAN, MORTON MAYER 

BERMAN, MYRON 

BERNSTEIN, LOUIS 

BERNSTEIN, PHILIP SIDNEY 

BESDIN, MORRIS J. 

BESSER, CHASKEL O. 

BETTAN, ISRAEL 

BETTELHEIM, ALBERT (Aaron) SIEGFRIED 

BLANK, SHELDON HAAS 

BLEICH, J. DAVID 

BLOCH, CHAIM 

BLOCH, ELIJAH MEYER 

BLOCH, JOSHUA 

BLUMENTHAL, AARON 

BOHNEN, ELI AARON 

BOKSER, BEN ZION 

BOROWITZ, EUGENE 

BOSNIAK, JACOB 

BOTEACH, SHMUEL 

BRAUDE, MAX A. 

BRAUDE, WILLIAM GORDON 

BRESLAU, ISADORE 

BRICKNER, BALFOUR 

BRILL, ISAAC 

BRONSTEIN, HERBERT 

BROWN, SAUL PARDO 

BROWNE, EDWARD B.M. 

BROWNE, LEWIS 



BUNIM, IRVING 
BURSTEIN, ABRAHAM 
CALISCH, EDWARD NATHAN 
CANTOR, BERNARD 
CARLEBACH, SHLOMO 
COFFEE, RUDOLPH I. 
COHEN, ARMOND 
COHEN, HENRY 
COHEN, JACK 
COHEN, JACOB XENAB 
COHEN, JOSEPH ISAAC 
COHEN, MORTIMER JOSEPH 
COHEN, SEYMOUR J. 
COHN, ELKAN 
COHON, SAMUEL SOLOMON 
COOK, SAMUEL 
CRESSON, WARDER 
CRONBACH, ABRAHAM 
CURRICK, MAX COHEN 
CHANOVER, HYMAN 
CHARLOP, YECHIEL 
CHAVEL, CHARLES (Dov) BER 
CHAZAN, ELIAHU 
CHIEL, ARTHUR 
CHIEL, SAMUEL 
DAVIDSON, DAVID 
DAVIDSON, MAX DAVID 
DOLGIN, SIMON ARTHUR 
DONIN, HAYIM HALEVY 
DRACHMAN, BERNARD 
DRESNER, SAMUEL 
DREYFUS, STANLEY 
DROB, MAX 

dworkin, zalman (Lubavitch) 

ECKMAN, JULIUS 
EHRENREICH, BERNARD 
EICHHORN, DAVID M. 
EICHLER, MENAHEM 
EILBERG, AMY 
EINHORN, DAVID 

EISENDRATH, MAURICE NATHAN 
EISENSTADT, BENZION 
EISENSTEIN, IRA 
ELFENBEIN, ISRAEL 
ELIASSOFF, HERMAN 
ELZAS, BARNETT ABRAHAM 
ELLENSON, DAVID HARRY 

enelow, hyman (Hillel Gershom) 

EPSTEIN, CHAIM FISCHEL 
EPSTEIN, GILBERT 
EPSTEIN, HARRY 
EPSTEIN, LOUIS M. 
ETTELESON, HARRY 
FALK, JOSHUA 
FEDERBUSCH, SIMON 
FEIBELMAN, JULIAN BECK 
FEINBERG, LOUIS 
FEINSTEIN, MOSES 
FELDMAN, ABRAHAM JEHIEL 
FELSENTHAL, BERNHARD 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Religion (continued) 

FEUER, LEON ISRAEL 

FEUERLICHT, MORRIS M. 

FEUERSTEIN 

FINEBERG, SOLOMON ANDHIL 

FINESHRIBER, WILLIAM HOWARD 

FINK, JOSEPH L. 

FINKELSTEIN, LOUIS 

FINKELSTEIN, SHIMON 

FLEISCHER, CHARLES 

FRANKLIN, LEO MORRIS 

FREEHOF, SOLOMON BENNETT 

FRIEDERMAN, ZALMAN JACOB 

FRIEDMAN, THEODORE 

FRISCH, EPHRAIM 

GEFFEN, JOEL 

GEFFEN, TOBIAS 

GELB, MAX 

GIFTER, MORDECAI 

GINZBERG, LOUIS 

GITTELSOHN, ROLAND BERTRAM 

GLASER, JOSEPH 

GLAZER, SIMON 

GOLD, HENRY RAPHAEL 

gold, wolf (Zeev) 

GOLDENSON, SAMUEL HARRY 

GOLDFARB, ISRAEL 

GOLDFEDER, FISHEL 

GOLDIN, HYMAN ELIAS 

GOLDMAN, ISRAEL 

GOLDMAN, SOLOMON 

GOLDSTEIN, HERBERT S. 

GOLDSTEIN, ISRAEL 

GOLDSTEIN, SIDNEY EMANUEL 

GOLINKIN, DAVID 

GOLINKIN, MORDECHAI YAAKOV 

GOLINKIN, NOAH 

GOODBLATT, MORRIS 

GORDON, ALBERT I. 

GORDON, HAROLD 

GOTTHEIL, GUSTAV 

GOTTSCHALK, ALFRED 

GREENBERG, IRVING 

GREENBERG, LOUIS 

GREENBERG, SIDNEY 

GREENBERG, SIMON 

GREENWALD, JEKUTHIEL JUDAH (Leopold) 

GRODZINSKI, ZVI HIRSCH 

GRUENEWALD, MAX 

GRYN, HUGO 

GUTHEIM, JAMES KOPPEL 

GUTTMANN, ALEXANDER 

HABERMAN, JOSHUA 

HAILPERIN, HERMAN 



HALIVNI, DAVID WEISS 

HALPERN, HARRY 

HAMMER, REUVEN 

HARLOW, JULIUS 

HARRIS, MAURICE 

HARRISON, LEON 

HAUPTMAN, JUDITH 

HEILPRIN, PHINEHAS MENAHEM 

HELLER 

HELLER, BERNARD 

HERSCHER, URI 

HERSHMAN, ABRAHAM M. 

HERTZBERG, ARTHUR 

HIER, MARVIN 

HIGGER, MICHAEL 

HIRSCH, EMIL GUSTAVE 

HIRSCH, RICHARD 

HIRSHENSON, HAYIM 

HOCHEIMER, HENRY 

HOFFMAN, LAWRENCE I. 

HOROWITZ, PINCHAS 

HURWITZ, SHMARYA LEIB 

HYAMSON, MOSES 

ISRAEL, EDWARD LEOPOLD 

ISSERMAN, FERDINAND MYRON 

JACOB, WALTER 

JACOBS, GEORGE 

JOSEPH, JACOB 

JOSPE, ALFRED 

JUNG, LEO 

KADUSHIN, MAX 

KAHN, ROBERT 

KAMENETSKY, YAAKOV 

KAMINETSKY, JOSEPH 

KAPLAN, ARYEH 

KAPLAN, MORDECAI MENAHEM 

KARP, ABRAHAM J. 

KAUVAR, CHARLES ELIEZER HILLEL 

KELMAN, WOLFE 

KIEVAL, HERMAN 

KIRSHBLUM, MORDECAI 

KLAUSNER, ABRAHAM 

KLAVAN, ISRAEL 

KLEIN, EDWARD E. 

KLEIN, ISAAC 

KLEIN, PHILIP 

KLENICKI, LEON 

KOBER, ADOLF 

KOGEN, DAVID 

KOHLER, KAUFMANN 

KOHN, EUGENE 

KOHN, JACOB 

KOLATCH, ALFRED 

KONVITZ, JOSEPH 

KORN, BERTRAM WALLACE 

KOTLER, AARON 

KRAUSKOPF, JOSEPH 

KREITMAN, BENJAMIN 

KRONISH, LEON 

KURTZ, VERNON 



166 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



KUSHNER, HAROLD 
KUSHNER, LAWRENCE 
LANDESMAN, ALTER 
LANDMAN, ISAAC 
LAUTERBACH, JACOB ZALLEL 
LAZARON, MORRIS SAMUEL 
LEESER, ISAAC 
LEHRMAN, IRVING 
LEIPZIGER, EMIL WILLIAM 
LELYVELD, ARTHUR JOSEPH 
LEVI, SAMAUEL GERSON 
LEVIN, JUDAH L 
LEVINGER, LEE JOSEPH 
LEVINTHAL 

LEVITSKY, LOUIS MOSES 
LEVY, CLIFTON HARBY 
LEVY, FELIX ALEXANDER 
LEVY, JOSEPH LEONARD 
LICHTENSTEIN, TEHILLA 
LIEBER, DAVID 
LIEBMAN, JOSHUA LOTH 
LIFSHITZ, DAVID 

lilienthal, max (Menahem) 

LIPMAN, EUGENE JAY 
LOEWENSTEIN, BERNHARD 
LOOKSTEIN, HASKELL 
LOOKSTEIN, JOSEPH HYMAN 
LYONS, JACQUES JUDAH 
MAGNES, JUDAH LEON 
MAGNIN, EDGAR FOGEL 
MALEV, WILLIAM S. 
MALINO, JEROME 
MALTER, HENRY 
MANDELBAUM, BERNARD 
MANISCHEWITZ, HIRSCH 
MARCUS, JACOB RADER 
MARGOLIES, MOSES SEBULUN 
MARGOLIS, GAVRIEL ZEV 
MARK, JULIUS 
MARTIN, BERNARD 
MASLIANSKY, ZVI HIRSCH 
MATLIN, MOSHE 
MATT, C. DAVID 
MATTUCK, ISRAEL ISIDOR 
MENDES 

MENDLOWITZ, SHRAGA FEIVEL 
MERZBACHER, LEO 
MEYER, MARTIN ABRAHAM 
MIELZINER, MOSES 
MIHALY, EUGENE 
MILLER, IRVING 
MILLER, ISRAEL 
MILLGRAM, ABRAHAM 
MINDA, ALBERT 
MINKIN, JACOB SAMUEL 
MIRSKY, SAMUEL KALMAN 
MORAIS, SABATO 
MORGENSTERN, JULIAN 
MOSES, ADOLPH 
MOSES, ISAAC S. 



MOWSHOWITZ, ISRAEL 

NADICH, JUDAH 

NAROT, JOSEPH 

NEULANDER, ARTHUR 

NEUMAN, ABRAHAM AARON 

NEUMARK, DAVID 

NEWFIELD, MORRIS 

NEWMAN, LOUIS ISRAEL 

NOVAK, DAVID 

NOVECK, SIMON 

NUSSBAUM, MAX 

NUSSBAUM, PERRY 

OFFNER, STACY 

OLAN, LEVI 

OLITZKY, KERRY 

OSTFELD, BARBARA 

PARDES, SHMUEL 

PARIS, HAILU 

PARZEN, HERBERT 

PETEGORSKY, DAVID 

PETUCHOWSKI, JAKOB JOSEF 

PHILIPSON, DAVID 

PILCHIK, ELY EMANUEL 

PLAUT, W. GUNTHER 

POLISH, DAVID 

POOL, DAVID DE SOLA 

PORATH, ISRAEL 

POUPKO, BERNARD 

POZNANSKI, GUSTAVUS 

PREIL, ELAZAR MEYER 

PRESSMAN, JACOB 

PRIESAND, SALLY 

PRINZ, JOACHIM 

RABINOWITZ, STANLEY 

RACKMAN, EMANUEL 

RADIN, ADOLPH MOSES 

RAISIN, JACOB ZALMAN 

RAISIN, MAX 

RAPHALL, MORRIS JACOB 

REGNER, SIDNEY 

REINES, ALVIN 

RICE, ABRAHAM JOSEPH 

RISKIN, SHLOMO 

ROSENAU, WILLIAM 

ROSENBAUM, JONATHAN 

ROSENBERG, ISRAEL 

ROSENBLATT, SAMUEL 

ROTH, JOEL 

ROTHSCHILD, JACOB M. 

ROUTTENBERG, MAX JONAH 

RUBENOVITZ, HERMAN H. 

RUBENSTEIN, RICHARD LOWELL 

RUDERMAN, DAVID 

RUDERMAN, JACOB ISAAC 

RUDIN, A. JAMES 

RUDIN, JACOB PHILIP 

SAMFIELD, MAX 

SANDROW, EDWARD T. 

SAPERSTEIN, DAVID 

SAPERSTEIN, HAROLD 



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167 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Religion (continued) 

SAR, SAMUEL 
SARACHEK, JOSEPH 
SASSO, SANDY 
SCHAALMAN, HERMAN 
SCHACHTER, HERSCHEL 
SCHACHTER, JACOB J. 
SCHACTER-SHALOMI, ZALMAN 
SCHANFARBER, TOBIAS 
SCHECHTER, ABRAHAM ISRAEL 
SCHECHTER, MATHILDE 

schechter, solomon (Shneur Zalman) 

SCHEINFELD, SOLOMON ISAAC 

SCHERMAN, NOSSON 

SCHINDLER, ALEXANDER M. 

SCHINDLER, SOLOMON 

SCHNEEBERGER, HENRY WILLIAM 

SCHORSCH, ISMAR 

SCHULMAN, SAMUEL 

SCHULWEIS, HAROLD 

SCHWAB, SHIMON 

SCHWARTZMAN, SYLVAN D. 

SCHWARZSCHILD, STEVEN SAMUEL 

SEGAL, BERNARD 

SEIGEL, JOSHUA 

SHANKMAN, JACOB K. 

SHAPIRO, ALEXANDER 

SHAPIRO, RAMI 

SHUBOW, JOSEPH 

SHULMAN, CHARLES E. 

SIEGEL, MORTON 

SIEGEL, SEYMOUR 

SILBER, SAUL 

SILBERSTEIN, SOLOMON JOSEPH 

SILVER, ABBA HILLEL 

SILVER, DANIEL J 

SILVER, ELIEZER 

SILVERMAN, IRA 

SILVERMAN, JOSEPH 

SILVERMAN, MORRIS 

SILVERSTEIN, ALAN 

SILVERSTONE, GEDALYAH 

SIMON, ABRAM 

SIMON, CARRIE OBENDORFER 

SIMON, RALPH 

SIVITZ, MOSHE 

SOBEL, RONALD 

SOLOMON, ELIAS L. 

SOLOVEICHIK, AARON 

SOLOVEICHIK, MOSHE 

SOLOVEITCHIK, JOSEPH DOV 

SONDERLING, JACOB 

SPERO, SHUBERT 

STAMPFER, JOSHUA 



STEINBACH, ALEXANDER ALAN 

STEINBERG, MILTON 

STEINBERG, PAUL 

STERN, CHAIM 

STERN, JACK 

STERN, MALCOLM HENRY 

STERNSTEIN, JOSEPH PHILIP 

STOLZ, JOSEPH 

STRASSFELD, MICHAEL 

SZOLD, BENJAMIN 

TEITELBAUM, AARON 

teitz, pinchas (Mordecai) 

TELUSHKIN, NISSAN 
TENDLER, MOSES D. 
TEPLITZ, SAUL 
TEUTSCH, DAVID 
TRACHTENBERG, JOSHUA 
TUSKA, SIMON 
VOORSANGER, JACOB 
VORSPAN, MAX 
WAGNER, STANLEY M. 
WASHOFSKY, MARK 
WASKOW, ARTHUR 
WAXMAN, MORDECAI 
WECHSLER, JUDAH 
WEINBERGER, MOSHE 
WEINSTEIN, JACOB 
WEISS, AVI 
WEISS, SAMSON 
WIENER, MAX 
WINE, SHERWIN 
WISE, ISAAC MAYER 
WISE, JONAH BONDI 
WISE, STEPHEN SAMUEL 
WOLF, ALFRED 
WOLF, ARNOLD J. 
WOLPE, DAVID J. 
WOLSEY, LOUIS 
YOFFIE, ERIC 

YUDELOVITZ, ABRAHAM A. 
ZARCHI, ASHER LIPPMAN 
ZELDIN, ISAIAH 
ZELIZER, NATHAN 
ZIMMERMAN, SHELDON 
ZLOTOWITZ, MEIR 
ZLOTOWITZ, BERNARD 
ZOLA, GARY P. 

Science 

ABRAHAMS, ISAAC 
ABT, ISAAC ARTHUR 
ADLER, CHARLES 
ALTSCHUL, AARON MEYER 
ANFINSEN, CHRISTIAN B. 
ANGRIST, ALFRED ALVIN 
ARNON, DANIEL ISRAEL 
ATLAS, DAVID 
AXEL, RICHARD 
AXELROD, JULIUS 
BACHER, ROBERT FOX 



168 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



BALINT, MICHAEL 
BALTIMORE, DAVID 
BAUER, SIMON HARVEY 
BENACERRAF, BARUJ 
BENDER, MORRIS BORIS 
BENIOFF, HUGO 
BENZER, SEYMOUR 
BERG, PAUL 
BERL, ERNST 
BERLINER, EMILE 
BETHE, HANS ALBRECHT 
BIKERMAN, JACOB JOSEPH 
BLOCH, FELIX 
BLOCH, HERMAN SAMUEL 
BLOCH, KONRAD 
BLUMBERG, BARUCH SAMUEL 
BODANSKY, OSCAR 
BODIAN, DAVID 
BOGORAD, LAWRENCE 
BOHM, DAVID 
BOROWITZ, SIDNEY 
BORSOOK, HENRY 
BROWN, HAROLD 
BROWN, HERBERT C. 
BROWN, MICHAEL STUART 
BUCKY, GUSTAV 
BUERGER, LEO 
CALVIN, MELVIN 
CHARGAFF, ERWIN 
COHEN, ELIZABETH D. A. 
COHEN, HARRY 
COHEN, PAUL JOSEPH 
COHEN, PHILIP PACY 
COHEN, SEYMOUR STANLEY 
COHEN, STANLEY 
COHEN, STANLEY N. 
COHN, EDWIN JOSEPH 
COOPER, LEON N. 
CORI, GERTY THERESA 
CROHN, BURRILL BERNARD 
DAMESHEK, WILLIAM 
DAVIDOFF, LEO MAX 
DAVIDSOHN, ISRAEL 
DE LEE, JOSEPH B. 
DEUTSCH, FELIX 
DEUTSCH, HELENE 
DISCHE, ZACHARIAS 
DJERASSI, CARL 
DORFMAN, RALPH ISADORE 
DRESSLER, WILLIAM 
DROSDOFF, MATTHEW 
DRUCKER, DANIEL CHARLES 
DUSHMAN, SAUL 
EDELMAN, GERALD MAURICE 
EDINGER, TILLY 
EINHORN, MAX 
EINHORN, MOSES 
EINSTEIN, ALBERT 
ELION, GERTRUDE BELL 
EPSTEIN, PAUL SOPHUS 



ERIKSON, ERIK HOMBERGER 

ERLANGER, JOSEPH 

ESTERMANN, IMMANUEL 

FAJANS, KASIMIR 

FALK, KAUFMAN GEORGE 

FELD, JACOB 

FEUER, HENRY 

FEYNMAN, RICHARD PHILLIPS 

FISCHER, EDMOND 

FISHBEIN, MORRIS 

FISHBERG, MAURICE 

FISHMAN, WILLLAM HAROLD 

FLEISCHER, MICHAEL 

FOLKMAN, JUDAH 

FONDILLER, WILLIAM 

FRANCK, JAMES 

FRANK, PHILIPP 

FRANZBLAU, ABRAHAM NORMAN 

FREUDENTHAL, ALFRED MARTIN 

FRIEDENWALD 

FRIEDMAN, JEROME ISAAC 

FRIEND, CHARLOTTE 

FROEHLICH, ALFRED 

FROMM, ERICH 

FROMM-REICHMANN, FRIEDA 

FUNK, CASIMIR 

FURCHGOTT, ROBERT F. 

GARLOCK, JOHN HENRY 

GASSER, HERBERT SPENCER 

GELL-MANN, MURRAY 

GILBERT, WALTER 

GILMAN, ALFRED G. 

GINSBURG, JEKUTHIEL 

GLASER, DONALD ARTHUR 

GLAUBER, ROY J. 

GLICK, DAVID 

GOLD, HENRY RAPHAEL 

GOLDBERGER, JOSEPH 

GOLDMARK, PETER CARL 

GOLDSTEIN, JOSEPH LEONARD 

GOLDSTEIN, KURT 

GOMBERG, MOSES 

GOULD, STEPHEN JAY 

GREEN, DAVID EZRA 

GREENACRE, PHYLLIS 

GREENBERG, DAVID MORRIS 

GREENGARD, PAUL 

GREENSTEIN, JESSE PHILIP 

GRINKER, ROY RICHARD SR. 

GROSS, DAVID J. 

GROSSMAN, MORTON IRVING 

GRUNBAUM, ADOLF 

GUTENBERG, BENO 

GUTMAN, ALEXANDER B. 

GUTTMACHER, ALAN F. 

HANDLER, PHILIP 

HARRIS, MILTON 

HART, JOEL 

HARTMANN, HEINZ 

HASSID, WILLIAM ZEV 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



169 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

g. United States 
Biographies 

Science (continued) 

HAUPTMAN, HERBERT A. 

HAURWITZ, BERNHARD 

HAYS, ISAAC 

HECHT, SELIG 

HEEGER, ALAN J. 

HEIDELBERGER, MICHAEL 

HELPERN, MILTON 

HEYMAN, MOSES DAVID 

HIRSCHFELD, ISADOR 

HOFFMANN, ROALD 

HOFSTADTER, ROBERT 

HOLLANDER, FRANKLIN 

HORWITZ, H. ROBERT 

HORWITZ, PHINEAS JONATHAN 

HYDE, IDA HENRIETTA 

HYMAN, LIBBIE HENRIETTA 

ISAACS, JACOB 

ISRAEL, EDWARD 

JACOBI, ABRAHAM 

JAFFE, LEONARD 

JANOWITZ, HENRY D. 

JUDA, WALTER 

KANDEL, ERIC R. 

KANNER, LEO 

KANTROWITZ, ADRIAN 

KANTROWITZ, ARTHUR 

KAPLAN, JOSEPH 

KARDINER, ABRAM 

KARLE, JEROME 

KATZ, ISRAEL 

KAUFMAN, JOYCE JACOBSON 

KITSEE, ISADOR 

KLEMPERER, PAUL 

KLINE, NATHAN S. 

KOHN, WALTER 

ROLLER, CARL 

KOPLIK, HENRY 

KORNBERG, ARTHUR 

KRIM, MATHILDE 

KUBIE, LAWRENCE 

LAND, EDWIN H. 

LANDSTEINER, KARL 

LANGER, ROBERT 

LEDEEN, HYMAN 

LEDERBERG, JOSHUA 

LEDERER, JEROME F. 

LEDERMAN, LEON MAX 

LEE, DAVID M. 

LEES, LESTER 

LEFSCHETZ, SOLOMON 

LEVENE, PHOEBUS AARON THEODOR 

LEVINE, PHILIP 

LEVINSON, ABRAHAM 



LEVY, LOUIS EDWARD 

LEWI, MAURICE J. 

LIPMAN, JACOB GOODALE 

LIPMANN, FRITZ ALBERT 

LITMAN, SAMUEL 

LOEB, JACQUES 

LOEB, LEO 

LOEB, MORRIS 

LOEWENSTEIN, RUDOLPH MAURICE 

LOEWI, OTTO 

LOWDERMILK, WALTER CLAY 

LURIA, SALVADOR EDWARD 

MACHT, DAVID 

MACHTA, LESTER 

MAHLER, MARGARET 

MALZBERG, BENJAMIN 

MANDELBROT, BENOIT 

MARCUS, RUDOLPH ARTHUR 

MASSERMAN, JULES HYMAN 

MASTER, ARTHUR M. 

MENDEL, LAFAYETTE BENEDICT 

MESELSON, MATTHEW 

MICHELSON, ALBERT ABRAHAM 

MILLMAN, JACOB 

MOTTELSON, BENJAMIN R. 

MULLER, HERMAN JOSEPH 

MUSHER, SIDNEY 

NAGIN, HARRY S. 

NAMIAS, JEROME 

NATHANS, DANIEL 

NEUGEBAUER, OTTO 

NEUMANN, JOHANN (Johnny) LUDWIG VON 

NIRENBERG, MARSHALL WARREN 

NUNBERG, HERMAN 

OLAH, GEORGE 

OPPENHEIMER, J. ROBERT 

OSHEROFF, DOUGLAS DEAN 

PEKERIS, CHAIM LEIB 

PENZIAS, ARNO ALLAN 

PERL, MARTIN 

PERLSTEIN, MEYER A. 

PERLZWEIG, WILLIAM ALEXANDRE 

PINCUS, GREGORY GOODWIN 

PINKEL, BENJAMIN 

POLITZER, H. DAVID 

PRESS, FRANK 

PRESSMAN, DAVID 

PRUSINER, STANLEY B. 

PTASHNE, MARK 

RABI, ISIDOR ISAAC 

RABINOWITCH, EUGENE 

RACKER, EFRAIM 

RADO, SANDOR 

RAPAPORT, DAVID 

RAPPAPORT, HENRY 

REDLICH, FREDERICK C. 

REIK, THEODOR 

RESNIK, JUDITH 

RICHTER, BURTON 

RIGLER, LEO GEORGE 



170 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



RITTENBERG, DAVID 

RODBELL, MARTIN 

ROSE, IRWIN 

ROSEN, FRED 

ROSEN, SAMUEL 

RUBIN, MORTON JOSEPH 

SABIN, ALBERT BRUCE 

SACHS, BERNARD 

SAGAN, CARL EDWARD 

SALK, JONAS EDWARD 

SANDGROUND, JACK HENRY 

SCHALLY, ANDREW V. 

SCHAWLOW, ARTHUR L. 

SCHICK, BELA 

SCHILDER, PAUL FERDINAND 

SCHLESINGER, FRANK 

SCHMERLING, LOUIS 

SCHWARTZ, MELVIN 

SCHWINGER, JULIAN SEYMOUR 

SELDIN, HARRY M. 

SEQUEYRA, JOHN DE 

SERBIN, HYMAN 

SHAPIRO, ASCHER HERMAN 

SHEAR, MURRAY JACOB 

SHEDLOVSKY, THEODORE 

SILVERMAN, ALEXANDER 

SILVERMAN, LESLIE 

SILVERSTEIN, ABE 

SLEPIAN, JOSEPH 

SOBOTKA, HARRY HERMAN 

SPIEGEL-ADOLF, MONA 

SPIEGELMAN, SOL 

SPITZ, RENE A. 

SPORN, PHILIP 

STEIN, WILLIAM HOWARD 

STEINBERG, MARTIN R. 

STEINBERGER, JACK 

STENT, GUNTHER SIEGMUND 

STERN, ARTHUR C. 

STERN, KURT GUNTER 

STERN, OTTO 

STIEGLITZ, JULIUS OSCAR 

STROMINGER, JACK 

SURE, BARNETT 

SZASZ, THOMAS STEPHEN 

SZILARD, LEO 

SZWARC, MICHAEL 

TARSKI, ALFRED 

TELLER, EDWARD 

TEMIN, HOWARD MARTIN 

TENENBAUM, JOSEPH L. 

TISCHLER, MAX 

TOCH, MAXIMILIAN 

ULAM, STANISLAW MARCIN 

VARMUS, HAROLD ELIOT 

WAKSMAN, SELMAN ABRAHAM 

WALD, GEORGE 

WATTERS, LEON LAIZER 

WECHSLER, ISRAEL 

WEIL, JOSEPH 



WEINBERG, STEVEN 
WEINHOUSE, SIDNEY 
WEISENBURG, THEODORE H. 
WESTHEIMER, FRANK HENRY 
WEXLER, HARRY 
WHITE, ROBERT MAYER 
WIENER, ALEXANDER S. 
WIENER, NORBERT 
WIESNER, JEROME BERT 
WIESNER, JULIUS VON 
WIGNER, EUGENE P. 
WINSTEIN, SAUL 
WINTROBE, MAXWELL MYER 
WISE, LOUIS ELSBERG 
WOLBERG, LEWIS ROBERT 
WOLF, ABNER 
WOLMAN, ABEL 
YALOW, ROSALYN SUSSMAN 
ZACHARIAS, JERROLD REINACH 
ZAMENHOF, STEPHEN 
ZARISKI, OSCAR 
ZIFF, MORRIS 
ZILBOORG, GREGORY 
ZIMMERMAN, HARRY M. 
ZUCROW, MAURICE JOSEPH 

h. Canada 

Main Surveys 

AMERICA 

CANADA 

CANADIAN LITERATURE 



general entries 

agriculture 

b'nai b'rith canada 

canadian jewish congress 

jewish immigrant aid services of canada 

Communities 

ALBERTA 

ATLANTIC CANADA 

BRITISH COLUMBIA 

CALGARY 

EDMONTON 

HAMILTON 

MANITOBA 

MONTREAL 

ONTARIO 

OTTAWA 

QUEBEC 

SASKATCHEWAN 

TORONTO 

VANCOUVER 

WINNIPEG 



BIOGRAPHIES 

ABELLA, ROSALIE SILBERMAN 
ABRAMOWITZ, HERMAN 
ADASKIN, MURRAY 
ANHALT, ISTVAN 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



171 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 

h. Canada 

Biographies (continued) 

ANSELL, DAVID ABRAHAM 
APPLEBAUM, LOUIS 
ARNOLD, ABE 
ASPER, ISRAEL H. 
AVIDA, YEHUDA LEIB 
AZRIELI, DAVID 
BARRETT, DAVID 
BAYEFSKY, ABA 
BECKER, LAVY M. 
BELKIN, SIMON 
BELZBERG, SAMUEL 

bennett, archie (Aaron Baehr) 

BENNETT, AVIE 
BERCOVITCH, PETER 
BERNSTEIN, HAROLD JOSEPH 
BLANKSTEIN, CECIL N. 
BORENSTEIN, SAM 
BORNSTEIN, ELI 
BOROVOY, ALAN 
BOSCO, MONIQUE 
BRANDEAU, ESTHER 
BRANDSTAEDTER, MORDEC 
BRONFMAN 



AI DAVID 



CAISERMAN, HANANE MEIER 

CAISERMAN-ROTH, GHITTA 

CAPLAN, ELINOR 

CARR, JUDY FELD 

CASS, SAMUEL 

COHEN, HIRSH 

COHEN, LEONARD 

COHEN, LYON 

COHEN, MATT 

COHEN, MAXWELL 

COHEN, MORRIS ABRAHAM 

COHEN, NATHAN 

COTLER, IRWIN 

CROLL, DAVID ARNOLD 

CRONENBERG, DAVID 

CHERNEY, BRIAN 

CHERNIACK, SAUL 

DAN, LESLIE 

DAVID 

DAVIS, MORTIMER 

DE SOLA 

DENBURG, CHAIM 

DIAMOND, JACK 

DIAMOND, JACK 

DONALDA, PAULINE 

DUNKELMAN, BENJAMIN 

DUNKELMAN, ROSE 

ELBERG, YEHUDA 

EZRIN, HERSCHEL 

FEDERMAN, MAX 

FEINBERG, ABRAHAM L. 



FELDER, GEDALIAH 

FINESTONE, SHEILA 

FITCH, LOUIS 

FRANKLIN, SELIM 

FREEDMAN, HARRY 

FREEDMAN, SAMUEL 

FREIMAN 

FRENKEL, VERA 

FRUM 

FURIE, SYDNEY J. 

GELBER 

GERSHMAN, JOSHUA 

GILBERT, INA 

GIVENS, PHILIPS. 

GLICK, IRVING SRUL 

GOFFMAN, ERVING 

GOLD, PHILIP 

GOLDBLOOM FAMILY 

GOLDSTEIN, ELYSE 

GORDON, JACOB 

GORDON, NATHAN 

GOTLIEB, ALLAN 

GRAFSTEIN, JERAHMIEL S. 

GRAUBART, Y. L. 

GRAY, HERBERT ESER 

GRAY, MORRIS ABRAHAM 

GREENE, LORNE 

GROSSMAN, ALLAN AND LARRY 

HALPERN, JACK 

HALL, MONTY 

HARRIS, SYDNEY 

HART, AARON 

HART, BENJAMIN 

HART, CECIL M. 

HART, EZEKIEL 

HART, SAMUEL 

HAYES, SAUL 

HEAPS, ABRAHAM ALBERT 

HEICHELHEIM, FRITZ MORITZ 

HERSCHORN, JOSHUA (She'ea) HALEVY 

HERZOG, SHIRA 

HILLER, ARTHUR 

HIRSCH, JOHN STEPHEN 

HIRSCHPRUNG, PINHAS 

HOROWITZ 

ISKOWITZ, GERSHON 

JACOBS, SAMUEL WILLIAM 

JACOBS, SOLOMON 

JOSEPH 

JOSEPH, NORMA BAUMEL 

JUDAH 

KAGE, JOSEPH 

KAHANOVITCH, ISRAEL ISAAC 

KANEE, SOL 

KAPLAN, ROBERT P. 

KAPLANSKY, KALMEN 

KATTAN, NAIM 

KAYFETZ, BEN 

KLEIN, ABRAHAM MOSES 

KOFFLER, MURRAY 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



KREISEL, HENRY 

KUPER, JACK 

LAMBERT, PHYLLIS 

LANDSBERG, MICHELLE 

LANTOS, ROBERT 

LASKIN, BORA 

LASTMAN, MEL 

LAYTON, IRVING 

LENKINSKY, LOUIS 

LEVI, SAMAUEL GERSON 

LEVINE, LES 

LEVINE, NORMAN 

LEWIS, DAVID 

LEWIS, STEPHEN 

LITTMAN, SOL 

LUFTSPRING, SAMMY 

MANDEL, ELI 

MARMUR, DOW 

MARRUS, MICHAEL 

MATAS, DAVID 

MAYNARD, FREDELLE BRUSER 

MAZE, IDA 

MICHAELS, ANNE 

MICHAELS, LORNE 

MIRANSKY, PERETZ 

MIRVISH, ED/DAVID 

MORAWETZ, OSCAR 

MORGENTALER, HENRY 

MUHLSTOCK, LOUIS 

NATHAN, HENRY 

NEMETZ, NATHAN 

NEWMAN, PETER C. 

NICHOLS, JACK 

ORLIKOW, DAVID 

OSHRY, EPHRAIM 

PACHTER, CHARLES 

PETEGORSKY, DAVID 

PHILLIPS, LAZARUS 

PHILLIPS, NATHAN 

PLAUT, W. GUNTHER 

POLANYI, JOHN 

PRICE, ABRAHAM 

RANKIN, HARRY 

RAPHAEL, WILLIAM 

RASKY, HARRY 

RASMINSKY, LOUIS 

REICHMANN 

REISMAN, HEATHER 

RHINEWINE, ABRAHAM 

RICHLER, MORDECAI 

ROBACK, LEAH 

ROBIN, REGINE 

ROME, DAVID 

ROSE, FRED 

ROSENBERG, LOUIS 

ROSENBERG, STUART E. 

ROSENBERG, YEHUDAH YUDEL 

ROSENFELD, FANNY 

ROTENBERG, MATTIE 

ROTHSCHILD, KURT 



ROTHSCHILD, ROBERT PHINIAS 

RUBENSTEIN, LOUIS 

SACK, BENJAMIN G. 

SAFDIE, MOSHE 

SAFDIE, SYLVIA 

SALSBERG, JOSEPH B. 

SAMUEL, SIGMUND 

SCHEUER, EDMUND 

SCHILD, EDWIN 

SCHLESINGER, JOE 

SCHULTZ, SAMUEL 

SCHWARTZ, GERALD 

SEGAL, ESTHER 

SEGAL, HUGH 

SEGAL, JACOB ISAAC 

SHAPIRO, BERNARD J. 

SHARP, ISADORE NATANIEL 

SHATNER, WILLIAM 

SHERMAN, JASON 

SHTERN 

SHUCHAT, WILFRED 

SIEGEL, IDA LEWIS 

SINGER, YVONNE 

SLONIM, REUBEN 

SOLA, ABRAHAM DE 

SPECTOR, NORMAN 

SPRACHMAN 

STEIN, JANICE 

STEINBERG 

STEINFELD, JJ 

STERN, HARRY JOSHUA 

TANENBAUM 

TORGOV, MORLEY 

TREPMAN, PAUL 

UNGERMAN, IRV 

VAN PAASSEN, PIERRE 

VEINER, HARRY 

WADDINGTON, MIRIAM (Dworkin) 

WASSERMAN, DORA AND BRYNA 

WAXMAN, AL 

WAYNE AND SHUSTER 

WEIDER, BEN 

WEIDMAN, HIRAM 

WEINZWEIG, HELEN 

WEINZWEIG, JOHN 

WILDER, HERTZ 

WISEMAN, ADELE 

WISEMAN, SHLOIME 

WOLFE 

WOLOFSKY, HIRSH 

WOSK 

YUDIKA 

ZIPPER, YAAKOV 

ZNAIMER, MOSES 

ZOLF 

i. Latin America 

Main Surveys 

AMERICA 
ARGENTINA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



173 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
2. Regional History 
i. Latin America 

Main Surveys (continued) 



SAO PAULO 



SURINAME 



TUCACAS 
URUGUAY 



VENEZUELA 



BRAZIL 

CUBA 

LATIN AMERICA 

MEXICO 

SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE LITERATURE 



General Entries 

agriculture 

A.M. LA. 

DAIA 

FESELA 

genealogy 

lajsa (latin american jewish studies 
association) 

communities 

BAHIA 
BARBADOS 
BOLIVIA 
BUENOS AIRES 
CARACAS 

caribbeans, spanish-portuguese nation 
of the: la nacion 

CAYENNE 

COLOMBIA 

CORDOBA 

CORO 

COSTA RICA 

CURACAO 

CHILE 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 

ECUADOR 

EL SALVADOR 

ENTRE RIOS 

GUATEMALA 

GUIANA 

HAITI 

HAVANA 

HONDURAS 

IQUITOS 

JAMAICA 

LIMA 

MENDOZA 

MONTEVIDEO 

NICARAGUA 

PANAMA 

PARAGUAY 

PERU 

PORTO ALEGRE 

PUERTO RICO 

RECIFE 

RIO DE JANEIRO 

ROSARIO 

SANTA FE 



Biographies 

aguinis, marcos 

alpersohn, marcos 

angel, aaron 

arbell, mordechai 

avni, haim 

baitler, zoma 

barylko, jaime 

behar, leon 

beiderman, bernardo 

belkin, arnold 

benzaquen, saadia 

beraja, ruben 

berdichevsky, scher 

berger, meir 

berliner, isaac 

berman berman, natalio 

blazko, martin 

blejer, david 

blis, david 

brener, pynchas 

brie, luis hartwig 

burle-marx, roberto 

carvajal 

cohen gellerstein, benjamin 

cohen, joseph isaac 

constantiner, jaime 

constantini, humberto 

czenstochowski, walter 

chamudes reitich, marcos 

chehebar, itzhak 

chocron, isaac 

de sola, juan bartolome 

delvalle, max shalom 

delvalle levi maduro, eric 

ARTURO 
DINES, ALBERTO 
DOUDTCHITZKY, DINORA 
DUJOVNE, LEON 
EICHELBAUM, SAMUEL 
ELNECAVE, DAVID 
ESPINOZA, ENRIQUE 
FAIVOVICH HITZCOVICH, ANGEL 
FASTLICHT, ADOLFO 
FEIERSTEIN, RICARDO 
FEIGL, FRITZ 

FELDMAN, SHIMSHON SIMON 
FINGERMAN, GREGORIO 
FINKELSTEIN, CHAIM 
FLORENTIN, MEVORAH 
FREIFELD, ABRAHAM 
FUTORANSKY, LUISA 
GAMUS GALLEGOS, PAULINA 
GELMAN, JUAN 



174 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



GERCHUNOFF, ALBERTO 
GESANG, NATHAN-NACHMAN 
GLANTZ, JACOBO 
GLANTZ, MARGO 
GOERITZ, MATHIAS 
GOLDEMBERG, ISAAC 
GOLDMAN, AHARON 
GOLDMAN, MOISES 
GOLOBOFF, GERARDO MARIO 
GRINSPUN, BERNARDO 
GROBART, FAVIO 
GRUNBERG, CARLOS M. 
HANNEMANN, PABLO 
HARF, HANNS 
HARF, SUSE HALLENSTEIN 
HARKAVI, YIZHAK 
HERDAN, KURT LUCIAN 
HOCHSCHILD, MAURICIO 
ISAACS, JORGE 
ISAACSON, JOSE 
JOSEPH, HENRY 
KAMENSZAIN, TOBIAS 
KAPLAN, ISAAC 
KAPLAN, SENDER 

kitron (Kostrinsky), mo 

KLABIN 



SHE 



KLEIN, ALBERTO 

KLENICKI, LEON 

KOCH, ADELHEID LUCY 

KOSICE, GYULA 

KOVADLOFF, SANTIAGO 

KOZER, JOSE 

LAFER, HORACIO 

LASANSKY, MAURICIO 

LERNER, JAIME 

LEVI, RINO 

LEVY, ROBERT 

LEVY, SION 

LIACHO, LAZARO 

LIBEDINSKY, TSCHORNE MARCOS 

LISPECTOR, CLARICE 

LIWERANT, DANIEL 

MADURO, RICARDO 

MALDONADO DA SILVA, FRANCISCO 

MENDELSON, JOSE 

MEYER, MARSHALL 

MILEVSKY, AHARON 

MILSTEIN, CESAR 

MINDLIN, HENRIQUE 

MIRELMAN 

MUNIZ-HUBERMAN, ANGELINA 

NAJDORF, MIGUEL 

NAJNUDEL, LEON 

NASSY, DAVID DE ISAAC COHEN 

NIERMAN, LEONARDO 

NORONHA, FERNAO DE 

NUDELMAN, SANTIAGO I. 

OSTROWER, FEYGA 

OTTA, FRANCISCO 

PECAR, SAMUEL 



PEKERMAN, JOSE 

PIZARNIK, ALEJANDRA 

PORZEKANSKI, TERESA 

RABINOVICH, JOSE 

RAFALIN, DAVID SHLOMO 

RAFFALOVICH, ISAIAH 

RAUCH, EDUARDO 

RAWET, SAMUEL 

RESNICK, SALOMON 

ROSENBERG, MOISHE 

ROSENCOF, MAURICIO 

ROSENMANN-TAUB, DAVID 

ROVINSKY, SAMUEL 

ROZENMACHER, GERMAN 

SAFRA 

SAJAROFF, MIGUEL 

SASLAVSKY, LUIS 

SATANOWSKI, MARCOS 

SATZ, MARIO 

SCLIAR, MOACYR 

SCHAPIRA, DAVID 

SCHAULSON BRODSKY, JORGE 

SCHAULSON NUMHAUSER, JACOBO 

SCHIFRIN, LALO 

SCHLESINGER, GUILLERMO 

SEGALL, LAZAR 

SELIGSON, ESTHER 

SEROUSSI, ELIAS 

SHUA, ANA MARIA 

SINGERMAN, BERTA 

SITTEON DABBAH, SHAUL DAVID 

SNEH, SIMJA 

SOURASKY 

STEIMBERG, ALICIA 

STEINBRUCH, AARAO 

STERN, HANS 

SVERDLIK, ODED 

swarsensky, hardi (Bernhard) 

SZERYNG, HENRYK 
TARNOPOLSKY, SAMUEL 
TEITELBOIM VOLOSKY, VOLODIA 
TEUBAL, EZRA 
TIEMPO, CESAR 
TIMERMAN, JACOBO 
TOKER, ELIAHU 
TOPOLEVSKY, GREGORIO 
TURKOW, MARK 
VERBITZKY, BERNARDO 
WALD, ARNOLD 
WECHSLER, ELINA 
WEISER-VARON, BENNO 

wolf, richard riegel (Subirana y Lobo) 

YAGUPSKI, MAXIMO 

yarcho, noe (Noah) 

ZITNITSKY, PINCAS LAZARO 



3. HOLOCAUST HISTORY 
Main Surveys 

holocaust 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



175 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
3. Holocaust History (con tin ued) 

General Entries 

ART 

AUSCHWITZ 

AUSCHWITZ BOMBING CONTROVERSY 

AUSCHWITZ CONVENT 

AUSCHWITZ TRIALS 

BABI YAR 

BADGE, JEWISH 

BELZEC 

BERGEN-BELSEN 

BERMUDA CONFERENCE 

BERNHEIM PETITION 

BITBURG CONTROVERSY 

BOYCOTT, ANTI-NAZI 

BUCHENWALD 

CAMPS 

CHELMNO 

children's LITERATURE 

DACHAU 

DEATH MARCHES 

DENAZIFICATION 

DISPLACED PERSONS 

DRANCY 

EUROPA PLAN 

EUTHANASIA - T-4 PROGRAM 

EVIAN CONFERENCE 

FACING HISTORY AND OURSELVES 

FINAL SOLUTION 

FORCED LABOR 

FOSSOLI 

GASSING 

GENOCIDE CONVENTION 

GESTAPO 

GHETTO 

GURS 

HA AVAR A 

HOLOCAUST, RESCUE FROM 

HOLOCAUST, THE 

HOLOCAUST DENIAL 

HOLOCAUST REMEMBRANCE DAY 

HOLOCAUST RESCUERS, JEWISH 

IRVING V. LIPSTADT 

JUDENRAT 

JUDENREIN 

KAPO 

KIDDUSH HA-HAYIM 

KINDERTRANSPORT 

KISTARCSA 

KOLDYCHEVO (KoldyCZeWO) CAMP 

KRIMCHAKS 

KRISTALLNACHT 

MADAGASCAR PLAN 

MAJDANEK 

MALINES 

MAUTHAUSEN 

MUSELMANN 



NATIONAL SOCIALISM 

NATZWEILER-STRUTHOF 

NAZI-DEUTSCH 

NAZI MEDICAL EXPERIMENTS 

NINTH FORT 

NUREMBERG LAWS 

PARTISANS 

PLASZOW 

ponary (Paneriai) 

RAVENSBRUECK 

REFUGEES 

REPARATIONS, GERMAN 

RESTITUTION AND INDEMNIFICATION 

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS 

RSHA 

SACHSENHAUSEN ORANIENBURG 

SCHACHT PLAN 

SOBIBOR 

SONDERKOMMANDO, JEWISH 

SS AND SD 

ST. LOUIS, VOYAGE OF 

STUERMER, DER 

STUTTHOF 

THERESIENSTADT 

TRANSNISTRIA 

TREBLINKA 

U.S. ARMY AND THE HOLOCAUST 

VUGHT 

WALDHEIM AFFAIR 

WANNSEE CONFERENCE 

WAR CRIMES TRIALS 

WESTERBORK 



Communities 

AACHEN 

ABONY 

ADA 

AHLEM 

AHRWEILER 

AIX-EN-PROVENCE 

ALBA IULIA 

ALBANIA 

ALBERTI-IRSA 

ALEKSANDRIYA 

ALEKSANDRIYA 

ALEKSANDROW LODZKI 

ALESSANDRIA 

ALGERIA 

ALISTAL 

ALSACE 

ALTENSTADT 

ALZEY 

AMBERG 

AMSTERDAM 

ANANYEV 

ANAPA 

ANDERNACH 

ANHALT 

ANSBACH 

ANTWERP 



1 7 6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



ARAD 

ARNSTADT 

ARTEMOVSK 

ASCHAFFENBURG 

ASZOD 

ATHENS 

AUGSBURG 

AUGUSTOW 

AURICH 

AUSTERLITZ 

AUSTRIA 

BACAU 

BADEN 

BADEN BEI WIEN 

BAIA-MARE 

BAJA 

BAKHCHISARAI 

BALASSAGYARMAT 

BALTA 

BAMBERG 

BANJA LUKA 

BANSKA BYSTRICA 

BAR 

BARANOVICHI 

BARDEJOV 

BARLAD 

BAR-LE-DUC 

BAUSKA 

BAVARIA 

BAYONNE 

BAYREUTH 

bechyne (Bechin) 

BEDZIN 

BEKESCSABA 

BELAYA TSERKOV 

BELCHATOW 

BELED 

BELFORT 

BELGIUM 

BELGOROD-DNESTROVSKI 

BELGRADE 

BELTSY 

BELZ 

BELZYCE 

BENDERY 

benesov (Beneschau) 

BENFELD 

BERDICHEV 

BERDYANSK 

BEREGOVO 

BERESTECHKO 

BERETTYOUJFALU 

BEREZA 

BEREZHANY 

BEREZINO 

BEREZOVKA 

BERLIN 

BERSHAD 

BESANCON 

BEZIDUL NOU 



BIALA PODLASKA 

BIALYSTOK 

BIELEFELD 

BIELSKO 

BIELSK PODLASKI 

BILGORAJ 

BINGEN 

birzai (Birzhi) 

BIRZULA 

bistrita (Bistritz) 

BOBROVY KUT 

BOBRUISK 

BOCHNIA 

BOCHUM 

BODROGKERESZTUR 

BOGUSLAV 

BOJAN 

bolekhov (Bolechow) 

BOLOGNA 

BOLZANO 

BONYHAD 

BOPPARD 

BORDEAUX 

BORISLAV 

BORISOV 

BORSA 

boskovice (Boskowitz) 

BOTOSANI 

BOULAY 

BOURG-EN-BRESSE 

BRAILA 

BRAILOV 

BRANDYS NAD LABEM 

BR AS LAV 

BRASOV 

BRATISLAVA 

BRATSLAV 

BRECLAV 

BREISACH 

BREMEN 

BRESLAU 

BREST-LITOVSK 

BREZNICE 

BRICEVA 

BRICHANY 

BRNO 

BRODY 

BRUCHSAL 

BRUNSWICK 

BRUSSELS 

BRYANSK 

BRZEG 

BRZESC KUJAWSKI 

BRZEZINY 

BUCHACH 

BUCHAREST 

BUCOVICE 

BUDAPEST 

BUDYNE NAD OHRI 

BUHUSI 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



177 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
3. Holocaust History 

Communities (continued) 

BUKOVINA 

BULGARIA 

BURDUJENI 

BURGENLAND 

BUSK 

BUZAU 

BYDGOSZCZ 

BYKHOV 

BYTOM 

BZENEC 

CAMPULUNG MOLDOVENESC 

CARLSBAD 

CESKA LIPA 

CESKE BUDEJOVICE 

CHAMBON-SUR-LIGNON 

CHEB 

CHECINY 

CHELM 

chemnitz (Karl-Marx-Stadt) 

CHERKASSY 

CHERNIGOV 

CHERNOBYL 

CHERNOVTSY 

CHMIELNIK 

CHORTKOV 

CHORZOW 

CHRYZANOW 

CHUDNOV 

CIECHANOW 

CLEVES 

CLUJ 

COBURG 

COCHEM 

COLMAR 

COLOGNE 

CONSTANCE 

CONSTANTA 

COTTBUS 

CRACOW 

CRAIOVA 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

CZESTOCHOWA 

DABROWA GORNICZA 

DARABANI 

DARMSTADT 

DAUGAVPILS 

DAVID -GORODOK 

DEBRECEN 

DEGGENDORF 

DEJ 

DENMARK 

DERAZHNYA 

DEUTSCHKREUTZ 

DEUTZ 

DIJON 



DISNA 



DIVIN 



DNEPROPETROVSK 

dokshitsy (Dokszyce) 
dolginovo (Dolhinow) 

DOLINA 

DOLNI KOUNICE 

DOLNI KUBIN 

DOMBROVENI 

DONETSK 

DOROHOI 

DORTMUND 

DRAMA 

DRESDEN 

drogobych (Drohobycz) 

DRUYA 

DUBNO 

DUBOSSARY 

DUBROVNIK 

DUBROVNO 

DUEREN 

DUESSELDORF 

DUISBURG 

DUNAJSKA STREDA 

DUNAYEVTSY 

DYATLOVO 

dzialoszyce (Dzialoshitz) 

EGER 

EINBECK 

EISENSTADT 

EMDEN 

EPERNAY 

ERFURT 

ESSEN 

ESSLINGEN 

ESTONIA 

ESZTERGOM 

ETTLINGEN 

FAGARAS 

FALESHTY 

FALTICENI 

FERRARA 

FLORENCE 

FOCSANI 

FONTAINEBLEAU 

FRANCE 

FRANKFURT ON THE MAIN 

FRANKFURT ON THE ODER 

FREIBURG IM BREISGAU 

FRIEDBERG 

FUERTH 

FULDA 

GABIN 

GADYACH 

GAISIN 

GALANTA 

galati (Galatz) 
Gdansk (Danzig) 

GELSENKIRCHEN 
GENOA 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



GERMANY 

GERTSA 

GIESSEN 

GLINYANY 

GLIWICE 

GLOGAU 

GLUBOKOYE 

GLUSSK 

GNIEZNO 

GOERLITZ 

GOETTINGEN 

GOLCUV JENIKOV 

GOLOVANEVSK 

GOMEL 

GORA KALWARIA 

GORIZIA 

GORKI 

GORLICE 

GORODENKA 

GORODOK 

gorodok (Grodek Wilenski) 

GORZOW WIELKOPOLSKI 

GOSLAR 

GOSTYNIN 

GOTHA 

GRAJEWO 

GRAZ 

GREECE 

GRENOBLE 

GRODNO 

GRODZISK MAZOWIECKI 

GRODZISK WIELKOPOLSKI 

GROJEC 

GURA-HUMORULUI 

GYONGYOS 

GYOR 

HAGEN 

HAGUE, THE 

HALBERSTADT 

HALICZ 

HALLE 

HAMBURG 

HAMELN 

HANAU 

HANOVER 

HARLAU 

HEIDELBERG 

HEIDINGSFELD 

HEILBRONN 

HERMANUV MESTEC 

HESSE 

HILDESHEIM 

HLOHOVEC 

HODMEZOVASARHELY 

HODONIN 

HOHENAU 

HOHENEMS 

HOHENZOLLERN 

HOLESOV 

HOMBURG 



HRANICE 

HRUBIESZOW 

HUMENNE 

HUNCOVCE 

HUNGARY 

HUSI 

ILINTSY 

ILYA 

INGWILLER 

INNSBRUCK 

INOWROCLAW 

IOANNINA 

ITALY 

IVANCICE 

IVANOVO 

IVYE 

IZBICA LUBELSKA 

IZMAIL 

IZYASLAV 

JABLONEC NAD NISOU 

JANOW LUBELSKI 

JAROSLAW 

JASLO 

JASSY 

JAUNIJELGAVA 

JEBENHAUSEN 

JEDRZEJOW 

JEKABPILS 

JELGAVA 

JEMNICE 

JEVICKO 

JIHLAVA 

JINDRICHUV HRADEC 

JONAVA 

judenburg 
juelich) 
jurbarkas (Jurburg) 

KADAN 

KAISERSLAUTERN 

KALARASH 

KALININDORF 

KALINKOVICHI 

KALISZ 

KALUSH 

KALUSZYN 

KALVARIJA 

KAMENETS-PODOLSKI 

kamenka-bugskaya (Strumilovskaya) 

KANEV 

KAPOSVAR 

KARASUBAZAR 

KARLSRUHE 

KASEJOVICE 

KASSEL 

KASTORIA 

KATOWICE 

KAUNAS 

KAUSHANY 

KAVALLA 

KAZATIN 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



179 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
3. Holocaust History 

Communities (continued) 

KECSKEMET 

KEDAINIAI 

KELME 

KEMPEN 

KERCH 

KHARKOV 

KHERSON 

KHMELNIK 

KHOROL 

KHOTIN 

KHUST 

KIEL 

KIELCE 

KIEV 

KILIYA 

kirovograd (Kirovo) 

KISHINEV 

KISSINGEN 

KISVARDA 

KITZINGEN 

KLAGENFURT 

klatovy (Klattau) 

KLETSK 

KLINTSY 

KLODAWA 

KOBLENZ 

KOBRIN 

kock (Kotsk) 

KOENIGSBERG 
KOIDANOVO 

kojetin (Kojetein) 

KOLIN 
KOLO 

kolomyya (Kolomea; Kolomyja) 

KOMARNO 
KOMARNO 
KONIN 
KONOTOP 

konskie (Konsk) 

KONSKOWOLA 

KORETS 

KOROSTEN 

KORSUN-SHEVCHENKOVSKI 

KOS 

KOSICE 

KOSOV 

KOSOVA HORA 

KOSZEG 

KOTOVSKOYE 

KOVEL 

kozienice (Kozenitsy) 

KOZLE 
KRASLAVA 
KRASNIK 
KRASNODAR 



KRASNOYE 

KRASNYSTAW 

KREFELD 

KREMENCHUG 

KREMENETS 

KREMS 

KRETINGA 

KREUZNACH 

KRICHEV 

KRIVOI ROG 

KRIVOYE OZERO 

KROMERIZ 

KROSNO 

KROTOSZYN 

KRUSTPILS 

KRYNKI 

KRZEPICE 

kupiskis (Kupiskiai; Kupishki) 

KURSK 

KUTNO 

KUTY 

KYBARTAI 

KYJOV 

lachva (Lachwa) 

LANCUT 

LANDAU 

LANDSHUT 

LARISSA 

LASK 

LATVIA 

LAZNE KYNZVART 

LECZNA 

LECZYCA 

LEGHORN 

LEGNICA 

LEIPZIG 

LELOW 

leovo (Leova) 

LEPEL 

LESHNEV 

LESKO 

LESZNO 

LETICHEV 

LEZAJSK 

LIBEREC 

LIDA 

LIEGE 

LIEPAJA 

LILLE 

LINZ 

LIOZNO 

LIPKANY 

LIPNIK NAD BECVOU 

LIPNO 

LIPOVETS 

lippe (-Detmold) 

LIPTOVSKY MIKULAS 

LITHUANIA 

LITIN 

LITOMERICE 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



LODZ 

lomza (Lomzha; Lomzhe) 
losice (Lositsy) 

LOSTICE 

LOUNY 

LOWICZ 

LUBACZOW 

LUBARTOW 

LUBAVICH 

LUBLIN 

LUBNY 

LUBRANIEC 

LUCENEC 

LUDZA 

LUEBECK 

LUENEBURG 

LUGANSK 

LUGO 

LUGOJ (LugOS) 

LUKOW 

LUNEVILLE 

LUTOMIERSK 

LUTSK 

LUXEMBOURG 

lvov (Lemberg) 

LYADY 

LYAKHOVICHI 

LYCK 

LYONS 

LYUBOML 

MAGDEBURG 

MAINZ 

MAKAROV 

MAKO 

MAKOW MAZOWIECKI 

MANNHEIM 

MANS, LE 

mantua (Mantova) 

MARCULESTI 

marghita (Margit(t)a) 

MARIBOR 
MARIENBAD 
MARIJAMPOLE 
MARSEILLES 

mattersdorf (Mattersburg) 
medzibezh (Medzibozh) 

MEININGEN 

MELITOPOL 

MEMEL 

MEMMINGEN 

MERGENTHEIM 

MERSEBURG 

METZ 

mezhirech (Mezhirichi) 

MICHALOVCE 

MIEDZYRZEC PODLASKI 

MIELEC 

MIHAILENI 

MIKULOV 

MILAN 



MINDEN 



MINSK 



MINSK MAZOWIECKI 

MIR 

MIROSLAV 

MISKOLC 

MLADA BOLESLAV 

mlawa (Mlwa; Mlava) 

MODENA 

MOGILEV 

MOGILEV-PODOLSKI 

MOINESTI 

MOLODECHNO 

MONASTIR 

MONASTYRISKA 

MONTPELLIER 

moravia (Morava) 

MORAVSKE BUDEJOVICE 

MORAVSKY KRUMLOV 

MOSBACH 

MOSTISKA 

MOZYR 

MSTISLAVL 

MUEHLHAUSEN 

MUENSTER 

MUKACHEVO 

MULHOUSE 

MUNICH 

NACHOD 

nadvornaya (Nadworna) 

NAGYKANIZSA 

NANCY 

NANTES 

NAROL 

NASAUD 

NASIELSK 

NASNA 

NAUHEIM 

NEMIROV 

NESVIZH 

NEZHIN 

NICE 

NIEDERSTETTEN 

NIKOLAYEV 

NIS 

NITRA 

NOERDLINGEN 

NORDHAUSEN 

NORWAY 

NOVAYA USHITSA 

NOVE MESTO NAD VAHOM 

NOVE ZAMKY 

NOVGOROD -SEVERSK 

NOVI SAD 

NOVOGRUDOK 

NOVOSELITSA 

NOVOZYBKOV 

NOVY BOHUMIN 

NOVY BYDZOV 

NOVY DVOR 



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181 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
3. Holocaust History 

Communities (continued) 

NOWY DWOR MAZOWIECKI 

NOWY SACZ 

NUREMBERG 

NYIREGYHAZA 

ODESSA 

OETTINGEN 

OFFENBACH 

OFFENBURG 

OLDENBURG 

OLESKO 

OLESNICA 

OLGOPOL 

OLKUSZ 

olomouc (Olmuetz) 

OLYKA 

OPATOW 

OPAVA 

OPOCZNO 

OPOLE LUBELSKIE 

OPPENHEIM 

oradea (Oradea Mare) 

ORDZHONIKIDZE 
OREL 

orgeyev (Orhei) 

ORSHA 

ORSOVA 

OSHMYANY 

osijek (Eszek) 

OSLO 

OSNABRUECK 

OSTRAVA 

ostrog (Ostraha) 

ostroleka (Ostrolenka) 

os trow 1 ec (Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski) 

OSTROW MAZOWIECKA 
OSTRYNA 

oswiecim (Auschwitz) 

OTWOCK 

OVRUCH 

OZERY 

OZORKOW 

PABIANICE 

PADERBORN 

PADUA 

PARS 

PALANGA 

PALATINATE 

panevezys (Panevezhis) 

PAPA, 

PARCZEW 

PARIS 

PARMA 

PASCANI 

PAVLOGRAD 

PAVOLOCH 



PECS 

PEREMYSHLYANY 

PEREYASLAV-KHMELNITSKI 

PERVOMAISK 

PESTSZENTERZSEBET 

PEZINOK 

PFORZHEIM 

PHLORINA 

PIASECZNO 

piatra-neamt (Piatra) 

PIESTANY 
PILSEN 
PINCZOW 
PINSK 

piotrkow (Piotrkow-Trybunalski) 

PIRYATIN 

PISA 

PLOCK 

PLOESTI 

PLONSK 

PLUNGE 

POBEZOVICE NA SUMAVE 

POCHEP 

PODGAITSY 

PODKAMEN 

PODOLIA 

podvolochisk (Podwloczyska) 
pogrebishchenski (Pogrebishche) 
pohorelice (Pohrlitz) 

POLAND 

POLNA 

POLONNOYE 

POLOTSK 

POLTAVA 

POMERANIA 

PORTUGAL 

POZNAN 

PRAGUE 

PRESOV 

PRILUKI 

PROSKUROV 

PROSTEJOV 

PRUZHANY 

PRZEDBORZ 

PRZEMYSL 

PRZEWORSK 

PRZYSUCHA 

PRZYTYK 

PULAWY 

PULTUSK 

radauti (Radautz) 

RADOM 

RADOMSKO 

RADOMYSHL 

radoshkovichi (Radoszkowice) 

RADUN 
RADYMNO 
RADZIWILLOW 
RADZYMIN 

radzyn (Radzyn-Podlaski) 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



RASEINIAI 
RAVENSBURG 

rawicz (Rawitsch) 

REBREANU 
RECHITSA 
RECKLINGHAUSEN 
REGENSBURG 

reghin (Reghinul Saesc) 

REUTLINGEN 
REXINGEN 

rezekne (Rezhitsa) 
rezina (Rezinz) 

RIGA 

RIIEKA 

ROGACHEV 

ROGATIN 

ROKISKIS 

ROMAN 

ROMANIA 

ROME 

ROMNY 

ropczyce (Ropshits) 

ROSHEIM 

ROSTOV 

ROUDNICE NAD LABEM 

ROUEN 

ROVNO 

ROZDOL 

ROZWADOW 

RUSE 

RUSSIA 

RUZHANY 

RYMANOW 

RYPIN 

RYSHKANY 

RZESZOW 

SAARBRUECKEN 

SADAGORA 

SAINT-DENIS 

sakiai (Shakyai, Shakay) 

SALONIKA 

SALONTA 

SALZBURG 

SAMBOR 

SAMOGITIA 

SANDOMIERZ 

SANOK 

SARAJEVO 

SARNY 

SARREGUEMINES 

SASOV 

SATANOV 

SATORALJA UJHELY 

SATU-MARE 

SAVERNE 

SAXONY 

SCHNAITTACH 

SCHWEINFURT 

SEDUVA 

SEESEN 



SEINI 

SEKIRYANY 

SELESTAT 

SERRAI 

SEVASTOPOL 

SHARGOROD 

SHCHEDRIN 

SHEPETOVKA 

SHKLOV 

SHPOLA 

SIAULIAI 

SIBIU 

SIEDLCE 

SIEMIATYCZE 

SIENA 

SIERADZ 

SIERPC 

SIGHET 

SILESIA 

SIMFEROPOL 

SIMLEUL-SILVANIEI 

SIRET 

SKALAT 

SKARZYSKO-KAMIENNA 

SKIDEL 

SKIERNIEWICE 

SKOLE 

skoplje (Skopje) 

SKUODAS 

SKVIRA 

SLAVUTA 

SLONIM 

SLUTSK 

SMELA 

SMOLENSK 

smorgon (Smorgonie) 

SNYATYN 

SOCHACZEW 

SOEST 

SOKAL 

SOKOLKA 

SOKOLOW PODLASKI 

SOMBOR 

SOPRON 

soroki (Soroca) 
sosnowiec (Sosnovets) 

SPAIN 

SPANDAU 

SPEYER 

SPLIT 

SREM 

STAN I SLAV 

STARODUB 

STARO-KONSTANTINOV 

STASZOW 

STEFANESTI 

STENDAL 

STETTIN 

STOLBTSY 

STOLIN 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
3. Holocaust History 

Communities (continued) 

STOPNICA 
STOROZHINETS 
STRASBOURG 
STRAUBING 

stry (Stryj) 

STRYKOW 

STUTTGART 

STYRIA 

SUBCARPATHIAN RUTHENIA 

SUCEAVA 

SULITA 

SULZBACH 

SUWALKI 

SVISLOCH 

SWEDEN 

SWIDNICA 

SWITZERLAND 

SZCZEBRZESZYN 

SZCZERCOW 

SZEGED 

SZEKESFEHERVAR 

SZOLNOK 

SZOMBATHELY 

SZYDLOWIEC 

TABOR 

tachov (Tachau) 

TAGANROG 

TALHEIM 

TALLINN 

TALNOYE 

TARGU-MURES 

TARNOBRZEG 

tarnogrod (Tarnograd) 

TARNOPOL 

TARNOW 

TARTU 

TARUTINO 

TAUBERBISCHOFSHEIM 

TAURAGE 

teleneshty (Telenesti) 
telsiai (Telshi; Telschen) 

TESCHEN 

THIONVILLE 

THURINGIA 

TIMISOARA 

TIRASPOL 

TIRGU-FRUMOS 

TIRGU NEAMT 

tlumach (Tlumacz) 

TOLSTOYE 
TOMASHPOL 
TOMASZOW LUBELSKI 
TOMASZOW MAZOWIECKI 
TOPOLCANY 

torchin (Torczyn) 



TORUN 

TOULOUSE 

TOURS 

TRANSYLVANIA 

TRAVNIK 

trebic (Trebitsch) 
trencin (Trencin) 

TREST 
TRIER 
TRIESTE 

tr ikk ala (Trikala) 

TRIPOLI 

TRNAVA 

TROKI 

TROYES 

TRZCIANKA 

TUCHIN 

TUEBINGEN 

TUKUMS 

TULCHIN 

TUNIS, TUNISIA 

TURDA 

TURIN 

TURKA 

TURNOV 

TYKOCIN 

TYROL 

tysmenitsa (Tysmienica) 

TYSZOWCE 

UDLICE 

UHERSKE HRADISTE 

UHERSKY BROD 

UKMERGE 

ULM 

UMAN 

usov 

USTI NAD LABEM 

UTENA 

UZHGOROD 

VAC 

VAD RASHKOV 

VALEA-LUI-VLAD 

VASILKOV 

VASLUI 

VATRA DORNEI 

VELIZH 

VENICE 

VENTSPILS 

VERCELLI 

VEROIA 

VERONA 

VESZPREM 

VIENNA 

VILKAVISKIS 

VILLINGEN 

VILNA 

VINNITSA 

VIRBALIS 

VISEUL DE SUS 

VISHNEVETS 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



VITEBSK 



VIZHNITSA 



VLADIMIR VOLYNSKI 



VOLHYNIA 



VOLKOVYSK 



VOLOS 



VOLPA 

VORONEZH 

VOTICE 

VOZNESSENK 

VYSOKOYE 

WARENDORF 

WARSAW 

WEGROW 

WEINHEIM 

WESTPHALIA 

WIELICZKA 

WIELUN 

WIENER NEUSTADT 

WIESBADEN 

WISLICA 

WLOCLAWEK 

WLODAWA 

WODZISLAW 

WOLBROM 

WOLFENBUETTEL 

WOLOMIN 

WORMS 

WRONKI 

WUERTTEMBERG 

WUERZBURG 

WUPPERTAL 

WYSZKOW 

WYSZOGROD 

XANTEN 

YALTA 

YAVOROV 

YEDINTSY 

YEFINGAR 

YEVPATORIYA 

YUGOSLAVIA 

ZABLUDOW 

ZABOLOTOV 

ZABRZE 

ZAGARE 

ZAGREB 

ZALESHCHIKI 

zambrow (Zambrov) 

ZAMOSC 

ZAPOROZHE 

ZARASAI 

ZASTAVNA 

ZATEC 

ZAWIERCIE 

ZBARAZH 

ZBOROV 

ZDUNSKA-WOLA 

ZELECHOW 

ZELOW 

zelva (Zelwa) 



ZEMUN 
ZERBST 

zgierz (Zgerzh) 
zguritsa (Zgurita) 

ZHDANOV 

ZHIDACHOV 

ZHITOMIR 

ZHMERINKA 

ZHOLKVA 

ZHURAVNO 

ZILINA 

ZLATOPOL 

ZMIGROD NOWY 

znojmo (Znaim) 

ZOLOCHEV 

ZOLOTONOSHA 

ZRENJANIN 

ZVENIGORODKA 

ZWICKAU 

ZWOLEN 

ZYCHLIN 

ZYRARDOW 



ORGANIZATIONS 

ASSOCIATION OF HOLOCAUST ORGANIZATIONS 
CENTRE DE DOCUMENTATION JUIVE CONTEMPORAINE 
CONFERENCE ON JEWISH MATERIAL CLAIMS 

AGAINST GERMANY 
COUNCIL OF JEWS FROM GERMANY 
FORTUNOFF VIDEO ARCHIVES OF HOLOCAUST 

TESTIMONY 
INTERNATIONAL TRACING SERVICE 
JEWISH SUCCESSOR ORGANIZATIONS 
JUEDISCHER KULTURBUND 

MEMORIAL FOUNDATION FOR JEWISH CULTURE 
MORESHET 

MUSEUM OF JEWISH HERITAGE 
OFFICE OF SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS (oSl) 
REICHSVEREINIGUNG 

REICHSZENTRALE FUER JUEDISCHE AUSWANDERUNG 
SURVIVORS OF THE SHOAH VISUAL HISTORY 

FOUNDATION 
UNION GENERALE DES ISRAELITES DE FRANCE (u.G.I.F.) 
UNITED RESTITUTION ORGANIZATION 
UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM 
UNRRA 

WAR REFUGEE BOARD 
YAD VASHEM 
ZENTRALE STELLE DER LANDESJUSTIZVERWALTUNGEN 



Biographies 

anielewicz, mordecai 
arad, yitzhak 
atlas, jechezkiel 
bak, samuel 
barash, ephraim 
beccari, arrigo 
benoit, pierre-marie 
bielski, tuvia, asael, and zus 
brand, joel jeno 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



185 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



I. HISTORY 

B. MEDIEVAL & MODERN PERIOD 
3. Holocaust History 

Biographies (continued) 

CALMEYER, HANS 

CZERNIAKOW, ADAM 

DICKER-BRANDEIS, FREDERIKE 

DONATI, ANGELO 

DOUWES, ARNOLD 

EDELSTEIN, JACOB 

ELKES, ELHANAN 

FLEISCHMANN, GISI 

FOLEY, FRANCIS 

FRANK, ANNE 

FRANKFURTER, DAVID 

FRY, VARIAN 

GERSTEIN, KURT 

GRAEBE, HERMANN FRIEDRICH 

HAUTVAL, ADELAIDE 

HO FENG-SHAN 

KAPLAN, CHAIM ARON 

KARMEL, ILONA 

KARSKI, JAN 

KASZTNER, REZSO RUDOLF 

KENT, ROMAN 

KLARSFELD, BEATE AUGUSTE 

KLARSFELD, SERGE 

KLEIN, GERDA WEISSMAN 

KOOK, HILLEL 

KORCZAK, JANUSZ 

KORCZAK-MARLA, ROZKA 

KORETZ, ZVI 

KOVNER, ABBA 

K. ZETNICK 

LANTOS, TOM 

LERMAN, MILES 

LEVI, PRIMO 

LICHTENBERG, BERNHARD 

LUBETKIN, ZIVIA 

lutz, carl (Charles) 

MAESTRO, YAAKOV 

MAYER, SALY 

MEED, BENJAMIN 

MEED, VLADKA 

MENDES, ARISTIDES DE SOUZA 

NEVEJEAN, YVONNE 

PAVELIC, ANTE 

PECHERSKY, ALEXANDER 

PLOTNICKA, FRUMKA 

ringelblum, emanuel (Menahem) 

SANDBERG, WILLEM JACOB 

SCHINDLER, OSKAR 

SENDLER, IRENA 

SHAPIRA, KALONYMOUS KALMAN 

SPIEGELMAN, ART 

STAHL, HEINRICH 

STEFAN, METROPOLITAN 

STROCHLITZ, SIGMUND 

SUGIHARA CHIUNE-SEMPO 



TENENBAUM, MORDECAI 
WALLENBERG, RAOUL 
WDOWINSKI, DAVID 
WEICHERT, MICHAEL 
WEISSMANDEL, MICHAEL DOV 
WESTERWEEL, JOHAN 
WIESEL, ELIE 
WIESENTHAL, SIMON 
WITTENBERG, YIZHAK 
ZUCKERMAN, ITZHAK (Antek) 

zuroff, efraim 

Nazis 

barbie, nikolaus ("klaus"), trial of 

bormann, martin 

brunner, alois 

buehler, josef 

demjanjuk, john 

eichmann, adolf otto 

frank, hans michael 

frank, karl hermann 

globocnik, odilo 

gluecks, richard 

goebbels, paul josef 

goering, hermann wilhelm 

heydrich, reinhard tristan 

himmler, heinrich 

hitler, adolf 

hoess, rudolf franz ferdinand 

kaltenbrunner, ernst 

KATZMANN, FRIEDRICH (Fritz) 
LECCA, RADU 
MENGELE, JOSEF 
MUELLER, HEINRICH 
POHL, OSWALD 
RADEMACHER, FRANZ 
RAUTER, HANNS ALBIN 
RIBBENTROP, JOACHIM VON 
ROSENBERG, ALFRED 

sauckel, fritz (Ernst Friedrich Christoph) 

SCHELLENBERG, WALTER 
SEYSS-INQUART, ARTHUR 
STREICHER, JULIUS 
STROOP, JUERGEN (Josef) 
TISO, JOSEF 
TUKA, VOJTECH 
VASEK, ANTON 
WIRTH, CHRISTIAN 
WISLICENY, DIETER 

SCHOLARS 

BAUER, YEHUDA 
BERENBAUM, MICHAEL 
BRAHAM, RANDOLPH L. 
BROWNING, CHRISTOPHER 
DAWIDOWICZ, LUCY 
DVORZETSKY, MARK MEIR 
FRIEDLAENDER, SAUL 
GUTMAN, ISRAEL 
HILBERG, RAUL 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



LANGER, LAWRENCE 
LANZMANN, CLAUDE 
NOVITCH, MIRIAM 
YOUNG, JAMES 



II. RELIGION 



A. JEWISH 

1. JEWISH LAW 
Main Surveys 
halakhah 
mishpat ivri 

General Entries 

abduction 

abortion 

acquisition 

admission 

adoption 

adultery 

AGENCY 

AGUNAH 

APOSTASY 

APOTROPOS 

APPEAL 

ARBITRATION 

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION 

ASMAKHTA 

ASSAULT 

ASSIGNMENT (OF DEBT) 

ATTORNEY 

AUTHORITY, RABBINICAL 

AUTOPSIES AND DISSECTION 

AV BET DIN 

BANISHMENT 

BET DIN AND JUDGES 

BETROTHAL 

BIGAMY AND POLYGAMY 

BLINDNESS 

BLOOD -AVENGER 

BLOODGUILT 

BRIBERY 

BUSINESS ETHICS 

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT 

CAPTIVES, RANSOMING OF 

CASTRATION 

CHASTITY 

CHILD MARRIAGE 

CHILDREN 

CITY OF REFUGE 

CIVIL MARRIAGE 

CLEVES GET 

CODIFICATION OF LAW 

COLLATIO LEGUM MOSAICARUM ET ROMANORUM 

COMPOUNDING OFFENSES 

COMPROMISE 

CONCUBINE 

CONDITIONS 



CONFESSION 

CONFISCATION, EXPROPRIATION, FORFEITURE 

CONFLICT OF LAWS 

CONFLICT OF OPINION 

CONSERVATION 

CONSUMER PROTECTION 

CONTEMPT OF COURT 

CONTRACT 

DAMAGES 

DAYYAN 

DEAF-MUTE 

DETENTION 

DINA DE-MALKHUTA DINA 

DISINTERMENT 

DIVINE PUNISHMENT 

DIVORCE 

DOMICILE 

DOWRY 

ECOLOGY 

EMBRYO 

EVIDENCE 

EXECUTION (CIVIL) 

EXTRADITION 

EXTRAORDINARY REMEDIES 

FINES 

FIRSTBORN 

FLOGGING 

FORGERY 

FRAUD 

GAMBLING 

GENTILE 

GERAMA AND GARME 

GEZERTA 

GIFT 

HAANAKAH 

HAFKAAT SHE ARIM 

HAMEZ, SALE OF 

HASKAMAH 

HASSAGAT GEVUL 

HAZAKAH 

HEFKER 

HEKDESH 

HEREM 

HEREM BET DIN 

HEREM HA-IKKUL 

HEREM HA-YISHUV 

HEREM SETAM 

HOMICIDE 

HUMAN DIGNITY AND FREEDOM 

IMPRISONMENT 

IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT 

INCEST 

INFORMERS 

INSULT 

INTERPRETATION 

JERUSALEM 

JEW 

JEWISH AND ISLAMIC LAW, A COMPARATIVE REVIEW 

KARET 

KETUBBAH 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



187 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 

1. Jewish Law 

General Entries (continued) 

LABOR LAW 

LAW AND MORALITY 

LAW OF RETURN 

LEASE AND HIRE 

LEGAL MAXIMS 

LEGAL PERSON 

LEVIRATE MARRIAGE AND HALIZAH 

LIABILITY 

LIEN 

LIMITATION OF ACTIONS 

LOAN 

LOST PROPERTY 

MAARUFYA 

MAASEH 

MAINTENANCE 

MAJORITY RULE 

MAMRAM 

MAMZER 

MARITIME LAW 

MARRIAGE 

MARRIAGE, PROHIBITED 

MATRIMONIAL PROPERTY 

MAZRANUT 

MEDIATION 

MEDICINE AND THE LAW 

MEHILAH 

MILITARY LAW 

MINHAG 

MISTAKE 

MIXED MARRIAGE, INTERMARRIAGE 

MONEYLENDING 

NOACHIDE LAWS 

NUISANCE 

OATH 

OBLIGATIONS, LAW OF 

ONAAH 

ONES 



OPPRESSION 



PUNISHMENT 

RANSOM 

RAPE 

REBELLIOUS SON 

RIGHTS, HUMAN 

SALE 

SEPARATION OF POWERS 

SERVITUDES 

SEVARAH 

SEXUAL OFFENSES 

SHALISH 

SHETAR 

SHl'BUDA DE-RABBI NATHAN 

SHOMERIM 

SIKARIKON 

SLANDER 

SLAVERY 

SORCERY 

STRANGERS AND GENTILES 

SUCCESSION 

SUICIDE 

SURETYSHIP 

TAKKANOT 

TAKKANOT HA-KAHAL 

TALION 

TAXATION 

TECHNOLOGY AND HALAKHAH 

TEMPLE MOUNT 

THEFT AND ROBBERY 

TORTS 

TRADITION 

TRANSPLANTS 

UNJUST ENRICHMENT 

VALUES OF A JEWISH AND DEMOCRATIC STATE 

VIRGIN, VIRGINITY 

VOWS AND VOWING 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

WIDOW 

WILLS 

WITNESS 

WOMAN 

YEUSH 

YUHASIN 



ORAL LAW 

ORPHAN, ORPHANAGE 

OWNERSHIP 

PARAPET 

PARENT AND CHILD 

PARTNERSHIP 

PENAL LAW 

PERJURY 

PIKKUAH NEFESH 

PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION 

PLEAS 

PLEDGE 

POLICE OFFENSES 

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE 

PROPERTY 

PROSELYTES 

PUBLIC AUTHORITY 



2. JEWISH RITUAL & OBSERVANCE 
Main Surveys 
halakhah 

General Entries 

ablution 
abomination 

ADAR 

ADAR, THE SEVENTH OF 

ADASS JESHURUN, ADASS JISROEL 

ADDIR BI-MELUKHAH 

ADDIR HU 

ADLOYADA 

ADON OLAM 

ADONAI, ADONAI, EL RAHUM VE-HANNUN 

AFIKOMAN 



188 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



AHAVAH RABBAH; AHAVAT OLAM 

AHOT KETANNAH 

AKDAMUT MILLIN 

AL HA-NISSIM 

AL HET 

AL TIKREI 

ALEINU LE-SHABBE AH 

AMARKAL 

AMEN 

AMIDAH 

AMULET 

ANIM ZEMIROT 

ANINUT 

ANNA BE-KHO AH 

ANNA BE-KORENU 

APAM 

ARBA AMMOT 

ARBA KOSOT 

ARK 

ART 

ARVIT 

ASHAMNU 

ASHKAVAH 

ASHREI 

ATTAH EHAD 

ATTAH HORETA LADAAT 

ATTAH ZOKHER 

AUFRUFEN 

AUTHORITY, RABBINICAL 

AV 

AV HA-RAHAMIM 

AV, THE FIFTEENTH OF 

AV, THE NINTH OF 

AVERAH 

AVI AVI 

AVINU MALKENU 

AVINU SHE-BA-SHAMAYIM 

AVODAH 

AZAZEL 

AZERET 

AZHAROT, AZHARAH 

BAKI 

BAKKASHAH 

BA-MEH MADLIKIN 

BAR MITZVAH, BAT MITZVAH 

BAREKHI NAFSHI 

BAREKHU 

BARNACLE GOOSE MYTHS 

BARRENNESS AND FERTILITY 

BARUKH 

BARUKH SHE-AMAR 

BARUKH SHEM KEVOD MALKHUTO LE-OLAM VA-ED 

BARUKH SHE-PETARANI 

BATH, BATHING 

BEARD AND SHAVING 

BEDIKAT HAMEZ 

be-moza'ei MENUHAH 

BENEDICTIONS 
BENSHEN 
BERAH DODI 



BIMAH 

BIRKAT HA-MINIM 

BIRKAT HA-TORAH 

BIRTH 

BIRTH CONTROL 

BIRTHDAY 

BITTUL HA-TAMID 

BLASPHEMY 

BLEMISH 

BLESSING AND CURSING 

BLESSING OF CHILDREN 

BLOOD 

BREASTPLATE 

BRIDEGROOMS OF THE LAW 

BURIAL 

CALENDAR 

CALENDAR REFORM 

CANDLES 

CASTRATION 

CATACOMBS 

CELIBACY 

CEMETERY 

children's SERVICES 

CHOIRS 

CIRCUMCISION 

COFFIN 

COMMANDMENTS, THE 613 

CONFESSION OF SINS 

CREMATION 

DAVID 

DAY AND NIGHT 

DAY OF ATONEMENT 

DAYYEINU 

DEATH 

DESECRATION 

DEW, PRAYER FOR 

DIETARY LAWS 

DISINTERMENT 

DUKHAN 

EGGS 

EGLAH ARUFAH 

EHAD MI YODE A 

EIN KE-ELOHENU 

EL MALE RAHAMIM 

EL MELEKH NE'EMAN 

EL MELEKH YOSHEV 

EL NORA ALILAH 

ELI ZIYYON VE-AREHA 

ELIJAH, CHAIR OF 

ELIJAH, CUP OF 

ELUL 

ERUV 

ESHET HAYIL 

ESTHER, FAST OF 

ETROG 

EVER MIN HA-HAI 

FASTING AND FAST DAYS 

FESTIVALS 

FIRST FRUITS 

FIRZOGERIN 



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II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 

2. Jewish Ritual & Observance 
General Entries (continued) 

FIVE SPECIES 

FLOWERS 

FOOD 

four species 

ge'ullah 

gomel, blessing of 

government, prayer for the 

grace after meals 

grace before meals 

ha lahma anya 

had gadya 

HADRAN 

HAFTARAH 

HAGBAHAH, GELILAH 

HAGGADAH, PASSOVER 

HAKHEL 

HAKHNASAT KALLAH 

HAKKAFOT 

HALAKHAH LE-MOSHE MI-SINAI 

HALAKHIC PERIODICALS 

HALAKHOT GEDOLOT 

HALAKHOT KEZUVOT (Ketubt) 

HALAKHOT PESUKOT 

HALLAH 

HALLEL 

HALLELUJAH 

HA-MAVDIL 

HAMEZ 

HAMEZ, SALE OF 

HANUKKAH 

HAROSET 

HASHKIVENU 

HAVDALAH 

HAZKARAT NESHAMOT 

HEAD, COVERING OF THE 

HEKHSHER 

HESPED 

HILLULA 

HILLULA DE-RABBI SHIMON BAR YOHAI 

HINENI HE-ANI MI-MAAS 

HONEY 

HOSHANA RABBA 

HOSHANOT 

HUKKAT HA-GOI 

HUMRA 

HUSBAND AND WIFE 

HYGIENE 

ISRU HAG 

ISSUR VE-HETTER 

IYYAR 

JERUSALEM 

JUDAISM 

KABBALAT SHABBAT 

KADDISH 

KAPPAROT 



KASHER 

KAVVANAH 

KEDUSHAH 

KERIAH 

KEROVAH 

KEVER AVOT 

KIDDUSH 

KINAH 

KISLEV 

KITEL 

KOL NIDREI 

LAG BA-OMER 

LEAP YEAR 

LEKET, SHIKHHAH, AND PEAH 

LEKHAH DODI 

LEVITES IN THE HALAKHAH 

LIKKUT AZAMOT 

LITURGY 

LOTS 

LULAV 

MAARAVOT 

MAFTIR 

MAH NISHTANNAH 

MAH TOVU 

MAHZOR 

MAHZOR VITRY 

MAIMUNA 

MALKHUYYOT 

MAOZ ZUR 

MARHESHVAN 

MAROR 

MARRIAGE 

MASHGIAH 

MASHIV HA-RUAH 

MATZAH 

MAYIM AHARONIM 

MEAT 

MEGILLAH 

MEHIZAH 

MELAVVEH MALKAH 

MEMORBUCH 

MEMORIAL LIGHT 

MENORAH 

me'ot HITTIM 

MEZUZAH 

MIKVEH 

MILK 

MINHAH 

MINYAN 

MI SHE-BERAKH 

MI-SINAI NIGGUNIM 

MITZVAH 

MIXED SPECIES 

MIZMOR LE-DAVID 

MIZMOR SHIR LE-YOM HA-SHABBAT 

MIZRAH 

MODEH ANI 

MONDAY AND THURSDAY 

MONOGAMY 

MOON, BLESSING OF THE 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



MORNING BENEDICTIONS 



SHABBAT HA-GADOL 



MOURNING 



SHAHARIT 



MUKZEH 
MUSAF 

name, change of 
ne'ilah 
ner tamid 
netilat yadayim 

NEVELAH 

NEW MOON 

NEW MOON, ANNOUNCEMENT OF 

NEW YEAR 

NIDDAH 

NIGHT PRAYER 

NINE DAYS 

NISAN 

NISHMAT KOL HAI 

OMER 

OMNAM KEN 

ORAL LAW 

ORGAN 

PAROKHET AND KAPPORET 

PARVEH 

PASSSOVER 

PASSOVER, SECOND 

PEOT 

PESUKEI DE-ZIMRA 

PETIHAH 

PILGRIM FESTIVALS 

PIYYUT 

PIZMON 

PRAYER 

PRAYER BOOKS 

PRIESTLY BLESSING 

PRIESTS AND PRIESTHOOD 

PSALMS, BOOK OF 

PUBERTY 

PURIM 

PURIM KATAN 

PURIM MESHULASH 

PURIMS, SPECIAL 

PURITY AND IMPURITY, RITUAL 

RAIN, PRAYER FOR 

REBUKE AND REPROOF 

RESHUT 

ROSH HA-SHANAH 

SABBATH 

SABBATHS, SPECIAL 

SABBATICAL YEAR AND JUBILEE 

SACRIFICE 

SACRILEGE 

SANDAK 

SCROLLS, THE FIVE 

SEDER 

SEFER TORAH 

SELIHOT 

se'udah 

se'udah SHELISHIT 

sha'atnez 
shabbat bereshit 



SHALOM ALEIKHEM 

SHAMMASH 

SHAVUOT 

SHEHITAH 

SHELI AH ZIBBUR 

SHELOSHET YEMEI HAGBALAH 

SHELOSHIM 

SHEMA, READING OF 

SHEMONEH ESREH 

SHE VAT 

SHIR HA-MAALOT 

SHIR HA-YIHUD 

SHIVVITI 

SHOFAR 

SHOFAROT 

SHOLEM ZOKHOR 

SHOVAVIM TAT 

SHULHAN ARUKH 

SHULKLAPPER 

SICK, PRAYER FOR 

SIDRAH 

SIMHAT TORAH 

SI VAN 

SONG OF SONGS 

SUKKAH 

SUKKOT 

SUN, BLESSING OF THE 

SYNAGOGUE 

TAHANUN 

TAHARAT HA-MISHPAHAH 

TALLIT 

TALLIT KATAN 

TAMMUZ 

TAMMUZ, FAST OF 

TASHLIKH 

TATTOO 

TECHNOLOGY AND HALAKHAH 

TEFILLIN 

TEHINNAH 

teki 'ata (Tekibt) 

TEN DAYS OF PENITENCE 

TEREFAH 

TERUMOT AND MAASEROT 

TEVET 

THREE WEEKS 

TIKKUN HAZOT 

TISHRI 

TITHE 

TKHINES 

TOHORAH 

TOKHEHAH 

TORAH 

TORAH, READING OF 

TRAVEL, PRAYER FOR 

TRIENNIAL CYCLE 

TU BI-SHEVAT 

TWILIGHT 

U-NETANNEH TOKEF 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 

2. Jewish Ritual & Observance 
General Entries (continued) 

USURY 

VEIL 

WINE 

YAALEH VE-YAVO 

YAD 

YAH RIBBON OLAM 

YAHRZEIT 

YAKNEHAZ 

YAMIM NORA'lM 

YEKUM PURKAN 

YEZIV PITGAM 

YIGDAL 

YISHTABBAH 

YIZKOR 

YOM KIPPUR KATAN 

YOZEROT 

ZEMIROT 

ZIDDUK HA-DIN 

ZIKHRONOT 

ZIZIT 

ZUR MI-SHELO 



3. JEWISH THOUGHT & PHILOSOPHY 
Main Surveys 
philosophy, jewish 

General Entries 

ABRAHAM 

ADAM 

AFTERLIFE 

AKEDAH 

ANGEL OF DEATH 

ANGELS AND ANGELOLOGY 

AN I MAAMIN 

ANIMALS, CRUELTY TO 

ANTHROPOMORPHISM 

ANTINOMIANISM 

APIKOROS 

APOLOGETICS 

ARTICLES OF FAITH 

ASCETICISM 

ASTROLOGY 

ATOMISM 

ATONEMENT 

BEATITUDE 

BELIEF 

BODY AND SOUL 

BUSINESS ETHICS 

CATEGORIES 

CAUSE AND EFFECT 

CHARITY 

CHASTITY 

CHILDREN 

CHIROMANCY 

CHOSEN PEOPLE 



COMMANDMENTS, REASONS FOR 

COMPASSION 

CONSERVATION 

CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM 

COSMOLOGY 

COVETOUSNESS 

CREATION AND COSMOGONY 

DEATH 

DECALOGUE 

DEREKH EREZ 

DOMESTIC PEACE 

DREAMS 

DUALISM 

DUTY 

EMANATION 

EMOTIONS 

ESCHATOLOGY 

ETHICAL CULTURE 

ETHICAL LITERATURE 

ETHICS 

ETIQUETTE 

EUTHANASIA 

EVIL EYE 

EVOLUTION 

EXISTENTIALISM 

FEAR OF GOD 

FORGIVENESS 

FORM AND MATTER 

FREEDOM 

FREE WILL 

FRIENDSHIP 

GALUT 

GEMILUT HASADIM 

GILGUL 

GOD 

GOD, NAMES OF 

GOOD AND EVIL 

HASIDEI ASHKENAZ 

HASIDIM, SEFER 

HATRED 

HEART 

HEMDAT YAMIM 

HERESY 

HERMETIC WRITINGS 

HOMOSEXUALITY 

HONOR 

HOSPITALITY 

HUMILITY 

HUNTING 

HYGIENE 

IMITATION OF GOD 

INCLINATION, GOOD AND EVIL 

INGATHERING OF THE EXILES 

INTELLECT 

JOY 

JUDAISM 

JUSTICE 

KALAM 

KEDUSHAH 

KELAL YISRAEL 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



KENESET YISRAEL 

KIDDUSH HA-SHEM AND HILLUL HA-SHEM 

KING, KINGSHIP 

KISS AND KISSING 

LAMED VAV ZADDIKIM 

LASHON HA-RA 

LESBIANISM 

LIFE AND DEATH 

LOGIC 

LOGOS 

LOVE 

MAIMONIDEAN CONTROVERSY 

MAN, THE NATURE OF 

MARRIAGE 

MERCY 

MESSIAH 

METAPHYSICS 

METATRON 

MICROCOSM 

MIRACLE 

MONOTHEISM 

MOSES 

MUSAR MOVEMENT 

NATURE 

neology (Neologism) 

NEO -ORTHODOXY 

NEOPLATONISM 

NESHAMAH YETERAH 

OLAM HA-BA 

ONANISM 

ORTHODOXY 

PARADISE 

PARENTS, HONOR OF 

PEACE 

PIETY AND THE PIOUS 

PLATO AND PLATONISM 

PRAYER 

PRESENCE, DIVINE 

PROPHETS AND PROPHECY 

PROSELYTES 

PROVIDENCE 

RAINBOW 

REDEMPTION 

REMNANT OF ISRAEL 

REPENTANCE 

RESURRECTION 

REVELATION 

REWARD AND PUNISHMENT 

RIGHTEOUSNESS 

RU AH HA-KODESH 

SABBATH 

SATAN 

SEX 

SHEKHINAH 

SICK, VISITING THE 

SIN 

SKEPTICS AND SKEPTICISM 

SON OF MAN 

SOUL 

SOUL, IMMORTALITY OF 



SPACE AND PLACE 

STOICISM 

SUBSTANCE AND ACCIDENT 

SUFFERING 

THEOCRACY 

THEOLOGY 

THRONE OF GOD 

TIME AND ETERNITY 

TORAH 

TRUTH 

VENGEANCE 

VISIONS 

WISSENSCHAFT DES JUDENTUMS 

WORD 

ZEDAKAH 

ZEKHUT AVOT 

ZODIAC 



Biographies 

abba mari astruc ben moses ben joseph of 

LUNEL 
ABBAS, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL IBN 
ABRABANEL, ISAAC BEN JUDAH 
ABRABANEL, JUDAH 
ABRAHAM BAR HIYYA 
ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH LEON 
ABRAHAM BEN MOSES BEN MAIMON 
ABULRABI, AARON 

AKNIN, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH BEN JACOB IBN 
ALAMI, SOLOMON 
ALBALAG, ISAAC 
ALBO, JOSEPH 

ALCONSTANTINI, ENOCH BEN SOLOMON 
ALCORSONO, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH 
ARAMA, ISAAC BEN MOSES 
ARISTOTLE 
ARUNDI, ISAAC (Ibn) 
ASCHER, SAUL 

ASHKENAZI, SAUL BEN MOSES HA-KOHEN 
ATLAS, SAMUEL 
BAECK, LEO 
BAHYA (Pseudo) 

BAHYA BEN JOSEPH IBN PAQUDA 
BERKOVITS, ELIEZER 
BIBAGO, ABRAHAM BEN SHEM TOV 
BONAFOS, MENAHEM BEN ABRAHAM 
BOROWITZ, EUGENE 
BREUER, ISAAC 
BUBER, MARTIN 
CRESCAS, HASDAI 

DELMEDIGO, ELIJAH BEN MOSES ABBA 
DELMEDIGO, JOSEPH SOLOMON 
DONNOLO, SHABBETAI 
DURAN, PROFIAT (Profayt) 
DURAN, SIMEON BEN ZEMAH (Rashbaz) 
FACKENHEIM, EMIL LUDWIG 
FALAQUERA, SHEM TOV BEN JOSEPH 
FORMSTECHER, SOLOMON 
GABIROL, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH, IBN 
GEIGER, ABRAHAM 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 

3. Jewish Thought & Philosophy 
Biographies (continued) 

GHAZALI, ABU HAMID MUHAMMAD IBN MUHAMMAD 

AL-TUSI AL- 
GOLDBERG, OSCAR 
GOLDMAN, ELIEZER 
GUTTMANN, JULIUS 
HABILLO, ELIJAH BEN JOSEPH 
HARTMAN, DAVID 
HESCHEL, ABRAHAM JOSHUA 

hillel ben samuel (of Verona) 

HIRSCH, SAMSON (Ben) RAPHAEL 

HIRSCH, SAMUEL 

HIWI AL-BALKHI 

HOLDHEIM, SAMUEL 

IBN DAUD, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID HALEVI 

IBN EZRA, ABRAHAM 

IBN EZRA, MOSES BEN JACOB 

IBN KAMMUNA, Sa'd IBN MANSUR 

IBN SHEM TOV, ISAAC BEN SHEM TOV 

IBN SHEM TOV, JOSEPH BEN SHEM TOV 

IBN SHEM TOV, SHEM TOV BEN JOSEPH BEN SHEM 

TOV 
IMAGINATION 

ISRAELI, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON 
JABES, EDMOND 
JAGEL, ABRAHAM 

JEDAIAH BEN ABRAHAM BEDERSI (ha-Penini) 
JUDAH BEN ELEAZAR 
JUDAH HALEVI 

judah loew ben bezalel (Maharal) 

KAPLAN, MORDECAI MENAHEM 

KASPI, JOSEPH BEN ABBA MARI IBN 

KATZ, JOSEPH BEN ELIJAH 

KELLERMANN, BENZION 

KOOK, ABRAHAM ISAAC 

LEIBOWITZ, YESHAYAHU 

LEON, MESSER DAVID BEN JUDAH 

LEVI BEN ABRAHAM BEN HAYYIM 

LEVI BEN GERSHOM (Ralbag) 

LEVINAS, EMMANUEL 

LUZZATTO, SAMUEL DAVID 

LYOTARD, JEAN FRANCOIS 

MAIMONIDES, MOSES 

MALKAH, JUDAH BEN NISSIM IBN 

MANN, ABRAHAM AARON OF POSNAN 

MATKAH, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON HA-KOHEN 

MENDELSSOHN, MOSES 

MOSES BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI 

MOSES BEN JOSHUA OF NARBONNE 

MOSES BEN JUDAH NOGA 

MUKAMMIS, DAVID IBN MARWAN AL-RAQI AL- 

SHIRAZI AL- 
NAGARI, MOSES BEN JUDAH 
NISSIM BEN MOSES OF MARSEILLES 
PHILO JUDAEUS 
POLLEGAR, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH IBN 



RAWIDOWICZ, SIMON 
ROSENSTOCK-HUESSY, EUGEN 
ROSENZWEIG, FRANZ 

ROSSI, AZARIAH (Bonaiuto) BEN MOSES DEI 
ROTENSTREICH, NATHAN 

saadiah (Ben Joseph) gaon 
schechter, solomon (Shneur Zalman) 

SCHWARZSCHILD, STEVEN SAMUEL 

SCHWEID, ELIEZER 

SHALOM, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC BEN JUDAH BEN 

SAMUEL 
SHEMARIAH BEN ELIJAH BEN JACOB 
SIMON, AKIBA ERNST 
SOLOMON BEN JUDAH OF LUNEL 
SPINOZA, BARUCH DE 
STEINHEIM, SALOMON LUDWIG 
WOLFSON, HARRY AUSTRYN 
ZADDIK, JOSEPH BEN JACOB IBN 
ZAMOSC, ISRAEL BEN MOSES HALEVI 
ZARZA, SAMUEL IBN SENEH 
ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC BEN SHEALTIEL (GRACIAN) 

4. RABBINICS 

GENERAL ENTRIES 

ACADEMY ON HIGH 

AHARONIM 

BAALEI TESHUVAH 

BET (Ha-) MIDRASH 

CHIEF RABBI, CHIEF RABBINATE 

CLEVES GET 

CODIFICATION OF LAW 

DARSHAN 

DERASH 

DIVINATION 

EZ HAYYIM 

GAON 

GEMATRIA 

HAGGAHOT 

HAKHAM 

HAKHAM BASHI 

HALAKHAH 

HALAKHIC PERIODICALS 

HASIDEI UMMOT HA-OLAM 

HASIDIM 

HAVER, HAVERIM 

HEDER 

HERMENEUTICS 

KOLEL 

LANDESRABBINERSCHULE 

LANDRABBINER 

ma'amad (Mahamad) 

MAGGID 
MITNAGGEDIM 

neology (Neologism) 

NEO- ORTHODOXY 
NETUREI KARTA 
ORAL LAW 



PARDES 



PILPUL 



POSEKIM 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



PREACHING 

RABBANITES 

RABBI, RABBINATE 

RABBINER-SEMINAR FUER DAS ORTHODOXE 

JUDENTUM 
RABBINICAL ALLIANCE OF AMERICA 
RABBINICAL ASSEMBLY 
RABBINICAL CONFERENCES 
RABBINICAL COUNCIL OF AMERICA 
RABBINICAL SEMINARIES 
RABBINICAL TRAINING, AMERICAN 
REBBETZIN 
RISHON LE-ZION 
RISHONIM 
SAVORA, SAVORAIM 
SCRIBE 
SEMIKHAH 
SIYYUM 

SLOBODKA YESHIVAH 
SOFERIM 
STUDY 
SYNODS 

TALMID HAKHAM 
YESHIVOT 
YOKE 
ZADDIK 



Rabbinic Literature 

chapbooks 
ecclesiastes rabbah 
ethical literature 
genesis rabbati 
geonic literature 
haggahot maimuniyyot 
ha-hinnukh 
hakdamah 
halakhot gedolot 

HALAKHOT KEZUVOT (Ketubt) 

HALAKHOT PESUKOT 

HA-PARNAS, SEFER 

HASSAGOT 

HEBREW BOOK TITLES 

HEMDAT YAMIM 

HIDDUSHIM 

HOMILETIC LITERATURE 

KOL BO 

KUNTERES 

LAAZ 

ME-AM LO'EZ 

MIDRASH ASERET HA-DIBBEROT 

MIDRASH HA-GADOL 

MIDRASH LEKAH TOV 

MIDRASH PROVERBS 

midrash samuel (Shemuel) 

MIDRASH TEHILLIM 
MIDRASH VA-YISSAU 
MIDRASHIM, SMALLER 
MIDRESHEI AGGADAH 
MINHAGIM BOOKS 
MISHNAT HA-MIDDOT 



MIVHAR HA-PENINIM 

NUMBERS RABBAH 

ORHOT HAYYIM 

ORHOT ZADDIKIM 

PERI-EZ-HAYYIM 

PESIKTA RABBATI 

PIRKEI DE-RABBI ELIEZER 

POLEMICS AND POLEMICAL LITERATURE 

RABBINICAL LITERATURE 

RESPONSA 

SEFER HA-MAASIM LI-VENEI EREZ YISRAEL 

SEFER HA-NEYAR 

SEFER HA-YASHAR 

SHAAREI SHEVUOT 

SUPERCOMMENTARIES ON THE PENTATEUCH 

TANNA DE-VEI ELIYAHU 

TARGUM SHENI 

TOHOROT HA-KODESH 

TOLEDOT YESHU 

TOSAFOT 

YALKUT (ha-) MAKHIRI 

YALKUT SHIMONI 

ZERUBBABEL, BOOK OF 



Biographies 

Geonim 

AARON BEN JOSEPH HA-KOHEN SARGADO 

ABBA 

ABIATHAR BEN ELIJAH HA-KOHEN 

ABRAHAM BEN N... HA-BAGHDADI 

ABRAHAM BEN NATHAN 

ABRAHAM GAON 

AHA OF SHABHA 

ALBARADANI, JOSEPH 

AL-BAZAK, MAZLIAH BEN ELIJAH IBN 

ALI BEN ZECHARIAH 

amram ben sheshna (Amram Gaon) 

AZARIAH BEN SOLOMON 

BEN ALAN, JOSHUA 

DANIEL BEN AZARIAH 

DANIEL BEN ELEAZAR BEN NETHANEL HIBAT 

ALLAH 
DAVID BEN DANIEL 
DAVID BEN JUDAH 
DAVID BEN ZAKKAI 
DOSA BEN SAADIAH 
DUNASH IBN TAMIM 
ELHANAN BEN HUSHIEL 
ELHANAN BEN SHEMARIAH 
ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON HA-KOHEN 
EPHRAIM BEN SHEMARIAH 
HAI BAR RAV DAVID GAON 
HAI BEN NAHSHON 
HAI BEN SHERIRA 
HANANEL BEN HUSHIEL 

hanina (Ahonai) kahana ben huna 

HEFEZ BEN YAZLIAH 
HEZEKIAH BEN DAVID 

hushiel ben elhanan (of Kairouan) 

IBN ABITUR, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 
4. Rabbinics 
Biographies 

Geonim (continued) 

ISAAC 



ISRAEL BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN 
JACOB BEN DUNASH BEN AKIVA 
JACOB HA-KOHEN BAR MORDECAI 
JOSEPH BAR ABBA 
JOSEPH BAR HIYYA 
JOSEPH BEN JACOB BAR SATIA 
JOSIAH BEN AARON HE-HAVER 
JUDAH BEN JOSEPH OF KAIROUAN 

kohen-zedek bar ivomai (bar lkhumai) 

KOHEN ZEDEK OF PUMBEDITA (bar Joseph) 

MOSES KAHANA BEN JACOB 

MUBASHSHIR BEN NISSI HA-LEVI 

MUBASHSHIR BEN RAV KIMOI HA-KOHEN 

NAHSHON BAR ZADOK 

NATHAN BEN ABRAHAM I 

NATHAN BEN ABRAHAM II 

NATRONAI BAR NEHEMIAH 

NEHEMIAH BAR KOHEN ZEDEK 

NETHANEL BEN MOSES HA-LEVI 

NISSI BEN BERECHIAH AL-NAHRAWANI 

NISSIM BEN JACOB BEN NISSIM IBN SHAHIN 

PALTOI BAR ABBAYE 

PIRKOI BEN BABOI 

RABBAH 

saadiah (Ben Joseph) gaon 

SAMUEL BEN ALI 

SAMUEL BEN DANIEL ABU RABIJA. HA-KOHEN 

SAMUEL BEN HOPHNI 

SAR SHALOM BEN BOAZ 

SAR SHALOM BEN MOSES HALEVI 

SHEMARIAH BEN ELHANAN 

SHERIRA BEN HANINA GAON 

SIMEON BAR ISAAC 

SIMONA 

SOLOMON BEN JUDAH 

yehudai ben nahman (Yehudai Gaon) 

ZADOK (ISAAC) BAR MAR YISHI (ASHl) 
ZEMAH BEN HAYYIM 
ZEMAH BEN PALTOI 
ZEMAH ZEDEK BEN ISAAC 



Rishonim 

AARON BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL 

AARON BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI 

AARON BEN MESHULLAM OF LUNEL 

AARON OF NEUSTADT 

ABBA MARI BEN ELIGDOR 

ABBAS, MOSES BEN SAMUEL 

ABENAFIA, JOSEPH 

ABOAB, ISAAC I 

ABOAB, ISAAC II 

ABRAHAM BEN AZRIEL 

ABRAHAM BEN DAVID MAIMUNI 



ABRAHAM BEN DAVID OF POSQUIERES (Rabad) 

ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC OF MONTPELLIER 

ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC OF NARBONNE 

ABRAHAM BEN MAZHIR 

ABRAHAM BEN NATHAN HA-YARHI ("of Lunel") 

ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL HE-HASID (of Speyer) 

ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL OF DREUX 

ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON 

ABUDARHAM 

ABUDARHAM, DAVID BEN JOSEPH 

ABULAFIA, MEIR 

ABZARDIEL, MOSES 

ADANI, DAVID BEN AMRAM 

ADANI, DAVID BEN YESHA HA-LEVI 

adani, saadiah ben david (Sa'id ibn Daud) 

ADONIM BEN NISAN HA-LEVI 

ADRET, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM (Rashba) 

AGHMATI, ZECHARIAH BEN JUDAH 

AHITUB BEN ISAAC 

ALAMANI, AARON HE-HAVER BEN YESHUAH 

ALBALIA, BARUCH BEN ISAAC 

ALBALIA, ISAAC BEN BARUCH 

AL-BARGELONI, ISAAC BEN REUBEN 

ALDUBI, ABRAHAM BEN MOSES BEN ISMAIL 

ALEXANDER SUSLIN HA-KOHEN OF FRANKFURT 

ALFASI, ISAAC BEN JACOB (Rif) 

alguades (Alguadez), MEIR 

ALI BEN AMRAM 

AL-MADARI, JUDAH HA-KOHEN BEN ELEAZAR HE 

HASID 
AL-NAKAWA, ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH 
AMRAM OF MAINZ 
ANAN BEN MARINUS HA-KOHEN 
ANATOLI, JACOB BEN ABBA MARI BEN SAMSON 
ANATOLI BEN JOSEPH 
ANAU 

ANAV, BENJAMIN BEN ABRAHAM 
ANAV, JEHIEL BEN JEKUTHIEL BEN BENJAMIN HA- 

ROFE 
ANAV, JUDAH BEN BENJAMIN HA-ROFE 
ANAV, ZEDEKIAH BEN ABRAHAM 
ASHER BEN JEHIEL (Rosh) 

ASHER BEN MESHULAM HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL 
ASHER BEN SAUL 
ASHKENAZI, DAN 
ASTRUC HA-LEVI 

AVIGDOR BEN ELIJAH HA-KOHEN 
BAHYA BEN ASHER BEN HLAVA 
BAMBERG, SAMUEL BEN BARUCH 
BARUCH BEN ISAAC OF ALEPPO 
BARUCH BEN ISAAC OF REGENSBURG 
BARUCH BEN ISAAC OF WORMS 
BARUCH BEN SAMUEL OF ALEPPO 
BARUCH BEN SAMUEL OF MAINZ 
BEKHOR SHOR, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC 
BEN MEIR, AARON 

BENJAMIN BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI 
BONAFED, DAVID BEN REUBEN 
BONAVOGLIA, MOSES DE MEDICI 
BONDAVIN, BONJUDAS (BonjUSas) 



1^6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



BONFILS, JOSEPH BEN SAMUEL 

BRUNA, ISRAEL BEN HAYYIM 

CANPANTON, ISAAC BEN JACOB 

CANPANTON, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON 

CRESCAS, ASHER (Bonan) BEN ABRAHAM 

DANIEL BEN JEHIEL OF ROME 

DANIEL BEN SAADIAH HA-BAVLI 

DANIEL BEN SAMUEL IBN ABI RABI HA-KOHEN 

DAVID BEN ABRAHAM MAIMUNI 

DAVID BEN DANIEL 

DAVID BEN HEZEKIAH 

DAVID BEN JOSHUA MAIMUNI 

DAVID BEN LEVI OF NARBONNE 

DAVID BEN SAADIAH 

DAVID BEN SAMUEL 

DAVID BEN SAUL 

DAVID BEN ZAKKAI II 

DAVID IBN HAJJAR 

DHAMARI, MANSUR SULEIMAN 

DHAMARI, SAID BEN DAVID 

DUEREN, ISAAC BEN MEIR 

DURAN, SIMEON BEN ZEMAH (Rashbaz) 

DURAN, SOLOMON BEN SIMEON 

DURAN, ZEMAH BEN SOLOMON 

ELEAZAR BEN JUDAH OF WORMS 

ELEAZAR BEN MOSES HA-DARSHAN OF WUERZBURG 

ELHANAN BEN ISAAC OF DAMPIERRE 

ELHANAN BEN YAKAR 

ELIEZER BEN ISAAC OF WORMS 

ELIEZER BEN JOEL HA-LEVI OF BONN 

ELIEZER BEN NATHAN OF MAINZ 

ELIEZER BEN SAMUEL OF METZ 

ELIEZER BEN SAMUEL OF VERONA 

ELIEZER OF BEAUGENCY 

ELIEZER OF TOUL 

ELIEZER OF TOUQUES 

ELIJAH BEN JUDAH OF PARIS 

ELIJAH MENAHEM BEN MOSES 

ELIJAH OF LA MASSA 

EPHRAIM BEN ISAAC (of Regensburg) 

EPHRAIM BEN JACOB OF BONN 

EPHRAIM IBN AVI ALRAGAN 

EZRA BEN ABRAHAM BEN MAZHIR 

EZRA OF MONTCONTOUR 

GABBAI, MOSES BEN SHEM-TOV 

GAGIN, HAYYIM 

GALIPAPA, HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM 

GATIGNO 

GERONDI, MOSES BEN SOLOMON DESCOLA 

GERONDI, SAMUEL BEN MESHULLAM 

GERONDI, ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI 

GERSHOM BEN JUDAH MEOR HA-GOLAH 

GERSHOM BEN SOLOMON 

GERSHON BEN SOLOMON OF ARLES 

GRACIAN, SHEALTIEL BEN SOLOMON 

HABIBA, JOSEPH 

HANANEL BEN SAMUEL 

HANOKH BEN MOSES 

HAYYIM BEN HANANEL HA-KOHEN 

hayyim (Eliezer) ben isaac "or zarua" 



HAYYIM BEN JEHIEL HEFEZ ZAHAV 

HAYYIM BEN SAMUEL BEN DAVID OF TUDELA 

HAYYIM PALTIEL BEN JACOB ("Tola'at") 

HEZEKIAH BEN JACOB 

HEZEKIAH BEN MANOAH 

HILLEL BEN ELIAKIM 

HILLEL OF ERFURT 

IBN BALAM, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL 

IBN EZRA, ABRAHAM 

IBN GAON, SHEM TOV BEN ABRAHAM 

IBN GHAYYAT 

IBN MIGASH, JOSEPH BEN MEIR HA-LEVI 

IBN PLAT, JOSEPH 

IBN SHUAIB, JOSHUA 

ISAAC BAR DORBELO 

ISAAC BAR ISRAEL IBN AL-SHUWAYK 

ISAAC BEN ABBA MARI OF MARSEILLES 

ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM 

ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM OF NARBONNE 

ISAAC BEN ASHER HA-LEVI 

ISAAC BEN ELIEZER 

ISAAC BEN JACOB HA-LAVAN OF PRAGUE 

ISAAC BEN JOSEPH OF CORBEIL (Semak) 

ISAAC BEN JUDAH OF MAINZ 

isaac ben meir (Ribam) 

ISAAC BEN MELCHIZEDEK OF SIPONTO 
ISAAC BEN MENAHEM THE GREAT 
ISAAC BEN MERWAN HA-LEVI 

isaac ben mordecai (Ribam) 

ISAAC BEN MOSES OF VIENNA 

ISAAC BEN SAMUEL OF DAMPIERRE 

ISAAC BEN SHESHET PERFET (Ribash) 

ISAAC BEN TODROS OF BARCELONA 

ISAAC FROM OURVILLE 

ISAAC OF CHERNIGOV 

ISAAC OF EVREUX 

ISAIAH BEN ELIJAH DI TRANI 

ISAIAH BEN MALI DI TRANI 

ISRAEL BEN JOEL (SuSSlin) 

ISRAELI, ISRAEL 

ISRAEL OF BAMBERG 

ISRAEL OF KREMS 

ISSERLEIN, ISRAEL BEN PETHAHIAH 

JACOB BEN ASHER 

JACOB BEN MOSES OF BAGNOLS 

JACOB BEN NETHANEL BEN (AL-) FAYYUMI 

JACOB BEN SAMSON 

JACOB BEN YAKAR 

JACOB OF CORBEIL 

JACOB OF MARVEGE 

JACOB OF ORLEANS 

JACOB OF PONT-SAINTE-MAXENCE 

JACOB OF VIENNA 

JAMA, SAMUEL 

JEHIEL BEN JOSEPH OF PARIS 

JEROHAM BEN MESHULLAM 

JESSE BEN HEZEKIAH 

JOEL BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI 

JONAH BEN ABRAHAM GERONDI 

JONATHAN BEN DAVID HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL 



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197 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 
4. Rabbinics 
Biographies 

Rishonim (continued) 



JOSEPH BEN BARUCH OF CLISSON 

JOSEPH BEN JUSTU OF JAEN 

JOSEPH BEN MOSES OF TROYES 

JOSEPH HAZZAN BEN JUDAH OF TROYES 

JOSEPH ROSH HA-SEDER 

JOSHUA BEN ABRAHAM MAIMUNI 

JUDAH BEN ASHER 

JUDAH BEN BARZILLAI AL-BARGELONI 

judah ben isaac (Sir Leon of Paris) 

JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS BEN MEIR 

JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS BEN MOSES OF MAINZ 

JUDAH BEN MOSES HA-DARSHAN 

JUDAH BEN NATHAN 

JUDAH BEN SAMUEL HE-HASID 

KALONYMUS 

KIMHI, DAVID 

KIMHI, JOSEPH 

KIMHI, MORDECAI 

KIMHI, MOSES 

KIRIMI, ABRAHAM 

KOKHAVI, DAVID BEN SAMUEL 

LATTES, ISAAC BEN JACOB 

LATTES, JUDAH 

LEVI BEN GERSHOM (Ralbag) 

MACHIR BEN JUDAH 

MAIMON BEN JOSEPH 

MAIMONIDES, MOSES 

MANOAH OF NARBONNE 

MATTATHIAS HA-YIZHARI 

MAZLIAH BEN SOLOMON HA-KOHEN 

MEIR BEN BARUCH HA-LEVI 

MEIR BEN BARUCH OF ROTHENBURG (Maharam) 

MEIR BEN ISAAC OF TRINQUETAILLE 

MEIR BEN ISAAC SHELIAH ZIBBUR 

MEIR BEN SAMUEL OF RAMERUPT 

MEIR BEN SIMEON HA-MEILI 

MEIRI, MENAHEM BEN SOLOMON 

MENAHEM BEN AARON IBN ZERAH 

MENAHEM BEN HELBO 

MENAHEM BEN JACOB 

MENAHEM BEN SOLOMON 

MENAHEM OF MERSEBURG 

MESHULLAM BEN JACOB OF LUNEL 

MESHULLAM BEN KALONYMUS 

MESHULLAM BEN MOSES 

MESHULLAM BEN NATHAN OF MELUN 

MORDECAI BEN HILLEL HA-KOHEN 

MOSES BEN ABRAHAM OF PONTOISE 

MOSES BEN JACOB OF COUCY 

MOSES BEN JOSEPH BEN MERWAN LEVI 

MOSES BEN YOM-TOV 

MOSES HA-DARSHAN 

MOSES HA-KOHEN OF TORDESILLAS 

MOSES OF EVREUX 



MOSES OF KIEV 

MOSES OF PAVIA 

MOSKONI, JUDAH LEON BEN MOSES 

MUELHAUSEN, YOM TOV LIPMANN 

NAHMANIDES 

NAHMIAS, JOSEPH BEN JOSEPH 

NAJAR 

NATHAN BEN JEHIEL OF ROME 

NATRONAI BAR HILAI 

NETHANEL BEN AL-FAYYUMI 

NETHANEL BEN ISAIAH 

NETHANEL OF CHINON 

NISSIM BEN REUBEN GERONDI 

OFFICIAL, NATHAN BEN JOSEPH AND JOSEPH 

PERAHYAH BEN NISSIM 

PEREZ BEN ELIJAH OF CORBEIL 

PETTER BEN JOSEPH 

rashi (Solomon ben Isaac) 

REUBEN BEN HAYYIM 

SAMSON BEN ABRAHAM OF SENS 

SAMSON BEN ELIEZER 

SAMSON BEN ISAAC OF CHINON 

SAMSON BEN JOSEPH OF FALAISE 

SAMSON BEN SAMSON OF COUCY 

SAMUEL BEN DAVID 

SAMUEL BEN KALONYMUS HE-HASID OF SPEYER 

samuel ben meir (Rashbam) 

SAMUEL BEN NATRONAI 

SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON OF FALAISE 

SAMUEL OF EVREUX 

SARDI, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC 

SCHLETTSTADT, SAMUEL BEN AARON 

SHALOM BEN YIZHAK OF NEUSTADT 

SHEMAIAH OF TROYES 

SHIMON, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH IBN 

SIKILI, JACOB BEN HANANEL 

SIMEON BEN SAMUEL OF JOINVILLE 

SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM OF MONTPELLIER 

SOLOMON BEN ELIJAH HA-KOHEN 

SOLOMON BEN JUDAH "OF DREUX" 

SOLOMON BEN MEIR 

SOLOMON BEN SAMSON 

SOLOMON BEN SAMUEL 

TAKU, MOSES BEN HISDAI 

TAM, JACOB BEN MEIR 

TAMAKH, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI 

TANHUM BEN JOSEPH HA-YERUSH ALMI 

TREVES, JOHANAN BEN MATTATHIAS 

tyrnau, isaac (Tyrna) 

VIDAL, CRESCAS 

VIDAL YOM TOV OF TOLOSA 

WEIL, JACOB BEN JUDAH 

YOM TOV BEN ABRAHAM ISHBILI (Ritba) 

ZECHARIAH BEN BARACHEL 

ZECHARIAH BEN SOLOMON-ROFE 

ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI 



Aharonim 

AARON BEN DAVID COHEN OF RAGUSA 
AARON BEN ISAAC BENJAMIN WOLF 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



AARON BEN MEIR BRISKER 



AARON BEN SAMUEL 



AARON SAMUEL BEN MOSES SHALOM OF KREMENETS 

AARON SAMUEL BEN NAPHTALI HERZ HA-KOHEN 

AARONSOHN, MOSES 

ABBAS, MOSES JUDAH BEN MEIR 

ABENDANAN 

ABENSUR, JACOB 

ABIOB, AARON 

ABITBOL 

ABOAB, JACOB BEN SAMUEL 

ABOAB, SAMUEL BEN ABRAHAM 

ABOAB DA FONSECA, ISAAC 

ABRAHAM ABELE BEN ABRAHAM SOLOMON 

ABRAHAM ABUSCH (LiSSa) BEN ZEVI HIRSCH 

ABRAHAM BEN AVIGDOR 

ABRAHAM BEN BENJAMIN ZEEV BRISKER 

ABRAHAM BEN DANIEL 

ABRAHAM BEN ELIJAH OF VILNA 

ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC HA-KOHEN OF ZAMOSC 

ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI HA-LEVI 

ABRAHAM BEN MOSES HA-KOHEN HA-SEPHARDI 

ABRAHAM HAYYIM BEN GEDALIAH 

ABRAHAMS 

ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL 

ABRAHAM ZEVI BEN ELEAZAR 

ABRAMOWITZ, DOV BAER 

ABRAMSKY, YEHEZKEL 

ABRAMSON, SHRAGA 

ABSABAN, SOLOMON 

ABTERODE, DAVID BEN MOSES ELIAKIM 

ABUKARA, ABRAHAM BEN MOSES 

ABULAFIA, HAYYIM BEN DAVID 

ABULAFIA, HAYYIM BEN JACOB (I) 

ABULAFIA, HAYYIM BEN JACOB (II) 

ABULAFIA, HAYYIM NISSIM BEN ISAAC 

ABULAFIA, ISAAC 

ABULAFIA, ISAAC BEN MOSES 

ABULAFIA, JACOB BEN SOLOMON 

ABULKER 

ABYAD, YIHYA BEN SHALOM 

acosta, isaac (Yshak) 

ADAMS, THEODORE 

ADARBI, ISAAC BEN SAMUEL 

ADENI, SOLOMON BAR JOSHUA 

ADLER, HERMANN 

ADLER, JOSEPH 

ADLER, NATHAN BEN SIMEON HA-KOHEN 

ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS 

ADLER, SHALOM BEN MENAHEM 

ADRET, MOSES IBN 

AGUILAR, MOSES RAPHAEL D 

AKLAR, MORDECAI BEN RAPHAEL 

AKRISH, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM 

ALASHKAR, JOSEPH BEN MOSES 

ALASHKAR, MOSES BEN ISAAC 

ALBA, JACOB DI 

ALBECK 

ALBELDA, MOSES BEN JACOB 

ALBUM, ZVI SHIMON 



ALCALAY, ISAAC 

ALEGRE, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON 

ALFALAS, MOSES 

alfandari (Alfanderi) 

ALFANDARI, AARON BEN MOSES 

ALFANDARI, JACOB 

ALFANDARI, SOLOMON ELIEZER BEN JACOB 

ALFASI 

ALGAZI 

ALGAZI (NiSSim), SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM 

ALGAZI, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM 

ALHAYK, UZZIEL BEN MORDECAI 

ALKALAI, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL 

ALKALAI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON HAI 

ALMOSNINO, MOSES BEN BARUCH 

ALPERSTEIN, AVRAHAM 

ALSHEIKH, RAPHAEL BEN SHALOM 

ALSHEIKH, SHALOM BEN JOSEPH 

ALSHEKH, MOSES 

ALTMANN, ADOLF 

altschul (-er; Perles) 

ALTSCHULER, DAVID 

AMARILLO, HAYYIM MOSES BEN SOLOMON 

AMARILLO, SOLOMON BEN JOSEPH 

AMIEL, MOSHE AVIGDOR 

AMIGO, ABRAHAM 

AMRAM, NATHAN BEN HAYYIM 

ANASCHEHON 

ANAU 

ANAU, PHINEHAS HAI BEN MENAHEM 

ANGEL, MARC 

ANGEL, MEIR BEN ABRAHAM 

ANKAWA, RAPHAEL BEN MORDECAI 

ANSELM HA-LEVI 

ANTIBI 

ANTIBI, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC 

APTOWITZER, VICTOR 

ARAMA, MEIR BEN ISAAC 

ARDIT 

ARDIT, EPHRAIM BEN ABRAHAM 

ARIELI, YIZHAK 

ARIPUL, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC 

AROLLIA, ISAAC BEN MOSES 

ARONOWITZ, BENJAMIN 

ARONSON, SOLOMON 

ARTOM, ELIA SAMUELE 

ARYEH JUDAH LEIB BEN EPHRAIM HA-KOHEN 

ARYEH LEIB BEN ELIJAH 

ARYEH LEIB BEN SAMUEL ZEVI HIRSCH 

ASAEL, HAYYIM BEN BENJAMIN 

ASH 

ASH, AVRAHAM J. 

