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C^-v OOelliuoft 


This volume does not aspire to do more than adumbrate the 
present state of criticism on the many problems which the 
difficult poem Aetna raises. When, in 1867, Munro gave to 
the world for the first time a complete collation of the one 
unimpeachable source for constituting the text, the tenth-century 
Cambridge MS. Kk v. 34, he was really laying the basis of 
a more exact criticism ; for though the value of C was well 
known, and its readings had been used by Moriz Haupt in his 
various papers and dissertations on Aetna, no complete con- 
spectus of the MS. was before the public till the great Cambridge 
scholar exhibited it in its entirety. 

Little was done for the further illustration of the poem till 
18S0 when Bahrcns edited the poem as part of the Appendix 
Vergiliana in the second volume of his Poetae Latini Minores. 
Munro had not included among the MSS. he employed the 
eleventh century fragment of Stavelot (fragmentum Stabu- 
lense) : this, which had first been published by Bormans 
in Btdlctins de PAcademie Royale Belgiqtie, Tome xxi (1854), 
pp. 258-379, was re-collated by Bahrens and shown to agree 
generally, where it could be read, with the somewhat earlier 
written C. He also exhibited the readings of two Paris col- 
lections of excerpts, Par. 7647 and 17903. Except in these 
points Bahrens' recension must be considered a retrogression. 
Munro had been careful to point out the questionable authen- 
ticity of some of the Gyraldinian variants. Bahrens boldly 
adopted them all and even made of them a first class as 
compared with the other MSS., C and S included. Munro 
had throughout the poem kept C steadily in sight, rarely 
admitting conjectures, and emending on the basis of C, where 
he thought emendation was required : transposition of verses 


he carefully avoided. IJiihrens, always free-handed in this 
matter, nowhere allowed himself greater licence than in 
emending and transposing the verses of Ae/nn. 

A new departure was made in 1882 by Kruczkiewicz' dis- 
sertation, Poana dc Aetna immte Vergilio auctoti praccipue 
iribucndum^ in which a return was made to the view, mentioned 
in the Life of VergH ascribed to Donatus, but now generally 
believed to be by Suetonius, that Vergil was the author of the 
poem. This was followed in 1884 by Wagler's de Aetna poe- 
matc qiiacstiofies critical : a review of which by Karl Schenkl 
will be found in Philolog. Afizeiger, xvi. 117-121. 

When, in 18S7, I visited Rome with the object of examining 
IMSS. of the Vergilian opuscula, it was one of my chief aims 
to find a new codex of Aet7ia ; a codex from which C might 
be corrected, or the Gyraldinian readings confirmed and esti- 
mated in their proper light. Fortune did not befriend me in 
this : I could nowhere meet with a MS. which, like the Corsini 
MS. of the Culcx, could confidently be said to restore at least 
one desperate passage. The best of those I saw, Vat. 3272, 
was imperfect and often badly interpolated. The poem, how- 
ever, was never out of my thoughts, and in the Journal of 
Philology for 1887 began a series of papers continued thence- 
forward at intervals up to 1899^ I also delivered three public 
lectures upoi the poem: i. 'A Prose Translation' (March 11, 
1896) ; 2. 'The Date of Aetna' (Nov. 17, 1898) ; 3. ' The MSS. 
of Aetna' (Nov. 16, 1899). 

My first recension of the text was printed in Professor 
Postgate's Corpus Poetaru7n Laiinorum in 1896. 

In his volume on the Cut ex, published in 1887, Richard 
Hildebrandt treated many passages of ^^/«rt, and followed up 

' I. Jount. of PhiloL, 1887, pp. 292-316 (with R. Unger's emen- 
dations, continued in 1888, pp. 155-157;. 

2. Ibid., 1892, pp. 207-236, on the Rehdiger MS. 

3. 1894, p. 314, Escorial MS. of Aetna excerpts. 

4. 1895, Re-collation of fragm. Stabulense, with further remarks. 

5. 1899, p. HI, Emendation of Aetna, 171. 

6. 1900, Classical Review, pp. 123 -125. On the manuscript tradilio.T 
of Aetna (the Pithou variants in MS. D'Orville, x. i. 6. 6). 



these studies in 1897 by a paper in Phi/ohgus, xvi. pp. 97-117, 
which discussed {a) the Gyraldiniis, {b) the Fragm. Stabulense. 
More recently in his Beittiige sur Erklarimg des Gedichtes 
Aetna he has made a valuable contribution to a more minute 
knowledge of the diction and syntax of the poem, as my fre- 
quent references to him will show. Like Wagler, and later 
Sudhaus, Hildebrandt is a thorough believer in the goodness 
of the Gyraldinian readings, a point of view from which Munro 
had already dissented, and which, after my own strong dis- 
claimer in Xhc Journal 0/ P/iilohgy, Alzinger, in a notable paper 
communicated in 1896 to the 153rd vol. of Neiie Jahrbiicher 
p. 845, Der Wert des Codex Gyraldmiis fur die Kritik des Aetna, 
even more emphatically repudiated \ Alzinger had already in 
his Studia m Aetnain collata re-examined the question of 
authorship and, arguing on the lines of Kruczkiewicz, assigned 
to the poem a date after the publication of Lucretius' de reruvi 
natura (the language of which is closely imitated) but before 
Vergil, whose many resemblances of diction to Aetna Alzinger 
considers to prove that he had read our poem and borrowed 
consciously from it. Alzinger's list of parallels, drawn from 
Lucretius and Vergil, are of very great value, though as regards 
^'^ergil, many will reject his conclusion ; he is not so happy 
in restoring the text. 

It is with a very mixed feeling that I speak of Sudhaus' 
edition (1898). In fulness of scientific illustrations, drawn 
equally from ancient and modern authorities, it far surpasses 
any of its predecessors ; and its author's main contention, that 
the poet's chief source was Poseidonius, though of course in- 
capable of proof- for Seneca's Natural Questions are enough 
to show how vast an array of scientific writings we have to 
deplore as irrecoverably lost — is enforced with an assiduity, 
not to say pertinacity, which commands respect and might 
almost seem convincing. Moreover, the work is written 
throughout con amore, and displays an enthusiasm not un- 
worthy of the poet himself, even where the meaning of the 

' Schanz, however, Geschichte der Roitiisc/ien Litteraliir, § 239. ed. 2, 
1899, sides with the pro-Gyraldinians against Alzinger, 


words is obscured by imperfect art in the composer or hopeless 
vitiation in the MSS. Nor will any one deny that Sudhaus' 
position is throughout that of a perfectly independent explorer, 
assured of the truth of his own views, and not afraid of asserting 
them boldly and undisguisedly. For the actual restoration of 
the text he has made at least one suggestion which most 
scholars will consider certain {irecenii, 579), and his discussion 
of critical and exegetical difficulties throughout goes hand in 
hand with an enlarged scientific perception, such as neither 
Jacob nor Munro could claim. 

But after all, the value of an edition of a difificult work of 
antiquity, especially a poetical work, and this transmitted in an 
imperfect and often deeply vitiated condition, must ultimately 
rest on considerations of a more tangible and palpable kind, 
such as the inter-relation of the MSS. which have preserved 
it, and the indications of language and metre. 

Now, as regards the MSS. of Aetna, Sudhaus starts with 
two hypotheses, neither of which is proven : (i) that no weight 
is to be given to the fifteenth century codices, even in cases 
where, as against C or 5, they seem to be right ; (2) that the 
variants reported as coming from the so-called Gyraldinian 
MS. are always to be preferred to those of our earliest and 
best actually existing MSS. {C and S). The latter of these 
two hypotheses appears to me indisputably wrong, and if it 
is wrong, as I hope to have shown in my Prolegomena, any 
text of the poem which adopts the whole of these Gyraldinian 
variants, must be erroneous and untrustworthy. 

When we come to metre, what can be said of creber, 107 ; 
fortis, tenuis, as nominatives singular, 314, 494; fluiiium, 
unelided before haut, 129 ; forte, lengthened hQ.{oxt.flexere, 289? 

Flagrant as these offences against prosody must be thought, 
they are surpassed by the boldness, not to say violence, of 
Sudhaus' exegesis. Trained to believe that the ' (jberlieferung ' 
or MS. tradition of the text is to be retained at any cost, he 
has not scrupled to elicit from passages obviously corrupt 
meanings which, to a sane criticism, they cannot possibly 
bear. As examples may be mentioned his defence of eripiantur, 
393 ; coritiir, 4c6 ; extra, as abl. fem. of exter, 456 ; and the 



impossible renderings of 375 sqq., 462 sqq. Nor can these be 
regarded as exceptional ; such interpretations will be found 
throughout his volume. 

If philological criticism may be regarded as a delicate plant 
which it has taken centuries to nurture into perfection, we seem 
to have arrived at a period full of danger to its growth, or even 
continuance. At the beginning of the twentieth century we are 
asked to accept as possible, Latin which from the sixteenth 
century onwards would have been either called in question as 
suspicious, or corrected as indubitably corrupt. From age to 
age, the progress of philological science has been hitherto 
marked, partly by more exact examination and appraisal of 
MSS., partly by increased skill in eliciting from the manuscript 
tradition some restoration not violently in conflict with the 
probabilities of language or metre. Such nice adjustment of 
the two main bases of criticism, Palaeography and Conjecture, 
has in different degrees distinguished all the most eminent 
philologists, Vettori, Turn^be, Scaliger, Heinsius (sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries), Bentley (eighteenth), Lachmann, Haupt, 
Madvig, Ritschl, Alunro, Palmer (nineteenth). 

It is not to be denied that this balance of palaeography and 
conjecture has often seemed to waver unduly and sway unde- 
sirably in favour of the latter. Bahrens' edition of Aetna is 
a fair type of what I mean. His unsurpassed mastery of the 
palaeographical side of criticism was out of all proportion 
greater than his feeling for niceties of diction or prosody. 
Hence with all the materials before him for an able reconsti- 
tution of the text of the poem, he allowed himself to be led into 
wild conjectures and reckless transpositions which defy proba- . 
bility. It is perhaps not surprising that Sudhaus, whose edition 
followed Bahrens' at an interval of eighteen years, should 
have wished to avoid his example, and set himself to the task 
of explaining the manuscript tradition even where it was 

It will be seen from what I have said, that part of my object 

in the present edition of Aetna is a polemical one. I wish to 

controvert, partly, indeed, the actual interpretations of my 

predecessor, but still more the principle on which his exegesis 



is based. It is, I imagine, of importance at this particular 
juncture, to re-assert with more than usual emphasis the 
existence of the trained critical faculty ; a faculty which is 
competent to reject the impossible in language, syntax, or 
metre, however strongly it may be supported by early manu- 
script tradition, and however plausibly it may be shown to be 
quite explicable. There is a growing school of critics, not 
only in Germany but England, the central point of whose creed 
is virtually to deny this. Several years ago ^ I raised my voice 
against one of the boldest exponents of this creed : the present 
volume is meant to prove that I have not abandoned my 

The audacity and independence of Sudhaus' Aetna naturally 
roused much attention, at least in the author's own country : 
both Biicheler and Birt contributed papers on the poem, Rhein. 
Mus. liv. 1-8, Fhilologus, Ivii. 603-641. Most of their remarks 
will be found either in the App. Crit. of my edition or discussed 
at more length in the Commentary. Besides these I do not 
know of anything which has appeared within the last few 
years except Franke's Res Metrica Aetnei Carminis (Marburg, 
1898) and F. Walter's Zur Textbehatidlung und ziir Autorfrage 
des Aetna (Blatter fiir Bayer. Gymnasialschulwesen, xxxv. 

I subjoin a list of the MSS. and other subsidia used for this 

C of the tenth century in the University Librarj' of Cambridge, 
Kk V. 34. 

This is by far the best MS. of Aetna. It contains also the 
Ctclex: Its readings were first published in their entirety by 
H.A. J.Munro in 1867. I transcribed the whole of C for this 

S = fragmentum Stabulense, 17, 177 in the National Library 
of Paris, once in the Monastery of Stavelot (see Proleg., p. Iv). 
This fragment consists of some badly preserved leaves of cent, xi, 
containing in double columns, tolerably complete, Aetn. 1-170, 
215-258, 260-301 ; in a truncated form, 171-213, 303-345. 

1 In a review of Leo's Culex, Academy for 1891, no. 1016. 


The fragmentum Stabulense was first published in 1854 by 
Bormans in the Belgian Bulletins de VAcad. Royale des Sciences 
ei Belles Let/res, Tome xxi. Munro did not include it in his 
edition: but it was re-collated by Biihrens in 1875, and I have 
myself examined it several times. 

S agrees very closely with C, and its imperfect state (it is 
often illegible) is much to be deplored. See my notes of a re- 
collation of 5 mjourti. of PJiilol. for 1895, pp. 1-9. 

Rehd. or r= MS. Rehdiger 125 in the Town Library of Breslau, 
of the fifteenth century. I collated it at Breslau in 1891, and 
published my collation in Joiirn. of Philol. for 1892, vol. xx. 
pp. 207-223. Its readings had been exhibited before by Jacob 
in 1S26, and partially by Munro in 1867. He calls it e. 

The same library contains another MS. of Aetna, Rehd. 60. 
I looked into this only cursorily: one of its variants however, 
plebeis in 600, suggests a new emendation, which I think may be 

Arund. or .<4r. = Arundel 133, in the British Museum, in 
double columns, of the fifteenth century. It contains also the 
Cirzs and Catalepta. Munro used it and called it y. 

Both Rehd. and Arund. are good enough to be quoted, hardly 
to be quoted entire. At times both are hopelessly corrupted, 
and the true reading exists in C ox S only. A typical specimen 
is 209. 

V = Vatican 3272 of the fifteenth century, containing Aetn. 
\-i,y2.fecundius aethna. Interpolated, but at times with readings 
which differ from Rehd. or At:, and may go back to an early 
source. Collated by me in the Vatican Library, April and 
May, 1887. 

Esc. = Q. I. 14, in the Library of the Escorial near 
Madrid, This is a large volume of excerpts from a great 
number of Roman authors, prose and poetry alike. Hartel 
in his Bibliotheca Patrutn Hispaniensis dates the MS. as of 
cent, xiii-xiv. I copied the excerpts from Culex and Aetna and 
published them in 1894, 5 {Journ. of Philol. xxii. pp. 314- 
316, xxiii. 1-4). They agree closely with those of Bahrens' 
Paris MSS. 7647 and 17903, which are not included in my 
App. Crit. 



(Jr;-. = the readings of a very early MS. now lost, but used in 
the sixteenth centuiy by Lilius Gyraldus, who transcribed from 
it a poem, ' de Aetna monte.' From this codex, which Gyraldus 
says contained Claudian, are believed to spring certain variants 
on Actfia (only on 13S-285) not traceable in any complete 
codex of the poem ; on which see Prolegom., pp. Ixiv-lxxxiv. 
One fragment alone, the last sixteen of these verses (270-285), 
is preserved entire with the Gyraldinian variants as we know 
them from the two collations made of them in the eighteenth 
century. This fragment of sixteen entire verses {L) is extant in 
a MS. of the Laurcntian Library at Florence (33. 9), and by the 
kindness of Father Ehrle, S.J., Librarian of the Vatican, who 
copied them himself from the MS., I am able to present them 
to my readers exactly as there written. The value of these 
variants is a point on which critics arc not agreed: my own 
judgement is decidedly against allowing them a preponderating 
authority against our two early sources C S. 

To the above must be added another set of variants contained 
in MS. D'Orville x. i, 6, 6, of the eighteenth century, in the 
Bodleian. This codex contains, as stated on p. i, 'notes and 
emendations ' by Pierre Pithou on the text of his well-known 
Epigranimata et Poematia Vetera, Paris, 1590. Those on 
Aetna begin on p. 40 of the MS. I communicated these to the 
Classical Review for March, 1900, whence they are reprinted, 
Prolegom., p. Ixxxiv. I call them Excerpia Pithoeana. 

Other MSS. I have looked at, but not judged them worth 
collating in extenso. Such are Sloane 777 in the British 
Museum ; Corsini43 F. III. 21 ; Naples Museum 207 ; another 
in the Chigi Library at Rome ; Hehnstadiensis 332 now at 
Wolfenbiittel. But we must deeply lament the loss of Aetna 
in Corsini 43 F. 5, the same MS. which alone has preserved 
the right reading of Cul. 366, and of whose readings in the 
pseud- O vidian Epistula Sapphus I have published a collation 
in the Classical Review for June 1 901. The scribe of this 
MS. began copying Aetna, but left off at v. 7. It alone has 
preserved in v. i the variant ruptisque caui. 


Editions of Aefna with Commentary. 

Pcut's, 1507. Virgilii opera Eel. Georg. Aen. Opuscula ed. 
Jodocus Badius Ascensius. 

This edition, which seems to be rare, was published by 
Joannes Parvus (Jehan Petit). 

Scalige?-, Jos., in Pub. VirgiHi Maronis Appendix, ed. i, 1572 
or 1573 ; ed. 2, with additional notes by Fr. Lindenbruch, 


Le Clerc {Gorallus), Aetna cum notis et interpretatione. 
Amsterdam, ed. i, 1703; ed. 2, 1715. 

Wernsdorf, Lucilii lunioris Aetna in 'Poctae Latini Minores,' 
iv. pp. 1-214. Altenburgi, 1785. 

Jacob, F., with Latin notes and a translation in German hexa- 
meters. Leipzig, 1826. 

Mutiro, H. A. _/., Aetna revised, emended, and explained. 
Cambridge, 1867. 

Sudhaiis, S., Aetna erkliirt. Leipzig, 1898. 


de Seriofme, Paris, 1736, with the Sententiae of Publ. Syrus. 

Schniid, C. A., Brunswick, 1769. 

Meineke, I. H. F., Quedlinburg, 1819. I have not seen this. 

Jacob, F., Leipzig, 1826. 

Delutho, Paris, 1841. I have not been able to procure this. 

Jacquot, in Collection Nisard. Paris, 1842. 

Chenu, Jules, in Biblioth&que Panckoucke. Paris, 1845. 

Stidhaus, Siegfried, Leipzig, 1898. 

Dissertations before 1867. 

1715. Oudin, /'^r^, 5./., Reflexions sur un passage de Corneille 
Severe. Journal des Savants, Ivii. p. 597 sqq. 

1729. Sevin, VAbbe, Histoire de I'Academie des Inscriptions, 
vol. V, p. 226. 

1747. Mencken, F. O., in Miscell. Lips. Nov. v. 137-160, 335- 



1755. Sh-uchtincyn; J. /., Obseruat. Critic. Libri ii, pp. 1-27. 

1756. Cramer, lo. Christ., in Act. Societ. Latin. lenensis v, 
pp. 3-6. Collation of the Gyialdinian variants. 

1 76 1. Schraticr, Jo., Obseruationum Liber, p. 31. Also auto- 
graph notes from Berlin MS. Diez B. Santen 47, fol. 69, commu- 
nicated to Bahrens. 

1764. d£ Rooy, Anton, Coniecturae Criticae in Martialis libr. 
xiv. et P. Cornelii Seueri Aetnam. Traiccti ad Rhenum. 

1786. Fricscnuvin, in CoUectan. Critica, pp. 182-185. 

1797. Matthiae, F. C, in Neue Bibliothek der schonen 
Wissenschaften, vol. 59, pp. 311-327- New collation of the 
Gyraldinian variants. See also a programme published in 

1804. Surifii^ar, G. T., Spicilegia critica in Lucilii lunioris 
poema de Aetna. Twenty-four pages, including remarks by 

1S27. Peerlkavip, P. Hofman, in Bibl. Crit. Nov. iii, pp. 241- 


1828. Sillig, C.Jul., in Jahn's Jahrbiicher, pp. 140-160. 

These two are reviews of Jacob's edition of 1826. 

1837. Haupt, Moris, in Quaestiones Catullianae, pp. 54-68, and 
afterwards in a series of criticisms up to 1S69. These will be 
found in Haupt's Opuscula (1875, 6). rfaupt's text ci Aetna is 
at the end of his miniature Vergil. In its latest form it was 
reviewed by Sauppe in the Gottingen Gelehrte An^ieig. for 1874. 

1842. Ritschl, F., in Rhein. Mus. for 1842, pp. 135, 6. First 
mention of the Cambridge MS (C). 

1862. Miihly,J., Beitrage zur Kritik des Lehrgedichts Aetna. 
Basel, 1862. Thirty-two pages. 

To these may be added, though later than 1867, 

1889. Da7nstd,P., Mnemos.xvii. A review of Munro's edition. 

I must record my thanks to Father Ehrle, S.J., Librarian of 
the Vatican ; Mr. W. Bliss, of the Vatican Archives ; M. Omont, 
of the Biblioth^que Nationale of Paris; Mr. Jenkinson, Librarian 
of the University Library of Cambridge, for valuable assistance 
on questions of manuscript readings ; to Prof. Postgate, of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, for important suggestions and corrections ; 


to Mr. E. J. Webb of London, for his most kind communication 
to me on v. 234'' ; to Prof. I. Bywater for advice on several points 
about which he allowed me to consult him, including a revision 
of the Preface; to Mr. F. Haverfield, Student of Christ Church, 
who examined the C. I. L. in my behalf; to Mr. David Nagel, 
Fellow of Trinity College, for direction on occasional questions 
of scientific diction; and to Mr. Walter Worrall, of Worcester 
College, for drawing up and revising in proof the Index of Words 
which completes the volume. 

June 15, 1901. 



I. The Date of 'Aetna' . 
Excursus on ' Perseis ' . 
II. The MSS. of 'Aetna' . 
The Excerpta Pithoeana 


IV, Analysis of the Poem . 
Text of ' Aetna ' with Translation 


Excursus on 6, 7 

Note on 515 

Jndex of Words 














b 2 


The earliest specific notice of the poem is in the Life of 
Vergil (ascribed to Donatus, but now generally believed 
to be by Suetonius). After mentioning the Catalepton, 
Friapia, Epigrams, Dirae, Ciris, Culex, Suetonius adds 
scripsit etiam de qua ambigitur Aetnam. A similar state- 
ment is found in Servius' Prolegomena to the Aeneid, but 
without the qualifying dc qua ambigitur. It is also ascribed 
to Vergil in the oldest MS. Kk v. 34, in the University 
Library of Cambridge, written in the tenth century. 

At the present time most critics are agreed that the poem 
could not be Vergil's. Ygt the ascription to him should 
not be entirely overlooked. It proves that at a very early 
time it was ranked by some critics as belonging to the 
same category with poems either indubitably Augustan, 
like the Ciris, or belonging to an even anterior period, like 
the Dirae and Catalepton. Kruczkiewicz ', therefore, who, 
on external grounds, as we shall see, has in our own day 
re-asserted the Vergilian authorship, and Alzinger, who 

' In his dissertation Pof»«rt de Aetna iitoiite Vugilio anctori pyaecipue 
iribuendum, published in pp. 143-169 of vol. x oi Rozpmwy isprawoz- 
dania z posiedzen ivydzialu filologicznego Akademii unirejetndsci, 1882 
[Ac. 750/13 in Brit. Mus. Catalogue]. 


pushes the date even further back, i.e., some Httle time 
after the eruption of Aetna in 49 B.C., can claim the 
support of a very ancient tradition, a tradition which, as 
it affects one poem of the series, the Culex, goes back to 
the age of Lucan, i.e., to the middle of the first century 
.\. D. Such a tradition may be, and no doubt is, wrong 
in fathering on the author of the Georgics and Aeneid a 
series of poems which do not belong to him, but it cannot 
be put aside in considering the parentage and epoch of 
any one of them. It forms a presumption in favour, for 
all of them, of a date not far removed from the time of 
Vergil. Theories like that of Hildebrandt, who imagines 
our Culex to be made up of an original nucleus of ninety- 
six verses, which a later age expanded into more than four 
hundred, cannot be readily accepted in defiance of the 
ancient statement that Lucan ^ at an age little past boyhood 
read a Culex, which was then accepted as Vergil's. We 
may doubt whether Vergil was the actual author of the 
Culex we have, but it requires very strong arguments to 
prove that Lucan read a poem such as Hildebrandt leaves 
us, a mere fragment of an ultimate total four times as 
large, a fragment too arbitrarily marked off from its accre- 
tions, and not perceptibly difTerent from them in style or 
metre. If Vergil did not write our Culex, it is still an 
easier hypothesis to maintain that it was the work of a 
contemporary, or at least of a poet not far removed from 

' Lucan was born a. d. 39, died a. d. 65 (Heitland). The reference 
to the Cttlcx is in the Life of Lucan ascribed to S\x&ton\\xs, praefalione 
quadaui actatein et initia sua curn Vergilio conparans ausus sit dicere 
' et quantum mihi rettat ad Culicem.' Stat. S. ii. 7, 64, 74 says Lucan 
wrote his Pharsalia, coepta generosior itmenta Ante antios Cuiia's 


the Vergilian age. The tradition, observe, comes in two 
distinct forms, (i) a Culex is included in two ancient lists 
of opuscula ascribed to Vergil ; (2) a Culcx by Vergil was 
read and admired seventy years after his death by Lucan, 
then quite young. 

We have then an a priori ground for believing that 
Aetfia, like the Culex and other minor poems of the 
Appendix Vergiliana, belongs to the earlier period of 
Roman literature, and can hardly be much later than the 
middle of the first century a. d. Who was its author had 
begun to be asked as far back as the thirteenth century. 
Vincent of Beauvais (t 1264) called both the Culex and 
Aetna apocryphal {Spec. Hist. vii. 62) and cites (xx. 25) 
maxima rerum pietas hominum tutissivia uirtus (Aetn. 631) 
as from Petronius, in which he is followed by Jacobus 
Magni (t in the second decade of the fifteenth century), 
Sopholog. iv. 10 (Wernsd. p. 58 ; Biicheler, Petronius, p. 227). 
In a commentary on Cato's distichs, published in 1492 
(Bodl. S. Selden, d. 16, fol. 191'^) vv. 74-84 are quoted 
and thus prefaced : Virgilius aut quisquis autor est i/i 
carini7ie de Aethna\ In some MSS. of the fifteenth or 
early sixteenth century it is already ascribed to Cornelius 
Severus ^, the writer of a lost hexameter poem on the war 
with Sex. Pompeius in Sicily (Teuffel 247. 5), of whose 
style we have a favourable specimen in twenty-five hexa- 
meters on the death of Cicero, preserved by the elder 
Seneca (Suas. vi. 26, Burs.). The choice of Corn. Severus 
was determined, as Scaliger points out, by a passage in 

' Lilius Gyraldus {Historiae Poetantin, iv. p. 572, ed. 1545^ says lie 
will not venture either to assert or deny its genuineness as a work of 

^ So in Vat. 3272 and Munro's ^. 


the seventy-ninth l-^pistle of the younger Seneca, where, 
talking of poetical descriptions of Etna, he says : ' this 
commonplace of poetry, even after it had been handled 
by Ovid, and more perfectly by Vergil, was fearlessly 
attempted again by Corn. Severus ' {79. 5). Scaliger 
approved this ascription, and it was generally' accepted 
till Wernsdorf in the fourth volume of his Foetae Latini 
Minores (1785) proposed a new candidate. This was 
Lucilius Junior, the friend and correspondent of Seneca. 
AVernsdorf's view was admitted by Jacob in his edition of 
Aetna (1826), by Haupt, and by Munro (1867), and is 
the prevailing view of the present time. I must not omit 
to mention Caspar Earth's theory that it was written by 

Fifteen years after Munro's edition had appeared, a Hun- 
garian named Kruczkiewicz, published a dissertation, in 
which he rejected the theories of post-Augustan authorship. 
He reverts to the old belief that Vergil was the author of 
Aetfta. Two of his arguments may be mentioned: (i) w^e 
know from Suetonius' Life that Vergil was often in Cam- 
pania and Sicily, and must have had many opportunities 
of observing both Vesuvius and Aetna; (2) Apelles' picture 
of Venus Anadyomene, which the writer of Aetfia (592-8) 
includes in the objects of art men travelled abroad to see, 

' But not universally. Tanaquil Faber (Taniiegui Le Fevre), on 
Sen. Suasor. ii. writes ' Huiusne Corn. Seueri sit carmen de Aetna 
quod Virgilio quidam tribuunt, dubitari potest.' Le Fevre also 
anticipates the view of Wernsdorf, Munro, and Wagler that the 
passage in Seneca's seventy-ninth Epistle refers, not to a separate 
poem on Aetna, but to an Episode. Caspar Barth was equally 
sceptical as to Corn. Severus [Adv. xxxii. 16), and at one time 
thought a Christian, at another Manilius, the author. See the 
citations in Wernsdorf, pp. 61-63. 


was transferred from Cos to Rome by Augustus, and dedi- 
cated in the temple of Julius. If it was in Rome, how 
could the poem speak of it as a work to be visited 
abroad ? 

More recently, Alzinger {Studia in Aetnain Collata, Fock, 
1895) has re-affirmed this second argument. He shows 
that of the four works of art mentioned in the poem, the 
Venus of Apelles, the Medea of Timomachus, the Iphigenia 
of Timanthes* the Heifer of Myron \ the first two and the 
last were removed to Rome, the Venus by Augustus, the 
Medea by Julius Caesar (who bought it in his dictatorship 
(Plin. 35. 26), with the same painter's Ajax, for 80 talents, 
and placed them both in the temple of Venus Genitrix), 
the Heifer, between the age of Cicero and Antoninus, it 
is not known exactly when. Proceeding to minuter detail, 
he goes on to show that the Venus which, when Cicero 
delivered his Verrine orations (70 B.C.), was at Cos, and 
which Augustus transferred to Rome (Suet. Vesp. 18), in 
the interval between that time and the reign of Nero, fell 
into decay ^, and was then replaced by a new picture from 
the hands of Dorotheus '' (Plin. 35. 91). We are thus 
placed in a double difficulty : if the author of Aetna lived 
during or not long after the era of Augustus, he should 
have known that the Venus was no longer in its native 
place, but in Rome ; if he lived in or after the reign of 
Nero, he should, or at least might, have known that it 
was no longer in existence at all. This difficulty is intensi- 

' Haupt, Opusc. ii. p. 165. 

^ ' Consenuit haec tabula carie aliamqiie pro ea substituit Nero 
principatu suo Dorothei manu.' 

■' Miss Sellers, however [Comiiieut. on Pliny's Chapters on the 
History of Ati, p. 128), thinks it may have been still in existence 
under Vespasian (Suet. Vesp. 18). 



fied by tlic further mistake as to the Medea of Timomachus, 
which had been even longer in the capital, and must have 
been constantly spoken of, witli its brother-picture, the 
Ajax, as one of two master-works by the same painter. 

It was in the autumn of 46 b.c. that Caesar, after cele- 
brating his quadruple triumph, and receiving the title of 
dictator, dedicated the temple of Venus Genitrix. Allowing, 
as is possible, that some little time may have elapsed before 
Timomachus' two pictures were moved to their position in 
front of the temple (Plin. 35. 26'), we may fix the date 
before which Aetna must have been written at 44 B.C. 
But it must be later than the death of Lucretius, imitations 
of whose poem are specially numerous. It cannot be 
earlier, therefore, than 55 B.C. Between these two dates 
there was a great eruption of Aetna (as the combined 
evidence of Vergil, Livy, Petronius proves ^)^ and shortly 
after this eruption Alzinger believes Aetna to have been 

Our assigned dates thus range over a period of more 
than 100 years, taking 45 (or as Alzinger thinks 49) n.c. 
as the earliest limit and 79 a.d., when the fatal eruption 
of Vesuvius happened, as the extreme. For that eruption 
was by fiir the greatest exhibition of volcanic forces recorded 

^ Elsewhere (35. 136) he speaks of them as in aede positas. This 
seems due to Pliny's carelessness, and is less probable than the other 
account (Sellers, p. 92). 

° Verg. G. i. 471-473. Petron. 122-135 iamqne Aetna noratur 
Ignibns insoUtis et in aeihera fulminn mHtit. Serv. on G. i. 471 nt 
diat Liiiius ionia Jlanima ante mortem Caesaris Aetna dejluxit, nt non 
tanlum iiicinae urbes, sed etiam Rhegina ciiiitas afflantur. Livy here 
seems to make the eruption of Aetna immediately precede the 
murder of Caesar in 44 : Petronius, on the other hand, places it 
before the passage of the Rubicon in 49. 


in antiquity, and could not have been passed over in silence 
by our poet. 

Kruczkiewicz' art argument, which has some force as 
a ground for the Augustan authorship of Aetna, loses 
much of its validity when pushed to its further conse- 
quences. For if the author of Aetna wrote before the 
Coan Venus was removed to, Rome, he must also have 
written before the still earlier removal of the Medea, since 
travellers from Italy are described in the poem as visiting 
Greece and Asia to see both. But in shifting the date from 
Augustus to Julius or the years immediately following Julius' 
death, he lands us in critical difficulties of an insuperable 
kind. We have before us a poem not only written in a 
highly artificial style, but with a general dependence, alike in 
the structure of the hexameter and the choice and arrange- 
ment of words, on the author of the Georgics and Aeneid. 
If we follow Alzinger, the immediate predecessors of our 
poet were Catullus, Lucretius, and perhaps, for this also 
is uncertain, the author of the Dirae. In none of these, 
can any real resemblance to the style of Aetna be dis- 
covered. All of them agree in a common simplicity of style 
which may be best described as the language of poetrj- 
still incompletely developed ; all of them have recurring 
peculiarities of metre which mark off the pre-Augustan 
period of Roman literature, and were either disused or 
used much more sparingly by Vergil and his successors. 
Thus Lucretius abounds in pentasyllable endings fntgifer- 
entis itidupedita principiorum. Catullus repeats to monoton\- 
the Ciceronian cadence prognatae uertice pinus, and the 
spondiazon preceded by a dactyl Nereides admirantes, 
flagrantia dedinauit, carmine compellabo ; the Dirae, as was 
remarked by Nake, in 113 lines, contains eight instances 


of the last dactyl elided beft)re a bacchius, libera auena^ 
impia agc/los, flumina arnica, aduena aralor, crimina agelli, 
Battare auena, gaudia habetis, ludere in herba ', 

Nakc, in his edition of the Dime and Lydia, has noted 
as characteristic features of the older poetry before the 
rise of Vergil, two points which may be mentioned here : 
(i) repetition of the same word or the same types of ex- 
pression at short intervals; (2) the connective use of gut, 
e.g. Cul. 143 Quis aderat ueteris itiyrtus non nescia fati, 
168 ecfert Sublimi ceruice caput : cui crista super ne Edit a 
purpurea lucens viaculatur amictu. Of these the second 
is only found twice in Aetna (400, 436) : the first, though, 
from the poet's tendency to return again and again to the 
description of the same phenomena or the enforcement of 
the same reasonings, there is some unavoidable recurrence 
of similar or even identical words, cannot be said to obtrude 
itself in any marked degree. 

But it is not only the absence of early simplicities ; it is 
far more the uniform presence of an artificial mannered and 
rhetorical fi^rm which makes the pre-Vergilian date of Aetna 
impossible. One example will suffice, vv. 85-93 : — 

Nee tu, terra, satis : speculantur numina diuum 
Nee metuunt oculos alieno admittere caelo. 
Norunt bella deum, norunt abscondita nobis 
Coniugia, et falsa quotiens sub imagine peccet 
Taurus in Europen, in Laedam candidus ales, 
luppiter, ut Danaae pretiosus fluxerit imber : 
Debita carminibus libertas ista, sed omnis 
In uero mihi cura ; canam quo feruida motu 
Aestuet Aetna, nouosque rapax sibi congerat ignes. 
' I say nothing of Varro Atacinus, the fragments of whose poems, 
though a much closer approximation to the style and rhythm of 
Vergil, are too scanty to admit of a satisfactory estimate, and them- 
selves of very uncertain date. 



Notice, first, the rhetorical cast of the language through- 
out. Reduced to prose, the meaning is this : ' Poets are 
not contented with inventing a fictitious under-world in the 
bowels of the earth : they pretend to know the secrets of 
heaven and invent imaginary amours for the gods. Such 
licence is not for me : my poem shall deal with truth onl)-, 
with the real phenomena of Aetna, and the true account of 
its convulsions.' 

To bring into relief this antithesis of earth and heaven, 
our poet personifies and apostrophizes earth. Nee tu, 
Terra, satis. This is not only an artifice, but an artifice 
of the rhetorical schools. Equally artificial is the double 
noru7it, each time the first word of its clause ; the change 
of construction from the direct accusative coniugia, to the 
verbal clauses qjiotiens peccet luppiter and ut fluxerit, the 
chiasmus in the words Taurus in Europen, in Laedatn 
candidus ales. The last three lines are even more markedly 
late; the variety of the pauses, (i) after the second syllable 
of the fifth foot libertas ista: sed omnis ; (2) after the 
trochee in the third foot In uero niihi cura ; (3) after 
the trochee in the second foot Aestuet Aetna ; would have 
been impossible in Catullus, not indeed in isolated speci- 
mens, but in consecutive lines. As Mr. Heitland ^ says, 
it was reserved for Vergil to clear up the problem, painfully 
felt in Cicero's hexameters, and only partially solved by 
Lucretius and Catullus, how to adapt a metre natural and 
easy in the dactylic language of Greece to the heavier and 
more spondaic cadences of Latin. But when once the 
Eclogues, and later the Georgics, had settled that question, 
it was not difficult to follow the lead of the master, or even 
to invent improvements upon him. 

' Cambridge Journal of Philology, xxvi. p. 2. 



This leads nic to another point which Alzinger's collec- 
tion of parallels, and more recently Sudhaus' dissertation, 
bring into conspicuous prominence. Aetna exhibits a 
number of coincidences in diction not only with the de 
Renan Natura, but also with the Eclogues, Georgics, and 
Aeneid. This ground, as is well known, is very dangerous 
and must be trodden with extreme caution. Close agree- 
ments of language are common in poets of diverse epochs, 
especially at the end of a verse, and are only now and then 
proofs of conscious imitation. For instance, no one could 
safely infer from the occurrence in Aetna of the Vergilian 
combination kuem stipulajn (Aetn. 355, G. i. 85) that one 
of the two copied the other : nor, because Vergil twice 
ends a line with maxima rerum (Aen. vii. 602, ix. 279), 
is it safe to infer either that the author of Aetna had the 
Aeneid before him when he wrote 631 maxima rerum 
Et tnerito pietas homini tutissima tiirtus, or that Vergil 
borrowed from Aetna one of its happier dictions. It is 
only when the coincidence is of a marked kind that it 
becomes an argument of any value, and even then it is too 
often uncertain. 

The three words Felix ilia dies are found four times 
at the beginning of a hexameter in four different poems 
written in the compass of a single century. 

Ciris 27 Felix ilia dies, felix et dicitur annus. 
Laus Pisonis 1 59 Felix ilia dies totumque canenda per orbem. 
Manil. v. 569 Felix ilia dies redeuntem ad litora duxit. 
Aetna 635 Felix ilia dies, ilia est innoxia terra. 

Putting aside Aetna, the other three poems range from 

the latter part of Augustus' principate to the principate of 

Caligula or Claudius. But, though the fourfold coincidence 

is too striking to be accidental, though one of the poits, 



perhaps the author of the Ciris, was almost certainly the 
source from which the others borrowed, no argument of 
any real weight can be drawn from a fact which admits 
of so many possible explanations. 

Approaching then in this tentative way the more remark- 
able coincidences of diction accumulated by Alzinger, 
and never forgetting that Alzinger himself believes that 
Vergil borrowed from Aetna what most critics believe 
Aetna to have copied from Vergil, I shall attempt to show 
that the latter and ordinarily accepted is also the more 
likely view. 
Manifesta fides. 

Aetn. 177 Aetna sui manifesta fides et proxima uero est. 

Aen. ii. 309 Turn uero manifesta fides. 

Aen. iii. 375 Auspiciis manifesta fides. 

Vergil^ like Livy vi. 13, uses the words = 'a clear proof : 
the combination, from its use by two writers of such 
authority, became stereotyped and the author of Aet?ia 
does not scruple to make a genitive depend on fides. 
'Aetna is a clear voucher of itself,' i.e. of its own workings. 
It is doubtful whether this would have been legitimate in 
a writer of the best Augustan period. 

Aetn. 297 Quae tenuem impellens animam subremigat tmda. 
Aen. X. 225-7 : 

Pone sequens dextra puppim tenet, ipsaque dorso 
Eminet ac laeua tacitis siibreinigat undis. 

Here, again, we can have little doubt that Vergil is the 

model, not the copyist. The sea-nymph's right hand holds 

the stern, her left ' oars her passage through the silent 

water \' The expression is felicitous and exactly describes 

' Mackail. 



the action of Cymodocea's one disengaged hand. It is less 
apt when transferred to the action of air by which the water 
of a hydraulic organ is set in motion. 

Aetn. 608 Et nitiduni obsciira caelum caligine torquet. 
G. i. 467 Cum caput obscura nitidum ferrugine texit. 

The two passages seem mutually dependent ; but the 
first is obscure and not easily intelligible : the latter aptly 
describes the aspect of mourning w^hich the sun assumed 
before the murder of Caesar. It is a reasonable inference 
that the finer passage suggested the weaker, and that the 
master-work of Rome's greatest poet was the source whence 
the unknown versifier drew his inspiration. 

The same may be said of locutions recognizably Vergilian, 
but in themselves violent and only admitted as part of the 
available stock of poetic diction from the acknowledged 
supremacy of the master, e.g. se rumpere=.\.o burst forth, 
applied in the first Georgic to rays of the sun (i. 445 densa 
biter niibila sese Diuorsi rumpent radii), in the Aeneid to 
a storm of rain (xi. 548 tantus se nubibus imber Ruperat), 
in Aetna to outbursts of volcanic flame (361 Ardentesqiie 
simul Jlammas ac fulmina rumpunt). 

Or, again, of combinations like terque quaterque (G. ii. 
399, Aen. i. 94, iv. 589, xii. 155), borrowed by Vergil from 
Homer, and imitated thenceforward by successive poets 

We have besides an external testimony of no mean 
weight to assist our judgment on the point. Macrobius, 
in the long list of Roman poets from whom Vergil borrowed 
ideas, words, or grammatical peculiarities, in which some 
of the greatest and some of the smallest names are included, 
Ennius, Afranius, Pacuvius, Accius, Hostius, Sueius, Lucre- 


tius, Catullus, Calvus, Cinna, Cornificius, Egnatius, Laberius, 
Varius, nowhere quotes anything from Aetna. Yet, if 
subremigai undis had come into the Aeneid from Aetna, 
it is sufficiently remarkable to have been mentioned among 
the more notable of Vergil's debts. 

Whatever, then, the explanation of the historical difficulty 
started by Kruczkiewicz and based on Aetn. 592-598 — 
where the poet mentions four leading masterpieces of Greek 
art and proceeds to say that men travelled over land and 
sea to visit them — the inference drawn from it by Alzinger 
must be pronounced untenable. Aetna cannot be pre- 

Vergil died in 19 n. c, and the Aeneid must have been 
published shortly after. The principate of Augustus lasted 
on to A. D. 14, thirty-two years later (735-767), and the 
question now confronts us in a new shape. 

Is 'Aetna' Augustan? 

Putting aside the question about the works of art, there 
are some considerations which favour an Augustan date. 

I. There are no genitives in -// like imperii. The poet 
of Aetna has sile?iti (220), incejidi, the latter three times 
{415, 439, 566). After Vergil the genitive in -// became com- 
mon, as in Propertius and the works of Ovid, especially the 
Metamorphoses, Tristia, and Epistles from Pontus. Phaedrus 
has pretii, iurgii, luscinii '. Lucan ^ has -ii regularly, and even 
Petronius in his poem on the Civil War has imperii {243). 
On the other hand Grattius^ in his highly-finished Cyne- 

' L. Havet, Phaed., p. 218, § 94. 
2 Heitland, p. cii of Haskins' Lucan. 
' Lachmann on Lucr. v. ioo6. 


gefica, has only tliree instances in 540 vv., fl(Jgii, Latii 
(24, 18, 38). Manilius 'according to Lachni. Lucr. v. 1006), 
the Panegyrist of Piso, and Persius, avoid it ; a proof that 
individual caprice ruled in the matter long after the Augustan 
era. Still it is true that this form in -// marks the later 
period of Latin literature, and that its complete absence 
from a poem of more than 640 vv. is slightly against 
a silver-age authorship. 

2. Of three points of metric increasingly observable in 
post-Ovidian poets, (a) one is not found in Aet?ia, 6 in 
nominatives singular and pres. indie, of verbs, {b) The pause 
after a dactyl ending the fourth foot like Ipse suo flueret 
Bacchus pede, inellaque lent is 1 3, Lentitiem plumbi tion exuit 1 
ipsaque ferri 542, which is exceptional in Vergil, frequent 
in Ovid's Metamm., not uncommon in Grattius, a marked 
rhythm in Petronius, and thenceforward (perhaps with the 
exception of Lucan) a favourite metrical form in hexameter 
writers, especially Val. Flaccus and Statius, is quite ex- 
ceptional in Aetna. If I have counted rightly, the average 
is I in 49 vv. {c) The Vergilian rhythm Sufficit umorevi et 
grauidas cu?n uo?nere fniges G. ii. 424, in which the first 
foot is self-complete, and the second elided before the third, 
did not please the later Augustan poets and was avoided 
with care. It occurs, though very rarely, in Aetna, 187, 477. 

These points are rather in favour of an early, possibly an 
Augustan, date : and both Bahrens and Sudhaus hold this 

Such a date would also fall in with the ascription to 
Vergil, which Aetna shares with the Culex, Ciris and 
Moretum ; such an ascription pointing to a time not long 
removed from Vergil's death in 19 b. c. 

3. Aetna is known to have been in a state of disturbance 


in the last year of the war with Sex. Ponipeius in Sicily 
36 B.C. Appian says (B. C. v. 117) there were loud rum- 
blings and terrifying bellowings (fjiVKyjfjiaTa) from Aetna, and 
that a lava-flood was apprehended. 

It would be an idle speculation to fix on any particular 
name among the recorded versifiers of the later Augustan 
period. Both Messalla and Valgius are known to have 
mentioned the mountain, and Seneca states that each of 
them had called Aetna unique (Sen. Epist. 51. 1 /// is/i'c 
habes Aetnam, ilium nobilissimum Siciliae motitem, quern 
quare dixerit Messalla um'cum, siue Valgius, apud utrumque 
etiim legi, non reperio). But though Messalla wrote Greek 
verses (Catalepton ix. (xi.) 13, 14', and is mentioned by 
Pliny (Ep. v. 3. 5) as a writer of trifles in verse, it is not 
likely that so considerable a poem as Aetna would have 
been published without his name ; nor are the short extant 
fragments of Valgius in any way like the set style of our 
poem. Among the poets whom Ovid mentions in the last 
of his Pontic Epistles, he names a Tr inner ius (Pont. iv. 
16. 25), author of a Perseis. If it could be shown that 
Ferseis'^ =-Titdnis= Aetna, \\& might imagine that Trinacrius 
wrote on his own Sicilian Titan-child, Aetna : but the 
ambiguity of the w^ord Trinacrius (which Osann has not 
proved to be a real name) hardly admits of so daring a 

* For Perses was a Titan (Apollod. i. 2. 2), and Perseis might thus 
without much forcing = Titanis, the daughter of a Titan. Such a title 
would well suit Aetna. According to one legend, Briareos was im- 
prisoned in Aetna : this is only another mode of suggesting the same 
idea, the Titanic forces of the volcano. It is of course also possible 
that Trinacrius wrote on //fca/^ (Perseis) : he might still be the writer 
of a different poem on Aetna. Ovid (lb. 597) makes Trinacrius - 
Sicilian. Aut tit Trinaaiits, salias super ora gigaitlis. Pluritua qua 
Jlammas Sicanis Aetna ujmit, where Trinacrius is Empedocles. 


conjecture, and the name Ferseis ' nowhere occurs in our 
extant Act>ia. 

The Wkrxsdorfian view: 'Aetna' was written bv 
LuciLius Junior. 

LuciUus Junior was the friend and correspondent of the 
younger Seneca, to whom all Seneca's Epistles were ad- 
dressed. He was procurator of Sicily at the time this 
correspondence was going on. It was the 79th Epistle 
which led Wernsdorf to his theory. The first half of this 
letter is a request that Lucilius would utilize a circuit, which 
he was then making of the island, to inform Seneca more 
exactly of the facts about Scylla, Charybdis, and Mount 
Aetna. 'I ask you, in compliment to myself, to ascend 
Aetna. Is it true that its height has diminished, as may 
well be from the cessation of the strong fires and copious 
smoke it sometimes discharges? Let me know how far 
distant from the crater is the snow on the summit, which 
neither summer nor fire melts. Not that I need ask you 
to do this : your own fondness would prompt you of itself. 
I * wager anything you will be describing Aetna in your 
poem and trying your hand on this commonplace of verse. 
Vergil's consummate picture did not frighten Ovid from 
handling this subject : Corn. Severus attempted it in spite 
of both. Besides it has succeeded with everybody; and 
those who came first, instead of forestalling their successors, 
have acted as their pioneers. But it makes no small differ- 
ence, whether you find the material used up or only prepared^ 

• See the Excursus which follows this chapter. 

* Reading with Rubenius Quid ttbi do tie Aetnam describas in tuo 
carmine, ne /luMc sollemnein omnibus poetis locum atitngas ? 



for your purpose ; for indeed it is constantly increasing, and 
past discoveries do not stand in the way of future. Again, 
the last comer fares best : he finds the words ready to his 
hand ; he has but to arrange them differently and they 
assume a new shape. Nor is he appropriating what is not 
his own : they are common property. Unless I am much 
mistaken in you, Aetna is making your mouth water : you 
are longing already to write something fine, to rival former 

I do not agree with those who, like Munro, ^Vagler, and 
Sudhaus, consider this passage to mean nothing more than 
that Seneca urges his correspondent to introduce into- some 
poem he was writing a short description of .\etna; From 
the words of Seneca, Aetfiajn describas in tuo carmifie, 
it is clear that Lucilius had spoken of a poem he was 
engaged upon. As he was then making a circuit of Sicily, 
he might naturally weave into this poem a description of 
some of its curiosities : of these Aetna would be one ; en- 
couraged by Seneca's letter, stimulated by his own scientific 
ardour, he would make the ascent of the mountain (if he 
had not done so already), then set to work to describe 
what he had seen, at first perhaps as a mere episode in 
his poem, afterwards, as the subject grew in its largeness 
more fully upon him, as a separate work, of which the 
one argument was the marvellous volcano. Our Aetna 
would thus be a circumstantial reply to Seneca's appeal : 
indeed the care with which he forestalls any objections 
that Lucilius might urge on the ground of difficulties in 
language or terminology hardly suits a short episode, but 
is well adapted to a detailed description involving scientific 
nomenclature and possible argumentation of an elaborate 
kind. We know from Seneca's own words that Lucilius 


wrote poems, and on Sicilian subjects. N. Q. iii. i. i 
a verse of his is quoted — 

I'lisus Siculis dc fontibus cxsilit amnis. 

N. Q. iii. 26 Seneca refers to a poem by Lucilius on 
Arethusa ; N. Q. iv. 2 he calls him ' my poet ' {quare no7i 
cum poeta men iocor et illi Ouidium suum inpingof), and 
three other lines of his are cited in the Epistles. Of these 
we should ha\e known nothing but for their accidental 
preservation by Seneca. It is therefore no improbable 
hypothesis that a similar oblivion may have fallen on him 
as waiter of our poem Aetna. 

2. This may be stated in another way. If an elaborate 
Latin poem of more than 600 lines, sufficiently finished 
to be ascribed at some period before Donatus (i. e. Sue- 
tonius) to Vergil, was in circulation in the later years of 
Augustus, and known to Seneca (750-818 = 46.0.-65 a.d.) 
either as a young man or in middle age, i.e. in the reigns 
of Tiberius (14-37), Caligula (37-41), Claudius (4i-54\ is 
it likely that he would wholly have ignored it when writing 
to Lucilius on this very subject in the reign of Nero ? This 
argument becomes stronger when we remember that Seneca, 
in the passage quoted above from Epist. 79, is speaking 
of poetical, not prose, descriptions of the volcano. Lucilius 
is to ascend Aetna and observe with his own eyes what 
he is then to describe in his promised poem. But if our 
Aetna was already familiarly known, or if it was known 
at all, how could it escape either Seneca or Lucilius, both 
of them poets, both, which is more to our purpose, keen 
explorers of natural phenomena? For of all the rare 
descriptions, not merely of Aetna, but of any similar object 
of nature (including under this term everything which our 


earth contains, sea, lake, river, mountain, cavern, cascade, 
prairie, volcano) which have descended to us from antiquity, 
this poem is by far the most elaborate in details, by far the 
most scientific, in its purpose and its reasoning. And, 
whether it was in repute as a successful attempt on the lines 
of Lucretius, or under condemnation for its over-minuteness 
and prosaic insistence on matters little congenial to a public 
trained by Ovid, such as the character of the lava-stone, 
and its appearance under different circumstances ; in either 
case, known as it must have been (on the hypothesis of 
Augustan authorship) to a man so perfectly acquainted with 
all the literature, and especially all the scientific Hterature 
of his country as Seneca, he could hardly have passed 
it over in absolute silence. Was it recognized as a success ? 
It might supply words for a new attempt. If it was thought 
tiresome, Lucilius, remembering this, would be less anxious 
about his own possible failure. If we may trust Seneca's 
own intimation, Lucilius was enamoured of the subject, and 
was longing to compose something fine that might rival his 
predecessors, Vergil, Ovid, and Corn. Severus {saliuam 
mouet : cupis grande aliqiiid et par prioribus scribere). 

3. Let us now assume the counter-hypothesis, that Aetna 
was not known to Seneca at the time he wrote Epist. 79. 
Is there anything in the poem which makes Wernsdorf's 
ascription of it to Lucilius more than probable ? 

In answer to this, we may say that a close connexion 
between Aettia and Seneca's works, particularly the Natural 
Questions, is traceable, not indeed in the cast of the 
language (for Seneca's style, like Emerson's, is not easily 
imitable, and the language of poetry is not the language 
of prose), but in the speculations with which both of the 
friends were concerned, the style of their reasoning, the 


elevated moral tone common to both, and the agreement 
in particular words. 

Speaking generally, the subjects treated by Seneca in 
his seven books of Natm-al Qxestions are just those which 
the poet of Aetna dwells upon in the finest of his digres- 
sions, 223 scjcj. Noit oculis solum pccudum miranda tueri 
More, as at once the noblest objects of intellectual effort 
and its highest reward, the investigation of natural objects, 
the various phenomena of earth, sea, sky. But there 
are points in which they approximate far more closely \ 
of these the most marked are the important function of 
spirit {spiritus) in producing subterranean disturbance ; 
the hollow and cavernous formation of the unseen earth 
below our feet, without which the spiritus would have no 
room to move ; and the appeal to the sudden emergence 
and disappearance of rivers as a proof of such cavernous 

The first of these points is the most important, and 
I may claim the not inconsiderable merit of having recalled* 
attention to it by my defence of the MS. reading of a v. of 
Aetna which a long line of critics, from Scaliger to Haupt, 
Munro, and Wagler, had altered as unmeaning. 

Aetn. 212 Spiritus inflalis nomen, languentibus aer. 

In this line the two conditions of imprisoned air, in ten- 
sion or in subsidence, are contrasted : the former is called 
spirit, the latter air. And the word in this sense of air in 
a tense state is emphasized in other passages of the poem. 

^^'ith this compare the following passages from Seneca. 
N. Q ii. I spiritus aer sit agitatus. ii. 6 quid est quod magis 
credatur ex se ipso habere intetitionem quani spiritus 1 To 

' Journal of Philology, xvi. 301. 


such a tense ' state of imprisoned air he ascribes the terrific 
phenomena of earthquakes and volcanos. 

N. Q. ii. 26, speaking of rocks thrown out by volcanic 
agency, he says dei?ide saxa eiioliita rupesque partim inlaesae 
qiias spiritus antequam iirerefitur expukrat. 

vi. 10. Anaximenes said that when subterranean ground 
gives way and falls in, it is owing either to its being loosened 
by moisture, eaten away by fire, or shaken off by the violence 
of spirit. 

vi. 12. Most authorities are agreed that spirit is the 
moving cause in earthquakes and similar disturbances. 
Venti in concaua terrarum deferimtur. deinde ubi omnia 
tarn spatia plena stint et in quafitiun aer potuit detisatus 
est, is qui superuenit spiritus priore??i premit et eiidit, ac 
frequentibus plagis priitio cogit, deinde perturbat. Compare 
with this passage Aetn. 32;: sqq. 

Haud secus adstrictus certamine tangitur ictu 

Spiritus, inuoluensque suo sibi pondere uires, 

Densa per ardentes exercet corpora gyros, 

Et quacumque iter est, properat, transitque morantem, 

Donee confluuio ueluti siponibus actus 

Exilit, atque furens tota uomit igneus Aetna. 

I will quote one more passage of the N. Q. vi. 2 1 Nobis 
quoque placet hutic spiritum esse qui possit tatita co?iari, quo 
fiihil est in reru7n natura potetitius, nihil acrius, sifie quo fiec 
ilia quidem quae uehementissima sunt, ualent. 

It would seem from the combined use which both writers, 
the philosopher and the poet, make of spiritus, in this 
restricted sense of air in a tense or inflated state, that it 
approaches the meaning of our ' gas,' though I shrink from 

1 On the ancient, specially Stoic, conception of the tension of air, 
see J. S. Reid, cited by Heitland, Classical Review for 1901, p. 80. 


following Sudhaus in using this very modem word as a safe 
equivalent. Sj>iritus has indeed the subtlety, fineness, and 
perhaps elasticity of gas ; but it does not connote anything 
inflammable. When spirit commands, fire obeys; fire 
follows the lead of spirit and fights under its direction, 
as the poet says 216, 217. 

That the earth is not solid, but full of cavities giving 
free room for the movement of air and wind, is a point 
much insisted on by the poet of Ae/na. 

96 Non totum ex solido est, ducit namque omnis hiatum, 
Secta est omnis humus, penitusque caiiata latcbris 
Exiles suspensa uias agit. 

He compares it, from this point of view, with the body 
through which the blood passes to and fro along the veins, 
and again with a heap of stones casually accumulated, the 
interstices in which correspond to the cracks and pores 
in the earth's fabric. 

'05 : et quails aceruus 

Exilit inparibus iactis ex tempore saxis, 
Vt crebro introrsus spatio uacuata charybdis 
Pendeat in sese, similis quoque terra figurae 
In tenuis laxata uias, non omnis in artum 
Nee stipata coit. 

Very close to these is N. Q. v. 14 Non to/a solido con/extii 
terra in innwi usque fiauiatur, scd viultis partilms caua et 
caecis suspensa latebris. 

Again (N. Q. iii. 8. i), Seneca says, some believe that 
the earth contains hollow recesses and a great deal of air 
(spiritus). N. Q. iii. 16. 4 'Believe that the ground below 
has everything found in the earth above. There too are 
huge caverns, vast recesses, spaces left free by the suspen- 
sion of mountains on either side. There may be found 


chasms descending sheer into the abyss, the frequent 
receivers of cities that have fallen into their bosom, and 
burying deep underground a vast mass of ruin. These 
spaces are full of air.' 

Very noticeable in this passage is the argument from the 
analogy of the world we see to the unseen world underground. 
This is exactly what our poet enjoins, 145 

Occultamque fidem manifestis abstrahe rebus, 
and on which he concludes from the existence of yawning 
spaces and far receding caverns in the visible surface of the 
earth to similar phenomena below (137 sqq.). 

Thirdly, the poet of Aetna argues from the sudden 
emergence and disappearance of rivers to the porous nature 
of the ground : for if earth were solid, river-waters would 
find no channel. This too is a point which had struck the 
attention of Seneca, N. Q. vi. 7. 2 Deitide tot fontes, tot 
capita flumi?ium subitos et ex occulto amnes uomentia. vi. 8. 2 
Age, cum uides interruptum Tigritn in medio itinere siccari et 
non uniuersu?n auerti, sed paulatim non adparentibus danmis 
minui primum, deinde consumi, quo ilium putas abire nisi iv 
obscura terrarum, utique cum uideas emergere iterufn no?i 
minorem eo, qui prior fluxerat 1 

Other points of close agreement are the contrast which 
both writers draw between the sublime works of nature 
and the far inferior operations of man. 

Aetn. 598 sqq. 

Haec uisenda putas terra dubiusque marique. 

Artificis naturae ingens opus aspice : nulla 

Tu tanta humanae plebis spectacula cernes. 

N. Q. vi. 4. 2 Quod, inquis, erit pretium operael quo 

nullum maius est, nosse naturam. neque enim quicquam 

habet in se huius ?nateriae tractatio pukhrius, cum multa 



habcat futitra usiii, qiiam quod hominem jnagnificentia sui 
detinet, nee fnercede, sed miraculo colitur. 

Common again to both is the complaint against human 
avarice in ransacking the bowels of the earth to make it 
reveal its secrets and give up its gold. 

Aetn. 257, 258 (278, 279:: 

Scrutamur rimas et uertimus omne profundum, 
(2uaeritur argent! semen, nunc aurea uena. 

N. Q. V. 15. 2 i7itellexi saecu/um nostrum non nouis 
uitiis scd iatti wde atitiquitus traditis laborare nee fiostra 
aetate primum auaritiam uenas terrarum lapidumque rima- 
tam in tettcbris male abstrusa qiiaesisse. 

Compare, again," the lengthy passage of Aetna describing 
the inflammable substances within the volcano, beginning 

illis uernacula causis 
Materia adpositumque igni genus utile terraest. 
Vritur assidue calidus nunc sulphuris umor, 
Nunc spissus crebro praebetur aluniine sucus. 
Pingue bitumen adest et quidquid comminus acris 
Irritat flainmas : illius corporis Aetna est. 

with N. (^. V. 14. 3 illud uero ffiani/estum est magnam 
esse sub terris ui?n sulphuris et aliorum non minus ignem 

I proceed to more minute points of contact between 
the two writers. The most noticeable of these are (i) 
the use of water-pressure to produce sound, Aetn. 292- 
297, N. Q. ii. 6. 5 quae aquarum pressura maiorem sonitum 
formant, (2) of sipones to force water upwards, Aetn. 326, 
N. Q. ii. 16 aqua?n cofipressa utrimque palma in modu7n 
sipofiis exprimere. 

Wernsdorf made much use of this argument from the 
trumpeting I'riton and the water-organ to prove that 


Aetna was written late. Suetonius mentions the emperor 
Claudius ' as employing the Triton in a spectacular nau- 
machia exhibited on lake Fucinus^ Nero as spending the 
greater part of a day in examining and exhibiting hydraulic 
organs of a new make, engaging to bring them befoie the 
notice of the public, and promising himself to play one 
in the theatre (Ner. 41, 54). 

The fact of these two mechanical contrivances being 
combined in the poem certainly points to both being 
familiarly known at the time ; nor is the force of Werns- 
dorf's reasoning much weakened by the circumstance that 
several centuries before the mathematician Heron' had 
described successively both the trumpeting Triton and the 
water-organ. And if Cicero * tells us that the water-organ 
was sometimes listened to in the last years of his life (Tusc. 
Disp. iii. 18), this goes for little against the coincident 
testimony of Seneca and Suetonius as to its being a 
prevailing fashion of the Claudian and Neronian era 
(Sen. Ep. 84. 10, 87. 12, 13). 

I must not omit a special episode of Aefna which is 
common to the poet and Seneca, the story of the Catinaean 
brothers, whose piety saved their parents from perishing 
by the fires of the volcano. Seneca twice mentions this tale, 
both times in the De Beneficiis ii. 37 Vicere Siaili iuuenes 
cum Aet?ia maiore ui peragitata in url>es, in agros, in 

' Claud. 21. 

' The words of Suetonius (Claud. 21} einissunis Fudnuiii laaim 
naumachiaiii ante comniisit most naturally refer to the time when 
the artificial channel of the emissarimn was completed, but not yet 
in action. The channel took eleven years to construct (Suet. Claud. 
20) : the naumachia would thus fall in 52 A. d. only two years before 
the accession of Nero. Cf. Smilda on Suet. Claud. 21. 

s Munro. * Alzinger. 



j/iai^/iam i/isi/hie partem effiidisset incendium, i/exeriint 
pare/lies suos. disccssisse crcditum est iptes et utrimque 
Jiamma reccdentc limitem adapertum, per quern trafis- 

currerent iuuenes dignissiifii qui magna tuto auderent. 

Again in vi. 36. i. The resemblances in the first of these 

passages to our poem are marked. 

Actn. 609 Ardebant agris segetes et moUia cultu 

lugera cum dominis, siluae collesque rubebant. 

631 O maxima rerum 

Et mcrito fiietas homini tutissima uirtus ! 
Erubuere pios iuuenes attingere flammae, 
Et quacumque ferunt illi uestigia, cedunt. 

It is believed' that the Natural Questions belong to 
the last period of Seneca's life, a. d. 62-65. Now in the 
description of himself which Seneca places in Lucilius' 
mouth in the preface to B. iv. (§ 14) quamquam paupertas 
alia suadcrct et iugenium eo duceret, ubi praesens studii 
pretium est, ad gratuita carmiua me deflexi et ad salutare 
studium philosophiae 7ne contuli, Lucilius is represented 
as saying he had written poems not for any gain they 
might bring him, but prompted by pure love of the 
subject. No better description of such a poem as Aetna 
could be imagined : it is in the truest sense a gratuitum 
cari/ien : few would be likely to read, fewer still to praise 
it. Whatever reward it brought its author would be of 
an unsubstantial kind, the consciousness of a laborious 
task well performed, or the praise of the few critics who 
cared for its minute scientific description, or felt the poet's 
enthusiasm in the rare moments when he is really fine. 

This indeed is mere theory ; but the point is new and 

' TeufTel, 272 2. 


deserves consideration. If it is true, we must suppose 
Aefna to have been published after Seneca's seventy-ninth 
epistle, and before the completion of the Fourth Book 
of the Natural Questions \ 

I do not think there is anything in the diction of the 
poem which contravenes this view. The most noticeable 
specialities are effumare 499, succer?tere to sift off 495, 
kntities 542, commurmurare 299. Of these succernere is 
found in Cato and Pliny the Elder, commurmurare in 
SiUus Italicus. But on such a point I know no opinion 
to which greater weight can be ascribed than that of our 
owTi countryman, H. A. J. ]\Iunro, who, in his edition 
of Aetna published in 1867, declares (p. 35) that he 
' cannot anyhow believe it to be older than the silver age.' 

We have then two hypotheses before us, neither of them 
improbable in itself, (1) that Aetna was written by some 
author unknown not long after the death of Vergil, which 
would better agree with its being ascribed, like the Culex 
and Ciris, to him ; (2) that it is a poem of the later 
Claudian or early Neronian era, and may plausibly be 
assigned to Lucilius Junior, the philosophical friend and 
correspondent of the younger Seneca, with whose works 
and, in particular, the seven books of Natural Questions, 
it shows a close and very intimate agreement. 

The difficulty raised by Kruczkiewicz and Alzinger on 
the ground of art applies to both hypotheses. Two of the 
three works referred to in the poem as drawing visitors 

1 It has been observed by Sudhaus that, in the Preface to the 
Fourth Book of the N. Q. § 10, Seneca uses the rare combination 
ingenium consecrarc. If the Gyraldinus may be trusted, as most 
critics beheve, this is the very language of Aetna 226 Ingenium 
sacrare capntque attollere each, a verse which our extant MSS. give 
corruptly Sacra per ingeniem capittqiie attollere caelum. 



from beyond sea were actually in Rome, the Venus from 
some period in the reign of Augustus, the Medea from the 
dictatorship of Julius Caesar. It is difficult to believe that 
any writer living under Augustus should have ignored a fact 
which the imperial policy would have made a familiar topic 
of conversation. On the other hand one of the two works, 
the Venus, fell into decay towards the middle of the first 
century a. d. and was replaced by a new picture in the 
reign of Nero. It might be said, therefore, that, as it was 
no longer in existence, a writer of that time might either 
not know that it had ever been in Rome, or at least safely 
ignore the fact that it had been. This is, so far, rather in 
favour of the later hypothesis. But it must not be for- 
gotten that the three works are spoken of vaguely as 
Greek pictures or statues, which arrest the eyes, and with 
the indeterminate nunc — tiunc — mine which would suit 
works selected as typical specimens of high art \ and that 
not only has Cicero (Verr. ii. 4. 135) combined the three 
as world-famed types, but Ovid (Trist. ii. 525-7) in an 
elegy written after his exile to Tomoe, mentions Ajax, 
Medea, and the Venus Anadyomene as the commonest 
subjects for house-painting. 


Freeman in his Excursus on the Palici {Hist, of Sicily i. 
pp. 517-530) cites a passage from the so-called Clementine 
Homilies (Migne, vol. ii. p. 183), in which the writer, in 
a list of the amours of Zeus, after mentioning Eurymedusa, 
from whom was born Myrmidon, continues thus — {(rvvrikO^v 
Zeus) 'Epcratov vvfji<f>rj ycvdytAevos yv\j/, i^ ^s 01 ev SiKcXia TraXat 



The only two MSS.of the Clementine Homilies known, the 
Codex Parisinus, edited by Cotelier in 1672, and the Cod. 
Vaticanus (Ottoboni 443), collated by Dressel and published 
in 1853, both agree in 'Epa-aiov and TraXai o-o^ot. The latter 
words were emended by Cotelier, doubtless rightly, UaXiKoi, 
or perhaps IlaAtcr/cot. The former passage has been unsatis- 
factorily tried by Dressel : Wieseler conj. QaXeux rr} koI Alrvrj 
rfj 'H</>ato-Tov, vvfifftv- Freeman, p. 526, asks, with good 
reason, ' \Vhat is meant by 'Epaaiov vvp.(^yj ? ' and rejects 
Cotelier's suggestions that it is an error for ipaaui, 'nymph 
of dew,' or xip(Taia.=-terrestri, Aetna having been buried 

It seems not impossible that 'Epo-aiW is a corruption 
of Ilcpo-aior. The Titan Perses, whence Ferseis is formed, 
is called irepo-aio? in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter 24 ; 
and it is no violent conjecture to suppose that he was 
sometimes represented as the father, not only of Hecate 
(the usual signification of Ferseis), but oi Aetna. 

There is a Latin parallel to the above passage of the 
Clementine Homilies in the Recognitiones ascribed to 
Clement but really by Rufinus, Migne, vol. i. p. 1432. 
This is written in two Oxford MSS. Trin. 60 (saec. xi), 
and Bodl. Rawl. C. 660 (xiii), thus : — 

Eurimidus amacelai mutatus in formicam . ex qua nascuntur 
mirmidon . thalian . aecnea nimpham mutatus in uulturem ex 
qua nascitur apud Siciliam paliseu. Raivl. 

amacelai. Trift. mirmidon (without . ) Trin. thalian ac 
nea nimpam Trin. uulturem . Trin. 

Reduced to intelligible Latin, this is — 

Eurimedusam Acelai (Acheloi) [stuprat] mutatus in formi- 
cam, ex qua nascitur Myrmidon : Thalian Aetneam^ nympham 
mutatus in uulturem, ex qua nascitur apud Sicilian! Palicus (?) 

1 Unger conj. Thaliam et Aetnam nympham : I think, wrongly, 
xlix d 


This makes the mother of the Pahci Thalia, an Aetnean 
nymph. Macrobius (v. i8. i8) knows her only as nympha 
Thalia with no mention of Aetna. But in other, and 
earlier, accounts, Palicus is the son, not of an Aetnean 
nymph, but of Aetna herself; thus Servius on Aen. ix. 581 
Aeinam nympham, uel ut quidam uolunt Thaliam, luppiter 
cum uitiasset et fecisset grauidam, timens Iimonem, secundum 
alios ipsam puellam terrae commendauit, et illic enixa est : 
secundum alios partum eius : ibid, a/ii Vukani et Aetnae 
filium tradunt {Faiicum). Steph. Byz. s.v. YiaXiK-q quotes 
a writer called .Silenus as stating that Palicus' mother was 
Aetna, daughter of Oceanus. Placidus on Stat. Theb. xii. 
156 calls her 'a nymph Aetna.' 

In the Theocritean Scholia on i. 65, two distinct sets 
of parents are assigned to Aetna, (i) Uranus and Ge, (2) 
Briareos, the father also of Sicanus. It seems probable that 
there were other genealogies now lost, which like the Briareos 
pedigree, connected her with Chthonic or Titanic powers. 
Among such Perses or Persaeus is a well-known and 
recurring name, Hes. Theog. 375-377 : — 

Kpfl'o) d' 'EvfJV^LT] T(K(V (V (fiLXoTTjrl fxiyi'iiTa 

'A(Tr/)at'>j/ re fxfyai/ IlaXXni/rd re dia 6fdo)i> 
Htfjaqv 6\ OS Kai naai fKrerrpeRtp Idfxocrvvrjcrii', 

Cf. Apollod. i. 1.2. 

It may be said that Perseis is usually the name of 
Hecate^ e. g. in Hesiod's Theogony and in the Argonautica 
of ApoUonius Rhodius. This does not prove that there 
were no other claimants to the same title. Hyginus Fab. 
156 mentions a Perseis, d. of Oceanus, and mother of 
Circe J cf. Apollod. i. 9. i. Aetna (Steph. Byz. I.e.) was 
said by Silenus to be herself a daughter of Oceanus ; it 


may therefore have been as an Oceanid that Aetna was 
{^ex hypothesi) called Perseis. But the other view, that 
it is as a Titanic power that she was so called, is far 
more likely from the natural and intimate connexion of 
subterranean and volcanic phenomena with Titans, Giants, 
Cyclopes, &:c. This is a fact too well established to need 
any further enlargement here. 

The passage of the Clementine Homilies then, I pro- 
pose to emend thus — [A'tv;/ rjyj Ilcpo-atov, vviJL(f>i], yev6fj.ei'0<; 
yvif/, i$ ^s ol iv ^iKeXia JJaXiKoi. 

If the V. of Ovid's last Pontic Epistle {Trinacriusque 
suae Perseidos auctor) is to be explained of Aetna, it 
is obvious that the hitherto meaningless suae has a 
defined and easily felt significance. Trinacrius is ' the 
composer of his oivn Perseis,' because he selected to bear 
that name his own heroine, Aetna, daughter of the Titan 
Perses, not Hecate, nor Circe's mother, as most other 
poets had done : or, if Trinacrius'^ is not the actual 
name of the writer, but merely a variation on Sicuius, Ovid 
would mean that the SiciUan composer of Perseis had 
fixed on an epichorian, not Italian or Hellenic^ rjpMivr;, 
to form the subject of his verses. The fact that Perseis 

' Osann on Pseudo-Apuleius de orthographia, p. 36. traced Triua- 
cn'a as a female name in an inscription (Gruter dcclv 9 , Anionics. 
Triniacre. nxori p. Mr. Haverfield, however, has not been able to find 
Trinacrius as a proper name in the C. I. L. ; it must therefore, if 
existent, be rare. The first impression of the passage is distinctly, 
I think, in favour of its being an actual name, especially in its com- 
bination with Lupus, which is certainly such. Trinacriusque suae 
Perseidos auctor, ct auctor Tantalidae reducis Tyndaridosque Lupus. 
Almost all the poets mentioned by Ovid in this long catalogue 
(Ep. Pont. iv. 16) are called by their names ; and if Trinacria is the 
genuine appellation of a woman, there seems to be no reason for 
denying Trinacrius similarly to a male. 

li d 2 


nowhere occurs in Aetna, does not entirely disprove my 
hypothesis. The poet might have alluded elsewhere to 
his heroine, not as Aetna, but as Perscis, and Ovid may 
have borrowed this title from him. Or, if the poem was 
not in high esteem with the literary world of the time, 
Ovid might prefer to mention it by an ambiguous patro- 
nymic, rather than by its more commonly known title. 
We can imagine the wits of the later Augustan era 
parodying Cicero's criticism (ad Q. Fr. ii. ii) of Sallustius' 
Empedocka : ' uirum te putabimus si Trinacrii Aetnam 
legeris, hominem non putabimus.' 




Not the least of the services which the great scholar 
H. A. J. Munro has rendered to Latin Philology, is the 
collation he made in 1866-7 of the unique Cambridge MS. 
(C) of Aetna. Its existence, indeed, had not escaped at 
least one scholar of his University long before ; for as far 
back as March of 1705^, John Davies, the editor of Cicero's 
de £>iui?iafiofie and de Natura Deorum, transcribed ' from 
it vv. 559-644 {Armaius flanmia est his uiribus additur 
ingens. . . . Sed curae cessere domus et iura pioruni), and on 
July 23, 1710^, sent a copy which he had made of the 
entire MS. (then in the library of Bp. Moore at Ely) to 
Le Clerc, who was preparing a second edition of his com- 
mentary on the poem. Towards the middle or end of the 
eighteenth century the MS. was known to Wassenberg ''. 
But as late as 1826 it was still lying /^r^z/ and unrecognized, 
for Jacob makes no mention of it in his edition of that 
year. Even after special attention had been called to it 
in 1842 by Ritschl {Rheinisches Museum,^. 135), Haupt * 
in 1854, though well informed of its antiquity (it was 

» In MS. D'Orville, x. i. i. 18. 

* Hoeven. de loanne Clerico dissert alio nes duae (1842), p. 155. Le 
Clerc published, under the pseudonym of Gorallus, a first edition of 
Aetna in 1703, a second in 1715. He seems to have made no use of 
Davies' collation of C. 

3 Suringar, Spicileg. Crit. in Aeinaw, 1804 (p. xiii). 

* By correspondence with Joseph Power, then librarian. 



written in the tenth century) and acquainted with many 
of its readings ', liad only an imperfect knowledge of the 
MS. as a whole. 

Twelve years later, when Ribbcck was preparing his 
edition of the Vergilian opuscula, he wrote to Munro asking 
for a collation of the text of the Culex, contained in the 
same MS., Kk. v. 34. Munro sent his collation to Ribbeck, 
and then proceeded to examine the Aetna portion of the 
MS. A comparison of its readings with those of the MSS. 
previously known (the chief of them were published by 
Jacob in his edition of 1826) was enough to prove its 
immense superiority. This, indeed, might have been 
inferred from its much greater anticjuity : for it cannot be 
later than the tenth century. Munro accordingly collated 
it completely, and published his collation with a commentary 
in 1867. 

If to this Munro had merely added the readings, as 
rei)orted by the lena editor and Matthiae, of the lost codex 
Gyraldinus (vv. 138-285), it is ])robable that his edition 
would have made a greater mark, and would have been 
received with more enthusiasm. But the later MSS. which 
Munro included in his apparatus criticus are all of the 
fifteenth century, and all more or less interpolated ; and 
the eye of the reader wanders amongst their unimportant 
variants, and cannot keep C (the Cambridge MS.) in view 
unobstructedly. In spite of this Munro's complete publica- 
tion of C for the first time, marks the beginning of a more 
exact criticism on Aetna ; for however useful the com- 
mentaries of earlier editors like Scaliger, Le Clerc, Wernsdorf, 
Jacob, may be in explaining or illustrating its difficulties, 
these editors could not constitute a satisfactory text, because 
1 Opusc. ii. 28. 


they were ignorant ' of the single uncorrupted source on 
which such a text must be based. 

Only one other of our extant sources approaches C in 
age and integrity, the Stabuleiisian fragmejit (S) " in the 
National Library of Paris, first collated by Bormans in the 
Biilletins de I' Acad. Royale des Scietices et Belles Lcttres 
de Bruxelles, Tome xxi (1854). If this had survived 
entire we should have a somewhat later duplicate of C : 
unfortunately it is a fragment^ containing tolerably com- 
plete 1-170, 215-258, 260-30T, in a truncated form 171- 
213, 303-345. Though greatly defaced and sometimes 
illegible, it is valuable, not only as closely approaching C, 
but as justifying the hope that other fragments of equally 
early date (it seems to belong to the eleventh century) may 
lie in other libraries at present unknown. There is more 
hope for this because the poem was ascribed to Vergil, and 
must often have been copied with others of the Opuscula 
Vergiliana in the same MS. Such was certainly the case 
with the Stabulensian fragment, which includes portions of 
the Culex and Dirae, the whole of the Copa and More turn, 
the Vir Bonus, and Est et Non. 

The superiority of C and, in a less degree, of S, to all 
the fifteenth-century copies of Aetna is enforced by Munro, 
and is palpable in many ways. As a whole, C, and S 
where preserved, both present the poem in an intelligible, 
though sometimes obscured, form ; whereas, in any of the 
fifteenth-century MSS. e. g. the BeMiger codex at Breslau, 
or the Arundel codex in the British Museum, the sense 
is perpetually darkened by the most preposterous and 

^ Or at least ignored it, as Le Clerc seems to have had a collation 
of C, but not to have used it for his second edition. 

^ See Bahrens,P.Z.. M. ii. pp. 10, 11 ; Wagler, de Aetna poeinali, 2-5. 



scarcely cieclible corruptions : words are wrongly divided, 
whole or half-lines omitted, crosses or other marks of a lost 
meaning appended ; and in the more difficult or scientific 
sections of the poem, the reader is left to feel for a meaning 
which obstinately refuses to come into sight. Anybody 
may test this for himself by a glance at the earliest editions, 
which were all printed from these fifteenth-century MSS., 
or at the explanations of corrupt passages proposed in these 
editions by the scholars of the latter fifteenth and early 
sixteenth centuries. Even Scaliger, who edited the Pseudo- 
\'ergilian opuscula in 1572, with all his vast knowledge and 
his trained critical acumen, could make little of his bad 
materials, and by the confession of Hau[)t, has not been 
successful in his explanation of Aetna. Nor were the 
scholars of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
Heinsius, Le Clerc, Wernsdorf, much better off than their 
predecessors. Heinsius, indeed, knew at least some of the 
lections ascribed to the so-called Gyraldinus ; and in his 
second edition of Claudian (1665), dedicated to Christina 
of Sweden, corrects some of the obscure passages of Aetna 
by their help. But none of these scholars had seen the 
Cambridge MS. ; and even as late as 1837, when Haupt 
published his Quaestiones Catullianae, in which Aettia is 
treated at considerable length, he had not heard of the 
existence of this, the one primary source for the constitu- 
tion of the poem in its entirety. 

Treading closely in the steps of Munro, whose complete 
collation of C, published in 1867, must, as I would again 
enforce, be considered the first ste[)- towards a perfectly 
adequate criticism of Aetna, I will now descend to a more 
particular examination of some of the points in which C, 
with the Stabulensian fragment S, forms a class distinct 


from all the fifteenth - century copies. The Gyraldinian 
readings may here be passed by, as they extend to only 
a small section of the poem (138-285) ; and their genuine- 
ness, regarded as a whole, is not quite beyond suspicion. 

(a) The following verse of Aeffia is preserved in CS^ 
alone : — 

61 In commune uenit iam patri dextera Pallas 
In C alone : — 

468, 469 mine incertae fades hominumque fif^urae 

Pars lapidum domita stanti pars robora pugnae 

The following half-lines are found in CS, not in the fifteenth- 
century MSS. : — 

53 —que tertia sidera signis 
326 siponibus actus (only si^ofi- remains in S) 
444 Siculi uicinia montis (in C alone, S being lost here) 

(d) The following verses are intelligible in CS, unintelligible 
in fifteenth-century MSS. : — 

95 extremique maris curuis incingitur undis CS 

Rehd. and v curuis hie agitur (agitabitur v) 
.105 Sed tortis^ rimosa cauis CS 

totis xvth cent. MSS. 

121 errantes arcessant undique uenas C 

et undas Rehd. ab undis v 
192, 3 custodiaque ignis Illi operum est arcent aditus C 

operfum est arcent dictis Rehd. 

* Wagler shows, p. 5, that the variations of 5 from C are chiefly 
wrong divisions of words, e. g. Ossa nolympits, Jlantmare ntouet ; but 
the advantage is sometimes on the side of S, e.g. indusi solidiem, 
in/erfe, for inclusis olidn»t, inferl e o( C. I cannot agree with Wagler 
in his judgment that 5 is 'proprio pretio plane destitutum' : its slight 
variations are of great value where the critical question comes into 

' S has tori/is, but the » is scarcely perceptible. 


209 Exigitur uenti turbas auertice saeuo C 

uetitur saxa uerticc . . . + {sic) Rchd. 
344 Cum rcxit uires C 

Cur exit uires Rehd. 
372 Causa latet quae rumpat iter C 

quaerunt pariter xvth cent. MSS. 
3S3 Si cessata diu referunt certamina uenti C 
Si cessat A iure ferunt Rehd. 

434 nee obesa bitumine terra est C 

acudiine Rehd. Arund. 
490 Quod si forte cauis cunctatus uallibus haesit C 

uasibus Rehd. 
537 Heraclite tui C 

Heracliti et ubi est Rehd. 
Eradicet ubi Hebnstadt MS. 

574 felicesque alieno intersumus aeuo C 

intersumo Hclmst. 

transumere Rehd. 

(e) Cases where C, though wrongs points unmistakably 
to the right reading : — 

213 Nam prope nequiquam par est uolentia semper C 
from uolentia it is a short step to uiolentia. 
The V. is corrupted in Rehd. as follows : — 

Nam pro poena quicquam par est uoluentia semper. 
335 Prospectant sublimis opus C 

i. e. Prospectant s. o. 

Prospectat Rehd. a step farther from the true reading. 

398) 399 "^^^ maxima causa mola acris 

lllius incendi lapis est siuindicat aetnam 
i. e. is (or, sic) uindicat. 
In Rehd. the v. appears thus : — 

IlHus incendia lapis sic uendicat aethnam,+ 
484 Incipit et prunis dimittit coUibus undas C 

protiis Schrader, Suringar, Munro. 
Most fifteenth-century MSS. \\di\ft primis. 

569 Traducti materia et terris per proxima fatis C 

Traducti maria, the conj. of De Rooy^ is simple and 
generally accepted as right. 

Rehd. gives Tracti materia, which is a step towards the 
more complete vitiation which is f(jund in some late 
fifteenth-century MSS.^ e. g. MS. 207 in the Museum of 
Naples J Traduce ?fiateria. 

Another test of the superiority of C is orthography. It 
has artus arte not arcius, arete, caelum not coehwi, temptare 
not tentare, nequiquam not nequicquatii, luppiter not Jupiter, 
harena not arena, saecula not secula, sucosior not succosior, 
bucina not bucciiia, siponibus not siphotiibus, inice not iniice, 
cometefi not co??ietem, Bootes not Boethes, Laeda not Leda. 
Not that it is without spellings of less authority : even C 
has not escaped that predominant error of MSS. Lygurgus 
for Lycurgus ; and so humida, extinctus instead of the more 
correct uftiida, exstinctus^. Some few traces of st for est 
after -ae have survived, luna . est=/ufiaest 230, terrent for 
terraest 387. 

Among the fifteenth-century MSS. there is little to choose. 
The Rehdiger codex, which I have published in full in the 
Journal of Philology, xx. 207-223, is a fair representative 
of them; Vat. 3272, containing 1-433, has some readings 
of its own which deserve consideration, yet as a whole is 
deplorably corrupt. Still these MSS. are not to be entirely 
neglected, as they contain occasional lections which are 
obviously right, and it cannot be demonstrated that these 
are all corrections of Italian scholars of the Renaissance. 
Those who are familiar with the transmission of classical 

' Yet e.xsudant (545). In 269 dolea is shown by Munro to be 
a correct form : pigneia 135, but pignora, pignore 459, 518. 



texts in the Middle Age, who by the constant examination 
and comparison of the MSS. of particular authors, have 
arrived at something like perception of the probable course 
by which they become at first slightly, by degrees desperately, 
vitiated, know that the progress of this vitiation is variable, 
and is influenced by very different accidents. A few in- 
stances will sufl!ice to explain my meaning. 

In 439 our tenth -century MS. (C) gives Pars tamen 
incendi maiore frixit, the fifteenth-century MSS. have viaior 
refrixit, rightly. We cannot infer from this that all the 
early, but now lost, MSS. of Aetna (say of tenth, eleventh, 
or twelfth centuries) agreed with C, and that the correction 
was made in the fourteenth or fifteenth century ; the wrong 
division in the words maiore frixit is not necessarily early, 
the right division late : it is equally possible that this latter 
descended to the fifteenth century from an early MS. 
distinct from C. So, again, the fifteenth -century MSS. 
give in 406 ' Et metuens natura f?ia/i ; C has naturam alii ; 
but we cannot infer that the former and obviously right 
reading did not descend from some other tenth-century MS. 
where the words were divided correctly. For this reason 
I have thought it the safest course to reject the ascription 
of such lections to the convenient symbol Itali, although it 
has the support of one of the greatest critics of the last 
hundred years, Lachmann : I have preferred to mention 
the exact MS. in which such lections occur, not venturing 
to pronounce whether the correction was made early or was 
only introduced when a more scientific knowledge of Latin 
had set in. On similar grounds I have once or twice hesi- 

' So 461 exemploque C, extemploqiie Rehd. 526 non odora ut C, 
non odor aut Rehd. Yet Fabriles opera erudibus both in C and 
Redh. (561). . 



tated whether to follow C or He/id., e. g. in 511,512, where 
C gives fauilla Flumitia proprietate simul concrescere : Rehd. 
and Arund. haye fauilhim Plurima. Both C and Rehd. are 
in this instance corrupt : for neither /aw/Z/a nor faui/lavi can 
well be right : but the over-frequent repetition of the word 
flutnen in this part of the poem is rather against C, while 
plurima would form an intelligible antithesis to ??iateriafn 
altafti : the mass of the stone to the smaller and liquefying 

During my stay in Rome in 1887 I examined several of 
these late copies of Aettia, all of them more or less inter- 
polated. But it must be considered very unfortunate that 
the codex of the later fourteenth or early fifteenth century, 
which I discovered in the Corsini palace, and which contains 
a copy of the Culex ^ of unique importance, has preserved 
ouly the first six verses of Aetna, enough, however, to show 
that the archetype from which it was intended to be copied 
entire was good, and did not belong to the inferior class. 
Had we, I will not say the whole, but half of Aetna preserved 
to us in this codex, we might have been able to illumine 
some of the dark passages where C and ^ leave us groping. 
A MS. in the Chigi^ palace which I looked at was dis- 
appointing ; not less so one belonging to the Urbino 
collection in the Vatican (353), and another in the Naples 
Museum. A somewhat higher importance attaches to one 

' Corsini 64=43. F. 5. See Classical Review, vi. 203 ; Cambridge 
Journal of Philology for 1887, pp. 153-156. 

- This MS. however points to the true reading in 406. It has ubi 
congitiir igiii, i.e. cogitur. Bahrens, with the rashness which dis- 
tinguished him, ascribed cogitur to the Itali, in other words considered 
it a correction of the fifteenth rentury. The form which it assumes 
in the Chigi MS., coiigitur, is conclusive against this. 


of the MSS. in the British Museum collated by Munro, 
Arundel 133 ; Shane 777 is considerably interpolated. 

There are besides at least three collections of excerpts in 
existence^ two of them collated by Bahrens, one by myself. 
The two former are at I'aris, 7647 and 17903' ; the last is 
in the Escorial. This MS.^ Q. i. 14, among excerpts from 
a great variety of Latin works, prose and poetry alike, 
(notably an unusually large collection of seventy lines and 
half-lines from the Argonautica of Val. Flaccus), has forty- 
one verses of Aetna. I shall here quote from my descrip- 
tion published in the Cambridge Journal of Philology, xxii. 

Virgilius in Ethna. Guam iocundum sit scientie non 
cupiditati operam dare. 

1 Inmensus labor est sed fertilis idem [221] 

2 Digna laborantis respondent premia curis [222] 

3 Scire quot et que sint magno natalia niundo [227] 

4 Principia et rerum dubias exquirere causas [228 + 225] 

5 Solis scire modum et quanto minor orbita lune [230] 

6 Haec breuior cur bissenos cito peruolet orbes [231] 

7 Annuus ille meet quod [q'] certo sydera currant [232] 

8 Ordine \cett. oinissa sunt] [233] 

9 Scire uices etiam signorum tradita cura est [234] 

10 Nubila cur celo terris denuntiet imbres [235] 

11 Quo cubeat [sic] phebe quo frater palleat igne [236] 

12 Tempora cur uariant anni primaque iuuenta [237] 

13 Ver estate perit cur estas ipsa senescit [238] 

14 Autumpnoque obrepit hienis et in orbe recurrit [239] 

15 Axem scire helices et tristcm nosse cometem [240] 

16 Lucifer unde micet • quaue hesperus • undc boetes [241] 

17 Saturnique stella tenax quae [q] martia pugnax [242] 

18 Quo rapiant naute quo sydere iintea tendant [243] 

19 Scire uias maris et celi predicere cursus [244] 

> Bahrens, p. 15, ascribes 7647 to the twelfth or thirteenth 
centuries, 17903 to the thirteenth century. 


