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f. ■ 









A. W. V ERR ALL, Litt.D., 


Honlion : 



[ The Right of TramUUicn is reserved^ 


i, OF THE I 



\ If^ioc^, 













THIS edition of the Agamemnon is the second instalment 
of that edition of Aeschylus which I hope to complete in 
course of time. The present volume has occupied me for many 
years, having been commenced long before my edition of the 
Septem^ and frequently re-written, as I gained more knowledge 
of the poet 

No one competent to undertake such a work can flatter 
himself much upon the little that he can possibly have achieved 
in comparison with the desirable ideal. It is not likely that, as 
long as there is any spirit of progress, there will ever be a final 
edition of Aeschylus. Certainly we are far enough from such a 
consummation at present. But with all the defects which I see, 
and the many which doubtless I do not see, I trust that this 
book is not unworthy of the place in which it has been written 
and of the great living scholars by whose teaching and en- 
couragement it has been inspired. 

Where my version merely follows tradition, the commentary 
is for the most part silent or brief; and in this sense only I may 
say that the bulk of it is the product of my own work. But 
indeed I have the less hesitation in saying so, as I fear that 
the bulk of it is not a merit. 

The English editions of Paley, Kennedy and Mr A. Sidgwick 
have been by me throughout; Engcrs I have consulted often. 
Dr Wecklein's interesting and useful edition of the Orestca 
with notes (1889) appeared when this was in the press. This 


will, I hope, explain anything that may seem obscure in the 
relations of the two. All will know the difficulty of dealing 
satisfactorily with such a case. I should explain that where 
'Wecklein's Appendix' is referred to on critical questions, the 
reference is to the edition of the text with apparatus criticus 
only (1885). 

Since the appearance of my former volume Kennedy, Paley, 
and J. F. Davies have died, honoured and regretted, as I need 
scarcely say, by me as by all students of literature. To Paley in 
particular, whatever may have been said or thought of his defects, 
1 shall always profess myself deeply indebted. It was easy to 
disagree with him and to see the weak points of his scholarship. 
But few men have done more for the spread of learning and 
literature in this country. He sent me a few days before he 
died a vigorous letter of adverse criticism. Most mournfully do 
I feel that I shall never receive another. 

Beyond the editions of the play (my relations to which in 
general will appear from the several references) the writings 
most useful to me have been the editions of Sophocles by 
Professor jebb (who has permitted me to express my admira- 
tion and gratitude by the dedication of this volume), the Hotneric 
Grammar of Mr D. B. Monro, Provost of Oriel College, Oxford, 
and an excellent article on the Agatnemnon by Mr A. E, 
Housman in Vol. xvi. of the Journal of Philology . 

It is not easy to enumerate accurately the friends who have 

assisted me at various times by conversation and otherwise. But 

for particular suggestions my thanks arc due to Mr R. A. Neil, 

who was kind enough to revise the whole of the Introduction, to 

Dr W. Leaf, Mr j. G. Frazer, Mr E. S. Thompson, Mr Wyse, 

Mr Duff, and Mr H. B. Smith. I have also taken some 

m particular hints from Professor Mahaffy's books on the gco- 

Kfc raphy and customs of Greece and from a dissertation on the 

^^arodos of the Seven against Thebes recently published by 

^fer F'ennell. Other references will appear in their places, 

^^ Continual study strengthens my conviction on one not 

^Uilmportant point in relation to Aeschylus, the substantial 


integrity of the text. The greater part of what are called errors 
of the MS. are merely normal variations of spelling, not affecting 
the authority of the tradition in the slightest degree. The 
errors properly so called are often such that their reproduction 
through long periods, from the time when by their nature 
they must have originated, bears speaking testimony to the 
conservative care of those by whom the text was handed 
down. Although this edition adheres more closely to the 
MSS. than its predecessors in modem times, my revision, were 
I to revise it now, would tend rather to closer adhesion than 
the other way. 

Indeed the men who preserved Aeschylus through the 
long night of literature were protected as much by their 
defects as by their merits from tampering with the words. 
They were scholars, as can be proved out of their own mouths, 
of the narrowest type. In old words, old forms, and the like 
they were keenly interested. For the poet they did not care. 
Of the Agamemnon the MS. Introduction speaks with a reserve 
barely saved from disapprobation. And no wonder; for the 
editors had not read the play, as literature, at all. This is 
the simple fact. To a reader who wished to understand a 
drama, as well as make notes of the words in it, no point 
could be so essential as the fixing and distribution of the 
parts. The Byzantine scholars were entirely indifferent to 
the matter. If a modern editor were to adopt the dramatis 
personae of the Medicean manuscript, he would justly be 
thought a fool. Nor were the Greek commentators unaware 
that their scheme was dubious; but they would not be at any 
trouble about a thing of so little consequence to grammar 
and lexicography. The corrector of the Mediceus assigned 
the speech beginning ^atcd ael3i^a>p {v, 270) to a certain 
ayyeXo^ of his own invention, perceiving that in the scene 
which follows there was some difficulty in finding speakers 
for all the speeches. To this &yy€\o^, as appears from the 
later copies, he assigned among other things the speech yvpai, 
KaT dpBpa {v, 363), while to Clytaemnestra he gave Ta^ 


elaofieada {v. 494). Now nothing is more certain than that 
all these speeches are spoken, as all modern editors print them, 
by members of the Chorus, and that at v, 494 Clytaemnestra is 
not even on the stage, and further that no one could have read 
the play with any consecutive attention from the beginning to 
this point without discovering these facts. But the Greek editor 
was looking for glosses, and having once ascertained the cor- 
rectness of his copy (a work on which he can be proved to have 
spent very great pains), would not interrupt the true labour of 
scholarship for a question so trivial as the name of a particular 

Consequently, so far as relates to the literary form and 
purpose of the drama, the makers of our MSS. bequeathed 
to their modem successors no more than the vague indication 
of a problem. In the Introduction our first concern will be 
with this problem, its nature and the material for a solution. 

Trinity College, Cambridge, 
37 September y 1889. 



Preface vii 

Introduction xiii 

* Argument* (vir6dt<Ti£) and 'Dramatis Personae' in the Medicean MS. Ixiv 

Text and Notes i 

Appendix I., A — Z 183 

Appendix II 223 

Translation 231 

Index 263 


I. The Problem, 

What is the plot of the Agamemnon f When the dramatist began 
his work, what was the story which he proposed to tell, or rather — 
the difference of phrase is not unimportant — which he proposed to 
illustrate ? 

To one familiar only with drama produced under modem conditions, 
it might well seem strange that this question should be propounded at 
all. Surely, it might be said, this ought to be a simple matter, to be 
settled at the first reading. If a drama does not convey its own story, 
entire and unmistakable, what does it convey? So we might argue, 
naturally enough, from the conditions of the theatre as we know them 
in modem times : but so would not argue those who have given much 
reflexion to the theatre of Athens, and especially of Aeschylus. Every 
one knows, even if the full significance of the fact is not always 
sufficiently estimated, that the tragedians of Athens did not tell their 
story at all, as the telling of a story is conceived by a modem dramatist, 
whose audience, when the curtain goes up, know nothing which is not 
in the play-bilL 

The story of an Athenian tragedy is never completely told ; it is 
implied, or to repeat the expression used above, it is illustrated by a 
selected scene or scenes. And the further we go back the tmer this is. 
The plays of Euripides, with their explanatory prologues, are far more 
complete in the statement of the facts than those of his two great 
predecessors j and Sophocles fills in his outline more than Aeschylus. 
Such was the natural result of altered circumstances, of that multi- 
plication of literature and growth of literary education which was the 
chief characteristic of the fifth century. Before the close of the 
century the process had so rapidly advanced that literature was a 


1 occupation, and Athens was full of lads writing, as Aristo- 
phanes says, 'tragedies by the thousand.' On the other hand, at the ' 
commencement of the century writers were not many, and a literary 
pubhc scarcely existed at all. One necessary effect of this movement, 
which took place chiefly in the second half of the period, was to 
multiply enormously the current varieties of the popular tales; until at 
last, as we see by the practice of Euripides, the Athenian playivrighi 
was brought, with respect to the fore -know! edge of his story by the 
audience, nearly to the situation of the modern playwright, and found 
it convenient, if not to tell the whole of it, at least to mark in outline 
the version of it from which he started. But the original practice, 
dating from the time when the legends current at one time and in the 
same city were still fairly harmonious, was to presuppose the story as 
known ; and as a fact there is perhaps not one play of Aeschylus or of 
Sophocles which would not considerably puzzle a reader who should sit 
down to it, as to a drama of to-day, having very little or no information 
on the subject and expecting everything essential to be supplied by the 

For a play of Aeschylus then the question. What is the story ?, so far 
1 from being frivolous, is of the first importance ; and so far from being 
necessarily easy, it is almost certain to offer some difficulties, and might 
very well prove unanswerable. To reconstruct stories in the exact form 
which prevailed at Athens in the. days of Aeschylus, from the indica- 
tions afforded by plays presupposing the stories, and from the indirect 
and ambiguous evidence of such other versions of the same legends as 
may be more or less perfectly preser\'ed to us, is a task requiring the 
greatest care. It is not likely ever to be accomplished with all the 
success that might be wished, and is so far from accomplishment as 
yet, that in nothing which relates to the study of the poet is there left 
more room for improvement. We are now to enquire how the matter 
stands at present with regard to the story of the Agamemnon. 

The reader who gradually becomes famihar with successive com- 
mentaries upon this play, will gradually become aware that they agree 
with one another in one remarkable peculiarity. As a rule, the first 
duty performed in the introduction to a drama is to give an accurate and 
straightforward account of the story. No edition known to me ventures 
to lei! without disguise the story of the Agamemnon. I do not of 
course mean merely that the story told is not correct. This would be 
to assume the very point we are to discuss, I mean that the story, as 
it is commonly understood, is itself not lold without concealment and 
practical misrepresentation. The reason for this will be only too 

apparent, when we have supplied the omission by telling the story 
ootright, as it was conceived by the Byzantine students of the eleventh 
century and is still, with whatever dissatisfaction, accepted. 
( Agamemnon, king of Argos, having sailed with a great araiamert to 

Troy, to avenge by the capture of the city the abduction of Helen, 
arranged with his queen Clytaemnestra ', who governed at home in his 
absence, to transmit the news of his success, when it should be attained, 
by a series of beacons extending over the whole distance. At what 
time this arrangement was first made does not appear ; but when after 
a war of ten yeare the city was taken, the beacons had been maintained, 
we learn, for at least a year. The chief part of the service, the transmitting 
of (he message across the Aegaeao Sea, was accomplished by beacons 
established on Mount Ida in the Troad, on Lemnos, on Mount Athos, 
and on the highest point of Euboea, Thence the news was to be 
signalled by comparatively short stages to Mount Arachnaeus, within a 
few miles of Argos and visible from the royal palace, where a walch 
was nightly kept for the expected news. Accordingly on the night in 
which Troy was taptured the system was put in operation, and worked 
so successfully that before morning tlie beacon upon Arachnaeus was 
duly seen by the palace-walch. (At this moment the action of the play 

1 commences.) The queen, being roused, at once sends out her com- 
mands for general rejoicing, without however disclosing either the 
receipt of the beacon-message or the purport of it, as appears from the 
fact that the elders of the city', who presently arrive before the palace 
to make enquiries, are not only ignorant of the event announced, but 
are still uncertain whether the nocturnal demonstration (for the fires of 
sacrifice are seen blazing in all directions) is made in honour of some 
good intelligence or not. After some time, and just upon daybreak 
(7'. agi), the queen presents herself, and the elders respectfully ask 
whether it is her pleasure to enlighten them further. 

The queen then informs them that Troy is actually taken. After a 
few moments of joyful amazement, their next question is, ' When did 

B';&G«ch;liu knew her as KXvrcHii^irrin 
— for I agree wilh those 

i tte testimony of the Medicean MS, 
nomenclature are 
lusl remain Clylatm- 
' nettra lor us. 

' I have tried ihrouBhout so to speak 

these ■ elders ' as lo avoid tlie not very 

profitable dispute, whether Iheji arc lo 

be regarded as comicillorE, a political 
itfovala. It seems to me eyuilly clear 
on the one hand that Iheir character and 
behaviour would suggest such an idea to 
an audience imbued with Greek politics, 
and that an the other hand Aeschylus 
inlelillonally avoided precision on thit 
and all points respecting the constitu- 
tion of an imaginary slate in the heroic 

xvi lirrRODVCTION. 

this happen?' 'This very night.' 'But how could the news possibly 
arrive so soon ?' ' By a beacon-message,' repHes the queen, and 
acquaints them with the arrangements above described, at which the 
elders are more astonished than ever. The queen makes some 
reflexions upon the appearance which Troy must present this morning 
after the ravages of the night, and expresses a hope that the victors will 
not abuse their triumph in such a. way as to court divine punishment 
and so endanger their safe return. She then retires, leaving the elders 
to their thoughts. 

But the stem satisfaction, which at first they feel for the punishment 
of the offending Trojans, soon passes away, as they consider the suffering 
which the war has cost and the deep discontents which it has bred; and 
they have already sunk again into melancholy and forelioding when 
the question arises — Is the news true after all ? How doubtful is the 
interpretation of a beacon \ How sanguine the imagination of an 
excited woman! The whole story may well prove to be a mere 
delusion. It will be best to wait. 

They are in this frame of mind when they see approaching a herald, 
from whose appearance and from other visible indications (for the sun 
has now risen, v. 513) they at once perceive that he has come from 
the port and brings great tidings. Something grave then has really 
happened, and they will know in a few moments whether it is good, or 
what it is. 

The herald — if it were possible to suppose the reader of this book 
absolutely ignorant of the play, I am certain that what 1 am now going 
to write would be set down by him as a manifestly absurd mistake 
or invention of mine— the herald enters and announces Ihat Agamem- 
non has arrived. 

But this staggering surprise is nothing to the miracles which remain. 
The conversation of the herald with the elders — if it can be called a 
conversation, in which the herald, almost beside himself with excite- 
ment and joy, speaks nearly all the time — is terminated by the brief 
Sappearance of the queen, who bids the herald return with a message 
tfwelcome to his master. The elders beg liim before he goes lo satisfy 

1 at least as lo the safety of the king's brother, Menelaus. This 
iads him to disclose that the Greek fleet (which, be it remembered, 
ast have traversed the whole Aegaean in a few hours at most) encoun- 
I thf ivay a iremendoui storm and was thereby so completely 
Otcred that those on Agamemnon's ship, which escaped destruction, 
jow not even which, if any, of their companions are saved. And with 
It the herald departs on his errand. The elders, under the weight of 


this terrible and truly inconceivable disaster, not unnaturally foi^et for 
the moment to rejoice over the return of the remnant, and are still 
musing sadly upon the terrible and far-reaching consequences of the 
war and of the offence which caused the war, when the king himself 
appears to receive their welcome and that of the queen. 

And now, it will be supposed, some light will be thrown upon the 
facts. The story up to this point presents nothing but an inexplicable 
contradiction. But when Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra meet, all will 
of course in some way become clear. Nothing of the sort Though the 
rejoicings shortly before commanded by Clytaemnestra are still pro- 
ceeding, and the sacrifices which were to be offered in the palace in 
honour of the beacon-message are scarcely begun, the queen, coming 
forth from the unfinished ceremony, addresses to the king a long 
and high-flown oration, in which there is not the slightest allusion to the 
events of the morning, nor a word from which it could be supposed 
that intelligence of the triumph had preceded the king's arrival. Aga- 
memnon, in his cold and brief reply, is equally silent on the subject. 
That affectionate anxiety for the queen's peace of mind, which we 
should naturally conjecture to have been his motive, as there is no 
other apparent, for maintaining such a prodigious machinery of com- 
munication and transport, has suddenly given way to a repulsive state- 
liness. He rebukes severely the pomp of his reception, and there 
ensues an altercation on this matter between the royal spouses, in which 
the queen carries her point, arid conducts her husband with triumph 
into the palace, leaving the elders in a puzzled and apprehensive con- 
dition of mind, with which the audience must certainly sympathize. 

Thus ends the first part or act of the play, which occupies, we may 
observe, considerably more than half of it. In the tragic scenes or, to 
speak more properly, in the tragedy, which now commences, the whole 
of this vast and enigmatic prologue, except certain incidental narratives 
external to the main subject of it, seems to be simply forgotten. 
Nothing happens which might not have happened just as easily if the 
king had returned unannounced, or if he had announced himself in 
some ordinary manner, and followed his announcement after the 
expected interval of time. What is dark now remains so, if we accept 
the received interpretation, to the end of the play. Since therefore the 
remarkable action of the first part has no particular bearing upon that 
of the second, and its value in the estimation of the dramatist must 
be supposed independent, it will be convenient to pause at this point 
and to consider what that value may be. 

And surely the first and most proper reflexion is this : — Is it possible 

V. iE. A b 



that the story above told really represents the intention of Aeschylus? 
That a man, who had spent most of his life in writing plays, when he came 
to lay down the lines of his supreme master- piece, should encumber 
himself at starting with absurdities so glaring, so dangerous, and so gra- 
tuitous, as this fable exhibits in all its parts ? Let us look at it for a 
momenl from these three points of view. 

And first, that the absurdities are conspicuous. If we assume, for 
the sake of argument, that it was indifferent to Aeschylus and the 
Athenian audience whether the story told was conceivable or not, we 
may still wonder why the poet should so labour to be false. The first 
part of the Agamemnon is constructed exactly as it would be, if designed 
to show the monstrosities of it in tlie strongest light. It is one huge 
contradiction. It is divided by a crisis, the entrance of ilie herald 
(;f. 508), into two nearly equal parts, the substance of which inay be 
summarised by the statements, ( 1 ) that from the fall of Troy to the com- 
mencement of the play is a period of two or three hours, (2) that in 
this interval have occurred the event.s of several weeks. About this 
there is not and cannot be any difference of opinion. It is certain, in 
the first place, that the action is continuous, and falls within the early 
hours of one morning. Language could not be clearer than that in 
which we are told that the herald arrives while the queen's announce- 
ment of the beacon-message is passing from lip to lip {im. 481 — 498)', 
Even the progress of the hour from darkness to daylight is duly noted, 
as wc have seen. But it is needless to labour the point. Had it been 
possible to suppose the'action divided (as in the Eumtniiies'), ihe modem 
readers of the poet, who, as we shall see, are painfully conscious of the 
puzzle, would have marked the division long ago. And yet, on the 
other hand, look at the necessities of the si 
our notice by Aeschylus himself. ' 
of Troy the weary and famished Greeks would be making the most of 
their comfortless repose and be in no condition to think of anything 
else, is obviously true. But if Aeschylus ])roposed to bring them that 
very morning to Argos, why should he insist on reminding us, just 

they are ihrust upon 
the morning after ihe sack 

I Ec|UBllf explicit, according to the 
only icndering which Bcems to me enter- 
lainable, is Ihe queen's language al v. 

' Tlie etamplE of the Eummiiiei is 

t. indeed soroclimes died, as if it explained 

i jmlilieil wlint wuuld otherwise be 

pmiog in ibe consiruciivn of the 

Agamemnen. There is no resemblance 
between them. The Eumtnida is simply 
divided, like a play of Shakeiipcare, into 
three perfeelly dislinel scenes, caofessedlr 
Kpamlcd by gaps of lime and changes of 
plate. If Ihe ^gamirKnon were EimJIariy 
divisible, there would be nothing peculiv 


before their appearance, lliat they must at this very moment be in Troy, 
hundreds of miles across ihe sea, taking their hard-won meal and looking 
forward to enjoy next night their first unbroken sleep (r. 34a) ? And 
Ihe very next speech informs us that they are already returned to 
Argos ! Even a happy carelessness might have been expected not 10 
give itself the He with so much art. Again, the size and general 
geography of the Archipelago were facts as familiar to an Athenian as 
those of the Atlantic or the Channel to a modern Englishman, indeed 
much more so ; and he could scarcely, however willing, have imagined 
them other than they were. But if Aeschylus desired to present a 
story in which these facts were to be ignored, why should he aggravate 
his difficulties by prompting the imagination of the audience with a 
picture of the reality ? The conversation between Clylaemnestra and the 
elders respecting the beacons signifies to us at any rale ibis, thai a 
voyage over the region described was likely to lake some time. A 
narrator who wished us, for the sake of his story, to suppose that some- 
one had ridden from I^ndon to York in an hour, would scarcely begin 
by reminding us that it takes five hours to go by train. 

Then look again at the other side of the picture. To what purpose, 
in any case, the poet introduced the herald, with his vivid description of 
the hardships suffered by the Hellenic army and of the awful tempest in 
which the greater part of it was finally lost, or what is the significance of 
these narrarives to the story, is at present not too clear, as may be seen 
by reference to the books of authority. But nothing short of a contra- 
diction in terms could be more grossly inconsistent with the preceding 
scene. If Aeschylus wished to obliterate, by an arbitrary fiction, 
the interval of time between the fall of Troy and the return of the 
Greeks, why does he not obliterate it? Why narrate the voyage and 
show that it was not rapid but disastrous? that it was not accom- 
plished in one hour, nor in one day either? that after the capture, 
and before the return was even commenced, a considerable lime was 
spent at Troy ilseif in the elaboraie destruction of the city, the distribu- 
tion of the spoil and captives, and other proceedings related or touched 
upon by the herald and the king? Of these indeed the audience 
were previously informed by many familiar narratives, but in the design 
attributed 10 Aeschylus they might at least have been lefi In all 
possible obscurity. Who could listen to the herald's description of the 
storm, following as it does close upon Clytaemoestra's account of the 
beacons, and not ask himself in bewilderment at what time all this is 
supposed to have happened ? 

This discrepancy of limes, not lightly neglected by the poet but 



studiously obtruded, would, if it stood alone, make the first part of the 
Agamemnon a confounding problem. But it is combined with another 
mass of difficulty, less prominent perhaps to the eyes of us moderns, 
but at Athens and in the time of Aeschylus equally fatal to that 
temporary and conventional belief without which the imagination is 
helpless. The story of the beacons is in one sense a fine story ; that is 
to say, it is told in fine verse, and the actual description, how the fieiy 
signal was sped, is unsurpassed or unrivalled in its own style of 
eloquence. But for all that the story is in its whole conception and all 
its incidents incredible, and it is impossible thai a popular audience 
in ancient Athens can ever have thought otherwise. 

In the first place, looking at the matter generally, it is permissible, 
when we reflect that the Agamemnon was written by a grave man of long 
experience in peace and war, and to satisfy an audience which contained 
perhaps more men personally familiar with the conduct of great affairs 
than ever assembled elsewhere — it is permissible, I say, to wonder, that 
so much should be made of a transaction which, for any relation it has 
to life, is more worthy of an inventive schoolboy. Here is a great 
monarch, conducting a distant war of uncertain duration. He estab- 
lishes between his camp and his capital a system of communication on a 
grand scale, far larger than anything of the kind actually existing, when 
Aeschylus wrote, in the Greek world '. For what purpose ? Naturally, we 
suppose, to aid his plans. Not at alL At the close of the war, as the 
ignorance of the elders requires us to suppose, no message had ever been 
sent, and no message but one was expected. The beacons were main- 
lained and watched night after night, simply that, if and when Troy 
shouM fall, this news, expected for ten years, might have a chance, if 
the weather were favourable, to reach Argos some weeks or some days 

, sooner than it would do in any case. And as if this notion were 
not puerile enough, the natural facts are distorted so as to exaggerate 

L the absurdity to the utmost. For in the result it seems to be by 
the merest accident that the beacon-message arrives before the king. 
Dut for the storm he would doubtless have got home first. 

Again, if we admit the beacons as a conceivable scheme, what are 
we to say of the useless and impossible mystery with which they are 
surrounded ? The Athenians were to supjiose, that for a year at least 
there had been maintained on a hill close to Argos, night afier night, a 

'The generals of Pcran were sup- It does nol appear how far Ihey succeeded, 

lohaveprojecledEomethingsimilar, hut it is not unlikely thai Iheii plan 

\ more ptaciicable, at the time of suggested the idea of Aeschylus. 
IT manrelloas expeditioD (Herod. 9, 3). 


watch forming part of a system of communication with the absent 
army, and that all this while, so strictly had the secret been kept, the| 
elders of the city had not the least notion of it, nor had ever dreamed 
of such a thing as possible ! 

But these general objections, though serious enough, are nothing to 
the grotesque and wilful violations of nature which appear in the 
details. It is here that the modem reader most easily deceives himself, 
forgetting the local and contemporary point of view. No one disputes 
indeed, so far as I am aware, that the story told by Clytaemnestra is 
impossible ; but most of those who write on the play ignore the subject 
so far as they can * : and hardly any one considers how the matter 
would look to an Athenian of the Marathonian generation. Yet place 
and time are the essential conditions. 

Men are the willing slaves of imagination; and the inventor who 
frankly transcends our range of experience may with moderate skill 
carry us wherever he pleases. But so long as he purports to keep 
within our experience, the ablest inventor has but a strictly limited 
power. Not Shakespeare himself could have made the Londoners 
content to suppose that a Spanish ship lying at the Nore had fired upon 
an English ship lying at the Tower. They simply could not suppose it. 
Yet this is the sort of fiction which the Athenians, a people singularly 
severe in their criticism of the imagination, are supposed to have 
accepted without demur, and honoured with their highest reward. The 
description of the beacons (z'. 293) is curiously complete and 
carefuL Every stage is marked and named beyond possibility of 
mistake. The first three stages are, as above said, from Mount Ida to / 
the island of Lemnos, from Lemnos to Athos, from Athos to the highest 
point of Euboea. The distances are for the first two stages about 
sixty miles, for the third stage nearly a hundred miles. It is needless to 
prove that beacons at these intervals would be useless, useless under any 
circumstances, and although we should not throw in, as Aeschylus would 
appear to do, the special facility of a tremendous storm, raging in the 
very region of the longest transit. Let it be supposed (and it is an 
outside supposition) that in the atmosphere of the Mediterranean, 
on a night perfectly clear, a bonfire one hundred miles away might 
be made out with certainty. What would be the use of a signal, 
intended to operate at some unknown time in the course of the year, 
if it were so arranged as to be defeated by the slightest haze at any 
point in a traject of one hundred miles? Did then the Athenian 

* Not however all ; see Paley. 


audience not know these distances and their relation to the visibility 
of a beacon ? How could they possibly fail to know the facts, and to 
have such a vivid consciousness of them as could not for an instant be 
put by? Euboea, the terminus of the most prodigious leap, was 
geographically and politically almost part of Attica itself. Athos, the 
starting-point of the leap, lay right in the eye of Athenian policy and 
trade, always specially directed to the north and north-west of the 
Aegaean. The people were essentially a people of seamen. When 
the Agamemnon was produced they had been engaged for twenty years 
in a struggle for the naval dominion of those very seas, a struggle upon 
which depended most of their wealth and all their national importance. 
They were familiar with beacons in peace and in war, and used them, 
as of course everywhere else, in Euboea, to signal to Skiathos, a 
-distance of some twelve miles*. The statement that a beacon-signal 
was transmitted in the midst of a storm from Athos to Euboea stood 
to the knowledge and habits of Athens then in much the same relation 
as the statement that a steamer ran across the Atlantic in one day would 
stand to the knowledge and habits of Liverpool now. 

And here again, as in the matter of time, the story is not merely 
absurd in fact, but wilfully and as it were purposely absurd. If the 
geographical facts were to the poet perfectly indifferent, why is he at 
such pains to be precise? Nothing would have been easier or more 
natural, in a mere exercise of the imagination, than to leave the details 
in some obscurity, to start the signals upon a more or less practicable 
route, and then to fetch the matter off with generalities. But Aeschylus 
leaves not a loop-hole ; and when he comes to the most miraculous part 
of the story (z;. 298) he is careful to give our incredulity a jog. 

But if the defects of the fable are glaring (and on this enough seems 
to have been said) they are also extremely dangerous. What is the 
real opinion of modem critics on this point, the critics themselves show 
by a testimony more telling than any direct condemnation, by ignoring 
and, as far as possible, concealing the facts. No one, as I have already 
said, ventures to tell, as it is received, the story of the play. As an 
example I purposely choose (for the criticism is in no way personal) a 
book to which I am much indebted, the edition of Mr Sidgwick. 
*The action of the play in details,' says Mr Sidgwick in his Introduction, 
* is as follows : — 

Agamemnon has been absent for ten years at Troy. Meanwhile his wife 
Klytaemnestra has been ruling Argos in conjunction with her lover Aegisthos. 

^ Herod. 7, i8a. 


The news of the capture of Troy is daily expected, and the play opens with 
the appearance of the night-watchman on the roof, waiting (as he has been for 
a year past) for the beacon fire which is to announce the victory. While the 
watchman is complaining of his trouble, the flame flashes out, and he goes to tell his 
inbtress (Prologue). The chorus enter and sing : meanwhile the queen comes out and 
is seen lighting the altar fires and preparing for a festal display in honour of the 
event. The leader of the chorus learns from her the tidings, and after describing the 
beacon-race, she imagines the scene in Troy and expresses a hope that all will end 
well (Scene I). After another ckoric song the Herald appears, who describes first the 
sufferings before Troy, and finally the storm which scattered the fleet; the queen 
sends by him a welcome to her lord (Scene i). In Scene 3 Agamemnon rcturtis with 
Kassandra etc.* 

Now could it possibly occur to any one upon reading this — more 
especially if he happened to know that Aeschylus, like a modem 
dramatist, did not limit his plots to any special period of time — but 
with or without this information could any one suspect from the above, 
that all these events are represented as occurring within a few hours ? 
Should we not assume, and is it not indeed tacitly implied, that the 
action of the Agamemnon^ like that of its continuation, the Eumenides, is 
divided ; and that the necessary lapse of time between these * scenes ' is 
either expressly noticed, as in the Eutnenides^ or left open to our imagi- 
nation? But is this what the editor means? On the contrary, long 
afterwards in the course of the notes we come upon the following, 
* 504. Observe that the herald arrives from Troy, announcing the 
landing of Agamemnon, immediately after the beacon fires, on the 
morning after the capture. Such violations of possibility were held 
quite allowable by the license of dramatic poetry.' This last statement 
shall be considered presently. But first let us ask why, if this violation 
of possibility is so simple and so common, it should not be exhibited in 
the commentary with the same frankness as in the play ? Why is * the 
action of the play in details * so described as to suppress a feature which 
we are to observe, and why is the like device adopted, as it is, by one 
writer after another ? It is prompted by the instinct of self-preservation. 
The expositor, loyally identifying himself with the author, feels that, 
whatever he may say about dramatic license, the reader will as a fact 
be repelled at starting by the wanton perversity of the fiction ; and he 
screens it accordingly. How is it that no similar apprehension occurred 
to the dramatist ? 

For as to the statement that on the Athenian stage * such violations 
of possibility were held quite allowable,' I must take leave to say that it 
is not only without evidence, but altogether contrary to the evidence. 
There is no example * such ' or approximately such ; and the theoretic 


treatise of Aristotle on the drama remains to prove, what the extant 
plays confirm, that the Athenian public, so far from being indiflferent 
to consistency, attached to it an importance much greater than the 
modems, and more perhaps than is reasonable. And observe further, 
that the successors of Aeschylus had a temptation, and so far an excuse, 
for taking liberties in the matter of time, which Aeschylus himself had 
not After Aeschylus * the unity of time ', that is, the restriction of the 
play to a continuous action or, as it is sometimes put, to an action 
* within one day ', grew into a practice and apparently into something 
like a rule. It is not always observed ; the Supplices of Euripides, for 
example, does not conform to it, nor does the Andromache, But there 
was a tendency to observe it ; and the tendency produced, as it was 
sure to do, some questionable treatment of this artificial *day', though 
neither Sophocles nor Euripides, nor any one else that I know of, ever 
presents us with a * day ' like that of the Agamemnon, But Aeschylus 
did not observe the practice at all. The second scene of the Eumemdes 
is separated from the first by an interval of months, if not of years*. 
If therefore he wished to bring into one play the fall of Troy and the 
return of the Greeks, he had no need to appeal to any dramatic license, 
nor any temptation to distort the facts. His successors could not have 
done so consistently with their usual practice, and probably would 
not have thought it desirable. But to account for the supposed 
structure of the Agamemnon^ we must assume that Aeschylus, who 
ignores the * unity' in the third play of the trilogy, adopted it for the 
first play in this self-contradictory form, that the action of one play 
ought nominally to fall within one day, but that in this May' may 
happen whatever events we please. I think it may safely be asserted 
that such a theory was never professed by any author or critic whatever. 
As I see no reason to think that the popular mind in the time of 
Aeschylus was in this respect very different from the popular mind 
now, I will offer a Socratic parallel, not the less just because it is 
homely. — Scene : A room in London. Time : Early morning. Servants 
discovered preparing the room. From their conversation it appears that 
the master of the house has been for some time in Africa, and that the 
conduct of his wife, in relation to a person too often received, is 
causing them much anxiety and a strong desire for the master's return. 
They have learnt with satisfaction that their mistress is expecting soon 
to hear that he is on the way home. A telegram arrives for the lady, 

^ See the description of Orestes' intermediate wanderings, Bum, w* 139 — 341, 
a84— 5. 454—5- 


who presently appears and informs ihem that it is from het husband, 
and was despatched last night from Lake Nyanza. Being asked by a 
servant whether there is a telegraph at the Lake, she explains that the 
wires have just been extended so far by the result of her husband's 
enterprise. He intends to tetum forthwith. She wonders what sort 
of breakfast he is having in Africa, and hopes that he will not meet 
with any accident on the road back. The table is laid, and the lady 
is sitting down to it, when there is a ring at the bell. Enter the 
husband's courier, who announces that his master is detained for a few 
minutes at the terminus, but is coming immediately. He dilates 
upon the discomforts of the Overland route and the breaking-down 
of an Italian train. The husband follows accordingly. He describes 
the success of his explorations. The lady receives him with rapture 
but without any surprise. In conversation with him she says nothing 
of the telegram, nor he to her. And so ends the first scene. — Now at 
this point of the story we might either know the key to the riddle (if 
the author were dramatizing a popular novel) or we might wait for 
the solution in the sequel. But what would be the bewilderment and 
the dismay of the audience if it should prove that there was no 
solution, and that the mysterious telegram, introduced with so much 
circumiitance, had no bearing on the story whatever ! I submit that 
this is not the way in which the crowns of the drama may be won, and 
that the most rigorous proof should be required before we assume 
that it ever was. 

And so we come to our third point, that these glaring and dangerous 
defects of construction are also useless and gratuitous. After ail, this is 
perhaps the chief matter. The imagination will work for very moderate 
wages ; but it does expect to be paid something, and a little extra for 
over-lime. There is perhaps no limit, there is certainly no ascertainable 
limit, to what men will grant to a narrator in the way of supposition, so 
long as he justifies the concession by making use of it and gives interest 
for the loan, or in plain words, so long as the supposition is required 
by the story. A classical example is the story of Oedipus^ ; but in fact 
almost every story illustrates in some degree this principle of criticism, 
and the readers of fiction arc appl>-ing it every day. If a romancer were 
to declare that a whole fleet was wafted, spirited, or what you will, five 
hundred miles in five minutes, and if out of this fiction were developed 
Incidents of interest requiring the supposition, it is quite possible that 

' See the remarks of Professor Jcbb in his Introduclian 1o the Oedipus Tyrannus, 



his audience or his readers might be perfectly content. But the wild 
assumptions debited to the Aganumnon explain nothing, lead to nothing, 
serve nothing. If the circumstances of time and place were as natural 
as they are in fact prodigious, the supposed story would still be a 
marvel of discontinuity. I^t any one suppose the opening scenes of 
the play, as far as the entrance of the herald, to have survived as a 
fragment ; let him notice the striking incidents which centre up>on 
the announcement of the beacon-message, the night alarm, the amaze- 
ment of the elders, their vain attempt to get more information from the 
queen, their open incredulity; and then let him consider how he would 
have conceived the lost remainder. Why does the poet occupy us 
with the beacons at all? When with all this expense of falsehood the 
king is at last brought upon the stage, and the play, which is now 
nearing its middle, begins for the first time to be connectedly intel- 
ligible, all the preliminary apparatus, as we have already said, is simply 
neglected. Nay more, the only fact which emerges, if anything does, 
from the perplexity of the introduction — that the king in some un- 
explained manner came home with astonishing speed and arrived 
almost as soon as he was announced — , so far from accounting for the 
sequel, greatly aggravates the difficulties of a narrative, which could ill 
afford the increase. 

Almost every fine story, and in particular almost every story 
suitable for the stage, contains a certain element of essential improba- 
bility. Contrast, so important in dramatic effect, will generally require 
surprising incidents, and what is surprising cannot be altogether likely. 
The story of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra is no exception to this 
general rule. It is not impossible, but it is essentially improbable, 
that a powerful monarch, returning from a great and glorious ex- 
pedition, should be murdered by his wife and her paramour, and that 
the murderers should not only escape immediate punishment, but 
should usurp the throne and establish themselves in possession. It 
would be much in such a case if the guilty pair could save themselves 
by a prompt flight from the vengeance of the triumphant husband. 
That in the very moment of his new strength and popularity they should 
actually overthrow him and take his place is a thing which only under the 
most peculiarly favourable circumstances could either happen or seem 
credible. The first task therefore of a narrator, who for the sake of 
the striking situation should undertake to present such a story, must be 
to create these circumstances, and upon his skill in doing this his 
success, if he were a dramatist, must in the first instance largely depend. 
For however it may be with the student or the reader, a popular 


audience cares first of all for the story, and is not to be put off with 
profundity of thought, or splendour of language, or sounding rhythm, or 
with all of these things together. 

Now it will be allowed that in the Agamemnon^ as commonly 
read, the mechanism of the story has received from the author 
no consideration at all. According to Aeschylus, it would seem 
that for an adulteress to kill her king and husband upon a day of 
triumph, and to raise her paramour to the throne, is an enterprise 
too plainly facile to require any explanation of the means. Of 
course the returning monarch will have no suspicions and receive 
no warning ; of course, however abruptly he may arrive, he will find 
all prepared for the deed; of course when he has fallen, any slight 
mutiny on the part of his soldiers or subjects will be instantly and 
easily suppressed. But that Aeschylus should have been content to 
treat the matter thus is remarkable, not only from the general conditions 
of theatrical art, but for two more particular reasons. It is odd that if 
he really did not care, and did not expect any one to care, how the 
events came about, he should become scrupulous in explanation just 
at the point where the story is simplest, at the actual striking of the 
murderous stroke. If, in defiance of likelihood, we once suppose 
the king to walk ignorant and unsuspicious into the palace where, to 
the knowledge of his faithful servants and subjects \ his queen is living 
in adultery, we can imagine a hundred ways in which the wife, if so 
minded, might compass his death. Yet the poet exactly describes the 
very peculiar device by which the murderess made sure that her victim 
should have, as she says, 'neither defence nor escape' (v, 1380). 
Strange that he should have regarded this, and disregarded the only 
real and pressing questions, how she got her chance and how she 
secured her impunity ! And again it is odd, that even if the tragedian 
did not observe for himself that in such a case the preparatory conditions 
must be a vital part of the plot, he should not have recognized this 
when it had been emphasized long before by the original narrators of 
the story. 

The version of the legend current at the date of the Odyssey is there 
given incidentally several times'. According to this, Aegisthus, the 
lover of Clytaemnestra, wooed her during the absence of Agamemnon, 
and with much difficulty induced her to quit the house of her husband 
for his own. Upon the return of the king Aegisthus bade him to a feast, 
and there treacherously fell upon him and slew him, Clytaemnestra 

* w. 37, 610, etc 

' Od, I. 35 foil, 3. 147 foil., 4. 511 foil., II. 405 foil. 


assisting. The narration given in Book xi by the ghost of Agamemnon 
also introduces the presence and death of the captive Cassandra. Now 
we have but to read these references to see at once, that the rhapsodists 
in their construction of the story were principally occupied with the 
question, how such a thing could possibly come about, how the king 
could arrive at the house of Aegisthus uninformed of his wife's infidelity, 
and why his death was not prevented or instantly avenged by his com- 
panions in arms. The two most elaborate recitals, those in the Third 
and the Fourth Books, relate almost entirely to these points ; and in 
the Third Book the problem is formally propounded. ' How,' asks Tele- 
machus of Nestor very pertinently, *was the imperial Agamemnon 
slain? Where was Menelaus? And by what cunning did Aegisthus 
contrive the death of one far mightier than himself ? ' The first question, 
how the king came to be at the moment comparatively helpless, is 
thereupon answered by Nestor, who relates how a storm divided and in 
great part destroyed the returning host. Of this we need say Httle now, 
as this part of the story is adopted by Aeschylus and will appear 
presently in its place. The second and principal question, what means 
Aegisthus used and how they came to be successful, is answered by the 
narrative of Proteus in the Fourth Book. There we learn that Aegisthus 
after the seduction, lest Agamemnon should reach home unobserved 
and learning the facts should fall upon the seducer by surprise, set a 
watch to look out for him, whose vigilance was prompted by a great 
bribe. He continued to watch for a year before the king returned, 
when an accident rewarded this precaution with undesigned and 
extraordinary success. The same storm, which scattered the fleet, so 
carried the king's ship out of its course, that he was thankful to land 
not at home but upon Aegisthus' domain, near the very castle to which 
he had carried Clytaemnestra. (It is plain, that in the circumstances 
supposed by Homer this accident offers the only condition under which 
Agamemnon could possibly be taken unawares.) Aegisthus, apprised 
by his watchman and seizing the opportunity, invited the king and his 
companions to a pretended feast of welcome, at which they were 
treacherously slain. It is noteworthy that the bard, so full is he of the 
feeling that to fall upon the veterans of Troy, with whatever advantage, 
was a hazardous feat, after saying that not one of the king's followers 
was left, adds grimly that not one of the assassins was left either. 

Now between Homer and Aeschylus the story, as we see, has 
essentially changed. In Aeschylus the murder takes place at the king's 
house where the queen is still ruling, and it is she who plays the deceptive 
part. Much has been said, and much that is true, on the moral and 


spiritual aspects of this change, and on the motives of this kind which 
would commend it to the tragedian \ But there were also other reasons 
simpler and more imperative, why the Homeric version should not have 
been followed entirely by subsequent narrators, and especially upon the 
Athenian stage. Without a strong effort of historic imagination, such 
as no dramatist would willingly require of a popular audience, the 
Homeric tale could not have been realised. It might pass very well in 
the antique and consecrated epic, but to expose it in an unfamiliar 
dress to the ' faithful witness of the eye ' would have been in the days of 
Aeschylus a bold effort indeed. The Homeric story demands for its 
reception the Homeric mind, and that in two respects. First, in the 
supposed condition of society and, if the word is applicable, of politics. 
As conceived by the bard, the whole issue lies between the households 
and retainers of two chieftains. The lady of Agamemnon leaves her 
husband's castle for that of Aegisthus. Between the two families this is 
a deadly breach, but there the rupture ends. What would become of 
Agamemnon's government upon the flight of his imperial regent, and 
how the state and the people would be affected and behave, are 
questions which do not arise, simply because among the independent 
nobles, to whom the story was sung, no such questions would 
actually have arisen. But how should they not suggest themselves, if 
the story was to be presented visibly and in modernized language before 
a great democracy, to whom the administration of government was a 
daily familiar problem ? And secondly, the epic tale depends still more 
strictly and necessarily upon the primitive isolation of places. To the 
bard and his hearers it seemed natural, or at any rate within the license 
of fiction, that Clytaemnestra in the Peloponnese should have been 
living for a year in the house of her lover, and that her husband should 
still return from the Troad ignorant of anything wrong. And the 
audience of Homer might very well think so. With such communica- 
tion between the places as they knew, they might well suppose that an 
expedition sent from Argos to Troy, if such a thing were to be imagined, 
would for the time be totally cut off from home and news of home. 
But how was this to pass in the middle of the fifth century ? Would 
the mass of Athenian spectators, accustomed to hear news from Sigeum 
every week, readily conceive this situation, and was it worth while to risk 
anything upon their readiness ? Aeschylus at any rate makes no such 
attempt. On the contrary, by a natural compromise with the habitual 
ideas of his own time, he supposes such a possibility of communication 

1 See for example the excellent introduction to Enger's edition. 


between Troy and Argos that sometimes the very ashes of t!ie dead were 
sent home for burial'. It is needless lo look further for reasons why he 
should not have placed the queen in the house of Aegisihus ; and the 
same reflexion, we may add, should make us very slow to assume, as we 
commonly do, that he has jilaced Aegisthus in the palace or even in 
the realm of Clytaemnestra. 

Aeschylus then, or the predecessors whom he followed, in adapting 
the Homeric tradition to the expectations of their public, could not but 
drop the incident upon which in Homer the whole mechanism of the story 
depends. But neither surely could they drop it without compensation. 
The story of Aegisthus and Clytaemnestra is essentially the story of a 
daring venture, which against all probability and by the favour of 
circumstances succeeded. The epic bard, after the fashion expected 
of him, provides the circumstances. With the change of manners and 
knowledge this fashion became unsuitable; and the difficulty of saving 
the situation at all was increased in many ways too obvious to be speci- 
fied. The problem then standing thus, how does the Aeschylean 
narrative deal with it? The Homeric solution being discarded, what 
solution does Aeschylus provide ? Absolutely, if we are to accept 
the interpretation of the Byzantine critics, no solution ot attempted 
solution at all. It is hard to say whether the story, as they would 
reconstruct it, is more amazing in what it affirms or in what it ignores. 
To the quesrion, the inevitable question, of the Homeric Telemachus, 
' How was the imperial Agamemnon slain, and by what cunning device 
was he overpowered?' the answer of Aeschylus, we are to understand, 
would have been this, 'Clytaemnestra entangled him in a balh-drapety 
made for the purpose'! 

We will now rapidly follow the action, from the point where we left 
it to pursue this criticism. Our difficulties will not disappear or 
diminish as we proceed. It is true that all that part of the drama 
which lies between the entrance of Agamemnon and the entrance of 
Aegisthus, though perplexing in the highest degree if considered in 
connexion with what precedes or in reference to the unprovided 
requirements of the situation, does not offer, if taken by itself, any 
obstacle sufficient to mar its magnificent and astounding effect The 
exit of the king, the whole part of Cassandra, the whole scene between 
the (|ueen and the elders after Ihe murder are such as it would be 
impertinent to praise. Upon this part of the play, something less than 
l_half of it, regarded practically as an independent piece, now reposes 

S foil. 


the whole reputation of the drama considered as a drama. Indeed the 
author of the Greek Introduction in the MS., whose ideas respecting 
the plot as a whole we are content to borrow, is on this point candid 
enough. * This part of the play/ he coolly says, after describing the 
exits of the king and of Cassandra, ' is admired, as astonishing and 
sufficiently pathetic' It would be easy to show that this significant 
expressio untus represents also the opinion of the modems, and that, 
notwithstanding the rich beauties of the whole, every one more or 
less openly wonders, why the magnificent central picture and the 
exquisitely carven frame should be so ill fitted to each other. 

For with the entrance of Aegisthus the difficulty begins again. It 
even becomes so great that it cannot be tolerated, and the knot has to 
be cut by change of the text. Nowhere is it more apparent than in the 
finale, how much the dramadst relied for the exposition of the story 
upon the visible action and upon the previous knowledge of the 
spectators, how imperfect as a narrative are the mere speeches and 
odes by themselves, and how serious a task for us, who have neither 
stage-directions nor authoritative preface, is the reconstruction of the 
indispensable remainder. We find Aegisthus speaking upon the stage ; 
but how he comes there, where he comes fi'om, and how his appearance 
is connected with the action up to this point, are questions not to be 
answered by the mere perusal of what is said. So much however is plain 
(and admitted), that language is used which cannot be reconciled with 
the current conception of the story. According to Aeschylus, it is 
supposed, the overthrow of Agamemnon is entirely the work of 
Clytaemnestra. Her paramour, being, as the Argives tell him, a dastard, 
remains hidden in the palace or neighbourhood, and appears only to 
exult when the deed is done. (Why he should have run the enormous 
risk of being there at all, if he had no part to play, and whether his 
conduct is not even more foolish than cowardly, are questions which 
might occur to us in passing.) But this being so, it is strange that 
Aegisthus should not only attribute the success to himself, but applaud 
himself vehemently for the ingenuity by which it was attained : and it 
passes comprehension that the Argive elders should take him at his 
own valuation as the principal agent, and should speak of the queen, 
( the sole agent, as having merely * joined in ' the plan. * It was I,* says 
\ Aegisthus, *who combined and contrived all the difficult plot*.* What 
i plot? There is no plot. There is no combination or contrivance at 
alL The king comes to his palace, the queen (how could she less?) 

* w. 1604 — 1609. 


pretending to welcome him. His first act, as a matter of course, is to 
take the accustomed lustral bath preparatory to sacrifice. The queen, 
attending him, envelopes him after the bath with an entangling drapery 
provided for the occasion, and then in this helpless condition butchers 
him with an axe. Where is the contrivance? The peculiar drapery? 
Truly a most ingenious combination. Is it not obvious that if we 
ignore all the real difficulties of the enterprise, if we suppose the king 
to arrive uninformed and unsuspicious in the kingdom where his queen 
had long entertained his bitterest foe, if we suppose that a victorious 
general had no friends in the country willing or able to avenge him, 
the actual killing might be done by anybody at almost any time and 
without the slightest difficulty ? That his wife should slay him at the 
lustration, and should have his drapery so made as to entangle him, 
might show in her a fiendish cruelty and a cold-blooded precaution; 
but would he have lived and prospered if the drapery had been of the 
common make ? Truly a profound and an admirable combination ! 

Yet the Argive elders are quite satisfied. They at once recognize 
Aegisthus as the contriver and prime agent of the scheme, and all they 
have to ask is, why then he did not act without the queen. * Why, as it 
was thy plot, why, coward, didst thou hot do the butchery alone? 
Why join his wife with thee? Why, to the defilement of our land 
and our gods, must she be his murderer*?' 

Tt Ojy Tov avbpa rovd aTro iyv)(rj^ kokt)^ 
ovK avTos ijvopt^cs, aXAa (rvv ywrjy 
\(opas fuaafxa kol 0€iDV cy^oipiW, 
cKTCivc ; 

And here no disguise is possible. Every one sees that this language, 
with the emphatic otJv, is not such as could reasonably be addressed to 
one who had merely lain by, while the wife directed and performed the 
whole. Accordingly avv is condemned as an error, to be replaced by 
(ro^ viv, or other palliatives*. We will not here stop to discuss this 
device, nor will we go further, as might be done, in pressing the 
acknowledged difficulties which affect the received exposition of the 
drama as a whole. Sufficient, in my judgment, has been said to show 
that the text, as it remains to us, without the explanations furnished to 
the audience by the action upon the stage and by the current version of 

* znf, 1633 — 1646. fore almost certainly in the Medueus. 

* It is worth notice that we have the That it should have been wrongly in- 
authority of the Venetus as well as serted by a copyist is technically most 
the Florentinus for 01^, which was there- improbable. 


the story, which they previously knew, presents a difficult problem, to 
be solved, if at all, by the reconstruction of the action and of the story 
which Aeschylus presupposed as known, and that as a solution of this 
problem the hypothesis of the Byzantine editors is quite unworthy 
of consideration, that it is in fact no solution whatever. It does not 
give a rational account of the facts or make the purpose of the author 
intelligible. We will turn rather to the positive and perhaps more 
fruitful side of the enquiry. 

As a preliminary we will notice two or three salient points, which 
may serve to indicate the direction in which we should strike off. The 
first of these indications meets us, as if placed for the purpose (and indeed 
it is) at the very threshold of the play. The watchman upon the 
palace-roof, whose duty it is to look for the beacon announcing the fall 
of Troy, informs us in his first words that this outlook has been kept 
nightly y^r a year. Why for a year? Are we to understand that, when 
the war had already run eight or nine years, the king and queen, having 
hitherto thought the ordinary communications sufficient, suddenly 
established the beacons ? It cannot be by accident that this * year-long 
watch ' exactly reproduces one feature in the story of Homer \ In 
Homer the watchman of Aegisthus had been expecting Agamemnon ' for 
a year '. These words of Aeschylus, compared with the epic narrative, 
are in themselves enough to suggest and almost to raise a presumption, 
that in the Aeschylean narrative also the design of Aegisthus and 
Clytaemnestra had been on foot for a year, and that the outlook kept by 
the watchman was closely connected with this design. 

And for a second guiding-line, let us look again at the very remark- 
able speech of the queen which follows her description of the beacons 
and shortly precedes the entry of Agamemnon's herald *. It is remark- 
able, as already observed, as directing our attention to the fact that, if 
the preceding story be true, the Greeks must be still in Troy. It is even 
more remarkable as showing, on the part of Clytaemnestra, a power of 
unconscious divination which Cassandra might have envied. She makes, 
it is true, the very natural mistake of supposing that the Greeks are in 
Troy; but on the other hand how wonderfully does she forecast the 
rest of their story I Except that she does not anticipate (small blame 
to her prophecy) the compression of the events into one night, her 
divination is perfect. She fears that the Greek army, not content with 
their legitimate triumph, may be tempted to plunder the sacred 
treasures of Troy. They have actually done so. She points out that 

* Od. 4. 516. * V. 331. 

V. .€. A. C 


such impiety might expose them to the chastisement of the gods in the 
course of the voyage home. They have actually suffered such a 
chastisement. The queen, in short, knows so much that it becomes an 
interesting enquiry how much exactly she knows, and what is the source 
of her knowledge. 

And for the third indication let us turn to the continuation of the 
story, to the moment in the Choepkoriy when Orestes has entered the 
palace to execute his vengeance, when the murderers of Agamemnon 
are about * to be slain by stratagem even as they slew'.* It is thus that 
the chorus, expectant without, sum up the issue to be decided. *Now 
either shall the bloody violence of the murderous cuxes make an end 
utterly and altogether of Agamemnon's house : or else Orestes, burning 
a fire and a light for liberation and lawful rule^ shall win again the 
high prosperity of his fathers.' It is plain that in the first part of the 
alternative the metaphor of the axes is chosen for its reference to the 
manner of Agamemnon's death. What was it that suggested in the 
second alternative the choice of the far from obvious metaphor of a 
fire ? Certainly nothing in the plan of Orestes himself as given us in 
the Choephori. Is it not at least a fair prima facie conjecture that this 
also refers to the former plan of his enemies ; and that the restoration 
of the lawful monarchy is likened to the lighting of a fire for liberty, 
because by the lighting of a fire for tyranny it had been formerly 
overthrown? But if this is so, we must revise our reading of the 

Setting out upon the line thus indicated we might proceed in two 
ways. Either we might re-examine the play throughout and draw 
at each point conclusions as to the facts or the dramatic a£tion^ as 
distinct from the mere words, which the text assumes. Or, anticipating 
the conclusion, we may first sketch the story continuously, as we 
suppose it might have been told in outline, before the play was 
performed, by any one who knew the version current at the time in 
Athens, and may then justify our * hypothesis ' by explaining from it the 
construction of the play. We will take rather the second way, as 
putting the narrative and the dramatic version in their true order, and 
will begin with a hypothetical narrative. But in doing this we shall not 
attempt a distinction, for which there are no materials, between the 
general outline which the poet took from current legend and the minor 
details which he may have introduced himself 

^ Cho. 853 : see also ih. 887. 


The Narrative. 


By Divine Providence it is appointed that sin shall tend to make 
more sin, and in the end that sin shall bring fbrtii punishment. The 
fall of Agamemnon was ihe consequence of the sin of his father, seconded 
in its effect by further sin of his own. His father Atreus, by a horrible 
crime, brought upon his family an unappeasable enmity and the curse of 
heaven. Divine interference, punishing this crime in the son, exposed 
him to a temptation which he had not the virtue to resist. The sin of 
Agamemnon added to the enmity bequeathed by his father another 
enmity persona! to himself, and the two joined together for his ruin. 

The starting-point of the story is the Thyestean feast. Thyestes, 
brother of Atreus, having corrupted his wife and disputed his throne. 
and having been banished from Argos, endeavoured by throwing himself 
upon his brother's mercy lo obtain restoration. Atreus pretended to 
welcome him and to celebrate his return by a feast, at which two of 
Thyestes' children were served as food to their father, and he was made 
to eat of it unawares. Thyestes, in the agony of the discovery, devoted 
the accursed house 'to perish in like manner', overturning the table 
with his foot as a symbol of his prayer. With his remaining child, 
Aegisthus, he was then sent again into banishment 

Upon Agamemnon, the son of Atreus, who with his brother 
Menelaus succeeded to the throne, the curse began to work its effect 
on the occasion of the expedition to Troy. The anger of heaven 
against the family delayed with contrary winds the assembled fleet ', 
until the seers suggested to the kings as a propitiation the sacrifice of 
Agamemnon's daughter, Iphigenia. To this wicked act the father at 
last consented, and from this time was pursued by the hatred of his wife 
Clylaemnestra as well as that of the still- banished Aegisthus. During 
the expedition Argos was governed by Clylaemnestra, supported by 
those elders who necessarily remained at home. 

Where Aegisthus was spending his exile, and at what lime he first 
conceived that in the absence of the king and the wrath of the queen 
he might find the opportunity of restoration and revenge, we do not 
learn, nor is it material. It is implied that he did visit Argos, not of 
course openly, and so prevailed with the queen, that she was ready 
to be his accomphce, if occasion served. With many dramatists, with 
Euripides for example, it would have been a main point in such a 


situation to show precisely how in the union of Agamemnon's enemies 
Love and Hatred 

(wcufioTrfcraVy ovrc? lyBuTTOi to vpLv, 

But the analysis of the passions was no part of the Aeschylean drama, 
and the apportionment of the two motives is left undetermined, the less 
intimate and sentimental being placed in the foreground. 

But the guilty coalition of Aegisthus and Clytaemnestra was so far 

from securing the punishment of their common enemy, that it was 

scarcely so much as a step towards it. It is needless to enquire, and 

perhaps the poet could scarcely have told us, exactly what institutions he 

represented to himself as the *free and lawful government* of ancient 

Argos \ Doubtless some such limited monarchy, supported and balanced 

by the influence of privileged councillors and by the popular will, as the 

Athenians attributed to their own Theseus, such as their stage exhibits, 

for example, in the Oedipus at Coionus, and as their historian asserts to 

have been the primitive model all over Hellas *. But at any rate in no 

state, not even the rudest despotism, — and that the Argos of this drama 

is not a despotism, we are expressly told' — could the alliance of the 

queen-regent with a broken exile give her the power, any more than the 

right, to assail with impunity the person or throne of the monarch, 

whether present or absent, so long as his subjects were loyal to him. A 

speedy success at Troy and a triumphant return would have made 

Agamemnon safe. But the vengeance of Heaven was not to be thus 

eluded. At the setting forth of the army it was prophesied, that 

though for the sin of Paris Troy was destined to fall, yet by the evil 

genius of the Atridae her fall should be long delayed*. It was the 

length of the war which wrought the king's ruin, and made at last an 

opening through which his enemies struck home. 

In two ways marked by the dramatist the authority of the royal 
brothers in Argos was shaken by this protracted contest. First, by the 
mere change of persons. The departing army left behind them those too 
old for war and those too young, the elders and the boys. During the 
ten years the elders were passing away or sinking into dotage, the boys 
were growing up, and all to the disadvantage of the house of Atreus. 
Among the elders naturally was to be found most personal devotion 
to the princes and most attachment to established power. It is this 
party, if we may so call them, Agamemnon's natural friends and 

* ik€V$tpla dpxal re To\nr<roy6/ioi. TarpiKal ^ourtXeiai. 
Cho, 863. See also Ag, 835 foil. a v, 1353. 

' Thuc. I. 13, ^ew hrX ^Tjrots yipaa * w. 115 — 145. 


couDcJIIors, which is represenled by the feeble and anxious remnant, 
who form the principal chorus of the play; and the poet has spared no 
pains to expose their weakness '. As we shall see, the very crisis of the 
action turns upon their inevitable defect in quickness, decision, and 
courage. Meanwhile the generation coming up was far from compensa- 
ting in loyalty fot the generation going down. As more and more lives 
were sacrificed to the revenge of Menelaus, discontent grew deeper and 
wider ; until at last, before tlie end came, the friends of the king, seeing 
the course of affairs, yel not daring to interfere, acknowledged to 
themselves that all was ripe for an outbreak against the government 
Powerless already, they lived in constant fear of some dark design, and 
began to look with desi>t;rate eagerness for the king's return'. 

Meanwhile the queen and the partner of her guilt were using and 
aiding the natural course of events. How much the king's friends knew, 
or how much they suspected, of the queen's unfaithfulness, the dramatist 
nowhere determines, nor would anything have been gained dramatically, 
but much lost, by doing so. In such a case the question of moment is 
not so much what is known or suspected, but much rather what cannot 
be ignored and what is publicly acknowledged. It is plain from the 
whole course of the play that the correspondence and intimacy of 
Clytaemneslra with Aegisthus remained lo the last at least a pretended 
secret, not an open scandal". Upon any other supposition the behaviour 
of the ciders, tiie king's devoted subjects, towards the queen in the 
early part of the play and towards the king at his return, is inconceivable, 
and indeed the whole story is palpably impossible. We are directed 
to supfiose that by the end of the war the repute of Clytaemnestra had 
reached that only too familiar stage, when a wife's adultery is known to 
every one and proclaimed by no one, and when those know least or 
speak least of it who are most nearly interested but, expecting yet 
weakly dreading the discovery, still say to themselves with the Argive 

iroXni TO airfo.v t^ap/iaKov ^Xa^ij^ c;^u). 

Down to the day of the king's return Aegisthus was still nominally, as 
well as legally, a banished man, coming and going of course more and 

' IT. 73-83 and /aii»«. 

" ill. 437— 4S0. and w- 543— SSi- ""-' 
liral a passage of great imporlanct, in 
wKich this pari of the stoiy is efTcclively 
tamined up. 

' 'AegUthos und Klytamnestra schlieii- 
sen iwar cinen Bund, allein «r muss, wenn 

die List gelingcn sull, vor dei Welt ge- 
helm Eehalten werden.' Enger, Eixlei- 
luHg. This i! perfectly true ; but if 
CIyla<^mne!ilTa had recalled from banish- 
ment her huFiband's hereditary enemy, 
what coDCealmenl could any longer be 
pretended ? 


more frcHiuently as the hopes of the exiles and the malcontents rose, 
while the other side still maintained the politic fiction of his absence. 
On the fatal morning itself he was actually not in the Argolid. Where 
he was, and where for a long while past he had spent the intervals 
between his visits, the story is presently to discover. Meanwhile all 
that the loyal elders knew and acknowledged to themselves respecting 
the dangerous state of the popular mind was naturally transmitted to 
their master*. Nor was it possible but that with these reports a 
messenger less discreet or more courageous than the rest should 
sometimes whisper a more dark insinuation. Both the knowledge and 
the suspicion thus communicated determine, and are necessary to 
account for, the language held by Agamemnon during his brief 
appearance before the palace-gate. 

But the fears of the seniors would have been much more cruel, and 
their representations more outspoken, if they had known but half the 
truth. They perceived that the common indignation against the war 
offered a ready bond for a conspiracy*; they were not aware that the 
fiercer spirits were already bound in a plot, and waited only to deter- 
mine by circumstances how and when they should strike. To explain 
the sequel we will state so much as the story presumes to be known 
respecting the geography of the place. The Argolid or iroXis "k^rfov^ is 
a plain opening southwards upon a deep bay of the sea, and enclosed 
on the other sides by mountains. The mountains to the N. E. of the 
plain are continued southwards in a great promontory forming the 
eastern side of the bay, and northwards into a mass of hills which 
extends as far as the Isthmus of Corinth. This whole chain was a 
lonely region, and had an evil reputation in legend and fact as a haunt 
of outlaws and robbers '. Nearest to the town of Argos, on the site of 
which Aeschylus, disregarding the tradition attesting the earlier strength 
of Tiryns and of Mycenae, has placed the fortified seat of the Atridae*, 
lay Mount Arachnaeus, the Spider- Mountain^ whose quaint name 
suggested more than one fanciful application, and not improbably 
gave the first hint for the story which Aeschylus followed*. Here, 
amid the web of hills and spurs, upon the edge of the forbidden land, 
lay Aegisthus in hiding with such power as he could make and fed 
himself, as he tells us, with the exile's bread of expectation ". Here 

* V, 8ii. Rambles in Greece^ chap. xiii. p. 355. 

' V. 463. * See the twice repeated v, 1493, and 

* See the story of Theseus and Peri- note, 
phetes. ^ V. 1668. 

* See a note on this by Prof. Mahaffy, 


was the fittest place from which to watch the communications of Argos 
by sea and land with the army in the far east ; and hence it was easy, 
when the moment should come, to signal either by day or by night to 
his partizans in the castle and throughout the country. Supposing all 
for the best, a hard enough task lay still before him. 

For it would have been madness to assume that because the Argives 
murmured against the absent princes, and because, while appearances 
were kept up, the malcontents seemed a formidable number, therefore 
all, or a majority, were ready to stand by while the queen disowned her 
husband and proclaimed her lover. In such a situation the very best 
restorative to loyalty is that the lawful authority should be assailed by 
violence one minute too soon. And so foul a treachery as that of 
Clytaemnestra must arm against it not only all those whose disaffection 
had spent itself in hot words, but every honest man. Only with the 
advantage of surprise and stratagem could her cause be won by such 
and so many as would support it when once proclaimed. The key to 
the country was its * sole fortress *, the city or rather the castle of the 
Atridae^ To put it into the hands of the traitors would with some 
management not be difficult. But of what use was this, if the king 
were thereupon to return armed with all the strength of Achaia and of 
Hellas ? Plainly the ultimate success or failure of Aegisthus must turn 
on the question whether Agamemnon came back, and in what circum- 
stances he came. Meanwhile the conspirators resolved at least not 
to be surprised. The seas were carefully scanned (with what result 
hereafter appears) ; and that communication might be instantly opened, 
if necessary, between the principals, a watchman upon the palace kept 
outlook every night for a beacon upon the Mountain of the Spider. 
Here a small difficulty had to be overcome. The servants of 
Agamemnon's household were devoted to their master. None of them 
could be trusted. Yet to introduce a stranger fbr such a special service 
would have attracted suspicion at once. Accordingly Clytaemnestra 
chose among the servants a fellow as simple as loyal, and, to explain to 
him his employment, pretended to be expecting a beacon-signal 
announcing the king's success. His vigilance and silence were secured 
by threats and bribes. This arrangement was maintained during the 
whole last year of the king's absence. The watchman, impatient of his 
task and disposed to regard it as an absurd effect of feminine eagerness 
and imagination, was for this very reason the less disposed to talk of it, 
and had never connected it, as he had no apparent reason to do, with 

^ V, 167. 


that conviction about his mistress which he shared with the rest of the 
world *. 

Such was the situation in Argos, when 'about the setting of the 
Pleiads ', by our calendar in the month of Novembe r, Troy was at last 
taken '. The occurrence of the event at this season was the be- 
ginning of the conspirators* good fortune. The seas were closed 
Even in the historic times of ancient Hellas few voyages were under- 
taken in the winter; and according to poetical tradition no one 
expected after the * setting of the Pleiads* to sail at all. Ordinary 
communication being thus suspended, the party preparing for the 
attack had the full advantage of their preparation. What precisely 
were their arrangements for obtaining information resf)ecting the army 
docs not appear in the play, nor was it at all necessary (the story being 
known) that it should. There would be no insuperable difficulty in 
getting information for those with whom to be the first informed was a 
matter of life and death. To bring any exhibition of the means within 
the time covered by the action upon the stage would have been very 
difficult, and useless. For the purpose of the play it suffices that 
information was obtained : and this much is exhibited clearly enough. 
We have already seen that Clytaemnestra, at the very moment of 
receiving, as she pretends, the first news of the triumph, is acquainted 
not only with the outrages since committed in Troy by the victorious 
army, but with the disaster at sea which they have suffered in con- 
sequence *. 

Once more, the reckless and cruel pride of Agamemnon had betrayed 
him to his ruin. Not content with the stern vengeance which the justice 
of Hellenic war would have sanctioned, he had utterly ravaged and 
literally destroyed the captive city, sparing not even the sacred places *. 
It was probably not unnoticed by the narrator that by this brutality and 
sacrilege the Greek army also destroyed the last possibility of remaining 
where they were till a more favourable season, and forced themselves to 
tempt the risks of the winter passage even while they forfeited the 
protection of heaven. The neighbouring country they had already 
eaten up *. They set sail at any rate, and fared as they had deserved. 
One fearful night of storm scattered the armament to the winds ; and 

' See the prologue, in which the ^ w. 353 foil., 530 foil. etc. The 

relevant points in the character of the attribution of these sentiments to heroic 

watchman are given with extraordinary antiquity is of course an anachronism, 

skill and force. but so is the whole play. 

* V, 817. * V. 133. 

* w. 332—362. 



at sunrise the ' destroyer of Ilium ' found himself, like Xerxes at 
aunse[, ' a sovereign of the seas without a fleet '.' 

By this disaster the cause of the conspirators, hitherto almost 
desperate, was advanced to a fair chance of success. But the final 
enterprise was still very perilous. The king might have escaped. If he 
returned, the queen and her lover could triumph only by destroying himf 
which, if they declared themselves before he came, they would certainly 
not do without a bloody and doubtful contest against his veteran 
soldiers and those who would rally round his person. Completing 
therefore their plans to suit the new situation they waited slill a short 
while for the event. When the moment should arrive, the signal from 
Mount Arachnaeus was to announce to those in the secret tiiat their 
accomplices were ready. Fortune stood by them still, so far at least as 
that the king's ship, which by what seemed a happy miracle had 
survived the aiorm, was the first of the survivors to reach Argos. Slill 
more propitious was the hour of arrival. It was in the dead of the 
winter night that this remnant of the great host came into the bay'. By 
none but those in the plot was such an arrival expected, and they only 
were upon the watch. The news of the king's approach was instantly 
carried to the neighbouring eastern hills, and it was still night when 
the watchman from the palace saw the lieacon upon Mount Arachnaeus 
arid carried to his mistress the news, as he supposed, that Troy had 
fallen, in reality that the king had come, that Aegisthus was ready, and 
that she and Iheir parti/.ans throughout the Aiyolid (for the light could 
be seen far and wide) were to act as had been pre-arranged', 

genenJily nnd aisncialed with husbandi 
in gencRit, [he 'coming in winter' is 
rclened 10 AgnmemDon personally and 
dcscrilieil in the present tense of actuality. 
The inlerval lictween the fall ofTroy and 
the arrival would thus be something over 
a tDonth, not at all too much for the 
repose ot Lhe array, the destruction of the 
city, the preparations for departure, lhe 
voya^ up 10 lhe storm, and the bringing 
of lhe king's 'bare bull' from the point 
to which it was carried (beyond Malea, 
according to Hornet) Iwck to Argos. 

* The arrangement of [he circum- 
stances here is exceedingly skilful. The 
one chance for A^iithus and Clytaem- 
nestra was that tbcy should strike immi- 
ili:tlely on [he king's arrivaL E«cry hour 

• The Bloiy named the very night. It 
wu lh« lost of lhe year. Ilial this was 
BO will be seen by comparing the tan- 
goBGC of the watchman at the opening 
with lhe expression of the herald at his 
first entrance, Jtintrv at P^" rtfJ' 
i^aliiat* trow an this tenlh dawn of a 
ytar (v, 504). It is an addition to the 
picturesque impres^reacss of the ciicum- 
Usnccs that the day of the murder was a 
specially solemn day of religious rejoicing. 
Clytaemneslra also remembers the season, 
when she compares the return of a 
hosttand to the relief of a beneiicenl 
change in the weather {yv. 957—963)- 
It will be noticed thai, while lhe other 
leasaos are died in lhe aocist tense of 



/ The plot now to be executed hail three objects, all familiar in the 
perpetual conspiracies and revolutions of Hellas, first to separate the king 
ftom his soldiers and murder him, before his friends could repair to 
him or open his eyes ; secondly to secure the citadel ; and thirdly to 
capture the principal persons of the loyal party. Given the extraordinary 
circumstances, this was now a hopeful project though, as the sequel 
shows, by no means certain yet. Upon the report of the signal the i)ueen 
at once sent out messengers announcing that she had received great 
news and ordering a general feast in honour of the occasion, thus 
(juieiing and diverting the minds of all who were not belter informed. 
Ai the same time she summoned the king's chief friends, ihe ciders of 
the city, who in their anxiety at this nocturnal alarm and their eagerness 
for explanation were but too ready to come'. On reaching the fortress, 
they waited in the place of council, which lay as usual before the palace 
doors', for some lime, as the queen, whose object was to dctaiti and 
to mystify them for the necessary interval, was in no hurry to satisfy 
their curiosity. It was day-break when at length she appeared and in 
answer to their enquiry as to her news infonned them that Troy had 
fallen that very night. It had been foreseen that some explanation 
must be offered, and this particular falsehood had the double advantage 
of tallying with the belief of the watchman and of removing all 
apparent need for immediate action of any kind. One question could 
not be escaped, by what means the intelligence had come ; and the 
queen, with an eloquence which might almost persuade her auditors, 
traced for them the imaginary links between the visible beacon on 
Mount Arachnaeus and the king's beacon upon Mount Ida at Troy. It 
is true that in fabricating this story she betrayed a misconception of the 
region described, such as might be expected in a queen of Argos 
in the heroic times. Nor were her auditors contented. Though they 
had not sufficient knowledge to detect the fraud, the mere circum- 
stances were such as ineyitably to prompt suspicion. They tried 
to probe the evidence. But the queen had taken care to surround 

was ID ancicnl limn unoccupied. 

1 V. 170 implies thai the elders had 
been sent for. But lo repair to the castle 
wouUI (as they say v. 1G7) have beei 
their It is evident here bikI 
everywhere thai, though suspecting or 
knowing the queen's infidelity, they have 
not the least glimpEC of hec (reason. 

that he passed in communication with his 
subjects iDust make the queen's position 
more perilous and her success more im^ 
prubable. Il is tnanifest tblt the situation 
given by Aeschylus is Jual one, perhaps 
the only one,i in which by vigilance 
the conspirators might have several houn 
of clear advantage. The dramatist 
probably assumed, as tie docs in the 
Sufflic*!, ibat the landing-place for Argos 

/, ill- 


herself with some of those in her secret ; and by their professions of 
belief and confidence she was enabled to evade enquiry \ She added a 
few words suitable to the supposed circumstances and withdrew. 

All this time her partizans in the country, favoured by the darkness 
and their knowledge of the facts, were using their advantage. One 
party had hastened to the landing-place to receive the king and his 
companions, and were now already on their way thence to the castle, a 
distance of some miles, conducting him, his soldiers, and his captive 
Cassandra as in triumph*. Others were assembling in and at the 
fortress itself, while Aegisthus with his band was descending from the 
hills, ready to push forward at the last moment. It was no doubt one 
of the merits in the ' combination,' upon which he prided himself, that 
personally he ran scarcely any risk at all, even in the event of failure, 
still quite possible, as was soon to be seen. 

Left to their own reflexions, the seniors could not fail to per- 
ceive, even with such light as they had, the weakness of the evidence 
laid before them. They remembered the state of the country and felt 
vaguely uneasy. It was possible certainly that Troy was really taken, 
but much more likely, considering all things, that the queen was the 
victim of some imposture or delusion, which would soon be exposed ^ 
They were in this mood when they perceived signs of the king's 
company approaching in the distance and at the same moment the 
entrance of one who by his appearance seemed likely to know the truth. 
The king had sent forward a herald. 

This incident, probable as it was and not to be prevented, was 
no part of the conspirators-' design, and extremely dangerous to them. 
With the first words of the herald, the queen's whole story fell to the 
ground. Here was the crisis. If the elders had been sagacious, 
prompt, and bold, if, putting together all that they knew, they had 
argued from it to a remote consequence and acted instantly upon the 
inference, they and the king might perhaps yet have been saved. But 
criminal plots would seldom or never succeed but for the weakness or 
error of those concerned to prevent them. And in this case the default 
was certainly pardonable. The queen could not be altogether right, 
not right at all as to the beacon-message. But so the elders had 
already presumed. And what did it matter, when as to what seemed 
after all the main fact, she was now confirmed? Troy was really 

^ V. 363. second chariot. This is possibly a genuine 

' According to the Greek ' hypo- piece of tradition. 
thesis', the king enters in a chariot, ' w, 481 — 493* 

Cassandra and some of the spoil in a 



conquered ; the king was come ; and the queen's wild fancy about the 
beax:oD might well be perfectly innocent. If indeed they had had time 
first to consider and then to put questions ! But the herald, mad with 
faplure, was in no mood to catch hints. While they were fumbling 
with vague suggestions of danger at home he had darted off again upon 
the topic of his sufferings ; and before they could recover the subject 
the queen was upon them and had promptly dismissed the herald with 
a message of welcome to his master'. 

The elders made indeed an effort to detain him by a question as to 
the safety of Menelaus, who had not been mentioned, a most unfortunate 
question, as the reply to it necessarily disclosed the destruction of the 
Seet, and by this news they were sufficiently distracted from more 
opportune reflexions until the king's arrival. The king arrived, with 
the companions of his voyage and their escort, and the success of the 
plot was almost assured. 

The king arrived at the fortress, and his loyal friends saw with 
sur|>rise, that the triumphant crowd by which he, his soldiers, and thqr 
were now surrounded, seemed to consist of the very men whom they 
had most reason lo suppose disaffected. So striking was this, that even 
in the moment of welcome they could not but remark upon it resent- 
fully, and warn the king not to be deceived by this show of unanimous 
rejoicing'. Agamemnon, putting their hint 10 previous reports', under- 
sto6d them perfectly. Indeed he had returned full of anger against his 
subjects and of suspicion against his wife, and spoke as if it had been 
his express object to aid the conspirators, by aggrieving any waverers 
among their i>arty or any loyalists who on the way from the sea to the 
castle had joined ihe company or were otherwise accidentally present. 
He and the gods of Argos had won a glorious triumph; but he had 
been ill served abroad and ill served at home, and so the otTenders 

• The brief conversation between the 
UeT« «nd the herald (™. S43— S5Sl '^^ 
nnei in wbich by their hi-uULioa 
s impmience the minule U lost 
o me an admirable Mrokc of dta- 
iTt. Equally good is Ihe dexlerily 
d presence oftnind shuwn by the queen 
re-entrance (f. sgj). Here Ihc 
ft word might have been fatnl. 
le referred lo ihe supposed message 
'loji she [isked n remark from the 
j if the was seen to avoid the 

suspicion of the eldeis. What she aclaallj' 
says is so adroitly turned, that while she 
liecms to treat the maltcr with simpl^ 
frankness, there is not a word which/ 
could suggest to the uninfonned beralnj 
that there was anything remarkable W 

she mentions. To relish this kind W 
liDcuislic skU] was a speciality of \A 
Attic audience. It is the essence orth^ 
famous 'irony,' 

Q slill n 

t risk fTom the 



should find to tlieir cost. Not a word of thanks, not a word, even 
after the wide-spread calamity just announced, of compassion '. Nothing 
could better lead up to the final stroke prepared by Clytaemnestra, 

Advancing from the palace, she addressed herhusband in a strain of 
extravagant and rapturous adulation, and then, bidding her attendants 
to strew rich tapestries over the approach, invited him to accept in the 
presence of the assembly the signs of that adoration which befitted the 
conqueror of Troy. Agamemnon, in great anger, replied to the address 
with a stem rebulte and would gladly have escaped the malicious 
honour. But the queen by insistence and almost by violence compelled 
him to proceed, all the multitude beholding his act and many not aware 
of his reluctance. Thus with the symbol and show of an Asiatic tyrant 
did the victim of the new tyranny pass finally into the toils '. 

The fate of Cassandra, though of immense importance in the tragedy, 
not only for its own pathos but as giving another direction to the 
compassion which would otherwise have centred, contr.iry to the purpose, 
upon the murdered king, is to the mere machinery of the story insigni- 
ficant'. She perished with her enslaver and possessor, whose death was 
now near and inevitable. When he had gone within, his soldiers departed 
or dispersed through the fortress, and the throng broke up. Rut the 
elders, already unconscious prisoners, had no mind to go away. The 
strange events of the morning had produced in them, though they 
could not seize the clue, a vague but invincible sense of danger. 
Already repenting their reticence and consoling themselves as best 
they could with the hope of the feeble that ' something will intervene', 
they w:uted in perplexity to see what would happen'. 

> w. 801—845- 

* Suicly il is impossible lo reconcile 
this scene with the supposition, that 
Agnmemnon bad no suspicion of his wife's 
honour. What other motive could explain 
his hntlnUty ? He gives het no greeting, 
he will not even mention her title or her 
name. His langnage is full of inainua- 
lion. Il is the daring and above all 
the resources of Clytaemnestra, which are 
ansmpecled bf Agamctnnon, not her un- 
failhfulness. The sarcastic diraurfp iii¥ 
tlrai (imiruu <(ip- (M<pd" yip if^TfiFot, 
the husband's sole reply to his wife's 
ftlTeclionale greelbg aflet a separation 
of Icn years, is licscribcd by Engcr as ' a 
mild reproof.' If this is mildness, what 

would be severity? 

Whether ia the end AgnmeirmoTi will- 
ingly consents lo the use of the tapestry 
may be questioned. I see no trace in 
his words that his mind Is changed 
nboul il «I all. The other view seems lo 
prevail. But the qocation is of liltle im- 
portance. The tapestry is a mere detail, 
introduced chiefly for spectacular effect. 

' See Ihe last words of Cassandra (iw. 
t3'6— 13*9), which expressly declare the 
pari which she plays in Ihe economy of 
Ihe piece. 

' w. 966 — 1018. Perhaps no passage 
in the play is more cumpletcly irrecon- 
cilable with the current theory of the 
sloiy than this. If Aegisthua is living, by 

What happened was this. In the palace the king found a3\ m 
readiness both for sacrifice and lustration, for which preparation the 
festivities commanded in the morning had furnished a pretext'. He 
went, as custom commanded, to bathe before the ceremony. Clytaem- 
nestra, eager for the delight of taking her revenge with her own hand, 
had marked for herself this moment. She had even descended to plan 
the details of the bath so as to increase the helplessness of the victim, 
There witli an axe she slew him, and his councillors, wrought by the 
agony of the foreseeing Cassandra to a paralysing tenor, leamt his (ate 
and theirs from his dying cry. 

For now at last they began to realize the situation, and saw that the 
adulterers and their adherents had struck down not only the king, 
but with him the liberties of Argos". Resistance was impossible. 
The forlrcss was in the hands of the conspirators, the remnant of 
the king's army entrapped and overpowered, the country surprised. 
and the loyal without a leader, the young heir Orestes being absent 
and the elders themselves in the power of the enemy. Among the 
people, between the victory and the loss of the fleet, more hearts had 
perhaps been lost than gained. Nay, the elders themselves were 
forced to confess that of the chief conspirators Clytaemnestra at least 
had a foul wrong and a presentable cause, nay, even that their own 
cause was not clear, for what had they done to save the innocent 
Iphigenia? To the name of Iphigenia the queen instantly appealed, 
and [he counsellors could not but allow that as between her, the 
mother, and them, in some sort the murderers, it was a doubtful 
case. Thus does Aeschylus moralize at once both the personal and the 
public aspects of his story'. 

But whatever compunction even the friends of Agamemnon might 
feel in the presence of Clytaemnestra gave way to pure rage when 
Aegisthus with his ruffians entered the fortress and joined the queen 
where she stood with her defenders around her and the dead bodies at 
her feet, exulting in his ' just restoration ' from exile' and boasting the 
skill with which he had conducted Ihe successful design. At the sight 

the queen's pennission, in Ai^os, what 
le eldcis possibly menu by spcahing 
explicable fenrt'? Obviously 
I supposition the danger of Aga- 

i the elcteta, who did not warn him, 
i in fact nothiiig less than accessoii:,^ 
hie dcnih. 

' ™- 1040-41. 

' "■ >3S4> Mys — 97i and Ihe conclud- 
ing scene /o/Wm. 

»!/!'. 1410 foil.. 1554-1560 etc. 

' V. 1607. The language orAc^slhos 
here would of ilself suffice lo show lha.1 
he comes from abroul .mil now for Ihe 
first time appears publicly in Argos. 

INTRO D ucrroN. 


of the mercenaries' ihe friends of liberty, inflamed to madness, would 
even have provoked their death there and then, and Aegisthus, cruel 
and cowardly, would have taken their challenge. But the ^ueen, more 
politic as well as less base, would not suffer her hostages to be 
massacred. Prisoners however they remained ', and thus, all power but 
that of the despots being dissolved, the land settled down under the 
adulterous tyra.nny until Orestes should come. 

Thus, as the story was conceived at Athens in the fifth century, thus 
or somewhat thus was the imperial Agamemnon slain. 

3. The Structure of the Drama. 

We have now to show how the foregoing story, or a story like this in 
the main outline, was by Aeschylus shaped as a drama. The Byzanline 
stoiy is condemned, first because it is absurd in itself, and next because, 
even if given, it still does not account for the construction and language 
of the play. The proof which we shall offer for the general truth 
(to no more than this ought any one in such a case to pretend) of 
our alternaKve hypothesis, is that it does explain and account for the 
drama with perfect simplicity. 

But first it will be well to remind ourselves that it is a play of 
Aeschylus which we have before us, and to consider for a moment 
what Greek drama originally had been and, when Aeschylus look it in 
hand, was in its essence and main conception still. It is a familiar 
fact, that dialogue, the substance of a play as we conceive it, was first 
introduced into the drama by Aeschylus himself. We know also that the 
Other literary element in the drama, the songs of the chorus, received 
from Aeschylus a great extension and development, so that the masses of 
continuous music, which he imported from the method of the choric poets 
proper, are criticised, as a peculiarity, by his adversary in the Frogi 
of Aristophanes. Indeed to Aristophanes it seemed that the whole 
of 'tragedy' as a distinct style of literature ought to be referred to 
Aeschylus as the first inventor'; and whatever the value of this opinion, 
which with our little evidence we should be slow to dispute, we know 
that the earliest rudiments of literary tragedy could be traced no higher 
than Aeschylus' immediate predecessors. Bui what was the stock upon 

' The chnracicr of AcEislhin' follower? j>-^tuna atiivi. \ «at noff/uia-ai rpa-yiitAr 
i* sufficiently shown by f. 1(138. Xilpiw, Mya ihc Chorus of llie Frogs 

■ w. 1656, [6sii. (iDoO). 

which, whether by Aeschylus, by PhTynichus, or if it was so by Thespis, 
the literary tragedy was grafted. Whence came the name which was 
for some time bestowed upon the whole? What was dramaf For 
whoever may first have used the word drama in its present sense, 
neither Aeschylus nor Thespis invented, or is supposed to have invented, 
the thing. Drama, as the name implies, is not properly a fonn of 
written literature at all, but something far older and more natural. It 
is action, the presentation of a picture, fact, or story by movement and 
panlomime. It exists or has existed everywhere for ages without 
any literature at all, and has often attained a high development 
without even any regular verbal composition. When indeed literature 
lakes possession of it, the literary element by its deeper interest and 
greater permanence will surely conquer the rest, and in Athens during 
the fifth century this process, like all others, went on with amazing 
rapidity, so that we soon arrive at a species of 'drama', such as the 
Medea of Euripides or the Ofdipus at Co/onus of Sophocles, which 
is not essentially an 'action' or performance at all, but a thing to 
be heard or read. The name in fact had already become, as it now 
notoriously is, a misnomer. But it was of course not a misnomer 
when it was given, and it is highly significant that the art which 
Aeschylus took up and turned into tragedy called itself ' performance ' 
or 'action.' If we compare what was written, in ages when the book- 
drama was familiar, about the early dramatists of Athens, with what was 
said of them at the time when they were still remembered, we shall 
note a marked difference. We speak, and Suidas might have spoken, of 
Phrynichus as composing a tragedy on the taking of Miletus. But 
Herodotus does not say so. He says that he ' made a performance ' or 
' action ' of it '. Aristophanes mentions Phrynichus often and tells us 
that even in his own day the songs of Phrynichus were still the 
favourites of ihe older generation. But nowhere, I l)elieve, does 
Aristophanes or any one near that time, speak of the Spa'^ra of 
Phrynichus as a kind of literature, which existed or could exist in a 
manuscript, like the Andromeda of Euripides, which Dionysus read on 
board ship before the batUe of Arginusae'. He speaks of them as 
things which had been. ' Phrynichus,' says Agathon to Mnesilochus 
in the T/itsmof/wriasusac, 'whose work you have yourself heard, was fine 
in person and fine in dress, and that is why his actions were fine too '.' 
Phrynichus, as he appears in the allusions of Aristophanes is properly 
an artist in pantomime, inventor of gestures, figures, and movements, and 


author of popular songs ; and the same character is given by all the 
first-hand evidence to the predecessors of Aeschylus. 

Now as even the greatest innovator does not change everything in a 
moment, it is important to remember all this when we come to the 
work of Aeschylus himself. When we speak of * reading a drama * we 
are using an expression which to Aeschylus would probably have 
been unintelligible. What lies before us is not the 'action' but the 
words that were to go with the action ; and we have only to read them 
to see how much the manuscript implies which it does not directly 
express. Take for instance the Sa^en Against Thehes and read what 
the ancient editors offer as a list of the dramatis personae : * Eteocles, 
Antigone, A spy, Ismene, Chorus of maidens, A herald'.* These are the 
persons who speak or sing and therefore attract the exclusive attention 
of the bookman, but they are a mere fraction of the performers required 
by * the drama '. Besides the six champions who accompany Eteocles 
in the central scene, and without whose figures, dress, and behaviour 
the written dialogue could not be followed, we have a crowd of 
* Cadmean citizens ', upon whose playing, together with that of the 
maidens, would in performance depend the main effect both of the first 
scene and of the conclusion. It is they in fact, as much or more than the 
speakers, who conduct that 'action filled with the spirit of war' of which 
the Aristophanic Aeschylus speaks so proudly '. And this case is typical. 
The same applies in part to the Choephori, still more to the Eummides, 
most of all to the Supplies and the Fersae. In this last drama the 
poetry, for all its magnificence, is no more than a libretto. Except in 
the narrative of the battle, the literary element is no where independent 
and scarcely principal. The spectacular performance is the essence of 
the piece, of which a considerable part, when divorced from the intended 
accessories, is scarcely readable. When Aeschylus in the Frogs vaunts 
himself to Dionysus upon the merits of the Fersae^ it is not the 
odes, the speeches, or even the thrilling narrative, which the name 
suggests to that t)rpical representative of the Athenian theatre. What 
he recalls with pleasure is a striking pose of the performing company, 
a situation which has disappeared from the permanent literary form 
of the work, so that we actually do not now know where to place 
it*. In fact with the possible exception of the Frometheus^ none of 

* I give the list in the order, which I *Eirr* k-wX Oi/ipat, Frogs loii. 

now think may be correct, of the Medicean * Frogs 1017, ix^P^ 7®^ V^f' iJKowra 

MS. On another occasion I hope to make Ttpl Aapelov re&viOnoi^ b x^P^ ^ ^^ ^« 

some remarks upon it, which would here x«P* <^* avyKpo^a-as el^ei', lawn. There 

be out of place. is some slight error in the text, but this is 

' S/Afui voni0-af 'Apcwt fu<rrAi'^ not here material. 

y. JE.A. d 


the extant plajrs of Aeschylus is a book-play, like the Medea, or the 
Oedipus at Colonus, or the dramatic poems of modern times. All are 
dramas proper, or representations in acting, and the Agamemnon is of 
the same type as the rest. 

Even long after the time of Aeschylus, when drama as a purely 
literary type was fully established and hundreds of tragedies were 
composed with scarce a hope of performance ', and when, as inevitably 
happened, the importance of the non-literary elements had relatively 
much declined, even then the part of the * supers*, to use the familiar 
term, was larger than a hasty reading of the text might lead us to 
suppose. I will give one striking example of this, where we are made 
more than commonly sensible of the stage * crowd * by the fact that 
some of them are at a particular part of the action converted from 
mutes into singers. The scene in the Hippolytus^ where the hero is 
denounced by Theseus, takes place, as the situation demands and the 
text shows, in the presence of many persons', servants of the king, 
friends of Hippolytus, and so forth. It is followed by an ode, sung not 
by women only like most of the odes preceding, but by men and 
women in response, a fact which by a mere accident is visible in the 
text. The strophe speaks in the masculine, the antistrophe in the 
feminine, the second strophe in the masculine again : the second anti- 
strophe does not happen to give grammatical evidence of sex, but is 
proved feminine by its substance. The text runs thus* 

OTp. a, ^ fi€ya fioi rd BitZv fi€k€^fiaO*j orav <f>p€ua^ cX^ 
Xvira^ TTopacpei • <rvv€a'iv Sc rtv' IkirCBi K€v6iav 
XeiTTO/iat Hv T6 Tuxtti5 Ovartov koI cv cpy/iacrt Xiwratav icrX. 

avT. a'. ciWc fioi ti^afjievq. ktX. 

orp. p^, ovKfTL yap KaOapav <f>p€v e^yij rd nap cX^riSa Xcvo-o-cov ictX. 

This alternation of gender admits but one reasonable explanation, that 
these singers are what they declare themselves, men and women respec- 
tively. And since the play has a chorus of men {v. 6i) as well as a 
chorus of women, and an excellent opportunity has just occurred for 
bringing the men upon the stage as part of the crowd, the combination 
is quite simple. But the case is a good warning how easily we may 
miss the action in a text without supplemental directions. It is by 

^ Frogs 90, Tpayi(giUat ToioOyra wXew word in this context to be impossible. 
< fiwpla ktX. It will be noticed that 2 jr^r fftpp, 1083, 1098. 

Aristophanes does not say dpAftara, I ^ ^-^ (j^^. 

believe he would even then have felt the 



mere chance that the language here betrays a change which is of no 
small dramatic importance *. 

And if this caution applies to the study of Euripides, it applies 
much more to Aeschylus. For between Aeschylus and Euripides, with 
the development of literary drama and the greater variety of written 
parts, the use of the mute players had much fallen off. ' In my plays,' 
Aristophanes makes Euripides say, ' no one was left without a part ; 
there were speeches for the lady, for the slave no less than the master, 
for the young girl and for the old woman too'.* This is of course 
an exaggeration. There are silent persons in Euripides, not a few ; 
we have just seen an example, and any one of his plays will furnish 
Others. But the text of the dramatists fully corroborates the remark of 
Aristophanes taken generally. The drama of Sophocles and Euripides 
is primarily a drama of speeches ; the silent players are generally 
unimponanL There are few instances, perhaps none, in Sophocles 
or Euripides, of such figures as the judges in the Eumtntdes or the 
champions in the Septfm, whose action is of the highest importance 
and upon whose persons and bearing the full attention of the audience 
is directed, while yet they have nothing to say, A writer who look 
any thought for readers would not be likely to introduce such parts. 
In Aeschylus, as his text and the observation of Aristophanes unite in 
showing, it was otherwise; and in the interpretation of Aeschylus we 
must add to the caution required by our imperi'ect knowledge of his 
story the further caution imposed by the fact, that we have to supply 
the action, and that this supplement was a far more important matter 
with the 'inventor of tragedy', than with his more purely literary 
successors. Perhaps this consideration is too little regarded. No one 
can suppose that the plays of Aeschylus were performed entirely by the 
personages who speak and a 'chorus', in the modem sense of the word, 
who sang. The supposition is absolutely inconsistent with the texts. 
But the rest of the company, merged in the general and proper 

' The eiplanalion of the tchoKa, that 
the nnacnlme pails of theodc ore spoken 
in the ehatacter of the poet, is more 
iogenious than raiional. How conld the 
■ame let of persons cany on a dialogue 
between themselves and imolher, and how 
should the author figure by this strange 
deputation in his own play? The modem 
soggestion that the language in the mas- 
culine is ' more general ' is scarcely true 
and, if it were, would noi exjilain why a 

woman should speak of herself in the mas- 
culine singular, or why the ' more general" 
and the 'more personal' language should 
altcrtiale in strophe ond anlistrophe. 

* Frogi 9*8, (th/ i.irh tww irpiir-tir 
ixflp vapfiK iv oiSiii ifiyif, <iXX' (Xvyai 
i 7V>tS ri iiii ict\. I give the reading of 
Lentingand Blaydesin preference to oviMr 
rapf^K or aftybw MSS. The meaning in 
any case is the same, and is explained by 
the antiihcais. 



designation of x^po'^'i receive little attention now that their action can 
no longer be seen and no stage-directions survive to represent it : and 
this neglect, of little moment in the later poets, may well mislead us in 
the case of dramas composed when performance was still the sole 
purpose and staple of the art. That there were not in some dramas of 
Aeschylus passages (if the word is applicable) of pure mime, of music and 
acting merely, such as are, or till very recently were, common upon the 
popular stage of Italy, is by no means clear : from Aristophanes, as well 
as from the probabilities of the case, we should rather suppose that there 
were such passages, nor is the text without confirming indications, as will 
in one case presently be seen. At all events the element of action was 
still important, and the picture was still presented essentially by tneans 
of performance. 

It is so presented in the Af^amemnon. The 'plot' of the drama, a 
plot both in the theatrical and in the more familiar sense of the word, 
is performed before the audience : and we cannot properly read the 
written tragedy without figuring to ourselves that performance, separate 
from which Jt was never conceived by the author. The ' crowd *, chiefly 
those partizans of Aegisthus and Clytaemnestra without whose support 
their triumph would be visibly impossible, are naturally not for the 
most part provided with speeches, any more than the followers of 
Agamemnon, or the Xo^rTai led by Aegisthus. All these classes of 
persons, or representatives of them, do speak, and in three places at 
least, one very important, the mediaeval editors, by narrowing their 
conception of the x^P"' to the elders who sing the regular odes, have 
found and left pieces of the text unintelligible'. For the most part 
however their part is performance only, but that performance is 
necessary both to the picture and to the understanding of what is 
said. As in the foregoing story the action of the piece is anticipated, 
the formal description of it shall now be made as brief as possible. 

The scene represents the palace of Agamemnon in the fortress of 
Argos. Before the entrance are statues of the gods, among them Zeus 
and Apollo, and the place of council with its seats. The time is night 
A watchman is seen upon the roof. Prelogur (i — ^i)). The watchman 
explains the supposed purpose of his employment. The beacon appears 

' We have no English lemi equivalent 
to the Greek ;(0p4i, which sipiifics 'a 
number of persons executing prescribed 
movements'. That it was and remained 
the term in use for what we call an acline 
■ compan)' *, is shown by the phiasc x'P^" 

Xapcit, applied to a dramalist who was 
'granted a performance' of his play. 

» w. 363.618— 611,1511— tsJ3, See 
aisatrc, 506,631 (note on the translalion), 
i6i,n, 1649—1653. 



and he gives the alarm within. He expresses his delight in a dance 
(after v. i^), by way of prelude to the general rejoicings. Exit 

What here follows is nol dewly indiciled ; bul it can scarcely be supposed that 
the ciders, who have slill to be summoned [ii. 170), enter a( once. The lexl presumes 
some interval and it is not lilcel; that the action was arranged so as to cotitiadict It, 
We may conjeciure that the rousing of the palace, the sending out of the messengers, 
the kindling of fires upon the altar or altars before the entrance, and the rejoicing of the 
household, was typically represented in action with music, for which the words of the 
waichman {^pjljuw x'l"'""'!""-) seem to prepare the way. EJiger, in his Introdacliim, 
makes, il I understand him rightly, some sucb suggestion (p. xviii). 

Enter the Elilcrs, singing first a march (40—103) and then the First 
Stasimon or regular ode in responsion (104 — 368). 

The great length of this chonis is not an arbitrary or accidental circumstance. It 
is necessary to suppose here a considerable lapse of time, even after the entrance of 
the Elders, and the d«lBy of Clytaemnesua in appearing is a proper part of the plot'. 

The elders state the reason of Ihetr coming. They recall how the 
war was commenced with ambiguous omens, the sacrifice of Iphigenia, 
and the threatening prophecies thereupon. Doubtful as to the meaning 
of this nocturnal alarm, they have come, as invited by the queen, to 
assure themselves of the safety of the fortress. 

First Scene in Dialogue' {vv. 3-jq — 378). Clylaemnestra, attended 
by Conspirators, comes from the palace. She informs the elders that 
Troy has been taken during the night, and the news announced by a 
chain of beacons, of which she gives an imaginary description. By the 
assistance of her followers she eludes further enquiry and retires. 

From this time forward the elders are carefully watched, as the situation of 
the plot requires, by those in the queen's interest, who continue 10 assemble. The 
proceedings of the ciders and even their actual words, are reported within the 
palace. This, which upon the stage would be manifest of itself, is accidentally 
indicated to us by the text in the next scene, where Clytaemnestra makes a pointed 
allusion lo the doubt which, during her absenra, they have expressed as to the tniLh of 
her infoimatioD. Thb deserves notice as an inslrucLive example of the difficulties 
presented by a stage-play stripped of the necessary directions for action*. I think it 

' As to the apostrophe addressed to 
her at 7: 83 see note there. 