ASHER, ABRAHAM BEN GEDALIAH IBN (Aba) 

ASHER, JOSEPH MICHAEL 

ASHER ANSCHEL BEN ISAAC OF PRZEMYSL 

ASHINSKY, AARON MORDECAI HALEVI 

ASHKENAZI, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB 

ASHKENAZI, BEZALEL BEN ABRAHAM 

ASHKENAZI, ELIEZER BEN ELIJAH THE PHYSICIAN 

ASHKENAZI, GERSHON 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



199 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 
4. Rabbinics 
Biographies 

Aharonim (continued) 



ASHKENAZI, JOSEPH 
ASHKENAZI, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH 
ASHKENAZI, JUDAH BEN SIMEON 
ASHKENAZI, JUDAH SAMUEL 
ASHKENAZI, MEIR BEN BENJAMIN WOLF 
ASHKENAZI, MORDECAI BEN ISAAC KOHEN 
ASHKENAZI, MOSES DAVID 
ASHKENAZI, NAPHTALI BEN JOSEPH 
ASHKENAZI, NISSIM ABRAHAM BEN RAPHAEL 
ASHKENAZI, SAMUEL JAFFE BEN ISAAC 

ashkenazi, zevi hirsch ben jacob (Hakham Zevi) 

ASSAF, SIMHA 

ASSEO, DAVID BEN ISAAC 

ASTRUC, ELIE-ARISTIDE 

ASZOD, JUDAH BEN ISRAEL 

ATAR 

ATTAR, JUDAH BEN JACOB IBN 

ATTIA, ISAAC BEN ISAIAH 

AUERBACH 

AUERBACH, ABRAHAM BEN SELIG AVIEZRI 

AUERBACH, MEIR BEN ISAAC 

AVIGDOR BEN JOSEPH HAYYIM 

AVILA, ELIEZER BEN SAMUEL BEN MOSES DE 

AVILA, SAMUEL BEN MOSES 

AVRUTICK, ABRAHAM 

AY ASH 

AYDAN, DAVID 

AZEVEDO, MOSES COHEN d' 

AZUBIB 

AZUBY, ABRAHAM 

BABAD 

BAB AD, JOSEPH BEN MOSES 

BACHARACH, JAIR HAYYIM BEN MOSES SAMSON 

BACHARACH, MOSES SAMSON BEN ABRAHAM SAMUEL 

BACHRACH, JACOB BEN MOSES 

BACHRACH, JUDAH BEN JOSHUA EZEKIEL 

BACHRACH, MOSES BEN ISAIAH MENAHEM 

BACK, SAMUEL 

BADHAV, ISAAC BEN MICHAEL 

BADIHI, YAHYA BEN JUDAH 

BAECK, SAMUEL 

BAHLUL 

BAKSHI-DORON, ELIAHU 

BALIDEH, MOSES 

BAMBERGER, SELIGMANN BAER 

BANET 

BANET, MORDECAI BEN ABRAHAM 

BANET, NAPHTALI BEN MORDECAI 

BANETH, EZEKIEL BEN JACOB 

BARBY, MEIR BEN SAUL 

BARDAKI, ISAIAH BEN ISSACHAR BER 

BAR-ILAN, MEIR 

BARISHANSKY, RAPHAEL 

BARIT, JACOB 



BASCHKO, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN BENJAMIN 
BASOLA, MOSES BEN MORDECAI 
BASSANI, MORDECAI (Marco) 
BAUMOL, JOSHUA 
BECK, MORITZ 
BEJA, ISAAC BEN MOSES 

BEJERANO, BEKHOR HAYYIM BEN MOSES 
BEKACHE, SHALOM 
BEKEMOHARAR 

BELAIS(h), ABRAHAM BEN SHALOM 
BELGRADO, DAVID FERNANDO 
BELKIN, SAMUEL 
BENAIM 

BENGIS, SELIG REUBEN 
BENJAMIN, BARUCH BEN ISRAEL 
BENJAMIN BEN AARON OF ZALOZCE 
BENJAMIN OF BRODY 
BENJAMIN OF CAMBRIDGE 

BENJAMIN ZEEV BEN MATTATHIAS OF ARTA 
BEN SIMEON, RAPHAEL AARON 
BENVENISTE, ABRAHAM 
BENVENISTE, HAYYIM BEN ISRAEL 
BENVENISTE, JOSEPH BEN MOSES DE SEGOVIA 
BENVENISTE, JOSHUA RAPHAEL BEN ISRAEL 
BERAB, JACOB 
BERAKHAH, ISAAC 
BERDUGO 

BERECHIAH BERAKH BEN ELIAKIM GETZEL 
BERECHIAH BERAKH BEN ISAAC EISIK 
BERLIN, ARYEH LOEB BEN ABRAHAM MEIR 
BERLIN, DAVID BEN (Judah) LOEB 
BERLIN, HAYYIM 

BERLIN, ISAIAH BEN JUDAH LOEB 
BERLIN, NAPHTALI ZEVI JUDAH (Ha-Naziv) 
BERLIN, NOAH HAYYIM ZEVI HIRSCH 
BERMAN, JACOB 
BERNFELD, SIMON 
BERNHEIM, GILLES 
BERNSTEIN, ARYEH LEIB 

BERNSTEIN, ISSACHAR BERUSH BEN ARYEH LOEB 
BERNSTEIN, LOUIS 

BERTINORO, OBADIAH BEN ABRAHAM YARE 
BESDIN, MORRIS J. 
BESSER, CHASKEL O. 
BEZALEL BEN MOSES HA-KOHEN 
BEZALEL BEN SOLOMON OF KOBRYN 
BIALEH, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN NAPHTALI HERZ 
BIBAS 

BING, ISAAC BEN SAMUEL 
BLASER, ISAAC 
BLAU, AMRAM 
BLEICH, J. DAVID 
BLOCH, CHAIM 
BLOCH, ELIJAH MEYER 
BLOCH, HERMANN 

BLOCH, ISSACHAR BAER BEN SAMSON 
BLOCH, JOSEPH LEIB 
BLOCH, JOSEPH SAMUEL 

BLOCH, MATTATHIAS BEN BENJAMIN ZEEV 
ASHKENAZI 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



BLOCH, MOSES 

BLOCH, SAMSON BEN MOSES 

BLUM, AMRAM BEN ISAAC JACOB 

BONAFOUX, DANIEL BEN ISRAEL 

BONAN 

BONDI 

BONDY, FILIP 

BONFILS, JOSEPH BEN ELIEZER 

BORDJEL 

BORGIL, ABRAHAM BEN AZIZ 

BOSHAL, MOSES BEN SOLOMON 

BOSKOWITZ, BENJAMIN ZEEV (Wolf) HALEVI 

BOSKOWITZ, HAYYIM BEN JACOB 

BOTEACH, SHMUEL 

BOTON, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH DE 

BOTON, ABRAHAM BEN MOSES DE 

BOTON, HIYYA ABRAHAM BEN AARON DI 

BOTON, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM DI 

BOTON, MEIR BEN ABRAHAM DI 

BRACH, SAUL 

braude, markus (Mordekhai Ze'ev) 

BRESLAU, ARYEH LOEB BEN HAYYIM 

BRESLAU, JOSEPH MOSES BEN DAVID 

BREUER, JOSEPH 

BREUER, MORDECHAI 

BREUER, RAPHAEL 

BREUER, SOLOMON 

BRICKNER, BARNETT ROBERT 

BRIEL, JUDAH BEN ELIEZER 

BRILL, AZRIEL 

BRILL, ISAAC 

BRISZK 

BRODA 

BRODA, ABRAHAM BEN SAUL 

BRODY, SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN ISRAEL 

BROIDA, SIMHAH ZISSEL BEN ISRAEL 

BRUDO, ABRAHAM BEN ELIJAH 

BRUELL 

BRUELL, JACOB 

BUENO, ISAAC ABRAHAM 

BUKARAT, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON HA-LEVI 

BULA, RAPHAEL MOSES 

BULAT, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH 

BURLA 

CALAHORA, JOSEPH BEN SOLOMON 

CALAHORRA, ISRAEL SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON 

CANTARINI, ISAAC VITA HA-KOHEN 

CAPSALI, ELIJAH 

CAPSALI, MOSES BEN ELIJAH 

CAPUSI, HAYYIM 

CARIGAL, RAPHAEL HAYYIM ISAAC 

CARLEBACH, JOSEPH 

CARLEBACH, SHLOMO 

CARMI, JOSEPH JEDIDIAH 

CARMILLY-WEINBERGER, MOSHE 

CARMOLY, ELIAKIM 

CARMOLY, ISSACHAR BAER BEN JUDAH LIMA 

CARO, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH 

CARO, JOSEPH BEN EPHRAIM 

CARO, JOSEPH HAYYIM BEN ISAAC 



CARVALHO, MORDECAI BARUCH 

CASE, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM 

CASES 

CASES, BENJAMIN BEN DAVID 

CASTELLO, ABRAHAM ISAAC 

CASTELNUOVO, MENAHEM AZARIAH MEIR 

(Menahem Hayyim) ben Elijah 

CASTIGLIONI, HAYYIM (VittOHO) 

CASTRO, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM 

CHAJES, GERSHON BEN ABRAHAM 

CHAJES, HIRSCH (Zevi) PEREZ 

CHAJES, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM 

CHAJES, ZEVI HIRSCH 

CHARLOP, YECHIEL 

CHAVEL, CHARLES (Dov) BER 

CHAZAN, ELIAHU 

CHEHEBAR, ITZHAK 

CHELM, SOLOMON BEN MOSES 

CIECHANOW, ABRAHAM BEN RAPHAEL LANDAU 

OF 
COEN, GRAZIADIO VITA ANANIA 

cohen, david (Ha-Nazir) 

COHEN, HIRSH 

COHEN, JOSEPH ISAAC 

COHN, MESHULLAM ZALMAN BEN SOLOMON 

COLOGNA (DE), ABRAHAM VITA 

COLOMBO, SAMUEL 

colon, Joseph ben solomon (Maharik) 

COMA, HERZ 

COMTINO, MORDECAI BEN ELIEZER 

CONFORTE, DAVID 

CORCOS, HEZEKIAH MANOAH HAYYIM THE 

YOUNGER 
CORIAT 

CORONEL, NAHMAN NATHAN 
COVO 

CULI, JACOB 

CURIEL, ISRAEL BEN MEIR DI 
DAHAN 
DAICHES 

DAINOW, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN ZEEV WOLF 
DANGOOR, EZRA SASSON BEN REUBEN 
DANIEL BEN PERAHYAH HA-KOHEN 

danzig (Danziger), Abraham ben jehiel michal 

DAVID BEN ARYEH LEIB OF LIDA 
DAVID BEN HAYYIM OF CORFU 
DAVID BEN MANASSEH DARSHAN 

david (Tevele) ben nathan of lissa 

DAVID BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI (Taz) 

DAVID BEN SHIMEON 

DAVID BEN SOLOMON IBN ABI ZIMRA (Radbaz) 

DAVID OF MAKOW 

davids, aaron issachar (Bernard) ben nahman 

DEL BENE, ELIEZER DAVID BEN ISAAC 

DEL BENE, JUDAH ASAHEL BEN DAVID ELIEZER 

DEL VECCHIO 

DEL VECCHIO, SHABBETAI ELHANAN BEN ELISHA 

DELLA TORRE, LELIO (Hillel) 

DESSLER, ELIJAH ELIEZER 

DEUTSCH, ALADAR 



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II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 
4. Rabbinics 
Biographies 

Aharonim (continued) 



DEUTSCH, DAVID BEN MENAHEM MENDEL 

DEUTSCH, ELIEZER HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM 

DEUTSCH, IGNAZ 

DEUTSCH, ISRAEL 

DEUTSCH, JUDAH JOEL 

DIENNA, AZRIEL BEN SOLOMON 

DISEGNI, DARIO 

DISKIN, MOSES JOSHUA JUDAH LEIB 

DIWAN, JUDAH BEN AMRAM 

DOLGIN, SIMON ARTHUR 

DONIN, HAYIM HALEVY 

DON-YAHIA, YEHUDAH LEIB 

DRABKIN, ABRAHAM 

DRACHMAN, BERNARD 

duckesz, eduard (Yecheskel) 

DUENNER, JOSEPH ZEVI HIRSCH 
DURAN 

duran, simeon ben solomon (ben Simeon) 

DUSCHAK, MORDECAI (Modtz) 

DUSCHINSKY, JOSEPH ZEVI BEN ISRAEL 

DUWAYK 

EDELS, SAMUEL ELIEZER BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI 

(Maharsha) 
eger, akiva ("The Younger") ben moses guens 

EGER, AKIVA BEN SIMHAH BUNIM ("The Elder") 

eger, samuel (Perez Sanwel) ben judah loeb 

EGER, SIMHAH BUNIM BEN MOSES 

EGER, SOLOMON BEN AKIVA 

EGOZI 

EHRENFELD 

EHRENFELD, NATHAN 

EHRENFELD, SAMUEL BEN DAVID ZEVI 

ehrenpreis, marcus (Mordecai) 

EHRENREICH, HAYYIM JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS 

EHRENTREU, HEINRICH 

EIDLITZ, LEOPOLD 

EISENSTADT, ABRAHAM ZEVI HIRSCH BEN JACOB 

EISENSTADT, BENZION 

eisenstadt, meir (Maharam Esh) 

EISENSTADT, MENAHEM ZEVI 

EISENSTADT, MOSES ELEAZAR 

EISENSTADTER, MEIR BEN JUDAH LEIB 

EISLER, MATYAS 

ELBAZ 

ELIAKIM GOETZ BEN MEIR 

ELIASBERG, MORDECAI 

ELIEZER BEN MANASSEH BEN BARUCH 

ELIEZER BEN MEIR HA-LEVI OF PINSK 

ELIEZER BEN SAMSON 

ELIJAH BEN BENJAMIN HA-LEVI 

ELIJAH BEN HAYYIM 

ELIJAH BEN KALONYMUS OF LUBLIN 

ELIJAH BEN LOEB OF FULDA 



ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN OF 
SMYRNA 

Elijah ben solomon zalman ("Vilna Gaon") 

ELIJAH OF PRAGUE 

ELISHA BEN ABRAHAM 

ELISHA HAYYIM BEN JACOB ASHKENAZI 

ELIYAHU, MORDECHAI 

ELMALEH 

ELYASHAR, JACOB BEN HAYYIM JOSEPH 

ELYASHAR, JACOB SAUL BEN ELIEZER JEROHAM 

EMDEN, JACOB 

EMMANUEL, ISAAC SAMUEL 

ENGEL, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH 

ENGELMANN, GABRIEL 

ENOCH BEN ABRAHAM 

EPHRAIM BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN 

EPHRAIM SOLOMON BEN AARON OF LUNTSHITS 



(Leczyca) 



EPHRATI, DAVID TEVELE BEN ABRAHAM 

EPSTEIN, ABRAHAM 

EPSTEIN, ABRAHAM MEIR BEN ARYEH LEIB 

EPSTEIN, BARUCH HA-LEVI 

EPSTEIN, CHAIM FISCHEL 

EPSTEIN, ISIDORE 

EPSTEIN, JEHIEL MICHAL BEN AARON ISAAC HALEVI 

EPSTEIN, JEHIEL MICHAL BEN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI 

EPSTEIN, MOSES MORDECAI 

EPSTEIN HA-LEVI, MOSES JEHIEL 

ESCAPA, JOSEPH BEN SAUL 

ESTROSA, DANIEL 

ETTINGER, MORDECAI ZEEV BEN ISAAC AARON 

SEGAL 
ETTLINGER, JACOB 

EULENBURG, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM MOSES ISRAEL 
EYBESCHUETZ, JONATHAN 
EYLENBURG, ISSACHAR BAER BEN ISRAEL LEISER 

PARNAS 
EZEKIEL FEIVEL BEN ZEEV WOLF 
EZRA BEN EZEKIEL HA-BAVLI 
FAITUSI, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM 
FALK, JACOB JOSHUA BEN ZEVI HIRSCH 
FALK, JOSHUA 

FALK, JOSHUA BEN ALEXANDER HA-KOHEN 
FARISSOL, ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI 
FEDER, RICHARD 
FEDERBUSCH, SIMON 
FEIGENBAUM, ISAAC HA-KOHEN 
FEINSTEIN, MOSES 
FELDER, GEDALIAH 
FERBER, ZEVI HIRSCH 
FEUCHTWANG, DAVID 
FEUERSTEIN 
FIGO, AZARIAH 
FINKEL, ELIEZER JUDAH 
FINKEL, NATHAN ZEVI BEN MOSES 
FINKELSTEIN, SHIMON 
FISCHELS, MEIR BEN EPHRAIM 
FISCHER, JOSEF 
FLECKELES, ELEAZAR BEN DAVID 



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FORTI, BARUCH UZZIEL BEN BARUCH 
FRAENKEL, DAVID BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH 
FRAENKEL-TEOMIM, BARUCH BEN JOSHUA 

EZEKIEL FEIWEL 
FRANCES, ISAAC 
FRANCO, MOSES 
FRANK, MENAHEM MENDEL 
FRANK, ZEVI PESAH 
FRANKEL, ZACHARIAS 
FRANKFURTER, MOSES 
FRANKL, ADOLF 

FRANKL-GRUEN, ADOLF ABRAHAM 
FREIBERGER, MIROSLAV SALOM 
FREIMANN 
FREIMANN, JACOB 
FRENKEL, IZHAK YEDIDIAH 
FREUDEMANN, SIMHAH 

FREUND, SAMUEL BEN ISSACHAR BAER 
FRIED, AARON 

FRIEDERMAN, ZALMAN JACOB 
FRIEDLAND, NATAN 
FRIEDMANN, ABRAHAM 
FRIEDMANN, DAVID BEN SAMUEL 
FRIEDMANN, MEIR 
FRUMKIN, ARYEH LEIB 
FUCHS, MOSES ZEVI 
FULD, AARON BEN MOSES 
FUNK, SOLOMON 

GABBAI IZIDRO (Ysidro), ABRAHAM 
GAGIN, HAYYIM ABRAHAM BEN MOSES 
GAGIN, SHALOM MOSES BEN HAYYIM ABRAHAM 
GALANTE 

GALANTE, JEDIDIAH BEN MOSES 
GALANTE, MOSES BEN JONATHAN (II) 
GALIPAPA, ELIJAH MEVORAKH 
GANSO, JOSEPH 

GANZFRIED, SOLOMON BEN JOSEPH 
GAON, SOLOMON 
GARMISON, SAMUEL 
GASTER, MOSES 
GATIGNO 

GEDALIAH, JUDAH BEN MOSES 
GEDALIAH OF SIEMIATYCZE 
GEDILIAH, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL 
GEFFEN, TOBIAS 

gelbhaus, sigmund (Joshua Samuel) 

GENNAZANO, ELIJAH HAYYIM BEN BENJAMIN OF 
GENTILI 

GERSHON, ISAAC 

GESUNDHEIT, JACOB BEN ISAAC 
GHERON, YAKKIR MORDECAI BEN ELIAKIM 
GHEZ 
GHIRON 

GIFTER, MORDECAI 
GINSBURGER, ERNEST 
GLASNER, MOSES SAMUEL 
GLAZER, SIMON 

GLOGAU, JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN ASHER LEMMEL 
HA-LEVI 



GLUECK, ABRAHAM ISAAC 
GOITEIN, BARUCH BENEDICT 

gold, wolf (Ze'ev) 

GOLDBERGER, IZIDOR 

GOLDIN, HYMAN ELIAS 

GOLDMAN, AHARON 

GOLDSTEIN, HERBERT S. 

GOLINKIN, MORDECHAI YAAKOV 

GOMBINER, ABRAHAM ABELE BEN HAYYIM HA- 
LEVI 

GORDON, ELIEZER 

GORDON, JACOB 

GOREN, SHLOMO 

GOSLAR, NAPHTALI HIRSCH BEN JACOB 

GOTA, MOSES ZERAHIAH BEN SHNEUR 

GOTTLIEB, JEDIDIAH BEN ISRAEL 

GRAJEWSKI, ARYEH LEIB 

GRAJEWSKI, ELIEZER ZALMAN 

GRAUBART, Y. L. 

GRAZIANO, ABRAHAM JOSEPH SOLOMON BEN 
MORDECAI 

GREENWALD, JEKUTHIEL JUDAH (Leopold) 

GRISHABER, ISAAC 

GRODZINSKI, HAYYIM OZER 

GRODZINSKI, ZVI HIRSCH 

gross, heinrich (Henri) 

GROSSBERG, MENASSEH 
GROSSMAN, YIZHAK DAVID 
GRUENFELD, JUDAH 
GRUENHUT, ELEAZAR (Lazar) 
GRUENWALD, MORITZ 
GRUNFELD, ISIDOR 
GRUNWALD, AMRAM 
GRUNWALD, JUDAH 
GRUNWALD, MAX 
GUEDEMANN, MORITZ 

guenzig, ezriel (Azriel) 

GUENZLER, ABRAHAM 

GUNZBERG, ARYEH LEIB BEN ASHER 

GURLAND, HAYYIM JONAH 

GUTTMACHER, ELIJAH 

GUTTMANN, ALEXANDER 

GUTTMANN, MICHAEL (Mihcdly) 

HAAS, SOLOMON BEN JEKUTHIEL KAUFMANN 

HABIB, HAYYIM BEN MOSES BEN SHEM TOV 

HABIB, MOSES BEN SOLOMON IBN 

HABILLO, ELISHA 

HABSHUSH, SHALOM BEN YAHYA 

HACOHEN, MORDECAI 

HACOHEN, RAPHAEL HAYYIM 

HADAYAH, OVADIAH 

hagiz, jacob (Israel) 

HAHN, JOSEPH BEN MOSES 

HAHN, JOSEPH YUSPA BEN PHINEHAS SELIGMANN 

HAKIM, SAMUEL BEN MOSES HA-LEVI IBN 

HALBERSTADT, ABRAHAM BEN MENAHEM MENKE 

HALBERSTADT, MORDECAI 

HALBERSTAM, ISAAC BEN HAYYIM 

HALEVA, ISHAK 



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II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 
4. Rabbinics 
Biographies 

Aharonim (continued) 



HALEVI, EZEKIEL EZRA BEN JOSHUA 

HALEVI, HAYYIM DAVID 

HALEVI, JOSEPH ZEVI BEN ABRAHAM 

HA-LEVI, SASSON BEN ELIJAH BEN MOSES 

HALEVY, MEYER ABRAHAM 

HALFON, ABRAHAM 

HAMBURG, ABRAHAM BENJAMIN (Wolf) 

HAMBURGER, JACOB 

HAMEIRI, MOSHE 

HANDALI, JOSHUA BEN JOSEPH 

HANNELES, JUDAH LEIB BEN MEIR 

HANOKH ZUNDEL BEN JOSEPH 

HARARI 

HARIF 

HARIF HA-LEVI 

HARLAP, JACOB MOSES BEN ZEBULUN 

HAVER 

hayyim (Ben) shabbetai (Maharhash) 

HAYYIM BEN BEZALEL 

HAYYIM JUDAH BEN HAYYIM 

HAYYOT, MENAHEM MANISH BEN ISAAC 

HAYYUN, ABRAHAM BEN NISSIM 

HAYYUN, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM 

HAZZAN 

HAZZAN, ISRAEL MOSES BEN ELIEZER 

HEILBRONN, JACOB BEN ELHANAN 

HEILBRONN, JOSEPH BEN DAVID OF ESCHWEGE 

HEILBUT, ELEAZAR LAZI BEN JOSEPH BEN LAZI 

heilpern (Raphael), yom tov lipman ben Israel 

HEILPRIN, JEHIEL BEN SOLOMON 

HEILPRIN, PHINEHAS MENAHEM 

HEILPRIN, SAMUEL HELMANN BEN ISRAEL 

HEILPRUN, ELIEZER LEIZER BEN MORDECAI 

HELLER, ARYEH LEIB BEN JOSEPH HA-KOHEN OF STRY 

HELLER, JEHIEL BEN AARON 

HELLER, JOSHUA BEN AARON 

HELLER, JUDAH 

HELLER, YOM TOV LIPMANN BEN NATHAN HA-LEVI 

HELLER, ZEVI HIRSCH 

HENKIN, JOSEPH ELIJAH 

HEPPNER, ARON 

HERSCHORN, JOSHUA (She'ea) HALEVY 

HERZFELD, LEVI 

HERZOG, DAVID 

HERZOG, ISAAC 

HESCHEL, ABRAHAM JOSHUA BEN JACOB 

HEZEKIAH BEN DAVID DA SILVA 

HIER, MARVIN 

hildesheimer, azriel (Israel) 

HILDESHEIMER, MEIR 
HILEWITZ, ALTER 

HILLEL BEN NAPHTALI ZEVI (Herz) 
HILLMAN, SAMUEL ISAAC 
HIRSCH, MARKUS 



HIRSCH, SAMSON (Ben) RAPHAEL 
HIRSCHENSOHN 
HIRSCHLER, PAL 
HIRSCHLER, RENE 
HIRSCHPRUNG, PINHAS 
HIRSHENSON, HAYIM 
HIYYA ROFE 

HOECHHEIMER, MOSES BEN HAYYIM COHEN 
HOESCHEL (Joshua) BEN SAUL 
HOFFMAN, JACOB 
HOFFMANN, DAVID ZEVI 
HOLLANDER, ISAIAH BEN AARON 
HOROVITZ, JACOB 
HOROVITZ, MARCUS 
HOROWITZ 

HOROWITZ, ABRAHAM BEN ISAIAH 
HOROWITZ, ABRAHAM BEN SHABBETAI SHEFTEL 
HOROWITZ, ARYEH LEIB BEN ELEAZAR HA-LEVI 
HOROWITZ, ARYEH LEIB BEN ISAAC 
HOROWITZ, DAVID JOSHUA HOESCHEL BEN ZEVI 
HIRSCH HA-LEVI 



HOROWITZ, 
HOROWITZ, 
HOROWITZ, 
HOROWITZ, 
HOROWITZ, 
HOROWITZ, 
HOROWITZ, 
HOROWITZ, 
LEIB HA 



ISAAC HA-LEVI BEN JACOB JOKEL 
ISAIAH BEN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI 
ISAIAH BEN JACOB HA-LEVI 
ISAIAH BEN SHABBETAI SHEFTEL 
JACOB BEN ABRAHAM 
JACOB JOKEL BEN MEIR HA-LEVI 
LAZAR BEN DAVID JOSHUA HOESCHEL 
MESHULLAM ISSACHAR BEN ARYEH 



-LEVI 

HOROWITZ, MOSES BEN JUDAH 

HOROWITZ, PHINEHAS BEN ISRAEL HA-LEVI 

HOROWITZ, PHINEHAS BEN ZEVI HIRSCH HA-LEVI 

HOROWITZ, SAMUEL SHMELKE OF NIKOLSBURG 

HOROWITZ, SAUL HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM HA- 
LEVI 

HOROWITZ, SHRAGA FEIVEL HA-LEVI 

HOROWITZ, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN HAYYIM ARYEH 
LEIBUSH HA-LEVI 

HOROWITZ, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN JOSHUA MOSES 
AARON HA-LEVI 

HOROWITZ, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN PHINEHAS HA-LEVI 

HOROWITZ, ZEVI JOSHUA BEN SAMUEL SHMELKE 

HOZIN, ZEDAKAH BEN SAADIAH 

HUEBSCH, ADOLPH 

HURVITZ, JOSEPH YOZEL 

HURWITZ, SHMARYA LEIB 

HUTNER, ISAAC 

HYAMSON, MOSES 

HYAMSON, NATHAN 

HYMAN, AARON 

IBN ARDUT, HAYYIM JOSEPH BEN AZRIEL HA- 
KOHEN 

IBN DANAN, SAADIAH BEN MAIMUN 

IBN EZRA, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC 

IBN EZRA, SOLOMON BEN MOSES 

IBN HABIB, JACOB BEN SOLOMON 

ibn hayyim, aaron (ben Abraham) 

IBN HAYYIM, AARON 
IBN JAMIL, ISAAC NISSIM 



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IBN MUSA, HAYYIM BEN JUDAH 

IBN SHOSHAN, DAVID 

IBN SHUAIB, JOEL 

IBN VERGA, JOSEPH 

IBN YAHYA, DAVID BEN JOSEPH 

IBN YAHYA, DAVID BEN SOLOMON 

IBN YAHYA, GEDALIAH BEN DAVID 

IBN YAHYA, GEDALIAH BEN JOSEPH 

IBN YAHYA, JOSEPH BEN DAVID 

IBN ZUR, JACOB BEN REUBEN 

IGRA, MESHULLAM (Moses) BEN SAMSON 

ILLOWY, BERNARD 

ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM DI MOLINA 

ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM OF POSEN 

ISAAC BEN BEZALEL OF VLADIMIR 

ISAAC BEN JACOB MIN HA-LEVIYYIM 

ISAAC BENJAMIN WOLF BEN ELIEZER LIPMAN 

ISAAC BEN NOAH KOHEN SHAPIRA 

ISAAC BEN SAMSON HA-KOHEN 

ISAAC BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI 

ISAIAH HASID FROM ZBARAZH 

ISAIAH MENAHEM BEN ISAAC 

ISCANDARI 

ISHMAEL BEN ABRAHAM ISAAC HA-KOHEN 

ISIDOR LAZARE 

ISRAEL 

ISRAEL, YOM TOV BEN ELIJAH 

ISRAEL BEN BENJAMIN OF BELZEC 

ISRAEL BEN SAMUEL OF SHKLOV 

ISRAELI, SHAUL 

ISRAEL ISSERL BEN ISAAC SEGAL 

Israel meir ha-kohen (Hafez Hayyim) 

ISRAEL MOSES BEN ARYEH LOEB 

ISSACHAR BAER BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN (Klazki) 

ISSACHAR BAER BEN TANHUM 

ISSACHAR BERMAN BEN NAPHTALI HA-KOHEN 

ISSAR JUDAH BEN NEHEMIAH OF BRISK 

ISSERLES, MOSES BEN ISRAEL (Rema) 

ISTRUMSA (IstrUSa), HAYYIM ABRAHAM 

ITALIENER, BRUNO 

JABEZ, JOSEPH BEN HAYYIM 

JACOB, BENNO 

JACOB BEN AARON OF KARLIN 

JACOB BEN ABRAHAM SOLOMON 

JACOB BEN BENJAMIN ZEEV 

JACOB BEN EPHRAIM NAPHTALI HIRSCH OF LUBLIN 

JACOB BEN JUDAH OF LONDON 

JACOB BEN MORDECAI OF SCHWERIN 

JACOB BEN NISSIM IBN SHAHIN 

JACOB ISAAC BEN SHALOM 

JACOB JOSEPH OF OSTROG 

jacob (Jakob) of belzyce 

JACOB SAMSON OF SHEPETOVKA 
JAFFE, MORDECAI-GIMPEL 
JAFFE, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC ASHKENAZI 
JAFFE-MARGOLIOT, ISRAEL DAVID 
JAKOBOVITS, IMMANUEL 
JAVETZ, BARZILLAI BEN BARUCH 

JEHIEL MICHAEL (Michel) BEN ABRAHAM MEIR OF 
CIFER 



JEHIEL MICHAEL (Michel) BEN JUDAH LEIB HE- 

HASID 
JELLIN, ARYEH LOEB BEN SHALOM SHAKHNA 
JELLINEK, ADOLF 
JENER, ABRAHAM NAPHTALI HIRSCH BEN 

MORDECAI 
JEREMIAH BEN ISAAC 

JERUSALIMSKI, MOSES NAHUM BEN BENJAMIN 
JESHUA BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI 
JESURUN, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM HAYYIM 
JEWNIN, ABRAHAM JONAH 
JIZFAN, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH 
JOAB BEN JEREMIAH 
JOEL, DAVID HEYMANN 
JOEL, MANUEL 
JOEL BEN MOSES GAD 
JOFFEN, ABRAHAM 
JOLLES, ZECHARIAH ISAIAH 
JONATHAN BEN ABRAHAM ISAAC 
JONATHAN BEN JACOB 

JONATHAN BEN JOSEPH OF RUZHANY 
JOSEPH, JACOB 

JOSEPH BEN ELIJAH OF ZASLAW 
JOSEPH BEN ISSACHAR BAER OF PRAGUE 
JOSEPH BEN JOSHUA MOSES OF FRANKFURT 
JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI GERSHON HA-KOHEN OF 

CRACOW 
JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI HA-KOHEN 
JOSEPH BEN MOSES 

Joseph ben moses (Ashkenazi), darshan of 

PRZEMYSLANY 
JOSEPH BEN MOSES OF KREMENETS 
JOSEPH BEN MOSES PHINEHAS 
JOSEPH BEN ZADDIK 
JOSEPH BEN ZE'EV WOLF HA-LEVI 

Joseph david (Salonika) 

JOSEPH HAYYIM BEN ELIJAH AL-HAKAM 

JOSEPH MAMAN AL-MAGHRIBI 

JOSEPH SAMUEL BEN ZEVI OF CRACOW 

JOSEPH SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN MEIR 

JOSHUA BEN MORDECAI FALK HA-KOHEN 

JOSHUA HOESCHEL BEN JACOB 

JOSHUA HOESCHEL BEN JOSEPH OF CRACOW 

JOSPE, ALFRED 

JUDAH ARYEH LEIB BEN DAVID 

JUDAH BEN ELIEZER 

JUDAH BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN 

JUDAH BEN MOSES OF LUBLIN 

JUDAH BEN NISSAN 

JUDAH HASID (Segal) HA-LEVI 

JUDAH LEIB BEN ENOCH ZUNDEL 

JUDAH LEIB BEN HILLEL OF SCHWERSENZ 

judah loew ben bezalel (Maharal) 

JUNG, LEO 

JUNGREIS, ASHER ANSHEL 

KAATZ, SAUL 

KADOORIE, SASSON 

KAEMPF, SAUL ISAAC 

KAFAH, YIHYE BEN SOLOMON 

KAFAH, YOSEF 



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II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 
4. Rabbinics 
Biographies 

Aharonim (continued) 



KAHANA, ABRAHAM ARYEH LEIB BEN SHALOM 

SHAKHNA 
KAHANA, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM 
KAHANA, JEHIEL ZEVI BEN JOSEPH MORDECAI 
KAHANA, KALMAN 
KAHANA, NAHMAN 
KAHANA, SOLOMON DAVID 

kahaneman, Joseph ("Ponevezer Rav") 

KAHANOV, MOSES NEHEMIAH 

KAHANOVITCH, ISRAEL ISAAC 

KAHN, ZADOC 

KALA'l, MORDECAI BEN SOLOMON 

KALAI, SAMUEL BEN MOSES 

KALISCHER, JUDAH LEIB BEN MOSES 

KALISCHER, ZEVI HIRSCH 

KALLIR, ELEAZAR BEN ELEAZAR 

KALMANOWITZ, ABRAHAM 

KAMELHAR, JEKUTIEL ARYEH BEN GERSHON 

KAMENETSKY, YAAKOV 

KANIEVSKY, JACOB ISRAEL 

KANN, MOSES 

KAPLAN, ALEXANDER SENDER BEN ZERAH HA-KOHEN 

KAPLAN, JACOB 

KAPUZATO, MOSES HA-YEVANI 

KARA, JOSEPH 

KARA, MENAHEM BEN JACOB 

KAREH, SOLOMON 

KARELITZ, AVRAHAM YESHAYAHU (HaZOIl Ish) 

KARFUNKEL, AARON BEN JUDAH LEIB HA-KOHEN 

KARGAU, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH 

karmi (Cremieux) 

KASABI, JOSEPH BEN NISSIM 

KASHER, MENAHEM 

KASOVSKY, CHAYIM YEHOSHUA 

KASPI, NETHANEL BEN NEHEMIAH 

KATTINA, JACOB 

KATZ, MENAHEM 

KATZ, REUVEN 

KATZBURG, DAVID ZEVI 

KATZENELLENBOGEN 

KATZENELLENBOGEN, DAVID TEVEL 

KATZENELLENBOGEN, MEIR BEN ISAAC 

KAUDER, SAMUEL JUDAH BEN DAVID 

KAZIN, JUDAH BEN YOM TOV 

KAZIN, RAPHAEL BEN ELIJAH 

KECSKEMETI, ARMIN 

KECSKEMETI, LIPOT 

KIMHI, JACOB BEN SAMUEL 

KIMHI, RAPHAEL ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH 

KIMHI, SOLOMON BEN NISSIM JOSEPH DAVID 

KIRSHBLUM, MORDECAI 

KITTSEE, HAYYIM BEN ISAAC 

KITTSEE, JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN SAMUEL 

KLATZKIN, ELIJAH BEN NAPHTALI HERZ 



KLATZKO, MORDECAI BEN ASHER 
KLAUSNER, ABRAHAM 
KLAUSNER, ZEVI HIRSCH 
KLAVAN, ISRAEL 
KLEIN, MORITZ 
KLEIN, PHILIP 
KLEIN, SALOMON WOLF 
KLEIN, SAMUEL SHMELKA 
KLEMPERER, GUTMANN (Gumper) 
KLEPFISH, SAMUEL ZANVIL 
KLUGER, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH AARON 
KOENIGSBERGER, BERNHARD (BaiTlkh) 
KOERNER, MOSES BEN ELIEZER PHOEBUS 
KOHEN, ELEAZAR BEN ZEEV WOLF 
KOHEN, RAPHAEL BEN JEKUTHIEL SUESSKIND 
KOHN, PINCHAS 
KOHN, SAMUEL 

KOIDONOVER, AARON SAMUEL BEN ISRAEL 
KOIDONOVER, ZEVI HIRSCH 
KOLIN, SAMUEL BEN NATHAN HA-LEVI 
KONVITZ, JOSEPH 

KOOK, ZEVI JUDAH BEN ABRAHAM ISAAC HA- 
KOHEN 
KOPPELMAN, JACOB BEN SAMUEL BUNIM 
KORNFELD, AARON BEN MORDECAI BAER 
KORNIK, MEIR BEN MOSES 
KOTLER, AARON 
KOWALSKY, JUDAH LEIB 
KRAMER, MOSES BEN DAVID, OF VILNA 

kranz, jacob ben wolf (Maggid of Dubno) 

KRAUSS, JUDAH HA-KOHEN 

KREMNITZER, JOHANAN BEN MEIR 

KRENGEL, MENAHEM MENDEL 

KRISPIN, JOSHUA ABRAHAM 

KRISTIANPOLLER 

KROCH, JACOB LEIB BEN SHEMAIAH 

KROCHMAL, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN ABRAHAM 

KRONIK, MOSES BEN AKIVA 

KRYGIER, RIVON 

LAMPRONTI, ISAAC HEZEKIAH BEN SAMUEL 

LANDAU, ELEAZAR BEN ISRAEL 

LANDAU, EZEKIEL BEN JUDAH 

LANDAU, ISAAC ELIJAH BEN SAMUEL 

LANDAU, ISRAEL JONAH BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI 

LANDAU, JACOB 

LANDAU, LEIBUSH MENDEL 

LANDAU, NATHAN 

LANDSOFER, JONAH BEN ELIJAH 

LANIADO, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC 

LANIADO, RAPHAEL SOLOMON BEN SAMUEL 

LANIADO, SAMUEL BEN ABRAHAM 

LANIADO, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM 

LAPAPA, AARON BEN ISAAC 

LAPIDOT, ALEXANDER MOSES 

LATTES, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC 

LATTES, BONET 

LATTES, ISAAC JOSHUA 

LAU, ISRAEL MEIR 

LAWANI, DAUD 

LEESER, ISAAC 



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leeuw, jacob ben hayyim (Heymann) DE 

LEHMANN, JOSEPH 

LEHMANN, MARCUS 

LEIBOWITZ, BARUCH BER 

LEMBERGER, MOSES BEN AARON 

LEON 

LEON, MESSER JUDAH BEN JEHIEL 

LEONE, LEON (Judah) DI 

LERNER, MAYER BEN MORDECAI OF ALTONA 

lev (Lab; Leb), Joseph ben david ibn (Maharival) 

LEVI 

LEVI, ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH 

LEVI, BENEDETTO 

levi (Bet ha-Levi), isaac ben solomon 

LEVI, ISRAEL 

LEVI, JACOB BEN ISRAEL 

LEVI, MORITZ 

LEVI, SOLOMON BEN ISAAC 

levi (Bet ha-Levi), solomon ben isaac 
levi ben habib (Ralbah) 

LEVIN, JUDAH LEIB 

LEVIN, ZEVI HIRSCH (-el) BEN ARYEH LOEB 

LEVY, ALFRED 

LEVY, ISAAC 

LEVY, JACOB 

LEVY, JUDAH BEN MENAHEM 

LEVY, SAMUEL 

LEVY, SION 

LEWIN, AARON BEN NATHAN OF RZESZOW 

LEWIN, BENJAMIN MANASSEH 

LEWIN, JOSHUA HESHEL BEN ELIJAH ZEEV HA-LEVI 

LEWIN, JUDAH LEIB 

LEWIN, LOUIS 

LEWINSTEIN, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM ABUSH 

LEWY, ISRAEL 

LEWYSOHN, ABRAHAM 

LEWYSOHN, YEHUDI LEIB LOUIS 

LIBER, MAURICE 

LIBSCHITZ, BARUCH MORDECAI BEN JACOB 

LICHTENSTADT, BENJAMIN WOLF BEN JUDAH 

LICHTENSTEIN, HILLEL BEN BARUCH 

LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER LIPMAN 

LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM JEKUTHIEL ZALMAN BEN 

MOSES JOSEPH 
LIFSHITZ, DAVID 
LIMA, MOSES BEN ISAAC JUDAH 

lipkin (Salanter), Israel ben zeev wolf 

LIPSCHITZ, SOLOMON ZALMAN 

LIPSCHUETZ 

LIPSCHUETZ, BARUCH ISAAC BEN ISRAEL 

LIPSCHUETZ, GEDALIAH BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN 

LIPSCHUETZ, HILLEL ARYEH LEIB BEN ZEEV DOV 

LIPSCHUETZ, ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER 

LIPSCHUTZ, ELIEZER BEN SOLOMON 

LIPSCHUTZ, ISRAEL BEN GEDALIAH 

LIPSCHUTZ, SOLOMON BEN MORDECAI 

LISSER, JOSHUA FALK 

LOEB, ISIDORE 

LOEBEL, ISRAEL 

LOEW, ELEAZAR 



LOEWENSTAMM 

LOEWENSTEIN, LEOPOLD 

LOEWY, JACOB EZEKIEL BEN JOSEPH 

LOLLI, EUDE 

LONDON, JACOB BEN MOSES JUDAH 

LOOKSTEIN, JOSEPH HYMAN 

LOPIAN, ELIJAH 

LORBEERBAUM, JACOB BEN JACOB MOSES OF LISSA 

LUBETZKY, JUDAH 

LUBLIN, MEIR BEN GEDALIAH 

LURIA 

LURIA, DAVID BEN JUDAH 

luria, solomon ben jehiel (Maharshal) 

LUZZATTO, JACOB BEN ISAAC 

LUZZATTO, SAMUEL DAVID 

LUZZATTO, SIMONE BEN ISAAC SIMHAH 

LYONS, JACQUES JUDAH 

MAARSEN, ISAAC 

MAIMI, SIMON 

MAIMON, JUDAH LEIB 

MAISEL, ELIJAH HAYYIM 

MALACHI BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN 

MALBIM, MEIR LOEB BEN JEHIEL MICHAEL 

MALCA 

MALKHI, EZRA BEN RAPHAEL MORDECAI 

MALKHI, MOSES 

MALKHI, MOSES BEN RAPHAEL MORDECAI 

MANI 

MANISCHEWITZ, HIRSCH 

MANSURAH, SAADIAH BEN JUDAH 

MANSURAH, SHALOM BEN JUDAH 

MARGALIOT, REUBEN 

MARGOLIES, ISAAC BEN ELIJAH 

MARGOLIES, MOSES SEBULUN 

MARGOLIOT, MOSES BEN SIMEON 

MARGOLIOTH 

MARGOLIOTH, EPHRAIM ZALMAN BEN MENAHEM 

MANNES 
MARGOLIOTH, JACOB 
MARGOLIOTH, JUDAH LOEB 
MARGOLIS, GAVRIEL ZEV 
MARGULIES, SAMUEL HIRSCH 
MARINI, SHABBETHAI HAYYIM (Vita) 
MARLI, SAMUEL (RAPHAEL) BEN MAZLIAH 
MARMORSTEIN, ARTHUR 
MASHASH, SHLOMO 

MASKILEISON, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH LEIB 
MASLI AH SALIH 
MASNUT, SAMUEL BEN NISSIM 
MAT, MOSES 
MATLIN, MOSHE 

MATTERSDORF, JEREMIAH BEN ISAAC 
MAYBAUM, SIGMUND 
MEDINA, SAMUEL BEN MOSES DE 
MEDINI, HAYYIM HEZEKIAH BEN RAPHAEL 

ELIJAH 
MEHLSACK, ELIAKIM BEN JUDAH HA-MILZAHGI 
MEIR, JACOB 
MEIR BEN ELIJAH 
MEIR SIMHAH HA-KOHEN OF DVINSK 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



20 j 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 
4. Rabbinics 
Biographies 

Aharonim {continued) 

MEISEL, MOSES BEN MORDECAI 

MEISELS, DAVID DOV 

MEISELS, DOV BERUSH 

MEKLENBURG, JACOB ZEVI 

MELAMED, RAHAMIM REUVEN 

MELAMED, SIMAN TOV 

MELCHIOR, MARCUS 

MELCHIOR, MICHAEL 

MELDOLA 

MELDOLA, RAPHAEL 

MELTZER, ISSER ZALMAN 

MENAHEM BEN MOSES HA-BAVLI 

MENAHEM MENDEL OF SHKLOV 

MENDES 

MENDES 

MENDLOWITZ, SHRAGA FEIVEL 

MESHULLAM PHOEBUS BEN ISRAEL SAMUEL 

MESHULLAM ZALMAN HA-KOHEN 

MEYER, SELIGMANN 

MEYUHAS, MOSES JOSEPH MORDECAI BEN RAPHAEL 

MEYUHAS 
MEYUHAS, RAPHAEL MEYUHAS BEN SAMUEL 
MICHAELSON, EZEKIEL ZEVI BEN ABRAHAM HAYYIM 
MILEVSKY, AHARON 
MILLER, ISRAEL 
MINTZ, MOSES BEN ISAAC 
MINZ, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI 
MINZ, JUDAH BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI 
MIRSKY, SAMUEL KALMAN 
MIZRAHI, DAVID BEN SHALOM 
MIZRAHI, ELIJAH 
MODAI, HAYYIM 

modena, leone (Judah Aryeh) 

MODERN, JUDAH 

MOELLIN, JACOB BEN MOSES (Maharil) 

MOHILEWER, SAMUEL 

MONZON, ABRAHAM 

mordecai (Mokhiah) ben hayyim of eisenstadt 

MORDECAI BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI 

MORDECAI BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH OF KREMSIER 

MORPURGO, SAMSON BEN JOSHUA MOSES 

MORTARA, MARCO 

MORTEIRA, SAUL LEVI 

MOSCATO, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH 

MOSES BEN DANIEL OF ROHATYN 

MOSES BEN HANOKH 

MOSES BEN ISAIAH KATZ 

MOSES BEN JACOB OF KIEV 

MOSES ESRIM VE-ARBA 

MOSES ISAAC 

MOSES ZEEV BEN ELIEZER OF GRODNO 

MOTAL, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB 

MOWSHOWITZ, ISRAEL 

MUELLER, JOEL 



MUENZ, ELEAZAR BEN ARYEH LEIB 

MUENZ, MOSES BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI 

MUNK 

MURMELSTEIN, BENJAMIN 

MUSSAFIA, BENJAMIN BEN IMMANUEL 

MUSSAFIA, HAYYIM ISAAC 

NAHON 

NAHOUM, HAIM 

NAHUM, ELIEZER BEN JACOB 

NAJARA 

NATHAN OF GAZA 

NATHANSON, JOSEPH SAUL 

NATONEK, JOSEPH 

NAVON, EPHRAIM BEN AARON 

NAVON, JONAH BEN HANUN 

NAVON, JONAH MOSES BEN BENJAMIN 

NAWI 

NAZIR, MOSES HA-LEVI 

neppi, hananel (Grazziadio) 

NERIAH, MOSHE ZEVI 

NEUDA, ABRAHAM 

NIEMIROWER, JACOB ISAAC 

NIETO, DAVID 

NIETO, ISAAC 

NISSENBAUM, ISAAC 

NISSIM, ISAAC 

NOBEL, NEHEMIAH ANTON 

NORZI 

NORZI, JEDIDIAH SOLOMON RAPHAEL BEN 

ABRAHAM 
NUNES VAIS 
OBERNIK, JUDAH 

OLIVEYRA, SOLOMON BEN DAVID DE 
OLMO, JACOB DANIEL BEN ABRAHAM 
OLSCHWANGER, ISAAC WOLF 

ONDERWIJZER, ABRAHAM BEN SAMSON HA-KOHEN 
OPPENHEIM, BEER BEN ISAAC 
OPPENHEIM, DAVID 

OPPENHEIM, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM 
OPPENHEIM, HAYYIM 
OPPENHEIM, JOACHIM 
ORNSTEIN, JACOB MESHULLAM BEN MORDECAI 

ZEEV 
OSHRY, EPHRAIM 

OTTOLENGHI, JOSEPH BEN NATHAN 
OUZIEL, BEN-ZION MEIR HAI 
OVADIA, NISSIM 
OVCHINSKI, LEVI 
PACIFICI, RICCARDO 
PALACHE, HAYYIM 
PANET, EZEKIEL BEN JOSEPH 
PANIGEL, ELIYAHU MOSHE 
PANIGEL, RAPHAEL MEIR BEN JUDAH 
PAPO, SAMUEL SHEMAIAH 
PARDES, ELIYAHU 
PARDES, SHMUEL 
PARDO 

PARDO, DAVID SAMUEL BEN JACOB 
PARDO, JOSEPH 
PARDO, MOSES BEN RAPHAEL 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



PARIS, HAILU 

PARNAS, HAYYIM NAHMAN 

PERAHYAH, AARON BEN HAYYIM ABRAHAM 

HA-KOHEN 
PERAHYAH, HASDAI BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN 
PERELMANN, JEROHMAN JUDAH LEIB BEN SOLOMON 

ZALMAN 
PEREZ, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH 
PEREZ BEN MOSES OF BRODY 
PERGOLA, RAPHAEL DE LA 

PERLA, JEROHAM FISCHEL BEN ARYEH ZEVI 
PERLES, ISAAC MOSES 
PERLES, MOSES MEIR BEN ELEAZAR 
PERLHEFTER, ISSACHAR BEHR BEN JUDAH MOSES 
PERLMUTTER, ABRAHAM ZEVI 

PESANTE, MOSES BEN HAYYIM BEN SHEM TOV 
PINES, YEHIEL MICHAEL (Michal) 
PINHEIRO, MOSES 

PINNER, EPHRAIM MOSES BEN ALEXANDER SUSSKIND 
PINTO 

PLACZEK, ABRAHAM 
PLAUT, HEZEKIAH FEIVEL 
PLOTZKI, MEIR DAN OF OSTROVA 
POLACHEK, SOLOMON 
POLLACK, JACOB BEN JOSEPH 
POLLAK, MIKSA 
POLLAK, MOSES HA-LEVI 

POPPERS, JACOB BEN BENJAMIN HA-KOHEN 
PORATH, ISRAEL 

PORGES, MOSES BEN ISRAEL NAPHTALI 
PORGES, NATHAN 

PORTO, ABRAHAM MENAHEM BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN 
PORTO-RAFA, MOSES BEN JEHIEL HA-KOHEN 
PORUSH, ISRAEL 

POSNER, DAVID BEN NAPHTALI 
POSNER, SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN JOSEPH 
POUPKO, BERNARD 
PRATO, DAVID 
PREIL, ELAZAR MEYER 
PRIJS, JOSEPH 

primo, samuel (Judah) 

PROSSNITZ, JUDAH LEIB BEN JACOB HOLLESCHAU 

PROSSTITZ, DANIEL 

PROVENCAL, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM 

PROVENCAL, MOSES BEN ABRAHAM 

PUKHOVITSER, JUDAH LEIB 

QUERIDO, JACOB 

QUETSCH, SOLOMON 

RABBA, MENAHEM 

RABBINOVICZ, RAPHAEL NATHAN NATA 

RABINOVICH, ISAAC JACOB 

rabinowich (Rabinowitsch), eliyahu akiva 

RABINOWITZ, SAMUEL JACOB 

RABINOWITZ-TEOMIM, ELIJAH DAVID BEN BENJAMIN 

RACCAH, MASUD BEN AARON 

RACKMAN, EMANUEL 

RAGOLER, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON 

RAGOLER, ELIJAH BEN JACOB 

RANSCHBURG, BEZALEL BEN JOEL 

RAPAPORT, DAVID HA-KOHEN 



RAPHALL, MORRIS JACOB 

RAPOPORT 

RAPOPORT, ABRAHAM BEN ISRAEL JEHIEL HA- 
KOHEN 

RAPOPORT, BENJAMIN ZEEV WOLF HA-KOHEN BEN 
ISAAC 

RAPOPORT, SAMUEL 

RAPPAPORT, ISAAC BEN JUDAH HA-KOHEN 

RATH, MESHULLAM 

RATNER, DOV BAER 

REGGIO, ISACCO SAMUEL 

REICH, KOPPEL (Jacob) 

REINES, ISAAC JACOB 

REISCHER, JACOB BEN JOSEPH 

reizes (Reizeles) 

RENASSIA, YOSSEF 

RESNICK, ZVI (HIRSH) YOSEF HAKOHEN 

RICE, ABRAHAM JOSEPH 

RICHIETTI, JOSEPH SHALLIT BEN ELIEZER 

RISIKOFF, MENAHEM (MENDEL) HACOHEN 

RISKIN, SHLOMO 

RIVKES, MOSES BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH 

ROKEAH, ELAZAR BEN SHMELKE 

ROSANES, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL 

ROSANES, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN ISSACHAR BERISH 

ROSEN, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC 

ROSEN, MOSES 

ROSENAK, LEOPOLD 

ROSENBAUM, MOSES HAYYIM LITS 

ROSENBERG, ISRAEL 

ROSENBLATT, MORDECAI BEN MENAHEM 

ROSENBLATT, SAMUEL 

ROSENTHAL, NAPHTALI 

rozin (Rosen), Joseph 

ROZOVSKI, PINHAS 

RUBINSTEIN, ISAAC 

RUBIO, MORDECAI 

RUDERMAN, JACOB ISAAC 

RUELF, ISAAC 

SAADIAH BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI 

SACERDOTI, ANGELO-RAPHAEL CHAIM 

SAFRAN, ALEXANDER 

SAFRAN, BEZALEL ZEEV 

SAFRAN, JOSEPH 

SAGIS 

SALANT, JOSEPH SUNDEL BEN BENJAMIN BENISH 

SALANT, SAMUEL 

SALIH, ABRAHAM 

SALIH, YAHYA BEN JOSEPH (MAHARIS) 

SALIH IBN YAHYA IBN JOSEPH 

SALVENDI, ADOLF 

SAMEGAH, JOSEPH BEN BENJAMIN 

SAMUEL BEN AVIGDOR 

SAMUEL BEN DAVID MOSES HA-LEVI 

SAMUEL BEN JACOB OF KELMY 

SAMUEL BEN URI SHRAGA PHOEBUS 

SANGUINETTI, AZARIAH HAYYIM 

SAPORTA, HANOKH 

SAR, SAMUEL 

SARAVAL 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 
4. Rabbinics 
Biographies 

Aharonim (continued) 



SARAVAL, JACOB RAPHAEL BEN SIMHAH JUDAH 

SARAVAL, JUDAH LEIB 

SARFATY 

SARNA, EZEKIEL 

SASPORTAS, JACOB 

SASSON, AARON BEN JOSEPH 

SCHACHTER, HERSCHEL 

SCHACHTER, JACOB J. 

SCHACTER-SHALOMI, ZALMAN 

SCHEIBER, ALEXANDER 

SCHEINFELD, SOLOMON ISAAC 

SCHERMAN, NOSSON 

SCHICK, ABRAHAM BEN ARYEH LOEB 

SCHICK, BARUCH BEN JACOB 

SCHICK, MOSES BEN JOSEPH 

SCHIFF, DAVID TEVELE 

SCHIFF, MEIR BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN 

SCHILLER-SZINESSY, SOLOMON MAYER 

SCHLESINGER, AKIVA JOSEPH 

SCHLIEFER, SOLOMON 

SCHMELKES, GEDALIAH BEN MORDECAI 

SCHMELKES, ISAAC JUDAH 

SCHONFELD, VICTOR 

SCHOR, ALEXANDER SENDER BEN EPHRAIM ZALMAN 

SCHOR, EPHRAIM SOLOMON (THE ELDER) BEN 

NAPHTALI HIRSCH 
SCHORR, ABRAHAM HAYYIM BEN NAPHTALI ZEVI 

HIRSCH 

schorr, moses (Mojzesz) 

schueck, jeno 

schulhof, isaac 

schuster, aaron 

schwab, low 

schwab, shimon 

schwabacher, simeon aryeh 

schwartz, abraham judah ha-kohen 

schwartz, joseph ha-kohen 

schwartz, phinehas (pinhas) selig ha-kohen 

(sigmund) 
schwarz, adolf (Aryeh) 

SCHWARZ, YEHOSEPH 

SCHWERIN-GOETZ, ELIAKIM HA-KOHEN 

SEFER HUKKEI HA-TORAH 

SEFIRAH, SAADIAH BEN JOSEPH 

SEGAL, GEDALIAH BEN ELIEZER 

SEGRE 

SEGRE, JOSHUA BENZION 

SEGRE, SALVATORE 

SEIGEL, JOSHUA 

SERERO 

SERERO, SAUL 

SEROR 

servi, flaminio (Ephraim) 

SFORNO, OBADIAH BEN JACOB 



SHABBETAI BEN MEIR HA-KOHEN (Shakh) 
SHAG, ABRAHAM 
SHAKI, ISAAC 

shalom, Abraham (Salonika) 

SHALOM SHAKHNA BEN JOSEPH 

SHAPIRA, ABRAHAN ELKANA KAHANA 

SHAPIRA, ELIJAH BEN BENJAMIN WOLF 

SHAPIRA, JOSHUA ISAAC BEN JEHIEL 

SHAPIRA, MEIR 

SHAPIRO, ARYEH LEIB BEN ISAAC 

SHAPIRO, SAUL BEN DOV 

SHATZKES, MOSES 

SHKOP, SIMEON JUDAH 

SHREIER, FEIWEL 

SHVADRON, SHALOM MORDECAI BEN MOSES 

SIBONI 

SICHER, GUSTAV 

SID, SAMUEL IBN 

SIDON, SIMEON 

SIERRA, SERGIO JOSEPH 

SILBER, SAUL 

SILBERSTEIN, DAVID JUDAH LEIB 

SILBERSTEIN, SOLOMON JOSEPH 

SILVA, JOSHUA DA 

SILVER, ELIEZER 

SILVERSTONE, GEDALYAH 

SIMHAH BEN SAMUEL OF SPEYER 

SINGER, ABRAHAM 

SINGER, PESAH 

SINGER, SIMEON 

SINIGAGLIA 

SINZHEIM, JOSEPH DAVID BEN ISAAC 

SIRAT, RENE SAMUEL 

SIRILLO, SOLOMON BEN JOSEPH 

SIRKES, JOEL 

SITRUK, JOSEPH 

SITTEON DABBAH, SHAUL DAVID 

SIVITZ, MOSHE 

SLONIK, BENJAMIN AARON BEN ABRAHAM 

SOCHACZEW, ABRAHAM BEN ZE'EV NAHUM 

BORNSTEIN OF 
SOFER 

SOFER, HAYYIM BEN MORDECAI EPHRAIM FISCHEL 
SOFER, MOSES 
SOLA, ABRAHAM DE 
SOLOVEICHIK 
SOLOVEICHIK, AARON 
SOLOVEICHIK, HAYYIM 
SOLOVEICHIK, ISAAC ZEEV HA-LEVI 
SOLOVEICHIK, JOSEPH BAER OF VOLOZHIN 
SOLOVEICHIK, MOSHE 
SOLOVEITCHIK, JOSEPH DOV 
SOMEKH, ABDALLAH BEN ABRAHAM 
SONCINO, JOSHUA 
SONNENFELD, JOSEPH HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM 

SOLOMON 
SOROTZKIN, ZALMAN BEN BEN-ZION 
SPEKTOR, ISAAC ELHANAN 
SPERO, SHUBERT 
SPITZER, SAMUEL 



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SPITZER, SOLOMON 

STADTHAGEN, JOSEPH 

STEIN, ELIEZER LIPMAN 

STEIN, ISAAC 

STEINHARDT, JOSEPH BEN MENAHEM 

STEINHARDT, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN SIMEON 

STEINSALTZ, ADIN 

STERN, GERSHON 

STERN, JOSEPH 

STERN, JOSEPH ZECHARIAH 

STERN, MENAHEM 

strashun, mathias (Mattityahu) 

STRASHUN, SAMUEL BEN JOSEPH 

SUSAN, ISSACHAR BEN MORDECAI 

SUZIN, SOLOMON MOSES 

TABAK, SOLOMON LEIB 

TAENZER, ARNOLD (Aaron) 

TAGLICHT, DAVID ISRAEL 

TAM IBN YAHYA, JACOB BEN DAVID 

TANHUM BEN ELIEZER 

TANUJI, ISHMAEL HA-KOHEN 

TANUJI, JOSEPH BEN SHALOM HA-KOHEN 

TAUBES, AARON MOSES BEN JACOB 

TAUBES, HAYYIM ZEVI 

TEDESCHI 

TEITELBAUM, AARON 

TEITZ, PINCHAS (MORDECAl) 

TELUSHKIN, NISSAN 

TEMPLO, JACOB JUDAH (ARYEH) LEON 

TENNENBAUM, JACOB 

TEOMIM, AARON BEN MOSES 

TEOMIM, ARYEH LEIB 

TEOMIM, JOSEPH BEN MEIR 

TERNI, DANIEL BEN MOSES DAVID 

TEWELES, JUDAH 

THEODOR, JULIUS 

TIKTIN 

TIKTINSKI 

TOAFF 

TOLEDANO 

TOLEDANO, JACOB MOSES 

TOLEDO, MOSES DE 

TOUATI, CHARLES 

TRABOT 

TRANI, JOSEPH BEN MOSES 

TRANI, MOSES BEN JOSEPH 

trebitsch, nehemiah (Menahem Nahum) 

TREVES 

TREVES, JOHANAN BEN JOSEPH 
TRUNK, ISRAEL JOSHUA 
TYKOCINSKI, JEHIEL MICHEL 

ucko, Siegfried (Sinai) 

ULLMANN, SALOMON 
ULMAN, ABRAHAM 
UNGAR, JOEL OF RECHNITZ 
UNTERMAN, ISSER YEHUDA 
URI BEN SIMEON OF BIALA 
UZIEL 

UZIEL, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM 
VAEZ, ABRAHAM 



VENETIANER, LAJOS (Ludwig) 

VENTURA, MOISE 

VITAL, DAVID BEN SOLOMON 

VITERBO, JEHIEL HAYYIM 

VIVANTI, DAVID ABRAHAM 

VOLOZHINER, HAYYIM BEN ISAAC 

VOLOZHINER, ISAAC BEN HAYYIM 

VORST, LOUIS J. 

WAGENAAR, LION 

WAGNER, STANLEY M. 

WAHRMANN, ISRAEL 

WALDENBERG, ELIEZER JUDAH 

WALKIN, AARON 

WARSCHAWSKI, MAX 

WASSERMAN, ELHANAN BUNIM 

WEBER, KOLOMAN 

WEIL, NETHANEL BEN NAPHTALI ZEYI 

WEILL, MICHEL AARON 

WEINBERG, JEHIEL JACOB 

WEINER, ANTHONY D. 

WEINGARTEN, JOAB JOSHUA 

WEISS, AVI 

WEISS, ISAAC HIRSCH 

WEISS, ISAAC JACOB 

WEISS, JOSEPH MEIR 

WEISS, SAMSON 

WEISSMANDEL, MICHAEL DOV 

WEISZ, MAX 

WELLESZ, JULIUS 

WESEL, BARUCH BENDET BEN REUBEN 

WEYL, MEIR BEN SIMHAH 

WIEDENFELD, DOV 

WIERNIKORSKI, JUDAH 

WILDMANN, ISAAC EISIK 

WILLOWSKI, JACOB DAVID BEN ZEEV 

WILNA, JACOB BEN BENJAMIN WOLF 

WOGUE, LAZARE ELIEZER 

WOHLGEMUTH, JOSEPH 

WOLFF, ABRAHAM ALEXANDER 

WORMS, AARON 

WURZBURGER, WALTER S. 

XIMENES, SOLOMON MORDECAI 

YIHYE, ISAAC HA-LEVI 

YIZHAKI, DAVID 

YOFFEY 

YOSEF, OVADIAH 

YUDELOVITZ, ABRAHAM A. 

ZACUTO, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL 

ZAHALON 

ZARCHI, ASHER LIPPMAN 

ZECHARIAH AL-DAHIRI 

ZECHARIAH MENDEL BEN ARYEH LEIB 

ZE'EVI, ISRAEL BEN AZARIAH 

ZEMBA, MENAHEM 

ZEVI HIRSCH OF NADWORNA 

ZEVIN, SOLOMON JOSEPH 

ZIMMELS, HIRSCH JACOB 

ZIPSER, MAJER 

ZIRELSON, JUDAH LEIB 

ZOLTY, YAACOV BEZALEL 



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II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 
4. Rabbinics 
Biographies 

Aharonim (continued) 



ZOMBER, DOV BAER 

ZOREF, JOSHUA HESHEL BEN JOSEPH 
ZUCKER, MOSHE 

ZUCKERMANDEL, MOSES SAMUEL 
ZUENZ, ARYEH LEIB BEN MOSES 

Conservative Rabbis 

ABRAMOWITZ, HERMAN 

ADLER, MORRIS 

AGUS, JACOB BERNARD 

ARONSON, DAVID 

ARZT, MAX 

BERMAN, MYRON 

BETTELHEIM, ALBERT (Aaron) SIEGFRIED 

BLUMENTHAL, AARON 

BOHNEN, ELI AARON 

BOKSER, BEN ZION 

BOSNIAK, JACOB 

BURSTEIN, ABRAHAM 

CANTOR, BERNARD 

CASS, SAMUEL 

CHANOVER, HYMAN 

CHIEL, ARTHUR 

CHIEL, SAMUEL 

COHEN, ARMOND 

COHEN, MORTIMER JOSEPH 

COHEN, SEYMOUR J. 

DAVIDSON, MAX DAVID 

DRESNER, SAMUEL 

DROB, MAX 

EICHLER, MENAHEM 

EILBERG, AMY 

EPSTEIN, GILBERT 

EPSTEIN, HARRY 

EPSTEIN, LOUIS M. 

FEINBERG, LOUIS 

FINKELSTEIN, LOUIS 

FRIEDMAN, THEODORE 

GEFFEN, JOEL 

GELB, MAX 

GINZBERG, LOUIS 

GOLDFEDER, FISHEL 

GOLDMAN, ISRAEL 

GOLDMAN, SOLOMON 

GOLDSTEIN, ISRAEL 

GOLINKIN, DAVID 

GOODBLATT, MORRIS 

GORDON, ALBERT I. 

GREENBERG, LOUIS 

GREENBERG, SIDNEY 

GREENBERG, SIMON 

HAILPERIN, HERMAN 

HALPERN, HARRY 

HAMMER, REUVEN 



HILLEL 



HARF, HANNS 
HARLOW, JULIUS 
HAUPTMAN, JUDITH 
HERSHMAN, ABRAHAM M. 
HERTZBERG, ARTHUR 
HIGGER, MICHAEL 
KARP, ABRAHAM J. 
KAUVAR, CHARLES ELIEZER 
KELMAN, WOLFE 
KIEVAL, HERMAN 
KLEIN, ISAAC 
KOGEN, DAVID 
KOHN, JACOB 
KREITMAN, BENJAMIN 
KURTZ, VERNON 
KUSHNER, HAROLD 
LEHRMAN, IRVING 
LEVI, SAMAUEL GERSON 
LEVITSKY, LOUIS MOSES 
LIEBER, DAVID 
MALEV, WILLIAM S. 
MANDELBAUM, BERNARD 
MATT, C. DAVID 
MEYER, MARSHALL 
MINKIN, JACOB SAMUEL 
MORAIS, SABATO 
NADICH, JUDAH 
NEULANDER, ARTHUR 
NOVECK, SIMON 
PARZEN, HERBERT 
PRESSMAN, JACOB 
RABINOWITZ, STANLEY 
ROTH, JOEL 

ROUTTENBERG, MAX JONAH 
RUBENOVITZ, HERMAN H. 
SANDROW, EDWARD T. 
SARACHEK, JOSEPH 

schechter, solomon (Shneur Zalman) 

SCHILD, EDWIN 
SEGAL, BERNARD 
SHAPIRO, ALEXANDER 
SHUBOW, JOSEPH 
SHUCHAT, WILFRED 
SIEGEL, SEYMOUR 
SILVERMAN, MORRIS 
SILVERSTEIN, ALAN 
SIMON, RALPH 
SLONIM, REUBEN 
SOLOMON, ELIAS L. 
STAMPFER, JOSHUA 
STEINBERG, MILTON 
STERNSTEIN, JOSEPH PHILIP 
TEPLITZ, SAUL 
WAXMAN, MORDECAI 
WOLPE, HOWARD ELLIOT 
ZELIZER, NATHAN 

Reform Rabbis 

AARON, ISRAEL 
AARONSOHN, MICHAEL 



212 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



ADLER, LAZARUS LEVI 

ADLER, LIEBMANN 

ASHER, JOSEPH 

AUB, JOSEPH 

AUERBACH, ISAAC LEVIN 

BACKMAN, JULES 

BAMBERGER, BERNARD JACOB 

BARNSTON, HENRY 

BARON, JOSEPH LOUIS 

BEBE, PAULINE 

BEERMAN, LEONARD 

BENJAMIN, RAPHAEL 

BERGER, ELMER 

BERKOWITZ, HENRY 

BERLIN, SAUL BEN ZEVI HIRSCH LEVIN (Saul 

Hirschel) 

BERMAN, MORTON MAYER 

BERNSTEIN, PHILIP SIDNEY 

BETTAN, ISRAEL 

BLANK, SHELDON HAAS 

BLOCH, JOSHUA 

BLOCH, PHILIPP 

BRASCH, RUDOLPH 

BRAUDE, WILLIAM GORDON 

BRICKNER, BALFOUR 

BRICKNER, BARNETT ROBERT 

BRONSTEIN, HERBERT 

BROWNE, EDWARD B.M. 

BROWNE, LEWIS 

CALISCH, EDWARD NATHAN 

CHORIN, AARON 

COFFEE, RUDOLPH I. 

COHEN, HENRY 

COHEN, JACOB XENAB 

COHN, ELKAN 

COHON, SAMUEL SOLOMON 

CRONBACH, ABRAHAM 

CURRICK, MAX COHEN 

DAVIDSON, DAVID 

DIENEMANN, MAX 

DREYFUS, STANLEY 

EHRENREICH, BERNARD 

EICHHORN, DAVID M. 

EINHORN, DAVID 

EINHORN, IGNAZ 

EISENDRATH, MAURICE NATHAN 

ELIASSOFF, HERMAN 

ELLENSON, DAVID HARRY 

ELZAS, BARNETT ABRAHAM 

enelow, hyman (Hillel Gershom) 

EPPENSTEIN, SIMON 
ETTELESON, HARRY 
FARHI, DANIEL 
FARHI, GABRIEL 
FEIBELMAN, JULIAN BECK 
FEINBERG, ABRAHAM L. 
FELDMAN, ABRAHAM JEHIEL 
FELSENTHAL, BERNHARD 
FEUER, LEON ISRAEL 
FEUERLICHT, MORRIS M. 



FINEBERG, SOLOMON ANDHIL 

FINESHRIBER, WILLIAM HOWARD 

FINK, JOSEPH L. 

FISCHER, GYULA 

FRANKL, PINKUS FRITZ (Pinhas) 

FRANKLIN, LEO MORRIS 

FREEHOF, SOLOMON BENNETT 

FREUDENTHAL, MAX 

FRIEDER, ARMIN 

FRISCH, EPHRAIM 

GEIGER, ABRAHAM 

GLASER, JOSEPH 

GOLDENSON, SAMUEL HARRY 

GOLDSTEIN, ELYSE 

GOLDSTEIN, SIDNEY EMANUEL 

GORDON, NATHAN 

GOTTHEIL, GUSTAV 

GOTTSCHALK, ALFRED 

GOUDEKET, MAURITS 

GRYN, HUGO 

GUTHEIM, JAMES KOPPEL 

HABERMAN, JOSHUA 

HARRIS, MAURICE 

HARRISON, LEON 

HELLER 

HERXHEIMER, SALOMON 

HESS, MENDEL 

HIRSCH, EMIL GUSTAVE 

HIRSCH, RICHARD 

HIRSCH, SAMUEL 

HOCHEIMER, HENRY 

HOFFMAN, LAWRENCE I. 

HOLDHEIM, SAMUEL 

ISRAEL, EDWARD LEOPOLD 

ISSERMAN, FERDINAND MYRON 

JACOB, WALTER 

JOSEPH, MORRIS 

KAHN, ROBERT 

KLEIN, EDWARD E. 

KLEIN, GOTTLIEB 

KLENICKI, LEON 

kley, eduard (Israel) 

KOBER, ADOLF 
KOHLBACH, BERTALAN 
KOHLER, KAUFMANN 
KOHN, ABRAHAM 
KORN, BERTRAM WALLACE 
KRAUSKOPF, JOSEPH 
KRONISH, LEON 
KUSHNER, LAWRENCE 
LANDMAN, ISAAC 
LAUTERBACH, JACOB ZALLEL 
LAZARON, MORRIS SAMUEL 
LEIMDOERFER, DAVID 
LEIPZIGER, EMIL WILLIAM 
LELYVELD, ARTHUR JOSEPH 
LEVINGER, LEE JOSEPH 
LEVY, CLIFTON HARBY 
LEVY, FELIX ALEXANDER 
LEVY, JOSEPH LEONARD 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



213 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 
4. Rabbinics 
Biographies 

Reform Rabbis (continued) 

LIEBMAN, JOSHUA LOTH 

lilienthal, max (Menahem) 

LIPMAN, EUGENE JAY 
LOEW, IMMANUEL 
LOEW, LEOPOLD (LipOt) 
LOEWENSTEIN, BERNHARD 
LOOKSTEIN, HASKELL 
MAGNIN, EDGAR FOGEL 
MALINO, JEROME 
MANNHEIMER, ISAAC NOAH 
MARCUS, JACOB RADER 
MARK, JULIUS 
MARTIN, BERNARD 
MAYBAUM, IGNAZ 
MERZBACHER, LEO 
MEYER, MARTIN ABRAHAM 
MIELZINER, MOSES 
MIHALY, EUGENE 
MINDA, ALBERT 
MORGENSTERN, JULIAN 
MOSES, ADOLPH 
MOSES, ISAAC S. 
NAROT, JOSEPH 
NEUMARK, DAVID 
NEWFIELD, MORRIS 
NEWMAN, LOUIS ISRAEL 
NUSSBAUM, MAX 
NUSSBAUM, PERRY 
OFFNER, STACY 
OLAN, LEVI 
OLITZKY, KERRY 
PERLZWEIG, MAURICE L. 
PETUCHOWSKI, JAKOB JOSEF 
PHILIPSON, DAVID 
PILCHIK, ELY EMANUEL 
PLAUT, W. GUNTHER 
POLISH, DAVID 
POZNANSKI, GUSTAVUS 
PRIESAND, SALLY 
RAISIN, JACOB ZALMAN 
RAISIN, MAX 
REGNER, SIDNEY 
RIEGER, PAUL 

RITTER, IMMANUEL HEINRICH 
ROSENAU, WILLIAM 
ROSENTHAL, FERDINAND 
ROTHSCHILD, JACOB M. 
RUDERMAN, DAVID 
RUDIN, JACOB PHILIP 
SAMFIELD, MAX 
SAPERSTEIN, DAVID 
SAPERSTEIN, HAROLD 
SCHAALMAN, HERMAN 
SCHANFARBER, TOBIAS 



SCHINDLER, ALEXANDER M. 
SCHINDLER, SOLOMON 
SCHULMAN, SAMUEL 
SCHWARTZMAN, SYLVAN D. 
SHANKMAN, JACOB K. 
SHULMAN, CHARLES E. 
SILVER, ABBA HILLEL 
SILVER, DANIEL J 
SILVERMAN, JOSEPH 
SIMON, ABRAM 
SOBEL, RONALD 
SONDERLING, JACOB 
STEINBACH, ALEXANDER ALAN 
STEINBERG, PAUL 
STERN, CHAIM 
STERN, JACK 

STERN, MALCOLM HENRY 
STOLZ, JOSEPH 
TRACHTENBERG, JOSHUA 
VOORSANGER, JACOB 
WASHOFSKY, MARK 
WECHSLER, JUDAH 
WEINSTEIN, JACOB 
WIENER, MAX 
WILHELM, KURT 
WISE, ISAAC MAYER 
WISE, JONAH BONDI 
WOLF, ALFRED 
WOLF, ARNOLD J. 
WOLSEY, LOUIS 
YOFFIE, ERIC 
ZELDIN, ISAIAH 
ZIMMERMAN, SHELDON 
ZIPSER, MAJER 
ZLOTOWITZ, BERNARD 
ZOLA, GARY P. 

Reconstructionist and Other Rabbis 

BECKER, LAVY M. 
COHEN, JACK 
EISENSTEIN, IRA 
KOHN, EUGENE 
SASSO, SANDY 
SHAPIRO, RAMI 
STRASSFELD, MICHAEL 
TEUTSCH, DAVID 
VORSPAN, MAX 



5. KABBALAH & JEWISH MYSTICISM 
Main Surveys 



KABBALAH 



General Entries 

academy on high 
adam kadmon 

ALCHEMY 
ALLEGORY 

ALPHABET, HEBREW, IN MIDRASH, TALMUD, AND 
KABBALAH 



214 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



ANTHROPOMORPHISM 

ANTINOMIANISM 

BAAL SHEM 

CHIROMANCY 

COMMANDMENTS, REASONS FOR 

DAVID 

DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY 

DEVEKUT 

DIBBUK 

EIN-SOF 

ELIJAH 

EMANATION 

ESCHATOLOGY 

ETHICAL LITERATURE 

GEMATRIA 

GILGUL 

GOD 

GOD, NAMES OF 

GOLEM 

HIBBUT HA-KEVER 

JERUSALEM 

MAGGID 

MEDITATION 

MENORAH 

MERKABAH MYSTICISM 

MICHAEL AND GABRIEL 

PROVIDENCE 

RAPHAEL 

RAZIEL 

REDEMPTION 

SABBATH 

SACRIFICE 

SAMAEL 

SANDALFON 

SEFIROT 

SHIUR KOMAH 

SONG, ANGELIC 

SOUL, IMMORTALITY OF 

USHPIZIN 

WORLDS, THE FOUR 



KABBALISTIC LITERATURE 

AZILUT 

BAHIR, SEFER HA- 

IGGERET HA-KODESH 

KANAH AND PELIYAH, BOOKS OF 

MAAREKHET HA-ELOHUT 

RAZA RABBA, SEFER 

RAZIEL, BOOK OF 

RAZIM, SEFER HA- 

TEMUNAH, THE BOOK OF 

TOLEDOT HA-ARI 

ZOHAR 

BIOGRAPHIES 

AARON BERECHIAH BEN MOSES OF MODENA 

AARON SELIG BEN MOSES OF ZOLKIEW 

ABI-HASIRA 

ABRAHAM BEN ALEXANDER OF COLOGNE 

ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI (ha-Zaken) 



ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI BERUKHIM 

Abraham ben isaac (Gerondi) 

ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC OF GRANADA 

ABRAHAM BEN ISRAEL OF BRODY 

ABRAHAM BEN JEHIEL MICHAL HA-KOHEN 

ABRAHAM BEN SIMEON OF WORMS 

ABULAFIA, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL 

ABULAFIA, TODROS BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI 

ADADI, ABRAHAM HAYYIM BEN MASOUD HAI 

ADANI, MIZRAHI SHALOM 

AKIVA BAER BEN JOSEPH 

ALBAZ, MOSES BEN MAIMON 

ALBOTINI, JUDAH BEN MOSES 

ALCASTIEL, JOSEPH 

ALDABI, MEIR BEN ISAAC 

ALEMANNO, JOHANAN BEN ISAAC 

ALEXANDER SUSSKIND BEN MOSES OF GRODNO 

ALFANDARI, HAYYIM BEN ISAAC RAPHAEL 

ALGAZI, ISRAEL JACOB BEN YOM TOV 

ALGAZI, YOM TOV BEN ISRAEL JACOB 

ALKABEZ, SOLOMON BEN MOSES HA-LEVI 

ALMOSNINO, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC 

AMARILLO, AARON BEN SOLOMON 

ANGEL, BARUCH 

ANKAWA, ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI 

ARHA, ELIEZER BEN ISAAC 

ARZIN, JOSEPH BEN JACOB 

ASHER BEN DAVID 

ASHKENAZI, MALKIEL 

ASHLAG, YEHUDAH 

ATTAR, HAYYIM BEN MOSES (iBN) 

ATTIA, SHEM-TOV 

AYLLON, SOLOMON BEN JACOB 

AZIKRI, ELEAZAR BEN MOSES 

AZRIEL OF GERONA 

AZULAI 

AZULAI, ABRAHAM BEN ISRAEL 

AZULAI, ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI 

AZULAI, HAYYIM JOSEPH DAVID 

AZULAI, MASUD 

BACHARACH, NAPHTALI BEN JACOB ELHANAN 

BARAZANI, SAMUEL BEN NETHANEL HA-LEVI 

BARUCH 

baruch (ben Abraham) of kosov 

BASHIRI, YAHYA 

BASILEA, SOLOMON AVIAD SAR-SHALOM 

BAVLI, MENAHEM BEN MOSES 

BENAMOZEGH, ELIJAH BEN ABRAHAM 

BENJAMIN, ISRAEL 

BENJAMIN, MOSES 

BENJAMIN BEN ELIEZER HA-KOHEN VITALE OF REGGIO 

BIKAYAM, MEIR BEN HALIFA 

BRANDWEIN, YEHUDAH ZEVI 

BUSAL, HAYYIM BEN JACOB OBADIAH DE 

BUZAGLO, SHALOM BEN MOSES 

CARO, JOSEPH BEN EPHRAIM 

CASTELLAZZO 

CHOTSH, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN JERAHMEEL 

CORDOVERO, GEDALIAH BEN MOSES 

CORDOVERO, MOSES BEN JACOB 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



215 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 

5. Kabbalah & Jewish Mysticism 

Biographies (continued) 

CUENQUE (Cuenca), ABRAHAM BEN LEVI 

DATO, MORDECAI BEN JUDAH 

DAVID BEN ABRAHAM HA-LAVAN 

DAVID BEN JUDAH HE-HASID 

DELACRUT, MATTATHIAS BEN SOLOMON 

ELIASHOV, SOLOMON BEN HAYYIM 

ELIEZER FISCHEL BEN ISAAC OF STRZYZOW 

ELIJAH BEN RAPHAEL SOLOMON HA-LEVI 

ELIJAH PHINEHAS BEN MEIR 

EPSTEIN, ARYEH LEIB BEN MORDECAI 

ERGAS, JOSEPH BEN EMANUEL 

EYBESCHUETZ, JONATHAN 

EZRA BEN SOLOMON 

FALK, SAMUEL JACOB HAYYIM 

FANO, MENAHEM AZARIAH DA 

FORTI, JACOB RAPHAEL HEZEKIAH BEN ABRAHAM ISRAEL 

FRANK, JACOB, AND THE FRANKISTS 

GABBAI, MEIR BEN EZEKIEL IBN 

GALANTE, ABRAHAN BEN MORDECAI 

GALANTE, MOSES BEN MORDECAI 

GALATINUS, PIETRO (Petrus) COLUMNA 

GALLICO, ELISHA BEN GABRIEL 

GEDALIAH HA-LEVI 

GERONDI, JACOB BEN SHESHET 

GIKATILLA, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM 

GIORGIO, FRANCESCO 

GORDON, JEKUTHIEL BEN LEIB 

GRUENHUT, DAVID BEN NATHAN 

HABILLO, DAVID 

HAGIZ, MOSES 

HALFAN, ELIJAH MENAHEM 

HAMIZ, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH 

HANNOVER, NATHAN NATA 

HARIRI 

HART, JACOB 

HAYON, NEHEMIAH HIYYA BEN MOSES 

HAYYAT, JUDAH BEN JACOB 

HAYYIM ABRAHAM RAPHAEL BEN ASHER 

HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN 

HAZKUNI, ABRAHAM 

HERRERA, ABRAHAM KOHEN DE 

HOROWITZ, ISAIAH BEN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI 

HOROWITZ, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM 

HOROWITZ, SAMUEL SHMELKE OF NIKOLSBURG 

HOROWITZ, SHABBETAI SHEFTEL BEN AKIVA 

HOROWITZ, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN JOSHUA MOSES AARON 

HA-LEVI 
IBN GAON, SHEM TOV BEN ABRAHAM 
IBN MOTOT. SAMUEL BEN SAADIAH 
IBN SHEM TOV, SHEM TOV 
IBN WAQAR, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM 
IDEL, MOSHE 

ISAAC BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN 
ISAAC BEN SAMUEL OF ACRE 
ISAAC THE BLIND 



ISAIAH BEN ABRAHAM 

ISRAEL BEN JONATHAN FROM LECZYCA 

ISRAEL HARIF OF SATANOV 

JACOB BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN 

JACOB DAVID BEN ISRAEL ISSAR 

JACOB KOPPEL BEN MOSES OF MEZHIRECH 

JACOB NAZIR 

JAFFE, ISRAEL BEN AARON 

JAFFE, MORDECAI BEN ABRAHAM 

JAMAL, SULAYMAN 

JEHIEL MICHAEL (Michel) BEN ELIEZER 

JOLLES, JACOB ZEVI BEN NAPHTALI 

JONAH, MOSES 

JOSEPH BEN SHALOM ASHKENAZI 

JOSEPH DELLA REINA 

JOSEPH IBN SHRAGA 

JOSEPH IBN TABUL 

JOSEPH ISSACHAR BAER BEN ELHANAN 

JOSEPH JOSKE BEN JUDAH JUDEL OF LUBLIN 

JOSEPH MOSES BEN JEKUTHIEL ZALMAN 

JOSHUA IBN NUN 

JUDAH BEN YAKAR 

JUDAH LEIB BEN BARUCH 

KARA, AVIGDOR BEN ISAAC 

KATZ, NAPHTALI BEN ISAAC (ha-Kohen) 

KHALAZ, JUDAH BEN ABRAHAM 

KNORR VON ROSENROTH, CHRISTIAN 

KORAH, HAYYIM BEN JOSEPH 

KORAH, YIHYE BEN SHALOM 

LABI, SIMEON 

LANDAUER, MEYER HEINRICH HIRSCH 

LARA, HIYYA KOHEN DE 

LATIF, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM IBN 

LEON, ISAAC DE 

LIPSCHUTZ, SHABBETAI BEN JACOB ISAAC 

LOANZ, ELIJAH BEN MOSES 

LONZANO, ABRAHAM BEN RAPHAEL DE 

LONZANO, MENAHEM BEN JUDAH DE 

LURIA, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON (Ha-Ari) 

LURIA, JEHIEL BEN ISRAEL ASHKENAZI 

luzzatto, moses hayyim (Ramhal) 

MAHALALEL BEN SHABBETAI HALLELYAH 

MARCUS, AARON 

MENAHEM ZIYYONI 

MEYUHAS, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL 

MOLCHO, SOLOMON 

MOLITOR, FRANZ JOSEPH 

MOSES BEN MENAHEM GRAF 

MOSES BEN SHEM TOV DE LEON 

MOSES BEN SOLOMON BEN SIMEON OF BURGOS 

MUELLER, ERNST 

NAHMANIDES 

NAHMAN OF KOSOV 

NAVON, BENJAMIN MORDECAI BEN EPHRAIM 

NEHEMIAH HA-KOHEN 

NETHANEL BEN MESHULLAM HA-LEVI 

ORNSTEIN, MORDECAI ZEEV BEN MOSES 

OSTROPOLER, SAMSON BEN PESAH 

OTTOLENGO, SAMUEL DAVID BEN JEHIEL 

PINTO, JOSIAH BEN JOSEPH 



2l6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



POPPERS, MEIR BEN JUDAH LOEB HA-KOHEN 

RECANATI, MENAHEM BEN BENJAMIN 

REGGIO, ABRAHAM BEN EZRIEL 

REUBEN HOESHKE BEN HOESHKE KATZ 

REUCHLIN, JOHANNES 

RICCHI, RAPHAEL IMMANUEL BEN ABRAHAM HAI 

ricius, paulus (Rici) 

ROVIGO, ABRAHAM BEN MICHAEL 
RUNKEL, SOLOMON ZALMAN 
SABA, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB 
SAHULA, MEIR BEN SOLOMON ABI 
SAMUEL BEN ELIEZER OF KALVARIJA 
SANDZER, HAYYIM BEN MENAHEM 

sarug (Saruk), Israel 

SCHOLEM, GERSHOM GERHARD 

SHABBETAI ZEVI 

SHARABI, SHALOM 

SHEPHATIAH BEN AMITTAI 

SPIRA, NATHAN NATA BEN SOLOMON 

TAITAZAK, JOSEPH 

TAYYIB, ISAAC BEN BENJAMIN 

TEMERLS, JACOB BEN ELIEZER 

TISHBY, ISAIAH 

UCEDA, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC 

VALLE, MOSES DAVID BEN SAMUEL 

VIDAS, ELIJAH BEN MOSES DE 

VIGENERE, BLAISE DE 

VITAL 

VITAL, HAYYIM BEN JOSEPH 

VITAL, SAMUEL BEN HAYYIM 

WANNEH, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM 

wormser, seckel (Isaac Loeb) 

YAKHINI, ABRAHAM BEN ELIJAH 
YIZHAKI, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID 
ZACUTO, MOSES BEN MORDECAI 
ZAYYAH, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM IBN 
ZEMAH, JACOB BEN HAYYIM 



6. HASIDISM 
Main Surveys 

hasidism 

General Entries 

ADMOR 

BAAL SHEM 

CHABAD 

DAVID -GORODOK 

ETHICAL LITERATURE 

SEFER HA-HAYYIM 

ZAVAAT RIB ASH 



BIOGRAPHIES 

AARON BEN MOSES HA-LEVI OF STAROSIELCE 

AARON OF ZHITOMIR 

ABRAHAM BEN ALEXANDER KATZ OF KALISK 

ABRAHAM BEN DOV OF MEZHIRECH (ha-Malakh) 

ABRAHAM DOV BAER OF OVRUCH 

ABRAHAM GERSHON OF KUTOW 

ABRAHAM JOSHUA HESCHEL OF APTA (Opatow) 



ADAM BAAL SHEM 

ad el (Ba'al Shem Tov) 

ALEKSANDROW 

APTA, MEIR 

ARYEH JUDAH LEIB (the "Mokhiah") OF POLONNOYE 

ARYEH LEIB OF OZAROW 

ARYEH LEIB OF SHPOLA 

ARYEH LEIB SARAHS 

BARUCH BEN JEHIEL OF MEDZIBEZH 

BELZ 

BERNARD, HAYYIM DAVID 

BOBOV 

DAVID OF TALNA 

DOV BAER OF MEZHIRECH 

dworkin, zalman (Lubavitch) 

DYNOW, ZEVI ELIMELECH 

EGER, JUDAH LEIB OF LUBLIN 

ELIEZER BEN JACOB HA-LEVI OF TARNOGROD 

ELIMELECH OF LYZHANSK 

EPSTEIN, ISAAC BEN MORDECAI 

EPSTEIN, KALONYMUS KALMAN OF CRACOW 

GORA KALWARIA 

GRONER, DOVID YITZCHOK 

HALBERSTAM 

HANOKH OF ALEKSANDROW 

HAYYIM BEN SOLOMON TYRER OF CZERNOWITZ 

HAYYIM HAIKL BEN SAMUEL OF AMDUR 

HOROWITZ, PINCHAS 

HOROWITZ, SAMUEL SHMELKE OF NIKOLSBURG 

ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER BAAL SHEM TOV 

ISRAEL BEN PEREZ OF POLOTSK 

ISSACHAR DOV BAER BEN ARYEH LEIB OF ZLOCZOW 

IZBICA-RADZYN 

JACOB ISAAC HA-HOZEH MI-LUBLIN 

JACOB JOSEPH BEN ZEVI HA-KOHEN KATZ OF 

POLONNOYE 
JEHIEL MEIR (LIFSCHITS) OF GOSTYNIN 
JEHIEL MICHAEL (Michel) OF ZLOCZOW 
JOSEPH MOSES OF SALOSITZ 
KALLO, YIZHAK ISAAC (of Taub) 
KAMENKA, ZEVI HIRSCH OF 
KARLIN 
KAZIMIERZ 

KOBRIN, MOSES BEN ISRAEL POLIER OF 
KOIDANOV 
KORETS, PHINEHAS BEN ABRAHAM ABBA SHAPIRO 

OF 
KOTSK, MENAHEM MENDEL OF 

KOZIENICE, ISRAEL BEN SHABBETAI HAPSTEIN 
LACHOWICZE, MORDECAI BEN NOAH OF 
LAW AT, ABRAHAM DAVID BEN JUDAH LEIB 
LEINER, GERSHON HANOKH BEN JACOV 

lelov (Lelow) 

LEVI ISAAC BEN MEIR OF BERDICHEV 

LIPSCHUTZ, ARYEH LEIB 

LUDOMIR, MAID OF 

LUNIETZ, GEDALIAH BEN ISAAC OF 

LYUBESHOV 

MARCUS, AARON 

MARGOLIOUTH, MEIR OF OSTRAHA (OstrOg) 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



217 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

A. JEWISH 
6. Hasidism 

Biographies (continued) 

MEIR JEHIEL HA-LEVI OF OSTROWIEC 

MEISELS, UZZIEL BEN ZEVI HIRSCH 

MENAHEM MENDEL OF PEREMYSHLANY 

MENAHEM MENDEL OF VITEBSK 

MESHULLAM FEIVUSH HELLER OF ZBARAZH 

MODZHITZ 

MORDECAI OF NESKHIZ 

MOSES HAYYIM EPHRAIM OF SUDYLKOW 

MOSES LEIB OF SASOV 

MOSES SHOHAM BEN DAN OF DOLINA 

NAHMAN OF BRATSLAV 

NAHMAN OF HORODENKA 

PEREMYSHLYANY, MEIR BEN AARON LEIB OF 

PRZEDBORZ 

PRZYSUCHA, JACOB ISAAC BEN ASHER 

RADOMSKO, SOLOMON HA-KOHEN RABINOWICH OF 

RADOSHITSER, ISSACHAR BAER 

RADZYMIN 

RAPHAEL OF BERSHAD 

ROPSHITSER, NAPHTALI ZEVI 

ROTH, AARON 

RUZHIN, ISRAEL 

RYMANOWER, MENAHEM MENDEL 

RYMANOWER, ZEVI HIRSH 

SAFRIN, ISAAC JUDAH JEHIEL 

savran (Bendery) 

SCHNEERSOHN 

SCHNEERSOHN, ISAAC 

SCHNEERSOHN, MENACHEM MENDEL 

SHABBETAI BEN ZEVI HIRSCH OF RASZKOW 

SHAPIRA 

SHAPIRA, KALONYMOUS KALMAN 

SHAPIRA, YESHAYAHU 

SHNEUR ZALMAN OF LYADY 

SIMHAH BEN JOSHUA OF ZALOZHTSY 

SIMHAH BUNEM OF PRZYSUCHA 

SLONIM 

SPINKA, JOSEPH MEIR WEISS OF 

STERNBERG, SARAH FRANKEL 

STERNHARZ, NATHAN 

STRELISK, URI BEN PHINEHAS OF 

stretyn, judah zevi hirsch (Brandwein) OF 

TEITELBAUM 

TWERSKI, JACOB ISRAEL 

TWERSKY 

VIZHNITZ 

WAHRMANN, ABRAHAM DAVID BEN ASHER ANSCHEL 

WALDEN, AARON BEN ISAIAH NATHAN 

WARKA 

ZADOK HA-KOHEN RABINOWITZ OF LUBLIN 

ZE'EV WOLF OF ZHITOMIR 

ZEVI HIRSCH FRIEDMAN OF LESKO 

ZHIDACHOV 

ZUSYA OF HANIPOLI 

ZWEIFEL, ELIEZER 



B. OTHER 

1. CHRISTIANITY 
Main Surveys 

christianity 
church, catholic 
protestants 

General Entries 

Abraham's bosom 

albigenses 

antichrist 

APOSTLE 

ARMAGEDDON 

ARTHURIAN LEGENDS 

BAPTISM, FORCED 

BIBLE SOCIETIES 

BULLS, PAPAL 

CARNIVAL 

CATECHUMENS, HOUSE OF 

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE CHURCH 

CHURCH COUNCILS 

CIVILTA CATTOLICA, LA 

CRUSADES 

DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY 

DOMUS CONVERSORUM 

ECCLESIA ET SYNAGOGA 

EXCERPTA VALESIANA 

FRANCISCANS 

GNOSTICISM 

HUSSITES 

INQUISITION 

INSTITUTUM JUDAICUM DELITZSCHIANUM 

ISAIAH, ASCENSION OF 

ISAIAH, MARTYRDOM OF 

JESUITS 

JEWISH-CHRISTIAN RELATIONS 

LATERAN COUNCILS III, IV 

MANICHAEISM 

NAZARETH 

NEW CHRISTIANS 

NEW TESTAMENT 

PASSSOVER 

PILGRIMAGE 

REFORMATION 

SERMONS TO JEWS 

SOLOMON, ODES OF 

SOMREI SABAT 

TITHES, CHURCH 

VATICAN 

WANDERING JEW 



BIBLE 



AARON 



ABRAHAM 
ADAM 



CAIN 



DAVID 



EVE 



GOLDEN CALF 



218 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



ISAAC 

JERUSALEM 

JEZEBEL 

JONAH, BOOK OF 

JOSHUA 

MELCHIZEDEK 

MOSES 

NOAH 

Biographies 

ALCUIN 

ALEXANDER 

ALEXANDER, MICHAEL SOLOMON 

ALEXANDER OF HALES 

ALEXEYEV, ALEXANDER 

AMBROSE 

AMULO 

ANACLETUS II, PETER PIERLEONE 

ANDREW OF SAINT-VICTOR 

ANSELM OF CANTERBURY 

AQUINAS, THOMAS 

ARBUES, PEDRO DE 

ARNALDO OF VILLANOVA 

AUGUSTINE 

AVITUS 

BAR HEBRAEUS, JOHANAN 

BARRUEL, AUGUSTIN 

BARTH, KARL 

BASHUYSEN, HEINRICH JACOB VAN 

basnage, jacques christian (Basnage de Beauval) 

BATE, JULIUS 

BAUER, BRUNO 

BEA, AUGUSTIN 

BENEDICT 

BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX 

BERNARDINO DA FELTRE 

BERNARDINO DA SIENA 

BERTHOLD OF FREIBURG 

BERTHOLD OF REGENSBURG (RatiSDOIl) 

BONIFACE 

BORROMEO, CARLO 

BOSSUET, JACQUES BENIGNE 

BOUDIN, JEAN-FRANCOIS 

BRUNNER, SEBASTIAN 

BUCER, MARTIN 

BUDNY, SZYMON 

BUGENHAGEN, JOHANN 

BURCHARD OF WORMS 

BURCHARDUS DE MONTE SION 

CALIXTUS 

CALVIN, JOHN 

CAPISTRANO, JOHN (Giovanni) OF 

CARBEN, VICTOR VON 

CHIARINI, LUIGI 

CHRISTIANI, PABLO 

CHURCH FATHERS 

CLEMENT 

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

Crispin, gilbert (Gislebertus) 

CUSA, NICHOLAS OF 



damian, peter (Petrus Damiani) 

DIONYSIUS VAN RYCKEL 

DOMENICO GEROSOLIMITANO 

DOMINICANS 

DONIN, NICHOLAS 

DUNS SCOTUS, JOHN 

ECKHART, MEISTER 

EGIDIO DA VITERBO 

ELHANAN 

ELIANO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA 

ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM 

EUGENIUS 

EUSEBIUS 

FABRI, FELIX 

FERRER, VICENTE 

FIOGHI (FiOCChi), FABIANO 

FLORUS OF LYONS 

FULBERT OF CHARTRES 

GELASIUS I 

gratian (Franciscus Gratianus) 

GREGORY 

HADRIAN I 

HEBRAISTS, CHRISTIAN 

HELENA AUGUSTA 

HILDEBERT OF LAVARDIN 

HILDUIN 

HIRSCHENSOHN-LICHTENSTEIN, JEHIEL ZEVI 

HERMANN 
HONORIUS 

HOOGSTRAATEN, JACOB 
INNOCENT 
ISIDORE OF SEVILLE 
IVO (Ives) OF CHARTRES 
JACOB OF KEFAR SAKHNAYYA (Sama) 
JEROME 
JESUS 

JOHN THE BAPTIST 
JOHN CHRYSOSTOM 
JOHN PAUL II 
JOHN XXII 
JOHN XXIII 

JONA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA 
JUDAS 
JULIUS III 
JUSTIN MARTYR 

KOBIELSKI, FRANCISZEK ANTONI 
KOLLONITSCH, LEOPOLD 
LEAO, GASPAR DE 
LEO 

LEVERTOFF, PAUL PHILIP 
LUSTIGER, JEAN-MARIE ARON 
LUTHER, MARTIN 
MARGARITA, ANTON 
MARTIN 

MELITO OF SARDIS 
MOROSINI, GIULIO 
NEANDER, AUGUST 
NICHOLAS 

NIEBUHR, REINHOLD 
NIGRI, PETRUS 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

B. OTHER 

1. Christianity 



Biographies (continued) 

NOLA, ELIJAH BEN MENAHEM DA 

OBADIAH, THE NORMAN PROSELYTE 

ODO OF CAMBRAI 

ODO OF CHATEAUROUX 

ODO OF SULLY 

OLESNICKI, ZBIGNIEW 

ORIGEN 

OROSIUS, PAULUS 

PABLO DE SANTA MARIA (el BurgUdlSe) 

PAUL IV 

PAUL VI 

PAUL OF TARSUS 

PETER OF BLOIS 

PETER OF CLUNY 

PFEFFERKORN, JOHANNES (Joseph) 

PIERLEONI 

PIUS X 

PIUS XI 

PIUS XII 

POPES 

PORCHETUS SALVAGUS 

QUARESMIUS, FRANCISCUS 

RABINOVICH, JOSEPH 

RAMON LULL 

RATISBONNE BROTHERS 

RAYMOND DE PENAFORTE 

RUDOLPH 

ruediger (Hutzmann) 

SIMON, RICHARD 
SIXTUS IV 
SULPICIUS SEVERUS 
TILLICH, PAUL 
WOLFF, JOSEPH 



2. ISLAM (SEE MUSLIM LANDS) 



3. KARAITES 
Main Surveys 

karaites 

biographies 

aaron ben elijah 
aaron ben joseph ha-rofe 
aaron ben judah kusdini 
abraham ben josiah troki 
abraham ben josiah yerushalmi 
abraham ben judah ben abraham 
abu al-faraj harun ibn al-faraj 
afendopolo, caleb ben elijah 

AG A 

ALFASI, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM 
ALI IBN SULEIMAN 
AL-TARAS, SIDI IBN 



ANAN BEN DAVID 

AZARIAH BEN ELIYAH 

BABOVICH, SIMHAH BEN SOLOMON 

BALI ABRAHAM BEN JACOB 

BALI, MOSES BEN ABRAHAM 

bashyazi (Bashyatchi) 

BASIR, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN HA-RO'EH AL 

BEGHI 

BEIM, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM 

BEN ZUTA ABU AL-SURRI 

BENJAMIN BEN ELIJAH 

BENJAMIN BEN ELIJAH DUWAN 

DANIEL BEN MOSES AL-QUMISI 

DARI, MOSES BEN ABRAHAM 

DAVID BEN BOAZ 

DAVID BEN HUSSEIN, ABU SULEIMAN 

DAVID BEN JOSHUA 

DAVID BEN SOLOMON 

ELIJAH BEN AARON BEN MOSES 

ELIJAH BEN ABRAHAM 

ELIJAH BEN BARUCH THE ELDER 

EZRA BEN NISAN 

FARAJ, MURAD 

firkovich, Abraham (Even Reshef) 

FIRUZ 

GIBBOR, JUDAH BEN ELIJAH 

HADASSI, JUDAH (ha-Avel) BEN ELIJAH 

hasan (Hussein) ben mashi'ah 

IBN AL-HITI, DAVID BEN SEADEL 

ibn fadanj (Fadanq) 

ibn saqawayh (Sakuyah; Saquyah) 

ISAAC BEN SOLOMON 

ISAIAH BEN UZZIAH HA-KOHEN 

ISHMAEL OF 'UKBARA 

Israel (ben Samuel?) ha-dayyan ha-ma'aravi 

JACOB BEN REUBEN 

JACOB BEN SIMEON 

JAPHETH AL-BARQAMANI 

JAPHETH BEN DAVID IBN SAGHIR 

JAPHETH BEN ELI HA-LEVI 

JESHUA BEN JUDAH 

JOSEPH BEN NOAH 

JOSEPH BEN SAMUEL BEN ISAAC RODI 

JOSIAH BEN SAUL BEN ANAN 

JUDAH BEN ELI (Elan) 

KALAI, SAMUEL BEN JOSEPH 

KALFA, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH 

KAZAZ, ELIJAH 

KIRKISANI, JACOB AL- 

KUKIZOW 

LABANOS 

LEONOVICH 

LEVI BEN JAPHETH 

LUZKI, ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH SOLOMON 

LUZKI, JOSEPH SOLOMON BEN MOSES 

LUZKI, SIMHAH ISAAC BEN MOSES 

MALINOVSKI, JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI 

MARZOUK, MOSHE 

MENAHEM BEN MICHAEL BEN JOSEPH 

MORDECAI BEN NISAN 



220 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



MOSES BEN ELIJAH HA-LEVI 

MOSES BEN ELIJAH PASHA 

MOSES BEN SAMUEL OF DAMASCUS 

NAHAWENDI, BENJAMIN BEN MOSES AL- 

nissi (Nissim) ben noah 

PIGIT, SAMUEL BEN SHEMARIA 

POKI, JUDAH BEN ELIEZER CHELEBI 

SAHL BEN MAZLI AH HA-KOHEN ABU AL-SURRI 

SAHL IBN FADL 

SALMON BEN JEROHAM 

SAMUEL BEN DAVID 

SAMUEL BEN MOSES AL-MAGHRIBI 

SAUL BEN ANAN 

SHAPSHAL (SzapSZal) SERAYAH 

SOLOMON BEN AARON (of Troki) 

SULTANSKY, MORDECAI BEN JOSEPH 

TAWRIZI, JUDAH MEIR BEN ABRAHAM 

tobias ben moses ha-avel (Or ha-Matik) 

TROKI, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM 
ZEPHANIAH BEN MORDECAI 
ZERAH BEN NATHAN OF TROKI 



4. MARRANOS 

General Entries 

CHUETAS 
MARRANO 

MARRANO DIASPORA 
NEW CHRISTIANS 

BIOGRAPHIES 

ABENAES, SOLOMON 

ABENATAR MELO, DAVID 

ABENDANA 

ABENDANA, ISAAC 

ABOAB, IMMANUEL 

ABOAB, ISAAC DE MATTATHIAS 

ACOSTA, CHRISTOBAL 

AGUILAR, DIEGO d' 

ALEMAN, MATEO 

ALVARES 

AMES 

ANTUNES 

ARIAS, JOSEPH SEMAH 

ASSUMPCAO, DIOGO DA 

AZEVEDO 

BARGAS, ABRAHAM DE 

BARRASSA, JACOB 

BARROS BASTO, ARTURO CARLOS DE 

BELMONTE 

BERNAL 

BRUDO, MANUEL 

BUENO 

CACERES, FRANCISCO DE 

CARDOSO 

CARDOZO, ABRAHAM MIGUEL 

CARDOZO, ISAAC 

CASTRO 

CASTRO, DE 

CASTRO, PEDRO DE 



castro sarmento, jacob (Henrique) de 

CASTRO TARTAS, ISAAC DE 

CORONEL CHACON, SIR AUGUSTIN 

COUTINHO 

CURIEL 

CHIRINO 

DIAS, LUIS 

ENRIQUEZ BASURTO, DIEGO 

FARIA, FRANCISCO DE 

FONSECA, DANIEL DE 

GOMEZ DE SOSSA, ISAAC 

GRANADA, GABRIEL DE 

HOMEM, ANTONIO 

JESURUN 

JESURUN, REUEL 

JUAN DE ESPANA 

JUAN DE VALLADOLID 

LAGUNA, DANIEL ISRAEL LOPEZ 

LAMEGO 

LOBATO 

LOPEZ, RODERIGO 

LOPEZ ROSA 

MACHADO 

MALDONADO DE SILVA, FRANCISCO 

MENDES, DIOGO 

MESQUITA 

MONTEZINOS, ANTONIO DE 

NASI, GRACIA 

NASI, JOSEPH 

NUNEZ 

NUNEZ, HECTOR 

OLIVER Y FULLANA, NICOLAS DE 

ORTA, GARCIA DE 

PAZ, DUARTE DE 

PENSO DE LA VEGA, JOSEPH 

pin a, jacob (Manuel) de 

PINEDA, JUAN DE 

PINTO DELGADO, JOAO (MoSSeh) 

prado, juan (Daniel) de 

PYRRHUS, DIDACUS 

ROBLES, ANTONIO RODRIGUES 

ROCAMORA, ISAAC DE 

rodrigues, dionisius (Diniz) 

ROJAS, FERNANDO DE 

SANCHEZ, ANTONIO NUNEZ RIBEIRO 

SENIOR, SOLOMON 

SILVA, RODRIGO MENDEZ DA 

SILVA, SAMUEL DA 

SILVEYRA, MIGUEL DE 

SOLIS 

TEIXEIRA, PEDRO 

TEIXEIRA DE SAMPAIO, ABRAHAM SENIOR (Diego) 

TEIXEIRA PINTO, BENTO 

TORRE, ALFONSO DE LA 

TREVINO DE SOBREMONTE, TOMAS 

USQUE, ABRAHAM 

USQUE, SAMUEL 

USQUE, SOLOMON 

VITORIA, FRANCISCO DE 

ZACUTUS LUSITANUS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



221 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



II. RELIGION 

B. OTHER (continued) 

5. SAMARITANS 
Main Surveys 

samaritans 

General Entries 

al-asatIr 

DUSTAN 
GERIZIM, mount 

Biographies 

abu al-fat 

abu al-hasan of tyre 
amram darah 
baba rabbah 



III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE 



A. JEWISH LANGUAGES 

Main Surveys 

alphabet, hebrew 
hebrew grammar 
hebrew language 
linguistic literature, hebrew 

MASORAH 

PRONUNCIATIONS OF HEBREW 
PROSODY, HEBREW 
SEMITIC LANGUAGES 
YIDDISH LANGUAGE 



JUDEO-ARABIC LITERATURE 

JUDEO-FRENCH 

JUDEO-GREEK 

JUDEO-ITALIAN 

JUDEO-PERSIAN 

JUDEO -PROVENCAL 

JUDEO-TAT 

KAF 

KOF 

LADINO 

LAMED 

MASORETIC ACCENTS 

MEDINAH 

MEM 

MIZRAYIM 

NAMES 

NEO-ARAMAIC 

NOTARIKON 

NUN 

OKHLAH VE-OKHLAH 

PE 

RESH 

SADE 

SAMEKH 

SHALOM ALEIKHEM 

SHIN 

TAV 

TET 

UGARITIC 

VAV 

YOD 

ZAYIN 



General Entries 

ABBA 

ABBREVIATIONS 

ABRACADABRA 

ABRECH 

ABU 

ACADEMY OF THE HEBREW LANGUAGE 

ACROSTICS 

AKKADIAN LANGUAGE 

AKKUM 

ALEF 

ARAMAIC 

ASH 

AYIN 

BAAL HA-BAYIT 

BET 

BRIT IVRIT OLAMIT 

DALET 

francos (Franji) 

GIMMEL 

GREETINGS AND CONGRATULATIONS 

HAKETIA 

HAPAX LEGOMENA 

HE 

HET 

JEWISH LANGUAGES 

JUDEO-ARABIC 



Scholars 

abraham ha-bavli 

alcalay, reuven 

almoli, solomon ben jacob 

auerbach, isaac eisig ben isaiah 

ave-lallemant, friedrich christian benedict 

avineri, yitzhak 

avrunin, abraham 

baer, seligman isaac 

baranowicz, david eliezer 

bar-asher, moshe 

bardach, Israel (Isaac hen ftayyim Moses) 

BARTH, JACOB 

BEN HAYYIM, ZEEV 

BEN ZEEV, JUDAH LEIB 

BEN-ASHER, AARON BEN MOSES 

BEN-ASHER, MOSES 

BEN-NAPHTALI, MOSES BEN DAVID 

BEN-YEHUDA, ELIEZER 

BLAU, JOSHUA 

BUCHNER, ZE'EV WOLF BEN DAVID HA-KOHEN 

BURSTEIN, ISRAEL 

campen (Campensis), Johannes Van 

CASTELL, EDMUND 
DOTAN, ARON 
EVEN-SHOSHAN, AVRAHAM 
GOSHEN-GOTTSTEIN, MOSHE 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



HARKAVY, ALEXANDER 

HAYYUJ, JUDAH (Jahah) BEN DAVID 

IBN BARUN, ABU IBRAHIM ISAAC BEN JOSEPH IBN 

BENVENISTE 
IBN JANAH, JONAH 
IBN QURAYSH, JUDAH 
IBN YASHUSH, ISAAC ABU IBRAHIM 
JACOB BEN HAYYIM BEN ISAAC IBN ADONIJAH 
JACOB KOPPEL BEN AARON SASSLOWER 
JEKUTHIEL BEN JUDAH HA-KOHEN 
JOSEPH BEN DAVID HA-YEVANI 
KADDARI, MENAHEM ZEVI 
KUTSCHER, EDWARD YECHEZKEL 
LARA, DAVID BEN ISAAC COHEN DE 
LERNER, HAYYIM ZEVI BEN TODROS 

levita, Elijah (Babur) 

LIFSHITS, SHIYE-MORDKHE 
MANI, EZRA 

MENAHEM BEN JACOB IBN SARUQ 
MORAG, SHLOMO 
MORDELL, PHINEHAS 
MOSES BEN HA-NESIAH 
PLANTAVIT DE LA PAUSE, JEAN 
POLOTSKY, HANS JACOB 
SAMSON HA-NAKDAN 
SARFATTI, GAD 
SCHAECHTER, MORDKHE 
SCHNEIDER, MORDECAI BEZALEL 
SCHULMANN, ELIEZER 
STEINBERG, JOSHUA 
WARSHAWSKY, ISAAC 
WEINREICH, URIEL 
WIZEN, MOSHE AHARON 
YALON, HANOCH 
YEIVIN, ISRAEL 
ZAMENHOF, LUDWIK LAZAR 
ZAND, MICHAEL 



B. JEWISH LITERATURE 

Main Surveys 

literature, jewish 

General Entries 

animal tales 

bibliography 

bibliophiles 

bibliotheque nationale 

biographies and autobiographies 

BOOKS 

children's LITERATURE 

DIBBUK 

ENCYCLOPEDIAS 

ETHICAL LITERATURE 

FABLE 

FESTSCHRIFTEN 

FOLKLORE 

GOLEM 

KALILA AND DIMNA 

MANUSCRIPTS, HEBREW 



PARABLE 

printing, hebrew 

science fiction and fantasy, jewish 

wandering jew 

Bible in Jewish Literature 

ABRAHAM 

ABSALOM 

ADAM 

AKEDAH 

ATHALIAH 

BABEL, TOWER OF 

BALAAM 

BELSHAZZAR 

BIBLE - IN THE ARTS 

CAIN 

CHERUB 

DANIEL 

DAVID 

DEBORAH 

ELIJAH 

ESTHER 

EZEKIEL 

GIDEON 

HEZEKIAH 

ISAAC 

ISAIAH 

JACOB 

JEPHTHAH 

JEREMIAH 

JERUSALEM 

JOB, BOOK OF 

JONAH, BOOK OF 

JOSEPH 

JOSHUA 

LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF 

MOSES 

Nebuchadnezzar (Nebuchadrezzer) 

NOAH 

PSALMS, BOOK OF 

RACHEL 

RUTH, BOOK OF 

SAMSON 

SAMUEL 

SAUL 

SODOM AND GOMORRAH 

SOLOMON 

SONG OF SONGS 

TEMPLE 



C. HEBREW LITERATURE 

1. MEDIEVAL 
Main Surveys 

POETRY 

General Entries 

ABRAHAM 

ALEXANDER THE GREAT 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



223 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE 

C. HEBREW LITERATURE 
1. Medieval 

General Entries (continued) 

ALLEGORY 

APOCRYPHA AND PSEUDEPIGR APH A 

AZ ROV NISSIM 

BEN HA-MELEKH VE-HA-NAZIR 

BEN SIRA, ALPHABET OF 

BIOGRAPHIES AND AUTOBIOGRAPHIES 

BODLEIAN LIBRARY 

COLOPHON 

DANIEL, VISION OF 

DERASHOT HA-RAN 

ELIJAH 

ELIJAH, APOCALYPSE OF 

EXEMPLA OF THE RABBIS 

EXEMPLUM 

FICTION, HEBREW 

FOUR CAPTIVES, THE 

HAGIOGRAPHY 

INCUNABULA 

INSTITUTE FOR THE RESEARCH OF MEDIEVAL 

HEBREW POETRY 
LETTERS AND LETTER-WRITERS 
MAGIC 
MAQAMA 

MEKIZE NIRDAMIM 
MOSES, CHRONICLES OF 
MUSAR HASKEL 
NAJARA, ISRAEL BEN MOSES 
NEVU AT HA-YELED 
PARABLE 
PARODY, HEBREW 
PEREK SHIRAH 
PIYYUT 

purim-shpil 

translation and translators 

uzza and aza'el 

wills, ethical 

Biographies 

aaron hakiman 

abbasi, jacob ben moses ibn 

abi zimra, isaac mandil ben abraham 

abraham ben halfon 

ABRAHAM BEN HILLEL (Ben NiSSim) OF FOSTAT 
ABRAHAM BEN SHABBETAI HA-KOHEN (Zante) 
ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON OF TORRUTIEL 
ABRAHAM OF SARTEANO 

ABULAFIA, EZEKIEL DAVID BEN MORDECAI 
ABULAFIA, TODROS BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI 

abun (Abuna, Bun) 

ACAN, MOSES DE TARREGA 

AHIMAAZ BEN PALTIEL 

AL-AVANI, ISAAC 

ALHADIB, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON BEN ZADDIK 

AL-HARIZI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON 

ali (ben David) 



ALTARAS, JOSEPH 

ALVAN BEN ABRAHAM 

ALVAREZ GATO, JUAN 

AMITTAI 

AMITTAI BEN SHEPHATIAH 

ARCHIVOLTI, SAMUEL 

aryeh judah harrari (ha-Yarbi) 

AVIGDOR, ABRAHAM 

BEDERSI, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC 

BENJAMIN BEN AZRIEL 

BENJAMIN BEN HIYYA (Jehiel) 

BENJAMIN BEN ZERAH 

BERECHIAH BEN NATRONAI HA-NAKDAN 

BONAFED, SOLOMON BEN REUBEN 

CASPI, SAUL 

DAVID BEN AARON IBN HASSIN (HuSSein) 

DAVID BEN MESHULLAM OF SPEYER 

DE PIERA, MESHULLAM BEN SOLOMON 

DE PIERA, SOLOMON BEN MESHULLAM 

DUNASH BEN LABRAT 

ELEAZAR BEN HALFON HA-KOHEN 

ELEAZAR BEN JACOB HA-BAVLI 

ELIJAH BEN ELIEZER PHILOSOPH HA- 

YERUSHALMI 
ELIJAH BEN SHEMAIAH 

ELIJAH CHELEBI HA-KOHEN OF ANATOLIA 
EZOBI, JEHOSEPH BEN HANAN BEN NATHAN 

farissol, jacob ben hayyim (Comprat; Vidal) 

FRANCES, IMMANUEL BEN DAVID 

FRANCES, JACOB BEN DAVID 

GABIROL, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH, IBN 

GALIPAPA, MAIMON 

GALLEGO, JOSEPH SHALOM 

GERONDI, ISAAC BEN JUDAH 

GERONDI, SOLOMON BEN ISAAC 

GIKATILLA, ISAAC IBN 

GIKATILLA, MOSES BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN 

HARIZI, ABU ISAAC ABRAHAM 

HISDAI IBN HISDAI, ABU AL-FADL 

IBN AL-RABIB, ABRAHAM 

IBN ALTABBAN, LEVI BEN JACOB 

IBN AL-TAQANA, MOSES 

IBN BARZEL, JOSEPH 

IBN BILIA, DAVID BEN YOM-TOV 

IBN EZRA, ISAAC 

IBN EZRA, MOSES BEN JACOB 

IBN GHAYYAT 

IBN HABIB, MOSES BEN SHEM TOV 

IBN HASDAI, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI 

IBN KAPRON, ISAAC 

IBN KHALFUN, ISAAC 

IBN MAR SAUL, ISAAC BEN LEVI 

IBN PAQUDA, DAVID BEN ELEAZAR 

IBN SAHL, JOSEPH BEN JACOB 

IBN SASSON, SAMUEL BEN JOSEPH 

IBN SHUWAYK, ISAAC BEN ISRAEL 

IBN ZABARA, JOSEPH BEN MEIR 

IBN ZABARRA, JUDAH 

IBN ZAKBEL, SOLOMON 

immanuel (ben Solomon) of rome 



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ISAAC 

ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM HA-GORNI 

ISAAC BEN HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM 

ISAAC BEN JUDAH 

ISAAC BEN JUDAH HA-SENIRI 

ISSACHAR, SIMHAH 

JACOB BEN ELEAZAR 

JACOB BEN JUDAH 

JACOB BEN NAPHTALI 

JACOB HA-KATAN 

joab the greek (Ha-Yevani) 

JOHANAN BEN JOSHUA HA-KOHEN 

JOSEPH BAR NISSAN 

JOSEPH BEN ASHER OF CHARTRES 

JOSEPH BEN ISRAEL 

JOSEPH BEN JACOB 

JOSEPH BEN KALONYMUS HA-NAKDAN I 

JOSEPH BEN SHESHET IBN LATIMI 

JOSEPH BEN SOLOMON OF CARCASSONNE 

JOSEPH BEN TANHUM YERUSHALMI 

JOSEPH BEN UZZIEL 

JOSHUA 

JOSHUA BEN ELIJAH HA-LEVI 

JOSIPHIAH THE PROSELYTE 

JUDAH BEN ISAAC IBN SHABBETAI 

JUDAH BEN MENAHEM OF ROME 

JUDAH HALEVI 

JUDAH HA-LEVI BEI-RABBI HILLEL 

KALAI, JOSEPH BEN JACOB 

KALLIR, ELEAZAR 

KALONYMUS BEN KALONYMUS 

LEONTE (Judah) BEN MOSES 

MATTATHIAS 

MEIR BEN ELIJAH OF NORWICH 

MEIR BEN SAMUEL OF SHCHEBRESHIN 

MERECINA OF GERONA 

MEVORAKH HA-BAVLI 

MOSES BEN JOAB 

MOSES NATHAN 

OHEV BEN MEIR HA-NASI 

PHINEHAS BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN (Kafra) 

PHINEHAS BEN JOSEPH HA -LEVI 

ROSSENA, DANIEL BEN SAMUEL OF 

SAADIAH 

SAHULA, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON ABI 

SAMUEL HA-SHELISHI BEN HOSHANA 

SANTOB DE CARRION 

SHABAZI, SHALEM 

she'erit HA-HAZZAN 

SILANO 

SIMEON BEN MEGAS HA-KOHEN 

SOLOMON BEN JUDAH HA-BAVLI 

SOLOMON SULIMAN BEN AMAR 

SOMMO, JUDAH LEONE BEN ISAAC 

YANNAI 

YEHUDI BEN SHESHET 

YOM TOV OF JOIGNY 

YOSE BEN YOSE 

zarko (Zarka), Joseph ben judah 

ZEBIDAH 



2. MODERN 
Main Surveys 

hebrew literature, modern 



General Entries 

allegory 
bikkurei ha-ittim 

DAVID 

HA-ASIF 

HA-TEKUFAH 

JERUSALEM 

KIRJATH SEPHER 

LETTERS AND LETTER-WRITERS 

MOZNAYIM 

PARODY, HEBREW 

BIOGRAPHIES 

ADELMAN, URI 

AESCOLY, AARON ZEEV 

AGMON, NATHAN 

AGNON, SHMUEL YOSEF 

AHAD HA-AM 

AKAVYA, AVRAHAM ARYEH LEIB 

ALFES, BENZION 

ALMANZI, JOSEPH 

ALMOG, RUTH 

ALONI, NISSIM 

ALTERMAN, NATHAN 

AMICHAI, YEHUDA 

AMIR, AHARON 

AMIR, ANDA 

AMIR, ELI 

ANOKHI, ZALMAN YIZHAK 

APPELFELD, AHARON 

ARICHA, YOSEF 

ASHER, ISAIAH BEN MOSES HA-LEVI 

ASHMAN, AHARON 

AVIDAN, DAVID 

AVIGUR-ROTEM, GABRIELA 

AVINOAM, REUVEN 

AVI-SHAUL, MORDEKHAI 

BACHER, SIMON 

BADER, GERSHOM (GuStav) 

BALLAS, SHIMON 

BARASH, ASHER 

BARON, DEVORAH 

BARTOV, HANOCH 

BAR-YOSEF, YEHOSHUA 

BASSAN, ABRAHAM HEZEKIAH BEN JACOB 

BAT-MIRIAM, YOKHEVED 

BAVLI, HILLEL 

be'er, HAIM 

BEHAK, JUDAH 
BEILIN, ASHER 
BEILINSON, MOSES ELIEZER 
BEILINSON, MOSHE 
BEJERANO, MAYA 
BEN YEHUDA, NETIVA 
BEN YIZHAK, AVRAHAM 
BEN-AMITAI, LEVI 



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III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE 

C. HEBREW LITERATURE 
2. Modern 

Biographies (continued) 

BEN-AMOTZ, DAHN 

BENJACOB, ISAAC 

BEN-NER, YITZHAK 

BEN-YEHEZKIEL, MORDEKHAI 

BEN-YEHUDA, HEMDAH 

BEN-ZION, S. 

BERDYCZEWSKI, MICHA JOSEF 

BERGSTEIN, FANIA 

BERKOWITZ, YITZHAK DOV 

BERNSTEIN, ORI 

BERSHADSKY, ISAIAH 

BERTINI, K. AHARON 

BIALIK, HAYYIM NAHMAN 

BICK, JACOB SAMUEL 

BIRKENTHAL, DOV BER 

BIRSTEIN, YOSSEL 

BLANK, SAMUEL LEIB 

BLOCH, SAMSON HA-LEVI (SimSOIl) 

BOSAK, MEIR 

BRAININ, REUBEN 

BRANDSTAEDTER, MORDECAI DAVID 

BRAUDES, REUBEN ASHER 

BRAUNSTEIN, MENAHEM MENDEL 

BRENNER, JOSEPH HAYYIM 

BRESSELAU, MEYER ISRAEL 

BRILL, JOSEPH 

BROIDES, ABRAHAM 

BROIDO, EPHRAIM 

BURLA, YEHUDA 

CAHAN, YAAKOV 

CARMI, ISAIAH HAI BEN JOSEPH 

CARMI, T. 

CASTEL-BLOOM, ORLY 

CHOMSKY, DOV 

CHURGIN, YAAKOV YEHOSHUA 

COHEN, ISRAEL 

COHEN, SHALOM BEN JACOB 

dagon, barukh (Asher David) 

DAY AN, YAEL 

DOLITZKI, MENAHEM MENDEL 

DOR, MOSHE 

druyanow, alter (Asher, Avraham Abba) 

DYKMAN, SHLOMO 

EHRENKRANZ, BENJAMIN (Wolf) ZEEB 

eichenbaum (Gelber), jacob 

ELISHEVA 

ELMALEH, ABRAHAM 

EPSTEIN, ABRAHAM 

EPSTEIN, ZALMAN 

ERTER, ISAAC 

EVER HADANI 

EYTAN, RACHEL 

FAHN, REUBEN 

FEDER, TOBIAS 

FEIERBERG, MORDECAI ZE'EV 



FEINSTEIN, MOSES 

FEITELSON, MENAHEM MENDEL 

FERNHOF, ISAAC 

FEYGENBERG, RAKHEL 

FICHMAN, JACOB 

FISCHMANN, NAHMAN ISAAC 

FRAENKEL, FAIWEL 

FRANCO-MENDES, DAVID 

FRANKEL, NAOMI 

FREHA BAT AVRAHAM OF MOROCCO 

FRIEDBERG, ABRAHAM SHALOM 

FRIEDLAND, ABRAHAM HYMAN (Hayyim) 

FRIEDMANN, DAVID ARYEH 

FRISCHMANN, DAVID 

GALAI, BINYAMIN 

GELDMAN, MORDECHAI 

GILBOA, AMIR 

GILEAD, ZERUBAVEL 

GINZBURG, SIMON 

GNESSIN, URI NISSAN 

GOLDBERG, LEA 

GOLDENBERG, SAMUEL LEIB 

GOLDIN, EZRA 

GORDON, JUDAH LEIB 

GORDON, SAMUEL LEIB 

GOREN, NATAN 

GOTTLIEB, JACOB 

GOTTLOBER, ABRAHAM BAER 

GOURI, HAIM 

GREENBERG, URI ZEVI 

GROSSMAN, DAVID 

GUENZBURG, MORDECAI AARON 

GUR, BATYA 

GURFEIN, RIVKA 

HABAS, BRACHA 

HACOHEN, MORDECAI BEN HILLEL 

HA-EFRATI, JOSEPH 

HAEZRAHI, YEHUDA 

HALKIN, SIMON 

HAMEIRI, AVIGDOR 

HAMENAHEM, EZRA 

HAMON, AARON BEN ISAAC 

HAREVEN, SHULAMIT 

HAZAZ, HAYYIM 

HENDEL, YEHUDIT 

HILLELS, SHELOMO 

HOFFMANN, YOEL 

HOGA, STANISLAV 

HOROWITZ, YAAKOV 

HOURVITZ, YA'lR 

HURWITZ, SAUL ISRAEL 

IMBER, NAPHTALI HERZ 

JAFFE, ABRAHAM B. 