20 Quo uolet orion quo incubet index [245] 

21 Et quocunque iacent tanto miracula mundo [246] 

22 Non digesta pati nee aceruo condita lerum [247] 

23 Sed manifesta notis carta disponere sede [24S] 

24 Singula diuina est animi ac iocunda uoluntas [249] 

25 Non oculis solum pecudum miranda uidere [223] 

26 More nee effusis in humum graue pascere corpus [224J 
Conquestio quod maiorem demus operam augende pecunie 

quam scientie. 

27 Torquemur miseri inprimis premimurque labore [256] 

28 Vt sese pretio red'mant rcrumque [sic] professe [260] 

29 Turpe silent artes uiles inopesque rclicte [261 J 

30 Torquentur flamma terre ferroque domantur [259] 

31 Scrutamur rinias et ucrtimus omne profundum [257] 

32 Semen ut argenti queratur et aurea uena [258] 

33 Noctes atque dies festinant arua coloni [262] 

34 Calient rure manus glebarum expellimur usu [263] 

35 Fertilis haec segetique feratior altera uiti [264] 

36 Hee platanis humus hee herbis dignissima tellus [265] 

37 Hee dura et melior pecori • siluisque fidelis [266) 

38 Aridiora tenent olee ■ suecosior ulmis [267] 

39 Grata leues crutiant animos et corpora sause [s/c] [268] 

40 Horrea uti saturent tumeant et dolia musto [269] 

41 Plenaque desecto surgant fenilia campo [270] 

These Escorial excerpts are identical with those at Paris. 
They almost always agree with C. There are four cases in 
which they do not. 230 et quanto minor orbita lune £sc., 
et quanto minor orbita luna -est C ; 266 Haec dura et Esc, 
Haec diuiti et C ; 232 Annuus ille meet £sr., Annuus ille 
monet C; 267 ulmis £sr., ulmus C. This proves my 
assertion that if we had other MSS. of a date as early as 
€S, or only a little later, we should find at least some 
variations of importance. 

Hitherto our path has been clear enough. We have on 
the one hand two early MSS. (CS), one entire of the tenth, 
the other imperfect of the eleventh century ; also a short 


body of excerpts drawn from a source not practically 
different, yet exhibiting lections which at times diverge 
from CS, at times correct them. A\'e have on the other 
hand a number of fifteenth-century MSS. all more or less 
vitiated^ yet not without their use. as at times preserving 
what seems likely to be the original reading. Between 
these two classes we can, of course, have no difficulty in 
deciding which to follow. CS, and especially C, are our 
only safe guides ; the other class is comparatively of little 

But we are now confronted with a problem of some 
difficulty. For in addition to the sources already mentioned 
we possess a number of various readings on one portion 
of Ae//ia (138-285) which profess to be derived from a far 
older codex than even C, and which include some correc- 
tions of such excellence as to warp the judgment of critics 
into believing that in this body of variants we possess an 
uncorrupted tradition which outweighs all our other sources. 
This is practically the view of Jacob and Haupt : Bahrens 
made of them a first class, to which all other MSS. are 
subordinate : he has been followed even more pronouncedly 
by Wagler, Hildebrandt, and Sudhaus. This was not so 
always. Wernsdorf when editing Ae/na in his Poetae Latini 
Minores (1785) used them with hesitation: Munro, though 
sometimes adopting them, did not scruple at times to reject 
them in favour of C : my own feeling, which originally went 
beyond Munro in his acceptance, changed as soon as the 
real test of comparison, the two MSS. CS, had become 
more minutely known by personal inspection, collation, and 
transcription^, and this doubt has found expression in 
various papers communicated to the Journal of Philology 

^ I made a complete transcript of C 



at intervals from 1887 to the present time. Very lately 
Alzinger has subjected all these variants to a laborious and 
impartial scrutiny, and the result may be stated in his own 
words. ' The codex Gyraldinus has played out its role as 
" best source." As basis for the formation of the text 
of Aetna, CS alone can count henceforward, however cor- 
rupt and disfigured their transmission, and however hard 
their riddles to explain.' 

Lilius Gyraldus (Hist. Poet. iv. p. 372, ed. Basel, 1545) 
in his life of the poet Claudian writes thus : ' Composuit 
uero mtilta Claudianiis quae in 7na7nbus hahentur, inter quae 
et nomiulla Graeca, ut Gigantomachiam, ex qua et Graecos 
uersus legimtts . . . £xtant et Claudiani in Graecorum 
epigramfnatum uolumifie de crystallo uersus qua de re 
eiusdem et Latini leguntur. Extat item de Aetna monte, 
quod an ipsius legititman sit nee probare nee refellere atisim. 
ex antiquissinio certe etcastigato codice qui Francisci Petrarchae 
fuisse credit ur, illud ego ipse exscripsi.' 

From this it would seem that among the poems ascribed 
to Claudian were some in Greek, a Giga}ito?nachia, and an 
epigram on a crystal ; and that there was also extant with 
the same ascription a poem on Mount Aetna, which Gyraldus 
had copied with his own hand from a correct and very 
ancient MS., which was believed to have once been in the 
possession of Petrarch. He does not say that this was 
a MS. of Claudian ; but this is a reasonable inference from 
his statement. For in all the earliest MSS. of the poem, 
w^hether entire or in excerpts, with w^hich we are acquainted 
it is ascribed to Vergil, and to Vergil only : if therefore 
Gyraldus attributed it, though doubtfully, to Claudian, it 
must have been an inference from its inclusion in a volume 
containing other works of that poet. 

Ixv e 


\\liat became of the copy of Acfnn whicli (lyraldus made 
from this early MS. is unknown. But when Heinsiu.s was 
writin;j; his notes on ("laudian (second ed., 1665 ') he 
was in jiossession of some very ancient variants in the 
text of Aetna, by the help of which he has corrected two 
passages from it. On In Ruf. ii. 527 he cites Aetn. 140 
thus : Cernis et in sihiis spatiosa - cubilia retro Antraque 
dctncrsas penitus fodisse latcbras ; adding, ' quomodo uersus 
illi t"x anticjuis membranis legendi.' Again, on Rapt. Pros, 
i. 171 he cites Aetn. 218-220 thus: Ahinc guoniam in 
promptly est opcris natura so/iqite Vnde ipsi uenti, quae res 
ificendia pascit,C\\r suhito cohibent \\v[:Q'i,quae causa silendi ; 
adding, ' quomodo illi castigandi sunt ex ueteri codice.' 
From his preface'' it would seem that the source of these 
variants was a codex in the Medicean Library at Florence, 
which ' schedae Mediceae ' contained excerpts not only from 
Aetna, but Claudian, both drawn, as Heinsius believed, 
from the codex of Gyraldus above mentioned. The actual 
and very old codex of (iyraldus had disappeared, and all 
the attempts which Heinsius and his friend Langermann 

* Not in the first edition of 1650. 

2 I cannot find spatiosa in eitlier of the two collations of Gyr., that 
of 1756 or that of 1797. It is however in Aid. 1517. 

^ Praef. p. 5. ed. Amstclod. 1665. Heinsius, speaking of the Vatican 
MS. of Claudian excerpted by Livineius, calls it the best and oldest of 
all, except Lttccnsis ille Gyralditius, cuius nihil practer excerpta, atque 
ilia satis oscitanter descripta, uidimus, quaiiiquatn uohimen ipsutn, 
cum Lucae cssemus, ut tnulta cum sedulitate, sic irrito successu sit in- 
uestigatum ct mihi et Langermanno twstro, quod in eo extitisse nonmdla 
compertum. Iiaberem, niulto usui fulura, quae ab aliis membranis 
nuituari haud possis, quale carmen istud in Aetnant, quod in catalectis 
poetarum ueterunt adscribiittr Cornelia Scuero ct cuius partern potis- 
siinam, uulgatis exentplaribus longe castigatiorem, illic se 
obtulissc, tain Gyraldus ipse, quaiti schedae tncdiceae fidem indubitatam 
faciunt, atque omni exceptionc ntaiorem. 



made to recover it at Lucca, its supposed home, were 
useless. These excerpts from Aetfia did not extend to all 
the poem : Heinsius' expression ' pars potissima ' implies 
that he did not expect to find more than a considerable 
section of the poem in the lost MS. of Lucca ; and this 
would agree with the fact stated above that the Gyraldinian 
variants as we know them are confined to 138-285. From 
the fact that the two corrections of Aetna made by Heinsius 
(as above mentioned) both occur in this section, and both 
agree, the former entirely, the latter in the word cohibent, 
with the completer set of variants which, since their publica- 
tion by a lena editor in 1756^ and Matthiae in 1797 '^^ 
have been before the learned world, we may conclude that 
the two Heinsian excerpts are ultimately traceable to the 
.same source as the completer collection published in 1756 
and 1797. 

That Heinsius' excerpts went beyond the two mentioned, 
is expressly stated by the elder Burmann on Ov. Met. i. 85, 
where illustrating Os homini sublime dedit cae/ufnque tueri 
lussit, he quotes Aetn. 223-226, first with the readings 
uidere — posse fidem rebus — dubiasque — Sacra perurgentem 
caput atque attollere caelo, then with the emended read- 
ir>gs' afterwards published as Gyraldinian, tueri —fwsse 
fidem rerum dubias exquirere causas — Ingenium sacrare, 
caputque attollere caelo ; adding that so we must read 
the passage ' ex antiquo codico Mediceo, quem Heinsius 

^ Ada Sodelaiis lertensis, v. pp. 3-6. 

* Neue Bibliothek der ic/tonett lVisse»sc!taftcit uttd freien Kiittste, 
lix. pp. 311-327. 

^ Except nosse and dubias, which are not in cither version of the 
Gyraldinian variants, 1756 or 1797. 

Ixvii e 2 


This takes us a step farther ; Heinsius, if we may believe 
Burmann, himself made a collation of these readings. 
This need not mean more than that he copied them into 
some edition of Aehia at second hand : it is not certain 
that he ever sa'cv the whole passage 138-285 as copied in 
exhftso from the lost Lucca codex, or even the complete 
collection of excerpted readings we now possess. It was 
his habit to enter the variants of important MSS. in the 
margin of printed editions : and the younger Burmann 
states that two copies of Pithou's Epigrammata et Poematia 
Vetera (Paris, 1590) were so used by him '. 

It is possible, but not proved, that one of these Heinsian 
copies of Pithou's Epigranwiata is identical with the 
volume from which the lena editor and later Matthiae 
drew the complete collection of Gyraldinian Extracts. 
Matthiae's is the fuller and more exact account ; he states 
that the copy of Pithou from which the Gyraldinian extracts 
came, had, written on the back of the title-page, ' In Aetna 
V, significat cod. Florentinum, quern inde habuit Ernstius , 
nempe solum partem illam.' This can only mean^ that 
where the letter V (Vetus) was added to a v. 1. in the 
margin of the pages of Pithou containing Aetna, that v. 1. 
was drawn from a MS. at Florence; which MS., i.e. the 
part of it containing that portion of Aetna to which 
the vv. 11. referred, came into the possession of Ernst : in 
other words, Ernst had a copy of Aetn. 138-285 as written 
in a Florence MS. 

It is unfortunate that we do not know certainly who 

^ Wagler, pp. ir, 12. 

^ Birt, however, Claud, p. Ixxxix, thinks that quern refers to Aetna ; 
which, though Aettxa is found occasionally masc, or the writer of the 
note may have thought of the mountain, seems to me improbable. 


this Ernst was. It is generally supposed that he is the 
Henr. Ernstius who in 1641 published a one vol. Catalogue 
of the Laurentian Library. Munro, however, could find 
no reference in this Catalogue to the Florentine codex 
from which the Gyraldinian extracts, as just mentioned, 
are said to have been drawn ; nor could I. Still the date 
of this Ernst (i6o3-i665),and his familiarity with the MSS. 
of the Laurentian Library, would agree with this identifica- 
tion ; and the short and incomplete character of his 
Catalogue might account for the omission of the MS. in 
question ; or it might have been passed over as a mere 
fragment. At any rate no such MS.,i. e. no MS. containing 
Aetn. 138-285 in full, or the excerpted variants published 
as Cyraldinian a century later, was known to Bandini when 
he issued his complete Catalogue of the Laurentian Library 

This is the more wonderful because Bandini does mention 
a fifteenth century MS. of that library (33. 9), the first folio 
of which begins with Aetn. 270-285, i.e. the concluding 
sixteen verses of the very fragment of which Ernst is said 
to have had a copy taken from a ' Codex Florentinus.' 
What is more, this fragment agrees in a remarkable manner 
with the Gyraldinian readings as published in 1756 and 
1797 from a copy of Pithou's Epigram mata \ nor can it be 
doubted that it comes from an original identical with the 
Vetus codex known to Ernst, leaving off as it does with the 
very same line. Whether, however, the writer of these 
sixteen verses copied also the preceding 138-269, and this 
originally complete fragment was known to Ernst, or 
whether Ernst's copy was wholly independent of these 
.sixteen verses, are questions which we cannot solve. 
Bahrens held the former view : Birt, Claudian, p. xc, con- 


siders that the Laurentian fragment was never more than 
the sixteen verses whieh still survive. 

It must here be staled that this Laurentian MS. 33. 9 
contains, besides Aetn. 270-285, the minor poems of 
Claudian (p. 287 s(i([. in Birt's edition), written in a hand 
recognizably * the same which has added in a copy of the 
\"icentine ed. princ. of Claudian, also in the Laurentian 
Library (A. 4. 36), variants on most of the carmina maiora 
drawn from a very old codex, thus described in a note on 
the first book In Riifimim (v. 20) ' hinc coepi conferre cum 
i/cfustissimo codice amici ciiiusdam Lucensis ^. geminis pun- 
ctis . . notatunis quae iliinc emendabo.' The second book of 
the In Kufinum and the other major poems of Claudian 
have also variants, which seem to be in the same writing, 
but the source of these is called 'cod. B,' leaving it 
doubtful whether the codex of Lucca is identical (as Birt 
thinks) with ' cod. B ' or different. However this may be, 
Heinsius knew these variants and set great store by them : 
in his edition of Claudian, they are constantly quoted as 
Luccan or drawn from a cod. Lucensis. He believed them 
to come from a MS. earlier than the oldest, this earlier MS. 
to have been identical with the codex used by Gyraldus for 
copying Aetna. Hence he expended no little effort on the 
attempt to re-discover it at Lucca, not with more success '^ , 
despite his intimate relations with the most exalted patron ■* 

* Birt, p. Ixxxiv. By the kindness of Father Ehrle, S. J., Librarian 
of the Vatican, I possess an exact transcript of these 16 vv., which will 
be found on p. 134. They are written on the first of twelve paper 
leaves (fol. 102-113' of the entire MS.) in double columns, and of 
the fifteenth century. 

'■' This is the origin of the name Lucensis for the supposed eighth 
century MS. of Claudian. 

* .See the extract from his Preface, quoted p. 13. 

* Queen Christina of Sweden. 



of scholars at that time, than has attended the various 
efforts to bring to hght the lost eighth-century codex of 
Silius' Punka ^ 

It is not difficult to see that this belief of Heinsius, and 
from him of scholars generally, has many points of attack. 
The excerpts in Laur. A. 4. 36 and t,-^. 9 are, it is true, 
supplementary to each other ; they are valuable as repre- 
senting a very ancient source ; but it cannot be shown that 
the source of the variants on Iti Rufiniwi I, the codex 
Lucensis, was also the source of the other variants in the 
two volumes. If it was, why should it be called now 
Lucensis, now cod. B ? Such a difference of nomenclature 
could only be confusing. And if the scribe who copied the 
variants of In Rufinum I obtained his ' uetustissimus codex ' 
from a friend at Lucca, it is a long leap to the conclusion 
of Heinsius that it must have remained there, as if it had 
been in some public library. Again, allowing that this 
very old MS. in possession of a Luccan, was the one fount 
from which ^ both sets of variants on Claudian flowed, it 
does not follow that the Aetna variants, though, to the 
extent of sixteen verses, they exist in one of the two 
Laurentian MSS., were drawn from the same Luccan 
codex : still less that this so-called Luccan codex was that 
from which Gyraldus early in the sixteenth century copied 
Aetna. Such reasonings are fallacious : they predispose 
a logical mind to suspect error in the subsequent stages of 

1 I can find no trace of this lost MS. of Aetna in the Catalogue of 
MSS. at Lucca published in vol.viii (1900 oi Studi Ualiam di Filologia 

2 i.e. those on in Ruf. I, which are expressly stated to have been 
taken from the Lucensis and marked by two dots . . , and the others 
taken from cod. B. 



We may. however,, fornuilate what Heinsius tells us thus. 
When he published his second edition of Claudian (1665), 
and even, it would seem, before his second journey to Italy 
with Langermann in 1652, he had seen a set of excerpts on 
a large section {pars potissima) of Aetna, which in correct- 
ness were fiir superior to the vulgate text. They were 
extant in the Medicean Library at Florence, and were taken 
from a MS. of great antiquity, no longer to be found, but 
presumably the same from which Gyraldus had copied the 
poem early in the sixteenth century. Some of them at 
least were in Heinsius' possession, and he has emended 
two passages of Aetna from them : but he seems to have 
distrusted the accuracy ' of the copy he had seen of these 
Florentine excerpts on Claudian, and probably included 
those on Aetna in the same condemnation. 

All these variants on Aetna, generally known as Gyral- 
dinian because they are believed to have come from the 
codex from which Gyraldus copied the poem in full, I shall 
now cite from the two reports of them (i) in Acta Societatis 
Latinae lenensis for 1 756, Tome v. pp. 3-6 ; (2) by Matthiae, 
Neue Bibliothek der schmien IVissenschaften, Tome lix. pp. 
311-327. The former I quote as /: the latter as M. 

138 Intercepta licet densaque abscondita nocte / 

139 P. chaos et sine fine minas war^. uastum i1/ cor- 

recting / 

141 Antraque demersas penitus fodisse latebras / 

142 aeri tantum effugit ultra / 
145 abstrahe rebus / 

147 Semper et inclusa (in incluso M) nee ucntis segnior 

ira est /J/ 

148 mouens / 

' ' Lucensis ille Gyraldinus, cuius nihil praeter excerpta, atqiie ilia 
satis os^itaiiter dcscripta, uidimus,' Praef. p. 5. 



150 riguos / riuos Af^ 

151 flammaue ruit / flammaeue ruit M 

152 Obliquumque secant quae causa tenerrima caussa est J/ 

153 hiantes / 
I 55 solido si staret in omni / 

J 57 conferta immobilis esset / 

158 concrescere / 

159 subitis / ora / 

160 patula / uastosque recessus / 

161 Falleris et nondum certo tibi lumine res est / 

162 Namque illis quaecumque uacant hiatibus omnis .1/ 

163 Et sese / 

164 Conceptae / 

165 qui teneat / Quippe ubi qui teneat uentos 
aquasque morantes Af 

166 defit cessant / 

167 Explicat erranteis et in ipso limite tradunt M 

tradant / {only this word) 

168 turbanti faucibus illo / 

169 densaque premit / 

170 Nunc euri boreaeque notus, nunc huius uterque est M 
172 soli / 

174 antiqui / 

175 Haec immo cum (quum /) sit species Jlif naturaue 

terrae M 

176 trahat / 
178 iili / 

182 Porrigit IM hinc M artus [IM) penitusque exaestuat 

ultra M 

183 scissae / J^ 

184 aliae (/^>r uaries) / 
186 Haec illi sedes tantarumque area rerum -'/ 

186 <^ Haec operi uisenda sacri faciesque domusque / 
(This V. is not found in any of the extant MSS.) 

187 incendii JM 

188 paruo aut tenui discrimine signis / 

189 sub exiguum uenient tibi pignora tempus / 

' Matthiae says ' riguos ist eine Heinsische Emendation.' 


190 Res ocu'.os ducunt / cogent / 

191 moneam / moneant J/ tuto .If 
193 opcri / aditus / 

196 quid torreat / 

197 quis / imperat / 

198 exhaustae glomcratim / 

202 tantos / 

203 Xe scpulta Af 

205 tremit omniaque extra / 

206 arenae / 

207 ueniunt / uUis / 

209 Exagitant uenti turbas ac / 

210 collecta / 

211 Haec caussae expectanda terunt / 

213 nequicquam pars / Nam prope nequicquam pars 
est uiolentia flammae M 

215 auxilium / corpora / 

216 audet / 

217 Hinc / magnusque qui sub duce / 

219 Vnde / 

220 Cur subito cohibent iners M 

222 Pigra / laboratis J/ 

223 tueri / 

225 rerum / 

226 Ingenium sacrare caputque attoilere caclo M 

227 magno fatalia / 
229 uinclo / 
231 Hoc breuior cursu bis senos peruolat orbes Af 

233 quaeue (quae Af) suos seruent incondita motus LM 

234'' Sex cum nocte rapi totidem cum luce referri AJ/ 

(this V. is not found in any of the extant MSS.) 

235 Panope caelo 
237 uarient / 

242 quae 


245 Qua uocet / 
247 congesta 

250 omni 



Lier prima iuuenta 

238 Cur / 





251 Quaeque in ea / 

252 niagis affinis M 

253 mortali cuiquam est / 

254 diuos / 

255 ac / segne est / 

256 Torquemur miseri in paruis terimurque laboie M 

Then the three vv. Scrutamur rimas — Quaeritur argenti 
— Torrentur flamma, which in the extant MSS. follow Non 
subito pallere sono non credere subter. M 


Turn demum humilesque iacent inopesque relictae 



expendimus usum 


264 Fertilis haec segeti feracior altera uiti 






duro ^ 


269 Horreaque ut satiire tumeant ut dolia musto 



Sic auidi semper quouis est carior ipsis 



Sunt animi fruges haec rerum est optima merces 



terrae natura 









aut tartara rumpi 



intendat / 


reperta / 


seruent 1 


tenues in se / 


infessa est atque hinc obnoxia uenlis / 

These readings are of the most diverse quality. Some 
of them are of undoubted goodness and hardly to be 
arrived at by conjecture. The most notable of these is 226 
Ingenium sacrare caputque attoUere caelo for Sacra per 
i?igentem capitiqiie a. cae/u?n of C, 213 Nam prope neqiac- 

1 dura et is not expressly said to have been in Gyr. Matthiae's 
words, p. 326, are ' Die gewOhnlichc Lesart dura et vielior grundet 
sich auf Scaliger's Handschrift und wird durch die Florentinische 
bestatigt,' would be true of duro as reported by the lena editor, and 
do nQi prove that dura etwas the reading of Gyr. as seen by Matthiae. 


quam pars, est uiokntia against par est of C, for parsesi is 
a corruption of persest, the excellent emendation of Wagler ; 
141 Antra<]uc demersas penitus fodisse latcbras against A. 
demissa pcdihus fodisse latebris ; 169 detisaque prcmit pre- 
miturque ruina Nunc euri boreaeque fiotus nunc hums 
nterque est against densique pre7nu?it premiturque ruina Nunc 
furtim boreaeque noto nunc huius uterque est ; in this case 
the genuineness of Gyr. is not lessened, but increased, 
by the unintelligible est; 165 aquasque against -a quaeque 
of C, leading as it does to the emendation of Munro 
acuatque (now generally accepted); 187 incendii -^hexQ C 
gives incendi ; the -//, though unmetrical, is exactly the sort 
of error (if we may rightly call error what was probably 
explanation ') which belongs to an early source ; 263 gleb- 
arutn expendimus usum, against g. expellimur usu of C ; 
266 dura against diuiti of C, for though duro cannot be 
right, its close agreement with dura et of the Paris and 
Escorial excerpts points to an early source ; 220 Cur subito 
cohibent iners for Cum s. cohibetur, inest pointing to cohibentur, 
iners ; 275 fnultum against tnultos of C, pointing to mutum, 
the emendation of Haupt : 278 Tartara rumpi against 
Tartara inundi of C ; 283 ienues in se abstrahat auras for 
7ieue inse abstrahat auras of C ; 178 //// against Illinc of C. 
Others are good or plausible in themselves but such as 
would easily occur to any scholar well trained in Latin 
poetry; 138 densaque abscondita ttocte for densaeque a. nocti 
of C ; \^\ flammaeue ruit iox Jlamma uerrit of C ; 153 
Mantes for hiatu of (7 ; 155 in omni for inainni of C ; 
157 conferta i>nmobiiis esset for confert i?nmobiIis e. of C ; 

' I mean that incendi being doubtfully genitive or infin. pass., the 
retention against metre of the double -ii was a mark of its being 



1 66 dcfit for desint of C; 172 soli for solo of C; 186 Hacc 
illi sedes tantanivique area rerum for Haec illis tantaruui 
sedesque arearum est of C ; 207 iillis for 11 Hi of C; 209 
Exagitant for exigitur of C; 219 K/z^f for 2ina of C; 225 
reriwi for r^-Zw^ of C ; 247 congesta for digesta of C. 

A third class consists of readings which are suspicious 
either as wrongly, or imperfectly, or unmetrically reported, 
or as unintelligible, or as too widely differing from our one 
unimpeachable MS. C. 

a. Readings wrongly, imperfectly, or unmetrically re- 

139 Prospectare chaos et sine fine tminas marg. uastum 
Prospectare procul chaos et sine fine ruinae C 

142 Incomperta uia est "taeri tantum effugit ultra Gyr 

operum tantum eftluit intra C" 
147 Semper et inclusa ^ ) q f. 
in incluso M ) 
Semper in inclusus {sic) C 
152 Obliquumque secant 1quae causa tencrrima caussa 
estt Gyr 
Obliquumque secat qua uisa tenerrima causa est C 
162 Namque illis quaecumque uacant thiatibus omnis Gyr 
Namque illuc quodcumque uacat hiat impetus omnis C 
167 erranteis et in ipso limite tradunt M (tradant /) 
errantis et inipso limine tardant C 

Note the correct orthography in C errantis, the improb- 
able in Gyr. erratiteis. 

217 Hinc princcps magnusque tqui sub ducc militat 

ignis Gyr. 

Hinc princeps magnosque sub hoc duce militat ignis C 

261 Turn demum humilesque iacent inopesque relictae Gyr. 

Tum demum uiles taceant i. r. C. 



Gyr. here ]:)resents two impossibilities humilesqiie after 
///;;/ ^A-w/zw.and the indie, iacent where the subj. is required. 

264 Fertilis haec scgeti ^feracior altera uiti Gyr. 

Fcrtilis hacc segetique feracior, a. u. C 
269 Horreaque ut sature tumeant ut dolia niusto Gyr. 

Horrea uti saturent, tumeant et dolea musto C 

(i) As Alzinger well observes, que of Gyr. is meaningless : 
(2) what is sature} 

271 Sic auidi semper quouis est carior illis ipsis Gyr. and 
Laur, 33. 9 

Sic auidi semper qua uisum est carius istis C 
285 infessa est Gyr. and Laur. 33. 9 

infestus C 

h. Readings of Gyr. whieh^ as stated in / or M, are not 

intelligible or scarcely. 

i5origuos/^K-^^_ rigidosC 

riuos M ) 

riuos becomes intelligible if altered to priuos (Unger), 
but is in itself without meaning : riguos, I think, would be 

176 trahat Gyr. trahit C 

The subj. has no proper meaning. 

182 Corrigit hie artus penitus quosexigit ultra C 

Porrigit hinc artus penitusque exaestuat ultra Gyr. 

211 Hac causa expectata ruunt incendia montis C 
Haec caussae expectanda -tterunt Gyr. 

235 Nubila cur caelo terris denuntiet imbres C 
Nubila cur tPanope caelo Gyr. 

AVhy Panope} Sudhaus says because the passage of the 

Georgics (i. 430-437 At si uirgitietim — Patiopeae et Inoo 

Melicertae) in which the prognostics of wind to be drawn 

from the moon are mentioned^ ends with a description 



of seamen paying their vows to Olaucus. Melicerta, and 
Patiopea. This will hardly satisfy. It would be better to 
make Nubila Fafiope = nubila facies tranquilli maris^ ' clouds 
on a calm sea,' or clouds rising on a calm sea. 

r. Readings of Gyr. which are suspiciously remote from C. 

l6l Fallere sed nondiun tibi lumine certaque retro C 
Falleris et rondum -f-certo tibi lumine res est Gj/f. 

175 Haec primo cum sit species naturaque terrae C 
Haec immo naturaue G>r. 

^^'hat is the meaning of immo ? 

184 Inter opus nectunt uaries C 

aliae Oyr. 

189 Mille sub exiguo ponentibus tempore uera C 

Mille sub exiguum fuenient tibi pignora tempus G_yr. 

190 Res oculique decent res ipsae credere cogunt C 
Res oculos ducunt cogent Gjr, 

This is a very bad variant : C is in every way superior. 

198 Pellitur exutae glomeratur nimbus harenae C 

Pellitur exhaustae glomeratim Cjr. 

233 Ordine quaeue sue errant incondita cura C 

quae suos seruent incondita motus Gyr. 
245 Quo uolet Orion quo setius incubet index C 

Qua uocet Orion excubet Gjr. 

251 Et quae nunc miranda tulit natura notare C 
Quaeque in ea Gyr. 

s. est 

253 Nam quae mortalis spes quaeue amentia maior C 

mortal! cuiquam est Gjr. 

254 In louis eiTantem regno perquirere uelle C 

diuos Gyr. 

I shall now mention those readings of Gyr. which un 

internal grounds may confidently be pronounced wrong. 

The most decided case is one which Alzinger's collection of 

Lucretian parallels first brought into prominence. Alzinger 



shuws {S/i/(/i(7 in Aetnam CoUata, p. 98) that Lucretius 
twice combines iimie rcpcnte vi. 667, 1090. In agreement 
with this we find in Aein. 280 unde repente (luies, for so it 
is written in C. Gyr. as reported by /and Laur. 33. 9 give 
umic reperta quics, which looks Hke a bad correction and 
is undoubtedly wrong. 

A second case is 259. There the poet speaking of man's 
restless activity, describes him as torturing the earth with 
fire and iron tools to wring from it its secret, Torquentur 
Jiamma terrae ferroquc dojuantur ; so C. Gyr. gave Tor- 
rcntiir a c()mmoni)lace word, which has no special force 
(Alzinger, Der Wert des Cod. Gyrald. p. 858). 

A third case is 222. It is in a passage modelled on 
Geor. iv. 6 In teniii labor, at tcfiuis non gloria. 

Aetn. 221 inmensus labor est set! fertilis idem. 

Digna laborantis respondent praemia curls. 

Gyr. had Pigra laboratis. We need no reference to 
Vergilian parallels (Alz. quotes Aen. ix. 252 Quae nobis 
quae digna, uiri, pro laudibus is/is Praemia posse rear 
solui?) to prove the superiority of C : digua praemia and 
laborantis curis correspond and harmonize ; in Gyr. not 
only is Pigra in opposition to the poet's aim, which is to 
prove that if the task is vast, it has its adequate reward, but 
laboratis curis is artificial and belongs to the later latinity of 
Val. Flaccus and Statius. 

It would seem from this investigation that the a priori 
suspicions attaching to the Gyraldinian variants are rein- 
forced by an examination of the variants themselves. Some 
few of them are indubitably wrong : others are barely, if at 
all, intelligible ; a large number must have been wrongly or 
imperfectly reported ; a still larger number are of the kind 


which a well-trained scholar might easily make : and in 
some cases has actually made. 

On the other hand a certain proportion of them justifies 
the description of Heinsius, as far more correct than the 
vulgate text, as he knew it from Aldus, Scaliger, and Pithou. 
But these editions were printed from fifteenth century MSS. 
and reproduced all their errors. Heinsius had no good 
standard to appeal to ; no codex of an early period like C 
or the Stabulensian fragment was known to him. Davies of 
Cambridge, indeed, seems to have examined C early in the 
eighteenth century : but this was after Heinsius' death. We 
may see the wretched state in which the criticism oi Aetna re- 
mained all through the seventeenth century', from Le Clerc's 
edition ; and how little scientific knowlisdge could effect where 
good MSS. did not supply a trustworthy basis of criticism. 

It must not, however, be forgotten that we have still 
extant in Laur. 33. 9 a short passage of Aetna, written in 
a hand of the fifteenth century : that this fragment con- 
tains the last sixteen verses of the very portion of the poem 
to which the Gyr. excerpts belong, and that its readings, 
except in one or two instances, agree with these excerpts. 
It is a reasonable inference that the other Gyr. excerpts 
come from a source ultimately the same, and therefore that 
we cannot lightly dismiss them as without authority. This 
becomes more important in reference to the two extra verses 
which the Gyr. excerpts include, Haec operi{s) uisenda sacri 
sedesque domusque ; and Sex cum node rapt, totidem cum 
luce referri. These two verses are excellent in themselves, 
and since their publication in the eighteenth century have 
generally been accepted as genuine, e. g. by Jacob, Haupt, 
Munro, Bahrens, and Sudhaus. 

1 And indeed till the latter half of the nineteenth. 

Ixxxi f 


\\'hatevcr suspicion attaches to them, they share in 
common with the other excerpts : it is not inconceivable 
that they were written by modern scholars, but it is far 
more Hkely that they were in the MS. whence Laur. 33. 9 
was copied, and from which, presumably, the other, or 
most of the other, excerpts came. 

Similarly, it would be rash to assert that the right location 
of the three verses Scrutamur rimas — Quaeriiur argenti — 
Torreniur ' flamma did not also exist in the same codex : 
no one can prove that it came into the copy of Pithou 
containing the Gyr. variants from some one of the printed 
texts of Aetna ^, or from a note written in manuscript by 
some scholar of the sixteenth or seventeenth century. But 
the doubt ivill suggest itself, and finds some confirmation 
from the fact that the Esc. extracts give these three verses 
{in this order 278-276-277) after 261 (wrongly written 
Tiirpe silent artes idles inopesque relicte) not after 277. 

And this feeling of doubt will assert and re-assert itself 
perpetually in every fresh survey of these lections. The 
goodness of some, the apparent certainty of a few, amongst 
them, at first sway the reader to unhesitating acceptance 
of the whole collection. Any weak points which they may 
offer he is ready for a time to forget or ignore. Thus, to 
take one of the passages which seems to have been known 
to Heinsius, 

Nosse fidem rebus dubiasque exquirere causas 
Sacra peringentem capitique attollere caelum 
Scire quot et quae sint magno natalia mundo 

' Torqucnhir C. 

' e. g. Scaliger's, who has an express note on the point. 


the brilliancy of Grr.'s correction 

Ingenium sacrare ' caputque attollere caelo 

obscures the fact that Gyr. also gives fatalia, a v. 1. which 
is manifestly wrong. 

It may be argued, that as all the Gyr. variants profess 
to have V attached to them, they all stand on the same 
footing, and are all drawn from an ancient source. But 
(i) neither the lena editor nor Matthiae are explicit on this 
point, (2) even if they were, we cannot be sure of the 
exactitude with which they have been transmitted, from 
their earliest appearance in the cod. uetustissimus , to copyists 
of the fifteenth century, thence to transcribers like Gyraldus 
in the sixteenth, or excerptors like Ernst in the seventeenth. 
Pithou's Epigratnmata et Foematia uetera, in a copy of 
which the Gyr, excerpts were written, is not earlier than 
1590; if the cod. tietust. was really of the eighth century, 
an interval of 800 years elapsed between the fons prhmts 
and the earliest date at which they could have been copied 
into Pithou. If Ernst ^ himself copied them into Pithou, 
this date will be removed to forty or fifty years later ; and 
if they are a copy from an original supplied by Ernst, this 
will bring them later still. As we actually know them, they 
are transmitted from the middle and end of the eighteenth 

The conclusion then to which our inquiry has brought 
us, is that the Gyr. variants cannot be accepted unreservedly 
as ancient or genuine ; that such of them as, by general 
consent, are of commanding excellence, must not blind 

* Seneca, N. Q. iv. Praef. 10, has ingenium iomeaare (Sudhaus). 
' Assuming him to be the Ernst who made ihe Catalogue of 
Laurentian MSS. 

Ixxxiii f 2 


our judgment to tlie impossible character of some, the 
improbable character of many : and that where they are in 
marked antagonism to CS, the two actually extant MSS. of 
Aetfia which we know to belong to an early date, we are 
bound to give our fust consideration to CS, our second 
to Gyr\ 


Variants in Aei?ia, from MS. WOrv. x. 1,6, 6= 195 ■. 

P. 36 ' Cornclii Seueri Aetna in m. Apollonius apud Philostrat. 1. v. 

ib. 7 properent /« w. properant. 

p. 37, 2 adversum in w. aversum. 

p. 38 deletur, noia ma}-g. victor. 

p. 41, 8 vicula i7i m. vincla. 

p. 44, 9 imbres iti ni. yris. 

ib. 20 jacent in m. latent. 

ib. 25 nunc in ;//. tot. 

' It may be interesting to see what was thought of the Cyi: 
variants by Walch, the editor oi Act. Soc. Lat. leneiisis in which they 
were first published in 1756. In the Praefatio to the volume Walch 
writes thus : — Utruni ornnes ac singtdae loca male adfecta sanent et 
corrnpta sic rcstitttant, ui nulla antplius dictiisti poetae medicina egeant, 
nolo equidcm dcfinife, hoc tatnen ceritssimum est, permulta effata 
(? errata) haruni lectionum ope optime eniendari ; aut eerie ex collat's 
inter se lectionibus, altera uulgari altera horum codicum, quontodo 
legendum forte sit, haud difficulter erui posse. It is true that he 
includes with the Gyr. variants, two sets of variants on other poets 
{dicti isti poetae , which immediately follow. But the tone of his 
judgment is unmistakably hesitating : he speaks, at best, modestly, 
and with no trace of the confidence which has led so many critics of 
the nineteenth century to place unqualified confidence in Gyr. 

^ This paper was originally published in The Classical Review 
for 1900, p. 123. I have since made some corrections. 

^ P. 36 refers to the second part of Pithou's Epigrammata et 
Poematia Vetera, 1590. 



ib. 26 magna in in. magis. {Gyr.) 

p. 45, 3 taceant in in. iaceant. 

ib. 7 dignissima in in. ditissima. 

ib. 10 caussae in in. curae. 

ib. II et dolia in in. ut dolia. {Gyr.) 

ib. 16 occulto in in. occultum. 

ib. 18 animumque in in. animosque. [Gyr^ 

ib. 20 euertimus in in. euerrimus. 

ib. 26 concrescant in in. cur crescant. 

p. 46, 5 una in in. unda. 

ib. 6 curas in in. auras. 

p. 48, 16 aut aquilone, &.C., in in. Virgil. 

p. 49, 20 uera in in. sera. 

ib. 22 robore in in. robora. {Le Clerc.) ^ 

ib. 26 et potes, &c., in in. Plautus. " ". 

p. 50, 17 iacet in in. iacens. 

ib. 22 dicitur, &c., in in. superest. 

ib- 23 exstincta super: testisque Neapolim. Conigitur'. exstin 

super testisque eta : testis cuperque Neapolin. 
p. 51, 27 et tuto in in. e tuto. {Seal.) 
p. 52, 4 sopita et in in. scobis iis. 
ib. 15 Curtis in in. curvis. {UOrville, Sicula p. 239 (1764) 

and Miinro) 
p. 53, 4 cunctis in in. unco, 
ib. 15 ubi certo in in. certo sibi. 
ib. 1 8 portam in in. formam. 
ib. 19 tenet in 111. tener. 
ib. 21 vultu perdidit igneis in inarg. vultum perdidit igni. 

(igne Seal.) 
p. 54, 2 et ibi in marg. igni. 
ib. 7. plumbi in m. plumbum. {Le Clerc.) 
ib. 22 nostro fervet moderatior usu in m. nostros fervet modera- 

tus in usus. 
ib. 27 trementeis in in. frementeis. 
ib. 29 fama in in. forma, ( Wolf.) 
P- 55j 5 Ogygus corrigihir Ogygiis. 
ib. 6 que in in. quae, 
ib. 17 carmen in in. crimen. 



]). 55, iS vestia en in m. vestras. 
ib. 19 evocat in silvis, &c., /;/ ;//. Devocet in silvis, at. 
ib. 21 victis /;/ w. multis. 
ib. 26 parte ;>/ w. arte. (Seal) 
ib. 29 velatusque /« jnarg. Cicer. 
p. 56, 7 excanduit /« ;//. incanduit. 
ib. II torqiiet /■« w/. torpct. {Seal.) 
ib. 14 tremcbant in m. trcmenduni. {Jacob, Miniro.) 
ib. 18 stiilta /;/ ;;/. summa. 
ib. 20 niniium in m. minimo. [Dorat.) 
ib. 25 Concrepat ac in tnarg. Concremat ah. {Dorat.) 
ib. 27 Amphinomus . . . fortes in vi. Amphionus . . . sortis. 
ib. 29 senemque in m. scnilem. 
ib. 30 eheu itt m. aevo. 

p. 57, 13 illeqiie se posuit in m. illos seposuit. 
ib. 1 5 vere . . . iura in in. purae . . . rura. (purae Haupi, rura 


These variants on Aetna are drawn from MS. D'Orville 
i95 = Auct. X. I, 6, 6 (17073 in Madan's Catalogue), containing 
on p. I this superscription ' Notae et emendationes Petri 
Filhoei' in libruni, cui titulus est Epigrammata & poematia 
Vetera, Parisiis 1590 in 12.' The MS. was written in the first 
half of the eighteenth century (Madan) : but it appears to be 
a bona fide copy of notes and emendations either actually in 
Pithou's own hand^ or believed to be so. Some of the variants 
are interesting as identical with those of scholars long after 
Pithou ; others as perfectly new suggestions which appear to be 
of value in desperately corrupt passages. I will mention them 
in order. 

251 The Cambridge MS. Chas Ei quae tiunc miranda iulit 
natura not are, UOrv. gives Et quae tot. This seems better 
than the so-called Gyraldinian reading Qiiaeque in ea. 

252 C has 

Haec nobis magna adfinis caclestibus astris. 
Gyr. is said to have had^wa^/V. Whether right or wrong, 
D'Orv. here agrees with Gyr. 

^ Pierre Pithou died in 1596. 


261 Turn demum uiles taceant inopesque relictae. 
So C. Gyr. had humilesque iaceni, whence Matthiae (1797) 
conj. uiles iaceant as jyOm. 

268 Grata leues cruciant animos et corpora causae. C. 
Bahrens (1880) conj. curae : and so UOrv. 

269 Horrea uti saturent tumeant et dolea musto. 

So C. The reported reading of Gyr. is tumeant ut ; and 
so UOrv. 

278 (257) Scrutamur rimas et uertimus omne profundum. 

So C. euerrjviHS oi UOrv. is also a late eighteenth-century 
conj. of Schrader's. 

281 Concrescant animi penitus sou forte caucrnac. 

So C. Scaliger corrected concrescant to cur crescant, and so 
WOrv. Probably Pithou took it from Scaliger's edition. 

290 Praecipiti delecta sono premit una fugatque. C. 
tmda Scaliger : and so UOrv. probably/r^w Seal. 

291 Torrentes auras pulsataque corpora dcnset. C. 
euros is in Scaliger's 1572 edition, and was left uncorrected 
by him. The right reading auras in not only in C, but in Re/id. 
and most MSS. as well as Aid. 15 17. 

398 Vera tenaxque data est sed maxima causa mola acris. C. 
The V.I. Sera is new, but what meaning can it bear ? 

400 Quern si forte manu teneas ac robore cernas. C 
robora is a conj. of Le Clerc (Gorallus) : and so D'0r7'. 

423 In cinerem putresque iacit delapsus harenas. C. 
iacetis of UOrv. is strange ; it is not an improvement, and can 
hardly be a modern emendation. Did Pithou draw it from 
a lost codex ? It is not one of the variants of Gyr. The real 
doubt in this passage is between iacit of C and iacet of Rehd. 
and Arutid. For iacens there can be no place : but its futility 
makes it noticeable. 

428 Dicitur insidiis flagrans enarea quondam 
Nunc extincta super testisque neapolin inter 
Et Cumas locus. C. 
\'er>' remarkable are the notes of D'On\ here (i) on 428 hi m, 


supercst (2) on 429. I take the two as mutually explaining 
each other: that is to say, the reading of the MS. from which 
Pithou drew the v.I. of 429 as I have copied it from D'Orv. was 
in some way confused, particularly in -eta of t'ftcta being 
separated from tin- ; and supercst was written in the margin of 
the line before (428). This appears to me a strong confirmation 
of my conjecture in vol. ii. of the Corpus now editing by 
Prof. Postgate A'unc extincta \lHu^^ supercstque Neapoliti inter. 
Another conj. of mine uncis (507), published in the Journal of 
rhilology for 1887 p. 309, nearly coincides with ^inco oi D'Orv., 
where MSS. give iiinctis. 

464 Et tuto speculaberis omnia collis. C. 
e tuto Scaliger and so D'Orv. 

475 .Xsperior sopitaes et quacdam sordida faex est. C. 
Scobis its seems to be new, but is not a good correction. 

486 Quippe nihil reuocat curtis nihil ignibus obstat. C. 

curuis inOrv.) is a correction made independently by D'Orville 
himself, and also by Munro. 

518 Quae tripidat certe uerum tibi pignore constat. C. 

nOrv. has uerum certo sibi, wrongly, but sibi looks like 
a corruption of the genuine reading tibi, which is only to be 
found in C (a MS. of which Pithou had no knowledge), and 
certo is undoubtedly right. Whence did Pithou draw certo and 
Sibil certo is in Seal., but Pithou may have got it from a MS., 
since it is found in Sloan. Tj-j ; or both certo and sibi were 
conjectures by Pithou himself. 

5t!5 Tu quoque .Athenarum carmen tarn nobile sidus 
Erigone sedes uestra est philomella canoris 
Euocat in siluis. C. 

D'Orv. has here three notes, crimen for car/neft, an old emen- 
dation ; uestras for uestra en which is printed in Pithou's text 
(1590), Dcuocet for Euocat. Little is to be got, I think, from 
either (i) or (3); but (2) is suggestive. 


Suppose the v. to have been gradually corrupted thus 
Erigone sedes ^ uestras en philomcla canoris 
we may reconstitute it thus 

Erigone's (or, Erigonae's) dequesta sen[em] ; philomela canoris 
dequesia is found in Val. Fl. v. 448 secum dequesta labores, 
Stat. T. i. 404 notos dequestus, xi. 627 Talza dequestus : sencin 
is of course Erigone's father Icarius ; see the story in Hygin. 
Fab. 130. 

Of the remaining variants not much is to be said : Arte (593), 
torpet (608), lUos sepostcit (642) are in Scaliger, treniettdum (611) 
was conj. (1826) by Jacob, itmiimo (617) and coticremat (622) by 
Dorat, /;//-«<? (644) by Haupt, rura (644) by Heinsius. 

' The dots added to e s r mean that these letters were not in the 
verse as written by the poet, but erroneous additions of a later time. 




The pseudo-Aristotelian treatise llepl Koa/Mov has many 
points in common with our poem. It is a little work, only 
twenty-eight octavo pages in Bekker's Oxford edition of 
1837 ; for this very reason the resemblances are more 
striking. They have not, so far as I know, been noticed 
by any one hitherto. They are of two kinds, (i) general, 
(2) particular. 

I. a. Both the Ilepi Kon-fxov and the poem exhibit the 
same enthusiasm for scientific research and the investigation 
of natural phenomena. 

v. 8 Bekk. Tli 8e rityv eVi f^tpovs Srvair' av (^iao>6qvni rrj Knr 
oiipnvw TiJ^ei re Koi (fiopa tS)v aarpaiv fjXinv re Kni (TfXi]VT]S, Kivov- 
fifvo)V iv aKpi)3€(TTdrois [lerpois f'^ ntwi/o? di trtpov nl<i>va ; Tis fit 
yc'rotr' at> n\//€i'3fia TOuiSf, rju riva (f>v\aTTOv(riv nl Kn\n\ Krii •yoi't/noi 
Tail oXwv oiptii, 6ipr] re Ka\ )((ipo)vnt (ndynvani Tfraypevoos, rjpfpas rt 
K(u vvKTn^, fii firjvi): nnoTe\f(Tfj.a Knl (vinvTov ; 
Aein. 221 sqq. 

inmensus labor est scd fertilis idem, 
and particularly 246-249. 

Et quaecumque iaccnt tanto miracula mundo 
Non disiecta pati, nee aceruo condita rerum, 
Sed manifesta notis certa disponere sede 
Singula, diuina est animi ac iucunda uoluptas. 
h. Both works enforce the conception of God as with- 
drawn from any particular interference with the world, of 


whose existence and conservation he is notwithstanding 
a necessary condition. 

Vi. 4 2a)Tfjj} fiev yap oi/rwf andrToiv ('ari K(h ytveroyp raiv ottoxtSfJ- 
TTore Kara toi'5« tov Kocrnov avvTf^ovfj.evuii' o 6(6i, ov fx)v (ivrnvpyov 
Kai (Tvinovov foiov KapnTov vnofievoiv, aWa Svfi'ifKi \pa)p.fvos aTpvTU), 
8i* i]S Koi TUiv TToppo) 8oKovvT(ov (ivai nfpiyiyPfTai. 

lb, 8 K/)€iTToj/ oZv vixokn^fiv . . . i)s t] tv ovpava 8vpnpii ISpvpfvn 
Kni Tols TrXtto-Tov acfxcTTTjKoiTii' . . , nirin yivfrai (ToJTrjpins, paWov fj 
a)f birjKOVtra Ka\ (poiTOxrn (v6a p-q Kohbv pr]bi fvaxrjpov avTovpyf'i ra 
f n-l Trjs Ti^?. 

Aefn. 32 

non est tarn sordida diuis 
Cura neque cxtremas ius est demittere in artes 
Sidera : subducto regnant sublimia caelo 
Ilia neque artificum curant tractare laborem. 
Compare what the poet says in derision of the idea that 
anything like poverty or stint is to be looked for in the 
supernatural working of a volcano. 
Ae/n. 369 sqq. 

Non est diuinis tarn sordida rebus egestas 
Nee paruas mendicat opes nee conrogat (asks for con- 
tributions of) auras, 
and his insistence on the sublime secrecy of the divine opera- 
tions, a secrecy which makes it dangerous to come near or in 
close contact with Aetna when an eruption is approaching, 
and which invests the mountain with ever-increasing awful- 

Aein. 191 sqq. 

Quin etiam tactu moneam contingere, tuto 
Si liceat ; prohibent flammae, custodiaque ignis 
lUi operum est arcens aditus, diuinaque rerum 
Vt maior species et ne succurrat inanis 
Cura sine arbitrio est. 
c. The grandeur of the cosmic plan is illustrated both in 
the ricpt Koo-/xov and the poem, as well by the heavenl) 


bodies and the periodic revolution of the seasons ; as by the 
marvels which the earth exhibits^ with its seas and rivers, its 
caverns and subterranean spaces, its exhalations, rains, mists, 
snows, frosts, thunders, lightnings, and especially wittds. 

The planets are treated ii. 7, and their names given 
ii. 8 and 9 ; the zodiac, ii. 7 ; the regularity of the seasons, 
V. 9 ; and the relief which creation feels from their alter- 
nation, V. 13. With this compare the fine passage of 
Aetna 230-245. 

The earth is described, ii. i, iii. 1-7, as a store-house 
and fount of hidden _;f/-f (Lipara, Aetna), iv. 26 ; of wind^ 
which in the struggle to escape, produces earthquakes, iv. 
29. The sea, iii. 8 scjq. ; rivers, river-exhalations, hail, &c., 
iv. 1-3; wind, iv. 10; its connexion with fire in lightning 
and thunder, iv. 17, 18, 19, 20. 

Most of these topics are included in Aetna, some of them 
at great length, e.g. the action of witid, which forms the 
staple of the poem, and is declared to be the main cause 
not only of volcanic eruptions, but earthquakes, 
171 sqq. 

Hinc uenti rabies, hinc saeuo quassat hiatu 
Fundamenta soli : trepidant urbesque caducae 

In the poem, again, much is said of the effects of water 
and of exhalations from rivers or springs (310-316), and an 
argument is drawn from the action of moisture as we see it, 
to its unseen action in the bowels of the earth. Even the glow 
of feeling with which the author of the Ilep Koo-/laou describes 
(iii. i) the earth as 'teeming with plants and animals," 
and diversified with countless forms of verdure, high moun- 
tains, deep-timbered forests, cities founded by that marvel 
of cleverness, man, islands surrounded with sea, continents,' 


has its parallel in the passage of Aetna where the poet, 
passing from the sublime phenomena of the heavens, insists 
on the study of earth as only second in importance, however 
much man may misuse it for his own slight purposes, and 
turn what ought to be a lofty investigation into a mere 
occasion of greed (250-270). It is perhaps a mere accident 
that in the list of trees which both writers give, not only the 
vine and the olive, but the comparatively unfrequent//a«^, 
is included (vi. 37, Aetn. 265). 

Of the sea alone, our poet says little or nothing ; but the 
description of the Mediterranean and its islands in the 
n€pi Koo-/i,ou seems to have been known to another Roman 
poet, Manilius, iv. 595 sqq. 

II. The following points of agreement are of a more 
special kind. I mention them seriatim, beginning with the 
less important, and ending with the more striking and 

I. In the opening section of his treatise the writer of the 
Yiepl Kdcr/xou contrasts the impossibility of the human body 
attaining to the sight of the heavenly region with the tran- 
quil and unimpeded contemplation of the same region by 
the philosophic soul. The folly of the former aspiration is 
'Uustrated by the example of the Aloadae, giants who tried 
to ascend the sky by piling Ossa on Olympus, Pelion on 
Ossa (Apollod. i. 7. 4). 

This story of the giants invading heaven is similarly 
introduced by the poet of Aetna as a mythological expla- 
nation of the volcano's eruptions : it was a popular belief 
that Enceladus was buried under Aetna in punishment for 
the giants' attempt. But whereas in the Ilepi KoV/aov the 
myth is only alluded to, in the poem it occupies a prominent 
place, and takes up no less than twenty-three lines (41-73). 


2. Both writers allude to the mental eye, the Greek of the 
philosophic soul, the Roman of the poet's intuition, 

i. 2 'Kr7f i5;) -yt'i/) ov^ o\i.v re }]V T<f (Tco/LtdTt fls rov nvpdviop d(PiK(a6<ii 
Tonov Kai Ti)v yt]v fK^movra tov oipdviov tudvov xwpov KUTOiTTevaui, 
Ka()<in(p 01 dv6r]Toi noTf fTifvoovv 'A\wii8(ii, i] youj' yj/vxr) £ia (jiiXo- 
(TocpLas \adoi(T(i rjytpova tov vovu fntpatwdr] Km (^(^i^prjatv. Again, 
^ft'o) ^I'X^l^ ofifiari TO 6(ia KaToXa^ovaa. 

Aein. 76 


Sub terris nigros uiderunt carmine manes. 
85 speculantur numina diuum 

Ncc metuunt oculos alieno admittere caelo. 

3. Fire the siviftest of things. 

\\. 18 "Orac TO \iiv idxiarov »/ 7u>v ovTOiv, Xtyo) 8e tu nvpw8(s, to 
te rjTToi/ Taxi; dfpCi>8fS of. 
Act /I. 213 

Ingenium uelox illi [sc, igni) motusque perennis. 

4. The simile in the Yitpl KoV/aov, comparing the action of 
the Cosmos with what happens in an army when the trumpet 
has sounded, may possibly have suggested two passages of 

vi. 23 "EoiKf 6« Kopibrj TO 8pa>pfiov roZf eV noXtpov Kaipois puXidTa 
yivoptvois fTTddav 17 <Tti\7iiy^ arpir^vt] tw (jr/jaTon-e'So)' jiWf yap TtJ! 
(f)^?]! fKaaTOS uKovaas 6 piv danida dvaipeiTut, 6 S( ButpaKa ivbviTai, 
o 8f KvrjpiSai 7] Kpdvos fj fcoor^pa TtepiTidtTui, k.t.X. 

Aefu. 469-473, where the struggle of the fire to gain the 
mastery over the resisting rocks is compared with the various 
stages of a battle. 

Aetn. 615 

Colligit ille arma et stulta ceruice reponit, 

where the poet describes the Catinaeans, on the approach of 
the lava-flood, shouldering their respective burdens, gold, 
armour, poems, &c. 



It is not pretended that these two passages of Aetna could 
be more than a remote suggestion from the prose treatise : 
this is all that can be claimed. 

5. Both writers appeal in a marked manner to Heraditus, 
both with an allusion to his obscurity. 

V. 5 Toiro hi TOLTO Tjv Koi TO Tiapa t(o (/Koreao) XeyofKnuv 

vi. 37 Ildj' yap (pTTfTuu ri]v yriv vipiTai, air rj)r](Tiv 'HpfiAcXciToy. 

Aetn. 536 

Cogitet obscuri uerissima dicta libelli, 
Heraclite, tui. 

6, The Ilepl KoV/xoi; has a distinct reference to Aetna's 
craters, and in connexion with them to the Legend of the 
Pious Brethren, which forms the concluding episode of 
the poem. 

vi. 32 Ai hi {(p\6yes) npos icnrepav (K yrji uva^Xvo'daai koi €K(f)v- 
<rr,(raa'ai, Kaddntp tQ>v eV A'itv'i Kpari'jpwf (ivappayiuTau ku\ dva rr)i/ 
yriv cfxpopevoov ;^«i^oppou hiKt]v, "Ei/da Ka\ to touv Eva(j3cou yhos 
e'^(!;(&)f (TifJ-qae to haifjiuviov, nfpiKaTaXrjcpOevtoiv viro tov pfvparos 
Cut TO /3aaTu^eif ytpoiTai ijn tcov S>p(t3V yovds Koi aai^du' TrXqalov 
yap avTuiv yivopcvos 6 tov nvpos norapos e^(cr\icr6r], TTapiTp(y\fe Tf 
TOV (pXoypov TO p€v fv6a, to 8' iv6n, Ka\ fTTjprfcrfp d^Xa^as apa to'h 
youfvcri Tois pfaiiaKovs. 



(i-8) My song is of Aetna and its subterranean fires. May 
Apollo inspire me for the task. 

(9-28) The ancient subjects of poetry are exhausted and 
have become over-trite. Mine is a hardier effort, to explain the 
causes of Aetna's eruptions and of its burning lava-flood. 

(29-73) We must not be deluded by the fictions of poetry 
about this. Aetna is not Vulcan's forge, nor the Cyclops' work- 
shop. Such belief is a desecration of the divine calm of the 
gods. Nor is it a record of the conflict between the giants 
and the gods : Enceladus is not buried under Aetna, the flames 
of the volcano are not the penal fires exhaled from his throat as 
he lies in torture. 

{74-93) Such stories are the lies of poets, comparable with 
their fabled Tartarus, and its punishments of Tityos, Tantalus, 
and Ixion. Poetry even invades heaven ; it is acquainted with 
all the gods do, every detail of Jupiter's amours. Such lies are 
not for me : my only aspiration is the attainment of truth. 

(94-143) The earth is not a solid whole, it is hollow beneath 
and filled with cracks and chasms, through which air is passing 
continually, just as blood passes through the veins of a living 
creature. Like a heap of stones formed by casual accretion, it 
is hollowed with successive interstices and hangs upon itself. 
The causes of such vacua beneath the earth are doubtful: their 
existence is proved by the sudden emergence of rivers from it 
and their sudden disappearance into it. For if the earth were 
solid and without pores or hollows, such rivers could find no 
channel for their waters. Similarly, the presence of wind- 


channels inside the earth may be shown from what we see 
outside, vast gaps in the ground, hmdsiips in which the soil 
parts off and falls in ruin or plunges deep down, again forest- 
caverns that sink far into the depths : types all of what happens 
where our eyes cannot penetrate. 

(146-157) Fire and wind agree in this: their fury is more 
violent in proportion as they are more closely pent in, the 
farther down their sphere of action, the more resolute their 
escape, and the more violent the effects of the struggle. 
Rushing on where the encompassing matter is least hard and 
most yielding, they force a way to the surface: the straining 
and convulsion of the pores thus produced causes earthquakes. 
(158-174) It is a wrong inference from the large orifices and 
chasms which meet the eye at the surface, that volcanic 
disturbances have their origin there. These disturbances come 
from below and are proportioned to the amount of resistance 
the winds encounter in the channels through which they pass. 
Where the channel widens, their force is diminished. It is 
the pressure of winds one upon another in very narrow 
passages which is the condition of their fur)% and the cause 
of those appalling cracks and convulsive heavings which lay 
cities in ruins. 

(175-186) Aetna is itself the best proof of the potent causes 
which are at work within. It has a world of wonders to strike 
the eye : huge sudden abysses, rocks here projecting, there 
called in, elsewhere crossed and interrupted by masses of stone 
in complex groupings, some completely changed by the action 
of fire, others imperfectly reduced and still submitted to its 

(187-217) If you ask what is the cause that produces the 
outbreaks of Aetna as w^e know them, I appeal to what we see ; 
to /ouc/t we are not permitted, the force of the explosion making 
it dangerous to come near. Ignited sand is whirled up in 
a cloud, burning masses of rock are heaved skywards, a loud 
crash bursts from every part of the mountain, the ground is 
strewn in every direction with masses of sand and stone. The 
agents in all this are wind and air ; or. more precisely, spin'/, 
which is the name for air in a tense form. Without this s/>ir// 
xcvii g 


fire ran do nothing : by itself it is almost powerless, in spite of 
its natural velocity and ceaseless motion ; it is only when rein- 
forced by spirit that it can be brought to act. 

(218-221) I shall now proceed to inquire where the wind that 
feeds the flame comes from, and why its fury subsides and sinks 
into absolute inaction. 

(222-271) Digression on tlic grundeiir of physical research. 
The highest pleasure of the human soul is to search into the 
causes of things. What is the origin of the universe, what is 
the nature of its framework ? Will it pass into extinction, or go 
on for ever ? ]5y what degrees is the moon's orbit less than the 
sun's ? What stars have a fixed circuit, what are the alternations 
of the zodiacal signs? What makes the sun pale, the moon 
redden ? What do the stars teach us? How do they severally 
regulate our lives, whether on land or sea ? 

(250-271) Such lofty speculations should be our chief end 
and aim, as indeed they are our highest and most divine pleasure. 
Nor should we forget meanwhile the earth, which has even 
an earlier claim on our attention, and teems with marvels 
of its own. Folly it were indeed to explore the sky and the 
stars, yet indolently neglect the no less grand spectacle that 
lies before us and at our feet. But what is the fact? Man 
does indeed busy himself with the earth about him, but only to 
wear himself out with trifling cares and sordid details, the 
one pufpose of which is to accumulate gain. To trace a vein of 
gold or silver in the mine ; to torture the soil in order that it 
may yield the very most it can ; to examine with the minutest 
care whether it will bear corn, or vines, or olives, or forest-trees ; 
to have overflowing bams, casks distended with must, hay-racks 
filled to the brim ; such are the ignoble cares which occupy 
all our thoughts, and upon which we are content to spend our 
misused time. 

(272-304) Far other are the aspirations of the philosophic 
soul. It would fain explore the secret of the earth, understand 
each operation of nature, not be overpowered by fear of Aetna's 
outbreaks, assert the supremacy of mind against the fables of 
superstition. Why are the winds of Aetna sometimes sunk 
into complete repose, at others roused to exceptional fury ? 


Whence is the fire fed ? Do the cavernous spaces and apertures 
form a storehouse of air and wind ? or does the earth draw- 
in air through minute openings in its surface, especially at the 
point where the mountain rises to a peak, and is thus peculiarly 
exposed to the combined assault of diverse winds ? Or again, 
are the clouds the agents, the water in them pressing on the still 
bodies of air inside, and thus setting them in motion ? Then 
we might compare their action with that of a Triton whose 
trumpet is blown by a mechanism in which water sets air 
in motion, or again, with an hydraulic organ. We may draw 
inferences from what we see outside to what happens within 
the earth. The air- and jr/i/r/Z-particles inside Aetna jostle 
each other, and in the struggle to escape crowding drag with 
them anything that stands immediately in their way. 

(305-327) You may object that there are other causes of wind 
different from those just alleged. At any rate you will allow 
that rocks tumble underground with a loud crash, setting in 
motion the air near them, and by its dispersion generating 
wind. River-vapours, clouds that form in valleys, or even \-ery 
small water-courses, discharge air, as we sec: much more 
potent must be the effect of moisture in the pent and stifling 
caverns underground where we cannot trace their working. 
Two comparisons may help to express their action; waves acted 
upon by violent east winds, where one breaker comes up after 
anothei-, the last crowding on the first: again, the sipvi by 
which water is forced upwards and brought to bear on burning 

(328-356) You are not to suppose that the wind rushes down 
the same orifice by which it returns. What we see disproves 
it. The same still sullen cloud is uniformly visible over the 
summit of Aetna, shifting its position as the light breeze sways 
it, otherwise unalterable. Again, when no eruption is going on, 
incense is offered to the gods, on the very central part of the 
crater. This is inconsistent with any constant action of strong 
winds, ascending or descending. If then your eyes prove to 
you the calm which Aetna can assume, you will not believe 
that the winds which cause the explosion necessarily come from 
without. Such quiescence leads to a different conclusion, 
xcix g 2 


Aetna has two states, one of violence and fury, the other of 
silent preparation within, when an eruption is still far oft". 

(357-399) \\'hate\ er may be the cause that gives such potency 
to the air in the volcano, the phenomena of eruption are the 
same, fiery masses of rock, showers of black sand, stones 
shivering as they encounter each other, detonating flashes. 
It is not true that after such an explosion, time must elapse 
before another can ensue ; such attenuation of force is no part 
of the divine ordering of nature. It is owing to some obstruction 
in the channels through which the spirit passes that such lulls 
happen : a mass of rock gets in the way and prevents the air 
from within escaping, or the winds from without penetrating 
to the interior. But such stoppage and the delay it occasions 
are followed by an outburst of proportionally increased violence; 
the fire bursts out with desolating fury and spreads in a lava- 
flood over all the adjoining country. Then is the time for all 
the inflammable substances in Aetna to take fire and burn, 
sulphur, alum, bitumen, &c. The presence of these substances 
is shown partly by springs of water at the foot of Aetna, which 
have a sulphurous or bituminous taste, partly in the form of 
stones which liquefy, notably the lapis molaris (lava-stone). 

(400-422) The external look of the luolaris would not lead 
you to think it could burn, but if struck with a mallet (or, iron bar ), 
it gives out sparks, and if subjected to the action of a strong 
furnace-fire, it fuses quicker than iron. Its special property 
is to conserve fire, once kindled, with extraordinary tenacity, 
unlike other substances, which when burnt out, cannot be 
kindled again. These two facts of the molaris, (l) its forming 
the chief component of Aetna, (2) its tenacious hold on fire, 
when once set burning, are the chief causes of the volcanic 

(423-446) This may be tested as follows. Examine other 
places where volcanic phenomena exist ; if they have no molaris, 
the presence of other inflammable substances is not enough to 
keep them in operation. Aenaria [Isc/iia), once active, is now 
extinct; the ground between Neapolis and Cumae {Solfatara), 
once volcanic, has long been cold, in spite of its copious supply 
of sulphur, in which it far exceeds Aetna. The island Strongyle 

AXAiAsis oy I'Hi-; i'()i:.M 

{StroviboU) possesses not only sulphur and bitumen, but a stone 
which is inflammable, yet its conflagrations are short-lived. The 
island Hiera(F«Avf/w) has similarly cooled, and become a harbour 
where ships lie at anchor ; only a small portion of it is still 
volcanic ; but this is in no way comparable with Aetna. Indeed 
it would long ago have become extinct entirely, were it not 
secretly supplied from Aetna by a submarine channel. 

(447-508) Facts of sight, however, are the best attestation. 
Round the sides of Aetna you may see stones in a state of fuming 
heat, and rocks with the Are smouldering in their pores. This 
is owing to their contact with the burning inolaris^ which gathers 
up the leavings of other fires and spreads its own flame to them. 
This is outside ; wilhiii tlie volcano the molaris is even more 
potent in its solicitations (to burn). When it begins to prepare 
for an eruption, there are premonitory signs, such as cracking 
of the ground, falling away of the soil, low murmurs from the 
depths of the mountain, flame. When these occur it is time to 
withdraw to the safety of some adjoining eminence. The erup- 
tion comes in a moment, masses of burning rock are heaved 
into the air, shoals of black sand are driven up to the stars* 
They fall into the most fantastic shapes. Some look like troops 
under defeat, some are still maintaining a sturdy resistance to 
the flames : in one part the fiery foe is putting forth its whole 
strength and seems to pant with the effort, elsewhere it is dying 
gradually down. The stones thrown out have a different lock. 
Some have a dirty and rugged-seeming surface, like the scoria 
from smelted iron. Others that have fallen pyramidally upon 
each other burn away as if in an actual furnace. (Gradually the 
inner substance of the stone liquefies, assumes a more intense 
glow, and at last becomes a fiery flood which pours down the 
slopes of the mountain, sometimes advancing to a distance of 
twelve Roman miles. Obstacles that cross its path are ineffec- 
tual to stay its course — trees, rocks, earth float side by side with 
each other — or are consumed and absorbed by the all-assimilat- 
ing lava-flood. Sometimes the unevenness of the ground brings 
the flood to a halt ; then the waves crowd up, rising one above 
the other with a loud sound, looking like a sea in agitation, 
when billow follows Ijillow, those in front small, those farther out 


larger and more crested. By degrees the burning liquid stiffens 
and cools, losing its appearance of a waving field of flame ; as 
the several masses congeal, they discharge a fume, and are 
borne onward by their own momentum with a great crashing 
noise ; brought into conflict with something solid, they open 
and are seen to be white-hot in their core. Such collisions 
are attended by showers of sparks, which you will be wise not 
to come near ; but however far the lava-flood may be carried by 
its own impetus, crossing, for instance, the river Simaethus and 
joining its banks, once cold and stiff, it is almost immovable. 

(509-534) Beware of clinging to the delusive belief that the 
inolaris is not uniform in substance, but liquefies in virtue of one 
of its constituent portions, hardens in obedience to another, just 
as when potters' clay is submitted to the action of a furnace, it 
has an inner substance which fuses, distinct from the remainder. 
It would be truer to compare the inolaris with copper under 
smelting ; whether smelted or not, you recognize the copper ; 
so the nio/aris, whether in its liquefied state or not, conserves 
its characteristics unaltered. Its black colour is alone enough 
to prove how truly it is always one and the same. But I would 
not deny that particular kinds of stone, besides the inolaris, 
have the property of burning fiercely : nor that there is a 
Sicilian word for rocks which implies their fusibility. 

(535-566) Do not be surprised that the inolaris is fusible. 
Heraclitus tells us that fire is the seed of all things, and that 
everything gives way to fire. We see that it is so in our own 
experiments with the hardest metals, copper, lead, iron, gold. 
True, the inolaris does not succumb readil)', with a small fire, 
or in open day-light. You must have a close furnace, a fire of 
more than average strength ; then it w ill fuse. And where can 
you find a furnace Jike Aetna, nurse of secret flames, only com- 
parable with the thunder-bolts launched by Jupiter ? This, too, 
seconded by a tense spirit which is forced out of the narrow- 
passages of the mountain, much as wind is forced out of bellows 
by a continuous series of puffs. 

(567-601) .Men travel over land and sea to visit famous 
shrines, cities of heroic or historic memories, pictures of world- 
M ide renown : Thebes, with her walls that rose to the music of 


Amphion's lyre, her legends of the seven chiefs, of Amphiaraus 
gulfed in the abyss : of Eteocles and Polynices, whose mutual 
hatred continued after death, surviving in the divided fumes of 
their common altar : Sparta, with its sacred band of 300, the 
heroes of Thermopylae : Athens, sung by innumerable poets, 
and recalling at every step a legend: Troy and Hector; the 
tombs of Hector, Achilles, Paris. We stand entranced before 
Apelles' Venus, Timomachus' Medea, Timanthes' Iphigenia, 
Myron's Heifer. Yet none of these merely human sights can 
rival the stupendous manifestations of the supreme artificer 
Nature, nowhere more wonderful in her workings than here, if 
only they are observed at the right time. 

(602-fin.) And yet Aetna, criminal as she may be, has a pious 
memory of her own. Once upon a time the volcano kindled into 
flame and spread destruction over the surrounding country. So 
swift was its advance, that the Catinaeans had hardly begun to 
know the fire was on its way when it had already reached their 
walls. Snatching up each what they thought most precious — 
money, gold vessels, armour, poems— they fled for life : in vain, 
the flames surrounded and consumed them. Two only, Amphi- 
nomus and his brother, seeing their parents too infirm to escape, 
lifted them on their shoulders, and with this pious burden con- 
fronted the flames. O power of piety unsurpassable ! The fire 
gave way on either side and would not assail them : they escaped 
with the burden which to them was more than all treasures, their 
father and mother. For this they are rewarded with eternal 
remembrance in poetry, and a special mansion in Elysium. 



Aetna— the fires that burst from its deep furnaces 
— what are those strong forces that roll on its volumes 
t)f flame, what it is that chafes at being ruled, what 
whirls aloft its dinning currents — shall be my song. 
Come thou to favour and support me as I sing, 
whether Cynthos hold thee, or Hyla be more accept- 
able than Delos, or Ladon's daughter (Daphne) be 
more precious in thy sight ; and with thee may the 
Sister Muses hasten from the Pierian spring to coun- 
tenance my new aspiration ; the track which traverses 
strange ground is safer when Phoebus leads the way. 

AVho but has heard of the Golden Age of the 
king that knew not care ? when no one ploughed 
the fields to throw in the grain, or kept noisome 
weeds from the crops that were to come, but over- 
flowing harvests filled the barns for every year, 
P>acchus ran into wine by no foot but his own, 
honies distilled from the clammy leaves, Pallas set 
flowing her own separate streams of rich olive-oil 
Then was the true graciousness of the country; 



Aetna mihi ruptique cauis fornacibus ignes, 

Et quae tarn fortes uoluant incendia causae, 

Quid fremat imperium, quid raucos torqueat aestus, 

Carmen erit. Dexter uenias mihi carminis auctor 

Seu te Cynthos habet, seu Delos/ gratior Hy\^., 5 

Seu tibi ZadonzV potior, tecumque fauentes 

In noua Pierio properent a fonte sorores 

Vota: per insolitum Phoebo duce tutius itur. 

Aurea securi qms nescit saecula regis ? 
Cum domitis nemo Cererem /actaret in aruis, 10 

Venturisque malas prohiberet fmctibus herbas, 
Annua sed saturae complerent horrea messes, 
Ipse suo flueret Bacchus pede, mellaque lentis 
Penderent foliis, et pinguid Pallas oliuae 
Secretes amnis ageret : tum gratia ruris : 1 5 


I Aethna CS ruptisque caui Corsinianus 43 F 4 qui Aettiae 

primos sex uu. habet 3 Quid fremat imperium CS Cots. : interius 

Bomtans 5, 6 inucrso ordine habet v 5 om. Cors. sed in irna 

pagiyta scripttim est Seu te Cinthos Cynthos CS delos (dolos S) 
gratior iia (ilia Sv) CSrv : Delost gr. Hyla Munro 6 Seu tibi 

dodona (do dodona r) potior CS Cors. rv : Ladonis Munro 
foilasse Seu Colophona subis potior //. e. potiore ui nates. Liician. Bis 
Acmsatus i., Stat. Theb. viii. 195-203 fauentis v Cors. 8 tutius 

CSv : cautius r 9 Saturni coni. Bonnans qui CSr : quis 

Sloan. 777 Munro 10 lactaret CS : iactaret ;- 11 Venturis 

C: Venturisque Srv malis CSrv: malas Sloan.- fluctibus 

CS: fluctibus Helmst. : frugibus v: frondibus r Arund. 14 

pingui corf(/. : pinguis 5o;->;:rt«s oliuae CS: oliua ;t' 15 Se 

cretos Munro annis ;- aleret de Rooy tum CSi : cum v 

■2 B 2 


never has it been allotted to any to have a happier 
knowledge of his time. \\'ho has not told of 
the Colchians" land, that farthest bourne of heroic 
effort ? who has not bemoaned the fate of Pergamos 
burning on its Argive pyre ; of the mother that slew 
her sons so tragically ? or how day turned back its 
course ; how in shedding of seed the dragon's tooth 
was sown ? who but has bemoaned the perjury 
of the traitor ship and sung the plaint of Minos' 
daughter forsaken on the empty shore? ay, every 
variation of mythology thrown into antique song. 

My spirit essays the hardier labour of an untried 
theme. What are the motive-powers of this great 
working, how mighty is the force that sets at large 
a close body of perennial flame, and heaves with 
a noise like thunder masses of rock from the bottom, 
burning all that is nearest with floods of fire — this 
is the purpose of my song. 

First, let none be misled by the figments of 
poets — that Aetna is the habitation of a god, that 
it is Vulcan's fire that bursts from its swelling throat, 
and his toiling activity that echoes through its close 
caverns. The gods own not a care so mean, none 
may rightly degrade to humblest crafts the stars : 
they rule as kings aloft in their remote heaven, and 
disdain to handle the task of an artisan. 

Distinct from that former is this second phase that 
poets assume. These, say they, are the kilns the 
Cyclops used, when bending sturdily over the anvil 
to their even-timed strokes, they shook the dreadful 


Non cessit cuiquam melius sua tempora nosse. 

Vltima quis tacuit iuuenum certamina Colchos ? 
Quis non Argolico defleuit Pergamon igni 
Inpositam, et tristi natorum funere matrem, 
Auersumue diem, sparsumue in semine dentem ? 20 

Quis non periurae doluit mendacia puppis, 
Desertam uacuo Minoida litore questus ? 
Qui^quid in ^antiquum tiactata est fabula carmen. 
Fortius ignotas molimur pectore curas, 
Qui tanto motus operi, uts ^?/anta perennis 25 

Explicet in dense* flammas, et trudat ab imo 
Ingenti sonitu moles et proxima quaeque 
Ignibus irriguis urat, mens carminis haec est. 

Principio ne quem capiat fallacia uatum, 
Sedes esse dei tumidisque e faucibus ignem 30 

Vulcani ruere, et clausis resonare cauernis 
Festinantis opus, non est tam sordida diuis 
Cura neque extremas ius est demittere in artes 
Sidera : subducto regnant sublimia caelo 
Ilia, neque artificum curant tractare laborem. 35 

Discrepat a prima facies haec altera uatum. 
Illis Cyclopas niemorant fornacibus usos. 
Cum super incudem numerosa in uerbera fo;>-tes 

16 Concessit S 19 I'positam S matrem r : mentem CSv 

20 Aduersumue rv sparsum de saemine r -. semina Scaliger 

23 Ouicquid in C: Ouicquid et in S: Quicquid in rv iac- 

tata CSrv Quicquid et antiquum, iam nacta est fabula car- 
men Maehly : Ouicquid et antiquum, iactata est fabula, carmen 
Stidhaus : fort. Quidquid id 25 uis quanta ego : quae tanla 

CS : que et tanta ^ v: quis tanta r: quis tanta Arimd. : quae 
causa Sloan. perenni CS : perhemni r : pereridi v 26 

denso C. A. Sclimid: densum CSm et rudat v 28 

carminis haec est om. S spaiio relicto 30 tumidis S 

33 dimittere CSv : demittere r Minn: 34 seducto rv 37 

Illis S, sed ut s seriits illata iiidcatiir: Illis C: Illi Scaliger : Illi 

his Marklaitd, Stiriitgar 38 fortes v : fontes CSr : foyltcs 



thunder-bolt with the beat of their ponderous 
hammers, so to give arms to Jupiter. This is a 
dishonouring tale, it has no voucher of its truth. 

Next comes the godless fable that disturbs with 
Phlegra and its camp the inextinguishable fires of 
Aetna's summit. In days of yore the Giants aspired 
(O shameful deed) to thrust down from the sky the 
stars, and making Jupiter a captive, to transfer his 
sovereignty to another, • and lay under their laws the 
conquer'd heaven. These have their proper (man's) 
nature down to the belly : a scaly serpent wreathes 
in circling coils their feet below. Huge mountains 
build up a mound for waging battle : Ossa presses 
Pelion down, Olympus' top lies heavy on Ossa. 
Already they are struggling to climb the mountain- 
masses they have piled together, a godless soldiery is 
challenging to close fight the affrighted constellations ; 
in hostile array is challenging to batde the gods one 
and all, moving up its standards through the ranks 
of the cowering stars. Jupiter quails from his place 
in heaven, and arming his glittering right hand with 
flame withdraws the sky in gloom. The Giants begin 
the charge with a mighty shouting : then the Father 
of Gods thunders with a deep tone, and the winds 
discordantly mustering from every quarter support 


Horrcndum magno quaterent sub pondere fulnien, 
Armarentque louem : turpe est sine pignere carmen. 40 

Proxima uiuaces Aetnaei uerticis ignes 
Impia soUicitat /%legraeis fabula castris. 
Temptauere (nefas) olim detrudere mundo 
Sidera, captiuique louis transferre gigantes 
Imperium, at uicto leges inponere caelo. 45 

His natura sua est aluo tenus : ima per orbes 
Squameus intortos sinuat uestigia serpens. 
Construitur magnis ad proelia montibus agger : 
Pelion Ossa graua.t, summus premit Ossan Olympus, 
lam coaceruatas nituntur scandere moles, 50 

Impius et miles metuentia comminus astra 
Prouocat, infestus cunctos ad proelia diuos 
Prouocat admotis per inertia, sidera signis. 
luppiter e caelo metuit dextramque coruscam 
Armatus flamma remouet caligine mundum. 55 

.Incursant uasto primum clamore gigantes, 
Hie magno tonat ore pater, geminantque fauentes 
Vndique discord/ i-o«itum simul agmine uenti. 

39 fulmen rv : flumen CS 40 est CSrv : et F. lacoh 

pignere t; : pignore CS 41 uiuoces C 42 flegraeis C5 45 

imponere 5 46 suos v 47 intortos v : intortas CS : 

intortus r 48 CostruiturS 49 Peloniossa C : PcIonossa5: 

Pelleon ossa v creat CSrv : grauat Jacob 50 Ante coacer- 

uatas rasura est in S 52 tamqttam glossema delcbat Suringai 

53 om. V admotisque tertia C: amotisque ttia S : m r uersus sic 

scripttts est Prouocat ... ad motus . . . omissis quae semntur : 
admotis qua tertia sidera signis Bormans : admotis ad territa s. 
signis Haupt (ad territa iani Wassenberg ap. Surixgar) : admotisque 
trementia s. s. Miinro, quod idem conie<erat Bonn, repiidiaratqite : 
admotisque terit iam s. S. Sudhaus : admotis per inertia scripsi 
55 flammare mouet S 57 Hinc Scaligcr geminantque CSrv 

fauente Wernsdorf ex Helmst. ubi est fouente 58 discordes 

comitum simul agmine codd. : discordi fremitum s. a. Wakcjicld : 
discordi sonitum s. a. Jacob JJaiipt Munro : fort. g. fauente Vnd. 
discordes comitum simul agmine uenti. Namfauent comitum agmina 
{a,Ko\ov6<tiv 6x^01 Luc. Nigrin. 13) 



him and redouble the din. A throng of Hghtnings 
bursts through the convulsed clouds ; whatever might 
for waging war each several god possesses is leagued 
in cooperation. Already Pallas had placed herself 
at her father's right, Mars on his left ; already the 
other gods stand trooped on either side in awe. 
Then did Jupiter sound his puissant fire-signals, and 
hurling his lightning dash the mountains to the 
ground. From that field are fled in discomfiture, 
ruining down the sky, the squadrons that battle 
with heaven, headlong the godless host is driven, 
camp and all ; yea. Mother Earth that would fain 
urge on her routed children as they lie. Then 
peace came back to the sky : the stars have rest 
and Liber advances among them ; now the constella- 
tions recover heaven and the glory of vindicating the 
realm of the sky. In Trinacrian waters Enceladus 
dies and is buried under Aetna by Jove's decree ; 
with the ponderous mountain above him he tosses 
restlessly, and defiantly breathes from his throat 
a penal fire. 

This is the common licence of erring rumour. 
Some bard has the gift of genius : it is thus a poem 


Densa per attonitas rumpuntur fu/mina nubes, 

Atque in bellandum quae cuique potentia diuum, fio 

In commune uenit : iam patri dextera Pallas, 

Et Mars /aeuus erat : iam cetera turba deorum 

Stant utrimque ueren?,. ualidos tum luppiter ignis 

Increpat et iacto proturbat fulmine montes. 

mine deuictae uerterunt terga ruinae 65 

Infe^tae diuis acies, atque impius hostis 

Praeceps cum castris agitur materque iacentis 

Impellens uictos. tum pax est reddita mundo, 

Tum Liber cessata uenit per sidera : caelum 

Defensique decus mundi nunc redditur astris. 70 

6^ur^te Trinacrio morientem luppiter Aetna 

Obruit Enceladon, uasto qu/ pondere mentis 

Aestuat et petula«i" exspirat faucibus ignem. 

Haec est mendosae uulgata licentia famae. 
Vatibus ingenium est : hinc audit nobile carmen. 75 

59 funduntur r flumina CS quod tiictur Borm. tamquam inibrea 

siguificet fulmina r 60 Et q? in r ceteris otnissis 61 om. 

codd. praeter CS 62 saeuus C : seiius S : scaeuus r in 

quo saeuus semper sic scriptum est : scaeuus Mtiiiro : laeuus Bonn. 
Haupt caetera C 63 uerens scripsi : deus Cr : de 5 cum 

spatio ante ualidos : secus Haupt tuens Bachrens stant ut 

cuique decus Unger ignes 5 64 iacto ed. Par. 1507 : uicto 

CS : uictor r Munro : stricto Biii fulmine Aruud. : flumine 

C 65 deuictae Cr : deuinctae 5 : deuectae v Sloan. : deiectae 

Pecrlkamp : cf. Manil. ii. 869 66 Infert ediuis C : Inferte diuis 5 : 

Infestae d. rv 67 Praeceptis C mateque 5 68 Impellens 

uictos codd. quod uarie ac frustra teniptarunt. Ego natos pro uictos 
reponendum arbitror 69 cessata scripsi yjouru. of Pliilol. xvi. 294) 
ct sic Unger ibidem p. 314 ct Hildebrandt in Philologi torn. Ivi (x"~. 99 : 
cessat CS : celsa r : cela v : cessante Baehrens : Tum liber cessata 
uenit post foedera Phoebus Unger. Sed ' Bacchi multa uirtus fuit in 
hoc proelio, qui Rliociuni retorsit leonis Vnguibus horribilique mala ' 
Pea-lkatnp uenit 5 70 deus mudi r nunc CSv : tunc r 

astris codd. : Ara A/singer. 71 Gurgite ;-' : Curcite CS : Carcere 

Baehrens 72 uastoque CS : uasto qui r ' 73 petula inse 

(inse C) CS : petulans rv 'Munro : patulis Aid. Haupt exspirat 
5 : exp. C 74 mendacis L. Mueller : uentosae Unger 

' /;/ 7/ petulans supra rasuram est. 



has a name and is famous. Most of what we see on 
the stage is mere delusion : bards have discerned in 
song a dark world of subterranean ghosts, a pale realm 
of Ditis amid the embers of the pyre. Some have 
laid Tityos sprawling in his ghastly punishment over 
whole acres of ground, others tempt Tantalus now 
with a banquet heaped about him, now with thirst ; 
they sing of Minos' and Aeacus' ordinances in the 
realms of shadow, or, again, set rolling Ixion's wheel. 
Whatever is part of the world that is below, some 
association of falsehood clings to it still. Nor are they 
content with earth : they are spies upon the Powers 
Divine and boldly let their eyes gaze into a sky that 
is not theirs. They know the wars of gods, their 
unions not revealed to men ; how often Jupiter wears 
a false shape to seduce, a bull for love of Europa, 
a white swan to win Leda, how he became a shower 
of flowing gold for Danae. Poetry may claim such 


Plurima pars sc^enae rerum est fallacia : uates 

Sub terris nigros uiderunt carmine manes 

Atque inter cineres Ditis pallentia regna 

[Mentiti uates Stygias undasque canentes.] 

Hi Tityon tpoena strauere in iugera foedum : So 

Sollicitant illi te circum, Tantale, ^ena 

Sollicitantque siti : Minos, tuaque, Aeace, in umbris 

lura canunt, idemque rotant Ixionis orbem. 

Quidquid et in_/er«zV/, falsi consortia ad/iai^rent. 

Nee tu, terra, satis : speculantur numina diuum S5 

Nee metuunt oculos alieno admittere caelo. 

Norunt bella deum, norunt abseondita nobis 

Coniugia, et falsa quotiens sub imagine pecce/ 

Taurus in Europen, in Ledam candidus ales, 

luppiter, ut Danaae pretiosus fiuxerit imber : 90 

76 par Chenu scenae CS : scenea r et Armid. : scenica ?- 

rerum CS : uerum r Arund. Munro hinc haurit nobile carmen 
Plurima pars scaenae : uerum est fallacia : uates olim coniecemm : 
P. pars scaena et rerum Posigate 77 subterius r Arund. : sub- 

ternis v uiderunt codd. : finxerunt Bonuaus : luserunt Baehrens 
79 spurius itideiur canesque Sadigcr, quod Peeilkamp tiietur ex 

Luc. vi. 733, ubi tiidc Svhol. Bern, et Seru. ad Acii. iii. 209 laudatum 
ah Usenero Mentitique rates Stygias undasque calentes Sclioikl 

Num M. ualles S. u. calentes ? 80 Hii C : H S in quo praeter 

hanc unani litteram cetera omissa sunt poena Cr : septem v et Sloan, 
sic Tiresias apud Tzetzcn ad Lycophr. Alc.x. 682 noueni uel septem 
aetates dicitur uixisse strauere nouena Haupt poena fetum 

Unger, fortasse reite, cf. Aen. vi. 598, Manil. iv. 667 81 illi 

codd. circum CSr Munro : siccum Sea/. cena Baehrens: poena C : 
poen S : pomis dc Rooy : pomo Haupt, quod ut siniplicissinntni 
Lachmanno quoque placuit : sed cf. Lucian. Tim. 18 wantp 6 "iavraXos 
anoToi Kal dytvaroi 82 aeacc^ C : post tuaque S /labet e aeace sed 

ut post e erasa altera a uisa sit, tuaque ea aeace 84 Quicquid et 

interius falsi sibi conscia ' terrent CS et sic r et Arund. nisi quod hi duo 
pro illo sibi conscia habent consortia : Q. e. interius falsum sibi conscia 
terra est Bormans : Q. e. i. falsi s. c. terret Munro, post haec unum u. 
excidisse censens, cuius uersus initium esset Pectora, reliqua sic suppleuit 
Buccheler sub latebris fingunt consisterc terrae Quicquid et interius : 
falsi s. conscia terra est Birt : infernist, adhacrent scripsi 85 

Nee C : H iantum in S dispicere potui 86 metunt C 88 peccent 
CSr : peccet Schroder 89 laedam C : ledam 5 90 am. r 

danae C : dang 5 praetiosus 5 fulxerit v 

* /n S c' cia ^»od nutic cst, priiis uideturfuisse c^ria. 


freedom, but my care is wholly centred in truth. 
I will tell what is the nature of the motion that makes 
Aetna boil and seethe, and how with restless greed 
it gathers to itself a store of ever-new fire. 

Wherever the earth's huge ball extends, girt 
about by the winding shores of its bounding sea, 
it is only partially a solid ; everywhere the ground 
falls into chasms, everywhere has been split into 
cracks, or, hollowed to its centre with covert-ways, 
shoots into narrow avenues and hangs in a vault ; 
and as in the living creature there are veins which 
traverse the whole body in all directions, along which, 
to maintain life, the whole of the blood passes to 
and fro to the sartie one being; so the earth draws 
in and distributes through its chasms air. Either, 
that is to say, when in past ages the body of the 
universe was divided into sea, earth, stars, the sky 
had the first allotment, next the sea, earth sank down 
to the lowest place, yet so that it was drilled with many 
winding cavities here and there ; and just as stones of 
uneven size thrown at random spring up into a heap, 
forming a hollow which, voided by successive spaces 
within, hangs upon itself; so the earth, figured similarly, 
expands into slender channels, and does not all close 


Debita carminibus libertas ista, sed omnis 
In uero mihi cura; canam quo feruida niotu 
Aestuet Aetna, nouosque rapax sibi congerat ignes. 

