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Full text of "The Vatican Council from its opening to its prorogation : official documents, diary, lists of bishops etc. etc. etc"

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THE 



VATICAN COUNCIL, 



FROM ITS 



OPENING TO ITS PROROGATION, 



OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS, DIARY, LISTS OF BISHOPS, 
&c., &c., &c. 



PART THE SECOND. 




''TABLET OFFICE," 27, WELLINGTON STREET, STRAND 
BURNS, GATES, AND Co., PORTMAN STREET. 



INDEX, 






Preface . . . . . I 

Allocution of Pope Pius IX on the 2nd of December, 1869 . 2 
Official Notice of the Opening of the Council . . 7 

Analysis of the Ordo Concilii CEcumenici . . 9 

Allocution of Pope Pius IX on the 8th December, 1869, the 
First Public Session .... 

Apostolic Letter Multiplies inter of Pope Pius IX of the 27th 
November, 1869 . . 

Preamble . . . . .21 

Chap. I. On the Manner of Life to be followed by 

those present at the Council . . 22 

Chap. II. On the Right to bring forward Questions 

and the manner of so doing . . 24 

Chap. III. On the Secrecy to be observed in the Council 25 
Chap. IV. On the Order of Sitting . . 26 

Chap. V. Of the Judges of Excuses and Complaints . 28 
Chap. VI. Of the Officers of the Council . . 29 

Chap. VII. Of the General Congregations of the Fathers 31 
Chap. VII. Of the Public Sessions . . -35 

Chap. IX. Of not Leaving the Council . . 37 

Chap. X. Apostolic Indult concerning Non-residence 
on the part of those who assist at the 
Council . . .- -37 

The Oath taken by the Officials of the Council . . 38 

Sermon of the Archbishop of Iconium on the 8th December, 1869 39 
Ordo Concilii CEcumenici . . . -54 

Petition of the Fathers for the Definition of the Doctrine of the 

Infallibility of the Roman Pontiff . . 65 

Postulatum of Italian Bishops in favour of the Definition . 75 

Petition of Bishops of the Franciscan order . . 77 

Petition of the Armenian Bishops for the Definition . . 78 

Testimony of Chaldean and other Oriental Bishops . . 78 

Memorial against the Definition. . . -83 

The Third Public Session of April 24th, 1870 . . 86 

Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith . -87 

Preamble . . . . - . 87 

Chap. I. Of God the Creator of all things . . 91 

Chap. II. Of Revelation . . .92 

Chap. III. Of Faith . ... .94 

Chap. IV. Of Faith and Reason. .. .98 

The Canons . . 101 

First Dogmatic Constitution of the Church of Christ, .published 

in the Fourth Session, July i8th, 1870 . ., . 106 

Preamble . . . . .106 

Chap. I. Of the Institution of the Appstoliq Primacy 

in Blessed Peter . . 108 

Chap. II. Of the Perpetuity of the Primacy of Blessed 

Peter in the Roman Pontiffs . .no 

Chap. III. On the Power and Nature of the Primacy of 

the Roman Pontiff . . . 1 1 1 

Chap. IV. Of the Infallible Teaching of the Roman 

Pontiff . . . . 115 



IV 



Decree of Pope Pius IX of Feb. 22, 1869, laying down Fourteen 

Rules for the Regulation of Discussions 

Officials of the Council . . . 

Commission De Postulatis appointed by the Supreme Pontiff 

December 10, 1869 . . 

Judges of Excuses and Complaints elected by the Council, repub- 

lished December 14 
Commission De Fide elected by the Council and published 

December 20, in the order of votes recorded for each 
Commission De Disciplina elected by the Council and published 

December 28, in the order of votes recorded for each 
Commission De Ordinibus Regularibus elected by the Council 

and published January 3, 1870, in the order of votes recorded 

for each ... . 

Commission De Missionibus elected by the Council and published 

January 19, 1870, in the order of votes recorded for each 
Diary of the Council ... . 

Brief History of the General Councils 
List of the Catholic Hierarchy throughout the woi'ld, showing 

the Bishops present during the Council 

' SYNOPSIS OF THE HIERARCHY. 
THE SOVEREIGN PONTIFF POPE Pius THE NINTH. 

Present Absent 



120 
125 

127 
128 
129 
130 



132 
134 

158 

175 







Sees 




Full 


Number. 


Occupied. 


The College of Cardinals 72 


5 2 




Patriarchs 


13 


12 




Austria 


3)c 2 


28) 




Hungary 


22 52 


19 


47 


Belgium 


6 


6 




England 


13) 


13) 




Ireland 




27 


43 


Scotland 


2 |44 


3 




France 


86 


83 




Prussia 


17 


15 




Bavaria 


8 


7 




Holland 


6 


6 




Greece 


8 


7 




Italy N. .. . 
States of the Church 


85 
63 


52 




Italy S. 


91 


67 




Sicily 


17 


10 




Malta. . . . 


2 


2 




Norway and Sweden 


I 


I 




Portugal 


17 


8 




Russia . . 


IS 


12 




Spain 
Switzerland 


55 
7 


49 
7 




Turkey .. . 


12 


10 




ASIA. 


Levant, &c. 


4 


4 




India . . , 


21 


21 




China, Japan, &c. . 


29 


27 






ORIENTAL 


RITES 




Armenian . . 


19 


H 




Greek . 








Greco-Rumenian , 


4 


3 





during the 
Council. 

49 
ii 

27 

13 

6 

II 

20 

78 
10 

6 
4 



40 



34 



4 



10 



from the 
Council. 

3 
i 
i 
6 
o 

2 

7 
o 

5 
5 

i 

2 
2 

4 
o 
6 

4 
o 

i 

6 

12 

9 

i 
o 

I 

6 
ii 







Present 


Absent 




Sees 


during the 


from the 


Full 
Greco-Ruthenian 


Number. Occupied. 

6 6 


Council. 
I 


Council. 

5 


Greco- Bulgarian 


I I 


I 


o 


Greek- Melchite 


14 II 


8 


3 


Syrian 


13 6 


5 


i 


Syro-Chaldean 


14 12 


10 


2 


Syro-Maronite 


9 7 


4 


3 


Coptic 


i i 


i 


o 




AFRICA. 









22 20 


15 


5 




AMERICA (NORTH). 






Northern Confederation 


23 22 


17 


5 


United States 


62 62 


49 


13 


Mexico 


18 18 


9 


9 


Central America 


19 II 


7 


4 




AMERICA (SOUTH). 






Granada, Venezuela, ) 
and Equador ) 


22 20 


ii 


9 


Bolivia and Peru 


12 12 


5 


7 


Brazil 


12 II 


6 


5 


Chili and Buenos Ayres 


IO IO 


6 


4 




AUSTRALIA. 






. 


II II 


8 


3 




NEW ZEALAND. 









3 3 


i 


2 




PHILIPPINE ISLES. 








c c 


i 


4 




J J 
OCEANICA. 






. . 


8 7 


4 


3 


IN 


PARTIBUS INFIDELIUM. 





129 129 


53 


76 




TOTAL. 








1169 1002 


744 


1 60 


Brief of His Holiness Pius IX Suspending the 


Council 


. 203 



ERRATA. 

P. 139, line 6 from bottom, read Gravez. Bishop, c. 
P. 139, line 5 from bottom, read Moreno, Bishop, &c. 
P. 139, line 4 from bottom, read Ghilardi, Bishop, &c. 
P. 145, line i from top, read Rivet, Bishop, &c. 
P. 145, line 2 from top, read Gignoux, Bishop, &c. 
P. 145, line 3 from top, read Cantimorri, Bishop, &c. 
P. 145, line 6 from top, read Martinez, Bishop, &c. 
P. 175, line 18 from bottom, dele comma after Peter. 
P. 179, line 17 from top, insert after 1853. 
P. 182, line 18 from top, read J. M. Becel, 1866*. 
P. 188, line 21 from bottom, read Lorenzo Studach, &c. 
P. 191, under China, insert as follows : 

Hai-non | Zefirino Guillemin j Cibistra j 1856* 
P. 192, line 19 from top, read Felix Ridel, 1869*. 
P. 193, line 21 from top, read Athanasius Tutungi, 1837 
P. 194, line 12 from top, read Joannes Hagg, 1861 . 



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CONSTITUTIONS 



AND 



OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS 



OF THE 



VATICAN COUNCIL. 



LAST year was published TJie Year of Prepara- 
tion for tJic Vatican Council, containing, in 
Latin and English, all the official documents 
connected with the Convocation of the General 
Council, as also the Encyclical Quanta Cnra and the 
Syllabus. It moreover contained a somewhat full 
and popular treatise upon the subject of Councils in 
general and of the Vatican Council in particular. 
The time has now arrived for giving to the English 
public the natural Sequel to that volume, that is, 
the CONSTITUTIONS and OFFICIAL DOCU- 
MENTS that have been issued during the Council 
down to the present date. 
July 28, 1870. 

B 



ALLOCUTION 

ADDRESSED IN A GENERAL CONGREGATION BEFORE 
THE FIRST SESSION OF THE VATICAN COUNCIL 
BY OUR MOST HOLY LORD Pius IX., BY DIVINE 
PROVIDENCE POPE, ON THE 2ND OF DECEMBER, 
1869, TO THE BISHOPS OF THE CATHOLIC WORLD 
ASSEMBLED IN ROME FOR THE SAID COUNCIL : 
* VENERABLE BRETHREN, 

ON the eye of the day on which we are to open 
the holy (Ecumenical Council, nothing has ap- 
peared to Us more seasonable, nothing could be more 
pleasing to Us, than to see you all met together around 
Us, Venerable Brethren, as We so much desired to 
see you, and to be able to speak to you with all the 
affection which fills Our inmost heart. For since the 
matter of which We have to treat is most important, 
namely, the discovery of remedies for so many ills 
which in these days disturb both Christian and civil 
society, We have deemed it worthy of Our Aposto- 
lical care and befitting the greatness of Our task that, 
before the transaction of the affairs of the Council 
begins, We should beg of God on your behalf, as a 
pledge of every grace, the aid of the Heavenly Bene- 
diction ; and We have judged it necessary to give you 
the rules, as set forth and published in Our Apostolical 
letters, which We have decided on establishing for the 
right and orderly transaction of everything in the 
proceedings of the Council. This it is, Venerable 

* VENERABILES FRATRES, 

Sacri CEcumenici Vaticani Concilii Conventus post paucos hinc dies 
auspicaturi, nihil opportunius Nobisque iucundius existimavimus, V V. FF. , 
quam ut Vos universes hodierno die iuxta Nostra hie desideria congre- 
gates alloqui, ac praecipuam caritatem, quam intiino corde aliinus, 
Vobis aperire possemus. Cum enim de re maxima agatur, qualis est 
ilia in qua de remediis comparandis agitur tot malis, quae Chnstianam 
et civilem societatem hoc tempore perturbant, putavimus Apostolica 
Nostra sollicitudine dignum esse, et tantae rei magnitudini consenta- 
neum, ut antequam Conciliarium rerum actio initium habeat, in omnis 
gratiae auspicium Vobis caelestis benedictionis opem a Deo clementis- 
simo precaremur ; ac necessarium censuimus, Vobis eas tradere normas, 
Apostolicis Nostris litteris consignatas atque editas, quas ad omnia in 
Conciliaribus actionibus rite et ordine agenda, constituendas esse iudi- 
cavimus. Hoc autem illud est, VV. FF., quod Deo et Immaculate 
Deipara votis Nostris annuente hodierno die in amplissimo hoc Vestro 
conventu peragimus ; nee satis verbis explicare possumus ingentem earn 
consolationem, quam Vestra haec exoptata, et debita Apostolicae vocis 
obsequio frequentia Nobis ingerit, cum Vos tandem ex omnibus Catho- 



Brethren, which, with the favour of God and of the 
Immaculate Mother of God upon Our wishes, \Ye are 
to-day carrying out in this your solemn assembly ; nor 
can We sufficiently express to you in Avords the great 
consolation -which this hoped-for readiness of your 
arrival in such numbers, in due obedience to the 
Apostolic voice, fills Our heart, since from all parts 
of the Catholic world We see you hastening to this 
city of Rome on account of the Council We have sum- 
moned, and feel that you are united to Us by the 
highest agreement of your souls together with an 
excellent devotion towards Us and towards the Apos- 
tolic See, and a wonderful ardour for the work of the 
kingdom of Christ, while the patient suffering of 
tribulations for the sake of Christ renders many of 
you most dear to Our heart. But, Venerable Brothers, 
this your union with Us is so much the more' pleasing 
to Us because in clinging thereto, we tread in the 
footsteps of the Apostles who have left Us brilliant 
examples of their unanimous and constant union with 
the Divine Master. For you have learnt from Holy 
Scripture that, when Christ Our Lord was going a 
journey through cities and towns in Palestine preach- 
ing and proclaiming the kingdom of God, all the 
Apostles with a like zeal kept close to His side, and 
as S. Luke says the twelve went faithfully with Him 
wherever He went. And this union of the Apostles 
was even more strikingly manifested at the time when 

lici Orbis partibus in hanc almam Urbem, indicti a Nobis Concilii 
causa convenisse, et sumina animorum consensione Nobiscum coniunc- 
tos aspiciamus : quos eximia erga Nos et Apostolicam Sedem devotio, 
mirificus ad navandam Christ! Regno operam ardor, et in pluribus 
etiam tribulationum pro Christo perpessio iure cfficit cordi Nostro car- 
issimos. Haec autem, VV. FF., haec Vestra Nobiscum coniunctio eo 
gratior Nobis accidit, quod in ea haerentes Apostolorum vestigiis insis- 
timus, qui suae unanimae et constantis cum divino Magistro coniunc- 
tionis luculenta Nobis exempla reliquemnt. Nostis enim ex sacris 
litteris, cum Christus Dominus Palaestinae rcgiones peragrans her 
faceret per civitates et castella, praedicans et evangelizans regnum Dei, 
Eius lateri Apostolos pari omnes studio adhaesisse, et duodecim cum 
Illo, uti Sanctus Lucas (Luc. viii. l) loquitur, fideliter quacunque iter 
haberet, esse vcrsatos. Atque haec Apostolorum coniunctio splendi- 
dius etiam enituit eo tempore, cum caelestis Magister docens in Caphar- 
naum, de divinae Eucharistiae mysterio coram Hebraeis fusiori sermone 
pertractavit : tune enim cum gens ilia carnalis et obtusioris sensus sibi 
de tantae caritatis opere persuadere non posset, atque ita Magistri per- 
taesam se ostendisset, ut multi discipulorum, loanne testante, abirent 



the Heavenly Master was teaching in Capharnaum, 
and spoke more in detail before the Hebrews of the 
mystery of the Divine Eucharist ; for when those 
people in their carnal and blunted senses could not 
believe in the work of so much love, and showed 
themselves so weary of the Master that as S. John 
testifies, many of the disciples went back and walked 
with him no more, yet the love of the Apostles re- 
mained steadfast in obedient veneration of the Master, 
and when Jesus asked the Apostles whether they also 
would go away, Peter being grieved uttered these 
words, " Lord, to whom shall we go ? " and added the 
reason why he had determined to follow the Lord with 
constant fidelity : " Thou hast the words of eternal 
life." Remembering these things, what ought We to 
think sweeter or more pleasant than this Our assembly ? 
What can We see more firm and stable ? Although 
united in the name of Christ, we shall certainly have 
contradictions and struggles to undergo, the enemy" 
will not be idle, for he desires nothing more than to 
sow cockles ; but We, being mindful of the Apostolic 
firmness and constancy which received from the Lord 
the reward of this praise, " You are they who have 
remained with Me in My trials," mindful also of Our 
Redeemer, who declared plainly, " He who is not with 
Me is against Me," we shall have in like manner to 
be mindful of Our office, and with all zeal to take care 
to follow Christ with unshaken faith and firmness, and 

retro et (loann. vi. 67) non cum Illo ambularent, Apostolorum tamen 
amor in Magistri veneratione et obsequio immotus perstitit, et lesu 
Apostolos percunctante num et ipsi vellent abire, graviter id ferens Pe- 
trus in eas voces erupit : "Domine ad quem ibimus?" Ac rationem 
adiecit quare Dominum constant! fide sequi velle statueret : " Verba 
vitae aeternae habes." Haec nos animo recolentes, quid dulcius aut 
iucundius hac nostra coniunctione reputare, quid porro etiam firmius ac 
stabilius tueri debeamus? Non deerunt certe Nobis, una licet in 
Christi nomine coniunctis, non deerunt contradictiones ac dimicationes 
subeundae, nee inimicus homo segnis erit, nil magis cupiens quam 
superseminare zizania ; at Nos memores Apostolicae firmitudinis et 
constantiae, quae Domini praeconio laudari meruit : "Vos estis qui 
permansistis mecum in tentationibus meis " (Luc. xxii. 28), memores 
Redemptorts Nostri diserte denunciantis : " Qui mecum non est contra 
me est, " officii pariter Nostri memores esse debebimus, omnique studio 
curare, ut inconcussa fide ac firmitate Christum sequamur, Illique omni 
tempore concordibus animis adhaeremus. In ea enim, VV. FF., con- 
ditione constituti sumus, ut in acie adversus multiplices eosdemque 
acerrimos hostes, diutuma iam contentions verscmur. Utamur oportct 



5 

to remain attached to Him always with minds of one 
accord. For the position We, Venerable Brethren, 
are placed in, is that We have to struggle with daily 
efforts in battle array against numerous and most 
fierce enemies. We must, therefore, employ the 
Spiritual arms of Our warfare, and bear the whole 
strength of the battle, relying both on the Divine 
authority and using the shield of charity, of patience, 
of prayer, and of constancy. But there is no fear lest 
We fail in this contest, if We are determined to fix Our 
eyes and Our minds upon the author and finisher of 
Our faith. For if the Apostles derived sufficient 
courage and strength to bear bravely all adversity by 
fixing their eyes and their thoughts upon Christ, We 
also looking upon Him in the saving pledge of Our 
Redemption, We shall find in the Divine virtue of 
this sight such strength and power that We shall 
overcome the slanders, the insults, and the de- 
vices of Our enemies, and We shall draw with 
joy from the Cross of Christ salvation for Our- 
selves and also for many unhappy wanderers from 
the way of truth. But it is not enough to look upon 
Our Redeemer ; We must also put on such teachable- 
ness of mind that We may readily listen to Him with 
all Our hearts. This it is indeed which the Heavenly 
Father Himself ordered by the authority of His Ma- 
jesty, when Christ the Lord revealed His glory in the 
high mountain before chosen witnesses, and He said : 

spiritualibus militiae Nostrae armis, totamque certaminis vim, turn 
divina innixi auctoritate, turn caritatis, patientiae, precationis et con- 
stantiae clypeo sustineamus. Nihil autem metus est ne vires nobis in 
hac dimicatione deficiant, si in Auctorem et Consummatorem Fidei nos- 
trae, oculos animosque coniicere voluerimus. Si enim Apostoli oculis 
et cogitatione in Christo lesu defixi satis ex hoc animi viriumque sump- 
serunt, ut adversa quaeque strenue perferrent, Nos pariter Ipsum ad- 
spicientes in salutari pignore Redemptionis nostrae, ex hoc aspectu, 
unde divina manat virtus, Nos earn vim roburque inveniemus, quo ca- 
lumnias, iniurias, inimicorum artes superemus, ac salutem Nobis, totque 
etiam miseris a via veritatis errantibus ex Christi Cruce haurire laeta- 
bimur. Neque vero Redemptorem Nostrum respicere contend, earn 
quoque mentis docilitatem induamus necesse est, ut Eidem libcntcr toto 
cordis affectu audientes simus. Hoc est enim quod ipse Pater caelestis 
Maiestatis suae auctoritate praecepit, cum revelante Christo Domino 
gloriam suam in monte praecelso coram electis testibus : " Hie est, 
inquit, Filius meus dilectus in quo mihi bene complacui, Ipsum audite. " 
lesum igitur prono mentis obsequio audiamus utique in omni re, at in 
ea praecipue quam Ipse ita cordi habuit, ut praenoscens difficultates 



6 

"This is my beloved Sun in whom I am well pleased, hear 
ye Him ;" therefore We must with humble obedience 
of the mind listen to Jesus in everything, and espe- 
cially in that which He had Himself so much at heart, 
when, foreseeing the difficulties which would befall 
His disciples, He did not fail ardently and repeatedly 
to pray to His Father in the Last Supper, " Holy 
Father, preserve in Thy name those whom Thou hast 
given to Me, so that they may be one, even as We 
are one." Therefore let one soul with one heart be in 
all. Truly, We cannot have a greater consolation than 
if We continually yield the obedient hearing of the 
heart to the teachings of Christ ; for thereby We shall 
know that We are with Christ, and We shall find in 
Ourselves an evident pledge of eternal salvation, for 
he who is of God heareth God's words. 

May the Almighty and Merciful God, with His 
powerful help, through the intercession of the Imma- 
culate Mother of God, confirm these words of Pontifical 
exhortation which We have drawn from the bottom 
of Our heart, and may He graciously cause them to 
bring forth plenteous fruits. Lastly, may He turn 
His face upon You, Venerable Brethren, and fill both 
your bodies and your souls with the favour of His 
blessing ; your bodies, indeed, so that you may have 
strength to bear, diligently and readily, all those 
labours from which your sacred functions cannot be 
free ; your souls, in order that you may be filled with 

quibus ipsa obnoxia futura esset in mundo, de ilia ipsa Patrem suum 
obsecrare in novissima Caena effusis iteratisque votis non omiserit : 
" Pater Sancte, serva eos in nomine tuo quos dedisti mihi, utsint unum 
sicut et nos. " (loann. xvii. II.) Una itaque anima cum uno corde in 
Christo lesu sit cunctis. Non aliud sane Nobis maiori consolationi 
futumm est quam si obsequentem Christi monitis aurem cordis iugiter 
praebuerimus, quo pacto et Nos esse cum Christo agnoscemus, et per- 
spicuuni aeternae salutis pignus iaesse reperiemus in Nobis : " Qui 
enihi ex Deo est, verba Dei audit." (loann. viii. 47.) 

Has Pontificiae Nostrae cohortationis voces ex intimo corde de- 
promptas, Omnipotens et Misericors Deus, Deipara Immaculata depre- 
cante, potenti sua ope confirmet, efficiatque propitius, ut uberibus 
fructibus augearitur. Convertat delude faciem suam ad Vos, VV. FF., 
ac turn corpora turn animos Vestros benedictionis suae gratis prose- 
quatur : corpora nempe, ut labores omnes, qui a- Vestro sacro minis- 
terio abesse non possunt, strenue alacriterque ferre valeatis ; animos 
vero, ut caelestibus auxiliis abunde repleti, sacerdotalis vitae exemplis 
et virtutum omnium splendore in Christiani Gregis salutem praeluceatis. 
Huius autern benedictionis gratia Vobis continenter adsit, atque omni- 



heavenly assistance, and may excel in examples of 
priestly life and in the splendour of all virtues for the 
salvation of the Christian flock. And may the grace 
of this blessing be with you continually, and merci- 
fully inspire all the days of your life, so that your 
days may be found full full of holiness and of justice, 
full of the fruits of holy works in which Our true riches 
and glory consist. Thus also may it happily be Our 
lot that, when the course of Our mortal pilgrimage is 
completed, we may not fear on that last day of life to 
say with the Prophet King, " I rejoiced in this which 
was said to me, we will go to the house of the Lord," 
and that we may surely trust to find the way open to 
Us to the holy mountain of Sion, to the Heavenly 
Jerusalem. 



OFFICIAL NOTICE SERVED TO THE 

BISHOPS FOR THE CEREMONIAL OF THE 

OPENING OF THE COUNCIL. 

ON the fourth day of the week, the 8th of De- 
cember of the year 1869, the Feast of the 
Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, at half-past 8 a.m., the celebration of the 
GEcumenical Vatican Council will be solemnly begun 
with devout prayer in the chapel over the portico of 
the Basilica of S. Peter. 

At the appointed hour all will meet at the Aposto- 
lic Vatican Palace. 

The most Eminent and most Rev. Lords the Car- 
dinals, and the most Rev. Lords the Patriarchs will 
vest in the A nla Paramentonun : the most Rev. 
Lords the Primates, Archbishops, Bishops, and 
Abbots who have place in the Council by privilege, 
both of the Latin and Oriental rites, will assume the 
vestments proper to their order and rite in the 

bus vitae Vestrae diebus clementer adspiret, ut dies pleni inveniatur in 
Vobis, pleni sanctitatis et iustitiae, pleni sanctorum operum fructibus, 
in quibus verae nobis divitiae et gloria continetur. Atque ita Nobis 
continget feliciter, ut expleto mortalis peregrinationis cursu, in novis- 
simo illo vitae die dicere cum Propheta Rege non vereamur : " Laeta- 
tus sum in his quae dicta sunt mihi, in domum Domini ibimus "; atque 
aditum Nobis patere plane confidamus in Montem sanctum Sion, caeles* 
tern Hierusalem. 



8 

Musczum lapidariuni ; viz., those of the Latin rite, 
white vestments and mitres of linen ; Cardinals, 
mitres of silk ; those of the Oriental rites will wear 
their usual vestments : all will then immediately pro- 
ceed to the chapel over the portico of the Basilica of 
S. Peter to await the coming of our Most Holy Lord 
Pope Pius the Ninth. 

The senior of the Cardinal Priests, the two Cardinal 
Deacons who assist the Pope, the Cardinal Deacon 
appointed to sing the Gospel at the opening of the 
Council, the two Bishops assisting the Supreme Pon- 
tiff with the Book and Candle, the Apostolic Sub- 
deacon Auditor of the Rota, will also put on white 
vestments in the Pauline Chapel, the Cardinal Priest 
excepted, who will put on a cope ; and all will await 
His Holiness, together with two Proto-Notaries 
Apostolic in cappas, and the acolytes. 

The Supreme Pontiff having vested and put on the 
mitra pretiosa, or precious mitre, will go to the before- 
mentioned chapel ; and after the first verse of the 
hymn Veni Creator Spiritus has been sung, a pro- 
cession, with prayers, will be begun and finished in 
the manner prescribed in the Ordo and Methodus 
celebrandi Concilium. 

The most Holy Father on entering the Basilica will 
descend from the Sella Gcstatoria '(or platform on 
which he has been carried), and after adoring the 
most august Sacrament exposed at the High Altar, 
at the end of the hymn Veni Creator Spiritus will 
sing the versicles and prayers, and will then go to 
the Hall of the Council, and the Mass of the Imma- 
culate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, with 
the prayer of the Holy Ghost, will be celebrated by 
the Most Eminent and Rev. Cardinal Dean of the 
Sacred College. 

When the prayer Placeat has been said by the Car- 
dinal Celebrant at the end of the Mass, the Most Rev. 
Lord Archbishop the Preacher, after asking for an 
Indulgence from the Supreme Pontiff, will address the 
Fathers from a pulpit, and will then publish the In- 
dulgence. 

The Supreme Pontiff having given the Benediction, 
will put off the cope, and will put on all the sacred 



vestments, just as if he were going to celebrate a 
solemn Pontifical Mass. 

Then, after the performance of the usual homage, 
the prayers of the Council will be begun, and after 
the versicle Benedicamus Domino all and every who 
have not the right of being present at the Session of 
the Council will go out of the Hall, and the doors will 
be shut. 

ALOISIUS FERRARI, Proto-Notary Apostolic, 
Prefect of Ceremonies. 



ANALYSIS OF THE ORDO CONCILII 
CECUMENICI. 

r I A HE above directions are more fully set forth in 
the following analysis of the Ordo Concilii 
CEcumenici, published by the Rev. Apostolic 
Chamber, Rome, 1869. 

The Cardinals, Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, 
Bishops, and Abbots meet at half-past 8 o'clock, a.m., 
in the chapel over the portico of the Vatican Basilica. 

The Supreme Pontiff will then go to the same 
chapel and intone the first verse of the Veni Creator 
Spiritus. 

A procession will then be made to the high altar of 
S. Peter's, where the Most Blessed Sacrament will be 
exposed. 

The singers and prelates of the household will go 
first, then the Thuriferarius : the Cross will then be 
carried by the Apostolic sub-deacon between two 
acolytes, after it will go in order of consecration, the 
abbots, bishops, archbishops, primates, and patriarchs 
(those of the Latin Rite in simple linen mitre), the 
cardinals in silk-damask mitre, the Senator and Con- 
servators of the City, the Vice-Chamberlain of the 
Holy Roman Church, the Prince of the Pontifical 
Throne, and last of all the Supreme Pontiff in precious 
mitre borne on the Sella Gcstatoria or throne under a 
canopy with fans carried by the chamberlains and 
with his customary suite. 

The last verse of the Veni Creator Spiritus will be 



10 

sung when the Supreme Pontiff reaches the high 
altar : he will then kneel and say : 
V. O God our defender look down. 

R. And behold the face of Thine anointed. 

V. Send forth Thy Spirit and tJiey shall be created. 

R. And Thou shalt renew the face of the earth. 

V. Scud us, O Lord, help front the holy place. 

R. And strengthen us from Sion. 

V. Pray for us O Holy Immaculate Mother of God. 

R. That we may be made worthy of the promises 
of Christ. 

V. O Lord I tear my prayer. 

R. And let my cry come unto Thee. 

V. The Lord be with you. (Rising.) 

R. And with Thy Spirit. 

He will then say the prayer of the Blessed Sacrament, 
of the Holy Ghost, of the Saints, and the Help of 
God. 

Deus, qui nobis sub Sacramento mirabili, 

Deus, qui corda fidclium, 

Deus, refugium nostrum et virtus, 

Actiones nostras qucssmnus, D online, aspirando prcz- 
veni. 

The procession will then go to the Hall of the 
Council, prepared in the right-hand transept of S. 
Peter's, and when all are in their places, his Holiness 
will begin the Mass together with the Most Eminent 
and Rev. Cardinal Dean of the Sacred College. 

The Mass will then proceed as usual to the end ; 
the Bishop who is to preach will then approach the 
Pontifical Throne carrying his mitre in his hand, and 
after kissing the right knee of the Pontiff, will ask for 
the Indulgence, and then address the Fathers. At 
the end of the discourse he will publish the Indul- 
gence. 

His Holiness will then put on all the sacred vest- 
ments as if he were about to celebrate Solemn Ponti- 
fical Mass ; all the Fathers of the Council will then 
pay the usual homage, carrying their mitres in their 
hands ; the cardinals kissing the hand, the patriarchs, 
archbishops, and bishops the right knee, the abbots 
the foot of the Pontiff. 

His Holiness will then say the prayers Adsumus, 



II 

Dominc Sanctc Sfiritits, and Mcntes nostras quasumus 
D online. 

The Litany of the Saints will then be sung, the 
Pontiff rising and blessing the Synod three times. 

V. Ut Jianc sanctani Synodum et omnes gradus ecclc- 
siasticos bencdiccrc digncris. 

R. Te rogamus, audi nos. 

V. Ut Jianc sanctam Synodum et omnes gradus eccle- 
siasticos benedicere et rcgcrc, dig tier is. 

R. Te rogamus, audi nos. 

V. Ut lianc sanctam Synodum et omnes gradus eccle- 
siasticos benedicere, regere, et conservare digneris. 

R. Te rogamus, audi nos. 

The Gospel of the Council will then be sung after 
incense has been blessed by the Supreme Pontiff. He 
will then address the Fathers of the Council and ex- 
hort them to make fitting decrees, and will afterwards 
intone again the Vcni Creator Spiritus, kneeling. 

The Prefect of Ceremonies will then say in a loud 
voice : 

" Exeant omnes locum nou Jiabentes in Concilia:" 
" Let all who have no place in the Council depart." 

Then, at the direction of the Most Holy Father, the 
decrees will be read aloud from a pulpit, and the 
Fathers will be asked whether they vote for them or 
not (rogabuntur Patres an ea placeant) : and the Scru- 
tators will immediately proceed to receive the votes, 
which will be given by the Fathers in the words pla- 
cent or NON PLACENT. The Most Eminent and Rev. 
Cardinals, the Most Rev. Patriarchs, Primates, Arch- 
bishops, and Bishops will vote, sitting with their mitres 
on, in order of dignity and consecration : Abbots and 
Generals of Congregations and Regular Orders will 
vote standing with head uncovered and genuflecting 
to the Supreme Pontiff. The Scrutators, after collect- 
ing the votes, will carefully divide and count them at 
the Pontifical Throne, and will give an account of 
them to the Supreme Pontiff, who will declare his su- 
preme judgment (qui suprcmam suam scntentiam 
cdicet), and order them to publish it in this solemn 
formula : Decrcta modo lecta placucruut omnibus Pati i- 
bus ncmine disscnticntc (vel si qui forte dissenserint), 
totnumero exceptis, Nosque sacro approbante Concilio 



12 

ilia ita discernimus statuimus atque sancimus ut lecta 
sunt : " The decrees just now read have been voted 
for by all the Fathers without any dissentient (or if 
any have voted against them), so many in number ex- 
cepted, and We, with the consent of the Holy Coun- 
cil, accordingly enact, establish, and decree them as 
they have been read." 

When this has been done, it will be the duty of the 
Promoters of the Council to bid the Proto-Notaries 
Apostolic to make one or more instrument or instru- 
ments of all and everything transacted in the Session 
with the proper witnesses. 

The day and hour of the next Session having been 
then published, at the command of the Supreme Pon- 
tiff, he himself without mitre will then intone the Te 
Deum y and at the end say the prayer Dens cujus misc- 
ricordicB nou est numcnts. He will then, with the 
assistance of the Cardinal Deacon who sung the Gos- 
pel, put off the sacred vestments, and after a short 
prayer in silence will rise, bless the Synod, and depart. 
The order of the subsequent Session will be the 
same, except (i) there will be no procession ; (2), a 
low Mass of the Holy Ghost will be said according to 
the rubric, without sermon or homage to the Supreme 
Pontiff. 

The order of the procession from the chapel over 
the portico of S. Peter's to the high altar of the 
Basilica and thence to the Hall of the Council will 
be as follows : 

Two Chamberlains of the class " extra urbem." 

Two Chaplains de numero participantiinn. 

Two Advocates of the Consistory. 

Two Promoters of the Council. 

Two Honorary Chamberlains. 

Two Privy Chamberlains. 

The Cantors. 

Two Notaries. 

Two Scrutators of Votes. 

The Writers of the Signet. 

The Clerks of the Apostolic Chamber. 

The Auditors of the Rota. 

The Master Sacri Hospitii. 

A Chaplain with the usual tiara of the Supreme Pontiff. 



13 

A Chaplain with the simple mitre of the Supreme 

Pontiff. 

A Writer of the Signet with the thurible. 

The Apostolic Subdeacon with the Papal Cross, 

between two Writers of the Signet as acolytes 

with candles. 

Abbots who are Generals of Orders. 
Abbots of ordinary jurisdiction. 

Bishops. 

Archbishops. 

Primates. 

Patriarchs. 

Cardinal Deacons. 

Cardinal Priests. 

Cardinal Bishops. 

The Senator and Conservators of the City. 
The Vice-Chamberlain and Prince of the Pontifical 

Throne. 

Two Proto-Notaries. 
A Cardinal Deacon, to sing the Gospel of the Council, 

between Two Assistant Cardinal Deacons. 
Two Masters of the Ceremonies assisting the Pope. 

THE SUPREME PONTIFF, 
On a Throne, under a Canopy, carried by the 

Refcrcndarii Signaturce. 

Two Chamberlains with \hzflabell(Z. 

The Dean of the Rota, as Minister of the Mitre, 

between Two Chamberlains. 
Mace-bearers, walking at the side of the Supreme 

Pontiff. 

Eight Cantors. 

The Auditor and Treasurer of the Camera Apostolica. 

Four Proto-Notaries dc nuinero participantium. 

The Generals and Vicar-Generals of Regular 

Congregations. 
The Generals and Vicar-Generals of Orders or 

Monastic Congregations. 
The Generals and Vicar-Generals of the Mendicant 

Orders. 

The Officials of the Council. 
Two Assistant-Secretaries. 

Two Notaries-Assistant. 
The Short-hand Writers of the Council. 



ALLOCUTION 

PRONOUNCED IN THE VATICAN BASILICA AT THE 
OPENING OF THE HOLY OECUMENICAL COUNCIL 
BY OUR MOST HOLY LORD POPE Pius BY DIVINE 
PROVIDENCE THE NINTH, ON THE EIGHTH DAY 
OF DECEMBER, 1869. 

TO THE BISHOPS OF THE CATHOLIC WORLD IN 

THE SAME COUNCIL ASSEMBLED. 

* VENERABLE BRETHREN, 

WHAT by all Our vows and prayers We have 
been continually begging of God, that, 
namely, We should be enabled to celebrate 
with you the CEcumenical Council which We had 
summoned ; this has by the marked and singular 
goodness of God Himself been granted to Us, and 
fills Us with the utmost joy. Wherefore Our heart 
exults in the Lord, and is filled with unspeakable 
consolation, for that on this most auspicious day, 
hallowed by the memory of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion of the Virgin Mary Mother of God, We again see 
you before Us in greater numbers than heretofore, 
present in this stronghold of the Catholic Religion ; 
and We are gladdened by the sight of you who are 
called to bear a part of Our solicitude. 

You are here, Venerable Brethren, gathered to- 

* VF.NERABILES FRATRF.S, - 

Quod votis omnibus ac precibus ab Deo petebamus, ut Oecumenicum 
Concilium a Nobis indicium concelebrare possemns, id insigni ac 
singular! Dei ipsius beneficio, datum Nobis esse summopere laetamur. 
Itaque exultat cor Nostrum in Domino et incredibili consolatione per- 
funditur, quod auspicatissimo hoc die Immaculatae Dei Genitricis Yer- 
ginis Mariae Conception! sacro, Vos qui in partem sollicitudinis Nostrac 
vocati estis, iterum maiori quam alias frequentia, inlvac catholicae Reli- 
gionis arce praesentes intuemur, aspectuque Ycstro perfruimur iucun- 
dissimo. 

Yos autem nunc, Yenerabiles Fratres, in nomine -Christi congregati 
(Matth. 18, 20), adestis, ut Nobiscum testimonium perhibsatis Verb-.) 
Dei et testimonium lesu Christi (Apoc. I, 2,) viamque Dei in veritate 
omnes homines Nobiscum doceatis (Matth. 22, 16, ) et de oppositionibus 
falsi nominis scientiae (i Tim. 6,20,) Nobiscum Spiritu Sancto duce 
iudicetis (Act. Apost. 15, 19). 

Si enim unquam alias, hoc maxime tempore, quo vere luxit et defluxit 
terra infecta ab habitatoribus suis (Isai. 24, 4, 5,) divinae gloriae zelus, 



15 

gether in the name of Christ (Matt, xviii. 20) that 
with Us you may give testimony to the Word of 
God and the testimony of Jesus Christ (Apoc. i. 2) ; 
and that with Us you may teach all men the way of 
God in truth (Matt. xxii. 16) ; and that under the 
guidance of the Holy Spirit you may judge (Act. x. 
5, 19) with Us of the oppositions of knowledge falsely 
so called (i Tim. vi. 20). 

For at this time more than ever, now that the earth 
has mourned and faded away, infected by the inhabi- 
tants thereof (Isai. xxiv. 4, 5), zeal for the glory of 
God and the safety of the Lord's flock, requires of us 
to surround Sion, and to encompass her : and to tell 
her towers, and to set Our hearts in her strength. 
(Psalm xlvii. 13, 14.) 

For you see, Venerable Brethren, with what fury 
the old enemy of mankind has attacked and still con- 
tinues to attack the House of the Lord which holiness 
becometh. 

To him is due that disastrous conspiracy of the 
impious so widely spread, which strong in union, 
powerful in resources, fenced round with ordinances, 
and making liberty a cloak for malice (i Peter ii. 16), 
ceases not to wage a cruel war, disgraced by every 
atrocity, against the Holy Church of Christ. You 
know well the nature of this war, its fierceness, its 
weapons, its successes, and its purposes. You have 
ever present before you, how those sound doctrines on 
which rest human society, in its various ranks, arc 

et Dominici gregis salus a Nobis postulat, ut circumdemus Sion et com- 
plectamur earn, nan-emus in turribus eius, et ponamus corda Nostra in 
virtute eius (Psalm 47, 13, 14). 

Videtis enim, Venerabiles Fratres, quanto impetu antiquus humani ge- 
neris hostis Domum Dei, quam decet sanctitudo, aggressus sit et usque ag- 
grediatur. Eoauctorefunestaillaimpiorumconiuratio late grassatur, quae 
coniunctione fords, opibus potens, munita institutis, et velamen habcns 
malitiae libertatem (i Pet. 2, 16), acerrimum ad versus Sanctam Christi 
Ecclesiam belhun, omni scelere imbutum urgere non desinit. Hums 
belli genus, vim, arma, progressus, consilia non ignoratis. Versatur 
Vobis continenter ante oculos sanarum doctrinarmn, quibus humanae 
res in suis quaeque ordinibus innituntur, perturbatio et confusio, luc- 
tuosa iuris cuiusque perversio, multiplices mentiendi audacter ct cor- 
rumpendi artes, quibus iustitiae honestatis et auctoritatis salutaria vin- 
cula solvuntur, pessimae quaeque cupiditates inflammantur, Christiana 
Fides ab animis funditus convellitur, ita ut certum hoc tempore Ecclc- 
sia Dei metuendum esset exitium, si ullis hominum machinationibus et 
conatibus exscindi posset. At nihil Ecclesia potentius, inquieba' ync- 



i6 

disordered and obscured : how deplorably all the rules 
of right are turned to wrong ; how manifold are the 
forms employed of falsehood and corruption, while 
the saving bonds of justice, honour, and authority are 
loosened ; the vilest passions are inflamed, and the 
Christian faith is uprooted from the souls of men ; so 
that if any schemes and endeavours of the wicked 
could avail for the destruction of the Church of God, 
we might at this very time fear her approaching 
downfall. "But nothing is more powerful than the 
Church " they are the words of S. Chrysostom 
" the Church is stronger than Heaven itself. * Heaven 
and earth shall pass away ; but My words shall not 
pass away/ What words are these ? ' Thou art 
Peter, and upon this rock I will build My Church : 
and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.' " 
(Homil. ante Exil. n. I.) 

And although the City of the Lord of Hosts, the 
City of our God, rests on a foundation that shall never 
be overthrown ; yet when We see, and in Our inmost 
heart grieve over, so vast an accumulation of ills, and 
the ruin of so many souls, to avert which We would 
willingly lay down Our life ; as We exercise on earth 
the office of the Eternal Pastor, and therefore must 
needs be more inflamed than others with zeal for the 
House of God : We deemed ourselves bound to adopt 
that course which offered most hope of healing the 
many wounds of the Church. And often turning in Our 
mind that word of the Prophet Isaias, " Take counsel, 

ins Joannes Chrysostomus : Ecclesia est ipso caelo fortior. Caelum et 
terra transibunt ; verba autem mea non transibunt. Quae verba ? Tu 
es Petrus, et super hanc Petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam, et portae 
inferi non praevalebunt adversus earn (Homil. ante exil. n. i). 

Quamquam vero Civitas Domini virtu turn, Civitas Dei Nostri inex- 
pugnabili fundamento nitatur, tamen agnoscentes ac intimo corde dolen- 
tes tantam malorum congeriem animanimque ruinam, ad quam averten- 
dam vel vitam ponere parati essemus. Nos qui aeterni Pastoris Vicaria 
in Terris procuratione fungentes, zelo domus Dei prae caeteris incen- 
damur necesse est, earn viam et rationem incundam Nobis esse duxi- 
mus, quae ad toe Ecclesiae detrimenta sarcienda utilior et opportunior 
videretur. Ac illud Isaiae saepe animo revolventes : " Ini consilium, 
coge concilium," et reputantes huius modi remedium in gravissimis rei 
christianae temporibus a Praedecessoribus Nostris salutariter esse usur- 
patum, post diuturnas preces, post collata cum Venerabilibus Fratribus 
Nostris Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalibus consilia, post expetita 
etiam plurium Sacrorum Antistitum suffragia, Vos, Venerabiles Fratres, 
qui estis sal terrae, Custodes Dominici Gregis et Pastores, apud hanc 



17 

gather a council ; " and considering that this remedy 
had often been successfully employed by Our prede- 
cessors in the utmost extremity of the Christian 
Church : after long-continued prayers ; after hearing 
the counsel of our Venerable Brethren the Cardinals 
of the Holy Roman Church, and after learning the 
desires of many holy Bishops : We have thought right 
to summon you, Venerable Brethren, who are the salt 
of the earth, the guardians and pastors of the flock of 
the Lord, to assemble at this See of Peter ; and on this 
day, through the gracious providence of God, Who has 
removed all that might hinder Our great undertaking, 
We celebrate with the ancient solemn rites the open- 
ing of our holy Congregation. So various and so 
abundant is the feeling of love, Venerable Brethren, 
which We experience at this time, that We are unable 
to retain it in Our breast. For seeing you, We imagine 
that We behold the whole Catholic family, Our own 
most dear children, gathered around Us. We think of 
the many pledges of love, of the many outbursts of 
fervent hearts by which, at your suggestion, under 
your guidance, and by your example, Our children 
have shown and continue to show, such admirable 
respect and affection for Us and for this Apostolic 
See ; and full of this thought We cannot in this most 
honourable assembly, wherein you are gathered toge- 
ther, refrain from a solemn and public profession of 
Our great gratitude to them all ; and We most 
earnestly beseech God that the trial of their faith, 

Petri Cathedram censuimus evocandos ; atque hodie, divina benignitate 
favente, quae tantae rei impedimenta sustulit, sanctae Congregationis 
initia, solemnt maiorum ritu celebramus. Tot autem sunt, tamque 
uberes caritatis sensus, quibus hoc tempore amcimur, Venerabiles 
Fratres, ut eos in sinu coritinere non valeamus. Videmur enim in 
Vestro Conspectu universam Catholicae geatis familiam, carissimos 
Nobis Filios praesentes intueri : cogitamus tot amoris pignora, tot fer- 
ventis animi opera, quibus Vestro impulsu, ductu et exemplo suam pie- 
tatem et observantiam Nobis et huic Apostolicae Sedi mirifice proba- 
runt, ac porro probant ; atque hac cogitatione Nobis temperare non 
possumus, quin in vestro amplissimo coetu, Nostram erga eos omnes 
gratissimam voluntatem, solemni et publica significatione profitentes, 
Deum enixe adprecemur, ut probatio eorum fidei multo pretiosior auro, 
inveniatur in laudem et gloriam et honorem, in revelatione lesu Christi 
(l Petr. i. 7.) Miseram delude etiam tot hominum conditionem cogi- 
tamus, qui a via veritatis et iustitiae, ideoque verae felicitatis decepti 
aberrant, eorumque saluti opem afferre desiderio desideramus, memores 
Divini Redemptoris et Magistri Nostri lesu, qui venit quaerere, et sal- 

C 



i8 

much more precious than gold, may be found unto 
praise and glory and honour at the appearing of Jesus 
Christ (i Peter ix. 7). We think also of the wretched 
fate of so many men, who are led astray and wander 
far from the way of truth and justice, and therefore of 
true happiness ; and with desire We desire to help 
and save them, remembering the example of our 
Divine Redeemer and Master Jesus, Who came to 
seek and to save that which was lost. Moreover, Our 
eyes are turned to this monument raised to the honour 
of the Prince of the Apostles in which we stand ; they 
are turned on this cherished city, which by the 
loving-kindness of God has not been delivered over 
as a spoil to the nations ; they are turned on this 
Roman people, so dear to Us, by whose love, fidelity, 
and reverence We are always surrounded, and We are 
moved to extol the goodness of God Who has been 
pleased at this season more and more to assure to Us 
the hope of His divine protection. But Our thoughts, 
Venerable Brethren, dwell chiefly upon you, whose 
care, earnestness, and concord We now perceive to be of 
so great importance for promoting the glory of God : 
We notice the burning zeal which you have brought 
to the fulfilment of your task, and in particular that 
admirable and most close union which exists between 
all of you and Us and this Apostolic See : than which 
union, in this season more even than in all Our former 
afflictions, nothing can be more grateful to Us, nothing 
more beneficial to the Church ; and We rejoice 

vum facere quod perierat. Intendimus praeterea oculos in hoc Princi- 
pis Apostolorum Tropbaeum apud quod consistimus, in hanc almam 
Urbem, quae Dei munere tradita non fuit in direptionem gentium, in 
Romanum hunc Populum Nobis dilectissimum, cuius constant! amore, 
fide, obsequio circumdamur, atque ad Dei benignitatem extollendam vo- 
camur, qui divini sui praesidii spem in Nobis hoc tempore, magis magis- 
que fulcire et confirmare voluerit. At praecipue Vos cogitatione complec- 
timur, Venerabiles Fratres, in quorum sollicitudine zelo et concordia, 
magnum momentum ad Dei gloriam operandam positum nunc esse intel- 
ligimus; agnoscimus flagrans studium, quodad Vestrummunusimplendum 
attulistis,ac praesertim praeclaram et arctissimam illam Vestrum omnium 
cum Nobis, et hac Apostolica Sede coniunctionem, qua, ut semper 
alias in maximis Nostris acerbitatibus, ita potissimum hoc tempore 
nihil Nobis iucundius, nihil Ecclesiae utilius esse potest ; ac vehe- 
menter gaudemus in Domino Vos ita esse animo comparatos, ut ad 
certam solidamque spem uberrimorum fructuum et maxime optabilium, 
ex Synodali hac Vestra coitione concipiendam impellamur. Ut nullum 
fortasse aliud infestius et callidius bellum in Christi Regnum exarsit, 



19 

vehemently in the Lord to see such dispositions in 
you, that We are forced to conceive a sure and well- 
founded hope of most rich and excellent fruits to be 
obtained from your coming together in this present 
Council. Never, heretofore, perhaps, was war waged 
with more determination and more cunning against 
the Kingdom of God ; and never was there more need 
of that close union between the Priests of the Lord 
and the Supreme Shepherd of His flock, which im- 
parts so wonderful strength to the Church ; and, 
through the peculiar care of God, and through your 
excellent dispositions, this union has been maintained 
without breach ; so that it has become, and We trust 
will daily more and more become, a spectacle to the 
world, to angels, and to men. 

Wherefore, Venerable Brethren, be strong in the Lord; 
and in the name of the Most Holy Trinity, be sancti- 
fied in truth (John xvii. 19) ; put on the whole armour 
of light, and join with Us in teaching the Way, the 
Truth, and the Life, for which men, so long the vic- 
tims of countless disorders, must now needs yearn : 
join with us in securing a return of peace for all king- 
doms, law for the barbarians, calm for the monas- 
teries, good order for the Church, discipline for the 
clergy, and for God an acceptable people. (S. Bern, 
de Considerat, iv. 4.) God is standing in His holy 
place ; He is in the midst of us in Our councils and 
in Our acts ; He, in this effort of His abundant mercy, 
has chosen us to be His Ministers and fellow- 

sic nullum fuit tempus in quo magis Sacerdotum Domini cum SuprcKpo 
Gregis Eius Pastore unio, a qua in Ecclesiam mira vis manat, postu- 
laretur ; quae quidem unio, singular! divinae providentiae munere et 
spectata virtute Vestra, ita iugiter reipsa constitit, ut spectaculum facta 
sit, et futurum magis confidamus in dies, n.undo et angelis et homi- 
nibus. 

Agite igitur, Venerabiles Fratres, confortamini in Domino : ac in 
nomine ipsius Trinitatis Augustae, sanctificati in veritate(Ioann. 17,19,) 
induti arma lucis, docete Nobiscum viam, veritatcm et vitam, ad quam 
tot agitata aerumnis gens humana iam uon adspirare non potest, date 
Nobiscum operam, ut pax regnis, lex barbaris, monasteriis quies, Eccle- 
siis ordo, clericis disciplina, Deo populus acceptabilis restitui possit 
(S. Bern, de Con. 1, 4, c. 4.) Stat Deus in loco sancto suo, Nostris 
interest consiliis et actibus, suos Ipse ministros et adiutores in tarn 
eximio misericordiae suae opere Nos adlegit, atque huic ministerio ita 
Nos inservire oportet, ut UK unice hoc tempore mentes, corda, vires 
consecremus. 

Sed nosttac infirmitatis conscii, Nostris difnsi viribus, ad Te levamua 




20 

labourers ; and it behoves us to be so devoted to this 
service that We now consecrate Our minds, Our 
hearts, Our strength to Him alone. 

But conscious of our own weakness We distrust 
Our powers, and Our eyes are raised, Our prayers are 
addressed, with confidence to Thee, Spirit of God. 
Thou, Fount of true Light, and of the Wisdom of 
God, do Thou pour the illumination of Thy grace into 
Our minds, that We may see what is right, what is 
salutary, what is most excellent : do Thou rule, 
mould, and direct Our hearts, that whatever this 
Council shall do may have a right beginning, a pros- 
perous course, and a happy termination. 

And Thou too, Mother of fair love, of knowledge 
and holy hope, Thou Queen and bulwark of the 
Church, do Thou take Our consultations and Our 
toils under the secure protection of Thy motherly 
care ; and by Thy prayers to God gain for Us the 
grace to be ever One in spirit and One in heart. 

Be you also with Us, ye Angels and Archangels ; 
and thou, too, Prince of the Apostles, Blessed Peter : 
and thou, Fellow-Apostle of Peter, Paul, Doctor of 
the Gentiles and Preacher of truth in the whole world; 
and all ye Saints of Heaven, ye especially whose relics 
we venerate in this place ; by your powerful interces- 
sion procure for us that we may all faithfully fulfil our 
ministry, and may receive mercy from God in the 
midst of His temple, to Whom be honour and glory 
for ever and ever. 

cum fiducia oculos, precesque convertimus, o Divine Spiritus, Tu fons 
verae lucis et sapientiae, divinae Tuae gratiae lumen praefer mentibus 
Nostris, ut ea quae recta, quae salutaria, quae optima sunt videamus ; 
Corda rege, fove, dirige, ut huius Concilii actiones rite inchoentur, 
prospere promoveantur, salubriter perficiantur. 

Tu vero Mater pulchrae dilectionis, agnitionis et sanctae spei, Ec- 
clesiae Regina et propugnatrix, Tu Nos, consultationes, labores Nostros 
in Tuam maternam fidem tutelamque recipias, ac Tuis age apud Deum 
precibus, ut in uno semper spiritu maneamus et corde. 

Vos quoque Nostris adeste votis, Angeli et Archangeli, Tuque Apos- 
tolorum Princeps, Beatissime Petre, Tuque Coapostole Eius, Paulle, 
doctor gentium, et predicator veritatis in universo mundo, Vosque 
omnes, Sancti caelites, et praecipue, quorum cineres hie veneramur, 
potenti Vos deprecatione efficite, ut omnes, ministerium Nostrum fide- 
liter implentes, suscipiamus misericordiam Dei in medio Templi Eius, 
Cui honor et gloria in saecula saeculorum, 



21 



APOSTOLICAL LETTERS OF HIS HOLI- 
NESS BY DIVINE PROVIDENCE POPE 
PIUS IX. 

WHEREIN is LAID DOWN THE ORDER TO BE 
OBSERVED DURING THE HOLDING OF THE HOLY 
CECUMENICAL COUNCIL OF THE VATICAN. 

* PlUS PAPA IX. AD FUTURAM REI MEMORIAM. 

IN the midst of the manifold sorrows which afflict 
Us, We are powerfully urged to render thanks 
to the mercy of God W/io cornforteth ^ts in all our 
tribulation (2 Cor. i. 4), since through His bounty it 
will so soon be Our lot to be able to open under happy 
auspices the Holy General and CEcumenical Vatican 
Council which through His inspiration We had already 
summoned. Justly, then, do We rejoice in the Lord, 
because We shall enter upon the salutary Congrega- 
tions of the same Council on the solemn day which is 
sacred to the Conception of Mary the Immaculate 
Mother of God, and ever a Virgin, and therefore 
under her powerful and maternal guidance : Because, 
moreover, we shall hold these Congregations in our 
Vatican Basilica, before the shrine of the Most Blessed 
Apostle Peter, " who (S. Leo. Pope Serm. 2, on the 
Anniversary of the Assumption) having received the 
strength of a Rock whereby to sustain the Church, did 

* PlVS PAPA IX., AD FVTVRAM REI MEMORIAM. 
Multiplices inter, quibus divexamur angustias, ad Divinae Clemen- 
tiae, quae eonsolatur Nos in omni tribulatione Nostra (2 Corinth, i. 4). 
gratias persolvendas maxime excitamur, qua propitiante, illud celeriter 
Nobis continget, ut sacrosanctum generale et oecumenicum Concilium 
Vaticanum iam a Nobis, ea adspirante indicium, feliciter auspicemur. 
Gaudium autem in Domino iure praecipimus, quod salutares Concilii 
eiusdem conventus solemni die Immaculatae Dei Matris Mariae sem- 
per Virginis Conceptioni sacro, atque adeo sub potentibus materni.sque 
auspiciis eius aggressuri sumus, eosque in Vaticana Nostra Basilica 
inituri ante Beatissime Petri cineres, qui in accepta forlitudine 
Pelrae persevemns susctpta Ecdesiac gubernacula non reliqttif, et 
in quo omnium Pastorum sollicilndo, en in commendatarum sibi ori/im 
c nstodia persevemt. (S. Leo P. Serm. 2, /;/. Annivcr. Assunipllonis 
suae.) lamvero memores hoc oecumenicum Concilium a Nobis con- 
vocatum fuisse, ut extirpandis erroribus, quos praesertim huius saeculi 
conflavit impietas, removendis malis, quibus Ecclesia affligitur, emen- 
dandis moribus et utriusque Cleri disciplinae instaurandae, coniuncta 



22 

not abandon the charge entrusted to him, and still 
causes to be perpetuated the vigilance of all her Pas- 
tors and the guardianship of the flock committed to 
his care." Now, We, mindful that this GEcumenical 
Council was summoned by Us, in order that the en- 
deavours of the Holy Guardians of the Church might 
be joined to Our own to extirpate the errors which 
the impiety of this present age especially has brought 
together, to remove the evils which afflict the Church, 
to correct public morals, and to restore the discipline 
of both secular and regular clergy ; And knowing 
well with what care and attentive solicitude it behoves 
Us to provide that everything belonging to the perfect 
direction, to the furtherance and fulfilment of so salu- 
tary an undertaking, be ordained in accordance with 
the holy discipline and the practice of our predeces- 
sors ; Therefore, in virtue of Our Apostolic authority, 
We lay down the following regulations, and Ordain 
that they be observed by all in this Vatican Council. 