KABAK, AARON ABRAHAM 

KADARI, SHRAGA 

KAHANA-CARMON, AMALIA 

KAMINER, ISAAC 

KAMSON, YAAKOV (Jacob) DAVID 

KANIUK, YORAM 

KAPLAN, PESAH 



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KARIV, AVRAHAM YIZHAK 
KARNI, YEHUDA 
KARU, BARUCH 

katz (Benshalom), benzion 

KATZENELSON, BARUCH 

KATZENELSON, ITZHAK 

KATZIR, JEHUDIT 

KENAANI, DAVID 

KENAN, AMOS 

KENAZ, YEHOSHUA 

KERET, ETGAR 

KESHET, YESHURUN 

KIMHI, DOV 

KINDERFREUND, ARYEH LEIB 

KIPNIS, LEVIN 

KISHON, EPHRAIM 

KLAUSNER, JOSEPH GEDALIAH 

KOHEN-ZEDEK, JOSEPH 

KOVNER, ABBA 

KOVNER, ABRAHAM URI 

KURZWEIL, BARUCH 

K. ZETNIK 

LACHOWER, YERUHAM FISHEL 

LAMDAN, YIZHAK 

LANDAU, JUDAH LOEB (Leo) 

LAOR, YITZHAK 

LAPID, SHULAMIT 

LEBENSOHN, ABRAHAM DOV 

LEBENSOHN, MICAH JOSEPH 

LEIBL, DANIEL 

LENSKI, HAYYIM 

LETTERIS, MEIR (Max) 

LEVI, JOSHUA JOSEPH BEN DAVID 

LEVIN, ALTER ISAAC 

LEVIN, HANOCH 

LEVIN, JUDAH LEIB 

LEVNER, ISRAEL BENJAMIN 

LEVONTIN, JEHIEL JOSEPH 

LEWINSKY, ELHANAN LEIB 

LICHTENBAUM, JOSEPH 

LIEBRECHT, SAVYON 

LIPSON, MORDEKHAI 

LISITZKY, EPHRAIM E. 

LUBOSHITZKI, AARON 

LUIDOR, JOSEPH 

MANDELKERN, SOLOMON 

MANNE, MORDECAI ZEVI 

MAPU, ABRAHAM 

MARKSON, AARON DAVID 

MATALON, RONIT 

MEGGED, AHARON 

MEITUS, ELIAHU 

MELTZER, SHIMSHON 

MENDELSOHN, FRANKFURT MOSES 

MEZAH (SEGAL) JOSHUA HA-LEVI 

MICHAEL, SAMI 

MICHALI, BINYAMIN YIZHAK 

MIRON, DAN 

MIRSKY, AARON 

MISHOL, AGI 



MOHR, MEIR 

MORPURGO, RACHEL 

MOSSINSOHN, YIGAL 

NATHANSON, BERNHARD (DOV Baer) 

OFEK, URIEL 

OMER, HILLEL 

OREN, RAM 

OREN, YIZHAK 

ORLAND, YAAKOV 

OR LEV, URI 

ORPAZ AVERBUCH, YIZHAK 

OVSAY, JOSHUA 

OZ, AMOS 

PAGIS, DAN 

PAPERNA, ABRAHAM JACOB 

PAPPENHEIM, SOLOMON 

PATAI, JOZSEF 

PENN, ALEXANDER 

PENUELI, SHEMUEL YESHAYAHU 

PERL, JOSEPH 

PERSKI, JOEL DOV BAER 

PINCAS, ISRAEL 

POMERANTZ, BERL 

POZNANSKY, MENAHEM 

PREIL, GABRIEL JOSHUA 

RAAB, ESTHER 

RABINOVITZ, ALEXANDER SISKIND 

RABINOWITZ, ELIAHU WOLF 

RABINOWITZ, YAAKOV 

RABINOWITZ, ZINA 

RAHEL 

RALL, YISRAEL 

RATOSH, YONATHAN 

RAVIKOVITCH, DALIA 

REGELSON, ABRAHAM 

REICH, ASHER 

REUVENI, AHARON 

RIBALOW, MENACHEM 

RIMON, JACOB 

RIMON, JOSEPH ZEVI 

RODIN, ELISHA 

ROKEAH, DAVID 

ROMANELLI, SAMUEL AARON 

ROSEN, ABRAHAM 

ROSENFELD, AHARON 

ROSENZWEIG, GERSON 

RUEBNER, TUVIA 

SACKLER, HARRY 

SADAN, DOV 

SADEH, PINHAS 

salkinson, isaac edward (Eliezer) 

SCHAPIRA, NOAH 

SCHATZ, ZEVI 

SCHORR, NAPHTALI MENDEL 

schur, zev wolf (William) 

SCHWARTZ, ABRAHAM SAMUEL 
SENED, ALEXANDER 
SERI, DAN BENAYA 
SHAANAN, AVRAHAM 
SHABTAI, AHARON 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE 

C. HEBREW LITERATURE 
2. Modern 

Biographies (continued) 

SHABTAI, YAAKOV 

SHAHAM, NATHAN 

SHAHAR, DAVID 

SHARED, GERSHON 

SHARESPEARE, WILLIAM 

SHALEV, MEIR 

SHALEV, YITZHAR 

SHALEV, ZERUYA 

SHALROVICH, ABRAHAM LEIB 

SHALOM, SHIN 

SHAMI, YITZHAR 

SHAMIR, MOSHE 

SHAPIRA, HAYYIM NACHMAN 

SHAPIRO, ABBA CONSTANTIN 

SHENHAR, YITZHAR 

shimon i (Shimonovitz), david 

SHIMONI, YOUVAL 
SHLONSRY, ABRAHAM 

shneour (Shneur), zalman 

SHOFMAN, GERSHON 
SHOHAM, MATTITYAHU MOSHE 
SILBERBUSCH, DAVID ISAIAH 
SILBERSCHLAG, EISIG 
SILRINER, BENJAMIN NAHUM 
SILMAN, RADISH YEHUDA LEIB 
SIVAN, ARYE 
SMILANSRY, MEIR 
SMILANSRY, MOSHE 
SMOLENSRIN, PEREZ 

smoli, eliezer (Smoler) 

SOBEL, JACOB ZEVI 
SOBOL, YEHOSHUA 
SOROLOW, NAHUM 
SOLODAR, ABRAHAM 
SOMECR, RONNY 

stavi (Stawsky), MOSES 

STEINBERG, JACOB 
STEINBERG, JUDAH 
STEINMAN, ELIEZER 

stern, max emanuel (Mendel) 

STERN, NOAH 

STRAUSS, ARYEH LUDWIG 

STREIT, SHALOM 

STRELISRER, MARCUS 

SUSSMAN, EZRA 

SUWALSRI, ISAAR 

SVERDLIR, ODED 

TABIB, MORDERHAI 

TALPIR, GABRIEL JOSEPH 

TAMMUZ, BENJAMIN 

TAWIOW, ISRAEL HAYYIM 

TCHERNICHOWSRY, SAUL 

TCHERNOWITZ-AVIDAR, YEMIMAH 

TEMRIN 

TENE, BENJAMIN 



TEVET, SHABBETAI 
TIDHAR, DAVID 
TOCHNER, MESHULLAM 
TRIWOSCH, JOSEPH ELIJAH 
TSALRA, DAN 
TWERSRY, YOHANAN 
URHMANI, AZRIEL 
UNGERFELD, MOSHE 
VOGEL, DAVID 
WALLACH, YONA 
WALLENROD, REUBEN 
WEINBERG, ZEVI ZEBULUN 
WEISSBERG, ISAAC JACOB 
WEISSBERG, MEIR (Max) 
WEISSMAN, BARUCH MORDECAI 
WEITZ, JOSEPH 
WERBEL, ELIAHU MORDECAI 
WERSES, SAMUEL 
WESSELY, NAPHTALI HERZ 
WIESELTHIER, MEIR 
WOLFOWSRI, MENAHEM ZALMAN 
WOYSLAWSRI, ZEVI 
YAARI, YEHUDAH 
YALAN-STERELIS, MIRIAM 
YEHOSHUA, AVRAHAM B. 
YEIVIN, YEHOSHUA HESCHEL 
YERUSHALMI, RINA 
YESHURUN, AVOT 
YIZHAR, S. 
YONATHAN, NATHAN 
YZRAELY, YOSSI 
ZACH, NATHAN 
ZAMOSC, DAVID 
ZARCHI, ISRAEL 
ZEITLIN, AARON 
ZELDA (MISHROVSRY) 
ZEMACH, SHLOMO 
ZHERNENSRY, MOSHE ELIYAHU 
ZITRON, SAMUEL LEIB 
ZMORA, YISRAEL 



D. YIDDISH LITERATURE 

Main Surveys 

yiddish literature 



General Entries 

biographies and autobiographies 

bobe-mayse 

bove-burh 

briyo ve zimro 

cambridge codex 

canadian literature (yiddish) 

children's LITERATURE 

CZERNOWITZ YIDDISH LANGUAGE CONFERENCE 

GOLDENE REYT, DI 

IN-ZIRH 

RHALYASTRE 

RI-BURH 

ROL MEVASSER 



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KULTUR-LIGE 

MAYSE-BUKH 

MELOKHIM BUKH 

PARIZ UN VIENE 

SHMUEL BUKH 

SOVETISH HEYMLAND 

SWEATSHOP POETRY 

THEATER 

TOPLPUNKT 

TSUKUNFT 

VIDVILT 

YIDDISH THEATER, FOLKSBIENE 

YIDISHE SHTIME 

YIDISHER KEMFER 

YIDISHES TAGEBLAT 

YIVO INSTITUTE FOR JEWISH RESEARCH 

YUNGE, DI 

yungman, moshe 
yung vilne 
ze'enah u-re'enah 



Biographies 

aaron ben samuel 

abramovitsh, sholem yankev (Mendele Mokher 



Seforim) 



ABTSHUK, AVRAHAM 

ADLER, JACOB 

ALPERSOHN, MARCOS 

ALTMAN, MOISHE 

ALTSCHUL, MOSES BEN HANOKH 

ANSHEL OF CRACOW 

AN-SKI, S. 

ASCH, SHOLEM 

ASHENDORF, ISRAEL 

AUERBACH, EPHRAIM 

AUERBAKH, ROKHL 

AUSLAENDER, NAHUM 

AXELROD, SELIK 

AXENFELD, ISRAEL 

AYALTI, HANAN J. 

BAAL-MAKHSHOVES 

BASMAN BEN-HAYIM, RIVKE 

BASS, HYMAN B. 

BASSIN, MOSES 

BEIDER, CHAIM 

BERGELSON, DAVID 

BERGER, LILY 

BERGNER, HERZ 

BERINSKI, LEV 

BERKOWITZ, YITZHAK DOV 

BERLINER, ISAAC 

BERNSTEIN, IGNATZ 

BIALOSTOTZKY, BENJAMIN JACOB 

BICKEL, SOLOMON 

BICKELS-SPITZER, ZVI 

BILETZKI, ISRAEL HAYYIM 

BIMKO, FISHEL 

BIRNBAUM, SOLOMON ASHER 

BIRSTEIN, YOSSEL 

BLUM, ELIEZER 



BOMZE, NAHUM 
BORAISHA, MENAHEM 
BOTOSHANSKY, JACOB 
BOVSHOVER, JOSEPH 
BRAININ, REUBEN 

bresch (Bres), judah loeb (Leo) ben moses 

NAPHTALI 
BRODER, BERL 
BRODERZON, MOYSHE 
BRYKS, RACHMIL 
BUBLICK, GEDALIAH 
BUCHWALD, NATHANIEL 
BURSZTYN, MICHAL 
CAHAN, JUDAH LOEB (Lewis) 
CALOF, RACHEL 
CHAGALL, BELLA ROSENFELD 
CHARNEY, DANIEL 
CHMELNITZKI, MELECH 
CORALNIK, ABRAHAM 
DANIEL, M. 
DEMBLIN, BENJAMIN 
DER NISTER 
DIK, ISAAC MEIR 
DILLON, ABRAHAM MOSES 
DINESON, JACOB 
DLUZHNOWSKY, MOSHE 
DOBRUSHIN, YEKHEZKEL 
DOLITZKI, MENAHEM MENDEL 
DROPKIN, CELIA 
DYMOV, OSSIP 
EDELSTADT, DAVID 

EHRENKRANZ, BENJAMIN (Wolf) ZEEB 
EINHORN, DAVID 
ELBERG, YEHUDA 
EMIOT, ISRAEL 
ENTIN, JOEL 
EPSTEIN, MELECH 
ERIK, MAX 
ESSELIN, ALTER 
ESTRAIKH, GENNADY 
ETTINGER, SOLOMON 
FALKOWITSCH, JOEL BAERISC 
FEFER, ITZIK 
FEIGENBAUM, BENJAMIN 
FEINBERG, LEON 
FELZENBAUM, MICHAEL 
FEYGENBERG, RAKHEL 
FININBERG, EZRA 
FOX, CHAIM-LEIB 
FRAM, DAVID 
FRIEDMAN, JACOB 
FUCHS, ABRAHAM MOSHE 
FUKS, LAJB 
FURMAN, YISROEL 
GEBIRTIG, MORDECAI 
GILBERT, SHLOMO 
GINZBURG, ISER 
GISER, MOSHE DAVID 
GLANTZ, JACOBO 
GLANZ-LEYELES, AARON 



H 



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III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE 

D. YIDDISH LITERATURE 
Biographies (continued) 

GLASMAN, BARUCH 
GLATSTEIN, JACOB 
GLICK, HIRSH 
GLUECKEL OF HAMELN 
GODINER, SAMUEL NISSAN 
GOLDBERG, ABRAHAM 
GOLDBERG, BEN ZION 
GOLDFADEN, ABRAHAM 
GOLDHAR, PINCHAS 
GOLDIN, EZRA 
GOLOMB, ABRAHAM 
GORDIN, ABBA 
GORDIN, JACOB 
GORDON, MIKHL 
GORDON, SHMUEL 
GORELIK, SHEMARYA 
GORIN, BERNARD 
GORSHMAN, SHIRA 
GOTTESFELD, CHONE 
GOTTLIEB, JACOB 
GOTTLOBER, ABRAHAM BAER 
GRADE, CHAIM 
GREENBERG, ELIEZER 
GREENBLATT, ALIZA 
GROPER, JACOB 
GROSS, NAPHTALI 
GROSS-ZIMMERMANN, MOSHE 
GRYNBERG, BERL 
GURSHTEIN, AARON 
GUTMAN, CHAIM 
HAIMOWITZ, MORRIS JONAH 
HALKIN, SHMUEL 
HALPERN, MOYSHE-LEYB 
HARENDORF, SAMUEL JACOB 
HARKAVY, ALEXANDER 
HARSHAV, BENJAMIN 
HEILPERIN, FALK 
HELLER, BUNIM 
HERMAN, DAVID 
HERSHELE 

HIRSCHBEIN, PERETZ 
HIRSCHKAHN, ZEVI 
HOFFER, YEHIEL 
HOFSTEIN, DAVID 
HORONTCHIK, SIMON 
HOROWITZ, BER 

hurwitz, chaim (Haykl) 

ICELAND, REUBEN 
IGNATOFF, DAVID 
IMBER, SAMUEL JACOB 
ISAAC BEN ELIAKIM OF POSEN 
IZBAN, SHMUEL 
JANOVSKY, SAUL JOSEPH 
JOFFE, JUDAH ACHILLES 
JUSTMAN, MOSHE BUNEM 
KACYZNE, ALTER 



KACZERGINSKY, SZMERKE 
KAGANOWSKI, EFRAIM 
KAHAN, SALOMON 
KALMANOVITCH, ZELIG 
KAPLAN, PESAH 
KARPINOVITSH, AVROM 
KASSEL, DAVID 
KATZ, ALEPH 
KATZ, DOVID 
KATZ, MENKE 
KATZ, MOSES 

KATZENELENBOGEN, URIAH 
KATZENELSON, BARUCH 
KATZENELSON, ITZHAK 
KAZDAN, HAYYIM SOLOMON 
KERLER, DOV-BER 
KERLER, YOYSEF 

kharik, izi (Itzhak) 

KIPNIS, ITZIK 
KOBRIN, LEON 
KOENIG, LEO 
KOENIGSBERG, DAVID 
KORN, RACHEL HARING 
KOTIK, YEKHESKL 
KRANTZ, PHILIP 
KULBAK, MOYSHE 
KURTZ, AARON 
KUSHNIROV, AARON 
KVITKO, LEIB 
LANDAU, ALFRED 
LANDAU, ZISHE 
LAPIN, BERL 
LATTEINER, JOSEPH 
LEE, MALKE 
LEHRER, LEIBUSH 
LEIBL, DANIEL 
LEIVICK, H. 
LERER, YEHIEL 
LEV, ABRAHAM 
LIBIN, Z. 
LICHT, MICHAEL 
LIEBERMAN, CHAIM 
LIESSIN, ABRAHAM 
LINETZKY, ISAAC JOEL 
LITVAKOV, MOSES 
LITVIN, A. 
LITVINE, M. 
LOCKER, MALKE 
LUDWIG, REUBEN 
LURIA, NOAH 
LUTZKY, A. 
MAGIDOV, JACOB 
MALACH, LEIB 
MANGER, ITZIK 

mani-leib (Brahinsky) 

MANN, MENDEL 
MARGOLIN, ANNA 
MARINOFF, JACOB 
MARKISH, PERETZ 
MARMOR, KALMAN 



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H 



MASTBAUM, JOEL 
MAYZEL, NACHMAN 
MAZE, IDA 
MEDRES, ISRAEL 
MENDELSOHN, SHELOMO 
MENDELSON, JOSE 
MESTEL, IACOB 
MILLER, SHAYE 
MINKOFF, NAHUM BARUC 
MIRANSKY, PERETZ 
MOLODOWSKY, KADIA 
MUKDONI, A. 
MYER, MORRIS 
NADIR, MOYSHE 
NAIDUS, LEIB 
NEUGROESCHEL, MENDEL 
NEUMANN, YEHESKEL MOSHE 
NIGER, SHMUEL 
NISSENSON, AARON 
NOMBERG, HERSH DAVID 
OLEVSKI, BUZI 
OLITZKY 

opatoshu, Joseph (Joseph Meyer Opatovsky) 

ORLAND, HERSHL 

ORNSTEIN, LEO 

OSHEROWITCH, MENDL 

OYVED, MOYSHE 

PAPIERNIKOV, JOSEPH 

PERETZ, ISAAC LEIB 

PERLE, JOSHUA 

PERLOV, YITSKHOK 

PERSOV, SHMUEL 

PINSKI, DAVID 

PREGER, JACOB 

RABINOVICH, JOSE 

RABON, ISRAEL 

RABOY, ISAAC 

RASHKIN, LEYB 

RAVITCH, MELECH 

RAZUMNI, MARK 

REBECCA BAT MEIR TIKTINER 

REISEN, ABRAHAM 

REJZEN, ZALMAN 

RESSLER, BENJAMIN 

REZNIK, LIPE 

RIVKIN, BORUCH 

ROCHMAN, LEIB 

ROGOFF, HARRY (Hillel) 

ROLNICK, JOSEPH 

ROSENBLATT, H. 

ROSENFARB, CHAVA 

ROSENFELD, JONAH 

ROSENFELD, MORRIS 

ROSSIN, SAMUEL 

RUBIN, HADASSAH 

RUBINSTEIN, JOSEPH 

SALKIND, JACOB MEIR 

SANDLER, BORIS 

SAPHIRE, SAUL 

SCHAECHTER-GOTTESMAN, BEYLE 



SCHNAPPER, BER 

SCHWARTZ, ISRAEL JACOB 

SCHWARZBARD, SHOLEM (Samuel) 

SCHWARZMAN, ASHER 

SEGAL, ESTHER 

SEGAL, JACOB ISAAC 

SEGALOWITCH, ZUSMAN 

SELIKOVITCH, GEORGE (Getzel) 

SFARD, DAVID 

SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM 

SHALOM ALEICHEM 

SHAMRI, ARIE 

SHAPIRO, LAMED 

SHAYEVITSH, SIMKHA-BUNEM 

SHEKHTMAN, ELYE 

SHMERUK, CHONE 

SHOMER 

SHPIGLBLAT, ALEKSANDER 

SHRAYBMAN, YEKHIEL 

SHTERN, ISRAEL 

SHTIF, NOKHEM 

SHULNER, DORA 

SHUMIATCHER-HIRSCHBEIN, ESTHER 

SIEMIATYCKI, CHAIM 

SIMON, SHLOME 

SINGER, ISAAC BASHEVIS 

SINGER, ISRAEL JOSHUA 

SPECTOR, MORDECAI 

SPIEGEL, ISAIAH 

SPIVAK, ELYE 

STEIMAN, BEYNUSH 

STEINBARG, ELIEZER 

STENCL, ABRAHAM NAHUM 

STERNBERG, JACOB 

STRIGLER, MORDECAI 

SUTZKEVER, ABRAHAM 

TABACHNIK, ABRAHAM BER 

TASHRAK 

TEIF, MOSHE 

TEITSH, MOYSHE 

TENENBAUM, JOSHUA 

TEPPER, KOLYA 

TKATCH, MEIR ZIML 

TOLUSH 

TRUNK, YEHIEL YESHAIA 

TSANIN (YESHAYE), MORDKHE 

TUNKEL, JOSEPH 

TUSSMAN, MALKA 

ULIANOVER, MIRIAM 

VEINGER, MORDECAI 

VERGELIS, AARON 

VINCHEVSKY, MORRIS 

WALDMAN, MOSHE 

WARSHAVSKY, YAKIR 

WARSHAWSKI, MARK 

WARSZAWSKI, OSER 

weinper (Weinperlech), zishe 

WEINREICH, MAX 
WEINSTEIN, BERISH 
WEISSENBERG, ISAAC MEIR 



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III. JEWISH LANGUAGES & LITERATURE 

D. YIDDISH LITERATURE 
Biographies (continued) 

WEITER, A. 
WELNER, PINCHES 
WENDROFF, ZALMAN 
WIENER, LEO 
WIENER, MEIR 
WISEMAN, SHLOIME 
WISSE, RUTH 
WOLF, LEIZER 
WOLPE, DAVID E. 
WOOG, MAYER 
YAKNEHAZ 
YEHOASH 
YOFFE, MORDECAI 
YUD, NAHUM 
YUDIKA 

ZABARA, NATAN 
ZARETZKI, ISAAC 

zinberg, Israel (Sergei) 

ZUNSER, ELIAKUM 
ZYCHLINSKA, RAJZEL 
ZYLBERCWEIG, ZALMAN 



IV. JEWS IN WORLD CULTURE 



A. ART 

Main Surveys 

architecture and architects 

ART 

CARTOONISTS 
PHOTOGRAPHY 
SCULPTURE 



GENERAL ENTRIES 

AGGADAH 

AN-SKI COLLECTIONS 

ANTHROPOMORPHISM 

ART COLLECTORS AND ART DEALERS 

ART HISTORIANS AND ART CRITICS 

BEZALEL 

BOOKPLATES 

BOOKS 

CALLIGRAPHY, MODERN HEBREW 

CALLIGRAPHY AND WRITING MASTERS 

CARICATURES 

GLASS 

GOLDSMITHS AND SILVERSMITHS 

LION 

MEDALISTS 

MEDALS 

PARIS SCHOOL OF ART 

PORTRAITS OF JEWS 

PRINTERS MARKS 

STAMPS 

TYPOGRAPHERS 

TYPOGRAPHY 



Bible and Second Temple in Art 

ABRAHAM 

ABSALOM 

ADAM 

AKEDAH 

ATHALIAH 

BABEL, TOWER OF 

BALAAM 

BELSHAZZAR 

BIBLE 

CAIN 

CHERUB 

COSTA, URIEL DA 

DANIEL 

DAVID 

DEBORAH 

ELIJAH 

ESTHER 

EZEKIEL 

GIDEON 

HABAKKUK 

HASMONEANS 

HEROD I 

HEZEKIAH 

ISAAC 

ISAIAH 

JACOB 

JEPHTHAH 

JEREMIAH 

JERUSALEM 

JOB, BOOK OF 

JOEL 

JONAH, BOOK OF 

JOSEPH 

JOSEPHUS FLAVIUS 

JOSHUA 

JUDAH MACCABEE 

JUDITH, BOOK OF 

MOSES 

NEBUCHADNEZZAR 

NOAH 

PSALMS, BOOK OF 

RACHEL 

RUTH, BOOK OF 

SALOME 

SAMSON 

SAMUEL 

SAUL 

SCROLL OF ESTHER 

SOLOMON 

SONG OF SONGS 

SUSANNA AND THE ELDERS 

TEMPLE 

TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS 

TOBIT, BOOK OF 



Ritual Art 

AMULET 

AMULETS, SAMARITAN 

ARK 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



BASILICA 

CEREMONIAL OBJECTS 

HANUKKAH LAMP 

ICONOGRAPHY 

ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS, HEBREW 

MENORAH 

NEW YEAR'S CARDS 

PAPER-CUTS 

PAROKHET AND KAPPORET 

PASSSOVER 

PEWTER PLATES 

PORTAL 

SABBATH 

SYNAGOGUE 

TAGIN 

TOMBS AND TOMBSTONES 

TORAH ORNAMENTS 



1. ARCHITECTURE 
Biographies 

abramovitz, max 

adler, dankmar 

agrest, diana 

aldrophe, alfred-philibert 

alschuler, alfred 

baerwald, alex 

baumgarten, sandor 

baumhorn, lipot 

black, sir misha 

blankstein, cecil n. 

bohm, henrik 

BREUER, MARCEL (Lajos) 
BRUNNER, ARNOLD 
BRYER, MONTE 
BUNSHAFT, GORDON 
DAVIS, HENRY DAVID 
DE KLERK, MICHEL 
DIAMOND, JACK 

eidlitz (Abraham Moses), zerah ben meir 

EISENMAN, PETER D. 
EIZENBERG, JULIE 
ELHANANI, ABA 
ELHANANI, ARYEH 
ELTE, HARRY 
FEUERSTEIN, BEDRICH 
FRANK, JOSEF 
FREED, JAMES INGO 
FREUND, VILMOS 
GAD, DEVORAH 
GANDELSONAS, MARIO 
GEHRY, FRANK O. 
GOERITZ, MATHIAS 
GOLDBERG, BERTRAND 
GOODMAN, PERCIVAL 
GORLIN, ALEXANDER 
GRUMBACH, ANTOINE 
HAJOS, ALFRED 
HANSON, NORMAN LEONARD 
HEGEDUS, ARMIN 
HERMER, MANFRED 



2. 



IDELSON, BENJAMIN 
JACOBSEN, ARNE EMIL 
JAKAB, DEZSO 
KAHN, ALBERT 
KAHN, ELY JACQUES 
KAHN, LOUIS I. 
KANTOROWICH, ROY 
KARMI, DOV 
KAUFMANN, OSKAR 
KAUFMANN, RICHARD 
KIESLER, FREDERICK JOHN 
KLARWEIN, JOSEPH 
KRAKAUER, LEOPOLD 
LAJTA, BELA 
LAMBERT, PHYLLIS 
LAPIDUS, MORRIS 
LASDUN, DENYS 
LE ROITH, HAROLD HIRSCH 
LERNER, JAIME 
LEVI, RINO 
LIBESKIND, DANIEL 
MALNAI, BELA 
MANDL, SAADIA 
MANSFELD, ALFRED 
MEIER, RICHARD 
MENDELSOHN, ERIC 
MESSEL, ALFRED 
MEYER-LEVY, CLAUDE 
MINDLIN, HENRIQUE 
NEUTRA, RICHARD JOSEPH 
PERSITZ, ALEXANDRE 
POLSHEK, JAMES 
PONTREMOLI, EMMANUEL 
QITNER, ZSIGMUND 
RATNER, YOHANAN 
RAU, HEINZ 
RECHTER 
REZNIK, DAVID 
ROGERS, ERNESTO 
ROSENBERG, EUGENE 
SAFDIE, MOSHE 
SAITOWITZ, STANLEY 
SCHINDLER, RUDOLPH M. 
SCHUMACHER, GOTTLIEB 
SCHWARTZ, FREDERIC 
SHARON, ARYEH 
STERN, ROBERT A.M. 
STRNAD, OSKAR 
TIGERMAN, STANLEY 
VAGO, JOZSEF 
VAGO, LASZLO 
YASKI, AVRAHAM 
ZELENKA, FRANTISEK 
ZEVI, BRUNO 

CARTOONING 
Biographies 

BLOCK, HERBERT LAWRENCE ("Herblock") 
CAPP, AL 
CHAST, ROZ 



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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

A. ART 

2. Cartooning 
Biographies (continued) 

CRUMB, ROBERT 

csupo, gabor (and Irene Klasky) 

EISNER, WILL 
ELDER, WILL 
ELISOFON, ELIOT 
FEIFFER, JULES 
FLEISCHER, MAX 
FRELENG, I. J. 

gardosh, kariel (Charles; "Dosh") 

GODAL, ERIC 
GOLDBERG, RUBE 
GOLDWATER, JOHN 
GROPPER, WILLIAM 
HIRSCHFELD, AL 
KANE, BOB 
KANE, GIL 
KELEN, IMRE 

kir by, jack (Kurtzberg) 

KURTZMAN, HARVEY 

LANGDON, DAVID 

LAZARUS, MEL 

LEE, STAN 

OPPER, FREDERICK BURR 

SHUSTER, JOE 

SIEGEL, JERRY 

SPIEGELMAN, ART 

STEIG, WILLIAM, SHREK 

STEINBERG, SAUL 

TIM 

TRIER, WALTER 

weisz, victor ("Vicky") 

ZEC, PHILIP 

3. PAINTING 
Biographies 

aberdam, alfred 
abrahams, ivor 

ABSALON 

ADLER, JANKEL (Jacob) 
ADLER, JULES 
ADLER, MORITZ 
ADLER, SAMUEL M. 
ADLIVANKIN, SAMUIL 
AGAM, YAACOV 
AIZENBERG, NINA 
ALCONIERE, THEODORE 
ALECHINSKY, PIERRE 
ALTMAN, NATHAN 
ALVA, SIEGFRIED 
AMSHEWITZ, JOHN HENRY 
ANCONA, VITO d' 
ANISFELD, BORIS 
APPELBAUM, MOSHE 
ARDON, MORDECAI 
ARIKHA, AVIGDOR 



AROCH, ARIE 

ARONSON, DAVID 

ASCHHEIM, ISIDOR 

ASKNAZI, ISAAC LVOVICH 

ATAR, HAIM 

ATLAN, JEAN 

AUERBACH, FRANK 

AVNI, AHARON 

AXELROD, MEYER 

BACHI, RAPHAEL 

BACON, YEHUDA 

BAITLER, ZOMA 

BAK, SAMUEL 

BAKST, LEON 

BALLIN, JOEL 

BALLIN, MOEGENS 

BARCINSKY, HENRYK 

BARLIN, FREDERICK WILLIAM 

BARNET, WILL 

BARUH, BORA 

BAYEFSKY, ABA 

BECK, WILLY 

BEERI, TUVIA 

BELKIN, ARNOLD 

BENDEMANN, EDUARD JULIUS FRIEDRICH 

BENN 

BENN, BEN 

ben-zion (Weinman) 

BERENY, ROBERT 
BERGNER, YOSSL (Yosef L.) 
BERLEWI, HENRYK 
BERNSTEIN, MOSHE 
BERNSTEIN, THERESA 
BEZEM, NAPHTALI 
BIHARI, ALEXANDER 
BIRNBAUM, MENACHEM 
BIRNBAUM, URIEL 
BLAU, TINA 
BLOCH, MARTIN 
BLOOM, HYMAN 
BLUM, LUDWIG 
BLUME, PETER 
BOGEN, ALEXANDER 
BOLOTOWSKY, ILYA 
BOMBERG, DAVID 
BORENSTEIN, SAM 
BORNFRIEND, JACOB 
BORNSTEIN, ELI 
BRAUNER, ISAAC 
BRAUNER, VICTOR 
BRAZ, OSIP 
BRAZER, ABRAM 
BRODSKII, ISAAK 
BROWN, AIKA 
BRUCK, LAJOS 
BRUCK, MIKSA 
BUDKO, JOSEPH 
CAGLI, CORRADO 
CAHN, MARCELLE 
CAISERMAN-ROTH, GHITTA 



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CARO-DELVAILLE, HENRI 

CARVALHO, SOLOMON NUNES 

CASSAB, JUDY 

CASTEL, MOSHE ELAZAR 

CASTELLAZZO, MOSES DA 

CENTERSZSWER, STANISLAWA 

CHAGALL, MARC 

CHAPIRO, JACQUES 

CHICAGO, JUDY 

CITROEN, ROELOF PAUL 

COEN, GIUSEPPE 

COHEN, BERNARD 

COHEN, HAROLD 

COHEN GAN, PINHAS 

COOPER, ALEXANDER 

CORCOS, VITTORIO 

COSTA, CATHERINE DA 

CZOBEL, BELA 

DANIELS, ALFRED 

DAVID, JEAN 

DE CHAVES, AARON 

DELAUNAY-TERK, SONIA 

DICKER-BRANDEIS, FREDERIKE 

DINE, JIM 

DONATI, ENRICO 

DONATI, LAZZARO 

EILSHEMIUS, LOUIS 

ENGELSBERG, LEON 

ESTEVENS, DAVID 

EZEKIEL, ABRAHAM EZEKIEL 

FEIBUSCH, HANS 

FEIGL, BEDRICH (Frifidrich) 

FENYES, ADOLF 

FEUERRING, MAXIMILIAN 

FIMA 

FOX, EMANUEL PHILIPS 

FRAENCKEL, LIEPMANN 

FRANKENTHALER, HELEN 

FREEDMAN, BARNETT 

frenkel (Frenel), itzhak 

FREUD, LUCIAN 
FREUNDLICH, OTTO 
FRIEDLAENDER, JOHNNY 
FRITTA 
GARBUZ, YAIR 
GERSHUNI, MOSHE 
GERTLER, MARK 
GIKOW, RUTH 
GILBERT, INA 
GLUCK, HANNAH 
GOLUB, LEON 
GOTTLIEB, ADOLPH 
GOTTLIEB, MAURYCY 
GROSS, MICHAEL 
GRUNDIG, LEA AND HANS 
GRUNDMAN, ZWI 
GUSTON, PHILIP 
GUTMAN, NAHUM 
GUTTMANN, ROBERT 
HAAN, MEIJER DE 



HAAS, LEO 

HALEVY, YOSEF 

HALTER, MAREK 

HART, SOLOMON ALEXANDER 

HAYDEN, HENRI 

HENSCHEL BROTHERS 

HERDAN, KURT LUCIAN 

HERLINGEN, AARON WOLF 

HERMAN, JOSEF 

HERMAN, OSKAR 

HILLMAN, DAVID 

HIRSCH, JOSEPH 

HIRSCHFELD-MACK, LUDWIG 

HIRSHENBERG, SAMUEL 

HIRSHFIELD, MORRIS 

HOROVITZ, LEOPOLD 

IBN HAYYIM, JOSEPH 

INLANDER, HENRY 

ISER, JOSIF 

ISKOWITZ, GERSHON 

ISRAELS, JOZEF 

IVANYI-GRUNWALD, BELA 

JANCO, MARCEL 

JUSTER, GEORGE 

JUSTITZ, ALFRED 

KADISHMAN, MENASHE 

KAHAN, LOUIS 

KAHANA, AHARON 

KANOVITZ, HOWARD 

KARAVAN, DANI 

KARS, JIRI 

KATZ, ALEX 

KATZ, HANNS LUDWIG 

KAUFMANN, ISIDOR 

KEMPF, FRANZ MOSHE 

KESTLEMAN, MORRIS 

KIBEL, WOLF 

KIKOINE, MICHEL 

KIRSCHSTEIN, SALLI 

KIRSZENBAUM, JESEKIEL DAVID 

KISLING, MOISE 

KITAJ, R. B. 

KLEIN, YVES 

KLINE FRANZ 

KOLNIK, ARTHUR 

KOPF, MAXIM 

KOPPEL, HEINZ 

KOSSOFF, LEON 

KRAMER, JACOB 

KRASNER, LEE 

KRAYN, HUGO 

KRESTIN, LAZAR 

KUPFERMAN, MOSHE 

KUZKOVSKI, JOSEPH 

LASZLO, PHILIP ALEXIUS DE LOMBOS 

LAVIE, RAFFI 

LEVANON, MORDECAI 

LEVINE, JACK 

LEVITAN, ISAAC ILITCH 

LEVY, RUDOLF 



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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

A. ART 

3. Painting 

Biographies (continued) 

LEVY-DHURMER, LUCIEN 
LICHTENSTEIN, ROY 
LIEBERMANN, MAX 
LIFSCHITZ, URI 
LISMANN, HERMANN 

lissitzky, el (Lazar) 

LITVINOVSKY, PINHAS 
LOEVENSTEIN, FEDOR 
LOUIS, MORRIS 
LOZOWICK, LOUIS 
MAGNUS, EDUARD 
MAIROVICH, ZVI 
MANE-KATZ 
MANSO, LEO 

marcoussis (Marcous), louis 

MARGO, BORIS 

MARIL, HERMAN 

MARYAN 

MAXY, MAX HERMAN 

MEIDNER, LUDWIG 

MENINSKY, BERNARD 

MENKES, ZYGMUNT 

MILICH, ADOLPHE 

MINTCHINE, ABRAHAM 

MODIGLIANI, AMEDEO 

MOHOLY-NAGY, LASZLO 

MOISE, THEODORE SYDNEY 

MOKADY, MOSHE 

MONDZAIN, SIMON 

MOPP 

MOSKOVITZ, SHALOM 

MOSLER, HENRY 

MUHLSTOCK, LOUIS 

muter (Mutermilch), mela 

NADELMAN, ELIE 

NEIMAN, YEHUDAH 

NEWMAN, BARNETT 

NICHOLS, JACK 

NIERMAN, LEONARDO 

NIKEL, LEA 

NUSSBAUM, FELIX 

NUSSBAUM, JAKOB 

OFEK, AVRAHAM 

OLITSKI, JULES 

OPPENHEIM, MORITZ DANIEL 

OPPENHEIMER, JOSEPH 

ORLIK, EMIL 

OTTA, FRANCISCO 

PACHTER, CHARLES 

pailes, isaac (Jacques) 

PALDI, ISRAEL 

PANN, ABEL 

PAOVLOTZKY, RAUL 

PASCIN, JULES 

PASTERNAK, LEONID OSIPOVICH 



PEARLSTEIN, PHILIP 

PERLMUTTER, IZSAK 

PICART, BERNARD 

PILICHOWSKI, LEOPOLD 

PISSARRO, CAMILLE 

PRESSMANE, JOSEPH 

PROBST-KRAID, RIZA 

RABIN, OSCAR 

RABIN, SAM 

RAPHAEL, WILLIAM 

RASKIN, SAUL 

RATTNER, ABRAHAM 

RAY, MAN 

REDER, BERNARD 

REISS, LIONEL 

REMBRANDT VAN RIJN 

RIVERS, LARRY 

ROGERS, CLAUDE MAURICE 

ROSE, HERMAN 

ROSENBERG, LAZAR 

ROSENTHAL, MAX 

ROTHENSTEIN, SIR WILLIAM 

ROTHKO, MARK 

RUBIN, REUVEN 

RYBACK, ISSACHAR 

SAFDIE, SYLVIA 

SALAMAN 

SALOMON, CHARLOTTE 

SALOMON, GESKEL 

SCHAMES, SAMSON 

SCHANKER, LOUIS 

SCHATZ, BORIS 

SCHOR, ILYA 

SCHWARTZ, MANFRED 

SEBBA, SHALOM 

SEGAL, ARTHUR 

SEGALL, LAZAR 

SELIGMANN, KURT 

SEROV, VALENTIN 

SHAHN, BEN 

SHEMI, MENAHEM 

SIMA, MIRON 

SIMON, SIDNEY 

SOLOMON, SIMEON 

SOLOMON, SOLOMON JOSEPH 

SOUTINE, CHAIM 

SOYER, MOSES 

SOYER, RAPHAEL 

SPERO, NANCY 

SPIRO, EUGEN 

STEINER-PRAG, HUGO 

STEINHARDT, JAKOB 

STEMATSKY, AVIGDOR 

STERN, IRMA 

STERNE, HEDDA 

STERNE, MAURICE 

STREICHMAN, YEHEZKIEL 

STRUCK, HERMANN 

SUTTON, PHILIP 

SZALIT-MARCUS, RACHEL 



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SZOBEL, GEZA 
SZYK, ARTHUR 
TAGGER, SIONA 
TATLIN, VLADIMIR E. 
TICHO, ANNA 
TIVOLI, SERAFINO DA 
TOPOLSKI, FELIKS 
TOWNE, CHARLES 
TWORKOV, JACK 
UHLMAN, FRED 
ULLMANN, ERNEST 
URY, LESSER 

varlin (Guggenheim, Willy) 

WALKOWITZ, ABRAHAM 
WEBER, MAX 
WEILL, SHRAGA 
WILSON, "SCOTTIE" 
WILSON, SOL 
WOLF, GUSTAV 
WOLLHEIM, GERT 
WOLMARK, ALFRED 
ZAK, EUGENE 
ZARITSKY, YOSSEF 
ZHITNITSKI, MARK 
ZIEGLER, ARCHIBALD 
ZUCKER, JACQUES 

4. PHOTOGRAPHY 
Biographies 

arbus, diane nemerov 
arnold, eve 
avedon, richard 
bar-am, micha 
bing, ilse 

bourke-white, margaret 
brenner, frederic 
calle, sophie 
capa, cornell 
capa, robert 

carvalho, solomon nunes 
eisenstaedt, alfred 
erwitt, elliott 
ettlinger, marion 
frank, robert 
freund, gisele 
friedlander, lee 
gidal, tim 
goldin, nan 
halsman, philippe 
heartfield, john 

IZIS 

JACOBI, LOTTE 
KAGAN, ELIE 
KERTESZ, ANDRE 
LEIBOVITZ, ANNIE 
LEVITT, HELENE 
MARK, MARY ELLEN 
MEYEROWITZ, JOEL 
NEWMAN, ARNOLD 
NEWTON, HELMUT 



PENN, IRVING 

PL ACHY, SYLVIA 

RINGL & PIT (STERN, GRETE; ROSENBERG AUERBACH, 

ELLEN) 
RUBIN, GAIL 
RUBINGER, DAVID 
SALOMON, ERICH 
SEYMOUR, DAVID 
SISKIND, AARON 
STIEGLITZ, ALFRED 
STRAND, PAUL 
VISHNIAC, ROMAN 
WEEGEE 
WINOGRAND, GARRY 

5. SCULPTURE 
Biographies 

antokolski, mark (Mordecai) 

ARONSON, NAUM LVOVICH 
ASTRUC, ZACHARIE 
BAIZERMAN, SAUL 
BASKIN, LEONARD 
BEER, SAMUEL FRIEDRICH 
BEN-ZVI, ZEEV 

BERNSTEIN-SINAIEFF, LEOPOLD 
BLAZKO, MARTIN 
BLOC, ANDRE 

bokros-birman, dezso (Desiderius) 

BOROFSKY, JONATHAN 

CARO, SIR ANTHONY 

DA COSTA, JOSEPH MENDES 

DANZIGER, ITZHAK 

DAVIDSON, JO 

EHRLICH, GEORG 

ELKAN, BENNO 

ENGEL, JOZSEF 

EPSTEIN, SIR JACOB 

ETROG, SOREL 

EZEKIEL, MOSES JACOB 

FEIGIN, DOV 

FERBER, HERBERT 

FREIFELD, ABRAHAM 

FRENKEL, VERA 

GLICENSTEIN, ENRICO 

GLID, NANDOR 

GORDON, WILLY 

GROSS, CHAIM 

GUENZBURG, ILYA YAKOVLEVICH 

GUTFREUND, OTTO 

HABER, SHAMAI 

HANNEMANN, PABLO 

HARKAVY, MINNA 

ISENSTEIN, KURT HARALD 

KOENIG, GHISHA 

KOGAN, MOYSE 

KORMIS, FRED 

KOSICE, GYULA 

KOTTLER, MOSES 

KREMEGNE, PINCHAS 

LASSAW, IBRAM 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

A. ART 

5. Sculpture 

Biographies (continued) 

LEVINE, LES 
LEWITT, SOL 

lipchitz, jacques (Chaim Jacob) 

LIPSHITZ, ISRAEL LIPPY 

LIPTON, SEYMOUR 

LISHANSKY, BATYA 

MARGOULIES, BERTHA 

MELNIKOFF, AVRAHAM 

MEYEROWITZ, HERBERT VLADIMIR 

NEIZVESTNY, ERNST 

NEMON, OSCAR 

NEVELSON, LOUISE 

NOSSIG, ALFRED 

ORLOFF, CHANA 

PALOMBO, DAVID 

PEVSNER, ANTON AND NAUM NEHEMIA (Gabo) 

RAPAPORT, NATHAN 

ROTHSTEIN, IRMA 

SCHOEFFER, NICOLAS 

SCHOTTLANDER, BERNARD 

SCHOTZ, BENNO 

SEGAL, GEORGE 

SERRA, RICHARD 

SHEMI, YEHIEL 

SINGER, YVONNE 

STERNSCHUSS, MOSHE 

TEVET, NAHUM 

TEWI, THEA 

TUMARKIN, IGAEL 

ULLMAN, MICHA 

VOGEL, KAREL 

WAGNER, SIEGFRIED 

WALD, HERMAN 

WERNER, MICHAEL 

ZADIKOW, ARNOLD 

ZADKINE, OSSIP 

ZORACH, WILLIAM 

ZVIA 

6. OTHER 
Biographies 

abramson 
adler, friedrich 

ARON 

BRENNER, VICTOR 

COHEN, ELISHEVA 

GAMES, ABRAM 

GRILICHES, AVENIR 

HEINE, THOMAS THEODOR 

JESI, SAMUEL 

JOEL BEN SIMEON 

JOSEPH HA-ZAREFATI 

KALMAN, MAIRA 

KALMAN, TIBOR 

KAPLAN, ANATOLI LVOVICH 



KRUGER, BARBARA 

LASANSKY, MAURICIO 

LE BE, GUILLAUME 

LE WITT, JAN 

LILIEN, EPHRAIM MOSES 

MARIANOS 

MERZER, ARIEH 

MOREH, MORDECAI 

MYERS, MYER 

OFIR, ARIE 

OSTROWER, FEYGA 

PINS, JACOB 

RIE, DAME LUCIE 

ROTHENSTEIN (WILLIAM), MICHAEL 

SIMON, JEAN HENRI 

soldi (-Colbert), emile-arthur 

SONNABEND, YOLANDA 

SZIGETI, IMRE 

TEMPLO, JACOB JUDAH (ARYEH) LEON 

TREBITSCH, MOSES LOEB BEN WOLF 

VINCZE, PAUL 

WIENER 

WOLPERT, LUDWIG YEHUDA 

Scholars, Critics, Collectors, Dealers 

AMISHAI-MAISELS, ZIVA 

BARASCH, MOSHE 

BARTHOLDY, JACOB 

BERENSON, BERNARD 

BERSOHN, MATTHIAS 

BIHALJI MERIN, OTO 

CASSIRER, PAUL 

COHN-WIENER, ERNST 

DAVIS, SIR EDMUND 

DUVEEN 

DUVEEN, JOSEPH, LORD 

ETTINGHAUSEN, RICHARD 

FLECHTHEIM, ALFRED 

GAMZU, HAYYIM 

GOMBRICH, SIR ERNST 

GUTMANN, JOSEPH 

HALLO, RUDOLF 

HAMMER, ARMAND 

HIRSHHORN, JOSEPH HERMAN 

IBN HAYYIM, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH 

KAHNWEILER, DANIEL-HENRY 

KOLB, LEON 

NAMENYI, ERNEST (Emo) 

NARKISS, BEZALEL 

NARKISS, MORDECHAI 

OPPE, ADOLPH 

OSBORN, MAX 

PANOFSKY, ERWIN 

ROSENBERG, HAROLD 

SCHAPIRO, MEYER 

SPITZER, FREDERICK 

TALPIR, GABRIEL JOSEPH 

WERTHEIMER, ASHER 

WILDENSTEIN 

WITTKOWER, RUDOLF J. 



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B. LITERATURE 



ZEYER, JULIUS 



1. BULGARIAN LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 

bulgarian literature 



3. DUTCH LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 

dutch literature 



Biographies 

petrov, valery 
wagenstein, angel 

2. CZECHOSLOVAK LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 
czechoslovak literature 

Biographies 

askenazy, ludvik 
bonn, hanus 
bor, josef 
dagan, avigdor 
dostal, zeno 

EISNER, PAVEL (Paul) 

FISCHER, OTOKAR 

FRYD, NORBERT (Nom) 

GELLNER, FRANTISEK 

GOLDFLAM, ARNOST 

GOLDSTUECKER, EDUARD 

GOTTLIEB, FRANTISEK 

GROSMAN, LADISLAV 

HOFFMANN, CAMILL 

HOSTOVSKY, EGON 

KAFKA, FRANTISEK 

KAPPER, SIEGFRIED (Vitezslav) 

KLIMA, IVAN 

KNIEZA, EMIL 

KOHN, SALOMON 

KRAUS, FRANTISEK R. 

KRAUS, IVAN 

KRAUS, OTA 

LANGER, FRANTISEK 

LANGER, JIRI MORDECHAI 

LAUB, GABRIEL 

LEDA, EDUARD 

LISTOPAD, FRANTISEK 

LUSTIG, ARNOST 

OLBRACHT, IVAN 

ORNEST, OTA 

ORTEN, JIRI 

PAVEL, OTA 

PICK, JIRI ROBERT 

POLACEK, KAREL 

RAKOUS, VOJTECH 

ROTTOVA, INNA 

SALUS, HUGO 

SIDON, KAROL EFRAIM 

SPITZER, JURAJ 

UHDE, MILAN 

VOHRYZEK, JOSEF 

VRCHLICKY, JAROSLAV 

WEIL, JIRI 

WEINER, RICHARD 



BIOGRAPHIES 

BRUGGEN, CARRY VAN 

CAMPEN, MICHEL HERMAN VAN 

CORREA, ISABEL REBECCA DE 

COSTA, ISAAC DA 

DE LIMA, JOSEPH SUASSO 

HAAN, JACOB ISRAEL DE 

HEIJERMANS, HERMAN 

HERTZVELD-HIJMANS, ESTELLA 

HERZBERG, ABEL JACOB 

LOGGEM, MANUEL VAN 

MINCO, MARGA 

MULISCH, HARRY 

PRAAG, SIEGFRIED EMANUEL VAN 

QUERIDO, ISRAEL 

VAN VRIESLAND, VICTOR EMANUEL 

VROMAN, LEO 

4. ENGLISH LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 

english literature 
south african literature 
united states literature 

General Entries 

children's literature 

Biographies 

aaronson, lazarus leonard 

abse, dannie 

adams, hannah 

aguilar, grace 

alter, robert b. 

alvarez, alfred 

angoff, charles 

antin, mary 

apple, max 

asimov, isaac 

auslander, joseph 

auster, paul 

baron, joseph alexander 

baum, vicki 

behrman, samuel nathaniel 

bellow, saul 

bercovici, konrad 

bercovitch, sacvan 

blake, william 

blankfort, michael s. 

bloom, harold 

boas, frederick samuel 

bodenheim, maxwell 

brinig, myron 

brody, alter 

broner, esther m. 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

B. LITERATURE 

4. English Literature 

Biographies (continued) 

BROOKNER, ANITA 

BROWNING, ROBERT 

BRUSTEIN, ROBERT SANFORD 

BUKIET, MELVIN JULES 

BUSCH, CHARLES 

BYRON, GEORGE GORDON, LORD 

CAHAN, ABRAHAM 

CALISHER, HORTENSE 

CANADIAN LITERATURE 

CECIL, HENRY 

CHABON, MICHAEL 

CHARLES, GERDA 

CHAUCER, GEOFFREY 

CHAYEFSKY, PADDY 

CHODOROV, EDWARD 

CHODOROV, JEROME 

COHEN, ARTHUR A. 

COHEN, JOHN MICHAEL 

COHEN, LEONARD 

COHEN, MATT 

COHEN, ROSE GOLLUP 

COURNOS, JOHN 

CUMBERLAND, RICHARD 

DAHLBERG, EDWARD 

DAICHES, DAVID 

DALESKI, HILLEL 

DAVENPORT, MARCIA 

DAVIDSON, LIONEL 

DE CASSERES, BENJAMIN 

DEUTSCH, BABBETTE 

DICKENS, CHARLES 

D'lSRAELI, ISAAC 

ELIOT, GEORGE 

ELKIN, STANLEY 

ELLMANN, RICHARD 

EMANUEL, WALTER LEWIS 

EPHRON, NORA 

EPSTEIN, LESLIE 

EPSTEIN, MORRIS 

EPSTEIN, SEYMOUR 

EZEKIEL, NISSIM 

FADIMAN, CLIFTON 

FALK, BERNARD 

FALK, MARCIA 

FARHI, MORIS 

FARJEON, BENJAMIN LEOPOLD 

FAST, HOWARD MELVIN 

FEARING, KENNETH 

FEINSTEIN, ELAINE 

FELDMAN, IRVING 

FERBER, EDNA 

FIEDLER, LESLIE AARON 

FINEMAN, IRVING 

FISCH, HAROLD 



FISH, STANLEY 

FRANK, WALDO DAVID 

FRANKAU 

FRANKEN, ROSE 

FRANKS, BILHAH ABIGAIL LEVY 

FREEMAN, JOSEPH 

FRIEDMAN, BRUCE JAY 

FUCHS, DANIEL 

GABRIEL, GILBERT W. 

GAMORAN, MAMIE 

GASSNER, JOHN 

GELBER, JACK 

GEORGE, WALTER LIONEL 

GERSHON, KAREN 

GINSBERG, ALLEN 

GLASS, MONTAGUE MARSDEN 

GLUCK, LOUISE 

GOLD, HERBERT 

GOLD, MICHAEL 

GOLDBERG, ISAAC 

GOLDEN, HARRY LEWIS 

GOLDING, LOUIS 

GOLDMAN, WILLIAM 

GOLDSTEIN, REBECCA 

GOLLER, IZAK 

GOODMAN, ALLEGRA 

GORDIMER, NADINE 

GORDON, SAMUEL 

GREEN, GERALD 

GREENBERG, JOANNE 

GREENBERG, SAMUEL BERNARD 

GROSS, JOHN JACOB 

GROSSMAN, ALLEN 

HALL, OWEN 

HALPER, ALBERT 

HAMBURGER, MICHAEL 

HARRIS, MARK 

HART, MOSS 

HECHT, BEN 

HELLER, JOSEPH 

HELLINGER, MARK 

HELLMAN, LILLIAN FLORENCE 

HENRY, EMMA 

HINDUS, MAURICE GERSCHON 

HIRSCH, ERIC DONALD 

HOBSON, LAURA Z. 

HOLLANDER, JOHN 

HOROVITZ, ISRAEL 

HOWE, IRVING 

HUDSON, STEPHEN 

HURST, FANNIE 

IGNATOW, DAVID 

ISAACS, JACOB 

ISAACS, SUSAN 

JACOB, NAOMI ELLINGTON 

JACOBSON, DAN 

JACOBSON, HOWARD 

JAFFE, RONA 

JHABVALA, RUTH PRAWER 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



JONG, ERICA 

JOSIPOVICI, GABRIEL 

JUDAH, SAMUEL BENJAMIN HELBERT 

KALMAN, MAIRA 

KANIN, GARSON 

KANOVICH, GRIGORY 

KAPLAN, JOHANNA 

KARMEL, ILONA 

KAUFMAN, BEL 

KAUFMAN, GEORGE SIMON 

KAZIN, ALFRED 

KELLERMAN, FAYE 

KELLERMAN, JONATHAN 

KEMELMAN, HARRY 

KERSH, GERALD 

KINGSLEY, SIDNEY 

KINROSS, ALBERT 

KLEIN, ABRAHAM MOSES 

KLEPFISZ, IRENA 

KOBER, ARTHUR 

KOCH, KENNETH 

KOESTLER, ARTHUR 

KOMROFF, MANUEL 

KOPIT, ARTHUR 

KOPS, BERNARD 

KOSINSKI, JERZY 

KRAMER, LARRY 

KRAMM, JOSEPH 

KRANTZ, JUDITH 

KREISEL, HENRY 

KREYMBORG, ALFRED 

KRONENBERGER, LOUIS 

KROOK, DOROTHEA 

KUNITZ, STANLEY JASSPON 

KUSHNER, TONY 

LAURENTS, ARTHUR 

LAWSON, JOHN HOWARD 

LAYTON, IRVING 

LAZARUS, EMMA 

LEAVIS, QUEENIE DOROTHY 

LEE, SIR SIDNEY 

LEFTWICH, JOSEPH 

LEVERSON, ADA 

LEVERTOV, DENISE 

LEVIANT, CURT 

LEVIN, HARRY 

LEVIN, IRA 

LEVIN, MEYER 

LEVINE, NORMAN 

LEVINSON, OLGA 

LEVY, AMY 

LEVY, BENN WOLFE 

LEWIS, LEOPOLD DAVIS 

LEWISOHN, LUDWIG 

LIBERMAN, SERGE 

LIEBERMAN, ELIAS 

LITVINOFF, EMANUEL 

LOWENTHAL, MARVIN 

LYONS, ALBERT MICHAEL NEIL 



MAILER, NORMAN 

MALAMUD, BERNARD 

MALTZ, ALBERT 

MAMET, DAVID 

MANDEL, ELI 

MANKOWITZ, WOLF 

MARCUS, FRANK 

MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER 

MARTIN, DAVID 

MAYNARD, FREDELLE BRUSER 

MERRICK, LEONARD 

MEYERSTEIN, EDWARD HARRY WILLIAM 

MICHAELS, ANNE 

MIKES, GEORGE 

MILLER, ARTHUR 

MILLIN, SARAH GERTRUDE 

MILTON, JOHN 

MOISE, PENINA 

MULLER, ROBERT 

NASSAUER, RUDOLF 

NATHAN, GEORGE JEAN 

NEMEROV, HOWARD 

NEUGEBOREN, JAY 

NISSENSON, HUGH 

ODETS, CLIFFORD 

OLSEN, TILLIE 

OPPEN, GEORGE 

OPPENHEIM, JAMES 

ORNITZ, SAMUEL BADISCH 

OSTRIKER, ALICIA SUSKIN 

OZICK, CYNTHIA 

PALEY, GRACE 

PARKER, DOROTHY 

PERELMAN, SIDNEY JOSEPH 

PHILLIPS, WILLIAM 

PINSKY, ROBERT 

PINTO, VIVIAN DE SOLA 

PLAIN, BELVA 

PODHORETZ, NORMAN 

POTOK, CHAIM 

POUND, EZRA LOOMIS 

PROSE, FRANCINE 

PYE, JAEL HENRIETTA 

RAGEN, NAOMI 

RAHV, PHILIP 

RAND, AYN 

RAPHAEL, FREDERIC 

RAPHAEL, JOHN N. 

RAPHAELSON, SAMSON 

REZNIKOFF, CHARLES 

RICE, ELMER LEOPOLD 

RICH, ADRIENNE 

RICHLER, MORDECAI 

ROBBINS, HAROLD 

RODKER, JOHN 

ROSEN, NORMA 

ROSENBERG, ISAAC 

ROSENFELD, ISAAC 

ROSENFELD, PAUL 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



K 



IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

B. LITERATURE 

4. English Literature 

Biographies (continued) 

ROSS, LILLIAN 

ROSTEN, LEO CALVIN 

ROTH, HENRY 

ROTH, PHILIP MILTON 

RUBENS, BERNICE 

RUBENS, PAUL ALFRED 

RUBINSTEIN, HAROLD FREDERIC 

RUKEYSER, MURIEL 

SALINGER, JEROME DAVID 

SAMPTER, JESSIE ETHEL 

SAMUEL, MAURICE 

SASSOON, SIEGFRIED LORRAINE 

SCHISGAL, MURRAY 

SCHULBERG, BUDD WILSON 

SCHWARTZ, DELMORE 

SCHWARZ, LEO WALDER 

SCOTT, SIR WALTER 

SEGAL, ERICH 

SEID, RUTH 

SERLING, ROD 

SHAFFER, SIR PETER 

SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM 

SHAPIRO, KARL JAY 

SHAW, IRWIN 

SHELDON, SIDNEY 

SHEVELOVE, BURT 

SHULMAN, MAX 

SHULMAN, MILTON 

SILKIN, JON 

SIMON, KATE 

SIMON, NEIL 

SINCLAIR, CLIVE 

SINGER, HOWARD 

SKLAREW, MYRA 

SOLOTAROFF, THEODORE 

SONTAG, SUSAN 

SPEWACK, BELLA 

SPIEGELMAN, ART 

SPIELVOGEL, NATHAN 

SPINGARN 

STEELE, DANIELLE 

STEIN, GERTRUDE 

STEIN, JOSEPH 

STEINER, GEORGE 

STEINFELD, JJ 

STERN, BERTHA GLADYS 

STERN, STEVE 

STINE, R. L. 

STONE, IRVING 

STRAUS, RALPH 

STRAUSS, GUSTAVE LOUIS MAURICE 

SUSANN, JACQUELINE 

SUTRO, ALFRED 

SYMONS, JULIAN 



TARN, NATHANIEL 

TAYLOR, SIDNEY 

TOBENKIN, ELIAS 

TORGOV, MORLEY 

TRILLIN, CALVIN, ESSAYIST 

TRILLING, DIANA 

TRILLING, LIONEL 

TUROW, SCOTT 

UNTERMEYER, LOUIS 

URIS, LEON 

WADDINGTON, MIRIAM (DWORKIN) 

WALEY, ARTHUR 

WALLACE, IRVING 

WALLANT, EDWARD LEWIS 

WASSERMAN, DALE 

WASSERSTEIN, WENDY 

WATEN, JUDAH 

WEIDMAN, JEROME 

WEINZWEIG, HELEN 

WELLER, MICHAEL 

WESKER, ARNOLD 

WEST, NATHANAEL 

WOLFE, HUMBERT 

WOLFERT, IRA 

WOUK, HERMAN 

yarmolinsky, avrahm (Abraham) 

YEZIERSKA, ANZIA 
ZANGWILL, ISRAEL 
ZUKOFSKY, LOUIS 

5. FRENCH LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 

Canadian literature (French) 
french literature 

Biographies 

abecassis, eliette 

arega, leon 

argens, jean baptiste de boyer 

benichou, paul 

berl, emmanuel 

bernard, tristan 

bernstein, henri-leon 

berri, claude 

blanchot, maurice 

bloch, jean-richard 

bloch-michel, jean 

bloy, leon 

bober, robert 

bosco, monique 

chateaubriand, francois rene, vicomte de 

cixous, helene 

claudel, paul 

cohen, albert 

cremieux, benjamin 

croisset, francis de 

duvernois, henri 

eydoux, emmanuel 

fejto, francois 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



FINBERT, ELIAN-J. 

fleg, edmond (Flegenheimer) 

FOA, ESTHER EUGENIE REBECCA 

FONDANE, BENJAMIN 

FRANCK, HENRI 

GARY, ROMAIN 

GIVET, JACQUES 

GOLL, YVAN 

GRAY, MARTIN 

GRUMBERG, JEAN-CLAUDE 

HALEVY 

HALEVY, ELIE HALFON 

HALTER, MAREK 

HARRY, MYRIAM 

HERTZ, HENRI 

IKOR, ROGER 

IONESCO, EUGENE 

ISOU, ISIDORE 

JABES, EDMOND 

JACOB, MAX 

JEHOUDA, JOSUE 

KAHN, GUSTAVE 

RATTAN, NA'lM 

KESSEL, JOSEPH 

LACRETELLE, JACQUES DE 

LAHARANNE, ERNEST 

LANGFUS, ANNA 

LAZARE, BERNARD 

LEVY, BERNARD-HENRI 

LUNEL, ARMAND 

LUNEL, JACOB DE 

MANDEL, ARNOLD 

MAUROIS, ANDRE 

MEMMI, ALBERT 

MENDES, CATULLE 

MIKHAEL, EPHRAIM 

MILBAUER, JOSEPH 

MILOSZ, OSCAR 

MODIANO, PATRICK 

MONTAIGNE, MICHEL DE 

MORHANGE, PIERRE 

NEMETH, ANDOR 

NEMIROWSKY, IRENE 

NEYRAC, PIERRE 

PEGUY, CHARLES-PIERRE 

PEREC, GEORGES 

PORTO-RICHE, GEORGES DE 

PROUST, MARCEL 

RACINE, JEAN 

ROBIN, REGINE 

RYVEL 

SACHS, MAURICE 

SARRAUTE, NATHALIE 

SCHEINERT, DAVID 

SCHULSINGER, JOSEPH 

SCHWARZ-BART, ANDRE 

SEE, EDMOND 

SPERBER, MANES 

SPIRE, ANDRE 



SUARES, ANDRE 

THARAUD, JEROME AND JEAN 

THEMANLYS, PASCAL 

TZARA, TRISTAN 

VERCORS 

VIGEE, CLAUDE 

VORONCA, ILARIE 

WEILL, ALEXANDRE ABRAHAM 

ZOLA, EMILE 

6. GERMAN LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 

german literature 

biographies 

adler, hermann 

adler, paul 

aichinger, ilse 

altenberg, peter 

amery, jean 

anders, gunter 

auerbach, erich 

auernheimer, raoul 

auslaender, rose 

avigdor ben simhah ha-levi of glogau 

bab, julius 

baum, oscar 

beck, karl isidor 

becker, jurek 

beer, michael 

beer-hofmann, richard 

behr, issachar falkensohn 

ben-chorin, shalom 

ben-gavriel, moshe yaakov 

benjamin, walter 

berendsohn, walter a. 

BERG, LEO 

BERMANN, RICHARD ARNOLD 

BETTAUER, HUGO 

BIEBER, HUGO 

BIRNBAUM, URIEL 

BLUMENTHAL, OSKAR 

BORCHARDT, RUDOLF 

BRAUN, FELIX 

BROCH, HERMANN 

BROD, MAX 

BRUCKNER, FERDINAND 

CALE, WALTER 

CANETTI, ELIAS 

CELAN, PAUL 

DOEBLIN, ALFRED 

DOMIN, HILDE 

DONATH, ADOLPH 

EHRENSTEIN, ALBERT 

EINSTEIN, CARL 

ELOESSER, ARTHUR 

FEUCHTWANGER, LION 

FRAENKEL, JONAS 

FRANK, BRUNO 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

B. LITERATURE 

6. German Literature 

Biographies (continued) 

FRANKL, LUDWIG AUGUST 

FRANZOS, KARL EMIL 

FRIED, ERICH 

FRIEDELL, EGON 

FRISCH, EFRAIM 

FULDA, LUDWIG 

GEIGER, LUDWIG 

GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG VON 

GOLDSTEIN, MORITZ 

GOLL, CLAIRE 

GOLL, YVAN 

gronemann, samuel (Sami, Sammy) 

GUMPERT, MARTIN 

GUNDOLF, friedrich 

GUTZKOW, KARL FERDINAND 
HAAS, WILLY 
HABE, HANS 
HASENCLEVER, WALTER 
HAY, GYULA (Julius) 
HEILBORN, ERNST 
HEIMANN, MORITZ 
HEINE, HEINRICH 
HERMANN, GEORG 
HERMLIN, STEPHAN 
HESSEL, FRANZ 
HEYM, STEFAN 
HEYMANN, WALTHER 
HEYSE, PAUL 

HILDESHEIMER, WOLFGANG 
HILSENRATH, EDGAR 
HIRSCHFELD, GEORG 
HITZIG, JULIUS EDUARD 
HOCHHUTH, ROLF 
HOCHWAELDER, FRITZ 
HOFMANNSTHAL, HUGO VON 
HOLITSCHER, ARTHUR 
HOLLAENDER 
HONIGMANN, BARBARA 
HUGO, KAROLY 
JACOB, HEINRICH EDUARD 
JACOBOWSKI, LUDWIG 
JELINEK, ELFRIEDE 
KAFKA, FRANZ 
KAHANE, ARTHUR 
KALEKO, MASHA 
KALISCH, DAVID 

karpeles, gustav (Gershon) 

KAUFMANN, FRITZ MORDECAI 
KAYSER, RUDOLF 
KERR, ALFRED 
KESTEN, HERMANN 
KLEIN, JULIUS LEOPOLD 
KOLMAR, GERTRUD 
KOMPERT, LEOPOLD 



KOREFF, DAVID FERDINAND 

KORNFELD, PAUL 

KRAFT, WERNER 

KRAMER, THEODOR 

KRAUS, KARL 

KROJANKER, GUSTAV 

KUH, EPHRAIM MOSES 

LANDSBERGER, ARTHUR 

LASKER-SCHUELER, ELSE 

LAZARUS, NAHIDA RUTH 

LEONHARD, RUDOLF 

LESSING, GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM 

LEWALD, FANNY 

LIPINER, SIEGFRIED 

LISSAUER, ERNST 

LORM, HIERONYMUS 

LOTHAR, ERNST 

LOTHAR, RUDOLF 

LUBLINSKI, SAMUEL 

LUDWIG, EMIL 

MANN, THOMAS 

MARCUSE, LUDWIG 

MARGUL-SPERBER, ALFRED 

MAUTHNER, FRITZ 

MEHRING, WALTER 

MEYER, RICHARD MORITZ 

MOMBERT, ALFRED 

MORGENSTERN, SOMA 

MOSENTHAL, SALOMON HERMANN 

MUEHSAM, ERICH 

NADEL, ARNO 

NEUMANN, ALFRED 

NEUMANN, ROBERT 

PAULI, JOHANNES 

PERUTZ, LEO 

PICARD, JACOB 

POLGAR, ALFRED 

REHFISCH, HANS JOSE 

REICH-RANICKI, MARCEL 

ROBERT, LUDWIG 

RODA RODA, ALEXANDER 

RODENBERG, JULIUS 

ROESSLER, CARL 

ROTH, JOSEPH 

RUBINER, LUDWIG 

SACHS, NELLY 

SALTEN, FELIX 

SAPHIR, MORITZ (Moses) GOTTLIEB 

SCHERLAG, MARK 

SCHILLER, FRIEDRICH VON 

SCHNITZLER, ARTHUR 

SCHWIEFERT, PETER 

SEGHERS, ANNA 

STERNHEIM, CARL 

STRICH, FRITZ 

STURMANN, MANFRED 

SUESSKIND VON TRIMBERG 

SUSMAN, MARGARETE 

TABORI, GEORGE 



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TOLLER, ERNST 
TORBERG, FRIEDRICH 
TREBITSCH, SIEGFRIED 
TUCHOLSKY, KURT 
URY, ELSE 

VAN HODDIS, IAKOB 
VIERTEL, BERTHOLD 
WALDEN, HERWARTH 
WALDINGER, ERNST 
WASSERMANN, IAKOB 
WEISS, ERNST 
WEISS, PETER 
WENGEROFF, PAULINE 
WERFEL, FRANZ 
WIHL, LUDWIG 
WINDER, LUDWIG 
WOLF, FRIEDRICH 
WOLFENSTEIN, ALFRED 
WOLFSKEHL, KARL 
WOLFSOHN-HALLE, AHARON 
ZUCKERMANN, HUGO 
ZUCKMAYER, CARL 
ZWEIG, ARNOLD 
ZWEIG, STEFAN 

7. GREEK LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 

greek literature, modern 

Biographies 

eliyia, ioseph 
matsas, nestoras 
moissis, asher 

8. HUNGARIAN LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 
hungarian literature 

biographies 

acsady, ignac 
aczel, tamas 
agai, adolf 
balazs, bela 

BANOCZI 

BENJAMIN, LASZLO 
BIRO, LAJOS 
BRODY, LASZLO 
BRODY, LILI 
BRODY, SANDOR 
BRODY, ZSIGMOND 
CSERGO, HUGO 
CSERMELY, GYULA 
DERY, TIBOR 
DOCZY, LAJOS 
ELEK, ARTUR 
EMOD, TAMAS 
FALUDY, GYORGY 
FENYO, LASZLO 
FENYO, MIKSA 



FOLDES, JOLAN 

FUST, MILAN 

GABOR, ANDOR 

GELLERI, ANDOR ENDRE 

GELLERT, OSZKAR 

GISZKALAY, JANOS 

HAJNAL, ANNA 

HELTAI, JENO 

HEVESI, LAJOS (Ludwig) 

HEVESI, SANDOR 

HUGO, KAROLY 

IGNOTUS, HUGO 

ILLES, BELA 

KACZER, ILLES 

KARACSONY, BENO 

KARDOS, ALBERT 

KARDOS, LASZLO 

KARINTHY, FERENC 

KEMENY, SIMON 

KERTESZ, IMRE 

KESZI, IMRE 

KISS, JOZSEF 

KOBOR, TAMAS 

KOMLOS, ALADAR 

KOMOR, ANDRAS 

KONRAD, GYORGY 

KORMENDI, FERENC 

LAKATOS, LASZLO 

LENGYEL, JOZSEF 

LENGYEL, MENYHERT (Melchior) 

LENKEI, HENRIK 

lukacs, georg (Gyorgy) 

MAKAI, EMIL 

markovits, rodion (Jakab) 

MOHACSI, JENO 

MOLNAR, AKOS 

MOLNAR, FERENC 

NAGY, ENDRE 

ORMODY, BERTALAN 

OSVAT, ERNO 

PALAGYI, LAJOS 

PAP, KAROLY 

RADNOTI, MIKLOS 

REICHARD, PIROSKA 

REVESZ, BELA 

SALAMON, ERNO 

SIMON, TAMAS 

SOMLYO, ZOLTAN 

SPIRO, GYORGY 

SZABO, IMRE 

SZABOLCSI, LAJOS 

SZANTO, GYORGY 

SZENES, BELA 

SZENES, ERZSI 

SZEP, ERNO 

SZERB, ANTAL 

SZILAGYI, GEZA 

SZOMORY, DEZSO 

TUROCZI-TROSTLER, JOZSEF 



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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

B. LITERATURE 

8. Hungarian Literature 
Biographies (continued) 

UJVARI, PETER 
VANDOR, LAJOS 
VARNAI, ZSENI 
VAS, ISTVAN 
VESZI, ENDRE 
ZELK, ZOLTAN 
ZSIGMOND, EDE 
ZSOLDOS, JENO 
ZSOLT, BELA 

9. ITALIAN LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 
italian literature 

Biographies 

ascarelli, deborah 

bassani, giorgio 

bedarida, guido 

camerini, eugenio salomone 

castelnuovo, enrico 

da verona, guido 

dante alighieri 

de benedetti, aldo 

debenedetti, giacomo 

del monte, crescenzo 

fiorentino, salomone 

fubini, mario 

ginzburg, natalia 

levi, carlo 

levi, eugenio 

levi, giulio augusto 

levi, paolo 

lopez, sabatino 

luzzatto, gino 

momigliano, attilio 

moravia, alberto 

morpurgo, giuseppe 

orvieto, angiolo 

pitigrilli 

revere, giuseppe prospero 

svevo, italo 

vivanti chartres, annie 

10. POLISH LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 
polish literature 

Biographies 

adalberg, samuel 
biegeleisen, henryk 
brandstaetter, roman 
brandys, kazimierz 
braun, mieczyslaw 
brzechwa, jan 



DRZEWIECKI, HENRYK 
FELD, ISAAC 
FELDMAN, WILHELM 
GORSKA, HALINA 
GRYDZEWSKI, MIECZYSLAW 
GRYNBERG, HENRYK 
HEMAR, MARIAN 
HERTZ, BENEDYKT 
HIRSCHHORN, SAMUEL 
JASIENSKI, BRUNO 
JASTRUN, MIECZYSLAW 
JUNOSZA, KLEMENS 
KLACZKO, JULIAN (Judah) 
LEC, STANISLAW JERZY 
LESMIAN, BOLESLAW 
MICKIEWICZ, ADAM 
NOWACZYNSKI, ADOLF 

orzeskowa (Orzesko), eliza 

PEIPER, TADEUSZ 
ROZEWICZ, TADEUSZ 
RUDNICKI, ADOLF 
SCHULZ, BRUNO 
SLONIMSKI, ANTONI 
STANDE, STANISLAW RYSZARD 
STERN, ANATOL 
STRYJKOWSKI, JULJAN 
SZENWALD, LUCJAN 
TUWIM, JULIAN 
WAT, ALEXANDER 
WAZYK, ADAM 
WINAWER, BRUNO 
WITTLIN, JOZEF 
WOROSZYLSKI, WIKTOR 
WYGODZKI, STANISLAW 

11. ROMANIAN LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 

romanian literature 

Biographies 

aderca, felix 
axelrad, avram 
baltazar, camil 
banus, maria 
baranga, aurel 
benador, ury 
blecher, marcel 

BONCIU, H. 

BRESLASU, MARCEL 

CALUGARU, ION 

CASSIAN, NINA 

CORNEA, PAUL 

COSASU, RADU 

CROHMALNICEANU, OVID S. 

DAN, SERGIU 

DOBROGEANU-GHEREA, CONSTANTIN 

DOMINIC, ALEXANDRU 

DORIAN, DOREL 

DORIAN, EMIL 



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DUDA, VIRGIL 
FERARU, LEON 
FONDANE, BENJAMIN 
FURTUNA, ENRIC 
GALACTION, GALA 
GURIAN, SORANA 
HEFTER, ALFRED (Hidalgo) 
IACOBESCU, D. 
IOSIFESCU, SILVIAN 
LAZAR, SAMSON 
LAZAREANU, BARBU 
LUC A, B. 

LUDO, ISAC IACOVITZ 
MAIORESCU, GEORGE TOMA 
MILIAN, MAXIMIN 
MIRODAN, ALEXANDRU 
MONDA, VIRGILIU 
MUGUR, FLORIN 
NEMTEANU, BARBU 
PANA, SA§A 
PELTZ, ISAC 

PORUMBACU, VERONICA 
RELGIS, EUGEN 
ROMAN-RONETTI, MOISE 
RUDICH, MAYER 
SANIELEVICI, HENRIC 
SEBASTIAN, MIHAIL 
SERBU, IERONIM 
SERGHI, CELLA 
SEVER, ALEXANDRU 
SILVIU, GEORGE 
SOARE, IULIA 

STEUERMAN, ADOLF RODION 
TERTULIAN, NICOLAE 
TOMA, A. 
TRIVALE, ION 
VEREA, ADRIAN 
VORONCA, ILARIE 
WEISS, AURELIU 

12. RUSSIAN LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 
russian literature 

biographies 

agursky, samuel 
aikhenvald, yuli isayevich 
aizman, david yakovlevich 
aldanov, mark 
aliger, margarita yosifovna 
altauzen, yakov moyseyevich 
antokolski, pavel grigorevich 
averbakh, leopold leonidovich 
baazov, herzl 

babel, isaac emmanuilovich 
bagritski, eduard georgiyevich 
belinkov, arkadii viktorovich 

BELOV, A. 
BEN-ADIR 



BEN-AMMI, MORDECAI 

BILL-BELOTSERKOVSKI, VLADIMIR NAUMOVICH 

BOGROV, GRIGORI ISAAKOVICH 

BRIK, OSIP MAKSIMOVICH 

BRODSKI, YOSIF 

BYADULYA-YASAKAR, ZMITROK 

CHAKOVSKI, ALEXANDER BORISOVICH 

CHERNY, SASHA 

DANIEL, YULI MARKOVICH 

DOLMATOVSKI, YEVGENI ARONOVICH 

DOMALSKY, I. 

DUBNOW-ERLICH, SOPHIA 

EHRENBURG, ILYA GRIGORYEVICH 

EICHENBAUM, BORIS MIKHAILOVICH 

FRIEDLAENDER, SOLOMON JUDAH 

FRUG, SHIMON SHMUEL 

GALICH, ALEXANDR ARKADYEVICH 

GEKHT, SEMEN GRIGOREVICH 

GERSHENZON, MIKHAIL OSIPOVICH 

GINSBURG, EVGENIA SEMIONOVNA 

GOLODNY, MIKHAIL 

GORKI, MAXIM 

GRANIN, DANIEL ALEKSANDROVICH 

GROSSMAN, LEONID PETROVICH 

GROSSMAN, VASILI SEMYONOVICH 

GUKOVSKY, GRIGORY ALEKSANDROVICH 

ILF, ILYA 

ILIN, M. 

INBER, VERA MIKHAILOVNA 

ISBAKH, ALEXANDER ABRAMOVICH 

KANNEGISER, LEONID AKIMOVICH 

KASSIL, LEV ABRAMOVICH 

KAVERIN, BENJAMIN ALEKSANDROVICH 

KAZAKEVICH, EMMANUIL GENRIKHOVICH 

KHODASEVICH, VLADISLAV FELITSIANOVICH 

KIPEN, ALEKSANDR ABRAMOVICH 

KIRSANOV, SEMYON ISAAKOVICH 

KIRSHON, VLADIMIR MIKHAILOVICH 

KNUT, DOVID 

KOROLENKO, VLADIMIR GALAKTIONOVICH 

KOZAKOV, MIKHAIL EMMANUILOVICH 

KRYMOV, YURI 

KUSHNER, ALEKSANDER SEMENOVICH 

LERNER, JOSEPH JUDAH 

LESKOV, NIKOLAY SEMYONOVICH 

levanda, lev (Leo; Yehudah Leib) osipovich 

LIBEDINSKI, YURI NIKOLAYEVICH 
LIVSHITS, BENEDIKT KONSTANTINOVICH 
LUNTS, LEV NATANOVICH 
MAMISTABOLOB, ABRAHAM 

MANDELSHTAM, NADEZHDA YAKOVLEVNA 
MANDELSHTAM, OSIP EMILYEVICH 
MINSKI, NIKOLAI MAXIMOVICH 
NADSON, SEMYON YAKOVLEVICH 
NOTOVICH, OSIP KONSTANTINOVICH 
NUSINOV, ISAAC 
OSIPOVICH, NAHUM 

PARNAKH, VALENTIN YAKOVLEVICH 
PASTERNAK, BORIS LEONIDOVICH 



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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

B. LITERATURE 

12. Russian Literature 
Biographies (continued) 

RABINOVICH, OSIP ARONOVICH 

SELVINSKI, ILYA LVOVICH 

SHKLOVSKI, ISAAC VLADIMIROVICH 

SLONIM, MARC 

SLONIMSKI, MIKHAIL LEONIDOVICH 

SLUTSKI, BORIS ABRAMOVICH 

SOBOL, ANDREY MIKHAILOVICH 

SVETLOV, MIKHAIL 

SVIRSKI, ALEXEY IVANOVICH 

TUR BROTHERS 

TYNYANOV, YURI NIKOLAYEVICH 

UTKIN, JOSEPH PAVLOVICH 

WENGEROFF, SEMYON AFANASYEVICH 

YEVTUSHENKO, YEVGENI ALEXANDROVICH 

YUSHKEVICH, SEMYON SOLOMONOVICH 

13. SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 

scandinavian literature 

Biographies 

abrahams, nicolai christian levin 

elkan, sophie 

goldschmidt, meir aron 

kaufmann, hanne 

levertin, oscar ivar 

levin, poul theodor 

levy, louis 

MUNK, KAJ 
NATHANSEN, HENRI 
SCHUCK, JOHAN HENRIK EMIL 
WARBURG, KARL JOHAN 
WARRENS, ROSA 
WERGELAND, HENRIK ARNOLD 

14. SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE LITERATURE 
Main Survey 

spanish and portuguese literature 

Biographies 

aguinis, marcos 

cervantes saavedra, miguel de 

constantini, humberto 

costa, uriel da 

cota de maguaque, rodrigo de 

chocron, isaac 

dines, alberto 

eichelbaum, samuel 

enriquez, isabel 

enriquez gomez, antonio 

espinoza, enrique 

feierstein, ricardo 

futoransky, luisa 

gelman, juan 

gerchunoff, alberto 



GLANTZ, MARGO 

GODINEZ, FELIPE 

GOLDEMBERG, ISAAC 

GOLOBOFF, GERARDO MARIO 

GRUNBERG, CARLOS M. 

ISAACS, JORGE 

ISAACSON, JOSE 

KOVADLOFF, SANTIAGO 

KOZER, JOSE 

LAGUNA, DANIEL ISRAEL LOPEZ 

LEON, LUIS DE 

LIACHO, LAZARO 

LISPECTOR, CLARICE 

MUNIZ-HUBERMAN, ANGELINA 

PECAR, SAMUEL 

PIZARNIK, ALEJANDRA 

RABINOVICH, JOSE 

RAWET, SAMUEL 

RIBEIRO DOS SANTOS, ANTONIO 

ROSENCOF, MAURICIO 

ROSENMANN-TAUB, DAVID 

ROVINSKY, SAMUEL 

ROZENMACHER, GERMAN 

SATZ, MARIO 

SCLIAR, MOACYR 

SELIGSON, ESTHER 

SHUA, ANA MARIA 

SILVA, ANTONIO JOSE DA 

SNEH, SIMJA 

STEIMBERG, ALICIA 

SVERDLIK, ODED 

TARNOPOLSKY, SAMUEL 

TIEMPO, CESAR 

TOKER, ELIAHU 

VERBITZKY, BERNARDO 

WECHSLER, ELINA 

15. YUGOSLAV LITERATURE 
Main Surveys 
yugoslav literature 

biographies 

albahari, david 
davico, oscar 
david, filip 
debrecenji, jozef 
feldman, miroslav 
gottlieb, hinko 
ivanji, ivan 
jun-broda, ina 
kis, danilo (Daniel) 

KONFINO, ZAK 
LEBOVIC, DJORDJE 
NAHMIJAS, DANILO 
NAJMAN, JULIJA 
ROMANO, SAMUEL 
SAMOKOVLIJA, ISAK 
SINKO, ERVIN 
TISMA, ALEKSANDAR 



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C. MUSIC & DANCE 

Main Surveys 

DANCE 
MUSIC 

General Entries 

american society for jewish music 

batsheva and bat-dor dance companies 

ben sira, wisdom of 

bible - in the arts 

cantatas and choral works, hebrew 

cantillation 

CHOIRS 

DIBBUK 

HASIDISM 

HA-TIKVAH 

HAZZAN 

HORAH 

INBAL DANCE THEATER 

ISRAEL CHAMBER ORCHESTRA 

LADINO 

MAQAM 

ORGAN 

records, phonograph 

shtayger 

society for jewish folk music 

talmud, musical rendition 

tanzhaus 

Communities 

africa, north: musical traditions 

ALEPPO 

AMSTERDAM 

FRANKFURT ON THE MAIN 

GREECE 

INDIA 

IRAN, MUSICAL TRADITION 

IRAQ 

ITALY 

KARAITES 

KURDISTAN 

SAMARITANS 

TURKEY 

YEMEN 

YUGOSLAVIA 



Ritual 



ADDIR HU 



ADON OLAM 



AHOT KETANNAH 



ALEINU LE-SHABBEAH 

AMEN 

AMIDAH 

AVODAH 

BAKKASHAH 

EL MALE RAHAMIM 

HALLELUJAH 

KADDISH 

KOL NIDREI 



LEKHAH DODI 

ma'oz ZUR 

MASORETIC ACCENTS (MUSICAL RENDITION) 

MI-SINAI NIGGUNIM 

NUSAH 

YIGDAL 

ZEMIROT 



Bible in Music 

ABRAHAM 

ABSALOM 

ADAM 

AKEDAH 

ATHALIAH 

BABEL, TOWER OF 

BELSHAZZAR 

CAIN 

COSTA, URIEL DA 

DANIEL 

DAVID 

DEBORAH 

ELIJAH 

ESTHER 

EZEKIEL 

GIDEON 

HABAKKUK 

HASMONEANS 

HEROD I 

HEZEKIAH 

ISAAC 

ISAIAH 

JACOB 

JEPHTHAH 

JEREMIAH 

JERUSALEM 

JOB, BOOK OF 

JOEL 

JONAH, BOOK OF 

JOSEPH 

JOSHUA 

LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF 

MOSES 

Nebuchadnezzar (Nebuchadrezzer) 

NOAH 

PSALMS, BOOK OF 

RACHEL 

SAMSON 

SAMUEL 

SAUL 

SCROLLS, THE FIVE 

SODOM AND GOMORRAH 

SOLOMON 

SONG OF SONGS 



Biographies 

abeliovich, lev moysseyevich 
aber, adolf 
abileah, arie 
abraham, gerald 



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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

C. MUSIC & DANCE 

Biographies (continued) 

ABRAHAM, OTTO 

abrass, osias (Joshua) 

ABRAVANEL, MAURICE (de) 
ACHRON, JOSEPH 
ACKERMAN, SHABTAI 
ADASKIN, MURRAY 
ADLER, GUIDO 
ADLER, HUGO CHAIM 
ADLER, ISRAEL 

adler, larry (Lawrence) 

ADLER, RICHARD 

ADMON, YEDIDYAH 

AGADATI, BARUCH 

AGUILAR, EMANUEL ABRAHAM 

AHARON, EZRA 

ALDEMA, GIL 

ALEXANDER, HAIM 

ALGAZI, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON 

algazi, leon (Yehudah) 
al-gharId al-yahud! 
al-harizi, judah ben solomon 

ALKAN (Morhange), CHARLES HENRI-VALENTIN 

ALMAN, SAMUEL 

AL-MANSUR AL-YAHUDI 

ALPERT, HERB 

ALSHVANG, ARNOLD ALEKSANDROVICH 

ALTER, ISRAEL 

ALTSCHUL, JOSEPH 

ALTSCHULER, MODEST 

AMAR, LICCO 

AMIRAN, EMANUEL 

AMRAM, DAVID 

ANCERL, KARL 

ANCONA, MARIO 

ANHALT, ISTVAN 

ANTHEIL, GEORGE 

APEL, WILLI 

APPLEBAUM, LOUIS 

ARBATOVA, MIA 

ARGOV, ALEXANDER (Sascha) 

ARGOV, ZOHAR 

ARIE, RAFAEL 

ARLEN, HAROLD 

AROM, SIMHA 

aroni (Aharoni), TSVI 

ARONOVICH, YURI MIKHAYLOVICH 

ARPA, ABRAMO DALL 

ARTZI, SHLOMO 

ASHKENAZY, VLADIMIR DAVIDOVICH 

ATZMON, MOSHE 

AUER, LEOPOLD 

AVENARY, HANOCH 

AVIDOM, MENAHEM 

AVNI, TZEVI 

AVSHALOMOV, AARON 

AVSHALOMOV, JACOB 



AX, EMMANUEL 

BABBITT, MILTON 

BABILEE, JEAN 

BABIN, VICTOR 

BACHARACH, BURT 

BACHAUER, GINA 

BACHMANN, JACOB 

BACON, HIRSCH LEIB 

BACON, ISRAEL 

BACON, SHLOMO REUVEN 

BACON, YIDEL 

BAER, ABRAHAM 

BAGLEY, DAVID 

BAR, SHLOMO 

BARDANASHVILI, YOSEF 

BARENBOIM, DANIEL 

BAR-ILAN, DAVID 

BARMAS, ISSAY 

BARNEA, EZRA 

BARNETT, JOHN 

BARNETT, JOHN FRANCIS 

BARSHAI, RUDOLPH 

BART, LIONEL 

BAUER, JACOB 

BAUER, MARION EUGENIE 

BAYER, BATHIA 

BEDA 

BEER, AARON 

BEER, RAMI 

BEIMEL, JACOB 

BEKKER, PAUL 

BELL, JOSHUA 

BELLISON, SIMEON 

BELY, VICTOR ARKADYEVICH (ArOIlOVich) 

BENATZKY, RALPH 

BENDIX, OTTO 

BENDIX, VICTOR EMANUEL 

BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS (Isaac) 

BEN-HAIM, PAUL 

BEN-HAIM, YIGAL 

BEN-SHABETAI, ARI 

BEREGOVSKI, MOSHE 

BERGEL, BERND 

BERGER, ARTHUR VICTOR 

BERGGRUN, HEINRICH 

BERGSON, MICHAEL 

BERK, FRED 

BERLIJN, ANTON (Aron Wolf) 

BERLIN, IRVING 

BERLINSKI, HERMAN 

BERNSTEIN, ABRAHAM MOSHE 

BERNSTEIN, ELMER 

BERNSTEIN, LEONARD 

BERTINI, GARY 

BERTONOFF, DEBORAH 

BIE, OSCAR 

BINDER, ABRAHAM WOLF 

BIRNBAUM, ABRAHAM BAER 

BIRNBAUM, EDUARD 

BLANES, JACOB 



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BLANTER, MATVEY ISAAKOVICH 

BLAUSTEIN, ABRAHAM 

BLECH, LEO 

BLINDMAN, YERUHAM 

BLITZSTEIN, MARC 

BLOCH, ANDRE 

BLOCH, CHARLES 

BLOCH, ERNEST 

BLOCH, ROSINE 

BLOOMFIELD-ZEISLER, FANNY 

BLUM, RENE 

BLUMENFELD, FELIX MIKHAYLOVICH 

BLUMENTHAL, NISSAN, 

BODANZKY, ARTHUR 

BODKY, ERWIN 

BOEHM, YOHANAN 

BOGHEN, FELICE 

BOLAFFI, MICHELE 

BOLM, ADOLPH RUDOLPHOVICH 

BORGE, VICTOR 

BORIS, RUTHANNA 

BOROVSKY, ALEXANDER 

BOSCOVITCH, ALEXANDER URIYAH 

BOTSTEIN, LEON 

BOUZAGLO, DAVID 

BRAHAM, IOHN 

BRAILOWSKY, ALEXANDER 

BRANDON, OHEB ISAAC 

BRANT, HENRY DREYFUS 

BRAUDO, YEVGENI MAXIMOVICH 

BRAUN (BROWN), ARIE 

BRAUN, YEHEZKIEL 

BRAUNER, HARRY 

BRECHER, GUSTAVE 

BRECKER BROTHERS 

BREVAL, LUCIENNE 

BROD, DOVIDL 

BROD, MAX 

BRODER SINGERS 

BRODSKY, ADOLF 

BRONFMAN, YEFIM 

BROOK, BARRY SHELLEY 

BROWNING, JOHN 

BRUELL, IGNAZ 

BRUSSILOVSKY, YEVGENI GRIGORYEVICH 

BUCHWALD, THEO 

BUKOFZER, MANFRED 

BURLE MARX, WALTER 

CACERES, ABRAHAM 

CAHN, SAMMY 

CAREGAL, HAYYIM MOSES BEN ABRAHAM 

CARLEBACH, SHLOMO 

CARP, PAULA 

CASTELNUOVO-TEDESCO, MARIO 

CERVETTO, JACOB BASEVI 

CHAGRIN, FRANCIS 

CHAGY, BERELE 

CHASINS, ABRAHAM 

CHERKASSKY, SHURA 

CHERNEY, BRIAN 



CHERNIAVSKY 
CHUJOY, ANATOLE 
CHURGIN, BATHIA 

ci vita, davit (David) 

COHEN, HARRIET 

COHEN, JACOB RAPHAEL 

COHEN, LEONARD 

COHEN, SELMA JEANNE 

COHEN, YARDENA 

COHEN MELAMED, NISSAN 

COLEMAN, CY 

COLONNE, JULES (Judah) EDOUARD 

COMISSIONA, SERGIU 

CONRIED, HEINRICH 

CONSOLO, FEDERICO 

COOPER, EMIL ALBERTOVICH 

COPLAND, AARON 

COSTA, SIR MICHAEL 

COWEN, SIR FREDERIC HYMEN 

CRANKO, JOHN 

DA PONTE, LORENZO 

DAMARI, SHOSHANA 

DAMROSCH 

DANTO, LOUIS 

DA-OZ, RAM 

DAUS, AVRAHAM 

DAVICO, LUJO 

DAVID, ERNEST 

DAVID, FERDINAND 

DAVID, SAMUEL 

DAVYDOV, KARL YULYEVICH 

DE PHILIPPE, EDIS 

DESSAU, PAUL 

DEUTSCH, MORITZ 

DEUTSCH, OTTO ERICH 

DIAMOND, DAVID 

DICHTER, MISHA 

DI-ZAHAV, EPHRAIM 

DOBROVEN, ISSAY ALEXANDROVICH 

DONALDA, PAULINE 

DORATI, ANTAL 

DORFMAN, JOSEPH 

DRESDEN, SEM 

DU PRE, JACQUELINE 

DUKAS, PAUL 

DUNAYEVSKI, ISAAC OSIPOVICH 

DUQUE, SIMON DAVID 

DUSHKIN, SAMUEL 

EDEL, YIZHAK 

EDEN-TAMIR 

EHRLICH, ABEL 

EIFMAN, BORIS 

EINSTEIN, ALFRED 

EISENSTEIN, JUDITH KAPLAN 

EISLER, HANNS 

ELLSTEIN, ABRAHAM (Abe) 

ELMAN, MISCHA 

EMSHEIMER, ERNST 

engel, joel (Yuli Dimitriyevich) 

EPHROS, GERSHON 



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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

C. MUSIC & DANCE 

Biographies (continued) 

ERLANGER, CAMILLE 

ESHEL, YITZHAK 

ESPINOSA, EDOUARD 

EULENBURG, ERNST 

EVEN-OR, MARY 

FALL, LEO 

FANO, GUIDO ALBERTO 

FARBER, VIOLA 

FEIDMAN, GIYORA 

FEINBERG, SAMUEL YEVGENYEVICH 

FEINSINGER, JOSHUA 

FELDMAN, MORTON 

FEUERMANN, EMANUEL 

FIEDLER, ARTHUR 

FISCHER, ANNIE 

FISCHOFF, JOSEPH 

FISHER, DUDU 

FITELBERG, GRZEGORZ (GregOr) 

FLEISCHER, TSIPPI 

FLEISHER, LEON 

FLESCH, CARL 

FOGELBERG, DAN 

FOSS, LUKAS 

FRANKEL, BENJAMIN 

FREED, ISADORE 

FREEDMAN, HARRY 

FRIED (-BISS), MIRIAM 

FRIEDE, SHALOM 

FRIEDLAENDER, MAX 

FRIEDMAN, DEBORAH LYNN 

FRIEDMAN, KINKY 

FRIEDMANN, ARON 

FRIEDMANN, MORITZ 

FROMM, HERBERT 

FUCHS, LILLIAN 

GABRIELOVITCH, OSIP SOLOMONOVICH 

GANCHOFF, MOSES 

GANTMAN, JUDAH LEIB (LEO) 

GASKELL, SONJA 

GEBIRTIG, MORDECAI 

GEDALGE, ANDRE 

GEIRINGER, KARL 

GELBRUN, ARTUR 

GERBER, MAYNARD 

GERNSHEIM, FRIEDRICH 

GEROVICH, ELIEZER MORDECAI BEN ISAAC 

gerson-kiwi, edith (Esther) 

GESHURI, MEIR SHIMON 

GETZ, STAN 

GIBBS, TERRY 

GIDEON, MIRIAM 

GILBOA, JACOB 

GILELS, EMIL GRIGORYEVICH 

GIOVANNI MARIA 

GLANZ, LEIB 

GLASS, PHILIP 



GLICK, IRVING SRUL 

GLIERE, REINHOLD MORITZEVICH 

GLUCK, ALMA 

GNESIN, MIKHAIL FABIANOVICH 

GODOWSKY, LEOPOLD 

GOLDBERG, SZYMON 

GOLDFARB, ISRAEL 

GOLDMAN, EDWIN FRANKO 

GOLDMARK, KARL 

GOLDSCHMIDT, HUGO 

GOLDSTEIN, JOSEF 

GOLDSTEIN, RAYMOND 

GOLINKIN, MORDECAI 

GOLSCHMANN, VLADIMIR 

GOODMAN, BENNY 

GOTTSCHALK, LOUIS MOREAU 

GOULD, MORTON 

GRADENWITZ, PETER EMANUEL 

GRAF, HERBERT 

GRAFFMAN, GARY 

GRAZIANI, YIZHAK 

GREENBERG, NOAH 

GREENBLATT, ELIYAHU 

GRUENBERG, LOUIS 

GUGLIELMO DA PESARO 

GUSIKOW, JOSEPH MICHAEL 

HAENDEL, IDA 

HAHN, REYNALDO 

HAINOVITZ, ASHER 

HAJDU, ANDRE 

HALEVY, JACQUES (Francois) FROMENTAL ELIE 

HALPRIN, ANN 

HAMDI, LEVI BEN YESHUAH 

HAMMERSTEIN 

HARRAN, DON 

HASKELL, ARNOLD LIONEL 

HASKIL, CLARA 

HAST, MARCUS 

HAUBENSTOCK-RAMATI, ROMAN 

HAUSER, EMIL 

HAYDEN, MELISSA 

HEIFETZ, JASCHA 

HEILLMANN, YITZHAK 

HELLER, STEPHEN 

HEMAN 

HEMSI, ALBERTO 

HENLE, MORITZ 

henschel, sir george (Isidor Georg) 

HERRMANN, BERNARD 
HERSCHMAN, MORDECHAI 
HERSKOVITS, BELA 
HERSTIK, NAPHTALI 
HERTZKA, EMIL 

herz, henri (Heinrich) 

HERZOG, GEORGE 
HESKES, IRENE 
HESS, DAME MYRA 
HILLER, FERDINAND 
HINRICHSEN 
HIRSH, NURIT 



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HIRSHBERG, JEHOASH 
HOLDHEIM, THEODOR 
HOLLAENDER 
HORENSTEIN, JASCHA 
HORNBOSTEL, ERICH MORITZ VON 
HOROWITZ, VLADIMIR 
HUBERMAN, BRONISLAW 
HUROK, SOLOMON 
IBN ABI AL SALT 
IDELSOHN, ABRAHAM ZVI 
INBAL, ELIAHU 
ISSERLIS, STEVEN 
ISTOMIN, EUGENE 
JACOBI, ERWIN R. 
JACOBI, FREDERICK 
JACOBI, GEORG 

jacobi, hanoch (Heinrich) 
Jacobs, arthur (David) 

JACOBSTHAL, GUSTAV 
JADASSOHN, SALOMON 
JADLOWKER, HERMANN 
JAFFE, ELI 
JANOWSKI, MAX 
JAPHET, ISRAEL MEYER 
JASSINOWSKY, PINCHAS 
JOACHIM, JOSEPH 
JOCHSBERGER, TZIPORAH 
JONAS, EMILE 
JUDAH BEN ISAAC 
KADMAN, GURIT 
KAHN, ERICH ITOR 
KAISER, ALOIS 
KALIB, SHALOM 
KALICHSTEIN, JOSEPH 
KALMAN, EMMERICH (Imre) 
KARACZEWSKI, HANINA 
KAREL, RUDOLF 
KARLINER, BARUCH 
KARMON, ISRAEL 
KARNIOL, ALTER YEHIEL 
KATCHEN, JULIUS 
KATZ, ISRAEL 
KATZ, MINDRU 
KATZ, RUTH 
KATZ, SHOLOM 
KAYE, NORA 
KENT, ALLEGRA 
KENTNER, LOUIS 
KERN, JEROME DAVID 
KERTESZ, ISTVAN 
KESTENBERG, LEO 
KIDD, MICHAEL 
KINSKY, GEORG LUDWIG 
KIPNIS, ALEXANDER 
KIPNIS, MENAHEM 
KIRCHNER, LEON 
KIRSCHNER, EMANUEL 
KIRSTEIN, LINCOLN 
KLEMPERER, OTTO 
KLETZKI, PAUL 



H 



KOGAN, LEONID BORISSOVICH 

KOHN, MAIER 

KOLISCH, RUDOLF 

KOLODIN, IRVING 

KOPYTMAN, MARK RUVIMOVICH 

KORNGOLD, ERICH WOLFGANG 

KORNITZER, LEON 

KOSHETZ, NINA 

KOSTELANETZ, ANDRE 

KOUSSEVITZKY, MOSHE 

KOUSSEVITZKY, SERGE 

KOWALSKI, MAX 

KRAUS, GERTRUD 

KRAUS, LILI 

KRAUS, MOSHE 

KREIN, ALEXANDER ABRAMOVIC 

KREISLER, FRITZ 

KREMER, ISA 

KRIPS, JOSEF 

KROSHNER, MIKHAIL YEFIMOVICH 

KURTH, ERNEST 

KURZ, SELMA 

KUWAETI, SALEH 

KWARTIN, ZAVEL 

LACHMANN, ROBERT 

LAKNER, YEHOSHUA 

LAMM, PAVEL ALEKSANDROVICH 

LANDOWSKA, WANDA 

LANG, PEARL 

LAPSON, DVORA 

LAVRY, MARC 

LEAR, EVELYN 

LEBERT, SIGMUND 

LEEF, YINAM 

LEFKOWITZ, DAVID 

LEIBOWITZ, RENE 

LEICHTENTRITT, HUGO 

LEIGH, ADELE 

LEINSDORF, ERICH 

LEONI, MYER 

LERER, JOSHUA 

LERER, SHMUEL 

LERT, ERNST 

LEVI-AGRON, HASIA 

LEVI, HERMANN 

LEVI, LEO 

LEVI, YOEL 

LEVINE, JAMES 

LEVINSON, ANDRE 

LEVI-TANNAI, SARA 

LEVITSKY, MISCHA 

LEVY 

LEVY, LAZARE 

LEVY, MARVIN DAVID 

LEWANDOWSKI, LOUIS 

LEWENTHAL, RAYMOND 

LEWITZKY, BELLA 

LHEVINNE, JOSEF 

LICHINE, DAVID 

LIEBERMANN, ROLF 



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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

C. MUSIC & DANCE 

Biographies (continued) 

LIEBERSON, GODDARD 

LIEBLING, ESTELLE 

LIFSHITZ, NEHAMAH 

LIGETTI, GYORGI 

LIPSCHITZ, SOLOMON BEN MOSES 

LISSA, ZOFIA 

LIST, EMANUEL 

LIST, GEORGE 

LITINSKI, GENRIKH ILYICH 

LIUZZI, FERNANDO 

LOCKSPEISER, EDWARD 

LOESSER, FRANK 

LOEWE, FREDERICK 

LOEWENSTEIN-STRASHUNSKY, JOEL DAVID 

LONDON, GEORGE 

lourie, arthur (Vincent) 

LOVY, ISRAEL 
LOWINSKY, EDWARD 
LUBIN, ABRAHAM 
LUBOSHUTZ 
LUCCA, PAULINE 
MAAYANI, AMI 
MAAZEL, LORIN 
MACHABEY, ARMAND 
MAHLER, GUSTAV 
MAJOR, ERVIN 

major, julius (Gyula, Jacob) 

MALAVSKY, SAMUEL 

MALOVANY, JOSEPH 

MANDEL, SHELOMOH 

MANNES 

MANNES, LEOPOLD 

MANOR, EHUD 

MARKOVA, ALICIA 

MARX, ADOLF BERNHARD 

MASLOW, SOPHIE 

MASSARANO, JACCHINO OR ISACCHINO 

MATZENAUER, MARGARETE 

MAYER, SIR ROBERT 

MAYKAPAR, SAMUIL MOYSEYEVICH 

MEDINA, AVIHU 

MEDVEDEV, MIKHAIL 

MEHTA, ZUBIN 

MEISELS, SAUL 

MENDEL, ARTHUR 

MENDEL, HERMANN 

MENDELSON, JACOB BEN-ZION 

MENDELSON, SOLOMON 

MENDELSSOHN, ARNOLD 

Mendelssohn, felix ( Jakob Ludwig Felix) 

MENDELSSOHN HENSEL, FANNY CAECILIE 

MENKEN, ALAN 

MENUHIN, HEFZIBAH 

MENUHIN, YEHUDI 

MERRILL, ROBERT 

MESSERER, ASAF MIKHAILOVICH 



metzger, ottilie (Metzger-Latterman) 

MEYER, ERNST HERMAN 

MEYERBEER, GIACOMO 

MILHAUD, DARIUS 

MILLER, BEN-ZION 

MILLER, MITCH 

MILNER, MOSES MICHAEL 

MILSTEIN, NATHAN 

MINKOWSKI, PINCHAS 

MINTZ, SHLOMO 

MIRON, ISSACHAR 

MIZRAHI, ASHER 

MLOTEK, CHANA 

MOISEIWITSCH, BENNO 

MONTEUX, PIERRE 

MORAWETZ, OSCAR 

MOROGOWSKI, JACOB SAMUEL 

MOSCHELES, IGNAZ 

MOSZKOWSKI, MORITZ 

MOTTL, FELIX JOSEF 

MULLER, BENJAMIN 

NACHEZ, TIVADAR 

NADEL, ARNO 

NAHARIN, OHAD 

NARDI, NAHUM 

NATHAN, ISAAC 

NATRA, SERGIU 

NAUMBOURG, SAMUEL 

NAVON, ISAAC ELIYAHU 

ne'eman, YEHOSHUA LEIB 

NETTL, PAUL 

NEWMAN, ALFRED 

NIKOVA, RINA 

NOWAKOWSKI, DAVID 

NOY, MEIR 

NULMAN, MACY 

OBADIAH, THE NORMAN PROSELYTE 

OCHS, SIEGFRIED 

OFFENBACH, ISAAC 

OFFENBACH, JACQUES 

OISTRAKH, DAVID FEDOROVICH 

OLIVERO, BETTY 

ORDMAN, JEANETTE 

ORENSTEIN, ARBIE 

ORGAD, BEN ZION 

ORMANDY, EUGENE 

OSTFELD, BARBARA 

OVED, MARGALIT 

OYSHER, MOISHE 

PANOV, VALERY 

PARTOS, OEDOEN 

PASTA, GUIDITTA 

PAULY, ROSA 

PEERCE, JAN 

PELLEG, FRANK 

PERAHIA, MURRAY 

PERGAMENT, MOSES 

PERLMAN, ITZCHAK 

PETERS, ROBERTA 

PIATIGORSKY, GREGOR 



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PINCHERLE, MARC 
PINCHIK, PIERRE 
PISK, PAUL AMADEUS 
PLAMENAC, DRAGAN 
PLISETSKAYA, MAYA 
POLACHEK, SENDER 
POLLACK, EGON 
POLLAK, ZALMAN 
POLLINI, BERNHARD 
POPPER, DAVID 
PORGES, HEINRICH 
POSTOLSKY, SHALOM 
PRESSLER, MENAHEM 

previn, andre (George) 

PRUEWAR, IULIUS 

PUTTERMAN, DAVID 

QUELER, EVE 

RABINOVICH, HAIM BEN ZION 

RABINOVICZ, PINCHAS 

RADZYNSKI, IAN 

RAISA, ROSA 

RAMBERT, DAME MARIE 

RAN, SHULAMIT 

RAPPAPORT, IACOB 

RASKIN, IUDITH 

RATHAUS, KAROL 

RAVINA, MENASHE 

RAVITZ, SHELOMO 

RAZUMNI, EPHRAIM ZALMAN (Solomon) 

REDLICH, HANS FERDINAND 

REICH, STEVE 

REINER, FRITZ 

REISENBERG, NADIA 

REIZENSTEIN, FRANZ 

REMENYI, EDUARD 

RESNIK, REGINA 

RETT, RUDOLF 

RICARDO, DAVID 

RIETI, VITTORIO 

RINGER, ALEXANDER 

RIVLIN, SHELOMO ZALMAN 

ROBBINS, IEROME 

ROCHBERG, GEORGE 

RODAN, MENDI 

RODGERS, MARY 

RODGERS, RICHARD 

RODZINSKY, ARTUR 

ROGERS, BERNARD 

ROITMAN, DAVID 

ROLAND-MANUEL 

ROLL, MICHAEL 

ROMANOS MELODOS 

ROMBERG, SIGMUND 

RONLY-RIKLIS, SHALOM 

ROSE, ARNOLD IOSEF 

ROSE, LEONARD 

ROSEN, CHARLES 

ROSENBLATT, IOSEF 

ROSENFELD, ABRAHAM ISAAC IACOB 

ROSENSTOCK, IOSEPH 



ROSENTHAL, HAROLD (David) 

Rosenthal, manuel (Emmanuel) 

ROSENTHAL, MORIZ (Maurycy) 

ROSOWSKY, SOLOMON 

ROSS, HERBERT 

ROSSI, MADAMA EUROPA DE' 

ROSSI, SALAMONE DE 

ROTHMUELLER, AARON MARKO 

ROZSAVOLGYI, MARK 

RUBIN, RUTH 

RUBINSTEIN, ANTON GRIGORYEVICH 

RUBINSTEIN, ARTUR 

RUBINSTEIN, IDA 

RUDEL, IULIUS 

RUDINOW, MOSHE 

RUDOLF, MAX 

russell (Levy), henry 

SACERDOTE, DAVID 

SACHS, CURT 

SADAI, YIZHAK 

SADIE, STANLEY (John) 

SAINT-LEON, ARTHUR MICHEL 

SALAMAN 

salmon, karel (Karl Salomon) 

SALZMAN, PNINA 

SAMBURSKY, DANIEL 

SAMINSKY, LAZARE 

SAMUEL, HAROLD 

SANDERLING, KURT 

SANDLER, IACOB KOPPEL 

SCHACHTER, CARL 

SCHAECHTER-GOTTESMAN, BEYLE 

SCHALIT, HEINRICH 

SCHENKER, HEINRICH 

SCHIDLOWSKY, LEON 

SCHIFF, ANDRAS 

SCHIFRIN, LALO 

SCHILLINGER, IOSEPH 

SCHINDLER, KURT 

SCHLAMME, MARTHA 

SCHLESINGER 

SCHMIDT, IOSEPH 

SCHNABEL, ARTHUR 

SCHNEIDER, ALEXANDER 

SCHOENBERG, ARNOLD 

SCHOENE, LOTTE 

SCHORR, BARUCH 

SCHORR, FRIEDRICH 

SCHREKER, FRANZ 

SCHUBERT, LIA 

SCHULHOF, MOSHE 

SCHULHOFF, IULIUS 

SCHULLER, GUNTHER 

SCHUMAN, WILLIAM HOWARD 

SCHWARTZ, STEPHEN 

SCHWARZ, RUDOLF 

SECUNDA, SHOLOM 

SEGAL, URI 

SEIBER, MATYAS GYORGY 

SENDREY, ALFRED 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

C. MUSIC & DANCE 

Biographies (continued) 

SERKIN, PETER 
SERKIN, RUDOLF 
SETER, MORDECHAI 
SEVITZKY, FABIEN 
SHAHAM, GIL 
SHALLON, DAVID 
SHAPERO, HAROLD 
SHARETT, YEHUDAH 
SHARLIN, WILLIAM 
SHAW, ARTIE 
SHELEM, MATTITYAHU 
SHEMER, NAOMI 
SHERIFF, NOAM 
SHESTAPOL, WOLF 
SHILOAH, AMNON 
SHLONSKY, VARDINA 
SHMUELI, HERZL 
SHULSINGER, BEZALEL 
SIEGMEISTER, ELIE 
SILBERMANN, ALPHONS 

sills, beverly (Belle Silverman) 

SINGER, GEORGE 
SINGER, JOSEF 
SINGER, KURT 
SINIGAGLIA, LEONE 
SIPRUTINI, EMANUEL 
SIROTA, GERSHON 
SLATKIN, LEONARD 
SLONIMSKY, NICOLAS 



HAILOVIC 



SLONIMSKY, SERGEI MIKHAILOVICH 

SMOIRA-COHN, MICHAL 

SOBOL, MORDECHAI 

SOKOLOW, ANNA 

SOLOMON 

SOLTI, GEORG 

SONDHEIM, STEPHEN 

SPECTOR, JOHANNA 

SPIVACKE, HAROLD 

SPIVAK, NISSAN 

SPIVAKOVSKY, TOSSY 

STARER, ROBERT 

STARK, EDWARD 

STEIN, ERWIN 



STEINBERG, MAXIMILIAN OS 



SEJEVICH 



STEINBERG, WILLIAM 

STENN (STEEN), REBECCA 

STERN, ISAAC 

STERN, JULIUS 

STERN, MOSHE 

STERNBERG, ERICH-WALTER 

STEUERMANN, EDWARD 

STOLYARSKI, PETER SOLOMONOVICH 

STRAKOSCH, MAURICE 

STRANSKY, JOSEF 

STRAUS, OSCAR 

STRAUSS, JOHANN 



STUTSCHEWSKY, JOACHIM 

STYNE, JULE 

SULITEANU, GISELA 

SULZER, SOLOMON 

SUSSKIND, WALTER 

SZABOLCSI, BENCE 

SZELL, GEORGE 

SZERMAN, PINCHAS 

SZERYNG, HENRYK 

SZIGETI, JOSEPH 

TAL, JOSEF 

TALMON, ZVI 

TAMIRIS, HELEN 

TANSMAN, ALEXANDER 

TARUSKIN, RICHARD 

TAUBE, MICHAEL 

TAUBE, MOSHE 

TAUBE, SAMUEL BARUCH 

TAUBER, RICHARD 

TAUSIG, KARL 

TEMIANKA, HENRI 

TERTIS, LIONEL 

THALBERG, SIGISMUND 

THOMAS, MICHAEL TILSON 

TISCHLER, HANS 

TOCH, ERNST 

TOUREL, JENNIE 

TSFASSMAN, ALEXANDER NAUMOVICH 

TUCKER, RICHARD 

TUGAL, PIERRE 

TURECK, ROSALYN 

ULLMAN, VIKTOR 

UNGAR, BENJAMIN 

UNGER, MAX 

VALABREGA, CESARE 

VARDI, ARIEH 

VEINBERG, MOISSEY SAMUILOVICH 

VEPRIK, ALEXANDER MOISEYEVITCH 

VICOL, ADRIAN 

VIGODA, SAMUEL 

VINAVER, CHEMJO 

VOGEL, WLADIMIR 

VOLPE, ARNOLD 

WAGHALTER, IGNATZ 

WAGNER, RICHARD 

WALDMAN, LEIBELE 

WALDTEUFEL, EMIL 

WALLENSTEIN, ALFRED 

WALTER, BRUNO 

wasserzug (Lomzer), hayyim 

WEILL, KURT 
WEINBERG, JACOB 
WEINBERGER, JAROMIR 
WEINER, LAZAR 
WEINER, LEO 
WEINSTOCK, HERBERT 
WEINTRAUB, SOLOMON 
WEINZWEIG, JOHN 
WEISGAL, ABBA JOSEPH 
WEISGALL, HUGO 



256 



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WEISSBERG, JULIA LAZAREVNA 
WEISSENBERG, ALEXIS 
WEISSER, ALBERT 
WEISSER, IOSHUA 
WEISSMANN, ADOLF 
WELLESZ, EGON IOSEPH 
WERNER, ERIC 
WERTHEIM, ROSALIE MARIE 
WIENER, JEAN 
WIENIAWSKI, HENRI 
WILENSKY, MOSHE 
WILLIAMS, CHARLES 
WINTERNITZ, EMANUEL 
WITTGENSTEIN, PAUL 
WOHLBERG, MOSHE 
WOLFF, ALBERT LOUIS 
WOLFF, HERMANN 
WOLFSOHN, JULIUSZ 
WOLFSTHAL, CHUNE 
WOLPE, STEFAN 

wormser, andre (Alphonse-Toussaint) 

YAMPOLSKY, BERTA 

YASSER, JOSEPH 

YELLIN-BENTWICH, THELMA 

ZALUDKOWSKI, ELIJAH 

ZEFIRA, BRACHAH 

ZEHAVI, DAVID 

ZEIRA, MORDECHAI 

ZEMACH, BENJAMIN 

ZHITOMIRSKI, ALEXANDER MATVEYEVITCH 

ZILBERTS, ZAVEL 

ZIMBALIST, EFREM 

ZUKERMAN, PINCHAS 

ZUKOFSKY, PAUL 

ZUR, MENAHEM 



D. SCIENCE 

Main Surveys 

chemistry 
computer science 
environmental sciences 
life sciences 
mathematics 
medicine 

PHYSICS 
PSYCHIATRY 



General Entries 

aeronautics, aviation, and astronautics 

ALCHEMY 

NOBEL PRIZES 

TECHNOLOGY AND HALAKHAH 



1. BIOLOGY 

GENERAL ENTRIES 

GENETIC ANCESTRY, JEWISH 

BIOGRAPHIES 

ABIR (ABRAMOVITZ), DAVID 



ABULAFIA, SAMUEL HA-LEVI 

AHARONI, ISRAEL 

ALTMAN, SIDNEY 

ALTSCHUL, AARON MEYER 

ANFINSEN, CHRISTIAN B. 

ARNON, DANIEL ISRAEL 

ARNON, ISAAC 

ARNON, RUTH 

ARTOM, CESARE 

ASCHERSON, PAUL FRIEDRICH AUGUST 

ASCHNER, MANFRED 

ASHBEL, DOV 

ASIMOV, ISAAC 

ASKENASY, EUGEN 

ATLAN, HENRI 

AUERBACH, LEOPOLD 

AVIV, HAIM 

AXELROD, JULIUS 

BALTIMORE, DAVID 

BERG, PAUL 

bloch, marcus (Mordecai) eliezer 

BODENHEIMER, FREDERICK SIMON 

BODMER, SIR WALTER 

BOGORAD, LAWRENCE 

BRESSLAU, ERNST 

CEDAR, CHAIM 

COHEN, STANLEY N. 

COHEN, YIGAL RAHAMIM 

COHN, FERDINAND JULIUS 

CHET, ILAN 

DUVDEVANI, SHMUEL 

EDINGER, TILLY 

EIG, ALEXANDER 

ENRIQUES, PAOLO 

EPHRUSSI, BORIS 

ERRERA, LEO 

EVENARI, MICHAEL 

EZEKIEL, MOSES 

FAHN, ABRAHAM 

FEINBRUN-DOTHAN, NAOMI 

GILBERT, WALTER 

GOLDSCHMIDT, RICHARD BENEDICT 

GOULD, STEPHEN 

GURWITSCH, ALEXANDER GAVRILOVICH 

HAAS, FRITZ 

HAAS, GEORG 

HABERLANDT, GOTTLIEB 

HAFFKINE, WALDEMAR MORDECAI 

HALEVY, ABRAHAM 

HA-REUBENI, EPHRAIM 

HORWITZ, H. ROBERT 

HYMAN, LIBBIE HENRIETTA 

JACOB, FRANCOIS 

LEDERBERG, JOSHUA 

LURIA, SALVADOR EDWARD 

LWOFF, ANDRE MICHEL 

MAGNUS, PAUL WILHELM 

MARMOREK, ALEXANDER 

MENDELSSOHN, HEINRICH 

MESELSON, MATTHEW 



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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

D. SCIENCE 

1. Biology 

Biographies (continued) 

METCHNIKOFF, ELIE 

OPPENHEIMER, HILLEL (Heinz) REINHARD 

PINCUS, GREGORY GOODWIN 

RAGER, BRACHA 

RAYSS, TSCHARNA 

REICHERT, ISRAEL 

ROTHSCHILD, NATHANIEL MAYER VICTOR, LORD 

SACHS, JULIUS 

SACHS, LEO 

SEMON, RICHARD WOLFGANG 

SORAUER, PAUL KARL MORITZ 

SPIEGELMAN, SOL 

STEINACH, EUGEN 

STENT, GUNTHER SIEGMUND 

STRASBURGER, EDUARD 

VARMUS, HAROLD ELIOT 

WAKSMAN, SELMAN ABRAHAM 

WALD, GEORGE 

WARBURG, OTTO 

WIESNER, JULIUS VON 

ZENKEVICH, LEV ALEKSANDROVICH 

ZILBER, LEV ALEKSANDROVICH 

ZOHARY, MICHAEL 

2. CHEMISTRY 
General Entries 

chemical crafts and industries 
chemistry 

biographies 

abel, emil 

askenasy, paul 

bacharach, alfred louis 

baeyer, adolf von 

bamberger, eugen 

bechhold, jacob heinrich 

bergmann, ernst david 

bergmann, felix eliezer 

bergmann, max 

berl, ernst 

bernstein, harold joseph 

bikerman, jacob joseph 

birk, yehudith 

blau, fritz 

bloch, herman samuel 

bloch, konrad 

bloch, moses rudolph 

BOBTELSKY, MORDEKHAI (Max) 

BODANSKY, OSCAR 

BORSOOK, HENRY 

BRAUDE, ERNEST ALEXANDER 

BROWN, HERBERT C. 

CALVIN, MELVIN 

CARO, HEINRICH 

CARO, NIKODEM 



CHAIN, SIR ERNST BORIS 
CHARGAFF, ERWIN 
CIECHANOVER, AARON J. 
COHEN, ERNST JULIUS 
COHEN, JULIUS BEREND 
COHEN, SIR PHILIP 
COHEN, PHILIP PACY 
COHEN, SEYMOUR STANLEY 
COHEN, STANLEY 
COHN, EDWIN JOSEPH 
COHN, LASSAR 
COHN, MILDRED 
COPISAROW, MAURICE 
DEUEL, HANS ERWIN 
DISCHE, ZACHARIAS 
DJERASSI, CARL 
DONATH, EDUARD 
DORFMAN, RALPH ISADORE 
DREYFUS BROTHERS 
DROSDOFF, MATTHEW 
DUSHMAN, SAUL 
EDELMAN, GERALD MAURICE 
EHRLICH, PAUL 
ELIEL, ERNEST LUDWIG 
EMBDEN, GUSTAV 
FAJANS, KASIMIR 
FALK, KAUFMAN GEORGE 

farkas, ladislaus (Wilhelm) 

FEIGL, FRITZ 

FEINGOLD, DAVID SIDNEY 

FEUER, HENRY 

FISCHER, EDMOND 

FISHMAN, WILLLAM HAROLD 

FLEISCHER, MICHAEL 

FODOR, ANDOR 

FOX, SIR JOHN JACOB 

FRANK, ALBERT RUDOLPH 

FREIDLINA, RAKHIL KHATSKELEVNA 

FREUND, MARTIN 

FRUMKIN, ALEKSANDR NAUMOVICH 

FUNK, CASIMIR 

GERHARDT, CHARLES FREDERIC 

GINSBURG, DAVID 

GLICK, DAVID 

GOLDBERG, ALEXANDER 

GOLDSCHMIDT, GUIDO 

GOLDSCHMIDT, HANS 

GOLDSCHMIDT, HEINRICH JACOB 

GOLDSTEIN, RICHARD FRANK 

GOMBERG, MOSES 

GREEN, DAVID EZRA 

GREENBERG, DAVID MORRIS 

GREENSTEIN, JESSE PHILIP 

GRINBERG, ALEKSANDER ABRAMOVICH 

GRUEN, ADOLF 

GRUENSTEIN, NATHAN 

HABER, FRITZ 

HALPERN, JACK 

HANDLER, PHILIP 

HARRIS, MILTON 



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HASSID, WILLIAM ZEV 

HEIDELBERGER, MICHAEL 

HEILBRON, SIR IAN MORRIS 

HERSHKO, AVRAM 

HERZOG, REGINALD OLIVER 

HESTRIN, SHLOMO 

HEVESY, GEORGE CHARLES DE 

HIRSHBERG, YEHUDAH 

HOFFMANN, ROALD 

JACOBSON, KURT 

JACOBSON, PAUL HEINRICH 

IELLINEK, KARL 

IOLLES, ZVI ENRICO 

JORTNER, IOSHUA 

KABACHNIK, MARTIN IZRAILOVICH 

KALNITSKY, GEORGE 

KATZIR, AHARON 

KATZIR, EPHRAIM 

KAUFMAN, JOYCE JACOBSON 

KAZARNOVSKI, ISAAC ABRAMOVICH 

KEDEM, ORA 

KHARASCH, MORRIS SELIG 

KLUG, AARON 

KOLTHOFF, IZAAK MAURITS 

KORNBERG, ARTHUR 

KORNBERG, HANS LEO 

KREBS, SIR HANS ADOLF 

KROTO, SIR HAROLD W. 