Quacumque inmensus se terrae porrigit orbis, 
Extremique maris curuis incingitur undis, 95 

Non totum ex solido est : dual namque omnis hiatuw, 
Secta est omnis humus, penitusque cauata latebris 
Exiles suspensa uias agit; u/que animanti 
Per tota errantes percurrunt corpora uenae 
Ad uitam sanguis omnis qua c^mmeat ndem, 100 

Terra uoraginibus conceptas digerit auras. 
Scilicet taut olim diuiso corpore mundi 
In maria ac terras et sidera, sors data caelo 
Prima, secuta maris, deseditque infima tellus 
Sed tortis rimosa cauis ; et qualis aceruus 105 

Exilit inparibus iactis ex tempore saxis, 
Vt crebro introrsus spatio uacuata tcharybdis 
Pendeat in sese, similiy quoque terra f/^oirae 
In tenuis laxata uias, non omnis in artum 

91 istnnis 5/>ro omnis 93 congregat S 96 Non totum 

et solido (solidum r) desunt namque omnis hiatu (hiatus /-) CSr 
unde Itali scripsenuit Non totum est solidum, defit namque omnis 
hiatu et solidum est lacob : et solido densum est Volhner; ex 

solido est scripst distat Baehrens : ducit . . . hiatum sciipsi 98 

agit utque Aid. 1517 : agiturque CS : agit inque v Arund. 99 dis- 
currunt Borm. Sed ttide Lachmannuin ad Lucr. vi. 324 100 cum 

mtat C: cummeat 5: comeat r Ad uitam sanguis qua commeat 
omnis alendam Peerlkantp idem codd. : eidem scnpsi : isdem 

Clericus et Schntid ut cum sequente uersn iungeretur 102 au't 

CSr: \iSM^v etsic Wernsdorf: hoc Borm. •.fort, ante 105 toritis 

S sed ut prior \uix compareat aceruans Aritnd. 107 crebr er C : 

crebor S : crebro v tiulgo introssus 5 uacuata Itali : uacat acta C : 
uacatacta S : caua facta Baehrens : uacefacta Buecheler charibdis C : 
h u . . 

carims S : carambos v : corymbos Sloan. : corymbis Cleiicus tamquam 
femininum, quod uocabtdum nnsquam extarc credo : fort, corymbas 
et sic Gronouitts Obseruatt. ii. 6. Certe Kopvfx^ov did f^ox^" op(ivr)v 
testatur Eustathius ad Dionys. Pericg. 566 : mire congruunt cum hoc loco 
uerba Placidi Corineos accrues quos rustici ex congerie lapidum faciunt 
108 similis scripsi : simili codd. figurae scripsi: figura Sloan. : futurae 
CSr : figura est Munro 109 omncs C 



up tightly or with compactness : — or it may be that 
its cause is only ancient, and this appearance is 
nothing congenital, but some air wandering at large 
makes its way in, and in escaping works itself 
a channel ; or that some constant flow of water has 
eaten away the ground with mud and softens the 
opposing matter unobserved : or again hot steams 
pent close within have fused the solid crust, and 
fire has sought to make itself a path ; or all these 
causes, it may be, have been in conflict each in its 
allotted place; nothing is here for lamenting our 
ignorance, provided only that whatever the cause, 
its operation remains unshaken. Is there a man who 
doubts that earth's depth contains hollows of void 
space, when he sees such large springs of water start 
into light, and when a torrent is found often to sink 
feebly in one chasm, [rise vigorously at another ?] It 
is not in that torrent, be sure, to change from a puny 
stream into boisterous vigour ; there must be pent 
up confluents that summon from every side their 



Nee stipata coit : siue illi causa uetusta est, no 

Nee nata est facies, sed liber spiritus intra/ 

Et fugiens molitur iter, seu nympha perenni^ 

Edit humum limo furtimque obstantia mollit; 

Aut etiam inclusi solidum ui^ere uapores, 

Atque igni quaesita uia est ; siue omnia certis 1 1 5 

Pugnauere loeis ; non est hie causa dolendi, 

Dum stet opus causae, quis enim non credit inanis 

Esse sinus penitus, tantos emergere fontis 

Cum uidet ac torrens uno se mergere hiatu 

Non ille ex tenui uio/ens ueg^t : arta necesse est 120 

Confiuma. errantes arcessant undique uenas, 

110 uetustas Haupt iii Haec Cv : Hec stlljta-nata est 5 refie- 

tito stipata ex no, deinde ex parte delcto Nee Anind. An 

oppontmittr inter se illi, Haec id illi ad tellurem, Haec ad postcrius 
caitatarn telluris faciem referaiitr? sed codd. : seu ed. Riibci 

1475 intra C: intrat S quod tuetttr Bormans ex Sen. N. O. vi. 
14. 3 uide ergo numquid intret in illam spiritus ex circumfuso aero, 
qui quamdiu habet exitum, sine iniuria labitur : si offendit aliquid 
et incidit quod uiam claudat, tunc oneratur primo infundente se a 
tergo aere, deinde per aliquam rimam maligne fugit et hoc acrius 
fertur quo angustius. Jb. 15. i per haec interualla intrat spiritus 
112 Et fugiens Bormans: Effugiens CSr molitus CS : molitur 
rv inter C nympha CS : lympha i-v perenni Cr : per 

enni S 113 limo CS : lymum v. binum r: lima Scaliger molit 
5: moli r 114 inclusis olidum C uidere codd.: uicere 

Senin Acad, des Insa-ipiions v. p. 226 (1729), Waglcr de Aetna 
poemate p. 52 : fudere Mtinro 116 dolendi codd. : docendi 

A/d. Munro : docenda Lnc/iniann ad Lucr. vi. 755. Sed cf. 
Ov. M. xi. 345 aliisque dolens fit causa dolendi 117 causas 

Munro non om. S credit CS : non credit inanis om. r cunt 

Arund. : credat Aid. 118, 119 in ununi conjlati sic extant in S 

Esse sinus penitus tanto se mergere hiatu 119 hac torres C : 

ac torrens Sr: torrentem Itali : totiens Haupt : imo v Haupt hyatu C 
Lacnnam unius ucrsits signauit Munro, qitcm seqtior. Is poterat esse 
huiusniodiln\ia.\\6ns solet atque alio se erumpere fortem 120 correxi : 
Nam (Non r v) ille (illo r) ex tenui uocemque agat apta necesse est 
CSrv : Nam mille ex tenui uocuoque agitata n. e. Munro : Non ille ex 
tenui quocumque agat, apta n. e. Sudhaus 121 Cum fluuio C : 

Cum fluuia S : Confluuia Sloan. 



wandering ducts, that so the torrent may draw from 
a full source the supply of a vigorous stream. More- 
over rivers that flow swiftly in broad currents have 
found each their own place of sinking : either some 
chasm has hurried them headlong down and hidden 
them in the grave of its jaws, or else they flow in 
secret with close caverns above them, and issuing to 
light at a distance, renew their course unexpectedly. 
Indeed, were it not that the earth throws off canals 
here and there, and a water-track gives housing to the 
river, springs and streams would assuredly be without 
their required channel, and the sluggish earth would 
be packed close into a solid mass, and its motionless 
weight keep it from working. But if rivers there 
be which are buried in sheer abysses of earth, if there 
be others that after burial come to light again, certain 
others that spring to life with no such previous burial, 
it is not strange if pent up winds also have free vents 
that escape the eye. Earth will furnish you with suc- 
cessive vouchers of this by facts that are unmistakable, 
vouchers which cannot but arrest your eye. Often 
you may look out upon huge gaps in the ground and 
stretches of land cut off and fallen in ruin or plunged 
into dense night : it is a wide scene of chaos and debris 
without end. Again, see you how in forests wide- 
spaced lairs receding inwardly and again caverns have 
sunk into the soil their deep-dug coverts ? The plan 


Ft trahat ex pleno quod fortem contrahat amnem. 

Flumina quinetiam latis currentia riuis 

Occasus habuere suos : aut ilia uorago 

D^repta in praeceps fatali condidit ore, 135 

Aut occulta fluunt tectis adoperta cauernis, 

Atque inopinatos referunt procul edita cursus. 

Quod «i diuersos emittat terra canales, 

Hospitium fluui^? det semita, nulla profecto 

Fontibus et riuis constet uia, pigraque tellus 130 

Conferta in solidum segni sub pondere cesset. 

Quod si praecipiti conduntur flumina terra, 

Condita si redeunt, si quaed^am incondita surgunt, 

Haud mirum claussis etiam si libera uentis 

Spiramenta latent. Certis tibi pignera rebus 135 

Atque oculis haesura tuis dabit ordine tellus. 

Inmensos plerumque sinus et iugera pessum 

Intercepta hVet densaeque abscondita nocti 

Prospectare : procul chaos ac sine fine ruinae. 

Cernis et in siluis spatioi-a cubilia retro 140 

Antraque demissar pe«i/us fodisse latebras? 

122 Et CSv : Ex r : Vt Mimro fortem C : fontem 5 conuehat 
Borwans: comparat Baehrens: fori, conrogat amne t/ 123 

ripis BormaHS Hnupt 125 Direptam CS : Dirreptar: Direpta 

V : Derepta Ckricus 126 adoperte auernis C 128 ni Iamb : 

si cocid. 129 Ospit(c S)ium CS fluuio Baehrens: fluuium 

CS : fluminum rv det Bachieiis sed praefixo et : aut CSv : uel r : 
Hosp. fluuiorum aut s. Halt, Munro : H. in fluidum Unger : fort. 
Hospitium fluuio iam et 131 conferta Artind. : conserta 

CSrv 132 terra Arund. 133 si qua (Si qua C) etiam 

CSr: si quae etiam v. et iam Scaliger : si quaedam Miairo : si 
quae clam condita serpunt Unger 134 classis CS : claussis 

Munro : fort, clussis 135 patent Clericus pignera CSv : pignora r 

137 passim Schradcr et Suringar 138-285 Ad has uu. tradita 
stutt e.xcerpta quaedam amissi codicts qttcut Gyra/dinitin uo ant (Gyr.) 

138 fori. Intersaepta licet Scaliger identque in Gyr. traditur fuisse : 
leget CSrv densaque . . . nocte Gyr. 139 chaos et sine 
fine minas marg. uastum Gyr. unde Baelirens scripsit chaos uastum et 
sine fine ruinas ruinast Munro 140 spatioque codd. o*nnes : 
spatiosa Aid. 15 17, idque tiotun: ftiit Heinsio ad Claud. Rujin. ii. 527 
retro CSr Arund. : re^tro v : spatioque cubilia tecto olint conieci 
141 demissa pedibus (dimiss apedibus 5 : demissis p. tv) fodisse 

17 C 


of such workings baffles discovery ; only we know 

that there is an efflux inside 

will provide you with indubitable proofs of the nature 
of the unknown deep. Do but let your mind guide 
you to the understanding of nice investigations, and 
abstract from the things you see your belief of the 
unseen. For in such proportion as fire is always 
more unrestrained, more furious, where the ground 
is shut in ; in such proportion as the winds show 
no less active fury under ground and far down, 
in such proportion must both needs work wider 
change, so much the more break their fastenings 
loose, so much the more throw aside what stands in 
their way. Yet the channels into which the violence 
of air or flame escapes are not wrought in stubborn 
matter with effort; it rushes on only where what is 
nearest gives way, and cuts its channel slantwise where 
it finds the enclosing barrier most frail. Hence 
comes rocking and shakings of the earth, when the 
close-pressed air stirs the open pores and pushes 
the inert matter before it. But if earth were im- 
permeable, if all its supporting frame were solid, 
it would nowhere allow its marvellous operations to 
be exhibited to the eye, but would be inert and, 
packed as it is into a close heavy mass, immovable. 



Incomperta uia est operum, tantum effluit intra 

Argumenta dabunt ignoti uera profundi. 

Tu modo subtiles animo duce percipe curas, 

Occultamque fidem manifestis abstrahe rebus. 145 

Nam quo liberior quoque est animosior ignis 

Semper in inclusis, nee uentis segnior ira est 

Sub terra penitusque, nouent hoc plura necesse est, 

Vincla magis soluant, magis hoc obstantia pellant. 

Nee tamen in rigidos exit contenta canales 150 

Vis animae flamma^'ue : r?^it qua proxima cedunt 

Obliquumque secat qua uisa tenerrima cau/a est. 

Hinc terrae tremor, hinc motus, ubi densus hia;///i' 

Spiritus exagitat uenas cessantiaque urget. 

Quod si spissa foret, solido si staret in orani, 155 

Nulla daret miranda sui spectacula tellus, 

Pigraque et in pondus conferta immobilis esset. 

(fudisse r) latebris CSrv : demersas penitus fodisse latebras traditurcx 
Gyr. et sic uerba citauit Heinshis ad Claudian. in Ruf. ii. 527 ' ex antiqtiis 
mentbranis.' Sed bene demissae dicuntur latebrae, quernadmodtan ap. 
Verg. G. ii. 230 fs/alteque iubebis In solido puteum demitti demissis 
penitus sedisse latebris IVcryisdorf quo recepto potcrat sic scribi spati- 
ante cubilia rostro Antraque d. p. s. 1. 142 tantum CSv: tamen 

r et Ariind. : aeri tantum effugit ultra tmditur ex Gyr., iiiide Bac/irciis 
edidit aer tantum effugit ultra Post Imnc n. lactmam indicauit Mtotro 
145 abstrahe CSrv: astrue Ifali 147 ininclusus C: in inclusis 5 : 

in incluso ' Gyr. 148 mouent CS : mouet r : mouens ed. Par. 

1507 et sic Gyr. : penitusque mouent hie plura, n. est Miuiro : nouent 
scripsi: ante coniecerant dolent {dolare) 150 rigidos CSrv: riguos 

Heinsius: priuos Linger (riuos traditiir ex Gyr.) h(a)esit r Arund. 

conteta r: fort, contecta : Nee tantum inriguos uexat contenta canales 
Bormans 151 flammaeue ruit Gyr. : flamma uerrit CS : flamma 

vrit {sic') Arund. : flamen uerrit Ahinger et Hildebrandt qua v : 
quam CSr 152 Obiquamque r qua CSr ncrsns sic traditur ex 

Gyr. : Obliquumque secant quae causa tenerrima caussa est quo nihil 
uidi niendosius causa codd. : caula Clerieus : crusta Haupt : massa 
Munro: qua fissa tenerrima claustra Unger 153 hiatu C: hiatus 

r Arund.: iatusy: hianies traditur ex Gyr.: ;>ia/;';« hiantis 155 

solidos instaret r Arund. inamni C: ^S kgi uix poterat: inani n; : 

in omni Gyr. : fort, in aeuum 157 confert immobilis CS : con- 

ferta Scaliger, quod idem traditur ex Gyr. 

' Sic Matthiae: editor lenensis legit et inclusa. - Sic uisuiii est mihi ina/ml. 

19 C 2 


But you may think, pcrliaps, that this great action 
is a concession to causes at the surface, when 
the material that feeds the flame has received an 
accession of force at the point where you see 
before you powerful chasms and powerful depres- 
sions of soil. You are mistaken ; the matter does 
not yet show itself to you in a clear sure light. 
For while all the onset of the winds is towards any 
open vacuum, their force is relaxed at the moment 
of entrance, and is changed by the wide access to 
the chasm, growing faint and abating in fury. For 
each time that some vacant space presents nothing 
to check the winds and stimulate them thus arrested, 
they grow idle ; the vastness of the descending chasm 
spreads them out drifting aimlessly to and fro and 
they become inactive just at the point of issue. They 
must needs have narrow gullies in which to vyork their 
turmoil. Hotly the work proceeds : at one time the 
south wind is urging or urged on by a dense downfall 
of air from the east and north wind, at another both 


Sed summis si forte putas conredere causis 
Tantum opus adsum/>tis alimentum uiribus, ora 
Qua tualida in promptu cernis tualidosque recessus, i6o 
Falleris et nondum tibi lumine certa /I'quef res. 
Namque illuc, quodcumque uacans hiat, impetus omnis, 
t^'et sese introitu soluunt, adituque patenti 
Conuersae languent uires, animosque remittunt. 
Quippe ubi ^?iod t^neat uentos aaia/que morantis 165 

In uacuo desif, cessant, tantumque profundi 
Explicat errantis, et in ipso limine tardant. 
Angustis opus est turbary in faucibus illos. 
Feruet opus densaque premzV premiturque ruina 
Nunc emi boreaeque notus, nunc huius uterquf. 170 

158 summis codd. : subitis Gyr. concredere CS : congerdcre v : 
congredere r : concrescere Cry/'. : conccdere scr//!>s«' 159 adsumptis 
scripsi : et summis CSrv : et subitis Gyr. : ex subitis alimenti incursi- 
bus linger ex Sen. N. Q. vi. 20 potest terram mouere impressio spiritus: 
fortasse enim aer extrinsecus alio intrante acre agitatur, uilibus v 

era Gyr. : oris CS)-v 160 Qua scripsi : Quae CSrv : ualida 

CSrv : patula Gyr. ualidosque CSrv : uastosque Gyr. et sic 

Friesemann collato 335 : Jort. uacua . . . uacuosque 161 correxi: 

Fallere sed nondum tibi lumine certaque retro {redo v) codd. : Falleris 
et nondum certo tibi lumine res est tradiiur ex Gyr. quod falsiim esse 
mihi persuasi, qnamnis contra pugnent Hildcbrandt {Philol. Ivi. (x.) 108) 
et Sudhaus 162 quodcuque 5 uacans scripsi: uacat CSr: 

uoca^t {sic) V impetus CS quod inepiissinie deprauartint scribae 

codicum saec. xv omis S Namque illis quaecumque uacant hiatibus 
tradidttr ex Gyr., idque rcccpit Mtinro, addito in 163 Et CSv : set 

scripsi : sese C : sese S qttod idem trciditur ex Gyr. : rosae r : res v 
■X64 Conceptae Gyr. 165 quod teneat Hatipt : contineat Crv : 

continual S : qui teneat traditurex Gyr. uentos acuatque Munro ex eo 
quod Gyr. habuisse dicitur uentos aquasque : uentosa quaquaeque C : 
uentos aqua queque 5 : uentosa quaeque r et Arund. : uento qua 
queque v angatque Unger 166 desit scripsi: desint CSv: 

desinit r : defit Gyr. 167 errantis CSr : erranteis ex Gyr. 

traditur tardant CSv : tradant r : tradunt Matthiae, tradant 

editor lenensis testati sunt ex Gyr. : tardat ed. Par. 1507 168 

turbare in rv : turbant in CS : turbanti traditur ex Gyr. : turbent in 
Haupt : turbari linger: turbanti faucibus f.illo Feruet opus) Hildebrandt 
et Sudhaus: fort, turbante in f. illos h. e. opus est co quod turbant in 
illis faciat illos CSrv: illo Gyr. 169 sic Gyr. : densique premuot 

premiturque (premitque n;) ruina (-nas r) CStv: An densis premitur- 
que premitque ruinis? 170 sic Gyr. sed addito est post uterque 

Hinc furtim (furtum C: furti Neap.) boreaeque ncto (note S) nunc 



these by the pressure of the south. This is the cause 
of the wind's furj', this is why it convulses with an 
appalHng crack the foundations of the ground, thence 
it is not only that cities totter in affright, but that 
truer presage there is none, that the universe will 
resume, if we may believe it without impiety, the 
chaotic look it originally bore. 

Such, in the first instance, being the character 
and nature of the earth, it draws off inwardly into 
channels in every direction, while the surface-soil 
itself remains inactive. Aetna is its own palpable, 
its own most credible voucher. Follow my lead 
and you shall not probe for occult reasons there : 
they will present themselves spontaneously to your 
mind and extort confession. For indeed that moun- 
tain lays its world of wonders bare to the eye : at one 
point are huge openings to appal the spirit and 
plunge it in an abyss : at another it calls to 
order at its inner part limbs elsewhere thrust out 
too far : at another point crowding rocks block 
the way, a wild scene of confusion : these cross 
their texture multifariously, or stop its progress half- 
way, now reduced by the action of fire, now 
constrained to bear successive fires still. Such is the 
world-famed appearance and domain of Aetna's divine 
activity : such its seat and free field of marvellous 



Hinc uenti rabies, hinc saeuo quassat hiatu 
Fundamenta sob': trepidant urbesque caducae 
Inde, neque est aliud, si fas est credere, mundo 
Venturam antiqui faciem ueracius omen. 

Haec primo cum sit species naturaque terrae, 175 

Introrsus cessante solo trahit undique uenas. 
Aetna sui manifesta fides et proxima uero est. 
Non illi<: duce me occultas scrutabere causas, 
Occurrent oculis ipsae cogentque fateri. 
Plurima namque patent illi miracula monti. iSo 

Hinc uasti terrent aditus merguntque profundo, 
Corrigit hi«c artus penitus quos exigit ultra. 
Hinc spissae rupes obstant discordiaque ingens. 
Inter opus nectunt uari^ mediumque coercent 
Pars igni domitae, pars ignes ferre coactae. 185 

[Haec operi.y uisenda sacri faciesque domusque] 185'-' 

Haec ilk' i-edes /antarumque area rerum. 

huius uterque est CSrv : est semauit Hildcbrandt p. 102, '■Jetzt ist Notiis 
in derGeivalt des Eur us und Hot eas, jetzt jedei- dieser bciden letztcn in der 
Gewalt des Notits.' 171-212 ex ditnidia tautuin parte, caque 

posieriore supersunt in S 171 quassat hiatu CSrv Munro : quassa 

meatu Wenisdorf, Maehly : boatu Ungir : citatu ego Journ. of Philol. 
xxvi. p. Ill 172 soli Gyr. : solo CSrv: soli, trepidant Mm/ro 

173 Mille nee e. a. s. f. e. c. mundum Venturum a. in f. u. o. Ungcr, 
quern ita secutus sum ut urbesque trepidant, neque est aliud inter se 

respondere putem 174 Venturam rv : Venturum C antiqui 

CSrv Gyr 175 primo Cvr : immo Gyr.: imo coyii. Matthiae 

naturaue Gyr. teste Matthiae 176 trahat Gyr. rimas Ungcr 

178 illic r\ illinc Cv : illi Gyr. 179 ipsae Rub. 1475 : ipsi Cr 

Arund. 180 spiracula Baehrens i8r terebrant Ungcr 

uerguntque Unger 182 Corrigit Cn : Porrigit Gyr. et ed. Viccniina 

1479 hie Cry : hinc i?z</). 1475 artus Cn-' : /orif. arcus penitus 
quos exigit CS : penitusque (^que quod v) exigit rv : penitusque 
exacstuat ultra Gyr. : penitusque os erigit ultra Munro 183 scissae 

Gyr. 184 uaries C: uarios rv Arund. S legi non poterat : aliae 

tradilur ex Gyr.: uarie scripsi An uires? cohercent C 185 

par signes ferre S post 185 Crv ' /labcnt Vt (Et v) maior species 
aetne succurrat inanis, qui uersus iieruni sciiptus est post 193. In 
priore loco eum retinuit Alsinger scd ut scriberet succrescat in ignes 
185^ ex solo Gyr. traditur sed post 187 operi Gyr. : modusque Unger 
i86 sic Gyr. quomodo scriptus est uersus in Neap, et ed. Rub. 1475 
nisi quod illis habetit ambo : Haec illis tantarum sedesque arearum est 
' In S su/ersunt haec ies a&hiie succurrat inanis 


At this point my plan calls on me to explain the 
artificer and cause of the fire, a cause of no little 
or slight significance : it is overwhelming, and will 
lay before you a thousand truths in a moment of 
time. Facts and eyes are our teachers, facts force 
belief unassisted. Moreover I would suggest to you 
to handle and touch, if it might safely be done ; 
but the flames forbid, and there is a fire to keep 
guard upon Aetna's working which shuts off all 
approach, since the divine providence which governs 
creation will have no witness of its action, so to 
heighten the show, and not relieve the mountain 
ineffectually. All will be the same, but you are 
to see it from a distance : none the less it is no 
matter for doubt what it is that makes Aetna writhe 
within, or who is the wondrous workman that directs 
a craft so mighty. 

A cloud of ignited sand is driven out in a whirl : 
burning masses hurry up, the substructions are rolled 
from the bottom : at one moment a crash bursts 
from every part of Aetna, at another wan flames 


Nunc opus artificem incendi causamque reposcit, 

Non illam parui aut tenuis discriniinis : ingens 

Mille sub exiguo pone/ tib; tempore uera. 

Res oculique docent : res ipsae credere cogunt. 190 

Quin etiam tactu moneaw contingere, tuto 

Si liceat : prohibent flammae, custodiaque ignis 

Illi operum est arcenx aditus, diuinaque rerum 

Vt maior species et ne succurrat inanis 

Cura sine arbitrio est. eadem procul omnia cernes, 195 

Nee tamen est dubium, penitus qui^ torqueat Aetnaw, 

Aut quis mirandus tantae faber imper^t arti. 

Pellitur exu^tae glomerant^r nimbus harenae, 

Flagrantes properant moles, uoluuntur ab imo 

Fundamenta : fragor tota nunc rumpitur Aetna, 200 

Nunc fusca pallent incendia mixta ruina. 

C: in S sufterstmt ianiitm haec -rum sedesque arearum est : Haec illis 
tantarum sedesque area rerum est v : Haec igni Matthiae : haec 
iris Unger 187 itentm scriptus est in v post 193 in- 

cendi C: incendia Sv : incendii Gyr. 188 ingens scripsi : 

ignes codd. nisi quod ex Gyr. iraditur Non illam paruo aut tenui 
discrimine signis, quod semauit Haupt signis in signes ntutnto 
189 ponet tibi scripsi: ponent ibi 5: poncntibus C : ponent tibi r : 
ponam tibi v tempora uera C et S nisi quod nera potius uidcri 

poterat : sub exiguum uenient tibi pignora tempus tradiiur ex 
Gyr., quod falsum esse tnihi persuasi : ignes Mille sub exiguo 
ponent tibi tempore ueram Munro 190 oculos ducunt Gyr. 

cogunt CS : cogent Gyr. 191 moneam Gyr. et sic ex coni. Heinsius : 

moneant v Arund. : moueant r: moneat CS tuto Scaliger ideni- 

que ex Gyr. tradiiur: toto codd 193 operum Ci- : opertum 

r Arund. : operi Gyr. arcens Haupt : arcent CSrv adhitus S : 
dictis r: num adytis? Post 193 v habct (Va Nunc opus artificem 
incendia causasque reposcit cat) h. e. uacat, cf. ad 187. Hinc uideiur 
omissi uersus unius spatium fuisse in eo codice iinde v fluxit : is 
poterat esse 185'' 194 cf. ad 185 : etne C: aethne 5: ethnae r : ut 

ne 11 : et ne scripsi an succumbat in annis? 195 sin v : sine 

arbitrio est eadem : procul r cernes CS : cernis rv 196 

quid Gyr. : quin CSrv : quis Scaliger torqueat CSt-o : torreat 

Gyr. aethna Cr : he.tna v : -na tantunt in S : Aetnam 

Scaliger 197 imperet ed. Par. 1507 : imperat Cr S legi non 

poterat 198 exustae ed. Par. 1507 : exutae Crv : exhaustae 

Gyr. glomeratur Cv : glomerantur Sr : glomeratim tradiiur 

ex Gyr. : glomeratus liali: glomeranter uel glomerator scripserim 
nymbus S 199 Flagrant' (? Flagranter) v uoluntur C : uol- 

uuntur 5 201 incendia CS : incendi r 



mingle with black frilling debris. Jupiter himself 
looks wonderingly from afar at those mighty fires, 
and trembles silently in his secret place that a new- 
race of Giants may rise to wage again the war that 
was buried in their graves : or that Ditis ' may grow 
ashamed of the realm he rules and shift his hell 
to heaven : but meanwhile the whole ground outside 
is strewn with a crowd of rocks and loose sand : not 
that they do this by any will of their own ; no firm- 
ness of structure is strong enough to hold them in 
their place when thus ejected ; no, it is the winds that 
set in action all their powers of turmoil, driving 
and whirling in a close mass the rocks with the fury 
of their gust, and rolling them up from the abyss. 
This (the internal action of the winds) is the reason 
why the rush of fire in the mountain can never be 
a surprise. The winds when inflated are called spirit, 
when in subsidence, air. For left to itself the 
violence of the flame is almost powerless : fire indeed 
has a natural velocity and continual motion, but then 
it needs some auxiliar to drive bodies out : it has 
no moving force in itself; only where spirit bids it 

> Cf. 642. 



Ipse procul magnos miratur luppiter ignes, 

Neue sepulta noui surgant in bella Gigantes, 

Neu Ditem regni pudeat, neu Tartara caelo 

Verta/, in occulto tar/tux /remit : omnia at extra 205 

Congeries operi/ saxorum et putris harena. 

Quae nee sponte sua faciunt, nee corporis ulli^ 

Sustentata cadunt robust/ uiribus : omnes 

Yjxagitdint uenti turbas a^r uortice saeuo 

In densum con/ecta rotant, uoluuntque profundo. 210 

Hac causa expectata ruunt incendia mo«tis. 

Spiritus inflatis nomen, languentibus aer. 

Nam prope nequiquam p^r sest uiolentia : semper 

Ingenium uelox \gfi\ motusque perennis ; 

Verum opus auxilium est ut pellat corpora: nullus 215 

Impetus est ipsi ; qua spiritus imperat, audit ; 

202 tantos traditur ex Gyr. miratus Schenkl 205 Vertat 

Ar. : Vertant C : Vertit r tacitus tremit Baehrens : tantum prcmit 
Crv et sic uideiur fnisse in S : tremit traditur ex Gyr. : clam tum tremit 
Wagkr : iam tum tremit Scheukl : totus tremit Alzitigcr : fremit 
Damste Mnemos. xvii. 197 at extra scripsi: omniaque extra traditur 
ex Gyr., nalde dubito an uerc : omnia dextra Crv S legi non potcrai 
206 operit Aid. 151 7 : operis codd. xasorum 5 : num saxsorum ? 

arenae Gyr. : harenae uisus sum Icgere in S 207 Quern r 

faciunt CSv, sed S super lineam : fatiunt r : ueniunt traditur ex Gyr. : 
saliunt IVernsdorf: fugiunt Slruclitmeyer uUis Aid. 151 7 : uUi CSr 
Ar. quod rciinuit Buecheler taniquam genrtiuum 208 subiectata uei 

subuectata Postgate robustis codd. etiant S : robusti IVernsdorf 
209 Exigitur Crv : Exagitant traditur ex Gyr. : /o>i. Exacuunt ucl Ecce 
cient auertice C : ac u. Gyr. uersus in uno C integer seruaius est: 

mire foedatus in ceteris 210 coniecta C r ^r. : coniesta i/: congesta 
Sloan. : conlecta traditur ex Gyr. 211 Hac r Ar. : Haec Cv : 

Haec causae expectanda ferunt incendia traditur ex Gyr., in S super- 
sunt tata . . . di . . . exspatiata /iCoo/^i mentis rv Ar.: mortis 

C: fortasse uere h. e. letifera Haec causae spectanda ferunt i. mentis 
Sudhaus et sic Birt sed creant 212 sic Ct-o, et idem fuisse in S 

iestantur relliquiae nome tibus aer. uersum immerito suspcctum 

ac uarie mutatum tuitus sum J. of Philology xvi. 301 allegato 
Seneca qui idem discrimen spiritus atque aeris fecit in N. Q. ii. 1 . 3, 
vi. 21. Nunc eum reduxit Sudhaus 213 abscissus in S per 

sest Wagler : par est Crv : pars est Gyr. : uiolentia Gyr. : uolentia 
C : uoluentia rv semper Crv : flammae tratiitur ex Gyr. idquc 

recepit Munro 214 igni Clericus : illi codd. 215 corpora 

Gyr. et sic coni. Scaliger: corpore CSr 216 idsi S audit CSrv : 


follows obediently. Spirit leads the way : spirit is 
the great general in whose service fire is enlisted. 

Since the character of Aetna's action and the 
nature of the ground is now discernible, I shall next 
proceed to inquire what is the source of the winds 
themselves, what the substance that feeds the fire, 
what, when a sudden check falls on them, is the 
inward cause of their lethargy ; vast as is the toil, 
it is full of result notwithstanding : the reward is 
adequate and compensates the labourer's pains. 

To gaze on nature's wonders, not like brute beasts 
with the eye alone ; not to lie sprawling on the earth 
feeding a brutish bulk of limbs ; to learn how things 
are certificated, and search into their doubtful causes ; 
to deify genius and lift our head to the sky ; 
to know what and how many are the elements 
whence the great universe had birth ; do they fear 
extinction or go on for all time, and is the frame- 
work fastened securely with an everlasting chain : to 
know the measure of the sun's course, and the degree 
by which the moon's orbit is less, so that she has 



Hie princeps, magn^que sub hoc duce militat ignis. 

Nunc, quoniam in promptu est operis natura solique, 
Ynde ipsi uenti, quae res incendia pascit, 
Cum subito cohibe«tur, inest quae causa silenti, 220 

Subsequar. inmensus labor est, sed fertilis idem. 
Digna laborantis respondent praemia curis. 
Non oculis solum pecudum miranda /uer/ 
More, nee effuses in humum graue pascere corpus, 
Nosse fidem rerum dubiasque exquirere causas, 225 

Ingen/V/'w sacrar^ cap«/que attollere cael<?, 
Scire quot et quae sint magno natalia mundo 
Principia, occasus metuunt a« saecula pergunt, 
Et firma aetemo religata est machina uinclo ; 
Solis scire modum et quanto minor orbita lunaest ; 230 

audet Gyr. 217 Hie Schrader: Hinc CS Gyr. : Nunc tv magno- 
que Munro : magnosque CS : magnusque rv : magnusque qui sub 
duce traditttr ex Gyr. : magnus quo sub duce Baehrens : Hie princeps 
magnusque, Haupt : fortasse gnauosque 218 220 attulit Heinsins 

ad Clattdiam R. P.\. 171 castigatos iatnquntn ex ucieri codice 219 

Vnde iradiiur ex Gyr. et sic Heinsius : Vna Crv S legi tion poterat 
220 cohibentur Matthiae : cohibetur CSrv ; cohibent iraditur ex Gyr. 
et sic Heinsius inest CSrv: iners tradittir e.v Gyr.: uires Heinsius 

silendi Heinsius 221 inmensus] ab hoc incipiunt exccrpta Escoria- 

lensia (Q. i. 14) quibus praewissttm est Quam iocundum sit scie non 
cupiditati operam dare 222 Digna codd. et Esc. : Pigra Gyr. labo- 
rantis CS Esc. : laboranti v : laboratis e.v Gyr. traditur, sed nee Pigra 
nee laboratis uerum credo uiris pro curis v 223-224 in Esc. post 
24g scripti sunt 223 peccudum C tueri Gyr. : fuere CSr: fuere 

v: uidere£sc. 224 effuses Wentsdorf: effusis CSrv Esc. 225-226 
absunt ab Esc. ita tamen id et rerum dubias exquirere c&us&s post primufn 
uocabuluni u. 228 Principia subnexum sit 225 rerum Esc. (228) et 

Gyr. rebus CSr exposcere r 226 Sacra per ingentem (ignentemu) 
capitique attollere (attolere v] caelum CSrv : Sacra p ri rigentem Cor- 
sinianus 43 F. 3. 21 Ingenium sacrare caputque a. caelo iraditur ex 
Gyr. quod plenque receperunt Sacra perurgentem fi^. Par. 1507 : Sacra 
peragrantem Peerlkainp. An Sacra per ingenii caclestia tollere captum ? 
F. Walter ucrsum ratus est excidisse, uelut Sacra per ingentem [mundi 
labentia tractum Sidera cuncta notare] caputque a. caelo 227 quot 
SEsc. : quod Cr sunt 5 natalia CS Esc. : fatalia traditurex Gyr. : in 
magnotaliar: curm.taliaf 228, 22g non e.vtant in v 228 meciunt 
Arund. an Clericus: ad CSr post Principia Esc. habent et rerum 
dubias exquirere causas dein Solis scire modum, &c. ontissis occasus . . . 
uinclo 229 uinclo C Gyr. Aid. 1517 : mundo Sr 230 et CSrv Esc. : 
ut Munro luna • est C: luna est Sv: lune est r: lune Esc. : lunaest Munro 
29 ' 


a shorter course and flics through a circle twelve 
times repeated, while the sun passes through his 
circuit in a year ; what stars run in a fixed order, 
which wander from their appointed round with no 
set plan ; further, to know the alternations of the 
zodiacal signs and the laws delivered to them ; how 
six are withdrawn (set) during the course of night, six 
are brought back (rise) when day returns ; why the 
moon gives its notice of clouds to the sky, of rains to 
the earth ; what account is to be given of Phoebe's 
red, the sun's pale, fire ; why the year's seasons shift ; 
why its prime of youth, the spring, dies when summer 
sets in, why summer in its turn grows old, why winter 
steals upon autumn, and rolls round the cycle again ; 
to understand Helice's axle, discern the warning of 
the comet ; from what side Lucifer shines, in what 
quarter Hesperus, whence Bootes ; what means 
Saturn's obstructive. Mars' warring star ; under what 
constellation the mariner should furl or spread his sail ; 
to know the tracks of the sea, learn in advance the 
stars' courses in the sky ; whither is Orion hurrying, 
over what region is Sirius bending wistfully to give 



Haec breuior cursu ut bis senos peruolet orbes, 

Annuus ille m^et : quae certo sidem currant 

Ordine, quaeue suo ^errmt incondita ^r^ : 

Scire uices etiam signorum et tradita iura ; 

[Sex cum nocte rapi, totidem cum luce referri :] 234^* 

Nubila cur tcaelo, terris denuntiet imbres, 235 

Quo rubeat Phoebe, quo frater palleat igni : 

Tempora cur uarient anni, tier prima iuuenta 

Cur aestate perit, cur aestas ipsa senescit, 

Autumnoque obrepit hiemps, et in orbe recurrit : 

Axem scire Helices et tristem nosse cometen, 240 

Lucifer unde micet, quaue Hesperus, unde Bootes, 

Saturni quae Stella tenax, quae Martia pugnax, 

Quo rapiant nautae, quo sidere lintea tendant ; 

Scire uias maris et caeli praediscere cursus ; 

Quo uolet Orion, quo S/'rius incubet index, 245 

23t cursu bissenos CS: cur sub isse r Ar. : curbissenos cito Esc. et 
sic Scaligcr Clericus Wcrnsdorf Haiipt nisi quod hi ttvs cita nialuenml : 
cur sic Baehrens : cur breuior cursu b. p. o. Ah^iger: ut addidi. 
Venint tamcn potest esse quod ex r colligitiir Haec b. cursu bis sex ut p. 
orbes 232 Annuus C: Annus r meet Esc. : monet SCv: mouet r 
q' Esc. h. c. quod sydera Esc. : sidere CS 233 Post Ordine cetera 
omissa in Esc. quae uesuo S scd ut post o possit erasa idderi f scnpta 
minutissime derrent saipsi, cf. Lachni. ad Liicr. i. 43 : errant CSr: 
erantf: cwx\x&xi'iUnger: uarient A i2inger : /o>i. u:irent guro scnpsi: 
gyris Haupt: cura CSr: tura v sues seruent i. motus traditur ex 
Gyr. : suos errent i. cursus Mwiro 234 et om. CSrv Esc. ; additum 
iant in cd. Rub. 1475 234'' ex una Gyr. traditur 235 sic 

Crv Esc. nisi quod in v est terra ' Pro caelo terris traditur ex 
Gyr. Panope caelo, unde Matthiae Phatne scribcbat, Phaeo linger. 
Phaeo una Hyaduni 236 cubeat Esc. pelleat S 237 

uarient CS Gyr. : uariant rv Esc. uer prima iuuenta Gyr. : primaque 
iuuenta Crv Esc. : primaque iuuente legere mihi sum uisus in S : fort. 
uer prima iuuentae 238 Cura . . . cura C : cur . . . cur rv : Ver 

. . . cur Esc. senescat r 239 hiems C Esc. : hiemps S 240 

cometem Esc. 241 boetes £"5^. 242 Saturnique stella Esc. 

mastia C 243 tendant SCrv Esc. : pandant Gyr. 244 

mces Matthiae praediscere CS : "przedicere i-u Esc. Munro 245 

Qua uocet traditur e.x Gyr. : Quo uoltu Haupt Sirius Aid. TSi"] : 

Setius CS : Serus r : Secius v itocabulum om. Esc. spatio rclicto 
excubet traditur ex Gyr. 

' In S dispexi Nub . . . elo . . . . denunti& imbres. 


sign; in a word, wherever this mighty universe spreads 
its marvels before us, not to let them lie dispersedly 
nor yet buried in a mass of thihgs, but to arrange 
each severally in its assigned place distinct with its 
own sign ; this is an ineffable, a delightful pleasure 
to the soul. 

Yet this is man's earlier task, to know the nature of 
the earth, and note the many marvels which nature has 
brought to light therein : this is for us a noble task, one 
that borders on the stars of heaven. For what further 
height of madness, O race of mortals, can transcend 
this — that a man should be fain to wander and 
explore in Jove's realm, yet neglect the vast work 
before his feet and indolently lose it from his ken ? 
\\'oefully we vex ourselves over trifles and are pressed 
to earth with toil ; we pry into crannies, turn up every 
deep bottom ; some vein of silver ore is in quest, 
now a duct of gold ; earth is tortured with flame. 



Et quaecumque iacent tanto miracula mundo 

Non dij-ierta pati, nee aceruo condita rerum, 

Sed manifesta notis eer/a disponere sede 

Singula, diuina est animi ac iucunda uoluptas. 

Sed prior haec Aominis cura est, cognoscere terram, 250 

Et quae tot miranda tulit natura notare. 

Haec nobis magna, adfinis caelestibus astris. 

Nam quae, mortaks, s//per est amentia maior. 

In louis errantem regno perquirer^ uelle, 

Tantum opus ante pedes transire ac perdere segnew ? 255 

Torquemur miseri in paruis premimurque labore, 

Scrutamur rimas et uertimus omne profundum, 

Quaeritur argenti semen, nunc aurea uena. 

Torquentur flamma terrae ferroque domantur, 

246 quocumque Esc. iacent SCrv Esc. : latent excerpta Piihoeana, 
Baehrens : patent IVassettberg et Suringar 247 congesta iraditur 

ex Gyr. -. digesta SCrv Esc. quod ix disiecta ' pothis comtptntn 
arbitror 248 cerata C 249 iocunda 5 Esc. uoluntas 

Esc. Post 249 Esc. habent 223, 4 Non oculis . . . More nee eflusis ; 
dem oinissis 250-5 incipit alteriiin exccrptuni Torquemur miseri etc, 
cui praefixitm est Conquestio quod maiorem dcmus operam augende 
pecunie quam scientie 250 hominis r: dominis C: hominum v : 

omni traditiir e.x Gyr. 251 cm. r Ar. : Quaeque in ea Gyr. : Et 

quae nunc C : Et quae tot excerpta Fithocana. Nuin Et, quae non 
miranda lulit natura ? notare It. c. et notare wfinitant seriew mira- 
culorunt quae in natura insnnt 252 magis affinis Gyr. et excerpta 

Pithoeana 253 mortalis SCrv : mortales Scaliger, tamquant 

s. est 
uocatiuunt spes. quaeue a. m. C : spes est : que amatia maius 
r: species que ue amantia maius v : mortali cuiquam est traditur 
ex Gyr. : mortali superest scripsi : Nam quae mortali spes quaeue 

a. m. Haupt et sic Munro sed mortalis 254 Inij^uis C perquirere 
5 : perquire Cr uelle SCr diuos traditur ex Gyr. 255 ac 

SC Gyr. : et rv segnem lacob : segne est traditur ex Gyr. In S 
uocabulum legere non potui. segnes Crv 256 sic CSr Esc. 

Torquemus S nisifallor in primis Esc. terimurque Gyr. 257-9 
codices habent post 277 Non subito callere sono, non credere 
subter. Hue reuocati sunt ittbente Scaligero et, ut traditur, Gyr. 
256-62 hoc ordine se e.xcipiunt in Else. Torquemur . . . Et sese . . . 
Turpe silent artes uiles i. r. . . . Torquentur flamma . . . Scrutamur . . . 
Semen ut argenti queratur et aurea uena (s;c) . . . Ncctes atque dies 
festinant arua coloni 257 euerrimus Schrader et sic excerpta 


* Idem flacuit Alzingero Neuejahrb. 1896, /. S56. 

33 D 


mastereil with iron tools, till she buy herself off with 
a price paid down, and after declaring her true secret 
is then at last reduced to silence and left to contempt 
and poverty. Whole nights and days the farmer 
presses on the tillage of his fields, hands harden 
with country work, we weigh with care how each 
soil is to be used : this is fertile and fitter for 
bearing corn, another for vines : this earth is best 
suited to the plane-tree, this to grass-crops : this other 
is hard and better for feeding cattle, a steady friend 
of forest-trees : the drier grounds are the home of 
olives, elms love a juicier soil. Trivial are the causes 
that torture men's minds and bodies — to make their 
barns overflow, to see their wine-casks distended with 
must, their hay-racks filled to the top with the 
mowings of the field. Thus ever ye advance on your 
path of greed where something more precious comes 
in view. 



Dum sese pretio redimant, uerumque professae 260 

Turn demum uiles taceant inopesque relictae. 

Noctes atque dies festinant arua coloni ; 

Calient rure manus, glebarum expe^^imus usuw. 

Fertilis haec segetique feracior, altera uiti. 

Haec platanis humus, haec herbis dignissima tellus, 365 

Haec diura et melior pecori siluisque fidelis. 

Aridiora tenent oleae, sucosior ulmis 

Grata : leues cruciant animos et corpora causae, 

Horrea uti saturent, tumeant et dol/a musto, 

Plenaque desecto surgant faenilia campo. 270 

Sic auidi semper, qua uisum est carius^ i/is. 

260 sesd C redmant rerumque professe Esc. : profcssa est r : 
aurumque Machly : lucrumque Bachrcns : fort, quaestumque uu. 

261-300 e.xscisso 301, f/ 302-44 exscisso 345, extant in S, sedntin 302-44 
tanturtt pars uersuunt, caque prior stipersii 261 taceant CSrv : 

iaceant Matthiae et sic cxcerpta Pithoeana Turpe silent artes uiles i. r. 
Esc. : Turn demum humilesque iacent ex Gyr. traditnr contra metrunt : 
uilesque iacent 7l/(7<?/2/>' 262 festinentCS: festinant £■*<:. 263rura5 
expellimurusu CSrEsc. : expellimus usu v : expendimus usum Gyr. cf. 
Gratt. Cyn. 122: expenditur usus Wernsdorf: excellimus usu jp. Walter 

264 segetique CSvEsc. : segetgque r: segeti feracior traditnr ex Gyr. : 
segetisque ed. Grypliii 1547 Munro feratior 5 Esc. uiti Crv Esc. 
Gyr. : uitis ed. Gryph. Munro 265 platanis codd. : plantis traditnr ex 
Gyr. ditissima cxcerpta Pithoeana, Wassenberg tellis C 266 

dura et Esc. : duro Gyr. ' : diuiti CS : duuti r : diuti {sic') Arund. : dura 
utilior Matthiae sillisque 5 267 ulmus CSr : ulmis v Esc. 268 
crutiant S Esc. sause Esc. uutn curae ? curae cxcerpta Pitho- 
eana 269 tumeant CS Esc. : tundant r : tundeant Arund. : fort. 
tendant et CSr Esc. : ut exccrpta Pithoeana : ex Gyr. traditnr 
Horreaque ut sature tumeant ut dolia musto dolea CS Munro : 
dolia rEsc. uu. 270-85 in codice Laurcntiano 33. 9 chartacco saec. 
XV coMtinentur, qui ut clarius cxhibeantur, sic ut a biblioihecario Vaticano 
F. Ehrle S.I. me 7-ogante descripti sunt, in conittientario inipriniendos 
curaui, cum ad quacstionem quae est de Gyraldino codice grauissinia non 
parui momenti esse uideantur. 270 fienilia C : fenialia 5 : fenilia 
Esc. Hie desnumt Esc. : reuilia r Arund. nuni eruilia ? 271 Sic auidi 
semper qua uisum est carius (-ior r) istis CSr Munro : S. a. s. quouis 
est carior ipsis traditur ex Gyr., et sic L(aurentiaMus 33. 9) nisi quod 
•iHis- ipsis habet. auidis Matthiae itis scripsi sc. mortales : quod 
uisum est carius, istis Implemus se quisque bonis Haitpt : Sic auidis 
semper quaeuis res carior ipsis Bachrens : Sic auidis s. quiduis est 
• duro/uisse in Gyr. testatus est eaitor lenensis. Matthiae diserSe non tradidit 
quid in Gyr. inuenerit; tantum dicit lectionem dura et illinc conJirvia:am uidtri. 

35 D 2 


Each of us should do his part to steep himself in 
crafts that arc noble : they are the true grain of the 
mind, these the highest reward the world can bring 
us : to know what Nature keeps close within earth's 
deep heart ; never to belie any of her workings, not 
to gaze in dumb amazement on the divine uproar and 
furious rages of Aetna's mountain ; not to grow pale 
with affright at its sudden din, not to believe that the 
wrath of heaven has found a new home underground, 
or that hell is bursting its confine : to understand 
what sets a check on the winds, what gives them 
aliment ; whence comes their sudden calm and 
strongly covenanted truce : why their rages gather 
new force, whether it happen that caverns in their 
depths or the actual inlets store them securely, 
or, again, earth, made porous by tiny apertures, 
absorbs into itself draughts of snowy air ; and 
this the more largely, because Aetna rises with 
a stark peak, exposed on either side to angry 
winds, and, itself single, admits perforce gales from 



Implendus sibi quisque bonis est artibus : illae 

Sunt animi fruges, hae rerum maxima merces : 

Scire quid occulto terras Natura coercet, 

Nullum fallere opus, non mu/os cernere sacros 275 

Aetnaei montis fremitus animosque furentis, 

Non subito /^allere sono, non credere subter 

Caelestis migrasse minas aut Tartara ruwpi : 

Nosse quid impediat uentos, quid nutriat tillos, 

Vnde repente quies et -fmulto foedere pax sit: 280 

Q,ur crescant animi, penitus seu forte cauernae 

Introitusque ipsi seruent, seu terra minutis 

Rara foraminibus nmis in se^s abstrahat auras : 

Plenius hoc etiam, rigido quia uertice surgit 

mine infestz's atque hinc obnoxia us«tis, 2S5 

Vnaque diuersas admittere cogit?/r auras, 

carius ipsis Waghr eadcmque Alsinger sed istis 272 astibus C 

illae L ct sic tradiiur ex Gyr. : illis CSrv : fort, illi itcl illic 273 hae 
CS : haec r Aid. 1517. idemque traditnr ex Gyr. est optima L 
Gyr. 274 occulto rvL ' : exculto CS : occultum excerpta Pitlioeana 
natura terra CS : nature terra v : terrae natura L et sic tradiiur ex 
Gyr. : fort, natura et terra cohercet C 275 multos CS : multo 

Arttrtd. : muto r fortasse rede : multum vL idemqite tradiiur ex Gyr. : 
mutum Haupt : mutos Scaliger et Mnnro : motum tie/ motos Fostgate 
276 animumquei/ 277 caljere CSrv: pallere Z- Gyr. ed. Rid). 1475 
Post hunc u. secuntur in CSrv 257-9, ^o*^ ''^'^' ^» ^ 278 Celesti 

migrase r rumpi L Gyr. : mundi CSrv : fort, fundi : ad T. mundi ed. 
Rub. 1475 279 intendRt L et sic traditnr ex Gyr. : impellat Haupt : 
incendat Postgate illos C, om. S : ignes rL : iras Posigate 280 

repente CSr: reperta L Gyr. multo CSrL, non item Gyr. : inulto 
'una paix faite par un traite sans garant. dont I'infraction ne sera pas 
vengee' uei muto Oudin, Journ. dcs Savans 17 15 T. Ivii. />. 597 sqq. 
paxest L et Gyr. 281 Concrescant CSr Arund. L. non item Gyr. Id 
retinuit Mnnro, relicto post 281 urrsus u>tius spatio : Cur crescant 
Scaliger et sic excerpta Pitlioeana anime L et Gyr. porta pro forte L et 
Gyr. 282 ferucnt S 283 niuis in sese scripsi : neue in se CS : 

neue luss^ r: ne ut in se v : ne ue iuss^ Arund. : tenues L et Gyr. 
284 quia CS : qua rv Arund. surgcns L et Gyr. : surgit CSr quod 

retinui, scripto Vnaque in 286, cf. ad 290 285 infestis Jacob : 

infestus CSrv : infessa est L Gyr. uentis L et Gyr. : uitis CSr 

Ar. intus v Hie desinunt et quae ex Gyr. tradita sunt et quae Iiabet L 
286 Vnaque scripsi: Vndique Codd. aduersas r admittat 5 

cogitur Schrader et Munro : cogitat CSrv Ar. 

' ' Posset etiam Icgi occulte scd uerius occulto.' Ehrle. 



every quarter, whicli then form a league and gain 
new strength by union ; or whether again they 
are driven inwards by clouds and the south wind 
that brings clouds, or waxing bold have rounded 
the head of Aetna and sweep on behind ; then the 
water hurrying noisily downwards presses upon the 
torpid airs and drives them off, and by its blows 
condenses the particles that compose them. For 
just as an hydraulic vessel gives a sound by 
setting in motion a musical Triton : first the 
machinery is pushed by the body of water collected 
and the air which cannot resist the force that moves 
it, next the trumpet bellows forth its long-drawn 
tones ; or as in some spacious theatre an hydraulic 
organ with the diverse modes of its unequal tubes 
sounds its watery music, by help of the controller's 
skill, which sets in motion a thin stream of air and 
makes a rowing movement in the water below : just 
so it is that the wind dislodged by the streaming 
fluids and angered thereby, struggles in its straitened 
room, producing a loud roaring from Aetna. 

Again we must suppose that there are causes of wind 
springing up underground like those we see outside : 
that so, each time the particles press closely and 
jostle each other, they may be squeezed out and 
make for a free open space to avoid crowding, 
and so rive by their heaving force and drag with 
them what is nearest, and only stop when they have 
found a safe place to rest in. 



Et coniuratis addit concordia uires : 

Siue introrsus agunt nubes et nubilus auster, 

Seu fortes flexere caput tergoque feruntur. 

Praecipiti de/ecta sono premit un^a fugatque 350 

T.or/entes auras, pulsataque corpora denset. 

Nam ueluti sonat urna. ciens Tritona canorww, 

Pellit op«s collectus aquae uictusque mouer/ 

Spiritus et longas emugit bucina uoces : 

Carmineque irriguo magnis cortina theatris 395 

Imparibus numerosa modis canit arte regentis, 

Quae tenuem impellens animam subremigat unda : 

Haud aliter summota furens torrentibus aura 

Pugnat in angusto et magnum commurmurat Aetna. 

Credendum est etiam uentorum existere causar 300 

Sub terra similis harum quas cernimus extra ; 
Vt, cum dcnsa /remant inter se corpora, turbam 
Elisa in uacuum fugiant et proxima secum 
J/bmin^ torta trahant tutaque in sede resistant. 

288 introssus 5 289 fortes scnpsi : forte CSr : forte inflexere 

Jacob : forte hi Muuro : forte erexere Baelirens Seu Boreae Birt 
retroque Frtesemnnn 290 delecta CSrv quod tuitus est Littdenbrnch 
unda Scaliger et sic excerpta Pithoeana : una codd. : uda Sudhaus : ima 
Birt 291 Torpentes de Rooy : Torrentes codd. pulsata Sow:, que 
292 sic correxi ex v sonat ora due tritone cancro C: sonat ora (ore 
Arund.) diu tritona canoro r Arttud. : sonatura dius (s incerta) tritona 
canoro v tterba post sonat ont. S : sonat hora duci Mtoiro fortasse 
rede : s. hora deo Machly : sonat hora die Hattpt : s. hora diu Tritone 
canoro Sudhaus 293 opes CSrv : opus Hclmst. nt. pr. aqua 

Alzinger mouere CS^-v : moueri Sauppc, quod uerum habeo 295 
magnlsque S : magni c. theatri v 296 arte r : arta C : asta uisus 

sum legere in S regentis cf. Carnt. Epigraph, ed. Bucchelcr 489. 7 

Spectata in populo hydraula grata regebat 297 Qui Baehrens 

inpeilensS unda CSr: undam w 298 ahterow. S correntibus r 
299 augusto S Arund. 300 causam Crv Arund. : causas ed. 

Rub. 1475 301 absdssus in S terras C 302-44 in fine 

abscissi in S 302 condensa v cremant CSrv : crepant Schrader : 
premunt Gronovius : premant Baehrens intersii C turbant C : turba 
r : 4t<af€t iuvha Arund. : iMrham scripsi 304 Momine Gronotius : 

Nomina codd. torta Jacob : tota codd. trahant . . . resistant 

Clericus : trahunt . . . resistunt codd. : sed trahant est in Arund. : 
tuta dum s. resistunt JJaupt 



But if, as may chance, you raise a quarrel with 
me, beHeving the winds to rise from other causes, 
I reply : there is no doubt that rocks sometimes 
and caverns deep below tumble forwards with a loud 
crash, and that the fall causes the currents of air 
in the neighbourhood to be set in motion and disperse 
in all directions, and from this cause the winds wax 
strong; or again that there are vapours which dis- 
charge (air) from the abundance of their moisture, 
as they often do in plains and fields bathed by a 
river. Air rises in vallies and forms a dark cloud-like 
mass ; little water-courses bring with them gusts whose 
force is very like wind ; water from a distance blows 
its jets upon the air-currents and flogs them as with 
a scourge. If now moisture has such potency where 
there is free space to work in, its effects must be 
proportionally more when under-ground and pent in. 
These are the causes outside and within which do 
the w^ork : by their compelling force they set the 
winds stirring; these struggle in the narrow gullies; 
in that close struggle, the channel they traverse 
chokes them ; as when a wave has been sucked up 
again and again out in the deep sea and has 
absorbed the violent east winds, the billows come 
crowding on, and the first are pushed on by that 
which comes last. Even so the wind, compressed 
by struggling forces, feels their impact, and wrapping 
its strength within its bulk drives the close-packed air- 
particles to and fro in burning rings, and hurries on 



Quod si forte mihi quaedam discordia tecum est, 305 
Principiis aliis credas c?/;« surgere uentos, 
Non dubium rupes aliquas penitusque cauernas 
Prorwere ingenti sonitu, casuque propinquas 
Diffugere impellique animas ; hinc crescere uentos : 
Aut umore etiam nebulas effundere largo, 310 

Ft campis agrisque solent quos a^uit amnis. 
Vallibus exoriens caligat nubilus aer : 
Flumina parua ferunt auras, ui^ proxima uento est : 
Eminus adspirat fowtis et uerberat umor. 
Atque haec in uacu^ si tanta potentia r<?rum est, 315 

Hoc plura efficiant infra clusique necesse est. 
His agitur causis extra penitusque : coact// 
Exagitant uentos : pugnant in faucibus : arte 
Pugnantis suffocat iter, uelut unda profundo 
Terque quaterque exhausta graues ubi per<^ibit euros, 320 
Ingeminant fluctus et prim<7S ultim?/'S urget : 
Haud secus adstrictus certamine tangitur ictu 
Spiritus, inuoluensque suo sibi pondere uires, 
Densa per ardentes exercet corpora gyros, 

305 Quodsi C 306 principiisque ^W. i=,i'] et sic utilgo editiir 

cum surgere Baehretis : consurgere codd. uentos Cv, om. S : 
pernios r 307 Num r Aritnd. 308 Proruere Aid. 1517 : 

Prouehere CSv quod fritstra tuitiis est Hildcbyandt p. 106 : P .... r 
et sic Ariind. sonotu correctu$n in sonitu 5 310 humore C 

se fundere Haupt : se efiundere Baehrens 311 Vt Aid. 1517 : 

Aut CSrv num sedent ? abluit Cv : obruit r Arund. : adluit 
Haupt et Munro 313 Flumina SCr Arund, : Flamina v Haupt 

uis V : uix Cr Arund. 314 Et minus Sr aspirat r : aspergit 

/. H. F. Meineke fortis SCr : fotis v : fontis scripsi humor C 
315 inuacuos SCrv : in uacuo Helmst. m. sec. si C rorum lacob : 
rerum codd. quod ntauolt Walter 316 officiunt introclusique v : 

«?<»« intra clusique? 317 igitur 5m%£';- • conctw scripsi : coactus C 
qtiod seruartint tantquatn notmnatiuum pluralis C. F. IVeber et 
Sudhaus: coactis rv Arund. : coactos Munro 319 iter] inter r 

Arund. 320 exusta v graues Cr : grauis S perhibit C : perbibit 
V : peribere r 321 Ingeminat rv primus ultimos Cr : primos 

ultimus V : primos ult- S ceteris abscissis 322 nunt adtritus? 

tangitur ictu om. S : fort, aestu 323 uires codd. : rupes Munro 

324 uires C et r, in quo uersus suo loco omissus post 342 Huicne igitur 
credis etc. additus est neruos v uenas Aid. 1517 : gyros scripsi 


wherever it finds a channel, and passes without 
noticing any air that would delay' it, until at last 
driven on by the conflux as by so many forcing tubes, 
it rushes out with a bound and discharges in fiery 
fury from every part of Aetna. 

But if, as may chance, you fancy that the winds 
rush down by the same narrow gullies by which 
they are expelled and return, Aetna itself will supply 
your eyes with facts to be observed and will compel 
denial. However bright the atmosphere may be, 
with all the dryness of an azure sky, however it 
may dawn gold-rayed, and ruddy with crimson dye, 
there is always to be seen in that quarter a sluggish 
cloud, black and dark, that hangs sullenly around with 
a dank dripping face, looking out from on high on 
the action of the mountain and its huge withdrawing 
chasms. Aetna takes no notice of this cloud, has no 
outbursts of heat for carrying it away ; wherever 
a light breeze orders it to move, the cloud follows 
obediently and comes back as before. Besides you 
may see worshippers pacifying heaven with incense on 
the topmost ridge, at the very point where the view 
inside opens to its widest and freest on Aetna's 
summit, provided nothing occur to inflame and excite 
the germens from which such dire effects proceed, and 
a torpor rest on the abyss. Will you not accept this 
as explaining how it is that the rushing spirit which 
Aetna harbours, that volleyer of rocks and earth, that 
flasher of sudden fires, is never found, when once 
it has controlled its powers, and abruptly curbed 



Et quacumquc iter est, properat, transitque morantem, 325 
Donee confluuio ueluti siponibus actus 
Exilit, atque furens tota uomit igneus Aetna. 
Quod si forte putas isdem decurrere uentos 
Faucibus atque isdem pulsos remeare, notandas 
Res oculis locus ipse dabit cogetque negare. 33^ 

Quamuis caeruleo siccus loue fulgeat aether, 
Purpureoque rubens surgat iubar aureus ostro, 
mine obscura semper caligine nubes 
Pigraque defuso circum stupet umida uultu. 
Prospectant sublimis opus uastosque receptus. 335 

Non illam tuidet Aetna nee ullo intercipit aestu ; 
Obsequitur quacumque iubet leuis aura reditque. 
Placantes etiam caelestia numina ture 
Summo cerne iugo, uel qua liberrimus Aetna 
In/rospectus hiat, tantarum semina rerum 34° 

Si nihil irritet flamma«s stupeatque profundum. 
Huic«^ igitur credis, torrens ut spiritus illi. 
Qui rupes terramque rotat, qui fulminat ignes. 
Cum rexit uires et praeceps flexit habenas, 

326 siponibus C tdemque fuit in S quamuis supersit tantum sipon- 
ueluti cett. om. r uelut is v 328 si C decurre C : decurrer- 

e abscissa S : decurrere r idem r 329 autque idem CS : 

atque isdem (idem r) vr: fort, atque in idem pulsis CSrv : pulsos cd. 

s. sunt 
Paris. 1507 notanda > C: notanda r Arnnd. : notandas v 330 res C 
331 ceruleo sicusioue C: sicco v : caeruleus sicco lacob frigeat r 

Arund. : fugiat v : fr- cett. ahscissis S 333 lUic Scaliger 334 

defuso CS : deffusso r circumstupet SG- : circumstrepat y humida 
Crv : hui- cett. absdssis S 335 Prospectant CS : Prospectat rv quod 
reiiituit Haupt, inuersis 334, 335 : Prospectans Munro uastusque C: 
uas- ceteris absdssis S receptus Crv : recessus ed. Rubei 1495 

336 uidet CSrv : bibit Haupt : uorat Munro : fort, mouet inter- 
cepit r haustu //««</>/ 338 turae C 339 aethnae r ^lr;<MC^. : 

Aetnae Haupt : sed Aetna ablatiuus potest esse ; pro uominatiuo habuit 
Munro 340 In prospectus CSry corrcxit Schradcr 341 irritet 
C: inridetS: inritet r flammans scn>s»' : flammas 5Cry /•'os/ 344 
Haupt 3S5, 356 locandos putauit 34a Huinc C : Huic Sry illi 

Crv: ille Scaliger 343 notat SCru Arund. : rotat lacob 344 

Cum rexit CS : cur exit rv flex- cett. absdssis S, qui hie desinil 
s. sunt 
* notanda C quo uzJetur sisnificari scilicet sunt. 



the rein, tearing down bodies of matter or dislodging 
them from their strong supporting arch, and this when 
their natural weight gives them an inclination down- 
wards? I may be wrong; still appearance is on my 
•side, and the bodies that descend with such a rush 
elude the scrutinizing glance of our eyes V . . When 
water has sprinkled the hand that circulates the lustral 
fire, it strikes our faces though without hurting; the 
bodies of matter charge our bodies and yet fail of 
their natural effect ; so slight is the thing on which 
depends such repulsion of violence. [So with the air 
on Aetna's summit when still] : in its utter quiescence 
it sucks up no cinder or light stubble, no wisp 
of dry grass, stirs no flimsy particle of chaff: the 
smoke rises to high heaven from the altars where 
worshippers kneel ; so deep is the repose of that air, 
the quiet that has no thought of rapine. 

Whether then the causes are extraneous or intrinsic 
that give such potency to the winds in league, 
the driving force I have described carries up in 
a mass of black sand flames of fire and pieces of 
rock ; then huge stones shivering as they encounter 
each other burst into explosions, glowing flame, 
and detonating flashes all together : even as when 
forests have lain prostrate under a descending 
south-wester, or are moaning with a north gale, they 

' For an entirely different view of this disputed passage see the 



Praesertim ipsa suo decli«ia pondere, numquam 345 

Corpora diripia/, ualidoque absoluer/t arcu ? 
Quod si fallor, adest species : tantusque ruinis 
Impetus adtentos oculorum transfugit ictus, 
tNec leuitas tantos igitur ferit aura mouetquet 
Sparsa liquore manus sacros ubi uentilat ignis, 350 

Verberat ora tamen, /rus/rataque corpora nostris 
Incursant : adeo in tenui uim causa repellit 

Non cinerem stipulamue leuem, non arida sorbet 
Gramina, non tenuis plar/^iss/mus excit ap/«das : 
Surgit adoratis sublimis fumus ab aris, 355 

Tanta quies illi est et pax innoxia rapti. 

Siue peregrinis igitur propriis?/e potentis 
Coniurant animae causis, ille impetus ignes 
Et mentis partes atra subuectat harena, 
Vastaque concursu trepidantia saxa fragoris 360 

Ardentesque simul flam mas ac fulmina rumpunt. 
Haud aliter quam cum prono iacuere sub austro 
Aut aquilone fremunt siluae, dant brachia nodo 

345 decliuia CrArioici. : decliua f : declinia scr//!)A/ 346 diripiat 
r : diripiant Cv: deripiat Clcncus absoluerit Scali^i;c>- : absolueret 
Crv : absoluerat Arund. m. pr., mox absolueret : ualido quae absol- 
ueret arcu Sitdltans 347 si C : ni r Arund. : nisi v abest 
Schrader : obest spatium IVernsdorf tantusque ruinis Crv : ruinaest 
Mmtro : ruentis Baelirens : num ruinae ? 348 trans fugit C : 
trasfugit r 349 Haec leuitas : tantos Muiiro : fori, tantusnc 
ruinis I. a. o. t. i. Nee leuis astantes igitur ferit aura mouetque ? 
351 frustrataque sc>7)f»5j : pulsataque Cn/ lant McicMy com. pulsataque 
corpora frustra 352 adeo C in tenui uim CV : tenuis uim v : 
adeo in tenuist, uim Munro 354 placidissimus excit apludas 
scripsi : plantis humus excita predas C : plantis exit humor 
aprendas r Arund. lentissimus iain Jacob coniecerat 355 
odoratis Scaligcr 356 igni Maelily pacti niarg. rapti v 357 
peregrinus r propriisque Crv : propriisue Scaligcr potentis Cr 
quod hie pro noniinatiuo positnm rains est Munro 358 Coniura r : 
coniuent v ignis rv 359 atras . . . harena^ v : atras subuectat 
arena (harena r) Arund. r subiectat Haupi, quod uerutn nidciut 

360 concussu Alsinger: crepitantia lacob : nunt strepitantia ? 

361 flumina v 



entwine their arms in a close knot, and with the 
meeting of the branches the fire spreads on. 

Beware, again, of being misled by the insensate 
rabble's lies, as if the hollows of the mountain lost 
their potency and ceased to act ; lapses of time alone 
giving them the power to grasp their forces again 
and bring them back to battle after defeat. Away 
with a thought so foul, throw from you rumour with 
all her lies. No poverty so mean attends aught 
divine or begs for petty supplies, or asks for small 
contributions of air. Ever there are workmen at 
hand, the winds' swarming crew. Only there is a 
cause you do not see, strong enough to interrupt the 
passage, and compel obstruction. Often some rocky 
mass piled up with fallen boulders chokes the gullies 
and closes up the avenues against the wrestling of the 
winds at the bottom, keeping them, as it were, close 
])ent beneath an impenetrable weight. Or it holds 
them in check by a similar obstruction, when the 
mountain is cold and sluggish, and the winds are 
free to pass down it unmolested. After a while, when 
they have first sunk into silence, they press on all 
the swifter for the stoppage, confront and repel 
the masses of rock, burst their bonds asunder, 
wherever anything crosses their path obliquely, break 
a passage through ; then ensues a rush all the fiercer 
for the check received : a flame blazes out that busies 
itself with a wide task of ravin, and with the onset 
of a flo^d spreads far and wide over the fields, if 
after -long inaction the winds renew their mimic 
drama once more. Now let the forests pour freely all 
their abundant stores of burning material, everything 


Implicitae, ac serpunt iunctis incendia ramis. 

Nee te deeipiaiit stolidi mendaeia uulgi, Si^S 

Exhaustos cessare sinus, dare tempora rursus 

Ft rapiant uires, repetantque in proelia uieti. 

Pelle nefas animi mendacemque exue famam. 

Non est diui«is tarn sordida rebus egestas, 

Nee paruas mendicat opes nee conrogat auras. 370 

Praesto sunt oper<3;e, uentorum examina, semper : 

Causa latet quae rumpat iter cogatque morari. 

Saepe premit fauces magnis exstructa ruinis 

Congeries clauditque uias luctamine ab imo, 

Et s/isso ueluti tecto^ sub pondere praestat : 375 

^ut simil/ tene/ Oircursu, cum frigida monti 

Desidia est, tutoque licet d^scewdere uenU's. 

Post ubi conticuere, mora uelocius urgent : 

Pellunt oppositi moles ac uincula rumpunt. 

Qui^quid in obliquum est, frangunt iter : acrior ictu 380 

Impetus exoritur, magnis operata rapinis 

Flamma micat, latosque ruens exundat in agros, 

Si cessata diu referunt spectacula uenti. 

Nunc superant quaecumque, u'gent incendia siluae, 

364 ac Wernsdorf: haec Cr Ariind. : he v : hac Clericus : fortasse 

hinc 365 te C solid! r 366 Exaustos Cr : Exaustos v 

367 Vt ed. Rttb. 1475 : Aut Cv : Haud rArund. 369 diuinis ed. Paris. 
1507 : diuitiis Crv Artind. aegestas C 370 paruo rv Aruiid. 

congregat j^ 371 o^icre Cv: opev\ r Arimd. sempe^r (5/c) >■ 

at tur 
373 Sepe C extructa Cr 374 luctamur C : luctamine rArund. 

Munro 375 Et scisso Cv : Escisso r Armid. : Et spisso Jacob 

tecto Cr Aruttd. : trecto v : tectos scripsi pressat Baehrcns 376 
sic ex coniectura scripsi Haud similis teneros cursu cum (cum sucum v') 
Cv : scd r et Helmst. hahent cur secum Haud sinit hiscere eos cursu 
Jacob sursum Haupi et spisso ueluti tecto, sub pondere praestat 

Haud simili strepere hos cursu Miairo 377 discedere Cv Arimd. : 
descendere r : desidere Jacob uentis Jacob : montcs Crv : metis 
Buecheler 378 conticuere Cr Aruiid. : continuerc moram v, quod 

recepit de Scrioitne : corripuere moram de Jiooy : contumuere Birt 379 
oppositi Cr : oppositas 1/ ac C 380 Quicquid C 381 onerata/«coi 
383 Si C: Sic JJaupi 384 rigent scripsi : rigant Munro : regant Cr 
Aruitd. : regnant v : tegunt Jacob : gerant Baehrens : creant Waglcr 



that as fuel is fitted to call out the diverse flames 
Aetna feeds ; they will burn without difficulty. The 
causes which produce that combustion have materials 
of home growth, and there is a kind of earth akin to 
fire which lends its service. At one time there is the 
hot fluid sulphur that burns incessantly; at another 
a liquid offers, thickened with a copious flow of alum ; 
oily bitumen is there, and all that rouses violent 
flames when brought close up : that is the substance 
which makes up Aetna. 

Indeed to prove that these materials are dispersed 
up and down in the heart of the mountain, there 
are springs of tainted water which ripple close under 
its base. Another portion of the substance lies 
visible to the eye ; its solid part is hard, a true stone ; 
yet in its viscid pulp burns a glowing fire. Further- 
more, there are particular rocks with no special name 
which liquefy in every part of the mountain; these 
have a real and steadfast conservancy of flame assigned 
them : but the supreme source of such outbreak of 
fire is the lava-stone ; this it is which claims Aetna 
as its own. 

If you happen to hold this lava-stone in your hand 
and try it by its solid part, you would not believe 
it could burn or disseminate fire : yet the moment 
you put question with an iron mallet, it returns 
answer and vents its rage in sparks to the blow : 
plunge it in the midst of a strong furnace and allow 
this to wring from it its proud spirit, and in this 



Quae flammas alimenta uocent, quo/ nutriat Aetna : 385 

Incendi poterunt. illis uemacula causis 

Materia adpositumque igni genus utile terrae^t. 

Vritur assidue calidus nunc sulphuris umor, 

Nunc spissus crebro praebetur a/um'me sucus. 

Pingue bitumen adest et qui^quid comminus acris 390 

Irritat flammas : illius corporis Aetna est. 

Atque hanc materiam penitus discurrere, fontes 

Infectae m^pantur arjuae radice sub ipsa. 

Pars oculis manifesta iacet, quae robore dura est 

Ac lapis : in pingui feruent incendia suco. 395 

Quin etiam uarie quaedam sine nomine saxa 

Toto monte liquent : illis custodia fiammae 

Vera tenaxque data est. Sed maxima causa molans 

Illius incendi lapis est ; is uindicat Aetnam. 

Quem si forte manu teneas, ac robore cernas, 400 

Nee feruere putes, ignem nee spargere posse. 

Sed simul ac ferro quaeras, respondet, et ictu 

Scintillat dolor : hunc multis circum inlce flammis, 

Et patere extorquere animos atque exue robur. 

385 flammas Cr Arund. : flamis v uocent Crv Aritnd. quod pro 

uacent posilunt raius est Mimro quot scripsi : quid Cv : quod 

r Arund. nniriat Crv Arund. aethnam C : eihnz rv Arund. 

Locum sic constiiuit Munro Nunc superant quaecumque rigant incendia 
siluae ; Quae flammis alimenta uocant, quod nutriet Aetna, Incendi 
poterunt. Sudhaus sic Nunc superant quaecumque regant incendia 
siluae. Quae flammas alimenta uocent, quid nutriet Aetnam 386 

Incendi p. cum sequeiiiibus iiingehat Siidhaits 387 altile Alsinger 

terraest Wernsdorf: terrent Crv : torrent Scaliger 388 sulphuris 

humor Cr 389 alumine lacob : nomine C: uimine v quod inter- 

pretatus est Gronouius Obseruatt. ii. 6 : prebet munimine r Arund. 
390 quicquid Cr 393 crispantur s';-;yl)5« : eripiantur Cv quod frustra 
tuiius est Sudhaus : eripiant r Arund. : eripient et Haupt : testantur 
MaeJdy aqugr: atque C 394 cor^iOTa Arund. 395 inpinguiC: 
at pingui /rtco6 396 sine nomine r^irzi;/*^/. : sine numine Ci^ 397 
liquent Cr Arund.: liquant v Munro 398 Sera e.xcerpta Pithoeana 
mola acris C : molatrix am. causa v : molaris r 399 incendia r est 
is Munro : lapis est si C : lapis sic r Arund. : lapidis sic v : is sibi Ckri- 
cus : est, sibi Sudhaus : est hie Jacob 400 ac C : a r robora Clericus 
ct excerpta Pithoeana 403 dolor Crv Arund. : calor ed. Par. 1507 : 

color ed. Rub. 1475 isse pro inice r Arund. 404 pater r Aru7id. 
49 E 


way strip away its solid strength; you shall see it 
fused quicker than iron ; for lava has a nature that 
is readily affected and shrinks from harm under 
compulsion of fire. Still, when it has once ab- 
sorbed the flame, safer home for what it has 
absorbed there cannot be, preserving as it does 
its jagged edge, and hardening its several party- 
walls with a stubborn fidelity : once overpowered 
its submissiveness is that of an insensate thing. 
Scarcely ever is it known to reassert its strength 
and discharge fire. l'\)r being throughout a coal- 
like mass of close-packed strength, it admits and 
feeds its fires only through narrow channels, and 
after they have once been drawn in relaxes its hold 
upon them tardily and with reluctance. Yet think 
not, that because lava forms the largest portion of 
the mountain, t?his fact alone gives it predominance 
and makes it the central source of combustion : in 
very truth the vitality and determination of the stone 
is extraordinary : while all other substances that breed 
fire, if once kindled, die down, with nothing left 
in them to return for; a mere mass of embers and 
earth that has no germ of fire ; this lava-stone readily 
submitting again and again, and with a thousand 
fires successively absorbed, goes on to new strength, 
and ceases not to do so till its heart has been burnt 
out of it and it falls into ashes exhausted, a light 
pumice-like substance : throwing off when dissolved 
a crumbling sand. 

Test the point again by particular regions : place 



Fundetur ferro citius ; nam mobilis illi 405 

Et metuens natura mali est, ubi cq§-itur igni. 

Sed simul atque hausit flammas, non tutior hausti 

Vila domus, seruans aciem duraw^que tenaci 

Saepta fide ; druta est illi patientia uicto, 

Vix umquam redit in uires atque euomit ignem. 4 10 

Totus enim, denso stipatui' robore car/^o, 

Per tenuis admissa uias incendia nutrit, 

Cunctanterque eadem et pigre concepta. remittit. 

Nee tamen hoc uno, quod montis plurima pars est, 

Vincit et incendi causam tenet ille : profecto 415 

Miranda est lapidzV uiuax animosaque uirtus. 

Cetera materies quaecumque est- fertilis igni 

Vt semel accensa est, moritur, nee restat in ilia 

Quod repetas : tantum cinis et sine semine terra est, 

i^ic semel atque iterum patiens ac mille perhaustis 420 

Ignibus instaurat uires, nee desinit ante 

Quam leuis excocto defecit robore pumex 

In cinerem, putresque iacit dilapsus harenas. 

Cerne locis etiam : similes adsiste cauernas. 

406 naturam alii C : natura mali rv cogitur v Munro : coritur C : 
coquiturr^r. : corpiinr Baehrens : cax^iiviT Ahinger 407 haustu 

Ar. : fort, haustist 408 faciem Wenisdorf duramque Crv : 

duransque Scaligcr : fort, diuumque tenace v 409 Septa Crv 

fide C: fides rv Ar. bruta scripsi : tutum codd. quod retimiit 

Sudhaus : tanta Scaliger : tuta Jacob : fidest ut turn Munro : tmm 
sua turn? 410 Vi^ v igne^ (sic) v 411 stipatur Cr Ar. : 

stipatus Clericus carbo scripsi : cardo C : paruo marg. tarda v : 

tardans r Ar. : tarde Helmstad. quod mihi qiiidem ab Italis interpola- 

ace ' 

tutn uidetur, quamuis id plerique et Munro reccpentit 412 Pertenuis 
C 413 coeptaO-: accepta z; : concepta Munro 415 nuni 

Vincit, uincendi ? : uincet v 416 lapidis de Rooy : lapidum codd. 

quod retinuit Sudhaus 417 Caetera C 420 Sic Cv: Si r Ar. : 

Hie ed. Paris. 1507 422 punex v 423 iacet r Ar. uulg. : iacit 

C quod retitiui: iacens excerpta Pithoeana dilapsus Haupt Munro: 
delapsus CrvAr. 424 adsiste C: adscisse r: adisse v : arsisse I tali, 

uulgo Locris IVagler : locis etiam his Munro adsiste retinenduyn 
docui Journ. of Philology xxiii. 17 (1895) : post me sic edidit Sudhaus 
' h. e. accusatiuus 


yourself by caverns of the same kind. In these 
there is a larger store of materials that spring naturally : 
but just because this lava-stone (colour is the surest 
test of its presence) has nowhere combined its forces, 
the lire has died away. Legend tells how Aenaria 
in former limes burst l:)y sudden surprise into flame ; 
now it has long been extinct. Again, there is still 
to be seen a place between Neapolis and Cumae, 
which many years since ceased to burn, though 
sulphur oozes out in unctuous abundance for all 
time. Men gather it for sale, so far beyond Aetna 
is its full supi)ly. The island, which has been 
named from its actual appearance ' the round,' is 
soil which has more than sulphur or bitumen to make 
it unctuous : there is a stone, besides, which lends 
its help, one that is naturally fitted to produce fire : 
yet it is seldom known to discharge smoke, and 
with equal difficulty glows to heat, when kindled, the supply feeds only short-lived flames and 
for a little time. An island survives into our day, 
consecrated as the island of Vulcan ; yet the con- 
flagration in it has for the most part cooled, and now 
gives the shelter of a safe harbour to fleets tossed 
in the open sea. The rest is smaller and is a 
fairly rich soil in its abundance of material : yet it 
is not such as to match its strength with Aetna's 
wondrous store. And for all that this very island 
would have long since been extinguished, were it 


Illic niateriae nascentis copia maior. 425 

Sed genus hoc lapidis (certissima signa coloris) 

Quod nullas adiunxit opes, danguit ignis. 

Dicitur insidiis fiagrsisse Aenar/a quondam, 

Nunc extincta diu : super^s/que Neapolin inter 

Et Cumas locus, e^- multis iam frigidus annis, 430 

Quamuis aeternum pingu/ scatet ubere sulphur. 

In mercem legitur, tanto est fecundius Aetna. 

Insula cui nomen facies dedit ipsa Rotunda, 

Sulphure non solum nee obesa bitumine terra est : 

Et lapis adiutat generandis ignibus aptus. 435 

Sed raro fumat, qui uix, si accenditur, ardet ; 

In breue mortales flammas quod copia nutrit. 

Insula durat a.d/iuc Vulcani nomine sacra ; 

Pars tamen incendi maior refrixit, et alto 

lactatai- recipit classes portuque tuetur, 440 

Quae restat, minor et diues satis ubere terra est, 

Sed non Aetnaeo uires quae conferat illi. 

Atque haec ipsa tamen iam quondam ex5-tincta fuisset, 

Cerne locos etiam similes, adsiste cauernis ^/cw^er 425 pascentis 
Schroder 426 colonis v 427 elangiiit Iamb : et languit 

Crv 428 Discitur de Rooy indiciis de Scrionne 1736 

flagrasse Wesselitig ad Antonin. Hinerar. p. 515 : flagrans C}V Ar. 
enarea C: en aera r : enearia v 429 Nunc extincta super 

testisque (tectisque r) Cr, quod potest sic cxplicari^ extincta super' ?</ 
significetur Aenaria super extinctos ignes superjicieni habens herbis 
arboribusque contectam. Excerpta Pithoeana habetit '• Corngitiiy. exstin 
super testisque eta : tootio supcrquo Neapolin,' quo coufirniatiirid quod 
olim ex conicdura posiii Nunc exstincta [diu], superestque Neapolin 
inter, cum eadent excerpta habeant scriptum in riiargine uersus 428 
superest 430 ex scripsi : et Cv : om. r Ar. 43 1 correxi 

Journal of Philology^ III. p. 276, anni 1871 pinguescat etubere C: 
pinguescat ex ubere r Ar. : pingue scatet malebat Sudhaus 432 

hoc uersu dcsinit v fecundior Aetna Ulitius 434 bitumine C : 

acumine r Ar. 435 lapsis C ad iutat C 436 qui C Ar. : et r : 
quin Halt 437 flammas r 438 durata Cr : durat adhuc Scaliger 

Therasia est lacob : clarata est Haupt : adoratur Postgate 439 

maiore frixit C : maior refrixit r 440 lactata C: lactactatas r : 

lactatas ^r. 442 aethnei Cr ^n quae CrAr. iWi Cr A r. 

Sed n. Aetneis uires quae conf. illis ed. Paris. 1507, Munro : Sed non 
Aetnaeo u. quae c. igni Haupt 443 extincta C 



not that Aetna, being close by, supplied it secretly 
with its own substances and material, or drove the 
winds through some sunken pipe to and fro, and gave 
aliment to the fire. 

Fact, however, meets us with a better voucher than 
any mere sign, and with the test of real proofs : fact 
makes no attempt to misrepresent a witness. For 
all round the flanks and at the lowest base of Aetna 
are white-hot stones discharging heat, and loose- 
scattered rocks with smouldering pores, enough to 
make you believe, as a fact of sight, that it is the 
lava-stone which is the aliment and cause of burning : 
and when this is scanty the fires it gets together 
are starved. The flames once got in, it discharges 
them, and in doing so kindles by its impact 
other material, forcing this to melt with it in one 
flame. It is, indeed, no wonder that the eff*ects 
we see outside Aetna should teem as they do : 
the volcanic action, if toned down, is still unspent : 
the stronger burning of the lava, its more potent 
solicitation of adjoining combustibles, its infallible 
premonitions of a coming conflagration are in the 
other centre, within the crater. As soon as [the 
mountain] sets its forces in motion and after threaten- 
ing turmoil {lacuna) [the earth] flies 

asunder and in an instant pulls the soil away ; 
whereupon convulsed through its branching pores 
[Aetna trembles] and a deep rumbling under ground 



Ni furtim adgereret Siculi uicinia mentis, 

Materiam siluamque suam, pressoue canali 445 

Hue illuc ageret uentos et p^sceret ignes. 

Sed melius res ipsa notis spectataque uens 
Occurrit signis nee temptat fallere /estem. 
Nam circa latera atque imis radicibus Aetnae 
Candentes efflant lapides, disiectaque saxa 450 

Intereunt uenis ; manifesto ut credere possis 
Pabula et ardendi causam lapidem esse molarem, 
Cuius defectus ieiunos colligit ignis. 
lUe ubi coUegij flammas, iac/t, et simul ictu 
Materiam accendit cogitque liquescere secum. 455 

Haud equidem mirum scsLteresf, quae cernimus extra; 
Si lenitur opus, restat : magis uritur illic, 
Sollicitatque magis uicina incendia saxum, 
Certaque uenturae praemittit pignera flammae. 
Nam simul atque mouet uir^'s turbamque minatus 4G0 

Diffugit, ex/emploque solum trahit, tictaque ramist 

444 furtim r: furtutn C adgeneret C : adgenerat r Ar. : adgeret 
Sloan : adgereret ed. Rub. 1475 siculi uicinia mentis C solus : 

reliqui codices aut nihil aut interpolata pracbent 446 ager et C : 

ageres r pasceret ^W. 1517 : posceret Cr Ar. 447 res C: 

notis C: nota est Sloanianus : docet Haupl melior res ipsa nota est 

de Rooy spectaque C ueris ed. Rub. 1475 : uentis C: uenis r^r. : 
fort, lentis 448 testem Haupt : pestem Cr Ar. 451 mani- 

iester^n 453 deffectus r ieiunos r^r. : ieiunus C colligit 

Cr Ar. : concipit de Rooy : corripit Haupl : conficit Maehly, Munro : 
colligit Damste interpretatus est in angtistum cogere, allato Tib. 
i. 8. 14 Ansaque compressos colligit arta pedes {Mnemos. xvii. 
p. 198) 454 iacit ed. Paris. 1507 : iacet Cr Ar. 456 mirum 

facie que C : mirum scute (scate Ar.) quod r Ar. : u n de scripsi scatcrest 
haud equidem mirum : faex est quod cernimus extra Haupt : H. e. 
mirum facie, qua cernimus extra Munro 457 Si C : Sed r Ar. 

restat C Ar. : restat r illic Cr : ttutn intus ? Si lenitur opus reses : 
at Scaligcr : reses ac de Serionne 459 pignora C 460 uiris C : 

curis rAr. minatus C : mimutus r : minatur Ulitius. Post hunc u. 
laautam cum Munrone notaui 461 extempioque r : exemploque C 



as well as an outbreak of fire give notice (of 
what is to come). It is then that you will do well 
to flee in affright and give way to the divine 
action : a hill will provide you with a secure out- 
look lor observing all. 

In a moment a fire blazes out loaded with what 
it has torn away : masses of fiery matter move up, 
amorphous falling rocks roll out shoals of sand send- 
ing a noise to the stars. These form irregular shapes 
and human semblances : part of the stones is a foe 
under defeat, some show the sturdy strength of a 
standing fight, resisting all approaches of the flames : 
on one side the enemy is panting with unspent fury, 
and opening out his forces, on another his fierce 
bluster is abating : even as when an army routed in 
triumphant defeat lies prostrate on the [)lains close 
up to the very doors of the camp. Any stone which 
is then found to have liquefied under a surface fire 
has, when it is quenched, a more rugged and grimy 
kind of slag, like the scoria which you may see drop 
below when iron is smelted. But when the falHng 
stones have by slow degrees risen and sprung up into 
a j)ile, they narrow to an apex as they ascend : just as 
a stone is calcined in a kiln, where all the liquid 



Et graue sub terra murmur dcmonstrat et ignes. 

Tum pauidum fugere, et sacris concedere rebus, 

Par er/V; e.r tuto speculaberis omnia coll/. 

Nam subito efferuent honerosa incendia raptis, 465 

Accensae subeunt moles, truncaeque ruinae 

Prouoluunt a^que ajtra sonant examina harenae. ' 

mine incertae facias hominumque figurae : 

Pars lapidum domita, stanti^ pars robora pugnae. 

Nee re<r/pit flammas ; hinc /«defessus anhelat 470 

Atque aperit se hostis, decrescit spiritus illi«c. 

Haud aliter quam cum laeto deuicta tropaeo 

Prona iacet campis acies et castra sub ipsa. 

Tum si quis lapidum summo pertabuit igni, 

Asperior sopit*? et quaedam sordida faex est, 475 

Qualem purgato cernes desidere ferro. 

Verum ubi paulatim exi-iluit sublata caducis 

Congeries saxis, angusto uertice surgunt. 