I. ON THE MANNER OF LIFE TO BE FOLLOWED 
BY SUCH AS ARE PRESENT AT THE COUNCIL. 

Since (Ep. of S. James, i. 17) every good gift and 
every perfect gift is from above and cometh down from 
the FatJicr of Lights, and since nothing is so conform- 
able to the goodness of our Heavenly Father as that 
He should (Luke, xi. 13) give the Holy Spirit to them 
that ask Him ; therefore, while by Our Apostolical 
Letters of the nth of April of the present year We 

Nobiscum sacrorum Ecclesiae Antistitum adhibeatur opera, ac probe 
noscentes, quo studio intentaque sollicitudine curare debeamus, ut ea 
omnia, quae ad rectam rationem tarn salutaris negotii gerendi, tractandi 
ac prrficiendi pertinent, ex sancta maiorum disciplina institutisque 
statuantur, idcirco Apostolica Nostra auctoritate ea quae sequuntur 
decernimus, atque ab omnibus in hoc Vaticano Concilio servanda esse 
praecipimus. 

I. DE MODO VIVENDI IN CONCILIO. 

Reputantes ammo quod omne datum optimum, ct omne donuin per 
fcctitm dcsiD'suin cst, descendens a, I\itre lumimim (lacob. i, 17), quod- 
que nihil Caeleslis Patris benignitati pronius est, quam ut det spirit urn 
bonum petentibus se (Luc. xi, 13), iam Nos, dum Apostolicis Nostris 
Litteris (Litt. Nost. n Aprilis 1869), die undecimo Aprilis hoc anno 
datis, Ecclesiae thesauros sacrosancti huius Concilii occasione Christi- 
fidelibus reseravimus, non solum eosdem Christifideles vehementer 
hortati sumus, ut emundantes conscientiam ab opcribus mortuis ad 
scwiendnm Deo vivcnti (Ep. ad Hebrae. ix, 14), orationibus, obse- 
crationibus, ieiuniis aliisque pietatis actibus insistere velint : sed etiam 



23 

opened to the faithful the treasures of the Church on 
occasion of this Holy Council, and earnestly exhorted 
them (Ep. to the Hebrews, ix. 14) to purge their con- 
science front dead works to serve the living God, and to 
betake themselves to prayer, to supplications, to fast- 
ing, and to other works of piety ; We likewise ordered 
that in all parts of the Catholic world the light and 
aid of the Divine Spirit should be daily invoked in 
the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, in order to obtain from 
the Lord a happy issue for the Council and salutary 
advantages for the Church. 

Now, therefore, while We renew and strengthen 
these Our exhortations and commands, We further 
ordain that in all the Churches of this Our city while 
this holy Synod lasts, there be recited the Litanies 
and other prayers prescribed for the same object on 
every day of December at whatever hour shall seem 
most convenient for the faithful. 

But greater and higher things than these are to be 
looked for from the Bishops and from others who are 
clothed with the priestly dignity, and take part in the 
Council, whom it behoves as ministers of Jesus Christ 
and as dispensers of the mysteries of God (Ep. to Titus, 
ii. 7), in all things to show themselves patterns ~*of good 
works ; in doctrine showing inccrniptness, gravity, sin- 
cerity ; sound speech that cannot be condemned, that he 
that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no 
evil thing to say of us. Wherefore, in accordance with 
the practice of former Councils, and especially of the 

Divini Spiritus lumen et opetn in sacrosancto Missae sacrificio cele- 
brando, quotidie in universe Orbe Catholico implorari niandavimus, ad 
prosperum a Domino huic Concilio exftum, et salutares ex eo Ecclesiae 
sanctae fructus impetrandos. 

Quas quidem adhortationes et praescriptiones modo renovantes et 
confirmantes, id praeterea iubemus, ut in hums almae Urbis Nostrae 
Ecclesiis, sacrosancta Synodo perdurante, singulis diebus Dominicis 
hora., quae pro fideli populo magis congrua videatur, Litaniae aliaeque 
orationes ad hunc finem constitutae recitentur. 

At longe his maius aliquid et excellentius ab Episcopis, aliisque qui 
in Sacerdotali Ordine censentur hoc Concilium concelebrantibus, prae- 
standum est, quos, uti ministros Christi et dispensatores mysteriorum 
Dei oportet in omnibus seipsos praebere ezemplum bonorum opcrum In 
doctrina, in integritate, in gravitate, verbum sanittn, irreprehensibile, ut 
his qui ece adverso estvereatur uihil habcns malum dicere de nobis (Ep. 
ad Tit. ii. 7). Quare veterum Conciliorum ac Tridentini nominatim 
vestigiis inhaerentes hortamur illos omnes in Domino, ut orationi, 
sacrae lectioni, caelestium rerum meditationibus pro sua cuiusque pie- 



24 

Council of Trent, We exhort in Our Lord all the 
above-mentioned, each according to the measure of 
his own devotion, to pay special attention to prayer, 
to sacred reading, and to the contemplation of heavenly 
things; to offer up purely and chastely the Holy 
Sacrifice of the Mass as often as each one is able ; to 
keep the heart and mind free from cares about earthly 
things ; to observe modesty in deportment, temperance 
in the mode of life, and a religious spirit in all that is 
done. Far from us be all discord, far from us be 
wicked strife and envy, but let charity, the queen of 
virtues, reign among us, in order that while she reigns 
supreme and remains intact it may be said of this 
holy assembly of the Bishops of the Church (Ps. 
cxxxii. i), Behold hoiv good and how pleasant it is for 
brethren to divell together in unity. Finally, let the 
Fathers be attentive to watch over those of their 
household, and to require from such that they fulfil 
the obligations of a holy life, ever mindful of the 
solemn words with which the Apostle S. Paul enjoins 
Bishops to rule well their own household. 

II. ON THE RIGHT TO BRING FORWARD QUESTIONS 

AND THE MANNER OF DOING THIS. 
Although the right to introduce the subjects which 
are to be discussed during this holy CEcumenical 
Synod, and to ask the opinions of the Fathers con- 
cerning them belongs exclusively to Us and to this 
Apostolic See, nevertheless, We not only desire, but 
we even urge, if any of the Fathers have any proposal 

tate studiose intendant : ut pure casteque sancto Missae sacrificio, quam 
fieri possit, frequenter operentur ; animum mentemque ab humanarum 
rerum curis immunem servent ; modestiam in moribus, in victu tem- 
perantiam, et in omni actione religionem retineant. Absint animorum 
dissidia, absit prava aemulatio et contentio, sed omnibus imperet, quae 
inter cetei-as virtutes eminet charitas, ut ilia dominante et incolumi, de 
hoc sacro Episcoporum Ecclesiae conventu dici possit : Ecce quam 
boniitn et quam iuctmdum habitare fratres in umim (Ps. cxxxii. i). 
Evigilent demum Patres in domesticorum suorum cura, et christianae 
ab eis sanctaeque vitae disciplina exigenda, memores quam gravibus 
verbis Paulus Apostolus praecipiat Episcopis, ut sint suae domui bene 
praepositi (i Timoth. iii. 4). 

II. DE IURE ET MODO PROPONENDI. 

Licet ius et munus proponendi negotia, quae in sancta oecumenica 
Synodo tractari debebunt, de iisque Patrum sententias rogandi nonnisi 
ad Nos, et ad hanc Apostolicam Sedem pertineat, nihilominns non 
modo optamus, sed etiam hortamur, ut si qui inter Concilii Patres 



25 

to bring forward which in their opinion may tend to 
the public good, that they will do so freely. But as 
We are well aware that unless this be done at a fitting 
time, and in a fitting manner, the order in which the 
Council must of necessity conduct business may be 
seriously disarranged, We therefore decree that the 
following regulations be attended to with regard to 
any such proposals : i . That it be committed to 
writing and privately handed over to a special Con- 
gregation appointed by Us for that purpose, and 
composed of Our Venerable Brethren Cardinals of the 
Holy Roman Church and of Fathers of the Council. 

2. That it concern the common good of Christianity 
and not the private advantage of this or that diocese. 

3. That the reasons why it is deemed useful and 
fitting be assigned. 4. That it contain nothing 
foreign to the unchangeful spirit of the Church and to 
its inviolable traditions. 

The above-mentioned Special Congregation will 
discuss the proposals presented to it, and will submit 
for Our decision its opinion regarding the acceptance 
or rejection of the same, that We, after mature con- 
sideration, may determine whether of not such pro- 
posals be submitted to the Council for deliberation. 

Ill, ON THE SECRECY TO BE OBSERVED IN THE 
COUNCIL. 

Here motives of prudence urge Us to decree that 
strict secrecy be observed, which in former Councils, 

aliquid proponendum habuerint, quod ad publicam utilitatem conferre 
posse existiment, id libere exequi velint. Cum vero probe perspiciamus 
nanc ipsam rem, nisi congruo tempore et rnodo perficiatur, non parum 
necessario Conciliarium actionum ordini officere posse, idcirco statuimus 
eiusmodi propositiones ita fieri debere, ut earum quaelibet I, scripto 
mandetur, ac peculiar! Congregation! nonnullomm, turn VV. FF. NN. 
S. R. E. Cardinalium, turn Synodi Patrum a Nobis deputandae, pri- 
vatim exhibeatnr : 2. publicum rei christianae bonum vere respiciat, 
non singularem dumtaxat unius vel alterius Dioecesis utilitatem : 3. 
rationes contineat, ob quas utilis et opportuna censetur : 4. nihil praese- 
ferat, quod a constant! Ecclesiae sensu, eiusque inviolabilibus tradi- 
tionibus alienum sit. 

Peculiaris praedicta Congregatio propositiones sibi exhibitas diligenter 
expendet, suumque circa earum admissionem vel exclusionem consilium 
Nostro iudicio submitter, ut Nos deinde matura consideratione de iib 
statuamus, utrum ad Synodalem deliberationem deferri debeant. 
III. DE SECRETO SERVANDO IN CONCILIO. 

Pmdentiae hie ratio Nos admonet, ut secreti fid em, quae in supe- 



26 

in accordance with the grave nature of their discus- 
sions, has on more than one occasion been enjoined. 
And if upon other occasions this precaution appeared 
necessary, more than ever is it needed now that im- 
piety, with a thousand weapons at its command, is 
ever on the alert to omit no opportunity of exciting 
hatred against the Catholic Church and its discipline. 
For which reason We command all and each of the 
Fathers, the Officers of the Council, the Theologians 
and Doctors of the Sacred Canons, and others who in 
any way whatever afford assistance to the Fathers 
and above-mentioned Officers, not to reveal to anyone 
who is a stranger to the Council either any of its 
decrees, or any of the matters which are to be proposed 
for its examination, or even its discussion, or the 
opinions of any of its members ; and We further 
enjoin that the Officers of the Council who are not 
invested with the Episcopal dignity, and all those who 
by virtue of any office entrusted to them by Us, assist 
at the discussions of the Council, be obliged to bind 
themselves by oath to fulfil their office faithfully and 
to maintain inviolable secrecy with regard to all mat- 
ters above mentioned, and with regard to any others 
which may be especially entrusted to them. 

IV. ON THE ORDER IN WHICH THE FATHERS 
SHALL SIT AND THE CARE WHICH MUST BE 
TAKEN TO PREJUDICE THE RIGHTS OF NO ONE. 

As it is of no little importance for the preservation 
of peace and concord, that in every proceeding of the 

rioribus Conciliis non semel, adiunctorum gravitate exigente, indiceuda 
fuit, in universa huius Concilii actione servandam iubeamus. Si enim 
unquam alias, hoc maxima tempore haec cautio necessaria visa est, quo 
in omnem occasionem excubat invidiae conflandae contra Catholicam 
Ecclesiam eiusque doctrinam, pluribus nocendi opibus pollens impietas. 
Quapropter praecipimus omnibus et singulis Patribus, Officialibus Con- 
cilii, Theologis, Sacrorum Canonum Peritis, ceterisque, qui operam 
suam Patribus vel Officialibus praedictis quovis modo in rebus huius 
Concilii praebent, ut decreta et alia quaecumque, quae iis examinanda 
proponentur, nee non discussiones et singulorum sententias non evulgent, 
nee alicui extra gremium Concilii pandant ; praecipimus pariter ul 
Officiales Concilii, qui episcopal! dignitate praediti non sunt, aliique 
omnes, qui ratione demandati cuiusvis a Nobis ministerii Conciliaribus 
disceptationibus inservire debent, iuramentum emittere teneantur de 
munere fideliter obeundo, et de secreti fide servanda circa ea omnia quae 
supra praescripta sunt, nee non super iis rebus, quae specialiter ipsis 
committentur. 



27 

Council each one should faithfully and modestly fill 
the post which is due to the dignity of his rank, there- 
fore, to remove as much as possible every occasion of 
giving offence, We ordain that the following order be 
observed. 

Our Venerable Brethren the Cardinal Bishops, 
Priests and Deacons of the Holy Roman Church, will 
hold the first rank ; the second will be assigned to 
the Patriarchs, and the third, by a special favour 
granted by Us, will belong to the Primates in the order 
in which they have been raised to the rank of Pri- 
mates. But this privilege we grant for this special 
occasion only, and by so doing We confer no rights 
upon these Primates and We take none from others. 
The fourth place will be held by the Archbishops 
according to the order of their promotion to their 
Archiepiscopal sees ; the fifth to the Bishops in the 
order of their promotion ; the sixth to the Abbots 
nullius dicecesisy the seventh to the Abbots General 
and to the other Generals of Religious Orders, in 
which solemn vows are made, although they bear the 
title of Vicars-General, because in fact they lawfully 
preside over their entire Order, and enjoy all the 
rights and privileges belonging to General Superiors. 

Lastly, in accordance with the discipline and prac- 
tice of past Councils, We decree that should it happen 
that any fail to sit in the place assigned to them, and 
that they pronounce their final judgment even while 
using the formula placet, that they assist at the Con- 

IV. DE ORDINE SEDENDI, ET DE NON INFKRENDO ALICUI 
PRAEIUDICIO. 

Cum ad tranquillitatem concord iamque animorum tuendam non 
parum momenti habeat, si in quibuslibet Conciliaribus actibus, unus- 
quisque suae dignitatis ordinem fideliter ac modeste custodial : hinc 
ad offensionum occasiones, quoad eius fieri possit, praecidendas, infra- 
scriptum ordinem inter diversas dignitates servari praescribimu?. 

Primum locum obtinebunt VV. FF. NN.S.R.E. Cardinales Episcopi, 
Presbyteri, Diaconi ; secundum Patriarchae ; tertium. ex speciali Nostra 
indulgentia, Primates, iuxta ordinem suae promotionis ad Primatialem 
gradum. Id autem pro hac vice tantum indulgemus, atque ita, ut ex 
hac Nostra concessione nullum ius vel ipsis Primatibus datum, vel 
aliis imminutum censeri debeat. Quartum locum tenebunt Archiepis- 
copi, iuxta suae ad Archiepiscopatum promotionis ordinem ; quintum 
Episcopi, pariter iuxta ordinem promotionis suae ; sextum Abbates 
Nullius Dioecesis ; septimum Abbates Generales, aliique Generales 
Moderatores Ordinum Religiosorum, in quibus solemnia vota nuncu- 
pantur, etiamsi Vicarii Generalis titulo appellentur, dum tamen re ipsa 



28 

gregations and perform any other act whatsoever 
during the Council, no prejudice shall thereby accrue 
to the rights of anyone, and no one shall thereby 
acquire any new right. 

V. OF THE JUDGES OF EXCUSES AND COMPLAINTS. 

In order that the discussion of the weightier matters 
to be brought before this Council be not impeded or 
retarded by an attention to the private affairs of indi- 
viduals, We therefore decree that this same Council 
shall by secret voting elect from among the Fathers 
of the Council five Judges of Excuses, whose duty it 
shall be to receive the proxies and the excuses of 
absent Prelates, and the requests of those who before 
the dissolution of the Council may deem that they 
have just cause for leaving ; and they shall examine 
everything in compliance with the customary rules of 
Conciliar discipline and of the sacred Canons ; and 
when they have done this they shall decide upon 
nothing , but they shall submit everything in order to 
the General Congregation. We further enjoin that the 
same Council shall likewise secretly elect five others 
from among the Fathers as Judges of Disputes ana 
Controversies. 

These then shall endeavour to arrange all differ- 
ences which may occur with regard to the order in 
which the members sit, and to the right of precedence, 
or any other matters which may arise amongst those 
assembled, and the judgment given shall be final, in 

cum omnibus supremi moderatoris iuribus et privileges, universe suo 
Ordini legitime praesunt. 

Ceterum ex superiorum Conciliorum disciplina institutoque decerni- 
mus, quod, si forte contigerit, aliquos debito in loco non sedere, et 
sententias etiam sub verbo placet proferre, Congregationibus interesse, 
et alios quoscumque actus facere, Concilio durante, nulli propterea 
praeiudicium generetur, nullique novum ius acquiratur (Cone. Trid. 
Sess. 2. Decret. De modo viv. . Insurer). 

V. DE IUDIC1BUS EXCUSATIONUM ET QUERELARUM. 

Quo graviorum rerum pertractatio, quae in hac sacrosancta Synodo 
agi gerive debent, minus quam fieri possit, impediatur, aut retardetur 
ob cognitiqnem causamm, quae singulos respiciunt : statuimus ut ipsa 
Synpdus per schedulas secretas quinque ex Concilii Patribus eligat in 
Indices excnsationnm^ quorum erit procurationes et excusationes Prae- 
latorum absentium, necnon eorum postulata, qui, Concilio nondum 
dimisso, iustam discedendi causam se habere putaverint, excipere, 
atque ad normam conciliaris disciplinae et SS. Canonum expendere : 
quod cum fecerint, non quidquam de hisce rebus decernent, sed de om- 



29 

order that the rights of no one may be prejudiced ; 
but if the persons appointed find themselves unable to 
arrange such differences, they must submit them to 
the decision of the General Congregation. 

VI. OF THE OFFICERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Since it is a matter of great importance that neces- 
sary and suitable ministers and officers be appointed 
in accordance with the custom and discipline of 
Councils to carry out legally and fully the proceedings 
of this Synod, We, therefore, in whom are vested all 
appointments to any such offices, do select and nomi- 
nate the following : 

1. General Guardians of the Council ; Our beloved 
sons Giovanni Colonna and Domenico Orsini, Roman 
princes, Assistants at Our Pontifical throne. 

2. Secretary of the Council ; Our Venerable 
Brother, Giuseppe Fessler, Bishop of S. Ippolito ; 
and We associate with him in the office and title of 
sub-secretary Our beloved son Ludovico Jacobini, a 
Protonotary of Ours and of this Apostolic See ; and 
as assistants Our beloved sons the Canons Camillo 
Santori and Angelo Jacobini. 

3. Notaries of the Council : Our beloved sons Luca 
Pacifici, Luigi Colombo, Giovanni Simeoni, Luigi 
Pericoli, and Domenico Bartolini, Protonotaries of 
Ours and of this Apostolic See, and We associate 
with them Our beloved sons Salvatore Pallottini and 

nibus ad Congregationem generalem ordine referent. Praeterea sta- 
tuimus, ut eadem Synodus pariter per schedulas secretas, alios quinque 
ex Patribus eligat, in Indices qnerdantm et controvtrsiarnm. 

Hi porro controversias omnes circa ordinem sedendi, vel ius prae- 
cedendi, aliasque, si quae forte inter congregates oriantur, iudicio sum- 
mario atque oecononiice, ut aiunt, ita componere studebunt, ut nulli 
praeiudic.um inferatur : et quatenus componere nequeant, eas Congre- 
gationis generalis a<ictoritati subiicient. 

VI. DE OFFICIALIBUS CONCILII. 

Quod vero et illud magni refert, ut necessarii ac idonei ministri et 
ofilciales, iuxta conciliarem consuetudinem et disciplinam, omnibus in 
hac Synodo actibus rite et legitime perficiendis designentur, Nos huius- 
modi ministeriorum rationem habentes, infrascriptos viros ad ea deligi- 
mus et nominamus, scilicet : 

1. Generales Concilii custodes, dilectos filios loannem Columna et 
Dominicum Orsini romanos Principles Pontificio Nostro solio Adsis- 
tentes. . 

2. Concilii Secretarium, Venerabilem Fratrem losephum Episcopum 



30 

Francesco Santi, Advocates, who will assist the said 
Notaries. 

4. Scrutinizers of the votes : Our beloved sons 
Luigi Serafini and Francesco Naroli, Auditors of the 
Causes of Our Apostolic Palace ; Luigi Pellegrini and 
Leonardo Dialti, Clerks of Our Apostolic Chamber ; 
Carlo Cristofori and Alessandro Montani, Assessors 
or Votanti of the Tribunal Segnatura di Giustizia ; 
Federico de Falloux du Coudray, Regent of Our 
Apostolic Chancery, and Lorenzo Nina, Breviatore del 
Parco Maggiore. 

These eight scrutinizers having been separated into 
four couples wiil then proceed to receive the votes in 
such a manner that two will take those on one side, 
and the remaining two those on the other side of the 
Council Hall ; and each couple shall be assisted by 
its notary in the performance of its duties. 

5. Promoters of the Council : Our beloved Sons 
Giovanni Battista de Dominicis-Tosti and Filippo 
Ralli, Consistorial Advocates. 

6. Masters of Ceremonies of the Council : Our 
beloved sons Luigi Ferrari, Our Domestic Prelate in 
Chief, and Pio Martinucci, Camillo Balestra, Remigio 
Ricci, Giuseppe Romagnoli, Pietro Giuseppe Rinaldi- 
Bucci, Antonio Cataldi, Alessandro Tortoli, Agostino 
Accoramboni, Luigi Sinistri, Francesco Riggi, An- 
tonio Gattoni, Baldessarre Baccinetti, Cesare Togni, 
Rocco Massi, Our Masters of Ceremonies and of this 
Apostolic See. 

S. Hippolyti, eique adiicimus cum officio et titulo Subsecretarii, dilec- 
turn fillum Ludovicum lacobini e Nostris et huius Apostolicae Sedis 
Protonotariis, nee non adiutores, dilectos filios Canonicos Camillum 
Santori et Angelum lacobini. 

3. Concilii Notaries, dilectos filios Lucam Pacifici, Aloisium Co- 
lombo, loannem Simeoni, Aloisium Pericoli, et Dominicum Bartolini 
Nostros et huius Apostolicae Sedis Protonotarios, eisque adiungimus 
dilectos filios Sal valorem Pallottini et Franciscum Santi Advocatos ; 
qui Notariis eisdem adiutricem operam navent. 

4. Scrutatores Suffragiorum, dilectos filios Aloisium Serafini et 
Franciscum Nardi causarum Palatii Nostri Apostolici Auditores ; 
Aloisium Pellegrini et Leonardum Dialti Nostrae Camerae Apostolicae 
Clericos ; Carolum Cristofori et Alexandrum Montani Signaturae lusti- 
tiae votantes ; Fridericum de Falloux du Coudray Nostrae Caucellariae 
Apostolicae Regentem, et Laurentium Nina Abbreviatorem ex maiori 
Parco. Hi autem octo scrutatores in quatuor distincta paria distributi, 
ita ad excipienda suffhygia precedent, ut bina paria unum Conciliaris 
Aulac latus, toUdemque alterum obeant, ac praeterea singula paria 



31 

7. Assigners of Places : Our beloved sons, Enrico 
Folchi, Prefect, and Luigi Naselli, Edmund Stonor, 
Paolo Bastide, Luigi Pallotti, all our Secret Chamber- 
lains ; and also Our beloved sons Scipione Perelli, 
Gustave Gallot, Francesco Regnani, Nicola Vorsak 
and Filippo Silvestri, Our Honorary Chamberlains. 

VII. OF THE GENERAL CONGREGATIONS OF THE 
FATHERS. 

Turning now to what regards the order of the 
General Congregations We ordain and decree that 
these Congregations of the Fathers which precede 
their public Sessions be presided over by five of Our 
Venerable Brothers the Cardinals of the Holy Roman 
Church, in Our name and with Our authority ; and to 
this office we elect and name Our Venerable Brother 
Charles, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church and 
Bishop of Sabina, who bears the name of De Reisach; 
Our beloved sons Cardinal Priest of the Holy Roman 
Church Antonius, with the title dei SS. Quattro Coro- 
nati, who bears the name of De Lucca ; Giuseppe 
Andrea, with the title of S. Girolamo degl'Illirici, who 
bears the name of Bizzari ; Luigi, with the title of S. 
Lorenzo in Paneperna, who bears the name Bilio ; and 
our beloved son Annibale, Cardinal Deacon of the 
Holy Roman Church of S. Marie in Aquiro, who 
bears the name of Capalti, 

These Presidents besides attending to other matters 

singulos ex Notariis secum habere debebunt, dum in munere fungendo 
versantur. 

5. Promotores Concilii, dilectos filios loamiem Baptistam de Domi- 
nicis-Tosti, et Philippum Rail) S. Consistorii Advocates. 

6. Magistros Caeremoniarum Concilii, dilectos filios Aloisium Fer- 
rari Antistitem Nostrum domesticum Praefectum, et Pium Martinucci, 
Camillum Balestra, Remigium Ricci, losephum Romagnoli, Pet rum 
losephum Rinakli-Bucci, Antonium Cataldi, Alexandrum Tortoli, 
Augustinum Accoramboni, Aloisium Sinislri, Franciscum Riggi, Anto- 
nium Gattoni, Balthasavem Baccinetti, Caesarem Togni, Rochum Massi, 
Nostros, et l.uius Apostolicae Seclis Cacremoniarios. 

7. Assignatores locorum, dilectos filios Henricum Folchi Praefectuiri, 
ac Aloisium Nasel'li, Edmundum Stonor, Paulum Bastide, Aloisium 
Pallotti intimos Nostros Cubiculai ios, et dilectos filios Scipionem Perilli, 
Gustavum Gallot, Franciscum Regnani, Nicolaum Vorsak, et Philip- 
pum Silvestri Cubicularios Nostros honorarios. 

VII. DE CONGREGATIONIBUS GENERALIBUS PATRUM. 

Ad ea modo curam convertentes, quae Congregationum generalium 
ordiuem respiciunt, statuiums ac decerniirws, ut iisdem Patrum Congre- 



32 

which concern the direction of these Congregations 
will take care to begin with such subjects as appertain 
to faith ; and afterwards they will be at liberty to 
arrange these discussions under the general headings 
of faith or discipline, as they shall deem convenient. 

And because We from the time when We first 
expedited Our Apostolic Letters for calling this 
Council have endeavoured to summon to this Our 
venerable city from all parts of the Catholic world 
men learned in theology and versed in canon law, in 
order that jointly with other persons in this Our city 
who are skilled in the said sciences they might lend 
their aid to prepare the subject-matter for the General 
Council (as thus the Fathers might be enabled the 
sooner to commence their labours) ; Therefore it is 
Our pleasure and We enjoin that the schemes for the 
Decrees and Canons, drawn up by these persons, 
which We, though without signifying Our approval of 
them, have reserved in their integrity for the know- 
ledge of the Fathers be submitted to the said 
Fathers for their examination and decision in Geneal 
Congregation. For which reason the above-mentioned 
Presidents shall provide that the schemes of such 
Decrees and Canons as are to be discussed in the 
Congregation be printed and a copy of them distri- 
buted to each Father some days before the holding of 
the General Congregation, in order that during the 

gationibus, quae publicis sessionibus praemittuntur quinque ex VV. FF. 
NN. S. R. E. Cardinalibus Nostro Nomine et Auctoritate praesint, et 
ad hoc munus eligimus et nominamus, Venerabilem Fratrum Nostrum 
Carolum S. R. E. Cardinalem Episcopum Sabinensem De Reisach 
nuncupatum, dilectos filios Nostros S. R. E. Presbyteros Cardinales 
Antoninum titulo SS. Quatuor Coronatorum De Luca nuncupatum, 
losephum Andream titulo S. Hieronymi Illyricorum Bizzarri nuncupa- 
tum, Aloisium titulo S. Lauren tii in Panisperna Bilio nuncupatum, et 
dilectum filium Nostrum Hannibalem S. R. E. Cardinalem Diaconum 
S. Mariae in Aquiro Capalti nuncupatum. 

Hi autem Praesides, praeter alia, quae ad aptam horum Conventuum 
moderationem spectant, curabunt ut in rebus pertractandis initium fiat 
a disceptatione eorum, quae ad fidem pertinent ; deinde integrum ipsis 
erit consult ationes in fidei vel disciplinae capita conferre, prout oppor- 
tunum iudicaverint. 

Cum vero Nos, iam hide a tempore, quo Apostolicas Litteras ad hoc 
Concilium indicendum dedimus, Viros Theologos et ecclesiastic! iuris 
Consultos, ex variis Catholici orbis regionibus in hanc almam Urbem 
Nostram evocandos curaverimus, ut una cum aliis huius Urbis, et 
earumdem disciplinarum peritis viris, rebus apparandis dafent operam, 
quae ad huius generalis Synodi scopum pertinent, atque ita expeditior 



33 

interval the Fathers may examine them thoroughly, 
and may thoroughly understand what decision they 
ought to pronounce. Should any one of the Fathers 
desire to speak in the Congregation itself upon the 
proposed scheme, he must, for the sake of order, and 
that each one may be heard in the order due to his 
rank in the Church, signify to the Presidents his in- 
tention of speaking, not later than at least on the 
previous day. When the Fathers who have thus inti- 
mated their intention shall have spoken, should any 
other desire to speak after them in the same Congre- 
gation, they also may do so, after having first obtained 
the permission of the Presidents, each in the order 
due to his dignity. 

Now if any of the schemes presented for the deci- 
sion of the Congregation meet with no opposition, or 
with opposition so trifling as to be easily removed 
there and then, the discussion shall be closed without 
delay, the vote of each Father taken, and the formula 
of the Decree or Canon of the Council shall be esta- 
blished. But if difficulties arise with regard to the 
said scheme ; if the Fathers be divided in their 
opinions, and there be no means of settling the matter 
during that Congregattion, then is to be observed the 
manner of proceeding which We are about to indicate, 
so that a fixed and suitable rule may be applied to 
each case. It is Our pleasure then that at the very 

via in rerum tractatione Patribus patere posset ; hinc volumus et man- 
damus, nt schemata decretorum et canonum ab iisdem viris expressa et 
redacta, quae Nos, nulla Nostra approbatione munita, integra integre 
Pat rum cognitioni reservavimus, iisdem Patribus in Congregationem 
generalem collectis ad examen et iudicium subiiciantur. Itaque, cu- 
rantibus memoratis Praesidibus, aliquot ante dies quam Congregatio 
generalis habeatur, decretorum et canonum schemata, de quibus in 
Congregatione indicta agendum erit, typis impressa singulis Patribus 
distribuentur, quo interim ilia cliligenti consideratione in omnem partem 
expendant, et quid sibi sententiae esse clebeat accurate pervideant. Si 
quis Pat rum de schemate proposito sermonem in Congregatione ipsa 
habere voluerit, ad debitum inter oratores ordinem pro cuiusque digni- 
tatis gradu servandum, opus erit, ut saltern pridie diei Congregationis 
ipsius, Praesidibus suum disserendi propositum significandum curet. 
Auditis autem istorum Patrum sermonibus, si alii etiam post eos in 
conventu ipso disserere voluerint, hoc iisdem fas erit, obtenta prius a 
Praesidibus dicendi venia, et eo ordine, quern dicentium dignitas pos- 
tulaverit. 

lamvero si in ea quae habetur Congregatione exhibitum schema vel 
nullas, vel nonnisi levesdifficultatesin ipso congressu facile expediendas 
obtulerit, tune nihil morae erit, quominus, disceptationibus compositis, 

D 



34 

commencement of the Council there be appointed four 
special and distinct Congregations of Fathers or Depu- 
tations, of which the first shall have to handle and 
inquire into matters appertaining to faith, the second 
those appertaining to Ecclesiastical discipline, the 
third the affairs of the Regular Orders, and lastly, 
the fourth, what concerns the Oriental Rites ; and 
this shall be their business as long as the Council 
lasts. Each of these Congregations or Deputations 
shall be composed of twenty-four Fathers, who shall 
be elected by the Fathers of the Council by secret 
votes ; each one of these Congregaticns or Deputa- 
tions shall be presided over by one of Our Venerable 
Brothers the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, 
who shall be appointed by Us, and he shall select one 
or more from among the Theologians of the Council 
and those skilled in Canon Law for the use of his 
Congregation or Deputation, and he shall name one 
of these to assist at the same Congregation or Depu- 
tation in quality of Secretary. If therefore it happen, 
as we have mentioned above, that it be impossible to 
come to a conclusion with regard to the proposed 
scheme during the General Congregation, then the 
Cardinal Presidents of the same General Congrega- 
tion shall provide that the scheme in question, together 
with the objections raised against it, be submitted to 
that one of the Deputations to which it shall belong 

decreti vel canonis Conciliaris, de quo agitur, formula, rogatis Patrum 
suffrages, statuatur. Sin autem circa schema praedictum huiusmodi 
oriantur difficultates, ut, sententiis in contraria conversis, via non sup- 
petat, qua in ipso conventu componi possint, turn ea ratio ineunda erit, 
quam neic infra statuimus, ut stabili et opportuno modo huic rei pro- 
videatur. Volumus itaque, ut ab ipso Concilii exordio quatuor speciales 
ac distinctae Patrum Congregationes seu Defutationes instituantur, qua- 
rum prima de rebus ad fidem pertinentibus, altera de rebus cHsciplinae 
ecclesiasticae, tertia de rebus Ordinum Regularium, quarta demum de 
rebus ritus Orientalis, Concilio perdurante, cognoscere et tractare de- 
bebit. Quaevis ex praedictis Congregationibus seu Deputationibus 
numero Patrum quatuor et viginti constabit, qui a Concilii Patribus per 
schedulas secretas eligentur. Unicuique ex iisdem Congi - egationibus 
seu Deputationibus praeerit unus ex VV. FF. NN. S. R. E. Cardinal!- 
bus a Nobis designandus, qui ex Conciliaribus Theologis vel luris Ca- 
nonici peritis, unum aut plures in commodum suae Congregationis seu 
Deputationis adsciscet, atque ex iis unum constituet, qui Secretarii 
munere eidem Congregationi seu Deputation! operam navet. Igitur si 
illud contigerit, quod supra innuimus, ut nimirum in general! Congre- 
gatione quaestio de proposito schemate exorta dirimi non potuerit, turn 
Cardinales eiusdem generalis Congregationis Praesides curabunt ut 



35 

for discussion according to the matter of which it 
treats. The conclusions arrived at by this particular 
Deputation shall be drawn up and printed, and a copy 
distributed to the Fathers according to the method 
above indicated by Us, in order that in the following 
General Congregation, if no further difficulty be raised, 
it may be possible, after taking the votes of the 
Fathers, to establish the formula of the decree or 
Canon of the Council. The votes shall be given by 
the Fathers by word of mouth ; but they shall be free 
to read them from writing if they please. 

VIIL OF THE PUBLIC SESSIONS. 

The celebration of Public Sessions requires that we 
next provide a fitting method for rightly conducting 
all their affairs. Therefore, during these Public Ses- 
sions the Fathers shall sit each in the place assigned 
to his rank, and all the ceremonies which are con- 
tained in the ritual instruction which We have ordered 
to be given to the said Fathers shall be strictly 
observed ; and the formulae of the Decrees and 
Canons fashioned in the preceding General Congre- 
gations shall, upon an order given by Us, be read 
from the pulpit in a loud and clear voice in the follow- 
ing order : First shall be read the Canons of the 
Dogmas of Faith, and then the Decrees concerning 
Discipline ; and then shall be used that solemn pre- 

schema, de quo agitxir, una cum cbiectisdifficultatibusexamini subiicia- 
tur illius ex specialibus Deputationibus, ad quam, iuxta assignata cuique 
rerum tractandarum genera pertinere intelligitur. Quae in hac peculiar! 
Deputatione deliberata fuerint, eorum relatio typis edita Patribus diri- 
benda erit, iuxta methodum a Nobis superius praescriptam, ut deinde 
in proxima Congregatione generali, si nihil amplius obstiterit, rogatis 
Pat rum suffragiis, decreti vel canonis Conciliaris formula condatur. 
Suffragia autem a Patribus oretenus edentur, ita tamen, ut ipsis 
integrum sit etiam de scripto ilia pronuntiare. 

VIIL DE SESSIONIBUS PUBLICIS. 

Publicarum mine Sessionum celebratio exigit, ut rebus et actionibus 
in ea rite dirigendis, congrua ratione consulamus. Itaque in unaquaque 
publica Sessione, considentibus suo loco et ordine Patribus, servatisque 
adamussim caereinoniis, quae in rituali instructione iisdem Patribus de 
mandato Nostro tradenda continentur, de suggestu decretorum et cano- 
num formulae in superioribus Congregationibus generalibus conditae, 
voce sublata et clara iussu Nostro recitabuntur, eo ordine, ut primum 
canones de dogmatibus Fidei, deinde decreta de disciplina pronuncien- 
tur, et ea adhibita solemni tituli praefatione, qua Praedecessores Nostri 
in eiusmodi Conciliari actione uti consueverunt, nempe : Pins Episcopus 



fatory title used by Our predecessors upon several 
occasions, Pius Episcopus Servus servorum Dei sacro 
approbante Concilia ad perpetuam rei memoriam. (Pius 
Bishop, the Servant of the Servants of God, the 
Sacred Council approving: for a perpetual memorial.) 
Then the Fathers shall be asked whether they 
approve of the Canons and Decrees already read ; 
and the scrutinizers of votes shall at once proceed, 
according to the method before laid down, to receive 
the votes of each in order, and they shall note them 
accurately. And here We declare that the votes are 
to be delivered by means of the words placet or non- 
placet ; and We further ordain that it shall be unlaw- 
ful for any who are absent (from whatever cause) 
from the Sessions, to forward their votes in writing to 
the Council. When the votes have been gathered, 
the Secretary of the Council, together with the above- 
mentioned scrutinizers, shall in front of Our Pontifical 
Chair proceed to the task of sorting them and count- 
ing them, and they shall give an account of their 
proceedings to Us ; We shall then pronounce Our 
supreme decision, and shall order it to be announced 
and promulgated, using this solemn formula The 
Decrees now read have been accepted by all the Fathers, 
none dissenting ; or (if any have dissented) so many ex- 
cepted ; and with the approbation of the Council We do 
thus decree, establish, and sanction them, just as they 

Servus Servorum Dei t sacro approbante Concilia, ad perpetuam rei mcmo~ 
riam. Tune vero rogabuntur Patres, an placeant canones et decreta 
perlecta ; ac statim precedent scrutatores suffragiorum, iuxta methodum 
superius constitutam, ad suffragia singillatim et ordine excipienda, 
eaque accurate describent. Hac autem in re declaramus suffragia pro- 
nunciari debere in haec verba, placet aut non placet : ac simul edicimus, 
minime fas esse a Sessione absentibus quavis de causa, suffragium suura 
scripto consignatum ad Concilium mittere. lamvero suiTragiis col- 
lectis, Concilii Secretarius una cum supradictis scrutatoribus penes 
Pontificalem Nostram Cathedram, iis accurate dirimendis ac nume- 
randis operam dabunt, ac de ipsis ad Nos referent : Nos deinde 
supremam Nostram sententiam edicemus, eamque enunciari et promul- 
gari mandabimus, hac adhibita solemni formula : Decreta modo lecta 
placuerunt omnibus Patribus, nemine disscntiente ; vel (si qui forte 
dissenserint) tot numero exceptis ; Nosque, sacro approbante Concilia, 
ilia ita decerninnis statuimus atque sane inius, tit lecta stint. Hisce autem 
omnibus expletis, erit Promotorum Concilii rogare Protonotarios 
praesentes, ut de omnibus et singulis in Sessione peractis, unum vel 
plura, instrumentum vel instrumenta conficiantur. Denique die 
proximae Sessionis de mandate Nostro indicta, Sessionis conventus 
dimittetur. 



37 

have been read. When this has been done it will be 
the duty of the promoters of the Council to request 
the Protonotaries who are present to draw up one or 
more documents containing all and each of the pro- 
ceedings of the Session. Finally, when the day 
appointed for the next Session shall have been an- 
nounced according to Our commands, the meeting of 
the Session will be dissolved. 

IX. ON NOT LEAVING THE COUNCIL. 
We command under the penalties decreed by the 
Sacred Canons that none of the Fathers of the Council, 
and none of those whose duty it is to be present at 
the Council, shall leave it until this holy General and 
(Ecumenical Vatican Council shall have been dissolved 
and closed by Us ; unless first the motives of his de- 
parture have been made known and approved of in 
the manner indicated above, and unless he has first 
obtained from Us permission to depart. 

X. APOSTOLIC INDULT CONCERNING NON-RESI- 
DENCE ON THE PART OF THOSE WHO ASSIST At 
THE COUNCIL. 

Since all those who are bound to be present at the 
proceedings of the Council are by their attendance 
serving the Universal Church ; in accordance likewise 
with the example of Our predecessor, We with 
(Paulus III. Brev. 1st Jan., 1546. Pius IV. Brev. 25th 

IX. DE NON DISCEDliNDO A CoNCILIO. 

Universis porro Concilii Patribus, aliisque qui eidem interesse debent 
praecipimus sub poenis per SS. Canones indictis, ut ne quis eorum, 
antequam Sacrosanctum hoc generale et oecumenicum Concilium Vati- 
canum rite absolutum et a Nobis dimissum cit, discedat, nisi disces- 
sionis causa iuxta normam superius definitam cognita et probata fuerit, 
ac impetrata a Nobis abeundi facultas. 

X. INDULTUM APOSTOLICUM DE NON RESIDENTIA PRO IIS QUI 
CONCILIO INTERSUNT. 

Cum ii omnes qui Conciliaribus actionibus interesse tenentur, ea in 
re universal! Ecclesiae deserviant : Praedecessorum Nostrorum etiam 
exemplum sequuti (Paulus III, Brev. I lanuarii 1546 ; Pius IV, Brev. 
25 Nov. 1561), Apostolica benignitate indulgemus, ut turn Praesules 
aliique suffragii ius in hoc Concilio habentes, turn ceteri omnes eidem 
Concilio operam quovis titulo impendentes, suorum beneficiorum 
fructus, reditus, proventus ac distributiones quotidianas percipere 
/>ossint, iis tantum distributionibus exceptis, quae inter pratscntes fieri 
dicuntur ; idque concedimus Synodo perdurante, et donee quisque 
eidem adsit aut inserviat. 



38 

Nov., 1561.) Apostolic benignity allow the Fathers 
and others who have the right to vote in this Council, 
as well as all others who assist by any office at this 
same Council, to receive the fruits of their benefices, 
their revenues, their incomes, and their daily distribu- 
tions, those only excepted which are made as is said, 
inter prcsentcs, and this We concede both during the 
Synod and during the time that each one is assisting 
at it or by duty assisting it. 

These then are Our will and commands, and We 
decree that these Our letters and everything contained 
in them be respectively and inviolably observed by 
all and each whom it may concern in the coming holy 
General and (Ecumenical Vatican Council : all things 
to the contrary notwithstanding, however worthy 
each may be of special and individual mention and 
regard. 

Given at Rome at S. Peter's under the Fisherman's 
Ring, the 2/th day of November of the year 1869, 
the 24th of Our Pontificate. 

N. CARD. PARACCIANI-CLARELLI. 



THE OATH. 

following is the form of oath by which all the 
officials employed in the Vatican Council bind 
themselves not to divulge what they hear : 

Nos a Sanctitate Vestra electi officiales generalis 
Concilii Vaticani, tactis per nos sacrosanctis Dei 
Evangeliis, promittimus et juramus officium unicuique 
nostrum respective demandatum fideliter impleturos, 
nee insuper evulgaturos vel alicui extra gremium 
praedicti Concilii, pandituros quaecumque in eodem 

Haec volumus atque mandamus, decernentes has Nostras Litteras et 
in eis contenta quaecumque, in proximo sacrosancto general! et oecu- 
menico Concilio Vaticano, ab omnibus et singulis ad quos spectat, 
respective et inviolabiliter observari debere. Non obstantibus, quamvis 
special! atque individua mentione ac derogatione dignis, in contrarium 
facientibus quibuscumque. 

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum sub Annulo Piscatoris, die XXVII. 
Novembris anno MDCCCLXIX. Pontificatus Nostri anno Vigesimo 
quarto. 

N, CARD. PARACCIANI-CLARELLI. 



39 

Concilio examinanda proponentur, itemque discus- 
siones et singulorum sententias, sed super iis omnibus 
quemadmodum et super aliis rebus quae nobis spe- 
cialiter committentur, inviolabilem secret! fidem ser- 
vaturos. 

Ego N. N. electus ad officium promitto et juro 
juxta formulam prselectam. 

Sic me Deus adjuvet et haec sancta Dei Evangelia. 



THE SERMON 

PREACHED AT THE OPENING OF THE COUNCIL BE- 
FORE THE SOVEREIGN PONTIFF AND THE ASSEM- 
BLED FATHERS BY MGR LUIGI PUECHER PASSA- 
VALLI, ARCHBISHOP OF ICONIUM IN PARTIBUS 
INFIDELIUM AND VICAR OF THE VATICAN 
BASILICA. 

* MOST HOLY FATHER, 

THE choice of myself to open these proceedings, 
which are the holiest and most weighty in the 
world, filled me, I confess, from the very out- 
set, with such dismay, that unequal as I feel to the 
task, I should have left no stone unturned to escape 
from it, had I not been cheered and encouraged by 
the voice of him who presides here to-day over our 
assembly, clad in the awful and majestic splendour of 
the fulness of the Priesthood. Although, then, in- 
ferior in age, genius, authority, and personal merit to 
my brethren in the Episcopate, yet have I taken up 
this burden, for my faith is great in those words of 
the Holy Ghost : Vir obediens loquitur victorias : 
" The obedient man shall speak of victories." (Prov. 
xxi. 28.) 

* BEATISSIME PATER ! 

Electus, qui initium facerem rei, qua in toto fortasse terrarum orbe 
alia nulla aut sanctior aut gravior esse potest, fateor, me statim, tanto 
officio imparem, ita animum despondisse, ut nihil ad illud declinandum 
praitermisissem, nisi vox Eius, qui verendo totius maiestatis sacerdo- 
talis fulgore, huic nostro conventui praesidet, me recreasset atque erex- 
isset. Quamquam itaque neque aetate, neque ingenio, neque auctoritate 
aut mentis cum iis, qui mei sunt in Episcopatu collegae sini compar- 
andus, onus nihilo tamen secius suscepi, confisus praesertim illo Sancti 
Spiritus eflato : Vir obediens loquetur victorias. (Prov. xxi., 28.) 



40 

But there was another reason which influenced me 
not a little in undertaking the task. For when I re- 
membered that the city in which I first drew the 
breath of life was the same wherein the Church held 
Her last General Council that Council so often, so 
highly, and so deservedly extolled, and which by 
many is considered to have been itself a prodigy the 
thought struck me that Divine Providence, which, it 
is well-known, disports itself at times upon the earth, 
had raised me up by the instrumentality of the Su- 
preme Vicar of Christ, and in preference to all others, 
for the discharge of this duty, in order to recall to 
your recollection, even by my poor means, the saving 
benefits conferred in those days by God upon the 
world, and by the remembrance of them to arise in 
your hearts a great hope, that He will be with you 
now, and by His secret judgments dispose all things 
for the good of the Church. 

Cheered by considerations such as these, I take 
heart and address myself with alacrity to the task 
which obedience, not to say Divine Providence itself, 
has imposed upon me, and I hail the opening of this 
Synod of the Universal Church with the auspicious 
words of King David : Euntes ibant et flebant mit- 
tentes semina sua : venientes autem venient cum cxulta- 
tione portantes manipulos suos. " They went forth 
weeping, sowing their seed, but returning they came 
with joy carrying their sheaves in their arms." (Ps. 
cxxv. 7, 8). For these words seem to me on the one 

Accedit alia quoque ratio, quae me ad illud capessendum non parum 
impulit. Nam cum ego primas vitales auras in ea urbe hausissem, in 
qua Catholica Ecclesia suum postremum Concilium habuit, quod tot 
tanlisque laudibus merito celebratur, ac pene cunctis miraculum visum 
est ; subiit cogitatio, me divinam illam Providentiam, quam saepe in 
orbe terrarum ludere iam notum est, ad hoc munus, opera supremi 
Christi Vicarii prae aliis omnibus excitasse, ut Vobis, saltern vel ipsa 
mea tenuitate, in memoriam revocaret saluberrima christiano orbi 
beneficia per illud tune temporis a se collata, quorum recordatione 
animi vestri in spem maximam erigi possent, nunc quoque Vobis affutu- 
ram suoque arcano consilio cuncta in Ecclesiae bonum disposituram. 

Quibus omnibus ego ipse non minimum relevatus animum sumo, ac 
officium, quod mihi obedientia, nedum providens Dei consilium impo- 
suit, alacriter aggredior, atque hanc universalis Ecclesiae Synodum aus- 
picor ab illis David icis verbis : Euntes ibant et flebant mittentes semina 
sita : venientes aitteni vcnient citm exttltatione portantes manipulos suos. 
(Ps. cxxv. 7 et 8.) His enim quum lacrimabilis hodierna nostra con- 



41 

hand to depict in faithful colours the tears and the 
wretchedness of the present time, whilst, on the other, 
they place before our eyes, almost prophetically, the 
joyful triumph of the future. 

None of you, Venerable Fathers, can be ignorant 
that the words, just quoted by me, have been referred 
for special wise reasons by the Church Herself to 
the Apostles and their Divine mission. For you well 
know how, as soon as they had received the gift of 
the Holy Ghost, promised to them by Jesus Christ in 
these words : Et Ego mitto promissum Patris Met in 
vos: vos autem sedete in civitate, quoadusque indua- 
mini virtute ex alto. " And behold I send the promise 
of My Father upon you : but tarry ye in the city 
until ye be indued with power from on high ; " (Luke 
xxiv., 49.) as soon, I say, as the fulness of the Spirit 
of God was breathed into them to overflowing, they 
all girded themselves, as you remember, to the task 
of preaching the Gospel to the entire world. You are 
aware, too, how, enriched by the Incarnate Word 
with the Divine seed of heavenly doctrine, they scat- 
tered it broadcast, wherever they set their foot, and 
committed it to that earth, which, from the beginning 
of the world, when it was cursed in the work of man, 
had been for the space of forty centuries, as Leo the 
Great testifies of Rome itself, converted into a forest 
full of howling wild beasts, into a tempestuous sea 
agitated to its lowest depths. (Serin. I. de SS. Apost. 
Petro et Paulo). You know what they achieved 

ditio, turn etiam laetus rerum futurarum eventus summis quasi lineis 
pingi ac veluti sub oculos portend! ac sisti mihi videntur. 

Neminem vejtrum, Venerabiles Patres, posse latere arbitror, verba, 
quae nuper protuli, peculiar! quadam ac sapient! ratione ab ipsa Eccle- 
sia ad Apostolos eorumque divinam missionem fuisse relata. Probe 
enim nostis, quomodo hi, statim ac Paracleti munere, quod eis pollici- 
tus fuerat lesus his verbis : Et ego mitto promissum Patris mei in vos : 
vos autem sedete in civitate, quoadusque induamini virtute ex alto (Luc. 
xxiv. 49), cumulatissime afflati fuissent, ac veluti saginati, universum 
orbem praedicatione evangelica aggressi sunt. Nostis, quomodo divino 
caelestis doctrinae semine ab ipso Verbo locupletati, illud abunde spar- 
serint, quacumque pedes intulissent, super terram iacientes, qua iam 
inde ab exordio mundi, quando maledicta est in hominis opere, quadra- 
ginta saeculorum spatio conversa fuerat, ut Leo Magnus de Roma ipsa 
testatur, insilvamfremcnthim bestiarum ac turlndentissimacprofunditatis 
oceanum (Serm. I de SS. Apos. Petro et Paulo). 

Nostis atque ipsis vestris oculis mihi videmini hos inopes piscatom 



42 

nay, I fancy you contemplate with your eyes these 
poor fishermen, destitute of all those helps in which 
men are wont to place their reliance : they cross unat- 
tended the widest seas, penetrate unarmed into lands 
girt round by deserts, or rendered inaccessible by 
mountain ranges, and they traverse, without start* or 
scrip, kingdoms and provinces of immense extent, 
situated at the furthest ends of the world : and all this 
(who would have believed it at the time ?) with one 
only end in view to rescue from a disgraceful and 
tyrannical yoke, and win to the cross of Jesus Christ 
the nations of the world, which, if not all buried in a 
monstrous barbarism and degraded by savage manners 
and customs, were yet, in spite of their refinement, 
their letters, and their knowledge of the sciences, 
steeped to the very lips, with the worst of human kind, 
in every species of vice and infamy. 

And in an enterprize of such magnitude, it is not 
difficult to understand the vast labour which they 
underwent, the cruel hardships which they endured, 
the unjust and fierce persecutions which they suffered. 
The day would not be long enough, nay, words them- 
selves would fail me, if I had a mind to enumerate 
their toils to you ; for they are countless, I had almost 
said unutterable. " I know not what to say," says S. 
J. Chrysostom, who, by dint of daily meditation upon 
them, had brought all these things home and made 
them familiar to himself " I know not what to say 
or how to express myself, when I contemplate your 

vos videre auxiliis omnibus, quibus humana nititur fides, destitutes, qua 
vastissima maria solos tranare, qua terras sive solitudine cinctas, sive 
montibus inaccessas inermes penetrare, qua regna ac provincias et am- 
plitudine immensas et locorum distantiis exterminatas sine baculo ac 
pera transcurrere ; atque haec omnia, quis tune hominum credidisset ? 
Ob illud unum, nempe ut gentes partim immanitate barbaras et moribus 
ac ritibus efferatas, partim, litteris licet ac scientiis excultas, vitiis nihi- 
lominus sicut ceteras, atque omni turpitudinum genere obrutas, oppro- 
brioso isto ac tyrannico iugo eriperent, et cruci Domini manciparent. 

Qua quid em in re nemo non percipit quot labores exantlare debuerint, 
quas perpeti aerumnas, quas denique iniurias ac persecutiones perferre. 
Dies me deficeret, si haec omnia vellem vobis evolvere, quin et lingua ; 
innumerabilia sunt enim, ac pene dixerim ineffabilia. Quid dicatii, 
aiebat ipse Chrysostomus, cui haec erant diuturna meditatione perspecta 
atque explorata, quid dicaiu, aut quid loquar vcstras co}iteniplans afflic- 
tiones, nescio. Quot carceres sanclificastis ? Quot catenas decorastis ? 
Quot tormenta sustinuistis ? Quot maledicta tolerastis ? Qnoinodo 



43 

sufferings. How many prisons have you hallowed ! 
How many chains have you honoured ! How many 
tortures have you endured ! How much foul abuse 
have you patiently borne ! How have you carried 
Christ ! To how many Churches have you brought 
the glad tidings of the Gospel ! " (Serm. apud Meta- 
phras^) 

It is with reason then, that the Royal Psalmist sang 
of the Apostles : Euntes ibant et flebant niittcntes 
semina sua. But behold, Venerable Fathers, the mar- 
vellous effect of the tears which they shed ! Indeed, 
they were to the world what the night-showers of 
rain, falling gently upon the ground, are to the 
parched earth during a protracted drought the grass 
springs up again, the leaves become green, and the 
flowers, lifting up their drooped heads and opening 
out their closed cups, fill the freshened air with the 
fragrance of a thousand perfumes. For, no sooner 
had the Apostles watered with their tears the parched- 
up lands, whereon they had cast the seed of Divine 
truth, than these bore such abundant fruits that at 
once we see a marvellous fertility reigning where be- 
fore nothing but a rugged waste had met the gaze, 
and lands once occupied by thorns and briars undulate 
with the yellow crops which impatiently invite the 
hand of the reaper to gather them into sheaves and 
bear them to the granaries of the Lord. 