LADENBURG, ALBERT 

LEVENE, PHOEBUS AARON THEODOR 

LEVI, GIORGIO RENATO 

LEVI, MARIO GIACOMO 

LEVINE, RAPHAEL 

LEVINSTEIN, HERBERT 

LEVITZKI, ALEXANDER 

LEVY, LOUIS EDWARD 

LEWKOWITSCH, JULIUS 

LIEBEN, ADOLPH 

LIEBERMANN, CARL THEODOR 

LIPMAN, JACOB GOODALE 

LIPMANN, FRITZ ALBERT 

LIPPMANN, EDMUND OSKAR VON 

LIPPMANN, EDUARD 

LOEB, JACQUES 

LOEB, MORRIS 

LUNGE, GEORG 

MARCKWALD, WILLY 

MARCUS, RUDOLPH ARTHUR 

MECHOULAM, RAPHAEL 

MELDOLA, RAPHAEL 

MENDEL, LAFAYETTE BENEDICT 

MEYER, HANS JOHANNES LEOPOLD 

MEYER, RICHARD JOSEPH 

MEYER, VICTOR 

MEYERHOF, OTTO 

MEYERSON, EMILE 

MICHAELIS, LEONOR 

MOISSAN, HENRI 

MOND 

MUSHER, SIDNEY 



NEUBERG, GUSTAV EMBDEN CARL 

NEUBERGER, ALBERT 

NIRENBERG, MARSHALL WARREN 

OLAH, GEORGE 

OPPENHEIMER, CARL 

PANETH, FRIEDRICH ADOLF 

PARNAS, YAKUB KAROL 

PERLZWEIG, WILLIAM ALEXANDRE 

PERUTZ, MAX FERDINAND 

PINNER, ADOLF 

POLANYI, JOHN 

POLANYI, MICHAEL 

PRINGSHEIM, HANS 

PTASHNE, MARK 

QUASTEL, JUDAH HIRSCH 

RABINOWITCH, EUGENE 

RACKER, EFRAIM 

RAPHAEL, RALPH ALEXANDER 

RAPKINE, LOUIS 

RAZIN, AHARON 

REICHINSTEIN, DAVID 

REICHSTEIN, TADEUS 

REIFENBERG, ADOLF 

RITTENBERG, DAVID 

RODBELL, MARTIN 

ROGINSKI, SIMON ZALMANOVICH 

RONA, PETER 

ROSE, IRWIN 

ROSENHEIM, ARTHUR 

ROSENHEIM, OTTO 

SACKUR, OTTO 

SCHIFF, HUGO 

SCHMERLING, LOUIS 

SCHOENBERG, ALEXANDER JULIUS WILHELM 

SCHOENHEIMER, RUDOLPH 

SELA, MICHAEL 

SHAPIRO, BENJAMIN 

SHARON, NATHAN 

SHEAR, MURRAY JACOB 

SHEDLOVSKY, THEODORE 

SILVERMAN, ALEXANDER 

SIMON, ERNST 

SOBOTKA, HARRY HERMAN 

SONDHEIMER, FRANZ 

SPIEGEL-ADOLF, MONA 

SPIRO, KARL 

STEIN, WILLIAM HOWARD 

STERN, KURT GUNTER 

STIEGLITZ, JULIUS OSCAR 

STRAUSS, EDUARD 

STROMINGER, JACK 

SURE, BARNETT 

SYRKIN, YAKOV KOVOVICH 

SZWARC, MICHAEL 

TALMUD, DAVID L. 

TISCHLER, MAX 

TOCH, MAXIMILIAN 

TRAUBE, ISIDOR 

TRAUBE, MORITZ 

TRAUBE, WILHELM 



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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

D. SCIENCE 

2. Chemistry 

Biographies (continued) 

VOET, ANDRIES 
VOGEL, ARTHUR ISRAEL 
WALLACH, OTTO 
WARBURG, OTTO HEINRICH 
WEIGERT, FRITZ 
WEINHOUSE, SIDNEY 
WEISS, JOSEPH JOSHUA 
WERTHEIMER, CHAIM ERNST 
WESTHEIMER, FRANK HENRY 
WILLNER, ITAMAR 
WILLSTAETTER, RICHARD 
WINSTEIN, SAUL 
WINTERSTEIN, ALFRED 
WISE, LOUIS ELSBERG 
YONATH, ADA 
ZAMENHOF, STEPHEN 

3. ENGINEERING (INCL. INVENTORS) 

BIOGRAPHIES 

ADLER, CHARLES 

ARCO, GEORG WILHELM ALEXANDER HANS, GRAF 

VON 
BERLINER, EMILE 
BLOK, ARTHUR 
CARVALLO, JULES 
COHEN, MORRIS 
DRUCKER, DANIEL CHARLES 
FELD, JACOB 
FONDILLER, WILLIAM 
FREUDENTHAL, ALFRED MARTIN 
FROHMAN, DOV 
GAUNSE, JOACHIM 
GOLDBERG, EMANUEL 
GOLDMARK, PETER CARL 
GUREVICH, MIKHAIL IOSIFOVICH 
HARARI, OVADIAH 
HEYMAN, MOSES DAVID 
ISAACS, JACOB 
JAFFE, LEONARD 
JUDA, WALTER 
KATZ, ISRAEL 
KITSEE, ISADOR 
KURREIN, MAX 
LAND, EDWIN H. 
LEDEEN, HYMAN 
LEDERER, JEROME F. 
LEES, LESTER 
LEEUW, AVRAHAM DE 
LIBAI, AVINOAM 
LIEBEN, ROBERT VON 
LILIENTHAL, OTTO 
LIPSKI, ABRAHAM 
LITMAN, SAMUEL 
LOCKSPEISER, BEN, SIR 
MAGINO, MEIR 



SEYEVICH 



MARCUS, SIEGFRIED 

MICHEL-LEVY, AUGUSTE 

MILLMAN, JACOB 

NAGIN, HARRY S. 

OLLENDORFF, FRANZ 

PINKEL, BENJAMIN 

RABINOVICH, ISAAK MO 

RAM, MOSHE 

REINER, MARKUS 

RESNIK, JUDITH 

ROM, YOSEF 

RUEDENBERG, REINHOLD 

SAMOILOVICH, RUDOLPH LAZAREVICH 

SCHLESINGER, GEORG 

SCHWARZ, DAVID 

SERBIN, HYMAN 

SHALON, RAHEL 

SHAPIRO, ASCHER HERMAN 

SHECHTMAN, DAN 

SILVERMAN, LESLIE 

SILVERSTEIN, ABE 

SINGER, JOSEF 

SLEPIAN, JOSEPH 

SPORN, PHILIP 

STRAUSS, BENNO 

WEIL, JOSEPH 

WEIL, R. ADRIENNE 

WIESNER, JEROME BERT 

WOLMAN, ABEL 

YOUNG, ALEC DAVID 

ZARCHIN, ALEXANDER 

ZIV, JACOB 

ZUCROW, MAURICE JOSEPH 

4. GEOLOGY 

BIOGRAPHIES 

ANCONA, CESARE D 

BEN-ABRAHAM, ZVI 

BENIOFF, HUGO 

BENTOR, JACOB 

BERENDT, GOTTLIEB MICHAEL 

BLANCKENHORN, MAX 

COHEN, EMIL WILHELM 

GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR 

GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR MORITZ 

LOEWINSON-LESSING, FRANZ YULYEVICH 

OPPENHEIM, PAUL LEO 

PICARD, LEO 

ROSENBUSCH, KARL HARRY FERDINAND 

SALOMON-CALVI, WILHELM 

SHIFTAN, ZEEV 

SUESS, EDUARD 

VROMAN, AKIVA 

5. MEDICINE & PHYSIOLOGY 

General Entries 

ANATOMY 

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION 

AUTOPSIES AND DISSECTION 

BLINDNESS 

BLOODLETTING 



260 



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GENETIC DISEASES IN IEWS 
HERBS, MEDICINAL 
HYGIENE 

medicine and the law 
sickness 

tay-sachs disease 
transplants 

Biographies 

abraham ben solomon of saint maximin 

abraham, karl 

abrahams, isaac 

abramowitz, emil 

abt, isaac arthur 

ackord, elias 

ADAM, LAJOS (Louis) 

ADLER, ALFRED 

ADLER, SAUL AARON 

ALBU, ISIDOR 

ALI IBN SAHL IBN RABBAN AL-TABARI 

ALTSCHUL, EMIL 

AMATUS LUSITANUS 

ANGRIST, ALFRED ALVIN 

ARDUT 

ASAPH HA-ROFE 

ASTRUC, SAUL HA-KOHEN 

AXEL, RICHARD 

BAKST, NICOLAI (Noah) IGNATYEVICH 

BALINT, MICHAEL 

BALLIN, SAMUEL JACOB 

BAMBERGER, HEINRICH VON 

BARANY, ROBERT 

BARNETT, SIR LOUIS EDWARD 

BARUK, HENRI 

BENACERRAF, BARUJ 

BENCHETRIT, AARON 

BENDER, MORRIS BORIS 

BENEDIKT, MORITZ 

BENEVENUTUS GRAPHEUS HIEROSOLYMITANUS 

BENZER, SEYMOUR 

BERENBLUM, ISAAC 

BERNHEIM, HIPPOLYTE 

BERNSTEIN, JULIUS 

BERNSTEIN, NATHAN OSIPOVICH 

BESREDKA, ALEXANDER 

BESSELS, EMIL 

BILLROTH, THEODOR 

BLOCH, IWAN 

BLUMBERG, BARUCH SAMUEL 

BODIAN, DAVID 

BRENNER, SYDNEY 

BREUER, JOSEPH 

BROWN, MICHAEL STUART 

BUCKY, GUSTAV 

BUERGER, LEO 

CALAHORA 

CANNSTADT, KARL FRIEDRICH 

COHEN, ELIZABETH D. A. 

COHEN, HARRY 

COHEN, HENRY BARON 



COHNHEIM, JULIUS 

CORI, GERTY THERESA 

CYON, ELIE DE 

DAMESHEK, WILLIAM 

DAVIDOFF, LEO MAX 

DAVIDSOHN, ISRAEL 

DE LEE, JOSEPH B. 

DE VRIES, ANDRE 

DEUTSCH, FELIX 

DEUTSCH, HELENE 

DIAMOND, LOUIS KLEIN 

DONNOLO, SHABBETAI 

DORON, HAIM 

DOSTROVSKY, ARYEH 

DRESSLER, WILLIAM 

EDINGER, LUDWIG 

EINHORN, MAX 

EINHORN, MOSES 

EISSLER, KURT R. 

EITINGER, LEO S. 

EITINGON, MAX 

ELDAR, REUVEN 

ELIAKIM, MARCEL 

ELIJAH BEN SHABBETAI BEER 

ELION, GERTRUDE BELL 

ERIKSON, ERIK HOMBERGER 

ERLANGER, JOSEPH 

ERLIK, DAVID 

FALAQUERA, NATHAN BEN JOEL 

FARAJ BEN SOLOMON (Salim) DA AGRIGENTO 

FEDERN, PAUL 

FEIGENBAUM, ARYEH 

FENICHEL, OTTO 

FERENCZI, SANDOR 

FINKELSTEIN, HEINRICH 

FISHBEIN, MORRIS 

FISHBERG, MAURICE 

FLORETA CA NOGA OF ARAGON 

FOLKMAN, JUDAH 

FRANKENTHAL, KATE 

FRANKL, VIKTOR E. 

FRANZBLAU, ABRAHAM NORMAN 

FREUD, ANNA 

FREUD, SIGMUND 

FRIEDEMANN, ULRICH 

FRIEDENWALD 

FRIEDLANDER, KATE 

FRIEND, CHARLOTTE 

FRIGEIS, LAZARO DE 

FROEHLICH, ALFRED 

FROLKIS, VLADIMIR VENIAMIOVICH 

FROMM, ERICH 

FROMM-REICHMANN, FRIEDA 

FURCHGOTT, ROBERT F. 

GARLOCK, JOHN HENRY 

GASSER, HERBERT SPENCER 

GILMAN, ALFRED G. 

GOLD, HENRY RAPHAEL 

GOLD, PHILIP 

GOLDBERGER, JOSEPH 



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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

D. SCIENCE 

5. Medicine & Physiology 
Biographies (continued) 

GOLDBLUM, NATAN 

GOLDSTEIN, JOSEPH LEONARD 

GOLDSTEIN, KURT 

GOTTLIEB, BERNHARD 

GREENACRE, PHYLLIS 

GREENGARD, PAUL 

GRINKER, ROY RICHARD SR. 

GROSSMAN, MORTON IRVING 

GRUBY, DAVID 

GUMPERT, MARTIN 

GUTMAN, ALEXANDER B. 

GUTTMACHER, ALAN F. 

GUTTMANN, SIR LUDWIG 

HAJEK, MARKUS 

HALBERSTAEDTER, LUDWIG 

HALPERN, LIPMAN 

HANNOVER, ADOLPH 

HART, ERNEST ABRAHAM 

HART, JOEL 

HARTMANN, HEINZ 

HAVA OF MANOSQUE 

HAYS, ISAAC 

HEIDENHAIN, RUDOLF 

HELPERN, MILTON 

HENLE, JACOB 

HESTRIN-LERNER, SARAH 

HIRSCH, AUGUST 

HIRSCH, RACHEL 

HIRSCHBERG, JULIUS 

HIRSCHFELD, ISADOR 

HIRSCHFELD, MAGNUS 

HIRSCHLER, IGNAC 

HIRSZFELD, LUDWIK 

HITSCHMANN, EDWARD 

HOFF, HANS 

HOFFER, WILLI 

HOLLANDER, FRANKLIN 

HORWITZ, PHINEAS JONATHAN 

HYDE, IDA HENRIETTA 

IBN BIKLARISH, JUNAS (Jonah) BEN ISAAC 

ISAAC BEN TODROS 

JACOBI, ABRAHAM 

JACOBSON, LUDVIG LEVIN 

JADASSOHN, JOSEF 

JANOWITZ, HENRY D. 

KAGAN, HELENA 

KANDEL, ERIC R. 

KANNER, LEO 

KANTROWITZ, ADRIAN 

KAPOSI, MORITZ 

KARDINER, ABRAM 

KARPLUS, HEINRICH 

KATZ, SIR BERNARD 

KISCH, BRUNO ZECHARIAS 

KLEIN, GEORGE 



KLEIN, MELANIE REIZES 

KLEMPERER, PAUL 

KLIGLER, ISRAEL JACOB 

KLINE, NATHAN S. 

KOCH, ADELHEID LUCY 

ROLLER, CARL 

KOPLIK, HENRY 

KOREFF, DAVID FERDINAND 

KORINE, EZRA 

KRIM, MATHILDE 

KRISTELLER, SAMUEL 

KRONECKER, HUGO 

KUBIE, LAWRENCE 

LACHMANN, SIR PETER JULIUS 

LANDAU, LEOPOLD 

LANDSTEINER, KARL 

LANGER, ROBERT 

LASSAR, OSCAR 

LEIBOWITZ, JOSHUA O. 

LEVI, GIUSEPPE 

LEVI-MONTALCINI, RITA 

LEVINE, PHILIP 

LEVINSON, ABRAHAM 

LEWI, MAURICE J. 

LEWIS, SIR AUBREY JULIAN 

LOEB, LEO 

LOEWENSTEIN, RUDOLPH MAURICE 

LOEWI, OTTO 

MACHT, DAVID 

MAGNUS, RUDOLPH 

MAHLER, MARGARET 

MAIMONIDES, MOSES 

MALZBERG, BENJAMIN 

MAOR KATAN 

MARCUSE, MOSES 

MASIE, AARON MEIR 

MASSERMAN, JULES HYMAN 

MASTER, ARTHUR M. 

MER, GIDEON 

MEYERHOF, MAX 

MICHAELSON, ISAAC CHESAR 

MILLER, EMANUEL 

MILLER, LOUIS 

MILSTEIN, CESAR 

MINKOWSKI, EUGENE 

MIROWSKI, MICHEL 

MORGENTALER, HENRY 

MULLER, HERMAN JOSEPH 

MUNK, HERMANN 

NASSY, DAVID DE ISAAC COHEN 

NATHANS, DANIEL 

NEUFELD, HENRY 

NOSSAL, SIR GUSTAV 

NUNBERG, HERMAN 

OLITZKI, ARYEH LEO 

OPPENHEIM, HERMANN 

ORENSTEIN, ALEXANDER JEREMIAH 

PADEH, BARUCH 

PAGEL, JULIUS LEOPOLD 

PAPO, IZIDOR JOSEF 



262 



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PENN, JACK 

PERLSTEIN, MEYER A. 

PICK, ALOIS 

PICK, ERNST PETER 

PLAUT, HUGO CARL 

POLAK, JACOB EDUARD 

POLITZER, ADAM 

PRESSMAN, DAVID 

PREUSS, JULIUS 

PRUSINER, STANLEY B. 

PRYWES, MOSHE 

RACHMILEWITZ, MOSHE 

RADO, SANDOR 

RAHAMIMOFF, RAMI 

RAHBAR, SAMUEL 

RAMOT, BRACHA 

RANK, OTTO 

RAPAPORT, DAVID 

RAPPAPORT, HENRY 

REDLICH, FREDERICK C. 

REIK, THEODOR 

REMAK 

REVEL, MICHEL 

RIGLER, LEO GEORGE 

ROMBERG, MORITZ HEINRICH 

ROSEN, FRED 

ROSEN, SAMUEL 

Rosenheim, max (Leonard), baron 

ROTH, SIR MARTIN 

ROTHSCHILD, FRIEDRICH SALOMON 

SABIN, ALBERT BRUCE 

SACHS, BERNARD 

SAKEL, MANFRED JOSHUA 

SALAMAN, REDCLIFFE NATHAN 

SALITERNIK, ZVI 

SALK, JONAS EDWARD 

SALOMONSEN, CARL JULIUS 

SANDGROUND, JACK HENRY 

SCHALLY, ANDREW V. 

SCHICK, BELA 

SCHILDER, PAUL FERDINAND 

SCHRIRE, VELVA 

SCIALOM, DAVID DARIO 

SELDIN, HARRY M. 

SEMON, SIR FELIX 

SENATOR, HERMANN 

SEQUEYRA, JOHN DE 

SHEBA, CHAIM 

SIMON, PIERRE 

SPITZ, RENE A. 

STARKENSTEIN, EMIL 

STEG, ADOLPHE 

STEIN, RICHARD 

STEIN, YEHEZKIEL 

STEINBERG, AVRAHAM 

STEINBERG, MARTIN R. 

STEKEL, WILHELM 

STENGEL, ERWIN 

STERN, ARTHUR C. 

STERN, ERICH 



STERN, LINA SOLOMONOVNA 
STILLING, BENEDICT 
STRAUS, RAHEL 
SZASZ, THOMAS STEPHEN 
TANDLER, JULIUS 
TARNOPOLSKY, SAMUEL 
TAUSK, VIKTOR 
TELLER, ISSACHAR BAER 
TEMIN, HOWARD MARTIN 
TENDLER, MOSES D. 
TENENBAUM, JOSEPH L. 
TOBIAS, PHILLIP VALLENTINE 
TRAMER, MORITZ 
TRAUBE, LUDWIG 
UNNA, PAUL GERSON 
VALENTIN, GABRIEL GUSTAV 
VAN DER HOEDEN, JACOB 
VANE, SIR JOHN R. 
VORONOFF, SERGE 
WALLACH, MOSHE (Moritz) 
WASSERMANN, AUGUST VON 
WATTERS, LEON LAIZER 
WECHSLER, ISRAEL 
WEIDNER, PAULUS 
WEIGERT, CARL 
WEISENBURG, THEODORE H. 
WIDAL, FERNAND 
WIENER, ALEXANDER S. 
WINNIK, HENRY ZVI 
WINSTON, ROBERT, BARON 
WINTROBE, MAXWELL MYER 
WOLBERG, LEWIS ROBERT 
WOLF, ABNER 
WOLFF, CHARLOTTE 
WOOLF, MOSHE 
WORMS, ASHER ANSHEL 
YALOW, ROSALYN SUSSMAN 
YUDKIN, JOHN 
ZACUTUS LUSITANUS 
ZAIZOV, RINA 
ZIFF, MORRIS 
ZILBOORG, GREGORY 
ZIMMERMAN, HARRY M. 
ZONDEK 

ZUCKERKANDL, EMIL 
ZUCKERMAN, SOLLY, LORD 

6. PHYSICS & MATHEMATICS (INCL. ASTRONOMY 
& METEOROLOGY) 
Biographies 

abelmann, ilya solomovitch 
abraham, max 
abraham bar hiyya 
agmon, shmuel 
aharonov, yakir 
alferov, zhorez i. 
amira, binyamin 
amitsur, samson abraham 
andrade, edward neville da costa 
arons, leo 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

D. SCIENCE 

6. Physics & Mathematics (incl. Astronomy & Meteorology) 
Biographies (continued) 

ATLAS, DAVID 

AYRTON, HERTHA 

BACHER, ROBERT FOX 

BAGINSKY, ADOLF ARON 

BAUER, SIMON HARVEY 

BEER, WILHELM 

BEMPORAD, AZEGLIO 

BERNAL, JOHN DESMOND 

BERNSTEIN, JOSEPH 

BERSON, ARTHUR JOSEPH STANISLAV 

BESICOVITCH, ABRAM SAMOILOVITCH 

BETHE, HANS ALBRECHT 

BLOCH, FELIX 

BOHM, DAVID 

BOHR, NIELS HENRIK DAVID 

BONDI, SIR HERMANN 

BONFILS, IMMANUEL BEN JACOB 

BONJORN, BONET DAVI(d) 

BORN, MAX 

BOROWITZ, SIDNEY 

BREDIG, GEORGE 

BRODETSKY, SELIG 

BROWN, HAROLD 

CANTOR, MORITZ BENEDICT 

CHARPAK, GEORGES 

COHEN TANNOUDJI, CLAUDE 

COHEN, PAUL JOSEPH 

COHN, BERTHOLD 

COHN, FRITZ 

COHN, TOBIAS BEN MOSES 

CONRAD, VICTOR 

COOPER, LEON N. 

COURANT, RICHARD 

CREIZENACH, MICHAEL 

CROHN, BURRILL BERNARD 

DEMBER, HARRY L. 

DE-SHALIT, AMOS 

DESSAU, BERNARDO 

DESSAUER, FRIEDRICH 

DICKSTEIN, SAMUEL 

DOMNINUS OF LARISSA 

DOSTROVSKY, ISRAEL 

DVORETSKY, ARYEH 

EHRENFEST, PAUL 

EINSTEIN, ALBERT 

EISENSTEIN, FERDINAND GOTTHOLD 

EPSTEIN, PAUL SOPHUS 

ESTERMANN, IMMANUEL 

FEJER, LEOPOLD 

FEKETE, MICHAEL 

FEYNMAN, RICHARD PHILLIPS 

FINLAY-FREUNDLICH, ERWIN 

FINNISTON, SIR HAROLD MONTAGUE (Monty) 

FRAENKEL, ABRAHAM ADOLF 

FRANCK, JAMES 



FRANK, ILJA MIKHAILOVICH 

FRANK, PHILIPP 

FRANKEL, HEINRICH WALTER 

FRANKLIN, ROSALIND ELSIE 

FRENKEL, JACOB ILICH 

FRIEDMAN, JEROME ISAAC 

FRISCH, OTTO ROBERT 

FROHLICH, HERBERT 

FUBINI, GUIDO 

FURSTENBERG, HILLEL (Harry) 

GABOR, DENNIS 

GANS, DAVID BEN SOLOMON 

GELFAND, IZRAIL MOISEVICH 

GELFOND, ALEKSANDR OSIPOVICH 

GELL-MANN, MURRAY 

GINSBURG, JEKUTHIEL 

GINZBURG, VITALY LAZAREVICH 

GLASER, DONALD ARTHUR 

GLASHOW, SHELDON LEE 

GLAUBER, ROY J. 

GOLDSCHMIDT, HERMANN 

GOLDSTEIN, EUGEN 

GOLDSTEIN, SIDNEY 

GROSS, DAVID J. 

GUTENBERG, BENO 

HADAMARD, JACQUES SALOMON 

HAIMOVICI, MENDEL 

HANANI, HAIM 

HANNOVER, RAPHAEL LEVI 

HARARI, HAYYIM 

HAREL, DAVID 

HASSAN IBN (Mar) HASSAN 

HAUPTMAN, HERBERT A. 

HAURWITZ, BERNHARD 

hausdorff, felix (Paul Mongre) 

HECHT, SELIG 

HEEGER, ALAN J. 

HENSEL, KURT 

HERTZ, GUSTAV 

HOFSTADTER, ROBERT 

HURWITZ, ADOLF 

IBN Sa'Id, ISAAC 

INFELD, LEOPOLD 

ISRAEL, EDWARD 

ISRAELI, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH 

JACOBI, KARL GUSTAV JACOB 

JACOBI, MORITZ (Moses) HERMANN 

JAMMER, MAX 

JAMMER, MOSHE 

JOFFE, ABRAHAM FEODOROVICH 

JOSEPHSON, BRIAN DAVID 

KANTOROVICH, LEONID 

KANTROWITZ, ARTHUR 

KAPLAN, JOSEPH 

KARLE, JEROME 

KARMAN, THEODORE VON 

KOGAN, ABRAHAM 

KOHN, WALTER 

KORN, ARTHUR 

KRONECKER, LEOPOLD 



264 



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LANDAU, EDMUND 

LANDAU, LEV DAVIDOVICH 

LEDERMAN, LEON MAX 

LEE, DAVID M. 

LEFSCHETZ, SOLOMON 

LESS, EMIL 

LEVI-CIVITA, TULLIO 

LEVITSKY, IACOB 

LEVY, HYMAN 

LEVY, LUCIEN 

LICHTENFELD, GABRIEL JUDAH 

LIFSON, SHNEIOR 

LIPKIN, YOM TOV LIPMAN 

LIPPMANN, GABRIEL 

LIPSCHITZ, RUDOLF OTTO SIGISMUND 

LOEW, MORITZ 

LOEWE, FRITZ PHILIPP 

LOEWY, MAURICE 

LONDON, FRITZ 

low (Lev), william ze'ev 

MACHTA, LESTER 

MAGNUS, HEINRICH GUSTAV 

MANDELBROT, BENOIT 

MANDELSHTAM, LEONID ISAAKOVICH 

MARGULES, MAX 

MASHAALLAH B. ATHAN 

MEITNER, LISE 

MENDELSSOHN, KURT ALFRED GEORG 

MICHELSON, ALBERT ABRAHAM 

MINKOWSKI, HERMANN 

MORDELL, LOUIS JOEL 

MOTTELSON, BENJAMIN R. 

NAMIAS, JEROME 

ne'eman, YUVAL 

NEUGEBAUER, OTTO 

Neumann, johann (Johnny) LUDWIG von 

NOETHER 

OPPENHEIMER, J. ROBERT 
ORNSTEIN, LEONARD SALOMON 
OSHEROFF, DOUGLAS DEAN 
PAULI, WOLFGANG 
PEIERLS, SIR RUDOLF ERNST 
PEKERIS, CHAIM LEIB 
PENZIAS, ARNO ALLAN 
PEPPER, JOSEPH 
PERL, MARTIN 
PIROGOV, NIKOLAI 
POLITZER, H. DAVID 
PONTECORVO, BRUNO 
PRAGER, RICHARD 
PRESS, FRANK 
PRIGOGINE, ILYA 
RABI, ISIDOR ISAAC 
RABIN, MICHAEL OSER 
RACAH, GIULIO (Yoel) 
REINES, FREDERICK 
RICHTER, BURTON 
ROSEN, MOSHE 
ROSENHEAD, LOUIS 
ROTBLAT, SIR JOSEPH 



ROTENBERG, MATTIE 
ROTH, KLAUS FRIEDRICH 
RUBENSON, ROBERT 
RUBIN, MORTON JOSEPH 
SAGAN, CARL EDWARD 
SAMBURSKY, SAMUEL 
SCHAWLOW, ARTHUR L. 
SCHLESINGER, FRANK 

schur, issai (Isaiah) 

SCHUSTER, SIR ARTHUR 

SCHWARTZ, LAURENT 

SCHWARTZ, MELVIN 

SCHWARZSCHILD, KARL 

SCHWINGER, JULIAN SEYMOUR 

SEGRE, BENIAMINO 

SEGRE, CORRADO 

SEGRE, EMILIO GINO 

SHELAH, SAHARON 

SIMON, SIR FRANCIS EUGENE 

STEINBERGER, JACK 

STEINHAUS, HUGO DYONIZY 

STERN, ABRAHAM JACOB 

STERN, OTTO 

SYLVESTER, JAMES JOSEPH 

SZILARD, LEO 

TABOR, DAVID 

TABOR, HARRY ZVI 

TALMI, IGAL 

TAMM, IGOR YEVGENYEVICH 

TARSKI, ALFRED 

TELLER, EDWARD 

TEPPER, MORRIS 

THRASYLLUS OF MENDES 

TOEPLITZ, OTTO 

TOLANSKY, SAMUEL 

ULAM, STANISLAW MARCIN 

VEKSLER, VLADIMIR 

WEIL, ANDRE 

WEINBERG, STEVEN 

WEISSKOPF, VICTOR F. 

WEXLER, HARRY 

WHITE, ROBERT MAYER 

WIENER, NORBERT 

WIGNER, EUGENE P. 

WILCHEK, MEIR 

ZACHARIAS, JERROLD REINACH 

ZACUTO, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL 

ZARISKI, OSCAR 

ZELDOVICH, YAKOV BORISOVICH 

7. OTHER 

Biographies 

avidov, zvi 
bondi, aron 

costa, emanuel mendes da 
demalach, yoel 
efrat, yaacov 
grunbaum, adolf 
halperin, haim 
lowdermilk, walter clay 



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IV. JEWS IN THE WORLD 

D. SCIENCE 
7. Other 

Biographies (continued) 

NEUBURGER, MAX 
PNEULI, AMIR 
SINGER, CHARLES JOSEPH 
SLONIMSKI, HAYYIM SELIG 
SOSKIN, SELIG EUGEN 
STOLLER, SAMUEL 
SUSSMAN, ABRAHAM 
WAHL, ISAAK 
WINIK, MEIR 



V. WOMEN 

Main Surveys 



WOMAN 



General Entries 

AGGADAH 

ANUSIM 

ASCETICISM 

BANKING AND BANKERS 

BARRENNESS AND FERTILITY 

BIRTH 

COOKBOOKS 

DOMESTIC PEACE 

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE 

FEMINISM 

HALUKKAH 

HASIDISM 

HISTORIANS 

HISTORIOGRAPHY 

LESBIANISM 

LETTERS AND LETTER-WRITERS 

ORPHAN, ORPHANAGE 

PROSTITUTION 

PSYCHOLOGY 

REBBETZIN 

SALONS 

SHEKHINAH 

SHTETL 

SOCIALISM 

SOCIOLOGY 

STUDY 

THEOLOGY 



Women in Bible 



ABIGAIL 



ABISHAG THE SHUNAMMITE 



ASENATH 
ATHALIAH 



BATH-SHEBA 



BILHAH 



DEBORAH 
DELILAH 



ELISHEBA 



EN-DOR, WITCH OF 

ESTHER 

EVE 

HAGAR 

HANNAH 

HULDAH 

JAEL 

JEZEBEL 

JOCHEBED 

KETURAH 

LEAH 

MAACAH 

MERAB 

MICHAL 

MIRIAM 

NAAMAH 

NAOMI 

PENINNAH 

RACHEL 

RAHAB 

REBEKAH 

RIZPAH 

SARAH 

SHIPHRAH AND PUAH 

SHULAMMITE 

TAMAR 

VASHTI 

ZILPAH 

ZIPPORAH 



Women in Talmud and Second Temple 
Period 

beruryah 

cleopatra of jerusalem 

CYPROS 

DORIS 

HANNAH AND HER SEVEN SONS 

HERODIAS 

HOMA 

HOVAH 

IMMA SHALOM 

JUDITH 

MARTHA 

SALOME 

SALOME ALEXANDRA 

YALTA 



Women in Jewish Ritual 

aufrufen 

bar mitzvah, bat mitzvah 

BLOOD 

CANDLES 

DIETARY LAWS 

ESHET HAYIL 

FESTIVALS 

FIRZOGERIN 

HAGGADAH, PASSOVER 

HALLAH 

HEAD, COVERING OF THE 

KADDISH 



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NEW MOON 

NIDDAH 

PASSSOVER 

PRAYER 

SEMIKHAH 

SHEHITAH 

SYNAGOGUE 

TKHINES 

Organizations 

amit: mizrachi women's organization of america 

bnai brith women 

emma lazarus federation of jewish women's clubs 

EMUNAH 

HADASSAH, THE WOMENS ZIONIST ORGANIZATION OF 

AMERICA 
HEVRAH, HAVURAH 

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 
INTERNATIONAL LADIES GARMENT WORKERS UNION 
JUEDISCHER FRAUENBUND 
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 
NATIONAL FEDERATION OF TEMPLE SISTERHOODS 
WIZO 

women's league for conservative judaism 

Publications 

american jewess 
die deborah 
jewish woman, the 

LILITH 



BIOGRAPHIES 

Academic Life 

ABRAMOWICZ, DINA 
ADLERBLUM, NIMA 
ARENDT, HANNAH 
ASKOWITH, DORA 
BADINTER, ELIZABETH 
BASKIN, JUDITH 
BAUMGARTEL, ELISE J. 
BENEDEK, THERESE F. 
BERNARD, JESSIE 
BIEBER, MARGARETE 
BILDERSEE, ADELE 
BOAS, HENRIETTE 
BONDY, RUTH 
BUHLER, CHARLOTTE 
BUNZEL, RUTH LEAH 
BUTLER, JUDITH 
CALIN, VERA 
CARLEBACH, ELISHEVA 
CHALIER, CATHERINE 
CHATZKELS, HELENE 
CHESLER, PHYLLIS 
COHEN, NAOMI W. 
COHEN, RUTH LOUISA 
COSER, ROSE LAUB 
DALVEN, RACHEL 
DAVIS, NATALIE ZEMON 
DAWIDOWICZ, LUCY 



DENMARK, FLORENCE LEVIN 

DINER, HASIA 

DONIGER, WENDY 

DOTHAN, TRUDE 

ENGELMANN, SUSANNE CHARLOTTE 

EPSTEIN, CLAIRE 

ERLICH, VERA STEIN 

FRYMER-KENSKY, TIKVA 

GAVISON, RUTH 

GILLIGAN, CAROL 

GOLDMAN, HETTY 

GORNICK, VIVIAN 

GUGGENHEIM-GRUENBERG, FLORENCE 

GUTMANN, AMY 

HEILBRUN, CAROLYN G. 

HELLMAN, CLARISSE DORIS 

HERSCH, JEANNE 

HIMMELFARB, GERTRUDE 

HIMMELWEIT, HILDEGARD 

HYMAN, PAULA E. 

INSDORF, ANNETTE 

JACOBSON, ANNA 

JAHODA, MARIE 

JOSEPH, NORMA BAUMEL 

KOMAROVSKY, MIRRA 

KOTARBINSKA, JANINA 

KRIEGEL, ANNIE 

LANDES, RUTH 

LAPIDOT, RUTH 

LEIBOWITZ, NEHAMA 

LERNER, GERDA 

LEVIN, NORA 

MANHEIM, BILHAH 

MARCUS, RUTH BARCAN 

MARKEL-MOSESSOHN, MIRIAM 

MEDNICK, MARTHA TAMARA SCHUCH 

MEYER, ANNIE NATHAN 

MYERHOFF, BARBARA 

NAUMBURG, MARGARET 

NEUGARTEN, BERNICE L. 

NOVITCH, MIRIAM 

PEIXOTTO, JESSICA BLANCHE 

PORZEKANSKI, TERESA 

POWDERMAKER, HORTENSE 

PRINGLE, MIA 

RAJAK, TESSA 

RICHTER, ELISE 

ROBISON, SOPHIA 

RODIN, JUDITH 

RUTLAND, SUZANNE 

SALOMON, ALICE 

SCHWARTZ, ANNA JACOBSON 

SHAHAR, SHULAMIT 

SHUVAL, JUDITH 

STEIN, EDITH 

STEIN, JANICE 

STERN-TAEUBLER, SELMA 

TEC, NECHAMA 

TOBACH, ETHEL 

TUCHMAN, BARBARA WERTHEIM 



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V. WOMEN 

Biographies 

Academic Life (continued) 

WEIL, SIMONE 

WEINBERG, GLADYS DAVIDSON 
WEISS-ROSMARIN, TRUDE 
WIERUSZOWSKI, HELENE 
WIEVIORKA, ANNETTE 
WISSE, RUTH 
WOLFSON, THERESA 
WUNDERLICH, FRIEDA 
YEFET, SARAH 

Art 

AGREST, DIANA 
AIZENBERG, NINA 
AMISHAI-MAISELS, ZIVA 
ARBUS, DIANE NEMEROV 
ARNOLD, EVE 
BERNSTEIN, THERESA 
BING, ILSE 
BLAU, TINA 

BOURKE-WHITE, MARGARET 
CAISERMAN-ROTH, GHITTA 
CALLE, SOPHIE 
CASSAB, JUDY 

CENTERSZSWER, STANISLAWA 
CHICAGO, JUDY 
COHEN, ELISHEVA 
COSTA, CATHERINE DA 
DAVIDSON, JO 
DELAUNAY-TERK, SONIA 
DICKER-BRANDEIS, FREDERIK 
EIZENBERG, JULIE 
FRANKENTHALER, HELEN 
FRENKEL, VERA 
FREUND, GISELE 
GAD, DEVORAH 
GIKOW, RUTH 
GILBERT, INA 
GLUCK, HANNAH 
GOLDIN, NAN 
GRUNDIG, LEA AND HANS 
HARKAVY, MINNA 
JACOBI, LOTTE 
KOENIG, GHISHA 
KRUGER, BARBARA 
LAMBERT, PHYLLIS 
LEIBOVITZ, ANNIE 
LEVITT, HELENE 
LISHANSKY, BATYA 
MARGOULIES, BERTHA 
MARK, MARY ELLEN 

muter (Mutermilch), mela 

NEVELSON, LOUISE 
NIKEL, LEA 
ORLOFF, CHANA 
OSTROWER, FEYGA 
PLACHY, SYLVIA 



E 



RIE, DAME LUCIE 

ringl & pit (Stern, Grete; Rosenberg Auerbach, Ellen) 

ROTHSTEIN, IRMA 
RUBIN, GAIL 
SAFDIE, SYLVIA 
SALOMON, CHARLOTTE 
SINGER, YVONNE 
SONNABEND, YOLANDA 
SPERO, NANCY 
STERN, IRMA 
STERNE, HEDDA 
SZALIT-MARCUS, RACHEL 
TAGGER, SIONA 
TEWI, THEA 
TICHO, ANNA 
ZVIA 

Literature 

ABECASSIS, ELIETTE 

ADAMS, HANNAH 

ADLER, RENATA 

AGUILAR, GRACE 

AICHINGER, ILSE 

ALIGER, MARGARITA YOSIFOVNA 

ALMOG, RUTH 

AMIR, ANDA 

ANTIN, MARY 

ASCARELLI, DEBORAH 

AUERBAKH, ROKHL 

AUSLAENDER, ROSE 

AVIGUR-ROTEM, GABRIELA 

BANUS, MARIA 

BARON, DEVORAH 

BASMAN BEN-HAYIM, RIVKE 

BAT-MIRIAM, YOKHEVED 

BAUM, VICKI 

BEJERANO, MAYA 

BEN-YEHUDA, HEMDAH 

BEN YEHUDA, NETIVA 

BERGER, LILY 

BERGSTEIN, FANIA 

BOSCO, MONIQUE 

BRONER, ESTHER M. 

BROOKNER, ANITA 

BRUGGEN, CARRY VAN 

CALISHER, HORTENSE 

CALOF, RACHEL 

CASSIAN, NINA 

CASTEL-BLOOM, ORLY 

CHAGALL, BELLA ROSENFELD 

CHARLES, GERDA 

CIXOUS, HELENE 

COHEN, ROSE GOLLUP 

COHN, CILLA CYPORA 

CORREA, ISABEL REBECCA DE 

DAVENPORT, MARCIA 

DEUTSCH, BABBETTE 

DOMIN, HILDE 

DROPKIN, CELIA 

DUBNOW-ERLICH, SOPHIA 



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THEMATIC OUTLINE 



ELISHEVA 

ELKAN, SOPHIE 

ENRIQUEZ, ISABEL 

EPHRON, NORA 

EYTAN, RACHEL 

FALK, MARCIA 

FEINSTEIN, ELAINE 

FERBER, EDNA 

FEYGENBERG, RAKHEL 

FOA, ESTHER EUGENIE REBECCA 

FRANKEL, NAOMI 

FRANKEN, ROSE 

FRANKS, BILHAH ABIGAIL LEVY 

FREHA BAT AVRAHAM OF MOROCCO 

FUTORANSKY, LUISA 

GAMORAN, MAMIE 

GERSHON, KAREN 

GINSBURG, EVGENIA SEMIONOVNA 

GINZBURG, NATALIA 

GLUCK, LOUISE 

GLUECKEL OF HAMELN 

GOLDBERG, LEA 

GOLDSTEIN, REBECCA 

GOLL, CLAIRE 

GORDIMER, NADINE 

GORSHMAN, SHIRA 

GORSKA, HALINA 

GREENBERG, JOANNE 

GREENBLATT, ALIZA 

GUR, BATYA 

GURFEIN, RIVKA 

GURIAN, SORANA 

HABAS, BRACHA 

HAJNAL, ANNA 

HAREVEN, SHULAMIT 

HARRY, MYRIAM 

HELLMAN, LILLIAN FLORENCE 

HENDEL, YEHUDIT 

HENRY, EMMA 

HERTZVELD-HIJMANS, ESTELLA 

HOBSON, LAURA Z. 

HONIGMANN, BARBARA 

HURST, FANNIE 

INBER, VERA MIKHAILOVNA 

ISAACS, SUSAN 

JACOB, NAOMI ELLINGTON 

JAFFE, RONA 

JELINEK, ELFRIEDE 

JHABVALA, RUTH PRAWER 

JONG, ERICA 

JUN-BRODA, INA 

KAHANA-CARMON, AMALIA 

KALEKO, MASHA 

KALMAN, MAIRA 

KAPLAN, JOHANNA 

KARMEL, ILONA 

KATZIR, JEHUDIT 

KAUFMAN, BEL 

KELLERMAN, FAYE 

KLEPFISZ, IRENA 



KOLMAR, GERTRUD 

KORN, RACHEL HARING 

KRANTZ, JUDITH 

KROOK, DOROTHEA 

LANGFUS, ANNA 

LAPID, SHULAMIT 

LASKER-SCHUELER, ELSE 

LAZARUS, EMMA 

LAZARUS, NAHIDA RUTH 

LEE, MALKE 

LEVERSON, ADA 

LEVERTOV, DENISE 

LEVINSON, OLGA 

LEVI-PEROTTI, GIUSTINA 

LEVY, AMY 

LEWALD, FANNY 

LIEBRECHT, SAVYON 

LISPECTOR, CLARICE 

LOCKER, MALKE 

MANDELSHTAM, NADEZHDA YAKOVLEVNA 

MARGOLIN, ANNA 

MATALON, RONIT 

MAYNARD, FREDELLE BRUSER 

MAZE, IDA 

MERECINA OF GERONA 

MICHAELS, ANNE 

MILLIN, SARAH GERTRUDE 

MINCO, MARGA 

MISHOL, AGI 

MOISE, PENINA 

MOLODOWSKY, KADIA 

MORPURGO, RACHEL 

MUNIZ-HUBERMAN, ANGELINA 

NAJMAN, JULIJA 

NEMIROWSKY, IRENE 

OLSEN, TILLIE 

orzeskowa (Orzesko), eliza 

OSTRIKER, ALICIA SUSKIN 

OZICK, CYNTHIA 

PALEY, GRACE 

PARKER, DOROTHY 

PIZARNIK, ALEJANDRA 

PLAIN, BELVA 

PORUMBACU, VERONICA 

PORZEKANSKI, TERESA 

PROSE, FRANCINE 

PYE, JAEL HENRIETTA 

RAAB, ESTHER 

RABINOWITZ, ZINA 

RAGEN, NAOMI 

RAHEL 

RAND, AYN 

RAVIKOVITCH, DALIA 

REBECCA BAT MEIR TIKTINER 

RICH, ADRIENNE 

ROBIN, REGINE 

ROSEN, NORMA 

ROSENFARB, CHAVA 

ROSS, LILLIAN 

ROTTOVA, INNA 



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V. WOMEN 

Biographies 

Literature (continued) 

RUBENS, BERNICE 

RUBIN, HADASSAH 

RUKEYSER, MURIEL 

SACHS, NELLY 

SAMPTER, JESSIE ETHEL 

SARRAUTE, NATHALIE 

SEGAL, ESTHER 

SEGHERS, ANNA 

SEID, RUTH 

SELIGSON, ESTHER 

SHALEV, ZERUYA 

SHUA, ANA MARIA 

SHULNER, DORA 

SHUMIATCHER-HIRSCHBEIN, ESTHER 

SIMON, KATE 

SKLAREW, MYRA 

SOARE, IULIA 

SONTAG, SUSAN 

SPEWACK, BELLA 

STEELE, DANIELLE 

STEIMBERG, ALICIA 

STEIN, GERTRUDE 

STERN, BERTHA GLADYS 

SULLAM, SARA COPPIO 

SUSANN, JACQUELINE 

SUSMAN, MARGARETE 

SZENES, ERZSI 

TAYLOR, SIDNEY 

TCHERNOWITZ-AVIDAR, YEMIMAH 

TRILLING, DIANA 

TUSSMAN, MALKA 

ULIANOVER, MIRIAM 

URY, ELSE 

VIVANTI CHARTRES, ANNIE 

WADDINGTON, MIRIAM (DWORKIN) 

WARRENS, ROSA 

WASSERSTEIN, WENDY 

WECHSLER, ELINA 

WEINZWEIG, HELEN 

WENGEROFF, PAULINE 

WISEMAN, ADELE 

YALAN-STEKELIS, MIRIAM 

YERUSHALMI, RINA 

YEZIERSKA, ANZIA 

YUDIKA 

ZELDA (MISHKOVSKY) 

ZYCHLINSKA, RAJZEL 

Music & Dance 

ARBATOVA, MIA 
BACHAUER, GINA 
BAUER, MARION EUGENIE 
BAYER, BATHIA 
BERTONOFF, DEBORAH 
BLOCH, ROSINE 
BLOOMFIELD-ZEISLER, FANNY 



BOGHEN, FELICE 

BORIS, RUTHANNA 

BREVAL, LUCIENNE 

CARP, PAULA 

CHURGIN, BATHIA 

COHEN, HARRIET 

COHEN, SELMA JEANNE 

COHEN, YARDENA 

DE PHILIPPE, EDIS 

DONALDA, PAULINE 

DU PRE, JACQUELINE 

EDEN-TAMIR 

EISENSTEIN, JUDITH KAPLAN 

EVEN-OR, MARY 

FARBER, VIOLA 

FISCHER, ANNIE 

FLEISCHER, TSIPPI 

FRIED (-BISS), MIRIAM 

FRIEDMAN, DEBORAH LYNN 

FUCHS, LILLIAN 

GASKELL, SONJA 

gerson-kiwi, edith (Esther) 

GIDEON, MIRIAM 

GIOVANNI MARIA 

GLUCK, ALMA 

HAENDEL, IDA 

HALPRIN, ANN 

HASKIL, CLARA 

HAYDEN, MELISSA 

HAZZAN 

HESKES, IRENE 

HESS, DAME MYRA 

HIRSH, NURIT 

JOCHSBERGER, TZIPORAH 

KADMAN, GURIT 

KATZ, RUTH 

KAYE, NORA 

KENT, ALLEGRA 

KOSHETZ, NINA 

KRAUS, GERTRUD 

KRAUS, LILI 

KREMER, ISA 

KURZ, SELMA 

LANDOWSKA, WANDA 

LANG, PEARL 

LAPSON, DVORA 

LEAR, EVELYN 

LEIGH, ADELE 

LEVI-AGRON, HASIA 

LEVI-TANNAI, SARA 

LEWITZKY, BELLA 

LIEBLING, ESTELLE 

LIFSHITZ, NEHAMAH 

LISSA, ZOFIA 

LUCCA, PAULINE 

MARKOVA, ALICIA 

MASLOW, SOPHIE 

MATZENAUER, MARGARETE 

MENDELSSOHN HENSEL, FANNY CAECILIE 

MENUHIN, HEFZIBAH 



2J0 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



metzger, ottilie (Metzger-Latterman) 

MLOTEK, CHANA 

NIKOVA, RINA 

OLIVERO, BETTY 

ORDMAN, JEANETTE 

OSTFELD, BARBARA 

OVED, MARGALIT 

PASTA, GUIDITTA 

PAULY, ROSA 

PETERS, ROBERTA 

PLISETSKAYA, MAYA 

QUELER, EVE 

RAISA, ROSA 

RAMBERT, DAME MARIE 

RAN, SHULAMIT 

RASKIN, JUDITH 

REISENBERG, NADIA 

RESNIK, REGINA 

RODGERS, MARY 

ROSSI, MADAMA EUROPA DE' 

RUBIN, RUTH 

RUBINSTEIN, IDA 

SALZMAN, PNINA 

SCHAECHTER-GOTTESMAN, BEYLE 

SCHLAMME, MARTHA 

SCHOENE, LOTTE 

SCHUBERT, LIA 

SHEMER, NAOMI 

SHLONSKY, VARDINA 

sills, beverly (Belle Silverman) 

SMOIRA-COHN, MICHAL 
SOKOLOW, ANNA 
SPECTOR, JOHANNA 
STENN (STEEN), REBECCA 
SULITEANU, GISELA 
TAMIRIS, HELEN 
TOUREL, JENNIE 
TURECK, ROSALYN 
WEISSBERG, JULIA LAZAREVNA 
WERTHEIM, ROSALIE MARIE 
YAMPOLSKY, BERTA 
YELLIN-BENTWICH, THELMA 
ZEFIRA, BRACHAH 

Popular Culture 

ABARBANELL, LINA 

ADELSTEIN-ROZEANU, ANGELICA 

ADLER, POLLY 

ADLER, STELLA 

AIMEE, ANOUK 

ALBERSTEIN, HAVA 

ALBERT, MILDRED 

ALCOTT, AMY 

ALEXANDER, MURIEL 

ALMAGOR, GILA 

ARAD, YAEL 

ARNOLD, PAULA 

BACALL, LAUREN 

BARA, THEDA 

BARBARA 



BARR, ROSEANNE 

BEN, ZEHAVA 

BERENSON, SENDA 

BERG, GERTRUDE 

BERGEN, POLLY 

BERGMAN, ALAN & MARILYN 

BERGNER, ELIZABETH 

BERNHARD, SANDRA 

BERNHARDT, SARAH 

BERNSTEIN, ALINE 

BERNSTEIN-COHEN, MIRIAM 

BLOOM, CLAIRE 

BRICE, FANNY 

BRODY, JANE 

BROTHERS, JOYCE 

BUXTON, ANGELA 

CARTER, NELL 

CHOPRA, JOYCE 

CLAYBURGH, JILL 

COHEN, NATALIE 

COHEN, SASHA 

COHN, LINDA 

COLLINS, LOTTIE 

COMDEN, BETTY 

COPELAND, LILLIAN 

CURTIS, JAMIE LEE 

DAMARI, SHOSHANA 

DARVAS, LILI 

DEREN, MAYA 

ELLIOT, "MAMA" CASS 

EPSTEIN, CHARLOTTE 

FRIEDMANN, JANE 

GABOR, JOLIE, MAGDA, ZSA ZSA, EVA 

GERSTEN, BERTA 

GIEHSE, THERESE 

GILBERT, MELISSA 

GINGOLD, HERMIONE 

GODDARD, PAULETTE 

GOLDSTEIN, JENNIE 

GOODRICH, FRANCES AND HACKETT, ALBERT 

GOROKHOVSKAYA, MARIA 

GUZIK, HANNA 

HADDAD, SARIT 

HANBURY, LILY 

HARRIS, BARBARA 

HART, KITTY CARLISLE 

HAWN, GOLDIE 

HAZA, OFRA 

HEAD, EDITH 

HECKERLING, AMY 

HELD, ANNA 

HELDMAN, GLADYS 

HENDEL, NEHAMA 

HERSHEY, BARBARA 

HOLLIDAY, JUDY 

HUGHES, SARAH 

IAN, JANIS 

IRVING, AMY 

ISAACS, EDITH JULIET 

KAEL, PAULINE 



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V. WOMEN 

Biographies 

Popular Culture (continued) 

KAHN, MADELINE 

KALICH, BERTHA 

KANE, CAROL 

KANIN, FAY 

KARAN, DONNA 

KARFF, MONA. MAY 

KARP, MAX AND SOPHIE 

KAVNER, JULIE 

KAZAN, LAINIE 

KELETI, AGNES 

KEMPNER, AVIVA 

KING, CAROLE 

KIRSZENSTEIN-SZEWINSKA, IRENA 

KLEIN, ANNE 

KONIG, LEA 

KOPPLE, BARBARA 

KORENE, VERA 

KRESSYN, MIRIAM 

KUDROW, LISA 

LAMARR, HEDY 

LANSING, SHERRY 

LASSER, LOUISE 

LAVIN, LINDA 

LAWRENCE, STEVE AND GORME, EYDIE 

LEACHMAN, CLORIS 

LEDERER, ESTHER PAULINE 

LEIBOWITZ, KEREN 

LEONTOVICH, EUGENIE 

LEVIEN, SONYA 

LEWIS, SHARI 

LIEBERMAN, NANCY 

LORTEL, LUCILE 

LOUIS-DREYFUS, JULIA 

MANNHEIM, LUCIE 

MATLIN, MARLEE 

MAY, ELAINE 

MENKEN, ADAH ISAACS 

MERON, HANNA 

MEYERS, NANCY JANE 

MIDLER, BETTE 

MITCHELL, YVONNE 

MONROE, MARILYN 

NAZIMOVA, ALLA 

NEILSON, JULIA 

NEUWIRTH, BEBE 

NEVINS, SHEILA 

NEWTON-JOHN, OLIVIA 

NORSA, HANNAH 

PALMER, LILLI 

PALTROW, GWYNNETH 

PARKER, SARAH JESSICA 

PATINKIN, MANDY 

PICON, MOLLY 

PORAT, ORNA 

PROOPS, MARJORIE 

RACHEL 



RADNER, GILDA 

RAINER, LUISE 

RIVERS, JOAN 

ROSENFELD, FANNY 

ROTH-SHACHAMOROV, ESTHER 

ROVINA, HANNA 

RUDNER, RITA 

RYDER, WINONA 

SELDES, MARIAN 

SEYMOUR, JANE 

SHAPIRO, ESTHER 

SHEARER, NORMA 

SHORE, DINAH 

SIDNEY, SYLVIA 

SIGNORET, SIMONE 

SILVER, JOAN MICKLIN 

SIMON, CARLY 

SINGERMAN, BERTA 

SLUTSKAYA, IRINA 

STREISAND, BARBRA 

STRUG, KERRI 

SUZMAN, JANET 

SYLVIA, SARAH 

TAYLOR, ELIZABETH 

TAYMOR, JULIE 

THOMASHEFSKY, BESSIE 

TUCKER, SOPHIE 

WASSERMAN, DORA AND BRYNA 

WEIGEL, HELENE 

WEISSLER, BARRY AND FRAN 

WEST, MAE 

WESTHEIMER, RUTH 

WINGER, DEBRA 

WINTERS, SHELLEY 

ZOHAR, MIRIAM 

Public & Economic Life 

ABELLA, ROSALIE SILBERMAN 
ABRABANEL, BENVENIDA 
ABZUG, BELLA 
ACKERMAN, PAULA 
ALEXANDER, BEATRICE 
ALIAV, RUTH 
ALONI, SHULAMIT 

alter, eleanor (Breitel) 

AMERICAN, SADIE 
AMSTERDAM, BIRDIE 
APPELMAN, HARLENE 
AUERBACH, BEATRICE FOX 
AZARKH, RAISA MOYSEYEVNA 
BADT-STRAUSS, BERTHA 
BALABANOFF, ANGELICA 
BARRON, JENNIE LOITMAN 
BARSHEFSKY, CHARLENE 
BEER, RACHEL (Richa) 
BEINISCH, DORIT 
BEN-ISRAEL, RUTH 
BEN-PORAT, MIRIAM 
BEN-ZVI, RAHEL YANAIT 
BERKLEY, ROCHELLE 



272 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



BONNER, ELENA GEORGIEVNA 

BORCHARDT, LUCY 

BOXER, BARBARA 

BRANDEAU, ESTHER 

BRENNER, ROSE 

BRUCKMAN, HENRIETTA 

CAPLAN, ELINOR 

CARDIN, SHOSHANA 

CARNEGIE, HATTIE 

CARR, JUDY FELD 

COHEN, FANNIA M. 

COHEN, GE'ULAH 

COHEN, MARY MATILDA 

CORCOS, STELLA 

CURRIE, EDWINA 

DAVIS, SUSAN 

DAYAN, YAEL 

DREIFUSS, RUTH 

DUGDALE, BLANCHE ELIZABETH CAMPBELL 

DULCEA OF WORMS 

DUNKELMAN, ROSE 

EPSTEIN, JUDITH 

ESTERKE OF OPOCZNO 

ESTHER 

ETTENBERG, SYLVIA 

EVANS, JANE 

FAIRSTEIN, LINDA 

FARKAS, RUTH 

FEINSTEIN, DIANNE 

FELDMAN, SANDRA 

FERRIS, IRIS 

FINESTONE, SHEILA 

FISCHER, RUTH 

FISHELS, ROIZEL OF CRACOW 

FLEISCHMANN, GISI 

FRANK, ANNE 

FRANK, RAY 

FREIER, RECHA 

FREUND-ROSENTHAL, MIRIAM KOTTLER 

FRIEDAN, BETTY 

FUERTH, HENRIETTE 

GAER, FELICE 

GAMUS GALLEGOS, PAULINA 

GANS, BIRD STEIN 

GINOSSAR, ROSA 

GINSBURG, RUTH JOAN BADER 

GIROUD, FRANCOISE 

GOLDBERG, JEANNETTE MIRIAM 

GOLDMAN, EMMA 

GOLDSCHMIDT, HENRIETTE 

GOLDSCHMIDT, JOHANNA SCHWABE 

GOLDSTEIN, FANNY 

GOTSFELD, BESSIE GOLDSTEIN 

GRATZ, REBECCA 

GROSSINGER, JENNIE 

GRUBER, RUTH 

GRUENBERG, SIDONIE MATSNER 

GUBER, RIVKA 

HALPRIN, ROSE LURIA 

HANDALI, ESTHER 



HANDLER, RUTH MOSKO 

HARMAN, JANE 

HASSENFELD, SYLVIA 

HAUSER, RITA 

HAUTVAL, ADELAIDE 

HEILBRON, ROSE 

HELFMAN, HESSIA MEYEROVNA 

HELMSLEY, LEONA 

HERSTEIN, LILLIAN 

HERZ, HENRIETTE 

HERZOG, SHIRA 

HILLESUM, ETTY 

HILLMAN, BESSIE ABRAMOWITZ 

HIMMELSTEIN, LENA 

HOLTZMAN, ELIZABETH 

IDELSON, BEBA 

ITZIK, DALIA 

JACOBS, ALETTA 

JACOBS, FRANCES WISEBART 

JACOBS, ROSE GELL 

JAGLOM, RAYA 

KAHN, DOROTHY C. 

KAHN, FLORENCE PRAG 

KANDLEIN OF REGENSBURG 

KARMINSKI, HANNAH 

KATZNELSON, RAHEL 

KATZNELSON, SHULAMIT 

KAYE, JUDITH 

KLARSFELD, BEATE AUGUSTE 

KLEIN, GERDA WEISSMAN 

KNOPF, BLANCHE WOLFE 

KORCZAK-MARLA, ROZKA 

KRAVITCH, PHYLLIS A. 

KROSS, ANNA 

KUNIN, MADELEINE MAY 

LANDAU, ANNIE 

LAUDER, ESTEE 

LEIBER, JUDITH 

LEICHTER, KAETE PICK 

LEVITT, ESTHER 

LICORICIA OF WINCHESTER 

LIEBMANN, ESTHER SCHULHOFF ARON AND JOST 

LINDHEIM, IRMA LEVY 

LINGLE, LINDA 

LIVNAT, LIMOR 

LIVNI, TZIPI 

LOW, MINNIE 

LOWEY, NITA 

LUBETKIN, ZIVIA 

LUXEMBURG, ROSA 

MAGNIN, MARY ANN COHEN 

MAIMON, ADA 

MALCHI, ESPERANZA 

MALKIEL, THERESA SERBER 

MALSIN, LANE BRYANT 

MAOR, GALIA 

MARIA THERESA 

MEIR, GOLDA 

MELTON, FLORENCE ZACKS 

MENDELSSOHN-VEIT-SCHLEGEL, DOROTHEA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



273 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



V. WOMEN 

Biographies 

Public & Economic Life (continued) 

MESSINGER, RUTH 
MONTAGU, LILY 
MONTEFIORE, JUDITH 
MORGENSTERN, LINA 
MOSS, CELIA AND MARION 
MUELLER-COHEN, ANITA 
MYERSON, BESS 
NAMIR, ORA 
NATHAN, MAUD 
NATHAN, VENGUESSONE 
NEVEJEAN, YVONNE 
NEWMAN, PAULINE 
NUDEL, IDA 

OPPENHEIM, SALLY BARONESS 
PAPPENHEIM, BERTHA 
PARNIS, MOLLIE 
PAUKER, ANA 
PEIXOTTO, JUDITH 
PEMBER, PHOEBE YATES 
PERLMAN, HELEN HARRIS 
PERSITZ, SHOSHANAH 
PESOTTA, ROSE 

PHILLIPS, REBECCA MACHADO 
PISCO, SERAPHINE 
PLOTNICKA, FRUMKA 
POGREBIN, LETTY COTTIN 
POLYKOFF, SHIRLEY 
PRYSTOR, JANINA 
PULCELINA OF BLOIS 
RABINOWICH, SARAH 
RAKOWSKI, PUAH 
RATHBONE, ELEANOR 
RAZOVSKY, CECILIA 
READING, FANNY 
REEVE, ADA 

reik, havivah (Emma) 

REISMAN, HEATHER 
RESNIK, JUDITH 
RICHMAN, JULIA 
RIVLIN, ALICE MITCHELL 
ROBACK, LEAH 
ROSE, ERNESTINE POTOVSKY 
ROSENBERG, ANNA MARIE LEDERER 
ROSENSOHN, ETTA LASKER 
ROSENTHAL, IDA COHEN 
RUBINSTEIN, HELENA 
SARAH OF TURNAVO 
SCHAKOWSKY, JANICE 

schenirer (Schnirer), sarah 

SCHENK, FAYE L. 
SCHIFF, DOROTHY 
SCHMOLKA, MARIE 
SCHOOLMAN, BERTHA S. 
SCHWARTZ, FELICE NIERENBERG 
SCHWIMMER, ROSIKA 
SELIGSBERG, ALICE LILLIE 



SENDLER, IRENA 

SHAVELSON, CLARA LEMLICH 

SHEINDLIN, JUDITH 

SHORT, RENEE 

SIEBERT, MURIEL 

SIEFF, REBECCA 

SIEGEL, IDA LEWIS 

SOLOMON, BERTHA 

SOLOMON, HANNAH GREENEBAUM 

SONNENSCHEIN, ROSA 

SPIEGEL, DORA 

STEIMER, MOLLY 

STEINEM, GLORIA 

STEINER, HANNAH 

STERN, ELIZABETH 

stokes, rose pastor (Wieslander) 

STRASSFELD, SHARON 
SUZMAN, HELEN 
SYRKIN, MARIE 
SZENES, HANNAH 
SZOLD, HENRIETTA 
THATCHER, MARGARET 
TONNA, CHARLOTTE E. 
TRIGERE, PAULINE 
UDIN, SOPHIE 
VARNHAGEN, RAHEL 
VEIL, SIMONE 
VON FURSTENBERG, DIANE 
WACHNER, LINDA 
WALD, LILLIAN 
WALTERS, BARBARA 
WASSERMAN-SCHULTZ, DEBBIE 
WEIGEL, CATHERINE 
WOLF, FRUMET 
WOLFF, JEANETTE 
WRONSKY, SIDDY 
WUHSHA AL-DALLALA 
WUNDERLICH, FRIEDA 
ZEMER, HANNAH 

ZEMLYACHKA (Zalkkld), ROZALIYA 
SAMOYLOVNA 

Religion 

ABERLIN, RACHEL 

BACHARACH, EVA 

BARAZANI, ASENATH 

BAS-TOVIM, SARAH 

BEBE, PAULINE 

BERLIN, RAYNA BATYA 

DREYZL, LEAH 

EILBERG, AMY 

FRANK, EVA 

GOLDSTEIN, ELYSE 

HAUPTMAN, JUDITH 

HOROWITZ, SARAH REBECCA RACHEL LEAH 

ISSERLEIN, ISRAEL BEN PETHAHIAH 

JONAS, REGINA 

LAZA OF FRANKFURT 

LICHTENSTEIN, TEHILLA 

LUDOMIR, MAID OF 



274 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



THEMATIC OUTLINE 



MIRIAM BAT BENAYAH OF YEMEN 

MODENA, FIORETTA DI 

OFFNER, STACY 

OSTFELD, BARBARA 

PRIESAND, SALLY 

RASHI 

SASSO, SANDY 

SCHECHTER, MATHILDE 

SERL BAS JACOB BEN WOLF KRANZ 

SHIFRAH OF BRODY 

SIMON, CARRIE OBENDORFER 

STERNBERG, SARAH FRANKEL 

Science 

ARNON, RUTH 

AYRTON, HERTHA 

BIRK, YEHUDITH 

COHEN, ELIZABETH D.A. 

COHN, MILDRED 

CORI, GERTY THERESA 

DEUTSCH, HELENE 

EDINGER, TILLY 

ELION, GERTRUDE BELL 

FEINBRUN-DOTHAN, NAOMI 

FLORETA CA NOGA OF ARAGON 

FRANKENTHAL, KATE 

FRANKLIN, ROSALIND ELSIE 

FREIDLINA, RAKHIL KHATSKELEVNA 

FREUD, ANNA 



FRIEDLANDER, KATE 
FRIEND, CHARLOTTE 
FROMM-REICHMANN, FRIEDA 
GREENACRE, PHYLLIS 
HAVA OF MANOSQUE 
HESTRIN-LERNER, SARAH 
HIRSCH, RACHEL 
HYDE, IDA HENRIETTA 
HYMAN, LIBBIE HENRIETTA 
KAGAN, HELENA 
KAUFMAN, JOYCE JACOBSON 
KLEIN, MELANIE REIZES 
KOCH, ADELHEID LUCY 
KRIM, MATHILDE 
LEVI-MONTALCINI, RITA 
MAHLER, MARGARET 
MEITNER, LISE 
RAMOT, BRACHA 
RAYSS, TSCHARNA 
ROTENBERG, MATTIE 
SHALON, RAHEL 
SPIEGEL-ADOLF, MONA 
STERN, LINA SOLOMONOVNA 
STRAUS, RAHEL 
WEIL, R. ADRIENNE 
WOLFF, CHARLOTTE 
YALOW, ROSALYN SUSSMAN 
YONATH, ADA 
ZAIZOV, RINA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



275 



INTRODUCTION TO THE INDEX 



Creating a comprehensive book index for a work with the scope and depth of the Ency- 
clopaedia Judaica (EJ) is a worthy challenge for any team of indexers. This is especially 
true because of the ambitious standard set by the first edition's index by Prof. Raphael 
Posner. I am confident that users of the second edition's index will agree that this index 
has risen to that challenge for a new generation of users. 

A good reference index is not a concordance, a mere listing of every instance in 
which a person or a place is mentioned in print. An index's purpose is to help the user 
find relevant information as quickly and easily as possible. To do this, the index must 
do two things well. It must point a user toward those places where useful information 
is to be found. And it must gather those pointers in a single, easily found place, so that 
a user need not search here and there about the index, gathering references as if on a 
scavenger hunt of arcana. An index that does both of these things will help a user to 
quickly and confidently find all of the relevant information about a topic. 

To create this index a large team of indexers from around the globe has read and re- 
read essays, seeking to ensure that our coverage of terms, themes, and concepts is both 
comprehensive and useful. Many headings and subheadings have been consolidated to 
ensure that all of the significant information about a topic or an aspect of a topic has 
been gathered in a single place. 

We have consulted frequently with the first edition's index as we built the index for 
the second edition. The valuable See and See Also cross-references created by Prof. Pos- 
ner for the first edition have been carried over wherever possible, and enhanced with 
additional references for the many new topics that appear in the second edition. We 
have also incorporated many of the first edition's headings and subheadings in the sec- 
ond edition's index. Great thanks are due to the help provided by that singular refer- 
ence. Users will find two other avenues for accessing information in this edition as 
described below: the thematic outline and the online e-book version of this reference. 



THE THEMATIC OUTLINE 

An index is not a thematic outline, nor is a thematic outline an index. Instead, the two 
tools are designed to work together. The thematic outline that precedes this introduc- 
tion arranges all the entries under logically structured main categories. It is an excel- 
lent tool for researchers seeking an overview of the encyclopedia's coverage. The 
alphabetical index is an excellent tool for researchers seeking specific information. 
Using the two together can greatly enhance any research effort. A reader who finds an 
essay of interest in the thematic outline would be well served to check the index for a 
sense of the encyclopedia's specific coverage of the topic. A user of the index who finds 
a topic of interest would be well served to consult the thematic outline for a handy 
overview of that topic's place in the encyclopedia. 

Where practical the structure of the index's headings and subheadings has been 
coordinated with the thematic outline to help users move smoothly from one to the 
other. I strongly encourage readers and researchers alike to use both tools. 



277 



INTRODUCTION TO THE INDEX 



SEARCHING THE E-BOOK VERSION OF ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA 

A print index is designed to be a complete and independent reference source for that print 
edition, and this is the case with the index for Encyclopaedia Judaica. However, it is worth 
noting that this second edition of Encyclopaedia Judaica will be released in both a print and 
an e-book format available as part of the Gale Virtual Reference Library. Many purchasers 
of this edition will have access to both versions of the encyclopedia. Electronic references 
provide search tools that simply can not exist in the printed version of a book. A user seek- 
ing additional ways to search the Encyclopaedia Judaica would do well to consult the elec- 
tronic version. 

Every effort has been made to use both the index and the thematic outline to enhance 
the searchability of the electronic version of this reference. In the e-book version page ref- 
erences in the index and main entries in the thematic version are hyperlinked to the entry 
and page to which they refer. Users who scroll to the end of an essay in the e-book version 
will see a list of the indexing terms that point to the essay. In those terms at the bottom, 
page references that point to other essays are hyperlinked to those essays to provide users 
with direct access to other information on a topic. 

For general searching of the e-book version of Encyclopaedia Judaica, headings from the 
print index are included in the keyword search. Should a concept or name appear nowhere 
in either the thematic outline or the index, or should a user wish to conduct an exhaustive 
search for all mentions of a name or a concept, a convenient full- text search of the entire 
Encyclopaedia Judaica is available for the e-book. 

CONVENTIONS OF THE INDEX 

Alphabetization: This index is sorted letter-by-letter to reflect the arrangement of essays 
in the encyclopedia itself. To find headings the user should search alphabetically as if there 
are no spaces between words. Diacritical marks such as "H" or "a" are ignored for sorting 
purposes. The sort stops at the period, comma, colon, and semi-colon punctuation marks. 
Words that break at those marks will sort above words that carry through, e.g. Rubin, 
Solomon comes before Rubiner, Ludwig. 

Numbers, including Roman numerals, will appear at the top of lists. Parenthetical 
modifiers are not included in the sorting. Initial articles in both English and foreign lan- 
guages - e.g. the, a, der, or la - are ignored for sorting purposes. 

Page References: The volume number precedes the page reference the first time that 
the volume number is used, e.g. 8:123, 157 or 12:15-27, 145. Bolded page references refer 
to a main essay on a topic, e.g. Lee, Stan, 12:598 or Kirby, Jack, 12:183-184. 

Italicized page references refer to an image or map, e.g. A (letter), 1: 207 or Israel 
(ancient), 10: 101. Page references followed by an italicized t indicate a table or genealog- 
ical chart, e.g. Kibbutz festivals, 12:120t or Rothschild family, 17:488t. Color inserts have 
been identified by the volume to which they belong, e.g. Maus (Spiegelman), vol. 2: color 
insert or Mint, vol. 16: color insert. 

Person Names: Person names with surnames are generally inverted and appear as they 
have been listed in their main essay in the encyclopedia, e.g. Kane, Bob, 11:760-761. Person 
names consisting of forenames only are in natural order as Caecilius of Calacte, 4:33 1-332. 
Where advisable - especially with names containing bar, ben, or ibn - a See cross-reference 
has been created from the alternate inversion. See references have also been created for 



278 ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INTRODUCTION TO THE INDEX 



alternate names, so that all of the page references for a person are gathered under a single 
heading. 

Work Names: Titles of works such as novels, newspapers, monographs, and other 
longer works have been italicized, e.g. Diary of a Young Girl (Frank), or The Spirit (comic 
strip). Short works such as poems, short stories, or songs appear in quote marks, e.g. 
"Frailach in Swing" (Elman). 

Most work names have received a parenthetical qualifier to distinguish them from sim- 
ilarly titled works, e.g. Sefer ha-Musar (Aknin) and Sefer ha-Musar (Kaspi). Books of the 
Bible appear in this format: Exodus, Book of. 

In the case of works known by both foreign-language and English-language titles, the 
language of original publication has generally been preferred, with See references pointing 
to that name, from the English-language variant. 

Place Names: Most place names have received a modifier to specify their location, e.g. 
Fort Michilimackinac (MI) or Eshtemoa (ancient Israel). Modifiers generally favor the 
current place unless a place name is only relevant within the context of its ancient location, 
e.g. Jahaz (Moab). Postal abbreviations for states and provinces have been used for place 
names within the U.S. and Canada, e.g. NY for New York and QC for Quebec. A list of geo- 
graphic and other abbreviations used in the index follows this introduction. 

Term Selection, Inversions and Natural Word Order: The terms selected for headings 
and subheadings in this index reflect the terms and concepts used in the essays themselves 
and seek to replicate them as closely as possible. Wherever practical, concept terms appear 
in natural word order, e.g. "Jewish philosophy" instead of "Philosophy, Jewish". See refer- 
ences have been created from the inverted term in many cases to avoid confusion and 
direct the user to the correct term. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Finally, in addition to thanking Prof. Posner for the guidance provided by the index for the 
first edition, great thanks are due to Trish Yancey of Factiva and her team of indexers. They 
worked many long hours to create this index and bring it to a successful and timely con- 
clusion. I would also like to thank the many Thomson Gale editors and staff members who 
have contributed to this index, especially indexing specialists Lynne Maday, Amy Jerome, 
and Cathy Fisher, without whose help this index would simply not exist. 

John Ma gee 
Manager, Book and Database Indexing 

Thomson Learning 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 279 



ABBREVIATIONS OF THE INDEX 



The following standard abbreviations have been used in this index. 

AB Alberta 

AK Alaska 

AL Alabama 

AS American Samoa 

AR Arkansas 

AZ Arizona 

BC British Colombia 

B.C.E Before Common Era 



c. 


century 


CA 


California 


CO 


Colorado 


CT 


Connecticut 


d. 


died 


DC 


District of Columbia 


DE 


Delaware 


fl. 


flourished 


FL 


Florida 


FM 


Federated States of Micronesia 


GA 


Georgia 


GU 


Guam 


HI 


Hawaii 


IA 


Iowa 


ID 


Idaho 


IL 


Illinois 


IN 


Indiana 


Inc. 


Incorporated 


Jr. 


Junior 


KS 


Kansas 


KY 


Kentucky 


LA 


Louisiana 


Ltd. 


Limited 


MA 


Massachusetts 


MB 


Manitoba 


MD 


Maryland 


ME 


Maine 


MH 


Marshall Islands 


MI 


Michigan 


MN 


Minnesota 


MO 


Missouri 


MP 


Northern Mariana Islands 


MS 


Mississippi 


MT 


Montana 


NB 


New Brunswick 


NC 


North Carolina 


ND 


North Dakota 


NE 


Nebraska 


NH 


New Hampshire 



NJ 


New Jersey 


NL 


Newfoundland and Labrador 


NM 


New Mexico 


NS 


Nova Scotia 


NT 


Northwest Territories 


NU 


Nunavut 


NV 


Nevada 


NY 


New York 


OH 


Ohio 


OK 


Oklahoma 


ON 


Ontario 


OR 


Oregon 


PA 


Pennsylvania 


PE 


Prince Edward Island 


PR 


Puerto Rico 


PW 


Palau 


QC 


Quebec 


RI 


Rhode Island 


SC 


South Carolina 


SD (Nazi 




intelligence unit) 


Sicherheitsdienst 


SD (place) 


South Dakota 


SK 


Saskatchewan 


Sr. 


Senior 


SS 


Schutzstaffel 


TN 


Tennessee 


TX 


Texas 


U.K. 


United Kingdom 


UN 


United Nations 


U.S. 


United States of America 


USSR 


United Soviet Socialist Republics 


UT 


Utah 


v. 


versus in legal citations 


VA 


Virginia 


VI 


Virgin Islands 


vol. 


volume 


vs. 


versus 


VT 


Vermont 


WA 


Washington 


WI 


Wisconsin 


WV 


West Virginia 


WW I 


World War I 


WWII 


World War II 


WY 


Wyoming 


YT 


Yukon 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



281 



INDEX 



Page numbers in bold indicate main en- 
tries. Page numbers in italic indicate il- 
lustrations or maps. A "t" following a 
page number indicates a table or chart. 
References to color inserts include the per- 
tinent volume number. Please see the "In- 
troduction to the Index" for a full expla- 
nation of the conventions used in this 
index. 



9/11 attacks. See September 11, 2001 
terrorist attacks 

23 Contratos Comercials Escritos por 
Los Judios de Toldeo en Los Siglos 
XIII Y XIV: Edicion Completa y 
Estudio Linguistico de los Datos 
Judeo-arabes Andalusies (Ferrando), 
18:471 

The 28th Day of Elul (Elman), 9:407 

29 mois et quelques jours (Elkabbach), 
6:356 

1939 White Paper, 10:203 



A (letter), 1:207, 2:5 
Aachen (Germany), 1:207 
De Aanslag. See The Assault 
Aargau (Switzerland), 1:207-208 
Aaron (biblical figure), 1:208-211 

ancient paintings, 6:53-54 

artwork, 14:542 

Eleazar (High Priest), 6:298 

Elisheba, 6:354 

golden calf, 6:618 

mediation by, 13:719 

Miriam, 14:311-312 

Moses, 14:523-531, 535 

rod of, 17:365 

Aaron, House of. See Aaronides 

Aaron, Israel, 1:211 

Aaron, Judah, 15:474 

Aaron, Sons of. See Aaronides 

Aaron ben Abraham Safarty, 18:55 

Aaron ben Amram, 1:211-212, 11:425 

Aaron ben Asher, 13:649-650 

Aaron ben Batash, 1:212, 16:346 

Aaron ben David Cohen of Ragusa, 
1:212, 6:38 

Aaron ben Elijah, 1:212-213 

Aaron ben Elijah ha-Kohen, 2:24 

Aaron ben Gershon Elmali, 6:363 



Aaron ben Isaac Benjamin Wolf, 1:213 

Aaron ben Israel Broda, 4:193 

Aaron ben Jacob ha-Kohen of Lunel, 
1:213-214, 12:405 

Aaron ben Jeshua. See Abu al-Faraj 
Harun ibn al-Faraj 

Aaron ben Jeshu'a. See Abu al-Faraj 
Harun ibn al-Faraj 

Aaron ben Jonah, 6:34 

Aaron ben Joseph ha-Kohen Sargado, 
1:214 

Aaron ben Joseph ha-Levi, 1:214-215, 
14:463 

Aaron ben Joseph ha-Rofe, 1:213, 
215-216 

Aaron ben Joshua ibn Alamani. See 
Alamani, Aaron he-Haver ben 
Yeshu'ah 

Aaron ben Judah Kosdani. See Aaron 
ben Judah Kusdini 

Aaron ben Judah Kusdini, 1:216 

Aaron ben Judah of Constantinople. 
See Aaron ben Judah Kusdini 

Aaron ben Mashiah, 11:555 

Aaron ben Meir. See Ben Meir, Aaron 

Aaron ben Meir Brisker, 1:216 

Aaron ben Meshullam of Lunel, 1:216 

Aaron ben Moses ha-Levi of 
Starosielce, 1:216-217 

Aaron ben Reuben Elmaleh, 6:364 

Aaron ben Samuel, 1:217 

Aaron ben Samuel (of Hergerhausen), 
1:217 

Aaron ben Senton. See Aaron ben 
Batash 

Aaron ben Senton-ben Shem Tov. See 
Aaron Ben Batash 

Aaron ben Solomon Duran, 6:56 

Aaron Berechiah ben Moses of 
Modena, 1:217, 14:407 

Aaron fil Josce of York. See Aaron of 
York 

Aaron Hakiman, 1:217 

Aaron ha-Levi of Barcelona. See Aaron 
ben Joseph ha-Levi 

Aaronides, 1:217-219, 218f 

Aaron Isaac. See Isaac, Aaron 

Aaron Menahem Mendel, of 
Radzymin, 17:61 

Aaron of Baghdad, 1:219 

Aaron of Barcelona. See Aaron ben 
Joseph ha-Levi 

Aaron of Copenhagen. See Aaron 
Simeon ben Jacob Abraham of 
Copenhagen 



Aaron of Kremenets. See Aaron 
Samuel ben Moses Shalom of 
Kremenets 

Aaron of Lincoln, 1:219 

Aaron of Lunel (12/13th c). See 

Aaron ben Jacob ha-Kohen of Lunel 

Aaron of Lunel (13/14th c). See 
Aaron ben Meshullam of Lunel 

Aaron of Neustadt, 1:219-220 

Aaron of Nicomedia. See Aaron ben 
Elijah 

Aaron of Pesaro, 1:220 

Aaron of Ragusa. See Aaron ben 
David Cohen of Ragusa 

Aaron of Starosielce. See Aaron ben 
Moses ha-Levi of Starosielce 

Aaron of York, 1:220 

Aaron of Zhitomir, 1:220 

Aaron of Zolkiew. See Aaron Selig ben 
Moses of Zolkiew 

Aaron Samuel ben Moses Shalom of 
Kremenets, 1:220 

Aaron Samuel ben Naphtali Herz ha- 
Kohen, 1:220 

Aaron Selig ben Moses of Zolkiew, 
1:220-221 

Aaron Setzer. See Aaron ben Elijah 
ha-Kohen 

Aaron Simeon ben Jacob Abraham of 
Copenhagen, 1:221 

Aaronsohn, Aaron, 1:221-222, 223, 
6:736, 15:267-268 

Aaronsohn, Alexander, 1:222 

Aaronsohn, Michael, 1:223 

Aaronsohn, Moses, 1:223-224 

Aaronsohn, Sarah, 1:222-223, 15:267- 
268 

Aaronsohn family, 1:221-223 

Aaronson, Lazarus Leonard, 1:224 

Aaron the Elder. See Aaron ben 
Joseph ha-Rofe 

Aaron the Great. See Perlov, Aaron 
ben Jacob 

Aaron the Second, 11:810 

Aaron the Younger. See Aaron ben 
Elijah 

Aaron with Tablet (Reder), 17:156 

Aaron Wolff Schreiber of Gewitsch. 
See Herlingen, Aaron Wolff of 
Gewitsch 

Ab, Ninth of. See Av, the Ninth of 

Aba. See Asher, Abraham ben 
Gedaliah Ibn 



283 



INDEX 



Abadan (Iran), 1:224 

Abaddon, 1:224 

Abaelard, Peter. See Abelard, Peter 

Abaelardus, Petrus. See Abelard, Peter 

Abag. See Gottlober, Abraham Baer 

Abailard, Pierre. See Abelard, Peter 

Abandoned Property. See Rekhush 
Natush 

The Abandonment of the Jews: America 
and the Holocaust (Wyman), 9:420 

Abarbanel, Isaac, 7:360 

Abarbanell, Lina, 1:224 

Abazardiel. See Abzardiel, Moses 

Abazardiel, Moses. See Abzardiel, 
Moses 

Abba, 1:224-225 

Abba (3rd-4th centuries), 1:225 

Abba (4th-5th centuries), 1:225 

Abba (8th century), 1:225 

Abba Arikha. See Rav 

Abba bar Aha, 1:225 

Abba bar Avina, 1:225-226 

Abba bar Hanna. See Rabbah bar 
Hana 

Abba bar Huna. See Rabbah bar Huna 

Abba bar Kahana, 1:226 

Abba bar Marta, 1:226 

Abba bar Memel, 1:226 

Abba bar Minah. See Abba bar Avina 

Abba bar Zavda, 1:226-227 

Abba bar Zemina, 1:227 

Abba bar Zevina. See Abba bar 
Zemina 

Abba bar Zimna. See Abba bar 
Zemina 

Abba bar Zimona. See Abba bar 
Zemina 

Abba ben Abba ha-Kohen, 1:227 

Abba ben Aivu. See Rav 

Abba ben Dostai. See Abba Yose ben 
Dostai 

Abba Benjamin, 1:227 

Abba Dan. See Avdan 

Abba Gulish, 1:227 

Abba Guryon of Sidon, 1:227-228 

Abba Hilkiah, 1:228 

Abba Hoshaya of Tiriah. See Abba 
Oshaya of Tiriah 

Abbahu, 1:228-229, 18:594 

Abbahu de-Shemu'el. See Abba ben 
Abba ha-Kohen 

Abba Isi ben Hanin. See Abba Yose 
ben Hanin 

Abba Kohen Bardela, 1:229 

Abba Kolon, 1:229 

Abba Mari Astruc, 1:302, 422, 12:697 

Abba Mari ben Eligdor, 1:229 



Abba Mari ben Isaac of St. Gilles, 
1:230 

Abba Mari ben Moses ben Joseph 
Astruc of Lunel, 1:230, 2:530 

Abba of Acre. See Abba of Akko 

Abba of Akko, 1:230 

Abba of Sidon. See Abba Guryon of 
Sidon 

Abba Oshaya of Tiriah, 1:230-231 

Abbas, Judah ben Samuel ibn, 1:231 

Abbas, Mahmoud, 10:252, 15:595, 600 

Abbas, Moses ben Samuel, 1:231-232 

Abbas, Moses Judah ben Meir, 1:232 

Abbas, Samuel, 3:683 

Abba Sakkara. See Abba Sikra 

Abba Saul, 1:232 

Abba Saul ben Batnit, 1:232 

Abba Shaul Heisinovitch. See Ahimeir, 
Abba 

Abbas I, 1:231 

Abbasi, Jacob ben Moses ibn, 1:232- 
233 

Abbasids, 1:233-234, 4:364, 10:14-15, 
11:155 

Abbas II, 1:231 

Abba Sikra, 1:234-235 

Abba Umana, 1:235 

Abbaye, 1:235-236 

Abbaye Kashisha, 1:236 

Abbaye the Elder. See Abbaye 
Kashisha 

Abba Yose ben Dosai. See Abba Yose 
ben Dostai 

Abba Yose ben Dostai, 1:236 

Abba Yose ben Hanan. See Abba Yose 
ben Hanin 

Abba Yose ben Hanin, 1:236 

Abba Yose ben Johanan. See Abba 
Yose ben Hanin 

• 

Abba Yudan. See Avdan 

Abbell, Maxwell, 1:236 

Abbing, Justine. See Bruggen, Carry 
van 

Abbott, Bud, 1:236-237 

Abbott, William. See Abbott, Bud 

Abbreviations, 1:237-240 

c Abd al-Haqq al-Islami, 1:240 

Abdallah, Yusef, 1:240 

Abdallah ibn Saba', 1:240-241 

Abdallah ibn Salaam, 1:241 

'Abd al-Malik, 14:497 

Abd al-Malik Mawan, 1:241 

Abde. See Avedat 

'Abdin, Sheikh, 15:596 

Abdon, 1:241, 11:565 

Abduction, 1:241-243 

domicile of minors and, 5:742 



Mortara case, 14:513 

'Abduh, Muhammad, 10:93-94 

Abdullah (King of Saudi Arabia), 
18:78 

Abdullah (King of Transjordan). See 
Abdullah ibn Hussein 

Abdullah ibn Hussein, 1:243-244, 
11:404 

Abdullah II (King of Jordan), 11:405 

Abdullah Yacoub. See Querido, Jacob 

Abdul Mejid I, 1:244 

Abecassis, Eliette, 1:244-245 

Abed-Nego. See Shadrach, Meshach, 
Abed-Nego 

Abedroth, David ben Moses Eliakim. 
See Abterode, David ben Moses 
Eliakim 

Abeilard, Peter. See Abelard, Peter 

Abel (ancient Israel). See Abel-Beth- 
Maacah (ancient Israel) 

Abel (biblical figure), 1:245, 291, 
4:340-342, 18:319 

Abel, Avel, 1:245 

Abel, Elie, 1:245 

Abel, Emil, 1:245 

Abel, Louis Felix, 1:246 

Abelard, Peter, 1:246 

Abel-Beth-Maacah (ancient Israel), 
1:246-247 

Abele Poswoler. See Abraham Abele 
ben Abraham Solomon 

Abeles, Otto, 1:247 

Abeles, Simele. See Abeles, Simon 

Abeles, Simon, 1:247 

Abeliovich, Lev Moysseyevich, 1:247 

Abella, Rosalie Silberman, 1:247-248 

Abel-Maim (ancient Israel). See Abel- 
Beth-Maacah (ancient Israel) 

Abelman, Jonathan. See Jonathan ben 
Abraham Isaac 

Abelmann, Ilya Solomovich, 1:248 

Abel-Maul (ancient Israel), 1:248 

Abel Mayin. See Abel-Beth-Maacah 

Abel-Meholah (ancient Israel), 1:248, 
6:350 

Abel Shittim (ancient Israel), 1:248 

Abelson, Harold Herbert, 1:248-249 

Abelson, Joshua, 1:249 

Abelson, Paul, 1:249 

Abenabez, Moses. See Abbas, Moses 
ben Samuel 

Abenabez, Moses ben Samuel. See 
Abbas, Moses ben Samuel 

Abenaes, Solomon, 1:249-250 

Abenafia, Joseph, 1:250, 15:581 

Abenaish, Solomon. See Abenaes, 
Solomon 

Abenalaza. See Eleazar 



284 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Abenalazar. See Eleazar 

Abenardut family. See Ardut family 

Abenatar family. See Atar family 

Abenatar Melo, David, 1:250 

Abenavez, Moses. See Abbas, Moses 
ben Samuel 

Abenavez, Moses ben Samuel. See 
Abbas, Moses ben Samuel 

Aben-Ayesh. See Abenaes, Solomon 

Aben-Ayesh, Solomon. See Abenaes, 
Solomon 

Abenbenist. See Benveniste 

Abenbenist family. See Benveniste 
family 

Abendana, David, 1:250 

Abendana, Isaac, 1:250 

Abendana, Isaac Sardo, 1:251 

Abendana, Jacob ben Joseph, 1:251 

Abendana family, 1:250 

Abendanan, Maimon, 1:251 

Abendanan, Saadiah. See Ibn Danan, 
Saadiah ben Maimun 

Abendanan, Samuel, 1:251 

Abendanan, Saul, 1:251-252 

Abendanan, Solomon, 1:251 

Abendanan family, 1:251-252 

Abengalel family. See Bengalil family 

Abenmenasse, Judah, 1:252 

Abenmenasse, Samuel, 1:252 

Abenmenasse family, 1:252 

Abensur, Jacob, 1:252-253 

Abensur, Louis. See Abensur, Jacob 

Abensur family, 1:252 

Abenvives family, 1:253 

Abenyaex, Solomon. See Abenaes, 
Solomon 

Aben-Yuly. See Yuly family 

Aben-Yuly family. See Yuly family 

Abenzardel, Moses. See Abzardiel, 
Moses 

Aber, Adolf, 1:253 

Aberdam, Alfred, 1:253, 15:649 

Aberdeen (Scotland), 1:253-254 

Aberdeen Bible, 3:679 

Abergel family. See Bergel family 

Aberle, Reb. See Nathan, Abraham 

Aberlin, Rachel, 1:254 

Abe Schrader Corp., 18:166, 167 

Abe the Newsboy. See Hollandersky, 
Abraham 

Abgar of Edessa, 3:599 

Abgar V (King of Adiabene), 15:506 

Ab-Hisda Azzuri. See Abu al-Hasan of 

• • • 

Tyre 

Abi-Afeta Ban ab-Hisdah. See Abu al- 
Fat 

Abiatar family. See Atar family 



Abiathar, 1:254-255, 2:132, 18:755 

Abiathar ben Elijah ha-Kohen, 1:255, 
18:770 

Abichabod. See Ichabod 

Abicht, Johann Georg, 1:255 

'Abid, Ezra Menasheh, 15:473 

Abiezer, 1:255 

Abiezer the Anathothite, 1:255 

Abigail, 1:256 

Abi-Hasira, Jacob II ben Masoud, 
1:256 

Abi-Hasira family, 1:256 

Abihazira family, 18:572-573 

Abihu, 1:256-257, 14:721-722 

Abijah, 1:257, 542 

Abijam. See Abijah 

Abileah, Arie, 1:257 

Abilene (Syria), 1:257 

Abimelech (King of Gerar), 1:257-258 

Abraham, 1:282 

Jotham, 11:465 

Judges, Book of, 11:564 

See also Ahimelech 

Abimelech (King of Philistines), 16:55 

Abimelech (son of Gideon), 1:258 

Abimelechn (Ruler of Shechem), 3:5-6 

Abinadab, 1:258-259 

Abinnaxim family. See Abenmenasse 
family 

A Bintl Blumen (Shalom Aleichem), 
18:381 

Abiob, Aaron, 1:259 

Abir, David, 1:259 

Abiram, 5:440 

Abishag the Shunammite, 1:259, 413 

Abishai, 1:260 

Abish'a Scroll, 15:754-755 

Abitbol, Amor ben Solomon, 1:260 

Abitbol, Saul Jeshua ben Isaac, 1:260 

Abitbol family, 1:260 

Abi Zimra, David ben Solomon ibn. 
See David ben Solomon ibn Abi 
Zimra 

Abi Zimra, Isaac Mandil ben 
Abraham, 1:260 

Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist 
Republic. See Abkhaziya 

Abkhaziya (Georgia), 1:261, 261 

Ablution, immersion, 1:261-263 

Abner, 1:263-264 

David and, 5:447 

Joab as murderer of, 11:339 

Palti, 15:607 

Abner bar Ner ha-Sharoni. See 
Bashiri, Yahya 

Abner of Burgos, 1:264-265, 15:562, 
16:87 



Aboab, Immanuel, 1:265-266, 2:267 

Aboab, Isaac da Fonseca. See Aboab 
da Fonseca, Isaac 

Aboab, Isaac de Mattathias, 1:268 

Aboab, Isaac I, 1:266-267, 686 

Aboab, Isaac II, 1:267-268 

Aboab, Jacob ben Samuel, 1:268 

Aboab, Mattathias. See Aboab, Isaac 
de Mattathias 

Aboab, Samuel ben Abraham, 1:268- 
269 

Aboab da Fonseca, Isaac, 1:269 

Amsterdam, 2:109 

as bibliophile, 3:683 

Aboab family, 1:265, 267t 

Aboaf family. See Aboab family 

Vabolition (Badinter), 3:50 

Abomination, 1:269-270 

Abomination of Desolation, 1:270 

Abony (Hungary), 1:270 

Abortion, 1:270-273, 10:288, 14:488 

Aboulker family. See Abulker family 

About the Fifth Year. See Fun Finften 
Yor 

A Boy den (Shalom Aleichem), 18:385 

Abrabanel, Benvegnita. See Abrabanel, 
Benvenida 

Abrabanel, Benvenida, 1:274, 275-276 

Abrabanel, Bienvenita. See Abrabanel, 
Benvenida 

Abrabanel, Isaac ben Judah (1437- 
1538), 1:276-279, 12:519, 16:90 

articles of faith, 2:531 

biblical exegesis and study, 3:643, 
662 

biography of, 3:706 

Derekh Emunah and, 3:571 

Hasidei Ummot ha-Olam, 8:389 

Joshua, Book of, 11:444 

moneylending, 14:440 

Abrabanel, Isaac ben Samuel, 1:274 

Abrabanel, Jacob, 1:274 

Abrabanel, Jacob ben Samuel, 1:274 

Abrabanel, Joseph, 1:274 

Abrabanel, Judah (fl. 1310), 1:274-275 

Abrabanel, Judah (fl. 1535), 10:791 

Abrabanel, Judah (of Cordoba). See 
Abrabanel, Judah (fl. 1310) 

Abrabanel, Judah (son of Samuel of 
Seville), 1:275 

Abrabanel, Judah ben Isaac, 1:274 

Abrabanel, Judah ben Isaac (c. 1460-c. 
1523), 1:274, 279-280, 11:379, 16:90 

Abrabanel, Judah ben Samuel, 1:274 

Abrabanel, Samuel (1473-1547), 
1:274-275, 276 

Abrabanel, Samuel (of Seville), 1:274- 

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ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



285 



INDEX 



Abrabanel family (Italy), 1:274, 7:84 

Abrabanel family (Spain), 1:274-275, 
275t 

Abracadabra, 1:280 

Abraham, 1:280-288 

Abimelech and, 1:257 

Abraham's bosom, 1:316, 317 

adoption, 1:415 

in the aggadah, 1:283-284 

Akedah, 1:555-560 

angels announcing birth of Isaac, 
vol. 7: color insert 

Apocalypse of, 1:288-289 

in the arts, 1:287-288 

biblical, 1:281, 281-282 

Christian tradition, 1:285 

Eliezer, 6:322 

Ephron, 6:461-462 

as ethical ideal, 6:532 

historicity of, 9:165, 15:747 

interpretations, 16:62, 63 

Islamic tradition, 1:286 

Jewish philosopher, 1:284-285 

Laban and, 12:406-407 

Mamre (Israel), 13:442 

medieval Hebrew literature, 
1:286-287 

Melchizedek and, 14:11 

oak of Abraham in Hebron, 
15:357 

other books of, 1:290 

as Patriarch, 15:689-691 

Philistines and, 16:55 

sacrifice of Isaac, vol. 8: color 
insert 

Sarah, 18:46, 47 

Testament of, 1:291 

Abraham, Abele ben Abraham 
Solomon, 1:291 

Abraham, Abraham, 1:288, 5:588 

Abraham, Apocalypse of. See Apocalypse 
of Abraham 

Abraham, David, 1:289 

Abraham, Gerald, 1:289-290 

Abraham, Karl, 1:290 

Abraham, Louis. See P incus, Louis 
Arieh 

Abraham, Max, 1:290 

Abraham, other books of, 1:290 

Abraham, Otto, 1:290-291 

Abraham, Samuel, 1:291 

Abraham, Testament of. See Testament 
of Abraham 

Abraham Aaron ben Shalom Broda, 
4:193 

Abraham Abele ben Abraham 
Solomon, 1:291 



Abraham Abusch ben Zevi Hirsch, 
1:291-292 

Abraham Abusch Lissa. See Abraham 
Abusch ben Zevi Hirsch 

Abraham a Sancta Clara, 1:292 

Abraham Axelrod. See Abraham ben 
Alexander of Cologne 

Abraham bar Hayya. See Abraham bar 
Hiyya 

Abraham bar Hiyya, 1:292-294, 2:618, 
13:673, 16:82 

emanation, 6:373 

gilgul, 19:37 

language of, 8:659 

soul, immortality of, 19:37 

Abraham bar Jacob, 1:294, 2:122 

Abraham ben Abraham. See Potocki, 
Valentine 

Abraham ben Alexander Katz of 
Kalisk, 1:294 

Abraham ben Alexander Katz of 
Kalisz. See Abraham ben Alexander 
Katz of Kalisk 

Abraham ben Alexander of Cologne, 
1:294 

Abraham ben Aryeh Loeb Hayyim ha- 
Kohen of Mogilev, 11:412 

Abraham ben Avigdor, 1:295 

Abraham ben Axelrad of Cologne. See 
Abraham ben Alexander of Cologne 

Abraham ben Azriel, 1:295, 11:423, 
18:603 

Abraham ben Benjamin Ze'ev Brisker, 
1:295 

Abraham ben Daniel, 1:295-296 

Abraham ben David Maimuni, 1:296 

Abraham ben David of Posquieres, 
1:296-298, 4:772, 11:426 

Abraham ben Dov of Mezhirech, 
1:298 

Abraham ben Eliezer ha-Levi, 1:298- 
299, 11:428 

Abraham ben Eliezer ha-Levi 
Berukhim, 1:299 

Abraham ben Elijah of Vilna, 1:299, 
3:610 

Abraham ben Halfon, 1:299-300 

Abraham ben Hasdai, 11:541 

Abraham ben Hayyim, 1:300 

Abraham ben Hayyim, dei Tintori. See 
Abraham ben Hayyim, the Dyer 

Abraham ben Hayyim, the Dyer, 1:300 

Abraham ben Heilprin. See Abraham 
ben Hayyim 

Abraham ben Hillel of Fostat, 1:300 

Abraham ben Hisdai, 11:555 

Abraham ben Hiyya ha-Nasi, 2:624, 
6:399 

Abraham ben Isaac, 1:300-301, 547- 
548, 6:325-326 



Abraham ben Isaac ben Garton, 1:301 

Abraham ben Isaac Gerondi. See 
Abraham ben Isaac 

Abraham ben Isaac ha-Kohen al- 
Furat, 1:301 

Abraham ben Isaac ha-Kohen of 
Zamosc, 1:301 

Abraham ben Isaac of Granada, 
1:301-302 

Abraham ben Isaac of Montpellier, 
1:302 

Abraham ben Isaac of Narbonne, 
1:302-303, 11:483, 484 

Abraham ben Israel of Brody, 1:303 

Abraham ben Jacob. See Abraham bar 
Jacob 

Abraham ben Jehiel (12th c), 2:136 

Abraham ben Jehiel Michal ha-Kohen, 
1:303 

Abraham ben Joseph Elmaleh, 6:364 

Abraham ben Joseph of Lissa, 1:303 

Abraham ben Josiah Troki, 1:303 

Abraham ben Josiah Yerushalmi, 
1:303-304 

Abraham ben Judah ben Abraham, 
1:304 

Abraham ben Judah Elmalik, 6:363 

Abraham ben Judah Leon, 1:304 

Abraham ben Maimon. See Abraham 
ben Moses ben Maimon 

Abraham ben Mazhir, 1:304 

Abraham ben Mordecai ha-Levi, 1:304 

Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon, 
1:304-308 

Abraham ben Hillel of Fostat, 
1:300 

Bilbeis, letter to Jews of, 3:697 

Islamic influence on, 11:267 

Judeo-Arabic literature and, 
11:536-537 

Sufism and, 11:542-543 

Abraham ben Moses ha-Kohen ha- 
Sephardi, 1:308 

Abraham ben Naphtali Tang. See 
Abrahams, Abraham 

Abraham ben Nathan (11th- 12th 
centuries), 1:308-309 

Abraham ben Nathan (c. 1025), 1:309 

Abraham ben Nathan ha-Baghdadi, 
1:309 

Abraham ben Nathan ha-Yarhi, 1:309, 
2:133 

Abraham ben Nisssim of Fostat. See 
Abraham ben Hillel of Fostat 

Abraham ben Samuel Feivush. See 
Hayyim ben Samuel Feivush 

Abraham ben Samuel he-Hasid, 1:309, 
3:683 

Abraham ben Samuel of Dreux, 1:310 



286 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Abraham ben Shabbetai, 3:697 

Abraham ben Shabbetai ha-Kohen, 
1:310 

Abraham ben Sherira, 11:418 

Abraham ben Simeon of Saint 
Maximin, 1:310 

Abraham ben Simeon of Worms, 
1:310 

Abraham ben Solomon, 1:310, 11:538 

Abraham ben Solomon of Torrutiel, 
1:311, 11:427 

Abraham ben Solomon Zalman Broda, 
4:193 



Abraham of Dreux. See Abraham ben 
Samuel of Dreux 

Abraham of Fostat. See Abraham ben 
Hillel of Fostat 

Abraham of Granada. See Abraham 
ben Isaac of Granada 

Abraham of Hamburg. See Nathan, 
Abraham 

Abraham of Kalisk. See Abraham ben 
Alexander Katz of Kalisk 

Abraham of Lissa. See Abraham ben 
Joseph of Lissa 

Abraham of Mezhirech. See Abraham 



Abraham ben Yashar. See Abu Sa'd al-Tustarl ben Dov of Mezhirech 



Abraham ben Yoske of Leszno. See 
Abraham ben Joseph of Lissa 

Abraham de Porto. See Alvarez, 
Fernando 

Abraham de Toledo. See Toledo, 
Abraham de 

Abraham Dov Baer of Ovruch, 1:311 

Abraham El-Barchilon, 1:311 

Abraham family, 1:288 

Abraham fiT Deulecresse, 15:312 

Abraham Gaon, 1:311 

Abraham Gershon of Kutow, 1:311— 
312, 8:395 

Abraham Guer of Cordova. See 
Escudero, Lorenzo 

Abraham ha-Bavli, 1:312 

Abraham ha-Levi, 1:312 

Abraham Hayyim ben Gedaliah, 1:312 

Abraham he-Hasid. See Abraham ben 
Hillel of Fostat 

Abraham he-Hasid of Cairo, 4:77 

Abraham he-Haver. See Abraham ben 
Hillel of Fostat 

Abrahami, Zevi. See Abramowitz, 
Grigori 

Abrahamites, 1:312, 15:323 

Abraham Joshua Heschel of Apta, 
1:312-313 

Abraham Joshua Heschel of Opatow. 
See Abraham Joshua Heschel of 
Apta 

Abraham Judaeus Bohemus, 1:313 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade, Spanish 
civil war, 15:218 

Abraham Maimuni. See Abraham ben 
Moses ben Maimon 

Abraham of Apta. See Abraham 
Joshua Heschel of Apta 

Abraham of Beja, 1:313 

Abraham of Bohemia. See Abraham 
Judaeus Bohemus 

Abraham of Brody. See Abraham ben 
Israel of Brody 

Abraham of Cologne. See Abraham 
ben Alexander of Cologne 



Abraham of Miropolye. See Abraham 
ben Isaac of Montpellier 

Abraham of Narbonne. See Abraham 
ben Isaac of Narbonne 

Abraham of Ovruch. See Abraham 
Dov Baer of Ovruch 

Abraham of Posquieres. See Abraham 
ben David of Posquieres 

Abraham of Ragola. See Ragoler, 
Abraham ben Solomon 

Abraham of Ragoler. See Ragoler, 
Abraham ben Solomon 

Abraham of Sancta Clara. See 
Abraham a Sancta Clara 

Abraham of Saragossa, 1:313 

Abraham of Sarteano, 1:313-314 

Abraham of Theomanaria, 11:474 

Abraham of Torrutiel. See Abraham 
ben Solomon of Torrutiel 

Abraham of Vilna. See Abraham ben 
Elijah of Vilna 

Abraham of Worms. See Abraham ben 
Simeon of Worms 

Abrahams, Abraham (Author), 1:315 

Abrahams, Abraham (Scholar), 1:315 

Abrahams, Abraham Isaac, 1:315 

Abrahams, Adolphe, 1:314 

Abrahams, Barnett, 1:314 

Abrahams, Gerald, 1:315 

Abrahams, Harold Maurice, 1:314-315 

Abrahams, I., 11:313 

Abrahams, Isaac, 1:315 

Abrahams, Israel (Rabbi), 1:316 

Abrahams, Israel (Scholar), 1:315-316 

Abrahams, Ivor, 1:316 

Abrahams, Joseph, 1:314 

Abrahams, Lionel, 1:316 

Abrahams, Nicolai Christian Levin, 
1:316 

Abrahams, Sidney, 1:314 

Abrahams, Solly. See Abrahams, 
Sidney 

Abraham's bosom, 1:316-317 

Abrahamsen, David, 1:317 



Abraham Seneor. See Seneor, 
Abraham 

Abrahams family (Athletes), 1:314- 
315 

Abrahams family (Scholars), 1:314 

Abrahamson, Abe, 4:267 

Abrahamson, Otto. See Brahm, Otto 

Abraham & Straus (A. & S.), 1:288, 
5:588 

Abraham the Pious. See Abraham ben 
Hillel of Fostat 

Abraham Zevi ben Eleazar, 1:317 

Abrahao, Coje, 1:317 

Abram. See Abraham 

Abram, Morris Berthold, 1:317-318, 
4:124 

Abram Bonet Avigdor. See Avigdor, 
Abraham 

Abramovich, Bernat, 4:91 

Abramovich, Roman Arkadyevich, 
1:318 

Abramovitsh, Sholem Jacob. See 
Abramovitsh, Sholem Yankev 

Abramovitsh, Sholem Yankev, 1:318— 
322, 3:691, 8:693, 18:367-368, 
21:345-346 

Abramovitz, David. See Abir, David 

Abramovitz, Max, 1:323 

Abramovitz, Moses, 1:323 

Abramowicz, Dina, 1:323-324 

Abramowitz, Bina, 1:324 

Abramowitz, Dov Baer, 1:324 

Abramowitz, Emil, 1:324 

Abramowitz, Grigori, 1:324-325 

Abramowitz, Herman, 1:325 

Abramowitz, Raphael, 1:325, 16:348 

Abramowitz, Rein. See Abramowitz, 
Raphael 

Abrams, Cal, 1:325-326 

Abrams, Calvin Ross. See Abrams, Cal 

Abrams, Charles, 1:326 

Abrams, Elliott, 1:326-327 

Abrams, Floyd M., 1:327 

Abrams, Meyer H., 1:327 

Abrams, Robert, 1:327-328, 12:602, 
15:224 

Abramsky, Yehezkel, 1:328 

Abramson, Abraham, 1:328 

Abramson, Jacob, 1:328 

Abramson, Jerry Edwin, 1:328 

Abramson, Jesse, 1:328-329 

Abramson, Shraga, 1:329 

Abramson family, 1:328 

Abrass, Joshua. See Abrass, Osias 

Abrass, Osias, 1:329 

Abravanel, Maurice. See Abravanel, 
Maurice de 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



287 



INDEX 



Abravanel, Maurice de, 1:329 

Abravanel family (Spain). See 
Abrabanel family (Spain) 

Abravaniel family (Spain). See 
Abrabanel family (Spain) 

Abrech, 1:329-330 

Abrek. See Abrech 

A Briv tsu a Gutn Fraynd (Shalom 
Aleichem), 18:381 

Abruzzi, Duke D'. See Tepper, Kolya 

Absaban, Solomon, 1:330 

Ab S'ad, 6:231 

Absalom (biblical figure), 1:330-331 

Ahimazz, 1:543 

Ahithophel the Gilonite, 1:545 

Amasa, 2:32 

Amnon, 2:87 

David and, 5:447-448, 450, 451 

Tamar and, 19:494 

tomb of Absalom, vol. 10: color 
insert 

Absalom (name), 1:331-332 

Absalom, monument of, 1:332 

Absalom and Achithophel (Dryden), 
1:331 

Absalon, 1:332 

Abse, Dannie, 1:332-333 

Absolon (Makai), 9:604 

Absolute idealism, 18:119-120 

Absolute rule based on mercantile 
economy, 15:449 

Absolution. See Forgiveness 

Absorption in Israel. See Aliyah 

The Absorption of Immigrants 
(Eisenstadt), 5:295, 6:271 

Abstinence. See Fasting and abstinence 

Abt, Isaac Arthur, 1:333 

Abterode, David ben Moses Eliakim, 
1:333 

Abterode, Solomon, 1:333 

Abtshuk, Avraham, 1:333 

Abtshuk, Avrom. See Abtshuk, 
Avraham 

Abu, 1:333 

Abu Aaron, 18:460 

Abu Aaron ben Samuel ha-Nasi. See 
Aaron of Baghdad 

Abu Alafia family. See Abulafia family 

Abualefia family. See Abulafia family 

Abu al-Fadl Da'ud ibn Abi al-Bayan 
Suleiman al-Isra III. See David ben 
Solomon 

Abu al-Fadl Hasday, 1:333-334 

Abu al-Faraj. See Bar Hebraeus, 
Johanan 

Abu al-Faraj Harun ibn al-Faraj, 
1:334, 11:425 



Abu al-Fat, 1:334, 2:105 

Abu al-Hasan. See Ibn al-Taqana, 
Moses 

Abu al-Hasan of Tyre, 1:335 

Abu Ali al-Hussein ibn 'Abdallah ibn 
Sina. See Avicenna 

Abu Ali Hasan ibn Bundar, 1:387 

Abual-Muna ibn abi Nasr al-Kohen 
al-'Attar, 11:536 

Abu al-Munajja Solomon ben Shaya, 
1:335 

Abu al Rabi, Aaron. See Abulrabi, 
Aaron 

Abu al-Walid Muhammad Ibn Rushd. 
See Averroes 

Abu-'Amr. See Ibn Sahl, Joseph ben 
Jacob 

Abu Aweigila (Sinai), 1:335 

Abu 'Aweiqila (Sinai). See Abu 
Aweigila (Sinai) 

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn 
Fajja. See Avempace 

Abucarat, Abraham. See Bukarat, 
Abraham ben Solomon ha-Levi 

Abucarat, Abraham ben Solomon ha- 
Levi. See Bukarat, Abraham ben 
Solomon ha-Levi 

Abudaram family. See Abudarham 
family 

Abudaran family. See Abudarham 
family 

Abudarham, David ben Joseph, 1:336 

Abudarham family, 1:335-336 

Abudarhan family. See Abudarham 
family 

Abudarhen family. See Abudarham 
family 

Abudiente, Gideon. See Gideon, 
Samson 

Abu Ghosh, 1:336 

Abu Harun. See Ibn Ezra, Moses ben 
Jacob 

Abu Ibrahim. See Ibn Khalfun, Isaac 

Abu Ibrahim ibn Kastar. See Ibn 
Yashush, Isaac Abu Ibrahim 

Abu I-Khayr family. See Abulker 
family 

Abu Imram Musa al-Zafarani. See 
Abu Imran al-Tiflisi 

Abu Imran al-Tiflisi, 1:336 

Abu Isa, Isaac ben Jacob al-Isfahlni, 
1:337 

Abu 'Isa, 15:786 

Abu Ishaq. See Ibrahim ibn Sahl 
al-Andalusi al-Isra'ili 

Abu Ishaq Abraham ibn c ta, 11:727 

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn c Ata\ See 
Abraham ben Nathan (c. 1025) 

Abu Ishaq Ka'b al-Ahbar. See Ka'b 
al-Ahbar 



Abu Ja'far Muhammad al-Tabari, 
3:668-669 

Abukara, Abraham ben Moses, 1:337 

Abukara, Jacob ben Elijah, 1:337 

Abukarat, Abraham. See Bukarat, 
Abraham ben Solomon ha-Levi 

Abukarat, Abraham ben Isaac ha-Levi, 

4:257 

Abukarat, Abraham ben Solomon ha- 
Levi. See Bukarat, Abraham ben 
Solomon ha-Levi 

Abulaffia family. See Abulafia family 

Abulafia, Abraham ben Samuel, 

1:337-339, 11:607-608, 15:249-250 

allegories, 1:667 

approach to meditation, 13:761- 
762 

Abulafia, Ezekiel David ben Mordecai, 
1:339 

Abulafia, Hayyim, 3:695 

Abulafia, Hayyim ben David, 1:339 

Abulafia, Hayyim ben Jacob I, 1:339 

Abulafia, Hayyim ben Jacob II, 1:339- 
340 

Abulafia, Hayyim Nissim ben Isaac, 
1:340 

Abulafia, Hezekiah. See Abulafia, 
Ezekiel David ben Mordecai 

Abulafia, Isaac ben Moses, 1:340, 516- 
517 

Abulafia, Issachar, 4:270 

Abulafia, Jacob ben Solomon, 1:340- 
341 

Abulafia, Meir, 1:341-342, 34 If, 6:176 

Abulafia, Meir ben Todros ha-Levi, 
13:652 

Abulafia, Samuel ben Meir ha-Levi, 
1:343 

Abulafia, Samuel ha-Levi, 1:343 

Abulafia, Todros, 16:117, 267 

Abulafia, Todros ben Joseph ha-Levi, 
1:343-344, 18:327 

Abulafia, Todros ben Judah ha-Levi, 
1:344-345 

Abulafia family, 1:337 

Abulefia family. See Abulafia family 

Abu 1-Fahm. See Ibn Altabban, Levi 
ben Jacob 

Abulfahm, Levi. See Ibn Altabban, 
Levi ben Jacob 

Abulker, Isaac ben Samuel, 1:345 

Abulker family, 1:345 

Abulrabi, Aaron, 1:345-346 

Abu Mansur al-Daimari, 11:538 

Abun, 1:346 

Abuna. See Abun 

Abu Nas. See Farabi, Abu Nasr 
Muhammad al- 



288 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Abu Nazzara. See Sanu 5 , Ya'qub 

Abu Nazzara. See Sanu', Ya'qub 

Abu Saad,. See Ibn Ezra, Isaac 

Abu Sa'd al-Tustari, 1:346 

Abu Sa c d ben Sahl al-Tustari. See Abu 
Sa'd al-Tustari 

Abu Sahl. See Dunash Ibn Tamim 

Abu Sa'id. See Ben-Asher, Aaron ben 
Moses 

Abu Sa'id. See Levi ben Japheth 

Abu Sa'id ben Boaz. See David ben 
Boaz 

Abu Sa'id Halfon ha-Levi of Damietta, 
11:493 

Abusch Frankfurter. See Abraham 
Abusch ben Zevi Hirsch 

• 

Abu Suleiman al-Qumisi. See David 
al-Qumisi 

Abu Suleiman Da'ud ibn Ibrahim 
Al-Fasi. See Alfasi, David ben 
Abraham 

Abu Suleiman ibn Muhagir. See David 
ibn Hajjar 

Abu Ya'qub al-Basir. See Basir, Joseph 
ben Abraham ha-Kohen Haro'eh al- 

Abu Ya'q~ub Yusuf ibn Nuh. See 
Joseph ben Noah 

Abu Yesha'. See Farabi, Abu Nasr 
Muhammad al- 

• 

Abu Zakariyya Yahya. See Ibn BaLam, 
Judah ben Samuel 

Abu-Zikri. See Zuta 

Abwehrverein. See Verein Zur Abwehr 
des Antisemitismus 

Abyad Yihya ben Shalom, 1:346 

Abysmal Reflections (Barasch), 3:135 

Abyssinia. See Ethiopia 

Abzardiel, Moses, 1:346 

Abzug, Bella Savitzky, 1:346-347, 
15:224 

A(;ac de Qalema, 3:688 

Acacia, 1:347 

Academias morales de las musas 
(Enriquez Gomez), 6:446 

Academic Sports Association (A.S.A), 
2:541 

Academicus. See Hersch, Pesach 
Liebman 

Academies in Babylonia and Erez 
Israel, 1:347-351 

Academy for Jewish Religion, 17:28 

Academy for Jewish Scholarship. See 
Akademie Fuer Die Wissenschaft 
Des Judentums 

Academy for the Hebrew Language, 
8:573 

Academy of Motion Picture Arts and 
Sciences, 11:763 

Academy of the Hebrew Language, 
1:351-353, 3:388, 18:724 



Academy on High, 1:353-354 

A(;an, Moses de Tarrega, 1:354 

Ac;an, Moses de Zaragua. See A^an, 
Moses de Tarrega 

Accents of the Torah. See Masorah 
vocalization 

Acchabaron (Galilee). See Akhbarei 
(Galilee) 

Accident and substance. See Substance 
and accident 

Acco. See Acre (Israel) 

Accounting for Genocide (Fein), 9:416, 
418 

Acculturation. See Assimilation 

Ace, Goodman, 1:354 

Ace, Jane, 1:354 

Achan, 1:354, 355 

Achbor, 1:355 

"Achdut" club, 18:125 

Acher. See Elisha ben Avuyah 

Achish, 1:355, 5:447 

Achor, valley of (ancient Israel), 1:355 

Achron, Joseph, 1:355-356 

Achsah, 1:356 

Achshaph (ancient Israel), 1:356 

Het Achterhuis. See Diary of a Young 
Girl 

Achzib (ancient Israel), 1:356-357 

Ackerman, Gary, 1:357 

Ackerman, Nathan Ward, 1:357 

Ackerman, Paula Herskovitz, 1:357- 
358, 18:278 

Ackerman, Shabtai, 1:358 

The Ackerman Institute for Family 
Therapy, 1:357 

Ackord, Elias, 1:358 

Acorns, vol. 16: color insert 

Acosta, Christobal, 1:358-359 

Acosta, Gabriel. See Costa, Uriel da 

Acosta, Isaac, 1:359 

Acosta, Joan D', 1:359 

Acosta, Uriel da. See Costa, Uriel da 

Acosta, Yhsak. See Acosta, Isaac 

Acqui (Italy), 1:359 

Acquisition, 1:359-363, 12:568 

The Acra, 1:363-364 

Acraba (ancient Israel), 1:364 

Acre (Israel), 1:364-368, 366, 11:693, 
14:778 

Acre-Tyre Plain (Israel), 10:111 

Aero, pseudo-, 1:368 

The Acrophile. See Ha-Yored le- 
Ma'alah 

Acrostics, 1:368-369, 385 

Acsady, Ignac, 1:369 

Acta Isidori et Lamponis, 1:635, 
12:453-454 



V Action catholique (newspaper), 4:403 

Action Franchise, 1:369-370 

V Action francaise, 1:369,370 

Act of Faith. See Auto da Fe 

Actors, 5:341-342 

Aimee, Anouk, 1:550 

Alexander, Jason, 1:623 

Alexander, Muriel, 1:624 

Aliturus, 1:660 

Almagor, Gila, 1:678 

Barnowsky, Viktor, 3:170 

Benjamin, Richard, 3:358 

Benny, Jack, 3:358-359 

Benson, Robby, 3:378 

Beregi, Oszkar, 3:408 

Berg, Gertrude, 3:415 

Bergen, Polly, 3:419-420 

Bergner, Elisabeth, 3:430 

Berkoff, Steven, 3:438 

Berman, Shelley, 3:464-465 

Bernardi, Herschel, 3:468-469 

Bernhard, Sandra, 3:473 

Bernhard, Sarah, 3:473-474 

Bernstein-Cohen, Miriam, 3:486 

Besekow, Samuel, 3:494 

Bouwmeester, Louis Frederik 
Johannes, 4:107 

Brice, Fanny, 4:177 

Broderick, Matthew, 4:195 

Brooks, Albert, 4:209 

Brooks, Mel, 4:209-210 

Buloff, Joseph, 4:278 

Burns, George, 4:298 

Burstyn, Mike, 4:301 

Busch, Charles, 4:303 

Caan, James, 4:329 

Carnovsky, Morris, 4:486-487 

Carter, Nell, 4:498 

Chronegk, Ludwig, 4:695 

Clayburgh, Jill, 4:752 

Cobb, Lee J., 4:764 

Cooper, Jackie, 5:205 

Crystal, Billy, 5:315 

Curtis, Jamie Lee, 5:342 

Curtis, Tony, 5:342-343 

Da Silva, Howard, 5:439 

Dessoir, Ludwig, 5:605 

Deutsch, Ernst, 5:622 

Donath, Ludwig, 5:748 

Douglas, Kirk, 5:764-765 

Douglas, Melvyn, 5:765 

Douglas, Michael, 5:765 

Einstein, Arik, 6:263 

England, 5:58, 6:716, 11:76 

Ford, Harrison, 7:125 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



289 



INDEX 



Actors, continued 

Hanbury, Lily, 8:318 
Hanray, Lawrence, 8:330-331 
Harris, Barbara, 8:362 
Hawn, Goldie, 8:473-474 
Hershey, Barbara, 9:45 
Hirsch, Judd, 9:126 
Hirsch, Robert Paul, 9:129 
Hoffman, Dustin, 9:307-308 
Holliday, Judy, 9:322-323 
Homolka, Oscar, 9:516 
Howard, Leslie, 9:572 

Howard, Moe, Shemp, and Curly, 

9:572-573 

Huarte de San Juan, Juan, 9:575 

Israel, 10:821 

Jaffe, Sam, 11:69 

Lahr, Bert, 12:439-440 

Lamarr, Hedy, 12:442 

Landon, Michael, 12:473 

Lasser, Louise, 12:503 

Lavin, Linda, 12:532 

Lawrence, Gerald, 12:545 

Leachman, Cloris, 12:563 

Lederer, Francis, 12:597 

Leonidov, Leonid Mironovich, 
12:648 

Leontovich, Eugenie, 12:649 

Levant, Oscar, 12:678 

Levene, Sam, 12:679 

Levey, Barnett, 12:682 

Matlin, Marlee, 13:679-680 

Matthau, Walter, 13:687 

Mazursky, Paul, 13:709 

Menken, Adah Isaacs, 14:48 

Mitchell, Yvonne, 14:369 

Mogulesko, Sigmund, 14:418 

Morewski, Abraham, 14:486 

Moscheles, Ignaz, 14:516 

Neilson, Julia, 15:66 

Neuwirth, Bebe, 15:125-126 

Persoff, Nehemiah, 15:793 

Picon, Molly, 16:147 

Polanski, Roman, 16:326 

Rachel (Felix, Eliza Rachel), 17:50 

Radner, Gilda, 17:55 

Rainer, Luise, 17:74 

Randall, Tony, 17:90-91 

Reeve, Ada, 17:162 

Reiner, Carl, 17:205-206 

Reiner, Rob, 17:206-207 

Rickles, Don, 17:292 

Rieser, Paul, 17:212 

Ritt, Martin, 17:345 

Roberts, Tony, 17:354 



Robinson, Edward G., 17:355 

Rodensky, Shemuel, 17:363 

Roessler, Carl, 17;367 

Rovina, Hanna, 17:501 

Rubinstein, Ida, 17:517 

Rudner, Rita, 17:523 

Runitsch, Ossip, 17:529 

Schottlaender, Bendet, 18:165 

Schwimmer, David, 18:195 

Segal, George, 18:246 

Seldes, Marian, 18:259 

Sellers, Peter, 18:271-272 

Seymour, Jane, 18:332-333 

Shatner, William, 18:420 

Sher, Sir Anthony, 18:461 

Signoret, Simone, 18:568 

Silver, Ron, 18:585-586 

Singerman, Berta, 18:640-641 

Sloman, Henry, 18:675 

Sofaer, Abraham, 18:740 

Yiddish 

Ben-Ami, Jacob, 3:316 

Dzigan, Shimon, 6:80 

Kalich, Bertha, 11:734 

Lebedeff, Aaron, 12:589 

Satz, Ludwig, 18:76 

Actors' Equity Association, 18:586 

Acts of Alexandrian Martyrs. See 
Alexandrian Martyrs, Acts of 

Acts of Pilate, 15:394 

Acts of the Alexandrine Martyrs. See 
Acta Isidori et Lamponis 

Acts of the Apostles, 15:190 

Acts of the Pagan Martyrs. See 
Alexandrian Martyrs, Acts of 

Acts of Thomas, 15:394 

Actuality and Potentiality. See Form 
and matter 

ACWA. See Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America (ACWA) 

Aczel, Tamas, 1:370 

Ada (Austria), 1:370 

Adah al-Faldsifa (Hunain), 1:657 

Adabberah va-Yirvah Li (Kariv), 
11:808 

Adad. See Hadad 

Adadah. See Aroer (Israel) 

Adadi, Abraham Hayyim ben masoud 
Hai, 1:370 

Adah, 1:370-371 

Adalberg, Samuel, 1:371 

Adam, 1:371-376 

aggadic literature, 1:372-373 

in the arts, 1:375-376 

biblical literature, 1:371 

Eve and, 6:572-573 



Islamic legend, 1:374-375 
medieval philosphy, 1:373-374 
Seth and, 18:319 
symbolism of, 16:106, 107 