Sic ueluti in fornace lapis torretur et omnis 

ictaque ramis Cr : atque tremiscit Haupt : num raris ? an actaque 
rimis? Post hunc u. lactmam notatti 462 denuntiat ignes lacob 

463 concedere C : confugere r Ar. : quod ex consurgere corrnmpi 
potuit 464 Par erit Scaliger : Parere Cr Ar. : Par rere Sudhaus 

ex scripsi: et Cr Ar. : e Scaliger, et sic e.xcerpta Pithoeana colli 

Sloaniamts et ed. Paris. 1507 : collis Cr Ar. quod retinuit Sudhaus 

465 numerossa incedia r rupis Ulitius : raptim Stniclitnuyer 

466 truct^que r 467 adque astra scripsi : atque astra ed. Paris. 
1507 : atque atra Cr 468, 469 om. r Ar. 469 domitast 
Munro stantis Munro : stanti C quod retinuit Birt : num at 
stantis? 470 recipit r Ar. : repit C flammas hinc defensus C: 
flammas (-as Ar.) nee hie (hinc Ar.) defessus r A.r. : hie iam 
defessus Schenkl : donee d. Birt: hinc indefensus Baehrens: hinc 
indefessus scripsi Journ. of Philol. xvi. p. 308 (1887) et sic mine 
Sudhaus 471 se C : se om. r Ar. hosti Scaliger illic Cr 
Ar. illinc scripsi 472 trophaeo C 473 Prima iacit r 
475 sopitaes C : sospites Corsinianus 43 F. 3. 21: sopita est r : 
scobis iis exccrpta Pithoeana : scabres Scaliger : sopita Clcricits : 
sopilo Maehly quern secutus sum : species Munro : tophis Franke : 
num post aestum? 476 cernes CrAr.i cernas Munro 
descendere r : discedere S/onw. 477 exiluit C 478 (angusto 
uertice surgunt) Hildebrandt p. 103 tamquam parenthesin fort. 
angusto et 479 torquetur r 



is burnt within the pores and ascends in evaporation. 
Its substance thus lost, it is sifted off a Hght imponder- 
able pumice : meanwhile that lava-liquid assumes 
a hotter glow and begins, after a long pause, to 
advance more in the likeness of a gently-flowing 
stream, pouring its waves down the slopes of the hills. 
The waves move gradually on and on for six miles 
twice repeated ; in truth, there is nothing that calls 
them back, nothing that checks the resolute approach 
of the flames, nothing massy that bars the way with- 
out stopping them : everything is in conflict at once. 
Here forests and cliffs, elsewhere the earth and 
surface soil are afloat : the lava-stream itself rein- 
forces their supply, and takes them into its current 
readily conforming thereto. If it happens to halt and 
is arrested in some valley's depth, it grazes at large, 
as you might guess, along the unevennesses of the 
fields where it rolls its way : then the lava-billows 
come crowding up, and the flood sounds noisily with 
up-standing waves (even as when some rushing sea 
dips forward with a cresting tide), and at first drives 
them before it of small size and in flat curves ; such 
as are farther out .... {lacuna) ; as it advances, (the 
current) streams far and wide in all directions, and 
sifting out (what it cannot retain) .... {lacuna). The 
lava-streams halt with their banks ^ arrested, and the 
cold stiffens them into hardness : then by degrees 
the fires close up, and lose the appearance of a 
waving field of flame. As each mass successively 

' I. e. outer-margins. 
■ 58 


Exustus penitus uenis subit altius umor. 480 

Amissis opibus leuis et sine pondere pumex 

Excutitur : liquor ille magis feruere magisque 

Fluminis in speciem mitis procedere tandem 

Incipit et pr<7nis d^mittit collibus undas. 

Illae paulatim bis sena in milia pergunt. 4S5 

Quippe nihil reuocat, c^rtis nihil ignibus o/^stat, 

Nulla tenet frustra moles, simul omnia pugnant. 

Nunc siluae rupesque natant, h/c terra, solumque, 

Ips^ adiutat opes facilesque sibi induit amnis. 

Quod si forte cauis cunctatus uallibus haesit, 490 

Vtpote inaequalis uoluens perpascitur agros ; 

Ingeminant fluctus et stantibus increpat undis, 

(Sicut cum rapidum curuo mare cernula/ aestu,) 

Ac primum tenuis simans agit, ulteriores 

Progrediens late diffunditur et succernens 41^5 

Flumina consistunt ripis ac frigore durant, 
Paulatimque ignes coeunt, ac flammea messis 
Exuitur facies. turn prima ut quaeque rigescit 

48oExutusr^n ahit a.\ii\is Bae/i reus humor O- 482 

Exquoquitur r 483 mitis Cr : num miri ? 484 pronis 

Siiritigar et Mitnro : prunis C: primis Ar. dimittit Cr: demittit 

Scaliger 486 certis Wernsdorf: curtis C: cartis r Ar. : curuis 

Munro et sic excerpta Pithotana : tortis Birt ostat C 488 notant 
Cr Ar. : uorat Cors. : rotant Wernsdorf: uocant lacob : natant 
Baehrens Nunc siluas rupesque uorant, nunc terra solumque 

Ipsum a. o. Haupt 489 Ipsa Cr Ar. : Ipse Scaliger: Ipsum 

Cleticus quern secuntur pkriqiie &nms r Ar. 490 uasibus ;■ : 

faucibus Christianus Crusiiis 1753 491 inequalis C: inequales r 

prepascitur -<4 r. : Aut per inaeq. u. compescitur a. Maehly 492 

Ingeminant C r Ar. : Ingeminat ed. 1475 493 turbo Vollnier 

cernulus C Ar. : t^rulus r : cernuat Gronov : cernulat lacob : 
cernimus Mmtro :. cernulus retinuit Sudhaiis sc. amnis 494 

tenuis imas agit C: tenuis . . . agit r {sic) : simas Helmstad. uiide 
Mttnro scripsit Ac primum tenuis, simas agit ulteriores : simans 
scripsi. Post 494 lacunain posui 495 Post liunc u. lacunaui 

statuit Mttnro 496 ac C 497 ac C massis D'Oruille 



(cools and) stiffens it discharges a fume, and drawn 
onwards by sheer weight rolls along with a mighty 
uproar ; and whenever it has dashed headlong against 
some solid body that rings at its approach, spreads to 
and fro the blow^s of its percussion, shining with a 
white-hot core at any point where it has been laid 
open. At each blow a swarm of sparkles shoot out, 
the burning rocks flash fire : away, swift feet, away 
with all your speed. For these rocks lose nothing 
of their glowing heat in falling : yet, albeit their 
furious sweep has ere now crossed the banks of 
Symaethus' river, human effort will scarcely avail to 
part these banks from their state of fixture with 
grappling-irons to help ; often the mass of rock lies 
buried for twenty whole days together. 

But all in vain I struggle to arrange each successive 
point under its assigned cause, if you cling persistently 
to a lying fable, and believe that it is a different 
substance that turns to liquid fire, that it is from their 
cinderous property that lava-floods harden to con- 
sistency, or if you hold to the belief that what burns 
is sulphur mixed with glutinous bitumen ; because, 
as they say, when potters' clay has been burnt in a 
furnace its inner substance fuses in the same way, of 
which fact potters are an attestation ; later, as it grows 
gradually colder, it returns to its previous hardness 
and closes up its pores. Rut that sign of a common 
nature is only trivial, a cause without validity that 
wavers dubiously : there is an unmistakable token by 
which the truth is established to your conviction. 



Effumat moles, atque ipso pondere tracta 

Voluitur ingenti strepitu, praecepsque sonanti ?oo 

Cum solido inflzxa est, pulsatos dissipat ictus, 

Et qua disclusa est, candenti robore fulget. 

Emicat examen plagis, ardentia saxa 

Scintillawt : procul es/e /^des, procul es/e, mentis ! 

Incolumi feruore cadunt : uerum impetus i^gens 5:5 

Simaethi quondam ut ripas traiecerit amnis, 

Vix unds quisquam fixo dimouerit illas. 

Vicenos persaepe dies iacet obruta moles. 

Sed frustra certis disponere singula causis 
Temptamus, si firma manet tibi fabula mendax, 510 

Materiam ut credas aliam fluere igne, fauillag 
Flumina proprietate simul concrescere, siue 
Commixtum lento flagrare bitumine sulphur. 
Nam post exustam cretam quoque robom fund/, 
Et figulos huic esse fidem, dein frigoris usu 515 

Duritiem reuocare suam et constringere uenas. 
Sed signum commune leue est, atque irrita causa 
Quae trepidat : certo uerum tibi pign^re constat. 

501 inflexa Cr ^r. : in{\ixa Scaliger : indicia, ttulg. pulsantis 

Cleriais 502 quia ed. Par. 1507: displosa Scaliffcr : discussa 

D'Onti/le 503 examen: plagis 7l/««ro 504 Scintillant S<:rt%<?r: 
Scintillas C: Scintilla ;- este D'Omille: procul este pedes, procul 
este scrip si : procul esse fides (fide r) procul esse Cr procul ecce 
uide procul ecce Clerictis (ecce Scalis;cr) Scintillas procul esse fides, 
procul esse r\ieni\s Mmiro Scintillae procul ecce fides, procul ecce 
ruentis, Incolumi feruore cadunt Siidliaus 505 ingens Baehrcns : 

uel su 

ignes CrAr. 506 Simethi C : Si uel fumanti r Artind. h. e. Simethi 
quondam om. r utrlpas C 507 iunctis Cr : uncis^ scripsi faxo 
Mtturo demouerat Ar. 508 Vicenos Helmstad. : Vicinos Cr Ar. 
dies Cr Ar. pedes D'Oritille, quod receperunt plerique 510 

sifirma C 511 fruere r Ar. : furere Sloanianus fauillae Clericus : 
fauilla C: fauillam rAr. : ignis, ab ilia Baelirciis 512 Plurima r 

Ar. nescio an recte sicut Baclirais 513 Conustum r Ar. 514 

exhaustam r robora r : robore C fundi IVenisdorf: fundit Cr 

Ar. : fort. Nam posse exustam c. q. robore fundi 518 tripidat C: 

/o>-/. tripedat certo S/ort«. : certeC: om.rAr- tibi C; %^\excerpta 
Pithoeana: ubi r : ibi ^/'. pignore O"^''. 

' unco iam excerpta Fithcexna, 


For such as is the cjuahty of copper when com- 
bined with fire and fused, unalterable, the same, 
retaining its substance unchanged, permitting you 
to recognize, whether in a fused or solid state, 
the share allotted to the copper : even so our lava- 
stone, whether it happens to dissolve into fluid fire 
or is safe from its action, keeps and conserves its 
characteristics, the fire has not affected its look. 
Nay, there are many for whom its colour alone 
disproves any alien semblance, without appealing 
to smell or lightness ; the stone decays more and 
more, yet its way of working has still one un- 
changed look, the earth composing it is throughout 
the same\ Not that I would deny the fkct of 
particular stones taking a glow or burning fiercely 
within when once kindled : it is a specific pro- 
perty which they possess. Nay the Sicilians have' 
given to actual stones a particular title rhydae, 
and in the very letters of the word indicate that 
they possess a fusible character. Still, these stones 
never liquefy, though they have a more pulpy sub- 
stance within to foster heat, unless their centre 
has been brought into contact with the structure 
of the lava-stone. 

If, however, there be any that is surprised that 
a stone's core should be fusible, let him ponder those 
truest axioms of Heraclitus' dark treatise, 'nothing 
is insuperable by fire,' ' of all the seeds sown within 

' Or, possibly : ' in such degree as the stone falls to decay, in such its mode 
of working has an unchanged look, and the earth of which it consists is 
throughout the same.' 



Nam uelut arguti natura est aeris et ignis, 

Cum domitum est, consta«j eademque et robore saluo, 

V/raque ut possis aeris cognoscere partem ; 521 

Haud aliter lapis ille tenet, seu forte madentes 

Effluit in flammas, siue est securus ab illis, 

Conseruatque notas, nee uultum perdidit ignis. 

Quin s/>eciem externam multis color ipse refellit, 525 

Non odor aut leuitas : putris magis ille magisque 

Vna operis facies eadem perque omnia terra est. 

Nee tamen infitior lapides ardescere certos, 

Interims furere accensoj: haec propr/a uirtus. 

Qum ipsis quaedam Siculi cognomina saxis 530 

Inposuere tfrichas, et iam ipso ;^omine signa;//*, 

Fusil/s esse notae : numquam tamen ilia liquescunt, 

Quamuis materies foueat sucosior intus, 

Ne/ penitus uenae fuerint commissa molari. 

Quod si quis lapid/s miratur fusile robur, 535 

Cogitet obscuri uerissima dicta libelli, 
Heraclite, tui : nihil insuperabile al> igni, 

519 ah igni Scali^er 520 Condomitum r.f^r. constans //rt/r/>/ : 
constat Cr^r. 521 Vtraque Mtiuro: Vltraque C: Vtramque r .^r. 
cognoscer C portam Cr Ar. quod seriiarunt Biiccheler et Sud/iaus : 
partem Cleriats : formam Baehrens et exccrpta Piihoeaim : fort, sortem 
522 tener excerpta Piihoeana 524 uultum C : uultu r ignis 

C r Ar. : igne Scaliger : igni Haupt et excerpta Pithoeana 525 

speciem scripsi : etiam Cr Ar. multus r Ar. refellit C: resoluit r 
526 odora ut C : mador Haupt 527 eademque per r, noti Ar. 

528 inficior C 529 Interitus C accenso C : accensos r 

propala C r Ar. : propria Sloan, et ed. 1475 530 Quiinipsis C: 

Qin ipsis r quaedam Cr : quondam Mimro 531 fridicas C : 

frichas r Ar. : chytas uel rhj'tas Scaliger: rhyacas Kaibel : diphryx 
uel diphryges (Sttppvyts) omi'sso iam Biii etiam ipso omine signifi- 

cant C : atque ipso nomine signant r : et ipso n. s. Ar. 532 

Fusilis C : Fusiles r notas Cr^r. Fusilis esse notae ilfa^///y 

533 successior Ar. : succentior r : nunt succensior? 534 Nei 

scripsi : Ni Clerictis : Nee Cr Ar. fort, commista 535 lapides 
C Ar. : lapidis Sloan. fixile r Ar. 537 Heracliti et ubi est 

r : ab igni Scaliger : igni etiam excerpta Pithoeana sed incertum 
quo pertineat: nam in codice ad ilia et ibi refcrri uidetur srd, ut credo, 
per errorem : gigni Cr cf. Heracliti Rcliq. xxii Byivater rrvpos dvTafifi- 
0tTai ndvTa Kal vvp a-navrwv^ wanep xpvaov \pi]p.aTa koX xPII^'^'''^*' 



the realm of nature, this (fire) is the wondrous 
nursery ; ' bodies of closest texture and nearly solid 
we notwithstanding often reduce by fire. See you 
not how copper with all its stubbornness gives ■yvay 
to flame ? Does not fire strip away the toughness of 
lead? Even iron's substance, for all its exceeding 
hardness, is undermined by fire ; solid nuggets of 
gold sweat out their precious ore in the pendent 
smelting-kilns ; and it may well be that the depths 
of earth have lying in them some undiscovered 
substances subject to the same allotment of nature. 
This is no place for ingenuity : judge for yourself 
and you will allow that the eyes are convincing. You 
see how rigid is the lava-stone, how it is barred up 
in front and resists all approach of fire, if you try 
to burn it with only small fires and in the open 
sky : well now, confine this same stone in a close 
white-hot kiln, it cannot hold out or maintain itself 
against that fierce enemy : it is defeated, its strength 
dissolves, it yields to its captor, and melts. Yet what 
engines, think you, more effectual can art apply by 
hand of man, or again, what fires can it sustain by 
human means to rival the kilns with which Aetna is 
heated ? Aetna, that is at all times a prolific nurse 
of mysterious fire, yet not such as glows with attemper'd 
heat as used by us, but nearer the fire of heaven, 
or like the flame that arms Jupiter himself. With 
these strong forces is combined a powerful blast of air 
forced out of the compressed orifices of the mountain ; 
even as when mechanics exert themselves to match 
their strength against unwrought masses of iron, they 
stir the smclting-fires, drive out the air in the panting 


Omnia quae rerum in natura semina iacta, 

Sew/V/ium hoc mirum. densissima corpora saepe 

Et solido uicina tamen conpescimus igni. 540 

Non animos aeris fiammis succumbere cernis ? 

Len/itiem plumbi non exuit ? ipsaque ferri 

Materies praedura tamen subuertitur igni. 

Spissaque suspensis fornacibus aurea saxa 

Exsudant pretium, et quaedam fortasse profundo 545 

Incomperta iacent, similique obnoxia sorte. 

Nee locus ingenic est : oculi te iudice uincent. 

Nam lapis ille riget, praeclususque ignibus obstat, 

Si paruis torrere uelis caeloque patenti. 

Candenti press^que agedum fornace coerce ; 550 

Nee sufferre potest nee saeuum durat in hostem. 

Vincitur et soluit uires captusque liquescit. 

Quae maiora putas artem tormenta mouere 

Posse manu? quae tanta putas incendia nostris 

Sustentare opibus, ^z^antis fornacibus Aetna 555 

Vritur, ar^a«o numquam non fertilis igni ? 

Sed non qui nostro feruet moderatior usu, 

Sed caelo propior, uel quali luppiter ipse 

Armatus flamma est. his uiribus additur ingens 

Spiritus, adstrictis elisus faucibus : ut, cum 560 

Fabriles operas rudibus contendere massis 

Festinant, ignes quatiunt follesque trementes 

538 rerum in Baehrens : rerum Cr Ar. 539 Seminium scripsi : 

sed nimium Cr Ar. 542 LenitiemC: 'Leniitiem Ar.r plumbi 

Cr Ar. quod scruarunt Hildebrandt et Sudhaus: plumbum Clericus 
et sic excerpta Pithoeana 546 sorte C: sorti r Ar. Aid. 1517 : 

sortei Mtmro 547 ingenium Cr Ar. : m^enio Sloan, et ed. 1475 

548 Nam r Helmst. : Nee C preclususque C: percussusque r Ar. 
550 praessoque r : pressosque C coherce C 553 artem scripsi : 

autem C : aurem r Ar. mouere C : moueri r Ar. 555 susten- 

tari ed. Paris. 1507 quantis Aid. 1517 : tantis Cr Ar. 556 

arcane scripsi: ac sacro C : a sacro r Ar. non ed. Par. 1507 : nee 
Cr Ar. : fort, numquam haec non fertilis igni 557 nostros f. 

moderatus in usus excerpta Pithoeana 558 propiore et Haupt 559 
additur C: additus >■ //e/ws/. ^r. 561 opera erudibus Cr^n 562 
frementeis excerpta Pithoeana : tumentes Lindenbruch 

65 F 


bellows, rouse the wind witli a close-continued series 
of puffs. 

This is the process of the work, this is how world- 
famed Aetna is kindled into combustion. The earth 
draws in forces through the holes that pierce it; 
spirit presses these into a confined space, then the 
fire works itself a passage through rocks of the 
largest size. 

Man crosses seas and rushes through all that is 
nearest to grim forms of death, on his way to visit 
shrines of sumptuous glory and temples rife with 
the pride of human wealth \ or to tell the tale of 
coffers old as time : eagerly we unearth each lie of 
antique fable, and would fain visit every people of the 
world. At one moment our pleasure is to see the 
walls built round Ogygian Thebes ; those walls once 
reared by the brothers, Zethus the man of action, 
Amphion the man of song [we may rear again] : it is 
our bliss to be admitted to an age other than our own. 
At one time we marvel at the rocks those duteous 
sons summoned with song and lyre ; at another to see 
how from one single steam rises the fume of a divided 
sacrifice ; at the seven chiefs, and the hero engulfed 
in the abyss. There the Eurotas and Lycurgus' 
Sparta hold us spellbound, or the troop hallowed 
for war, the three-hundred, their own all-sufficient 
host. Now again a multitude of poems give Athens 
to our view ; we see her rejoicing that Minerva has 

' Or, ' pompous with all that human wealth can achieve.' 



Exawiwant, pressoque instigant agmine ucntum. 

Haec operis forma, est, sic nobilis untur Aetna. 

Terra foraminibus uires trahit, urguet in artum 565 

Spiritus, incendi u'la f\i per maxima saxa. 

Magnificas laudes operosaque uisere templa 
Diuitiis hominum, aut arcsiS memorare uetustas, 
Traducti maria et iaetx'xs per proxima fatis 
Currimus atque auidi ueteris mendacia famae 570 

Eruimus cunctasque libet percurrere gentes. 
Nunc iuuat Ogygiis circumdata moenia Thebis 
Cernere : quae fratres, ille impiger, ille canorus 

Condere, felicesque alieno intersumus aeuo. 

Inuitata piis nunc carmine saxa lyraque, 575 

Nunc gemina ex uno fumantia sarra uapore, 

Miramur, septemque duces raptumque profundo. 

Detinet Eurotas illic et Spar/a Lymrgi, 

Et sacer in bellum numerus, sua turba /recenti. 

Nunc hie Cecropiae uariis spectantur Axh&cxae 580 

Carminibus, gaudentque soli uictrice Minerua. 

563 Examinant Cr Ar. uentrum C 564 fama Cr Ai: qtiod 

retinebat Hildebrandi p. 98 : forma excerpta Pithoeana et sic Chtisl. 
Wolf. : summa Scaliger sic nobilis r Ar. : ignobilis C uritur 

Ar. : utitur C " 566 uia fit Baehrens : uiuit Cr Ar. : uis it 
Munro Spiritus incendi. uiuit Hildchrandt 567 laudes Cr 

Ar. : aedes Aid. 1534 Magnificos lapides Wagler uiscere C : 

uiscere r: uisere Ar. 568 areas scripsi : sacras C: sacra r 

Ar. : siquast m. uetustas Enechekr 569 Tracti r materia Cr 

Ar. : Traducti maria de Rooy taetris Scaliger : terris Cr : terras 
de Rooy, quod recepit Munro 573 quae C : quot Ilelinsi. : 

que et r Ar. Post 573 lactiiiaiii stattiit Munro. Excidisse uidetur 
uersus huiusmodi Condiderant, longo geniti post tempore quimus. 

574 intersumus C: intersumo Hclnisl. : transu(u ^^>-. mere r Ar. 

575 piis C: pio r Ar. : piei Munro 576 saxa CrAr. : sacra 
Scaliger 578 Sparta Aid. 1534: Sparsa CrAr. lygurgi C: 
lygurge r: licurge Ar. 579 sua C: seu r trecenti Sudliaus et 
Buecheler: recenti Cr Ar. : regenti Scaliger 580 Cycropiae C 

athenae r: athene Ar. : athenis C 581 soli] sua^r. 

67 F 2 


conquered the right to her soil. Here it was that 
in days of yore Theseus the faithless forgot, as he 
returned home, to send on to his careworn father 
the message of the white sail. Thou also, star of 
high renown, Erigone, art one of Athens' songs, thou 
that desperately didst bemoan thine old man slain ; 
Philomela wails Itys in the woods where birds are sing- 
ing, and thou, Procne, her sister, art welcomed to the 
house-roofs shelter; Tereus, the cruel, lives an exile in 
the solitary fields, ^^'e marvel at Troy in embers, and 
Pergamon, thought of sorrow to her conquered sons, 
and Phrygia quenched in her own Hector's extinction : 
we gaze on the humble barrow where a mighty chief 
is entombed : here lie vanquished aUke Achilles the 
sturdy fighter and he that avenged heroic Hector's 
death (Paris). Sometimes, again, Greek pictures or 
statues hold us tranced; now Venus' locks dripping 
with spray of her mother, the sea ; now Medea's little 
sons playing at their cruel mother's feet, now the 
sorrowing attendants grouped round the hind's altar 
of substituted sacrifice, and the father veiled; now 
the life-like triumph of Myron's art : aye a thousand 
works of the handicraftsman's skill, a thousand 
paintings arrest our eye. 

These are the sights you think you must visit, 
wavering between land and sea alternately. Turn 
now your eyes on the stupendous work of the artificer, 


Excidit hie reduci quondam tibi, perfide Theseu, 

Candida sollicito praemittere uela parenti. 

Tu quoque Athenarum carmen, tarn nobile sidus 

Erigon^e's, de</uesta senem : Philomela canoris 5s 5 

PlordX Ityn siluis, et tu, soror hospita, tectis 

Acciperis, solis Tereus ferus exulat agris. 

Miramur Troiae cineres et flebile uictis 

Pergamon extinct^sque suo Phrygas Hectore : paruum 

Conspicimus magni tumu/um ducis : hie et Achilles 590 

Impiger et uictus magni iacet Hectoris ultor. 

Quin etiam Graiae fix6?s t^«uere tabella^ 

Signaue; nunc Paph/ae rorantij mahe ca/illi, 

Sub truce nunc parui ludentes Colchide nati, 

Nunc tristes circa subiecta altaria ceruae, 595 

Velatusque pater; nunc gloria uiua Myronis, 

Et iam miWe manus operum ^a^ti/aeque morant/cr. 

Haec uisenda putas terra dubiusque mar/que. 
Artificis naturae ingens opus aspice : nulla 

584 crimen Aid. 1534 ei sic excerpta Piihoeana iam Aid. 1534 

585 Erigone sedes uestra est phylomella (emphiloma r Ar.) Cr Ar. : 
uestras excerpia Pithocaua, unde correxi caedes Pcerlkamp 586 

Plorat Ityn scripsi: Euocat in Cr Ar. Mtniro sic scripsit Tu q. 
A. c. t. n, sidus, Erigone, sedes uestra est : ph. c. En uocat 
in s. Maass sic correxit Eratosthenic. p. 85 Tu quoque A. crimen 
iam nobile sidus Erigone, edens questus Philomela canoras En 
uolat in sihias, et tu soror hospita lectis Acciperis 589 

extinctusque C: extinctosque r Ar. suo C: suos r Helinst. Ar. 
haectore C: hectorar^r. 590 tumultum C 591 haectoris 

C 592 fixas timuere tabellas Cr : fixos tenuere tabellae Aid. 

^534 593 paflae (pafle r Ar.) rorantia parte camilli Cr Ar. : 

iiideiiiur />, m locum mttfasse, ut matre capilli ficret patre camilli, 
uti mtellexit Baehrens : parte excerpta Pitliocana : rorantes patre 
Haupt et Munro : rorantes arte Heitisius ad Trist. ii. 525, et sic 
ante euut Scaliger 594 cholchide C 595 subiectae Aid. 151 7 

seruae ed. Paris. 1507, Baehrens 596 uiua Cr : uacca Schrader 

597 Etiam ilia C : Et iam ilia r Ar. mille Haupt Haec et iam 

ilia Munro tabulaeque scr/^^s?' : tubequer: turbae(e .<4r.)que C-(4r. 
moranter C : ^norante r Ar. 598 terra C : terrae r Ar. : 

terra dubiusque marique Munro : marisque Cr Ar. : terrae d. 
marisque ed. 1475 : H. u. putans terra ruis usque marique Bai/irens 
599 natura C 



Nature : nowhere shall you see sight so marvellous 
in the crowded world of men ; most of all, if you 
keep sleepless watch, when Sirius burns with glowing 
heat. 'S'et the mountain has a strange attendant 
legend of its own : a pious fire to give fame equal 
to its guilt. In times of yore Aetna burst open its 
hollows and glowed with a white heat ; as if its kilns 
were wrecked to their centre, a wave-like volume of 
fire was borne up by the strong heats of the stone and 
carried to a long distance; even as when the ether 
flashes with the fury of Jupiter and whirls on the 
bright sky blackened with gloom. The corn-crops 
blazed in the fields, farm lands waving with cultiva- 
tion and their owners with them ; forests and hills 
were in a ruddy glow. Scarce yet have they begun 
to think the enemy was on the march, and they were 
already trembling at his approach ; already he had 
cleared the gates of the adjoining city. Then did 
each, with such will and strength as he possessed 
for foraging, struggle to guard his property; one is 
groaning under a weight of gold, another is getting his 
arms together, and setting them once more about his 
foolish neck ; another too weak to carry what he has 
snatched up loiters to save his poems ; here a penni- 
less man hurries nimbly along under the lightest of 
weights ; each as he has anything precious shoulders 
it himself and flies with his burden. Think not, how- 
ever, the spoil followed its several masters undamaged: 
the fire swallows theni as they loiter, and environs 
the covetous horde with its flames. When they 
believe they have put it to rout, it pursues them 
still, overpowers and then burns them with their 



7u tanta humanae p/eb/s spectacula comes, 6co 

Praecipueque uigil feruens ubi Sirius ardet. 

Insequitur miranda tamen sua fabula montem, 

Nee minus ille pio quam so«s, /am nobilis ignist. 

Nam quondam ruptis excanduit Aetna cauernis, 

Et uelut euersis penitus fornacibus i«ge«s 605 

Euecta in longum lapidis feruoribus unda. 

Haud aliter quam cum saeuo loue fulgurat aether, 

Et nitidum obscura caelum caligine torquet. 

Ardebant agris segetes et m<?llia cultu 

lugera cum dominis, siluae collesque ruhehant. 610 

Vixdum castra putant hostem wouisse, tremebant, 

Et iam finitimae portas euaserat urbis. 

Turn uero ut cuique est animus uires^?/e rapinae, 

Tutari conantur opes, gemit ille sub auro, 

Colligit ille arma et stulta ceruice reponit, 615 

Defectum raptis ilium sua carmina tardant, 

Hie uelox nnmtfio properat sub pondere pauper, 

Et quod cuique fuit cari, fugit ipse sub illo. 

Sed non incolumis dominum sua praeda secuta est ; 

Cunctantis uorat ignis et undique torret auaros, 620 

Consequiturque fugasse ratis et praemia captis 

600 Tu Clericits : Cum CrJlr. humanis Cr Ar. : humanae scn'psi 
plebis scripsi ex plebeis quod est in Rehd. 60 : phoebus Cr ed. 1475 = 
phebus Ar. : rebus Aid. 1534 utilgo 601 syrius Cr ardet C: 

ardens r Ar. : rapes ubi Trinacris ardet Baehrens : iugis feruens 
ubi Sicanis arx est ego o/im 603 quamquam sors nobilis ignis 

Cr Ar. ignist Munro : quamquam sons C. Barth. : quam qui sons 
Sauppe : quam quo sons BaeJireiis : quam sons, tam nobilis ignist 
scripsi 605 ignes CrAr. : \gn\s Aid. 1534, Clericus : ingens Scaliger 
606 in longumst Munro lapidis C : rapidis r Ar. 608 telum 

Postgate torpet Scaliger, et sic cxcerpta Piihoeana 609 mollia 

Scaliger: millia Cr : milia ^r. : mitia //«»s«<5 610 cum domi- 

bus r rubebant Munro: urebant C: uirebant r: uirentes Itali 

611 nouisse C: mouisse r tremendum excerpta Pithoeana, lacob 

613 uirescerapinae C: uires animusque rapinae rAr. : rapinis Hehiisf. 
615 summa excerpta Pithoeaua 616 sua sarcina tardat lacob 

617 minimo Dorat, et sic excerpta PitJweana : nimio Cr Ar. 618 

quod cumque r Ar. 621 Consequiturque C: Consequitur (-que 



plunder. This is a conflagration which pastures at 
will, resolved if it spare any, to spare the pious alone. 
Two noble children, Amphinomus and his brother, 
resolute to brave the same duty, when the fire was 
already crackling in the adjoining roof, saw how their 
halting father and their mother following behind him 
had dropped in woeful weariness on the threshold. 
Cease now, ye covetous horde, to lift your precious 
loads of spoil ! These know no riches but their 
parents only ; this is the spoil they will snatch from 
the flame. And see they hurry to escape through 
environing fire, their safety guaranteed by the fire 
itself. O greatest of possessions, rightly held safest 
of virtues to humanity, religion ! The flames blushed 
to touch those duteous sons and, wherever they 
moved, gave way. Happy that time, sinless is that 
region. On their right the cruel fires continue, glow 
hotly on their left. He meanwhile (is guiding) his 
brother in triumph through a slanting path of fiame. 
.... {lacuna) each alike safe beneath his pious load. 



Concrewat, haec nullis /arsura incendia pascunt 

Vel solis /arsura //Vis. namque optima proles 

h.rci^\\\nomus fraterque pari sub munere fortes, 

Cum iam uicinis streperent incendia tectis, 625 

Aspiciunt pigrumque patrem matremque sequeniem 

Eheu defessos posuiss^ in limine membra. 

Parcite, auara manws, du/ces attollere praedas, 

Illis diuitiae solae materque paterque, 

Hanc rapie«/ praedam. mediumque exire per ignem 630 

Ipso dante fidem properant. o maxima rerum 

Et merito pietas homini tutissima uirtus ! 

Erubuere pios iuuenes attingere flammae, 

Et quacumque ferunt illi uestigia, cedunt. 

Felix ilia dies, ilia est innoxia terra. 635 

Dext?-a saeua tenent, laeuaque incendia feruent : 

Ille per obliquos ignis fratremque triumphans 

Tutus uterque pio sub pondere : surti/it ilia 

om.) r Ar fugisse Cr Ar, : fugasse scrifist : nam citiin ignem sitsti- 
netit, ftigant. Ouid. M. xiii. 7, 8 flainmis Quas ego sustinui, quas hac 
a classe fugaui : ratis fugisse Bticclteltr: ratis C r Ar. quod emu 
Munroue retmui 622 Concremat Dorat, et sic exeerpta Pithoeana 

Concrepat Cryir. : haec de Seriornte eci. i-]^6e( Altinro: ac C : etrAr: 
ah exeerpta Pithoeana nuUi sparsura Cr 623 sparsura Cr pieis 
Mtutro : piis Aid. 1517 : Piis Sud/iatis : dees C out. r Ar. : de\%ed. 
1475 624 Amphinomus r Ar. Aid. 1534 : Amphion C quod ser- 

uandum censet Buec/ieler : Amphionus exeerpta Pilliocaua fortes ed. 
1475: fontisC: soviis r et exeerpta Pithoeana 625 incinis C 626 
sequentem scripsi: senemque Cr: senentem Bachrens 627 

Eheu C: Seu iam r Ar. fort. Ceu iam : Aeuo exeerpta Pithoeana 
defessos C: defesso rAr. posuisse in Scaliger: pos(poss. r)uissent 

Cr Ar. 628 manus dulces scripsi : manduces C : manu dicens r 

Ar. : manus dites Aid. 1517 attoll(tol r)he Helmst. r 629 

diuitiae r Ar. : diuin^ C 630 rapient scripsi: rapies Cr: raperest 

Mtoiro 631 maxima C quod uidetur esse maxima in maxima cor- 

reclum 633 flammae r Ar. : flamma C 634 quaecumque C 

636 Dextera Cr tenet C: tenent r ferunt C: ferunt Ar,: 

fertiir Buechelcr cum sequentibus coniungens 637 fratremque Cr : 

haievqne ed. Paris. 1507 triumphant C/fr/a<s. Post hunc u. lacunant 
indieauit Miinro 638 sustitit scripsi : substitit Baehrens : sutBcit 

Cr Ar. ilia C: illam r Ar. : suffugit iliac Clericus 



There the devouring fire has halted and checks its 
fury round the twain. Unharmed they leave the 
ground at last, carrying with them their gods rescued. 
For them is the homage of bards and poesy : to 
them Ditis has assigned a place apart with the 
accompaniment of a glorious name. Nor deem that 
any vulgar fate touches those hallowed youths : their 
lot is a home beyond the reach of sorrow, with all 
that the pious claim. 



Et circa geminc's auidus sibi tem[)erat ign/s. 

Incolumes abeunt tandem et sua numina secum 640 

Salua ferunt. illos mirantur carmina uatum, 

III05 seposuit claro sub nomine Ditis, 

Nee sanctos iuuenes attingunt sordida fata, 

S«?curae cessere domus et iura piorum. 

639 gehiines C ignesC^r. 642 \\\os Scaliger et e.xcerpta 

Pithoeana : IIIo C: Ille r Ar. se posuit Cr Ar. dictis r 643 

fata r : facta C 644 Securae Miinro : Sed curae C : Sed iure ;- : 

Sed purae excerpta Pithoeana, Haiipt iura Cr Ar. : rura Heiiisim 

et excerpta Pitlioeaiia publii virgilii maronis aethna finit C 



5 Seu te Cynthos habet sen delos gratior ila 

Sell tibi dodona potior. C. 

Munro's emendation of these vv. 

Seu te Cynthos habet seu delos/ gratior Hyla 
Seu tibi Ladouis potior, 
is supported (i) by the form ila of C, which is not likely to be 
merely a mis-spelling of ilia ; (2) by the absence of any well- 
established connexion between Apollo and Dodofia ; (3) by the 
natural consecution of two Oriental shrines of Apollo, Hyle in 
Cyprus, Daphne near Antioch. 

But may not Dodona be abl. ? So Bormans thought, writing 
Ac tibi Dodona potior, ' and preferred by thee to Jove's own 
inspired Dodona.' Statius, Theb. viii. 195 sqq., after mentioning 
Delphi, Tenedos, Chryse, Delos, Branchidae, Claros, Didymi, 
goes on to add the shrines of Ammon in Libya, Jupiter at 
Dodona, Apollo at Thymbra. But the introduction of two 
shrines of Jupiter among those of Apollo is there intelligible: 
every famed fiavrtlov will be silent for anguish at the loss of 
Apollo's seer. Cf. Theb. iii. 107, 8. In Aetn. 5, 6 such 
a reference to non-Apollinean /xni-rela would be out of place 
and confusing. 

Possibly dodona is a corruption of colofona. 

Colophon and the adjoining grove of the Clarian Apollo are 
constantly mentioned among the most famous seats of the god's 
worship. Strab. 642. Plin. H. N. ii. 232 Colophone in Apollinis 
Clarii specii lacuna est cuius potti intra redduntur oracula. 
It was visited by Germanicus, Tac. Ann. ii. 54 adpellitque 
Colophona ut Clarii Apollinis oracula uteretttr. non femina 


////(• /// apud Dclfhos^ scd ccrtis e faviiliis et fame Milcio 
(iCiitus sdccrdos fiuineruiii modo consuliantimn et notinna audit : 
turn in specum degressus, haiisia fontis arcani aqua, ignarus 
plerumque litteraruvi et cartninuvi, edit responsa uersibus 
tompositis super rebus quas quis mente concepit. 

Cfllofona might be nomin., like Ancotia, Verona, Crotona, 
Sidona, Chalcedona, Eleusina, Salaviina (Neue- Wagener 
Formenlehre, i. 325), or accus. ; then for tibi write subis. 

Sen Colophona subis potior, 
' or hast a more surpassing divination in approaching thy shrine 
at Colophon.' 

13-15 mellaque Icntis 

Penderent foliis et pingui pallas oliuae 
Securos amnes agerct. 
So CS. The simplest correction is to \\r\[Q pinguis (Bormans), 
a genitive after amncs. Though anmis is often corrupted to 
oiitnis, it is hazardous to alter amnes to onmes, the expressive 
and perfectly intelligible word, to one with little or no meaning. 

20 sparsumue in semine dentem. 

This use of z"« is not uncommon in contrasts between reality 
and appearance : Livy xxvi. 43. 3 is a typical case, in una urb^ 
uniucrsam ceperitis Hispaniam,'\.G. you might think it a single 
city, but it is really all Spain. So here the sense is * you might 
think what was scattered to be seed, but it was really dragoti'-s 
teeth.^ Postgate, Class. Rev. xiv. 420. 


Quis non periurae doluit mendacia puppis, 
Desertam uacuo Minoida litore questus? 

s et 

Ouicquid in antiquum iactata est fabula carmen. C. 

Quicquid et in S iactata CS iam nacta Baehrens. 

The s et written in C over Quicquid means, I think, scilicet et, 
i.e. an intimation to the reader that he is to supply et before 
Quicquid. Such grammatical or explanatory notes are frequent 
in MSS. But the v.l. in S Quicquid et in shows that in the 
archetype et was written in some way which was doubtful ; the 
scribe of S has taken it into the text of the v., making an 
unrhythmical line. If to C, as the eariier and more trustworthy 



MS., we assign a superior weight, we shall accept in rather than 
et; and it seems translatable, constructing Quicqiiid (or, as 
with Lachmann I prefer to write it, Qiddqidd) with iaciata est 
on the analog)' of Liv. vii. 32. 6 quidqtiid ab nrbe loiigius 
proferrent arma; xxxi. i. 5 iain prouideo animo quidquid pro- 
gredior in nastiorevt me alii/udinein prouehi ; xxxiv. 62. 12 quid- 
quid Biirsam sedein suajn excesserint ; Luc. iii. 294 Quidquid ah 
occiduis Libye paiet arida Mauris; Claud, in Eutrop. i. 196 
quidquid se Tigris ab Haetno diuidit ; see Heinsius on Claud, de 
Mall. Theod. Cons. 56. On this view quidquid iactaia est 
expresses the manifold iorm.% which the legends of Greece had 
assumed in their poetry: 'the countless variations of legend 
thrown into antique song.' 

I would, however, suggest that in may be a mistake for id, 
Quidquid id antiquum, iactata est fabula, carmen 
* whatever the particular song of the past, the legend is now 
well-worn,' i. e. every one of the ancient myths has been used 
by some poet and has become trite and hackneyed. On 
this view, which (except id) is Sudhaus', * Kurz, all die alten 
Lieder sind ein verbrauchter Stofif,' iactata refers to the fre- 
quency with which the Greek myths had been used as matter 
for poetry, bandied about and passing from hand to hand as 
public property. For quidquid id, quisquis is, cf. my note 
Noct. Manil. p. 188, and to the passages cited there add Lucr. 
iii. 135, Verg. Aen. ii. 49, Stat. S. i. 6. 49, Nem. Cyn. 219 
Quidquid id est. 

Munro, however, thought 23 a conflation of two verses : 

Quidquid in antiqu'o narratur tempore gestum (or, gestum 

est memorabile saeclo) 
Omnis per uari^um iactata est fabula carmen. 

25, 26 Quae tanto moles operi, quae tanta perenni 
Explicet in densum flammas. C. 

quae tanta C^" qis tanta ^<?/j<^/. uis quanta //^^/r^^^;// 
editor quae causa perennis Sloan 777 26 in denso 

C. A. Schmid. 

The second quae has no noun following it in CS: some 
of the fifteenth century MSS. give causa for tanta and perennis. 
This is not improbable in itself; but there are other possibilities. 


I have followed a suggestion of Rehd. and suppose that 


(ju.unuis iania is a corruption of uis ianta. Claudian Rapt. 
Pros. i. I/O (ji/ac tatita caucrnas Vis glomeret. Markland's 
imncnsuvi for in densuin would be unusual: preferable is 
Schmid's in denso, forming an effective antithesis to Explicet ; 
the fires inside Aetna are pent in a close body, which requires 
an unusual force to liberate and expand them. 

28 Ignitus irrigiiis, ' ces fiots de lave brulante ' Chenu. 

36 fades haec altera natuvi. Two classes of poets seem to 
be meant, those who ascribe the marvels of nature to a divine 
power working in them, those who turn such marvels into 
mythological legends (Scaliger). 

Jiaec altera. Flor. iii. i. 9 haec altera contra rege?n causa belli 

38 Henry, Aeneidea, vol. iii. p. 724 (on Aen. viii. 753 in 
NVMERVM), explains ttumerosa of the measured or rhythmical 
time of the strokes, one party striking all at once, and another 
party all at once, and alternately with the former. 

51-53 Impius et miles metuentia cominus astra 
Prouocat infestus cunctos ad proelia diuos 
Prouocat admotisque tertia sidera signis. CS. 

Bormans ' suggested admotis qua tertia sidera signis, explain- 
ing of the third class of stars occupying the highest empyrean, 
as Manil. v fin. speaks of orders of stars. Sunt stellae frocerum 
similes sunt proxima primis Sidera, suntque gradus aique 
omnia fida priorum. See my Nod. Manil. p. 210. Without 
such specializing of the sense of tertia, the poet of Aetna 
might simply mean that the giants carried the attack to the 
extremest part of the sky, where the hindmost stars were 

The passage is at best strangely tautologous. What can be 
weaker than the twice repeated Prouocat'i But we need not, 
in cumulum KaKortxvl-ai, add another repetition ad territa 
(Wassenberg and Haupt) or treinentia (Munro), when, as 
Baehrens well says, ' talis notio post metuentia astra plane 

1 Bormans also conj . admotisque irementia (so after him Munro), but 
rejected it in favour of the other conj. 


superflua sit.' Yet Baehrens'own^//ri;^t'r///a is hardly probable. 
I suspect a deeper-seated corruption : teriia is leriia, que 
perhaps for per. 

[Sudhaus conj. admoiisque terit (or ferit) iam s. j., a very 
rare rhythm in our poem,] 

Incursant uasto primum clamore gigantes 

Hie magno tonat ore pater geminantque fauentes 

\'ndique discordes comitum simul agmine uenti. CS. 

57 fouente the Helmstadt MS, zvhence Wernsdorfconj. fauente 
and so Alzinger. 

58 discordei yl/z^;/rf sonitum/r/r^^/^^r comitum. 

It is not easy to choose h&\.\\Q.&r\. fauentes — discordei,/auettte — 
discordes. The Helmstadt codex is not, in itself, of much weight : 
but discordes uenti looks like a reminiscence of Aen. x. 356 
magna discordes aethere uenti, and it is safer to retain it 
unaltered. But I cannot agree with Hildebrandt {Philologus 
for 1897, p. loi) in admitting comitum to be genuine, though 
coMiitum agmine =dKo\ovdu3v ox^'f might be explained of the 
other attendants of wind and storm— rain, hail, thunder, lightning, 
&c.^ The real determining point is geminant. This does not 
stand on the same footing with ingeminare (which is often 
constructed absolutely as a neuter verb), but requires an accus , 
e. g. Luc. vii. 480 Excepit resonis chunorem uallibus Haemus 
Peliacisque dedit rursus geminare cauernis ; Stat. Theb. vi. 
765 getninatqtie rotatas Miiltiplicatqiie mamis. This accus. 
can hardly be fremitutn (Wakefield) : sonituin is very near 
the letters and look of comitum, and since Jacob suggested 
it has found large acceptance, e.g. with Haupt, Munro, 

61-64 iam patri dextera pallas. 

Et mars saeuus erat, iam caetera turba deorum 

Stant utrimque ; ds ualidos tum iuppiter ignis 
Increpat. et uicto proturbat flumine montes ; C. 
62 laeuus Bormans 63 ds C : de . . 5 : deus Rehd. : secus 

Wernsdorf explained comitum of the other winds : but surely 
uenii implies the collective body. 

81 G 


Haupt : tucns BaehytJis : ut cuiqiie dccus linger 64 uictor 
Rchd., and so Munro: stricto Birt: perhaps moto. 

Haupt's 7<trvnque scats is plausible, as these passages will 
show: Luciliiis ap. Non. 210 Zopyrion labeas caedit utrimque 
sccits ; Cato R. R. 21.3 dcxira sinistra fo7-nmina utriviqtte secus 
lauimitias sub laniininas . . supponi/o; and again 21. 4 pcriu- 
sum uirinique seats. In this passage utrimque secus refers to 
dextra sinistra as in the v. of Aetna. Lucr. iv. 939 utriniqiie 
seats cum corpus uapulet. 

Secus would have its full significance : the rest of the gods 
stand round on the right and left respectively. But it is lengthy 
and prosaic, and ill suits the high-pitched language cA Aetna: 
again, if the word concealed by ds in C was an integral part 
i)f a whole utrimque secus, its separation, not by a full point 
but by the sign ; is at least strange. Following in the steps of 
Baehrens I trace in ds (deus) the remains of a nom. participle, 
perhaps uerens ; of this the two first letters might fall out after 
-que leaving -reus, which at some stage of the transmission, 
possibly written in a difficult Merovingian hand, would become 
deus. I had also thought oi ciens to be constructed with ignis ; 
but rhythm is against this. 

iacto is first found in the Paris ed. of 1507 (by Badius 
Ascensius). Haupt prints it in his small Vergil (1873), but it 
cannot be thought certain, owing to the doubt in 65 between 
deuictae, deuectae, deiectae. MSS. there are in favour of 
deuictae rather than deiectae (Peerlkamp) or deuectae : the latter 
is too weak a word for the utter rout of the giants. Retaining 
then in 65 deuictae of C (to which deuinctae of S also points), 
I incline to iacto in 64 as the easiest emendation of tiicto. But 
moto might also pass into uicto, just as uidet in 336 looks like 
a misreading of mouet. moto fulmine [flumine C absurdly, as 
flumitta {or fulmina in 59) = 'setting in motion,' 'launching* 
his bolt. Claud. Ruf. i. 262 Mouit tela. 

66-70 atque impius hostis 

Pracceptjs cum castris agitur materque iacentis 
Impellens uictos. tum pax est reddita mundo 
Turn liber cessat uenit per sidera celum 
Defene-ique decus mundi nunc redditur astris. C 


67 Praeceps 5" mateque S 68 For Impellens i/ie wargin 
of Pitlwu'sEpigraminata et Poeviatin uetera\t,qo gives Amplexa 
est, and so Haupt 69 cessat CS : celsa Rehri. : cela v : 

cessata the present editor, atid so Unger afid Hiidebrandt. 

Impellens Munro translates 'rallying,' and so Sudhaus ' still 
urging on.' And before them Chenu ' qui cherche h ranimer ses 
fils vaincus.' Possibly however Earth is supposed to urge her 
prostrate children not to return to the fight, but to escape 
complete destruction by flight : or, in another and common sense 
of the word (e.g. Cluent. xxvi. 70 praecipitantem impellamus, 
' let us push him over '), Mother Earth, seeing her sons ready 
to tumble headlong, gives them a push to expedite their fall. 

In 69 Peerlkamp saw that //der is the god Bacchus : ' Bacchi 
multa uirtus fuit in hoc proclio qui Rhoetum retorsit leonis 
Vnguibtis horrihiliqtie mala'' (Hor. C. ii. 19. 24) ; and if so, it 
ahnost follows that cessata should be restored for cessat of CS : 
' Liber comes forward amid the stars whose warfare is over,' 
a natural sign of triumph on the part of the god to whom the 
victory was due. This participle is found in 383 Si cessata diu 
referunt spectacula uenti. 

71-73 morientem luppiter Aethna 

Obruit enceladon uastoque pondere montis 
Aestuat et petula inse expirat faucibus ignem. C. 

72 enceladon CS que CS'. qui Rehd. 73 petula inse S\ 

petulans Rehd. and v : patulis Aid. exspirat S. 

moriefitem in the death struggle. Philostr. Imagin. ii. 17. 5 
17 ypa(f)i] de ra tu>v TTOir^rwc (TTaivctvcra Koi fivBov rfj vrjaco (tti- 
ypd(f)fi' yiyavra pev lit^Xijadai nore evravda, dvadavarovvri 6' 
nvT<o TTjV vrjCTOV (nive)(drjvai SeafJiov eveKiV, iUdv hi p.r,TTU> avTov, dXX' 
avafiax'^(T6ai vtto ttj yfj ovra, Ka\ to nvp tovto avv anfiXj] eKTTVf'if. 

The Greek accus. Enceladon is found also in the Francofur- 
tanus of Ov. Am. iii. 12. 27 (Riese). 

petulans, for which Haupt strangely preferred /«/«//j- of Aid., 
is not, as Sudh. thought, a mere equivalent oi ferox (Met. v. 
353) or trttx (Val. Fl. ii. 30) ; it is far more distinctive, as its 
frequent combination w'xih. furiosus, aiidax, furor, audacia, and 
even insatius shows. Cic. Brut, l.xviii. 241 feruido quodam et 
petulanii et furioso genere dicendi; de Orat. ii. 75. -^0$ petulans 
.83 G 2 


aut plane insanus\ in Pis. xiv. 31 abiecti Jiom'nis fiirorem peiu- 
latitiamque ; Claud. Deprec. in Alethium 7 Nulla meos traxit 
pciulans audacia sensus. Here it refers to the defiant or con- 
tumelious character of Enceladus, which survived his confine- 
ment under Aetna. See Duff on Juv. iii. 278 Ebrius ac 
petulans. Badius Ascensius' explanation of petulatis as refer- 
ring to the uncontrolled movements of the restless giant is less 
probable ; nor is it merely ' fretful.' 

74 mendosae, ' blundering.' Brut. xvi. 62 His laudationilus 
historia rerum nostrarum facta est inendosior, ' more faulty.' 

76 rerum fallacia, things shown in a deceptive and wrong 
light, according to the fancy of the poet, scaenae cannot 
be taken with rerum as if the sense were ' most stage shows ' 
(most of the scenes exhibited on the stage) are delusions. 
Postgate's scaena et reruin fallacia is clever, but Plurima 
pars requires some genitive, and the elision at the end of 
the second foot is faulty. 

jy uiderunt is not beyond suspicion, though n'tWh&x fifixcriait 
(Bormans, Unger) nor uicerunt ('Slunvo) nor luserimt (Baehrcns ' ) 
is more than a possible emendation. 'The poet's eye' has 
become familiar to us from Shakespeare : but the idea was not 
so common in antiquity. Lucretius, however, lends himself 
to this conception in such passages as v. 148 Tenuis enim 
natura detim longeque remota Sensibus ab nostris animi uix 
mente tiidetur; 183 Quid uellent facere tit scirent animoque 
uiderent? [Perhaps adie}-unt.] 

78, 79 Atque inter cineres ditis pallentia regna 

Mentiti uates stygias undasque canentes. C. 

79 is perhaps spurious : for Jiates is an inane tautology, -que 
in a doubtful position, canentes utterly feeble. If not spurious, 
it is entirely vitiated. Scaliger changed canentes to canesque, 
and Peerlkamp supports this by Luc. vi. 733 Stygiasque canes 
in luce superna Desiituam, where the Bern. Schol. edited by 

' Cf. Sen. ad Marc, de Consol. xix. 4 luserunt ista poetae et uanis 
nos agitauere terroribus. Minuc. Oct. xi. fit), omnia ista figmenia male 
sanae opiniotiis et inepta solacia a poetis fallacibus in dulccdinent car- 
minis lusa. 



Usener note, canes Farias dixit. Virgilius ' uisaeque canes 
ulu/are per tnnbram,' apud inferos em'jn furiae dicttntitr, apiit 
superos canes, in caelo dirae: cf. Serv. on Aen. iii. 209, cited by 
Usener, ^ Apud inferos fiiriae dicuntur ei canes, apud superos 
dirae ei aues' The two passages, discordant otherwise, agree 
in stating that the Furies were called Hounds. Or, Cerberus 
and the other hound of hell, Orthrus or Orthus (Sil. xiii. 845), 
might be meant. 

K. Schenkl suggested Meniili(\ne. rates Stygias 7indasque 
calentes, ,in which the burning waters describe Phlegethon 
(Aen. vi. 551). Sen, ad Marc. xix. 4 Nullas inminere mortuis 
tenebrns 7iec carcerem nee fliimina igne flagratitia nee Obliuio- 
ne?n avitiem nee tribimalia et reos (Minos, tuaque Aeace in 
umbris lura canunt). 

Retaining calentes, I would suggest ualles for nates, cf. Met. vi. 
662 Vipereasqite ciet Stygia de ualle sorores -, x. 51 Aiiernas 
Exierit nailes; lb. 77, 8 Quique per infernas horrendo jniir- 
ninre ualles Inperiuratae laberis amnis aquae : sc. Styx. 
80-82. Hii tityon poena strauere in iugera foedum 
Sollicitant illi te circum tantale poena 
SoUicitantque siti. C. 
80 perhaps quina fetum Unger 81 probably cena 


A most difficult passage. 80 cries aloud for some epithet to 
iugera. I can suggest nothing better than quina, supposing 
that the author oi Aetna did not bind himself by Lucretius and 
Vergil, who (iii. 988 noitem dispessis iugera metnbris Optineat; 
Aen. vi. 595 per tota noueni cui iugera corpus Porrigiiur) 
translate Homer's eV hvea Kelro neXtdfja by noueni iugera, in 
which they are followed by Tibullus i. 3. 76, Ovid, M. iv. 457, 
lb. 183, and Hygin. Fab. 55. If a nXeOpov practically was about 
half a Roman iuger, nine plethra might correspond roughly to 
five iugers\ Haupt's conjecture, strauere nouetta for poena 
* Columella v. i. 5 makes the actus quadratus = 120 x 120 feet = 
14,400, the itiger twice this = 28,800. Now the actus qttadratits or 
semiiugerum was also called arepennis (Colum. v. r. 6). With this 
nrepennis the irXtOpov was sometimes identified, see Gotz, Corpus 
Glossarioriim, i. p. 100, and the authorities cited by Schneider in his 


strauere has little to recommend it : septum ', which is found 
in some fifteenth century MSS. and in the Paris ed. of 1507, 
is without authority. It is probable from Prop. iii. 5. 44 et Tityo 
iugera paitca 7toucni that it was a nice question with the pedants 
of the time what was the space of ground in the lower world that 
Tityus' limbs covered. Cf. Sen. de breuit. uitae xiii ; Suet. Tib. 70. 

It may be urged in defence oi poena, that it is \.\\c pimishmettt 
of Tityus' lust which is generally brought into relief when his 
story is mentioned. So Lucretius iii. 990, i No}i iavieti aeternum 
poterit perferre doloreni Nee praebere cibtan propria de corpore 
semper ; Verg. Aen. vi. 598 fecundague poenis Viscera ; Prop, 
ii. 20. 31 Aique inter uolucres Tityi niea poena uagetur; Ov. 
Pont. i. 2. 38-40 Et grauior longa fit viea poena mora. Sic in- 
cottstonptiem Tityi setnperqtce renascens Non pe?-it, tit possit saepe 
Perire, iecur. With this foedum is constructed ' ghastly with 
his punishment,' in reference to the hideous sight of the vultures 
tearing and devouring his liver incessantly ; cf. Stat. Theb. 
xi. 13 ipsae horre7it si guando pcctore ab alto Einergunt 
uolucres, itiniensague membra iacentis Spectant dum tniserae 
crescunt in pabula fibrae. 

in iugera can hardly mean, as Sudhaus suggests, * over whole 
acres of ground' in opposition to an implied smaller space; 
nor even over the acres of ground described by the poets 
from Homer onwards, and become familiar through them. 
In this case we should look for in sua iugera: but either 
view is unsatisfactory. 

In 81 I have little doubt that circum of MSS. is right. Le 
Clerc cites the description in Od. xi. 582-592, where the waters 
and fruits are all about Tantalus, but never near enough to be 
grasped ; and Tib. i. 3. "]"] Tantalus est illic et circiwt stagna, 
scd acrem lam iam poturi deserit utida sitim : similarly Baehrens' 

note on Col. v. i. Hence 9 plethra = 14,400 feet x 9 = 129,600; 
5 iugers = 28,800 x 5 = 144,000. Thus (roughly) 130,000 feet (9 plethra 
or half-iugers) would be not far from 144,000 (roughly 140,000) or 
5 iugers. 

' septem looks like a reminiscence of II. xxi. 407 kviii 6' iitiax^ 
iri\idpa TtfTuv, said of Ares. 



cena {or poena is simple and good, corresponding to siti in 83., 
Luc. Tim. 18 aoTTep 6 Tdvrnkos "nroToi mi ayeva-Toi. 

84 Quicquid et interius falsi sibi conscia terrent. CS. 

sibi conscia CSt: consortia Rchd. Arintd. terrent CSr: 
terra v. 

The older correctors changed terrent to terra est, and this 
is perhaps the simplest view, if we suppose Quidquid falsi 
interius to depend on conscia, ' as well as every inner lie whereof 
Earth is conscious.' So Fronto, p. 235, Naber, quae mihiconscius 
sum protestabor. Then of. the Plautine gnaruris tios uolo esse 
hanc rem Most. i. 2. 17, where Sonnenschein quotes from an 
epigram of Pacuvius (A. Gell. i. 24) hoc nolebam nescius ne esses. 
But such a construction is hardly probable in the Latin oi Aetna. 

Munro thought a verse had fallen out beginning perhaps with 
Pectora; he changed terre7it to terret: this is also the view 
of Buecheler. But if the breasts are conscious of falsehood, 
why should they be alarmed? It would be their conviction 
of the truth of such stories which would frighten them. 

The variant found in Rehd. consortia may well be right. 
Velleius has cofisors uitiorton, Ovid c. culpae: consortium falsi 
would naturally enough express a partnership in falsification or 
forgery : terrent I change to adhaerent. Whether interius 
or infernist be read, the sense is the same : ' whatever is 
done in the bowels of the earth (or, whatever is part of the 
world below), some association of falsehood clings to it,' i. e. is 
inseparable from it. 

96 Non totum et solido desunt namque omnis hiatu 
Secta est omnis humus. CS. 

solidum Rehd. desinit Helmst. and v : defit Sloan, jyy and 
some other MSS. of late fifteenth cent. hiatus Rehd. 

et solido must be, I think, ex solido : see my Nodes Manilianae 
p. 4. For desunt Vollmer has suggested densum est ^, Birt dett- 
sum, with the same meaning. But tiatnque omnis hiatu Secta 
est omnis humus is all but impossible : the double ojnnis requires 
a verb in both clauses, and the effect, if such verb is absent, is over- 
strained and almost ridiculous. The fifteenth century correction 

' Reading Non totum et solido densum est. 
- 87 


dcfit is, as diction, not very good. I suspect a deeper vitiation. 
desuttt is perhaps the conflation of two originally distinct words 
est duett : in the archetype dua't had become diait. (Cf. /ances 

for latices Manil. ii. 9, where the Mntritcnsis gives Intites.) 
The original v. would thus be 

Non totuni ex solido est: ducit namquc omnis hiatuw, 
Secta est omnis humus. 
hiaium ducit falls into chasms, like ducere cicntricem, situm, 

98-101 animanti 

Per tota errantes percurrunt corpora uenae 
Aduitam sanguis omnis qua cum meat idem 
Terra uoraginibus conceptas digerit auras. CS. 
100 corneal Rehd. isdem Lc Clerc imd Conr. Schmid, con- 
structed with uoraginibus. Perhaps eidem. 

idem of C5, which has little meaning, I would alter to the 
dative Tidein^ like the abl. ebdem Lucr. ii. 663, vi. 961, eadern 
i. 480, iv. 744, 786, 959 (abl. fem.), eaedem i. 306. It is true, 
Cartault {La F/exion dans Lucrcce, p. 67) shows that the dative 
eidem, like the ace. plur. eosdem, easdem, the gen. plur. eorundem, 
earundem, and the dat. and abl. plur. isdetn, is not found in the 
MSS. of Lucretius : but isdem, the correction of Lambinus for 
ide7n in ii. 693, of Pius in v. 349, is accepted by Munro and 
most editors except Lachmann : and the poet of Aetna might 
follow the Lucretian tendency to disyllabize these forms without 
binding himself by his particular exceptions. Catullus has et, 
Ixxxii. 3. Manilius iii. 72> has pars semper ut eidem Cofi/inis 
parti where Bechert's three MSS. LCF give idem, G eidem. 
Omnis, eidem correspond : ' all the blood passes to and fro to 
sustain the life of the satne one being.' With ad uitam, ' for the 
support- of life,' cf. Sen. ad Marc, xviii. 5 ad uitam fructus seges 
et arbusta. 

102-117. The explanations of the cavernous and unsolid fabric 
of the Earth commencing with Scilicet aut are not continued till 
1 10 siue illi, followed by seu 112, aut etiam 1 14, siue omnia 115; 
the poet, wishing to illustrate his first explanation, introduces 
the simile of a heap of stones, and this interruption occasions 

88 . 


a seeming anacoluthon (Hildebrandt, P/iilologus for 1S97, 
p. 117), intelligible enough, but unlike the usual style oi Aeina. 
If any correction is required, it would be easy to change aiti 
into ante. The combination ante olvn, ' in some longpast time,' 
would be justified by the similarly defining ablatives with cvite, 
anno, quinquenmOf sex atinis, Jton io7ig,'s temporibus ante 
(de Rep. ii. 59), or adverbs iam ante, saepe, saepius, semper 
antea, all in Cicero \ If ante olim is right, there is no pause 
after sidera, as '\{ sors data began a new sentence : the construc- 
tion is Scilicet, ditnso ante olim c. w. in maria ac t. et sidera, 
sors prima data {est) caelo, 

105 sqq. et qualis aceruus 

Exilit inparibus iactis extempore saxis 
Vt crebrer introrsus spatio uacat acta charibdis 
Pendeat insese simili quoque terra futurae 
In tenuis laxata uias non omnes in artum 
Nee stipata coit. C. 
107 crebor S introssus S uacatacta S : uacuata ed. 

Paris 1 507 : uacuante Wernsdorf: VLdLceidLCis-Buecheler carims 

{or carinis) 5" : carambos v : in Rehd. the words foil owing 
spatio are omitted 108 futurae S Rehd. : fig^ra Sloan., 

perhaps similis . . . figurae 109 omriis Rehd. 

crebrer of C, crebor of S, are no doubt strange as a corruption 
of crebro, yet the one alternative which suggests itself crebre 
(Vitruvius) has no probability, and we must suppose that the abl., 
at some time before C was written, had assumed a shape in 
which the termination was obscured, becoming crebor in S, 
crebrer in C. Rehd. has here preserved the right reading, in 
spite of its comparative lateness: attempts like Sudhaus' to retain 
cieber in agreement with aceruus are uncritical and futile '^ 

' Terence has olim quondam, Eun. ii. 2. 15 ; Quintilian, Inst. v. 12. 
17 olim iam. More nearly like ante olim is Ovid's olim Ante qiiater 
denos hunc se reminiscitur annos M. vii. 292. 

* Equally uncertain would be a conj. like crepero, ' dim,' leaving an 

uncertain light from the small size of the interstices. The mis-spcll- 

ings crebrer crebor of CS seem ascribable to the difficulty of pronouncing 

the double r, which caused the commonly found omission of the second, 



Bucchelers idacefacta has much to support it : the shortening 
of the e [uaccfit occurs twice in Lucretius (vi. 1005, 1017), each 
time at the end of a verse) might be compared with califactus, 
liquHJactus, tntuidfacttis^patcf actus, pauefacius, riibefacius, stiipt!- 
factits, iepiffactus, timUfadus (Roby, § 994), in all of which the 
e might be expected to be long. The tendency to shorten the 
vowel which precedes the verb (originally perhaps a contracted 
infinitive, d.facit are Lucr. vi. 962) becomes more marked after 
Lucret., and gradually caused its entire suppression, in words 
like ca/c/acio, which in Quintilian's time had ceased to be used 
in ordinary conversation. (Lindsay, Latin Language, p. 184.) 
I do not know, however, of any instance where nacef actus occurs, 
and the prominent position of uacefit in the two vv. of Lucretius 
fixes the long quantity of the e in the memory with unusual 
distinctness. Hence though not improbable, and very near to 
the MSS., it cannot be considered certain. 


Far more doubtful is cluDibdis, which appears in S as carinis 
or carims, in the fifteenth century MSS. assumes diverse shapes, 
carambos, corymbos, &c. The gloss in Placidus, Corineos aceruos 
guos rusiici ex congcrie lapiduui faciunt, seems likely to contain 
the word which the Aetna MSS. present so diversely: but critics 
are not agreed what the word is. Deuerling prints coryinbos. 
Buecheler considers corineos to be the correcter form, comparing 
one of the Gromatici (p. 401. 3 Lachmann) grtnnos id est 
congerieni petraruni, and the Hesychian words ;((ipn/i(!f, _)(7;po/if)s, 
\rn)ayLvbei (add x«V"i^o^) i" all of which the idea is of a chasm, 
or space with hollows, to. koiKu kui exovm KfvonfiaTa : cf. Gotz, 
Thesaur. Gloss, i. p. 277. That the word, whatever it was, con- 
tained the notion of hollowness might seem to follow from 
Nicander's mentioning snakes as lurking in such heaps of 
stones (called fp/j-aKa or epfuiioi Xo^oi from their connexion 
with Hermes, whose figure was sometimes erected above them), 

r in crebo, aebiter, crebcscere, sometimes of the first, as in Bodl. Auct. 
T. 2. 24 (Latin Glossary of cent, viiij cebro, frequenter, pkrumque, 
althougli from its position between crcbras and crebre this may have 
been a mere error for crebo. 



Then 150 \idu5as re Kn\ (pfxnKas evvaiovTfs ^. But this word 
can hardly be charibdis (i) because this, as common and 
recurrent, could never have been corrupted into corineos, 

h h 

cormeos ; (2) S gives it quite differently as carm:s or carinis, 
V as carambos ; (3) charybdis (as Sudhaus observes) is not 
well applicable to a heap of stones with interstices which 
make it hollow : it could only be as representing successive 
layers of water suspended one over another that it would resemble 
such heaps. Gronovius (Obss. iii. 6) suggested coryinbas in the 
passage of Aetna ; this or possibly corymbis (a feminine how- 
ever not known to exist) might well express ^ heap of stones 
rising to a head or point : cf. Homer's "iK^a KopvfjijSa^ uKpoaToXLu, 
and Hesych. Kopvfx^ov rrjv aKpoTTo'hip, (nei8r] ecf)' v\lros eari. rr/r 
fjTJ Ttji KecpaXris tov opovs vXtju. koi kuBoXov iravra tu /Ltfre'copa Kni 
(Is vxj/os dvareiPovTa Kopvu^ovs Xeyuvaiv. The Vatican MS. 
of Aetna gives carambos, which is not far from coryinbas or 
corymbis, and this again is nearer to corineos or cormeos of 
the Placidus glosses -. 

In 108 the termination -ae oi fuiiirae points to a genitive 
sitnili(s) figiirae : so in 14 I a.\X.Qr pingiii X.o pinguis, which is 
similarly pointed to by oliuae. 

iiosqq. siue illi causa uetusta est 

Haec nata est facies sed liber spiritus intra 
Effugiens molitus inter seu nympha perenni 
Edit humum limo furtimque obstantia mollit 
Aut etiam inclusis olidum uidere uapores. C 
' Hesych. ip/xaios X6(pos' tovs aupovs tw;/ XiOaiv ipfids, tow iv rat's 
oSoTs yivofxffovs (Is rifiTjv tov 6(ov' (vodios yap. Schol. Od. xvi. 471, 
Anth. P. vi. 253 (Crinagoras) \i6Tj\oy((s 6' 'Epfxtca iSpvoKs, xvi. 254. 
Babr. 48. i 'Eu odcp ns 'Ep/i^j T(Tpdywvos (larrjHd, XiOoiv 5' vn ainw 
aaipbs Tjv, Philologtis for 1893, p. 568. 

2 The words of Daubeny, speaking of the Solfatara (^Description 
of Volcanos, p. 213), are almost a paraphrase of the above passage: 
' The Solfatara returns a hollow sound when any part of its surface is 
struck, and hence has been conjectured to be made up, not of one 
entire rock, but of a number of detached blocks, which, hanging as it 
were by each other, form a sort of vault over the abyss, within which 
the volcanic operations are going on.' 


no uctustas //(?/('// Ill Haec^T': Nee Afu/id. sed 

6" Rthd.7' intrat J Ti'/z/V// Bormn)is would restore 112 Et 

fugiens Bormans molitus S : molitur Rehd.v iter Rehd. v 
114 ulcere 5£^'/« fudere iTf////;-^. 

If Hacc of (76" in in is retained, sed must be an error for seu 
' whether it (i.e. the earth with its hollow conformation) has a cause 
of ancient standing, and this (cavernous) appearance came to it 
at birth, or whether {seu for sed) it is that a free current of air 
makes its way in {intrat), and in escaping {Et fugiejts) works 
itself a passage.' On the other hand, Nee of Arund. harmonizes 
better' with j^c/, ' whether its cause is ancient, yet its porosity 
did not come to it at birth, but air found its way in at some 
later time " ' ; so I\Iunro. 

It is remarkable how often C has given uiderc when some 
other verb is either required or expected. In ']'] tiiderunt is 
doubtful : in 336 uidet is open to suspicion : here uidere cannot 
be right, though found in all MSS. Between Sevin's ulcere 
and Islunro s fjtdere there is not much to choose in point of 
meaning, the heat might equally well 02,erpower ox fuse the solid 
with which it conflicts ; but palaeographically the change to 
ulcere is more common and easy : hence I have preferred the 
conj. of Sevin, which goes back to 1729. 

116 non est hie causa dolendi 

Dum stet opus causae. CS. 

116 dolendi MSS.: docendi Aid. and Munro: docenda 
Z.' Clerc, and so Lachmann on Lucr. vi. 755 117 causas 

Le Clerc illustrates stet from Cic. Fam. ix. 2. 5 modo nobis stet 
illud, una uitiere in studiis nostrls. As there stet is constructed 
with a dat. nobis, so here with causae : ' we have no cause to 
complain, if only the effect is constant to its cause.' If the cause 
is found to produce its effect persistently, that is enough to 
content us : we need not fret that we cannot fathom the exact 
method of nature's workings. Neither docendi nor docenda is 
required : it is vexing to have to confess ignorance, hence 
dolendi. Causa is used in two different senses, somewhat feebly 

' Or, as suggested in the Translation, * or it may be that its cause is 
otrly ancient, and this appearance is nothing congenital, but,' &c. 


perhaps ; but from dolendi to docenda is a long step, and we 
must not be too exacting in a poem which antiquity doubtfully 
ascribed to Vergil in his immaturity. We might as well blame 
Seneca for writing ad Polyb. de consol. iv. i {fata) nihil taiiquam 
ulli par cunt atit remit tujit. proinde parcaniiis lacrimis nihil 
Proficieniibiis. Seneca has causae dolendi, ib. iv. 2, Ovid, M. 
xi. 345 causa dolendi, 

117 sqq quis enim non credit inanis 

Esse sinus penitus tantos emergere fontis 


Cum uidet hac torres unosd mergere hyatu 
Nam ille extenui uocemque agat apta necesse est 
Cum fluuio errantes arcessant undique uenas 
Et trahat ex pleno quod fortem contrahat amuem. C. 
117 non oin. S credit S : non credit inanis oni. Rehd. 
Arund. Helmst. : credat Aid. 118, 119 are conjlated iti S into 
Esse sinus penitus tanto se mergere hiatu 119 ac Rehd. v : 

torrens Rehd. v : totiens Haupt : imo v : imo Haupt. After 
119 Munro supposes a verse lost, e.g. Rursus saepe solet 
uastaque uoragine condi. 120 Nam S\ non Rehd. v. 

ille z/, and S, though scarcely legible : illo Rehd. ex 

tenui uocemque agat apta n. e. S Rehd. v : Non ille ex 
tenui uacuoque agat aucta n. e. Scaliger: Nam mille 
ex tenui uocuoque agitata n. e. Munro : Nam mille ex t. 
uacuoque agat apta n. e. Hildebrandt, Philologus for 1897, 
p. 99 : Non ille ex t. quocumque agat, apta n. e. Sudhatcs, 
which Buecheler accepts but with Nata for Non ' unde- 
cumque quamuis tenui ab origine deductas aquas confluere 
sub terra oportet eo unde prorumpant.' 121 Cum fluuia S : 


Confluuia 5/f?rt«. 122 \5\. Mun^o fontem 5 : fontem z/ : 

conuehat Bonnans : comparat Baehrens : amne v. 

credit in 117 can hardly be right, in spite of Cum uidet in 119, 
for the subj. seems to be regular in Quis credat, Quis fion credat, 
Quis crederet. Ov. A. A. iii. 281 Quis credat f M. i. 400 Quis 
hoc credat f F. i. 518 Quis tantum fati credat habere locum f 
ii. 414 Quis credat pueris 7ion nocuisse feram? Aen. iii. 186, 
Ov. Trist. iii. 9. i. [Yet Sen. ad Polyb. de Consol. ix. 9 Quis in 
tarn obscura ueritate diuinatf = who thinks of guessing.'' 


de Const. Sapientis, \i. 3 J'/.t ctiiin credis tantum firndiatis 
in homincm cadere, where Cicrtz edits crcdas against A.] 

Haupt's totictis for torrcns in 119 has the merit of closing the 
sentence with the antithetic vierget-e, 'plunging into the ground' 
^ cnicrgcre (118) 'springing from it'; iino too is the actual 
reading of 7' (Vat. 3272), and not a mere conjecture. Yet there 
are so many traces of lost lines in the poem that here too 
a lacuna may well have existed ; a single line would be all that 
is needed ; Munro's supplement is given above ; I have myself 
suggested Intialidtis solet, atqtte alio se crumpere fortc7n, thus 
contrasting uno with alio, inualidiis with, forton. 

120 as given by C and the other MSS. is difficult to dis- 
entangle. Neither Scaliger's uactio nor Munro's uocuo (another 
spelling of icaciio) satisfies : Sudhaus' qiioaanque is ingeniously 
near uocevigue, but his explanation of agat as a potential, 
' that chasm could not draw its springs from any small and 
ordinary source,' where a pres. indie, seems required, is ill 
supported by irahnt in 176; for C, our best authority, as well 
as all the fifteenth century MSS., gives trahit, and irahat 
is only a reported variant of the so-called Gyraldinus. As far 
back as 1887 I suggested (/. Philol. xvi. p. 296) a restitution 
of the line to which I still adhere 

Non ille ex tenui uiolens ueget : arta necesse est 
Confluuia, See. 
' be sure that torrent {ille, sc. iorretis) does not change from 
a puny stream into boisterous vigour ' : the change from a small 
and weak to a large and powerful body of water {uioleniior 
amnis G. iv. 373, avme Ov. M. xiii. 802) is nothing sudden, it 
is the effect of confluents, nocem for uiolens implies that the 
i fell out, and so in 213 uiolentia has become uoletttia in C. 
Then uolens became tiocem, to which {g)ue of uegei (a rare 
word easily misunderstood) was attached, the second syllable 
of uegei then expanding to agai. uegere, which is transitive in 
Lucretius, was also used neuter. Nonius 183 Veget pro uegetaty 
uel crigit, uel uegetum est. . . . Varro Manio Nee natus est nee 
morietur, uiget, Jieget, ut pote plurimum. \i trahat — contrahat 
in 122 are rightly recorded by the MSS., the poet must again 
be plajing on two senses of irahere, ' drawing from,' and 


'drawing into one,' 'accumulating' (Aen. xii. 891). But it is 
not impossible that he MTOte compleat, or con/ernt, ' contribute.' 
A subjunctive is more likely than an indie, like Bachrcns' 

128 This disappearing of rivers and subsequent emerging at 
a distance is mentioned by Strabo 275 as a phenomenon of 
the cavernous soil of Sicily, ro Se n-epi Maravpov a-nriXniov euros 
(Xi'i crvpiyya evfityedr] Koi worafjiov 81 avTTJs peovra u(pavt] p-e^pl 
TToXXoC 8ta(TTi]paTos eir' avaKvnTomn npos rrjv eTTi(f)civeinv, and he 
names the Syrian Orontes, the Tigris, the Nile, the Erasinus, 
the Eurotas, and the Alpheios, as such. 
128 sqq. 

Quod si diuersos emittat terra canales 
Ospitium fluuium aut semita nulla profecto 
Fontibus et riuis constet uia pigraque tellus 
Conserta insolidum segni sub pondere cessct. C. 
128 ni/acod: nisi Sud/iaus 129 Ospicium 5 fluuium 5: 
fluminum ReM. v Hebnst. : fluuiorum Sloan. : in fluidum 
Unger: uel /(^r aut Rehd. : fluuio et det Baehrefis : fierhaps H. 
fluuio iam ac semita 131 Conieita Arund. c{. 1^7 . 

Two lines of interpretation are open in this passage, (i) mak- 
ing the apodosis begin with m///a : this is the view of Munro ; 
(2) changing aut to /lauf {hand Le Clerc) to make the apodosis 
begin with this. Then nulla will repeat the negative in a more 
emphatic form, haul semita, nulla tda constet fontibus. This 
is the view of Sudhaus. 

Birt's objection that the poet would then have written non 
semita, nulla, &c. is in my opinion conclusive against (2) or any 
modification of it. It is inconceivable that the strong, correct, 
and lucid noti should have been rejected for the grammatically 
weak, tame, ambiguous liaut : to say nothing of the outrageous 
hiatusjiuuium, //aut which, in any case, is impossible. 

In attempting to reconstruct 128, 129 on the first view (that 
nulla begins the apodosis), we may premise that ni or nisi is 
necessary for si of MSS. : unless there were channels in the 
ground for water to run in, there could be no flowing streams. 
But in 129 is //ospitium nominative or accusative.'' If we 
could believe fluuium to be an error for fluuiorum (Munro), 



it must be nominative, Ijut this will hardly satisfy. Unger"s 
suggestion that Jluuium is an error for fluidum is in itself 
plausible, :\.s /luiiius is usually written in MSS. J^uuzdus, and 
fluuidum might drop its d^ hzcomxng Jluuium. But this almost 
requires, as Unger suggested, llospitiuin in Jiuidum, and nut 
would still need alteration. Jluuium as genitive plural occurs 
twice in Val. Flaccus, Arg. vi. 391, A^^i Jluuiumque /mc.c, and 
may be right here: it may also be a corruption, perhaps of 
Jiuuio (the terminations -0, -urn are often interchanged), or of 
Jluuio iam ; among the corrections of aut Baehrens' det seems 
to me the best, Hospitium Jluuio det semita, or H. Jluuio 
iam ac semita : * did not Earth throw out channels at intervals, 
serving at the outset (jam) as a receptacle and course for the 
river-waters, springs and streams would assuredly lack their 
proper bed.' 

In 131 C^;wt7-/(;, ' locked together,' i.e. with all its particles 
linked into solid cohesion, is possible ; but conjerta ' packed 
close,' has the support of 157 Pigraque et in pondus conjerta 
immobilis essct, which looks like an exact duplicate of 131. 

132, 133 

Quod SI praecipiti condunlur flumina terra, 

Condita si redeunt, si qui etiam incondita surgunt. C. 

The reading of 133 is very uncertain. Si qua etiam (Scaliger), 
si qua ante (Aid.), si quondam (Bormans), si qtmedam{Munro), 
si quae clam condita serpunt (Unger), have been suggested. 
Munro's si quaedam seems to me the simplest and clearest ; 
et iam for etiam is questionable. But there is some difficulty 
in incondita which with condita preceding can hardly mean 
'out of order, irregular' (Jacob), and can only = ' unburied.' 
Birt quotes Sen. Controv. vii. Pracf. 7 iura per patris cineres 
qui inconditi sunt, and so Luc. vi. loi. The meaning seems to 
be that some rivers ' subito in sua magnitudine existunt, neque 
umquam absorpti fuerunt ' (Scaliger), rise or spring to light 
without any previous burial (Munro). The argument : if water 
finds channels for itself, sometimes throughout in open light, 
sometimes buried for a time and then re-emerging, we may 
infer that air and wind similarly find their own vent, however 
little we may be able to observe it. 


137 iugera pessum 


I suspect the poet wrote Intcjsaepta, \\hich would exactly 
describe the appearance of ground after a landslip, blocked up 
with fragments of rock at intervals. Rutilius Namatianus has, 
I believe, the same word, i. loi Ititersaep/a tuis condunlur 
flumina niu?is, where the MS. reading is hitercaepia. The 
immediately following densaeque abscondita nocti (so CS with 
the fifteenth century MSS.) is better than de?tsaqiie abscondita 
node (Gyr.), as Munro and Alzinger agree. The locative is 
like lateri abdidit ensem Aen. ii. 553, laicrique recondere dura 
Luctatur gladiuin Met. xii. 482, Veil. Paterc. ii. 91. 4 abditus 
carceri, cf. the recurring terrae. See Landgraf in Archiv fur 
latein. Lexikographie, viii. 69 sqq. 

1 39 Whatever is to be made of Gyr.'s Prospec/are chaos et sine 
fine tninas marg. teastian, whether the original had P. chaos 

tiasittni et sine fine rici7ias (Jacob) or ruinast (Munro), it 
ought not to oust the clear and intelligible reading of CS 
Rehd. V 

Prospectare : procul chaos ac sine fine ruinae. 
Allowed that f?iifias has a genuine look which commands 
respect, still what it means is uncertain. Again uastiim, 
which was unnoticed by the Jena editor of the Gyr. variants, 
is stated by Matthiae to be in the margin : was it part 
of the Cyr. tradition, or a later addition to complete the 
imperfect line? I follow Alzinger in rejecting it; but dissent 
from his interpretation of chaos as = chasma. chaos is merely 
desolation, a scene of earth, rocks, and debris, spread con- 
fusedly before the eye. 

Cernis et in siluis spatioque cubilia retro 
Antraque demissa pedibus fodisse latcbris 
Incomperta uia est operum tantum efifluit intra 
Argumenta dabunt ignoti uera profundi. C. 

140 re^tro v : perhaps rostro or rutro. 

142 tamen Rehd. Ariind. After this verse Munro marks 
a lacuna. 

Here the case for Gyr. is much stronger : it is said to have 
97 H 


had AntraqKC dcmcrsas p27iitits fodissc latcbras. There is 
nothing unusual in making the lairs {cubilia) and caverns 
{antra) scoop out themselves {fodisse) the hollows into which 
the forces of nature have shaped the ground. Heinsius 
indeed accepted this (with spatiosa for spatiogue) as right : 
so too Jacob and Munro, and lately Hildebrandt and Sudhaus. 
Vet spatioquc of ]\1SS. is not per se improbable, que answering 
to an/raqiic, 'both lairs and caves,' and rclro {rejtro v) 
representing an adjective or participle in the ablative; or 
again spatioque may have been originally spatiante * ex- 
patiating,' ranging to and fro in different directions, of. 
Trist. v. 3. 23 lato spatian/etn fliunifie Gangen, Plin. H. N. 
xvii. 45 intus ut in metallis spatia7ite uetia : retro or restro 
would represent some ablative, possibly rostro, the hound's 
scent (here expressed by 'muzzle') guiding him in its wide- 
sweeping range to the lair {cubile) of the hunted beast. Such 
lairs would often be found to be hollows in the soil, of more 
or less depth and extension. Luc. iv. 91 nee creditur uUi Silua 
cam, nisi qui presso uestigia rostro Colllgit et praeda nescit 
latrare reperta. 

A further doubt attaches to dcmcrsas of Gyr. for which 
all existing MSS. give demissas. Vergil's alteque iubebis In 
solido puteum demitti (G. ii. 230) is very parallel. 

Coming to 142, we are not much helped by Gyr^s aeri tantum 
effugit ultra for opertim tantum cffluit ititra of our existing 
MSS. Yor (i) ' opertan seems necessary' (Munro), who trans- 
lates 'you cannot trace out these constructions'; (2) cffluit 
would be right of air streaming out, as Lucr. i. 280 (Alzinger) ; 
{■})) intra, inside the cavern, as is perceptible to any one entering 
it; (4) the nominative has fallen out and was contained in averse 
lost before CS were copied. Now consider Gyr. (i) aeri, not 
aer, is recorded by the Jena editor and Matthiae ; (2) Sudhaus 
explains Gyr. thus : in these deep chasms the path loses itself 
beyond all tracing: air alone makes its way beyond: adding 
' ultra sc. qiiam homines uel progrcdiantur uel prospect etit.^ 
This is against the ordinary use of incompertus, ' unascertained ' 
of fuethods or processes, not ' undiscovered * of things or natural 
objects : it rather forces ultra : generally it is a somewhat 


groping, not clearly aimed or expressed statement, in which 
it is difficult to make out the exact bearing upon the poet's 
argument. Whereas in CS the reasoning is clear, though some 
part of it is lost : the hidden powers of air are observable 
in the huge landslips and vast cavernous spaces which we 
often see : the method of such working is not traceable : all 
we can say is that if one enters such caverns an efflux of 
air is perceptible, pointing to some unknown storehouse or 

143. Sudhaus finds a subject to dabimt in the sinus and antra 
of 137 sqq. It is at least less hazardous to suppose that 
a nominative existed in the lacuna after 142, whether it was of 
one or more vv. or even to elicit it from nianifestis rebics ; once 
it had occurred to me that 144, 145 might have preceded 143 
as ordered by the poet : 

Tu modo subtiles animo duce percipe curas, 
Occultamque fidem nianifestis abstrahe rebus : 
Argumenta dabunt ignoti uera profundi.' 
145. abstrahe is not, I think, 'draw from things seen belief 
in the unseen,' but 'withdraw' or 'abstract' from the visible 
workings of nature the hidden principle which you are to accept 
as the law of her operations. 

Nam quo liberior quoque est animosior ignis 
Semper ininclusus nee uentis segnior ira est 
Sub terra penitusque mouent hoc plura necesse est 
Vincla magis soluant magis hoc obstantia pellant. C. 
147 in inclusis S : in incluso Gyr. 148 mouent S : mouet 

Rehd.: mouens Gyr. ed. Par. 1507 Scallgcr penitusque mouent 
hie plura, necesse est Muttro : penitusque, nouent hoc plura 
necesse est the present editor. 

Here, as in 128 sqq., the problem is to determine where the 
apodosis begins. The prevailing view is that the protasis 
extends to hoc phira, the apodosis beginning with necesse est. 
So Munro, changing hoc to hic=^t\. quo plura uenti hie, sub 
terra, mouent. So also Sudhaus, explaining : ' quo liberior et 
animosior ignis semper in incluso est, et quo ne uentis quidem 
segnior ira est sub terra (quam igni) eoque plura mouent, quo 
99 H 2 


magis pcnitus inclusi sunt : co magis necesse est uincla soluant 
et obstantia pellant.' 

It is rather against this that the clauses are then very 
unequally balanced ; the long protasis with its two-fold division 
(a) quo liberior quoqtie anhnosior ignis est in incljisis, [b) el quo 
uentis noti seg/iior ira est sub terra, penitiisque inouent hoc 
■plura, is out of proportion to the short apodosis tiecesse est 
uincla magis sohcant, magis fi. obstantia : again, /toe in 148 is 
somewhat loosely connected with penitus ' deep below as they 
are, the winds cause proportionably greater turmoil.' This would 
be obviated by making the apodosis begin after penitusque, and 
changing mouent to nouent. Then sub terra and penitusque 
are co-ordinate ' under ground and deep within (the earth),' cf. 
Sen. N. Q. vi. 24. 3 {Motus est) subter et ab i?no, Lucr. iv. j^) 
ex alto penitusque; jiouent plura = ^ causq a wider derange- 
ment,' avayKT] Tr\iiu> ve(OTfpi(€iv, like omfzia noiiare, Liv. xxxv. 
34. The three clauses each with its comparative, hoc plura 
nouent, jnagis soluant, tnagis obstantia pellant, thus form an 
effective sequel to the elaborate introduction of the two and 
a half vv. which precede. Between inclusls and incluso {Gyr.) 
there is little to choose : incluso might be an euphonic emenda- 
tion, yet may well be a genuine tradition of antiquity. But on 
general grounds I prefer to retain inclusis, not only as given by 
S and the fifteenth century MSS., but as confirmed by the 
variation of form which it has assumed in C, inclusus. 

Nee tamen inrigidos exit contenta canales 
Vis animae flamma uerrit qiia proxima cedunt 
Obliquumque secat qua uisa tenerrima causa est. CS. 

150 riguos Gyr. as reported by the Jena editor: riuos Gyr. 
as reported by Matthiae 151 flammaue ruit Gyr. as 

reported by the Jena editor: flammaeue ruit Gyr. as reported 
by Matthiae 152 Obliquumque secant quae causa tenerrima 

caussa est Gyr. 

The fondest admirer of Gyr. will not claim much for it here. 

'E\cti)i Jlammaeue ruit most of its variants are wrong. Neither 

riguos nor riuos (which linger corrected to priuos) is as good 

as rigidos, ' channels in stubborn or resisting matter,' as opposed 



to yielding [cedtmt) and soft {te7ierrivm) ones. As for 152, it 
is unintelligible in Gyr., lucid in CS : causa alone requires 
changing, for which I accept Le Clerc's canla 'barrier,' 
' enclosure,' or possibly, as Nettleship shows from Lucretius 
{Contributions to Latin Lexicography, s.v.), ' opening,' like />er 
caulas corporis, caula palati, aethc?-is. 

158 sqq. 

Sed summis si forte putas concredere causis 
Tantum opus et summis alimentum uiribus oris 
Quae ualida inpromptu cernis ualidosque recessus 
Fallere sed nondum tibi lumine certaque retro. C. 

158 subitis (Jyr. congerdere 7/: concrtscere. Gyr., perhaps 
concedere. 159 et subitis Gyr. ora Gyr. 160 

Quod Gyr. ualida . . . ualidosque MSS. patula . . . uastos- 
que Gyr. 161 Falleris et nondum certo tibi lumine res est 


Here the critic's duty lies straight before him. We have 
to choose between an actual text vitiated indeed, but recover- 
able with only slight corrections (C), and a series of reported 
variants which in no way carry conviction {Gyr.). 