Such was undoubtedly the success which, as you 
all know, crowned the labours of the Apostles. Con- 

Christum portasti 1 ?, f Quomodo praedicatione Ecdesias laelificastis . ? 
(Serm. apud Metaphras. ) 

Vere itaque. vere, inquam, de Apostolis regius Psaltes cecinerat, quod 
ettntes ibant et fleba>it mitteutes seniina sua. Sed videte, Venerabiles 
Patres, huius Apostolici fletus plane mirum effectum ? Is stquidem 
erat, qualis est in maximis siccitatibus nocturna fluvia, qua placide in 
aridum solum decidente, germinant herbae, folia virescunt, ac flores 
languentia tollunt capita, clausosque aperiunt calices, quibus interim 
aer fragrantissima undequaque mille odorum suavitate perfundilur. 
Namque veritatis semen squallentibus illis agris immissum, postquam hi 
fuissent apostolorum lacrymis irrigati, adeo uberrimos tultt fructus, ut, 
ubi horrida prius sterilitas occurrebat, admiranda fecunditassuspiceretur, 
atque uncle tribuli tantum ac spinae exsurgebant, largae inde flavescerent 
segetes metentium manum exposcentes, qui eas in manipulos colligatis 
Dominicis horreis inferrent. 

Atque hunc proculdubio, Vos scitis, exitum habuere innumeri Aposto- 
lorum labores. Fletus enim eorum, messium copia perspecta, in 



44 

template the plenty of the harvest, and tell me if their 
tears have not been wiped away and their mourning 
converted into joy, as brimfull of comfort as their 
sorrow had been extreme, and cheering their hearts 
with the assured hope of receiving a reward propor- 
tionate to the harvest with which they are laden, and 
which they are bearing to the house of the Lord : 
Venientes autem venient ciim exultatione portantes 
manipulos stws. 

Such being the case, Venerable Fathers, I do not 
hesitate for a moment to see in your position on this 
very day a striking resemblance to that of the Apos- 
tles in bygone ages. For I behold you flocking to 
this august assembly from the most distant quarters 
of the world, your brows clouded with sorrow, your 
heads bowed down by the weight of anxiety, and your 
hearts worn out with anguish, because of the fearful 
havoc which the ancient enemy of mankind has made 
and is still preparing to make amongst souls. I see 
you, I repeat it, assembled in this mystic Cenacle, to 
draw from it, by the united strength of your counsels, 
a seed still more fruitful in truth and justice : and 
that you will not be disappointed in your expectations 
is made manifest by the gravity of the topics which 
are about to be submitted to your consideration in this 
Synod. 

Far be it from me, on the other hand, to wish to 
anticipate your wise deliberations, if, treading in the 

gaudium est versus, moerorem expulit laetitia, quae tanto maiore con; 
solatione uniuscuiusque animum permulcere profecto debuit, quanto 
graviore tristitia demersi fuerant, quantoque ampliorem ex ipsis fruc- 
tibus etiam mercedem sperabant se esse consecuturos, quum illis onusti 
Domino vineae occurrissent : Venientes autem venient cum exultatione 
portantes manipulos suos. 

Quae cum ita sint, nullus dubito, Venerabiles Patres, quin in ilia 
Apostolorum hodiernam vestram conditionem respraesentarim. Vos 
namque video e remotissimis quoque terrarum partibus ad hunc 
adgustum consessum lubenter quidem accurrisse, sed fronte simul 
attrita, demissoque curarum pondere capite, atque animis moerore 
confectis, propter horrendas animarum strages, quas antiquus humani 
generis adversarius iam edidit, quasque etiam parat maiores in pos- 
terum editurus. Vos, inquam, video ad mysticum hoc coenaculum 
adventasse, ut, viribus consiliisque collatis, uberius inde veritatis ac 
iustitiae semen nancisceremini. Nee frustra erit expectatio vestra, 
idque Vobis apertissime ostendit ipsa gravitas rerum, quae in hac 
Synodo erunt pertractandae. 

Porro longe absit, ut ego velim sapientissimas vestras deliberationes 



45 

enlightened path already freely opened out by our 
august Pontiff, I venture to assert that this Synod 
will afford you the fullest means of gathering an 
abundant supply of the heavenly seed. For the sub- 
jects of debate will be, how to lead Christian nations 
away from polluted cisterns, tainted with the poison 
of every error ; how to call them back to the living, 
clear, and never-failing springs of the Saviour ; how 
to give fresh vigour to the beneficent action of the 
Church, by investing it with a new character, or arming 
it with fresh support, that it may journey on by hi- 
therto untrodden paths, according to the end for 
which it was established, and may from day to day 
open out for itself fresh channels, through which the 
virtue and grace of the Holy Ghost may be, with 
greater security and facility, poured out upon each of 
the members of Christ's Mystical Body ; further, how 
to knit the strength and energies of the faithful so 
firmly and closely together as to enable them to with- 
stand, baffle, defeat, and utterly prostrate the com- 
bined attacks of atheism, hypocrisy, and impiety ; 
how, in a word, the spirit and life of Christianity may 
be so far restored as once again to be resplendent 
with that Divine light, in the bright effulgence of 
which it was first seen upon the earth, when freshly 
purified by the Sacrament of water and blood which 
flowed from the gaping wound in the side of the 
Redeemer ; our Holy Religion, the beautiful and 
beloved Daughter of God, which stepped down from 

prsevertere, si luminosis insistens vestigiis ab augusto nostro Pontifice 
libere iam patefactis, affix-mare nunc ausim divitem ex ea caelestis illius 
seminis copiam n.ffatim comparand! facultatem amplissimam Vobis om- 
nibus esse datam. Agetur enim quomodo christiani populi a putridis 
vitiatisque omni errorum colluvie cisternis abducti, ad limpidas atque 
inexhaustas Servatoris aquas possint revocari : quomodo beneficia 
Ecclesiae actio sive novas formas induta, sive novis instructa adminiculis 
vegetior reddi possit, ut secundum eum finem ad quern est instituta non 
antea tentatos calles pervadat, atque alia identidem sibi ora adaperiat, 
quibus Paracleti virtu^ et gratia in singulamystici Christi corporis mem- 
bra tutius ac facilius effundi queat : quomodo item vividae fidelium vires 
in unum adeo arete sint constringendae, ut insanis atheismi, hypocrisis 
impietatisque ausibus obsistere possint eosque irritos facere, imo etiam 
confringere ac penitus exterminare : quomodo denique, uno verbo dicam, 
christianorum spiritus ac vita instauranda sit, ita ut ea ipsa divina luce 
resplendeat, qua primum in terris visa est, quum Religio haec nostra, 
pulcherrima ac dilecta Dei filia, aquae et sanguinis Sacramento, quod e 



4 6 

the Hill of Calvary to take possession of the world, 
received by her for her inheritance. 

These are the results which we may legitimately 
expect from this assemblage. For who can conceive 
what molten streams of pastoral charity will burst 
forth from this hall, as from another Cenacle ? Who 
can imagine the depth and the power of the wisdom 
which will issue from your midst, when, as each one 
contributes, not the faculties of his intellect only, but 
also the affections of his heart, to the common service, 
you carefully weigh and zealously discuss the grave 
necessities of the whole human race ? It is certain 
that, when your task is done, you will return from 
Rome, this second Jerusalem, to your respective 
dioceses enriched with treasures of accumulated wis- 
dom and virtue. The kingdoms of Europe, the far-off 
countries of Asia, and the islands of Oceanica, the 
regions of Africa and America will welcome you 
.back, and at once hail you, all burning with the fire of 
.the Holy Ghost, as diligent husbandmen, eager to 
plough up the hitherto untilled soil, to sow the fields, 
and to gather the grapes from the vines, that they may 
bear fresh fruit, or at least may yield it more abun- 
dantly than ever. 

Yes, Venerable Fathers, then indeed will your 
labours commence, then will bitter days dawn and 
countless sorrows come upon you : then will the words 
of David begin to be verified in you : Euntes ibant et 
flebant mittentes semina sna. For then will it appear 



latere Redemptoris effluxerat, emaculata a Calvario mcnle 
universe orbe, quern sibi in hnercditatem acceptrat, potitura. 

Neque aliter profecto argue ndum est de maximo hoc nostro conventu. 
Ecquis enim potent mente concipere. quae et quanta ex hoc veluti 
altero coenaculo pastoralis charitas emanatura sit ? Quae et quanta sa- 
pientiae vis istinc eruptura, quum non moc^o uniuscuiusvis aninii scnsa, 
sed et ipsius cordis affectus in communem usum conferenlesgravissimas 
illas totius humanitatis necessitates ciiligentissime agitabitis aique acriter 
perpendetis? Vos certe his omnibus absolutis, atque ingenti doctrinae 
ac virtutum thesauro cunmlati Roma, Jerusalem alt era, in vest ram unus- 
qui?que dioecesim proficiscemiri. Vos iterum Eurcpae regua, iterum 
extrema Asiae atque insulae Oceani, iterum Afiicae atque Ameiicae 
regiones excipient, omnesque Sancti Spiritus igne fiagrantes, Vos soler- 
tes continuo agricolas visent, sohim hucusque incultum prcsc'r.dere, 
agros serere, vineas potare, ut aut novos edant, aut uberiores referant 
fructus. 

Ast hinc labor, Venerabiles Patres, hinc amarissimi dies, innumerique 
dolores, hinc et in Vos impleri incipient verba ilia Davidica : E-i 



47 

how bitter and how numerous are the foes against 
whom you have to contend. Then will philosophers, 
and politicians as they are called, then will princes, 
and kings, and the peoples themselves conspire toge- 
ther to baffle all your zealous efforts and bring your 
assiduous benefits to nought ; whilst, in another quar- 
ter, those wretched men, who at one moment make 
open avowal of atheism, and at another put on the 
mask of a hideous hypocrisy, will make common 
cause and leave no stone unturned to subvert from its 
very foundations, if that were possible, the Church 
itself. Alas ! what a fierce and what an endless war 
is this ? How bitter, how relentless, and how impla- 
cable are our enemies ! Add to these evils (and this 
is perhaps the greatest of our misfortunes), the indif- 
ference of so many ; for, so long as the Church is 
oppressed by this weight, her cultivated and most 
fertile fields must in a short time become unproduc- 
tive, and be converted into a rugged waste, where 
barrenness and death hold undisputed sovereignty, far 
and near. 

And in the midst of such waves as these, I will 
speak plainly, and amid such treacherous quicksands 
you must shape your course, Venerable Fathers ; 
amidst such hurricanes, threatening utter ruin to all 
things, you must take your stand, immovable as the 
rock ; through difficulties such as these you must ply 
the oar and steer your ship, and strive might and main 
to preserve it safe and deliver it back, sound and 

ibant, etflebant nrittentes semina sua. Nam turn demum, quum operi 
manus Vobis erit admovenda, palam apparebit, cum quibus quantisque 
adversariis opus fuerit dimicare. Hinc philosophi ac politici, ut aiunt, 
viri, hinc principes ac reges ipsique populi in unum coniurabunt ut ves- 
trae pietatis studia, vestraque industriae beneficia in irritum cadant : 
turn parte alia male feriati homines modo apertum atheismum profitentes, 
modo foedissima hypocrisi circumamicti, inita societate, omnem mov- 
ebunt lapidem, ut Catholicam ipsam religionem, si fieri possit, e funda- 
mentis evertant. Eheu ! quale inde bellum, quam ferum quamque 
diuturnum ! Eheu ! quales hostes, quam pertinaces quamque implaca- 
biles ! His insuper addite, quae plaga est omnium fortasse maxima, 
plurimonim indifferentiam, qua Ecclesiam Christi premente, culta 
quaeque ac pinguia brevi tempore sterilescant necesse est, inque horri- 
dam solitudinem veniant, ubi squallor tantum ac mors latissime domi- 
nentur. 

Atque inter hos fluctus, dicam aperte, inter has syrtes dolosas, Vobis 
incedendum est, Venerabiles Patres ; inter has procellas, quae cuncta in 
praceps minantur, Vobis, tamquam immotis scopulis versandura est : 



4 8 

entire, to the Father of the Household, by whom it 
has been lent to you at interest. 

Nor is the peril of your situation a source of won- 
der to you, Venerable Fathers, for you are fully alive 
to its difficulties, and are perfectly aware taught not 
only by the example of others, but also, in part at 
least, by your own experience that so great an un- 
dertaking as this is, could not be, I will not say per- 
fected, but even begun, without embarking on a vast 
sea of pains and troubles. For, in truth, it would be 
necessary for us either never to have learnt the 
meaning of the mission confided to us by Christ, and 
the sublime character of the charge laid upon Bishops 
or (and this would be a deep disgrace) we should 
have to be ignorant of the multitude and magnitude 
of the evils under which the human race is groaning, 
not to be able to perceive, at the very first sight, as 
we gird ourselves to the work set before us, the dan- 
gers and the contradictions to which we must be ex- 
posed, and how utterly hopeless success must be if we 
do not put on the spirit by which the great Apostle 
of the Gentiles was animated when he made this open 
profession : Adimpleo ea qiiae desunt passionum Christi 
in came meet pro corpore Ejus, quod est Ecclesia. 
" I fill up in my flesh that which is wanting of the 
sufferings of Christ, for His Body, which is the 
Church." (Coloss. i. 24.) 

But bear within your breasts, O Venerable Fathers, 
noble and courageous hearts. For if, by a mysterious 

hue vestra est navis dirigenda, hue remi impellendi, hue demum omni 
animorum contentione incumbendum, ut incolumis sarta tecta servetur 
et Patrifamilias, a quo Vobis est credita cum usura, reddatur. 

Nee mirum ita se haberi rem vestram, cum ipsi Vos, Venerabiles 
Patres, testes eius sitis, et non aliorum tantum exemplo, verum etiam, 
saltern ex parte aliqua, ipsa vestra experientia probe sciatis utrum possit 
hoc tantum facinus, non dicam ad perfectum adduci, sed neque inchoari, 
quin in vastum poenarum atque aegritudinum pelagus incurrendum sit. 
Namque revera opus esset atit numquam didicisse, quid missio Christi 
significet, et in quo se gerat sublime episcoporum mandatum ; aut,.quod 
omnino probrosum esset, penitus ignorare quot quantisque malis liuma- 
num genus obruatur, ut quis nequeat, in perfungendo hoc munere, vel 
primo obtutu, perspicere, quibus periculis, quibusque contradictionibus 
obnoxius esse debeat, aut quomodo felix exitus sperari non possit, nisi 
animo ita sit comparatus, qualis erat Doctor gentium, qui de se palam 
profitebatur : Adimplco eaquae desnnt passionum Christi in carne mea 
pro corpore eiu.r, quod est Ecclesia. (Coloss. i. 24. ) 

Sed facite, Patres amplissimi, animo forti magnoque sitis, Si enim 



49 

dispensation of Divine Providence, the seed of the 
Gospel cannot take root, sprout up, and grow into the 
vigorous tree, clothed in the glad beauty of leaves and 
boughs, unless it be first watered by the tears and 
blood of Apostolic men, it is also most certainly the 
will of God that these same tears, shed for the sake 
of truth and justice, be rewarded by torrents of pious 
and holy consolations from Heaven ; for it is written : 
Beati qtii lugent, quoniam ipsi consolabuntur ! "Blessed 
are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted ! " 
(Matth. v. 5.) And if it has been said of the disciples 
of Christ, as of all other heralds of the Gospel, that 
they went sowing their seed in tears and sorrow, it 
has been also prophesied of the same that they re- 
turned with jubilee carrying their sheaves in their 
arms. Now, if the second part of these prophetic 
words have been realized to the full, even from the 
beginning of the Church, so that the Apostle could 
say with truth : Quoniam sicut abundant passiones 
Chris ti in nobis, ita et per Christum abundat consolatio 
nostra ; in proportion as the sufferings of Christ are 
multiplied in us does our consolation abound (2 Cor. 
i. 5), the same joyful prospect lies before you, if, ani- 
mated by the heroic spirit of your predecessors, you 
tread manfully in their footsteps, scientes quod sicut 
socii passionum estis sic eritis et consolationum. 
" Knowing that as you are companions in sufferings, 
so also shall ye be in consolations." (2 Cor. v. 7.) 
And indeed, is not the truly wonderful manner in 

Dei prorsus arcanum est consilium, ut mysticum evangelicae doctrinae 
semen nequeat germinare vel crescere, aut frondium pulcritudine, 
florumque laetitia vigere, nisi ea conditione, ut virorum apostolicorum 
fletu et sanguine assidue madescat atque irrigetur ; ipsius Dei est etiam 
voluntas, ut eas lacrymas, quae iustitiae ac veritatis ergo effunduntur, 
piae ac sanctae consolationes e caelo ubertim repensent, cum scriptum 
sit: Beati qui lugent, quoniam ipsi consolabuntur! (Matth. v. 5-) 
Nam si de Christi discipulis, deque caeteris Evangelii praeconibus dic- 
tum est, quod euntes ibant et flebant mittentes semina sna, aeque de 
iisdem prolatum est, quod venientes venient cum exultatione portantes 
viaiiipulos suos. Et si haec altera propheticorum verborum pars, iam 
ab initio Ecclesiae, ut vidimus, effectum suum plenissime est sortita, 
adeo ut scribere potuerit Apostolus : Quoniam sicut abundant passiones 
Christi in nobis, ita et per Christum abundat eonsolatio nostra, (2 Cor. 
i. 5.) eumdem effectum et Vobis propositum esse patet, dummodo 
eodem ac vestrorum praedecessorum spiritu moti sacris eorum vestigiis 
intrepide inhaereatis, sciences quod sicut socii passionum estis, sic eritis 
et consolationum. (Ibid. v. 7. ) 

E 



50 

which this Council, (composed as it is of Fathers from 
every part of Christendom,) has been brought toge- 
ther, is not this alone an earnest of the generous re- 
ward we may expect for our labours, and a pledge of 
the great prize which God has stored up for us in 
heaven ? Who among you, Venerable Fathers, does 
not see, that this mercy has been extended to us, in 
the midst of difficulties of every kind, as a happy 
omen of that future for which we may hope, provided 
that we ourselves oppose no obstacle to the stream 
of truth and justice which is about to leap forth from 
the Rock of the Vatican ? And therefore I may be 
allowed, with a deep feeling of filial and brotherly 
sympathy, briefly to recall to mind the great sorrows 
of the Father and his sons. 

Once securely harboured within the sacred shadow 
of the Vatican we have looked back in sorrowful 
wonder at the piles of ruins, which Satan has so 
speedily heaped up around us, far and wide ; we 
have seen the stormy waves of impiety rising higher 
every day and threatening even this asylum of peace 
and tranquillity ; with trembling hearts, full of dejec- 
tion and sorrow, we thought to breathe out our souls 
upon the crumbled ruins of the temple ; uttering the 
sad words of that lover of his brethren : Quomodo sedet 
sola civitas plena populo ; facta est qziasi vidua domina 
gentium ; princeps provinciarum facta est sub tribute. 
" How doth the city sit sorrowful that was full of 
people ! How is the mistress of the Gentiles become 

Et quod reapse amplissimam ex nostris laboribus mercedem iam in 
hac vita simus consecuturi, utque ingens praeterea nos maneat in caelis 
praemium a Deo, vel ex ipso quod nunc nobis offertur pignore claris- 
sime evincitur ; scilicet ex modo vere mirando, quo cogi potuit solemne 
hoc totius christianitatis Patrum Concilium. Quis enim non videt 
Deum hoc facto, tarn felicibus auspiciis inter omnigenas difficultates 
incoepto voluisse certissimum nobis indicium praebere eorum, quae in 
posterum speranda concipimus, modo nos ipsi veritatis ac iustitiae flu- 
mini, quod e rupe Vaticana mox processurum est, impedimento non 
simus ? Atque hinc mini liceat, quaeso, sublimes Patris ac filiorum 
dolores non sine pietatis sensu vobis commemorare. 

Nos siquidem ad sacram Vatican! umbram quasi perfugio recepti 
mirabamur immensas, quas Satanas late ac rapidissime ruinas circa nos 
congerebat ; mirabamur turbulentissimos impietatis fluctus quotidie 
magis increscere, atque huic ipsi pacis asylo minari ; trepidi proinde 
omnes gementesque et pallore confecti arbitrabamur nos quoque con- 
fractis templi ruderibus assidentes spiritum iam iam exhalaturos esse ea 
lamentabili amatoris fratrum voce. Quomodo sedet sola civtias plena popu- 



as a widow : the princess of provinces made tributary !" 
(Lamentations, v. I.) When, behold, a ray of purest 
light cleaves the thick darkness, and revives our 
almost withered hopes. For the mind of the Supreme 
Pontiff, who directs the helm of the ship, was inspired 
with the thought of calling to his side the Elders of 
the new Israel and his brother judges in the faith, that 
they might, by their united wisdom, take immediate 
concert for the security of the Tabernacle of God, 
threatened even in the inmost recesses of its sanctuary, 
by hosts of formidable enemies. 

This was from the beginning the mist-cloud which 
appears in the morning, and straightway vanishes, 
quick as the lightning that shoots across the heavens. 
In truth, the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, who pro- 
ceeds from the Father and the Son, and who has ever 
divinely protected it, quickens in a moment with His 
life-giving and seven-fold light, the august and vener- 
able Chair of S. Peter : and, wondrous to relate, that 
inspired thought, like the grain of mustard-seed which 
indeed, according to the Evangelist, is the least of all 
seeds, but when it is grown is the greatest among herbs, 
and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come 
and lodge in the branches thereof (Matth. xiii. 32) ; 
that inspired thought, I say, burst forth and is de- 
veloped by the power and efficacy of the Holy Spirit, 
until it has assumed gigantic proportions. Yes, 
Venerable Fathers, it is this inspired thought which 
has gathered us together to-day from every country 

lo ; facia est quasi vidua domina gentium ; princeps provinciarum facta est 
sub tributo. (Tren. ) Quum ecce radius purissimae lucis densas findit 
tenebras, ac spem nostram pene arescentem iterum sublevat. Namque in 
mente supremi nostri Hierarchae, qui navis temperat gubernaculum 
oritur cogitatio novi Israel seniores fideique coniudices apud se convo- 
candi, ut sancto Dei tabernaculo usque in intimis suis adytis ac re- 
cessibus ab innumerabilibus ac formidatissimis hostibus lacessito, com- 
muni omnium consensu quam primum provideatur. 

Erat haec ab initio veluti nebula, quae mane paret, atque extemplo, 
quasi fulgur caelorum spatia pertransiens, cito evanescit. Verum 
Spiritus ille Paracletus, qui a Patre Filioque procedit, atque in aeternum 
augustam hanc Cathedram suo praesidio tutatur, earn illico vivifica ac 
septiibrmi sua luce fecundat : et, mirabile dictu ! ea cogitatio similis 
grano sinapis, quod, testante Evangelio, minimum quidem est omnibus 
seminibus, quum autern creverit maius est omnibus oleribus, et fit arbor ; 
ita ut volucres coeli veniant, et habitant in ramis eius (Matth. xiii., 32) j 
ea cogitatio, inquam, vi efficacissima Paracleti statim erumpit, crescit 
ac citius dicto fit gigas. Et ecce nos iam in unum ex universis terrae 



52 

of the world in this vast Basilica, this miracle of Chris- 
tian art ; and behold us at the tomb of the Prince of 
the Apostles, whence we still breathe the never-failing 
life and vigour of all episcopal virtues, at the shrines 
of Leo, of the two Gregorys, and of Chrysostom, 
whence, you might imagine, streams of eloquence, still 
fresh after the lapse of so many ages, are flowing to 
water once again the fields of the Church. But there 
is another consideration, which should fill our souls 
with comfort to overflowing and it is, that we are 
standing in the very presence of Peter himself, who, 
alive in the person of his lawful successor, seems once 
again to proclaim aloud, moved by the same impulse 
of love and faith as of old : Thou art Christ, the Sou 
of the living God ; and once again, the sublime answer 
of the Redeemer, sitting at the right hand of His 
Father, comes to us from Heaven : " And I say to 
thee, that thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will 
build My Church ; and the gates of hell shall not pre- 
vail against it." 

I delight, Venerable Fathers, to recall these things 
to mind, that our confidence may be still further in- 
creased, and our souls be filled with a more cheerful 
alacrity to perform the great work imposed upon us 
by this Synod, on which the eyes of all nations are at 
this moment riveted, and in which the hopes of the 
world are centred. And if, on the one hand, this 
Council prove a source of many grievous trials to you, 
in the defence of truth and justice, and lead you at 

regionibus in hac immensa Basilica, christiani ingenii miraculo, congre- 
gati ; ecce nos ad sepulcrum Principis Apostolorum, unde adhuc 
perennis episcopalian! virtutum aura spirat ac viget ; ecce nos ad Leonis, 
utriusque Gregorii et Chrysostomi tumulos, e quibus post tot seculorum 
diuturnitatem diceres adhuc recens eloquentiae flumen prorumpere 
catholicae Ecclesiae agrum itenim irrigaturum. Quod vero magis ac 
magis solatio esse debet animosque percellere, ecce nos penes ipsam 
Petri personam, qui in suis legitimis Successoribus praesens adhuc ac 
vivus eodem, quo olim. amoris impetu eademque fide intonare videtur : 
Tues Christus Filius Ddvivi ; unde e caelo pariter, ubi ad Patris dex- 
teram sedet, illud sublime Redemptoris responsum denuo exauditur : 
Et ego dico tibi, quia tu es Pctrus, ei super hanc petrani aedificabo Eccle- 
siam meant ; etportae inferi nou prevalebttnt adversus earn. 

Quae omnia, Venerabiles Patres, in memoriam lubet revocasse, ut 
fiducia nostra his quasi fomentis vegetata maiorem in modum efflorescat, 
ac maiore animi nostri alacritate incendantur ad opus hoc perficiendum, 
nempe hanc Synodum, in quam iam non dicam populorum oculi, sed 
spes universi orbis sunt conversae. Quae si Vobis ex una parte multas 



53 

the same time into strait and narrow paths, yet, on 
the other hand, it will at the same time reveal to you 
the sweet spring of every consolation, and smooth the 
way to the joy of future triumphs. 

Meanwhile, though we must put our hand to the work, 
in the midst of present tears and sorrow be assured, 
the day is not far distant when, according to the pro- 
mise of the Son of God Himself, our grief shall give 
place to joy, for it is written : Amen amen dico vobis, 
quia plorabitis et flebitis vos, mundus autem gaudebit, 
vos autem contristabimini ; sed tristitia vestra vertetur 
in gaudium. " Verily, verily, I say unto you, that ye 
shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice, and 
ye shall be sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned 
into joy." (S. John, xvi. 20.) 

No, Venerable Fathers, we shall most certainly not 
be disappointed in our hope, if we keep constantly 
before our minds the end which this CEcumenical 
Council has in view the promotion of the glory of 
God and the eternal salvation of souls ; if we strive to 
make this the most resplendent of the many bright 
jewels which encircle the brow of the venerable and 
noble-minded Pius if, in one word, the Church is 
able, when your work is done, to record in letters of 
gold, for the benefit of posterity, that peace of soul, 
harmony of thought, moderation in planning, dignity 
in discussing, uprightness in judging, and wisdom in 
all your deliberations, so ruled the minds and hearts 
of the Venerable Fathers, that when the gates which 

ac graves, iustitiae causa, pariet afflictiones. Vosque in summas all- 
quando rediget angustias ; ex alia quoque parte suavissimum Vobis 
omnium consolationum fontem aperiet, ac laetissimis etiam triumphis 
viam sternet parabitque. 

Vestrum quidem est in praesens cum dolore ac fletu open incumbere ; 
sed tempus postmodum veniet, testem habemus ipsum Dei Filium, quo 
nostros occupabit letitia moerores, scriptum est enim : Amen, amen dico 
vobis, quia plorabitis etflebiiis vos, mundus autem gaudeb it ; vos autem con- 
tristabimini, sedtristilia vestra vertetur in gaudium. (loh. xvi. 20. ) 

Neque expectatio haec, equidem credo, Vos fallet, si mentis aciem in 
propositum huiusce Oecumenici Concilii finem, qui in divina gloria 
atque aeterna animarum salute totus consistit, iugiter intendamus ; si 
illud potissimum satagemus, ut hoc ipsum ex tot, quae venerandi ac 
magnanimi Pii frontem exornant, gemma omnium splendidissima eva- 
dat ; si denique Ecclesiae fasti posterorum memoriae poterunt aliquando 
aureis litteris commendare, animorum pacem, cogitationum concordiam, 
caeptorum temperantiam, discussionum dignitatem, iudicii aequitatem 
atque deliberationum omnium sapientiam, Venerabilium Patrum corda 



54 

had been closed upon us, were once again thrown 
open, to proclaim to the whole world, Visum est 
Spiritui Sancto ct Nobis : "It hath seemed good to 
the Holy Ghost and to us/' (Acts, xv. 28), the earth 
presaged the downcoming of the Creator Spirit and 
saw itself renewed, Emittes Spiritum tuum et crea- 
buntur, et renovabis faciem terrce : " Thou shalt send 
forth Thy Spirit, and they shall be created, and Thou 
shalt renew the face of the earth," (Ps. ciii. 30). 

May all these graces be mercifully vouchsafed to 
each of us, through the intercession of the Ever 
Blessed and Glorious Virgin Mary, for to-day the 
world celebrates with boundless joy the mystery of 
Her Immaculate Conception by the Eternal Son of 
God, Jesus Christ, Our Lord and Redeemer, Who 
with the Father and the Holy Ghost lives and reigns 
for ever and ever. Amen. 



ORDO CONCILII CECUMENICI. 

THE following document prescribes the order to 
be observed in the whole proceeding of the 
Council : 

Sanctissimi Domini Nostri Pii Divina Providentia 
Papae IX Litterae Apostolicae quibus ordo 
Generalis in Sacrosancti CEcumenici Concilii Vati- 
cani celebratione servandus constituitur. Romae, 
MDCCCLXIX. 

PlUS PAPA IX AD FUTURAM REI MEMORIAM. 
Multiplices inter, quibus divexamur, angustias, ad 

Divinae clementiae, quae consolatur Nos in omni tri- 

ac mentes usque adeo rexisse, ut quae nobis retro ianuae clauduntur, 
quum iterum reserentur orbi universo renuntiaturae : Visum est Spiritui 
Sancto et Nobis (Act. xv. 28), terra ipsa demum Creatoris Spiritus impul- 
sum praesentiat, quo se plenissime renovatam agnoscat, secundum illud : 
Emittes spiritum tuum et creabuntur^ et renovabis faciem terrae. 
(Ps. clii. 30.) 

Quae quidem, adprecante praesertim beata ac gloriosa semper Vir- 
gine Maria, cuius hodie Immaculatae Conceptionis mysterium, summa 
totius mundi exultatione celebratur, concedere dignetur omnibus nobis 
Aeternus Dei Filius, Dominus ac Redemptor noster Christus lesus, qui 
cum Patre et Spiritu Sancto vivit et regnat in perpetuas aeternitates. 
Amen. 



55 

bulatione nostra* gratias persolvendas maxime excita- 
mur, qua propitiante, illud celeriter Nobis continget, 
ut Sacrosanctum Generale et GEcumenicum Concilium 
Vaticanum jam a Nobis Ea adspirante indictum felici- 
ter auspicemur. Gaudium autem in Domino jure 
praecipimus, quod salutares Concilii ejusdem con- 
ventus solemni die Immaculatae Dei Matris Mariae 
semper Virginis conceptioni sacro, atque adeo sub 
potentibus maternisque auspiciis eius aggressuri sumus, 
eosque in Vaticana Nostra Basilica inituri ante Beatis- 
simi Petri cineres, qui in accepta fortittidine Petrae 
perseverans suscepta Ecclesiae gubernacula non reliquit, 
et in quo omnium Pastorum sollicitudo cum commenda- 
tarum sibi ovittm custodia per sever at. \ Jamvero me- 
mores hoc CEcumenicum Concilium a Nobis convoca- 
tum fuisse, ut extirpandis erroribus, quos praesertim 
hujus saeculi conflavit impietas, removendis malis, 
quibus Ecclesia affligitur, emendandis moribus et 
utriusque cleri disciplinae instaurandae, conjuncta 
Nobiscum sacrorum Ecclesiae Antistitum adhibeatur 
opera, ac probe noscentes, quo studio intentaque 
sollicitudine curare debeamus, ut ea omnia quae ad 
rectam rationem tarn salutaris negotii gerendi, trac- 
tandi, ac perficiendi pertinent, ex sancta majorum 
disciplina institutisque statuantur, idcirco Apostolica 
Nostra auctoritate ea quae sequuntur decernimus 
atque ab omnibus in hoc Vaticano Concilio servanda 
esse praecipimus. 

I. DE MODO VIVENDI IN CONCILIO. 

Reputantes animo quod omne datum optimum et 
omne donum perfectum desursum est, descendens a Patre 
luminum\ quodque nihil caelestis Patris benignitati 
pronius est quam ut det spiritum bonum petentibtis se 
jam Nos dum Apostolicis Nostris litteris || die un- 
decimo Aprilis hoc anno datis Ecclesiae thesauros 
Sacrosancti huius Concilii occasione Christifidelibus 
reseravimus, non solum eosdem Christifideles vehe- 

* Corinth, i. 4. 

t S. Leo P. Serm. in Anniver. Assumptions suas. 

% Jacob, i. 17. 

Luc. xi. 13. 

|| Litt. Nost. 4 Aprilis, 1867. 



56 

menter hortati sumus, ut emundantes conscientiam ab 
operibus mortuis ad serviendum Deo viventi, * orationi- 
bus, obsecrationibus, jejuniis, aliisque pietatis actibus 
insistere velint : sed etiam Divini Spiritus lumen et 
opem in Saerosanto Missae sacrificio celebrando quo- 
tidie in universe Orbe Catholico implorari mandavi- 
mus, ad prosperum a Domino huic Concilio exitum, 
et salutares ex eo Ecclesiae sanctae fructus impe- 
trandos. 

Quas quidem adhortationes et praescriptiones modo 
renovantes et confirmantes, id praeterea jubemus ut 
in huius Almae Urbis nostrae Ecclesiis, sacrosancta 
Synodo perdurante, singulis diebus Dominicis, hora 
quae pro fideli populo magis congrua videatur, Litaniae 
aliaeque orationes ad hunc finem constitutae reci- 
tentur. 

At longe his maius aliquid et excellentius ab 
Episcopis aliisque qui in Sacerdotali Ordine censentur 
hoc Concilium concelebrantibus praestandum est quos 
uti ministros Christi et dispensatores mysteriorum 
Dei oportet in omnibus seipsos praebere exemplum 
bonorum operuin in doctrina, in integritate, in gravitate, 
verbum sanum, irreprehensibile, ut is qui ex adverse est 
vereatur, nihil habens malum dicere de nobis. t Quare 
veterum Conciliorum ac Tridentini nominatim vestigiis 
inhaerentes hortamur illos omnes in Domino ut ora- 
tioni, sacrae lectioni, caelestium rerum meditationibus 
pro sua cuiusque pietate studiose intendant : ut pure 
casteque Sancto Missae sacrificio, quam fieri possit, 
frequenter operentur, animum mentemque ab huma- 
narum rerum curis immunem servent : modestiam in 
moribus, in victu temperantiam, et in omni actione 
religionem retineant. Absint animorum dissidia, 
absit prava aemulatio et contentio, sed omnibus im- 
peret quae inter ceteras virtutes eminet charitas, ut 
ilia dominante et incolumi de hoc sacro Episcoporum 
Ecclesiae conventu dici possit : ecce quam bonum et 
qudmjucundum habitare fratres in unum.% Evigilent 
demum Patres in domesticorum suorum cura et 
Christianae ab eis sanctaeque vitae disciplina exi- 

* Ep. ad Hebrae, ix. 14. 
t Ep. ad Tit. ii. 7. 
i Ps. cxxxii. I. 



57 

genda, memores quam gravibus vcrbis Paullus Apos- 
tolus praecipiat Episcopis ut sint suae domus bene 
propositi. * 

Peculiaris praedicta congregatio propositiones sibi 
exhibitas diligenter expendet, suumque circa earum 
admissionum vel exclusionem consilium Nostro judicio 
submittet, ut Nos deinde matura consideratione de iis 
statuamus, utrum ad Synodalem deliberationem de- 
ferri debeant. 

II. DE JURE ET MODO PROPONENDI, 

Licet jus et munus proponendi negotia quae in 
sancta (Ecumenica Synodo tractari debebunt, de 
iisque Patrum sententias rogandi non nisi ad Nos et 
ad hanc Apostolicam Sedem pertineat, nihilominus 
non modo optamus, sed etiam hortamur, ut si qui 
inter Concilii Patres aliquid proponendum habuerint 
quod ad publicam utilitatem conferre posse existiment, 
id libere exsequi velint. Cum vero probe perspicia- 
mus hanc ipsam rem, nisi congruo tempore et modo 
perficiatur, non parum necessario conciliarium ac- 
tionum ordini officere posse, idcirco statuimus eius- 
modi propositiones ita fieri debere, ut earum quaelibet, 
I., scripto mandetur ac peculiari congregationi non- 
nullorum, turn VV. FF. NN. S.R.E. Cardinalium, turn 
Synodi Patrum, a Nobis deputanda privatim exhi- 
beatur : 2., publicum rei Christianae bonum vere 
respiciat, nori singularem duntaxat unius vel alterius 
Dicecesis utilitatem : 3., rationes contineat, ob quas 
utilis et opportuna censetur : 4., nihil prae se ferat, 
quod a constanti Ecclesiae sensu, eiusque inviolabili- 
bus traditionibus alienum sit. 

III. DE SECRETO SERVANDO IN CONCILIO. 

Prudentiae hie Nos admonet, ut secreti fidem quae 
in superioribus Conciliis non semel, adjunctorum gravi- 
tate exigente, indicenda fuit, in universa huius concilii 
actione servandam jubeamus. Si enim unquam alias, 
hoc maxime tempore haec cautio necessaria visa est, 
quo in omnem occasionem excubat invidiae conflandae 
contra Catholicam Ecclesiam eiusque doctrinam pluri- 
bus nocendi opibus pollens impietas. Quapropter 

* x Tim. iii. 4. 



58 

praecipimus omnibus et singulis, Patribus, officialibus 
Concilii, Theologis, sacrorum canonum peritis, caete- 
risque qui operam suam Patribus vel officialibus 
praedictis quovis modo in rebus huius Concilii prae- 
bent, ut decreta et alia quaecunque, quae iis exami- 
nanda proponentur, necnon discussiones et singulorum 
sententias non evulgent, nee alicui extra gremium 
Concilii pandant : praecipimus pariter ut Officiates 
Concilii, qui episcopali dignitate praediti non sunt, 
aliique omnes qui ratione cuiusvis demandati a Nobis 
ministerii Conciliaribus disceptationibus inservire 
debent, juramentum emittere teneantur de munere 
fideliter obeundo et de secreti fide servanda circa ea 
omnia quae supra praescripta sunt, necnon super iis 
rebus quae specialiter ipsis committentur. 

IV. DE ORDINE SEDENDI ET DE NON INFERENDO 
ALICUI PRAEJUDICIO. 

Cum ad tranquillitatem concordiamque animorum 
tuendam non parum momenti habeat, si in quibuslibet 
conciliaribus actibus unusquisque suae dignitatis ordi- 
nem fideliter ac modeste custodiat ; hinc ad offen- 
sionum occasiones, quoad eius fieri possit, praecidendas, 
infrascriptum ordinem inter diversas dignitates servari 
praescribimus. 

Primum locum obtinebant V.V. F.F. N.N. S.R.E. 
Cardinales Episcopi, Presbyteri, Diaconi. Secundum 
Patriarchae. Tertium ex speciali Nostra indulgentia 
Primates juxta ordinem suae promotionis ad Prima- 
tialem gradum. Id autem pro hac vice tantum 
indulgemus, atque ita ut ex hac Nostra concessione 
nullum jus vel ipsis Primatibus datum, vel aliis immi- 
nutum censeri debeat. Quartum locum tenebunt 
Archiepiscopi juxta suae ad Archiepiscopatum pro- 
motionis ordinem. Quintum Episcopi, pariter juxta 
ordinem promotionis suae. Sextum Abbates nullius 
Dioecesis. Septimum Abbates Generales, aliique 
Generales Moderatores Ordinum Religiosorum, in 
quibus solemnia vota nuncupantur, etiamsi Vicarii 
Generalis titulo appellentur dum tamen reipsa cum 
omnibus supremi moderatoris juribus et privilegiis, 
universo suo ordini legitime praesunt. 

Ceterum ex superiorum Conciliorum disciplina in- 



59 

stitutoque decernimus quod si forte contigerit, aliquos 
debito in loco non sedere, et sententias etiam sub 
verbo placet proferre, congregationibus interesse, et 
alios quoscunque actus facere, Concilio durante, nulli 
propterea praeiudicium generetur, nullique novum jus 
acquiratur. 

V. DE JUDICIBUS EXCUSATIONUM ET QUERE- 
LARUM. 

Quo graviorum rerum pertractatio, quae in hac 
Sacrosancta Synodo agi gerive debent, minus quam 
fieri possit impediatur aut retardetur ob cognitionem 
causarum quae singulos respiciunt, statuimus ut ipsa 
Synodus per schedulas secretas quinque ex Concilii 
Patribus eligat in judices excusationum, quorum erit 
procurationes et excusationes Praelatorum absentium, 
necnon eorum postulata qui Concilio nondum dimisso, 
justam discedendi causam se habere putaverint, ex- 
cipere, atque ad normas conciliaris disciplinae et SS. 
Canonum expendere. Quod cum fecerint, non quid- 
quam de hisce rebus decernent, sed de omnibus ad 
congregationem generalem ordine referent. Praeterea 
statuimus, ut eadem Synodus pariter per schedulas 
secretas, alios quinque ex Patribus eligat in judices 
querelarum et controversiarum. Hi porro contro- 
versias omnes circa ordinem sedendi, vel jus praece- 
dendi aliasque si quae forte inter congregates oriantur 
indicio summario atque ceconomice, ut aiunt, ita 
componere studebunt, ut nulli praejudicium inferatur: 
et quatenus componere nequeant ejus congregationis 
generalis auctoritati subjicient. 

VI. DE OFFICIALIBUS CONCILII. 
Quod vero et illud magni refert ut necessarii ac 
idonei ministri et officiates juxta conciliarem consuetu- 
dinem et disciplinam omnibus in hac Synodo actibus 
rite et legitime perficiendis designentur, Nos hujus- 
modi ministeriorum rationem habentes infrascriptos 
viros ad ea diligimus et nominamus, scilicet : 

1. Generales Concilii Custodes, dilectos filios Joan- 
nem Columna et Dominicum Orsini, Romanos Prin- 
cipes, Pontificio Nostro solio adsistentes. 

2. Concilii Secretarium, Venerabilem Fratrem 



6o 

Josephum Episcopum S. Hippolyti, eique adjicimtts 
cum officio et titulo subsecretarii dilectum filium 
Ludovicum Jacobini, e Nostris et hujus Apostolicae 
Sedis Protonotariis, nee non adjutores dilectos filios 
Canonicos Camillum Santori et Angelum Jacobini. 

3. Concilii Notaries, dilectos filios Lucam Pacifici, 
Aloisium Colombo, Joannem Simeoni, Aloisium Peri- 
coli, et Dominicum Bartolini, Nostros et hujus Apos- 
tolicae Sedis Protonotarios, eisque adjungimus dilectos 
filios Salvatorem Pallottini et Franciscum Santi 
advocates, qui Notariis eisdem adjutricem operam 
navent. 

4. Scrutatores Suffragiorum dilectos filios Aloisium 
Serafini et Franciscum Nardi, causarum Palatii Nostri 
Apostolici auditores, Aloisium Pellegrini et Leonardum 
Dialti Nostrae Camerae Apostolicae clericos : Caro- 
lum Cristofori et Alexandrum Montani, Signaturae 
Justitiae votantes, Fredericum de Falloux du Coudray, 
Nostrae Cancellariae Apostolicae regentem et Lau- 
rentium Nina abbreviatorem ex majori Parco. Hi 
autem octo scrutatores in quatuor distincta paria 
distributi, ita ad excipienda suffragia precedent ut 
bini paria unum Conciliaris Aulae latus, totidemque 
alterum obeant, ac preterea singula paria singulos ex 
Notariis secum habere debebunt dum in munere fun- 
gendo versantur. 

5. Promotores Concilii dilectos filios Joannem 
Baptistam de Dominicis-Tosti et Philippum Ralli 
S. Consistorii advocates. 

6. Magistros Caerimoniarum Concilii, dilectos filios 
Aloisium Ferraris Antistitem Nostrum domesticum 
praefectum, et Pium Martinucci, Camillum Balestra, 
Remigium Ricci, Josephum Romagnoli, Petrum 
Josephum Rinaldi-Bucci, Antonium Cataldi, Alexan- 
drum Tortoli, Augustinum Accoramboni, Aloisium 
Sinistri, Franciscum Riggi, Antonium Gattoni, Bal- 
thasarem Baccinetti, Caesarem Togni, Rochum Massi, 
Nostros et hujus Apostolicae Sedis caerimoniarios. 

7. Assignatores Locorum dilectos filios Henricum 
Folchi praefectum, ac Aloisium Narelli, Edmundum 
Stonor. Paulum Bastide, Aloisium Pallotti, intimos 
Nostros et dilectos filios Scipionem Perilli, Gustavum 



6i 

Gallot, Franciscum Regnani, Nicolaum Vorsak, et 
Philippum Silvestri cubicularios Nostros honorarios. 

VII. DE CONGREGATIONIBUS GENERALIBUS 

PATRUM. 

Ad ea modo curam convertentes quae congrega- 
tionum generalium ordinem respiciunt, statuimus ac 
decernimus ut iisdem Patrum congregationibus, quae 
publicis sessionibus praemittuntur, quinquc ex VV. 
FF. NN. S.R.E. Cardinalibus Nostro nomine et 
auctoritate praesint et ad hoc munus eligimus et 
nominamus Venerabilem Fratrem Nostrum Carolum 
S.R.E. Cardinalem Episcopum Sabinensem de 
Reisach nuncupatum, dilectos filios Nostros S.R.E. 
Presbyteros Cardinales, Antoninum titulo SS. Quatuor 
Coronatorum De Luca nuncupatum, Josephum An- 
dream titulo S. Hieronymi Illyricorum Bizzaori nun- 
cupatum, Aloisium titulo S. Laurentii in Panisperna 
Bilio nuncupatum, etdilectum filium Nostrum Hanni- 
balem S.R.E. Cardinalem Diaconum S. Mariae in 
Aquiro Capalti nuncupatum. 

Hi autem Praesides, praeter alia, quae ad aptam 
horum conventuum moderationem spectant, curabunt 
ut in rebus pertractandis initium fiat a disceptatione 
eorum quae ad fidem pertinent ; deinde integrum 
ipsis erit consultationes in fidei vel disciplinae capita 
conferre, prout opportunum indicaverint. 

Cum vero Nos jam inde a tempore, quo Apostolicas 
Literas ad hoc Concilium indicendum dedimus, viros 
theologos et ecclesiastici juris consultos, ex variis 
Catholici orbis regionibus in hanc almam urbem 
Nostram evocandos curaverimus, ut una cum aliis 
hujus urbis et earumdem disciplinarum peritis viris, 
rebus apparandis darent operam, quae ad hujus 
Generalis Synodi scopum pertinent, atque ita expe- 
ditior via in rerum tractatione Patribus patere posset ; 
hinc volumus et mandamus ut schemata decretorum et 
canonum ab issdem viris expressa et redacta quae 
Nos, nullaNostra approbatione munita, integra integre 
Patrum cognitioni reservavimus, iisdem Patribus in 
Congregationem Generalem collectis ad examen et 
indicium subjiciantur. Itaque curantibus memoratis 
Praesidibus, aliquot ante dies quam Congregatio 



62 

Generalis habeatur, decretorum et canonum schemata, 
de quibus in congregatione indicta agendum erit, typis 
impressa singulis Patribus distribuentur, quo interim 
ilia diligentconsideratione in omnem partem expen- 
dant et quid sibi sententiae esse debeat, accurate 
pervideant. Si quis Patrum de schemate propositi 
sermonem in congregatione ipsa habere voluerit, ad 
debitum inter oratores ordinem pro cujusque dignitatis 
gradu servandum, opus erit ut saltern pridie dies 
Congregationis ipsius, Praesidibus suum disserendi 
propositum significandum curet. Auditis autem 
istorum Patrum sermonibus, si alii etiam post eos 
in conventu ipso disserere valuerint hoc iisdem fas 
erit obtenta prius a Praesidibus dicendi venia et eo 
ordine quern dicentium dignitas postulaverit. 

Jamvero, si in ea quae habetur Congregatione, 
exhibitum schema vel nullas vel nonnisi leves difficul- 
tates in ipso congressu facile expediendas obtulerit, 
tune nihil morae erit, quominus disceptationibus com- 
positis, decreti vel Canonis Conciliaris de quo agitur 
formula, rogatis Patrum suffragiis statuatur. Sin 
autem circa schema praedictum hujusmodi oriantur 
difficultates ut sententiis in contraria conversis, via 
non suppetat, qua in ipso conventu componi possint, 
turn ea ratio iucunda erit quam heic infra statuimus, 
ut stabili et opportuno modo huic rei provideatur. 
Volumus itaque ut ab ipso Concilii exordio quatuor 
speciales ac distinctae Patrum Congregationes seu 
Deputation^ instituantur, quarum prima de rebus ad 
Fidem pertinentibus, altera de rebus Disciplinae 
Ecclesiasticae, tertia de rebus Ordinum Regularium, 
quarta demum de rebus Ritus Orientalis, Concilio per- 
durante cognoscere et tractare debebit. Ouaevis ex 
praedictis Congregationibus seu Deputationibus nu- 
mero Patrum quatuor et viginti constabit, qui a 
Concilii Patribus per schedulas secretas eligentur. 
Unicuique ex iisdem Congregationibus seu Deputa- 
tionibus praeerit unus ex VV. FF. NN. S.R.E. Car- 
dinalibus a Nobis designandus, qui ex Conciliaribus 
theologis vel juris canonici peritis, unum aut plures in 
commodum suae congregationis seu deputations 
adscjscet, atque ex iis unum constituet qui Secretarii 
munere eidem Congregation! seu Deputationi operam 



63 

navet. Igitur si illud contigent, quod supra innuimus, 
ut nimirum in Generali Congregatione quaestio de 
proposito schemate exorta dirimi non potuerit, turn 
Cardinales ejusdem Generalis Congregationis prae- 
sides, curabunt ut schema, de quo agitur, una cum 
objectis difficultatibus examini subjiciatur illius ex 
specialibus Deputationibus, ad quam, juxta assignata 
cuique rerum tractandarum genera pertinere intelli- 
gitur. Quae in hac peculiari Deputatione deliberati 
fuerint, eorum relatio typis edita Patribus dirigenda 
erit juxta methodum a Nobis superius praescriptam, 
ut deinde in proxima Congregatione Generali si nihil 
amplius obstiterit rogatis Patrum suffragiis, decreti vel 
Canonis Conciliaris formula condatur. Suffragia 
autem a Patribus ore tenus edentur, ita tamen ut 
ipsis integrum sit etiam de seripto illo pronuntiare. 

VIII. DE SESSIONIBUS PUBLICIS. 

Publicarum nunc Sessionum celebratis exigit ut 
rebus et actionibus in ea rite dirigendis, congrua 
ratione consulamus. Itaque in unaquaque Publico 
Sessione, considentibus suo loco et ordine Patribus 
servatisque ad amussim caerimoniis, quae in rituali 
instructione iisdem Patribus de mandate Nostro tra- 
denda continentur, de suggestu decretorum et canonum 
formulae in superioribus Congregationibus Generali- 
bus conditae, voce sublata et clara jussu Nostro 
recitabuntur, eo ordine, ut primum canones de dog- 
matibus Fidei, deinde secreta de disciplina pronun- 
cientur et ea adhibita solemni tituli praefatione qua 
Praedecessores Nostri in ejusmodi Conciliari actione 
uti consueverunt, nempe : Pius Episcopus Servus 
Servorum Dei sacro approbanti Concilio ad perpetuam 
rei memoriam. Tune vero rogabuntur Patres, an 
placeant canones et decreta perlecta : ac statim pre- 
cedent scrutatores suffragiorum, juxta methodum 
superius constitutam, ad suffragia singillatim et ordine 
excipienda eaque accurate describent. Hac autem in 
re declaramus suffragia pronunciare debere in haec 
verba Placet ant Non-placet : ac simul edicimus 
minime fas esse a Sessione absentibus quavis de 
causa, suffragium suum seripto consignatum ad Con- 
cilium mittere. Jamvero suffragiis collectis Concilii 



Secretarius una cum supradictis scrutatoribus penes 
Pontificalem Nostram cathedram, iis accurate diri- 
mendis ac numerandis operam dabunt ac de ipsis ad 
Nos referent : Nos deinde supremam Nostram sen- 
tentiam edicemus, eamque enunciari et promulgari 
mandabimus, hac adhibita solemni formula, " Decreta 
modo lecta placuerunt omnibus Patribus nemine dissen- 
tiente (vel si qui forte dissenserint) tot numero exceptis; 
Nosque, Sacro approbante Concilio ilia ita decernimus 
statuinms atque sancimus tit lecta sunt" Hisce autem 
omnibus expletis erit promotorum Concilii rogare 
Protonotarios praesentes ut de omnibus et singulis in 
Sessione peractis, unum vel plura instrumentum vel 
instrumenta conficiantur. Denique, die proximae 
Sessionis de mandata Nostro indicta Sessionis con- 
ventus dimittetur. 

IX. DE NON DlSCEDENDO A CONCILIO. 

Universis porro Concilii Patribus aliisque qui eidem 
interesse debent praecipimus sub poenis per SS, 
Canones indictis, ut ne quis eorum antequam Sacro- 
sanctum hoc Generate et CEcumenicum Concilium 
Vaticanum rite absolutum et a Nobis dimissum sit, 
discedat, nisi discessionis causa juxta normam superius 
definitam cognita et probata fuerit ac impetrata a 
Nobis abeundi facultas. 

X. INDULTUM APOSTOLICUM DE NON RESIDENTIA 
PRO us QUI CONCILIO INTERSUNT. 

Cum ii omnes qui conciliaribus actionibus interesse 
tenentur, ea in re universali Ecclesiae deserviant, 
Praedecessorum Nostrorum etiam exemplum seculi* 
Apostolica benignitate indulgemus ut turn Praesules 
aliique suffragii jus in hoc Concilio habentes turn 
caeteri omnes eidern Concilio operam quovis titulo im- 
pendentes, suorum beneficiorum fructus, reditus, pro- 
ventus ac distributiones quotidianas percipere possint, 
iis tantum distributionibus exceptis, quae inter prae- 
sentes fieri dicuntur : idque concedimus Synodo 
perdurante et donee quisque eidem adsit aut in- 
serviat. 

* Paulus iii. Brev. i, Januarii, 1546. Pius IV, Brev. 25, Nov. 1561? 



65 

Haec volumus atque mandamus, decernentes has 
Nostras Litteras et in eis contenta quaecunquc in 
proximo Sacrosancto Generali et CEcumenico Con- 
cilio Vaticano, ab omnibus et singulis ad quos spectat, 
respective et inviolabiliter observari debere. Non 
obstantibus quamvis speciali atque individua men- 
tione ac derogatione dignis in contrarium facientibus 
quibuscumque. 

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum sub Annulo Pisca- 
toris die xxvii Novembris anno MDCCCLXIX. 
catus Nostri anno vigesimo quarto. 

N. CARD. PARACCIA^ 




LETTER ADDRESSED TO EACH N 
FATHERS BY THE PROMOTERS 
MEMORIAL IN FAVOUR OF THE 
TION.* 

MOST REVEREND AND MOST EXCELLENT 
LORD, 

AS the petition enclosed in this letter indicates, 
the undersigned Bishops, together with others, 
have concurred in soliciting from the CEcume- 
nical Council the sanction of that Catholic doctrine 
according to which we profess that the authority of 
the Roman Pontiff, when teaching all the faithful 
with Apostolic power any question of faith and 
morals, is supreme, and therefore exempt from error. 
It is of the highest importance that as many Fathers 
as possible should demand the sanction of this doc- 
trine, either for the same or for similar reasons. 

We request, therefore, Most Reverend and Most 
Excellent Lord, that you would not only yourself 

* REVERENDISSIME ET EXCELLENTISSIME DOMINE ! 

Quemadmodum pelitio his litteris adposita ostendit, infrascripti 
Episcopi, cum aliis quoque, convenerunt, ut ab OZcumenico Concilio 
sanctionem catholicrxe doctrinae flagitarent, qua supremam, ideoque ab 
evrore immunem auctoritatem Romani Pontificis, in rebus fidei et 
mo rum Apostolica potestate universis, fidelibus praecipientis, pro- 
fit em ur. 

Interest vero maxime, ut quam plurimi Patres eiusmodi sanctionem 
vel eadem vel simili ratione postulent. 

Rogamus ergo, Reverendissime et Excellentissime Domine, ut tarn 
F 



66 

subscribe this proposition or petition, but invite other 
Most Reverend Fathers, whom you know to be of the 
same mind with us, to do so likewise. 

You will then be pleased, with the least possible 
delay, to forward the petition, bearing your own 
signature, and if so be, the signatures of other 
Fathers, to one of the Bishops whose names are 
appended to this letter. 

The signatures thus collected we will transmit to 
the special Commission nominated to receive propo- 
sitions by our Most Holy Lord, Pope Pius IX. 

If, however, you should deem any other mode of 
urging the same request better and more appropriate, 
we beg that you will not omit to present to the same 
Commission your own petition. 