Adam (ancient Israel), 1:376 

Adam (journal), 1:376-377 

Adam (Sobol), 18:702 

Adam (sculpture, Epstein), 6:471 

Adam, Lajos, 1:377 

Adam, Louis. See Adam, Lajos 

Adam, other books of, 1:377 

Adamah le-Lo Zel (Sened), 18:288 

Adam and Eve, Book of the Life of. See 
Book of the Life of Adam and Eve 

Adam Ba'al Shem, 1:378, 3:9 

Adam Elyon. See Adam Kadmon 

Adam ha-Kohen. See Lebensohn, 
Abraham Dov 

Adamit (Israel), 1:378 

Adam Kadmon, 1:378-379, 11:645 

Adam Kadmon (Herrera), 9:40-41 

"Adam mi-Yisrael" (Hazaz), 8:493 

Adams, Arlin Marvin, 1:379-380 

Adams, Franklin Pierce, 1:380 

Adams, Hannah, 1:380 

Adams, John, 1:380 

Adams, Theodore L., 1:380-381 

Adani. See Dahan Family 

Adani, David ben Amram, 1:381 

Adani, David ben Yesha ha-Levi, 1:381 

Adani, Mahalal, 1:381, 389 

Adani, Mahallal ben Shalom ben 
Jacob. See Adani, Mahalal 

Adani, Mizrahi Shalom, 1:381 

Adani, Saadiah ben David, 1:381 

Adani, Sa'id ibn Daud. See Adani, 
Saadiah ben David 

Adani, Samuel ben Joseph, 1:381-382 

Adani, Samuel ben Yeshua. See Adani, 
Samuel ben Joseph 

Adani, Shalom Jacob. See Adani, 
Mahalal 

Adani, Solomon. See Adeni, Solomon 
bar Joshua 

Adar, 1:382 

Adar, seventh of, 1:382-383 

Adar, Zvi, 1:383 

Adarbi, Isaac ben Samuel, 1:383, 
15:537 

Adarique, Isaac, 4:257 

Adar symbolism, vol. 2: color insert 

Adasa (ancient Israel) 1, 1:383 

Adas Israel Anshe Poilen (Ontario), 
8:304 

Adaskin, Murray, 1:384 

Adass Jeshurun, Adass Jisroel, 1:384 



290 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Adath Israel (Cincinnati), 7:705 

Adato, Solomon, 16:346 

Adda bar Ahavah, 1:384-385 

Addams, Jane, 18:320 

Adderet Eliyahu (Bashyazi), 3:198, 
11:800 

Adderet Eliyahu (Elijah), 6:339 

"Addir bi-Melukhah," 1:385 

"Addir Hu," 1:385 

Addison, Lancelot, 6:180 

Additional service. See Musaf 

Addresses to the German Nation. See 
Reden an die deutsche Nation 
(Fichte) 

Addu. See Hadad 

Ad Eilat (Shamir), 18:392 

Adel, 1:385 

Adelaide (Australia), 1:385-386 

Adelantado. See Adelantados 

Adelantados, 1:386 

Adelantatus. See Adelantados 

Adelbert, Maximilian. See Baer, Max 

Adelkind, Cornelio, 15:641 

Adelkind, Israel Cornelius, 1:386, 4:52 

Adelman, A. See Tashrak 

Adelman, Uri, 1:386 

Adelson, Howard Laurence, 1:386 

Adelstein, Angelica. See Adelstein- 
Rozeanu, Angelica 

Adelstein-Rozeanu, Angelica, 1:386- 
387 

Aden (Saudi Arabia), 1:381-382, 387- 
389, 5:681 

Adenantado. See Adelantados 

Adenauer, Konrad, 1:390 

Adeni, Solomon bar Joshua, 1:390, 
14:329 

Aderca, Felix, 1:390-391 

Aderca, Froim Zeilig. See Aderca, Felix 

AdeReT. See Rabinowitz-Teomim, 
Elijah David ben Benjamin 

Adhan, Solomon, 5:379 

Adiabene (Mesopotamia), 1:391-392, 
3:27, 10:823, 14:447 

Adiabene family 

Ananias of Adiabene, 2:129 

Josephus' Jewish Antiquities on, 
11:440 

Adieu Babylone (Kattan), 4:425 

Adir. See Deinard, Ephraim 

Adi the Arab, 15:377 

Adjiman, Abraham, 1:392 

Adjiman, Baruch, 1:392 

Adjiman, Eliya, 1:392 

Adjiman, Isaiah, 15:542 

Adjiman, Meir, 15:542 

Adjiman, Yeshaya, 1:392 



Adjiman family, 1:392 

ADL (Anti-Defamation League). See 
Anti-Defamation League (ADL) 

Adler. See Der Keneder Adler 

Adler, Abraham, 8:504 

Adler, Alexandre, 1:394 

Adler, Alfred, 1:394-395, 5:302, 6:160- 
161 

Adler, Celia, 1:394 

Adler, Chaim, 18:735 

Adler, Charles, 1:395 

Adler, Cyrus, 1:395, 5:172 

American Jewish Committee, 2:54, 

55 

American Jewish Historical 
Society, 2:58, 59 

Dropsie College, 6:25 

Jewish Quarterly Review, 11:313 

Jewish Theological Seminary, 
6:197, 11:328, 329 

Adler, Dankmar, 1:395-396 

Adler, David Baruch, 1:396 

Adler, Elkan Nathan, 1:392, 396 

as bibliophile, 3:684 

Eleazar ben Jacob ha-Bavli, 6:302 

Judeo-Persian manuscripts 
collected by, 11:558 

Adler, Elmer, 1:396 

Adler, Emanuel Philip, 1:396, 11:468 

Adler, Felix, 1:392, 396-397, 407, 
4:122 

Adler, Frances, 1:394 

Adler, Friedrich (designer), 1:397 

Adler, Friedrich (labor leader), 1:397, 
16:340-341, 18:705, 712 

Adler, Georg, 1:397 

Adler, Guido, 1:397-398 

Adler, Harry Clay, 1:398 

Adler, Herbert Marcus, 1:392 

Adler, Hermann (poet), 1:398-399 

Adler, Hermann (rabbi), 1:392, 398, 
11:417 

Adler, Hermann Naphtali. See Adler, 
Hermann (rabbi) 

Adler, Hugo Chaim, 1:399 

Adler, Isaac, 1:392 

Adler, Israel, 1:399 

Adler, Jacob (actor), 1:392-393, 393t 

Adler, Jacob (artist). See Adler, Jankel 

Adler, Jacob (poet), 1:399-400 

Adler, Jankel, 1:400-401, 4:87 

Adler, Joseph, 1:401 

Adler, Jules, 1:401, 3:695 

Adler, Julia, 1:394 

Adler, Julius Ochs, 1:401 

Adler, Larry, 1:401-402 

Adler, Lazarus Levi, 1:402 



Adler, Liebman, 1:402 

Adler, Luther, 1:394 

Adler, Marcus, 1:392 

Adler, Marcus Nathan, 1:392 

Adler, Max, 18:705 

Adler, Max (Philanthropist), 1:402 

Adler, Max (Socialist), 1:402-403, 
18:729 

Adler, Michael, 1:403 

Adler, Mordechai. See Adler, Marcus 

Adler, Moritz, 1:403 

Adler, Morris, 1:403, 12:411 

Adler, Mortimer Jerome, 1:403-404 

Adler, Naphtali. See Adler, Hermann 
(rabbi) 

Adler, Nathan, 4:58 

Adler, Nathan ben Simeon ha-Kohen, 
1:392, 404-405 

Adler, Nathan Marcus, 1:392, 405, 
6:415 

Jews' College, 11:332 

Schiller-Szinessy, Solomon Mayer 
and, 18:134 

Adler, Nettie, 1:392 

Adler, Paul, 1:405 

Adler, Pearl. See Adler, Polly 

Adler, Polly, 1:405-406 

Adler, Rachel, 6:755, 756, 16:111-112 

Adler, Renata, 1:406 

Adler, Richard, 1:406-407 

Adler, Samuel (1809-1891), 1:392, 
407, 15:199 

Adler, Samuel M. (1898-1979), 1:407 

Adler, Sara, 1:393-394 

Adler, Saul Aaron, 1:407-408 

Adler, Selig, 1:408 

Adler, Shalom ben Menahem, 1:408 

Adler, Shulamit. See Aloni, Shulamit 

Adler, Stella, 1:394, 408-409 

Adler, Victor, 1:409, 4:137, 16:340, 
18:705 

Adlerblum, Nima, 1:409 

Adler family (Frankfurt, Germany), 
1:392, 393t 

Adler family (U.S.), 1:392-394 

Adler Planetarium and Astronomical 
Museum, 1:402 

Adler-Rudel, Salomon, 1:409-410 

Adlivankin, Samuil, 1:410 

Adloyada, 1:410, vol. 6: color insert 

Ad Mashber (Halkin), 8:736-737 

Administrative Behavior (Simon), 
18:611 

The Admiral's Log Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 
(Moreel), 14:483 

Admission, 1:410-411, 5:191 

Admon, Yedidyah, 1:411 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



291 



INDEX 



Admon ben Gaddai, 1:412 

Admoni, Vladimir Grigoryevich, 1:412 

Admonition. See Rebuke and reproof 

Admonition and chastisement. See 
Rebuke and reproof 

Admor, 1:412 

Adolphus, Jacob, 1:412 

Adolphus, John, 1:412 

Adolphus, John Leycester, 1:412 

Adolphus, Joy. See Adolphus, Simhah 

Adolphus, Meir. See Adolphus, 
Michael 

Adolphus, Michael, 1:412 

Adolphus, Moses, 1:412 

Adolphus, Simhah, 1:412 

Adolphus family, 1:412 

Adonai, 7:674-675 

Adonai, Adonai, El Rahum 
ve-Hannun, 1:412 

Adoni-Bezek, 1:413, 414 

Adonijah, 1:259, 413, 18:755 

Adonim. See Dunash Ibn Tamim 

Adonim ben Nisan ha-Levi, 1:413 

Adonim ha-Levi. See Dunash ben 
Labrat 

Adoniram, 1:413 

Adonis. See Tammuz (Sumerian- 
Babylonian fertility god) 

Adonis (Sivan), 18:647 

Adoni-Zedek, 1:413-414 

Adon Olam, 1:414, 414-415 

Adoption, 1:415-420, 6:693 

biblical, 1:415-416 

Halakhah, 1:417-418 

Israel, 1:418-419 

Adoraim (ancient Israel), 1:420 

Adoram. See Adoniram 

Adorno, Theodor W., 1:420, 18:739 

Ad quaestiones et obiecta Judaei 

cuiusdam Responsio (Calvin), 4:376- 
377 

Adrakhta, writ of, 6:592-593 

Adrammelech (deity), 1:421, 2:126 

Adrammelech (son of Sennacherib), 
1:421 

Adret, Moses ibn, 1:421 

Adret, Solomon ben Abraham, 1:421- 
423, 8:449 

Aaron ben Joseph ha-Levi and, 
1:215 

Abba Mari ben Moses ben Joseph 
Astruc of Lunel and, 1:230 

allegorical interpretation of 
scripture, 3:645 

amulets, 2:121 

Anatoli, Jacob ben Abba Mari ben 
Samson, 2:132 



codification, 4:774 

mistakes, 14:368-369 

moneylending, 14:439 

Adrian I. See Hadrian I (pope) 

Adrianople (Turkey). See Edirne 
(Turkey) 

Adriel, 1:423 

Adullam (ancient Israel), 1:423-424 

Adullam Region (ancient Israel), 1:424 

Adultery, 1:424-427 

abortion, 1:272 

bigamy and polygamy, 3:691-694 

bitter water ordeal, 11:374 

Joseph and Potiphar's wife, 
11:407, 411, 413 

ordeal of jealousy, 15:462-463 

as sexual offense, 18:329 

Talmud, 4:582 

water of bitterness, 15:462 

Adult Jewish Education (AJE), 4:15 

Advances in Petrography in Russia. See 
Uspekhi petrografii v Rossii 
(Loewinson-Lessing) 

Adventures of an Economist 
(Modigliani), 14:411 

The Adventures of Augie March 
(Bellow), 3:300, 301 

The Adventures of Mr. Ionel Lacusta 
Termidor. See Aventurile domnului 
Ionel Lacusta Termidor 

Adverbs in Hebrew, 8:585-586 

Adversus Judaeorum inveteratum 

duritiam (Peter of Cluny), 16:15-16 

Advertising, 1:427-429, 3:471, 4:315, 
5:329, 12:496 

Advertising, misrepresentation, 5:188 

Aegidius da Viterbo. See Egidio Da 
Viterbo 

Aelana. See Akaba (Jordan) 

Aelfric of Eynsham, 3:611 

Aelia Capitolina, 1:429, 429, 11:152 

Aelian, 1:429 

Aeltestenrat, Kovno, 6:358-359 

Der aelteste Prophetismus (Sellin), 
18:272 

Aeon (Mombert), 14:430 

Aerojet Engineering Corporation, 
11:812 

Aeronautics, 1:429-430 

Brodetsky, Selig, 4:196 

Hoffman, Jeffrey, 9:308 

Karman, Theodore Von, 1 1:81 1 — 
812 

Lees, Lester, 12:600 

Lilienthal, Otto, 13:17 

Rom, Yosef, 17:373 

Rumpler. Eduard, 17:529 



Schwarz, David, 18:189 

Silverstein, Abe, 18:588 

Aeronomy, 11:776 

Aescoly, Aaron Ze'ev, 1:430-431 

Aesopian fables, 6:666, 667, 669 

Afam. See Apam 

Afarayim. See Hapharaim (Ancient 
Israel) 

Afarsemon. See Balsam 

Afendopolo, Caleb ben Elijah, 1:431 

Afer, Constantinus. See Africanus 

Affirmative action and quotas, 3:737 

Affonso, 1:431-432 

Affonso Henriques, King of Portugal, 
1:431 

Affonso II, King of Portugal, 1:431 

Affonso III, King of Portugal, 1:431 

Affonso IV, King of Portugal, 1:431 

Affonso V, King of Portugal, 1:431- 
432 

Afforestation, 6:452 

Afghanistan, 1:432, 432-433 

Jewish quarters, 11:312 

Judeo-Persian language in, 11:548 

Afia, Aaron, 1:433 

Afike Jehuda, 1:433 

Afikim (Israel), 1:433-434 

Afikoman, 1:434 

Aflalo, Moses, 14:499 

AFL-CIO. See American Federation of 
Labor 

Afonso. See Affonso 

Afriat, Judah, 15:391 

Africa, 1:434-437, 435 

African Jewish Congress, 1:440- 
441 

community organization and 
structures, 5:108, U5t, H9t 

foreign policy and relations with 

Israel (state), 10:257-258, 
259, 260, 262, 263, 264, 
265 

technical and economic 
assistance, 10:221, 266 

House of Israel community, 
9:569-570 

Jewish settlement, 1:434-437 

languages, biblical translations, 
3:601-602, 637 

Lemba, 12:636-637 

See also North Africa; South Africa 

African Americans, antisemitism and, 
2:231-232, 238 

African Jewish Congress (AJC), 1:440- 
441 

Africanus, 6:159 

Afro. See Ephron (town, Israel) 



292 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Afro-Asian Institute, 18:709 

Aftalion, Albert, 1:441 

After All is Said and Done. See Nokh 
Alemen 

After Auschwitz (Rubenstein), 9:392- 
393, 17:271-272, 511 

After Emancipation (Ellenson), 6:360 

Afterlife, 1:441-442 

beatitude, 3:237-240 

body and soul, concept of, 4:31 

embalming, 6:390 

existence, 14:34 

Mishnah, 14:323 

Netherworld, 15:110-112 

philosophy of, 13:447-448 

See also Eschatology; Olam ha-ba 

After the Fall (Miller), 14:252 

After the Tradition: Essays on Modern 
Jewish Writing (Alter), 2:18 

Afulah (Israel), 1:442-443 

Aga, Benjamin, 1:443 

Aga, Samuel ben Abraham, 1:443 

Die Agadah der Palaestinensischen 
Amoraeer (Bacher), 1:460 

Die Agadah der Tannaiten (Bacher), 
1:460 

Agadati, Baruch, 1:443-444 

Agadir (Morocco), 1:444 

Aga family, 1:443 

Agag, 1:444-445, 2:29, 30, 31 

Agai, Adolf, 1:445 

Against Appion (Josephus), 11:440 

Against the Apocalypse: Responses to 
Catastrophe in Modern Jewish 
Culture (Roskies), 9:415 

Agam, Yaacov, 1:445 

Agar, Emile. See Gary, Romain 

Agatharchides of Cnidus, 1:445-446 

Agatstein, Mieczyslaw. See Jastrun, 
Mieczyslaw 

Agbara v. Agbara, 5:135-136 

Agde (France), 1:446 

Age and the aged, 1:446-449, 5:568- 
570, 12:417 

Agen (France), 1:449 

Agency, 1:449-454, 15:425 

Agenda 21 (sustainable development 
plan), 6:453 

The Age of Capital (Howbsbawm), 
9:299 

The Age of Empire (Howbsbawm), 
9:299 

The Age of Extremes (Howbsbawm), 
9:299 

The Age of Revolution (Howbsbawm), 
9:299 

Age of the earth, 15:498 



Age of the Ghetto (Italy), 10:800-801 

Aggadah (Alexander Suslin ha-Kohen 
of Frankfurt), 1:630 

Aggadah or Haggadah, 1:454-464 

Aaron, 1:210 

Abba Bar Kahana, 1:226 

Abiathar, 1:254-255 

Abigail, 1:256 

Abilmelech, 1:257-258 

Abishag the Shunammite, 1:259 

Abishai, 1:260 

Abner, 1:264 

Aboab, Isaac I, 1:266 

Abraham, 1:283-284 

Abraham, Testament of, 1:291 

Abraham's bosom, 1:317 

Absalom, 1:331 

academies, 1:348 

Achan, 1:354 

Adam, 1:372-373, 374-375 

Adonijah, 1:413 

Adret, Solomon ben Abraham, 
1:423 

Agag, 1:445 

Aggadat Bereshit, 1:464 

Ahab, 1:524 

Ahasuerus, 1:538, 14:479 

Ahimelech the Hittite, 1:545 

Ahithophel the Gilonite, 1:545 

'Alef, 1:607-608 

Alexander the Great, 1:626-627 

allegorical interpretation of 
scripture in, 3:643-644 

Amalekites, 2:30-31 

Amasa, 2:33 

Amaziah, 2:36 

Ammonites, 2:86 

Amon, 2:88 

amoraim, 2:94 

Amram, 2:103 

anthropomorphism, 2:190 

Antoninus Pius, 2:248-249 

Apocalypse of Baruch, 3:184-185 

Ark of the Covenant, 2:468-469 

Asa, 2:540-541 

Ashburnham Pentateuch, 1:463 

Asher, 2:560 

Balaam, 3:80 

Baruch, 3:182 

Bath-Sheba, 3:212 

Belshazzar, 3:306 

Benjamin, tribe of, 3:356 

Bethsaida (Israel), 3:536 

Bilhah in, 3:698 

Bithiah in, 3:729 



Boaz, 4:22-23 

Cain, 4:340 

Caleb, Calebites, 4:354 

calligraphy, modern Hebrew, 
4:366-367 

cherub, cherubim, 4:600-601 

Chilion, 13:361-362 

Christian illustrated manuscripts, 
1:463 

Church Fathers, 4:721 

commentaries, 11:69 

copper serpent, 5:214-215 

David, 5:451-453 

day and night, 5:486-487 

Deborah, 5:518-519 

Delilah, 5:539 

Dinah, 5:669 

doctrines, 1:458-459 

Doeg, 5:730 

Edom, 6:156-157 

eggs, 6:219-620 

Eglon (King), 6:222 

Egyptians, 16:28-29 

Eldad and Medad, 6:293 

Eleazar ben Azariah, 6:299-300, 
300-301 

Eleazar ben Harsom, 6:301-302 

Eleazar ben Pedat, 6:306-307 

Eleazar ben Simeon, 6:308 

Eleazar ben Yose I, 6:308 

Eleazar ben Zadok, 6:309 

Eleazar ha-Kappar, 6:309 

Eleazar Hisma, 6:309-310 

Eleazar of Modi'in, 6:310 

Eli, 6:317 

Eliakim Goetz ben Meir, 6:318 

Eli and Hannah, 6:317 

Eliezer, 6:322 

Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, 6:322-325 

Elihu, 6:331 

Elijah, 6:333-334 

Eliphaz, 6:350 

Elisha, 6:351 

Elkanah, 6:357 

Enoch, 6:442 

Enosh, 6:445 

Ephraim, 6:456, 456-457 

Esau, 6:487-488 

Esther, 6:516, 14:479 

Esther Rabbah, 6:519-520 

Eve, 6:573 

evolution in, 6:587 

Ezekiel, 6:644-645 

Ezra, 6:653 

fire, 7:43-44 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



293 



INDEX 



Aggadah or Haggadah, continued 

the Flood, 7:83 

folkloristic, 1:455-456 

Gabriel, 14:168 

Gad, 7:330 

Garden of Eden, 7:388-389 

Gehazi, 7:411-412 

Gehenna, 15:111-112 

geography, 7:489-490 

Gibeonites, 7:585 

Gideon, 7:587-588 

God, 7:660-661 

golden calf, 7:700-701 

Goliath, 7:738 

Hadrian, 8:194 

Hagar, 8:206 

Ham, 8:290 

Haman, 8:294 

Hananiah son of Azzur, 8:317 

Hanina bar Hama, 8:321-322 

Hanina ben Dosa, 8:323 

Hannah and birth of Samuel, 
8:324-325 

heart references, 8:509-510 

Hebrew manuscripts, 13:489 

Helbo, 8:780 

Hezekiah, 9:89 

historical, 1:457-458 

Hosea, Book of, 9:558 

Huldah, 9:581 

Hur, 9:623 

Hushai the Archite, 9:640 

hymns, 1:385 

intention of act, 11:58-59 

Isaac, 10:33 

Isaiah, Book of, 10:73 

Ishmael (son of Abraham), 10:81 
82 

Islamic, 1:463 

Israel, Kingdom of, 10:741 

Issachar, 10:767 

Ithamar, 10:817 

Jacob, 11:20-22, 27 

Jair, 11:73 

Japeth, 11:86 

Jehoiachin, 11:107 

Jehoiada, 11:108 

Jehoiakim, 11:109 

Jehoram (King of Israel), 11:110 

Jephthah, 11:123 

Jeremiah, 11:133 

Jeroboam I, 11:140-141 

Jerusalem, 11:211-213, 226 

Jesse, 11:243 

Jethro, 11:252 



Jezebel in, 11:334 

Joab, 11:339 

Job, 11:356-357 

Jochebed, 11:360-361 

Jonah, Book of, 11:390 

Jonathan (son of Saul), 11:395— 
396 

Joseph, 11:411-412 

Joseph ben Judah Engel, 6:409 

Josephus' Jewish Antiquities and, 
11:438 

Joshua, 11:443 

Joshua ben Levi, 11:453-454 

Josiah, 11:459 

Jotham, 11:466 

Jubilees, Book of, 11:473 

Judah, 11:477-478 

Judah Loew ben Bezalel, influence 
of, 11:507 

Kabbalah, influence on, 11:669— 
671 

kabbalists' interpretations of, 
11:669-670 

Kamza and Bar Kamza, 11:758 

Kohath and Kohathites, 12:257 

Korah, 12:298-299 

Krochmal, Nachman, 12:368 

Laban, 12:406-407 

Lamech, 12:445 

Leah, 12:567 

leprosy, 12:653 

Levi, 12:683-684 

Lot, 13:216 

Mahlon, 13:361-362 

Malachi, Book of, 13:423 

Manasseh (King), 13:453 

Manasseh (tribe), 13:452 

manna, 13:478-479 

methods, 1:456-457 

Micaiah (son of Imlah), 14:165 

Michael (angel), 14:168 

Michah (prophet and book), 
14:163 

Michal, 14:172 

Midian, Midianites, 14:181-182 

Miriam, 14:311-312 

Mishnah, 14:322-323 

moon, 14:467-468 

Mordecai (5th c. b.c.e.)> 14:479 

Moses, 14:534, 538 

Mount Sinai, 18:627-629 

mushrooms, 14:636 

Naaman, 14:713-714 

Nabal, 14:715-716 

Naboth, 14:720 

Nadab and Abihu, 14:721-722 



Naomi, 14:773 

Nashon, 14:757 

Nebuchadnezzar, 15:49-50 

Nebuzaradan, 15:52 

Nedarim, 15:53-54 

Nehemiah (5th c. B.C.E.), 15:61 

Netherworld, 15:111-112 

niddah, 15:257 

Nimrod, 15:269 

Nineveh, 15:272 

Noah, 15:288 

Og, 15:391-392 

Orpah, 15:482 

Othniel, 15:515 

Passover, Dayyeinu, 5:496 

patriarchs and matriarchs, 15:691 

Peninnah, 15:726 

Perez, 15:769 

Philistines, 16:55 

Phinehas, 16:114-115, 115 

Phinehas ben Hama ha-Kohen, 
16:116 

pigs, 16:150-151 

Pirkei de Rabbi Eliezer, 16:182-183 

Pollegar, Isaac ben Joseph ibn, 
16:359 

Potiphar, 16:419-420 

pre-Middle Ages, 13:88-89, 91-93 

Queen of Sheba, 16:765 

Rabbah bar bar Hana, 17:8 

Rachel, 17:48 

Rahab, 17:66-67 

Rea Sea, 17:160-161 

Rebekah, 17:137-138 

Rehoboam, 17:192 

religious impact of Bible and, 
3:661, 662 

Reuben, 17:246 

rod of Aaron, 17:365 

rod of Moses, 17:366 

Ruth, Book of, 17:595 

Samael, 17:715 

Samson, 17:750 

Samuel, 17:755-756 

Sarah, 18:46-47 

Saul, 18:80-81 

Sennacherib, 18:290 

Seth, 18:319 

Sheba ben Bichri, 18:428 

Shem, 18:453 

Shimei, 18:480 

Sihon, 15:391-392 

Simeon, 18:592 

Simeon ben Gamaliel II, 18:596 

Simeon ben Jehozadak, 18:597 



294 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Simeon ha-Timni, 18:601 

Sodom and Gomorrah, 18:738- 
739 

Solomon, 18:759-760 

sources of, 1:454-455 

structure and style, 1:457 

studies and scholarship, 1:460-463 

sun, 19:313-314 

synagogues, 19:364 

Tabernacle, 19:423-424 

Tablets of the Law, 19:425 

Tamar, 19:493-494 

Terah, 19:645-646 

32 rules, 3:129 

Thummim, 20:423 

Titus, Flavius Vespasianus, 19:744 

Tower of Babel, 3:20-21 

Tubal-Cain, 20:166 

twelve tribes, 20:140 

Uriah, 20:421 

Urim, 20:423 

Vashti, 20:479 

Venice edition, 8:214-215 

in vernacular, Mayse-Bukh, 
13:702-703 

wells, 21:7 

wilderness, 21:61 

witch of En-Dor, 6:405 

women in, 1:459-460 

Zebulon, 10:767 

Zechariah, 21:481, 482, 485-486 

Zedekiah, 21:489 

Zelophehad, 21:502 

Zerah the Cushite, 21:513 

Zerubbabel, 21:517 

Zimri, 21:536 

Zipporah, 21:639 

See also Midrash 

Aggadat Arba Kosot (Pappenheim), 
8:687, 15:618 

Aggadat Aseret Harugei Malkhut, 7:10 

Aggadat Bereshit, 1:464 

Aggadat Desheh (song), 6:263 

Aggadat Eikhah. See Lamentations 
Kabbah 

Aggadat Proverbs. See Midrash Proverbs 

Aggadat Samuel. See Midrash Samuel 

Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, 14:187 

Aggadat Tehillim. See Midrash 
Tehillim 

Aggadic Midrash. See Midrash 
Aggadah 

Aggav karka, 1:362 

Aggide. See Akkad (Sumer) 

Aggudath Harabbonim. See Union of 
Orthodox Rabbis of the United 
States and Canada 



Aghlabids, 11:726-727 

Aghlabids dynasty, 1:464-465 

Aghmati, Zechariah ben Judah, 1:465 

Agmon, Nathan, 1:465, 8:716, 11:441 

Agmon, Shmuel, 1:465 

Agnes Jordan (Hirschfeld), 9:137 

Agnon, Shmuel Yosef, 1:465-469, 
8:696-697, 698-699, 11:217 

Agnon s Alef Bet. See Sefer ha-Otiyyot 

Agobard, 1:469, 2:124, 3:121, 13:296 

Agorah series of coins, 5:55 

Agoranomos, 1:469-470 

Agram. See Zagreb (Croatia) 

Agramunt (Spain), 1:470 

Agranat, Shimon, 1:470 

Agranat Commission, 6:289 

Agranium. See Hagronia 
(Mesopotamia) 

Agrarian League, 1:470 

Agrat Bat Mahalath, 1:470-471, 5:575 

Agrest, Diana, 1:471 

Agricultural arendas, 2:422-423 

Agricultural festivals, 5:167 

Agricultural land-management 

methods and implements in ancient 
Erez Israel, 1:471-486 

agronomy, 6:290 

field boundaries, 1:474-476 

hoeing, weeding, harvesting, 
1:484-485 

implements, installations, 1:482- 
483 

irrigation, 1:481-482 

land-management, 1:472-474 

manuring procedures, 1:479-480 

plowing, 1:483-484 

Raab, Judah, 17:5-6 

shape and size, 1:476-479 

Solomon, 18:757 

sowing, planting, 1:484 

terracing, 1:474 

topographical influence, 1:472 

winnowing, 1:485-486 

Agriculture, 1:486-502 

Abel, 1:245 

Agrarian League, Germany, 1:470 

agronomy 

Elazari-Volcani, Yizhak, 6:290 

Rosen, Joseph A., 17:428 

American-Jewish Joint 

Agricultural Corporation, 2:60 

Am Olam, 2:87-88 

Argentina, 6:448-449 

Babylon, 1:493-494 

Birobidzhan, 3:717-720 

in Bolivia, 4:48 



Bondi, Aron, 4:57 

Brazil, 4:145-146 

Broward County, FL, 4:212-213 

Brown, Bejamin, 4:214 

Brutzkus, Boris Dov, 4:228 

Canada, 1:500, 4:399, 407 

citriculture, 4:737-738 

commandments concerning, 5:82t 

Dagon, god of, 5:378 

drought, 6:707-708 

economic history, 6:96-97, 100- 
101, 102, 132-133 

economic history, and 

employment in, 6:132-134 

Erez Israel, 1:471-486 

Europe 

Jewish Colonization 
Association, 11:286 

modern, 1:497-499 

fig cultivation, 7:18 

five species, 7:66 

flax, 7:69-70 

flowers, 7:89-91 

Halperin, Haim, 8:283 

Israel, 1:486-490, 6:543 

aliyah, First, 10:357-358, 
480-482 

aliyah, Fourth, 10:199 

aliyah, Second, 10:358-359 

aliyah and absorption of 
immigrants, 10:342, 527- 
529, 528/- 

animal distribution and, 
10:142-143 

Arab, 10:713 

Arab labor, 10:195 

Arab population, 10:485-486 

Baron de Rothschild 
settlements, 11:9 

citrus culture, 6:750 

continuous from ancient 
times in Peki'in, 15:716- 

717 

cooperatives, 5:209-210 

Demalach, Yoel, 5:548 

development projects in 
foreign nations, 10:267 

education, 10:668-669 

employment trends, 10:557- 
558 

Erfat, Yaacov, 6:216 

Farmers' Federation of Israel, 
6:718 

Israel Prize, 10:760 

Jewish Agency, 11:259 

Lavi, Shelomo, 12:531 

Levitt, Esther, 12:743 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



295 



INDEX 



Agriculture, continued 

performance, 10:530-531 

population of Sharon region, 
10:378 

rural planning, 10:368-369 

schools, 13:788 

self-sufficiency, 10:222 

settlement beyond Green 
Line, 10:361-366 

Joseph's agrarian measures in 
Egypt, 11:409, 410 

Lachish region, 12:422-423 

Latin America, 1:500-501 

lease and hire, 12:572 

leket, shikhhah, and pe'ah, 
12:631-632 

Middle Ages, 1:494-497 

mixed species, 14:385-387 

Moab, 14:400 

modern period, 12:427 

movements, Esra, 6:509 

nomadism/seminomadism and, 
15:294, 295 

olive cultivation, 15:406-407 

Oppenheimer, Hillel, 15:448 

organizations, Esra, 6:509 

ORT, 15:488-492 

Ottoman period, 10:174, 183 

Palestine, 10:201, 204, 206 

Arab, 10:710-711 

Byzantine-Muslim period, 
1:492-493 

downturn, 10:502-503 

economic affairs, 10:506-511 

employment in, 10:495-496 

Hasmonean period, 1:490 

Histadrut and, 10:595 

land purchases by Jews, 
10:488 

leaders, 13:765 

Mishnaic and Talmudic 
period, 1:490-492 

mixed farming strategy, 

10:491-942, 508-509, 510- 
511 

Reichert, Israel, 17:199-200 

restructuring of, 10:496 

Second Temple period, 1:490 

post World War II, 10:506- 
507 

population, farm output and land 
possession, 10:483f 

Ra-anannah, 17:6 

research, 6:574 

Romania, 4:177-178 

Russia, 4:177-178 

schools 

Beit Jamal, 3:272 



Mikveh Israel, 14:222 

Second Aliyah, 10:483-485 

Smilansky, Moshe, 18:687 

U.S., 1:499-500 

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr., 
14:489 

settlement of Jews, 11:262 

USSR regime projects, 17:544-545 

water supply constraints, 10:531— 

532 

See also Agricultural land- 
management methods and 
implements in ancient Erez 
Israel; Botany; Moshavim 

Agrigento (Italy), 1:502 

Agrippa, Caius Julius, 1:503-504 

Agrippa, Marcus Julius. See Agrippa II 

Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius, 1:504 

Agrippa I, 1:502-503, 502f-503f, 9:199 

Caligula, Caius Caesar Augustus, 
4:363 

Capito, Marcus Herennius, 4:451 

Drusilla (daughter), 6:28 

Jonathan ben Anan, 11:396 

Josephus' Jewish Antiquities on, 
11:440 

Julius Archelaus and, 11:574 

Justus of Tiberias and, 11:581-582 

Agrippa II, 1:503 

Anan, son of Anan, 2:126 

Bethsaida (Israel), 3:536 

Drusilla (wife), 6:28, 394 

Eleazar ben Ananias, 6:299 

Juvenal on, 11:582 

Agrippias. See Anthedon (Hellenistic 
city) 

Agrippina (ancient Israel), 1:504 

Agrob. See Trachonitis (Palestine) 

Agro-Joint. See American Jewish Joint 
Agricultural Corporation 

Agron (Saadia Gaon), 8:653, 13:31-32 

Agron, Gershon, 1:504 

Agronim, 12:672-673 

Agronsky, Gershon. See Agron, 
Gershon 

Agudat ha-Sozyalistim ha-Ivrim, 
1:504-505, 18:704 

Agudath Harabbonim. See Union of 
Orthodox Rabbis of the United 
States and Canada 

Agudath Israel of America, 18:181 

Agudat Israel, 1:505-508 

Bar-Ilan University, 3:153 
Birnbaum, Nathan, 3:715 
Blau, Amram, 3:742 
Blau, Moshe, 3:744 
Bloch, Joseph Leib, 3:763 



Dubin, Mordecai, 6:31 

education, Jewish, 6:184 

Halevy, Isaac, 8:270 

Latvia, 12:522 

Levin, Yizhak Meir, 12:714 

Lieben, Salomon, 12:803 

Poland 

Kirschbraun, Elijah, 12:188 

Schwab, Hermann, 18:179 

Silver, Eliezer, 18:585 

U.S. branch, 18:585 

zionism and, 14:15 

See also Po'alei Agudat Israel 

Aguddat Ahim, 1:508 

Aguddat ha-Koremim, 8:470 

Aguddat ha-Sozyalistim ha-Ivrim. See 
Agudat ha-SoZyalistim ha-Ivrim 

Aguilar, Diego D', 1:508-509 

Aguilar, Emanuel Abraham, 1:509 

Aguilar, Grace, 1:509 

Aguilar, Moses Raphael D', 1:509-510 

Aguilar de Campoo (Spain), 1:509- 
510 

Aguilar Samuda, Joseph d'. See 
Samuda, Joseph d'Aguilar 

Aguinis, Marcos, 1:510, 16:350 

A Gumsucker on the Tramp 
(Spielvogel), 19:109 

Agunah, 1:510-520 

annullment issues, 1:514-517 

avoidance of precautions, 1:512- 
513 

Benjamin Ze'ev Ben Mattathias of 
Arta, 3::364 

Chmielnicki massacres, 9:72 

civil marriage, 4:746-748 

concubine, 5:135 

definition, 1:510-511 

divorce, 5:711-719 

Epstein, Louis M., 6:475 

feminism and, 6:753 

husband death, proof of, 1:511— 
512 

Israel, 1:513, 517-520 

Judah ben Bava, 11:484 

Kahana, Solomon David, 11:712 

ketubbah, 12:97 

Sasson, Aaron ben Joseph, 18:67- 
68 

Slonik, Benjamin Aaron ben 
Abraham, 18:675 

takkanot, 19:440, 443-444, 450- 

452 

Tevul Yom, 19:658 
witnesses, 21:120, 124 

Agunot, 4:656, 5:173, 18:169, 21:206- 

207 



296 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Agur (biblical figure). See Solomon 
(biblical figure) 

Agur (Landau), 8:444 

Agur (son of Jakeh), 1:521 

Agursky, Mikhail, 1:520 

Agursky, Samuel, 1:520-521 

Agus, Irving Abraham, 1:521 

Agus, Jacob B., 1:521-522 

Aha (Babylonian scholar). See Ahai 
(Babylonian scholar) 

Aha (Palestinian amora), 1:522 

Ahab (King of Israel), 1:522-525, 523, 
9:176 

Elijah, 6:331-332, 335-336 

Jezebel and, 11:333-334 

at Jezreel, 11:334 

Moab, 14:402 

Ahab (son of Kolaiah), 1:525 

Aha bar Hanina, 1:525 

Aha bar Rav, 1:525 

Aha ben Jacob, 1:525 

Ahad ha-Am, 1:525-529, 3:561-562, 
8:692-693, 10:682, 683 

biblical exegesis and study, 3:647 

on blood libel, 3:778 

Brenner, Joseph Hayyim, 4:160 

Dubnow, Simon, 6:34 

Ehrenpreis, Marcus, 6:240 

encyclopedias, 6:400 

Ha-Shiloah, 8:381 

Hebrew vocabulary, 8:675 

Judaism, on essence of, 11:512 

Minsk Conference, 14:297 

Montefiore, Claude Joseph 
Goldsmid, 14:456 

Moses, 14:537 

Nordau, Max, 15:298 

Odessa Committee, 15:382 

soul, immortality of, 19:38 

translations of writings of, 18:613- 
614 

Ahai (Babylonian scholar), 1:529 

Ahai (Palestinian amora). See Aha 
(Palestinian amora) 

Ahai ben Josiah, 1:529 

Ahai of Shabha. See Aha of Shabha 

• • • • 

Ahalan Haver (Ziblin), 18:206 

Ahamant. See Rabbath-Ammon 
(Ancient Israel) 

Aha of Shabha, 1:529-531 

Aharei ha-Hagim (Kenaz), 12:75 

'Aharit ha-yamim. See Eschatology 

Aharon, Ezra, 1:531 

Aharoni. See Mazeh, Jacob 

Aharoni, Israel, 1:531 

Aharoni, Yohanan, 1:531-532, 2:329, 
330, 371, 11:523, 524 



Aharonim, 1:532-537 

eighteenth century, 1:534-535 

informers, 9:785 

mishpat Ivri, 14:340 

nineteenth century, 1:535-536 

seventeenth century, 1:532-534 

sixteenth century, 1:532 

Aharonov, Yakir, 1:537 

Aharonovitch, Yosef, 1:537-538, 4:159 

Aharonovitz, Joseph. See 
Aharonovitch, Yosef 

Aharonowitz, Isaac. See Arnon, Isaac 

Aharonowitz, Zalman. See Aran, 
Zalman 

Ahasuerus, 1:538, 18:215, 216, 333 

Biztha, 3:730 

Mordecai, 14:478-479 

See also Wandering Jew 

Ahasuerus-Xerxes, 1:538, 18:216 

Ahasver. See Wandering Jew 

Ahavah ba-Ta'anugim (Moses), 
14:552-553 

Ahavah Rabbah, 1:538-539 

Ahavah Zarah (Barash), 3:136 

Ahav at David (Fleckeles), 7:71 

Ahavat David (Franco-Mendes), 6:399 

Ahavat Olam, 1:538-539 

Ahavat Ziyyon (Mapu), 18:202 

Ahaz, 1:539, 2:88, 9:179-180 

Edom, 6:155 

eschatology, 6:491 

Ahaziah, 1:539-540 

Ahaziah (son of Ahab, king of Israel), 
1:539, 9:177 

Ahaziah (son of Jehoram, king of 
Judah), 1:539-540 

Ahdut ha-Avodah (periodical), 1:540, 
8:382, 18:425 

Ahdut ha-Avodah ha-Historit 
(Shapiro), 1:540 

Ahdut ha-Avodah-Po'alei Zion, 8:341 

Ahdut ha-Avodah-Po'alei Zion, 1:540- 
541 

A heber nyelv elemi tankonyve 
(Ballagi), 3:91 

Ahenakew, David, 18:65 

Aher. See Elisha ben Avuyah 

Aherim, 1:541 

Ahhad ha-Am, 8:726-727 

Ahijah, 1:541 

Ahijah the Shilonite, 1:542, 18:758 

Ahikam, 1:542, 6:287, 18:398 

Ahikar, 1:542, 543 

Ahikar, Book of, 1:542-543, 542t 

Ahilot, 15:394 

Ahim (Barash), 3:136 



Ahimaaz (father-in-law of Saul), 1:543 

Ahimaaz (son of Zadok), 1:543 

Ahimaaz (son-in-law of Solomon), 
1:543 

Ahimaaz, 15:607 

Ahimaaz, Chronicle of, 5:691 

Ahimaaz ben Paltiel, 1:543-544, 543 t, 
3:706, 8:653 

Ahimaaz chronicle. See Megillat 
Yuhasin 

• 

Ahiman, 1:544 

Ahimeir, Abba, 1:544 

Ahimelech (son of Abiathar), 1:545 

Ahimelech (son of Ahitub), 1:544 

Ahimelech the Hittite, 1:545 

Ahio, 1:258, 259 

Ahisefer publishing house, 18:374 

Ahithophel the Gilonite, 1:545 

Ahitub, 1:545-546 

Ahitub ben Isaac, 1:546 

Ahitub ben Isaac, 15:581 

Ahituv ve-Zalmon (Mattathias), 
13:685-686 

Ahlab (Canaan), 1:546 

Ahl al-Kitab, 1:546 

'Ahlamah, 16:477 

Ahlem (Germany), 1:547 

Ahlwardt, Hermann, 1:547 

Ahmad Khan, Sayyid, Sir, 10:94 

Ahmadnagar (India), 1:547 

AHO (Association of Holocaust 
Organizations). See Association of 
Holocaust Organizations (AHO) 

Ahonai ben Kahana ben Huna. See 
Hanina ben Kahana ben Huna 

• 

Ahot Ketannah (Abraham ben Isaac), 
1:300, 547-548 

Ahrne, Mariane, 18:93 

Ahrweiler (Germany), 1:548 

Ahwaz (Persia), 1:548 

Ai (ancient Israel), 1:548-549 

Aiath. See Ai (Ancient Israel) 

Aibu (3rd-4th c), 1:549 

Aibu (father of Rav), 1:549 

Aibu (grandson of Rav), 1:549 

Aibu (son of Rav), 1:549 

Aichinger, Use, 1:549 

AIDS/HIV, 15:227-228 

Alef, Beit, Gimmel, Dalet. See 
Druyanow, Alter 

Aijah. See Ai (Ancient Israel) 

Aijalon (ancient Israel), 1:549-550 

Aijalon (territory of Zebulun), 1:550 

Aiken, Henry David, 1:550 

Aikhenvald Yuli Isayevich, 1:550 

AIKO, 19:649-650 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



297 



INDEX 



Aila. See Elath (Israel) 

Aimee, Anouk, 1:550 

Ain. See En-Rimmon (ancient Israel) 

Ainsworth, Henry, 1:550-551 

AIPAC (American Israel Public Affairs 
Committee). See American Israel 
Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) 

Airborne Warning and Control 
System (AWACS) aircraft, 2:52 

Aircraft, 5:439-440 

Airplane hijackings, 6:282-283, 447- 
448 

AIS. See Association for Jewish Studies 

Aish HaTorah, 1:551, 3:680 

Aiskowitz, Goodman. See Ace, 
Goodman 

AiT'ien, 1:551-552, 11:726 

Aix-en-Provence (France), 1:552 

Aix-la-Chapelle. See Aachen 
(Germany) 

Aizenberg, Nina, 1:553 

Aizman, David Yakolevich, 1:553 

AJA (American Jewish Archives). See 
American Jewish Archives (AJA) 

AJA (Anglo-Jewish Association). See 
Anglo-Jewish Association (AJA) 

AJC (African Jewish Congress), 1:440- 
441 

AJC (American Jewish Committee). 
See American Jewish Committee 
(AJC) 

AJCongress (American Jewish 
Congress). See American Jewish 
Congress (AJCongress) 

AJOP (Association for Jewish 
Outreach Professionals and 
Programs), 3:7 

AJPC (American Jewish Periodical 
Center). See American Jewish 
Periodical Center (AJPC) 

Ajzersztejn, Rivka. See Robin, Regine 

Akaba (Jordan), 1:553, 6:287 

Akademie Fuer Die Wissenschaft Des 
Judentums, 1:554 

Akasi, Jacob. See Abbasi, Jacob ben 
Moses ibn 

Akasi, Jacob ben Moses ibn. See 
Abbasi, Jacob ben Moses ibn 

Akavya, Avraham Aryeh Leib, 1:554 

Akavyah ben Mahalalel, 1:554, 5:760- 
761, 6:215 

Akbara (Galilee). See Akhbarei 
(Galilee) 

Akbar Abu al-Fath Jalal al-Din 
Muhammad. See Akbar the Great 

Akbar the Great, 1:554-555 

Akbon, 3:16 

Akdamut Millin (Meir ben Isaac 
Shli'ah Zibbur), 1:555, 13:784 



Akedah, 1:555-560 

Akedah illustration (Prais), vol. 2: 
color insert 

Akedat Yizhak (Arama), 2:531 

Akerlof, George A., 1:560 

A Khasene on Klezmer (Shalom 
Aleichem), 18:384 

Akhbarei (Galilee), 1:560-561 

Akhbar Marcus ben Samuel. See 
Meisel Mordecai ben Samuel 

Akhbar Marx ben Samuel. See Meisel 
Mordecai ben Samuel 

Akhbar Mordecai ben Samuel. See 
Meisel Mordecai ben Samuel 

akhchisarai (Ukraine), 3:72 

Akhenaten. See Akhenaton 

Akhenaton, 1:561, 2:41, 6:284 

Akhen Haz-Am (Bialik), 3:562 

Akhetaton (Egypt). See El-Amarna 
(Egypt) 

Akhshaf. See Achshaph (ancient Israel) 

Akhshav u-ve-Yamim Aherim 
(Amchai), 2:71 

Akhzar mi-Kol ha-Melekh (Aloni), 
1:687 

Akhzar mi-kol ha-Melekh (Shamir), 
8:720 

Akiba. See Ha-No'ar Ha-Ivri-Akiba 

Akirov, Alfred, 1:561-562 

Akiva, 1:562-563 

Bible text treated as binding 
authority by, 3:584-585 

biblical exegesis and study, 3:641 

Dosa ben Harkinas, 5:760-761 

Eduyyot, 6:215 

Eleazar ben Shammua, 6:307 

hermaneutics, 9:28 

Johanan ben Torta and, 11:373 

Johanan ha-Sandelar and, 11:377 

Joshua ben Hananiah, 11:450, 451 

Joshua ha-Garsi, 11:455 

Lag ba-Omer and, 12:436, 15:421 

OtiyyotDe R. Akiva, 14:188 

Pappus ben Judah, 15:619 

Simeon ha-Timni, 18:602 

Akiva Baer ben Joseph, 1:563 

Akiva ben Jacob Frankfurter, 7:76 

Akiva ben Joseph. See Akiva 

Akiva ben Menahem ha-Kohen of 
Ofen, 1:563-564 

Akka, 3:23, 6:535 

Akkad (Sumer), 1:564, 564 

Akkadian language, 1:564-569, 565t, 
3:216, 8:621, 622, 624, 647 

El-Amarna letters, 6:284-285 

Epic of Atrahasis, 7:81 

Mesopotamia, 14:87 



in Mishnaic Hebrew, 8:647 

Semitic languages and, 18:282 

Akkerman. See Belgorod-Dnestrovski 
(Ukraine) 

Akkerman (Ukraine). See Belgorod- 
Dnestrovski 

Akko. See Acre (Israel) 

Akkum, 1:569 

Die Akkumulation des Kapitals 
(Luxemburg), 13:277 

Akkush. See Achish 

Aklar Mordecai ben Raphael, 1:569, 
11:557 

Aknin, Joseph ben Judah ben Jacob 
ibn, 1:569-570, 3:645, 6:173, 
11:535-536 

Akra. See The Acra 

Akra (Iraq), 1:570-571, 3:138 

Akrish, Isaac ben Abraham, 1:571 

Akron (OH), 1:571 

Aksai, Jacob ben Moses ibn. See 
Abbasi, Jacob ben Moses ibn 

Aktion Petliura, 13:291 

Aktion Reinhard, 3:309-311, 9:85 

Akzin, Benjamin, 1:571-572 

Alabama (U.S.), 1:572-573, 573, 573% 
15:134-135 

See also names of specific cities in 
Alabama 

Alabarch, 1:573-574 

Alagon (Spain), 1:574 

Alais. See Elasa (Israel) 

Alais (France). See Ales (France) 

Al-'Al, 6:298 

Alalach. See Alalakh 

Alalah. See Alalakh 

Alalakh (Turkey), 1:574 

Alamah (Gilead), 1:575 

Alamani, Aaron he-Haver ben 
Yeshu'ah, 1:575 

A'la Mawdudi, Abu al-, 10:94-95 

Alami, Solomon, 1:575 

Al-Andalus. See Spain, cultural and 
social life, Moorish 

Al 'Aqida al-Rafi 'a (Ibn Daud), 
9:662, 663 

Al-Aqsa Intifada (2000), 15:595, 599, 
600 

Al Arbaa Sippurim (Shaked), 18:367 

A la Recherche du temps perdu 
(Proust), 16:635 

Alaric II, 1:575 

Alarko Holdings, 1:578 

Alasa. See Elasah 

Al-Asad al-Mahalli. See Jacob ben 
Isaac 

Al-Asatir, 1:576 



298 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Alashiya. See Cyprus 

Alashkar, Joseph ben Moses, 1:576 

Alashkar, Moses ben Isaac, 1:515, 
576-577, 6:233 

Alashkar, Solomon, 1:577, 15:523 

Alaska (U.S.), 1:577, 577-578, 577t 

Alatini family. See Alatino family 

Alatino, Azriel Bonaiuto. See Alatino, 
Azriel Pethahiah 

Alatino, Azriel Pethahiah, 1:578 

Alatino, Moses Amram, 1:578 

Alatino family, 1:578 

Alaton, Ishak, 1:578 

Alatri, Samuel, 1:578-579 

Alatrini, Isaac ben Abraham, 1:579 

Alatrini, Johanan Judah ben Salomon, 
1:579 

Alatrini family, 1:579 

Alatrino family. See Alatrini family 

Alatzar. See Eleazar 

Al-Avani, Isaac, 1:579 

Alawid dynasty, 1:579-581, 14:497- 
499 

'Alawiyyun dynasty. See Alawid 
dynasty 

Alazar. See Eleazar family 

Alazar, Don Mair, 6:298 

Alazar, Mosse, 6:298 

Alazar, Todros, 6:298 

Alba, Jacob di, 1:581 

Alba Bible, 3:636 

Alba Carolina (Transylvania). See Alba 
Iulia (Transylvania) 

Alba de Tormes (Spain), 1:581 

Albahari, David, 1:581 

Alba Iulia (Transylvania), 1:581-582 

Albala, David, 1:582 

Albalag, Isaac, 1:582-583, 2:160, 461, 
16:87 

allegorical interpretation of 
scripture, 3:645 

soul, immortality of, 19:37 

Albala-Levy, Ana, 11:469 

Albalia, Baruch ben Isaac, 1:583 

Albalia, Isaac ben Baruch, 1:583-584 

Al-Balideh, Moses. See Balideh, Moses 

Albania, 1:584, 584, 584 

Albany (NY), 1:584-586 

Albaradani, Joseph, 1:586 

Al-Bargeloni, Isaac ben Reuben, 1:586, 
6:158 

Al-Bargeloni, Judah. See Judah ben 
Barzillai al-Bargeloni 

Albarracin (Spain), 1:587 

al-Basir, Joseph ben Abraham ha- 
Kohen Haro'eh. See Basir, Joseph 
ben Abraham ha-Kohen Haro'eh al- 



Albategnius, 4:62 

Al-Bathaniyya. See Bashan region 
(Israel) 

Albaz, Moses ben Maimon, 1:587, 
6:290 

Al-Bazak, Mazli'ah ben Elijah ibn, 
1:587 

Albeck, Hanokh, 1:587, 3:126, 14:325- 
326 

Albeck, Shalom, 1:302, 587-588 

Albeck family, 1:587-588 

Albelda, Moses ben Jacob, 1:588 

Albenzubron. See Gabirol, Solomon 
ben Judah, ibn 

Alberstein, Hava, 1:588 

Albert, Marv, 1:588-589 

Albert, Mildred Elizabeth Levine, 
1:589 

Alberta (Canada), 1:589-591 

Albert Einstein Archives (Hebrew 
University), 6:262 

Alberti-Irsa (Hungary), 1:591 

Albertirsa (Hungary). See Alberti-Irsa 
(Hungary) 

Albert-Lazard, Albert, 2:517 

Albert Shanker Institute (Washington, 
D.C.), 18:397 

Albertus Denis. See Denis, Albertus 

Albertus Magnus, 1:591 

Albert V (Holy Roman Emperor), 
11:337 

Albi (France), 1:591-592 

Albigenses, 1:592-593, 3:629 

Albinus, 2:126, 129 

Albinus, Lucceius, 1:593 

Albinus Flaccus. See Alcuin 

al-Bira. See Ramallah (Palestine) 

Albo, Joseph, 1:593-595, 2:267, 618- 
619, 16:89-90 

Adam, 1:374 

allegorical interpretation of 
scripture, 3:645 

articles of faith, 2:531 

commandments, reasons for, 5:88 

freedom of thought, 7:227 

inclination, good and evil, 9:757 

Maimonides' essential principles 
of Judaism, 11:513 

moneylending, 14:439-440 

on peace, 15:702 

revelation, 17:257 

soul, immortality of, 19:37-38 

Torah, 20:41, 43, 45 

vegetarianism, 5:165 
Albom, Mitch, 4:125 
Alboraycos, 1:595 
Albotini, Judah ben Moses, 1:595-596 



Albrecht, Bruno. See Katzmann, 
Friedrich 

Albright, William Foxwell, 1:596, 
2:374, 378, 8:621, 13:60 

biblical archaeology of, 3:650, 654 

Joshua, Book of, 11:447, 448 

Albu, George, 1:596 

Albu, Isidor, 1:596 

Album, Simon Hirsch, 1:596-597 

Albuquerque (NM), 1:597-598 

Albutaini, Judah. See Albotini, Judah 
ben Moses 

Albutaini, Judah ben Moses. See 
Albotini, Judah ben Moses 

Alcala de Henares (Spain), 1:598 

Alcalaj, Isaac. See Alcalay, Isaac 

Alcalay, Isaac, 1:598 

Alcalay, Reuven, 1:598 

Alcama. See Aljama 

Alcan, Felix, 1:599 

Alcan, Michel, 1:599 

Alcan, Moyse, 1:599 

Alcan family, 1:599 

Alcaniz (Spain), 1:599 

Al^ar ben Alazrach Eleazar, 6:298 

Alcastiel, Joseph, 1:599 

Alcay, Albert, 4:91 

Alceh, Matilde, 1:599 

Alchemy, 1:599-603 

Alcimus, 1:603 

Alcohol and drunkenness, 6:26-28, 
14:58 

Bronfman family liquor business 
(Seagram's), 4:205-206 

contemporary U.S., 6:704 

etiquette, 6:539 

Noah, 15:288, 289, 290 

Alcolea (Aragon), 1:603 

Alcolea de Cinca (Aragon). See Alcolea 
(Aragon) 

Alconiere, Theodore, 1:603 

Alconstantini, Bafi'el. See 
Alconstantini, Bahya 

Alconstantini, Bahi'el. See 
Alconstantini, Bahya 

Alconstantini, Bahya, 1:604 

Al-Constantini, Enoch ben Solomon, 
1:604 

Alconstantini, Moses, 1:604 

Alconstantini, Solomon, 1:604 

Alconstantini family, 1:604 

Alcorsono, Judah ben Joseph, 1:604- 
605 

Alcott, Amy, 1:605 

Alcuin, 1:605 

Aldabi. See Abulrabi, Aaron 

Aldabi, Aaron. See Abulrabi, Aaron 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



299 



INDEX 



Aldabi, Meir ben Isaac, 1:605, 6:399 

Aldanov, Mark, 1:605-606 

Aldema, Gil, 1:606 

Alderman, Geoffrey, 1:606 

ALDJR. See American League for the 
Defense of Jewish Rights 

Al-Doji, Menahem. See Alroy, David 

Aldo Manuzio, 1:606 

Aldrich, Robert, 1:606-607 

Aldrophe, Alfred-Philibert, 1:607 

Aldubi, Abraham ben Moses ben 
Ismail, 1:607 

Alduin. See Hilduin 

Aldus Manutius. See Aldo Manuzio 

Al-Dustan. See Dustan 

Alechinsky, Pierre, 1:607 

Alef, 1:607-608 

Alef (periodical), 2:78 

Alegre, Abraham ben Solomon, 1:608 

Aleichem, Sholem, 1:321 

Aleinu le-Shabbe'ah, 2:76 

apologetics, 2:267 

Aleinu le-Shabbeah, 1:608-610, 608f 

Aleksander Jagiellonczyk, 1:610 

Aleksandriya (Kirovograd district, 
Ukraine), 1:610 

Aleksandriya (Rovno district, 
Volhynia, Ukraine), 1:610 

Aleksandrov, Hillel, 11:322 

Aleksandrow dynasty, 1:610-611, 
8:423, 424 

Aleksandrow Lodzki (Poland), 1:611 

Aleman, Mateo, 1:611 

Alemanno, Johanan ben Isaac, 1:611— 
613 

Alemeth (territory of Benjamin). See 
Almon (territory of Benjamin) 

Aleph Zadik, 4:14 

Aleppo (Syria), 1:613-617, 3:399 

Aleppo Jews in Israel, 10:296 

bakkashot, 3:73 

capitulations, 4:452 

Francos of, 4:451 

Kazin, Judah ben Yom Tov, 12:45 

Sitteon Dabbah, Shaul David, 
18:646-647 

Aleppo Codex, 4:173 

Ales (France), 1:617 

Alessandra Tornimparte. See 
Ginzburg, Natalia 

Alessandria (Italy), 1:617-618 

Ale Verk: Yubileum Oysgabe (Shalom 
Aleichem), 18:385 

Ale Verk fun Shalom Aleichem (Shalom 
Aleichem), 18:383 

Alexander (c. 36-37 B.C.E.), 1:618-619, 
6l8t 



Alexander (Hassid dynasty). See 
Aleksandrow dynasty 

Alexander (King of Poland), 11:462 

Alexander (popes), 1:619-620 

Alexander (Russian czars), 1:620-621 

Alexander (Son of Aristobulus II), 
1:629-630, 629t 

Alexander, A., 3:614 

Alexander, Abraham, 1:621 

Alexander, Abraham, Senior. See 
Alexander, Abraham 

Alexander, Alexander, 1:621 

Alexander, Beatrice, 1:621-622 

Alexander, Bernard, 1:622 

Alexander, E., 16:138 

Alexander, Franz, 1:622 

Alexander, Haim, 1:622-623 

Alexander, Heinz. See Alexander, 
Haim 

Alexander, James, 15:196 

Alexander, Jason, 1:623, 15:228 

Alexander, Jeffrey, 18:730-731 

Alexander, Judah Leib. See Alexander, 
Levy 

Alexander, Kobi, 1:623 

Alexander, Levy, 1:621 

Alexander, M., 6:451 

Alexander, Michael Solomon, 1:623- 
624 

Alexander, Morris, 1:624, 16:349 

Alexander, Moses, 1:624 

Alexander, Muriel, 1:624 

Alexander, Samuel, 1:624-625 

Alexander, Tiberius Julius. See 
Severus, Alexander 

Alexander I (czar), 1:620 

blood libel and, 3:779 

Pale of Settlement under, 15:577 

Alexander II (pope), 1:619 

Alexander II (czar), 1:620, 9:235, 
17:534 

emancipation, 6:383-384 

Judaizers under, 11:522 

Levanda, Lev Osipovich, 12:677 

numerus clausus, 15:343 

Pale of Settlement under, 15:578 

Alexander III (czar), 1:620-621, 
16:373 

blood libel and, 3:779 

emancipation, 6:384 

laws restricting Jews, 13:701-702 

numerus clausus, 15:343 
Alexander III (pope), 1:619 
Alexander IV (czar), 16:373 
Alexander IV (pope), 1:619 
Alexander V (pope), 1:619 



Alexander VI (pope), 1:619, 16:374 

Alexander VII (pope), 1:619-620, 
16:376 

Alexander Balas, 1:625, 11:398 

Alexander family, 1:621 

Alexander Lysimachus, 1:627 

Alexander Nevsky (motion picture), 
6:274 

Alexander of Aphrodisias, 1:628 

Alexander of Hales, 1:628-629 

Alexander of Macedonia, 7:13 

Alexander Polyhistor, 1:629 

Alexander's Department Store, 15:226 

Alexandersohn, Jonathan, 18:195 

Alexander Suslin ha-Kohen of 
Frankfurt, 1:630, 11:424 

Alexander Susskind ben Moses of 
Grodno, 1:630-631 

Alexander the False, 1:625 

Alexander the Great, 1:625-627, 3:25, 
26, 18:602 

influence of, 6:554 

Josippon, 11:462 

Alexander the Zealot, 1:631 

Alexander Yannai. See Yannai, 
Alexander 

Alexandra (daughter of Aristobulus 
II), 1:631, 63U 

Alexandra (daughter of Hyrcanus II), 
1:631, 631f 

Alexandrah. See Alexandri 

Alexandrai. See Alexandri 

Alexandra Salome. See Salome 
Alexandra 

Alexandretta (Turkey). See Iskenderun 
(Turkey) 

Alexandri, 1:631-632 

Alexandria (Egypt), 1:632-635, 633, 
14:28 

Anatoli ben Joseph, 2:133 

Andronicus son of Meshullam, 
2:145 

Angel, Aaron, 2:146 

beliefs of Jewish community, 2:456 

community organization and 
structures, 5:101 

Jews, 1:434-435, 6:228-230 

temporary expulsion of Jews from, 
4:326 

Alexandrian Martyrs, Acts of, 1:635- 
636 

Alexandrium (Jordan Valley). See 
Sartaba (Jordan Valley) 

Alexandros. See Alexandri; Yannai, 
Alexander 

Alexandrovich, Sergei, 14:517 

Alexandrovsk. See Zaporozhe 
(Ukraine) 



300 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Alexas, 1:636 

Alexenicer, Jose, 16:349 

Alexeyev, Alexander, 1:636 

Alez (France). See Ales (France) 

"Alfa Beta of Ben Sira", 7:12 

Al-Fakhar. See Ibn Alfakhar 

Alfalas, Moses, 1:636 

Alfandari, Aaron ben Moses, 1:637 

Alfandari, Elijah ben Jacob, 1:637 

Alfandari, Hayyim (Rabbenu), 1:637 

Alfandari, Hayyim (the Elder), 1:637 

Alfandari, Hayyim ben Isaac Raphael, 
1:637-638 

Alfandari, Isaac Raphael, 1:637 

Alfandari, Jacob, 1:638 

Alfandari, Joseph, 1:637 

Alfandari, Obadiah, 1:636-637 

Alfandari, Solomon Eliezer ben Jacob, 
1:340, 638 

Alfandaric family. See Alfandari family 

Alfandari family, 1:636-637 

Alfandary, Solomon ben Hayyim, 
1:637 

Alfandrec family. See Alfandari family 

al-Faraj, Abu. See Abu al-Faraj 

Alfas, Benzion. See Alfes, Benzion 

Alfasi, David ben Abraham, 1:638-639 

dictionary for Hebrew and biblical 
Aramaic, 13:31 

Judeo-Arabic literature and, 
11:532 

Alfasi, Isaac ben Jacob, 1:639-641, 
4:770, 779 

Abraham ben David of 
Posquieres, 1:297 

in Fez, Morocco, 7:6 

halakhah, 8:257 

Joseph ben Justu of Jaen, 11:423 

Judah ben Barzillai al-Bargeloni, 
11:483 

Montpelier (France), 14:463 

Nissim ben Reuben Gerondi, 
15:281 

Alfasi, Mas ud Raphael, 1:638 

Alfasi, Solomon ben Mas c ud Raphael, 
1:638 

Alfasi family, 1:638 

Al-Fayyumi, Saadiah. See Saadiah 
Gaon 

Alfei Menasheh (Samaria), 1:641 

Alferov, Zhores I., 1:641 

Alfes, Benzion, 1:641-642 

Alfes' Story. See Ma'aseh Alfes 

Alfieri, Vittorio, 10:788 

Alfonsin, Raul, 2:442, 443 

Alfonso. See Affonso 

Alfonso (Spanish kings), 1:642 



Alfonso I (King of Aragon), 1:642 

Alfonso II (King of Aragon), 1:642 

Alfonso IV (King of Aragon), 6:91 

Alfonso V (King of Aragon), 1:642, 
18:44 

Alfonso VI (King of Castile and 
Leon), 1:642 

Alfonso VII (King of Castile and 
Leon), 1:642, 18:570 

Alfonso VIII (King of Castile), 1:642, 
11:255 

Alfonso X, King of Castile, 1:343, 642, 
18:327 

Alfonso XI (King of Castile and 
Leon), 1:642 

Alfonso de Espina, 1:642 

Alfonso de la Cavalleria, 15:375 

Alfonso de Oropesa, 1:643 

Alfonso de Spina. See Alfonso de 
Espina 

Alfonso D'espina. See Alfonso de 
Espina 

Alfonso of Burgos. See Abner of 
Burgos 

Alfonso of Valladolid. See Abner of 
Burgos 

Alfonso of Zamora, 1:643 

Alfonsus Bonihominis, 1:643 

Alfonsus Buenhombre. See Alfonsus 
Bonihominis 

Alfred J. Kahn Doctoral Fellowship, 
11:719 

Alfred the Great, 3:611 

Al-Furaydis. See Furaydis, Al- (Israel) 

Algazi, Abraham ben Moses, 1:643 

Algazi, Hayyim ben Abraham, 1:643 

Algazi, Hayyim ben Menahem, 1:643 

Algazi, Isaac ben Abraham, 1:643-644 

Algazi, Isaac ben Solomon, 1:644 

Algazi, Israel Jacob ben Yom Tov, 
1:644 

Algazi, Judah, 1:644 

Algazi, Leon, 1:644-645, 12:661 

Algazi, Moses ben Abraham, 1:643 

Algazi, Moses ben Joseph, 1:644 

Algazi, Nissim. See Algazi, Solomon 
ben Abraham (1610?-c.l683) 

Algazi, Nissim Jacob Ben Hayyim 
Solomon, 1:643 

Algazi, Solomon, 4:103 

Algazi, Solomon ben Abraham (1610?- 
c.1683), 1:645, 18:345 

Algazi, Solomon ben Abraham (1673- 
1762), 1:645 

Algazi, Yehudah. See Algazi, Leon 

Algazi, Yom Tov ben Israel Jacob, 
1:645 

Algazi family, 1:643-644 



Algemeyne Entsiklopedye 
(encyclopedia), 6:399 

Algemeyne Ilustrirte Entsiklopedye 
(Goldblatt), 6:399 

Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in 
Lite, Poyln un Rusland. See Bund 

Di Algemeyne Yidishe Entsiklopedye 
(Lurie, Horowitz), 6:399 

Algeria, 1:645-652, 646, 650t, 2:322- 
323, 14:712 

Abulker family, 1:345 

amulets, 2:123 

antisemitism, 1:649-651, 4:533 

Algiers, 1:653-654 

assimilation, 1:648 

Azubib family, 2:772-773 

Bone, 4:61 

Bougie, 4:105 

Busnach, Naphtali ben Moses, 
4:316 

community organization and 
structures, 5:105, 108, 110, 111- 
112, l\8t 

Drai, Raphael, 6:7 

French immigration, 7:163 

Gozlan, Elie, 8:21-22 

Holocaust, 1:649 

immigration to Israel from, 10:523 

Israel (State), 1:651 

Jews 

dress, 6:14 

French rule, 1:648-649 

modern, 1:649-651 

music, 1:440 

Muslim rule, 1:645-648 

Oran, 15:459-460 

synagogue architecture, 19:375 
Al-Gharid al-Yahudi, 1:652 
Al-Ghazali, 11:539, 541 
Alghero (Sardinia), 1:652 
Algiers (Algeria), 1:652-654 

Duran, Simeon ben Simeon, 6:61 

Duran, Simeon ben Solomon, 6:58 

Duran family, 6:56 

Algonquin Round Table, 1:380 

Algorithms, 5:129-131 

Alguades, Don Meir, 15:562 

Alguades, Meir, 1:654 

Alguadez, Meir. See Alguades, Meir 

Algum, 1:654 

Al ha-Bikkoret ha-Yozeret (Fichman), 
7:8 

Alhadib, Isaac ben Solomon ben 
Zaddik, 1:654 

Al Ha-Halomot (Shahar), 18:363 

Al-Hakim 

ghetto created by, 11:312 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



301 



INDEX 



Al- Hakim, continued 

Jubayl, 11:473 
Al ha-Mishmar (newspaper), 1:655 

Alhanati, David, 1:655 

Al ha-Nissim, 1:655, 2:75 

Al-Harizi, Judah, 15:655 

Al-Harizi, Judah ben Solomon, 1:579, 
655-657, 6:173, 8:660, 9:591 

Edessa, 6:147 

Joseph ben Baruch of Clisson and, 
11:419 

Joseph ben Tanhum Yerushalmi, 
11:427 

on Josiah ben Jesse, 11:460 

as Orientalist, 15:471 

Al-Hasan (Mulay of Morroco), 14:499 

Alhayk, Uzziel ben Mordecai, 1:657 

Al Het (prayer), 1:658 

al-Hira. See Hlra (Persia) 

Ali, 1:240-241, 658 

Aliama. See Aljama 

Aliav, Ruth, 1:658 

Alibag (India), 1:658 

Ali ben Amram, 1:659 

Ali ben David. See Ali 

Ali ben Zechariah, 1:659 

Alien Love. See Ahavah Zarah 

Aliens Act of 1905, 1:659 

Alien slaves. See Slavery 

Aliger, Margarita Yosifovna, 1:659 

Ali ibn Sahl ibn Rabban al-f abari, 
1:659-660 

Ali ibn Suleiman, 1:660 

All Jandubi, 1:439-440 

Alik ve-ha-Kallaniyyot (Shamir), 
18:392 

Alilot Akavyah (Burla), 4:295 

Alimony, 4:748 

Al-Iscandari family. See Iscandari 
family 

Alistal (Slovakia), 1:660 

Al-Istibsar (Basir), 3:200 

Aliturus, 1:660 

Alityros. See Aliturus 

Aliyah, 1:660-661, 10:346, 481* 

1948-Six-Day War, 10:339-345 

by 1958, 10:223 

1980s and 1990s, 10:239, 241, 243, 
263, 264 

1982-1992, 10:350, 352-353 

1993-2002, 10:353-354 

American Jewish Committee, 2:55 

American Joint Distribution 
Committee, 2:62-63 

Amidar, 2:76-77 

Churchill White Paper and, 10:336 



education and, 10:343, 344, 526, 
657, 658, 668 

Ethiopians, 10:631 

Fifth, 10:201, 496, 498 

First, 1:660, 10:180, 193-194, 273, 
282, 357-358, 480-482, 522-523 

Fourth, 10:199-201, 337, 489-490, 
523-524 

Hasidic, 8:395 

of Holocaust survivors, 10:215 

Horev Commission, 9:525 

housing, 10:526-527, 527 

illegal post World War II, 10:467 

illegal pre World War II, 10:499- 
500 

Israel (state), 10:329-373, 334*, 
341*, 342*, 344t, 345t, 347t, 
349t, 35lt, 352t, 354-366, 358* 

1880-1948, 10:333-339, 334t 

post 1980s settlements and 
housing, 10:365-366 

1982-1992, 10:345*, 347*, 
350-353, 351* 

1993-2002, 10:345*, 347*, 
351*, 353-354 

absorption methods, 10:340- 
345 

building and construction of 
housing, 10:354-355 

from Bukhara, 4:263 

from Bulgaria, 4:273-274 

from Bushire, 4:306 

difficulties, 10:330 

health services, 10:675 

ingathering of exiles, 10:339- 
340 

introduction, 10:329 

from Iran, 10:11-12, lit, 20 

land ownership, 10:371-372, 

527 

land reclamation, 10:372-373 

motives for aliyah, 10:329- 
330 

post-1948, 10:339-354, 341*, 
355-357, 360-361 

post-Six Day War, 10:344*, 
345-350, 345t, 347t, 349t, 
361-365 

pre-WW I settlements and 
housing, 10:357-359, 358* 

public housing, 10:355 

regional and settlement 
planning, 10:370-371 

rural development, 10:366- 
370 

from Russia, 17:558, 569-571, 
570*, 571*, 572, 573, 579 

Second Temple period to 
Hibbat Zion or 1880s, 
10:330-333 



teshuvah, 3:572 

urbanization, 10:366-370 

Israel Defense Forces role, 10:467- 
468 

Law of Return, 10:215, 414-415, 
626 

musicians, 10:688, 689 

non-Jewish, 10:636 

of North African Jews, 10:223-224 

of Oriental Jews, 10:215, 223-224, 
226, 235-236 

Palestine (Mandate) 

housing and settlements, 
10:354 

Palestine Office, 15:595 

partisan groups after WW II, 
15:668 

post-Holocaust problems, 10:216 

Second, 10:180-181, 194-196, 282, 
334-335, 358-359, 482-485, 523 

Histadrut and, 10:606 
Six-Day War to 1982, 10:345-350 
Soviet Jews, 10:631-632 

burial and, 10:638 

from Soviet Union, 10:346, 348- 
349 

of Soviet Union Jews, 10:235, 453 

theater and, 10:688 

Third, 10:199, 335, 489, 510, 523 

from West, 10:344-345 

women and, 6:754 

during World War II, 10:339 

Youth Aliyah, 10:338, 343-344 

See also Migrations; Torah, 
reading of; Youth Aliyah 
movement 

Aliyah Bet. See Illegal immigration 

Aliyyat Yeladim va-No'ar. See Youth 
Aliyah 

Aljama, 1:661 

Al-Jazair (Algeria). See Algiers 
(Algeria) 

Al-Jaza'ir. See Algeria 

Al-Kabbir. See Attar, Judah ben Jacob 
Ibn 

Alkabez, Solomon ben Moses ha-Levi, 
1:662-663, 662* 

Alkabri, Joseph. See Ferrizuel, Joseph 
ha-Nasi 

Alkahi, Mordekhai, 1:663, 6:22 

Alkalai, Abraham ben Samuel, 1:663 

Alkalai, David, 1:663 

Alkalai, Judah ben Solomon Hai, 
1:663-664, 11:308, 21:540-541 

Alkalai, Y., redemption, 17:155 

Alkalaj, Aron, 1:664 

Alkalaj, Isaac. See Alcalay, Isaac 



302 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Alkan, Alphonse, 1:664 

Alkan, Charles Henri- Valentin, 1:665 

Alkan family. See Alcan family 

Al-Khadir, 14:539 

al-Khalil. See Hebron (Israel) 

al-Kirkisani, Abu Yusuf Ya'qub, 
11:790 

Al-Kitab al-Kafi (Abu al-Faraj), 1:334 

Al-Kitab al-Mushtamil (Abu al-Faraj), 
1:334 

Al-Kufa. See Kufa (Iraq) 

Al-Kufa (Iraq). See Kufa (Iraq) 

Alkvit, B. See Blum, Eliezer 

Allah Karim (Orloff-Arieli), 8:718 

Allaman Oglou. See Ashkenazi, 
Solomon 

All But My Life (Weissman), 4:631 

Allegeine Juedische Kolonisations- 
Organisation. See AIKO 

Allegorical interpretation of Bible, 
3:641, 643-645, 660, 665 

Allegories, 1:373-374, 665-667 

Allemania. See Germany 

Allen, Gracie, 4:298 

Allen, Isaac, 1:667 

Allen, Isaac A., 15:205 

Allen, Lewis. See Reed, Lou 

Allen, Mel, 1:667-668 

Allen, Paul G., 1:668-669 

Allen, Woody, 1:669-670, 12:503 

Allenby, Edmund Henry Hynman, 
1:222, 670, 2:393 

Allenby, George, 11:305 

Allende, Salvador, 4:644 

Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums 
(periodical), 1:670-671 

All God's Children: A Jew Speaks 
(Cohen), 5:9 

Alliance, David (Lord), 11:820 

V Alliance avec la nature (Chalier), 
4:562 

Alliance Israelite Universelle, 1:671- 
675, 673t 

Alkalai, Judan ben Solomon Hai, 
1:664 

American Joint Distribution 
Committee, 2:62 

Anglo Jewish Association, 2:162 

archives, 2:409 

assimilation, 9:237-238 

Benas, Baron Louis, 3:319 

Bigarte, Jacques, 3:694 

Board of Delegates of American 
Israelites, 4:19 

boycott, anti-Nazi, 4:110 

Brafman, Jacob, 4:116 

Cahen, Isidore, 4:337 



Carvallo, Jules, 4:503 

Cassin, Rene Samuel, 4:509 

Cazes, David, 4:533 

education, Jewish, 6:183-184, 185, 
213-214 

founding, 7:158 

France, 7:166-167 

Hirsch, Baron Maurice de, 9:127 

language, 12:482 

League of Nations, 12:565 

Lehmann, Leonce, 12:615 

Libya, 12:793 

Loeb, Isidore, 13:160 

Morocco, 14:500, 502-503, 504, 
505-507 

Mortara case, 14:513 

in Ottoman empire, 6:149, 15:530, 

542 

philanthropy, 16:43 

social organization, 9:245 

Alliance Israelite Universelle, 18:722 

Alliance of German Jews. See Verband 
der Deutschen Juden 

Allianz, Israelitische zu Wien, 1:675 

Allium cepa. See Onions 

All My Sons (Miller), 14:251 

Allon, Gedalya, 1:675 

Allon, Yigal, 1:675-676 

Palmah, 15:604 

settlements beyond Green Line 
and, 10:362, 364, 440, 441 

Allon Bakhut (Benjamin), 3:360 

Allonei Abba (Israel), 1:676-677 

Allonei Yitzhak (Israel), 1:677 

Allonim (Israel), 1:677 

Allouche, Felix Nissim S'Aidou, 1:677 

All Rivers Run to The Sea (Wiesel), 
9:401 

"All the news that's fit to print" 
slogan, 15:375-376 

All the Presidents' Men (motion 
picture), 15:572 

Alluf, 1:677 

Allweiss, Solomon. See Alva, Siegfried 

Alma (Sobol), 18:702, 702 

Al-Madari, Judah ha-Kohen ben 
Eleazar he-Hasid, 1:677 

Al-Madari, Judah ha-Kohen ben 
Eliezer he-Hasid. See Al-Madari, 
Judah ha-Kohen ben Eleazar 
he-Hasid 

Al-Maghar. See Maghar, al- (Israel) 

Almagia, Roberto, 1:677-678 

Almagor (Israel), 1:678 

Almagor, Gila, 1:678 

Almagro (Spain), 1:678 

Almah (Israel), 1:678 



Aim al Fath. See Ibn Shuwayk, Isaac 
ben Israel 

al-Ma'mun, 6:603-604 

Alman, Samuel, 1:678-679 

Almansi, Dante, 1:679 

Almansi family, 1:679 

Al-Mansura (Egypt). See Mansura 
(Egypt) 

Al-Mansurah (Egypt). See Mansura 
(Egypt) 

Al-Mansur al-Yahudi, 1:679 

al-Mansur Ibn Abi 'Amir. See Mansur 

Almanzi, Joseph, 1:679 

Almanzi family. See Almansi family 

Almanzor. See Mansur 

Al-Mawjib. See Arnon 

Almemar, 3:701 

Almeria (Spain), 1:680 

Almog. See Algum 

Almog, Ruth, 1:680 

Almog, Yehuda, 1:680-681, 8:293 

Almogi, Yosef Aharon, 1:681 

Almohades, 4:105 

Almohad persecutions, 6:5 

Almohads, 1:681-682, 684, 11:757 

conquering of Tunisia, 11:727 

Morocco, 14:494-495 

Omar, Covenant of, 15:417-418 

Sijilmassa (Morocco), 18:572 

Almoli, Solomon ben Jacob, 1:682, 
6:399 

Almon (territory of Benjamin), 1:682 

Almond, 1:683, vol. 16: color insert 

Almond, Gabriel Abraham, 1:683 

Almon-Diblathaim (Moabite plain), 
1:683 

Almoravids, 1:681, 684, 18:572 

Almosnino, Abraham, 1:684, 18:451 

Almosnino, Isaac Hasdai, 1:685 

Almosnino, Joseph ben Isaac, 1:685 

Almosnino, Moses, 15:540, 541, 
16:109 

Almosnino, Moses ben Baruch, 1:685 

Almosnino family, 1:684-685, 684t 

Almsgiving. See Charity 

al-Muallima, 2:17 

Al-Mudari, Judah ha-Kohen ben 
Eleazar he-Hasid. See Al-Madari, 
Judah ha-Kohen ben Eleazar 
he-Hasid 

• 

Almug. See Algum 

Al-Muhtawi (Basir), 3:200 

al-Mukammas, ibn Marwan al-Raqi. 
See Mukammis, ibn Marwan 
al-Raqi al-Shirazi al- 

Al-Mukha) (Yemen). See Mocha 
(Yemen) 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



303 



INDEX 



Almuli, Jesse, 4:103 

Almuli, Solomon ben Jacob. See 
Almoli, Solomon ben Jacob 

Al-Mundari, Judah ha-Kohen. See Al- 
Madari, Judah ha-Kohen ben 
Eleazar he-Hasid 

• 

Al-Mundari, Judah ha-Kohen ben 
Eleazar he-Hasid. See Al-Madari, 
Judah ha-Kohen ben Eleazar 
he-Hasid 

• 

Al-Munqidh min al-Dalal 
(al-Ghazalii), 7:571 

Al-Muqtadir (caliph), 11:425 

Al-Muwahhhidun. See Almohads 

Al-Muwahhidun. See Almohads 

al-Nah'awendi, Benjamin ben Moses. 
See Nah'awendi, Benjamin ben 
Moses al- 

Al-Nahrawani, Nissi ben Berechiah. 
See Nissi ben Berechiah al- 
Nahrawani 

Alnakar, Abraham ben Joseph, 1:685- 
686 

Al-Nakawa, Israel ben Joseph, 1:266, 
686 

Al-Nuqra. See Bashan region (Israel) 

Aloni, Nissim, 1:687, 8:723 

Aloni, Shulamit, 1:687 

Alonso de Espina. See Alfonso de 
Espina 

Alonso Fernandez de Cordoba. See 
Cordoba, Alonso Fernandez de 

Alonso of Cartagena, 15:563 

Alouf, Yehoshua, 1:687-688 

Al-Palas, Moses, 15:572-573 

Al-Palas family. See Palache family 

Alper, Michael, 1:688 

Alperovitz v. Mizrahi, 5:197-198 

Alpersohn, Marcos, 1:688 

Alpersohn, Mordecai. See Alpersohn, 
Marcos 

Alperstein, Avraham Eliezer ben 
Yeshaya, 1:688 

Alpert, Herb, 1:688-689 

Alphabet 

acrostics, 1:368-369 

Nun, 15:344 

Pe, 15:700 

Alphabet, Hebrew. See Hebrew 
alphabet 

Alphabetizing compositions. See 
Acrostics 

Alphabet of Ben Sim, 3:375-376, 6:667, 
7:12, 11:427, 454, 13:19, 170 

Alphonse of Poitiers, 1:730, 7:150 

Al-Pumbedita. See Pumbedita 
(Babylonia) 

al-Qanun ft al-Tibb (Avicenna), 
2:728-729, vol. 8: color insert 



Al-Qirqisani, Jacob, 11:532 
Al-Quds. See Jerusalem (Israel) 
al-Queda 

Morocco, 14:505 

Saudi Arabia support of, 18:77-78 

al-Qumisi, Daniel ben Moses. See 
Daniel ben Moses al-Qumisi 

al-Qumisi, David. See David al- 
Qumisi 

Al-Raa. See Rama, al- (Israel) 

Alrabi. See Abulrabi, Aaron 

Alrabi, Aaron. See Abulrabi, Aaron 

Al-Ragil, Moses. See Arragel, Moses 

Al-Rahbah. See Rahbah, al- 
(Mesopotamia) 

al-Raqqa. See Raqqa (Mesopotamia) 

Al-Rashid (Mulay of Morroco), 14:497 

Al-Reuti family. See Rote family 

Al-Rohi, David. See Alroy, David 

Alroy (Disraeli), 5:699 

Alroy, David, 2:5-6 

al-Rueti. See Rote family 

Al-Ruha. See Edessa (Turkey) 

Al-Sab'uni. See Siboni family 

Alsace (France), 2:6-9, 7 

Bischheim, 3:724 

Joseph ben Gershon of Rosheim, 
11:420-421 

linguistic assimilation, 8:436 

Al SafBeit ha-Midrash (Bialik), 3:562 

Al-Salt. See Salt 

Al-Sam, 2:79 

Al-Samaw c al al-Maghribi, 3:669 

Al-Samawal ben Gharid Ablaq. See 
Samuel ibn 'Adiya 

Alsari. See Fuerst, Julius 

Alsatian rite, 2:6 

Alsbacher Ethical Testament, 4:755 

Alschuler, Alfred S., 2:9-10 

Alschuler, Samuel, 2:10 

al-Shaharastani, 6:65-67 

Alsheikh, Raphael ben Shalom, 2:10 

Alsheikh, Shalom ben Joseph, 2:10 

Alshekh, Hayyim, 2:10, 11 

Alshekh, Moses, 2:10-11 

Al Shelosha Mahzot (Shaked), 18:367 

Alshvang, Arnold Aleksandrovich, 2:11 

Alsingari, Solomon. See Solomon 
Suliman ben Amar 

Alsokubin (Slovakia). See Dolni Kubin 
(Slovakia) 

Alt, Albrecht, 2:11, 3:658 

Joshua, Book of, 11:446, 447, 449 
moneylending, 14:436-437 
Noth, Martin, 15:315 

Altabet, Mark A., 6:450-451 



al-Tabib, Yahya ibn Suleiman. See 
Zechariah ben Solomon-Rofe 

Al-Tal. See Bethsaida (Israel) 

Altalena, 20:660 

Altalena (ship), 3:261, 346 

Al-Tamiz (Basir), 3:200 

Altaras, David ben Solomon, 2:16-17 

Altaras, Jacques Isaac, 2:17 

Altaras, Joseph, 2:17 

Altaras, Moses, 2:16 

Altaras, Nissim, 2:17 

Altaras, Solomon, the Elder, 2:16 

Altaras, Solomon, the Younger, 2:17 

Al-Taras, Sidi ibn, 2:17 

Altaras family, 2:16-17 

Al Targum Rav Saadyah la-Torah 
(Zucker), 21:674-675 

Altars, 2:11-16, 16:515 

Joshua, Book of, 11:448-449 

Moses, 2:29 

Altauzen, Dzhek Moyseyevich. See 
Altauzen, Yakov Moyseyevich 

Altauzen, Yakov Moyseyevich, 2:17 

Al-Tayyah, Moses. See Ibn al-Taqana, 
Moses 

Alt-Breisach (Germany). See Breisach; 
Breisach (Germany) 

Al Tehi ka-Avotekha (Duran), 6:56-57, 
13:112 

Al-Tell. See Bethsaida (Israel) 

Altenberg, Peter, 2:17 

Altenstadt (Germany), 2:17-18 

Alter, Abraham Mordecai, 7:761 

Alter, Eleanor B., 2:18 

Alter, Isaac Meir, 18:604 

Alter, Israel, 2:18, 7:761 

Alter, Judah Aryeh Leib, 7:761 

Alter, Mendele, 15:561 

Alter, Robert B., 2:18, 3:624, 15:358 

Alter, Victor, 2:18, 6:481 

Alterman, Nathan, 2:19-20, 8:720, 
18:761 

Alternate history (counterfactual 
thought), 18:206 

Alternate history literature, 18:201 

Al-Tha'labi, 3:669 

Altheimer, Benjamin, 2:20 

Al tikrei, 2:20 

Alting, Jacobus, 2:20-21 

Altman, Aryeh, 2:21 

Altman, Benjamin, 2:21, 15:203 

Altman, Moishe, 2:21 

Altman, Morris, 15:203 

Altman, Nathan, 2:21-22 

Altman, Oscar Louis, 2:22 

Altman, Sidney, 2:22, 4:593, 13:9 



304 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Altman Foundation, 2:21 

Altmann, Adolf, 2:22-23 

Altmann, Alexander, 2:23, 4:125, 
16:69, 70 

Altneuland (Herzel), 18:202 

Alt-Ofen (Hungary). See Obuda 
(Hungary) 

Altona (Germany), 2:23-24, 8:296 

Altschul, Aaron ben Moses Meir 
Perles, 2:24 

Altschul, Aaron Meyer, 2:25 

Altschul, Abraham ben Isaac Perles, 
2:24 

Altschul, Abraham Eberle, 2:24 

Altschul, Eleazar ben Abraham 
Hanokh Perles, 2:24 

Altschul, Eliakim ben Ze'ev Wolf, 2:24 

Altschul, Emil, 2:25 

Altschul, Frank, 2:25 

Altschul, Gottschalk ben Ze'ev Wolf. 
See Altschul, Eliakim ben Ze'ev 
Wolf 

Altschul, Hanokh ben Moses, 2:24 

Altschul, Isaac, 2:24 

Altschul, Joseph, 2:25 

Altschul, Judah Aaron Moses ben 
Abraham Hanokh, 2:24 

Altschul, Louis, 2:25-26 

Altschul, Moses, 2:24 

Altschul, Moses ben Hanokh, 2:26 

Altschul, Moses Meir ben Isaac 
Eleazar Perles, 2:24 

Altschul, Naphtali Hirsch ben Asher, 

2:24 

Altschul, Ze c ev Wolf ben Dov Baer, 

2:24 

Altschuler, Aaron ben Moses Meir 
Perles. See Altschul, Aaron ben 
Moses Meir Perles 

Altschuler, Abraham ben Isaac Perles. 
See Altschul, Abraham ben Isaac 
Perles 

Altschuler, David, 2:26, 3:643 

Altschuler, Eleazar ben Abraham 

Hanokh Perles. See Altschul, Eleazar 
ben Abraham Hanokh Perles 

• 

Altschuler, Gottschalk ben Ze'ev Wolf. 
See Altschul, Eliakim ben Ze'ev 
Wolf 

Altschuler, Hillel, 3:643 

Altschuler, Isaac. See Altschul, Isaac 

Altschuler, Judah Aaron Moses ben 
Abraham Hanokh. See Altschul, 
Judah Aaron Moses ben Abraham 
Hanokh 

Altschuler, Modest, 2:26 

Altschuler, Moses Meir ben Isaac 
Eleazar Perles. See Altschul, Moses 
Meir ben Isaac Eleazar Perles 



Altschuler, Naphtali Hirsch ben Asher. 
See Altschul, Naphtali Hirsch ben 
Asher 

Altschuler, Ze'ev Wolf ben Dov Baer. 
See Altschul, Ze'ev Wolf ben Dov 
Baer 

Altschuler family. See Altschul family 

Altschul family, 2:24-25 

Alttestamentliche Studien (Eerdmans), 
6:215-216 

Altusky, Hirsch, 2:48 

Al-Tustari. See Sahl ibn Fadl 

Alukah, 5:572 

Alummot (Israel), 2:26 

'Aluqah. See Alukah 

Al-Usta. See IrAQl, Shalom ha-Kohen 

Alva, Siegfried, 2:26 

Al-Valensi. See Valensi family 

Alvan ben Abraham, 2:27 

Alvares, Daniel Cohen Henriques, 2:27 

Alvares, Duarte Henriques, 2:27 

Alvares, Isaac, 2:27 

Alvares, Isaque, 2:27 

Alvares, Nuno, 4:121 

Alvares, Samuel Dios-Ayuda, 2:27 

Alvares Correa family, 2:27 

Alvares de Tavara, Manuel. See 
Zacutus Lusitanus 

Alvares family, 2:27 

Alvarez, Alfred, 2:27 

Alvarez, Antonio, 2:27 

Alvarez, Daniel Cohen Henriques. See 
Alvares, Daniel Cohen Henriques 

Alvarez, Duarte Henriques. See 
Alvares, Duarte Henriques 

Alvarez, Fernando, 2:27 

Alvarez, Isaac. See Alvares, Isaac 

Alvarez, Martin. See Bueno, Ephraim 
Hezekiah 

Alvarez, Rodrigo, 2:27 

Alvarez, Samuel Dios-Ayuda, 2:27 

Alvarez Delcon, Garcia. See Alvares, 
Samuel Dios-Ayuda 

Alvarez Delcon, Garcia. See Alvares, 
Samuel Dios-Ayuda 

Alvarez family. See Alvares family 

Alvarez Gato, Juan, 2:27 

Alvaro, Paolo, 4:30 

Alvarus of Cordoba. See Alvaro, Paolo 

Al-Yamani a-Rabbani. See Adani, 
Saadiah ben David 

Al-Yasa\ See Elisha 

Alyasa 5 . See Elisha 

Al-Yazid (Mulay of Morroco), 14:497- 
498 

Alypius of Antioch, 2:82 

Alyussani, Isaac ben Levi. See Ibn Mar 
Saul, Isaac ben Levi 



Alzey (Germany), 2:27 

Am, Maakhal Melakhim (Laor), 
12:488 

Am, Maakhal Melakhim (Laor), 
18:206 

AMaD. See Dik, Isaac 

Amadio ben Moses of Recanati. See 
Jedidiah ben Moses of Recanati 

Amadio ben Moses of Rimin. See 
Jedidiah ben Moses of Recanati 

'Amadiya (Kurdistan), 2:27-28, 3:138 

Amado Levy- Valensi, Eliane, 2:28 

Amador de los Rios, Jose, 2:28 

A magyar birodalom tbrtenete 
(Acsady), 1:369 

A magyar jobbdgy sag tortente (Acsady), 
1:369 

Amalek, 2:28-31, 33 

Amalekites, 1:444-445, 2:28-31, 18:79 

Amalfi (Italy), 2:31 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
America (ACWA), 4:608-609, 9:117, 
118, 12:411, 18:144 

Potofsky, Jacob Samuel, 16:420- 
421 

Sheinkman, Jacob, 18:438 

Amana (Syria), 2:31 

Amanah (Syria), 2:31 

Amar, David, 16:346 

Amar, Licco, 2:31 

Amarillo, Aaron ben Solomon, 2:31- 
32 

Amarillo, Hayyim Moses ben 
Solomon, 2:32 

Amarillo, Moses, 2:31 

Amarillo, Solomon ben Joseph, 2:32, 
4:102 

Amarkal, 2:32 

Amarna tablets, 8:621-622, 9:623-624 

Amarot Tehorot (Eliezer ben Jacob ha- 
Levi of Tarnogrod), 6:326 

Amasa, 2:32-33 

Amasai, 2:32 

Amasiya (Turkey), 2:33 

Amateau, Albert Jean, 2:33-34 

Amatus Lusitanus, 2:34-35, 135 

Amaw, 2:30 

A Mayse mit a Grinhorn (Shalom 
Aleichem), 18:388 

Amaziah, 2:35-36, 97, 98, 6:155, 156, 
15:357 

The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier 
and Clay (Chabon), 4:555 

Amazing Stories (periodical), 18:197 

Amazyah (Israel), 2:36 

Amazyahu (Shemariah ben Elijah ben 
Jacob), 18:457 

Amberg (Germany), 2:36 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



305 



INDEX 



Le ambizioni sbagliate (Moravia). See 
Wheel of Fortune (Moravia) 

Ambron, Ezekiel, 2:37 

Ambron, Sabbato Isaac, 2:37 

Ambron, Shabbetai Isaac, 2:36-37 

Ambrose, 2:37, 4:720, 9:206 

Ambrose of Milan. See Ambrose 

Ambrosian Bible, 3:678 

Ameimar, 2:37-38 

Ameinu. See Labor Zionist Alliance 

Amelander, Menahem Mann ben 
Shlomo, 2:108 

Amelander, Menahem Mann ben 
Solomon Ha-Levi, 2:38 

Amen, 2:38-39, 3:192, 6:365 

Amenhotep III. See Amenophis III 

Amenities, communal, 2:39-40, 6:95 

Amenities of Literature (D'Israeli), 
5:702 

Amenophis III, 2:40-41 

Amenophis IV. See Akhenaton 

America, 2:41-46, 42, 43, 44, 45, 107 

Jewish settlement in, Jewish 
Immigrant Aid Services of 
Canada, 11:299-300 

Judah Loew ben Bezalel on, 
11:507 

See also Canada; Latin America; 
United States 

La America (newspaper), 7:332 

America-Israel Cultural Foundation, 
2:46-47 

America-Israel Culture House (NY), 
2:46 

American, Sadie, 2:47 

American Abstract Artists, 4:50 

American Academy for Jewish 
Research, 2:47, 18:723 

American Association for Jewish 
Education, 2:47-48, 6:196 

See also Jewish Education Service 
of North America 

The American College (Flexner), 7:78 

American Communist Party, 3:247, 
5:98, 13:232 

American Council for Judaism, 2:48 

American Ethical Union. See Ethical 
culture 

American Examiner (periodical), 2:49 

American Exceptionalism, 13:232 

American Families of Jewish Descent 
(Stern), 19:214 

American Federation of Labor, 12:411 

American Foreign Policy Between the 
Wars (Adler), 1:408 

American Foundation for AIDS 
Research (Amfar), 5:56 

American Gathering of Jewish 
Holocaust Survivors, 2:48-49 



American Graffiti, 6:21 

American Greetings Corporation, 
18:39 

American Hebrew (periodical), 2:49, 
4:214, 5:255 

American history 

Bailyn, Bernard, 3:68-69 

Boorstin, Daniel J., 4:79 

Sarna, Jonathan Daniel, 18:58-59 

American Indians. See Native 
Americans 

American Israelite (periodical), 2:50, 
6:320 

American Israel Public Affairs 
Committee (AIPAC), 2:50-52, 
18:462 

The American Jew: A Zionist Analysis 
(Halpern), 8:283 

American Jewess (periodical), 2:53 

American Jewish Archives (AJA), 
2:53-54, 407, 9:161-162, 425 

An American Jewish Bibliography 
(Rosenbach), 17:432 

American Jewish Committee (AJC), 
2:54-56, 5:90-91 

Adler, Cyrus, 1:395 

Bijur, Nathan, 3:695 

Fineberg, Solomon Andhil, 7:26 

Loeb, Morris, 13:161 

Slawson, John, 18:673 

American Jewish Conference, 2:56, 
14:451 

American Jewish Congress 
(AJCongress), 2:56-58 

Bikel, Theodore Meir, 3:696 

Black-Jewish relations in U.S. and, 

3:735 

boycotts, anti-Nazi, 4:111 

minority rights, 14:289 

Pam, Hugo, 15:608 

American Jewish family, 6:695-707 

American Jewish Historical Society, 
2:58-59, 9:160, 18:723 

Adler, Cyrus, 1:395 

American Sephardi Federation, 
2:64 

Center for Jewish History, 4:542 

founding, 9:161 

Holocaust, 9:425 

Karp, Abraham J., 11:815 

American Jewish Joint Agricultural 
Corporation (Agro-Joint), 2:60, 
3:718 

American Jewish Joint Distribution 
Committee (JDC), 2:59-64, 3:434, 
7:19, 9:245, 490, 11:719, 20:256-257 

Asociacion Mutual Israelista 
Argentina, 2:71 



Baerwald, Pau, 3:55 

education, Jewish, 6:186 

France, 7:163 

Haber, Samuel L., 8:175 

Holocaust rescues 

funding, 13:700 

Hyman, Joseph, 9:650 

Jordan, Charles Harold, 11:403 

Latvia, 12:521 

Leavitt, Moses, 12:577 

Romania, 7:19 

Slovak Jews, aid to, 18:684 

The American Jewish League for 
Israel, 12:563-564 

American Jewish Periodical Center 
(AJPC), 2:54 

American Jewish Publication Society. 
See Jewish Publication Society 

American Jewish World Service, 
14:123 

American Jewish Year Book 
(periodical), 2:56 

American League for the Defense of 
Jewish Rights (ALDJR), 4:110-111 

American literature. See Canadian 
literature; United States literature 

The American Negro: A Study in Racial 
Crossing (Herskovits), 9:46 

American Palestine Fund, Inc., 2:46 

American Pastoral (Roth), 20:295-296 

American Pop (Bakshi), 3:74 

The American Princess. See Ha- 
Nesikhah ha-Amerikait 

American Professors for Peach, 13:75 

American Psychiatry Association, 
11:766 

American Psychoanalytic Association, 
13:169 

American Red Cross, 18:773 

American Revolution, 2:43-44 

Bush, Solomon, 4:305 

New York City and, 15:197-198 

American Sephardi Federation (ASF), 
2:64-65, 4:542 

Americans for Democratic Action, 
2:653 

Americans no Iewes, or Improbabilities 
that the Americans Are of that Race 
(L'Estrange), 14:460 

American Society for Jewish Music 
(ASJM), 2:65 

Americans of Jewish Descent (Stern), 
2:54 

American Youth and the Holocaust 
study, 9:449 

American Zionist Committee for 
Public Affairs, 2:50 

American Zionist Council (AZC) 

American Israel Public Affairs 
Committee, 2:50 



306 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



American Zionist Movement, 2:65 

American Zionist Emergency Council, 
2:65, 6:773, 18:584, 21:607 

American Zionist Federation, 2:65 

American Zionist Medical Unit 
(AZMU), 2:60, 8:186 

American Zionist Movement (AZM), 
2:65 

Americas. See America 

Amerika - heute und morgen 
(Holitscher), 9:321 

Das amerikanische Wirtschaftswunder 
(Hirsch), 9:126 

Amery, Jean, 2:65-66 

Amery, John, 2:66 

Amery, Julian, Baron Amery of 
Lustleigh, 2:66 

Amery, Leopold Charles Maurice 
Stennett, 2:66 

Amery, Leopold Charles Mauritz. See 
Amery, Leopold Charles Maurice 
Stennett 

Ames family, 2:66 

Amfar (American Foundation for 
AIDS Research), 5:56 

Am ha-arez, 2:66-70 

AMIA (Asociacion Mutual Israelita 
Argentina), 2:70-71, 11:754 

Amichai, Yehuda, 2:71-72, 8:703, 704, 
11:217 

Amici Israel association, 4:712 

Amidah, 2:72-76 

Al ha-Nissim, 1:655, 2:75 

Al Het, 1:658 

Anenu, 2:75 

Arvit, 2:537 

Attah, Ehad, 2:645 

benedictions, 3:331-332 

Berakhot, 3:399-400 

Birkat ha-Minim, 3:711-712 

Book of Life, 4:69 

festivals, 6:770 

Jerusalem, 11:214 

kedushah, 2:74 

Kerovah, 12:88 

kerovah, 12:88 

laborer, 12:410 

liturgy, 13:131-132, 135-136 

Maimon ben Joseph, 13:371 

Maimonides, Moses, 13:384 

min, 2:72, 74, 75, 14:280 

minhah, 2:72, 74, 75, 14:302 

Ne'ilah, 2:72, 76, 15:65 

prayers for rain, 13:601 

priestly blessing, 16:510-511 

proselytes, 16:589 

resurrection, 17:240-241 



Shemoneh Esreh, 18:458 

Shofarot, 18:508 

syogogues, 19:353, 362 

Amidar, 2:76-77 

Amiel, Barbara, 11:467 

Amiel, Moshe Avigdor, 2:77 

Amiel - Rabbi Emanuel Rackman 
Program for Practical Rabbinics, 
17:30 

Amiens, Viscomte D'. See Calmer, 
Moses Eliezer Liefmann 

Amieth. See Almon (territory of 
Benjamin) 

Amigo, Abraham, 2:77 

Amigo, Isaac, 2:77 

Amigo, Joseph Meir, 2:77 

Amigo, Meir, 2:77 

Amigo family, 2:77 

Amina, 2:77-78, 11:555, 556 

Amino ff, Abraham, 11:557 

Amintu (widow), 6:66 

Amir (Israel), 2:78 

Amir, Aharon, 2:78, 4:393 

Amir, Anda, 2:78 

Amir, Eli, 2:78 

Amir, Menahem, 2:78-79 

Amir, Yigal, 10:246-247 

Amira, Binyamin, 2:79 

Amiran, David, 2:79 

Amiran, Emanuel, 2:79 

Amiran, Ruth, 2:79, 329, 330, 371 

Amir Faysal, 10:17 

Amirim (Israel), 2:79 

Amishai-Maisels, Ziva, 2:79-80 

AMIT (Mizrachi Women's 

Organization of America), 2:80 

Amit, Meir, 2:80 

Amital, Yehudah, 15:703 

Amitay, Morris J., 2:51, 52 

Amitsur, Samson Abraham, 2:80-81 

Amittai, 2:81 

Amittai ben Avida Ahizedek. See Caro, 
David 

Amittai ben Shephatiah, 2:81, 4:184 

Amittai of Oria, 15:470 

Amlander, Menahem. See Amelander, 
Menahem Mann ben Solomon Ha- 
Levi 

Amman (ancient Israel). See Rabbath- 
Ammon (ancient Israel) 

Amman (Jordan), 11:404 

See also Rabbath-Ammon (ancient 
Israel) 

Ammatha (ancient city), 2:81 

Ammatu. See Ammatha (ancient city) 

Ammatus. See Ammatha (ancient city) 

Ammerschweier (France). See 
Ammerschwihr (France) 



Ammerschwihr (France), 2:81-82 

Ammi'ad, 2:82 

Ammianus Marcellinus, 2:82, 11:573 

Ammi bar Nathan, 2:82, 11:478-479 

Amminadab (Ammonite king), 2:85 

Amminadav (Israel), 2:83 

Amminadbi (Ammonite king). See 
Amminadab (Ammonite king) 

Ammon and Ammonites, 2:83, 83-87 

alphabet, Hebrew, l:694f, 695 

Amalekites, 2:29 

conquest of, 11:122-123 

David and, 5:450 

inscriptions and seals, 3:657 

Jotham and, 11:465 

Moab, 14:399 

Ammudei ha-Avodah (Landshuth), 
12:476-477 

Ammudei ha-Golah (Corbeil), 4:773 

Ammudei Lashon (Loewe), 13:166 

Ammudei Sheva (Aaron Selig ben 
Moses of Zolkiew), 1:221 

Ammud ha-Esh (Barash), 3:136 

Ammundei Gavra (Segal), 18:246 

Amnon (son of David), 2:87, 19:494 

Amnon of Mainz, 2:87 

Am Olam, 2:87-88 

Amon, 2:88, 9:181 

Among Friends: Who We Like, Why 
We Like Them and What We Do 
with Them (Pogrebin), 16:278 

Among Lions. See Be-Tokh Leva c im 

Among People. See Vlyudjakh 

Among the Nations. See Silbermann 

Amora, 2:88-89 

academies, 1:349-350 

Dimi, 5:662 

Dimi of Nehardea, 5:662-663 

Levi, 12:684 

Levi ben Sisi, 12:702-703 
Amoraic period 

Bible, interpretation of, 9:817-818 

legal maxims, 12:603 

Samael, 17:714 

Satan, 18:72-73 

sevarah, 18:323 

Takkanot, 19:446 
Amoraim, 2:88, 89-95, 89*, 91, 92 

academies, 1:349-351 

aggadah, 1:455-458, 459, 462, 464, 
2:94 

Alexandri, 1:631-632 

aliyah of, 10:330 

Babylonian, 10:40-41, 11:135-136, 
708 

baraitot, 3:124-126 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



307 



INDEX 



Amoraim, continued 

Benjamin ben Japheth, 3:361 

codification of law, 4:768 

controversy restrictions, 5:157 

Eleazar ben Pedat, 6:306-307 

Eleazar ben Yose II, 6:308-309 

halakhah, 2:89, 94, 8:252-256 

Hama Bar Bisa, 8:291 

Hama Bar Hanina, 8:291 

Hama of Nehardea, 8:291 

Hamnuna, 8:310 

Hamnuna Saba, 8:310 

Hamnuna Zuta, 8:310 

Hana Bar Hanilai, 8:313 

Hana ben Bizna, 8:313 

Hanina Bar Papa, 8:322 

Hanina ben Abbahu, 8:322 

Hisda, 9:144 

Hiyya, 9:295-296 

Hiyya bar Abba, 9:295-297 

Hiyya bar Avin, 9:297 

Hoshaiah, Rav, 9:559 

Hunya of Beth-Horon, 9:622 

Jerusalem Talmud, 2:93, 95, 
19:483-485 

Ketuvim cited by, 3:579 

law and morality, 12:536-537, 539 

legal maxims, 12:603-604 

liturgy, 13:131 

Mishnah, 14:320-321 

Mishnaic Hebrew of, 8:649-650 

mishpat Ivri, 14:337, 340 

Palestinian, 11:30, 32-33 
Isaac Nappaha, 10:52 

savora, 18:85 

Sheshet, 8:313, 18:466 

Simeon ben Abba, 18:594 

Simeon ben Jehozadak, 18:597 

Simeon ben Lakish, 18:597-598 

Simeon ben Pazzi, 18:599 

Simlai, 18:606 

tannaim, 19:505 
Amorite language, 8:621, 622, 625 
Amorites, 2:95-97 

Adoni-Zedek, 1:414 

Anath, 2:131 

defeat of, 11:72 

Mari, 2:131 

Phoenicia, 16:120 
Amorkesos, 11:464 
Amos, 2:97-103 

book, 2:98-100 

eschatology in, 6:490 

prophecies, 2:100-103 

prophet, 2:97-98, 101-103 



Amos Studies (Morgenstern), 14:486 

Un amour amaldroit (Bosco), 4:425 

Amphibians, 7:297 

Amphictyonic hypothesis, 3:654, 658 

Amram (14th c), 2:103-104 

Amram (Babylonian amoraim), 2:103 

Amram (father of Aaron, Moses, and 
Miriam), 2:103, 14:311-312, 523, 
526 

Amram, David, 2:104 

Amram, David Werner, 2:104 

Amram, Mordecai. See Hirsch, 
Markus 

Amram, Nathan ben Hayyim, 2:104 

Amram, Werner David, 2:104 

Amram ben Sheshna, 2:104-105 

Amidah, 2:73, 75 

angels, 2:158 

Amram Darah, 2:105 

Amram Gaon. See Amram ben 
Sheshna 

Amram Hasida, 2:105 

Amram I, 2:103 

Amram II, 2:103 

Amram of Mainz, 2:106 

Amran (Yemen), 2:106 

Am Rande der Zeit (Bab), 3:14 

Amraphel, 2:106 

Am Roked (Kadman), 11:700 

Amschelberg (Bohemia). See Kosova 
Hora (Bohemia) 

Amshewitz, John Henry, 2:106 

Amshinov, Jacob David of, 20:651 

Amshinov dynasty, 20:651 

Amsterdam (Netherlands), 2:106-120, 
116 

1795-1870, 2:110-111, 6:749 

1870-1940, 2:113-115 

pre-1795, 2:106-110, 117 

Aboab da Fonseca, Isaac, 1:269 

bankers, moneylending, 3:114 

community leaders 

seventeenth century, 15:759 

diamond trade and industry, 5:635 

post-1945, 2:116-120 

Holocaust, 2:115-116, 18:11 

Meyer, Jonas Daniel, 14:147 

printing, publishing, 7:207, 16:533 

Sarphati, Samuel, social projects 
by, 18:60 

seals, use of, 18:227 

Sheluhei Erez Israel, 18:449 

ties with Cochin (India), 15:759 

See also The Netherlands 

Amsterdam, Birdie, 2:120-121 

Amsterdam editions, Haggadah, 8:215 



Amsterdam Joodsche Raad, 2:599 

Amsterdam School (architectural 
movement), 5:534 

Amtah binyamin, 3:9 

Amtchislav (Belarus). See Mstislavl 
(Belarus) 

Amuladi (king of Kedar), 14:403 

Amulets, 2:121-123 

ba'al shem, 3:9 

birth amulet, vol. 7: color insert 

birth customs and folklore, 3:721, 

722 

Judeo-Persian, 11:554 

Samaritan, 2:123-124 

See also Magic 

A mulher que escrevu a Biblia 
(Moacyr), 18:207 

Amulo, 2:124 

Amunhotpe, Nebmare. See Amenophis 
III 

Amurru. See Amorites 

Amusin, Joseph, 2:124, 11:321 

Am va-Sefer (Brit Ivrit Olamit), 4:189 

Amzalak, Hayyim, 2:124 

Amzalak, Moses Bensabat, 2:124-125 

Anab, 2:125 

Anacharsis. See Cloots, Jean Baptiste 
du Val-de-Grace 

Anacletus II, 2:125, 16:148, 373 

Anaharath, 2:125 

Anak, Anakim, 1:544, 2:125-126 

Anakim. See Anak, Anakim 

An American Testament: A Narrative 
of Rebels and Romantics (Freeman), 
7:228 

Anammelech, 2:126 

Anan (Babylonian scholar), 2:126 

Anan (high priest). See Anan ben Seth 

Anan, son of Anan, 2:126-127 

Anan ben David, 2:127-128 

Judeo-Arabic literature and, 
11:532 

Karaites historical development, 
11:787-789 

Anan ben Marinus ha-Kohen, 2:128 

Anan ben Seth, 2:128-129 

biblical commentaries by, 3:641 

biography of, 3:706 

Ananel the Babylonian. See Hanamel 

Ananiah ben Azariah (groom), 6:312 

Ananias and Helkias, 2:129 

Ananias ben Nedebeus, 2:129, 6:299 

Ananias of Adiabene, 2:129 

Ananias son of Zadok, 2:130 

Ananiev (Ukraine). See Ananyev 
(Ukraine) 

Ananites, 2:127-128, 11:787 



308 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Ananiyyim. See Ananites 

Ananus, son of Seth. See Anan ben 
Seth 

Ananyev (Ukraine), 2:130 

Anapa (Russia), 2:130 

Anarchism, 3:75, 18:709-710 

Anarchisms, 16:13 

Anaschehon, Joseph, I, 2:130 

Anaschehon, Joseph, II, 2:130 

Anaschehon, Meir, II, 2:130 

Anaschehon family, 2:130-131 

Anaschichun family. See Anaschehon 
family 

Anashikon, Meir. See Anaschehon, 
Meir, II 

Anath, 2:131, 3:11, 12 

Anathema. See Blessing and cursing 

Anat Hoffman v. Jerusalem Municipal 
Council, 5:128 

Anathoth (Israel), 2:131, 132 

Anatol ben Joseph, 15:581 

Anatoli. See Anatoli ben Joseph 

Anatoli, Jacob ben Abba Mari ben 
Samson, 2:132-133, 3:645, 12:698, 
16:86 

Judah ha-Nasi and, 11:501 
Anatolia. See Asia Minor 
Anatoli ben Joseph, 2:133 
Anatomy, 2:133-135, 13:721-722 

See also Medicine 

Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp 
(Gutman 8c Berenbaum), 9:420 

Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp 
(Van Pelt), 9:415 

Anatomy of the SS State (Jacobesen), 
9:416 

Anau, Phinehas Hai ben Menahem, 
2:136-137 

Anau family, 2:136, 136 

Anav. See Anab 

Anav, Abraham ben Jacob, 2:136 

Anav, Benjamin ben Abraham, 2:137 

Anav, Jehiel ben Jekuthiel ben 
Benjamin ha-Rofe, 2:137-138 

Anav, Judah ben Benjamin ha-Rofe, 
2:138 

Anav, Moses ben Abraham, 2:136 

Anav, Nathan ben Jehiel. See Nathan 
ben Jehiel of Rome 

Anav, Salvatore, 2:136 

Anav, Zedekiah ben Abraham, 2:136, 
138-139 

Anav family. See Anau family 

Anbar. See Pumbedita (Babylonia) 

Ancerl, Karel, 2:139 

Ancestral guilt, inheriting, 21:498 

Ancestral merit, inheriting, 21:497-498 



Anchel, Robert, 2:139 

Anchetatorul apatic. See The Apathetic 
Interrogator 

Anchor Bible, 3:616-617 

Ancient Aramaic. See Aramaic, ancient 

The Ancient Economy (Finley), 7:39 

The Ancient Melodies of the Liturgy of 
the Spanish and Portuguese Jews (de 
Sola), 18:751 

Ancient of Days, 2:139-140 

Ancient Order of Maccabeans. See 
Order of Ancient Maccabeans 

Ancona (Italy), 2:140-141 

Paul IV, 15:531-532 

Paul VI, 15:695 

Ancona, Alessandro, 2:141-142 

Ancona, Cesare D', 2:142 

Ancona, Mario, 2:142 

Ancona, Paolo, 2:142 

Ancona, Sansone, 2:142, 16:345 

Ancona, Vito D', 2:142-143 

Ancona family, 2:141-142 

Ancyra. See Ankara (Turkey) 

Andalusian poetry, 1:438-439, 6:47-48 

Anderle von Rinn. See Andrew of 
Rinn 

Andernach (Germany), 2:143 

Anders, Guenther, 2:143 

Andersch, Alfred, 2:65 

Anderson, Gilbert Maxwell, 14:570 

Anderson, Paul, 18:93 

And He Is Different. See Ve-Hu Aher 

And It Came to Pass (Bialik), 18:761 

Andrada, Salvador d', 15:195 

Andrade, Abraham, 4:83 

Andrade, Edward Neville da Costa, 
2:143-144 

Andrade, Velosino Jacob de, 2:144 

Andreas. See Lucuas 

Andreas of Rinn. See Andrew of Rinn 

Andreas of Saint-Victor. See Andrew 
of Saint-Victor 

Andrewes, Lancelot, 2:144, 3:613 

Andrew of Rinn, 2:144 

Andrew of Saint-Victor, 2:144-145, 
4:96 

Andreyev (Poland). See Jedrzejow 
(Poland) 

Androgynos, 2:145 

Andronicus II (Byzantine emperor), 
4:327 

Andronicus son of Meshullam, 2:145 

And Stars Remain (Epstein and 
Epstein), 6:474 

"And the Angels Sing" (Elman), 6:365 

And the Crooked Shall be Made 
Straight (Robinson), 9:415 



Anello, Solomon, 1:502 

Anenu, 2:75 

Aner, Eshkol, and Mamre, 2:145 

Anes. See Ames family 

Anes, Dunstan. See Anes, Gonsalvo 

Anes, Francisco, 2:66 

Anes, George, 2:66 

Anes, Gonsalvo, 2:66 

Anes, Jacob, 2:66 

Anes, Sarah, 2:66 

Anes, William, 2:66 

Anes family. See Ames family 

Anfei Erez (Silver), 18:585 

Anfinsen, Christian Boehmer, 2:145- 
146, 4:592-593, 13:10 

Angaria, 2:146 

Angel, Aaron, 2:146-147 

Angel, Baruch, 2:147 

Angel, Marc D., 2:147 

Angel, Meir ben Abraham, 2:147 

Angel, Shemayahu, 2:147 

Angelo, Aaron Vita di, 17:297 

Angel of Death, 2:147-150 

The Angel of Death. See Mengele, 
Josef 

Angels and angelology, 2:150-161 

Abaddon, 1:224 

Abraham 

announcement of birth of 
Isaac, vol. 7: color insert 

Apocalypse of, 1:288-289 

Testament of, 1:291 

Adam, 1:372 

"Addir bi-Melukhah," 1:385 

Amen, 2:39 

amulets, 2:121, 122 

Apocalypse, 2:257 

Apocrypha, 2:152-156 

Balaam, 3:78 

Belial, 3:289-290 

Bible, 2:150-152 

cherub and cherubim, 2:150, 
4:600-601 

Daniel ben Moses al-Qumisi, 
5:428 

Daniel's dream, 5:421 

Dead Sea Scrolls, 5:502-503 

death, angel of, 2:147-150 

vs. demons, 5:573-574 

Elimelech of Lyzhansk, 6:348 

Enoch, Ethiopic Book of, 6:443 

Gabriel, 2:152, 153, 5:421, 14:167- 
169 

host of heaven, 9:566-567 

idolatry, 9:710 

Jacob and, 11:18, 19 

in art, 11:23-24 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



309 



INDEX 



Angels and angelology, continued 

Jerusalem Talmud, 19:484 

Jewish philosophy, 2:159-161 

Karaites, 11:789 

liturgy, 2:158 

logos, 2:159, 13:174-175 

magic, 13:342-345, 347-348, 350, 
352 

Maimonides, 2:160, 13:390 

manna, 13:478 

Manual of Discipline, 5:676-677 

Metatron, 14:132-134 

Michael, 2:152, 14:167-169 

Midrash, 2:156-158 

modern period, 2:161 

Moses, 14:534-536, 539 

mysticism, 2:158-159 

nature of man, 13:446, 448, 450 

Philo (the Elder), 16:58 

prayer, 16:459 

providence, 16:648-649 

Raphael, 17:93-94 

Sadducees, 17:655 

Samael, 17:715 

Samson, 17:749 

Sandalfon, 18:10 

Sefer ha-Razim, 17:130 

Solomon, 18:760 

Solomon, Testament of, 18:768 

song, angelic, 19:14 

Talmud, 2:156-158 

Uriel, 20:421-422 

visions, 20:543-545 

watchers, 20:688 

See also Nephilim; Satan 

The Angels Are Coming. See Malakhim 
Ba'im 

Angels in America (Kushner), 15:227 

Angelus, Theodore Ducas, 6:463 

The Angel with the Trumpet. See Der 
Engel mit der Posaune 

Angers (France), 2:161, 175 

Anghelov, Dimitur, 4:276 

Angicaymal. See Ernakulam 

Anglican Church 

Alexander, Michael Solomon, 
1:623-624 

Israel (state), 10:640 

Jewish relations, 11:281 

See also World Council of 
Churches (WCC) 

Anglo-American Committee of 

Enquiry Regarding the Problems of 
European Jewry and Palestine 
(1946), 3:703, 15:584-585, 586 

Anglo-Boer War. See Boer War 



Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society, 
2:161-162 

Anglo-Israeli theory, 4:188 

Anglo-Jewish Association (AJA), 

2:162, 3:319, 353, 6:415, 419, 12:565 

Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition 
(1887), 11:292, 14:626 

Anglo-Palestine Bank, 3:180, 10:513, 
514, 547, 586, 587 

Anglo-Saxon Federation of America, 
4:188 

Angoff, Charles, 2:162 

Angora. See Ankara (Turkey) 

Angouleme (France), 2:162-163 

Angrist, Alfred Alvin, 2:163 

Anhalt (Germany), 2:163 

Anhalt, Istvan, 2:163-164 

Anielewicz, Mordecai, 2:164 

Anilaeus and Asinaeus, 2:164-165, 
3:27, 11:440 

Ani Ma'amin, 2:165 

Animales feroces (Chocron), 4:657 

Animal Liberation (Singer), 18:640 

Animals, 2:168t-171t 

in art 

bulls, bronze figures, vol. 1: 
color insert 

calf, ivory figure, vol. 1: color 
insert 

fish, paper cut, vol. 2: color 
insert 

Jonah and the whale, 
illustration, vol. 1: color 
insert 

leopard, mosaic, vol. 1: color 
insert 

lion, seal, vol. 1: color insert 

lionness and cub, mosaic, vol. 
1: color insert 

monkey, bronze figure, vol. 
1: color insert 

ram, mosaic, vol. 1: color 
insert 

sacrificial animals, painting, 
vol. 1: color insert 

scarab seals, 18:225 

sculpture, 18:222 

Taurus the Bull, mosaic, vol. 
1: color insert 

Tiberias reliefs, vol. 1: color 
insert 

of the Bible and Talmud, 2:166- 
172, 12:696-697 

blemished, 3:749-750 

bull symbolism, 18:570 

Commandments, the 613, 5:75- 
76, 78, 80-84 

concern for, 5:165-166 



cruelty to, 2:165-166 

damages from, 2:751-752 

dietary laws, 5:650-659 

Elephantine Temple, 6:312-313 

fables, 6:666-669 

fasting, 6:721 

firstborn, 7:45-46 

goats, 5:488, 492-493 

hides, 12:574-577 

homicidal, bloodguilt of, 3:774 

vs. human life ethics, 5:168-169 

Ir ha-Niddahat, 10:28-29 

Israel, 10:143 

leopards, 12:649 

lions, 5:418 

lion symbolism, 18:570 

Mishnah, 14:324 

mixed species, 14:385-387 

moles, 14:425 

nature of man, 13:448 

nevelah, 15:129 

Noah, 15:287-288 

Parah, 15:630 

prehistoric Israel, 10:142 

prohibited, hare, 8:347-348 

proverbs, 16:647 

ritual purity and impurity, 
16:746-747 

sacrifices, 17:639-649 

Shehitah, 18:434-437 

soul, 19:34 

terefah, 19:647 

torts, 20:63-66 

tribal representations, 11:26 

See also specific animals and classes 
of animals 

The Animals' Collection (Kalonymus 
ben Kalonymus). See Iggeret Ba'alei 
Hayyim 

Animal slaughtering, commandments 
concerning, 5:76t-77t 

Animal tales, 2:173-174, 15:622 

Anim Zemirot, 2:174 

Aninut, 2:174, 14:587 

Anise, vol. 16: color insert 

Anisfeld, Boris, 2:174-175 

Anisimov, Ilya Sherbatovich, 2:175 

Ani ve-Shimon u-Moise ha-Kattan 
(Banai), 3:106 

Anjou (France), 2:175 

Ankara (Turkey), 2:175-176 

Ankawa, Abraham ben Mordecai, 
2:176, 13:24 

Ankawa, Raphael ben Mordecai, 2:176 

Ankori, Zevi, 2:176-177 

Anman. See Rosenthal, Pavel 



310 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Anman, P. Rol. See Rosenthal, Pavel 

Anna Akhmatova (Eichenbaum), 6:246 

Annaba (Algeria). See Bone (Algeria) 

Anna be-Kho'ah, 2:177 

Anna be-Korenu, 2:177 

Annaeus Seneca. See Seneca the Elder 

Annals. See Kitab al-Tarikh 

Ann Arbor (MI), 2:177-178 

Anna Teller (Seid), 18:253 

VAnnee Sociologique (periodical), 
6:63-64 

Anne Frank: The Whole Story, 9:440 

Annenberg, Walter H., 2:178-179, 
6:25-26, 11:468 

Annenberg Research Institute for 
Judaic and Near Eastern Studies, 
6:25-26 

Annita (King of Kussar), 9:291 

The Ann Landers Encyclopedia 
(Lederer), 12:596 

Annotations (Ainsworth), 1:550-551 

Annulment, 1:514-517, 518, 520 

Anointing, 2:179-180, 15:395-396 

Anokhi, Zalman Yizhak, 2:180 

"The Anonymous" (13th c). See Jacob 
ha-Katan 

Another Language (Franken), 7:202 

An San. See Chao Ch'eng 

Ansbach (Germany), 2:180, 7:144 

Ansell, David Abraham, 2:180-181 

Anselm ha-Levi, 2:181 

Anselm of Canterbury, 2:181 

Anshei Knesset ha-Gedolah. See 
Synagogue, The Great 

Anshei ha-Levi. See Anselm ha-Levi 

Anshei of Cracow, 2:181 

An-Ski, S., 2:181-182, 11:694, 17:98 

The Dybbuk, 8:179 

Justman, Moshe Bunem, 11:581 

An-Ski collections, 2:182-183 

Ansorge, Martin Charles, 2:183-184 

Anspach, Philippe, 2:184 

Antaka (Turkey). See Antioch 
(Turkey) 