* 4Trna6ln>r, 

* I submit that the above is the only 
natural way of solving the question which 
the more careful commentators jastly 
raise, "jtui tIi ft irlrruir clearly refeia 
to the incredulity of the chorus {485). 
How would K. know of this, it is asked, 
as she was not there? The answer is 

that the chorus only expresses the general 
feeling of the citizens, which she can 
naturally be supposed to learn." (Sidg- 

me, I confess, not an answer but an 
evasion. The question is not what other 
persons may have shared the feelings of 
the elders, but how did Clytaemnestm 
know what feelings the elders had ex- 
pressed? It is to their expressed incre- 

^.-:— .1, -. -.1-: V T V. u 

_i: i-:^' ■« 

•Ji :s; w r : ir; ir ; ± :-*<^ who are 

Sy^:r.d ."'iJ-jr.ry.r. tt. 57 > — 4:2 . xhe tlitrs. iv;:iir^ :he topic of 
tht i-lrri'-i-i ivir^u; :r.tir rcfmi-s UT-rz iht ^ir. of Paris, and all 
tr.-j .v-i'-cr.' V'trt'. V c:i.:?ri :: :!~r irir.irs iJii reirle of Arjios. mi sen* 
of **..:'-:. :r.e tr.d is vt: ci-s-zj^c. "I'zt z-dzi'.t izt wean* of their 

« mm * 

s-^v-r.r.^'T. ar.i :r.=:r iT-itr. n2.1L.T:jj::lv f:~-:::.;i. thrrJ-iens the gravest 
dant'er; r.o: cir. tht frlt^-ds c: :r.= kir.^- 2::cj^ w::h a clear conscience 
10 :.'-•; favour of htavtz. T.-cy fear ar. :-5urre\::i:n. Triumph and 
cor*' uc^: thcv wo-iii elaclv exchacre for :he sec:^rirv of their own 
freedom ■. 

Their doubts siiil increasing, the ciders in a brief ixricijl dialogue 
are discussing not without contempt ±e alleged evidence for the victory, 
when they ot^scne the approach of the heraid and other signs of an 
arrival (w. 481 — 507;. Their hope that 'what is now happily believed 
may be happily increased ', is echoed in a very different sense by those 
to whom it is addressed 

The effect of the situation here much depends on :he presence face to face of the 
elders and the objects of their suspicion. Un the question whether one of the 
bystanders speaks, see on w. 505 — 507. 

Second Scene in Dialogue (zx*. 508 — 685). The Herald, The Elders, 
Conspirators, and Clytaemnestra. The herald relates the destruction of 
Troy, the arrival of the king, and the storm. 

Almost everything in the action of this scene has been sufficiently described in the 
preceding narrative. The queen is summoned from the palace and comes hastily to 
put an end to the dangerous conversation which has commenced. Tl^e abruptness of 
her entrance and opening {p. 592) is accommodated to the situation, llie favourable 
comment upon her speech \yv, C18 — 619) must l>e assigneil to one of her party, as is 
dearly shown by the reply from the other side. See note there. 

Third SiasimoH (w. 686 — 773). The far-reaching consequences 
of crime, suggested by the fatal disaster just described. 'Again the 
application is apparently to Paris; again we feel that the sin of Aga- 
memnon is present in the thought.' 

March accompanying the Entrance of the King (iw. 11^ — 800). 

duUty that, as Mr Sidgwick says, she 
clcarij refers. It may be added that how- 
little she may know about the elders, 
mut know even less of the general 
Qg of the dtiiens, with whom she 
: povibly have had any communi- 

cation on the subject. 

^ I have already noticed that the latter 
part of this chorus is of the utmost import- 
ance as giving to us now some of the 
essential facts of the supposed situation. 


I Ictc llii: eO'ect ol the scene depends cnltrcly on the spccloculnt conditions. The 
king in hU cliaiiot. Cassandrn, eilher with him or (uncording to the tntdition) in a 
second chaiiot with spoils, and his following enter, accompanied b; a ciowd who 
teem to l>c giving them a tiiutnphanl welcome and expressing their sympathy 
(w. 781) witli the sufferings which they have undergone. The effect of these sufferings 
woald lie visible in their appearance and action. The elders, from their Itnowlcdge of 
the persons, cannot but suspect the honesty of the demonstration. It is this startling 
suspicion, as already ooticcd, which dictates the strange topics of their first address. 
A( the close of the march, the stage is so arranged, we may presume, as to suggest a 
mutlitude entirely hlling it und extending beyond it. This is one of the many 
pBSs;^es of Athenian drama which might be cited ogoitist the view, formerly prevalent 
but lately sbokeo by the archaeolc^ical diicoveiics of Dr Dotpfeld and others, 
that in the Greel; theatre of the Bfth century there was a high and narrow separate 
stage (Xaydoi) for the speakers as distinct from the rest of the company. For such 
a theatre such a scene as the teil here suggests could scarcely have been composed. 

Third Scene {vti. 801 — 965). Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra. 
The king enters the palace, commending Cassandra, who remains with- 
out, to a kind reception. Clytaemnestra follows, 

See the preceding narrative. Here also the general action b important, particu- 
larly a& to the effect of Agumemnon's haughty and Ihieatening address, and of the 
invidious honoun which he is compelled to accept. The device uf the tapestry in 
particular, the purpose of which is intelUgible only in its relation to the feelings of 
the crowd represented on the stage, would have occurred only to a dramatist who 
considered his whole company not less than his principal personages. When the 
king and queen have withdrawn into the palAce with their immediate attendants the 
duwd of returned soldiers, conspiralon, and others would for the most put disperse, 
the king:'s companions still watched by their pretended friends. The general 
^>peaiaace of the action is easily imagined, though it would be useless to attempt 
exact description. During these proceedings is sung the 

Fourth Stasimgn (w. 9C6 — 1018). The friends of the king, though 
unable to fix theii suspicions, are more anxious than ever. 

Fourth Scene. Clytaemnestra, The Elders, Cassandra, Clytaem- 
nestra orders Cassandra, who remains still in the chariot, to come 
within and join the intended sacrifice. Cassandra, whose appearance 
is that 'of a wild beast new-taken', pays no attention, and the queen 
instantly withdraws. 

In thb brief incident the chief point is the violent impatience of the queen, who 
here and here only loses her dignity and presence of mind. In truth her act in 
nimmoning Cassandra at this critical minute is an imprudent concession lo faei 
appetite for revenge (sec ti. 144S). Note also that, being now sure of her triumph, 
she can scarcely rebain from a sneer at the victims of her deception (if. 1040—41]. 

Cassandra, by her prophetic power, in a series of visions sees the 
history of the Atridae, the crime of Atreus, and the murder of Agst- 

n now imminent. Declaring his fate and her own to be inevitable, 
at last in despair she enters the palace, 

"In this iistonishiDg scene Aeschylus seems to hnve touched the limh of what 
speech can do lo cucile pily and terror. The cries come forth to ApoUo, repeated 
louder and more wildly as the inspiratioD f^aws upon her; &he smells the 'xcent of 
tnnider on the waits' of the bloody house to which she comes as a prisoner, and 
visions rise, firsl of the past wickedness, then of the present; and lastly she bewails 
in songs of 'seaicbing and melting beauty' her own piteous fate. The chorus sustain 
the part of the Ai^ve citizen, sympathetic and horror-struck, and (ioally bewildered 
and overpowered by her clearer and clearer prophecies of the bicxxly deeds thai are 
imminent." (Sidgwick.) Of the relition of this scene to the general eSect of the 
play I have spoken already in the narrative. It should be observed however that 
here again the general action is essenliaJ to the comprehension of the spoken scene. 
Critics have objected (not unnaturally, if the play be read without reference to the 
action) to the helpless behaviour of the elders at the moment of the murder ; and in 
fact long before this, as they are alarmed if not convinced (v. nil) by Cassandra, 
their hesitation Is only to be explained by a manifest impossilulity of acting to any 
el&ct. But in truth they appear helpless because they arc so and know it. From 
the previous incidents aiid the present situation of aHaiis it U plain that if the king is 
truly in danger, then also they themselves are prisoners. Thty would not have been 
sutTered either to enter the palace or to leave the fortress. It is not nt ail annatural 
that old men in such a situation should be utterly paralysed, but it Is by the action 
more than by the words that the situation is portrayed. 

/i/7-4 Seem {w. 1342—1576). Clytaemnestra, The Elders, etc The 
dying cry of Agametnnon is heard within, and while the elders are still 
pretending to consider the situation, the palace is thrown open and 
discloses Clytaemnestra standing over the bodies of her two victims. 

From the language of the elders {tf. ijjj — '35^), it is evident that other signs, 

beades the king's cry, declare the triumph of the plot. In ftict the stage, in Greek 

parlance the orchislra, rapidly tills again with the exultant crowd and the indignant 

few (see w. 1400 — 1411), among these some of the fighting-men returned from Troy 

who are disposed at the last (it. 1615. 1633 etc.) to try a desperate struggle. With 

r^ard to the majority of the soldiers, we ore manifestly to suppose them surprised &nd 

slain (as in Homer) at the moment of Agamemnon's murder. In an ancient Greek 

stale a ship-load of veterans, if allowed fair play, would have been masters of the 

situation, and ihe tyrants daied cot spare them, if they would. It is this which 

I explains and justifies the prominence and pathos given to the character of the herald, 

I whose part is in every way superior to that of the king. From bis entrance to bis 

i exit (see TO. 508—511, 5 Ji— 577.655 — 657, 676— 677) his language is ominous. And 

in truth he is actually near to death, and is thus a tragic character as much as the 

A curious question arises here as to the exact manner in which the king's death u 
P'leptesentcd. Modern readers infer from the text thai the interior of the palace is not 
[;lbown to the audience until Agamemnon and Cassandra are lying dead; and the 
■ bfeience seems natural though not necessary. On the other haud the Greek 
A^fpothcsis says expressly that ' Aeschylus is peculiar in representing AgamemnoD aa 


killed upon the stage — Vblun 8^ Ai<rxi/Xot rbp ^KyaiUyj'ova M (ncrjvrit dycupeiffdau Toiei ' : 
and as the text does not suggest this, it is one of the few points in the hypothesis 
which might appear to rest on some independent tradition. The truth is that our 
knowledge of ancient scenery is not such as to warrant any positive assertion on 
details of this kind. 

Cl]rtaemnestra appears and fiercely justifies her act She describes 
the manner of the king's death with cruel detail, answers invective with 
invective, and declares her reliance upon her partizans and upon the 
loyalty of Aegisthus. She even forces the lamenting elders to admit 
that as between her and her husband the justice of the case is doubtful 
(v. 1569). But a fresh explosion of feeling is produced by the entrance 
of A^;isthus himself, with his band (Xoxtrat v. 1650). 

The meeting of the triumphant lovers is left entirely to action, as is necessary. 
Conversation between them at such a moment and in such a presence would have 
been altogether out of place. From the fact that Aegisthus' speech is immediately 
preceded by a speech of Clytaemnestra it is dear that she does not leave the stage. 

FincUe, Aegisthus, Clytaemnestra, etc Aegisthus claims to have 
merely procured his * just restoration' to Argos (t/. 1608), while avenging 
upon the son of Atreus the wrongs of his father and his own. 

That A^sthus does not come from the palace but on the contrary has just 
entered the country is shown not only by his address, but by the interval which 
occurs between the achievement of the murder and his appearance. Consistent in 
his ' prudent * plan he does not enter the fortress till the deed is actually done and 
all is safe. 

This is too much for the friends of the king. Stung by their taunts 
Aegisthus calls on his ruffians to commence a massacre, when the 
queen, with hypocritical clemency, interposes to prevent an impolitic 
cruelty which might yet have endangered the success. *Less,' she says, 
*than blood-shed will serve the occasion' (vv, 1654 — 1664). Accordingly 
the elders are led away to imprisonment ; and with this final triumph 
of Clytaemnestra the scene comes to an end. 

4. Critical Remarks. 

I hope I am not rash in thinking that the preceding exposition of 
the play does in its general outline fulfil the conditions ; that is to say, 
the story is itself intelligible, and it explains why the drama is con- 
structed as it is, and what are the relations. of its parts to one another. 
As to the details I do not pretend to offer more than conjecture; on the 



contrary I should maintain that ihis is the utmost wliich, in details, the 
state of our infonnation permits, and that by better use of the materials 
others may, and certainly will, improve upon the suggestions here 
made. The outline will, I believe, be accepted after time for reflexion 
as certainly right; and I will even go so far as to say that the play 
would never in modem times of good literary judgment have been 
interpreted otherwise, if we had not allowed the imagination of the 
eleventh century, criticized and for the most part contemptuously 
rejected on other points, to rule us unquestioned upon this. It is not 
in the least surprising that the annotators of the Medicean MS. should 
have lost or corrupted the genuine tradition here as elsewhere, and that 
ihey should be wrong about the story, as they are wrong more often 
than not about tiie language and the meaning of the poet Indeed if 
there is any department of criticism in which the scholars of that time 
are manifestly incompetent, it is the artistic part, We owe our whole 
knowledge of Aeschylus to their diligence; but we do not and must 
not obey them'. 

But indeed the question is not to my mind one of authority 
at alL On no authority, under the author himself, should it be 
believed, tliat any man conceived such a plot as the Byzantine 
editors attribute to Aeschylus : and if Aeschylus could say that such 
actually was his conception, we with the Agamemnon before us might 
well reply, that accident had singularly improved his design. As it is, 
the text of the play is Che sole and sufficient authority for the poet's 

Nor is it ground for demur, that the Medicean hypothesis has con- 
tinued to pass current during the two centuries at most (we might 
largely reduce the time) during which Aeschylus from a literary point of 

' In ibis matter, as in maii]> others, 
the MS. commcntaiy actually preserves 
traces of the truth, ihottgh not undeislood 
by those who copied Iheni down. On 
the (JRl line it is observed in the Medicean 
scholia that Stpdiruir ' iya^iipJierot 6 rpo- 
\9yii6iiiroi. oux' <> ^^^ MflsBav raxBtit. 
The comparison, a& b pointed out by 
Hermann and others, is between the 
Watchman in Aeschylus, and ibe Walch- 
aaXi in Homer (see pp. xxviii, ixxiii). 
Now according to the story of Aeschylus 
ta told in the Medicean hypothecs, there 
is no resemblance whatever between 

the Functions of these persons, and the 
comparison is pointlcis. liut as a [act 
llicir functions are exactly analogous: 
in Aeschylus as in Homer the 'year- 
long watch' represents the duration of 
Aegisthus' plot, of which the Homeric 
watchman is 
ihe Acschylea. 
fair to suppose that the meaniaE of 
the note was known lo the original 
writer, from whom it has found its way 
into the cliaoa of the Medicean commen- 


view has been efficiently studied in the West. Even the lifteenth 
century murmured': and it would indeed have been strange, if ihe 
readers of Shakespeare and of succeeding dramatists had accepted such 
a plot with satisfaction. But they never have so accepted it. On the 
contrary they have transmitted it with manifest discontent, actually 
concealing its absurdity, so far as possible, by artifice. If we add thai 
until times within living memory the exponents of Aeschylus were 
necessarily and properly engrossed by the preliminary difficulties of 
language and grammar {Paley's edition was actually the first exception 
in English), we shall not accuse our mstructors of adding much 
authority to a tradition which tliey would have been only too glad 
to disbelieve. 

In reality the plot of the Agamemnon is perfectly coherent and 
natural In one detail it is judiciously improbable. When, by the 
announcement of the herald, the queen's interpretation of the beacon is 
disproved, the elders would have acted most prudently if they had 
forthwith questioned him severely on the subject; and we may therefore, 
if wc please, call it in a certain sense improbable that they should act 
otherwise. This ' improbability ', as nothing would have been easier 
than to avoid it, the dramatist must be supposed to have sought. And 
he had good reason. It would have been a gross violation of the true 
and vital probabilities of the case, and a great loss to the dramatic 
interest, if he had represented the design of Aegisthus as never running 
near to failure. Only by the favour of circumstances, and of human 
blindness or weakness for one circumstance, could a design so audacious 
succeed at al! : and Aeschylus has wisely chosen, that this ingredient of 
necessary chance shall not be concealed but exhibited. 

In one other matter the dramatist has disregarded, not indeed 
probability (very far from il), but a certain expectation, which we, 
accustomed to the modern conditions of the stage, might have formed 
from the course of the play. A modern playwright, having to tell 
all his story for himself, would have thought it desirable, by way of 
accenting the construction and rounding off the development, to intro- 
duce, after the triumph of the plot, a plain description of the artifice by 
which it was conducted, or at least an allusion to it, such as appears in 
the Choepheri. The absence of any such allusion in the Agamemnon 
{for the passing glance of Clytaemnestra in v. 1436 is not sufficient to 

' Schol. in Cod. Flor. li 


suggest anything of itself and is actually destroyed by a prevalent 
alteration of the text) facilitated the error of the mediaeval editors and 
has made it more difficult of detection. But manifestly, in the matter 
of truth and nature, Aeschylus is right. In the t^rsl outbreak of anger 
and defiance neither victors nor vanquished would fall to discussing or 
describing the device by which the contest was lost and won. The first 
address of Aegisthus to his Argive supporters and subjects turns naturally 
upon what he alleges for the rights of his cause : and it is only because 
he is too violent and vain-glorious to govern his tongue, that he touches 
at all upon the inopportune topic of his stratagem (i'. 1608), Before a 
modern audience, who did not know the story, Aegisthus would very 
likely have been made to narrate his plan and its success, although 
in real life he would not do so, simply lest some of the spectators should 
be left in the dark. Aeschylus, by the conditions of his art, was spared 
the necessity of this misrepresentation. 

What points have been added to the story by the dramatist himself, 
we can scarcely guess and have little interest in knowing. But it is 
likely that those incidents, which would be eflfective on the stage only, 
were invented for the stage ; and for this reason we may refer to this 
origin the whole apparatus of the king's entrance, including the 
laying of the tapestry, the whole vision of Cassandra, and in any case 
certainly the an-tipoi- a/iifii/JXij(7T/>ov, in which at the last moment the 
victim is enfolded. This curious device is to the plot of the Agamemnon 
so unimportant, that if the play had survived alone, we might well have 
wondered why it is introduced. But the question is answered in the 
Choephori, where one of the best scenes is the exhibition of the garment 
by Orestes, after he has avenged the murder which it served to commit'. 
It is there used, as Antony uses the robe of Caesar, and with similar 
dramatic effect. For the sake of this scene and of the closely connected 
reference in the Eumtnides (?/, 463), it is introduced and made promi- 
nent in the Agamemnon. It serves also, by its appearance in the 
sequel as evidence of the crime, to fix attention upon the part of 
, ClytaemnesCra, with whom only, and not with Aegisthus, the moral 
Kinterest of the story is concerned. The stratagem of the beacon was, 
^we may say, certainly not first introduced into the story by the 
tragedian. If it had been, it would not be presented as it is. Who was 
the inventor, it is useless to ask. Possibly some one not more deserving 
of remembrance than some of the romancers who suppUed material to 

1 Ck0. 971 foil. 


Shakespeare. To the essential originality of the poet such questions 
are of course immaterial 

Indeed it would be a grave mistake to exaggerate the importance, 
in a literary aspect, of the whole subject which has been set forth, at 
great but I trust not unpardonable length, in this introduction. Un- 
doubtedly the main purpose of the poet, or at any rate his chief value 
for us now, lies in things almost independent of his story, in the majesty 
and beauty of his language, in the bold delineation of character, and in 
the deep moral feeling with which the whole subject is coloured. To 
the temporary object of winning the prize, which we may guess that 
Aeschylus did not undervalue, the difference between an absurd and an 
effective plot would be vital : nor can it be thought indifferent to the 
mere reader, whether the beginning of the play has or has not any 
intelligible connexion with the middle and end of it. But I would not 
for my own sake leave the impression, that I have proportioned the 
topics to my estimate of their permanent significance. The story of the 
Agafnemnon, once understood, might with justice to Aeschylus be 
stated and dismissed in a brief si^mmary. The critical discussion of it 
is required only by the present state of the subject It is however 
required now ; and for this reason only I hope to be excused, if I seem 
unduly to neglect other matters of not less moment, upon which I have 
nothing to say which has not been excellently said before. 

5. The Text, 

The text of the Agamemnon depends mainly upon two MSS. The 
Mediceus (M) should be regarded as the sole authority for those parts 
which it contains {yv. i — 322 and mu 1051 — 1158). Only one MS. of 
any value, the Florentinus (f ) contains the whole play, and for nearly 
one half of it («w. 361 — 1052) this is necessarily the sole authority. 
Fortunately it appears to represent M very closely. Cases such as 
V, 23, where the genuine <^aos of M could not be recognized in the 
conjectural supplement {yvv ^oJs) of f, are rare. One other MS., the 
Famesianus (h), contains the whole play, but it is worthless. Its very 
numerous variations are, in the great majority of cases, manifestly con- 
jectures upon a text derived from M. Before therefore any weight 
can be assigned to its variation in a particular place, it must appear 
that the reading cannot be merely conjectural, that is, it must be such 
as the corrector could not have propounded for sense — a condition not 


easy to be fulfilled. All critics put the MS. very low, but the only 
logical course is to ignore it altogether. I have cited it only so far as 
seemed sufficient to show its character. 

Two of the imperfect MSS., Marcianus Bessarionis (a) and Venetus 
(g) include parts of the play not in M, the first a few lines (z^. 323 — 360), 
the second a large piece {p, 11 59— the end), but neither gives much 
assistance which cannot be had from the Florentimis, The MSS. are 
cited as in the apparatus of Wecklein (ed. 1885), to whom I would 
repeat the acknowledgments made in my edition of the Septem, 



*Ayafi€fiv(i}v cts "iXiov airitov t^ KXvrai/AifoTp^ ct iropBrjO'oi to *IAiov, 
V7r€<r;(CT0 rrj^ airnj^ i;/A€pa9 (rrjficuv€LV Sta tov irvpaov. o$€y (Tkottov 
iKaOurev eiri fiurOw KXvTai/Lii7<rrpa, iva rrjpOLrj rov irvpo'ov, Kal 6 fiev 
iBfov aTnfyyciXcv, avr^ §€ twv 'n'p€a'PvTwv o)(\ov ftcrairc/ATrcTai, ircpt toD 
irvpaov ipovaa' cf a»v kqi d )^op6^ (rwwTTaTai* omvc? dxovcraKrcs iraiavi- 
{ovcriv. /act' ov ttoXv 8c icat TaXBvpio^ irapayLverai Kat to Kara tov 'jrXovv 
Sti/yciTot. *Aya/AC/AVci)v 8' cwt ariyn/s IpxeraC crwrro 8* avrw Ircpa atnjvrj, 
tvOa Yjv rd Xcu^vpa icat 17 KacravSpa. avro9 ficv ovv 'irpo€ifTip\crai €19 rdv 
oTkov ovv t^ KXvTai/LtiyoTpo, Ka<rav8pa 8c Trpo/AaKTcvcrai, wpiv ct? to, 
paxTiX^ia €itT€k6€iVf TOV cavnjs Kat tov 'Aya/AC/LtvoFo? OdvaTov Kat Tiyi' cf 
OpicTTov firjTpoKTOVLav, Kat €to~7ri78^ cos $avovp.ivq^ plif/aa'a Ta orc/Lt/xaTa. 
TOVTO 8c TO pL€po^ TOV 8pa/xaT09 Oavfia^erai co? cK7rXi;^tv c)(ov kou oIktov 
iKavdv. t8tci)9 8c Ato^Xo? tov 'Aya/xc/Ltvova cirt (tktjv^^ dvaip€UT6ai iroict, 
TOV 8c Kao'av8pa9 o'townjo'as OdvaTOV vcKpov avnyv V7r€8ctfcv, ireiroirfKiv tc 
Atyio'Oov Kat KXvrat/xiyoTpav cKaTcpov Sua'xypii6fi€vov wept t^? avoipco'ccD? '^ 
Ivt Kc^aXato), T17V /Acv t^ avatpeo'ct 'It^tycvcta?, tov 8c Tats tov iraTpds 
0vco'TOv c^ ATpe(i>9 oi;/A<^pat9. 

iSL^)(6rj TO 8pa/Aa cirt op;(ovTos ^iXokXcovs cXv/A7rta8t dy8oi;KooT]J ^TCt 
ScvTcpta) (b.C. 458). 7rpo)T09 AurxvXos 'Aya/AC/xvovt, Xoi;^pois, Ev/icviVi, 
IIpcDTct caTvpLKt^ ^X^PVJ^^ HcvokX^s *A^t8vcvs. 










* See the Preface and Introduction. 



860U9 fiev airm t£vS* diraWayrjv ttovwv 
<f>povpa^ irela^ firjtco^, tjv KOifuifiepo^ 
ariyai^ ^ArpeiSSv iyxaffev, tcvvo^ Si/erjv, 
currptov icaroiZa vv/cripav 6/iijyvpiv 
seal Toi)? if)€povra^ X^*M^ '^^^ 0€po<; /SporoUf 
Xapunpov^ Swdara^ ifiTrpeiropra^ aWipi, 
aaripa^, Iraif <f>0iv(Da'iv, dvroXA^ re r&v* 
Ka\ vuv ^vXaaam XafiirdSo^ to avfifioXov^ 
avy^p TTvpo^ <f>€pova'av ix Tpoia^ ^driv 


I — 311* Readings of M. 




I. f^,..tnX vw {B).,.vvw U {7o). 'I 
have long been praying for celease, and 
still am watching, but this time I hope 
to be answered.' 

9. KM|aiS|uvot orlyoif 4,yKoBw. See 
Appendix A. 

4 — 7. drr^mw 6|fci{7vpiv koI ro^ ^- 
porrat. ..doT^pot f^e whole company of con- 
stdlaHons^ and in particular them who, 
conspicuously hrighi like princes in the 
sky, bring winter and summer to man, 
the great stars, the times of their setting 
and the risings thereof dar^p as opposed 
to (Lrrptm is properly a great star, and 
here stands for the great and familiar 
stars which mark the seasons. (This is 
substantially Hermann's view.) For xaV 

. V. iB. A. 

cf. Pers, 751 0€(av 8i xdMTiov ^* o^k 
tdpovXlg^ Kol UooetSuvos Kpa-rfyruv (IIous- 
man y. Phil, xvi. 146 : Mr Ilousman 
would transpose w,6^ 5, but I think this 
deprives the description \$^pi 
of its point ; it is the great constellations, 
not all the stars, which are conspimoits, 
Tpdrovai). — To those (Valcknaer) who 
condemn z'. 7 as spurious, it is rightly 
replied that the demonstrative tQv is not 
the style of an interp>olator (Housman). 
There is no evidence against the verse 
except the rarity of the initial dactyl, 
which is not conclusive. That it is 
omitted by Achilles Tatius, who cites 
w, 4 — 6, is not evidence, as a quotation 
need not run to the end of a sentence. 



aXdiTifiop T€ I3d^iv' — tSSe yap xparei 

yvpaiKi^ dvSp6/3ov\ov iKwifyv Kcap' 

€VT dv Se vv/criTrXaytcTov epSpotrop r e^to 

evp^p opeipoif; ovk iTriaKoirovfiepfjp 

ifiijp (<^o/9o9 yap dpff* VTTPOV Trapcurrarel 

TO fi^ ^efiaitD^ ^Xe^apa <rvfil3a7ulp virptp), 



10. dX«S<ri|jLov : news 0/ the capture : 
cf. TAtd. 672 &\(joirifiO¥ xaiava * a. cheer /or 
the capture* (Wecklein). — cS8c KpartC, 
iAis it is to be commanded by^ literally 
'thus uses power*; see v, 941 rhw Kpa- 
roOvra frnkdcuciot. 

11. TWOAK^S-.-Klap: 'one who med- 
dles in the business of man with the 
sanguine feelings of a woman ': cf. TArb, 
183 fUXci Tdp dvSplj fi^ yvy^ povXeiMrta 
rd^ufOep, — TwaiK^s is generic (not 'the 
lady* i.e. Clytaemnestra), and iXirii^ov 
Kiap a generic description of woman. — 
(KtI^op^ wider than hope^ includes fancy, 
imagination, etc. So Ikrll^ta often means 
to imagine. — Note that i\irl^v is a 
constant epithet, dvdpSpovXw ( = dif8p6- 
PovKov ov) particular to the occasion, the 
regular use of double epithets in Aeschy- 
lus. — The speaker is disposed to regard 
his strange occupation as due to some 
wild freak of the queen's capricious 
fancy and feminine imagination; hence 
the sarcastic allusion, which follows, 
to her 'dreams*. A similar thought 
occurs to the elders (v. 186); and see 
Clytaemnestra's pretended description of 
herself as dreaming anxious dreams about 
Agamemnon (v. 882). 

11 — 19 is one period, the construction 
being tZr S»...fx^t ^<>^ doK(3, kXcdta rirre. 
\n V. 16 8^, like d* o^f, marks merely 
resumption after the parenthesis. 

13. 9M{y...fyx(f 'the couch where no 
dream visits me *. Ifiitv, emphatic in itself, 
is here emphasized strongly by position 
in the sentence and verse, importing a 
contrast between the speaker and some 
one else, whom dreams do visit. The 
context points the allusion. The dreams 

of the mistress condemn the poor servant 
to a couch, where dreams would be only 
too welcome ! — ifi-fiv is commonly treated 
as inexplicable and corrupt, but, as I 
think, without reason. 

14 — 15. For, instead of sleep, I am 
haunted by the fear^ that by sleep I might 
close my eyes for ever, that is, 'might 
suffer death, if I missed the signal or 
were caught n^lecting my watch*, the 
queen like Creon in the Antigone (odx 
i^ytily 'At^f fiov¥of apKiact 308) having, we 
may presume, threatened this penalty. — 
For the popular euphemism 'lasting 
sleep* for 'death* see v. 1450 rbp aUl 
Gt¥OPi v. 1193 0/bi/Mi av/iPaXii r63c^ — 
PcPaCtts lit. permanently, lastingly, as in 
t\o\jto% ddiKos od p4peuot etc. The use 
of the softer word instead of the more 
explicit is del adds to the euphemism a 
touch of rough humour. — rd |m] ktX. 
The clause depends upon and explains 
the emphatic substantive 06/3o$. Cf. Ear. 
Afed. 184 ^jSoY {i<rr]9) d welo'ta, and for 
the form of the clause Plato Laws 943 d 
Xph Tcurov im^pwra dticfip it^dpl v6ft^ 
dw8pa tpofieiaOcu rb /i^ iweweyK&p rfftvd^ 
TifAuplap (* in inflicting punishment a man 
should always have before him the fear 
of inflicting a wrong penalty*). The 
infinitive with the article puts into sub- 
stantival form the ordinary dependent 
clauses /lij avfipaXw, fi^i hrtweyicS. — ^The 
repetition dvO* fhrvov...lhnY is clearly 
proper, if not necessary, to the point. — 
The common interpretation is this: 'for 
I have with me fear instead of sleep, so 
that I cannot go to sleep soundly'. Bot 
a great number of emendations show the 
just objections made to this. r6...lhmf 


orav S' deiSeiv fj fiivvpeaOcu So/rcS, 
vwvov ToS dvrifioXTTOP ivrifivtov ti/co^, 
ickaito TOT oiseov rovSe trvfiifHtpdv areptov, 
oiJj^ «9 TO irpoaff* apiara Siairovovfiivov'- 
vw S' evTtrx^ yevoir anaXKa'^fi irovtov 
cvarffiXov ^vevro^ 6pif>vaiov nrvpo^. 

& ^a^e XafA'Tm^pf vvkto^ rjfiepTja'iov 
<l>ao^ TrufuivcKCDv seal X^P^^ tcaraaTao'iv 
ttoXXmv iv ''Apyei, TfjaSe a'Vfuf>opa^ X^P''^- 

lOV lOV. 

AyafUfwovo^ yvvai/cl trfffiaivto ropw^ 
evvfi^ hravrelXaa'av «9 riixo^ h6px}i^ 
oXoXvyfiov evifyrjfiovvTa rfjSe XafiirdSi 
erropffpid^ew, einrep 'iX/bt; ttoX*? 
eaXxDKeVf cd9 o ff>pvKTO^ dyy^Xa)v irpeirei' 

30. dyyiXup, 




is then worse than superfluous, and the 
weakest word in it {Ihrptfi) has the place 
of emphasis.1 Moreover the supposed 
syntax is faulty: irapatrraTti cannot gov- 
ern such a consecutive clause, as if it 
were ^tpyti or iraiXt^n: and if the clause 
depends on ^pot, it cannot be con- 

1 7. ' thus making of song one remedy 
against sleep', using song among (ip) 
other things to keep myself awake. t4/i- 
ptip was the technical term for shredding 
the roots, herbs etc. compounded in 
drugs (Blomfield, and see L. and Sc. 

19. . . .put to work not so good altogether 
as in old times* The passive Tw^toBax. 
(xlnnim) signifies to be worked at^ v6pos 
being technical for any exercise or task- 
work. So the deponent ikarweiadau is 
the regular word for a professional prac- 
tice. — There is a double meaning in this 
cautious phrase, depending on the ambi- 
guity of fllkof between household and 
house. Under the mere grumble of the 
servant lies the same suggestion as in 

V, 37. — The rendering 'managed, ad- 
ministered' (L. and Sc. s. ?'. huiirwtloOtu) 
is incorrect. 

II. 6p^vaCov irvp^ * fire of the dark- 
ness*, «.«*. which the darkness keeps and 
will not disclose. 

15. lie calls as to awaken the slum- 
bering house. Hence o^fiaCvM in ?'. 16. 
— orifiapti rccc. 

37. 86|M>it *for the house*, i.e. on 
behalf of the household. 

18. Xai&iraSi, dependent on iT-op$ptd- 
(tiVt *uiK)n* i.e. *in honour of its ap- 

29. lvop9pu£tciv *to sing as a morn- 
ing song* {6p0piot)f pursuing the train of 
metaphor suggested by i)ti€fyfyno9 <f>doi, 
hraPT^CKoffOP etc. — ivopBid^euf recc I 
cannot but think the modem editors 
wrong in generally adopting this injurious 
change, probably a mere error. The 
associations of 6p0iost shrilly highy and of 
the tpOiw po/iot, are as foreign to the 
passage as 6p$pios is appropriate. 

30. 6 *M^ (expected) beacon': cf. t6 
a^fipoXop in 7: 8. 

I — 2 


ai;T09 T* ^0)76 (f>polfiiov ^(opeva'OfJLai. 
tA BetnrorSv yap ev ireaovra drfaopLCU 
Tpt9 ^^ fia\ov<njf; rrjahi fioi <f>pvicT(opLa^, 

yevoiTO S' ovv /xoXoirro? €v<f>i\rj X^P^ 
ava/cTo^ ocKODP T^Se ^aoTaaai X^/ot. 
Ta S' oXXa aiyfS, /SoO? €7rl yXdatrrj /leya^ 
^€^r)K€P ' oIko<: S' aiJro?, €a (f>0oyyrjv \d0oi, 
aa^earar av Xi^eiep' «? e^cai/ ey© 
fiaOovaiv avSci Kori pxiBovai \rj0ofiai. 



^eKarov fiev ero^ toS" eTrel Upidfitp 
fiiya^ avrihtKO^y 


33. Td-8cfnroTc5v-c{^irc<r6vTa Oi(oro|iai 

*my lord's good fortune I shall score to 
my game', i.e. regard it as my own: 
<dKeiu)ffOfjLai schol. So via' versa x/w?<rro«rt 
So(f\ois (TVfKpopd. rd defftroruv Kaxws t/t- 
voirra (Eur. Afec/. 54), apparently an imi- 
tation. Cf. (TTipy€l.¥ Si TciKT€a6¥Ta Kcd 

0ia$ai (accept and score) xpixci. (Soph. 
fr. 686), and Horace, * quod fors dierum 
cumque dabit, lucro appone^. So also 
Wecklein. — Others take e5 xiaovra as 
predicate, 'I shall reckon fortunate'; but 
on such a question the Greek tradition 
seems entitled to respect. 

33. Tpls l{: the best possible throw 
with three cubical dice. 

36. Povs...P^Pt|kc. 'I have weighty 
reasons for silence', i,e, the fear of 
punishment and of losing, if overheard, 
the reward of his service. This is clearly 
the general meaning: irapoifda ixl twv 
fi^ hwatUviOP vappriiTL&^icBai.^ Hesychius. 
So also /3o?t iiol M yXuxrajj Kparep^ irodl 
Xd^ itri^ahnav ttrx^t KwriWtiv Kcdwep iirt' 
<rrdfievw Theogn. 850* — The origin of a 
proverb is a most uncertain speculation. 
Of many conjectures made upon this, the 
latest (Wecklein), that it is an allusion to 
the I/i&r j35eiot, or ox-leather scourge, 

with which slaves were punished, seems 
as probable as any. There is no positive 
evidence on the subject. After all, it was 
perhaps merely a metaphor, based on the 
common use of poust as a type of size, in 
the form of a preBx (cf. /Soi^-inztt, poth 
fieXla etc.). 

37. He glances at the queen's adul- 

39. // is my intention to have meaning 
for those (only) who understand^ while 
those who do not may think that I do not 
seey literally ' I am (willingly) unobservant 
for those who do not understand '. XffiofiM, 
is here the passive answering to the active 
Xov^dvet fie tovto ' I do not observe this '. 
— On the interval between this speech 
and the entrance of the Chorus of Elders 
see the Introduction. 

40. npui|&f : the dative depends pri- 
marily on amlhiKOi (cf. a»r/ri;rot, opt/* 
ToXos etc. ) and more generally, as dative 
of relation, on the whole following sen- 
tence. — ILpw4iov recc., a mistaken change. 
—The singular drriSucos includes both 
brothers as one * party' to the suit, Mene- 
laus having precedence, as the wn>ng was 
strictly his (Sidgwick). 


Mei'lXao^ dva^ i;S* * Ayafii/jLvoov, 
hidpivov ^lodev Koi iiaicri'nTpov 
Tifirj^ oyvpiv (jEvyo^ ^Arpelicuv, 
CToXov ^Apjeltov ')(CKmvavTriv 
Tqao airo ;^a>pa9 
^pdv, OTpaTiSriv aptoyrjv — 
piyav CK 0V/IOV tcXd^opre^ "Apiy, 
Tpoirov atyirmoiv, oir iKirarioi^ ' 
aXjyeo't iraiBiov xnraroi, Xe^ecui^ 

irrepvywv iperfiouriv ipetra-ofievoi, 
_ir6vov opToXi^tov oXiaavTe^* 
vTraro^ 8' dimv fj t*9 'AwoWcai/ 
^ IIoj/ fj Zev9 oimvoOpoov 
yiov o^vfioav 

rSpSe fieroiKmv voTepoiroiPov 
irip/rrei irapafiaaiv *¥tpivvv, 
oirto S' ^Arpitd^ iratbw; 6 Kpeiaatav 

44. 'ArpetdoF. 






44. 'ATptCSoiv Dindorf. 

45. x^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^/^ thousand crews, 
49 — 51. See Appendix B. 

54. vovoy 6^fT9}Jixm¥i gen. of equi- 
valent, * the brood, their care *. 

55. 9vaTot echoes (hrarot in v. 50 
and leads up to the figure iutoIkup, The 
birds are 'licensed dwellers' in the high 
abodes of the gods. — ApoUo as god of 
augury. Pan of animal life, Zeus of uni- 
versal right. (Schneidewin.)— The ap- 
pearance of the humble Pan in the com- 
pany of these great Olympians is a cha- 
racteristic of the time. See on Theb. 1 34 . 

56. oUivd0poo¥...4£vpdav: see on 
V. II. 

58. TwvSc |itro^«iv (hrrwf) 'of them, 
because they are their /idrowot*, and 
entitled to their protection : " dicser, die 
ihre fdroucoi sind, wie Soph. £/. 790 
wp^ T^aS* iffip^lQ ptVP^s (von dieser, die 
deine Matter sein wUl)" WeckIein.~The 

difficulty raised by Hermann against 
Tta¥8€ arises from not observing the 
predicative force of fieToiKw^. — ^vrtp6' 
Wivov: 'punishing in after time' 1^. 
'soon or late', in the end, though 
the vengeance f/tay \)c deferred. Tro- 
bably it was the i>opular belief that 
such youthful cruelties (note Tald<a¥) were 
especially liable to be avenged in kind, 
by refusing children to the offenders or 
taking their children away. Cf. Soph. 
j4n/, 1074 To&rutp ae Xu^rirripct v<rT€po- 
tpdopoi Xoxw0'tv''Atdov Kal deijiv 'Epo'i/es, iv 
TOiffiP ai^roif TourJe Xi^^^fat KaKoU. 

60. 6 Kp<Co-<rMV iiivwi Zivs f/idr 

mightier Zeus, the guardian of hospitality 
(6 Kp€laa(ap referring back to the Ztfus of 
the birds, v, 56), mightier as representing 
a stronger claim, since the faith ot the 
^4voSt outraged by Paris, was the very 
strongest of obligations in a religious 
point of view. 


Z61/9, TToXvdvopo^ dfjL(fn yvveuKO^ 
TToWd iraXaia-fiaTa koX yvLofiaprj, 
yovaro^ Kovlauriv ipeiSofiivov 
8uiKvau}fiivr)^ r iv irporekeioi^ 
KOfuiKO^y OrjatDV AavaolaLv 


eoTL' TeXelrac S* €9 to ireirptDfiivov 
oiff" inroKaUdv ovff vTToXeifioyv, 
ovT€ SaKpvayv, airvpcDv iep&v 
opyd^ drevel^ TrapaOeX^i, 

69. uToxXcUaw. 



61. kir' 'AXffdvSpy to punish the 
triumphant Paris. On ixL of the object 
of an action, see on TAed. 531, 701. — On 
the name 'AX^^aydpos see on v. 714. 

62. iroXvdvopos won (not wooed) by 
many, a woman that could not be faithful 
to one. For the contemptuous force of 
the epithet here cf. w, 790 foil. 

65. irpOTcXcCots properly ritual pre- 
ceding marriage, used here with irony, 
the war being the xporiXtia through 
which Helen must be finally won. — As 
this comparison is clearly the point of 
the sentence, it is very curious tliat the 
language should present in detail so 
close a parallel to the old marriage- 
custom made familiar by RaphaeFs 
Espousal of the Virgin [Sposalizio, at the 
Brera, Milan). At the ceremony young 
men broke sticks across their knees. The 
figure in the foreground to the right of 
the picture will be easily recollected. 
The * knee to the ground * and the 
' snapping of the rod ' (for in xo/iia^ the 
sense of spear-shaft is only secondary) 
are exactly the expressions which would 
have been chosen from this point of view 
to draw a parallel between irporAeia and 
war. I am not aware of any other 
cridence for referring the custom to 
Aeschylus' time, but the resemblance 
deserves notice and is not likely, in my 

judgment, to be accidental. — The motive 
of the custom may have been the common 
one of averting the evil eye. To this 
motive is assigned a somewhat similar 
Indian custom, to which I am referred 
by Mr J. G. Frazer: **on dechire une 
toile en deux devant les yeux des deux 
maries, et on en jette les morceaux des 
deux cotes opposes. Sonnerat, Voyage 
aux Indes et ^ la Chine, i. p. 78.*' 

67. 8^ refers to t^^v in 7^ 40. * In all 
this time we see no accomplishment (the 
matter stands as it doth) tliough it will 
end as it musL ' 

69 — 71. By fto increase of fuel or 
libcUioHy and by no tears, may one over- 
come the stubbornness of a sacrifice that 
will not burn, irapaO(X(H, and pers. 
sing. fut. mid.y the snd person being 
used, as often in English and in Greek, 
for the indefinite. The schol. \tliru rb 
rts, though bad in grammar, is right as 
to the meaning. The sentiment is general 
and expands, in the form of a metaphor 
probably proverbial, the preceding words 
TeXciToi h TO TorfHatUvw. Without meta- 
phor the meaning is "if fate is against 
you, you may struggle in vain". To 
which party in the present contest this 
doctrine applies, whether the sin of Paris 
or the sin of Agamenmon will most 
affect the event, the speakers do not 


fifkeli S* drlrai aapKl iraKaiq, 

T^9 T6r dptoyfj^ vTToXeufiOevTe^ 

fUfJLvofiev iaypv 

iainrcuZa vifjuovr^ hrX aKijirrpoc^. 

i T€ yap veapo^ fiveXo^ aripvcov 

ivrd^ dvfaaap 

taoirpea-fiv^ ("A/wy? S' ovk ivl j^oipti), 

rl ff inrepyrjpa^'y <f>v\\dSo^ fjSff 


71. drlrdi. 

77. difdfffftap. 

79. Tl$iT€pyiffpia<r, 

detennine. — inroKolmv Casaubon. vr6 
expresses that the fire or fiiel is put, and 
the wine or oil poured in, ufu/n" the 
sacrifice to be burnt. — ^pY^s: not pre- 
cisely 'anger' but mood, almost caprice, 
as in Eur. Afed, lai x^^^**^ dpyiit 
putrafidXXouauf, and frequently. — As to 
the form TopaBiX^o/iai, the middle has 
its regular quasi-reflexive force (* in com- 
modum facientis *) as in Topdyofuu, rapt' 
OTOfitu, raptiyopiofiai, and other verbs of 
hke meaning. Of this particular form 
BiX^fuu no other example is noted ; but 
there is nothing to raise difficulty in this, 
as it will scarcely be supposed that our 
list of such futures is or could possibly 
become complete. The quasi-reflexive 
middle forms are always rare, from the 
nature of the case; thus of ^ityyvfu, a far 
commoner verb than $i\yw, the examples 
in this mood and meaning are exceedingly 
few. For the /u/ur€ middle, Attic had 
a special predilection. All the commen- 
tators assume wapa$4\^€i here to be 3rd 
pers. active; but the difficulties thus 
arising are acknowledged by all, and 
appear to me insuperable. There is no 
subject to the verb, and the context sup- 
plies none, * Paris * and * Agamemnon *, 
which are proposed, being both too re- 
mote. Note also that, if the sentence is 
general, we are released from the impos- 
sible task of finding any particular allusion 
in dUr^pAir ItpCh. — The correction ^iriXe^ 
/Smt and the omission of oOrt daucpdunf are 

71. drivtu (6¥T€s) if correct, is from 
drlTTft, *one who does not pay, a de- 
faulter * ; because with our outivorn thiws 
we niade default* i,e, could not render 
our due service any more (Weil, H. L. 
Ahrens). But perhaps it should be read 
as dat. fern. sing, from 6.riTo% disre- 
garded, unvcUueti, and corrected to cCr(r|| 
(Wecklein, comparing for the feminine 
termination, Cho. 617 i.dav6.Ta%, Pers. 
599 vtpiKMvTa etc. ) Then the dative dr, 
oapKl xaX. is causal. It is not easy to 
choose. — <rd/a^ muscle, as in Thcb, 609 
y^pom-a rbv vovv odpKa d* ii^Ciffav. 

75. Ur^iroiSa, * equal to that of a 
child '. The compounds of loo- preserve 
in the classical writers almost always the 
true sense of the word and arc applied 
only to that which can be measured. 
The use for mere resemblance (as in 
lo&rerpot etc.) becomes common only in 
late Greek. 

76 — 79. Ti...Ti: as... so, 

77. dvi^avmv. Hermann. The word 
suggests the pushing and shooting of 
young growth or sap (compare ayiSpapiey 
ip¥€i loot), and answers to ^vXXddof Kara- 

78. "Apiif 8' o^ hX X*^Pf • t^s quali- 
fies the parallel, to the disadvantage of 
the old; note hi, 'The spirit of war' 
not being *in the fort', children do not 
miss the strength they have not known. 

79. ri 0* innprf^^m; Enger. The 
rhetorical question is much more favoured 
in Greek than in English. For H antici- 



KaTaKap<f>o/iivr)^ rpiiroBa^ fiev 6801)9 

crelx^h TraiSo^ S' ovSev dpei(ov 

ovap i^fi€p6(f>aT0v aXaiveL 

av 0€, ivvoapeco 

dvyarepy fiaaCXeta KXvraifiijaTpa, 

ri x/5€09; ri viov; rl S' eiraiaOo/jLevff, 

T1V09 arfyeXia^ 

7r€c0ol irepiTre/JLTrra Ovo^ Ki/v€l^\ 

TrdvToyv Be Oe&v tcSv darvpofMov, 

87. OvoffKiMciff (the first i in an erasure). 



pating a verb {(JtcIx^i) see v. 916. — vwip- 
Y^ptft is properly a predicate {{nrepyrfpcjs 
w) what of it (or him) in sheer old age? — 
rh 6' {nrepyr/puif Cod. Fam. 

80. |Uv...8i : as if * three feet' should 
have meant greater power. — rpCiroSas i,e, 
ixl (TKrfirTpoii, 

81. dpcCwv echoes to "Api^t in v. 78 : 
Aeschylus probably connected the words 
in fancy. 

82. ovap i^|Mp6^T0v a dream in day- 
light. There seems to be no reason for 
rejecting rifiep6^aT0i, It is sufficiently 
certified by the existence of ipdu to lights 
and is in form parallel to 6.Kparot. There 
are two forms of the stem, <pa and ^ as 
in 4t&P€p6ft 0dy6f: the preference of the 
long vowel in -<f>aTos lit is natural, 
-0aros having two other meanings, said 
and slain, — 7ifjL€p64»€iyTO¥ Fam. ^ficpo- 
<f>oiTO¥ Ahrens. 

83. The speaker ** apostrophizes Cly- 
taemestra, who remains within the house, 
as Ajax, lingering in his tent, is apostro- 
phized in Soph. At. 134" (Wecklein). 
The form of apostrophe in both cases 
indicates the like impatience for the pre- 
sence of the person addressed. It must 
not be supposed that Clytaemnestra 
appears. — It is not without significance 
that the name of the queen is thus 
introduced together with that of her 
father. To be a daughter of this house 
was no good omen, and the speaker 
glances, as it were involuntarily, at the 

reproach put more plainly by Agamemnon 
in V. 905. 

87. iffiOoC: literally *from conviction 
of what report?* i*e, by what report 
convinced? — v^drcfivTa adverbial accu- 
sative, literally ' by the way of sending 
round \ . The directions for sacrifice were 
sent not only to public places but gene- 
rally throughout the country. See v, 599. 
From V, 96, we see that what was * sent 
round' on such an occasion was not 
merely the message or order to sacrifice 
but materials from the sender, the prince 
or master, to aid the offering. Hence 
the point of noticing that the 'high 
flames' are 'persuaded' to rise by the 
rich oil or incense from the palace. It 
is a species of religious communion 
between the prince and the subject. 
The word Tiplwefiwra was doubtless 
technical. It may be noted that the 
usage gave the queen in this instance an 
excellent opportunity for communicating 
unsuspected with her partizans. — 9^ 
KivfCt literally 'start' sacrifice, 'set it 
going '. I prefer this reading (Prien) to 
OvwrKtiy (Auratus, Tumebus, and the 
majority) both as adhering to the MS., 
and as more appropriate to the facts (see 
V, 599). The sacrifices are not exactly 
those of the queen, but of her com- 

88. TMV cUrTVv6|U»ir. The ' gods of the 
city* generally. 


vnrdrwv, j(0ovlc^v, 
r&v T ovpavUiDv r&v r drfopalav, 
fiwfiol Soipouri ^XeyovTtW 
akXff 8' aXKoOev ovpapofiijKf)^ 
XafjLird^ dvl(rj(€i, 
^apfjuuraofiivfi j(pi/jLaTO^ dyvov 
fiaXaKai^ d86\ola'^ Trafyqyoplai^, 
TreXdiftp fjLvxoOei/ ^curCKeUp, 
roviwv \e^aa 2 rt koX Zwarhv 



90. TMV T^ o^pavCwv TMv T d'yopoCMv: 

a curious antithesis, apparently without 
parallel» as is also oi iLyofnuoi as a name 
for a class of gods. Ouporiot in Greek 
theology is an epithet of dignity, apply- 
ing generally to the great Olympian 
deities. As applied to a single deity it 
signifies that the deity is viewed in a high 
or wide religious conception. Thus 'A^po- 
SItji O^pQMla is the patroness of chaste 
love, the great natural Right which sanc- 
tions filial love is d Oipwla 8^/ut (Soph. 
EL 1064), and the object of Hippolytus' 
mystic and ascetic devotion is d Aibt 
oAptufla 'ApT§/ut (Eur. /fi/>p. 59). Thus 
also in Eur. £1, 1135 $€ol ol o^pdinoi is 
contrasted vdth 5al/ioif4t rcyct, a lower 
term. There were everywhere vast num- 
bers of 'deities', many of them much 
more popular than the exalted persons of 
the orthodox religion, who could not 
possibly have been termed odpdruK, some 
of them little higher than fetiches. 
The sQ-called ' Hermae' of Athens are an 
instance. Since then iyopatoi is here 
opposed to odpdycoi, we must seek in it 
a meaning antithetic to sublime^ high- 
exalted, I would suggest that irfopcuott 
in this theological use, has not the local 
sense, but the equally common though 
secondary sense of popular or familiar^ 
somewhat as in dTopcud dv^fiara familiar 
ierms^ oi dfyopaioi the commonalty^ and 
that Twr r' odpoMlwif rwr r* dyofMiwif 
means 'deities of every degree, the great 
gods and the low'. This is a quite 
difieient division from virarot-x^^ot, 

*gods of the upper and the nether 
worlds'. It is no objection to this that 
we sometimes find the epithet *Ayopcuot 
attached to the name of an Olympian, a 
2^us or Hermes Agoraios, It was and is 
the policy of great polytheistic religions 
to attach to themselves the lower cults in 
this way, as may again be illustrated by 
the application of the name Hermae to 
objects of veneration much older than 
anthropomorphism. — T«v...Tctv: the ar- 
ticles are added because virdTU¥t x^^^^*^^t 
oOparivPf dyopalcay would have the ap- 
pearance of a fourfold division, instead 
of two antitheses, based on different prin- 

94. d'yvov halluweii, not merely * pure '. 
The poet has in view those costly xp^fiara 
of foreign, chiefly Oriental, production, 
which even in his own time were scarcely 
used but for religious purposes. 

95. vaprfyop^ois : cf. irapaOiX^ci v, 
71. — |iaXtticat< cCSdXourt, ifi whose softness 
is no deceit , contrasted epithets. Under 
this figure is suggested the hope, that the 
rejoicing, of which these things are a 
symbol, will not prove deceptive. But 
the speakers are unaware how very far 
from ciioXoi the queen's persuasions are. 

97. 5 ri...alvftv : so far cu thou canst 
and maycst consent (to tell), supplied from 
X^lao-a, not *so far as thou canst and 
mayest tell (oo'fij') \ In this sense aXvt'uf 
for X^eii* is not used. So also Wecklein, 
^^al»ti¥^ sich zu etwas verstehen, zu- 
sagen".— XiEao«...«aUiir re -yfyov i,e, 
y€¥ov Xi^offa waiufw re *be the infiArmant, 



Kol Oifii^ alvelv 

iratwv T€ y€vov Trja&e fieplfAPrf^, 

fj PVV TOT€ fJL€V KaK6<f>p09V TcXiOe^y 

Tork S* CK 0va'i(Sv'f' dr/ava (fuiivev^ 
cXttI? dfjLVpei <f>popTiS* air\ei,(TTOV 
Ttjv 0vfAO<f>06pov Xvirrj^ (ftpiva.'f' 
Kvpco^ 6i/tt Opoelv — iiiov /cpdro^ 
aXatov dvhpwv 
i/creXioiv' eri yap 



and so the healer' etc. The periphras- 
tic imperative, ycyoO with aorist participle, 
is here seen in its original use, where it 
serves to express something not so easily 
put without it. — Others suppose that the 
sentence corresponding to xau^ re 7€voD 
is lost by anacoluthou (Wecklein); but 
this, in so short a sentence, seems un- 

100. TiX^df I properly * results in being ', 
i.e. *is on the whole' or *on the balance'. 
So in Eur. MeJ. 1095 ctd* rfiv pporoisy 
ttr 6,¥Lapbv xcudef T€\idovffi. 

loi — 103. i7ris (<ttI dvfJMpdpos \&irrf 
rrjt (f>p€y6s schol. on v. 103. — The read- 
ing is quite uncertain, dyarii Karsten. 
^ayOeiff' Pauw. As to the Doric form 
of dyayd, it is very doubtful whether in 
such points poetry was regular, and there 
are traces of a certain tendency in v to 
retain the a-sound, like that regularly 
exercised by p. Thus we have in Attic 
writing t^afUftrris, Toivd-rup, fuydrupi 
ycifULf evfdffifioit Kvvaybi, vabi^ vaxot, — 
For the last two lines Housman gives 
i\frU dfulf¥€i <ppoin-id* AxXriffTOw dv/zoG, 
\virnal<l>pov arrfPy which, as he shows (_/. 
/%. XVI. p. 250) might not improbably 
give rise to the MS. and schol. — airXi;- 
ffToy f. 

104. Kvpi^s cl)ii: they turn for relief 
to certainties, and to that which is still 
within their power, the narration of the 

105. 88iov...lKTcXiMv (in apposition to 
$po€w, or rather to the notion ici;/mo; tlmi 
9poi»yy * narration is the privil^e and gift 

of old age*): an encouragement upon the 
way permitted to men whose vigour is 
past. 58iov and aC<n4>v apply properly 
to a favourable omen on a march or 
journey. Kpdros * strength' i,e, 'that 
which strengthens 'y see on v, 199. The 
application of the metaphor to the jour- 
ney of life is suggested partly by the 
foregoing thoughts {rplwodat 6iodt rrelxei 
V. 80) but chiefly by the coming story, 
which relates to a odcov xpdrot aSa^uif in 
the literal sense of the words. In aXatow 
which means boih fortunate and permitted 
(see oXaa.) there is a double suggestion. — 
IktcXi^s, here the opposite of ^reX^, is 
a euphemism for aged: as hr^Kifi is a 
man in his vigour or perfection, so 
iKT€\-t\% here is one who has passed that 
stage (cf. #^/3ot). In Eur. Ion 780, by a 
different application of the notion 'finish- 
ed' a young man is ^ktcX^s veaviar as 
opposed to a boy. — I think it clear that 
the parenthesis begins with 5Aior, and 
not, as usually marked, with fn. If 
<i^iw..AKT{Kikw¥ is referred directly to the 
omen afterwards related, there is no point 
in the epithet iKreXiuw, however inter* 
preted : and moreover the other punctua- 
tion is required by the general sense, for 
the speakers clearly mean that as old men 
they have the right to narrate (or sin^^ 
not the right to tell this particular story. 

106 — 108: for still their age drams 
from heaven inspired persuasion^ which is 
the strength ofsongt i.e, in their eloquence 
the old retain a strength, when all other 
strength is gone.— itfiM the essence and 



OfoOev Korairpeve^ 

ahxciv^ ^VfA4f>VT0^ aloop — 

hlOpovov Kparo^f 'EX\a£o9 rjfidv 
^fMl>pop€ rarya, 

TTe/iTret cifp Bopl koX j(€pl irpaxropi 
Oovpto^ ipvi,^ TeuKpiB^ eir* alav, 

/SaaiXevd p€&p 6 KeKaipo^; 



1 07. Korawwe # et. 
III. ^yyu^pa^a t^m yw. 

1 13 — 114 inserted by corrector m in space left by M. 

type of rhetoric. The thought of this 
passage, that mental and, as we might 
say, 'literary' gifts are the remaining 
consolation of old age, is closely illus- 
trated, as well as the form of expression, 
by Eur. H, F. 673 foil. It may remind 
us that the poet was himself over sixty 
when the Agamemtion was composed. — 
(6|A4vrof aUhr 'the time bom with them' 
or * beginning from their birth \ i.e. * the 
age at which they are'; cf. 6 ^vrei/dwi^ 
X/vrot for ' the time of sleeping ' v, 885 
(Enger). — The abstraction 'age' is put 
for ' the aged ' according to a common 
habit of the language. — KaravrcWi (or 
ic«Tawfl(ci: the later MSS. have icararyei/ci, 
in M the letter is uncertain ; both forms 
are good) * inhales ^ draws down breath' 
not 'breathes down upon*. The age of 
the singer could not be said to breathe 
persuasion upon him 'from the gods'. 
wwtof and its compounds (see ifiwi^, 
tiffwww, dwa'wvw) mean either 'inhale' 
or 'exhale' according to the context. 
— ^The forms in this passage are curiously 
ambiguous : xeitfw, ftoXiror, aXurav are all 
uncertain in case, and the two last may 
ea^y bt read as datives {jioKt^}. Hence 
many corrections (see Wecklein), but the 
traditional accentuation appears to be cor- 
rect — Wecklein interprets w€i$u> to be 
the cm^dence or trust which encourages 
them to tell the following story. But the 

sentiment should from the context be one 
applicable to old men in general. 

III. i'^yx for the plural cf. Eur. 
Ion 476 riKViav ¥€€wL6€s ^tku. An abs- 
tract used in concrete bcnsc is sometimes 
singular, sometimes plural. — ^'EXXaSos 
substantive. — Aristophanes (Fro^s 1285) 
citing the verse gives the singular, 'EX- 
Xadof ^af, but presumably by a slip. 

111. ^fJi^povc rdya (ray-qz) or, as 
Dindorf, rayc^ (rayo's). The dual is 
clearly required. The schol. rriv ofi'xppova 
xep2 TO, TUKTiKd assumes the abstract form 
^i/jiippoifa rayoM (rdyrj), contrary to the 
metre. — The source of error was probably 
an accidental (or intentional, see on tj, 
1164) doubling of the 7. Hence ra'TTra, 
Toi^a, Toy 7ay. 

113. ir^irci historic present. — koI \^X 
dropi)ed accidentally from recurrence of 
the syllable -pt, restoretl from Aristoph. 
Fro^s 1288. 

114. Ooi^ios 5pvis a gallatti omai^ 
transferring to the omen the feeling it 

115. oU»v«v pacnXc^...^vlvTfls the 
appearatict of etc.^ in apposition to tf/>wf. 
See on Theb, 611. 

1 16. The difference t)etween the birds, 
the black and the white-backeil, is 
doubtless symtK)lical. The meaning must 
depend on the reading and interpretation 
of V. 136. 



2 t' i^oTTiv dpyla^ 
(f>apivT€^ iKTap fieKdOptov 
X^po^ €fc hopviroKrov 
TrafjLTrpiirroi^s iv S^pawi^Vy 
fioaKOfiepoL \arfivav 

117. Tt because the aptness of the 
omen lay in the appearance of the two 
different birds together. — W (Hartung) 
would of course be r^^lar for *one black 
and the other' etc., but is here alien from 
the meaning and inconsistent with the use 
of the singular /SouriXet/s. With di we 
should expect, as some would write, the 
plural /ScuriX^s.— dpiyCat white- marked : 
the termination is common in words 
describing the marks of animals : cf. 
ipvdpias (ipvOpos), Sai^dias the slave-name 
{^v06s)y both like apyias (dpyos) from 
colours, KoxraWaf, arefifiarias etc. It 
does not seem likely that a copyist 
should have introduced by error a form 
at once correct and peculiar. — clpy^s 
(apydeiSf apyricis white) Thiersch, for 
metre; but it cannot be proved that 
Aeschylus would not allow the pronun- 
ciation arg-yas, 

119. €K deltas, i(TTUf evffVfi^oXiaSf 
schol. — SopviroXrov : * spear-shaking ' gen. 
o( dopvTrd\TTiSf cf. XayodaiTris v. 128. do- 
pirdXrov Turncbus. On mere questions 
of spelling I have followed the MS. It 
seems to me impossible to prove that 
Aeschylus could not have written the 
word as it is given, or that his spelling 
was always consistent. 

121. Xa-y Cvav "y^v vav hares (not a hare) . 
For the periphrasis, in which 7^i'»'a means 
stock or hifici (not offspring) cf. dpaivtav 
7^1'i'a ma/t's (Eur. A/cd. 428), Ktin-avpwv 
yivva Centaurs (id. //. F. 365), yivva ^pv- 
yuhf Phrygians (id. 7ro. 531), ffdy ' A<rtr}- 
Tlda yivvav theCy an Asiatic (id. AnUr, 
loio). — Poo-K6|Mvot...8p6fMuv feeding on 
hareSf creatures full-tecined with youngs 
which they had caught in the moment 
of escape f literally 'stopped from their 
last runs\ — lpiKV|taTa from ipiKufiaros, 


cf. woXwrHpfMTot (Theophrastus) ; these 
forms are rare in the older writers, but 
there is no reason to fix any particular 
date for their first appearance. The 
neuter plural stands in apposition to the 
plural phrase Xayli^oM yhvwt the neuter 
(t kings y creatures) being used for pathos. — 
8p6|u»v is a true plural, the *nms' of the 
hares respectively. This alone would 
show that Xa7(rar yiwvtuf is plural. 
When dpo/Aoi is used of a single subject, 
it means *a series of courses, a ninning 
from place to place' (Aesch. P, y, 616, 
814, Eur. Iph, T, 971)1 a meaning here 
excluded by pXa^yra and the epithet 
Xoladios last, — The fact expressed in 
pXafiiyra XoicOltaw dpdfuar is part of the 
symbol. The Trojans were all but to 
escape their enemies, and were at last 
only caught by the pretence of abandon- 
ing the attempt. — I think the text here 
correct and simple. The assumptions 
which have created difficulty are (i) that 
ipucvfjMTa is an error, (2) that the two 
birds have but one hare, inferred ap- 
parently from V, 142, where see note. 
As to (i), the schol. gives the interpreta- 
tion ToXvKvfiova, but this no more implies 
that the text had -Kvftjwa than that it 
had xoXv-. The interpreter naturally 
uses the commoner form in both parts. 
(The possibility of the form ipucu/Aorot 
seems to have been overlooked by the 
modern editors.) On these assumptions 
some read (with recc.) ipucvfAOFa (fern. 
sing.) 0/p/Aan, and explain the gender of 
pXaftiyra (niasc. sing.) as referring to the 
meaning [roy Xayuff) of Xayb^tu^ y^rptuf. 
But this is to play fast and loose with 
TO mjfiaiyofjLeroif, The meaning of XaylpoM 
7^v»'<xi' is ex hypothesi feminine, and the 
fact that Greek had no distinct word for 


ipiKVfjLara if>€p^ri, yiwav, 

ffkafiivra Xoi^aOUmv Sp6fMov. 

alkipov atkivov eiire, ro S' €v Pi/cdrco, 

KeSpd^ Se OTparofiairn^ ISdov Biio 

\iifjMai Suraoi^^ 

^Arpe&a^ /iaj(^lfiov^ 

iiaq XayoSaira^ 

irofiwov<; r ap')(a^' 

ofjTO} S' ehre T€pd^(ov 

Xpovtp fihf ay pel 

UpMfJMv irokLv aSe KiKevOo^' 

iravra he irvpr^fav 


avT. a, 125 


134. olXiyor throughout. 

the female hare is nothing to the matter. 
Others therefore (Tumebus, Hartung, 
etc.) read ipiKvfJuwa ^pfiara and inter- 
pret this either of the mother-hare, which 
^P/UL (fetus) will not admit, or of the 
unborn offspring, which /SAajS^rra dpofiwp 
will not admit. 

134. Probably proverbial. — otXtvov 
the burden of a dirge. — In English we 
should make the first clause dependent, 
'Though sad words must be said, yet let 
the good prevail '. See on v. 360. 

H5 — 119. See Appendix C. 

138. ISdi) d^d9 lit. * understood 

the hare-devourers and the conducting 
powers ', f>. understood the combination 
of the two pairs (see on re in z/. 117) and 
perceived the parallel. — Xo7o^cUtoi f. 

133—135. Though ere they pass the 
wall all their beasts ^ their public store ^ shall 
perforce be divided and destroyed. The 
besieging army shall consume their pro- 
visions before Troy, and be reduced to 
the last straits. Calchas infers this from 
the fierce hunger of the typical eagles. 
(So also Wecklein.) This or other similar 
prophetic interpretations of hunger pro- 
bably suggested the portent in Virgil 
(Aen, 7, 116 etiam mensas consumimus). 
— «vpYiiv...trp6v6i before i.e. outside the 
wall, so 'wplMrdt irvXcU' Theb. jn.— kt^vtj 

118. \<3r^otairw, 

beasts t here as always (Paley). KT-fiixAra 
schol. here, and icHivq* -xp^imra Hesych. 
The one note explains the source of the 
other, and shows how little trust can be 
placed in the ancient lexicographers, when 
not supported by independent evidence 
or scientific probability. — yjoUpa^ division^ 
distribution *partitio' (Klausen). For 
similar uses of fioTpa in its concrete sense 
(port) see Eur. Med, 430 and note there. 
The specialized meaning fate established 
itself in prose, but in poetry the word is 
free. Sophocles probably had this or a 
like passage in mind when he described 
these herds, the supply of the Greek host 
before Troy, as ovyLyxKrh. Xe^as dfdaora 
*the mingled spoil of forage, not yet 
divided' (Ai, 54). — rd 8i||Jiio7Xi|9v| : 
rX^^oy a mass or whole is correlative to 
/tioT/Mi. By distribution the supply ceases 
to be ^Auof and to be a xX^^oj. The 
article is added to bar the possibility of 
taking the adjective as a predicate, which 
would destroy the sense. — irpis to pCcuov 
= xp6y ^IqlV or pialcas perforce (not vio- 
lently) ; it is this error which has caused 
most difficulty here. — To refer Kr-fym] with 
the schol. to the wealth of Troy requires 
us to neglect yAv,.M and to mistranslate 
icn^i^ and xiJ/rywi', and leaves unexplained 
how Calchas inferred from the portent 



Krrjvri irpoaOe rcL Sr)fiio7r\i]0rj 
fiotpa Xairdf^et, irpo^ ro filaiov, 
olov pLTj r£9 arfa 
0€60€V KV€<f>da'p irpoTxmhf oto- 
limv p^iya Tpoia^ 
arpartoOkv, olKtp yap iirl- 


134* wpoffderh., 

that the enterprise would take a long 
time. I do not apprehend the grounds 
on which it is denied (Housman, J. Phil. 
XVI. p. 151) that according to that story 
of the siege which Aeschylus followed 
the besieging army was reduced to the 
last straits before the final success. See 

'^' 343- 

136 — 144. A further suggestion from 

the portent. The cruel feast of the eagles 
is an offence against the kindly law of 
Nature, represented by Artemis ^CKtidvia 
the patroness of the young and of preg- 
nancy. The seer therefore cannot but 
recall that * the house of the eagles \ which 
is being interpreted *of the Atridse*, has 
affronted the same pK)wer by another un- 
natural banquet (the lliyestean feast); 
and he forebodes disaster from this source. 
The allusion is naturally guanled, but 
comes out more clearly below {v. 158 
ffrevSofi^ra Ovfflaw iripav {a second) 
avoijJiP ri» dSaiToy. The prophet fears 
that the old sin may be made to * breed 
another like itself according to the doc- 
trine of V, 755. — The question here, as 
excellently put by Paley, is * how Calchas 
infers the anger of the goddess against 
the Atridoe from the destruction of a 
hare by the eagles, unless the Atridue 
had already committed some crime, of 
which that destruction was the symbol ? * 
I suggest the above as the answer. — 
Sophocles (E/, 566) gives another account 
of the matter : Agamemnon had offended 
Artemis by killing a sacred doe. With 
this we are not directly concerned, but 
the change is interesting in itself. The 
sin Ls thus small, so that Agamemnon, as 

136. dra. 

is necessary from the point of view of the 
EUcira, is not gravely compromised, 
while such as it is it is personal to 
himself, so that we are not driven to the 
characteristic doctrine of this play, that 
one roan*s sin tends to produce sin in 

136. fya Hermann. Only may no 
divine displeasure fare-smite and overcloud 
the gathering of the host^ whose might 
should bridle Troy, The full construction 
would be rh arhyxov fjuiya TpoUu orparv- 
Bkw^ orpanaOiPt literally 'that which is 
assembled (as) a mighty curb of Troy, in 
the moment when it is assembled '. The 
words cT6fiu»,..Tpolat are a further pre- 
dicate to OTpariadiv^ and would in prose 
be represented by a dependent clause, 
&a orbfuw yimfrai r^t Tpotot. It is this 
which permits the collision of metaphors 
in KPeipdoif orofuoi' : in thought the meta- 
phors do not touch, for what is really 
* over-clouded * is not the * bridle * but ^ 
oTpdT<ooiSf the gathering of the host. 
Nevertheless the juxtaposition is bold 
and more in the manner of Pindar. — 
oTparttO^ means * in the camp at Aulis ' 
l)efore departure (Hermann: translating 
ffTparoOffdai in castris esse, which is 
substantially though not quite formally 
right). — T p oT inK v 'smitten beforehand, 
too soon *. 

139. oCK^...inNri vaTp6<: nf otmp 
rG>v KvwCtp Ai^ schol. For the tvro da- 
tives of relation, one in effect a possessive, 

see Theb. 167 <rrpaT<p ^i^pyvpw/tdr§ 

r^Xet, 621 vTz/ryoct . . . x^orf and notes 
there. — Note the emphasis on ttg^ 
which marks that the speaker refers to a 


4>6ovo^ "Afyrefu^ djva 

wravouTLP kihtI irarpo^, 

avTOTOKOV irpo Xo^ov 

fioyepav irraKa Ovofikvoto'Lv' 

ffrvyei Bi Selirvop aier&v, 

atKxvov oXXavov elire, rd S" ev PiKdro). 

Toaatov irep ei^ptav^ kclKo^ 

Spoaoiaiv aeTTTot? fiaXep&v iovrayv 

147. (UXirrott. 6vTiav, 




hereditary, not a personal, offence in the 
Atridac. — dUcrtp (Scaliger) would never 
have been suggested, had it been perceived 
that all this passage refers to the Thyestean 
feast and the consequent curse upon the 
himsf of Atreus. 

141. who sacrifict a poor trembling 
creature with ail her unborn young, 0vo- 
fiirouru The middle form O^ofuu, signi- 
fying properly 'to sacrifice for one's 
purpose' or 'with a certain ulterior ob- 
ject ', is technical for sacrifices of divina- 
tion. (See L. and Sc. s, v.) It is 
applied therefore naturally to the act of 
the eagles, as Calchas expounds it. But 
in OvotUpoiffi, as in ofx^i and again in 
a<r«Tor, the type and antitype are mixed 
together. The 'house', the 'sacrifice', 
and the 'banquet' (Jeiiri'or, a word 
proper to men, not animals, and applied 
to the Thyestean Feast in v. 1601) are 
really those of the Atridae and of Atreus. 
— vrdica used not merely as a S3monym 
of Xayc^, but in its full sense (see THtaani), 
— ^The use of the singular here is no 
evidence' that there was but one hare 
(sec above). Whether there was one or 
two, the singular in this generic descrip- 
tion is rhetorically necessary. The wicked- 
ness lay in killing a pregnant mother, 
not in killing two animals. 

144. S^lwov aUntv: such a banquet 
of eagles. So we must render it to give 
the full effect. alerCoy^ being superfluous 
(for the possessive 'their' would be 
supplied from the context), is necessarily 

emphatic. * The banquet * (see preceding 
note) was fit onlj for creatures of prey. 

146 — 152. An appeal to the goddess 
not to interfere with the fulfilment of the 
portent such as it is. The portent, it is 
noted, does not promise unmixed good, 
but only good with evil, a victory after 
much suffering (see tw. 131— 135), so 
that her displeasure may be satisfied 
without delaying the fleet and so caus- 
ing the horrible sacrifice of Iphigenia. 
— r6tnr»v an * epic ' form : roffov recc. 
See Appendix D. — KoXd: fair one. The 
invocation is propitiatory, like the w KtCKi 
and dryaB^ of common conversation. Sidg- 
wick and Wecklein also punctuate thus. 
u KoKd Weil, d icoXA (recc) is merely 
a bad conjecture. 

147. 8p6<rourtv imitated, according to 
the schol., from ffxrai (lambs) in Otl. 9. 
777, If so, it is an otld specimen of a 
poet's science. Ipffrj a lamb and ip<rri or 
fpari dew have probably no connexion; 
but Aeschylus apparently took iporj a 
lamb to mean proi)erly 'that which is 
droppeiV and extended the analogy to 
lpbiso%, Cf. ^WXio for edXafjLos boivcr, a 
parallel case, in Theb. 442. — cUirroit 
roughy uftcouthy from the stem It-, pri- 
marily 'that which cannot be handled, or 
dealt with' (see W. Leaf on Ht^v and 
iv€<Teai in J. Phil, XIV. 231). Hermann 
rightly defends this word against pro- 
posed change.— M has d^Xurots but its 
archetype had d^irroty, like f, as is proved 
by the schol. to M, which explains not 



TrdvTtap T arfpovo^v <f>iXofiaaTOi,^ 
Orip&v ofipiKokoio'^ repirvd, 
TovTtav alrel ^vfifidka Kpavai,* 
Ze^id fA€P KaTd/JLOfi<f>a Sk 
<f>dafiaTa arpovO&v, 
itfiov Si tcaXeto TlaiSva, 


dAirroif but (Wirraij.— 46vt«v : see Appen- 
dix D. — \e6vTow Stanley, from Etym, 
Mag, 377 KXijyp\Q% iv *Ayafiifu>o¥t t<^ 
aK^fUfoin Twv Xibvrtaw Spdaovs K^KXrfKc. 

149. T^»irvd swef/, delightful y because 
kindly; nom. fern. — If taken as a neuter 
with the next clause it spoils the emphasis. 

150. Still thou art prayed, seeing 
what this portent is^ to permit an answer- 
ing accomplishment, a cumbrous version, 
but we cannot with much less effect what 
the Greek does simply by throwing the 
emphasis on ro^tav, and thus giving it a 
predicative force, * this, being what it is *. 
— (i>|jiPoXa: any two things which tally 
are ^6/ipo\a to each other; here the 
event is to tally with the sign, in which 
case, it is suggested, the goddess should 
be satisfied, because de^id fi^r {i<rrt) icara- 
/io/A^a di <paafiaTa, — alrct: for the passive 
see Thuc. 2, 97 Kal aXax^^^ V*^ alrriB^Ta 
fiil Bovpai rj alT-fyravTa fiij rvx^^t't and 
L. and Sc. s, v. As used here it has 
exactly the same effect as in English. 
The speaker does not put his request 
directly but pleads that it is reasonable. 
— 8c(id |iiv ktX., as an explanatory 
comment on To^tav (see above), has 
naturally no conjunction. — The difhculties 
and conjectures made here seem to arise 
(i) from not perceiving that o/rec is 
passive, {1) from mis-joining df^(d...0Tpov- 
BCjw to the previous sentence. 

152. ^dayuara 9Tpov6Mv, the portents 
of the birds, i.e, the omen obtained by 
the eagles (see Ovo/xivoun), or in plain 
language, by the Atridae, in whose name 
he appeals. For the sense of the genitive 
see Eur. JEl. 710 rvpamfiov ^Afffmra, where 
the T^papyoi are Atreus and Thyestes (so 
that the use may well be a reminiscence) 

and the 0^fia is the golden lamb. — 
ffTpoivOQnf is generally declared (after Por- 
son) corrupt, on grounds which I cannot 
help thinking wholly unsubstantial, (i) 
The metre, it is assumed, must be dactylic. 
But as the passage is not strophic, the 
metre is really unknown. There is 
nothing unrhythmical in the text. (3) 
arpovOos, since it meant a sparrow, could 
not mean an eagle. The same argument 
would prove that it could not mean an 
ostrich or a dove. The variety of its 
meanings shows that originally it meant 
simply *a bird', and like other synony- 
mous words, was variously limited in 
various places. Here we find it in its 
proper sense. (3) The insertion of 
arpovdup is easily accounted for by re- 
collection of the somewhat similar story 
about the serpent and the birds {ffrpouOol) 
in Homer (//. 2, 311). The likelihood 
of this we need not criticize. If the word 
could not be genuine here, we might 
enquire whence it came, but till that is 
shown, the fact that it might have been 
inserted is immaterial. The derivation 
itself seems far-fetched. 

153. But oh, in the name of the 
Healing God, do not thou etc. The 
appeal is still to Artemis, who is en- 
treated to remember her near connexion 
with Apollo the God of Mercy. Td(|| 
md pers. subj. from irev^rfw (for the 
form see L. and Sc. s, v,) not 3rd pers. 
from (rev^a. The middle voice has the 
same force as in airevdofiiya, — This was 
the ancient interpretation (w "kfneiu, 
schol. on 156, does not imply the reading 
T€6^Xlt as Hermann infers)* and seems 
preferable in feeling to the recent view 
that Apollo is asked to prevent the in- 


fJL^ ripa^ dimiTpSov^ 

Aavaok XP^^^^ ixevriiZa^ 
wirKoia^ revfyp 
tnrevSo/iipa Ovclav 
eripav apofiSv nvy SSatrop. 
veixiwv riicTova a-v^u^vrop, 
ov Seunjvopa. fiifivei 
yap <l>o/3€pd waXlvopTO^ 
olKovofU)^ SoXJa, 
/ipdfjuop /JLtjvi^ reKPoiroivo^, 
TOidSe KaX^a9 ^vp 
fieydXot^ dyaOoi^ direKXarf^ep 
fiopaifi dir oppiOcop ' 
6Si<op oIkoi^ ficLaiXeioi^' 

T0i9 S* Opi^tDPOV 

oTKii'Op aiKiPOP ehri, to S' ev pixaTO), 

165. dWirXoi^cr. 





tention of Artemis. Moreover on such a 
point, if any, ancient tradition should be 

154. Tivat, 156 Tiva: the vagueness 
of foreboding. 

157. ntfSoyJwa the reflexive form 
(Jor ihyseif), not ffvei^owra, because the 
ultimate object would not be the death of 
the victim but the satisfaction of Artemis' 
wrath. -~0ipoiav MfQ»i that of Iphigenia. 
— AuTor: that may not, like an ordinary 
lawful sacrifice, be partaken of. 

159. vwfimf T^CTOva orvii^vrov: a 
very difficult and obscure phrase, literally 
'inbred maker of hatred*, or maker of 
haired in the very flesh. Some (as Weck- 
lein) render it by * creator of hatred t)^- 
tween near friends', SHfier von Hader 
unier den Angehorigen^ />. the husband 
and wife, Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra, 
comparing Soph. Ant. 794 ¥^m% i»hp(a¥ 
%imaiiu9. This would be simple according 
to Greek habit of expression, if husband 
and wife were called <r6fi^oi, which 
however does not appear to be ascertained. 
If this is the meaning, as I incline to 
think, it must be based on some such 

V. A A. 

mystic use of the word, not now traceable. 
The examples given in L. and Sc. s. w. 
ff6fA^vTot, cvfktp^Wy especially the Platonic 
examples, will show that it is not un- 
likely. — clinging^ inseparable (Paley, Her- 
mann, Klausen) comes to the same thing 
by a slightly different road. 

160. oif Scun^vopa reMling against 
the husband : by a bold figure the act of 
sacrifice, personified, is treated as a living 
agent, and takes the qualities of the true 
agent (the wife) who carries out the effect 
of it. The language is of course inten- 
tionally obscure. It is the language of 
prophecy, fully intelligible only in the 
light of the event. — |JiC|Jivct : the subject is 
still the living crime, embodied in the 
avenging wife and mother. 

165. dlWicXaY^ (recc.) (iv& : the pre- 
position depends on fto/xrc^ia, * predictions 
deduced from *. — The foregoing epode has 
been largely remodelled by recent critics 
(especially in w, 150 — 163) upon metrical 
assumptions, which seem to me extremely 
unsafe in dealing with a piece of recita- 
tive not strophic in character. 



Zev^ — ooTi^ iroT iariv] el toS av- 

T^ <f>i\op KetcKriiieyfpi 

TovTO viv irpoaewkna^, 

ovK lj((o irpoaeifKaaoA, 

Train i'lruTraOiAdfievo^ 

7rXi)i/ Ato9» €i TO fiArav 

airo if>povrLho^ a^Oo^ 

175. t66€. 

arp. a, 1 70 


1 70. The narrative at this point comes 
face to face >*ith a mystery, upon which 
the poet pauses. How shall the religious 
mind explain to itself such an event as 
the sacrifice of Iphigenia? On the one 
hand Agamemnon received divine warn- 
ing against it ; on the other hand he was 
fearfully tempted to commit it, and this 
by divine act and in consequence of sin 
not his own. Why should guilt be visited, 
as it is, beyond the guilty? Why does 
the Divinity permit, nay, sometimes seem 
to bring about, the evil which he de- 
nounces? In the last resort we can 
answer these questions only 'by casting 
off the burden of vanity in the name of 
the Almighty* {v. 175), that is, in the 
language of later theology, by faith. So 
much however we see, that evil itself is 
an instrument of moral discipline, per- 
haps the only possible, and, if so, a mercy 
after all (v. 192). Religious tradition 
shadows forth such a doctrine, when it 
tells us on the one hand that there is one 
Power over all, and on the other hand 
that this Power itself has been developed 
out of a struggle, and that the present 
order of things stands upon the ruin of 
previous experiments. Thus does Aeschy- 
lus spiritualize the uncouth legends of the 
ancient cosmogony with its strange suc- 
cession of brutal deities. — ^The structure 
of the passage, though simple, is not 
perfectly continuous. Zei>f in v. 170 is 
the projected subject to the statement 
*Zeus has decreed that wisdom should 
come by experience', but this statement 
is deferred, in order to set forth the 

legends and suggest the point of view 
from which they are to be regarded, and 
finally appears {v, 186) in a slightly 
modified shape. 

17a *Zeus — meaning thereby that 
unknown Power, whose pleasure it is to 
be so called*. aiSrf emphatic, to him- 

173. o^K lx« vpoo'cucdlo^u...TX'4v 
Ai6s literally *I can make no other 
guess for the purpose but Zmx' i.e, I 
can think of no other to trust, but in the 
one Almighty is my only resource, wpoa- 
eiira^ here is not 'to compare', or 'liken 
/^', but *to conjecture with a view to* 
the purpose explained in vo, 175 — 177. — 
'I can liken none but Zeus to Sheas' 
(Wecklein). This is nearly the same, 
but leaves the dependence of ti rrX. 
somewhat obscure. 

174. vdW ln«TaO|M^|MiPOt, in deep 
pondering upon all tkmgt, wdvra ike 
universe as in Eur. Med. 411 Uxa koI 
Tarra vtiXiy crpi^erm nature and the 
universe are turned upside dewn^ where 
see note. — lirv- ever and over, 

175. Td fidrav Hyfio^ the burden 'At 
vain \ that is, the burden, in the language 
of 7^ PreaeAer, of * vanity ', the oppres- 
sive sense of futility which must ac- 
company a belief that the moral problem 
of the world is insoluble. — rd Panw. 

177. Inpr^iutf in the fulUst seme. 
As to the use here of this ' etjrmological ' 
term, and the light which it may throw 
on the source, from which Aeschylus drew 
the form of his thought, I ha^e written 
in Appendix II, to my edition of the 



oiS 5(m9 irApoidev fjv fieya?, 

'n'a/JLfJuij(ff Opaaei ffpvav, 

oi? y ik4 y^ai irplv w, 

09 8* ftreAT l^v, rpui- 

tcnjpo^ oIx€Ta^ rvx^v. 

Zrfva Si T£9 7rpO(f>p6vo^ 

iirivUcut tc ka^mv 

rev^erai 4>P^^v roiraV -r r -^ . , 

rhv <f>pov€iv fipoTois 65q»- 

aapra Vy wdOei j idOo^ ' 

deyra tcvpU»^ ^€iv. 

180. oM^X^^cu. 184. ^Xd^y. 

ain-. a . 



(TTp, p . 

185. r6 TOM. 

Seven Agmnst Thebes, A reference to 
that place will be sufficient, for the 
etymological origin of the thought, even 
if it be, as I think, certainly traceable, 
has little effect on the present application 
of it. 

178 — 185. According to Greek tra- 
dition Zeus and the dynasty of Zeus 
were the third in succession to supreme 
power, having expelled Kronos, father of 
Zeus (^t hrwLT 1^), who had expelled 
his fiUher Onranos {Barit vdpoidei' i(r). 
Aeschylus, relieving the legend of its 
grotesque details, reproduces it so as to 
maik the two points which he requires, 
that there is a Supreme Ruler, and that 
he won his position by a contest. 

178. Smf vague, 'he, whate'er he 
was, who'. This earliest power has 
ahnost ceased to be discernible even in 

179b ««|i|idxv victariomsi but the 
word is used, like rpuucHip and ivufUui, 
to sustain the metaphor from gymnastic 
contests: vdftpaxot was specially as- 
sociated with the wtKy-KpArtoif (see L. and 
Sc. /. v.). — pp^tnr. fifidw to teem^ to 
Mprmti describes generally richness and 
faUness of life and is here applied to 
ammal vigour : cf. the metaphor of the 
sap in V, 77. 

180. oM' lU^lerai wplv dir (Maigo- 

liouth) Ttnll scarce be profved to have once 
been^ literally *will not so much as be 
proved ', an expressive phrase for destruc- 
tion which has left no trace. — «v : imperfect 
participle. — This seems the best restora- 
tion suggested. It is as near to the MS. 
as ovW X^^eroi (the error having probably 
arisen through the spelling ov^tK^v^i^ox) 
and better in sense. 

181. TfHaKTT|pot pro|)erly a wrestler 
who throws his opponent three times, 
thus winning the victory. See Eum, 

183—185. But he thcU by forecast 
giveth titles of victory to Zeus^ shall be 
right in the guess of his thought^ or, if 
icXdt*»v be read *he that singeth the 
hymn of victory to Zeus'. In plain 
words 'Zeus' power may be trusted in 
all*. See Appendix E. 

186 — 188. Who leadeth men to under- 
standing under this law, thai they learn 
a truth by the suffering of it. This is 
one sentence, in which 68«tfo^vra is the 
principal verb and O^vra a subordinate 
participle, equivalent to tt c5dw(rc...^c2t 
kt\, — 68«iouvTa: gnomic aorist. — In the 
second and properly participial clause, 
the emphasis is on r^ xd^ei, constructed 
as instrumental with fidOos, The whol^ 
phrase rji vdBei /M0in is the subject of 
Kvpittt fx^w to be establishcd.'-^b¥..,hiii' 


t rrd^ei 8*, ivff' vt tv^, -rrpo xapSCa^ 

teal trap a/covras i}\0€ aasippoveiv. 

Sai/j.oviai' Se trov X"P*^ ffutmi 
aeKfia tre/tnov ^/tectoi'. 

i8g. (y 0' Srrif. 

aarra, ■rir...BlrTa Schiitz, a mistaken 
change, though nttractive nt first sight 
Hid rollawed in many texts. The clause 
Tir...l>i\liaarra, if taken as a separate 
propositidn. is irrelevant ; the point is 
nnl that Zeus teaches monkind, but that 
he has imposed upon them one universal 
condition of learning. Moreover ihe 
removal of the article from t^ irttPri 
obscures and has in feet made unintel- 
ligible the connciioD and construction of 
the folloivin^ sentence. See next note. 

185 — 191. F!>r it tlreiis, where if litt 
dertnatit, and its aeki keeps before the 
mind the memory 0/ the kurl ; and se 
msdom rames Ib them joUhoHl tieir Tor/I. 
The admonitory recollection of experience 
is compared to a wound which loni; 
afterwards will ache at limen and even 
break out again, reminding the EnifTercr 
of the original hurl. TTie comparison 
would Kuisest itself even more naturally 
under the rude life and rude sui^ry of 
ancient limes. The subject to (rrj^n is 
t4 wiSoi (as is clear if tv *iBti be 
retained in the preceding clause) whii:h 
passes in the metaphor into the restricted 
sense of <i Ann : cf. Eum. 499 nXXi 
roil^pvra riBia. — vfvos stands in ap- 
position to Ihe subject.— irpi KopSCai 
depends upon pj/tiffi-riiuiir. — h/V tir*^ 
litendly wherever il sliejv, i.e. wherever 
Iherc is such a dormant hurl, irt^ 
e Doric eonlraction for l/tt&Tj (or for 
■I indicative). The intransitive use 
tf brriei is Homeric, but like many other 
ic forms and usages does not appear 
t until after Ihe best age. 

HiUc nlwi 

I the 

e Ihe reading h Drvy (supplying 

iarl), but the sentence is then cumbrous. 
— Tite language here isall taken from the 
poetical vocabulary of medicine, and may 
be illustrated from the Pkilocletes and 
elsewhere. For rrofo* to ooie, treat out 
see PhU. 783 iiTof« yi.p oB ^ner t4 fc , . , 
■niicior ol^a: and for Ihe application of 
the word to that from which the flowing 
comes see Cho. to.s6 i( t^^riiir tritmnrir 
affitt SuaipiKij, For Ihe metaphor of 
i(e/f applied to a dormant pain which 
ceases and recurs see Phil. 649 ^ilXXu' ^ 
votMw ri!' ^Xkw; for «4*M f<ai», aehe 
Phil. G,t7 Kolpan mrovti) *ifau Xitforrot: 
for ir^iB inf. B41 Soph. Ai. <;8i nvuir 
r^nn a hnrl that needs Ihe knife. See 
liirther L. and Sc s. jv. — This passage 
is commonly treated as deeply corrupt 
and corrected violently, but only, 1 think, 
in consequence of the erroneous assump- 
tion that the Brwi is that of the suDerer. 
On this assumption nothing can be made 
of it. — IvovTOf vilhout their joili mther 
than against their will, S,iai» b«ng merely 
the negative of itiai. So ifKitvo Scsrn 
itowiiwi la-tSi* take laiUingly thy pari of 
suffering viilh him who ha/A no tniil 
{Ttei. 1014). The point here is not so 
much that men will not be wise as that 
except through su Bering they perhaps 

191 — 193. And if is /rrha/>i a merry 
from a Deity taha ceimi by sln*ggfe to hii 
majestic seat. The subject is slill *i.6at, 
suffering regarded as a discipline. — (hnfin 
iJliivtw: >to be sealed by force' has two 
possible meanings, (i) ''» have taken a 
seat by force' (1) 'to have lieen forced lo 
lake a sent' ('to sit in might' is of course 
impossible). Here Ihe context decides 



ical Tiff if^ik^v 6 irpi" 
cr/3u9 peSp ^kfxauK&v^ 
fbdpTiv ovTiPa '^iymv, 
ifjLTToioi^ Tvyaiai, ovfAWvitop, 
€St dirXoia Kevarf- 
yet fiapuvovT *A\autc6^ Xeai^ 

dm. ff, 

for the first meaning. — 8ai|a^v«v. The 
plnral must not be pressed, and is in fact 
Dot correctly represented by a plural in 
English. Zeus only is in view, but the 
pluxal indicates (as usual) that the char- 
acter or position rather than the person 
is described. — Note carefully the emphasis 
on fa^i6rwr. The point is that heaven 
as well as earth is under the general law. 
This is the moral, or rather part of the 
mora], which the poet draws from the 
legendairy theology which he has given 
in outline. The necessity of suffering 
as a discipline is perhaps taught by the 
tradition that the Deity itself has known 
progression and that 'Zeus' did not 
reign till he had first overcome. — Weck- 
lein reads this sentence as a rhetorical 
question (it€d,..^itiwia¥\) which the MS. 
equally admits : *' und nirgend zeigt sich 
Gnade der Gotter, die mit Gewalt das 
Steuemider lenken". This makes it a 
protest against the divine cruelty instead 
of an acknowledgment of the divine 
mercy. The context points, I think, the 
other way. — viXfiA the metaphor is per- 
.haps from place in a ship (cf. v. 1615) ; 
inffliUyot Tdp 6 Zc^f schol. see Horn. //. 
8. 69 (Wecklein). But the use of ffiXfua 
does not necessarily imply this. 

194—117. The story is resumed, and 
proceeds in one sweeping period to the 
sacrifice of Iphigenia, the circumstances 
of whidi suggested the foregoing paren- 
theni. maX r6fn to an thai occasion etc. 
iipf/k^Mm 6 wp^v^vf. The substance of 
the sentence here commenced is this, 
'Agamemnon, in spite of the divine 
warning, resolved in the end to slay his 
child '• The verb comes in v. 115 (c^re), 
where after long preliminary clauses, the 

main sentence is resimied with a 3^, and 
for more clearness the subject is repeated 
almost in the same words, di^a^ h wpio^vs. 

196 — 197: remembering that a prophet is 
not to blame (for his message) and bending 
to the buffets of fortune. The old men, 
though unable to excuse the king's crime, 
make the best of his case, and give to his 
acquiescence this courteous turn. |idvTiv 
o&riva i|fly«v literally ' blaming no pro- 
phet*, embracing this particular case under 
the general rule. It may be guessed that 
Aeschylus has in view the petulant and 
unprincely denunciations, which Homer, 
with the feelings of a simpler time, puts 
in the mouth of the 'king of men': 
ftjkifTi KaxtaPf oiJ wu) tot4 not rb KfHjTfvw 
eliraf. cdtl rot rd kox iarl <f>l\a ippeol 
luunc^fodcu. etc. (Agamemnon to Calchas. 
//. I. 106. Wecklein also compares this 
passage, and observes that such opposi- 
tion would have been more in place at 
Aulis). — wykirvimv : the metaphor seems 
to be taken, by contrast, from the act of 
struggling against the wind. There is no 
exact parallel now extant, but from the 
manner of use here it must be supposed 
to have been once common and popular. — 
^Mra£oit: a unique and obscure word, 
perhaps to be connected with ireUw 
(itkiraioaffaii schol.). The position shows 
that it is emphatic and contains the point 
of the phrase; seemingly 'disposed to 
yield to fortune as it might strike*. 
Wecklein refers the metaphor to the 
beating of waves upon a ship. 

198. KcrttYYfS. As an ancient army 
depended almost entirely on foraging for 
provisions, to be detained on their own 
shore threatened starvation. 



XaX#c/So9 Tripav €xo>v iraXippo- 
001^ iv AvKlBo^ Toiroi^' 
irvoal S* airh ^rpvfiovo^ fioKjovcai 
fcatc6<r)(p\oi, vijOTiBe^, Bwropfioi, 
PpOT&v aXai, 

7ra\ififiiiK7) j(p6pov TiOeurod, 

Tplfitp xari^aivop av- 

0o<: ^A^pyeifov' cTrel Be xal 

TTuepov ;^6//LUiT09 oKXo fifjj(ap 

fipiOvrepov irpo/jLoio'iv 

fiavTi^ iK\ar/^€ irpo^kpwv 

^\pT€iuVy SxjTe yQova fidicrpoi^: 

hriKpovaavTiK ^ArpelSa^ 

SoKpv firj KaTaa')(elv' — 

dva^ S' 6 7rpi(Tl3v<: toB* elire (fxovciv' 

fiap€ta ijJkv Krjp ro firj TnOiaOai, 


arp. 7 



carr, 7. 21 5 

107. Kori^eyoy (ai m). 

103. viian\8cs hungry, because they 
make to hunger. 

304. ppoTMv dCXoi doubtful. Mr 
Housman would refer this SXij to the 
stem of d\iw to grinds and render it by 
tribulatUn. This gives a perfectly simple 
lense and is very attractive, although the 
known derivatives of this stem seem to 
be literal only not metaphorical. That 
this dXi; should coexist with dXif ivandtr- 
ingy itself extremely rare and only poetical, 
is quite likely. — Those who take 6>jiu here 
to mean wamUrittg, explain it as meaning 
that the winds make the men wander, 
either literally in search of forage, or 
metaphorically in their minds, i.e, drive 
them mad. But both explanations seem 
highly artificial. (VVeckldn slightly modi- 
fies this last * Irrsal fiir die Menschcn, 
weil dcr fortdauemde Wind Befangenheit 
des Kopfes erzeugt '.) 

205 — 3o8. On the metre see Appen- 
dix II. i^eci;!' Pauw, re koX Porson. 

208. iircl: the subordinate clause 
commenced at e&re (v. 198) takes a fresh 

116. welBeaOai, 

III. iKXa^ff: for the tone of this 
word see on v. 184, Appendix E. — ^The 
lengthening of e before wp- is epic. 
ikXay^eif Porson. — wp o^ipiir "Afrquv 
' putting forward Artemis *, i^. citing her 
demands as his reason and defence. See 
L. and S. s, v. 

915. 84. See on v, 194. For t68* 
Stanley T6r'. The adverb wouM be 
effective as resuming the previous r6rc in 
V. 194. For T6d€ see V. 418 (Wecklein). 
— dvf ^ymv * spake in words ', or * with 
articulate voice* (the proper meaning of 
0<iii'i>), as contrasted with the 'unchecked 
tears' of the previous verse, in EngUsh 
foufid voice tmd said. That this is the 
meaning (and not 'spake and said* ut. 
*said') is shown by the tense of the 
participle (^wrwr not ^wri^at) and still 
more clearly by its emphatic positioii. 

ai6. ri |ii) ir UMii l m (Tnrnebns) If 
refuse obedience is more pointed than rft 
I&1) irf<Oi(r0ab to holdout^ and is fiiTOiured 
though not absolutely reqoiied by the 
metre. The MS. does not cffectasOy 
distinguish them. 


fiapela S*, el 

rixvov Sat^ta, B6fi{ov dfyaXfia, 
fjualvmp irap0evoo'<l>drfoiai,p 
peiOpot^ Trarp^v^ X^p^ 
fimfjLov iriXM^. rl t&pB* avev 
/catcSv; 7r£^ \iir6vav^ yepmfJLtu 
^VfifAa^la^ afiapTWV'y 
Travaapifiov yctp OvaUi^ 
TTopOeplov ff aXiiaro^ ^(^9 
irepiopym^t eiriOvfielv 
Oip^i^. eS yctp ettf. 
iirei B* dvdfyica^ IBv XiiroBvov 
<f>p€vi^ irveoDP Bvaaefirj rpowalap 
aporypoPf opiepop, roOep 
TO iraprSroXfjLOP ^poveip fiereypon. 
fiporroi^ Opoirvpei yap aia-xpop/triTL^ 
rdXiUPa irapcucoTra irpcyroirrjfifop. 
113. Ti Tbf Xi«'6yav0-re(text h). 