The sheets containing the reasons why this petition 
is deemed opportune and necessary, and the decrees of 
Provincial Councils, your Most Reverend Excellency 
may retain at your own pleasure. 

Rome, January 3, 1870. 

Here follow the names of Bishops, beginning with 
the Patriarchs of Alexandria and Cilicia. 

TRANSLATION OF THE PETITION IN 
FAVOUR OF THE DEFINITION. 

The undersigned Fathers humbly and earnestly beg 

ipse huic proposition! seu petit ioni subscribas, quam alios etiam 
Reverendissimos Patres, quos noveris animi consensione coniunctos, 
ad subscribendum invites. 

Deinde petitionem, Tuo nomine, et, si fieri possit, aliorum etiam 
Patrum subscriptis nominibus auctam, ad unum Episcoporum has 
litteras dantium, quo citius licebit, remittere yelis. 

Subscriptiones ita collectas peculiar! Congregationi, a Sanctissimo 
Domino nostro Pio PP. IX. pro propositionibus expendendis nomi- 
natae, exhibebimus. 

Quod si aliam forsitan eiusdem rei postulandae modum aptiorem, 
melioremque censueris, rogamus, ut propriam petitionem eidem 
Congregationi proponere non omittas. 

Folia rationes, ob quas petitio haec opportuna et necessaria cen. 
setur, Conciliorumque provincialium sententias continentia, Excellentia 
Tua Reverendissima pro libito retinere poterit. 

Sincerissimi obsequii signis permanemus Tibi, 

Excellentissime et Reverendissime Domine, 

Romae, die 3, lanuarii, 1870. 

Here follow the signatures. 

A sacra CEcnmenica Synodo Vaticana infrascripti Patres humillimf 



7 

the Holy (Ecumenical Council of the Vatican to define 
clearly, and in words that cannot be mistaken, that 
the authority of the Roman Pontiff is supreme, and, 
therefore, free from error, when in matters of faith and 
morals he declares and defines what is to be believed 
and held, and what to be rejected and condemned by 
all the faithful. 

REASONS FOR WHICH THIS DEFINITION is THOUGHT 
OPPORTUNE AND NECESSARY. 

The Sacred Scriptures plainly teach the Primacy of 
jurisdiction of the Roman Pontiff, the Successor of S. 
Peter, over the whole Church of Christ, and, therefore, 
also his Primacy of supreme Headship. 

The universal and constant tradition of the Church, 
as seen both in facts and in the teaching of the 
Fathers, as well as in the manner of acting and 
speaking adopted by many Councils, some of which 
were (Ecumenical, teaches us that the judgments of 
the Roman Pontiff in matters of faith and morals 
are unalterable. 

In the Second Council of Lyons, with the consent 
of both Greeks and Latins, the following profession of 
faith was allowed : 

" When controversies in matters of faith arise, they 
must be finally settled by the decision of the Roman 
Pontiff." Moreover, in the (Ecumenical Synod of 

instanterque flagitant, ut apertis, omnemque dubitandi locum exclu- 
dentibus verbis sancire velit supremam, ideoque ab errore immunem 
esse Romani Pontificis auctoritatem, quum in rebus fidei et morum 
ea statuit ac prcecipit, qucc omnibus Christi fidelibus credenda et 
tenenda, queeve rejicienda et damnanda sunt. 
RATIONES OB QUAS H^EC PROPOSITIO OPPORTUNA ET NECESSARIA 

CENSETUR. 

Romani Pontificis, beati Petri Apostoli successoris, in universam Christi 
Ecclesiam jurisdictionis, adeoque etiam Supremi Magisterii primatus in 
Sacris Scripturis aperte docetur. 

Universalis et constans Ecclesire traditio turn factis, turn sanctorum 
Patrum effatis, turn plurimorum conciliorum, etiam oecumenicorum, et 
agendi et loquendi ratione docet, Romani Pontificis judicia de fidei 
morumque doctrina irreformabilia esse. 

Consentientibus Grcccis et Latinis, in Concilio II Lugdunensi admissa 
professio fidei est, in qua declaratur : " Subortas de fide controversias 
debere Romani Pontificis judicio definiri." In Florentina itidem (Ecu- 
menica Synodo [definitum est : " Romanum Pontificem esse verum 
Christi Yicarium, totiusque Ecclesise caput, et omnium christianorum 
patrem et doctorem ; et ipsi in beato Petro pascendi, regendi, ac 
gubernandi universalem Ecclesiam a Domino Nostro Jesu Christo plenanj 



68 

Florence it was defined that " tne Roman Pontiff is 
Christ's true Vicar, the Head of the Church, and the 
Father and Teacher of all Christians ; and that to him 
in the person of Blessed Peter was given full power 
by Jesus Christ to rule and govern the whole Church." 
Sound reason, too, teaches us that no one can remain in 
communion of faith with the Catholic Church who is 
not of one mind with its Head, since the Church can- 
not be separated even in thought from its Head. 

Yet some have been found, and even now some 
may be found, who, boasting of the name of Catholic, 
and using that name to the ruin of those weak in 
faith, are bold enough to teach, that sufficient sub- 
mission is yielded to the authority of the Roman 
Pontiff, if we receive his decrees in matters of faith 
and morals with an obsequious silence, as it is termed, 
without yielding internal assent, or at most, granting 
a conditional assent, until the approval or disapproval 
of the Church has been made known. Anyone can 
see that by this perverse doctrine the authority of 
the Roman Pontiff is overturned, all unity of faith 
destroyed, a wide field open to errors, and oppor- 
tunities afforded of spreading them far and wide. 

Wherefore the Bishops, the guardians and protectors 
of Catholic truth, have endeavoured especially now-a- 
days to defend in their Synodic decrees, and by their 

potestatem traditam esse." Ipsa quoque sana ratio docet, neminem 
stare posse in fidei communione cum Ecclesia Catholica, qui ejus capiti 
non consentiat, quum ne cogitatione quidem Ecclesiam a suo capite 
separare liceat. 

Attamen fuerunt atque adhucdum sunt, qui, catholicorum nomine 
gloriantes, eoque etiam ad infirmorum in fide perniciem abutentes, 
docere prse^umant, earn sumcere submissionem erga Romani Pontificis 
auctoritatem, qua ejus de fide moribusque decreta obsequioso, ut aiunt, 
silentio, sine interno mentis assensu, vel provisorie tantum usquedum 
de Ecclesiae assensu vel dissensu constiterit suscipiantur. 

Hacce porro perversa doctrina Romani Pontificis auctoritatem sub- 
verti, fidei unitatem dissipari, erroribus campum amplissimum aperiri, 
tern i usque late serpendi tribui, nemo non videt. 

Quare Episcopi, Catholicae veritatis custodes et vindices, his potissi- 
mum temporibus connisi sunt, et supremam Apostolicas Sedis docendi 
auctoritatem synodalibus prsesertim decretis et communibus testimoniis 
tuerentur. 

Quo evidentius vero catholica veritas prcedicabatur, eo vehementius, 
tarn libellis quam ephemeridibus, nuperrime impugnata est, ut catho- 
licus populus contra sanam doctrinam commoveretur, ipsoque Vaticana 
Synodus ab ea proclamanda absterreretur. 

Quare si antea de opportunitate istius cloctrince in hoc CEcumenico 



6 9 

united testimony, the supreme authority of the Apos- 
tolic See. (Many specimens of this testimony are 
collected in the Appendix.) 

The more clearly, too, has Catholic truth been 
declared, the more vehemently has it been attacked 
both in books and in the press, thus to excite Catholics 
against sound doctrine and prevent the Council of the 
Vatican from defining it. 

Wherefore, if formerly many could have doubted 
the opportuneness of declaring this doctrine in the 
present QEcumenical Council, it would seem now to 
be absolutely necessary to define it. For the Catholic 
teaching is again attacked by those self-same argu- 
ments which, when before used against it, by men 
condemned by their own judgment, have been ex- 
pressly condemned ; arguments which, if carried to 
their ultimate consequences, would bring to the ground 
the very Primacy of the Roman Pontiff and the 
infallibility of the Church itself : with which, also, the 
most violent abuse of the Apostolic See is frequently 
joined. Nay, more, the most bitter assailants of 
Catholic doctrine, though they call themselves 
Catholics, are not ashamed to assert that the Synod 
of Florence, which so clearly declares the supreme 
power of the Roman Pontiff, was not (Ecumenical. 

If, then, the Council of the Vatican, when thus 
challenged, were to be silent and give no testimony of 
the Catholic doctrine on this point, then indeed would 
Catholics begin to doubt the true doctrine, and some 

Concilio pronuntiandre a pluribus dubitari adhuc potuit, mine earn defi- 
nite necessariam prorsus videtur. Catholica enim doctrina iisdem 
plane argumentis denuo impetitur, quibus olim homines, proprio judicio 
condemnati adversus earn utebantur ; quibus, si urgeantur, ipse Romani 
Pontincis primatus, Ecclesioeque infallibilitas pessumdatur j et quibus 
soepe deterrima convicia contra Apostolicam Sedem admiscentur. Immo 
acerbissimi catholics doctrinse itnpugnatores, licet catholicos se dicant, 
blaterare non erubescunt, Florentinam Synodum, supremam Romani 
Pontificis auctoritatem luculentissime profitentem, cecumenicam non 
fuisse. 

Si igitur Concilium Vaticanum, adeo provocatum, taceret et catho- 
lics doctrine testimonium dare negligeret, tune catholicus populus de 
vera doctrina reapse dubitare inciperet, neoterici autem gloriantes asse- 
rerent. Concilium ob argumenta ab ipsis allata siluisse. Quinimmo 
silentio hoc semper abuterentur, ut Apostolicae Sedis judiciis et decretis 
circa ftdem et mores palam obedientiam negarent, sub prrctexto quod 
Romanus Pontifex in ejusmodi judiciis falli potuerit. 

Publicum itaque rei christianse bonum postulare videtur, ut Sacro- 



modern writers would triumphantly assert that the 
Council had been silenced by the arguments brought 
forward by them. Nay, they would even abuse this 
silence on every occasion, and openly deny the 
obedience due to the judgments and decrees of the 
Apostolic See in matters of faith and morals, main- 
taining that the Roman Pontiff can be deceived in 
definitions concerning such matters. 

Wherefore the public good of Christianity seems to 
require, that the holy Council of the Vatican, again 
acknowledging and explaining more fully the Floren- 
tine decree, should define clearly and in words that 
can admit of no doubt, that the authority of the 
Roman Pontiff is supreme, and, therefore, free from 
error, when in matters of faith and morals he decrees 
and ordains what is to be believed and held by all 
the faithful of Christ, and what to be rejected and 
condemned by them. 

There are, indeed, some who think that this doc- 
trine should not be defined, lest thereby schismatics 
and heretics should become more hostile to the Church. 
But above all other considerations Catholics have a 
right to be taught by the Council what they ought to 
believe in so important a matter, and one which has 
been lately attacked in so base a manner, lest this 
ruinous error should in the end infect the simple 
and unguarded minds of the multitude. Therefore 
did the Fathers of Lyons and Trent think that they 
were bound to establish the doctrine of the truth, in 

sanctum Concilium Vaticanum, Florentinum decretum de Romano 
Pontifice denuo profitens et uberius explicans, apertis, omnemque dubi- 
tandi locum prsecludentibus verbis sancire velit supremam, ideoque ab 
errore immunem esse ejusdem Roman! Pontificis auctoritatem quum in 
rebus fidei et morum ea statuit ac prsecipit, qua ab omnibus christi fide- 
libus credenda et tenenda, quasve rejicienda et damnanda sint. 

Non desunt quidem qui existiment, a catholica hac veritate sancienda 
abstinendum esse, ne schismatici atque hseretici Jongius ab Ecclesia 
arceantur. Sed imprimis catholicus populus jus habet, Ut ab CEcu- 
menica Synodo doceatur, quid in re tarn gravi, et iam improbe^nuper 
impugnata, credendum sit, ne simplices et incautos multorum animos 
perniciosus error tandem corrumpat. Idcirco etiam Lugdunenses et 
Tridentini Patres rectam doctrinam stabiliendam esse censuerunt. etsi 
schismatici et hceretici offenderentur. Qui si sincera mente veritatem 
quaerant, non absterrebuntur sed allicientur, dum ipsis ostenditur, quo 
potissimum fundamento catholicae Ecclesise unitas et firmitas nitatur. 
Si qui autem, vera doctrina ab CEcumenico Concilio definita, ab Eccle- 
sia deficerent, hi numero pauci et jamdudum in fide naufragi sunt, 



spite of the offence that might be taken by schismatics 
and heretics. 

For if the latter seek the truth in sincerity they will 
not be repelled, but, on the contrary, attracted rather, 
when they see on what foundations the unity and 
strength of the Catholic Church chiefly repose. But 
if any were to leave the Church in case the true doc- 
trine be defined by the CEcumenical Council, such 
would be few in number, whose faith too has already 
suffered shipwreck ; for they only look for an oppor- 
tunity of leaving that Church by some external act, 
which they plainly show that they have deserted 
already in heart. These are they who have not 
shrunk from ever disturbing the Catholic world, and 
from whose snares the Council of the Vatican ought 
to protect the faithful children of the Church. For 
all true Catholics, taught and accustomed to render 
most perfect obedience of mind and tongue to the 
decrees of the Apostolic Roman See, will receive with 
joyful and devoted hearts the definition of the Council 
of the Vatican concerning the supreme L and infallible 
authority of that See. 

APPENDIX. 

DECISIONS OF PROVINCIAL SYNODS RECENTLY 
HELD, SHOWING THE COMMON OPINION OF 
BISHOPS CONCERNING THE SUPREME AND IN- 
FALLIBLE AUTHORITY OF THE ROMAN PONTIFF 
IN MATTERS OF FAITH AND MORALS. 
I. The Provincial Council held at Cologne in 1860, 
to which, in addition to his Eminence Cardinal 
Geissel, Archbishop of Cologne, five Bishops sub- 
scribed, expressly declares : " He (the Roman Pontiff) 
is the father and teacher of all Christians, whose judg- 
ment in questions of 'faith is ' per se ' unalterable'' 

prsetextum solummodo quserentes, quo externa etiam actione ab Ecclesia 
se eximant, quam interno sensu jam deseruisse palam cstendunt. Hi 
sunt, qui catholicum populum continue turbare non abhomioiunt, et a 
quorum insidiis Vaticana Synodus fideles Ecclcsice filios tueri debebit. 
Catholicus enimvero populus, semper edoctus et assuetus, Apostolicis 
Roman! Pontificis decretis plenissimum mentis et oris obsequium exhi- 
bere, Vaticani Concilii seiUentiam do ejusdem suprema et ab errore 
immuni auctoritate koto fidelique animo excipiet. 

I. Concilium provinciale Coloniensc, anno 1860 celebralum, cui, 



The Bishops assembled in the Provincial Council, 
held at Utrecht in 1865, most openly asserts: "We 
unhesitatingly hold that the judgment of the Roman 
Pontiff in matters which refer to faith and morals is 
infallible. 

3. The Provincial Council of Prague in 1860, to 
which his Eminence Cardinal and Archbishop Frederic 
de Schwarzenberg and four other Bishops subscribed, 
under the heading, " On the Primacy of the Roman 
Pontiff," decreed as follows : " We reject, moreover, 
the error of those who pretend that the Church can 
exist anywhere without being joined in bonds of 
union with the Church of Rome, in which the tradi- 
tion which has been handed down by the Apostles, 
has been preserved by those who are in every part." 
(S. Irenczus Adv. Hcer. I. 3. c. 3 ;/. 2.) 

" We know that no one who is not joined to the 
Head, can be considered as a member of the Body of 
the Church which Christ founded on Peter and esta- 
blished on his authority. Let all then prefer to confess 
with us and with the multitude of orthodox believers 
spread over the whole world, the Headship of the 
Roman Church and the Primacy of the Roman Pon- 
tiff; let them, as is fitting, with us, reverence and 
honour with dutiful affection our Most Holy Father 
Pius IX, by God's Providence Pope, the lawful 
Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, the Vicar of 
Christ on earth, the Chief Teacher of Faith, and Pilot 
of the Ship of Christ, to whom the most exact obedience 

prseter eminentissimum Cardinalem et Archiepiscopum Coloniensem 
Joannem de Geissel, quinque subscripserunt Episcopi, diserte docet : 
" Ipse (Romanus Pontifex) est omnium Christianoram pater et doctor, 
cujus in fidei qiiccstionibus per se irrcforniabilc esi jitdicium. 

2. Episcopi in Concilio provincial! UUrajecltnri anno 1865 congre- 
gati apertissime edicunt : " (Romani Pontificis) judicium in iis quce ad 
fidem moresque spectant, infallibile esse, indubitanter retinemus." 

3. Concilium provinciale Colocense, anno 1860 celebratum, hasc 
statuit : "Qnemadmodum Petrus erat...doctrincc fidei magister irrefra- 
gabilis, pro quo ipse Dominus rogavit, ut non deficeret fides ejus...; 
pari modo legitimt ejus in cathedrae Romance culmine successores... 
depositum fidei summo et irrefragabili oraculo custodiunt... Unde 
propositiones cleri gallicani anno 1682 editas, qua; jam pice memoriae 
Georgius Archiepiscopus Strigoniensis una cum ceteris Hungarige Prae- 
sulibus eodem ad hue anno publice proscripsit, ibidem rejicimus, pro- 
scribimus, atque cunctis provincice hujus fidelibus interdicimus, ne eas 
kgere vel tenere, multo minus docere auderent." 

4." Concilium plenarium Baltimorcnse, anno l866coactum, indeeretis, 



73 

and internal assent is due front all "Mho ivis/i to belong 
to tJie fold of Christ. We declare and teach, That 
this authority of the Roman Pontiff comes from Christ 
our Lord, and that consequently it is dependent upon 
no power or favour of men, and remains unimpaired 
in all times, even in the most bitter persecutions 
which the Church of Rome has suffered, as was the 
case during the imprisonment and martyrdom of 
Blessed Peter." 

4. The Provincial Council of Kalocza, held in 1860, 
declared : " That as Peter was . . . the irrefutable 
teacher of the doctrines of faith, for whom the Lord 
Himself prayed that his faith might not fail ; so his 
legitimate successors seated aloft on the Chair of 
Rome . . . preserve the deposit of faith with supreme 
and irrefutable powers of declaring the truth. . . . 
Wherefore we also reject, 5 ^ proscribe, and forbid all 
the faithful of this Province, to read or maintain, and 
much more to teach, the propositions published by 
the Gallican Clergy in 1682, which have already been 
censured this same year by the Archbishop of Gran, 
of pious memory, and by the other Bishops of 
Hungary." 

5. The Plenary Council of Baltimore which met in 
1866 and to which 44 Archbishops and Bishops sub- 
scribed, says : " The living and infallible authority 
flourishes in that Church alone which was built by- 
Christ upon Peter, who is the Head, Leader, and 
Pastor of the whole Church, whose faith Christ pro- 

quibus 44 Archiepiscopi et Episcopi subscripserunt, inter alia hoec 
docet : "Viva et infallibilis auctoritas in ea tantum viget Ecclesia, qua; 
a Christo Domino supra Petrum, totius Ecclesiae caput, principem et 
Pastorem, cujus fidem nonquam defecturam promisit, sedificata, suos 
legitimos semper habet Pontifices, sine intermissione ab ipso Petro 
ducentes originem, in ejus cathedra collocates, et ejusdem etiam doc- 
trine, dignitatis, honoris et potestatis hceredes et vindices. Et quoniam 
ubi Petrus ibi Ecclesia, ac Petrus per Romanum Pontificem loquitur 
et semper in suis successoribus vivit et indicium exercet, ac pnestat 
quasrentibus fidei veritatem ; idcirco divinu cloquia eo plane stnsn sunt 
accipitnda, qua tcniiit ac tenet Jucc Romano, beatissimi Petri cathedra, 
qute omnium Ecclesiarum mater et magistra, fidem a Christo Domino 
traditam integram inviolatamque semper servavit, camque fidelcs edocuit 
omnibus ostcndcns salutis semitam ct incorrupt^ veritatis doctrinam." 

5. Concilium primum provinciale ]Vcstuionastericnsc, anno 1852 habi- 
turn, profitetur : " Cum Dominus nosier adhortetur dicens : Attendite ad 
petram, unde excisi estis ; attenditc ad Abraham, patrem vestrum : 
spquum est, nos, qui immediate ab Apostolica Sede fidem, sacerdotium, 



74 

mised should never fail ; which ever had legitimate 
Pontiffs, dating their origin in unbroken line from 
Peter himself, being seated in his Chair, and being the 
inheritors and defenders of the like doctrine, dignity, 
office, and power. And because, where Peter is, there 
also is the Church, and because Peter speaks in the 
person of the Roman Pontiff, ever lives in his suc- 
cessors, passes judgment and makes known the truths 
of faith to those who seek them ; therefore are the 
Divine declarations to be received in tJiat sense in wltich 
tJicy have been and are held by this Roman See of Blessed 
Peter, that mother and teacher of all Churches, which 
has ever preserved whole and entire the teaching 
delivered by Christ, and vvliich has tangJit it to tJie 
faithful, showing to all men the paths of salvation and 
the doctrine of everlasting trutJi" 

6. The first Provincial Council of Westminster, held 
in 1852, states : "When our Blessed Lord exhorts us, 
saying : Look to the rock whence you are hewn ; look 
to Abraham your father, it is fitting that we who have 
received our faith, our priesthood, and the true religion 
directly from the Apostolic See, should more than 
others be attached to it by the bonds of love and 
fidelity. TJicrefore do we maintain that foundation of 
truth and orthodoxy which Jesus Christ wished should 
be maintained unshaken ; namely, the See of Peter, the 
teacher and mother of the vvhole world, the Holy Roman 
Church. Whatever is once defined by it, for that very 
reason alone we consider to be fixed and certain ; when 

veramque religionem accepimus, eidem plus ceteris amoris et obser- 
vantite vinculis adstringi. Fundamentutn igitur verce et orthodoxtz fidei 
ponimus, quod Dominiis noster Jesus Christus ponere vohiit inconcussuin, 
scilicet Pdri cathcdram, totius orbis magistram ct matrem, S. Romanain 
Ecclesiam. Quidquid ab ipsa semcl definitum est, eo ipso ration ct 
cerium tenenius ; ipsius traditiones, ritus, pios ususetomnes apostolicas 
constitutiones, disciplinam respicientes, toto corde amplectimur et vene- 
ramur. Sumrno denique Pontifici obedientiam et reverentiam, ut Christi 
Vicario, ex animo profitemur, eique arctissime in catholica communione 
adhzeremus. " 

6. Quingenti prope Episcopi, ex toto terramm orbe ad agenda 
soleiiutia secularia martyiii sanctorum Petri et Pauli anno 1867 in hac 
alma urbe congregati, minime dubitarunt, Supremum Pontificem Pium 
IX hisce alloqui verbis : Petrum per os Pii locutum fuisse credentes, 
quo? ad custodiendum depositum a te dicta, confirmata, prolata sunt, 
nos quoque dicimus, confirmamus, annunciamus, unoque ore atque 
animo rejicimus omnia, qua; divine fidei, saluti animamm, ipsi societatis 
humane bono adversa, tu ipse reprobanda ac rejicienda judicasti. Fir- 



75 

we look at its traditions, rites, pious customs, disci- 
pline, and all its Apostolic Constitutions, we follow 
and cherish them with all the affection of our hearts. 
In fine, we of set purpose publicly declare our obedience 
and respect for the Pope as Christ's Vicar, and we 
remain united to him in the closest bonds of Catholic 
unity." 

7. Nearly five hundred of the Bishops assembled in 
Rome to celebrate the centenary of the Martyrdom 
of SS. Peter and Paul, in the year 1867, had no hesi- 
tation in addressing Pius IX in the following terms : 
" Believing that Peter has spoken by the mouth of 
Pius, whatever has been said, confirmed, and decreed 
by You to preserve the deposit of faith, we also repeat, 
confirm, and profess, and with one mind and heart we 
reject all that,You have judged it necessary to reprove 
and condemn as contrary to Divine faith, to the salva- 
tion of souls, and to the good of society. For what 
the Fathers of Florence defined in their Decree of 
Union, is firmly and deeply impressed in our minds ; 
that the Roman Pontiff is the Vicar of Christ, the 
Head of the whole Church, the Father and Teacher of 
all Christians." 



POSTULATUM OF ITALIAN FATHERS IN 
FAVOUR OF THE DEFINITION* 

To THE HOLY CECUMENICAL COUNCIL OF THE 
VATICAN. 

Having before their eyes the words of the 
Holy Gospel, as well as the teaching and re* 
cords of the Church ; guided moreover by the 
oracle of the Angelic Doctor S. Thomas, the 
glory and ornament of their nation and of the whole 
Church, who proclaimed by a solemn utterance that it 

mum enim menti nostne est, alteque defixtim, quod Patres Florentini 
in decreto unionis dennierunt : Romanum Pontificeni Christi Vicarium, 
totius Ecclesirc caput et omnium Christianorum Fatrem et Doctorem 
existere. " 

* SACRO CONCILIO (ECUMENICO VATICANO. 

A Sacra CEcumenica Synodo Vaticana infrascripti Patres Dice- 
ceseon prcescrtim Italia;, proe oculis habentes verba S. Evangelii 
nee non Ecclesia? doctrinam et mommienta, atque S. Thomas Doctoris 



76 

belongs to the authority of the Supreme Pontiff finally 
to determine questions of faith, in order that they may 
be held by all with unshaken faith, and that it belongs 
to the same authority alone to issue a new form of Creed, 
and to decide tipon all other things which regard the 
Universal Church: enlightened also by the most 
weighty words of S. Alphonsus Liguori, another 
shining light of their country and of the Church ; 

The undersigned Fathers, belonging chiefly to 
Italian dioceses, humbly and urgently pray that the 
Holy (Ecumenical Council of the Vatican would 
sanction in proper terms the very words employed by 
S. Alphonsus in a particular dissertation : 7 '/tat 
although the Roman Pontiff may err as a private 
individual or doctor, and is indeed fallible in mere 
questions of fact which chiefly depend tipon human testi- 
mony, yet when the Pope speaks as Universal Doctor, 
defining ex cathedra, that is to say, with the supreme 
authority granted to Peter of teaching the CJiurch, then, 
in all questions of faitli and morals, Jte is exempt from 
error. 

No one can be astonished that this demand should 
be made by the undersigned, since S. Augustine him- 
self, speaking of another dogmatic truth, pertinently 
says : " Because the obscurity of this question has 
produced, within the limits of charity, such discussions 
in the early times of the Church between illustrious 
men and Bishops, endowed with great charity, until a 
General Council could confirm sound doctrine and silence 

Angelici, Ecdesise totius, et eorum patrise glorise et ornamenti, oraculo 
suffulti, qui solemn! sententia edixit : Ad summi Pontijicis auctoritatem 
pertiners finaliter determinare ea qiuc sunt fidei ut ab omnibus inconcussa 
fide teneantur^ et idea ad solam ejns auctoritatem pertinet nova editio 
symboli sicut ct omnia alia qua pertinent ad totam Ecclesiam (2a 20e q. I, 
art. 10) ; et alio gravissimo effato S. Alphonsi de Ligorio altero Eccle- 
siae et patriag proectarissimo lumine permoti, humillime instanterque 
efflagitant, ut ipsissimis verbis ejusdem S. Alphonsi in r peculiari disser- 
tatione sancire velit \ Quod licet Komanus \Pontifex quatenus pecullaris 
persona sivc privatus Doctor pas sit err are, sicut etiam est fallibilis in 
qiKcstionibus meri facli, qtice ex hoininum testimoniis prxcipue pendent ; 
cum tamen Papaloquitur tamquam Doctor univer salts definiens ex cathedra, 
iictnpe ex potestate suprema, tradita Petro, docendi Ecdesiam, tune in 
controversiis Fidei et jiiorum decernendis ab trrore esseinununem. 

Xec mirum videri poterit id ab iis exquiri, cum ipse S. Augustinus, 
de alia dogmatica veritate disserens, ad rem ait : Quoniam qucstionis 
hujus obscuritas prioribus Ecdes'ue temporibus magnos viros, et inagna 
caritate praditos Pat res Episcopos ita inter se com put it, saha pace, dis- 



77 

disputes" (De Baptismo, contra Donatist. lib. i. cap. 7.) 
S. Hilary also solved an actual difficulty in the same 
way : " Does anyone understand amiss ? Let us con- 
demn in common his evil interpretation, but not fail 
to confirm the faith'' (De Synod, no. 88.) 



PETITION OF BISHOPS OF THE FRANCIS- 
CAN ORDER. 

The Franciscan Petition in its original form erro- 
neously attributed a sentence to S. Bonaventure, 
which is found in the Summa Theologica juxta 
mentcm S. Bonaventurcz, by one of his Disciples. 
Upon finding out the mistake, the Father who drew 
up the Petition at once withdrew it. 

THE undersigned Bishops of the Order of 
Friars Minor of S. Francis humbly petition 
the Holy CEcumenical Council of the Vatican, 
after all things have been duly discussed and set forth 
which belong to the real and personal Constitution of 
the Church, to declare the prerogatives of the Roman 
Pontiff, whose Episcopal power extends over the 
Universal Church, and who enjoys the supreme right 
of teaching and ruling, of forming irrefragable judg- 
ments in doctrine, and of putting forth decrees in 
discipline which do not admit either of being called 
in question, or of appeal to any other power what- 
soever. 

These prerogatives of the Roman Pontiff the Holy 
Scriptures show in very clear words ; the Fathers 
everywhere set them forth ; the Christian people have 
always reverenced them ; and the Se/aphic School 
has ever looked upon it as a sacred duty to defend 
and uphold them. 

Wherefore, again and again, we ask the Holy 
CEcumenical Council of the Vatican to define a truth 

ceptars, donee plenario tothis orbis Concilia quod salubcrr'nnc-sentitur ciiatii 
remotis disceptationilnis firmaretur (De baptismo con. Donatis. lib. I, 
cap. 7). Pronam difficultatem diluit S. Hilarius : Sed male alias in* 
tdligit ? Damncmus in commune vitiosam intelligoitiain, non aitfera- 
imis fidd firmitatcin (De Synod, n. 88). 



78 

which is every way certain, and which Scripture and 
the Fathers show to be an ancient dogma of faith. 
For, as many have called in question this prerogative 
of the Roman Pontiff, or have, to the no small scandal 
of the faithful, declared a dogmatic definition upon 
this matter to be inopportune, we think that we are 
bound to use all our efforts, and strive to the utmost, 
lest, from the very silence of the Council, the infallible 
magisterium of the Supreme Pontiff and his judg- 
ments come to be made light of, or be thought in any 
way subject to reformation. 



PETITION OF THE ARMENIAN BISHOPS 
AT ROME FOR THE DEFINITION OF 
THE INFALLIBILITY OF THE POPE. 

IN our Armenian Church there never has arisen a 
doubt concerning the irreformability of the judg- 
ments which are pronounced by the Roman 
Pontiff as supreme Teacher and Doctor of the Catholic 
Church on matters of Faith and Morals ; as very 
many ancient testimonies of our Fathers and historic 
documents of our Church clearly show, and as the 
Sacred and Orthodox Bishops of the same Church 
have ever proved in their teaching up to this present 
day. But since we have heard that certain persons 
call the infallibility in question, we, fearing the great 
evils which might arise from this new doctrine to the 
Universal Church, but especially to the Orientals, 
since it has never been doubted that the above- 
mentioned irreformability most closely and insepar- 
ably adheres to the Supreme Primacy of the Roman 
Pontiff, we think it necessary that the same be declared 
definitely by the QEcumenical Council, and therefore 
we petition that the matter be treated in the Council 
as early as possible. 

Signed by the Patriarch and 1 1 Armenian Bishops. 



TESTIMONY OF THE ORIENTAL BISHOPS. 

'HnHE Oriental Bishops, headed by the Chaldean 
Patriarch, in a joint letter to the Bishop of 
Strasbourg, dated at Rome, the 25th of March, 

while approving his condemnation of the Abbe Gratry, 



79 

add a general statement of their own doctrine, and 
that of the Eastern Churches which they govern, on 
the subject of Papal Infallibility. 

" The world," they say, " is expecting the great act 
which the Holy (Ecumenical Council is about to 
accomplish. Who will not grieve at the opposition 
which the spirit of darkness and human ideas are 
exciting against it ? We poor Bishops of the Oriental 
Churches have even more reason to deplore it than 
our venerable colleagues. And now, when the attacks 
become more numerous and more violent against the 
respect due to the Council, and especially against the 
infallible authority of the Successor of Peter, we think 
it our duty to speak again in our own behalf, uniting 
ourselves to you and to the venerable Bishops who 
have raised their voices to condemn the temerity of 
some and the falsehood of others. If Catholic 
opinion in the West needs to be enlightened, the same 
necessity exists for the East, and ought we not to be 
the sources of that light ? " 

After observing that the East has more need than 
the West " to obtain its resurrection by means of inti- 
mate union with the Holy See," the Prelates continue 
as follows : " In the first place, as to the infallibility 
of the Popes, if the expression itself is not found in 
Holy Scripture, nor in our liturgical books, because 
that expression is newer while the theory which it 
signifies is old, it is set forth in other terms and by 
such words as Primacy and Supremacy. Moreover, 
our hymns continually celebrate this the most im- 
portant prerogative of Peter and his Successors. The 
Oriental Churches believe in the infallibility of the 
Pope. To dispute the truth, to wish to have a fallible 
Pope and an infallible Church, what is this but to say 
that the head is a mere appendage of the body, or 
that man can live without a head ? " 

Then pronouncing a solemn condemnation upon 
those priests who attempt to obscure this doctrine of 
Papal Infallibility, they say : ".They look for authority 
from below, from a few Bishops, instead of looking 
for it from above, from the Pope. Their ingratitude 
fills us with horror. They enjoy all the blessings 
dispensed by the Church, One, Holy, Catholic, 



8o 

Apostolic, and Roman, and they treat her with con- 
tempt ! There was once a day when the East- did 
likewise; it became the prodigal son, who deserted 
the home of his father, in order to live alone with 
his passions. Alas ! fourteen centuries of suffering 
have not yet expiated his fault. Let them tremble 
in their turn, if they continue obstinate, in spite of 
this terrible warning, which still preaches to them. 

As to the opportuneness of giving to this truth a 
place in the Catholic Creed, we are of opinion that 
every religious truth can produce only salutary effects, 
and that, on this point, we ought to rely upon Divine 
not upon human wisdom ? But who can doubt that 
the decisions of the Sacred Council promulgated by 
the Sovereign Pontiff will be inspired by Divine 
wisdom ? Of what value is human prudence ? Does 
not such prudence often gainsay the Divine order of 
supernatural works ? To seek to influence the deci- 
sions of the Council, and to invoke the interference of 
temporal powers, is not this to deny in practice what 
they maintain in theory the infallibility of the 
Church assembled in an (Ecumenical Council ? 

Do they object that the definition will be an addi- 
tional obstacle to the return of our separated brethren ? 
We answer, No. Their belief, like ours, is expressed 
in their prayers. We know indeed that ignorance has 
no clear view of anything, but all among the Sepa- 
ratists who possess any instruction, know that the 
Oriental Schism was produced by the passion of pre- 
dominance. Its authors affected to speak of errors in 
the Latin Church, and made a pretext of the integrity 
of the faith, and revived ancient heresies, only to con- 
ceal the true and shameful motive of their schism, and 
their anger that the Pope should be in Rome instead 
of Constantinople. But the necessity of an infallible 
chief, in order to make the Church infallible, that is, 
to confirm other Doctors in the truth, is so fully ad- 
mitted in the Oriental Schismatical Churches, that 
the four Greek Patriarchs have accepted the Sultan 
himself as infallible, by asking him to pronounce final 
judgment upon their differences when they find it 
impossible to agree together. Will they not admit that 
this infallibility resides more fitly in the successor of 






8i 

Peter than in the successor of Mahomet ? Even the 
Protestant, who makes himself the infallible judge 
of his own faith, will comprehend that either every 
individual, or else only the Head of the Church, has 
received this prerogative. Truth is necessarily one, 
because there is only one God. But to preserve the 
unity of faith, it is absolutely necessary that there 
should be an infallible chief to confirm all the others 
in this unity. Christina of Sweden saw this clearly. 
What brings a Protestant, a Schismatic, to Catholicism, 
is that Divine grace which illuminates the understanding. 
As soon as he has received this, the Protestant, the 
Schismatic, apprehends Pontifical infallibility as easily, 
perhaps more easily, than the infallibility of the 
Church. May Our Lord deign, by the intercession 
of Mary, through whom we have received Him who 
has reconciled heaven and earth, of Mary who, since 
the proclamation of her Immaculate Conception, ought 
to manifest towards us if possible a still greater 
love, may our Lord deign to pour out abundant 
graces of conversion upon the ^separated Churches, 
and upon all our erring brethren. But let them be 
assured who oppose themselves, assuredly without 
knowing or wishing it, to the conversion of heretics 
and infidels, that this is what they do by diminishing 
the divine rights of the Sovereign Pontiff, and by 
hiding the heavenly light under a bushel instead of 
placing it where it may be seen. And if they believe 
indeed in the infallibility of Divine wisdom, in the 
infallibility of the Catholic Church assembled in an 
(Ecumenical Council, why do they resist a decision 
which will be adopted only if it is divine, dictated by 
the Holy Spirit, and consequently necessary to the 
happiness of the whole universe ? How is it that they 
do not understand that a holy unanimity would be as 
glorious for themselves as it would be consoling to us 
all, and salutary for those who are still outside the 
Lord's vineyard ? It is not enough, then, either for 
Easterns or Westerns, whether united or not to Peter, 
to say that the Church is infallible ; it is necessary to 
decree the personal infallibility of the Pope speaking ex 
cathedra. 

But the great question of the return of the separated 



82 

Oriental Churches depends further upon the regenera- 
tion of the united Oriental Churches, and in the cease- 
less efforts of Latin missionaries to inspire love and 
respect for the Latin Church among all our country- 
men, whether united or separated. If this be accom- 
plished, and the task is easy, the whole East will be 
Catholic. Unfortunately, since 1829, when a little 
liberty was restored to us, the Episcopate of the 
United Rites has been too much abandoned to itself. 
But now that, thanks to the Council, the truth about 
the East begins to be understood, its wants known, 
its deficiencies perceived ; now that the Oriental 
Bishops are better appreciated, that Catholic France, 
and especially her Bishops, manifest their love for our 
Churches, and desire that each of them should be im- 
mediately succoured by the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Faith ; we may hope for everything in a 
not distant future. In these facts we see the proof 
that Divine grace is about to accomplish great things 
for us. 

Rome, 25 March, 1870. May this great Feast of 
the Annunciation be, especially for the East, the pro- 
clamation of its speedy return to unity ! 

>fc JOSEPH AUDU, Patriarch of the Chaldeans 
(Babylon). 

>J MICHAEL PETER BARTATAR, Archbishop of 
Peert (Kurdistan). 

>J GEORGE EBEDYESUS KHAJATH, Archbishop of 
Amadia (Kurdistan). 

^ ELIAS MELLUS, Bishop of Akra (of the Order 
of Antonines of Hormisdas). 

*| PETER MATAH, Archbishop of Gezirah (Meso- 
potamia). 

^ PETER ATTAR, Archbishop of Diarbekir. 

>f RAPHAEL PAPOFF, Bishop of the United Bul- 
garians. 

>J BENJAMIN, Archbishop of Nablous. 

4< GABRIEL FARIO, Archbishop of Mardin 

4* PETER APELIAN, Archbishop of Marash 
(Cilicia). 



83 

MEMORIAL AGAINST THE DEFINITION.* 
MOST HOLY FATHER, 

A PRINTED LETTER has reached us, con- 
taining a petition to be signed by the Fathers 
of the Council, and in which it is begged of 
the CEcumenical Synod that the same should sanction 
the supreme, and consequently infallible, authority of 
the Roman Pope, when in matters of faith and morals 
he issues precepts to all the faithful, by virtue of his 
Apostolic power. It is indeed surprising that the 
judges of faith are being invited to make a declara- 
tion, attested by their signature, of the decision on a 
matter before it has been discussed, However, in so 
serious an affair we felt constrained to address you, 
Most Holy Father, who have been appointed by God 
to feed the lambs and the sheep, and who take most 
loving care of the souls redeemed by the blood of 
Christ, and who with paternal affection protect them 
against the perils with which they are threatened. 
The times have passed in which the rights of the 
Apostolic See were doubted by Catholics. Every- 
body knows that as a body without a head is 
mutilated, so a Council representing the whole Church 
cannot be held without the successor of S. Peter, and 
all obey the commands of the Apostolic See with the 
most willing hearts. Moreover, what the faithful have 
to hold regarding the authority of the Roman Pontiff 
has been determined by the Council of Trent, as also 
by that of Florence, whose decrees on this point, in 

* BEATISSIME PATER ! 

Pervenerunt ad nos litterae typis impressse, quibus Concilii Patribus 
subscribenda exhibetur petitio a Synodo CEcumenica flagitans, ut san- 
cire velit supremam ideoque ab errore immunem auctoritatem Romani 
Pontificis in rebus fidei et morum apostolica potestate universis fidelibus 
pnecipientis. Mirum certe est, fidei judices invitari, ut ante causam 
dictam de sententia ferenda declarationem subscriptione sua munitam 
ederent. Verum in hoc tanto negotio Te ipsum, Sanctissime Pater, 
adeundum esse censuimus, quippe qui a Domino ad agnos ovesque 
pascendum constitutus animarum Christi sanguine redemptarum piissi- 
mam curam habes, et periculorum ipsis imminentium affectu paterno 
misereris. Abierunt tempora, quibus Sedis Apostolicas jura a Catholicis 
in dubium vocari contigit. Nemo est, qui nesciat, sicut corpus absque 
capite mutilum, ita neque Concilium Ecclesiam totam reprrcsentans 
absque successoi-e S. Petri haberi posse, omnesque Sanctre Sedis man- 
datis promptissimo obediunt animo. Prseterea quse de Pontificis 
Romani auctorjtate fidelibus tenenda sint, Concilium Tridentinum 



8 4 

the whole as well as in particular, must be the more 
solemnly preserved, because they were passed by 
common agreement of the Latin and Greek Church ; 
and because if God in His mercy should deign to cast 
His eye upon the East, oppressed by so many 
miseries, they will form the basis for the re-establish- 
ment of union. To this is to be added that in the 
present time the Church has to sustain a new, since 
centuries unheard-of, contest against those who rise 
against religion as against a fiction deadly to the 
human race, so that it does not appear at all recom- 
mendable to burden the Catholic peoples, who are 
tempted by so many devices, with more than the 
Fathers of Trent impossed upon them. Besides, as 
Bellarmin says, with the whole Catholic Church 
" Definitions respecting faith depend principally on 
Apostolic tradition and the consent of Churches ; " 
and although a Universal Synod prepares the shortest 
way to become acquainted with the judgment of the 
whole Church, nevertheless numerous errors have, 
since the most noble Council of the Apostles and the 
Elders of Jerusalem, down to that of Micaea, been 
suppressed and extinguished by the decision of 
individual Churches, which were approved by the 
Successor of S. Peter w T ith the concurrence of the 
whole Church. 

It is indisputable that all Christian believers owe 
true obedience to the decrees of the Apostolic See ; 

edixit, Florentinum quoque, cujus ea cle re decretum in cunctis singu- 
lisque eo sanctius conservetur oportet, quoniam Ecclesise Latinse et 
Griiecse consensu stabilitum est atque si Dominus ad Orientem tot malis 
oppressum miser icordiae snje oculos convertere dignetur unionis resti- 
tuenda fundamentum erit. Accedit quod hac tempestate Ecclesiae 
adversus eos, qui in religionem tanquam commentum humano generi 
exitiale consurgunt pugna sustinenda sit nova et a sseculis inaudita, 
ita consuetum mimme videatur populis Catholicis tot undique 
machinationibus in tentationem induelis majora quam Patres 
Tridentini imponere. C?eterum prout cum on;ni Ecclesia Catholica 
Eellarminus effatur : " Definitiones de fide pendent prcecipue ex tradi- 
tione apostolica et consensu Ecclesiarum " et quamvis ad totius Ecclesiae 
sententiam cognoscendam Synodus universalis brevissimam sternat 
viam, tamen a nobilissimo Concilio, quod apostoli cum senioribus 
Hierosolimis habuerunt, Nicsenum usque errores innumeri Ecclesiarum 
particularium decisionibus successoris S. Petri totiusque Ecclesise con- 
sensu adprobatis profligati et extincti sunt. Indubium est quod omnes 
Christi fideles Sedis Apostolicse decretis veram obedientiam debeant, 
insuper eruditi piique viri decent, qure summus Pontifex de fide mori- 



85 

moreover, learned and pious men teach that what the 
Pope speaking ex catJicdrd decides concerning faith 
and morals is irreversible, even without the concur- 
rence of the Church having been made known in any 
way whatever. Yet it must not be passed over in silence 
that, nevertheless, there remain grave difficulties arising 
from the writings and acts of the Fathers of the 
Church, from genuine historical documents, and from 
Catholic doctrine itself, before the complete solution 
of which it would be impossible to lay before the 
Christian people the dogma recommended in the 
above-mentioned petition as one revealed by God. 

But the mind shrinks from the discussion of these 
matters, and we beg, with confidence in your kindness, 
that the necessity of deliberating thereon may not be 
imposed upon us. Moreover, as we perform our 
Episcopal office among the chief Catholic nations, we 
know by daily experience the true state of affairs 
among them ; but it is clear to us that the required 
Definition would place new weapons in the hands of 
the enemies of religion wherewith to incite even well 
disposed men to dislike the Catholic cause, and we are 
certain that the same would give cause or a pretext to 
Europe at least to the Governments of our districts 
to attack the remaining rights of the Church. 

This we have submitted to your Holiness with the 
sincerity due to the common Father of the Faithful, 
and we pray that by virtue of your order, the dogma, 

busque ex Cathedra loquens constituat, etiam absque Ecclesiarum 
consensu quomodocunque demonstrato irrefragibilia esse. Attamen 
silentio premere non licet, graves nihilominus superesse difficultates ex 
Patrum Ecclesiae dictis gestisque, genuinis historic documentis et ipsa 
doctrina Catholica enatas, quse nisi penitus solutee fuerint nequaquam 
fieri posset, ut doctrina pnedictb litteris commendata populo Christiano 
tamquam a Deo revelata proponeretur. Verum ah hisce discutiendis 
refugit animus, et ne ejusmodi deliberationum necessitas nobis impona- 
tur, Benevolentias Tune confidentes flagitamus. Pneterea cum inter 
potiores nationes Catholicas munere episcopali fungimur, rerum apud 
eas statum quotidiano noscimus usu ; nobis autem constat, definitionem, 
quae postulatur, religionis inimicis nova suppetituram arm a ad rei 
Ca-Jtholicae etiam apud melioris notse viros invidiam concitandam, cer- 
tique sumus rem in Europa saltern nostrarum regionum guberniis 
causam praebituram sive pnetextum in jura Ecclesia residue invadendi. 

Ilrcc Sanctitati Ture ea quam communi fidelium Patri debemus 
sinceritate exposuimus et Tuo precamur mandate fiat, ut doctrina, 
cujus sanctionem petunt, Concilio CEcumenico discutienda baud pro- 
ponatur. 



86 

the sanction of which is prayed for, may not be 
submitted to the (Ecumenical Council for discussion. 
Finally, prostrated at your feet, we beg for our- 
selves and the peoples whom it is our mission to lead 
to God, the Apostolic blessing. Your Holiness's most 
humble, obedient, and devoted servants, 

(Here follow the signatures.) 

N.B. A great number of other Petitions from 
different groups of Bishops, Religions Orders, &c., 
were also presented, praying for the introduction of 
the doctrine of Papal Infallibility ; but it is not 
necessary to quote them here. 



THE THIRD PUBLIC SESSION. 

ON Low Sunday, the 24th of April, the THIRD 
PUBLIC SESSION of the Vatican Council was 
held. The Sovereign Pontiff presided in 
person, and the number of Fathers present was 664. 
Mass was said by Cardinal Bilio, then came the 
Litanies of the Saints, and then the dogmatic Con- 
stitution De Fide Catholica was read, and after the 
unanimous vote of all the assembled Fathers had 
been recorded, it was solemnly promulgated by the 
Holy Father himself. 



Cseterum ad pedes Tuos provoluti pro nobis et populis quos ad Deum 
perducendos accepimus, apostolicam petimus benedictionem. 

Sanctitatis True 
Humillimi obsequentissimi ac devotissimi Servl 



DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION OF THE 
CATHOLIC FAITH.* 

Pius, BISHOP, SERVANT OF THE SERVANTS OF 
GOD, WITH THE APPROBATION OF THE HOLY 
COUNCIL FOR A PERPETUAL REMEMBRANCE. 

THE Son of God and Redeemer of mankind, our 
Lord Jesus Christ, when about to return to His 
Heavenly Father, promised that he would be 
with His Church Militant on earth all days even to 
the consummation of the world. Wherefore He has 
never ceased at any time to be with His cherished 
Spouse, to assist her in her teaching, to bless her in 
her work, and to succour her in danger. But this His 
salutary providence, which has been constantly mani- 
fested by other innumerable benefits, has been most 
evidently displayed by those abundant fruits which 
the whole Christian world has derived from (Ecume- 
nical Councils, and especially from that of Trent, 
although held in evil times. For by these means the 
most holy dogmas of religion were defined with more 
precision and exposed with greater fulnes, errors were 
condemned and arrested, ecclesiastical discipline 
restored and more firmly established, the clergy 
excited to the love of science and piety, colleges 
founded for the education of young men in the sacred 

* PlUS EPISCOPUS. SERVUS SERVORUM DEI, SACRO APPROBANTE 
CONCILIO, AD PERPETUAM REI MEMORIAM. 

Dei Filius et generis humani redemptor Dominus Noster Jesus 
Christus, ad Patrem coelestem rediturus, cum Ecclesia sua in terras 
militante, omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem sseculi futurum se 
esse promisit. Quare dilectse Sponsse prsesto esse, adsistere docenti, 
operanti benediceie, periclitanti opem ferre nullo unquam tempore 
destitit. Haec vero salutaris ejus providentia, cum ex aliis beneficiis 
innumeris continenter apparuit, turn iis manifestissime comperta est 
fructibus, qui orbi christiano e Conciliis cecumenicis ac nominatim e 
Tridentino, iniquis licet temporibus celebrate, amplissimi provenerunt. 
Hinc enim sanctissima religionis dogmata pressius defnita, ubenusque 
exposita, errores damnati atque cohibiti; hinc ecclesiastica disciplina 
restituta firmiusque sancita, promotum in Clero scientice et pietatis 
studium, parata adolescentibus ad sacram militiam educandis collegia, 
christiani denique populi mores et accuratiore fidelium eruditione et 
frequentiore sacramentorum usu instaurati. Hinc proeterea arctior 
membrorum cum visibili capite communio, universoque corpori Christi 
mystico additus vigor ; hinc religiose multiplicatse familise, aliaque 



88 

ministry, and finally the morals of Christian nations 
confirmed by the more accurate instruction of the 
faithful and the more frequent use of the Sacraments. 
Hence also the communion of the members with the 
Visible Head has been rendered more intimate, and 
new vigour imparted to the whole mystical body of 
Christ ; hence religious orders have been multiplied, 
and other institutions of Christian piety ; hence the 
ardour, assiduous and constant even to the effusion of 
blood, in propagating widely throughout the world 
the Kingdom of Christ. 

Nevertheless, while We recall with due gratitude 
these and other singular benefits, which the Church 
has derived through the Divine clemency chiefly from 
the last CEcumenical Council, We cannot restrain the 
expression of Our grief in presence of most weighty 
evils, of which the principal cause is, that among a 
very large number, either the authority of that same 
Holy Council has been contemned, or its most wise 
decrees neglected. 

For no one is ignorant that, the Divine magisterium 
of the Church being rejected, and religious questions 
being abandoned to the private judgment of each 
individual, the heresies which the Tridentine Fathers 
proscribed were by degrees broken up among a mul- 
titude of sects, separated from and contending with 
one another, until at length among no small number 
all faith in Christ was overthrown. The Holy Bible 

Christianas pietatis instituta, hinc ille etiam assiduus et esque ad 
sanguinis effusionem constans ardor in Christi regno late per orbem 
propagando. 

Verumtamen hsec aliaque insignia emolumenta, quae per ultimam 
maxime cecumenicam Synodum divina dementia Ecclesise largita est, 
dum grato, quo par est, animo recolimus, acerbum compescere baud 
possumus dolorem ob mala gravissima, inde potissimum orta, quod 
ejusdem sacrosanctae Synodi apud permultos vel auctoritas contempta, 
vel sapientissima neglecta fuere decreta. 

Nemo enim ignorat hrereses quas Tridentini Patres proscripserunt, 
dum, rejecto divino Ecclesiae magisterio, res ad religionem spectantes 
privati cujusvis judicio permitterentur, in sectas paulatim dissolutas esse 
multiplices, quibus inter se dissentientibus et concertantibus, omnis 
tandem in Christum fides apud non paucos labefacta est. Itaque ipsa 
sacra Biblia, quse antea christianse doctrinse unicus fons et judex assere- 
bantur, jam non pro divinis haberi, imo mythicis commentis accenseri 
cseperunt. 

Turn nata est et late nimis per orbem vagata ilia rationalismi seu 
naturalism! doctrina, qua religion! christianse utpote supernaturali 



8 9 

itself, which they had once asserted to be the sole 
fountain and test of Christian doctrine, was thus no 
longer accounted divine, and even began to be com- 
pared to mythical fables. 

Then arose, and was too widely diffused throughout 
the world, that doctrine of rationalism or naturalism, 
which, assailing by all means the Christian religion as 
a supernatural institution, strives with its whole force, 
after tearing from the human soul, and from the life 
and manners of the nations, Christ our only Lord and 
Saviour, to establish the reign of what is called pure 
reason and nature. Forsaking thus and casting away 
the Christian religion, denying the true God and His 
Christ, the understandings of many have sunk into 
the abyss of pantheism, materialism, or atheism, to 
such an extent that, denying the rational nature itself, 
and every rule of right and justice, they strive to over- 
throw the very foundations of human society. 

Moreover, this impiety spreading on every side, it 
has unhappily come to pass that many even of the 
children of the Catholic Church have strayed from the 
path of true piety, and that in them, the truths which 
they retain being gradually diminished, the Catholic 
sense has become enfeebled. For, led away by various 
strange doctrines, and wrongly confounding nature 
and grace, human science and divine faith, they are 
found to deprave the genuine sense of the dogmas 
which our Holy Mother the Church holds and teaches, 
and to imperil the integrity and sincerity of the faith. 

At the sight of so many evils, how should the 

institute per omnia adversans, summo studio molitur, ut Christo, qui 
solus Dominus et Salvator noster est, a mentibus humanis, a vita et 
moribus populorum excluso, merse quod vocant rationis vel natura- 
regnum stabiliatur. Relicta autem projectaque Christiana religione, 
negate vero Deo et Christo ejus, prolapsa tandem est multorum mens 
in pantheismi, materialising atheismi barathrum, ut jam ipsam rationalem 
naturam omnemque justi rectique normam negantes, ima humanse 
societatis fundarr.enta diruere connitantur. 

Hac porro impietate circumquaque grassante, infeliciter contigit, ut 
plures et catholicse Ecclesioe filiis a via verse pietatis aberrarent, iniisque 
diminutis paulatim vei'itatibus sensus catholicus attenuaretur. Variis 
enim ac peregrinis doctrinis abducti, 4 iiaturam et gratiam, scientiam 
humanam et fidem divinam perperam commiscentes, genuinum sensum 
dogmatum, quern tenet ac docet S. M. Ecclesia depravare, integri- 
tatemque et sinceritatem fidei in periculum adducere comperiuntur. 

Quibus omnibus perspectis, fieri qui potest ut non commoveantur 
intima Ecclesiee viscera? Quemadmodum enim Deus vult omnes 



go 

Church not be moved in her inmost bowels ? For as 
God wills that all men should be saved, and come to 
the knowledge of the truth ; as Christ came that He 
might save that which was lost, and gather together 
in one the children of God who were scattered abroad ; 
so the Church, appointed by God to be the mother 
and mistress of the peoples, knows herself to be a 
debtor to all, and is ever ready and solicitous to lift 
up the fallen, to sustain the falling, to embrace those 
who return to her, to confirm the well disposed and 
to draw them on to perfection. Wherefore she cannot 
at any time cease from attesting and preaching that 
truth of God which healeth all things, knowing that 
it has been said to her : My Spirit, which is in thee, 
and My words which I have put in thy mouth, shall 
not depart out of thy mouth henceforth and for ever. 
(Is. lix. 21.) 