The text of C in 158-160 may be retained by wnixng concedere 
(158), ora (159), Qua or Quod (160); 161 calls for separate 

' Sutnmis causis et non abstrusioribus,' Seal. ; ' causes arising 
on the surface,' Munro : Seneca, N. Q. vi. 30. 3 says aliqtcanto 
plus ifnpetus habent quae ex in/i>Jio uenitmt: the poet is here 
stating the coitnter hypothesis that the explosions of Aetna may 
be attributable to causes near the top. concedere is the simplest 
correction of concredere ' gives way to,' ' is a concession to ' : 
with reference to the overpowering forces at work in the volcano. 
1 see no cause to suspect a/zw<?«/?^w = aIimentorum, see Neue- 
Wagener, Formenlehre, i. 114, but orisraxxs^. be wrong: possibly 
an error for ora, ualida ora co-ordinating with ualidos recessus : 
at the end of a verse the last letter might easily be obscured. 
Quae is less probably Quod than Qua ' at the point where yoa 
see vast fissures' : ualida ' puissant,' i. e. proving the strength of 
the powers that cause them, Icrxvpd. It is noticeable that the 
repeated swnfnis has its counterpart in the repeated ualida . . . 


ualidos ; but I have preferred to treat it as corrupt, e/ suniinis 
for adsumptis. 

l6l, if C may be trusted to have followed its archetype faith- 
fully, could never have been as stated from Gyr., Falleris et 
nondum certo tibi luviine res est, whicii amounts to an entire 
dislocation of the five concluding words. Fallere sed, indeed, 
can be nothing but Falleris et ; but this does not prove the 
rest of the emendation^ (for such it surely must have been). 
In \.\\Q. Journal of Philology iox 1 887, p. 297, I suggested for 
tiondum tibi lumi7ie certaque retro what at least is nearer palaeo- 
graphically ?iondum tibi lwfii?ie certa liquet res\ here Itaninc 
must be taken closely with certa ' the matter is not yet clear to 
you in a light which makes it certain ' : liqtiet is a favourite 
word with Seneca, N. Q. vi. 5. I Quidam liquere tpsis aliquavi 
ex istis causam esse dixerutit. Ov. Trist. iii. 3. 27 liquet hoc, 
carissima, nobis. Gell. i. 3. 3 nondum mihi plane liquet, 
xviii. 5. II ut no7i turbidae fidei ttec ambiguae, sed ut purae 
liquefttisque esset. The rhythm is imitated from Lucretius, e. g. 
i. 893 manifesta docet res, ii. 123 magnarum parua potest res, 
iv. 197 quasuis penetrare qiieat res: so too Grattius, Cyneg. 80 
tneliusque alterna ualet res. 
Namque illuc quodcumque uacat hiat impetus omnis 
Et sese introitu soluunt, adituque patenti 
Conuersae languent uires animosque remittunt. C. 

162 uoca^t V namque illis quaecumque uacant hiatibus 
omnis Gyr., which Munro and Sudhaus accept adding in before 
hiatibus, Munro marking a lacuna after 162. Haupt following 
C cofijectured Namque illic quaecumque uagant hiat impetus 

163 Probably Set. 

Gyr. is here again, as in the preceding vv., so widely 
removed from CS as to call for special caution, (i) Every word 
differs except omnis, (2) Gyr. will not scan without the addition 
of in, (3) Gyr. will not construe, unless we suppose a v, or vv. 
lost after 162 : for Et in 163 has no meaning and Sudhaus leaves 
it unexplained. Hildebrandt (p. no) classes this among the 

' Bormans, p. 360, only accepts Gyr. with the strongest misgivings. 


'real restorations ' oi Aefna which we owe to G : to me it seems 
to perplex and confuse everything. 

Can we explain Ci By the change of one letter, we can. 
Substitute iiacans for ttacaf, and the whole is intelligible : 
impetus omnis (est) illuc, quodcumque uacans hiat. 'the whole 
force (of the powers working in Aetna) is towards any point 
which is open chasm,' il/uc (adverb) = ad id. For this change 
we have the support of Vat. 3272 uoca^t : for what is this but 
a surviving trace of uocas=uocans, another form of uacans'? 
In this way the important and determining word ivipetiis (Lucr. 
V. 814 omnis Impetus') can be retained, and as the argument 
is that, although the volcanic forces rush naturally for an open 
vent, yet, when it is reached, their violence abates and loses its 
fury, et in 163 would seem to be an error for Set or less 
probably At. 

165 sqq. 

Quippe ubi contineat uentosa quaquaeque morantis^ {sic) 
In uacuo desint cessant tantumque profundi 
Explicat errantis et inipso limine tardant. C. 

165 contineat Rehd. v : continual 5 : qui teneat Gj'f. uentos 
aqua queque S : uentos aquasque Gyr. 166 desint Sv: 

desinit ReM. : defit Gjr, 167 errantis S Rehd. : erranteis 

Gyr. limite Gyr. tradant Gyr. as reported by the Jena 
editor : tradunt Gyr. as stated by Matthiae. 

This is a passage where Gyr. is generally thought to be 
nearer the true reading than CS, and must therefore be care- 
fully scrutinized. From aquasque Munro's 'always deep-pene- 
trating acumen^' elicited acuatque, and this looks right, 
accounting as it does for the a which is found in both C and S 
{uentosa queque). Gyr.^s qtii teneat is also adopted by Munro, 
'ubi in uacuo defit qui (==quo) (uacuum) uentos teneat atque 
ita acuat morantes': and Hildebrandt supports this by Cic. 
Off. iii. I. I ita duae res quae languorem adferunt ceteris, ilium 
acuebant. Sudhaus explains qui as nominative, and supposes 
the poet to personify the influence which alternately restrains 
and stimulates the winds. A nominative certainly seems more 

' Hildebrandt. 


natural, but between qui and quod (whicli Haupt suggested 
for cim- of CS\ cf. quod eufitibus = cocuntibus in the Gembloux 
MS. of Manil. ii. 380, quod inucta = coniuiicta in the Madrid 
MS. of Manil. ii. 197, and so Alzinger) it is not easy to choose. 
In the rest of its divergences Gyr. if truly reported is inferior 
to CS, for (i) dcjit is only less questionable than cffit^ conjit, 
and seems, after the Eclogues, gradually to have fallen out of 
classical poetry ; desint of CS points to desit (so Alzinger). 
(2) erra7iteis is suspiciously like the false archaisms introduced 
by the scholars of the sixteenth century, notably in the ed. pr. 
of Velleius. (3) liviite is not the sense required, but limine 
the threshold at which the winds issue. (4) trada7it or tradunt 
is an obvious error and makes darkness in a passage which 
our MSS. give intelligibly. Even Wagler (a decided adherent 
of Gyr.) calls limite tradufil ' ineptum ac reiectaneum.' 

The result of this examination is to throw doubt on qui teneat, 
and to be less confident as to acuatque. linger thought 
angatque was the word ; it is at least true that from acuatque 
to aquasque is not a very easy step. 

Angustis opus est turbant infaucibus illos 
Feruet opus densique premunt premiturquc ruina 
Hinc furtum boreaeque noto nunc huius uterque est. C. 

168 turbant in S : turbare in Rehd.v : turbanti {om. in) Gyr. 
illos SRehd.v: illo Gyr. 169 densaque premit premiturque 
ruina Nunc Euri Boreaeque notus, nunc huius uterque est 

The case here is very different : Gyr. presents a total in- 
telligible (to say the least) throughout, except ^^/ in 170, which 
all modern editors except Hildebrandt ^ drop. 

' Hildebrandt writes it thus (p. 102) : — 

Angustis opus est turbanti faucibus (illo 
Feruet opus) densaque premit premiturque ruina; 
Nunc euri boreaeque notus, nunc huius uterque est, 
' at one time Notus is in the power of Funis and Boreas, at another 
each of these latter is in the power of Notus.' This seems to me im- 
probable : notus is required as the subject oi premit. 


Angustis opus est turbanti finibus : illo 
Feruet opus. 

turbanti (dative) opus est ani^^ustis faucibus : illo ( = illa re) 
fertiet opus, 'in spreading turmoil it {ucnto, got from 165 
uentos) must have narrow gullies to work in : this it is which 
makes the operation proceed hotly.' The remainder of the 
passage can hardly be otherwise than as Gyr. gives it : for 
densique of CS, which Sudh. constructs with Euri, is at 
best awkward, and it is at any rate safer to retain Gyr.'s 
correction in its totality. We can scarcely doubt that a cor- 
rection so satisfying in all its parts really comes to us from 

Having said thus much in defence of Gyr. here as a whole, 
I must confess ^irix^^'^ on the first of the three vv. It is a 
significant fact that both C and S, as well as Rehd. and •?/, 
preserve an in before faucibus : and in all our MSS. illos ends 
the v. 

What is to be made of turbant (CS), ticrbare {Rehd. ?') ? 
Palaeography suggests turbanie: then illos might depend on 
this, ' there must needs be something that sets them jostling in 
narrow grooves.' But turbare is plainer, and more idiomatic in 
its neuter sense ; opus est illos turbare in f. angustis, ' those winds 
must needs jostle confusedly in narrow passages ' : a Lucretian 
use, ii. 126 Corpora quae in solis radiis turbare uidentur ; v. 502 
Nee liquidum corpus turbantibus ('troubled,' Munro) aeris 
auris Commiscet : sinit haec uiolentis omnia uerti Turbinibus, 
sinit incertis turbare (' to be troubled,' M.) procellis : and cf. 
Conington on Aen. vi. 800. illos is emphasized 'those winds,' 
i.e. that perform such feats of prodigious force, and is therefore 
rightly at the end of the v. 


Hinc uenti rabies hinc saeuo quassat hiatu 
Fundamenta solo trepidant urbesque caducae 
Inde neque est aliud si fas est credere mundo 


Venturum antiqui faciem ueracius omen. C. 
172 soli Gyr. 
A passage more doubtful than at first sight appears. (l) saejio 



hialu was rightly felt by Wernsdorf and Miihly to be strange ; 
both of them suggested quassa meatu (so too Haupt and 
Baehrens) ; Unger conjectured boatu : I have proposed {Journ. 
of Philology for 1S99, p. in) citatu from Sail. Hist. fr. ii. 28 
Maurenbrecher alione casu an, sapicntibits ut placet, uenti per 
caita iefroe citatu rupti aliquot Diontes tuiiiulique sedere. 
Here Sallust seems to have used citatus very nearly as = coiici- 
tatio, a violent or impetuous motion, and this, (which is more 
to the point), of ivittd rushing violently along the porosities of 
the earth and bursting mountains open. If citatu is right, 
{quassa citatu for quassat hiatu), there must be a full pause 
after caducae; and the construction of 173, 174 will be ana- 
coluthic, the poet meaning Inde, neque aliiid est huius rei 
omen ueracius, uentura est viundo afitiqui (inundi) fades, but 
working the clause ue?itiira est . .fades into dependence on 
ficque aliud est ueracius omen, intelligibly enough, but with some 
loss of clearness. 

If we retain quassat hiatu, there will be a pause at solo [soli) ; 
que will answer to Jieque. 

Hinc uenti rabies, hinc saeuo quassat hiatu 
Fundamenta soli : trepidant urbesque caducae 
Inde, neque est aliud, si fas est credere, mundo 
Venturam antiqui faciem ueracius omen. 
On either view ti'epidant urbesque is not a case of que m\%- 
Y>\3.ced. = trepidantqiie urbes. Munro on 79 has persuaded himself 
of this in Aetna much oftener than an attentive consideration 
of the parallels he cites can justify. 

It is perhaps not a mere accident that uenturum, not 
uenturam, is the earlier reading of C. Gellius (i. 7) calls 
attention to an archaic use of the participle -iiruin as an inde- 
clinable future infinitive : ' uerbum est indefinitum, quod Graeci 
appellant ii-na^i\>.^aTov, neque maneris neque generibus praeser- 
uiens, set liberum u?idique ct inpromiscum' He cites examples 
from Plautus, C. Gracchus, Claudius Quadrigarius, Valerius 
Antias, and one from Cic. Verr. Act. ii. Orat. 5. 167 quocumque 
uenerint, hanc sibi rem praesidio futtirum. Gellius s2Lysfutu7um 
(not futuram) was written here in ' libro spectatae fidei, Tiro- 
niana cura atque disciplina facto ' ; and his statement may be 


thought to outweigh our IVISS. of the Verrines, the best of 
which give futuram (Hertz). It does not seem to me im- 
possible that in, the passage of Aetna such an archaism 
{ueniurwn = uenhtrani esse) should have been admitted : but 
if there is a full pause after caducae, it is perhaps unlikely that 
such an archaism would be allowed to add to the obscurities 
of an anacoluthic sentence. 

175, 6 Haec primo cum sit species naturaque terrae 

Introrsus cessante solo trahit undique uenas. C. 

175 immo Gyr. naturaue Gyr. Haec prima species is 
a correction mentioned in the ed. Paris, 1507. 176 trahat 


Whatever the source of Gyr.'s three variants, they are worth 
little, (i) What is iinnio ? If it means ' nay rather,' it must 
refer to the objection started in 158, viz. that volcanic effects 
are produced near the surface of the soil : to that objection 
he has been replying in 162 sqq., and in i7nino returns to 
the point he has before insisted on, 94 sqq. that the earth 
is drilled in every part with cavities (Hild. and Sudh.). 
This is somewhat remote and difficult. Matthiae thought 
it was imo, constructed, I suppose, with terrae, ' the bottom 
of the earth'; on which however he has not been dwelling 
in any way particularly. Surely primo of C is on every 
showing clearer and simpler 'to start with'; the porosity of 
earth being assumed as a slarting-point. As for naturaue 
it could not stand against Cs naturaque, even if we had the 
original MS. of Gyraldus before us ; the two words species, 
natura are complements of each other, hence que ; the 
alternative suggested by ue (the configuration, or if you will 
the nature of the ground) is a pedantic affectation of scientific 
precision. Thirdly, what is trahatt Hildebrandt makes it 
depend on cum from 175, with 177 as apodosis to 175, 176, a 
most unlikely asyndeton, and a palpably wrong apodosis. Sud- 
haus, making Aetna in 177 nominative to trahat, explains this 
as a potential modelled on Greek, and translates, 'Aetna 
might be expected to break into channels.' But neither agat 
in 120, nor concrescant in 281, can be held to support such a 
sense of trahat; and Munro, though accepting immo, could not 


stomach /;-a//<//, and prints what all our extant MSS. rightly give, 

cessantc solo, 'earn dicit soli esse naturam ut, ipso a motu 
cessante, riinas mcatusque occultos trahat,' Struchtmeyer. 
Rather perhaps solo is the surface-soil, which remains inactive 
[cessat) while the inner earth is splitting into channels in every 
direction {Ifitrorsus trahit utidiqiie uc7ms). It remains a 
question whether trahit hitrorsus should not rather mean, as in 
Lucr. iii. 534, 'draws inwardly to itself a number of branching 
channels {uenas) with the formation of which the surface-soil 
has nothing to do. 

178 Non illinc duce me occultas scrutabere causas 
Occurrent oculis ipsi cogentque fateri. C. 

178 illinc v. illic Rchd.\ illi Gyr. 179 ipsae ed. Rub. 1475. 

//// {Gy}'.) could hardly be dative constructed closely with 
causas, it must be adverb = illic : the form has good autho- 
rity, see my Noct. Manil. p. 89. The D'Orville MS.' of the 
O vidian Sappho has in 125 //// te inuenio with wadded above 
by a later hand: and in the Merton MS. (250) of Seneca's 
Natural Questions, vi. 7. 5 Quod illi quoque tantundem loci te?icat 
there is no v.l. In itself//// is one of the least suspicious readings 
reported from Gyr., but I have not ventured to substitute it for 
illic which Rehd. gives, and to which illinc of Cv points. 

I marvel that no editor has retained ipsi of MSS. in 179. 
It looks like the antithesis of duce me: as if the poet meant 
' non ego te ducam ut causas illic scruteris occultas : ipsi tibi 
sine duce occurrent in oculos'; ' I shall not act as your guide 
in tracing occult causes there : without any guide you will find 
they offer themselves palpably to your scrutiny.' The sense 
is no doubt plainer with ipsae : but the corruption of this to 
ipsi is not very probable. 

181 sqq. 

Hinc uasti terrent aditus merguntque profundo 
Corrigit hie artus penitus quos exigit ultra 
Hinc spissae rupes obstant discordiaque ingens 

' Xo. 166. I have published my collation of this, and with it, of 
the Corsini MS. of the Epist. Sapphus, in the Classical Review iov 1901. 


Inter opus nectunt uaries mediumque cohercent 
Pars igni domitae pars ignes ferre coactae 
Vt maior species aetne succurrat inanis 
Haec illis tantarum sedesque arearum est. 
1S2 VorngkGyr.afui so ed. Vicen/. I4yg penitusque exigit 
Jie/id. : penitusque exaestuat ultra Gyr. 183 scissae Gyr. 

184 uaries S : uarios Rehd. and Arund. : alie Gjr. The verse 
after 185 is also in Rehd. and v, but in v is written thus : Et 
maior species et ne succurrat inanis : Vu at' // recurs after 194 
diuinaque rerum in C Rehd.; in v after diuinaque rerum 
follows Va Nunc opus artificem incendia causasque reposcit 
cat (i. e. vacat, meaning that a verse has been lost), 
then Vut maior species ut ne succurrat inanis. // catinot be 
right twice, and probably should be omitted after 185. 1 86 

Haec illis sedes tantarumque area rerum est Gyr,, and so {with- 
out est) ed. Rubei 1475 ajzd ed. Paris 1507. After this verse 
Gyr. has preserved a line which seems to have fallen out of all 
our MSS. Haec operi {sic) uisenda sacri faciesque domusque. 

I confess to much scepticism here as to the value of Gyr. 
Except the correction of 186, which is easy and cannot well be 
anything else, most of the so-called restitutions are questionable, 
(i) Allow that Corrigit might easily be an error iox Porrigit, as 
Heinsius has shown (cf. Sen. ad Helv. ix. 2 whcxQ porrexerittt is 
spelt correxerint in Gertz' early and excellent codex A), and 
that the giant identified with Aetna would naturally be said to 
stretch out his limbs (Munro, Hildebrandt, Sudhaus), yet why 
add to this description an alien detail (exaestuat), which interferes 
with the unity of the picture ? Elsewhere, no doubt, the poet 
dwells on the effervescence, the actual eruptions, of the volcano, 
but here it is out of place, as all the surroundings show, nor has 
any one explained ultra. Now compare Cs Corrigit hie art us 
petiiius quos exigit ultra, ' at another point it calls to order at 
its inner part limbs thrust out too far ' : here the line explains 
itself by the mere force of antithetic clauses, Corrigit penitus, 
exigit ultra. I suppose the poet to be speaking not of the 

' This seems to mean that the variant Vt, which is found in most 
MSS., was known to the scribe of v. 3.\ is alitcr. 


summit, at least not the crater, of Aetna, but of the external 
phenomena which present themselves to the eye from whatever 
side the mountain is observed : Plurima namque patent illi 
miracula monti. It has huge openings which the sight cannot 
fathom ; here its centre protrudes irregularly outwards, then 
corrects itself and recedes inwards : at another place is crowded 
with rocks crossing each other in absolute confusion, artus 
ought not to be too much pressed ; the idea of the out-sprawling 
limbs of the imprisoned giant is doubtless suggested, but we 
need not particularize further, cxigit is strictly classical, and 
in perfect keeping with ultra. Stat. Theb. ii. 41 longos super 
aequorafifies Exigit atque i?igens ?nedio natat tenda pro/tendo, 
of Taenarus projecting a long shadow on the sea. (2) scissae, 
'riven' (Munro), is no improvement on spissae,vi\\ich. pictorially 
brings the crowding of the rocks l^efore the eye, and of which 
discordiaque ingcns is an amplification. (3) aliae would not 
oust uaries even if we could appeal to an actually existing MS. 
to prove it a bona fide reading : we should still doubt whether 
uaries did not conceal a likelier word. My suggestion uarie is 
in no way violent and seems to express aptly the multifarious 
forms in which the rocks cross each other. 
187 sqq. 

Nunc opus artificem incendi causamque reposcit 
Non illam parui aut tenuis discriminis ignes 
Mille sub exiguo ponentibus tempora uera. 
Res oculique docent, res ipsae credere cogunt. C. 
187 incendia Sv: incendii Gyr. 188 Non i. paruo aut 

tenui discrimine signis Gyr. 189 ponent ibi S : ponent 

tibi Rehd.: ponam tibi v tempora SRehd.v: Mille sub 

exiguum uenient tibi pignora tempus Gyr. 190 Res oculos 

ducunt Gyr. : cogent Gyr. 

In 187 incendii of G^r. looks genuine. It falls under the same 
category of manuscript mis-spellings as the fuller forms itiuerint 
for iuerint Catull. Ixvi. 18, consueueras for ^(?«j«/fnzi-Sapph. 130, 
ed. de Vries. This incendii perhaps caused the strange cor- 
ruption in Sv incendia : if so it was earlier than Xlth cent., and 
may have been in the supposed Vlllth or IXth cent, codex 
which Gyraldus is said to have copied. 


The two next vv. (i88, 189) are a battle-ground of criticism. 
The text of Cand our other extant MSS. cannot be interpreted 
as it stands, and has not at present been certainly corrected. 
Gyr., on the other hand, as explained by Damste, Mnemos. xvii. 
196, is intelligible as it is reported : or again with Haupt's slight 
change of signes for signis. On the former view, sigtiis Mille 
stand emphatically at the beginning of the new clause, enforcing 
lion illain p. met t. discrimine (Damste). On the latter signes 
is constructed \s\\}a pa7n'o aut t. discrimine-, as Haupt explains 
* ne exigua indicia quaeras ut illam causam intellegas : magna tibi 
certorum argumentorum copia sponte occurret,' Opusc. i. 46. 

In this instance it is almost impossible to readjust C so as 
to fit into Gyr. The genitive partii aut tenuis discriminis 
shows no variation that might make it seem a rifaccime>ito 
of Gyr., as e.g. if one of the adjectives were in the abl. : 
ponentibus of C finds a natural explanation in ponent ibi of 
S, or pone7it tibi of RcJid. : all these are stubbornly remote 
from uenient tibi of Gyr. Equally wide is the gulf which sepa- 
rates sub exiguo tejnpora uera of C and the fifteenth century 
MSS. from sub exiguum pignora tevipus of Gyr. Most modern 
critics therefore accept Gyr. unconditionally, Jacob, Haupt, 
IJaehrens, Wagler, Sudhaus. Damste shows that signis is sup- 
ported by 448, jZ>/>«^r(i by 40, 135, 459, 518. Alzinger's objection 
to sub exiguum tempus is not convincing, see Drager i. 6ig. 

Munro retains C's reading, with these changes : 

Non illam parui aut tenuis discriminis : ignes 
Mille sub exiguo ponent tib/ temport? ueraw, 
sc. causam. But here it is hard to see why Jires should be 
appealed to as the cause of fires. In the Journal of Philology for 
1895, p. 10, it w^as suggested that igiies is an error for ingens ; 
for the words Noti illam pa7-ui aut tenuis discrimiftis imply 
an antithesis ; such an antithesis would be supplied by i7igens, 
sc. causa; this also gives a motive iox Mille: 'a cause indeed 
which is not of small or slight significance ; it is overpowering, 
and will set {ponet) before you a thousand facts {ue7'a) in a brief 
moment of time.' inge7is has become ig7ies in the excellent 
Merton MS. (250) of Seneca's Natural Questions i. 6. i et bibit 
ingens Arcus (G. i. 380). 



discrirni/ns seems here i. q. poTrrji, )no)nenti. 

For 190 Munro unhesitatingly follows C, and everything is in 
its favour against Gyr. : the sequence of presents doccfit—cogunt, 
the absence of two rhyming terminations in the two halves of 
the V. A line like Gyr.^s Res ociilos dticefit, res ipsae credere 
cogent is carefully avoided by the poet of Aetna. 

191 sqq. • 

Ouin etiam tactu moneat contingere toto 
Si liceat prohibent flammae custo'diaque ignis 
Illi 0i)erum est arcent aditus diuinaque rerum 
Vt maior species etne succurrat inanis 
Cura sine arbitrio est eadeni procul omnia cernes 
Nee tamen est dubium penitus quin torqueat aethna. C. 

191 moneat S\ moneant vAr.\ moueant Rehd.\ moneam 
Gyr. according to the Jetia editor, but Matthiae gives moneant 
toto S Rehd.v Ar. : tuto Gyr., as Scaliger conj. 193 opertum 
Rehd. Ar. ; operi Gyr. aditus Gyr. : adhitus C : dictis Rehd. 
194 aethne S: ethnae Rehd.: ut ne v succurrat all MSS. 
Perhaps succumbat, ^ give in, own itself defeated' 195 

cernes S\ cernis Rehd.v 196 quin S Rehd. v. quid 

Gyr.: quis ed. Paris 1507, Seal. torq||[| S\ torqueat 

Rehd. V : torreat Gyr. aethna Rehd. : hetna v, in S -na alone 
remains. Nothing has been reported as to Gyr. 

moneat {CS) was retained by de Rooy, sc. Aetna. Aetna 
would inform you by another sense besides sight, namely 
touch, if only contact with it were safe {tuto). But moneam 
is more natural, and moneatit, which v Arund. agree to 
give, would be a well-known mis-writing of it. Between 
operum, the reading of all extant MSS., operi of Gyr., the 
balance seems to be in favour of the genitive : custodia operum 
illi (Aetnae) ignis est ; here custodia is ' the guard,' not ' the 
guardianship,' as often, Ov. M. viii. 69 adittts custodia seruat, 
.xii. 148, 149 Dinnque uigil Phrygios seruat custodia muros Et 
uigil Ar go lie as seruat custodia fossas. 

No V. 1. of arcent has come to us, yet arcens (Haupt) is more 

than plausible, and adytis, to which Rehd's dictis appears to 

point and which from its unfrequoncy might easily be corrupted, 

is recommended by its simple directness, ' keeping you away 

1 12 


from the inner shrines,' where the mysterious operations of the 
volcano are enacting. The spelling of 5 adliitus is rather in 
favour of this \ 

192, 193 form a proper introduction to the doubtful v. Ut 
inaior species etne succiirrat inatiis, which in the MSS. is found 
also after 185. The gods forbid close access to Aetna's fires, so 
to invest the mountain with greater pomp -'. But when we turn 
to details, there is some perplexity. What is succurrat, and 
why i7iaiiis'i \{ incmis is right, it must have some special force, 
and cannot be a mere epithet ; such a sense has been found 
by translating ' when Aetna is raked out,' i. e. when an erup- 
tion has occurred to drive into air part of its interior', and 
strike awe into the beholder. This does some violence to the 
Latin. It would be less harsh to read in antiis, and this would 
also agree better with succurrat, ' that Aetna's majesty, as years 
advance, may rise more imposingly on the view,' i.e. that in 
proportion to the difficulty of ascertaining the causes of the 
volcanic phenomena, may be the feeling of solemnity and mystery 
which the sight of Aetna occasions, increasing with time as it 
becomes more and more inexplicable *. 

Against both of these views is the sense given to succi/rru/, 
-which ordinarily means (i) to come to the rescue, (2) to occur, 
as a thought, to the vn7id, not the eyes. Hence the suggestion 
which I made \n Journ. of Philol. for 1892, p. 227 to write et fie 
for etne or eihfte : then the nominative to succurrat will be cura, 
' the god's care for creation is without witness, in order to 
heighten the effect of the show, and that it (sc. cura) may not 
interfere inefficaciously.' succurrat would imply that the upheaval 

' Lachmann on Lucr. ii. 991 explains adytus of the MSS. of 
Nonius in a verse of Attiiis Non. 488 as abinovi. and Ribbeck 
follows him. 

- Strab. X. 467 77 Kpvipis fj pLvariKr) ruiv UpSiiv afixvonoiei to Otiov, fufxav- 
p-ivrj rijv (pvijiv avTov (pfvyovTav fitiwv rfju a^aOrjaiv. 

' Nearly so Chenu, who, however, places the v. after 185, 'Ainsi 
I'Etna, creuse dans I'interieur de sa masse, nous apparalt sous un 
aspect plus merveilleux encore.' 

* Ibis 75 Noxqite teiiebtayian speae ntetneiida /uarum. 

113 I 


of the volcano was meant as a relief to the hibouring materials 
in its womb. 

It is some support of this hypothesis that Vat. 3272 gives /// 
ne (sic). 

CS cannot be right in giving quin in 196, for quis in 197 
would naturally require a corresponding pronoun ; the doubt 
is whether quid {Gyr.) or quis is to be preferred. Torqueat 
in any case outweighs iorreat\ all MSS. give Aetna, not 
Aetnavi. This would necessitate quid, 'it is not a matter 
of doubt, what it is that Aetna hurls up (cf. 3 quid raucos 
torqueat aestus) (sc. rocks, stones, sand), or what is the 
marvellous artificer that controls a craft so mighty,' sc. 
spirilus. The two clauses quid— quis will then be opposed to 
each other, the materials of the eruption to the motor-force 
which controls them. If Aetnam is preferred, quid {quis) tor- 
queat Aetnam will be little more than a different way of stating 
Aut quis ?>t. faber if/iperet: both mean, what is the active force 
within the volcano which causes its upheaval, torqueat must 
then mean 'torture,' 'cause to writhe,' as in 259 Torquentur 
Jlamvia terrae, where see Alzinger. 

198 Pellitur exutae glomeratur nymbus harenae. C. 

exutae Rehd.v : exhaustae Gyr., in S the luord has perished: 
exustae ed. Paris 1507 //omeranf S which is probably 

glomerantur, and this last is in Rchd. : glomeratur v : glome- 
ratim Gyr. : glomeratus ed. Paris 1507. 

F"ew will hesitate here. Both exhaustae and glonieratim look 
like emendations, the latter, as Alzinger shows from Georges' 
Lexicon, a word of late Latin : exhaustae, ' drawn up ' from the 
interior of the volcano, is far less significant in a description of 
this kind than exustae, ' burning sand being a marked feature 
in an eruption,' Munro, who cites after Lindenbruch Plin. ii. 
234 Aetnae flagrantis in tantum ut quinquagena, centetia milia 
passuum harenas flaviviartan globo eructet, and Sen. N. Q. ii. 
30. I Aetna ingentcm uim urentis harenae effudit, inuolutus est 
dies puluere populosque subita nox terruit. This scorched and 
blistering sand is one of the most distressing phenomena of erup- 
tions. Exutus,exustus are pretty regularly interchanged in MSS.: 
Manil. i. 732 Exutas sedes most of Bechert's MSS., except the 


Cemblacensis, for exuslas; iv. 531 exutus'^ (ox exsiitus) Phoebeis 
igtiihtts igtiis MSS. for exustus. Though glotneraiiir, glomeran- 
tur are not Hkely to be an error for gloiiieraiim, it is uncertain 
what the word was. The r is stubbornly constant in CSRe/uLv, 
hence I suggested (Journ. of PhiloL u. ?,.) glonierator^ with which 
harenae would partly be constructed ; the word, however, is not 
found. Heinsius on Claud. R. P. i. 163 quotes the passage as 
in Seal, exiistae g/owerafus, but with no remark. Luc. vi. 296 
h-a.s glotnerato puluere. [In my text I have preferred g/omt-rn/i- 
ier, like the Lucretian moda-anter, praeproperanter^ 

Ipse procul magnos miratur luppiter ignes 
Neue sepulta noui surgant in bella gigantes 
Neu ditem regni pudeat neu tartara caelo 
Vertant inocculto tantum premit omnia dextra 
Congeries operis saxorum et putris harena. C. 
205 Vertat Ar. tremit Gyr. : clam turn tremit Wagler: 

iam turn tremit Schenkl: tacitus tremit Baehrens : totus 
tremit Alzitiger : tantum fremit Damstc, ' non audet quid 
metuat proloqui, occulto secum murmurat.' omniaque extra 

Gyr., perhaps omnia at extra (/. PhiloL 1887, p. 300) in 

occulto: tantum tremit [sc. Aetna) Sudhaus 206 operit Aid. 

If MSS. are right in premit, the words most naturally mean 
'Jupiter keeps the fires down and only working in secret,' 
i. e. keeps the volcanic forces as much to the inside of the 
mountain as he can ; outside their effects are permanently 
visible in boulders and sand. This, however, after the de- 
tailed description in 198-201 of burning masses of rock heaved 
into the air, thunder-like detonations, and livid flames, is all 
but impossible: the contrast of in occulto with the visible 
and tremendous phenomena of eruption would be too pro- 
nounced. Most edd. accept treinif, a word often confused with 
premit, e.g. Val. Fl. iv. 129: of the combinations recorded 
Baehrens' is perhaps the nearest to what the poet might be 

' exutus Gembl. Voss} Cus. exsutus Voss.^ ex sutus Matritensis. 
See my Nodes Manilianae in loc. 

115 12 


supposed to have written, tadius iicmit. Sudhaus can hardly 
be right in punctuating after occulio, and making Aetna the 
subject of ircniit : if (remit is right, not only rhythm, but 
the general feeling of the passage, is in favour of luppiter as 
nominative. This is recognized by Damste, who conjectured 
in occ. tanium fremiti i.e. murmurs in secret alone, not venturing 
to vent his indignation openly. 

omniaque extra of Gyr. seems unlikely to be the original of 
omnia dcxtra : rather, the d points to ad {at). Such a transitional 
particle seems required ; que is very meaningless. 

207 Quae is accusative after faciunt, not nominative, as 
IMunro explains : uetiiunt of Gyr. is a palpable interpolation. 
ulli of all MSS. Buecheler would retain as a genitive. Neue- 
Wagener, Formenlehre, n. p. 519 quote one instance. True, 
ii. 2. 38 coloris ulli. Buecheler similarly would retain in 208 
robustis of MSS., robustis uiribus, as in Lucr. iii. 449, cf. 
robiisteis u. Carm. Epigr. 979 Buech. The ordering of the 
words on this view Corporis ulli robustis uiribus seems to 
me more prosaic, less Vergilian than our poet generally admits : 
hence I follow Wernsdorf, Jacob, and Munro in writing ullis 
and robusti. 

208 Susientata must mean ' held back, kept in their place ' 
(Munro) ; nee qualifies sustentata only, not cadunt, as in Flor. iv. 
12 noua quippe pax, needum assueiae frefiis seruitutis iumidae 
o;entium i7iflafaeque ceruices ab irnposito 7tuper iugo resiliebant, 
i.e. et nondum assuetae resiliebant, 'all this they do by no natural 
tendency of their own, and are not supported in their places by 
any strength of structure, and therefore fall ' : i. e. are ejected 
from the crater and so fall, cadunt implying the previous 
ejection. In onines Exagitant uenti turbas, the poet expounds 
his assertion that volcanic effects are not due to the materials 
themselves {nee sponte sua faciunt) ; the motive force is the 
rush of winds inside the mountain, oinnes accusative agreeing 
with turbas, 'all their powers of turmoil': Exagitant of Gyr. 
is not certain for Exigitur of C. Exacuunt, or Excutiunt 
' discharge,' are also possible. 

210 coniecta of C can hardly be right ; it is difficult to choose 
between coniecta or congest a. 




Haec causa expectata ruunt incendia mortis 

Spiritus inflatis nomen languentibus aer 

Nam prope nequiquam par est uolentia semper 

Ingenium uelox illi motusque per ennis 

Verum opus auxilium est ut pellat corpore nullus 

Impetus est ipsi qua spiritus imperat audit 

Hinc princeps magnosque sub hoc duce militat ignis. C. 

211 hac rAr.: Haec caussae Cyr. expectanda terunt 
Gyr. mentis r v Ar. 213 pars est Gyr.\ persest 
VVagler uoluentia r v : uiolentia Gyr. flammae for 
semper Gyr. 214 igni Le Clerc 215 corpore S r\ 
corpora Gyr. 216 audet Gyr. 217 Hinc S'. Hunc Ar.: 
Nunc rt': Hie Schradcr magnosque S: magnusque rv : 
magnoque Munro: qui sub duce Gyr. Perhaps gnauosque. 
cf. Lucr. iii. 962. 

This passage is full of doubts. MSS. agree in expectata ; but 
mortis for mofttis is in C. In itself mcendia mortis is possible ; 
either as = 'a deadly conflagration' or with mortis emphasized 
as standing last in the verse ' a fire that brings death.' The 
poet elsewhere speaks of the danger to life from too near an 
approach to Aetna when in eruption, 463, 504. Montis., how- 
ever, is in the other MSS. and looks right; I follow Munro. 

The stress of 211 lies, I think, on expectata: 'this is the 
reason why the conflagration does not come unexpectedly ; ' 
i.e. the internal action of the winds is a thing so recurrent 
and perpetual, that Aetna may be expected to erupt at any 
time*. Hac causa expresses this more directly than Haec 
causae which would require an active sense in ruunt, like G. ii. 
308 ruit atram Ad cae/utn picea crassus caligine ttubem 'toss ' 
or ' whirl up.' Of the various ' emendations ' based on Gyr is 
expectanda terunt none is the least convincing. 

212 inflatis, ■sz. uentis (209). The distinction between spiritus 
(wind in an inflated state), aer, wind in subsidence, is found in 
Seneca, N. Q. ii. i. 3 cum mottcs terrae spiritu fiant, spiritus 

' Cic. Caec. § 28 testis e.xspectatus et ad exlremutn rcseruattts might 
suggest ' long deferred,' baffling expectation by prolonged delay. 


nutem acr sit agitaius, vi. 21 Nobis quoque placet hunc spirituDi 
esse qui possit ianta conari, quo nihil est itt rerum natura 
potentius, nihil acrius, sine quo nee ilia quidem quae uehementis- 
sima sunt, ualettt : ignem spiritus co/tcitat. 

213 Waglers emendation per sest ior pars est of Gyr. restores 
light to a dark line. I do not however follow him in substitut- 
ing ^(?;«w^;^ of Gyr. for semper \vh\ch is placed at the end of 
the V. in designed imitation of Lucretius, e.g. iii. 991, 1003. 
' Left to itself, violence is almost powerless ; at all times 
the agent of conflagration (illi in a general sense, or, reading 
igni with Le Clerc, fire) has a natural temper of velocity and 
a continual motion ; but it must be seconded by spirit, and 
without spirit can effect nothing.' It does not seem to me 
impossible that illi should be used in this vague manner ; 
it can hardly be uento, or incendio implied in ince/tdia (211), 
or tiiolentiae. [I have preferred to print igni (Le Clerc).] 

216 audet of Gyr. would be quite in Seneca's manner : N. Q. 
ii. 1 1. 1 (Aer) circa terrain pluriinuni a udet, plurimum patitur ; 
but audit of C and all extant MSS. is in perfect keeping with 
qua spiritus imperat and is not to be altered. 

217 viagnoque (Munro) for niagnosque of CS is probable, 
since magnusque cannot be an epithet of ignis. Alzinger 
rightly rejects Baehrens' conjecture Hie princeps inagnus quo 
sub diice which is based on the reported v. 1. in Gyr., qui sub 
duce; nor is magna quo sub duce much better. I suggest 
gnauosque, as in Lucr. iii. 962 aequo animoque agedum 
gnauis concede should be read for inagnis of MSS. 

219 quae res incendia pascit is explained by Munro, 'which 
is what feeds the fires,' sc. the winds. It is more natural to 
make it coordinate with unde ipsi uenti and quae causa silenti, 
' what is the substance that feeds the fire?' all three questions 
depending on Subsequar. 

220 Cum subito cohibetur inest quae causa silenti. C. 
Cur s. cohibent uires Heinsius on Claud. Rapt. Pros. i. 171 

(ed. 2, 1665) ''quomodo ilia castiganda sunt ex tieteri codice'' : 

cohibent iners Gyr. as recorded by Matthiae silendi Heinsius. 

The combined evidence of Heinsius and Matthiae points to 

an ancient v. 1. cohibetit, though otherwise the two critics are 



not in accord with each other. This might easily be coJiibentur 
with the abbreviation of -ur omitted, cohibehir of C indeed 
is possible, as a suitable nominative may be found in res (219) ; 
but cohibentur, whether referred to nenti or incendia, is easier, 
and is accepted by Haupt, Munro and Sudhaus. The question 
between inest of C and iners of Gyr. is more difficult : incrs, 
whether a good conjecture, or a real ancient v, 1., is quite in the 
manner of Vergil (with whom our poet has much in common), 
transferring, as it does, the quiescence [inertia) of the winds or 
flames to the catise which produced it. As, however, it cannot 
have been read by Heinsius, who gives the v. as Cur siibito 
cohibent uires, quae causa silendi, I feel less confidence in its 
antiquity, and with some hesitation retain itiest, as before me 

221 has some resemblance to Verg. G. iv. 6 In iemii labor, 
at tenuis non gloria, but the lofty tone which our poet assumes 
in the fine digression, 223 sqq., proves that to him Science was 
no res tenuis but the supreme aspiration of the human intellect. 

222. The variants reported from Gyr. of this v., Pigra for 
Digna and laboratis for laborantis, are not supported by the 
Paris and Escorial excerpts, and are certainly wrong. If they 
were in Gyr. they detract from its authority: but they have 
the look of modern conjectures. Digfia praeviia, as in Aen. 
ix. 252 (Alzinger) and Ov. Trist. iii. 11. 50, an adequate reward: 
laborantis respondetit curis responds to, compensates the 
labourer's pains, laboratis {Gyr.) was also a conjecture of 
Scaliger's, who has not explained his meaning, but no doubt 
had in mind Val. Fl. v. 225 Fata laborati Phrixus com- 
pleuerat aeui (where Langen explains ' per labores peracti '), 
Stat. T. i. 339-341 iam Somnus atnaris Inserpit curis pronusque 
per aera nut at Grata laboratae referens obliuia uitae. In 
both instances the usage belongs to the later and more arti- 
ficial Latin of the latter part of the first century, and is alien 
from the style of Aetna. 

223 sqq: The long series of infinitives beginning with tueri 

(223) and ending with disponere (248) depends on diuina est 

ucluptas (249), which perhaps determines the dative effusis 

(224), though with Wernsdorf I have preferred to print effuses. 



iucri is probably right iox fuerc of MSS. : it is a favourite word 
with Vergil, and occurs in Lucr., yet we must not ignore the 
fact that Par. and Esc. give nidere, and that uiiiere, not 
tucri, is the reading of almost all MSS. (including the Mar- 
cianus and the early Brit. Mus. codex (Harl. 2610) collated 
in Anecd. Oxon. i. part 5) in Ov. Met. i. 85, where since 
Heinsius introduced tueri from two Medicean MSS. and the 
scholia on Prudent, c. Symm. 260 contained in * Bodl. Auct. F. 
iii. 6, it has ousted idderc. 
pecudmit with more, brutishly. 

224 cffusos in huinum. Lucian, Bis accus. 20 rrorepa yoipfnv 
b\.Kr)V KixTU) viVtvKorai rjdofjifvovi Xf^^ ^lovv. 

225 redus (for rerum) of C is surprising, ns it could hardly have 
been caused by confusing rerv with REH' or REB-. Since, how- 
ever, Par. and Esc. have rerum, though in a slightly altered form 
of the v., Prittcipia el rerian narias exquirere causas, we need 
not scruple to prefer it. Yet Lucr. iv. 463 has uiolare fidem 
sensibus, and our poet himself, Ael/i. 515 Jigulos hide esse 


226 The MS. tradition is here desperately vitiated, Sacra per 
ingenleju (al. urgentem, rigentem) capitique attollere caelum. 
The correction of Gyr., which was already in possession of 
Heinsius, Ingenium sacrare caputque a. caelo, i.e. to 'exalt our 
mortal to divine ' is brilliant and looks as if it must be genuine. 
Sudhaus shows that the ' consecration of intellect ' is also found 
in Seneca, N. Q. iv. praef. 10 ijigenucm . . . quod consecrari 
malles qtiam cotileri, and after the first two words iftgenhan 
sacrare had changed places, the corruption of the remainder 
is natural and explicable. 

[As however a doubt still lingers whether saira may not be 
right, cf. Sen. de breuit. uitae 19 Ad haec sacra et sublimia 
accedas, scitums quae ?naieria sit dei, and refer to the mysteries 
of the universe, the divine operations of which sky and ether 

' Auct. F. iii. 6 cites the passage thus, ' Cetera cum prona spectent 
animalia terram Os hominis sublime dcdit caelumque tueri lussit et 
erectus ad sidera tollere uultus.' But Cetera cum prona spectent is 
palpably wrong ; and this somewhat detracts from the authority of the 
MS. as to tueri. 



are the scene, I suggested (/. Philol. for 1895, pp. 9, 10) that 
the words as given by C might be a corruption of Sacra per 
ingenii caelestia tollere captum, * to exalt the sanctities of the 
sky by the grasp of intellect'; i.e. to employ the capacities 
of our intellect in examining natural phenomena, and thus exalt 
their marvellousness. Such a conj. is of course purely tentative: 
yet it must not be forgotten that as eminent a critic as Peerl- 
kamp doubted the now generally accepted reading of Gyr., 
and retaining sacra suhsUinicd perai;^ranie}n for per2irgt'niein^.'\ 

227 sunt which S had originally may be right, as it agrees 
with the other indicatives meiuunt, perguni, religata est, lunaest. 

fatalia of Gyr. is not so good as ttatalia of CS and the 
Escorial excerpts, because it would not be possible for the most 
advanced science to know how many times the universe was 
destined to come into new existence : scire is inconsistent with 
fatum, about which guessing is all that is possible. Whereas 
natalia aptly expresses the prevailing theories as to the periodic 
destruction and re-creation of the cosmos, a question which 
goes back to the predecessors of Plato and Aristotle. Tim. 
28 sqq., de Cacl. x., Serv. on (j. ii. 336 Varro in satura quae 
inscribitur de salute, sic: inundum haud jiatuni esse neque 
niori ; Plato atitem non naturn aut inori ; Metrodorus aute/n, 
neque tiatum neque mori ; Zenon, ex hoc mundo quamuis aliqua 
intereajit, tamen ipsum perpetuo manere, quia inhaereattt ei 
elementa, e quibus getierantur materiae, ut dixit crescere qui- 
dem sed ad interittwi non peruenire, inanentibus elejuentis a 
quibus reualescat: and is familiar to Lucretius v. 11 12 sqq., 
Propertius iii. 5. 29, Manilius i. 122 sqq. Quein (immduvi) sine 
ex nullis repetentem semina rebus Natali quoque egere placet 
semperque fuisse'. Lucan i. 79 sqq., and Seneca, e.g. Dial. vi. 
26. 6 cum tejnpus aduenerit, quo se niundus renouaturus ex- 
tinguat; xi. I. 2 Mimdo quidatn minantur interitum et hoc 
utmierstwi dies aliquis dissipabit: Epigr. vii. 4 and 6 : N. O. 
iii. 28 fin. and especially 29. Vergil must have had such a theory 
in view when he fancifully imagines that the world was born 

' The verb perurgere is found in Sulp. Sever., Chron. i. 18. 8, and in 
Spartianus' Life of Septimius Severus in the Historia Augusta, c. xxiii 
fin., again in the Life of Pescennius Niger, c. v. 


in spring weather : Ci. ii. 336 N071 alios priifui crcscentis origine 
vjujuii Inluxissc dies aliumiie habtiisse ienorem Crediderim : 
Iter illud erat, iter viagnns agebat Orbis. 

Munro, however, ex^lAm?, principia of theorotx*'" or elements 
from which the universe had its origin, ' one, two, three, or four, 
or as the epicureans say, infinite.' De Mundo ii. 9 irivrf 81) 
(TToixfia ravra (aether, fire, air, water, earth) «V nevTf ^^iopais 
(T<f)aipiKuis (yK€Lfx(vny iTfpie)((>fXii'r]v d(i rrjs (Xcittovos rjj fxd^ovi, 
Xf'yw 8( yt]i fjiiv (V vhari, vbaroi fv nipi, dtpos €v nvpi, nvpus 8f fv 
aWfpu rov Koa-fiop oXov <Tvve<TTr,aaTo^. On this view also yl?/a//a 
is palpably inferior to natalia. 

228 an, Le Clerc excellently for ad of CS. saecula, ' ages 
long,' as in Suet. Granim. xi Saeciihi permaneai nostri Dictymta 

229 7)iachina as in Lucr. v. 95,96 multosqtte per annos Susten- 
tata met moles et machina inundi, where Munro quotes Manil. ii. 
807 Dissociata fluat resoluto inachijia mundo ; Luc. i. 78 totaque 
discors Machina dimtlsi turbabit foedera mundi ; to which add 
Stat. S. ii. I. 211 7iec solidis prodest sua machina terris. 


Sohs scire modum et quanto minor orbita luna-est 
Haec breuior cursu bissenos peruolet orbes 


Annus ille monet que certo sidere currant 
Ordine quaeue suo errant incondita cura. C. 

' This is the prevailing interpretation of the passage. The former 
view, which explains natalia principia of the periodical re-creation of 
the world is open to the objection, urged by Prof. Bywater, that it 
is doubtful whether any one ever attempted to determine the exact 
number of the world's renewals. Such a mathematical calculation, 
however, would, I imagine, have been perfectly possible, though it has 
not survived in the vast wreck of ancient philosophical speculation. 
Berosus,according to Seneca, N. Q.iii. 29, tried to fix the time when the 
world might be expected to be deluged, and when it might be expected 
to burn ; arsura enim ierrena contendit, quando oynnia sidera, quae nunc 
diitersos cursus agutit. in Cancrum conuenerint, sic sub eodem posita 
uestigio ut recta linea exire per orbes omnium possit ; inundationem 
fuiuram, cum eadent siderum iurba in Capricornum conueneril. 


230 et also Esc. : ut Mutiro luna est Sv : lune Esc. : 
lunaest Mttnro. 

231 Haec breuior cur bissenos cito peruolet orbes Esc. atid 
Par., whence Wernsdorf conj. Haec b. cur b, cita p. o. ; and so 
Haupt. H. b. cur sic Baehrens. I think ut has fallen out 
a/tercuTsu or perhaps after bis sex {for bis senos). peruolat 

232 meet . . . sydera Esc. both rightly. 

233 After suo there is an erased stnall i in S: suos seruent 
i. motus Gyr.: suos curuent i. motus Unger: suis errent i. 
gyris Haupt: suos errent i. cursus Munro: suos uarient 
i. motus Alzinger: suo derrent i. guro the present editor. 

In 230 et of all MSS. (as well as of Par. and Esc.) cannot 
safely be changed to ut, in the uncertainty of the following v. 

lunaest is what Cs luna-est points to, just as i>ui7iuspoliuvi 
in the Madrid Codex of Man. v. 57 points to the word being 
considered a compound, inanuspolium {Herviathena for 1893, 
p. 285). 

231 In reconstructing this v. the choice appears to lie be- 
tween Baehrens' cur sic and my own cursu ut. cur has the 
support of Esc, and it is possible that cur sic was changed 
to cursu. The four Vergilian passages cited by Alzinger 
(Eel. i. 43, Aen. i. 393, v. 561, xi. 133) are a sufficient voucher 
for bisse7ios. Moreover sic would have its significance, as the 
moon's phases pass before our eyes continually. 

breuior, however, stands somewhat barely without cursu, 
which defines and explains its meaning ; and as peruolet of 
all MSS. (including Esc^ cannot give place X.o peruolat, a word 
seems to be lost, which was probably tif^. Our poet is here 
following Lucretius v. 618, 619 Lunaqtie nietisibus id spatium 
tiideatur obire. Annua sol in quo consuinit tevipora cursu. 

232 certo, the liarpa anXavri as opposed to the planets. De 
Mundo ii. 7 ratv -ye /x^k €finff}i(\Ofiti'cov iKTrpoav rh piv an\avr) tw 
a-vixnnVTi oipava (ru/i7repi<rTpe0«T«i ras avras e^oi/ra tdpns, rh 8f 

^ Wagler, Hildebrandt, and Sudhaus consider the clause Haec 
breuior curst* bis senos peruolat orbcs Attnuus tile meat to stand 
parenthetically in the indicative : but against MSS., except that Gyr. 
is said to have had peruolat. 



TrXni'rjTii wra ovti to'h npoTtpois 6fioioTa\o)i Kivf'iadai irtcftvKfv ovTf 
aWijXois, (iXX' eV frtpon kui (Tipois kvkXois, Plat. Legg. 82 1 C 

TToXXlIKtC fCOpnKU Kill IIVTOS T(')V T( ' EuKTCfiopOU K(t\ TOV "EffntpOV 
Koi <lXXoil? TlVaS OV^flTOTf lol'TUS (Is TUV (IVTOV fipopOV oXXu TTalTJ] 


233 ituondita, with no fixed plan ; inordinatiim ordinein 
scruant (Apul. de Mundo ii. l). The last word of the v. is 
probably guro or circo. 

234. signortim, the signs of the Zodiac, et has fallen out 
of MSS., but survives perhaps in iradita cicra est of Esc. as 
est. It is required, and is printed as early as the ed. Rubei of 


iu7'a. At any moment of day or night there are neither more 
nor less than six zodiacal signs above the horizon, and six below. 
This law is unaffected by the increased length of the night in 
winter, its diminished duration in summer. 

234/;. Only in Gyr. but seemingly genuine, though not abso- 
lutely clear. That six zodiacal signs rise by day, six by night 
is stated by many writers. Arat. Phaen. 554 -nucrw ^ *'"■' vvK.r\ 
'E^ a(\ hvvov<Ti 8utoSfK(i6o? kvkXoio, Tdfffrai ^' dfrtWovai. Man. 
iii. 242, Luc. i. 91, Vitruv. ix. i. 4 ex quibiis sex signa numero 
supra terram cum caelo pemagatitur, cetera sub terrafu subettntia 
ab eius umbra obscura?itur \ Sen. Dial. viii. 5. 4 (Munro). Add 
Hipparchus in Arati et Eudoxi Phaenoniena, ed. Manitius 
(1894 1, ii. I. 3 eV 77(10-7/ vvkt\ f^ C'^'StH ai/areXXtt. 

ra/>i disappear (set) in the course of the night, and (re/err/) 
are brought back to the sky (rise) when the next day sets in. 
On this view totidem are the same six signs. But in itself rapi 
might mean 'are borne or carried up the sky,' i.e. rise 
when flight sets in, in contradistinction to the other set of six 
which come back to the sky or rise when day sets in : totidem 
will then be six different signs. Manil. i. 318 Arcttirumque rapit 
medio sub pectore secum said of Bootes carrying Arcturus (one of 
the bright stars in his constellation) with him along the sky; 
i. 330 Et rapit inmensian mundi reuolubilis orbein, of Orpheus, 
i.e. the constellation of the Lyre. It recalls the recurring 
(rvfnrepi(f)fpf(T6ai of Greek astronomy ( Stob. Eel. Phys. i. 24 (25), 
pp. 203, 205, ed. Wachsmuthj. 




Nubila cur caelo terris denuntiet imbres 
Quo rubeat Phoebe quo frater palleat igni 
Tempora cur uarient anni primaque iuuenta 
Cura aestate perit cura aestas ipsa senescit. C. 

235 Cur panope caelo Gyr., whence MatHiiae conj. Phatnc, 
Unger Phaeo, Ahinger Pleias. 

237 uer prima iuuenta Gyr. Perhaps prima iuuentae, like 
Lticreiius' prima uirorum, i. 85. I thought I could trace e, not 
a, at the end of iiiuente in S [Journ. of Philol. for 1S95, 
p. 8). 

235, 236 Munro translates, ' Why, when Phoebe's fire is ruddy, 
her brother's pale, this portends clouds for heaven, rains for 
earth,' against the natural construction of the subjunctives 
rubeat, palleat, as questions. If CS rightly give the v., the 
nominative to denuntiet is Phoebe. Aratus in the Diosemeia 
recounts the different aspects of the moon (46-86) and sun 
(87 sqq.) as prognosticating weather. Nubila caelo answers to 
terris imbres, clouds expressing for sky what rains express 
for earth, storm. Dios. 53 ixax^fiiv 8e xat aix^Xfitjai Kf/jmntv 
TeTparov eK TpiTiiroio (fioats npevrjvov e_;(oi;o-a 'He v(>t(o apQ^iu'eT r] 
vSaros f'yyvs eoiros, which E. Poste translates ' ill-defined with 
blunted horns On the third and fourth nights, and shining with 
wan beams, The south wind blunts her (the moon) or the coming 
rain.' And again, 64-66 quoted on 236. 

Panope of Gyr. was considered by Munro 'a gross and palp- 
able interpolation'; for why should a divinity associated with 
fine calm weather (G. i. 435-7) be introduced in ref. to storm ? 
And how can Panope be cloudy {nubila adj.) 1 Matthiae saw 
this and conj. Phatne, the Manger, a constellation which Aratus 
includes particularly in his signs of storm. Dios. 160 sqq., 
specially 170 ovk oAt'-yw ;(e(/icoi/i tot€ kKv^ovtm (ipovpai : cf. 1 72 
Haupt accepts this. Unger's Phaeo is not far from caelo, and 
would be in place, as the name of one of the Hyades {luv) 
in Hesiod (Schol. Arat. 172), Hyginus (P. A. ii. 21), Schol. 
Germanic. Arat. p. 75 Breysig. 

236 rubeat may refer to the red circle round the moon 
mentioned by Aratus, Dios. 64-66, as a sign of storm : avTap 



enrjv TpiTotoaav oXof 7J-(pt kvk\os (\i(T(Tr] naPTj] tpfvdoixfyos, ixaXa 
Kfv TUTf xf'^H-^pos (tr], Mfi'^ori 8' Ap ;^<tfxai»'t irvpoiTf^a (f)oivl(r(roiTO. 

frafei\, ' the sun,' Hermippus de Astrohgia, p. 20, ed. Kroll. 
palleat {wxpw"h Dios. 119), loses its bright colour and grows 
dull. Luc. vi. 501 similarly of the moon, dt'r/s uerborum obsessa 
uenenis Palluit ; Stat. T. xii. 406 of the stars at the approach of 
dawn, iavi sidera pallettt Vicino iurbata die. 

237 It is doubtful whether ner prima iuuc7ita Cur ae. p. is 
what the poet wrote. Par. and Esc. give primaqiie iuuenta 
Vcr ac. p., which might point rather to cur prima iuuentae Ver 
acstaie perit, cur aestas ipsa settescif, in which cur would stand 
at the beginning of each clause, uer aestate in marked anti- 
thesis to each other. The corruption in C of cur twice into 
curae is a sign of unusual vitiation. I have not ventured, 
however, to alter the traditional reading. 

239 in orbe, the round of the year's revolution. Hor. C. iv. 
7. 9 uer proterit aestas Jnteritttra, simul Pomifer autumnus 
fruges effuderit et max Brtima recurrit iners. 

10,1. To the planet Saturn was assigned the brain with the 
cold parts about it ; hence age, indolence, and similar qualities 
(Hermippus de Astrol. pp. 18, 19, ed. Kroll, 1895). Scaliger 
may thus be right in explaining tenax of the parsijnontous 
tendencies of old men ; and so nearly Munro, who however 
expands the idea to * ill-natured ' or ' malignant,' comparing Ter. 
Adel. v. 4. 12 ego ille agrestis saeuus iristis parcus truculentus 
tenax. I prefer Scal.'s other explanation, ' impediens, remorans,' 
obstructive, impeding action, or possibly stubborn, obstinate, as 
Ovid speaks of tenacia fata, a destiny which kept a stubborn 
grip upon him, Pont. i. 2. 63. 

To Mars was assigned the gall-bladder {xokx]) and the 
choleric and pugnacious propensities associated with it (Her- 
mipp. p. 18) ; so Herm. p. 38 \iiTa tovto to 6vno(i8is TeraKTai, 61' 
ov ToX/ia T€ Kol opyf} Kcn dpilaos e'lude ylvftrBaC e^ova-i Be Kai ravra 
TOP TrfpcKiipdinv tottov iiik(2ov, KtKpaptvov T<o ^rjpca' ToiaiiTT] 5' ap fir] 
Kai t] Kpaais roii "Aptcoi. 

quae . . . quae, with the indeterminate sense of Trolof : e. g. Ant. 
92 1 , Phil. 278 Hermann. See Conington on Aen. i. 8 quo fitanine 
laeso, similarly Aen. ii. 123 quae sint ea nuinina diuum, where 


Servius says quaeriiur rnodo, non quid dicant, nam planum est, 
sed quis debeat immolari. Stat. S. iii. 5. 1 8 Qicas mdem comiietn 
ic rapto per tindas ? where Statius asks his wife ' what do you 
mean by (talking of) my hurrying you over seas ? ' I consider 
it indubitable that both quis and ttoIo? have an expansive 
meaning of this kind. [A more exact sense might be given 
to quae . . . quae by supposing quae Stella Saturni, quae 
Martia = '' whaX. house of Saturn, what housing-star of Mars,' 
Stella thus representing domus. Censorinus fr. 3, ed. O. Jahn, 
Multum tamen refert, cuius quaeque Stella domus, alienae an 
ip silts sit. Domus . . . est . . . Martis Scorpio et Aries . . . 
Saturni Capricornus et Aquarius. On this view quae stella 
Saticrni would mean, which sign of the Zodiac, Capricorn or 
Aquarius, in either of which Saturn houses, produces the 
temperament called tenax, and which of the two signs in which 
Mars houses, Scorpio or Aries, produce the bellicose tempera- 
ment. This is perhaps over-fanciful.] 

243 quo sidere : like G. i. I quo sidere terram Vertere. 

244 uias maris, ' the tracks of the sea,' i.e. the lines followed 
in sailing. G. li. 477 caelique tiias et sidera monstret. caeli 
cursus, the courses of the stars in the sky, by which seamen 
are guided. This is better than to make cursus = the seamen's 
courses as marked by the stars, which passages like Val. F. i. 
482 stellis qui segnibus usum Et dedit aequoreos caelo diice 
tendere cursus might suggest. 

Praediscere : Vergilian, G. ii. 255, i. 51 Vetitos et uarium caeli 
praediscere morem. 

245 uolet, ' hurries,' in reference to Orion's rapid motion as a 
hunter. Germ. Arat. 332 (326) 'Qreyslg pernici sic pede lucct. 

Orion is associated with the dog-star, as early as Homer and 
Hesiod. II. xxii. 29 Zv re kvv 'flptcofoy (TviKXiqaiv Ktikkowi'. Hes. 
"E. k. 'H. 609 'flpioji/ KCLi 2fipios: and Aratus assigns Sirius to 
Orion as his guardian, (f)povp6s : custos. Germ. 333 (327). So 
also Hygin. P. A. ii. 35 Nonnulli hunc (the Dog-star) canem 
Orionis esse dixerunt, et quod studiosus fuerit uenandi, cum 
eo canem quoque inter astra collocatum ; Schol. Germanic. Arat. 
p. 95 Breysig, and again 107 quidam dicunt hunc canem 
Orionis fuisse et cwn eo in montibus uenationem exercuisse, et 


/><•;■ adsuitiptioncm Orionis in caclimi hunc quoquc adsiiviptmu 

Siritis is properly the name of a particularly bright star in 
the Dog. Arat. Phaen. 329 7; hi o\ uKpr] 'Aarfpi ^(fiXrjrai. 8fivfi 
yews, Of pa jjuiXiarn 'O^ea (Tfipuifi' Kiii piv KoXfova avdpconoi 
2«ipiov (' In his fell jaw Flames a star above all others with 
searing beams Fiercely Ijurning, called by mortals Sirius,' 
F:. Poste). 

incubd, ' broods,' in reference to the sultry heat of the dog-days 
(W'ernsdorf) like i7icnmbere ; G. ii. yj'j grants incumbens scopulis 
aretifibus aestas : not so probably to watching narrowly, G. ii. 
507, Aen. vi. 610, and the passages there cited by Conington. 

i?idcx can hardly refer to one legend of Sirius, that ' as the 
dog of Icarius or Icarus he brought Erigone to her father's dead 
body' (Munro), for that legend dissociates him from Orion, 
with whom our poet obviously connects him. Sudhaus may be 
right in explaining from Arat. Phaen. 755, 756 ''Qpiava . . . Kwn 
T€ 6pn(Tvv 'SlpMvoi of the undaunted hound ever on the watch 
for prey to be pursued (Arat. Phaen. 340, 341), and guiding 
his master, the huntsman Orion, towards it. Sudhaus, how- 
ever, adopts exciihet from Gyr., a word which applies more 
exactly to a -wa/c/t'dog, and suggests a slightly altered idea, 
viz. that Sirius keeps watch to give his master notice against 
any of the fierce animals which it was his function (in one 
form of the legend, Hyg. 1. c.) to exterminate. Schol. Germ. 
Breysig, p. 75, states that Orion's dog was traditionally omnibus 
/t-/-/s iinmiion. 

[Jacob explained index of the signs which the Dog-star gives 
of coming harvests, periods of sickness, war or peace, Man. i. 
396 sqq.. and so Alzinger : ' o'er what region S. bends wistfully 
to give premonitory sign.' 

247. disiecta, Le Clcrc 'dispersed ' (Lucr. ii. 939) for digesia 
of MSB. Ad Herenn. iv. 2. 3 hoc ipsum suvimion est artificium 
res uarias ct dispares in tot poeniatis et orationibus sparsas et 
uagc disiectas ita diligenter eligere ut unum quodque genus 
exemplorutn sub singulos artis locos subicere possis. But cofi- 
gesta of Gyr., ' piled in a mass,' ' confused,' may be right, for it 
is no uncommon fact of MSS. to present the same verb with 


a different prefix, of which Pers. S. vi. 66 pone, rep07te, impone, 
oppone is a type, pati nearly = iav. 

248 7nanifesta fiotis, each with its distinguishing sign. 

cerata C for certa is curious : a wax tablet would be such 
a cerata sedes ; but (i) disponere looks the right word ; (2) it is 
a mental, not a mechanical, grouping of which the poet speaks. 
He means scientific classification, and the assignment of things 
to genera and species (Le Clerc), ?wtare et separare of ad 
Herenn. iv. 2. 3. 

250 doinitu's of C is retained by Munro, ' for us its lords and 
masters,' but without much real meaning. I follow Schrader, 
Haupt, and Wagler in preferring hotninis of Rehd., ' a human 
being' nearly = ' man.' The idealist of science naturally calls 
on man, the inhabitant of our earth, to examine the nature of the 
world he lives in, and take cognizance of its marvels. Omni of 
Gyr. agrees with 253-5, but seems veiy doubtful on palaeo- 
graphical grounds. 

251 The first three words of this v. are uncertain. C and 
Rehd. have Et quae nunc 7n. t. n. n. ; Gyr. Quaeque in ea ; the 
vv. 11. ascribed to Pilhou in MS. D'Orv. x. 1.6. 6 Et quae tot. 
In Postgate's Corpus Poetaru?n Latinorum I have suggested 
Et — quae non m. t. natura ?—notare, a sudden appeal which may 
be thought inconsonant with the exalted tone of the poet here. 
Yet Gyr.^s Quaeque in ea is far too like a mere correction, and 
if C represents anything like the true tradition, a not very happy 
one. In default of anything better the v. 1. ascribed to Pithou, 
Et quae tot, seems possible ; cf. Lucr. ii. 1057 : this at least 
does no violence to the MSS. [Alzinger keeps Et quae mtnc, 
and supposes an outbreak of Aetna to have happened just 
before, perhaps in 49 B.C. On other grounds I consider this to 
be impossible.] 

252 inagis for magna is a v. 1. ascribed to Pithou, and does 
not stand on the tradition of Gyr. alone. Man's first care is to 
ascertain the nature of the earth ; this is nearer to us men than 
astronomical speculations, adonis because we are denizens of 
earth, and the investigation of its phenomena borders closer 
upon us than the knowledge of the stars. Logically this fits in 
with the surrounding vv. better than magtta. 

129 K 


[I have, however, retained tnagna of all our MSS. as intelli- 
gible, if somewhat less strictly logical. The task of examining 
into the nature of the earth is lofty {viagna) and borders on 
(adjitits) the sublime investigation of the stars. The one specu- 
lation lifts us to the other.] 


Nam quae mortalis spes* quaeue amentia maior 


Ini^uis errantem regno perquirere uelle 

Tantum opus ante pedes transire ac perdere segnes C. 
mortalis Srv : mortales Scaliger spes est : que amatia 
maius r : species que ue amantia maius v : mortali cuiquam est 
Gyr. very poorly : Nam quae, mortales, res est amentia maior? 
Lindenbrtich : Nam quae mortali spes quaeue a. m. ? Hmipt, 
and so Munro, but 7vith mortalis superest the prese7it editor 
J. of Philol. for 1887, /. 302 254 diuos Gyr. for uelle 

255 segne est Gyr. 

253 \{ quae spes is right, it must be constructed, like quaeue 
amentia }naior, with uelle, ' what kind of hope for mortal man 
is it, to be fain to explore ? or what higher madness can there 
be ? ' This is, however, metrically weak and grammatically 
awkward. MSS. are corrupt: from superesi u might fall out 
and sper be changed to spes. This also gives a very clear con- 
struction. Scaliger's mortales (vocative) seems quite in place, 
the poet, in his enthusiasm, apostrophizing mankind by way of 
a more solemn protest. So Lucr. iii. 933. With amentia 
maior cf. de Inuent. i. 6. 8 quibus in rebus swnma ingenia 
philosophorum pliirimo cum labore co7isumpta intellegimus , 
eas . . . oratori attribuere magna amentia uidetur. 

254 errantem Munro explained as object accus. X.o perquirere 
' a wanderer,' i. e. some one of the celestial bodies that follow 
a seemingly erratic course in heaven {louis regno) : so also 
Alzinger, and before both Chenu : ' est-il folie plus grande que 
de vouloir chercher un astre errant dans I'empire de Jupiter? ' 
It is better, following Sen. N. O. i Praef. 7 itiuat inter ipsa 
sidera uagantem diuitum pauimenta ridere, Apul. de Mundo 
Prooem. animo peregrinari ausi sunt per caeli plagas, to make 
erra7iiem accus. of the subject.' uelle is not to be changed to 



diuos (Gyr.), but is a Lucretian touch : such infinitives are 
common in him at the end of a v., conuertere guisse v. 1422, 
posse 1264, ii. 566, 743, potesse ii. loio, and cf, v, 1 130 Qttam 
regere imperio res uelle ct regna tenere. 

255 recalls Cic. de Div. ii. 30 Democritus tanien non inscite 
mtgatur, ut physicus, quo genere nihil adrogantius. Quod est 
ante pedes nemo spectat, caeli scrutantur plagas, and Linden- 
bruch quotes the remark of the crone to Thales when, in observ- 
ing the stars, he fell into a well, Su yap, Z> QaXfj, ra iv -noaiv ol 
8vvafifvos 18elv, to. eVl tov ovpavov oi'et yvuafo-dai. ; Diog. L. 
Thai. 34. transire ac perdere, to neglect, and so lose the 
advantage it might bring. For segnes of Crv segnem (Jacob) 
seems necessary. 

256 premi??mr is a favourite word with our poet ; terimur of 
Gyr. is comparatively coarse, perhaps an imitation of G. iv. 114 

257 (278) Sen. ad Helv. x A'on est necesse scrutari omne 
profundum, a passage closely resembling this, profundum, not 
the sea, but the depths of earth, as in 545 quaedatn fortasse 
profimdo Incomperta iacent, 577 raptwnque profundo (Munro). 

258 (279) argenti semen as semen {aiireae) uenae in Ov. M. 
xi. 144, 5 Nunc quoque iam ueteris percepto semine ttenae Arua 
rigent auro jnadidis pallentia glaebis, ' germ.* Ovid again 
combines nena, semina Trist. i. 8. 41, 2 Et tua sunt silicis 
circum praecordia uenae Et rigidum ferri semina pectus habet 

259 (2S0) Tcrrentur of Gyr. is no improvement on Torqueti- 
tu*- of the other MSS. The earth is * put to the torture,' as 
Munro translates, citing Plin. ii. 157 aquis^ferro, ligno, ignt, 
lapide,/ruge omnibus cruciatur Jioris {terra). 

260 pretio, by the ore which is extracted from the earth. 
uerum, 'the truth,' i.e. 'where its treasures are' (Munro), the 
fact which lies concealed in its interior, pro/essae, after making 
a declaration : regular of specifications of income. 

261 taceant, 'is reduced to silence,' has nothing more to 
say, and is left to contempt and destitution. There may be in 
taceant some notion of the silence of a forsaken mine, no 
longer resonant with tools or the voices of men. 

131 K 2 


262 festinant, Par. and Esc. rightly. \' crgil has fesfinant 
with ittssa Aen. vi. 177,/ugam iv. 575 : bolder than either of 
these is/, anta, ' hurry on their fields,' i. e. try to bring them to 
bear quicker than they naturally would. Stat. S. ii. i. 128 quas 
itesies, quae non gestatnhta viitis Festinabat cms f 

263 Calient, Tennyson's ' mattock-hardened hand,' an imita- 
tion of Theocr. xvi. 32 unKeXa TfTuXw/itVos- tf^odi x^'P"^- 

cxpendunus usinn of Gyr. seems undoubtedly genuine for 
expellimur usu of CSRehd. attd Esc. Grattius has perpendiimis 
iisum Cyneg. 122. 

264 segeti, uiti, datives 'for corn,' 'for the vine.' Very 
similar is Pliny's hide bono fertilis xxxiii. 67, Claudian's Diues 
equis, felix pecori in Eutrop. ii. 272 ; perhaps too Cons. Manl. 
179 fieinori quae commoda rupes, Qui s felix oleae tractus, though 
oleae might be genitive. [There is no MS. support for segetis, 

265 phmtis of Gyr. as a generic term answers better to herbis 
than platanis, which however I retain as the reading of all 
extant MSS., and of Par. and Esc. \i platanis is right, the poet 
must be contrasting spaces to be planted with ornamental trees, 
of which the plane would be a type (Hor. C. ii. 15. 4), with 
ground to be left for herbage. The author of the Pseudo- 
Aristotelian treatise de Mundo, among the trees which are 
("iKapna fifv, aWas Be irapfxoy-fva XP^'of) mentions nXdrnvoi (vi. 37). 
Of dignissima the construction is more ambiguous than in G. i. 
506 non ullus aratro Dignus honos, where aratro is probably 
dative. Here it seems more likely \.h?k\.plata7tis, herbis are abla- 
tives, best suited for receiving the plane, the grass-crop. 

266 diira et is supported by Par. and Esc., and though far 
removed from diuiti duuti diuti of C and our extant MSS., was 
thought right by Scaliger. He notes ' intelligit quae pastoribus 
melior erat : ea enim est quae durior et stcrilior. Calles saltus 
siluas uocabant uetercs.' Matthiae conj. diira, utilior; but 
melior is Vergilian, G. i. 286 nonafugae melior. 

siluis, forest-trees as opposed to fruit-trees. To these the 

hard soil is fidelis, in faithfully reproducing their several 

characteristics unaltered and unspoilt, as Vergil states G. ii. 

240 of a salt soil that nee Baccho genus aut points sua tiomina 



seriiat. Le Clerc cites Fam. xvi. 17 where criticizing Tiro's use 
oi fideliter, Cic. says et doctritia et domus et ars et ager fidelis 
did potest', and Menander in the newly-discovered fragm. of 
the rftapydy 35 sqq. (ed. Grenfell and Hunt 1898) calls a farm 
pious with the same idea, dypoj/ •yewpyeti/ evae^farepov oidtva 
OifjLai, (fiepei yap fivppivrjv. , . . "Avdq Toaavra' raWa S' ttv Tis 
KarajBaXr] ^AnebcoKev opdws Km tiKaicos, ov irXeov 'AX\ avTo to 

267 Aridiora Varr. R. R. i. 9. 4 makes a sub-division of soils 
into lonidiores, aridiores, mediocres. 

oleae G. ii. 179-181 Difficiles primtim terrae collesque maligni 
Tenuis ubi argilla et dumosis calculus aruis. Palladia gaudent 
silua uiuacis oliuae. Varro R. R. i. 24 says the olive is to be 
planted in agro crasso et calido, Columella v. 8. 6 aptissimum 
genus terrae est oleis, cui glarea subest, si st(perposita creta 
sabtdo admista est. 

sucosior Columella ii. 17. 4 suapte natura sticoso solo. 

ulmis G. ii. 217-221. 

269. The change of nominatives in saturent, tutneant, need 
not surprise : cf. 318 Exagitant . . . pugnant. 

Horrea is accus. after saturent, ' that they may fill to over- 
flowing their barns ' (Forcellini), ad saturitatem impleant : 
the subject is implied in aminos et corpora. Sudhaus makes 
saturent intransitive, but does not prove such a use. 

ttwieant seems to be right ; yet tundeatit of Ar. may point 


to tundant, the more that Rehd. has iundant. I conj. tendant 
' distend,' as Ovid says, M. xv. 303 ceu spiritus oris Tcndere 
uesicavi solet aut derepta bicorni Terga capro. 

'2.^o faenilia Vitruv. vi. 6. 4 horrea faenilia farraria pistrina 
extra iiillani facienda uidentur. 

vv. 270-285 are extant in a fifteenth century MS. of the 
Laurentian Library (33. 9), from whence they were transcribed 
for me by Father Ehrle, S.J., librarian of the Vatican. The 
notes appended are by him: the numeration is not in the MS. 

F. I si7ie inscriptione ulla, i»nno etia>n lilt era parua 
incipit. Sententiarum partes iisdem signis quibus codex 



rienaque dcsecto ^ surgant fenilia campo 
271 Sic auidi semper quo vis est carior -il44s-^ ipsis 
Implendus sibi quisque bonis est artibus • ill§ 
Sunt animi fruges, hfc rerum est optima merces 
Scire quid occulto* terr§ natura cohercet * 
275 Nullum fallere opus / non multum cernere sacros 
!]fthnei montis fremitus animosque furentis 
Non subito pallere sono / non credere subter 
Celestis migrasse minas aut tartara rumpi 
Nosse quid intendat " uentos quid nutriat ignes 


280 Vnde reperta quies et multo fj^dere * pax est. 
Concrcscant anime penitus. seu porta cauern^ 
Introitusque ipsi seruent seu terra minutis 
Rara foraminibus tenues in se abstrahat auras 
Plenius hoc etiam rigido quia uertice surgens 

285 mine infessa est / atque hinc obnoxia uentis. 

' quasi de secto "^ Haec ita correcta in codice ^ Posset 
etiam legi occulta sed tierius occulto * ether . . . aut 

coher ... '-^ Fortasse intendit ^ Primion scriptum esse 

iddctur federe. 

271 qua uisum est carius istis C 272 illis C 273 hae 

rerum maxima m. C 274 exculto natura C 275 multos C 
277 callere C 278 mundi C 279 impediat C nutriat 

illos C 280 Vnde repente C paxsit C 281 animi C 

seu forte C 283 neue inse C 284 surgit C 285 

infestus C uitis C. 

This is the only part of Aetna which in an entire and con- 
tinuous form contains the identical variants which are said to 
have been in Gyr. It is therefore important to compare its 
readings with those of C. I call Laur. 33. 9 L. 

171 is corrupt both in L and C \ but worse in L. carior 
against carius can hardly be right. 272 z7// of L seems 

right : illis of C, if it is not a corruption of illic, may come 
from e, a well-known abbreviation of -is. 273 est of L is no 

gain after Stmt, nor is the commonplace optima better than, if 
indeed it is as good as, 7naxima. 274 is quite doubtful : 

still the balance is in favour of occulto (which is found not only 


in L but all the fifteenth-century MSS, of Aetna) against 
exciilto of CS: terrae nafura is accepted by Haupt and 
Munro. 275 maltum of L against nmltos of C is in- 

decisive : if mu/tti/n would represent imitum, mulios would 
equally represent tnutos. 277 pallere of L is clear 

gain : for all my other MSS. have callere. 278 rumpi 

looks right : or can 7nundi of C point to fundi ? . 279 
inttfidat of L is less of an antithesis to nutriat than itnpediat 
of C. illos of C looks wrong ; the word is omitted in the 
Xlth-century fragment of Stavelot (S). 280 Vnde repenle 

of C is undoubtedly right, cf. Lucr. vi. 667 Vnde repente queat 
tell us concussa jnouen, 1090 tmde repente Mortiferani possit 
cladevt confiare (Alzinger). Again pax sit is what we should 
expect, pax est of L would be grammatically awkward. 281 

C's animi 'the fury' of the winds is more effective than the 
tame atiime of Z, which could only be a variation of uenti. 
Uncertainty of meaning makes it difficult to decide between 
porta, forte. 283 tenues of L is very likely to be the 

original of which neue (C) is the truncated remnant. 284 

Whether surgens (Z) or stirgit {C) is right cannot be settled in 
the uncertainty of 285. But infessa est of Z, whether it repre- 
sents insessa est, a word of Livy and Statins, or infesta est 
(Baehrens), is a weak anticipation of obnoxia ; whereas infestus 
of C is an easy error for infestis: to which obnoxia is the proper 
correlative. uentis of Z is a pure gain, uitis a bad corrup- 
tion which is found not only in C, but in Rehd. and Arundel. 

We have then in Z two readings which are certain, pallere 
uentis ; five which are more than probable, illae occulta runipi 
ignes tenues. 

In C unde repente, anijnt, seem certain ; qua tiisuin est 
carius, hae rerum maxima, impediat, iffestus {infestis), pax 
sit, more than probable. 

The other points of disagreement are so dubious as not to 
affect the argument. 

The balance is thus very even. 

271 The difficulty of this verse lies in the want of a verb to 
auidi, and in the vagueness of istis, for which Gyr. and Z 
give illis corrected to ipsis. Munro writes, ' They are ever 


full of greed, when anything has shown itself more precious 
than what they have.' Alzingcr sup[)lics sunt, and explains 
istis of the grand phenomena of nature mentioned in 253, ' They 
are greedy only when {sic . . . qua) anywhere something more 
precious than the despised marvels of nature has come into 
view,' i.e. something which like gold or other treasures of the 
mine pays their search in hard coin. Such an omitted verb 
seems intolerably harsh, even in Aetna, with its daring grammar 
and free constructions. I find a verb in itis for istis of C: the 
vocative vwrtales has preceded in 253. 
[Haupt conj. 

Sic auidi semper qua uisum est carius, istis 

Implemus se quisquc bonis. 

Sic auidi semper, quo quidque est carius, istis 

Implemus se quisque bonis. 
Baehrens, followed by Sudhaus, 

Sic auidis semper quaeuis res carior ipsis.] 

272 ' Each man must play his own part in taking his fill of 
noble crafts ' : such seems to be the meaning of sibi quisqtie. 
The construction oi sibi'^ is determined by quisque, which in its 
different cases is naturally combined with the reflexive sibi, se 
and by the analogy of combinations like stio sibi tela, suco, sua 
sibi ingenua indoles, sua sibi fallacia all Plautine (Holtze, 
Sy fit axis i. p. 364). 

bonis artibus : Sen. N. Q. vi. 32. i nan eniin aliunde uenit 
aninio robur quam a bonis artibus, a cofitemplatione naturae. 
He means the pursuits of culture and education, particularly the 
study of science and natural phenomena. 

273 fruges : Wernsdorf compares Pers. v. 64 Frugc Cleattthea, 
and Jahn there Cic. Tusc. Disp. ii. 5. 13 cultura animi philo- 
sophia est, haec extrahit uitia radicitus et praeparat atwnos 
ad satus accipiendos eaque maftdat eis, et ut ita dicam serit, 
quae adidta fructus uberri?nosferant. 

' Passages like Lucr. iii. 333 might be compared, Ncc sibi quaeque 
sine alterius ui posse uidtiur Corporis atque atiimi sorsum seniire 



hae C, haec Gyr. and L. C's reading agrees with the omis- 
sion of est {hae reni»i maxima inerces) ; but haec renim est 
optima of L and Gyr. is nearly as good, and may come from 
a genuine antiquity, maxima is rather less ordinar>% I think, 
than optima. 

274 quod of Rchd. is preferred by Munro to quid, which 
however seems defensible from the indicatives in 228, 229, and 
again 238, 239, and is found in C. occulta is in L (Father 
Ehrle speaks decisively against its being read occulte), is 
reported independently from Gyr., and is found in Rehd. and ?'. 
For this reason I admit it against exculto of CS, and so 
Haupt, Munro, and Sudhaus. terrae nattira of L and 
Gyr. is not certain, but looks right, is Lucretian, and is pro- 
nounced by Hildebrandt a real cure : I would suggest however 
that natura (et) terra ^ may be latent in natura terra of C, 
nature terra of v. 

275 Scaliger, Munro, and most edd. make Jiullum opus 
subject X.O falter e, 'that no operation of nature should escape 
us,' cf. on saturent 269 ; I prefer to give fallere an active sense 
' to belie,' i. e. falsify by giving an explanation which is not true. 
So Ov. F. ii. 837 Brutus adest tandemque animo sua nomina 

fallit belies his name of Brutus by a resolute action. It is 
hard to choose between mutum to which L and Gyr. point 
{imilttim), and mntos (multos C), or again miito which is found 
in V, and is latent in multo of Rehd. The dative would be 
determined by hae rerum maxima merces. 

278 Tartara mundi can hardly be an echo of Lucretius' sidera 
mundi (ii. 328) and would require aut to be changed to ad 
(so ed. Rub. 1475). It seems to be a mis-spelling either of 
rumpi {L and Gyr.), or perhaps o{/u?idi, ' is being effused.' 

279 impediat . . . 7iutriat are correlatives and call for no 
change. But illos of C is more than doubtful, as it is entirely 
omitted by 5 (the Xlth century Stabulensian Fragment). Post- 
gate's iras is very seductive. 

280 The learned Jesuit Oudin (1715) demurred to 7nulto 
foedere, changing it to inulto or ??iuto, Journal de Trevoux'^ 

1 Turba ei disiecfus has become iurbae disiedus, Lucr. ill. 928. 
* The original form of the Journal des Savans. 


(Tome Ivii. p. 597) : inulto ' line paix faitc par im traitd sans 
garant, dont I'infraction ne sera pas venge'e': wi^fo would of 
course refer to the silence which sets in when the winds' fury 
ceases. Both emendations are clever, but inulto foedere is, 
I think, as good, and is supported by all MSS. including L. 
Munro compares midta pace Tac. Hist. i. "j"]^ iv. 35. 

2S1 concrescant (= coticrescantne, cf. Prop. iii. 5. 31, 39) 
if genuine must mean * come to growth,' ' grow gradually,' the 
various elements of the winds' fury massing their forces till 
the explosion is effected. But, though this is a possible sense, 
concrescere is so regularly used not of qualities like aniini (rage, 
violence), but of actual substances or products of nature (snow, 
ice, water, &c.) as to make the word doubtful. Scaliger's Cu?- 
crescant is the easiest substitute hitherto offered. 

\animae of L and Gyr. = airs, as anii>iam 297, miimae 358.] 

283 tenues : impalpable, a good and seemingly right reading 
of L and Gyr. Lucr. vi. 104 tarn tenues quain stmt nebulae 

futnique tiolantes and 463. [My conj. nitds would be like 
Catull. Ixiii. 70 where niue has been corrupted into 7iene?[ 

284 hoc: probably abl., * the more fully for this': it would 
not be impossible to take it as explained by abstrahat auras, 
' this too the more fully, because.' 

rigido, ' stark.' Ov. M. viii. 797 rigidique cactimine inontis 
{Caucason appellant). 

sitrgit of C I retain, as 2S5 is doubtful. 

285 infestis (Jacob) for infestus of all MSS. except L {=Gyr.) 
seems right. obttoxia, 'exposed to.' Colum. x. 75 Verberibus 
gelidis iraeque obnoxia Cauri. [I am persuaded that our poet 
could not have written, as Sudhaus edits, Illinc infesta est atque 
hinc obnoxia uentis. A more inept verse could hardly be 

286 The meaningless ^ cogitat was well corrected by Schrader 
and Mahly into cogitur ; Vitruv. viii. 3. 10 a solis et aeris calore 
cogitur congelari. With this Vnaque for Vndique of MSS. 

* Hildebrandt {Philologus for 1897, p. 103) does not persuade me 
that cogitat, ' is minded,' stands on the same footing with uidet in 337, 
both ascribing to Etna a personal will. 


agrees, bringing diuersas into more emphatic contrast. Ar. 
Acharn. 493 atrndi. iiihXm eiy Xeytiv. Orient. Common, ii, 192 
jE"/ giMe per luirias mors ruit una uias. 

l%<^ fortes {gx forte of MSS. means that they increase their 
volume and turn the head of Aetna, taking it in the rear (Mahly). 
The nominative is, as usual, vague : Miihly is probably right in 
making it nubes et nubilics Auster: and so Munro. 

[Of the earlier emendations Baehrens'/<?r/^ erexerc is perhaps 
the best.] 

290 iina of MSS. looks wrong, since there is nothing to 
which it can well refer: it cannot be a mistake for inid 
(accus. neut.) as Birt supposes, supplying an impossible nomina- 
tive to premit in concordia of 287 ; nor for tida (Sudhaus), sc. 
aura, which is vague and awkward, substituting an adjective 
where a noun is expected. Buecheler retaining una supplies 
anima or aura 'nam unus uentus subito commissus ceteris et 
colluctatus initium turbarum facit omnium.' Against this it may 
be urged that (i) tina is still unduly vague, (2) the introduction 
of the water-organ and the Triton trumpeting by hydraulic 
action (292-297) points to a mention of water in some distinct 
word in 290. Hence I follow Scaliger and Munro in writing 
unda, the water from the clouds, which acts upon the air. 

Lindenbruch defended delecta of MSS. from Asin. iii. 3. 42 
ex aedibus delegit: add Cic. in Vatin. xiv, 34 urnas delegerit, 
where other MSS. give deiecerit, Prop. ii. 32. 50 altaque ?nortali 
deligere astra tnanu, Tac. Ann. i. 22 responde ubi cadauer ablegeris 
(so the Mediceus). It is not yet proved that legere in these 
compounds may not have had a sense, distinct from its ordinary 
one, of removing or detaching. Here, however, the water is 
launched violently downwards {praecipiti sono), and for this the 
right word is deIecta : an elongated i or /is often indistinguish- 
able from / or L. Sen. de Prov. ii. i tantiun superne deiectorum 

291 Torretitibus auris occurs Lucr. v. 410 in the sense of 
'torrid airs' (Munro), and torrentes auras, if genuine, should 
seem to have the same meaning (and so Sudh. ' die gliihenden 
Liifte).' But is it likely, if this is so, that the poet would give 
torrentibus in 298 the perfectly different sense of streaming 



fluidst Hence, as I do not believe our poet could use a Lucre- 
tian diction in a non-Lucretian sense, I follow Munro in adopting 
De Rooy's conj. Torpcfiics, a word which fitly describes the 
torpid and motionless state of the air when the water breaks 
in upon and dislodges it, pulsata dcuset = pulsat et denset. 


Nam ueluti sonat ora due tritone cancro 
Pellit opes collectus aquae uictusque mouere 
Spiritus et longas emugit bucina uoces. C. 

292 sonat ora diu tritona canoro Rchd. and Ar. : sonatura 
dius tritona canoro v, whence I conj. sonat urna ciens Tritona 
canorum. Munro conj. hora duci, and so Hildebrandt. s, hora 
die or lacus Haupt 293 opus the Hclmstadt MS. m. pr. 

moueri seetns to be required. 

Another very doubtful passage. Ora is generally taken as 
hora, with which die (from diu) might seem to accord, if it 
could be shown that the trumpeting Triton was part of a 
mechanical device for indicating time. If due of C best repre- 
sents the manuscript tradition, Munro's duci is very near: he 
explained duci either of the commanding ofificer in a naumachia 
such as Claudius exhibited on lake Fucinus, or of the Roman 
Emperor himself. Hildebrandt, Beitrdge^. 16, thinks Claudius 
(Suet. Claud. 21, Plin. xxxiii. 63) is meant; both Statius and 
Martial use dux of the priticeps; for the dative Hild. cites 
Plin. viii. 22 pugnauere et Caesari dictatori . . . xx {elephanti) 
cofitra pcdites d. liut ora can hardly mean the shore of the 
lake where the sham sea-fight took place, as Hild. goes on 
to suggest ; nor is lacus for due or diti a probable alteration. 