OTp. B' 


131. PpOTOlS. 

110. ^t l ^oif pronounced pelOpois and 
so written in h.^>n the metre see Ap- 
pendix 11.^ 

111. VMS yMjuu; *how can I be?' 
i^m 'how can I bear to be?' 

114 — 116. For ioger is their craving 
that to stay the winds her virgin blood 
should be offered up^ and well they may 
desire it,--6^ffi (see bpfyouu) has for subject 
ffv/ifiaxUh and takes the dependent geni- 
tives according to rule. li rtOmuW Olfut 
literally 'it being permissible that they 
should desire it'. The use in this clause 
of the weaker word {iwiBufidp as compared 
with ipyaif) aids the intended point, * they 
crave it eagerly, and for desiring it can- 
not be blamed '4 that is, their 'desire, 
however keen, is not unreasonable'. 
Agamemnon endeavours to persuade 
himself that he yields from a sense of 
duty. — For the absolute use of 04fut cf. 
the similar use of xP^^^t ^ word parallel 
in its uses throughout, e.g, 06 xP^tav 
o^tTt Thuc. 3. 40, and see L. and Sc. 
/. 9. — I suggest that this punctuation 
and construction remove the objections 

properly made if irawrafi^ov...$ifus {iirrC) 
be taken as one sentence, viz. (i) that 
iwidu/jbeTp requires a pronominal subject to 
show that the sentence is not general, 
and (1) that d/ryf (dative of bpyi/i) irept- 
6py<as iwidvfieip is at once verbose and 
feeble. For proposed changes see "Weck- 
lein Appendix, — TepioffyQs BlomBeld, as 
from •wtfuofTfifi. Either form is correct, 
and duplicate forms in both terminations 
are common. 

117. Y^ '^^ ("o^ fi'')f ^ effect the 
English well. 

130. T68€v...|t«T<YV» from that mo- 
ment he took to his heart unflinching 
resolve. Constr. fieriyvia rb voL¥T6To\fu>y 
wrre <l>po¥€w oM. — fierayiyyiiffKbi here 
has an ace. object of the feeling assumed, 
not as more commonly of the feeling 
quitted {fieraytyinaoKeuf arav to repent 


131 — 133. For to put faith in the 
shedding 0/ blood is an obstinate delusion t 
whose base suggestion is the beginning of 
sin, literally, ' for by bloodshed takes (or 
' gives ') confidence an obstinate delusion ', 



yeuiaOod, Ovyarpo^, yuvai/coTroi' 

Kcu irporikeia va&v. 
\tTa9 a fcal tcKi]B6va^ irarptpov^ 
trap ovhev al&va irapOeveiov 
eOevTO (l>iX6fiaj(pi fipafifj<;, 


dvT. S*. 


etc. pp^TOit: (instrumental dative) b 
the plural (cf. aXfiara) of the Homeric 
word ppoTos bloody as in Od, 34, 189 
d«x>r{^aia-et fuKca^a fiporop i^ ufreiXiwp, 
The MS. gives the more familiar accen- 
tuation from Pfxyrot, — Opcuriivfi may be 
taken either transitively (the object, roif 
$paawhiu¥0¥f being left to be understood, 
as such a universal object often is in Greek, 
Latin, English, and all languages), or in- 
transitively, for which cf. Soph. El, 916 
aXX*, w 0iXi7» Oap9W€. The sense is the 
same either way. — Note the position of 
ydp. The principal emphasis is on fiporoiSt 
but there is also a joint emphasis on 
ppoTois dpoffvpci which are closely con- 
nected together and distinguished, as 
subject from predicate, from the rest of 
the sentence. It is this which justifies the 
place of the conjunction. See on Tlk^. 
281 Xewrrijpa S^/xoo d oOti foi <t>vyQ 
fi6pov. — irofHMCoird: the personified df- 
Itision stands for those who entertain it. — 
The sentence is directed against the 
doctrine of a rude and barbarous religion 
that the blood of sacrifice is efficacious, 
without respect to moral considerations. 
Lucretius (i. 80 — loi) draws from the 
story a like moral in his tantum rcligio 
potuit suadere nialorum^ condemning 
however rcligio in a much more sweep- 
ing sense than Aeschylus intends. — 
ppoToi'S (Spanheim) is the common read- 
ing, but is for many reasons not to be 
accepted: for (i) it does not account for 
the MS., (1) the emphasis on /3poToi>s has 
no point, (3) there is then no excuse for 
the position of ydp^ and (4) the sense is 
incomplete, as there is nothing to show 
what particular delusion is intended. 

334. 8* o^v however, for good or ill. 

335. Oiryarp^St 7Vvaucoiro(vtfV. The 
antithesis is significant 'the daughter 
being a blood- relation, the wife a stranger ' 
(Sidgwick), and moreover exposes the 
moral monstrosity of supporting a cause, 
which rested on the sanctities of the 
family, by an offence against those very 

336. ctpM^dvin apposition to the action 
{rb Ov€iw) of the verb Ovrrip yepiffOai. 

337. irporiXfia: see on w. 65, 349, 
and Lucretius (I.e.) 'non ut sollemni 
more sacrorum perfecto posset (Iphi- 
genia) claro comitari Hymenaeo, sed 
casta inceste nubendi tempore in ipso 
concideret \ 

338 — 340: for her prayers and appeals 
to her father, {nure) life-breath of a girl, 
the spectators, eager for war, cared not at 
all. ppopiif this word, of uncertain 
origin, seems to combine, like the Latin 
arbiter, the meanings oi judge and specta- 
tor (Eur. Ifel. 703, and sec editor's note 
on Eur. Afed, 374), the fundamental sense 
being probably witness. Here it means 
in full ' spectators on whom the decision 
depended '. — aU*va irofOlvcMV. These 
words, as their position shows, are re- 
lated as an explanation to ira/)' odd^ 
(OcfTo, This forbids the corrections 
a/uira wapS^ifcw r* {and her virgin life) 
Elmsley, aiw re TOftBhfuw (O. Miiller). 
alayiui TOfiOircioif (Karsten) is admissible. 
But no change is required. That alcSra 
should stand in apposition to Xirdf koI 
k\7fd6ifas seems unnatural to our ears only 
because we (rightly as a matter of science) 
connect a/wr {aWiiw) life with aevum and 
take it to mean time^ life-iime. But the 


<f>paa'€V 8* d6^oi^ irarrjp fier ev^c^p 
Blxap x^M^H^^^ ihrepOe l3mfiov 
whrXouri irepvirerrj nravrl Ovfi^ 
irpovwirrj Xafieip 
dipSffv, aT6pxiT6^ re fcaWiirp^- 



Greek poets did not so limit it. They 
associated it mainly with Arifu and ilta to 
breathe^ and took it to mean properly 
li/k-breaik. Thus £uripides, guided prob- 
ably by this and other similar phrases of 
Aeschylus, actually wrote i^^wvewrev 
aiwrna {/r. 787 Dindorf) drew breathy and 
the same conception underlies many com- 
mon phrases, such as ^locl '^a^ aZwr, 
aXwr W0arac, o/wrof trrepew^ which ex- 
clude altogether the idea of * time *. See 
also Eur. Phoen, 1532 h€!^v cl» o/wm 
fM/l\€ow, bs A«eif fuucp&irwow Ji6av, where 
the two associations of ' time ' and * breath ' 
are subtly mingled. Thus cUwa irapOi- 
reior here exactly marks both the feeling 
of the warriors and the cruelty of their 
feeling.— For wckpSivoi as a term, from the 
soldiers' view at the moment, of contempt, 
cf. irap0€Ponr(n girl-faced Eur. El. 949 iirj 
wafi0€ifwirbs dXXd ripdpttov rpdwov. 

343. irlirXourt wtpMrfTTJ wrapped in 
(«V. wrapping herself in) her robes : con- 
trast V, 349. — irpovtnnfj : wpoPcyevKvicuf 
schol. dent or btnved forward. — iravrl... 
d4p8i|v variously interpreted: (i) drooping 
in all her soul (suggested by Paley). (2) 
to raise unfalteringly the drooping maid 
(Sidgwick and the majority) ; ' the order 
of the words marks the sharp anti- 
thesis; they were to be eager, she was 
fainting with fear and grief (S.) (3) to 
raise her bowed (over the altar) ' so as to 
present her neck to the sacrificer' (Weck- 
lein). None of these is quite satisfactory. 
The order of the words WirXot«n...irpo- 
9%erK^ strongly suggests that irarrt ^u/t j> 
refers to the victim, and in fact makes 
any other interpretation seem artificial 
The supposed antithesis between irorrt 
Bvfui and wpfrntwi^ (see Sidgwick) would 
have been satisfied just as well by the 

order trpovioirri traprl 0vpu}f and this 
order alone would be natural, if fraprl 
0vpif were constructed with Xa^ctv. This 
points to (i); but irpowjinjf, which de- 
scribes an attitude not a state of mind, 
and waPTl Ovfxujf which elsewhere means 
energetically^ resolutely^ will hardly bear 
the interpretation required. On the other 
hand (2) does not satisfy the order or the 
sense of wpopunr/iif while (3) satisfies 
wpoyunri/is but not the order, and moreover 
the sacrificer would naturally strike the 
throat, not the back of the neck (see the 
sacrifice of Polyxena, Eur. //ec. 565 — 
567, Xaifibs eirrpewip 65c and r^/xfa iryciJ- 
/MTOs diappods.) — I would suggest for 
consideration the rendering desperately 
bowed down : the victim, in an agony of 
supplication, struggles with the energy of 
despair to retain her attitude and not to 
be raise<l into the posture for sacrifice 
with the throat exposed. This satisfies 
both order and words, and makes the 
two phrases rriwKoiai Trcpnrerrjf wcurrl 
0vfx(fi TTpopunrrj parallel, as by their ar- 
rangement they should be : both mark 
the struggle of the victim. 

245. Constr. <rr6fi.-Ka\\.-^v\aKhif ica- 
Ta(rx«i' <f>66yyw k.t,\., literally *and, by 
way of guard upon her fair lips, they 
should restrain \ etc. ^vXcucdv is ace. in 
apposition to the action, see dpioydpy v, 
236. It is unusual that an accusative of 
this kind should stand before the verb 
which it explains, but it seems to he so 
meant here. Others construe 0uXa«rd*' 
«faTa<rx€«' </>d&Yyotf as Thcb 277 pApifUfat 
i^iavvpoxMTi rdpP<n rdv d/n^trctx^ \€u>p, 
making the ace. orhfia depend on <f>v\aKdp 
Karoffx^ip to keep guard (Wecklein). But 
against this is ifarcurxcii' check. — 0uXcuji, 
Blomfield, cuts the knot, but does not 



pov ^vXcucav KaTaa'j(€lv 
{f^Ooyyov dpalov oIkoi^ 
Pla 'yaXLV&v t avavitp fievei. 
KpoKov fia<f>a<; S* 69 iriSop x^ovaa 

p<Dv air c(/i/iaT09 fiiXei 


irp&irovo'd ff ©9 iv ypa<l>aUf Trpoaem^iireiv 
OeXova, errel iro\\dKi<: 
Trarpo^ kot dvBp£pa^ evrpairi^ov^ 
€fjL€\'^€v, dyva S* dravpiOTo*; avSa 
irarpbs <f>tkov TpirStnrovSov eimoT/jLOP 


OTp. ۥ 


account for the text. — KoXXiirp^ppov. See 
on TAed, 520. 

148. pC^...|i(vci This fine expression 
takes special emphasis from its position in 
the new strophe (Wecklein). 

349. hfr rode of saffron^ the dress of a 
princess and a maiden. So Antigone 
unties 'the safiron splendour of her robe* 
0ToX/^t KpoK6€<r(r€Uf rpwpdt^t Eur. Phoen, 
1491 (Sidgwick). There is perhaps also 
an allusion to the hymenaeal associations 
of the colour (see on v, 337). It does 
not appear whether Aeschylus knew or 
followed the story of the pretended mar- 
riage (see Eur. Iph, AuL) by which 
Agamemnon brought his daughter to 
Aulis. — 8i : the position is natural, KpoKOV 
Pa4>hs being inseparable and in effect one 
word. — x^^***^ I CPo^^ • see Appendix 

353. trp^iroiMrd re : joined with x^ou<ra 
because both the action and the mute 
look make an appeal to their pity for her 
youth and beauty. See Eur. ^ec. 558 
foil. (So almost in the same words 

254. They knew the voice that would 
have spoken and had reason to associate 
it with pathetic remembrance of her 
proud and happy maidenhood. — The 
connection marked by fircC is often much 
looser than with our conjunctions of 

inference. Unless we supply the con- 
necting link (as here *and her look rtfos 
vocal to them, for' etc.) we should render 
simply by * and * or * and indeed *. 

258. vouova (Hartung, Enger). A 
banquet was followed by libations, usually 
three, the third to Zeus the Preserver 
{Sbnip). * With the end of the libations 
came the paean or song. So in Plato's 
Symposium, i4>ri dei«T^<xyrat <nror$df 
woiiflirourdai Koi parrot r6y ^dr (S.) '. The 
whole in fact was a sort of 'grace '. In all 
ritual acts, especially those connected like 
the paean with the worship of Apollo, 
personal purity was of great importance 
(see TM, 156, 251, 254 Eur. /oh 150 Sffios 
dw* evwas up...4foi^ffi XorpelW). Hence 
the emphasis here on &yp$. droApuroi 
aidf. Whether the custom here im- 
plied, that the children, and particularly 
the virgins, of the family should sing 
or join in singing the 'grace', sub- 
sisted in Aeschylus' time there is nothing 
to show positively. But it is natural and 
probable. In any case there can scarcely 
be reference by way of contrast, as has 
been suggested, to the 'very different' 
persons who sang the 'banquet-songs of 
later days '. The paean was not a ' ban- 
quet-song ' but a hymn, and the 'different' 
persons have no connexion with the sub- 


iraiava if)iKa)i erifia. 

Tfi S' ivOev oiSr tiSov ovt ivvevof 

re^vat hi K.fiX\avro^ ovk dxpatnoi' 

iuca Be Tott fikv iroBov- 

aiv fuiffelv d-mpphrff 

TO fUWop 

iiTfl yevotT ap KXvoti' irpo ^^oipeTw' 

tffov Si T^ -npoaTiveLv' 

TOpov yap ^fet nvvopBov avral^. 


1 59- tA 8" Mn> wkaiJolUrwtd. i.i. the 
ncri6ce itself. 

160. Wxvai leitMci, 1^. his oracalar 
utterances as a seer by profession. Cf. 
Soph. O. T. 380 Tix*ri rtxr^t intfp- 
i^pavaa. The immediate reference is lo 
f the niggestioD of the sacrifice (k hi), 

bot the accomplishtnent of this rai:>es also 
lam ta to tlie ilumtened sequel (v. 160). 

» Hence what here follows. 

161. // ij M^ /aw, tint le txfieritiKt 
wiidem skauld fail, i.t, that men shoatd 
lesm by thar own sufTeiingt, and seldom 
by atirthing else. — Stn| properly 'wont', 
'way' and here 'nature of things'; for 
this use see on Eur. Med. 411 nol AUa 
(ol vdrra »i\i» rrfii^tm KOlurt and Ike 
umvrrit is lurHtd upiide ilmiin. The 
melapbor in irippirti (lilerally 'inclines') 
su^eils a comparison between the laws 
of the moral world and those of the 
physical. Wisdom 'gravitates' (if we 
may use the anachronism) to experi- 
ence. — The rending 'justice' should be 
avoided. The 'law' is far from being 
manilcslly just ; on the contrary it raises, 
as Aeschylus has shown above, moral 

163—165. htA later MSS.— wpi x"- 
ftm H. L. Ahrens.— ^j>r the fnturt, 
one may ktar it what il eemis to past, 
eri l/iiit, 1 tart net for the hearing ; 'lis 
but OHliiipaliHg larrcui. icXioii <J» is 
the pritidpal verb, -yivavre optative in- 
definite assimilated lo f\6ait. Thesubject 
of X'f''** (literally ' let it be bidden 

1S4. ttiyitDtr' .TpexflifiiToi, 

he good-bye ' i.f . ' let it keep at a distance ') 
is tA iXiiriP supplied from KKimt Sr. wpJ 
is adverbial. The same ri {wpi) hMiu Is 
the subject of I<rov (4aTl) np wpotniniv 
'hearing of il tieforc is erjuivalcnl to 
lamenting it before'. — The sentiment is 
directed against the usefulness of div- 
ination. — After isiyAei in M a later hand 
has inserted ri tl t/nxXlVu'. There is 00 
doubt that these words, etcluded by (he 
metre, have ariseo merely from a mar- 
ginal explanation of the following 

166. J-iir it will coaii cUar and rigAl, 
when tht scitiKt itself canus clear and 
right i lilcraUy ' clear it will come, made 
right together with the divination itself'. 
The subject is still ri liKioM. When the 
thing is accomplished it will be lold 
clearly and rightly, TiU then the pro- 
phecy itself is never clear and cannot 
thcrcfoic be known to be right — aih«4 
emphatic, as the position shows. In 
Aeschylus this pronoun almost always is 
so. There is no difTiculiy in supplying 
rui T^x'o" ^vi\a v, 16a, as tlie inteiven - 
ing sentences contain nothing to wliich 
o^raii could be referred and dtviaaium 
is the topic of the whole passage. Nor is 
the emfhaiie pronuun unsuited for its 
place; it marks the poinl. and could not 
be phiced olJierwisc. The objection 
made here arises from neglect of llic 
emphasis.— The MS. seems lo meoriccl 
and the received emendation avmpOfw 
(■.'-yitii (Wellauer. Hermann) more in- 

ft? (if SiXet' 

ar^xHTTov, Airiac 

genitius lli^n happy. The subject is 
token to be TO iifyKar. and the sentence 
eJtpkinEil thus ' as the rising sun suddenly 
lightens the darkness, so will the fulfil- 
ment of the prophecy bring first and at 
once a clear confirmation' (Wccklciii). 
But surely this sense Is moal otiscurely and 
mapproprialely expressed by the wonls 
'for the (tlture will come clear, dawning 
logcthei with the light '■ Moreover the 
subject naturally supplied by the context 
is ro kXIk**, not ri iiiliXar. I also think 
(but this is a pure matter of taste) that 
Che introduction of a fresh meCaphoi' 
would K''eatly mar the simple directness 
of the epigram. If the lent is not 
suOidently cleat, I would read airrou 
(emphatic, dative of airri, which is often 
used thus independently for "the matter 
in question ') translating thus, ' fat it (the 
heating of events) will come clem and 
true when the events themselves come'. 
This however I do not think necessarj' 
or desirable. — Prof. Goodwin, retaining 
the text, retains aUo Ibe old inlerptetation, 
' the future will come clear in accord with 
them (ihe ptophecies) '- Hut aurait cannat 

167 — j6y. Lei us pray Ihm far siuh 
immaiialt geoJ, as Iht fnicHi oeiasieH 
needs. Our nearest coHcern li lift ftr- 
fresi, sele prsUftien af Ike Argive tauJ. 
Dismissing (S'aJv) useless speculation as 
to the future, they turn to what is near 
and practical, the present safety of the 
TiXit, exposed to special danger by the 
absence of its lord and, as hereafter 
appears, from Ihe state of the country 
(w. 463 — 466), It must be remembered 
thai the ciders are at ptesenl, as the 
followingqucslion shows, wholly ignoratil 
as Id the meaning or purgiosc of the 
nocturnal alarm. They do not even 
know whether, as Ihe celebration sug. 
gesis, any news has RCtually been rc- 

The antithesis of present and 
marked in three ways: (i) mwl 
immediate sequel ', liletallj 
'what comes next to this presenl': (t) 
irpa{it (it 6&n literally 'as practical 
action (business) demands', wpofn is 
here = tJ rpawiiiHior, the matter in 
hand. Ihe thing to be dgie, as opposed to 
what can only be matter of guessing or 
speculation. Cf, Soph. Ant. 1334 pA- 

rpdaaia, where note Ihe metrical em- 
phasis on rpiaatm. The emphasis upon 
Tpofii, and its pregnant force, are here 
marked by Ihe position of Ihe word in its 
clause. Somewhat similar is the Homeric 
use of nd TIC r|iS{(i rAtnu ihom, 'nothing 
firac/ical comes of lamentation ' [and see 
L. and Sci.f. rpiia): (3) t4B' dYXw- 
fiy (lofi), here is our nearest concem ; 
for oyx"™' 'nearest (in concern)' cf. i 
ayx""'''! 'the pei»>n most nearly Con- 
cerned ', Soph. El. 1 105. It is best to lake 
Ihis as a separate sentence. As an ex- 
planatory comment upon the preceding 
TiBrl rainunt it has according to usage 
no connectii^ conjunction. Il is possible 
also without change of the meaning to 
lake TUe...l|UDi as in oclual apposition 
to T<trl ToiTiMur 'the immediate maltei, 
our nearest concern' etc.— 'Airloi yain 
IpKoi ; the ancient fortress of A^os, 
which, like Athens and most other old 
centres In Hellas, occupied a hilt (Ihe 
LarUa or Larisia), It will be noticed 
that there is no attempt in this play to 
represent any of the details of the place, 
its appearance, buildings, etc. The ex- 
ample of Sophocles (see commentaries on 
the prologue to the Elertra) shows that 
such details were not within the knowledge 
of the audience (perhaps not of the poet) 
and woidd not have been appredaled. 
The play assumes nothing but those 
geneial facts, which could not but be 

yatas fiovo^ipovpov Ipicoi. 

SIki) yap ifTTi tfxDToi dp-)(ijyov tUiv 
yvvauc cpjjfituSevro^ apuevov 6p6vov. 
in) B' €iTC xeScon etre n^ -rretrvffftev^ 


)■ (i t4 CI 

known, Ihc plain, Ihe sea, the i 
■nd lie fortress. For'Arfa yo-'ia Argolis 
see L. and Sc. s.v.: for toIsi tpKot cf. 
EuT. Hfracl. 44 1 xoToi' it yofai fpioi oiIk 
4^7>if^; — These lines have been made 
diffieull only by wrong puncluation. They 
■re genemlly given (by those who do not 
alter Ihe words) thus; iAoi™,,,(ftrpo^it, 
wt 8f\ti...tpi!ot, 'Let good fortune follow, 
as is Ihe wish of this one sole defence of 
Argus, bound by close ties', Ihe last 
words being supposed to describe either 
the speakers or Clylaemneslra. Bui (i) 
tOrpa(tt, for tirpayta, is an incorrcci 
fbnn, and iS rpofn is no better : ibis 
objection has been frequently taken and 
many emendations are based on it : but 
further (i) 7aiaf IpKot is not a possible 
description of a person or persons ; in 
Iranstatioo this is |>nrtly concealed by 
the use of the abstract 'defence', but 
tptiH is a ramparl or iW/ and YolBt 
tpKiH a Mi-n or fori, as appears by Eur. 
/. e.\ in no language could persons de- 
scribe themselves without explanation 
as ' this fence ■ or ' this fort ' : {i^Syxiirrw 
has then no point, and indeed the whole 
senlencci so taken, is beside the purpose. 

170- <rtp(l*i*,..icpd'rM ij, in obedi- 
ence to her command, Here Clytaem- 
neslrn comes forth nitended (see v. 363). 

»73— i7j. Whether tidings ^cd or nal 
good fromfl Ihu fe rritbrali this cm- 
mmy b/ hopeful annBunetmiul. I would 
gliuily learn; Ihtmgh, if than veHliPil 
hep the leertf, I am eenltnl. k(Mv 
literally 'a good thing', cf. Bautminit 
TOHfs, Jroimi. "Khta. etc. Kiihner Gi. 
Gr, 1 403. — Wilh |ii] supply %tSnt, as the 

context and order of the words require. 
The elders, ns person!* worthy of the 
queen's confidence, wish to know whether 
her dcmonstrnlion is genuine or a feint. 
She has intimated that she has good 
news : hut as she has not disclosed it, the 
elders feci a very natural doubt whether 
in reality she is not merely trying to fore- 
stall and discredit a bad report which has 
reached her and mast soon gel abroad. 
That this is their doubt and the purport 
of their question is shown not only by the 
words of it, but by the addition oiH 
m-fumji ipeiriit. Only on the supposilion 
that the ncvis wai really liad could the 
queen have any motive for such con- 
cealment. The elders, it must be re- 
membered, are preoccupied with Ihe 
dangers near home, lo which they have 
just referieil and afterwards more plainly 
refer. They ottrilmtc their fears to the 
queen, as, assuming her honesly, they 
must do; indeed she herself had pretended 
to shore them (see v, 874). — tiafftkoivai 
ft*<<ri)>, dative (I.atin ablative) of cir- 
cumstance, literally ' with fair-announcing 
hopes', i,e, with promising announcement 1 
see II. 101, it Buaiuf ipalimua i\itii. — ri 
tA (M. bul corrected by the same hand) 
is a mere slip,— i(ti (Autalus) is widely 
adopted, with the interpretation 'But 
whether thou hast heard some good 
news, or hast not heard any, bul art 
sacrificing in the hope of such ' etc. But 
(1) the proper form to express this would 
be ft n teifi, rewveiUry,. iht ^-/i, (1) the 
mere eipeclalion of news wouid be no 
reasonable motive for the ceremony at , 




€vaff>f€Xo^ fiiv, wnrep tj wapoifiia^ 
&^ yevoiTO fLffrpo^ €Vi^p6vfj^ irapa, 
ir€vc€L Si X^PA^ fi€ifyv iKirCbo^ kXveiV 
Upidfiov yap yprJKoaip ^Apyeioi ttoXip. 
XO. TTci^ ^9; iri^evye tovtto^ ef cnrurria^, 
KA. Tpoiav ^Aj^auiv ova-av' ^ ropw^ ^^^'> 
XO. X^P^ ^* v<l>€pir€i Satcpvov iKxaXovfievri, 
KA, €1^ yap ^povovuTo^ ofifia <rov Kanjyopei, 
XO. ri ytip to irurrov; eari T&vii col rexfiap; 
KA. SoTip, tL 8' ov'xi'y fiTj SoXcicavTo^ 0€ov. 
XO. worepa 8' oveipatv ffxiafuiT eviriOtj cefiet^ ; 
KA. ovS* S'^av* av \d0oip,i fipi^ova-ff^ ^pevo^, 
XO, oXX' ff a iirlavkv ta9 airrepo^ il>dri<:] 
KA. TraiSo^ via>^ (S9 fcdpr ifi{op,ija'(o <f>p€Pa^. 

186. tdwtiOei corr. to evreiBij, 287. ov 96^. 




176 — ^78. She corrects their expres- 
iilon t^yy4\onny iXwlaw, accepting ivdy- 
TfXof with the remark that, acconling to 
the proverb, men look for good news in 
the morning, l>ut rejecting Airlt, as her 
news leaves nothing further to hope. — 
Note that the proverb involves a play 
u|>on the ambiguity of tit^p&pyif fitght and 
kindness (I Icsych. cf. hva^fihrtj^y signifying 
* May Night, according to her kind name, 
send her child Morning with a kind 
message I' (Sidgwick): and note also that 
this t^p6uri echoes the elder's eH^ipw. — 
|Mttov...KXilciv importing more than hope^ 
literally * greater than hope to the hear- 
ing*. It is fie?^ Air£5ot also in another 
sense ' greater than could be imagined ', 
but this sense is only for the queen and 
the audience. 

a8i. ofoiav: cf. Soph. El, 676 Ba»6vT 
*Op^crr)v piv re Kal wdXai \iy<a (Week- 

983 — 3. Kmphasis on x^^P^ ^^^ on 
c0. *My tear is the tear o( joy\ *Yes, it 

is loyal gladness (not disloyal sorrow) of 
which thine eye accuses thee'. — icaTi|- 
^opcC: the misapplication of the word 
sounds like a kindly jest, but is grim 
earnest. The loyalty of the elders is 
their crime, as they are soon to find. 

184. This punctuation (Prien, Sidg- 
wick) is demanded by the form of the 
answer thrriy. — ri wior^v, ' what you 
rely on *, the proof, 

386. c^Wn0ij Blomfield, the correct 
form according to analogy.— <in9if o^^Ml 
together, *pay the req>ect of an easy 
credence to': tinriBrp literally 'easily 
believed '.— ^vf£p«v, suggested by i»,ii 
doXwo-orrof Bt6o : a false dream would be 
a * miraculous deceit*. 

387. See Appendix F. 

388. Mavcy, has cheered or eneour^ged 
theet from ir-iahu, where hi has the 
same force (up to a certain point) as in 
iwtdpu, and UJmu its usual meaning |iee 
L. and Sc. s, v. lalwm). — By an ovenaglrt 
this aorist is commonly referred to wtabm 


XO. trolov -jfjiavov Be leai TTeiropffiiTai, ttoXiv; 

KA. T?;? t'vv TeKoiitTt}'; 0w? roK evi^povi)'; Xeya). 

XO. Koi rii ToS' i^iitoiT dc nfyyeXmv Trt;^o?; 

KA. "HtpairrTo'i, 'I8ij? \affrrpw eKTrlfivoji/ a'c\a<; 
^pvieri^ S^ tftpuKTOu Setip' dtr' dyyiipov ttu/jos 
eirfffTT^. 'IBi} ftev -rrpoi 'Epfidiov Xitra^ 
A^ftpou' fiiyaii £e Ttavop eic v^trov rpirov 

ta fatten, rakcn in ihe sense oi puffins up. 
The use or Tiaffu and the connected 
woriU lendi no support whatever to Ihis 
supposed metaphor. — duripM ^nt. 
The context shows that this was some 
supecslitioos proof yet lowei in the ^icde 
than a dream, pro1)3bly something like 
•a vague preseniiment' (Paley, Kenneily). 
The meaning and ori{;in of thephro.'TC are 
unknown. It may oc may not be derived 
from trrifor (either in the sense of loing or 
of <mun], or conoecled with Ihe Homeric 
rj 8' i£«T(p« ftrXtro ;iiWoi, which in its turn 
ii doDlitfiil. — 'A report not winged' like 
[he dream-god, i.e. brought without any 
dream (Week Ic in).— 'An unspoken ru- 
mour ', cf. ampot itiQat luord mtspokin 

%<f3. ntov -fj/iwi h'lerally 'ivilhin 
tohat time lies the capture of the city?' 
i.t. how (ar back is il to lie put?— woCmi 
IS compared with irdvau or rlnif (xuhat 
tort of timr} ^ven Ihe question the air 
of incredulous wonder. Compare the 
common use of roiDt in contempt (L. 
and Sc. i.ti.). — Ka\, emphasiiting, assumes 
the fact, ' Since it is taken, since when is 

191, She points to the dawn just 

194, iyyifev Canter (Adrx^Xot yaVr 
it 'Aya/U/iyen rir it Siatex^f mipair 
'dr' iyyapBv wi/p6i' tfn) Et. M. p. 7) a 
Pettian word describing the couriers who 
transmitted orders by successive stages. 
Herodotus (8, 98) like Aeschylus com- 
pares il lo Ihe Greek \a>txaSi)*opJa [v. 

196, ^a>d<i. 

i24i). — On the 5lory which follows see 
the Inlniduction g i. 

196. vavdv Casaubon. rpoTipot St 
TofTiiir Alirx('\ei hi ' Ayaninrori iJiirrfrai 
Tan 'niiaG, Athen. xv. p. 700 K. — ^vdv 
Is also good nnd classical ; ]irobal)]y both 
are very ancient readings in this passage. 

196 — 300. And the hu^ htainn from 
Limnoi' isJe Jvas taken up thirdly by 
Zeus' mountain of Alhos, vn'tA tueh a 
soaring pile ef voed upon it, as might 
SlrenglhiH tht travelling flame lo pass 
Joyously over lie wide main. The subject 
of/feUfars is the whole phrase 'A0^... 
Tcirrt. 'Athos and its beacon" (a 'hen- 
diadys' according lo tlie grammatical 
phrase). Note carefully that Ihe em- 
junrlien is rt not N. The periods of 
this narration are joined throughout, 
according to usage, by Si. Here ti, also 
according 10 rule, couples not periods 
but words. — OmpriXift rising above all. — 
irivTOv.-.^Sovijv. This explains and give« 
the ground for wrfprfXiji, Clytaemncstra. 
vaguely aware that in this leap of the 
Aegnean she must be making a strong 
demalul upon the faith of her hean;is. 
enforces her statement with an explana- 
tion OS lo the size and height of this 
particular beacon. — vivrw properly 'the 
open sea'; note the emphasis on it. — 
ta-)(vt. in apposition lo triiiinj. 'stretch to 
Ihe flame' for 'strengthening the flame'; 
cf. TM. 156 iiKiiKt\vyid', S&iysat <pl\eit 
'the cry which encourages friends', Ag. 
j66 tiiiaai, alrot iirSiiiiiTUf 'water, mis- 
chievous to garments' 


inrepTeXiri re (iromov uirre vuriaat 

irevicr), TO j(fit/ao^eyyev m? t(! ^Xtof 
aiXai TrapayyeiXaaa MaKi'trTou ffKowa^' 
o S' ovrt ficWav ovS" a^paafiovcav Sw^ 

wpit ifiar^v 'Irivelling unreludantly' 
{td rpii ptar), not fearing the dutancC', as 
it were. Thii ii in efTeci a pmlicate; 
the flame 'travelled gladly' bccauie 
'sirengthened'. rDpcvroSgm. of TopcuT^t, 
here an adj. — nvci) ; usually a 'torch' 
of ]Hne-wood, but here extended, like 
\anrit etc., to a 'lionlire' of ihe same, 
froni the necesiitj in llils narrative of 
varying Ihe term. — See also nexl note. 

300—301: iviiei, toilh Ihe gelJai Ifgif 
as ii tocrt b/ a sun, blastii an the tntstagt 
lo the OHtlaek i>h MatisfBi. ri fjfvvli- 
4*YY^.-'^Xi«i lilerull]' 'ns a siin its 
golden light', the verb [lends) lieing 
supplied from vaparyrlXana. This is 
the 1>eltet .Ijjilriliution, If tA TCjuirt- 
^ryy I* taken with ti\ia, the artirlc 
ri is needless and not according lo the 
uiage of AeschyTin. With the aliove 
distribution it is of courK indispensable. 
— nt««(E(. Commonly even in poetry 
this accusative of place Is found only with 

such as wapay^iiXu : and for this reason 
some read ffKinraii. But considering the 
ilrong and peculiar metaphorical language 
of Ihii passage, which represents Ihe 
beacons throughout as a scries of eimrKrs, 
actually travelling with the message from 
post 10 post (note TDptyrttu in this very 
sentence). Ihe accusative case ts really 
much iKtler sniled to Ihe .ipeciol purpose 
than the dative. To put the same thing 
otherwise, TopayyAXui here means not 
'to give a message' hut Mo go with a 
message' and therefore lakes the con- 
atniciion of a verb of motion.— vapaY- 
Y(<Xara. The tense follows accotdtng 
lo usage that of i^tii^To. 

All recent editions treat this passage 
as corrupt, on Ihe groimd that urjpTtXiJt 
r(,..a'i:ar(ii, being a fresh clause willi a 

fresh subject, requires a fresh verb. On 
this criticism, which is of long standing, 
Hermann's neglected teniaik teems to 
me perfectly conclusive: 'Nam U si 
Icgerelur, requireretur verfaam pro nomine 
T(l'iq....NuDC vero, t< posito. l^tNian 
eliam ad scquenlia refertur'. Through- 
out the passage -n and H are use<l in the 
normal way, ti in e. 315 to couple 1*0 
verbs having the some subject, it every- 
where between clause and clause. If a 
verb is to be inserted here, -rt must be 
clianged to H. It is surely quite im- 
probable that the error which removed 
the verb should have coincided with ■ 
harmonious error in the conjunction. 
Moreover the text expresses the n 
intended, and divided clauses would ni 
The high mountain and the vast beacon 
are intentionally coupled, as jointly ae- 
complbhing the prodigious task. 

301. UokCs-iw' tfvt RiV^ntat schal. 
Mr Sidgwick says *in iimlhern Euboea', 
Wecklcin ' protiably in the north ' (as the 
nearer part lo Alhos). As the dittance 
is impossible in any case, Ihe question is 
of little moment ; but it may be observed 
that the mountain by its name would 
seem lo have been 'the highest', or so 
supposed, in the island ; Ihe highest part 
is ahoul Ihe centre, near Chalcis, 

301. S 61: Makislos, i^., in the Itle- 
ralness of prose, (he watchers thereon.— 
Here ihe story becomes comparatively 
reasonable. Of Ihe country between 
Acgos and Aulis Clytaemnestra and the 
ciders might naturally be supposed lo 
have some knowledge. The distances are 
indeed, as the queen says, full long {Itit 
...Tpi«w) running up to about 35 miles; 
in A real system other stages wotdd pra- 
lielily have been interpolated for safely; 
but her conception is concavable^ II 


VlKio/i,tiioq wapiJKev ayyiXov fifpol' 
€«(!! Si ^pVKTOV tftioi i-rr' Ei'piVoti poa<i 

of S" uvriXapt-^av icai irapt'/yyeiXau irpoira 
ypaiai; fpeiKt}'i Oaifibf Si^afTe^ TTVpL 
a$ioovt7a \afi,ira<i S' ovSiwat fiavpovfikitj, 
v7rep6opavaa ireSioir . . biiroC, hiieTje 
^taiSpii-i tr£\TJirt}'i, irpoii K.i8atpa}vot \eira<t 
^yeipev dWi}!/ e'«So^^y TrotitiaO nrvpot. 
tpao-i &i TjjXeTTO/ATTOi' ouK 'qvalvero 
i^poupn, irXiov Kaiovaa twv eiprjiiivaiv' 
\ifimjv S" tnrip TopjiZviv eirifjj'if'i 
opov T eir AlyiwKcvyKTOii i^iKvovp-fvov 

jog. TO 
1 \teX louch of unreality lo the 
', thai shf should de- 
1 from Messapius (N. 
Boeotii) la Cilhaeian as 'far'. Il is 
rather fat for the puipose, but compared 
'with the preceding stages it is quite close. 
303. mfn[Ktr rugltcttd. — The rendet- 
ng • sent on ' jPaleyJ lacks aulhorily. 

308. (rWviiwra taking sirtngth afresh 
ftom the fuel at Messapiusi cf. iiiTiit in 

— It is the close relation of these 
words [iiBhovaa Xoiiiit) to the preceding 
sentence which juslilies lo the ear the 
jiosition of the conjunction : Ihey are 
really a separate clause, 'and (he beacon 
loolt strength ihererram, and ' etc. 

309. TtSlav MToii. The defective 

word nmy be read either 'OfHin-aS, as by 
Tumebui, or 'A^uiroG, as by the writers 
of l]ie later Mss. The Hist reading has 
the technical advantage of accounting 
much better for the loss of the letters by 
similBrity of syllables. On the other 
hand the later Hss. may in such a case 
well represent a tradition. The 'plain of 

r^ Asopus' is the better description, 
having i^ard to the geography. Bui on 
the other hand 'the plain of Oropus', 
praperly the maritime part of the plain 
of the Asopus, was clftiroed and generally 
possessed by Athenii, so that to name the 
V. ^. A. 

whole froni Oropus would have a popular 
sound to Athenian ears. The question is 

313. ^poupa: the watchers on Ci- 
thaeron.— wXfov icatowra Totv <[pi||j^vwv 
' making a fire larger than was enjoined ' 
(Weil), literally 'more ihan what was 
bidden them (r4 ripij^iAia)'. These words 
confirm and extend the phrase of the 
previous line oin ifnirtro, 'denied not' 
or ''disowned not'. In their enthusiasm 
the watchmen of Cithaeron, so far from 
showing reluctance, aclually exceeded 
their instructions. See further Appen- 
dix G. 

jL^. ropTfBTtiv; apparently a bay or 
estuary in the territory of M<^ara, N. E. 
of the Corinthian gulf. — \lpiirit ^aalr 
lUai it KopitBifi, Hesychius; but the de- 
scription roust be very inaccurate, if it 
refers to the Miirq here mentioned, 

315. Al^hrXaYKTOV : obviously part 
ofGeranea in the Megand. ifiot Siryapl' 
lot schol. 

316: Itrgiil Aim Ic txail itrvtly Ihc 
commanded fire. The fire from Cithaeron 
strives lo rouse an enthusiasm like its 
own in others less ready. The receiving 
mountain is personified, like HtUurrst in 
V. 301, but with a difference of charaeler. 
— 0«-piv pf) x'f'I"^^ irvpJi literally 




Trifiirovai S' dvZalovif^ a^dovip fiivei 
^\07n9 fxeyav triii'yatva, koX %apa>viKov 
vopOfioO KaTtnrtov irpOtv vvep^iiiiXeiv irpoam 
<f)Xeyovaav' ttr eff/eij^ef, etT* n^iieero 
^ Kpa-^valov otTTOf, naTirfeiTova<i aitovai;' 

'ArpeiBwv et ro ye ate^irrei rTTeyoi 

315. itiToirrpw. 

' nnl lo remit (to himself or his watch) 
the commnndmetit ot fire'. The use of 
xoplfffftfai here is genctnlly conciemnti!. 
but I think wrongly. The sense ond 
comnton constructions of Ihc verb are 
closely similor to those of upoitadiu, and 
of such Latin verbs as indulgire. remiilcrf, 
eendonare, etc. We have on the one 
hand ■xa/AiaBai tI Tin ' lo give up, 
surrender, sacrifice', and on the other 
hand xapiicaSid Tin 'lo \x indulgent to, 
not sliici with ', as in x^p'f*!''*'" ttirip 
indulgeri ei/uii. From these we naight 
fnirly have inferred, as an extension of 
usage possilile in poetic language, such a 
phrase as z«p(f"fl<" B^,^* (t.h) remiUfri 
in/vn'um (d/iV»i') 'lo let an order be 
Delected', and we may easily accept it 
«hen il actually occurs. — Among the 
many corrections may be mentioned (iJi 
Xpflitt^ai Paley (mailing Bia^Uiv the 
object of lirpivf), iii)xar/iiTaa8ai Margo- 
liouth, but there are objeclions lo Irotb. 
fiij xorlftirflcu ticatb, 'notlo be wanting', 
is, to judge by examples, an impossible 

318 — ill. A /ami litt a great btard, 
whkh could root ovirpass, sofariljlamtd, 
tht htadland vihUh looks daunt upon the 
Sanriiic ^tiif, and thus aligil thtn, and 
only fhen, wktn il reachid tlu eatlook, 
nfigAliounHg to our cily, upon the Araih- 
HoeaH feat, tahtHce nixt it lighted [at 
laill) here upon our royal roe/. — ib£t- 
Mrrov Canter. The genitive is gov- 
emed by the preposition. Note Ibat Ihe 
word, lilic very many 'active' forms in 
-TM, curreiponils to a veth also of ' tie[»- 

neni' form, ct^ojiai. — The 'headland' 
should be ' the high coast on the S. side 
of the bay of Cenchrea' (Wecltleii 
Kal...W(ppcCXXnv, i.e. Hurt avri)* (ol 
irtp^Wtir, a Coti 
pending on Ihe whole previous sentence, 
and specially npon itfyar. — ^Xiy^vnti 
feminine, not masculine, because #Xoydi 
is the really substantive word, litytui 
niiyuHi being merely descriptive and 
adjectival, and therefore air^p, notaiirir, 
is the pronoun supplied (Pale;, Sidg- 
wick). To have said ^X^wra would 
have been almost grotesque; it v 
by virtue of its resemblance to a beard 
that the flame travelled far.— (It Irxijilnv. 
tW i^Ktro. In a sentence of symmet- 
rical and prosaic form these clausea would 
be parallel with the infinitive, as ihu^ 
luore rpara fihi iwippAWtir 

ai iplKttiffai kt\. (The point 

iinish the long journey, 'ran in home' 
as it were, and would not after Aegl- 
planclos make a natural but unnecessary 
stop.J By a usage very common i 
poetry the second parallel clause i 
turned for variety into an independent 
senteoce, and the effect is further strength- 
ened by the omission (also common' 
iUr...S4, and by the rhetorical repetition 
of rlra in place of the simple copula 
«o(. — tiMi-m in v. 321 points back 10 trra 
in V. 310, ■ then... after then": they mark 
as it were the lost stage and the veiy 
last. — t6 Yf i.e. Toirri -jf. ri demonttro- 
tivc, several limes used in Aeschyloi, 
The particle y* {literally 'to llie roof of 


TOiolBe Tot fiot XatiiraStjiiiopfov vofMii, 
aK\ov trap' ciXXoii £iaBo')^ai^ irXripovfievoi 
Vina 8' o -n-proTOV ical reXfVraio^ Spafitov. 
TCK/iap TOiovToi' fft'/i^oXov re aoi \&f<o 
avtpo^ irapayyfiKaiToi; eie Tpoia^ ffiol. 
deoi'! fuv avdi^. to yucoi, Trpotreiifo/ioi' 
X070U; S axovaat TorcrSe KiiiroBavfiaaat 

J13— lojo. Readings of f. 
the Atridae Ihis at least *] is just what is 
vBOted to give to the close the animalinn 
of poetic feeling. This time n/ Itai/, 
after being often sent on, the fai-lravelled 
mesengerhad indeed arrived.— The later 
HSS. 0ve the commonplace tUi, but 
H, unhappily about to fail from Ihis 
point till P. lojo, here gives a last assis- 
tance, which should not be refused. — To 
write, with Hermann and others, in r. 531 
lirr taini^fr, tvr i,<plsFro. 'till it lighted, 
when it arrived ', 01 to make any change 
at all, is unnecessary and injurious. The 
repetitions ^•\trfht...ip\ly<i\nrav, eh' lain)- 
lt« atirmi are not neglifient 
bat calculated ; it is natural rhetoric 
ilighll; overdone, as here il should 

313 t lit Hgkl Ihrre, -ahiih ihmat a 
ftJigrerfrem lit hiacen upon Ida. ^dot 
Ti8« : she points (o Arachnacus, behind 
which, 10 add elfecl (o her words, the 
eldcra might now see the beginning of 
day, Il is the place of the beacon 
which helps to suggest the comparison of 
it. on its first appearance, to the dawn. 
V. »i. — o{N,.,«^t literally 'not without 
ui ancestor in the beacon of Ida '. The 
genitive depends 00 the privative force of 
the adjective. ^The negative turn of this 
jesting phrase is for the cars of the 
audience. As a fact, the beacon was 
it^Mfvi, and had no 'ancestry' al all, 
but it has sDpplied (he defect, as others 
«iL do, by a little invention, t^vat 
rdirrow in Ihc phrase of Aristophanes 

314. riHolS' Trvfuit. 
{Birds 7fis)i a""! so is dnrrw no 


334. TOIoCSl T0( |IOl SchiitZ. THofS* 

trrxiiM B. It would scarcely be appto- 
priale here to say of the runners that 
they are ready. — Xa|iiWaSi]^p<«'. In the 
race called Xafurojij^fila a chain of run' 
neis, posted al intervals, passed a lighted 
torch from the start 10 the goal. The 
chain won which accomplished this in 
the shortest lime, provided that the torch 
wn* kept alight, {There were several 
forms of the race, 1nit this is plainly the 
method meant here.) The custom wa« 
specially popular .it Athens (Wecklein), 
and offers a natural iltiutration of the 
(i re-message passed from mountain to 


jifi. But the victor ii Ihi mnntr tuAb 
ran Jirsl and iatl. See Appendix 

3»9— .«' 


lder« B 

ished that they scarcely hnow what to 
think or say, and one of them tries to 
draw from the queen some ' more de- 
tails ' (SidgwLck) on the subject of the 
beacons, pulling the request delicately 
in the form of a compliment to her 
narration, Nalundly he does not suc- 
ceed. TTie thoughts of the queen arc 
gone away to the absent ones 'in 
Troy' I — 0wtt...irfM>ai({o|Mik: Ihis is to 
guard, so far as may K-, against the 
appearance of disbelief. He will ad 
ujjon the queen's lestimony presently, 
when he has heard it again. — alSif, 
later, afltrwantt. — U^£Xiv: b«t 


36 AtlXYAOY 

KA. Tpoiav 'Ax(ito^ T^S' ey^ova ev vf^^P^- 
oTaai /9o^f nfitKTov ew iroXfi. Trpciretv. 
3fo9 t' ii\eiif>a t' e'/t^eat Tavrio levrei 
Si;toffTaTo5vT' av ov <j>l\a}<i irpoaevve'irot^' 
Kal T&v oKovTwv KoX rpaTf]<rapro>p SJ'^a 

Ms sigry—/ rnmld fain satisfy my 
■U'tHder if dealing it rifraled {in your 
■way «f telling) from foinl ta point. — 
d«aOavfi^nu W admire fully. -^^y^y*- 
iCBi: both 'clearly' and 'continuously', 
without anything omilled. (Sec L. and 
Sc. s.v.) Note Ihe emphasis — ait X^i« 
as you ■would tell it. The mood of \iytia 
Tollowa that of flAov" (w on tie sime 
principle which dclenninea ^rel y^oit 
Iv uXimi {v. 164), the whole action lying 
in the same hypothetical time. Sidgwick 
compares Plato Men. 95 c »ij it tlStlip 
rtpi Toirw Bv drtipoi tt^i; 'how could 
you know thai o{ nhich {tx Ayfiatieri) 
you have no experience?' — -lii \t-fat a, 
(( fkiytHt Blonirield, oil X^vnt Bothe, are 
simple, liut for this reason not likely. 

331. On ihesignificttnceof IhisBpeech 
see Ihe Introduction. The scene at this 
point upon the stage, the conlra.>ited 
altitudes of the two parlies (see on v. 
363I, themselves inooraToiwrM od ^ftut, 
and the painful interest with which, for 
different reasons, Ihey all mark the words 
and behaviour of the queen, would make, 
wetl-aeled, a moment of almost inloleiable 
tension and excitement. 

333. d!|UNTav fiat loill not blend. 

334 — 336. l{osTt,..KalTav oXivrnv; 
rt and Kal here answer to each other 
like 'as' and 'so'. The sentence has 
no conjunction, as being only la espan- 
sion 01 explanation of the word iiuicrav. 

334' IkX^ ra^Tf K^Tti shoulJsl 
Ikou four But oil and vtuigar with tht 
same vessel, i.t. put them into the same 
vase or bottle and pour Ihem from it 
together. The dative is Instrumental. — 
It is by no means clear (hat this should 
be changeil {as by Caittcr nnd in all 
recent texts) lo iyxiai. The text is 

correct in language, ami the strong 
repulsion of tlic two ingrcdienls would 
be much more cottspicuous in Ihc pouring 
out of a mixture (as upon a plate) than 
in the pouring in. The very familiaiily 
of iyx'^' "'•'' '*•= dative, which has 
prompted the change, is an argument 
againsl it : irxfai is an improbable error. 

335 ; lieu wouidst exclaim at Iheir un- 
friendly farling, liletaliy 'wouldsi accost 
them as (persons} parting not like friends', 
an eipresaion of studied irony for a violent 
mutual repulsion. — Note that the use of 
wpaafrrireif {to name, apaslrapkiie) Bixo- 
urarnvTc is perfectly natural in a language 
which habitually used the participial 
apostrophe {e.g. Eur. Tro. 1 ifiS a 
ful^or' iyKov lopit tx<i<'Tft 3 *pn"3f) as 
a form of emphasis. It means much 
more than ' thou wouldsi say that Ihey 
parted '. — Note also that fc^""'"'''''' "J 
0(Xiiii is a legitimate expression only on 
the assumption that SixotraTtir ^Owt 
would have a meaning. In Tie/i. giS 
(where see note) we have the term 
tkare/ial ^oi (and 01^ ^fu) for a parti- 
tion, friendly or unfriendly, between join! 
occupiers of land. It is likely ihat a 
simitar metaphor lies behind the language 
here, and that iixomtTiU ^ftwt meant a 
'friendly dissolution', as of partnership or 
marriage. — ov tpl\ia (Auratus and other?) 
simplifies the language, but at the expense 
of its significance. 

33G. rSiy iXivrav kbI Kpangirjimn'. 
Observe Ihat this collective expression b 
correct and not put, by license, for tuw 
aX6rTar kbI twt KparriffitTar. The com- 
parison is between the comftmnd of oil 
and vinegar (which will not blend) acd 
Ihe enstmile of victors and vanquished 
(which would make upon one who could 


^Ooyydi tLKoveiv efrn aufufiopa^ SiwX^?, 
ot fitv yap afi^'i crio/uicnv ireTrrcu^oTe? 
ilvSpmir teaaiyinjTfDii re Kal if>VTa\fiitov, 
TTOfSt! yepovTtav, ovKir ef ekevBepov 
Bipi)^ aTTOifid^ovai (^fXraruv fiopop' 
Toi)s 8' aSre uvKTinrXayKTOf; ix ftd^v ttovo^ 
vfi<m<i TT/jos apiarotaiv wv e^et iroXi^ 

TOffffCt, TrpOS OvBhr fV /i£p€t TeKflTJpiOV, 

hear the sound of il not a single har' 
nionious impresaion but two dislinct}." 
StX' omphalic, with ineito' : the two 
yatxs ' may be heard distinctly', 0( ' se- 
panLtely '. 

3j8. ol lUv : the living captives would 
be chiefly or solely (pnrlicularly in the 
case of Troy) women and ^rls ; but the 
generic description of them 3S the van- 
qiiished party {ol iXbrrii) is nevertheless 
naturally masculine. 

3jg : iusianils, brothers, futheri, and 
tfiu. The gender of ir-fip is to be el- 
tended throughout. ^vTaX|i(wv is a sub- 
stantive, like jtoffi7n}r(ii». The word 
means properly 'connected wilhgeniturc'; 
to in Soph. O.C. ijo dXour ii/^rat Spa 
tal ^ffSa fvrdX^uai ; Timif Ihna lighllisi 
eotH frem birik? Here il is used with 
the aiuistancc of the context to mean 
'relations by genituie' [i.t, parents, chil- 
dren, etc.), in order to abbreviate and vary 
the catali^e. Su KoonYWiJTov b pro- 
perly 'collaterals', brothers, cousins, etc. 

J40. iraCSti 'ytpdvTMV childrat bauaU- 
iig ogtil ; not that all the captives were 
children, or all the slain aged. The 
phrase merely signalizes the most pathedc 
figaits, among the captives the orphan 
children, among ifae slain those whose 
years might have saved them, but did 
not, fironi the indiscriminate massacre. — 
The common punctuation ^uraX^iluw 
roiid ifpirruw (or the correction ^uriX- 
HUH voJJuF fiparta Weil) misses the in- 
tended sinkse of ^vraXfifwr. A better 
Gorre<.*tion is that of Karsten itaiSut 
lipirruni bulk ytung and old, i.e. of all 
ages, tnil it is not desirable. 

341- Mpi]S, both neck KoAlkreal (Eur. 

Or. +1 mn aira Jid Wpiji m^-rt Weck- 
lein), here combines the two meanings. 
With aith' l\tvOipm it is mck, the 
metaphor being that of the yoke, with 
iiirDi*nJfii«r( throat. No English word 
will exactly (it. — i^irai|uo{ttuiri : not tt- 
jiiail lomlly (L. and Sc.)< which is dis- 
proved by Eur. Aled. 31 ai>H| irfiJi 
ain%y warip drai^^ci 4i\ar, but bewail 
iiioa}!, i.t. 'bewail desperately, as lost'. 
This suits all the places from which 
it is cited; e.g. Antiphon 134. ij il»v- 
Hu^r iiU Tt Koi. avTin in iiriiKKunl- 
tpoirt, and Aeschyl. fr. u8, where as 
here il refers to the dead, 'An-iXox' 
drvf/iufii' lit TDii rtSirriKliTii! riir futra 

343. VTJiTTM. The cxpresiiion hungry 
tail is not so Ulen from Aeschylus as to 
require us to read (as in many texts) 
rfyrrta. In point of MS. authority, the 
difference between njareii and i'^tii is 
immaterial, 1 and ci being almost in- 
ditfeicnt symbols in ihe Aeschylean Mss., 
but it is not dear that Aeschylus would 
have used the form t-Vcd, particularly 
fni the accusative case ; Ihe proper forms 
are i-ilimiliti and » V""-— ^^ ^^ 'fiW. 
The besi^ers are starving (see v. 131), 
and the long- beleaguered city offers but 

344: Hat in order acctrding la til/el. 
The casual banquet of the (amiithed 
plunderers, establishing themselves in the 
first house where they lind food, is cun- 
Irasted with the orderliness of a well- 
appointed army disLiibuted to ijuancrs 
by ■ token ' or ' billet '. Hence the anli- 


eV al)(ji.a\mToi'i TptaiKoK oiKijftaaiv 
valovaiv tjSt}, rwv v-rra,i8plivp irar^fDv 
Spoaaii/ t' d-7ra\\ar/€irTf'; lo? BinT^aifiavev' 
d<f)v\aKTov €vS^(Tov<Ti traffav ev^poirrjv. 
ei 8' ev <r€0oviTL toi)? ttoXhto-oiIj^oi'? Beovf 

ov Ktlv iXomev ai/^ts dvOaKotev Sv. 

thesis of dXX' . ■ ,Q Ji)- Prubably Ihe word 
TtKiiiptor was technical. 

34J — 347. Ralhtr by smk rhaiue as 
falli te talk tager hand Ikry art inslailirtg 
themselvtsforlkwilk in l/u eafturtd hBustt 
of Troy. <klKcurrot...irtlXav literallf 'as 
each has snatched a lot' i.e. according (o 
ihe fortune of each, the violent word 
Ictoafu ticing used for ■drawing' a tot as 
a marli of eagerness. — oIx1">X"toi« : the 
epithet, like Smt f^" iri^Hi denotes the 
misery of the comforts lo which the 
victors II/. The houses are such as they 
would be when carried after a desperate 
right of fire and sword. It is worth 
white lo remember that in Ihe lime of 
Aeschylus Ihe private buildings of the 
Greeks, even in great cities, were very 
poor and slight in construction. — ^8i| 
again marks their impatience. 

347 — 34g r glad of SMck poonitliverance 
from iMi fraslj and dews of tie eptn air. 
WUh mt VMlch to ktff Ihiy laill sleep the 
vihole Htghl long. dvoXXaYiiTn vi Swo-. 
Saf|Uvn. literally ' ridding themselves as 
poor wretches may', where ui> has Ihc 
same (qualifying sense as in ii>afl4j di^p 
in AomcJoi/iJttiii ' a good man for a 
Lacedaemonian' and the like.— «!• twoi- 
■pCuv neuter, gen. ofTd vcaifpia, lo which 
rdyuf Ipdauir ti stands in apposition, 
'Ihe conditions of the open air, frost and 
dew': >^f- '''<^' romlXia- v, gij; bence the 
article, which olherwisc would be in- 
admissible — A^fXaicTov rUpivTff 'a 

night being watchlcss, they will sleep it 
Note the emphatic poaiiioo of 

351. rfm ir y. oi Siroitr. 

A^\aiirw, a predicate and equivaleru 
to i^XaxTor at'iraii. This explains fur- 
ther the meaning of ui ivcSaifwrn ; after 
the exposure of Ihe camp and the 
weariness of the watch Ihe soldiers are 
not nice enough lo disdain the wrecked 
houses. The mere security will give them 
an unbroken night. Such an explanatory 
sentence is properly written without any 
conjunction. — 6mt wpirrpov SqXoi>^ ivr- 
Tvxiii rOf itirplitMun tii^aen (schol. on 
V. 3^8) is near the mark, though it as- 
sumes the wrong punctuation droXXa- 
yirTcj, ia...ri^pinir which b that of the 
MSS. This requires a conjunction: hence 
UI 8' fiS<ittiOni Stanley, which gives (he 
same sense in another way but is no 
improvement and does not account for 
the MS. reading. — iraWax^t"'!! a. Both 
forms are good. 

350, ti ri^vvx Scaliger and Porson, 
■u<r^ovo% Mss. The lirsl accentuation is 
perhaps the safer, as the evidence for the 
transitive tinpdw is riot conclusive (see 
L. and Sc. s. ii.).— Nole carefully that it 
is tl al^ovtti, not j' eipuai. The English 
if /kef oilers, standing for both, easily 
misleads. The caplors are doing as ihey 
should, or otherwise, while Clytaemnestra 
speaks (according to her pretended ns- 
sumplion). We have no neat way of 
expressing the ditTerence, but it ii very 

351. ai Kiv. The emphasizing ml 
belongs to iXirrtt {tvrH after conquest), 
at being attached lo il accoidii^ to , 
custom, 'they will escape a niinons endiiig 


epoK Se fii'i T« TrpoTepov ifiTritrT^ OTparm 
voputtv Ta fit} yp7 icepoetjiti uiKtofievov^' 
Bfl yap Trpo? oticou! voarifiov crwTijpMiS, 
Koft^frat SiavXov Bdrepov «(uXo^ TrdXit: 
dfoi^ S' duafiTTXiitetjTO'i el ft6\oi aTparos, 
eyp^opov TO -ir^fui Twf oXuXotoiV 
fivovT dv, el ■n-poairaia i*^ TU-)(pi, koko.. 

3i+- ^ 

of Iheir victory after all'.-^ii) ™ Iler- 
mann. tm is Omissible, as the phiase is 
likely eooogh to have been familiar, but 
■he HSS. are for n&r. oit drcXaini a 
(a natural error), ctm. at y i\itTii f h (a 
corrECtioti). — ■IvflaXnui' Auratus. dWo- 

353- tp»*(«iTW.,,i|Mr(«Ti]:/4«alT»w, 
it u ia bi feared, vuty cant upon Ihim. 
On fi^ with the frtsfHl subjunctive, ■□ a 
principal sentence, exprcsiing an anticipa- 
tion Of suspicion about the fiilure, sec on 
Tlub. 183. The translation by the im- 
perative must be carefully avoided, 
being confined to the aoHit subjunctive. 
— The sin of the victors in this respect 
(v. jji) is doubly connected with the 
sequel ; it was punished by the disaster 
of the fleet, and it ted to the capture of 
Cossindra, who was torn from sanctuary. 

354- Td )i^ XP^ "' ^ '"'1 TtPh f- There 
seems no reason to doubt that the older 
relative rd was used here, as in v. sjr 
iliii MOK^Un, T% naTciirtaffTai w4Soii, 
The substitution of the familiar d is of no 
significance ; the opposite error would be 

355- The genitive aartiplat and the 
infinitive xm>^bi both depend upon Sii, 
the inlinilive clause translating the literal 
(TunjpJiit rpii oUovt into a popular meia- 
phur from the diaulos or double race- 
course — Kapii|nu kmXov: as we might say 
to 'make the second half of your round' 
or 'lap'. nvi^'Oi is tiausitive. 

357—358- 'And if the army tetum 
without offence against lAt gsdi, the 
wrong of thi dtad is on the watch*. 

Note the contrasted emphasis on the 
words placed first and last, en^t.-.Tuai 
iSXuiXoTwv. The meaning is this : the 
ruin of Troy and the slaughter of her 
population naturally cry for vengeance 
and expose the victors, according to the 
doctrine of Nemesis, to especial danger 
at this time. They have therefore little 
need to increase this danger, which is 
already 'watching its opportunity', by 
plundering the sanctu.trics and thus in- 
curring the avoidable anget of the gods. 
Hut for the queen herself, who proposes 
to avenge her daughter, and for the 
conspirators, infuriated by the sacrifice 
of lives in the war, ' the wrong of the 
dead ' has another meaning. — The apo- 
dosis to tl la^ai, ' they may suffer the 
vengeance of the dead ', is not expressly 
staled in the following clause but, as 
often in all languages, implied.— ^yP^S- 
Yopov. The misrornicd adjective iypri- 
yapot (whence the late verb iypiriBptai) 
can scarcely be as old as Aeschylus, 
though such are the vagaries of language 
that it is diflicult to trust analogy against 
positive documentary evidence in mat- 
ters of this kind. Either lYpt)yopd« 
(Porson) or tYp^pc should probably be 
read; if the first, we slill supply ivrL— 
For the metaphor cf. Eur, Et. 41 iSSon' 
at liir"P' rir'AyaiUntaros ifiiror fl'alcy), 
for the tiseof ir^na Soph. £i. 158 ratpifa 
ir^fuiTa ' my bthcr's wiongs'- 

359. Jivii may find atcamflilhrneiU, 
if it fail not at »Hee, ue. ' postponed 
is not prevented ', a quasi-proverbial turn 
of expression, repenting the thought of 



Toiavra Tot yvvaiKot ef e/iov KXiJoti 
TO 8' ev icpaToir) fi-q St-xoppo-rrtos (Setc 
woWaif yap ea&k.wv tijv omjaLv elXo/iriv. 
XO. ff. yvvai, rear avSpa atotftpov evippoveoi XeytK, 


the previous tines (and therefore without 
copula) ■ the victors will be in dangef for 
some time yet'. — yivatr' a v with emphasis 
'maybe actually accomplished', cf. v. 164 
iril yinnTo ' when it l» actually accotn- 
plished' — irpioTraio 'hudden, off-hand', 
here a secondary predicate and placed 
with emphasis in its clause accordingly. 
— In this and ihe preceding cUnse ri is 
in cfTecl (atucsiive and equivalent to the 

Kiihner, Grttk Grammixr, % j;8, note s). 
For furthet discussion of w. jsj — 359 
see Appendix I. 

360 — 361. Bui for all tktse my woman- 
ish Tuerds, may the good triumph, plain 
and clear ef alt dottbl. Conscious of the 
thoughts covered by this pretence of 
solicitude for the absent, she breaks olT 
and dismisses it with a light self-reproach. 
It will prove, she trusts, no more than 
the nervousness of a woman.— kX^oig. 
(Xi^it B. (as in v, J3 1 Uycii for Myoii), 
to get a construction simpler in appear- 
ance. But the optative is right. The 
mistake arises from stopping oFT v. 360 
u a separate sentence. It is related as a 
conces^ve clause to v. 361 and would in 
common parlance require nir, thus : 
Totavn pit KKiott ri S' tu KpariAii, i,r. 
literally '1 pray that ihou mayest hear 
such words and yet the good triumph', 
or in English form 'I pray that, though 
thou hearesl such words, the good may 
triumph '. The propriety of the optative 
may be made more dear, according to 
English conceptions, by paraphr.ising the 
second clause; oOru ri mtaiVii iXitod 
liare upaTrir ro cS. See a precise parallel 
in etKirof ilri, ri 8" tS niiru {AHgliire 
'tliough the dirge must be uttered, let 
the good win'), a saying (note toi) which 
is actually in the speaker's mind. nXiiiii 
_^flurbs the relalion of the clauses, and 

though simple in appeaiance is in reality 

361. Fer IhU e/urice gitni tut the 
enjaymaite/menblestiiigsthaaime. 'Den 
Genuss von vielen Gutcn crwiihie ich 
mir damit' (Wecklein, reading ■Hf/tt). 
The emphasis is on roX\w, and Ihe 
construction is cl\intv -Hp ('■'■ ■mirv 
r))F irtiiir) anwif [ebvar) waWuf eaS\ur. 
The demonslrative follows, according to 
rule, the gender of the predicate tr^iw. 
Ostensibly this phrase (probably pro- 
verbial) means no more tlian thai re cS 
covers everything desirable; to Clylaem- 
nestro it means that more senses than 
one can be put upon ro ti. — iIXi^i|*: 
the aorist refers to the moment before, 
and to the preceding wish. — rijrff Her- 
mann; but I think, with Kennedy, that 
the archaic demonstrative should be 
retained. — Another possible rendering of 
the words is 'I prefer that my enjoyment 
should be an enjoyment of wiohi' blessings 
(not few)', i.e. 'of what Is good one 
would have as much as may be*. The 
remark will then refer specially to /ti) 
laxepplmn litir. The victory is a sure 
iire\it ! liall turns out well, so much the 
better. Here tlXon'P' would be not a 
past tense but the timeless aorist, near 
akin to the gnomic, relerring to a per- 
manent, habitual choice, made not at this 
moment but as a general principle ; cf. 
Eur. Jifed. 395 7-i|» iS;inroi»iU' ^» fyu ff/jStai 
/laXurra riirrur «ii ivufiylir ((W^ijr. 
Vet other renderings might be suggested, 
and in fact the words are, as proverbs are 
apt 10 be for those not familiar with them, 
decidedly obscure. But the first inter- 
pretation is prevalent and seems the best 

363. XOPOZ^'. On the question who 
are the speakers here, and how Ihe 
following scene is to be conceived, see 
Appendix J. 


0€oii^ ^povenreiv ev TrapatTKeva^ofuii' 
X"pt'! 7«p ovK drifUKi etpyatTTat trovwv. 

w Zeu ffaiTiXtv teal vii^ ipiXia, 
fteyaXtov Koa-fiav KTeiiteipa, 
rfr eirl Tpoias -rrvpyoi^ e^aXev 
are^avdv Blktvoi', (o^ fLrjTe n^yav 
fi^T ovv veapmv tiv' vTrepTeXeaai 
fi4ya BovXeia^ 
ydyyafiov (ittjs TravoKroTav. 
^ia Toi ^iviov fieyai/ alSovfuu 
Tov TtiSe vpd^avT eir 'AXefai/Spy 
Ttivovra TrdXai to^oit, XirtDc dv 
Hr)Te Trpo leaipoO fLrfff irrrip aarpmv 


365. -Kfiortat^v ti (0 praise. 

366. Far Ihirt kath bten wronghl (li)f 
the gods) a rtlum in full for our pains. 
ovK £Ti|u}t 'not inadequate' (Paley), 
literally 'noi wilhoul the value' of ihe 
Imublc spent. — ir^Mtv depends directlf^ 
upon x<V"i though relative in sense tn 

367—378. Clytaemnestra retires. Dur- 
ing this anapaestic tnarch, sung by the 
mli-cliorus, the principal chorus of elders 
are moving into their position for the 
foUowiiig hymn.— vH ^fo. All this 
passage take« a. poignant irony from the 
fact that it is really Argos and the elders, 
not Troy and her people, who are 
cndaved by the work of this 'gracious 

370. irT«Yiivi»...»» i.i. AvTt, le c/osi 
that etc-^^i^v /ull-grmari. 

371 . inir' oSv 'nor if it cemes te Ihaf : 
this is the full force of the expression, but 
we have no English equivalent that is not 
cumbrous. — |M{t* siv,..Til>a. Here the 
irony of the situation turns against the 
singers. The conspiracy which enthrones 
Clylacmnestia and Aegisthus is Ihe work 
of the younger generation (rco^l, see the 
jDtroduclioo). Their own language here 

might remind them that tyrants are 
seldom grateful and that those who set 
up cannot alvrays pull down. 

373. fiTi)* irawdX«Tou genitive 'of 
equivalent ' or 'ofqualily' depending upon 
the whole phrase lUit, t. yaYtaiuHi (not 
in apposition to Si>u\rlai). 

374- i^Yav atSov)iai; the adj. is a 
predicate, ■ I how before his greatness '. — 
Note that aliavfitu signifies pro]>erly a 
feeling of shame. Now that the delay of 
vengeance proves to have been only the 
delay of the archer taking a lung sure aim 
they are ashamed of all previous doubts. 

375 ; vAb halh ivroughl this vaigeimce 
bsuHse of Paris' sin. See on to. 69, 714, 

376, S«H|dv...rK44riui>. The shade 
of difference, whatever it was, which 
distinguished the final optative with >¥ 
from the final optative without it, was 
not felt to be worth retaining, and in 
Attic prose Sitbii atii^iitt only would be 
admitted. ' To Aeschylus the older type 
was probably merely an archaism and, 
as such, part of the poetic style. 

377. irpi itaipov tvfort {i.e. short of) 
Iki mari: cf. n. 778, Wlp cCrrpm 
hyperbole for 'loo high '.—This is the 
usual interpretation of Xfa taiptu. Mr 

ffiKoi tfXiStot/ ffjinji^ei. 
XO. Aios irXaydv e^ova 

eirpa^ev m etpavev. ovk eipa Ti 
fffov'i ^poTwv a^LovuQat fieXeiv 
oaoK affuCTtov X^P'^ 

treipavTat S' eyyavov- 



379- 'xow 

r. to /xtiw") ((»(«-. 381, 

J85 — 6. iyyinow iTo^ii^Tua: 

Sidgwick prarere ' before the lime', which' 
is on equally possible sense of the word 
aiui gives, diveslcd of mclnphor, ihe ceal 
menning. But iwip iarptir, a phrase not 
very happy at best, seems scarcely intel- 
ligible without the assisting contrast of 
ir^ natpoO in the local and metaphorical 

378. ^Uwv predicate, to be tnhen 
with the verb. 

379. It is a stmit of Zbus tehkk 
they art atli to freclaim. Tkii Ikatighe 
itii/xrrmissiliUlafiiUewottl. The elders 
themselves ovk Ixovoi {an not ai/i) to join 
in (he celebrstton, inasmuch us they are 
more than doubtful of the fact to be 
celebrated. But there is an opportunity 
{riptm), they soy, to momliie upon the 
suggested truth, thiit Ztus (note the em- 
phasis) does watch and does punish : and 
this accutdiogly they do, carefully avoid- 
ing all explicit reference to the supposed 
capture of Troy. This dubious and 
somewhat feeble distinctioa is prompted 
by their peculiar and etnbarras^ng situa- 
tion. They cannot accept Clylaetnncstra's 
proof, yet will not commit themselves to 
a denial. Naturally they soon quit the 
subject altogether. — avHintv ; see d*o- 
yvptit/, n word proper to proclamation of 
a victory in the games or the like- 

380. On the meiie see Appendix 

3S1. ffe {i.t. Zeus) aicomplishei as At 
dtftrmiiui. — Note the cotivenienl ambi- 
guity o( the ooriil, which, according as it 

b token OS /iirf definilt or aspiomk, docs 
or docs not imply a specific reference to 
the present case. In English the ambi- 
guity can scarcely be preserved. — htpafyiw 


1) . 

cepted, and would never have been sug- 
gested but for the misinterpretation of s-. 
379 and of the foregoing scene. The 
plural would naturally be referred to the 
subject of txpvui, and so referred would be 
meaningless. The omission of u>i (Her- 
mann) is not strictly necessaiy ; the ar- 
chaic scansion ^fixwus', uu {that) is not 
inadmissible in lyrics. But the omissioa 
seems belter, and the insertion may well 
have arisen from the want of punctuation 
after IxnSvat. 

381. oh 1^ Ti«. By rit we should 
understand, as usual, quidam \ the tone of 
the remark suggests a personal reference- 
It is probable that the poet has some 
passage of literature in view; but apon 
the dramatic bearing of the remark light 
is thrown afterwards by f. 1578, where it 
appears that Acgisthus had entertained 
and presumably expressed an un&vonr- 
able opinion of Providence. 

383. dflUTwv x^V* '^' chatiH or 
sftllof llu mvuilaUt, i.e. the restraining 
'power' which religion ought to eiercise. 
For x^P'^i '" ^is sense of influence (upon 
(he mind), cf. Eur. Med. 439 ^^m S' 
SpKuir x^f I'nd note there. 

385. // is mimifettid. hejo pregnant ii 
Iki inseltnce of a toa-difiiuil pride, tohef 

tht fulntis of the kmite mierpaiulk lit 



aa ToXfiT} rmv Apt) 
•rrveovjtov fiel^ov 17 Stxaico;, 
i^XeoiTon' Sw/trario;' v-nip^eu 
irtrep to ^iXriffTov. earm B' lijnj 
fiavTQv ^ar' aTrapKelv 
eS tr pwjrihwi/ Xa^oyra. 

Utsftd man. irJ^vrai lYYOvowra liter- 
ally 'is proved lo liave been ptegnanf'.or 
Mo have been cartyiiig offepring', by 
giving birlh to it. When ihc consequence 
of sin comes, men see lo what it was 
leading. The metaphor and its applica- 
tion are Tainiliar in Anchyliu, Pindar, and 
other poets, and were Evidently conse- 
craied by tradition. It is fully worked 
out in jiv. 749 — 773 of ihe piny, which 
ire the best possible commentary upon 
the present pas>agei raXal^aroi yipiM 
\iyos...^^yar TtKiaSirra ^urii e\^ 
TtKmuaStu ...Ik 8' ayaflot Ti^xot lira 
pXotfraBtup oitipTOTw <itl;6t jttX. ; sec notes 
there. Here the familiar train of thought 
is merely touched by a passing allusion, 
— As to the division of the W'ords here I 
follow in part Hartung {inrlmuva Ti\p.a 
Tat), but I see no reason for changing a 
letter of Che Ms, In Urlravaa the use 
of this verb without object might with 
reason be disputed : moreover it is too 
common to have been easily mistaken. 
iTY"**^"' which Ihc MS. offers, is 
clear both in form and meaning. T)ie 
verb is formed like ircirtelr, and means 
•lo be tyytnn': fyyoiioi is capable of 
two senses, either 'in-bearing, containing 
oflspring' (a synonym of Irrwat), or 
•in-bom, beii^ contained as offspring". 
The second sense occurs in Aristotle (see 
Lei. s.v.) i from the lirst obviously is 
derived ^770*01100. The formalioii is so 
transparent that, whether it wa^ familiar 
or not, any one must have been at liberty 
to coin it.—'TA^Ti. More usual in lyrics 
would t>e rHKiid, but it is impossible now 
to determine how much r^pilarily the 
poets olncrved in these matters, and we 
CDiul lake wbal we find. There may 

have been good literary reason for the 
Ionic form here. — W^owtti !' iKyimit 
aroXfiijToji Bothe and others ; but tlie 
reference to descendants is irrelevant. 

389 — 391 ! leliKh lial/ be, se muih as 
will permit a man of seme rt meet his 
needs vrilitut dislresi. The subject of 
fonrCIel it be, let us put it at this') is 
ri pi\TiaT<H' ' the standard ' of wealth, 
which this sentence defines by the limiting 
clause ume rrX. : literally and let iMs be, 
' so that a man may' etc. — dinj|iairTov: 
The true point of this word is explained 
(for Ihe first time so fat as I know] by 
Wecktein. It is commonly rendered 
'harmless' and construed with tisra, the 
subject being supposed to be 'wealth', 
but the context will not supply the 
subject ' wealth ', and it is very doubtful 
whether oTii/uii'TDi could bear the active 
sense. Sufipl. 584. itrrifiirTif aBlrii is 
cited, but does not prove it. Wecklein 
himself takes din)tca»Tw as transitive 
here, reading yaxburi (Auratus) and 
translating 'let there be so much wealth 
as lo suffice a man of sense without 
causing him distress'; but the change is 
mistaken not only as requiring us lo 
force arfliiWTat, but as Ignoring the 
dro- in iraprfir. — ilTapiutv literally 'to 
.suffice from it': for the preposition cd 
cbrort' (*'»' oxBf^ eitaagh la live ufOH 
Thuc. 1. i), aitmpii.'fi a. /Und at cafiilal.KK. 
For the personal use of aptS ' I am sulS- 
cienl (to myself), content' there appears 
to be no other example. Even P. V. 648 
ri>«ovT» i^ui irn ira^i'I«'iu fidvor * 1 can 
only inform you as far as this' (cited by 
S.) is materially different. But it is such 
a happy and noiurol abuse of language 
as justifies itself. — vf " 


ov yiip (trrm cij-a\fte 
■irXovTov vpoi KopQv dvSpl 
XaKTitravTi fieytiXa A/xof 

^tarai S' n raXatva veida, 
wpaffovXoiraiv oifiepTot ariK, 

genitive with (x"' »u™, as lit tXxt iroJSi' 
'with his best speed' (S.). 

39>— 39S' ^<^ '*f't " "0 'itfttKtfar 
l/u man. whe in Ihe pridt of vKoilh deli 
iaughrily ifiurn Ikt foundation of Rig^, 
vihertby kc maj) bt kid. In ihis seaieoce 
are one or two poin» u-hich I would 
leave uncectain. vXoirou may be taken 
either as above ot with hraXfit ('there is 
no pnDlection in riches' etc. Sidgwick: 
'What defence are riches' etc Kenned]'). 
I prefer the other only as lacilitaiing 
somewhat the attachment to fvoXfu of tit 
a^vftov,— |UY<I>A, cf. Tkrb. 339 flX«9' 
Ut wWti f"7<lX' ifiixtTat. tUyar Canter 
for metre. See Appendix ll.—pafiv: 
the rendering 'altar' is rather too narrow. 
The fiittat is (hat on which anything 
stands, 'a base, step, pedestal', and (he 
notion of fixity, solidity (cf. ^paun), is 
here more prominent than that of sanc- 
tity.— d* d^vdw : the chief didicultf . 
The explanations given are (i), as the 
aujority, Xartlaarn th d^onior 'spum- 
ing out of sight', or 'into destruction'. 
The sole objection 10 this is that of arbi- 
tiaiy taste, but I confess (hat I cannot 
accept it. Not only does the metaphor 
(hus pass decidedly into the grotesque, 
but (and this perhaps is more like an 
ailment) it becomes Inconsaslent with 
the very nolioa of a fiutiit, which, as 
already observed, is that of fixity. The 
wicked may insolently spurn a fftniit, but 
could not, however willing, spurn it away. 
And moreover, the addition of <Ji Api- 
mar (with an emphasis, observe), so 
far from strengthening Xoirlvai-n, sndly 
weakens it ; the wicked, it would seem, 
tni^t 'spurn' the fin/dt without oflcnce, 
if he did not q>um it as br as invisibility. 

Hermann and others, IroXfii eft 
iipiiaa* 'protection against destruction'. 
But d^or^r, a very common word, ncana 
not dalroyid, but always imristHe, sartt, 
canctaltd, and 'th is the wrong preposi- 
tion' (S.). (3) fraXfu lit iitMraat 'pro- 
teclion for concealment', whence the 
translation above. I suggest Ibis as ren- 
dering correctly both tji {for Ihi ptiiftst 
of) and o^oHia, and as suitable to the 
sequel out ixpi^dii. xpt-wu U kt\., h. 39S. 
This connexion also explains why the 
words are separated from froXfii. They 
are placed with emphasis at the end of 
the sentence, because they strike the key- 
note of the passage following. 

31^. IV/ irraisliblt is Ihat ebslinalt 
ftrsuasian. the self- persuasion, that is, of 
the wicked, that his wealth will in some 
way protect him. irtitfii means both per- 
suasion to believe {fOHVuHoH, as here, cf. 
Eur. H^. 796 rit twIe wtiSai ;) and per- 
suasion to do {Itntpiation). The second 
sei>se may be taken here ('Temptation 
forces him on' S.J, but the other mokes 
a better connexion. The strength of 
temptation is not here the question. 
TdXuva etiliHoU ; the word often has 
this shade of meaning, cf- Enr. Mtd. 1OJ7 
taaar ai-TiH)i, w nLXof, ^laai Tlnrur 
(Medea appeals to her heart). 

397. «papaiiU«iait .-dnki: another 
difficult expression. The old interpreta- 
tion was 'fore-counselling child of Infatua- 
tion '. To this it was objected (Uattang, 
Karsten) thai the law of compoulion does 
not admit such a substantive in the sup- 
posed sense, an objection not answered 
by producing exceptional aJftilivei such 
as ■insofiii (OofKi), airvrar^p etc. The 
compound substantive rpafSaiiXa-nM 

W irpi 


TTphret Se, ^lUf aifoXa^Trcv, ffivot' 

OQghl lo nxcaii ' n waii who is n 
>«■ or 'who belongs to Ihe class 

bol n Bubslnnlive. This lype of cotn- 
poantl is comnion. and Ihe question i<i 
whether il is applicahk here. Now it is 
well warth notice, that irpiJ;9ai'\ot ahvays 
it a suts/an/it'e iml always, if ihc Lexicon 
may be trusted, confined to one sphere of 
association. It meant in Greek politics 
'one who prepares measures for the sanc- 
tion of another'. In this sense it occurs 
in Aeschylus him.wlf {TM. gg^), atiA 
not seldom elsewhere. It \s a word in 
short deeply coloured with technica] 
meaning (as fs also rpopav\iiu), and il 
describes not a quality but afimcthti, and 
a nlativf function. A nfiipoiikn is al- 
ways xpo^ouXot to onelker er olhcrs- 
These facts strongly suggest that in this 
compound i-aii also is a term a\ functieit, 
and means not ehild but smanl or hand- 
ntaidtn{p, common meaning), and that we 
should translate by striHinl ef Infalualioti 
who pTtpanth Iter dimis, literally '[he 
counsellor-servant of At^'. Self-decep- 
tfon, lo drop Ihe metaphor, prepares Ihe 
way for judicial blindness. Such meta- 
phors from occupations and functions are 
in the style of the poet : see his rpo- 
)£aXjtn!ti 'Anj ^nusfataifritix, his i/iiinrD- 
Xdi 4i(vou, his Tpo^aTiyyvwtiuv, and the 
like.— To write irpo^Aou iafi...iTai 
(Hartung) is to cut not solve Ihe problem. 
Nocopyist would in vent ipo^ouXiSiraif, anil 
besides, the use of rpg^ovXot would then 
force us to ask 'To whom does Ati serve 
ss rpi^iAot ?' — trpiffovKo! i-oTi (Karsten) 
avoids this question, but is also arbitrary.— 
l^tpTot 'tymnnous', lit. 'insupporlable'- 
398 — 408. Rtmedy U ail in mm.... 
Lite base metal at Ihe rub and touch ke 
lAtnvs lit lilaci grain under justification 
. , .and set! vpe» his people a fatal mark 
of his touch. Deaf la supplication, Ike 
ff>ds condemn for a viiked man him who 

is conversant ti/ilh such. The 
obscurity of this sentence almost delics 
analysis. The general meaning is that, 
OS wealth will not serve, so neither will 
power, such as the power of a mighty 
state, lo avert the punishmcnl of the 
wicked. He will only ruin those who 
adopt bis guilt. — In detail, the first [loint 
lo observe is thai irtl. ..ipni' is a paren- 
thesis, and that the metaphor of the 
rubbed metal Li pursued after il as before 
it. The almost unique word wpAarptiiiia. 
meaning ' that which is rubbed on to ' a 
thing, is plainly adopted, probably in- 
venleJ, by the pioel, as a correlotive lo 
Tfipot. — It is additionally recommended 
by the use of rporrpiptv lo inflict a 
punishment (Aesch. P. V. Hf. Palcy).— 
GLKoigtSdt tvhen justified, i. e. ' brought 
to justice' or 'to punishment'. This 
(see L. and Sc ) is the meaning which 
Jitaiiu has in all the few passages where 
it is used with a personal abject. It suits 
very well with the words T/rf^v-''^"' 
In contact with justice wickedness is seen 
for what it is. But this meaning of 
iitaiMStU does not square eiaclly with 
■wSKti, irp6rTpitina,.,0rli, where that wilh 
which the malefactor has 'contact ' is no 
longer justice but the »4X« which be- 
comes a party lo his cause. The foci 
seems to be that in these last words the 
poet has before his mind a possible sense, 
quite different, of Saa^aOaffm, analogous 
lo that of tixaluaij, e.g. in Lysias p. iij 
Sri iikr tit i^tfCip' vnh tQw Ta)uar M- 
inaaBt. Tpcurfyifiir Si ifyoiiurot »al Sii 

^itXij/iaToi, fri rXtiwai no) roiuni tai 
SXXai Aiaiiioni napairx^iaotiiu. Here and 
el-^ewhere 8uta/iu«-ii dearly means 'justi- 
fication ' in the modem sense, and in 
later Greek the verb Sitaidu takes r^u- 
larly the corresponding sense ot 'justify' 
The dawn of o future change in language 
is often first seen in poetry, 

itify'. I 

^ge I 

^ j(a)^ieou Tpovav 

fixXafi.Trayrj'i -n-eKet 

Bimxei traK tnavov opviv) 

irokti irpoarpififi.' tlipeprov 6eU. 

XiTap S' axovfi fikv outjv 6emv, 

Tou S' eTrtarpa^ov TtSi'Se 

^ruT* ahucov Kaffaiptt 

oU<t Kat U<ipi<{ iXGmi' 

it hap/iv TOU 'ArpeiBSv 

^cyyve ^evtav Tpaire- 

iju" leKnvaiTi yvvaiicot. 

XiTTOvtra B' daroiaiv da~Tri<rTopa<: 

KXiuovi \oy)(ip,ovi Tc Kai vav^arat oir\iup.ov^, 

I'yovaa t atrri^fpvov \Xltp ^Bopav 

^iffaiee pip^ hiA ■trvXav, 

401. rpojSoXari. 410. Tun*. 

arp. ^. 

always cxperimenlinj; upon the possi- 
bililies of words. — The renrfering" tested', 
which appears in many commentaries, is 
not supported, so far as I cnn discover, 
by any example or even analogy. — wiXn, 
I'.A tdUtiui, very frequent in Aeschylus, 
Ihti. 57, 1 01 1 etc-d^tprov faCi. This 
metre though not imj>05sible (see Ap- 
pendix IT.) is harsh. Perhaps the order 
should be changed tsXh TpiaT/ntiiia 6ilt 
i^pra/. The Cod- Farn. has as usual a 
conjecture, i.^pTiiv irStlt, and a bad one, 
for it' is not correct : iyStlt {from irari- 
^^rtu) /<> fuf upon is possible, as in 
l\ryitt^ipi drofi^fi (//. 11. toa), diaTi- 
06'ai altiar (or tHoi) rwl etc. But the 
simple verb Stlt is best of all End most 
Aeschylean; the correct preposition is 
already given by -rpon-riKittui and no 
compound would be quite satisfactory 
except i-piwffed, 1 therefore leave the lest, 
under reserve. — tr<l.,,SpVLv, /or his fmr- 
sail is that oflhi boy after the fiying bird ; 
the hope of the malefactor and bis friends 
that they may escape punishment is futile. 
— TiM*f better taken not as neuter but m 

masculine, as In the Homeric phrase 
/rlarpoipm fl» iffljxirujf {Od. T. 177) from 
which this appears to be imitated. The 
plural includes the whole company oftbe 
wicked with the original malefactor. — 
ASucov predicate with KaBcuptt; which 
has its judicial Attic sense, to 'condemn* 
or 'sentence' (not 'to destroy' though 
this is indirectly implied), as in i^ naSoi- 
pauaa ^^^t (Lysias) etc. See L. and 
Sc. I. c. — On the metrical points see 
Appendix II. 

413. onrCirTopal icXiivavi XoYxCfunft 
Ti l&e din of ihitlJ and ijtar, koX vav- 
Pdrai JfrXMnuiCj and the arming effeeti. 
TI couples the adjectives ixTilmpa.i and 
XtryxlMOi"' Ki^' Couples »a.v^ JvXiirjtaui 
lo the whole phrase preceding. The 
order of the words and conjunctions is 
the pro])er order, and would scarcely 
require notice but for the attempts to 
change it under the pressure of metrical 
theory. See Appendix II. 

415 — 411. See Appendix K. 

416. pj^oKt. The vowel is length- 
ened by the following |). 

tiTXtfra rkiiaa ' ttoXv S' dvitnepo. 

" lai ((■) Swfia B^fxa icai -rrpofioi. 
ta> X('^09 Koi ari^oi tf>i\npopt<i. 
tvaptoTi avyii^ lirifio^ ti\oiSopoi 
aSitTTOf! d<f>efiei'o>v ISeiir. 
viOtf S' v-rrepTromias 
iJMfffia Sa^ei Z6p.<i)v nvdaiifiv, 
eifiop^av Be KoXoatrMf 
?j(0erai X"P^'^ dvBpi, 
of^ftdrav B' iv n^fiji't'ai? 
Ippei trda ' AtppoSirii. 
Dv€tp6<f>aiT0t Si tretS^fioue^ 

4ig. ICi and Sufu not iqiealcd. 

417. mM G' dWmvov: for melie 
see Appendix II. 

413. ir69if...iMifwe.v: SB pim»g f«r 
htr that U far beyond sta. the lord ef tki 
hoist may pais for a mtn fhantoni: 'den 
Kcmcher des tiauses wird man nicht 
fiir einen mncIitTollen Herrscher, sondcrn 
fur cio Schattenbiia halien" (Wecklcin). 
The tone, at in the preceding sentence, 
u still mocking. — I am sorry to alvindan 
for [his interpretation the old and famLliar 
one 'in his longing for the lost wife a 
phantom of her will seem 10 rule hU 
home'. But this, however pocticiil, b 
■ujt in the Greek. It is impossible that 
the subject of ii{(i shuuld be other than 
i ■weeStf. the sua^lion lo ijtanslafe by 
lit will think thai a phantom of her 
rules (Housmmi) shows a consciousness 
of this; but itself makes an impossible 
separation of ^iapA from U^i. Mote- 
over the old interpretation docs not satisfy 
the force and position of ^lua* iyiaata. 
It will no doubt seem lo many that 
Dc Wecklein's rendering destroys what 
they most admire in the passage. This 
may be, but 1 am compelled lo say 
for myself that I ihink it indisputably 
417. iJmuiTvv Iv i.f^foM r'n Ihi waul 

419. T(»fl^»U)lPtt, 

of the eyes. The question is raised 
whether Ihe 'eyes' are those <rf the 
hustiand, or of the losl wife, or of the 
blankly -gazing slalues, a question which 


eyes of the husband seek, but n 
find, the eyes thai were wonl to answer, 
and, for lack of (hia response, love is for 
him no more. It is the advantage of Ihe 
language here ihal it ii ambiguous be- 
tween ' absence of eyes ' and ' hunger of 

419. VNA^vtt . . . S^tu, pmuading 
visitns ox 'convincing', i.e. visions which 
compel belief in their reality, cf. Pro- 
pertius 4. II. 81 (a departed wife is 
addressing her husband) 'sat tibi sint 
nocies, quu de me, Paule, fatiges | sem- 
niaque in fatiim crtdila saepe meam ; | 
alque ubi secrelo nostra ad simulaera 
loqueris I ut responsurae singula verba, Mel eager j4hM. Cr, 5. 166 Spa fJtti 

fiirurin/ •/■vXPf ^liXver' Ir ilKaalf, | apd 
y' Ix" isiyiHitTa ri tdxpi/a. ■dfi*" B'(i- 
par J ^uxt^riTrjif irripwoii it^i^oXoima 
•t^tt; (Housman J oumai of Philology, 
16. t6g)- Both passages, (hat of Pro- 
pertius especially, seem lo have been 
suggested by Aeschylus (see v. 49 5 above) 



irapeiai Bo^ai <f>epoi/aai ^(i/itc fiaraiav. 
fidrav yap ei/r' ay cirffkn T19 Soierov opai'f, 
vapaWa^aaa Sin j^fpajf 
jScjSuxei' oi^K ov p-fdvarepov 
TTrepoti otraSoli irni/ov ice\ev0oii." 

aiiij slrcnglhen, as well »s illustrale. the 
I conjeclure. Rul Ihe Blrongesf commeii- 

dalion, (hough not perhaps; truly an nrgu- 
menl, Ls its poetic superiority. — wrrO'iiiorti 
MS. -tnomnful'. The alternative iiiler- 
prctalions of this, [1) sait-Ieeiing, {i)caiis- 
iitg ladniss, are both unguis factory. (1) 
is pointless, and (7) is contrary to fact nnd 
the conteil. It cannot be said of the 
visions that Tia6iiui¥tt ripeuit: on the 
contrary ^fwuffi X^'- though /larafar. 
Mr Ilousnian aptly quotes another imi- 
talion, Eur. All. n% foil. (Admctus to 
his dying uife) ir f dtlpamt ^Tukrd fi' 
tv^patrbii Ay itii yiip tf^ovi %S¥ 
timrl \(6at(ui Smr ir 'apv XP'""- 
^Thcre is perhaps a third possible inter- 
prelalion. visiims n/ meuming, i.t. visions 
which arise before the disturbed mind of 
the mourner. We mighreven cite Pro- 
pertius for this also : the ghost of Cynthia 
appears to her lover 'cum mihi somnus 
nb exscquiis penderet' (4. 7. 5). This 
somewhat artificial explsnalion, which 
Mr Kousman does noi notice, I should 
take, if ■wirS^uunm be retained ; and it 
may very likely be an old reading, as old 
or nearly as old as Ihe other. But 
Mr Housnisn's is to me reiBiuiMr, and 
I cannot refrain from placing it in the 

43r. Here again I agree with Mr 
Ilousmnn upon alt points. The attempts 
to make grammar l>y minute alteration 
{t.g. ipt) are useless. The intrusion of 
mere generality here is intolerable, and 
Ihe words la8\i tii must be wrong. It 
is 'absurd to say that whenever any ene 
neems to see gtwd thingi they pass away 
through his hands'. Something is re- 
quired leading up to *i x'P"*' MrHoos. 
man, comparing Milton 'But lo as to 

embrace me she inclined, I waked' (and 
add Propertius again (4, 7, 96) " inltr 
teniplixia cxcidil umbra meos'), offers 
luirav ^dp rfr" £v h Aif^ Boicai- ipf 

' for when in vain he looks lo touch Ihe 
phantom ', where for ioarol (i./. lofoj) see 
Hermann od Ik. and for ipi-r it Eur. 
/rag- iGt ArSpit S' ^TwrrDi ^i Ki>>pv 
Horlou iipiXaiTot ii T^gnjait, In Ihe 
supposed 9irri touch there is nothing lo 
stumble at ; it is absolutely warranted by 
the existence of Brytii , and can lie found, 
as I have long thought, in more easily 
recognisable shape than here. Under 
■wiioeB-fycti in L. and Sc. will be found (he 
meliical proverb taalr dm rpd-jjiaai 
irpoaB^Kai S6a, where rpoaSijuu [aJJi- 
lieiii) has no meaning and should be 
replaced by TpoaStyai: 'everything has 
two handles ', or ' ways of taking hold of 
it '. From Ihe mere fact (ha( the passage 
is corrupt it is likely (o have contained 
some word not common. In i>hort, I am 
for myself completely satisfied with Mr 
Housman's reading, though I do not 

To account for the MS. text we have 
merely to suppose Ihe common error T 
for r ; thus taSiTBS, and from ihis by the 
commonest sort of conjecture fo-fl\d nt. 

434: Toilh vriiigs thai fallma Ihe fast- 
ing of slap. The dative K^eiWan, de- 
pending on ^aSoii (cf. Itp/mi), though 
correct, produces a curious collision of 
dative cases, but [here is no certain proof 
of error, — Of proposed changes broibt 
(Auratus) is the simplest change and 
technically most probable: Ibe adjectival 
diraSii might well in Aeschylus take 
TTr/»ii as an instrumental dative.— »ti(- 
poii araSiii'a(«) Dobrec.— mXtikit, com- 
monly Moti, cf. V. 131. 



ra B' eiTTt, kcti twiiS' {nrepffaTiorepa. 

ro irtii' S' n0' 'EXXaSo? a"os iTVPopfievoK; 

wiv$eia TXrjaticdpBiov 

436. rifJ' ^iTT-i. 

435. 4" Ivrlat. f-fifirrlovt (Voss). 
This merely eipicsses the same ^nsc in 
a more ordinary way. But a poet is at 
liberty to prefer an unusual way. and we 
may even think tliat the cumulalioii of 
i^ iarlai (the mote intimate eipreitfiiun) 
upon car' oTnoui hos a poetical ellecl. 

436. Til 8' (Halm). I think Xhh di- 
vision is right, but further that (an 
should be accented as emphatic. The 
word /m-i without emphasiR is very rare- 
ly admitted by Aeschylus, especially in 
lyrics, but .almo^ always led to lie sup- 
plied. The emphalic Im is uud here 
lo mark the Inie present lime of v. 436, 
as opposed to the 'historic' time of ['.435. 
The connexion of thought is this: ' Such 
were at ktmi {tar ofjitDti) the sufferings 
of those ('#' iirrtat) most nearly con- 
cerned (the Alridae, particularly Mene- 
Iau&). and other KuflcringG (hey have ninu. 
even greater (the miseries of war being 
added to Ihe first loss); and throughout 
Hellas, since ihey (the princes and their 
army) went away, there is sonow'. Both 
11. 4j6 and c. 437 are separately anli- 
Ihelic in different ways tor. 43J. — If rdJ" 
/»Ti be written, so that the nnlilhesis is 
merely between ri n/r and t4 irSi' St. 
there is an ill-marked Imaiilion of lime 
from the past lo Ihe present. — nvS' 
dr^Par^Ttpa tnore lurpaismg Iknn tlltie, 
an unuRual (active) sense of Mp^itrot. 
and a redundant, or rather inaccurate, 
nse of the comparative formation, where 
'surpassing these" would be logical. 
Some would reject ihe word : the active 
ten<e is exceptional only, not incorrect ; 
and Ihe comparative seems well H'illiin 
Ihe range of poetry seeking a strong ex- 

437, TO iriv Si geHeralfy, unijvrially, 
i.e. 'in reference to the commons', or 
' Ihe general ' in Shakespeare's phrase, as 
opposed lo rd i^ iartai, Ihe domestic 
concerns of the princes. The phrase as 
an adverb qualifying the whole stalemcnl 
does nol seem lo occur elsewhere, Iral 
accords 'A'ilh the analogy of tA TaXtf, ri 
irXturrw, etc.— OTwopiUwoi* "since they 
(the princes ond their army) went away 
together'. For (his 'dative absolute", as 
it may almost be called, see on Tiei. 
117 and hcreallct on i'. 1 177.— 'EXXoGof. 
"TIXXaiHH Bamberger for melre. Sec Ap- 

439 — 440. /» rAi dwtlliHg of every 
one keari-arhing grit/ is iten is the re- 
ceived translation, hul impossible, utr- 
Btia, as from an adjective mS^, would 
be a word of monstrous and unexampled 
focmalion. Adjectives in -iit are formed 
from Wonis such as wirBot, rcrBrir, only 
ns compounds, e.g. SivwrSJit. So i^Xot, 
Tt\tii; irrtXi)!, but nol HXtia pn-ftilion. 
The epithcl rXifiruid/iiSnit 'suffering in 
heart' is proper only to the mourner, and 
could scarcely be applied to hLs grief. 
A bolder cose (dirivl^ oiitTTip for 'one who 
saves harmless") occurs in Theb. Bii bill 
in a passage of Utile aulhorily : see Doles 
there. And thirdly in Ihe genitive Ufiur 
looseness of construction is carried be- 
yond reasonable limils. The combination 
■)f these diflicuttics, singly formidable, ii 
overwhelming — Translate: there is and 
must be htarl-athe for Ike viemen ef every 
/loHse, literally, 'the kinswoman of each 
man's house is heavy al heart of course'. 
On wMna see Appendix L.— irpAm is 
naturally. This is the force here ralher 
Ihan 'is conspicuously". The use of Ihe 


woWi yovv BiTfyavfi tt/jo'T ^irap • 
o5? fiiv yap trapi-rrfii-^ev 
oIS«/, dvrX U ^mr^p 

trrov Sofiovi dtfuKVelrat. 

yictil TaXai'ToO^o? 4v fuixV ^opov 
irvptDdh' ef 'Wiov 
t)>C\otai TrifiiTfi ^etpii 
■^ijyua Bva-^aicpiiTOi' ap- 
•nfl'Qpo^ tTTToSov yefii- 
fcij. UffriTaf evBerov. 