We, therefore, walking in the steps of Our Prede- 
cessors, have never ceased to discharge Our supreme 
Apostolic office in teaching and defending Catholic 
truth, and in condemning perverse doctrines. But 
now, the Bishops of the whole world sitting with Us, 
and judging, while gathered together in the Holy 
Spirit by Our Apostolic authority in this CEcumenical 
Council, supported by the written word of God and 
tradition, as we have received it sacredly preserved 
and faithfully exposed by the Catholic Church, We 
have resolved to profess and declare from this Chair 
of Peter, in the sight of all, the salutary doctrine of 

homines salvos fieri, et ad agnit.ionem veritatis venire ; quemadmodum 
Christus venit, ut salvum faceret, quod perierat, et filios Dei, qui erant 
dispersi, congregaret in unum ; ita Ecclesia, a Deo populorum mater et 
magistra constituta, omnibus debitricem se novit, ac lapsos erigere, 
labantes sustinere, revertentes, amplecti, confirmare bonos et ad meliora 
provehere parata semper et intenta est. Quapropter nullo tempore a 
Dei veritate, quoe sanat omnia, testanda et prsedicanda quiescere potest, 
sibi dictum esse non ignorams : Spiritus meus qui est in te, et verba mea, 
quse posui in ore tuo, non recedent de ore tuo amodo et usque in sempi- 
ternum (Is. lix. 21). 

Nos itaque, inhaerentes Prsedecessorum Nostronim vestigiis, pro 
supremo Nostro Apostolico munere veritatem catholicam docere ac 
tueri, perversasque doctrinas reprobare numquam intermisimus. Nunc 
autem sedentibus Nobiscum et judicantibus universi orbis Episcopis, in 
hanc recumenicam Synod urn auctoritate Nostra in Spiritu Santo con- 
gregatis, innixi Dei verbo scripto et tradito prout ab Ecclesia catholica 
sancte custoditum et genuine expositum accepimus, ex hac Petri 
Cathedra in conspectu omnium salutarem Christi doctrinam profited et 



91 

Christ, and to proscribe and condemn by the power 
committed to Us by God the contrary errors. 

CHAPTER I. 

OF GOD THE CREATOR OF ALL THINGS. 

The Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church 
believes and confesses that there is one true and 
living God, Creator and Lord of Heaven and earth ; 
almighty, eternal, immense, incomprehensible, infinite 
in understanding and in will and in every perfection ; 
and that, since He is one single, altogether simple 
and unchangeable spiritual substance, He is to be 
declared to be really and in essence distinct from the 
world, most happy in Himself and of Himself, and 
unspeakably exalted above all things which exist and 
can be conceived besides Himself. 

This only true God, by His goodness and almighty 
power, not in order to increase His own happiness, 
and for the purpose, not of acquiring, but of manifest- 
ing His own perfection by the good things which He 
bestows on creatures of His most free will, even 
from the beginning of time, formed out of nothing 
both the spiritual and corporeal creature ; that is to 
say, the angelical and the mundane, and afterwards 
the human creature, common as it were to both, being 
composed of spirit and of body. (Concil. Later, iv. 
c.i.) 

But all things which He has created, God by His 

declarare constituimus, adversis erroribus potestate nobis a Deo tradita 
proscriptis atque damnatis. 

CAPUT I. 

DE DEO RERUM OMNIUM CREATORE. 

Sancta Catholica Apostolica Romana Ecclesia credit et confitetur, 
unum esse Deum, verum et vivum, Creatorem ac Dominum coeli et terras, 
omnipotentem, seternum, immensum, incomprehensibilem, intellectu ac 
voluntate omnique perfectione infinitum ; qui cum sit una singularis, 
simplex omnino et incommutabilis substantia spiritualis, prsedicandus 
est re et essentia a mundo distinctus, in se et ex se beatlssimus, et super 
omnia, quae praster ipsum sunt et concipi possunt, ineffabiliter ex- 
celsus. 

Hie solus verus Deus bonitate sua et omnipotenti virtute non ad 
augendam suam beatitudinem nee ad acquirendam, sed ad manifestan- 
dam perfectionem suam per bona, quie creaturis impertitur, liberrimo 
consilio simul ab initio temporis utramque de nihilo condidit creaturam, 
spiritualem et corporalem, angelicam videlicet et mundanam, ac deinde 
bumanam quasi communem ex spiritu et corpore constitutam (Cone. 
Later., iv. c. I. Firmiter). 

Universa vero, quae condidit, Deus providentia sua tuetur atque 



9 2 

Providence defends and governs, reaching from end 
to end mightily, and ordering all things sweetly 
(Wisdom viii. I.) For all things are naked and open 
to His eyes (Cf. Hebrews iv. 13.), even those things 
which, by the free action of creatures, are to be 
hereafter. 

CHAPTER II. 

OF REVELATION. 

The same Holy Mother Church holds and teaches 
that God, the beginning and end of all things, may 
certainly be known by the natural light of human 
reason through created things ; for the invisible things 
of Him, from the creation of the world, are clearly 
seen, being understood by the things that are made 
(Romans i. 20) ; that nevertheless it has pleased His 
wisdom and goodness, by another, and that a super- 
natural way, to reveal Himself and the eternal decrees 
of His will to the human race, as the Apostle says : 
God, who at sundry times and in divers manners 
spoke in times past to the fathers by the prophets, 
last of all, in these days, hath spoken to us by His 
Son (Hebrews i. I, 2). 

To this Divine revelation it is indeed to be attri- 
buted that those among divine things which are not 
in themselves inscrutable to human reason, may, even 
in the present condition of the human race, be known 
by all men readily, with firm certitude, and without 

gubernat, attingens a fine usque ad finem fortiter, et disponens omnia 
suaviter (Sap. viii. i). Omnia enim nuda et aperta sunt oculis ejas 
(Cf. Hebr. iv. 13), ea etiam quoe libera creaturarum actione futura 
Bunt. 

CAPUT II. 

DE REVELATIONE. 

Eadem Sancta Mater Ecclesia tenet et docet, Deum rerum omnium 
principium et finem, natural! humanse rationis lumine e rebus creatis 
certo cognosci posse ; invisibilia enim ipsius, a creatura mundi, per 
ea quse facta sunt, intellecta, conspiciuntur (Rom. i. 20) ; aitamen 
placuisse ejus sapientise et bonitati, alia, eaque supernatural! via se 
ipsum ac seterna voluntatis suse decreta humano generi revelare, dicente 
Apostolo : Multifariam, multisque modus olim Deus loquens patribus 
in Prophetis : novissime, diebus istis locutus est nobis in Filio 
(Hebr. i. i, 2). 

Huic divinoe revelationi tribuendum quidem est, ut ea, quse in rebus 
divinis humanse rationi per se impervia non sunt, in prsesenti quoque 
generis humani conditione ab omnibus expedite, firma certitudine et 
nullo admixto errore cognosci possint. Non hac tamen de causa reve- 
latio absolute necessaria dicenda est, sed quia Deus ex infinita bonitate 
sua _ordinavit hominem ad finem supernaturalem, ad participanda 



93 

any admixture of error. Nevertheless revelation is 
not to be called absolutely necessary on this ground, 
but because God of His infinite goodness has ordained 
man for a supernatural end ; that is to say, for a 
participation in divine good things which altogether 
surpass the understanding of the human mind ; for 
eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it 
entered into the heart of man, what things God hath 
prepared for them that love Him (i Cor. ii. 9). 

Moreover, this supernatural revelation, according to 
the faith of the Universal Church, as declared by the 
Holy Council of Trent, is contained in written books 
and in the unwritten traditions which, having been 
received by the Apostles from the mouth of Christ 
Himself, or having been, as it were, handed down 
from the Apostles themselves at the dictation of the 
Holy Spirit, have arrived even unto us (Cone. Trid. 
sess. iv. Deer, de Can. Script.) And these entire 
books of the Old and New Testament, with all their 
parts, as they are set forth in the decrees of the said 
Council, and as they are contained in the old Latin 
Vulgate edition, are to be received as holy and 
canonical ; but the Church holds them to be holy and 
canonical, not because they were put together by mere 
human authority and afterwards approved by her 
authority, and not merely because they contain revela- 
tion without error : but because, having been written 
by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, they have God 
for their author, and have as such been delivered to 
the Church herself. 

scilicet bona divina, quag humanse mentis intelligentiam omnino 
superant ; siquidem oculus non vidit, nee auris audivit, nee in cor 
hominis ascendit, quse praeparavit Deus iis qui diligunt ilium 
(i Cor. ii. 9). 

Haec porro supernaturalis revelatio, secundum universalis Ecclesire 
fidem, a sancta Tridentina Synodo declaratam, continetur in libris 
scriptis et sine scripto traditionibus, quae ipsius Christi ore ab Apostolis 
accepts, aut ab ipsis Apostolis Spiritu Sancto dic f ante quasi per 
manus traditse, ad nos usque pervenerunt (Cone. Trid. sess. iv. Deer, 
de Can. Script. ) Qui quidem veteris et novi Testament! libri integri 
cum omnibus suis partibus, prout in ejusdem Concilii decreto recen- 
sentur, et in veteri vulgata latina editione habentur, pro sacris et 
canonicis habet, non ideo quod sola humana industria concinnati, sua 
deinde auctoritate sint approbati, nee ideo dumtaxat, quod revelationem 
sine errore contineant, sed propter ea quod Spiritu Sancto inspirante 
conscripti Deum habent auctorem, atque ut tales ipsi Ecclesice traditi 
sunt. 



94 

But since some men perversely explain those things 
which the Holy Council of Trent, for the restraint of 
petulant dispositions, did wholesomely decree con- 
cerning the interpretation of the Divine Scripture, 
We, renewing the said decree, declare the intent 
thereof to be that, in matters of faith and of the morals 
which pertain to the building up of Christian doctrine, 
that is to be taken to be the true sense of Holy Scrip- 
ture which has been and is held by Holy Mother 
Church, to whom it belongs to judge of the true sense 
and interpretation of the Holy Scriptures, and there- 
fore that it is not allowed to any one to interpret the 
same Holy Scripture against this sense or even against 
the unanimous consent of the Fathers. 

CHAPTER III. 

OF FAITH. 

Since man in his entirety depends upon God as his 
Creator and Lord, and the created reason is altogether 
subject to the uncreated truth, we are bound to render 
by faith a full obedience of intellect and will to God 
when he makes a revelation to us. But this faith, 
which is the begining of human salvation, the Catholic 
Church professes to be a supernatural virtue, by which, 
the grace of God inspiring and assisting us, we believe 
the things revealed by Him to be true, not on account 
of their intrinsic truth as perceived by the natural 
light of reason, but because of the authority of God 

Quoniam veto, quae sancta Tridentina Synodus de interpretatione 
divinse Scripturse ad coercenda petulantia ingenia salubriter decrevit, a 
quibusdam hominibus prave exponuntur, Nos, idem decretum reno- 
vantes, hanc illius mentem esse declaramus, ut in rebus fidei et 
morum, ad aedificationem doctrinse christianae pertinentium, is pro 
vero sensu Sacrae Scripturse habendus sit, quern tenuit ac tenet Sancta 
Mater Ecclesia, cujus est judicare de vero sensu et interpretatione 
Scripturarum sanctarum ; atque ideo neminilicere contra hunc sensum, 
aut etiam contra unanimem consensum Patrum ipsam Scripturam 
Sacram interpretari. 

CAPUT III. 

DE FIDE. 

Quum homo a Deo tanquam Creatore et Domino suo totus dependeat, 
et ratio creata increatae veritati penitus subjecta sit, plenum revelanti 
Deo intellectus et voluntatis obsequium fide praestare tenemur. Hanc 
vero fidem, quae humanae salutis initium est, Ecclesia catholica profitetur, 
virtutem esse supernaturalem, qua, Dei aspirante et adjuvante gratia, 
ab eo revelata vera esse credimus, non propter intrinsecam rerum 
veritatem naturali rationis lumine perspectam sed propter auctoritatem 
ipsius Dei revelantis, qui nee falli nee fallere potest. Est enim fides, 



95 

Himself who reveals them, who can neither err nor 
lead into error. For faith is, according to the testi- 
mony of the Apostle, the substance of things to be 
hoped for, the evidence of things that appear not 
(Heb. xi, i). 

Nevertheless, in order that the obedience of our 
faith might be in harmony with reason, God has willed 
that to the inward aids of the Holy Spirit there should 
be joined external proofs of His revelation ; facts, 
that is, of a divine character ; and in the first place 
miracles and prophecies, which as they clearly show 
forth both the omnipotence and the infinite knowledge 
of God, are signs of Divine Revelation which are most 
certain and are suited to the understanding of all men. 
Wherefore both Moses and the prophets and, beyond 
all, Christ the Lord Himself showed forth many and 
most manifest miracles and prophecies ; and of the 
Apostles we read : But they going forth preached 
everywhere, the Lord working withal, and confirming 
the Word with signs that followed (Mark xvi. 20). 
And again it is written : We have the more firm pro- 
pheticai word ; whereunto you do well to attend as 
to a lamp that shineth in a dark place (2 Pet. i. 19). 

But although the assent of faith is by no means a 
blind motion of the mind, still no one can give such 
an assent to the preaching of the Gospel as is necessary 
for the attaining of salvation without an illumination 
and inspiration of the Holy Spirit, Who gives to all 
sweetness in consenting to and believing in the truth 

testante Apostolo, sperandarum substantia rerum, argumentum non 
apparentium (Hebr. xi. i). 

Ut nihilominus fidei nostrse obsequium ration! consentaneum esset, 
voluit Deus cum internis Spiritus Sancti auxiliis externa jungi revela- 
tionis sure argumenta, facta scilicet divina atque imprimis rairacula et 
prophetias, quse cum Dei omnipotentinm et infmitam scientiam lucu- 
lenter commonstrent, divinse revelationis signa sunt certissima et 
omnium intelligentise accommodata. Quare turn Moyses et prophetse 
turn ipse maxime Christus Dominus multa et manifestissima miracula 
et prophetias ediderunt ; et de Apostolis legimus : illi autem profecti 
prrcdicaverunt ubique Domino cooperante, et sermonem confirmante, 
sequentibus signis (Marc, xvi, 20). Et rursum scriptum est ; Habemus 
firmiorem propheticum sermonem, cui bene facitis attendentes quasi 
lucernre lucenti in caliginoso loco (2 Petr. i. 19). 

Licet autem fidei assensus nequaquam sit motus animi coccus : 
nemo tamen evangelicse prgedicationi consentire pptest, sicut oportet 
ad salutem consequendam, absque illuminatione et inspiratione Spiritus 
Sancti, qui dat omnibus suavitatem in consentiendo et credendo veritati 



9 6 

(Syn. Arans. ii. can. 7). Wherefore faith in itself, 
even though it do not work by chanty, is a gift of God, 
and the act of faith is a work pertinent to salvation, 
by which man renders a free obedience to God Him- 
self, by consenting to and co-operating with His grace 
which he might resist. 

Further, all those things are to be believed with 
divine and Catholic faith which are contained in the 
Word of God, and whether in Scripture or tradition, 
which the Church either in a solemn judgment or by 
her ordinary and universal magisterium proposes to 
our belief as divinely revealed. 

But because without faith it is impossible to please 
God, and to arrive at the fellowship of His sons ; 
therefore without it no one ever has obtained justifi- 
cation, nor will any one, unless he persevere in it even 
to the end, arrive at eternal life. But in order that we 
may be able to satisfy the obligation of embracing 
the true faith, and of constantly persevering in it, God, 
by His only-begotten Son has instituted the Church, 
and furnished it with manifest signs of its having been 
instituted by Him, that it might be recognized by all 
as the Guardian and Teacher of the revealed Word. 
For to the Catholic Church alone belong all those so 
numerous and so wonderful marks which are Divinely 
ordered for the evident credibility of the Christian 
faith. Moreover, the Church, by reason of her 
wonderful propagation, her singular sanctity, and 
her unexhausted fruitfulness in all good, and by virtue 

(Syn. Araus. ii. can. 7). Quare fides ipsainse, etiamsi per charitatem 
non operetur, donum Dei est, et actus ejus est opus ad salutem perti- 
nens, quo homo liberam prsestat ipsi Deo obedientiam, gratise ejus, cui 
resistere posset, consentiendo et cooperando. 

Porro fide divina et catholica ea omnia credenda sunt, quse in verbo 
Dei scripto vel tradito continentur, et ab Ecclesia sive solemni judicio, 
sive ordinario et universal! magisterio tanquam divinitus revelata cre- 
denda proponuntur. 

Quoniam vero sine fide impossibile est placere Deo, et ad filiorum 
ejus consortium pervenire ; ideo nemini unquam sine illo contigit 
justificatio, nee ullus, nisi in ea perse veraverit usque in finem, vitam 
seternam assequetui'. Ut autem officio veram fidem amplectendi, in 
eaque constanter perseverandi satisfacere possemus, Deus per Filium 
suum unigenitum Ecclesiam instituit suasque institutionis manifestis 
notis instruxit, ut ea tamquam custos et magistra verbi revelati ab 
omnibus posset agnosci. Ad solam enim catholicam Ecclesiam ea per- 
tinent omnia, quse ad evidentem fidei Christianas credibilitatem tarn 
multa et tarn mira divinitus sunt disposita. Quin etiam Ecclesia per 



97 

of her Catholic unity and unconquered stability, is of 
herself a great and perpetual ground of belief and an 
irrefragable testimony to her own Divine mission. 
Hence it comes to pass that, like a standard set up 
unto the nations (Is. xi. 12), she both invites to her- 
self those who have not yet believed, and supplies 
her own sons with a certain knowledge that the faith 
which they profess rests upon a most sure foundation. 
And indeed to this testimony an efficacious help is 
added by power from above. For indeed the most 
merciful Lord by His grace touches the wandering 
and assists them that they may be able to come to 
the knowledge of the truth ; and those also whom He 
has translated out of darkness into His wonderful 
light He confirms by His grace that they may 
persevere in that light, not deserting them unless He 
be deserted by them. For which reason there is no 
parity of condition between those who by the Heavenly 
gift of faith have given their adhesion to Catholic 
truth, and those who, led by human opinions, are 
followers of a false religion ; for the former, who have 
received the faith under the magisterium of the Church, 
can never have any just cause for changing that faith, 
or for questioning it again as doubtful. Wherefore, 
giving thanks to God the Father who has made us 
worthy of a part in the lot of the Saints in light, let 
us not neglect so great a salvation, but, looking to 
Jesus, the author and consummator of our faith, 

se ipsa, ob suam nempe admirabilem propagationem, eximiam sancti- 
lem et inexhaustam in omnibus bonis fcecunditatem, ob catholicam 
unitatem, invictamque stabilitatem, magnum quoddam et perpetimm 
est motivum credibilitatis et divinae suoe legationis testimonium 
irrefragabile. 

Quo fit, ut ipsa veluti signum levatum in nationes (Is. xi. 12), et ad 
se invitet qui nondum crediderunt, et filios suos certiores faciat, firmis- 
simo nili fundamenta fidem, quam profitentur. Cui quidem testimonio 
efficax subsidium accedit ex superna virtute. Ltenim benignissimus 
Dominus et errantes gratia sua excitat atque adjuvat, ut ad agnitionem 
veritatis venire possint ; et eos, quos de tenebristranstulit in admirabile 
lumen suum, in hoc codem lumine ut perseverent, gratia sua confirmat 
non deserens, nisi deseratur. Quocirca minime par est conditio eorum, 
qui per cceleste fidei donum catholicse veritati adhaeserunt, atque eorum 
qui ducti opinionibus humanis, falsam religionem sectantur ; illi enim, 
qui fidem sub Ecclesise magisterio susceperunt ; nullam unquam habere 
possunt justam causam mutandi, aut in dubium fidem eamdem revo- 
candi. Quce cum ita aint, gratias agentes Deo Patri, quidignos nos fecit 
in partem sortis sanctorum in lumine, tantam ne negligamus salutem, 
H 



9 8 

let us hold the confession of our faith without 
wavering. 

CHAPTER IV. 

OF FAITH AND REASON. 

The perpetual consent of the Catholic Church has 
also ever held, and holds, that there is a twofold order 
of knowledge, distinct not only in principle, but also 
in object : in principle indeed, because in the one we 
know by natural reason, in the other we know by 
Divine faith ; and in object, because, besides those 
things to which natural reason is able to attain, 
mysteries hidden in God are proposed to us to be 
believed, which cannot be known unless by Divine 
revelation. And therefore the Apostle who testifies 
that God is known by the Gentiles through those 
things which are made, yet when he speaks of 
grace and truth having come through Jesus Christ 
(John i. 17) declares : We speak of the wisdom 
of God in a mystery, hidden wisdom which God pre- 
destined before the ages for our glory ,and which no 
one of the princes of this world has known : but God 
has revealed it to us by His Spirit : for the Spirit sees 
into all things, even the deep things of God. And 
the only-begotten Son Himself gives thanks to the 
Father, and He hideth these things from the wise and 
prudent and hath revealed them to the little ones 
(i Cor. v. 7). 

sed aspicientes in auctorem fidei et consumtnatorem Jesum, teneamus 
spei nostrse confessionem indeclinabilem. 
CAPUT IV. 

DE FIDE ET RATIONE. 

Hoc quoque perpetuus Ecclesiae catholicae consensus tenuit et tenet, 
duplicem esse ordinem cognitionis, non solum principio, sed objecto 
etiam distinctum ; principio quidem, quia in altero naturali ratione, in 
altero fide divina cognoscimus, objecto autem, quia prseter ea, ad quas 
naturalis ratio pertingere potest, credenda nobis proponuntur mysteria 
in Deo abscondita, qui, nisi revelata divinitus, innotescere non possunt. 
Quocirca Apostolus, qui a gentibus Deum per ea, quse facta sunt, 
cognitum esse testatur, disserens tamen de gratia et veritate, quse per 
Jesum Christum facta est (Joan. i. 17) pronuntiat : Loquimur Dei 
sapientiam in mysterio, quae abscondita est, quam praedestinavit Deus 
ante sascula in gloriam nostram, quam nemo principum hujus sseculi 
cognovit : nobis autem revelavit Deus per Spiritum suum : Spiritus 
enim omnia scrutatur, etiam profunda Dei (i Cor. ii. 7> 9)- Et ipse 
Unigenitus confitetur Patn, quia abscondit haec a sapientibus, et pru- 
dentibus, et revelavit ea parvulis (Matth. xi. 25). 



99 

^, 

And indeed reason, enlightened by faith, when it 
seeks diligently, piously, and soberly, arrives by the 
aid of God at a certain very fruitful intelligence of 
mysteries, as well by the analogy of those things 
which it knows naturally as by the connexion of the 
mysteries themselves among themselves and with the 
last end of man ; yet it never becomes fit to perceive 
them as it perceives the truths which form its own 
proper object. For the divine mysteries so far sur- 
pass by their nature created intelligence, that although 
delivered by revelation and received by faith, they 
continue nevertheless covered by the veil of faith 
itself and wrapped in a sort of obscurity, as long as 
we wander as pilgrims in this mortal life separated 
from the Lord ; for we walk by faith and not by sight 
(2 Cor. v. 7). 

But though faith be above reason, yet there can 
never be any real conflict between faith and reason ; 
for the same God who reveals mysteries and infuses 
faith has kindled the light of reason in the human 
mind ; and God cannot deny Himself, nor truth ever 
contradict truth. But the imaginary appearance of 
contradiction arises principally either from the fact 
that the dogmas of the faith have not been understood 
and explained according to the mind of the Church, 
or that the falsehoods of opinion have been accepted 
as the judgments of reason. We define therefore that 

Ac ratio quidein, fide illustrata, cum sedulo, pie et sobrie qujerit, 
aliquam, Deo dante, mysteriorum intelligentiam eamque fructuosissi- 
mam assequitur, turn ex eorum, quae naturaliter cognoscit, analogia, turn 
e mysteriorum ipsorum nexu inter se et cum fine hominis ultimo ; 
nunquam tamen idonea redditur ad ea perspicienda instar veritatum, 
quae proprium ipsius objectum constituunt. Divina enim mysteria 
suapte natura intellectum creatum sic excedunt, ut etiam revelatione 
tradita et fide suscepta, ipsius tamen fidei velamine contecta et quadam 
quasi caligine obvoluta maneant, quamdiu in hac mortali vita peregri- 
namur a Domino; per fidem ,enim ambulamus, et non per speciem 
(2 Cor. v. 7). 

Verum etsi fides sit supra rationem, nulla tamen unquam inter fidem 
et rationem vera dissensio esse potest : cum idem Deus, qui mysteria 
revelat et fidem infundit, animo humano rationis lumen indiderit ; 
Deus autem negare seipsum non possit, nee verum vero unquam con- 
tradicere. Inanis autem hujus contradictionis species inde potissimum 
oritur, quod vel fidei dogmata ad mentem "Ecclesiae inte'lecta et 
exposita non fuerint, vel opinionum commenta pro rationis e fiat is 
habeantur. Omnem igitur assertionem veritati illuminate fidei con- 
trariam omnino falsam esse definimus (Cone. Lat. v., Jkilla Afostolici 
regiminis). Porro Ecclesia, quae una cum apostolico iimnerr. doccndi, 



TOO 

every proposition contrary to the truth of illuminated 
faith is absolutely false (Cone. Lat. v. Bulla Apostolica 
Regiminis). Moreover the Church, which has re- 
ceived, together with the^Apostolic mission of teaching, 
the command to guard the deposit of faith, receives 
from God the right and the obligation of proscribing 
false science, lest any be deceived by philosophy 
and vain deceits (Coloss. ii. 8). For this reason all 
faithful Christians are not only forbidden to defend 
as legitimate conclusions of science opinions of this 
kind, which are known to be contrary to the doctrines 
of the faith, especially if they have been condemned 
by the Church, but are bound to regard them rather 
as errors which hide themselves under a deceitful 
appearance of truth. 

And not only can faith and reason never be really 
at variance, but they lend to each other a mutual 
support, since right reason demonstrates the founda- 
tions of faith, and illuminated by its light cultivates 
the science of divine things ; while faith liberates and 
defends reason from error, and enriches it with abun- 
dant knowledge. Wherefore the Church is so far 
from being opposed to the culture of human arts and 
sciences, that in many ways it assists and promotes 
them. For she neither ignores nor despises the 
advantages which result from them to human life, but 
rather confesses that, in so far as they proceed from 

mandatum accepit, fidei depositum custodiendi, jus eliam et officium 
divinitus habet falsi nominis scientiam proscribendi, ne quis decipiatur 
per philosophiam, et inanem fallaciam (Colos. ii. 8). Quapropter omnes 
christiani fideles hujusmodi opiniones, quse fidei doctrinae contraria; 
esse cognoscuntur, maxime si ab Ecclesia reprobatce fuerint, non solum 
prohibentur tanquam legitimas scientiee conclusiones defendere, sed pro 
erroribus potius, qui fallacem veritatis speciem prce se ferant, habere 
tenentur omnino. 

Neque solum fides et ratio inter se dissidere nunquam possunt, sed 
opem quoque sibi mutuam ferunt, cum recta ratio fidei fundamenta 
demonstret, ejusque lumine illustrata rerum divinarum scientiam excolat ; 
fides vero rationem ab erroribus liberet ac tueatur, eamque multiplici 
cognitione instmat. Quapropter tantum abest, ut Ecclesia humanarum 
artium et disciplinarum cullurae obsistat, ut hanc multis modis juvet 
atque promoveat. Non enim commoda ab iis ad hominum vitam 
dimanantia aut ignorat aut despicit ; fatetur imo, eas, quemadmodum 
a Deo, scientiarum Domino, profectae sunt, ita si rite pertractentur, 
ad}Deum, juvante ejus gratia perducere. Nee sane ipsa vetat, ne 
hujusmodi discipline in suo quceque ambitu propriis utantur principiis 
et propria metbodo ; sed justam hanc libertatem agnoscens, id sedulo 
cavet, ne divinae doctrinae repugnando errores in se suscipiant, aut 



101 

God, the Lord of all knowledge, if they are rightly 
handled they lead us to God by the help of His grace. 
Neither truly does she forbid that each of these sciences, 
in its own sphere, should employ its own principles 
and peculiar method ; but while recognizing this just 
liberty, she carefully watches lest by opposing divine 
doctrine they should incorporate errors, or, going, 
beyond their proper limits, should encroach upon and 
disturb the things which are of faith. 

For, morever, the doctrine of faith which God has 
revealed is not proposed, like a philosophical inven- 
tion, to be perfected by the ability of men, but is 
delivered as a Divine deposit to the Spouse of Christ, 
to be guarded faithfully and to be declared infallibly. 
Hence also that sense of the holy dogmas which Holy 
Mother Church has once declared is perpetually to be 
retained, and no one is at any time to depart from that! 
sense under the pretence or in the name of a more 
thorough understanding. Let, therefore, the intelli- 
gence, the science, and the wisdom, as well of each 
as of all ; of the individual, as well as of the whole 
Church ; greatly and powerfully advance, according 
to the decrees of age and of the times : but in their 
own kind only ; that is to say, in the same dogma, in 
the same sense, and in the same opinion (Vine. Lir. 
Commen. n. 28). 

THE CANONS. 
1. 

OF GOD THE CREATOR OF ALL THINGS. 

I. If any one shall deny one true God, Creator and 

fines proprios transgressse, ea, qure sunt fidei, occupant et perturbent. 

Nequesolum fidei doctrina, quam Deus revelavit, velut philosophicum 

inventum proposita est humanis ingeniis perficienda, sed tamquam 

divinum depositum Christi Sponsse tradita, fideliter custodienda et 

infallibiliter declaranda. Hinc sacrorum quoque dogmatum is sensus 

perpetuo est retinendus quern semel deciaravit Sancta Mater Ecclesia, 

nee unquam ab eo sensu, altioris intelligently specie et nomine, rece- 

dendum. Crescat igitur et multum vehementerque proficiat, tarn 

singulorum, quam omnium, tarn unius hominis, quam totius Ecclesise, 

aetatum ac soeculorum gradibus, intelligentia, scientia, sapientia ; sed' 

in suo dumtaxat genere, in eodem scilicet dogmate, eodem sensu, 

eademque sententia (Vine. Lir. Common, n. 28). 

CANONES. 

I. 

DE DEO RERUM OMNIUM CREATORE. 

I 1. Si quis unum verum Deum visibilium et invisibilium Creatorem et 



102 

Lord of things visible and invisible ; let him be 
anathema. 

2. If any one shall not blush to affirm that besides 

matter nothing exists ; let him be anathema. 

3. If any one shall say, that the substance or essence 

of God and of all things is one and the same ; 
let him be anathema. 

4. If any one shall say, that finite things, as well 

corporeal as spiritual, or at least the spiritual, 
have emanated from the divine substance ; 

or that the divine essence, by the manifesta- 
tion or evolution of itself, becomes all things ; 

or, lastly, that God is the universal or indefinite 
being which, in determining itself, constitutes the 
universality of things distinguished into genera, 
species, and individuals ; let him be anathema. 

5. If any one shall not confess that the world, and 

all things which are contained in it, both spiritual 
and material, were produced as to their whole 
substance by God out of nothing ; 

or shall say that God created, not by a will 
free from all necessity, but as necessarily as He 
necessarily loves Himself; 

or shall deny that the world was made for the 
glory of God ; let him be anathema. 

II. 

OF REVELATION. 

1. If any one shall say, that the one and true God, 

Dominutn negaverit ; anathema sit. 

2. Si quis proeter materiam nihil esse affirmare non erubuerit ; ana- 

thema sit. 

3. Si quis dixerit, unam eademque esse Dei et rerum omnium substan- 

tiam vel essentiam ; anathema sit. 

4. Si quis dixerit, res finitas, turn corporeas turn spirituales, aut saltern 
spirituales, e divina substantia emanasse ; 

aut divinam essentiam sui manifestatione vel evolutione fieri 
omnia ; 

aut denique Deum esse ens universale sen indefinitum, quod sese 
determinando constiluat rerum universitatem in genera, species et 
individua distinctam ; anathema sit. 

5. Si quis non confitealur, mundum, resque omnes, quse in eo conti- 

nentur, et spirituales et materiales, secundum totam suam substan- 
tiam a Deo ex nihilo esse productas ; 

aut Deum dixerit non voluntate ab omni necessitate libera, seel 
tarn necessario creasse, quam necessario amat seipsum ; 

aut mundum ad Dei gloriam conditum esse negaverit ; anathema 
sit. 



103 

our Creator and Lord, cannot be certainly known, 
through those things which are made, by the 
natural light of human reason ; let him be 
anathema. 

2. If any one shall say, that it cannot happen, or that 

it is not fitting, that man should be instructed by 
divine revelation concerning God and the worship 
to be paid to Him ; let him be anathema. 

3. If any one shall say, that man cannot be divinely 

raised to a supernatural knowledge and perfection, 
but that he is able, and is bound, of himself to 
arrive at length by continued progress at the 
possession of all that is true and good ; let him 
be anathema. 

4. If any one shall not receive, as holy and canonical, 

the whole books of Holy Scripture, with all 
their parts, as set forth by the holy Council of 
Trent, or shall deny that they were divinely 
inspired ; let him be anathema. 

III. 

OF FAITH. 

1. If any one shall say, that human reason is so inde- 

pendent that faith cannot be imposed upon it by 
God's command ; let him be anathema. 

2. If any one shall say, that divine faith is not distinct 

from natural knowledge concerning God and 
moral truths, and therefore that it is not required 

II. 

DE REVELATIONE. 

1. Si quis dixerit, Deum unum et verum, Creatorem et Dominum 

nostrum, per ea, quse facta sunt, natural! rationis humanse lumine 
certo cognosci non posse ; anathema sit. 

2. Si quis dixerit, fieri non posse, aut non expedire, ut per revelationem 

divinam homo de Deo, cultuque ei exhibendo edoceatur ; anathema 
sit. 

3. Si quis dixerit, hominem ad cognitionem et perfectionem, quse 

naturalem superet, divinitus evehi non posse, sed ex seipso ad 
omnis tandem veri et boni possessionem jugi profectu pertingere 
posse et debere ; anathema sit. 

4. Si quis Sacrae Scripture libros integros cum omnibus suis partibus, 

prout illos sancta Tridentina Synodus recensuit, pro sacris et 
canonicis non susceperit, aut eos divinitus inspiratos esse negaverit ; 
anathema sit. 

III. 

DE FIDE. 

I. Si quis dixerit, rationem humanam ita independentem esse, ut fides 
ei a Deo imperari nou possit ; anathema sit. 



104 

for divine faith that revealed truth should be 
believed on account of the authority of God who 
reveals it ; let him be anathema. 

3. If any one shall say, that divine revelation cannot 

be rendered credible by outward signs, and that 
therefore men ought to be moved to faith solely 
by the inward experience or private inspiration 
of each individual ; let him be anathema. 

4. If any one shall say, that no miracles can take place, 

and that consequently all the narratives concern- 
ing them, even those contained in Holy Scripture, 
are to be dismissed as fabulous or mythical : or 
that miracles can never be certainly recognized 
as such, nor the divine origin of the Christian 
religion rightly proved by them ; let him be 
anathema. 

5. If any one shall say, that the assent of Christian 

faith is not free, but is necessarily produced 
by the arguments of human reason, or that the 
grace of God is only necessary to that living 
faith which works by charity ; let him be 
anathema. 

6. If any one shall say, that there is a parity of condi- 

tion between the faithful and those who have not 
yet arrived at the only true faith ; so that Catholics 
may possibly have just cause of suspending their 
assent to and questioning the faith which they 
have already received under the magisterium of 

2. Si quis dixerit, fidem divmam a naturali de Deo et rebus moralibus 

scientia non distingui, ac propterea ad fidem divinam non requiri, 
ut revelata veritas propter auctoritatem Dei revelantis credatur ; 
anathema sit. 

3. Si quis dixeril, revelattonem divinam externis signis credibilem fieri 

non posse, ideoque sola interna cujusque experientia aut inspira- 
tione privata hon:ines ad fidem mover! debere ; anathema sit. 

4. Si quis dixerit, miracula nulla fieri posse, proindeque omnes de iis 

narrationes, etiam in Sacra Scriptura contentas, inter fabulas vel 
mythos ablegandas esse, aut miracula cer'.o cognosci nunquam 
posse, nee iis divinam religionis christianae criginem rite probari ; 
anathema sit. 

5. Si quis dixerit, assensum fidei Christianas non esse liberum, sed 

argumentis humanas rationis necessario produci ; aut ad solam fidem 
vivam, quae per charitatem operatur, gratiam Dei necessariam 
esse ; anathema sit. 

6. Si quis dixerit, parem esse conditionem fidelium atque eorum, qui 

ad fidem unice veram nondum pervenerunt, ita ut catholici justam 
causam habere possint, fidem, quam sub Ecclesiae magisterio jam 



the Church, until they shall have completed a 
scientific demonstration of the credibility and 
truth of their faith ; let him be anathema. 

IV. 

OF FAITH AND REASON. 

1. If any one shall say, that no true mysteries pro- 

perly so called are contained in the Divine reve- 
lation, but that all the dogmas of faith may be 
understood and demonstrated from natural 
principles by duly cultivated reason ; let him be 
anathema. 

2. If any one shall say, that human sciences should 

be prosecuted with such freedom, that their 
assertions, even when opposed to revealed doc- 
trine, may still be held as true, and cannot be 
proscribed by the Church ; let him be anathema. 

3. If any one shall say, that it may happen, that from 

time to time, in the course of the progress of 
science, a sense may have to be attributed to 
dogmas proposed by the Church other than that 
which has been and is understood by the Church ; 
let him be anathema. 

We, therefore, discharging the duty of Our supreme 
pastoral office, beseech all the faithful of Christ by 
the bowels of our Lord Jesus Christ, and especially 
those who are set over others or perform the duties of 
teachers; and further We command them by the 

susceperunt, assensu suspense in dubium vocandi, donee demon- 
strationemscientificam credibilitatis et veritatis fidei suse absolve- 
rint ; anathema sit. 

IV. 

DE FIDE ET RATIONS. 

1. Si quis dixerit, in revelatione divina nulla vera et proprie dicta 

mysteria contineri, sed universa fidei dogmata posse per rationem 
rite excultam e naturalibus principiis intelligi et demonstrari ; 
anathema sit. 

2. Si quis dixerit, disciplinas humanas ea cum libertate tractandas esse, 

ut earum assertiones, etsi doctrina; revelataj adversentur, tanquam 
verse retineri, neque ab Ecclesia proscribi possint ; anathema sit. 

3. Si quis dixerit, fieri posse, ut dogmatibus ab Ecclesia propositis, 

aliquando, secundum, progressum sciential sensus tribuendus sit 

alius ab eo quern intellexit et intelligit Ecclesia ; anathema sit. 

Itaque supremi pastoralis Nostri orficii debitum exequentes, omnes 

Christi fideles, maxime vero eos, qui proesunt vel docendi munere fun- 

guntur, per viscera Jesu Christi obtestamur, nee non ejusdem Dei et 

Salvatoris Nostri auctoritate jubemus, ut ad hos errores a Sancla 



106 

authority of the same Our God and Saviour, that they 
earnestly and diligently apply themselves to drive 
away and expel these errors from Holy Church, and 
to diffuse the light of the most pure faith. 

But since it is not enough to avoid heretical pravity, 
unless those errors also which more or less nearly 
approach to it be diligently shunned, We admonish 
all of the duty of observing also the Constitutions and 
Decrees by which evil opinions of this kind, which are 
not here enumerated at length, have been proscribed 
and prohibited by this Holy See. 



FIRST DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON 
THE CHURCH OF CHRIST* 

PUBLISHED IN THE FOURTH SESSION OF THE HOLY 
OECUMENICAL COUNCIL OF THE VATICAN. 



Constitution Pastor ALternus was promul- 
gated on the 1 8th of July, 1870, by the 
Sovereign Pontiff, in the presence of 535 
Fathers, all of whom voted placet, with the exception 
of two, who immediately after the Papal confirmation 
expressed their complete adhesion to the doctrine. 

PlUS BISHOP 

SERVANT OF THE SERVANTS OF GOD, WITH THE 
APPROVAL OF THE SACRED COUNCIL, FOR AN 
EVERLASTING REMEMBRANCE. 

The eternal Pastor and Bishop of our souls, 
in order to continue for all time the life-giving 
work of His Redemption, determined to build up 

Ecclesia arcendos et eliminandos, atque purissimse fidei lucem panden - 
dam studium et operam conferant. 

Quoniam vero satis non est hasreticam pravitatem devitare, nisi ii 
quoque errores diligenter fugiantur, qui ad illam plus minusve accedunt ; 
omnes officii monemus servandi etiam Constitutiones et Decreta, quibus 
pravje ejusmodi opiniones, quae isthic diserte non enumerantur, ab hac 
Sancta Sede proscriptse et prohibits sunt. 

* Pius EPISCOPUS. 

SERVUS SERVORUM DEI SACRO APPROBANTE CONCILIO AD PER- 
PETUAM REI MEMORIAM. 

Pastor seternus et episcopus animarum nostrarum, ut salutiferum 
redemptionis suae opus perenne redderet, sanctam aedificare Ecclesiam 



the Holy Church, wherein, as in the House of the 
living God, all who believe might be united in the 
bond of one faith and one charity. Wherefore, 
before He entered into His glory, He prayed 
unto the Father, not for the Apostles only, but for 
those also who through their preaching should 
come to believe in Him, that all might be one even as 
He the Son and the Father are one (John xvii, 21). 
As then He sent the Apostles whom He had chosen 
to Himself from the world, as He Himself had been 
sent by the Father ; so He willed that there should 
ever be pastors and teachers in His Church to 
the end of the world. And in order that the Epis- 
copate also might be one and undivided, and that 
by means of a closely united priesthood the multi- 
tude of the faithful might be kept secure in the one- 
ness of faith and communion, He set Blessed Peter 
over the rest of the Apostles, and fixed in him the 
abiding principle of this twofold unity, and its visible 
foundation, in the strength of which the everlasting 
temple should arise and the Church in the firmness of 
that faith should lift her majestic front to Heaven 
(from Sermon iv, chap. 2, of S. Leo the Great, A.D. 
440, vol. i, p. 17 of edition of Ballerini, Venice, 1753 : 
read in the eighth lection on the Feast of S. Peter's 
Chair at Antioch, Feb. 22). And seeing that the 
gates of hell with daily increase of hatred are gather- 
ing their strength on every side to upheave the 
foundation laid by God's own hand, and so, if that 

decrevit, in qua veluti in domo Dei viventis fideles omnes unius fidei et 
charitatis vinculo continerentur. Quapropter, priusquam clarificaretur, 
rogavit Patrem nun pro Apostolis tantum, sed et pro eis, qui credituri 
erant per verbum eorum in ipsum, lit omnes unum essent, sicut ipse 
Filius et Pater unum sunt (Cf. Joan, xvii, 21, sq.) Quemadmodum 
igitur Apostolos, quos sibi de mundo elegerat, misit, sicut ipse missus 
erat a Patre : ita in Ecclesia sua Pastores et Doctores usque ad con- 
smnmationem sreculi esse voluit. Ut vero Episcopatus ipse unus ct 
indivisus esset, et per cohserentes sibi invicem sacerdotes credentium 
multitudo universa in fidei et communionis unitate conservaretur, 
beatum Petrum cceteris Apostolis prrcpcnens in ipso instituit perpetuum 
utriusque unitatis principium ac visibile fundamentum, super cujus 
fortitudinem ceternum exstrueretur templum, et Ecclesice coelo inferenda 
sublimitas in hujus fidei firmitate consurgeret (S. Leo M. serm. iv, al. 
iii, cap. 2, in diem Natalis sui). Et quoniam portre inferi ad everten- 
dam, si fieri posset, Ecclesiam contra ejus fundamentum divinitus 
positum majori in dies odio undique insurgunt ; Nos itaque ad catholic! 
gregis custodiam, incolumitatem, augmentum, sacro approbante Con- 



io8 

might be, to overthrow the Church ; We, therefore, 
for the preservation, safe-keeping, and increase of the 
Catholic flock, with the approval of the Sacred Council, 
do judge it to be necessary to propose to the belief 
and acceptance of all the faithful, in accordance with 
the ancient and constant faith of the universal Church, 
the doctrine touching the institution, perpetuity, and 
nature of the sacred Apostolic Primacy, in which is 
found the strength and solidity of the entire Church, 
and at the same time to proscribe and condemn the 
contrary errors, so hurtful to the flock of Christ. 

CHAPTER I. 

OF THE INSTITUTION OF THE APOSTOLIC PRIMACY 
IN BLESSED PETER. 

We, therefore, teach and declare that, according to 
the testimony of the Gospel, the primacy of jurisdic- 
tion over the universal Church of God was imme- 
diately and directly promised and given to Blessed 
Peter the Apostle by Christ the Lord. For it was 
to Simon alone, to whom He had already said : Thou 
shalt be called Cephas (John i, 42), that the Lord after 
the confession made by him saying : Thou art the 
Christ, the Son of the living God, addressed these 
solemn words : Blessed art thou Simon Bar-Jona, 
because flesh and blood hath not revealed it to 
thee, but my Father who is in Heaven. And I 
say to thee that thou art Peter ; and upon this 
rock I will build my Church, and the gates of 

cilio, necessarium esse judicamus, doctrinam de institutione, perpetuitate, 
ac natura sacri Apostolic! primatus, in quo totius Ecclesise vis ac 
soliditas consistit, cunctis fidelibus credendam et tenendam, secundum 
antiquam atque constantem universalis Ecclesise fidem, proponere, 
atque contraries, dominico gregi adeo perniciosos errores proscribere et 
condemnare. 

CAPUT I. 

DE APOSTOLICI PRIMATUS IN BEATO PETRO INSTITUTIONE. 

Docemus itaque et declaramus, juxta Evangelii testimonia primatum 
jurisdictionis in universam Dei Ecclesiam immediate et directe beato 
Petro Apostolo promissum atpue collatum a Christo Domino fuisse. 
Ad unum enim Simonem, cui dixerat : Tu vocaberis Cephas (Joan i, 
42), postquam ille suam confessionem edidit: Tu es Cbristus, FiliusDei 
vivi, locutus est Dominus : Beatus es Simon Bar-Jona : quia caro et 
sanguis non revelavit tibi, sed Pater meus, qui in coelis est ; et ego dico 
tibi, quia tu es Petrus, et super hanc petram aedificabo Ecclesiam 
meam, et portoe inferi non prasvalebunt adversus earn : et tibi 
dabo claves regni ccelorum : et quodcumque ligaveris super 



log 

hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give 
to thee the keys of the kingdom of Heaven. And 
whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be 
bound also in heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt 
loose on earth it shall be loosed also in heaven 
(Matth. xvi, 16-19). Arid it was upon Simon alone 
that Jesus after His resurrection bestowed the juris- 
diction of Chief Pastor and Ruler over all His fold 
in the words : Feed my lambs : feed my sheep 
(John xxi, 15-17). At open variance with this clear 
doctrine of Holy Scripture as it has been ever under- 
stood by the Catholic Church are the perverse 
opinions of those who, while they distort the form of 
government established by Christ the Lord in His 
Church, deny that Peter in his single person, pre- 
ferably to all the other Apostles, whether taken 
separately or together, was endowed by Christ with a 
true and proper primacy of jurisdiction ; or of those 
who assert that the same primacy was not bestowed 
immediately and directly upon Blessed Peter himself, 
but upon the Church, and through the Church on 
Peter as her Minister. 

If anyone, therefore, shall say that Blessed Peter 
the Apostle was not appointed the Prince of all the 
Apostles and the visible Head of the whole Church 
Militant ; or that the same directly and immediately 
received from the same Our Lord Jesus Christ a 
Primacy of honour only, and not of true and proper 
jurisdiction ; let him be anathema. 

terram, erit ligatum et in coelis ; et quodcumque solveris super 
terrain, erit solutum et in coelis (Matth. xvi, 16-19). Atque uni 
Simoni Petro contulit lesus post suam resurrectionem summi pastoris 
et rectoris jurisdictionem in totum suum ovile, dicens : Pasce agnos 
meos : Pasce oves meas (Joan xxi, 15-17). Huic tarn manifesto 
sacrarum Scripturarum doctrinae, ut ab Ecclesia catholica semper 
intellecta est, aperte opponuntur pravse eorum sententias, qui consti- 
tutam a Christo Domino in sua Ecclesia regiminis formam pervertentes 
negant, solum Petrum prae caeteris Apostolis, sive seorsum singulis sive 
omnibus simul, vero proprioque jurisdictionis primatu fuisse a Christo 
instructum ; aut qui affirmant eumdem primatum non immediate, 
directeque ipsi beato Petro, sed Ecclesiae, et per hanc illi ut ipsius 
Ecclesia.' ministro delatum fuisse. 

Si quis igitur dixerit beatum Petrum Apostolum a Christo Domino 
constitutum non esse Apostolorum omnium principem et totius Ecclesiae 
militantis visibile caput ; vel eumdem honoris tantum, non autem verae 
proprieeque jurisdictionis primatum ab eodem Domino nostro Jesu 
Christo directe et immediate accepisse ; anathema sit. 



1 10 

CHAPTER II. 

ON THE PERPETUITY OF THE PRIMACY OF BLESSED 
PETER IN THE ROMAN PONTIFFS. 

That which the Prince of Shepherds and great 
Shepherd of the sheep, Jesus Christ our Lord, estab- 
lished in the person of the Blessed Apostle Peter to 
secure the perpetual welfare and lasting good of the 
Church, must, by the same institution, necessarily 
remain unceasingly in the Church ; which, being 
founded upon the Rock, will stand firm to the 
end of the world. For none can doubt, and it is 
known to all ages, that the holy and Blessed Peter, 
the Prince and Chief of the Apostles, the pillar of 
the faith and foundation of the Catholic Church, 
received the keys of the kingdom from Our Lord 
Jesus Christ, the Saviour and Redeemer of mankind, 
and lives, presides, and judges, to this day and 
always, in his successors the Bishops of the Holy 
See of Rome, which was founded by him, and 
consecrated by his blood (from the Acts, session 
third, of the Third General Council of Ephesus, 
A.D. 431, Labbe's Councils, vol. iii, p. 1154, Venice 
edition of 1728. See also letter of S. Peter Chryso- 
logus to Eutyches, in life prefixed to his works, 
p. 13, Venice, 1750). Whence, whosoever succeeds 
to Peter in this See, does by the institution 
of Christ Himself obtain the Primacy of Peter 
over the whole Church. The disposition made 

CAPUT II. 

DE PERPETUITATE PRIMATUS PETRI IN ROMANIS PONTIFICIBUS. 

Quod autem in beato Apostolo Petro princeps pastorum et pastor 
magnus ovium Dominus Christus Jesus in perpetuam salutem ac perenne 
bonum Ecclesise instituit, id eodem auctore in Ecclesia, quse fundata 
super petram ad finem sseculorum usque firma stabit, jugiter durare 
necesse est. Nulli enim dubium, imo saeculis omnibus notum est, 
quod sanctus beatissimusque Petrus, Apostolorum princeps et caput, 
fideique columna et Ecclesioe catholicse fundamentum, qui a Domino 
nostro Jesu Christo et Salvatore humani generis ac Redemptore claves 
regni accepit, ad hoc usque tempus et semper in suis successoribus, 
episcopis santae Romance Sedis, ab ipso fundatse, ejusque consecratce 
sanguine, vivit et prsesidet et judicium exercet (Cf. Ephesini Concilii 
Act. iii, et S. Petri Chrysol. ep. ad Eutych. presbyt.) Uncle quicumque 
in hac Cathedra Petro succedit, is secundum Christi ipsius institutionem 
primatum Petri in universam Ecclesiam obtinet. Manet ergo dispo- 
sitio veritatis. et beatus Petrus in accepta fortitudine petrse perseverans 
suscepta Ecclesiae gubernacula non reliquit (S. Leo M. Serm. iii, al. ii, 



Ill 

by Incarnate Truth therefore remains, and Blessed 
Peter, abiding through the strength of the Rock in 
the power that he received, has not abandoned the 
direction of the Church (from Sermon iii, chap. 3, of S. 
Leo the Great, vol. i, p. 12). Wherefore it has at 
all times been necessary that every particular Church 
that is to say, the faithful throughout the world 
should agree with the Roman Church, on account of 
the greater authority of the princedom which this has 
received ; that all being associated in the unity of that 
See whence the rights of communion spread to all, 
might grow together as members of one Head in the 
compact unity of the body (from S. Irenaeus against 
Heresies, book iii, cap. 3, p. 175. Benedictine edition, 
Venice, 1734 ; and Acts of Synod of Aquileia, A.D. 
381, Labbe's Councils, vol. ii, p. 1185, Venice, 1728). 

If, then, any should deny that it is by the institu- 
tion of Christ the Lord, or by divine right, that 
Blessed Peter should have a perpetual line of succes- 
sors in the Primacy over the Universal Church, or that 
the Roman Pontiff is the successor of Blessed Peter in 
this Primacy ; let him be anathema. 

CHAPTER III. 

ON THE POWER AND NATURE OF THE PRIMACY 
OF THE ROMAN PONTIFF. 

Wherefore, resting on plain testimonies of the 
Sacred Writings, and adhering to the plain and 
express decrees both of our predecessors, the 

cap. 3). Hac de causa ad Romanam Ecclesiam propter potentiorem 
principalitatem necesse semper erat omnem conveuire Ecclesiam, hoc 
est, eos, qui suntundique fideles, ut in ea Sede, e qua venerandse com- 
munionis jura in omnes dimanant, tamquam membi-a in capita conso- 
ciata, in imam corporis compagem coalescerent (S. Iren. adv. haer. 1. 
iii, c. 3, et Epist. Cone. Aquilei. a. 381, ad Gratian. Imper. c. 4, Cf. 
Pius PP. VI, Breve Super soliditate). 

Si quis ergo dixerit, non esse ex ipsius Christi Domini institutione 
seu jure divino, ut beatus Petrus in primatu super universam Ecclesiam 
habeat perpetuos successores ; aut Romanum Pontificem non esse bead 
Petri in eodem primatu successorem ; anathema sit. 
CAPUT III. 

DE VI ET RATIONE PRIMATUS ROMANI PONTIFICIS. 
Quapropter apertis innixi sacrorum litterarum testimoniis et in- 
haerentes turn Praedecessorum Nostrorum Romanorum Pontificum, turn 
Conciliorum generalium disertis, perspicuisque decretis, innovamus 
cecumenici Concilii Florentini definitionem, qua credendum ab omnibus 
Christi fidelibus est, sanctam Apostolicam Sedem, et Romanum Pontificert 



112 

Roman Pontiffs, and of the General Councils, We 
renew the definition of the (Ecumenical Council of 
Florence, in virtue of which all the faithful of Christ 
must believe that the Holy Apostolic See and the 
Roman Pontiff possesses the Primacy over the whole 
world, and that the Roman Pontiff is the successor of 
Blessed Peter, Prince of the Apostles, and is true Vicar 
of Christ, and Head of the whole Church, and Father 
and Teacher of all Christians ; and that full power was 
given to him in Blessed Peter to rule, feed, and govern 
the Universal Church by Jesus Christ our Lord : as is 
also contained in the acts of the General Councils and 
in the Sacred Canons. 

Hence we teach and declare that by the appoint- 
ment of our Lord the Roman Church possesses a 
superiority of ordinary power over all other Churches, 
and that this power of jurisdiction of the Roman 
Pontiff, which is truly episcopal, is immediate ; to 
which all, of whatever rite and dignity, both pastors 
and faithful, both individually and collectively, are 
bound, by their duty of hierarchical subordination and 
true obedience, to submit, not only in matters which 
belong to faith and morals, but also in those that ap- 
pertain to the discipline and government of the Church 
throughout the world, so that the Church of Christ 
may be one flock under one supreme pastor through 
the preservation of unity both of communion and of 
profession of the same faith with the Roman Pontiff. 

in universum orbem tenere primatum, et ipsum Pontificem Romanum 
successorem esse beati Petri principis Apostolorum, et verum Christ! 
Vicarium, totiusque Ecclesias caput, et omnium Christianorum patrem 
ac doctorem existere ; et ipsi in beato Petvo pascendi, regendi, ac 
gubeniandi universalem Ecclesiam a Domino nostro Jesu Christo 
plenam potestatem traditam esse ; quemadmodum etiam in gestis 
recumenicorum Conciliorum et in sacris canonibus continetur. 

Docemus proinde et declaramus, Ecclesiam Romanam disponente 
Domino super omnes alias ordinaries potestatis obtinere principatum, et 
hanc Romani Pontificis jurisdictionis potestatem, quse vere episcopalis 
est, immediatam esse : erga quam cujuscumque ritus et dignitatis, 
pastores atque fideles, tarn seorsum singuli quam simul omnes, officio 
hierarchies subordinationis, veneque obedientias obstringuntur, non 
solum in rebus, quce ad fidem et mores, sed etiam in iis, quse ad disci- 
plinam et regimen Ecclesire, per totum orbem diffusse, pertinent ; ita, 
ut custodita cum Romano Pontifice tarn communionis, quam ejusdem 
fidei professionis unitate, Ecclesia Christi sit unus grex sub uno summo 
pastore. Hsec est Catholicce veritatis doctrina, a qua deviare salva 
fide atque salute nemo potest. 



This is the teaching of Catholic truth, from which no 
one can deviate without loss of faith and of salvation. 

But so far is this power of the Supreme Pontiff 
from being any prejudice to the ordinary and 
immediate power of episcopal jurisdiction, by which 
Bishops, who have been set by the Holy Ghost 
to succeed and hold the place of the Apostles, 
(from chap. 4 of xxiii Session of Council of Trent, of 
the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy) feed and govern, each his 
own flock, as true Pastors, that this their episcopal 
authority is really asserted, strengthened, and protected 
by the supreme and universal Pastor ; in accordance 
with the words of S. Gregory the Great : My honour 
is the honour of the whole Church. My honour is the 
firm strength of my Brethren. I am truly honoured, 
when the honour due to each and all is not with- 
held (from the letters of S. Gregory the Great. Book 
viii, 30, vol. ii, p. 919, Benedictine edit, Paris, 1705). 