Hora would be less strange in the sense of the hour when 
the fight was to begin ; this would suit with duci, not 2iS=principi, 
but as ' presiding officer.' The abl. Tritone canoro nearly = per 
canorem Tritonis ; the position oi canoro at the end of the v. shows 
it to be the determining word. We might then translate : 'just 
as the hour of battle is sounded to the general by the trumpeting 
tones of the Triton.' Another explanation is suggested by Vitruv. 
ix. 8 (9). 6, where he describes some of Ctesibius' automatic 
machines, including chronometers {horologid). The hours were 
marked on a column or front-wall, and each successively indi- 


cated by a small figure which came out at the bottom and 
pointed with a wand to the hour. This figure might be the 
dux of 292, if we suppose a Triton trumpeting to this in- 
dicator simultaneously with the egress of the figure as the hour 

[My own suggestion urna ciens Tritona canonim is based on 
sonatura ditis tritona canoro of Vat. 3272. The accus. tritona 
is also in Rchd. and Arund. The hydraulic machine described 
by our poet might, I think, be called urna, a word of wide 
extension, and not inapplicable to a contrivance in which water 
played a leading part. And such a vessel, as containing the 
machinery which made the Triton sound, might be said to set 
the Triton in motion {cietis Tritona) ^] 

Tritone, Suet. Claud. 21 fin. Hoc spectaculo classis Sicida et 
Rhodia concurrertoii, duodenarum triremiu>n singtdae, exciente 
bucina Tritone argenteo, qui e medio lacu per fnachinatn emer- 
serat. Triton was regularly represented blowing a conch. 

293 Pellit, an asyndeton. As Conington observes on G. iii. 
196 the description passes from the main point of the com- 
parison to collateral details. Pellit does not introduce an 
apodosis, but the description proceeds independently, opus, 
the machiner>% or more exactly, the action of the different forces 
combined to produce the trumpeting, \inoueriior mouere seems 
to me almost necessary, as it is the action of the water on the air 
which is emphasized. Publil. Optatianus, however, in his hexa- 
meter description of a water-organ (20) says, unda latens prope- 
rantibus incita uentis, which would correspond to uictus mouere 
spiritus.l collectus aquae, 'a body of water,' is Lucretian, 
iv. 414 At collectus aqtcae digitum non altior unum, and need 
not imply any large amount of water. 

294 longas : a word specially used in connexion with mugire, 
Prop. iv. 10. 9 Aruaque niugitu sancite boaria longo. 

295 cortina was explained by Scaliger (reading theatri) of 

^ It is less probable that ora is an error for ara = PwfiiaKos of 
Heron's Pnenmaitca 228 ; Serv. on Acn. vii. 26 tuoiii aquae uentus 
creatuf tit itidcmus in boittis (most MSS. bonis, some bolriis) organorunt, 
where Pwnois seems clearly meant. 


the vaulted or domed ceiling in a theatre, and Gudeman on 
Tac. Dial. 19 cu»i nix iti coriina quisquam adsisiat (' a circular 
space in the court-room, which was occupied by the general 
public ') still holds to this view, translating it ' the auditorium 
of a theatre.' Wernsdorf was the first to suggest that the 
words Imf)aribus uianerosa modis catiit arte rcgcntis must refer 
to a musical instrument, and that the various descriptions of 
the hydraulis, or water-organ, coincide sufificiently with the 
whole of 295-297 to make it all but certain that the coriina 
is identical with this instrument. Besides, C and Rehd. give 
magnis c. theatris, S has viagnisque. v alone has theatri: 
and Alzinger shows that magnis theatris is Lucretian iv. 74, 
vi. 109. Suetonius (Ner. 41) states that Nero had a passion 
for these hydraulic instruments, and not only spent a large 
part of a day in examining new and unknown forms of 
them, but exhibited and discussed the various improvements, 
promising to produce all of them in the theatre. Again (54), 
he engaged to appear in the public games as a performer on 
the water-organ. From this it is clear that they were capable 
of producing a very loud sound ; but the shape, size, arrange- 
ment of tubes, &c., of course varied infinitely. The invention 
is ascribed to Ctesibius, an Alexandrian barber and contem- 
porary of Ptolemy Euergetes : the earliest description is by 
his pupil Heron {Pneiimatica 227, p. 192 ed. W. Schmidt). 
Vitruvius attempts, not very successfully, to make the mecha- 
nism intelligible (de Archit. x. 8. 13). Athenaeus (174) 
has a shorter account : ivrarhv oZv xal khQa-htov ouk av vofxi- 
adeiri' (finvtvtTTOV 6' av tVcof pi^deirj fiui to (finvtlvdai to opyavov 
iiTTO Tov atpos, KaTf(TTpafx[jievoc yap fltriv ot avXoi etf to vdap 
Ka\ apa(T<Top.ivov tov vbaTOS vno tivos v(avi<TKov, en 6« buKvov- 
fxeixov a^ivciiv (al. a^oviav) 8ia tov opyavov, ffinvfoVTai ot aiiXol 
Ka\ rjxov dnoTeXov<TL npoarjvrj' eoiK€ Bf to opyavov ^co/io) (TTpoyyvXai, 
Besides the representation of a hydraulis (first figured in Tristan's 
Commejttaires Historiqiies, i. p. 219, and repeated in the Diet, of 
Antiquities, ed. 2) on a medal of the Emperor Nero', we now 

' Mr. H.Griiber, who kindly sent me casts of two of these supposed 
Neronian contorniates in the British Museum, assures me that, 


possess a larger and clearer delineation in a mosaic found at 
Nennig, not far from Treves, published at Bonn by Wilmowsky, 
1864/5. To judge from these and the figure in Heron's Pneu- 
matica (227), the organ, to the eye, presented two distinct parts, 
a lower case or box into which the water was poured, and which 
contained the mechanism for making it act on the air to be 
conveyed to the tubes, and above it a series of bronze pipes, 
generally (but not in the Nennig mosaic) ascending in grada- 
tionally adjusted lengths. In the mosaic, the performer is 
stationed on the side of the instrument turned away from the 
spectator, over which his head is figured rising : his feet and 
hands are not seen, but the impression given by the mosaic 
is that he is playing on keys, and that his feet do not touch 
the ground. The shape of the case both in the coin and the 
mosaic is hexahedral, whereas Heron's name for it, ^w/xto-Koy, 
might rather seem to point to a circular shape, such as was 
frequent in small altars : but this is a detail which may w^cU 
have varied with different makers. 

296 Jmparibus inodis : the height of the tubes is unequal, 
as each rises above the next, like a Pan's pipe ; the modi 
similarly. This is very distinctly stated in the Latin poem 
describing a hydraulis ^ of Publilius Porphyrius Optatianus, 
best given in Pithou's Epigrammata et Poematia uetera 'ex 
vetustissimo codice Franc. lureti,' p. 243, ed.'l590. It contains 
twenty-six hexameters, the first having twenty-five letters, the 
second twenty-six, and so on to the last, which has fifty ; the 
whole thus representing in its gradual crescendo the series of 
tubes which form the sounding part of the organ: 15, 16 
Perque i)wdos gradibtis surget fecunda ^ sonoris Acre cauo et 
tereti calamis crescentibus aucta ; also by Claudian Paneg. 
Manl. Theodor. 316 (p. 187 Birt) quoted by Scaliger, Et 

though they bear the head of Nero, they were not made till the 
beginning of the fourth century. See Wroth on Contorniates in 
Did. of Antiquities (1890). 

' Publilius belongs to the reign of Constantine, about 320 a. d. 

^ Rather perhaps facimda : cf. Gell. xi. 13. 10 ne uos facile prae- 
stringeret modulatus aliqui currentis facundiae som'tus. 



qui 7>ia(^>hi Icui dctrudcns inurniura tactu Innumeras itoces 
segetis vwderatus acnac Intonet erranti digito, penitusque 
{pedibusque, Dempster) trabali Vectc laborantes in carmina 
conciict utidas. 

arte rcgciitis. There can be no doubt that the ' skill of the 
controller ' refers mainly to playing on keys. These are men- 
tioned in Heron's description of the hydraulis : orav ^ovXafxtdd 
nvas Tci)v nvXaiv (pdeyyeaddi, KnTii^o^fii tu'is SaKTvXois tu kut (Keivovs 
ayKoivi(TKin' ortiv de firjKiri (jidtyyftrdai j3ov\o)fj.(6a, twdpovfifv rovs 
SdKTvXovs Koi Tore navaovTai. rav TTco^aTiov f^ikKvadivTOtv '. 
Claudian expressly mentions the fingers {erranti digito) and 
even their action in depressing the keys {detrudens) lightly: 
and the writers of the article Hydratilis in the Diet, of Antiq. 
ed. 2 (Yates and Wayte) state, ' There is sufficient evidence 
that the instrument was keyed and gave scope to the skill of 
the performer.' 

297 impellens : setting air in motion by agitating the water. 
For this purpose in the more powerful organs bellows were 
used large enough to tax the strength of young men. Publilius 
Optatianus 20 Sub quibus tmda latens properantibus incita 
uetitis Qiios uicibus crebris iuuenu7n labor hand sibi discors 
Hinc atque hinc animaeqiie agitant, a description which 
seems to suit a larger organ than the writer of Aetna has in 
view. subremigat, probably with a pedal : Munro writes, 

' Can the words imply here " he rows below upon the water," i.e. 
while he is playing above with his hands, he is moving some- 
thing below with his feet, which sets the water in motion .? ' 
Such a double action of the hands and feet would be not 
inconsistent with the position of the organ-player in the 
Nennig mosaic. zinda is the same abl. as in Vergil's tacitis 

subre7nigat undis, Aen. x. 227, ' in ' not ' with ' (Sudhaus) the 
water. Silius Italicus has eremigarc of a swan, xiv. 191, 192 

* ' When we require any of the pipes to sound, we must depress 
the corresponding key with the fingers ; and when we require any 
of the sounds to cease, remove the fingers, whereupon the lids will 
be drawn out and the pipes will cease to sound.' Woodcroft, tr. of 
Heron's Pneumatics, p. 106. 



Jnnatat albus olor projioque i»nnobile corpus Dai Jluuio et 
pedibtis ' tacitas eremigcxt utidas. 

298 summota, ' rudely dislodged.' The word is used of the 
lictor forcing the crowd to move out of the way ; Hor. C. ii. 
16. 9 nequc considaris Summotiet lictor tinseros tumulttis Mentis. 
Munro constructs furens in close connexion with stitnmota, 
' maddened at being dislodged by the torrents of water,' and 
in any case torrentibus looks like a substantive, not a par- 
ticiple, and must mean, I think, ivater; but why should not 
the air be described as first fiiretis to7-re7itibus, 'raging' with 
these waters, i.e. with the agitation they produce; then sum- 
mota, rudely driven from its place, and so reduced to a state 
of conflict? Sudhaus, in view of torrentes auras (291), makes 
torre7itibus = ' hot airs,' which by reciprocal action drive again 
upwards the descending moister {itda) air, appealing to Strato's 
explanation of earthquakes as produced by the alternation of 
hot and cold air-strata inside the earth. Against this is (i) that 
uda (sc. aura) which Sudh. reads in 290 for U7ia of MSS. is 
awkward and improbable, (2) torre7itibus (sc. atiris) in 298, 
though the preceding /^^rrm/^^ aj(ras makes it somewhat easier, 
is at best obscure, leaving us to infer from aura itself the abl. 
with which t07-re7itibus agrees. 

299 co!>i7iiurinurat, mutters with the aura, if we may trust 
the tendency of the word to express a noise made by more 
than one, ' ein ailgemeines Gemurmel,' as Georges says, Lex. 
s. v. co77U7iu7-77mratio, e.g. storks, Plin. x. 62. There is, how- 
ever, no such notion in Sil. xv. 821 clauso C077ii7iur77iurat ore : 
Varro and Cicero use the deponent of muttering with or to 

300 C7-ede7idu77i est, Cic. Tim. xi. i Credendu)7i 7ti7/iiruiii est 

302 ^z.€tvx&ns pre77ia7it for cre77ia7it of MSS., and my turba//i 
for tttrbant of C, are natural and easy corrections, turbai/i, 
'crowding,' a Lucretian use of the word 'jostling.' The accus. 
depends on fugia7tt. 

' pedibus here is very like pedibusqtte which Dempster conjectured 
in Claud. Paneg. Manl. Theod. 318, where Birt's MSS. have peiii- 

145 L 


303 in uacuum. ratlicr with Elisa \.\\-Anfu giant. 

304 Mofninc, ' moving-power,' as in Lucr. iii. 188, 189 Momine 
uti paruo possint itnpuha tnoiteri. Namque inouetur aqua et 
iatitillo fiiomine JJiihit ; vi. 474 Posse quoqiee e salso consiirgere 
moininc ponti. 

[Sudhaus writes the passage thus : 

Vt, cum densa premunt inter se corpora, turbant, 
Elisa in uacuum fugiunt et proxima secum 
Momina tota trahunt tutaque in sede resistunt. 
explaining tit, ' as for example,' and co-ordinating turbant, 
fjigiunt, tfahutit, resistunt. Thus momina tota = the whole of 
the moving-forces or elastic air-particles immediately about the 
densa inter se prementia corpora. In this, besides the strange 
sense given to jnofnina'^, the awkwardness of the whole 
structure of the sentence, and the extreme obscurity of the 
statement, appear to me fatal.] 

306 cum surgcre Baehrens for consurgere of CS ; so in Sen. 
Cons, ad Helv. xvi. 4, ed. Gertz mitnquam tibi placuit uestis 
quae nihil a7nplius nudaret, cum poneretur, the Ambrosian 
MS. {A), which Gertz thinks cannot be much later than the 
beginning of the eleventh century and may be much earlier, 
gives componeretur. The correction is by Lipsius. [Most 
edd. with Munro retain the alteration of Aid. 15 17 Princi- 
piisque : and it is true that Vergil has consurgunt uc7iti, 
Aen. V. 20.] 

307 penitusque cauernas Vergilian, Aen. ii. 19 (Alzinger). 

308 Prouehere is retained by Sudhaus, sc. animus, ' push out 
airs,' which involves too harsh a change from active to passive, 
non dubium est cauernas {prouehere propinquas anitnas) easque 
diffugere impellique ; nor can prouehere well mean ' stossen aus.' 
Proruere, 'tumble forward,' suits the description, and is like 
Tac. Ann. xv. 22 motu terrae . . . oppidum Pompei (so M) 
magna ex parte prori/it (Munro). 

310-314 seem based on Lucr. vi. 476 sqq. Praeterea fluuiis 
ex ojunibus et simul ipsa Surgere de terra nebulas aestumqtte 

' The existence of a plur. momina was questioned by Munro : yet 
it seems a plausible correction in Lucr. vi. 48 for omnia. 
. 146 


uidemtcs^ Quae uclut halitus hinc iia sursiim expressa feruntiir 
Suffundunique sua caelum caligine et alias Sufficiu7it nubis 
paulativi conueniundo. 

310 nebulas cffundere, sc. aninias. Baehrens' conjecture se 
effundere is a clever amalgam of the last letter of fiebulas, the 
first of e^uftdcre. 

311 sclent, sc. nebulae. adluif Haupt, for abluil, no doubt 
rightly. Nettleship, Ccmtribiitions to Latin Lexicography, s. v. 
cites Varr. R. R. iii. 14. 2 adluant quorum radices lacus ac 

312 caligat. Seneca in a very similar passage, where however 
he is trying to show that wind is distittct from cloud and mist, 
N. Q. v. 3. 2 (quoted by Le Clerc) uses nearly the same 
language : Adice nunc quod circa flumina et lacus frequens 
nebula est artatis congestisque corporibus, neque tamett uenius 
est. interdum uero inulta caligo effunditur, ut conspectum in 
uicino stantium eripiat. 

313 Or again water-ducts convey draughts of air, which 
nearly amount to wind : the conciseness of the poet makes his 
language obscure. Flumina par-ua is explained by Munro of 
the ritii taken from the amnis and distributed for irrigation 
over the fields. It is not, I think, certain that he still has in 
view the amnis of 31 1 : he seems to be speaking more generally 
of any small channel of water, uis, i.e. harum aurarum, 'currents 
of air from water' (Munro). 

314 Eminus adspirat fortis et uerberat humor. C. 
[fotis 7' : perhaps fontis.} 

Munro explains : ' humor adspirat fortes auras et uerberibus 
impellit, thus increasing their force ; Aen. v. 607 uetitosque 
adspirat eunti.' In this fortis seems to me too vague : it 
suggests rather than supplies the object meant, namely auras. 

By reading foniis a direct object accusative is obtained for 
adspirat, ' moisture from a distance blows jets of water (on 
the air-currents) and Avorks them (the aurae) into violence.' 
fontis are the several springs or sources from which the 
moisture is discharged. 

[It does not seem possible to make adspirat fortis = a-dsi^mt. 
in eas et fortis facit, for (i) such a construction of adspirare is 
147 L 2 


unsupported, (2) such a prolcptic use of the adj. is inadmis- 
sible. Nor ca.n/or/is be constructed proleptically with tierberat, 
' lashes them into vigorous action.' Least of all can fortis be 
nom. sing, agreeing with umor (Sudhaus), which is against 

315 in uacuo, in free open space, where nature is not 
shut in. 

roritm Jacob for jcnnn. Munro on Lucr. i. 496 shows that 
ros is used by Lucretius for water or moisture generally, and 
both he and Haupt accept Jacob's emendation, which certainly 
avoids the awkwardness of supplying /<7«/<?j or uinores in 316. 
Yet such changes of subject are quite in the style of Aetna, and 
Walter urges with some force in support of the MS. reading 
reriun the precisely similar ipsa potc7itia reriiin in Manil. i. 36. 
reriwi would then = ' natural forces ' ; the masc. nom. agreeing 
with clusi must be supplied from fontis or timor, unless indeed 
the poet returns to the winds themselves, which, as the most 
potent agents, would naturally have a predominant place in his 


His agitur causis extra penitusque coactus 
Exagitant uentos pugnant infaucibus arte 
Pugnantis sufifocat iter. C. 
coactis V Rehd. Arund. coactos Munro coactu the 

present editor. 

The difficulty of these vv. centres in coactus. Jacob was the 
first to retain coactus as a nom. plur. = compulsions ' demonstrauit 
enim omnium uentorum motum aliunde oriri, neque sponte 
mouendi se facultatem eis concedit.' Lately Hildebrandt 
(Philologus for 1897, p. 98) and Sudhaus have returned to this 
nom. plur., writing the passage thus : 

His agitur causis extra penitusque: coactus 

Exagitant uentos : pugnant in faucibus ; arte 

Pugnantis sufifocat iter. 

Hild. compares the similar plurals, accessus, actus {abactus, ad- 

actus), ad/ectus, auctus, deiectus, discessus, effectus,flexus, 7'eceptus, 

tacttis; and Sudh. translates coactus, ' condensations,' comparing 

563 pressoque instigant agtnine ueftium. The objection to this 



is that coacttis elsewhere seems to be singular=' compulsion,' 
' compelling force,' and is not used in the sense of ' condensa- 
tions.' Lucr. ii. 273 Viribus alterius viagnis magnoque coacttc, 
'strong compulsion' (Munro) : and so in Cicero. If coactus as 
nom. pi. is thought hazardous, the choice seems to lie between 
coactis (sc. causis), ' by these causes, pressed into united service 
outside and within, the work is done,' or coactii, ' by their 
compelling force they (sc. causae) set the winds in motion.' 
Between coactis and coaciit, the poet's fondness for a pause 
after the trochee of the fifth foot, and a certain harshness in 
the abruptness of Exagiiant uentos, if it begins the verse, 
appear to me to decide the point in favour of coactii. 

[Munro's coactos cannot well be constructed with penitusqice 
alone {^His a. c. extra, penitusque coactos Exagitatit uentos)^ 
which dislocates the verse and gives coactos a somewhat 
vague meaning.] 

317 agiticr impersonal, 'the business is done.' Aen. vii. 523 
7ion iavi Siipiiibus dtiris agiiur, and cf. the legal formula agitur 
lie hac re, quo de agitur, qua de re agitur (Nettleship). 

318 Exagitant, sc. causae. So 369 egestas, 602 luppiter, 180 
mons and elsewhere (Hildebrandt). 

pugfiatit, sc. uetiti. arte with Pugnatitis nearly = i7t arto. 

319 suffocat, Lucretian, iii. 89 1 atit in melle si turn sicffocari. 
The writer of the Ibis has praefocare (558), Florus offocare. 
profundo, abl. after exhausta, the preposition in which has its 
full force. 

320 perbibit: another word of the Ibis (231), 'has absorbed 
completely.' Also of Seneca. 


Haud secus adstrictus certamine tangitur ictu 
Spiritus inuoluensque suo sibi pondere uires 
Densa per ardentes exercet corpora uires. C. 
323 rupes Munro for uires 324 is omitted in Rehd. at 

its proper place and inserted after 342 uires] neruos v uenas 
Aid. a?td Le Clerc gyros the present editor. 

322 ictu. Sen. N. O. vi. 14. 2 cum aliquid peccatur, turn uelut 
aegri corporis tnotus est, spiritu illo qui modestius pe?flucbat,. 
icto uchonentius et quassante uenas suas. 


In 323 fondus and uircs arc regarded as coexistent: some- 
times they are opposed, much weight, little strength. Sen. 
N. Q. vi. 10. 2 cum plus habue7-e ponderis quatn uirium, of 
buildings which collapse from over-weight. 

324 is right except in the last word which cannot have been 
uires. uefias of Aid. * the pores ' or ' passages ' of Aetna makes 
good sense, but is far from certain, gyros, which I suggested 
{Journ. of Philology for 1895, p. 15), would mean that the air- 
particles {corpora) are driven round in circles, Lucr. vi. 200-202 ; 
but I do not know that this would be possible under the 
narrow conditions of space which the poet has in view. Seneca, 
however, says, N. O. vi. 14. 3 Vide ergo numquid in illam intret 
spiritus ex circuni/uso acre, qui quamdiu liabet exituni, stfie 
iniiiria labitur : si offetidit aliquid et incidit quod uiavi claudat, 
tunc oneraiur priino iti/undente se a iergo aere. deinde per 
aliquatn riviam vialigne fugit et hoc acrius fertur quo angustius. 
id sine pugna non potest fieri, nee pugtta sine motti. at si ne 
rimam quidem per quain effluat inuenit, conglobatus illic furit 
et hiic at que illo circumagitur aliaque deicit alia inter- 

[Munro, retaining uires at the end of 324, constructs /5i?r with 
densa corpora, against the natural order of the words.] 

325 transit, passes without noticing or allowing itself to be 
impeded in its course. This is more likely than 'outstrips' in 
speed, a sense found in Vergil, Aen. v. 326, xi. 719. tnorantem, 
' some delaying air ' : it is doubtful whether actively ' delaying 
the course of the spiritus' or ' sluggish ' ig}iauuin of Seneca v. 
14. 2, quoted by Sudh., Per haec loca cum se exitum quaerens 
spiritus torsi t, accendat Jlaimiiam ipso adfrictu ' necesse est : 
deinde flammis latius fusis, etiamsi quid ignaui aeris erat, 
extefiuatuin moueri et uiam cum fremitu uasto atque impetu 

326 confluuio, 'das Zusammcnstromen an einer Stelle,' Sudh. 
Lucr. vi. 311 cu7nuementi perculit ictu, Co7ifluere ex ipso possunt 

' So most editors : but the Merton codex 250 has adstrictu, 'com- 
pression.' This suggests that adstrictus in 322 may be genitive of the 
substantive, and depend on certamine. 


elemetita uaporis. sipo?nl>us (not siph) both C and S. The word 
is said to come from Egyptian sif, ' to imbibe,' siphons having 
been used for drawing off liquids from a cask (Rich, Companion, 
p. 605). Here stponcs are the forcing pumps or tubes used as 
fire-engines for pumping up water (Munro, who quotes Plin. Ep. 
X. 33 (42). 2 and Plin. H. N. ii. 166 aqua etiam in sumtnis iugis 
eruinpente, quo {=ad quern locuvi) spiriht acta et terrae pon- 
dere expressa siponum modo einicat. Rich gives a picture of 
such a machine, p. 606. Seneca illustrates the action of the 
siphon, N. Q. ii. 16 Solemus nianibus inter se iunciis aquani 
concipere et conpressa utringue paima in modum siponis (so cod. 
Mertonensis 250) exprimere, by pressing the palms together 
the water held between them is squeezed out (Jacob). Fronto, 
p. 159 Naber Aquae de sipunculis concinniiis saliunt. 

327 uomit, ' absolutely,' like e'/icij/, ' spews.' But the absence 
of an accusative is noticeable, and in poetry rare. 


Quod SI forte putas isdem decurre uentos 

s. sunt 

Faucibus autque idem pulsis remeare notanda ; 
Res oculis locus ipse dabit cogetque negare. C. 

328 decurrer S which has beett cut off" here 329 autque 
(atque Rehd.) idem pulsis S Rehd. Perhaps ac per idem pulsos 
notanda Rehd. : notandas v. 

The corrupt autque idem pulsis inust be of very early date, as 
found in both C and S, and the superscribed s. sunt is coeval 
•with the other writing of C. The Paris edition of 1507, has 
atque isdem pulsos, and this has long been the received reading. 

It is not certain : /suggest i per idem pulsos, ' or are driven 

out and return by the same vent.' 

332 Most edd., as well as lexicons, including Forcellini and 
Georges, make iubar masc. here, agreeing with aureus. Haupt, 
in a note on the short treatise de generibus nominum included 
in his edition of Grattius' and Nemesianus' Cynegetica, where 
the statement occurs Iubar generis fnasculini, ut illud ' iubar 
splendidus^ supports this from Ennius, albus iubar (Ann. 94 
L. Miiller), and an epigram Anth. L. 197. 4 Riese aureus iubar. 


I find it difficult to believe that so careful a writer as our 
poet should have admitted so startling an archaism, and incline 
to make aureus agree with aether : then surgat = ' dawn,' the 
poet transferring to the sky the word which properly belongs to 
morning. [Manil. i. 389, Sil. iii, 659 are not enough to support 
surgat as active '.] 

333 Illinc ab eo loco, i. e. the crater of Aetna. A similar 
cloud is stated by the Schol. on Ap. Rhod. iii. 41 as seen 
hovering over the flame-discharging crater of the volcanic island 

334 Pigra as * only moving slowly if it move at all.' Strabo 274 
calls it j/f'^o? fipffioiv, implying that it was or seemed usually to 
be quiescent, defuso, ' rainy ' or ' dripping,' so umida. 

335 Prospectant sublimis opus uastusque receptus. C. 
Prospectans Munro uas ...S, the rest of the v. torn away : 

uastosque Rehd. receptus Jiehd. v. 

'Mxmrd's prospectans is a clear gain, in every way superior to 
Prospectat of the earlier editors including Haupt, who inverted 
334. 335- Whether receptus should be kept, is not so clear. 
MSS. agree in giving it, and Vergil's Pianittes ignota iacet 
tutique receptus, Aen. xi. 527, Statius' placiiit sedes fidiqiie 
receptus, Theb. vii. 443, have a certain resemblance. But in 
both passages the epithets point to the meaning, a safe, trusty 
retreat, i. e. as Serv. on Aen. xi. 527 quo se tuto exercitics 
recipit ; whereas in the v. of Aetna it could only mean ' with- 
drawing places,' i.e. where a fissure in the side of the mountain 
recedes inwardly, presenting to the eye an enormous chasm. 
Fore, and Georges cite no parallel ; yet as recipere se or 
recipere neut. has the general sense of avax<i>()f\v, ' to retire,' it 
does not seem impossible that the plural receptus may have 
been borrowed by our poet from Vergil, at the same time 

' In Silius' Africus aut pontum sttrgens super aethera Caurus, the 
Oxford MS. has sttrgens, but the two best MSS. L and F spargens, 
which might suggest that spargat has been corrupted into surgat in 
Aetn. 332. In Manil. i. 389 surgentetn sidera is in the Gemblacensis 
and all Bechert's MSS. except M 'Matritensis), which has 5. ad 


that he gave it a different sense. Serv. expressly condemns 
those who read rcccssus in Aen. xi. 527 ; here j-ecepttts can 
hardly be said to be pronouncedly right or wrong, and as such 
I retain it. [P\)rc. indeed states that the two words are found 
freciuently interchanged ; but though recessus may have sup- 
planted recepttis in not a few cases, it seems dangerous to assume 
that the former word can be substituted for it ad libituvi and 
against MSS.] 

336 Jiidet, ' has no eye for,' ' takes no heed of.' In Xhejourn. 
of Philology for 1887, p. 302, I defended this as right, and I see 
that Sudhaus retains it ; it would fall under the tendency to 
perso7iify natural objects, which Hildebrandt notices as charac- 
terizing the poem. 

[Haupt conj. bibit, Munro uoral, Unger teeget, the present 
editor ?nouet.\ 

337 One of the poet's happiest lines. The rhythm admirably 
expresses the rapid changes of position which the cloud assumes. 

338-9 This is a distinct assertion of a custom which we learn 
also from Pausanias iii. 23. 9 of the craters of Aetna being fre- 
quented by worshippers. The poet says they offered incense : 
Paus. says they let down into them (ds tovs KpaTtjpas dcjuaai) 
victims of all kinds, as well as things made of gold or silver. 
From placantes it might seem that this was done after an erup- 
tion, or when an eruption was expected. Frazer, in his note on 
the passage, rejects the view that Paus. confuses the crater of 
Aetna with the naphtha lakes of the Palici ; and illustrates such 
offerings to the volcano from the modern custom of the 
Hawaiians. ' In Hawaii vast numbers of hogs used to be thrown 
into the craters of the great volcano Kirauea during an eruption, 
or when an eruption was threatening : hogs, too, were cast into 
the rolling tide of lava to appease the gods and stay its progress.' 
With placantes cf. VergiVs placabilis ara Palici, and Freeman, 
Hist, of Sicily, i. 517 sqq. 

339? 340 are written in C thus 

Summo cerne iugo uel qua liberrimus aethna 
Inprospectus hiat. 

339 aethnae Rehd. Ar. : Aetnae Haupt 340 Inpro- 

spectus S Rehd. Ar. : Introspectus Schrader. 


Itiprospcctus was explained by Seal, as 'ad quam prospectus 
hominuni peruenire non potest' ; Aeschylus' anpwbuKro'i Trirpa, 
Supp. 794, ' even where Aetna opens most unobstructedly beyond 
human ken.' Wernsdorf supposed it to mean, the part of the 
mountain where the chasm opens so deep down that the eye 
cannot reach to the bottom, which should rather be indespectus : 
as the passage he quotes, Stat. S. i. i. 88, shows. On either view 
Aetna must be masc. 

Aetna is always fc?ninine elsewhere : the passage of Solinus 
V. 9 cited by Munro as proving it masc. is a very weak voucher. 
Eminet 7>W7itibus Aetna et Eryce, Vtdcano Aetna sacer est, 
Eryx Veneri, for the word vwtitibtis determines sacer, and there 
is no other instance in Solinus where it is masc. I venture to 
doubt whether it couldhaye. been so used by the poet, who avoids 
with religious scrupulousness such deviations from Vergil and 
the other great poets who preceded him, and who elsewhere 
always makes Aetna feminine. 

In Schrader's Introspectus we have a nom. to liberrijniis at 
which Vergil himself could not cavil, formed on the model of 
adspectus, cotispectus, despectus, prospectus, suspectus, circtim- 
spectus, ' a look inside.' This word was accepted both by 
Haupt and Munro, and seems to me unexceptionable. It is not 
unlikely that Haupt was also right in preferring ^^/«a£? of Rehd. 
Ar. to C's Aetna : but the abl. is possible ' on Aetna.' 

340 tantarum semina rerum Lucretian, as Alzinger shows. 

341 flaynmas is open to doubt as against the poet's use in two 
ways, (i) by being in apposition with semina, which is too far 
from it, (2) flame is not treated as the most prominent agent 
in eruptions, but spiritus, air, under which as magno sub diice fire 
performs its subaltern's duty {tnilitat) 217. Hence I conj. 

fiamtnans ; the nom. participle is frequently found with n 
omitted, as shown at length by Corssen (Ausspracke, i. 252 sqq.) 
from Inscrr. and MSS., cf. my note on Catull. xxxix. 18. 

Huinc igitur credis torrens ut spiritus illi 
Qui rupes terramque notat qui fulminat ignes 
Cum rexit uires et preceps flcxit habenas, 
Praesertim ipsa suo decliuia pondere numquam 


Corpora diripiant ualidoque absolueret arcu 
Quod si fallor adest species tantusque«ruinis 
Impetus adtentos oculorum trans fugit ictus 
Nee leuitas tantos igitur ferit aura mouetque. C. 
342 Huicne the present editor for Huinc Sec Mitnro on Cattill. 
29.20 343 xoK.'aX Jacob convincingly 345 ^t.c\\\x\?i Rehd. 

and Arund. : decliua v : declinia the present editor 346 

diripiat Rehd. : deripiat Le Clerc absoluerit Scaligcr 347 

ni Rehd. Ar. : nisi v. 

Mtmr. conj. tantusque ruinaest Impetus, adtentos oculorum 
transfugit ictus Haec leuitas ; tantos igitur ferit aura mouetque, 
followed by a lacuna of one v. Birt conj. Haec ]apides_/^r Nee 
leuitas. The present editor tantusne ruinis Impetus adtentos o. t. 
ictus, Nee leuis astantes igitur ferit aura mouetque 1 

Huicne seems to account for the Huipc of C, and is clearer as 
reasoning than ///«V='will you not believe on the showing of 
this fact?' See Sonnenschein on Rud. 1 184. declinia, not 
declinia, suits the required idea, pieces of rock tending down- 
wards by their natural weight : it is not the slope, but the 
downward inclination which is intended. See Heinsius on 
Ov. F. iii. 793, Claud, iii. Consul. Honor. 178. 

342 torrens in combination with spiritus is not far removed 
from our idea oi gas. 

ut is explained by Sudh. 'how,' as in Hor. S. ii. 2. 71 nam 
uariae res (diversity of foods) Vt noceant honiini, credas ; Lucr. 
vi. 132 Est etiam ratio, awi uenti nubila perflant, Vt sonitus 
faciant^. With this fact of the calm on Aetna's summit before 
you, you will see how it is that the spiritus, which produces 
such powerful effects when in excitement, fails to dislodge any 
part of the crater {tialido abs. arcu) when quiescent. 

The reasoning of the poet, I think, may point to a different 
view. ' Can you, with this calm at Aetna's summit before you, 
believe it to be impossible that the volcano has a stronger and 
weaker action, correspending to its two states of excitement 

^ Birt also makes ut = quomodo, paraphrasing thus : ' lam intel- 
legis quomodo spiritus Aetnae corpora, praesertim cum ipsa suo 
pondere decliuia sint, numquam deripiat neque umquam ea absoluat 
ab arcu suo ualido.' 



and repose ? If in excitement it whirls up masses of rock and 
discharges fire wjth a detonating roar, may it not, in subsidence, 
be strong enough sometimes to dislodge portions of rock, 
availing itself of the natural tendency of rocks to fall in ? ' 
Analyzed, the words would = ' Huic igitur sic credis ut neges 
spiritum cum rexit uires, posse corpora materiae deripere et ab 
rupium arcu absoluere ? ' Or, Htiicne credis tit numquavi dirt- 
pint may = ' Can you believe, on the showing of this, the 
impossibility of the spiritus, when in a milder form, tearing 
down masses of rock ? Cf. the use of nt after tierisimile non 
est in Verr. iv. 6. il Verisimile 7ion est nt ille anteponeret. 

illi of MSS. may be a mistake for ille (Seal.), but is more 
probably a dative, sc. Aetnae. Such a dat. would be Lucretian, 
and so perhaps rtiims I»ipetus^ 347 '. Walter observes that 
spirit us illi is also in Aen. \. 648. 

343 rotat, as in 210. 

344 rexit, has controlled, not allowing the uires to work 

praeceps, with sudden haste ; Aen. v. 565 Non fugis hinc 
praeceps ? 
flexit habenas, Aen. xii. 471. 

345 Praesertim I construct with declinia, ' and this when,' 
* the more so, that.' Lucr. vi. 335 natiira pondera deorsum 
Omnia nituntur. 

346 Seal, rightly, ' dissoluit a suo fornice suspcnsum quasi 
fornicibus solum, id est cauernosum ' ; and so Munro, 'tear 
down the cauernae^ Sudh. makes ualido arcu the strong 
curve of the crater ; but it may be doubted whether this would 
have been expressed in words which so little suggest such 
a meaning. 

347-349, owing to the obvious corruption of 349, are very 
obscure. Munro's view that a verse is lost after 349 is im- 
probable, for that verse has every appearance of being the 
conclusion of an argument. Metrically it is very like 337, which 
also is complete in itself. It is equally improbable that tantics, 
adtentos, tantos should follow each other in three sequent verses. 

' Birt analyzes torrent sp. illi as sp. qui torret illi. 


My own correction (following the line of argument suggested 
on 342) is an argument by means of a composite question. If the 
impetuous descent of earth and stones, which we know to happen 
on the sides of Aetna, is often beyond our observation, may we 
not similarly conclude that there are causes of volcanic action 
which are beyond our ken, e.g. inward draughts of air suddenly 
impinging on others and setting them in motion ? I suppose 
tantusque to be an error for tanttisjie (somewhat as in 357 
propriisque of C Rehd. Ar. is an error {ox propriistte) and leiiitas 
tantos a corruption of letiis astantes (sc. auras, obtained from 
aura). This sense of ruinis, ' falling debris,' agrees with the 
ordinary use of the word ; but it is open to the objection that 
the passage contains no previous allusion to any such fall of 
rocks. For the position of igitur cf. Lucr. iv. 204 Quid quae 
sunt igitur iam prima front e par at a ? 

347 Quod si of C is more likely than Quod nisi or Quod ni 
of the inferior MSS. Quod nisi, and to a less extent Quod ni, 
are found in Cicero, but Quod nisi does not occur in Caesar 
or Sallust, and is hardly classical. (Driiger, Histor. Synt. ii. 
490,) The correspondence, noticed by Walter, with Aen. v. 49 
dies, nisi fallor, adest, hardly proves much, adest species, 
I appeal to what we see. 

ruinis cannot well mean the precipitations or rapid descents 
(plural) of the winds. Munro who, if I rightly understand 
him, so interprets, writes tantusque ruinaest Impetus in the 
singular. Yet in itself ruinis after Impettis has a genuine 
look and would be quite Lucretian, as Munr. shows on vi. 729 
caput eij 643 Finitimis ad se conuertit gentibus oraj 636 ad 
caput aninibus; also in v. 270 : i. 58 genitalia corpora rebus. 
If the poet wrote ruinis, he must, I think, have meant some- 
thing like the fall of masses of earth and stone, which from 
a distance escapes the strongest vision, yet there is else no 
reference to this. 

349 The one thing in this verse which is certain is that the 
concluding clause did not begin with igittir. Such a colloca- 
tion would certainly have been rejected by our poet as barbarous. 
On the other hand the position of igitur after three preceding 
words is shown by Hand, Tursell. iii. p. 198 to be not unfre- 


qiient in Cicero. Cf. Mayor on de Nat. Deor. iii. 17. 43 ; and 
so in Lucr. In my emendation, as/afttes, sc. auras, means the 
draughts of air within the mountain which are waiting ready 
to be acted upon by the sudden gust {h-uis mira) that is to set 
them in motion. 

350 Sparsa liquore matins. Seal, quotes Claud, vi. Cons. 
Honorii 324 Lustralem turn rite facem, cui lujiien odorum 
Sulpuie caerulco tiigroque hiiumitie fuinai, Circum membra 
rot at doctus purganda sacerdos Rore pio spargc?is, in which, 
however, the water is sprinkled by the priest on the limbs he 
is to purify, not on his own hand as in the verse oi Aetfui. 

351 /<?w^//, though naturally a lighted torch could not be in 
such near contact with the human face without hurting. 

pitlsata, I do not understand : in Postgate's C.P.L. 3. p. 72 
I con'], frusirata, ' baffled,' i.e. without producing their natural 
effect: qtiassata might also be suggested, corpora^ Plat. Tim. 
56 hi'o 7rup()s (ru>i.iaTn. iiostris brings into curious antithesis the 
htiman body and the bodies of matter. 

352 hicursant, charge, without hurting, owing to the velocity 
with which the torch is whirled round, adeo in tenui uim 
causa repellit^didcQ in tenui causa est quae uim repellit, 'in so 
small a matter lies the cause of this repulsion offeree '; namely 
in the sprinkling of water on the hand, and the rapidity with 
which the hand whirls round the lustrating fire : two things 
slight in themselves, but enough to allow the human body 
(nostris) to feel the impact and charge of these natural bodies 
or substances unharmed [Journ. of Philol. 1887, p. 303). 


Non cincrem stipulamuc leuem non arida sorbet 
Gramina non tenuis plantis humus excita predas 
Surgit adoratis sublimis fumus ab aris 
Tanta quies illi est et pax innoxia rapti. C. 
The whole cast of these vv. points in one direction, i.e. to 
their continuing the description of the at times undisturbed 
condition of the atmosphere on the summit of Aetna ^ The 

' Haupt transposed 355, 356 to follow 341, thus explaining 7^?m7MS 
in 355 of the incense offered at the crater, and so far agreeing with 
my view. 



nominative therefore to sorbet would seem to be aer or a corre- 
sponding word, which has perished with the verse or verses 
following 350-352 and returning to the main subject of the 
whole digression (328-356), the tranquil state (under ordinary 
circumstances) of the air at the top. 

354 Jacob thought that humus might represent a superlative 
termination, and altered phmtis huvius into lentissiinus. It is 
more probably placidissitnus. The same confusion of n with ci 
is found in Manil. v. 480 nunc tanto gestu for tacito, again ii. 9 
lances for latices. 

excita predas I believe to be a corruption of excit apludas. 
The first of these two words occurs in Stat. Theb. iv. 146 suits 
excit in arma Antiquam Tiryntha detis ; a passage cited by 
Priscian (i. 476, Keil) ; Neue-Wagener, iii. pp. 287-289, show 
that cit (Colum. vi. 5. i), concit (Lucr. vi. 410), percit (Lucr. iii. 
303) are classical and good forms. 

apludas — paleas, ' pieces of chaff,' a rustic word according 
to Gellius xi. 7. 5 apludam ueteres rusticos fr2C7nenti dixisse 
furfurejn ; Pliny xviii. 99 Mili et panici et sesimae purgainenta 
apludam uocant, a passage which shows that in the middle of 
the first century A.D. it was a commonly recognized word, and 
enough to protect it, as at that time current and understood, 
against the much later sneers of Gellius. Gotz, Thes. Glossarum 
Emendatarum s. v., cites numerous Glossaries for the word : 
in these it assumes four shapes, apluda, abluda, aplunda, 
ablunda, the last still further corrupted as abunda in the San 
Gallen Glossary edited by Prof. Minton Warren. To these 
n forms the aprefidas of Rehd. and Ar. in the verse of Aetna 
seems akin, but I have not found any trace of r {apruda) in 
the passages where the word is undoubted. The first syllable 
would naturally follow the analogy of aplustre, which is either 
long or short. Kiviiv Kdp(f>os is almost proverbial in Greek. 
Arist. Lysistr. 474 Kivova-a iiJ]8e Kdij(f)os, where see Biaydes ; 

Herond. i. 54 oiSe Kapfpos (K ttjs yrjs , KivfOJV, iii. 67 Kivtvura firjbf 

355 Scaliger's correction odoratis would be like Ovid's 
odoratis ignibus (M. xv. 574, Pont. iii. 3. 40, F. i. 75, in the 
two latter combined with ara] and refer unmistakably to the 



7fict'f!sr offered on the mountain top. But adoratis which MSS. 
give is also possible ; the worship is addressed to the altars 
as directly communicating with the gods. 

[The passage in Solinus 5. 23 (p. 58, ed. Mommsen) cited 
by Jacob and describing a Sicilian sacrifice in which the fire 
comes to the altar spontaneously, and the sacrificers, while 
banqueting, are touched by a flame without being burnt, ibi 
cpulaiites adhidit flamina quae flexuosis exxessibus ungabimda 
quern contigerit non adurit nee aliud est qiiam imago nuntia 
per/ecti rite uoti, can have nothing to do with the sacrifice 
on Aetna, for Solinus expressly states that it took place on 
the CoHis Vulcanius not far from Agrigentum, on the south- 
west coast of Sicily (Freeman, Hist, of Sicily, ii. 407), a site 
far removed from Aetna. 

Distinct from this is the site mentioned by Grattius, Cyneg. 
430-460, Aelian, H. A. xi. 3. The locale of this latter site is 
certainly some part of Aetna, fV khvri Tjj ^iKfXiKjj (Ael.) : 
Est in Trinacria ^ specus ingens rupe, cauique 
Introsum reditus, circum atrae moenia siluae 
Alta premunt, ruptique ambustis faucibus amnes, 
Vulcano condicta domus. (Grat. 430-432.) 
for it is obvious that the words of Grattius correspond to the 
H(pai(TTov TLnarai v(d)i, kul « ctti nepifSoXos Kal 8(i>8pii leim Kcil nip 
(ia^ecTTov re Km aKoifirjroi/. But this also Cannot refer to the 
to/> of the volcano, for no such sacred precinct or temple of 
Vulcan with attendant dogs is associated with the crater : nor 
could animals be dragged repeatedly to such a height to be 
cured of ulcerous diseases as Grattius states, 435, 436 : 
Hue defecta mala uidi pecuaria tabe 
Saepe trahi uictosque malo grauiore magistros. 
Moreover the flame which spontaneously kindles the offering 
on the altars is particularly stated by Grattius to come from 
a cavernous fissure in the rock and to return again to the same 
cavern : 

444 Aduersis specibus ruptoque e pectore montis 
Venit ouans Austris et multo flumine flammae 

1 Trinacna rn/>es = Aetna in Catull. Ixviii. 53. 


and 458-460 deus illam molliter aram 

Lambit et ipse suos ubi contigit ignis honores 
Defugit ab sacris rursumque reconditur antro ; 
a description which must refer to a lower part of the moun- 

Either, therefore, the poet of Aetna does not refer to these 
rites at all, or the connexion of them with 328-354 is obscured 
by the corruption of the MSS., which is specially palpable at 
this part of the poem.] 

357-364 Whether the cause, then, is external or inward, 
it is this impetuous air which hurls up the inside of the volcano, 
boulders, sand, and huge rocks, that clash against each other 
as they rise and produce a terrific din. 

357 propriisue Scaliger, ior propriisqite of MSS. 

potentis of C and Rehd. is retained by Munro, though a 
nominative (not accicsative) plural. Neue-Wagener have col- 
lected a considerable number of similar instances, Fornienl. ii. 
p. 119, notably from Lucr., tdsentis plangentis duplicis auentis 
pascentis plorantis labentis guatientis nolantis^ and some few 
from Vergil. Alzinger and Hildebrandt think /cr/zi- in 624 is 
such a nom. plur. 

360 trepidantia, 'quaking or shivering with the encounter,' 
i.e. starting off from each other with a vibrating and convulsive 
motion. But strepitatitia, or crepitaniia as Jacob conj,, may 
be right. I prefer the former ; Ov. M. xi. 364 hide fragorc 
grain strepitus loca proxima terret Belua uasta lupus. 

fragoris, accus. plur. after rwnpufit (Munro, Hild.). The 
latter compares rumpere uocem, questus (Aen. ii. 129, iv. 553). 

362-364 Seal, traces this simile of trees taking fire by the attri- 
tion of their boughs to Thuc. ii. ']']. 4 ^'5/; yap iv opeaiv vXr] 
rpKpdelcra vTr' avepatv npos avTrjv dno TuvTo/jidTov nip Kai (f)\6ya an' 
avTov dv^Ke. It occurs twice in Lucretius i. 897 At saepe in 
7nagnisfit jnoniibus, inquis, ut altis Arbor ibus uicina cacumina 
sutnnia ierantur Inter se, nalidis facere id cogentibus aiistris. 
Donee flatnniai ftdserunt flore coorto, v. 1095-1100. 

362 prono, * descending,' nearly = KaraaKijUTovri. Alzinger 
quotes Lucr. vi. 560 Incuvibit tellus quo uenti prona previit ids. 

363 aqidlone, Hor. C. ii. 9. 7 (Wernsdorf). 

161 M 


dant brachia, 'entwine,' more often with dat., as in Hor. C. 
ii. 12. iS, Ov. Pont. ii. 6. 13. 

364 ac, Wernsdorf, for haec of most MSS. But et (Seal.) is 
often interchanged with haec^ and would agree with the use of 
et elsewhere in the poem, e.g. 299 et magnum commurtnurat 
Aetna, ' and then, as a consequence.' 

365-391 'You must not suppose that the causes of eruption 
cease to act or lose their potency. The winds are ever at 
hand and always working. Such cessations of action as occur 
are caused by temporary obstructions, rocky masses choke 
the openings cither at the bottom or towards the summit. 
The stoppage only makes the air rush out more violently ; 
then is the time for all the inflammable materials which 
have their home in Aetna to burn furiously, sulphur, alum, 
bitumen,' &c. 

365 mendacia ^tulgi. That Aetna would eventually cease to 
erupt must have been a prevailing opinion in Ovid's time, who 
states it at great length M. xv. 340-355, and gives three reasons, 
(i) Earth may be animated, and breathe through spiracleg. 
These, if earth moves its position, will change with it ; and 
eruptions will cease at one place, and break out in another. (2) 
The caverns in which are stored the winds that cause the erup- 
tion, will be left cold and cease to store them any more ; (3) the 
supply of bitumen, sulphur, and other inflammable substances 
will fail. Besides, if there was a time in the past when Aetna 
did not discharge flame, a similar period may be expected in the 
future. Ncc quae sulpureis ardet fortiacibus Aetna Ignea semper 
erit, neque etiijn fuit ignea semper. With Nee ie decipiant . . . 
mendacia cf. Ov. Her. xv. 55 Nee uos decipiant blandae mendacia 

366 cessare and dare tempora depend on mendacia, as in 
Caecin. vi. 16 quo testimonio nunc utitur sibi etnptutn esse. 

sinus, ' hollows,' 117 Quis enim non credat inanes Esse sinus 
penitus ? 

tempora, 7x% Horace spenks oi /uga temporum : the plur. gives 
the notion of shifting courses or successions of time. 

367 rap'.ant, ' to grasp again,' as if lost for a period. Perhaps 
the same sense in rapuitquc in fo>?iite Jlammam (Aen. i. 180), 



the fire having to be recovered, as it were, or grasped again, and 
brought into renewed existence. 

368 exue, ' strip off, throw aside.' Aen. iv. 319 exue mentem ; 
Met. i. 622 Non protinus exidt omnem Dhia metiim. 

370 egestas is to be supplied to 7nendicat and conrogat 

viendicat opes, as Plautus has mendicas maluvi, Amph. iv. 2. 
12 ; Ovid, fiiendicato cibo, Trist. v. 8. 14. 

conrogat asks for contributions. Ad Herenn. iv. 6. 9 Si 
Prometheus cum vwrtalibus ignem diuidere ziellet, ipse a uicinis 
cum testa ambulans carbunculos conrogaret, non ridiculics 
uideretur f 

371 operae, 'gangs of workmen,' Munro. Frequent in Cic. of 
supporters hired to lend rough service, Flac. xxxviii. 97 uis absit, 

ferrum ac lapides revioueantur, operaefacessant, seruitia sileant. 
Sest. viii. 18 uenditabat se (Clodius) operis, 'hired ruffians' 
(J, S. Reid), XXX. 66 per operas coftcitatas . . . extiirbari, and 
often in this oration. The word connotes violence. 

372 rumpat iter, 'stop their way,' as Wernsd. shows Irom 
Hor. C. iii. 27. 5 Rumpat et serpens iter institutum. Ov. Am. 
iii. 6. 87 q-uid mutua differs Gaudia, quid coeptum, rust ice, 
rtimpis iter ? 

373-377 are thus written in C : 

Sepe premit fauces magnis extructa ruinis 

at tur 

Congeries, clauditque uias luctamur ab imo 
Et scisso ueluti tecto sub pondere praestat 
Haud similis teneros cursu cum frigida monti 
Desidia est. tutoque licet discedere montes. 
374 luctamine ReJid. Ar. 375 etscisso v. escisso 

Kehd.Ar.: et s'^'\s?>o Jacob tecto Rehd.Ar.v. tectos the 

present editor pressans Jacob : pressat Baehrens 376 

cur secum f. m. Rehd. Jacob conj. Haud sinit hiscere eos cursu, 
which Haupt altered to eas sursum Munro praestat Haud 
simili strepere hos cursu. Sudhaus atid Buecheler retain the 
reading of C in 375, 376 unaltered. Bueche/er writes 'Saepe 
premuntur fauces montis ruinarum congerie quasi quodam tecto. 
tectum tarn ruinosum ac rimosum quo iure spissum uocatur? 

163 M 2 


hoc lacobus finxit, tii reuoca ex lil^ris sct'sso ueluii tecio. atque 
hac ipsa scissura tenerascunt uenti quos non posse turbare didi- 
cimus nisi angustiis inclusos.' But the verse is palpably corrupt. 
turn for cum Jacob. Alzhigcr supports this by Aen. xi. 828 
turn frigida toto Paulatim exsoluit se corpore 377 discedere 

Ar. V : descendere J\chtl. : discedere uentos Wernsd. : desi- 
dere ueniis Jacob : discedere motis Buecheler. 

As a return has lately been mj\de to the text of C, I shall first 
mention Sudhaus' interpretation of 375-377- He alters scisso to 
spisso (375), ino7ites (377) into nefitos, and adds a comma after 
discedere : otherwise retains C unchanged. 375-377 he translates 
'As under a thick roof it (the congeries) makes the winds 
beneath its weight no longer like their former selves, but en- 
feebled in their course, while the mountain is benumbed in torpid 
inaction and one may still retire without danger.' 

Buecheler goes a step farther, and retains scisso. He supposes 
the cofigeries to form an imperfect and to some extent porous 
covering, through which the winds issue softened {iencros) and 
no longer possessed of their native violence [hand similis). He 
accepts tujn for cum, and suggests 7notis for mo7ttes, i. e. ' when 
the winds are roused to action.' 

Against both critics may be urged 

1. That all edd. before them have considered 376 corrupt, and 
that this is the impression conveyed by the verse as it stands in 
the MSS. 

2. That the new interpretation is a tour deforce, hardly to be 
wrung from the words, and wholly unlike the ordinary style of 
the poem, similis must = similis sui ; teneros must = ' weakly,' 
• softened,' of which in regard to winds no instance is cited ; and 
the two adjectives must stand in antithesis to each other, with no 
particle to express this, i. e. hand similis {sui, sed) imialidos \ 

Against Sudhaus it may be further argued 
I. That he is inconsistent in admitting three corrections of 
373-377 as given by C, namely hcctamitte for luctatur or lucta- 

* In Lucr. iii. 765 in tenero tcnerasceye corpore mentem, which Munro 
translates ' the mind grows weakly in a weakly body,' the adj. and 
the verb explain each other. 



imir, spisso for scisso, uentos for monies. After such an admis- 
sion to find no difficulty in 376, is (critically speaking) to strain 
the gnat, and swallow the camel. 

2. The connexion of the clause cunt frigida inonti Desidia est 
tutoque licet discedere with the rest of the sentence is obscure 
and only just intelligible. It would seem to mean, the mass of 
debris makes the winds feeble and so changed from their normal 
strength as to be unrecognizable, the volcano being now inactive 
and descent from it possible without the danger which attends 
an eruption. 

Against Buecheler's retention oi scisso, on the ground that the 
retits in the mass of obstructing rock are the cause of the winds' 
diminished violence, as affording them an outlet, I would urge 
that the poet's object is here to state the causes of obstriiction 
{Causa latet quae ricmpat itet' cogatqtie inorarl), not to introduce 
details which dhuinish that obstruction, such as openings in the 
mass of superincumbent rock or debris. 

Baehrens' unfavourable judgement on the various conainina 
which preceded his edition, must extend to his own. I regard 
all these suggestions as undoubtedly wrong. My own view was 
first stated in \.)\t. Journal of Philology for 1887, p. 304. 

In 374 it seems probable that luctainur was closer to the 
archetype than the v. 1. given in C luciatur. Rehd.'s luctamine 
would account for the m and might come from an old source ; 
certainly does not look like a correction. Munro's explanation 
satisfies 'against the turmoil below' on the analogy of niunireab 
found in Sallust, Horace, Columella, Livy (Lucr. iii. 820). In 
Postgate's C. P. L. ii. p. 73 I keep luctatttr, sc. congeries, the huge 
mass of rock wrestling in turn with the winds which follow one 
after another as so many ecf^edpoi, cf. the passage of Cicero's 
de/ato (xiii. 30) cited by Key, s. v., in which luctabitur Olympiis 
Milo is said to be permissible because luctari implies an adver- 
sary. But it would be the winds (Sen. N. O. vi. i8j which more 
properly wrestle with the obstructing rock; I have therefore 
returned to luctainifte. 

In 375 I write tecto[s] sub pondere, the s having fallen out 
before sub. This change seems to me necessary and almost 
certain, icctos praestat, ' keeps them securely covered,' would 


be like Lucr. iii. 219 Extiina membroruni circuincaesura favieti 
se Incolmnein praes/af, Ovid's mens sc Praestitit iiiuictaif!, Trist. 
iv. 10. 104, Hor. Ep. i. 6. 49 Si fortu/iatuni species et gratia 
praestat. I?ut Baehrens' pressat, ' squeezes,' is very plausible 
and is Lucretian, iv. 1109 pressantes de7itibus ora. 

In 376 I write Ant siviili tenet occursu {ox Hand similis teneros 
cttrsu, 'holds them back by a similar obstruction.' occurstis, 
literally 'meeting,' ' encountering' of the winds at a point higher 
up the mountain, when they are entering the openings during 
a period of calm. Caec. xiv. 39 eadejn tii et isdem armis vtihi 
ante occurratur, ne non viodo intrare, teerutn adspicere aut 
adspirare possiin. Two causes are assigned for the intermittent 
violence of Aetna, (i) an accumulation of rock which blocks up 
the passage at the bottom and keeps the winds imprisoned under 
it ; (2) a similar obstruction which }neets the winds on their way 

y]() frigida. Ov. M. xv. 349 Antra (Aetna's caverns) 7-elin- 
quentur sedatis frigida iientis. 

378 Post ubi, Lucretian v. 886, vi. 128 (Alzinger). 

urgent, neut., G. iii. 200 longiqite urgent ad litora fluctus ; 
Aen. X. 433 hinc Pallas instat et urget. 

379 uincula. Sen. N. Q. vi. 18. 3 Eius uis tanta non potest 
coliiberi, nee uentuin te7ret ulla conpages, soluit eniin qtiodcumque 
uinculian (W'agler). 

380 in obliqujo/i, opp. of in rectum, Ov. M. ii. 7 1 5. ' Se font jour 
('clear a space') avec fracas dans les passages obliques ' (Chenu). 

381 operata, 'busied with.' Prof. Postgate has treated operatus 
exhaustively,/, of Philol. 1899, pp. 314-320. He shows (i) that 
it has invariably, not a past, but a present sense ; (2) that it is the 
only part of the verb found in the best writers. From his list of 
citations I select Lucr. iv. 985 Et quibus itt rebus consuerint esse 
operati ; Tib. ii. l. 65 assidue textis operata, 3. 36 Praeda tamen 
multis est operata malis ; Ov. M. vii. 746 studiis operata Dianae; 
A. A. iii. 411 operataque doctis Cura uigil Musis ; Plin. H. N. 
xxvi. 1 1 sedere in scholis auditiotii operatos ; Sen. de Ben. vii. 14. 6 
huic unt {studio) iintninens atque operatus; Tac. Hist. v. 20 egres- 
sum viilitem et caedendis materiis operatutn turbauere. 

383 Si MSS., Sic Maehly, very plausibly before c of cessata. 


It is hardly probable that si should here be an earlier form of 
sic, as it certainly is in the fragments of the satirist Lucilius 
(see Key's Dictionary, s. v.), and perhaps in si dis placet, 
cessata, see on 69. 
384-386 are thus given in C : 

Nunc superant quaecumque regant incendia siluae 
Quae flammas alimenta uocent quid nutriat aethnam 
Incendi poterunt. 
384 regnant v : tegunt /acod : quae iam generent Maehly : 
rigant Miinro: creant IVngler: gerant Baehrens 385 flammis 
a. uocant (= uacant) Munro quid v. quod Rehd.Ar.: 

quod (= quoad) nutriet Aetna Munro. 

The structure of the sentence seems clearly indicated by the 
last words Incendi poterunt. They form, I think, the apodosis 
to the two vv, preceding. I would compare two passages of 
Grattius' Cynegetica, 454-456 : 

Ilium agat infandae comes hue audacia culpae ; 
Discet commissa quantum deus ultor in ira 
Pone sequens ualcat. 
' Let the criminal approach this shrine : then he will learn 
how powerful is an offended god.' 
lb. 461-463 : 

Nee mora ; si medias exedit noxia fibras, 
His laue praesidiis adfectaque corpora mulce : 
Regnantem excuties (7"./tf//«i-tf/?/(7r excutiens) morbum. 
' Wash and foment the ulcerous limbs with these remedies, and 
you will drive the disease out.' 
Aetn. 403-405 : 

hunc multis circum inice flammis, 
Et patere extorquere animos atque exue robur. 
Fundetur ferro citius. 
* Submit the lava-stone to the action of a furnace and it will fuse 
quicker than iron.' 

On this hypothesis, 384, 385, should contain an imperative : 
this is regant, apparently an error for rigent (subj.) : nunc 
siluae rigent quaectmigue superant i?ice?uiia, 'now let the forests 
of Aetna rain all their abundant stores of fire : they will kindle 
without difficulty.' 



siipcratit qUiXCLumqitc = quaecumque siiperant ; supcnmt, 
' abound,' the wliole store of Aetna's vast supply of combustibles, 
H common meaning; e.g. G. ii. 331 siiperat tetier omnibus 

>igcnt seems the right word : it gives the idea of profuse 
pouring; a ram of fire. IMunro on Lucr. ii. 262 mottts per 
membra riganiur, iv. 907 somnus per vievibra qjiietevi Irriget 
shows that rigarc is sometimes constructed with an accus. of 
the thing poured or shed. He quotes Furius in Macrob. vi. 
I. 44 viitemquc rigat per pectora soviiium. 

siltiae is explained by Munro ' materials ' = uXv of Strab. 274 
fni\€i7irov(Tt]s rrjs vX?jf, Philostr. Imagin. 365 (p. 95, Benndorf) 
7a Trjv vXrjv e^fptdiCovra, both of Aetna ; but he acknowledges 
the plural ^ to be curious. In the passage, cited by Alzinger 
from Lucretius i. 902, 903 Verum semina sunt ardois multa, 
terendo Quae cum confluxere, creant incefuUa siluis, the mean- 
ing is ' forests,' and the resemblance of the verse of Aetna is 
so decided as to make it more than probable that this is the 
meaning there also. Strabo mentions the oak-woods of Aetna, 
273 TO Kara fie Spvfxo'is Koi (f)VTftais difiXrjnTai navTobaTTtus. In 
modern times the Nemorosa or woody zone (Swinburne, Travels 
in Sicily, ii. p. 370; Daubeny, Descj'iption of Volcanos, p. 271) 
is the second and middlemost of the three belts into which 
Etna is divided. Swinburne, who visited Sicily in 1777-1780, 
describes these woods as very beautiful, with risings and falls 
like an English park. On p. 373 he says, speaking of the 
south-east, ' Near the entrance of the wood, chestnut and oak 
trees are intermixed, afterwards oak alone is to be seen ; some 
of them of a prodigious size; the largest I measured was 
twenty-eight feet in circumference. As we approached the 
inner verge of the woody region, the oaks diminished in bulk 
and number, and were succeeded by the taeda pine, but I saw 
none among these of any large dimensions.' It is possible that 
these turpentiniferous pines may be in the poet's thoughts ; 
perhaps also the attrition of the boughs in the oak or chestnut 

' Wagler, p. 59, takes silitae as gen. singular depending on 
iiiccudia. This I think is wrong. 



woods, which he introduces (though only as a siaiile) in 

385 calls for little alteration : qiiid^ for which Rehd. and Ar. 
give qjiod, is perhaps quot^ whether referring to flammas or 
alitnenta ; Munro's nutriet for nu/riat seems almost necessary: 
the subj. can hardly be defended as attracted into the mood of 
the final clause uocent: 'let Aetna's woods pour their teeming 
supply of combustibles, everything that as fuel is to call up the 
diverse flames Aetna feeds.' 

386 ' illis caiisis depends on utile, a kind of earth serving, 
when in contact with fire, as a means for producing these 
effects,' Munro. Such anastrophe is common enough in Latin 
poetry. But here it seems more natural to construct illis causis 
as datives in immediate dependence on Materia est; these 
causes (i.e. the causes which produce these fires) have materials 
of home growth. 

uernacula = do7nestica. Varro, R. R. iii. 5, 7, opposes birds not 
indigenous to Italy {aduetiae) like swallows and cranes, to 
uernaculae, such as hens and pigeons (Le Clerc). 

387 adpositumque with igni, in proximity to fire ; or, perhaps, 
readily combustible : adpositus is common in this sense = 
idoneus, but is more frequently constructed with ad, than as 
here with dative. Chenu seems to take this view, ' une sorte 
de terre que le feu s'approprie.' Seal, paraphrases hhtx^^^nvov 

(cat 7rt(f)vK6s Kuiea-dai.. 

terraest, Wernsdorf, for ierrent, convincingly. 

genus terrae, from its ordinary use in Pliny and Vitruvius, 
csn only mean a kind of earth. The poet must be following 
special information. Vitruv. ii. 6. I speaks of the hot earths 
(terrae feruejites) of Vesuvius and the Baian region. 

388 sulphuris: Freeman, Hist, of Sicily, i. 528 ; Plin. xxxv. 
177 ncqiie alia res facilius accenditiir, quo adparet ig?tiufn uim 
magnain ei inesse. Sir Edward Fry, Studies by the Way, 273 
(Nisbet, 1900), states that Etna itself contains only a small 
amount of sulphur : ' One is apt to fancy that there is some 
connection between the sulphur of Sicily and the presence of 
Mount Etna ; but this, I believe, is quite erroneous. It is true 
that sulphur occurs in small quantities on the mountain ; but 



nowhere in such abundance as to be worked. The great 
sulphur districts of Sicily are entirely detached from its vol- 
canic system, and the mineral appears to have originated from 
the decomposition of beds of gypsum.' 

389 illumine for nuinine of C, uiniine of v, was not dis- 
covered till Jacob's edition (1826). It is undoubtedly right. 
Sudhaus shows that sulpltur, aliimen, biUunen are quoted three 
times in this order by Vitruv. viii. 2, 3 ; Pliny in his descrip- 
tion, H. N. XXXV. 174-183, gives the sequence — sulphur, bilttmen, 
aluinoi. Pliny uses the adj. spissum twice of alum : 184, where 
he distinguishes two sorts, the liquid and the spiss ; 1S8 where, 
describing the alum of Melos, which he considers the best, he 
says fuillum spisstus. 

390 Pingue bitianen : Plin. xxxv. 179 gigtiitur et pingue 
oleique liquoris in Sicilia, Agrigentino fonte, inficiens riuom. 

coviviinus is explained by Sudh. ' in close vicinity,' near 
enough to attract flame, such as naphtha, of which Pliny says, 
ii. 235 Huic inag7ia cognatio ignium, transsiliuntque in earn 
protinus undecunque uisavi : and so Posidonius ap. Strab. 743 
speaks of naphtha springs attracting (eTrto-Trcoo-as) fire. It is 
possible, however, that coimninus irritat — ' rouses to a hand 
and hand encounter ' of forces ; with this acris would well 
agree, suggesting the determination of the fire to press the 
advantage it has over an unequal, though resisting, foe. Cf. 
rudibus contendere massis, 561, of the struggle which mechanics, 
aided by wind and fire, carry on with the masses of metal 
which they are fusing. 

391 corporis, 'material' (Le Clerc). 
392, 393 

Atque banc materiam penitus discurrere fontes 
Infectae eripiantur atque radice sub ipsa. C. 
393 eripiant Rehd. aqu? Rehd. v eripient et Hatipt 

testantur Maehly : rumpuntur Miinro : crispantur the present 

A very doubtful passage. All odd., except Sudhaus, demur 

to eripiajttur. Haupt's eripient = extorqtiebunt, ' will force you 

to believe,' gives to eripere a sense not proven : in Tib. i. 9. 35 

I His eriperes uerbis 7nihi sidera caelo Lucere; Hor. S. ii. 2. 23 



Vix tameti eripiatn fiosiio pmtone uelis qiiin Hoc potius quani 
galli7ia tergere palatum, the meaning is, ' you would take from 
me the belief; ' I shall hardly take from you a preference for 
peacock.' Again, the position of et, and the change of eripi- 
antur to eripient et, are both improbable. Nor is testantur or 
rumpuntur likely to have become a-ipiaiiiur. 

Sudh. translates, ' And in proof that this material penetrates 
far into the heart of the mountain, let an experiment be made 
by drawing off (or, up) some of the tainted water at the 
base.' Such a sense of eripiantur is not supported by Vitru\-. 
viii. 2. 5 ex oinnibiis terris {uenii) lainbejites eripiunt iimo)-cs, 
nor by Plat. Tim. 60 vtto nvpos rd^ovs Tvav to vortpov i^apnaa-Bev : 
in both the sense of sub/racting, in the latter with violence, 
something which properly belongs to an object, is quite clear ; 
of which in the passage of Ae/tta there can be no notion. 
eripiantur, if genuine, ought to mean, ' be carried forcibly 
away'; suggesting difficulty and a struggled The nearest 
approach to the sense assigned by Sudhaus that I can find is in 
Claudian's Hystrix xlv. 36 (p. 291 Birt) Eripiwit trucibns 
Gortynia capris Cornua merely = ' they remove.' But, to say 
nothing of the late date of this poem, the notion of violence is 
not absent, as the epithet trucibns seems to show. 

In J ourn. of Philology, 1887, p. 304, I conjectured crispantur, 
' ripple,' a word particularly used of water. ' Crispari eleganter 
dicitur aqua, cum breuioribus undis quasi trepidat. Hinc crisp/ 
undarum niotus, Auson. Mosell. v. 194, eodem fere modo et 
arenam crispari dicit, v. 63. Minuc. Fel. c. 3 Et ut seifiper 
7Kare, etiam positis flatibics, inquietum est, etsi nan canis spumo- 
sisque fluctibus exibat ad terrain, tamen crispis torosisque (tor- 
tuosisqtie, P. HaxneX) ibidem erroribus delectati perquam sumus,' 
de Rooy, Spicileg. Crit. 1 77 1. 

The infin. discurrere depends Kara <Tvv((nv on a suppressed 
verb latent in crispantur. Parallel uses of loosely attached 
infin. are not uncommon in Lucretius, ii. 1 128 Nain certe fluere 
atque recedere corpora rebus Multa mantis dandumst ; iii. 765 

^ So in Vitruv. ii. 6. 3 ab ignis uekementia e tofo terraqtic, qttetn- 
admodum in fornacibus ex cake, ita ex his e rep turn esse liqttorem, the 
sense is that the liquid has been forcibly withdrawn. 



Sd/icc'/ in icncro itucrasccrc corpore Jiicniem Confugicnt, ' they 
will take refuge on the plea that.' v. 261 Quod superest, umore 
nouo vuxre Jiuinina fotites Semper abundare et latices manare 
perennis Nil opus est uerbis (Hildebrandt, Beitrdge, p. 22). In 
all such cases the infinitive precedes. 

Daubeny, p. 289, found sulphuretted hydrogen evolved from 
the spring of Santa Vennera at the bottom of Etna. Plin. ii. 234 
exsilire /otitis etiani in Aetiuie radicibus. 

394 pars, sc. materiae. 

395 Ac suggests, but can hardly be, ' as,' a sense in which it 
is sometimes found without a word of comparison (aeque, tant- 
opere, &.c.) before it, e.g. Plant. Bacch. iii. 6. 20 que»i esse amiciim 
ratus stivi atque ipsus sum mihi. Cic. Fam. xii. 13. I neque 
enim oj/mtutn iudicio malim me a te coinmendari quam ipse tuo 
indicia digne ac mereor commendattcs esse, especially in the 
combination ac si, 'as if,' which occurs in the Digest. 

396 sine nujnine C v: sine nomine Rehd. Arund. which 
seems right ; Monro's sine ahanine gives an undue importance 
to alum over bitumen, sulphur, &c. In sine fiomine, 'unnum- 
bered ' or ' unnamed,' the poet may have in mind Vergil's 
multam i?t medio sine itotnifie plebem, Aen. ix. 341, or Ovid's 
sine iiomi7ie flores, Fast, iv. 441, His et mille aliis postquam 
sine 7iomine rebus, Met. vii. 275. 

398 maxima causa incendi. Hence the lava-stone was spe- 
cially called TTvpirris. Plin. xxxvi. 137 Molarem quidam pyriten 
uoca7it, quoniam sit pltirimus ignis illi. 

molaris, fivXiat, the stone used for mill-stones, the lava-stone. 
Daubeny, Volcatios, p. 83, gives the following explanation, 
speaking of the Eifel : 'The lava is divided by vertical fissures 
into irregular columnar masses, some twenty feet in height, and 
these columns cut horizontally, and having their angles rounded 
off, are fashioned into mill-stones, for which they are well 
adapted from the unevenness of their fracture, derived from the 
infinite number of minute cells distributed through the substance 
of the rock.' In modern times, one species of trachyte stone, 
distinguished for its hardness and cellularity, and therefore 
much used for mill-stones, is known as mill-stone trachyte 
(Daubeny, p. 121). 



399 t's nJtidicat, Munro, for si uindicat of C ; the only other 
conj. of any likelihood is Jacob's hie uindicat, to which lapis sic 
of ReJid. Ar., or lapidis sic of v might seem to point. The 
Roman poets, as a rule, prefer hie to is. 

400 robore, MSS., ' if you should try (test) it by its firmness,' 
may be defended by 424 Certie locis, 'test the matter by par- 
ticular places \' 

403 Scifitillat dolor. The stone sparkles for rage. Sudh. 
quotes Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 137 piurimum. ignis habent ii qtios 
uiuos appellamus . . . qui elauo uel altera lapide pcrenssi scintil- 
lavi ediifit. 

mnllisjlammis, ' a strong furnace.' The poet had made the 
experiment, if we may judge from 479 uelut i/i/ornace. 

404 patere (eas) extorqucre aiiinios. By animos is meant the 
indomitable spirit, or proud temper of the stone, which only 
yields to the strongest compulsion, robur here manifestly firm- 
ness or solidity. 

405-413 are thus written in C: 

Fundetur ferro citius nam mobilis illi 

Et metuens naturam alii est ubi coritur igni. 

Sed simul atque hausit flammas non tutior hausti 

Vila domus seruans aciem duramque tenaci 

Septa fide tutum est illi patientia uicto 

Uix umquam redit in uires atque euomit ignem 

Totus enim denso stipatur robore cardo 


Pertenuis'^ arlmissa uias incendia nutrit 
Cunctanterque eadem et pigre coepta remittit. 
406 natura mali Rehd. v cogitur v : coquitur Rehd. 

Ar.'. cz.x'^xX.MX Alsiitger: cox^xXXiX Baehreiis : coritur/<?rcooritur 
Sudhaus : coritur ignis Biri 407 haustu Rehd. : haustis 

Scaliger 408 duransque Scaliger perhaps diuumque 409 
fides Rehd. tanta est Scaliger : tuta est Jacob : fidest : ut 

turn est Munro : Ijruta est Ihe present editor, Jojirti. of Philol. 

' Robora however, the conjecture of Le Clerc, is also a v.l. given 
in MS. D'Orv. 195 as coming from P. Pithou (C/. Rev. 1900, p. 123). 
'^ ace = accHsatiuus. 


1892./. 230 411 stipatus Lc Clcrc cardo] tarda v. 

tardans Rchd. Arioid. : tarde the Helmstadt MS. : carbo the 
prese/ii editor 413 concepta yl/««;v. 

406 coritiir is defended by Sudh, = cooiitur, ' rises to meet 
in battle,' like signo dato coorii pttgnam cdiderunt, Liv. vii. 9, 
and he shows (after a remark of Hildebrandt's) that the Diolaris 
is specially designated as rrvpifjiaxos or 7rvpn^(i;^oj (Arist. Met. 
iv. 6, Theophr. lap. ix. ol nvpofxcixoi Ka\ ol fivXiai). But (i) the 
contraction coritur does not seem to exist in Latin poetry ; (2) 
cuoj-itin- igtii for oj'iitir contra ignem cannot ^ be paralleled. 

Of the conjectures, Baehrens' co7-pitHr is faulty, as a form of 
corripitur not found and ill-supported by Horace's surpiierat, 
surpite (C. iv. 13. 20, S. ii. 3. 283), Lucretius' surpere, ii. 314. 

Alzinger's carpitiir, though excellent in sense and Vergilian 
(Aen. iv. 2), is somewhat remote from the letters of coritur. 
cogiiur, ' when it is forced,' or ' under compulsion of fire,' besides 
suiting the passage as the most natural word, is not a mere con- 
jecture, but is found in v, and may come from an early source. 

407 is aptly compared by Alzinger with Ciris 163, 164 Quae 
simul ac uoiis hausit sitientihus ignem Et iialidum penitus con- 
cepit i7t ossa furorem ; a parallel which makes Munro's coticepta 
in 413 almost certain. 

The genitive hausti (a neuter like G. ii. 398 Cui tiuinquam 
exhausii satis est) depends on domus, 'home of what it has 
imbibed ' ; yet Scaliger's hatcstis is also possible, a dative rather 
than abl, ' yet once absorbed they (the flames) have no safer 

408 Scaliger's duransqtie for duramqtie of MSS. seems very 
likely, as durainque can only be retained on the improbable 
view that seruans aciem duramque can = seruansque a. d. ; if 
durans is right it almost follows that saepta is an accus. plur. as 
Wemsdorf thought : not, however, in the sense he assigned, 
' quae intus conclusa sunt,' but either the outer walls which close 
round the central seat of flame, or perhaps the partitions into 
which the molten lava-masses fall by the action of heat. Lucre- 

' Birt, who however himself retains coritur, changing i gni io ignis, 
as in Liv. xxvi. 27. 5. 


tius has saefyfa domorum (walls), i. 489, vi. 228, and so Vitruv. 
viii. 3. 10 cfficiunt his crustis in agris saepia. 

409 Sudhaus retains tiitinn est, interpreting ' the fire has its 
safe place, and the conquered is content to submit,' i. e. the 
lava-stone succumbs to the flame and owns itself defeated. This 
distracts illi from uicto, and is not even the natural sense of 
the words as Sudhaus arranges them, which, if genuine, should 
mean 'it finds a safety in the proverb "endurance for the 
conquered."' That the poet so wrote I cannot bring myself 
to believe. 

Munro's tit turn, an exclamation in the style of Varro's Quod 
aiunt non esse analogiam, nt in hoc errajit ! L. L. ix. 34, or 
Catullus' Saltus . . . 7ion falso diues Fertur, qui quot res in se 
habet egregias I (but other MSS. give tot) necessitates some 
change in fide : he edits thus 

non tutior hausti 
Vila domus ; seruans aciem duramque tenaci 
Saepta fidest ; ut tum est illi patientia uicto ! 
in which saepta is of course nom. fern, (so also Sudh.), ' fenced 
about with resolute fidelity.' 

The passage must remain doubtful : my conj. bruta, ' insen- 
sate,' 'apathetic,' would be Lucretian, vi. 105 bruto potidere. 
Lucretian certainly is redil in iiires, iii. 505 redit ifi sensiis. 
Or possibly tuttini may be sic turn or sua turn, ' such is its 
submissiveness when once defeated,' or ' once defeated it shows 
a submissiveness peculiarly its own.' 

411 cardo of C can hardly be tarde, as cuncianter ^.xxApigre in 
4x3 would convey the same idea ad nauseam. I believe it is 
an error for carbo. A mass of lapis jnolaris might be so called 
as a carbonized or rather carbonizing substance, of course in 
reference to its slow and gradual burning {Journ. of Philol. 
1895, p. 17). 

410 sqq. The fire smoulders on within the lava-stone, and 
does not at once discharge itself in flame : in this respect it is 
unlike other stones in which the germ of fire soon dies out and 
is then extinct : lava retains its fire and takes a long time and 
many burnings before it is reduced to its final state of pumice- 
like cinderiness or crumbling sand. 



411 sitfxitus, 'closely packed,' as Lucr. ii. 67 7iofi inter se 
stipata cohacrct Materies (Le Clerc). 

415 Vincit has the advantage over other stones, and so may 
be said to be the real cause {cansani tenet) of combustion. 

416 hxpidis is a necessary correction of de Rooy's for lafiidzan 
of all j\ISS. It is incredible that our poet, with all his weak- 
nesses, should spoil the force of his reasoning by a sudden 
appeal td the wonderful character of stones ifi general, when 
the very point of all he says is to prove the inolaris to be 
exceptionally wonderful iti contrast with other stones. Sudhaus 
alone retains lapidum. 

419 quod repetas, 'to go back for, or return to.' Sudh. quotes 
Sen. N . O. vi. 1 . 1 3 circuit fattan et si quid din praeteriit repetit. 

sine semine, ' with no seed or germ of future fire.' 

420 semei atque iterum, which in Suet. Aug. 22 means 'twice,' 
• here = ' again and again,' as in Caesar, B. G. i. 31. 6. Cic. Font. 

xii. 26 (viii. 16) has seniel atque itertwi ac saepius. 
[Hie for Sic of MSS. is required by Cetera in 417.] 

421 desinit, sc. instaurare uires. 

423 iacitoiQ. I retain as agreeing well w'xxhputrcs and di/apsus, 
' and so dissolving sheds a mass of crumbling sand.' Rehd. and 
Artend. give iacet, which most edd. and even Sudh. prefer. 

424-445 To prove what I say you have only to compare other 
volcanic regions. In these combustible materials exist in plenty, 
but they have become inoperative from the want of the lava- 

424 Ccrnc, ' try the matter,' as probably in 400 robore cernas. 
locis, ' by particular regions,' i. e. by the indications which par- 
ticular volcanic neighbourhoods supply, nearly = natur is locorum. 
So I explained, /^?<r«^/ of Philol. xxiii. 17, and this is now the 
view of Sudhaus and Hildebrandt (Beitrdge,^. 17 note). Wagler's 
Locris is thus unnecessary, adsiste, with accus. as in Stat. Theb. 
iii. 299 Has adsistere equos. cauernas is thought to mean the 
hollow basins which volcanos naturally form, and which, when 
the fire has died out, still retain their shape. Brydone mentions 
a number of such minor craters on Aetna, formed at various 
periods in the lower part of the mountain, quite distinct from the 
main crater. Here, of course, the poet is not speaking of these, 



but of volcanos in other parts of Italy or the adjacent islands : 
the districts near Cumae and Naples, and the islands Aenaria, 
Strongyle, and Hiera. But it is certain to me that cauertia is 
rarely, if ever, the crater in our poet, see 31 claiisis resonarc 
catternis, 126 Jluunt tectis adoperta caiiernis, and especially 307 
rupes aliqtias penitusqtie cauernas ; so, too, here he may have in 
view the hollow and cavernous configuration of such regions 
generally. Lucan x. 447, 448 Nee secus in Skults fureret tua 
flamina cauernis, Obstrneret smnmam si quis tibi, Miilcibtr, 
Aetnain seems to oppose the caverns in the lower part of Aetna 
to the crater at the top. 

425 nascentis is, slightly emphasized, ' springing naturally.' 
Gercke's gliscentis is ifnnecessary. 

426 coloris. Theophrastus, quoted by Scaliger, says the colour 
of the Aetnean lava was black. 8in(l)opas 8i e^"'^'''' ^P''^ dKXi)\ai 
Koi xpa^nari Ka\ irvKvorriTi Kni /3(i'pf£. )^pd}fj.nTi fifv on fifKaiva r; eK tov 
pvaKos Toi) fv SiKfXt'a, Theophr. fragm. de lapid. 22 ed. Wimmer 
tom. iii. p. 39 : and so Poseidonius ap. Strab. 269 raKelaiji eV roU 
KpaTrjpari riji irerpas eiT dva(i\ridfl(Ti]i, to vwfpxvSev ttjs KOpvcf)T]s 
vypov Tvrjkoi fcm peXas peayp Kara rrjs opavrjs' eira nrj^iv "Ka^utv yivt- 
Tat \i6oi pvXias, ttjv avrfjv (f)v\nTT(jov xpoav rjv peuv fixe (Sudhaus). 

428-432 are thus written in C: 

Dicitur insidiis flagrans enarea quondam 
Nunc extincta super testisque neapolin inter 
Et cumas locus et multis iam frigidus annis 
Quamuis aetemum pinguescat etubere sulphur 
In mercem legitur tanto est fecundius aethna. 
428 flagrasse Wesselitig 429 tectisque Rehd. In MS. 

D'Orv. 195 the vv. 11. ascribed to P. Pithou give on 428 ' in m. 
superest,' and on 429 ' Corrigitur : exstin super testisque eta : 
t e stio superque (sic) Neapolin.' Perhaps Nunc exstincta [diu], 
superestque N. inter 430 perhaps ex multis 431 

pingui scatet ubere the present editor m Joicrn. of Philol. 1871, 
p. 276. 

There is no reason to doubt insidiis (for which de Serionne 

substituted indiciis), constructed closely with flagrans or fla- 

grasse, 'to have burst into flame by surprise,' nearly =/tv- 

insidias. Hild. cites Plin. H. N. ii. 203 in proof of Monte 

177 N 


Epomeo's ^ sudtLn outbreaks: citm rcpcnte flamtna ex eo emt- 
cuissct : and such is the character of Ischian outbreaks of 
nature to this day, as the earthquakes of 1881, 1883 prove. 

Hildebrandt defends ^a^ra«^ (fuisse) by similar passages in 
Pliny, H. N. viii. 154 Idem {Bucephalas) in proeliis viemoratae 
ciiiiisdam ferhihctur operae {fjiisse). xxxvi. 94 legihir et pensi- 
lis horius {fuisse) : owing to the doubtfulness of 429 the point 
cannot be settled, but an infin. certainly would be more natural. 

429 Nunc extincta super ^ ought to mean ' at the present 
time quenched at the top,' i.e. with its crater no longer dis- 
charging flame, but covered over with grass and trees, testisque 
would then mean that an attestation of Aenaria having once been 
volcanic, though in the poet's time the fire was extinct, was to 
be found in a similar region between Cumae and Naples, which 
had once been volcanic and was then so no longer. 

But the v.l. recorded by Pithou in MS. D'Orv. 195 seems to 
show that the tradition of 429 was in some way confused, (1) in 
supcrest being written in the margin of 428, indicating that besides 
super testis there was a v. 1. superest ; (2) in the separation of 
extin- from -eta, and the hesitation of the copyist between super 
testisque and testis superque. This appears to me to support 
a conj. which I made many years ago, and have lately printed 
in Postgate's Corpus Poet. Lat. vol. ii, p. Tl Nunc extincta [diu] 
superestque Ncapolin inter, super est written thus, as the word 
would be in early MSS. (not superest), would account for the 
change to super testis, and the diti would fall out as hyper- 

^ Epomeo, the Roman Epopeus, is the chief mountain of Ischia 
(Aenaria). It has long been extinct ; the great eruption of 1302 a.d. 
left its record in the i J miles of lava blocks in the neighbourhood of 
the town of Ischia. Julius Obsequensde Prodigiis 114 states that at the 
time of the outbreak of the Social War (b.c. 91) Aenariae terrae hiatu 
flamnia exorta in caelum emicxtit. This must have been more than 
roc years before our poet, and we may perhaps conclude that it was 
only a minor outbreak, which occasioned no permanent impression. 

^ Buecheler {^Rh. Mus. liv, p. 5) joins super insidit's, adding 'uidetur 
poeta tangere sub Epopeo strata Typhonis cubilia' (Strab. 248). 
This seems artificial. Munro's super testisque, ' and there is a witness 
besides,' is objectionable from the position oi que. 


metrical ; logically, too, super est seems better than testis ; the 
poet enumerating one after another the various places which 
confirmed his view. If I am right in this, it follows that et in 
430 should be changed to ex. 

In 431 my restoration is accepted by Munro, Baehrens, and 
Sudhaus, fingid scatet ubere sulphur \ But should this verse be 
connected with 430 or with 432 ? I prefer the former view, ' the 
volcanic district between Cumae and Naples has for many years 
ceased to bum, in spite of the sulphur, which is there so 
abundant as to be collected for purposes of sale.' Daubeny, 
p. 317, makes the same remark about the islet of Nisyros. 'The 
sulphur is so abundant as to be collected as an article of com- 
merce, and is occasionally exported to Smyrna.' 

430 locus, the Solfatara, which, as is well known, in the 
sixteenth centur>' (Sept. 28, 1538) again became actively volcanic, 
and formed the Monte Nuovo (Daubeny, p. 208). Its ancient 
condition is described by Lucretius, Strabo, and Petronius. 
Lucr. vi. 747 Is locus est Cuvias aput, acri sulphicre 7nontes Oppleti 
calidis jibi fufnant fontibus aucti"^. Strab. 246 irrepKeiTai 6e ttjs 
iToXews eidvs fj tov 'H(j)aiaTov dyopa, nfSiov ntpiKfKXfififvop dianvpois 
6<pp\j(Ti KafiLVoiBeis exoiiaais dvaTrvoas noWaxoii Koi /Spw^wSeir (strong 
smelling) Ikovcos' to be n(8ioi> deiov TrXrjpts fan avprov. Petron. S. 
"120, V. 67 Est locus exciso penitus demersus hiatu Parihenopen 
inter magnaeque Dicarchidos arua, &c. 

433 In cui notnen fades dedit ipsa rotunda it is difficult to 
determine whether rotunda is to be constructed as an epithet 
with fades, or as defining no7nen, ' has given the name of the 
Round.' The nominative is found in this latter construction, 
even in a clause where an accus. would be expected : so aetas 
cut fecimus aurea notnen, Ov, M. xv. 96. Strab. 157 v7rdp|at 
iroktis avTodi rfjv /xej/ KoKovpLivrjv "EXXf/i'sy, ttjv Se 'Aii(t)i\o\oi. 
(Gildersleeve and Lodge, Lat. Gram. § 349). 

^ Val. Flaccus has an imitation, vi. 39 pingui nttmquam (amen 
ubere defit. I do not accept Sudhaus' modification pbigne scatet u. 
sulphur as an improvement of my original conj. 

* In Lucr.'s description of the mephitic effluvium Athettaeis in 
ntoenibus which follows this, I think optts of MSB. in 755 Sed natura 
loci opus efficit ipsa suapte is a mistake for pus. 

179 N a 


Rott/fidn is not known to have been an actual Roman name 
of the island ; rather it is the poet's translation of uTpoyyvXr}, 
which Greek name in the form of Stromboli remains to the 
present day. Daubcny, pp. 245-251, gives a good account of 
Stromboli as he saw it. 

435 Et = etiam. lapis ^ not the lapis molaris of Aetna, but 
trachytic lava (Sudhaus). Daubeny found the summit of 
Stromboli ' strewn with masses of black pumice, or of a highly 
scoriform and filjrous description of lava,' p. 246 ; the walls of 
the ancient crater he describes as ' of a trachytic character and 
of a reddish grey colour, intersected by dykes of a light grey 
rock, with sparkling crystals of glassy felspar,' p. 250. 

[The earlier view of this lapis made it the aTpoyyvKx] of Plin. 
XXXV. 187, a kind of alum.] 

generandis igntbits. lustin. iv. I, of Sicily, nee non et ignibus 
generandis nutriendisque soli ipsins naturalis materia. 

436 qui MSS. rightly, I think, 'and indeed that stone.' Naeke, 
on Div. p. 302, reckons this use of qjii, which is frequent in the 
Culex, among the signs of archaic style. It may perhaps be added 
to the arguments in favour of a date for Aetna not long after 

437 jnortaks expands In brcue as an additional explanation, 
'feeds the flames for a short time only, and such as soon die' 
down.' copia, the supply of the stone is not enough for a pro- 
longed conflagration. 