441. yip Iri^il^rr. 450, 

verb is closely akin to lis common im- 
personal use {rpirci if h fify, and may be 
approximately illtulmted l>y Prrt. 141 
wiTtpa yi-p ToJauXiit olxi'^ Sti %'P<ir 
aflroTi wp/TTii ; 'Is Ihe bow the weapon 
natural to tlieir hands?' and Soph. O.T.g 
Tp4r<Mi ifiJ Tilipilt #««(>, 'marked as 
their natural spokesman '. Il is this rpl- 
x« to which fAv in v. 440 refers: ^bui" 
Introduces some justification of what pre- 
cedes, here of the notion 'naluraJly' or 
'of course' conveyed in rp/rtt, 'she is 
sad naluralty, for she has much lo grieve 

440. fliYY^wi (afrr^) wpit ^mp 
JUBuni/s her to the heart. The inlerpre- 
lation ot trlvStia offered aliove has the 
incidenla! advantage of removing Ihe 
difficully from this line, ns it supplies the 
personal pronoun, without which 9efii-- 
Kt wpit irap would be a doubtful phrase, 
so doubtful as to have prompted cor- 
rections. KiTxitiifi (Meineke), xpinrrtTot 
(Wecklein) etc. 

441. 'TOfAnfL^ (Boihe) tiDSe '.oham 
she !fed /orlh, sent away with cheer and 
encouragement. The preposition, bearing 
the same shade of meaning as in i-npa- 
fiuitigBai^ TapancKfitir, adds lo the irony 
of Ihe contrast, llie loss of a syllable is 
accounled for by the similarity of sylla- 
bles TApnAp.— Til fnp^, I'orson (and 

.f>>JJ<« (?). 


many texts) ; but this has no grsphie 
pTObahilily. Il has been recommended 
only by the necessity of supplying a sub- 
ject to Itfu^irfw, which is already aupiilied 
under the foregoing inlerpretalion, — See 
further Appendix H, 

441. "Notice the benulifut eflccl in 
this pathetic line of the implied anlithe^ 
to oISiv ; instead of the familiar and loved 
face comes back the unknown urn and 
ashes" (Sidgwick). 

445. " The 'dust in Ihe uin' suggests 
a bold figure lo the poet. "War is a 
gold-merchant dealing in bodies ; he has 
his balance (holding the scales of fight, a 
Homeric idea from //. 8. 69, where Zeus 
weighs fates) ; he sends back i^yP"' 
liiul, rvp<M» and Pofrii tiiml and ieavy 
[grievoHs), like gold-dusl, but in another 
sense 1 he fills Ihe jar with ashes in place 
of men ' " (Sidgwick). 

45 1 . Mtnv lilemlly 'convenient ' ; 
the old trnnslalion 'eaiily slowed' is not 
far from the implied sense, but a little 
more than the mcaningoflhewonl. The 

out clearly in ivBertit Id he cfHVeHienl, 
hatufy (eiSfrei irSffi j^ffairfloi Thcophras- 
lus), and specially the convenience which 
comes of being in small compass. So in 
Hesiod (Theog. 541) Prometheus, binding 
the hones of an ox in fat to deceive Zeu^ 


a^ivovtTt B' (V \eyoi'T(<; op- 
Bpa TOP /iev ws /j,a-)(i}^ tSpi^, 
TOP S' €v ipopalv KaX^s 'rrtaovT — 
oXXoT^ta; 8(ffi ■yvvaiKo':' 
rdSe CTtyn t(v ffad^n, 
<f>6ovfpop S vrr aXyw eplrei 
vpoSiKotiTip 'ArpelBaii;. 
ot S' avTov vepl xet^oe 


firs! packs Ihern logelhfr, ti0rrl<iat nari- 
Stitr Ka\6iliat df/y^i ii;iv- So [n Aesch. 
frag. 338 shoes for ninning are Icrnied 
tldrroi ififiiXiu From theit 'convenient' 
" lighlness and oiIict adaptation. (The 
word ap^KaiB, as a conjecture of one of 
Ihc later copyisli, in T%ti. 619, bat see 
note there.) Here it is an epithet bor- 
rowed from the merchant's gold-dasl, 
whose lemrmittitt of small bulk, ready 
exchanf^ etc., is a chief pari of its value. 
To the luhes it is applicable only in bitter 
irony, because, ns compared with the living 
man, Ihey are so smalt in bulk ajid so 
quickly itlsposed of. The ironical lone 
k aided by the emphatic pogiiion of the 
eptlhel 1 iia.Tala* in v. ^ya has a similar 
empho^, though less strong and different 
io purpose.— (M/tom (Auratus) is a mis- 
taken change. The 'convenience' of the 
goldsmith's vessels {i.t. the urns of the 
dead) is not to the point ; still less that 
Ihey are 'well-ordered' (as (he word is 
■ORietime!; rendered). We may add the 
improbability that liBttuvt should have 
been altered to the case of a remoter 

455. Siol Hermann. 

4}6. ToSt, i.e. Ihe last words oAXorpf- 
ar ttol 7ivai(ii, not of course the praises 
of Ihe dead. I have followed Wccklein 
in marking the natural pause. — Pattn 
tnarls ; the word signifies the tones of the 
Aog.—Tvt lamtoHt; note that this differs 
from j9a]?jDi«i and is more picturenque. 
When the praises of the dead are sounded. 

some one, an emissary for eiample of Ihe 
conspirators, wilt gcncrnlty put in Ihe 
malicious suggestion — rCya in a n-hiiftr. 
In this and the like passages [sec L. 
and Sc. J.I'.) the word retains Ihe efTect 
n with irlfu 

aiy-) Io kill. 

'Arp<C8iui Ihrrc 
spreads an inilignanl grief nguiml Iht 
quarrel af Ihe lom nf Atrevs. {mi .((rm 
i.i. iipiprri. This intransitive use is to 
be di<itinguishcd from that in v, tSi X'P' 
fi" v^pru. For fpwtir io grtrw see on 
Tiet. J7.— vpoSIimwiv ; cf. arrlSim in 
p. 41. The SIkv is the great cause of Ihe 
Atiiilae against Troy. Hut the eimcl 
sense of vpiSiKO! is hard to fix, from Ihe 
rarily of Ihe word and of similar words. 
li is here clearly invidious; a laadalory 
or merely general epithet would spoil Ihe 
sentence. As irpiiurjin is foramrd in 
itttlle, •■(iix"/w< hanJy. Tpijuonrin ready 
TBitk the neord. and TfHlXrox"' loo reaiiy 
■Biilk tali, so TfiBniK may be fertvard or 
laa ready in mil, in short HiigioHi, and 
this would III very well, the point beir^ 
that the princes are selfishly eager in 
urging their private interest. — Etymolo- 
glcally wpiJijfoi may also mean pleading 
on behalf of another, and sometimes did 
(cf. wpoRtnib/ and rpo/taxot in the sense of 
defender). But this would be contrary to 
Ihe purpose here ; the cause of the Atri- 
dae was certainty Iheir own. The ren- 
dering iaitilioi viiid/x (Dindotf) is 
scarcely consistent with the etymology. 

$pa S' eyovrat e/cpir^eti. 
SrjfxOKpaTOV 5" dpav Tivet yfieo^. 


463. ■ 
460. Othtrs fmsstil gravtl tkire by ttit 
Imun in Trajan tarlh, which Ming llum 
dolh hidi ill fair posstssors tnoay. The 
Greek feeling for ihe beauty of the body 
ia hetf Iniiched with a slrange palhm. 
tv[u>f»^ii. though joined with (ar^oiviv, 
lake? iis force from its antithesis to 
h^nrifn. The epithet could be applied, 
even in imoginBtion, only of eourse lo 
Ihe dead buried, not burnt. Note nifo 
the irony in KaWx^vi"'* -(X"*'*''*- *ords 
used naturally of conquerors who xtvfiy 
land (SidKwiclt).-^flpi 8" (xBtrrat 
(Orelli) gives a more obvious bul much 
less delicate point. 

463. PofiAi dongerou!. — ovyitirav 
Tvh/n uHiltif in angtr, possessed by n 
common reeling of indignation. This 
microscopic change from the MS. iavrxo- 
tm for (TiTiroTiiii) is jusliflable if not 
imperative. The compound (t^kotoi 15 
!iimii[Lr lo tvp.ta6ip united in ftding, 
ffilraiuaT «ni/td in blood, triVopcor hmatd 
hy a joint oath, and exactly analogous to 
aiui'P'i't Bne in mind, of which a soli- 
tary specimen is preserved in v. 111. It 
answers lo iXWitiH-ei (properly differing 
in humear) as evu4v*'°' answers lo 
HAt^parilr. For the union with a pre- 
position we have bTlfinam and Miom. 
With oiiyK^Mv we have an enact expres- 
sion of the poini, which, as the next line 
shows, is that when there is among the 
people a remmon indignation (not in- 
dignation simply}, a conspiracy, or some- 
thing like it, grows up naturally out of 
daily intercourse and conversation (^nr). 
— With irlir thrif we must translate ' popu- 
lar rumour is dangerous, where there is 
anger'. But this is a lame and inadequate 
expres^oD of whal is meant. 

464 ; it perferms tkc Migatian 0/ a 
nt-em temf^racy : the suhject is ^n», 
the talk by which malconlenis are drawn 
together.— Si)|uiKpdToti rfpot a popular 
coiijvration, a curse by which the people 
bind themselves together. I believe 
Ihal Ihe MS. reading is righl and much 
belter than any of the proposed substi- 
tutes The metaphor rpoa-u taixltire, ap- 
plied lo a league, covenani, or bond, is 
foreign to modem language but conse- 
crated and charaderistie in Greek ; and it 
is specially applic^le lo a conjuration or 
religions bond. It was in fael more than 
a metaphor; il was an actual symbol; 
sec the ritual of Atlantis as described in 
Plato {Crilias p. 119). The ten kings 
annually renewed their compacl wilh 
each other and with the law by fini 
shedding the blood of a bull over a 
pillar, on which were HiHtlen, together 
with the laws, 'an oath invoking great 
curses on whoever should break them 
[it^KOt t^fyvKnt apdr irruxoiirven roTc atrri. 
Baiat) ' and then mixing dnfis of lAt 
hidrs Mood, one for tath of them, in a 
hmt'l from which Ihey drank, snuaringns 
Ihty did so to dial truly with eaih ether 
acearding to the law (apar^pa trpirarrtt 
iwip itiirrov Bpifi^ MfiaXKor at/uiT« 
ktX.). Hence in Herodotus (4. 151) (he 
beginning of a commercial league is 
expressed by the dedication of a Kparip, 
and we are told that Oiipaiaiai It Za^iJevf 
a'xi to6tov tov tpyBV rfiSrtu ^Mai iiryiXtn 
auntp-fiSijBar. So in the Seven o- 
fainil Ththn (43) the forlorn hope of Ihe 
besiegers bind themselves together till 
death by pulling their hands while Ihey 
swear into bloiyl poured in a shiekl, 
which serves for the occasion ihe liinc- 


fxevei S' duovaai ri /xov 
nipiftva vvKT^peipe^. 
rmv woKvKToirMif yap ovic 
atrovicoiroL SeoL neKat- 
vaX S' 'Epti-ueii XP'""? 
TVj(T}p6p opt' dveu SUai; 

lion of a icparliii. See also Ihe uatha of 
Piiam aait Agamemnon //. j. 169 ntid 
notes Iherc. From Ibis riloal and sym- 
boliam came many familiar terms of 
compact, such as virftrpiaairBai ^cUcw, 
aaymiipaiiSiil rtn [te it unileJ wilA aiiti- 
iher), avfx^oA ffi>//fic\Bua clC' Hence 
SilliitpaToi dpi properly ilescrilies a ' con- 
juration' of the people, a covenant of 
rebellion solemnized with imprecation ; 
and the poini here is thai the bood of a 
common indignation ifrcBularly communi- 
caled from muulli lo muulh may be as 
(langeiuus to authority as a sworn con- 
sfRiacy. Il will be oliscrved that what 
the speakers fear is no! the animaginable 
thing which happens, but a popular out- 
break agaiast Ihe representatives of the 
kii%. This glimpse of the political 
situation a imponajil, indeed essential, 
to the development of the play.-^rfwii 
Xpfel 'it performs (literally 'pays') the 
obligation'. The (paTii is by a 1>old 
but naluial person iticalion said itself to 
do that which il causes to be done. For 
the extended use of xp^ai cf. Soph. O. C. 
150 T^l '* Srt aoi ^l^w iw ffiffif Ofro- 
luu, ■i ■ttiai'Mi, 1 Wi:«i ^ XW"* {obligalio 
Hermann) fl 9iit. Observe that tlra 
■gplot pursues the idea of the covenant 
and confirms the correctness of hfitoKpd- 
rou. — titiuitfirToii (Porson and most texts) 
gives the sense 'a curse decreed in as- 
sembly, an official curse'. The public 
curses upon offenders were an important 
part of early Greek legislation and were 
regularly roistered with the laws (see a 
specimen from Teos in Roberts' Gnei 
ImcripluiBi No. 14)). !ij>wiipo»roi ipk 
is therefore a very g 


itself; but the sanclioD of a law has 
really nothing to do with the present 

465. |iJi'ii...)^im|p(^ and I owail 
■aiilh boding a voiit from tht darkaiss of 
my IhoHgkts (iilerally 'and my anxiety 
waits to hear from me something, which 
darkness cavers'), or in terms of proi>e '1 
have a fixed presentiment of evil, though 
I cannot at present give it a dclinite 
shape'. A simpler form of exprcsdon 
would be iiiru dioiiaal ti ifiavrav icrX. 
'I am waiting lo be told l>y myself, from 
which the actual form differs in the per- 
sonification of the questioning anxiety as 
something distinct from the person who 
feels il. For the antithetic emphasis on 
■uiiTijpt^t see' Ml. 430, 4JI — We must 
avoid the construction |^Ap^JJfi /uhj ixivti, 
iKoisal Ti fturnipc^i ' my anxiety still 
expects news' etc. This would be ex- 
pressed in Aeschylean language by iiira 
lun lUfiiima anoSsal ti. Both the order 
of the words and the rhythm show that 
luiv depends on luoiiaai in the first in- 
stance, though of course it also supplies a 
possessive to /tipifira, 

467. ouK diria-KOwai, • they do not look 
away from ihem'.i.f, they watch them with 
fixed eyes. — Jamnroi Cod. Faro., but see 
Appendix II.-^ii'ivoXiiKTiwitvi includ- 
ing those who, like the Atridae, reckon 
lives lightly in the pursuit of their ends. 

471. iraXiirTVxii...pCoti ifAm by Ihe 
rub of lift his liiti is raiirsid. Probably 
a metaphor from some game, like the 
'rub' of the bowl which furnishes so 
many similar images to Shakespeare. — 
raXvTuxiT (Scaliger) docs not alter the 


riSeirr' afuivpou, ep B' dl- 
ffTOt? TeXedovTOii ovtis aKKri' 
TO 5' iiirepKOTTtus xXveiv eu 
ffapv' ^aWfTai yap ScrffOK 
Aiodev Kepavvov. 
Kpiv<t> S' a^Qovov oXffoV 

474- ircfinlriin, 
473. tAWoitw ' when he uyfia/Zji': ipiTrjou 
cf, Eur. ^mfr. jSo 4Si) itir yip ofirina 
toOto, /v St XP^V ""(X/Ud fgpi', anJ see 

on Eui. jt/«/. 1096- 

474- ntpn^aii (Giulius) xXiiiiv tl /n 
** pnustd I90 much. — The trrtptorat of 
llle MS. comes from aa involunliuy ce- 
colkctioQ or kAtos in the preceding pas- 

IK appears from 


47J. Popv dangemm, 
Swavf. a difficiill word, i 
the lliirlEen proposed 
by Wccklein. The order and rhythm 
(sec above on v. 465) show dcciiively that 
the dative depends upon pdXXrrai. (We 
cannot therefore imnslale by 'thunder- 
bolts (rvro the eyes of 2eu&', even if the 
case and the sense were appropriate.) 
With ^dWeir BS with many verbs, simple 
cases sometimes express in poetry relations 
usaolly luid iu prose more accurately given 
by prepositions. Thus heic fJiiXAcrai is 
used like iwipaWiTai, and Ihe dative 
stands lot the object of aim. Cf. Eui. 
/"hoiH, 1J85 'Kiyx'V i"il"t ar6>taTi, Kui. 
AM. mt5 x'l» P'^*'" ('■'■ Tpw^tif) 
WitrcHt and note tlierc. So rpinu- I^Tiei. 
117) lakes the genitive proper to 3ia- 
wpiwiuf. On the other hand that ' the 
bolt of Ze\li strikes lit rjti' is neither 
true as a fact nur signiticanl as a ligure ; 
nor if wc say, as the woriIin]{ of Ibe 
passage scarcely permits, 'hit eyes', is 
the expression any truer or belter. To 
make sense, we want, as many liave seen, 
some type of greatness or height, the 
ptaki for instance, which ' the thunder 
strikes', as liutace says illustrating the 
•ame topic. Hence the suggestions 'i)a- 
«r (Lobeck), i^iii„w and Sx"*" (Weil), 

6piytmftati (Ahrens), npitvaa ^na^Us 
(Schneidcwin) etc. But how do we know, 
or why must we lake for gianted, that 
tetnt is not the word we want, that it 
does not mean peaitt Not because it 
means ' eyes ' : every language has many 
words of double and treble sigoificalion. 
Not by its foini, for the very word («»€, 
tyes, is evidence for the Ukelihood of b 
word £«'?ai (or A«ffw) /DiW, being derived, 
as all, I believe, agree, from the stem 
6k-, of which the original notion was 
sharpnas (cf. ttpa a. point and the 
ccgnale Latin ac-ia ac-m). The fact 
that aeit! means /eiW or (rfgit. does not 
prevent it fram meaning also grt, iiiu tf 
baltli, etc. In such cases of ambiguily> 
one word or meajiing lends to oust Ibe 
(est ', and so it appears lo have been in 
this case, if the present bet»\ is ihe only 
extant example of the meaning paints or 
pmii. The meanings discarded from 
common use will nevertheless be pre- 
served here and there, esjiecially in 
proverbs, and the present phrase has 
the tun) of a proverb. I would therefore 
retain ja««> and Iraoslate, after Horace, 
/tr Ikt Mis e/ htaveH fall hP<ih Ihe ptati, 
Teriuntqucsummos fulgura monies', 

477. KpIvB : properly 'sepaiate' or 
■sift out', limited in this archaic use lo 
the separation of what ii geaU from Ihe 
mass, and so prr/tr, fAiWJt — d+faror 
uHtiitiiiii: as the common meaning was 
'unstinted, abundant', this cuceplional 
use has special point, ti puis in a single 
word the contrast between abundance 


478. )m) 8' iliiv h rightly given by tiM 
HS, and should not be altered to |i4'' 


fi^ h' etrjn •jTToXnropOijt 

ftJjT ouu avToi aXovi vtt oK- 

\a)v 0lop KariBoifU. 

•mjpo^ S' VTT evayyiXov 
TToKiv StrjKet 6oa 

cAfr. The negative nnd the conjunctive 
have theii scporale force: U joins the 
whole periix] tii),.,KaTlloitH to the clause 
preceding ; fj\ is antithetic to u^r' oSr in 
V. 479. The connexion is this: 'I choose 
an unenvicil pmspetlly ; and (Si) I would 
fftin not (/iij) be it conqueror, nor yet 

4S0. )i^',.,Na-HSo4u: 'nor may I 
ever know the life of a captive' (?) is 
conjectured lo be the meaning ; literally, 
'nor may 1, oiyself subdued by another, 
see (experience) Ihe life (of n slave)'. 
But it must be conressed that the sup- 
posed sense of taTiitir ^d> lacks prole- 
bility ) nor is it satisfacluiy, that the 
period should close with two superfluous 
wonls. for aXttiiir simply would have 
expressed as much.— ^» cbW9«^(, 'cat 
the bread {ptn sustenance, nourishment) 
of captivity', Volckenaerj but neither 
is tliis satisfactory. 

481— 49j. Conversation in lyric reci- 
tative betvfecn the elders (Weckleia). 
Sec above on w. 363 — 366. 

481. npit: note the emphasis, 'now 
BS for tlie fire' etc. We have no better 
evidence at present than a signal which 
may well be fraudulent, mistaken, or 
misinterpreted. Compare ti, 486 and con- 
trast i.. 501. 

483. tnfri^t : supply dYT'^*"'o< 
tr^tti itX., dTT^XXwrot l>cing supplied 
from •ji-iiyi'JXou. The anlilhcsis is be- 
tween the adverbs li and irririnui : the 
signal gives gaeii news, but docs it give 
triitf — ir^viiM (i^rlii 1^ fi»iu AunUus 

and modern texts) seems not right. 
The MS. reading preserves the natural 
balance of the clauses and lays the 
emphasis on the right point, the com- 
petence o( the witness. 

4S4. i^ TM BiUv im, ji^ i|rv0ot (sc. 
ft) it ii indtcd mirafuhui, — if net fiilsc. 
An expression of contemptuous scepti- 
cism, and proverbial, as shown by roi. 
The subject of the sentence in Greek, as 
in the English, is the general subject, rl 
■wpaytui 'the thing'. The doubt is di- 
rected against the trustworthiness, if not 
tlie existence, of the alleged system of bea- 
cons. The force of Stfot is exactly illus- 
trated by Herodotus (1. 6G) on the beha- 
viour of the Kgyptian cats, which leap into 
a fire, tu/koi^ H ytntiiiriit Oiia wpff/IUiTa 
itani.\aiipdvn rttt aifXaipovi. Note that 
im is slightly emphatic, and indispens- 
able, OS it commonly is in Aeschylus, 
when it is not omitted ; see on v. 436. — 
The supplement of the verlKil tr from 
^irri in the principal clause, is closely 
similar to that of the adjectival Sr m such 
coses as Plato Pluudr. 140 D op&ri A^u> 
npftrPirriiKir xol tdn ir lipf (sSimv). It 
is exceptional but seems not unnatural. 
— Of the many changes proposed, that 
of O. Muller, ij ro. S.ii. iar^r 4 ^m. 

the t 

> the I 



same sense as the text. Almost all (t.g. 
(1^ II efi*!- inn W ^''floi ; Weil) introduce 
a suggestion foreign 10 the purpose, that 
the signal is a 'deception of the gods' 
{Btiim fufloi). If the speaker suspeCU 
any one, it is the queen; see the next lines. 

veois TTvptoOei^a xapBtav eireiT 
dWaya \6yov Kaftetv ; 
'Ec -Yvvatieo^ al^t^a irpeirei 


485—488. T(iitG(iniL6vi«icTX. 'Wba 
is so cbiliiisb ' etc, Lt. * Is there any one 
%a childish?' This second speakei ukcs 
np the hint of the preceding and gives it 
a stronger lum. The rashness o( the 
queen, in acting upon such an uncerti- 
fied report, is more than naluml. Does 
she really believe? To which the next 
speaker answers that it is quite possible 

487. vfeil, i-i- 'i«t oCiru' 'when they 
are fresh', is emphatic and a predicate, 
clusely connected with tijuuWcto icap- 
iliuf. 'Why not await contirmation ? ' 
— TupuUrra KopSktv : for heal as a 
figure of sanguine rashness cf. Soph. 
AhI. 87 Btpniiv itl <):vxjn'in •a/JWoj' 
fx«<- — «v p i» W » IQ. . .IrftTa ■Eoiuu' iV 'lo 
let his feelings take fire at the first, when 
hemust sulTerirthenewsshnuld change'. 
For the relaliua of sense between the 
participle and the verb, cf. Eur. Afeii, 
1413 dBi liiwirr tyii ^l/nai i^Xtf rpis 
teS ^iiiintn iwMaBiu, -wiem / -wonld I 
had timer Acgftien, lo stt thOH slain iy 
tkce. — The clause is consecutive (urre 
Ko^vt) following uljc.— (ir,](ji^ vpj- 
«« 'with woman's impulsiveness it is 
natural' etc., literally ' in (a case of) a 
woman's impulse', t-e. where a woman's 
impuUivcncss comes in. In Latin the 
correspon<ling use of in is very commonj 
in Greek it is rare, but should not be 
condemned. Not unlike is Thuc. 3. 4J 
it ry Tovfht iSfmm 'where such an 
opinion prevails' and still nearer is Ami- 
phon 5. S9 Bb li in h i^arti \dyv (iohen 
tu« have no proof) f^ttr twvXtaax. — To 
omit it (Scaliger and moderti 


but i 

surely for that very reason unjustifiable. 


489. bIxI*^ tmfulie or tuUitral lempir, 
regularly formed from the slem of df«vw. 
For the sense compare Bviiii spirit 
with 6iia la ruth. Other words of Ukc 
formation and meaning are ^*hi. pif^. 
The won! occurs also in P. V. 418 ICc#t 
ivipT^aror ftScUrivir alyjt-ifr, and Ck«. 
6]8 7iviu(cJ(U' aroXjior B^jt^ur (Blotnlicld, 
Paley, and see L. and Sc i. v.). Here 
the primitive notion of impvht is more 
prominent ; the saiue variation occurs in 
ifrfTi, meaning sometimes aHjTT sometimes 
merely mood (compare the English hu- 
iWHr).— Whether this ai^i, is or is not 
identical in etymology with o/x>"i in 
other senses is doubtful. 

4c;o. x<M»<' ^'''''uv'vWi le gttv in- 
didgCHi cisieiit, an absent which Is not 
merited but concedeil from the incliriDtioll 
of the hearer. The ace x<>P» >s relaled 
lo furau'^aBi as an adverbial or 'quasi- 
cognate' accusative, and expresses that 
the ' assent ' is a ' favour ' or act of par- 
tiality. 'Acijuicace in what is ptea«ng 
to her' (Paley) gives the sense bat not 
exactly the meaning of x"*"'' — 't^ '™ 
^vlvnt bt/tre proof, where ri ^oWr 
' the thing being proved ' stands for ' the 
proving of the thing '. This use of the 
particLplei though quite lineal, is rare, 
having been expelled liy the article with 
the infinitive {t/A tw ^ar^ai). Very 
similar are the examples in Thucydides 
in T(|i >ii) y.iKwtQ9ri. d(u«Ti4repoi ttorm 
' from not practising tbey will have leu 
knowledge' (1. 141), jv r^ nxi^c ofiovm 
'where such an opinion prevails' (3. 
4j) etc. —Others transhtte by ' instead of 
what is evident', but the context il 
clearly that rpi here is lemporsl. 


Tajfinropof aWa ra')ffJfiopoi/ 
fWaiKoyjpvrav oWtnai. kXeo?. 
Tri^' eiffOfitaBa \ap,TrdStaii ^aea^opav 
<ppvKTwpiav T€ /cat TTvpoi irapaWar/at, 
fir oSii (iXij^ei? eir' BtKtjv 

KT}pVK air aKTTf<i tovS' opS KaratTKiov 

491. Wtman it too apeit lo cuHvictiuH, 
C b»UH4ary soeH passfd by Iht ejtfrgaikrr, 
hvt fuictly dill the rtfurrl w/iic^ leemeH 
try. hnW|itrai, 111. ' 'n uccupied-oVL'r, 
is encroarhed upon ', an irregular aDCient 
pas»ve : c^. twwijpvx^tli 'having a price 
set upon him' in Tktl'. 611, ami other 
examples there cited. The applicaliun of 
i-wiriittaSat to Rocks which feed {riiLotToi) 
on a neighboui's land illustiales the use 
here (DonaldHKi, Paley)l but flocks have 
nolhii^ (o do with Ihc prcwnl metaphor, 
whkh is lakcii directly from r/)itir or 
pilHadru to ariipy latlJ- — i (i]Xut £poi 
i.e. ri 9f!\B regarded as a Ipoi. — Ywat- 
KOYi|pVT«|r. y<tp6<ii, regularly uwd of 
sounds sharp and shrill, here suggests 
the female lone: it is almost 'shriek'. 
.So in Eur. //iff. Hi (the nurse lo 
Phaedra) ai fiii raji Ix^ rali yjipdati ; 

494. The herald Is seen approaching. 

49+— S- Xan«15«» . . . ^Krapwy... 
«vpil. The accumulation u! synonyms 
has a certain conlempluous effect. ' We 
shall no! de[>end on that sort of intelli- 
gence any more '. 

496. ((t' oiv 'whctlier, as we will 

498. KanfoKHW iiXiiSoii Aolot 'with 
ihtdc of olive-branch' luf. with small 
branches of olive liuund as a wreath upon 
his head. CI. EuT.ffi/if. 130 Xirri pifni 
faii0ir m^aXiv tiidlfur, and Simon. [ 50 
vniiftv tOtipar of a chaplet. The words 
here would be satisfied if the olive- 
branches were carried over the head, but 
a wrealh is probably meant. The use of 
V'dtiir ibr what is woni on the head ii 

natural among a people who went usually 
bare. It will be observed that the speaker 
does not infer from the olive the nature 
of the news (as the priest in Soph. O. 7. 
81 infers the success of Creon'a mission 
to the oracle from his wrealh of bay). 
What is inferred is that he comes aw' 
diT^t. The herald would be wreathed, 
as the ship Itself was wreathed, in sign of 
gratitude lo thu goUs for the safe con- 
clusion of a voyage. Sec Fropcrlius (3, 
14. 15) ffft lerenalae portuM teligen 
lariiuu, IraitclM Syrta, anrora iaila mihi 
tst. It is noliceable thai a closely similar 
descriplion (iXaJourt utA/Aiiita lartunrioi' 
iiu\ii») is given of the newly arrived 
refugees in the Suppt'ianls (358), the scene 
nf which is laid on the coast of Atgolis. 
I n both passages the reference is probably j 
lo some local custom noticed in the le- / 
gcnds which Aeschylus followed. 

498 — J04. Ybu herald cemes from Ikt 
shore, ai I let by AH ikaJi a/ alive 
In/Hghi: and ihe thinly dust, siller ef lh< 
Hure and aeighitiiir, Icslifitt la me this, 
thai, net v'ilh dumb signals B/fire.swelie, 
burning yoti a bonfire of wosd iifeH a 
hilt, but leith a plain word, he mill either 
explicitly bid tti rejoice or — etc — The 
riddle of this passage awaits solution* 
The (|Uestion is. What dial is meant, and 
how does it show that the herald brings 
some important news which will presu- 
mably throw light upon the recent report? 
The conventional answers may be divided 
thus: (i) the dust is that which Ihe 
herald raises; this shows his haste luiil 
therefore the importance of his news ; (1) 



K^dSoK iKaia^. fuiprvpel Se fioi icdaK 

TTviXou ^vvovpoc; Sitjria *fwi9 rdSe, 

ws ovT dvavBo^ ovre <rot Sauuv i^Xo-ya 

vKijii 6peia<; aiffiavei kuttv^ wvpot, 

(iXV ^ TO jfaipeiv fiaWov eic^d^i Xfytov — 

rhe airriov Si TolaB dtroaTeym \6yov' 

J 04- i-rvrripya,. 

the dust and the mud are upon ihc gnr- 
mtnts of the herald (the roud being on 
his shoes and the dust on his clothes they 
are 'neighbours' or 'contiguous'); Ibcy 
show that he has come n long way and 
BO suggest thai he has come from Troy 
(Palcy). Bui neither of these is tolerable. 
As to (i), ii is fidiculous to say 'I see 
thai man is in haste, because he makei a 
duit'. Even supposing thai one roan 
running would make a ooiiceable dust, 
and that ibe herald is in violent haste 
(which there is no reason to suppose), it 
would still be absurd lo cite the dnsi as 
evidence of the visible fact that he is 
running. Moreoverlhisciplnnalion tnkes 
no notice at all of the description 'sister 
of the mire and neighbonr', which is set 
aside as mere flourish but, if it has 
nothing to do with the suliject, should 
rather be called mere nonsense. Paley's 
cxplatlalian (i) is an honest attempt to 
meet this last difliculty, but we need 
scarcely dwelt upon it. See further Ap- 
pendix M. 

£01. n». "The clhic dative empha- 
sizes the tone of contempt for the reports 
of a beacon" (Wecklein). It has in fact 
precisely the same eficct as in English : 
JVM stands for oiu as in the common duic 
If i4iifir«a one cattnot fait etc. Un the 
Singe it would lie reinforced by a turn or 
gesture towards those who just before had 
expressed such strong incredulity. The 
present speaker inclines rather lo believe 
(«. 494). 

loi, xairvf contemptuous: cf. Eur. 
Hifp. ij^btyaniiirar tajrviA, learned futi- 

joj! either hh hafpj greeting will 

cunjirm Iht giadnen, lilerally ' he will 
fully express the announcement that we 
are to be glad hj saying W. ti xo'P***': 
'the x^V^'i the formnla of salutation. 
The herald's first act, according lo cas- 
tom (see i-. Soi). will be to salute the 
■own. If his salutation is a xa'V> ^ i' '^ 
("■ S>3). well; if not.—. See the same 
thought difTerently lumed in Soph. 
Troih. us x'^P"" ^ '*' inj/MO rpovT' 
*ivu XP^'V i ToXXy ipanirTa^ ;i;dpT0r tin 
Kai #^peii. For the dfWst Aiyn sec the 
entrance of the Persian messenger an- 
nouncing the battle of Salaoiis (Peri. 
'5')' li 1^ oriiffiTi 'Aa-idJoi xoMff/mra, . . , 
(ifiM Ktuiiy kt\, — JKpa{<i : pifiui in the 
sense of ^dfit v. 48.1. The preposition 
signifies trtension, explicilness. 

J04. ^irooT J yw i,e. itrariinrii, ' I sup- 
press, I leave unsaid', by an afitviefieiis, 
as it is still technically called. cHyta 
properly la hold in (of a net. a vessel etc.) 
is a r^utar poetic equivalent for air(wr or 
auinrar ri te refrain from saying- See 
Soph. Phil. 136 Ti -xini ariytir, ij W M- 
Ttu' J lahat should be said or luffitssidT, 
O. T. 341 iK« ■yip tti'rA Kor lyii nyg 
ariyii! eivn if I rifratn frem ulteriifg 
Ihem, and other examples in L. and Sc. 
!,v, — di-offT^pyiii f (/ ctasi lo tiir, ton- 
eeive a dislike of) will not pass. It is said 
indeed to mean here • 1 reject as ill- 
omened', but there is no proof of this 
sense (see supposed examples in L. and 
Sc. S.V.) not is the word capable of it. 
The case o( aiominor and abominate it 
plainly not analogous. The conjeclureti 
iroaTiiyii Knrsten, iworriiii Arnold, show 
a part but only a pan of the objeelion. 
The MS. readins may have arisen from a 

ev yap irpiv ev <ftaveiai irpo<T0^XTj ireXot, 

avrii ^pev^v Kaptroljo t^v afiapriav. 

tti irarp^v oiJSo? 'Apytlav p^tfoco?. 



double rri but U more probably a deli- 
beiBtc change made by one who did nol 
rccognUc the meaning of irr^'yu.— ^v 
^rrio* kaym: the allenialive o[ disap- 
poinlioenl. — nilrSf 'oul of rexpecl for 
these', i.e. roii Otoh, the gods who stand 
as umal before the palace and to whom 
the betaJd addresses himself below {w. 
S'4i 5»4f- 'IT"; pronoun is explained by 
• reverent gesture towards the imngcs, a 
'deictic' lue common in the poets. The 
coDstniction is the 'ethic' dative, and ts 
Terj ^milor to that of iriuiru in Ar. /Can. 
tij4 iy^ tiurii TvSt, 'am I to pay him 
the respect of lilencc?' nod id. /.jt. no. 
To alistain from words of ill omen was a 
special duty in a religious place 01 pre- 
sence (see t,£. Tkcb. 134) and the mure 
so at such a solemn moment as this. — 
That rowit iihould lie so taken, and nol 
OS neuter with dirlw, * the cpposile of 
this ', may lie Seen [ i } from ihe rhythm ; 
lo divide the line aftei tfttaS spoils the 
caesura, and (i) because superfluous pro- 
nouns, such as ToiirSi is if taken with 
dvrlw, are offensive to Greek habit, 
abuve all in poetry. It is an additional 
argument for ai-oor^yu that it provides 
an acceptable consliuclion for iMoZt. 

jo6— 7. t»Tit. WhfiltulltrilAii prayer 
nilA alAer ihltntuHs tinnard Ar^ (IhaH 
Duri), etc. These lines ore undoubtedly 
to be given (as by Wecklein) to a new 
speaker: otherwise a conjunction would 
be necessary. Ilut the meaning of the 
remark becomes clear only wlien we 
perceive, as has been show*n above, that 
there are two parties present upon the 
Mage. TIk words farif ktX. ore spoken 

by one of the queen's parliians. accepting 

the prayer of the elder but tacitly of 
course putting his own sense upon eS 
^artiei (the deception so far kept up) 
and irf»ir#4(i| (the linal triumph of the 
conspiracy). — The Ms. gives w. 494 — 
J05 to Clytaemnestra, w. 506 — ^ to the 
chorus, the liy/anlinc scholars being 
here as elsewhere unalile with their dra- 
mulis pCTsanoi \o distribute the piece in- 
tel 1 igihly^^ ^„__-— - — ~ 

overcome by past suffering and the present 
emotion of seeing his native city once 
more that it is some lime before he 
thinks to tell his news {v, j jo), and in- 
deed till he is addressed {v. J43) he 
scarcely seems to be aware that any one 
is present. From his hrsl words (note 
aCjoi) it would seem that he throws him' 
self down, like Shakespeare's Richard II., 
lo salute the licioved earth, and he thinks 
for the moment that he will die on the 
spot (diSt rvxim v. 510). The whole 
speech is marvellously powerful and in 
any ordinary work would stand out as a 
golden piece. To the average man in a 
Greek audience it would perhaps appeal 
as strongly as anything in the play. 

S09. Smdrf ^^YY*^ t^' (tovi with 
this tenth annual datan, if the expression 
may pass. ^iTI"'' ^ ''W' ' 4^77<" ^''"i^ is 
an imitation, with special purpose, of the 
common periphrasis ^^yyot JiiUfia and 
means literally jiar-day or ytar miinlid 
as a day, the genitive being that 'of equi- 
valcnt'. This peculiar phrase is to be 
explained by the ancient proverbial signi- 
licance of 'the tenth day'.. In ilomcr 


iroWaiif pa'^fiawv eKiriSoii' ftiw TVj^ioir' 
ov yrip irar i)ify(oiiv t^S' ev Apytla ^^oi'i, 
Oavtev fj.e0(^eiv ^tXraTOu raiftou /i^po<;. 
vvv xalpe flip \0a>v, X^^P^ ^ ^Wou ^ot, 
inraro^ re ■)(iapa<i Zei)^ a Wv8i6^ t' ovaf, 
To^oK laTTTtDv fiTjKeT elf tifia<t /Se'X-i;' 
aXi! frapii Sfu/iovSpoiJ 7]\6' nvapaiof 
vvv 6' avTi ffiVT^p taffi ical Traiwi'w?, 
(iiiaf 'A-jraWof. tous t' ayioviov^ 0eov^ 

irr^liap is the tq^lar 

/eng, days and days, and t^ Si 




t the 
slaying of Ihe Greeks by the arrows of 

Apollo (//. I. J3), iriniimp iiir vik mpa- 

(where SL-e Leaf's nule). of Niube's chil- 
dren (//. 14, 610) oi /lip ip' /nnjjiop k/ot' 
^» 0di<y. oili^ Til ^f KarSa^t... | roi>< S' 
ipa TD 8«orB ^(u> etof.and so (requcnl- 
I7 iHjlh in the Iliad&nA Ihc Odyssey. (The 
firsl-cited passage seems to have been 
actually in Acichylus' mind ; see the 
reference to the arrows of ApoUo in vj'. 
5I4--5I8.) Thus to a Greek eat a»{[rv 
^yY" ''V^ "'^ ilself suggested 'at last ', 
and &i%i,T<f ^yyti r^' Irout 'after ill 
these weary years'. Of coune the litem! 
truth of the number in ihis case is consis- 
tent with ihe i>oint, or mlher is iiself ihe 
poinl. It is also material hereandlhr(>u|;li- 
out this scene to remember the su[iposed 
hour, just after sunrise. 

510. ^afauTMV : the exact metaphor 
intended is doubtful. The schol. refeis 
it to anchors, one of which may hold 
when the rest break. Others (see L, and 
Sc. s.v. ji-ZTfi'i'iu) render il by virttk(d, as 
B ship, but in the passage cited for Ihis 
(Demosth. p. ijSgj^a-ritPoidoesnol mean 
'to be wrecked', but 'to spring a leak'. 
Probably Ihc tradition of the scholia in 
correcl. — rvxiw belongs in any case not 
to Ihe metaphor but properly to i\iiiiat. 

514. SnuTe* T< Z(vt : supply xfup^ru. 
The images of these and other dalles are 

before the palace. 

51;- PAi|: rlanaf baan/i. //li iinpua 
fftfiji fiiXieirir, |irayer of Chiyscs lo Apollo 
in //. I. 41. See above on v. 509. 

$16. dXkc.^XBt Ung enough lie cam/ 
in mmily la Siamintder's flan, as for 
instance on the occasion just mcnlioned, 
^3 a jiar' Qi\<inw»a sajr^riM ^UD/wmi 
■%>, r<>t' wnmatr txa'--.i t' vu 'uarl 
iiHKwt. The descents of the gods upon 
the scene are a striking feature of Ho- 
meric story. — The mamentary dcllexioii 
into the third person, already prepared 
by the nominalircs in v. 5141 is perfectly 
natural when tefetring to one not present, 
except symbolically in the image; and it 
has here Ihe great rhetorical advantage of 
sharpening the contrast between the hos- 
tile Apollo in the Troad and the friendly 
Apollu in Argos, the Apollo of the past 
and liie Apollo of the present, by the 
return lo the form of invocation in Ihe 
next tine, wAerl Ihi rtsHmftioH is marked 
by a fresh vomiizK (di-af 'AroUer) in- 
strted far this veryfurfese. — The change 
of ^\9' to nc"' (many modem texts) in- 
jures not only the rhetoric but the gtam- 
mar ; note the case of 'ZKinarSpof. 

517. muivioc Dobree. 

S:8. tabtiffvimt httA% these astern- 
bled gods or gads in assembly. This Icnn 
occurs also in Ihe Sufflieis (195 and 148) 
where there is no doubt as lo the meaning, 
'gods assembled in one place, and having 
one common worship', jtotrn^u/ilu Suff, 
tiB. An examination of that passacc 


TTQin-oe vpoaauhw, rov t efiov Ti^iAopov 
EpnTJi/, i^iXoi' KTjpvica, >CT}pvK(ov ae^ai;, 
r)pai<i T€ Tovv TrefiifraiTav, evp^veK TrnXti' 
trrpaTov hey^eaQai. rov XeXetfifievov Sapov- 

aefivoi re BaKoi, Batfiovh r dvT^ioi 

I diQW thai there no other sense is 
possible, since the deities are lecognizetl 
as colleclively iyiliiHiii by newly airived 
foreigneiB, who have not yet identified 
■Lnyoflhem, There, as here, the reference 
is to the religious custom of Ar^os, and 
among the gods, ihere as here, are Zeus, 
Apollo, iDd Hermes. There is therefore 
every reason to suppose thai the sense 
here is the same and thai a similar K«n- 
fiu/ila is represented before the palace of 
AgBmcmnon. Il is probable (see L. and 
Sc i.v.) that the word was also some- 
time;* used for iyepduH 'the gods of an 
«i{Dra {itiir) or gods of assembly' ; it 
might well have both senses at once, if 
a KBttapuida were, in a particular case, 
connected with an agvra. But iyoptuiit 
was not to Aeschylus the primary sense, 
for the iiKnpaiida of the Sufflica is not 
in an agin-n bul in a lonely place near the 
sea. — Wecklein lakes the same view. 

519. xiv Ti and him. rir, like t-di>i 
in V. jtS, is demonsirnlive (not 'and my 
defender'), -nixiopov: 'defender 'because 
of ihe religious inviolabiliiy altaching lo 
the persons of heralds, of whose office 
Hermes, Ihe divine "VP^C. was [lalron. 

jll. fTTpardii ... Sopis reeme iari 
thiir army— ■what ef il Ihe war halh 
tfar/ii. The last words come in as a 
conection; the expression for the pari is 
accnmmodaled to the whole, as in i) 

■;]4. OamH : seats for the king and 
probably for his councillors before Ihe 
gale of the palace. Wecklein refers to 
Horn. Od. J, 14, 3. 406.— Sa((U>vfc t' 
i1i-ti(Xmii «tX> and yi deilifs thai loot 
mi(var\/ (ai, whal a vhilrl), wi/A this 
iright ^lad»eis in your tyet TPelremt Jilly 

Ihe loHf;-tihsml king. ctvnJXwi 'eastward - 
looking', as in Soph. Ai. Ro.i; li iiir 
irripat's iytHTai ol t' arni^lovt ftyrt'Ti. — 
■^ irov TtlXoiL : literally 'surely melhinks 
a lon[! while', a parenthetic comment 
upon aiT^Xiot, from which Ihe same 
adjective in a participial sense, fwiri 
u^Xioi AvTfi, is lo be supplied. It must 
be remembered that in Greek roXai tlpd 
represenis ihe English ' I have long 
been'; in English il would be more 
natural though not absolutely necessary 
(o repeat the verb in the perfect, ' ye 
Ihal look eastward— and ah ! how long 
ye have looked'. — ^luSpatn Mgil both 
literally and in the common derived sense 
of'glad': it is here a preilicatc.— T0nr(8" 
i}i,fUMVf 'these eyes' 

e then 

sary o 

desirable to write rotirir (h).—Kiry^, 
dalive of manner, combines the ideas of 
what is doe and decent (cf. ■iM'/iliiit and 
sec Find. /^Ih. j. 8» rd ^r ur M^wtoJ 
oi {{iBarTtii fijirioi tiaiuf ^pftr) and of 
honour. — The significance of thisbcautiful 
thought lies in Ihe circumstances of the 
place and the hour. The new-risen sun, 
as we have seen (11. 1109), naturally asso- 
ciates itself in Ihe mind of the man wilh 
Iheendofhislongmisery. Theconnenion 
of recovered happiness wilh Ihe morning 
was indeed fixed in the language {v. 176) ; 
and Ihe symbolism is Important in more 
than one play (see for example the Eltcira 
of Sophocles V. 19 iU\atri T liFTpiM tiM- 
Xmrir it^pirn and Prof. Jebh's nole 
Ihere). The herald has come up from 
Ihe port by Ihe eastern road, and the king 
is coming from Ihe same direction. The 
palace and the go^ls before II look to- 
wards the approach, and at this niomeni 


(>* irov wdXat), ^aiSpolat rourit S/i/utao' 
Sf^aaSe KOtriufi ffofftXea iroXXm j(pot^. 
^leei yiip ^fUP, <^ai? €v evt^pbvrj ^ptap 
icai ToiffS" Hiram koivov. ' AyafUfivwv nva^. 
nXX' €v viv aairnffaaOe. icai yap ovv wpeiret, 
Tpoiay maraiTKa'^avTa tav hiKrj^opov 
Aia; fiaiciXkr/, rp naTfipyaoTai ircSof, 

the bees of Ibe nndent statues, the eyes 
probably inlaid after the aicluic fashion 
with hriltiant stnnn, are full-lil iSchnei- 
dnrin) by Ihe level rays. They beam 
|(D thinki Ihe man) wilh joy for (he sun- 
like return of [he king, ai if, tkrtivgh tMe 
nigM ff iii ahsmtt, Ihry had Iktmsthfs 
fill it long to bt lecHHg intaards and Tray- 
vmrdt IB vain tiprftatien.^^i the read- 
ing here I cannut myself entertain Ihe 
wnallc^ lUBpicion. There are mnny con- 
jeclurcs, and il has even been proposed 
to strike oul v. 5*5. For fl won nUoi, 
treated as hopeless, is commonly substi- 
tuted rf »ov »iiX«i if rttr ye did Ifferi 
(Auralus). But, to say nothing of whnl 
is thus lost, such language can be used 
only of what is likely to have happened 
before (such as a vielotious return) ; hait 
the coincidence of a triumphant entry from 
the sea-side into Argos with the hrsl hour 
of the morning is just not such a fact, and 
in this striking coincidence lies the very 
gist of the matter. Nor is it clear that tC 
»«i would be correct for tt toti {Soph. 
O. T. 161, and pairim): in Arislopb. 

^1- 347 <^ TOU SuIilW (I'Bt ^„..^ov 

jvMTii Atiu X/Tcit. tl Tou means, as 
usual I not if ntr but if ptrhafs. There 
may be better instances, but the investi- 
gnlion would not lie here relevant. 

ji? — 51A Fer our prime is returned, 
tringing light in liarinas I0 imfarl unto 
all thud art here; h4 is come, /igamemnon 
Ihi king, ijfilv, a dative possessive or of 
the person inlcrested {rommodi\ stands 
for ArgDs and the Argivcs generally, but 
also more particularly for the army, wham 
the i:^f<i specially represents. — ical nttrS' 
iitars Koudv literally '(to be) shared with 

all bere also'. The wonls are joaned ai 
a ' proleplic ' predicate with ^pur. The 
'light' of the vicloi; has come to Ihe 
army already: now the king is brii^ng 
il to Argos thai ihose at home may have 
their share. — nia-B( 'those here* in the 
broadest sense of tit as the correlaii»c lo 
ittlrot : it includes (lie city. Ihe |^s, the 
other objects of his address, and mnch 
more wilh ihem. — All modem (eits have 
vfur {i-e. ^p"" £f>i* lal T<Kir3' Snai), the 
conjecture of h, obvious and specious, if 
the verses are written without punclua- 
linn. But f. giving what is belter and 
not so olivious, is entitled lo credit ; thai 
the editor of Ihe Cud. Fani, shou1<l make 
an easy>looking change is a matter of 

5.10. Toii EiKi]^ipou AiJt (luAXg. 
The compounds in -^0^1 ns epithets of 
deities so constantly mark Ihe dislin- 
guihhing emblem 'carried' l>y the hgure 
in artistic representation, ihal (his phcnse 
would ineviubty suggest to a Greek the 
conception of Zeus' Edrti as a UiAXa 
(two-pr^tgtd hoe), especially as the con- 
temporaries of Aeschylus wouM see no 
didiculty in deriving iliiti^^b^r from ji- 
nWa (the -tXK- being 'lost') and SfnXXii 
itself from Si-tiaiAXa. It is likely that 
such B notion had been actually embodied 
in art. .See on this subject generally Ap- 
pendix II. to the Sa/tn against Thties. 

5.11. ttttTfipYiurTai wfEov hrr ground 
hai been broken lo dust, literally 'tilled 
10 pieces', the intensive nara- marking 
the extreme limit of the process, as in 
laraXiiw destroy, 'loose la its atoms', 
xOkTiimiu ireat lo pieces, lara/Su hum 
Up, etc. The force of mirifrfi^pai i» 

^eofiol S' iitirroi Kal demu ISpufiara 

Koi trirepfia trtitrri'i f^atroWvrac ■)(6ov6'i. 

TOioi'Se Tpola vept^aKtav ^tvicrrjpiov 

ncof 'ArpeiSti<; wpitr^vv evSalfuai' dvijp 

^icei, rUtrSai S" nfioiTaTo? ^poj&v 

TWV vvv' Ilflpt? flip oSre <xvVTe\'^<; ttoXk 

well shown in the spedal sente of mai/i- 
raliHg [woriing to pieces) food; s« L. 

fji. Her /oundalions art unJiieaiKr' 
ahtt and her fixed fiibrifs ef nli^a, and 
all the might rise from is ferishing emi 
b/ Ihe tarth. fl<*|io( m ihe full sense 
(see V. 39s) Incluiling altars but not 
these only. The reader may be reminded 
that etcept the religious buildings, which 
may prnpcily include Ihe king's patnce, 
ihc frytaneiim, and even Ihe wall, a 
Creek town or rather fori in the heroic 
age, and for (he most part even till the 
fifth century, contained very tillle which 
would not rapidlj perish of il»elr. See 
the remarks of Thucydides (i. lo) on an 
imaginary abandonment and decay of 
Sparta and of Athens where rd ti \t(A 
(ul T^i Jtaramei^ ri I'W^ is a prose 
equivalent for ^u^oJ (al U(u>> iSpdiioTa.^^ 
<tOTiM literally. It cannot If li^arnt 
{ttfir, ilHrai) where they were.— vir^|ia 
wiinit, i^. a^rrii, t^i TpoJai, Ihe same 
potsetsive pronoun bcine supplied from 
the leading word Tpvlar all through w. 
530 — sj,( with wlim, Pwitai, li/nijiaTO, 
awlpiio. : literally, 'nxi of any of hei '. — 
That Tiiant is constnided with aitipiia, 
not with x""^! '^ shown botli by Ihe 
natural division of the rhythm and by 
the sense. Without the genitive Ihe 
metaphorical meaning of rrlfiia could 
scarcely be understood. — j{air£XXvmi 
Xlovit- Note Ihc lense. The metaphori- 
cal conception, nol strictly possible but 
sufficient for poetry, is thai of a soil so 
pulverised (see on V. 531), Ihal there is 
lefl in it nothing capable of growth, and 
Ihe vegetable fragments can only decay. 

' Seeds' of c 
Iroyed.bul ni 

n olive-yard o 

rse could nol be so des- 
'il hsiandi ng m/ptwi. which 
I melaphor, il is ralher of 
r a vineyard that the poel 
is thinking. The elaborale devastations 
of these, regularly practised as a method 
of war, has suggested Ihe image.— The 
whole of this pasitage is closely and 
verbally imitateil from the account of the 
deslnidion of Alhcni by Xcncs {/'eri. 
8ti foil.), pul by the poet into Ihe moulh 
of Daiius. The ghost of the wise king 
continues thus, nrrip lajcwf Bpiavrti 
oif IXatanfa Toff j[«qn, words which lend 
an ominous signi5cance 10 the herald's 
boasts in w. 53;— sjS, 

534. nikJv8(...t(uitTi|pM»> JO Kiimg 
tBiHpalsimi hath he put upan Troy. Any- 
thing which binds or holds light is {yuir- 
TitiHDr, from the generalised sense of Ihe 
verb not uncommon in poetry, e.g. Soph. 
J^ftt' 9J6 ifirxSTi...TrtTpiAti nara^ptmi 
tv itaiilf: it is in fact a melaphorical 
eiguivalent for itiritm. Tlie notion of 
yoke is not necessarily given by the 
word and would nol suit with that of 

;i35. (iSa(|Hiv tlvt^. The addition 
of iMp (cr. the common formula .fi dn},)) 
signifies something like ' Individually 
happy' i.e. 'singular in his prosperity'. 
So liaipiji ir^p 'one pious man' con- 
trasted with the impious many, Thii. 

S37— 538. tit vw- ndpit Ydf> ktX. 
The words ti3» tOt are emphasized by 
the irregular pause after the hrit foot. 
See TViii. 566 and the index to that play 
J. I-. Pause.— The ominous effect of these 
lines (see on v. 531) is aided by their 

o^Xfui' "yap 
^av pvaioii i 

Bpa/Mi TOW Trddov^ wKdov. 
ipTToytjii re Kal /cXoir^ hiKijy 
I' riiiapTt ical iravaiKfBpov 


anil)tgully. The inlention Ls u( coui^e 
Ihnt Agnmemnon, having mate lha.ti 
avenged his honour upon Trof, has now 
no rival in the wottd. Hut it U so worded 
as mlher to surest that, since Tioy has 
paid in full, il is against her ctuel de- 
vastalor that the balance of sin now lie^. 
ForT<Kr4u is an ini)eci!.ivewoid, limited 
conventional I y to rrtuar,/ or kimtur, but 
easily reverting to il* proper sense of 
faymtnt. — Hopit ^dp ovt< i.i. oOrt Hipii 
eftt. Wecklein su^esls eiH, ij. oi 
nipa oM, which would certainly be 
more ri^lar ; so in C/ia. 193, Soph. 
Piil. 771 etc.— otvtA^ literally 'joined 
with liim in payment' or 'liahilily to 
payment'. Troy in receiving him adopted 
his act and has shared his punishment. 
See w. 405-408. The metaphor seems 
to go back lo some police custom, mch ns 
is common in andent law, by which a 
certain society, as a kinship or the in- 
habitants of a district, is held lo pay- 
ment in property or person for crimes of 
a menibei. 

.K39. IpiraY^t T« Ka\ Kkoriit b/ ra/«n^ 
as imU as Ihrfl ij, ' theft aggravaled by 
rapine', ipway/i meaning violent robbeiy 
as contrasted with «Xa>4, simple alealing. 
The aggravation naturally increased the 
penally and perhaps, under the law 01 
custom In which Aeschylus alludes, also 
involved the extension of the responsi- 
bility. There would be a rough fairness 
in this, for a i/nrnyli as distinct from a 
f%ori could seldom be done without 
assistance, and lo fix the guill upon 
individuals might be diflicull. The act 
of Paris, whatever it was in the first 
instance, became ifro-yij when Troy 
supported it by war.— Wecklein notes 
that according to Horn. //. 13. 6j6 Paris 
carried olT other plunder («T^)inra raXXa) 
with Helen. 

J40. TsS ^urloii <* 4J|tnfn mX. 'he 

has not only lost ihe rtfrital'. t4 ^ivwt 
'what is taken by way of reprisal', i.t. 
the stolen thing itself or an equivalent 
and something beudcs by way of satis- 
faction. This would be Ihe penally lot 
mere theft. That ^fcioi- may have this 
nriginal meaning even in Allic poetry, is 
proved by Soph. Phil. 958 ffonJr rup^ 

Biof Haa nIXai. It was alto specialised la 
'that which is taken mfltdgtfMxopoir', 
but that idea here only malce<; difficulty. 
In L. and Sc. 1. v. it seems 10 be sug- 
gested that Hermann, who discusses the 
word elaborately, gives it here the sense 
of plidge ; but he takes it much as I 

.SJ|LBV ' but 
hath also ruined and raied his own 
father's house, it and the place thereof 
together'- This penally, we arc doahtles 
to understand, was prescrilied literally 
by this more than Draconian law, and 
not merely in the metaphorical sense that 
the tine would ruin the nvrrfXtit, the 
family of the criminal. For a heinous 
acl of rapine, n barbarous custom might 
well prescribe nol only, as a mailer of 
course, the extinction of Ihe roblier- 
family, bul also the actual literal destme- 
lion of their house. Such extnvagant 
and dramatic aggiavalions are quite in 
the spirit of savage legislalion. — We need 
not press the parallel to details or ask 
what was the ^ieua in the case of Ttoy, 
whether Helen herself oi what else. 
The point is simply to palliate the sacri- 
legious barbarities exercised upon Troy 
by a precedent from private law, showing 
thai when Ihe crime is aggrm-alcd, the 
penally may !« (i) made very severe and 
(i) extended beyond the oflender. The 
custom cited is itself barbarous and anti- 
quated, and the plea wouM appear to an 
audience of Aeschylus' day, a 


avToypQv 3v TraTp^ou eOpitrev 8o/Mif. 

BiirXd B' ^Tiaav llpi.afJ.lSai BdftdpTia. 
XO. KTJpv^ 'Aj(aiiSv X°-^P^ "^^^ """^ TTpaToO. 
KH. yalpta' reQvavai S ovk dirrepw Oeoif^. 

54t. afrrixflwoi-. 

pote Tcqaires, worthless. It is in fact 
»e1f-condeninatoi7, for the real object of 
the sacrilege commitlei! at Troy was 
ifi»a.yri (see int. 350 foil.). — «,iTi\9w' G» 
or aATixtmmv (I). I prefer oo the whole 
Blomfield's way of reading the letters. 
The emphatic Ev ' his own ' is surely not, 
ax Hermann says, superfluous but much 
lo the point .—aM^Bova: here 'even to 
the site on which it stood ', literally 
'ground and all'; cf. airiwpiMfO!. a<~ 
rippifM etc— For aMx^opii Hermann 
makes the subtle defence that the form 
bWxSoi'oi is used deliberately in order 
10 distinguish this meaning from the 
common aJW^flui- indigmous. Bui it 
would be strange that this scruple should 
occur lo a Greek poet who was incessantly 
using one compound in two and three 
senses, and who saw, for instance, no 
difficulty in fl^flo^oi tiot invUkus, v. 477. 
£41. SvirXa frumv Ufuiprui tkty 
have paid Ihi double of Iht loss, another 
anally (rom the law of thefl, but Irom a 
more humane jurisprudence. The anli- 
dimax is noticeable and betrays ihe 
weakness of the plea. — Itmw SofuipTUi : 
dfiapruw seems to occur only here and 
perhaps in Pers. 679 where both reading 
and interpretation are uncertain. For 
the rendering loss argue here (1) Ihe use 
of Tfrw, commonly used only of what is 
oclually paid, not of the crime for which 
it b pajd. and (i) ihe occurrence of 
^imfre lost jiisl above.^ Another inter- 
prelntion, rht fuaSir r^i a^iaprtaj, h given 
by Ihe scho!. and would resemble eiay- 
-yOua reziiarii/or good lidingi (Sidgwick), 
though tJoTTAia is a regularly formed 
ittondary adjeclive from tviyythm, so 
that the Bnal<^ is imperfeci. — The 
herald, who, it will be observed, has not 

addressed any one except Ihe gods, slops 
abruptly and remains absorbed in his 
feelings till one of the elders addresiei 

543. niv diri OTparov i.t. tup arfa.- 
rtvanha*. The preposition is used in 
the pregnant manner which maybe called 
regular in Greek: the description of the 
army ilself is coloured by the fact that 
Ihe herald comes from it. But note care- 
fully ihe peculiarity in the use of (rrpaToj; 
ol di4 m-paToO can stand, by Ihe 'pr^- 
nam ' use of the preposition, for ol ip 
a-Tparif or oi caril aTpa-riv: but in all 
these phrases HTparit stands not as a 
collective for Iht soldiers but for the 
farm, so to speak, of an army. In short 
it is used as an abstraction, equivalent to 
VTpa.T(ia, a nse noticeable but not im- 

544. This line is hopeless, oixlr' 
LtTtpa (h and ils scholia) is merely a had 
conjecture; TiSi'Siim (for nflyii-ai) is a 
5gment. — As il is hard to see a reason 
for the emphatic fltwi, we may affirm per- 
haps (with Heimacn, Weil} that part of 
the line was •)ia{p\it...Tf9i>i»iu i' oiix 
dfTcpui. and that Stoit is merely a patch. 
— Ail the modem restorations seem to 
assume that TtBti-nai dc!« iirtipia or ounkr' 
diTjpw could mean / ivUl net refuse to 
die. But tdnrtu, though for some pur- 
poses interchangeable with Basem, could 
in this connexion give only the meaning 
/ will net deny fiat / am dead. This 
however is not so impossible as il might 
seem. Though the evidence does not 
warrant any conclusion, I will add as a 
mere guess that the words TiBririu S' wir 
iiiTipa • but ihnt I aro dead I wiJl not 
gainsay' seem to turn on Ihe familiar use 
of X"!" {in funerals, epitaphs etc. ) as an 


XO. ep(B9 woTp^o? rrjuBe 717? a eyvfivaa-ev. 

KH. aioT' €vhaKpv€iv y ofifiauiv \apat inro. 

XO. Tepirvr/'; ap' tare T^cS' i-TrrjSaXoi. voffov, 

KH. vmt 87; SiSo^^^ei? tovbe Bea-tToa-tu Xoyov. 

XO. T<3c nvTipdivTiov ifiep^ Tre-rrXJiyfievo^, 

KH. -rraOelv irodovtna TTjV^e yiju trrpar&v Xeycif. 

XO. (lit TToW' dfiavpdj iie ifipetioi; «j avaarkveiv, 
5SI. ipp<iiit aravrinar. 

address /a Ihi dead. The poets often 
play with ihe senses of this irard. Thus 
'•g- Xitpoi t( Zalpu; ri rcPv((rai 3' otic 
drripi (where x'^P" '^ deliberative sub- 
junctive) would mean '■Be glad! Thon 
Dced'sl not say be glad. Though indeed 
the greeting of Ihe dead suits me well 
enough', being thus exhausted with past 
misery and present joy. Both the play 
on x'"l* ^'1'' 'he ploy on Tiii>iii<>,i may 
be illustrated from the forewell scene 
between Polyxena, going to her death, 
and Hecuba (Eur. Hcc. 416 fnU.) : Pel. 
X'Tp' {/arrive//), iJ rfjtoJoa, xt^pf Kar- 
vdrSpa Ti /UK. Hec. xaiptivatr iWm., 
^ijTpi J' oiIk tara Tiit (others may take 
(Btnfarl, but not a mother) , , . Pel. fp 
(noXMui/Ki) rat Statiinp inna vtrytX^gsft 
ti air. Nee. -rtBtriK' lyuyf rpit Buritr 
xaxwr IItd. See also Eur. I/el. 1S6 roTi 
rfiiyitaaui Ti9fT)m, id. Or, loiS oXit dr' 
'Apytlai x'pi' rWfij™ {/ AdM ieeu (or- 
lured). This, or something Uke it, would 
also give its proper sense [I admit) to oix 
arrtpui, — It must not however be taken 
as certain even that impw stands for 
impiv. It may equally stand for arvt- 
piiMi, signiFying to be jealously in love 
with death, 'jealous of the buried dead', 
and the reply rather points to something 
of this kind. 

m- JY^viurw hath tortured thee, a 
strong word: see P. V. 605 rvpl iit 
^Wfof ^ x^wl •a.\vin>r....ii'tU itoi ^Borrf 
ff^i rvyfiOTOn'. d0i7r fit xoKvirXaj'oi irXorcu 
yf^viwifaii, and Soph. TraiA. 1083. 

546. ivSoKpiuv: literally 'weep into 
it ', I'j. the eanh. The expression shows 

that the man is still kneeling or has 
again knelt. 

S47. Then learn that it ii a svat 
languhhiBg whieh ye hoM laiiai\ be- 
cause, as they explain, love returned is 
sweet. — T<p»v^« predicate, — np^ t^ 
nu: fpurci, — hnjpoXM: cf. f. 8ij r^re- 
■raiUiHftiiior. Apassivesenseofinj^M 
[laien by) docs not seem to be certified.— 
Hermann defends Frrrc. taking tr^poXoi 
as equivalent to a participle {firfi^oKti 
IvTo): and it is not safe lo reject it. 
Cf. Soph. O. C. Soe tripa S' evSt,' oB' 
^7ii> ifxaigr torn i^ AnvToi fS UYti, It 
is characteristic of Aeschylus lo use ad- 
jectives parlicipially. — Tfore {Toere, irrt^- 
lar form, Ahrens), itte h. 

As this line ex- 

'• 547. c 

would of course requite ircrXiry/i/vM 
(Tyrrwhitt and modera lexis). But 
according lo the pmcticaJ grammar of 
speech and poetry, as distinguished from 
logical theory, there a not the least ob- 
jection to the singular. From the singu- 
lar ai of p. 54} the speaker deflects, 
without any reason except the caprice of 
thought, into the plural tart of p. 547 
and then back again to the singular in 
V. 549. Either might have been used 
throughout indifferently. (Cf. Soph. Ai. 
ittj ya'iiiHiw...llrai rpmelwMiut.) The 
re-appearance of the singular gives the 
feeling a more personal turn. To change 
it is to stiffen the movement of hfe. See 

5JI. "Aye, and oft sighed for thee 
from a weary heart'. ^p(vte v'- The 


KH. trodev rh ivv4>pov; tovt hr^v trrvyo^ orpaT^; 

XO. TrdXai. TO atyav ipapfiaKov fikd^T}'; ij(_a>. 

KH. KaX vws; a-rtovrrav KOipavofv erpeii rivdi; 

XO. (u? vvv — TO <t6v Srj — Kal Bavelv iroXX^ X*'P*'- 

JS4- "■**»"". 

in of Boissonade is preferable lo 
^pait It (Scaliger) because, ns ij'a<rHinii, 
dravTiri[ij are generally Iraniitii-e, and 
the subject, the personified land, is 
instinctively supplied, ftt would appear 
to be the object, contrary lo the sense. 
■tMarfrtiv to lig^ for {cf. o^aJtaVi*) is 
commonly used of the absent or the 
dead. Supra 417 and Eur. Or. 156 fri 
i^tw itirfiet^ fip^X^ ^ Avairri^ti are among 
the few examples in tragedy of an in- 

!wr^;«fi.,.W iror" tnutririit ; the object 
(>m} is continued and the verb means 
(see the context) « call as if dtad. —For 
the interchange of arparir and ere, see 
previous note, 

$Si. The hemld, at first merely 
puixled by this enigmatic ialutatioa, 
begins to perceive that there is something 
behind. — ir^On'.,.o-rpaT^; IFAmce this 
melancholy? IVas there ytl this in restrvi 
lo distress us thai have foughlf. an excla. 
mslion of disappointment, 'Have we 
come home only to find more trouble 
here?' which is indeed the fact. The 
sense of tirtltax 'to be destined, lo be 
wailing in the fature", resembles the 
common use of it for appeinted punish- 
ments and appoinltd rewards {see L. 
and Sc. s. V.) and very closely that in 
Hesiod, Op. 114 (the subject is mankind 
in the golden ^e) iirrt eeol S" Itvor 
ixriSia Svnii txwrti, | tbaipv drip rt 
ira»ur Mi ifCoi oiSi n ttOAv \ yjipat 
tirrpr (no miseraile aid age awaited Ikem). 
oJci Jj TtlAa KoX X<V><<i d>ioi« TipirtaiT' 
It (nWjjffi ktK See also the cognate 
i<ti<nir»i in Horn. //. \t. 313 foil, (if 
to shun war had been to live ageless and 
deathless, it would have been well to 
shun il), n* V (jhttji fi.p u^pit i^rraair 

SS5- "■'■ 
BcwiTOio I fvplcu, St mi* Im ^iryciV^poriv 
oiiS' iJiraXifu, I Idiitr, where the under- 
lying metaphor becomes explicit. The 
force of the preposition is the same as in 
f0*!pof a fighter in reserve, inTiarteBai 
U ie fiosleJ in reserve etc. It belongs 
chiefly to military terms and ideas and 
suits therefore here the phrase and 
speaker.^ — rT{r(ot (cf v. 563) is a further 
predicate, and upon this rather than upon 
the verb depends inpa,Tif. — Taken as one 
sentence this line is generally given up 
and cannot in fact be construed. But 
there is no fault except the punctuation. 
The difficulty has arisen partly from the 
assumption that irrfr uriyiii vrparif 
naturally means ' grief affected [was 
upon) the army'. But iriiMii is never so 
used. In Soph. jli. 1116 tIi iuh (n 
rlpifnt trttrai.: the only example offered, 
it has its common sense 'to be further 
added' or, if we read with some (weirriir, 
the same sense as here, 'What pleasure 

ijj. / have long used silence lo pre- 
vent hurt (ipipiiatei' ^Xil^ijt like airof 
OirvDu in V. 17), a reply ambiguous be- 
tween the senses ' Least said is soonetl 
mended", and 'Things have been so with 
us that we dared not even speak '. It 
thus answers, while it avoids, the ijuestion 
irhdtu tA 56titppov ; 

554- KoX iTBs; In what seme? See 
precedingnole-— KOipavuvh, tu/)(»»iii» (f) 
ia a curious error, sprung from the spell- 
ing Kvpiiiiiic, which (with perhaps a ^oss 
■rvpitna\ was probably the reading of M. 

555. "So that now, in thine own 
phrase, I would right gladly even die' (?). 
^^riySij alluding to M(. 510 — 511. and, 
perhaps also to v. 544 as it originally 
stood. — I have given here, Ijul without 


68 Afi:XYAOY 

KH. tS yap TreTTpaKrai, ravra S' if iroXK^ j^ovtfi. 

fiuth, Scaliger's wi for Hr: it U impos- 
sible to say an)lhing certain respecting 
language obscure both by inlention and 
by accitlcni. The general purpose is 
fairly clear.^Here the herald, eager to 
be rid of a disagreeable subject which 
seems to lead to nothing definite, breaks 
ofT, upon the topic of present satisfaction 
[tZ ykf wtirpaicTai), into a more congenial 
theme. One plain word might have 
saved the king. But the elders canDOt 
make up theii minds. 

SS6— 58;. This very curious and re- 
markable speech is irregular throughout. 
even extremely irr^ular, but not with 
the irregularity of acciileWal defacement. 
Any attempt to reduce it to the laws of 
academic precision is mistaken. Its aber- 
rations are all of one kind. They are all 
such as distinguish popular rhetoric b-om 
scientific and educated rhetoric. We do 
not of course suppose that in the streets 
of Athens any more than elsewhere 
people talked like a book. In Greek as 
in other languages, real speech must 
have hod its breaks, leaps, entangle- 
ments, and other incompletenesses. For 
Aeschylus, as for any artist equal to the 
task, it would be worth while to imitate 
this in a proper place, and here is eiaclly 
the proper place. We have a man of 
the people wrought to the highest pitch 
of emotion, pouting out in a voice half 
choked wilh sobs and tears a story which 
is pftthelic just because the misery of it 
is vulgar and commonplace. We should 
be doing mischief in polishing his periods 
to the staielincss of Agamemnon or the 
subtlety of Clylaemnestra, 

J56. Aye, all i] well, well wilh allaw- 
aliei far the titlte, literally 'buKAa/ina 
long time', rai?ra standing for the verb 
ev iVirpncrat: compare the common use 

of nl raHra. 'and that', and see also 
1319. — It gives a better ptoint 


these words separately, though if they 
are attached, as usual, to the next line the 
meaning is practically the same. 

5JJ— 559. A man must ifeakxttHef 
his firtuiu, though mmi of it he JW/ nt 
good. Only a gad tan be ■adthsmt tmibli 
aJI his lime : literally, ' Let a man praise 
some things, that they arc fortunate:, and 
other things, though objectionable*, i.e. 
if he gets good, let him lake the worse 
with it and call it all good together.— 
(H Xlfiw: there is no 'loss of Ar' here. 
The simple optative is correclly used 
as a kind of imperative. In Ihe older 
language this is common both in gene- 
ral and in particular injunctions, e^. 
Od. iS. 14I Tu iiJita irmi rdiiTdP irip 
dSt^iiffTIOI fill. I iXV Sye ffi-yn l^l" Stvr 
tx"' I Toatild have a man nitl ie laarleii, 
O^- 4- 73 S i^^ "' OT/nipA AsXtof 
KoX/atu yiporra, etc. (See Monro, 
IloBterie Grammar, g 399, Kuhner, Gr. 
Gramm. tl. g 395- 7-) I' survives in 
later writers chiefly in maxims, such as 
this, II. 1375, and Arisloph. Ve^. 1431, 
IpSei Tii ^t ttaarat fiStiti T^n;r. In 
Pindar J^lh. 10. ai Btit rfii drriiiur niap 
it must bt left to a ged la have an tm- 
traidiled heart we have a construction 
somewhat similar, and in fact Pindar is 
quoting the latter part of the same pro- 
verb, which Aeschylus (it. 158—559) here 
lurns in his own languoge.^fS U{(mv 
tvimvt 'bl*^)'= literally 'say in theii 
praise that they are fortunate' ; cf. v, 453, 
til 'KiyarTii rir lii* <iit lii.x^jttfa(tFrlr). — 
•C.nhmBt. This assonance of i! is a 
favourite with the Attic poets, occurring 
not only where the word is lepeated 
in exactly the same sense (as in v. 505, 
and Supf. JJ5, *i! r' lwtii<inr ^ re 


/i^Xffovi yap et \iyoiftt koI Sv<rav\lai;, 
(nrapvd.^ ■Kapr/^eK icai leaKoerrptoTov^ (rl I 


ttUvBiii), but also where ihe sense is 
only imperfectly parallel, a^ here and 
in Ehih. 86g cv hf^an eS viaxatiaai' tv 
TifiufUniv, and even wbcre it isnot paral- 
lel at all, as in Soph. Track. 396 cw^i 

tv rpa^aoyta ti^ ff^a\^ woTt. The 
presence of (uwo-ui therefore confirms. 
not impeaches, Ihe genuineness of (u 

(Mr. — Modem leita mostly give the 

arbitrary correction of Auratus or 'Ki^un, 

1 the ground, true but not material, 

that XHf't' cannot stand for St \i(tur, 

ht wauld say. 

s6o — iTi. In this long period the 
hypothesis is expressed in several shapes, 

le hypothetical and some not, and the 
sequence is never expressed at all, but 
overleaped by a transition to a further 
stage of thought. The gist of it is this. 
' We have suffered much, but all's well 
thai ends well'. Paraphrased in logical 
form, it might ran thus : ' For if I were 
to reckon all our miseries and privations, 
whether in the ships (560 — 5<i'), both by 
nighl (s6o — j6i) and by day (jlSi— s6i)i 
or on land (563 — 567). where Ihe neigh- 
bourhood of the enemy a^iavaled (563 — 
564) the pains of exposure to the damps 
of the ground and the air (565 — 567), if 
I counted up our various distresses from 
extreme cold to extreme heat (568 — ^571). 
1(7 leauld maki a heavy Mai: in/] why 
complain of what is past (571}?' etc. But 
the hypothetical clause loses itself in 
paientheses and ejaculations, starting 
again more or less in its track at v. 568, 
and Ihe answeiiag clause disappears alto- 
gether in the abrupt transition at v. 571. 
Farther almost every section has a minor 
irregularity of its own. 

560, BvmtvXtaf badquaiin-s for sleep- 
ing ; see aii\If(iri'n. He divides these 
under the heads of 'ship-quarlers' and 
'land-quarters', marking this in an 

irregular way by the antithesis t4 !' avtt 
X^fV- Theships.itmuslberemembered, 
drawn up on shore and proLeCted by a 
rampart, formed part of the camp. It is 
of this use that he speaks as well as of 
the voyage. 

56r. The miseries of the ships are 
again mentally divided into 'night' and 
'day', night appearing in tanotrp^Biit 
[umem/arlallc as bidi) and day being 
thrown in parenthetically. — impitHt: a 
word of uncertain derivation, hut here 
obviously describing something like 
■berths'. There seems no reason why it 
should not be farmed, inelegantly but 
according to analogy, as rqfis irom t^kw, 
from napyjuuv li pass into, so that imif>v4 
no-pTiia would be 'a place into which one 
could barely get'. The guess of Ihe 
sctiol ia xopaSpo/iai { passogts\ doesnotseem 
to suit the content. — .mfi££.ii {Wecklein) 
is certainly a belter form. 

ih. "A S' otl...|Upoi; Two questions 
must here be distinguished (1) the con- 
struction irrcspeclive of the case of the 
participles, (1) the nominative cose. 
Irrespeetive of the case, if, that is, we 
assume for the moment the reading 
tnisemt <iv XaxoTar, there is no 
difficulty: the context supplies both t\ 
\iya.ia and Ihe pronoun ^K^t, and the 
IranslatioD is 'while in the day-time we 
had— every privation to lament'. Wei- 
lauer, though his explanation is not 
exactly right, is alone in perceiving the 
main points, that the negatives are not 
parallel but have each their separate 
force, and that the participles are not 
parallel but subordinated one to the 
other. tI od; stands as usual for ror, 
and the rest of Ihe sentence is constructed 
exactly as if tS» were written. The first 
negative has no force beyond converting 
the interrogative rl into tbf. And note 
that this is clearly conveyed to the ear 

by the division of [he lines, of Xax^vrct 
is literally 'aot hnving got' i.t 'being 
without' as in Ear.AHiir. jSj Xa^oiJira t' 
liflXJo mi ^^ Xa)[oBffa Juorujrii KoSiaraiuu 
ToiVA loin/ i> offered I must be miserable 
and viithoui tV unhappy. The use of the 
n^ative term where English would pre- 
fer a positive, as here that of privatiett, 
is characteristic of the language, t.g. 
Demoslh. ig. 77 iiii oSr..,uv i/iat «l^t 
i^rfrirriai lii) Wtw tUir, Let him not 
tseafe pHtashiHfHt far the deieptiens prae- 
tiled OH yen, where both ni^tivcs are 
illuslraled. The accusative ti oii (i.^. 
■wit) depends not npon ar(tam\ but 
upon 01 Xnxi'TH. The order of the 
words is not irregular but correct, as in 
P. V. 601 t\. Tcrre raiat' ^^ffiijat tvpiir 
ilittpToStai' tr r^|na^a,i^ ; 0/ whal sin 
didst thou convict her \ji-kiiap7Qwj3.» 
tvpait) that thou halt reduced her to this 
misery^ Thus rl-ai! ot^mitm ou-Xaxiyrei 
itiinds for TiyTat artriivrti (lru3[i)ffo*T« 
bewailing the privation of cverytiitig. 
Of course a disciplined stylist Could not 
have used so uncouth a form of words, 
but neither would he have spoken any 
one of the sentences very justly and artis- 
tically placed in this speech. Lastly in 
f\MTM p^poi the accusative is that of 
duration of time (like ^iar in v. 1141. 
Itvh arirova dfi^iAiXij (luiiii dirdiif fiie*. 
where by a coincidence we liave the same 
verb) and the genitive ijuarn is not 
partitive but the adjectival genitive ' of 
equivalent '. A similar genitive is joined 
with itoTpa, the poetic sjmonym of lUpot, 
in Eur. Afed. 43a i)U-i4par AnSpwr Tt 
luXpa* ' our {i^. the female) division [of 
mankind] and the male', where see note. 
So iiiiaTot lUpot is 'the diurnal portion' 
of time {w. 556, 559), and is contrasted 
with »wtrSt liipo! 'the nocturnal portion', 
implied but not expressed in what 
precedes, exactly as t4 a' affre x^P'V 'S 
contiasted with the unexpresKd tA iiit 

er PBi'irli'. It must be noted that lo con< 
struct ^/HiTat ntpot with ri oiJ (in lh« 
sense raf tJpot 'ni^pai "// the day lotig), 
which is so tempting to our habits, that 
more than anything elK it has made Ibis 
passage difhcult, could not, I believe, 
have occurred to a Greek mind as con- 
ceivable. The word i^ipot is not so 
used. — There remains the deiecred ques- 
tion as to the nominative case in the 
participles. ThisiBall-importint, bceanse 
if ffTfroiT(i..Aax^"^*' will not pass, we 
cannot be satisfied with any of the 
expedients which introduce accusatives. 
No reason can be given for the supposed 
corruption. The English editors mostly 
retain the nominatives, Palcy adding 
boldly and truly that Ihey are "used 
without regard to any regular construc- 
tion". They mark the point at which, 
for a legitimate purpose, artistic speech 
follows real speech and simply defies 
gr^mmalical analysis. It is in short an 
extreme case of construction 'according 
to the sense'. The soldiers, as subject 
of Ibe sufferings, are thought in the nomi- 
native, if we may so express it, through- 
out: the whole catalogue, if reduced to 
symmetry, could naturally be turned so 
as to have iq/uii for the general subject, 
thus : (I \tyoiiu Son iiiaxBmiiut Ir Tt tm 
vavair auXifo^fOi, ijTfxi^iara txarrtt o«x 
l<ra»i irl ri t% yi In iiirliTifa, Cn irpji 
rp iriXei trpmovcifviiurm, ictX. There- 
fore, in the one place in which the 
soldiers are mentioned at all (for it will 
be observed that they are not otherwise 
mentioned in this period except by 
implication), the appropriate nominative 
is put in simply caril eirctir, and we 
have a specimen, perhaps unique, of 
Greek as it was actually talked. 

563. Ttl 8' ottit x'p^- supply cl 
Xiymm : see foregoing note. — Kol wpOff"- 
ijv. . .T(tx«nii : a parenthesis, such as in 
a more regular style would be ei 


evval yap rjffav fiijiwc Trpo-i Tiiyjeaiv 
ef ovpavou yap Kairo yrj^ Xii/iwviat 
&p6iToi icaTc\^eKa^ov, ep.ireSop atvo'i 
iaBrfnaTtov, TiBivret evBtjpov Tpix<^, 

bj a. Tclative clnuse, 'whece there wu 
tbc additional distress of constant danger 
fiatD the neighbouring enemy '.— 8ij(«ni ; 
Dindoif writes jiuat liere c^ always. 

Sfij. H aOpavov ^p ktK. We 
should not change yAp to ii (Pearson) : 
the explanation of i4 x^fV' '^^f miseries 
on land, proceeds in a fresh parenthesis, 
which lilies no account of ibe fore- 

j6s — 567. Another clause radically 
inftccuratc in logic and grammar, though 
perfectly intelligible. The salient defect, 
Ihe masculine nShiTtt following the femi- 
nine ipiam, which has received dispto- 
porlionate allenlion, is only one sign of a 
confusion running through the whole. 
Nothing short of rc-wiitiog it would 
produce clear thought and regular ex- 
pression. The remark of Schncidewin 
on TiMrrn, that it relates in Ihe speaker's 
mind lo tiL^poi {rain), is true, but only 
part of the truth : i( oipvoO relates to 
Lhis same 6^pu, and so docs Kareij/fKa- 
fw {dristlid Jmciii), and so io fact docs 
the whoie sentence, except the words ird- 
•■i yi% Xti/iiinai Spiaoi. The rain is from 
first 10 last the subject in the mind, and 
the sentence would have run regularly 
thus, (| oipaioS Tip Sii^pn KaTfif/^Kafw 
rr\. But the words i( oft/xjpoC suggest 
by antithesis 'the dew from the earth', 
which is thereupon thrust in interjection- 
ally; and after this, the subject luPpai 
^ being by the antithesis sufficiently given 
to thought, the sentence proceeds without 
it, literally thus, 'from the sky (and olT 
the earth marsh-dew too) it drizzled down ' 
etc. In such a fashion mulalii mulandis 
men frequently speak in every language, 
but do not generally write. 

566. IpnSov crCyot fo4i]|iarav, The 
rotting of the dress from conalanl wetting 

is mentioned not so much for itself, as 
for the horrible diseases to which it leads 
and which are specified more particularly 
in the next words. nUvret Iv(i](mv 
Tfl\a fiuUinff ez^ life into Ihe hair, or in 
plain words 'breeding vermin'- As in 
Soph. Phil. 698 (A'flijpoi loiii envtHfioud 
fact) ttS-rifHi! is a poetic equivalent for the 
medical term Ti6T)ptaifUro> (see L. and 
Sc. s. VD.}, so here it represents the same 
term in another sense (see L. and Sc. i. 
vj!. Bjjpiiia, {^u). The analogy of the 
passage from Sophocles is exact, for 
Aeschylus doubtless shared the belief, 
universal till not very remote times, that 
hair had a peculiar independent life, 
and that worms and oilier creatures were 
actually made from it. The SpJf is the 
hair of Ihe whole tiody, not merely of the 
head and face. — The old interpretation of 
IrSfpai, 'shaggy, bcasl-like', is in the 
first place not a possible meaning, since 
it takes no account of the formation, and, 
if it were possible, would be here out of 
place. The man is speaking of real, not 
fanciful, miseries. As to the dignity of 
tragedy, Aeschylus treats it on proper 
occasions with perfect indifference, and 
lets his soldier describe the torments of 
the camp, as his nurse the plagues of the 
nursery {Cie. 753), for what they are, 
without attempting to conceal what it is 
his very purpose to express. — In Weck- 
lein's recent edition Ihe whole of this 
passage 560—567 is re-cast ; be writes 
e-g: in jfii— s tI itdu mirwrit or \-/noiitn 
iifinToi f.ipoi; And nothing short of such 
Ireaiment is of any use, if we will have 
the ordinary logic and synlaii of literary 
language. All the less courageous at- 
tempts are ineETective. I believe however 
that Aeschylus wrote the whole tu it i(, 
and was justi^d in so writing it 


j^Ei/itoira 6 el \eyoi 

olov vapelj^ atfieprov 'ISala -j^tdv. 

rj BaKtro'i, eSre ttoi'to? 4v titat}n,$pivaK 

naiTaK aKVfifitv vTjvepioi^ fvBot vecrdv, — 

rl Tavra "TrevSelv Bel; ■napoij^erat iropot' 

irapoly^eTai, Be toio'i /Lev redvrjKoaiv 

TO /it}iroT' av6i<; fj,i/S' dvoffT^vai fUKeiv 

(t( Tov'i iii'dKttiffevTa'i iv tftrjifi^ Xeyttv 

Tov f(ScTo o' (lA/yetj/ yp^ Tvyr]v iraXtyKorov ; 

itai iroWa •yaiptiv ffvp.^opai'i jcaToftw)" 

568—571. See above on v. 560. 

5 71. The abrapuiess of Ihese exclamo.- 
(ions is aided by the irrcgulaiity of rhythm , 
(be punctuation acting against the cae- 

ili. Tot<n \>iv: to this ifregularly 
answers iiiur Si. ..riK^ ti xipin 578, 
which should regularly have been raptl- 
X'Tat S' iit^ iJoTf ritir ri t/pins. The 
trouble is over for all, for the dead com- 
pletely, for the living, in that they can 
balance against it (heir triumph. 

574- Ti...|ia(tv se fiat Ihey care, at 
in the teitit thai Ikiy care, grammaticHlly 
an 'accusative in opposition lo the verbal 
action' of Tapoi^n-ai. That 'they care 
not'snd that 'the trouble is over'are two 
aspects of the same fact. 

57S— 577- Another parenthesis. The 
dead have their gain, and perhaps an 
advantage over the living — Why should 
VK count up the number of Ike slaia, 
■when Ihi Ihing suffer the fiersiitcnie of 
fortunes crudly! Much difficulty has 
been mide here by taking the two 
clauses as independent, whereas they 
are closely correlative and make up one 
eoneepti on between them. A prose writer 
would have used iiir in the first clause. 
but in poetry it is often omitted. (See on 
V. 360.) In English we must indicate the 
relation by making one clause principal 
and the other dependenL Usually it is 
the clause with lUr which answers best to 
out dependent clause, but it may be, ai 

here, the clause with U- The point is 
that the inevitable suffering of the living 
is inconsistent with the lamenting of the 
dead or, as it is put, with the counting of 
the number of them : and the quealion r( 
XP^'t protests against the unreasonableness 
of the two things taken together, rixiji 
*>iiXl'yk<Stou literally 'from fortune being 
persistently cniel'i gen. absolute, wu- 
Xryndrou has its full signilication (see L. 
and Sc. s.v.). Fortune is the harassing 
disease from which we escape by death. 
It b a genetaliiation of (he some idea 
which appears in Herodotus .|. 1^6 aCrif 
T( Totrif «oi Toiffi aXXwffi wmpiptre »a- 
XiY«4rui 'things went persistently ill.' — 
If the clauses be sepaisted, then the 
second question (t1 ;i^ rtr {Srra H^ita 
ict\, ;), taken as independent, is out of 
place (for we (urn (o (he living, d Xoiiroi, 
ax V. jyS) and not significant in itself. 
The living dXyii, because such is the law 
of fa(e ; the question a why, this being 
so, we should ask ' bow many are dead ? ' 
and nut rather 'how many are living to 

577. To have dcue with chance is it- 
self, melhinis, right acceptaile. araXXd 
Xa(p«v o-uji^opats, II(eraJly '(o receive 
(he dismiswj of chance', roXXA X<ifp«> 
being the passive correlative to the for- 
mula of dismissal mXXt %<"?' '• ^f- Soph. 
O. T. 596 rCv vairi xi'p" ""f ^^ «^'i 
HI4 Joy. What is said (here by Prot 
Jebb, that " the phrase has been suggested 


rjfuv hi Toil XoiTToiffLv 'Apyeltov trrpwra 
VIKO, TO KepSo'i, -rrrjua S' ovk avrippevei 

vTTep Oa'KatT<TTi<i Ka\ j^^ovis irOTafieiraiv, 


by xi^P* /""i but refen rather to the mean- 
ing than to the Tonn of the greeting", is 
true here also ; ' to be diiimissed fD happt- 
tuii' is Ihe meaning in full. — Kantia, / 
AelJ acctplnhli, like ifySt I d» net rcfust 
(Soph. 0. T. 944) only slionger. Il is 
theopposile of dirafiiij /r(?ir/. See Tkch, 
654- — Kat alsa belongs closely to roXKi. : 
those who live are happy in one way, 
XiJptvai avit^piuj in one aenae, but ihe 
dead, who iroXXi x"'|W"''. =ie happy 
loo. — The key to this vetse is the proper 
coDstruction of irL'^^iipiui. The inierpie- 
tacion 'I bid fortune begone' is possible 
only if we read, with Blomfieldi anfiipe- 
pii, and even then woidd be very odd ; 
for sinte x"'?"* «^<ii" means properly 
'1 bid thee Ac happy' to substitute xo'/x" 
«ara£«), '1 require thee to be happy', is 
Dot a natuiBl variation. Nor does the 
supposed sense fit the place so well as 
ihe MS. tell. 

j;8. The eonnenion of thought U this 
'And we that remain, though we have 
suffered more and longer than the dead 
and have not received thetr complete 
discbai^e, may still rejoice on the whole, 
when we consider the everlasting and 
world-wide glory which redounds to our 

580—581. These lines are difficult 
and, if complete, must have been ex- 
plained by something conventional in the 
CDDnotalion of the language. I give here 
the interpretation which seems best, and 
a discussion of the detaila separately (Ap- 
pendix N). — ' For yon bright sun may 
justly wing our renown the wide world 
over, pToclaiming in our honour that 
Troy tang ago was taitn by an Argivt 
armament, and thai are tht spoils vihitk 
19 tht glory of the gods Ihreugheul Bdtas 
they naiied upon tht ItmbUs for a motiu- 

menial pride. Hearing this, men must 
needs praise Argos and them that led her 
host; andthegraceof Zeus which wrought 
it all shall be paid with thanks. And so 
I have said my say ', — A% causal, since, 
considering how, as in TAtb. 35: iiiutStt 
a naweirfiixo'iii <^i iXirii h ti iSxTtpw 
rfKot iui\t1r. — KOfj.irAo'at, as the style and 
honours of a person might be atmounced 
before him : the word is almost technical 
in this sense, and the figure suits the 
personage of the K^pti(, TySf: for the 
dative with eliij, which is rare. cf. Eur. 
Su^pi- 40 ir&.¥Ta fhp it apaiviifl' yvwa*^ 
rpAaaar (Uit. — ironi|Uvoi« agrees with 
the dative ^^uv supplied from v, 578 and 
constructed here, as there, as a dative of 
'the person interested' (cf. fleoli below), 
literally 'may proclaim for us Hying'. 
For the metaphor and language cf. Pind. 
Neai. 6. 50 TrlraTai i' ivl rt x"*''' "ol 
lid. OaXisaat T^UBir trufi' m^il^. It 
was perhaps a familiar form of speech for 
' world-wide renown'. Here by a bolder 
figure the subject of the fame is said to 
'fly abroad' as the fame Is spread, a 
slrelch of language which again may be 
iUustraled from Pindar /slim. 3, 18 
dnp/oi! «' irxdriuaiy otKogtv imOiaiiw 
armrff' 'BptuXtlai-s ' by their high feals 
of valour they have reached from home 
to the ends of the world ', i.e. their 
renown has gone so far (and Theognis 
t37 ffoi piy (yi, irrip' ISaxa <rdv of. ^ir' 
dx-itpora witTou s-un-^g nai y^r Week- 
lein). — Tpofijv ktX. According to Greek 
habit oflerings from the spoil would be 
dedicated in all important places of re- 
ligion, and would be marked or accom- 
panied by brief inscriptions, of which the 
sense is here paraphrased, naming the dedi- 
cation and Ihe occasion. These, as the 
poet finely expresses it, the sun would pro- 


"Tpoiijv eXovrev SiprOT 'Apyfivv trroXov 
^eoi? \dtfivpa Tavra to« Ka0' 'EXXd&a 
Sofioii firafraoKevaav apyalov fduos." 
Toiavra j(prj KXvovTav evXoyelv iroXiy 
Kai Toi/v iTTpaTTjyov'i' icai x*^/"' Tt/iijffCTai 
Ai^f TaS' imrpa^ava. irdvT ej^eK \6yov. 
vtKte/ifvoi \6yotcrip ovic dvali/Ofiai. 
ael yap r)^a tok yipova-iv eZ fiaOeiv. 
S6fioi^ Se ravra xal 'KXvraip.TjuTpa p-eKeiv 

(WuiXoKv^a fji,kv iraKai j(apa^ viro, 

J 90. KXvroijinJtrrpa. 


claim, meaning in prose that they would 
be read with each returning day, as those 
on the temples of Atgos are now legible in 
the light of this present morning. TTiua 
the name of Argos wiU ' fly over land 
and sea' to ihe em! of time. — TpeCi|v: 
the archaic (Ionic) form is used as, (or 
Athenian ears, naturally suggesting (he 
language of an ancient inscription. Sec 
on TM. 159, 447. S"9- 590. The change 
lo Tpolar ismisUken.— 8^woT«(a/i?uflB(/u) 
may mean either 'at la^t' or 'formerly' 
as Paley says. The last seems the better. 
— dp^tttov Y<^vot literally 'an ancient 
pride"; the praise is significantly worded 
OS it wit] be spoken a long time here- 
after. — wiXiv,.,irTpoTTfYo4j...Aiis. The 
onsclfish simplicity of the man's patriot- 
ism, loyally, and religion is powerfully 
marked.— irdvT* lx«4 W^ov a formula of 
conclusion, indicating here that the thc^ 
eS riwpaimu (v. 556) is to the Speaker's 
mind made out. The elders assent. — See 
further Appendix N. 

588. vu(ii(UVM UyMnv. The elo- 
quent proof of the herald (hat 'all is 
well' has of course not really touched ri 
Sivippoy{v. 5ji). which he does not under- 
stand ; but this is not the moment 10 
explain, as Clytaemnesira is seen ap. 
proaching.— The context requires us to 
refer nnujufot \6yatair to Ihe argument 

of the herald, not to the proof of the 
victory, though this may also be in the 
speaker's mind. 

5S9 : in prose paraphrase 'the capacity 
for learning is not one of the feculties 
which is lost with age', tl ^fctv do- 
rilily {cf. ^paeifi) is the subject of 4Pp.— 
Toij fipoviriiV for. as we should say in, 
the old. Note that the article is indis- 
pensable : with lipoKov alone we should 
be bound to supply ruili. — ij^ij (iari) r«"i 
7^pouirir (Matgohouth) is undoubtedly 
simpler, but I agree with Mr Sidgwick 
that the text is right. 

<;9i. <riv St irXcivr{[fiv kfA and my 
gain should bt shartd with eiem, literally 
'and it (the lale, rain-a) ooght (<fi«ii) to 
enrich me wi/A Ihtm (and not alone)'. 
Note carefully the emphasis given lo vir 
by its position in the sentence and by the 
rhythm 1 with this emphasis the clause is 
equiialent lo -wijivfi^v /ii) fiitar //id. — 
There is a ceriaiu irony in (his longoage. 
Not knowing the situation, the elders 
suppose thai the herald's news, if wel- 
come In the queen, cannot be altogether 

591. On the situation here, and on 
Ihe queen's language, see the Introduc- 
tion.— (tvaAiXuJo tiAr. The antithesis to 
this docs not follow r^ulaily but is sub- 
stitntially given in icoi ruv v. 603. Tlie 


or' ^Xff TrpdJTO! vv\i,o<i ayyeXos nupo^, 
^pa^tou SXtDffip 'IXt'ov t' avaarairiv. 
Mai Tt'f fi evlirrtav etire' " tppvicTtapwv St'o 
TTuadeliTa Tpoiav vvf weTTopdija'dai SoKeii ; 
Jl teapra Trpov yimaixo^ aXpeaBai iceap." 
\oyoii TOiovroLii irKayicro^ cva iipaivofi'rjf. 
ofim-; 8' edvoV kol ywaiKeiy vofitp 
okoXvyfiov £\\o^ dWoSev KarA irtoKiv 
S\atrKOv (vif)7)pMviiT€V eV ffeaiv eSpai<; 

i9i- ' 

point is that for her this is not the 
tnomeiit either for the exultation of lur- 
prise ($91^601) nor for farther enqnirj 

594. 'IXlov t' immuriv. Observe 
that this phrase, thrown in as it wfre 
carelcssl]', utterly changes the character 
of the supposed lieacon-inessaEe. Ai it 
was representefi lo the elder? above, it 
reported the 'taking' but did not and 
coo Id not possibly, under the supposed 
circumstances, report the 'destruction' of 
Ilium, wiiich had not occun-ed and, if 
Oytacmnestra spoke honestly in w. 353 
— 54, was not to be expected or desired. 
But it is of vital moment that the herald 
should not calch a glimpse of the sup- 
posed 'beacon-system'. Nor can he 
from what the queen here says, simple 
and frank though it seems lo be. It 
suggests no more than what of course he 
must already suppose, t)iat the lieacon 
had signalled the aniTal of himself and 
his companions, and this is in fact the 
truth. On the other hand the fact that 
the qaeen refers to the beacon is enough 
lo convey to the elders that, however 
strange the whole affair may be, there is 
no iKck in it. 