Further, from this supreme power possessed by 
the Roman Pontiff of governing the Universal 
Church, it follows that he has the right of free 
communication with the Pastors of the whole Church, 
and with their flocks, that these may be taught and 
ruled by him in the way of salvation. Wherefore 
we condemn and reject the opinions of those who 
hold that the communication between this supreme 
Head and the Pastors and their flocks can lawfully 
be impeded ; or who make this communication 
subject to the will of the secular power, so as to 

Tantum autem abest, ut hsec Summi Pontificis potestas officiat 
ordinaries illi episcopalis jurisdictionis potestati, qua Episcopi, qui 
positi a Spiritu Sancto in Apostolorum locum successerunt (Cone. Trid. 
Sess. 23, cap. 4), tanquam veri Pastores assignatos sibi greges, singuli 
singulos, pascunt et regunt, ut eadem a supremo et universal! Pastore 
asseratur, roboretur ac vindicetur, dicente sancto Gregorio Magno : 
Meus honor est honor universalis Ecclesise. Meus honor est fratrum 
meorum solidus vigor. Turn ego vere honoratus sum, cum singulis 
quibusque honor debitus non negatur (S. Gregor. M, ad Eulog. Alex- 
andrin. ep. xxx). 

Porro ex suprema ilia Romani Pontificis potestate gubernandi 
universam Ecclesiam jus eidem esse consequitur, in hujus sui muneris 
exercitio libere communicandi cum pastoribus et gregibus totius Ecclesice, 
ut iidem ab ipso in via salutis doceri ac regi possint. Quare damnamus 
ac reprobamus illorum sententias, qui hanc supremi capitis cum pastori- 
bus et gregibus communicationem licite impediri posse dicunt, aut 
camdem reddunt sseculari potestati obnoxiam, ita tit contendant, quae 
ab Apostolica Sede vel ejus auctoritate ad regimen Ecclesioc constituuu- 
I 



maintain that whatever is done by the Apostolic 
See, or by its authority, for the government 
of the Church cannot have force or value unless 
it be confirmed by the assent of the secular power. 
And since by the divine right of Apostolic primacy, 
the Roman Pontiff is placed over the Universal 
Church, we further teach and declare that he is the 
supreme judge of the faithful (from a Brief of Pius 
VI. Super soliditate of Nov. 28, 1786), and that in all 
causes, the decision of which belongs to the Church, 
recourse may be had to his tribunal (from the Acts 
of the Fourteenth General Council of Lyons, A.D. 1274. 
Labbe's Councils, vol. xiv, p. 512): and that none 
may re-open the judgment of the Apostolic See, 
the authority of which is greater than all other, nor 
can any lawfully review its judgment (from Letter 
viii of Pope Nicolas I, A.D. 858, to the Emperor 
Michael in Labbe's Councils, vol. ix, pp. 1339 and 
1570). Wherefore they err from the right course who 
assert that it is lawful to appeal from the judgments 
of the Roman Pontiffs to an (Ecumenical Council, 
as to an authority higher than that of the Roman 
Pontiff. 

If then any shall say that the Roman Pontiff has 
the office merely of inspection or direction, and not 
full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the 
Universal Church, not only in things which belong 
to faith and morals, but also in those which relate to 
the discipline and government of the Church spread 

tur, vim ac valorem non habere, nisi potestatis soscularis placito 
confirmentur. 

Et quoniam divino Apostolici primatus jure Romanus Pontifex 
universse Ecclesiae prseest, docemus etiam et declaramus, eum esse 
judicem supremum fidelium (Pii PP. VI, Breve Super soliditate, d. 28, 
Nov., 1786), et in omnibus causis ad examen ecclesiasticum spectan- 
tibus ad ipsius posse judicium recurri (Concil. CEcum. Lugdun. ii) : 
Sedis vero Apostolicse, cujus auctoritate major non est, judicium a 
nemine fore retractandum, neque cuiquam de ejus licere judicare judicio 
(Ep. Nicolai I, ad Michaelem Imperatorem). Quare a recto veritatis 
tramite aberrant, qui affirmant, licere ab judiciis Romanorum Pontificum 
ad oecumenicum Concilium tamquam ad auctoritatem Romano Pontifice 
superiorem appellare. 

Si quis itaque dixerit, Romanum Pontificem habere tantummodo 
officium inspections vel directionis, non autem plenam et supremam 
potestatem jurisdictions in universam Ecclesiam, non solum in rebus, 



qua; ad fidem et mores, sed etiam quse ad disciplinam et regimen 
Ecclesiae per totum orbem diffuse pertinent ; aut eun 



eum habere tan turn 



throughout the world; or assert that he possesses 
merely the principal part, and not all the fulness of 
this supreme power : or that this power which he 
enjoys is not ordinary and immediate, both over each 
and all the Churches and over each and all the 
Pastors and the faithful ; let him be anathema. 

CHAPTER IV. 

CONCERNING THE INFALLIBLE TEACHING OF THE 

ROMAN PONTIFF. 

Moreover that the supreme power of teaching is also 
included in the Apostolic Primacy, which the Roman 
Pontiff, as the successor of Peter, Prince of the Apostles, 
possesses over the whole Church, this Holy See has 
always held, the perpetual practice of the Church 
confirms, and also (Ecumenical Councils have de- 
clared, especially those in which the East with the 
West met in the union of faith and charity. For the 
Fathers of the Fourth Council of Constantinople, fol- 
lowing in the footsteps of their predecessors, gave 
forth this solemn profession : The first condition of 
salvation is to keep the rule of the true faith. And 
because the sentence of our Lord Jesus Christ cannot 
be passed by, who said : Thou art Peter, and upon this 
Rock I will build my Church (Matth. xvi, 18), these 
things which have been said are approved by events, 
because in the Apostolic Sec the Catholic Religion 
and her holy and well-known doctrine has always been 
kept undefiled. Desiring, therefore, not to be in the 
least degree separated from the faith and doctrine of 

potiores partes, non vero tarn plenitudinem hujus supremos potestatis ; 
aut hanc ejus potestatem non esse ordinariam et immediatam sive in 
omnes ac singulas ecclesias sive in omnes et singulos pastores et fideles ; 
anathema sit. 

CAPUT IV. 

DE ROMANI PONTIFICIS INFALLIBILI MAGISTERIO. 
Ipso autem Apostolico primatu, quern Romanus Pontifex tamquam 
Petri principis Apostolorum successor in universam Ecclesiam obtinet, 
supremam quoque magisterii poteslatem comprehendi, hoac Sancta 
Sedes semper tenuit, perpetuus Ecclesice usus comprobat, ipsaque 
cccumenica Concilia, ea imprimis, in quibus Oriens cum Occidente in 
fidei charitatisque unionem conveniebat, declaraverunt. Patres cnim 
Concilii Constantinopolitani quarti, majorum vestigiis inhrcrendo, hanc 
solemnem cdidcrunt professionem : Priina salus est, recta) fidei regulam 
custodire. Et quia non potest Domini nostri Jcsu Christ! prrctermitti 
sententia dicentis : Tu es Petrus, et super hanc petram oxlificabo Eccle- 
siam meam (Matth. xvi, 18), ha.>c, quo: dicta sunt, rcrum probantur 
effectibus, quia in Sede Apostolica immaculata est semper catholica 



n6 

that See, we hope that we may deserve to be in the 
one communion, which the Apostolic See preaches, in 
which is the entire and true solidity of the Christian 
religion (from the Formula of S. Hormisdas, sub- 
scribed by the Fathers of the Eighth General Council, 
Fourth of Constantinople, A.D. 869. Labbe's Coun- 
cils, vol. v, pp. 583, 622). And, with the approval of 
the Second Council of Lyons, the Greeks professed 
that the Holy Roman Church enjoys supreme and full 
Primacy and preeminence over the whole Catholic 
Church, which it truly and humbly acknowledges that 
it has received with the plenitude of power from our 
Lord Himself in the person of blessed Peter, Prince 
or Head of the Apostles, whose successor the Roman 
Pontiff is ; and as the Apostolic See is bound before 
all others to defend the truth of faith, so also if any 
questions regarding faith shall arise, they must be 
defined by its judgment (from the Acts of the 
Fourteenth General Council, Second of Lyons, A.D. 
1274. Labbe, vol. xiv, p. 512). Finally, the Council 
of Florence defined (from the Acts of the Seventeenth 
General Council of Florence, A.D. 1438. Labbe, vol. 
xviii, p. 526) : That the Roman Pontiff is the true 
Vicar of Christ, and the Head of the whole Church, 
and the Father and Teacher of all Christians ; and 
that to him in blessed Peter was delivered by our 
Lord Jesus Christ the full power of feeding, ruling, 
and governing the whole Church (John xxi, 15, 17). 

reservata religio, et sancta celebrata doctrina. Ab hujus ergo fide e* 
doctrina separari minime cupientes, speramus, ut in una communione, 
quam Sedes Apostolica praedicat, esse mereamur, in qua est integra et 
vera Christiange religionis soliditas (Ex formula S. Hormisdse Papas, 
prout ab Hadriano II. Patribus Concilii CEcumenici VIII, Constan- 
tinopolitani IV, proposita et ab iisdem subscripta est). Approbante 
vero Lugdunensi Concilio secundo, Graeci professi sunt : Sanctam 
Romanam Ecclesiam summum et plenum primatum et principatum 
super universam Ecclesiam catholicam obtinere, quern se ab ipso 
Domino in beato Petro Apostolorum principe sive vertice, cujus 
Romanus Pontifex est successor, cum potestatis plenitudine recepisse 
veraciter et numiliter recognoscit ; et sicut pras cseteris tenetur fidei 
veritatem defendere, sic et, si quse de fide subortaa fuerint queestiones, 
sno debent judicio definiri. Florentinum denique Concilium definivit : 
Pontificem Romanum, verum Christi Vicarium, totiusque Ecclesise 
caput el omnium Christianomm patrem ac doctorem existere ; et ipsi 
in beato Petro pascendi, regendi, ac gubernandi universalem Ecclesiam 
a Domino nostro J"sr Cliristo plenam potestatem traditam esse (Cf. 
Joan xr,i, 15-17). 



To satisfy this pastoral duty our predecessors ever 
made unwearied efforts that the salutary doctrine of 
Christ might be propagated among all the nations of 
the earth, and with equal care watched that it might 
be preserved genuine and pure where it had been 
received. Therefore the Bishops of the whole world, 
now singly, now assembled in synod, following the 
long-established custom of Churches (from a letter of 
S. Cyril of Alexandria to Pope S. Celestine I, A.D. 422, 
vol. vi, part 2, p. 36, Paris edition of 1638), and the 
form of the ancient rule (from a Rescript of S. 
Innocent I, to the Council of Milevis, A.D. 402. 
Labbe, vol. iii, p. 47), sent word to this Apostolic 
See of those dangers especially which sprang up 
in matters of faith, that there the losses of faith might 
be most effectually repaired where the faith cannot 
fail (from a letter of S. Bernard to Pope Innocent II, 
A.D. 1130. Epist. 191, vol. iv, p. 433, Paris edition 
of 1742). And the Roman Pontiffs, according to 
the exigencies of times and circumstances, sometimes 
assembling (Ecumenical Councils, or asking for the 
mind of the Church scattered throughout the world, 
sometimes by particular Synods, sometimes using 
other helps which Divine Providence supplied, defined 
as to be held those things which with the help of God 
they had recognized as conformable with the Sacred 
Scriptures and Apostolic Traditions. For the Holy 
Spirit was not promised to the successors of Peter 
that by His revelation" they might make known 

Huic pastoral! muneri ut satisfacerent, Prsedecessores Nostri 
indefessam semper operam dederunt, ut salutaris Christ! doctrina 
apud omnes terne populos propagaretur, parique cura vigilarunt, ut, ubi 
recepta esset, sincera et pura conservaretur. Quocirca totius orbis 
Antistites, nunc singuli, nunc in Synodis congregati, longam Ecclesiarum 
consuetudinem (S. Cyr. Alex, ad S. Ccelest. P.) et, antiquae reguloe 
formam sequentes (S. Innoc. I ad Cone. Garth, et Milevit), ea proesertim 
pericula, quse in negotiis fidei emergebant, ad hanc Sedem Apostolicam 
retulerunt, ut ibi potissimum resarcirentur damna fidei, ubi fides non 
potest sentire defectum (Cf. S. Bern. Epist. 190). Roman! autem 
Pontifices, prout temporum et rerum conditio suadebat, nunc convocatis 
recumenicis Conciliis aut rogata Ecclesiae per orbem dispersse sententia, 
nunc per Synodos particulars, nunc aliis, quse divina suppeditabat 
providentia, adhibitis auxiliis, ea tenenda definiverunt, quce sacris 
Scripturis et apostolicis Traditionibus consentanea Deo adjutore cog- 
noverant. Neque enim Petri successoribus Spiritus Sanctus promissus 
est, ut eo revelante novam doctrinam patefacerent, sed ut eo assistente 
traditam per Apostolos revelationem seu fidei depositum sancte custo- 



new doctrine, but that by His assistance they 
might inviolably keep and faithfully expound the 
revelation or deposit of faith delivered through the 
Apostles, And indeed all the venerable Fathers have 
embraced and the holy orthodox Doctors have vene- 
rated and followed their Apostolic doctrine ; knowing 
most fully that this See of holy Peter remains ever 
free from all blemish of error according to the divine 
promise of the Lord our Saviour made to the Prince 
of His disciples : I have prayed for thee that thy 
faith fail not, and, when thou art converted, confirm 
thy brethren (Luke xxii, 32. See also the Acts of the 
Sixth General Council, A.D.68o. Labbe, vol. vii, p. 659). 

This gift, then, of truth and never-failing faith was 
conferred by Heaven upon Peter and his successors 
in this Chair, that they might perform their high office 
for the salvation of all ; that the whole flock of Christ, 
kept away by them from the poisonous food of error, 
might be nourished with the pasture of heavenly doc- 
trine ; that the occasion of schism being removed the 
whole Church might be kept one, and, resting on its 
foundation, might stand firm against the gates of hell. 

But since in this very age, in which the salutary 
efficacy of the Apostolic office is most of all required, 
not a few are found who take away from its authority, 
We judge it altogether necessary solemnly to assert 
the prerogative which the only-begotten Son of God 
vouchsafed to join with the supreme pastoral office. 

dirent et fideliter exponerent. Quorum quidem apostolicam doctrinam 
omnes venerabiles Patres amplexi et sancti Doctores orthodox! venerati 
atque secuti sunt ; plenissime scientes, hanc sancti Petri Sedem ab 
omni semper errore illibatam permanere, secundum Domini Salvatoris 
nostri divinam pollicitationem discipulorum suorum principi factam : 
Ego rogavi pro te, ut non deficiat fides tua, et tu aliquando conversus 
confirma fratres tuos (Cf. S. Agathon, epist. ad Imp. a Cone. (Ecum. 
VI approbata). 

Hoc igitur veritatis et fidei non deficientis charisma Petro ejusque in 
hac Cathedra successoribus divinitus collatum est, ut excelso suo munere 
in omnium salutem fungerentur, ut universus Christi grex per eos ab 
erroris venenosa esca aversus, coelestis doctrinos pabulo nutriretur, ut 
sublata schismatis occasione Ecclesia tota una conservaretur atque suo 
fundamento innixa fiima adversus inferi portas consisteret. 

Atvero cum hac ipsa aetate qua salutifera Apostolici muneris 
efficacia vel maxime requiritur, non pauci inveniantur, qui illius aucto- 
ritati obtrectant ; necessarium omnino esse censemus, praerogativam, 
quam unigenitus Dei P'ilius cum summo pastorali officio conjungere 
diguatus est, solemniter asserere. 



Therefore faithfully adhering to the tradition re- 
ceived from the beginning of the Christian faith, for 
the glory of God Our Saviour, the exaltation of the 
Catholic Religion, and the salvation of Christian 
people, the Sacred Council approving, We teach 
and define that it is a dogma divinely revealed: 
that the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedrcl, 
that is, when in discharge of the office of Pastor and 
Doctor of all Christians, by virtue of his supreme 
Apostolic authority he defines a doctrine regarding 
faith or morals to be held by the Universal Church, by 
the divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, 
is possessed of that infallibility with which the divine 
Redeemer willed that His Church should be endowed 
for defining doctrine regarding faith or morals ; and 
that therefore such definitions of the Roman Pontiff 
are irreformable (i.e. in the words used by Pope 
Nicolas I, note 13, and in the Synod of Quedlinburg, 
A.D. 1085, " it is allowed to none to revise its judgment, 
and to sit in judgment upon what it has judged." 
Labbe, vol. xii, p. 679) of themselves, and not from 
the consent of the Church. 

But if anyone which may God avert presume to 
contradict this Our definition ; let him be anathema. 

Given at Rome in Public Session solemnly held in 
the Vatican Basilica in the year of Our Lord One 
thousand eight hundred and seventy, on the 
eighteenth day of July, in the twenty-fifth year of 
our Pontificate. 

JOSEPH, Bishop of S. Polten, 

Secretary of the Vatican Council. 

Itaque Nos tradition! a fidei Christiana; exordio perceptcc fideliter 
inhacrendo, ad Dei Salvatoris nostri gloriam religionis Catholicoe exalta- 
tionem et Christianorum populorum salutem, sacro approbante Concilio, 
docemus et divinitus revelatum dogma esse definimus : Romanuin 
Pontificem, cum ex Cathedra loquitur, id est, cum omnium Christiano- 
rum Pastoris et Doctoris munere fungens, pro suprema sua Apostolica 
auctoritate doctrinam de fide vel moribus ad universa Ecclesia tenendam 
definit, per assistentiam divinam, ipsi in beato Petro promissam, ea 
infallibilitate pollere, qua divinus Redemptor Ecclesam suam in defi- 
nienda doctrina de fide vel moribus instructam esse voluit ; ideoque 
ejusmodi Roman! Pontificis definitiones ex sese, non autem ex consensu 
Ecclesire, irreformabiles esse. 

Si quis autem huic Nostrac definition! contradicere, quod Deus 
avertat, proesumpserit ; anathema sit. 



120 



APPENDIX. 



DECREE MODIFYING THE CONSTITUTION 
MULTIPLICES INTER? 

IN the General Congregation of Tuesday, Feb. 22, 
there was distributed to the Fathers a special 
Decree explaining and developing the Bull 
Mnltiplices inter of Nov. 27, 1869, in order to ex- 
pedite discussion. We subjoin an English translation 
and the Latin text. 

DECREE. 

By Apostolic letters dated 27 Nov., 1869, and 
beginning Multiplices inter, the Sovereign Pontiff 
appointed a General Order for the celebration of the 
Vatican Council, and moreover published certain rules 
for the discussions to be held by the Fathers of the 
Council. 

Our most holy Lord, in order more easily to effect 
his purpose, and after consideration of the prayers 
several times addressed to him by many Fathers of 
the Council, because the discussions were unduly pro- 
tracted, at last in his Apostolic solicitude determined 
to publish particular rules for the discussions of the 
General Congregations, which by developing the 
before-mentioned General Order and preserving that 
liberty of discussion which is the privilege of Bishops 

DECRETUM.* 

Apostolicis Litteris, die 27 novembris anno proxime superior! editis, 
quarum initium Multiplices inter summus Pontifex ordinem generalem 
constituit in Vaticani Concilii celebratione servandum, in iisque, pneter 
alia, certas quasdam regulas tradidit quibus rationi disceptationem a 
Patribus habendarum consuleretur. 

lam vero ipse Sanctissimus Dominus propositum sibi finem facilius 
assequi cupiens, nee non rationem habens expostulationum quns a 
plerisque Concilii Patribus haud semel exhibits: sunt ex eo quod dis- 
ceptationum Conciliarium series in longum plus seque protrahatur ; ex 
apostolica sua sollicitudine quasdam peculiares pro Congregationum 
generalium discussionibus tradere normas constituit, qua preestitutum 
generalem ordinem evolvendo, atque integram servando earn discus- 
sionum libertatem, quse catholicce Ecclesice Episcopos deceat, pleniori 



121 

of the Catholic Church, should conduce to the more 
full and easy examination and discussion of the sub- 
jects under consideration. 

Wherefore, after asking the advice of the Cardinal 
Presidents of the General Congregations and the 
opinion of the Fathers of the Particular Congregation 
for receiving and considering the propositions of 
the Bishops, the same our most holy Lord has com- 
manded the following Rules to be published and 
observed : 

1. On the distribution of a Schema to the Fathers 
of the Council, the Cardinal Presidents of the General 
Congregations shall fix a convenient time within 
which these Fathers who have any amendments to 
make on the Schema shall commit such amendments 
to writing. 

2. Amendments must be written down in the fol- 
lowing order : First, those which refer to the Schema 
in general, either wholly or in part, according to the 
direction of the Presidents ; then those which refer to 
its several portions with a due regard to the order of 
the Schema itself. 

3. Those Fathers who have censures to make either 
on words or paragraphs of the proposed Schema shall 
submit a new formula of words or paragraphs to be 
substituted in the Schema. 

4. Amendments written down in this way by the 

expeditiorique ratione ad return tractandarum examen, disceptationem 
et deliberationem conferrent. 

Quamobrem Cardinalibus Congregationum generalium Pnesidibus in 
Consilium adhibitis et qusesita etiam sentenlia Patrum peculiaris Con- 
gregationis recipiendis expendendisque Episcoporum propositionibus, 
idem Sanctissimus Dominus noster sequentes ordinationes edendas 
servandasque mandavit : 

1. Distribute schemate Concilii Patribus, Cardinales Presides Con- 
gregationum generalium congruum tempus prosfigent intra quod Patres 
ipsi, qui aliqua in schemate animadvertenda censuerint, ea scripto 
tradere debeant. 

2. Anidmadversiones hoc ordine exarandoe erunt ; ut primum illre 
scripto adnotentur quse schema generatim respiciunt sive integrum sive 
divisum, prout a Prsesidibus indicatum fuerit : deinde illce quce ad 
singulas schematis partes referuntur, schematis ipsius ordine servato. 

3. Qui ex Patribus animaclversiones vel in verba vel in paragraphos 
propositi schematis afferendas putaverint, novam verborum vel para- 
graphorum formulam subiicient in locum prioris in schemate substi- 
tuendam. 

4. Animadversiones a Patribus Concilii hac ratione exaratee et propria 



122 

Fathers of the Council, and duly subscribed, must be 
delivered to the Secretary of the Council and by him 
forwarded to the Deputation of Bishops under whose 
cognizance they come. 

5. When the amendments have been considered in 
the Special Deputation to which the matter belongs, 
the reformed Schema shall be distributed to each of 
the Fathers, together with a summary account of the 
amendments brought forward. 

6. When the Schema, together with the aforesaid 
summary, has been distributed to the Fathers of the 
Council, the Cardinal Presidents shall appoint a day 
for its discussion in General Congregation. 

7. The Schema in general, either wholly or in part, 
at the discretion of the Cardinal Presidents, shall be 
discussed first, then its several portions one by one ; 
the formula proposed to be substituted for the sentence 
or paragraph of the Schema being always indicated by 
the speaker and delivered to the Presidents after his 
speech. 

8. Those who wish to speak on the amended Schema 
will both give notice of their intention to the Pre- 
sidents, and say at the same time whether they mean 
to speak on the whole Schema in general, or of its 
several parts, and if the latter on what part they 
propose to treat. 

9. The Bishops of the several Deputations, on 

subscriptione munitse Secretario Concilii tradentur, eiusque opera ad 
respectivas Episcoporum deputationes transmittentur. 

5. Postquam huiusmodi animadversiones expanse fuerint in conventu 
eius deputationis, ad quam pertinent, singulis Patribus distribuetur 
schema reformatum, una cum summaria relatione, in qua de propositis 
animadversionibus mentio fiet. 

6. Schemate una simul cum supradicta relatione Patribus Concilii 
communicato, Cardinales Praesides diem statuent Congregationis 
generalis, in qua discussio inchoabitur. 

7. Discussio fiet primum generatim de schemate integro vel diviso 
prout Cardinalibus praesidibus visum fuerit, eaque absoluta, de 
unaquaque singillatim schematis ipsius parte disceptabitur ; proposita 
semper in hac singularum partium discussione ab oratoribus formula 
expensi schematis periodo vel paragraph substituencla, ac prassidibus 
post habitum sermonem scripto exhibenda. 

8. Qui de reformato schemate loqui voluerint dum suum disserendi 
propositum prsesidibus significandum curabunt, innuere pariter debebunt 
utrum de toto schemate in genere, vel de eius partibus in specie acturi 
sint ; et, quatenus in specie, de qua schematis parte sibi agendum esse 
statuerint. 



123 

obtaining leave from the Presidents, will be free to 
answer difficulties and censures of the speakers eiterh 
immediately after the proposition of such difficultief 
by a single speaker, or to reply to several together on 
the same subject-matter, and that on the same or 
another day. 

10. Speakers must be confined within the limits os 
the matter discussed. If any Father wanders outside 
such limits, it will be the duty of the Presidents to 
call him back to the question before the Council. 

1 1. If the discussion be unduly protracted, after the 
subject-matter has been sufficiently considered, the 
Cardinal Presidents, on the delivery of a Postnlatum 
signed by at least ten Fathers, shall be free to 
interrogate the General Congregation whether the 
discussion is to be continued, and after taking the 
votes by the way of their rising from or retaining 
their seats, they shall put an end to the discussion, if 
the majority of the Fathers present so decide. 

12. When the discussion of one part of the Schema 
is finished, before proceeding to another the Cardinal 
Presidents shall take the votes of the General Con- 
gregation first on the amendments proposed during 
the discussion itself, then on the whole context of the 
part under consideration. 

13. The votes, both as to the amendments and as 
to the context of each part, will be given by the 

9. Liberum erit cuique ex respective deputationis Episcopis, im- 
petrata a pnesidibus venia, oratorum difficultatibus et animadversionibus 
respondere : ita tamen ut facultas ipsis sit vel statim post oratoris ser- 
monem eloqui, vel pluribus insimul oratoribus eadem super re discep- 
tantibus reponere, idque vel eodem vel alio die perficere. 

10. Oratorum sermones intra fines propositi argumenti cohibeantur. 
Si quern vero Patrum extra metas vagari contingat, prsesidum erit ad 
propositam quaestionem ipsum revocare. 

11. Si discussionum series, re proposita iam satis excussa, plus oequo 
protrahatur, Cardinales presides, postulatione scripto exhibita a decem 
minimum Patribus, Congregationem generalem percontari poterunt, an 
velit diceptationem diutius continuari ; et exquisitis per actum assur- 
gendi vel sedendi suffragiis, finem discussioni imponent, si id maiori 
Patrum prsesentium numero visum fuerit. 

12. Absoluta super una schematis parte discussione, antequam 
transitus fiat ad aliam, Cardinales presides suffragia Congregationis 
generalis exquirent, primum quidem super propositis in ea ipsa discus- 
sione emendationibus, deinde super integro partis examinatce textu. 

13. Suffragia turn super emendationibus, turn super singularum 
partium textu ita a Patribus Concilii ferentur, ut praesides distinctis 



I2 4 

Fathers of the Council in the following way : First, 
those who assent to the amendment or text at the 
intimation of the Presidents will rise, then those who 
dissent, and after the votes have been counted, the 
decision of the majority of the Fathers will be 
recorded. 

14. When all the parts of the Schema have been 
voted upon in this way, the Cardinal Presidents shall 
take the opinions of the Fathers on the Schema under 
examination. These votes shall be given viva voce 
by the words Placet or Non-placet, in such way that 
those who think it necessary to add any condition 
shall give their vote in writing. 

Given at Rome this 2oth day of February, 1870. 

PHILIP, Cardinal de Angelis, President. 

ANTONINUS, Cardinal de Luca, President. 

ANDREW, Cardinal Bizzarri, President. 

ALOYSIUS, Cardinal Bilio, President. 

HANNIBAL, Cardinal Capalti, President. 
JOSEPH, Bishop of S. Polten, 
Secretary. 

vicibus ad surgendum invitent primum eos qui emendationi vel textui 
assentiuntur, deinde eos qui contradicunt : recensitis autem suffragiis, 
id decernetur quod maiori Patrum numero placuerit. 

14. Cum de omnibus schematis parti bus hac ratione suffragia lata 
fuerint, de examinato schemate Patrum sententias Cardinales presides 
rogabunt. Hose autem suffragia oretenus edentur per verba placet aut 
non-placet; ita tamen ut qui conditionem aliquam adiiciendam existi- 
ment, suffragium suum scripto tradere debeant. 
Datum Romse die 20 Februarii, anno 1870. 

PHILIPPUS, Card, de Angelis, Prseses. 
ANTONIUS, Card, de Luca, Praeses. 
ANDREAS, Card. Bizzarri, Prasses. 
ALOYSIUS, Card. Bilio, Praeses. 
HANNIBAL, Card. Cilt, Paparaeses. 
loSEPHUS, Episcopus Sancti Hyppoliti, 
Secretarius, 



125 



OFFICIALS OF THE VATICAN COUNCIL. 

GUARDIANS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Giovanni Colonna ) Roman Princes assisting 
Domenico Orsini j at the Pontifical Throne. 

PRESIDENT OF THE COMMISSION OR DEPUTATION 
"PRO REBUS FIDEL" 

Cardinal Bilio. 

PRESIDENT OF THE COMMISSION OR DEPUTATION 
"PRO REBUS ECCLESIASTICS DISCIPLINE." 

Cardinal Caterini. 

PRESIDENT OF THE COMMISSION OR DEPUTATION 

"PRO MISSIONIBUS ET REBUS ORDINUM 

REGULARIUM." 

Cardinal Bizzarri. 

PRESIDENT OF THE COMMISSION OR DEPUTATION 
"PRO REBUS RITUS ORIENTALIS." 

Cardinal Barnabo. 

SECRETARY. 
Joseph Fessler, Bishop of S. Polten. 

SUB-SECRETARY. 

i 

Luigi Jacobini, Protonoltary Apostolic. 
ASSISTANTS. 

Camillo Canon Santori. 
Angelo Canon Jacobini. 

NOTARIES. 

Luca Pacific! Protonotary Apostolic. 

Luigi Colombo 

Giovanni Simeorii 

Luigi Pericoli 

Domenico Bartolini 

Salvatore Pallottini ) A , A . , 

Francesco Santi J Advocates As S1 stant. 



126 

EXAMINERS OF VOTING-PAPERS. 
Luigi Serafini ) . ... r ,, ^ 
Francesco Nardi j Audltors of the Rota 

Leonard^lffalti } Clerks of the A P ostolic Chamber. 
Carlo Cristofori } Prelates of the Signature of 
Alessandro Montani J Justice. 
Frederic de Falloux du Coudray, Regent of the 

Apostolic Chancery. 
Lorenzo Nina, Prelate Abbreviator del Parco 

Maggiore. 

PROMOTORS. 

Giovanni Baptista de Dominicis Tosti {Advocates of 
Filippo Ralli 'he Sacred 

) Consistory. 

MASTERS OF THE CEREMONIES. 
Luigi Ferrari, Prefect. 
Pio Martinucci. 
Camillo Balestra. 
Remigio Ricci. 
Giuseppe Romagnoli. 
Pier Giuseppe Rinaldi Bucci. 
Antonio Cataldi. 
Alessandro Tortoli. 
Agostino Accoramboni. 
Luigi Sinistri. 
Francesco Riggi. 
Antonio Gattoni. 
Baldassare Baccinetti. 
Cesare Togni. 
Rocco Massi. 

ASSIGNERS OF PLACES. 
Enrico Folchi, Prefect 



Luigi Naselli 



Private 



Edmund Stonor ,-, 

Paul Bastide Chamberlains. 

Luigi Pallotti 

Scipio Perilli 

Gustave Gallot 

Francesco Regnani \ r , H 

Nicolas Vorsak Chamberlains. 

Filippo Silvestri 



127 

CARDINAL PRESIDENTS OF THE GENERAL 
CONGREGATIONS. 

Philip Cardinal de Angelis.* 
Antoninus Cardinal de Luca. 
Andrew Cardinal Bizzarri. 
Aloisius Cardinal Bilio. 
Hannibal Cardinal Capalti. 



COMMISSION DE POSTULATIS. 

IN the First General Congregation of the Council, 
held on Friday, the loth December, 1869, there 
were published the names of the members of the 
Commission appointed by the Supreme Pontiffhimself 
according to Chap. II. of the Constitution Multiplices 
intet, in the following form : 

Names of the most Eminent and most Reverend 
Cardinals and most Reverend Fathers of the particular 
Commission deputed by our most Holy Lord Pope 
Pius the Ninth to receive and consider the proposi- 
tions of the Fathers, 

The most Eminent and most Reverend Cardinals 
Constantine Cardinal Patrizi. 
Camillus Cardinal di Pietro. 
Philip Cardinal de Angelis. 
Cosmo Cardinal Corsi. 
Sistus Cardinal Riario Sforza. 
Joseph Othmar Cardinal Rauscher. 
Henry M. G. Cardinal De Bonnechose. 
Paul Cardinal Cullen. 
Laurence Cardinal Barili. 
John Ignatius Cardinal Moreno. 
Raphael Cardinal Monaco la Valletta. 
James Cardinal Antonelli. 

The most Reverend Fathers 
Gregory Yussef Melchite, Patriarch of Antioch. 
Joseph Valerga, Patriarch of Jerusalem. 
Joseph Hippolyte Guibert, Archbishop of Tours. 
Alexander Ricardi de Netro, Archbishop of Turin. 

* Appointed by Brief of His Holiness Jan. 3rd, 1870, in the place of 
Cardinal de Reisach, deceased. 



Mariano Barrio y Fernandez, Archbishop of Va- 
lencia. 

Raphael Valentine Valdiviso, Archbishop of Santiago, 
Chili. 

John Martin Spalding, Archbishop of Baltimore. 

Francis Xavier Apuzzo, Archbishop of Sorrento. 

Alexander Franchi, Archbishop of Thessalonica, 
i.p.i. 

Peter Gianelli, Archbishop of Sardis, i.p.i. 

Henry Edward Manning, Archbishop of West- 
minster. 

Victor August I. Dechamps, Archbishop of Mechlin 

Conrad Martin, Bishop of Paderborn. 

Feter Jeremiah M. Celesia, Bishop of Patti (Sicily). 



JUDGES OF EXCUSES AND COMPLAINTS. 

IN the Second General Congregation, held on 
. Tuesday, the I4th December, 1869, there were 
published the names of the Fathers who had 
been elected by the Council Judges of Excuses, and 
also those who had in like manner been elected 
Judges of Complaints and Controversies, as follows : 

Names of the most Reverend Fathers who have 
been elected Judges of Excuses by a majority of 
votes. 

The most Reverend Fathers 
Paul Melchers, Archbishop of Cologne. 
Benvenuto Monzon y Martins, Archbishop of Granada. 
Joachim Limberti, Archbishop of Florence. 
John Baptist Landriot, Archbishop of Rheims. 
Francis Pedicina, Archbishop of Bari. 

Names of the most Reverend Fathers who have 
been elected Jiidges of Complaints and Controversies 
by a majority of votes. 

The most Reverend Fathers 
Joseph Angelini, Archbishop of Corinth. 
Caspar Mermillod, Bishop of Hebron. 
Innocent Sannibale, Bishop of Gubbio. 
John Rosati, Bishop of Todi. 
Antonio Canzi. Bishop of Cyrene. 



I2 9 



COMMISSION DE FIDE. 

IN the Third General Congregation, held on 
Monday, the 2Oth December, 1869, there were 
published the names of those Fathers who had 
been elected by a majority of votes members of the 
Commission or Deputation for matters relating to 
Faith, as follows : 

After scrutiny of the votes given in the Third 
General Congregation, on Tuesday, the I4th ult., 
there were found elected by a majority of votes, 
The most Reverend Fathers 

1. Emmanuel Garcia Gil, Archbishop of Saragossa. 

2. Louis Francis Pie, Bishop of Poitiers. 

3. Patrick Leahy, Archbishop of Cashel. 

4. Rene Francis Regnier, Archbishop of Cambray. 

5. John Simor, Archbishop of Strigonia. 

6. Andrew Ignatius Schaepman, Archbishop of 

Utrecht. 

7. Antonio Hassun, Patriarch of Cilicia of the 

Armenians. 

8. Bartholomew d'Avanzo, Bishop of Calvi and 

Teano. 

9. Miecislaus Ledochowski, Archbishop of Gnesen 

and Posen. 

10. Francis Emilius Cugini, Archbishop of Modena. 

11. Sebastian Dias Larangeira, Bishop of San Pedro, 

Rio Grande. 

12. Ignatius Senestrey, Bishop of Ratisbon. 

13. Victor August Dechamps, Archbishop of Mechlin. 

14. John Martin Spalding, Archbishop of Baltimore. 

15. Antonio Monescillo, Bishop of Jaen. 

1 6. Peter Joseph de Preux, Bishop of Sion. 

17. Vincent Gasser, Bishop of Brixen. 

1 8. Raphael Valentine Valdivieso, Archbishop of 

Santiago. 

19. Henry Edward Manning, Archbishop of West- 

minster. 

20. Frederic Maria Zinelli, Bishop of Treviso. 

21. Joseph Cardoni, Archbishop of Edessa. 

22. Walter Steins, Archbishop of Bozra. 

23. Conrad Martin, Bishop of Paderborn, 

K 



130 

24. Joseph Sant Alemany, Archbishop of San 

Francisco. 

From the Secretariate of the Vatican Council, the 
1 7th day of December, 1869. 

JOSEPH, Bishop of S. Polten, 

Secretary of the Council. 



COMMISSION DE DISCIPLINA. 

IN the Fourth General Congregation, held on 
Tuesday, the 28th December, 1869, there were 
published the names of those Fathers who had 
been elected by a majority of votes members of the 
Commission or Deputation for matters of Ecclesias- 
tical Discipline, as follows : 

After scrutiny of the votes given in the General 
Congregation held on Monday, the 2Oth ult, there 
were found elected by a majority of votes, 
The most Reverend Fathers 

1. John MacCloskey, Archbishop of New York. 

2. William Ullathorne, Bishop of Birmingham. 

3. John MacHale, Archbishop of Tuam. 

4. Pelagius de Lavastida y Davalos, Archbishop of 

Mexico. 

5. Pantaleon Monserrat y Navarro, Bishop of 

Barcelona. 

6. Anastasius Yusto, Archbishop of Burgos. 

7. Julius Arrigoni, Archbishop of Lucca. 

8. Francis Baillargeon, Archbishop of Quebec. 

9. Paul Ballerini, Patriarch of Alexandria, of the 

Latin Rite. 

10. Claude Plantier, Bishop of Nimes. 

11. Theodore de Montpellier, Bishop of Liege. 

1 2. Stephen Murilley, Bishop of Lausanne and Geneva. 

13. Francis Xavier Wierzchleyski, Bishop of Lemberg, 

of the Latin Rite. 

14. George Stahl, Bishop of Wurzburg. 

15. John Ambrose Huesta, Bishop of Pufio. 

16. Charles Pillion, Bishop of Le Mans. 

17. John Baptist Zwerger, Bishop of Seckau. 

1 8. Nicolas Sergent, Bishop of Quimper. 



19. Michael Heiss, Bishop of La Crosse. 

20. Mariano Ricciardi, Archbishop of Reggio. 

21. Leo Meurin, Bishop of Ascalon. 

22. John Guttadauro di Reburdone, Bishop of Cal- 

tanisetta. 

23. Marino Marini Archbishop, Bishop of Orvieto 

24. Joseph Aggarbati, Bishop of Sinigaglia. 

From the Secretariate of the Vatican Council, the 
23rd day of December, 1869. 

JOSEPH, Bishop of S. Polten, 

Secretary of the Council. 



COMMISSION DE ORDINIBUS REGU- 
L A RIB US. 

IN the Sixth General Congregation, held on Mon- 
day, the 3rd January, 1870, there were published 
the names of the Fathers elected members of 
the Commission or Deputation for matters relating to 
the Regular Orders, as follows : 

After scrutiny of the votes given in the General 
Congregation, held on Tuesday, the 28th of December 
ult, there were found elected by a majority of votes, 
The most Reverend Fathers 

1. Francis Fleix y Solano, Archbishop of Tarragona. 

2. Andrew Raess, Bishop of Strasburg. 

3. Godfrey Saint Marc, Archbishop of Rennes.- 

4. Ferdinand Blanco, Bishop of Avila. 

5. John Derry, Bishop of Clonfert. 

6. Joseph Benedict Dusmet, Archbishop of Catania. 

7. Felix Cantimorri, Bishop of Parma. 

8. Joseph Ignatius Checa, Archbishop of Quito. 

9. Frederic de Fiirstenberg, Archbishop of Olmutz. 

10. Charles Pooten, Archbishop of Antivari and 

Scutari. 

11. Paul Micallef, Bishop of Citta di Castello. 

12. Stephen Vincent Ryan, Bishop of Buffalo. 

13. Simon Spilotros, Bishop of Tricarico. 

14. Alexander Angeloni, Archbishop of Urbino. 

15. Ignatius Mobaes Cardoso, Bishop of Faro. 

1 6. Francis de Leonrod, Bishop of Eichstadt. 



132 

I/. William Joseph Clifford, Bishop of Clifton. 

1 8. Thomas Michael Sabzano, Bishop of Tanes. 

19. John Joseph Faiet, Bishop of Bruges. 

20. Maria Ephrem Garrelon, Bishop of Nemesis. 

21. Aloisius Nazari di Calabiano, Archbishop of Milan. 

22. George Ebediesu Chajat, Archbishop of Amida, 

of the Chaldees. 

23. Gaspar Willi, Bishop of Antipatris. 

24. John Thomas Ghilardi, Bishop of Mondovi. 
From the Secretariate of the Vatican Council, the 

3 1st day of December, 1869. 

JOSEPH, Bishop of S. Polten, 

Secretary of the Council. 



COMMISSION DE MISSIONIBUS ET 
RIT1BUS ORIENIALIBUS. 

IN the Twelfth General Congregation, held on 
Wednesday, the I9th January, 1870, there were 
published the names of the members of the 
Commission or Deputation for matters relating to the 
Oriental Rite and to the Apostolic Missions, as 
follows : 

After scrutiny of the votes given in the General 
Congregation held on Friday, the I4th ult., there were 
found elected by a majority of votes, 
The most Reverend Fathers 

1. Peter Bostani, Archbishop of Tyre and Sidon, of 

the Maronites. 

2. Vincent Spaccapietra, Archbishop of Smyrna. 

3. Charles Lavigerie, Archbishop of Algiers. 

4. Cyril Behnam Benni, Bishop of Mossul, of the 

Syrian Rite. 

5. Ambrose Basil Abdo, Bishop of Farzul and Zahle, 

of the Melchites. 

6. Joseph Papp Szilagyi, Bishop of Gran Varadin, 

of the Greco-Rumenian Rite. 

7. Aloisius Ciurcia, Archbishop of Irenopolis. 

8. Aloisius Gabriel de la Place, Bishop of Had- 

rianopolis. 

9. Stephen Louis Charbonncax, Bishop of Jassa. 



133 

10. Thomas Grant, Bishop of Southwark. 

11. Hilarius Alcazar, Bishop of Paphos. 

12. Daniel MacGettigan, Bishop of Raphoe. 

13. Joseph Pluym, Bishop of Nicopolis. 

14. Melchior Nasarian, Archbishop of Mardin, of the 

Armenian Rite. 

15. Stephen Melchisedechian, Bishop of Erzeroum, of 

the Armenian Rite. 

1 6. Augustin George Bar-Scinu, Bishop of Salmassa, 

of the Chaldean Rite. 

17. John Lynch, Bishop of Toronto. 

1 8. John Marango, Bishop of Tenos and Mycone. 

19. Francis John Laouenan, Bishop of Flaviopolis. 

20. Antony Charles Cousseau, Bishop of Angouleme. 

21. Louis Goesbriand, Bishop of Burlington. 

22. Joseph Valerga, Patriarch of Jerusalem. 

23. James Quinn, Bishop of Brisbane. 

24. Charles Poirier, Bishop of Roseau. 

From the Secretariate of the Vatican Council, the 
1 8th day of January, 1870. 

JOSEPH, Bishop of S. Polten, 

Secretary of the Vatican Council. 



134 



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MDER DISCUSSION, PROGRESS OF WOR 
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of the Pontifical Congregation for rece 
:onsidering the Propositions of the Fathe 
the Constitution de Electionc Roma 


of the Judges of Excuses, also of t 
f Complaints and Controversies, and 
titution limiting Ecclesiastical Censures. 


of the Commission de Fide, and Electi 
ission de Disciplina. 


of the Commission de Disciplina, a 
of the Commission de Ordinibus Re& 

of the First Schema deFide Catholica. 


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Vancsa, Archbishop of Fogaras. 
Strossmayer, Bishop of Bosnia. 
Ginoulhiac, Bishop of Grenoble. 
Caixal y Estrade, Bishop of Urgel 


Verot, Bishop of Savannah. 
Gastaldi, Bishop of Saluzzo. 
Trevisanato, Cardinal Patriarch o: 
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Dechamps, Archbishop of Mechli] 
Raess, Bishop of Strasburg. 


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Salzano, Bishop of Tanes, i.p.i. 
Spilotros, Bishop of Tricarico. 
Meignan, Bishop of Chalons. 
Ramadie, Bishop of Perpignan. 
Del Valle, Bishop of Huanoco. 
Kayatt, Archbishop of Amida. 
Haynald, Archbishop of Colocsa 
Papp-Szilagyi de Illesfalva, Bisho 


Schwartzenberg, Cardinal Archbi 
Mathieu, Cardinal Archbishop of 
Ballerini, Latin Patriarch of Alex 
Simor, Archbishop Primate of H 
Monzon y Martins, Archbishop o 


Losanna, Bishnp of Biella. 
Caixal y Estrade, Bishop of Urge 
Devoucoux, Bishop of Evreux. 
Lluch, Bishop of Salamanca. 
De Martis, Bishop of Galtelli Nu 
Ramirez y Vasquez, Bishop of B 


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Spaccipietra, Archbishop of Smyrna. 
Darboy, Archbishop of Paris. 
Melchers, Archbishop of Cologne. 
Gandolfi, Bishop of Civita Vecchia. 
Parlatore, Bishop of San Marco. 
De Charbonnel, Bishop of Sozopolis, i 


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De Dreux Breze, Bishop of Moulins. 
Pace, Bishop of Amelia. 
Ormaechea, Bishop of Tulancingo. 
Darbert, Bishop of Perigueux. 
Moreyra, Bishop of Guamanga. 


Zunnui Casula, Bishop of Ales and Te 
Strossmayer, Bishop of Bosnia. 
Vitali, Bishop of Ferentino. 
Faiet, Bishop of Bruges. 


Zvverger, Bishop of Seckau. 
Lachat, Bishop of Bale. 
Melchisedechian, Bishop of Erzerum o 
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Gastaldi, Bishop of Saluzzo. 
Di Pietro, Cardinal Bishop of Albano. 
Audu, Chaldean Patriarch of Babylon. 

De la Lastra, Cardinal Archbishop of 


Simor, Archbishop Primate of Hungary. 
Salzano, Bishop of Tanes, i.p.i. 
Martin, Bishop of Paderborn. 
Verot, Bishop of Savannah. 
Papp-Szilagyi de Illesfalva, Bishop of Gra: 
Bindi, Bishop of Pistoia and Prato. 


De Urguinaona, Bishop of the Canary Is 
Monson y Martins, Archbishop of Grana 
Nazarian, Archbishop of Mardin. 
Melchers, Archbishop of Cologne. 


Acciardi, Bishop of Anglona. 
Caixal y Estrade, Bishop of Urgel. 
Dinkel, Bishop of Augsburg. 
Jorda y Soler, Bishop of Vich. 
Gallucci, Bishop of Loretto and Recanat 




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De Martis, Bishop of Galtelli Nu 
Behnam Benni, Bishop of Mossul 
Clifford, Bishop of Clifton. 
Bostani, Archbishop of Tyre (Mai 
Pedicini, Archbishop of Bari. 
Gandolfi, Bishop of Civita Vecchi 
Del Valle, Bishop of Iluanuco. 


Jekelfalusy, Bishop of Albareale. 
Haynald, Archbishop of Colocsa 
Stephanopoli, Archbishop of Phili 
Hindi, Bishop of Jezirah (Chalde; 
Huerta, Bishop of Puno. 


Bravard, Bishop of Coutances. 
Lyonnet, Archbishop of Alby. 
Strossmayer, Bishop of Bosnia. 
Lluch, Bishop of Salamanca. 


Gastaldi, Bishop of Saluzzo. 
Moretti, Bishop of Imola. 
Nazarian, Archbishop of Mardin ( 
Gravez, Archbishop of Namur. 
Moreno, Archbishop of Ivrea. 
Ghilardi, Archbishop of Mondovi 


Mathieu, Cardinal Archbishop of 
Rauscher, Cardinal Archbishop o 
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Langalerie, Bishop of Belley. 
Sola, Bishop of Nice. 
Verot, Bishop of Savannah. 
David, Bishop of St. Brieuc. 
Ballerini, Latin Patriarch of Alex 


Ricciardi, Archbishop of Reggio. 
Vitelleschi, Archbishop of Osimo. 
Keane, Bishop of Cloyne. 
Ghilardi, Bishop of Mondovi. 
Mabile, Bishop of Versailles. 
De la Bouillerie, Bishop of Carca 
Clifford, Bishop of Clifton. 
Paya y Rico, Bishop of Cuenga. 


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Con 
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er 
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chapter to the 
Mo'nitum also 
written observ 
Friday, March 
arch 14 : Anot 
mode of discus 
as amended by 






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SPEAKERS. 


, Primate of Hungary, as Officia 
i, Bishop of Aquila. 
. y Estrade, Bishop of Urgel. 
Bishop of Monterey. 
Bishop of Guastalla. 
ari, Bishop of Nocera. 
icz, Bishop of Havana. 


Cuesta y Maroto, Bishop of Orer 
di, Bishop of Saiuzzo. 
t, Archbishop of Amida (Chaldea 
ng, Archbishop of Westminster, 
siani, Bishop of Fano. 
, Bishop of Sura, i.p.i. 
Bishop of Bruges, 
indo, Bishop of Port Victoria. 


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ini, Latin Patriarch of Alexandrii 
a, Archbishop of Fogaras. 




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Errington, Archbishop of Trebizor 
Monson y Martins, Archbishop of 
Dupanloup, Bishop of Orleans. 
Amat, Bishop of Monterey. 
Darbert, Bishop of Perigueux. 
Meurin, Bishop of Ascalon, i.p.i. 
Hefele, Bishop of Rottemburj. 
Gandolfi, Bishop of Civita Vecchia 
Moreyra, Bishop of Guamanga. 
Martin, Bishop of Paderborn. 
Maupoint, Bishop of Reunion. 


Dubreuil, Archbishop of Avignon. 
De Marguerie, Bishop of Autun. 
Gandolfi, Bishop of Civita Vecchia 
Renaldi, Bishop of Pignerolo. 
Ginoulhiac, Bishop of Grenoble. 
Caixal y Estrade, Bishop of Urgel. 
Ferre, Bishop of Casale. 
Celesia, Bishop of Patti. 




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aken upon the whole of the Schema ae 
'holica collectively ; 595 Bishops present, 
L 515 said Placet, 80 Placet juxta modum, 
o the Secretary at the same time the modi- 
which they desired the Council to adopt. 


aken on the modifications brought forward 
ist General Congregation on Tuesday, 


:ign Pontiff presiding in person. Number 
rs present 664. The Schema now made a 
c Constitution voted unanimously. 


.a dePai-vo Catechismo as modified by the 
ion de Disciplina laid before the Fathers 
icond time. 


continued on the Schema de Parvo Gate- 


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tmet, Cardinal Archbishop of ' 
.ischer, Cardinal Archbishop J o\ 
ta, Bishop of Guastalla. 
italdi, Bishop of Saluzzo. 
rot, Bishop of Savannah. 


breuil, Archbishop of Avignon 
lies, ex-Bishop of Li^on. 
itimorri, Bishop of Parma. 
Marguerye, Bishop of Autun. 
a Ketteler, Bishop of M_ainz. 
Lighan, Bishop of riyinoulli. 
fford, Bishop of Clifton, 
erhard, Bishop of Treves. 
erger, Bishop of Seckau. 


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SPEAKERS. 


Zwerger, Bishop of Seckau as 


Marilley, Bishop of Lausanne 
on behalf of the Commissioi 

Pie, Bishop of Poitiers as Of 
Commission de Fide. 


Patrizi, Cardinal- Vicar of Ror 
Alemany, Archbishop of San 
Natoli, Archbishop of Messin; 
Dusmet, Archbishop of Catan 
Rivet, Bishop of Dijon. 
Ranolder, Bishop of Veszprira 
Conde y Corral, Bishop of Zai 
Celesia, Bishop of Patti. 


Dechamps, Archbishop of Me 
for the Commission de Fide, 




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David, Bishop of St. Brieuc. 
Greith, Bishop of St. Gall. 
Hefele, Bishop of Rottemburg. 


Garcia Gil, Archbishop of Saragossa, Official 
Relator for the Commission de Fide. 
Schwartzenberg, Cardinal Archbishop of Prague. 
Donnet, Cardinal Archbishop of Bordeaux. 
Rauscher, Cardinal Archbishop of Vienna. 


Cullen, Cardinal Archbishop of Dublin. 
Moreno, Cardinal Archbishop of Valladolid. 
Jussef, Melchite Patriarch of Antioch. 


Simor, Primate of Hungary. 
Maddalena, Archbishop of Corfu. 
MacHale, Archbishop of Tuam. 
Darboy, Archbishop of Paris. 


Leahy, Archbishop of Cashel, Official Relator for 
the Commission de Fide. 
Raess, Bishop of Strasburg. 
Trucchi, Bishop of Forli. 
Patagna, Bishop of Castellamare. 




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SPEAKERS. 


Hassun, Armenian Patriarch of Cili 
Relatdr for the Commission </<? />V/<?. 
Von Ketteler, Bishop of Mainz. 
Cousseau, Bishop of Angouleme. 
Ginoulhiac, Bishop of Grenoble. 


De Preux, Bishop of Sion. . 
Caixal y Estrade, Bishop of Urgel. 
Salas, Bishop of La Concepfion. 
Rota, Bishop of Guastalla. 


Manning, Archbishop of Westmins 
Relator for the Commission de Fide. 
MacEvilly, Bishop of Galway, 
Clifford, Bishop of Clifton. 


Senestrey, Bishop of Ratisbon, Officia' 
the Commission de Fide. 
Verot, Bishop of Savannah. 
Bonnay, Bishop of Csanad and Temes) 
Bravard, Bishop of Coutances. 
; Papp-Szilagvi de Illesfalva, Bishop of G 
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Spalding, Archbishop of Baltimore. 
Lebreton, Bishop of Puy. 
Lachat, Bishop of Bale. 
Lenti, Bishop of Nepi and Sutri. 
Gastaldi, Bishop of Saluzzo. 
Las Cases, Bishop of Constantine. 
Garrelon, Bishop of Nemesis, i.p.i. 


Schaepman, Archbishop of Utrechi 
lator for the Commission de Fide. 
Valerga, Latin Patriarch of Jerusale: 
Claret y Clara, Archbishop of Traja 
Purcell, Archbishop of Cincinnati. 
Connolly, Archbishop of Halifax. 


Kayatt, Archbishop of Amadia. 
Regnault, Bishop of Chartres. 
De Dreux Breze, Bishop of Moulins, 
Strossrcayer, Bishop of Bosnia. 
Salzano, Bishop of Tanes, i.p.i. 


Gillooly, Bishop of Elphin. 
Domenec, Bishop of Pittsburg. 
Maret, Bishop of Sura, /././. 


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SPEAKERS. 


Martinez, Bishop of Havana. 
Whelan, Bishop of Wheeling. 
Magnasco, Bishop of Bolina, 


Schwarzenberg, Cardinal Arc 
Moreno, Bishop of Ivrea. 
Dechamps, Archbishop of Me 
Ferre, Bishop of Casale. 
Magnasco, Bishop of Bolina, 
Monzon y Martins, Archbisho 
Filippi, Bishop of Aquila. 
Amat, Bishop of Monterey. 


Rauscher, Cai'dinal Archbishc 
Dechamps, Archbishop of Me 
Desprez, Archbishop of Toulc 
Behnam-Benni, Archbishop o 
Landriot, Archbishop of Rhei 
Amat, Bishop of Monterey. 


Dupanloup, Bishop of Orleani 
Salas, Bishop of Concep9Jon. 
Sola, Bishop of Nice. 




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, Bishop of St. Brieuc. 
Bishop of Savannah. 
:rrat, Bishop of Barcelona. 


Bishop of Marseilles. 
Szilagyi, Bishop of Gran V; 
di, Bishop of Saluzzo. 
, Bishop of Oran. 
isco, Bishop of Bolina, i.p.i 
;rt, Bishop of Gap. 
.izzi, Abbot of St. Paul's. 


, Archbishop of Cashel, as 

lal Pitra. 
iult, Bishop of Chartres. 
Bishop of Luon. 
cz, Bishop of Badajos. 
reux Bre/e', Bishop of Moul 
1 y Estrade, Bishop of Urge 


ild, Archbishop of Colocsa. 
r, Melchite Patriarch of Ant 
ixl, Bishop of Coutances. 
artis, Bishop of Galtelli Nuc 


sntz, Bishop of Warmia. 
a, Archbishop of Fogaras. 
el, Bishop of Angers. 