438 Scaliger's durat adhuc for durata of MSS. seems still the 
best emendation. Sudhaus shows that durat, or durat etiam 
mmc, recurs in Pliny, H. N. xxxvi. 84 durat etiatn nunc 
{labyrinthus), 98 durat et Cyzici delubrtim. So too in Ovid, 
M. x. 217 honorque [Hyacinthi) durat i?i hoc aeuz, and Justin, 
iv. I Aetftae montis per tot saecula durat incendiwn. Diodorus, 
in his account of the Liparaean islands, twice uses the words 
fiixpi- rov vxiv of the continuance of volcanic phenomena in these 
islands. It would be specially appropriate of volcanic islands 
which sometimes disappear, e.g. the island between Hiera and 
Euonymus, the emergence of which is mentioned by Strabo. 

Vulcani nomine sacra. Hiera, or 'leptV 'Hcjinia-Tov, now 
Vulcano. In Daubeny's map of the Lipari islands, Stromboli 


is the northernmost, Vulcano the southernmost ; between 
Stromboli and Vulcano, in an ahnost straight line from N. to S., 
are Panaria, then Lipari. Thucydides, iii. 88, after men- 
tioning Lipara, Didyme, Strongyle, Hiera, adds: i>oiii(ov(ri 8e oi 
(Kfivr) avdfjanoi. iv Tjj 'le'pa is 6 "H^rttoros xakKevei., on rrjv vvktu 
^aiviTai TTvp dvadidoicra tto\v koI ttjv rj^tpav Knirvai/. Strab. 275 rav- 
Tt]s (Lipara) Be fiem^v ttu>s e'ori Ka\ tt]^ 2iKf\ias fjv vvv 'Upcw 'H(/)ata-Tou 
KoKovcri, nfTpii>8qs naaa kuI fpr]jxos Ka\ Buinvpos. e^*^' ^^ avanvoas 
rpf'is (OS (K rpicov KpaTrjpcov. Scymn. 255 hvfvriv 'Upa \fyop.eut} Tis 
fiXoytof, Knw/jLtva ({)aiVfTai yup e^ nvTfjs nvpa 'Atto arabluiv evdrjXa 
TTCKTi, TrXfioi'Mi' Knt Sianvpoiv els v'^os (haSoXai p.vdpa)v "Epyd re 
a-iBrjpeos T€ pai(TTrjpu>v ktvttos. Aristot. Meteor, ii. 8. I 5 e'v Tavrr] (lepa 
N^o-w) e^ava8ei rt rrjS yr]s, Kai dvjjei oiov \o(}j<i)8rjs oyKos peril \//-d0ou. 
TfXos 8e payevTos e^T)\6e ■nvevpa noXv, kui tov (pe'^aXov Koi rfji/ 
ref^pav avr]Ke, Kai tt]v re AiTrapaiwv noXiv ovaav ov noppco irdaav 
KaTeTi<ppoy(Te kol els evias riov ev 'iToXia TroXeoov rjXdev' Kai vvv en 
OTTov TO dva(f>Cat]pa tovto eyevero brjXov eari. The words of the 
poet, Viilcani nojuine sacra, point, I think, to the combination 
'lepa 'H0aio-Tov, mentioned both by Strabo and Diodorus, v. 7. 

439 tainen is in reference to its association with Vulcan, which 
might seem to imply that it was ever burning. 

iiicendi, genitive, as in Lucr. vi. 673. 

441 Quae resiat, the part that has not cooled and is still 

minor et dines satis ubcre terra est ^ is smaller than the other 
part, and is a soil fairly rich in productiveness of material.' 
Some think the poet alludes here to the little islet called 
Vulcatiello, described by Daubeny, p. 260, as ' an isolated rock, 
which, though without a crater, emits from its crevices vapours 
of a sulphureous nature, a feeble remnant of the volcanic action 
by which it was formerly itself thrown up from the bosom of the 
sea.' This rock seems to date from about 200 B. C, and to be 
that mentioned by Aristotle nep\ Mereaptov, ii. 8 (Daubeny). 

442 The MS. reading of this verse, 

Sed non Aethnei uires quae conferat illi, 

is baffling, and eludes certain emendation. If we accept gt(ae 

as genuine, the easiest change is Aet/iaeo, i.e. sed non quae 

conferat tares Aetnaeo illi, ' but not such as to match its strength 



with that great supply in Aetna ' : then //// will be tihcri, or 
perhaps ificcndio from 439 ; so Haupt, but with ignt for ////. 

Munro preferred Sed iton Aetnacis uires qitae conferat Hits, 
which I have found in the Paris ed. of 1507. This seems to me 
less probable, as the poet avoids rhyming -is with -is. 

[Scaliger, Le Clerc, and Wernsdorf, accepting //// as genuine, 
prefer to change quae to quas, and aethnei to Aetnaeis, i. e. sed 
non illi sunt uires quas conferat Aetfiaeis. 

[Sudhaus makes conferat = ' bestow, impart,' retaining 
Aetnaei, sed non quae conferat uires Aetnaei {ubcris) illi {insulae 
or terrae).} 

443 haec ipsa, this smaller part that is still active volcano. 

444 adgereret, a good word, retaining its hold on classical 
Latin from Plautus to Cicero, thence from Vergil to Pliny, 
Vitruvius, and Tacitus. C has adgeneret. 

445 siluavt is here explained by Afateriam, as i. q. vKr]v : no 
proof can be drawn from this that the plur. siluae in 384 has 
such a meaning, suam, ' its own ' ; left alone Hiera would have 
been extinguished long before the poet's time ; but a channel 
under the sea connected it with Aetna, which lent its own 
materials for conflagration. 

canali. Diodor. v. 7 X/yovo-t yap rwa e'/c toutwj' tu^v vi]cru>v 
Inovofxovs fivai Kara yiji fiixpi. rfjs Atrvrjs Km to'is cV afi(f)6Tepn aro- 
fiioii avvr]fxixfi>ovs' Sici kcu Kara to TrXflarov (vaWa^ Kiifcrdai tovs fv 
ravTais rals vijcroii KpaTrjpas tcov Kara rrjv Atrprjp. Daubeny p. 264, 
'The Lipari islands are so placed with reference to Naples and 
Sicily, that they seem to form a link between the two countries, 
whence some have inferred that a subterranean communication 
passes through them, extending from Etna to Vesuvius ' : but 
he declines to pronounce on the point. 

446 poscerct of C is explained by Hildebrandt, Beitrage, p. 23 
note, as ' called out,' ' called for the fire to appear ' : Luc. i. 29 
desuntque 7namis poscentibus amis. With this the nomina- 
tive Siculi tticinia mentis does not well agree : with all other 
editors I ^xti^x pasceret. 

447-448 are thus written in C: 


Sed melius res ipsa notis spectaque uentis 

Occurrit signis nee temptat fallere pestem. 



447 uenis Rehd. Ariaid.: ueris ed. Rubei 1475, and so edd. 
generally. Perhaps lentis, as in Catull. Ixiv. 183 448 

testem Haupt. 

uentis of C would most naturally be a mistake for lentis : the 
signa might be lenta, slow or gradually convincing, equally with 
uera or certa. In proportion to the slowness would be the 

447 melius, comparative of bene, to be joined with ocairrit, 
meets us better (i. e. with a better voucher) than any mere sign. 
Man. i. 775 Damnaiusque suas melius (more truly) damnauit 

notis. Sen. N. Q. i. 1.4 cert is reruin notis tiuntiet. 

spectataque signis occurrit answers to nee tcmptat f. /., ' both, 
* and not.' 

448. temptat fallere testem might seem to mean temptat 
testem ad fallendu/n, as fallit testis is of course a regular 
combination. But the numerous instances, especially in Ovid S 
in which temptare is followed by an infinitive in the sense of 
trying or aiming to effect something, make it almost certain 
that testem depends on fallere either as (l) 'fact does not aim 
at counterfeiting the witness' = 'fact makes no attempt to act 
the counterfeit witness,' i.e. to pretend to give a true statement 
when it is really false ; or (2) as in the Translation, ' misre- 
present the witness': cf. Prop. iv. i. 81 fallitur auro luppiter, 
and see Housman in Classical Review for 1900, p. 259. 

449 radicibus Aetnae. Flor. iii. 20 ad imas Vesuuii descendere 
radices. Lucr. vi. 694 of Aetna mentis ad eius Radices. 

450 efflant, 'fume,' a neuter sense also found in Lucretius, 
vi. 681 Flafntna foras uastis Aetnae fornacibus efflet, 699 efflare 

451 Intereunt uenis, 'die down,' n^TvAy — restinguuntur; pieces 
of rock may be seen smouldering, with the heat still alive, but 

* F. iv. 883 suis adsciscere temptat Partibus ; M. ix. 479 nihil 
uigilans comntittere temptem ; lb. 434 Tentptabisque cibt fallere fraude 
Jouem ; Pont. ii. 2. 55 ut me defendere templet, adoro ; Her. xx. 190 
casibus istis Quos, quoties temptas fallere, ferre soles; Am. iii. 14. 4 
ut temples dissimulare ; and so Aetn. 509 disponere singula causis 



gradually dying out. The abl. tictiis is constructed with inter- 
eunt much as in Sophocles' (jydtvovcra fxtv kuXv^iv iyKapnoii xQovo^j 
^dlvovcra 8' dytXaif l:iow(')fj.ois, O. T. 25, 26. 

muftifesio ut credere possis: Lucretian, like ut pcrnoscere possis, 
iii. 181 (Alzinger). Lucretius affects manifesius in this sense of 
something palpable which can be appealed to as a witness, e.g. 
ii. 867-9. 

453 Cuius defectus ieiutius colUgit ignis C, which, if genuine, 
must = ' whose failing stores (or, scant leavings) the starved fire 
gathers together' and consumes, having no other supply. It 
w^ould be far clearer to write ieiunos, ' the failure (i. e. diminish- 
ing supply) of which gets together only spare fires.' colligere 
is sometimes used of scraping together small or penurious 
sums in lack of full or larger. Liv. xxxviii. 45 stipem a fyratmis 
castellanisque deuiis colligens : or possibly ' whose dwindling 
and starved supply {def. ieiunos) the fire gathers into one ' : 
defectus will then be accusative plur., but this is less likely 
because ignis as accusative after colligit is supported by collegit 
Jiatnmas in 454. 

454 iacit, as iacit flammam, Lucr. vi. 880. simul ictu, possibly 
'simultaneously with the blow'; Hor. S. i. 10. 86 sitnul his: 
Ov. Trist. v. 10. 29 siinul nobis : more probably simul is ' at the 
time it does so,' i. e. when it discharges flame, ictu, * by its 
impact,' sets the material near it on fire. 

456-462 are thus written in C: 

Haud equidem mirum facie qu§ cernimus extra 
Si lenitur opus restat magis uritur illic- 
Sollicitatque magis uicina incendia saxum 
Certaque uenturae praemittit pignora flamm§. 
Nam simul atque mouet uiris turbamque m.inatus 
Diffugit exemploque solum trahit ictaque ramis 
Et graue sub terra murmur demonstrat et ignes. 
456 mirum scute (scate Ar.) quod Rehd. Arund.: mirum 
facie qua Munro: mira in faciem quae the present editor, J. of 
Philol. 1887, p. 308, ivith restant in 457 : Ilaud equidem mirum : 
faex est quod cernimus extra Haupt: Haud equidem miror 
faciem : quae cernimus extra, Si lenitur opus, restant Baehrens 
457 Sed Rehd. rest/t Rehd. : reses at Scaliger : reses ac de 


Serionne 460 curis Re/id. Anitid. mimutus Rc/td. : mina- 
tur Ulitius 461 extemploque Rehd. Before and after this 
verse something seems to be lost ictaque ramis] perhaps actaque 
rimis 462 denuntiat_/(;^<'<^. 

A very doubtful passage, in which, however, one point is 
fairly clear ; there is a contrast between the partially consumed 
but still burning lava to be seen outside Aetna at its base {circa 
laiera aiqiie imis radicibus Aeinae), and the fiercer burning and 
more potent absorption of other combustibles into itself which 
the same lava-stone exhibits within the volcano. It is possible, 
therefore, that facie represents the otttward look of the stone, 
as seen in the open air, in opposition to the invisible smelting 
and fusing which goes on inside. 

Scaliger thought restat was wrong, and conj. for it rcses at ; 
but though reses might well be applied to a volcano in a period 
of inaction, as Varro uses it of stagnant water (R. R. iii. 17. 8), 
Claudian of waves in subsidence (Epigr. 86. 2), the nominative 
sing, is rare, and the sudden break in the rhythm improbable. 

Munro, rtVa\mng facie, wrote the passage : 

Mon equidem mirum facie, qua cernimus extra, 
Si lenitur, opus restat ; 
paraphrasing thus, ' the effects of the lapis 7?tolaris, when the 
fury of the eruption is abated, si lenitur (opus), are not so 
wonderful in the appearance they present to us outside the 
mountain (extra) : rather is it, when it is on fire in the crater 
(illic) and sets in flames all about it, that its terrors are shown.' 

My former conj., as stated above, was a modification of this. 
I now consider it improbable. 

The variants iox facie in the other MSS., scute of Rehd., scale 
oi Arund., may point to a quite diflferent tradition, possibly to 
scaterest. This verb occurs several times in Lucr. e.g. v. 598, 
952 ; vi. 895, 896 sic igitur per aim possufit ernmpere fontem 
Et scatere ilia foras in stuppam se7nina, where Munro notes 
' he uses scatere of the seeds of fire, but they may be said to be 
part of the fountain.' In our poem we have seen scatet dis- 
guised in 431, where it is used of a copious supply of sulphur'. 

' Pliny XXXV. 239 innumerabiles parui scd Haturaks scatent igites 
uses scatere with no idea of fluidity. 


The passage might then have been : 

Non equideni mirum scatercst quae cemimus extra : 
Si lenitur opus, restat : magis uritur illic, iS:c. ; 
which might be paraphrased, ' non mirum est fontis instar hie 
ilHc oboriri quae cernimus : lenius quidem factum est opus 
lapidis illius qui circa latera Aetnae sic restinguitur, non tamen 
nullum est, sed uiuit necdum uenit ad interitum : quo autem 
consumitur tardius diutiusque durat, hoc minus debemus ad- 
mirari si multis locis ante oculos intereuntem uidemus.' 

illic of MSS. is hard: it seems to mean in that other centre, 
the interior of Aetna : if this be the meaning, the poet might 
have spared his readers much perplexity by writing intus. 

458 Sollicitat, amatorie, as in Ov. M. xiv. 670. The lapis 
molaris solicits the adjoining combustibles to burn with it. 

460 uiris and minatus of the Cambridge MS. (C) restore 
light to this verse which the other MSS. had wholly perverted. 
Munro is obviously right in marking a lacuna after it ; if ictaque 
ramis is genuine, there must be another lacuna after 461. It 
is not likely that Et . . . et in 462 = ' both,' ' and,' a use avoided 
by our poet. Munro thought the nomin. agreeing with minatus 
was lapis \ but saxian is the immediately preceding word. 
May it not be mons, or a similar masc. such as spirittcs, which 
has fallen out in the lacuna ? I doubt whether the lapis would 
have been described as setting its powers in motion and threat- 
ening turmoil. 

461 Difftigit, recedes on either side, probably the earth, 
which might be said, solum trahcre ', to draw or pull its surface 
away. Lucr. i. 1102 moenia mundi Diffugiant. 

exe7nplo C for exte7?tplo as the ninth-century Vaticanus of Val. 
Flacc. vi. 753. 

rajnis^ might perhaps be ramifications or branching veins in 
the rock ; as Lucr. uses ramosus of branching particles, ii. 446, 

* Possibly so/j<>« tralnt = away the ground from the feet by 
splitting open. 

* Ramis would be a natural word to describe the dykes which are 
often found interpenetrating volcanic beds, such as are figured by 
Daubeny, p. 249, in the case of Stromboli, and p. 277 in the Val di 
Bove, on the east side of Aetna. 



and of clouds that spread out like branches, vi. 133 : but it may 
also be an error for raris, agreeing with a lost foraininibiis in 
the following verse ; or again icta ramis may possibly be a 
perversion of acta rimis ; for, as Le Clerc long ago pointed out, 
rimas agere = ' to crack,' ' split open,' is regular. Ov. M. ii. 
211 Fissaqtce agit rimas (telhis), x. 512 Arbor agit rimas. 

[Sudhaus, accepting 460-462 as correctly given by MSS. and 
continuous, explains : ' For as soon as the lava-stone sets its 
powers in motion and threatening disturbance flies off and draws 
with it the ground following its initiative {exemplo), as well 
as the substances struck upon by its branching veins.' On this 
view icia is accus. plur. neuter ; ramis = pofSSotr, ' veins in the 
stone,' Theophr. de caus. plant, iv. 12. 6, and so in the fragm. 
de lapid. ; and the apodosis begins at 463 Turn paiiidmn 

462 graue murmur. Brydone, Tour in Sicily, p. 93, speaks 
of the heavy dull bellowing of the mountain. 

demonstrat could not be * exhibits ' with murjnur, ignes as 
object accusatives: they are nominatives, and demonstrat has 
its proper sense of indicating or signaling. 

463 jam J, supernatural ; so diuinis rebus, -^6^. Lucanx. 198 
has sacras leges of the divine ordinances which the Nile obeys. 

464 as given in C, 

Parere et tuto speculaberis omnia collis 
(and so Rehd. but with + appended in the right margin to mark 
that the verse was wrong), cannot be certainly restored. Parere 
may be, as Scaliger thought. Par erit, or, as Sudhaus conj., Par 
rere. Again, et may be i? as Seal, thought, or ex as I prefer : 
collis may depend on e{x) tuto or be an error for colli. 

1. Par rere (Sudhaus) for parere is very near the MS. and 
the spondaic elision in -re at this part of the verse would have 
many parallels in Lucr., e.g. i. 608 haerere unde queant, 846 
errare atque illi ; ii. 10 Errare atque uiatn; iv. 1148 exire et 
ualidos. Against it is to be put the fact that par est, uidetur, 
or some other verb in the 3rd pers. sing., seems the norm. 
An imperative, if found at all, is exceptional. 

2. et is constantly interchanged with ex, as perhaps in 430. 
See my Noct. Manil. pp. 4, 10, 35 ; and in Sen. de Ira, ii. 29. 2 



ex hmc^ifiquo iutoque spcculctur is given by Gertz' excellent 
MS. yi. 

465 This verse has two unclassical uses : 

1, cffcrucni, not found in any writer of authority. The infini- 
tive efferuSre however occurs in Lucr. ii. 928, Verg. Georg. 
iv. 556. 

2. hoiicrosa in the sense of ' loaded with ' followed by abl. of 
the thing loading : usually honerosus = burdensome, and is 
followed by a dat. of the thing burdened, as in Ov. M. ix. 54 
iej-goque ho7icj-osus inhaesit. The h is quite correct, as in 
holus : see Munro's note. No weight can be given to Rehd.'s 
V. ], numerossa. raptis seems to give the idea of the rocks 
which have been dislodged and are now in upheaval as so 
much spoil of the flames. [Ulitius conj. operosae incendia 

466 truncae, ' mutilated,' torn into shapeless masses. 

467 The order is Prouoluutii exam, harenae adque astra 
S07iant, the last three words interjected and not affecting the 
construction of examina as depending on Proicobiunt. This 
interjection of the clause is justified by the poet's wish to 
connect closely in words, as they are in nature, the terrific 
sound in the sky with the rising of the huge masses of rock 
which are ejected from the crater, and carry with them quanti- 
ties of sand. [The MS. reading truncaeqiie ruinae Prouoluunt 
atque atra sonant ex. harenae leaves Prouoluunt without an 
accus., and must I think be wrong.] 

469-473 describe the fantastic shapes which the ejected rocks 
assume. They have a human semblance, some like troops 
under defeat, some maintaining a sturdy resistance to the 
flames : here the burning lava refuses to give in and spreads 
out its contingents, there it is gradually abating, and its force 
dying down. 

468 incertae, irregular, i.e. such as might present a different 
notion to different observers. 

469 Bin compares 1S5 Pars igni domitae, pars ignes ferre 

469 domita stantis, as in so many cases in Catullus, xvii. 24, 
xxii. 12, xliv. 18, Ixiii. 53, Ixiv. 186, Ixvii. 32 ; in Tibullus i. 5. 28 ; 


Propertius iii. ll. 46 ; Luc. v, 118; and several times in Sil. 
Italicus and Martial: so too Stat. Theb. vi. 551. (Ramsay, 
Manual 0/ La/iti Prosody, pp. 273-277. Add Gratt. Cyneg. 142.) 
INIunro's doniitast stantis sounds to me very harsh ; if any 
change be needed, I should prefer doinita : at stantis. stanti C 
Rehd. and so Sudhaus, = *part is firm strength [robora) for a 
standing fight.' With the genitive, robora (sc. sunt) nearly 
= 'is a sturdy standing fight,' i.e. is the semblance of such a 
fight: logically this is better. 

470 recipit admits the approach of the flames. Ov. F. v. 403 
recepta . . . toto corpore pesiis erai; M. xi. 416 intuna frigus 
ossa receperunt. So recipere ferriim of a gladiator taking his 

hinc indefessus anhelat for hinc de/ensus a. of C was suggested 
by the present writer in 1887, J. of Philol. p. 308, and I find 
the same conj. in Sudhaus' ed. of 1898. indefessus (sc. hosiis), 
the fire. 

471 aperit se comes into clear view, as in Aen. vii. 448 Tanta- 
que se fades aperit, or possibly ' opening out,' as Quintilian i. 
prooem. 3 speaks of his subject opening out more widely, latizis 
se aperiente materia. 

spiritus is explained by Sudh. and Birt as ' gas-hauch,' its 
usual sense in this poem. The combination with decrescit 
would better suit its more common use, ' high spirit,' ' fierceness,' 
* vehemence ' : so crescit licentia spiritus, Sen. de Ira, ii. 21. 3. 

[1 cannot agree with Sudh. in referring i?idefessus to spirittis, 
as if aperit se hostis could be quasi-parenthetical, expressing 
the result on the lava (produced by the intensity of the spiritus), 
of opening its pores: nor with Birt, who conj. donee defessus 
for hinc defensus of C] 

472 laeto, ' triumphant.' 

tropaeo. Trophies were sometimes constructed of stone : this 
may have determined the choice of the word. 

473 castra sub ipsa : some of the rocks ejected lie close to 
the crater : this would represent castra sub ipsa. 

474 sqq. After a simile (469-472) which certainly gives but 
a poor impression of his powers, the poet again returns to the 
prose of actual fact, and describes the look of the lava-stone 



(l) 474-476, as it burns in single specimens, (2) in a heap, 
(3) in a stream. 

474 si qiiis lapidum. He imagines his reader coming upon 
a piece of rock lying by itself, and burning at its surface, if this 
is the meaning of sumvio igui: it cannot = viaxhno (Munro), 
and would be a contradiction in language if it meant ' reaching 
from the centre to the top,' i. q. pemtissimo : see on summzs 
catisis, 158. The only other sense possible is, 'the fire at the 
top of the volcano,' i.e. in the crater; but how could such 
a fact be ascertained ? 

475 is thus written in C: 

Asperior sopitaes et quaedam sordida faex est. 

sopita est Rehd. Arund. : scobis iis P. Pithou : scabres Seal. : 
species Munro : solito est Damstd : sopita Le Clerc : tophis 
Franke. The word is still unenjended. sopito the present 
editor Journ. of Philol. 1892, p. 235, and so before fne Maehly. 

The only palaeographical clue yet offered for sopitaes is 
Munro's suggestion that -aes represents a nom. fern, in -es\ 
this is a frequent phenomenon in MSS. ; but the actual word 
which Munro suggested, species, cannot be thought likely. In 
Postgate's Corpus I have printed Maehly's conj. sopito, which 
is possible Latin and makes fair sense: it would be dative, 
sc. igni, when the fire is quenched its residuum is a dirty kind 
of slag. 

[Can sopitaes be a corruption of saeptis or saepteisl see 
on 409.] 

476 certies C with the other MSS. 'You will see' if you 
make the experiment, 195. 

477 exiluit sublata = exiluit et sc sustulit. caducis saxis, 
another of the datives our poet affects. 

478 Congeries : 206 Congeries operit saxortcvi et put r is harena. 
angusto uertice surgunt is considered by Sudh. and Hild. 
parenthetical, the apod, to ubi in 477 thus beginning at 479 
Sic ueluti in fornace. This seems to me doubtful, though it 
gives ^ a good meaning, since the gradual up-tapering of the 

' i.e. on my view of the meaning of aug. uert. surg. which is not 
Sudhaus', who explains ang. uert. of the narrow funnel of the crater. 


stones would prepare the way for the comparison of these 
rock-heaps to a kiln. I prefer to make ang. u. stirg. the apod, 
to ubi: 'they rise with a narrowing apex,' i.e. narrow gradually 
as they mount upwards. [Le Clerc conj. S7(rsum, Jacob 

479 sic ueluti, ^ just as in a kiln ' : sic adding to the exactness 
of the description. 

fornace is a very general term : ' here it clearly means a 
fomax calcaria or lime-kiln, fully described by Cato, de re 
Rust. 38 ; his proportions are 10 feet broad at bottom, 3 at top, 
20 high ; and hence we get a good notion of how a heap of 
these stones would go on burning till reduced to cinders, after 
the loss of the part that turns liquid,' Munro. 

480 subit altius, if rightly given by MSS., refers to the lime- 
stone in the kiln, not to the lava which is compared with it : for 
the fluid part of lava is immediately described not as evapora- 
ting, but as pouring down the mountain in a gradually increasing 
flood. [Baehrens conj. abit altilis.'] Transl. 'Just as in a 
lime-kiln the stone is calcined, losing in evaporation the whole 
of its fluid part when burnt out in the veins of the stone.' 

481 opibus, its wealth, what gives it value or importance 
among its brother stones : its real substance. 

leiiis et sine potidere pumex Excutitur, 'it is sifted off a light 
imponderable pumice'; nearly = 5^/^^^ eites exciissuni est Jit 
pwnex. Vitruvius mentions a kind of pumice called spongia 
about Aetna, ii. 8. 3. 

482 liquor, the fluid lava which gradually swells into a flood. 

483 mitis is ill supported by Vergil's Mitis ut in morein 
stagni placidaeque paludis Sienierct aequor aquis, Aen. viii. 88 
for no one would think of comparing a lava-flood with a lake or 
marsh : if genuine it must refer to the slow motion of the liquid 
in its first beginning, before it assumes its more rapid and 
destructive character. This would suit tandem Jncipit. No 
conj. of any likelihood has yet been ofi'ered. 

484 prunis C: priniis Arund. : pronis Suringar, and so 
Munro. It is difficult to decide : primis need not imply more 
than that at whatever point in the crust the lava broke out, 
it began with pouring down the slopes of the hills, then by 



degrees advanced, on reaching level ground, to a distance of 
twelve Roman miles, pronis is poetically better, suggesting one 
cause of the progress of the lava-flood, namely the sloping 
nature of the descent which it has to traverse before reaching 
the level. 

486 Curtis of C, cariis of Rehd. Arund. is probably certis 
(Wemsdorf). The steady resolute advance of the lava-stream 
is one of its most alarming symptoms. 

[Munro preferred curias, Birt iortis. .Sudh. retains curiis, 
' trummerfijhrenden Feuerstrom ' or * trummerartige Feuermas- 
sen.' I do not quite understand this, and Birt thinks it im- 
possible. If curiis was written by the poet, it ought to mean 
'short,' 'abridged,' i.e. dwarfed and not of the fully-developed 
size and altitude which lava-billows sometimes assume. Such 
an abridged height might, I suppose, mark the lava-waves on 
an unobstructed level, where there is no slope to give them 
extra dip and no obstacle confronts them to cause the climbhtg, 
which modern explorers so often mention as occurring at 
intervals in the lava-stream's progress \ 

487 'No massy obstacle bars the way ineffectually,' /r«J-/n?, 
because when any such barrier does present itself, the lava 
overpowers it, climbing, for instance, high walls. The con- 
struction is somewhat akin to Cat. Ixiv. 103 Non ingrata tivneti 
frusira munuscula dims Promittens. 

siinul omtiia pugnant, not ' everything is fighting on the same 
side,' but 'everything is in conflict at the same time.' The 
stream takes into itself a variety of objects, carrying them along 
with it : rocks, stones, trees, boughs, large masses of earth, &c. 
These clash and collide with each other. Similarly, Ovid M. v. 
150 cojiiurata U7idique pugiiant Agmina. 

488, 489 

Nunc siluae rupesque notant haec tela solumque 
Ipsa adiutat opes facilesque sibi induit amnis. C. 

Of the emendations offered for notant, two are more likely 

1 The passage would then mean « the fires are of under-size and 
encounter no obstacle,' which would increase their bulk and add to 
their volume. 



(palaeographically) than the rest : 7-otant of Wernsdorf, tiatanl 
of Baehrens. 

rotant I would explain : wood, cliff, and pieces of soil are 
the agents that launch on their course ^ these weapons of death, 
viz. the lava-waves that spread destruction where they come, 
as surely as the missiles of an invading army. 

This leaves Nimc to stand by itself with little meaning, ' Now 
you may see.' The sense is besides obscure. 

jiatant is the word we should look for in a description of the 
lava-flood : the substances it absorbs, if able to resist the fire, 
swim on its surface; then haec tela might be hie terra"^, in 
which hie would answer to Nunc. Alzinger's objection that 
the substances are burnt and therefore cannot swim, is true 
of the whole result, but not of any moment during which the 
stream is observed : a large mass of rock or a solid piece of 
timber is not reduced without some resistance. Brydone, Tour, 
p. 85, tells a story of the eruption of 1669 which illustrates 
soluvique. The lava-stream encountered a vineyard planted on 
an ancient lava, the crevices of which the liquid poured into, 
and filled them up, till by degrees the whole vineyard began to 
move off; it was carried on the surface of the stream to a 
considerable distance, and though the greater part of it was 
destroyed, some part remained to the time when Brydone 
visited Etna (1770) ^ 

489 Ipsa seems an error for Ipse (amnis), hardly for ipswn 
(solum), faciles was thought by Kooten to be an error for 

* Or perhaps 'whirl round' the various substances which are 

" terra is a conj. of Haupt's. 

' This is told in a more reliable form by Borelli, p. 24, and dated 
April 4, 1669 : ' Peruenerat profluuium illiid ex liquida et saxosa materia 
usque ad collem cretaceum uinetis undique consitum religiosorum 
Societatis lesu, et postquam undique flumen ignitum collem circum- 
iuit, eumque maximo impetu percussit, arietauitque, tandem collem 
cum uineto integro transtulit e pristine loco usque ad fundum alienum, 
incedebatque uinea cum eius solo ueluti innatando pensilis, quo usque 
superueniente altiori profluuio materiae ignitae post paucos dies 
denuo a glarea repleta et cooperta tola uinea fuit.' 

193 O 


/(icicin, as 0\id has inducre uultum figuram fonnatn faciem. 
Faci/cs, however, is defensible, sc. opes, the lava adjusts (or 
conforms) to itself the easily assimilating materials that float 
on it, rock, earth, timber, &c.' 

491 Vipote qualifies inaequalis. The unevcnncsses of the 
ground cause the lava to expatiate leisurely [perpascitur) : as 
a flock browse here and there at their will, 

492 Ingctniftafit, neut., as in G. i. Z2)Z ingeminant austri. 
stiDitibus iijidis might be abl., as Sudhaus explains, ' while the 

waves (of lava) rear up,' or as I have translated it, ' sounds 
noisily with up-standing waves ' (so also Birt). It is, perhaps, 
more probably dat., ' calls impatiently to the standing waves,' sc. 
to come on ; comp. increpitare, Prop. ii. 26. 15, and Lucr.'s hoc 
aliciii Jiostruin sic increpet ipsa, iii. 932, where, however, the 
accus. hoc makes a difference. 

[Munro, reading ingeininat fiiictus, translates '" it dashes with 
a loud noise its waves in motion on its waters which are stand- 
ing," i.e. which have stuck in the hollows (491).' On this view 
fluctiis must be supplied as accusative after increpat?\ 

493 Siait Ciim rapidum curtio mare cernulus aestu of C can 
only be retained by isolating cernulus, sc. amnis, ' dipping for- 
ward, as when some violent sea (dips forward) with a cresting 
tide ' ; cernulum est supplied to mare from cernulus. But Sictit 
cum, as I suggested in 1892 {Journ. of PhiloL, p. 231), may 
very well be an imitation of Homeric wy oi-f. 

cernulus, or a word ending in -us, is found in all the MSS. 
But the construction which it necessitates is so harsh and 
unusual as to make Jacob's conj. cernulat more than prob- 
able. Nettleship, Contributiotis to Latin Lexicography, p. 410, 
shows that cernulare, as well as cernuare, was an existing 

[Vollmer's twbo for curuo seems to me wrong : curuo {Kvy.a 

' Alzinger illustrates the words by a quotation from Nic. Specialis, 
who has described the eruption of Etna of 1329 as he had himself 
witnessed it. Rer. Sicul. viii. 2 ' Effluebat autem hiatibus illis riuus 
igneus uelut metallorum liquentium in fornace, occurrentem tellurem 
exurens, in lapidcs et in minimos calculos ingentia saxa dissoluens.' 


Kvprcddfv) is the right epithet to aes/u, and well accords with the 
arched shape of the waves implied by cernulus or cernulai ; but 
there is no idea of a hurricane or whirlwind in the passage ; 
nor can agit well be dragged from its place in another clause to 
give a verb to cernulus turbo. If turbo was written by the poet, 
which with Birt I think unlikely, the verb would more natu- 
rally be increpat, ' strikes a rushing sea ' ; but what then is 
aestu ?] 

494 Ac primum tenuis imas agit ulteriores 

Progrediens late diffunditur et succernens. C. 

494 tenuis . . . agit {sic) Rehd. simas the Helmstadt MS.: 
sinuans Scaliger: simas Mufiro: simans the presejit editor. 
In thejourn. of Philol. 1892, p. 231, I had suggested that simas 
(? cymas), 'an architectural moulding, hollow in its upper sur- 
face, but swelling below ' (Rich, Companion, p. 603), might have 
been transferred here to the u?idulation of a wave stirred, but 
not strongly, by the wind. This would supply a noiot with 
which tenuis (accus. plur.) woidd agree. 

Munro extracted an intelligible sense by changing iinas to 
simas : he punctuated thus 

Ac primum tenuis, simas agit ulteriores. 
' Its undae (492) are first temies, then, as they go on, become 
more and more siinae, curling or turned up.' 

Hardly enough, perhaps, has been said about the unusual 
rhythm at the end of the verse tdteriorcs : yet this is the only 
certain instance in Actfta of such a licence. Nor has it been 
observed that the very same word occurs in the same place in 
Germanicus' Aratea 429 Breysig : 

Huic primes tortus crater premit, ulterioris 
Vocali rostro coruus forat. 
Yet the rule which the two poets followed in allowing this penta- 
syllable to form the fifth and sixth feet of a hexameter may well 
have been the same, namely, to make a pause after the fourth 
foot, and to make this foot not only a dactyl, but a dactyl of 
which the v^ ^ form a separate word {agit, premit). 

On this hypothesis I write the verse of Aetna thus : 
Ac primum tenuis simaws agit, ulteriores 
and mark a lacuna after 494. Transl., ' and first drives them 
195 O 2 


(the waves) on, small in size and curving them flatly: such as 
are farther on [larger and with more of a billowy look.'] 
With si/nas {? tymas), 'and first traces {agit) only slight tmdti- 

[Birt, Philol. 1898, p. 636, retains imas of MSS. 
Ac primum tenuis, imas agit ulteriores, 
* and first pushes on waves of small size, afterwards, when they 
have plunged into a valley ^ {imas), spreads them further out,' 
and so Hildebrandt, Beitriige, p. 24. But (i ) could ifitas possibly 
mean this ? (2) tdletiores is palpably opposed, not to tenuis, but 
X.0 pri/HUJH, as Munro saw. 

The difficulty of i?f2as is not solved by so violent an interpreta- 
tion. It is safer to accept the milder alternative of supposing 
that s of sii}ias has fallen out after tenuis, the more so that this 
is actually found in the Helmstadt MS.] 

495 succerfiens was first translated by Munro ' sifting out,' i.e. 
the stones not yet molten and other substances. And so Birt, 
p. 636. After this verse there is obviously another lacuna. 

496 ripis was explained by Le Clerc and Wernsdorf of river- 
banks, on reaching which the lava [fliimina) halts : and cer- 
tainly in 506 he seems to speak of its crossing the Symaethus as 
exceptional. It is far more probable that fliimina and ripis are 
correlatives, and fiumina being the lava-stream, ripis must 
be the outer or bounding edges of the stream on either side, 
which as the lava comes to a stand-still, are arrested with it. 

durant, neuter, as probably in Verg. PIcl. vi. 35. 

497 jncssis, a natural comparison, ' waving field of flame,' 
moulded on Vergil's seges horret Ferrea (Aen. xii. 663), a field 
of bristling sword-points : atraque late Horrescit strictis seges 
ensibus (Aen. vii. 525). 

499 Effumat, ' discharges a fume ' : an. Xey. 

501 infiexa of MSS. is perhaps injlixa, an occasional form 
of the participle of infiigo. Goetz, Thesaur. Glossar. Emendat. 
P- 573 inflixa fvdXi^f'taa. So Scaliger. 

fulsatos is referred by Sudhaus to the diriruTrta produced by 
each impact, 'blows and counter-blows.' Plut. M. 929 hii to 

' and are thus at their lowest. 


noirjaov avTiTvniav riva naX kKiktiv (fi^ptdes ewai Kai nvKvnv, Ivn npus 
avTo nXrj-yf) Kai an ai/rov (popa y(vr)Tai. More naturally ' blows 
conveyed by its striking ' = which it conveys in striking; in 
this case the process of striking and the actual blow are thought 
of separately. 

503-504 Emicat examen plagis ardentia saxa 

Scintillas procul esse fides procul esse ruentis 
Incolumi feruore cadunt. C. 
No verse has raised more discussion than 504 ; scintillas, esse, 
fides have each been treated as wrong ; whence many diverse 
emendations. Scaliger changed scititillas to scifitillant (which 
would imply an early confusion of -at with -as), este fides to ecce 
fide ; then procul fide would be like procul dubio : and ruentis 
(ruentes) nom. to cadunt. Le Clerc followed Seal., except that 
he wrote uide ior fide : and so Wernsdorf. 

D'Orville also accepted Scintillant, but wrote the rest of the 
^exst procul este sudes,prociil&?,te. tridentes, with the improbable 
meaning, that stakes and levers might as well retire, as they 
would be of no avail in getting rid of the lava. 

In this conj. of D'Orville's, however, there is much to be said 
for este, a sudden apostrophe to curious observers to get out of 
the way : I have followed him so far, with the change oi fides to 
pedes, *away, ye feet, away with all your speed.' Cf. Plautus' 
propera, pedes hortare, Stich. ii. 2. 8. Sil. xvii. 28 procul hinc, 
moneo, procul hinc, quaecumque profanae, Ferte gradtis. Sen. 
de Constant. Sapient, xix. I procul auferendi pedes sunt. The 
connexion of this with Incolumi feruore cadutit is thus very clear, 
' away with all speed, for the burning masses lose none of their 
glowing heat in falling.' 
[Haupt wrote the passage 

ardentia saxa 
Scintillae procul ecce uides procul ecce ruentis 
Incolumi feruore cadunt. 
Munro follows C without alteration, 

Scintillas procul esse fides, procul esse ruentis. 

* The constr. is saxa, scintillas procul esse fides est plagis : the 

fact that burning stones, that sparks are far away, far away as 

they fall to the ground, is a proof that this is caused by blows.' 



Sudhaus : 

Scintillae procul ecce fides, procul ecce ruentis (or, ruentes). 
* The sparks, see there in the distance, are proof thereof (of 
the lava still retaining its heat), see there in the distance, the 
falling sparks, for they do not lose their glow,' thus agreeing 
with Munro that yfr/'c'j= the proof, voucher: cf. 515 Et Jigulos 
hide essejidetn.] 

505-507 uerum impetus ignes 

Simethi quondam ut ripas traiecerit amnis 
Vix iunctis quisquam fixo dimouerit illas. C. 
505 ingens Baehrefts 506 Si uel fumanti Rehd. Arund. 

uel Su 

This is obviously a corruption of Simaethi. Ribbeck men- 
tions Sumoetia as a v. I. in Aeti. ix. 584 quondam is 
omitted in Rehd. 507 uncis the present editor, J. of PhiloL 
1887, p. 309. / have since found among the vv. 11. of MS. 
D'Orv. X. i. 6. 6 unco faxo Munro. 

In 1887 I wrote as follows : 

The poet ' here contrasts the impetuous onset of the lava- 
flood, which was sufficiently strong to carry it over the bed of 
the river Symaethus, with the utter immobility of the same lava- 
stream when hardened and solidified afterwards. Hence ut is 
*' though " : illas are the banks which no effort of human skill 
can, afterwards, part clear again from the immovable lava-mass 
which now crosses them. But iunctis, though retained by 
Munro, is so extraordinarily harsh that I think it must be 
wrong, and I would read for it ttncis, grappling-irons or grips 
which might naturally be used for hauling up heavy weights, or 
getting stronger hold upon them.' 

iunctis, if right, must be ignibus, illas, sc. ripas: in this 
Munro, Buecheler, Sudhaus are agreed. 

Munro, however (1867), held a different view of tit. ' But 
Tohen its force has carried the stream of fire over the banks of 
Symaethus, scarce any one, I warrant (faxo), will sever them 
from the fiery mass that has joined them.' 

He therefore explained ut 'when' ; if so, quonda7n must be 
' at some time.' 

Sudhaus explains ut quondam ' if only some day ' : iunctis, 



sc. ignibus, abl, absol., ' supposing the fires to have joined.' 
Jixo (amni) uix quisqiiam diviouerit illas (ripas), ' will scarcely 
part those banks away to free (the course of) the now fixed river,' 
i. e. will part the lava-masses and make a free passage for the 
temporarily-arrested water. He here follows mainly Buecheler. 

Buecheler, however {Rh. Mus. liv. p. 5), differs from Sudh. in 
explaining ut in close relation to Incolutni feruore cadunt, ' but 
they fall with such an impetus as at some former iime to have 
carried the fire across the Symaethus : at that time it must 
have been a difficult task to recover the course of the stream : 
and m our time it takes often many days to move the lava- 
masses out of the way.' The position of ut not at the beginning 
of its clause, but removed from it by three preceding words, 
would be very Ciceronian, e.g. Sest. xliii. 93 -itillam aedificare 
tantam, tugurium ut icun uideatur esse ilia uilla quam . . . ollv/ 
in contio7iibus explicabat. 

The main points of doubt are (A) the meaning of ut quo7idam, 
(B) oijixo. 

A. (l) ut quondam in Vergil = 'as at some time,' G. iii. 99, 
iv. 261. This cannot be the meaning here: nor, 'as once,' 
Aen. V. 588. 

(2) quondajH in all the other four y^^/«a instances quoted in 
Wagler's Index = formerly. 

(3) The combination ut quondam^'' when at some time,' is so 
rare as to be almost unexampled. 

(4) tierum (505) has a special attraction to ut = qtiamuis, 
'however, allowing that.^ Drager, Hist. Synt. ii. p. 730, quotes 
two cases. Cic. pro Tull. 54 uertim ut esses dufissimus, and 
56 ueriini ict hoc tibi credam. This makes slightly against 
Buecheler's view. 

B. The easiest view oi Jixo is to consider it a participial sub- 
stantive : hausti, Aetn. 407, exhausti, Geor. ii. 398, which Servius 
explains as exhaiistionis : thus _/f.i-«w = ' a state of fixity.' So 
solitian, debitum^ constittdum, exspectatum, &c. ; cf. corruptum 
(Cels. V. 28. 13). 

The choice seems, therefore, to lie between Buecheler's view 
and my own. If the former is right, and ut = ' so that,' Baehrens' 
ingens for ignes would make the meaning clearer, and take from 


the abruptness caused by the omission o( est, 'but its onset is 
enormous, such that at some time in the past it crossed the 
Symaethus.' On my view, it makes little difference whether 
ignes or ingens is read ; the real difficulty is to give 7^/=* though,' 
an adequate meaning. Such a sense I find in the contrast of the 
rushing lava in its liquid state, and the immobility which sets in 
after it has cooled and hardened. 

506 Symaethi here, and so Verg. Aen. ix. 584. Symaeth. 
Ov. M. xiii. 750, 879, Sil. xiv. 232. Freeman, Hist, of Sicily, i. 
p. 81, ' It is in the fields of Catania, and in the highlands behind 
them that we see, as nowhere else in Sicily, a river-system of 
some considerable extent. The Symaithos drains a large part 
of the island ; it receives tributaries from several points of the 
compass, and their united waters enter the eastern sea by 
a single mouth.' Silius Italicus speaks of its yellow waters 
rapidiqiie colunt uada fiaua Sytnaetht, xiv. 232. 

508 'dies C and all MSS. pedes D'Orville. Though this 
emendation is accepted by Wernsdorf, Munro, Baehrens, I ven- 
ture to doubt it. .For it involves two suppositions, each of 
which is purely hypothetical: (i) that pe oi pedes might be 
absorbed in the former pe oi persaepe \ (2) that des was then 
changed into dies. This implies a sort of corruption in the text 
of the poem which can hardly be paralleled in it elsewhere, if we 
take Cas representing its earliest and best condition. And the 
change is certainly not necessary: for the masses might quite as 
well be described as lying immovable for twenty days together 
as buried twenty feet in the ground.' /. of Philol. 1887, p. 232. 
Sudhaus has restored dies (1898). Vicenos is a necessary emen- 
dation : uicinos can have no meaning. 

509-534 Beware of clinging to the delusive belief that the 
lapis molaris is not uniform in substance, but liquefies in virtue 
of one of its constituent portions, hardens in obedience to 
another, just as when potters' clay is submitted to the action of 
a furnace, it has an inner substance which fuses, distinct from 
the rest. It would be truer to compare the molaris with copper 
under smelting; whether smelted or not, you recognize the 
copper ; so the molaris, whether in its liquefied state or not, 
conserves its characteristics unaltered. Its black colour is alone 


enough to prove how truly it is always one and the same. But 
I would not deny that particular kinds of stone, besides the 
inoiaris, have the property of burning fiercely : yes, but they do 
not liquefy, unless brought in contact with the molaris. 

511 fauillae proprietate, *by their cinderous property.' 
Munro shows that this use of proptietas is common in the 
younger Seneca. It is frequent also in Pliny's Natural History 
and Vitruvius. 

5 1 2 simid concrescere = coire et concrescere. 
siue, ' or it may be,' ' or perhaps,' 

513 i.e. quod fiagrat^ esse sulphur coinviixttan bitumine. 

514 robora, sc. cretae, the inner substance of potters' clay. 

515 hiiic Jidem, axi attestation to this fact : i.e. potters may 
be appealed to as vouchers for its occurrence. Li v. xxi. 13. 3 
uestra causa vie loqui quae loquor uel ea fides sit. 

517 signum com))iune=(Tr]\x.{iov koivov, a sign which has more 
than one application, opposed to proprium, tSiov [Sudh.]. 
Similar is the use of /oct communes or proprii, ad Herenn. ii. 6, 
arguments which may be used alternately by accuser and 
accused, or arguments which only an accuser, or an accused can 
employ. The constr. is sed hoc, utpote sigtmin commune, leue 
est nee nisi irrita causa et carens firmajnento : ' this, as a mere 
general sign, is of slight weight, and is a trifling argument that 
wavers dubiously.' 

519 arguti, ' ringing,' as arguta aera, Sil. xvii. 18, i Cor. xiii. i 
XakKoi T]xo}p. Sudh. wrongly explains it as ' distinct,' ' expressive ' 
= (vapyovs. 

aeris et ignis, MSS., perhaps rightly: 'for such as is the 
quality of copper and fire, when copper has been fused,' i.e. just 
as in these, when combined the one to fuse the other, the sub- 
stance of the fused metal remains substantially unaltered. But 
though this is possible, the poet wishing to emphasize by the 
double genitive the combination of the two elements, the fusing 
fire and the fused metal, it is more than probable that et ignis is, 
as Seal, thought, a corruption of ab igni. 

520, 521 is so written in C: 

Cum domitum est constat eademque et robore saluo 
Vltraque ut possis aeris cognoscer portam. 


5:0 Cons\.:ix\% Haupt, Munro. 521 Vtraque ylZ/cwr^?, ' in 

both cases,' i.e. both fused and sohd. cognoscere Rehd. 
Arund. portam Rehd. Ar. : formam P. Pithou in UOrv. 

X. I. 6. 6 and so BacJncns: partem Le Clcrc: sortem the 
present editor. 

Most critics, I believe, will recognize here that MSS. are 
corrupt. Constat before eadcm is metrically faulty, and would 
be an easy depravation of constds ; again, after tieltit nattira 
est aeris cnm dotnit'um est, we look for an adjective co-ordinate 
with eadeniqiie et robore saluo, not another final verb hke constat. 
Vltraque for Vtraque is one of the commonest forms of mediaeval 
miswriting. Whether /^^r/^w is right, or is an error, possibly 
{or forniani, is an open question. 

Sudhaus, after Buecheler, translates 521 as the MSS. give 
it, 'and, to proceed a step farther (tdtraque), allowing you to 
recognize (when you see it) a door of bronze ' : the scientific 
observer being supposed to find in aes, even when he sees it 
in door-form, a speaking and indubitable demonstration of 
the constancy with which a metal retains its natural quality 

V/traque, ' going farther,' i. e. when a farther step in working 
up the metal has been taken, and the bronze assumes the shape 
of a door. 

This use of ultraque needs the support of other instances ; it 
is an awkward way, if genuine, of confirming the general state- 
ment as to the constant quality of aes, by a further appeal to the 
metal worked up into a particular shape, i. e. a door. To my 
feeling it is too awkward, too prosaic, to accord with the dignified, 
even where matter-of-fact. Muse of our poet. 

Vtraque, before or after fusing (Munro). 

partefn. The afnount would be different, sortem, my conj. 
for portam of MSS., would express the same idea with more 
particularity, 'the allotted share,' or 'the share assigned^ to 
copper. Or, partem may mean only that in any given quantity 
of mineral in which copper is present, it is easy to recognize and 
distinguish the presence of copper whether before or after fusing. 
This would agree with Munro's ' copper you know to be copper 
after it is fused as well as before.' 


525, 526 Few vv. are so difificult as these. C gives 
Quin etiam externam multis color ipse refellit 

multus Rehd. Arund. resoluit Rehd. 

To what noun does externam refer ? Sudh. supplies juateriam, 
which is so far off as to be nowhere in sight or memory. I had 
thought o{ ftaiuratn, which occurs five lines before ; this would 
give a good sense : any idea of an extraneous substance in the 
lava-stone is disproved by the colour. But etiam may be the 
remains of a truncated accusative, such as speciem (often written 
speiieni): spec, extern, might be ' an alien semblance,' or possibly 
(/, of Philol. 1887, p. 233) 'an external look' in which the lapis 
molaris might resemble other stones and be thought to partake 
of their substance or nature, multis of C is explained by Sudh. 
'with much circumstance,' 'with much positive assertion,' as if 
a legal case were being tried, and the pleader were arguing at 
length against such a view. This seems forced : viultis would 
more naturally be ' for many,' i. e. in the judgment of not a few 
who have examined the point (whether Greek writers like 
Posidonius, Strabo, or the long array of names mentioned in 
Seneca's Natural (Questions, or practical Roman travellers with 
whom the poet had discussed the question) : or he may have 
written multus, as I found in Rehd., a penuidtng black colour, 
such as Strabo states of the lava-stone. 

526 non odor aut leuitas. The ocr/i») and /cou0dr»jf of minerals 
are often mentioned in the fragtn. de lapidibus ascribed to 
Theophrastus. Speaking of the friable stones of Binae, he 
says, 22 T] §€ ocr\ix) ^apua a(p68pa Kn\ dvaxfprjS. 

putris magis ille magisque may be parenthetical, and 
explain leuitas (Sudhaus) : I have preferred to regard the words 
as closely connected with Vna operis fades. Then (i) putris 
viagis ille magisque, Vna operis fades are opposed to each 
other, 'the stone decays more and more, (but) the way it 
works is one and the same ' ; or (2) the first magis is corre- 
lative to the second magisque ; \.e.. putris magis ille, magisque 
Vna operis facies nearly = quo magis putris ille (lapis est), (hoc) 
magis una operis facies (est). 

527 perque omnia occurs in the same part of the verse in 
Manil. i. 213, iv. 160; in both places -que is 'and.' Here 



que is trajected from its proper position after eadevi to the 
second word. 

529 pro/ina, a property peculiar to them, distinct from the 
commoti nature they share with other stones : so Seneca ad 
Helv. viii. 2 opposes natiira communis and propria uirtus (our 
individual virtue), propala of C and Rehd. is defended by 
Sudh. as = TTpo^jyXof, a quahty which is open to the senses, 
and appeals to our eyes. But the word is not known to occur 
elsewhere. Possibly propria became propala from I looking 
like L: we might compare dclccia for deiccta in 290. 

530-534 are thus written in C: 

Quiinipsis quaedam siculi cognomina saxis 
Inposuere fridicas etiam ipso omine significant 
Fusilis esse notas numquam tamen ilia liquescunt 
Quamuis materies foucat sucosior intus 
Nee penitus uenae fuerint commissa molari. 

530 frichas Rehd. Arund. 531 atque ipso nomine signant 
Rehd. : et ipso nomine signant Arund. 532 Fusilis esse notae 
Maehly 533 succentior /?i?A^/. /'^r^^a^j' succensior, ' more 
inflammable' 534 Ni Le Clerc commista Le Clerc. 

Here the chief point of doubt is 531. Our two families of 
MSS., C on the one hand, Rehd. and the fifteenth century 
codices on the other, differ signally in their tradition : C gives 
the unmetrical fridicas etiam ipso omine significarit ; Rehd. 
and Arund., frichas atque {et Ar.) ipso nomifie signatit. 

It is not certain that no?nine signatit, which all editors adopt, 
is right : for ipso nomine after ipsis cognomitta saxis in the 
preceding verse is tautologous. Cs omine would have a 
possible meaning 'presage,' the word, whatever it was, con- 
veying in its sound an anticipation of the idea of fusing. 
Again with ulteriores before us in 494, we cannot at once pro- 
nounce against a pentasyllable like significarit, especially with 
an infin. esse following : a construction more properly belonging 
to signifcare than to signare. Georges gives only one example 
of signare followed by ace. and inf. (from Hist. Augusta). 

But what shall we make oi fridicas ox frichas} Scaliger 
suggested (i) that it might contain the stem 4)pvy-: (2) some 
modification of ;j;ft«/, perhaps chytas: (3) of peii', e.g. rhytas. 


To us the first impression is a palaeographical one : if we 
find fridicas in C, frichas in the fifteenth century MSS., we 
recall other cases where similar expansions have occurred, 
e. g. 7nateria for viaria, 569 ; Fasidicos for Phasidos, Catull. 
Ixiv. 3 ; perhaps elocridicos for Locridos, Catull. Ixvi. 54. 

On this view we should regard frichas as the more original, 
fridicas as the later expanded form : and as both persistently 
retain/' the word cannot be a derivative of x""- But it might 
well be either of Scaliger's other suggestions. In 1887 I stated 
my belief that the f was a survival of the digamma, fpvras or 
fpvbas (cf. pvSnv, diappvBnv). Arist. Meteorol. iv. 6. 1 1 ai p.vXai 
TrjKovTai w(TT€ pe'iv' TO 8f piov Trrjyvvpevov orav pvf], niiXiv yiyvfrai 

Scaliger's other suggestion that the word contains the stem 
(j)pvy- has lately been reafifirmed by Birt {Philologiis for 1898, 
pp. 637, 638), who contends that the word which in Plin. H. N. 
xxxiv. 135-137 appears in the accus. as diphrygem or diphryga, 
and in the nom. sing, as diphryges {remanet), meaning ' bis 
tostum,' twice-smehed, a slag or residuum of which Pliny men- 
tions three kinds, is latent in fridicas of C. This, he thinks, is 
an error for diphrygas with et ipso nomine signant, or perhaps 
for diphryx (with et iani i. n. signant). The passage is as 
follows -.—Fieri enivi traditur ex lapide pyrite cremate in cami- 
nis donee excoquattir in rubricam. fit et iti Cypro ex luto 
cuiusdam specus arefacto pntts, mox pauUativi circwndatts 
sarfneniis. tertio fit inodo in fornacibus aeris faece subsidente. 
differentia est quod aes ipsum in catinos defluit^ scoria extra 
fornacis,flos stiperttatat, diphryges revianet. quidam tradunt in 
fornacibus globes lapidis qui coquatur feruminari, circa hunc 
aes feruere, ipsum uero non pejxoqtii nisi tralatum in alias 
fornacis^ et esse modum quendain materiae, id quod ex cocto 
supersit diphryga uocari. 

Dioscorides, v. 1 19, gives a very similar account : to pev peToK- 
\ik6v icrn, o drj (V Kvnpco povj] ylveTai. 7r;;XwS<y yap of, dvacfjepeTai 
fK ^v6ov Tivos T(bv fKfi Tonav, eha avfixxOfv ^r)palv€Tat iv TjXiw, Knl 
piTO. TavTa cf)pvydvots kvk\(o irfpiTeOfLpivon KaitTai, o6ev Koi 8i(f>pvy(s 
€KXfj6r], 8ia TO vTTo r]\iov Kal (f)pvydi'a>v Kaifadai koi ^rjpoirou'ia-dai Ka\ 
olovd (ftpvyeadai. 



Against this may be urged : 

1. 8i(f)pvy(s suggests, not 7ncltins; or fusing, but roasting. The 
poet says the name intimated fusibility, and gives no hint of 
a double action of fire. 

2. Neither PMiny nor Dioscorides connect the diphryges with 
Sicily; both with Cyprus: a particular Cyprian clay was first 
dried in the sun, then burnt in a wood fire, whence the name. 

3. The Pyrites ', which when burnt in an oven, donee exeoqua- 
tur in rubricam, became one kind of ' twice-baked ' {8i(f)pvy€s), 
Pliny's first, Dioscorides' third species, does not seem to have 
been the mo/aris or lava-stone, as Birt supposes, though this 
was sometimes called pyrites. Pliny would have been careful 
to prevent confusion on this point : and the b/ac^ colour of 
lava is against it. Nor, indeed, does the poet of Aetna say 
that liit'a had a name in Sicily which implied its fusibility : 
he says ipsis saxis, having just before mentioned that par- 
ticular kinds of stones had the property of burning, and that 
these were distinct from the 7nolaris. 

4. diphryx, which Birt infers from diphtyga, is not known 
to occur. 

Kaibel's rhyacas (pvaKas) can hardly be right, as pva^ is 
recurrently the lava-flood, not the name of a stone. 

Rejecting /ridicas, we may perhaps elicit from fric/ias, the 
shorter and seemingly more original form, 

(l) Imposuere fpv8as et iam omine significar««t 
or (2) Imposuere fpv8as et iam ipso nomine signant. 
(1) is assailable palaeographically, because signijicarit (C) looks 
like a mere miswriting of signi/ieant, and this might originally 
have been an explanation of signant : again C equally with 
/ieAd. and Arund. has ipso, and this part of the tradition, 
though tautologous, seems reliable ; if it is, nomine is almost 
certainly right, not online : again, as diction, oniijie would be 
a little unusual. Ovid is specially fond of the combination 
signare (-ri) no/nine : F. ii. 862 signatus nomine niensis ; M. viii. 

' From Dioscorides v. 142 it might seem that the pyrites of v. 1 19 
(\i0ov rbv Kcyofitvov ■nvplrrjv avvOivn^ fis Kafuvov . . . Kaiovatv') is the 
stone there described. 



540 signal ague saxo Nomina conplexae, lac ri mas in no m in a 
fundunt; Her. xiii. 66 Signation memori pectore nomen habe. 

532 Can 7iotas be retained? If I were bent on following 
the MSS. alone, I should pause before accepting noiae, ' of 
fusible character,' for though this is much neater, notas is 
explicable: the Sicilians in the word by which they describe 
certain actual kinds of stone imply that they have marks 
of fusibility, fusilis would thus be genitive of a neuter 


533 foueat is not ' cherish the fire,' for no such accus. can 
be got from the passage. The only possible accus. is the 
stones themselves (532 fiumqiiam tamen ilia (saxa) liguescunl), 
which possess a more fluid substance within to I'eep them 
warm or maintain them in a state capable of being fomented 
into flame (cf. fomes), just as he speaks before of fire glow- 
ing in pingui siico (395). Rehd. however has an interesting 
V. 1. succentior ; whence I conj. succensior, a comparative 
of the participial adj. succenstis, like instructior, apertior, 
acceptior, &c. 

534 Sense and logic require the change of Nee to N'ei or Ni, 
' unless.' Munro alone retains A^ec, translating, ' Nor will those 
stones have been properly matched against the structure of 
the molaris in their inner substance,' which extracts from the 
words more than they should naturally mean. Commissa, Sen. 
ad Marc. 23 ignis uiuacior est, qui ctan lenta ac difficili inateria 
commissus Jtitnoque demejsics ex sordido lucct. 

535-566 Let no one be surprised that the lava-stone is 
fusible. Heraclitus tells us that fire is the seed of all things, 
and that everything gives way to fire. We see that it is so 
in our own experiments with the hardest metals, bronze, lead, 
iron, gold. True, the lava-stone does not succumb readily, 
with a small fire, or in open daylight; you must have a 
close furnace, and a fire of more than average strength ; 
then it will fuse. And where can you find a furnace like 
Aetna; nurse of secret fire, only comparable with the fires 
launched by Jupiter ; this too seconded by a tense spirit which 
is forced out of the narrow pores of the mountain ? 


535~540 Quod siquis lapides miratur fusile robur 
Cogitet obscuri uerissima dicta libelli 
Heraclite tui nihil insupcrabile gigni 
Omnia quae rcruni natura semina iacta 
Scd nimium hoc mirum densissima corpora saepe 
Et sohdo uicina tamen conpescimus igni. C. 

535 lapidis is in Sloane yj'j 537 Heracliti et ubi Rehd. 

Arund. gigni all MSS. : ab igni Scaliger. lyOrv. x. I. 6. 6 
however gives igni as a marginal v. /., and though this variant 
is there made to refer to the words et ibi {which follow Hera- 
cliti in Fithoii's Epigrammata et Poematia Vetera), it tnay 
onginally have beeft a survival of a tradition which made 537 
end with igni, not gigni 538 After rerum Baehrens added 

in. Siidh. alters quae into que e, retaining gigni in 537 
539 Munro added a note of interrogatioti after mirum ; and so 
Siidh. Seminium the present editor, Jour7i. of Philol. 1887, 
p. 310. 

Immense is the gain here from the Cambridge MS. C. It 
is not often that a simple word like tui assumes so remarkably 
perverted a form as et ubi or et ibi-, further, Heraclite has 
become Heracliti in Rehd. Arund. In the rest of the passage 
C shows nothing materially different from the later MSS. 

The words Sed nimitan hoc mirum are prima facie suspect. 
There is no trace in C of a question : such a question is not in 
the style of the poem ; euphony would require nimis, not nimium ; 
it is not going very far to trace in Sed nimiitfn a depravation of 
se7ni?tium. ' This is the marvellous stock of all the seeds of 
things planted in the realm of nature.' Then Omnia is an 
attraction into the case of quae (Aen. i. 573 Urbem qicam statuo 
uestra est), and the construction is Omnia quae in rerum nattira 
sejnina iacta {sunt), hoc mirum seminium (eis) esse. 

If I am right in this conjecture, fire must have been men- 
tioned before, and gigni represents igtii preceded by a lost ab, 
as Scaliger thought'. Probably the first letter fell out, and 

1 Prof. Byvvater points out to me that Bernays, who sent him the 
reference to this passage of Aetna as illustrating Heracl. fr. xxvi, 
assumed Scaliger's emendation to be right. 


what remained was corrected into gigni. Thus the two 
statements which appear self-contradictory, (i) that fire can 
destroy ever>'thing, (2) that it is the creator of everything, are 
brought into marked antithesis by nihil^ omnia, each standing 
at the beginning of its clause. It is more than probable that 
the Greek dicta referred to began (l) with ovhiv, (2) with -navra. 
[Sudh. keeps gigtti with que e for quae and a question after 
tnirum. Nothing born can stand against the eternal law of 
change, everything that springs from the womb of nature is 
seed laid for some future existence. But if Heraclitus was well 
known to represent fire as the element underlying all things, if 
Lucr. goes out of his way expressly to refute him (i. 635 sqq.) 
on this very poi7it, it seems incredible that our poet should 
introduce a reference to him, when he is arguing about fire, and 
yet never mention the word at all.] 

536 obscuri. Lucr. i. 638, 9 Heraclitus itiit qjiorutn dux proelia 
pri?nus, Clams ob obscuram linguavt. Munro there : 'o oKOTdvos 
appears first in the de Mundo 5, p. 396, b. 20 attached to his 
name ; Cic. de Fin. ii. 15 Heraclitus cognomento qui a-Koreivos 
perhibetur, quia de natura nimis obscure memorauit \ Sen. 
Epist. 12. 7 Heraclitus ctii cognomen fecit orationis obscuritas.' 
Add Plat. Theaet. 180 of the Heracliteans Sxnrep en (paptrpas 
prjfiaTiaKia aiuiyptaToiSri dvaanwvTd cmoTo^fvovcri, Kav tovtov Ct''!!^ 
Xo'yoi' Xa^uv ri eiprjKtv, irtpa nenXTj^d Kaivojs ftfTOivopaa-ptvo). 

537 ni/iil insuperabile ab igni. This might follow from the 
Heraclitean dictum (fr. Ixx Byw ) ^wov apxh x-ai iripas. If fire is 
the beginning of things, it may also be the end. Again (fr. Ixxvii), 
' Man is a fire that kindles and is quenched,' in which the same 
idea may be traced. 

538 The language of Lucr. is very illustrative : i. 690 Dicere 
porro ignem res omnes esse neque ullam Rem ueram in numero 
reru?n constare nisi ignein. Heraclitus maintained that fire was 
everything, and was the one true principle of things. Munro 
cites his famous dictum izvph^ avrapei^frai (aVTafiOi^q TCL Diels) 
iravra Ka\ irvp a7TavT<cv, axrrrfp [oKoxnTep D.) xpv<Tov xpripLara Kai 
XpripArtcv xpvo-os (fr. xxii in Bywater's Heracliti Reliquiae) : so 
also fr. XX Bywater (6 Koa-fMs) rjv aWi kqI fcrri koi eorai nvp dei(aov, 
dnro/xej/oi' pirpa Ka\ a^ivvvptvov pfrpa : and fr. xxvi ByW. Tvavra to 

209 P 


nvp fVfX^ov Kpivia {-f'l Dicls) Ka\ KaT(i\J]\l/(Tai, ' will try and 

539 Scminium^ 'stock,' a Lucretian word. Munr. on Lucr. 
iii. 741. Serv. on Geor. i. 86 Scquitiir Heracliti opinioticm qui 
dicit ovinia ex igni pjvcreari. 

540 sfliido uicina : nearly solid, next door to solid, as we say. 
The verse is metrically very efifective. 

541 anif/ios, ' determination,' ' stubbornness ' : so paiere extor- 
quere aninios, 404. 

542 piumbi of MSS. is defended by Hildebrandt ; the nomi- 
native would be ignis. So in 404 exue robtir is said of the 
person who submits the stone to fire, and so strips it of its sub- 
stance ; and so Aen. viii. 567 totidon cxuit armis. [Generally 
however Vergil, our poet's chief model of style, uses exuere 
of the person or thing that doffs or puts o^ from itself, e. g. 
Exuerint (the trees will put off) siluesirem animum, G. ii. 51, 
and so in seven other passages ] 

544 suspcnsis, pendent or high hung, because the smelting- 
funnel was raised to some height from the floor. The use of 
suspetisio, siispe?tsura, of the flooring of baths, as being suspended 
over the flues of a furnace upon low pillars {pilae) is very 
similar, Vitruv. v. 10. 2, Sen. Epist. 90. 25, Rich, Companion, 
p. 634. Ovid calls the ioTn?iXprofunda, M. ii. 229. 

545 Exsudafit, ' sweat out their value,' i. e. discharge under 
the pressure of a furnace-fire what gives them value. Plin. 
xxxiii. 60 altera causa preti maior quod jninitmcm usus deterit, 
another reason why gold is so valuable. With Exsudant cf. 
Vitruv. vii. II. 4 simul aes et ea harena ab ignis tiehementia 
conferuescendo coaluerint, inter se dando et accipiendo sudores 
a proprielatibits (cf. 512) discedunt, where sudores are the tran- 
sudations of the two substances {aes and harena) produced by 
a furnace-fire. 

profunda, as in 257. Gray's Full many a gem of purest ray 
serene The dark unfathom^ d caves of Ocea7t bear looks like an 
imitation ; if so, he must have \ho^:ig\\\. prof undo referred to the 
deep sea. 

546 sorte. The abl. after obnoxius is found in the Digest, and 
the occasional use of the genitive also proves that it was normal. 



547 te iudice, if you judge for yourself, pronounce on your own 
opinion, not taking into consideration what others think. 

549 parjits, sc. ignibus. 

550 Candetiti pressosque of C is possibly right: the con- 
struction would be agedjitn, candetiti fornace pressosque coerce^ 
' confine them (sc. ignes) in a white-hot kiln, and within close 
walls,' i. e. non ad caelum patentes. 

agedum. The use of agedum in Prop. i. I. 19-21 At uos 
deductae quibus est fallacia lujiae Et labor in magicis sacra 
piare focis. En agedum domiriae mentem conuerttte nostrae 
approximates to this. In both passages the word introduces 
something harder and requiring an unusual effort. 

552 soluit uires, has its strength relaxed : see my note on 
Catull. xvii. 24. 

553 sqq. are thus written in C : 

Quae maiora putas autem tormenta mouere 
Posse manu quae tanta putas incendia nostris 
Sustentare opibus tantis fornacibus aethna 
Vritur ac sacro numquam nee fertilis igni. 
553 aurem Rehd. Ar. ; perhaps artem moueri Rehd. Ar. 

Sudh. retains mouere. 555 Sustentare Rehd. : sustentari 

ed. Paris. 1 507 tantis Relid. Ar. : quantis Aid. 1 5 1 7 556 

ac sacro / suspect is corrupt. Perhaps arcano nee Rehd. Ar, : 
non ed. Paris. 1507. 

We cannot lightly put aside the fact that C gives here two 
active infinitives mouere, sicsteniare for 7noueri, sustentare of 
Rehd., the less so that Rehd. itself has the active form in the 
second of the two. 

The well-known avoidance of elision in long syllables like -ri 
by the post-Vergilian poets strongly supports here the tradition 
of our best MS. ; it might almost be said that sustentare should 
be retained at any cost. 

It may, however, be objected that (l) in 293 mouere is pro- 
bably a mistake for moueri; (2) the form of the sentence, ending 
as it does with 7nanu = hy artificial means, cf. manuf actus, points 
to the passive, which is indefinite and general, rather than to the 
active, which introduces a single human agent ; (3) if both mouere 
and sustentare are kept Quae autem maiora tormenta putas 
211 P 2 


(/t') posse mouere )nanu f Quae incendia tanta piitas sustentare 
{te posse) nosiris opibus f the omission oi te in both clauses, and 
the supplied /fl.w^ in the second, are both awkward. 

These difficulties are considerable enough to suggest a latent 
error : if anywhere, in autem. The position of antevi in 553 
after the third word of the clause is exceptional, for such in- 
stances as Hand quotes, Tursellin. i. p. 578, are all drawn from 
comedy (Plautus and Terence), those cited from Cicero (p. 579) 
are almost all cases of autem after the second \iQ>x A. Brut. Ixxix. 
275 QVA DE RE AGITVR autem is an exception which proves the 
rule. Still, Lucretius has Et quod mane autemst, i. loio; 
Vergil, Aen. vi. 808 Quis procul tile autetn, and ii. loi Sed quid 
ego haec autem, in which last autem follows the fourth word : 
enough, it may be said, to lay any scruple on this point at rest. 

Since, however, both Rehd. and Arund. give aurem in 553, 
not autem, it is here, I repeat, if anywhere, that we should 
pause. For the grammatical doubt is reinforced by a MS. 

If for autem of C, aurem of Rehd. Ar. we write artcm, a subject 
is found for both mouere and sustentare, which does no violence 
to either clause : * what engines, think you, can art bring to bear 
by human agency more potent, what fires can it sustain by help 
of man's resources,' to equal the furnaces of Aetna ? 

553 mouere Posse: the subject (if autem is retained) is 
omitted, as in Vergil's Aut uidet aut uidisse putat, vi. 454. 
Drager, Histor. Synt. ii. p. 414, ed. i, says this omission is more 
frequent with the 3rd person, less common with ist and 2nd. 
He quotes de Orat. i. 22. loi Dutn niihi liceat negare posse 
quod non potero et fateri nescire quod 7iesciam. Fam. iv. 13. 6 
putabo ad id quod jwhtmus peruenire posse. Roby, Gr. 1777 
cites Cic. Caecil. xii. 38 Putasne posse facere, Rose. Am. xxii. 61 
Aut confitere hue ea spe uenisse, and three cases of te omitted 
after scribis. 

555 quantis for tantis of MSS. I accept from Aid. 15 17 with 
all edd. except Sudhaus. ta7ita . . . ^/^a«//j= tanta inc. quantae 
sunt fornaces quibus Aetna uritur. 

556 Vritur, as in Hor. C. i. 4. 8 dum graues Cyclopum Vul- 
cafius ardens urit officinas. 



arcano, ' secret,' ' mysterious,' suits the poet's conception 
of Aetna, as a centre of marvellous supernatural operations. 
' Omnia quae uim sacram et diuinam quamdam habere crede- 
bantur, Poetis arcana dici solent.' Burmann. So Val. Fl. iv. 15 
arcano redolentevi nectare florevi Qitcin penes alia quies liqui- 
dique potentia somni. Tac. Ann. ii. 54 hausta fontis arcani aqua. 

557 Sed non qui nostro feruet. Munro shows that this is 
a recurring form of diction in Seneca. Epist. 64. I Interuenerant 
quidavi amici, propter quos inaior fwnus Jieret, non hie qui 
erumpere ex lautorum culinis et terrere uigiles solet, sed hie 
tnodicus, qui hospites uenisse signijicet. Pers. v. 73 Libertate 
opus est non hac qua ut quisque Velitia Publius eineruit, scabio- 
sum tessertda far Possidet. 

558 caelo, compendious for caeli ig7ii. 

560 adstrictis faucibus, literally in Tac. Ann. iv. 70 of a man 
whose throat is tightened. Here the narrow openings of the 
mountain are adstrictae, ' confined ' or ' compressed.' 

561 contendere, 'to match themselves against,' as in a contest 
of strength, in which the ore will show a stubborn resistance. 

563 Exanimant, * empty the bellows of their air ' : Forcellini 
quotes no other instance of this sense. 

uentrum of C (= t(entum) is obviously right against uentos 
of the later MSS., since the wind in the bellows is one and 
the same, not a number of different winds, agmine here of the 
body of wind formed by the pressure of successive puffs of 
the bellows. TrvKi/w a-va-rfyfufiaTi might represent presso agmine. 

564 forma, the conjecture of Christian Wolf iorfama of MSS., 
must be right : the poet, after his detailed account of the causes 
of Aetna's eruptions, sums up 'This is ihG. process of the work,' 
not 'this is what is said'' of it. Velleius ii. 66 \ia.s formatn 
operis=the design of my history. 

sic nobilis uritur Aetna of Rehd. Ar. is here right against the 
older tradition of C, ignobilis utitur Aetna. 

565 foraminibus shows that the poet is thinking mainly of 
air, which is once more clearly distinguished from spiritus. 

565, 566 

Terra foraminibus uires trahit urguet {sic) in artum 
Spiritus incendi uiuit per maxima saxa. C. 


Le Clerc kept this unaltered, thus : 

Terra foraminibus uires trahit, urget in artum, 
Spiritus incendi uiuit per maxima saxa, 
making Terra subject to both trahit, urget: then Spiritus 
incendi='- incendium cum flatu coniunctum.' uiuit, * lives,' i. e. 
shows itself a living force in its effect on the largest rocks. 

Sudhaus also joins Spiritus i7icendi, which he makes nomin. 
to urs:;ct i. a. ; uiuit per niaxiina saxa, sc. Aetna, which lives 
through the mighty rocks that feed its glow. 

Of these, I prefer Le Clerc's view, as on the whole less 
violent : but find it hard to believe either in so harsh an asyn- 
deton as trahit, urget, or so unexampled a combination as 
spiritus incendi. 

Scaliger thought tiiuit corrupt and conj. cui uis ; Monro uis 
it : Baehrens uiafit. This seems unobjectionable, and nothing 
so good has been suggested since. 

567 laudes is not likely to be an error for aedes with templa 
immediately following. It may be explained as ^glories,' 
i.e. monuments which have become famous in the world 
for their magnificence. Verg. G. ii. 174 res antiquae laudis 
et artis. 

operosa with Diuitiis hominwn, 'elaborate with human wealth,' 
i. e. built with all the lavish resources of wealth. Munro cites 
Ov. !M. XV. 666 proceres ad templa petiti Conueniunt operosa dei: 
and so Ov. Her. iii. 31 Viginti fuluos operoso ex aere lebetas. Cf. 
Tac. Hist. iii. 32 gr-auia anro templorum dona. 

568 areas is my conj. for sacras of C : coffins e. g. of Osiris or 
Alexander the Great or Darius (Theophr. de Lapid. i. 6, 
p. 36, ed. Wimmer) : or chests like Cypselus' cedar chest, 
covered with ivory and gold figures and scenes from mythology 
(Paus. V. i7sqq.), which was shown at Olympia ; the chest of 
Adrastus, exhibited at Sicyon, in qua quid sit ignoratur Ampel. 
Lib. Memorialis viii. Buecheler conj. siquast, with which 
uetustas (nom. fem.) would agree : memorare will then be like 
uisere dependent on Currimus. Travellers not only visit and 
see, but write accounts of the wonders they have seen abroad. 

569 viaria de Rooy convincingly for inateria: similarly C has 
praeceptis for praeceps in 67. terris INISS., terras de Rooy. 



Buecheler retains ierris ' crossing seas and on land.' Possibly 
it is an error for taetris {fatis) 'grim forms of death': by 
drowning, pirates, banditti, wild beasts, and the like. Cic. 
de Rep. i. 3. 6 cutn ipsi discendi m(t uisendi causa maria tra- 

570 Currimus : on this the infinitives iiisere, metnorare 
depend : ' we rush to see or record.' This infin. of purpose 
after a verb of motion is most common after ire, ctirrere, uenire, 
ifiittere. Roby, Lat. Gra7?t. § 1 362. 

Nunc iuuat Ogygiis circumdata moenia Thebis 
Cernere quae fratres ille impiger ille canorus 
Condere felicesque alieno intersumus aeuo 
Inuitata piis nunc carmine saxa lyraque 
Nunc gemina ex uno fumantia saxa uapore 
Miramur septemque duces raptumque profundo. C. 
^72 For Ogygiis see Sclwl. Eur. Phoen. 1 1 13 {Radtke Hermes 
XXXVi. 46) 'Slyiiyia Trpoa-Tjyopevdrf (TrvXaifiaTa), (^i^aiv 6 ^ AfHCTTobrjfxos, 
8ia TO TOis TTtpl 'AfjL(f>ioua Kal Zi]d()v Teixt(ovTai Qfj^as napa tuv 
'Qytryou rd(f)ou avras (sc. nv'Kai) rd^ai. 

573 quot //te Helmstadt MS. : que et I?e/id. Arund. After 
573 Alunro j/iarked a lacuna of one v., which I have conjee tu- 
rally supplied thus Condiderant, longo geniti post tempore 

574 miGrsnmns is a?wther clear gain fro7n C : Rehd. Arutid. 
have transumere. 575 pio Rehd. Ariaid. : piei Munro. 
Perhaps pie. 576 sacra Scaliger. 

573 Cernere must, I think, mean actual eye-sight ; travellers 
rushed over seas to visit Thebes and realize with their own 
eyes the various legends of the place ; the building of its 
walls by the brothers, Amphion the lyre-player {canorus)., 
Zethus the man of action {impiger) ; how the stones came 
spontaneously for the building, answering with readiness to the 
summons issued by the pious brethren : again, the legend of 
the inextinguishable hate of Eteocles and Polynices. attested by 
the perpetual miracle of the flames parting asunder on their 
common altar ; the seven chiefs ; Amphiaraus swallowed with 
his chariot by the Earth opening. 


574 If ccr?icrc implies an actual visit, it is almost necessary that 
condcre should partake of the same meaning ; as the traveller 
views the ground where legend said Amphion and Zethus, after 
rescuing their mother Antiope (piis), had summoned the rocks 
to build up a new circle of walls, he is represented as realizing 
the whole scene on the spot and recalling after the lapse of 
centuries every detail. I am here at variance with Buecheler, 
who writes ' audacter dicuntur qui Thebanas origines canunt 
moenia quae fratres Zethus et Amphion condiderunt condere, 
felicesque alicno wtersumus acuo. Superauit iste ea audacia 
Propertium iv. I. 57 moenia se Romana disponere dicentem, at 
disponere versu^ 

575 ///j- need not be changed; it is dat. after inidtata. 
The two brothers are called pious because the death of Dirce, 
who had maltreated their mother Antiope, immediately pre- 
ceded the building of the walls of Thebes, and the stones came 
spontaneously in recognition of their filial love. Ov. A. A. iii. 
323, 324 Saxa tuo cantu, tttndex iustissitne malris, Fecertint 
inuros officiosa nouos. 

576 saxa of MSS. might possibly be explained of a stone- 
altar, the fire kindled on which parted in two, dividing the 
surface of the one altar into two separate altars ; but ex uno 
cannot well be divorced from uapore ^, ' at another time we 
marvel at two altars steaming from one sacrifice,' i. e. the sacri- 
ficial flame divided into two parts, each of which marks off 
for itself one half of the stone on which the sacrifice is made. 
Luc. i. 551 Scinditur in partes gem'noque cacumine surgit 
Thebanos imitata rogos {flamma). Saxa however can hardly 
be right with saxa preceding in 575, and Scaliger's sacra is 
the required word, as Ovid shows in the loais classicus on 
this legend. Trist. v. 5. 33 Consilio commune sacrum cwn 

fiat in ara Fratribus, alterna qui periet'e ina7tu, Ipsa sibi 
discors, tamquam jnandetur ab illis, Scinditur in partes atra 
fauilla duas. This legend seems to have formed part of Calli- 
machus' AiTia, and Ovid goes on to declare that he had found 

* As Munro suggested, reading however sacra. ' The construction 
must be " gemina ex uno sacra, fumantia uapore." ' 


it impossible to believe his statement. Ibis 35, 36 Et 7ioua 
fraterno ueniet concordia fumo, Quam uetus accensa separat 
ira Pyra. Much later Pausanias (ix. 18. 3) says he believed 
this miracle, though he had never witnessed it himself: it was 
as famous in antiquity as the yearly liquefaction of S. Januarius' 
blood at Naples in modern times ^ 

577 profiifido, a chasm opening in the ground. Ov. Pont, 
iii. 1. 52 Notus hwiio mersis Amphiaratts eqtds. 

578 Detinet, 'arrests.' Cic. Parad. v. 37 Aetionis (painted 
under Alexander the Great) fabula stupidum te detinet aut 
signum aliquod PolycHti, where see Max Schneider, Leipzig 

579 sua turba recenti of C was corrected by Scaliger to sua 
iurba regenti, and explained by Le Clerc of the Spartan fVw^oTi'a, 
which Hesych. describes as rd^ts rtr 8ta a-cjjayiap evcofioroi, Grote, 
Hist. Greece, ii. p. 615 : 'It was a small company of men, the 
number of whom was variable, being given differently at twenty- 
five, thirty-two, or thirty-six men— drilled and practised together 
in military evolutions, and bound to each other by a common 
oath. Each Enomoty had a separate captain or enomotarch, 
the strongest and ablest soldier of the company, who always 
occupied the front rank, and led the Enomoty when it marched 
in single file, giving the order of march, as well as setting the 
example. If the Enomoty was drawn up in three, or four, or 
six files, the enomotarch usually occupied the front post on the 
left, and care was taken that both the front rank men and the 
rear rank men, of each file, should be soldiers of particular 

^ [' (The text) represents what ordinary Latin would give as sacra 
geminum fumum edentia ex nno itapore (i.e. ardore, a far from un- 
common use of the word). Gemina funiaittia is in fact a perfectly 
legitimate expression for what is "'divided in smoking" or "when it 
comes to smoke.' The writer intended to say there vvere two sacri- 
fices although there was only one fire, and in napore he chooses the 
best word to give this because it carries no idea of flame. For 
beyond doubt the legend represented the flame as well as the smoke 
as being divided. Pausanias says in his wooden way toutois Ik 
kvayiC,iiVTO)v 77)1/ ip\6ya waavrais Si /cat rbv an airrjs Katrvov 5ixS 
hdaTaaQai' Postgate, CI. Rev. xiv. 421.] 


merit.' Xenophon de rep. Laced, xi. 6, says of this : <wtco 8e pu8iav 
Tairrjv rijv rd^iv undfli; a)s offTt? rovs (ivdjjainovs dvvarai yiyVMcrKfiv, 
oiiSeif &v ifiopToi' Tols ^fv yap {jyuadai dtSorat, tois df tirfa-Qai 
TtraKTai. The Enomoty would thus be strictly sua iurba rcgenii, 
a band their captain swayed at will. It would be sacer niunerus 
as a troop bound by religious rites. Alzinger shows that 
Humerus is so used even by Salkist (Cat. -^jl. i), and Munm 
affirms it of the silver age and Tacitus. 

Sudhaus and Buecheler, however, suggest trecenti for recently 
and explain of the 300 Spartans who fell at Thermopylae ' the 
number hallowed for war, their own all-sufficient host, the 
Three Hundred.' Buecheler cites one of the Suasoriae of 
the elder Seneca (II) which is occupied with this subject. 
The word trcce?iti occurs eleven times in this piece, and is in 
antithesis to treceni, the 300 sent severally by the other states 
of Greece. The whole Suasoria is a commentary on the verse. 
§ 5 (ed. Bursian) Ideo haiic Eurotas aftutis circumfluit qui 
pueritimn itidurat ad futurae militiae patientiam. , . , Lac ones 
se nuniera n t, non aest i m a n t. tiideam us q uanta Iurba sit, 
ut habeat certc Sparta, etiamsi non fortes milites, ad (at) win- 
tios ueros. § 8 Videat trecentos Xerses et sciat qiianti bellum 
aestimatum sit, quanta aptus numero locus. ^ 14 Ut reuertar 
ad Leo7iida7n et trecetitos. . . . De positione loci eleganter dixit 
Haterius, ctitn angustias loci facuftdissime descripsisset : natus 
irecentis locus. And particularly § 18 Ad, inquit, trecenii 
sumus; et ita respondit : trecenti, sed tiiri, sed armati, sed 
Lacones, sed ad Therinopylas j nuniquam uidi plures tre- 
centos. These four words may help us to understand sua turba. 
We may imagine the 300 Spartans saying to each other: 'We 
may be only 300 ; but it would be hard to find a 300 as numerous.' 
sua turba is of course in reference to trecenti, like pars sua to 
parcnteni in Manil. iv. 884, 885 tiostrumque parentem Pars sua 
perspicimus. It cannot mean, as we might be tempted to believe, 
' a host in themselves ' : stius is in reference to the idea se 
numerandi, counting their number, and then estimating its 
worth not by the total which numerically they reaCh, but by the 
training, endurance, resolution, «S:c. which make up a Spartan 
soldier. The 300 at Thermopylae were proverbial, e.g. Ampelius 


XX, ut plane trecentor^im Lacedae»iomoruin apud Thermopylas 
gloriam adaequarcnt. 

The chief objection to this otherwise convincing interpreta- 
tion is that the verse more naturally suggests the ifpoj \oxo^ of 
Thebes, which was also three hundred in number. See Plutarch, 
Pelopidas xviii ; Grote, Hist. Greece^ vi. 531. But the Theban 
sights and legends are brought to an end with 577 ; nor is any 
transposition ^ of the verse in question (579) at all likely. 

It might also be urged that the introduction of a historical 
fact like the Three Hundred at Thermopylae is the only excep- 
tion to the 7nythological character of all the other legends 
mentioned by the poet. 

580 specta7iiur recalls such uses as Micon athletis spectatur 
(Plin. xxxiv. 88), almost = is appraised by his Athletes, xxxv. 20 
non est spectata (the art of painting) honestis viattibus: cf. 
Hildebrandt, Beitrdge, p. 8. 

581 soli uictfice Miiierua. In the contest between Athena 
and Poseidon, Athena's olive conquered Poseidon's salt-water 
pool, and gave her possession of the Attic territory. Herod, viii. 
55 eo'Tt iv rj] (iKpoTToXi tuvtj] 'Epfx^dfos rov yrjytvfos Xeyofievov fivai 
vrfos, iv T(o (\air) re Ka\ ddXnaaa ivi' ra \6yos napa 'Adr/faioiv 
UocTfiBiOii'd re Ka\ '' AOrjvnirjv, tpiaavrai ntp\ T^f p^copj;?, (jLaprvpia deaBai. 
See Grote, //ist. of Greece, i. p. 266. 

soli of C seems right against sua of the later MSS. ; sua 
would refer to Athena, whom Athens might in a special sense 
claim as her own. 

582, 583 the legend of Theseus and Ariadne : see my Introd. 
to Catull. Ixiv. 

584-587 are thus written in C: 

Tu quoque Athenarum carmen tarn nobile sidus 
Erigone sedes uestra est phylomella canoris 
Euocat insiluis ettu soror hospita tectis 
Acciperis solis tereus ferus exulat agris. 
585 emphiloma Rehd. 

* e.g. to suppose after raptumque profunda a loss of one or more 
verses, after which followed Et sacer in bellum numotts, sua iurba, 
trecenti : then Dethtet Eurotas illic et Sparta Lycitrgi : thus transposing 
578, 579. 



The difficulty of this passage is best estimated by examining 
the interpretations of Munro and Sudhaus, both of whom keep 
5S4, 5S5 as in C. 

Munro paraphrases : ' You too, Erigone, are one of the nana 
carinifia for which Athens is famous : so renowned a constel- 
lation is now the abode of you, and yours [uestra), your father 
Icarus or Icarius, and the faithful dog which became Sirius : 
cp. Tib. iv. I. 9 cunctis Baccho iticiindior hospes Icarus, tii puro 
testantur sidera caelo, Erigoneque canisque^ 

The weak point in this is that sedes, which as it stands in its 
context suggests Athens, the home of Erigone ^ as a mortal 
maiden, is here applied to the constellation in which, with her 
father Icarius and the hound Maera, she is supposed to be 
located after her death and deification. Again, sidiis would be 
rightly applied to Erigone as a single star, but not to a non- 
existent constellation in which Icarius and Maera are grouped 
with her. Lastly, the inclusion of Icarius and Maera, if thought 
necessary by the poet, would surely have been done more 
openly than by a side alhision like uestra. 

Sudhaus tr., ' Thou also art become an Athenian song, 
Erigone, from henceforth a far-famed star : ye also have there 
your home': z^^'j/ra grouping together Erigone and the Philo- 
mela-Procne legend, as in Apollodorus iii. 14. This view, as 
Latin, I consider impossible. 

Peerlkamp thought sedes was a corruption of caedes ; if it is 
so, the murder of Icarius must be included {uestra), as Erigone 
died by hangifig herself ior grief at her father's loss. 

Perhaps the best solution may be found in D'Orv. x. i. 6. 6 
where uestras is given as a marginal v. 1. for uestra en of 
Pithou's text. Suppose the original corruption of the verse 
to have been 

Erigone sedes uestras en philomela canoris 
we may reconstitute it thus : 

Erigone's (i'r Erigonae's) dequesta sen[eml^ ; philomela c. 

' Ampelius Lib. Memor. ii says, Sunt qui Ertgonarn Icari Jiliam 
Athmiensem dicunt, which illustrates our poet's Athenarum carmen. 