J9J. Tit: i-f. the elders in w. 481 
foil., whose language she quotes almost 
turiatim, though she was not then pre- 
sent. This however and the arrival of 
the herald have been reported to her from 
time to time hy those in her interest, as 

on the stage would be manifest. Plainly 
the queen dare not at this crisis lose sight 
of the elders for a moment; nor is she 
unwilling to give them, as she here does, 
a hint thai her eye is upon them. The 
hint is not lost, for when she retires 
tbeir language {v. 610) is more guarded 

and unintelligible than ever See funhef 

the Introduction. 

598. f^i,vo|»p-: 'they tried to prove 
me deluded' is the signification of the 

599. nhiov: first person, as the pre- 
ceding context shows. 

600- JXXot dU«6(v: masculine (al- 
though the dXaXvynii or sacrificial cry 
was actually uttered by women, as the 
tent dechires), because they uttered it on 
behalf of the sacrificing citizens (or as it 
is otherwise put 'the citizens uttered it 
by the female ritual'), and it is the be- 
haviour of the city, not of the women in 
particular, which is in view. Cf. TAei, 
353 iiiiir i*o6aaa' evyiiATUii triira ad 
(the maidens of the chorus] iXoXvyuiw.., 
waiiuiaae. — "Perhaps she is keeping up 
her satire, 'like women, as you would 
say, the whole city joined in the cry'" 
(Sidgwick). Certainly, I think, there tt 
an intended connexion between Tui-ounit 
and yiaauitlif »Jfi^. 'The city', she says, 
'took the cue from me'. — yi/raiKttoi ho/im 
(Wecklein) gives a simple construction 
but a doublfiil personificatiott.'-irjp^ 
Cf fi/tur/ia ThA. U. 

BvTi^arfiv KOtfAMvreit eucuStj <l>\6ya. 
KM vvv TO fidatTw flip Ti Set ir f/wi Xiyeiv; 
nvaKToi aCrov ttuvto. Trevao/uit Xoyof. 
oTTu? &' I'tpiura Tov ifiop alSoiop iroaiv 
avevTOi TToKiv fioKoura ^k^aaOai {ri yap 
yvvaiKl Toitrov ipeyyov ^Stov hpaieeiv. 
a-TTO irTpartia<; afSpa uiiuavTO'i 6eov 
irvKa^ dvol^ai;), ravr nTrdyyeiXov iroaef 

TJ KttV OTTtH^ Tli^tOT* epOtTfltOP TToXfl., 

yvvaliea TriarTiu S' iv h6p.oiv eZpoi fioXtiv, 
otavirep ovv eXetTre, hoifiMTtDv itvva 
iff$\^v fKtlpai, -iroXefiiav TOts ^vir^poaiv, 
KoX TttW ofioiav -rravra, oTjfiain-^piov 

601. Miay 

601. Koi|UBvrct juiding, I'j, piling 
Ihe incense upon ii so that it butned 
unseen within the heap, instead of blnzing. 
The language rests upon a cotnparisoDi 
touched in the poet's brief picturesque 
nuuiner. between the flame and a creature 
ciying for food till it is stilled. 

603. ri. fu£<rm lie fullrr itery.— 
•f l|u»l. ai /loi (Wieselcr). But both 
pronouns arc emphatic. 

6oj. Evoi . . , Sj£a(r6at Ikal I may 
bring my revired sfouii ■wilh To/ifl return 
uHla my loving rtafitien, Ulcrally 'that 
J may hasten the kind receiving of him 
letumed'. As oflen in the Greek poels 
(cf, V. 487, V. 611 nod 1'. 970) the Gieek 
puts what is principal in the sentence in- 
to the participle ^Urro, not tlie verb 
H^tBu. — dpurra viHk all Undness, the 
superlative of »* kindly, belongs to 8/{i«r- 
Poi: cf. Slifp. 115 (B t' lirtn'^tl' ll T€ 
itiiaSu. — The exact relation of ^loXaim 
ii(aiT0ai here is of some importance; for 
if we render, as modem habits of expres- 
sion suggest, by 'thai I may AaileM to 
wdtevu him', this clause no longer Jits 
the sequel, toCt iwiyfit^oy loBei' ^eii» 
Brut Tri;itiirra. Hence the punctuation 
of Hermann and others lfiiraj...itkii!6ai. 
7lyi,p...iraiiai; Taur' iirdyytiXw), which. 

as Mr Sidgwick objects, makes i 
ilira77(iXoB very abrupt. 

610—611. 4iuiv.,.(llfK>i: thecoDstruc- 
tion varies from the oblique lo Ihc direct. 

these are antithetical in meaning though 
not exactly in form. 'Let him come 
swiftly to find his people loving and his 
wife failhful' is the sense. It is [his 
antithetic emphasis on riarifi which justi- 
fies the position of «,—mipoi [loWv: "let 
him come lo lind ', we should say in 
Eaglbh: see on v. 605. — »iffTi)i'...ot- 
avmp oiv IXfiTf; 'failhliil to him as he 
left her * is the sense to the ear, ' Aiithlii] 
to the revenge which she has meditated 
ever since' the sense to Clytaemneslra"* 
thought. The ambiguity runs all through 
the following lines, ettiinf. rnt Hv^pt^tt 

5 14.. a->)(uiin^puiv oJStv Sia<|iS((pa- 
irav haviHg never brcke leai al all I'n 
tiis long jiiAile, i.e. 'having guariled his 
property and honour', or to herself "still 
keeping my resolution, as it were a 
covenant'. Foe the association of the 
word 3iaip0tlpiii with this secondary sense 
see tf. 913. — Note thai rriiuur/ipior is 
properly an adjectival form, meaning 
'anything in the nature of a seal («-i|»i'"- 


ov&ev Sta<pdeipa<rav iv ft^Kec ■jffiovov. 
ovh' olBa repi^iv ovB' etrtyfroyav ^artv 
nWov trpov dvBpo-i naXXop ^ ^oKkov ^i 

ovK alaj(ph^ m yvvatiel yevvata XaKeiv. 


1^)'. There is no proof that it wM 
used for a seal, as a commnn iFard> nor 
from this passage is it likely. The ex- 
pression is metaphorical I like faSMir 
rim, and the vague form is employed on 
purpose to avoid any particular reference 
to literal 'seals'. In the absence of the 
master some things might naturally be 
seated up (Piley dies Eur. Ortil. iioS), 
and naturally also (he house would be 
guarded by dogs ; hence the metaphors : 
but it is not of these things Clylaemnestra 
is thinking or speaking: a^paytia t^i 
wpi! Tir itSpa tif^i says the schol. 
correctly. — Still fearing not to be under- 
stood she speaks more cleaiiy. 

616. These declarations, which are 
full of suspicion and peril, are still 
forced upon the queen by the necessity of 
the situation. It is an obvious fear Ihnt 
the king may know too much, or before 
he reaches the fortress may learn loo 
much, for Clytaemnesira's purpose. She 
thinks it safer therefore to accept the po- 
sition of one accused and lu tuke the line 
of defying slander, in the hope that this 
maybesulhcicnt for the necessary moment. 

616—617. WH»v ..avBpic / imna of 
pltaiurt er of siandatoits adJriss from 
any othtr man na mere than elc. For 
0d7-« in the sense of spreih or convtrsc 
see Soph. Phil. itk,5 jSepfiap ^dTi* -Hfl' 
(Ire, id. El. 329, \iii iL. and Sc. j.c). 
She is so far ftom sin that she bas lei no 
man speak to her unbecomingly. That 
^m here has this exceptional meaning 
(and not thai of mmoHr) is hhown by the 
arrangement of the sentence. Il must be 
parallel to Tip^a. and both words must 
be related in Ibe same way to bXXdu vpii 
inlpla. — W+oYOV 'liable to reproach", 
cf. trl/ait^i, ^Turfvltv^f. — If ^itnt be 

taken here, as il commonly is, in the 
sense of rumour, rcforl, ij. the scan- 
dalous charge itself, the sentence is ill- 
shaped, for Miiiiytt ipiru rpAi SXXtiv 
(vrith (his sense of tparii) would naturally 
mean 'scandal ullered by another' (see 
t/. 636) ; and even with the rather dubious 
tmnslalion 'scandal arising from' 1.;. 
'connected with another', the words 
Tfp)f-ir and ^arw are still not in the Same 
line, so lo speak, as they should be for 
the purpose of the climax. To attach 
rpii SKKov to Hfnf/ir only and not to 
^ariv is possible hut not salisfiu;lory. 
The hint given lo the ear by the parallel- 
ism of r/piiu'DMi...^TUPwoBld sufficiently 



and justify 

n exceptional use of 

the word. 


XoXkoB M^is dip^''g, '■'■ 


of brorne, a 

n unknown 


The suggestion of 


that the 

ex p res 

on referred 

some art 

slic secret 

is very 

reasonable, h 

ut it is aim 

Ml useless 

to speculate on Ihe origin of a proverb. 
Others snp[)ose il to mean merely 'an 
impossibility'. The slnisler suggeslivc- 
ness which il takes from metaphors such 
as f^a^i frXi" <''<M }""t difpiii thy 
nuord Soph. Ai. 35, yvtii It aiparjaim 
plt'^aaa Jl^ai F. V. B89 has probably 
infiuenced the poet (Wellauer) but must 
not be pressed. After all, the analogy 
is not very close, Between ff^i and 
XoXiAi there is for this purpose a wide 
difference. — Here Clytaemneslra, having 
so far as possible secured the silence of 
Ihe elders and the prompt departure of 
Ihe herald, relums as if lo make her pre- 

6i8~-6n. Here again is a passage 
defying arrangement or exi>lanation with 
Ibe rectMved list of dramalii ptrttnae. 


aSrij /lev ovtoj? el-rre fi.av6avami aoi 

<ri> S' elirk, icfjpv^ — MefeXEO)!' 3« irevOofiai — 
el voari/io^ ye koX aecr^fievo^ TrdXtv 
ij^ei avv vfitv, Trj^Be yrjs tfttKov lepaTot. 

The MS. gives i>n. 618—19 to the herald, 
Heimaim Tollowed b; most modem texts 
transTers Ihem to ClytBcmnestra. Which' 
ever be sdopied (and both are sufficiently 
unsatisfcclory), it Is impossible to give 
any sense to tptu]v(vaM> in v. 6]:. 
Where aie the a>mMCHlaiffrs on ihc 
queen's address to whom Ihe elders refer? 
No answer so much as plausible has been 
saf^ested to ibis question, and emenda- 
tion ((.f. \6rfur for Uyor) is as little 
successful. Manifestly the //>«ii|rnt arc 
Ihe speakers of w. GiS— 19, who eke oul 
the queen's susjHcious exculpation witli 
an approving comment which it very 
much needs. In tact the Second Chorus, 
supporting their spokesman, here act a 
part precisely similar to ihat in 7ni. 363 
foil. They play to (he character which 
the queen assumes. The elders content 
ihemselves with the guarded remark 
thai with this clear and favourable inter- 
pretation the herald no doubt compre- 
hends what has been said. — Stl/-prais<! 
like Iku, filUd full with in truth, doth 
not miibtseim a tmlili lady's lips. ToidrGt 
emphatic, and equivalent to -rwivS' wv, 
'when it is Ihe natural overflow of 
genuine feeling'. Self-praise is unseemly 
in itself; that a wife should praise herself 
in the language of Clytaemneslra is dis- 
creditable in itself ; but as she did so 
(evidently) only under the overpowering 
desire to assure the king of her devotion, 
it is not unseemly or discreditable in her, 
— ipy-jpAwv: the dative is placed so as 
to serve both iM*0in>¥Ti (as an inslru- 
mcnta!) and tirptiriis (as dative of rela- 
tion): it is ^ l>it help "/ the interpreters 
that the address is to be understood and 
la Iktir efinmi that it looks well. 


Gil. rii S' iM, itiijpii{. Tbcy try (o 
detain him. as he turns to go. lie U 
naturally unwilling to be questioned Ajr- 
ther. having the queen's tneJoaige to 
deliver and only bod newt to tell. Seeing 
this, they add hastily 'I would know 
about Mmtlaui', and then still more 
pressmgty 'just {yt) whether he is with 
you'. — T( ((or yt) Hermann: bat yt a 
wanted and thb is no place for t*„, 

Gij. 'I could not tell false tidings to 
seem fair', KoXa lieing predicative. — 
Sirwf XJ{at|ii. is the remote deliberative 
optative. This optative, which MrSidg- 
wick seems to hare been the 5rst to 
explain correctly, is a variation, not from 
the optative with ir, but from the 
deliberative subjunctive. It is found, 
like the subjunctive, io interrogative 
sentences both direct, as Ar. Flut. 438 
>-« nt i^ta; and indirect, as this and 
Eur. All. J] Isr alf Unn 'AXiojotk ttt 
T^pai /liXoi ; " The difficulty is, not 
why i* is omitted, for the sentences are 
not conditional, but wby the reoMe form 
(optative) is used instead of the primary 
form (subjunctive) when the sentences 
are all of a primary character. The 
answer is that the optative expresset the 
remoteness, not as usual of fias/ntss, but 
of possibility: the instinct is to express 
by the optative something man aul o/llu 
quatioH than the suhjunclive would have 
expressed. Thus in Ar. Ptut. 438 roT 
^irfj) would be in ordinary circumstances 
the expression:... but ipiyat, the MS, read- 
ing, . . .is the exclamation of supreme 
terror, treating escape as in the last 
degree unlikely". 


eV Tov TToXvn tpiXoiai KapirovtrOat xpovov. 
XO. TTms Si}r av (Iwcoir KeSva TdKt]01] tvj^ok; 

a^iaffivra S' ovk evicpvirra ylyverai TaSt. 
KH. av^p a.<pai'To'! ef 'A'j^aUKov arpaTou, 

avTo^ Tc KaX rh w\alop. oi) i^euS^ Xe7W. 
XO. 7roT€pov avaj(^0el'i e^^jiaj? e'l' 'IXiov, 

^ -^eifia, KQiv6v aydo^, ^pTratre arparov; 
KH. lnvpaa'i war^ Tofonj? qk/jot (r/coTroO" 

fiaKpov Se TTTJ/JM <jvvr6p.<o^ eif>T}p,lTm. 
XO. "TTOrepa fop auroO ^^vtoi ^ Teficij^oro? 

ifidTi-; TTpii; aWwv vavrlXott/ eiekri^eTo; 
KH. 0[!« olSev oiJSei* uct' dira'y^eTKai, ropm'i, 

ttXijc toO T/)e^oi'Tos 'HXi'oi' ■)(8ovo'i i^uatv. 
XO. TTw? 7rtp Xe7e(f ^et/iwya vavriicip cTpaTM 

iK&eiv TeKevT^aal re haipovav icvrtpi 
KH. €v<f>T]p,ov ^p-ap ov Trpf-rei- KaKar/ye\^ 

yXdcrtrT) p,iaivnv' -yapX^ ^ Tt/i^ fleaii'. 



6) J. T6xf!S. 

6j6. (topiroBirfliu, literally 
them to enjof it'. He would spare them 
pain, if the truth could be long con- 

617. Tfixoit Porson. ' Would that 
thoa couldst speak rightly truth to seem 
gcxxir, i^. 'would that thy news could 
be both pleasing and true ! ' The fonn of 
expiession is not in itself natural but 
imitates (Klausen, Kennedy) that of the 
benJd's speech preceding. Av AwAt 
rtxon properly 'be tight in speaking'. 
It diffeis from av ttrots only in that 
rixoii repeaii ibe meaning of riXijeS. 

619. dvllp Hermann. 

fiji. IfL^VKt visibly, i.e. so that it 
was known when he went, as contrasted 
with the unptrciived disappearance in a 

Cji' adrair Menelaus himself, as 
opposed to the axXm. They suppose 
that something may have been heard of 
Menetaus' ship, and ask, loyally as 

for before, what was the latest news of the 

638. ^<nv in the full sense of the 
word (oTi ^ueroi) 'all that groweth on 
earth', i.e. all life. 

640. SoiftJVMV Kifnf. They instinc- 
tively refer the storm to aogry gods, those 
of Troy presumably; see v. 350. 

641. X"?^ 'i ''hH ^v ^^' fimc- 
lion! belong Is different gods, literally 
'the religious function {ti/iJ) fiiw) is 
distincl in the two cases', the one be- 
longing to the gods of joy and Iriumpb 
and to the gods friendly in the particular 
case, the other to Ibc gods of darkness 
and punishment (such as Ares, v. 647) 
and to the gods advene in the particular 
case. — The rendering "the worship of the 
gods is to be kept distinct from bad 
news' is not quite accurate, not Eallsiying 
the article. Both functions are ri/ial 
Btw' but of different Btai and not to be 



trrtrfv^ irpoatmr^ TTTtiitTifj.oiJ vrparov <^epr}, 

troXei fiev IXxot ?f to &^fuap rv^eiv, 645 

avhpat SittX^ fiavTi/yt, ttjv "Apij? ^(X^i, 

&t\oy)(op aTTjv, if>otvlav ^vveopi£a, 

Toi£vBe fiiv rat, irrifiATtiiv aeo'ayfievov 

•Trpetrft \eyeiv iraiava rovB' 'Epivvav' 650 

C49. viiTayiUytiiy. 

645. IXKM..,«'aXXaut accusatives in 
apposition lo nj^tara. — irdXa. . .ti Eij^uov : 
Ihe r^ular antithesis iSlf tA ■off' fmairrii* 
u left to be supplied in the elliptic 
manner chu'acteristic of the herald's 
style (sec on w. 560 foil.).— IXkm... 
TV^fti" a ilo"' lo be mtl or lo sustain.— 
'm)UaJt,,.4{aYw4frTai 'the taking of 
many a victim': for the participial con- 
struction sec Thtb. fin yujuniiflftp Mpwand 
note there. 

ft\-l. IvSpM 'men' with emphasis, 
I, e. men singly as opposed to -wliKa. Cf. 
Ihe oppoijiliun of S3ilpt%...i3i-fip in Tkcb. 
584—599. ""i ™/™ "■ 535- 

ii. GiirXg (laoTiYi ' iwo-pointed 
ptDBg': see on Theb. 595 (and Dr Lesf 
on Horn. //. 33. 387). The epithet 
BfXoTXO! here shows what the context 
shows stilt more clearly there, that ikiinii 
is in neither place a whip. There it is 
B prong used for the killing of fish or 
game taken in n net. Here the expres- 
sion ^{ayiirMrraf {taken out as consecrated 
offering!) fiooTiYi suggests rather the use 
of a siroilflj instrument for taking from B 
victim or sachlice the parts reserved for 
the gods or persons privileged, such an 

a. 13 'when any roan offered sacrifice, 
the priest's servant came while the flesh 
was in seething with a fleskkook of Ikrte 
lath in his hand ; and he struck it into 
the pot : all that the fleshhook brought 
up the priest look for himself'. There 
were many Greek rites in which special 
privileges were reserved to the adminis- 

irators and others, and a usage of this 
kind may well have existed in some of 
Ihem. The metaphor is the more likely 
here, as Aies is specially Ihe ' man- 
ealine' god (roSrv 74p 'Apifi piriarai, 
ipinfi pperQr TAti. 130, and see in/, v. 
i>;il) and was worshipped with human 
sacrifice down to recorded limes. Cf. 
Porphyry Oe Abitinrmtia 11. 5$ hctl iral 
AaMJoijUwlaut ifn)slt i 'AiroXUiu/xit ty 
'Apci SifO' arSpuvdii (reference supplied 
by Mr H. B, Smith), 

G49. TiHAvSt |i^ TM he indeed viho 
etc.; the sentence OTar...<tiipTi is re- 
sumed. In ulu Toi the parlicles have 
each their distinct forces: lUt answers to 
it in V. 6;t ; r« implies, as usual, an 
appeal to the general judgment, — «i)|iA- 
TBI)' constructed with etaa-fninr as sig- 
nifying ' fulness '. — nrafiUnii Schlit*. 
eMa~i)iiii<iiP 'heaped' or 'packed upon 
him' is possible, but the other belter. 

6jo. rivSi, (. I. such an i-nt\oi : the 
resumptive pronoun (in prose commonly 
dStoi) is often inserted when there is an 
antithesis to be marked ; 'Ac, the mes- 
senger of disaster, may naturally chant a 
triumph-song ta Ihe Erinyes', the agents 
of punishmenl, but the messenger of good 
owes his duty elsewhere. The emphatic 
pronoun is placed according lo usage 
next 10 the word which is combined in 
emphasis with it. — ^If Tivie be joined 
with niava it is useless and not good 
Greek. It is worth notice that ihe 
caesura serves to separate Tmoipa from 


atariipMv Si vparffiarmi' cvdyyeXop 
tjKovra 7rpo5 ■)(aipovffav evearoX -rroXiv — 
7reo« KtZva tok KaKotoi <TVfift.i^ei} \eyQ>v 
^eifimv , . A^attoi/ ovk dfi^vtroi/ Beoti ; 
^voifioaav yap, ovrei exBi<rToi to trplv, 
trvp Kal Bakaaaa, Ka\ rd irCa-r iBei^artjv 
^delpome tov Svo'ttjvop 'Apyelrop arparov, 
iv wHTi, Sv<ricvftavTa £' mpropei Kaiea. 
vav^ yap wpw oXX^Xijci %p'^Kiai woa), 

65 s 

653. He Innis abruptlj' from the gene- 
ral cnse lo himself as an instance of it.— 
I/cno can I mix goed wtt^ that whuh is 
bad, witk a talf of our disaster, ■whitk 
tannet but diifltast sur Hatioii's gods f — 
'A-Xf^iMv o(k iy.'^ntvv Swl«, literally 
'a thing not unprovoking lo /At gods of 
the Aehaeam' : the emphasis on ' Kxaiw 
...6ita being given tiy the position of Ihe 
words. ouK ofi^wrov (neuter) is the 
so-called accusative in apposition to the 

1.1 Kilo, (rf rl. x,»i. Xf,.»). 
6Mti: the dative of Ihe person whose 
JQdgmenl ot view is in question, — The 
present hour of iriumpli is properly 
devoted to the gods of Argos; to narrate 
ow a disaster inflicted by powers hostile 
1 Argos and to them (v. 640) is as it 
were lo interrupt their service and risk 
their displeasure. — The MS. reading here 
should be kept and gives the sense 
reqnired. Difficulty has arisen from Ihe 

>r of taking i^iJyiTo* as masculine. 
The reading of Dobree 'AxoiOit ouk 

IriTDV t>(ur. commonly adapted, is not 
only a needless change, but itself, as I 
think, not grammatical. It is translated 

inn sent by wrathful gods upon the 
Achaeans' and the genitive Stat is ex- 
plained as depending on the privative 
&ldfiHTti», as in V. 333 «dot ai'jf d»a»ioip 

lou irupit, or in S,tiit\im imrlStat, 
iXaitwit iikliiu etc. Tlie eitension of 
this genitive lo such a case as iV4fitii> 
f(uv, though rare, is possible, but the 
dative "Axaioii would have hardly a 
GoQslniction at all. 
V. M. A. 

65S~^S7' On the symbolic meaning 
of these lines see Appendix O. 

65,^. Imitated by Millon Par. Rig. iv. 
411. 'Water with lire in ruin reconciled.' 

656. Ti Twri Ihe pledge 0/ that 

6 58 : in darkness, whith svielird the 
agony lo Us AeigAt, literally 'in 'darkness, 
and terribly swollen was raised the dis- 
tress'. The meaning is thai nigh) a^ra- 
vatcd Ihe situation ; the ships could not 
then be kepi clear of each other and 
soon became unmanageable. This verse 
is a Rne illustration of the pregnant use 
of words so vital lo poetry. 8tmi|Mvni 
by ils passive fnmnatfon points at once lo 
the Iransitive sense of Kafialrui, which 
(see L. and Sc. i.v.) means properly Id 
male la swell, from iOmOi originally that 
■which is pregnant, then anything swoUm, 
then specially a viaiii. This las! and 

view : and all the meanings merge in a 
triple suggestion of inenoie. labaur, and 
tempest which defies translation. Similar- 
ly Iv is at ODce lemporal, as usual, and 
instrumental or circumstantial, as often 
(see L. and .Sc. s.v.\ so thai t* iniitr£ 
combines Ihe meanings of I'fi and ift'dark- 

6;^. dXXifX^irt cannot safely be changed 
to the common form. It is merely an ar- 
chaism, like Ihe relative article, and might 
well be commended lo the ear by a sort 
Spiff loi, in which by 
ras normally retained. 




-. KepoTinrov/j^vat 

jfeiftwvi Tvipw avv faXi? t' ofiffpatcriivif) 
w^ovT a<pavTotf irotfievoti kukov ffTpo/9p. 
€Trel S' dinjXffe Xa/iirpov ^\iov (paoi, 
6pwfi€v avSovv ireXa/yo'i Alycuov veicpoU 
dvSpwv 'Axatwc uaVTiKmii t ipeLiricov. 
^fia^ ye ficv Sf] vavv t (iKyjpaTov axaifioi 

Bev; Tts, ovit dvdpairov, otaica'i 6i^wu. 
Tvy^^ Se ataTrjp vavv $i\ovo i(f>i^eTo, 

670. Sp/iia. 



; mn^of. the 

comparison is to a herd of calllc driven 
wild and scaltered by a storm. 

661; 'under the storm of the hurricane 
andb;^ the beating raio of the sui|^'. iriv 
instmrneotal. The line may be various- 
ly taken without difference, but Ibis way 
(SidEwick, Wecklein) is the simplest. — 
ifPpot rain ; this word belongs rather 
to the metaphor of the herd than to the 

661. woifUviat VTpip<f lasieil rtmnd iy 
Iheircruddriver. ir-rpjpip: auniqueword, 
literally, il would seem, meaning ifin : 
ffTpop^w is Iq sfin. «rai|ijviit: the slonn 
itself in a new metaphorical aspect. 

C64. dvfttvv: a last glimpse of the 
metaphor from the herd ; the sea is the 
plain or field which in the morning is 
seen to have broken out in flowers after 
Ihc rain. 

664—665. Literally 'we saw Ihe 
Aegacan main corpse- bcllowered with 
Achaean men and wreckage of the ships'. 
The genitives Avipiir IptmliM ti, as well 
as the dative viKpat, are constructed with 
anBovr, to which they are related as to a 
verb of fulness (cf- ppia and see L. and 
Sc. !.v. iiBia). But senpott is joined to 
the verb more closely, as the rhythm 
shows, in the manner which we might 
indicate by a compound. It is Ihe jn- 
M of the poet, I think, to surest in 

a vague poetical way that both men and 
ships were 'dead'. — ravrweit r ipftwltut 
(Auratus) Ls obvious, but much too ob- 
vious. The superficial difficulty of the 
genitives would have kept them out, tf 
they were not genuine, 

666. cncd^ot: not superfluous. The 
stripped vessel was a hull entire but no 

667: "stole us awaji or begged us eff 
from destruction ; a bold but quite cha- 
racteristic phrase, requiring no emenila- 
tion". .Sidgwick. 

669. Fortune, lo !ave us, was f leased fe 
ridt on board her : SfXowra emphasizes 
the fact that their miraculous escape most 
be put down to the mere will of Tate.— The 
objection to this is, thai according lo 
Greek usage yaS' (or rather a pronoun) 
should be supplied and not expressed, 
— •awToXoDir' (Casaubon) is good, bul 
hazardous, and S4\avaa is in itself eflec- 

> fAat lie foot not in Iht 


'ttmltr hdviem her planks, iv dp|i^ (Weck- 
lein) literally 'at a joining'. This very 
brilliant suggestion may at least be ac- 
cepted provisionally. It makes perTecl 
sense, and without something of the kind 
nifuiToi fiiXjii' lx«» is incomplete. The 
rarity of dpMr and the familiarity of Jp>i« 
amply account for the error.— ^c SfiMV, 'o 
the ronds, at motring, is lo me quite OQ- 


fi'^T 4^0Ket\at TrpA<! KparaCKemv j(S6va. 
eirena S" " \tBi]v ttovtiov "rretfievjoTev, 
XevKoi/ itar ^fi.ap, ov Trrrot^ore? '''i^XV- 
iffovieoXovfifv ^pomitriv veov iraOoi, 
{rrparov /cap^vro^ koX waxw? o'ttoSov^i'Ov. 
Koi pvv exelvrDv et tk tariv efiirvecov, 

^;*e« t' exet'i'Du? ratSr e\;eti' ho^d^o/xev. 
yevoiTO S' (U? apta-ra' MeiieXewi' yap ovv 
irpwrov T€ KOI fiaKiaTa -rrpocrhoKa p,a\eiv, 




Can il be concaved that in 
s described the vessel 
should be moored al all ? The two ob- 
vious dangera were springing a leak and 
running upon one of the innumerable 
isliuids and cocks of the Archipelago. — 
lx*>v lo (akt, get ; see on v. 734. 

674. ipovico\aS[Uv: literally 'niminal- 
ed ', I J. brccded en. — Wov irdSot allered 

675. rwoSovpivov : a strong word 
from popular language. See on THeh- 

676. <( n« (oTiv fy'TvUtv ' if any is in 
being and draws breath '. — For (on cf. 
the common phrases oiii^' ^im ht is ne 
mart, he it i/ead, Binl altt AJfrtt 'gods 
that live for ever' etc. — The reading cerbr 
ttartimi, with the supposed sense 'is 
brealluDgi is alive', has been justly con- 
demned (see conjeciuces in Wecklein) as, 
to say [be least, very doublfiil Greek. 
But the error is in the acccnluition of the 
ancient editors, not In the words. 

679. HntMov Tdp oi» As far Mau- 
laut then, yif oiv marks thnt ihe nar- 
rative has now been brought to the point 
al which ihe question which drew it {v. 
6ti) can be fully answered. 

6B0. *p»rav...|UtX(tv 6e il first and 
seotuit supposed that hi got home. irpo<r- 
Um: rfHwiSoiEar and Air({ttv. like ihe 
English expect, arc used in reference not 
only lo the future, but also, with ihe 
' tHpposf, to the prcscDI and past, 

and in that sense lake the same conslnic- 
liou, with respect to the tense of the 
sequent infinitive, as other verbs of think- 
ing. For CKamples see L. and Sc. /■ vo. 
— |ioX<tv that he arrived, i.e. that his 
ship, like Ihal of Agamemnon, got home, 
that he reached the Peloponnnese after 
the storm, only, being carried lo a greater 
distance, al some other part of the coast. 
lie would of course make for the nearest 
accessible point, not necessarily for Ar- 
go!>. It is natural and inevitable Ihal this 
not improbable and consoling supposition 
should be entertained, till ills disproved. — 
'Expect him to return' or 'that he will 
return ' is the translation commonly given 
or assumed. The vexed (|ueslion, whe- 
ther this is a possible sense of the simple 
aorist, need not here be discussed. A 
series of corrections (MnArfi* 7' £r 06 
Badham, etc., see Wecklein) shows that 
il is rejected by many, in my opinion 

rightly. Bui even if it were possible in 
itself, it would be inadmissible here. 
The supposilion put forward in v. 63o is 
mBnifeslly something sharply distinguish- 
eil from i\rU tii igfrir in 11. 684, as is 
recognized by another series of corrections 
(wfoaSifx dartir Hariung. etc.). No in- 
genuity can justify such a sentence as 
'first and by preference expecl him to 
come ; and if </ir..,,,then there is a hope 
that he will come*, liut correctly trans- 
lated the text does not, I think, offer any 


el S" ovv TK oktU ^Xt'ov vw iffTOftet 
j^Xtapov re Kal ffkeirovra, firjj^avaU Ato?. 
o6iro> 6i\ovro<; i^avaXaiffai 7eco9, 
eXTTW Tt? avTOV Trpov So^Oli? >;f*"' TraXiI'. 

XO. Tt'5 ttot' eoi'o^{|ej> (35' 

>«? T^ TTOl' CTTJTVfJMt 
681. mlJluiTaMl^ArMfl-B, 
58l. tl S' oilv and, supposing the 

contrary, still if, supposing, ihnt is, he 
hiks not got in. This is (he regular 
meaning of oS* in such a conneiion. — 
■nt...tim»p<t any ray ef the sun is Jii- 
coi'tritig iim. Again here the langu^e 
is coloured by a natural suggestion of Ihe 
morning hour. 

G81. x^"p'*' ^ ^"^ pUirovTa; orrl 
ToD faipTa Hesychius; whence Toup re- 
stored it here. It is not certain thnt the 
gloss relates to this passage, but it is 
highly probable, and the improvement is 
great. — |H|xiivoil AuJt: join with tjft"- 

683. Y^vot: his ofispring, the family 
of (he Atridae, descended from him. — 
oCw B&ovtm: ' whose will it neitr is', 
i.e. 'who may be presumed not to will' 
etc. The Greek and English uses illus. 
trate one another. 

684. airl* emphatic ; ' for him, if for 
any, there is a hope'. 

685: Ihii is all that / can tell you for 
fact, literally ' so far you may know that 
you have been told ihe facts'. 

686. ilvj)uittv: ' proposed to name ', 
'suggested the naming', must apparently 
be the force of the tense— The MS. has 
Ihe aorisi, in Ihe Doric form ^iyafyv, 
nor am I at all sure that it is not right. 
The tense is much more suitable; the 
inspired judgment should be lather de- 
cisive than tentative. The forms in -^S), 
.{a are not commonly used in the quasi- 
Doric of the chorus ; but we aie not in 
a position to determine what subtleties 
of Ulerary association might guide a poci 

6gS. i>»hpakf*- ^H 

in the use of such a composite and af^^^ 
ficial language, evolved by tradition from 
various dialects. Even to assign a reason 
here for the Doric form would not be 
diflicult. It prepares the nay for Iktwai 
V. 69,1, and the whole art of interpreting 
dri^rn seems to have l>een in its origin 
Sicilian ; see youmal af Phildogy, ix. p. 
197. — But it is of course pos^Ie thai 
iulspaia is an error; in v. 4JO the roil- 
ing of f is reported as 'apparently ytid- 
fow', and see v. 776. 

687. S^ h ri ir&v (TT|T^|iat 'with 
such entire and lileral truth'. On Vrif- 
ntiwif and Its etymological associations 
see the Sevm etc.. Appendix II. — tm xi irai", 
or It Toirdw i.e. 'with such literal truth 
in respect of his divination'? For Ihe 
reasons in favour of i% nwiir see Appen- 
dix E and Ihe foumaJ of Pfiitelogy. JX. 
pp. n8— 141, I still think /i ri irS» here 
a poor phrase and Ihe other better, hut 
as the traditional reading is admissibte I 
do not change it — Mr Sidgwick objects 
that the word rori, divtnotimi, meaning 
not 'prophecy' hut 'conjecture' as op- 
posed to 'knowledge', is here «n.suitable. 
Bui I submit that what was supposed to 
be 'divined' by the iiirra at the naming 
of a child was its yet undeveloped cha- 
racter (^D-ii, see (he article cited), and 
that this was in the strictest sense 'di- 
vined' or 'conjectured'. 

688. |n{...i Cim it Aavt tten etc. — 
Ti-X Simvo, studiously vague, ' an unbnowii 


(jiTj Tts 01^(1'' avx opcSfiev irpovol- 
cuat rov Treirpanenou 
yXwaaav dv Tuyfo, vefuitv ;) 
Tair Sopiyuft^pov dfi^ivet- 
Kr) 0" 'KXevav; evel irpeirovro^ 
k\ha^, ekavhpoi;, eXiirroXi^, 
ex TUv apporifiwv 
vpoKaXvfifidrmv hrXevaev 
^€<pvpov ylyain'oi avp^, 
iroKvavhpoL re ipepaa-jriSe'; Kvva- 
yal lear ixvof nrXarav difMtiTov 
xtXtrdintair St/ioeiro? 




690. h T^xf. "right, 'so as to lit^ the 
mark', literally 'uitfA hit', or 'milh right- 

ss'i it indicaling drcumatance, us r'n 
does often in Latin, but iw in deck rarely. 
The phmse is very probably technical 
}i. 'EIUmiv predicate with Ciriiia- 
hence the article ntv, as rdv lopl- 
foitppor iii^tMi] T< is property sub- 

69J, IXJvat destroyer {see tXeu-, al- 
pta\ of skipi, a Doric form from JUvo/j, 
3 nt*t\at from ^at\o.F% Mmdms (Snl- 
masius, fnUowed by Hnger and by Sidg- 
wick). Here the use of the exceptional 
form could hardly be avoided, if the 
point was to be tnade al alt. With Ihc 
Attic iU¥9.\i% tBIonilicId], which does nut 
suggest the accusative ^Ursr at all, the 
caincidence is destroyed. The ms. ap- 
pears to me clearly correct. 

694. T«*/^<. Bsif they were famous, 
as in l^end they pruhably were. — dppo- 
T^uav dtlicalc^eslly, ippur foi Tiniur. — 

ontvaw (Salmasius) is Dot, 1 think, 

an improvement. The ceit/y luxury of 

~ e wicked queen is a natural |>oinl to 

uch (see on v. 917) and the form of the 

compound is simple. 

695. be irpwcakvmufTBV (itXiiNrt 

lAt lift her mrlitiiud bawer ta lait the sta, 
imitated by Euripides, speaking of Medea 
flying with Jaaon (AM. 431), tx /ih ohuw 

69S. rXiriv. 
lr\(vaat Iheu didst quit far thi sat thy 
faf/iiT'i house. — For rXriffot to tahe it 
sta c(. Eur. Nei. 1 105 w\i6irayTa alda. 

696. 7(1(111^01: implying not merely 
strength, but fierce, uncontrolled strength, 
the ylyiaTii being characteristically re- 
beU against the divine law. In fact the 
wind itself typifies the wild and monstrous 

69S. ir\aT£v Heath, the better ac- 
centuation; iR ihi oars' unseen traik. — 
Supply iTrKtvaaw. 

699. KtXtrxtiTvv of them viHa had 
put in or reached land, i.e. Paris and his 
company. — xeXffdiToiii (Wecklein), i.*. 
Helen and Paris, marks the two persons 
too distinctly perhaps for the purpose of 
this sentence, which relates rather to the 
Trojans regarded as robbers.— EijiinToi 
, . .nlliBTHinrav lo the I'anis 0/ Sipieis, 
whose woods mast it wasted by their blooiiy 
fray, literally "because of it. ifu^ilX- 
XovSi here a ' proleplic ' epithet describ- 
ing the result of the hunt, means literally 
'with leafage broken down 'and is formed 
from the stem of d^vilviK- For the sense 
of the verb see //. i^. 146 iriptripmoi 
alitaoiM iambTt, tiIi t it tptoaw | irlpSii' 

Hii T iioitorTt ripl aiplatr Hyrvrov OXiir, 
which passage or others like it Aeschylus 
probably had in his mind. In the meln- 

S(' epif aif/MToeaaav. 
'Wlif he iCTJSo'i op- 
6cavv/M>v TeXeaai^peov 
fifjvi.^ iJXao-e, Tpave^aii drl' 
HQiOLv viTTepfp ■)(p6vtp 
KoX ^vvea-Ttov A 109 
'7rpru7Voft€i>a to vvfiifioTi- 
ftov /ieXos eK(f>aTti><{ riofrat. 


704. 01 

phoi Paris i& the wild beast and Heleo 
his spoil ; the avenging Greeks are the 
huntsmen, who track their prey to the 
Uir (Troy); the war is the violent ard 
bloody fight which, n; in Homer's pic- 
tuie, there ensues, and which devastates 
the surrounding wood or, without meta- 
phor, causes die destruction aJid razing 
of Troy. — <i({ii^XXofj is the conjecture of 
Tticlinius (CW. F,irH.), who here, as in 
tauiy places, has by his aibitraiy change 
merely diverted attention from the much 
belter reading of the faithful copy, ocfi- 
fNtXAoui 3t' tpv/ aiiuiT6tireay ' whose forests 
will grow because of the bloody (lay' is 
in the first place hardly sense in itself. 
Wecklein refers to Hor. O:/. 1. 1. 19 
' quis non Latino sanguine pinguior cam- 
pus?', but it will be seen that the phrases 
differ materially. And, what is much 
more important, the supposed growth of 
the forest has no relation to the metaphor 
of the hunt and no point as a symbol.^ 
As to the metre, the antislrophe {v. 716) 
gives no evidence between of i^uXAoin and 
uji^iJXXoi^, for it does not correspond 
exactly to either ; and see further Ap- 

701. K^Soi iptwu^Ov: a marriage or 
Miie deserving the name in its other 
«enae of lerrirw. Cf. the play on «i)8o>«i 
—miUvTii in Tii6. ij6.—'IX(y depends 

704. iJXiurt c)iaitd, a slight echo as 
il were of the metaphor of the hunt. — 
Tpa«4H (Lrlpawiv ml £»». AiJt: th« 

offence of Paris against the laws of hos[H- 
tolity (-: 374). But by the accidental 
form of the phrase, the reference to the 
'table' and the description of Zens as 
ivfloTiot *who shares the hearth (and 
feast}' for the more precise fA>wi, lllc 
speakers involuntarily touch another and 
ominous memory, the 'outraged table' 
of Atreus and his brother. See on w. 
IJ9, 157, 1601. — irfiUMriv Canter. 

707. wpotnrofkira to ottHge, with ac- 
cusatives of the iifTcnders (toAi) rlevrmi 
and the crime irtiuiirw, literally 'cKaet- 
ing it of them'. — ti (dirirv) is added 
liecause this song is to be contniisted with 

708. Jn^tsk. it^ttOai. so far as is 
known, means only ' to speak out, articu- 
late'. Horn. ai. 10. 146 oiSi Ti iii^da$ai 
SOvara froi U/itm rip, it. 13. 308 /iifii 
Tif /K^cur0iu..,aXU nwT^ ri^x"" aX7(« 
roXXa. Accordingly ^a:0aTitf( should mean 
exftessiiily (rather than loudly, Paley : 
the rendering UHSfeaiahly is not well 
founded). According In legend, the alter- 
native name of Paris,'AX^fa»SpDi \rfftlHng 
the ktishand\. was bestowed upon him in 
admiration of his prowess (see Eur. frag, 
65 Dindorf). From what follows (11. 713) 
it is likely that ttphat refers to this; 
the Trojans found a significant expression 
for their admiration of the robber's feat, 
—rlavmt (impf. tense) did heneur to it, 
i.t. celebrated it with zeal (cf, rufira 
<Ti^ V. ijft, Wccklem). 


Vfikvaiop, OS tot' etrippe'jTev 
fafi^poltxiv aeCSeiv. 
fteTa/iavOdvovtra £* tfivov 
Uptafiov -ttoXk yepaid 
tro\v0p7}vov fteya irov arivei, kikXij- 
aicavffa Uapiv tov alvoXcKTpov, 
irofiirpoa-d' tj iroXvBpTjPOi' 
aiwv dftipl TToXtTtij/ 
//.iXeov alii dvarXaaa. 
eOpnfrev Be Xiovra^ 
tpw Bofioiv affaXoKTOv 
otTaf dirtjp tftiXipaarov, 

7 IS- »o*i»fBffOii. 

716. ioMtoii. 

IV /tU la Ihrm, inclined 
la them [U a scale, which now is lumed 
Ihe olhcr way. — y*''1^PP'>^''^* cIiQhiv ' lo 
■ing 9& kinsmen of Ihe groom '• 

713. TiAv6pi|vav predicate with ini- 
rti. Supply airAf, i.e. rjf Bivibv, — piyi, 
or (ktrd (Schneidewin). i.i. iLtTaaritei,, 
'chants with repentant change'? The 
diflerence of letters is almost nothiog, 
and cither may be tight. — KiicX'^nccnHra 
...allxfX«KTpov: finding for Paris names 
very diRerent from the triumphant 'AWJ- 
Oiripn (see on v. 70S), la choosing the 
contrasted name alri\tirrpai Aeschylus is 
guided perhaps by a certain similarity, 
with IransposilioD of sounds, lo 'AU{ii>- 
J|Mt. This however is ol course not es- 
sential to the purpose. 

7(5—717; Jar JuH tf lameiitatioH Htait 
ieen all hir iiMaiy Jays till naui for Ihe 
miserablt :slaiighler of her people, lite- 
rally 'she who sustained ail-before a life 
full of hunenlBtion for' etc. — va|iirp(Hr6' 
i] Blomlicld: iroXirav Auratus. This 
icnlcncc takes up the word ndKiBpTiriir 
from V. 713, echoing and explaining it 
after Aeschylus' mannei.— ^piirpaa^.,. 
>UMva,..({mTUura. The adverb, literally 
' all'beforc ', though joined in construc- 
Uon with the verb orarX^a, qualilies in 
_ effect the substantive alieta. For the 
1 aitkk •* we TAtli, iSoj it gives lo Ihe 


718 — :9. Worra a(i"i*. 710. aunt, 

description the tone of an exclamalion. 
For the ' Ionic 'i; see rf. 418, 1 id4. — at)i«: 
so oAriii^^r alfia iht slaying of a brelktr, 
Theli. 705, and see L. and Sc. s. v. alp*. 
— Il is veiy important to observe that 
tbe difficulties found in ibis passage arise 
solely from metrical hypothesis. Apart 
from metre the readings (not changes] of 
Blomtield and Auralus are quite satis- 
&clory. raiivpwiS' 4 is also admissible, 
but I think not su good. As to Ibe tnelre 
see Appendix II. 

718. XiovTot \vvr Conington. 

719. d^fiiXdiCTOV ifinTa], the molhet- 
Itoness being killed by the huntsmen who 
look the whelp.— Ur Weckleiu reads 
rifiXaitTo fio&rai (see below) (i*Jjp ^Xo- 
fuifrritir, translating aydXiMTa (^Xa/ulimiii' 
by " a; fostcr-btotktr of Ike sucklings in 
his herd. C(. Ilesych. a7iiXii{ ■ o/iiriTfloi, 
Elym. At. ill. 41 oYdAatrci oj luhXfkif, 
ira^ ri a aiiftainn' ri opoS, iiiojo^ainit 
Tattlrrtt, Suid. dyaXourrci- tp,tuitin, dic\- 
^l". This gives c<iually good sense, 
but I think the evidence is strong against 
a7d\aiira here. The supposed changes 
of the original 070X011:70 and ^uXono'srtiW 
have no apparent motive. 

710. olrat Ayftf a shephenh otnit 
from 4.1, as po6nit from i^oDi. This cor- 
rection, if worth anything, should be 
credited to Heusde and Wecklcin, who 


ev ^lOTOV vporeXtloi'! 
a/Lepov, ev^iXoTTaiha, 
KoL fepapoK firiy^aprov, 
•jToKia S' e<TX *'*' ''7*a^ai! 
veoTpotpov TCKvov Biicav 
<^ai&pwTr6^ TTOTi x^'P** """'■ 
viov re yaffTp6<: dvarjKcu^. 
^(povurdeh &' dTreSei^a/ 
7}0ov TO -TTpK TOKlatv' ^a- 


write respectively ^tdi and fta^rat. 
Something like this, some descripdoD 
attached to vilpi is plainly to be sought 
in the MS. reading, DGrot. (The v la I 
has both accentuations, ' over ': but ' 
must be what M gave, the other merely 
the funiliaj- accentuation oirros written 
lirst by mistake.) But ulTat is preferable, 
not only (or obvious techtiical reasons, but 
because the sequel (£■. 731 /iijXopiSiioujU') 
shows that a sktphtrd, not an axhtrd, 
was in the poet's mind. — oln-wi b, an 
idle guess. If sOrui bod been the word, 
it would have been preseri'ed, nor does 
the place admit olFrui or indeed. I (eel, 
anything except an epithet tu anjfi. oCmu 
arj)p would be still closer to the Ms,, 
in (act almost identical, but I cannot 
iiod evidence that the loss of the 1 in 
d/l-rat would be B pos^ble phonetic 

713; makiiis disHily iiselj le smilt. 
lirCxafToV. For x<V^ i^^ ^^^ cognate 
words see on TM. 419.— Nttl cum, not 
'and' — TtpopoU 1 not 'seniors'. This 
passage is not suESdenl evidence fur 
giving to yipapoi the otherwise unknown 
meaning of fipaii!. Dignity Is more to 
the point than o^v, and makes on equally 
good antithesis to t^tX^muSa. 'cosily 
making friends with the iruJEi', which, 
it must be remembered, includes the 
servants as well as the children. The 
yepapol are Homer's oJimw. the roasters 
and graver persons in the house generally. 
iii llousroan propusea [o read yipauui, 

which is better than to (brce the meaotng 
of yipapos. 

714. iroXJa S' ta%t and many a 
thing it got, a simple popular phrase : 
the pretty tricks of the beast made every 
one pet it and feed it.— For ayti* Is gd 
see Pindar 01. 1. 10 l<p6r taxoi' D[«ij(i« 
lig/ gvl a mcred habitatia», Pylh. l. 65 
laXwi S' 'A/iOtKat, J^lk. 3. 14 tax* ''^' 
aoTjw afitar ihc coHCrivtd SMck a JtlusiaH, 
etc, with Gildersleeve's notes.— ft" ^fita- 
Xiut goes with the words which follow 
and specially with riarpoipoii. 

71(1, ^aiGponrds. o^vhv T«. Note 

the characteristic treatment of the adjec- 
tive ipaiSiiaiKos as a participle, qiuui $01- 
ipiii wpwopit T7(» x'V« : cf- ^- i49- 547- 
1075 etc. — Many changes are proposed 
in this sentence, chieHy, 1 think, for wont 
of the proper rendeimg of taxt. The 
most plausible is to CMnbine ^Jpunrwi 
(Weil) with aalmrra (AuralusJ, translat- 
ing 'and often he held it in his arms' 
etc. bo Wecklein. But the supposed 
errors are not probable, and the '(ceding ' 
of the creature is the point required to 
make an antithesis with the sequel. I'he 
traivslation of fax* by 'it lay ' is incorrect, 
and ffm {it ttnu, CasaubonJ an inappro- 
priate word. I bod no vaUd objection to 
the MS. reading. 

739. i^Sot Coningtun. The 1 seems 
to have cutne from a marginal correction 
of the 1) in tdc^Wi transposed to the 
wrong place. — ri vpAj -rmUaii 'which it 
had Irom its parents '. 


pm yap Tpoifia'; afieiffmv 

fiT)\o<f>ovotatii arati 

BaiT aKeXfvffTO'i (Tsv^ev, 

aip-ari S' oj/cos i<pvp6i], 

ofufjipv a^/yov oiKerait, 

fikfa <r(fo; ttoXvictovov' 

€K 6eov S" Upevi t« a- 

Tos Sofiois irpoaeTpai^Brj. 

irdpatna 5' iKdelv i<i 'IX/ou ttoKiv 

Xeyoi/t' av tj>p6in}fia ftev v^vep-av yaXapat, 


, precisely n; 

731. i-nt/t ru 

in Soph. At. 308 (Ajai coming 
senses sees the aiiimsls he has killed) nol 
irXifKt oTj,! (li SioTTditi ffT^yo!.— The 
sttcmpt lo find a word better, or as {rood, 
has been fruitless, aroivit (i.t. 'dTtuo-ir?) 
h, iaatair surf tit Conington, omtm 
sArit/u Ahrens, afaiam breakage Klausen, 
etc. Otheis to imve antii insert d^ 
(/niXo^foia-i silt irait), but the sound is 
D£ty and the preposition cumbrous. The 
alleged difficulty is in Ihe melrc, as to 
which, as well as that of the preceding 
vene, see Appendix II. 

734. d|ioxov U.YDt: (he accusative 
in appaaiLion to the conception ot/ian... 
i<p6p6i). The conjunction i^in f has been 
inieiled deliberately from mistake as to 
the construction. 

736. ify leau higher pmutr it v/ai 
dirtelal la Ihe haust, to Be a miaiiler as it 
tarn ef ruin there. Jk Snu: ibe patron 
and aiengei of the lions, as of Ihe eagles 
in V. S7 : but the tone and style of these 
words belong rather 10 the interpretation 
than to the parable. — l<p(£t 'a ptieal', 
because /iiiXo^im. Observe that, to 
mark this connexion of ihpughl, dj-nt 
echoes Srati in v. 731. — S£|uiLt is re- 
lated both to Jr^tiJi and lo iifitaiTpi,^Bi\, — 
'Vpoo^rpcI^Bii: il -was directed by the un- 
cunsdous agency of those who captured 
it. For the Homeric form see T|>^iru 
rpovTptwu and compare r<i\ia for roXXii 
to V, 734. For Ihe paiaboticol meaning 

47 av/Uva lOftrp Aiit H^flou. — 
a kind of error always 
liable to happen in heavy combinations of 
consonants (cf o, 11S6 rifipvYyoi for 
aiiiipSoyyoi), was here facilitated by the 
exceptional lonB.—vpoatep/ipBi} Heath 
and many lexis: but (1) the supposed 
comipiion of this familiar form, pto- 
teclcd by metre, lo i/HWerpi^, is 
incredible; (1) rpoatSpi^ti Sbpjni is not 
grammatical Greek nor indeed a signifi. 
cant expression at all ; and (j) the stolen 
whelp was not 'reared by' the god. — 
The verb Ttparrpiiliiii, though possible, is 
not apporenlly exlanl, which is not sur- 
prising, as it would not, except in a very 
pcculiai context, be required or ad- 

J38. irapauTa even sol This inter- 
pretation is more suitable to Ihe context 
than atfint, i-ojwxPW"' (HesychJUs), and 
may be deduced as well from the etymo- 
logicat origin wiip aura. On the other 
hand the temporal sense is actually found 
in Eur. fr. 1064, irapai/ra i' ftirfldi uffrfpe* 
OTCT« )4^7B (Wecklein). — aBrtv: the 
real subject is Helen, the aspects or 
ctfects of whose presence are personiheil. 

the imagitialion ax fresunipliBn of a wind- 
less calm., i.e. ' what was presumed a 
secure enjoyment'. That this is the 
meaning of this expression (rather than 
thai the spirit of Helen was like a wind- 
less calm) is shown by the otherwise 



aydkfia ttXoi/tov, 
fuiXBaKov ofindrctiv jSe'Xof, 
hti^tOvfiov eptDTOV iivOof. 
trapaKXivatr' eireicpavev 
ik ydfiov TTiKpov TeXevTn?, 
Si/ireBpos ical SviT6ft.i\o<i 
cvfiiva npiatiiSataiir 

vv/jr^KXavTot 'EptciJ?. 

TraXat'^aTo; S" ep jSpoTot? yepap \6yoi 


eitraordinary position of /Ui; which is 
only cicusabte if •ppirTj/ta contains Ihe 
point of the anlitheiiis between this 
peiiod and Ihe next. In fact ^pirriiia. is 
to lie understood a. qualifying the whole 
description in w. 739 — 741. f"or the 
sense of ^fAriuio., '/frJKi/ thought ", 'pre- 
sUBipluau! imagination ', see L. and Sc. 



■■ 751 

w that there is an error here. cCkcm-- 
KaCov t' Hermann; which tnny be right, 
though the conjunction is out of place- 
Nothing can be determined without more 
certainty as to the meaning and use of 
(UcwinucH (1 unique word), and as to the 
metaphor intended in ftyoX^a. The HS. 
points rather to itaatalnn'. — Anamia' 
iie(ixii«i fd^iuui, ppaSiuis Ilesj^hius. — 
The accumulation here of terms in appo- 
sition admits in English only a paraphrase. 
'a purchased pride, whose gentle eye 
shot that soft bolt, which pricks from the 
heart the flower of love ' or the like. 

743. iropcuiUvaa' MHpavtc St. The 
conjunction is so placed in order that 
irttpartr, marking what happened in 
the result, may receive the antithetic 
emphasis as well as mimkUvaaa : s9e v. 
jji. — She made luch end la the marriage 
that it cost them dear, ritpii is sug- 
gested by ( as a correction, but micpov 
as a proleptic epithet expresses the same 
tfaiog in a less commoqilace way. For 

the conventional sense of rupit see E 
Af/d. 398 wttpois i' iy<i o*i» tal Xtrypoh 
^irui yi/H/iii, Batik. 357, Stiff. Sji etc 

74;. Euo^SpM Kal GiMrl|uXoi an ill 
lOmfanioH in the ruined henu. a poetic 
exaggeration of language such at might 
apply to an ill-assoKed union 1 the con- 
ception of Helen as a bride wedded to 
Troy is pursued throughout. 

747. ire|iir4. still a bridal term, Ihe 
pom fa at religious procession which 
brought the wife 10 her new home. 

74S. wii^/icXavTot 'Epivit a fiend 
to Ttied and Is rue. The language and 
conception of the previous lines is still 
pursued. vvft^KXaurat: literally 'be- 
wept as a wife', i.e. one whose brida] 
costs tears of repentance. Note that 
filing is not restricted to a bride at the 
time of marriage but means a wedded 

etoiaan generally. See L. and Sc. i.v 

rviK/iiii'havTK is sometimes, perhaps gen- 
erally, rendered 'bewailed by brides', i.e. 
causing the Trojan women to weep. But 
the word must be read in the light of all 
thnl leads up to it. — ' Eine Tbranenbtmat ' 
Week lei n, rightly. 

749. "Aeschylus is rejecting the old 
Greek superstition that Prosperity or 
Wealth brings woe; it is not wealth he 
says, but always Sin" (SidgwtckJ. Bui 
this later doctrine had also been em- 
bodied in a proverb older than Aeschylus. 
See on v. 760. 


rerVKTai, (ieyav TeKfaBevra 0a>TO? oXffoii 

TeKvovirBai firiB' dtraiSa dirptrxetv, 

ex B' ar^aBat Tv-)(a<i yivei 

ffXatrrdveiv aKopetrrov oi^vv. 

Bl'j^a S' aXXcov fiov6<ppcoii ei- 

fii' TO yap Svaa£0e<i Spyov 

fiera /iev irXeiova rUrei, 

tr^xrepa 8' (iKora yiwa. 

oiK<DV yap eCduBiKtei/ 

tcaWhrati troT/iot aid. 

^t\el t^ TtKTeiv v^pii p.iv naXaia vea- 

^ovaav ev leaKOK ^por&v 

v^piv TOT ij t60 , ore to KVpiov f*6\fj 

'futapa <fiaow KoTov, Bai/iaiid re t6v d/uij^o 

trrp. £'. 760 


750. piyov rAtirWvTo TvAm it miHei 

to Hj /u/i grewfA, adultuni. See v, 370. 

7J). Y^vti 6y HhJ, accoiding lo 

7JJ. ol^dv. There is no example of 
ihii word in Iri^edy requiring the 
Homeric pronuncialiun 6'^iv. It is ad- 
missihle here nnd in mosl of Ihc exam- 
ples, bul slftlt is novr given in all texts, 

754. |>ovi^pM> alimt in my way af 

7Si. t4 -fi^ far in realiiy, literally 
■ for AS to that'. So t4 li but in reality 
frequently, even in prose, eg. Plalo 
Apologia 13 A oCo'TCU ^dp lU ol irapdvm 
Taffr airtar tfeai ao'plu' a If aXXoii 
iiiK4yfy>- ri it JCifSunnle. ri^l «>n i Btit 
ca^i ilrai. — rj Swacffit yip Pauw, on 
netncal grounds, but see Appendix 11. 

7j6. |UTct afterward!. 

759. KoXXtwaii irJTfkot combines in 
one phiaae Ihe ideas that the prospciity 
of the house is reproduced in successive 
generations, and that this prosperity i» 
itself the child of righteousness, as misery 
is of sin. 

760. ^JMl M tCntav Sppit.CPpiv. 
Simitar language with slight variations 
oceun in an ancient oracle cited by 
Herodotus (a 77), in Pindai (0/, 13. 9). 

a.nd elsewhere in Aeschylus [^Eum. 536); 
it was evidently consecrated by religious 
tradition. For some remarks upon Ihc 
origin of it see Siven againil Tkeba, Ap- 
pendix II. p. 141. 

761 , T*V 4 t6t» at this time cr that, 
i.e. sooner or later. — iTt,,.)idXT]; archaic 
and poetical construction, for which ihe 
MS. has substituted the regular Brar, 
added originally as an explanatory note 


763 — 766; injured and not lo be re- 
stored with any certainly. The general 
sense is that fi^j»i (the parent) gives 
birth to O^pii (the child) and also to 
Bpiant. an offspring like their progeni- 
tors.— In II. 763 somelhing extraneous 
has been incorporated with Ihe text: I 
should be satisfied with Sre rh xipio¥ pi\^ 
rtapi. ^ioiri, vihen Ihe young out (the 
young n^/Kt) comes to the apfeinttd htur 
af light (rh tipimi ^oirf), i.t. of birth, and 
for iakiiorL tt rif, condemned by metre 
and Aeschylean usage, perhaps Saliva 
t' frar (h-Sn Wecklein) and a hindred 
spirit. In w. 7G4 — 766 either the plural 
tlitiUtM, or else the dual throughout 
IJii\aU'a...S,ra...fiiiiiUra, seems correct, 
the second belter (Donaldson), as ac- 
counting easily for Ihe errors, having 


avUpov Gpdaov iieKai- 

va? fLeXddpoiffiv aro?, 

elZo/ievav Toxevaiv.'^ 

SiKa Si XafiTTCL fih/ iv hvaicdirvoit BdfLatriv, 

Tov S" evaiaifiov rUi. 

TO ^(pviTo'Tratrra B' eSeffXa avv trivtp j(epwv 

ira\ti'jp6Troi.<i ofifiavt \firowr' Saut wpotriffaTO, 

Bvvafiiv ov aefiovaa ttKov- 

Tov Trapd<n}fiMv atvai' 

irdv S eVt Tepfia voi/io. 

ar/e 87, ^aai\£v, Tpoi 
'Arpew! fiveB\ov, 

II pUtt. 769. iv 

been mislakeii Sm the naminativE sin- 
gulai and variously corrected to tbe bcc. 
plura.1 and the ace. singular. For a great 
number of suggestions see Wecklcin'i 
Append i». 

768. riv Jva(a%|iav lie virtuous 
nan.—piop (omitted by Ahretis) is a 
mistaken explanation. Aeschylus would 
write eyalffiMo'' P'of not rbv imlatiuir 

761). (StSXu aithhs. Auralus. The 

;■ iroXtTTopS' , 

vr. S. 


770. wporifia roB. 

3 the 

of ri 

peated letltfrs in 5tSiS\ai hence c0Xa, 
corrected to the common ^irSXd. 

770. So-ui irpao-jparo, EUpply f JclfXa : 
sAe guts to the IsQly (gnomie aorist). — I 
sec no reason to doulit that it is this 
aotist TTpoaipaTO which np])enrs, very 
slightly concealed, in the Ms., pait being 
read as the common form rpovifia, and 
the termination corrected into the ap- 
pearance of a possessive genitive. For 
analogous forms compare C^v— ^{ttl^iqv, 
t^6Tlt—<pBilie'ot, trTJir-iTTitLiiv, (uTor — 
leniTo, etc. Some of these aorists 

{^ituras occurs twice); so are other 
analogous forms from the stem j3a- itself 
ii.ff. iWrtSoaa. for br,pipn'<" H. „. 
469); and it is probably the merest 
■ccideiit ihu the hdbU fnctton of 

archaic Greek literature n 
does not, if it does not, exhibit any 
example but this of the analogous middle 
form ipiiifif, which must, it would seem, 
have been at the command of any mrcha- 
istic writer who chose lo employ it. The 
corrections proposed here, rpoiriiioKi 
Hermann, wpaaiamo AhrcDS, etc., do not 
account for the MS. reading. If we sup- 
pose an explanatory gloss, the author of 
a gloss would have used the common 
vocabulary (r-i'. rpoiniKBi) not a poetic 
form like rpoeffia. The presumption in 
favour of the existence of the 'middle' 
aorisl may be measured by consjdering 
that perhaps very few scholars indeed 
would venture to say, without consulting 
books, whether it is extant or not. 

771. irap<io->DMn> aXvif mii-ilamped 
Tuilh praiic, like a forged coin bearing an 
untrue mark of value. 

774—800. Agamemnoa enters in a 
chariot, followed by Cassandra, also in a 
chariot, attended by his soldiers, and 
surrounded by an applauding crowd. 
The eiders arc only loo well aware that 
this apparently unanimous enthusiasm is 
with many only alTeclcd, and Iheit liist 
thought is to suggest suspicion and 
apprise the king that he is being deceived. 
See the lotToductioD. 


•Traif; (re TrpotretVoj ; -ttcS? ere tre^l^to 

/iij^' inrepiipas ^i^d' v-rroicdiiip-a'i 

xatpov ■x^apno';; 

iroKKol he 0poTmv to Sok^Iv elvai 

vpoTiovffi SIktjv TrapojSdCTe?, 

TO) SuCTTTpflYoui^t S' errtaTivayeiv 

ovSei' e'^' T^Trap wpofftKvelrat' 
xal ^uy^^aipovo'tv 6fioto-7rp€Tret^ 
dyeXao'Ta irpoaiorrra ffia^oftevot, 

776. (rf;8(f». 
rtpflai: ai^w f. Doric 
here highly imiirobable. 



the very facl Ihat such on unfamilin 
fonn was re^nrdcd as likely and not at 
once corrected is some evidence Ihal 
Aeschylus did sometimes employ it. See 
on z,. 686. 

777. iwtpApa.t ' ovei-nimin^; ', 1. meta- 
phor from the raisn/ bow, iiraK(l|i<Cat 
' luming short of, from ihe dmriol race. 

780. ■wpvrttnKTi rou iTrai, supplied 
from tA SokiIv ttvai lie appearand ef 
rtalily.—Tbc raWtl who like to l>e 
deceived me contrasted with [he iyoflii 
i/»3aT07ni;.uf. Thai Ibis is the mean- 
ing (and not that many prefer /o deceivt) 
is shown, I think, by the word Tporlaiwi. 
It could scarcely be said thai hypocrites 
■give more honour lo' the unreal. The 
elders, who are expecting recognition as 
Ihe 'faithful found', are vexed by the 
flatlering demonstration goiDg on around 
Ihem ; but they rely, they say, on the 
fairness (91ni) and judgment of the king 
to acknowledge his true friends and detect 
imposture. See on v. 785. 

781. Silfiw 81 kt\. when lit diiflay 
ef griif rtaehes not at all to the htart. 
%A-f\fa. XWifl, i.c. 'ihe grief displayed', 
ihe Greek and English idioms coinciding. 
For ttifiviii in Ihe sense of eilmtation 
see L. and Sc, s.v., and for siiit as an 
emphatic negative, it. s.n. otSth. — i^fn 
Slobaeua a ' 
Coil. Farn 

was to give oiih its common adjectival 
Eense, 'no sling of grief, the less com- 
mon adverbial use being ignored. But 
■)^>u is much too strong a word for the 
place and consequently spoils the sense. 
The point is not that the grief does not 
■wound., but that there is no grief al oll.~ 
The citations of Stobaeus arc full of gross 
inaccuracies and must not be weighed 
against a valid reading in the MS. of the 
author. Indeed for obvious reasons a 
quotation is al best a poor authority on 
details. Slobaeus onlf proves at most 
that the reading Jtv^x is ancient. 

7S4. kbI EvYX<^'pov<n* (t^ -xoXporri) 
d|Miioirptirtit and they copy Ihe looks ef 
Kim thai laughs. xa^P"" (^^ °" ^- 7'j) 
refers originally and properly lo the look, 
not to the feeling, of happiness.— ll is 
debated (sec Hermann) whether ivyxai- 
fMwru' is verb or dative participle depend- 
ing on itioiorfifrrU 'seeming like sympa- 
thizers'. If it b Ihe participle, the verb 
must have been contained in the line 
which may be lost after v. 785 (see next 
note). The objection to this is that the 
preceding clause (t^ Svirrpayaum rrX.) 
raises a strong expcctalion of an anti- 
thetic nal TV x'^/"*'''' iirn^P'""'' °' 
the like, so Ihal as soon as ual i«yxai- 
pawa is heard it would naturally be 
understood as a verb. 

78s! putliig force upon facts wktn no 

The motive of the change 

lircak i 

— PtatdpiVM. I fimt. Not 


, contrary to anapaestic 

SffTte 5' offoBoi Trpo^aroyvwfimv, 
ovK ea-Ti \adtiv SfifiaTa tparoi, 
ra Soicovit' ev^povo'i eic Biewolai, 
vSapei aaiveiv <fn.\6Tf}Ti, 
irit Se fi.01 Tore p-lv areWmv OTpaTiap 
'EXepJ}-; Sv€K {ov ytip efr'f k^v<tw) 
KapT ditop.ovff<ov tjaOa yeypafiftevoi 
ovB' tS irpaTTiSav otaxa vifiwv, 

J91. in 

rule. If il b not a.a oversight, which 
after all is possible, we must suppose 
cither (with Hermann) that something is 
lost, or thnt some interval (perhaps a 
change of voices) protected the hiatus. 
There is Bt any rate a strong break in 
the sense; S^rit Si rrX. is anlitheticol 
not to wliat immediately precedes, but to 
tni. 779—780; see note there. I thinit 
it more than possible that the hiatus was 
made deliberately in order lo a:iark this. 
Such devices were perfectly well known 
to the Greek poets, lirom whom they 
were copied by the Romans, t.g. by 
Horace, in whose Oda they ore of the 
highest importance. 

;S6. ■Tfo^TVff&YMy. one who, like 
a good herdsman, 'knows the poiots', as 
it were, of men. What is the particukr 
deceptive symptom in the animal, which 
suggests here the l/tapit Siiita, I am not 
enough rpopaToyiiiiur lo say, 

787. oAk Urn XaSdv it canHot es- 
fapt {Aim). The abject of XaStti- is 
TuSroi', supplied (rom ihe relative clause.^ 
JmittTa j>i*r6«! the iunian ejes {^Kitnt 
antithetic to Tpopara-) of hypocrites who 
pretend to weep tears of sympathelic joy 
or sorrow.— ff^4>aTa...^iXiTT|Ti. This 
whole substantival clause is the subject of 
'KaStir; ' the man of judgment will delect 
that those eyes, which pretend (to glisten) 
with kind feeling, are flattering him with 
■ love that is but water', when such is 
really the ease. The word o-a/ror, in re. 
Ifttion lo the etpresRion of the eye, signi- 
^^f^tua^y the look of kiadnai (Soph. 

O. C, 319), though it easily takes I 
sense of Hallery. Here il is to be sup. 
plied with -ri JoioLVTa from the main 
verb of the sentence. — If crsivci (Casaubon) 
be read, ri becomes relative and nomina- 
tive, the subject of •ralKi, the inlinitive 
being suppUed with inKoSirra. as before. 
But this does not seem lo be an improve- 
ment : the words otis fmi Xodciv tuiUKm. 
ptn^. if taken as a complete sentence, 
ought lo mean 'he will not fail lo observe 
the eyes', which is not exactly the point. 

790. T&n ii/ori, ij. during the con- 
tinuance of the »-ar, rr/XXiin, like atO>o\, 
covering the whole enterprise. 

791. oi iidp (nj Ktjro far I wHI 
sfiiai out {w&al 2 am Ikiahing), literally 
■will not suppress speech", cf. Eur. 
Suppl. 195 — 96 AI. £XX' At Scnw fuu /uMm 

X/jiJo-T-' Ciri| tplnrrtiv ^fton. where the 
phrase fciSttv tm) has exactly the same 
sense. The singular {ti60ttr twot) is com- 
mon in Homer, see L. and Sc. i.w, irriSai, 
iwire66a.—T\iK seems the simplest cor- 
rection. 06, iiriKt6n, (Hermann) does 
not account for the MS. tiyipt ttwtitu 
Musgmve ; but (bough KtitHt rl rira was 
correct, we cannot infer the same of t»i- 
KiiBfir t[ rira, which apparently is not 
certified by any one more truslworthy 
than Apollonius RhoJius. 

79* : /Ami kadil ng fl/aang fig^ri to 
my ffei, 'wast in my view pictured un- 

79j: i.e. as not showing a full com- 
nuuid of yottr jodgmeni. 

Bipam eKovfftov 

atiSpnffi OvjiiTKOviTt KOfii^toV 

vvv 8' ovK dir aKpa<s ^pevot ov^ d<fii\ai<;. 

7g4. Spiirot. 

794—95. avSpiItn tv^o-KOWi KO|i(t«tv : 

'in spending the lives of men lo recover 
(Helen)', For «i>/Jfe<» in Ihis same eon- 
neiion see Eur, /fiA. A. 770 xaidiaera 
' Apttf 'EMtar in npuWu Koiilaai ei\un 
fr ifSf 'EXXiSo, id. Or, 16(4 (Mcnelaus 
speaks) J TXfifto* 'E\(rTi.,.vl •ripdyioi' 
iKOliia' ix ^puywr, and for numerous ex- 
imples L. and Sc. i, I'.—ivZpiiri Briv- 
KOnri: instrumental datlvei as with 
words signifying purchase, literallr 'with 
dying men'. The complaint here is 
■he lame as in v. 455 foil., to which nil 
this passage directly refers.- 
iMttio^ov (flo/woj CmI. Fam., doubtless by 
conjecture bgt accidentally rightl- This 
phrase, though peculiar, should not be 
hastily condemned. What the context 
requires is some description of Helen 
such as lo mark the folly of spending 
lives to win her back (Weil, cf, v. 61). 
Now ImJinav cmsenting is eiadly lo the 
point and may be precisely illustrated 
by Eur. El. 1065 ii pk»-^ (Helen) d/i- 
rattStui ^KoCo" drijixfto, and id. Tro. 370, 
which paraphrases and expands ^xim^io* 
here, 4 !i orpanryii (Agamemnon) h 
tro^l ix^iirriar ivip \ ri 0IXrar' iSKia, 
ilinrit Tit (-Tia^o | riii/ur AStXipif Joh 
yvrauiit aCrtta, | KalraBf i,o6tiDi «•>& 
pl9\i\ll<intri)i: a woman who surren- 
dered herself to the seducer was not 
worth recovery at all, much less at such a 
cost. Nor is M(wos diiTicult in Itself. 
Like tuifo! and on>|nM,so Bapaoior Bpiaoi 
a used in a personal sense (cf. Eur. 
jindr. ]6i u ffdppapor ai Bpiiiiia. «aJ 
tit\Tipir 8paaat), and it is of course 
common as a synonym of imiina. The 
form Bpigoi is more Ireqneot in this sense 
(in fact seldom or never has any other, 
which accounts for the reading of f here, 
migiiially added as in explanation), but 

dif^otis used so also. There is no reason 
therefore why eipao! here should not mean 
a iiranhH, that is Helen herself. The 
question then is whether Bipaai in Ihis par- 
ticular sense was suRiciently established 
in popular use to make Sipaot jxcitrrior 
sufficiently intelligible with this con- 

The text is some evidence for the affir- 
mative, and the parallel passages from 
Euripides above cited suggest that such 
language, applied to the case oF Helen, 
was a traditioiuil commonplace. ^The 
Bpa^M in Awiuw . . . (OflltMr 
(Franz) 'restoring confidence to the sol- 
dicis by the sacrifice {of Iphigenia) ' 
attributes lo 10^^ an impossible mean- 
ing, nor would it be natural that at this 
moment the elders should touch on this 
fai-ofT story. What they have in their 
mJnds is the recent (and in truth still 
unappeased) indignation of the people 
fox the loss of life to the war. 

796. vvv S'...j^Mt. Bui now cur 
judgnunt of Ihtt is tut (Mm) ruprrfi^ial 
and unkind. The verb is ■yryc'Wf ™» <I 
' thou art represented', or something to 
the same effect, supplied according (o 
rule from the antithetic clause rlne...^ia. 
■fClpaiitihK. ' Now that the suffering ix 

hasty judgment and make fair allow- 
ance'. — it' inpot ^pivJ* literally 'with 
the surface (only) of the mind '. Cf. Ear. 
/fe(. I4I 06 yip d<pat lopiUai f^urf ;u>v 
'it made a more than superficial (deep) 
impies.sion on me'. (In Eur. M/<f. ijs 
xal iii} rpii Sfpor iiut\ir ^vx^. the word 
Srfior must, if the text were correct, bear 
the exactly opposite sense of inmost, but 
I think the correction given by Wecklein 
in his note here, Tpit Sjipor xol »i)i /»i(\ov 
^>^<> is preferable. Even in Eur. Batch. 


€v<^prov TTOvot ev TeXiaaiTtv. 
yvtoaei Se •jfpovm SiaTr€v06fi€voq 
Tov Tc Sifcaim; koL top dttalpriri 
iroXiv oiieovpavvra voXitwv. 


TrpwTOf fifv 'Apyo^ xal 6foi>^ iy\a>plow 
SiKij Trpoaenrelv, Tav<; e/tot ^eraiTiovi 
POOTOU SiKaiaP ff riii eTrpa^ap,T}v ttoKiv 
Tlpta/ioV Siicav yap ovk tlira ykriaaTft Be 
k\vovT€<! dvSpoBviJTai, 'IXww ifidopd'!. 




^ptrwt, the same sense is probably to 
be taken, 'nol for any subtleties which 
superRcial minds may have invented'.) 
The term ir' Stpai ijiperii is taken Or 
imitated, like irofiedtut, from the vo- 
cabulary of criticism. 

J97. vi^av...rMiTarxv men tAini 
iaffify of Ihrir sufferings, what Ihiy 
havt ram aiicta, IJteiaDy 'a toil is hapjiy 
in the view of those who have well ac- 
complished it'. Probably a proverb: 
for the favourite play on *J see on v. 
557.— This is commonly joined as one 
sentence to v. 796, but it is almost 
univeraally admitted (see Wecklein's 
Appendix) thai so taken ll gives no 
satisfactory sense. A belter punctuation 
removes the ilifKcully. 

801— 8+5. Agflmemnon's speech has 
two divisions: (1) 801 — Sio Salutation to 
(he gods and thanks (not very becomingly 
expressed) for his victory, (3) his answer 
to the hints of the ciders 1 he is on his 
guard and intends to treat all according 
lo their deserts. In the firel part, not- 
withstanding the proud tone, there is a 
hint of encalpalion in reference lo the 
desttuclion of Troy ; he insists upon the 
share of the gods in the work and the 
profits of vengeance. In the second 
part his seliish and imperious nature is 
felnlly enhibiled, when, with every mo- 
ll be complaisant, he takes occasion 

to make a bitlei attack upon those to 
whom he owes his triumph. The whole 
harangue is haughty and repulsive. 

801. That Argos and ifae gods should 
be first addressed is required both by 
CMSlem (for which sense of Sfnr see L. 
and Sc. s.v.) and io this case hy putia. 
— ToAt l|uil (Lfrairfovt whe witk me 
havt contributed la etc., a strange form 
for the expression of religious gialilude. 

803. iriXtv : note the emphasis on 
this word. The drift of this passage is 
to put upon the gods the destruction of 

804. Gdcut ovK il'vi YX(i<m|t <>»r 
eaase argufd Hal iinlh Ike tongue, but 
with the sword. Cf. ilicttv tl-wav la fiead 

S05. (tvSpohi^Tai (ifirai) a morttd 
argiivieni, i. e. one in which was demmded 
the penalty of death. — tt^i/Joififtrot Blom- 
field, but there is nothing against ihc 
text. — 'IXtov <^Bof>d« importing tie de- 
strHclien of Trsy, literally 'a destruction 
to Troy', in apposition to M«ai, as iffx^ 
lo iniittt in V. iijg, and with the same 
adjectival foree. The phrase translates 
the metaphor of ixifi^inpia into the 
literal fact- — ^io^% (Dobree) would give 
the same sense, a luU ef (i.e. for) de- 
ilruetion. — The construction 0flop4i ^+ 
^out-Wo-To (^^ij^fffliT^), 'they voted 
the destruction' (Paley), is forbidden by 
the words It ot^uinifiir t<vx»i : nor if we 


eV aifiaTtjpov Tevxoi ov Bix^Ppo'Tfov 
y^<j>ow edevTo' rp S* ivamiip iciirei 
e\.vi<; Trpotrijet X^'-P°^ <"' TrA.ijpou/wfp. 
KaTTvqi 5' aXoOffa vvv er eyo-jj/ios TroXts. 
ttTij? OveWai ^waf avvOvfia Kovaa he 
ffTToSde trpoTTefiirei iriofa^ ■ttXovtov viiodi;, 
TovTtav BeouTi yprj voXiifLtn^aTov -xaptv 
Ttveiv, (TTfliTfp «ai Taya^ vivepieoTouv 

leaA ^Bpas can we naturally refer to 
•/ri^M the words inSpoBn^rTat 'IXIau ^00- 
par. The nccusative ^^m comes too 
and loo far off to govern ^SopSt, 
and ibc words {i aliiantpir rtOxot would 
be then oseless and cumbrous. 

06. dfaTHpiv Tfvxoi M< bliady vei- 

i.t. that which was to receive voles 
for the penalty of death. 

yj. 'Bitt Ib thi afpositt urn heft of 
the hand came nigh, yrt it was natjilltd, 
n quaim and fanciful but quite character- 
istic way of saying thai the other urn 
eipecled votes but did not get them' 
(Sidgwick). 4Xirlf with emphasis, hope 
CHly, and no actual hrnid with a vole.— 
'Ekirls wpordK X'^P'*! 'iiop« waved 
her hand before it ' as if to put votes 
there (MarEoliouth). is so close to the 
that it must almost be called an 
alternative reading of it, and the choice 
a qnestion of taste. It must be ob- 
served, however, thai rptvrilnv x''P^ 

,ns 'to shait the hand at, make 
vehement signs lo", and rpoaiitif gene- 
rally to tofliw something before an animal 

in allurement (see L. and 5c. i-:'.): 
neither of which associations are perti- 
it here. I agree with Mr Sidgwick 
that Ihe common text is satisfactory. — - 
The 'hope' refers lo the long postpone- 
ment of the capture by ihe dissensions of 
Olympus.^Dr Wecklein, who takes Tpo- 
atUt x*''""' Inily remarks that the plural 
It be referred lo the repetition of the 
lure of Hope each time that a vole is 

V. /E. A. 

8og. A bitter jest ; the city may 
bossl itself 'conspicuous' still. Kcurv^ 
with (i1in)uoi. 

810. Life in the ruin fonts, tvkile 
from the txpiring ash ii hrtatkei a rnk ef 
riihness. i.Tt^ litXXaL \^\, literally 
'in the ruin are living blasts'; for irtji 
see V. 731. 0i)e\Xa, usually 'blast' of a 
slormi is used here as a sort of gigantic 
term for a 'gasp', the glowing heap 
being compared to a dying animal.— 
nni6v|5<''i«>v>^ oiroSoi. When the ash 
is cold, ihc gasps of life will cease; with 
them therefore the ash is dying. — irtowai 
irXoirTOV irvodi. The chief symbol of 
Eastern wealth lo a Greek mind was the 
cosily perfume imporlc<l from Asia for 
purposes of religion and luxury : this idea 
has coloured Ihe picture here.— Hence 
the suggestion flvijXoi censers (Hermann), 
but by this what is gained 10 the figure 
in consistency is lost in picturesque force, 

8ii. Far all this there must be paid 
la Ihe gods a mfmarable re/um, rvcn as 
tit fie is gnat, which eur wralh hath 
laien. rafdi (M. Schmidt, see Weck- 
lein) is, in my judgment, a certain cor- 
rection. The form of Ihe sentence, 'we 
should pay largely, since a great (...) o/jo 
we have exacted', demands some word 
signiiying 'payment exacted'. Now 
ray-li (extant in other senses) is simply 
the archaic synonym of nifi!, regularly 
used for an ■ assessment ', or ■ payment 
imposed', as by a victor upon the cnn- 
quereil. from Tiaaca 'to prescribe'. The 
abstract nouns Jn -va, aniwering to Ihe 


ewpa^n/KtT0a, ical yvvaiKo'; oijvena 
iToXiP Stt}fJ.a0VVev 'Apyewv BaKoi, 
iifrrou i^otTffOT, airwiBrjfTTpii^ov Xeoi?, 
TTTj^jjAt' opovaa<; nfi,if>i Tl\eiaBtai> Svaai 

aorisl in -no, steadily encrooched in com- 
mon iisc upon the abstracts in -ij, conc- 
sponding to the strong aorist ; bul there ts 
abundant evidence thai in the older lan- 
guage Xo^, \ixyi, etc. were used with the 
same freedom as in the later X5^h, X^£ii 
etc. They were simply the abstract nouns 
answering to (be verbs and admitted the 
same range of meanitig. — iriiYai..,^ir(ia- 
|rV(fffla is not liltely to be defended; 
triyat ...e<ppa(au'i'Sa (Hermann) jw 
ftttttd a mnre has meaning in itself but 
no correlntion with the context — intpuh- 
Tovi Heath. The words are in the MSS. 
almost inlerchangenlilc, but with ra-rdi 
frripKiTovt excealing wrathful may well 

S15. 'ApYftov SdKot: the ' foal of the 
horse' would not usually be described ns 
BaKot, but the expression comes down 
(with much of the language of this paS' 
sage) from ancient tradition, when the 
Argivt hurst inspired the strange and 
superstitious terror depicted in the Seven 
agaitisl Thfits (see the Introduction to 
that play, S t)- The legend of the marcs 
of Augeas, which were fed on human Besh, 
is a similar testimony to the formidable 
renown of the horse of Thessaly. 

St 6. Ivrou vtoairit may perhaps 
allude distantly to the stratagem of the 
woo<len horse and the soldiers who 
came out of its belly; but this would 
not account (particularly as the wooden 
horse had little to do with the ' level- 
ling ' of Troy and no connexion with 
this play) for the description of the 
Ar^ve people generally as 'the foal of 
the horse'. It is possible, 1 Ihinlc pro- 
bable, that both the iBnr here and the 
lion of V. SiS are emblematic animals, 
connected with Argolis and its people by 
same heraldic (or totemistrc?) tradition. 
The horse was certainly on animal 

typical of Argos, and accordii^ to Uw 
Ar^ve legends was created there by 
Poseidon. The lion on the otlier hand 
would belong rather (as witness the gate) 
to Mycenae, the Homeric town of Aga- 
memnon. Aeschylus has perhaps com- 
bined in poet's fashion two types !»■ 
longing to different layers of l^end. Id 
Eur. Su^. ruj the sons of TAi Srntn, 
who under the name of the E/^geni 
avenged their falhera upon Thebes are 
called fKTtSpaiiniriH anCiirot Xtimjr, but 
it does not appear whether this descrip- 
lion is applied to them specially a 
Argiees. See Paley's note. 

ih. i.irrr<&Tfrtf6^oi Xttit. On the 
large metal shield as the ancient charac- 
teristic of Argos and the Argives see 
Thcb. 8g and the Inlroiluction lo (bat 
play p. xiii. The title points to a lime 
when in metal work, especially armour, 
the Achaeans of the Argolid were much 
in advance of their neighbours. — For 
-<rTpo*OT (»kW«-j of the shield) Weck- 
lein refers to Soph. Ai. f 7<; 9iJi wdKvppi- 
^ir trrpf^Ai' v6piraK0t iirr&fioior ap^crov 

81;. df^\ nXddSwv Gvo^v I.e. in late 
autumn, early in November. "The time 
(Klausen obscr^'cs) is mentioned which 
would best account for the storm before 
described, since between the setting and 
the rising of the Pleiads it was not the 
sailing season; see Thcocr. tj. 15. and 
Heaiod. Ofif,6\j. Demosthenes (p. rii4) 
speaks of the tempests which asually 
followed the former event". Paley. See 
the Introduction. — On the recent inter- 
pretation 'at midnight' see Appendbt P. 
— The context suggests that the season 
was in some way connected either with 
the horse or with the Argives, but the 
legendary foundation does not seem lo be 
now traceable. 


inrepSopwp Se •Kvprfov tu/iJiaTr]^ Xewv 
a&tjv eXet^ev aifiajo^ rvpavviKov. 
Seoit fiiv i^eretva tftpoiftiap roSe" 
ra S' e? to trov tfipofTj/im, fj^jiittnai kXhoh'' 
Koi f^pi ravTo koL trvv^fopov p,' ^j^et?. 
TravpOK yap avZpav itrrt avyyeve^ t6S€. 
i^CKov TOti cvtv^ovvt" di'tv <f>66vti>v cri^fiv' 
iva^ptov yAp 10! teapSlap •rrpo<T'jfievoi 
dxSo^ ZfK\oli^ei T(3 irewapev^ v6<tov, 
Tt»(! t' ovtos atrrov irrjfiafftj/ ^apvverai 
KOL Toy Bvpalov 6X0 ov elffopiSv areiiei. 
flStoi Xeyoifi dv ev yap e^frriffTafiai 
6p.iXiav tcaToirrpov, eiSwXov ffxio^. 


flji. raSra. 
I TvpawutoS : in ci- 
pression signiBcanl In !H>mc of his 

Sia. etott ftv 4f4niva: 'So f]tr my 
firsi word to Ihc ga/i, which I have 
not scanled'. In iiinwa [f have tnadr 
lon^ there is the thought Ihal on such 
an occoiion n brief salutitioo would be 
inadequate. See ilie same conception 
turned saliricaily in v. gaj. 

Sii. ■nl...^pivi|)ia iut as ti> Iht mal- 
Ifr ef your ram f citings (aee ini. 776 — 
800).— (JliWIliai KXini" / remember 
mhat I have hiard. lie cefers plainly |o 
intimations of the disafTectiDn at home 
which had reached him before his return 
and on his first arrival at the coast. 
That he should have heard something 
would naturally be supposed, and is in 
fi»et required to account for his bearing. 
This allusion gives the key. (U is un- 
ilBtar^ and unnecessary to suppose him 
to mean that he remembcm what was 
said a few minutes ago.) 

811. OTiyiJ^op*' p' Ix** y" '""^ '" 
me a tupporter of yeur aectaalian, a irw^- 
Tspw in the proper Attic sense of the 
lenr (see L. and Sc. i.ii.). These words 
must not be weakened into a mere re- 
el of 01]^ TQi^ri^ by taking 

816- ▼n-a/ifiA'ii'. 

petit ioi 

Top™ for 'agreeing with'. 

What the 

elders have spoken is an accusation, not 
the less menacing because general, against 
their fellow townsmen (sec particulatly 
iheir kst words w. 798—800)- The 
king declares himself on their side, deter- 
mined to investigate and to punish (c- 
839), and his threats do not fall to the 

834. +Oiw: a predicale, as the em- 
phasis shows: (Iftof al^foi lo admire 
kindly. — ^lt6vttvtnviBiis/riliiigi,mvyins, 
inclination to envy. The plural ^moi 
makes a class'lerm 'what is like envy', 
as in Plato, PkUebus 40 e rcpl ^par 
(Ol »viiMt KoX iruTuy rSm td-cmJtui.. The 
diCTercnce from ^Bint is perceptible and 
it is highly improbable that the rare plural 
is an error. — ^Mrou h, <^aym Stubaeus. 

816. T<f vrrofUvf vimv him that 
hoi Bught amiss with him. In naov, a, 
word of very wide and vague signification 
in Greek poetry, the two ideas of distrets 
and viie here merge. — tivwa/fiinf Porson. 

830. S^fat iiJTenrrpov the mirror of 
friendship, i.e. the false friendship which 
is to the genuine as the reflexion to the 
reality, or, as he puts it with angry ex- 
aggeration, as the reflexion of a shadow 
to the shadow itself. — SmtoiivTai; the 
example (the pretended friends of Aga- 
memnon) is put in apposition to the 


BoKovvTa<t eivai, icapra Trpeu/ievets iftol. 
ftovot S' 'OZvaaeiK, oiTTrep oi^ e.Ka>v errXei, 

eir" ovv BatioiTO^ eire Kai foji'TO! Trept 
X<7(0. ra S' aXXa Trpo? TrdXiK re xal Beaw 
Koivoii^ dySiva'i Beine^ ev Traifij^vpei 
ffovkevo-ofieaBa. xal to fikv KaXwi ey^ov 
Sttqi! ^poyii^oy ev fievet QovXevreov' 
OT^ Se Kal S« ^apfidKajir •jramvuilv, 
tjToi Keavre^ ij Ttftorres evtf>p6vrD'! 
•jr£ipaiT6p.ea6a ir^ftoTos rpi^ai voaov. 
vvv S' ^s fiiXadpa koI iofiovi e^e<rT^otis 

geneial cooceplion which il illuslrates. — 
All this luigu:^, Ibough Dsiensitily di- 
rected against the absent, and in this 
aspect forcibly exhibiting the character of 
the man. is full of menace for those aliout 

8jj. BoTTtp rtX. If you would base 
good setvice from men, you must ride 
them hard. Such is the suggested moral. 
—Odysseus was entrapped by Falamcdes 
into accompanyinE the expedition. 

8j4. rir'olv.-.X^. Note the empha' 
sis given by lie rhythm to X*Tui, which 
is properly a separate clauK in itselfi 
with tlr' o^...Wp< another \iyiii is sup- 
plied; That /will say /or hi ni. living or 
dead. — Another most unhappy remark. 
It is not the moment to remind the 
people, especially without a word of 
sympathy, that after all the losses of the 
war most of the returning army have 
probably perished at sea. 

8j6. ct'fBval: iiapii, meltings. 

839. Srf N Kill Sri. 6t^ is neuter, 
what must havt remtdy, answering anti- 
Ihelically to j-i iioXiSi lx<>i/. What 'Itind 
lancet or cautery ' may be needed to 
remove the peccant humours of the body 
politic will not be spared. The grim 
ipeciousncss of r^poi'ut reminds us of 
Antony's ironical question lo the mur- 
derers of Caesar, 'Who else must be let 
blood, who else is tank ? * 

841. inJiMTOi "rptifv. v6«w le dtftal 
Iht mischief ef Ike sort, or (as Porson) 
wijn' <i«OffTpJi)Fai viovu f(i everl Ikt harm 
of the ailment, ll cannot be admitled 
that the Ms. reading here is impossible 
or even strange, virov ir^pATOt the 
ailmtHt or mischief ef the sore IS a 
simple expression. For >^rut see Soph. 
j4i. 583 To^iS* 11^*10, a tumour thai 'crave* 
the knife '. And it will be observed tbut 
the melaphvr, as the previcus lint sA&ais, 
is from surgery Hot from medicine. Tfklfai, 
lo defeat (see Tpotrf) is of course not a 
phrase which would have been used in 
prose, or even by most poets, but il is in 
the manner of Aeschylus thus to load the 
imagery with a metaphor within a meta- 
phor. Moreover there is oflen a lendcnqr 
in metaphorical language to fait back in 
the direction of the literal ; and when (be 
Iting speaks metaphorically of 'lancing 
or cauterizing' the state, what he really 
means is that with the support of his 
friends he will 'defeat' his enemies and 
theirs. It is not unnatural therefore thai 
the word defeat, though not very suitable 
to his surgical metaphor, should come 
into bis mind. The reading of Porson 
has been frequently followed, but it is not 
inserted in some recent texts {t.g. Week- 
lein 1885; Paley also expresses doubt) 
and I prefer to give it as a possible aI. 
-Wecklein in the text of iS8j 



tX^wi' 6eoiai Trpana Be^iatrofiai, 
oiirep irpoaat •jri/x't^avre^ ■^yayov iraXiv, 
pUt) S' eVe^Trefj ea-7rer, e;t7reSfD? fievoi. 
dvSpe^ Tro\iTai, trpiv^os 'Apyeiav roSe, 
ovK aitrj(vvovfiat toi)? <f>iKdvopa^ Tpo-rrovv 
Xejai Trpof i5;ia?' ec •)(p6vrfi S' airo^Bivei 
TO rdp^oi dv0p(Oiroi(Ti.v. ovie aW<ov -rrapa 
fUidoCa-' eiiavrrit Svcr<f>opoif Xe^co 0iov 
Too'ovB' ocroinrep oStov rfv vtt 'IXi'^), 
TO fi,ev ymialKa Trpwrov apaevo^ Si;^o 
^aOai Sofioi^ ep-qfiov eierrayKop leaicov, 
TroWdi xKiiovaav j/fioftis vaXiyKOTovi... 


punctualetl IliUi rtipaaifitaBa r^futrot, 
T()^V<" ''*'ii»'. but in that of 1887 gives 
Pofson's correction. 

845. SignilicDnt again. He is aware 
that fr' dc' ayiiMt, Ihal he bu still 
enemies to encounter at home.— The 
vhole of the last part of the speech would 
be on the stage extteraely efieclive. Ail 
the auditors are agreed ihal tA xaXui 
Ixar Srai xpe^Jf" <» /«"' fiouXti/rior (cf. 
v. 361) nnd on the necessity of 'su^ery' 
for the enod of the state, only there it a 
difierence of opinion as to the seose of 
these expressions. The king speaks as 
he does liecause, not having a glimpse of 
the plot against him, he nalurally believes 
himself irresistible and gives ihc rein to 
his indignation. 

846. As the king makes to enter, the 
qneen attended by her women {v. 899) 
cotnes from the palace. Her address, 
like her message by the herald, is in 
effect a self-defence, better prepared but 
not much more successful. The very 
depth of her respect (she says) prevents 
her from addressing Ibe king, so she turns 
ID the assembly and principally to the 
elders, with whom long association has 
made her familiar. 

849. o£k oXXuv wtlpa imOovo'a: ' lay 

hearsay, such as that by which I am 
perhaps accused'. 

85). dpo-ivos BCxa ^v^iu Sip«Lt lpi|- 
fwv lAat i/u should uhmt wilhoiit Ihi man 
[fill tki Ihrgtit of Iki homi (<S,. 1). 371 rlfic 
Yuvoiir' /piituBirroi Sfiaaot Bpiroo) bear- 
ing the weight of the so!e responsibility. 

85+: htariHg many persiiteni flattcrUt, 
i.e. besieged by templets. i|6ovd« dou- 
cturs, compliments, vpit ^Sociiv Xryd^fia, 
'what is spoken to please'. Herodolus 
(7. 101 KltTipa dXijflijip XP^"!'^ V ^o»^i 
Shall I ttsefrauttitss arfiatliry T) has the 
word b a sense very nearly approaching 
this, which, being both archaic and cob 
loquial, would not be likely to occur 
often in our collection, even if it was 
once common enough. Nothing is 
mure likely than thai a word which 
properly meant agrttahltHiss or some- 
thing agraable iaaaM take this meaning 
in Greek as in French. The epithet 
Ta^1>iDTDvi implies thai ihe flattery was 
unwelcome but irrepressible.— Clylaero- 
neslra just glances at the firmness of her 
virtue. Then, feeling the peril of the 
subject, she passes rapidly to another, 
and presently (&. 865) contrives to bring 
in her words agmn with a slight but 
Iransfiguraling change, as if it wtrt 
yCKrfihrat, and not realty ifiiaiix al all, 
wkkb site Ami said, precisely as in v. 866 
she twists to a new meaning the wonts 
of -.'. 86t, In both places the explana- 



leal Tw fifv PjKetv tov S iveia^epeiv kokov 
KOKtov aXKo VTifia XaaKOvra^ Sofioc^. 
Kat TpavfidTcop /*ej' tt Toaaiv eTvy)(av(v 
avffp 2S', ws TTpoi; ol'xop lO'j^ereveTO 
^T*s, TerpijTai Biktvov rrXito XeyeiV 
ei S" ijp Te6vt)ic<ov, m? hrKrjSiniov Xor^oi, 
TpurtofiaToi TOV Frjpvwp 6 Sevrepov 
TToW-^v — avaiOev, Tfjti Kara yap ov \eya — 

aj9. 4iattis(i) TH-puira.1.. 

sane. At this last fearful 
crisis she >cal!y Is ahnid of her own 
words and uoable for sotoe minutes lo 
steady hct mind.— Such I believe lo be 
the solutiun orihiscrilicaiaiflicullf. To 
write i[Xij«rai for ij3m4i (Auralus) is 
obvious but arbitrary. To condemn d. 
gj4 OS spurious is much more plausible, 
but still unsatisfactory, as there is no 
adequate motive foi the inlETpotalion. 
The occurrence in the immediate context 
of a phenomenon equally and similarly 
peculiar is a strong aigumcnl that the 
tcKt is genuine, and that we should seek 
an explanation in the special circum- 
stancea and the position of the speaker. 

85s : Tviile one center after anol/ur 
brought tt the house load tidings of vioe 
eaeh ivorie than the last, tiv ^ iiKtiy 
Tiv 6' hrwr^iv. This is again an 
example uf what has been noticed at w. 
360 and 5J5, the separation into an ex- 
plicit antithesis in Greek of what in 
English would be presented as one com- 
pound notion. Literally it is 'that one 
should be arrived and another bring in 
addition', ij. 'thai the arrivii^ of one 
(measenEer) should be followed by the 
bringing' etc. It is also idiomatic in 
such aa antithesis to leave, as here, one 
side elliptical, supplying the defect from 
the other (sec v. 784). English habit 
would expect (see Palcy) th» iiir Tp:ti9 


ioj!DP, Til" hi nita-n 

fW/nu'.— *ir(nj^p«liiai Wecklein, i.e. ' that 
each new crier of disastrous news should 
kt Itl in by bis predecessor, so quickly 

they followed' (see fU^plu). The At. 
lorical expression is extremely vivid and 
forcible, and il must be allowed that 
iwtiaipptitai would probably appear in 
our MS. as iirtur^ptu'. But is it not 
more natural that r^ iiir should be the 
first comer, t4» Si the leionJi In Dr 
Weeklein's text (he parts are of course 
changed. However 1 would leave the 
question open. 

S57. Tpav^Ldnvv ^liv: note the order; 
As for wounds, etc. 

858. ■x'TMimi: rumour 'came in by 

8.S9. tbtjn^na Ahrens {see rrlpu, rpif- 
Mb), an almost necessary conecllun. A 
net has 'holes' but not 'wounds'. — 
liMm X^v: 'more to count' i.r. innum- 
btr — "The cold-blooded phrase suits 
Klylaemneslra" and is the more horrible 
as suggesting a vision of the sequel. 