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SPKAKKRS. 


D'Avanzo, Bishop of Calvi and Teano, 
Relator. 

Mathieu, Cardinal Archbishop of Besar^i 
Rauscher, Cardinal Archbishop of Vienr 


Cardinal Pitra. 
Guidi, Cardinal Archbishop of Bologna. 
De Bonnechose, Cardinal Archbishop ol 
Cullen, Cardinal Archbishop of Dublin. 


D'Avanzo, Bishop of Calvi and Teano. 

Ballerini, Latin Patriarch of Alexandria. 
Valeria, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. 
MncHale, Archbishop of Tuam. 
Alemany, Archbishop of San Francisco. 


Apuzzo, Archbishop of Sorrento. 
Spaccapietra, Archbishop of Smyrna. 
Errington, Archbishop of Trebizond, *'./ 
Vitelleschi, Archbishop of Osimo and Ci 
Conolly, Archbishop of Halifax. 


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[ De la Tour d'Auvergne, Archbi 
Monzon, Archbishop of Granad 


Maupas, Archbishop of Zara. 
Landriot, Archbishop of Rheim 
Yusto, Archbishop of Burgos. 
Lynch, Archbishop of Toronto. 
Losanna, Bishop of Biella. 


Whelan, Bishop of Wheeling. 
Legat, Bishop of Trieste. 
Cantimorri, Bishop of Parma. , 
Keane, Bishop of Cloyne. 
Von Ketteler, Bishop of Mainz. 
La Carriere, ex-Bishop of Guad 


Vitali, Bishop of Ferentino. 
Ginoulhiac, Archbishop of Lyoi 
Caixal y Estrade, Bishop of Urg 
Amat, Bishop of Monterey. 
Moriarty, Bishop of Kerry. 


Sergent, Bishop of Quimper. 
Zelo, Bishop of A versa. 
Martin, Bishop of Paderborn. 
Ferre, Bishop of Casale. 
Maupoint, Bishop of Reunion. 
Verot, Bishop of Savannah. 




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APPENDIX. II 



SUMMA CONCILIORUM BREV1SSIMA. 

TRANSLATED from the Latin Document com- 
piled and published by Mgr Fessler, Secretary 
of the Vatican Council, and printed by permission of 
the Master of the Sacred Palace. 

THE FIRST (ECUMENICAL COUNCIL. NICE; 

This Council was held in 325 under Pope Silvester 
the First, on account of the Arian heresy. Its Acts 
are not extant. There were 318 Bishops at this 
Council. The Emperor himself, Constantine the 
Great, was also present, seated on a golden throne in 
a more humble position. The number of sessions at 
this Council is not known. This Council was opened 
on the iQth of June, or according to Socrates, the 
Church historian (Bk. I, ch. 13), on the 2Oth of May, 
and closed on the 25th of August. 

By this Council was published the well-known 
Nicene Creed, by which, as by a shield, the Faithful 
were defended against the then very widely spread 
error of Arius, who denied the divinity of the Son of 
God. Moreover, the controversy concerning Easter 
was brought to a termination, i.e., the day on which 
the Feast should be henceforth kept by all was 
determined. There were also twenty canons published 
regarding ecclesiastical discipline, which greatly tended 
at that time by a wise mixture of mildness and severity 
to restore to the Church external order in so many ways 



disturbed during the late persecution, and to correct 
some grave abuses, as well as to avert the dangers 
and evils arising at that time from heretics, and 
schismatics, and half-converted Gentiles. 

THE SECOND OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. THE FIRST 
OF CONSTANTINOPLE. 

This Council was held in 381 under Pope Damasus 
the First, on account of the heresy of Macedonius, 
who denied the Divinity of the Holy Ghost. 

The Acts of this Council are not extant. There 
were present 150 Catholic Bishops. There were like- 
wise present 36 Bishops of the Macedonian sect, who 
were unwilling to make the Nicene profession of Faith, 
and therefore left the Synod before its close. The 
number of sessions is not known. This Council con- 
tinued from May until July of the same year, according 
to Socrates, Church historian (Bk. 5, ch. 8), and at 
its close some canons and definitions were published. 

It was at this Council, on account of the Macedo- 
nian error, that the Fathers added to the Nicene 
Creed a fuller explanation of the Catholic doctrine 
concerning the Divinity of the Holy Ghost, and hence 
from that time it has been called the " Constantino- 
politan Nicene Creed." 

What the Fathers did at this Council they them- 
selves tell us as follows : " In the first place we have 
strengthened the mutual concord that has ever existed 
amongst us. We have in the next place by a few 
short definitions confirmed the ' faith ' of the Fathers 
of Nice, and full of horror at the perverse heresies and 
depraved opinions that have arisen since those 
Fathers sat in Council, we have with anathema con- 
demned those same heresies and opinions. We have 
also made certain canons in order to regulate the 
position and reform the discipline of the Church." 

This Council, to which the Roman Pontiff did not 
send legates, for it concerned the Church of the East 
only, is acknowledged by all as (Ecumenical, because 
it was confirmed by Pope Damasus as Photius himself 
declares. Although the confirmation of this Council 
extended not to the canons of discipline but only to 
the definitions of faith. 



i6o 

THE THIRD (ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, EPHESUS. 

This Council was held at Ephesus in 431 under 
Pope S. Celestine the First, on account of the heresy 
of Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, who taught 
that there were two persons in Jesus Christ, and that 
the Blessed Virgin should not be called Theotokos, or 
Mother of God. 

The Acts of this Council are still extant both in 
Greek and in an old Latin version. There were 210 
Bishops present, who were most vehemently opposed 
by about 30 other Bishops who had favoured Nestorius 
and joined the schism. 

There were seven actions or sessions, the first of 
which took place on the 22nd of June and the last or 
seventh on the 3ist August, so that this Council lasted 
2 months and 9 days ; although the Bishops, on 
account of the absolute nature of the decrees which 
they had made in Council, were, through the intrigues 
of their enemies, in a manner forcibly detained by 
order of the Emperor for some time afterwards. 
This detention caused the Bishops the greatest 
annoyance. 

In this Council Nestorius, on account of his impious 
heresy, was condemned and deposed. The Pelagians, 
with their errors, and other heretics, were likewise 
condemned. There were also some cases brought 
forward by the Bishops and decided, and a few canons 
of ecclesiastical discipline promulgated which had for 
object to repress the evil doings of the followers of 
Nestorius. 

THE FOURTH OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. 
CHALCEDON. 

This Council was held at Chalcedon in 45 1. It was 
summoned by Pope S. Leo the Great to oppose the 
heresy of Eutyches, Abbot of Constantinople, who 
asserted that there was only one nature in Christ, 
Hence this heresy is called the Monophysite heresy* 
We still possess in Greek and in old Latin the Acts 
of this Council. 

There were 630 Bishops present, and at one of its 
sessions, the 6th, the Emperor Marcian was present. 
There were 16 sessions, and sometimes two were held 



on the same day. The Council lasted three weeks, 
i.e., from the 8th October to the end of the same 
month. 

In this Council, after a judicial examination of the 
case of Dioscorus, the Archbishop of Alexandria and 
the chief supporter of Eutyches, and after his de- 
position, the Catholic faith as opposed to the errors 
of Nestorius and Eutyches was defined. Moreover, 
various controversies that had arisen in the Church 
were solemnly adjudged, and 30 canons regarding 
ecclesiastical discipline were drawn up. Twenty-seven 
of them, however, had already received the approba- 
tion of the Roman Pontiff. 

It is worth notice that in the 5th Session, 23 Fathers, 
including the Pope's legates and the more distinguished 
of the Bishops present, were appointed to look to the 
careful wording of the definition of faith that was to 
be presented to the Council, and that the definition 
when presented was unanimously received and ap- 
proved of by the universal acclamation of the 
Fathers. 

THE FIFTH OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. THE 
SECOND OF CONSTANTINOPLE. 

This Council was summoned by Pope Vigilius in 
553 in order to bring the dispute about The Three 
Chapters to a termination. By this title, " The Three 
Chapters," the writings of Theodore Mopsuesta, who 
was Nestorius' master, the writings of Theodoret 
against S. Cyril of Alexandria, and the letter of Ibas 
of Odessa to the priest Maris, a Persian, are desig- 
nated. The Three Chapters were already considered 
deserving of censure because they favoured Nestorius, 
who had already been condemned. 

The Acts of this Council are still extant in old 
Latin. 

There were 165 Bishops present; but neither the 
Pope, although staying just then at Constantinople, 
nor any legates appointed by him, attended this 
Council. There were 8 conferences (Collatiojics), as 
the sessions of this Council are styled in the old Latin 
record of its Acts. They began on the 4th of May, 
and closed on the 2nd of June the same year. 

M 



162 

A.fter a diligent enquiry had been made into the 
vvnole case, and had been continued through several 
sessions, this Council condemned " The Three Chap- 
ters." It likewise published 14 dogmatic articles, in 
which some heresies, together with their authors, were 
anathematized. 

This Council is acknowledged as CEcumenical 
because it afterwards received the sanction of Popes. 

THE SIXTH OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. THE THIRD 
OF CONSTANTINOPLE. 

This Council was held in 680 and 68 1, under Pope 
S. Agatho, on account of the heresy of the Monothe- 
lites, who asserted that there was only one will and 
operation in Christ. This heresy attempted to revive, 
under a new form, the Monophysite error, which had 
been already condemned. 

The Acts of this Council still remain, both in Greek 
and in an old Latin version. There were about 170 
Bishops present. The Emperor Constantine Pogo- 
natus also attended some of the sessions. There were 
1 8 actions or sessions, which lasted 10 months and 10 
days, from the /th November, 680, to the i6th 
September, 68 1. 

In this Council, after a careful examination of the 
doctrine concerning the one or two wills in Christ as 
taught to be of Catholic faith by former General 
Councils and the Holy Fathers, Macarius, Archbishop 
of Antioch, who obstinately maintained that there was 
only one will and operation in Christ, was condemned 
as a heretic and deposed. The authors, and other 
supporters of this heresy, even those who were dead, 
were likewise condemned. And in order to uproot 
this error the Fathers, strictly adhering to the Con- 
stantinopolitan Nicene Creed, and to the profession 
of Faith made in the Council of Chalcedon, as also to 
the teaching of the Roman Pontiff, published a defi- 
nition of the true faith on this point, and as they were 
not published in the last CEcumenical Council, canons 
regarding ecclesiastical discipline were published in 
this. S. Leo, the successor of S, Agatho, confirmed 
this Council. 



1*3 

THE SEVENTH CECUMENICAL COUNCIL. THE 
SECOND OF NICE. 

This Council, called together in 787 by Pope Adrian 
the First, was summoned on account of the then most 
bitter strife that existed about the use and veneration 
of sacred images. Its impious abettors are well known 
by the name of Iconoclasts. 

The Acts of this Council are still preserved in an old 
Latin version of Anastasius, Librarian of the Roman 
Church. They also exist in Greek. 

There were 367 Bishops at this Council. At the 
last session, during which before all the people was 
solemnly proclaimed the dogma of faith, the Empress 
Irene was present with her son Constantine. 

This Council lasted one month, i.e., from the 24th 
September, on which it was opened, to the 23rd 
October. There were 8 sessions. 

In this Council, after it was made clear that the 
principal churches of the Catholic world were of one 
mind with the Pope in approving of the use of holy 
images and paying them due reverence, and after it had 
been shown from the writings of the Holy Fathers that 
such had ever been the tradition of the Church founded 
upou the Sacred Scriptures, the errors of the Icono- 
clasts, thus completely refuted, were condemned, and 
the dogxna of the Catholic faith on the point was 
unanimously proclaimed by all the Fathers present. 
There were likewise 22 canons regarding ecclesiastical 
discipline drawn up and published. 

THE EIGHTH CECUMENICAL COUNCIL. THE 
FOURTH OF CONSTANTINOPLE. 

This Council was summoned by Pope Adrian the 
Second. It commenced on the 5th of October, 869, 
and continued until the last day of February, 870. It 
was summoned to examine the case of Photius and to 
determine whether Photius himself, who had for some 
time occupied the See of Constantinople, or S. Igna- 
tius, who had been unjustly turned out of that See 
and sent into exile, was the true and lawful Patriarch 
of Constantinople. The Acts of this Council are still 
extant in Greek. Anastasius, the Librarian, pre- 
sented a Greek copy of the Acts of this Council to the 



1 64 

Pope, who commissioned him to translate them into 
Latin. This Latin version is still extant. 

Besides the Pope's legates and the Vicars of the 
Patriarchal Sees, there were 102 Bishops present at 
this Council, and at some of its sessions the Emperor 
Basil. There were 10 sessions altogether. 

In this Council, after a careful examination of the 
whole case, Photius was solemnly deposed and formally 
anathematized as an illegitimate usurper of the 
Patriarchal See of Constantinople, whilst Ignatius 
was acknowledged by all to be the true and lawful 
Patriarch. There were likewise 27 canons drawn up 
to secure for the Church henceforth as far as possible 
good order and permanent peace. 

THE NINTH OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. THE FIRST 
OF LATERAN. 

This Council was held in 1123 at Rome, in the 
Basilica of S. John Lateran, from which it takes its 
name. It was summoned by Pope Callistus the 
Second, in order to re-establish in the Church and in 
the Empire order, then very much disturbed by the 
contention about Investitures, and the fatal quarrels 
that had ensued, and had degenerated into schism. 
Another object of the Council was to secure the sup- 
plies required in the Holy Land. The Acts of this 
Council are not extant. The Pope himself presided, 
arid more than 300 Bishops were present, and a very 
great number of Abbots. The number of its sessions 
is not known. From the records of it which remain, 
we gather that it lasted only 10 or n, or at the very 
most 19 days, i.e., from the iSth to the 28th of March, 
or at most to the 6th April. 

In this Council, in order to put an end to the long 
contest about Investitures, the Concordat of Worms, 
between Pope Callistus the Second and the Emperor 
Henry the Fifth, was confirmed, and from that time 
through many centuries, it had the effect of law, and 
very satisfactorily regulated the rights of the Church 
and of the Emperors in that most serious business of 
election of Bishops and Abbots. At the end of the 
Council 22 canons were published, in order to re- 
establish discipline in the Church. The injuries done 



to society by the long schism were repaired ; expedi- 
tions to the Holy Land were set on foot, and in a 
most signal manner favoured in many ways, and the 
territory of the Holy Roman Church was protected 
by anathema from the violence of any future invaders. 

THE TENTH OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. THE 
SECOND OF LATERAN. 

This Council was called in 1139, by Pope Innocent 
the Second, in order to condemn the heresies of his 
time, especially those of Peter de Bruys and Arnold 
of Brescia, likewise to severely chide the schismatic 
followers of Peter Leo, and to bring about a better 
state of things in society at large, then much depraved. 
The Acts of this Council are not extant. The Pope 
himself presided. There were nearly 1,000 Bishops 
present, and hence it was called " The Great Council." 
The number of sessions of this Council is not known. 
It was held in the middle of Lent, and lasted 17 days. 
In this Council the Pope commanded the multitude 
of prelates present to adhere strictly to the statutes 
of the Holy Fathers. There were published during 
this Council 30 canons. One. of them (c. 23) anathe- 
matized those heretics, who rejected Infant Baptism, 
the Holy Eucharist, the Priesthood, and Matrimony. 
Another (c. 30) deprived of all external effect the 
ordinations given by schismatics and heretics. The 
rest were intended to correct the depraved morals of 
the age and to reform ecclesiastical discipline, so that 
a better state of things might be established through- 
out society. 

THE ELEVENTH OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. THE 
THIRD OF LATERAN. 

This Council was summoned in 1179 by Pope 
Alexander the Third, in order to regulate the election 
of the Sovereign Pontiff in such a manner as hence- 
forth to give no occasion for dispute or cause for 
schism ; to bring about a better state of morality in 
society, then much corrupted, and in order to put a 
stop to the spreading heresy of the Cathari. 

The Acts of this Council are not extant. There 
were more than 300 Bishops present, and the Pope 



1 66 

himself presided. It was held in the middle of Lent, 
and there were only three sessions, which lasted only 
fifteen days, i.e., from the 5th of March to the iQth of 
the same month. In this Council the Pope com- 
manded that the 27 Chapters should, as far as possible, 
be observed in which a better form of election of a 
Sovereign Pontiff was prescribed through the means 
of which the then existing evils, which had been 
occasioned by the late schism in the Church, might 
be uprooted, and by which heretics might be reproved. 
The maternal solicitude of the Church was likewise 
shown in this Council concerning the election of 
Bishops, the rights of patrons, and the instruction of 
the people, especially of poor children, gratis. 

THE TWELFTH CECUMENICAL COUNCIL. -THE 
FOURTH OF LATERAN. 

This Council was held in 1215 by the Great Pope 
Innocent the Third, for the reformation of the whole 
Church and the recovery of the Holy Land. " In this 
Council," says Innocent in his letters of convocation, 
" let statutes be drawn up for inviolable observance, 
such as are capable of extirpating vices, establishing 
virtues, correcting excesses, reforming morals, lopping 
off heresies, strengthening faith, putting an end to 
discords, establishing peace, doing away with oppres- 
sion, encouraging true liberty, and inducing princes and 
all Christian people, clerics and laics, to bring timely 
help and the means of rescuing the Holy Places from 
the hands of the infidel. In fine, whatever it may 
seem to the Council is best calculated to bring about 
the good of Prelates and subjects, secular and regular, 
and is most expedient for the greater glory of God's 
Holy Name, for the good and salvation of souls, and 
for the progress and benefit of all Christian people, 
let it be resolved upon." 

The Acts of this Council are not extant. The Pope 
presided at it in person. There were 412 Bishops, 
and more than 800 Abbots and Priors, besides a very 
great number of representatives of all the Princes of 
Christendom, present. 

At this Council there was not only a question of 
another expedition of Crusaders against the Saracen, 



i6 7 

the common enemy ot all Christian people, to be st. 
on foot, but a bitter rivalry betvven Otho and Frederick 
about the Holy Roman Empire, if possible, to be 
brought to an end. 

There were three sessions, and the Council re- 
mained open for 20 days, from S. Martin's day, nth 
November, to the feast of S. Andrew Apostle, the 
3<Dth of the same month. Seventy chapters of statutes 
were drawn up. The first contained a short definition 
of Catholic faith in opposition to the errors of the 
time ; the rest were condemnations of heretics. There 
were also some ecclesiastical laws framed for the 
reformation of morals among Christians. A decree 
authorizing an expedition for the recovery of the 
Holy Places was likewise published, and the election 
of Frederick II as Roman Emperor was confirmed. 

THE THIRTEENTH OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. THE 
FIRST OF LYONS. 

This Council was summoned in 1245 by Pope 
Innocent the Fourth for reasons which he himself has 
stated in his own words : 

" We have become," he says, in his letters of con- 
vocation, "We have become most solicitous and 
anxious at heart how to provide, through the merciful 
intercession of the saints, a means of dispelling the 
horror of this storm that now troubles the Church, 
and makes religion throughout Christendom grow 
weak and faint. Hence we have been induced to call 
upon the kings of the earth and princes of Christendom 
to raise their powerful arms and by timely aid to 
enable the Church to preserve herself in her present 
position unblemished ; to render such relief to the 
Roman Empire as will afford it the means of deliver- 
ing the Holy Land from the present deplorable state 
in which we behold it, and of establishing an effica- 
cious barrier against any further inroads of the Tartars, 
against further insults from scoffers of religion, and 
against any future injuries from the persecutors of 
Christian people ; as likewise to find some solution to 
the present difficulties that exist between the Church 
herself and the temporal prince (Frederick II) who 
now assails her." 



1 68 

A very short record of the ceremonies, solemnities, 
and Acts of this Council is still preserved under the 
title of (Brevis Nota eorum quae in Concilio Lugdu- 
nensi generali gesta sunt). 

The Pope presided in person at this Council. There 
were present 140 Bishops, and many Abbots and 
Procurators of Chapters. Moreover, Baldwin, the 
second Emperor of Constantinople, was present, as 
also some other lay princes, ambassadors of kings, 
and the representatives of the Emperor Frederick II, 
whose deposition was powerfully advocated by his 
opponents, and as powerfully opposed by his friends, 
and hence, for the protection of the Pope and Council, 
an armed guard was stationed outside. There were 
three sessions, which lasted about 20 days, from 28th 
of June to the i/th or i8th of July following. 

In this Council the sentence of excommunication 
and deposition was solemnly pronounced against the 
Roman Emperor, Frederick II. There were 17 
chapters of laws framed, some for the purpose of 
regulating the transmission of supplies to the Holy 
Land to the Latin Empire of Constantinople, to 
Poland, to Russia, and to Hungary, in order to enable 
those countries to put a stop to the ravages of the 
barbarians. The rest of the laws for the most part 
pertained to ecclesiastical discipline. There was also 
a wise provision made for the future administration of 
Church property. 

Other ecclesiastical laws Innocent at this Council 
solemly promulgated, but they were only such as he 
had himself previously enforced. 

THE FOURTEENTH OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. THE 
SECOND OF LYONS. 

This Council was held in 1274 under Pope Gregory 
the Tenth, in order to bring about the union of the 
Greek and Latin Churches, to obtain supplies for the 
Holy Land, and to reform morals. " In this Council," 
says Pope Gregory in his letters of convocation, 
"with common consent, and the approbation of all 
here assembled, let some powerful means be provided 
that may henceforth conduce in everyway by the 
help of God to the salvation of souls." 



169 

A very short record of the Acts of this Council is 
still preserved under the same title as that of the 
preceding Council. 

There were 500 Bishops, 60 or 70 Abbots, and 
about a thousand other minor Prelates present at this 
Council, and the Pope himself presided. James, King 
of Aragon, the ambassadors of the Greek Emperor 
and of the King of Tartary, and many other repre- 
sentatives of princes, were likewise present. 

There were six sessions. After the first three the 
Council was prorogued for a month, on account of the 
Greeks not having arrived ; so that, although it began 
on the ;th of May, it did not end until the I7th of 
July following. 

Towards the close of this Council the Procurator of 
the Greek Emperor, in the name of the Emperor, 
read aloud before all the Roman profession of faith, 
and to the great joy and satisfaction of all, the per- 
fect union of the Greeks with the Latin Church was 
effected. 

There were 31 Constitutions framed, one of them a 
dogmatic Constitution explaining the true Catholic 
doctrine concerning the Holy Ghost, the rest pertain- 
ing to discipline. Besides other matters attended to, 
there was a still more perfect formula drawn up to 
regulate better henceforth the very serious business of 
election of Pope and Bishops. 

It is worth notice that in this Council there is for 
the first time made clearly apparent vestiges and 
indications of Congregations having been formed, or 
private meetings having been held, in addition to 
the public sessions, for the sake of expediting and 
carrying on more conveniently the business of the 
Council. 

THE FIFTEENTH OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. 
VIENNE. 

This Council was held at Vienne in France, in 
1311-12, under Pope Clement the Fifth, for three 
objects. To decide the fate of the Order of Templars, 
to set on foot a new expedition to the Holy Land, 
and ;to bring about a better state of thingVin the 
Church. - The Acts of this Council have not been 



I/O 

preserved. The Pope, who presided, and 300 Bishops 
and many other Prelates were present at it. During 
the second session Philip the Fair, King of France, 
was present with his sons and brother. 

There were three sessions. The first was held on 
the 1 6th of October, 1311. The second was not held 
until the 3rd of April, 1312. This delay was caused 
by the absence of the King of France, who did not 
arrive until that date. The third was held on the 6th 
of May, so that the Council was kept open for nearly 
7 months. 

In this Council the Order of Templars was pro- 
nounced extinct. There were many constitutions 
framed ; some condemned the errors of the time, 
others regarded ecclesiastical discipline, and one 
touched upon dogma. It was on the question of 
" Usury." These constitutions, known as the " Cle- 
mentine Constitutions," have been since inserted in 
the body of Canon Law. 

CONSTANCE. 

This Council was assembled in 1414, whilst three 
candidates contended for the Papal Throne, John 
XXIII, Gregory XII, and Benedict XIII. It took 
the form of a General Council of the Church in 1418, 
under Pope Martin the Fifth. Its objects were to put 
an end to the great schism, to re-establish in the 
Church union and peace, to destroy heresies, and to 
reform morals. The Acts of this Council are still 
extant. 

John XXI II presided at the first and second sessions, 
and Martin V at the last four sessions, and about 200 
Bishops, as well as many Prelates. Sigismund the 
Emperor, other princes, and many representatives 
were present at this Council. 

There were 45 sessions. They began on the 5th of 
November, 1414, and on account of the very great 
difficulty found in putting an end to the great schism, 
the Council did not close until the 22nd of April, 1418. 

At this Council, however, this grave and long schism 
happily terminated, and John Wickliffe and John 
Huss, together with their errors, were condemned. 

In November, 1417, Martin V was recognized by 



all as the lawfully-elected Pope, and presided over the 
Council until its close. He likewise published some 
decrees or constitutions for the reformation of eccle- 
siastical discipline, and in the last session approved 
of and ratified all that the Council in matters of Faith 
had defined conciliariter, and therefore in these defi- 
nitions the Council was received as CEcumenical, 
although it is not ranked among CEcumenical Councils, 
because in some of its sessions it was not CEcumenical' 

THE SIXTEENTH CECUMENICAL COUNCIL. 
FLORENCE. 

This Council, commonly called the Council of 
Florence, was assembled under Pope Eugenius the 
Fourth. It was begun at Ferrara in 1438, continued 
at Florence in 1439, an d closed at Rome. It was 
summoned for the purpose of uniting the Greek Church 
and other Oriental Churches with the Roman Church, 
the mother and mistress of all the Churches. The 
Acts of this Council are extant in Greek and Latin. 
There were present at this Council the Pope, who 
presided, and about 200 Bishops. The Emperor of 
the Greeks, John Palaeologus, with a splendid and 
numerous retinue, was likewise present. The Greek 
record of this Council states that there were 25 
sessions, the Latin record mentions only 22. 

At this Council, from the 8th of October to the 
3<Dth December, 1438, the public sessions were held at 
Ferrara ; from the 2nd to the 22nd of March, 1439, 
they were held at Florence ; after that much delay 
was caused by the long treatises that were written on 
the manner in which the union should be effected ; 
but on the 6th of July, 1439, w ^ ^ e consent and to 
the satisfaction of all, the decree, which had been 
most carefully prepared by 20 Prelates chosen from 
both sides, were promulgated, announcing the union 
of the two Churches, Latin and Greek. The Greeks 
then returned home. 

The Pope, Eugenius, although the Council had 
effected its chief object did not, however, bring it to a 
close until with its continued assistance he had brought 
about the union of other Oriental Churches, whose 
legates had only just arrived, with the Latin Church. 



If 2 

-Hence at Florence the union of the Armenians with 
the Latins was effected in 1439, of the Jacobites with 
the Latins in 1441, and at Rome of the Syrians with 
the Latins in 1444, and of the Chaldeans and Maronites 
in 1445. 

THE SEVENTEENTH OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. 
THE FIFTH OF LATERAN. 

This Council was summoned in 1512 by Pope Julius 
the Second, " In order," as he said in his Bull of In- 
diction, " that old heresies, which were not yet extinct 
in some parts of Christendom, and the present most 
wicked schism might be entirely uprooted : in order 
that he himself might consult how to bring about a 
reformation of manners both among clerics and laics, 
and how to secure the blessings of peace in the stead 
of the calamities of threatened wars, so that each man 
might possess what belonged to him, and justice and 
peace might kiss each other ; and in order that thus 
the faithful of Christ, gathered together in peace and 
unity, might in the name of God the more easily and 
readily enter upon another formidable expedition 
against the infidel." 

The Acts of this Council are all extant. They were 
published by authority at Rome in 1520. 

Julius the Second and, after his death, Leo the 
Tenth, elected Pope during the Council by the College 
of Cardinals, according to the usual form, presided at 
the sessions of this Council. There were about 120 
Bishops present, and as the object of the Council was 
to put an end to the schism, and to bring about another 
expedition against the Turks, many representatives 
of Kings and Princes were likewise present. After a 
previous solemn Congregation, in which it was decreed 
to open the Council, its twelve sessions began on the 
3rd of May, 1512, and continued until the i6th of 
March, 1517. In the first seven sessions of this Council 
the condemnation of the Council of Pisa as fomenting 
schism was pronounced ; and in the last five sessions 
a dogma of faith was published in which some errors 
regarding the nature of the soul and the connection 
between philosophical truth and theology were con- 
demned. Moreover, there were some constitutions 



drawn up for the reformation of ecclesiastical discipline, 
and in order to encourage the undertaking of another 
expedition against the Turks, who were at that time 
threatening to over-run Christendom. Also towards 
the close of this Council the " Pragmatic Sanction," 
as it was called, which had been drawn up by 
Charles VII, King of France, and to which the 
assembly of Basle would have impiously and most 
absurdly given the character and weight of a con- 
cordat, was abolished ; and a satisfactory concordat 
between Pope Leo X and Francis the First, King 
of France, was framed, confirmed, and promulgated. 
Some very difficult and very long transactions con- 
cerning the abolition of the " Pragmatic Sanction," 
and concerning the new concordat with the King of 
France, were the cause why this Council, " contrary to 
the custom of sacred Councils," as Pope Leo asserts 
in his confirmation of it, " and with inconvenience and 
loss to the Bishops and their Churches," was so pro- 
tracted that sometimes a whole year and more inter- 
vened between one session and another. 

THE EIGHTEENTH OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. 
TRENT. 

This Council was held under the Popes Paul the 
Third, Julius the Third, and Pius the Fourth. It 
began in 1545, and did not close until 1563. It was 
summoned in order to defend the Catholic faith 
against the innovators of the i6th century, and to 
bring about the reformation of ecclesiastical discipline. 
There were present at this Council besides the legates 
who presided at it, about 200 Bishops, 7 Abbots, and 
7 Generals of Orders, and the representatives of the 
Emperor and of other kings and princes. There were 
25 sessions ; 10 of them were held under Paul III, 
from the I3th of December, 1545, to the 2nd of June, 
1547 ; then after a prorogation of 4 years other 6 were 
held under Julius the Third from the 1st of May, 1551, 
to the 28th of April, 1552 : then, in fine, after a 
suspension of 10 years, during which time two Popes, 
Marcellus the Second and Paul the Fourth were 
elected, sat in the Chair of S. Peter, and died, the 
other 9 sessions were held under Pius the Fourth. 



from the i8th January, 1562, to the 4th of December, 
1563. There were many reasons why this Council 
was kept open 18 years ; viz., devastating wars and 
bitter discords between princes, a contagious plague, 
the absence of Bishops, the long delay of the Protes- 
tants before presenting themselves, and the want of 
necessary previous preparations ; and although there 
were 25 sessions, 13 only were occupied with matters 
concerning faith and morals, the rest were taken up 
with opening the Council, suspending the Council, 
and proroguing the Council. What was done in this 
Council it would take a very long time to narrate ; 
and since its decrees concerning faith, which have 
been most lucidly expounded, the Catholic doctrine 
regarding the scriptures, tradition, original sin, justifi- 
cation, and the seven sacraments, and its wise consti- 
tutions for the reformation of every grade in the 
Church, and for the better regulating the laws of 
marriage, which have been the cause of so much good 
for so many ages, are in the mouths of all and in the 
hands of all, and are indelibly impressed upon the 
minds of all really deserving the name of Catholics, it 
would be superfluous to do so. 



'75 



APPENDIX. III. 

LIST OF THE CATHOLIC HIERARCHY 
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. 

DISTRIBUTED ACCORDING TO COUNTRIES AND 
SEES, ACCORDING TO THE " ANNUARIO PON- 
TIFICIO " OF THE YEAR l8/O. 



N.B. Archbishoprics are printed in small capitals. 

An asterisk * denotes that the Bishop to whose name it is affixed 

took part in the Vatican Council between December, 1869, 

an I July, 1870. 

A line denotes absence from the Council. 
The Sees to which a line is affixed are and have been 

vacant in most cases for a considerable time. 
R.I. P. Those Bishops after whose names these letters are 

placed died during the sitting of the Council. 



THE CATHOLIC HIERARCHY. 

His HOLINESS POPE Pius THE NINTH, BISHOP OF ROME, VICAR 
OF JESUS CHRIST, SUCCESSOR OF S. PETER, PRINCE OF THE 
APOSTLES, SUPREME PONTIFF OF THE UNIVERSAL CHURCH, 
PATRIARCH OF THE WEST, PRIMATE OF ITALY, ARCHBISHOP 
AND METROPOLITAN OF THE ROMAN PROVINCE, SOVEREIGN OF 
THE TEMPORAL DOMINIONS OF THE HOLY ROMAN CHURCH. 



THE SACRED COLLEGE OF CARDINALS OF THE HOLY 
ROMAN CHURCH, COLLATERAL! AND COADJUTORS 
OF THE SUPREME PONTIFF. 



1. Mario Mattel, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Velletri . 1832* 

2. Costantino Patrizi, Cardinal Bishop of Porto and S. 

Rufina ..... 1834* 

3. Luii>i Amat, Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina . . 1837* 

4. Niccola Clarelli Paracciani, Cardinal Bishop of Frascati ] 1844* 



Camillo di Pietro, Cardinal Bishop of Albano 
Giuseppe Milesi-Pirani Ferretti Cardinal Bishop of 
Sabina . . 



1853* 
1858* 



I 7 6. 



1. Filippo de Angelis, Cardinal Priest of the 

title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina . 

2. Luigi Vannicelli Casoni, Cardinal Priest of 

the title of S. Prassede 

3. Friedrich J. J. C. von Schwarzenberg, Car- 

dinal Priest of the title of S. Agostino . 

4. CosimoCorsi, Cardinal Priest of SS. Giovanni 

e Paolo .... 

5. Fabio Maria Asquini, Cardinal Priest of the 

title of S. Stefano . 

6. Domenico Carafa di Traetto, Cardinal Priest 

of the title of S. Maria degli Angeli 

7. Sisto Riario Sforza, Cardinal Priest of the 

title of S. Sabina 

8. Jacques Marie A. C. Mathieu, Cardinal 

Priest of the title of S. Silvestro in Capite 

9. Francis Auguste Donnet, Cardinal Priest of 

the title of S. Maria in Via 

10. Carlo Luigi Morichini, Cardinal Priest of 

the title of S. Onofrio 

11. Gioacchino Pecci, Cardinal Priest of the 

title of S. Crisogono 

12. Joseph Othmar Rauscher, Cardinal Priest 

of the title of S. Maria della Vittoria 

13. Allessandro Barnabo, Cardinal Priest of 

the title of S. Susanna 

14. Cyril de Alameda y Brea . 

15. Antonio Bennedetto Antonucci, Cardinal 

Priest of the title of SS. Silvestro e Martino 
1 5. Enrico -Orfei, Cardinal Priest of the title of 
S. Balbina 

17. Pietro de Silvestri, Cardinal Priest of the 

title of S. Marco 

1 8. Alexius Billiet, Cardinal Priest of the title 

of S. Alessio 

19. Carlo Sacconi, Cardinal Priest of the title 

of S. Maria del Popolo 

20. Michael Garcia Cuesta, Cardinal Priest of 

the title of S. Prisca 

21. Angelo Quaglia, Cardinal Priest of the title 

of S. Andrea e Gregorio 

22. Anton Maria Panebianco, Cardinal Priest of 

the title of SS. Apostoli 

23. Giuseppe Luigi Trevisanato, Cardinal Priest ) 

of the title of SS. Nereo eel Achilleo \ 

24. Antonio de Luca, Cardinal Priest of the title 

of SS. Quattro Coronati 

25. Giuseppe Andrea Bizzarri, Cardinal Priest 

of the title of S. Girolamo 

26. Ludovico de la Lastra y Cuesta, Cardinal 

Priest of the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli 

27. Jean Baptiste Pitra, Cardinal Priest of the 

title of S. Calisto 

28. Filippo Maria Guidi, Cardinal Priest of the 

title of S. Sisto 



Archbishop o 


Year of 
Creation. 


Fermo 


1838* 


Ferrara 


I8 39 * 


Prague 


I8 4 2* 


Pisa 


1842* 





1844* 


Benevento 


1844* 


Naples 


1846* 


Besancon 


1850* 


Bordeaux 


1852* 


Jesi 


1852* 


Perugia 


1853* 


Vienna 


1855* 


Toledo 


1856* 
1858- 


Ancona 


1858* 


Ravenna . 


I8 5 8* 





1858* 


Chambery . 


1861 





1861* 


Compostella 


1861 





1861* 


fatriarch of 
Venice 


1861* 
1863* 





1863* 





1863* 


Seville 


1863* 





1863* 


Bologna 


1863* 



177 





Archbishop ol 


Year of 
Creation. 


29. Henri M. G. de Bonnechose, Cardinal Priest 






of the title of S. Clemente 


Rouen 


I86 3 * 


30. Paul Cullen, Cardinal Priest of the title of S. 






Pietro in Montorio . 


Dublin . 


1866* 


31. Gustav Adolf von Hohenlohe, Cardinal 






Priest of the title of S. Maria in Tras- 






pontina * ... 





1866* 


32. Luigi Bilio, Cardinal Priest of the title of S. 






Lorenzo in Panisperna 





1866* 


33. Luciano Bonaparte, Cardinal Priest of the 






title of S. Pudenziana 





1868* 


34. Innocenzo Ferrieri, Cardinal Pri<sst of the 






title of S. Cecilia . . 





1868* 


35. Matteo Eustachio Gonella, R.I. P., Cardinal 






Priest of the title of S. Maria sopra 


Viterbo . 


1868* 


Minerva .... 






36. Lorenzo Barili, Cardinal Priest of the title 





1868* 


of S. Agnese fuori le mura 






37. Giuseppe Berardi, Cardinal Priest of the 





1868* 


title of SS. Marcellino e Pietro 






38. Juan Ignaz Moreno, Cardinal Priest of the 


Valladolid 


1868* 


title of S. Maria della Pace 






39. Raffaele Monaco la Valletta, Cardinal Priest 





1868* 


of the title of S. Croce 






40. , Cardinal Priest of the title of S. 






Marcello .... 






At f'irrlimi Prir~f nf tfir titlr nf R 








Maria in Trastevere . 






J." f nrrHrnl Prir~t nf tlir titlr nf S 








Pancrazio .... 






43. , Cardinal Priest of the title of S. 






Tommaso in Parione 






44. , Cardinal Priest of the title of S. 






Bernardo .... 






45. , Cardinal Priest of the title of S. 






Giovanni a Porta Latina 






46. , Cardinal Priest of the title of S. 






Bartolomeo all' Isola 






47. , Cardinal Priest of the title of S. 






Anastasia .... 






48. , , Cardinal Priest of the title of SS. 






Quirico e Giuletta . 






1Q C'nrrHnnl Prip^t nf trip titlp nf S 








Maria in Araceli 






P-Q . Cardinal Priest of the title of 








SSma Trinita al Monte Pincio. 






I. Giacomo Antonelli, Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. 




Maria in via lata .... 


I8 47 * 


2. Prospero Caterini, Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. 




Maria della scala .... 


I8 53 * 


3. Gaspare Grassellini, Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. 




Maria ad martyres .... 


1856* 


4. Teodolfo Mertel, Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. 




Eustachio ....... 


1858* 


N 



1/8 



5. Domenico Consolini, Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. 

Maria in Domnica .... 

6. Edoardo Borromeo, Cardinal Deacon of the title of SS. 

Vito e Modesto . . . 

7. Annibale Capalti, Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. 

Maria in Aquiro .... 

8. , Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. Giorgio in 

Velabro ..... 

9. , Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. Adriano al 

Foro Romano .... 

10. , Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. Cosma e 

Damiano ..... 

11. , Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. Niccola in 

Carcere ..... 

12. , Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. Angelo in 

Pescheria ..... 

13. , Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. Cesareo 

14. , Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. Maria in 

Cosmedin ..... 

, Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. Maria in 

Portico ..... 

-, Cardinal Deacon of the title of S. Agatha alia 



IS- 
16. 



Suburra 



PATRIARCHS. 
Ruggero Antici Mattei, Patriarch of Constantinople of the 

Latins ..... 

Paolo Ballerini, Patriarch of Alexandria of the Latins 
Paulus Mashad, Patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites 
Gregorius Jussef, Patriarch of Antioch of the Melchites 
Ignatius Harcus, Patriarch of Antioch of the Syrians 
Paolo Brunoni, Patriarch of Antioch of the Latins 
Joseph Valerga, Patriarch of Jerusalem of the Latins 
Joseph Audu, Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldees 
Antonius Hassun, Patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenians 
Tomas Iglesias, Patriarch of West Indies 

Lisbon 

CARDINAL TREVISANATO, Patriarch of Venice 

Clemens Bahus, Patriarch of Antioch of the Melchites, 

resigned ..... 



Year of 
Creation. 



1866* 
1868* 
1868* 



1866* 
1867* 

1855 

1865* 

1866* 

1869* 

I8 47 * 

1848* 

1867* 

1852* 

1862* 
1856* 



GORZ and GRADISKA 

Laibach 

Parenzo and Pola 

Triest 

Veglia and Arbe 

LEMBERG 

Przemysl . 



SEES OF THE LATIN RITE. 

EUROPE. 
AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY. 

Andreas Gollmayer . 
Bartolomeus Widmer 
Georg Dobrilla 
Bartolomeus Legat . 
Johann Jos. Vitezich 
Francis,cus X. Wierzchleyski 
Anton Manastyrski, R.I. P. 



1857* 
1846* 

i855* 
1860* 
1863* 



179 









Yeur of 
Creation. 






Tarnow 




Joseph L. Pukalski . 


1852* 


OLMUTZ 




Friedrich von P'iirstenberg 


1853* 


Briinn 




Anton E. Schaffgotsch 


1842* 


PRAGUE 




CARD. VON SCHWARZENBER 


1850* 


Budweis 




Johann V. Irsik 


1851* 


Koniggratz 







99 


Leitmeritz 




Augustinus Wahala . 


1866* 


SALZBURG 




Maximilian von Tarnoczy 


1851* 


Brixen 




Vincenz Gasser 


1856* 


Gurk. 




Valentin Wiery 


1858* 


Lavant 




Jacob M. Stepischnegg 


1863* 


Seckau 




Johann B. Zwerger . 


1867* 


Trient 




Benedict di Riccabona 


1861* 


VIENNA 




CARDINAL RAUSCHER 


1853* 


Linz . 




FranciscusJ. Rudiger 


1853 


St. Polten 




Joseph Fessler 


1865* 


ZARA 
Cattaro 




Petrus Doimo-Maupas 
Georg Marchich 


1862* 
1868* 


Lesina 




Georg Dubocowich 


1866* 


Marcana and Tr 


ebigne 








Ragusa 
Sebenico 




Vincenzo Zubranich 
Johann Zaffron 


1856* 
1863* 


Spalatro and Macarska 


Marcus Calogera 


1866* 


HUNGARY. 


AGRAM or ZAGRABIA. 


c 




Bosnia and Sirmium 


Joseph G. Strossmayer 


1850* 


Zeng and Modrus 


Wenceslaus Soic 


1869 


AGRTA or ERLAU 


Adalbert Bartakovics 


1850 


Kaschau 


Johann Perger 


1868* 


Rosenau 







Szathmar 
Zips . 
COLOCSA and BAGS 


Ladislaus Biro de Kezdi-Polany 
Ladislaus Zaboiski . 
Ludwig Haynald 


1867* 
1850 
1867* 


Csanad 


Alexandras Bonnaz . 


1860* 


Grosswardein . 


Stephan Lipovniczky . 


1869* 


Tinnia 
Transilvania 


Johann B. Nehiba . 
Michael Fogarasy 


1855 
1865* 


GRAN or STRIGONIA 


Johann Simor 


1867* 


Fiinfkirchen 


Sigismund Kovacs . 


1869* 


Neusohl 








Nietra 


Augustinus de Roskovany 


!859 


Raab or Javarin 


Johann Zalka 


1867* 


Sabar or Steinamanger 


Heinrich Szabo 


1869 


Stuhlweissenburg or Alba 






Reale 


Vincenz S.S. Jekelfalusy 


1867* 


Vesprim 


lohann Ranolder . . 


1850* 


Waitzen 


Anton J. Peitler 


1859* 


BELGIUM. 


MECHLIN 


Victor A. I. Dechamps 


1867* 


Bruges 
Ghent . 


Jean J. Faict 
Henri F. Bracq 


1864* 
1865* 


Liege 


Theodore J. de Montpelier 


1852* 


Namur . 


Theodore J. Gravez . 


1867* 


Tournay 


Gasper J. Labis . 


1835* 



i8o 


ENGLAND. 




Year of 




i Creation. 


WESTMINSTER 




Henry Edward Manning 




1865* 


Beverley 




Robert Cornthwaite . 




1861* 


Birmingham . 




William B. Ullathorne 




1850* 


Clifton 




William Clifford 






1857* 


Hexham and Newcastle 




James Chadwick 






1866* 


Liverpool 




Alexander Goss 






1856 


Newport and Menevia 




Thomas Joseph Bro\\ 


n 




1850- 


Northampton . 




Francis K. Amherst 






1858* 


Nottingham . 




Richard B. Roskell 






i853* 


Plymouth . 




William Vaughan 






1855* 


Salford 




William Turner 






1851* 


Shrewsbury . 




James Brown 






1851* 


South wark , 




Thomas Grant, R.I. P. 




1851* 



IRELAND. 



ARMAGH 




Daniel M'Gettigan . 




1870* 


Ardagh 




Cornelius MacCabe, R. I. P. 




1867* 


Clogher 




James Donnelly 






1865* 


Deny 




Francis Kelly 






1864* 


Down and Cor 


nor 


Patrick Dorrian 






1866* 


Dromore 




John P. Leahy 






1860* 


Kilmore 




Nicolas Conaty 






1865* 


Meath 




Thomas Nulty 






1866* 


Raphoe 














CASHEL 




Patrick Leahy 






1857* 


Cloyne 




William Keane 






1857* 


Cork 




William Delany 






1847* 


Kerry 




David Moriarty 






1856* 


Killaloe 




Michael Flannery 






1859- 


Limerick 




George Butler 






1864* 


Ross 




Michael O'Hea 






1858* 


Waterford 




Dominic O'Brien 






1855- 


DUBLIN 




CARDINAL CULLEN 






1852* 


Ferns 




Thomas Furlong 






1857* 


Kildare and L 


ighlin 


James Walshe 






1856 


Ossory 




Edward Walsh 






1846 


TUAM 




John MacHale 






1834* 


Achonry 




Patrick Durcan 






1852 


Clonfert 




John Derry, R.I.P. 






1847* 


Elphin 




Laurence Gillooly 






1858* 


Galway 
Killala 




John McEvilly 
Thomas Feeny 






1848 


Kilmacduagh 




Patrick Fallon 






1853- 



SCOTLAND. 

Under Vicars- Apostolic. 



Western District 
Eastern ,, . 
Northern 



Arch- 



Charles Eyre, V.A., 

bishop of Anazarba 
John Strain, V.A., Bishop of 

Abila . 
John Macdonald, V.A., Bishop 

ofNicopolis 



i86S 
j 1864' 
i 1869' 



- 


181 
FRANCE. 


Year of 
Creation. 


! 


Aix 


Georges C. L. Chalendon 


1857- 


Ajaccio 


Pierre Paul de Cuttoli . 


1870* 


Digue 


Tulien Meyrieu . . 


1848* 


Gap . . . 


Amat V. F. Guilbert 


1867* 


Frejus and Toulon 


An!oine J. II. Tordany . 


1855* 


Marseille 


Charles P. Place 


1866* 


Nice . 


Pierre Sola . . 


1857* 


ALBY 


Jean P. F. M. Lyonnet . 


l86 5 * 


Cahors . 


Pierre A. Grimardias 


1866* 


Mende 


Jean A. M. Foulquier . 


1849* 


Perpignan 


Steph E. Ramadie . 


1865* 


Rodez 


Louis A. Delalle . . 


1855* 


AUCH 


Francis A. Delamarre 


1861- 


Aire . 


Louis M. O. Epivent 


1859* 


Bayonne 


Francis Lacroix 


1838* 


Tarbes 


Bernard Mascavon - Laurence, 






R.T.P. . 


1845* 


AVIGNON 


Louis A. Dubreuil . 


1863* 


Montpellier 


Francis J. Le Courtier 


1861* 


Nimes 


Claude H. Plantier . 


1855* 


Valence 


Francis N. Gueulette 


1865* 


Viviers 


Louis Delcusy . . 


1857* 


BORDEAUX 


CARDINAL DONNET 


1837* 


Agen 










Angouleme . . 


Antoine C. Cousseau 


1850* 


La Rochelle 


Benedict L Thomas 


1867* 


Lu9on . 


Charles T. Colet 


1861* 


Perigueux . 
Poitiers 


Nicolas J. Dabert . 
Louis F. D. E. Pie . 


1863* 
1849* 


BESANCON * 


CARDINAL MATHIEU 


1834* 


Belley ' Xi . 


Pierre de Langalerie 


1857* 


Metz. 


Paul Dupont des- Loges 


1843* 


Nancy and Toul 
S. Die 


Joseph A.. Foulon . 
Louis M. J. Caverot . 


1867* 
1849* 


Strasburg 


Andre Rass, R.I.P. . 


1843* 


Verdun . 


Augustine Hacquard, R.I.P. . 


1867* 


BOURGES 


Charles de la Tour d Auveigne 


1861* 


Clermont ' 


Louis Charles Freron 


1834 


Le Puy 


Pierre le Breton 


1863* 


Limoges . 


Felix P. Fruchaud . 


1859* 


S. Flour 


Pierre de Pompignac 


1857- 


Tulle 


Jean B. Berteaud . 


1842* 


CAMBRAY . . 


Rene F. Regnier . 


1850* 


Arras . , 


Jean B. Lequette . 


1866* 


ClIAMBERY 


CARDINAL BILLIET . 


1840 


Annecy 


Claude M. Magnin . . 


i86i 4t 


S. Jean de 'Mauriennfe . 


Francis M. Vibert . 


1841* 


Tarantaise . . 


Francis Gros 


1867* 


LYONS 
Autun . 


Jaques M. Ginoulhiac 
Frederic G. M. -de Marguerie . 


1870* 
1852* 


Dijon . 


Francis V. Rivet 


1838* 


/~^ _ T 1 








Langres > . 


JeanJ. Guerrin . 


"1852* 


S. Claude ,, 


Louis A. Nogret . 


1862* 



IS2 






BM 





Year f 
Creation. 


PARIS 




George Darboy 


I86 3 * 


Blois . 




Louis Pallu du Pare . 


1851* 


Chartres 




Louis Regnault 


1852* 


Meaux 




Auguste Allou 


1839* 


Orleans 




Antoine F. P. Dupanloup 


1849* 


Versailles 




Jean Pierre Mabile . 


I8 5 8* 


RHEIMS 




Jean B. Landriot 


1867* 


Amiens 




Claude J. A. M. Boudinet 


1856* 


Beauvais 




Joseph A. Gignoux . 


1842* 


Chalons 




Guillaume R. Meignan 


1865* 


Soissons 




Jean Pierre Dours 


1863* 


RENNES 




Godefroi Saint Marc 


I8 4 I* 


Quimper 
St. Brieuc 




Nicolas Rene Sergent 
Augustine David 


1855* 
1862* 


Vannes 




Jean M. Becel 


1866- 


ROUEN 




CARDINAL DE BONNECHOSE 


1858* 


Bayeux 




Flavien A. A. Hugonin 


1867* 


Coutances 




Jean P. Bravard 


1862* 


Eyreux 




Jean S. A. Devoucoux, R.I.P 


1858* 


Seez . 




Charles F. Russelet . 


1844* 


SENS. 




Victor F. Bernardou 


1867* 


Moulins 




Pierre L. M. de Dreux-Breze 


1850* 


Nevers 




Theodore A. Forcade 


1861* 


Troyes 




Emmanuel J. Ravinet 


1861* 


TOULOUSE 




Julien F. Desprez 


1859* 


Carcassonne 




Francis de la Bouillerie 


1855* 


Montauban 




Jean Doney 


1844* 


Pamiers 




Jean A. A. Belaval . 


1858* 


TOURS 


* 


Joseph H. Guibert . 


1857* 


Angers 
Laval 




Freppel 
Alexis C. G. \Vicart 


1870* 
1855* 


Le Mans 




Charles J. Fillion . 


1862* 


Nantes 




. 






COLOGNE 

Munster 

Paderborn 

Treves 

GNESEN and POSEX 

Culm 

Breslau 

Hildesheim 

Osnaburg 

Warmia or Ermeland 

FREIBURG (Baden) 

Fulda 

Limburg 

Mainz . 

Rottemburg 

Anhalt 

Saxony 



GERMANY. 

PRUSSIA. 

Paul Melchers ; 

Johann G. Miiller . 
Konrad Martin 
Matthias Eberhard . 
Miecislaus Ledochowski 
Johann Nepomuc Marwitz 
Heinrich Fbrster 
Eduard J. Wedekin . 
Johann H. Beckmann 
Philipp Krementz . 

Christoph F. Kott . 
Peter J. Blum 
Wilhelm von Ketteler 
Carl J. von Hefele . 

Ludwig Forwerk, V.A., Bp. of 



1866* 

1847 

1856* 

1867* 

1866* 

1857 

1853* 

1850* 

1866 

1867* 

1848 
1842 
1850* 
1869* 

i8S4* 





183 

BAVARIA. 


Year of 
Creation. 


BAM BERG 


Michael von Deinlein 


1858* 


Eichstadt 


Franz von Leonrod . 


1867* 


Q 






opcyci 

Wlirzburg 


Georg Anton vpn Stahl, R.I.P 


1840* 


MUNICH and FRIESJNG 


Gregor von Scherr . 


1856* 


Augsburg 


Pancraz von Dinkel . 


1858* 


Passau 


Heinrich Hofstatter . 


1839- 


Ratisbon or Regensburg 


Ignaz von Senestry . 


1858* 


HOLLAND. 


UTRECHT 


Andreas S chapman 


1868* 


Bois-le-Duc 


Johann Zwysen 


1868* 


Breda 


Johann van Gentz 


1869 


Haarlem 


Gerard Wilmer 


1861* 


Luxemburg 


Nicolas Adames 


1863* 


Ruremonde 


Johann Paredis 


i853- 


GREECE. 


NAXOS 


LORENZO BERGERETTI 


1864* 


Santorino 


Fedele Abbati 


1863* 


Scio . 


Ignazio Giustiniani . 


1830 


Sira . 
Tine and Miconc 


Giuseppe Alberti 
Giovanni Marang6 . 


1851* 
1866* 


CORFU 


Spiridione Maddalena 


1860* 


Cephalonia and Zante 


Luigi Lastaria 


1831 


ITALY (NORTHERN). 


CAGLIARI 







__ 


Galtelli Nuoro . 




Salvatore de Martis . 


1867* 


Iglesias 




Giovanni B. Montini 


1844* 


Ogliastra 









FLORENCE 




Gioacchino Limberti 


1857* 


Colle . 









Fiesole 










Modigliana 
Pistoia and Prato 








Enrico Bindi 


1867* 


S. Miniato 




Annibale Barabesi . 


1867* 


S. Sepolcro 










GENOA 








Albenga 




Raffaele Biale, R.I.P. 


1840* 


Bobbio 










Brugnato and Luni 
Savona and Noli 




Giuseppe Rosati 
Giambattista Cerruti 


1867* 
1867* 


Tortona 




Giovanni Negri 


1833* 


Ventimiglia 




Lorenzo Biale 


1837* 


LUCCA 




Giulio Arrigoni 


1849* 


Arezzo 




Giuseppe Giusti 


1867* 


Cortona . 




. 





Montalcino 










Montepulciano . 
Borgo S. Donnino 




Luigi M. Paoletti 
Francesco Benassi . 


1857* 
1859- 



1 84 









Year of 
Creation. 


Parma 
Piacenza 
MILAN 
Bergam* 
Brescia 
Como 
Crema 
Cremona 
Mantua 
Pavia 
MODENA 
Carpi 
Guastalla 
Massa di Carra 
Reggio 
ORISTANO 
Ales and Terral 
PISA 
Leghorn 
Pescia 
Pontremoli 
Volterra 
SASSARI 
Alghero 
Bisarchio 
Bosa . 
Ampurias 
SIENA 
Chiusi 
Grosseto 
Mana Marittima 
Sovana , 
TURIN 
Acqui 
Alba 
Aosta 
Asti . 
Cuneo 
Fossano 
Ivrea 
Mondovl 
Pinevolo 
Saluzzo 
Susa 
UDINE 
VENICE 
Adria 
Belluno and Fe 
Ceneda 
Chioggia 
Concordia 
Padua 
Treviso 
Verona 
Vicenza 


3 

ba 
re 




Felice Cantimorri . 
Antonio Ranza 
Luigi Nazari di Calabiana 
Pietro Speranza , 
Girolamo Verzeri . 

Francesco Cugini . 


1854* 
1849* 
1867* 
I8 53 * 
1850* 

I8SS* 


Pietro Rota 
Giacomo Bernard! . 
Carlo Macchi . 

Francesco Zunnui Casula 
CARDINAL CORSI 


1855* 
1856* 
1867* 

1867* 
I8 53 * 


Giovanni Benin! . 
Michelangelo Orlandi 
Giuseppe Targioni . 