Antakya (Turkey). See Antioch 
(Turkey) 

Antebi, Albert, 2:184 

Antebi, Avraham. See Antebi, Albert 

Antelope, 2:184-185 

Anthedon (Hellenistic city), 2:185 

Anthologie juive des orgines a nos jours 
(Fleg), 7:72 

Anthony, Joseph, 2:185 

Anthropocentrism, 5:164 

Anthropodicy 

Job as, 11:355-356 
Anthropology, 2:185-188 

Boas, Franz, 4:21-22 



Bunzel, Ruth Leah, 4:285 

cultural materialism, 8:363 

Elkin, Adolphus Peter, 6:359 

Erlich, Vera Stein, 6:481 

Fortes, Meyer, 7:133 

Harris, Marvin, 8:363 

Herskovits, Melville Jean, 9:46 

Landes, Ruth, 12:468-469 

Levin, Maksim Grigoryevich, 
12:710 

Levi-Strauss, Claude, 12:730 

Levy-Bruhl, Lucien, 12:756-757 

Lewis, I. M., 12:765 

Lewis, Oscar, 12:766 

Lowie, Robert Harry, 13:236-237 

Luschan, Felix von, 13:270 

Montagu, Montague Francis 
Ashley, 14:452 

Polanyi, Karl, 16:326-327 

race, theory of, 17:45-47 

Radin, Paul, 17:54-55 

Rappaport, Roy, 17:100 

Roheim, Geza, 17:369-370 

Sapir, Edward, 18:37 

Schapera, Isaac, 18:107 

Seligman, Charles Gabriel, 18:266 

Shapiro, Larry Lionel, 18:405-406 

Singer, Milton B., 18:639 

Anthropomorphic God, 11:516 

Anthropomorphism, 1:213, 379, 
2:188-192, 7:659, 11:730 

Antibi, Abraham ben Isaac, 2:192, 
192-193 

Antibi, Jacob, 2:192 

Antibi family, 2:192 

Antichresis, 2:193 

Antichrist, 2:193-194, 474-475 

Anti-Christian Polemics. See Polemics 
and polemical literature 

Anti-Defamation League (ADL), 
2:194-195, 9:245 

American Israel Public Affairs 
Committee, 2:52 

Arab propaganda, 2:194 

Foxman, Abraham, 7:142 

history of, 4:14 

Anti-Dictator. See Disc ours de la 
servitude volontaire 

Anti-Fascist Committee, Jewish, 
2:196-197 

Antigonus, 11:414, 13:299 

Antigonus I, 2:197 

Antigonus II, 2:197-198, 9:197 

Antigonus Mattathias, 8:446-447 

Antigonus of Carystus, 2:198 

Antigonus of Sokho, 2:198 



Anti-Israel Arab boycott, 4:111-113 

Anti- Jewish boycotts, 4:109-110, 
9:328, 461. See also antisemitic 
political parties and organizations; 
Antisemitism; Boycotts 

Anti-Jewish Decrees. See Antisemitism 

Antilles, Netherlands. See Netherlands 
Antilles 

Antimony, 14:128 

Antin, Mary, 2:198-199 

Anti-Nazi boycotts, 4:110-111, lilt 

Antinomianism, 1:231, 2:199-201, 
18:353 

Antioch (Turkey), 2:201, 201-202 

Antiochene school, 3:665-666 

Antioch on the River Chrysorrhoas. 
See Gerasa (Jordan) 

Antiochus (ancient Israel). See Banias 
(ancient Israel) 

Antiochus, Scroll of. See Scroll of 
Antiochus 

Antiochus I, 2:202 

Antiochus II, 2:202, 5:422 

Antiochus III, 2:202-203, 3:26, 9:192, 
193, 13:295 

Antiochus IV, 2:203, 9:193, 194 

blood libel and, 3:775 

Eleazar, 6:298 

Jason and, 2:203, 11:90 

Jerusalem and, 11:148 

Nicholas of Damascus on, 15:252 

Scroll of Antiochus, 18:213-214 

Antiochus V, 2:203 

Antiochus VII, 2:203, 18:601 

Antiochus IX, 2:203-204 

Antiochus Cyzicenus. See Antiochus 
IX 

Antiochus dynasty, 2:202-204 

Antiochus Epiphanes. See Antiochus 
IV 

Antiochus Eupator. See Antiochus V 

Antiochus III, 4:781 

Antiochus Sidetes. See Antiochus VII 

Antiochus Soter. See Antiochus I 

Antiochus the Great. See Antiochus III 

Antiochus Theos. See Antiochus II 

Antipas. See Antipater II 

Antipas, Herod, 2:204, 204, 9:39 

fortification of Sepphoris, 18:306 

John the Baptist and, 11:381 

Antipater 

Joseph (son), 11:414 

Julius Caesar and, 11:574 

Antipater I, 2:204-205, 205 

Antipater II, 2:205, 205 

Antipatris (Palestine), 2:205-206 

Antiphonal Psalmody. See Music 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



311 



INDEX 



Antiphony I (Brant), 4:130 

Antiproton, 18:252 

Antiquities of the Jews. See Jewish 
Antiquities 

Antisemitism, 2:206-246, 215, 14:41- 
142 

Abbas I, 3:15 

Abbasids, 1:234 

Abbas II, 1:231, 3:15 

Abd al-Haqq al-Islami, 1:240 

Abraham a Sancta Clara, 1:292 

Aden, 1:388, 389, 5:681 

Afghanistan, 1:433 

Africa, 1:436 

Agobard, 1:469, 2:124 

Ahlwardt, Hermann, 1:547 

Alaric II, 1:575 

Algeria, 1:649-651, 4:533 

Algiers, 1:653-654 

Alliance Israelite Universelle, 
1:671-675 

American Jewish Committee, 

2:55-56 

American Jewish Congress, 2:57- 
58 

Amran, 2:106 

Amsterdam, 2:106, 115-166, 119 

Amulo, 2:124 

Andrew of Rinn, 2:144 

Anglo-Saxon Federation of 
America, 4:188 

Anti-Defamation League, 2:194- 
196 

in antiquity, 2:206-209 

anti-shehitah movements and, 
18:435 

Apion, 2:256 

Arab countries, 2:225-226, 236 

Argentina 

Buenos Aires, 4:253-254 

DAIA, 5:379-380 
Asia-Pacific region, 2:238-239 
Austria, 2:217, 219, 4:224, 16:340 

Carinthia, 4:480 

Charles VI of Hapsburg, 

4:576-577 

Christian Social Party, 4:694 

Deckert, Joseph, 5:528 

Eisenstadt, 6:268-269 

references in Catholic 
literature, 18:168 

Schoenerer, Georg von, 
18:156-157 

Seipel, Ignaz on, 18:255 
Babylonia 

Sasanid dynasty, 3:29-30 
badges, Jewish, 3:45-48 

Austria, 2:689 



Belgium, 2:250 

Boniface IX, 4:63 

England, 3:45 

France, 2:6, 81, 3:45-46, 47 

Germany, 3:46-47, 450 

Italy, 2:137, 140, 292, 3:46, 
47, 12:506 

Netherlands, 2:115 

Spain, 6:91 

Basil I, decrees of, 18:460-461 

Battle of Cable Street, 3:215 

Belgium, 2:234, 16:144 

Bernheim Petition, 3:475-476 

of Billroth, Theodor, 3:699 

Birobidzhan, interest in, 3:719 

Bischhoff, Erich, 3:724 

Black Code of 1685, 8:240 

Black Death and, 3:731-734, 732- 
733, 15:94-95 

Blake, William, 3:737 

blood libel and, 3:775, 776, 778, 
779, 17:163 

Bloomberg, Michael, on, 3:782 

BnaiBrith, 4:14, 15 

Board of Delegates of American 
Israelites, 4:19 

Bohemia, 1:312, 4:39, 41 

Bonald, Louis de, 4:55 

Boniface VIII, 4:63 

boycotts, 4:109-110 

Brafman, Jacob, 4:116-117 

Brazil, 4:148-150, 151, 16:407, 
18:31-32, 33 

British West Indies, 4:473, 474 

Brunner, Sebastian, 4:224 

Bucer, Martin, 4:237 

Bukhara (Uzbekistan), 4:261-262 

Bulgaria, 4:271-273 

Byzantine empire, 4:325-326 

Calvin, John, 17:163 

Canada, 4:18, 91, 186, 394-395, 
396-397, 402, 403-404, 408- 
409, 415-416, 422, 423 

Ahenakew, David, 18:65 

Alberta, 1:590 

Scheuer, Edmund on, 18:124 

caricatures of Jews, 4:477-479 

carnival customs, 4:486 

Carthage, 4:499 

Catholic Chuch 

Second Vatican Council on, 
11:380 

Catholic Church, 4:710-711, 712, 
713-714, 716-717 

Calixtus III, 4:365 

censorship, 4:540 



Church Fathers, 4:719-721 

La Civilta Cattolica, 4:748- 
749 

Clement, 4:752-753 

Clement VIII, 2:140 

Crusades, 2:162, 5:310-315 

Dominicans, 5:745-746, 
17:126-127 

Paul IV, 2:140 

Caucasus, 4:527 

Chamberlain, Houston Stewart, 
4:563 

Chiarini, Luigi, 4:607 

Chile, 4:643 

Christianity, 2:106, 124, 239, 
4:685, 690, 713 

early period, 2:209-210 

Melito of Sardis, 14:13 

Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 4:725 

circuses, 4:735 

Colombia, 4:475 

"cosmopolitans," 5:232 

Coudenhove-Kallergi, Heinrich 
von, 5:238 

Crimean affair, 5:301 

Cuba, 5:319-321 

Cuza, Alexander C, 5:345 

Czechoslovakia, 2:229, 5:360-361, 
363, 13:600 

in literature, 5:365-366 

Slansky Trial, 18:665-666 

pre WW II, 5:356 
Czech Republic, 4:534-535 

Carlsbad, 4:482 

Ceska Lipa, 4:552 

Ceske Budejovice, 4:552 

Cheb, 4:585-586 

Chomutov, 4:666 

Miroslav, 14:314 

Damascus Affair, 5:399-401 

Denmark, 5:584 

development of, 9:238, 10:36, 821 

Diaspora, 2:207-209 

discrimination and, 5:679-681 

Dubrovnik (Croatia), 6:38-39 

Dutch literature and, 6:68-69 

early Islam, 2:210 

early postwar period, 2:224-225 

economic history, 6:103-129, 134- 
138 

effect on Jewish philosophy, 16:92 

Egypt, 6:234-235 

Alexandria, 1:632, 634, 635- 
636, 6:229-230 

Arab rule, 6:230-232 

Cairo, 4:343-344, 345 



312 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



modern period, 6:234-236 

Ottoman Turks, 6:232-234 

Roman era, 6:228-229, 16:28 

Eichmann, Adolf Otto, 6:248 

Eisenmenger, Johann Andreas, 
6:268 

Eleazar ben Judah of Worms, 
6:303-304 

emancipation period, 2:214-223 

England, 6:410, 418, 423, 425, 426, 

427 

Canterbury, 4:435-436 

London, 13:182 

Enlightenment period, 2:213-214 

Erasmus of Rotterdam, 6:477 

Evian Conference, 6:576-577 

expulsions, German, 7:523 

expulsions and, 6:625 

Filderman, Wilhelm, 7:19 

Ford, Henry, 18:39 

former Communist nations, 
11:282 

France, 2:6-9, 221-223, 238, 4:82 

Action Franchise, 1:369-370 

Agde, 1:446 

Agen, 1:449 

Aix-en-Provence, 1:552 

Albi, 1:591-592 

Alphonse of Poitiers, 1:730 

Bergheim, 3:427 

Beziers, 3:559 

Blois, 1:609 

Cadenet, 4:331 

Caen, 4:332, 460-461, 515 

Carcassonne, 4:460-461 

Carpentras, 4:493-494 

Castelsarrasin, 4:515 

Chalons-sur-Marne, 4:563 

Chalon-sur-Saone, 4:563 

Chambery, 4:564 

Champagne, 4:565 

Charles II, King of France, 
1:310 

Charles IV, 4:575 

Charles VI, 4:576 

Chateaubriand, Francois 
Rene, 4:582-583 

Chinon, 4:651 

Clermont-Ferrand, 4:755 

Cluny, 4:763 

Draguignan, 6:6-7 

Dreyfus affair, 6:18-19, 26 

Drumont, Edouard-Adolphe, 
6:26 

Ensisheim, 6:447 

French Revolution, 7:252-255 



Lyons, 1:469 

Morhange, 14:491 

Pastoureaux, 15:685 

Provence, 1:592, 16:638 

Savoy, 18:86 

Third Republic, 7:158 

twentieth century, 3:378, 
5:438, 441, 7:167-168, 
13:692 

Galicia 

Lvov, 4:724 

Germany, 2:215, 215-216, 217, 
218-219, 238, 4:540, 546, 7:624, 
12:436 

Agrarian League, 1:470 

Berlin, 3:445, 447, 448-451 

Calwer, Richard, 4:378 

Carben, Victor von, 4:460 

Charles IV, 4:575 

Chemnitz, 4:593-594 

Christian Social Party, 4:695 

Cleves, 4:759 

Coburg, 4:764 

Cochem, 4:765 

Delitzsch, Friedrich, 5:540- 
541 

Einbeck, 6:255 

Emden, 6:392 

Erfurt, 6:478 

Essen, 6:509 

Esslingen, 6:514 

Fulda, 7:309 

German Conservative Party, 
5:177 

Hamburg, 8:296 

Hanover, 8:330 

Heidingsfeld, 8:764 

Kristallnacht, 12:362-363 

medieval, 5:436 

Mommsen, Theodor, 14:431 

Mosbach, 14:515 

Nuremberg laws, 15:348-350 

Saxony, 18:88 

Unified Germany, 7:543 
Greece 

Chalcis, 4:561 

Chios, 4:651 

Haidamacks, 8:233-234 

Hapsburg dominions, 2:219 

Hep! Hep!, 8:811-812 

Herzl, Theodor, 9:55 

Hungary, 1:369, 377, 2:217, 219- 
220, 4:540, 9:612, 618-619, 
10:786 

Ada, 1:370 

Alberti-Irsa, 1:591 



literature, 9:604-605 

informers, 9:780-786 

interreligious societies to fight, 
11:278-279 

inter-war period, 2:223-224 

Iran, 10:12-13 

Hamadan, 8:292-293 
Iraq, 5:681, 10:18-19, 20-21 

Hilla, 9:107-108 
Ireland, 10:26-27 
Irving v. Lipstadt, 10:30-32 
Islam 

dhimma, dhimmi, 5:631-632 

Israel, 2:206-207 

Istanbul (Ottoman period), 10:778 

Italy, 2:140, 4:382, 445, 10:799- 
801, 803-805, 807, 808-809, 
810-811, 812, 813 

Acqui, 1:359 

Alessandria, 1:618 

Bergamo, 3:418 

Bologna, 4:49 

Brescia, 4:163 

Calabria, 4:348 

Capistrano, John of, 4:445 

Capua, 4:457 

carnival celebrations, 4:486 

Casale Monferrato, 4:504 

Catania, 4:523 

Catanzaro, 4:523 

Cesena, 4:551-552 

Chieri, 4:615 

Fascist regime, 6:716-717 

Franciscan order, 3:469 

Palermo, 15:581 

Rome, 4:523-524 

Japan, 2:240-242, 11:81, 85, 
18:289 

Jewish identity and, 11:293, 297, 
299 

Jewish image, 7:511-513 

Jewish labor and, 12:411 

John Paul II on, 11:384 

Josephus on, 11:438, 440 

Justin Martyr, 11:580 

of Juvenal, 11:582 

Latin America, 2:46, 235, 238, 
12:511 

League of Nations, 12:565 

Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich, 5:92-94 

Libya, 5:681 

Lithuania 

Aleksander Jagiellonczyk, 
1:610 

Brest-Litovsk, 4:168-170 

liturgy 

Kol Nidrei, 12:277 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



313 



INDEX 



Antisemitism, continued 

Luther, Martin, 17:163-164 

Majorca 

Chuetas, 4:707-708 

Masaryk, Thomas Garrigue and, 
13:600 

medals indicating, 13:714, 715 t, 
716 

Middle Ages, 2:211-212, 476-477, 
477, 6:555-556 

agriculture, Jewish, 1:494 

Dulcea of Worms, 6:44 

France, 4:460, 563 

Hugh of Lincoln, 9:579 
modern 

1970s, 2:233-238 

1980s, 2:238-242 

1990s, 2:242-244 

2000s, 2:244-245 

origins of, 6:544 
Mojecki, Przeclaw, 14:423 
Morocco, 14:499, 501, 502-503 

Casablanca, 4:503, 504 

Moses, 14:531-532 

New Zealand, 15:244-245 

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, 
7:512, 15:262 

Nordau, Max, 15:298 

in Norway, 15:308-309, 310 

oaths more Judaico or 
Juramentum Judaeorum, 
15:364-365 

Onody, Geza, 15:434 

OZON, 15:558 

Palestinian Authority, 2:328 

Paraguay, 15:630 

in partisan movement, 15:666 

Peru, 15:795-796 

pogroms, 16:279-282 

Poland, 1:508, 2:217, 220, 229, 
4:445, 540, 5:97-98, 11:102, 
12:594-595, 16:300-305, 317- 
318, 321, 322-323 

Aleksander Jagiellonczyk, 
1:610 

Bialystok, 3:567 

Breslau, 18:319 

Checiny, 4:586 

Chelm, 4:588 

Chmielnicki, Bogdan, 4:654- 
656 

Chmielnik, 4:656, 657 

Chryzanow, 4:707 

Ciechanow, 4:725 

Cracow, 5:261-262 

Dmowski, Roman, 5:723-724 

Endecja party, 6:402-403, 
11:740 



Kalisz, 11:740 

Legnica, 12:610 

literature, 16:335-338 

Mlawa, 14:395-396 

nineteenth century, 11:117— 
118 

Pilsudski, Jozef, 16:163-164 

Rozwoj, 17:505-506 

Samuel Commission, 17:775 

Skarga, Piotr, 18:657 
political participation and, 16:339 
Portugal, 1:431-432, 18:28-29 

Lisbon, 13:79-80 

Protestants, 16:631, 633 

Protocols of the Learned Elders of 
Zion, 6:297 

Prussia 

Calmanson, Jacob, 4:374 

Rathenau, Walther, 17:111 

Reformation, 2:212-213 

refutations, 6:688 

Rindfleisch, 17:334-335 

Rohling, August, 17:370 

Roman Empire, 4:486, 12:453- 
454, 17:374-375 

Romania, 2:217, 220-221, 5:433- 
434, 8:474, 11:91, 92, 17:382, 
383, 396 

Campulung Moldovenesc, 
4:390 

Cluj, 4:762 

Codreanu, Corneliu Zelea, 
4:781 

Focsani, 7:93 

Iron Guard, 10:29-30 

Siret, 18:643 

Slonim, 18:676 

Rosenberg, Alfred, 17:434-435 

Ruehs, Christian Friedrich, 17:526 

Russia, 2:217, 221-222, 4:525, 540, 
9:238 

1970s, 17:569 

1980s, 17:572-573 

Alexander, 1:620-621 

cantonists, 4:437-439 

Eliasberg, Mordecai, 6:319 

Moscow, 14:517-518, 520- 
521 

post- WW II, 17:553-554, 
556, 558 

Russian Federation, 17:583- 
586 

USSR regime, 17:543 

WW II, 17:547-549 
Saint Louis incident, 5:320 
Sardinia, 18:53 

Alghero, 1:652 



Cagliari, 4:335 

Schnitzler, Arthur on, 18:152 

science fiction and fantasy, 
18:201-202 

Sephardim and, 18:301-302 

Serbia 

Ada, 1:370 
Slovakia, 18:683, 684 

Dunajska Streda, 6:46 

socialism and, 18:704, 705, 707, 
708, 710-711 

South Africa, 2:238 

Spain, 2:213, 4:519 

Aguilar de Campoo, 1:509— 
510 

Alba de Tormes, 1:581 

Albarracin, 1:587 

Alfonso X, 1:642 

Almohads, 1:681 

Cadiz, 4:331 

Calahorra, 4:350 

Calatayud, 4:351-352 

Carmona, 4:485 

Carrion de los Condes, 4:496 

Cartagena, 4:496-497, 497 

Castellon de la Plana, 4:514 

Castile, 1:643 

Castrojeriz, 4:518-519 

Cea, 4:534 

Cervera, 4:550-551 

Chill6n, 4:645 

Ciudad Real, 4:745 

Ciudad Rodrigo, 4:745 

Coca, 4:764-765 

Ecrja, 6:91 

Elvira, 6:371 

Escalona, 6:488 

Estella, 6:514-515 

Madrid, 13:333 

Majorca, 13:412-414 

medieval, 5:437 

Miranda de Ebro, 14:310 

Segovia, 18:250 

Seville, 18:327 

Tarragona, 19:521 
St. Eustatius, 4:472 
Stalin, Joseph, 5:96, 99 
Swedish literature, 18:92 
Switzerland 

Berne, 3:471 

Endingen and Lengnau, 6:404 

Syria, 4:495-496, 5:681 

Aleppo, 1:614, 615, 616, 
4:587 

Der Talmudjude (Rohling), 17:370 

Transylvania 

Alba Iulia, 1:582 



314 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Turkey 

Edessa, 6:148-150 

U.K., 2:233, 237 

Aliens Act of 1905, 1:659 

Samuel Commission, 17:775 

Ukraine, 20:235-236, 238, 244- 
245 

Aleksandriya, 1:610 

Bratslav, 4:134 

Cherkassy, 4:594-595 

Chernigov, 4:596 

Chernobyl, 4:597 

Chernovtsy, 4:597-599 

Chudnov, 4:708 

Ehrlich, Eugen, 6:243 

Haller's Army, 8:281 

Yekaterinoslav, 5:724-725 

Uman massacre, 20:244-245 

United Nations, 20:268-269 

Uruguay, 20:426 

U.S., 2:214, 223, 229-233, 237, 
238, 20:387-394 

1920s- 1930s, 6:697 

Alabama, 1:573 

Birmingham, 3:713 

Black-Jewish relations in, 
3:736 

Boston, 4:99 

Civil War, 2:44, 8:34-35 

dance, 5:414 

Detroit (MI), 5:610-611 

efforts to combat, 15:716 

Frank, Leo, 7:192-193 

Global Anti-Semitism Review 
Act of 2004, 4:305 

Montana, 14:454 

North Carolina, 15:303 

Orange County, 15:462 

Westchester County, 21:22 

USSR, 2:226-229, 235-236, 4:65, 
16:320-321 

Broadsky, Joseph, trial of, 
4:198 

dance, 5:415 

doctors' plot, 5:728-729 

literature, 5:427 
Venezuela, 4:474-475, 20:497-498 

Curasao, 4:471 

Wagner, Richard, 20:595 

Wiener Gesera, 21:50 

Yemen, 18:6 

See also Blood libel; Communism; 
Emancipation; Neo-Nazism; 
Numerus clausus 

Antisemitism, its History and Causes 
(Lazare), 12:558 



Antisemitism and the Christian Mind 
(Davies), 4:684 

V Antisemitismee son histoire et ses 
causes (Lazare), 12:558 

Anti-semitizm w Swietle Cyfr (Alter), 
2:18 

Anti-shehitah movements, 18:435 

Antisthenes, 2:459 

Anti-Trinitarians, 4:249-250 

Anti-Zionism 

1970s, 2:236-237 

1980s, 2:239-240 

1990s, 2:243-244 

Berger, Elmer, 3:424 

Blau, Amram, 3:742 

Brach, Saul, 4:116 

Brazil, 4:151 

Dragunski, David Abramovich, 6:7 

Dubnow, Simon, 6:35-37 

Montefiore, Claude Joseph 
Goldsmid, 14:455 

Norway, 15:308-309 

Antloifers (Bryks), 4:230 

Antoine, Nicolas, 2:246 

Antokolski, Mark, 2:246-247 

Antokolski, Mordecai. See Antokolski, 
Mark 

Antokolski, Pavel Grigorevich, 2:247 

Antonescu, Ion, 2:247 

Antonescu, Mihai, 2:247 

Antonia (fortress in Jerusalem), 2:247- 
248 

Antonin Collections, 13:494-495 

Antoninus Pius, 2:248-249 

Antonio, 2:249 

Antonius Diogenes, 2:249 

Antonius Julianus, 2:249 

Ants, 2:184 

Antschel, Paul. See Celan, Paul 

Antunes family, 2:249 

Antwerp (Belgium), 2:249-251, 3:281- 
282, 5:635 

Anusim, 2:251-254, 3:121 

Aklar Mordecai ben Raphael, 
1:569 

Bibago, Isaac, 3:571 

Jewish identity and, 9:223, 11:294- 
295 

new Muslims, 11:58 

Paul IV, 9:226 

Portuguese communities, 6:588 

Uzbekistan, 4:259 

In Anxiety. See In Umru (Litvakov) 

Van zero de VAllemagne (Morin), 
14:492 

Apam, 2:254 

Apamea (Turkey), 2:254, 587 



Apartheid, 7:762 

The Apathetic Interrogator (Duda), 
6:40 

Apel, Willi, 2:254 

Apeloig, Yitzhak, 2:254-255 

Apes, 2:254 

Apfelboym, Maurycy. See Appelbaum, 
Moshe 

Aphek, 2:205, 255, 6:85 

Aphraates, 4:720 

Aphrahat, 3:599 

Aphrodite (opera, Erlanger), 6:480 

Apikoros, 2:255-256, 9:20 

Apikoros Sleuth (Majzels), 4:424 

Apion, 2:256, 3:775 

'Apiru, 15:748 

Apiryon Asah Lo (Solomon ben 
Aaron), 18:769 

Apocalypse, 2:256-258 

of Abraham, 1:288-289 

Apocalypse of Baruch, 3:184-185 

Apocalypse of Elijah, 6:337 

apocrypha, 6:495-498 

Bloch, Joshua, on, 3:764 

Daniel, Vision of (13c), 5:426 

Daniel and, 5:418, 420-421, 423- 
424, 6:494-495 

Dead Sea Scrolls, 6:498-500 

Elijah, 6:333 

Greek Apocalypse of Baruch, 3:186 

Isaiah, Book of, 10:66-67 

See also Eschatology 
Apocalypse of Abraham, 1:288-289 
Apocalypse of Adam, 14:728-729 
Apocalypse of Baruch, 3:184-186 
Apocalypse of Elijah, 6:337 
Apocalypse of Isaiah 

Deutero-Isaiah, 6:493 

eschatology, 6:491, 494 

Apocalypsis Moysis. See Book of the Life 
of Adam and Eve 

Apocalyptic esotericism. See Kabbalah 

Apocalyptic literature 

Abraham ben Eliezer ha-Levi, 
1:298 

Assumption of Moses, 14:544-545 

Beck(ius) Matthias Friedrich, 

3:250 

Enoch, 6:441-445 

ingathering of the exiles, 9:786 

Joel, Book of, 11:361-362 

Judah Halevi, 11:495 

Judas (Christian writer), 11:523 

medieval, 7:10-11 

modern biblical criticism and, 
3:654-655 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



315 



INDEX 



Apocalyptic literature, continued 

Moses, 14:533 

mysticism in, 11:590 

olam ha-ba, 15:399-400 

paradise in, 15:628 

Persian influence, 6:495 

Samael, 17:714 

Testaments of the Twelve 
Patriarchs, 15:692 

See also Apocalypse; Eschatology 

Apocrypha, 2:258, 258-261 

Abraham, Testament of, 1:291 

angels in, 2:152-156 

Apocalypse of Elijah, 6:337 

Assumption of Moses, 14:544-545 

astrology, 2:615-616 

astronomy, 2:621 

Book of the Life of Adam and Eve, 
1:377-378 

Davidic Messiah, 14:111-112 

devil in, 13:668-669 

dualism, 6:30 

folklore, 7:96-97 

halakhah, 8:255 

Hebrew fiction, 7:11-12 

Hellenistic literature, 7:659 

Jacob, Testament of, 11:29 

Jeremiah, Epistle of, 11:135 

Jewish censorship, 4:540-541 

Jewish literature, 13:85-86 

Joseph and Asenath, 11:418 

Jubilees, Book of, 13:668-669 

Kahana, Abraham, 11:710 

labor, 12:409 

Lamech, 12:444-445 

magic, 13:343-344 

Martyrdom of Isaiah, 10:76 

New Testament, 15:191 

Prayer of Manasseh, 13:453-454 

pre-Middle Ages, 13:85-86 

providence, 16:648-649 

Psalms of Solomon, 18:766-767 

Rest of the Words of Baruch, 
3:187-188 

Sabbath, 17:618 

Sifrei ha- Minim, 18:564 

Temple destruction, 10:144 

Ten Lost Tribes, 19:639 

Testaments of the Twelve 
Patriarchs, 15:691-693 

Tobit, 6:691 

Wisdom of Ben Sira, 3:376-378 

Wisdom of Solomon, 18:768-769 

Apocryphal Ezra. See Ezra, Greek 
Book of 

Apocryphal literature 

Abraham, other books of, 1:290 



Abraham, Testament of, 1:291 

Adam, other books of, 1:377 

Adam and Eve, Book of, 1:377- 
378 

afterlife, 1:441 

Apocalypse of Abraham, 1:288-289 

Book of Baruch, 3:185-186 

Enoch, 6:441-442 

Enoch, Ethiopic Book of, 6:442- 
444 

Enoch, Slavonic Book of, 6:444- 
445 

eschatology, 6:495-498 

Esther, additions to the Book of, 
8:294 

God, names of, 7:676-677 

Lamech, Book of, 12:445 

Maccabees, Book of, 8:325, 331 

magic, 13:343-344 

prayer, 16:458 

Rest of the Words of Baruch, 
3:187-188 

Susanna and the Elders, 19:326- 

327 

Tobit, Book of, 20:12-14 

The Apocryphon of John, 14:729 

Apodictic legal formulation, in Book 
of the Covenant, 4:68 

Apollinaris of Hierapolis, 4:719 

Apollonia (Israel), 2:261-262 

Apollonius, 2:262 

Apollonius Molon, 2:262, 14:532 

Apologetic literature. See Apologetics 

Apologetics, 2:262-269 

Christianity, 2:263-264 

eighteenth century, 2:268 

Hellenism, 2:262-263 

Luzzatto, Simone ben Isaac 
Simhah, 13:287-288 

medieval, 2:264-268 

Midrash, 2:263 

nineteenth century, 2:268-269 

Philo Verlag, 16:114 

Talmud, 2:263 

twentieth century, 2:269 

Apologia (Pico della Miraondola), 
16:146-147 

The Apologia (Jedaiah ben Abraham 
Bedersi), 11:101 

Apologia David altera (Ambrose), 2:37 

Apologie des Juifs (Hourwitz), 8:439 

An Apology for the Honourable Nation 
of the Jews, and all the Sons of Israel 
(Nicholas), 15:252 

Apostasy, 1:209, 2:269-277 

Abdallah ibn Salaam, 1:241 

Abner of Burgos, 1: 264-265 



Alboraycos, 1:595 

Alexander, Michael Solomon, 
1:623 

Alexeyev, Alexander, 1:636 

Alfonso of Zamora, 1:643 

Bernays, Michael, 3:470 

Bourges, 4:106 

Brafman, Jacob, 4:116 

Brandstaetter, Roman, 4:128 

Carben, Victor von, 4:460 

Cassel, Paulus Stephanus, 4:508 

Christiani, Pablo, 4:673 

Christianity, 2:270-272, 4:677 

Christian Science Church, 4:694 

Chwolson, Daniel, 4:724 

Dawlah, Rashid al-, 8:292 

Diaspora, 2:274-275 

Donin, Nicholas, 5:750 

eighteenth century, 2:271-272 

Elisha ben Avuyah, 6:352-354 

Fioghi, Fabiano, 7:41 

folklore, 2:277 

Frank, Jacob, 7:187-189 

Gamaliel ben Pedahzur, 7:366 

Gans, Eduard, 7:377 

Ginsburg, Christian David, 7:610 

golden calf, 1:209, 14:525, 528, 
530, 535-536 

Halevy, Daniel, 8:269 

Hellenism, 2:269-270 

Hermanus Quondam Judaeus, 
9:25 

Hirschensohn-Lichtenstein, Jehiel 
Zevi Hermann, 9:136 

informers revealed by, 9:780 

Islam, 2:270, 275 

Jewish law, 2:275-277, 12:543-544 

Jona, Giovanni Battista, 11:387 

Juan de Espagna, 11:472 

from Judaism to Christianity 

Buedinger, Max, 4:251 

Carben, Victor von, 4:460 

Domus Conversorum, 5:747 

Drach, Paul-Louis-Bernard, 
6:5-6 

Ehrlich, Arnold Bogumil, 
6:242-243 

Eliano, Giovanni Battista, 
6:318 

Elias Le Eveske, 6:320 

Engelberg, Hayyim of, 6:409 

Este, Joao Baptista de, 6:514 

Hermanus Quondam 
Judaeus, 9:25 

Hirschensohn-Lichtenstein, 
Jehiel Zevi Hermann, 9:136 



316 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



John XXII on, 11:379 

Julian III on, 11:574 

Levertoff, Paul Philip, 12:681 

Mithridates, Flavius, 14:370 

Morosini, Giulio, 14:508 

in Ottoman empire, 15:531 

Pablo de Santa Maria, 
15:562-563 

Vineam sorce of Nicholas III, 
15:249 

from Judaism to Islam 

Babai ben Farhad, Judeo- 
Persian poetry of, 11:556 

Jewish identity and, 11:295 

in Ottoman empire, 15:531 

Klaczko, Julian, 12:209 

Kraus, Karl, 12:341 

Lorki, Joshua, 13:192-193 

Lothar, Ernst, 13:216 

Margarita, Anton, 13:522 

Margoliouth, Moses, 13:528 

Maritain, Raissa, 13:546 

Marranos, 2:271 

medieval Germany, 16:25-26 

Mendelssohn-Veit-Schlegel, 
Dorothea, 14:41 

Mithridates, Flavius, 14:370-371 

Monis, Judah, 14:444 

Neander, August, 15:47 

nineteenth century, 2:272 

Nola, Elijah ben Menachem da, 
15:294 

Nunez, Henrique, 15:345 

Pasternak, Boris Leonidovich, 
15:684 

Pasternak, Boris Leonidovich, 

2:272-273 

Pauli, Johannes, 15:695-696 

Petrus Alfonsi, 16:21 

Pfefferkorn, Johannes, 16:25-26 

Pitigrilli, 16:188 

Provence (France), 16:638 

Rabinovich, Joseph, 17:37 

Ratisbonne brothers, 17:111-112 

Reformation period, 2:271 

Reuter, Paul Julius, Freiherr von, 
17:249 

Ricardo, David, 17:282 

Ricius, Paulus, 17:292 

Rosenstock-Huessy, Eugen, 
17:450-451 

Rufeisen, Oswald, 2:273, 274 

Sa'id ibn Hasan, 17:668 

Salkinson, Isaac Edward, 17:691- 
692 

Samau'al ben Judah ibn 'Abbas 
al-Maghribi, 17:741-742 



Schereschewsky, Samuel Isaac 
Joseph, 18:122 

Schumann, Maurice, 18:175 

Seneor, Abraham, 18:288-289 

Shabbetai Zevi, 18:348-350, 351 

Sixtus of Siena, 18:656 

Spain 

Alcaniz, 1:599 

Stahl, Friedrich Julius, 19:156-157 

Stein, Edith, 19:176 

Trebitsch, Arthur, 20:124 

Trebitsch, Siegfried, 20:124 

twentieth century, 2:272-273 

Vambery, Arminius, 20:470 

Veith, Johann Emanuel, 20:491 

Weidner, Paulus, 20:699 

Weininger, Otto, 20:722 

Wolff, Joseph, 21:144-145 

Zidek, Pavel, 21:527 

Zoller, Israel, 21:666 

See also Conversion; Forced 
conversion 

The Apostate (Molnar), 14:427 

Apostles, 2:277-278 

Apostolic Age, 2:278 

Apostomos, 2:278 

Apoteke, 12:815-816 

Apotropos, 2:278-283 

Apparel industry. See Clothing and 
textiles industry; Fashion industry 

Apparition. See Divination 

Appeals, 2:283-284 

Appeals of Communism (Almond), 
1:683 

Appearance of a Man (Backer), 3:40 

Appel, Judah Leib, 2:284-285 

Appelbaum, Moshe, 2:285 

Appelboym, Maurycy. See Appelbaum, 
Moshe 

Appelfeld, Aharon, 2:285-286, 8:704, 
705 

Appelman, Harlene, 2:286-287 

Apphus. See Jonathan the Hasmonean 

Appian of Alexandria, 2:287 

Appion, 11:440 

Appiryon Asah Lo (Troki), 11:792 

Apple, Max, 2:287 

Apple, Raymond, 2:287-288 

Applebaum, David, 18:775 

Applebaum, Louis, 2:288 

Applebaum, Maurycy. See Appelbaum, 
Moshe 

Apple blossoms, vol. 16: color insert 

Apples, 2:287 

Appletons New American Cyclopaedia, 
8:768 



Appobalsamon. See Balsam 

Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz 
(motion picture), 6:21 

The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz 
(Richler), 4:423-424 

VApprenti sorcier. See The Sorcerer's 
Apprentice 

Approaches to Auschwitz: The 
Holocaust and Its Legacy 
(Rubenstein & Roth), 9:418 

Apt (France), 2:288 

Apta (Poland). See Opatow 

Apta, Meir, 2:288 

Apter, David Ernest, 2:288-289 

Aptheker, Haim. See Atar, Haim 

Aptowitzer, Avigdor. See Aptowitzer, 
Victor 

Aptowitzer, Victor, 2:289 

Aptrod, David. See Abterode, David 
ben Moses Eliakim 

Aptrod, David ben Moses Eliakim. See 
Abterode, David ben Moses Eliakim 

Apuleius, Lucius, 2:289 

Apulia (Italy), 2:289-291 

Apulum (Transylvania). See Alba Iulia 
(Transylvania) 

'Aqedah. See Akedah 

An Aquarius. See Vodndr 

Aquila, 15:433-434 

Greek translation of Bible by, 
3:585, 597, 601 

Targum Onkelos and, 3:590 
Aquila (Italy), 2:291 
Aquileia (Italy), 2:291 
Aquinas, Thomas, 2:291-292, 6:50 
Aquino, Benigno S., 18:752 
Aquino, Corazon, 18:752 
"A.R.". See Rothstein, Arnold 
'Ara (Canaan), 2:292 
al -'Araba. See The Arabah 
Araba (Israel), 2:292-293 
The Arabah, 2:293, 10:122-123 
Arabarch. See Alabarch 
Arab boycott, 4:111-113, 10:22, 256 
Arabia, 2:293-296, 294, 15:259 

See also Saudi Arabia 
Arabian Peninsula. See Arabia 
Arabic and Judeo-Arabic 

Bible translations 

ancient, 3:603-605 

modern, 3:627 

Arabic language, 2:296-299, 297, 
8:658-659 

Abu, 1:333 

Ammonites, 2:84 

Blau, Joshua, 3:743-744 

commentaries in, 11:86-87 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



317 



INDEX 



Arabic language, continued 

Dunash ibn Tamim, 6:48-49 

Hebrew, influence on, 8:658-665 

Hebrew translations, 2:132 

Al-Harizi, Judah ben 
Solomon, 1:655-657 

in Mishnaic Hebrew, 8:647-648 

Moreh, Shmuel, 14:484 

nouns, 8:556 

Semitic languages and, 18:283 

sentence syntax, 8:602 

Skoss, Solomon Leon, 18:662 

translations from Hebrew, 8:734 

See also Judeo-Arabic language 

Arabic Literary Society, 6:318 

Arabic literature, 4:170-171, 10:734- 
737, 15:472-473 

See also Judeo-Arabic literature 
Arabishce Syntax (Reckendorf), 17:146 
Arab-Israeli conflict 

Arab League, 2:300 

Arab world, 2:305-309, 310-311, 
328 

bi-nationalism, 3:702-703 

Holocaust art imagery, 2:520-521 

peace negotiations, 4:760-761 

Arab-Israeli peace negotiations, 4:760- 
761 

Arab-Israel War (1948) 
Jordan, 11:404 

Arabists 

Dozy, Reinhart Pieter Anne, 5:772 
Heller, Bernat, 8:793-794 

Arab League, 2:299-300, 6:145, 12:580 

Arab League Council, boycott against 
Palestine, 4:111-112 

Arab Legion, 1:243-244, 11:178-179 

Arab Literature under the Shadow of 
War (Ballas), 3:92 

Arab nationalism, 1:244, 10:196, 271- 
272, 279-281 

Arab period 

Egypt 

Alexandria, 1:634 

Israel, land of, 10:157, 157-161 

Arab population 

Gaza Strip 

after Six-Day war, 10:717-718 

Egyptian control, 10:303, 717 

Israel (state), 10:278, 485-486, 
521-522, 679, 712-739 

1948-67, 10:712-715 

1970s, 10:719-721 

1980s to mid-1990s, 10:721- 
728 

1995 to 2005, 10:728-733 



in administered territories, 
10:239, 241-242 

Arab refugees, 10:256, 267- 
271 

arts and popular culture, 
10:733-734 

Bedouin, 10:737-739 

demography, 10:485-486, 

521-522 

farming, and urbanization, 
10:485-486 

Gaza Strip, 10:303, 717 

health services, 10:679 

Jordanian Rule, 1948-67, 
10:715-717 

post-Six-Day War, 10:231, 
232, 717-719 

refugee problem, 10:256 

refugees and, 10:256 

Six-Day War and, 10:231, 232 

standard of living, 10:224- 

225 

voting by, 10:250-251 

Palestine (Mandate), 10:710-712, 
712* 

West Bank 

after Six-Day war, 10:717-718 

Jordanian control, 10:715— 

717 

See also Palestinians 

Arab Revolt (1936-1939), 10:277, 338, 
18:753 

Arab world, 1945-2006, 2:300-328 

Algeria, 2:322-323 

Arab-Israeli conflict, 2:305, 306- 
309, 310-311, 328 

Bombay, Arabic Jews in, 4:51 

caricatures of Jews, 4:479 

democracy, 2:326-328 

demography, 2:328 

discrimination and, 5:681 

Egypt, 2:300, 307-308, 309-311, 

326-327 

Egyptian-Israeli peace, 2:311-313 

Fertile Crescent, 2:300, 301 

foreign policy and relations with 
Israel (state), 10:264, 12:546 

globalization, 2:324-326 

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 
2:301 

inter-Arab politics, 2:301-304, 
309-310 

Iran-Iraq war, 2:313 

Iraq, 2:301, 326-328 

Islamists, 2:324-325, 326 

Israel, 2:313-316, 317-320, 320- 
324, 475-476 

Jordan, 2:305, 316-320 



Lebanon, 2:301, 313, 314 

Maghreb, 2:300, 320-324 

Morocco, 2:306, 314, 320-322, 
326, 327 

musical influence of, 14:696 

Nasserists, 2:325-326 

Operation Peace for Galilee, 2:313 

Oslo Accords, 2:316-320 

Palestine, 2:301, 302-303, 317-320 

Palestine Liberation Organization, 
2:304-305, 313, 317 

Palestinian Authority, 2:300, 301, 
320, 326 

Sudan, 2:300-301 

Syria, 2:302-303, 306, 317-320 

Tunisia, 2:323-324 

Yemen, 2:304 

See also Middle East; Near East 
Arab world, pre- 1945 

Abbasids, 1:233-234 

blood libel in, 3:780 
Arad (Israel), 2:328-331 

archaeology, 2:371 

Eliashib (name), 6:320 

excavations, 5:335 

stone altar at, 2:12 

Arad (Romania), 2:331 

Arad, Ron, 2:331-332 

Arad, Yael, 2:332 

Arad, Yitzhak, 2:332 

Arad ostraca, 3:656 

Arad Program, 21:614 

Aradus (Syria), 2:332 

Arafat, Musa, 15:600 

Arafat, Yasser, 2:309, 332-335 

agreements signed with, 10:245, 
246 

Bush, George W., 4:305 

death of, 15:595 

Al -Fatah and, 10:279-280 

Intifada (second), 10:251 

Oslo Accords, 10:245 

Palestine Liberation Organization 
and, 15:590, 593, 594, 595 

Palestinian Authority and, 15:596, 
597, 598, 599, 600 

Wye Plantation Agreement, 10:249 
Aragao, Fernao Ximenes de, 2:335 
Aragon (medieval Spain) 

Alconstantini family, 1:604 

conversion in, 5:437 

Eleazar family, 6:298 
Aragon, Louis, 3:763 
Aragon Synagogue, 11:828 
Arakhim u-Derakhim (Dinur), 5:672 
Arakhin, 2:335-337 



318 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Aram. See Mar (term of respect) 
Aram (Syria) 

Ahab, 1:523 

Ahaz, 1:539 

Aram-Damascus, 2:359-360, 
8:485-486 

Arama, Isaac, 2:160, 531, 6:726 

Abraham, 1:285 

allegorical interpretation of 
scripture, 3:645 

Bibago, Abrahem ben Shem Tov, 
3:571 

exile, meaning of, 7:360 

Hasidei Ummot ha-Olam, 8:389 

Maimonides' essential principles 
of Judaism, 11:513 

Moses, 14:537 

Arama, Isaac ben Moses, 2:339-341 

Arama, Meir ben Isaac, 2:341-342 

Arama, Moses, 2:274 

Aramaic Documents of the Fifth 
Century B.C. (Driver), 6:22 

Aramaic language, 2:342-359, 344 f, 
345f, 8:647-648, 669-670 

alphabet, Hebrew, 1:694*, 695- 
697, 706, 709f 

Amorites, 2:96 

ancient, 2:342, 343-346, 345t 

Chaldean language, 4:561, 562 

classical, 2:356 

Daniel, Book of, 5:424 

Dead Sea scrolls, 8:635 

decline in importance of, 3:641 

European languages and, 2:356 

He, letter, 8:506 

Hebrew, spoken, 2:357 

Hebrew grammar, influence on, 
8:573 

Hebrew influenced by, 11:301 

Jewish languages, as element in, 
11:302 

Job, Aramaisms in book of, 11:351 

Jonah, Aramaisms in book of, 
11:389 

Judah ha-Nasi on, 11:503 

Judeo-Persian grammars, 11:554 

Lamentations Rabbah, 12:452 

late, 2:343, 348-357, 350t 

Eastern, 2:352-357, 353 f, 355t 

Western, 2:348-349 
Levi, Testament of, 12:694-695 
middle, 2:342-343, 347-348 
in Mishnaic Hebrew, 8:647-648 
Mishnaic Hebrew and, 2:356 
Neo-Aramaic, 15:70-72 
New Testament and, 15:192 
official, 2:343-347, 345 



parts of Bible composed in, 3:581 

proverbs, 16:647 

Scroll of Antiochus, 18:214 

Semetic languages and, 18:282, 
284 

translations of Bible, ancient 

CPA, 3:600 

Judith, Book of, 11:567 

Onkelos, 15:433-434 

Peshitta (Syriac Aramaic), 
3:599-601 

Samaritan Bible, 3:599, 652 

targumim, 3:588-594 

Aramaic literature 

Abraham ben Daniel, 1:295 

Aha of Shabha, 1:530 

Akdamut Millin, 1:555 

Al-Asatir, 1:576 

The Jewish War (Josephus), lost 
Aramaic version of, 11:436 

Josippon, 11:462 

Sefer ha-Mitzvot, 2:127 

Die aramaischen Texte vom Toten Meer 
(Beyer), 18:470 

Aram and Arameans, 2:337-339, 338 

Aramatha. See Ramoth-Gilead (ancient 
Israel) 

Aram-Damascus, 2:359-360 

Aramean kingdom, 2:489 

Arameans 

Chaldeans, 4:561 

Laban, 12:406 

Pekod, 15:717 

Les Arameens (Dupont-Sommer), 6:51 

Aram Zoba. See Aleppo 

Aram-Zoba (Syria). See Aleppo (Syria) 

Aram-Zova (Syria). See Aleppo (Syria) 

Aran, Zalman, 2:360 

Aranha, Oswaldo, 4:153 

Aranne, Zalman, 10:224 

'Ar'ara (Israel), 2:360 

Ararat, 2:360-361 

Ararat (NY), 15:291 

Araton, Harvey, 2:361 

Araunah, 2:361 

The Aravah. See The Arabah 

Aravot. See Hoshanot 

Arazi, Yehuda, 2:361-362 

Arba'ah Kinyanim (Canpanton), 4:432 

Arba'ah minim. See Four species 

Arba'ah Turim. See Even Shetiyyah 

Arba'ah Turim (Jacob ben Asher), 
4:307, 8:552, 11:30 

Arba Ammot, 1:360, 2:362 

Arba kosot, 2:362 

Arba Panim (Ephraim ben Isaac). See 
Four Aspects (Ephraim ben Isaac) 



Arba Shitot, 11:729 

Arbatova, Mia, 2:362-363 

Arbatta, 2:363 

Arbeh. See Locusts 

Das Arbeitende FretzYisrael 
(periodical), 18:425 

Arbeiter Ring. See Workmen's Circle 

Arbeiter-Zeitung (newspaper), 2:363, 
12:625 

Arbeit macht frei mi-Toitland Europa, 
8:723 

Arbeitslager. See Camps, concentration 
and extermination 

Die Arbeitslosen von Marienthal 
(Lazarsfeld), 12:559-560 

Arbel (Israel), 2:363-364 

Arbela (Israel). See Arbel (Israel) 

Arbell, Mordecai, 2:364 

Arbeter Ring. See Workmen's Circle 

Arbib, Isaac ben Arroyo. See Arollia, 
Isaac ben Moses 

Arbib family, 2:364 

Arbil (Iraq). See Irbil (Iraq) 

Arbitration, 1:249, 2:364-368 

Arbol de Diana (Pizarnik), 16:209 

Arbues, Pedro de, 2:368 

Arbus, Diane, 2:368-369, 16:125 

Arcel, Ray, 2:369 

Archa, 2:369-370, 14:442 

Archaeologists, 2:125, 370-372 

Aharoni, Yohanan, 1:531-532 

Albright, William Foxwell, 1:596 

Ben-Dor, Immanuel, 3:328 

Dothan, Trude, 5:764 

Finkelstein, Israel, 7:33-34 

Frankfort, Henri, 7:204 

Herzfeld, Ernst Emil, 9:53 

Hirschfeld, Gustav, 9:137 

Kempinsky, Aharon, 12:73 

Lawrence, Thomas Edward, 12:546 

Lehmann, Karl, 12:615 

Levi, Doro, 12:687 

Mazar, Amihai, 13:705 

Mazar, Benjamin, 13:705-706 

Moscati, Sabatino, 14:515 

Petrie, Sir William Matthew 
Flinders, 16:18-19 

Raban, Avner, 17:6 

Ramoth-Gilead, 17:88 

Reifenberg, Adolf, 17:203 

Reinach, Solomon, 17:205 

Saulcy, Louis Felicien de Joseph 
Caignart, 18:83 

Schaeffer, Claude F.A., 18:102-103 

Schumacher, Gottlieb, 18:175 

See also specific names 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



319 



INDEX 



Archaeology, 2:372-397, 373 

Achzib, 1:356 

Ai, 1:548-549 

Alalakh, 1:574 

altars, 2:12, 14 

animal reliefs at Tiberias (3rd c. 
B.C.E.), vol. 10: color insert 

archaeological periods, 2:380-397 

Bronze Age, 2:384-387, 
12:420-421 

Byzantine, 2:391 

Chalcolithic, 2:383-384 

Crusader, 2:392 

Hellenistic, 2:388-390 

Iron Age, 2:387-388 

Islamic, 2:391-392 

Ottoman, 2:392-393 

Persian, 2:388 

prehistoric, 2:381-383 

Roman, 2:390-391 

Assyria and Mesopotamia, 14:92- 
93 

Babylon, 3:24 

Banias, 3:109 

Bar Kokhba, 3:160-162 

bas relief of menorah (3rd c), vol. 
14: color insert 

Beersheba, 3:256-257 

Bet She'arim amphitheater (8th 
c), vol. 14: color insert 

Bible and, 11:77 

biblical criticism and, 3:650, 652, 
654 

bone-reaping hook (10th 
millenium B.C.E.), vol. 10: 
color insert 

Bar'am Synagogue remains, Golan 
Heights (3rd c), vol. 14: color 
insert 

Butnah, 4:318 

capital, Corinthian (4th-3rd c. 
B.C.E.), vol. 10: color insert 

capital from Kazerin synagogue 
(3rd-5th c), vol. 14: color 
insert 

capital from Philistine city, vol. 
10: color insert 

Christian history, 7:174-175 

chronology, 4:704-705 

Copper scroll, 5:213-214 

Delia Seta, Alessandro, 5:541 

Delos (Greece), 5:545 

dolmens, 5:736-737 

Dura-Europos, 6:51-55 

economic history, 6:95-96 

Edom, 6:152 

Ein Fashkhah, 6:255-256 



Ein Gedi, vol. 10: color insert 

Ekron, 6:281-282 

Elam, 6:283-284 

El-Amarna, 6:284-285 

El-Amarna letters, 6:284-285 

Elephantine, 6:311-314 

Elusa, 6:370-371 

Emar, 6:386-390 

Emmaus, 6:395-396 

En-Gedi, 6:406-407 

Eshtaol, 6:507 

"Galilean" Mona Lisa (3rd c), vol. 
14: color insert 

gateway decoration, Jerusalem 
(19th c), vol. 10: color insert 

Gezer, 7:569 

gibeah, geba, 7:580-582 

glass, 7:628-632 

Golan, 17:79-80 

Hammath, 8:307 

Hanfmann, George Maxim 
Anossov, 8:320 

Hazor, 8:498-500 

Herat, 9:7 

history of research in Israel, 

2:377-379 

household objects (2nd c. B.C.E.), 
vol. 10: color insert 

household objects, Golan Heights 
(3rd-5th c), vol. 14: color 
insert 

Israel 

Caesarea, 4:333-334 

Epstein, Claire, 6:469 

Israel Exploration Society, 
10:750 

Jerusalem, 18:126-127 

Misrephoth-Maim, 14:364 

Judean Desert caves expeditions, 
11:523-525 

Kazerin, Golan Heights, vol. 14: 
color insert 

Lachish ostraca, 12:421-422 

Loewy, Emanuel, 13:172 

Madaba mosaic map, 13:329-330 

Mamshit, vol. 10: color insert 

Masada, vol. 14: color insert 

methods and approaches, 2:372, 
374-377 

mikveh, 14:227-228 

Mizpeh, 14:388 

mizrah of ancient synagogues, 
16:421-426 

Moab, 14:399, 400, 403 

Modi'in, 14:412 

Moloch, cult of, 14:427-428 

Murabba'at scrolls, 14:616-617 



Nash papyrus, 14:783-784 

Old City, Jerusalem, vol. 10: color 
insert 

origins of Israel and Israelites, 
2:379-380 

ossuaries, 15:506-507 

ostraca, 15:508-509 

Oven Cave, Carmel Cave, and 
River Cave (Israel), vol. 10: 
color insert 

Palestine 

seals, 18:226 

Palestine Exploration Fund, 15:589 

Philistines, 7:619 

pillars, 16:159-161 

pottery, 16:421-426 

Rabbath-Ammon, 17:11 

Ramat Rahel, 17:82 

sarcophagi, 15:506-507 

Sepphoris, 18:307 

Shaalbim, 18:334 

Sha'ar ha-Golan, 18:336 

Shechem, 18:430 

Shivta (4th-6th c), vol. 14: color 
insert 

Shuqba Cave, 20:593 

Sinai, 14:528 

Solomon, 18:755, 757-758 

Spain 

Elche, 6:292 

synagogue at Tiberias, vol. 10: 
color insert 

synagogue pavement (5th-6th c), 
vol. 14: color insert 

Syria 

Ebla, 6:85-87 

Tel Hazor, vol. 10: color insert 

Tell al-Qidah, 8:498-499 

Tel Rehov, 17:193-195 

tombs of Absalom, Zechariah, and 
the Hezir family, vol. 10: color 
insert 

underwater, 17:6 

Wadi al-Nattuf, 20:593 

Wadi Daliya, 20:593 

wine press (2nd c), vol. 10: color 
insert 

Archaeology and the Religion of Israel 
(Albright), 1:596 

The Archaeology of Palestine 
(Albright), 1:596 

The Archaeology of the United 
Monarchy: An Alternative View 
(Finkelstein), 7:34 

Archagathus. See Caecilius of Calacte 

Archangel (Russia), 2:397 

Archeion. See Archives 



320 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Archelais (Jordan Valley), 2:397 

Archelaus, 2:397-398, 3:110, 4:455, 
11:367 

Archeologists. See Archaeologists 

Archeology. See Archaeology 

Archer, Armand. See Archerd, Army 

Archerd, Army, 2:398 

Archipherecites, 2:398 

Archisynagogos, 2:398, 4:163 

Architecture and architects, 2:399-402 

Abramovitz, Max, 1:323 

Agrest, Diana, 1:471 

Almoravids, 1:684 

Baerwald, Alex, 3:54 

basilica, 3:199 

biblical influence, 3:673 

bimah, 3:701-702 

Black, Sir Misha, 3:731 

Blankstein, Cecil, 3:740 

Brazil 

Lerner, Jaime, 12:657-658 

Breuer, Marcel, 4:172 

Brunner, Arnold, 4:224 

Brutzkus, David Anatol, 4:228-229 

Bryer, Monte, 4:229 

Bunshaft, Gordon, 4:284-285 

Canada, 12:442-443 

Denmark, 11:52 

door and doorpost, 5:752-753 

Dutch 

De Klerk, Michel, 5:534-535 

Eidlitz, Leopold, 3:740 

Elhanani, Aba, 6:316 

Elhanani, Aryeh, 6:316 

Elte, Harry, 6:369 

England 

Rosenberg, Eugene, 17:435- 
436 

France 

Aldrophe, Alfred-Philibert, 
1:607 

Persitz, Alexandre, 15:792 
Frank, Josef, 7:192 
Gehry, 7:412 
Germany 

Mendelsohn, Eric, 14:29-30 
Hanson, Norman Leonard, 8:331 
Hegediis, Armin, 8:755 
Hellenistic Jewish, 8:789-790 
historians of 

England, 16:23 
Hungary, 11:73, 12:440 

Baumhorn, Lipot, 3:222 
Israel, 10:701-704, 702-704 

Karmi, Dov, 11:813 



Rachter, Ya'akov, 17:144-145 

Ratner, Yohanan, 17:113 

Rau, Heinz, 17:115 

Rechter family, 17:144-145 

Italy 

Rogers, Ernesto, 17:368 

Kantorowich, Roy, 11:771-772 

Kaufmann, Richard, 12:32-33 

Lambert, Phyllis, 12:442-443 

Lapidus, Morris, 12:491 

Lasdun, Sir Denys, 12:494 

Levi, Rino, 12:692 

Neutra, Richard Joseph, 15:125 

Palestine (Mandate), 10:701-702 

Palestine (Ottoman), 10:701 

Phoenician, 16:123 

photography, 16:126 

pillars, 16:159-161 

Schindeler, Rudolph M., 18:137 

Sebestyen, Artur, 8:755 

Sharon, Aryeh, 18:417-418 

Solomon, 18:757-758 

South Africa 

Hermer, Manfred, 9:29 

Le Roith, Harold Hirsch, 
12:659 

Sterk, Izidor, 8:755 

synogogue, 11:722, 16:160-161, 
19:364-383 

Tower of Babel, 3:19, 20-21 

U.K., 5:481, 12:494 

U.S. 

Adler, Dankmar, 1:395-396 
Eisenman, Peter, 6:267 
Eizenberg, Julie, 6:280 
Freed, James Ingo, 7:224 
Koning, Hendrick, 6:280 
Lapidus, Morris, 12:491 
Lerner, Ralph, 12:659 
Libeskind, Daniel, 12:782 
Meier, Richard, 13:774 
Schwartz, Frederic, 18:184 

See also specific locations 
Archives, 2:402-418 

Archives de la Planete, 11:718 

Archives of Jewish resistance, 
3:569 

Archives of Traditional Music, 
13:83 

biblical period, 2:402-405 

The Central Archives for the 
History of the Jewish People, 
2:413-414 

Central Zionist Archives, 2:414 

Diaspora, 2:406-410 

Holocaust period, 2:410-413, 
9:362 



Israel, 2:414-417 

Middle Ages, 2:405-406 

post-biblical period, 2:405 

Rabbi Moses Nahum 

Yerushalimsky Collection, 
18:155 

Archivolti, Samuel, 2:418 

Archivo Urbino, 2:409 

Arch of Titus, 14:51, 19:743 

Archon, 2:418-419 

Archpresbyter, 2:419, 6:320, 411 

Arcila, 2:419 

Arco, Georg Wilhelm Alexander Hans, 
Graf Von, 2:419 

Ard-al-Birka. See Benjamin, Walter 

Ardashir (Armenia), 2:419-420 

Ardavan, 2:420 

Ardeal. See Transylvania 

Ardit, Ephraim ben Abraham, 2:420 

Ardit, Solomon, 3:695 

Ardit family, 2:420 

Arditi, Albert Judah, 2:420-421 

Arditi, Benjamin, 4:276 

Arditi, Eliezer, 4:276 

Ardon, Mordecai, 2:421, 8:743 

Ardut family, 2:421 

Arega, Leon, 2:421 

Areios (King of Sparta), 15:431 

Areios I, 2:421-422 

Arenda, 2:422-423, 16:296-297 

Arendt, Hannah, 2:143, 423-424, 
16:109, 18:736 

Eichmann in Jerusalem, 6:251-252 

Judenrat institution, 11:527 

Arendt, Otto, 2:424 

Arens, Moshe, 2:424-425 

Areopolis. See Rabbath-Moab (ancient 
Israel) 

Ares, 2:425 

Aretas, 2:425 

Arethusa (Judea), 2:425 

Areus. See Areios I 

Areus I. See Areios I 

Arezzo (Italy), 2:425-426 

Argens, Jean Baptiste de Boyer, 2:426 

Argentina, 2:426-450, 428, 446t 

pre-1840, 2:426 

1840-1890, 2:427 

1890-1918, 2:427-431 

1918-1930, 2:431-433 

1930-1946, 2:433-437 

1946-1968, 2:437-440 

1968-2005, 2:437-448 

agriculture, Jewish, 1:501, 11:775 

Brie, Luis Hartwig, 4:181 

cooperatives, 5:206 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



321 



INDEX 



Argentina, continued 

Daia, 5:379-380 

education, Jewish, 6:211-212, 7:33 

Entre Rios, 6:448-449 

Finkelstein, Chaim, 7:33 

Fondo Communal of Clara, 
11:775 

immigration to, 11:286-287 

Jewish community, 3:398-399, 
11:754 

Jewish settlement in, 2:46 

Jewish writers, 19:90 

journalism, 11:469, 12:513-514, 
16:496 

legal status, 2:427 

literature 

Aguinis, Marcos, 1:510 

Alpersohn, Marcos, 1:688 

Constantini, Humberto, 5:182 

Eichelbaum, Samuel, 6:245 

Espinoza, Enrique, 6:509 

Liacho, Lazaro, 12:773 

poetry, 8:111, 115, 16:209 

Rozenmacher, German, 
17:503 

Satz, Mario, 18:76 

Sneh, Simja, 18:697 

twentieth century, 6:732-733 

Meyer, Marshall T., 14:148 

Moisesville, 7:709 

Nazi fugitives, 6:250, 15:76-77 

philanthropy, 16:42 

politics, 16:350 

relations with Israel, 2:448-450 

Zionism, 12:206-207, 21:593 

Argintar, Virginia, 15:605 

Argob, 2:450 

Argonautica (Flaccus), 7:66 

Argosi da Silva, Phinehas Hananiah. 
See Loeb, Baruch 

Argov, Alexander, 2:451 
Argov, Zohar, 2:451 

Argumentation and dialectic. See 
Disputations and polemics 

Arha, Eliezer ben Isaac, 2:451 

Arhangelsk (Russia). See Archangel 
(Russia) 

Arias, Joseph Semah, 2:451-452 

Arias Montano, Benito, 2:452 

Aricha, Yosef, 2:452 

Aridor, Yoram, 2:452-453 

Arie, Rafael, 2:453 

Ariel, 2:453 

Ariel (Israel), 2:453-454 

Ariel, Dov, 2:454 

Ariel, Joseph, 2:454 



Arieli, Yehoshua, 2:454 

Arieli, Yi zhak, 2:454 

Arieti. See Rieti family 

Arikha, Avigdor, 2:454-455 

Arimanon. See Ramoth-Gilead 
(ancient Israel) 

Ari Nohem (Modena), 14:409 

Arioch, 2:455 

Aripul, Samuel ben Isaac, 2:455 

Arish, E1-. See El-Arish (Egypt) 

Arison, Shari, 2:455 

Arison, Ted, 2:455 

Arisoteikhem, 8:278 

Aristeas, 2:456 

Job, Testament of, 11:359 

religious impact of Bible on 
Hellenistic Judaism and, 3:660 

Aristeas, Letter of, 2:456-457, 4:73 

Aristides of Athens, 4:719 

Aristobulus (brother of Agrippa), 
2:458-459 

Aristobulus (son of Herod), 1:618— 
619, 2:458 

Aristobulus I (King of Judea), 2:457, 
8:446, 9:195 

Aristobulus II (King of Judea), 2:457- 
458, 11:574 

Aristobulus III (high priest), 2:458 

Aristobulus of Paneas, 2:459-460, 
16:74-75 

allegorical interpretation of 
scripture, 3:644, 660 

Moses, 14:531 

The Aristocrat. See Samuel ben Ali 

Ariston of Pella, 2:460, 4:719 

Aristotelianism, 2:460-462, 16:78, 83, 
84, 88, 106-107 

Aaron ben Elijah, 1:212-213 

Alexander of Aphrodisias, 1:628 

allegorical interpretation of 
scripture and, 3:644, 645 

beatitude, 3:238-240 

Bibago, Abrahem ben Shem Tov, 
commentator on, 3:570-571 

commentaries by Ibn Shem Tov, 
Joseph ben Shem Tov, 9:690- 
691 

cosmology, 5:231 

Crescas critique, 5:285-287 

emanation, 6:373, 374 

God, attributes of, 7:667 

Hibat Allah criticism, 9:93 

Ibn Daud, Abraham ben David 
Halevi, 9:663-665 

Ibn Gabirol, 7:324-325 

imagination and, 9:736 

immortality of the soul, 1:442 



Maimonides, 16:85 

matter and form, 7:324-325 

miracles, 14:307-308 

modern biblical study, as 
precursor of, 3:648 

nature, 15:34-35 

space and place, 19:66 

See also Aristotle 

Aristotle, 2:460-462 

Alexander of Aphrodisias, 1:628 

body and soul, concept of, 4:31 

Bonafed, Solomon ben Reuben, 
4:54 

categories, 4:524-525 

on categories of beings, 4:524-525 

Clearchus of Soli, 4:752 

Islamic interpretation, 6:709-710 

Judah ben Eleazar on, 11:485 

Judah Halevi on, 11:498 

Judah Loew ben Bezalel on, 
11:507 

Levi Ben Gershom on, 12:698-699 

moneylending, 14:437 

Philo Judaeus and, 16:62 

platonism, 16:226-227 

See also Aristotelianism 
Arithmetic. See Mathematics 
Arizona (U.S.), 2:463, 463 
Ark, 2:463-464 

ceremonial objects, 4:547-548 

dancing before, 5:409 

Moses, 14:527, 529 

Ner Tamid, 15:88 

ritual opening, 16:16-17 

Ark, the Aphod, and the "Tent of 
Meeting 1 (Morgenstern), 14:486 

Arkan al-islam. See Islam 

Arkansas (U.S.), 2:465, 465 

Arkansas Jewish Assembly, 2:465 

Arkhangelsk. See Archangel (Russia) 

Arkin, Alan W., 2:466 

Ark of Moses, 2:469, vol. 8: color 
insert 

Ark of Noah, 2:469 

Ark of Testimony. See Aron ha-Edut 

Ark of the Covenant, 2:466-469, 468 

Abinadab and, 1:258-259 

ancient paintings, 6:53-54 

Arlen, Harold, 2:469-470 

Aries (France), 2:470-471 

Arlosoroff, Chaim, 2:471-472 

Arluck, Hyman. See Arlen, Harold 

Armageddon, 2:472 

Armed and Dangerous: My Undercover 
Struggle Against Apartheid (Kasrils), 
11:825-826 



322 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Armed forces. See Military service 

Armenia, 2:472-474 

Armenian Bible, 3:602-603 

Armenian Church 

Israel (state), 10:644 

Armenian Church in Israel, 10:639, 
642 

Armilus, 2:474-475 

Armistice agreements, Israel-Arab, 
2:475-476, 8:741 

See also Sinai Campaign 

Armiya. See Jeremiah 

Armleder, 2:6, 476-477, 477, 3:31, 
4:79 

Armonim, Tavasim u-Petakim mi- 
Shamayim (Sened), 18:288 

Armonium, Tavasim, u-Petakim mi- 
Shamayim (Sened), 18:288 

Arms (weapons), 5:198-200, 439 

Arms, Coats of. See Heraldry 

Armstrong, Louis, 4:112 

Army service. See Military service 

Arnaldo of Villanova, 2:477 

Arnd ben Isaac. See Aaron ben Isaac 
Benjamin Wolf 

Arnd ben Isaac Benjamin Wolf. See 
Aaron ben Isaac Benjamin Wolf 

Arndt, Adolf, 2:477, 12:551 

Arndt, Ernst Moritz, 2:477-478 

Arnheim, Fischel, 2:478, 16:344 

Arnheim, Heymann, 2:478 

Arnold, Abe, 2:478 

Arnold, Eve, 2:478-479 

Arnold, Paula, 2:479 

Arnold Levenberg (Pinski), 16:175-176 

Arnold of Vilanova. See Arnaldo of 
Villanova 

Arnoldovich, Mikhail. See Milner, 
Moses Michael 

Arnon, 2:479 

Arnon, Abraham, 2:480 

Arnon, Daniel Israel, 2:480 

Arnon, Isaac, 2:480 

Arnon, Ruth, 2:480-481, 15:313 

Arnona, 2:481 

Arnstadt (Germany), 2:481 

Arnstein, Julius (Nick), 4:177 

Arnstein, Walter Leonard, 2:483 

Arnsteiner family. See Arnstein family 

Arnstein family, 2:481-482, 482t 

Arnswalde, Moses. See Philippson, 
Moses 

Aroch, Arie, 2:483, 10:696 

Aroer (Israel), 2:483-484 

Arollia, Isaac ben Moses, 2:484 

Arom, Simha, 2:484 

Aron, Esther. See Liebmann, Esther 
Schuloff Aaron 



Aron, Isa, 6:201 

Aron, Leo, 2:486 

Aron, Raymond, 2:484-485, 18:730 

Aron, Robert, 2:485 

Aron Czenstochower. See Syngalowski, 
Aron 

Aron family, 2:484 

Aron ha-Edut (Aboab), 1:267 

Aron ha-Edut (Alcorsono), 1:604-605 

Aroni, Tsvi, 2:485 

Aronid, Moses, 3:570 

Aronius, Julius, 2:485-486 

Aron Kodesh. See Ark 

v 

Aronova ljubav (Sinko), 18:641 

Aronovich, Yuri Mikhaylovich, 2:486 

Aronowitz, Benjamin, 2:486 

Arons, Leo, 2:486 

Aronsohn, Z. I. See Anokhi, Zalman 
Yizhak 

Aronson, Arnold, 2:486-487, 3:736 

Aronson, Boris, 2:487 

Aronson, David (painter), 2:488 

Aronson, David (rabbi), 2:487-488 

Aronson, Grigori, 2:488 

Aronson, Max. See Anderson, Gilbert 
Maxwell 

Aronson, Naum, 2:488 

Aronson, Solomon, 2:488-489 

Aroti, Isaac, 17:476 

Aroti family. See Rote family 

Arouet, Francois-Marie. See Voltaire 

Around the World. See Arum der Velt 

Arpa, Abramo DalP, 2:489 

Arpad, 2:489 

Arquivo Historico Judaico Brasileiro, 
18:33 

'Arraba (Israel), 2:489 

Arraby Moor, 2:489-490 

Arragel, Moses, 2:490, 3:636 

Arrapha archives, 2:404 

Ar-Reuti family. See Rote family 

Arrian, 2:490 

Arricha de Tolvens. See Hollaender, 
Victor 

Arrow, Kenneth Joseph, 2:490 

Arrow Cross Party, 2:491, 3:75 

Arrowsnake. See Kippod 

Arrow's paradox, 2:490 

Arroyo, Isaac ben (Arbib), 2:364 

Arrueti, Joseph, 17:476 

Arrueti, Juce. See Arrueti, Joseph 

Arrueti family. See Rote family 

Arsacid dynasty, 3:26 

Arshawsky, Arthur. See Shaw, Artie 

Arsur. See Apollonia (Israel) 

Arta, 2:521 



Artabanus. See Ardavan 

Artafernes. See Holofernes 

Artamonov, Mikhail, 11:321 

Art and artists, 2:491-521 

Abraham ben Jacob, 2:122 

Absalom, 1:331 

Agadati, Baruch, 1:443-444 

Akedah, 1:559-560 

Alechinsky, Pierre, 1:607 

Amshewitz, John Henry, 2:106 

anthropomorphism, 2:191 

antiquity to 1800, 2:491-492 

after the fall of Jerusalem, 
2:493-494 

biblical period, 2:492-493, 
502-503 

crafts, 2:496 

early Christian art and, 2:494 

funerary, 2:497 

illuminated manuscripts, 
2:495-496, 497-498 

Islam, 2:495 

museums and collections, 
2:498-499 

new developments, 2:498-499 

Northern Europe, 2:495 

printed book, 2:497 

Renaissance period, 2:496 

ritual, 2:496-497 

Roman Empire, 2:494-495 

Sanctuary and First Temple 
Period, 2:492-493 

Second Temple Period, 2:493 

Auerbach, Frank, 2:654 

Balaam, 3:81 

Bezalel Academy of Arts and 
Design, 3:557 

Bibles, illuminated, 3:678-679 

Bible's impact on, 3:673-674 

Brazil, 4:152 

Burle-Marx, Roberto, 4:296 

Cain, images of, 4:341-342 

calligraphy, Hebrew, 4:366-367 

"Canaanites," 4:393 

Canada 

Caiserman-Roth-Ghitta, 4:347 

Iskowitz, Gershon, 10:87 

Raphael, William, 17:95-96 

caricatures of Jews, 4:477-479, 499 

cartoonists and cartoons, 4:499- 
501 

Cassab, Judy, 4:507 

ceremonial, 2:525-526 

ceremonial objects, 4:547-549 

cherub, cherubim, 4:601 

Chicago, Judy, 4:612 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



323 



INDEX 



Art and artists, continued 
childbirth amulets, 2:122 
Christian 

Abraham, 1:287 

Adam, 1:375-376 

Elijah, 6:336 

Herod I, 9:37-38 

collectors and dealers, 2:523-524 

collectors of ritual art, 4:548-549 

crafts, 5:263-272, 16:123 

Cubists, 15:648 

Czechoslovakia, 6:734-735 

Dada, 11:77-78 

Daniel in, 5:418-419 

David in, 5:456-457 

Deborah and, 5:519 

Dibbuk, 5:644 

Dicker-Brandeis, Frederike, 5:646 

Dine, Jim, 5:669-670 

Dura-Europa paintings, 6:52-55 

in Eastern Europe, 2:507-509 

ecclesia et synagga, 6:88 

Ehrlich, Georg, 6:243-244 

Eilshemius, Louis M., 6:255 

Ein Hod, 6:257-258 

Estevens, David, 6:515 

Esther, representation of, 6:516- 
517 

expressionism, Meidner, Ludwig, 
13:773-774 

Ezekiel in, 6:645-646 

Fauvists, 15:648 

Ferber, Herbert, 6:759 

Fima, Efraim, 7:20-21 

folklore, 7:103 

Fox, Emanuel Philips, 7:140 

Fraenckel, Liepmann, 7:142 

France 

Adler, Jules, 1:401 
Cahn, Marcelle, 4:338 
Calle, Sophie, 4:365 
Caro-Delvaille, Henri, 4:492 
Chagall, Marc, 4:556-557 
Chapiro, Jacques, 4:568 
Ecole de Paris artists, 2:517 
Modigliani, Amedeo, 14:411 
Picart, Bernard, 16:144-145 

Frankenthaler, Helen, 7:203-204 

Freedman, Barnett, 7:224 

Germany 

Abramson family, 1:328 
Adler, Friedrich, 1:397 
Cassirer, Paul, 4:510 
Schottlander, Bernard, 18:166 
Segal, Arthur, 18:244 



Gottlieb, Adolph, 8:9 

Gottlieb, Maurycy, 8:13 

Gross, Michael, 8:96 

Grundig, Hans, 8:111 

Grundig, Lea, 8:111 

Grundman, Zwi, 8:111-112 

Guggenheim, Peggy, 8:124 

Guston, Philip, 8:149 

Gutman, Nahum, 8:152-153 

Gutmann, Joseph, 8:154 

Guttmann, Robert, 8:159 

Haan, Meijer De, 8:164-165 

Haggadot, illuminated, 4:76, 
8:210-214 

Hanukkah lamps, 8:334-335 

Hayden, Henri, 8:474-475 

Hellenism, 2:493, 8:789-790 

Henschel brothers, 8:811 

heraldry, 9:6-7 

Herdan, Kurt Lucian, 9:9 

Herman, Josef, 9:24 

Herman, Oskar, 9:24 

Hildesheimer, Wolfgang, 9:105 

Hillman, David, 9:117 

Hirsch, Joseph, 9:126 

Hirschfeld, Al, 9:136 

Hirschfeld-Mack, Ludwig, 9:139 

historians and critics, 2:524-528 

Holocaust 

ghettos and camps, 2:515, 
516-519, 3:41 

influence of, 2:519-521 

Hungary, 10:821, 12:505 

Alconiere, Theodore, 1:603 

Laszlo, Philip Alexius de 
Lombos, 12:505 

Perlmutter, Izsak, 15:780 

Schoeffer, Nicolas, 18:155 

iconography, 9:703-706 

illuminated amulets, 2:122-123 

illuminated manuscripts, Hebrew, 
9:734-735 

illustrated books, 4:75-76 

Isaac (patriarch), 10:34-35 

Isaiah, Book of, 10:74-75 

Isaiah's prophecies in, 10:74-75 

Islamic 

Abraham, 1:287 

historians of, 6:545 

Israel, 10:695, 696-698, 699-700, 
701 

Agam, Yaacov, 1:445 

Arab population, 10:733-734 

artworks, 10:695-701 

Castel, Moshe Elazar, 4:511— 

512 



galleries and museums, 
10:697-698, 704, 757-758 

Janco, 11:77-78 

Lavie, Raffi, 12:532 

Sebba, Shalom, 18:231 

Israel Arab, 10:734 

Israels, Jozef, 10:765 

Italy 

Cagli, Corrado, 4:335 
Castellazzo, Moses da, 4:513 
Corcos, Vittorio, 5:218 

Jacob in, 11:23-24 

Jephthah in, 11:123 

Jeremiah in, 11:134 

Jerusalem in, 11:224-228 

Jewish 

Abraham, 1:287-288 
Abraham bar Jacob, 1:294 
Adam, 1:376 
Adler, Jacob, 1:400-401 
Adler, Samuel M., 1:407 

Jewish school of Paris, 15:647-648 

Jewish themes in, 14:49 

Job in, 11:358 

Joel, Book of, 11:362 

Jonah, Book of, 11:391 

Joseph as portrayed in, 11:412— 
413 

Josephus and, 11:441-442 

Joshua as portrayed in, 11:444 

Judah Maccabee in, 11:511 

Judith, Book of, 11:568 

Kahana, Aharon, 11:710 

Kanovitz, Howard, 11:767 

Karavan, Dani, 11:803-804 

Katz, Alex, 12:8-9 

Katz, Hans Ludwig, 12:11-12 

Kaufmann, Isidor, 12:32 

Kempf, Franz Moshe, 12:73 

kettubot, illuminated, 12:97-98 

Kirszenbaum, Jesekiel David, 
12:190 

Kistling, Moise, 12:201 

Kitaj, R. B., 12:205-206 

Klein, Yves, 12:226 

Lamentations, Book of, 12:447, 
450 

Lasansky, Mauricio, 12:494 

Lassaw, Ibram, 12:502-503 

Lavie, Raffi, 12:532 

Lifschitz, Uri, 13:11 

Lilien, Ephraim Moses, 13:14 

lion, image of, 13:62 

Mandelshtam, Osip Emilyevich, 
13:463-464 

medals, 13:713-717 



324 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



menorah in, 14:53-54 
Merzer, Arieh, 14:74 
Mesopotamia, 14:92 
Middle Ages 

Absalom, 1:331 

Creation, 5:279-280 
modern 

defined, 2:500-504 

Erez Israel, 2:509-513 
Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo, 14:419-420 

Moise, Theodore Sydney, 14:421- 

422 

Mokady, Moshe, 14:423 

Mondzain, Simon, 14:435 

Montparnasse school of art, 
15:647, 648, 649 

Mopp, 14:469 

Moses, 14:539-540, 541-542 

murals, Mexico, 3:296 

Nebuchadnezzar, 15:51 

Neiman, Yehudah, 15:66 

Neoromanticism, 15:648 

"New Figuration," 13:11 

Newman, Barnett, 15:145-146 

Noah in, 15:289-290 

Palestine (Ottoman), 10:695 

paper-cuts, 15:615-616 

Paris school, 15:647-651 

Passover and Seder in, 15:682-683 

pewter plates, 16:24 

Phoenicia, 16:123 

pillar motif, 16:160 

poetic cinema, 11:734 

Poland 

Barcinsky, Henryk, 3:146 

Centerszwer, Stanislawa, 
4:543 

Halter, Marek, 8:286-287 

Le Witt, Jan, 12:769 

Pilichowski, Leopold, 16:159 

portal, 16:402 

portraits, of Jews, 16:408 

psalms, 16:678 

Rachel in, 17:48-49 

Rattner, Abraham, 17:114-115 

Ray, Man, 17:126 

Reder, Bernard, 17:155-156 

Reiss, Lionel, 17:212-213 

Rembrandt van Rijn, 17:215-216 

Renaissance, 3:411 

Rivers, Larry, 17:347 

Rogers, Claude Maurice, 17:368 

Rose, Herman, 17:426 

Rosenberg, Isaac, 17:436-437 

Rosenberg, James Naumburg, 
17:437 



Rosenberg, Lazar, 17:437-438 

Rosenmann-Taub, David, 17:449 

Rosenthal Maz, 17:455-456 

Rothenstein, Michael, 17:486 

Russia 

1970s, 17:566 
Aizenberg, Nina, 1:553 
Levitan, Isaac Hitch, 12:732 
Rabin, Oscar, 17:33-34 
Raskin, Saul, 17:107-108 
Serov, Valentin, 18:314 

Ruth, Book of, 17:595-596 

Sabbath, 17:621-622 

Salome, 17:694 

Samson, 17:750-752 

Samuel, 17:756 

Saul, 18:81-82 

Scroll of Esther, 18:218-220, 219 

Segall, Lasar, 18:248-249 

Sima, Miron, 18:590 

Simon, Sidney, 18:617 

Singer, Yvonne, 18:640 

Solomon, 18:761-762, 761-763 

Solomon, Simeon, 18:767 

Solomon, Solomon Joseph, 
18:767-768 

spice box, Havdallah, 8:467-468 

Surrealists, 15:648 

synagogue destruction, 19:356-357 

Titus, Flavius Vespasianus, 
19:744-745 

tombstones, 20:35-36 

Tower of Babel, 3:21 

U.K. 

Costa, Catherine da, 5:233 

Rabin, Sam, 17:34 

Rie, Dame Lucie, 17:293 

Schotz, Benno, 18:166 

twentieth century, 6:729, 
14:48 

U.S., 2:513-516 

Carvalho, Solomon Nunes, 
4:502 

Lewitt, Sol, 12:769-770 

New York City, 15:221 

Pearlstein, Philip, 15:706 

Peixotto, George da Maduro, 
15:713-714 

Reder, Bernard, 17:155-156 

Reiss, Lionel, 17:212-213 

San Diego, 18:14 

Sarasota, 18:50-51 

Schames, Samson, 18:106 

Schanker, Louis, 18:106-107 

Schor, Ilya, 18:162 

Schwartz, Manfred, 18:186 



Segal, George, 18:246 
Seligmann, Kurt, 18:267-268 
Serra, Richard, 18:314 
Shahn, Ben, 18:365-366 
twentieth century, 14:49 

USSR 

Adlivankin, Samuil, 1:410 

Western Europe, 2:504-507 

Yemen, 21:309 

See also Painters and painting; 
Sculpture; specific artists 

The Art and Craft of Judging: The 
Opinions of Judge Learned Hand 
(Shanks), 18:397 

Artapan. See Ardavan 

Artapanus, 2:521-522 

Moses, 14:531, 532 

religious impact of Bible on 
Hellenistic Judaism and, 3:660 

Artas, 2:522 

Artaxata (Armenia). See Ardashir 
(Armenia) 

Artaxerxes, 2:522-523, 6:659 

Art collectors and art dealers, 2:523- 
524 

Duveen, Joseph, 6:73 

Duveen, Joseph Joel, 6:73 

Flechtheim, Alfred, 7:70-71 

Hirshhorn, Joseph Herman, 9:143 

Schocken, Salman, 18:154-155 

Artemion, 2:524 

Artemovsk (Ukraine), 2:524 

Artephius, 1:602 

Art historians and art critics, 2:524- 
528 

Barasch, Moshe, 3:135 

Berenson, Bernard, 3:411 

Bersohn, Matthias, 3:489 

Brookner, Anita, 4:208 

Didi-Huberman, Georges, 5:647 

Donath, Adolph, 5:747-748 

Erlanger, Philippe, 6:481 

Greenberg, Clement, 8:67-68 

Hallo, Rudolph, 8:282 

Rosenberg, Harold, 17:436 

Schapiro, Meyer, 18:109-110 

Arthurian legends, 2:528-529 

Artichoke, 20:488 

Articles of faith, 2:165, 529-532, 
11:789 

Artificial insemination, 2:532-533 

Artisans. See Crafts 

Artis Cabbalisticae, hoc est reconditae 
theologiae et philosophiae Scriptorum 
Tomus I (Pistorius), 16:187 

Artists International Association, 3:731 

Art Music. See Music 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



325 



INDEX 



The Art of Biblical Poetry (Alter), 
16:256 

The Art of Educational Research, Its 
Problems and Procedures (Abelson), 
1:248 

Artom, Cesare, 2:534 

Artom, Elia Samuele, 2:534 

Artom, Emanuele, 15:668 

Artom, Isaac, 16:345 

Artom, Meir, 15:581 

Artom family, 2:533 

Arts and the Man (Edman), 6:150 

ArtScroll, 2:534-535, 18:123 

ArtScroll/Mesorah series, 18:123, 
21:644-645 

Artukovic, Andrija, 15:698 

Artzi, Shlomo, 2:535 

Artzi, Yitzhak, 2:535-536 

Aruba (Netherlands Antilles), 4:472 

Aruck, Hyman. See Arlen, Harold 

Aruck ha-shalem (Kohut, Alexander), 
12:266 

Aruety, Abraham. See Aruety, Habran 

Aruety, Habran, 17:476 

Aruety family. See Rote family 

Arugat ha-Bosem (Abraham ben 
Azriel), 1:295, 18:772 

Arukh (Nathan ben Jehiel), 11:74, 
12:405, 13:43 

Arukh ha-Shulhan (Epstein), 6:473 

Arukh la-Ner. See Ettlinger, Jacob 

Arum, Robert, 2:536 

Arumah (Canaan). See Ruma 
(Canaan) 

Arumah (Galilee). See Ruma (Galilee) 

Arum der Velt (Hirschbein), 9:133 

Arum Vokzal (Bergelson), 3:419 

Arundi, Isaac, 2:536 

Arusi, Abraham, 2:106 

Arusi, Abraham ben Moses Ha-Levi, 
2:536 

Arvey, Jacob M., 2:536-537 

Arvic. See Judeo-Arabic 

Arvit, 2:72, 75, 537-538, 13:305 

Aryan, Semitic races, 17:46-47 

Aryeh. See Judah ben Isaac (1166- 
1224) 

Aryeh Judah Harari, 2:538, 14:463 

Aryeh Judah Leib ben Ephraim ha- 
Kohen, 2:538 

Aryeh Judah Leib of Polonnoye, 2:538 

Aryeh Leib ben Asher. See Gunzberg, 
Aryeh Leib ben Asher 

Aryeh Leib ben Elijah, 2:538 

Aryeh Leib ben Joseph ha-Kohen. See 
Heller, Aryeh Leib ben Joseph Ha- 
Kohen of Stry 



Aryeh Leib ben Samuel Zevi Hirsch, 
2:538-539 

Aryeh Leib of Ozarow, 2:539 

Aryeh Leib of Shpola, 2:539 

Aryeh Leib Sarahs, 2:539 

Aryeh Leibush Bolekhover. See Aryeh 
Leib ben Elijah 

Arzhak, Nikolai. See Daniel, Yuli 
Markovich 

Arzi Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir. See Kibbutz 
Arzi Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir 

Arzila. See Arcila 

Arzin, Joseph ben Jacob, 2:539-540 

Arzt, Max, 2:540 

Asa, 2:540-541, 3:13, 9:175 

A.S.A. (Academic Sports Association), 
2:541 

Asad, Hafez al-, 2:541-542 

al-Asad al-Mahalli. See Jacob ben 
Isaac 

Asael, Hayyim ben Benjamin, 2:542 

Asaf. See Asaph ha-Rofe 

Asaf ben Barakhya, 18:761 

Asaf ha-Levi Ish Yerushalayim. See 
Levin, Alter Isaac 

Asahel, 1:264, 2:542 

'Asa '-i Piran (Brudo), 4:221 

Asaph, 2:542-543 

Asaph ben Berechiah. See Asaph ha- 
Rofe 

Asaph ha-Rofe, 2:543-544 

Asaph ha-Yarhoni. See Asaph ha-Rofe 

Asaph ha-Yehudi. See Asaph ha-Rofe 

Asaphites. See Asaph 

Asaph Judaeus. See Asaph ha-Rofe 

Asarah batlanim. See Batlanim 

Asarah harugei ha-malkhut (Emrani). 
See The Ten Martyrs of the Kingdom 
(Emrani) 

Asarah harugei malkhut. See The Ten 
Martyrs 

Asarah ha-rugei malkhut. See The Ten 
Martyrs 

Asarah Ma'amarot (Abraham ben 
Benjamin Ze'ev Brisker), 1:295 

Asarah Ma'amarot (Elijah ben 
Baruch), 6:338 

Asaramel, 2:544 

Asbili, Yom Tov. See Yom Tov ben 
Abraham Ishbili 

Ascalon (Israel). See Ashkelon (Israel) 

Ascama, 2:545 

Ascamot. See Ascama 

Ascandarani, Joseph ben Abraham, 
10:79 

Ascandarani family. See Iscandari 
family 

Ascarelli, Deborah. See Ascarelli, 
Devora 



Ascarelli, Devora, 2:545, 7:50 

Ascarelli, Tullio, 2:545 

Ascending and descending numbers, 
15:337 

Ascension of Isaiah, 10:75-76 

The Ascent of Man (Bronowski), 4:207 

Ascent to Heaven (Rudnicki), 9:410 

Asceticism, 2:545-550, 3:155, 6:532 

Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon, 
1:307-308 

fasting, 6:720, 722 

philosophical analysis of, 16:81 

Sefer ha-Nezirim (Fraenkel), 7:144 

See also Nazirite 

Asch, Sholem, 2:550-551, 11:412, 
12:660-661, 14:541 

Aschaffenburg (Germany), 2:551-552 

Aschaffenburg, Gustav, 2:552 

Ascher, Saul, 2:552 

Ascherson, Paul Friedrich August, 

2:552 

Aschheim, Isidor, 2:552 

Aschner, Manfred, 2:553 

Ascoli, Ettore, 2:553-554 

Ascoli, Graziadio Isaia, 2:554 

Ascoli family, 2:553 

Ascoli Piceno (Italy), 2:554 

Asefat Hakhamim (Israel Isserl ben 
Isaac Segal), 10:753 

Asefat Hakhamim (journal), 2:554-555 

Asefat ha-Nivharim, 10:392-393 

Asenapper, 2:555 

Asenath, 2:555, 11:418 

Asenov, Dragomir, 4:276 

Aseret ha-Dibbrot. See Decalogue 

Aseret Yemai Teshuvah. See Ten Days 
of Penitence 

Aseret yemei teshuvah. See Ten Days 
of Penitence 

ASF. See American Sephardi 
Federation (ASF) 

Asfi (Morocco). See Safi (Morocco) 

Asgnedau. See Asmodeus 

Ash (abbreviation), 2:555 

Ash, Abraham, 2:555 

Ash, Abraham ben Joseph, 2:555-556 

Ash, Abraham Joseph, 1:223, 2:555, 
556 

Ash, Joel Ben Meir Jospeh, 2:556 

Ashamnu, 2:556, 8:493 

Asham Talui (Segre), 18:252 

Ashanski, Abel-Aaron Itskovich, 2:556 

Ash'arite Kalam, 16:77 

Ash'ariyya, 11:729-730 

Ashartu (Emarite deity), 6:387 

Ashaya, Najib, 15:473 



326 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Ashbel, Dov, 2:556-557 

Ashburnham Pentateuch, 1:463, 3:674, 
675 

Ashdod (Israel), 2:557-558, 11:715- 
716 

Ashdot Ya'akov (Israel), 2:558 

Ashendorf, Israel, 2:558 

Ashenheim, Louis, 2:558 

Ashenheim, Neville Noel, 2:558-559 

Ashenheim family, 2:558-559 

Asher (son of Jacob), 2:559, 559-560 

Asher, Abraham, 2:560 

Asher, Abraham ben Gedaliah Ibn, 
2:560 

Asher, Adolph. See Asher, Abraham 

Asher, ben Jehiel, 2:32, 6:174 

Asher, David, 2:560 

Asher, Isaiah ben Moses ha-Levi, 
2:561 

Asher, Joseph, 2:561 

Asher, Joseph Michael, 2:561 

Asherah, 2:562, 3:656, 6:332 

Asher Anshel ben Isaac of Przemysl, 
2:562 

Asher Barash Bio -Bibliographical 
Institute, 18:724 

Asher ben David, 2:563 

Asher ben Jehiel, 2:563-564, 4:772, 
773, 779, 18:574 

fines and damages, 7:29 

halakhah, 8:257 

Asher ben Meshullam ha-Kohen of 
Lunel, 2:564-565 

Asher ben Saul, 2:565, 4:653 

Asherim, 3:656 

Asher of Cracow. See Anshel of 
Cracow 

Ash family, 2:555-556 

Ashi, 2:565-566 

Ashima, 2:566 

Ashinsky, Aaron Mordecai Halevi, 
2:566 

Ashkanasy, Maurice, 2:566-567 

Ashkavah, 2:567 

Ashkelon (Israel), 2:567-569, 11:772, 
15:263 

Ashkelon onions, 15:433 

Ashkenaz (biblical name), 2:569 

Ashkenaz (Jewish settlement, NW 
Europe), 2:107, 472, 569-571, 570 

Akdamut Millin, 1:555 

Aleinu le-Shabbeah, 1:609-610 

alphabet, Hebrew, 1:705*, 706, 
7\6t, 7l7t, 718 

Amsterdam, 2:106-108, 110, 114, 
116, 117, 6:41 

emancipation, 6:749 



Schuster, Aaron, 18:177 

amulets, 2:122 

An-Ski collections, 2:182-183 

arts, Sabbath, 17:620-621 

betrothal customs and, 3:541 

Bible cantillation, 13:658-664, 
663-664 

birth customs and folklore, 3:721- 

722 

Caracas (Venezuela), 4:459-460 

Caribbean, 4:477 

Caucasus, 4:527-528 

Chernovtsy (Ukraine), 4:597 

Chile, 4:638, 640, 641, 643 

Cuba, 5:317-318 

demography, 5:571 

domestic violence, Middle Ages, 
5:740 

Dutch literature and, 6:69 

economic history, modern, 6:118- 
119 

Eleazar ben Judah of Worms, 
6:303-305 

Eleazar ben Moses ha-Darshan of 
Wuerzburg, 6:305 

El Male Rahamim (funeral 
prayer), 6:364-365 

England, 6:414-415 

Elhanan ben Yakar, 6:316 
London, 12:747, 13:180-181 

Europe, 1:521, 9:211-212, 222 

evil eye folk beliefs, 6:585 

Halakhah, 6:41 

Hanukkah, 13:496-497 

hymns, 1:385, 414-415, 6:259-260 

illuminated Hebrew Bibles, 3:678 

influence of Meir ben Baruch of 
Rothenburg, 13:781-782 

Israel (state), 10:294 

religious schools, 10:632-633 

tensions with other edot, 
10:298-299, 300 

Istanbul (Ottoman period), 
10:774, 775, 777-778 

Jacob Saul ben Eliezer Jeroham 
Elyashar, 6:371-372 

Jerusalem 

nineteenth century, 11:172- 
173 

seventeenth century, 11:164 
Kaddish, 11:697 
kolel, 12:273 

Latin America, 12:510-511 
literature 

fiction, 7:14 

folk, Mayse-Bukh, 13:702-703 

hasidic, 1:219, 6:529-531 



liturgy, 13:134 

Mi-Sinai Niggunim, 14:363- 
364 

shtayger, 18:522-523 

Mexican leaders, 6:748 

Montreal (Canada), 14:463-464 

morbidity statistics, 18:546 

Pale of Settlement, 18:602 

Palestine (Ottoman), 10:294, 619- 
621 

population, 18:300 

post-Holocaust aliyah, 10:215 

pre-French Revolution, 7:253 

rabbis, dress, 6:15 

renewal of Jerusalem community, 
14:24-25 

Sarajevo, 18:48 

Seattle (WA), 18:229 

Sefer ha-Hayyim, 18:239-240 

Simferopol, 18:602 

similarities to Sephardim, 18:295- 
296 

traditional cookery style, 7:118 

U.K., 18:129 

See also Germany 

Ashkenazi, Abraham ben Jacob, 
2:571-572 

Ashkenazi, Abraham Nathan ben 
Elisha Hayyim. See Nathan of Gaza 

Ashkenazi, Asher Judah ben Nathan. 
See Weidner, Paulus 

Ashkenazi, Azariah Hayyim, 6:354 

Ashkenazi, Azriel. See Gunzenhauser, 
Azriel 

Ashkenazi, Bahur ben Asher ha-Levi. 
See Levita, Elijah 

Ashkenazi, Behor, 2:572, 16:346 

Ashkenazi, Berman. See Issachar 
Berman ben Naphtali ha-Kohen 

Ashkenazi, Bezalel ben Abraham, 
2:572-573, 13:262 

Ashkenazi, Dan, 2:573 

Ashkenazi, David, 4:190 

Ashkenazi, Eliezer Baruch. See Meyer, 
Paulus 

Ashkenazi, Eliezer ben Elijah the 
Physician, 2:573 

Ashkenazi, Eliezer Isaac. See Eliezer 
ben Isaac 

Ashkenazi, Feibush. See Joel ben 
Simeon 

Ashkenazi, Gershon, 2:574, 14:472 

Ashkenazi, Hakham Zevi, 6:21 

Ashkenazi, Jacob. See Temerls, Jacob 
ben Eliezer 

Ashkenazi, Jacob ben Isaac, 3:611 

Ashkenazi, Jehiel ben Israel. See Luria, 
Jehiel ben Israel Ashkenazi 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



327 



INDEX 



Ashkenazi, Jonah ben Jacob, 2:574 

Ashkenazi, Joseph, 2:574-575 

Ashkenazi, Joseph ben Jacob. See 
Gunzenhauser, Joseph ben Jacob 

Ashkenazi, Joseph ben Shalom. See 
Joseph ben Shalom Ashkenazi 

Ashkenazi, Judah ben Joseph, 2:575 

Ashkenazi, Judah ben Simeon, 2:575 

Ashkenazi, Judah Samuel, 2:575 

Ashkenazi, Leon, 2:575-576 

Ashkenazi, Malkiel, 2:576 

Ashkenazi, Meir ben Benjamin Wolf, 
2:576 

Ashkenazi, Menahem. See 

Bekemoharar, Menahem ben Isaac 
Ashkenazi 

Ashkenazi, Mordecai ben Isaac Kohen, 
2:576 

Ashkenazi, Moses David, 2:576-577 

Ashkenazi, Naphtali ben Joseph, 2:577 

Ashkenazi, Nissim Abraham ben 
Raphael, 2:577 

Ashkenazi, Samuel Jaffe ben Isaac, 
2:577 

Ashkenazi, Saul ben Moses ha-Kohen, 
2:577 

Ashkenazi, Shalom, of Neustadt, 4:269 

Ashkenazi, Solomon, 2:577-578, 9:7, 
15:541, 16:345-346 

Ashkenazi, Zevi Hirsch ben Jacob, 
2:578-579, 8:477, 478 

Ashkenazim. See Ashkenaz (Jewish 
settlement, NW Europe) 

Ashkenazy, Vladimir Davidovich, 
2:579 

Ashkhabad, 2:579 

Ashlag, Judah Leib, 11:679 

Ashlag, Yehudah, 2:579-580, 4:128 

Ashman, Aharon, 2:580, 8:715 

Ashmedai. See Asmodeus 

Ashmedai (opera, Tal), 18:762-763 

Ashor (groom), 6:312 

Ashrei, 2:580 

Ashriki, Mordecai, 2:580-581 

Ashtamker, Benjamin Samson, 15:474 

Ashtar. See Ashtoreth 

Ashtaroth (biblical city), 2:581 

Ashtor, Eliyahu, 2:581 

Ashtoreth, 2:131, 581-582, 3:11 

Ashtumker, B. S. See Ashtamker, 
Benjamin Samson 

'Ashura, 2:582 

Ashurbanipal, 14:91, 403 

Ashurbanipal library, 2:404 

Asia, 2:582-586, 583, 5S5t, 586 

agriculture, 12:427 

aliyah and absorption, Israel, 
10:341t 



foreign policy and relations 

with Israel, 10:264-265, 265 

technical and economic 
assistance, 10:221 

Middle Ages, Jewish education, 
6:176 

Asia Minor, 2:586-587, 587, 3:729 

Asia Minor Agreement. See Sykes- 
Picot Agreement 

Asian communities, 5:115t, 120f 

Asian Socialist Conference, 18:709 

Asia-Pacific region, 2:238-239 

Di Asife (Shalom Aleichem), 18:381 

Asila. See Arcila 

Asimov, Isaac, 2:588 

Asinaeus and Anilaeus, 2:164-165, 
11:440 

Asinius Pollio, Gaius, 2:588 

ASJM. See American Society for 
Jewish Music 

Askama. See Ascama 

Askelon (Israel). See Ashkelon (Israel) 

Askenasy, Eugen, 2:588 

Askenasy, Paul, 2:588-589 

Askenazy, Simon, 2:589 

Askenazy, Ludvik, 2:589 

Askhabad. See Ashkhabad 

Asknazi, Isaac Lvovich, 2:589 

Askowith, Dora, 2:590 

Aslakssen, Cort, 2:590 

Asmakhta, 2:590-592, 7:27 

Asmodeus, 2:592-593 

Asmussen, J. P., Judeo-Persian 
literature, 11:558 

Asner, Edward, 2:593 

Asochis (Galilee). See Shihin (Galilee) 

Asociacion Israelita de Beneficencia, 
17:423 

Asociacion Israelita Sefaradi La 
Fraternidad, 3:262 

Asociacion Mutual Israelita Argentina 
(AMIA), 2:70-71 

Asophon. See Zaphon 

Aspamia. See Spain 

Aspects of Judaism (Montefiore), 
14:455 

Asper, Israel H., 2:593-594 

Asper, Izzy. See Asper, Israel H. 

Asper family, 11:470 

Asqanu. See Ashkelon (Israel) 

Assa. See Assi 

Assaf, Michael, 2:594 

Assaf, Simha, 2:594-595, 9:160 

Assault, 2:595-598 

The Assault (Mulisch), 6:71 

Asscher, Abraham, 2:599 

Assemani family, 2:599 



Assembly. See Congregations 

Assembly, Sukkot. See Hakhel 

Assembly of Jewish Notables, 2:8, 
599-602, 600, 7:155, 8:439, 9:231, 
18:641-642 

Assembly of Sages (journal). See 
Asefat Hakhamim (journal) 

Asseo, David, 2:602 

Asser, Carel, 12:552 

Asser, Moses, 12:552, 16:345 

Asser, Tobias, M. C, 2:114, 12:552 

Asser family, 2:112, 602 

Asses, 2:594 

Balaam, 3:78 

worship, 2:615-616 
Assessment. See Damages 
Asset lien, 12:812-817 
Assi, 2:603 

Ammi ben Nathan and, 2:82 

Amram I, 2:103 

Judah III, 11:478 
Assi, Rav, 2:603, 18:598 
Assideans. See Hassideans 
Assignment of debt, 2:603-605 
Assimilation, 2:605-613 

Aguddat Ahim, 1:508 

Algeria, 1:648 

antiquity and Middle ages, 2:605- 
606 

Bohemia, 4:40-41 

Buchner, Abraham, 4:243 

Byk, Emil, 4:323-324 

Canada, 4:420 

V y 

Cechu-Zidu, Svaz, 4:534-535 

communism and, 5:91-96 

Enlightenment period, 2:606-607 

Germany 

Berlin, 3:446 

Central- Verein Deutscher 
Staatsbuerger Juedischen 
Glaubens, 4:546 

Halakhah 

technology, 19:573 

Haskalah and, 8:434, 439-440 

Hungary, 9:611, 618 

Kook, Abraham Isaac, 12:291 

late nineteenth and twentieth 
centuries, 2:607-608, 9:283-284 

linguistic, 8:436-437 

literature 

Poland, 6:748 

Orthodox Judaism and, 15:493- 
494, 496, 498 

Peru, 15:794, 797 

Poland, 4:318, 16:302 

Czartoryski, Prince Adam 
Jerzy, 5:351-352 



328 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Eisenbaum, Antoni, 6:265 
political participation and, 16:339 
Russia 

1970s, 17:564-566 

post-WW II, 17:553 

USSR regime, 17:544 

Shomer Israel, 18:518 

surnames, establishment of, 14:768 

U.S., 2:608-611, 6:695-696, 698- 
700 

USSR, 2:611-613 

Western countries, 2:611 

Associated Artists of Revolutionary 
Russia, 4:197 

Association for Defense against 
Antisemitism. See Verein Zur 
Abwehr des Antisemitismus 

Association for Friendship and 
Cultural Ties with Israel, 14:520 

Association for Jewish Demography 
and Statistics, 18:724 

Association for Jewish Outreach 

Professionals and Programs (AJOP), 

3:7 

Association for Jewish Studies (AIS), 
11:318 

Association for Jewish Studies (AJS), 
2:613-614 

Association for Medieval Judeo- 
Arabic, 3:744 

Association for Psychoanalytic 
Medicine (APM), 11:804 

Association for the Diffusion of 
Religious Knowledge, 6:205 

See also Jewish Religious 
Education Board 

Association of Activists and Friends of 
Soviet Jewish Culture, 14:520 

Association of Holocaust Children 
(Poland), 2:64 

Association of Holocaust 

Organizations (AHO), 2:614-615, 
614-615 

Association of Israel. See Agudat Israel 

Association of Jewish 6th Formers, 
6:428 

Association of Jewish Libraries, 12:785 

Association of Reform Rabbis of New 
York and Vicinity, 18:586 

Associations. See specific society or 
association 

Association Vidas Largas for the 
Defense and Promotion of the 
Judeo-Spanish Language and 
Culture, 18:306 

Assumpcjio, Diogo da, 2:615 

Assumptio Moysis. See Assumption of 
Moses 

Assumption of Moses, 14:533, 544-545 



Assur (Iraq), 2:404, 615 
Ass worship, 2:615-616 
Assyria 

Ahaz, 1:539 

Akkadian language, 1:565 

Ammonites, 2:85-86 

Arameans, 2:337 

archives, 2:403 

Esarhaddon, 6:486 

Hammurapi, 8:309-310 

Haran, 8:343-344 

Haurina, 8:461 

Megiddo, 13:767 

Mesopotamia, 14:87-88 

Moab, 14:402-403 

Nineveh, 15:271-272 

Phoenicia, 16:121-122 

rebellions, 2:489 

Sargon II, 18:56 

Shalmaneser III, 18:375-376 

Assyrian exile, 6:607-608, 9:180 

Assyriology, 15:471 

archaeological excavations, 14:92- 
93 

Finkelstein, Jacob Joel, 7:34 

Hallo, William, 8:282 

Landsberger, Benno, 12:475-476 

Lewy, Julius, 12:771 

Oppenheim, Hayyim, 15:445 

Oppert, Jules Julius, 15:452 

Pick, Hayyim Hermann, 16:146 

Astarte, 2:581-582 

Astarte. See Ashtoreth 

Asti (Italy), 2:616 

Astorga (Spain), 2:616 

Astrakhan (Russia), 2:616 

Astrological chiromancy, 4:653-654 

Astrology, 2:616-620, 21:646-647 

Abraham bar Hiyya, 1:293 

Cresques de Vivers, 5:288 

divination and, 5:705 

Nostradamus, 15:314 

Paltiel, 15:607 

theories of Ibn Ezra, Abraham ben 
Meir, 9:670-671 

Astronautics. See Aeronautics 

Astronomy, 2:620-626 

Abraham bar Hiyya, 1:293 

Albalia, Isaac ben Baruch, 1:583 

Alhadib, Isaac ben Solomon ben 
Zaddik, 1:654 

Anatoli, Jacob ben Abba Mari ben 
Samson, 2:132 

Apocrypha, 2:621 

Beer, Wilhelm, 3:254 

Bemporad, Azeglio, 3:312 



Bible, 2:620-621 

Cleomedes, 4:753 

Comtino, Mordecai ben Eliezer, 
5:132-133 

Delacrut, Mattathias ben 
Solomon, 5:535 

Dunash ibn Tamim, 6:48-49 

Hassan ibn Hassan, 8:454 

Hoffman, Jeffrey, 9:308 

Ibn Daud, Abraham ben David 
Halevi, 9:662-665 

Ibn Sahl, Joseph ben Jacob, 9:689 

Israeli, Isaac ben Joseph, 10:751 

Jonathan ben Joseph of Ruzhany, 
11:398 

Judeo- Arabic literature on, 11:531 

Judeo-Persian, 11:554 

Lattes, Bonet, 12:518-519 

Levi Ben Gershom, 12:698, 701 

Loew, Moritz, 13:164 

Loewy, Maurice, 13:172 

Maimonides, Moses, 13:395 

Masha'Allah ben Athan, 13:600 

measurement, 13:674 

Middle Ages, 2:622-625 

modern times, 2:625-626 

Nieto, David, 15:261 

Nifoci, Isaac, 15:262 

physics and, 16:132-133, 141 

Renaissance, 2:625-626 

Schickard, Wilhelm, 18:128 

Schlesinger, Frank, 18:140 

Schwarzschild, Karl, 18:193 

Shesh-Kenafayim, 4:62 

Talmud and Midrash, 2:621-622 

Astrophysics, 16:141 

Astruc, Elie-Aristide, 2:626-627 

Astruc, Jean, 2:627, 3:646, 649 

Astruc, Mardochee, 11:560 

Astruc, Saul ha-Kohen, 2:627, 4:56 

Astruc, Zacharie, 2:627 

Astruc de Noves. See Abba Mari ben 
Eligdor 

Astruc ha-Levi, 2:627 

Asveiros. See Quintilius Varus 

Asylum 

altars as, 2:13, 15 

cities, 4:742-744, 743 

See also Refugees 
Aszod (Hungary), 2:627-628 
Aszod, Judah ben Israel, 2:628 
Atair (Mombert), 14:430 
Ataki (Moldavia), 2:628-629 
Atar, Haim, 2:629 
Atar, Moses, 16:346 
Atar family, 2:629 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



329 



INDEX 



Atarot (Israel), 2:629 

Ataroth (biblical settlements), 2:629- 
630 

Ataturk. See Kemal Mustafa 

Atavism, 13:178 

Ateret Bahurim (Ehrenfeld), 6:239 

Atfah, 2:468 

Athaliah, 2:630, 9:177, 11:107-108 

Athanasius 

Syro-Hexapla, 3:601 

on Zenobia, 15:377 

Atheism, 7:670 

Athens (Greece), 2:630-632, 9:340 

Athens and Jerusalem (Shestov), 18:467 

Athias, David, 4:82 

Athias, Immanuel, 2:632-633 

Athias, Jacob Hayyim, 4:82 

Athias, Joseph, 2:109, 632-633 

Athias, Solomon da Costa. See Costa 
Athias, Solomon da 

Athias family. See Atias family 

Athletics. See Sports 

Athlit (Israel), 1:221, 2:633-634, 634 

At Home in America: Second 
Generation (Moore), 9:152-153 

Athribis (Egypt), 2:634 

Athronges, 2:634 

Atias family, 2:632 

Atil (Turkey), 2:634-635 

Atirat. See Asherah 

Atlan, Henri, 2:635 

Atlan, Jean, 2:635 

Atlanta (GA), 2:635-639, 7:502, 
13:667-668 

Atlantic (vessel), 15:689 

Atlantic Canada, 2:639-641 

Atlantic City (NJ), 2:641 

Atlantic Jewish Council, 2:640 

Atlas (mountains), 2:641-642 

Atlas, David, 2:642 

Atlas, Eleazar, 2:642-643 

Atlas, Jechezkiel, 2:643, 15:667 

Atlas, Samuel, 2:643 

Atlas of Israel (Amiran), 2:79 

Atlas of the Historical Geography of the 
Holy Land (Smith), 18:688 

Atlas Shrugged (Rand), 17:90 

Atmospheres (Ligeti), 13:12 

Atmospheric sciences, 6:449-450 

Atom bomb. See Nuclear physics 

Atomic Energy Commission, 13:16, 
18:587 

Atomism, 1:213, 2:643-644 

Aton cult, 1:561, 2:41 

Atonement, 2:644 

fasting, 6:719, 720, 722 



forgiveness, 7:127-129 

Kipper, 12:180-183 

See also Day of Atonement 

Atran, Frank Z., 2:644-645 

Attachment to God. See Devekut 

Attah, Ehad, 2:645 

Attah Behartanu, 2:75 

Attah Horeta Lada'at, 2:645 

Attah Zokher, 2:645 

Attal, Jacob, 14:499 

Attali, Bernard, 2:645 

Attali, Jacques, 2:645 

Attar, Hayyim ben Moses, 2:645-646 

Attar, Judah ben Jacob Ibn, 2:646 

Attar family. See Atar family 

Attell, Abe. See Attell, Abraham 
Washington 

Attell, Abraham Washington, 2:646- 
647 

At the Depot. See Arum Vokzal 

At the End of Days. See Be-Kez ha- 
Yamim 

At the Gate (Molodowsky), 14:430 

Attia, Isaac ben Isaiah, 2:647 

Attia, Shem Tov, 2:647 

Attias, Jean-Christophe, 11:326 

Attik yomaya. See Ancient of Days 

Attlee, Clement Richard, Earl, 2:647- 
648 

Atto di Fede. See Auto da Fe 

Attorneys, 2:648 

Belgium 

Picard, Edmond, 16:144 

Canada 

Bercovitch, Peter, 3:401 
Freedman, Samuel, 7:225 
human rights, 13:670-671 
Matas, David, 13:670-671 

Dash, Samuel, 5:438-439 

Denmark 

Hurwitz, Stephan, 9:633 

France 

Berr, Michel, 3:487 

Beugnot, Auguste Arthur, 

3:555 

Germany 

Hollaender, Ludwig, 9:321- 

322 

Greece 

Alhanati, David, 1:655 

Herzog, Chaim, 9:67-68 

Hessen, Joseph Vladimiovich, 9:78 

Israel 

Akzin, Benjamin, 1:571-572 
Attorney General, 13:709 

Israel (State) 

Shapiro, Ya'akov Shimshon, 
18:408 



Latvia 

Mintz, Paul, 14:301-302 
Lauterbach, Edward H., 12:529 
Poland 

Lemkin, Raphael, 12:637-638 

Lieberman, Herman, 12:804 
Polish 

Berenson, Leon, 3:411-412 
Russia 

Pergament, Osip Yakovlevich, 

15:770 

Slonimski, Leonid 
Zinovyevich, 18:679 

Sawicki, Jerzy, 18:86 

Scheck, Barry, 18:116 

scholars 

Ben-Israel, Ruth, 3:353 
David, Martin, 5:464 

Sciaki, Joseph, 18:197 

South Africa 

Alexander, Morris, 1:624 
de Vries, M., 5:629-630 
Morris, Henry Harris, 14:510 
Solomon, Bertha, 18:764 

Turkey 

Franco, Gad, 7:177 

U.S. 