860. iuMfiuot I'orson, as the re^ar 
form. But in view of the double use, 
transitive and intransitive, of ^a/xn^ru, it 
does not seem certain that TrKrfibiai was 
nol, rightly 01 wrongly, used as the texl 

86a — 64. I le might have boasted many 
times as muny burials as a three-bodied 
Geryon, who died once in each shape. 
For ' burial ' she uses the phrase ' lo 
cloak oneself in earth', 7V iTtiaoanim, 
Thei^n. 419, Homer //. 3. 57.— (*»•- 
Saf, T^v K^ng Y<lp b' Uya) meamng 
Ikteoi'trlil merely: [say netking of the 
bed. it irdTU) x^HiVa, in relation to the 
figure of burial, would be the c 


yBovo'i rpifi^ipof j^Xtuvav f^itx^t \aQwv. 
3waf kKa,<n<(> Kordavaiv fj.optpa>fiaTi. 
TOKUfS' eKari. k\t}B6vii>v vaXeyKOTwi/ 
iroXKa-i avtc^ev oprai-ae iiiT}t Beprft 
eKuaav aWoi. irpoi ^lav \e\ififi4vi)t. 
867. \t\iiuii^rT]i. 


which the dead lay, its opposed to the 
earth laid upon him (Wecklein compares 
7'Ae6, 9J1 ijiri U a^iuxTi 701 tXoutoi 
di^i«i7iii (iiioi), I believe (see un v. 854) 
that llerminn ii right in derending this 
disputed verse, and L)r Wecklein in his 
lemarli thai 'the confused expression 
marks llie disturbuice in Clytitemeslta's 
thoughts'. In fact her tongue trips, ot 
rather the ptessule of hef secret makes 
her tear that it has tripped, and in trying 
to safe-guard herself she makes the matter 
wone. The mention of the ' net ', of tlie 
■wounds' anil 'burial', is to her so ftighl- 
full; significant that she doubts for a 
moment, without reason but very natu- 
rally, whether it will not r^se suspicion 
in others. She therefore tries to take 
back the reference to burial, inserting 
'when 1 say mantle of earth, I mean 
just manlU upon hioi ; I could not 
think of hU last bid'. Of course this is 
nonsense, but it is perhaps none the 
worse for that. In the same spirit im- 
medialcly afterwards (v. 866) she makes 
upon this tbKMji iruBrr a sort of forced 
and Cu-fetched play. In short even Cly- 


not mistress of her thoughts. 

^3- ^m^*'- XaPiiv: -he might have 
boasted a triple mantle of earth assumal'. 
Xo^i^ literally ' having taken it on him '■ 
—With Xa^f» (■suggested by Caley) the 
expression is less picturesque. 

865. •nXiYnirtJv fersisteHl, i^. cvcr- 
lecurring, never-quieted. The word also 
implies that the re|>orls were bad, but 
this is a secondary part of the meaning. 
See on K-. 576.85*- 

866. woXUt dvoSfl' ApnliVH luany 
a hanging hmh. The expluiation of this 

phrase (which has been without reason 
suspected) is that ofrriri), wluch is but 
imperfectly rendered by the English nooai, 
really means ' ihiog suspending', 'that by 
which something is hung up (^prTrai)', 
more nearly Miuh. Uke other quasi- 
verbal nouns it can in Aeschylus lake an 
adverb construed with the implied verbal 
notion: SruiBar i^drq Is literally 'a thing 
which hangs up'. Aeschylus would pro- 
bably not have written i-oXXoJr ituStt 
jip6xov%, but ataiSir ipritas is different. 
It is but slightly bolder than (K^wpd <fil. 
Xui* Bra Tkib. 1015 — 6<pi|t '/rem my 
neck', ftiwo* taking the construction of 
ox^XiaiiF.— The forced parallel with xo\- 
\i]v ituiSiv above con scarcely be re- 
produced in translation. 

867. irpit ptuv XAk|i|UvT|S {iiuiv), 
preveiUing my tagtrntss. ij. my desperate 
desire to die, literally 'in despite of me 
eager'. (Ahrens, BlomEeld.) Ci. Tktb. 
367 iiixTfl 'KOnniiim and see L. and Sc. 
I. ti. UTTDfuu. The same misspelling 
occurs in Tk^b. J41 XtXi)/i>i^roi for XtXi^- 
liiyoy — This correction is trivial and, I 
think, certain. Of the two proposed ren- 
derings for Tfiit fSfot XtKruitiir^i, (1), sup- 
plying tiiaG, 'of me violently seized (by 
them)' would require "'kn^BtiOTit the ait, 
not VXirfi^kiji the state" (S.) and, we may 
add, would be idiomatically expressed 
not by a passive parlidple at all (the 
Latin fashion), but by wpit pUu \aptirTti: 
and(i), supplying Mpi)T, 'my neck, caught 
violently in the nooi>e', gives \Bptir a 
forced meaning and makes the whole 
pointless. Nor docs either adequately 
represent rpis fflav, which, though it 
might mean merely tiM vtoUntt, does by 
regularly mean ' with violenct 



eV TwcSe T0£ fraK evOa&' ov TntparrraTet, 
efi^v T6 KoX amv Kvpio^ •KiaTeVftaToiv, 
0)1; XP'!"' 'OjJtiTTTjs' i^rfSe Savfiiunj'i To5e, 
Tpe<fi€i yap auTOf fvftetrtj^ Sopiifei'ot 
Xrpoiptoi; 6 0aKev'i, afA,ipiXeKTa irrjftara. 
ffioi vpoipiiivwi', Tov ff vTT 'l\i^ trWev 
KivhvvQv, el re Sf]p.6$pov^ dvapxia 

to some Bill' 'in despite of, so much so 
that with Awiac iXXm rpit piar an ipaS 
is naturally supplied, and the following 
participle, to satisfy Ihe eai, can only 
complete by anlilhesis the meanine of 
rpis plar. All the other corrections, 
irTnifUrtit, ai-ftiUr'^t etc., are open to the 
sime or some of the same objecliona, 
besides being [echnically inferior to (hat 
of Ahrens and Blomfield, which is indeed 
a mere alternative reading of the Ms. 

868. The tnnnner in which Clylaem- 
neslrn deals with this suspicious circum- 
stance, the absence of her son Orestes, 
is skilful. Here at least she says there 
can be no doubt of her honesty (roiiSt 
o-K^^ii ei iiXor <t^pa) : if she had been 
disloyal to the king she would never 
have sent his heir out of her control. 
The ailment is sound; the flaw is in 
Ihe assumed facts, as la which she trusts 
that the king is not yet informed. The 
true facts relating to Orestes, as supposed 
by Aeschylus, have to be gathered from 
indicilioDs, for us rather slight and ob- 
scure, in the Chotpkori. and will be best 
considered in dealing with that play. 

86g. lfiav...vurTfV|u[TNV whti should 
b/!l mate eenfidrtKe iitaitni tiit and tkie. 
Kdpiot followed by a genitive signifies 
■having power over', or 'qualifieij in' Ihe 
matter described ; thus 117x01 Batirm is 
' having power of death ', power to inflict 
the penalty of death, and similarly Jtiifxai 
irtpf Tirol, KtifHot trotEiii Ti means 'quali- 
fied in respect of...', 'qualified lo do...'. 
See L. and Sc. j. v. Thus icdpiot ■mo-mi- 
^TBV is literally 'qualifial in the matter 
of confidence', "qualified to make confi- 
dence ', where thmv^ eimfidtHct is the 

abstract &om rurriiiiir lo Irail, and 
the plural cenfidtnccs gives the mcauiBg 
muluai lOHfidoKt. — «Km»(iiT«ni i. e. 
pUdges Spanheim, Ilennann, and man; 
texts. With deference to much authority, 
I must hold this change mistaken. Ores- 
tes was himself a irltfraifui between his 
parents, but being a rlaraiM he w»s 
mlpioi xiffTtviiaTUK. The proper meaning 
of (iifiiDi wiaTuiiiOTiiir would be 'qaalified 
to give a pledge', 'qualified to des.1 with 
a pledge', or the like. We have also to 
notice that viajtutta., though a perfect!; 
correct and nalura! form, is very rate, 
apparently unique, and little likely there- 
fore to be substituted for irioTu^ia, which 
occurs not seldom. 

8;i. Tp^iYcip awriv ke is undtr Iht 
separate care a/Strophiui, literally ' Str. il 
taking care of him fy kimselj': airht is 
as usual emphatic. 

8;3. ii|t^CX(KTa...'rpo^*tv(h> mg^st- 
ing la mi fuliirt froublt in heti sAafts. 
ilfL^lXcKTa properly 'divided into two 
counts' in the sense of 'heads' or 'di- 
visions' in a subject, as in Ihe technical 
phrase 'emii/s of an indictment'. (So 
also Wecklein.) 

873- riv ■n...A ti. These are tw 
dangers, not parts of the same : (1) Aga- 
memnon might die al Troy, in vhich 
case his youthful heir would need protec- 
tion against rebels or ambitious kins- 
men ; (1) without the king's death, his 
mere absence and the weakness of the 
regency might encourage the unruly 'to 
risk a plot'- To the last enlerpiise es- 
pecially the impossibihty of seizing the 
heir would be a great discouragement. 
The insinuittion of this danger t* tb^^ 



Ttra i-ri T0J3 Irrou but not 



And in any cue we should 

require (ron 

ihe context some indication 

id ha- 

or thai /re 

« wAicA [e-g. ipxV'- tpiToin) 

. Cf. 

the counci 

was flung down. Without 



ffovXrjv Karappi-^€iev, were avyyovov 
^poTotaL TOf Treaovra XaKTCaai -rrKiov. 
TOidSe fiii/Toi aKi)ilri<i av ZoKov ^ipei. 
tp-oi^e t^ev Stj KKavp^rmv ciriaavTOi 
tnjyal Karea^riKatriv, ovS' evt aTor/wv. 

more telling because, to a i 
and with a different aim, i 
taken cRccl. 

875. ^ovX^v RaToppI^i 
lani a fital against me; Bl 
ilrTfiy KltSurot, a metaphor from the 
throwing of dice. piirTttr tOptuiia. For 
ffavK^, ef. Aodocides 9. 4 Si4 raOra dirw 
T^ ^BuX^ (I told lA^ £iiuiui!) Sn eilti-iiv 
roflt iroii)(roiTat. taX ii-^Xryia ri ytfdwa, 

H)' Poii\i' {proposed IAis/!o/}E6^\'^oi, 
ibTriiM' Si fyd ktX., a passage which 
shows not only that this sense was in use. 
but also that it was not aflfecled by the 
technical use of 7 pou\-/i at Athens. A 
prose writer would doubtless not bave 
said^lt" pO'/fiii' lot ^^ai ilrSvror ^oii\^, 
but such extensionsoC the 'inner' or cog- 
nate accusative are frequent in poetry. 
The alternative translation 'should throw 
down tAi council '1 1'.<. overthrow thegov- 
emitlent of the queen end her advisers, is 
not admissible 1 (i)^u\i) without explan- 
ation could not bear in a poem dealing 
with heroic times this technical meaning; 
■ri|» fioiAiir at least would be rciiuircd ; 
(1) the |)lay, true tu the ancient and 
Homeric conception of authority, does not 
suppose anything like a formal Ceumil 
of regency. The elders never speak of 
themselves as such. Ihoi^h Aeschylus 
knew what such a thing was and can 
describe it clearly enough (see the open- 
ing of Che Ffrsae, the chorus of which 
actually is such a council) j (3) the uses, 
liLeiaJ and metaphorical, of ^i^ot ijliiigi 
do not justify the translation HHttal, 
cwrMrmc', which would be naToXiKrai 
or possibly iitaTB^a\tir. Thus i'c^Xeiv 
Tica r^i ifiX'i' is pTopei but not ixpi^iit. 


Duld r 

if anything, only Mo execute the council" 
by flinging them into some fiipaffpay.— 
PovX^v KaToppct^xuv Scaliger, 'should 
dcviit a plot', is good sense, but, as 1 
think, an unnecessary change. — Arr*: 

877. lUvToi kmueiir, i.c. 'though his 
presence would be our best assurance, the 
explanation of his absence is trans- 
parently honest and an assurance in 

S7S. fUv Gif dismissing irretevancics 
and coming to the gisi of the malter- 

S80. kXoPm ext-!OTc$. I do not see 
reason to reject this word. The represen- 
tation of the r by ^ is in Ihe Doric and 
Aeolic dialects frequent and regular {^^\ 
— ^/o». M|9eo = w/ea yd etc. ). From t\afi- 
(cf. ■XaS^ut) the regular (ormalion in these 
dialects would be itXa/t-a. The language 
of poetry preserves many dialectic forms, 
either for convenience, as Sophocles uses 
^aam, or because the words came into 
literature or use from a dialectic source. 
A similar instance is rtppii, commonly 
referred to the root (h/-) of nin. The 
nouns in -1; from verb-stems, originally 
abstracts, describing a process, are regu- 
larly extended to Ihe iffxl of the process, 
e,g. rXoxi} plailing, wraUA, Sin) feinliHg, 
way, elc. ; and uXoiSi) therefore is the sen 
produced in running eyes. It was per- 
haps some more or less distinct con- 
sciousness of its origin which led Ihe 
poet to use it here (note i[Xatoiw«).^Tbe 



Tat dfitfiL aot Kkaiovaa XaftTTTifpovj^itK 
aTij/wXiiTOW! alev. iv &' -oveipeuriv 

piwaio'i dtavaaovTot, a^ipi aoi iraBi] 
opwffa TrXeto) tow ^virevBoinov ypovov. 
vvv ravra iravra tXoO"', d-7revdr}Ttf> <f>pevi 
Xeyoiti ap avBpa TovSe twv aradfi^v icvi 

Famesian edilor substitutes |9Xii^ai, but 
M, it is clear, hikd KXafiat, which is not 
in itielt iilici)' tg lie nil error for (SXi^i 
and, so far as I can iud|;e, is not opun to 

The cKict meaning of this is a niatler of 
conjecture. From the analogy or other 
like words [SifSauxla, Xa/tiraSouxla etc.) 
we should suppose that Xa^-mjponxia was 
the fantliei of \a^irn7poCx« or lonA- 
dtareri and fi iiupi riri Xaiiwr^povx^ 
atUiidanee upon a fitnoii as a lorck-btarfr. 
Many words of this type i^. atitrroSx''^y 
nXijioDxoi, (limi^oi, etc. describe pffiiei 
and the performance of them. Taking 
the word with the context it would seem 
to mean naluiajty ' attending the king 
Willi torches' to his cliamber, the 'fifi/niYin 
in fact, which has been in all times so 
important a part of savage and barbaric 
slate. dTT)|u\i)T<ivi, Hcglalid, would, as 
applied to a practice of ceremony, natu- 
rally mean 'disused". The qaecn weft, 
as she would say, /or Ikine ai/cmiaHci ef 
terch-beareri niglated still, '.t. that the 
king came no more with the accustomed 
state to his chamber.— Other explana- 
tions olfered are ( i ) thai the beacons (see 
above V. 193) were negleclcd, i.t. not lit, 
for want of cause to light them, (i) that 
the watch-fires lighted in the house in 
enpeclalion o[ the king's return 'were 
disn^arded', i.e. he did not come (Sidg- 
wick). But neither beacons nor walik- 
fires adequately renders ^oahtijp-oux'oi, 
which must be something different from 
Xa>nrri(i(i. Metaphorically no doubl the 

torch- race or Xu^irsSii^fila, and for this 
\aii-wn)pa\iT({a. might be inaccurately used. 
But it is one thing to use \a«iirai)i)^|)fa as 
an illustration {with explanation] oE Ibc 
system of beacons, and another thing to 
use tbe word, or rather a different and 
much less suitable word, as a name fot 
beacons and without explanation. And, 
as Mr bidgwick says, minted is not 
unlU; negletltd is just what, during the 
king's absence, signal >beacans would not 
have been, (1 say nothing as to the 
impossibility on general grounds of ■ 
reference to the supposed beacons in this 
place.) To 'walch-fires' my only objec- 
tion is the improper form of the word 
yia^mipovxia, and perhaps thut during ■ 
campaign of (en years at such a distance 
as Troy preparations for the king's un- 
announced return would hardly be made 
every night. 

883. Xewrali, emphasised by displace- 
ment in the sentence, lighttil, m» * 1 
KHViMrat together ; ^'ntn with Baiaawi- 
Toi- The construction of irwb with dative 
of agent n not certified in Aeschylus 
(Wecklein mentions Theb. 915, but justly 
holds that that case is distinguishable]. 

885. •nv.-xpktm i.t. the time of my 
sleeping. ' The personifying instinct per- 
vades the language of Aeschylus' (Sidg- 

886. dvtvOiJTf is distinguishable from 
iripSri!. The passive form, in its full 
force, means ' relieved from grief (tiii- 
^rw/irf so 10 speak, 'madediro'Wi'). 

8S7. TBv (rraO)iav Kma lileiotly, 'of 
the fold a dog ', j.r. uiAat a dog is te tia 
fold. The ani^c, proper and ntccMuj 


traiT^pa vao^ irpaTOPOV, v'^^rfS.rj'i ineyr]^ 
aTv\ov noSripTi, fiouoyevtv TeKvov waTpi, 
Kal yijv <pavei(7av vavTiXoK Trap' e\iri&a, 
teaWtaTon t]fj,ap datteli/ iic ^elfiaroi, 
oSoiTTopip ht'\^aivTi TTijyaioi/ peoi — 
repTTVov Se Tavayicaiov iK<f>vy£iv avav 
TOU)U73e Toiwii a^ieti Trpoa^BeypMaiv. 
SSg. imiXar. 

to the Tull seme, should in ttriclness have 
been repeated throughoul [he catalogue, 
nil iiir rra$iiu¥ tim, t5» W vail ir/jAro- 
row, T^i ii aTtyTii otCXw, htK., and so a 
prose-writei would have wiillen. But in 
poelry the logical compleletiess of this 
is naturaliy sactiliccd to euphony: with 
ffumjpa nut wpitarw we supply t^i kuJi, 
and so on. — The coiTCClions here (f.g. 
Toti' fyi£ Weil) assume that tut is in- 
cancel, whereas what is incon-ccl, though 
poetically necessary, is the absence of the 
article afterwards. 

8Bg, crriiXov. M had prohably the 
misspelling aroTXiiv. — (ni\or h. 

890. Kol er again. The conjunclioD 
"has oHended many editors, ns the other 
nouns are tuconnected ; but Klausen and 
Schneidewin are no doubt right in saying 
, that it connects 887—889, which de- 
scribe tiie frolrelioH aaA srcurity 3Bon\iiil 
by the master, with 890 — 893, which de- 
scribe the delight of his luihoped-for 
return. The ttansition from one set to 
the other ii marked by nai." Sidgwick. 
To which 1 would odd that this laboured 
list is not to be judged as if it were a reaJ 
natural flow of emotion. Its elo<|uence 
is forced; and this recommencement is 
JHit such a touch as betrays it. In fact 
the whole of this oration, with all its 
poetical merits, appears lo me, regarded 
HS 3 piece of acting on the pan of Cly- 
taemnestra, a mistake and a failure; and 
•o, I believe, the dramatist intended. It 
is impossible that any one should make a 
anccessful speech in such a situation, 
though it is natural enough that the 
[^ueen should try. As Ihe king severely 

and truly remarks, she is much too long. 
Genuine feeling would not have spoken 
as many words as Clytaemnestra speaks 
verses. Upon Agamemnon she does not 
and could not make the slightest impres- 
sion. But she attains the real object of 
her appearance before the palace, when 
the king is compelled to accept the 
perhdiouE compliment of the tapestry. 

8gi : daion as U tivks Iht faimi, afla 
slorm. The superlative, though much 
criticized, seems correct, arid indeed al- 
most necessary. This allusion to the 
recent recollections of the voyagers is the 
queen's best hit. but she spoils it by 
continuing the catalogue, 

893 — 4: literally, 'but relief is sweet 
in everything; su<h like then are the 
titles with which t express my praise', 
i.i. 'as the types of deliverance, such as 
the foregoing, are infinite in number, I 
take them in the sum and mean them 
all '■ The turn of the sentence here is so 
unlike what is possible to a non-inflected 
language as to make translation extremely 
difficult. The cardinal point is the em- 
phasis on rouStit, emphasized in respect 
of its difference from J-Diff3(. Thequeen's 
copiousness, as is the danger of unreal 
elo<]uence, has plainly overrun ilsetf and 
reached a point at which it is equally 
ineffective either to go on or to stop. 
With rryct'o' ^01 her declamation is in 
no way rounded ofT. and yet one or two 
more Tp(W0fl#y/iaTa would undoubtedly 
carry her over the edge of the sublime- 
Perforce therefore she generalizes, and 
concludes in fact with an it rtltra. 
Thus a line piece of verse is certainly 


tjiftXO/^fSa- vvv he fioi, <f>i\oi' Kapa, 
eicffaui' a.Tnjtni'i TTJaSe, ft.^ ^a/uti rtdth 
Toil ffov TToS', tacaf, 'iXiou iropOtjTopa. 
ofKfiai, T( fieK\e6\ alt; fTretTTaXrai. reXoi 
iriSov KeKevQov arprovinivat irerdirfiaaif ; 
evffv^ ytvea8a> "jrop^vpoaipaiTov iropa^, 
et OKp, deXwTov wt av ^yijrai Suet]. 

spoiled, but we musl aiid Ihal it was 
made foi the purpose. Aeschylus was 
not SQ |M>oi in images that he could 
not purchase a piece of truth al the 

cost of a few sounding lines <l£iui 

■lo hold in value', ihen "lo pronounce 
valuable ', and so, as here, 'to praise, 
botiour,' both of Ihiogs and persons, 
cf. Eur. Or, ma taXalfir viitmlounr 
dftou^nf, Hec. 319, and see L. and 
Sc. t.v. The verb has not strictly any 
obiect; it is used, as any transitive verb 
may be, absolutely; see e.g. v. (i3i 
^ptriira I' oiiir' i( atmyfiaTur my ttach- 
ing shali it ne longer enigmtOu ; so here, 
myfiraiie btstnvs tUlis like ihese. But b 
effect ihe object is drSpa rdrlc supplied 
from the foregoing period [v. 887) of 
which (his tine is teally a part. — See fur- 
ther Appendix Q. 

89s ■ 

It S' d' 

t. the ei 

of my joy, alter what I have suffered, 
does not deserve rebuke. According to 
Greek religious feeling the display of 
human happiness was itself aprovocalion 
lo fortune. 

8g6. At a sign from the queen the 
path to the house is strown with crimson 
embroidered tapestries, properly used for 
religious processions and ceremonies, over 
which the king is invited lo walk. The 
urgency of Clytaemnestra in forcing him 
to accept this homage has a motive more 
direct and simple than the chance of ex- 
posing him to the Jealousy of Fate. It 
s designed for the people, upon whose 
I a few minutes the lives of the 

■lUeen and hei partisans may depend^ 

To stimulate discontent and discourage 
loyalty is of vital moment. By Ihe 
queen's arrangement, what the murruui- 
ing spectators see is that the returned 
rilpawo) enters his palace with a kind of 
pomp shocking to Hellenic eyes (sec op 
f. gj8). His relactnnce, even if taken 
for genuine, could only be appreciated 
by the immediate bystanders. It is like 
Gracchus pointing 10 his head, only thai 
in this case the ill eflect is designed. To 
Aeschylus the scene may perhaps have 
been suggested by the fate of Pausanias, 
one of whose gravest offences was his 
adoption of Oriental ceremony. 

SgS. T&vrivviS'. Elision of substan- 
tives and adjectives having the quantity 
— is very rare in tragic verse, and by 
Aeschylus and Sophocles scarcely allowed 
except under peculiar conditions. Their 
r^ular use is as in ». 8S7 itirii, v. 895 canf. 
As to the detaib see yaumal a/ Philalvgj 
xu. p. 136. The exceptions are about 
I per cent. In the iambic verse of Aes- 
chylus this Is the only one sufficiently 
attested. (On P. V. 355 lixm* M\ and 
Ehhi. 901 lari xBi* ntta, see the article 
cited.) What justifies it to the eat will 
appear to be this, that in the phrase riv 
^-gv riSa following x'^l"^ riStii the noun, 
being aulicipated and so to speak 'dis- 
counted ', has no weight, while on the 
other hand what Is lost by curt.illmenl lo 
irdSa goes to increase the stress upon sir, 
on which llie meaning depends,— (^ii'^w/, 
Uns, vikick Ikau hasi set ufmt Trvv. 


TO S' aWa iftpovTK oi/jf firiiy viietofievT} 
$ij<r£i, Siicaitit^ (trvv deoi<;} elfuip/iiva. 

ftaKpav yap efeTetwo?' dW' evatalpM'i 
aivelv, Trap' akXnip j(fii} roS' epj^ea-ffai. yepat. 
Kal ToWa fif) yvvaiKO'i ev TpoTTOiv ift€ 
il^pvve, /iijSe 0ap^dpou KJtairo'i S(«jjv 

fi'TjS' et/MiiTi a-Tpwaaa iTri<f>dovov iropov 
Tidei- deovt Toi TotirSe rifiaXipelii j(pe(DV, 


901. £tXirrov...GUt) with ironic inten- 
tion, meaning ostensibly icarcc-fafid for 
...due ctrimony, but for tliosc informed 
utuxptdid. . . vengeanee. 

903. if^TM o^x Girvip viKafi^vi) an 
expression not lost upon ihoae privy 10 
the secret of (he queen's night-watch. 
Ostensibly it is a compliment lo the 
' op*n eyes ' of the king, and Ti J' dXXa 
in fact recalls Ihe condusion of his speech 
(f. 835)1 which she hears as she enters. 

ib. Tht rtst a valeh/ulntss thai 
futier iltffii ihail order aiJHtl providinci. 
I Inisl, inttnd!, literally 'shall order, 
they being, I trust, justly fated', an 
expression of pious reliance upon heaven 
to show the right in the king's threatened 
inve&ligation. So Ihe words must be 
grouped, if the reading is righl : 6^n 
tl^apulm is scarcely a possible expres- 
sion. — SfoTffc* apium Mcinelte, Wecklein, 
where tfi^« Apium is 'shall order them 

905. Agamemnon dismisses (he queen's 
salutation (which he does not vouchsafe 
lo return) with a sarcasm, and s(em1y 
rebukes her for ihe untimely pomp, of 
which he more than suspects the malicious 
motive {v. 911). or his danger he has 
not a suspicion, nor does it lie in any of 
the facts which he knows or divines, but 
« of Ihe plot nnd the pre- 

paradons of Ihe conEpimtors. See the 
Inlrodaction. A^Sot ■•^vA'Kan: > signi- 
ficant opening. Clytaenmcstra was (he 
daughterofone false wife and the sister of 
another, and her husband, who calls her by 
no other name or title but ihi^ neither 
'wife', nor 'queen', nor even ' Clylaem- 
nestra', gives her to know that he has not 
forgolten the fact. Cf. Ov. Her. 16. 
191 (Paris to Helen) vix fieri, li sunt 
virei in semine aaerum, \ el lovis el Ledae 
filia, rasia Jmta. Euripides (if i( be he, 
Iph. A. 686) maJtes Agamemnon use the 
same ti(le> among others, without special 
intention ; bul that he should select it at 
such a moment as (his, and avoid every 
other, is not to be supposed accidental. 

909. 4|ii)..,l(iot: 'mi, who liave no 
tDs(e for such things, however the habits 
of my house may have been changed for 
(be worse in my absence', Seeont. 918. 
— Jv Tpiirwi; (V of circumstance. My 
former suggestion rpu^it I mention only 
to retract. 

gie>. ^ap^Cou (r, and probably M) 
is an odd error hut seems 10 be merely 

Qu: literally 'make open'mou(hed 
grovelling clamour in honour of me'. 

913. tCSii with emphasis, 'do not 
invile jealousy' at a time when it is 
specially (o be shunned. 



A* irouciyoK Si $vrfTov Svra tcaWcatv 
0aiveiv ifioi fiev ovSaft-m^ avev ipoffov. 
Xrycd Kar avSpa, fi^ 9e6v, ai^eiv ifU. 
^Q»p!? TToSo^frriaTptai' re KaX tuv irotKiKtav 
wXijScJi' avT^i' Kol -rh iajj tcaxaiv <f>poveiv 
6eov fieyttrrov Saipov. oK^taai he ■)(pri 
0iov TeXevT^traiT' en evearoi <fii\r]. 
el iratna S' oJs irpda-tyotfi av ei6ap<rffi eyat. 
Koi firjv t6S' elne, fiij •jrapa yvwfitfv, efioi, — 
yvwfiTjv fikv laBi fj-i] hta^Bepovvr efie. 

915. ^l >ih 'la mt at UasI, though 
others, In mf astoDisbment, do not ip- 
pnrenltjr Tear the efleel of displaying such 
vicious luxury'. 

916. Again ambiguous; 'I would 
have the honour of a man — imd husbartd 
—not of a god'. 

917. Tt Kill. The full force is "wilh- 
oul carpets for the feet as wiihoul refine- 
menii grntraity'. — ™» voueOmv: very 
difficult of Iranslation as including both 
'decoration' and 'subtlety, fraud', on 
unbieuily important to the sense. Ex- 
cept for the sake of bringing out the 
malicious KUggcslion of the word imdXoi, 
luch an artificial phrase as rh. raiclXa 
would not have been used at all. But to 
substitute rouiXfuiniir (Karslen) would be 
to spoil the point. 

9 1 S : r-HiwHr eries loud, another for- 
midable phrase. Rumour suflidently pro- 
claims the glorf of Agamemnon — and the 
modesty of his wife? She has dwelt on the 
liX()iU"l thut came from Troy (f. 6G5): 
what of the K\ifiim that went there? 
(Propertiu), who has imitated this play 
elsewhere, seems to have had this passage 
in mind in 1, iS, 35 'ipse luus semper 
tibi sit custodia Icctus, | nee nimis aniata 
/rente stdere veils : | cieilam ^o narranti, 
noil COmmiltere,/an<ul | titerram rumor 
frantilil el maria.) Equally signilicant is 
Agameronoo's reference to (he virtuous 
mind and the confidence it gives. Bui 
in relation lo his own approaching fate 

his language has quite another omen than 
he intends. 

911. 'And that I shall act on this 
principle always is the assurance fotme'. 
literally 'and / am confident inasmuch 
as I should do all things afier lUl 
fashion'.— ri vpcCro^Hfi' iy. The opU- 
live with Sr, standing in a conditiona] 
clause, has the same meaning thai il would 
have in a principal sentence, ij. it ex- 
presses what would happen or ii liitljr 
to happen, under conditions expressed or 
implied. (I[ is grnmrnalically an afedo- 
sis.) Here the implied condition is the 
universal condition 'whatever the cir- 

11 fact c 

rima. See on Thtb. 
Av -I should do' (Paley) not, 'I should 
fare', which rbro. does not admit. — 4t 
thus, ' on these principles ' \.e. ' with the 
same moderation and propriety as I show 
in this refusal '. This remark, or lalher 
promise, is for the benefit of the bystand- 
ers. — Note that mivTO is emphadicd by 
its irregular place before W.— I fallow 
Mr Sidgwick in holding that this verse is 
correct. c7iror rciS', <ti Weit. 

911 — 933. On the effect of this alter- 
cation see Appendix R. 

933^913. Ctfuif, ansioer— saving yeta- 
judgmtnl — ene guestien from me. — My 
judgminl, be annvertd, is fixed beyimd 
change by me.-^-^iXi' dirl...4(io[ diflcra 
from the usual formula for asking a 
question, d^l fim, only in the appcalijig 


KA. ijiffd) SfOK Seitrav at/ (!S' epSeiv TiiBe : 

AP. eiTrep tk, eiSra<{ 7' ev toS' i^elirov re'Xo?. 

KA. Ti S' &.V SoKeJ (rot WplaiLa%, el rdS' T^vuaev ; 

AT, iv •jroiKiKoL'i av KnpTa not ^rjvai iaieti. 

KA. ^17 vvv Tov avupfimeiov alSecrd^^ yjfoyav. 

AT, 0^/^57 y€ (lIvtoi hijiioBpovi fi4ya ffBivei. 

KA. o S' d<f>06vi}r6^ y ovk eVt'fijXo? TrfXei. 

AP. ovToi yvvatKOt iariv ip,eipetv fiajfr]';. 

KA. TOW S' oX^ioK ye xal to viKaadai Trpenei. 

AF. 1/ ical ffi) vIkj/v TiJcSe Sjjpio? Ttets. 

916 and 937. JM^. 

emphasis thrown upon /lai, — TJ8< : llie 
queslkm [v. 934), which follows the king's 
)nlerruption.~)ti^«ap(l'YiMl|i'qv: literally 
'not against judgment', on aflcrtbought 
anil parenthesis, as is shown by Ihc use 
of (IW (not tltit OS required by rule foe 
a prohibition). The same phmse iropit 
■yrii/iiir \iytiy occurs in Eur. Ma/. 577 
«I napi yriinJii' ipw Ihaiigh il be an 
Ul-jvJgt'l Ihing to say. where see note. 
The paienthe^ here is thrown in 
just lo get a hearing, and means 'you 
may, without sacrifice of judgment, 
answer a question'. — It is impossible lo 
be certain about ejaculatory «[)eecbes of 
this kind, where everything depends on 
the precise conversational value of each 
phrase. But I think, agreeing so far 
with Kennedy, that riJ' tlri can only 
mean Idl mc lAii. — The alternative ren- 
dering, 'Yet order this not contrary to 
my purpose' scarcely satisfies either r6i' 
riWor Kol/iV- — V^'T* ■■H^"'^*P*"'- 
ra 'that I shall not alter my judgment 
(resolve) for Ihe worse'. Eur. Hipf. 388 
ravra.. npiirtfiiV'!' pyii, oil 8ia0ff(pci> liit\- 
X<* (Paley). 

914. You iiawid perhaps m seme hour 
ef ttrrer so to perferm this acl?, i.e. lo 
make a humble entrance, propitiating 
the gals by renunciation. She tries a 
tnunt of cowardice (Sidgwick). — rfifyt... 
a* : for this conjectural use of the pnat 
indicative with ir see on neb. 696. — 

Ip8«v, properly of the performance of a 
rilual. — The reniiing Sflaavar (Hermann) 
is defended as necessary because the 
aenlence must be interrogative (Week- 
leiii). But surely the interrt^tive con- 
jecture is n not uncommon form of speech. 
The MS. authority is .as good for dtliraaaii 
as for jdirat ir, but [he sense 'Have you 
vowed lo the gods that 1 should make 
such a sacrifice (of costly decornlions) only 
in fear (or your life?' seems &r inferior 
and scarcely to be got Irom the words. 

qtfi. ■rtKat final decision. He puts 
aside her question, reaffirming his reso- 

916, SoKtC Stanley, rt tepTeaents a 
veib to be filled in by the answer, /» 
irourftoii p,r^ai. So in tfo rl j with 
what Bhjtct? tJ represents a verb in the 
subjunclivE.— The parallel of Priam is of 
course no argument whatever. Il is the 
king's very ground of objection that the 
ceremony is pif^pov. Clyliemnestra is 
not really arguing but merely talking 
down resistance. 

gi8. tiv iiAfiimBv: with emphasis, 
(earofthe gods, fear not men'. 



T. 918. 

They may submit (let them- 
selves be conquered) with grace. 

933. ^...tCih Yvu plainly, no lest 
than /, think Ihe point wertk amiesl. 
Clytaemnestra has spoken as if it were 
beneath the king's dignity to contest such 


vt0ov' Kparo^ fxkv rot Trapes y eicAv ifuii. 
oXX' £( hoicei trot ravB', vwai t(c apffviMV 
XiJof Taj^ot, Trp6Sov\op efi^aaiv ttoSos. — 
Koi Toiahi (i iiL^alvovff akovpyetTiir Sew 

a trifle. The king, who believes, as the 
fact is, that the trifle bm a mischievous 
purpose, letorts that the in&tler does not 
leem iDdifferent to her. vUi\v 'nirS* 
' having the beat in this matter '. Sifpiot 
tfai ; the genitive is that of price. For 
the archaic use of rUtii, ' lo value nt, rate 
at', see Horn. //■ 13. 703, 70J. Like the 
archaic word and rorni 8t)pi«, it belongs 
lo the proverbial chametet (cf. Thtb. 703) 
of the sentiment. — It is usual to joio 
S^oi with wiKTf, translating thus Vejicu 
ymiritlf find a vUlory so tvon le your 
taiUl Here iJitijr tt1»3( 'that sort of 
victory' stands for tA ntaaiai (see pre- 
ceding verse). Mj reason for suEgcsting 
and preferring the other construction is 
that the rhythm divides the line naturally 
after rf/iit, and also that iit^n, if joined 
with rlcqr. is superfluous, a serious halt 
in (U) epignini such as this. 

934- yield: J comtrain you; Ul il 
bevjilli lensenl. In (Uv toi. as the cae- 
nira suggests, each particle his its scpo- 
lale force. With Kptlrot \fir, literally 
'force at all events', cf.t/ioi m^ in v.gii. 
The antithesis implied in yiy, but not 
formally completed, is between ipitT-st 
and ixilxr, font and censenl. See also 
Hub. 736 7f IraTD lUy idpov a!rtif he iegnl 
d tffii anfy le Ire his dtalh, and note there. 
— Toi marks that the phrase ipcn-oi fiiv 
nptt 7' itiim, 'yield willingly at least 
what in any case will be enforced', is a 
cotnmon form : il must generally be amit- 
ted in English for want of a compendious 
equivalent. — npartU nhTK waptU Weil 
and, omitting y', Wecklein; 'you win 
however, if you yield willingly'; cf. v. 
93I' — With these wolds she lays hands 
upon the king, who. as she says, has 
practically no choice but to give way, 
and compels him to descend. 

936. Xiw for the usual Xvfrtfc See 
on II. 557.— TixotidvcrbialiMiirt j^Wd/— 
Note the pause after the second foot, 
almost unknown in Aeschylus' iamtNc 
verse, and always significant to the ear. 
Il here odds abruptness to the abrupt 
command. The Icing is impatient tc 
have done. — vp^SouXov, in its full sense, 
icmant ta a servant {vicarius), meaner 
even than the foot (Schiitz).— Here his 
shoes are taken off. 

937. Kot Ti>t<rE< evtn viilk tktse if I 
triad etc., i.i. ToTt Tovlv, with his boie 
feet, not his shoes: note (he emphasis on 
Too-lf in V, 939. The demoostralive pro- 
noun is explained here, as often, by look 
and gesture. Even thus he fears to 
provoke fflonn by his act. The whole 
conception of this scene is quite alien 
from our ideas, but the strength of Aga- 
memnon's repugnance, partly practical 
and partly superstitious, will not seem 
exaggerated to any one who will re- 
member what 'the evil eye' still is in 
Italy. — This clause is generally joined 
with the preceding, itai being taken as 
aiui and TwVS* with iKou/jy/a-i*. The 
objection lo this was marked by the 
Fatnesian oditor (who gives ^ir raieSt 
i.e. Tail dp^Xaii) and acknowledged by 
Blomfield, Heath. Dobree, Hailung etc. 
roiaSr so taken is superfluoas, whereas 
the position shows it to be emphatic. — 
ttSv belongs lo iiKavpy^vir {sacreit lafa- 
triei proper only for divine service) as the 
rhythm demands. — aXavpTfa-w. That 
i^vfi^tt (adj.) should be used as a snb- 
stantive is not impossible but, with 
Sfu* depending on it, improbable. On 
the other hand as an error dXaupY^ffi* is 
easily accounted for by the wrong inter- 
pretation of niait. I should therefore 
prefer the norma! form aKavp^\iaiii. 


ft^ TK irpiatoBev ofifiarov (SnXoi iptfoviK- 
•rroWij yap alSui irtofiaTotftBopetv Tro<rlv 
^Siipovra trKovrov apyvpiov^Tovt S' v(f>ai. 
rovrrov /ikv oStoi' ttjj/ ^evriv Se vpevfi,evM<: 
TijiiS iaxofii^e. rov Kparovvra fxa\6aKtu-i 
$e6'i -rrpoertoBev evfitumi irpotrSipiceTai' 
CKiiiv yap oiJSeis- SovXi^ j^piJTai ^vyio. 
qStij Se TToWiuv xpt]fiaTri)i' i^alperov 
avQo^ irTpaTOv Bwp7)/i e'/tof, ^vi'emreTo, 
eirei S" aieaveiv eroO KaTsaTpafifiai raSe, 
flfi e; SofiiDv fieXaBpa -jropfltupav iraTWV. 

945- "M- 
9j8. lii^ piiXoi / hitpt HO diilanl eye 
Hfy fhre me ait evil g/aHre.—irpinilltr 
Jrom a (hitonce; Ihi-; is no nECdlesa ad- 
dition, but on the contrary macks the 
point. See AppeniJix R. To supply 
9tSa is neither necKsary nor legitimnlc. 
Aceotiiing to the superstition, the eye 
of human jealousy is as tlangeious ^ the 

939. B-apaTO^Sofuiv iroo'lv tfitlpevra. 
If stain villi Ihc slain p/ Imman feel, 
^ilptw le spoil has the same sense 
as in Cko. 1011 ^ntu iii<jt...tdXU[ 
pa^l tpBfipovaa toG iroucft/iarof-— <tw}UI- 
TO^BofxIvhns l>«n 100 su m ma ciiy rejected. 
ir ffHua in iKe compound be taken as the 
object of ^Bdpfitp, the word is here mean- 
ingiess ; but aaimTiHpSipin e(]ua!ly admits 
the sense 'staining (or slftlned) wi/A the 
body', as in xt'P'>f^X<"< Sat7u\aSuirTi! 
etc Garments stained by wearing would 
be aaiiaT6^8opa, llie person wearing them 
ffUfUiTa^66pos elf/arur, and his act aufia- 
TiK^optir rt«OTa. The word therefore 
ditlinguishcs the bare feet {'feet of the 
body') from the shod, and thai is precise- 
ly what ia here wanted. — None of the pro- 
posed corrections {d^To^Sapefr, arpufxa- 
reipBoiHir, Jw^mto^^jku') are so good as 
the text ; and il is in itself improbable 
Ilial a unique word should be either an 

940. irXoirof ifyvfHV^-rmt fl" i^6s 

946. li)HI\lt. 

'what is wealth, textures bought for 
silver'. irKoiroy; in an emphatic and 
restricted sense, as we speak of tie freei- 
1711^ metals. dJpyvfiBinf'rBvi : theordinary 
dress, tapestry etc. of a Greek household 
were not bought at all, but made there. — 
Tt is not necessary but is often used where 
simple apposition would be admissible. 

941. Toirwr fiv oBrw: litetBlly 'of 
this thus', a formula impatiently dismiss- 
ing the suhjecl. There is an ellipse of 
something {e.g. irnXXaxSSintr), but of 
what, a native Greek might have been 
unable to say. Nothing exactly analo- 
gous seems to occur elsewhere, for such 
cases as dyyiUn airoS Hems of him, and 
even ni5 nojiirtfliTou ri ^1, ^^i™ fl fiA- 
Xovrvi; (.Soph. El. 317), may, as Weck- 
lein says, be distinguished. But it leems 
bold to pronomice it impossible. — niitiv 
Emperias, \Vecklein,-Tii» fjit,* H: sec 
Appendix R. 

94t. riv KpoTouvra pAXSoin*; sec 
on V. 10. lie flatlera himself with the 
thought that whatever may be the eRect 
on other "distant eyes' (see ;■. 938), (fnrfw/ 
eyes at least will be pmpitialeil by his 

945. a6n| Auratus. 

946. 1)101 belongs both to Siipqfia artd 
Id fur^ffTFTO. Cf. mi. MIS, 1361;. 

947. 'Since I am reduced to obey 
you herein'. 

0d\a<raa, Tt« Se fiv Koraa&ivi 

rpitftova-a ttoW^? 7rop</ii'pa« iotipyvpov 
injKiSa -rrar/Kaii'ia'Tov, eifuiToiv ^a</in?. 
oIko<; B' viTapy_fi TwvZi trvv SeoU, ava^. 
ej(eiv veveadat B' ovic eViVroTat Bofiot, 
TToWwv TraTi^trfiov S" eiftdTatv av jji-fa^iji*, 
h6p,oiffi. vpovveydevTo^ Iv \pr)<TTi)pioi^ 

pi^'t'i yiip oviTj}^ t^vWa'i iKer ۥ; oo;iow, 
VKtair uTrepTtLvaffa trfipiov kuvoi;. 
«oi aov fioXotno^ Sfci^oTtTfi' ttmav, 
diiXTrot; fiev eV j^eifiavi a-r}fiaiv€i'; fioXtaf 

gS"' *'' Hpyvpor. 054. i«i;ittTij». 956. tiTjxa'oj/^'H- 

95 5 J 


949 — 95J. "There is purple enough in 
the sen, anii enough lui/kin'. As the 
liiiig proceeds to the door along the polh 
with its crimsoti roulX^ra. il is to the 
eye of the queen, who foresees the <\iia.- 
Tiiv (Ja^dt that are to follow wiihin (f. 
13S1). as though already he walked in 
blood. There is dso in the mere sound 
and imagciy of the opening verse the 
feeling of her hatred, deep, cruel, and 
inexhaustible. But no commentary ran 
eihiual [he significance of this marvellous 
scene, which for spectacular writing, if 
the phraae may be used, has probably 
never been rivalled — UXiwira; see Ap- 

950. lirdfiYupav (Salmasius) uinrtA t'/s 
■uitighl in silver: laotrdiriiis 7ip flr fi rop- 
^ipa rpii ipyvpor ^{(TofO/i/*') (Theopom- 
pus ap. Athenaeum xil. 556 c, cited by 
H ennan n) . _«i)K!Ga wa-yK aivumv furfle 
oott ever fresh and frtsA. njicd, because 
the dye is the juice or oou of a shell-fish. 
But in fact it is the underlying thought, 
and not the surface- meaning, which deter- 
mines the form uf the expression. 

951. There ii a chamber of stuh, I 
trust, from whieh tf take thtriof. TByE« 
depends both on d7ioi and on txia in 
slightly difTeienl ways ; with olnot it is 
material, with t^tai partitive. — a^w fntt : 
tee V. 904. — A dilhculty is raised as to 

olitn, (bTcoit Porson). But the c: 
'room of them', for 'store of ibem', does 
not seem an unnatural stretch nf language. 
pariicul.irly as oTitoi constantly means the 
contents nf (be house rather than the 
structure ; cf. aLtwkiun. 

954, imXXav wanioiiAv 81; voXXutr 
is displaced for emphasis. The full sense 
is 'as for trampling of tapestries 1 would 
have devoted many (o the tiunpling'. 
G'«l|u^n>v Canter. 

95,5. TTpoifffxWKToj TDi!(P^((ffBi : had 
if heen f-<vpcsed tn me.~%a^oun...ti 
Xpi)mipCait together, in some lemfli 

95C- ■"IX^"*!'^ Abrcsch, Hermann. 
The genitive absolute is not impossible 
but objectionable ami a likely error. 

957. iKtra. gnomic aorisl, tames. The 
comparison and the thing compared mix 
together, 'Thy life is the root of the 
house, and thy safe coming as the pultii^ 
forth of the shading leaves '- 

9S7— 9^' Note here again the artifi- 
cial manner in which the images, splendid 
as Ihey ate, are accumulated and repeat- 
ed :cf.f. 887. , 

958. vTt>iy...<KvtiMhode agansi; tee 
Btkiip 4s« v. 17. 

960. [iaUv: iui>Jir Voss. But u the 
sense is 'tby coming signifies the coming 
of warmth ', either is right. 


Stui' Be Tevj(r} Zevi tiTr ofi<fiaico<t -rriKpa^ 
olvov, TOT ^S)j '^vxo'i eV Bofiai^ TreXet 
dvSpa^ TfXelav Basfi i'mffTptotptD/jtevov, — 
ZeO Zev TeXete, tat ifid'; ev)^di: TtXec 
fiiKoi Be TOi (Toi T^virep av /ieXXpi; TeXeiJ'. 

XO. W'TTTC /*oi ToS* e/iTreSo); 
Bii-yfia irpoiTTaTTiptov 

963, TfXfkni a E"™ WO"'- As op- 
plied 10 tlie Imsband or mnster cif tlic 
house, it means ffnieming, ' bearing r Aei ' 
i.t. aulhgrity or oHice (see on TM. 151). 
Bui it is also a ritual lerm, applied In the 

ftrftct viclim, lie for the sacrifice (cf. 
ij^paa^aritlar v. 1077 and note the ritoal 
tenn rtXcir, tu accomplish a rile, in i'. 
964). Nor is iirurTpH^fUvoii without 
bearing ou this sii^estion ; foi Ihc victim 
which came by accident to the place or 
sacrifice was rt^aidcd as specially raaiked 
by the gwl, and the analogy was strictly 
extended to human sacrifice, as in the 
case of the Tauric Ariemis, lo whom weic 
offered a!i strangers whom she cnuKd to 
be cast on her shore. 

964. AEamcmnon has passed within ; 
Clytaemncstm follows him, turning nl 
the door for her final prayer. — tAiu 
'supreme' and over all, as the man over 
the house (cf. the title "Hpa rcXtlo given 
to the goddess of matronhood). Cly- 
taeimiestia conceives heiself to have a 
chiim upon the god of the family-life as 
the avenger of Iphigenia, if it is his 
pleasure lo inleifere at oil. — rAti- fUXai 
M AttfMplish my fraytri, and Iken thy 
prmridetKf may accompliih eviH join/ thou 
maytsl intend: i^. 'give me vengeance, 
he the sequel what it may'. fUXw- 
This use of the optative to signify ac- 
quiescence belongs to the same nrchaio 
syntax as the imperative optative (see v. 
936). For an enact parallel see llom. 
il-iy- 3£9 Xyy' fpi^> Tpuiai JM xaj ailrlna 
and I tenstnl thai fXcifiiiL Monro, thmeric 

Grammar % 199 for more illustrations),— 
For (lAnv specially of the menil frevi- 
ileme see v. jBl Dun *0a ni flfoftt ppaiSui 
iioKoBoi fiiXciv jhiait iSUrum x'^' "' 
TWTD. — I'. q6f is generally taken as 
merely a repetition of tAei, but this (i) 
makes it superfluous, (j) does not ac- 
count For the change of moot), and (3] 
iloes not juslily the generality of riirrrp 
ir /jAXtji.— If the reading be correct 
TMvmp (for Tcj. TttiTEp) is an example, 
said to he unique, of the Attic 'allrac- 
lion' occurring in a relative of this archaic 
form. It could be removed by reading 
either jiApi or (lAn rfpi (Maehly). See 

(>Gj. Clytaemncslra enters the bouse, 
leaving Cassandra sealed in her chariot. 
As to the scene generally al this point 
see the Introduction. 

967. StE'YpA lign, ij. 'advertisement' 
or 'wnmiiig' of something that is to 
come. For a not dissimilar use of the 
word, which in poetry is exiretncly tare 
and generally not common, see Eur. A'/. 
1174 (Orestes and Eleclra, after slaying 
Clytaemnestra. come from the house with 
blood upon their feet) Tportua MyiiaT' 
dSXdiW wpojipBi-ytiiriiiv 'a victorious ad- 
vertisement of the unhappy salutation (they 
will pronounce)'. 'Apparition, spectre' 
is nn impossible translation, as it does 
not give the proper meaning of ItUruiu. 
Stt'YiM must have been in M and is pre- 
sumably right ; but Ihe full interpretation 
of it must depend on that of the whole 
sentence, on which sec Appendix S,~- 
ier^a h. 


Kap&iav TerpaaKtnrov ', 

/ittiTtTToXeJ B' aKiKeviTTOi! afiiada-i aaiBd ; 

SuaicplTtav oveipnTtoii 

<ppev6^ {fiiXov Opovor ; ')(pa>'OV & iirl 
■n-pvfLvTjaiiov ^vpefi^oKoK 

fitjaev, evff inr "IXtoc 
aipro vavSttTaf arparoi. 

()7o. cuG'iiireirTiMnH.,.Bp( 
flaiHtd dream, and 

lite a 

IV ; Canst 

ich willing 
tnul at Iht mind it glad to refose upon t 
ij. ' whjr not dismiss at any rate for the 
lime forebtxiings too obscure to be of any 
use?' The speaker cuposlulates with 
himseir, a nalural form of speecli when 
the mind, as here, is personified.— ouSl 
.,.; literally "wilt ihou not even...}', or 
'net so muck as.,,}' — d i n i i i faitt i...I{tL: 
for the relation of Ihe participle and verb 
see 1*. 606. 611. 1031, ioji etc. The 
principul notion is in irorrtvai, nnd we 
should use in English (if ihis way of 
putting it may be loleraled) such a form 
as aOjc ArowT&otts, uotf iK^ffSiu ;— tLiroir- 
ritrat literally, Ihe act being supereti- 
tiously supposed eflicadous ns a magic 
prevention. If a dream can be inter- 
preted, well and good ; if not, you relieve 
your mind by "spiliine it away', and 
think no more about it. The object uf 
irorriaat (it, the foreboding) is readily 
supplied from the previous sentence. — 
(u'VoSlt (lacob) 'easy-believing', see on 
V. ]86, i.e. a voluntary trust assumed 
in default of contrary evidence. — ^fmit 
^IXav 6pivav r in apposition to Oipvn, 
Ulcrally 'a wekome seal to the mind '.— 
This senlence, nol really diflicull with a 
propel punctuation, is commonly taken 
as one with the preceding. There being 
then no rabject for irOTrT6aa.i,.,lin, 
Scaliger changed it to inywTi»ar..,tia, 

i.e. 'while confidence does nol spil il 
away.. .and sit on the seat of my mind'. 
But even so there is no satisfactory seme, 
as several further corrections show. The 
notions of 'spilting' and of 'silling on 
the seal of ihe mind', alUched as mtta- 
pkgts to a personified fld/ww, jar against 
each other, and the epithet ^kai is point. 

973—977- ^" "'"" *"'* Itaptd Ikt 
sand-gtaini of lltt share upon the anther- 
stones, since Ihi naval hsst set ferik H 
Thy: and they are relumed, as I knta 
by Ihe witnas ef my nam eyes, 1 
is so long since the sacrifice at Aulis, 
Bud the prophecies thereupon (v. 160) 
are so far refuted by the king's 1 
mm, that we might welt be re-assured*. 
— This passage has clearly twen defaced. 
and though Ihe error is probably small. 
certain resloralion is scarcely lo be hoped. 
The above tent is given merely as pos- 
sible.— *wl and AfiTOi Cod. J^an,.: 
■luTot Wellauer I suggest V's^i/uacrat 
OS a combination uf lellers likely lo pro- 
duce error from confusion of ifnii4ila, 
(from 'l«tii,iihv) with Ihe adjeclive if«/i- 
»uoi. 'nfi()iii|r(v: cf. v. 1470 piaoiitntr ' 
Codex Venclus for jiioo(W"*: one form 
of ^ closely resembles >i. being in facl a 
ji without the tail. For raf-oiiiai ft 
heap as a cover see d/tau, and compare 
irapanirlax"- »-aptutttXi5irTQi etc.— «pii)H>q- 
irlmv £wf|iPAHs: a (oriit^oXai h by 
etymology 'whai is thrown in wiih'_ 


vevdoftai S' 

avTOfj-apTvi i" 

dp^vov "E.pLV 

t \i-pat i 

, Vfiif^Bti 

■' (X'^p 

ffTrXayxva. S' ovtoi, liara^ei, 
irpo^ ivBiicai': <^pfa\v reXerrtficpoti 
SiVais KVKXov/iti'ov Kiap. 
evx°P^t 8' e'f ifiw 

981. ;p<i'n>T. 
something, here with the cables (vpv/unj- 
«a). Ai B description of the large stones 
which the Greeks used as anchork it 
seems a simple phrase. Naturally they 
were not always carried about, but left 
whecc Ibey lay, others being found at the 
ne>I mooring. The tuoaring of the fleet 
in Aulii was the important fact in the 
sloiy (see ircur^Tiin' d^iScii v. 105), and 
it is thus a natural sign of the lapse of 
time since the departure, to say that 
■the mooring-stones have disappeared in 
the sand'. — «Jt* Hrut in the temporal 
sense, as Sophocles occasionally {0. C. 
84) uses it for anet in the causal sense. 
Cf. the uses of irtl — yjiapfiii ixrat ffo/ii)- 
XWfi' Wecklein, from which I take the 
suggestion thai ^ in napTip-lierr is an 
error. That xp^"^ rafilfijiinr 'lime has 
passed his youth' should be used for 'a 
long lime has elapsed ' is incredible. 

y8o. tkiM yel as in v. 973 and con- 
stantly. t4v, dcroonstulive Ma( ilraiH 
{Cftfw}. 10 which BpTtMir 'SfitwCot is added 
as a further description after the ouuuicr 
of Homer [Monro Jfem. Cr. ^ ijS. 
ijy) — &vn Xiipnt tiwatt 'sings Tuithoul 
tie lyn as it lucrt' i.e. unbidden, unin- 
vited, duAfmmr [t. 969), an expieasioo 
apparently proverbial, and naturally 
arising from the Ureek hnbil of passing 
[he lyte in company. To receive the 
lyre was to be asked to singi ixtv \i)/>ai 
^(w therefore 'losing unasked'. That 


lyielcn 1 

s BneraUy ttA (se< 

oXr.poi, d^i/ijiurrot) is also here part of the 
meaning, as it is commonly explained. 
This however does not fully account for 
bwiM, which is commonly changed (after 
Auratus) to S^tui. Bui the point of this 
whole passage is nol merely that the 
presentiment is sad but that it is un- 
explained or, as we also say, 'uncalled 
for', — "Epiviist Porson. 

58]. oi t4 irov net le Iht full. The 
misgiving constantly recurs in spile of 
the encouraging circumstances. I w.-is 
mistaken here in doubling Ihe traditional 
reading; see on i-w. 185, 687. 

984. vwXdYXva. The metaphor passes 
from the ^n-ii to the iitwani parts of 
the victim from which he draws his ci 

985: Ihf tkroi thai with mtanmg ] 
reeurrenet tkr htart rtpeats to thi unmis- ' 
takin brmst, lilerolly "the coming round 
of the heart with portentous revolution 
against the tiulh-telling breast'. The 
form of expression is strange to our Ian. 
guage but in itself powerful and natural. 

987. Bat I fray my false exftctatiaH 
may lest itselj in void, literally, 'that out 
of my expectation may come falsehood 
falling into non-accomplishment'. — Note 
Ihe correlation of <£.,.!«.— ifvSi) is really 
part of the predicate like a 'proleptic* 
epithet. (The form is presumably right : 
Ihcro is no reason why itiijot should not 
have existed as well as ^ufloi. The stem 
i^vS- ii wuruled by fndiJiJ.—The HS. 


iXtriSav ■^liSij ireaeiv 

es TO HI] Tf\ea<f>6poi/. 

fuiXa y/ip rot rn? iroXXn; vyieiav 

aKOp€<TTov Ttpfta' paa-ov yap 

yeiTuiv oftoratjfo'i epei'Set. 

ital iroTpo-i evOuTTop^if 

dvSpoi eiraiaev a^avTOv IpfUi. 

Koi t6 pxv iTpa j(pttfidTw 

trrp. ^. 990 


here is correct. The Cad. Fam. scriflar 
substitutes tlSxa-\lt<u 3' ir' i-\nat t« | tX- 

Mon of the strophe, ^aniii\aj drd,nit 
rap-\Jipti9' { tM' kt\. In the rollowing 
ilrophae he has made other like conjec- 
tures, of which no notice is here taken. 

990—991. If these lines origiimlly 
corresponded by syllables to the anli- 
slrophc (trv. 1004—1005), ihcy must be 
injured beyond lestoralion. The mean- 
ing is clear in both places. On the 
metre see AppendJK Il.^'True il is that 
IA< kiaUk, whi€k aboundt, tn<roa£ka; for 
sickness is its neighbour right up to Che 
wall', Le. 'high condition passes easily 
into bftd condition', anc) generally, as the 
prorerb is interpreted in the nent lines, 
'great prosperity is dangerous'. — ■ytip toi 
formula of assentli^ answer, in which 
yiif means not far but more nearly in- 
detd, — rat iroXXaC vyi^Im: literally, the 
health tuhitti il muck : health lies in 
moderation, nnd is essentially a iffaw 
not a TroKi.—i.KipWTO* WpfUii i/i bsun- 
dary U unsatisjUd or rafaciaus, the 
quality of the encroaching ncighliour 
being metaphorically given to the boun- 
dary {rtpiia) which he pushes forwurd 
into his neighbour's land. The meaning 
is that, becoming tsXX^, iyltui neccs- 
latily tnlargis into tiam, there Ijcing no 
unoccupied land between them.— ^CSn 

993 — 994- ^1"^ hmnaH farluHc. fun- 
ning loo ilraigkl, oft striits an a hulden 
rttf. — ttvSpii: ij. fipoToO as occasionally 
inpoetiy. liee I'Mi, 41J where iripdnoi 

is opposed to Sioit, and note iheic. 
There is no sign here of anything lost. 
Sec on the autislrophe. 

993 — ^1009. A difficult passage, in 
some points not eiplicable with the exist- 
ing materials. The general conneliaa i> 
this. All prosperity is dangerous [990 — 
994) : and, while some kinds of loss may 
l>c averted by a timely and willing sac- 
rifice of gain (995—1000). which sac- 
rifice itself the bounty of heaven cm 
make good (tooi — 1003), the /i/ii once 
lost is never restored (1004—1006), no, 
not the life of the most vinuous (1007— 
1009). Note thai va. looi — 1003 are 
not a Fresh illustnttion of the point 
that prosperity can be restored, but a 
parenthetic remark upon the forcgiHng 
illuslratton, as is shown by (he con- 
necting panicle (toi not a copula). This 
is pointed out by Mr Uousman in the 
paper before cited, "Jmirnal of Phitottgy, 
XVI. p. a;i, where he discus!«9 the whole 

99s. -ri ^ answers 10 Tj fil in p. 
1004, on Ihi em hand. ..en the elhtr. 

995—1000. The metaphor is token 
from a boat which may be saved if not 
overloaded ; but neither the meaning nor 
the construction can be fixed withant 
further information on ir4tvMi>M in' 
tifittfav. The current expl.onation b 
that SKvoi is the 'fear', which throws 
the cargo overboard in a storm, and thai 
o^riirat ix' tiftiTpov means ' with well- 
meaaured throw '. But a sling has . 
nothing to do with the casting away of 
cargo, slill less has the mtature of a 

a<f>et/B6va^ a-jr (ij/i€Tpov, 
ovK eSv •rrpowat Sofiof 
vafLOvai yifiwv dyav. 

v^irriv mKeirev voaov. 

TO 6' €ir\ fSfV veaov aira^ Bavdviiioe 

999. »I((BW4(. 

sling, whether refeired to the capacity of 
the sling, or (if this is possible) to the 
length of the throw. None of the mean. 
ings of ir^»Ji»ii, which arc various but 
all tiBceable to that of a iHng, is admis- 
sible here; and as the words are rnaoi- 
festlf genuine, there is an infinite lield 
foi conjcclure as to their unknown sense. 
See Appendix T. — rd |ktv vpi jf/iffi/rmv 
trryrlm: literally 'so far as, concerns the 
preKFvation of wealth*; npi where prose 
would use i-rlp on Mai/ of. (We con 
scarcely separate tfA from x^rHiAriar, 01 
make xp- <"'' mean 'the main cargo' as 
opposed to part of it.)— 4"vot PaUv 
(XF^H*™) if afprthinsion diiehargts il: 
for Ihe 'pendent' nominative participle 
cf. Supp. 4J5 Eol TXwtfda TsfilVoffo jiTi ti. 
■alfxa. 7^1'oira lUiBvu /tiOos or fcXiTiy/iiat : 
il is really 'in apposition to' the main 

I seotence, like the much commoner accus- 

, aliTe {v. 136); the ' casting -off ' is 'the 
not-uotcing of the house'.— v4<vU>v« 
rfV tt^irpon: from tic dulyaieightrd 
iling, ij. from \ he balance (?) : see Ap- 
pendix. — Si|U)i is not part of the metaphor 
of the ship, but is the thing metaphori- 
cally compared lo a ship, the house (cf. v. 
388), which by liberality de^res tocscope 
Ihe penally of loo much, ■wa^orwi 

I ft^mr ffav : mifr-fraught -uiilh richts 
(Huuiman). For -KO-ivai-l). from rdo^uu, 
te fosstsi, 3 synonym nf TB>ia. compare 

' the parallel forms rij^r^-r^^ia, ya^it-wnj" 
Xip**"' ''^'Ji'>""''t-'''^V^'' : Boilso irairi!' 

1004. utehtS'. 

KTTfjit Hesychius, rdropd- itnjropM 
Photius. See Ihe paper above cited for 
an interesting discussion of this rare class 
of words. Il may be taken as certain 
that irafionj would appear in our Mss.- as 
■rT\psivi\, and I do not doubt that Mi 
Housman is right ; iri^fuaiaa miiikiif, 
damage, is contrary lo the sense. 

rooi — 1003. /{ith 111/ knaia aiuiaiun- 
danl is Ihi gift of Zeus, and rids Ike 
plagui of hunger out of Ike annual field, 
i.e. the produce of each year supplies the 
yeaj's food. The application of this 
commonplace (note toi) to the present 
purpose is this, that as Heaven gives 
man year by year in plenty what is need- 
ful for him, the eagerness for more than 
plenty is incicusable. In agriculture, 
as usual, is sought the type of natural 
prmperity, and in commerce (cf. the im- 
fiiu raits of Horace Qd. i. 3 etc.) that of 
avarice and excess.— BXnriv vdrov, as if 
hunger were some weed or other mis- 
chievous thing in the soil (cf. d^prof 
oianifi tbem Eum. 4S1, 943) which Zeus, 
by his bounty, destroys. This concrete 
and picturesque way of putting the idea 
is quite in the manner of the old prover- 
bial poetry, such as that of Hesiud, 
which Aeschylus is here following and 
probably quoting. — '^aair (Schiitz) is 
not technically probable and seems need- 

•npairap avhpo^ fUXav alp-a Tit a 
•iraKiv dyKoKeaaiT hraeiboiv ; 
oC&e TOP opOoBai} 
rmu (ftfftfievatv av ett' avka^eiif. 
(I Se fit) Terayfth/a 

tooj. |iAav: see on 7»<*. ^j. 

1007. ei!61,.,BvX(i^(fi nay, h nvive 
Ike mast ilrailly ciriuimi vitre a tin : 
liletally, 'not even the sinutly viiiuoiu of 
Ihe dead may one recall fiom tbe dead 
withinnDCency'. — dv, supply dvuaMirai- 
Ti ni, Ihe elliptical ar markin)'. as 
usual, ihnl the verb of (he previuus 
liciitencc. as well as llie subject, is con- 
linued. — riv JpfloSaij literally 'the 
rightly whooled ', cf. the Humeric 
tat^par virluBiu. The alluiuoD is to the 
standing exai):iple of Hippolytus (Find. 
^d. 3. 98, Eur. Ait. 113, Horace, Oti. 
4. 7. IS, Verg. AeM. 7. 765)1 for re- 
storing him tu life Asclepios was iilain by 
Zeus, and according to one form of the 
■lory Hippolytus also perished a second 
time (see Horace). Hippolytus is the 
typical aictlic trained in the Orphic 
discipline above the 
humanity (see Eur, /lipp. 
pasiim). Hence ipf oSn^t h 
itself i^ probably Orphic; 
ences to the late Orfihiea 

the genitive is constructed (as portiliTie) 
with rdf ifSaiafi and is also supplied {as 
ai/ative) with the verb. — tir' aJiXoPtlf : 
i.t. *»■ dpXap<(f (h) where iwl expresses 
the terms and conditions upon which a 
thingis done. I retain under reserve the 
form «iiXa(3f(? as given, perbapsrighlly, by 
the MS. The itiitial p of the stem fiXap- 
is supposed by some to represent an orig- 
inal f. From df\apri! the regular Aeolic 
formation would be aiJXa^iji, as avpi)icTBi 
[a-fptiKTit) tipi-n ('-^>l) hi xMcaeua, 
Ulll tbe preservation of that form miglit 
be due to some literary association. — 
The metre shows that either this passage 

has been interpolated or tbe stnf)he 
is deficieoL To prove thai the ant 
is here, it is almoBi enong^ that the 
metiE can be exactly mended by ta 
excision which leaves a text plainly liable 
to be misunderstood and Glled up. Tilt 
chances against this as an acddenl are 
enormous. Moreover while Ihe strophe 
is perfect sense, (his as it stands is 
unconslruable. The exact origin of lb« 
insertion we cannot expect to trace; it 
appear^i lo be Irom a note or itoija, 
iriyoi and Zci>[ ai>Tv Iwavac 1^. ' Supply 
dntriH ', ' Zeus put an end to it ', or the like. 
1010. Aaii were it not that Iht dterta 
ef Jdie (Acci and limit one aaelAer. »iy 
ktarl, eutrunniHg my timfut, vmmU Aaee 
pound thtsi baiings Jarth. *So itrony 
is my sense of an evil destiny at work, 
that I must perforce have spoken, tut 
for the consoling reflexion, that it may be 
counteracted by a good destiny', G» 
there are many divine powers, whose 
purposes sometimes clash, and in the 
case of Agamemnon there is evidence 
both for the evil destiny and for the 
good, (rrofessor Goodwin, cited and 
followed by Mr Sidgwick). — ftrvffkn..,. 
kn Siuv dicrud by gods iKlongs both to 
liaXfV. and (supplied again in the accus- 
ative) to>uxpar. — |itj vXiov ^ifiKt: liter- 
ally jram witating men, eiuroatking 
further : cf. irXtoWmH taiitig mart Ikan 
your awn. — Dr Wecklein refers fuipa 
^pof to different conditiatis of men (king 
and subject) and explains the meaning 
to he that respect prevented the elders 
from speaking out. The sense put on 
fuupa b perfectly legitimate, but would, I 
think, require more indication in the 
context than there is. ' 


/u>ipa fioipav iie 6(mi/ 

tipye /*'} TrXeoc (fiepetp, 

irpo^Baaaaa icaphia 

y\<Sa<rav ai^ t«8' e^fx^i. 

vuv 8 VTTo ffKor^ /Spe/iei 

dvfiaXyi'i^ Te itai ouSec eweXTTOfiAva woTe 

tealpiov eKTo\vTTev<T€iv 

^wTTvpavfj^vav ippevo^. 

€iat0 KOp,i^ou xa'i av, K.aaavhpav \eyai, 
eirei a eOtjKf Zei)s' dpi/vlTWi &6p.oi.^ 
KQivasvaii eivai ^epviffai', iroWmi/ fierti 
SoijXwc trTaOetiraii KTqaiov ^(Ofiov Trt'Xoj. 
enffau' utt'Jj'j/? Ti;<rSe, /iT/S virepi^povu. 
Koi tralha yiip Tot ^aiTiv AX^/iiJi'ij? Trore 
irpadevra TXijvai BavXla^ fi.a^Ji'; fiia. 

,015. ^T.M 

lois— loij. vv» W "iiJ il is I ponder 
the matter sadly and without reaching 
any conclusion ', or as Aeschylus eipnases 
it in an image homely, but vivid and 
telling, my Atari mutlers in darkHtn. 
vtxal anJ kopelas air to -mnd off ill 
lask in limt, wkiU ti itirT Ike firt vatkin 
me. The figure is that of a woman with 
bet wool, working in the winter ogninsi 
lime, as we say. with no better light than 
ihe gels by stirring her lire. Virgil may 
perhaps have taken a touch from here for 
a well-known picture in the Afneid (8. 
.fio), 'cum femina primum, | cui tolcrare 
Colo vitam tenuique Minerva | imposi- 
tom. iiKeremflsopilosntscilatigHes \ noc- 
tem addens open '. 

1019. Clytucmneitrii, coming from 
the house, Unds Cassandra still scaled in 
the chariot and summons her imperiously 
tojoin,asa member of the household, the 
sacrifice which is to be performed within 
for the king's return. 

1010. a)iiT|vCTa« not UHgnuintsly, 
because m a. house where according to 
humane and ancient custom the slaves 
are, lo the due extent, tii-ated ai mem- 

orr. lo ^pipti. 

bers of the fomily, nol merely as challels 
to be worked. 

1031. XTi]a-fov p«|iov: the altar of 
Zeus Ktesios, guardian of the property 
and ihcrcforc of the slaves. 

lOJJ. ■rpBBfcTU.TXijvai literally 'being 
sold (o^ a slave) endured', i.t. tort up 
under llii condilions cf ilttvciy. The 
phrase miiat I>c dislingmshcd from (r\r\ 
rpaS^rat 'bore lo be sold'; see Til/-. 
739 (tTtlpat IrXa and note there.— Sou- 
Ua« p<ll<)t pCfi It spile ef Ihe slaves' 
bnrlA. Heracles, as lieing habitually a 
great feeder, a ijualily always and natur- 
ally ascribed to him in the stories on 
account of his great strength, would feel 
the more this sotl of privation. Hence 
the popular saying, which Clytaemneslra 
coarsely applies lo the cose of the en- 
slaved princess. — The slight quasi-pcr- 
sunificaliun of the fare as a thing to 
contend against is scarcely noticeable in 
the style of Aeschylus, and the hs. 
reading should nol be suspected. The 
spelling SouXelni and the omission of the 
tela sabicripl are both regular. 

fi S ovv avdyK-rj r^ffS e-rrippevoi rvj^^v, 
€ip-)(aioTr\oina>v hetrtror^v Trd)CKTi j(apii' 
o\ 8" oiwoT eXTTiffavrev fjfirjffav KaX'os. 
tifioi T€ BoiiXoK TTairra Koi waptiaraff/ioi. 
e)(ei'i trap t}p.aiv oldirep vofii^erai. 
XO. aoi Toi \ijovaa iravrrai aa^ij Xoyov. 

I p-opuifitov iiypeup,aro)v 

10^9. rapatrrifffMiir, 


, 'Ihaloi 

icnpliea as usual that othei 
e dismissed and this hypo- 

o be a slave 

inslMd (see on ti. 681). In EnglUh Ihc 
effea U given by stress, -if that (ate 
lAeuiJUll to one'. A scholium nghtly 
explains ihe meaning by filling up the 
ellipse; 40X1^ fUp^ 't^V^i t*^ rtipadijriu 
ituKilai, il ti VEi/)<^i rii, KiXXiar ipx'*'- 
mrXw'TOii *ou\.il(u.. Cr. C»ff. {63 foil. 
tai Hi olhii ir...H(atTa' il S' oBt aiiti't'<^ 
'bul if I da enter" etc., Soph, O. 7". Sjl 
tl S' oSr Ti niKrpiwKn 'but even if he 
skeald diverge wmcwhat' etc., and 
passages collected in Paley's nole. — 
(rifipliRHi: the optative puts the case as 
an Imaginary gcneraJ supposition. iw\f- 
p/wti (h) most refer to the particular 
present case of Cassandra, but then d 
should be ^(Jand llic pronoun rj-o< would 
be required after the intervening IT'. 1034 

1018. 4|iii(mv icaXiti lilerally 'have 
made a good heap' 1,1. become suddenly 
ricli. This scn.<ie of diidu (naeefi lagelhrr) 
is more comraoo in the compounds eta- 

in later tileialuTe for the simple verb (see 
L. and 5c. s.v.). I think we should 
assume it here and refer the origin of the 
phrase to Ihe language of mining. It 
translates in fact exactly the vulgar 'make 
a pile'. That this cipression is vulgar 
by modem convention is of course nothing 
to Ihe point. The rendering ' have made 
A good harvest' (in Bepwimv schol.) has 
the advantage of giving to d^du its older 
^ But it is not likely that in any 
,iage a harvest should be taken as 

the type of sudden and unexpected gus ; 
whereas the gains of mining are naUnSf 
and typically such. 

I oi<] : an It thdr slavts in all Ikimp 
inul and Mier-aiictiiig.—'nafiirraifM 
'eiceeders of the proper standard': d. 
rapdnfiot. The grammar requires an 
adjective, to be joined by -n Kol la 
iiial. Otherwise what is [he txmtttuf- 
lion of TI? On technical grounds rapt- 
BTiSiu-ir {ropaoTdSfiui ?) is at least as 
likely to represent Tupiaraffiict as wf^ 

1030. Thou -irt rativing /rem w 
the ir/atmcnl due by eustem, in being 
invited, that is. to shore the family wor- 
ship, an example already of what she 
may expect. See on v. lOJO. 

1031. nl..,«aitTBt 'Ai la Ika tki 
has sfHtten, and fiiainly. The participle 
is principal, ncuicTai adding only the 
notion that she is waiting [/^msing) for 
compliance. — oo^ii- i^nly loo plain, as 
they think, 

1031. aK-iTitBoi' iv. The oplAtive 
with or Is used as a gCDlle Iniperutive, 
properly a suggestion of something whjc^ 
may be done. The courtesy of tbe 
speaker thro¥n> into relief the harshnea 
of the queen. As this courtesy dictates 
the conditional form of tbe imperalfve, 
that fonn is naturally and properly 'fore- 
felt* from the beginning of Ihe sentence, 
which is the elfecl of the anticipatory tr. 
— iXaiwa (C. G. Haupt). 

1033. *t mlSoio : a further qualifica- 
tion, if thou jvBulJil (obey): see v. 139J. 
dini6o(i)t S'(£y) trnt: i.e. though I can 

understand it if ; 

do noL div is ci 


TTtldoi av, ei treiSoC' avfiffaiijt: B' iVaiv. 
KA. dX\' eiirep itrTL fir) ^eXiSoPos Bikijv 

ayi'wra {jtwvrjv ^lip^apov KeK-njfi.ein}, 

ea-in tfipeuaif Xeyovffa ireiBoi wiv \6y<p. 
XO, eTTOu" Tu X^ara twh irapeo'TtaTwi' \eyei. 

■jriBov XtTToOco Tovh' a/ta^'ipri Bpovov. 
KA. ovToi Bupalav TqvS' ifioi <rj(o\rj trapa 

rpiffuv ra p,ev yap earlai; fieaofupoKou 

lOjS. rcWou. 

on as in Sopb. O. T. 937 ithva lUr, TWt fuUtiwR, and al such ) 

I' o4k in; d«x<'^XMi 3' lii<a%: literally 

'peihaps thou majesl tlisobey'. 

1034. If her fortigtf ttigut is any- 
thing Uss HHiHtM'giMe that a jwa/iirui'i 

tuiitUriug. p^ x<^'^'>'°* B(ki|w BTvSTa. 

Note that by the aiAa and rbylbm the 

n^ative belongs to ;(<Xii4«ii Biitijr, not 

.0 ^faiHiv pippapef Hitriuiirti. The queen 

rfoes no! suppose Cassandra to speak 

Greek or to know il, but she holds an 

opinion, which slill, though not proressed, 

is often betrayed, that her own language 

is essentially rational, and that the speech 

of any human being must bear so much 

analogy to il, as to make it intelligible, 

if ifuJieit simply and clearly. Every one 

will have heoid imvellers, who have 
I nothing but English, (tying to convey 

Iheii meaning to (oreigners by speak- 
ing emphatically and briefly. — For the 

noallaw, a standing romparison, cf. 
' Arisloph. Frags 688, Birds 1681. 

1036. TJu persuasiani I urge are 
tfokm milAiH her tindertioHdiHg, Again 
the participle ia principal as in v. loji. 

1037. Ta X^ffTd ™ii vnpw luiuk 'of 
what the circumstances allow'. P. V. 
131, Aristoph. Knights JO (Wecklein). 

lojg. 1 have ne leisure, ynu may iticor, 
lo ht dallying lUiroad. — Clylaemncstro, 
throughout this scene, haughtily affects 
popular cxpretsion; and images (vd. 1034, 
1018, 1034). — hipBla* '\i a substantive, 
like rfXnroJa (see iuvtit^ rpowaliui v. 119) 
and liicUct { — <ir^). An ellipse of r/iifJi}r 
can scarcely be 5up]M>se(t| when the verb 
Tpl^ar, (at which it is lo be su])plied, 

. Hul 
there is no reason why the ellipse should 
not have become stereotyped and thus 
formed a popular substantive Bvpalagad- 
tliii^, slaying aul af the house. For an 
exact parallel see TkS, 691 rpoiraip 
iy»»I? fffui &r fXSoi StKituatipif iri'di/iari 
where vro^, lost by fixed ellipse in 
Tpoirotp, reappears in imtiVjioii, 05 here 
rp^i, in Tp(^«».— BxoXil'' Dobree; but 
axa\ri here is an unlikely error. 

1 040. rd ifkn 7dp Jirrlai iiwroti^iiXov 
KtX. btetally Tor as lo the matter of 
the cenlral hearth, the sheep are already 
placed', 1./. 'the stale of our sacrifice 
within is that the sheep' elc.^For t4 
iiniix luetii^iXvv, gratntnalically in a 
loose apiKjsition lo the sentence tati^vr 
«t\., cf. V. 995 rb iih rpi xmiiArat and 
V, 81 r t4 4' ii ri air ^p&riUiB. So Peile 
and others rightly ; but )Uv 
answers to H in v. 1043 (Hcrmannl.— 
The allemalive is to take ri as a demon- 
strative anticipatii^ ^q\a (Monro Horn. 
Grammar fg ijS. 159) and ^nriat as a 
locative with (erfiKt. But the locative 
uses of the genitive (see Monro Hem. 
Grammar % 149) do not seem tu justify 
this; ^irrlBt terriKf should mean 'stand 
on the altar side' or 'in the altar part" ol 
something. The rhythm also seems lo 
be in favour of connecting ierlat prima, 
rily with rd iiir, although wc mnst doubt- 
less supply from it the local definition of 
CoTTiiio, ao that there is not much practi- 
cal difference between the two views. 
See also the next note.— The epithet 
|u<rojri^£Xou deserves altunlion. It must 


ettTqKev ijBrj fiijXa tt/jos' iripayaf -rrvpa^, 
(is ovtror iXwiaairi ttji-S" efeic j^dpiv. 
ail 5' ti Ti hpaaei<; rwi'Se, /i') ox'^^'i^ ri$u. 
el B' d^vv'jfiiiH' ovffa fiij £^;^e( \6yot'. 


refer here lo [he position of Ihe iltar in 
lit rtMre of the aiXi, or court of ihc 
palace, within. But why this coininon 
poHlion should be so prominently marked 
is not clear; and it is remarkable that 
while Ihe word, otherwise almost un- 
known, occurs in the tragedians repeated- 
ly u the familiar title of the sanctuary at 
Delphi (7»/ft. 73a etc.! Eur. /an 461 
has the exact phrase fuai/i^iaXot iatli), 
this is the only place where it is applied 
to anything else ; and we should therefore 
look for some intention. Now Cassandra 
(see the sequel) is wearing her robes and 
intiignia as prophetess of Apollo, is dressed 
in fiu;t as the Pythia. To this, I beUeve. 
Clytaemncstra mockingly refers: the full 
force of T& fitv ^flrlar ^uimft^aXdu.... iri> 
H iT^. is 'as for a /nrla liirtiiipaXoi, that 
is all ready : iSfim, the prophetess, mean 
to take youi part, you must come at 

1041. irpit iri^Yat irvpit far Ihe 
saerifici of tht jilt, i.e. for the feast which 
they were already holding in honour of 
Ihe beacon (liip as in Vs. ^St, J93, 
where the sacrifices also are mentioned, 
iluat I6um>). This, says Ihe queen, they 
had commenced before, no! expecting (as 
indeed well they might not) lo have 'the 
present joy' of seeing the king arrive 
close after his message. Consequently 
victims and all arraneenicnls for a feast 
are already al hand in Ihe palace ; Ihe 
ceremony is already prepared and there- 
fore the queen has no time lo waste — 
The received interpretation of irpii i0a- 
7^1 Tupit, so far as any is received, has 
been 'lo be slain for the fire', i.f. for 
burning on the altar. But a long list of 
corrections (ripot, Musgravc, the least 
ntuatisTaciory) shows thai this is fell to 

be indefensible. The use of the otqectire 
genitive would be bold, bat much mOK 
alien from Greek would be the supetflnigr 
of the phrase and of the most proou- 
nent word rupii. Besides, without some 
reference to the previous occasion for 
sacrifice, there is no point in v. 1041. 
where HirSt XV" implies an hiinp'. 
After the for^ioing scenes lAt ioirifia of 
Ike Art is quite as intelligible aj it \-. 
meant 10 be. 

1041. alt sAmrr' iXtrlinim as it w 
nrvtr exptclcd, literally 'as for persons qui 
having any expectation'. The absence 
of a defining pronoun \f^. qiur which 
Kennedy would read for ffitj^ gives the 
same force as the English passire. — 
iron gencralizex and cmpha^ses ibc 
negative, exactly as in Ihe English mrtr 
for not> So ^tiHr rare v. n 34. oO yip 
»<""' iCx"'"' "■ s'l.^Those who take 
rpit ■i4ayii irujiii for "in readiness for 
burnl-offering', lake v. 1041 10 mean 'is 
for an imexpecled triumph'. But surely 
this coulil not account for the fael thai 
the victims were ready now. The more 
sudden the occasion. Ihe loi^r would 
be the time required for preparation. 

1044, d sinee. Clytaemnestra ex- 
plains her command by gesture. 

1045. G)markstheapod(isis,<ri stands 
for a repetition of dfivij^fwr oBati, 'thou, 
being what thou art'. For both see 
Eum.SSStl^if iytir iarl am if .floiB aifin 
...oi> «■ dB» ;i;»«i a*.— Others (Wecklein) 
refer irli to the elder, who is to explain 
Clytaemneslra's words by signs. Bui il 
does not appear why she should no! do 
so herself, anil il is dillicull to refer Kapfiar^ 
X'pi to any hul Ihc foreigner.— ^pol« 
sigi^i/y your mcitning. See Herod. 4. 
113 mi ftur^vu lUt i>fx tlx'. b6 -yA^ 



XO. ipfJLffvio}^ ioiKeif ^ fei^ ropov 

SetaOai' rpoiro^ Be Orfpd^ w vea^pirov. 

KA. ^ puiveral ye /cal /ca/cwv /cKvei <l>pep£v, 
^Tt9 Xiirovaa fih^ iroKiv pealperov 
rfK€i, x^oOuvhv S* ovK iirurrarai (f>ip€tv, 
Trplv aifiaTf)p6v i^a<l>pl^€<r0ai fiivo^. 
ov p/fjv 7rX€6> pl^aa drifiaaOija'Ofiai. 

XO. iy<o S*, iiroi/creipo^ yap, ov OvfiaiaofiaL 
iffy 60 raXaiva, rovS iprffidaaa Sj^op, 
cKova avdrf/cff r^Se Kalviaov ^vyov. 


OTOTOTOTot iroirol Ba. 
coTToWov oiiroWop. 
XO. t/ ravT aptarorv^a^ dfi<l>l Ao^lov; 

ov yap TOtoOrov &(jt€ Opffprjrov rvxelp, 


chroWop (SiroWop. 
XO. ^ S' avre hva^fiovaa top deop /caXel 
ovBkp irpoariKOPT ip 700*9 irapacrrarelp. 



orp. a 

apT, a. 


1048. ij. 

105 1 — 1 158. Readings of M. 

1052. /i^ (/iV m). 


1045. Cassandra takes no notice of 
the queen, but her bearing and gestures 
begin to express a great horror. The 
elders understand nothing: Clytaemnes- 
tra understands only too well. Per- 
ceiving her imprudence and danger she 
quits the stage hastily as if in indignation 
at the captive's perversity. 

1047. Note the emphasis on dctd'^oi: 
'An interpreter, and a plain one, she does, 
it seems, want*. — rpdirot 8i: prose would 
use ydp, English no conjunction at all. 

1048. icXirfi listens to, obeys. 

1 05 1. at|Aan|pdv predicate, in blood, 
1051. / will not waste more words to 
be thus scorned, 

1055. Take on thee without resistance 
the new yoke of this necessity, cLvdCYiqi 
the common possessive dative or dative 

*of interest' (see v, 1105 and passim). 
The ivdyKTi is personified as im{K>sing 
the yoke. For the antithesis kov<r 
dvdYK^ (do willingly what must be done) 
see V. 934 Kpdrot fi4v rot irap4s y iKtbv. — 
To substitute etKova (Robortello) is need- 
less and makes the expression more 

1056. Cassandra leaves the chariot 
and comes forward, away from the palace. 
The prophetic frenzy is upon her and 
she sees both the past and the future of 
the bloody house. — iroirot 8d. The origin 
and original meaning of these exclama- 
tions is uncertain, ba is commonly iden- 
tified with a Doric form for 7a. totoI 
Dindorf : ir6irM others. 

1057. "AiroXXov. The story is given 
below, V, 1 101. 

1061. 8i yet, where prose would use 

'AiroXXoc 'AiroWov 

arfviar , airoKKoiv «';*os' 

aTTfoXeffas fAp ov /loXt; to heintpov. 
XO. jfptjaetu eoiK€v ti/^l Ttoi' aivT^« /raKoJi', 

^fEt TO delov BovXia Trap' ?)/ ^pfvi 
KA. "AttoXXov "ATroXXoii 

071/ (qt", aTroXXwc e/ioi, 

a 7ro( iroT rjr/a^e^ /m; TTpos Troiav areyiv; 
XO. Trpo? T^i" ' ArpetBaiv. el irii fij) t6&' fwoeis, 

e'yfo Xt'^w <Toi' ical tqS' oi!* e'pew •^vBtj. 
KA. .1 d 

fiiffofftov fihi ovv, iroXXa trvvioTopa 

avToipova icaiea /capra' vat, 

1 0-}(i. roprdtai. 


1065. dnSXXov Ifif omiXiru yi^, 
bringing oul Ihe suggestion of the name. 
od yJlhit ' more Ihnn eooiigli ' to ileserre 
Ihe name. — dywaTa, vac. of iywA-rrrt ; 
addressing (as a new-comer to tlie honse?) 
Ihc guardian A|io11o Ijcforc Ihe door in 
Ihe street (d^Mil). So Polynices leaving 
his father's house addresses his farewell 
specially to the *oi^i>r 'Kiivit {PMorn. 
631, sec also Ar. Vcsf: 8fi9>. 

1066. £irA(ras thou Ami lien a 

1067. XP'I*"^''- '''' ^^ '^ obout lo 
'declaim' in the style of inspiration- It 
is noticeable that the first effect of this is 
to diminish their sympathy sensibly; they 
are even disposed lo mock and sneer 
(w. 1071^73). Their attitude towards 
Itamu^ is the common attitude of super- 
stition, a dislike between respect and 

. contempt. 

Tht soal ntaini inspiralioH, 

■htn all is slave but thai. SovXtfi irB|> 

^literally 'slave-like save one thing'or 

,'wilh one exception'; for the use of 

■ ««pd see L. and Sc. s. ti. To understand 

■e (which, as I think, is spoilt by 

I writing, afiet Schiiti, SavMp »rp in) we remember that ihe Greeks viewed 

the iivKn as something in nalure diflfer- 

en( from the i\i69fpot, something between 

the complete man and the mete animal, 
and also held that, as Homer saji, cn- 
sUvement changed Ihe nature, bnilaliiii^ 
and debasing it lo the new coniUlioa. 
The stilemenls of philosophy on these 
subjects merely make precise what was 
before implied in popular language. Of 
this the elders suppose themselves lo be 
witnessing a signal illuslralion : Cas- 
sandra, they think, is scarcely rational; 
she can nrither understand nor ^gniff 
her thoughts, but a slave tnif^t be 
'possessed' no less than Ihe free, and 
the dictum here, conceived in a spirit by 
no means respectful to t4 0<to*, rests 
upon this fact. 'The spiritual Inculty*, 
if we may translate the phiasc into modi 
later conceptions, 'is the last logo'. Bnt 
the sarcasm recoils, as is Ihe inlentioni 
upon the >>peakcn. 

io;i: 'if Iheu (the prophetess) per- 
ceivest not that, /can tell it Ihee: and 
thou will nol find it untrue', a sufficiently 
palpable insinuation. 

1075. voiXa.'rmltmfa./iill f/gitUty 
secrets: ffwIffTOpa (from nvnJMcai ti 
ia\n^ to have a thing upon the conscience) 
takes the construction (iroXXi) of a. parti- 
ciple. Kiihner Cr, Gmmmar, % 4OQ1 
note 4a — Kuid, in apposition to «^U. 

1076- See Appendix U. 


aiiopoe7if>ayelov, TraiSioppavn^piov. 
XO. eoiKeir eSpi<i ^ fei^ kvvos BU->)v 

tluai, fiarevei S" cSc anevptiaet <fjovov. 
KA. fi.apTvpioLfTt yiip ToitrS' eTrivei6ofiai' 

K\ai6fi€va Ta ffp€<f>Ti a^ya<; 

dn~rnr re aapnat ■n-pix; vaTpat Qe^patfUvcK. 
XO. r)iiev Kkio^ aav fiavTiKov ■jre-TTvafUvot, 

Tj/ifv' ■rrpo^rjTa<{ S' ovrtvat fuurrevofitp. 

1077. ivXjiia ai^dyiBr ml iriioppavT-ipioi: 1079. /""""ij 

I o; 7. dvtpov^-yfiov Dobree : woi- 
GioppavnipLov : for Ihe error compare 
rmSlnr (Ml for irrllor V, 309; it iii a 
common cimliision of spelting. The word 
u > compoand like driipiw^'Yfrot. made 
b]r the poel for Ihe occasion: a plan 
V}ktre human btings arc satrificed, when 
iaiti an bird for Hie ipritiHiiig, both 
v^itw and ^riir lieing here used S!t 
lenns of ritual. Il U to be remembered 
thai the children of Thyesles(seei'.;o8i) 
were slain as Agamemnon h about lo be 
slain, under the pretext of a sacrificial 
feast (sec v. 1 591}.— rrSo/ipai^puW' is 
generatt]? allowed lo be faulty; there is 
no force in describing the house :ts 'a 
place where tht jUmr is sprinkled'; the 
us. reading I lake to have come from 
■n attempt lo leslore the metre, destroyed 
by the miispelling Ttiko^farHiput*. The 
correction is suggested 10 me by Weil's 
Tai3i»(^7<roi' fur AirSpoe^'yilw i and 

1079. (IvaL : note the emphasis {w. 
14, 1047 clc); 'The strange womflji ii 
indetd, it seems, Leen at a nient. She 
ii upon a trail of blocNl where slie will 
find il': literal ty ' she is seeking the blood 
of iboae of whom she will Irnd the bloud'. 
The elders, at first little impressed, lie- 
comc grave at the allusion to the crime 
of Atreus. The fact thai they now c.^mi- 
pichend Couandrs is strongly in favour 
of the reading TtutiefipaiiTtipiar, without 
which there Ja nothing iil her words 
■aBdeDllj definite to convince tbem.— 



B f, h, iwwpij^d Potsi 
o. (UifTUptouri r.iiiu 
ULi Alirtsch. 

TotcrS' iiri- 

I08j. We had heard of Ihy fanu at 
prefhetess, had heard of il 1 we steh nent 
lo ijieak for t/iet. irpo^TO^ i.e. itifrru- 
pat, literally -roln Uforrat it>u> mpt vov 
schol. The word is used in Jls proper 
sense 'one who speaks _^r another', but 
with a slight variation in the meaning of 
'pff-, which is here equivalent lo 6tip. 
The meaning iiitrtt is secondary only, 
and in fact (as Mr Housman shows, 
yottrmil of Philehgy xvi. p. a66) the 
word doe', not in the classical writers 
mean iiirrit, though a iiiimt is olien 
xpo^i)rjjt PioD.— i^ntv: this, as the ac- 
centuation shows, was the word wrongly 
written at first in M as ijfi)', and in my 
judgment may well be right, as an 
emphatic repetition of Ihe verb. The 
speakers, alarmed and displeased, are 
eager to silence Cassandra, whom they 
lake to be merely displaying her powers 
of divinnliun lo impress them, with 
the assurnnce that they knew them by 
reputation. But i^Jig iHousman) is not 
improbable.— The supposition that ^#«» 
is a mere error introduced from the 
previous line is nol satisfactory to me, 
nor the translation uf raiTair »peifrijrai 
(Weil) by 'prophets (?) of these things'. 
—farttia^ (cf. fuctiip) h a warranted 
form and need not be altered lo fiariiJ- 


- . 


Ti ToSe peov ay^ov fieya 

ftey iv Zofioiai rolate /tijSerat icaicoP 

hwUrov; oKko. h' 

e/eas amo^rrarel. 


Toiirwv Si^pi<! elfM 

eicra yap 7ro\(« ffo^ 

iti ToKaiva, ToSe yap TeX«is ; 

TOl- O/loSt/il'lOl' TToaiv 

Xovrpolin ^aiBpuvaira — irtSs <fipaatii reX 

Tii^^o? 7Hp roB' earai. 

■n-poTeivu tf xelp ix 

X^poi optyofieva. 

ovTTO) ^uv!i>ca' vvv yiip ef atpiyftdrav 

evapyeftoKj-i. Sea-i^(iTOti dfitj^apw, 

e i irairai iraTrot, 

Ti To8e ipatverai; 

ij ZiKTVov TL "AtSov. 

d\\' apKvi ^ ^vvevpos, '} ^vvania. 

4xfl« (ix" m)- 

1097. x()pcorr. 

;o8s. She sees in vision from point 
o point the mutder of Agamcninon. 
1091. Jmtva: i4 TifA eu^orou Echol. 

however, x 


arp. e. 


'07 J ■ 

1097. x*^' *" X'P*' ■**' "■ "nrliing, 
ilrtlchtHg ferth hand after hand. The 
subject is still 'Ihc murderess*, xipdf 
li.tei Mss. — X'f^ dplyiiata llcnnonn, but 
see Appendix II. 

1099: tn the paftixity of hints has 
mrrttdtd that b/ erada hlinii. No exact 
distinction need be sought, but the 
general meaning is that while w. 109.1 
— gS are less vague than to. ioS.i — 90, 
Ihey slop short of the conclusion, as if 
the seer could not see her way. 

1101. She sees the enfolding nf the 
king in the robe {v. 1381). 

I roj. Ti 'AiSoii Djndorf. The yt is 
not easily enplicable and may easily have 
been insetted to remove the hiatus, which 

it04. dXX' Xpimt tay, ralhtr lit 
snart ii ihr, i.e. the murderess herself it 
(he true snare : Sfimw is properly > ratt- 
nrt, ipKvt a stake-nti, but the dtstincttoa 
must not be pressed. —^ {^MWot, i[ {wu- 
■Ka tht farlner of the bid, the partner 
ofthecrime. ^^rt«M»: ivifi at faramem-} 
Raihetboth; the preceding context point* 
to the bed of the husband ; but the 
associations of the word, which is huill^ 
ever used in an honouTuble sense, naln- 
rally bring the seducer into view, snd 
this suggestion U confirmed by 4 {woirlo. 
Ewavrla is explained by some to metn 
'accomplice of the SUtvow, of the fatal 
m1>c'. This cannot be the whole meu- 
ing. as it does not satisfy the 1 
cnce of ^{■rtvri>i..,%vtiaiTla, but 
haps su^eslGd also. The Uuth 


dicopfirro'; yevei 

ipoi'OV aravK 
dv/JMTOi Xtvtrifiov. 
XO. TTotav 'Eptvvv TyjvSe Sm/ui' 

in luch a scene as this we mast avoid Ihe 
error of seeking eicplanalions loo precise. 
ir ihc Inngungc is suggtstive, it is all 
that it ought to be. It is not meanl In 
be clear.— To l.ikc ipiteu with i>*aiTla 
would spoil the rhythm and misplace the 
emphasis. Sec also next note. 

1 105. ^Mv oriax* C/iorui of Death. 
Here tf^rea is ncteasaiy; niihoul dcfi- 
nilinn Framt would be loo vapie (o 
suggest Ihe Following qucition toIov "Spi- 
rit ; — As ^irev irritty forms one idea, of 
which ^bnu is the emphatic part, ihe 
position of 31 is according to Aeschylus' 
habit naluia! and correct (see v. 349). " 
^Mipso-rot l^rov) fivtt Hfver saird with 
fht Me<>d af thi ran. bictnlly "insatiable 
lo the race'.— I do not venture to write 
Atifiirin (Boihe): for making did^irTBt 
from the stem of itplttvia there nppcars 
In be no salisfactory analogy; -hiiftoi, 
-oipcToi. -AcTOt. etc. are illfferenl. and sec 
on the other hand da^tnrai, inipaem, 
VJlfSaffrAi. On the melresee Appendix IT. 
1 107. KaToXoXv{i£rB iKi|iaTot Xtwri- 
)Lo> riatf Ihi lolemn try over saerificf la 
6t slain by stoning. The conteil demands 
that Bii|ia Xtiimfiov should mean the 
murder, which must be called so meln- 
phorically, but wh;. or what to a Greek 
tZiia. Xniffvuu' would suggest, is obscure. 
fSacrifice by stoning, though not generally 
pracliwd in historic Hellas, is traceable 
here and there in tradition. Thus at 
Condyles in Arcadia, the name of the local 
goddess Artrmss thr Slranglat ^ kn-fx."- 
lUr^) was explained by a story thai some 
children, having in play pretended to 
strangle the image with a rope, were 
stvntd, and Ibe iwopte suflered plagues 
in consequence, till they consulted the 
Pylhia, who condemned the stoning of 
the children and im|»sed expiations 

1 105 

(Pausanias 8. 13. 5). At Trocien again 
a feast called hiBifioKU was celebrated 
in honour, it was said, of two virgins 
from Crete, who in the confusion of a 
riol were stoHtd by the opposite faction 
[sraaaawriM ii iiiatut tOt Ir tJ riXri 
irirrur nal toutoi ^aajv inri Tvir im- 
oTomurfii' «aTo\ri«e?»ai Pnus. 1. fi. i). 
h is obvious that these stories, which are 
of n familiar type, really refer to former 
customs of human sacHlice ; and it la 
remarkable that at Troeicn the persons 
by whom the rite wa.s performed were 
called a eriBit (at least this seema the 
most natural way of accounting for Ibe 
absurd and confiiscd story about <rran!i- 
Toi), which may throw light upon ariirit 
here. In human sacrifices the use of 
stoning would be explicable as a technical 
way of avoiding the pollution of blood- 
shed fsince Ihe act is not done by any 
one hand and does not necessarily shed 
the blood ns (r^>)i does), And tbal this 
really was the motive seems likely from 
the Arcadian caiie. The symbolical stran- 
gulation, which Pausanias implies to 
have been practised still, points to a 
previous real use of strangulation also, 
ns a method of sacrifice; and strangula- 
tion is another known way of killing so 
as to avoid bloodshed and conse<]uent 
pollution. It seems therefore possible 
that the metaphor here is taken from 
barbarous rites of this type; the murder 
being compared to a ' saeiifiec by stoning' 
i.t. a human sacrifice, over which Ihe 
chorus of fiends, who are performing it, 
are bidden to rejoice.— To refer tfCjia 
Xn'miiar to the imagined stoning of 
Ctylatmntslra by the people seems im- 
possible. The death of Clylaemnestra is 
not here relevant, and a false predict 
would spoil the whole effect. 


eV( Si KapSUui ISpa/xt Kpoico^a^^<t 
(rrar^wp, are xaipia wTfoo-t/w? 