I8 55 * 
1839- 
I8 57 * 








1843 
1867* 
1825 


Giovanni B. Ciofi . . 
Anselmo Fauli 
Giuseppe M. Travessi 


Alessandro Riccardi di Netro . 


1867* 


Eugenio Galletti 
Giacomo G. Jans 
Carlo Savio 
Andrea Formica 

Luigi Moreno 
Giovanni Ghilardi 
Lorenzo Renaldi 
Lorenzo Gastaldi 

Andrea Casasola 
CARDINAL TREVISANATO 


1867* 
1867* 
1867* 
1867* 

i83~8* 
1843* 
1848* 

1867 
# 

1863* 
1862* 


Giovanni Renier . 


1855* 


Niccola Frangipane . 
Federico Manfredini . 
Federico M. Zinelli . 
Luigi di Canossa 
Giovanni A. Farina . 


1866* 

1857 
1861* 
1861* 
i860* 






. 


Year of 
Creation. 








VERCELLI . . 
Alessandria . 


Antonio Colli 


1867* 


Biella 


Giovanni P. Losanna 


1833* 


Casale 


Pier Maria Ferre . . 


I86 7 * 


Novara 


Giacomo F. Gentile . 


1843* 


Vigevano . * 








STATES OF THE CHURCH. 


BOLOGNA . 


CARDINAL GUIDI V 


1863* 


T? 






r aenza 
Imola . 


Vincenzo Moretti 7 


1867* 


FERMO 


CARDINAL DE ANGELIS 


1842* 


Macerata ... 


Gaetano Franceschini 


1867* 


Montalto . 


Elconoro Aronne . . 


1846* 


Ripatransone . 










S. Severine . 


Francesco Mazzuoli . . 


1847* 


RAVENNA 


CARDINAL ORFEI . 


1860* 


Bertinoro . 


Pietro Buffetti . . 


1857* 


Cervia . 


Giovanni Monetti . 


1860* 


Cesena . . 


r_ 





Comacchio . 
Forll . 


Allessandro Spoglia . . 
Pietro Paolo Trucchi 


1867* 
1857* 


Rimini . . 


_ 




Sarsina . . 








URBINO 


Allessandro Angeloni . 


1846* 


Cagli and Pergola 


Francesco Andreoli . 


1863* 


Fossombrone . . 


Filippo Fratellini . . 


1851* 


Montefeltro 


Luigi Mariotti . . 


1860* 


Pesaro 


Clemente Fares . 


1856* 


Sinigallia . 
Urbania . . 


Giuseppe Aggarbati . 
Antonio Boscarini . . 


- 1867* 
1849* 


CAMERINO 


Felicissimo Salvini . 


1847* 


FERRARA 


CARDINAL VANNICELLI-CASONI 


1850* 


SPOLETO 


, 





Acquapendente 


Giovanni B. Pellei . 


1847* 


Alatri 


Gaetano Rodilossi . . 


1855* 


Amelia 


Niccola Pace . 


1855* 


Anagni 


Clemente Pagliari . . 


1857* 


Ancona and Umana 


CARDINAL ANTONUCCI 


1851* 


Ascoli 


lia Antonio Alberani 


1860* 


Assisi . 


. 





Bagnorea . . 


Raffaele Corradi 


1867* 


Citta di Castello 


Paolo Micallef , 


1863* 


Citta della Pieve 


Emidio Foschini . 


1853* 


Civita Castellana 
Civita Vecchia . 


Mattia Mengacci . 
Francisco Gandolfi , 


1851* 

1868* 


Fabriano and Mateiioa 


Anton M. Valenziani 


1858* 


Fano . 
Ferentino 


Filippo Vespasian! , 
Gesualdo Vitali . 


1856* 

1865* 


Foligno 


Niccola Crispigni . , . 


1867* 


Gubbio 


Innocenzo Sannibale 


1855* * 


Jesi . 


CARDINAL MORICHINI , 


I8 54 * 


Montefiascone 


Giuseppe M. Bovieri 


I86 7 * 


Narn-i 


Giaeinto Luzi 


1858* 


Nocera . 


Anton M, Pettinari . 


1863* 



186 









Year of 

Creation. 


Norcia 
Orvieto 
Osimo and Cingoli 
Perugia 


Raffaele Bachetoni . 
Marino Marini 
Salvatore Nobili-Vitelleschi 
CARDINAL PECCI 


1850* 
1865* 
1863* 
1846* 


Ponte Corvo 
Recanati and Loreto 
Rieti 


Tommaso Gallucci . 


1867* 


Segni 
Sutri and Nepi . 
Terracina 
Terni 
Tivoli 
Todi 
Veroli 
Viterbo 


Luigi Ricci 
Giulio Lenti . . 
Bernardino Trionfetti' 
Giuseppe M. Severa . 
Carlo Gigli 
Giovanni Rosati 
Giovanni B. Maneschi 
CARDINAL GONELLA, R.I.P. . 


1847* 
1867* 
1862* 

1853* 
1840* 

1855* 
1868* 
1866* 



ITALY (SOUTHERN). 
NAPLES OR THE Two SICILIES. 



AMALFI 
COSENZA 
GAETA 
ROSSANO 
Aquila 
Aquino 
Atri and Penne 
Aversa 
Foggia 
Gravina 
Marsi 
Melfi 
Mileto 
Molfetta 
Monopoli 
Nardo 
S. Marco 
Sarno and Cava 
Teramo 
Trivento 
Troia 
Valva and Sulm 

ACERENZA 
Anglona 
Potenza and Ma 
Tricarico 
Venosa 
BARI. 
Conversano 
Bitonto and Rw 
BENEVENTO 
Alife . 
Ariano , 


ona^ 

rsico 

ro 




Lorenzo Pontillo 
Filippo Cammarota 
Pietro Cilento 
Luigi Filippi . 

Vincenzo d' Alfonso 
Domenico Zelo 
Bernardino M. Frascolla, R.I.P. 
Alfonso M. Cappetta 


1834* 

1854* 
1844* 
1853* 

1847* 
1855* 
1856* 
1859* 


Ignazio Selliti 
Filippo Mincione 
Gaetano Rossini 


1849* 
1847* 
1867* 


Luigi Vetta 
Livio Parlatore 
Salvatore Fertitta 
Michele Milella 
Luigi de Agazio 
Tommaso Passero 

Gennaro Acciardi . 
Antonio M. Fania . 
Simon Spilotros * . 


1849* 
1844* 
1844* 
1859* 

1854* 
1856* 

1849* 
1867* 

1859* 


Francesco Pedicini . 


1858* 

1853* 
1844* 
1848- 


Vincenzo Materozzi . 
CARD. CARAFA DI TRAETTO . 
Gennaro di Giacomo, 









Year of 
Creation. 


Ascoli 
Avellino 

Boiano 


Leonardo Todisco Grande 
Francesco Gallo . 


I8 49 * 
1855* 


Larino . 
Lucera . 
SArrata 


Francesco Gianpaolo 
Giuseppe Jannuzzi . 


1859* 

I8 43 * 


S. Severe 
Telese and Cerreto 
Termoli 
BRINDISI and Ostuni 
CAPUA 


Antonio La Scala 
Luigi Sodo 
Vincenzo Bisceglia . 
Raffaele Ferrigno 


1858* 

1853* 
1851* 
1856* 


Caiazzo 
Calvi and Teano 
Caserta 
Isernia . 
Sessa 
CHIETI and Vasto 
CONZA and Campagna 
Lacedonia 
Muro 
S. Angelo dei Lombard! 
LANCIANO and Ortona 
MANFREDONIA znd Viest 
NAPLES 


Luigi Riccio 
Bartolomeo d'Avanzo 
Enrico Rossi 

Luigi de Marinis . 
Gregorio de Luca 
Francesco Maiorsini . 
Francesco d'Ambrosio 
Giuseppe Fanelli . , 

Vincenzo Taglialatela 
CARDINAL RIARIO SFORZA . 


1860* 
1860* 
1856* 

18^6* 
1850* 
1859* 
i859* 
1854* 

1854* 
1845* 


Ischia . 
Nola 
Pozzuoli 
OTRANTO 
Gallipoli 


Felice Romano 
Giuseppe Formisano 
Raffaele Purpo . 
Vincenzo Grande 
Valerio Laspro . . 


1854* 
1855* 
1843- 

Sf 


Agento . 
REGGIO 
Bova . 
Cassano 
Catanzaro . 
Cotrone 
Gerace 
Nicastro 
Oppido . 
Squillace , 
Nicotera 
SALERNO and Acerno 
Capaccio-Vallo 
Diano 


Mariano Ricciardi 
Dalmazio di Andrea . 
Michele Bombini . 
Raffaele de Franco . . 
Luigi Lembo 

Giacinto M. Barberi . 
Giuseppe Teta 
Raffaele Morisciano . 
Filippo de Simone . . 
Antonio Salomone . . 
Giovanni B. Sicilian! , 
Domenico Fanelli . . 


ill 

1829 
1852* 
1860* 

1854* 
1859* 
1858* 
1855* 
1857* 
1859* 
1858* 


Nusco 
Policastro 
S SEVERINA 


Gaetano Striscia . 


1860 


Cariati . 
SORRENTO 
Castellamare 
TRANI, Nazaret, Barletta 
and Bisceglia 


Niccola Golia . 
Francesco S. Apuzzo 
Francesco Petagna . 

Giuseppe de Bianchi Dottula . 


1839* 

1855* 
1850* 

1848* 



188 





Creation. 


Andria 
TARANTO ' 

Castellaneta 
Oria . 

CATANIA 
Aci-Reale 
MESSINA 
Lipari 
Nicosia 
Patti 

MONREALE 

Caltanisetta 
Girgenti 
PALERMO 
Cefalu 
Mazzara 
Trapani 
SYRACUSE , 
Caltagirone 
Noto 
Piazza 

MALTA 
Gozo 

Lorenz 

BRAGA 
Aveira 
Braganza 
Coimbra ' 
Oporto 
Pinhel 
Vizeu 
EVORA 
Beja 
Elvas 
Faro . 
LISBON 
Castelbranco 
Guarda 
Lamego 

Leira 
Portalegre 


' NOE 


Giovanni G. Longobardi 
Giuseppe Rotundo . 


1852* 
I8 55 * 


Luigi Margarita , 

SICILY. 
Giuseppe B. Dusmet 


1851* 
1867* 


Luigi Natoli 
Loaovico Ideo 
Melchiorre Lo Piccolo 
Pietro G. M. Celesia 

G. Guttadauro di Ruberdone . 

Giovanni B. Nasselli 
Ruggero Blundo . 
Carmelo Valenti . 
Vincenzo Ciccolo 


1867* 
1858* 
1858* 

1860* 
1858* 

;iiz 

1858 
1853- 






Gaetano Pace-Forno 
Antonio G. D. C. Testaferrata 

.WAY AND SWEDEN. 

Studach, V.A., Bishop of Or- 
thosia, i.p.i. . 


1857* 
1868* 

.1833- 
1856- 


PORTUGAL. 
Joseph J. da Moura . 


John d'Aguiar . 
Joseph de Lemos 

Antonio A. Mar-tins . . 


1857 
1858- 

1862 






Ignatius Moraes Cardoso 

Emmanuel Manso 
A. de Vasconcellos Pereira de 
Mello . 
Joachim Pereira Ferraz 


1863* 

1858 

1863* 
1853- 







189 

RUSSIA. 


Year of 
Creation. 


WARSAW 




SigismuiKi Felinski . 


1862 


Cracow 




Matthias Maierzrak, Vic. Apost. 


1862 


Lublin 




Valentine Baranowski 


1857 


Podlachia 








Plosko 




Vincent Popiel 


1863 


Sandomir 




Joseph M. Juszynski . 


I8 59 - 


Seyna 




. 




Wladislav 










MOHILOW 




Joseph M. Staniewski 


1858 


Kamenieck 




Antony Fialkowski . 


1860 


Luceoria 




Caspar Borowski 


1844 


Minsk 




Adam Woytkiewicz . 


1852 


Samogitia 




Matthias Wolonczewski 


1849 


Teraspol 




Vincent Lipski . % 


1856 


Wilna 




Adam S. Krasinski . 


1858 






SPAIN. 




BURGOS 




Anastasio Yusto 


1867* 


Calahorra 




Fabiano S. Arenzana 


1865* 


Leon 










Osma 




P. M. Lagiiera y Menezo 


jg^j , 


Palencia 




Juan Lozano : 


1866* 


Santander 
Vittoria 




Joseph Lopez Crespo 
Diego M. Alguacil . 


1859* 
1861- 


COMPOSTELLA 




CARDINAL GARCIA CUESTA . 


1851 


Lugo 




Joseph de los Rios . 


1857* 


Orense 




J. de la Cuesta y Maroto 


1866* 


Oviedo 




Benedict Sans y Fores 


1868* 


Tuy . 




R. Garcia y Anton . 


1865* 


GRANADA 




B. Monzon y Martins 


1866* 


Almeria 




A. Resales y Mimoz . 


1864* 


Carthagena 




F. Landeira y Sevilla 


1861* 


Guadix 




M. Brezmes Arredondo . 


1866* 


Jaen . 




Antonio Monescillo . 


1865* 


Malaga 




Perez Fernandez 


1868* 


Saragossa 




Manuel Garcia Gil . 


1858* 


Huesca 




Basilio Gil y Bueno, R.I. P. . 


1861* 


Jaca . 




Pietro Luca Ascensio 


1857 


Pamplona 




P. d'Uriz y da Labairu t 


1861* 


Tarazona 




C. Marrodan y Rubio 


1857* 


Teruel 








Seville 




CARD. DE LA LASTRA Y CUESTA 


1863* 


Badajos 




F. Ramirez y Vasquez 


1865* 


Cadiz 




Felix M. Arriete 


1863 


Cordova 
TARRAGONA 




Juan de Albuquerque 
Francesco Fleix y' Soland 


1858 
1864* 


Barcelona 




P. Monserrat y Navarro 


1863* 


Gerona 




Constantino Bonet . 


1862* 


Lerida 




M. Puigllat y Amigo, R.I.P. . 


1862* 


Tortosa 




Benedict Vilamitjana 


1861* 


Urgel 




J. Caixal y Estrade . . 


1853* 


Vich. 




A. Jorda y Soler 


1866* 


TOLEDO 




CARD. DE ALAMEDA Y BREA . 


1857 



190 








Year of 

jCreation. 




Ciudad Real 






________ 


_ 


Coria 






Pedro Nunez . 


1868* 


Cuenca 






Michael Paya y Rico 


1858* 


Madrid 










Placencia 






______ 


. 


Siguenza 






Francisco Benavides . 


1857* 


VALENCIA 






M. Barrio y Fernandez . 


1861* 


Majorca 






Michael Salva 


1851 


Minorca. 
Orihuele 






M. Jaume y Garau . 
P. Cubero y Lopez de Padilla . 


1857* 
1858* 


Segorbe 
VALLADOLID 






Joseph Montagut 
CARDINAL MORENO 


1868 
1863* 


Astorga 






F. Arguelles y Miranda 


1858* 


Avila 






Fernando Blanco 


1857* 


Salamanca 






Joachim Lluch 


1868* 


Segovia 






R. Echevarria y Briones 


i857* 


Zamora 






B. Conde y Corral . 


1863* 


Gibraltar 






John Baptist Scandella, V.A., 






Bishop of Antinoe 


1857* 


SWITZERLAND. 


Bale ; 


Eugene Lachat 


1863* 


Coire 
Lausanne 


Nicolas F. Florentini 
G. Willi, Coadj. Antipatris, i.p.i. 
Stephen Marilley 


iir 

1846* 




G. Mermillod, Coad. Hebron, i.p.i. 


1864* 


St. Gall 


Johann B. Greith 


1863* 


Sion . 


Peter Joseph de Preux 


1844* 


TURKEY. 


CONSTANTINOPLE 


Paolo Brunoni . . 


1869* 


ANTIVARA and SCUTARI 


Carl Pooten 


1855* 


Alessio 


. 




Pulati 


_______ 





Sappa 


Pietro Severini . 


1843* 


DURAZZO 


Raffaele d'Ambrosio 


1847* 


SCOPIA 


Dario Bucciarelli . . 


1864* 


Nicopolis (Bulgaria) 
Bosnia 


Joseph Pluym 
P. Vuicic, V.A. Antiphellus, i.p.i. 


1863* 
1866* 


Herzegovina 
Moldavia 


Kraljevic, V.A.Metdlopolis, i.p.i. 
Salandari, V.A. Marcopolis, i.p.i. 


1864* 
1864* 


Sophia 


Raynaudi, V.A. Aegea, i.p.i. . 


1867- 


ASIA. 


ANTIOCH, Latin Patriarch 






of . 


Paolo Brunoni 


1869* 


JERUSALEM, Latin Pa 






triarch of . 
SMYRNA . 


Giuseppe Valerga . 
Vincenzo Spaccapietra 


1847* 
1855* 


BABYLON . 


Laurence Trioche . ' . 


1837* 


Persia 


Nicolas Castello, V.A., Arch- 






bishop of Martianopolis, /././. 


1866- 





t 9 I 
INDIA, &c. 


Year of 
Creation. 


GOA . 


Juan d'Amorim Pessoa 


1861 




I'icars- Apostolic. 




BENGAL, Eastern District 


Walter Steins, Archbishop of 






Bostra, /././. 


1867* 


,, Western 


Pierre Dufal, Bishop of Delcon 


i SCo* 


\jria t . 


Luigi M. Jacopi, Bishop of 






Pentacomia 


1868 


Bombay . 


Leo Murin, Bishop of Ascalon 


1867* 


Canara 


Michael A. Anfossi, Bishop of 






Mennith . 


1853 


Coimbatore 


Claude M. Depommier, Bishop 






of Chrysopolis 


1865* 


Colombo 


Hilarion Sillani, Bp. of Callinica 


1863- 




Giovanni Barbero, Bishop of 




Hyderabad . 


Dolichium 
Christopher Bonjean, Bishop of 


1869- 


Jafna 


Medea . . 


1868* 




Stephen Fennelly, Bishop of 




Madras 


Thermopolis 


1868* 




Alexis Canoz, Bp. of Tamassus 


1846* 


Madura 


Stephen L.Charbonneux, Bishop 




Mysore . 


of Jassa . 


1841* 




Antony Paul Tosi, Bishop of 




Patna . 


Rhodiopolis 


1868* 




Francis J. Laouenan, Bishop of 




Pondicherg . 


Flaviopolis 


"1868* 




Ephrem M. Garrelon, Bishop of 




Quilon . 


Nemesis 


1868* 


Verapoly 


Leonard Melano, Bishop of 






Olympia 


1868* 


Vizigapatam . 
Burmah . 


John M. Tissot, Bp. of Milevis 
Paul A. Bigandet, Bishop of 


1863* 




Ramato . 


1846* 


Malacca . . 


John B. Boucho, Bp. of Alalia 


1845 


Siam 


Ferdinand A. A. Dupont, Bp. 






of Azotus 


1864* 




CHINA, &c. 




Canton ". 


Luigi Moccagatta, Bishop of 






Zenopolis 


1844* 


Fo-kien 


Michael Calderon, Bishop of 






Bodona . 


1841 


Hoo-nan 
Hoo-pe 


Michael Navarro, Bp. of Cucusa 
Eustachio Zanoli, Bishop of 


1856- 




Eleutheropolis . . 


1862* 


Kiang-see . 


________ 





Koei-choo 
Leoo-tung . 


Louis Faurie, Bp. of Apollonia 
Emmanuel Verolle, Bishop of 


I8S4* 




Columbica 


1838* 


Nankin . . 


Adrian Languillat, Bishop of 


J 


Pe-tche-lee, N.W. District 


Sergiopolis 
Louis G. de la Place, Bishop of 


1856* 




Adrianopolis 


1852* 



192 








Year of 
Creation. 


* 


Pe-tche-lee, E. District . 


Eduard Dubar, Bp. of Canatha 


1864* 


5> S. ,, . 


Francis Togliabue, Bishop of 






Pompeiopolis 


1869 








Ollclll-b^C 

Shen-see . 


Amato Pagnucci, Bishop of 






Agathoniea 


1856* 


Su-chuen, N.W. District . 


Jean T. Pinchoh, Bishop of 






Polemonia 


1861* 


j> E. 


Eugene Desfleches, Bp. of Sinita 


1838* 


s. . 


Julien Pichori, Bishop of He- 






lenopolis 


1860* 


Tche-kiang 1 . 


Edmond Guierry, Bishop of 






Danaba . . . 


1869* 


Yunnan , , 


Joseph Ponsot, Bishop of Philo- 






melia 


1840 


Corea . 


Felix Ridel, Bishop of Philip- 






popolis . 


1869 


Japan . 


Bernard Petitjean, Bishop of 






Myriophyta 


1866* 


Tibet 


Joseph M. Chauveau, Bishop of 






Sebastopolis 


1864 


Tonquin, E. 


Hilarius Alcazar, Bishop of 






Paphos . ' 


1862* 


W. . 


Paul Puginier, Bishop of Mau- 






ricastrum 


1869 


S. . 


Jean D. Gauthier, Bishop of 







Emmaus 


i835- 


Central 


Barnabas Cezon, Bp. of Byblus 


1865 


Cochin China, E. 


Eugene S. Charbonnier, Bishop 






of Domitiopolis 


1864 


w. 


Jean C. Miche, Bp. of Dansara 


1864 


N. 


Joseph H. Sohier, Bishop of 






Gadara . . 


1862* 


) 

, ORIENTAL RITES. 


I. -ARMENIAN. 


CILICIA, Patriarch of 


Antonius Hassun . . 


1867* 


ALEPPO 


Gregorius Balitian . 


1861* 


AMASIA 
CAESAREA 


Ignatius Kalybgian . . 
Joannes Hagian . 


* 

.1850* 


MARASCA 


Petrus Apelian . 


1842* 


MARDIN 


Meichior Nasarian . 


1864* 


MELITENE 


Leo Korkoruni . . 


1861* 


Adana 






Alexandria * 






Ancyra 


Joseph Arachial . 


1850* 


Artuin 


Antonius Halugi 


1859* 


Bursa 


Petrus Tilkian . 


1858* 


Diarbekir 


Jacobus Bahtiarian . 


1 8 so* 


Erzerum 


Stephanus Melchisedechian . ' 1866* 


Karputh 
Sebaste 


Stephanus Israelian . . 1866* 



193 



Tokat 

Trebizond 

Ispahan 



. ' Joannes Ghiureghian 



Year of 
i Creation. 



1865* 



2. GREEK-MELCHITE. 



ANTIOCH, Patri 
ALEPPO . 
DAMASCUS 
EMESUS 
TYRE 
Beyrout 
Bosra 
Balbec 
Farzul 
Hauran 
Jerusalem 
Ptolemais 
Sidon 
Tripoli 


arch of 




Gregorlus Jussef 
Paulus Hatem 

Gregorius Ata 
Athanasius Kauam 
A^abius Riecji 


Basilius Nasser 
Ambrosius B. Abdo 
Ignatius Hakkani 

Agapitus Dumani 
Theodosius Kojungi 
Athanasius Tutungi 



1865* 
1860* 

1849* 
1867* 
1828 

1869* 
1866* 
1859- 

1864* 
1836* 
1837 



ANTIOCH, Patriarch of 

ALEPPO 

BABYLON 

DAMASCUS 

MOSSUL 

Alexandria 

Beyrout 

Diarbekir 

Emesus 

Jezira 

Keriathim 

Mardin 

Tripoli 



3. SYRIAN. 

Ignatius P. Harcus , 
Dionysius G. Scelhot 
Athanasius Ciarchi . 
Jacobus Eliani 
Cyrillus Behnam-Benni 




FlavianusP. Matah . 



1866* 
1862* 
1862* 

1837- 
1862* 



1863* 



BABYLON, Patriarch of 

AMADIA 

AM i DA 

CELLA 

KERKUK 

SEERT 

SENA 

Akra 

Diarbekir 

Jesira 

Mardin 

Mossul 

Salmas 

Zaku 



4. SYRO-CHALDEAN. 

Joseph Andu 

Georgius Abdyesus Kayatt 
Gabriel Farzo 
Thomas Rokos 
Joannes Tamraz 
Michael P. Bartatar . 
Hieronymus S. Kashat 
Joannes Elias Mellus 
Petrus Hattar 
Hieronvmiis P. Hindi 



Augustinus G. Bar-shinu 
Andreas Asmar 



1848^ 
1860* 

1861* 

* 

1854* 

1-858 

1853- 

1864* 

1869* 

1852* 



1847* 
1859* 



5- 


194 

SYRO-MARONITE. 


Year ol 
Creation. 


ANTIOCH, Patriarch of 


Paulus P. Mashacl 


1855 


ALEPPO 
BEYROUT 


Joseph Matar 
Tobias Aun 


1851* 
1844* 


DAMASCUS 







TYRE and SIDON 


Petrus Bostani 


1866* 


TRIPOLI 


Paulus Musa 


1826 


Cyprus 


Joseph Giagia 


1843* 


Balbec 


loannes Hagg 


1861 


Gibail 








AFRICA, &c. 


ALGIERS 


Charles A. Lavigerie 


1867* 


Constantine 


Felix de las Cases 


1867* 


Oran 


Jean Bapt. Callot . 


1867* 


Angola (Guinea) 


Joseph de Oliveira . 


1863- 


Angra (Azores) 


Stephen da Gesue Maria 


1826- 


Funchal (Madeira) 


Patricio de Moura . 


1848* 


Canary Isles 
Santiago (Cape Verd) 


Joseph de Urguinaona 
Joseph Alves Feijo . 


1868* 
1865* 


San Tomas (Guinea) . 








Mauritius 


Michael A. Hankinson 


1863* 


Bourbon 


Amand R. Maupoint 


1857* 


'. 


Vicars-Apostolic. 




Abyssinia 
Cape of Good Hope W. Dis. 


M. Touvier, Bp. of Olena, i.p.i. 
Thos. Grimley, Bp. ofAntigonia 


1869* 
1860* 


> " 


P. Moran, Bp. of Dardanus 


1867 


Egypt (for the Latins) 


L. Ciurcia, Bp. of Irenopolis 


1866* 


,, (for the Copts) 


A. Bsciai, Bp. of Clariopolis 


1866* 


Galla Country 


G. Massaia, Bp. of Cassia 


1846 


Guinea . 


J. R. Bessieux, Bp. of Gallipolis 


1848 


Madagascar 


Louis louen, S.J. 




Natal 


Francis Allard, Bp. of Samaria 


1851* 


Senegambia . 


Louis Kobes, Bp. of Methone . 


1863* 


Sierra, I /cone 






Tunis ! 


Fedele Suter, Bp. of Rosalia . 


1844* 


AMERICA. 


NORTH. 


QUEBEC . 

Montreal 


Francis Baillargeon . 
Ignace Bourget 


1867* 
1840* 


Ottowa 


Joseph E. B. Guigues 


1847* 


Three Rivers . 


Thomas Cooke 


1852 




Lpuis la Flehe, Coadj. Bishop 




Rimouski . . 


of Anthedon, i.p.i. 
Edmund C. H. Langevin 


1866* 

1867* 


St. Albert 


Vitalis J. Grandin . 


1868 


St. Boniface 
St. Hyacinth 


Alexander Tache . 
Charles Laroque 3 


1850* 
1866* 



195 







Year of 






Creation. 


TORONTO 


John J. Lynch 


1870* 


Hamilton 


John P. Farrell 


1856* 


Kingston 


Edward J. Horan 


l8 5 8* 


Sandwich 


John Walsh 


1867 


HALIFAX 


Thomas L. Connolly 




Arichat 


Colin F. Mackinnon 


1851* 


Charlottetown . 


Peter Mclntyre 


1860* 


Chatham 


James Rogers 


1860^ 


St. John's (N. Brunswick) 


John Sweeny . . 


1859* 


Harbour Grace . 


John Dalton . 


1856- 


S. John's (Newfoundland) 








Columbia 


Louis J. d'Herbomez 


1863* 


Mackenzie River 


Henry J. Favaud 


1862 




Isidore Clut, Coadj. Bishop of 






Aeryndela, i.p.i. 


1864* 


BALTIMORE 


Martin J. Spalding . 


1864* 


Charlestovvn 


Patrick Lynch 


1857* 


Erie . 


Tobias Muller 


1868* 


Harrisburg 


Jeremiah Shanahan . 


1868* 


Philadelphia . 


Frederic J. Wood . 


1860* 


Pittsburg 


Michael Domenic 


1860* 


Richmond 


John McGill 


1850* 


St. Augustin 


Augustine Verot 


1870* 


Savannah 


Ignatius Persico 


1870* 


Scranton 


William O'Hara 


1868* 


Wheeling 


Richard V. Whelan . 


1850* 


Wilmington 


Francis Becher 


1868 


CINCINNATI . 


John Bapt. Purcell . 


1850* 


Cleveland 


Amadeus Rappe 


1847* 


Columbus 


Silvester H. Rosecrans 


1868 


Covington 
Detroit 


Augustine Joebbe 
Frederic Reze 


1869 
1833- 




Gaspard H. Borges, Coadj. 






Bishop of Caledonia, i.p.i. . 


1870 


Fort Wayne 


John H. Luers 


1857 


Louisville 


William McCloskey . 


1868* 


Saut Ste Marie 


Ignatius Mrak 


1868* 


Vincennes 


Maurice de St. Palais 


1848* 


NEW ORLEANS 


John M. Odin, R.I. P. 


1861* 


Galveston 


Claude M. Dubuis . 


1862* 


Little Rock 


Edward Fitzgerald . 


1866* 


Mobile 


John Quinlan 


1859* 


Natchez 


William Elder 


1858* 


Natchitoches 
NEW YORK 


Augustus M. Martin . 
John McCloskey 


1853* 
1864* 


Albany 


John Conroy . 


1865* 


Boston 


John Williams 


1866* 


Brooklyn 


John Loughlin 


1853* 


Buffalo 


Stephen V. Ryan 


1868* 


Burlington 


Louis Goesbriand 


1853* 


Hartford 


Francis McFarland . 


1858* 


Newark 


James R. Bayley 


1853* 


Portland 


David Bacon . , 





196 









; Year of 
.Creation. 


Rochester 




Bernard McQuaid 


1868* 


OREGON CITY 




Francis N. Blanchet . 


1846* 


Nesqualy 
Vancouver 




Magloire A. Blanchet 
Modestus Demers 


1850 
1846* 


ST. Louis 




Peter R. Kenrick . 


1847* 


Alton 




Peter J. Baltes 


1869 


Chicago 
Dubuque 
Green Bay 




James Duggan 
John Hennessy 
Joseph Melcher 


I8 59 - 
1866* 
1868* 


La Crosse 




Michael Heiss 


1868* 


Mihvaukie 




John M. Henni . . 


1843* 


Nashville 




Patrick Feehan 


1865* 


Santa Fe 




John Lamy . . 


1853* 


St. Joseph 




John Hogan . 


1868* 


St. Paul 




Thomas Grace 


i8w 


SAN FRANCISC 
Maryville 


"> 


Joseph S. Alemany . . j 1853* 
Eugene O'Connell . . 1868* 


Monterey 




Thaddeus Amat . . 1853* 


MEXICO 




Pelagio de la Bastida . 1863* 


Antequera 
Chiapa 




Vmcente Marquez . . 1868* 
Germano Villalvaso . . 1869* 


Chilapa 




Ambrosio Serrano . . 1863* 


Tlascala 




Carlos M. Colina 


1863* 


Tulacingo 




Juan B. Ormaechea . 


1863* 


Vera Cruz 




Francisco Suares Peredo, R.I. P. 


1863* 


Yucatan 




Leander Rodriguez de la Gala 


iS63 


MECHOACAN 




Ignacio Arciga 


1868 


Leon 




Josef Diez de Sollano 


1863- 


San Luis Potosi 




Manuel de Conde 


1869 


Queretaro 




Raymundo Carnacho 


1868 


Zamora 




Josef A. de la Pena . 


1863 


GUADALAXARA 




Pedro Loza 


1868* 


Durango 




Josef V. Salinas 


I86S 


Linares 




Juan F. Verea 


1853 


Sonora 




Josef Uriarte 


1869 


Zacatecas 




Ignacio M. Guerra . 


1863* 


North Carolina . James Gibbons, V.A., Bishop of 




Adramyttium, /././. 


1868* 


Nebraska . . James O'Gorman, V.A., Bishop 




of Raphanea, i.p.i. 
Rocky Mountains . John B. Miege, V.A., Bishop 


1859* 


of Messenia, i.p.i. 


1850* 


Idaho . . Louis Lootens, V.A., Bishop 




of Castabala, i.p.i. 


1868* 


Montana . . Auguste Ravoux, V.A. t Bishop 






of Limyra, i.p. i. 


1868 


Arizona . 


John Sal point, V.A. t Bishop 






of Doryla, i.p.i. 


1868- 


Colorado , 


Tohn F. Macheboeuf. V.A., 




Bishop of Epiphania, i.p.i. . 


1868- 


CENTRAL. 


GUATIMALA . 


Bernardo Pinol . . j 1867* 


Comayagua 


Juan F. Zepeda , . | 1861* 



197 






Year of 
Creation. 


Costa Rica . . Anselmo Lorente 
Nicaragua . . Manuel Ulloa . . 


1851* 
1867* 


S. Salvador . . Tomas M. Pineda . . 


1853- 


SAN DOMINGO . . 




Porto Rico . 


Pablo B. Carrion . . 


1857* 


Guadelupe . 


Joseph C. Reyne . . 


1870- 


Martinique 











SANTIAGO (Cuba) 






Havana 


Jacinto M. Martinez . . 


1865* 


TRINIDAD 


Joachim L. Gonin . . 


I86 3 - 


Roseau . 


Charles Poirier 


1858* 


Jamaica 


James Dupeyron, Vicar-Apost, 


I8SS- 


PORT AU PRINCE (Haiti) 












Les Caves 






Cap Haitien 





_ 


Gomivvcs * 






Porto Pace 








SOUTH. 


SANTA FE di Bogota 






(Granada) 


, 


Vincente Arbelaes . 




1868 


Cartagena 


, 


Bernardino Medina . 




1856 


Medellin 


> 


Valerio A. Jimenez . 




1868 


Pamplona 


; 


Bonifacio Toscano . 




1865* 


Panama 


. 


Eduardo Vasques, R.T.P. 




1856* 


Pasto 


, 


Manuel C. Restrepo 




1870* 


Popayan 


| 


Carlos Bermundez . 




1868* 


Santa Marta 


, 


Josef Romero . 




1866 


VENEZUELA 





Silvestre Guevara . 




1852* 


Calabozo 












Goro 










Guayana 


. 


Josef M. Arroyo , 




1856 


Merida 


. Juan H. Boset . 




1842* 


QUITO 


Josef Checa 




1868* 


Cuenca 


. Josef Esteves de Toral 




1861* 


Guayaquil 


Josef Lizarzabaru 




1869 


Ibarra 


Antonio T. Yturralde 




1869 


Loja 


Josef Riofrio . 




i853- 


Riobamba 


t 


Ignacio Ordonez 




1866* 


LA PLATA (Bo) 


via) 


Pedro J. Puch y Solona 




1861* 


Cochabamba 


, 


Rafael Salinas 




i8.S7 


Pace 


; 


Calisto Clavigo 




1868* 


Santa Cruz 


t 


Francisco X. Rodriguez 




1869 


LIMA (Pern) 


. 


Josef Goyeneche 




1859 


Arequipa 


t 


Josef B. Torres 




1868 


Chachapoyas 


. 


Francisco X. Risco . 




1865^ 


Cuzco 


i 


Juliano Ochod . 




1865 


Guamango 




Josef F. E. Moreyra 




1865* 


Huanuco 




Manuel del Valle . 




1865* 


Puno 




Juan M. A. Huerta . 




1865* 


Truxillo 


< 


Francisco Orueta 




1859 


BAHIA (Brazil) 


, 


Manuel J. da Silveira 




1861- 


Belem 


t 


Antonio de Macedo Costa 




1860* 


Cuyaba 
Diamantino 


j 


Josef A. dos Reis 
Juan A, dos Santos . 




1832 
1863* 



1 98 









Year of 
Creation. 


Fortaleza 


Luis A. dos Santos . 


i860* 


Goyaz 


Joachim Gon9alves de Azevedo 


1865 


Mariana . 


Antonio Ferreira Vi9oso 


1844 


Pernambuco 


Francisco Cardozo Ayres, R.I.P. 


1867* 


Rio Janeiro 


Pedro M. de Lacerda 


1868* 


San Ludovico . 


Luis Saraiva 


1861 


San Pedro 


Sebastian Dias Laranjerra 


1860* 


BUENOS AYRES 


Mariano Escalada, R.I.P. 


1865* 


Cordova 
San Juan de Cuyo 


Juan de Albuquerque 
Wenceslaus Achaval 


1857- 
1867* 


Parana 


Josef Gelabert 


1865* 


Salta 


Bonaventura Rizo . 


1860* 


Assuncion 


Manuel A. Palacios . 


1865 


SANTIAGO (Chili) 


Rafael V. Valdivieso 


1847* 


Concepcion 


Josef H. Salas . 


1854 


San Carlo . 


Juan F. Solar . 


i8$7 


Coquimbo 


Josef M. Orrego , 


1868* 


Demerara . . 


James Etheridge, F.^.,Torone, 






i.p.i. 


1858* 


Surinam . 


John B. Svvinkels, V.A., Amo- 






rium, i.p.i. 


1865- 


Cura9ao . . 


Peter van Ewjik } V.A., Cama- 




cus, i.p.i. . . 


1869* 



SIDNEY 

Adelaide 

Armidale 

Bathurst 

Brisbane 

Goulborne 

Hobart Town 

Maitland 

Melbourne 

Perth 

Victoria 



Aucland 
Dunedin 
Wellington 



MANILLA 
Cebu 
Jaro . 

Nuova Caceres 
Nuova Segovia 



OCEANIA. 

AUSTRALIA. 
i John B. Folding 
Laurence B. Sheil . 
Timothy O'Mahony . 
Matthew Quinn 
James Quinn 
William Lanigan 
Daniel Murphy 

James Murray . 

ames A. Goold 
ohn Brady 
Rudesind Salvado 



NEW ZEALAND. 
John Bapt. Pompallier 
Patrick Moran 
James P. Viard 



PHILIPPINE ISLES. 

Gregorio M. Martinez 
Romualdo Ximeno . 
Mariano Cuartero 
Francisco Gainza 
Juan J. Aragonez 



1842 

1865* 

1869* 

1865 

1859* 

1867* 

1866* 

1865 

1847* 

1845* 
1849* 



1860 
1869 
1860* 



1861* 

1846- 

1867- 

1862 

1865-^ 



199 









Year of 
Creation. 






Batavia 


Peter M. Vrancken, V.A., Colo- 






phonia, /././. 


1842* 


Marquesas Isles 


Ildephonse Dordillon, V.A., 






Cambysopolis, /././. 


1855* 


Melanesia 







Oceania Central 


Pierre Bataillon, V.A., Aenia, 






*././. 


1842 




Louis Elloy, Coadj. V.A., Ti- 






pasa, i.p.i. 


1863* 


Sandwich 


Louis Maigret, V.A., Aratus, 






i.p.i. 


1846* 


Tahiti 


Florentin Jaussen, V.A. Axiere, 






i.p.i. . 


1848 




Antotne Doomer, Coadj. V.A., 






Juliopolis, *'././. 


l8 4 8- 


ARCHBISHOPS in partibus infidelinm. 




NUNCIOS. 


Giacouio Cattani 


, 


ANCYRA (Brussels) 


1868 


Luigi Oreglia di S. Stefano 


, 


DAM i ETTA (Lisbon) 


1866 


Pietro Giannelli 


, 


SARDIS (Naples) 


1858* 


Flavio Chigi 




MYRA (Paris) . 


1856 


Mariano Falcinelli-Antoniacci . 


ATHENS (Vienna) 


1857- 


Alessandro Franchi . 


. | THESSALONICA (Madrid) 


1856* 


Pier F. Meglia 


. DAMASCUS (Munich) 


1864 


Seraftno Vannutelli . 


NICAEA (Brazil) 


1869 


Domenico Cituffo . 


. ADANA 


I8 4 2- 


Petrus Mashad . 


( 


A FAME A 


1857 


Joseph Morid 


^ 


ARCE 


1855 


Pierre Bonamie 


, 


CHALCEDON . 


1837- 


Jacob Bosagi 


B 


CAESAREA 


1855* 


Basil Gasparian 





CYPRUS 


1864- 


Luigi Martini 


; 


CIRRA 


1845 


Manuel Siaravero 


g 


DRABESCUS . 


1840 


Antonio de Simone 
Luigi Puecher Passavalli 




HERACLEA . 
ICONIUM 


1858- 
1867* 


Domingo de Sousa Magelhaes . 
Joseph Sembratowicz . 


MlTYLENE 

NAZIANZUM . 


1865 


Filippo Gallo 


t 


PATRAE 


1858* 


Eduard Hurmuz 




SIRACE 


I47* 


Georg Hurmuz 


. 


SlUNIA 


1846* 


Arsenius Avak W. Angiarakian 


TARSUS 


1865* 


Charles d'Argenteau . 


: 


TYRE 


1826 


Antonio Claret y Clara 


t 


TRAJANOPOLIS 


1860* 


George Errington 


' 


TREBIZOND . . 1855* 


HOLDING OFFICE IN ROME. 


Antonio Rossi- Vaccari 


. 


COLOSSE 


1866* 


Giuseppe Angelini 


, 


CORINTH 


1868* 


Giuseppe Cardoni . 


. 


EDESSA 


1867* 



2CO 









Year of 








Creation. 


Alessandro A. di Sanmarzano 


EPHESUS 


. 


1846* 


Francis X. de Merode 


MELITENE 




1866* 


Vincenzo Tizzani 


NISIBIS 





1855' 


Pietro Villanova Castellacci 


j PETRA 




i85S* 


Stefano Stefanopoli . 


i PHILIPPI 


< 


1868* 


Francesco Marinelli . 


Porphyria 


t 


1856* 


Giuseppe Paparclo del Parco 


Sinope 





1857* 



BISHOPS AUXILIARY. 








Title. Coadjutors of 




Year of 
Creation. 


Anton Galecki . 




Amathus, Cracow 




1862* 


James Lynch . 




Arcadiopolis, Kildare 




1866 


Francisco Crespo 




Arce, Toledo 




1861* 


Anton Frenzel . 




Areopolis, Warmia 




1852 


Johann A. Baudri 




Arethusa, Cologne 




1849- 


Luis de Tolas . 




Berissa, Guayaquil 




1863* 


Samuel Sheehy 




Bethsaida, Sidney 




1866 


Giovanni Jacovacci 




Erythra, Palestrina 




1863* 


Concetto Focaccetti 




Lystra, Acquapendente 




1867* 


Angelo di Pietro 




Nyssa, Ostia and Velletri 




1866* 


Manuel F. Barratia 




Carystus, Guatimala 




1865- 


Josef Barranco . 




Carpasia, Arequipa . 




1866 


Johann Kutschker 




Carrhe, Vienna 




1862 


Johann J. Kraft 




Castoria, Treves 




1868 


Jacques Jeancard 




Ceramus, Marseilles . 




1858* 


Sigismund Deaky 




Caesaropolis, Raab . 




1841 


Joseph Cybichowski 




Cinna, Gnesen 




1867- 


Karl Anthonis . 




Constantia, Mechlin 




1868 


Georg Jeschke . 




Diocaesarea, Culm . 




1856 


):>hann Bossman 




Dioclea, 'Minister 




1858 


>an Sarrebayrouze 




Hetalona, Ajaccio 




1851 


)hann Amberg 




Europus, Brixen 




1865- 


)sef Isaza 




Evaria, Medellin 




1869 


uigi Bienna . 




Hierocaesarea, Otranto 




1845- 


Adrian Wlodarski 




Ibora, Breslau 




1861 


Johann Kraly . 




Lycopolis, Agram 




1854- 


Valentinus Baranowski 




Loryma, Lublin 




1857 


Vincenzo Bracco 




Magida, Jerusalem . 




1866 


Alexander Beresniewicz 




Maxim ianopolis, Samogitia 




1858- 


Gabriel Capaccio 




Melipotamus, Antivari 




1867* 


Heinrich Plater 




Mosinopolis, Warsaw 




1858 


Joseph Szabo . 




Nilopolis, Gran 




1868^- 


Petrus F.'Krejci 




Oropus, Prague 




18^7 


Gabriel Mariassy 




Palaeopolis, Agria 




1865 


Robert Mayr . 




Pane, Salzburg 




1869 


Thomas Foley . 




Pergamus, Chicago 




1869 


Joseph M. Staniewski 




Plataea, Mohilow 




1858 


Paulus Rzewuski . 




Prusa, Warsaw 




1863- 


Johann Deppen 




Samos, Bois-le-Duc 




i853 


Francis Stefanowicz 




Samosata, Posen 




1854- 






2OI 

Title. Coadjutors of 


-- 


Year of 
Creation 


Nicolas Power . 
Joseph Freusberg 
Camillo Montcf.vte 
Joseph Dtirguth 
Mariano Orliz Ur^xela 
Pedro cle Benavente 
Francisco Granado 
Jacinto Vera 




Sarepta, Killaloe 
Sidyma, Paderborn 
Sidonia, Naples 
Sinai, Grau 
Tlia, Bahia 
Thespia, Lima 
Troas, Cochabamba 
Megara, Monte Vide 


3 


1865* 
1854- 
1849- 
1865 
1866 
1865 
1868^ 
1864* 



BISHOPS in partibus, retired, &c, 






.-Year of 
Creation. 


Vitale Tirmasche 




Adrasus 






i853- 


Francis Namszanowski 




Agathopolis 






1868* 


Gaetano Carli 






Almira 






1842* 


Juan F. Escalante 






Anastasiopolis 






1855- 


Athanasius Zuber 






Augustopolis 






1854 


John F. Wheland 






Aureliopolis 






1843 


Antonio cle Stefano 






Benda 






1849- 


Stephen Bagnaud 






Bethlehem 






1840* 


Aclolphe Pinsonesult 






Byrtha 






i86S^ 


Salvatore Magnasco 






Bolina 






1868* 


Mariano F. Fortique 






Capernaum 






1854- 


Loclovico B.-si 






Canopus 






1840* 


Alfonso di Donato 






Cardica 






1831 


Jean T. Laurent 






Chersonesus 






1839 


Giovanni Bagala Bias 


ni 




Cydonia 






1868* 


Antonio Canzi 






Cyrene 






1867* 


Dominicus Mayer 






Cissamus 






1863^ 


Josef Serra . 






Daulia 






1847* 


Giovanni Cirino 






Derbe 






1869* 


James \Vhelan 






Diocletianopol 


s 




1864 


William A. Collier 
Augustinus Franeo 






Drusipara 
Hermopolis 






1863- 
1858-^ 


Gabriel Grioglio 






Euria 






1852* 


Josef Aristegui 
John Gray . 
Lotharius Kubel 






Hirneria 
Hypsopolis 
Leuca 






1869-. 
1862 
1867 


Ignatio Papardo del 1 


arco 




Mindus 






1858* 


Louis C. Buquet 






Parium 






1863 


Giuseppe Novella 






Patara 






1847* 


Giovanni Balma 






Ptolomais 






1848* 


Niccola Marinelli 






Soli 






1856 


Francis tie Charbonel 






Sozopolis 






1869* 


Henri L. C. Maret 






Sura 






1861* 


Tommaso Salzano 






Tanis 






1854* 


Giuseppe del Prete 






Thyatira 






i853* 


Pedro Tardoya 






Tiberiopolis 






1860 


William Morris 






Troy 






1831 


Job aim Kistemaker 






Uranopolis 




1860 



202 











Year of 












Guglielmo Sillani 




Terracina, resigned 




1835* 


Bonaventura Atanasio 




Lipari, resigned 




1844* 


Jacques Bailies 




Lu9on, resigned 




"45* 


Pierre Q. Lacarriere . 
Jean B. Gazailhan. 




Guadelupe, resigned 
Vannes, resigned 




1856* 
1863* 


Ephrairn Tocmagi . 




Karrjurh, resigned 




1859* 



203 



APPENDIX. IV. 

BRIEF OF HIS HOLINESS PIUS IX SUS- 
PENDING THE VATICAN COUNCIL* 

FOR THE FUTURE REMEMBRANCE OF THE THING. 

The Brief suspending the Council was issued after 
the other official documents in this volume had 
been printed. It is therefore added as an 
appendix. 

SINCE by the help of God We were permitted last 
year to begin the celebration of the Vatican 
Council, We beheld the business of this most weighty 
and most sacred undertaking, by the co-operating 
wisdom, virtue, and industry of the Fathers very nu- 
merously assembled from all parts of the world, pro- 
ceed so that, the certain hope beamed upon Us that 
the fruits We ardently desired would happily result 
therefrom to the good of religion and to the profit of 
the Church of God and of human society. 

And, in fact, already, from the four public and 
solemn Sessions that have been held, salutary and 
opportune Constitutions in the matter of Faith have 
been brought forward and promulgated by Us with 
the approbation of the Sacred Council ; and other 
things relating both to matter of Faith and to ecclesi- 
astical discipline have been brought under discussion 
by the Fathers, and might in a short time have been 

* Pius PP. IX. 

ad futuram rei memoriam. 

Postquam Dei munere OEcumenici Vaticani Concilii celebration em 
inire anno proxime superior! Nobis datum est, vidimus sapientia, vir- 
tute ac sollicitudine Patrum qui ex omnibus orbis terrarum partibus fre- 
quentissimi convenerant maxime adnitente, ita res gravissimi huius et 
sanctissimi operis procedere, ut spes cerla Nobis amilgeret eos fructus 
quo vehementer optabamus, in religionis bonum et Ecclesiae Dei huma- 
naeque societatis utilitatem ex illo fore feliciter prefectures, lit sane 
iam quatuor publicis ac solemnibus sessionibus habitis salutares atque 
opportunae in causa fidei Constitutiones a Nobis eodem sacro appro- 
bante Concilio editae ac promulgatae fuerunt, aliaque turn causam fidei 
turn ecclesiasticae disciplinae spectantia ad examen a Patribus revocata, 
quae suprema docentis Ecclesiae auctoritate brevi sanciri ac promulgari 



2O4 

enacted and promulgated by the supreme authority 
of the teaching Church. 

We trusted that these labours would be able to con- 
tinue their progress by the united diligence and zeal 
of the Brotherhood, and be brought by a smooth and 
successful procedure to the desired completion. 

But the sudden sacrilegious invasion of this beloved 
City, of Our See, and of the remaining Provinces of 
Our Temporal Dominion, by which invasion, against 
all law and with incredible perfidy and audacity, the 
undisputed rights of the Civil Principality of Us and 
of the Apostolic See have been violated has cast Us 
in such a condition of affairs, that, by the permission 
and inscrutable dispensation of Almighty God, We 
are completely placed under hostile domination and 
power. 

Under these deplorable circumstances, as We are 
hindered in many ways from the free and unfettered 
exercise of the Sovereign authority conferred on Us 
by God, and as We are well aware that the needful 
freedom, safety and quiet cannot possibly be possessed 
by and secured to the Fathers of the Vatican Council, 
while it abides in this beloved City, and while the state 
of affairs aforesaid subsists ; that they may rightly 
with Us transact the Church's affairs ; and moreover, 
as the needs of the Faithful under the great public 
calamities and disturbances of Europe do not permit 
so many Pastors to be absent from their churches ; 
therefore We, beholding to the grief of Our soul things 

possent. Confidebamus istiusmodi labores communi fraternitatis studio 
ac zelo suos progressus habere, et ad optatum exitum facili prosperoque 
cursu perduci posse ; sed sacrilega repente invasio hums almae Urbis, 
Sedis Nostrae, et reliquarum temporalis Nostrae ditionis regionum, qua 
contra omne fas civilis Nostri et apostolicae Sedis Principatus incon- 
cussa iura incredibili perfidia et audacia violata sunt, in earn Nos rerum 
conditionem coniecit, ut sub hostili dominatione et potestate, Deo sic 
permittente ob imperscrutabilia indicia sua, penitus constituti simus. 

In hac luctuosa rerum conditione, cum Nos a libero expeditoque usu 
supremae auctoritatis Nobis divinitus collatae multis modis imped iamur, 
cumque probe intelligarnus minime ipsis Vaticani Concilii Patribus in 
hac alma urbe praedicto rerum statu manante, necessariatn libertatem 
securitatem tranquillitatem suppetere et constare posse ad res Ecclesiae 
Nobiscum rite perlractandas ; cumque praeterea* necessitates fidelium, 
in tantis iisque notissimis Europae calamitatibus et motibus, tot Pastcres 
a suis Ecclesiis abesse baud patiantur ; idcirco Nos, eo res adduc'.as 
magno cum animi Nostri moerore perspicientes, utVaticanum Concilium 



205 

brought to that pass that the Vatican Council cannot 
go on in such times, after mature deliberation of Our 
own motion and by the Apostolic authority do by 
the tenour of these presents suspend and announce to 
be suspended to a more opportune and convenient 
season to be declared as such by this Holy See the 
celebration of the said (Ecumenical Council of the 
Vatican : and We pray God, the founder and defender 
of His Church, that all hindrances being at length re- 
moved He would speedily restore liberty and peace to 
His most faithful Spouse. 

And because the more the Church is vexed with 
more and graver perils so much the more ought We to 
be instant in prayer and supplication day and night to 
God and the Father of Our Lord Jesus Christ, the 
Father of mercies and the God of all consolation, We 
will and command that what was decreed and ordained 
in the Letters Apostolic dated the nth of April in 
last year in which Letters We granted a Plenary In- 
dulgence to all the faithful in form of a Jubilee on 
the occasion of the (Ecumenical Council, shall remain 
in force and vigour in manner and form prescribed by 
those Letters, the same as if the celebration of the 
Council were still proceeding. 

These things We determine, announce, will, and 
command ; all things contrary notwithstanding ; de- 
creeing as null and void whatsoever any man know- 
ingly or unknowingly shall attempt in contravention 
hereof. 

tali in tempore cursum suum omnino tenere non possit, praevita ma* 
tura deliberatione, motu proprio eiusdem Vaticani oecumenici Concilii 
celebrationem usque ad aliud opportunius et commodius tempus per 
hanc Sanctam Sedem declarandum, apostolica auctoritate tenore prae- 
sentium suspendimus, et suspensam esse nunciamus, Deum adprecantes 
auctorem et vindicem Ecclesiae suae, ut submotis tandem impediments 
omnibus sponsae suae fidelissimae ocius restituat libertatem ac pacem. 

Quoniam vero quo pluribus et gravioribus periculis malisque vexatur 
Ecclesia, eo magis instandum est obsecrationibus et orationibus nocte ac 
die apud Deum et Patrem Domini Nostri lesu Christ!, Patrem miseri- 
cordiarum et Deum totius consolationis, volumus ac mandamus, ut ea 
quae in apostolicis litteris die n aprilis anno proxime superiori datis, 
quibus indulgentiam plenariam in forma lubilaei occasione oecumenici 
Concilii omnibus Christifidelibus concessimus, a Nobis disposita ac 
statuta sunt, iuxta modum et rationem iisclem litteris praescriptam in sua 
vi firmitate et vigore permaneant, perinde ac si ipsius Concilii celebratio 
procederet. Haec statuimus nunciamus volumus mandamus, conlrariis 



206 

Therefore to no man shall it be lawful to infringe 
this Our writing of suspension, announcement, will and 
decree ; or to contravene it by rash daring : and if 
any man shall presume so to attempt let him know 
that he shall incur the anger of Almighty God and of 
His Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul. 

And to the end that these Our Letters present may 
come to the knowledge of all whom it may concern, 
We will that copies of them be affixed to and pub- 
lished at the doors of the Lateran Church and of the 
Basilica of the Prince of the Apostles and of Saint 
Mary Major of the City, and that being so published 
and affixed they do bind all and singular whom they 
concern the same as if they had been nominally and 
personally intimated to each. 

Given at Rome at Saint Peter's under the Ring of 
the Fisherman this 2Oth day of October, Anno 1870, 
in the 2$th year of Our Pontificate. 

N. CARDINAL PARACCIANI-CLARELLI. 

non obstantibus quibuscumque ; irritum et inane decernentes si secus 
super his a quoquam quavis auctoritate scienter vel ignoranter conti- 
gerit attentari. 

Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc paginam Nostrorum suspen- 
sionis nunciationis voluntatis mandati ac decreti infringere vel ei ausu 
temerario contraire ; si quis autem hoc attentare praesumpserit, indigna- 
tionem Omnipotentis Dei et Beatorum Petri ac Paulli Apostolorum 
Eius se noverit incursurum. Ut autem eaedem praesentes litterae om- 
nibus quorum interest innotescant, volumus illas sen earum exempla ad 
valvas Ecclesiae Lateranensis et Basilicae Principis Apostolorum nee 
non S. Mariae Maioris de Urbe affigi et publicari, sicque publicatas et 
affixas omnes et singulos quos illae concernunt perinde artare, ac si 
unicuique eorum nominatim et personaliter intimatae fuissent. 

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum sub anulo Piscatoris die 20 octobris 
anno MDCCCLXX. 

Pontificatus Nostri anno vigesimoquinto. 

N, Card. PARACCIANI-CLARELLI. 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY HENRY FILMER, AT THE OFFICE OF " THE TABLET," 
27, WELLINGXON STREET, STRAND, W.C. 



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