Abrams, Floyd M., 1:327 

Abrams, Robert, 1:327-328 

Bacher, Eduard, 3:36 

Benesch, Alfred Abraham, 
3:340 

Benjamin, Judah Philip, 
3:357-358 

Ben-Veniste, Richard, 3:384- 
385 

Berman, Julius, 3:463 

Bialkin, Kenneth J, 3:565-566 

Chertoff, Michael, 4:599-600 

Dershowitz, Alan M., 5:600 

Deutsch, Bernard Seymour, 
5:621 

Dittenhoefer, Abram Jesse, 
5:702 

Dworkin, Ronald, 6:74-75 

Fraenkel, Osmond K., 7:145 

Frankel, Hiram D., 7:196-197 

Frankenthaler, Alfred, 7:203 

Frankenthaler, George, 7:203 

Herlands, William Bernard, 

9:22-23 

Hertz, Emanuel, 9:47 

Hoffman, Charles Isaiah, 
9:307 

Hoffman, Philip E., 9:309- 
310 

Lefkowitz, Louis, 12:602 



330 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Lehmann, Emil, 12:615 

Leibowitz, Samuel Simon, 
12:622 

Levi, Edward H., 12:687 

Lewin, Nathan, 12:761-762 

Lieberman, Joseph, 12:804- 
805 

Mayer, Levy, 13:699 

Medalie, George Zerdin, 
13:713 

Morse, David Abner, 14:512- 
513 

Pfeffer, Leo, 16:25 

Sapiro, Aaron, 18:39 

Schiff, Adam, 18:128-129 

Segal, Bernard Gerard, 18:245 

Shanks, Hershel, 18:397 

Shapiro, Robert, 18:407-408 

Shapiro, Samuel Harvey, 
18:408 

Shetzer, Simon, 18:471 

Sloss, Marcus Cauffman, 
18:680 

See also specific attorneys 

Atwood, Margaret, 15:563 

Atzmon, Moshe, 2:648-649 

Aub, Joseph, 2:649 

Aub, Max, 2:649 

Auckland (New Zealand), 2:649 

Audoin. See Hilduin 

Auer, Leopold, 2:649-650 

Auerbach, Abraham ben Selig Avi'ezri, 
2:652 

Auerbach, Arnold Jacob. See 
Auerbach, "Red" 

Auerbach, Beatrice Fox, 2:652 

Auerbach, Berthold, 2:653, 13:193 

Auerbach, Carl A., 2:653 

Auerbach, Elias, 2:653-654 

Auerbach, Ellen Rosenberg, 17:336- 
337 

Auerbach, Ephraim, 2:654 

Auerbach, Erich, 2:654 

Auerbach, Frank, 2:654 

Auerbach, Isaac Eisig ben Isaiah, 
2:654-655 

Auerbach, Isaac Levin, 2:655 

Auerbach, Israel, 2:655 

Auerbach, Jacob, German translation 
of Bible, 3:631 

Auerbach, Judith, 18:733 

Auerbach, Leopold, 2:655 

Auerbach, Meir ben Isaac, 2:655-656 

Auerbach, Menahem Mendel, 2:650 

Auerbach, Moses, 2:652 

Auerbach, Nathan of Satanov, 2:650 

Auerbach, Philipp, 2:656 



Auerbach, "Red," 2:656-657 

Auerbach, Walter, 17:337 

Auerbach, Zevi Benjamin, 1:302 

Auerbach family, 2:650-652, 2 :651 

Auerbakh, Rachel. See Auerbakh, 
Rokhl 

Auerbakh, Rokhl, 2:657 

Auernheimer, Raoul, 2:657 

Aufrichtig, Marv Philip. See Albert, 
Marv 

Aufrufen, 2:657 

Aufruf zum Mifitrauen (Aichinger), 
1:549 

Augsburg (Germany), 2:657-658 

Augury. See Divination 

August III. See Frederick Augustus II 
(King of Saxony) 

Augustine, 2:658-659, 4:720, 9:205- 
206 

Augustow (Poland), 2:659 

Augustus, 2:659-660 

Diaspora, 5:640 

Egyptian Jews, 6:228-229 

Augustus III. See Frederick Augustus 
II (King of Saxony) 

Auman, Yisrael. See Aumman, Robert 

J. 
Aumman, Robert J., 2:660 

Au nom de Yautre, sur V antisemitisme 
qui vient (Finkielkraut), 7:36 

Auranitis. See Hauran (Syria) 

Aurelia Esbus. See Heshbon (ancient 
Israel) 

Aurelius, Marcus. See Marcus Aurelius 
Antoninus 

Aurich (Germany), 2:660 

Aurum Coronarium, 2:661 

Auscha. See Ustek (Czech Republic) 

Auschwitz (town; Poland). See 
Oswiecim 

Auschwitz Bombing Controversy, 
2:673-674 

Auschwitz concentration camp, 2:661- 
673, 671, 5:358, 9:337-338, 430, 
13:159-160 

aerial view, vol. 9: color insert 

child survivors, 9:488 

crematorium, 2:663, 664, 667 

gas chambers, 2:664-665, 667 

historiography, 9:420 

Hoess, Rudolf, 9:304-306 

infrastructure, 2:661 

John Paul IPs visit to, 11:384 

knowledge of, 2:670 

liberation, 2:672 

living conditions, 2:662-663 

main camp and fence, vol. 9: 
color insert 



medical experimentation, 2:669- 
670, 14:47 

orchestras, 14:698 

photographs, 9:481-482, 488 

population, 2:662 

Ravensbrueck concentration camp 
and, 17:121 

selection of prisoners, 2:669, 9:482 

transports to, 2:662, 666, 670, 
9:479 

working conditions, 2:663-664 

Auschwitz Convent, 2:674-675, 11:384 

Auschwitz trials, 2:676 

Aus der Petersburger Bibliothek 
(Solomon ben Aaron), 18:769 

Aus drei Jahrtausenten (Baeck), 3:51 

Ausdruckstanz dance, 5:412-413 

Ausgewaehlte Dedicte (Bab), 3:14 

Aus Halb-Asien (Franzos), 7:219 

Auslaender, Nahum, 2:677 

Auslaender, Rose, 2:677 

Auslander, Joseph, 2:677 

Auspitz, L. A., 3:687 

Auspitz, Rudolph, 16:340 

Auspitz family, 2:677-678 

Aussig. See Usti Nad Labem 

Auster, Daniel, 2:678 

Auster, Paul, 2:678 

Austerlitz (Czech Republic), 2:678- 
679 

Austerlitz, Friedrich, 16:340 

Austin (TX), 2:679-680 

Australia, 2:680-688, 681, 682t 

antisemitism, 2:687 

cultural and social life 

assimilation, 2:611 

communal centers, 14:7-8 

community organization and 
structures, 5:108, 110, H9t 

community organizations, 
2:686-687 

hud Habonim, 9:7\7t, 719 

journalism in, 11:470 

libraries, 12:786 

literature, 6:717, 12:781 

museums, 14:634 

newspapers, 16:487 

Sephardi Jews, 2:681-682 

synagogues, 2:685-686 

defense, Australia and New 
Zealand Army Corps, 14:432 

early twentieth century, 2:682-683 

education, 2:685, 6:207-208 

foreign relations with Israel, 2:687 

government officials 

Baume, Peter, 3:220-221 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



331 



INDEX 



Australia, continued 

Cass, Moses Henry, 4:506- 
507 

Einfeld, Sydney, 6:256 

Isaacs, Sir Isaac Alfred, 
10:54-55 

Jews in public life, 2:680-681, 
687, 12:619-620 

laws and legal systems 

criminals, 5:480 

law, 11:55, 12:548 

WW II war crimes trials, 
20:646-647 

Zionism, 21:580-581 

mid to late twentieth century, 
2:684 

nineteenth century, 2:680-681, 
14:456 

political theories, parties and 
organizations, 12:456-457, 749, 
16:339-340, 18:706 

population, 2:682f, 683-684 

synagogues, 2:685-686 

Australia-Israel Review (periodical). 
See The Review (periodical) 

The Australian Aborigines (Elkin), 
6:359 

Australian Association for Jewish 
Studies, 2:685 

Australian Jewish News (newspaper), 
2:686 

Australian Victories in France in 1918 
(Monash), 14:432 

Australian Writers: The Face of 
Literature (Kahan), 11:708 

Austria, 2:688-702, 689, 692t, 12:547- 
548 

1980s, 2:698-699 

1990s and after, 2:699-701 

antisemitism, 2:217, 219, 691, 701, 
4:224, 5:736 (See also Austria- 
Hungary; specific cities; specific 
rulers) 

badges, Jewish, 2:689 

Carinthia, 4:480 

Charles VI of Hapsburg, 

4:576-577 

Eisenstadt, 6:268-269 

references in Catholic 
literature, 18:168 

Waldheim Affair, 20:602-604 

Counter Reformation-nineteenth 
century, 2:689-690 

cultural and social life 

archives, 2:408 

community, nature of, 5:110 

journalism, 11:466-467 

libraries, 12:786 



museums, 14:627 

Oesterreichische 

Nationalbibliothek, 15:384 

seals, use of, 18:227 

economic affairs 

publishing, 16:715-716 
reparations, 6:280-281 

education 

contributions to general, 
6:160-161 

Jewish education, 6:177-179, 
181-182 

foreign policy and affairs 
Israel, 2:698, 701-702 
Jerusalem, 11:168-169 
reparations, 6:280-281 

Holocaust, 2:693-695 

archives, 2:408 

documentation, resource 
centers, 9:428 

Dzialoszyce, 6:80 

Ehrlich, Jacob, 6:244 

Sephardim, 18:301 

Styria, 19:279 

Tyrol, 20:220 

war crimes trials, 20:642-643 

Wiener Neustadt, 21:51 

laws and legal systems, 12:548-549 

Code of Regulations 

Concerning the Jews, 7:342 

emancipation, 6:375, 380, 
7:175 

Hapsburg monarchy, 8:342- 
343 

Middle Ages, 10:820 

war crimes trials, 20:642-643 

Middle Ages, 2:688-689, 10:820 

nineteenth century, 2:690-692, 
6922- 

political theories, parties and 
organizations 

Berihah, 3:434 

Blau- Weiss, 3:747 

Christian Social Party, 4:694 

Ehrlich, Jacob, 6:244 

Juedischer Parlamentsklub, 
15:652 

Nationalrat, 15:26 

Zionism, 2:691-692 

politicians 

Byk, Emil, 4:323-324 

Ehrlich, Jacob, 6:244 

Heimwehr, 8:770 

Leichter, Kaethe Pick, 12:625 

Pernerstorfer, Engelbert, 
15:780-781 

Seipel, Ignaz, 18:254-255 



post- WW I, 2:692-693 

post- WW II, 2:695-698 

Austria-Hungary 

antisemitism, anti-Jewish boycotts, 
4:109 

laws and legal systems 

emancipation, 12:778-779, 
18:683 

Toleranzpatent, 20:29 

political theories, parties and 
organizations, 16:338, 340-341 

liberalism, 12:778-779 

Oesterreichische-Israelitische 
Union, 20:249 

Po'alei Zion, 16:245 

Volkspartei, Juedische, 20:574 

Zionism, 21:581-582 

population, 16:395 

printing, publishing, 16:536-537 

resistance and rescue 

Jewish participation in 
military service, 14:241— 

242 

pogrom self-defense, 18:263 

self-defense, 18:263 

Ausubel, David Paul, 2:702-703 

Ausubel, Nathan, 2:703 

An Authentic Account of the Late 
Expedition to Bulam (Montefiore), 
14:456 

The Authoritarian Personality (AJC), 
2:56 

Authorities. See Reshut 

Authority, public. See Public authority 

Authority, rabbinical, 2:703-705 

Landrabbiner, 12:474 

Noachide laws, 15:285-286 

The Author of Himself See Mein Leben 
(Reich-Ranicki) 

Autism, early infantile, 11:766 

Autobiographies. See Biographies and 
autobiographies 

Autobiography of an Adventurer 
(Lincoln), 13:27 

Autocritique (Morin), 14:492 

Auto da Fe (Canetti). See Die Blendung 

Auto da Fe, 2:705-706, 18:45 

Auto emancipation (Pinsker), 9:247, 
11:700, 16:173 

Autographs, 2:706 

Automobile racing, 19:134 

Autonomism, 2:706-707, 6:37, 7:56 

Autonomy, 2:707-710 

Diaspora, 5:642 

duty, 6:72, 12:562 

Lesser Poland, 12:664 

Poland, 16:303 



332 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Autonomy, judicial, 2:710-711, 
14:341-344, 16:735-736 

Autopsies and dissection, 2:711-713, 
15:567 

Autour du monde fellowships, 11:718 

Auvergne (France), 2:713 

Auxerre (France), 2:713 

Av, 2:713-714 

Av, the fifteenth of, 2:714 

Av, the ninth of, 2:714-716, 7:120, 
12:446, 13:661-662 

See also Kinah 

Avadenka, Lynne, 4:372 

Avahu. See Abbahu 

Avar. See Lead 

Avazim. See Hussites 

Av Bet Din, 2:716-717 

Avco Corporation, 11:772 

Avdan, 2:717 

Avdat I. See Obedas I (Arabian king) 

Avdat II. See Obedas II (Arabian king) 

Avdimai of Haifa. See Avdimi of Haifa 

Avdima of Haifa. See Avdimi of Haifa 

Avdimi Bar Hama, 2:717 

Avdimi Nahta. See Dimi 

Avdimi of Haifa, 2:717 

Avedah. See Lost property 

Avedat (Negev), 2:717-719, 718 

Avedon, Richard, 2:719-720, 16:126 

Avel. See Abel 

Ave-Lallemant, Friedrich Christian 
Benedict, 2:720 

Avelei Zion, 2:720-721, 5:428 

Avelim (Israel), 2:721 

Avelut. See Mourning 

Avempace, 2:721-722 

Avenarius. See Gabirol, Solomon ben 
Judah, ibn 

Avenary, Hanoch, 2:722, 8:504 

Avendauth, 2:722 

Avendeath. See Avendauth 

Avendeuth. See Avendauth 

Avenger. See Blood-avengers 

Aventurile domnului Ionel Lacusta 
Termidor (Aderca), 1:391 

Averah, 2:722 

Averbakh, Leopold Leonidovich, 
2:722-723 

Avernas de Gras, Baron of. See Suasso, 
Antonio Lopez 

Averroes, 2:723-726 

Albalag, Isaac, 1:582-583 

Alexander of Aphrodisias, 1:628 

allegorical interpretation of 
scripture, 3:645 

angels and, 2:160 



categories, 4:524-525 

commentaries by Ibn Shem Tov, 
Joseph ben Shem Tov, 9:690, 
691 

Crescas, Hasdai, 2:266 

Levi Ben Gershom on, 12:698-699 

Av ha-Rahamim, 2:726 

Avia, 2:726 

Aviad, Yeshayahu, 2:726 

Aviasaf (Eliezer ben Joel ha-Levi of 
Bonn), 6:327 

Aviation. See Aeronautics 

Avi Avi, 2:726-727 

Avicenna, 2:160, 727-729, 4:529, 
19:284 

Avicenna s Canon. See al-Qanun ft 
al-Tibb 

Avida, Yehuda Leib, 2:729, 3:611 

Avidan. See Avdan 

Avidan, David, 2:729-730, 18:204 

Avidom, Menahem, 2:730 

Avidov, Zvi, 2:730-731 

Avigad, Nahman, 2:371, 731, 11:524 

Avigdor (Israel), 2:731 

Avigdor, Abraham, 2:731-732 

Avigdor, Abram Bo net. See Avigdor, 
Abraham 

Avigdor, Bonet Ben Meshullam Ben 
Solomon. See Avigdor, Abraham 

Avigdor, Jacob, 15:527, 537 

Avigdor ben Elijah ha-Kohen, 2:732 

Avigdor ben Isaac Kara. See Kara, 
Avigdor ben Isaac 

Avigdor ben Joseph Hayyim, 2:732- 
733 

Avigdor ben Simhah ha-Levi of 
Glogau, 2:733 

Avignon (France), 2:733-734 

Avigur, Shaul, 2:734-735 

Avigur-Rotem, Gabriela, 2:735 

Avi ha-Ezri. See My Father Is My Help 

Avihayil, 2:735 

Avikhavod. See Ichabod 

Avila (Spain), 2:735-736 

Avila, De family, 2:736 

Avila, Eliezer ben Samuel ben Moses 
De, 2:736 

Avila, prophet of, 2:736 

Avila, Samuel ben Moses, 2:736-737 

Avimi, 2:737 

Avimi ben Abbahu, 2:737 

Avin, 2:737 

Avina, 2:737-738 

Avineri, Shlomo, 2:738 

Avineri, Yitzhak, 2:738 

Avinoam, Reuven, 2:738-739 

Avin the Carpenter, 2:738 



Avinu Malkenu (prayer), 2:739-740 

Avinu She-ba-Shamayim, 2:740 

Avira, 2:740 

Aviram, Joseph, 2:740 

Avi-Shaul, Mordekhai, 2:740, 8:719 

Avitus, 2:741 

Avitzur, Shmuel, 2:741 

Aviv, Haim, 2:741 

Avi-Yitzhak, Dan, 2:741 

Avi-Yonah, Michael, 2:371, 741-742 

Avlona. See Valona (Albania) 

Avnei Derekh (Luz), 13:278 

Avnei Kodesh (Elbaz), 1:260 

Avnei Nezer (Sochaczew), 18:704 

Avnei Shayish (Abitbol), 1:260 

Avnei Yehoshua (Falk), 8:735 

Avnei Zikkaron (Firkovich), 7:44 

Avner. See Rosenfeld, Aharon 

Avnery, Uri, 2:742-743, 4:393 

Avnet, John, 2:743 

Avni, Aharon, 2:743 

Avni, Haim, 2:743 

Avni, Tzevi, 2:743-744 

Avnimos ha-Gardi, 15:383 

Avodah, 2:744-745 

Avodah Zarah, 2:745-746 

Avodat ha-Bore (Akiva Baer ben 
Joseph), 1:563 

Avodat ha-Kodesh (Adret), 1:423 

Avodat ha-Levi (Aaron ben Moses ha- 
Levi of Starosielce), 1:216 

Avodat ha-Tamid (Habillo), 8:179 

Avodat Massa (Joseph ben Saul 
Escapa), 6:488 

Avodat Yisrael (Baer), 3:53 

Avot, 6:526 

commentaries, 12:714, 18:602 

Avot (tractate), 2:746-750 

Avot de-Rabbi Nathan, 2:750-751, 
13:719 

See also Nathan Ha-Bavli 

Avot de-Rabbi Nathan (Schechter), 
18:113 

Avot nezikin, 2:751-753 

Avriel, Ehud, 2:753 

Avrunin, Abraham, 2:753-754 

Avrutick, Abraham N., 2:754 

Avshalomov, Aaron, 2:754 

Avshalomov, Jacob, 2:754 

Avtalyon, 2:754-755 

biblical exegesis and study, 3:641 
God fearers as ancestors of, 11:293 
Shemaiah (1st c. B.C.E.), 18:456 

Avtinas family, 2:755 

Avudama of Haifa. See Avdimi of 
Haifa 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



333 



INDEX 



Avun. See Avin 

Awim, 2:755 

AWACS (Airborne Warning and 
Control System) aircraft, 2:52 

The Awakening of Word Lore: From the 
Masorah to the Beginnings of Hebrew 
Lexicography. See Min ha-Masorah 
el Reshit ha-Milona c ut ha-Irvit 

Ax, Emanuel, 2:755 

Axel, Richard, 2:755-756, 13:10-11 

Axelrad, Adolf. See Axelrad, Avram 

Axelrad, Avram, 2:756 

Axelrod, Albert, 2:756 

Axelrod, Albie. See Axelrod, Albert 

Axelrod, Esther. See Axelrod, Lubov 

Axelrod, George, 2:756 

Axelrod, Julius, 2:756-757, 13:10 

Axelrod, Lubov, 2:757 

Axelrod, Meyer, 2:757 

Axelrod, Pavel Borisovich, 2:757-758, 
16:348 

Axelrod, Selik, 2:758 

Axenfeld, Israel, 2:758, 9:593 

Axiomatik der relativistischen Raum- 
Zeit-Lehre (Reichenbach), 17:199 

Ayalah. See Horowitz, Aaron Judah 
Loeb 

Ayalon, Ami, 2:758-759 

Ayalon, David, 2:759 

Ayalti, Hanan J., 2:759 

Ayaluna. See Aijalon 

Ayanot, 2:759 

Ayash family, 2:759-760 

Aydan, David, 2:760 

Aydin (Turkey), 2:760 

Ayelet Ha-Shahar (newspaper). See 
Jutrzenka 

Ayil Meshullash (Elijah ben Solomon 
Zalman), 6:343, 345 

'Ayin, 2:760 

Ayin, Hillel. See Omer, Hillel 

Ayin be- Ayin (Mohr), 14:420 

Ayllon, Solomon ben Jacob, 2:760- 
761, 8:477, 478 

Joseph della Raina legend, 11:428 

Sheluhei Erez Israel, 18:451 

• • * 

Ayna (ancient Israel). See Ai (ancient 
Israel) 

Aynzamlung (Shamri), 18:395 

Ayrton, Hertha, 2:761 

Ayyal, Ayyalah. See Deer 

Ayyalon. See Aijalon 

al-Ayyam (newspaper), 15:597 

Ayyash family. See Ayash family 

Ayyelet ha-Shahar, 2:761 

Ayyubid dynasty, 2:761-762 

Ayzik Sheftl (Pinski), 16:175 



Ayznban-Geshikhtn (Shalom 
Aleichem), 18:384 

Azancot family, 2:762 

Azar. See Rabinovitz, Alexander 
Siskind 

Azarch, Abraham. See Granovsky, 
Alexander 

Azardel, Moses. See Abzardiel, Moses 

Azarel (Pap), 15:614 

Azariah (Book of Daniel), 5:418, 419 

Azariah (first c. C.E.), 2:762 

Azariah (fourth c. C.E.), 2:762 

Azariah ben Eliyah, 2:762 

Azariah ben Solomon, 2:762-763 

Azariah ben Zechariah, 11:418 

Azarkh, Raisa Moyseyevna, 2:763 

Azat Yehoshua (Shapira), 18:401 

Azazel, 2:763-764, 5:573 

Azazel rites, 5:492-493 

AZC. See American Zionist Council 

Azeff, Yevno Fishelevich, 2:764, 18:707 

Azeglio, Massimo Taparelli, Marchese 
D', 2:765 

Azekah (Israel), 2:765 

Az ember tragedidja (Madach), 9:603 

Azemmour (Morocco), 2:765 

Azenberg, Emanuel, 2:765-766 

Azerbaijan, 2:766-767 

Messianic movement in, 6 

Persia, 2:76 

See also Mountain Jews 

Azeret, 2:767 

Azevedo, Moses Cohen D', 2:768 

Azevedo family, 2:767 

Azharot (Isaac ben Reuben al- 
Bargeloni), 6:158 

Azharot, Azharah, 2:768 

Azikri, Eleazar ben Moses, 2:768-769 

Azilut, 2:769-770, 6:374 

Aziz, 2:770 

'Aziz al-, 6:724 

Aziz ben Jonah Nairn. See Nairn, Aziz 
ben Jonah 

Azizus (King of Emesa), 6:28 

AZ] (periodical). See Allgemeine 
Zeitung Des Judentums (periodical) 

Azkari, Eleazar ben Moses. See Azikri, 
Eleazar ben Moses 

AZM. See American Zionist 
Movement 

Azmon (Israel), 2:770 

AZMU (American Zionist Medical 
Unit), 2:60, 8:186 

Aznoth-Tabor (Israel), 2:770 

Azor (Israel), 2:770-771 

Azores, 2:771 

Azrach, Abraham, 8:33 



Azrail. See Angel of Death 

Azrieli, David, 2:771 

Azriel of Gerona, 2:771-772, 13:761 

Azriel of Shklov. See Israel ben Samuel 
of Shklov 

Az Rov Nissim, 2:772 

A zsidokrol (Ballagi), 3:91 

Azubib, Joseph ben Nehorai, 2:772 

Azubib, Saadiah ben Nehorai, 2:272 

Azubib family, 2:772-773 

Azuby, Abraham, 2:773 

Az uj kereszteny (Ujvari), 20:232 

Azulai (Castilian family), 2:773, 773 

Azulai (Italian family), 2:773 

Azulai, Abraham ben Israel, 2:774 

Azulai, Abraham ben Mordecai, 2:774 

Azulai, Hayyim Joseph David, 2:77, 
774-775, 3:572, 4:21, 104, 117, 7:16 

Adeni, Solomon bar Joshua, 1:390 

bibliography of, 3:681, 682 

Jacob ben Hayyim Joseph 
Elyashar, 6:371 

Joshua ben Nun, 11:457 

Azulai, Masud, 2:775 

Azzabim (Brenner), 4:160 

B 

B (letter), 3:5, 4:5 

Ba (3rd-4th centuries). See Abba (3rd- 
4th centuries) 

Ba (4th-5th centuries). See Abba (4th- 
5th centuries) 

Ba Ahmad (Sultan of Morocco), 
14:499-500 

Baal. See Baal worship 

Baalah, 3:5 

Ba'alat ha-Armon (Goldberg), 8:721 

Baal-Berith, 3:5-6 

Ba'al berit milah. See Sandak 

Ba'alei Asufot (Lattes), 12:519 

Ba'alei Mikra. See Karaites 

Ba'alei Shem. See Ba'al Shem 

Ba'alei teshuvah, 3:6-7 

Baal-Gad (ancient Israel), 3:7 

Ba'al ha-Bayit, 3:7 

Baal-Hadad. See Rimmon 

Ba'al ha-Kelim. See Laniado, Samuel 
ben Abraham 

Ba'al ha-Kenafayim, 4:62 

Ba'al ha-Ma'amarim. See Bachrach, 
Jacob Ben Moses 

Ba'al ha-Turim. See Jacob ben Asher 

Baal Hazor (ancient Israel), 3:7 

Ba'al he-Arukh. See Nathan ben Jehiel 
of Rome 

Baalis (King of Ammon), 2:86, 3:8 



334 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Baal-Makhshoves, 3:8 

Baal-Meon (Transjordan), 3:8 

Baal-Perazim, 3:8-9 

Ba'al Shem, 3:9, 12:466 

Ba'al Shem of Bingen. See Adam Ba'al 
Shem 

Ba'al Shem of London. See Falk, 
Samuel Jacob Hayyim 

Ba'al Shem Tov. See Israel ben Eliezer 
Ba'al Shem Tov 

Ba'al Shem Tov family, 10:744 

Baal Tfillah (Baer), 3:52 

Baal ve-Ishah (Shalev), 18:373 

Baal worship, 3:5, 6, 9-12 

Elijah, 6:331-332, 335 

extermination of, 11:113 

Jezebel, 1:524 

Baal-Zephon (Egypt), 3:13 

Baanah. See Rechab and Baanah 

Baar, Emil N., 3:13 

Baar, Herman, 3:13 

Baasa. See Baasha 

Baasha, 2:85, 3:13 

Baaz. See Jachin and Boaz (sanctuary 
pillars) 

Baazov, Herzl, 3:14 

Baazov, Meir, 3:14 

Bab, Julius, 3:14 

Babad, Joseph ben Moses, 3:15 

Babad, Simeon, 3:15 

Babad family, 3:14 

Baba ha-Gadol. See Baba Rabbah 

Babai ben Farhad, 3:15 

Babai ben Farhad, 11:556 

Babai ben Lu^f, 3:15 

Babai ben Lutf of Kashan, 11:555 

Bab al-Abwab (Caucasus), 3:16 

See also Derbent (Caucasus) 

Babalikashvili, Nisan, 11:322 

Baba Rabbah, 3:16 

Babatha, 11:524 

Babbitt, Milton, 3:16-17 

Babel, Isaac Emmanuilovitch, 3:17-19, 
15:380 

Babel, Nathalie, 3:18, 19 

Babel, Tower of, 3:19-21, 4:94 

Babilee, Jean, 3:21 

Babin, Victor, 3:21-22 

Babi Yar (Kuznetsov), 9:405 

Babi Yar (Ukraine), 3:22-23, 9:430 

"Babi Yar" (Yevtushenko), 3:22, 
18:685-686, 21:327 

Babovich, Simhah ben Solomon ben 
Nahamu, 3:23, 7:44, 11:793 

Bdbszinhdz (Brody), 4:201 

Babylon (Mesopotamia), 3:23-24 

alphabet, Hebrew, 1:698-699, 
70U, 706, 707, 712t 



Geonim, 7:380-384, 383t, 384t 

host of heaven, and practices in, 
9:567 

Sura and Pumbedita, 7:380-384 

Tower of Babel, 3:19 

See also Exilarch; Nebuchadnezzar 

Babylonia, 3:24-30 

Abba, 1:225 

academies, 1:347-351, 350 

alluf, 1:677 

Kairouan, 11:726-727 

agriculture, 1:493-494 

Akkadian language, 1:565-566 

Ammonites, 2:85-86 

amoraim, 2:89, 89-95, 91, 11:708, 
12:702-703 

Anilaeus and Asinaeus, 2:164-165 

archives, 2:403, 404 

Borsippa, 4:94 

crowns and wreaths, 5:308 

diaspora, 9:203-204 

education, 6:163-169 

Elam, 6:283 

ethics, 6:535 

exile, 3:25, 6:608-611, 9:180, 186, 
21:488-489 

economic history, 6:98-99 

education during, 6:163 

eschatology, 6:492-493 

Jewish identity and, 11:292 

return from, 6:658, 659 

Hammurapi, 8:309-310 

Jewish community, 3:27-29 

Judeo-Arabic literature in, 11:530- 
531 

magical prayers, 11:594 

Middle Ages 

education, Jewish, 6:172-173 

Moab, 14:403 

moneylending, 14:438 

monogamy, 14:448 

Nebuchadnezzar, 15:48-49 

Nehardea, 15:59-60 

Nehar Pekod, 15:60 

Nehutei, 15:65 

population, 16:386 

Rabbinic academies, 3:27-28 

Shalmaneser V, 18:376 

shekel weights, 18:439 

See also Exilarch; Iraq; 

Mesopotamia; Nebuchadnezzar 

Babylonian, the. See Nathan Ha-Bavli 

Babylonian Aramaic, 2:353-356, 353 1, 
355t 

Babylonian brothers (Anilaeus and 
Asinaeus), 11:440 



Babylonian dialect. See Akkadian 
language 

Babylonian Empire. See Babylonia 

Babylonian Masorah system, 13:630- 
633 

contamination of, 13:618 

notations, 13:619-620 

terminology, 13:617-618 

tonal meanings, 13:624 

Torah divisions, 13:607, 609-610 

written symbols, 13:616 

Babylonian supralinear punctuation, 
3:591 

Babylonian Talmud, 5:429, 11:741- 
742, 13:91, 19:470-481, 472f, 473t 

Aggadah of the Bavli, 19:478-479 

am ha-arez, 2:68, 69 

Amidah, 2:76 

amoraim, 2:89, 93, 94, 95, 11:136 

Arakhin, 2:336-337 

Ashi's authorship, 2:565-566 

astrology, 2:617 

baraita, 3:125 

Bava Batra, 3:223-224 

Bava Kamma, 3:224-226 

Bava Metzia, 3:226-227 

Bavli, 19:470, 475-478 

biblical orthography, 13:612 

commentators 

Rashi, 17:104-105 

Dikdukei Soferim, variant readings 
of, 17:31 

Eleazar ben Parta, 6:305 

Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, 6:325 

Elisha ben Avuyah, 6:352-354 

Eruvin (tractate), 6:485-486 

Hama Bar Bisa, 8:291 

history of interpretation, 19:479- 
481 

Jacob ben Korshai, 11:34 

Jesus in, 11:249-250 

Johanan ben Nappaha, 11:370-372 

Kallah, 11:741-742 

laws and legal systems 

divine punishment, 5:709 

mazanut in, 13:708 

Megillah, 13:768 

Meilah, 13:775 

Menah, 14:27-28 

Mishnah, 14:328 

mishpat Ivri, 14:337, 346 

mistakes, 14:367 

Niddah, 15:258-259 

prolongation of life, 13:744 

proverbs, 16:647 

rabbinic literature, 19:475-477 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



335 



INDEX 



Babylonian Talmud, continued 

Rav, as founder of, 17:117 

redaction, 9:206 

Resh Lakish, 18:597-598 

Samuel, as founder of, 17:117 

Semahot, 18:273 

Sugya, 19:470-475 

on Targum Onkelos, 3:590 

tractates, 13:667 

Babylonische Wanderung (Doeblin), 
5:729-730 

Bacall, Lauren, 3:30 

Bacau (Romania), 3:30-31 

Bacchides, 3:31 

Bathbasi, siege of, 18:601 

Elasa, 6:287 

Jonathan the Hasmonean, 11:398 

Bacchus. See Dionysus, cult of 

Bacculus, 13:674 

Bach, Aaron J., 14:446 

Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel, 14:542 

Bacharach (Germany), 3:31 

Bacharach, Abraham Samuel ben 
Isaac, 3:32 

Bacharach, Alfred Louis, 3:32 

Bacharach, Benjamin, 3:32, 33 

Bacharach, Burt, 3:32 

Bacharach, Ephraim Gumbrecht, 3:32 

Bacharach, Eva, 3:32-33 

Bacharach, Gottschalk of, 3:32 

Bacharach, Harry, 3:32, 33 

Bacharach, Hawah. See Bacharach, 
Eva 

Bacharach, Isaac, 3:32, 33 

Bacharach, Israel, 3:32 

Bacharach, Jacob, 3:32 

Bacharach, Jair Hayyim ben Moses 
Samson, 3:33-34, 6:628, 13:676 

Bacharach, Judah Loeb ben Aaron, 
3:32 

Bacharach, Menachem, 3:32 

Bacharach, Moses Samson ben 
Abraham Samuel, 3:34 

Bacharach, Naphtali ben Jacob 
Elhanan, 3:34-35 

Bacharach, Simon. See Bacher, Simon 

Bacharach, Tobias ben Joseph 
Solomon, 3:32 

Bacharach family (Europe), 3:31-32 

Bacharach family (U.S.), 3:32 

Bachauer, Gina, 3:35 

Bache, Jules Semon, 3:35-36 

Bache family, 3:35-36 

Bacher, Eduard, 3:36 

Bacher, Robert Fox, 3:36 

Bacher, Simon, 3:36 



Bacher, Wilhelm, 3:36-37 

aggadah, 1:460 

Judeo-Persian literature, 11:558 

Bacherach (Germany). See Bacharach 
(Germany) 

Bacherach family. See Bacharach 
family 

Bachi, Armando, 3:37 

Bachi, Raphael, 3:37 

Bachi, Riccardo, 3:37-38 

Bachi, Roberto, 3:38, 18:735 

Bachman, Jacob, 3:38 

Bachrach, Israel, 3:39 

Bachrach, Jacob ben Moses, 3:38-39 

Bachrach, Judah ben Joshua Ezekiel, 
3:39 

Bachrach, Moses ben Isaiah Menahem, 
3:39 

Bachrach family. See Bacharach family 

Bachrich family. See Bacharach family 

Barlad (Moldavia). See Barlad 
(Moldovia) 

Back, Samuel, 3:39 

Backer, George, 3:39-40 

Backman, Jules, 3:40 

Backofen, Jacob. See Reischer, Jacob 
ben Joseph 

BackRub, 4:183 

"Back to God" telecast, 11:723 

Bacon, Hirsch Leib, 3:40, 8:504 

Bacon, Isaac, 8:504 

Bacon, Israel, 3:40 

Bacon, Roger, 2:144, 3:40-41 

Bacon, Shlomo Reuven, 3:41 

Bacon, Yehuda, 3:41 

Bacon, Yidel, 3:41 

Bacrat, Abraham ben Solomon. See 
Levy-Bacrat, Abraham ben Solomon 

Bacri, David Coen, 3:41 

Bacri, Jacob Coen, 3:42 

Bacri, Jean-Pierre, 3:42 

Bacri, Joseph Coen, 3:41-42 

Bacri family, 3:41 

Bacteriology. See Medicine 

Baculus Jacobi. See Jacob's staff 

Bacuu (Romania). See Bacau 
(Romania) 

Badajoz (Spain), 3:42 

Bade, William Frederick, 3:43 

Baden (Germany), 3:43, 43-44, 6:363 

antisemitism, 9:466 

Frederick I, 7:220-221 
Baden-Baden (Germany), 9:466 
Baden Bei Wien (Austria), 3:44 
Baden-Durlach (Germany), 3:43, 44 
Bader, Gershom, 3:44-45 



Bader, Gustav. See Bader, Gershom 

Badge of Shame. See Jewish badges 

Badges, Jewish. See Jewish badges 

Badhan, 3:48 

Badhav, Isaac ben Michael, 3:48-49 

Bad Homburg (Germany). See 
Homburg (Germany) 

Badihi, Yahya ben Judah, 3:49 

Badinter, Elizabeth, 3:49 

Badinter, Robert, 3:49-50 

Badis (King of Granada), 11:111 

Bad Kissingen. See Kissingen 
(Germany) 

Bad Koenigswart. See Lazne Kynzvart 
(Czech Republic) 

Bad Kreuznach (Germany). See 
Kreuznach (Germany) 

Bad Mergentheim. See Mergentheim 
(Germany) 

Bad Nahuheim. See Nauheim 
(Germany) 

Bad Nauheim. See Nauheim 
(Germany) 

Badt, Hermann, 3:50 

Badt-Strauss, Bertha, 3:50 

Baeck, Leo, 3:50-51, 11:513 

Baeck, Samuel, 3:52 

Baehr, Aaron. See Bennett, Archie 

Baena, Juan Alfonso de, 3:52 

Baena, Juan de. See Pineda, Juan de 

Baer, Abraham, 3:52 

Baer, Buddy, 3:53 

Baer, Fritz. See Baer, Yitzhak 

Baer, Gabriel, 3:52 

Baer, Issachar. See Jeiteles, Berthold 

Baer, Issachar Falkensohn. See Behr, 
Issachar Falkenstein 

Baer, Jacob Henry. See Baer, Buddy 

Baer, Max, 3:52-53 

Baer, Max Jr., 3:53 

Baer, Seligman Isaac, 3:53, 13:653 

German translation of Bible by, 
3:631 

printed editions of Hebrew Bible, 
3:587-588 

Baer, Simeon Akiva. See Akiva Baer 
ben Joseph 

Baer, Yitzhak, 3:53-54, 9:160-161 

"Ba-Erev" (Feierberg), 6:731 

Baer Frankfurter. See Joseph Issachar 
Baer ben Elhanan 

Ba'er Heitev. See Isaiah ben Abraham 

Baer Heitev (Isaiah ben Abraham), 
10:76-77 

Baerwald, Alex, 3:54 

Baerwald, Moritz, 3:54-55 

Baerwald, Paul, 3:55 



336 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Baethgen, Friedrich Wilhelm Adolph, 
3:55 

Baeyer, Adolf Von, 3:55 

Bag. See Goldberg, Baer ben Alexander 

Ba Gad (Alfalas), 1:636 

Les Bagages de Sable (Langfus), 12:482 

Bagely, David, 3:59-60 

Baghdad (Iraq), 3:55-59, 10:15 

Aaron ben Amram and, 1:211 

Aaron Hakiman and, 1:211 

Abbasid dynasty, 1:234 

bar mitzvah, 3:165-166 

demography, 10:16 

exilarchate and, 6:605 

exilarchs, 5:466-467, 469 

hakham bashi, 8:268 

Jewish quarter, 11:312 

Kazin, Raphael ben Elijah, 12:45 

Netira, 15:113 

Ottoman conquest of, 15:525 

philanthropy in, 11:36-37 

Baghdadali, Ezekiel hen Joseph Nissim 
Menahem. See Gabbai, Ezekiel ben 
Joseph Nissim Menahem 

Baghdadli. See Gabbai, Ezekiel ben 
Joseph Nissim Menahem 

Baginsky, Adolf Aron, 3:59 

Bagliar, Joseph, 15:523 

Bagoti, 3:60 

Bagrit, Leon. See Bagrit, Sir Leon 

Bagrit, Sir Leon, 3:60 

Bagritski, Eduard Georgiyevitch, 3:60 

BaH. See Sirkes, Joel 

Baha'i, 10:650 

Hamadan, 8:293 

holy places in Israel, 9:501, 502 

Ba-Hanuto shel Mar Lublin (Agnon), 
1:467 

Bahat, 16:478 

Bahia (Brazil), 3:60-62 

Bahir, Sefer ha-. See Sefer ha-Bahir 

Bahlul, Daniel ben Judah, 3:63 

Bahlul, Eleazar, 3:64 

Bahlul, Samuel, 3:64 

Bahlul family, 3:63-64 

Bahrain (Middle East), 3:64 

Bahur, 3:64 

Bahur (Levita), 12:731 

Bahurim (Israel), 3:64 

Bahur yeshivah, 3:7 

Bahuzim, 3:64 

Bahya, 3:65 

Bahya ben Asher ben Hlava, 3:65-66, 
645 

Bahya ben Joseph Ibn Paquda, 3:66- 
67, 66-67, 6:527-528, 16:81, 106, 
198, 489f 

beatitude, 3:237 



Bible narratives, 7:14 

commandments, reasons for, 
5:86-87 

Divine attributes, 19:283-284 

duty, 6:72 

education, 6:173 

free will, 7:231 

God, attributes of, 7:667 

God, nature of, 7:661, 662 

Judeo-Arabic literature and, 
11:534, 539 

repentance, 17:222 

Baia-Mare (Romania), 3:67 

Baiersdorf (Germany), 3:67-68 

Baiersdorf, Samson Solomon, 3:68 

Baigneux-Les-Juifs (France), 3:68 

Bail. See Suretyship 

Bail, Charles Joseph, 3:68 

Bailees. See Shomerim 

Bailyn, Bernard, 3:68-69 

Bairam Ali. See Merv (ancient city) 

Baitler, Zoma, 3:69 

Baito Anaia. See Bet-Anath (Israel) 

Baitos ben Zonin, 3:69 

Baizerman, Saul, 3:69 

Baja (Hungary), 3:69-70 

Bajaya (Algeria). See Bougie (Algeria) 

Bajjana (Spain). See Pechina (Spain) 

Bak, Gerson, 3:70 

Bak, Israel, 3:71, 8:466 

Bak, Jacob, 3:70 

Bak, Joseph, 3:70 

Bak, Judah, 3:70 

Bak, Moses, 3:70 

Bak, Nisan, 3:71 

Bak, Samuel, 3:71 

Bakan, David, 3:72 

Bakehouses, communal, 2:39 

Bak family (Ashkenazi), 3:70 

Bak family (Israel), 3:71 

Bakhmut (Ukraine). See Artemovsk 
(Ukraine) 

Baki, 3:72 

Baking. See Cooking and baking 

Baking and cooking. See Cooking and 
baking 

Bakkashah, 1:438, 439, 617, 3:72-73 

Bakker-Nort, Betsie, 16:345 

Bakl, Mania, 2:87 

Bakri. See Bacri family 

Bakri, Mohammed, 3:73 

Bakshi, Ralph, 3:73-74 

Bakshi-Doron, Eliahu, 3:74 

Bakst, Leon, 3:74 

Bakst, Nicolai Ignatyetvich, 3:74-75 

Bakst, Noah. See Bakst, Nicolai 
Ignatyetvich 



Baku (Azerbaijan), 3:75 

Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich, 
3:75 

Baky, Lazlo, 3:75-76 

Balaam, 3:76-81, 11:250-251, 14:401, 
528, 536, 545 

"The Balaam Pericope," 3:76, 77 

Balaban, Barney, 3:81 

Balaban, Majer. See Balaban, Meir 

Balaban, Meir, 3:81-82 

Balabanoff, Angelica, 3:82-83 

Balabanov, Angelica, 18:713 

Baladhuri, 15:419 

Balaguer (Spain), 3:83 

Balak, 3:77, 83, 14:401 

Balance, 3:83 

Balance a trois (Babilee), 3:21 

Balanjar (Caucasus), 3:83-84 

Balansi, Isaac ben David, 3:679 

Balassagyarmat (Hungary), 3:84 

Balaz, Bela, 3:84 

Balbo, Michael ben Shabbetai Cohen, 
3:84-85 

Balcon, Michael. See Balcon, Sir 
Michael 

Balcon, Sir Michael, 3:85 

Bal-Dimyen. See Shtif, Nokhem 

Balearic Islands, 9:795 

Balfour, Arthur James, Earl of, 3:85, 
6:42 

Balfour Declaration, 3:85-89, 4:722, 
6:417, 430, 9:249, 13:148, 20:747 

American Jewish Committee, 2:55 

American Jewry and, 2:45 

Amery, Leopold Charles Maurice 
Stennet, 2:66 

Biltmore Program and, 3:700 

Churchill White Paper, 10:198 

Frank, Zevi Pesah, 7:196 

Montefiore, Claude, 2:162 

Nordau, Max, 15:298 

Ottoman empire and, 15:544-545 

Palestine Inquiry Commissions, 
15:582 

Palestine Liberation Organization, 
15:591 

San Remo Conference and, 18:26 
Balfouriyyah, 3:90 
Bali, Abraham ben Jacob, 3:90 
Bali, Moses ben Abraham, 3:90 
Bali, Rifat, 3:90 
Balideh, Moses, 3:90 
Balin, Marty, 3:90-91 
Baline, Israel. See Berlin, Irving 
Balint, Michael, 3:91 
Balkans 

community, nature of, 5:110-111 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



337 



INDEX 



Balkans, continued 

Congress of Berlin, 3:453-454, 
6:381-382 

eighteenth-early nineteenth 
century 

education, Jewish, 6:183-184 

emancipation, 6:381 

Ladino newspapers, 16:495 

Middle Ages 

agriculture, Jewish, 1:495 

Balkan Wars (1912-1913), 18:315 

Balkh, 3:91 

Ballagi, Mor, 3:91, 632 

Ballarat (Australia), 3:92 

Ballas, Dalia. See Itzik, Dalia 

Ballas, Shimon, 3:92, 15:473 

Ballet, 5:412 

choreographers, 13:667 
Eifman, Boris, 6:253 
Lewitzky, Bella, 12:770 
Lichine, David, 12:795-796 
Schubert, Lia, 18:168-169 
Espinosa, Edouard, 6:508 
European, 5:444, 12:479 
Hayden, Melissa, 8:475 
Levinson, Andre, 12:722-723 
Ordman, Jeanette, 15:463 
Plisetskaya, Maya, 16:238 

Ballin, Albert, 3:92-93 

Ballin, Joel, 3:93 

Ballin, Moegens, 3:93 

Ballin, Samuel Jacob, 3:93 

Ballmer, Steve, 3:93-94 

Bally, Davicon, 3:94 

Bally, Isaac David, 3:94 

Balm. See Balsam 

Balm (plant), vol. 16: color insert 

Balmes, Abraham ben Meir de, 3:94- 
95, 13:42-43 

Balmes, Abraham de, 3:94, 4:52 

Balm for the Body (Falaquera). See 
Zori ha-Guf 

Balogh, Thomas, Baron, 3:95 

Balsam, 3:95-96, 15:396 

Balshazzar, 5:420 

Balta (Ukraine), 3:96 

Baltassar. See Belteshazzar 

Baltazar, Camil, 3:96 

Baltic states 

emancipation, 6:385 

Latvia, 12:520-524 

Baltimore (MD), 3:97-100 

Baltimore Ravens football team, 
14:407 

Meyerhoff, Harvey, 14:151-152 

pioneer Jews, 6:542-543 



Baltimore, David, 3:100, 13:9 

Baltimore Bargain House, 3:98 

Baltimore Hebrew University (MD), 
3:98, 100-101, 11:776 

Balyash family. See Palache family 

Bamah. See Cult Places, Israelite 

Bamberg (Germany), 3:101, 778 

Bamberg, Israel of. See Israel of 
Bamberg 

Bamberg, Samuel ben Baruch, 3:101- 
102 

Bamberger, Bernard Jacob, 3:102 

Bamberger, Edouard-Adrien, 3:102 

Bamberger, Eugen, 3:102 

Bamberger, Fritz, 3:102 

Bamberger, Heinrich Von, 3:103 

Bamberger, Isaac Dov ha-Levi. See 
Bamberger, Seligmann Baer 

Bamberger, Louis, 3:103, 6:513 

Bamberger, Ludwig, 3:103, 725, 726, 
12:778, 16:344 

Bamberger, Moses Loeb, 3:104 

Bamberger, Moses Loeb II, 3:104 

Bamberger, Moses Loeb III, 3:104 

Bamberger, Nathan, 3:104 

Bamberger, Seckel (1863-1934), 3:104 

Bamberger, Seckel Isaac, 3:104 

Bamberger, Selig, 3:104 

Bamberger, Seligmann Baer, 3:103, 
15:493 

Bamberger, Simon, 3:105 

Bamberger, Simon Simh, 3:104 

Bamberger, Simon Simh II, 3:104 

Bamberger, Simon Simh III, 3:104 

Bamberger, Solomon, 3:104 

Bamberger, Solomon Memahem, 
3:104 

Bamberger family, 3:104 

Bambus, Willy, 3:105 

Ba-Meh Madlikin, 3:105 

Ba-Mishol ha-Zar (Kabak), 11:584 

Banai, Ehud, 3:106 

Banai, Evyatar, 3:106 

Banai, Gavri, 3:106, 8:206-207 

Banai, Meir, 3:106 

Banai, Orna, 3:106 

Banai, Yossi, 3:105-106 

Banai, Yuval, 3:106 

Banai family, 3:105-106 

Bana'im, 18:232 

Banat (Romania), 3:106-107 

Band, Arnold, 3:107 

Agnon, Shmuel Yosef, 1:468 
on Jewish studies, 11:317-318 

Bandera, Stefan, 4:86 

Bandes, Louis E. See Miller, Louis E. 



Bandman, Daniel, 14:454 

Banet, Aber, 3:107 

Banet, Fradl, 3:107 

Banet, Jacob, 3:107 

Banet, Johanan, 3:107 

Banet, Mordecai ben Abraham, 3:107- 
108, 4:156 

Banet, Mordecai ben Yom Tov, 3:107 

Banet, Naphtali ben Mordecai, 3:108 

Banet family, 3:107 

Baneth, David Hartwig, 3:108 

Baneth, Eduard Ezekiel, 3:108 

Baneth, Ezekiel ben Jacob, 3:108-109 

Baneth family, 3:108 

See also Banet family 
Banias (ancient Israel), 3:109, 9:40 
Banishment, 3:109-111 
Banja Luka, 3:111 

Bank Hapoalim, 10:579, 587, 590, 601 
Banking and bankers, 3:111-119 

Aaron ben Amram, 1:211-212 

Abbasid dynasty, 1:234 

antiquity, 3:111 

Benwaish, Abraham, 3:386 

Bischhoffsheim family, 3:724-725 

Blank, Maurice, 3:739 

Blumenthal, George, 4:12 

Blum Pasha, 4:7 

Boas family, 4:20-21 

in Bologna, 4:48 

Borovoy, Saul, 4:92 

brokers, 4:203-204 

Camondo family, 4:382 

cooperatives, 5:206 

Credit Mobilier, 15:759 

Denmark 

Adler, David Baruch, 1:396 

Dreyfus family, 6:18 

economic history, 6:103, 107, 113 

Egypt 

Harari, Sir Victor Raphael, 
8:345 

England, 6:411-413 

Benas, Baron Louis, 3:319 

Europe 

Jewish Colonization 
Association, 11:286 

Mendelssohn and Co., 14:31 

Fraenkel, Louis, 7:145 

Germany 

Bamberger, Ludwig, 3:103 
Itzig, Daniel, 10:818-819 
Riesser, Jacob, 17:296 

Hallgarten family, 8:281 

Hambros, 8:295 



338 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Holocaust restitution, 6:280-281, 
18:637 

Israel 

Dickenstein, Abraham, 5:645- 
646 

Hoofien, Eliezer Sigried, 
9:521 

Levontin, Zalman David, 
12:744-745 

Mizrachi, 14:391-392 

Italy 

Form, 7:129-130 
monti di pieta, 14:461 
Ravenna, 17:120 
Rieti family, 17:296-297 

Jewish Colonial Trust, 11:285 

Kaskel family, 11:822 

Ladenburg, Wolf Hayum, 12:427 

Lanczy, Leo, 12:456 

Landau, Eugen, 12:459 

Luzzatto family, 18:10 

Middle Ages 

the caliphate, 3:111-112 
Conversos, 3:113-114 
Holy Roman Empire, 3:114 
Italy, 3:114, 10:778-799, 16:6 
merchants, 3:112 
moneylenders, 3:112-113 
women bankers, 3:115 

Morawitz, Karl Ritter von, 14:478 

Netherlands 

Lehren family, 12:616-617 

in New York City, 15:203, 225- 
226 

nineteenth and twentieth 
centuries, 3:115 

merchant bankers, 3:115-116 

Russia and Eastern Europe, 
3:116-117 

Scandinavia and the 
Netherlands, 3:117 

U.S., 3:117-119, 15:761 

Oppenheim family, 15:443 

Orvieto, 15:500 

in Ottoman empire, 15:525, 532- 
533, 542 

Padua, 15:566 

in Parma, 15:652-653 

Poland 

Lewko, Jordanis, 12:770 

Raisman, Sir Jeremy, 17:75 

Rathenau, Walther, 17:110-111 

Ratshesky Abraham Captain, 
17:114 

Ravay, Joseph, 17:119 

Recanati, Leon, 17:141-142 

role and influence of Jewish 
bankers, 3:119 



Rosen, Mathias, 17:429 

Rosenbloom, Solomon, 17:442- 
443 

Rothschild, Nathaniel Charles 
Jacob, 17:494 

Rothschild Bank, 16:20 

Russia 

Barbash, Samuel, 3:140 
Horodischtsh, Leon, 9:528 

sarraf, 18:61 

Turkey 

Carmona, Bekhor Isaac 
David, 4:486 

U.K. 

Cassel, Ernest Joseph, 4:508 

U.S., 3:117-119 

Becker family, 3:244 

Belmont, August, 3:301 

Lazard family, 12:558 

Lehman, Herbert Henry, 
12:613-614 

Levitan, Solomon, 12:732 

See also Financiers; Moneylending; 
Obligations, law of 

Bank Leumi le-Israel, 3:180, 10:547, 
579, 587, 590 

Bank notes, Israeli, 5:55 

See also Coins and currency 

Bank of Israel (BOI), 5:54, 7:55-56, 
10:551-553, 570-573, 579, 581-586, 
590 

The Bankrupts (Glanville), 6:438 

Banners, 3:119-120 

Banning. See Herem 

Bannus, ascetic, 2:547-548 

Banoczi, Jozef, 3:120 

Banoczi, Lazlo, 3:120 

Banoczi family, 3:120 

Banon, Jacob, 16:346 

Banska, Bystrica (Slovakia), 3:120 

Bantomlacs (Romania). See Talmaciu 
(Romania) 

Banu al-Aghlab. See Aghlabids dynasty 

Banu Hafs. See Hafsids 

Banu- Marin. See Merinids 

Banus, 3:120 

Banus, Maria, 3:120-121 

Banti Sa'd family. See Sa'dis family 

Banu Wattas. See Wattasid dynasty 

Banu Ziyan. See Ziyanid dynasty 

Banya Luka. See Banja Luka 

Baptism, 11:381 

Baptism, forced. See Forced Baptism 

Baqa al-Gharbbiyya (Israel), 3:122- 
123 

Baqa al-Sharqiyya (Israel), 3:122-123 

Ba'quba (Iraq), 3:123 



Bar (Ukraine), 3:123 

Bar, Shlomo, 3:123 

Bara, Theda, 3:123-124 

Baracs, Karoly, 3:124 

Bar-Adon, Pesah, 11:524 

Baraita (of Sifra), 18:561 

Baraita, Baraitot, 3:124-128, 21:523 

Midreshei Halakhah, 14:196 

Sifra, 18:561 

Baraita de-Melekhet ha-Mishkan, 3:128 

Baraita de-Niddah, 3:128-129, 15:256 

Baraita de-Rav Adda (Adda bar 
Ahavah), 1:384 

Baraita of 32 Rules, 3:129, 6:329 

Baraita of 49 Rules. See Mishnat ha- 
Middot 

Barak (biblical figure), 3:129-130, 
8:361, 9:170, 11:563-564 

Barak, Aharon, 3:130-131, 14:358- 
359, 362, 20:466-468 

Barak, Ehud, 3:131-132, 266, 10:250 

American Israel Public Affairs 
Committee, 2:51 

government of, 10:459-460, 459f 

Palestinian Authority and, 15:599 

Sharansky, Natan and, 18:412 

Sharon, Ariel and, 18:417 

Shas (political party) and, 18:419 

Bar-am, Micha, 3:132 

Baram, Moshe, 3:132 

Baram, Uzi, 3:133 

Baranga, Aurel, 3:133 

Baranovichi (Belarus), 3:133-134 

Baranowicz, David Eliezer, 3:134 

Baranowicze (Belarus). See 
Baranovichi (Belarus) 

Barany, Robert, 3:134 

Barasch, Julius, 3:134-135, 6:399 

Barasch, Moshe, 3:135 

Barasch Judah. See Barasch, Julius 

Barash, Asher, 3:135-137 

Barash, Ephraim, 3:137, 568, 569 

Bar- Asher, Moshe, 3:137 

Baratz, Hermann, 3:137-138 

Baratz, Hirsch. See Baratz, Hermann 

Baratz, Joseph, 3:138 

Barazani, Asenath, 3:138, 15:525 

Barazani, Moshe, 3:138 

Barazani, Samuel ben Nethaniel Ha- 
Levi, 3:138-139 

Barbados (Caribbean), 2:41, 3:139, 
4:473 

Barbara, 3:139-140 

Bar bar Huna. See Rabbah bar Huna 

Barbarians, 3:140 

Barbarossa. See Frederick I (Holy 
Roman Emperor) 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



339 



INDEX 



Barbary States. See Africa 

Barbash, Samuel, 3:140 

Barbastro (Spain), 3:140, 14:466-467 

Barbie, Klaus, 13:297 

Barbie, Nikolaus. trial of, 3:141 

Barbie dolls, 8:320 

Barby, Meir ben Saul, 3:141-142 

Barcelona (Spain), 3:142-145, 146, 
17:127 

Barcelona, Disputation of. See 
Disputation of Barcelona 

Barcelona, Isaac ben Reuben of. See 
Al-Bargeloni, Isaac ben Reuben 

Barcinsky, Henryk, 3:146 

Barczinsky, Henoch. See Barcinsky, 
Henryk 

Bard, Basil Joseph Asher, 3:147 

Bardach, Israel, 3:147 

Bardaki, Isaiah ben Issachar Ber, 3:147 

Bardanashvilli, Josef, 3:147 

Bar-Daroma, Hayyim Ze'ev, 3:147- 
148 

Bardejov (Slovakia), 3:148 

Bar Derora. See Liebermann, Aaron 
Samuel 

Bardin, Shlomo, 3:148-149, 4:124 

Bardiya, 4:379 

Bar 'Ebhraya, Johanan. See Bar 
Hebraeus, Johanan 

Bareheadedness. See Head, covering of 

Barekhi nafshi, 3:149 

Barekhu, 3:149 

Barenboim, Daniel, 3:149-150, 6:51 

Barforush (Iran), 13:704-705 

Bargas, Abraham de, 3:150 

Bargeloni, Judah ben Barzillai al-. See 
Judah ben Barzillai al-Bargeloni 

Barghuti, Marwan, 15:600 

Bar Giora, Simeon, 3:150-151, 11:383 

Bar-Giora society, 8:382 

Bar Hebraeus, Johanan, 2:17, 3:151, 
599 

Bar Hediya, 3:151-152 

Bar-Hillel, Yehoshua, 3:152 

Bar Hiyya, Abraham, 2:618 

Bari (Italy), 3:152 

Bar-Ilan, David, 3:153 

Bar-Ilan, Meir, 3:153, 8:497, 14:390- 
392 

Bar-Ilan Responsa Project, 5:131-132 

Bar-Ilan University, 3:153-154, 14:391 

Barishansky, Raphael, 3:154 

Barit, Jacob, 3:154-155 

Barjanski, Alexander, 18:762 

Bar- Josef, Ofer, 3:193 

Bar- Josef, Yehoshua, 3:193 

Bar- Josef, Yosef, 3:193 



Barkai (Israel), 3:155 

Bar Kalba Savu'a. See Ben Kalba 
Savu'a 

Bar Kappara, 3:155-156, 18:597-598 

Judah ha-Nasi, 3:156, 11:504 

parodies of, 15:655 
Barkat, Reuven, 3:156 
Bar Kochba Association, 3:156 
Bar Kokhba (d. 135), 3:156-162, 9:202 

Bethar, 3:527-528 

letters, 12:669-670 

Bar Kokhba revolt, 3:158, 158-162, 
159, 18:573, 20:628 

Ben Kosebat letters, 14:617 

coinage, 5:50-51 

Israel (ancient), 10:148-151 

Julius Severus, 11:575 

Lag ba-Omer and, 12:437 

Palestine (Roman), 10:148-151 

Bar Kokhva (Halkin), 8:275 

Bar Kozeva. See Bar Kokhba 

Bar Kozevah. See Bar Kokhba 

Barlaam and Josaphat. See Ben ha- 
Melekh ve-ha-Nazir 

Barlach, Ernst, 15:289 

Barlad (Moldovia), 3:162 

Bar-le-Duc (France), 3:162 

Bar-Lev, Haim, 3:162-163 

Barley, 3:163, 7:93, vol. 16: color 
insert 

Barlin, Frederick William, 3:163 

Barlow, Samuel, 8:366 

Barmas, Issay, 3:163-164 

Bar Mitzvah, Bat Mitzvah, 3:164-167, 
11:778, 13:139 

Barukh she-petarani, 3:192 

haftarah, 8:198-200 

mitzvot, 14:372 

photographs of, 16:128, vol. 3: 
color insert 

Barna, Victor, 3:167 

Barnacle Goose myths, 3:167 

Barnard, Christaan, 18:168 

Bar-Nash. See Schapira, Noah 

Barnato, Barney, 3:167-168, 11:365, 
377, 16:349 

Barnay, Ludwig, 3:168 

Barnea, Ezra, 3:168 

Barnea, Nahum, 3:168 

Barnert, Nathan, 3:168, 15:686 

Barnet, Dov Ber. See Ross, Barney 

Barnet, Jacob, 3:318 

Barnet, Will, 3:169 

Barnett, Bernhard. See Beer, Bernhard 

Barnett, Charles, 16:349 

Barnett, Joel, Baron, 3:169 



Barnett, John, 3:169 

Barnett, John Francis, 3:169 

Barnett, Lewis Edward. See Barnett, 
Sir Lewis Edward 

Barnett, Lionel David, 3:169 

Barnett, Richard David, 2:371, 3:169- 
170 

Barnett, Sir Lewis Edward, 3:170 

Barnett, Zerah, 3:170 

Barnowsky, Viktor, 3:170 

Barnston, Henry, 3:170 

Baron, Bernhard, 3:171 

Baron, David. See Pinter, Harold 

Baron, Devorah, 3:171 

Baron, Joseph Alexander, 3:171-172 

Baron, Joseph Louis, 3:172 

Bar-On, M. Y., 15:662 

Baron, Salo Wittmayer, 3:172-173 

American Academy for Jewish 
Research, 2:47 

American Jewish Historical 
Society, 2:59 

Blau, Joseph Leon, 3:743 

Jewish studies in American 
universities, 11:317 

Baron, Shalmo Wittmayer. See Baron, 
Salo Wittmayer 

Baron d'Auvernas le Gras. See Suasso, 
Antonio Lopez 

Baron de Hirsch Fund, 3:173, 695 

Barondess, Joseph, 3:173, 15:205 

Baroness Oppenheim-Barnes. See 
Oppenheim, Sally 

Baron Taylor of Gosforth. See Taylor, 
Sir Peter Murray 

Baron von Sparzenstein. See Ricius, 
Paulus 

Baroque period 

Italian literature, 10:791-792 
Lamentations, Book of, 12:450 

Baroto. See Beirut 

Baroto (Lebanon). See Beirut 

Barou, Noah, 3:173-174 

Barouch, Andre, 16:346 

Bar Pada. See Judah ben Pedaya 

Barr, Roseanne, 3:174 

Barranquilla (Colombia), 5:62-63 

Barrassa, Jacob, 3:174 

Barrenness and fertility, 2:532-533, 
3:174-175, 6:692 

Barres, Auguste Maurice, 3:175 

Barrett, David, 3:175-176, 4:186-187, 
187, 16:341 

Barrios, Daniel Levi De, 3:176-177, 
6:69 

Barrios, Miguel de, 6:446 

Barris, Chuck, 3:177 



340 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Barron, Jennie, 3:177 

Barron, Milton, 18:733 

Barros Basto, Arturo Carlos de, 3:177- 
178, 15:441 

Barroso, Gustavo, 4:149-150 

Barruel, Augustin, 3:178 

Barshai, Rudolf, 3:178 

Barshefsky, Charlene, 3:178-179 

Barsimon, Jacob, 3:179, 15:195 

Bart, Lionel, 3:179 

Barter. See Halifin 

• 

Bartfa (Slovakia). See Bardejov 
(Slovakia) 

Bartfeldt (Slovakia). See Bardejov 
(Slovakia) 

Barth, Aharon, 3:180 

Barth, Eliezer, 3:180 

Barth, Jacob, 3:179 

Barth, Karl, 3:180, 651 

Bartholdy, Jacob, 3:180 

Bartolocci, Giulio, 2:37, 3:180-181, 
681, 8:514 

Bartov, Hanoch, 3:181, 8:704 

Bar Tuvia. See Fraenkel, Faiwel 

Bar Tuviah. See Fraenkel, Faiwel 

Baruch (kabbalists), 3:182-183 

Baruch (scribe), 3:181-182 

Baruch, Adam, 3:184 

Baruch, Apocalypse of See Apocalypse 
of Baruch 

Baruch, Bernard, 3:183-184 

Baruch, Book of, 3:185-186, 11:129, 
131-132 

Baruch, Franziska, 4:369 

Baruch, Greek Apocalypse of See Greek 
Apocalypse of Baruch 

Baruch, Jacob ben Moses Hayyim, 
3:186-187 

Baruch, Joseph Marcou, 3:187, 4:276 

Baruch, Judah, 15:542 

Baruch, Kosman ben Josef, 2:38 

Baruch, Loeb. See Boerne, Ludwig 

Baruch, Paul. See Bekker, Paul 

Baruch, Rest of the Words of See Rest 
of the Words of Baruch 

Baruch, Simon, 3:183 

Baruch Ashkenazi, 3:83 

Baruch ben David Yavan, 3:188 

Baruch ben Isaac Mitrani, 6:149 

Baruch ben Isaac of Aleppo, 3:188 

Baruch ben Isaac of Regensburg, 3:188 

Baruch ben Isaac of Worms, 3:189 

Baruch ben Jehiel of Medzibezh, 3:189 

Baruch ben Samuel, 3:189-190 

Baruch ben Samuel of Aleppo, 3:190 

Baruch ben Samuel of Mainz, 3:190 



Baruch ben Samuel of Pinsk, 8:474 

Baruch family, 3:183-184 

Baruch of Arezo, 18:354 

Baruch of Greece. See Baruch ben 
Samuel of Aleppo 

Baruch (ben Abraham) of Kosov, 
3:190-191 

Baruch of Medzibezh. See Baruch ben 
Jehiel of Medzibezh 

Baruch Shei'ah Togarmi, 3:182-183 

Baruch the Kabbalist, 3:182-183 

Baruch the Sephardi. See Baruch ben 
Samuel of Aleppo 

Baruh, Armand, 4:276 

Baruh, Bora, 3:191 

Baruh, Victor, 4:276 

Baruj Spinoza (Dujovne), 6:43 

Baruk, Henri, 3:191 

Barukh, 3:191 

Barukh ben Isaac, 1:613 

Barukh she-Amar, 3:191-192 

Barukh Shem, 18:454 

Barukh shem kevod malkhuto le-olam 
va-ed, 3:192 

Barukh she-petarani, 3:192 

Barukh Spinoza u-Zemanno (Sokolow), 
18:749 

Barukh Ta'am (Fraenkel-Teomim), 
7:145 

Bar-Yehudah, Israel, 3:192-193 

Barylko, Jaime, 3:193 

"Bar Yohai Nimshahta Ashrekha" 
(Labi), 12:408 

Bar-Yosef, Rivka, 18:737 

Bar-Yosef, Y., 8:720 

Barzel. See Iron 

Barzilai, Giuseppe, 3:194 

Barzilai, Salvatore, 3:194 

Barzilai, Yehoshua, 3:194 

Barzilai family, 3:194 

Barzilay, Isaac E., 2:47 

Barzillai (biblical figures), 3:194 

Barzillai of Abel-Meholah, 3:194 

Barzillai the Gileadite, 3:194, 18:755 

Basal. See Basle (Switzerland) 

Basar. See Flesh 

Basar va-Dam. See Flesh 

Basar va-Dam (Shenhar), 18:459 

Basch, Henry, 15:677 

Basch, Jacob, 15:676 

Basch, Victor Guillaume, 3:194-195 

Baschko, Zevi Hirsch ben Benjamin, 
3:195 

Baseball, 1:325-326, 19:134-136 

Allen, Mel, 1:667-668 

Berg, Moe, 3:416-417 



Boudreau, Lou, 4:105 

Daniel, Dan, 5:425 

Dreyfuss, Barney, 6:20-21 

Green, Shawn David, 8:66-67 

Greenberg, Henry Benjamin, 8:69- 
70 

Holtzman, Kenneth Dale, 9:498 

Patkin, Max, 15:688 

Paul, Gabriel Howard, 15:695 

Pike, Lipman Emanuel, 16:152 

Reese, Jimmie, 17:162 

Reinsdorf, Jerry, 17:210 

Rosen, Albert Leonard, 17:427 

Schacht, Alexander, 18:98-99 

Selig, Allan H., 18:265 

Shamsky, Arthur Louis, 18:395 

Sherry, Lawrence, 18:465 

Sherry, Norman Burt, 18:465 

Basevi, Abraham, 3:195 

Basevi, Abramo, 3:195 

Basevi, Emanuele, 3:195 

Basevi, Gioacchino, 3:195 

Basevi, James Palladio, 3:195 

Basevi, Joseph, 3:195 

Basevi, Maria. See Disraeli, Maria 

Basevi, Naphtali. See Basevi, Nathan 

Basevi, Nathan, 3:195 

Basevi, Nathanel, 3:195 

Basevi Cervetto. See Basevi family 

Basevi Cervetto, Jacob. See Cervetto, 
Jacob Basevi 

Basevi della Gondola. See Basevi 
family 

Basevi family, 3:195-196 

Bash. See Basevi family 

Bashan (Israel). See Bozrah (Israel) 

Bashan region (Israel), 3:196, 196-197, 
10:130, 131, 11:814 

Bashevi, Maria. See Disraeli, Maria 

Bashevis, Isaac. See Singer, Isaac 
Bashevis 

Bashiri, Yahya, 3:197 

Bashrav (Ehrlich), 6:242 

Bashyazi, Moses, 3:198 

Bashyazi family, 3:197-198 

Basic Black with Pearls (Weinzweig), 
20:729 

Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation of 
1992, 14:359-360 

Basic Law: Human Dignity and 
Freedom of 1992, 14:359-360 

Basilea, Solomon Aviad Sar-Shalom, 
3:199 

Basil I (Byzantine emperor), 3:198- 
199, 4:327 

Basilica, 3:199 

Basir, Joseph ben Abraham ha-Kohen 
Haro'eh al-, 3:200, 11:425, 532, 790 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



341 



INDEX 



Basketball, 19:136-138 

announcing, 7:638 

Berenson, Senda, 3:412 

Berkowitz, Mickey, 3:440 

Brody, Tal, 4:202, 14:392 

Brown, Herb, 4:215 

Brown, Lawrence H., 4:215 

Dallas Mavericks, 5:326 

Gottlieb, Edward, 8:10-11 

Grunfeld, Ernie, 8:112 

Harrison, Lester, 8:366 

Holman, Nathan, 9:323-324 

Holzman, William "Red," 9:503- 
504 

Klein, Ralph, 12:225 

Lieberman, Nancy Elizabeth, 
12:805-806 

Litwack, Harry, 13:142 

Mizrachi, Shimon, 14:392 

Podoloff, Maurice, 16:253 

Reinsdorf, Jerry, 17:210 

Rosen, Yehoshua, 17:431 

Rudolph, Marvin, 17:525 

Saperstein, Abraham M., 18:34 

Saracheck, Bernard, 18:40-41 

Schayes, Adolph, 18:112 

Sedran, Barney, 18:237 

Basket tax, 5:242 

Baskin, Judith, 3:200-201 

Baskin, Leonard, 3:201 

Basle (Switzerland), 3:201-202 

Basle Program, 3:202-203, 15:298 

Basman, Ben-Hayim, Rivke, 3:203-204 

Basnage, de Beuval. See Basnage, 
Jacques Christian 

Basnage, Jacques Christian, 3:204, 
16:629 

Basola, Moses ben Mordecai, 2:141, 
3:204-205 

Basola, Moses II, 3:204-205 

Basola, Moses III, 3:204-205 

Basque language, 3:636 

Basra (Iraq), 3:205-206 

Basri, Meer, 3:206, 15:473 

Bass, Hyman B., 3:206 

Bass, Shabbetai ben Joseph, 3:206, 
681, 6:77-78 

Bassan, Abraham Hezekiah ben Jacob, 
3:206-207 

Bassan family. See Bassano family 

Bassani, Giorgio, 3:207, 10:794 

Bassani, Marco. See Bassani, Mordecai 

Bassani, Mordecai, 3:207, 208 

Bassani family. See Bassano family 

Bassano (Italy), 3:207-208 

Bassano, Isaiah ben Israel Hezekiah, 
3:208 



Bassano, Israel Benjamin, 3:208 

Bassano family, 3:208 

Bassermann, Albert, 4:118 

Bassevi of Treuenberg, Jacob, 3:208- 
209, 4:39, 9:6 

Bassin, Moses, 3:209 

Bassin, Moyshe. See Bassin, Moses 

Bassista, Shabbetai ben Joseph. See 
Bass, Shabbetai ben Joseph 

Bassola, Moses ben Mordecai. See 
Basola, Moses ben Mordecai 

Bassora (Iraq). See Basra (Iraq) 

Bassus, Lucilius, 3:209 

Basta. See Baza (Spain) 

Basta (Spain). See Baza (Spain) 

Bastard. See Mamzer 

Bas Tovim, Sarah, 3:209, 7:50 

Batalyawsi, Abu Muhammad Abdallah 
Ibn Muhammad Ibn Al-Sid A1-, 
3:210 

Batanea. See Bashan region (Israel) 

Bat Avin (Abraham Dov Baer of 
Ovruch), 1:311 

Bat-Dor Dance Company. See 
Batsheva and Bat-Dor dance 
companies 

Bate, Julius, 3:210 

Ba-Teva (Solodar), 18:754 

Bath (England), 3:210 

Bath, bathing, 3:210-211 

See also Mikveh 

Bat Hefer, 3:211 

Bath-Sheba, 1:545, 3:211-212, 5:452- 
453, 457, 458, 18:755 

Bathyra (Syria), 3:212 

Bathyra, sons of, 3:212 

Batista, Fulgencio, 5:323 

BatKol, 3:213 

Batlanim, 3:213 

Batman (comic strip), 11:760-761 

Batman (motion picture), 6:315 

Bat-Miriam, Yokheved, 3:213-214 

Bat Mitzvah. See Bar Mitzvah, Bat 
Mitzvah 

Bato, Ludwig Yomtov, 3:214 

Baton Rouge (LA), 13:224 

Bats, 3:209-210 

Bat Shelomo, 3:214 

Bat-Sheva. See Basevi family 

Batsheva and Bat-Dor dance 
companies, 3:214-215 

Battat, Reuben, 3:215 

Battel ha-Nefesh ve ha-Lhashim (Levi), 
12:697 

The Battiad (Mendes), 6:437 

Battle of al-Qasr al-Kabir of 1578. See 
Battle of the Three Kings of 1578 



Battle of Cable Street (England), 3:215 

Battle of the Three Kings of 1578, 
14:497 

Battleship Potemkin (motion picture), 
6:274 

Batumi (Georgia), 3:215 

Bat ya'anah, 15:550 

Bat Yam (Israel), 3:215-216, vol. 21: 
color inserts 

Baudissin, Wolf Wilhelm, Graf von, 
3:216 

Bauer, Bruno, 3:216, 9:232 

Bauer, Felice, 11:704-705 

Bauer, Hans, 3:216, 13:58 

Bauer, Jacob, 3:217 

Bauer, Lina. See Morgenstern, Lina 

Bauer, Marion Eugenie, 3:217 

Bauer, Otto, 3:217, 16:340, 18:705, 
715, 729 

Bauer, Simon Harvey, 3:218 

Bauer, Yehudah, 3:218-219 

Bauernfreund, Jakub. See Bornfriend, 
Jacob 

Bauhaus, 4:172, 14:420 

Baum, Father Gregory, 4:681 

Baum, Herbert, 3:219 

Baum, Menahem ben Aaron of 
Kamenetz, 3:219 

Baum, Morton, 3:220, 15:220 

Baum, Oscar, 3:220 

Baum, Shepard, 3:220 

Baum, Vicki, 3:220 

Bauman, Zygmunt, 3:220 

Baumann, Gustav, 3:769 

Baumann, Isaac, of Hesse-Cassel, 
3:769, 16:349 

Baumann, Kurt, 11:570 

Baume, Erne. See Baume, Peter 

Baume, Peter, 3:220-221 

Baumgardt, David, 3:221 

Baumgartel, Elise J., 3:221 

Baumgarten, Emanuel Mendel, 3:221- 

222 

Baumgarten, Jean, 11:325 

Baumgarten, Sandor, 3:222 

Baumgartner, Hieronymus, 4:70 

Baumgartner, Walter, 3:222 

Baumhorn, Lipot, 3:222 

Baumol, Joshua, 3:222 

Baur, Ferdinand Christian, 15:191 

Baur, Harry, 3:223 

Bauska (Latvia), 3:223 

Bava Batra (tractate), 1:341, 3:223-224 

Bava ben Buta, 3:224 

Bava Kamma, 3:28, 224-226, 6:397 

Bava Metzia, 3:226-227 



342 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Bava(h) Rabbah. See Baba Rabbah 
Bavaria (Germany), 3:228, 228-229 

Landshut, 12:476 

Lauingen, 12:526 

revolution (1918), 6:276 

Bavli, Hillel, 3:230, 8:736 

Bavli, Menahem ben Moses, 3:230 

Bavli v. Rabbinical Court of Appeals, 
14:362 

Baxa, Karel, 9:120 

Bayahu, Jonathen ben, 3:160 

Bayard, Herbert, 11:468 

Bay Area Jewish Healing Center, 6:254 

Bayazid II, 3:230 

Bay di Taykhn fun Mazovye 
(Bursztyn), 4:203 

Bayefsky, Aba, 3:230-231 

Bayer, Bathja. See Bayer, Batya 

Bayer, Batya, 3:231 

Bayhan (Saudi Arabia), 3:231 

Bayit le-Adam Ehad (Orpaz), 15:483 

Bayit va-Gan. See Bat Yam (Israel) 

Baym Dnieper (Bergelson), 3:419 

Baym Toyer (Molodowsky). See At the 
Gate (Molodowsky) 

Bay Nakht Oyfn Altn Mark (Perets), 
21:347 

Bayne, ben Joseph ibn Paquda. See 
Bahya ben Joseph Ibn Paquda 

Bayonne (France), 3:231-232 

Bayramic, 3:232 

Bayreuth (Germany), 3:232-233 

Bayside Land Corporation Ltd., 15:588 

Bayt al-Maqdis. See Jerusalem (Israel) 

Baytalsky, Mikhail Davidovich. See 
Domalsky, I. 

Bayt Jann. See Beit Jann 

Bay Tree, 3:233 

Bayudaya, 3:233, 11:521 

Bay Zikh (journal), 21:354 

Baza (Spain), 3:233 

Bazelon, David L., 3:233-234, 12:556 

Bazin (Slovakia). See Pezinok 
(Slovakia) 

A Bazini zsidok (Biro), 9:604 

Bazlrkan, 6:233 

BBYO (B'nai B'rith Youth 
Organization), 4:14-15 

Bdellium, 3:234 

Be, Guillaume le. See Le Be, 
Guillaume 

Bea, Augustin, 3:234, 11:380 

Beackon, Derek, 6:426 

Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, Earl 
of. See Disraeli, Benjamin 

Beadle. See Shammash 

Beame, Abraham David, 3:234-235, 
15:215, 216, 224 



Beans, 3:235 

Bear, 3:235 

Bear, Jacob, 6:451 

Beard and shaving, 3:235-236 

Bearing Witness teacher training 
program, 9:454 

Bearsted, Marcus Richard Samuel, 
Third Viscount, 3:237 

Bearsted, Marcus Samuel, First 
Viscount, 3:236-237 

Bearsted, Walter Horace Samuel, 
Second Viscount, 3:237 

Beati misericordes (Morpurgo), 14:509 

Beating. See Floggings 

Beatitude, 3:237-241 

The Beatles (musical group), 6:468, 
12:666 

Beaucaire (France), 3:241 

Beautiful Gate. See Nicanor's gate 
(Jerusalem) 

Beautiful Losers (Cohen), 4:423, 5:25 

Beauty and the environment, 5:168 

Bebai, 3:241 

Bebai Bar Abbaye, 3:241 

Bebe, Pauline, 3:241-242 

Beber, Sam, 4:14 

Bebuquin oder die Dilettanten des 
Wunders (Einstein), 6:263 

Beccari, Arrigo, 3:242 

Bech(ius), Matthias Friedrich, 3:243 

Becha (Kirovograd district, Ukraine). 
See Aleksandriya (Kirovograd 
district, Ukraine) 

Becher, Sigfried, 3:242 

Bechhold, Jacob Heinrich, 3:242 

Bechin (Bohemia). See Bechyne 
(Bohemia) 

Bechtolsheim, Andy, 4:183 

Bechyne (Bohemia), 3:242-243 

Beck, Balthazar, 4:472 

Beck, Karl Isidore, 3:243 

Beck, Michael, 3:243 

Beck, Willy, 3:243 

Beckelman, Moses W., 3:244 

Becker, Aharon, 3:244 

Becker, Edward Roy, 3:244-245 

Becker, Gary Stanley, 3:245 

Becker, Ham G., 3:244 

Becker, Harry, 15:304 

Becker, Helen. See Tamiris, Helen 

Becker, Howard, 18:734 

Becker, James Herman, 3:244 

Becker, Julius, 3:245 

Becker, Jurek, 3:245-246 

Becker, Lavy M., 3:246 

Becker family, 3:244 

Becket, Thomas, 4:96 



Beckett, Samuel, 3:742-743 

Becsi Magyar Ujsdg (newspaper), 8:282 

Beda, 3:246-247 

Bedacht, Max, 3:247 

Bedarida, Guido, 3:247 

Bedarride, Israel, 3:247 

Bedarrides (France), 3:247 

Bedarrides of Montpellier, 11:560 

Bedbugs (Sinclair), 18:632 

Beddington, Alfed Henry, 3:248 

Beddington, Claude, 3:248 

Beddington, Edward Henry Lionel, 
Sir, 3:248 

Beddington, Henry Beddington, 3:248 

Beddington, Henry Moses, 3:248 

Beddington, John Louis "Jack," 3:248 

Beddington, Maurice, 3:248 

Beddington, William Richard, 3:248 

Beddington family, 3:248 

Bede, English translation of Bible, 
3:611 

Bedeken, 3:48 

Bedek ha-Bayit (Aaron ben Joseph ha- 
Levi), 1:215 

Bedek ha-Bayit (Caro), 8:444 

Bedersi, Abraham ben Isaac, 3:248, 
16:117, 267-268 

Bedersi, Jedaiah ha-Penini. See Jedaiah 
ben Abraham Bedersi 

Bedford (England), 3:248-249 

Bedikat Hamez, 3:249 

Bedil. See Tin 

Bedouins, 10:737-739 

Ishmaelites as, 10:85 

Israel (state), 10:737-739 

Bedzin (Poland), 3:249-250 

Bee, 3:250 

Be-Ein Hazon, 17:236 

Be-Ein Mattarah (Bershadsky), 3:489 

Beek, Martinus Adrianus, 3:250 

Beekeeping, 3:250 

Be-Emza ha-Roman (Bartov), 3:181 

Beer (Israel), 3:250 

Beer, Aaron, 2:76, 3:250-251 

Beer, Bernhard, 3:251, 6:11, 12:615 

Beer, George Lucas, 3:251 

Be'er, Haim, 3:251-252 

Beer, Israel, 3:252 

Beer, Jacob Liebmann. See Meyerbeer, 
Giacomo 

Beer, Max, 3:252 

Beer, Michael, 3:253 

Beer, Moses. See Beer, Max 

Be'er, Orah, 3:256 

Beer, Peter, 3:253 

Beer, Rachel, 3:253 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



343 



INDEX 



Be'er, Rami, 3:254 

Beer, Richa. See Beer, Rachel 

Beer, Samuel Friedrich, 3:254, 18:223 

Beer, Wilhelm, 3:254 

Be'er Avraham (Weinberg), 18:677 

Beer-Bing, Isaiah, 3:254, 703 

Be-Erez Gezerah (Almog), 1:680 

Be'er ha-Golah (Bezalel), 9:225 

Beer-Hoffman, Richard, 3:254-255 

Be'eri (Israel), 3:255 

Beeri, Tuvia, 3:255 

Beerman, Leonard, 3:255-256, 13:204 

Be'er May im Hayyim (Hayyim), 8:481 

Be'er Moshe (Epstein), 6:476 

Be'erot, Yizhak, 3:256 

Beeroth (ancient Israel), 3:256, 
17:142-143 

Beersheba (Israel), 2:371, 3:256-258 

Be'er Toviyyha, 3:258 

Be'er Ya'akov, 3:258 

Beet, 3:258 

Be-Fardes ha-Hasidut (Buber), 8:416- 
417 

Befejezetlen mondat, 5:600-601 

Before, During and After (Halbreich), 
9:413 

Begging and beggars, 3:258-260, 6:690 

Beghi, Elijah Afdah. See Beghi, Elijah 
Afidah 

Beghi, Elijah Afidah, 3:260, 11:546 

Beghi, Joseph ben Moses, 3:260 

Beghi, Moses ben Benjamin, 3:260 

Beghi family, 3:260 

Begin, Emile Auguste, 3:261 

Begin, Menahem, 3:261-262, 9:283, 
17:264-267 

American Israel Public Affairs 
Committee, 2:51 

governments of, 10:444-448, 445 1, 
447t 

Lebanese War and, 10:240, 12:583 

Likud, 13:13 

as prime minister, 10:238-239 

Schindler, Alexander M. and, 
18:135-136 

settlements beyond Green Line 
and, 10:363-364 

Begin, Ze'ev Binyamin, 3:262 

Begun, Yosef, 14:520 

Behak, Judah, 3:262 

Beham, Barthel, 4:70 

Beham, Hans Sebald, 4:70 

Behar, Bucha, 4:276 

Behar, Leon, 3:262-263 

Behar, Nissim, 2:184, 3:263 

Beharav, Dmitri. See Bogrov, Dmitri 



Behavioral psychology. See Psychology 

Behavior finance theories, 11:725 

Behemoth, 3:263 

Behem v. the Rabbinical Hight Court 
of Appeals, 5:138-139 

Behinat ha-Dat (Delmedigo), 2:531 

Behinat ha-Dat (Delmedigo, Elijah ben 
Moses Abba), 5:542 

Behind the Door. See Dietro la porta 

Behind the Polish-Soviet Break (Brody), 
4:200 

Behinot, 11:634-635 

Behold a Great Image, 16:127-128, 129 

Behold the Man (Moorcock), 18:199 

Be-Hozai, 3:263 

Behr, Issachar Falkenstein, 3:263-264 

Behrein. See Bahrain (Middle East) 

Behrend, Jacob Friedrich, 3:264, 
12:551 

Behrends, Leffmann, 3:264, 8:330, 
13:253 

Behrens, Leffman. See Behrends, 
Leffmann 

Behrman, Martin, 3:264 

Behrman, Samuel Nathaniel, 3:264- 
265 

Bei Avidan, 3:265 

Beider, Chaim, 3:265 

Beiderman, Bernardo, 3:265 

Beihan. See Bayhan (Saudi Arabia) 

Beijing (China). See Peking (China) 

Beilenson, Anthony Charles, 3:265- 
266 

Beilin, Arkadi, 3:75 

Beilin, Asher, 3:266 

Beilin, Yossi, 3:266-267 

Beilinson, Moses Eliezer, 3:267, 13:260 

Beilinson, Moshe, 3:266 

Beilis, Menahem Mendel, 3:267-268 

Beilis blood libel trial (Kiev), 12:780 

Duma, 6:45 

Nicholas II and, 15:250 

Beim, Solomon ben Abraham, 3:268 

Beimel, Jacob, 3:268 

Bein, Alexander, 3:268 

Beinart, Haim, 3:268-269 

Bein ha-Metim u-vein ha-Hayyim 
(Sened), 18:288 

Bein ha-Mezarim. See Three weeks 

Bein ha-Shemashot. See Twilight 

Beinisch, Dorit, 3:269 

Bein Mayim le-Mayim (Brenner), 
4:160 

Bein Zehok le-Dema (Shaked), 18:367, 
368 

Bei-Rav, 3:269 

Beirav, Jacob. See Berab, Jacob 



Beirav, Jacob ben Hayyim. See Berab, 
Jacob ben Hayyim 

Beirut, 3:269-271, 12:587-589 

Beisan. See Bet(h)-Shean (Israel) 

Beis HaMidrash LaTorah. See Hebrew 
Theological College 

Beit, Alfred. See Beit, Sir Alfred 

Beit, Sir Alfred, 3:271 

Beit Abraham (Abraham ben Isaac ha- 
Kohen of Zamosc), 1:301 

Beit Aharon (Aaron ben Samuel), 
1:217 

Beit Aharon (Abiob), 1:259 

Beit Avraham (Abraham ben Josiah 
Troki), 1:303 

Beit Avraham (Weinberg), 18:677 

Beit-El. See Pisa, da, family 

Beit Eshel. See Bet Eshel (Israel) 

Beit Gubrin. See Bet Guvrin (Israel) 

Beit ha-Behira (Ha-Meiri), 8:667 

Beit ha-Behirah (Meiri), 13:786 

Beit ha-Levi: Novellae on the Talmud, 
102 responsa and sermons 
(Soloveichik), 18:776 

Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin, 3:271-272 

Beit ha-Ozar (Abraham ben Josiah 
Troki), 1:303 

Beit ha-Ozar (Joseph ben Judah 
Engel), 6:409 

Beit Hashoah Museum of Tolerance, 
9:451 

BeitHillel (Lipschuetz), 13:73 

Beit Jamal, 3:272 

Beit Jann, 3:272 

Beit Lehem Yehudah (Modena), 14:409 

BeitMo'ed (Rabba), 17:7 

Beitraege zur aelteren deutschen 

Wirtschafts-und Verfassungsgeschich te 
(Caro), 4:487 

Beitraege zur Einleitung in das Alte 
Testament (Wette de), 21:30 

Beitraege zur Geographie Palaestinas 
(Hildesheimer), 9:105 

Beitraege zur geschichte und Liter atur 
im geonaeischen Zeitalter 
(Eppenstein), 6:465 

Beit T'Shuva, 13:210 

Beit Tzvi school, 11:736 

Beit Ya'ar ha-Levanon. See House of 
the Forest of Lebanon 

Beit Yehudah (Levinsohn), 12:721 

Beit Yehudah (Modena), 14:409 

Beit Yisrael (Falk), 6:686 

Beit Yosef (Caro), 1:532, 4:489-490, 
776, 778, 779, 8:257, 14:481 

Beja (Portugal), 3:272 

Beja, Isaac ben Moses, 3:272 

Bejerano, Bejerano, 3:272 



344 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Bejerano, Bekhor Hayyim ben Moses, 
3:272-273 

Bejerano, Maya, 3:273 

Bejerano, Moshe, 3:272 

Bejerano, Shimon, 3:272 

Bejerano family, 3:272 

Bejski report, 2:453 

Bekache, Shalom, 3:273 

Bekecsaba (Hungary), 3:274-275 

Bekemoharar, Joseph Raphael ben 
Mordecai, 3:274 

Bekemoharar, Menahem (III), 3:274 

Bekemoharar, Menahem ben Isaac 
Ashkenazi, 3:273 

Bekemoharar, Menahem (II) ben 
Mordecai, 3:274 

Bekemoharar, Menahem (IV) R. 
Mordecai Simeon, 3:274 

Bekemoharar, Mordecai ben 
Menahem, 3:273-274 

Bekemoharar, Mordecai (II) ben 
Menahem, 3:274 

Bekemoharar, Mordechai Simeon ben 
Nissim Solomon, 3:274 

Bekemoharar, Raphael, 3:274 

Bekemoharar, Yom Tov, 3:274 

Bekemoharrar family, 3:273-274 

Bekessy, Janos. See Habe, Hans 

Be-Kez ha-Yamim (Hazaz), 8:493 

Bekher. See Camels 

Bekhor. See Firstborn 

Bekhorot, 3:275-276 

Bekhor Shor, Joseph ben Isaac, 3:276- 
277, 642 

Bekker, Balthasar, 2:21, 15:191 

Bekker, Paul, 3:277 

Beklemishev, Yuri Solomonovich. See 
Krymov, Yuri 

Be-Kolar Ehad (Hazaz), 8:494 

Bel. See Marduk 

Belachatow (Poland), 3:279 

Belair (Satan). See Belial 

Belais(h), Abraham ben Shalom, 
3:277, 16:346 

Bel and the Dragon, 3:277 

Belarus, 3:277-278 

cultural and social life 

community archives, 2:408 

Karaites, 4:130 

literature, 4:323 

Lithuanian Jewry, 13:121 

museums, 14:630 
Holocaust 

Baranovichi, 3:134 

Bereza, 3:413-414 

Bobruisk, 4:24-25 

Borisov, 4:86 



Braslav, 4:130-131 

Bykhov, 4:324 

David-Godorok, 5:473-474 

Dolginovo, 5:735 

Druya, 6:28-29 

Dubrovno, 6:39 

Dyatlovo, 6:75 

Ilya, 9:736 

Ivanovo, 10:821 

Ivye, 10:822 

Kobrin, 12:244 

Koidanovo, 12:267 

Krichev, 12:356 

Lachva, 12:426 

Lepel, 12:650 

Lida, 12:802 

Lyakhovichi, 13:293 

Minsk, 14:293-297 

Mir, 14:304-305 

Mogilev, 14:417 

Molodechno, 14:429 

Mozyr, 14:592-593 

Mstislavl, 14:593 

Nazi occupation, 11:735-736 

Novogrudok, 15:321 

Novy Dvor, 15:323-324 

Orsha, 15:487 

Oshmyany, 15:502-503 

Ostryna, 15:514-515 

Ozery, 15:557 

Pinsk, 16:172 

Polotsk, 16:361 

Pruzhany, 16:657 

Radoshkovichi, 17:59 

Radun, 17:59 

Rechitsa, 17:144 

Rogachev, 17:367-368 

Shchedrin, 18:426 

Skidel, 18:658 

Slonim, 18:676-677 

Slutsk, 18:685 

Stolbsty, 19:234 

Stolin, 19:234 

Svisloch, 19:334 

Vitebsk, 20:560 

Volkovysk, 20:573-574 

Volpa, 20:578 

Vysokoye, 20:590 

Zelva, 21:502 

See also Belorussia (Russia); 
specific cities 

Belasco, David. See James, David 

Belaya Tserkov (Ukraine), 3:278-279 

Belaya Vezha, Sarkil (Khazaria) 

Beled (Hungary), 3:279 



Belev, Alexander, 3:279 

Belfast (Ireland), 3:280, 11:68 

Belfort (France), 3:280 

Belforte, Solomon, 3:280 

Belgium, 3:280-287, 281, 14:625 

antisemitism, 2:234 

cultural and social life 

literature, 5:305 

museums, 5:305 

newspapers, 16:487 

demography, 4:227 

early postwar years, 3:284-285 

emancipation, 6:378 

Holocaust, 3:282-283, 9:339 

Antwerp, 2:250 

badges, Jewish, 2:250 

Brussels, 4:227 

leather industry and trade, 12:576 

literature, 18:118 

Middle Ages, 3:280-281 

modern period 

community life, 3:285 

interfaith relations, 3:285 

politics, 3:285 

relations with Israel, 3:286- 
287 

remembering the Holocaust, 
3:286-287 

resistance, 3:282-283 

Belgorod-Dnestrovski (Ukraine), 
3:287-288 

Belgrade (Serbia), 3:288-289, 14:629 

Belgrado, David Fernando, 3:289 

Belial, 3:289-290 

Beliar. See Belial 

Belief, 3:290-294, 6:682-683 

Beli Kokhav (Burla), 4:295 

Belinas. See Banias (ancient Israel) 

Belinfante, Aron, 3:295 

Belinfante, Ary, 3:295 

Belinfante, Elijah Hezekiah, 3:294 

Belinfante, Emilie Josephine, 3:295 

Belinfante, George, 3:295 

Belinfante, Isaac, 3:295 

Belinfante, Isaac ben Eliah Cohen, 
3:295 

Belinfante, Jacob Cohen, 3:295 

Belinfante, Joseph Cohen, 3:294 

Belinfante, Josephus Justus, 3:295 

Belinfante, Judith, 3:295 

Belinfante, Maurits Ernst, 3:295 

Belinfante, Meir Hayyim, 3:294 

Belinfante, Moses Cohen, 2:112, 3:295 

Belinfante, Saddik, 3:294 

Belinfante, Sara, 3:295 

Belinfante family, 3:294-295 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



345 



INDEX 



Belinkov, Arkhadii Viktorovich, 
3:295-296 

Belinson, Moses Eliezer. See Beilinson, 
Moses Eliezer 

Belinson, Moses Eliezeri. See 
Beilinson, Moses Eliezer 

Belisha, Barrow, 3:296 

Belisha, Isaac, 3:296 

Belisha, Moses, 3:296 

Belisha, Solomon, 3:296 

Belisha family, 3:296 

Belize (Central America), 4:476 

Belkin, Arnold, 3:296 

Belkin, Samuel, 3:296, 15:498 

Belkin, Simon, 3:296-297 

Belkind, Israel, 3:297 

Belkind, Meir, 3:297 

Belkind, Na'aman, 3:297, 15:268 

Belkind, Shimshon, 3:297 

Belkind family, 3:297, 297/- 

Belkowsky, Zevi Hirsch, 3:297-298 

Bell, Daniel, 3:298 

Bell, Francis Henry Dillon. See Bell, 
Sir Francis Henry Dillon 

Bell, Joshua, 3:299 

Bell, Sir Francis Henry Dillon, 3:299 

The Bellarosa Connection (Bellow), 
3:300 

Belleli, Lazarus Menahem, 3:299 

Belleli, Vito, 15:689 

Beilinson, Simeon, 3:299-300 

Bellis (Russia), 3:778, 779 

Bellow, Saul, 3:300-301, 9:595-596, 
20:293-294 

Bellum Civile (Lucan), 13:247 

Belmain. See Ibleam (Israel) 

Belmont, August, 3:301, 15:200 

Belmonte, 3:302 

Belmonte, Francisco Isaac, 3:302 

Belmonte, Isaac Nunez, 3:302, 16:344- 
345 

Belmonte, Jacob Abraham, 3:302 

Belmonte, Jacob Israel, 3:302 

Belmonte, Manuel, 3:302 

Belmonte, Moses, 3:302 

Belmonte family, 3:302 

Belmonte Science Laboratory for 
Youth, 8:743 

Beloff, Max, Baron, 3:302-303 

Belogorsk (Ukraine). See Karasubazar 
(Ukraine) 

Belorussia (Russia), 3:303-305 

agriculture, Jewish, 1:498 

education, Jewish, 6:188 

Holocaust, 17:597-598 

See also Belarus 



Belov, A., 3:305-306 

The Beloved and the Pleasant or The 
Black Youth. See Ha-Ne 'ehovim ve- 
ha-Ne 'imim oder der Shvartse 
Yungermantshik 

Belshazzar, 7:32 

Belshazzar (biblical figure), 1:538, 
3:306-307 

Belteshazzar (biblical figure), 3:307, 
5:419 

Beltsy (Moldova), 3:307 

Bely, Viktor Arkadyevich, 3:307-308 

Belz (Ukraine), 3:308 

Belz, Aaron, 3:308 

Belzberg, Samuel, 3:309 

Belzec concentration camp, 3:309-312, 
9:336, 343, 430, 11:751, 754, 13:239, 
244 

Belzer, Nissi. See Spivak, Nissan 

Belzer Hasidim, 8:423, 428-429 

Belz hasidic dynasty, 3:308-309 

Belzyce (Poland), 3:312 

Be-Mehoza Yisadeti et Medinat ha- 
Yehudim (Gose), 18:206 

Be-Mifneh ha-Dorot (Dinur), 5:672 

Be-Moaz'ei Menuha, 3:312 

Bemporad, Azeglio, 3:312 

Bemporad, Enrico, 3:312-313 

Ben, Zehava, 3:313 

Bena'ah, 3:313 

Ben-Abraham, Zvi, 3:313 

Benacerraf, Baruj, 3:313-314, 13:11 

Ben-Adir, 3:314 

Benador, Ury, 3:314 

Benadov, Haim, 4:276 

Ben-Aharon,Yitzhak, 3:314-315 

Benaiah (3rd c). See Bena'ah 

Benaiah (biblical figure), 3:315 

Benaim, Jacob Hayyim, 3:315, 4:104 

Benaim, Joseph, 3:315 

Benaim, Moses, 3:315 

Benaim, Raphael Hayyim, 3:315 

Benaim family, 3:315 

Ben 'Alan, Joshua, 3:315 

Ben'alan, Joshua, 3:315 

Ben-ami, Jacob, 3:316 

Ben-ami, Oved, 3:316 

Ben-Amitai, Levi, 3:316 

Ben Ammi (Ben-Zion), 3:392 

Ben-Ammi, Mordecai, 3:316-317 

Ben-Amotz, Dahn, 3:317 

Benamozegh, Elijah ben Abraham, 
3:317, 15:602 

Benardete, Mair Jose, 3:318 

Benares (India), 3:318 

Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua, 3:318 



Benario, Olga, 4:149 

Ben-Aroya, Avraham, 3:318-319 

Benaroya, Avram, 3:319 

Benaroya, Mois, 4:276 

Benarus, Adolfo, 3:319 

Benas, Baron Louis, 3:319 

Benas, Bertram Benjamin Baron, 3:319 

Benas, Henriette. See Goldschmidt, 
Henriette 

Ben-Asher, Aaron ben Moses, 3:319- 
320 

Ben-Asher, Moses, 3:321 

Ben Asher's Creed: A Study of the 
History of the Controversy (Dotan), 
5:762-763 

Ben Asher system (Hebrew grammar), 
3:588, 11:117 

Benatar family. See Atar family 

Benatzky, Ralph, 3:312 

Ben-avi, Ithamar, 3:322 

Ben-Avigdor. See Shalkovich, 
Abraham Leib 

Benayah, Ben Merjaz, 3:322 

Benayah, Miriam, 3:322 

Benayah family, 3:322 

Benayahu, Meir, 3:322 

Benazareff, David, 14:503 

Benazerat, David, 16:346 

Ben Azzai, Simeon, 3:322-323, 8:391, 
18:601 

Ben Bag Bag, 3:323 

Benbassa, Esther, 11:326 

Ben Chananjah, 3:323 

Benchetrit, Aaron, 3:323 

Benchimol, Abraham, 3:324 

Benchimol, Hayyim, 3:324 

Benchimol family, 3:324 

Ben-Chorin, Schalom, 3:324 

Benda, Julien, 3:324-325 

Bendahan, Jacob, 5:379 

Bendahan, Joseph, 5:379 

Bendahan, Joseph Nissim, 5:379 

Bendahan, Maimon, 5:379 

Bendahan, Moses, 5:379 

Ben David (Modena), 14:409 

Bendavid, Eleazar. See Bendavid, 
Lazarus 

Ben-David, Joseph, 3:325, 18:735 

Bendavid, Lazarus, 3:325, 11:569 

Bendek, Therese F., 3:329 

Bendell, Herman, 16:124 

Bendemann, Eduard Julius Friedrich, 
3:325-326 

Bendemman, Felix, 3:326 

Bendemman, Rudolf, 3:326 

Bender, Alfred Philip, 3:326 



346 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Bender, Morris Boris, 3:326 

Benderly, Samson, 3:98, 326-327, 
11:271-272, 15:208 

Bureau of Jewish Education (New 
York, NY), 6:194-195 

summer camps, 6:199-200 

Bendery (Romania), 3:327 

Bendery dynasty. See Savran dynasty 

Bendin (Poland). See Bedzin (Poland) 

Bendix, Benedict Heinrich, 3:327 

Bendix, Otto, 3:327 

Bendix, Reinhard, 3:327-328 

Bendix, Victor Emanuel, 3:328 

Bendor, Ariel, 20:468 

Ben-dor, Immanuel, 3:328 

Ben Dov, Yaakov, 3:328 

Bene-Berak, 3:328-329, 11:715-716, 
742 

Benedict (popes), 3:329-330 

Benedict, Isaac. See Benedict, Sir Julius 

Benedict, Julius. See Benedict, Sir 
Julius 

Benedict, Sir Julius, 3:330 

Benedict VIII (pope), 3:329, 16:372 

Benedict XII (pope), 3:329, 16:374 

Benedict XIII (antipope), 3:329, 4:74, 
13:193, 14:467 

Benedict XIII (pope), 4:277, 15:609, 
16:374, 20:62 

Pablo de Santa Maria, 15:562 

papal bulls, 3:330 

Benedict XIV, 2:144, 3:122, 330 

Benedict XV (pope), 16:377 

Benedict XVI (pope), 16:378 

Benedict ben Moses of Lincoln, 3:330 

Benedict family. See Banet family 

Benedictions, 1:538-539, 3:330-333, 
13:131-132, 14:492 

Benedict le Puncteur of Oxford, 
15:554 

Benedikt, Moritz (journalist), 3:333 

Benedikt, Moritz (neurologist), 3:333 

Bene Ephraim, 3:334 

Beneficencia, 6:140-141 

Benefield, 3:342 

Bene hanevi'im, 6:168 

Benei Aish (Israel), 3:334 

Benei Arav (Smilansky), 18:687 

Benei Binyamin, 1:222, 3:334 

Benei Darom (Israel), 3:334 

Benei Deror (Israel), 3:334 

Benei ha-Ir, 12:605 

Benei Moshe, 1:526, 3:334-335 

Benei Moshe League, 12:666 

Bene Israel, 3:335-339 

India, 1:658, 3:356-357 



Israel (state), 10:226, 298 

Italy, 4:50 

Benei Zion (Israel), 3:339 

Benei Zion Society, founder Mazeh, 
Jacob, 13:706 

Ben-Eleizer, Binyamin, 3:339-340 

Ben Eleizer, Moshe, 3:340 

Bene Menashe, 3:340 

Ben Erezve-Shamayim (Sackler), 8:736 

Benesch, Alfred Abraham, 3:340 

Beneschau (Bohemia). See Benesov 
(Bohemia) 

Benesov (Bohemia), 3:340-341 

Benet, Ezekiel ben Jacob. See Baneth, 
Ezekiel ben Jacob 

Benet, Mordecai ben Abraham. See 
Banet, Mordecai ben Abraham 

Benet, Naphtali ben Mordecai. See 
Banet, Naphtali ben Mordecai 

Benet family. See Banet family 

Benet Mikra, 3:662 

Benevento (Italy), 3:341 

Benevento, Immanuel ben Jekuthiel, 
3:341 

Benevenutus Grapheus 
Heirosolymitanus, 3:341 

Benevolent societies. See Charity; 
Philanthropy 

Ben-Ezer, Judah. See Raab, Judah 

Benfey, Theodor, 3:342 

Bengalil, Abraham, 3:342 

Bengalil, Joseph, 3:342 

Bengalil, Samuel, 3:342 

Bengalil family, 3:342 

Ben-Gavriel, Moshe Ya'akov, 3:342 

Benghazi (Libya), 3:342-343, 12:791 

Bengis, Selig Reuben, 3:343-344 

Ben-Gurion, David, 3:344-348, 9:50 

Adenauer, Konrad, 1:390 

Aliav, Ruth, 1:658 

Blood for Trucks offer, 4:120 

declaration of independence, 
Israel, 5:529-530 

Eichmann trial, 6:250 

Eldad, Israel, 6:292 

Eshkol, Levi, 6:506 

governments of 

first, 10:429, 429t 
second, 10:430, 430t 
third, 10:430-431, 431t 
fourth, 10:431, 43 If 
seventh, 10:433, 433f 
eighth, 10:434, 434t 
ninth, 10:435-436, 435t 
tenth, 10:436-437, 436f 

Histadrut and, 10:595, 597, 600 



Jewish identity, what constitutes, 
11:298 

Jewish Legion, 11:303, 305 

Lavon and, 10:225, 12:533-534 

resignation (1953), 10:217 

resignation (1960), 10:225 

Sharett, Moshe and, 18:412-413 

State of Israel Bonds, 4:58 

Ben-Gurion, Paula, 3:344 

Ben Gurion University of the Negev, 
3:348-349 

Ben-Hadad (Kings), 1:523, 3:349-350, 
6:350 

Ben-Hadad I, 3:349 

Ben-Hadad II, 3:349-350 

Ben-Hadad III, 3:350 

Ben-Haim, Paul, 3:350-351 

Ben-Haim, Yigal, 3:351 

Ben Hakhinai. See Hananiah ben 
Hakhinai 

Ben ha-Melekh Ve-ha-Nazir, 3:351, 
6:667 

Benhamu, Shlomo, 2:71 

Ben Hanila. See Tanhum ben Hanilai 

Ben Harosh, Moshe. See Bar-Asher, 
Moshe 

Ben Hayyim, Ze'ev, 3:351-352, 13:615 

Ben He He, 3:352 

Ben Horin, Eliyahu, 3:352 

Ben Horin, Meir, 3:352 

Benichou, Paul, 3:352-353 

Benider, Abraham, 3:353 

Benider, Jacob, 3:353 

Benider family, 3:353 

Benioff, Hugo, 3:353 

Benisch, Abraham, 3:353, 614 

Ben-Israel, Ruth, 3:353 

Benista, Zehava. See Ben, Zehava 

Benjacob, Isaac, 3:353-354, 682 

Benjamin (biblical figure, tribe), 3:354, 
354-356 

Anathoth, 2:132 

Jabesh-Gilead and, 11:6 

Jacob's blessing, 11:27 

Judges, Book of, 11:565-566 

Mizpeh, 14:388 

Benjamin, Baruch ben Israel, 3:356 

Benjamin, Baruch Tzion, 3:356-357 

Benjamin, Ernest Frank, 3:357 

Benjamin, Israel, 3:208, 357 

Benjamin, Israel Joseph. See Benjamin 
II 

Benjamin, Judah Philip, 3:357-358, 
12:555 

American Jewish Archives, 2:53 

on slavery, 3:734 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



347 



INDEX 



Benjamin, Lazlo, 3:357-358 

Benjamin, Lewis Saul. See Melville, 
Lewis 

Benjamin, Moses, 3:358 

Benjamin, Raphael, 3:358 

Benjamin, Richard, 3:358 

Benjamin, Walter, 3:359 

Benjamin, Yehoshua, 3:360 

Benjamin and Vladka Meed Registry 
of Jewish Holocaust Survivors, 2:49, 
20:276 

Benjamin ben Aaron of Zalozce, 3:360 

Benjamin ben Azriel, 3:360 

Benjamin ben Eliezer ha-Kohen Vitale 
of Reggio, 3:360-361, 18:354 

Benjamin ben Elijah, 3:361 

Benjamin ben Elijah Duwan, 3:361 

Benjamin ben Hiyya, 3:361 

Benjamin ben Japheth, 3:361 

Benjamin ben Jehiel, 2:136 

Benjamin ben Moses Nah'awendi. See 
Nah'awendi, Benjamin ben Moses 
al- 

Benjamin ben Solomon ha-levi, 3:361 

Benjamin Ben Zerah, 3:362 

Benjamin II, 3:356, 6:147 

Benjamin Nehemia Ben Elnathan, 
3:362, 9:157 

Benjamin of Brody, 3:362 

Benjamin of Cambridge, 3:362 

Benjamin of Tiberias, 3:362, 4:326 

Benjamin of Tudela, 2:108, 3:362-364, 
363 

'Amadiya, 2:27-28 

on Bingen, 3:704 

Borsippa, 4:94 

on Brindisi, 4:184 

Byzantine empire, Jewish 
communities in, 4:327 

Daniel ben Jehiel, 2:136 

on Drama (Greek city), 6:7 

dyeing, 6:76 

Egypt, 6:231 

French scholars, 6:174, 13:258 

on functions of rabbinate, 18:275 

Hamadan, 8:292 

on Jewish quarters, 11:310 

Jubayl, 11:473 

Lunel (France), 13:258 

Modon, 14:412-413 

on Palermo, 15:580 

Patras, 15:688 

Benjamin Ze'ev Ben Mattathias of 
Arta, 3:364 

Ben Jonah of Tudela. See Benjamin of 
Tudela 

Ben Kalba Savu'a, 3:365 



Ben Karshook's Wisdom (Browning), 
4:218 

Ben-Kiki, Eleasar, 3:365 

Ben-Kiki, Reuben, 3:365 

Ben-Kiki family, 3:365 

Ben Kosebat letters, 14:617 

Benkow, Jo, 3:365 

Ben Kozevah. See Bar Kokhba 

Ben Koziva. See Bar Kokhba 

Ben La'anah, 3:365 

Ben Malca, Jacob ben Joseph, 13:429- 
430 

Ben Malca, Khalifa, 13:430 

Ben Malca family. See Malca family 

Ben Mar David of Narbonne. See 
Moses ben Joshua of Narbonne 

Ben Meir, Aaron, 3:366 

Benn, 3:366 

Benn, Ben, 3:366-367 

Ben-Naphtali, Jacob ben David. See 
Ben-Naphtali, Moses ben David 

Ben-Naphtali, Moses Ben David, 3:367 

Ben-Naphtali System, 13:644, 650 

Ben-Natan, Asher, 3:367 

Ben-Natan, Shemu'el. See Pevzner, 
Samuel Joseph 

Ben Nazer, 15:377 

Bennett, Archie, 3:368 

Bennett, Avie. J., 3:368 

Bennett, Michael, 3:369 

Bennett, Salomon Yom Tov, 3:369 

Benny, Jack, 3:369-370 

Benoit, Pierre-Marie, 3:370-371 

Benoliel, 3:371 

Benoliel, Eliezer, 3:371 

Benoliel, Joseph, 3:371, 8:243 

Benoliel, Judah, 3:371, 14:499 

Ben Paltiel, Ahimaaz, 8:666 

Ben Petura, 3:371 

Ben Peturi. See Ben Petura 

Ben Peturin. See Ben Petura 

Ben-Porat, Miriam, 3:371-372 

Ben-Porat, Mordekhai, 3:372 

Benremokh, Abraham ben Hayyim, 
3:372 

Benremokh, Hayyim ben Shem Tov, 

3:372 

Benremokh, Saul Ben Shem Tov, 

3:372 

Benremokh, Shem Tov, 3:372 

Benremokh, Yamin, 3:372 

Benremokh family, 3:372 

Benremokh, Solomon, 3:372 

Benrubi, Isaac, 3:372-373 

Bensanchi, Mentesh, 3:373 

Bensanchi, Mordecai. See Bensanchi, 
Mentesh 



Ben-Sasson, Haim Hillel, 3:373, 9:153, 
161 

Bensaude, 3:373 

Bensaude, Abraham, 3:373 

Bensaude, Elias, 3:373 

Bensaude, Joaquim, 3:373 

Bensaude, Jose, 3:373 

Bensaude, Solomon, 3:373 

Ben Sender, Ephraim Moses. See Cilibi 
Moi'se 

Ben Senton-Ben Shem Tov. See Aaron 
ben Batash 

Ben-Shabetai, Ari, 3:373-374 

Ben Shachar v. Yosef Machlev, 5:138 

Ben-Shakhar, Gershon, 3:374 

Benshalom, Benzion. See Katz, 
Benzion (1907-1968) 

Ben Shemen, 3:374 

Benshen, 3:374 

Ben Simeon, Raphael Aaron, 3:374- 
375 

Ben Sira, Alphabet of See Alphabet of 
Ben Sira 

Ben Sira, Simeon ben Jesus, 3:376 

Elijah, 6:333 

Joseph ben Uzziel, grandson of, 
11:427 

on labor, 12:409 

on tripartite canon, 3:576, 579 

See also Alphabet of Ben Sira 

Ben Sira, Wisdom of (Apocrypha), 
3:376-378 

Benson, Robby, 3:378 

Bensoussan, Georges, 3:378 

Ben Stada, 3:378 

Ben Stara. See Ben Stada 

Bensusan, 3:379 

Bensusan, Levy. See Bensusan 

Bensusan, Nathan Levi, 3:379 

Bensusan, Samuel Levy, 3:380 

Ben Susan, Y., 3:605 

Ben Temalyon, 3:380 

Bentor, Jacob, 3:380 

Bentov, Mordekhai, 1:655, 3:381-382, 
702 

Bentwich, Herbert, 3:381 

Bentwich, Joseph, 3:381 

Bentwich, Norman De Mattos, 3:381 

Bentwich family, 3:381 

Bentzen, Aage, 3:381-382 

Benvenist, Adzay, 3:382 

Benvenist, Hayyim ben Israel. See 
Benveniste, Hayyim ben Israel 

Benveniste, Abraham (18th a), 3:382 

Benveniste, Abraham (1406-1454), 
3:382, 6:176 

Benveniste, Emile, 3:382 



348 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Benveniste, Hayyim ben Israel, 1:637, 
3:382-383, 4:102, 18:344-345 

Benveniste, Immanuel, 3:383 

Benveniste, Isaac Ben Joseph, 3:383 

Benveniste, Joseph Ben Moses De 
Segovia, 3:383-384 

Benveniste, Joshua Raphael Ben Israel, 
3:384 

Benveniste, Judah ben Abraham, 3:382 

Benveniste, Manoel. See Benveniste, 
Immanuel 

Benveniste, Moses, 3:384, 4:102, 
15:541, 678 

Benveniste, Nissim, 3:382 

Ben-Veniste, Richard, 3:384-385 

Benveniste, Samuel, 3:385 

Benveniste, Sheshet Ben Isaac Ben 
Joseph, 3:385 

Benveniste De Porta, 3:385 

Benveniste family, 3:382 

Benveniste Ibn Benveniste, 3:382 

Benvenisti, David, 3:386 

Benvist family. See Benveniste family 

Benwaish, Abraham, 3:386 

Ben-Yehezki'el, Mordekhai, 3:386 

Ben-Yehuda, Eliezer, 3:386-388, 
8:671-673, 675, 10:683, 704-705 

Ben-Yehuda, Hemdah, 3:388 

Ben Yehuda, Netiva, 3:388-389 

Ben-Yehudah, Barukh, 3:389 

Ben Yizhak, Avraham, 3:389 

Ben-Yosef, Shelomo, 3:390 

Ben Yukhid (Ben-Ammi), 3:316 

Benzamero, 3:390 

Benzamero, Aaron, 3:390 

Benzamero, Abraham, 3:390 

Benzamero, Abraham ben Meir, 3:390 

Benzamero, David, 3:390 

Benzamero, Ephraim, 3:390 

Benzamero, Isaac II, 3:390 

Benzamero, Judah, 3:390 

Benzamero, Judah ben Ephraim, 3:390 

Benzamero, Meir, 3:390 

Benzamero, Moses, 3:390 

Benzamero, Moses II, 3:390 

Benzamero, Sliman, 3:390 

Benzamero, Solomon, 3:390 

Benzamero, Solomon II, 3:390 

Ben Zaqen, 3:390 

Ben Zaqen, Isaac ben Vidal, 3:390 

Ben Zaqen, Jacob ben Samuel, 3:390 

Ben Zaqen, Joseph, 3:390 

Ben Zaqen, Leon, 3:390, 16:346 

Ben Zaqen, Samuel, 3:390 

Ben Zaqen family, 3:390 

Benzaquen, Saadia, 3:390-391 



Ben Ze'ev, Judah Leib, 3:391, 15:658 

Ben Zekunim (Abulafia), 1:339 

Benzer, Seymour, 3:391, 13:11 

Benzinger, Immanuel, 3:391-392 

Ben-Zion, 3:392, 4:50 

Ben-Zion, S., 3:392-393 

Ben Zita, Abu Al-Surri. See Ben Zuta, 
Abu Al-Surri 

Ben Zizit Ha-Kasat, 3:393 

Ben Zoma, Simeon, 3:393, 18:601 

Ben Zuta, Abu Al-Surri, 3:393 

Ben-Zvi, Izhak, 3:393-395, 4:189, 
14:430 

Arad, 2:330 

Jewish Legion, 11:303, 305 

Ben-Zvi, Rahel Yanait, 3:395, 6:260 

Ben-Zvi, Shlomo, 3:395 

Ben-Zvi, Zeev, 3:395, 18:223 

Ben-Zvi Institute, 18:724 

Ben Zvi Institute for the Study of the 
Jewish Communitities of the East, 
3:395-396 

Beobachter An Der Weichsel, 3:396 

Beograd (Serbia). See Belgrade 
(Serbia) 

Be-Olam she-Shaka 1884-1914 
(Dinur), 5:672 

Beon. See Baal-Meon 

Be-Ovoyn Oves (Dineson), 5:671 

Berab, Jacob, 3:397-398, 18:276 

Berab, Jacob, I, 18:376 

Berab, Jacob ben Hayyim, 3:398 

Berachia, 3:406 

Berah Dodi, 3:391 

Beraja, Ruben Ezra, 3:398-399 

Berakhah, Isaac, 3:399 

Berakh Moshe (Adret), 1:421 

Berakhot (tractate), 3:330-333, 399- 
400 

Berats, 8:245-246 

Berbers, 3:400-401, 11:530, 14:493, 
496 

See also Sijilmassa (Morocco) 

Berchenko, Israel. See Galili, Israel 

Bercovici, Konrad, 3:401, 14:541 

Bercovitch, Peter, 3:401, 16:341 

Bercovitch, Sacvan, 3:401-402 

Bercu Haimovici. See Bonciu, H. 

Berdichev, 3:402-405 

Berdichevsky Scher, Jose, 3:403 

Berdugo, 3:403-404 

Berdugo, Jacob ben Mordecai, 3:404 

Berdugo, Jekuthiel Hayyim ben Elisha, 
3:404 

Berdugo, Joseph, 3:404 

Berdugo, Joshua ben Jacob, 3:404 



Berdugo, Judah ben Joseph, 3:403 

Berdugo, Maimon, 3:403 

Berdugo, Mordecai ben Joseph, 3:403 

Berdugo, Moses ben Abraham, 3:403 

Berdugo, Raphael, 3:403 

Berdugo, Solomon ben Daniel, 3:404 

Berdugo, Yahya, 3:403 

Berdyansk (Ukraine), 3:404 

Berdyczewski, Immanuel bin Gorion, 
3:406 

Berdyczewski, Micha Josef, 3:404-406, 
4:159, 8:726-727, 11:412, 12:424 

Berechiah, 3:406 

Berechiah ben Isaac ha-Levi, 7:550 

Berechiah ben Natronai ha-Nakdan, 
3:406-407, 6:437, 667-668, 15:554 

Berechiah Berakh ben Eliakim Getzel, 
3:407 

Berechiah Berakh ben Isaac Eisik, 
3:407 

Berechiah family, 11:727 

Beregi, Armin Bengamin, 3:407 

Beregi, Oszkar, 3:408 

Beregovo (Ukraine), 3:408 

Beregovski, Moshe, 3:408 

Beregovskii, Moses, 11:322 

Berek son of Yosel. See Joselewicz, 
Berek 

Berele Bunes. See Issachar Baer ben 
Tanhum 

Berenbaum, Michael, 3:408-409 

Berenblum, Isaac, 3:409 

Berend Lehmann Museum, 8:263 

Berendsohn, Walter A., 3:409-410 

Berendt, Gottlieb Michael, 3:410 

Berenguer, Ramon, 20:60-61 

Berenice, 3:410-411, 11:582 

Berenice (daughter of Agrippa I), 
1:503, 3:410-411 

Berenice (daughter of Salome), 3:410, 
410t 

Berenike (Egypt and Israel), 3:411 

Berenson, Bernard, 3:411, 6:73 

Berenson, Leon, 3:411-412, 12:553 

Berenson, Zvi, 3:412 

Berenson (Abbott), Senda 
(Valvrojenski), 3:412 

Berenstein, Issachar Baer, 6:685 

Bereny, Robert, 3:412 

Bereshit-Nameh (Shahin), 18:365 

BereshtZuta, 14:189 

Berestechko (Ukraine), 3:412-413 

Beresteczko (Ukraine). See 
Berestechko (Ukraine) 

Berettyoujfalu (Hungary), 3:413 

Bereza (Belarus), 3:413-414 

Bereza Kartuska (Belarus). See Bereza 
(Belarus) 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



349 



INDEX 



Berezhany (Ukraine), 3:414 

Berezino (Belarus), 3:414 

Berezovka (Ukraine), 3:414 

Berezovsky, Boris Abramovich, 3:414- 
415 

Berg (Germany), 3:415 

Berg, Gertrude (Edelstein), 3:415 

Berg, Jackie "Kid" (Judah Berman), 
3:415-416 

Berg, Karen, 3:417-418 

Berg, Leo, 3:416 

Berg, Moe (Morris), 3:416-417 

Berg, Morris. See Berg, Moe 

Berg, Paul, 3:417, 13:9 

Berg, Philip (Gruberger), 3:417-418, 
13:205 

Bergamo (Italy), 3:418 

Berge, Meere und Giganten (Doeblin), 
5:729-730 

Bergel, Bernd, 3:418 

Bergel, Joseph, 3:418 

Bergel family, 3:418 

Bergelson, David, 3:418-419 

Bergen, Polly, 3:419-420 

Bergen-Belsen (Germany), 3:420-422, 
632, 676 

Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 
9:342, 369-370, 17:131 

Bitburg Controversy, 3:728 

John XXIII on, 11:380 

SS and SD 

burial of prisoners, 9:487 

survivors, 9:487 

Bergen County (NJ), 3:422-423 

Berger, Arthur Victor, 3:423-424 

Berger, David, 3:424 

Berger, Elmer, 3:424 

Berger, Isaac ("Ike"), 3:424-425 

Berger, Lili, 3:425 

Berger, Meir, 3:425 

Berger, Meyer, 3:425 

Berger, Samuel R. (Sandy), 3:425 

Berger, Sandy. See Berger, Samuel R. 

Berger, Victor, 3:426, 18:708 

Berger-Barzilai, Joseph, 3:426 

Berggriin, Heinrich, 3:426 

Bergh, Daniel Van Den, 3:426 

Bergh, George Van Den, 3:427 

Bergh, Robert Van Den, 3:427 

Bergh, Samuel Van Den, 3:427, 16:345 

Bergh, Sidney James Van Den, 3:427, 
16:345 

Bergh, Simon Van Den, 3:426-427 

Bergh, Van Den, 3:426-427 

Bergh, Zadok Van Den, 3:426 

Bergheim (France), 3:427 



Bergman, Alan, 3:427 

Bergman, Andrew, 3:427-428 

Bergman, Judah. See Berg, Jackie 
"Kid" 

Bergman, Lawrence, 14:464 

Bergman, Marilyn, 3:427 

Bergman, Samuel Hugo, 3:428-429, 
12:788 

Bergmann, Ernst David, 3:429 

Bergmann, Felix Eliezer, 3:429 

Bergmann, Judah, 3:429-430 

Bergmann, Max, 3:430 

Bergmann, Richard, 3:430 

Bergner, Elisabeth, 3:430 

Bergner, Herz, 3:430 

Bergner, Hinde, 17:123 

Bergner, Yosef. See Bergner, Yossl 

Bergner, Yossl, 3:431 

Bergner, Zejharye Khone. See Ravitch, 
Melech 

Bergner, Zekharye Khone. See Ravitch, 
Melech 

Bergreen, Morris, 18:660 

Bergson, Abram, 3:431-432 

Bergson, Henri, 3:431 

Bergson, Henri Louis, 3:432-433 

Bergson, Joseph, 3:431 

Bergson, Michael, 3:431, 433 

Bergson (Berkson) family, 3:431 

Bergstein, Fania, 3:433 

Bergstraesser, Gotthelf, 3:433, 13:58 

Bergtheil, Jonas, 3:433, 16:349 

Berihah, 3:433-436, 9:381 

Berinski, Lev, 3:436 

Berit Avraham (Horowitz), 9:532 

Bent Emet (Caro), 4:487 

Berit ha-Biryonim, 3:436 

Berit ha-Olamit shel Torah va- 
Avodah, 14:391 

Berit Menuhah (Abraham ben Isaac of 
Granada), 1:301-302 

Berit milah. See Circumcision 

Berit Shalom, 3:436-437, 702, 703, 
13:269 

Berit Trumpeldor. See Betar 

Berk, Fred, 3:437, 5:414 

Berkeley (CA) 

New Left, 15:142 

University of California, 15:358 

Berkelhammer, Wilhelm, 15:326 

Berkley, Rochelle, 3:437 

Berkley, William R., 3:437 

Berkman, Alexander, 18:710 

Berkoff, Steven, 3:438 

Berkovits, Eliezer, 3:438-439, 9:399- 
400 



Berkow, Ira, 3:439-440 

Berkowicz, Joseph, 3:440, 11:406 

Berkowicz, Jozef. See Berkowicz, 
Joseph 

Berkowicz, Michael, 3:689 

Berkowitz, Henry, 3:440, 6:192 

Berkowitz, Mickey, 3:440 

Berkowitz, Yitzhak Dov, 3:440-442, 
8:717-718 

Berkson, Isaac Baer, 3:442 

Berkson family. See Bergson family 

Berl, Emmanuel, 3:442 

Berl, Ernst, 3:442 

Berle, Milton, 3:442-443, 15:221 

Berlewi, Henryk, 3:443-444 

Berliand, Shlomo Meir, 3:444 

Berligne, Eliyahu Meir, 3:444 

Berlijn, Anton, 3:444 

Berlin (Baline), Irving (Israel), 3:455- 
456 

Berlin (Germany), 3:444-453, 7:349, 
16:535 

17th- 18th centuries, 3:445-447 

19th and 20th centuries, 3:447- 

452 

Aaron ben Isaac Benjamin Wolf 
and, 1:213 

antisemitism, 3:445, 447, 448-451 

assimilation, 3:446 

badges, Jewish, 3:450 

Black Death, 3:445 

displaced persons (DP), 3:451 

East Berlin, 3:452 

Hebrew printing industry, 3:452 

Holocaust memorials, 6:267, 
9:431, vol. 9: color insert 

Host, desecration of, 3:445 

Jewish Museum, 4:13 

Juedische Freischule, 3:446, 447, 
11:569 

Kristallnacht, 3:449 

Liebmann family, 12:810-811 

Middle Ages, 3:444-445 

museums, 14:628 

Orthodox Judaism, 3:448 

population statistics, 3:45 If 

Reform Judaism, 3:448 

reunification, 3:452 

Zionist movement, 3:448 

Berlin, Aryeh Loeb ben Abraham 
Meir, 3:453 

Berlin, Congress of. See Congress of 
Berlin 

Berlin, Daniel. See Itzig, Daniel 

Berlin, David ben Judah Loeb. See 
Berlin, David ben Loeb 

Berlin, David ben (Judah) Loeb, 3:454 



350 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Berlin, Hayyim, 3:455, 14:517 

Berlin, Irving, 3:455-456, 4:177, 
14:571 

Berlin, Isaiah, 3:456 

Berlin, Isaiah ben Judah Loeb (Pick, 
Isaiah), 3:456-457 

Berlin, Israel, 3:457 

Berlin, Meir. See Bar-Ilan, Meir 

Berlin, Moses, 3:457 

Berlin, Naphtali Zevi Judah 
(ha-Neziv), 3:457-458, 18:776 

Berlin, Noah Hayyim Zevi Hirsch, 
3:458-459 

Berlin, Rayna Batya, 3:459 

Berlin, Saul ben Zevi Hirsch Levin, 
3:459-460, 7:126 

Berlin- Al-exanderplatz (Doeblin), 
5:729-730 

Berlin Chantiers: Essair sur les passes 
fragiles (Robin), 17:354 

Berliner, Abraham, 3:460 

Berliner, David, 9:135 

Berliner, Emile, 1:430, 3:460-461, 
17:149 

Berliner, Isaac, 3:461 

Berlinger, Mendel. See Berle, Milton 

Berlin Junction (Serra), 18:314 

Berlin Memorial to the Murdered Jews 
of Europe, 6:267 

Berlinski, Herman, 3:461 

Berman, Aaron Levi, 7:143 

Berman, Adof Abraham, 3:461, 16:347 

Berman, Adolfo, 16:349 

Berman, Howard Lawrence, 3:461-462 

Berman, Issachar, 7:143 

Berman, Jacob, 3:462, 16:347 

Berman, Jakub, 3:462-463 

Berman, Judah Loeb, 7:143 

Berman, Julius, 3:463 

Berman, Morton Mayer, 3:463-464 

Berman, Myron R., 3:464 

Berman, Pandro S., 3:464 

Berman, Pauline, 15:476 

Berman, Saul, 6:142 

Berman, Shelley, 3:464 

Berman, Simeon, 3:465 

Berman Ashkenazi. See Issachar 
Berman ben Naphtali ha-Kohen 

Berman Berman, Natalio, 3:465 

Bermann, Adolf. See Kobor, Tamas 

Bermann, Richard Arnold, 3:465 

Bermann, Vasili, 3:466 

Bermant, Chaim Icyk, 3:466 

Bermbach, William, 3:471 

Bermuda Conference, 3:466 

Bernadotte, Count, 11:178 

Bernadotte, Folke, 3:466-467, 10:210, 
211, 212 



Bernadotte Rescue Operation 

Oppenhejm, Ralph Gerson, 15:451 

Ravensbrueck concentration camp 
and, 17:121 

Bernal, Abraham, 3:467 

Bernal, Edward, 3:467-468 

Bernal, Jacob, 3:467 

Bernal, Jacob Israel, 3:467 

Bernal, John Desmond, 3:467 

Bernal, Marco, 3:467 

Bernal, Ralph, 3:467 

Bernal family, 3:467 

Bernal-Osborne, Ralph, 3:467 

Bernard, Hayyim David, 3:468 

Bernard, Hayyim Dov. See Friedberg, 
Bernard 

Bernard, Jessie, 2:610, 3:468, 18:736 

Bernard, Rosine. See Bernhardt, Sarah 

Bernard, Tristan, 3:468 

Bernardi, Herschel, 3:468-469 

Bernardino da Feltre, 3:469, 4:48, 163, 
14:461 

Brescia, 4:163 

Padua, 15:566 

Pavia, 15:698 

Bernardino da Siena, 3:469 

Bernard of Clairvaux, 2:125, 3:469, 
9:214-215 

Bernays, Edward L., 3:470-471 

Bernays, Isaac ben Jacob, 3:469-470 

Bernays, Jacob, 3:470 

Bernays, Michael, 3:470 

Bernays, Paul Isaac, 3:470 

Bernays family, 3:469-470 

Bernbach, William, 1:428 

Berne (Switzerland), 3:471-472, 688, 

4:225 

Bernfeld, Siegfried, 3:472, 6:161 
Bernfeld, Simon, 3:472, 9:160 
Bernhard, Emil. See Cohn, Emil Moses 
Bernhard, Georg, 3:472-473 
Bernhard, Sandra, 3:473 
Bernhardt, Sarah, 3:473-474, 14:570 
Bernhart (Hoffmann), 9:312 
Bernheim, Franz, 12:565 
Bernheim, Gilles, 3:474 
Bernheim, Hippolyte, 3:474 
Bernheim, Isaac Wolfe, 3:474 
Bernheim, Louis, 3:475 
Bernheimer, Carlo, 3:475 
Bernheimer, Charles Seligman, 3:475 
Bernheim Petition, 3:475-476, 18:580 
Bernstein, Abraham Moshe, 3:476 
Bernstein, Aline, 3:476 
Bernstein, Arnold, 3:476 
Bernstein, Aron David, 3:476-477 



Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 
18:705, 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 
Loeb, 3 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 



Bernstein 
Morris 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 
483 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 
484 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 

Bernstein 



Aryeh Leib, 3:477 
Bela, 3:477, 15:355 
Carl, 3:477-478, 11:468 
Charles, 20:300 
Deborah, 18:736-737 

Eduard, 3:478, 16:344, 

729 

Elmer, 3:478 

Fritz. See Bernstein, Perez 

Harold Joseph, 3:478-479 

Harry, 3:479 

Henri-Leon, 3:479 

Henry, 11:568 

Herman, 2:49, 3:479 

Ignatz, 3:479 

Issachar ber, 3:477 

Issachar Berush ben Aryeh 
:480 

Jacob Naphtali Herz, 3:480 

Joseph, 3:480 

Julius, 3:480 

Karl, 12:553 

Leonard, 3:480-481, 12:451 

Louis, 3:481-482 

Luca. See Luca, B. 