Sv$no^ avyait' ra^e^- 

a S" ara ireKei. 

S, 3, IBoi ISov- 

aveye t^5 /Soo? 

Toi' raupov' ev wftfKota'iv 

fteXar/Kepip Xa^ovva p/rjyairqpAiri 

Lvi (ri ; see next note. 
—liH: fait u tht dn^ that rtiHS 
to thy heart, a/m tiuh as freai a Kierlal 
7Beiind drips slmu and slemcr vikm life's 
light sfts aid death is eemmg qiaci.— 
nupta vnio^iM Din<Iort literally 'shed 
Eo u to be mortal ', see v. 1341 : ml Sopl 
'vnicnftof, 'even such as from a !^ar- 
wound", is also possible.— Jwartro... 
■iiilY<>'tt literally 'ceases (dripping) as the 
light ceases ', the wound ceasing to bleed 
as the eyes of ihe wonnded man close in 
death. — raxita S' jra itAm. For the 
independent sentence where prose slyle 
would use a dependent clause see r. 10S9. 
(iXiA tl ktX. ' while help is far '. — The 
description is of one seized »ilh intense 
horror and turning, as ytt say, 'pale as 
death'. The paleness of the dying face 
is attributed inaccurately but poetically to 
the blood.— As V. 1 109 is given in M, ofl 
iu ^mipiiPti, this description would seem 
ID refer to Ihe speaker himself. To one 
sncientscHbe this appeared so improbable 
that he actually transferred these verses 
(iiio — iit4)to Cariam^ra (so originally 
'in the MS.). This is impossible; but tbe 
transition 10 such terrible emotion on the 
part of the Chorus is almngely sudden, 
and stranger is it that Iheir next speech 
[v. nil) shows no such feeling, but 
expresses as before merely bewilderment 
and vague apprehension. On these 
grounds, and considering also that by the 
order of (he words in v. 1 109 the emphn- 

sis ought to be on the promonD, I ibiak 
that we should read at a\, 'Thou looltaf 
not glad thyself at what thou sayesl'. 
The horror described is then naturally 
thai of Cassandra as the vi»on begins 10 
show the striving of the murderous stroke. 
The error is not great nor difficult to 
tmder^ond. ira0 jicbe retained I sboold 
still refer the following description to Cas- 
sandra. Har^ as Ihe transition then ii. 
I cannot understand Ihe words otherwise. 
1 1 1 8 : with her crafty vseapen. her black 
horn. — |ii]x«^|M'n: '-'■ the a»e mth 
which she has provided herself. — IxXaf- 
idpV does not mean thai Ihe innjijn^a. is 
black-homed but that it is represented, 

in Ihc figure, by the black horn Dr 

Wecklein, reading kr Wi-Xwr rui /itXav 
*tp<^ Kt\.. lakes the «i(Xa7<^pu»' )afxis"^ 
lia to be the enveloping robe, which, as 

■etches C 

it, 'has an appearance as of something 
black-homed '. In favour of (his it must 
be admitted (hat Xa^oEira, iF not COD- 
stnicted with luX^ytipifi litxar^luaTi, is 
irregularly placed. Nor do I ihink the 
grotesqueness of the conception any valid 
objection in such a place. On the other 
hand it is difficult not to suppose, as 
readers in general have done, that the 
horn which gores is the axe which strikes. 
■ — The scholia record both luXa-yK^pf and 
iu\ayifpuir {i.e. riv (i(Xo>«^p«>i Toijpor), 
apparently a device to remove the ir- 
regularity in \affauTa above noticed. 


rinrrW TiTvei S' en ivvBpqy rtvj^ei. 
So\o(fi6pov X^jSij- 
To? TVX'^v aoi \€yti>, 
XO. av KO/itratraifi,' tiir $ea-^aTtei! ffw/xap anpo-i 
elvat, KCLK^ Si Ty Trpofftiicd^tc TnSe. 

^poTOK ffTeWiTai; KaK^v yap Siai 
iroKviweK Ti\vai 

^epovaiv fiadetv. 
KA.. Iw im raXatW? 


TO "yip efiov opow 

trado'; iTTtyxfava. 

vol 8ij fi£ ievpo Tjjit ToKaivav ifyayei, 

ovSif voT el firj ^vv6avoviiivr]V' Tt yap; 


trrp. f '. 

*v fciSpf: Schiiii.— Ttix<i: 
Kirti Blomlielii. See A|ipeiniiJL II. 

itvoi: with empliBsIs (sec w. 
1047, io7g etc.)i emctly as we shoutd 
give it in English, 'A very sfioA jmlge of 
laculac I cannot hoisl thai I am, 
bnt ', etc. 

1115. PpoTott irrAXeTaii, is lenl to 
m. dnrs not seem diHiruU. r/XAcrai 
ermann.— Koiniv ^dp Siat; 'it i'l all 
X, a iDsss or cunning phrase, offering 
for lesson but a terrifyine chani '■ voicav 
A (Hermann). The preposition is em- 
phatic, ' woes', it, 'in woe 
fAroHgiitui' . — T^vak: the 'science' or 
• sicill ' of the M^Tit ; cf. Hx'oi KdXx""™ 
in V. 360 : ihe reference is particularly 
(as ira\mriii shows ; see (iroi, ftr?j) In 
(be phraseology and metrical form of 
prophetic ultcrancc, Much of the effect 
of 'oracles', as they were used in the 
believing age of Greece by those who 
went to the common buiitii, depended on 
the simple notion thai the power to pour 
out rapidly language cast in a formal 
shape indicates some «ort of inspiration. 
_TE^«rt of the m(i7-i>w«3 j^l beginning 

(o decline in repute among the educated 
in the time of Aeschylus. It is more 
severely treated by Sophocles, and by 
Euripides generally with contempt. 

rrj]. {ircY)(iura: 'as a drop' or 
'ingredient more' added to the lament 
for the king. See a somewhat similar 
metaphor in v. 17,— Of the correcliona 
proposed to adjust the metre to Ihe 
strophe, iwryxiai (Campbell, Sidgwiek) 
is the least violent: but it assumes a 
very strange use of the explanatory In- 
finitive and is tolerable only as an expe- 
dient. The MS., it must be admitted, 
gives exactly the proper turn to the 
tneaning, and I believe myself that it is 
right. See Appendix II. 

■ 13,^. An apostrophe to Agamemnon 
(Polcy), not surely to Apollo : the king 
is already in her mind, ri i/tir in v. iiji 
being antithetic to t4 toO 'Atm/itiii'OHa: 
and note specially fwflai'oufiAii)*, with 
which grammar requires us to supply cat. 
On the stage (he actor's look (towards 
the palace) would add a completing com- 

j.y** "^-^'^^'''i? 



XO. <t>p€vofiavij^ Tt9 el 0€o<l>6pvfro^, dfi~ 

<f>l S* avra'i Opoeh 

vofiov avofiop, old rt? (ovOd 

d/copearo^ Pod^t <l>€v, 

raXaivac^ <t>pea\v 

"Xrvv "Itvp OTevova dfuf>i0a\i} Ka/cok 

dffSdv piov. 
KA. i(u m Xiyeia^ 

fiopop drjBovo^, 

TrepejSaXov yap ol 

7rT€po<f>6pov 8€fia<; 

fieoiy yXvKvv y dy£pa Kkaviidroav arep' 

€fiol Se fiifjLV€L a")(i,(Tp^ dfi<l)i]K€C BopL 
XO. TToBev iiriaavTov^ d€0<f>6pov^ r ^ei? 

1 143. driS6vos fi6poy, i'44- irtpepSXwTo yhp ol, 

1 140. ({|&^i6aXTJ KaKots...pCov all 

her sorroiU'filled days, 

1 1 44 — 1147. Her the gods changed 
into a 7oinged forniy a sweet passage and a 
tearlessy while I must be parted with the 
sharp steel, ircp4p<&Xov, the ' Aeolic' form 
for ircpt^/3aXoi', which should be retained 
(Wecklein, comparing J?«/w. 637). 7ap(?) 
or jHjrhaps r6 *y€: the article, or rather 
demonstrative pronoun, used to mark 
the antithesis. The full equivalent in 
English would be *what the gods did to 
her at least was to clothe her in a winged 
form'. For examples in Homer, where 
this use of the anticipatory pronoun with 
various particles is characteristic, see 
Monro Homeric Gramm. §§ 258 — 259, and 
for the combination with the dative pro- 
noun see e,g. Herod. 3. 65 rh yJkv ^ ipyov 
i^elpyaffTai noi...ol 5i vjxiy yidyoi KpaH- 
ovoi rCjv ^aaiXTjiuv. — The middle rcpe- 
pdXovTo can hardly be right, meaning 'to 
put on oftesel/' ; on the other hand simply 
to strike out to (Blom field) seems arbi- 
trary, while ydp is easily explained as a 
conjectural suggestion for t6 y, — ct^wva: 
literally 'a struggle', used, as in Euripides 
frequently, for what is terrible, critical, 
or both at once, e.g. IIcc, 229 xap^rny^ 
ws ioiK^ 6.yCov jjL^yaSy Med. "^(i^ ^t' cXa 




1 140 

dvr. f . 



I 146. r\ 

dyuvcs TMf ¥€ia<rrl mffju^lots^ Supp, 71 
iywv 66* dXXof (pxtrau So also dyfin^i- 
fffxa Eur. £1, 987 rurpdr re x^^ Tiytih 
vuTfM /uu. The application of the word 
here to the fitting of lift suggests the 
beginning of the special association which 
was afterwards fixed and still attaches to 
the cognate ir^tavla. agony. The accusa- 
tive is 'in apposition to' the sentence; 
the transformation to a bird was a YXMnk 
i.yCw, — That dkyOxwa, is right, and o/Mra, 
a conjecture suggested in M, wrong, seems 
to me certain. The antithesis (see v, 
1 146) is between the death which awaits 
Cassandra and the painless tninsformation 
of Philomela (Enger) ; and the * sweet 
life', even if consistent with v. 1140, 
is not the point. — The frequent error 
re for 71 is here specially probable as 
giving the accusative a commoner con- 
struction. — o'xuriidt cleavings sundering^ 
combines the actual wounding with the 
parting of soul and body. 

1 148. irdOcv fau ru 6 tou9 0fo^6povt 
TC whence sent^ and by whom imposed^ 
literally * god -brought*. — To omit re 
(Hermann) rather confuses than clears 
the sentence ; re couples together the two 
adjectives which are predicates. 


Ta B' iiTLipoBa Suir<f>dT(fi xkayya 
fteXoTVTTeti ofiov t 6p- 

TTodev 3pof? exeiif 8e<nreaia<; ohov 
KOKopp^fiova^ ; 
KA. ici yaftoi ydfioi HdpiSo'; oKeBpioi 

ipiKwv. to) %Kafi.dvSpov irdTpiov iroroV 
TOTE likv d/iipl ffd<; diopav TaXaiv' 
■ijirvrofiav Tpo<f>aii' 

VVV B' lifi<llL KwKVTOV T€ Kdj(epov(Tlov^ 

oj^Oovi eoiKa 6eaina>Br)aeiv T(i)^a. 
XO. Ti ToSe Topbv arfav cttos itpijfiltra} ; 
veoyvi'i dvdptoTrcav fiddoi, 

lljg — the end. Readings of f. 


itjo: and ihapest thai ftarful sang 
mlh vvrds 10 hard and harsh and ytl 
with a inarch id iltar. dpau -rt, and al the 

u time, msuks an antithesis. They 
had called her nlterance ri/ui' iniiar (^. 
1137). ataild ttine, literally 'an unordered 
ordct ', »i(iM being properly the arder or 
arrangemeal of notes in a tune. But 
they are forced lo admit that there is 
'melhod in il'. — SpSmt signilies both 
railed in lone and stndghlforward and 
was applied with both associutioas speci- 
ally to military march music (see Lex. 
f.). The second meaning is here most 
prominent and suggests the following 
nelapbor of ihe viay and the hoiirnt or 

: 1 54. Haul Jindal thou tht terms of 
■avr lokifh guide thy inspired way i 

ll6l. A man ruw-bem might andir- 
itand. The changes su^esled here are 

I any of Ihem probable, nor do I 
believe that the text is wrong. Such 
a proverbial phrase might be expected 
to exhibit, as it docs, prchuc construc- 
tions (see on o. 55;). The subslwitival 
adjective, vMyvit for 4 v<i>a>Dt, is in 
Aeschylus common- The partitive geni- 
tive, or rather genitive 'of distinction 

from', is the same which survives in the 
voenlive phrases Jia 7Uvoijcuj', ^Xb ^iwai- 
iilrB' etc,^ in dpiflc^iTFrDT ifSp^i/ [il. 11. 
148), and in the forms of emphasis niui 
Kan&r [things evil among evils) etc. 
(Kulmer Gr. Grammar, g 414, 5, b): in 
shott ffOYfit is treated (accotdiag to the 
meaning, d Fti^aToi itSpwrvt) as a su- 
perlative J cf. rpiwpuiira it^oXQr utter 
■wreck in Thri. 754. — nvSpiiirov is in- 
dispensable; 'ft newborn one among 
human beings' is in modem phrase 'the 
youngest human intelligence ■.^Lastly 
yiShv falls under the following cxceplioDal 
usage of archaic grammar. "From ac- 
quiescence or willingness that something 
shall happen, the optative passes to 
admission of possibility, i.e. wiQingness to 
suppose or believe that the thing will 
happen, ..O^. 3. 131 ^tla, Stit y' ISiXur 
■al n/XdOtr itSpa aaiiiriu. This is said 
as a concession; 'we men must allow 
that a god can save even from aliw'" 
(Monro. Homeric Grammar § J99 f.). 
I'recisely 1.0 here: the meaning of the 
proverb Is not this is xntelUgiblt, but this 
must Ik allawed to bi iHtelligi&le or / can 
no longer amflain of obscurity. See 
further Appendix II. 


ireTrXtjy^i S' iVo Si'iyfUtTi ^oiftfi 
Bvaayel rvx^ fuvvpa dpeofieva^, 

OpavfiMT ifMi K\veiv. i i6; 

i<0 ■TTUVQl ITOVOl TToXtOS o'Xo^fl'a! OVT. l'. 

ri Trai'. tcu irpotrvpyai Buviai -aarp^^ 
TToXvKaveli fioTtuv Troiovo/itav' a«09 S' 
ot/^Ei' hrripKeaav 

TO fiij v6\ip fiiir &c-irep ovif e^e'" va&ilp. 
ey<u Se &epp,6vov^ '^'^X ^V'""^^?' /3aA.w. 
errofieva vporipoi^ rnfi" eTre^ij/ii'o-aj, 

1164. AiwaTyef. fupOpa jcacd. 117?- i^idoia. 


1163. tiri: uxal h, Jtuc Hetmann. 
"" After all U is perhaps only an imilalbn 

of vhe Homeric bri ieiaai elc, whicli 
though really etplalnuil by the digamma 
(ir6 iMaai) miisl bave M:emed to Aes- 
cbytus on arbidary lengthening by the 
ictus of the verse. Such mistaken ar- 
chaisms occur in all literatures, ^ee on 
Thii. 711 in Appendix 1. Co that play, 
p. 136. 

1 164. Gwra'Ytt...KXiuvaf the breaking 
miary oj kerfHious sang tohich shatters 
me I0 hear it. For tbe correhilivi 
phors in jucra7er...0pait/iara cf. the 
Homeric iTrtK^AaSi) ^l\ar jrop. — SiMmY*' 
from dyij breaiing [i.-yruiu) \ cf. ivmvx^i 
■riix"!- The spelling iunaf-fhi was pro 
bably adopted on purpose, to dislinguisb 
ivaarpit From Jii^aTiij impious; cf. 'Bpw- 
(At ror'Epirilt and see on D. ill. — SucaV 
yti (Canter) would not have been so 
mistaken, and besides the strong meta- 
phor in Bpa.iiui.Ta requires something to 
lead up to it. — In itself the metaphor 
(litomlly 'a ^hattuing to hear'] seems to 
me, na to Mr Sidgwick and otheis, natural 
enough. Dr Weclclein rejects it and 
reads Bpaytia S' iuol kMiw (see epiairai). 
— (iiwpd 9pm\Un.t: on the metre see 

i ApiJendix II. 

ii6j. wpinTipTOi /ii/ore the or 

' on behalf b/ Ike tmm, {ti\ora{ie\A)i Pro- 
bably it would be truest lo say that the 
tirst meaning is first intended, and then dix V. 
the second assumed by a tadt shifting of 1171. 

tX. As the priadpd 
sentence {oHit tr^fKtvtar) is oegalire, 
r^^lar usage would reijuiie in the cun- 
seculive clause M <")■ But we cannot 
assume that the grammu of poetry wu 
undevialing. — Aa^np oJIv Ix*^' mlA': 
U. tx«r irafle« Arnp oSr (^« .rodur). 
'to save the city from receiving such 
Irealmenl as in fact she has recelTed', 
This elliptic sentence, as preserved bj> 
both Flerenlimii and Venelui, is precisely 
analogous to the common prose use of frni 
iiJTOT*, t,g. twaSn fl 1 S^oTt l^nflEi) ' you 
have been treated as you have been' ; and 
though no CNactly parallel use of warcfi afc 
seems to be is so much in the spirit 
of Greek that we need not find it difficult. 
— The Cod. Farn. otfers a conjecture of ilt 
usual kind, wo^ip vlit Ixii vaSar. Dr 
Wecklein veiy justly objects that this is not 
classic idiom, which would require eitba 
Hrrtp et<i Ix" tx'" or tia-i-tp oBr traS* 
■waSeit, as tn :'. 1187 vpdfcMiuui {rpoftr, 
Soph. O. T. 1376 ^XooTow fiwun tffhu- 
Tcr etc. Dr Wecklein suggests uBTtp oit 
lX'i>'fx€'ii-e.lx"'-i<r"po»olx<i). But ■ 
the su])posed deiangemenl in the order 
of the words is scarcely conceivable, or 
al least would require Supporting illostra- 

1171: ioAi/e I. the skk-brained, sImU 

•on be sent after the wise. See Appen- 


at taifj-mv vTrepfsapi^ SfiWiTiroyv, 
fieXi^eiv Trddii yoipd 6avaTO<f>6pa' 
Tepfta &' iip.tixavw. 

Ka'i p.!)!/ o )(fiT)<Tp,<i^ ovieer etc KakviiftaTiav 
fffjai SeBopieiot ueoydfiov pvp.^a'i SUrjv, 
Xap-rrpo^ &' eatKev rfKiov vpot avToXat 
iTvkdiv itryj^etti, wine iri'/iaTO? Bueriii 
«Xiie(i' Trpo9 avydi TouSe tdJ/iotds -rroXv 
fiei^oV tppevwam S' ovKer ef alvirffiATtav. 
Kai fiapTvpeire ervi'Spopa)^ tjf^vo^ Kaxwv 
pivriKarovaji rav -TraKat ■Kerrpayp.evwv. 
T^c 7(ip areyvp r^fS' oH-jtot e/cXdwet x'^P°'^ 
^vpttiSoyyot ovK evifiaivoi' av 'yap ev Xiyet. 
KaX p.'i}v iTeiTQ>K<o^ y, ws BpaaiveuBai irXkov, 
ffpoTSiov alp,a Kiopo^ en Sop-ois p-kvei, 
ivaireinrro'; e^o>, ^vyyoi/oiv 'Epivi/tiyv. 
VfivovtTi 8' 'vp,vov Swp^aaiv •npaaijp.evai' 

aift tpoyyot. 

173. t(s cmphalicr "and there is 
« power which' etc., i,t. there is in- 
tpimlioD in Ihis and not mere wildness. 
— KBllo^pai><tvT(Bi)oa..,pA[[tii> maddens> ling, quasi Koxoippaiiit iWit^tv, 
&m iu\l[im. the infinitives being ac- 
cumulated, which, separated as they are, 

)t objectionable. For the construc- 
tion of rid^fu see L. and Sc. s.v. B. 1. 
—imta^pafai'. ih malice, Scliiiii: but 
•malice' of the inspiring power h not to 
the purpose. — T^^goal, the same meta- 
phor as in ». iijj. 

7S. vvji^i perhaps by error for 
riit^ft, the a having come in from the 
□e^hbouihood of the lyric diali^e. 
But this might also affect the poel. 

79. The metaphor changes Eo that 
of a strong wind at mornir^, under which 
the rolling waves of the sea are seen 
relieved against the light of dawn. Cas- 
sandra, It may seem, recalls her recent 
voyage and the scene of the morning. 
"\a|iirpii: the Greeks called a strong 

irind bright, so here in any otiier language 
two words are required, one to be in anti- 
thesis to tt takvfiiiamr, the other 10 suit 
the new metaphor of wind". Sidgwick. 
1180. isi^v: 'its coming in' or 
'entry shall be as of a clear fresh wind '. 
ia4i<i" Bothe : and iirniia- is no doubt 
not the obvious word lo use of a wind. 
But the expression is influenced by the 
remembrance marked in the previous 

T 18 1 . k\£(i.v, i.i, K\iiiui, but we 

must not substitute the common form. 
The existence of ii\6tir te hear is no 
roflBon against the CO -existence of ii\il(ii = 
KKIfiut: cf. the analogous pairs fSXiiu- 

1 187. lis: ivff'TC. 

1 190. EB)uuri|r irpor:^)Mvai besieging 
the rhambcn (?), cf. iniyryou tpnaTisOiu., 
not 'silling in the house', nn impossible 
rendering. {vSJ^it(i'. 1 [88) therefore 
apparently means 'in the fore-coott (aJ- 
\^\ or perhaps in the hai! (jU-^npot), 


vpanap'^o'i aTTjf ev fiipei S iIttl.. 

eiivd^ a&ek<^v rp •Ka.TttvvTi SviXfieveK. 
t]fiaprav; f} Ttjpw tl to^otij? tk (3s; 

Biijittra being the innir rooms. Bnt it 
must be confessed that to make a. db' 
tinction bclneen JA^iw snd iiiiiara is 
forced, and there is probably some error. 
— Taiiioair rpoaJuuroi, liltingal Ikanups 
(ef. miij! TpooiJAei'iu v. i6i;), is possible, 
Uld ru^n. the lalcr form being tbtia., is 
apt to be mistaken — uluairir irpmr^^erni 

rpwrapxoi jiir ir iUpfii(, literally 'b^in- 
bing and in succession' or 'in succession 
from the first ln^uoet'. The term 
Jpx*" {yiwau, ixSSi, etc.) was conven- 
tional and almost technical; see t^. 
Pindai Ntm. ]. 4— lo^otrl {at) iu\xya- 
p6ur TetTtrii iii/iuw narUu..,4ni' ^ 
aiparoS rt\ii'i^\a tfiifm, diyaTcp, 
voXviBii^gv Btaor, especially where as 
here there was a repetition and a burden 
to ihe song; so in Theocritus 1., ifix^' 

^(aXuSr, Muiroi iplXu, AfOttr' doiltas 

The sentence, being 3 further explanation 
of itaavair Biiwov, has according to rule 
no copula. — Ingv . . . av^vrvirav tkiy di- 
nouMct lAt Ji'n, cry against it. The 
oorist is usett because the common for- 
mula of disgust was not duorriui but 
diiiTimo.— «i*d» dSd^ii may be taken 
ID apposition to irrtir, the accusative lo 
TBTDiJrTi being supplied from it, or, par- 
haps better, simply with raroOm, tie 
dtfiler 0/ a bralker'i bed, the order being 
amngeii lo emphasiie the words tiris 
dicX^C— £iiff1HVtit "can be nominative 
or accusative, but it is better nominative, 
being (as Enger and Schneidewin observe) 
a. grim allusion to their name Ei/^erfSci " 
(Sidgwick). 1 think also that a. peisoni- 
licaLion of the curai would obscure Ihe 
imagery, but it \i a question of taste — 
The allusion is to the ailullcryof Thyesles 
with the wife of Atreus; Alreus avenged 
self by the ' banquet ', for which Id te- 

il, even if we 

authority, on 
I lying outside 

turn vengeance is now about lo h 
taken. — itpirrapx'^ ■I")', as if depending 
on iiireiai, they ting a/ Iht ori^nal irimi, 
is the conjecture of Triclinius (Coi.Fan^. 
very improbable technlc^ly (for Ibere ii 
nothing in the conlexl lo produce r^ 
rapx"! as an error) and creating dillicBltj. 
For what is the itp<ino,px'i't In) if not tbc 
sin of Thycstesf For the puipose of 
this play Atreus and Thyesles are the 
starting point, and nalurally; for the 
crime of Thyesles hail no mora] coimei- 
ion with anything befoti 
assume thai the various 
elsewhere as to the earliei 
house appeared at all in 
followed by Aeschylus, 
troduce here, agninst 
obscure reference lo even. 
the scope of the play. 

1193. Havt I miisfd f Or df / at all 
take oistrvatiBH, likt ent Ihat atmellt a 
ahol! Oram la /alst prephel, a boMkr 
and a vagiUioHii t Bear wititas, rwtaring 
first, Ihat I know Ike ancieHl sini in Mf 
itiiry af this house, ttukb ' lo watch for 
on opportunity', is generally used with 
phrases expressing the nature of the op- 
portunily (a favourable moment, a wiiul, 
a dork night, etc, see L. and iSc i.v.), 
but here absolutely, the nature of Ihe 
opportunity, the tiirte to shoot, being 
implied by the context. As applied here 
the metaphor in nipSi is the same which 
we use (but have ceased to feel as 
melaphorical) in 'to spea^t tircums/velfy'. 
The second question {nipii ti;) corrects 
Ihemetaphorof thefir5t(^^ap-or;). 'Miss- 
ing' implies 'aiming'; it implies con- 
jecture or laiing a shot, as we say. But 
Cassandra kmrwi ^. 1 196) : and Ihjs, she 
says, may be seen in the inannet of her 
affirmation. The quack fortune-lelleT, 
who comes to your door and f 

eKfiapTi/p^ffov trpovfj-itirai to fj,' elhevai 
irait&i'iop yevono; davfj.a^ai Be aav, 


confidence by a good hit, will be 

vogue ftt fail and not tuuaid anything 

tilt he eels K hint; he will 'watch, like 

e that ihoolclh '. Not so Cusandm, 

who in (uiit iitK^S has gone without 

.ation to a fact ancient, secret, and 
dtfinilt. Theiefore she Imino:. The 
eagerness of the prophetess thai her re- 
putation should be attested is not the least 
pathetic fealuie in the situation.— iLSfraL 
opposed to TOTifnii as in v. i.i68 and 
P. V. 947 ifai t4J' oIAt — U-yf mXtucli 
old in stery. — The sense hetc depends 
entirely on the emphatic meaning of 

(H, If this be missed, there is no 

lexion. Hence the suspicion of rqyiu 
((upw Atuetu and others), it being sup- 
posed that V. iiijj should mfan 'Do I 
or hit?': hut then rofinit tii mi is 
superflaous. Hence also ri fiii flUrai 
Wtv (Hermann), irinslated 'that 1 do 
1 know by report'. liut this would 
require tA /i ilStriu fii] Mjv "nd morc- 

' Cassandra has done not! ling to 
disprove, if it be supposed likely, that she 
knew the facts Xirv. 

97. jiinl haw coulJ an eath mend 

its, a thing framed in Ui nalutt to do 
AariH? rfifa •ftnalmt nayiv /raintii na- 
turaltytabeahurt. femia^: 'according 
lo ilST^ira or nature'. Tbisis [he proper 
meaning of 7n>i<aiof as dejined bj' Aris- 
totle, Hut. Ah. I. I. 31 rJ fttwXIiv ian 
rh m4 ^{lUTdfwiw tn T^ airrov ^iataf. see 
Horn. //. J. ]53a(l>M(7e»tue>dXuiri(tl{tti'Ti 
V^xtoSax (cited in L, and Sc. l.v.). The 
meanmg is this: the essential function of 

rot. properly the thing by which the 
oath is swoin, is thai it caubes the 
person swearing felsely by it lo suffer 

.in penalties: eictpl in Ihe case ef 

fahekood it does not act at all, and in 
ihit case, as was and still is the belief of 
superstition, it aels meiAanieally and 
without regard to qualifying considera- 
tions, such as bona fides. No superstitious 
pcTSon therefore (including the ancient 
Greeks universally) will ever swear so- 
lemnly to o thing unless he is compelled 
to do so or has an object lo gain ; and it 
is often, as every one knows, difficult lo 
make such a person take an oath upon a 
proper occasion. The function of the 
ipeoi is here expressed by calling it t9»i«, 
precisely as Hesiod {Theog. ;yi) calls 
the Slyj. Ihc op<oi fleii'. iiiya rftiia 
Ccoin, and thereupon states the penalty 
suffered in cose of falsehood. The 
speaker therefore here, in the true spirit 
of canny superstition, declines to swear 
to Cassandra's knowledge (which is not 
exnclty proved after all), as the oath, he 
says, couid do no good and would only 
expose the swearer untictessarily to the 
danger of falsehood. — irouavuil' 'a thing 
of remedy'; the neuter better suits the 
antithesis between raiainoi and it^^b.— 
irn;« yfoi-^l rayif (a cumfait (?) 
honeslty ratified), the conjecture of Aura- 
tus, makes the words not pointless but 
contrary lo the point ; for if it were in the 
nature of a JpKot to be ir<ublriiir at all, it 
would certainly be more so if honestly 
sworn than otherwise. 

119H. (av^t^ta M. They admit that 
her accuracy is surprising. — irov should 
not be changed to b« (Aunitus). The 
construction is like the common iaunA^ 
tI nroi 'to wonder at something in a 
person'. Here the accusative is repre- 
sented by the following inlinilivesentenec 



iripav rpa^urav aXXoffpouv iroXiP 

Kvpetv \eyovaaf w<rn-ep el wapeerrdreK- 
KA. fiavTit; /i' 'A1^o^.Xo>l' t^S' ive<m}ff€V reKet.... 

TTpoTQV fiiv a'lZw^ ^v ifxai Xryeif rn&e.... 
I XO. fi&v Koi Oeot "jrep ifiip<^ rr€tr\t]yfi^uo^ ; 

a^pvverat yap ira? t*? «/ Trpnaaaiv vXiov. 
KA, ...aXX' jjc iTd\aiarTi<t KapT" t'/ioi -rrviwv j^aptv. 
XO. ^ «ai Tiieveai/ ek epyov ^XBerov v6p^; 
KA. ^vvaiviaaaa Ao^lav f^vadfi.rjv. 
XO. ^5i; rexfuatv ev$ioti tjpiiftein} ; 
KA. ^Si; TToXiVaiT Trai/r' efleoTrtJoF v-dOtj. 
XO, TTtu? £^t' ovojin'o? ^ff^a Ao^lov kotw ; 
KA. e-rrudop ovSiy ovStv, ws toS' ^p-trXaieov. 
XO. ^/iii' 7e /tec £'} TTtffTa $€<nri^etp BoK€i<;. 
KA. loi) (W, cu m KaKu. 

ijTr' at! f« SeiKot opBaiutPTeiat Trovot 

(tXXASpav* uirinp ktX. : 

'should be na rigliL on Ihe subjecl at an 
kUen town as if eic. — Mvpriv &t>»ola)ely, 
likervx(>>> lelxrigkl. — dMoSpow miXiv. 
The object of X^owro* (ihe theme 
ipekm e/, cl. A^w xf^w" v. 653) ih 
accommodated by a bold cotnptesiiun of 
phrnse to tl rapetrriTtii. The expanded 
prose veision would be tiiyaiitar rd tr 

o^ip iyin 


I E 

I that i 

k for 00 

prophetic power, she begins to rehtCe 
from whom and how dearly she pur- 
chased it, but pauses in an ojfony of 
shame. The Argivcs, who have heard 
the strange story by rumour (rf. 1083), 
prompt hei with a question, observing, 
u an excuse for pressing her. ihnt deli- 
cacy was better suited to hci former 
condition than her present I In spite of 
their sympathy they insist on gratifying 
their Greek (perhaps rather Athenian) 
ity. This again is no small addi- 
o the nature and pathos of the 
It is worth while to compare 
n which the Colonialcs, avowedly 
serious purpose, Insist on drawing 

a confession of his past story out of liie 
reluctant Oedipus (Soph. O.C, jio foil). 
Here the unhappy woman sacrifices fan 
modesty to her intense desire fur belief- — 
On Che details of the slory which follows 
see Appendix W. 

1104 answers the scruple expressed 
in s. 1101, but il is unnecessary lod 
injurious lo change for this reason the 
positions of v. 1401 and ti. iioj. yif 
inlrodaces, as often, not a proof of 
what has been said, but a justificalioD for 
saying it, here for putting the preceding 

1J05. She continues, with an eBorXt 
itAi, answers lo lUr in v. 1 103. 

1J13. The agony of prophecy cornea 
upon her again. 

1114. S<iv^ or SVn (M. Schmidt, 
Wecklein)? 1 do not find any dear 
ground for decision. Sim certainly fits 
encellently with rrpopti, and the epithet 
Sttvit might be thought ratlier Co wealien 
the language. On the other hand, it can 
hardly he said that trAi>«t (TTpo^ei lu, lltt 
pain heists mc, is defective, and if Sirn be 
taken, we must either take rlmt as in 
apposiCion, whldi clogs the 1 

J vejic, ar [ 


iTTpo0ei rapaatriDV il>potfiiont — (if>j}ftii/ou'i.., 
opare ; ...tovo-Sc-.toij? So^ic i<f>tjp,efovi; . . . 
veov^, oveipatii Trpoatpepeh iJ.op^itip.aiTiv. 
iratSe? Oavoi^et aia-Trtpel Trp6<! rwv <fiC\toi>, 
j(€tpav Kpemv irX^ffovre^ alxeuK ffopaf, 
aiiv ivrepoi^ re air\a-y}(y' , tTroiKTKrrov ye/io^, 
irphrovtr e^ovTe^, aSc traTrjp iyeiiaaTo. 

Xcoft' dvaXxtv iv Xij^et arpto^iiip.ii'ov 
oiKovpoir, 01^01, T^ fioKovTi, Seattox't) 
ifiw- <f>ipeiv yap j^rj to SovXiop ^vyov. 
veiov t' a7rap^09 '\\iQV r diratrTaTt]^ 



change it (with Wecttlein) lo iriwu>. which 
again makes a heavy const ruction.— iiri, 
sn adverb, sienifjittg the umitn ood 
gradual coming on of the lit. 

HIS- +(»iti£qi*, begiiHitig of Eteaiet 
pain to come, as in The6. 7.— 4^|iJv«wt. 
May we oal demur to the genetal assump- 
tion tb&t Uii» woid has come in by error 
from the next line? Surely, as it slan<ts. 
it i* much mote than justifiable. No doubt 
at ^foi^iiaa the sentence, though gtam- 
maticaily compiete, is rhythmically in- 
complete: a full stop after the fuuith 
loot is very rare, and #pai^«i wants an 
epithet. Doubtless al^o tbe sentence 
ifirilUroit ktK. is misshapen and disar- 
ranged. But all this it pari of the intended 
effect. Suddenly, in the very midst of 
hei cries of pain, the vision itsdf bursts 
npon her, and she poioU to tt with wild 
>woken exclamations, Sit/ing thtrti... 
^ ytjte lAtmt..JlUrel ...sitting bi/iiri the 
haute. ..yoHHg children ...Hie f bantam 
Mm,, etc 

|]|6. Jpart;, best taken (with Her- 
mann) as a qucilion. — Sa|M)i« f^jtJvmf 
'silting before' the housci 1.'. as sup- 
pliants at the door, 01 al the altar before 
the door; see fipirat iir/iiMtot, Eiitii. 
411. For the construction cf. i^iaririu 
Ti\at% to Uatid at a pilf, i^ar&rai vAXci 

to tie icfari a city (of an arniyt, and sec 
Thtb. 515. 

■ iiS. Like cliilJrtn slain bytkoulhtU 
should lavfthevi. This, with the reference 
to drtam-phantoms, seems to presume a 
belief that the children of infanticides 
haunted the house in this way, a belief 
very natural, where, as in the historic age 
of Greece, infanticide was admitt^ in 
ibeory but reprobated if not prohibited in 
practice.— Without some such explana- 
tion ihc words i"uiit...^iyjji* seem want- 
ing in force, and it may also be observed 
that we cannot quite properly join 
together as parallel words Sordvni... 
ir\i^iirT(f,..^XC''"- because in that case 
there should either be no copula (re] at 
all,, or else another copula (x^'^pi^ "). 
As it is, T« couples iXiiSgrrtt with *x»- 
Tfi, and ■'(u3(i...4V(\wr is a separate 
clause, qualifying the whole sentence and 
explained by what precciles. 

1319. oUtlat Popai: liecause the flesh 
of the children wis (he flesh of the father 

1114. SunrdTQ 4)1^ ' ^ptLv ydp. The 
appellnlion -lord of ine', and the humble 
acliiiowledgcmcnl, have here a bitterly 
ironical cllcct. 

1116. vi^...dvaa>T^Ti|t Mt that far 
Tray dtslnytd halk liithii lavcrdgn fitel. 


ovic olZev ola ^Xditrffo itttrr]Tt}<; kuvo;, 
\i^aaa KaicTflvaaa <f><uSp6vovv hiKt^v 

niS. <at 
lileiillj 'being at once discoraraanded 
of his fieel anil destroyer of Troy '. The 
conjunctions « . ,« mark ihe close union 
of Ihe two descriptions. Agamemnon is 
irtatirrfl 'lUou and ni» Sxapnoi there- 
fore also. The two are thus linked by 
Ihe Tiojan captive in bitter satire: the 
wreck and dispeision of Ihe fleet was (he 
direct consequence of Ihe sacrilegious 
destruction and razing (i*dffTooit) of Troy 
(fp. jjo, 640), and on Ibe destruction of 
the fleet in turn depended the fate of 
Agamemnon himself (see the iHtroduc- 
Hon). Here as before (see on v. 531) ihe 
Athenian poet has in mind the destmcl ion 
of Athens and its punishment at Sala- 
mis. — airopxoi : for the form (from infi), 
cf. iirdTflXiT, iiroarplTrffOf etc. The 
genitive case (rcuV) follows the privative 
according to xaie.—trafxot Cantet. Al- 
though this suggehlion has been so long 
incorporated with the teil that it may 
Mcm a sacrilegious iviHTaait to disturb 
it, I cannot but think it doubly and 
trebly wrong; for (1) f»«/J)toi> meaning 
praefxiu!, one placid in command by 
another (see L. and Sc. s.v.). is a word 
quite inappropriate to the position of 
Agamemnon; (]) no one would have 
invented or blundered into the unique 
word iIra|ixot, having before him Jrapx't, 
in later Greek extremely common as an 
official title; and (3) r(.,.T( requires a 
close connexion of the descriptions, tts is 
explained above. If the whole sentence 
had a conjunction, it would be it (G. 
Vois), not n. Bui it is treated as an 
explanation of the preceding (^ovXelicii' 
Tifi irX.), and has no conjunction (cf. d- 

1197 — 1]]9> K^ntvaffa Canter. He 
kmrais not how Ike tangtie of that letod crta- 
ture batk sfoMen and ilrtleied, with joy- 
ful tkoMghls, her [4ea ami cast eftniuker- 

otti harm, tpkich falaify ihalt smtcuJ. 
ota adverbial accusative, cquinJcnl to 
S-wut, qualifying the whole sentence. 
U|cura...XaSpaIev describes, with alln- 
sive ambiguity, the queen's receplioa of 
Agamemnon. The eKpressionsare loaded, 
indeed over-loaded, with double meanit^. 
(1) In relation to y\<itva..,\i^a, tbe 
word i((7i> means primarily pUa (cf. the 
common phrase tlvii* ifi^ and contrail 
Sluai oik dvA •jXiiictttit v. S04} : Clytaeni' 
nestra's whole address (v. S46) is a tir^ 
in this sense, an exculpation of herself. 
We are also reminded of her amlugoous 
Uki; in V. 901. In this connexion IktA- 
taaa means lengtheHtng, and rcEers to ihe 
artihcial length of her address, noted by 
AgimemnOQ (c. 90J iiatpit ^dp iitrtaaa) 
in similar terms. But |i) in ^crflnu-a 
Si(i)*...Teii£Frai there is also involved 
another sense of Siiii, connected with Hx^ 
justice vttf remotely if at all, namely a 
cast (as of a tiel) from iittir to Ikrrm 
(cf. pi,\ot from ^iXXiv and note Ihe 
similar derivation of SUrior). To Sdn)* 
in this sense tm^«f to muM fertk (cf. 
ixTtbna rijii x^po) 's literally applicable, 
and in Ihis metaphor the allusive phrasd 
naturally meet. — itjft XoSpalo* belongs 
primarily, as defining genitive, la lii^ 
but determines the meaning of rcilfcTsi 
■mill reach (the abject). — I give here the 
explanation, or rather explanations, of 
(1) Mr Macnaghlen tjtournai of Philo- 
logy, XVI. p. 113) and (i) Mr J. B. 
Itury {Classical Review 1. 141). Both 
satisfy me, and the second exactly sap- 
plies, I Ihinl:, what is wanting, as Mr 
Macnaghlen candidly points out, to the 
first, ?i'i. an explanation why the poet 
should permit himself a phrase so fiu 
from natural as itcrttttiii Jfjoji' is, if we 
recognia; only the first sense of ((n^, — 
See further Appendix X. 


TotdBe ToXfia, d!jX,v<; apaevos tfioirev;. 
eoTiv — Ti viv KoXovaa iva^iXh Saito^ 
Tii-)(oifi av; d/itf>ia-ffaivav. rj SxiiWap Tiva 
oiKovaav iv Trerpaiai, vavTiXtiiv /SXii^ijc, 
Bvovcav "XiBov XjjTop' aairovSoi' t dpa. 

HJO. T<i\)iS. 1131- tvir^\eit. 

tijo. So daring is her iilcnt, Iht-uie- 
lan ilaying Ihi man! rauISt: so daring, 
that he cannol )^uspect it. Sijhvt... 
tit, where fl^Xw is in eflect sulijeci 
end ^x/n predicate, slnnd in loose appo- 
n, as an exclamation, to ToX/ia or 10 
the senlence thcUi toXmo (^Trf), exactly as 
in the corresponding English.— With ihe 
punctuation S^'n...fimt., the division of 
the rhythm is bad nnd farui not correct. 
— tiXHoH.L. Ahrens. 

1131. loTiv — tL viv jttX. She is — 
ah, ■aihal should Ihe laoelei! monster bt filly 
talltdf She pauses for words. 

iijj. vavrDiav pUpijv. The cir- 
cumstances of Ihe king's arrival give 
point lo the comparison. 

1134- Svcvovv: nn ambiguous word 
such as Aeschylus alfecls, particularly in 
oraxmlir passages. Primarily the refer- 
ence is to the lacrififis which play so 
imporlani a pari in Ihe plot. (See poj- 
licularly w. 591—599 tl^«XiAi'Ja.,.S*«tf» 
j' tBon and note iiiia\iiKl^a.ra below.) 
But 'AiSov suggests also the sense raging 
(from the other ^u) which is generally, 
and so far rightly, here taken. The 
first however cnnnol be lefi oul of sight 
in this context and sAer what has pre- 
ceded. The point lies in the ambiguity : 
her sacrifice is the ritual of a Fury.— k\- 
Sov p>ip4pa (?): a very doubtful expres- 
sion, Mr Sidgwicfc translates it by Dam 
of Death, which sounds well; but we 
have 10 remember that Hades is strictly 
a proper name, the deity i>r the lower 
world. To describe a woman as tnether 
ef Hades seems beyond the artistic limits 
of raving. X^vofia O. Miiller, followed 
by Wecklcin (from Hesychius, Xfiropff 
UptiOi, and Xgfrcipu' iiftati, and 'K^tipai- 

iifitiat tSi¥ iitiitiCa BtCir : cf. V. 736 Itpiii 
Itwi), priestess of Hadts. This (its exactly 
and may be provisionally taken. Ifpp^' 
can be retained, it must be, I think, by 
taking it in the sense not of melher but, 
which is possible in ilself, of matron, 
and translating Hie a ruatren of Hades. 

I don. 


ib. t£aumv...irWavo-av offering her 
fiendish sacrifice. Hie a priesliss of Death, 
even iiihile in Ihe ptaytr of her soul her 
husband has no part, -n couples Siowraie 
to ■wrimav, contrasting Ihem as things 
which should not coexist .^-lunravGav 
dpdv ^CXoit. The dative depends nn 
iairayiisi. We should nol change dpi* 
lo 'AjjifF (or 'Apij), particularly if Xjfropa 
be accepted. If 'Api^r suggests the notion 
of inriu>Siii, so also does dfxi (see t). 4G4). 
An \pA. created a l>ond between those 
who joined in the trwayiai {libation) by 
which it was typified. An dpd which is 
diTiroraiii Tin is a prayer in which that 
person can have no part. The prayers 
with which Clylaemnestra secretly ac- 
companied her pretended sacrifice for 
her husband's return were curses upon 
his head and vowa of the success of her 
(i*<ijHi''«i. It is in fact the 'conjuration' 
which is here in view, and if we were better 
informed respecting that pari of Ihe 
story, we should probably appreciate the 

that she sacrifices in the spirit of impre- 
cation, as we say, preserving the same 
mclaphor in a dead form. The*rn</* lain 
Greek a standing type of the purpose or 
feeling with which any one is, as we say 
again, animated.— ^Oiowt: the typical 
word in Allic poetry for the husband nr 


ifttKoK irviovirav ; eu? S" eTrtoKoXv^aTO 
f] travTOToKfxot, mavep ev (layTit Tpowij, 
Soj«f( 8e •)(alpeiii voarifu^ amr^jpia. 
Kol ravB' Znoiov ei t* 

TO p,€Wov »jfe(. fol I 
arfav y akriBoftain 

XO. rrjp fiiv fivetTTOV Sai 

^VVT/Ka Kal iriipptKa, nat ^ofiot p. e^et 

kXuopt aXjidai^ ouBev e^rficaa-/i,eva' 

ra S' aW' aKovij-ai; ex Spofiov -n-eirmv rpk\to. 

KA. ' Ayafiepvovo^ ae (i>rip.' f-jr6y}re<T0ai (iopov. 

XO. €ij(f>'r)fiop. w rakaiva, KalfiT]<TOP trropM. 

KA. a\\' ovTt waim' rmS' eTna-rarel \ayrp. 

XO. oSk, el vapearai y' dWii prj yevoiro irwv. 

it) Treitfw tI yap; 
'• p.rfv Tfl^et Traprup 
> oiiCTeipa'i epetv. 

iijfi. Ao-np,..Tp«irQ ni at lie mo- 
mntl afviclory. Kennedy rightly under- 
stands thiii of Clytaemnestra's vicloriaus 
revenge, which is Ihe real sabjeci of her 
joy. Tbe <igiire i-i from women watching 
■L fight and raising the AoXoXiry^ when 
they see the enemy Ry. 

1137. BoiMt U though thtprtttnds. 

1138: literally, 'it U all one if I am 
ms to any point herein not believed'. 

11.19. i™^ "^ c^* ""y- '■*" ''•ylf 

trt long.afrismltmlHiii.tic. /iJj>' maika 
the cliioaji upon ri tUKKov flfw. The 
fact can scnrcely be called rh jiAXw : the 
elders are there 10 see it. — Kal empha- 
sjies irO, Iky vtty self. 

1140. Yt. As for coahrmalion of her 
troth, that al least will be only loo com- 
plete. — In order lo provide a pronominal 
object in this senteni:e /iJlv has been 
altered to >i' h (Auralus) or y' to >i' 
(Pa.uw), changes both undesirable in 
themselves. But is there any need for a 
pronoun? The effect of the sentence as 
it slands is l/ieil mil say wiik eamfanien 
' A frafkiless only toetrui'. The object 
is not in, but liitrar, 'thou will call the 
prophetess only too true a prophetess', 
and this object is to be supplied out of 

the predicate liXn^iAorru' itteU, 

1I41. itiu&Cbv Schutz. 

114.1. ilXr|6Bt...^{j)K<urpJva what ii 
in Irulh 19 mere vague siniblann. They 
admit that her utterances have as she 
asserts (u. ligj) ail the character of 
reality. Cf. Tie/-. 43^. 

1344. iK...rpfy<t I am tMrmvn »ff Iht 
traek^ al a loss. 

1146. fC^jiov: a technical expres- 
sion of religion. They remind hei with 
horror thnl she is in Ibe presence of the 
gods of the house, in whose honour ■ 
sacrifice is now being performed, to that 
abstinence from ominous words is a reli- 
gious duty. From the reference to na«lr 
[Apollo) in the answer it appear* that 
they point specially at the Agyiait (p. 

1147. Nay, it is uet lu tavimtr thai 
he dirtels this smtence, but as dvAXXw 
(see ». io6j. and contrast v. 517 ffw... 
trfli Taui«ot). — twieTOTiit Xiyy ' to 
govern it '. or see it carried out. 

114S. No indnel, if kr meaits It a^ 
pear : hiil I trust il shall not he m, i^. 
I trust il is an idle prediction which the 
god does not support, and will not see 
executed. Bui a moment later ( 


KA. tTv f/iv icarevj^ei, tow S' nwoitTelvfiv /leXfi. 

XO, Ttvoi Trp6<! dvSpo'i rovT (■i;^09 Tropo'virerai ; 

KA. 7j icnpr ap av iraperxKO'Treci j(pi)fftiwv efiwp. 

XO. Tov ydp reKovvTov ov ^vt'T/xa ^ij^ai/jji'. 

KA. Kol iJ.r)ir dyav 7' "EXXiju' e-rriiTTafuii 4>nTiv. 

XO. Kol yap rii trvO^Kpavra' Svawufffj S' o;ioi?. 

KA. TroTrat, otov rh -niip' firepj^erat Be fioi. 
OTOToi. AvKet "AiroWov, ot eyw ^710. 
avTt) Siirovv \iaiva irvyieoifiaifUin) 
Xvxqi Xeoi/TO! evyevovf dirowriif. 


UJ4. SMxaSij, 

beholds the god himself (d. itfiS). It is 
lo be remembered [hat Agamemnon, as 
well as Cassandra, was a sinner against 
Apollo in having violated his sanctuary. 
The apparition of the god here at the 
crisis is a Foteca^l of his leading pari in 
the following plays,— rfxffi (rrriu (Schiiti) 
assumes (I ihinU wrongly) that the sub- 
ject of the verb h 6 Xi7ai. 

1 3 JO. They arc thinking of Afjpslhns ; 
hence dvSp^. 

iiSi. TAou mtisl indeed have miiseii 
tlean the puTfvrl of my retvlafiori. liter- 
ally 'muFi have looked much wide of 
(ropl)'. For the tense wilh tr see v. 
914 and note there. — There is apparently 
no reason to doubl this reading, which 
according to Wecklein (Vitclli) is ori- 
pnal in f, 17 being merely written above 
the (1, 9 suggest on arising from a confused 
notioti that Ar required the subjunctive 
termination (see w. gi6, 917), napcnli- 
«Tj' h. — Note that by the caesural di\1- 
lion of ■wap-iaKivntari emphasis is thrown 
upon wnpHan adverb), and cf. Thei. ji;. 
In fact raptaicliTta is not one word but 
two. — 11 wiflTO rifin raimiir^i Harlung ; 
bnl apart from the evidence, xapaxiTTo- 
Hat is scarcely the right word for the 
plnce. There is no reason to suggest 
that they have been deluded. 

rj^i; literally 'of (he person likely 
to perform it I do not undeistnnd the 
device', i.e. ' I do not see how he. whom 

I should naturally suspect of the design, 
haSi any means of executing it', h tthSat 
is ini'. iijo. It would be 
impossible that the elders, knowing what 
they did, should not have their minds 
turned in this direction by Cassandra's 
words. Rut as they say, what they do 
not comprehend is how the adulterers 
can act, assuming of course that Ihey are 
not mad. The imx"^ is 'he conspiracy. 
It is the very foundation of the whole 
play that the king's friends do not know 
the strength of their enemies and the 
extent of their preparations. — roOi t«- 
XoOfrni (Heimsoeth) perverts the mean- 

1153. (tfonift: by the fatal Inspiration 
of Apollo, which adds a point to the next 

ii;4. %oativ^ hard le inquire Bf,ka>^ 
in /earn, from -wuSiiiBai: cf. tinn»i,t. T 
give this in preference to iuufiaS^ (Ste- 
phanus), both as being more liable la 
mistake than a word so familiar, and 
also for the assonance lo irufliif(ia»TB, 
which is, I think, Aeschylean in manner. 
The error might arise through the mis- 
spelling 9u0rM0$. 

iil't. iiiifX*n.i it ii eomiMf, the pro- 


Sfiravt Vi clonus. — B< 
It is better to stop the 




lerevei fie r^v raXatvap' eus Be ^apttxiKov 

revyovira tcd/iov fiiffSov evdrjffet KOTm. 

efi^f; ayrayij'i airrtTUracrdai (popov. 
T( S^t' efiatrrijs xaTtvyiXcoT eyto mte, 
KoX (TK^TTTpa Koi fiavreia "rrepi Beprj oTeipt) ; 
tre fiiv irpa fiotpa^ t^i; e/ii?? SiaifiOepw. 
IT e'f ipOopov ireaoiTtt S' <uB' a/iei0onat. 
ilX\r)v Till' aTTjv am' f)i/)v TrXoVTifere. 
tSoi) S' ' AiToWasv ai'ro? fKhviov eV* 
■)(p7}ffTt}ptav fa'S'JT'' eVoTj-rei'fffls St fie 
Klip roiaSe Koa/Jioiv KaTaye\to/j,4vT}v fiera, 

I ififi. i7«ei »• Aiitl^o^ (con. In i^fli-cpai). 

115Q — i]6o. SAc hnrtia, as it atrr, a 
m^icine fer her wralh and -mitl add te it 
(as an ingtedienl) also the recamptnsi firr 
Mc, i.i. the revenge for Ihe insult done to 
her Bs a wife. Konf. dative ' of inleresl ', 
belongs lo Ihe whole sentence, hiath 10 
TdSjowra anrl to ttByiiiti, the laratA, i.e. 
the craving for vengeance, being pjer- 
sonified as the patient to he cured. — tirif 
is indispensable here to make ^piianor 
TdiXBMra inlelligibte. Since the meaning 
of k6toi is such tbat it cannot possibly 
depend on it in trSiflfi, or make any 
sense with irHiati except that intended, 
there is no ob.>icurily ; and the order of 
words is in itself natural. — riry (Aura- 
tus) leaves the inmile of ^dpfuuor unei- 
plained. — The abrupt recommencement 
^*(ix*'^^ '"'^' is effective and in character 
(i^. 1118, Mil, H36, 1167). 

1J64. OTrijiPrpa...<rTi^: at each word 
she dashes down the thing named. — 
nrijwTpa her divining wands. 

|]6j. <r): some otber object, uncertain 
without (he scenic explanation, "an 
image of Apollo, I guess, which she 
wore on her head or breast" (Munro, y. 

Ph. ) 

■ 4°)- 

'Down, cursed things, to the 
ground, where thus I take my vengeance 
on you I ' She tramples the insignia under 
foot. See Appendix V. 

1167. -As I am destroyed, be 
rich BubiUnce in its own way destroyed 
loo!'. Hierilly 'enrich another kind of ' 
destruclion in return for the deslnidion 
of me '. dni* irXowrtltTi enrieh DeitnK- 
lien. i.t. ' be destroyed ', as in Soph. O. T. 
JO 'Ai ji|i rTT(ni7iUKi lai >i«s rXovT-Ifmi, 
but here with more point in so ^ 1 
notion of xXovrot is literally appropriue 
to the robes and insignia.— dOkXipi mi 
(according to prose usage fripar twI) 
marks the fanciful analogy. If ihc in- 
signia cannot be Ullfd. lik« Cassandra, 
they can at least be spoiled. — ivr* i 
as in Ihc (omparatio eempendiaria, for 
dyrl Tfp iiifp orw She cxpresiei 
precisely Ihe idea of <i>tif^a;uu i 
1166.— The reading bete is correct. 
The suggested changes (£'~>)V lleimanD. 
elc.) proceed on Ihe assumption Ihat the 
required meaning is ' Beslow yourselvc 
on another'. But the insignia are nol ti 
go to another; Ihey are, as she says, I< 
be destj'oycd. 

I ^69 : having enjoyed the sight ef m 
tipaseri, even in and along zuilh tkit 
saired gpirh, It the derision of friend m 
fot alike — all in vain !. . . 

1370. (Lrrtt; 'li^ther with ifaem' M. 
with the tbujiai. Here, as in f. 5; 
!^ r\ovTi(ttr itU and again in v- 16441 
the adverbial preposition is emphoutcd 


{KoXoufjUvf) Si, <^ira^ (09, dyvpTpia 
7rTft)^09 roKaiva XifioOptf^ V^^a'xpfirjv), 
Koi vvv o pMinis pAvTiv iinrpd^as ifie 
aTTJJyar/ iq roiaaSe Oavaaifiov^ Tvy(a^, 
ffoDfiov irarpij^v S' dpr iiri^vov p,€V€i 
Oepfi^ Koireiarf'i <f>otpup Trpoa'<f>drYfiaTL 
ov firjv irtfJLoi y iie OeSp reOvrf^ofiev, 

1178. ATifju&p (corr. to dfrt/ioQ. 



by separation, so as to mark the point. 
Apollo had punished Cassandra with 
such unscrupulous cruelty, that while she 
was mocked, he cared not if the sacred 
emblems of his own religion were ex- 
posed to indignity 'along with' her. 
|Mrd here means ode A^cv rodrwr precisely 
as a^ in v, 591 means fi^ irev rur 
aXXctfr. — The adverb fiiya (Hermann) 
would much weaken the expression, 
while fUTo, properly understood, rein- 
forces it. 

1 17 1. ^(kui¥,xoppiwm9 hy friends 
and foes indifferently, disbelieved, that 
is, in Argos just as formerly in Troy 
(Hermann, Petle, Conington etc.). The 
absence of a copula between ^Kkwf and 
iX^pCav depends on the same principle of 
antithesis as £rw irdrw up and dcwn-, 
&p9pwif 7vrcuirwr Soph. AnL 1079, idxpttp 
9dKW€vBai Aristoph. Frogs, 861 (Kuhner, 
S 54^> 5i Cf ^)* — Others join ^w, as an 
adjective, to txOp^ or vice versa, or take 
together lurk and ^\wp. But the con- 
text, particularly the words oif dixoppAwm, 
shows the meaning intended. — |uiTi|v. 
As the prophecies were still disbelieved, 
the mockery was borne in vain.— The 
construction of ftdrriw with KoraytXtafihiiP 
requires a pause after dixopp^uff and 
consequently a sharp and peculiar em- 
phasis on the final word. This however 
I think to be legitimate and effective, 
especially as the exclamation ftdrrip is 
explained and expanded in the two paren- 
thetic verses which follow. 

1173. rdXaxva A/as/ 

1374. Kal vvv resumes the main 
sentence. As Apollo has followed with 
revengeful delight her sufferings as a pro- 
phetess, so MOW a/so he has come to witness 
the last penalty. — |&dvTiv 4inrp(£(as ^|U 
* having finished my seership*, * having 
done with me*, as it were, *as a seer'. 
Finished here is not quite the same thing 
as destroyed (Soph. 0, C. 1659); Cas- 
sandra the fidpTit is * finished ', as having 
completed her punishment so far as it 
was to be inflicted through the prophetic 
gift. In sign of which the god by her 
own hands has stripped off the fatal 

1 2 76 — 1277: and in p/ace of the a/tar of 
my home there atvnits me the victim* s b/ock, 
a victim strucit ere yet her predecessor's 
b/ood be co/d. — KOvcUn|S, possessive, de- 
pending on irl^yoPt literally, 'the block 
of one struck '. That Koweiaa is strictly 
general in sense also explains the use of 
the timeless aorist. — 6ip|jup...^iv£yirpo- 
(T^'yiiAri. The arrangement of the words 
shows that Ocp|fcf is a predicate to ^ivCy 
wpoo^'YIiAri : a prose-writer, if he had 
used this dative at all, would have dis- 
tinguished the subject further by the 
article, ry <f>oiyl<fi irpo<r«pdyfiaTi. The 
literal translation is * upon the before-shed 
(or first-shed) blood being warm'. The 
dative is that which, on the analogy of 
the genitive, is sometimes called 'abso- 
lute*. See further Appendix Z. The 
irpoo'^'yiiA in this case is the blood of 

1278. rcOvi){o|MV TV, strictly plural, 




^fet ^ap 'qfi&v SXKo^ av rifidopos:, 
firjrpoKTovop <l>iTVfia, iroivdrmp warpo^' 
(f>vyd^ S* 0X17x179 TijaSe yrj^ cnro^vo^ 
Kdreiatv ara^ rdaSe Opiyxaiawp <f>Ckoi9' 
a^€i VLV vTrriaafia Ketfiivov irarpo^. 
Tt orjT 67a) KOTOiKo^ €00 avcuTTCv^ ; 
hrel TO TrpwTov etSov *I\iou ttoKiv 
irpa^aaav (U9 hrpa^€V^ ot S* el^ov iroKiv 

1383. d^€lP PW, 



Cassandra and Agamemnon, as appears 
from Toivdrtap irarpin in v, 1280. — Ob- 
serve that this change to the plural is 
naturally accounted for by v. 1277 as 
above explained. — ikT^^fi^ unregarded, 

1283. a(ci g, h. Hermann retaining 
(Sfetr (f) inserts here v. 1289, but see note 
there. — WrCoo^ : a word almost unique, 
of which only a conjectural explanation 
can be given. It means literally ' the 
turning of a thing upside down*. Thus 
the position of the hands in prayer 
with the palms upwards is urr^cur/ua 
Xetpi^v. Here it refers to the overthrow 
of the fallen (k^hUvov) Agamemnon. But 
it cannot be supposed that the ()octf 
without some special reason, would de- 
scribe so simple a matter by such a 
far-fetched and unnatural word, or that 
inrTiofffia KcifUvov irarpin is merely a 
verbose ecjuivalenl for Kelficwot irorTjp. 
As this verse is in form a comment.iry 
on the preceding, it is there we should 
look for the explanation. The only ex- 
pression there likely to suggest remark 
is OpiyKtoffwv, also a very rare word and a 
not common metaphor. I think therefore 
that with this metaphor vwrlaafia must 
be connected ; the itrrlaana (this is the 
connexion required) of Agamemnon's 
fall will bring or lead to the OpiyKds of 
Orestes' vengeance. The OpiyKOi was 
the fmish of a piece of building, such as 
the coping stone of a wall, the abacus of 
a capital, etc. : and vTrlajfia therefore, to 
suit the metaphorical application, should 
be what comes before, t\e, below, the 

$fHyK6it. Now in all building, nnks od 
a very small scale, the projection of the 
BpiyK6t is secured and connected with 
the vertical dy an itrwarJ slope ; and tlus 
slope is effected by a stone or paece 
which is a ^rrlcurfia in the proper sense, 
having a larger end and a smaller, ind 
standing upon the smaller, i.e. upside 
down. More particularly in the capital of 
a pillar, the inward-sloping part (in Doric 
architecture the echinus), which carries 
the adacMS or flat top, is precisely 1 
urrlaa/ia, I should conjecture therefore 
that to this part of a wall or column the 
term uxr^cur/to, or some term {e.g. rh 
virrtoy) naturally suggesting this, was 
familiarly applied. It is of course but a 
guess, and the reader^s knowledge may 
supply a belter. But that inrrlajrftA is 
use<l here to make a point seems to me 
certain, and nearly certain that this point 
is connected with the dptrpcds. For the 
same architectural metaphor with the 
same application see v. 1339. 

1284. Iy<^ kcCtoucos / Ma/ am come 
to my home. Kdroucos means 'one who 
settles' or takes up his abode in a place; 
it does not seem to have been in common 
use but is suggested here by xdretai in v. 
1 282. In bitter irony Cassandra identifies 
herself as she has been bidden to do {v. 
1020) with the house of Agamemnon, 
and chides herself for delaying to enter 
where she is to abide. — xd-roucTos Scaiiger, 
but surely without need. 

1286. dxfiv corrected to cTXor (Mus- 
grave), and otherwise, on the ground 


oijTcoii airaWiitriTovaLV « Gewv Kpitrti, 
lavca Trpti^tit, T\']<TOfiat to icaTdaviiv ' 
ofitofiOTai yap opuos it Sean' fieyaii. 
"AtSov TTvXat Si ToffS" eyu irporrevtie-Tra 

ngo. rii \/yiii. 

in Borist is required. I'his however 

6 lo be an error. The impertect 
tense is conectly used in conlrasi to the 
tuccecding present AwatAiraovtu' : cf. v. 
709 liiUraitr 01 rir' irippevtv yaiiffpoiaui 

iv. otS'dxovis filerally'those who 
(then) were the lakers (of the town)'. 
(As TX*'' '5'" '"*'. so txtttis to 61 rating, 
V. 670.)— inUw Keck, for inSXiv, U. 

it cmlrary or in Ihtir liim. ! be- 
lieve this to be right: in the style of 
Aeschylus the object to tlxor (aSirfy) 
would naturally be supplied, and wiXifis 
much to the point. However tlie change 

>1 necessary. 

187: -are brought by their choiie of 
godi to their present piss ', literally ' are 
comitig off thus by choice of gods', Jw 
\ mt ef or among gadi, depends upon 
Kptni {chaonng, from npifu (koeu) ; cf, v. 

Kpltti (g, h) is presumably only a 
conjecture to simplify the construction, 
but the meaning is not altered. — The ar- 
guoient of Cassandra's despair is tliis: 
from the triumph of Agamemnon and 
the Greeks it might have appeared, and 

as argued, that the Trojans had 
choKD their patrons ill, and in particular 
■hut they erred in adopting the cpfs-it, lAe 
indgme»l or rather ehmci, of Paris (tor I 
think this well known phrase is in the 

'5 mind) : but now it seems that Zeus 
Xenios, Hera, and the other vaunted 

ans of the Greekf, have no mind to 
protect the victors. Evil destiny there- 
fore is omnipotent, and nothing remains 
but to submit to it. — ^The reading it fljuw 

'-t. may also be rendered 'under Ihe 
decision of the gods', but this is less 
pointed and the reading critically prefer- 
kble do«s not admit it. 

I j8B. loiira irpofu 'I Bill go to my 
owu fate [.faring) ', The use of rpdfu is 
explained (as Paley says) by trpafoffoii in 
V. 1186 to which it directly refers.— All 
the recent English editors (Paley, Ken- 
nedy, Sidgwick) retain this reading in 
spite of numerous objections, and it 
seems in this conleit clear and right, 
ihoiigh it is n matter rather for feeling 
than argument.— rXijiriiiiiu ri Ka-rCavA' 
an eiplanalian of rjnifui added in the 
abnipl manner of the speaker, 

1 189. Far have not Ihe gads roKirn a 
mighty oath f i. t. what 1 am to suffer is 

faUd, as was the destruction of Troy, as 
is the impending death of Agamemnon, 
as is the future vengeance of Orestes. 
The divine oath is in Momer always the 
assurance and symbol of certain destiny. 
Cassandra uses it so here with a general 
application. — Thai this verse is meaning- 
less or out of place we can by no means 
admit. It sums up forcibly the fatalistic 
argument of the whole passage. Her- 
mann (and many since) place it before v. 
Tl8j; but is not this more than bold? 
How did it come Ihencehere? Ai^mcni 
for the change there is really none, ex- 
cept that f has Siftt in v. 1183, which 
suggests that something may be lost. 
But, with t> following, ^ci might become 
aiea so easily, that no weight can be 
allowed to this. 

1190. 'But in my salutation this gate 
shall be the gale of Dtalh'. Note the 
emphasis on 1^ and by displacement on 

"AiSou. .She contrasts her conscious 
going-in to death with the confident 
salutation of Agamemnon, iKMiYXMlitvt 
iitT) irpnattrtlr (v. 801), and afiain ft 
l/JKadpa M<ir BtiHCt Sc{i(j0i>fuu {v. 843). 
The parallel it first introduced by 
10 — 3 

etrev^ofiai hi Kaiplat irXTryr}^ rvj^elv, 
(119 ruTif>d&a<rTO-i, at(idTtiiv evBvrfffifiwv 
aTToppviiTwv, Ofifia trvft^oKm ToSe. 

XO. rS iroWa fj,ev raXatva, TroWa Sf ffjjeflprf 
yvvat, ftaxpav irewn';' el S' fTijTu/uu? 
fiopov TOP avrtit oitrBa, iro!? BeTjXaTov 
0o6^ Biicrjv TTpof ^afiov ei'ToX./iWT TTOTei? ; 

KA. WK ear aXv^i^, ov, fcvot, j(p6v^ ffXlp. 

XO. 6 5' vtrraToi ye tov j(p6vov irpea^fverai. 

[194. SJso^i 
ntTOuEDt in v. 11B4 and guides the whole 
thought down to this. — niirfi' h/ii Aurii- 
lus; the cotnmoD error belween Aand A. 

1194. Note the change of tone on 
Ihe part of the Chonis. It U again in- 
credulous and almosi cavilling. Proba- 
bly wc have another speaker. rdXaiva... 
rxftpd very miiira/i/e, *»/ 1*17 ^- 
lit/it (see the following lines), exdp^t 
or trxttpii is given by Hesychius, wilh 
the interpretation Tkimat pafieni, which 
this passage (see i/. i3or) would naturally 
suggest For Ihe derivation from »X''' 
la hfar, cf. itatx'^^- — I suggest this as 
B possible restoration of the defective 
FoXXi W aa^ii preserved both by f and 
g: trogtij, an unsuitable word, I take )□ 
be an alternative explanation of axtipi^ 
arising from the false identification of 
'X'Mi and neepit (see L. and Sc. 
i.i^.).— J' ai (h) is neither critical nor 

1395. ' You have talked off your fate 
for some time, it is (rue, but if you really 
foresee it, why go to it at all?' This is 
the tone. 

1196. hrt^Tva god-impelltii, if a vic- 
tim came to the place of sacrifice willing- 
ly ond of its own accord it was supposed 
to indicate the divine choice of it. 

1197. <vTdX|UH literally 'with easy 
courage', cartltssly rather than hravily. 
See on Eur. Mtd. 496. 

1195, XP^vy vXJf, When Ihe lime 
it /hII, Ihtre is no iscafi. The reading 
of the MS. (for the omission of the . siib- 

119B. t\hi. 
script is nothing) is, I believe. r^A. 
The dative is that dative ef circum^^ct, 
analogous to the genitive absolute, vbidi 
has been treated in Appendix Z. Hen 
the case may be quau-insirumenul. vHi 
fullness eflime there is He rtiase 
possessive, a full lime kalk no tsatft, the 
Xp'fvgt being personified as in r. S8j ; vx 
the note cited and particularly Theocr. 
13. 19. Bui it is uanecessary and im- 
proper to decide the eiact relation, as (be 
case like the genitive signilies merely ac- 
companying circumstance. — xp'voi «Xtf 
(Weil) Iht times art full, a separate 
clause. This is almost indistinguishable 
from the Ms. and the abruptness no( 
unjustifiable. The plural however it 

1 199. Two construcliona are poesilile: 
(1) Toi xp^*! 'Vpar^cwtrai ke Ihal is 
last (to undergo Ihe inevitable) kas lie 
advantage in rcspeel of time; so Her- 
mann, Paley and others: and (1) i 1 
itoTarat toS xp'vou Ike last «f Ike 
lime is best, i uoraroi following Ihe 
gender of jipi'of as in r] fiotatia t^i 
TifUpat and other partitive expresaions ; 
so Elberiing cited by Hennann. Neither 
can be demonstrated as against the other, 
but (j) is preferable, since (i) intrckluces 
a comparison of different persons, which 
is scarcely lo the point. Either way 
there is antithesis between uvrartn and 
rjKo-^o'iTai (properly to te firsi], and 
either way the meaning of Ihe saying is 
th.-il ao inevitable evil may al least be 


KA. i}ic€i Tofi' t/fiap ■ ofuKpa KcpSavw <f>vy!'j. 1 300 I 

XO, a\\' ioffi TXi'ifj-tisv ovt' flTr' evroK^ov tf>pei'CK. J 

KA. oC&w oKouet TauTa r<Sv evSaifJOvmv. I 

XO. aXX' evKXimt Toi KarBavftv X"-P^'^ oporto. 1 

KA. ((u -Trarep aov t£v t« 'yevi'aituii TCKiron'. 

XO. Tt S" ((jri xpfj/ia, t/? it' dwinTTpiiftei <j>6^ov: 1305 

KA. ^Etf ^cu. 

XO. Ti tout' etf)tv^a<: ; el t( ^^ (ppevmn arvyof. J 

KA, <f>6$ov Bofiot TTviovo'iv aifiaToaTwyrj. I 

XO. Kai ^(ii; ; roS' S^d dviiartttv e^co-twi'. I 

KA. ifioioi tiT^OT Sitnrep etc T'i<}>ou irpetrti. 1310 

XO. ou ^vpiov dyKi'uafia Stofiaaiv Xeyti';. 

KA. oXX' etfii Kav toptoiuL KoiKvaova' efi^v 
'Ayafii/ivovos re fiotpav. apKeiTu ^io^. 

oUrot Swoi^at Bafivov tot 6pvii (f>6^^ 1315 

aXX^ut" Bavovar) futprvpntTi fioi To'Se, 
orav fuvij yvvaiKo^ dvr ifiov 0di>7/, 
avr)p re BuaSdftapTO<t dvr di/Pipoi TietTi). 
hrt^euoviiai, ravra S' (o? Bauoufieinj. 

Ijl6. iW lit. 

put olT to the last. — raS xp^voo hu the ment. D^radcd as she Is she does □ 

article as referriag to '/^ time' of the count herself among ri yitntla ruv U 

preceding verse. rur. There U do ncXcai KaT0artit t 

1301 — 1J03. They allempt to console het. 
her with praise, but she answers with 1308. TAe Aouie tj/ialti a harrar tf ' 

sad resignation. Although impressed dripping blood. ^Po* of that which 

they are determined noi to be convinced 
(see V, ijpf) and their consolation is but 
half serious.— On the reanangement of 
this passage by llenth and Hermann 
(thus. 1301, 130]. 130]) see I'aley and 
Sidgwick, who, with Kennedy, follow 
Conington in retaining the Ms. order. 
The proposal of Heath Is not entertain- 
able. To assiKn to Cassandra the scnli- 
raemt dXX' litKiai tr\. is forbidden by 
ihe whole spirit of the scene. 

1304. With this cry of misery and 
iGpcntance, su^esied partly by tinAim 
aarflaHli', she moves to enter, but starts 
back agsin in on agony of physical hor- 
» (Auralus) is no improve- 

[joj (which is here an- 
swered) and I'M. 487. With wWowrt 
•pillar cf. iXoittwi ^pan Theb. 373.— 
^W*Dtp is suggested, avowedly as a conjec- 
ture, in the Cod. Farn. bul is an inexcus- 
able change which would have been 
lejecled peremptorily if proposed since 
the invention of printing. If Aeschylus 
requires testimony, sec Tennyson, Maud 
I. 3 "The red-ribbed ledges drip ivilA a 
silent horror ef blood' . 

I3t4- She turns back again. 

ijiG. aXXnt' BavaOo^ Heimsnn, an 
admirable correction. 

1319 : i.e. 'if I make a claim upon you 
as my new {^foi, it is my fitsi and my 



XO. ft) rXfjfjLoVy olKTeipo) ae Oeaifxirov fiopou. 

KA. aTraf er' elirelv prjaiv — rj Opfjvov 0€Kw 
ifjLov TOP avTTJq; rfkUp K iTrev^OfieUy 
7rpo9 vararov ^(39, Tor9 ifioi^ rifiaopoi^ 
i'XJBpov^ ^ovevaiv rov^ ipLov^ rlveiv bfiov 
Sov\r)<; davovar}<; evfiapov^ ^^If^A^TO^. 
L(o /SpOTCi^a TTpdyfiar' evrv^ovvra fiep 
aKia Tt9 av rph^iev' el Se SvaTV)(fj, 
^oXal^; xrypdaatov OTToyyo^ (SXeaev ypcuf^rjv, 
fcal ravT i/ceivayp /aoWov olKrelpm iroXu. 



'3^4* ^X^po" 0oi'eO<ri rots iftoii (originally rovi). 

1317. dirrpi}f^i€w. 

last', literally *I claim ^cWa, but /Aat as 
one about to die': cf. the common Kai 
ravra *and that' and see v. 556. — If this 
verse be taken as one clause, the sense is 
the same, but the position of d^ awkward 
and hardly justifiable. 

1320: spoken by one too profoundly 
moved to pretend doubt any more. This 
is the only speaker who expresses full 
conviction and sympathy, and the one 
touch of relief to the horror of the scene. 
One ^^yos responds to her last appeal, and 
with that she turns from them for ever. 

1 32 1. / would speak one speech more^ 
or is it mine own dirge ? She has spoken 
Cj% Oavov/jL^PTj {v, 1 3 19) yet she will speak 
once more, if it be but us Oavovaa. It is 
the last stage in the conflict between her 
terror and her despair. — With the proper 
tone, which I have tried to show by 
punctuation, I do not find the text 
open to any just objection. Hermann's 
^^tp, oiJ 0prjvov is a * quiet and dignified 
rejection of the chorus' pity' (Sidgwick). 
But there is nothing stoical in Cassandra, 
nothing but utter and horrible fear. Nor 
would ifibv rbv avrrjs be any longer ap- 
propriate. — VVecklein retains the text. 

1322 — 1325. The general sense is 'I 
make to the sun my last prayer, that 
when vengeance comes ///y wrongs may 
not be forgotten '. In the words there is 
some slight error, and many corrections 
(see Wecklein) are more or less plausible. 
I think however (with Mr Housman y. 

PA. XVI. p. 186) that ixB^^^.'nh ifok 
(Pearson) and ^vcvoay (Bothe, cf. ^wt, 
</>(n'€VfjLa) are almost certain, and I would 
change nothing else. Translate *I call 
upon the sun, unto the last I see, that 
those m}f avengers may take of these my 
enemies bloody vengeance also for the 
easy conquest of a poor slain slave'. 
Between rots ^)u>ls and o|iov {a/ the same 
time with the vengeance for Agamemnon) 
there is no doubt a logical inconsistency : 
logic would require roit rod ^aaCKitat 
Tifia6pois or the like. But what is lost in 
logic is gained in effect: she says once 
too often that which she wants to say, 
that the wrong is hers also, the avengers 
Aers also.— Mr Hoosman would mend 
the logic by writing roif Wots.— i{X^,... 
irpAs vcrraTov ^«« : these expressions are 
cumulative, one repeating the other: 
ijXlov (Jacob) is a simplification, but not 
an improvement. — The easy confusion of 
<t>6¥€v<nv with <f>0P€Gffiw accounts for every- 
thing, and f, it appears, actually had rovs 
(not Tois) originally. 

1326— 1329. A/as for tAe state of 
man I If prosperity may be changed^ as ii 
were^ by a shade^ misery is a picture lukich 
at tAe das A of tAe wet sponge is gone. And 
tAis I say is tAe more pitiable by far. In 
dkv rp^cicv (Porson) rpiina has the sense 
analogous to rporri cAange, — ravra the 
latter^ the case of the miserable, liccivtiv the 
former^ that of the prosperous, as usual. 
— She is still protesting, as in the pre- 



XO. TO fjkiv eS TTpdaaetv oKopearoif €<f>v 
TrcUrt fipoToiaiv' SaKTvXoBei/cTtop 8* 
ovTi^ aireiir^v elpyet fieXddpayv, 
fir)/c€T iaikdrj^;, raSe (fxovwv. 
xal T^Se TToXiv piv iXelv ISoaav 
pMKapes HpidpLoVf 
OeorlfiffTO^ S* oiKaS* iKavei' 
vvv S' 64 irporepoip alp! dwoTiaei 
teal rolai Oavovai Oavmv aXkxov 
TTOivd^ davdroip iniKpavei, 

vious lines, against neglect of her part in 
the wrong about to be committed. The 
murder of the poor slave may count for 
little beside the murder of the great king ; 
and vulgar opinion may esteem, as it is 
apt to do, the overthrow of prosperity a 
more tragic thing than the extinction of 
misery which is only just on this side of 
nothing. But Mtr, not Mtf/, is truly the 
more pitiable case. — There is no need to 
force ravT* iKtlptap, either by referring 
ravra to the case of the prosperous, 4k€1' 
WW9 to the case of the miserable, or by 
referring rwra. to the general misery of 
mankind and iKtbftav to the special case 
of Cassandra (v. 1330). These devices 
are adopted to avoid the futile truism that 
'misery is more pitiable than prosperity*, 
which however is not meant or said: 
that the destruction of misery is more 
pitiable than the destruction of prosperity 
is no truism or, if such, is a truism neg- 
lected and pathetic. — onvi rtt or Tcpk' 
}//€i€P {one may liken them to a sketch) 
Conington : but even if the change were 
otherwise justifiable, the statement of a 
lexicographer (Photius), who does not 
give us his example, is insufficient evi- 
dence for so unlikely a use as irpi\f^ou= 
hfJunOoai. It is probably a mere blunder 
or misreading, wpi-^at ' cUaoiUpot, ctVa- 
oBclt (Hesychius) is no doubt correct, but 
does not lend countenance to the other. 
— SvoTWX'D Victorius, Svcrrvxot Blom- 
field. Either is possible in poetry and 



the MS. could not be relied upon to dis- 
tinguish them. But Svtmixtj, which the 
MS. gives, is also possible and expresses 
the ix>int better ; the conditional sentence 
is then elliptical, the verb (rp^^eiev or 
something of the same general sense) 
being supplied from rpixf/eievy a usage not 
at all uncommon. The change which tu 
prosperity is an overshadowing is to 
misery utter annihilation. Whichever be 
read the meaning is practically the same. 
— Dr Wecklein takes this passage almost 
exactly as I have done. 

1333. |Jit|icfrWo^9)[js Hermann. The 
ancient editors wrongly completed the 
verse to a full dimeter. 

1338. rotcrt Oavovtrt 9avc^v adding 
death to deaths. With the dative cf. 
Soph. O, T, ij^ oXXoy 8* ay aXXy Tpoa- 
ISoii 6pfjL€vop life oft life mayst thou see 
speedy where 'the dative seems to depend 
mainly on the notion of adding implied 
by the iteration itself (Jebb). See also 
on Theb, 424 Wpdet xipSos aXXo rkrcrai, 
and on tw. 1171 and 1377 above. •S'/zr- 
cession is the primary notion here, but that 
of interest (dying for or in justice to the 
dead) is not necessarily excluded. It is 
the essence of poetic expression to be sug- 
gestive rather than precise. 

id. dXX«»v . . . /irucpavct must croivn 
the pile with yet other deaths in revenge^ 
literally *is putting other revengeful 
deaths as a capital upon the column*, 
referring to v. 1 283, where the same meta- 



rk riv av eH^airo fipor&v daivet 1 340 

Saifiovi (f^vpai ra^ aKoiiap; 

AF. (Sfioi, 7rhr\fiy/Mii xaipiav TrX^yifv jfo*ai. 
XO. (Tiya' rk TrXijyTJv dirrei Kaipiu^ ovraa-fiivo^ ; 
AF. (SfioL fidX* avOt^, Bevripav weirXfiyfUvo^. 
XO. Tovpyov elpydaOai Soxei fJMi fiaaiKic^^ olfAwyf/ujuri^. 1 345 
dWd Koivfoatifi^ff av 7rc09 aa'^>aXrj fiovXeufUira, 
I. iydo fuv vfjuv rrjv ifiTjv yvwp/rfv \eyo», 

1340. Wt Sjf. 

be found occasionally in the Greek of the 
tragedians. It exists in Homer with icv, 
as the expression of a conditional pur- 
pose (Monro, ffom. Grammar, § 475)* 
and disappeared no doabt gradually, 
being retained meanwhile in poetry like 
other archaic syntax {e,g'. (hnn dr with 
the optative v. 376). According to the 
analogy of uk, vt Sif, 5rwt, Siwtn dw with 
the subjunctive, as used by the Athenian 
poets, the effect to them of the addition 
of or would be to give a Uniatht tone, 
suggesting subjection to the condition of 
possibility. This is the account osnally 
given of the final clauses with d^ and 
without, and it appears to be correct, so 
far as any difference is strictly observed. 
It is not difficult to explain why in the 
imperative the like variation should be 
extremely rare. Between the tentaiwe 
and the imperative there b a natural in- 
consistency, and such a variation is not 
commonly wanted. But this is the rare 
place where it is wanted. Like the ad- 
dition of xm it emphasizes the uncertain- 
ty of a paralysed will. — ^The proposed 
corrections, ^ftrat, i}v FMt, or ir«#t etc., 
are all very unsatisfisxtory. 

1347* On the distribution of these 
speeches see Wecklein. The text points, 
as observed by Bamberger and O. Miiller, 
to a chorus of 11 elders, and this is pro- 
bably the intention, although a tradition 
(schol. to Aristoph. Knights 589) gives 
to this play a chorus of 15. Considering 
the way in which the plot and arrange- 

phor is applied to the same facts.- 
icpav^C is generally rejected on the ground 
of metre, being taken for the future of 
iriKpabfta, hrucpopQ. But I submit that 
it is the present, not of iirucpalina, but of 
^rtxpdWw, derived from iirlKpdiww the 
capital of a column (and from the stem 
Kfi&if- heady whence xpcwloy skull etc.), 
upon the analogy of iirireKita from rfKos, 
The word was probably not common, 
and perhaps never existed elsewhere, but 
it is such as the poet was at liberty to 
form for the purpose of this metaphor. 
The present tense is used, as often and 
particularly in relation to prophecy (Klih- 
ner, Gr. Gramm, § 382, 5 and 6), of 
that which is on the way to be done and 
is the inevitable sequence of the present. 

1340. A syllable is wanting. I sug- 
gest rCf riv* dv c^£airo...; (a double 
interrogative, who could affirm IhcU any 
mortal etc.), as supplying the place with 
something easily dropped. — Ws, ri% (Mus- 
grave) is perhaps too passionate. 

1342. KoxpLa.'v mortal. On the history 
of this word, which, though formed from 
KOipbiy seems to have been influenced in 
use by a resemblance to tcfipiot from Kijp, 
see Leaf on //. 4. 185. 

1346. KOivwo'ai|icO* dv wws ktX. i.e, 
to render the full force, 'we will, if wc 
^Kiy% give each other safe counsel'. — 
This example of &m with the imperative 
subjunctive is generally rejected. But if 
we may reason from other phenomena 
of the language, such a use ought to 

wpdi; Stu/xa Sevp' aaroliri Ki}pvaaeiv ffotji: 

*:ai irpayiL e\iy)((iv itvu i-eoppvra ^iifiei. 
Kor/ii) ToiovTQv yveo/iaToi teoivtuvo'i mv 
^Tiifii^ofiai Ti Spap' to firi fiiWuv S' aKfi^. 
opiiv TraptffTi' ^poifita^oirrat yap mt 
TVpavfiho'i oTj/itio TtpaacTOvTei ■no\€i. 
■Xpopi^ofieu yap- ot Si fieWovaijq tc\4os 
TTeSot TraTovvTei ov KaSeuhovaiv X^P^- 
ovK olSa ^ouX^s ^OTtJ'OS TV)(<av \irfw. 
rav SpmPTm eerri leal to ^ovXevcai Trept. 
Kayco TOLoVTo^ elfi , sVet hviTfi.7})(avto 
Xoyoiai Tov BavovT avfTTavai ttoXiv. 


It of the play as a whole ore treated 
by the ancient comment itots, little Or no 
weight is due to their dicta on such things. 
— On the scene in general at this point 
:e the iTilroduction. 
1348, poi^V I>. po^aar: li/ cry a 

tin,. |uUeifin|t: supply from the 
previous line a^f, i.e. Trp rdXewi, the 
«■/)■ or citizeni. 'From the way they 
l)egin', says the last speaker, "it would 
I Ihey mean to enslave the city '. 
'Because we delay', answers this one 
impaiiently, 'They while she hesitntes 
trample her honour down and work un- 
resting!' The tJXii. OS he conceives, is 
represented by themselves. — Various an- 
writers (among ihem Trypho. of 
ime of Augustus, irepl rpovwv ill. p. 
196), cite, as on Aeschylean eiample of 
fuXXii May, but without specifying the 
play, xpetllajity iMi r^t *u\Xou! X'^P"- 
ir this refers to oui passage, it is so in- 
rately given as to deserve little atten- 
tion ; it shows at most that some one not 
It all careful or cntical read here Tijt 
(mXXovi. If we adopt it (as Hermaon and 
others) iu\Kii will be a personification for 
gi iJX^otTis, 'jiAiU Ihey^ tramfUug oh ihc 

hsngur of Delay, i.t. 'of those who delay , 
etc., the same in meojiing, but less natural 
in expression. It may be suspected how- 
ever thai r^f >i(Uovt is no more than an 
ancient conjecture upon a text exhibiting, 
as ours do, r^t ia>A.tiaxit, where rqi ii a 
note merely, indicating, as the fact is, 
thai a prose-writer would have used the 
article. — The Cod. Font, actually reads 
at H, lieWoiaii^, explaining ni\\<i6v<ti 
wrongly by r^f Tvptv/Tfiiat itiKwori^ and 
it is possible that M really had this, not 
r^t >«XXewiiji, though the Cod. Font, is 
no trustworthy evidence of it. — To render 
T^i /ieX\oui..,iraT(wrr<i, by Horning tht 
credit of delay cannot be right: such 
'credit' is not kUm and TtaraitJH ritm 
is much more than seeming. — «Am 

■ 353. Te Ikt doer (ef a Mng) it be- 
longs to matt flans abeul it, i.i. it is of no 
use- making suggestions where no execu- 
tion is to follow. This speaker is utterly 
helpless, the next almost idiotic with 

13G1. pfw KTttvovTW slaying mr life. 

ij. accepting a condition no better than 
death. Compare the common phrase od 
3iJni)ii}e for .in intolerable stale. This 


aW OIK nvejcToi', (tWil KaT$aveiv leparti' 
treiraiTepa yap fiolpa Trj<i jvpavifiSo^. 
t} yap TeK/j.Tjpiotcnv f^ olfiaifp.dTaiv 
futvTevffo/itada TavBpo^ m? oKaiXoroi ; 
fftKft eiSorai jfprj TwcSe fiv0ova0ai Tripi' 
TO yap rotrd^eiv rov aai^' elheuai St'^O. 
ravniv iwaiveiv travToBev irXtjOvvopMi, 
rpavmt 'Arpei'Siji' elSepai Kvpovvff ottio?. 


iroKkwv vapoiOev Kaiplm^ tlprjiiivtov 
TavavrC (hreiv ovk eTraia-yyvSriavfiai.. 
trm yap th eyBpoK ij^0pti iropavvmv; 
SoKova-iv (Ifai irt}fLov'^p apievrrrarov 
ippd^eiev ir^os Kptlfftrov eKTnjS^/iaTOi. 

i-xplanalinn is offered by the Ca/. Fam., 
nor dues it seem to me impossible. — 
In any caw jSloi rtimrta (Canler) is no 
solution: nny editor linding this would 
have left il. It is possible that nrrfu*- 
Tfi cavers some rare or unknown word, 
i.g. iTiXcviTEi maHng our lives tame. 

1365. TtKIMlpCokO-lV «{ 0[|UgYllaTVI'. 

See w. 804, 1188, 1411, 1630, Thtb. 
lOiJ i'inpi. ipl\wr D-Ko, etc. 

1367. Si^iovvfcL (E. Ahrens, Her- 
mann) Wt kad bisl httavi Ihf faiti htfort-tm 
indHlgi oHgtr. I give precedence to this 
conjecture in deference lo general opinion 
but without assent, — iivtoirki : literally 
'lobe-talk Dneanother'fthe ww/«a/usc of 
the passive voice) fonned from luiSm in its 
depredaloTf sense [tali, mmieerds), ICt 
kadbat know llie/acts brfart vu htar tech 
Biktr talk. Surely this is a more pointed 
expression than theolher. The verb ^Ssu 
is not eitini elsewhere, but why should 
this be expected? The analogy of rurvijw, 
•Xpvcia'Xa be-pitch, be-gold ' etc., ii quite 
ss close a£ is required, when it word is 
invented to make a point. In such a 
caH the strangeness of the formation is 
its meril. Our own poets, especiaity 
« older poets who answer to Aeschy- 

lus, abound in similar device*. Certainty 
fivfisivAK could not be used for luMt- 
001 : but neither is il. 

1369. Ta4n]» (Hjf ytihfi'^r) see v. 
'Hy.—^iramOtv irXuMwotuu lit. / am 
mullijilud /ram all uitei, i.e. Frvm all 
siiils I fimi siifperl to approve this vole. 
Somewhat similar is the use in Supf. 611 
Jijfwu KparnSffa X'^P f'V '^V^Crtrat (SJdg- 
wick). The previous speaker is recdved 
with general signs of approval. 

1371. See the Introduction. 

'373— '37S' ^'^ liou/J one {it 
aikamfd<}fservietaUefiilithooit\, wkepl«lt 
at a ft€ agaimi a Jtti With Iht stm- 
blame ef friendship lit him makt Aii 
dangerous snare toa AigA lo be mieHeaptd* 
i.e, ■ All is fair in war '. The language is 
probably proverbial or modelled upon a 
proverb.— VHt yip nt i*aurx''>'^^if't 
rrX,, supplied from the previoussentcncc. 
For examples see L. and He, i.v. iruit, 
1 11. — tx^pa iroptrvvnv literally ' contriving 
hostility' — ^CXoLt instrumental nentM. 
antithetic lo ix6pd not to ix«ptii. As iW* 
sentence only repeals the sense of the 
preceding question it properly has no 
copula. Note the emphasis given to 
pi\ta by the rhythm. — mhmvi)* d 



€fjMi o arfwv 00 ovK cuppovTiO'TO^ iroKat 

earrjKa o evu eiraia 4ir e^etpycurfievoi^, 
oiro) £* eirpcL^a (icol raS* ovic dpyfjaofuti) 
CO? fti^re il>€vy€iv fi'^r ofivpaa-Oai fi6pov, 


Tarov, literally * mischief set as a snare'. 
— ^pd(ficv: the optative im^a/itff, as 
in 9. 936. This archaic construction has 
been already noticed in another prover- 
bial passage (z^. 557) where, as here, it is 
joined with the proverbial rtt. — l»i|wt 
accusative, defining the extent of the 
action ^paffirtuf. — These three verses are 
commonly punctuated as one sentence 
and, being thus unconstruable, are cor- 
rected to get a construction. With 
vif/ior^t (Auratus) and dpK^ffrar* iw 
(Elmsley) they are rendered, *for how 
else (than by deceit) could one, devising 
ill' for foes who seem friends, fence the 
snares of woe too high to leap over?* 
But this is not to the point. The 'sem- 
blance' or ' pretence ' of friendship on the 
part of the attacked has nothing to do 
with the matter. What is to be excused 
is the pretence of friendship on the part 
of the assailant. This must apply to 
any explanation which makes ^oct mas- 
culine, and is sufficient to show that it is 

1 376. For me, I havt had long enough 
to prepare this wrestle for victory ^ though 
ii has come at last. — dyi^.-.v^Krit strug^e 
for victory*, dyih in its proper agonistic 
sense, a contest in the games. — wdXiu... 
iraXoiot: a sort of assonance or play, in 
the ose of which Aeschylus resembles 
Shakespeare, on the two possible senses 
of voXcuof , auciemty from vAcu, and in 
wrestling from vK(Xiy. See Cho, 865 
roc^dc vrfXifr /A^rof f3r f^Spot 61000U 
fUKKti,„'0piaT7it d^mp* ttv ^* ^^ ^^V* 
where l^pof, meaning *a third cham- 
pion who waits to contend with the 
victor in a preliminary contest*, implies 
that the victory of Aegisthus and Cly- 
taemnestra was itself a wlni roXo/a, and 

is in fact an allusion to this passage. 
Whether we write iraXcuat or raXcUas (as 
the adjective from irdXi; would probably 
be accented) is in such a cose indifferent. 
The metaphor of the rdXi; leads up natu- 
rally to the picture in v, 1378. On the 
Aeschylean use of equivocation in general 
see Appendix II. to the Sdvm Against 
Thebes and the Index there, under Ver- 
bal EquiiHxation, — Of viKr]% iraXaias, 
referred to irdXat only, no -passable 
explanation has been offered, and most 
texts give after Heath v^Ki^y a sup{)oscd 
equivalent of yefxout, i,e. this fighting out 
of an old quarrel^ which however leaves 
us still to seek a satisfactory reason for 
the repetition roXat. . . iraXatas. The form 
i»ctici7 depends on the testimony of Eur. 
Or. 1679 vei>af re diaXt^ccr^e (with va- 
riant y€(Kos) : but as the use of dtaXi/o/xai 
points to a genitive case, it is doubtful 
whether re/jcat can be correct. The state- 
ments of the ancient lexicographers (y e / /C17* 
^CKw^iKio. Suidos) are of little weight with- 
out examples. Very likely they proceed 
from mere misspellings of vUr^. On the 
other side the absence of any derived 
form, such as yei/cdo;, yeixd^b; etc., is not 
without weight, considering the frequency 
of I'CiKot, reix^b;. On the whole Blomfield 
was justified in holding the form uncerti- 
fied, and at any rate there is no evidence 
for it here. 

1378. Note the harsh and striking 
rhythm of this verse, which, as he' i^- 
eipycur/ji^yoit belongs to iorriKay has in 
effect no caesura. 

1379. Kal TcCS* this also^ see w.iiii — 

1 380. And I made the death such 
to forbid escape or resistance^ an envelope 
impassabU'f like the fisherman s net a- 



(iireipov afi4^ifi\i)aTpov, Sarrep l)(Oimv 
ir€piCTf)(i^mv, irKovrov eXpATo^ tcateop, 
iraUo hi viv Bk' kiIv Bvoiv oipjiypLoaiv 
p>€0rJK€v avrov K&\a' xai weirroucoTi 
rpirrfv irrevBlSmp^t rov kotcL yOovi^, 
"AiSov v€tcp£v awTTJpo^y ^vtcralav x^^^' 
ouTw TOP avTov Ovpiv oppAive^ weaeiv' 
KaK^vamv o^etav aXparo^ a^a^v 
ffaXKei yH ipep^p^ ^axaSi <f>oipia^ Spoaov, 
Xaipovaap ovBep fjaaop fj SioaSinp 
yapei awop-qro^ koKvko^ ip Xox^vpMaip. 
(o^ c5S' ij(pvTtoPy wpiafio^ ^Apyeivp roBe, 
X<aipoiT dp, el ^^aijpotT', ijfi 8* cVevpfo/iat. 
el S' rjp TrpeiroPTtap war eirunrevieuf pexp^, 
'rdS* ap iiKaUa^ ffp, virephiKw^ pJkp ovp. 




1383. WtptffTOiX^t^V' 

romui a shoal, f&^pov death here signifies 
the means or instrument of death, as in 
Cho. 1072 vfjjrrfipt 71 fi6pw €tww; 7h^, 736 
iy€lpaTo /i6po¥ aimfj in/. 1 495 8o\Ufi fi6p(p 
Safifls etc. See also the uses of an;. — 
dCinipov (i|i^pXT|(rTpov in apposition to 
fi6pw. — aNnrfp...'iripiOTix^«*v (g), liter- 
ally, *as one that puts (his net) about 
fish*: the object of wipurrixli^fify is sup- 
plied from a^npl^Xricrpop. — The correc- 
tions suggested here (Tcpurrtx'^i irepc- 
o-Wx'ti'w) are misconceived. It is much 
more natural and pro|Kir thai the word 
T€piffTixi^tp should be referred to the 
fisherman of the simile and not directly 
to Clytaemnestra. 

1384. avTov *then and there* fV//V^ 
(Hermann). — avrov Voss. 

1385. The third blow is compared to 
the third libation usually poured to ^uyHjp 
or Zci>t ZurHjp (see ?'. 257) with a certain 
ambiguity in the word atari^p. Hades, 
the god of the lower world, is 'the atori^p 
of the dead ', in the sense that he ' keeps 
them safely * ; for which sense of atf^ see 
L. and Sc. — Note that rov xard \9ov6tt 
'the subterranean power', is a separate 
substantive, to which "Xidov yexptav 

1390. dib9 p6tw Tor e/. 

ffwriipot is added as an explanation. 