^ Icarius is repeatedly called 7<'pcui/ by Nonnus (Dionys, xlvii. 37, 
45. 52, 58, 66, 70, 78). 



It would then come under the category of verses which having 
first been obscured by some letters becoming illegible, were 
afterwards restored to a false appearance of soundness by other 
letters filled in conjecturally. This is more intelligible from 
the rareness of dequesia, a word which occurs once in Val. 
Flaccus V. 448 secujH deques/a labores ; twice in Stat. T. i. 404 
notos dequestus, xi. 627 Talia deqiiestus. Hyginus, P. A. ii. 4, 
says Erigone multis miserata lacrimis her father. 

[Of other views I signalize Haupt's ede/is qiiestinn, Maass' 
edens questus, both constructed with Phtlofuela. This would 
necessitate Erigones (genitive). The conjecture is hardly 
probable : it is undeniably prosaic, and does not explain 

If Eratosthenes' famous poem Erigofie^ had survived entire, 
we migh hope to clear up much in the above vv. which is, and 
must remain, doubtful. 

585-587 phylomella canoris 

Euocat insiluis ettii soror hospita tectis 
Acciperis solis tereus ferus exulat agris. 

The difficulty here centres in Euocat. Philomela in the re- 
sounding forests issues her stimmons. To whom ? If we follow 
Ovid, M. vi. 576 sqq., to Procne, wife of Philomela's ravisher, 
Tereus. Philomela, ravished and with her tongue cut out 
(556 sqq.), weaves her tragic fate into a piece of needlework 
and sends it from her forest prison to her sister Procne. Such 
a missive might be called a summons, and there is less harsh- 
ness in the absence of a direct accusative to Etiocat, because 
the person summoned is immediately addressed in the vocative, 
et tic sorer hospita tectis Acciperis, in which the allusion is 
to Procne, metamorphosed into a swallow, and making her 
home in cities or the houses of men. 

Sudhaus supplies Ityn to Euocat. Itys is summoned or 
enticed^, with the object of murdering him, in revenge for 
Tereus' barbarous outrage. 

^ Longinus, de Subl. 33, calls it a faultless little poem {a.yLw\i.r\rov 

' Sudhaus wavers greatly in interpreting Euocat: he seems tp 
think it may be (i) summons, (2) calls by name, (3) entices. 


To either view there are strong objections. The word Euocat 
would hardly be combined with the ablative canoris in siluis ; 
an accus. would be expected, as Haupt emended, canoras 
in siluas, which however has no support from MSS. and is 
arbitrary. Moreover to supply sororem to Euocat from the 
following words is a mere makeshift ; to supply Ityn is so far 
from easy or natural, that I have nowhere found anything to 
support it in the various records of the legend. 

In 1887 {Journ. of Philology, p. 31 1) I wrote : ' For Etiocat in 
I would write Phvat {It)yn. A similar depravation attaches to 
this unfortunate name in Cul. 252 Quartan uox Ityji edit Ityn, 
which the oldest MS. (Bembo's) presents in this strange shape, 
Quarum uox it in edytyn.' 

But how, it will be asked, could Philomela, when she had 
lost her tongue, bewail Itys in the woods or take her part in 
the songs of the birds that sing there ^? The answer to this 
is very simple. The nightingale is thought of apart from the 
details of the tragic storj' which preceded. CatuU. Ixv. 13, 14 
Qualia sub densis ramorum concinit umbris Daulias absumpti 
fata canens Itylei '^. 

My suggestion has the merit (i) of harmonizing with canoris. 
The nightingale bears her part in the general song of the woods. 
(2) It is a well-known fact of palaeography that the first and 
last words of a line are specially liable to corruption, hence 
Euocat for Plorat has nothing to surprise. (3) Ityti has 
occasioned a similar confusion elsewhere. (4) The introduction 
of the 7iame adds to the poetic completeness of the passage : we 
thus have three of the actors in the tragedy, Philomela, Itys, 
Tereus. (5) Plorat is the right word for a tvoinan's lamentation 
over a lost kinsman or lover. ReyfTerscheid Sueton. p. 252 
viulieres orbae plorant : and so Tib. ii. 6. 42 ; Prop, iii, 12. i. 

587 Tereus fertis: Ov. M. vi. 549 T^rz tyranni; 581 saeui 
matrona tyranni. 

589 This verse seems to be partially imitated by Maxim, v. 

' Hildebrandt, Beitrdgc, p. 4 quotes Lucr. i. 256 Frondiferasque 
nouis auibtts canere undique siluas. Verg. G. ii. 328 resonant auibus 
uirgulta canon's. Plin. iv. 31 Penius . , . canorus auium concentu. 

^ Here too the name Itylei \s disguised in many MSS. as Prothei. 


41, 42 (ed. Petschenig') Qua defensa suo superata est Hectore 
Trot'a, Vtium non poierat fratis stiperare senem ? in which 
defensa suo Hectore Troia corresponds to our poet's extinctos 
suo Phrygas Hectore^ * the Phrygians quenched by their own 
Hector,' so. by his extinction ^ The harshness of the abl. is 
diminished by its resemblance to constructions hke iacent suis 
testibus, Mil. xviii. 47 ; ge?ntnus iacet hoste siiperbo Scipio, 
Sil. XV. 3. 

[This is the prevailing interpretation, and so Munro. The 
abl. however might also be explained, not as instrumental, but 
as abl. of respect ; ' the Trojans quenched in respect of their 
champion Hector ' = ' with their champion Hector quenched in 

590. duds. Hector, the burning of whose body, placing his 
bones wrapt in purple robes in a golden chest, laying this 
in a trench and strewing large stones over it, form the last 
scene of the Iliad, xxiv. 788-804. Aen. v. 371 ad immilum quo 
niaximus occiibat Hector. Strabo 595 mentions an aK(io%''¥.KT(HiOi 
near Rhoeteum, but says nothing of any tomb. On another 
account, Hector's bones were buried at Ophrynion in the Troad 
(Peplos 59, see Radtke in Hermes xxxvi. 40). 

Achilles' tomb and temple were shown at Sigeum, Strab. 596, 
as well as the tombs of Patroclus and Antilochus. 

591 ultor. Paris, who in accordance with Hector's dying 
prophecy, II. xxii. 359, killed Achilles, the slayer of his brother, 
fVi 2iiat7jai nvXrja-i: Sersius on Aen. iii. 85, 321 says Paris con- 
' See now the new edition of Maximianus' Elegies by Richard 
Webster, Princeton, U. S.. 1900: one of the most interesting contri- 
butions in our language to the study of the Latin poetry of the decline. 
2 U. xxiv. 728 Andromache, lamenting over the body of Hector, 
says nplv 'yd.p ttoXis ^5( Kar aKprjs Tlipairai' jj yap vKaiKas iniaKonos, 
oart /jiiy avTfjv 'PvffKev, ex** ^' o.^oxovi KeSvds Kal VTjma TtKva. Eur. 
Hec. 21 t-nd 5t Tpoia 6' "EKTOpoi t' dnoWvTai ^fX"?- Sen. Troad. 
128, 9 Tecum ceddi't, summusque dies Hectoris iditn patriaeque 
fuit. Manil. i. 766 uictamqite sub Hectore Troiam. The idea is defined 
by Seneca de Const. Sapientis ii. 3 speaking of Cato, abstractus 
comiiem se diu sustentatae ruinae dedit, simu/que exstincta sunt, quae 
nefas erat diuidi: neque enim Cato post libertatem uixit nee Itbertas 
post Catoncnt. 



cealed himself behind the statue of the Thymbraean Apollo 
and from thence wounded Achilles with an arrow. Strabo 596, 
on the authority of Demetrius of Scepsis, asserts that the 
tomb of Paris and Oenone was shown in the Cebrenian terri- 
tory not far from Troy. Paris was himself killed by Philoctetes 
with the bow of Hercules (Philoct. 1426) ; an episode which 
' was told by Lesches in the Little Iliad., and must have come 
into the ^CKoKTrfvr]^ iv Tpoia of Sophocles.' Jebb on Phil. 1426. 

593 rorantia parte catnilli of C seems to be a corruption of 
rorantis viatre capilli, the letters w and p having by some 
curious accident exchanged places, inatre is of course the 
mother of Venus, the sea-foam. The picture alluded to is 
Apelles' Venus Anadyomene, Plin. xxxv. 79, 87, and 91 Venerem 
exeunt em e mari diuus Augustus dicauit in dclubro patris 
Caesaris, quae Anadyotnene uocatur, uersibus Graecis tali 
opere, duni laudatur, uicto sed inhistrato, cuius in/eriorem 
partem corruptam qui rejiceret non potuit reperiri, uerutn ipsa 
iniuria cessit in gloriam artijicis. Conse?tuit haec tabula curie, 
aliamque pro ea substituit Nero pri7tcipatic suo Dorothei 7natiu : 
where see Miss Sellers' notes. 

594 The IMedea of Timomachus, Plin. xxxv. 136 Timomachus 
Byzantius Caesaris die tat oris act ate Aiacem et Medeam pi?ixit, 
ab eo in Veneris Gene trie is aede posit as, LXXX tale fit is uenutt- 
datas. Miss Sellers considers Pliny to have here made a 
mistake as to Timomachus' date, and shows reasons for 
assigning the picture to the fourth century B.C. 

595 The Iphigenia of Timanthcs. Plin. xxxv. 73 Tifnanthi 
uel plurimum adfuit ingenii. eius enim est Iphigenia oratorutn 
laudibus celebrata, qua stajite ad aras peritura cum f/iaestos 
pinxisset of)ines praecipucque patruum, et tristitiae omnefn 
imaginetn consumpsisset, patris ipsitts uoltum uelauit quern 
digne non poterat ostendere. Cic. Orat. xxii. 74. 

tristes, a sorrowful group, subiecta of C and the other MSS. 
may be explained either as 'substituted,' i.e. of substituted 
sacrifice, or falsified, counterfeit, i.e. used for a sham or counter- 
feit offering, namely the hind which was sacrificed in place of 
Iphigenia. In either case ceruae is genitive. It cannot be 
'the altar set beneath the hind,' i.e. to burn it; it is clear 


from the corresponding use of subdita ceriia by Propertiiis 
(iii. 22. 34), siif)posita by Ovid (AI. xii. 34), that subiecta is 
meant to convey the same idea of a substituted or sham 

[Haupt and Munro prefer subicctae, which is in Aid. 1517.] 

596 pater, Agamemnon. 

7iunc gloria tdua Myronis, the famous bronze cow of Myron. 
Pliny, xxxiv. 49, assigns Myron to the 90th Olympiad (420- 
417 B.C.). ib. 57 Myronem Eleiitheris 7iatiim Hageladae ct 
ipsum disciptdiiin biictda maxime nobilitauit, celebratis uersibus 
laiidata. Cicero, Verr. iv. 70. 135, mentions this cow among 
the most admired works of art in the world. See Stuart Jones, 
Greek Sculpture, p. 64. 

tdua : life-like as in Vergil's iduos duccnt de marmore uu/tus, 
Aen. vi. 848 ; Propertius' iduida sigtia, boues, ii. 31. 8. 

597 manus operutn, specimens of handicraft in works of art. 
Prop. iii. 21. 29, 30 Aut certe tabulae capient 7nea lumina pictae, 
Siue ebore exactac seu viagis aere manus. 

tabidae (see the passage of Propertius just quoted) is my 
correction of turbeque of C, tubeque of Rehd. I doubt whether 
turbaeqice plural would be possible = crowds of art-objects : 
certainly the parallels cited from Haupt by Munro are not 
enough to prove it. Biicheler, however, explains turbaeque of 
the crowds that press to see a work of art, oxKol kcli rapaxai 

598 terra dub/usque marique. The que is trajected from its 
proper position after terra as in Ov. Her. xv. 145 Sed fton 
inuenio sUuae donnnunique inetimque, for such is the reading 
of nearly all MSS., not doi/n?iu/n sUuaeque meicmque: see 
Sedlmayer's ed, 1886. 

599 Artiftcis contrasts nature as an artist with inati (Werns- 
dorf). Sudhaus cites Cic. de N. D. ii. 22. 58 natura noji 
artificiosa solum sed plane art if ex ah eodein Zenone dicitur. 

599-601 are thus written in C: 

Artificis natura ingens opus aspicc nulla 
Cum tanta humanis phoebus spectacula cernes 
Praecipu^que uigil feruens ubi Syrius ardet. 
599 naturae Rehd. 600 Cum Rehd. Ar. : Tu Le Clere : 

Nam Munro rebus Aid. 1534: humanae plebis the present 
225 Q 


editor from plebcis of MS. Rehd. 60, phebis of ed. 1475 ; cf 
Stat. S. i. 4. 66 tuhere plebeiam is ivritttu phebeiam in the 
Matritensis. 601 ardens Rehd. : rupes ubi Trinacris ardet 
Baehrens : iugis feruens ubi Sicanis arx est the present editor 
in fourtt. of PhiloL 1892, p. 235. 

It is difficult to believe that pJioebus or phebis is a corruption 
of rebus : not merely because, palaeographically, ph and r 
are rarely interchanged, but from the uncertain construc- 
tion of rebus, which as abl. would require ?>/, as dative would 
be an exaggerated instance of the type cadticis saxis 478, 
ruiftis impetus 347, fnitimis conuertit gentibus ora, Lucr. vi. 
643. When collating the Rehdiger MSS. in 1892, I found that 
Rehd. 60 gave plebeis, and this suggested a new emendation, 
plebis. This would involve human{a)e for humcmis, a frequent 
confusion in the Middle Age. The meaning would then be 
' You shall not see any sight so marvellous done by the 
throng of men,' with perhaps some idea of contempt for man- 
kind and their works as insignificant. Cf. Stat. S. ii. 1. 212 
Nam populos vio?-tale genus, plebisque caducae Quis fieat 
i7iteritus ? 223 7ios anxia p/ebes, Nos miseri, quibus unde dies 
suprema, quis aeui Exitus incertum, where the same idea of 
insignificance or weakness is implied. 

The form of the sentence aspice — cernes makes Cum of 
MSS. in 600 impossible. Le Clerc's Tu is the best emendation 
proposed, and might easily pass into Turn or Cum. The 
pronoun has its force: 'you may be sure you will not see.' 
Cf. Seneca's Quid ? tu putas, ' do you really think ? ' de Const. 
Sap. iv. 2. 

Whether 601 is rightly transmitted is doubtful. That erup- 
tions of Aetna are to be expected in the season which follows 
the rise of the Dog-star is not, so far as I know, stated by any 
writer of antiquity. Sudhaus thinks it was a post-Aristotelian 
observation (pp. 61 and 212). Pliny's remark (xviii. 270) Sen- 
tiunt id (sc. canis ortutn) maria et terrae, combined with 
Lucretius' (vi. 694) assertion that the eruptions of Aetna are 
affected by the sea which reaches it by subterranean channels, 
is not inconsistent with such a statement, but in no way 
proves it. More to the point, perhaps, is the fact recorded 


by Livy xl. 22, that the excessive heat of the day is equalled 
by the intense cold of the night, caniculae ortu; such a 
violent contrast of heat and cold might form a suitable con- 
dition of eruptions. In our own time a violent outbreak of 
Etna took place at this very time, July and August, 1892. 
I quote from the Times of August 17 : ' The whole district was 
convulsed with spasmodic throbs and the atmosphere was filled 
for miles around with a hot maddening dust that continued to 
fall for several hours and wrought great damage among the 
vines and other produce. Masses of incandescent rock of 
considerable size were ejected to a height of half a mile, and 
were accompanied by deafening rumblings and by showers of 
volcanic bombs.' But the most terrific outbreak in modern 
times, that of 1669, was in March (Borelli, Historia et Meteo- 
rologia Incetidii Aei?iaei, 1670, p. i6) ; and the table given by 
Daubeny, p. 290, does not point specially to the Dog-days. 

Scaliger suspected a corruption in 601, mainly on account 
of ardens, which Rehd. Anind. and other fifteenth-century MSS. 
give. C, indeed, has ardet. In spite of this, I agree with 
Baehrens in suspecting the accuracy of the manuscript tradition, 
whether in C, or Rehd. and Arund. 

What is tiigil ? It must be connected with cernes, ' and most 
of all by wakeful observation (i.e. at night) when the Dog-star is 
at the height of his glow.' This, it may be said, is right, because 
according to Pliny ii. 236 ardet Aet7ta noctibus setnper, iii. 88 
mons Aetna nocturnis minis incendiis, the flames of Aetna 
were always to be seen at night, and this would be the time 
for keeping a close look-out. uigil would thus be = si tiigil 
fueris, or si uigilaueris \ 

This may serve as an explanation, but does not remove a 
certain awkwardness in the construction, and in the juxta- 
position of the two adjectives, uigil, feniens. 

* Pliny's use of uigil, in his description of the watch kept about 
gold mines to anticipate the collapse of the earth, xxxiii. 72 dai sigmttn 
ruina, eamque solus intellegit in cacumine eius tiioiitis tiigil, suggests 
another possibility. Watchmen might be stationed at different points 
of Aetna during the dog-days to detect the first signs of a coming 
outbreak. m^7 would thus mean 'if you act as a watchman.' 

227 Q 2 


uigil is perhaps an early misreading of iugis., and Syrius 
ardct [ardctis) of Steam's arx cs/, ' and most of all (shall you 
see an unequalled marvel) on the ridges where the Sicilian 
watch-tower glows.' 

For I agree with Baehrens in thinking that after the long 
digression on Greek curiosities in 567-597, in the course of 
Avhich the volcano is left out of sight completely, the verses 
in which it is again introduced, and its operations contrasted 
with the pigmy works of man, should contain the ftame of the 
mountain, and preferably, with an indication 0/ its bei7ig in 
Italy or Sicily, not Greece or Asia. 

Aetna is called Sicanis in a passage of the Ovidian Ibis, 597, 
598 Aut lit Trifiacrius salias super ora Gigantis, Plurima qua 
flamvias Sicanis Aetna uoinit. In the Linz MS. of the Ibis 
the adj. is written lictanis, a proof that the word might be 
much perverted from its proper form. 

602, 603 are thus written in C Rehd. Ar. : 

Insequitur miranda tamen sua fabula montem 
Nee minus ille pio quamquam sors nobiiis ignis. 

603 sons /or sors Barth. Aduers. xxxii. 16 ignist Munro : 

quam sonti MaeJily: quam qui sons Sauppe: quam quo sons 

In this distich sons seems certain, ignist very probable. But 
quamquam is doubtful. Munro retained it, ' though its acts 
are generally destructive.' This is awkward, especially in the 
ordering of the words ; Maehly, Haupt, Sauppe, Baehrens, 
Sudhaus all reject it. Sauppe's quam qui, i.e. nee minus ille 
(mons) nobiiis pio igni, quam qui (ignis) sons est, Baehrens' 
quam qtio, sc. igni sons est mons, are neither of them con- 
vincing. On palaeographical grounds it seems more likely 
that quajnquam represents quam — tam, and that the poet 
availed himself of a partially archaic formula like Tarn magis — 
Quam magis (Aen. vii. 787) which Ouintilian, ix. 3. 15, com- 
pares with Catullus' dum—dum = quoad — usque eo (Ixii. 45), 
to give the effect of contrast to the pious fame which Aetna 
on this single occasion won and its ordinary ill-fame as a 
destroyer. This contrast of Quam — Tarn, or Tarn— Quam is 
found in \'ergil, Aen. iv. 188 Tatn ficti prauique tenax quam 


nuntia uert, viii. 723 Quafit uariae Unguis, habitu tarn tiestL 
et arinis ; and Ovid M. xv. 1 10 Sed quam danda neci, tain mm 
epiilandafueriini. Gertz, Strid. Crii. in Sen. p. 62, shows that 
it is very frequent in Seneca '. I therefore emend 

Nee minus ille pio quam sons tam nobilis ignist. 

nee niiniis repeats the idea of tamen, ' none the less (for its 
usual destructiveness) is it, if guilty (in the harm it did), yet 
famous for a fire that respected religion.' 

sons and nobilis both refer to the same particular eruption, 
which was, like others, dangerous to life, but differed from 
others in the religious care it showed in sparing the Pious 
Brethren. This seems required by the position of tam sons 
quam nobilis between pio and ignist. 

604 Aelian fr. 2 Hercher dates this eruption as occurring in 
01. 81 = B.C. 456-453. 'But I suspect there is a mistake in the 
number.' Bentley, Phalaj-is, p. 222, Wagner. 

606 lapidis C rapidis Rehd. Either word would be in place 
here : I simply follow C as the most trustworthy guide. 

608 The nom. to torquet is aether, not luppiter. Postgate 
conj. telu7n for caelum, explaining torquet of Jupiter brandish- 
ing his thunderbolt. But why should not torquet =\i\i\x\?, on, 
as in Aen. iv. 482 Axem umero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum, 
' expressing the diurnal motion of the heaven,' Conington. 

609 It is hard to decide between Scaliger's mollia and 
Heinsius' mitia. The former gives a better picture, suggesting 
the soft wavy look of cornfields, cf. Vergil's Molli paiilatim 
flauescet campus arista, Eel. iv. 28 ; the latter in combination 

with cultu occurs in Val. Fl. ii. 647, 648 mitia cultu His 
etiam mihi corda locis, a heart civilized by culture even in 
savage regions. The same idea would well suit our passage ; 
farm-lands brought under by tillage, i.e. reclaimed from their 
originally wild state as part of the mountain and submitted 
to cultivation. .MSS. have millia or milia. 

' A parallel instance to this qiiainqiiain = quam — tain occurs in Stat. 
S. iii. 5. 49 Et qttamqitam saeui fecerunt Maenada planctus, where 
quamquam is probably an error for quam tam, as Emeric de la Croix 
.Cruceus) edited : but here quam is accus. singular fern, of qui. 


610 rubcbant Munro excellently for urebatit of C. Lucan 
V. 214 fubor ig/ieus. 

61 1 Vixdion . . . jmtatit, ircmebatit. After idx in the pro- 
tasis, the copula is commonly omitted in the apodotic clause. 
Aen. ii. 172 Vix posituvi castris sinmlacnnn : arsere corjiscae 
Luminibus fliunmae ; iii. 90 Vix eafatus eravi : tremere omnia 
uisa repenie. In Ovid nix bene follows this rule almost regu- 
larly: Her, vi. 24, 25 tactum uix bene limen era/, Aesonides, 
(iixi, quid agit mens ? F. v. 278 Vix bene desieratn, rettulit ilia 
viihi, vi. 513 Vix bene desiera/, complent ulnlatibus auras; 
M. ii. 47 Vix bene desierat, currus rogat tile paternos, xiv. 753. 
Hence there is no reason to suspect tremebant. The rhyme, 
rubebant, irctncbant may be intentional, to mark the sitmcl- 
ianeity of their fears with the actual approach of the flames. 

6\2 finitimae urbis : Catina on the skirts of Aetna^. euaserat, 
had cleared, i.e. had got beyond the gates, and was inside the 
city. Ov. M. iii. 19 lam uada Cephisi Panopesque euaserat arua. 
613 sqq. These vv. have a close parallel in Petronius' poem 
on the Civil War, 225, where he describes the flight from Rome 
of the citizens at the outbreak of the war. 

lUe manu pauida natos tenet, ille penates 
Occultat gremio deploratumque relinquit 
Limen et absentem uotis interficit hostem. 
Sunt qui coniugibus maerentia pectora iungant 
Grandaeuosque patres, onerisque ignara iuuentus 
Id pro quo metuit tantum trahit. omnia secum 
Hie uehit inprudens praedamque in proelia ducit. 

613 rapinae, here not in its common sense of plundering, but 
simply of snatching up effects and carrying them off, like soldiers 
intent on rapine. 

614 sub auro: Conon, Narr. 43, in his account of the story 

* Bentley however {Phalaris, p. 221, ed. Wagner) shows that 
Eusebon Chora was another name of Taiiroynimum (Vib. Sequester de 
Fluminibus Tatirominius inter Syraciisas et MessanatM, a quo oppidum 
Taurominium quod oppidum aliter Eusebotteora {Eusebon cliorn 
Bentley) dicilur) : and Solinus says the Syracusans disputed with 
the Catinaeans the names of the youths, and therefore perhaps 
the site of their enterprise. 



Says, Kol Tavrrji (Peiyovra wf «;^oi' r(i;(ovr, ol fifv ;^pu(roi', ul bi 
("ipyvpov €<f)fpov, oi 8i o,Ti uv tis ^ovXoito (■mKovprjfia rrjs <{)vy^s. 

615 s/u//a, because arms could be of no avail against fire. 
reponit places them again upon his neck, as if to encounter 
a new enemy. 

616 carviina, not 'charms' (Munro) which no one would 
think of repeating in such an emergency, but poems, which the 
vanity of an author would naturally wish to save from the 
flames, and which would be light to carry. 

617 minimo Heinsius (Aduers. p. 342), and Dorat for nitnio 
of MSS. It is difficult to see how a man not over wealthy 
could either have a 7'ast load <y" baggage (nimio sub pondere), 
or move nimbly under it. If he were poor {pauper), he would 
be unimpeded, aptis sarcinulis et exp)cdiiis, as Catullus says, 
xxviii. 2 ^. ni/nium, inhnnnint are alternative readings in Luc. 
v. 576, ix. 504. 

618 Petron. 231 Id pro quo metiiit tatttum trahif. 

cari, Caes. B. G. v. 33, of a rapid flight, quae qtiisque eoruvi 
carissivia haberct ab impedimetiiis petere alque arripere 

620-623 are thus written in C : 

Cunctantis uorat ignis et undique torret auaros 
Consequiturque fugisse ratis et pr^mia captis 
Goncrepat ac nulli sparsura incendia pascunt 
Vel solis sparsura dees. 
621 Consequitur (<?;;/. -que) J^i'/id. Ar. fugisse ratis Rehd. 
Ar.: ratis fugisse Buecheler: fugasse ratis the present editor. 
622 Concrepat et Rehd. Ar. : Concremat Dorat haec Le 

Clerc and de Serionne nullis parsura ed. Paris. 1507 623 
dees oin. Rehd. Ar.-. deis ed. 1475 piis Aid. 15 17: pieis 


621 'In hac ignis hostiliter inuadcntis descriptione si mecum 
senties quam uim habeat polysyndeton que noles deleri sed 
ita in ordinem uersum rediges Co/isequiturque ratis fugisse,' 

My con], fugasse has a parallel in Luc. iii. 369 at enim con- 
' Unless indeed nimio could be explained to mean that they snatch 
up 'as much as they could and more than they could.' 


/iigia belli Dira fuganf, ' tliey drive oft'.' There 3.\so fugimit 
might have been expected. In 615 CoUigit ille anna, the 
Catinaeans (if this is the urbs) gather up their arms to resist 
the flames which have surprised them ; fugasse continues the 
idea : tliey not only resist, but think they have routed their 
enemy, ratis abl. abs. praeuiia : Varro connects praeminni 
with praeda, L. L. v. 178 Pracmiuvi a praeda, quod ob rectc 
quid factum concessum ; and the idea of booty is often felt in 
the word. Aen. xi. 78, 79 Miiltaque praeterea Lauretttis prac- 
tiiia pKgfiae Aggrrat et longo praedatn iubet ordine duci. So 
here it is used for the efifects which the Catinaeans had secured 
and succeeded in carrj'ing off with them. 

622 Concremat : a good word used by Livy, xxxviii. 23 arinis 
hostiutn in nno concre/natis cuniulo, though there it is the 
various arms that are burnt in one fire together ; in the verse 
of Aettia the men (captis) are burnt with their effects. 

pascunt, ve^ovTai, spread. In this sense the passive is more 
usual. Ov. M. ix. 202 pu/monibus errat Ignis edax imis perque 
ovines pascitur artus ; and so Aen. ii. 684 circtivi tempora pasci. 

623 pieis. Some will prefer the older emendation, deis. It 
is true the Catinaean brothers were specially called Pious,, and 
the ground where they shouldered and so rescued their parents 
was known as Evat^ai/ x^por. Lycurg. c. Leocr. 98 ; Aristot. 
TTep) Bav^aa-lcov aKovcTfuiTMu, 154 = de Mundo vi ; Pseud. Aristot. 
de Mundo, vi. t,^ ; Strab. 269 ; Conon 43 ; Val. Max. v. 4, Ext. 4 ; 
Sen. de Benef. iii. 37, vi. 36 ; Sil. It. xiv. 197 ; Mart. vii. 24. 5 ; 
Aelian fr. 2 (Hercher) ; Paus. x. 28. 4; Philostr. Vit. ApoUon. 
v. 17; Auson. 295. 2 ; Claudian. Carm. Minor, xvii. 

But this does not prove that piis or pieis could be corrupted 
into dees. As it is, we find the word repeated /our times in 
t/iirteen lines : pietas, 632 ; pios, 633 ; pio,, 638 ; piorum, 644. 
deis would mean not that the two brothers were deified, which 
the words of Claudian, Carm. Min. xvii. 41, 42 Curnon Amphi- 
ttonio, cur non tibi, fords Anapi, Aeternuvi Siculus templa 
dicauit honos'^f seem to disprove, but that the influence of 

* Yet ittiienum ntiiiiiiia in verse 28 of the same poem points to 
something like divine honours. 



a divine power was so visible in their act, that the fire 
recognized it and fell back. Cf. de Mundo vi. 33 evda kiu to 
t5)v Evat^cov yevos f^6)(a>s fTifirjae to daifioviov, 7re/JtK(iTaX>j- 
<f)6evT(i)v VTTO Tov pfiifxciTos 8ui TO f^aaTii^f IV 6771 rav co^coi' yopeli Kin 

624 Antphinoimis oi Rehd. Ar. is supported against Aviphion 
of C by Strabo 269 ; Conon 43 ; Val. Max. v. 4, Ext. 4 ; Anth. 
Pal. iii. 17; Claud. Carm. Min. xvii. 41. Some of the MSS. 
of Valerius, indeed, give Amphionus or Amphionis, but this 
may easily be a corruption of A/nphinonius, like the other 
variants recorded Aniphinonius or Amphionomiis. 

f rater, Anapias (Strabo, Conon), Anapis (Anth. P. iii. 17), 
Anaphas or Anapius (Kempf's MSS. of Val. Max. v. 4. Ext. 4). 
Claudian has Atiapi as vocative, which might be from either 
Anapius or Anapis. Hyginus, Fab. 254, gives two quite different 
names, Damon and Phintias. Solinus v. 15, p. 56 ed. Mommsen, 
ed. i. says the Catinaeans called them Anapius and Amphi- 
nomus ; the Syracusans, Emantias and Criton ^ [See Freeman's 
Appendix to vol. i of his Hist, of Sicily, which however is far 
from being exhaustive.] The orator Lycurgus only mentions 
ofie, and does not give his name. 

foriis, Munro and Alzinger after Rehd. If this is right it 
must be added to the instances of nom. plur. in -is. See above 
on 357. Claudian similarly addresses one of the brethren as 
fords Anapi, Carm. Minor, xvii. 41. 

\C has fontis, which Buecheler retains, connecting it with 627 
defessos posuisse in limine membra. The old couple, in order 
to quench the flames, had drawn water from a spring and were 
carrying it together (pari sub munere) when their strength 
gave way. This does some violence to pari sub munere ; and 
even \i munere fontis could mean 'fountain- duty,' i.e. duty of 
bearing water from a fountain, the addition of pari more 
naturally connects the words with the immediately preceding 
Amphinomus fraierqiie than with the remoter pcitrem ma- 

626 sequenieni, the present editor for senetiique of C. Eaehrens 

' Aelian, fr. 2 Hcrcher, calls them Philonomus and Callias. 


conj. seficntim. a participle of whicli I have found no instance, 

though serut is used by Catull. iv. 26 '. 


628 vianns dulces seems the nearest approach to inandiiccs 
of C. The p?\iedije or effects which they were trying to carry 
off are dulces, from the over-fondness which could induce their 
possessors to linger in defiance of the flames. Most edd. give 
dites, which is nearer dicetis of the fifteenth-century MSS. 

629 diiiiiiae: Claud. Carm. Min. xvii. 27-30 O bene naturae 
mcmores, docuvienta siipeniae lustztiae, iuiceniim nuinina, uota 
senitm : Qui spretis opibus medios properastis in ignes Nil 
praeter sanctam tollere caniiiein^ a passage which looks like an 
expansion of our poem. Aelian fr. 2 roh^ kavT^v mirepai apa- 
fxfvoi 81a. fjLicrrji Tjjs (fyXoyos tKofiKTav, tchv aWav KTT]p.aT<x)v 

630 rapient for rapies of C, perhaps through rapiet, as cons/ds 
seems to have become constat in 520. raperest Munro. 

631 fidem, by parting off on either side and leaving a clear 
space for the brethren and their load. Con. 43 Kai tovs niv 
liWovs 17 ^X()| (TTiKaraX alio vera i(})deip(P, airovs 8e Trepifaxiadt] to 
TTi'p, Ka\ SxTUfp vrjo-os ev rf] (fi\oy\ ncis 6 ntpl nvTovs ^wpoy iyiViTO. 
De IMundo vi. 33 n\r]aiov yap avrcov yei'op.evos 6 tov nvpos rrorap-os 
(^f<Tx'i(r6r], TTaptrpe^e re tov (fAoyfiov' to fi(t> tv6a to S" tvBa, Kn\ 
fTTjpTjaev d^Xa^f'is apa toIs yovcv(Ti tovs veavi(TK0vs. Similarly 
Claudian describes the elements as pledged to save them, 
Sensenmt eleine7iia fidem, Carm. Minor, xvii. 35 ^. 

635 Felix ilia dies : also in Cir. 27, Laus Pisonis 159, Manil. 
V. 569. 

636-639 are thus written in C : 


Dextera saeua tenet l^uaque incendia ferunt 
Ille per obliquos ignes fratremque triumphans 
Tutus uterque pio sub pondere sufficit ilia 
Et circa geminos auidus sibi temperat ignis. 

' In Stat. S. iii. 5. 60 Et mine ilia tend nacuo quod sola ctibili ; 
for tenet I conjecture xetiet. 

- [Postgate conj. uiam, and thinks the poet had in mind Aeneas' 
flight through receding fires, Aen. ii. 633, Ov. F. iv. 800, Manil. 
iv. 23.] 



636 Dextra saeua tenus Dorat, and so Haupi : Dextra saeua 
tenent Scaligcr, interpreting ra Setvh fK de^iaf. Buecheler 

— e 

7nakes Pietas nom. to tenet, altering ferunt to fertur. 637 

fraterque Buecheler, and so ed. Paris. 1507 triumphant 

Le Clerc. Munro retained triumphans supposing after it a 
lacuna of otte verse. 638 ilia is explained by Buech. as 

Pietas, li'ho is figured on Catinaean coins. 

A very doubtful passage. Buecheler keeps tenet, sc. Pietas, 
who checks the fierce flames on the right hand {dextra) and 
on the left. Then fertur Ille fraterque tutus uterque pio sub 
pondere. Ilia {sc. Pietas) sufficit : Piety is strong enough to 
protect them. 

The chief difficulty in this view is the remoteness of Pietas 
as a subject to tenet: several nominatives intervene between 
632 where Pietas is first mentioned and 636. Again /^r/?^r is 


hardly a probable emendation oi ferunt which C gives. Lastly, 
if sitfficit is genuine, its natural meaning would be, ' is able to 
support the burden,' as Seneca writes (ad Polyb. iii) suffecit ille 
huic sarcinae. I have preferred Baehrens' conj. sustitit. 

Here saeua must be constructed with incendia, tenent = 
durant, ' last on,' ' hold out,' for which sense Lachmann and 
Munro on Lucr. vi. 519 cite a great many parallels, especially 
from Livy. 

obliquos means that the fire slants aside and does not meet 
the brothers with the full front of its flames. 

ilia (adverb) is explained by pio sub pondere : ' there, where 
the pious burden (of the father and mother) is carried, and 
round the twain.' Ael. fr. 2 to ydp rot irdp deoinav avrSiv 6u<rTr) 
Kaff" o ixij)os (Kupoi napiyivovTo. Munro makes ilia the mother, 
who holds out {sufficit) in spite of her terror. 

640 Menrad, Archiv fiir Latein. Lexikogr. 1887, p. 506, 
shows that incolumis abire is a favourite combination from 
Cato onwards. He cites Livy, Curtius, Frontinus, Val. Maximus, 
and the Latin Anthology, 

tandem, a common-place touch which betrays the imperfect 
art of the writer, on which point see Sonntag, Vergil als 
Bucolischer Dichter, p. 235. 



642 Di/is, noni. as in Petron. dc Bell. Civil. 76 Dtfis fater 
cxitdlit ora ; and so Quint, i. 6. 34 (Munro). Gotz, Thes. 
Giossariontm, p. 352, cites Di^is pater nXourwi' as frequently 
occurring in Glossaries. Serv. on Aen. vi. 273 dicivius et hie 
Dis ct hie Diiis. It seems strange that Pluto should be intro- 
duced here : possibly our poet follows some lost original. 

644 Scd curae of C is probably a corruption of Seciirae 
(Munro). He quotes Stat. T. viii. 14, where the shades of the 
blessed are called sccuri, explained in the scholia of Luctatius 
Placidus, by the words scekratonim suppliciis aliefii. 


EXCURSUS ON vv. 6, 7. 

In the text I have adopted Munro's conjeclure Ladonis for 
Dodona of MSS. It has occurred to me since that the poet 
may have written : — 

Seu te Cynthos habet sen Dclost gratior Hyla 
Seu tibi Latom. potior, 
'Whether Cynthos holds thee or Hyla is more acceptable than 
Delos or loved beyond Latona.' 

Delos is specially Latonian, Georg. iii. 6, Ov. lb. 477, Callim. 
H. Del. passim, as the island in which Latona at last found 
relief from her travail-pangs and gave birth to Apollo and 
Diana, or, on some accounts, to Apollo alone. 

What is more, Afollo is in a special sense associated with 
Delos, to the exclusion, comparatively, of his sister, in the 
Homeric Hymn to the Delian Apollo ; and the combination 
Cynthos, Delos, Latona, has its anticipation in verses 14 sqq. 
;^a(/J€ fxuKaip^ S) Ajjtoi, firel rexer (iyXoa TfKva 
'ATioXXwm T avuKTa Ka\ "Aprffiiv lo)(enipav, 
TT]V fxev fv ^OpTvyir], top 8f Kpavarj iv\ Ar)\w, 
KeKXifxivt) Tj-pos finKpov opos kuI KvvOiov oxfiov. 
Or, if we take what looks like the earlier form, 25-27 : 
rj ios ere TTpwTov At]tq> TiK( X"PM" ^poTolai 
KKivdflcra npos Kvvdos lipos Kpnvafj ivi vtjo-m, 
At]\<a iv aix<ptpvTrj', 
Again, in the last verse of the hymn, Apollo and Leto (with- 
out Artemis) are mentioned jointly : 

avTiip iycov uv Xjy^o) (KrjdoXou 'ATToXXcoi/a 
vpvfMV apyvpnTO^QV, op ijvKopos TfKf Ajjto) : 
proofs sufficient, if proof be required, to show that our poet 
would be following a strictly ancient precedent in this triple 
allusion in the verses which form the prelude of his poem, 
(i) to Delos, as the favourite home of Apollo; (2) to Cytithos, 
as the particular //a^-^ in Delos where Latona bore him ; (3) to 
Latona herself, as inseparably associated with both Cynthos 
and Delos, and sharing the fondness of the god with each 
of them. 


: EXCURSUS ON v. 515. 

Et jigulos hide esse fidem. 

Among the \arious hypotheses which have been framed to 
account for the ascription oi Aetna to Vergil, I do not remember 
to have observed the occurrence in it of this allusion to the 
potter's art. Vergil's father, according to Suetonius, Vit. I 
parenitbus modicisfuit ac praecipue patre, quern quidem opificein 
figulum, plures Magi cidiisdam uiatoris initio mercerinariuvi 
. . . tradidemnt, and Phocas in the hexameters preserved in 
MS. Paris 8093 (Riese, Anth. Lat. 671) 30-34 : 

Huic genitor figulus, Maro nomine, cultor agelli, 
Vt referunt alii, tenui mercede locatus, 
Sed plures figulum. quis non miracula rerum 
Haec stupeat ? diues partus de paupere uena 
Enituit, figuli suboles noua carmina finxit, 
was himself a potter. It would require but little imagination in 
any one acquainted with the two facts, the reputed occupation 
of Vergil's father, and the appeal made in Aetna to a minute 
point connected with that occupation, to combine them in some 
such reasoning as the following. The writer of Aetna shows an 
exact knowledge of the facts of pottery: Vergil's father was 
a potter : therefore Vergil was the writer of Aetna. 



Absuftt ab hoc indice vocabulorum et, est, in, quae saepius 
scripta sunt quam ut hie locum habeant 

a 7,36 

ab26, 199, 355,374, 
523, 537 

abeunt 640 

abscondita 87, 138 

absoluerit 346 

abstrahat 283 

abstrahe 145 

ac 103, 119, 139,209, 
249, 255, 361, 364, 
379, 395, 400, 402, 
420, 494, 496, 497 

accendit 455 

accenditur 436 

accensa 418 

accensae 466 

accensos 529 

acciperis 587 

aceruo 247 

aceruus 105 

Achilles 590 

aciem 408 

acies 66, 473 

acrior 380 

acris 390 

actus 326 

acuatque 165 

ad 48, 52, 100; ad- 
que 467 

addit 287 

additur 559 

adeo 352 

adest 347, 390 

ad finis 252 
adgererct 444 
adhaerent 84 
ad hue 438 
adituque 163 
aditus 181, 193 
adiunxit 427 
adiutat 435, 489 
adluit 311 
admissa 412 
I admittcre 86, 286 
admotis 53 
adoperta 126 
adoratis 355 
adpositumque 3S7 
adsiste 424 
adspirat 314 
adstiictis 560 
adstrictus 322 
adsumptis 159 
adtentos 348 
Aeace 82 
Aenaria 428 
aer 212, 312 
aeris {aes) 519, 52: 

aestas 238 
aestate 238 
aestu 336, 493 
aestuat 73 
aestuet 93 
aestus 3 
aeterno 229 
aeternum 431 


aether 331, 607 
Aetna i, 71, 93, 177, 

200, 299, 327, 336, 

339, 385,391, 432, 

555, 564, 604 
Aetnae 449 
Aetnaei 41, 276 
Aetnaeo 442 
Aetnam 196, 399 
aeuo 574 
agedum 550 
age ret 15, 446 
agger 48 
agit 98, 494 
agitur67, 31 7 
agmine 58, 563 
agris 587,609; —que 

agros 382, 491 
agunt 288 
ales 89 
aliam 511 
alieno 86, 574 
aliis 306 
alimenta 385 
alimentum 159 
aliquas 307 
aliter 298, 362, 472, 

522, 607 
aliud 173 
altaria 595 
altera 36, 264 
altius 480 
alto 439 


aluniine 3S9 
aluo 46 
amentia 253 
amissis 481 
amnem 122 
amnis 15, 311, 489, 

Amphinomus 624 
an 228 
an<;ustis 168 
angusto 299, 478 
anhelat 470 
animae 151, 358 
animam 297 
animanti 98 
animas 309 
animi 249. 273, 281. 

animo 144 
animos 268,404,541 ; 

— que 164, 276 
animosaque 416 
animosior 146 
animus 613 
anni 237 
annis 430 
annua 12 
annuus 232 
ante 255, 421 
antiqui 174 
antiquum 23 
antraque 141 
aperit 471 
apludas 354 
aptus 435 
aquae 293, 393 
aquilone 363 
arbitrio 195 
arcano 556 
areas 568 
arcens 193 
arcessant 121 
arcu 346 
ardebant 609 
ardendi 452 
ardentes 324 ; —que 


ardentia 503 

ardescere 528 

ardet 436, 601 

area 186 

argenti 2 58 

Argolico 18 

argumenta 143 

arguli 519 

arida 353 

aridiora 267 

aris 355 

arma 615 

armarentque 40 

armatus 55, 559 

arta 120 

arte {aduerb.) 318 

arte 296 

artem 553 

artes 33 

arli 197 

artibus 272 

artificem 187 

artificis 599 

artificum 35 

artum 109, 565 

artus 182 

arua 262 

aruis 10 

asperior 475 

aspice 599 

aspiciunt 626 

assidue 388 

astra 51, 467 

astris 70, 252 

at 205 

Athenae 580 

Athcnarum 584 

atque 60,66,78, 115, 
127, 136, 262, 285, 
404, 407, 410, 420, 
499, 517,570 

atra 359 

attingere 633 

attingunt 643 

attollere 226, 628 

attonitas 59 
auara 628 
auaros 620 
auctor 4 
audit 75, 216 
auersumue 20 
auidi 271, 570 
auidus 639 
aura 298, 337, 349 
auras loi, 283, 286, 

291, 313, 370 
aurea 9, 258, 544 
aureus 332 
auro 614 
auster 288 
austro 362 
aut 102, 114, 124, 

126, 188, 197,278, 

310, 363, 376, 526, 

autumnoque 239 
auxilium 215 
axem 240 


Bacchus 13 
bella 87, 203 
bellandum 60 
bellum 579 
bis 231, 485 
bitumen 390 
bitumine 434, 513 
bonis 272 
Bootes 241 
boreaeque 170 
brachia 363 
breue 437 
breuior 23 1 
bruta 409 
bucina 294 

caducae 172 
caducis 477 
cadunt 208, 505 


caelestia 338 
caelestibus 252 
caelestis 278 
caeli 244 
caelo 34, 45. 54, 86, 

103, 204, 226, 235, 

558; -que 549 
caelum 69, 608 
caeruleo 331 
calidus 388 
caligat 312 
caligine 55, 333, 608 
Calient 263 
campis 311, 473 
campo 270 
canales 128, 150 
canali 445 
canam 92 
candentes 450 
candenti 502, 550 
Candida 583 
candidus 89 
canentes 79 
canit 296 
canoris 585 
canorum 292 
canorus 573 
canunt 83 
capiat 29 
capilli 593 
captis 621 
captiuique 44 
captusque 552 
caput 289 ; —que 226 
carbo 411 
cari 618 
carius 271 
carmen 4, 23,40,75, 

carmina 616, 641 
carmine ^^, 575 ; 

— que 295 
carminibus 91, 581 
carminis 4, 28 
castra 473, 611 
castris 42, 67 
casuque 308 

cauata 97 
cauernae 281 
cauernas 307, 424 
cauernis 31, 126, 604 
cauis I, 105, 490 
caula 152 

causa no, 116, 211, 

causae 2, 117, 268 
causam 415, 452; 

—que 187 
causas 178, 225, 300 
causis 158, 317, 358, 

386, 509 
Cecropiae 580 
cedunt 151, 634 
cena 81 
Cererem 10 
cernas 400 
cerne 339, 424 
cernerc 275, 573 
cernes 195, 476, 600 
cernimus 301, 456 
cernis 140, 160, 541 
cernulat 493 
certa 161,248; —que 

ccrtamina 17 
certamine 322 
certis 115, 135, 486, 

certissima 426 
certo 232, 518 
certos 528 
ceruae 595 
ceruice 615 
cessant 166 
cessante 176 
cessantiaque 154 
cessare 366 
cessata 69, 383 
cessere 644 
cesset 131 
cessit 16 
cetera 62, 417 
chaos 139 


charybdis 1 07 
ciens 292 
cinerem 353, 423 
cineres 78, 588 
cinis 419 

circa 449, 595, 639 
circum 81, 334, 403 
circumdata 572 
citius 405 
clamore 56 
claro 642 
classes 440 
clauditque 374 
claus^s)is 31, 134 
clusique 316 
coaceruatas 50 
coactae 185 
coactu 317 
coerce 550 
coercent 184 
coercet 274 
coeunt 497 
cogatque 372 
cogentque 179 
cogetque 330 
cogitet 536 
cogitque 455 
cogitur 286, 406 
cognomina 530 
cognoscere 250, 521 
cogunt 190 
cohibentur 220 
coit no 
Colchide 594 
Colchos 17 
collectus 293 
collegit 454 
collesque 610 
colli 464 
collibus 484 
colligit453, 615 
coloni 262 
color 525 
coloris 426 
cometen 240 
commeat 100 
comniinus 51, 390 


commissa 534 
commixtum 513 
commune 61, 517 
conimurmurat 299 
complercnt 12 
conantur 614 
concedere 158, 463 
concepta 413 
conceptas 1 01 
Concordia 287 
concremat 622 
concresccre 512 
concursu 360 
condcre 574 
condidit 125 
condita 133, 247 
conduntur 132 
conferat 442 
conferta 131, 157 
confluuia 121 
confluuio 326 
congerat 93 
congeries 206, 374, 

coniugia 88 
coniurant 358 
coniuratis 287 
conlecta 210 
conpesciniLis 540 
conrogat 370 
consequiturque 621 
conseruatque 524 
consistunt 496 
consortia 84 - 
conspicimus 590 
constans 520 
constat 518 
constet 130 
constringere 516 
construitur 48 
contendere 561 
contenta 150 
conticuere 378 
contingere 191 
contrahat 122 
conucrsae 164 
copia 425, 437 

corpora 99, 215,268, 
291, 302, 324,346, 

351. 539 
corpore 102 
corporis 207, 391 
corpus 224 
corrigit 182 
Cortina 295 
coruscam 54 
crebro 107, 389 
credas 306, 5 1 1 
credat 117 
credendum 300 
credere 173,190,277, 

credis 342 
crescant 281 
crcscere 309 
cretam 514 
crispantur 393 
cruciant 268 
cubilia 140 
cui 433 
cuiquam 16 
cuique 60, 613, 618 
cuius 453 
cultu 609 
cum 10, 38, 119, 17s, 

220, 302, 306, 344, 

362, 376, 472, 493, 

501, 520, 560, 607, 

cum [pracfi.) 67, 234*^ 

bis, 610 
Cumas 430 
cunctanterque 413 
cunctantis 620 
cunctasque 57 1 
cunctatus 490 
cunctos 52 
cur 235, 237, 238 bis, 

cura 33, 92, 195, 250 
curant 35 
curas 24, 144 
curis 222 
currant 232 

currentia 123 

currimus 570 

cursu 231 

cursus 127, 244 

curuis 95 

curuo 493 

custodia 397 ; — que 

Cyclopas 37 
Cynthos 5 


dabit 136, 330 
dabunt 143 
Danaae 90 
dant 363 
dante 631 
dare 366 
daret 156 
data 103, 398 
debita 91 
decipiant 365 
declinia 345 
decrescit 471 
decurrere 328 
decus 70 
dedit 433 
defecit 422 
defectum 616 
defectus 453 
defensique 70 
defessos 627 
defleuit 18 
defuso 334 
dei 30 
deiecta 290 
dein 515 
Delost 5 
demissas 141 
demittere 33 
demittit 484 
deinonstrat 462 
demum 261 
densa 59, 302, 324; 
{ablat.) —que 169 
densaeque 138 


denset 291 
densissima 539 
denso 26, 411 
densum 210 
densus 153 
dentem 20 
denuntiet 235 
deorum 62 
dequesta 585 
derepta 125 
derrent 233 
descendere 377 
desecto 270 
deseditque 104 
desertam 22 
desidere 476 
desidia 377 
desinit 421 
desit 166 
det 129 
detinet 578 
detrudere 43 
deuicta 472 
deuictae 65 
deum 87 
dexter 4 
dextera 61 
dextra 636 
dextramque 54 
dicitur 428 
dicta 536 
diem 20 

dies 262, 50S, 635 
difFugere 309 
diffugit 461 
diffunditur 495 
digerit 101 
digna 222 
dignissima 265 
dilapsus 423 
dimouerit 507 
diripiat 346 
disclusa 502 
discordi 58 
discordia 305 ; — que 

discrepat 36 

discriminis 188 
discurrere 392 
disiecta 247 ; —que 

disponere 248, 509 
dissipat 501 
Ditem 204 
Ditis 78, 642 
diu 3S3, 429 
diuersas 286 
diuersos 128 
diues 441 
diuina 249 ; — que 

diuinis 369 
diuis 32, 66 
diuiso 102 
diuitiae 629 
diuitiis 568 
diuos 52 
diuum 60, 85 
decent 190 
dolendi 116 
dolia 269 
dolor 403 
doluit 21 
domantur 259 
dominis 610 
dominum 619 
domita 469 
domitae 185 
domitis 10 
domitum 520 
domus 408 ; — que 
185^; {plur.)64^ 
donee 326 
dubiasque 225 
dubium 196, 307 
dubiusque 598 
duce 8, 144, 178, 217 
duces 577 
ducis 590 
ducit 96 
dulces 628 
dum 117, 260 
dura 266, 394 
duransque 408 


durant 496 
durat 438, 551 
duritiem 516 

e 30, 54 

eadem 195,413,527; 

— que 520 
edit 113 
edita 127 
efferuent 465 
efficiant 316 
efflant 450 
effluit 142, 523 
efFumat 499 
effundere 310 
effusos 224 
egestas 369 
eheu 627 
eidem 100 
elanguit 427 
elisa 303 
elisus 560 
emergere 118 
emicat 503 
eminus 314 
emittat 128 
emugit 294 
Enceladon 72 
enim 117, 411 
equidem 456 
erat 62 

Erigonae's 585 
erit 4, 464 
errantem 254 
errantes 99, 121 
errantis 167 
erubuere 633 
eruimas 571 
es 585 
esse 30, 118, 452, 

515, 532 
esset 157 
cste 504 bis 
etiam 1 14, 134, 234, 

2S4, 300,310, 12,^, 



euascrat 612 
euecta 606 
euersis 605 
euomit 410 
euri 170 
Europcn S9 
euros 320 
Eurotas 578 
ex 96, 106, 120, 

122, 430. 464, 

exagitant 209, 318 
exagitat 154 
examen 503 
examina 371, 467 
exanimant 563 
excanduit 604 
excidit 582 
excit 354 
excocto 422 
excutitur 482 
exercet 324 
exhausta 320 
exhaustos 366 
exigit 182 
exiguo 189 
exiles 98 
exire 630 
existere 300 
exit 150 
exoriens 312 
exoritur 381 
expectata 211 
expendimus 263 
explicat 167 
explicet 26 
exquirere 225 
ex(s)ilit 106, 327 
ex(s)iluit 477 
ex(s)pirat 73 
ex(sjtincta 429, 443 
exfs t nctosque 589 
ex(s)tructa 373 
exsudant 545 
extemploque 461 
externam 525 
extorquere 404 

extra 205, 301, 317, 

extremas 33 
extremique 95 
exiie 368, 404 
exuit 542 
exuitur 498 
cxulat 587 
exundat 382 
exustae 198 
exustam 514 
exustus 480 

faber 197 

fabriles 561 

fabula 23, 42, 510, 

faciem 174 
facies 36, in, 433, 

468, 498, 527 ; 

— que 185^' 
facilcsque 489 
faciunt 207 
faenilia 270 
faex 475 
fallacia 29, 76 
fallere 275, 448 
falleris 161 
fallor 347 
falsa 88 
falsi 84 
famae 74, 570 
famani 368 
fas 173 
fata 643 
fatali 125 
fateri 179 
fatis 569 
fauces 373 
faucibus 30, T},, 168, 

318, 329, 560 
fauentes 6, 57 
fauillae 511 
fecundius 432 
felicesque 574 

fclix 635 

feracior 264 

ferit 349 

ferrc 185 

ferri 542 

ferro 402, 405, 476 ; 

— que 259 
fertilis 221, 264, 417, 

feruens 601 
feruent 395, 636 
feruere 401, 482 
feruet 169, 557 
feruida 92 

ferunt 313, 634, 641 
feruntur 2S9 
feruore 505 
feruoribus 606 
ferus 587 
festinant 262, 562 
festinantis 32 
fide 409 
fidelis 266 
fidem 145, 225, 515, 

fides 177 
figulos 515 
figurae 108, 468 
fine 139 
finitimae 612 
firma 229, 510 
fit 566 
fixo 507 
fixos 592 
flagrantes 199 
fiagrare 513 
flagrasse 428 
flamma 55, 259,382, 

flammae 192, 397, 

459.633;— ue 15 1 
flammans 341 
flammas 26,361,385, 


470> 523 
flammea 497 
flammis 403, 541 


flebile 588 

flexere 289 

flexit 344 

fluctus 321, 492 

fluere 511 

flueret 13 

flumina 123, 132, 

313, 496, 512 
fluminis 483 
fluuio 129 
fluunt 126 
fluxerit 90 
fodisse 141 
foedere 2S0 
foedum 80 
foliis 14 
follesque 562 
fonte 7 
fontes 392 
fontibus 130 
fontis 118, 314 
foraminibus 283, 565 
forct 155 
forma 564 
fornace 479, 550 
fornacibus i, yj, 544, 

555, 605 
fortasse 545 
forte 158, 281, 305, 

328, 400,490, 522 
fortem 122 
fortes 2, 38, 289, 624 
fortius 24 
foueat 533 
fragor 200 
fragoris 360 
frangunt 380 
frater 236 ; —que 624 
fratremque 637 
fratres 573 
fremat 3 
fremitus 276 
fremunt 363 
tfrichas 531 
frigida 376 
frigidus 430 
frigore 496 

frigorls 515 
fructibus II 
fruges 273 
frustra 487, 509 
frustrataque 35 1 
fuerint 534 
fugasse 62 1 
fugatque 290 
fugere 463 
fugiant 303 
fugiens 112 
fugit 618 
fuisset 443 
fuit 618 
fulgeat 331 
fulget 502 
fulgurat 607 
fulmen 39 
fulmina 59, 361 
fuhninat 343 
fulmine 64 
fumantia 576 
fumat 436 
fumus 355 

fundamenta 1 72, 200 
fuudetur 405 
fundi 514 
funere 19 
furens 298, 327 
furentis 276 
furere 529 

furtim444;— queil3 
fusca 201 
fusile 535 
fusilis 532 

gaudentque 581 
gemina 576 
geminantque 57 
geminos 639 
gemit 614 
generandis 435 
gcntes 571 
genus 3S7, 426 
gigantes 44, 56, 203 


glebarum 263 
glomeranter 198 
gloria 596 
Graiae 592 
gramina 354 
grata 268 
gratia 15 
gratior 5 
grauat 49 
graue 224, 462 
graues 320 
gurgite 71 
gyro 233 
gyros 324 


habenas 344 

habet 5 

habucre 124 

hac 2 1 1 

hac 273 

haec 28, 36, 74, 175, 
I85^ 186, 231, 
250, 252, 264, 
265 (^/i-, 266, 315, 
443, 529, 564, 598, 

haesit 490 

haesura 136 

banc 392, 630 

harena 206, 359 

harenae 198, 467 

harenas 423 

harum 301 

baud 134, 298, 322, 
362, 456, 472, 522, 
j hausit 407 
j hausti 407 
i Hectore 589 

Hectoris 591 

Helices 240 

Heraclite 537 

herbas 11 

herbis 265 

Hesperus 241 


hi So 

hiantis 153 

hiat 162, 340 

hiatu 119, 171 

hiatum 96 

hie 57, 116,217,420, 

488, 580, 582, 590, 

hiemps 239 
hinc 75, 153 l>is, 

171 bis, 181, 182, 

183, 285,309,470 
his 46, 317, 559 
hoc 148, 149, 217, 


homini 632 
hominis 250 
hominum568; — que 

honerosa 465 
horrea 12, 269 
horrendum 39 
hospita 586 
hospitium 129 
hostem 551, 611 
hostis 66, 471 
hue 446 

huic 515 ; — ne 342 
huius 170 
humanae 600 
humum 113, 224 
humus 97, 265 
hunc 403 
Hyla 5 

iacent 246, 546 

iaccntis 67 

iacet 394, 473, 508, 

lacit 423, 454 
iacta 538 
iactaret 10 
iactata 23 
iactatas 440 

i act is 106 

iacto 64 

iacuere 362 

iam 50, 61, 62, 430, 

443, 531, 597,612, 

ictaque 461 
ictu 322,380,402,454 
ictus 348, 501 
idem 221 ; {pi to:) 

— que 83 
ieiunos 453 
igitur 342, 349, 357 
igne 511 
ignem 30, y^, 401, 

410, 630 
ignes I, 41, 93, 185, 

202, 343, 358, 446, 

462, 497, 562 
igneus 327 
igni 18, 115, 185,214, 

236, 387,406,417, 

474, 537, 540, 543, 

556; ignist 603 
ignibus 28, 421, 435, 

486, 548 
ignis 63, 146, 192, 

217, 350,427,453, 


ignolas 24 
ignoti 143 
illa35, 124,418, 532, 

635 ^>'s 

ilia (aducrb.) 638 

illae 272, 485 

illam 188, 336 

illas 507 

ille 120, 232, 358, 
415,454,482, 522, 
526, 548, 573 ''i-^, 
603,614, 615, 637 

illi 81, no, 180, 186, 
409, 442, 634 

illic 178, 425, 457, 


illinc 65, 285, 333, 
468, 471 

illis 37,386,397,523, 

illius 391, 399 

illuc 162, 446 
ilium 616 
ima 46 
imagine 88 
imber 90 
imbres 235 
imis 449 
immobilis 1 57 
imo 26, 199, 374 
imparibus (in-) 106, 

inipediat 279 
impellens 68, 297 
impellique 309 
imperat 216 
imperet 197 
imperium 3, 45 
impetus 162, 216, 


impia 42 

hnpigcr 573, 591 

impius 51, 66 

implendus 272 

implicitae 364 

inacqualis 491 

inanis 117, 194 

incendi (genet.) 187, 

incendi [infiti.) 386 

inccndia 2, 201, 211, 
219,364,384, 395, 
412,458,465, 554, 
622, 625, 636 

incertae 468 

incingitur 95 

incipit 484 

inclusi 114 

inclusis 147 

incolumes 640 

incolumi 505 


incolumis 619 
incomperta 142, 546 
incondita 133, 233 
increpat 64, 492 
incubet 245 
incudem 38 
incursant 56, 352 
inde 173 
indefessus 470 
index 245 
induit 489 
inertia 53 
inest 220 
infectae 393 
infernist 84 
infestae 66 
infestis 285 
infestus 52 
infima 104 
infitior 528 
inflatis 212 
inflixa 501 
infra 316 

ingeminant 321,492 
ingenio 547 
ingenium 75, 214,226 
ingens 183, 188, 505, 

559. 599> 605 
ingenti 27, 308, 500 
inice 403 
inmensos 137 
inmensus 94, 221 
innoxia 356, 635 
inopesque 261 
inopinatos 127 
inponere 45 
inpositam 19 
inposuere 531 
in promptu 160,218 
insequitur 602 
insidiis 428 
insolitum 8 
instaurat 421 
instigant 563 
insula 433, 438 
insuperabile 537 
inter 78, 1 84, 302, 429 

intercepta 138 
intercipit 336 
intereunt 451 
interiiis 529 
intersumus 574 
intortos 47 
intra 142 
intrat III 
introitu 163 
introitusque 282 
introrsus 107, 176, 

introspectus 340 
intus 533 
inuitata 575 
inuoluensque 323 
loue 331, 607 
louem 40 
louis 44, 254 
ipsa 238, 345, 393, 


— que 542 
ipsae 179, 190 
ipse 13,202,330,489, 

ipsi 216, 219, 282 
ipsis 530 

ipsoi67, 499,531, 631 
ira 147 
irriguis 28 
irriguo 295 
irrita 517 
irritat 391 
irritet 341 

is 399 

isdem 328, 329 

ista 91 

iter 112, 319, 325, 

372, 380 
iterum 420 
itis 271 
itur 8 
ItjTi 586 
iubar 332 
iubet 337 
iucunda 249 
iudice 547 


iugera 80, 137, 610 
iugo 339 
iunctis 364 
luppiter 54, 63, 71, 

90, 202, 558 
iura 83, 234, 644 
iuuat 572 
iuuenes 633, 643 
iuuenta 237 
iuuenum 17 
Ixionis 83 

labor 221 
laborantis 222 
laljore 256 
laborem 35 
Ladonis 6 
laeto 472 
laeuaque 636 
laeuus 62 
languent 164 
languentibus 212 
lapidem 452 
lapides 450, 528 
Iapidis4i6, 426, 535, 

lapidum 469, 474 
lapis 395, 399, 435. 

479. 522, 548 
largo 310 
late 495 
latebras 141 
latebris 97 
latent 135 
latera 449 
latet 372 
latis 123 
latosque 382 
laudes 567 
laxata 109 
Ledam 89 
leges 45 
legitur 432 
lenitur 457 


lentis 13 
k-ntitiem 542 
lento 513 
Iciic 517 
leucm 353 
Icues 266 
Icuis 337, 422, 481 
leuitas 349, 526 
libclli 536 
Liber 69 
liber III 
libera 134 
liberior 146 
liberrimus 339 
libertas 91 
Lbet 571 
liccat 192 
licentia 74 
licet 138, 377 
limine 167, 627 
limo 113 
lintea 243 
liquent 397 
liqiiescere 455 
liquescit 552 
liquescunt 532 
liquet 161 
liquor 482 
liquore 350 
litore 22 
locis 116, 424 
locus 330, 430, 547 
longas 294 
longum 606 
luce 234^ 
Lucifer 241 
luctamine 374 
ludentes 594 
lumine 161 
lunaest 230 
Lycurgi 578 
lyraque 575 


machina 229 
madentes 522 

mag is 149 h's, 457, 
45S, 482, 526; 
— que 482, 526 

magna 252 

magni 590, 591 

magnificas 567 

magnis 48, 295, 373, 

magno 39, 57, 227 ; 

— que 217 
magnos 202 
magnum 299 
maior 194, 253, 425, 

maiora 553 
malas 1 1 
mali 406 
manes 77 
manet 510 
manifesta 177, 248, 

manifestis 145 
manifesto 451 
manu 400, 554 
manus 263, 350, 597, 

mare 493 
maria 103, 569 
marique 598 
maris 95, 104, 244 
Mars 62 
Martia 242 
massis 561 
niateria 387 
materque 67, 629 
materiae 425 
materiam 392, 445, 

455. 511 
materies 417, 533, 

matre 593 
matrem 19 ; —que 

maxima 273, 398, 

566, 631 
me 178 

mcdiumque 184,630 

meet 232 
mclior 266 
melius 16, 447 
mellaque 13 
membra 627 
memorant 27 
memorare 568 
mcndacemque 368 
niendax 510 
mendicat 370 
mendosae 74 
mens 28 
mentiti 79 
mercem 432 
merces 273 
mergere 1 19 
merguntque 181 
merito 632 
messes 12 
messis 497 
metuens 406 
metuentia 51 
metuit 54 
metuunt 86, 228 
micat 382 
micet 241 
migrasse 278 
mihi I, 4, 92, 305 
miles 51 
m.lia 485 
militat 217 
mille 189, 420, 597 
minas 278 
minatus 460 
Minerua 581 
minimo 617 
IMinoida 22 
minor 230, 44 1 
Minos 82 
minus 603 
minutis 282 
miracula 180, 246 
miramur 577, 588 
miranda 156, 223, 

251, 416, 602 
mirandus 197 


niirantur 641 
miratiir 202, 535 
inirum 134, 456, 539 
miseri 256 
mitis 483 
mixta 201 
inobilis 405 
moderatior 557 
modis 296 
inodo 144 
modum 230 
moenia 572 
molarem 452 
molari 534 
molaris 398 
moles 27, 50, 199, 

379, 466, 487, 499, 

molimur 24 
molitur 112 
mollia 609 
mollil 113 
momine 304 
moneam 191 
monte 397 
montem 602 
montes 64 
monti 180, 376 
montibus 48 
mentis 72, 211, 276, 

359, 414, 444 
mora 378 
morantem 325 
morantis 165 
moraniur 597 
morari 372 
more 224 
morientem 71 
moritur 418 
mortales 253, 437 
motu 92 
motus25, 153; —que 

moLiere 553 
moueri 293 
mouet 460 ; — que 


mouisse 61 1 
multis 403, 430, 525 
multo 280 
mundi 70, 102 
mundo 43, 68, 173, 

227, 246 
mundum 55 
munere 624 
murmur 462 
musto 269 
mutos 275 
Myronis 596 


nam 146, 213, 253, 
292, 405, 449, 460, 
465, 514,519,548, 

namque96, 162, 180, 

nascentis 425 

nata lii 

natalia 227 

natant 488 

nati 594 

natorum 19 

natura 46, 21 8, 251, 
— que 175 

naturae 599 

nautae 243 

ne 29, 194 

-ne 342 

Neapolin 429 

nebulas 310 

nee 85, 86, no, in, 
147, 150, 196, 207 
bis, 224, 247, 336, 
349, 365, 370 bis, 
401 bis, 414, 418, 
421,434, 448,470, 
524, 528, 547, 551 
bis, 603, 643 

necesse 120, 148,316 

nectunt 184 

nefas 43, 368 

negare 2>2>o 

nemo 10 

neque33, 35, 173 

nequiquam 213 

nescit 9 

neu 204 bis 

neue 203 

ni (nci) 128,444, 534 

nigros yy 

nihil 34i,486Z'/i-,537 

nimbus 198 

nitidum 608 

nituntur 50 

niuis 283 

nobile 75, 584 

nobilis 564, 603 

nobis 87, 252 

nocte 234^ 

noctes 262 

nocti 138 
nodo 363 
nomen 212, 433 
nomine 396,438,531, 

non 16, 18, 21, 32, 
96, 109, 116, 117, 
120, 178, 188, 223, 
247, 275, 277 bis, 
307, 336, 353 f'is, 
442, 525, 541, 542, 
556, 557,619 
nondum 161 
norunt 87 bis 
nosse 16, 225, 240, 

nostns 351, 554 
nostro 557 
notae 532 
notandas 329 
notare 251 
notas 524 
notis 248, 447 
Notus 170 
noua 7 
nouent 148 
noui 203 


nouosqiie 93 
nubes 59, 28S, 333 
niibila 235 
mibilus 2ti8. 312 
nulla 129, 156, 487, 


nullas 427 

nullis 622 

nullum 275 

nullus 215 

numerosa 38, 296 

numerus 579 

nuniina 85, 33S, 640 

numquam 345, 532, 

nunc 70, 1 70/;/ J, 187, 
200, 201, 218, 258, 
384, 38S, 389, 429, 
488,572, 575, 576, 
5S0, 593, 594, 595, 

nutriat 279, 385 

nutrit 412, 437 

nympha 112 


o 631 
obesa 434 
obliques 637 
obliquuni 380; — que 

obnoxia 285, 546 
obrepit 239 
obruit 72 
obruta 508 
obscura 333, 608 
obscuri 536 
obsequitur 337 
obstant 183 
obstantia 113, 149 
obstat 486, 548 
occasus 124, 228 
occulta 126 
occultamque 1 45 
occultas 178 
occulto 205, 274 

occurrent 179 
occurrit 448 
occursu 376 
oculi 547 ; — que 190 
oculis 136, 179, 223, 

330, 394 
oculorum 348 
oculos 86 
odor 526 
Ogygiis 572 
oleae 267 
olim 43, 102 
oliuae 14 
Olympus 49 
omen 174 
omne 257 
omnes 208 
omni 155 
omnia 115, 195, 205, 

464, 487, 527, 538 
omn:s9i, 96, 97, ico, 

109, 162, 479 
operae 371, 561 
operata 381 
operi 25 
operis 185^', 218, 527, 

operit 206 
operosaque 567 
operum 142, 193,597 
opes 370, 427, 489, 

opibus 481, 555 
oppositi 379 
optima 623 
opus 32, 117, 159, 

168, 169, 184, 187, 

215, 255,275,293, 

335, 457, 599 
ora 159,351 
orbe 239 
orbem 83 
orbes 46, 231 
orbis 94 
orbita 230 
ordine 136, 233 
ore 57, 125 

Orion 245 
Ossa 49 
Ossan 49 
ostro 332 

pabula 452 
Pallas 14, 61 
palleat 236 
pallcnt 201 
pallentia 78 
pallerc 277 
Paphiae 593 
par 464 
parcite 628 
parent i 583 
pari 624 
pars 76, 185 ^w, 394, 

414, 439, 469 ^is 
parsura 622, 623 
partem 521 
partes 359 
parua 313 
paruas 370 
parui 188, 594 
paruis 256, 549 
paruum 589 
pascere 224 
pasceret 446 
pascit 219 
pascunt 622 
patent 180 
patenti 163, 549 
pater 57, 596; —que 

patere 404 
pati 247 
paticns 420 
patientia 409 
patrem 626 
patri 61 
pauidum 463 
paulatim 477, 485 ; 

—que 497 
pauper 617 
pax 68, 280, 356 


peccet 88 

pecori 266 

pectore 24 

pecudum 223 

pede 13 

pedes 255, 504 

Pel ion 49 

pellant 149 

pellat 215 

pelle 368 

pellit 293 

pellitur 198 

pellunt 379 

pendeat 108 

penderent 14 

penilus 118,141,182, 
196, 281, 392,480, 
534,605;— que 97, 
148,307, 317 

per 8, 46, 53, 59, 69, 
99, 213, 324, 412, 
566, 569, 630, 637 ; 
— que 527 

perbibit 320 

percipe 144 

percurrere 57 1 

percurrunt 99 

perdere 255 

perdidit 524 

peregrinis 357 

perer.nis 25, 112, 214 

perfide 582 

Pergamon 18, 589 

pergunt 228, 485 

perhaustis 420 

perit 238 

periurae 21 

perpascitur 491 

perquirere 254 

persaepe 508 

pertabuit 474 

peruolet 231 

pessum 137 

petulans 73 

Philomela 585 

Phlegraeis 42 

Phoebe 236 

Phoebo 8 
Phrj'gas 589 
Pierio 7 
pietas 632 
pignera 135, 459 
pignere 40, 518 
pigraque 130, 157, 

pigre 413 
pigrumque 626 
piis (pieis) 575, 623 
pingue 390 
pingui 395, 431 
pinguis 14 
pio 603, 638 
piorum 644 
pios 633 
placantes 338 
placid issimus 354 
plagis 503 
platanis 265 
plebis 600 
plenaque 270 
plenius 284 
pleno 122 
plerumque 137 
plorat 5S6 
plumbi 542 
plura 148, 316 
plurima 76, 180, 414 
poena 80 
pondere 39, 72, 131, 


499, 617, 638 
pondus 157 
ponet 189 
porrigit 94 
portas 612 
portuque 440 
posse 401, 554 
possis 451, 521 
post 378, 514 
posuisse 627 
potent ;a 60, 315 
potentis 357 
poterunt 386 
potest 551 


potior 6 
praebetur 389 

— que 500 
praecipiti 132, 290 
praecipueque 601 
praeclususque 548 
praeda 619 
praedain 630 
praedas 628 
praediscere 244 
praedura 543 
praemia 222, 621 
praemittere 583 
praemittit 459 
praesertim 345 
praestat 375 
praesto 371 
premant 302 
premimurque 256 
premit 49, 169, 290, 

premiturque 169 
pressoquc 550, 563 
pressoue 445 
pretio 260 
pretiosus 90 
pretium 545 
prima 36, 104, 237, 

primo 175 
primos 321 
primum 56, 494 
princeps 217 
principia 228 
principiis 306 
principio 29 
prior 250 
procedere 483 
procul 127, 139, 195, 

202, 504 />is 
proelia 48, 52, 367 
profecto 129, 415 
professae 260 
profundi 143, 166 
profundo 181, 210, 

319, 545, 577 


inofundum 257, 341 
pioi^redicns 495 
prohibcnt 192 
prohiberet 11 
proles 623 
promptu 160, 218 
prona 473 
pronis 484 
prono 362 
propc 213 
propeiant 199, 631 
propcrat 325, 617 
piopercnt 7 
propinquas 30S 
propior 558 
propria 529 
proprietate 512 
propriisue 357 
])roruere 308 
prospcctans 335 
prospectare 139 
proturbat 64 
prouocat 52, 53 
prouoluunt 467 
proxima 27, 41, 151, 

177, 303, 3^3, 

pudeat 204 
pugnae 469 
pugnant 318, 487 
pugnantis 319 
pugnat 299 
pugnauere 116 
pugnax 242 
pulsataque 291 
pulsates 501 
pulses 329 
puinex 422, 481 
puppis 21 
purgate 476 
purpureeque 332 
putant 611 
putas 158, 328, 553, 

554. 598 
putes 401 
putresque 423 
putris 206, 526 

qua 100, 151, 152, 
502 ; quaue 241 

quacumquc 94, 325, 
337, 634 

quae 2, 60, 207, 219, 
220, 227, 232, 242 
<^/j, 251, 253, 297, 

372, 3^5,394,441, 

442, 456, 518, 538, 

553, 554, 573 
quaccuinque 246,384, 

quaedam 133, 305, 

396, 475, 530, 545 
quacque 27, 498 
quaeras 402 
quacritur 258 
quaesita 115 
quaeuc 233 
qualem 476 
quali 558 
qualis 105 
quam 362, 422, 472, 

603, 607 
quamuis 331, 431, 

quanta 25 
quantis 555 
quanto 230 
quas 301 
quassat 171 
quatcrent 39 
quaterque 320 
quatiunt 562 
quern 29, 400 
questus 22 
qui 25, 72, 343 ^/s, 

436, 557 
quia 284 
quid 3 iis, 196, 274, 

279 h's 
quidquid 33, 84, 380, 

quics 280, 356 


qi>i" 5-5, 530 

quinctiam 123, 191, 

396, 592 
quippc 165, 486 
quis 9, 17, 18, 21, 

117, 197,474, 535 
quisquam 507 
quisque 272 
quo 92, 146, 236 di's, 

243 d/s, 245 dt's ; 

— que 146 
quod 122, 165, 414, 

quod ni 128 
quod si 132, 155, 


quodcumque 162 
quondam 428, 443, 

506, 582, 604 
quoniam 218 
queque 108, 514, 

quos 182, 311 
quot 227, 385 
quotiens 88 


rabies 171 
radice 393 
radicibus 449 
ramis 364, 461 
rapax 93 
rapi 234^ 
rapiant 243, 367 
rapidum 493 
rapient 630 
rapinae 613 
rapinis 381 
rapti 356 
raptis 465, 616 
raptumque 577 
rara 283 
raro 436 
ratis 621 
raucos 3 


rebus 135, 145, 369, 

receptus 335 
recessus 160 
recipit 440, 470 
recurrit 239 
reddita 68 
redditur 70 
redeunt 133 
redimant 260 
redit 410 ; — que 

reduci 582 
refellit 525 
referri 234"^ 
referunt 127, 383 
refrixit 439 
regentis 296 
regis 9 
regna 78 
regnant 34 
regni 204 
regno 254 
relictae 261 
religata 229 
remeare 329 
remit tit 413 
remittunt 164 
remouet 55 
repellit 352 
repente 280 
repetantque 367 
repetas 419 
reponit 615 
reposcit 187 
rerum 76, 186, 193, 

225, 247, 273, 340, 

538, 631 
res 161, 190 lns,2\(), 

330, 447 
resistant 304 
resonare 31 
respondent 222 
respondet 402 
restat 418, ' 441, 

retro 140 

reuocare 516 
reuocat 486 
rexit 344 
rigent 384 
rigescit 498 
riget 548 
rigido 284 
rigidos 150 
rimas 257 
rimosa 105 
ripas 506 
ripis 456 
riuis 123, 130 
robora 469, 514 
robore 394, 400, 41 1, 

422, 502, 520 
robur 404, 535 
robusti 208 
rorantis 593 
rorum 315 
rotant 83, 210 
rotat 343 
Rotunda 433 
rubeat 236 
rubebant 610 
rubens 332 
rudibus 561 
ruens 382 
ruentis 504 
ruere 31 
ruina 169, 201 
ruinae 65, 139, 466 
ruinis 347, 373 
ruit 151 
rumpat 372 
rumpi 278 
rumpitur 200 
rumpunt 361, 379 
rumpuntur 59 
rupes 183,307,343; 

— que 488 
ruptique I 
ruptis 604 
rure 263 
ruris 15 
rursus 366 
ruunt 211 


sacer 579 

sacra 438, 576 

sacrare 226 

sacri 185'' 

sacris 463 

sacros 275, 350 

saecula 9, 22S 

saepe373, 539 

saepta 409 

saeua 636 

saeuo 171, 209, 607 

saeuum 551 

salua 641 

saluo 520 

sanctos 643 

sanguis 100 

satis 85, i^^l 

saturae 12 

saturent 269 

Saturni 242 

saxa 360, 396, 450, 

503, 544, 566, 575 
saxis 106, 478, 530 
saxorum 206 
saxum 458 
scaenae 76 
scandere 50 
scaterest 456 
scatet 431 
scilicet 102 
scintillant 504 
scintiilat 403 
scire 227, 230, 234, 

240, 244, 274 
scrutabere 178 
scrutamur 257 
se94, 119,303,471 ; 

sest 213 
secat 152 
secretes 15 
secta 97 

secum 303, 455, 640 
securae 644 
securi 9 
securus 523 


secus 322 

secuta 104, 619 

sed 12, 91, 105, III, 
158, 221, 248,250, 
39S, 402, 407, 426, 
436, 442, 447, 509, 
set 163 

sede 24S, 304 

sedes 30, 1S6 

segetes 609 

segetique 264 

segnem 255 

segni 131 

segnior 147 

semel 41 8, 420 

semen 258 

semina 340, 538 

semine 20, 419 

seminium 539 

semita 129 

semper 147, 213,271, 
333, 371 

sena 4S5 

senem 585 

senescit 238 

senos 231 

seposuit 642 

septemque 577 

sepulta 203 

sequentem 626 

serpens 47 

serpunt 364 

seruans 408 

seruent 282 

sese 108, 163, 260, 283 

seu 5 bis, 6, 112, 281, 
282, 289, 522 

sex 234^ 

si 132, 133 bis, 134, 
155 bis, 158, 173, 
341, 347, s^z, 400, 
510, 535, 549 


sic 271,479, 564 
siccus 331 
Siculi 444, 530 
sicLit 493 
sidera34,44, 53, 69, 

103, 232 
sidere 243 
sidus 584 

signa 426 ; — ue 593 
signant 531 
signis 53, 448 
signorum 234 
signum 517 
silenti 220 
siluae 363, 384, 488, 

siiuamque 445 
siluis 140,586; — que 

Simaethi 506 
simans 494 
similes 424 
simili 376; — que 546 
similis 108, 301 
simul 58, 361, 454, 
.487, 512 
simul ac 402 
simul atque 407, 460 
sine 40, 139,195,396, 

singula 249, 509 
sint 227 
sinuat 47 

sinus 118, 137, 366 
siponibus 326 
si quis 474 
Sirius 245, 601 
sit 175, 280 
siti 82 
siue no, 115, 288, 

357, 512,523 
solae 629 
Solent 311 
soli 172, 581 ; —que 

solido 96, 155, 501, 




solidum 114, 131 
solis {sol) 230 
solis (solus) 587, 623 
soUicitant 81 ; — que 

sollicitat 42 

sollicito 583 
solo 176 
soluant 149 
soluit 552 
solum 461 ; — que 

solum [adtterb) 223, 

soluunt 163 
sonant 467 
sonanti 500 
sonat 292 
sonitu 27, 308 
sonitum 58 
sono 277, 290 
sons 603 
sopito 475 
sorbet 353 
sordida 32, 369, 475, 

soror 586 
sorores 7 
sors 103 
sorte 546 
sparge re 401 
sparsa 350 
sparsumue 20 
Sparta 578 
spatio 107 
spatiosa 140 
speciem 483, 525 
species 175, 194,347 
spectacula 156, 383, 

spectantur 580 
spectataque 447 
speculaberis 464 
speculantur 85 
spiramenta 135 
spiritus III, 154, 


212, 2l6, 294,323, 
342, 471, 560, 566 

spissa 155 ; — que 

spissae 183 

spisso 375 

spissus 3^9 

sponte 207 

squameus 47 

St ant 63 

stantibus 492 

stantis 469 

staret 155 

Stella 242 

stet 117 

stipata no 

stipatus 411 

stipulamue 353 

stolidi 365 

strauere 80 

streperent 625 

strepitu 500 

stulta 615 

stupeatque 341 

stupet 334 

Stygias 79 

sua 16, 46, 207, 579, 
602, 616, 619, 640 

suam 445, 516 

sub 39, n, 88, 131, 
148, 189, 217, 301, 
362, 375> 393, 462, 
473, 594,614,617, 
618, 624,638, 642 

subducto 34 

subeunt 466 

subiecta 595 

subit 480 

subito 220, 277, 465 

sublata 477 

sublimia 34 

sublimis 335, 355 

subremigat 297 

subsequar 221 

subter 277 

subfiles 144 

subuectat 359 

subuertitur 543 
succerncns 495 
succumbere 541 
succurrat 194 
suco 395 
sucosior 267, 533 
sucus 389 
sufferre 551 
suffocat 319 
sui 156, 177 
sulphur 431, 513 
sulphure 434 
sulphuris 388 
summis 158 
summo 339, 474 
sumrnota 298 
summus 49 
sunt 273, 371 
suo 13,233,323,345, 

suos 124 
super 38, 253 
superant 384 
superestque 429 
surgant 203, 270 
surgat 332 
surgere 306 
surgit 284, 355 
surgunt 133, 478 
suspensa 98 
suspensis 544 
sustentare 555 
sustentata 208 
sustitit 638 

tabellae 5^2 

tabulaeque 597 

taceant 261 

tacitus 205 

tactu 191 

tacuit 17 

taetris 569 

tarn 2, 32, 369, 584, 

tamen 150, 196, 351, 


414,439,443, 528, 

532, 540, 543, 602 
tandem 483, 640 
tangitur 322 
tanta 315, 356, 554, 

tantae 197 
Tantale 81 
tantarum 340 ; — que 

tanto 25, 246, 432 
tantos 118, 349 
tantum 142, 159,255, 

419 ; — que 166 
tantusque 347 
taidant 167, 616 
Tartara 204, 278 
taurus 89 
te 5, 81, 365, 547 
tectis 126, 586, 625 
tectos 375 
tecum 305 ; —que 6 
tellus 104, 130, 136, 

156, 265 
temperat 639 
tcmpla 567 
tempora 16, 237, 366 
tempore 106, 189 
temptamus 510 
temptat 448 
temptauere 43 
tenaci 408 
tenax 242 ; — que 398 
tendant 243 
teneas 400 
teneat 165 
tenent 267, 636 
tenerrima 152 
tenet 376, 415, 487, 

tenuem 297 
tenuere 592 
tenui 120, 352 
tenuis 109, 188, 354, 

tenus 46 
i Tereus 587 


terga 65 

tergoque 289 

terque 320 

terra 85, loi, ic8, 
12S, 132, 148, 282, 
301, 419,434,441, 
462.488, 527, 565, 
598, 635 

terrae 94, I53- I75» 
259, 274 ; terraest 

terrain 250 ; —que 

terras 103 
terrent iSi 
terris 77, 235 
testem 448 
theatris 295 
Thebis 572 
Theseu 582 
tibi 6, 135, 161, 189, 

510, 518, 582 
Tityon 80 
tonat 57 
tormenta 553 
torpentes 291 
torqueat 3, 196 
torqucmur 256 
torquentur 259 
torquet 608 
torrens 119, 342 
torrere 549 
torrentibus 298 
tor ret 620 
torretur 479 
torta 304 
tortis 105 
tot 251 

tota 99, 200, 327 
totidem 2341" 
toto 397 
totum 96 
totus 411 
tracta 499 
tractare 35 
tradita 234 
traducti 569 

trahant 304 
trahat 122 
traliit 176, 461, 565 
traieccrit 506 
transferre 44 
transfugit 348 
transirc 255 
transitque 325 
trecenti 579 
trcmcbant 611 
trementes 562 
trcmit 205 
tremor 153 
trepidant 172 
trepidantia 360 
trepidat 51S 
Trinacrio 71 
tristem 240 
tristes 595 
tristi 19 
Tritona 292 
triumphans 637 
Troiae 588 
tropaeo 472 
truce 594 
trudat 26 
truncaeque 466 
tu 85, 144, 584, 586, 

tuaque 82 
tucri 223 
tuetur 440 
tui 537 
tuis 136 
tulit 251 
turn 15, 63, 68, 69, 


tunieant 269 
tumidisque 30 
tumulum 590 
turba 62, 579 
turbam 302 ; — que 

turbare 168 
turbas 209 
ture 338 


turpe 40 

tutaque 304 

tutari 614 

tutior 407 

tutissima 632 

tutius 8 

tuto 191,464 ; —que 

tutus 638 

uacans 162 
uacuata 107 
uacuo 22, 166, 315 
uacuum 303 
ualida 160 
ualidoque 346 
ualidos 63 ; —que 

uallibus 312, 490 
uapore 576 
uapores 114 
uarie 184, 396 
uarient 237 
uariis 580 
uastaque 360 
uasti 181 
uasto 56, 72 
uastosque 335 
uatcs 76, 79 
uatibus 75 
uatum 29, 36, 641 
ubere 431, 441 
ubi 153, 165, 320, 

350, 378, 406, 454, 

477, 601 
-ue 20 bis^ 151, 203, 


445, 593 
ueget 120 
uel 339, 558, 623 
uela 583 
uelatusque 596 
uelis 549 
uelle 254 
uelocius 378 


uelox 214, 617 
uelut 319, 519, 605 
ueluti 292, 326, 375, 

uena 258 
uenae 99, 534 
ucnas 121, 154, 176, 

uenias 4 
uenis 451, 480 
uenit 61, 69 
uenti 58, 171, 209, 

219, 383 
uentilat 350 
uentis 134, 147, 285, 


uento 313 
uentorum 300, 371 
uentos 165, 279, 306, 

309, 318, 328, 446 
uentum 563 
uenturae 459 
uenturam 174 
uenturisque 1 1 
uer 237 

uera 143, 189, 398 
ueracius 174 
uerbera 38 
uerberat 314, 351 
uerens 63 
ueris 447 
uerissima 536 
uernacula 386 
uero 92, 177, 613 
ucrtat 205 
uerterunt 65 
uertice 284, 478 
ucrticis 41 
uertimus 257 
uerum 215, 477, 505, 

518 ; —que 260 
uestigia 47, 634 
ueteris 570 
uetusta no 
uetustas 568 
uia 115, 130. 142, 


uias 98, 109, 244, 

uicenos 508 
ulcere 114 
uices 234 
uicina 458, 540 
uicinia 444 
uicinis 625 
uicti 367 
uictis 588 
uicto 45, 409 
uictos 68 
uictrice 581 
uictus 591 ; —que 

uiderunt 'j'] 
uidet 119, 336 
uigil 601 
uiles 261 
uim 352 
uincent 547 
uincit 415 
uincitur 552 
uincla 149 
uinclo 229 
uincula 379 
uindicat 399 
uiolens 120 
uiolentia 213 
uires 164, 287, 323, 

344, 367,410,421, 


—que 613 
uiribus 159, 208, 559 
uirtus 416, 529, 632 
uis25, 151,313 
uisa 152 

uisenda 185'', 598 
uisere 567 
uisum 271 
uitam 100 
uiti 264 
uiua 596 
uiuaccs 41 
uiuax 416 
uix 410, 436, 507 
uixdum 611 


ulla 408 

ullis 207 

ullo 336 

ulmis 267 

ulteriores 494 

ultima 17 

ultimus 321 

ultor 591 

ultra 182 

umbris 82 

umida 334 

umor 314, 388, 480 

umore 310 

umquam 410 

una 527 ; — quo 

uncis 507 
unda 290, 297, 319, 

undas 484 ; — que 79 
unde 219, 241 bis, 

undique 58, 121, 176, 

undis 95, 492 

uno 119, 414, 576 

iiocent 385 

uoces 294 

uolet 245 

uoluant 2 

uoluens 49 1 

uoluitur 500 

uoluptas 249 

uoluuntque 210 

uoluuntur 199 

uomit 327 

uoraginibus loi 

uorago 124 

uorat 620 

uortice 209 

uota 8 

urat 28 

urbesque 172 

urbis 612 

urgent 37S 

urget (urguet) 1 54, 
321, 565 


uritur 38S, 457, 556, 

uma 292 
usos 37 
usu 515-557 
usum 263 
ut 90, 107, 122, 194, 

215, 231,302,311, 

498, 506, 511,521, 
560, 613 ; —que 98 

utcniuc 170, 63S 

uti 269 

utile 387 

utpotc 491 

utraquc 521 
utrimque 63 
Vulcan i 31, 438 
uulgata 74 
uul'i;-! 365 
uultu 334 
uultum 524 




Do not / 

re move r 

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Under }'at. " Ref. Index File."