Ludwig Behr, 3:482 

Meyer Yefimiovich. See 



Medvedev, Mikhail 



Morris Louis. See Louis, 

Moshe, 3:482 

Nathan Osipovitch, 3:482- 

Ori, 3:483 

Osip Samoilovich, 3:483 
Perez (Fritz), 3:483 
Philip. See Hugo, Karoly 
Philip Sidney, 3:435, 483- 



Sid, 3:484 

Sidney Lewis, 3:484 

Simon, 3:484 

Theodore M., 3:484-485 

Theresa, 3:485 

Zalman Chaim, 3:485 

Zvi Hirsch, 3:485-486 

Bernstein-Cohen, Jacob. See Bernstein- 
Kogan, Jacob 

Bernstein-Cohen, Miriam, 3:486 

Bernstein-Kogan, Jacob, 3:486 

Bernstein-Namierowski, Lewis. See 
Namier, Sir Lewis 

Bernstein-Sinaieff, Leopold, 3:486 

Beroea. See Veroia 

Beror Hayil (Israel), 3:486 

Berosus (Berossus), 3:486-487, 15:287 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



351 



INDEX 



Berr, Jacob, 3:487 

Berr (de Turique), Michel, 3:487-488 

Berr Isaac Berr de Turique, 3:488, 
8:437, 439, 13:194 

Bershad (Ukraine), 3:488 

Bershadski, Sergey Alexandrovich, 
3:488-489 

Bershadsky, Isaiah, 3:489 

Bersin, Alan, 18:15 

Bersohn, Matthias, 3:489 

Berson, Arthur Joseph Stanislav, 1:430, 
3:489-490 

Berstein, Marver H., 4:124 

Berthold of Freiburg, 3:490 

Berthold of Ratisbon. See Berthold of 
Regensburg 

Berthold of Regensburg, 3:490, 775 

Bertholet, Alfred, 3:490 

Bertig, Mordecai. See Gebirtig, 
Mordechai 

Bertini, Gary, 3:490-491 

Bertini, K. Aharon, 3:491 

Bertinoro, Obadiah ben Abraham 
Yare, 3:491, 491-492, 14:329, 15:581 

Bertonoff, Deborah, 3:492 

Berurei Ave rah /Ave rot, 3:492 

Beruryah, 3:492-493 

Berytus (Lebanon). See Beirut 

Besalii (Spain), 3:493 

Besanccon (France), 3:493-494 

Besara (Israel). See Bet She'arim 
(Israel) 

Besdin, Morris J., 3:494 

Besdin, Samuel, 3:494 

Besekow, Samuel, 3:494 

Besem. See Balsam 

BeShT. See Israel ben Eliezer Ba'al 
Shem Tov 

Besicovitch, Abram Samoilovitch, 
3:494-495 

Besor, Brook of (Israel), 3:495 

Besredka, Alexander, 3:495 

Bessarabia 

Holocaust 

Dombroveni, 5:738 

Kaushany, 12:37 

Khotin, 12:117-118 

Kiliya, 12:154 

Kishinev, 12:199 

Sekiryany, 18:256-257 

Vad Raskov, 20:457 

Valea-Lui-Vlad, 20:459 

Yedintsy, 21:292-293 

Bessarabia (Moldova), 3:495-498, 496, 
5:738 

Bessels, Emil, 3:498 

Besser, Chaskel O., 3:498 



Bessin, Hyman, 15:517 

Bessis, Albert, 3:498-499, 16:346 

Bessis, Jeshua, 3:499 

Besso, Henry, 3:499 

Best, Werner, 5:582 

The Best and the Brightest 
(Halberstam), 8:265 

Bestiality, 18:329 

Bestimmung, Heimat and Alter der 
synagogalen Poesie (Edelmann), 
6:143 

"Best interest of the child" concept, 
15:639-640 

The Best of Everything (Jaffe), 11:68-69 

The Best Use of Economic Resources 
(Kantorovich), 11:771 

Beszterdebanya (Slovakia). See Banska, 
Bystrica (Slovakia) 

Bet, 3:499 

Bet Aglayim (Israel), 3:499 

Beta Israel, 3:499-509 

Eldad ha-Dani, 6:294 

history of, 3:499-502, 503-509 

Israel, and immigration and 

absorption of Ethiopian Jews of, 
3:507, 508-509 

Italy, and conquest of, 3:504-505 

leadership of, 3:504, 505 

legends and, 3:499 

missionaries and, 3:503-504 

organization of, 3:502 

study of, 6:677-678 

Bet Alfa (Israel), 3:509 

Bet Alpha synagogue, 2:371 

Bet-Anath (Israel), 2:131, 3:509-510 

Bet Aniyya (Israel). See Bethany 
(Israel) 

Betar, 3:510-511 

Anielewicz, Mordecai, 2:164 
Begin, Menahem, 3:261 
Eliav, Binyamin, 6:321 
Jabotinsky, Vladimir, 11:10-11 
Jewish State Party, 11:315, 316 
Kahane, Meir, 11:715 

Bet-Arabah (Israel), 3:511 

Bet Berl Teachers Training College, 
18:618 

Bet-Cherem (Israel), 3:511-512 

Bet-Dagon (Israel), 3:512 

Bet din and judges, 3:512-524, 5:495 

Amsterdam, 2:107 

authorization for rabbinical court 
decisions by Israel, 3:520 

civil law in, 3:520-521 

dayyanim appointments and 
status, 3:522-523 

defined, 3:512-513 



Ehrlich, Arnold Bogumi, 6:243 

in Europe, 3:515 

extralegal remedies in capital 
cases, 6:631-632 

High Courts and, 3:521 

Israel (state), 3:516-524 

of Judah ha-Nasi, 11:502-503 

judgments of, 3:523 

jurisdiction law, 3:517-520 

Middle Ages, 3:514-515 

origins of, 3:513-514 

procedural rules and, 3:522 

and refusal, writ of, 3:520-521 

in Russia, 3:515 

structure of, 3:521-522 

Talmudic period, 3:514 

See also Judges and judiciary 
Bet-Eden (Syria), 3:524 
Bet-El (Israel), 3:524-526 

Ai, 1:548 

Jacob and, 11:18, 19-20 

temple, 2:97-100 

Bet El Kabbalists, 11:621 

Bet Eshel (Israel), 3:526 

Bet Garmu family, 3:526 

Bet Gufnin. See Gofnah 

Bet Guvrin (Israel), 3:526-527 

Beth Adam decision, 17:174-175 

Bet ha-Emek (Israel), 3:527 

Bet ha-Levi (Israel), 3:527, 12:685 

Bet ha-Midrash (Jellinek), 14:539 

Bet Hanan (Israel), 3:527 

Bet Hananyah (Israel). See Bethany 
(Israel) 

Beth-Anath (Israel). See Bet-Anath 
(Israel) 

Bethany (Israel), 3:527 

Bethar, 3:527 

Bet-Haram (Israel), 3:528-529 

Bet Harodon (Israel), 3:529 

Beth-Baal-Meon. See Baal-Meon 

Bethbasi (Israel), 3:529 

Beth-Cherem (Israel), 6:260 

Beth-Dagon (Israel). See Bet-Dagon 
(Israel) 

Beth Din of America, 13:188 

Bethe, Hans Albrecht, 3:529 

Beth-Eden (Syria). See Bet-Eden 
(Syria) 

Beth-El (Israel). See Bet-El (Israel) 

Beth El: Ehrentempel verdienter 

ungarischer Israeliten (Reich), 17:196 

Beth-El Mountains (Israel), 10:115 

Bethel-Sharezer. See Sharezer 

Bet Herut (Israel), 3:529 

Beth Hamedrash Heshaim, 6:204 



352 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Beth-Haram (Israel). See Bet-Haram 
(Israel) 

Beth-Haran (Israel). See Bet-Haram 
(Israel) 

Beth Hatefutsoth, 3:529-530 

Beth Hayeled School (New York, NY), 
6:197 

Bet Hillel (Israel), 3:530 

Bet Hillel and Bet Shammai, 3:530- 
533 

creation, 5:275-276 

halakhah, approach to, 6:486, 
8:255 

hallah, 8:278 

Hanukkah lamp, 8:333 

hefker, 8:753-755 

marriage, 8:255, 21:324 

on New Year, 15:193 

on non-Jewish women and 
niddah, 15:256-257 

praising the bride, 8:247-248 

resurrection, 17:242 

Second Temple period, 1:348 

on Shema reading, 18:454 

Beth Jacob Congregation, 13:200 

Beth Jacob schools, 3:533, 12:455, 
18:121 

Bethlehem (Israel), 3:533-535 

See also Ephrath 

Bethleptepha (Israel), 3:535 

Beth-Meon. See Baal-Meon 

Beth Mikra (periodical), 18:724 

Bet(h)-Horon (Israel), 3:535 

Bethphage (Israel), 3:536 

Bethsaida (Israel), 3:536 

Beth Shalom (Philadelphia), 5:29 

Bethuel, 3:536-537 

Bethulia (Israel), 3:537 

Bet (Bayt) Iksa (Israel), 3:537 

Bet Keshet (Israel), 3:537 

Bet(h) Lehem (Ha-Gelilit) (Israel), 
3:537 

Bet(h)-Maon (Israel), 3:537 

Bet Meir (Israel), 3:537 

Bet (ha)-Midrash, 3:537-538 

Bet Nehemyah (Israel), 3:538 

Bet Netofah (Israel), 3:538 

Bet(h)-Nimrah (Israel), 3:538-539 

Be-Tokh Leva : im (Dolitzki), 5:735-736 

Betomarsea (Israel), 13:407 

Bet Oren (Israel), 3:539 

Bet Oved (Israel), 3:539 

Bet Porat (Joseph ben Judah Engel), 
6:409 

The Betrayal (Kreisel), 4:424 

Bet(h)-Rehob (Israel), 3:539 



Betrothal, 3:539-541 

Bet Shammai. See Bet Hillel and Bet 
Shammai 

Bet Shammai school, 18:394 

Bet(h)-Shean (Israel), 3:541-547 

Bet She'arim (Israel), 3:547-548 

Bet(h)-Shemesh (Israel), 3:548-550, 
549 

Bet(h)-Shittah (Israel), 3:550 

Bettan, Israel, 3:550 

Bettauer, Hugo, 3:550-551 

Bettelheim, Aaron Siegfried. See 
Bettelheim, Albert Siegfried 

Bettelheim, Albert Siegfried, 3:551 

Bettelheim, Bruno, 3:551-552 

Bettelheim, Karl, 3:551 

Bettelheim, Lipot Leopold Meyer Leb, 
3:551 

Bettelheim, Loeb, 3:551 

Bettelheim, Moses, 3:551 

Bettelheim, Samuel, 3:552 

Bettelheim family, 3:551 

Better Generation (Balin), 3:91 

Bettman, Gary, 3:552 

Bettman, Gilbert, 15:393 

Bettmann, Bernhardt, 3:552 

The Betty Bacharach Home for 
Afflicted Children (NJ), 3:32, 33 

Bet-Unyaki, 3:729 

Between Earth and Heaven. See Ben 
Erezve-Shamayim 

Between the Calendars (Ben Yehuda), 
3:389 

Between the Dead and the Living 
(Sened). See Bein ha-Metim u-vein 
ha-Hayyim (Sened) 

Between Two Worlds (weekly column), 
6:259 

Between Worlds: The Paintings and 
Drawings of Samuel Bak from 1946- 
2001, 3:71 

Bet Yannai (Israel), 3:552 

Bet Yehoshua (Israel), 3:552-553 

Bet Yerah (Israel), 3:553, 553-554 

Bet Yizhak (Israel), 3:554 

Bet Yosef (Israel), 3:554 

Bet Zayit (Israel), 3:554 

Bet Zayyada (Israel). See Bethsaida 
(Israel) 

Bet Zekharyah (Israel), 3:554 

Bet Zera (Israel), 3:554, 554 

Bet Zerifa family, 3:554-555 

Bet Zevul (Halap), 8:358 

Bet(h)-Zur (Israel), 3:555 

Bet-Zuri, Eliahu, 3:555 

Beugnot, Auguste Arthur, 3:555 

Be'ur ha-Gra (Elijah ben Solomon 
Zalman), 6:345 



Be'urim Hadashim (Lebensohn), 
12:590 

Be'ur Inyan Shenei Kavvim (Provencal, 
Moses), 16:636 

Beuthen (Germany). See Bytom 
(Germany) 

Bevan, Edwyn Robert, 3:555-556 

Be-Veito ba-Midbar (Shalev), 18:372 

Bevin, Ernest, 3:556, 6:430 

Bey, Cattaui, 16:346 

Be-Yishuv shel Ya'ar (Hazaz), 8:492 

Beyond Criticism (Shapiro), 18:406 

Beyond the river, 6:551-552 

Beyond the River Lethe. See Me-Ever 
Nehar ha-Lethe (Lenski) 

Beyrouth (Lebanon). See Beirut 

Beyth, Hans, 3:556 

Bezah (Aaron ben Joseph ha-Levi), 
1:215 

Bezah (tractate), 3:556 

Bezalel, 3:557 

Bezalel, Cecil. See Roth, Cecil 

Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design 
(Jerusalem), 3:557, 4:75, 10:653, 
695, 696, 13:14, 18:110, 111 

Bezalel Ashkenazi, 11:163 

Bezalel ben Moses ha-Kohen, 3:557- 
558 

Bezalel ben Solomon of Kobryn, 3:558 

Bezalel National Art Museum. See 
Israel Museum 

Bezalel style, 2:510 

Bezek (Israel), 1:413, 3:558 

Bezek Law, 13:145 

Bezem, Naftali, 3:558 

Bezidul Nou (Romania), 3:558-559 

Beziers (France), 3:559-560 

Bezprozvany, Hyman B. See Bass, 
Hyman B. 

Bezruc, Petr, 5:366 

Bezusy entuziast (Altauzen), 2:17 

Biah marriage, 4:747 

Biala. See Zuelz 

Biala (Poland), 3:560, 689 

Biale, David, 3:560 

Biale dynasty, 8:422 

Bialeh, Zevi Hirsch ben Naphtali 
Herz, 3:560-561 

Bialik, Hayyim Nahman, 2:21, 3:561- 
565, 8:725, 727-728, 9:412, 15:380 

aggadah, 1:460 

children's literature, 4:621 

Dvir publishing firm, 6:74 

Hebrew language, 8:675 

influence on Fichman, Jacob, 
7:8-9 

Judeo-Persian poetry of, 11:558 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



353 



INDEX 



Bialik, Hayyim Nahman, continued 

Lachower, Yeruham Fishel, 12:424 

Moriah publishing house, 14:491, 
17:126 

piyyut, language of, 8:652 

Rawnitzki, Yehoshua Hana, 17:126 

Shalom Aleichem and, 18:384 

Solomon, 18:761 

translation of Julius Caesar, 18:370 

Bialkin, Kenneth J., 3:565-566, 728 

Bialloblotzky, Christian Heinrich 
Friedrich. See Bialoblotzky, 
Christian Heinrich Friedrich 

Bialoblocki, Samuel Sheraga, 3:566 

Bialoblotzky, Christian Heinrich 
Friedrich, 3:566 

Bialostozky, Benjamin Jacob, 3:566 

Biala Podlaska (Poland), 3:560 

Bialystok (Poland), 3:137, 567-570, 
567 1, 568 

Holocaust, 16:312-313 

partisans, 15:666, 667 

pogrom (1906), 6:45 

Biarritz (France), 3:570 

Biazi v. Levi, 5:127 

Bibago, Abrahem ben Shem Tov, 
3:570-571, 11:472 

Bibas, Abraham, 3:571 

Bibas, Hayyim, 3:571 

Bibas, Joseph, 3:571 

Bibas, Judah, 3:572 

Bibas, Samuel, 3:572 

Bibas, Shem Tov, 3:571 

Bibas family, 3:571-572 

Bible, 3:572-679, 13:446-448 

allegories, 1:665, 16:74-75, 106 

altars in, 2:12-13 

Alt School or Alt-Noth trend, 2:11 

anatomy, 2:133 

angels, 2:150-152 

Angel of Death, 2:148-149 

cherubim, 4:600 

Gabriel, 14:167-169 

Michael, 14:167-169 

Raphael, 17:93 

Raziel, 17:128-129 

Uriel, 20:421-422 

animals, 2:166-167, 168t-171t, 
12:696-697 

amphibia, 2:172 

animal tales, 2:173 

antelope, 2:184-185 

ants, 2:184 

apes, 2:254 

birds, 2:171-172 

camels, 4:380-381 



cattle, 4:526-527 

deer, 5:530-531 

eagles, 6:81 

fish, 2:172 

horses, 9:546 

invertebrates, 2:172 

mammals, 2:167-171, 12:649 

owls in, 15:550 

ravens, 17:119 

red heifer, 17:156-157 

reptiles, 2:172 

sheep, 18:431 

anointing, 2:179-180 

apocalyse, 2:257 

Arabia, 2:293 

Arad, 2:328-329 

Aramaic, 2:343-345 

Aram and Arameans, 2:337, 338, 
339 

Ararat, 2:361 

archaeology, 2:380, 11:77 

in the arts, 3:669-679 

fine art, 3:673-674 

music, 3:672-673 
astrology, 2:615-616 
astronomy, 2:620-621 
atonement, 2:644 
Bethlehem (Israel), 3:533-534 
blindness in, 3:753-754 
breast as heart, 8:508-509 
bribery, 4:175 
candles, 4:429 
canon, 3:574-583 

Armenian, 3:603 

Christian, 3:574, 666 

contents of, 3:576 

definition and use of concept, 

3:574-575 

definitive canon, 11:10 

Hellenistic, 3:579, 579t 

languages of, 3:582-583 

New Testament, 15:190-191 

number of books in, 3:580 

order of books, 3:579t, 580- 
582, 5S0t, 5Slt, 5S2t 

order of books in, 3:579t, 
580-582, 5S0t, 581t, 5S2t 

process of canonization, 

3:575-576 

significance of, 3:575 

tripartite, 3:576-579 

capital punishment, 4:445-446 

carts and chariots, 4:497 

castration, 4:516-517 

cause and effect, relation between, 
4:529 



celibacy, 4:537 

census, 4:541-542 

Chaldeans, 4:561-562 

charity, 4:569 

chastity, 4:581 

Christianity 

allegorical interpretation of 
scripture in, 3:643 

biblical exegesis and study, 
Jewish influence on, 3:648 

canon, 3:574, 666 

religious impact of Bible on, 
3:663-667 

Septuagint and, 3:596-597 

translations, modern, 3:611, 
625 

cloth and clothing, 6:12 

dyeing, 6:76, 77 

sha'atnez, 18:336 
commentaries 

Alshekh, Moses, 2:10-11 

early Christian, 11:143 

German, 13:775-776, 15:718- 
719 

Italian, 5:441 

Italy, 6:717 

Kara, Joseph, 11:783-784 

Kara, Menahem ben Jacob, 
11:784 

Karaite, 5:428 

Kirimi, Abraham, 12:185 

la'az in, 12:405-406 

Laniado, Abraham ben Isaac, 
12:484 

Laniado, Samuel ben 
Abraham, 12:485 

Latif, Isaac B. Abraham ibn, 
12:506-507 

Levi Ben Gershom, 12:699 

Me-Am Lo'ez, 13:710-711 

medieval France, 7:153 

medieval Spain, 6:681 

medieval Syria, 13:603 

Philo Judaeus, 16:60, 61-62 

Sforno, Obadiah ben Jacob, 
18:333-334 

concordances and dictionaries 
glossaries, 3:605-606, 628 

criticism, 2:627 

Davidson, Samuel, 5:477 

development of, 15:744 

Hitzig, Ferdinand, 9:293-294 

Hupfeld, Hermann Christian 
Karl, 9:622 

Ilgen, Karl David, 9:721 

Jacob, Benno, 11:25 

Jeremias, Alfred, 11:136 



354 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Pedersen, Johannes, 15:711- 
712 

Perles, Felix, 15:776 

Perles, Joseph, 15:776 

Protestant, 5:477, 16:26-27 

Smend, Rudolph, 18:686-687 

curses, power of, 3:752 

Damascus Keter (13th c), vol. 7: 
color insert 

day and night in, 5:486-488 

death, 2:148, 5:510-511 

burial customs, 4:291-292 

cemeteries, 4:538 

debt recovery in, 6:590-591 

deep, the, 5:530 

deists and, 5:533-534 

demons, demonology, 5:572-573 

desecration, 5:601 

dew, 5:629-630 

divination, 5:704-705 

divorce, 5:710-711 

door and doorpost, 5:752-753 

dowries, 5:768 

dreams, 6:8-9 

drunkenness, 6:26-27 

dysphemisms, 6:550 

ebony, 6:88 

ecology, 6:92-93 

education, 6:159, 12:621-622 

Emar cuneiform discoveries, 
6:386-390 

emotions, 6:396 

environmental responsibility, 
6:449, 454 

ethics in, 6:531-534 

euphemisms, 6:549-550, 13:616 

evil eye in, 6:584, 585 

evil speech, 12:495 

exegesis and study, 3:640-656, 
9:814-821 

allegorical interpretation, 
3:641, 643-645, 660, 665 

Alshekh, Moses, 2:10, 11 

archaeological influence on, 
3:650, 652, 654 

Ben-Asher, Aaron ben Moses, 
3:319-320 

Bendavid, Lazarus, 3:325 

Bozecco, Benjamin ben 
Judah, 4:113-114 

Breuer, Mordecai, 4:172-173 

Breuer, Raphael, 4:173 

Buber, Martin, 4:231, 235 

Budde, Karl Ferdinand 
Reinhard, 4:249 

Buhl, Franz Peder William 
Mayer, 4:256 



Buttenweiser, Moses, 4:319 

Dubno, Solomon ben Joel, 
14:486 

Duhm, Bernhard, 6:42-43 

Dupont-Sommer, Andre, 6:51 

Eerdmans, Bernardus Dirks, 
6:215-216 

Eissfeldt, Otto, 6:278 

Eliezer of Beaugency, 6:330 

in France, 3:642 

French commentators, 3:642 

Hebrew manuscripts, 13:488 

homiletic commentary, 3:641, 
660-662 

Ibn Ezra, Abraham ben Meir, 
9:666-669 

Judaism, development of 
concept of, 11:517 

in Judeo-Persian, 11:551 

La Peyrere, Isaac, 12:488-489 

Levenson, Jon D., 12:679-680 

Levine, Baruch, 12:717 

literal commentary, 3:641, 
642 

Middle Ages, 13:94-95 

modern critical studies, 
3:648-656 

modern Jewish exegesis, 
3:645-648, 663 

Morgenstern, Julian, 14:486 

pardes as mnemonic for 
types of, 15:632 

philological commentary, 
3:642 

philosophical commentary, 
3:643 

philosophical methodology 
applied to, 16:72-73, 74-75 

Postillae Perpetuae of 
Nicholas de Lyre, 15:251 

pre-Middle Ages, 13:87-88 

rabbinic literature, 3:641-643, 
660-662 

Rosenmueller, Ernst Friedrich 
Karl, 17:449 

Rosenthal, Judah, 17:454 

Sarna, Nahum M., 18:59 

Solieli, Mordecai, 18:753 

Spanish commentators, 3:642 

synthetic commentary, 3:642- 
643 

Talmudic literature, 3:640- 
641, 660-663 

by women, 3:663 

fables, 6:666-667 

family in, 6:690-693 

fasting, 6:719-721, 722-723 

fictional stories from, 7:11 



friendship, 7:289-290 

Gemara 

order of books in, 3:581 
religious impact of, 3:662 

grammar, 8:554-558, 576-577 

hamez, 8:302 

Hapax Legomena, 8:337 

hatred, 8:458 

Havilah, 8:470 

Hebrew manuscripts, 13:488 

Hexateuch, 11:446 

history of, 3:583-586 

homicide, 6:220-221, 9:506-507 

homosexuality, 9:516 

honor, 9:519 

hospitality, 9:561 

host of heaven, 9:566-567 

human dignity and freedom, 
9:586-587 

as human document, 16:93 

humility, 9:589-590 

humor, 9:590 

hunting, 9:621 

hygiene, 9:647-648 

iconography, 9:703-704, 704 

idolatry, 9:710-712 

illuminated or illustrated, 3:674- 
679 

imitation of God, 9:737-738 

imprisonment, 5:606, 9:743 

imprisonment for debt, 9:748 

inaccuracies, Abd al-Haqq 
al-Islaml on, 1:240 

incest, 9:755 

inclination, good and evil, 9:756- 

757 

Islam 

allegorical interpretation of 
scripture in, 3:644 

art of, 3:674 

Bible translations in Arabic 
and Judeo-Arabic, 3:603- 
605, 627 

exegesis and study stimulated 
by rise of, 3:641 

religious impact on, 3:667- 
669 

tales, 10:754 

jealousy in, 11:98 

Jerusalem in, 11:208-211 

Jewish identity in, 11:292-293 

Josephus' Jewish Antiquities and, 
11:438 

Josiah's discovery of "Book of the 
Torah," 11:457-458 

joy, concept of, 11:470-471 

Jubilees, Book of, 11:473, 474 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



355 



INDEX 



Bible, continued 

Judaism during biblical period, 
development of, 11:514-515 

kapparot custom, 11:782 

Karaites and Karitism, 11:785-786 

kiss of death, 5:513 

labor and laborers, 12:408-409, 
410 

laws and legal systems 

judges in, 5:495 

justice, terms for, 11:578 

labor laws, 12:411-412 

law of evidence, 6:577, 578, 
579 

legal maxims, 12:603 

morality and law, 12:535 

prohibitions in and penal 
law, 15:720 

shomerim, 18:513-514 

as source of law, 14:337 

taxation, 19:534 

leprosy, 12:650-653 

letters and letter writers, 12:668- 
669 

literature influenced by 

Danish, 18:89 

Dante, 10:788 

Dutch, 6:67-68 

Egyptian, 6:225-226 

English, 6:432-434 

Hungarian, 9:602-604 

Italian, 10:787-788 

musical intonation, 13:656- 
664 

Norwegian, 18:90-91 

Russian, 17:587-588 

Swedish, 18:90-91 

logos, 13:174 

lots, 13:217-219 

love, 13:227-229 

Maimonides, Moses, 13:392 

manna, 13:478 

Mari (Mesopotamia), 13:537-541 

marriages, 12:725, 13:563-564, 565 

mashal proverbs, 16:640-642 

mathematics in, 13:671 

Matriarchs, 4:562-563 

medicine in, 13:720-722 

miracles, 14:305-306, 309 

mishmarot and ma'amadot, 
14:317-318, 319 

mitzvah, 14:372 

moneylending, 14:436-437 

monogamy, 14:447-448 

monotheism, 14:448-450 

names for 

Bible as a whole, 3:574 



in Hellenistic Judaism, 3:660 

Jewish sensitivities regarding, 
3:608 

sections and individual 
books, 3:576 

naturalistic explanations, 15:280 

nature of man, 13:446-448 

nomadism in, 15:294-295 

oaths in, 15:358-360 

oils in, 15:395-396 

olam ha-ba in, 15:400 

"Old Testament," 15:190, 191 

Oral Law and, 15:455 

parables, 15:620-621 

paradise in Eden narrative, 
15:623-627 

parody in, 15:654 

peace, concept of, 15:700-701 

perjury in, 15:772 

Philo Liber Antiquitatum 
Biblicarum, 16:58-59 

physical format, 4:71-76 

places named in, 6:568-569 

printing, 2:633 

proverbs, 16:647 

providence, 16:648 

psychiatry, 16:684 

psychology, 16:687 

punishment, 16:734-735, 736-737 

purity and impurity, ritual, 
16:746-750 

reading 

al tikrei, 2:20 

mnemonics, 13:619, 14:397 

vocalizations, 13:611 
related materials, 3:656-658 
religious impact, 3:659-669 

Christianity, 3:663-667 

Islam, 3:667-669 

Judaism, 3:659-663 
sacrifices, 17:643 
Satan, 18:72 
sederim, 18:235 
shofar, 18:506-507 
signs and symbols, 18:568-570 
sin, 18:621-624 
sociology of, 3:658-659 
Tabernacle, 19:418-423 
taking of life in, 13:743 
Tanakh, 19:499 
texts and editions 

evolution of text, 3:583-586 

Hebrew editions, printed, 
3:586-588 

polyglots, 3:588, 613, 636, 
13:56 



Thanksgiving Psalms, 5:507, 
19:668 

theology, 19:694-695 

anthropomorphism, 2:188- 
189 

deism, 5:533-534 

eschatology, 6:489-495 

particularism in, 11:514-515 

universalism in, 11:514-515 

throat as heart, 8:509 

translations, ancient, 3:588-606, 
12:405-406 

Aquila, 15:433-434 

Arabic and Judeo-Arabic, 
3:603-605 

Aramaic, 3:588-594, 599-601, 
600, 652 

Armenian, 3:602-603 

Egyptian (Coptic), 3:602 

Ethiopic, 3:601 

glossaries, 3:605-606, 12:406 

Greek, 3:595-598, 13:87 

Hungariand, 10:829 

Judeo-Persian, 11:552-553 

Karaite, 3:604-605 

Latin, 3:598, 11:142-143 

Onkelos, 15:433-434 

Peshitta, 3:599-600 

Saadiah Gaon, 3:603-604, 
605, 17:612-613 

Samaritan, 3:599, 652 

Septuagint, 18:307 

sharh, 3:605 

Syriac, 3:599-601 

translations, modern, 3:606-640 

aesthetics of, 3:609 

Arabic, 3:627 

Basque, 3:636 

Catalan, 3:627 

Celtic, 3:636-637 

Danish, 3:627 

Dutch, 3:627-628 

English, 2:144, 633, 3:611- 
627, 18:688 

faithfulness to original text 
in, 3:606-608, 621, 625, 
628 

feminist sensitivities 
regarding, 3:608 

Finnish, 3:628 

French, 3:628-629 

German, 3:629-632, 4:231, 
235, 7:509, 14:36-37, 39, 
15:719 

Greek, 3:636 

Hebrew, 2:633 

Hungarian, 3:632 



356 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Icelandic, 3:632-633 

on Internet, 3:637 

Italian, 3:633 

Jewish languages, 3:609-611 

Jewish sensitivities regarding, 
3:608 

Judeo-Italian, 11:547 

Judeo-Persian, 11:557 

Lithuanian, 3:636 

Maltese, 3:636 

name of God, 3:608-609 

neo-Aramaic, 15:70-72 

non-European languages, 
3:637 

Norwegian, 3:633 

Provencal, 3:629 

Romanian, 3:633 

Romanish, 3:633 

Slavonic, 3:634-636 

Spanish, 2:490, 3:636 

Swedish, 3:636 

transmission of, 13:606-612 

methods of writing, 13:606- 
609, 787 

writing instruments, 4:73 
Urim and Thummim, 5:704 
wisdom as female, 16:105 
women in 

charitable work, 16:46 

niddah, 15:254 

stereotypes of, 16:105-106 

Yiddish language, 2:108 

zeal in, 11:98 

See also Bible scholars; Pentateuch; 
specific books, people and places 
of the Bible 

The Bible and the Image, the History of 
Photography in the Holy Land 1839- 
1899 (Nir), 16:127 

The Bible as it Was (Kugel), 1:461 

"Bible as Literature" movement, 3:655 

Bible codes, 3:679-680 

The Bible in Spain (Borrow), 13:80 

Bible Project (Yerushalmi), 8:722 

Bible scholars 

Aharoni, Yohanan, 1:531-532, 
2:329, 330, 371, 11:523, 524 

Ainsworth, Henry, 1:550-551 

Albright, William Foxwell, 1:596, 
2:374, 378, 8:621, 13:60 

biblical archaeology, 3:650, 
654 

Joshua, Book of, 11:447, 448 

Alt, Albrecht, 2:11, 3:658 

Joshua, Book of, 11:446, 447, 
449 

moneylending, 14:436-437 



Noth, Martin, 15:315 

Andrewes, Lancelot, 2:144, 3:613 

Astruc, Jean, 2:627, 3:646, 649 

Bade, William Frederick, 3:43 

Baudissin, Wolf Wilhelm, Graf 
von, 3:216 

Bauer, Hans, 3:216, 13:58 

Baumgartel, Elise J., 3:221 

Baumgartner, Walter, 3:222 

Bech(ius), Matthias Friedrich, 
3:243 

Beek, Martinus Adrianus, 3:250 

Ben-Asher, Aaron ben Moses, 
3:319-320 

Ben-Asher, Moses, 3:312, 320 

Ben-Naphtali, Moses Ben David, 
3:367 

Bentzen, Aage, 3:381-382 

Benzinger, Immanuel, 3:391-392 

Bergstraesser, Gotthelf, 3:433, 
13:58 

Bertholet, Alfred, 3:490 

Bleek, Friedrich, 3:747-748 

Bonfrere, Jacques, 4:62-63 

Budde, Karl Ferdinand Reinhard, 
4:249 

Buhl, Franz Peder William Meyer, 
4:256, 11:343, 344 

Buttenwieser, Moses, 4:319 

Cassuto, Umberto, 3:647-648, 
650, 4:510-511, 9:161 

Cheyne, Thomas Kelly, 4:606 

Cocceius, Johannes, 4:765 

Colenso, John William, 5:57 

Colombo, Samuel, 5:64 

Cook, Stanley Arthur, 5:200 

Cooke, George Albert, 5:203 

Cornill, Carl Heinrich, 5:224 

Crowfoot, John Winter, 5:307, 
15:589 

Davidson, Samuel, 5:477 

Delitzsch, Friedrich, 5:540-541, 
8:470 

Del Medico, Henri E., 5:542 

Deutsch, Emanuel Oskar, 5:622 

Diez Macho, Alejandro, 5:659 

Dillmann, August, 5:661-662 

Dothan, Trude, 5:764 

Driver, Samuel Rolles, 6:22, 15:554 

Dubno, Solomon ben Joel, 6:34, 
8:436, 440 

Amsterdam, 2:108 

biblical exegesis and study of, 
3:646 

as bibliophile, 3:684 

Mendelssohn, Moses, 2:108 

Duhm, Bernhard, 6:42-43 



Dupont-Sommer, Andre, 6:51 

Eerdmans, Bernardus Dirks, 
6:215-216 

Ehrlich, Arnold Bogumil, 3:647, 
6:242-243 

Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried, 3:646, 
649, 6:247 

Eissfeldt, Otto, 6:278 

Erman, Johann Peter Adolph, 
6:482 

Ewald, Heinrich Georg August, 
3:649, 6:589 

Feigin, Samuel Isaac, 6:734 

Finkelstein, Jacob Joel, 7:34 

Fishbane, Michael, 4:125, 7:60 

Frankfort, Henri, 3:651, 7:204 

Frymer-Kensky, Tikva, 7:303 

Galling, Kurt, 7:350 

Garstang, John, 7:391, 8:499 

Geddes, Alexander, 7:408 

Gelb, Ignace Jay, 7:417-418 

Gesenius, Heinrich Friedrich 
Wilhelm, 7:562, 13:57-58, 
15:753 

Gevirtz, Stanley, 7:567 

Ginsberg, Harold Lewis, 7:609-610 

English translations of Bible, 
3:621, 622 

Job, Book of, 11:343, 344, 
346, 351, 352, 353, 355 

Ugaritic language and biblical 
exegesis, 3:652 

Ginsburg, Christian David, 3:588, 
7:610-611 

Gordis, Robert, 7:764, 11:343, 353 

Gordon, Cyrus Herzl, 7:767 

Graetz, Heinrich, 8:26-29 

Graf, Karl Heinrich, 8:29, 16:630 

Greenberg, Moshe, 8:72-73 

Greenfield, Jonas Carl, 8:79 

Gressman, Hugo, 8:87 

Gruenberg, Samuel, 8:107 

Gunkel, Hermann, 3:650-651, 
8:137 

Guthe, Hermann, 8:150 

Hallo, William, 8:282 

Haran, Menahem, 8:344 

Held, Moshe, 8:781 

Heller, Hayyim, 8:794 

Hengstenberg, Ernst Wilhelm, 
8:807 

Hirschler, Pal, 9:140 

Hitzig, Ferdinand, 9:293-294 

Hoelscher, Gustav, 9:302, 11:442 

Hoffmann, David Zevi, 9:310-311 

Hoschander, Jacob, 9:547 

Hottinger, Johann Heinrich, 9:568 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



357 



INDEX 



Bible scholars, continued 

Hrabanus Maurus, 9:573 

Hupfeld, Hermann Christian Karl, 
9:622 

Ilgen, Karl David, 9:721 

Jacob, Benno, 11:25 

Jacob ben Hayyim ben Issac ibn 
Adonijah, 4:52, 11:32, 13:620- 
621 

Jampel, Sigmund, 11:77 

Jeremias, Alfred, 3:651, 11:136 

Jirku, Anton, 11:337-338 

Kalisch, Markus Moritz, 11:736 

Kaufmann, Yehezkel, 12:33 

Job, Book of, 11:347 

Joel, Book of, 11:362 

Jonah, Book of, 11:388 

Joshua and book of Joshua, 
11:442, 449 

Kautzsch, Emil Friedrich, 12:37 

Keil, Karl Friedrich, 12:67 

Kenyon, Dame Kathleen Mary, 
11:201, 12:80 

Kirkpatrick, Alexander Francis, 
12:186-187 

Kittel, Rudolf, 12:207 

Kuenen, Abraham, 12:378-379 

Kugel, James L., 1:461, 12:379-380 

Landsberger, Benno, 12:475-476 

La Peyrere, Isaac, 3:649, 12:488- 
489 

Lauterbach, Asher Zelig, 12:529 

Leibowitz, Nehama, 3:625, 12:621- 
622 

Leusden, Johann, 12:675 

Levenson, Jon D., 12:679-680 

Levine, Baruch, 12:717 

Lewy, Julius, 12:771 

Lightfoot, John, 13:13, 59 

Lods, Adolphe, 3:658, 13:155 

Loewe, Joel, 13:166 

Loewisohn, Solomon, 8:440, 687, 
13:171 

Loisy, Alfred Firmin, 13:176 

Lowth, Robert, 3:646, 737, 13:237 

Macalister, Robert Alexander 
Stewart, 2:377, 13:315, 15:589 

Mahler, Eduard, 13:360 

Malamat, Abraham, 13:425-426 

Margolis, Max Leopold, 3:614, 
13:529-530 

Marti, Karl, 13:581-582 

Mazar, Benjamin, 2:371, 3:547, 
9:159, 13:705-706 

Meinhold, Johannes Friedrich, 
13:775 

Meyer, Eduard, 9:159, 14:146 



Michaelis, Johann David, 8:515, 
14:169 

Milgrom, Jacob, 14:233 

Morgenstern, Julian, 14:486 

Mowinckel, Sigmund Olaf Plytt, 
3:651, 14:590 

Nathan, Mordecai, 15:10-11 

Neubauer, Adolf, 15:115 

Nicholas de Lyre, 8:512 

Noth, Martin, 2:11, 3:651, 15:315 

Joshua, Book of, 11:446, 447, 
449 

sociology of Bible and, 3:658 

Nowack, Wilhelm Gustav 
Hermann, 15:324 

Orlinsky, Harry Meyer, 2:47, 
3:614, 621, 622, 15:478 

Parrot, Andre, 15:664 

Pedersen, Johannes, 3:651, 658, 
659, 15:711-712 

Pellicanus, Conrad, 15:696, 718- 
719 

Petrie, Sir William Matthew 
Flinders, 15:589, 16:18-19 

Pfeiffer, Robert Henry, 16:26-27 

Popper, William, 16:380 

Rad, Gerhard von, 17:52 

Reuss, Eduard, 17:249 

Rosenmueller, Ernst Friedrich 
Karl, 17:449 

Rowley, Harold Henry, 17:502- 
503 

Ryssel, Victor, 17:603 

Sandmel, Samuel, 18:16 

Sarna, Nahum M., 4:125, 18:59 

Schaeffer, Claude F.A., 18:102-103 

Seeligmann, Isac Leo, 18:238-239 

Segal, Moses Hirsch (Zevi), 8:355, 
574, 640-641, 13:59, 14:330, 
18:247-248 

biblical exegesis and study, 
3:647 

modern biblical exegesis by, 
3:650 

Sellin, Ernst, 18:272 

Shapiro, David S., 18:404 

Smend, Rudolph, 6:278, 18:239, 
686-687 

Smith, John Merlin Powis, 18:688 

Smith, Sir George Adam, 18:687- 
688 

Smith, William Robertson, 3:658, 
18:689 

Solieli, Mordecai, 18:753 

Speiser, Ephraim Avigdor, 9:159, 
294-295, 19:94-95 

Steuernagel, Carl, 19:224 

Tadmor, Hayim, 19:431 



Talmon, Shemaryahu, 19:469 

Tavus, Jacob ben Joseph, 3:609, 
11:552, 19:531 

Theodore of Mopsuestia, 3:599, 
648, 666, 19:692 

Tigay, Jeffrey H., 19:719 

Torrey, Charles Cutler, 20:59-60 

Tur-Sinai, Naphtali Herz, 20:204- 
205 

biblical exegesis and study, 
3:647 

Job, Book of, 11:343, 344, 
346, 351, 352 

Tyndale, William, 3:611, 612, 619, 
20:212 

Vatke, Wilhelm, 3:649, 20:486 

Vaux, Roland de, 20:487 

Volz, Paul, 20:580 

Vriezen, Theodorus Christiaan, 
20:588 

Walton, Bryan, 13:56, 20:614 

Weill, Raymond, 20:714 

Weingreen, Jacob, 20:721 

Weiss, Meir, 20:735 

Wellhausen, Julius, 6-7, 16:630, 
21:6-7 

Eissfeldt, Otto, 6:278 

on incense altar, 2:14 

modern biblical crticism and, 
3:648, 649-650 

Wette, de, Wilhelm Martin 
Leberecht, 21:30 

Wiener, Harold Marcus, 21:47 

Winckler, Hugo, 3:651, 21:79-80 

Woolley, Sir Charles Leonard, 
21:212 

Yeivin, Shemuel, 21:298 

Zimmerli, Walther, 21:534 

Bible societies, 3:680-681 

Biblia Hebraica Leningradensia 
(Dotan), 5:762-763 

Bibliander, Theodor, 3:681 

Biblia Polyglotta, 2:452 

Biblia Regia. See Biblia Polyglotta 

Biblia Sacra hebraice, chaldaice graece 
et latine (Plantin), 16:219 

Biblical Aramaic, 2:343-345 

Biblical archaeology, 3:650, 652, 654 

Biblical Archaeology Review 
(periodical), 18:397 

Biblical criticism, 3:648-656 

Aaron ben Elijah, 1:212 

Aaronides in, 1:218-219 

Abba Mari ben Moses ben Joseph 
Astruc of Lunel, 1:230 

Abrabanel, Isaac ben Judah, 
1:276-279 

Abraham, 1:283 



358 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon, 
1:305-306 

Abraham ben Solomon, 1:310 

Adar, Zvi, 1:383 

Ainsworth, Henry, 1:550-551 

Albelda, Moses ben Jacob, 1:588 

Albright, William Foxwell, 1:596 

Alcuin, 1:605 

Alemanno, Johann ben Isaac, 
1:611 

Ali ibn Suleiman, 1:660 

archaeological influence and 
evidence, 3:650, 652 

Baudissin, Wolf Wilhelm, Graf 
von, 3:216 

"biblical theology" movement, 
3:651-652 

Calvin, John, 4:376-377 

Castelli, David, 4:513-514 

Castro Quesada, Americo, 4:519 

Celsus, 4:537-538 

Cheyne, Thomas Kelly, 4:606-607 

Cocceius, Johannes, 4:765 

Coen, Graziadio Vita Anania, 
4:781 

Cornill, Carl Heinrich, 5:224 

Costa, Uriel da, 5:234-235 

early modern period, development 
in, 3:648-649 

Ehrlich Arnold Bogumil, 6:242- 
243 

Eleazar ben Judah of Worms, 
6:303-305 

form criticism, 3:650-651 

Hitzig, Ferdinand, 9:293-294 

Hiwi al-Balkhi, 9:295 

La Peyrere, Isaac, 12:488-489 

later twentieth century 

developments in, 3:652-656 

Meyer, Eduard, 14:146 

nineteenth and early twentieth 
century developments in, 3:649- 
651 

Smend, Rudolph, 18:686-687 

Biblical imagery, 2:502-503 

Biblical Interpretations in Ancient Israel 
(Fishbane), 7:60 

Biblical literature 

Aaron, 1:208-210 

Aaronides, 1:217-219, 2lSt 

abomination, 1:269-270 

abortion, 1:270-271 

Abraham, 1:281, 281-282 

Absalom, 1:330 

Achan, 1:354 

Achbor, 1:355 

acrostics, 1:368-369 



Adam, 1:371-372 

adoption, 1:415-416 

adultery, 1:423-424, 423-425 

afterlife, 1:441 

age and the aged, 1:446-447 

Ahaziah, 1:539 

Ai, 1:548-549 

aims and purposes, 4:700-702 

alchemy, 1:599-600 

algum, 1:654 

Baal worship, 3:12 

banishment, 3:110 

barrenness and fertility, 3:175 

belief, faith, 3:290-291 

benedictions, 3:331-332 

Cain, 4:340 

capital punishment, 4:445-446 

carts, 4:497 

cedar, 4:535 

chariots, 4:497 

children's, 4:619 

choral singing, 4:658-659 

chosen people doctrine, 4:669-670 

Chronicles, book of, 4:695-704, 
695t 

circumcision, 4:730-731 

cities, 4:739-741, 742-744 

city of refuge, 4:742-744, 743 

community structure, 5:101 

compassion, 5:122-123 

composition and formation, 
4:702-703 

compounding offenses, 5:123 

compromise, 5:124, 125 

concubines, 5:133-134 

confession of sins, 5:148-149 

confiscation, expropriation, 
forfeiture, 5:150-151 

congregation, 5:158-160 

conservation, 5:164-166 

contractual ties, 5:190 

conversion, laws of, 16:587-589 

copper scroll, 5:213-214 

copper serpent, 5:214-215 

corvee labor, 5:226 

cosmogony, 5:273-280 

Covenant, 5:249-253 

covetousness, 5:254 

crafts, 5:263-264 

creation, 5:273-280 

cremation, 5:281 

Crete, 5:289 

crocodiles, 5:304-305 

crowns, 5:307-308 

crucifixion, 5:309-310 



cult sacrifices, 5:330-333 

Damascus, 5:390-391 

Dead Sea scrolls and, 5:503-504 

divine presence, 16:481-484 

drama, German, 7:509-510 

dualism, 6:30 

earth in, 6:82 

Edom and Esau, 6:488 

El, name of God, 7:672-674 

Elam, 6:283-284 

Elath, 6:287 

Eldad and Medad, 6:293 

elders, 6:294-296 

elephants, 6:310-311 

Eli, 6:317 

Eliezer, 6:322 

Elijah, 6:332-333 

embalming, 6:390 

emotions, 6:396 

En-Gedi, 6:407 

environment and beauty, 5:168 

Ephod, 6:455-456 

Ephraim, 6:456-457 

Erez Israel agriculture, 1:472-473 

Esau, 6:487, 488 

eschatology 

Dead sea scrolls, 6:498-500 

post-exhilic prophets, 6:492- 
495 

pre-exhilic prophets, 6:490- 
492 

fire, 7:43-44 

firstborn, 7:45-46 

first fruits, 7:48-49 

fish and fishing, 7:58-59 

flogging, 7:78 

flora, 7:90-91 

forgiveness, 7:127-128 

fruit trees, 5:166-167 

Gaza, 7:399 

geneology, 8:290 

Genesis, book of, 7:440-447, 44 If, 
447t 

Gideon, 7:586-588, 587 

Gilead, 7:600-601 

Gilgal, 7:601-602 

glass, 7:629 

goats, 7:651-652 

God, 3:290, 7:652-658 

Gog and Magog, 7:683-684 

Golan, 17:78-79 

golden calf, 7:700 

Goliath, 7:738-739 

good and evil, 7:752 

Habakkuk, 8:171-172 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



359 



INDEX 



Biblical literature, continued 

haftarah, 8:198-200 

Hagar, 8:205-206 

Haggai, 8:222-223 

hagiography, 8:224-226 

hakhel, 8:247 

hakkafot, 8:250 

Hannah and birth of Samuel, 
8:324-325 

hassegat gevul, 8:448-449 

hatred, ill-will, 8:458 

herem, 9:10-11 

hermaneutics, 9:25-29 

Hezekiah, 9:87-90 

historiography, 9:153-154 

Hittites, 9:292-293 

Holiness code, 9:318-320, 12:738- 
740 

human rights, 17:312-313 

hunting, 5:166 

Jubilee, 5:166 

Kings, Kingship, 12:167-168 

lamentations, 14:586-587 

land management, 1:472-486 

law and morality, 12:535 

Leviathan, 12:696-697 

Levi ben Gershom commentaries, 
12:699 

Levirate marriage and haliza, 
12:725 

locust plague, 6:494 

masorah vocalization, 7:475-476 

mourning, 14:585-586 

mules, 14:609-610 

music, 14:640-642 

mythical influences, 14:711 

Nahmanides commentary, 14:740- 
741 

plagues of Egypt, 6:494, 16:210- 
214, 211* 

planning and construction, laws 
of, 16:215-216 

plants and products of plants, 
I6:220t-225t 

poetry, 16:254-262 

police offenses, 16:331-332 

pomegranates, 16:364 

poor, provision for, 16:371-372 

poverty, 16:427 

prayer, 16:456-458 

prayer, women's role in, 16:460 

precious stones and jewelry, 
16:475-478, 476* 

primogeniture, 19:284 

prostitution, 16:625-626 

ransom, 17:91-92 



Rashi, 17:101-106, 102* 

Rea Sea, 17:160 

Rebekah, 17:137-138 

rebellious son, 17:138-139 

rebuke and reproof, 17:139-140 

redemption, 17:151-152 

red heifer, 17:156-157 

reeds, 17:161 

Reifmann, Jacob, 17:203-204 

remnant of Israel, 17:217 

repentance, 17:221 

Rephaim, 17:224 

Resheph, 17:226 

resurrection, 17:240-241 

Reuben, 17:244-246, 245 

revelation, 17:253-254 

reward and punishment, 17:269- 
270 

right and left, 17:301 

righteousness, 17:307-308 

Rome and Esau, 6:488 

Rowley, Harold Henry, 17:502- 
503 

sabbatical year, 5:166 

shemittah and yovel, 6:454 

Song of Songs, 19:14-19 

son of man, 19:25 

sorcery, 19:27 

Sotah (tractate), 19:32-33 

soul, 19:33-34 

soul, immortality of, 19:35 

sources of, 4:699-700 

strangers and gentiles, 19:241-242 

suffering, 7:656 

suicide, 19:295-296 

sukkah, 19:297-298 

Sukkot, 19:299-300 

Sumerian influence, 19:311-312 

supercommentaries, 19:315-316 

suretyship, 19:317-318 

sustainable development, 6:454 

theodicy, 7:656 

tombs and tombstones, 20:33, 34 

trade and commerce, 20:79-81 

treasure, treasury, 20:122-123 

truth, 20:162 

Tu Bi-Shevat, 20:167 

twelve tribes, 20:137-140 

unjust enrichment, 20:413-414 

usury, 20:437-438 

veil, 20:490 

vine, 20:536-537 

virginity, 20:539-540 

visions, 20:543-544 

vows and vowing, 20:585-586 



waste disposal, 5:167 

weights and measures, 20:700-701 

widows, 21:40-42 

wilderness, 21:60 

willow, 21:65 

wisdom literature, 21:95-98 

witness, 21:115 

wood, 21:210 

yoke, 21:381 

Zadok, 21:439-441 

Zaken Mamre, 21:446 

Zechariah, 21:482-486 

zekhut avot, 21:497 

Zephaniah, 21:511-512 

See also Eschatology; Haggadah, 
Passover; Prophets and 
prophecy 

Biblical Myth and Legend in Jewish 
Education (Fineberg), 7:26 

Biblical Myth and Rabbinic 
Mythmaking (Fishbane), 7:60 

Biblical period 

liturgy, 13:131 

sculpture, 18:222 

ships and sailing, 18:486-487 

Biblical scholars. See Bible scholars 

"Biblical theology" movement, 3:651- 
652 

Bibliography, 3:681-683 

Bass, Shabbetai ben Joseph, 3:206 

Benjacob, Isaac, 3:353-354 

Bernard, Edward, 3:467-468 

Chajes, Saul, 4:559-560 

Cowley, Sir Arthur Ernest, 5:256 

Deutsch, Otto Erich, 5:625 

encyclopedias, 6:401-402 

Freidus, Abraham Solomon, 7:236 

Freimann, Aron, 7:237-238 

Habermann, Abraham Meir, 
8:176-177 

Heilprin, Jehiel Ben Solomon, 
3:681, 8:768-769 

Herschel, Levie, 9:134-135 

Neubauer, Adolf, 15:115 

Polak, Gabriel Isaac, 16:286 

Rapoport, Solomon Judah Leib, 
17:99 

Roan, Jacob ben Isaac, 17:374 

Roest, Meijer Marcus, 17:367 

Rosenthal, Leser, 17:455 

Schapiro, Israel, 18:108-109 

Seeligmann, Sigmund, 18:239 

Slatkine, Menahem Mendel, 
18:666-667 

Bibliography of Jewish Music (Sendrey), 
18:287 

Bibliophiles, 3:683-685 

Adler, Elkan Nathan, 1:396 



360 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Adler, Elmer, 1:396 

Almanzi, Joseph, 1:679 

Baracs, Karoly, 3:124 

Beer, Bernhard, 3:251 

Benoliel, Joseph, 3:371 

Horodisch, Abraham, 9:527-528 

Montezinos, David, 14:460 

Mortara, Marco, 14:513 

Rosenbach, Abraham Simon Wolf, 
17:431-432 

Rosenthal, Leser, 17:455 

Simonsen, David Jacob, 18:618 

Biblioteca di studi sociali (Mondolfo), 
14:435 

Bibliotheca Americana Vetustissima 
(Harrisse), 8:366 

Bibliotheca Historic a Italo-Judaica 
(Milano), 14:232 

Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinic a 
(Bartolocci), 2:37, 3:181 

Bibliotheca Sancta ex praecipuis 
Catholicae Ecclesiae auctoribus 
collecta (Sixtus of Siena), 18:656 

Bibliotheque Nationale (France), 
3:685, 11:558 

Biblisches Organon, 9:137 

Birlad (Moldavia). See Barlad 
(Moldovia) 

Bick, Jacob Samuel, 3:685, 4:199 

Bickel, Alexander M., 3:685 

Bickel, Solomon, 3:686 

Bickels-Spitzer, Zvi, 3:686 

Bickerman, Elias Joseph, 3:686, 18:217 

Biculturalism, 6:698 

Bidache (France), 3:686 

Biden, Louis H., 2:49 

Bidermanas, Izrael. See Izis 

Bidner, Zelig. See Ben Horin, Eliyahu 

Bidney, David, 3:686-687 

Bie, Oscar, 3:687 

Bieber, Hugo, 3:687 

Bieber, Margarete, 3:687 

Biedermann, Michael Lazar, 3:687 

Biegeleisen, Henryk, 3:688 

Biegeleisen-Zelsazowski, Bronislaw, 
3:688 

Biel (Spain), 3:688 

Biel (Switzerland), 3:688 

Bielefeld (Germany), 3:688 

Bielski, Asael, 3:688-689 

Bielski, Tuvia, 3:688-689, 9:496 

Bielski, Zus, 3:688-689 

Bielsko (Poland), 3:689 

Bielsk Podlaski (Poland), 3:689-690 

Bien, Julius, 3:690 

Bienenfeld, Franz Rudolf, 3:690 

Bienenstock, Max, 3:690 



Bienstok, Judah Lieb, 3:690-691 

Bienveniste family. See Benveniste 
family 

Bierer, Rubin, 3:691, 11:699 

Bi-Fero'a Pera'ot be-Yisrael (Eismann), 
6:276 

Bigamy and polygamy, 3:691-694, 
6:693, 15:539 

Bulgarian Romaniots, 4:269 

concubines, 5:135 

Gershom ben Judah Me'or ha- 
Golah, 7:552 

Halizah in Ashkenaz, 12:727 

See also Monogamy 

Bigart, Jacques, 3:694-695 

Bigdei ha-Melekh ha-Hadashim 
(Aloni), 1:687 

Bigman, Stanley, 18:733 

Bihalji, Pavle, 3:695 

Bihalji Merin, Oto, 3:695 

Bihari, Alexander, 3:695 

Bijur, Nathan, 2:49, 3:695 

Bikayam, Meir ben Halifa, 3:695 

Bikel, Theodore Meir, 3:696 

Bikerman, Jacob Joseph, 3:696 

Bikerman, Joseph, 3:696 

Bikhowsky, Elizaveta. See Elisheva 

Bikkurei ha-Ittim, 3:696-697, 8:688, 
12:460 

Bikkurei Yehudah (Don-Yahia), 5:752 

Bikkur holim. See Sicknesses, sick, 
visiting the 

Bikkurim (tractate), 3:697 

Bikszad dynasty, 8:425 

Bilam (Shoham), 8:716 

Bilbeis (Egypt), 3:697 

Bilbu,Ya qub, 15:473 

Bilder aus dem juedischen 

Familienleben (Mosenthal), 14:521- 

522 

Bildersee, Adele, 3:697-698 

Biletzki, Israel Hayyim, 3:698 

Bilgoraj (Poland), 3:698 

Bilhah, 1:415, 3:698 

Bill-Belotserkovski, Vladimir 
Naumovich, 3:698-699 

Billiards, 19:138 

Billig, Levi, 3:699 

Billikopf, Jacob, 3:699 

Billings (MT), 14:454 

Bill of Rights (U.S.), 2:42 

Billroth, Theodor, 3:699 

Bills & Contracts From Lucena 
(Rivlin), 18:471 

Billy Bathgate (Doctorow), 5:728 

Bilsky, Moses, 15:516 

Biltmore Program, 3:699-700 

American Jewish Committee, 2:55 



bi-nationalism and, 3:703 

Bilu, 3:700-701, 6:37 

Bimah, 3:701-702 

Bimetallism, in currency, 2:424 

Bimko, Fishel, 3:702 

Bimstein, "Whitey," 3:702 

Binah la-Ittim (Hart), 8:370 

Binah le-Ittim (Figo), 7:18-19 

Bi-nationalism, 3:702-703 

Binder, Abraham Wolf, 3:703, 8:503 

Binder, Alexander. See Pana, Sa§a 

Bineter family. See Banet family 

Binet family. See Banet family 

Bin-Forion, Micha Josef. See 
Berdyczewski, Micha Josef 

Bing, Abraham, 3:704 

Bing, Albert, 3:704 

Bing, Use, 3:704 

Bing, Isaac ben Samuel, 3:704 

Bing, Joseph, 3:704 

Bing, Seligmann, 15:442 

Bing, Solomon, 3:704 

Bingen (Germany), 3:703, 704-705 

Bingen, Jacques, 15:668 

Bing family, 3:703-704 

Bingham, Theodore A., 6:193, 15:209 

Bin-Gorion, Micha Josef. See 
Berdyczewski, Micha Josef 

Binswanger, Isidore, 3:705 

Bintel Brief, 6:696-697 ', 15:210, 
16:503-504, 20:325-326 

Binyamin, Rabbi. See Rabbi Binyamin 

Binyaminah (Israel), 3:705 

Binyamin ben Mishael. See Amina 

Binyamin Ze'ev. See Herzl, Theodor 

Binyamin Ze'ev (Benjamin), 3:364 

Binyan Ariel (Loewenstamm), 13:167- 
168 

Binyan Av (Bakshi-Doron), 3:74 

Binyan av rule, 9:26-27 

Binyan ha-Bayit (Altschuler), 2:26 

Binyan Shelomo (Hanau), 8:318 

Binyan Shelomo le-Hokhmat Bezalel 
(Adeni), 1:390 

Binyan Ziyyon (Freimann), 7:237 

Biochemistry, 13:10 

Canada 

Fishman, William Harold, 
7:65 

France 

Rapkine, Louis, 17:97 

Germany 

Ehrlich, Paul, 6:244 
Embden, Gustav, 6:390-391 
Meyerhof, Otto, 13:10, 14:151 
Michaelis, Leonor, 14:169 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



361 



INDEX 



Biochemistry, continued 

Neuberg, Gustav Embden 
Carl, 15:116 

Oppenheimer, Carl, 15:447 

Pringsheim, Hans, 16:528 

Warburg, Otto Heinrich, 
20:633 

Hungary 

Rona, Peter, 17:418 
Israel 

Ciechanover, Aaron J., 4:725 

Fodor, Andor, 7:94 

Hershko, Avram, 4:593, 9:45, 
13:10 

Hestrin, Shlomo, 9:79 

Katzir, Aharon, 12:22 

Katzir, Ephraim, 12:22-23, 
13:10 

Levitzki, Alexander, 12:744 

Razin, Aharon, 17:130 

Sela, Michael, 13:11, 18:257 

Shapiro, Benjamin, 18:404 

Sharon, Nathan, 18:418 

Simon, Ernst, 6:161, 18:611 

Wertheimer, Chaim Ernst, 
21:16 

Poland 

Parnas, Yakub Karol, 15:654 
Portugal 

Jacobson, Kurt, 11:55 
Switzerland 

Winterstein, Alfred, 21:92 
U.K. 

Chain, Sir Ernest Boris, 4:558 

Cohen, Sir Philip, 5:31 

Klug, Aaron, 4:593, 12:233, 
13:9 

Kornberg, Hans Leo, 12:311— 
312 

Krebs, Hans Adolf, 12:347, 
13:10 

Neuberger, Albert, 15:116 

Perutz, Max Ferdinand, 
15:798 

Quastel, Judah Hirsch, 
16:761-762 

Rosenheim, Otto, 17:448 

U.S. 

Berg, Paul, 3:417 

Bodansky, Oscar, 4:27 

Borsook, Henry, 4:95 

Calvin, Melvin, 4:377-378, 
13:10 

Chargaff, Erwin, 4:568 

Cohen, Philip Pacy, 5:31, 
13:10 

Cohen, Seymour Stanley, 
5:34, 13:9 



Cohen, Stanley, 5:36 

Cohn, Edwin Joseph, 5:40 

Cori, Gerty Theresa, 5:223 

Dische, Zacharias, 5:676 

Dorfman, Ralph Isadore, 
5:756 

Edelman, Gerald Maurice, 
6:142 

Fischer, Edmond, 7:53, 13:10 

Funk, Casimir, 7:310 

Glick, David, 7:636 

Green, David Ezra, 8:66 

Greenberg, David Morris, 
8:68 

Greenstein, Jesse Philip, 8:81 

Handler, Milton, 8:319 

Handler, Philip, 8:319 

Hassid, William Zev, 8:455 

Heidelberger, Michael, 8:762- 
763, 13:11 

Kalnitsky, George, 11:747 

Kornberg, Arthur, 12:311, 
13:9 

Langer, Robert S., 12:481 

Levene, Phoebus Aaron 
Theodor, 12:679 

Lipmann, Fritz Albert, 13:68 

Nirenberg, Marshall Warren, 
13:9, 15:273-274, 476 

Perlzweig, William Alexandre, 
15:780 

Ptashne, Mark Stephen, 13:9, 
16:693 

Rabinowitch, Eugene, 17:40 

Racker, Efraim, 17:51 

Rittenberg, David, 13:10, 
17:345-346 

Rodbell, Martin, 13:10, 
17:362 

Shear, Murray Jacob, 18:427 

Sobotka, Harry Herman, 
18:703 

Stein, Wililam Howard, 
19:182 

Stern, Kurt Gunter, 19:213 

Strominger, Jack, 13:11, 
19:260 

Sure, Barnett, 19:317 

Weinhouse Sidney, 20:722 

Zamenhof, Stephen, 21:451 

Biodiversity, 5:164 

Bioengineering, 11:772 

Bioethics 

Drai, Raphael, 6:7 

France, 6:716 

Biographies and autobiographies, 
3:705-709 

as exempla, 6:599 



Heilprin, Jehiel Ben Solomon, 
8:768 

Historia Augusta, 9:151 

Italian Renaissance, 7:15 

Josephus' The Life, 11:440 

leaders of modern hasidic 
movements, 11:751-752 

Luftspring, Sammy, 13:253 

Lukacs, Georg, 13:253 

rabbis, of, 11:751-752 
Biological plant protection, 6:452 
Biology 

Austria 

Marmorek, Alexander, 
13:556-557 

Belgium 

Arnon, Isaac, 2:480 

Canada 

Altman, Sidney, 2:22, 4:593, 
13:9 

France 

Atlan, Henri, 2:635 

Jacob, Francois, 11:27-28 

Lwoff, Andre Michel, 13:9, 
293 

Germany 

Aschner, Manfred, 2:553 

Auerbach, Leopold, 2:655 

Cohn, Ferdinand Julius, 5:41, 
13:7 

Edinger, Tilly, 6:147-148 

Haberlandt, Gottlieb, 8:176 

Sorauer, Paul Karl Moritz, 
19:27 

Steinach, Eugen, 19:182-183 

Horwitz, H. Robert, 9:546-547 

Israel 

Arnon, Ruth, 2:480-481, 
15:313 

Aviv, Haim, 2:741 

Chet, Ilan, 4:605-606, 6:452 

Cohen, Yigal Rahamim, 5:38 

Rager, Bracha, 17:65 

Italy 

Artom, Cesare, 2:534 
Levi-Montalcini, Rita, 12:706 

Romania 

Sanielevici, Henric, 18:24 

Russia 

Gurwitsch, Alexander 
Gavrilovich, 8:142 

Haffkine, Waldemar 
Mordecai, 8:196 

Metchnikoff, Elie, 14:134 

Zenkevich, Lev 

Aleksandrovich, 21:508- 
509 



362 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



U.K. 



Zilber, Lev Aleksandrovich, 
21:530 

Bodmer, Walter, 4:29-30 

Rothschild, Nathaniel Mayer 
Victor, Lord, 17:491, 494 



U.S. 



Altschul, Aaron Meyer, 2:25 

Anfinsen, Christian Boehmer, 
2:145-146, 4:592-593, 
13:10 

Arnon, Daniel Israel, 2:480 

Asimov, Isaac, 2:588 

Axelrod, Julius, 2:756-757, 
13:10 

Baltimore, David, 3:100 

Berg, Paul, 3:417, 13:9 

Bogorad, Lawrence, 4:36 

Gilbert, Walter, 4:593, 7:598, 
13:9 

Gould, Stephen Jay, 8:18-19 

Horwitz, H. Robert, 9:546, 
13:9 

Luria, Salvador Edward, 13:9, 
267-268 

Meselson, Matthew, 13:9, 
14:74 

Pincus, Gregory Goodwin, 
16:165 

Rose, Irwin, 17:426 

Spiegelman, Sol, 13:9, 
19:107-108 

Stent, Gunther Siegmund, 
13:9, 19:202 

Varmus, Harold Eliot, 20:477 

Waksman, Selman Abraham, 
20:599 

Wald, George, 13:10, 20:600 

See also Life sciences 
Biophysics, 13:12 
Biow, Milton H., 1:428, 3:428 
Bira family. See Adolphus family 
Biram, Arthur, 3:709-710 
Biran, Avraham, 3:710 
Biranit (Israel), 3:710 
Birbaum, Nathan. See Burns, George 
Birck, Sixtus, 18:761 
Birds, 2:171-172 

barnacle geese, 3:167 

buzzards, 4:323 

doves, 5:768 

eagles, 6:81 

hoopoes, 9:522 

peacocks, 15:704 

pelicans, 15:717-718 

pheasants, 16:32-33 
Birds' Head Haggadah, 8:212-213 



Birds of Shade (Seri). See Zipporei Zel 
(Seri) 

Biriyyah (Israel), 3:710-711, 6:264 

Birk, Aim, 16:343 

Birk, Yehudith, 3:711 

Birkat ha-Levanah. See Blessing of the 
Moon 

Birkat ha-mazon. See Grace after 
meals 

Birkat ha-Minim, 3:711-712 

Amidah, 2:74 

Jewish identity and, 11:294 

luz of the spine, 13:279 

Birkat ha-Torah, 3:712 

Birkat Shemuel (Leibowitz), 12:620 

Birkenau concentration camp, 3:421, 
9:430, 481-482, 488 

Birkenstadt, Ger Shon Ben Abraham. 
See Chajes, Gershon ben Abraham 

Birkenstadt, Gershon Ben Abraham. 
See Chajes, Gershon ben Abraham 

Birkenthal, Dov Ber, 2:268, 3:712 

Birmingham (AL), 3:712-713 

Birmingham (England), 3:713-714 

Birmingham, Steven, 15:227 

Birnbaum, A. H., 15:475 

Birnbaum, Abraham Baer, 3:714 

Birnbaum, Eduard, 2:25, 3:714 

Birnbaum, Ferdinand, 6:161 

Birnbaum, Jacob, 3:716 

Birnbaum, Menachem, 3:714 

Birnbaum, Nathan (1864-1937), 
3:714-716, 11:699, 18:257 

Birnbaum, Nathan (1896-1996). See 
Burns, George 

Birnbaum, Philip, 3:716 

Birnbaum, Pierre, 11:326 

Birnbaum, Solomon Asher, 3:716 

Birnbaum, Uriel, 3:716-717 

Birnboim, Moses Joseph, 3:717 

Biro, Lajos, 3:717 

Birobidzhan (Russia), 3:717-720 

Birobidzhan (USSR), 3:718, 719 

The Birobidzhan Affair (Emiot), 6:395 

Der Birobidzhaner Inyen (Emiot). See 
The Birobidzhan Affair (Emiot) 

Birobidzhan Jewish Musical Chamber 
Theater, 14:520 

Birs Nimrud (Iraq), 4:94 

Birstein, Yossel, 3:720 

Birth, 3:720-723 

abortion, 1:271-272 

amulets, vol. 7: color insert 

astrology, 2:617, 619 

birthdays, 3:723 

celebrations, dance, 5:411 

Commandments, 5:75 



folklore, 7:100, 103, 106, 109-110 
impurity period, 12:737-738 
Lilith, 13:17-19 
niddah, 15:256-258 
rites and rituals 

Sholem Zokhor, 18:512-513 
sacrifice following, 17:640-641 

vital statistics, 20:55 lt-552t, 556- 

557 

The Birth and Growth of Religion 
(Moore), 14:469 

Birth certificate, Chinese, vol. 20: 
color insert 

Birth control, 3:723 

Judith, wife of Rabbi Hiyya, and, 
11:566 

onanism, 15:426-427 

See also Barrenness and fertility 

Birthdates, 3:721 

Birthday celebrations, 3:723-724 

The Birthday Party (Pinter), 16:177 

Birth defects, 1:272 

The Birth of Energy (sculpture, 
Epstein), 6:471 

The Birth of Europe (Lopez), 13:189- 
190 

Birthright Israel, 7:137 

Birthrights 

Jacob, 11:18, 21, 27 

Jacob and Esau, 6:487-488 

Manasseh and Ephraim, 6:456, 
457, 11:20 

Birzai (Lithuania), 3:724 

Birzula (Ukraine), 3:724 

Bisa, 15:501 

Bischheim (France), 3:724 

Bischhoff, Erich, 3:724 

Bischhoffsheim, Amalia, 3:725 

Bischhoffsheim, Ellen Odette, 3:725 

Bischhoffsheim, Henry Louis, 3:725 

Bischhoffsheim, Raphael, 3:724-725 

Bischhoffsheim, Raphael Jonathan, 

3:725 

Bischhoffsheim, Raphael Louis, 3:725 

Bischhoffsheim family, 3:724-725, 
725t 

Bischofsheim on the Tauber 

(Germany). See Tauberbischofsheim 
(Germany) 

Bisenz (Czech Republic). See Bzenec 
(Czech Republic) 

Bisgyer, Maurice, 3:725 

Bi-Shevilei Musar (Benamozegh), 
3:317 

Bishop, Joey, 3:726 

"Bishop of the Jews." See Episcopus 
Judaeorum 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



363 



INDEX 



Bisliches, Mordecai Leib, 3:726 

Bismarck, Otto von, 3:726 

Bleichroeder, Gerson von, 
relationship with, 3:726, 748 

Blowitz, Henri Georges Stephane 
Adolphe Opper de, as 
interviewer of, 3:784 

Lasker, Eduard, 12:497 

Bistrita (Romania), 3:727 

Bistritski, Nathan. See Agmon, Nathan 

Bitan Aharon (Israel), 3:727 

Bitburg Controversy, 3:727-728 

Bithiah, 3:729 

Bithynia (Asia Minor), 3:729 

Bitola (F.Y.R. of Macedonia). See 
Monastir (F.Y.R. of Macedonia) 

Bitolj (F.Y.R. of Macedonia). See 
Monastir (F.Y.R. of Macedonia) 

Bittelman, Alexander, 3:729 

Het bittere kruid (Minco). See Bitter 
Herbs (Minco) 

Bitter Herbs (Minco), 6:71 

Bitterns, 3:729 

Bitter water ordeal, 11:374, 15:462 

Bittul ha-Tamid, 3:729-730 

Bitumen, 3:730 

Blur (Mendelssohn), 6:34, 8:437 

Biurists, 3:631 

Bi-Ymei Milhamah u-Mahpekhah 
1914-21 (Dinur), 5:672 

Biztha, 3:730 

Bizza and pesharah, 5:124 

Bizzaron (Israel), 3:730 

Black, Algernon David, 3:730 

Black, Conrad, 11:467 

Black, Fischer, 18:159-160 

Black, Max, 3:730-731 

Black, Misha. See Black, Sir Misha 

Black, Sir Misha, 3:731 

Black Americans. See African 
Americans 

Blackbirds of 1928, 7:17 

The Black Book. See Cartea Neagra 

Black Box (Amos Oz), 15:555 

Black Canopy. See Huppah Shehorah 
(Ratosh) 

Black Death, 3:731-734, 732, 9:215- 
216 

antisemitism, 15:94-95 

Brussels, 4:226 

France, 7:151 

Alsace, 2:6 

Franche-Comte, 7:172 

Lorraine, 13:194 

Nyons, 15:356 

Obernai, 15:368 

Selestat, 18:260 



Seres, 18:316 
Germany, 4:63, 5:60 

Ansbach, 2:180 

Bacharach, 3:31 

Berlin, 3:445 

Bingen, 3:704 

Bonn, 4:63 

Boppard, 4:79 

Brandenburg, 4:125, 126 

Breisach, 4:167 

Bruchsal, 4:219 

Brunswick, 4:226 

Bytom, 4:324 

Dresden persecutions, 6:10 

Dueren, 6:41 

Duisberg, 6:43 

Frankfurt on the Main, 7:208 

Fulda, 7:309 

Juelich, 11:572 

Kaiserslautern, 11:728 

Landau, 12:457 

Landshut, 12:476 

Lauingen, 12:526 

Lueneburg, 13:253 

Noerdlingen, 15:293 

Nordhausen, 15:299 

Nuremberg, 15:346 

Offenbach, 15:386 

Offenburg, 15:387 

Oldenburg, 15:401 

Osnabrueck, 15:505 

Palatinate, 15:575 

Passau, 15:677 
Italy 

Parma, 15:652 

Lag ba-Omer associated with, 
15:421 

Luxembourg, 13:275 

Oppenheim, 15:442 

Spain 

Barcelona, 3:143 

Duenas, 6:40 

Lerida, 12:654-655 

Sargossa, 18:42-43 
Switzerland 

Berne, 3:471 

Lucerne, 13:249 

Black Form Dedicated to the Missing 
Jews (Lewitt), 12:769-770 

Black Hundreds, 15:250 

Black-Jewish relations in United 
States, 3:734-737 

affirmative action and numerus 
clausus, 15:343 

Butzel, Fred M., 4:320 

Goodman, Benny, 15:220 



Passover and Seder, significance 
of, 15:681-682 

See also Civil rights movement; 
New York City 

Black Jews 

India, supporters, 6:741 
United States, 11:520, 521 

Black Judaizing movements, 1:437 

Black Mountain: An Exploration of 
Community (Duberman), 6:31 

Black Panther movement (Israel), 
10:442 

Black Saturday, 8:204 

Blackstone, William E., 3:737 

Blair, Tony, 6:432, 12:753 

Blake, William, 3:737-738 

Bronowski, Jacob, 4:207 

Moses, 14:542 

Blanc, Mel, 3:738 

Blanchot, Maurice, 3:738 

Blanckenhorn, Max, 3:738 

Blanes, Jacob, 3:738 

Blank, Aristide, 3:739 

Blank, Arthur M., 3:739 

Blank, Leon, 3:739 

Blank, Maurice, 3:739-740 

Blank, Samuel Leib, 3:740 

Blank, Sheldon Haas, 3:740 

Blankenstein, Marcus van, 3:740 

Blankenstein, Solomon. See Schiller, 
Solomon 

Blankfort, Michael S., 3:740 

Blankstein, Cecil, 3:740 

Blanter, Matvey Isaakovich, 3:740-741 

Blaser, Isaac, 3:741 

Blasphemy, 3:741-742, 5:79f 

Blass, Simcha, 6:452 

Blatas, Arbit, 15:649 

Blatt, Joseph, 15:397 

Blau, Amram, 3:742, 744 

Blau, Bruno, 3:742 

Blau, Fritz, 3:742 

Blau, Herbert, 3:742-743 

Blau, Joseph Leon, 3:743 

Blau, Joshua, 3:743-744 

Blau, Ludwig Lajos, 3:744 

Blau, Moshe, 3:744 

Blau, Peter Michael, 3:744-745 

Blau, Pinchas, 3:744 

Blau, Tina, 3:745 

Blaubaum, Elias, 3:745 

Der blaue Reiter, 4:139 

Blaustein, Abraham, 3:746 

Blaustein, David, 3:746 

Blaustein, Jacob, 2:55, 3:745-746 

Blaustein, Louis, 3:98, 745 



364 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Blaustein family, 3:745-746 

Blaustein Philanthropic Group, 3:746 

Blau- Weiss, 3:746-747, 8:385, 11:721, 
12:466 

Blayer, Pietro, 3:747 

Blazko, Martin, 3:747 

Blech, Leo, 3:747 

Blecher, Marcel, 3:747 

The Bleeding Man (painting, Mopp), 
14:470 

Bleek, Friedrich, 3:747-748 

Bleich, J. David, 3:748 

Bleichroeder, Gerson von, 3:726, 748 

Bleichroeder, Samuel, 3:748 

Bleichroeder family, 3:748 

Blejer, David, 3:748-749, 16:349 

Blejer, Mario Israel, 3:749 

Blemishes, 3:749-750 

Blendenish (Altman), 2:21 

Die Blendung (Canetti), 4:431 

Blesse (Morhange), 14:491 

Blessedness. See Beatitude 

Blessing and cursing, 3:330-333, 750- 
752 

Berakhot, 3:400 

blasphemy, 3:741-742 

children, blessing of, 3:752 

in colophons, 5:65-67 

grace after meals, 8:22-23, 18:489 

grace before meals, 8:24 

oaths, relationship to curses, 
15:358, 462 

ordeal and curses, 15:462 

Blessing of children, 3:752 

Blessing of the Moon, 14:468 

Bleter far Yidishe Demografye, Statistik 
un Ekonomik, 4:228 

Bleustein-Blanchet, Marcel, 3:752-753 

Blick, Elsa. See Triolet, Elsa 

Blizenci (Dostal), 5:762 

Blindman, Yeruham, 3:753 

Blind man and lame parable, 6:647 

Blindness, 3:753-756, 754, 7:86 

Bliokh, Ivan Stanislavovich, 3:756 

Blis, David, 3:756-757 

Bliss. See Beatitude 

Bliss, Frederick Jones, 3:757, 15:589 

Blitz, Jekuthiel ben Isaac, 3:610 

Blitzer, Wolf, 3:757 

Blitzkrieg, 9:332-333 

Blitzstein, Marc, 1:224, 3:757 

Blobel, Paul, 3:22 

Bloc, Andre, 3:757-758 

Bloch, Adolfo, 11:469 

Bloch, Andre, 3:758 

Bloch, Annette, 3:769 



Bloch, Camille, 3:758 

Bloch, Chaim Isaac, 3:758-759 

Bloch, Charles (hazzan), 3:759 

Bloch, Charles (publisher), 3:758 

Bloch, Claude, 3:759 

Bloch, Darius Paul. See Dassault, 
Darius Paul 

Bloch, Dora, 6:448 

Bloch, Edward, 3:758 

Bloch, Edward H., 3:758 

Bloch, Elijah Meyer, 3:759 

Bloch, Ernest, 3:759-760, 4:661-662, 
18:762 

Bloch, Ernst, 3:760-761 

Bloch, Felix, 3:761 

Bloch, Gustave, 3:761 

Bloch, Hayyim Isaac ben Hanokh 
Zundel ha-Kohen, 3:761 

Bloch, Henry Wollman, 3:768 

Bloch, Herbert, 3:761-762, 5:302, 
18:732 

Bloch, Hermann, 3:762 

Bloch, Herman Samuel, 3:762 

Bloch, Hyman Morris, 3:762 

Bloch, Issachar Baer ben Samson, 
3:762 

Bloch, Iwan, 3:762-763 

Bloch, Jean-Richard, 3:763 

Bloch, Joseph, 3:763, 18:705 

Bloch, Joseph Leib, 3:763 

Bloch, Joseph Samuel, 3:763-764, 
16:340 

Bloch, Joshua, 3:764 

Bloch, Jules, 3:764 

Bloch, Konrad, 3:765, 13:10 

Bloch, Marc, 3:765, 18:730 

Bloch, Marcus Eliezer, 3:765 

Bloch, Martin, 3:766 

Bloch, Mattathias ben Benjamin Ze'ev 
Ashkenazi, 3:766 

Bloch, Maurice. See Bloch, Sir 
Maurice 

Bloch, Mor. See Ballagi, Mor 

Bloch, Moses, 3:766 

Bloch, Moses Rudolph, 3:766-767 

Bloch, Philipp, 3:767 

Bloch, Richard, 3:768-769 

Bloch, Rolf, 3:767 

Bloch, Rosine, 3:767 

Bloch, Sam, 2:48, 49 

Bloch, Samson ben Moses, 3:767 

Bloch, Samson ha-Levi, 3:767-768 

Bloch, Samson the Hasid. See Bloch, 
Samson ben Moses 

Bloch, Sir Maurice, 3:766 

Bloch Editores, 11:469-470 



Bloch family, 3:758 

Blochman family, 18:14 

Bloch-Michel, Jean, 3:768 

Block, Herbert Lawrence, 3:769 

Block, H&R, 3:768-769 

Block, Joseph Samuel, 4:712 

Block, Paul, 3:769, 11:468 

Block 23/ Mikhtavim mi-Nes Ziyyonah 
(Kenan), 12:75 

Bloemfontein (South Africa), 3:769- 
770 

Blogg, Solomon ben Ephraim, 3:770 

Blois (France), 3:770 

Blok, Arthur, 3:770 

Blonde on Blonde (Dylan), 6:78 

Blondes, David, 3:770-771, 779 

Blondheim, David Simon, 3:771, 
12:405 

Blondheim, Solomon Hillel, 3:771 

Blondzhende Shtern (Shalom 
Aleichem), 18:384 

Blood, 3:771-772 

altars and, 2:12, 13-14 

Brazil, colonial, 4:143 

cult, 5:331 

in folk medicine, 7:111 

Judaizers, 11:520 

menstrual, 2:135, 3:772, 776 

niddah, 15:253-258 

Passover, 15:679 

plagues of Egypt, 16:212-213 

shehitah, 18:434 

virginal, 15:255 

Blood-avengers, 3:772-773 

Blood-for-trucks negotiations, 6:250 

Blood for Trucks offer, 4:120, 9:490- 
491 

Blood from the Sky (Rawicz), 9:411 

Bloodguilt, 3:773-774, 4:68 

Blood Harvest. See Shtol un Ayzn 

Bloodletting, 3:774 

Blood libel, 3:266-267, 774-780, 777 

Aleppo (Syria), 1:615 

Alexeyev, Alexander, 1:636 

Alfonso X, King of Castile, 1:642 

Alfonso de Espina, 1:642 

Amasiya (Turkey), 2:33 

Andrew of Rinn, 2:144 

antisemitism and, 3:776, 778, 779, 
17:163 

apologetics, 2:267 

Arab countries, 3:780 

Austria, 2:144 

Beilis, 6:45, 15:250 

Beirut, 3:270 

Benedict XIV, 3:330 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



365 



INDEX 



Blood libel, continued 

Berne (Switzerland), 3:471 

Biel, 3:688 

Bielsk Podlaski, 3:689 

Bloch, Joseph Samuel, 3:764 

in Blois, 3:770 

Blondes, David, 3:770, 779 

Boleslav V, 4:45 

Bourgeois, Jean, 4:106 

Bristol, England, 4:185 

Bruna, Israel ben Hayyim, 4:222 

Buna, Israel ben Hayyim, 7:222 

Bursa, 4:300 

Bury St. Edmunds, 4:302 

Canterbury Tales, 4:584 

Catholic Church, 3:776, 778, 779, 
4:710-712, 17:163 

Christians accused of, 3:775, 776 

La Civilta Cattolica, 4:748-749 

Classical period, 3:774-775 

Clement XII, 16:376 

Clement XIII, 4:753, 16:376 

Clement XIV, 3:778, 4:753, 16:376 

Clement XIII, 4:753 

Council of the Lands, 5:244 

Damascus Affair, 5:399-401 

Damocritus, 5:403 

defined, 3:774 

Donin, Nicholas, 5:750 

Dubossary (Moldova), 6:38 

Dubrovnik (Croatia), 6:38 

Eastern Europe, 3:778 

Elijah of Prague, 6:347 

Endingen libel, 6:403-404 

England, 3:775 

London, 6:410 

Northampton, 15:301 

Norwich, 15:312 
France, 4:105 

Blois, 7:150 

Boulay, 4:105 

Bourgeois, Jean, 4:106 

Levy, Raphael, 12:754 

Paris, 15:643 

Troyes, 20:157 

Valreas, 20:466 

Frankist movement, 7:185-188, 
191 

Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, 

7:222 

Germany, 4:79 

Boppard, 4:79 
Endingen, 6:403-404 
Fulda, 7:222, 309 
Pforzheim, 16:27 



Ravensburg, 17:121 

thirteenth century, late, 
17:334-335 

Velhartice, 3:778 
Hilsner Case, 9:119-120 
Istanbul (Ottoman period), 10:778 
Italy, 10:798 

Brescia, 4:163 

Rome, 17:414 

Trent, 3:469, 15:566 

Izmir (Turkey), 10:827 

Joseph ben Gershon of Rosheim, 
11:420, 421 

Kalisz, Statute of, 4:45 

Kolin (Czech Republic), 12:273 

Levinsohn, Isaac Baer on, 3:779 

Machaut, Denis de, 15:643-644 

Majorca (Spain), 13:410, 414 

Malta, 13:436 

map of sites in Europe, 3:777 

Meyer, Paulus, 14:149 

Middle Ages, 3:775-776, 9:214 

modern period, 3:776-780 

Olkusz (Poland), 15:408 

Onody, Geza, 15:434 

origins of, 3:774-775 

Orleans and Blois communities, 
15:476 

Ottoman empire, 15:529-531 

Passover, association with, 3:775- 
776, 778 

Pezinok (Slovakia), 16:24 

prohibitions on consuming blood, 
3:772 

Raphael Levy, 12:754 

refutations of, 3:776, 778, 779 

Rohling, August, 3:764, 778 

Rudolf I, 17:524 

Russia, 3:778-780, 18:51 

Polna, 3:779, 15:352 

Velizh, 3:779, 14:483, 20:492- 
493 

Sandomierz (Poland), 18:17 

Sochaczew, 18:703 

Spain, 12:438 

Der Stuermer, 19:275 

Tirgu Neamt (Romania), 19:730- 
731 

Tiszaeszlar (Hungary), 3:778, 779, 
4:246, 15:355, 19:735 

Volhynia (Ukraine), 20:571 

Volos (Greece), 20:574 

See also Damascus Affair 
Blood on the Tracks (Dylan), 6:78 
Blood revenge, 6:691 
Blood Simple (motion picture), 4:782 



The Bloody Countess. See La condesa 
sangrienta 

Bloom, Benjamin Samuel, 3:780 

Bloom, Claire, 3:780-781 

Bloom, Harold, 3:781 

Bloom, Hyman, 3:781 

Bloom, Robert, 1:577-578 

Bloom, Sol, 3:782 

Bloom, Solomon Frank, 3:782 

Bloomberg, Abe, 16:349 

Bloomberg, Michael R., 3:782, 15:224, 
226, 238 

Bloomberg LP, 3:782 

Bloomfield, Leonard, 3:783 

Bloomfield, Maurice, 3:783 

Bloomfield, Meyer, 15:205 

Bloomfield-Zeisler, Fanny, 3:783 

Bloomgarden, Kermit, 3:783 

Bloomgarden, Yehoash Solomon. See 
Yehoash 

Bloomingdale, Alfred S., 3:784 

Bloomingdale, Benjamin, 15:203 

Bloomingdale, Emanuel Watson, 3:784 

Bloomingdale, Hiram C, 3:784 

Bloomingdale, Joseph Bernhardt, 
3:784, 15:203 

Bloomingdale, Lyman Gustavus, 
3:783-784, 15:203 

Bloomingdale, Samuel Joseph, 3:784 

Bloomingdale family, 3:783-784, 5:588 

Bloomingdale's Department Store, 
3:784, 15:203, 226 

The Bloudy Tenet of Persecution for 
Cause of Conscience Disgust 
(Williams), 9:227-228 

Blowitz, Henri Georges Stephane 
Adolphe Opper de, 3:784 

Bloy, Leon, 3:784 

Blue Army. See Haller's Army 

Bluestone, Joseph Isaac, 4:5-6 

Die Bluete des Chaos (Mombert), 
14:430 

Bluhdorn, Charles G., 4:6 

Blum, Amram ben Isaac Jacob, 4:6 

Blum, Ben-Zion, 4:6 

Blum, Eliezer, 4:6-7 

Blum, Isaac Jacob, 4:6 

Blum, Jerome, 4:7 

Blum, Judah Zevi, 4:6 

Blum, Julius, 4:7 

Blum, Leon, 4:7-8, 11:467, 16:343, 
18:705 

Blum, Ludwig, 4:8 

Blum, Moses Nahum, 4:6 

Blum, Rene, 4:8 

Blum, Walter, 4:8-9 

Blumberg, Baruch Samuel, 4:9, 13:9 



366 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Blumberg, Hayyim. See Harari, 
Hayyim 

Blume, Peter, 4:9 

Blumel, Andre, 4:9-10 

Blumenberg, Leopold, 4:10 

Blumenfeld, Aharon. See Roman- 
Ronetti, Moise 

Blumenfeld, Dov Ber, 4:199 

Blumenfeld, Emanuel, 4:10 

Blumenfeld, Felix Mikhaylovich, 4:10 

Blumenfeld, Hermann Fadeevich, 
4:10-11, 12:554 

Blumenfeld, Kurt Yehudah, 4:11 

Blumenfeld, Ralph David, 4:11, 11:467 

Blumenfeld, Walter, 4:11 

Blumenfeld alleys, 4:11 

Blumenfield, Samuel, 4:11 

Blumenkranz, Bernhard, 4:11, 11:324 

Blumenthal, Aaron H., 4:12 

Blumenthal, Albert, 15:224 

Blumenthal, David, 4:12 

Blumenthal, George, 4:12 

Blumenthal, I.D., 4:579 

Blumenthal, Joseph (1834-1901), 4:12, 
15:211 

Blumenthal, Joseph (1897-1990), 4:12 

Blumenthal, Nissan, 4:12-13 

Blumenthal, Oskar, 4:13 

Blumenthal, Werner Michael, 4:13 

Blumenthal family, 15:303 

Blumlein, Aaron. See Aaron of 
Neustadt 

Blutiker Shptas (Shalom Aleichem), 
18:388 

Bluwstein, Rahel. See Rahel 

B'nai B'rith, 4:13-18 

America, 2:43 

American Jewish Archives, 2:53 

American Jewish Conference, 2:56 

Anti-Defamation League, 2:194, 
195 

Bien, Julius, 3:690 

Bisgyer, Maurice, 3:725 

B'nai B'rith Girls, 4:14 

B'nai B'rith Hillel Foundation, 
12:635 

B'nai B'rith Women, 4:14, 17 

B'nai B'rith Youth Organization 
(BBYO), 4:14-15 

boycotts, anti-Nazi, 4:111 

Canada, 14:466 

Hillel, 9:111-112 

Hillel Foundation, 9:725, 16:724 

Independent Order of True 
Sisters, 4:220 

Jewish settlement in America and, 
2:43 



New York City, 15:198 

publishing, 16:724 

San Diego, 18:13 

Wexler, William Abe, 21:32 

Bnei Akiva, 4:18-19, 492-493, 14:391, 
15:87 

Board of Delegates of American 
Israelites, 4:19-20 

Board of Deputies of British Jews, 
2:408, 4:20, 12:565 

Anglo-Jewish Association, 2:162 

Fisher, Samuel, Baron Fisher of 
Camden, 7:64 

Boas, Abraham, 4:20 

Boas, Abraham Tobias, 1:385, 4:21 

Boas, A.T. See Boas, Abraham Tobias 

Boas, Franz, 2:185-186, 4:21-22, 
13:236-237, 18:731 

Boas, Frederick Samuel, 4:22 

Boas, George, 4:22 

Boas, Harold, 4:21 

Boas, Henriette, 4:22 

Boas, Hyman, 4:20 

Boas, Isaac Herbert, 4:21 

Boas, Simon, 4:20 

Boas, Tobias, 4:20-21 

Boas family, 4:20-21 

Boaz, 1:416, 4:22-23 

Boaz and Jachin (sanctuary pillars). 
See Jachin and Boaz (sanctuary 
pillars) 

Bobe-Mayse, 4:23 

Bober, Robert, 4:23 

Bobov, 4:23-24 

Bobover Hasidim, 8:424, 15:230-231 

Bobrovy Kut (Ukraine), 4:24, 11:735 

Bobruisk (Belarus), 4:24-25 

Bobtelsky, Mordekhai, 4:25 

Boca Raton (FL), 15:605 

Boccaccio, Giovanni, 4:25, 10:789 

Bochnia (Poland), 4:25-26 

Bochum (Germany), 4:26 

Bock, Jerry, 4:26, 8:360 

Bodansky, Meyer, 4:27 

Bodansky, Oscar, 4:27 

Bodanzky, Arthur, 4:27 

Bodek, Jacob, 4:27 

Bodenheim, Maxwell, 4:27 

Bodenheimer, Frederick Simon, 4:27 

Bodenheimer, Max Isidor, 4:27-28 

Bodenschatz, Johann Christoph Georg, 
4:28, 18:605 

Bodenstein, Charlotte. See Schoene, 
Lotte 

Bodian, David, 4:28 

Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive 
Limits of "Sex" (Butler), 4:317 



Bodin, Jean, 4:28-29, 9:227 

Bodky, Erwin, 4:29 

Bodleian Library, 4:29 

Bodley, Sir Thomas, 4:29 

Bodley, Thomas. See Bodley, Sir 
Thomas 

Bodmer, Johann Jacob, 15:289, 18:761 

Bodmer, Sir Walter, 4:29-30 

Bodmer, Walter. See Bodmer, Sir 
Walter 

Bodo, 4:30, 6:14 

Bodrogkeresztur (Hungary), 4:30 

Body and soul, 4:30-31 

Boehm, Adolf, 4:31 

Boehm, Yohanan, 4:31-32 

Boehmisch-Leipa (Czech Republic). 
See Ceska Lipa (Czech Republic) 

Boerne, Ludwig, 4:32 

Boer War, 3:769 

Boeschenstein, Johann, 4:32 

Boesing (Slovakia). See Pezinok 
(Slovakia) 

Boesky, Ivan Frederick, 4:33 

Boethus, ben Zonin. See Baitos 

Boethusians, 2:198, 4:33-34, 358 

Boetticher, Paul Anton de. See 
Lagarde, Paul de 

Bogale, Yona, 3:505, 4:34 

Bogart, Humphrey, 3:30 

Bogaty, Jacob, 11:116 

Bogdan, Corneliu, 4:34 

Bogdanor, Vernon, 4:34 

Bogdanovich, Peter, 4:34-35 

Bogen, Alexander, 4:35 

Bogen, Boris David, 2:59, 4:35, 728 

Boger, Hayyim, 4:35 

Boghen, Felice, 4:36 

Bogorad, Lawrence, 4:36 

Bogoraz, Vladimir Germanovich, 4:36, 
11:361 

Bogrov, Dmitri, 4:36-37 

Bogrov, Grigori Isaakovich, 4:37, 
12:457 

Boguslav (Ukraine), 4:37 

Bohemia, 4:37-41, 38 

Abrahamites, 1:312 

conferences, 5:145-146 

equality, 7:173 

fur trade, 7:313 

Holocaust 

Kosova Hora, 12:321 

Holocaust Period, 5:358-359 

Jewish population, 4:40t 

Landesjudenschaft, Boehmische, 
12:469 

laws controlling Jewish 
population, 6:689-690 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



367 



INDEX 



Bohemia, continued 

leather industry and trade, 
12:575-576 

peddling in, 15:709 

scholars, 9:298 

textiles, 19:663-664 

See also Czechoslovakia 

Bohemia (newspaper), 11:704 

Bohem Zaddik (Perl), 15:774 

Bohl, Samuel, 4:41 

Bohm, David, 4:41-42 

Bohm, Henrik, 4:42 

Bohm, Tomas, 18:93 

Bohnen, Eli Aaron, 4:42 

Bohoc (Brody), 4:201 

Bohor, Jisrael. See Hajim, Jisrael 

Bohr, Niels Henrik David, 4:42 

Bohybryszcze. See Pogrebishchenski 

Boingo (music group). See Oingo 
Boingo (music group) 

Bojan (Ukraine), 4:42-43 

Bojanowo (Poland), 4:43 

Bokanowski, Maurice, 4:43, 16:343 

Boker Avraham (Cardozo), 4:464, 
18:353 

Boker shel Shotim (Ben-Ner), 3:368 

Boker Yizrah (Kamelhar), 11:751 

Bokher, Elye. See Levita, Elijah 

Bokros-Birman, Dezso, 4:43 

Bokser, Baruch M., 4:43-44 

Bokser, Ben Zion, 4:44 

Bolaffi, Ezekiel. See Abulafia, Ezekiel 
David ben Mordecai 

Bolaffi, Giulio, 15:668 

Bolaffi, Hezekiah David ben Mordecai. 
See Abulafia, Ezekiel David ben 
Mordecai 

Bolaffi, Michele, 4:44 

Bolaffio, Leone, 4:44 

Bolechow (Poland). See Bolekhov 

Bolechow (Ukraine). See Bolekhov 
(Ukraine) 

Bolekhov (Ukraine), 4:44-45 

Boleslavski, Isaac, 4:46 

Boleslav V, 4:45 

Bolivia, 4:46-48 

Bolm, Adolph Rudolphovich, 4:48 

Bologna (Italy), 4:48-50 

Bolotowsky, Ilya, 4:50 

Bolshaya Seidemenukha. See 
Kalinindorf 

The Bolshevik Revolution, its Rise and 
Meaning (Litvinov), 13:141 

Bolshevik theory, 5:92-94 

Bolshevism in American Labor Unions 
(Dyche), 6:76 

Bolten, Joshua B., 4:50 



Bolten, Seymour, 4:50 

Bolzano (Italy), 4:50-51 

Bolzen (Italy). See Bolzano (Italy) 

Bombay (India), 3:335-338, 4:51-52 

Bomberg, Daniel, 4:52, 8:514 

Adelkind, Israel Cornelius, 1:386 

early printed editions of Hebrew 
Bible, 3:587 

Targum Yerushalmi II, 3:592 

Bomberg, David, 4:52-53 

The Bombing of Auschwitz: Should the 
Allies Have Attempted It?, 9:420 

Bom Retiro (Sao Paulo, Brazil), 18:31 

Bomze, Nahum, 4:53 

Bona (Algeria). See Bone (Algeria) 

Bonacosa, Jacob, 15:566 

Bonafed, David ben Reuben, 4:53 

Bonafed, Solomon ben Reuben, 4:53- 
54 

Bonafos, Menahem B. Abraham, 4:54- 
55 

Bonafoux, Daniel ben Israel, 4:55, 
18:352-353 

En Bonafoux del'Argentiere. See Kaspi, 
Joseph ben Abba Mari ibn 

Bonaiuoto, Isaac Levi, 2:409 

Bonald, Louis Gabriel Ambroise, 
Vicomte de, 4:55 

Bonan, David, 4:55-56 

Bonan, Hayyim Mordecai, 4:55 

Bonan, Isaac, 4:55 

Bonan, Mas'ud, 4:55 

Bonan family, 4:55-56 

Bonaparte, Napoleon. See Napoleon 
Bonaparte 

Bonastruc, Isaac, 4:56, 6:58 

Bonaventura, Arnaldo, 4:56 

Bonaventura, Enzo Joseph, 4:56 

Bonavoglia, Moses de' Medici, 4:56 

Bonciu, H., 4:56 

Bondavin, Bonjudas, 4:56-57 

Bondi, Abraham ben Yom Tov, 4:57 

Bondi, Aron, 4:57 

Bondi, August, 3:734, 4:57 

Bondi, Elijah ben Selig, 4:57 

Bondi, Hermann. See Bondi, Sir 
Hermann 

Bondi, Isaac, 15:199 

Bondi, Jonas, 4:58 

Bondi, Nehemiah Feivel, 4:57 

Bondi, Simeon ben Isaac, 4:57 

Bondi, Sir Hermann, 4:57-58 

Bondi, Yom Tov ben Abraham, 4:57 

Bondi family, 4:57 

Bonds 

of indebtedness, 5:154-155 



sale of, 2:604 

State of Israel, 4:58-59, 59 

Bondy, Bohumil, 4:59-60 

Bondy, Curt, 4:60, 6:160 

Bondy, Filip, 4:60, 129 

Bondy, Gertrud, 4:60 

Bondy, Gottlieb. See Bondy, Bohumil 

Bondy, Jonah, 4:57 

Bondy, Max, 4:60 

Bondy, Ruth, 4:60-61 

Bondy, Samuel, 4:57 

Bondy family. See Bondi family 

Bone (Algeria), 4:61 

Bone, Sir Muirhead, 4:52 

Bone-reaping hook (10th millenium 
B.C.E.), vol. 10: color insert 

Bonet, Jacob, 4:63 

Bonfil, Robert, 4:61-62 

Bonfils, Immanuel ben Jacob, 4:62, 
13:674 

Bonfils, Joseph ben Eliezer, 4:62 

Bonfils, Joseph ben Samuel, 2:175, 
4:62, 8:488, 14:438 

Bonfrere, Jacques, 4:62-63 

Boniface IX, 4:63, 16:374 

Boniface popes, 4:63 

Boniface VIII, 4:63, 16:373 

Bonjorn, Bonet Davi, 4:63 

Bonjorn, David Bonet. See Bonjorn, 
Bonet Davi 

Bonjusas. See Bondavin, Bonjudas 

Bonn (Germany), 4:63-64 

Bonn, Hanus, 4:64 

Bonn, Moritz Julius, 4:64-65 

Bonn, Moses, 2:24 

Bonne, Alfred Abraham, 4:65 

Bonner, Elena Georgievna, 4:65 

Bono, David, 4:77 

Bonsenyor, Astruc ben Judah, 4:65 

Bonsenyor, Judah, 4:65 

Bonte family. See Bondi family 

Bonyhad (Hungary), 4:66 

The Bo of of Morality. See Sefer ha- 
Musar (Kaspi) 

The Book and the Sword: A Life of 
Learning in the Shadow of 
Destruction (Halivni), 8:275 

Bookbinder, Hyman H., 4:66-67 

Bookbinding, 2:496, 4:73-75 

Book of Adam and Eve. See Book of the 
Life of Adam and Eve 

The Book of Argument and Proofs in 
Defense of the Despised Faith 
(Halevi). See Kitab al-Hujja wa 
al-Dalil fi Nasr al-Dhali (Halevi) 

The Book of Blessings: New Jewish 
Prayers for Daily Life, the Sabbath, 
and the New Moon Festival (Falk), 
13:138 



368 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Book of Brightness. See Sefer ha-Bahir 

The Book of Daniel (Doctorow), 5:728 

The Book of Degrees (Falaquera). See 
Sefer ha-Maalot 

Book of Delights. See Sefer Shaashuim 

Book of Doctrines and Beliefs (Gaon), 
11:730 

Book of Enoch, 14:132-133 

Book of Festivals (Lewisnsky), 6:74 

The Book of God: A Response to the 
Bible (Josipovici), 6:439 

Book of Intercalculation. See Sefer ha- 
Ibbur 

Book of Jashar (aggadic work). See 
Sefer ha-Yashar 

Book of Jashar (poetic source book), 
4:69 

The Book of Jokes and Witticisms 
(Druyanow), 6:29 

Book of Jubilees. See Jubilees, Book of 

Book of Life, 4:69-70 

Book of Lights and Watch Towers 
(al-Kirkisani), 6:230 

Book of Magical Secrets. See Sefer ha- 
Razim 

"The Book of Minute Research." See 
Kitab al-Tashwir (Ibn Janaah, 
Jonah) 

Book of Miracles..., An Historical 
Account of the Ten Tribes Settled 
Beyond the River Sambatyon in the 
East (Edrehi) 

Book of Miracles... (Edrehi). See An 
Historical Account of the Ten Tribes 
Settled Beyond the River Sambatyon 
in the East (Edrehi) 

Book of Nahum, 14:758 

Book of Opinions and Beliefs (Saadiah 
Gaon), 16:78-79 

Book of Prayers (Calisch), 4:364 

Book of Precepts. See Sefer ha-Mitzvot 

Book of Principles. See Sefer ha-Ikkarim 

Book of Principles (Albo). See Sefer ha- 
Ikkarim (Albo) 

Book of Raziel. See Raziel, Book of 

The Book of Redemption. See Sefer ha- 
Maasiyyot 

Book of Remembrance (Ephraim ben 
Jacob of Bonn), 6:460 

The Book of Riddles (Gikatilla). See 
Sefer ha-Meshalim 

"Book of Righteousness, The". See 
Sefer ha-Yashar 

Book of Roots. See Sefer ha-Shorashim 

The Book of Routes (Ibn 
Khurdadhbah), 6:106 

The Book of Ruth and Esther 
(Pissarro), 16:187 

Book of Secrets. See Sefer ha-Razim 



Book of Songs. See Kitaab al-Aghani 

Book of Stories. See Mayse-Bukh 

Book of Stories (Nissim). See Sefer ha- 
Maasiyyot 

"Book of the Commandments." See 
Sefer ha-Mitzvot 

Book of the Cook. See Kitab al-Tabbakh 

Book of the Covenant, 4:67-69, 
6:616-617 

"Book of the Dead" (Egyptian), 6:534- 

535 

Book of the Druggist. See Kitab 
al-Tabbakh 

Book of the Five Substances (treatise), 
6:397 

The Book of the Great Secret. See Raza 
Rabba; Sefer Raza Rabba 

"Book of the Laws of the Torah, The." 
See Sefer Hukkei ha-Torah 

Book of the Life of Adam and Eve, 
1:377-378, 15:394 

Book of the Living. See Book of Life 

Book of the Microcosm. See Sefer ha- 
Olam ha-Katan 

Book of the Paths of Peace 

(Mendelssohn). See Sefer Netivot ha- 
Shalom (Mendelssohn) 

The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra- 
Melin, 11:667 

Book of the Secret. See Sefer ha-Sod 
(Kaspi) 

Book of the Secrets of Enoch. See 
Enoch, Slavonic Book of 

The Book of the Seeker (Falaquera). See 
Sefer ha-Mevakesh 

The Book of the Soul (Falaquera). See 
Sefer ha-Nefesh 

Book of the Stones of Joshua. See Avnei 
Yehoshua 

Book of the Wars of the Lord, 4:70 

Book of the Wars of the Lord (Reuben). 
See Sefer Milhamot Adonai (Reuben) 

Book of Travels. See Sefer ha-Massa'ot 

Book of Treasure (Emrani), 6:398 

Book of Victory (Emrani), 6:398 

Book of Wisdom (Eleazar ben Judah of 
Worms), 6:304 

Book of Zerubbabel, 21:517-518 

Bookplates, 4:70-71 

Books, 4:71-76 

art in, 2:497-498 

in Bibliotheque Nationale, 3:685 

burning, 9:328 

chapbooks, 4:568 

collectors of, 3:683-685 

illuminated 

Mahzor, 13:363-365 

Warsaw ghetto, 9:472 



See also Illuminated manuscripts; 
Printing; Publishing 

Books and Fates. See Knihy a osudy 

Books of the Bible. See specific books 
by name. 

Books of the Chronicles of the Kings 
of Judah and Israel, 4:76-77, 9:154 

Book trade, 4:77-78 

Brentano family, 4:162-163 

Horodisch, Abraham, 9:527-528 

Rosenbach, Abraham Simon Wolf, 
17:431-432 

Boone, Richard, 4:78-79 

Boorstin, Daniel J., 4:79 

Boorstin, Hannah Cohn, 15:572 

Booz. See Jachin and Boaz (sanctuary 
pillars) 

Bopp, F., 4:155 

Boppard (Germany), 4:79 

Bor, Josef, 4:79 

Borah, Woodrow Wilson, 4:80 

Boraisha, Menahem, 4:80 

Borchardt, Georg. See Hermann, 
Georg 

Borchardt, Lucy, 4:80 

Borchardt, Ludwig, 2:371, 4:80-81 

Borchardt, Rudolf, 4:81 

Borchsenius, Poul, 4:81 

Bordeaux (France), 4:81-83 

"Bordeaux Itinerary." See Itinerarium 
Hierosolymitanum 

The Border (Feinstein), 6:440, 741 

Borders, decorative, in books, 4:75 

Border Street (Ford), 9:440 

Bordjel, Abraham, 4:83 

Bordjel, Elijah Hai I, 4:84 

Bordjel, Elijah Hai II, 4:84 

Bordjel, Nathan I, 4:83 

Bordjel, Nathan II, 4:84 

Bordjel family, 4:83-84 

Borenstein, Sam, 4:84 

Borge, Victor, 4:84-85 

Borgenicht, Louis, 15:205 

Borghi, Lamberto, 4:85, 6:161 

Borgil, Abraham ben Aziz, 4:85, 270 

Borinstein, Louis J., 4:85 

Boris, Ruthanna, 4:85 

Borislav (Ukraine), 4:85-86 

Borisov (Belarus), 4:86 

Borisov, Andrey Yakovlevich, 4:86 

Borisovich, Rudolf. See Barshai, 
Rudolf 

Bormann, Martin, 4:87 

Born, Max, 4:87, 15:193 

Bornfriend, Jacob, 4:87 

Bornstein, Eli, 4:87-88 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



369 



INDEX 



Bornstein, Hayyim Jehiel, 4:88 

Borochov, Ber, 4:88-90, 18:717 

Borodavka, Isaac, 4:91 

Borodin, Michael Markovitsch, 4:91 

Borofsky, Jonathan, 4:91 

Boro Park (NYC), 15:203, 213, 217, 
223, 231-232 

Borovoy, A. Alan, 4:91-92 

Borovoy, Saul, 4:92 

Borovsky, Alexander, 4:92 

Borowitz, Abram Solman. See 
Burrows, Abe 

Borowitz, Eugene B., 4:92-94 

Borowitz, Sidney, 4:94 

Borowski, Tadeusz, 9:412 

Borromeo, Carlo, 4:94 

Bor§a (Romania). See Borsa 
(Romania) 

Borsa (Romania), 4:94 

Borscht Belt (NY), 15:221, 241 

Borsippa (Bablyonia), 4:94 

Borsook, Henry, 4:95 

Boryslaw (Ukraine). See Borislav; 
Borislav (Ukraine) 

Bosak, Meir, 4:95 

Boschwitz, Rudolph Eli, 4:95 

Bosco, Monique, 4:95-96, 425 

Boscovitch, Alexander Uriyah, 4:96 

Bosem. See Balsam 

Boshal, Moses ben Solomon, 4:96 

Bosham, Herbert de, 4:96, 8:512 

Boskoff, Alvin, 4:97, 18:732 

Boskovice (Czech Republic), 4:97 

Boskowitz (Czech Republic). See 
Boskovice (Czech Republic) 

Boskowitz, Benjamin Ze'ev ha-Levi, 
4:98 

Boskowitz, Hayyim ben Jacob, 4:98 

Bosna-Serai (Bosnia-Herzegovina). See 
Sarajevo (Bosnia-Herzegovina) 

Bosnia. See Bosnia-Herzegovina 

Bosnia-Herzegovina, Travnik, 20:122 

Bosniak, Jacob, 4:98 

Bosnian War (1992-1994), Jewish 
refugees, 18:49 

Bosor. See Bozrah (Trachonitis) 

Bosphorus, kingdom of. See Kingdom 
of Bosphorus 

Bossuet, Jacques Benigne, 4:99 

Bostal, Moses. See Boshal, Moses ben 
Solomon 

Boston (MA), 4:99-101, 13:664 

hasidism, 9:541 

Horowitz, Pinchas David ha- 
Levi, 9:541 

New England Holocaust 

Memorial, vol. 9: color insert 



Boswell: a Modern Comedy (Elkin), 
6:359 

Botanical medicine. See Medicine 

Botany 

Acosta, Christobal, 1:358-359 

Austria 

Fahn, Abraham, 6:676 
Wiesner, Julius von, 21:55-56 

Belgium 

Errera, Leo, 6:483 

Duvdevani, Shmuel, 6:73 

dye plants, 6:77 

Eig, Alexander, 6:253 

Germany 

Ascherson, Paul Friedrich 
August, 2:552 

Askenasy, Eugen, 2:588 

Magnus, Paul Wilhelm, 

13:357 

Sachs, Julius, 17:635 

Strasburger, Eduard, 13:7, 
19:245-246 

Warburg, Otto, 20:632-633 
Halevi, Abraham H., 8:269 
Ha-Reubeni, Ephraim, 8:353 
India 

Ezekiel, Moses, 6:648 
Israel, 6:676, 739 

Duvdevani, Shmuel, 6:73 

Evenari, Michael, 6:573-574 

Feinbrun-Dothan, Naomi, 
6:739 

Halevy, Abraham H., 8:269 

Ha-Reubeni, Ephraim, 8:353 

Rayss, Tscharna, 17:128 

Reichert, Israel, 17:199-200 

Zohary, Michael, 21:664 

mixed species, 14:385-387 

Oppenheimer, Hillel, 15:448 

Reichert, Israel, 17:199-200 

Russia 

Eig, Alexander, 6:253 

See also specific plants 

Botarel, Moses ben Isaac, 4:101, 
11:613 

Boteach, Shmuel, 4:101 

Botein, Bernard, 4:101-102 

Both Sides Now (Slonim), 18:678 

Boton, Abraham ben Judah di, 4:102 

Boton, Abraham ben Moses de, 4:102 

Boton, Hiyya Abraham ben Aaron di, 
4:102 

Boton, Jacob ben Abraham di, 4:102- 
103 

Boton, Meir ben Abraham di, 4:103 

Botosani (Romania), 4:103 



Botoshansky, Jacob, 4:103-104 

Botstein, Leon, 4:104 

Botswana, 6:371 

See also South Africa 

Botticelli, Sandro, 14:542 

Botvinnik, Mikhail, 4:104, 207 

Bouchara, Abraham, 4:104 

Bouchara, Isaac, 4:104 

Bouchara, Jacob Raphael, 4:104 

Bouchara family, 4:104-105 

Boudin, Jean-Francois, 4:105 

Boudreau, Lou, 4:105 

Bougie (Algeria), 4:105 

Bou-Hallais, 15:391 

Boulay (France), 4:105 

Boule, 4:105-106 

Les boulevards de ceinture (Modiano). 
See Circle Line Boulevards 
(Modiano) 

Boundaries, 1:474-476 

Boundary stones, moving, 8:448-450, 
12:473 

Bourassa, Henri, 4:397 

Bourel, Dominique, 11:325 

Bourg-en-Bresse (France), 4:106 

Bourgeois, Jean, 4:106 

Bourges (France), 4:106 

Bourke-White, Margaret, 4:106-107 

Bourla, Yehuda. See Burla, Yehuda 

Boussidan, Ya'akov, 4:372-373 

Bouwmeester, Louis Frederik 
Johannes, 4:107 

Bouzaglo, David, 4:107 

Bove-Bukh (Levita), 4:107-108, 15:651 

Bovo D'Antona, 4:23 

Bovshover, Joseph, 4:108, 18:370 

Bowling (tenpin), 17:483-484, 19:138 

Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI), 3:711 

Box (flora), 4:108 

Boxer, Barbara, 4:108 

Boxer, Oswald, 4:145 

Boxing, 3:52-53, 19:138-139 
Baer, Max, 3:52 
Berg, Jackie "Kid," 3:415-416 
Bimstein, Morris "Whitey," 3:702 
Brenner, Teddy, 4:162 
Davis, Al "Bummy," 5:479 
Fields, Jackie, 7:17-18 
Fleischer, Nathaniel Stanley, 7:74 
Hollandersky, Abraham, 9:322 
Leonard, Benny, 12:647 
Levinsky, Battling, 12:720 
Lewis, Ted, 12:767 
Luftspring, Sammy, 13:253 
Mendoza, Daniel, 14:45 
Newark (NJ), 6:512 



370 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Razon, Jacko, 17:130-131 

Rosenbloom, Max Everitt "Slapsie 
Maxie," 17:442 

Ross, Barney, 17:468-469 

Solomons, Jack, 18:773 
Boyar, Louis H., 4:108-109 
Boyarin, Daniel, 1:461, 4:109, 15:358 
Boyarin, Mordkhe. See Litvine, M. 
Boycotts 

anti- Jewish, 4:109-110, 9:328, 461 

anti-Nazi, 4:110-111, lilt 

Arab, 4:111-113 

movements, Bohemia, 4:41 

See also antisemitic political parties 
and organizations 

Boycott Sabbath, 5:61 

Der Boym fun Lebn (Rosenfarb), 4:427 

The Boys of Summer (Kahn), 11:724 

Boystk (Latvia). See Bauska (Latvia) 

Bozecco, Benjamin ben Judah, 4:1 13— 
114 

Bozrah (Israel), 4:115, 6:152, 8:260 

Bozrah (Bashan), 4:114, 114-115 

Bozrah (Edom), 4:115 

Bozrah (Trachonitis), 4:115 

Bozyk, Max, 4:115 

Bozyk, Rose, 4:115 

Bozzolo (Italy), 4:116 

Braak, Menno ter, 6:69 

Braatbard, Avraham Haim, 2:38 

Brabanel family. See Abrabanel family 

Brach, Saul, 4:116 

Brack, Viktor, 4:387 

Bradford (England), 4:116 

Bradlow, Henry, 3:769 

Brafman, Jacob, 4:116-117 

Bragadini, Alvise, 4:117, 15:641 

Bragadini, Giovanni, 4:117 

Bragadini family, 4:117 

Braganza (Portugal), 4:117 

Bragin, Abraham 

on Birobidzhan, 3:718 

Braham, John, 4:117 

Braham, Randolph Louis, 4:118 

Brahinsky, Mani Leib. See Mani Leib 

Brahm, Otto, 4:118 

Braila (Romania). See Braila 
(Romania) 

Braila (Romania), 4:118 

Braille, 3:754 

Brailov (Ukraine), 4:118-119 

Brailowsky, Alexander, 4:119 

"The Brain." See Rothstein, Arnold 

"Brain, The". See Rothstein, Arnold 

Brainin, Joseph, 4:119 

Brainin, Reuben, 4:119, 8:726 



Brampton, Edward. See Brampton, Sir 
Edward 

Brampton, Sir Edward, 4:120 

Bramson, Leon, 4:120 

Bramson, Leon (Leonty), 16:348 

Branche francaise de la Jewish Trust 
Corporation for Germany, 11:327 

Branco, Joao Rodrigues de Castelo. 
See Amatus Lusitanus 

Brand, Joel, 9:122 

Brand, Joel Jeno, 4:120-121 

Brandao, Edward. See Brampton, Sir 
Edward 

Brandao, Ambrosio Fernandes, 4:121, 
143 

Brandeau, Esther, 4:121 

Brandeis, Adolph, 4:121 

Brandeis, Frederika, 4:121, 122 

Brandeis, Jonas L., 15:415 

Brandeis, Louis Dembitz, 4:121-124, 
20:328, 21:606 

American Jewish Congress, 2:57 

Breslau, Isadore, 4:166 

Frankfuter, Felix, 7:205 

on Jewish Legion, 11:305 

labor movement and, 15:205 

U.S. Supreme Court, 12:556 

Brandeis, Pavel, 5:646 

Brandeis an der Elbe (Czech 

Republic). See Brandys nad Labem 
(Czech Republic) 

Brandeis-Bardin Institute, 4:124 

Brandeis Camp Institute, 3:148-149 

Brandeis University, 4:124-125 

American Jewish Historical 
Society, 2:58 

Fox, Marvin, 7:141 

Jewish studies at, 11:317, 319 

Levine, Baruch, 12:717 

Shapero, Harold, 18:397 

Brandenburg (Germany), 4:125-126 

Brandes, Carl Edvard, 4:126 

Brandes, Georg, 4:126-127, 7:38 

Brandes, Ludwig Israel, 4:127 

Brandes, Reuben Asher, 8:691 

Brandon, David Henry, 15:610 

Brandon, Edward. See Brampton, Sir 
Edward 

Brandon, Jacques-Emile-Edouard, 
2:505 

Brandon, Oheb Isaac, 4:127 

Brandstaedter, Mordecai David, 4:127 

Brandstaetter, Roman, 4:127-128 

Brandt, Boris, 4:128 

Brandt, Willy, 3:757, 4:128 

Brandwein, Yehuda Zevi, 4:128-129 

Brandys, Kazimierz, 4:129 



Brandys nad Labem (Czech Republic), 
4:129 

Brann, Marcus, 4:129, 14:433 

Brant, Henry Dreyfuss, 4:129-130 

Brant Shpigl (Altschul), 2:26 

Brasch, Rudolph, 4:130 

Brash, Henry, 7:87 

Brasil, Pais do futuro (Zweig), 17:338 

Braslav (Belarus), 4:130-131 

Braslav Hasidim, 8:425 

Braslavi, Joseph, 4:131 

Braslavski, Joseph. See Braslavi, Joseph 

Braslaw (Belarus). See Braslav 
(Belarus) 

Bra§ov (Romania), 4:131 

Brassavola, 2:34 

Brasso (Romania). See Bra§ov 
(Romania) 

Bratcher, Robert G., 3:619 

Bratislava (Slovakia), 4:131-134, U2t, 
18:682, 684 

Bratslav (Ukraine), 4:134 

Braude, Ernest Alexander, 4:134 

Braude, Jacob, 4:135 

Braude, Markus, 4:135 

Braude, Max A., 4:135 

Braude, Mordecau Ze'ev. See Braude, 
Markus 

Braude, Mordekhai Ze'ev. See Braude, 
Markus 

Braude, William Gordon, 4:135-136 

Braudes, Reuben Asher, 4:136 

Braudo, Alexander Isayevich, 4:137 

Braudo, Yevgeni Maximovich, 4:137 

Braun, Abraham, 4:137 

Braun, Adolf, 4:137 

Braun, Arie, 4:137 

Braun, Felix, 4:137-138 

Braun, Gyozo. See Barna, Victor 

Braun, Heinrich, 4:137 

Braun, Lily, 4:137 

Braun, Mieczyslaw, 4:138 

Braun, Sergei. See Braun, Abraham 

Braun, Yehezkiel, 4:138 

Brauner, Harry, 4:138-139 

Brauner, Isaac, 4:139 

Brauner, Victor, 4:139, 15:648 

Brauner, Wincenty. See Brauner, Isaac 

Braunschweig (Germany). See 
Brunswick (Germany) 

Braunstein, Menahem Mendel, 4:139- 
140 

Braunstein, Mieczyslaw. See Braun, 
Mieczyslaw 

Braunthal, Julius, 4:140, 16:341, 
18:705 

Braverman, Avishay, 4:140 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



371 



INDEX 



Braverman, Nahum, 13:202 

Brawer, Abraham Jacob, 4:140 

Brawer, Moshe, 4:140-141 

Bray-sur-Seine (France), 4:141 

Braz, Osip, 4:141 

Brazda, 7:25 

Brazer, Abram, 4:141-142 

Brazil, 4:142-154 

Aboab da Fonseca, Isaac, 1:269 

agricultural settlements in, 4:145- 
146 

agriculture, Jewish, 1:501 

Alvares Correa family, 2:27 

antisemitism, 4:148-150, 151, 
16:407, 18:31-32, 33 

anti-Zionist movement, 4:151 

architecture, 2:400, 12:657-658, 
692 

Bahia new Christians, 3:60-61 

Brandao, Ambrosio Fernandes, 
4:121, 143 

cemeteries, 18:31 

Colonial period, 4:142-143 

communism, 4:149 

community leaders, 6:735 

community life and social 
organization in, 4:146-148 

Crypto-Jews in, 4:143 

as Dutch colony, 4:144 

education, 4:148, 152, 18:32, 33 

education, Jewish, 6:212 

hospitals, 18:31 

immigration to, 11:287 

independence, 4:144-145 

Inquisition, 4:142, 143, 9:796-797 

interfaith relations, 4:151-152 

Jewish organizations, 18:31, 33-34 

Jewish settlement in, 2:41, 46, 
4:469, 470-471 

journalism, 11:469-470, 12:514, 
16:496 

Levi-Strauss, Claude, 12:730 

literature, 4:152 

Dines, Alberto, 5:670-671 

Rawet, Samuek, 17:124 

Scliar, Moacyr, 18:207 

migrations, 18:30, 31, 32 

modern period, 4:145-150, 12:436 

New Christians, 4:142-144 

Noronha, Fernao de, 15:301 

political participation of Jews in, 
4:148, 150-151, 153 

politics, 16:350 

population statistics, Jewish, 4:142, 
I46t, 153, 154 

as Portuguese colony, 4:142-144 



Portuguese translations of Bible, 
3:633 

post-WW II, 4:150-151 

relations with 

Israel (state), 4:153-154 

Sephardim, 18:31 

settlements, 4:142 

synagogues, 18:33 

terrorism in, 4:153 

twenty-first century, 4:152-153 

Tzvi Migdal traffic network, 
4:147-148 

universities, 18:33 

urban immigration, 4:146 

Vargas regime, 4:148-150 

Zionism, 18:32, 21:593-594 

Zionist movement, 4:148, 150-151 

Bread, 1:434, 4:154-155, 7:115, 8:277- 
278 

Hallah, 7:118 

Lodz ghetto, 9:470 

shewbread or showbread, 18:473- 
474 

See also Manna; Shewbread or 
showbread 

Bread and Salt (Bursztyn). See Broyt 
mit Zalts 

Bread of affliction. See Matzah 

Break Glass in Case of Fire. See 
Rompase en case de incendio 

Breaking New Ground (Levi), 12:693 

Breaking Point (Presser), 9:409 

Breaking Ranks (Podhoretz), 16:251 

The Breaks of the Game (Halberstam), 
8:265 

Breal, Michel, 4:155-156 

Breastplates, 4:156, 16:512, 20:52 

Brecher, Gideon, 4:156 

Brecher, Gustav, 4:156 

Brecker, Michael, 4:156 

Brecker, Randy, 4:156 

Brecker Brothers, 4:156 

Breclav (Czech Republic), 4:156-157 

Bredig, George, 4:157 

Bregstein, Marcel Henri, 4:157 

Bregstein, Philo, 4:157 

Breidenbach, Julius, 4:157 

Breidenbach, Moritz, 4:157 

Breidenbach, Wolf, 4:157, 15:386 

Breisach (Germany), 4:157 

Breitel, Charles, 4:157-158 

Breithaupt, Johann Friedrich, 4:158 

Breitner, Hugo, 4:158, 16:341, 18:705 

Breman Museum, 2:638 

Bremen (Germany), 4:158 

Brenendike Likht. See Burning Lights 



Brener, Pynchas, 4:158 

Brenner, Frederic, 4:158-159 

Brenner, Joseph Hayyim, 4:159-161, 
8:301, 696, 728, 13:254 

Brenner, Rose, 4:161 

Brenner, Sydney, 4:161-162, 13:9 

Brenner, Teddy, 4:162 

Brenner, Uri, 15:604 

Brenner, Victor, 4:162 

Brentano, Arthur, 4:162-163 

Brentano, August, 4:162 

Brentano, Lowell, 4:163 

Brentano, Simon, 4:162, 163 

Brentano family, 4:162-163 

Bresch, Judah Loeb ben Moses 
Naphtali, 4:163 

Bresch, Leo, 3:610 

Brescia (Italy), 4:163 

Breshis-Inmitn (Lutzky), 13:275 

Breslasu, Marcel, 4:163-164 

Breslau (Poland), 4:164-165, 7:200- 
201, 18:578-580 

Breslau, Aryeh Loeb ben Hayyim, 
4:165-166 

Breslau, Isadore, 2:47, 4:166 

Breslau, Joseph Moses ben David, 
4:166 

Breslaw, Joseph, 4:166-167 

Bresliska, Marcel. See Breslasu, Marcel 

Bresnitz-Lokschan (Czech Republic). 
See Breznice; Breznice (Czech 
Republic) 

Bresse (France), 4:167 

Bresselau, Meyer Israel, 4:167 

Bresslau, Ernst, 4:167 

Bresslau, Harry, 4:167-168 

Bresslau, Helena, 4:167 

Bressler, David Maurice, 4:168 

Brest Kuyavsk (Poland). See Brzesc 
Kujawski (Poland) 

Brest-Litovsk (Lithuania), 4:168-170, 
18:775 

Bretagne (France). See Brittany 
(France) 

Bretholz, Berthold, 4:170 

Brethren of Sincerity, Epistles of See 
Epistles of Brethren of Sincerity 

Breton, Andre, 4:139 

Breton language, biblical translations 
into, 3:637 

Breuer, Isaac, 4:171 

Breuer, Joseph (1842-1925), 4:171 

Breuer, Joseph (1882-1980), 4:171- 
172, 18:180 

Breuer, Marcel, 4:172 

Breuer, Mordechai, 4:172-173 

Breuer, Raphael, 4:173 



372 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 22 



INDEX 



Breuer, Solomon, 4:173 

Breuerer family, 4:79 

Breval, Lucienne, 4:174 

Breviaire de la haine (Poliakov), 
9:415-421 

Breyer, Julius, 4:174 

Breyer, Stephen Gerald, 4:174-175, 
12:556-557 

Breyter, Isaac, 16:349 

Brezin (Poland). See Brzeziny 
(Poland) 

Brezinka (Poland). See Birkenau 
concentration camp 

Breznice (Czech Republic),