1387. ^piuUvR speeff with the secon- 
dary suggestion of panted forth (lee 00 
Theh, 381). — dpiryvct (Hermann firom 
Hesych. ^^irycCFei * ^pe<Vyercu) heUked^ may 
perhaps have been an ancient ▼aiiant or 
conjecture here. But the form is not be- 
yond suspicion and there is no evidence 
against the text. 

1390. 8iOv€^Y^Mi Porson, a bril- 
liant correction. 

1392. Note the mocking effect of the 
address, compared with v. 846 : so in the 
following x^W^* ^* '^ X'^'pMre the echo 
of their implied rebuke (see w. 1031 — 
33) is probably not accidental. 

1 394 — 1395. Could there be a fit aue 
for a libation ever the dead^ justly and 
more than justly this would be that case. — 
cl ifv...&oTc if it had been passible^ cf. 
Kur. Hipp. 705 aXX* fort xdc rwrj* iScrt 
(TuBrjvcUt riKvw, Soph. Phil, 656 ip* iarw 
Store KorfY^^v 94o9 Xafidp etc. (Paley). 
— irp«irrfvT«v (r(3r wpayftdrvv), under Jit 
circumstances, with good cause, is an 
adverb to iwiowMetw, but placed before 
iSore as taking the emphasis. It is a 
genitive absolute like c#9* ix^i^Ttm in v. 


Toa^vBe KpaTrjp iv B6fioi<; icaKwv ite 
TtK^a-a^ apaituir avTO^ iiCKivet fioKdiv. 

XO, 0av/iA^ofi€p iTOv yXtSffaav, oJ? ffpaavtrrofto^ 
jjTi'i Totdi'8' eV duhpl Kop-ira^eK \oyov. 

KA. ireipaade pfOV ywaiKo'; w; d^pdtrfiotiov. 
eyto 5' nTpiaTtp KapBia Trpd? etSora? 
Xiyto- ail S' a'lvelv eXre /le i^eyviv deKeii 
ipMiov' o^Tof iartv ' Ayaii.ep.iKov, ^/i09 
Troo-(t, veKpoi S( TtjirBt Scfin? X^P^ 
epyof, BtKaias TiitTovo<;. TtiS' w8 ^eu 

XO. Tt jiraiedi', tJ yivat, 

■^6oi'OTp«f>e<; fBavov rj ttqtov 
vaaafiii-a fivriit ef aXd? opjievov 
ToS' eTreOou dvoi BTjpodpoovi t apai; 


I3gj, and the subjecl of il is the same, 
circMmslancfs, ri wi>iriita.ta. Ill fact il is 
this M' ix°"w which guides Lhc con- 

tion »f the whole sentence.—'niS' fir 
^» uptrofTa wpirfiiaTa — The gramnui 
is clear uid correct if we observe the true 

:ructioii of wft-winTUr. I'here is no 
need to write vpiriiiTmi {Stanley), which 
is only a less appropriate synonym for 
wptw^TUr, still less to chai^ rat' to T<fi' 
(Tyrwhill), which throws ihe whole sen. 
fence out of geiLr. But St;inley, Blomlield, 
Wellauer, Hermann, and others were 
right in rejecting the transtalion of ■( S' 
Hftitimi' by if il had been a filling 
Iking, which would require d i' tip tut 
Tp€r6rTon' intrritittr or TUmrrirStui, — 
hnvirfvBiit' MKp^: if ever, thai is. a 
death might justly lie the subject of reli- 
gious exultation. 

1J96. i(pari{pa...KaKuv apa(wv. The 
iewi ' full of the imprecatiuns of suflering 
bomes*, which AgBiiiemnon hod filled for 
himself and now had returned lo drink, 
is the eonjuralhn against him, provoked 
by Ihe sacriticc of Argive lives. See vv- 
4G4, iijf, which interpret both the 
imagery and Ihe meaning of this passage. 
This appeal lo the real or supposed 
wrongs of the people is for the ijueen's 

t. hfriltttW. 
applauding parlizans. See next Dole. — h 
SJ|u)i| Kojcav logcthei, as (he arrange- 
ment of the bcnience shows. 

r^oi. ttSJTiii,.,iriU: clearly cOQlrSSt- 
ed, not Ihe same, ai is the list speaker 
representing the elders. The ('Idrii lo 
whom she appeals are her own fellow- 
conspirators. On the other hand some 
of lhc crowd receive her with eiecralions 
(v. 1 409). 

1408. ^VTM H dXit: the sea serves as 
the type of water and lii/uid generally as 
opiioEed 10 ie!id (Paley). So otiPpoi in 
Soph. O. T. 1418, where see Jebb'a note. 
The MS. ^.irai (i.e. jivioi iiiiinkled\ is a 
curious, though quite mistaken, conjee- 

1409. 'rffi' WBoii Wotr 'What evil 
drug or draughl led thee to bring upon 
thyself Iki Jury and loud riirui of yon 

/M!' Ktn/ury, cf. eiti- lo rage. I had 
written a note arguing for this interpreta- 
tion, which is not commonly noticed; but 
I find that Dr Wecklein assumes il, not 
without reason, as obvious. The other 
Wot (ntcrifiit, incenii, parallel lo the 
other dvu) is not admilted by the contett. 
Tbe form of expression clearly inipliea 
visible and audible expressions of rage. 
Nalurally Ihe crowd now includes many 



aTriSticei, nTreTa/ics' aTroTroXff S eaet' 

vvp fifv ScKa^ei; ex woXewi ^vyrji/ eftcl 
Kal iitao'; drrTiii' b7)fi,cr0povf; T ej(etv apd^, 

ov ffvv To8' avSpl TwS' evainiov iftipiov 

o<; av TrpoTifiaii', lomrfpii Qorou fiopav, 

fii'iXatv (^XeotTtiJi' ei-woKoiv voiifiitiaaiv. 

effvaev avroO iraiSa, tftiXrdjtjp e/ioi 

oiSii'', €TripBw ^p-riKirov driiidTtav. 

ov toOtov fic 7')? T'/ffSe XP^ ""' avSpt)\aT€U', 

fiiatTfiiiTtuv ivrroiv' : i'mjKoo'i S' ep.wv 

who (iid nol shnic nnd hove no ^yropalhy 
wilh the conipimcy. But m an utipre- 
|i»rcd minoriiy they are helpless. 

1410. These broken exclamntions 
seem sutlicienlly intelligible though not 
exactly constructed. 'As thou hast 
broken all hands, 10 shall all hands be 
broken wilh thee '.— ^vdiraXkt Seidler. 
On the metre, see Appendix II. fjiPpipoti 
ue. Sfiptfiot, but ihc exceptional form 
(wilh a phKKtlK p.) is perhaps correct. — 
pAret in tlie personal sense, 'object of 
htle". The dative JffroTi depends both 
on lunt and on Siifipiiior a load en Ihi 
ftvfle'i hiiU, i.e. a thing against which 
their hatred will rise and throw it off. 

1411. vv* >Uv jvi, HMO. The giiilt 
of taking life, she says, is o discovery 
which they seem to have mode in her 
particulHT case. 

'413' "X*^" lot'eaT, eiplanalory infini- 

1414. ir^ adverbial : aHilJoimilrtelin 
laying that riproaih ogamsl my hMsbaitd 
here. For ipipiui to alltgt sec Demosth. 
13)8, 11 va«'ai a.Mia ilatwi cited by L. 
itnd Sc. i.v. ipipU' ri6t: the reproach 
of murder upon vvhich the nueen and her 
parly ground their cause.— It is clear thai 
M had ihe text, as copied first in f ; had 
oMiii been original it would not have 
been changed to ei vit, wheteas the con- 

trary cUange. as a careless conjecture, i> 
obvious, and was proliabty already append- 
ed in M by one of the annotatois. Fmni 
06th t6S' comes oiltr tAt (Vogs) tht 
reading of modern texts, sugfrrated by 
rOt flit in V. t^ii. This anlilhcus ii 
plied, but it need not be explicitly 
completed. See fiirthet on f. 1419. 

1416: atihough hit fluey ktrit i 
skap enoHgk: ihe dative rofuv/utfv it 
quasi-possessive, Ihe herd being persooi' 
fled after Aeschylus' manner. 

I418. dTijutiw Canter (A for A) : /| 
charm the winds tf Thrace (v. loi). 

r^ig. 'Shouldst not thou bonith 
hiinV This grim comparison belween 
the guilt of herself nod the guilt of the 
corpse is not merely or allogellier 
ironical. According to Ibe Indilioul 
doctrine of Greek law and leligioo, a 
coipw (as in the case of Polynices; see 
the Seven AgaintI Tkebts] could be both 
condemned and punished.— x^ (Ponon) 
is a change suggested only by Ihe 1 
authorized reading of v. 1414. I 
Clytaemnestia is not gravely arguing tbu 
al the time of the Michfice at Autia 
Agamemnon ought to have been banlibed 
from Argot. Her ai^mcnl relates 1 
the present, and is properly cxpie^ed 


epytav SiKoar^f: rpa'xy^ eL Xiya Se aoi 
TOiavT oTreiKeu^ m irapeaKevaafUvri^y 
eK t£v ofiolcjp x^^P^ vtKTiaavT ifiov 
afy)(€i,Vy iav ik rovfiTraXip Kpalvrf Oeo^, 
jvoiaei S^Sa^OeU o'^e yovp to am^povelv, 

XO. fi€ya\6firfTi<; el, 

ir€(>L<f>popa S' €Xa^e9, Sairep ovv 
^voXifiel Tvx^ <l>pvv irrifialpeTaL 
Xiiro^: iir ofifiarav atfiaTO<; ev Trpeirci. 
avrierop en ak XP^ OTepofjuevav <f>i\o)p 
TVfifia TVfifMari rlaai, 

KA. KoX ttipS cLKOvei,^ opxlcop ifuSp Oifiip* 

fid' TTJp rikeiop ttj^ ifirj^ iraiBo^ AUrjp, 
"Arrjp ^Epipvp ffy alai topS" l<rij>a^^ iyw, 
ov fiot <f>6l3ov fieXaOpop i\7rU ifiiraTei, 

1 43 1 . tOuiui r/trat. 






1411 — 25: iV. 'threaten if you please, 
but remember that I am prepared to 
fight the contest fairly and abide by 
the event'. Ik twv 6|ioU0V.. <rM^povcCv 
expresses the conditions for which she is 
prepared, literally * that he who conquers' 
etc. The second alternative, which for 
symmetry should have run in the infini- 
tive, is turned (see on v, 1455) into an 
independent clause. — 4k rwv 6^{m¥ 
(with piicfyrainra) on fair terms is contemp- 
tuously ironical. By the success of the 
plot the queen has her opponents at her 
mercy. — wKi|oittinra strictly general, for 
the prose rdy yiin^arra, that he who con- 
quers jyi^.— 4dv...KpaCv|| if ^ as it may 
prove, fate is accomplishing (i,e. intends) 
the contrary. The tense, which points 
to the existing facts as determining the 
result, has more point than /c/xUi; (shall 
accomplish., Herwerden). 

1437. «Svinp...4iri|ia£vfTai literally 
'as indeed with the blood -shedding 
stroke thy mind is frenzied', i.e, 'this 
outrageous defiance already displays the 
maddening fury, which sooner or later 
will bring thee to punishment '. 

1429. The blood-fleck on thine eye doth 

well beseem thee or 'is right natural', 
referring not to a stain of blood from the 
murdered man (which is not consistent 
with It ofifidrup) but rather to the blood- 
shot eye, which they see, or suppose 
themselves to see, in the furious face of 
the murderess. It is the bloody mind, 
they say, which shows there. 

1430. dvrCfTov, if right, is a parallel 
form to OMTiTOP (cf. dirctJx^TOj, direvK- 
t6s) meaning retribittivcy paid bacl\ from 
dMa-rUip to pay baci\ and is in construc- 
tion a predicate to rvfifia. — drUrov h (a 
conjecture for metre) is a similar equiva- 
lent for drtToVy unavenged^ a predicate to 
o^. — The first gives the better sense 
and is metrically possible. Sec Appen- 
dix II. 

1 43 1. ri>|i|Miri I. Voss. 

1431. opKUtfv.. 04|Jiiv 'solemnity of an 
oath', i.e. solemn oath. 

1 434. "A-njv 'Epivvv 6* in apposition 
to ^Ikjjv, 

'435' " ^fy ^op^ walks not in the house 
of fear. A fine picturesque phrase, 
surely not too imaginative or metaphorical 
for Aeschylus : she means ' My hope does 
not approach fear; my confidence is 



&>9 (IP aiOvf TTup ^^' ioTia^ ifia^ 
\iy I a0o^f (09 TO irpoaOev eS ^pov&p i§ioL 
01/T09 yap 17/up dairX^ ov afiucpcL Opcurov^ 
Ketrai ywaixo^ r^aSe Xvfiavri^pio^, 
XpvarjiSav fieiX^yfia twp vtt *I\^, 
ff T alx/id\(i)TO^ IfSe Kai repaaKoiro^ 
Kai KoivoKexTpo^ lovSe ^eo'^n/Xoyo?, 
iriarrj ^vpevpo^ paxniKxnp hi aeXfioTtop, 
larorpifirjf;, arifui S* ovk eirpa^arf^p' 


dashed with no misgivings.'" Sidg- 
wick. — ifiiraT€af Victorius. 

1 436. aC9xi vvp . . . {|ult kindifs fire for 
the lighiitii^ of mine altars ^ i,e, shares my 
home and power. The form of expres- 
sion is adapted (note Cn rb wpbaBw in 
the next line) to Aegisthus' last exploit, 
the beacon-fire and the consequent 'send- 
ing round ' of sacrifice {weplwetiyjfit w. 
87 — 96) to the houses and altars (plural, 
w. 96, 600) of Argos, in fact to the 
whole successful conduct of the conspi- 
racy. See the Introduction. For the 
plural iffHaif necessary to the meaning, 
see Eur. /^<r. 145 toWCjp iorlai. In thus 
speaking of Argos as hers Clytaemnestra 
significantly assumes on behalf of herself 
and Aegisthus the place of the dead 
king. — For the use of iTt. see L. and Sc. 
s. V. C. III. I. — The customary change of 
iixkt to i^ifft is critically most improbable 
(the plural being rare and the singular 
very common) and contrary to the 

1438. For there^ as our broad shield 
of confidetue^ lits my husband, outraging 
his ivifc,... and with him his mistress \ liter- 
ally 'he there (a broad shield of confi- 
dence to us) lies as the outrager of his 
wife here... and she also* etc. The words 
djsTXt...9pQao\}% are in apposition not to 
o5rof but to the whole statement o&rot 
K€irQ,i..,\vyMfri\pio% ^ re irrX. Aegisthus 
and Clytaemnestra can face the world, 
when they can point to the husband laid 
beside the mistress whom he proposed to 
place in his house (sec Eur. EL 1032).— 

The absence of the article ^h the 
adjective \v»wrH^wt^ noted by Hennau 
as a difficulty, is explained and justified if 
vtK 1439 — 1440 are correctly pimctoated 
as one sentence. 

'439* ^0^ : she points to henelC 

1440. Sec Horn. //. i. 378.— The 

way in which this furious exdamatioD 

is interpolated between odrof and { ^t 

resembles Theh, 560 — 562, where see note. 

1443. vMr*n)...otX|ulTttr who skartd 
with him faithfully even th€ skip^s benck^ 
literally 'faithful bed-partner, though of 
ship's bench': the genitive viK^fAnm 
depends upon (drei/yof as a word *of 
sharing'. 8^, which cannot be used as 
one conjunction in a series, implies an 
antithesis, a preceding wurHi ftiw. This 
will apply whether we punctuate at 
a-cXfidruw (as I think probable) or join 
the next word. 

1444. tmrpifrUt, It is best to leave 
this, even if we cannot explain it. We 
have not that knowledge of sailors' lan- 
guage in Aeschylus* time, which would 
enable us to say what terms a woman 
like Clytaemnestra might borrow from it 
to apply to a woman like Cassandra, or 
what those terms might mean. At any 
rate nothing is mended by writing 
IffOTpipiis (Pauw): FavrfXwr creX/i^b^ty 
IvoTpip-fp is variously translated, 'nautis 
aeque cum transtris trita* or 'sharing a* 
like with him the mariner's bench *. But no 
analogy is offered either for the supposed 
sense of Urorpipiit or for the supposed 
construction. I doubt whether oeX/iorwr 


o ftev yap o^Tut^, ^ Be to* icvkvqv SIkt/p 
TOP Zararop ^leXi^atra davaatfiop yiop 
Kelrai 0iX^tu! tovK, ifiol S' ejrrfyeviep 
evvrj^ irapoifraivijfxa t^? efiij^ ^XiS^s. 
XO. (fiev, TK av ev Tiij^ei, /j-rj TrtpidBwo^, 
fn)Se Be/iViOT^pi]^, 
ftoKoi TOP alei ipipova 

taarp^ip is possible Greek for any- 
thing. Il may be added Ihat Ihc practice 
of Aeschylus i! Jlrongly against running 
c iientence from line to line and 
slopping it at Ihc second fool. 
Even when (he sense is not ran on, this 
rare pause pnxluces a quite suRi- 
rhylhmical dislocation; which how- 
ls here jiistiReil. tlie torrent of 
live being broken by a new thought. 
4S— 1+4;. S lUv Tdp oSroit, ^ 81... 
X i^i^TBt Toii8« for ke lit! as ye la, 
and skt aiso like his bdirved, litctally 'she 
lies lovcably to him (as lie to her)', the 
iiMion of tdDJ* is modelled on the 
genitive of nlalisn in plact, as in Thuc. 
36. 1 i-^c 'IruMat (ol IluEXlai tiXuf 
lopoirXou jieiroi (^ K^jwu/ia), Herod. 1. 
iu 'Il^aiirrqfau irpii rkrw Srtuar 
Kiiiupw, cf- the genitive with ayxi, iyrij. 
SnaBrw etc, and see Kiihner Cr. Cram- 
4r8. S a. Nole the parallel be- 
ouTi*i...ipiX^{rt. — Here again f 
has faithfully preserved Ihc renillng of 
M: g (and h of course) gives llie 
simpler but mucb less pointed ^iX^''^^* 
■) from ^Wsi, which might lie 
line, like awr-^ The scholia con- 
tain n gloss ii it (hijcfli 0iXov>i/h|, written 
on ^QTup, which (he author derived 
from ^01 and ^rop heart. If this note 
derived from M, as it may be, it 
would show Ihol this reading also ap- 
peared in that Ms. Possibly M had 

^\fr"^, and the note is from d hand (m'?) 
which added or accepted the p. Thus 

n 73fj. 41^ Hisxiiutv, the e and a gloss 
I iutX'^^^ B«^ added by m', and so 
1 fiequenlly elsewhere. Itul Ihc pa-ssive 

/ r)yi.i.p 

^ih^uT is belter, besides having more 
technical probability. If any change be 
required. T^jjc (with ^X^ui, cf. v. 1581) 
would be belter than ^liroip: but the 
text is sound. — Hermann is surely mis- 
taken in aiding, against Blomlield, that 
^iXiiriivi really is derived from j^rep and 
really does mean btarl-belsvtd. 

mT- SAe adds le Ike luxury ef my 
Iriumpk a sfiee ef sex. Translation here 
is very difficult, but the meaning and 
construction arc, I think, clear. To the 
joy of revenge tor her daughter, and other 
satl^ifacllons of the moment, the coming 
and death of Cassandra have added the 
revenge for her injuries as 
1 a wife, riviji stands to 
in the relation of a qualify- 
ing adjective, 'concerned with ii»i\' i.e. 
with the relations of sex, while j^XiSij* 
is the ordinary objective genitive de- 
pending on taptfj/iiirtiltia in its verlnl 
aspect, ' a seasoning added te'. For the 
cnmbination of genitives cf. Soph. Ai. 
308 it iptitloit.mpCir ofrclau ^inu, lite- 
rally 'in the corpse- wreckage of slain 
sheep', id. TraeA. ityi rdi' Wrqi Zifrif 
liyoi', Eur. Phiwii. jofl ^mrrp&x."* 
...XU'rat-wKlfaiuiii 'hair-plait of locks', 
and see KUhner, Gr. Grammar % ^n, 4, 
note 3. 

•4S'- 'v'^t*': dubious, but defended 
by Conington nnd others and perhaps 
justifiable in the sense 'bringing in/a us'; 
cf. Eur. Affd. 4J4 ir intrlpf 7niw "- 
Taat Sinia dnjdv fill into our minds 
Ihe gift of inspired soHg.—^v a ^ Av 
ii)LCv (Emperius) 'to bring us perehoHct 
eternal sleep' is a poetical nnd attractive 


1 62 


Moip' dreXevTov virvov, Safiipro^ 
<f>v\aKO^ evfievetTTarov xal 
TToWd tKAvto^ yvpaiKO^ Seal, 
7rpo9 yvvaixd^ S' aire^Oiaev filov, 

1(0 irapavofJLOv^'f 'EXei^a, 
fila Tcl? TToXVa?, rd^ irdvv iroKKa^ 
^i^a? oXeaaa^ xnro Tpoia, 
pvv Se reXeiav 

TToXv fivaoTov hrqvOLato Sl alfi aviirrov, 
ff Tt9 Tjv TOT iv SSflOl^ 



1455. For the change from the parti- 
cipial to the principal construction see 
V. 1287, and zt'. 1457 — 1460 below. 

1456 — 1462. These lines are probably 
to be repeated as an 'ephymnium* or 
burJen in the antistrophe after v. 1475 as 
there indicated (Bumey, followed by 
Wecklein; cf. 7n>. 1490 and 15 14). They 
may however be mere recitative not in- 
cluded in the strophe.— The suggestion 
of Hermann that these lines are anti- 
strophic to zfv, 1539 — 1549 is not to be 
entertained. Apart from the want of 
correspondence in position, it is impossible 
to su]^pose (as the theory requires) that 
w. 1459 — 1460 are the corrupt and 
casually united fragments of sentences 
originally separated by several lost verses. 
Sec note there. 

1456 was perhaps originally ana- 
paestic (though irapavo|vov(ra is good in 
sense, Alas! for the trafisgression of 
Helm!). If so, U& iropd irvp 6vo|ji* o^J<r* 
'EXiva (Housman) has some probability, 
literally, *Ah thou, named Helett from 
fire*, i.e. * whose name is a symbol of de- 
stniction', the derivation indicated being 
from k\6.vy\ fire-brand. **I think I find 
the same etymology in Euripides. In 
Tro. 891 sqq. Hecuba is warning Menelaus 
against the charms of Helen opav 5^ ri\vZt 
(fxvyCy ixri <f ?X^ icbOt^' j aXp^X ybip dydpCjy 
d^fiar, i^aipci ndXeii — so far the (tv/iop is 
iXfitf (see su/ra v. 693); but then she 
goes on — trlfXTTfytjcri 5' oIkovh surely that 
is a glance at eXdvrj" (J, Ph. xvi. p. 

383). The facility of the supposed cor- 
niption is obvious. — Id a^ rapiiwvfwt o9f' 
'E)Upa Wecklein. 

1 45 7 — 1 460. Many, eih many, are tke 
lives thou hast destroyed before Tr9j, 
and now, for thy final croum, thou hast 
destroyed one, the stain of whose murder 
shall not be washed away : literally ' thoD 
hast crowned thyself with (the destroying 
of) a final life, (a destruction) memonble 
because the blood cannot be washed off*. 
With TfXc(av the words ^'X^ SKoithv 
are supplied according to Greek habit 
firom the previous sentence. — J Bni>6(m 
}fwxiLP 6\oiUva9X Helen is compared to 
a conqueror whose glory is the lives he 
takes; iir<ipdl^o$ai is ' to take on oneself 
as a crown' or 'glory*, a metaphor from 
Aydos a wreath. See 7^b. 933 Ut roXXort 
iwavdlff cadres 7r6poun ytpcdp Oh with many 
a gallant feat have ye crowned your 
lineage, and for illustrations see the note 
there. For the representation of the 
deed as a crown see r6rocr in Hub, /. c. 
and an exact parallel in Theb. 705 dXX* 
ai>r(ideX0oy oTfia dpi\ffaadat diXets Is the 
blood of a brother the priu thou wouldst 
pluck?, where also see note. — woX<- 
|jivourTov (feminine, agreeing with ^17^^) 
81* at|fc' fviirrov together. — There is no 
irregularity in these lines, nor any reason 
to suspect them. They are thoroughly 
Aeschylean both in thought and ex- 

1461—1463. ^ Tt« Schiitz: Surely 
there fftust hare been crezohile between the 



ipt<: iplBfiara^. dvSpo^ ol^v^, 
KA. firjSkv Oavarov fioipav hrev^ov 

TotaSe fiapvp0€L<;' 

firfS" eh 'EXei/iyv kotov i/crpi^ff^'f, 

(09 dvSpo\€T€ip*, d^ fiia jroXXtSp 

dvSp£v ^1/^09 ^aPdoip oKiaaa 

d^vcTarov ctX/yo^ evpa^ev. 
XO. Satfiov, 09 i/jbirirvei^ idfuurt koX Si<f}vi- 

oiai TavToXlBauriVf 

Kpdro^ T iao^vxov ix yvvaixSp 


OPT. a. 

1467. dXicav. 

1469* ifirlrreit, duftviiai. 

1 47 1, omits re. 

houses a hard-fought rivalry for the misery 
of their lords, literally * of the husband \ 
Evil powers might seem to have played 
a match for the ruin of Agamemnon and 
Menelaus by means of the two wicked 
sisters, their wives, Clytaemnestra and 
Helen. The parallel has been suggested 
already in w. 1454 — 55 and is further 
pursued below, ». 1469. — r^ix% formerly^ 
in tht past. For examples see L. and 
Sc. J. V. — k9 86|iOif in tht house, i,e, 
between the two branches of the Atridae. 
— ip%9.. ol(^: literally 'contention con- 
tention-surpassed, a misery to the hus- 
band'; for the apposition of olj;^ in the 
sense * causing misery ' see on v, 398. Iptt 
lp(8|uiTot is an artificial but not unnatural 
figure of poetry for *a contest in which 
effort surpasses effort*. In this fatal 
rivalry it were hard to say which of the 
sisters had done better. 

1463. |ii)8iv: emphatic negative, see 
V. 783. 

1465. 6cTpixv|t f suid no doubt M 
also: imp^iffi (g, h, probably from the 
margin of M) is a possible correction but 
not probable. It is more likely that 
iKTpixip covers some unknown word or 
form, and I have therefore simply printed 
it as an error. 

1467. dXkrav agreeing with SXyos, 
f, g. iXkraio'* h. 

1468. ci{vaT»rov incomparable Klau- 
sen, Paley, unexampled Kennedy; lite- 

rally 'that which cannot be weighed or 
balanced with' an equal. As Kennedy 
says, we can but judge the sense of a rare 
compound word from the particular con- 
text, which points here to this explana- 
tion. Clytaemnestra affects to be jealous 
of Helen's superiority in the mere number 
of her victims. — (1) incurable * not to be 
healed' or 'closed', as a disease or 
wound. This is possible, but the epithet 
is not much to the point. — Mr Sidgwick 
rejects incomparable, apparently on the 
ground that in Aristoph. Clouds 1367 
A^^orarot is applied in some sense, which 
is certainly not that of this passage, to 
Aeschylus himself. We arc not bound 
to suppose that the word had any one 
fixed meaning. Like other poetical com- 
pounds, it would follow the context. I 
do not see that either of the above views 
can be disproved, though I decidedly 
prefer the first. 

1469. 4|iiKrvcit Canter. Si^Colox 

Hermann. The MSS. have substituted 
involuntarily the more commonplace 
forms. — The Chorus correct their judg- 
ment so far as that they attribute the 
fatal work of Helen and Clytaemnestra 
in the last resort to the evil genius of the 
race, and put the two sisters on the same 
level of triumph or shame. 

1471 — 1473. 1^ Hermann. KopSi^- 
8i|Krov Abresch. Literally 'and winnest 
a victory, equal in lives on the part of the 

II— 2 

firi £e o-oifWiTOT ZUav fioi 
KopaKOt f\Spov tTTadeli ivvofUK 
vp.vov Vfivflv evevx"' evj^rrai. 
<im irapavofi.ovt'f 'EXeva ktX.> 
vvv S' wpOtoaai a-rofta-roi 'piwp.ijv, 
TOP T pnrnyy lov 

CK TOW yap epai aifiaTo\oi)(Oi! 

[471. xapSlaSv"i'- 

women, that wountis me lo the heart ', 
Mparot lo-iilnixov Jk fnfaixAv. Thi; 
bold phruse is explained by ihe preceding 
contexl, wiihout which il would be un- 
intelligible. In M', I^J7— 60 Helen was 
ironically praised as a victor who hail 
destroyed many lives {ijn'xi')- Clylaem- 
nestra, accepting and relnrting the irony, 
demurt to the solitary glory accorded to 
IMen {v. n66 /ila ircWa, fiiXii). Here 
the Chorus, still in the same strain, divide 
the credit, as it were, sa}nng that fate has 
won by meflni of ihc two wives a victory 
(itpiirm) lyual ill /h-es as between them ; 
i.t, one in which they may share the 
destruction equally, — Apart from the evi- 
dence of the content, laii^ix" cannot 
mean /ii(/-m)W«>/ (Paley and others), (i) 
because the epithet is inapplicable lo 
KpdToi, (1) because the compounds of Cae- 
hnve not this sctue {liit) in classical 
Greek hut only that of eqHalil}/ or tqai- 
valtHCl. — In spile of the metrical defect. 
I do not feel any doubt that in Ulxf/vx'* 
the Hss. (f, g, h) are righl. The pecu- 
liarity of the word and its peculiar 
connexion with this context forbid us lo 
suppoK il either the invention or the 
blunder of a critic. The loss of V (Her- 
mann) is easily accounted for : some 
editor, not familiar with the form of 
the sentence (an exclamation), slnick out 
the et^ula in order to make jtpiroi,.. 
Kfarirta Into a principal chtusc.— NopSi^- 
8i|iiTov IpA: note Ihnl this phrase is 


properly pat^vc, siting inia my luail or 
a M-amtd (JrVM") >' "V '*">'*. 

1 4.73. BIkov |uh KdpoKM lofjethai 
like a fouS bird ef prty, mtthinis. 

1474. BToBdi i.e. the SaJfumr 
shape of Clytaemneslra ; better than m- 
SnV (SchUti). 

1474 — 14^^: firetemfj Is cdebivU 
and lawful Iriufnfh, literally ■ boasts ikU 
lawfully be celebrates a (theme) ^Kifa 
for exultBliun '. referring lo Clyli 
nestra's words {f, 1393) iyCi f irfix>ii^' 
d t' ^ «tX.— -hrrixeva malUr/n 
iag over is object lo (Vimr iiiunit 
the form see iwfix'^^ and cf. 
mallir for repicing, as in Soph, Trttk. 

this reading as a simple restoration of Ibe 
metre ; see v. 1455. The assonaticc tronM 
be characteristic and the cause of the 
error manifest. 

I476. yi* U Ayt, bal mne lim k«il 
lemiied Ihy laying, etc. 

1 47 7. Tpiiri)i.vio» : this adjeclivv fornii 
though not normal, may welt have been 
created on the analogy of snch fonns u 
Sl^um. — rpurdxvror Bamberger. 

1479. For Ihertfi-em is brtdlkis erm^ 
ingefihe mavr for bttmd t» lift, /vtr ntw 
gert, tre Ihe old vice be dam. Tlic Rppo- 
silion of the description wp\v...I)(M^ va 
Iput aI»OToXoixii (the only conslruclian 
of which Ihe tcjil admils) is a very bold 
extension of the Aeschylean use rioted on 
II. 1461 and ebienhere- That 



i/ei/>€i Tpe<f>€Tai, irpiv KaraXrj^ai 
TO iraXaiop d^o^, veo^ ^X^P' 
XO. ff fjUyav oIkoi^ TolaSe 

BaifjLova xal I3apvfirjpiv alveh, 

<f}€v <f}€V, xaxop alvov arq- 

pa^ TV)(a^ oKOpeoTov 

Id irfy ZloX Ato9 

iravayrlov iravepyira, 

ri yap l3pOTol<: avev Ato^ rcXelTai; 

ri t£vS* ov deoKpavTov iariv; 

1(0 paaCKev fiaaikev, 

7r<S9 ce SaKpiato ; 

<f>p€v6^ ix ij>iXia^ ri iror ehrto; 

xeiaai S* apd'^^vrf^ iv v^aapAnt r<f&^ 

aaefiel Oavdrq) fiiov eKirvetov^ 

(Sfioi^ fiot, Kolrav rdpS" aveXevdepoVy 

1487. Tayepyirav, 


arp. I3\ 




however is not dissimilar and the so- 
called nominative absolute {v. 996) re- 
sembles it in principle. If the reader 
feels it to be impossible (though I do not, 
but much admire it) I would commend 
Mr Housman's suggestion, rp^^erou, xcd 
w^ wplp rrX. *and there flows fresh gore 
ere * etc. : pelpci he deduces from »>$ {flows ^ 
see L. and Sc. s, v.) with ^e? written over 
it as an interpretation, which is a process 
possible or even probable. (See J, Ph, 
XVI. p. ^82.) — vfCp^ Casaubon, Wel- 
lauer, on the evidence of Hesychius, v^lprri* 
KoOda iaxdrrff perhaps rightly. But there 
is no proof against the existence of the 
form P€ipos. 

1483. See Appendix II. 

1483. olvcts /kou dost celebrate^ ue, 
testify to his power. 

1484. Kaicdv...dLKOplvTOv: literally 'a 
fatal praise of him as never tiring of dead- 
ly stroke'. The genitive nJxas depends 
on dKop^ffTov (masculine). The double 

epithet dn^pat oKopia-Tov (feminine) 

would not be Aeschylean. 

1487. iravcpT^ra h, Doric genitive of 

1490. ICi) luf h, but the passage is not 
properly anapaestic, see v. 1494. 

1 493. Kf io^i 8* . . . iKirvimv A mi to think 
of thee lying etc. From iKw^wp, which 
(note the tense) cannot refer to the corpse, 
it is seen that KcToat is a historic present. 
— *P*^X'''I* ^ i+eto-jMiTi i.e. the envelop- 
ing dfupipXrfcrrpop : but in relation to the 
whole plot the term has more significance 
than the speakers at the moment perceive, 
a favourite device with Aeschylus and 
with the Attic poets generally. See the 

1495. KoCrav accusative ' cognate ' to 
Ketoai, — dvcXfvOcpov un/ree, i.e. of a slave^ 
a peculiar and significant expression. 
i\ti)Oipo% is a term strictly limited to 
legal, political, or social relations. A fly 
in a spider's web could not be called 
dpeXeOOtpoif nor a man merely because 
his limbs were entangled. But the fall 
of Agamemnon is properly oj/eXei/^epos, 
because the murder is the first act and 
sign of the new rvpawLs. See v. 1354 
and contrast the description of Orestes' 
enterprise in Cho, S62 0u)s ix i\€v0epiq. 
Salojy dpxcui re voXiaaopdfxoii (free and 



So\i^ fxoptfi Sa/Lt6t9 

KA. ai5;^6?9 elvai, rohe rovpyov ifiov; 

firjB* €Tn\e)(6^^ 

^ Ay a fjL€fivoifiav eh'ai fi a\o)(pv. 

ij>ain'a^6fi€Vo^ Se yuvatxl vexpov 

TovK o itclKjouo^ Spifiv^ dXdarap 

'ATp€Ct)9 ^^aXcTToO doivarfjpo^ 

TovS" aTrertaev 

rekeov veapoi^ iiriOvaa^. 
XO. (09 p^€v avairio^ eZ 

Tovie <f>6vov TL^ 6 fi(ipTvpi]<ra)v ; 

TTcS TTO); irarpodev he <rvX\fj' 

WToyp yevoLT av dXaoTODp, 

fiLa^erai S" ofiotnropoi^ 

itrtppoalaiv aip^artov 

fjL€\a<: "Aprjt; 6 iraihiKa irpoajiaivtov 

lawful governmetit). It is not so much 
Agamemnon who is here lamented as the 
legitimate royalty and liberties of Argos, 
destroyed in his person. The implied 
thought is that which is put explicitly by 
Shakespeare's Antony {yul. C. 3. 3. 194) 
'Great Caesar fell. O, what a fall was 
there, my countr)'men ! Then you and I 
and all of us fell down, Whilst bloody 
treason flourished over us'. 

1499. |iT|8' iirtXix^s kt\.\ literally 
*do not ei'cii suppose that this is I at all *. 
For the deponent meaning of the tense 
iir{\lx9'r\v (for which cTreXefa/iiji' would 
be more regular) cf. irpwjMpx^'O ^' ^^' 53» 
i''To5ex^e/s Eur. Her. 757, itppaiffdrj id. 
//ee. 546, SicX^x^" frequently, etc. 

1503. OoivaTTJpos: see z;. 1590 foil. 

1504. t6v8' dir^urcv /laf/i made hitti 
to he payment for the slain children. The 
rendering /////w^rt/(dircT(VaTo) is of course 
erroneous (Conington). 

1505: literally 'making the full-grown 
victim follow the young'; for WXcoi in 
the ritual sense see v. 963. 





1508. n; Doric form of roO wkertl 
used, like irOs; and t^^cf; in the sense 
How should it bt ? ImpossihU, C£ rw- 
/ioXa not at alL (Hermann.) Dr Week- 
lein cites here Athen. 9 p. 402 c 5n 
AZ(rxt/Xof diarpt^s iv ZtxeX/g voXXoit 
K^XPV^^ ^on^cuf ZixeXcreuf ovSir BavfUff- 
rdv, a remark to be remembered also 
in connexion with v, 686. — ir mp6(k » fy 
furedity, — o7i\Xt{irrMp ylvoir* av might 
be found assistant (in the deed). The 
fiend, punishing the crime inherited ftom 
Atreus, might be thought to have part in 
the crime, which yet is the queen's. 

1510 — 1511: while in fresh streams 
of kindred blood ramps the red Man- 
slayer^ who comes to the infant gore of the 
babes that were served for meat. For the 
conception of Ares as the man-devouring 
fiend, see on v, 647.— fiiXos: see Theb. 
43. — irdxv^ (corrected to the dative by 
Hermann) is locative. With irpofialvww 
(Canter, on metrical grounds) rax^ 
would be instrumental, meaning 'drawn 
on by the blood*, irax*^ is properly the 
doty or blood congvali'd (see ir^pvfu. 



irdj(ya, Kovpofioptp wape^CL 
uo fiaaiXcv fiaatkev, 
ttS^ ae SoKpuaa; 
^pevo^s CK ^iXia^ rl wot elirto; 
Keiaai 5* dpdjfvrf^ iv i^aafULTt t^K 
curefiel Oavartp filov itnrpioDv, 
(Sfioi fioif KoLrav rav^ dpeXeuOepop, 
BoXl^ fioptp Sa/tel? 
eK X^P^ dfi<f>tT6fi^ ficXifivfp, 
XO./S'. ot/T* dpeXevBepop olfjbai Odparop 
T^€ yepicBcu, — 
KA. ovBk yap ovro^ SoXiap irrfp 



w€wiiy(it)f and the notion (whether with 
wpopalwbip or wpoapatwoip) is that the old 
crime is a /ure which brings the fiend of 
murder again to the house. On the 
metrical question see Appendix II. — 
«ai8uc$: see v. 1593 vapiax^ dcuTa rot- 
deltaif Kp€wp, and for the parallel use of 
the form in -ikos cf. ifiKbw dipfia skin of a 
pigy I'TKiKh, ^vdyfiara neighing of horses y 
opdpiK^ Idpdn sweat of a man, etc. — 
Koupop6pY vc4i^ in apposition, literally 
*the serving of children as meat', t>. 
'children served as meat*, the abstract 
irdpc^it (from rapaax^Vt see v. 1593 
above cited) being used, as abstracts 
frequently are in poetry, for the concrete, 
serving for that which is served, — That 
vopl^ is the dative of rope^it, not the 
future of rop^w, appears to me certain. 
The future tense is inadmissible here, 
whether referred to the Thyestean feast 
or to the murder of Agamemnon. On 
the other hand rdpe^tt is required to 
complete the allusion. As to iroiSuc^ it 
not only fills the place with the necessary 
meaning but, as will be seen, reproduces 
the MS. almost to a letter. From the 
exact similarity of the language in v. 1593 
it may be conjectured that Aeschylus 
follows in both places some familiar 

1512 — 13. One of the queen's party, 
indignant at the repeated accusation of 

setting up a rvpamfls (see on v. 1495)* 
begins to answer the elders on this point, 
This man, methinhs, is not the victim of 
despots, nor—, but here Clytacmnestra, 
who is in no mood for such a discussion, 
fiercely breaks out again upon her per- 
sonal wrongs. The incident is highly 
significant. In every conspiracy a large 
part is played by those who are really 
deceived as to the justice of their cause 
and the effect of their action. For the 
truth of the scene and with a view to the 
sequel it is proper that the error and 
disappointment of this class should be 
shown. The speaker, who would defend 
the murder as tyrannicide, is wrong and 
the elders right: Clytaemnestra could 
stand only by the suppression of all law 
and opinion. Her behaviour here is al- 
ready ominous and before the end of the 
play the situation defines itself beyond 
mistake. — As these lines cannot be spoken 
by any one of the dramatis personae 
noticed in the MS. list, they are generally 
struck out as an interpolation (Seidler), 
which however is not to be justified even 
on technical grounds. A critic sufficiently 
punctilious to quarrel with the supposed 
original text would certainly not have 
been satisfied with such grammar as ofirc 
..., ovSi ydp... 

1524. ot^Si ydp o^Tot ktX. : literally 
* Then did not he either (or * he on his 




oiKoia-iv eOrjK ; 

aXk* ifjLOP €K TOvS* ipvo^ depOev 
Tqv iroKvKXavTov r ^I<f>iyip€Uiirf' 
avd^UL ipaaa^ a^ia irdaywv 
firjSev ev "AiSov fL€ya\au')(€iTa, 

Bavartp rUra^ Siirep ffp^ev. 
dfirj)(aifoi (f^povriSo^ aT€pf)0€l<: 
eiiraXafuov fi€pifipav, 



or/). 7 

part*) commit treachery against his house?* 
To fill up the thought in full we should 
in English wrile ' It is hard forsooth that 
he should suffer treachery, for he did not 
practise it ! ' 

1516 — 18. The error here cannot be 
fixed exactly. More than one correction 
is likely. In v, 1527 re, though not 
]>crhaps imix)ssible, is very offensive. 
The name seems to be an explanation 
worked mto the text. We may easily 
accept cither Elmsley's riyr To\vK\auToy, 
dvo^ia dpauras, \ (S^ia woffX"^^* I M-V^^^t or 
Hermann's d^ia dpdaai with Trjy toXj;- 
KXavTov 7' (Pauw). — In Hermann's 
reading A^ia...d^ia arc correlative and 
pleonastic. The deed is worthy of the 
punishment, the punishment of the deed. 

'53'* Aril^' ^^om dpxciy to be the 
aggressor^ to do an injury unprovoked, 
Mr Ilousman cites Eur. fr. 825 Dind. 
Ti/jLupiajf iriffey ccv rjp^cy KaKwv^ and id. 
H, F. 1 1 69 riytay 6' d/jLoi(iai Coy vr^p^ey 
'UpaKX^i (7. /V/. XVI. p. 283). 

'552. *There are indeed injuries on 
both sides. It is a fatal story of wrong 
and retribution. And we must look for 
more to follow. The family is accursed'. 
This is the meaning, expressed under the 
bold figure of one expelled from his fall- 
ing coitage by a storm and vainly seeking 
shelter. The figure must not be pressed 
too closely; the * falling house' typifies 
vaguely the accursed family, yet the si>eaker 
is not himself exposed to the curse. But 
taken poetically it is highly impressive. 

1535. cviraXid|M*ir |&^pi|Aval^' The 
form cOrdXafios was restored by Porsoo, 
the genitive plural (a simpler construc- 
tion) by Enger. — I find in the blank tf 
my thoughts no ready hiniy which way to 
turtle while the house totters* The storm 
will strike^ I fear ^ and wreck it ipiite, the 
storm of blood. The rain is ceasing; yet 
Justice is but whetting once more^ on the 
whetstone of hindrance^ her sword (?) to 
punish again. — S48ouca Sl...i|pocds 8^... 
ACxa 8^. After the fashion of the archaic 
\i^ii ctpofUytf, the sentences are simply 
strung together, their exact relations being 
left to the understanding. In the two 
last clauses the 8^ is slightly adversative ; 
after each outburst of the storm there is 
indeed a pause, but it is the terrible pause 
of preparation for the next stroke, or as 
the poet puts it, changing the metaphor, 
Justice is sharpening her sword. Such a 
time of pause between stroke and stroke 
is actually now just beginning ; but ^carAs 
Xi^« is rather general than particular. 
The same sense might have been put 
thus, when the rain ceases, then etc — 
The current interpretation of ^^dr Xfr^i 
{no longer it comes in drops, i,e, the rain 
begins to be heavy) is to me quite incre- 
dible. There is no proof that \ffacds 
applied only to slight rain, and if it did, 
in no language could *the shower is 
ceasing* stand for 'there is now falling 
more than a shower '. — vpaTfui exaction , 
punishment^ not simply deed: the asso- 
ciation of Tpoffo^w with hiKT^ in this sense 
is so very common, that wpayfia would 



oTra rpdirafiai, irirvoirro^ oXkov, 

SiSoiKa S* ofiffpov trnnrop SofjLoa(l>a\rj 

TOP alfiarrjpop. ^exd^ Se \ijyeiy 

CiUa 5' hr aXKo irparffia 0r)ydp€i /3\d0i]<: 

wpd<; dWod^fs Orj^dvai,^ "f" fjLoZpa. 

Ko ya ya, eiue fi eoefta, 

irplp topS* iiriZelp dpyvporol'xpv 

ipolra^; Kariyppra ')(ap,€VPap, 

rh dd'^top pip; rk 6 dprjprjatop; 

rj aif ToS' Ip^ai rXijarj, xreipaa 

apSpa rip ainfj^; d'lroKtdicva'at 

^vxqp, dy(api,p X^^^ ^^'^^ ipytop 

fieyaKayp dSucoD^ iiriKpapai; 

rk S* imrvfiffco^ aIi/09 iir dpBpl Oeitp 

^ifp SaKpvoi<; idirrtop 

oKrjdeia <f>p€pwp iropriaei; 

1559. *hemichorii notam habent f g'. 




naturally take colour from the juxta- 
position. — Oifyavfi Hermann. — pXcCpi|t... 
Oipfdvait wh€lstones of hindrance \ the in- 
terval during which crime (as in the case of 
Clytaemnestra) may bold off punishment 
serves Justice to prepare the stroke. For 
pXa^rf Ahu/raficdt from pXdirTeiy hifK/cr, 
see on 7'A^. 183. — It is possible also to 
take pXdfirft with vpayfAa in the sense 
i/eed of harm. But the expression has 
Httle force or point. — |iotpa covers some 
accusative, signifying the instrument 
which A(ici7 whets. Oifydvats (uLxaipav 
Musgrave, OiiydLvaioav dop (more pro- 
bably) Housman {J. Ph. xvi. 278). 
Possibly however it is a word unknown. 
— The alternative correction of ZUa to 
^/cay (FaU sharpens Justice) would raise 
a strange and unsatisfactory picture. 

1539 — *549* Perhaps a burden to be 
repeated after v, 1565 (Bumey). 

1 545. Sk'^^Ky rr\. A thankless com- 
penscUion to award for an injury not fairly 
proportioned to ill an ironically moderate 
expiostulation. — )irydX«v d8CK«>s, literally 
• unfairly great *, arc to be taken together 

(not i.^LKU)t iTiKpdvai) ; otherwise /ueya- 
Xow would be pointless and feeble, whence 
the conjectures ^eX^wv, fiiapwy^ fiiHsapCov 

1547. iTiT^fxpiov aXvov Voss ; but the 
erroneous substitution of the nominative 
is not likely. 4irir^|Jipu>s, a participial 
adjective agreeing with tCs (cf. 6p0pioi, 
KcUpios Tot€(v Ttf etc.), should at all events 
stand. May not atvos be a neuter accu- 
scUivCy a parallel form, like the compara- 
tively rare itxo'i beside the common 
cj^x^)? The word had certainly two forms 
(see alvri) and might well have a third. 
Moreover the forms alyi-au^ aivcTds 
would lead us to expect a corresponding 
substantival form alyo% (genit. aXyeos) : cf. 
euxof, direi/xerof, tAoj, TeX^<rw, 7^vof, 
ycydTTjt etc. 

1 548. lairrwv. . .iroyijcci. IVho stand- 
ing" over the herds grave will pour forth 
the tearful eulogy with heart that truly 
aches? The relation of the verb and 
participle, as we should put it, is in- 
verted. See on v, 970 etc. 


KA. ov ae irpoai^Kei to fiiXrjfjL dXeyeiv 
TOVTo' irpo^ 'qfi&v 

Kcanreae, xdrdape, koI Karada^fj^ev, 
ov^ viro KKavOfi&v rmv i^ oIkw, 
dXK ^I<f}i/yiif€ui vip acnraaUo^ 
Ouydrrjp, W XP^» 
irarip aPTUuraaa irpd^ dicinropov 
ir6p0fi€Ufi d)(itov 
TTcpl X^</>a fia\ov<ra ij>t\ria-€i, 

XO. oi/etSo9 ^K€i ToB* dvT opelBou^. 
hvapLa')(a S' iari xpipai, 
<f>ip€i <f>€poirr\ iKTipei B* 6 Kaiptop. 
filfipei Sk fiifipopTo<: ip Opoptp A^^ 
iraOelp top ip^apra' Oiafiiop ydp, 
Ti9 ap yopop dpaiop ixfioKoi Bofuop; 
KeKoWqTcu yepo^ irpoady^cu, 
<l(o yd yd /ct\,> 



dpT. y. 



1550. fj^rjfia Tiiyeuf, 
1561. XP^'^^ (<*^* TCP^V)' 

1550. |ik^T||i' clXlYCkv (Karsten) /o 
regard this duty, — If these anapaests 
were originally antistrophic to zrv, 1566 — 
1 5 761 two lines have been lost here or 
inserted there. But there is no trace of 
this in the text nor any reason to presume 
the correspondence. 

>557* ixc^'^i' (originally dxcuw) g. It 
is probable therefore that M had dxcUay, 
dxifity (fj may be accepted provisionally. 

1558. ^(Xijcci Stanley. 

1562. 6p6vy (?) Schiitz. For some 
unexplained reason xp^^ot occurs, where 
the sense points to 0p6ifos, several times 
in Aeschylus. So clearly in £twi. 18, 
and probably in £um. looi. But to 
substitute 0p6yos is not altogether satis- 
factory: for Opivoi was a very familiar 
word in later Greek, and the confusion of 
X and is not frequent in M. However 
it may be accepted as an expedient. 

1564. Yovdv cCpaCov Hermann, the 
accursed breed, 

'565. // is a sort that sticketh /ast^ 

1558. ut>KfyrTi, 
1564. ^oor. 

literally *the kind is glued for the 
fixing on*, where 'fixing on* is transi- 
tive. The metaphor is excluded from 
poetry in English ; but this is accidental 
and irrelevant irpoou^rau is an ex- 
planatory infinitive. The word is from 
the same vocabulary as xcioJXXiTreu it- 
self. — rpdf ar^ Blomfield, 'the family 
is fastened (glued) to calamity', a sug- 
gestion not deserving the vogue which 
it has obtained. Not only does the 
metaphor thus become extremely harsh ; 
but it is not to be supposed that t^^'h 
and Y^yof, words closely cognate and 
practically synonymous, should bear 
totally different meanings in the same 

1566. Up to this death it hath truly 
followed prophecy ; but for all that I am 
willing etc. <s t6v8€ literally 'up to this 
man' i,e, Agamemnon, to whose corpse 
she points: he is the last at present 
in the fatal series (see w, 1561 — 
'5^5)- — iv^Pij: the subject is *the 


Xprjcfiov, iyai S" ovv 

iffi\a} Salfiovi. T^ Xl\£tt7$€i'iBav 

opKoui Befiiirri rahe fxkv aripyeiv, 

BvarXjiTo. Tvep ov6\ o he \oiv6u, I 

eic rmvhi hofuav a>Ov]v •yevetai 

Tpi/Seip Savtnoi'; auBevraiatv. 

meavmv re ftipo'; 

ffaiov e^pvaji trap, trrroyjiij fiol 8' 

ftavUK fifXdSpwv MfteXovarj. 

1570. JlifflXTTB. 

fttle' or 'curse' of ihe familj', niilurally 
supplied from i-v, 1564 — 6j and more 
exactly cuprcEscd by Jaipur in the fol- 
lowing clause.— xpT'Ti'v : accusative of 
space with iti^airtir uiili in, as a. verb 
of motion ; cf, Eut. Sh/i/iI. 989 Ti/fi- 
infiainoBaa liXiuBaii, -walHng this tiiay, 
7~he accusative is the only case which the 
verb in this sense admits; the dative 
belongs to the more common sense Iread 
upon. The x/^o-»m'j is the path which 
so far fate has vraltid or itvddtn. The 
ptophecfof Cakhfls (it/. 153 roll.) traces 
events up to Ihe death of Agamemnon 
anH only so lar; and the allusion may be 
to (his iir to some other like prophecy nol 
recorded, ll is not however neces'aiy 
10 suppose any prophecy more particular 
than the general sentence against the 
house. 'This', concedes the queen, "has 
so far been fulfilled ; let us hope thai so 
far will be far enough ".^The Hi. reading 
is far belter and more clear than any of 
the proposed corrections ((W371 Canter. 
X/>V<r;<J( Casaubon). The error has lain 
in connecting rAvii with •)i^,s)dtt, where- 
as here, as frequently anil in fact in the 
dramatic poets gencrallyi lit is deictic 
and the meaninij of it is given by the 

i}<i7. IIXsff4nnEac and WKtmBiiKivt 
itfvt V. 1601. The ori^ of [his family 

1570. SiifrrXi|r[l g.^Uvra riv iai- 
Hara: 'that he depart and vex'etc. The 
relation of ilie clauses would in later style 
be more CMlctly inilicaled; 'I am willing 
to come lo terms with the genius of the 
hcmsc, and to say nothing of the past i/ie 
wi/l now depart elsewhere'. The notion 
of such a bargain and the reasonable air 
of Ctytnemnestra's proposal is of courK 
but a ghastly jest. 

1S73— 1576- W /<arl ef the wtallh it 
but a small Iking Ic me, viho have it ail, 
and mertovtr 'lis ineugh for me if I but 
rid the Aeuie ef this intertueim frenxy. 
Pursuing the figure of a bargain with 
fate, she dechires herself ready to make 
materinl sacrifices I If the departing 
taitiMr will take with him some of the 
(Moijioria, he is welcome to lake it ; she 
can afford it, and would besides readily 
spend something for the peace of this 
unfortunate family. It should be remem- 
bered here that Clytaemnestra is not 
herself of the Pelopid house. She is 
pleased to speab as one who has suffered 
nivieh by connexion with it and would 
gladly, even at some cost, have done 
with its boasted but unhappy iaiina*. For 
the iii&iifuria of the Pelopidae see Eur. 
Or. 97J dTxetoi irpdiraira y^m Xiihowm 
i T iri fauaploH {ifKas uV xor' otnoti, and 
sofrequenlly.— T»...W; nal merely,.. /iiU 7 
wUtitulion 0! ii lur rt in llie ivCaaA 





c3 <^€7709 €v<f>pov T^fiipa^ Sitctf^pov, 

<f>alrjv av rjSfi vvv PpoT&v TifJta6pov^ 

0€ov^ avo)0€v 7^9 hroiTTeveiv axf* 

ISdov v(l>avrol^ iv wiirXoi^ *Epivvt»v 

TOP dvBpa TOvSe Kcifuvov <f>i\o^ ^f^h 

X^po^ 'rrarpata^ i/crivovTa p/q^pva^. 

'Arpei)? r>fap apxcov rrjaBe yr}^, rovrov iranipy 

iraripa ^vitrrqv rov cfiov, »? to/nS? if^patrai, 

avTov T dS€\(f)6v, dp,<f>i\€KTO^ Av Kpdre^, 



of two clauses, when tc has been pro- 
mised, marks that there is a rise or 
climax: see TM. 571 and references 
there given. — aitr6xpr\ *|M)1: the position 
of the pronoun, which is displaced for 
emphasis, shows that the form is ifiol, 
not fMi.— djr6\fn\ is impersonal. — Great 
difficulty has been made here by want of 
punctuation. Supposing the four verses 
to be one sentence, Auratus changed re 
in v. 1573 (as in that case would be 
necessary) to 5^, and Canter struck out 
Si in r. 1574. This destroyed the metre 
(juot I d\\ri\o\o<p6yovs) and accordingly 
Erfurdt rearrangal the words thus, fiayias 
fieXddpbJv dWriXoipovovSy with all which 
changes they are commonly printed. But 
even so there is no tolerable result ; in 
the supposed sentence Kreaytoy fidpm ^cubv 
ixovff-g xav dxoxpv Mot the word vay is 
superfluous and unconslruable (sec IIous- 
man 7, P/i, xvi. 277). Nor is the sense 
suitable, such as it is: Clytacmnestra 
does not offer, even in jest, to reduce 
herself to poverty: she only says with 
mock generosity that she would sacrifice 
a part of the slain king's wealth to be rid 
of the dcUfxu>¥ which pursues his family. 
There is no real difficulty in the Ms. 
ITie jwsition of 5^ would be justified 
according to Aeschylus' usage by the 
close connexion of the preceding words, 
and with the emphasis on ifiol it is the 
preferable order. It may be observed 
that if any editor had wished to restore 

the faulty metre (which is supposed to be 
the origin of SI) he would presumably 
have adopted the obvious expedient of 

1577. See the Introduction. The 
speech of A^sthus sets forth (1) his 
claim or pretended claim to the throne 
{w. 1585, 1605), {1) his hereditary feud 
with the dead king, (3) his own skill 
in directing the conspiracy. The story 
of Thyestes is told in a brief allusive 
manner which for us, who do not know 
the Aeschylean version from any other 
source, leaves some points in it obscure. 

1578. 1^^ ''''''» whereas hitherto wk 
i^iiv» Aegisthus assumes the character 
of one who has long vainly waited for 

1579* Y*!' depends on Ay«»9cv: with 
ax^ is to be supplied avrunf^ i^, pporCof, 
from the previous line : cf. Eur. /r. 959 
Dind. fan, K€t ns iyyfXf. X^t^, Zei)j koL 
0€ol ^poTcia Xc^crffoPTes iroBri (Housman 
y, Ph, XVI. p. 286). 

1580. v^VTotf...'Epivv«vz&ra//A/iJK 
raiment of the Erinyes^ weaving^ the 
dfi^lpXifffTpoy, standing as in v, 1495 
for a type of the plot. 

1 58 1. ^Ckwi l|AoC as I am glad to see 

1585. avTov T€: re is irregular. 
Usage (as pointed out by Elmsley) re- 
quires in such a case either itaripa re... 
d5eX06v re (cf. Soph. Trach. 406) or 
'KaTipa..,dSO<ip6¥ 64, Perhaps 64 should 


iji'S/w/XnTTjo'ej' e« TroXeofs re Koi Sofuov. 
Kal Trpoa-rpinratot Sffxias /toXaii/ -n-aKtv 
rX^fimv SvetTTTj^ ftoipav tjuper' dfftpdKTJ, 
TO /i^ Savmv TTarp^ou aifui^ai "rrchav. 
avTov ^evia he ToCSe hvadeot; ttotjjp 
'ArpetJ?, irpodvfio)!; fidWoi/ ^ ^tXws Trarpl 
Tfu^p Kpeoupyov vt'^P evBvfiia'i ivyeiv 
hoKwv, TrapitTX^ Salra waiBeimv Kpeaiv. 


O ■ 

be reslored, bat as poeify not nnfrequent- 
\y uses a single ri where a prose writer 
would certain!)' u&e Tt...r(, the slight 
inaccuracy mny be the poet's own. — 
a|i4^^'">S ^* opdriL /ling quiUioHfd 
in his SBvrreignly. For the qunai-local 
dative of "the thing affected' see Tk/b, 
683. The more deadly offence oFThyes- 
tcs i* suppressed by his son (see v, 

1 5S6. Tc Kol banished /rem his heua 
andfrem the dly as ■aiiH, 

15(18. (uitpav i|1'pti' ifcr^aXij tA ^t{ 
KTK./mnti a partial safety sb far as that 
lie did nol, literally 'olilaineil the saving 
of part'. For fioTjn in its proper sense 
of part (fii//»fuu, pifm^ see Che. ijy, 
Thtb. 56.1, Eur. Med. 4^0. — It would 
nol be Iditqnatlc Greek lo use (!«>« 
ie^eXTfl safe lot as a periphrasb for 
ia^Uktia: and on the other hand the 
notion partial is required by the sense. 

ijgo. a^oS EfrtaS) <irX.: bul laking 
Ikt very eecasicm af hit arrival Atrcui, 
Ikt impieiis fathtr ef ihit slain man, 
frilending, with cagrrness liltit vxiceme 
to my father, is hold a gteui day ef festi- 
val, served him a lanquil of his children's 
flesh. a^Toi fhia literally 'as an arrivs,!- 
feast to (ThyeslesJ himself, accusative in 
apposition lo the whole net following. 
The peculiar treachery nnd cruelty of 
Atreus showed llself lirsi in making the 
home-coming of his reconciled brother 
ihe pretended occasion for the abomin- 
able feast. The words aimu iina. being 
I dctJj- eoanecled and geparaled from the 

rest of the sentence, the position of 3^ is 
nntural and an did to clearness.— It ii 
possible also to join airrav {on the sfoPf to 
the previous sentence; but Ihe emphasis 
of Ihe position would be false and Una, 
without aiirtiC bald. — For the metre of 
itria cf. Cha. I (Wecklein).--w(x*»|i-i 
,.Tii|i^; lit. 'eagerly more than to my 
father welcomely"; ^l\un is constructed 
R.sini'. 15H1. The celebration of Ihe feast 
was forced upon the unwilling suppliant, 
who had no motive for feigning this ex- 
travagant enthusiasm over the reconcilia- 
tion, and r^atded it ralher with sus- 
picion. Aeschylus no doubt gives the 
main lines of ibe story after some familiar 
version. — With this punctuation, giving 
TOT)j| lo ^Was. the words appear lo lie 
intelligible and effective. If irpotfitjiui'i 
(liXXo* % ^m l>c stopped off separately 
(the usual punctuation), 1 he text cannot be 
defended. "Mori aaleas than friendly 
is only possible as a joke, when applied 
lo a man who under cover of a banquet 
murdent his brother's children j and 
Aegisthus is not joking" (Sidgwiek).— 
The suggestion of Schiltr to make one 
verse out al vv. ijijo — ijgi thus, f/na 
it TtSit UmBttit »aTijp TBTpl Tiifiv icrX., 
is s]iecioiis but will nol bear examinalloi 
aimm, as already remarked, cannot I 
removed without loss of effect ; and rpo- ■ 
6i)uiK vt\. is, if properly punctuated, too 1 
subtle, if wrongly punctuated, too absurd 
to be B likely interpolation.— The 
! of «/io0j^uin,..(i)M;ihii is to 



Tct, fjL€v iroSijpff Kol x^P^^ axpoiK /eriva^ 
eOpxnrr avtoOev dvBpoicd^ /c€i6iifA€vo^, 
aar)fia S* air&v airlic djvola Xafiiov 
€a0€i Popdv aatoTov, (09 opa^, yevei. 
KaireiT iiriypov^ epyov ov xaraiaiov 
wfKD^ev, dfiirLfrTei S* ceiro a^arfrjv ip&v^ 
fiopov S* a<f>€pTov HeXoiriBai^ eirevx^nu, 
XatcTUTfia Selirvov ^wBUo)<; riOeU dpa, 

1599. ^* *''*^^ ^ a'*'^ o'^y^s- 



1 594* XP^wK. 

1594 — 97: uncertain. There is per- 
haps some error in the reading, but as 
we have no independent knowledge of 
the story followed by Aeschylus, altera- 
tion is hazardous. The sense seems to 
be that Alreus made of the extremities a 
mince or broth, which being spread over 
{av(t)0(v) the roasted bodies prevented 
Thyestes from recognizing them for what 
they were until he had eaten of the Opvfi- 
fiara. — aarifi. 6 5' (Dindorf for da^fia $') 
is perhaps right : (aOei as it stands should 
have for subject Atreus: however such 
obscurity is found in Greek as in other lan- 
guages (^'.^.z^. 1606).— dvSpoKds Ka6i)|Mvos 
viritim sedens is strictly speaking a sole- 
cism ; the word ovd/xiKas man by man, 
singly y requires a plural subject, and the 
company, not the host, should be said 
Kadrjffdai avSpaKcis. On the other hand 
such expressions are not unknown or 
very uncommon, where a single person 
has a representative character: thus we 
might certainly say in English, *One 
commander preferred to advance in large 
divisions, the other in small ', where the 
phrase /// /arge divisions applies properly 
to the army. Similarly it is not impos- 
sible that a host should be said KadrjaOaj. 
dydpaKM with the meaning that his com- 
pany sat so. — KaOrifiiyois (Casaubon) will 
not pass, as it would certainly imply that 
the human flesh was served to the whole 
company. — oMtvdtv cofipaKia KaOrifUruw 
apart from the company seated singly 
Wecklein (ed. 1887). — The object of 
mentioning the arrangement of the com- 

pany (according to the archaic &sh]on) 
at separate small tables is to show how 
the fatal mess was safely served to Thyes- 
tes only : see the account of the similar 
feast of Harpago^ in Herod, i. 119, and 
cf. Eur. Iph, T. 949 ^via fUMf^pd'rti'^ 
(Wecklein). — d^taSew MpaKos KtiBrf/ifUvcv 
over kindled coeds (Housman y. Ph. xvi. 
985) bears a striking resemblance to the 
MS., but it seems improbable that a word 
so peculiar and appropriate as aydpaxas 
is a penman's error. No absolutely 
certain objection lies against the text, 
and I prefer to leave it under reserve. 

1 596. avTwy aMx* dyvoCqi not knew- 
ing the meat at the moment for what 
it 7vas : avrd, as usual, has an emphasis, 
literally * the meat itself. The adverb 
aMxa belongs in sense to the substan- 

1 599. (i|iir(irrfi Canter. — dv6 oi^Yi^ 
ipMV (Auratus) f./. mepjav c^yip^ dis* 
gorging the (scurificial) meat, 

1601. '*It is perhaps simplest to 
construe this * spuming the banquet to 
aid his curse', tr^Sucot being properly 
one who pleads with you^ an aider in the 
cause. (rw8CK«t governs cLp$....The 
violent crash of the banquet was the 
symbol (oi^ws) of the invoked destruction 
of the family" (Sidgwick). I prefer this 
to the alternative rendering of awdUtn 
generally^ or in common^ which has little 
point and is not sufficiently supported 
by the use of the word.— o^rttt- The 
analogy intended is more close than that 
of mere overthrowing. The death of 


o0T(i>e oKeaOai irav ro TlXficflo/ou? yevm. 
ix T£ov£e (70t wetfoirTa tocS' tSeiv •jriipa. 
xdyio SUaiaii rovSe rov (ftovov paif'fvV 
rpiTov yiip oi/ra ft (viSik n0\i^ vaTp'i 
iTvve^e\ai>vci tvt6ov opt' iv wapyavoK' 
Tpa^evra 8' aS0K T Siicri itaTijyarfev, 
Mai ToijBe TavSpoi; ri'^ap.'qv 0upaZo<i mv, 
■niiaav ^vvaifra^ prf-jfavriv Buu&ov\iav. 
ovTW KoXoii S>} Kal TO Kardafflv i/toi, 
tSovra Tovrov rt}^ Stieijs iv epieeatp. 



Agamemnon hits brta uchieved, like the 
oulrige of Atreus, under Ihe pretence of 
a sacrificiitl feast in honoui of a home- 
coming. With the Homeric version (see 
the lalrodueiion) ihe similarity would be 
even closer, smce ihe fcflsl of Aegisthus 
was properly (/via; and we may reason' 
ably gueas thai when Ihe Thyestean 
story was firsl grafted on to the legend, 
Ihe Xitrurtut Silnoii also played a more 
importasl pan in Ihe revenge, being 
pefbaps the signal for the treacherous 

l6o$. firlSiKa, . .irsTpl in talis/action 
of my Htthapfiy father' t flaim. literally "as 
what wot liable to his claim'. In mock- 
ery of Thyestes" claim lo share the royal 
inheritance (b. 158s) Aliens pretended to 
ha*edischai^eilal1 obligations by sparing 
anil banishii^ along with him the third 
child. If the Aeschylean legend agreed 
wilh the common version in giving lo 
Pelopj Ihree sons (Altcus, Thyesles, 
Chry^ippus). the parallel extends lo ^(i.^ 
Tor, mt, as hit lavifnl third. TTie word 
twllan was specially applied to a dis- 
puted inheritance and marks the point 
DpoQ which A^slhus naturally insists, 
that he is of Ihe royal family and re- 
presenls a legal claim to the succession. 
The story of the 'banquet', for which 
after alt Agamemnon was not Tes]»nsibte, 
is brought in only ad invidiam, ^-The 
of this reading receives eon- 

ri iu: 

fitmation from Sitaiai in v. 1604 and stilt 
more from ^ 8Ui| {'tit justice of the 
cause') in v. 1607 and v, 1611. The use 
of Ihe article with a mere geneiat term or 
penonification {yuitirt) is not according 
10 Aeschylus' halat (so we have Ifn), not 
i, Hkt,. in w. 7157. IJ37. TAti. 633, 654, 
65S etc passim). It is lo Ihe preceding 
iwiima that 4 Sdni and r^i tlnrit refer; 
Aegisthus finds a proper answer lo the 
cruel jest of Alreus in Ihe fact thni the 
child sent away wilh Thyestes 'as repre- 
senting his right' has now come back 
lo avenge that right.— The ms. M B/k 
(/hirlienth ikild) rs absurd ; but Ihe cor- 
rections proposed (irl iwraflUv '" 
tinsaSHif etc.), besides being open to 
other objections, do not supply what the 
sense retinlres. Without i-wliita, or 
something of this kind. w. 1604 — ifio? 
do not hang together. 

160^. i^ifdftT)* tvpaEo« BV / haiK 
retsihtd kirn from my exile, literally 'while 
abroad'. He compliments himself upon 
the skill with which he has drawn to- 
gether Ihe threads of Ihe conspiracy and 
'contrived' the executiin of it, imder. all 
ihe disadvantages of one who dared not 
openly appear in the country. 

for the ace. with the 
itif, notwithstanding ifoi, see P. V. 134, 
Soph. Ai. IQ06, Eur. Med. 814. (Sidg- 
wlck, Wecklcin.) 



XO. Alycaff*, vfipi^€iv iv KaKouriv ov aifim' 
(TV S' avSpa TovBe ^179 ixdv tcaTaKTapeip, 
fjLOvo^ S' Sirot/cTov TovSe fiovXeuaai <f>ovov; 
ov (l>r)fA dXu^eiv iv Sifcij to aov xdpa 
8i]fjLoppi(f)€U, aa^ laOi, XevaifAOv^ apa^ 

A I. av ravTa (f>a^v€l<; vepripa wpoaijfiepo^ 

K(iirrf, Kparovinwv t&v iiri ^vy^ Bopo^; 
yvdoaei yepeov wv 609 SiSdaKea-Oai ffapd 
T^ TrfKiKOvrtp ato<f>pov€lv elprifievov. 
SeafjLWP Se teal to yrjpa^ cu re viJoT^Se? 



161 7. irr^pf. 

16 1 2. vppC^fiv o^P«», <r^ 8i rrX. 

Aegisthns — not that I care to insult mise- 
ry, — dost thou etc. They think, or try to 
think, not recognizing the full extent of 
their calamity and putting their own sense 
upon Aegisthus' talk of dying {v, 1610), 
that the murderer has run to his own de- 
struction. The antithesis indicated by 
5^ is between the sentiment v^pi^€iv...ou 
aifiu) and their manner of speaking to 
Aegisthus as one doomed. At the same 
time they reflect obliquely upon the P/S/ms 
of Aegisthus himself. 

16 1 3. 4»ijs 4k<*v profess unasked y 'vo- 
lunteer the statemelU ' in modern phrase. 
The use of t^y\pJi extends to admission as 
well as assertion; see v, 1578. They 
are surprised that he should anticipate 
trial ((V 5(/c]7 v, 1615) by admitting a 
com|)licity which will cost his life. — The 
suspicions directed against ^/cwv arise 
from the error of joining it with Kararra- 


1616: imprecations ivhich the people ^ 
trust mcy shall hail on thee in shape of 
stones, i.e, 'their curses which will doom 
thee to the death of stoning*. The point 
of this expression, and of the emphasis 
on the word drifioppupcis, lies in the con- 
trast between these drj/JLopfntpets dpal and 
the fiTjxoLV^ dva^ovXlas (also a drifioppi<p^s 
dpa in a totally different sense of the 
words : see vz>. 464 and 875), of which 
Aegisthus has just boasted. His lan- 

162 1. Beafjjov. 

guage brings home to the elders, for the 
first time, the consciousness that the 
'popular conspiracy*, which they dread- 
ed, has been in actual existence all this 
while and that the murderers are sup- 
ported by a powerful party. They still 
hope however that it may be outnum- 
bered, a hope quickly dis|^lled by 
Aegisthus* contempt. 

161 7. vcpWp^. The reading of f (rc- 
ripq) points perhaps to the form rrfTlpi 
(ifeiT^pq): cf. tfjiara' fffxnTtt, rartfiroTo, 
Hcsychius. — The two parties are com- 
pared to the (Vytrac (rowers of the upper 
tier) and OaXapuTcu (lower tier) in a 
bireme ship (Klausen). 

1619. 8i8<iaicc<rO(u...(r«*^povcCy ftf»v|- 
fUvov to have impressed upon him the 
lesson of prudence^ literally *to take teach- 
ing, when prudence is enjoined', ti^ 
liivov is ace. absolute. 

162 1. 8c<r|M* Tf infimScs 8^cu 
the pains of imprisonment and the pains 
of hunger. The genitive defffiwp (depend- 
ing on d6ai) is required by the article €Ut 
justifiable according to the use of Aeschy- 
lus only if at ci^rt^cs 86ai are contrasted 
with some other bOai. — Both the trust- 
worthy copies (f, g) give the impossible 
reading deirfidp, reproducing doubtless that 
of M, in which and ut are not seldom 
accidentally con'"used, the sounds having 
been probably indistinguishable. Tlie 
Cod. Farn.y as might be expected, offers 






Svai BiSaaKcip i^o^draTeu <f>p€voip 
larpofiavTei^. ovj^ opq^ opoSp rdSc; 
irpb^ Kevrpa firj \d/CTi^€, Traiaaf; fwyfj^, 
yvvai, aif rov^ ffKovra^ ck /la'^r)^ veov 
olKovpo^ €vvfjp dpSpo^ alfrxvpova afia — ; 
dpSpl aTpaTf)yfp toi/S' i/SovXevtra^ fiopop. 
teal ravra rdirrj KXavfiartop dp^yepfj, 
*Op<f>€i Sk yX&aaap rrjp ivaprlap ej^et?* 
o fi€P yap ^6 irapT* diro <f>doyyf}^ X^P^ 
aif S' i^oplpa^ rjirioi^ vXdyfiaaip 
a^€i' KpaTqOeX^ 8* rffiepwrcpo^ <f>aP€i. 
019 Sj) <tv fJLOi Tvpappo^ ^Apyeioj.p &"€«, 

1674. iri^as. 



SeafJL^s, which makes indeed a construc- 
tion but would be intolerably obscure, as 
suggesting irresistibly that rb y^pas is 
nominative and coupled to $€<Tfi6s hyKol, — 
Kal r6 yi\pai...hiJSdiTKȴ to teach even 
your age. The infinitive is explanatory, 
depending on ^|ox- cio-lr la.rp, — ri Y^pas 
has the article (M^, or rather thaty such) 
as referring to yiptav preceding. In the 
archaistic language of Aeschylus the 
'article' is still felt as a demonstrative, 
and very rarely employed except where 
it is indispensable. 

1623. Doth not this sight warn thee? 
literally 'dost not thou beware, seeing 
this?' a kind of play on the two senses of 
the word. — rdSc the whole scene. 

1614. Cf. P, V. 339. — |fci] iroCcras 
(schol. on Find. Pyth. 2. 173) (fcoygs lest 
hitting thoii hurt thyself. 

1625. Thou woman! To thee, who 
abodest at home^ helping to defile a brave 
man^s bed^ to thee shall warriors fresh 
returned from battle — ? It is a captain 
of soldiers whose death thou hast thus 
contrived! The interrogative sentence 
Y^vai...&|ia — ; which requires to com- 
plete it a verb such as KpoLrfi<T€ii or /cara- 
ffTfii}ff€if is broken off in the violence of 
indignation, and the point of it is ex- 
pressed in another shape. Similarly the 
translation requires the completion yield 

V. it. A, 

or submit: the change of form is made 
necessary by the order of words in an 
uninflccted language. — al<rxvvov<ra parti- 
ciple of the imperfect. &|ui: with an- 
other tcomaUf the wife. — The elders (if 
this speaker be not rather a surviving 
soldier) threaten the murderer with the 
vengeance of the veterans. But these 
are already slain or overpowered, which 
is part of Aegisthus' meaning in liis reply. 
— fUiKoy (for viov) Wicseler, ahx^vtav 
Keck, but without reason. It is possible 
that V. 1627 is an interpolation, formed 
in part from v. 1634: if so, it would be 
by Aegisthus that the speaker is inter- 
rupted. But it is a strong objection to 
this, that the only motive for interpolation 
would be to complete the construction, 
which V. 1627 does not complete. I 
believe the text to be sound. 

1630. ciird <^OoYYTJs X^H^* sec zti'. 
^3^5. 141^ etc. 

1 63 1. i^irCois soothing^ properly appli- 
cable to the music with which Orpheus 
tamed the beasts, is transferred to the 
{j\6r<fiijo.T(k in irony. — i^ijir/ots Jacob. 

1632. a(ci: i.e. dTrd^ct, passive, wilt 
be haled to prison. 

1633. (0$ 8i]...l[crfi thou forsooth shall 
be etc.: another elliptical phrase of in- 
dignation for *(<lo you mean forsooth) 
that you shall be?' This ellipse became 



$9 ovK, iweiSr) r^S* iffovXevaa^ fiSpov, 
Bpdaai ToB^ Spyop ovk irXrj^ avroKToiHO^ ; 

A I. TO ^ap BoKwaai. irpo^ yvpaiKd^ ^v 0*0^009' 
iyta S* viroTTTO^ i')(0p6^ 17 7raXai7€vi79. 
CK rwi/ Be TovBe j^prffAOTfov we^xiaoftai 
ap')(eiv iroXiToiv' rov hk fJkrj ireiOavopa 
^ev^to fiapeiai^ ovri firj a'€ipcuf>6pov 
Kpidcivra iroSXov' oXV 6 Bvcif^iXrj^ Kortp 
Xtfio^ ^vvoiKo^ ^XOaKov <r</>* eTro^reroi. 

XO. Tt Brj rhv avBpa rovB^ airo '^vyrj^ tcatcr}^ 
OVK avTO^ rjvdpt^e^, d\\a avv yvvrj, 



1637. 1?. 

fixed in the language and occurs also in 
Eur. j4ndr. 134, Soph. 0. C. 809 (where 
see Jebb*s note) and elsewhere. 

1634. ipovXcvoxis: seez^. 1609, 16141 
1617. They harp in scorn upon his own 

1635. avTOKT^ws: here *as sole mur- 
derer * a good example of freedom in the 
new application of compound words. 

1637. tj Porson. 

1638: i\f. he will apply the treasure 
and spoils of Agamemnon in payment 
of his hireling followers. Ik rmv tk 

1640. tcu^M PapcCaiS (^^nryXais). Simi- 
lar ellipses are rXviy^vai iroXXds {x\riyds)t 
yvQvai r^y VLKSxraw (yvwfxrjp) etc. — 0^1 
|iii)...KpiO«vTa ttoi, be assured , with high 

feeding, like a horse for the trace. The 
horse which ran with a separate trace 
{<r€ipa<p6poi) is contrasted with those 
driven under the yoke. The strength of 
the trace-horse was of great importance 
at the turns of the chariot-race: hence 
Kpiduvra (Wecklein). — Hie appearance of 
irregularity in this sentence (oi> /atJ or oihi 
fii/f being properly constructed with finite 
verbs, subj. or future indicative) is an 
apjKjarancc only. In reality the negative 
applies by relation to the verb ^(E(;|w. — 
oihi fi^y Karsten. 

1641. 6 SiMT^iXi^ K6rtf Xi|i^ {vvoucof 
huftger that will not dioell at peace with 

1638. riavBe. 

rage, literally 'hunger, that is to rage 
ill-friendly as a housemate', so called 
because where hunger comes rage is 
* turned out of doors ', or in plain words 
the angry spirit is tamed. — This pictu- 
resque and characteristic personification 
is in my opinion undoubtedly genuine. 
The prevalent alteration Siv^cXc? VKbrtf 
(Scaliger) spoils the point and reduces 
the significant ^tur^cXi^ to a feeble and 
inappropriate epithet. 

1643. The haste, with which Aegis- 
thus drops the topic of his piart in the 
exploit and falls back upon threats (rv. 
1636 — 43), shows that, notwithstanding 
his plausible reply, he is sensitive to the 
taunt of cowardice and care for his own 
safety. Accordingly his enemies instantly 
urge it again. — Vv, 1643—48 are placed 
by Heimsoeth after v, 1627 on the ground 
that it is useless to ask a question already 
answered. But a furious altercation of 
this kind is not subject to the rules of 
logical debate. 

1644. <r^ with thee also', see w. 591, 
1270, 1358. Why must his wife join 
with thee in the murder? — There is no 
error here : it is the cue of the speakers 
to treat Aegisthus as primarily respon- 
sible, according to his own declaration. 
The reading has been suspected only 
from the misrepresentation of the plot, 
which gives A^isthus no part to play 



X^P^^ fiiaafjta /cal de&v cy^tupiMV, 1645 

e/creip* ; ^Opitrrtf^ apd irov fiXeirei ^o?, 
iirca^ KareXOwv Sevpo wpevfiev^i rvyrf 
afj^lv yhrr/TOA roivSe ira^Kparfi^ ^vev^; 
AI. oXX' iireX ioKel^ raK IpSeiP ical Xeyeiv, yvaiaei rd'^^a, 
XO.7'. ela &7, (f)ikoi ArO^rrat, rovpyov oux ^^^^ roSe. 1650 

AI. ela S17, ^i(f>o^ irpOKorrrop ira^ rt? evrpe-m^eraf. 
XO. dXXd fiTJv Koryd irpoKcmro^ ovk dvaivofiai Oavelv. 
XO.7 . SexofUvoi^ Xeyei^ Oavelv ae' t^v tv^tjv S' aipovfieOa. 
KA. fif)SafJuS^iy (3 <f>tKTaT dvSpwp, aXXa Bpdatafiev Kaxd, 

1653. ipc6tu$a. 

they will not have to wait much longer. 
At Aegisthus* order <i65i) they draw 
their swords, whereupon the elders and 
the few who are with them draw also 

1651. Kirfd /i^, 

and thus obscures the meaning not only 
of these lines but of the whole scene. 

to the notion t6 tV yvptuKa rreo^oi. 

1649 — 53. There is some uncertainty 
here as to the distribution of the parts. 
The tradition, as originally given by f, the 
most trustworthy of the MSS., divides 
them thus 1649 ^^'^., 1650 CAo,<, 165 1 
-^<yM 1651 j4e^,, 1653 CAo, At 165 1 the 
mark is corrected to CAo. and the ar- 
rangement so corrected agrees with g and 
h. The arrangement now generally pre- 
valent gives 1649 — 50 and 1652 to Aegis- 
thus, 165 1 and 1653 to the elders; some 
further suppose that a verse is lost before 
1650. The difficulty has arisen, I believe, 
from the fact that there are really not 
two parties, as commonly supposed, but 
three, Aegisthus, the elders, and the 
Xoxirai of Aegisthus. That one of these 
Xoxtroi speaks is strongly indicated by 
V. 1653. From the use of the plural 
(edpovfieOa) we should naturally suppose 
that the speaker is a cAarett/es; and yet 
it is clearly the party of Aegisthus who 
are about to commence the fight, or 
rather massacre, and therefore should 
have the last word before the queen*s 
interference. The distribution above given 
(which follows f everywhere except at 
1652) is to be understood thus: seeing 
the turn which the altercation is taking 
one of Aegisthus' impatient troop (1650) 
exclaims with joy to his comrades that 

and prepare to sell their live^ dearly 
(hence ot'c dvcuVo/xm Bavt^v, language not 
appropriate to the party now triumphant). 
The others eagerly accept their defiance 
and are at the point to fall on when Cly- 
taemnestra interferes. — Thi> view has the 
incidental advantage of accounting for 
the error and uncertainty in the MS. tra- 
dition. The ancient editors here, as in 
some other places, were short of per- 

1649. YVitf<rci r6:f^ 'thou shalt have 
an immcdiaie lesson', contrastc<l with the 
long discipline of imprisonment. The 
emphasis is on t^xo.' 

1652. fiii^v Ka^M Porson. 

1653. alpov|ic6a Auratus. Scyopivois 
and n)v rvx^iv atpov|ic6a mean the same 
thing, that they accept the favourable 
omen of the others' despair. 

1654. The motive of Clytaemnestra 
in this interference is disguised, and the 
truth of the scene injured, by needless 
changes in w. 1656 and 1659. It is 
essential to the advantage of the tyrants 
that the elders should remain prisoners 
and liable to suffer, and therefore that 
they should not be killed. The piety 
of Clytaemnestra is edifying but not dis- 
interested. As to lilwrating the elders, 
there is never any question of it. 

12 — 2 

't"iTTei';^eTe 5' ol ffpotn-ef trpas &6fiov<! irfrrptafiiyoiK TOi'ffSi, 
TTplii tradfii' ip^ai'T€'i KaipoV XPV*' i"''^* *"' *7rpafa/iei'.+ 
el S4 Toi fiay^Sav yivono twvS' nXti y, f^ot/ifff Hv. 
haifiouot xi^V ;So/>E('? hvrTTV)(WV irevXTjyfifvoi. I660 

eSS' e;^e( XoYof yvvaixoi, e? ne n'ftot fui6(tv. 
nWa ToiirrBe fiot /laraiav yXmrirav cu£' aTravBiaai 

ifijS' *?P«i- 

i6jj, "The order of thewords poinu 
to taking «oXXd •s predicate, Even liar 
an many lo rraf, a Htler harvest. The 
commoner rendering Evitt So ttap Ihtu 
maHy mvi 11 a hitier hantsl \% |xis&iblc, 
but would mthcr require rtmuTo.." 
Sidgwick.— a4>«t SehUli, O for 9. 

i6i;G. wqfMvijt S' dXit y' fan£px* 
itt ftmiskmeni at Itasl begin with vriaf is 
nuHgi: let lu shed no ilned, literally, 
'as ta punishment, make beginning of it 
at all events to a sufficitHt extenl'. 
in||un^ pain but with the secondary 
suggestion o( punishment (cf.our/3/Wo«rf 
ptnaHiei), as in P. V. 601 Mifvias iimp- 
TaB<raii it njfisriu! and in thai play 
frequently. For the r^ular construction 
o( the genitive with tfipx'f »ee L. nnd 
Sc. f.v. — The disciplinary imprisonment, 
which Aegisthus has already promisei], 
may prove sufficent to subdue rebellion, 
so that lo inflict death would be prema- 
ture. The point is put still more clearly 
in f. 1659 — firapX" Scaliger. 

ifiS7-5g are be)-ond restoration, 
having clearly been both mlswritten 
and iil-mcnded; tii«rni g, h: M prob- 
ably hud Ip^arrat, OK Mr Ilousmaninrers. 
but it is not certain even whether litis 
Ipiairrat, or Ihc word which it represent!, 
is (a.s seems to be mare commooly 
assumed} from IpSu, fiffui or from itpyiii, 
the two verbs having the lenses Ip^tar 
and lp(ai in common. I should myself 
guess the general sense lo be ttilxir' 15811 
Toit yiparrai it Ji^avf rirpu/ttrain rflu 
TaBtlr rpforrn, "eo nl once and take 

them to prison before I hey comt lu 
hnrm', an order addressed to hci aitcn 
dants and spoken as if she would gUdl; 
save the eldcis firom ihcir own folly. The 
expresiiian Upavi mwp—fJ¥ovt Aitiii/d 
dwelling' filaci 's not inapplicable lo 1 
prison. All however is uncertain, and 
the doubt extends lo jy*^"" "'' ^ 
iwpH^lut, which may or may not be a 
sentence complete, according as we 

1659. Anil i/v>e /nJ lAiU Ml sajir- 
ing Mat gene far emmgA, nn teiil Oay 
gur hand, literally 'if of these suflerinp 
there should prove lo have been etiimgi ' 
{yi throws the emphasis upon oXu). if, 
that is, conhnement and starvation pro- 
duce submission. — fiixfhn. This word 
like nifioriT is applied in the Pnwutitiu 
repeatedly to the punishment of Ibe 
hero. — Ix^)^' ^ '"^ ^'^ refraim o 
s/ufi and inflict no more '. For this sense 
of the verb see examples in L. and Sc 
r.n. C, iv.Sixoi^'S' Martin. 

1660; SHiilten as Tve have icen fy tit 
grievous spur o/fale. She speaks of the 
murders already done as an unhappy 
necessity. — XI^'O' Wecklein compares 
Pers. s'S u iverirrrre Joi«ov in 4yo» 
Papfn TDisTr f>'^^^ov rorrj WtpetK^ yirti. 

1661. lULTatav 'YUo^rav..,i£wM4Ca«i 
faHat the folty of their tongues, literally, 
'make a foolish tongue break oul in 
bloom". C(. K. Browning, Calihan ifan 
Selebos, 'letting the rank tongue blossom 
intospcech'. This, rather than 'cull the 
flower' of the tongue, is the sense wUch 



KOK^aXelv hrrj roiavra Baifiopo^ ireiptofiivov^;. 

'\'a'oi<f>popo^ ypdfir)^; S' afJbaprrJTov Kparovvra. 
XO. oifK av ^Apyeuav toS' etr), (f)o^Ta irpoaaalveiv KaKov, 1 665 
AI. a\X' eyai a ip varepaiaLV 7jfjLepai<; fieTCLfi en. 
XO. ovKf iav SaifKOP ^OpeaTtjp Bevp* arrevOvpri fioXeiP. 
A I. olS' iyoo <f>€vyopTa^ apBpa<; iXirlSa^ aiToufiipou^. 
XO. TrpaaaCf wiaipov, p^iaipwp rfjp Blk7)p' iirel Trdpcu 
AI. tadi fJtoL Sdaoyp airoipa rijaSe fKDpia^ X^P^^- 1670 

XO. KOfLTraaop dapawp, aXeKTtop aSore OrfKeLa^ ireka^, 
KA. p,rj TrpoTifJLtjarj^ fiaTaiayp tcopS* vXayfidrayp' iyd 

Koi av Orjaofiev Kparovpre reSi/Se ScopAroop xaXw^. 

1663. ^fM^as, 



the context su^ests. — The infinitive is 
the exclamatory infinitive of indigna- 

1663. SaCffcovos (Casaubon : the Mss. 
have involuntarily accommodated the case 
to Tcipdafiiwovs) tempting their f cite, 

1664. If 8* is correct, the verse can- 
not be a continuation of the foregoing, 
which would require either KtjX or tc. 
Perhaps therefore it should be given to 
Clytaemnestra and written thus, auHppoyos 
ypii/jLtis 6* 6.fiapTri rbv KparovfO* a/iaprdMeiVy 
literally *But that he who is master of 
them should lose his senses along with 
them!' i.e, * If they are foolish, need you 
therefore let yourself be provoked into 
the folly of killing them?* The asso- 
nance of aftapTrj...&fMpraif€Uf is in the 
poet*s manner, and on the other hand 
dfMpTCj'tuf might easily drop off as a 
supposed double reading. — 6.napr€i¥ rbv 
(Casaubon for 6.fAapT7JTov) is highly im- 

1671 — 3. omits iyC) and xaXws. 

1665. Aegisthus is with difficulty re- 
strained from putting the elders to death, 
and they are led away, answering with 
defiant taunts his threats of executing his 
purpose another time. 

1669. Tqv 8Cki]v doiftg outrage to the 
rightful cause^ that of Orestes : not jtts- 
tice; see on v, 1607. 

1670. TTjcrSc ffcoipCas X^^^ ^ P^^^* 
phrasis for riyrSe fuopiaSf but not quite 
synonymous with it. It has an ironical 
force, as in English we might say, 'I 
will thank you another time for these 
insults *. 

167 1. &m Scaliger. 

1672. irpoTiffcijonQS i}Xa7|J«Lr»v : for 
the loose construction, imitating that of 
^poi'W^ii', is cited Eur. Aic. 761. 

ifi. iyuJt 0»7<rf, koI aif Kparovvrti 
TfOfdc tS>¥ dufiOTUv diadrf(r6fji€0a rd KaO* 
avToifi «faXw$ schol, whence the words 
iyw and KoXGn are supplied in the text 
(Canter, Auratus). 


(rreyai9 'ArpctScSv ay KoBtv^ /cukos Sucqv. 

Two interpretations have been suggested: (i), reading ariyqs and 
taking ayfca^cv for avcfco^cv, sleeping above (on?) the roof. A gloss in 
Hesychius shows that this interpretation is ancient But ayKoBtv is not 
a legitimate contraction for avcxa^ev, nor does aviKaBev mean ottj but 
a^tw^ ox from above. This therefore is generally abandoned. 

(2), couched on the roof 'resting dog-iike upon my arm (Hermann). 
This is provisionally accepted but is not really defensible : for {a) the 
use of the dative cannot be justified. There is nothing in KoifuafjL€vo^ 
to determine the dative (which in itself signifies merely relation of some 
kind) to the meaning on : Koifi(Cfi€vo9 orcyats, if the dative were taken as 
quasi-local, would mean sleeping in the house^ as orcyats Scxccr^ai (Eur. 
Or, 46) means to receive in the house^ under (not on) the roof and cr<^{c<r- 
Bok <Tr€rfu.% (Eur. Hec, 1014) to be kept in the house, (b) ay KoBtv does not 
mean on the arm but in the arms: ayica-9, ayKa-$€u, ayKa-kq etc. are 
always used of the inside of the bent arm, and to describe the act of 
embracing (see Aesch. Eum. 80). Hermann, to forestall this objection, 
points out that dyKti-v means both the hollow and the angle of the arm. 
But if the difiference of stem is immaterial, how is it that we have 
abundant instances for the double meaning in one case, while all the 
numerous examples are uniform in the other ? Moreover here koi/mo/xckos 
itself suggests that SyKoBtv has its proper sense: KoifiaxrBai ywaiKt 
ayKaB€Vy or fipi^os M^P*- ayxo^cv K€KoCfiriTo would be natural and regular 
expressions in the language of poetry for the babe was sleeping in its 
mothef^s arms^ eic.j the datives being common datives of relation, {c) 
A man could hardly describe himself as having lain in a certain posture 
fyr a year. 


The words Kotfico/icvo? crreyais ayica^cv can, I believe, mean nothii^ 
but Koifiwfi€vo^ oTcywi' CI' ayfcaXai9 lulled in the embrace of the roof. Is 
this a conceivable expression ? For this speaker and in this situation 
I think it is. In the Protmtheus (1049) Hermes says to the hero 

ffidpayya Ppovry Kal KepawujL ^Xoyl 
■nuTrjp aTrapd$€i nfvSc, fcal Kpwff€i Sc/ias 
TO (ToVy v€Tpaia 8* ayKakrj crc ^ourrourci, 

comparing the sufferer ironically to a child carried softly in the arms. 
If the sentinel were represented lying in an angle of sloping roofs (and 
no position would be more natural) he might well describe himself, 
with an irony like that of Hermes but differing as the persons differ, 
as * cradled in the roofs embrace \ The metaphor is not more strong 
than KVfiaTiov Iv ayxaXais cited from some poet (probably Aeschylus) 
by Aristophanes (Pan. 704). The words kwo^ Suajv do not affect the 
question. There is no need to join them specially with koc/uu/acvo^... 
ayKaOfv : and they mean no more than that ha is made to sleep, like a 
watch-dog, in the open air. 


tt}. 49 — 51. rpoTTOv alyvin^v olr iKirarlots 

oAyccrt iraiBoiv, vTraroi \c;(€a>i', 
(TTpo<f>oSivovvTai ktX. 

Like vultures, who, vexed by boys in the supreme solitudes ivhere they 
nest, loheel round and round, etc 

All the commentaries on this passage start from the assumption that 
7rat8ajv means the * children ', that is, the * young ' of the birds. I think 
this impossible : Trats does not mean * offspring ' but * a young human 
being ' and is never, I believe, applied by writers whose usage is of any 
authority to the offspring of animals. The word meaning ' offspring *, 
and as such common to men and beasts, is tckvov (see Aesch. Theb, 
278 etc.), and the distinction is supported by hundreds of examples 
from every kind of poetry. The apparent exceptions either prove 
nothing to the point or prove the strength of the rule. 

L. and Sc cite only Aesch. Pers, 580, where fish are called avavSoi 
watScs TGis dfAidvTov *dumb children of the unstained (sea)', which of 
course proves nothing. The nightingale is watZoXenap {Phes. 549), 
because she is Philomela, mourning for her son: Medea (Eur. Afed, 
1407) is 7rat8(K^Vos \eatm. These are for the rule. In Eur. Ion 175 

APPENDIX /. 185 

the birds are commanded fi>7 iratSovpyciv in the temple, an expression 
proper to the human relation being borrowed for decency and to avoid 
a coarser term. How decisively human, to the ear of Aeschylus, was 
the word irats is shown by Ag, 722, where the lion-whelp is cv</>tX(>7rat9: 
the epithet would be unintelligible, if there could be any doubt that 
iroT? means a human being. Nor is there anything in the present 
passage to put upon the word an exceptional meaning; on the 
contrary, the purpose of the simile naturally requires the mention of 
the offenders as well as the offended The words irovov opTakixiav 
oAcVavTcs, which have suggested the false rendering, come too late to 
affect the hearer's interpretation of TratSwv one way or another, even if 
there were reason to think that ihe supposed use would have seemed 
to Aeschylus permissible at all. We must take then 7raiSo>y in its proper 
sense for the boys, who rob the nest, answering to the ayporat, not to 
the TCKva, of the Homeric simile which Aeschylus is imitating (cited by 
Bochart, Hermann etc) fcXaibV r€ Atyccos d8ivo>r€pov rj r oUavoi, <f}-^vai 
^ aiyvrrtol yafjuj/iavv^tsy olci tc T€Kva dyporai cfctXoKTO, irdpos ircrci^i/a 

ycvcor^at (0{/. 16. 216). The genitive will then be that of the subject or 
origin, and oAyccri ircU^v will be literally * in grief from boys \ 

For cKTrarto? the old interpretation of Hesychius, iKwdriov' t6 Ifw 
ndrovy *that which is solitary, away from the haunts of man', is correct 
The word Traros fredd seems to have gone out of use in its primary 
sense as early as Homer, who has it several times in the same restricted 
meaning Aaunf of man^ as opposed to solitary places, such as hills and 
deserts. Thus Poseidon (//. 20. 137) invites the gods to retire Ik 
Trdrov c? (TKoirirjv, and Bellerophon wanders in the Aleian plain, ov Ovfwv 
KaTfStov, vdrov dvOpiOTnov dKeiiviov. Here the word applies properly to 
the birds themselves, but is transferred to their feelings (dXyrj) by a 
usage in which Greek poetry is peculiarly bold. The present case is 
little if at all more different from our habit of language than e.g. Soph. 
An/, 794 vciKo? dvBpiav (vvaifiovy for *a strife between kinsmen'. The 
epithet is exactly to the point ; it is an aggravation of the complaint 
that the robbers are also invaders. 

So far I do not find any difficulty. But there remains a real 
difficulty in Ziraroi XcxcW, commonly rendered * high above their nest ', 
Mr Housman {/, Ph. xvi. 247) raps this fancy (which of course I had 
always accepted) with not more smartness than truth. "The learner 
of Greek, in quest of probable or even plausible reasons for believing 
that viraroi Xv^mv summi cubiliuni means vTrcp Acxccui/ super cubiliay is 
dismissed to these references ^iaxdrrj x^o^'o? Prom. 865, voraTou vcw? 
SuppL 697, vTraros x^^% Zeus Ag. 492 '. The first two of these 


passages irdAts iaxdrrj yBovo^ and ouuco^ vvrarov vcok prove to him 
what he could well believe without proof, that such a phrase as Bpvfak 
inraros tcixov^ a coping which is the highest part of a wcUl is Greek ; but 
since vultures on the wing are not the highest part of their e3rries the 
information does not help him. Had he been referred, say, to a 
passage where a fish following a ship is called voraros vcois, theo he 
would have been helped; but Greek literature contains no such 
passage: such a fish is vorcpos Fcok". The third reference, meaning 
properly *Zeus highest in the land* and therefore 'supreme over' it, 
makes for the same argument. I think it unanswerable and conclude 
that if vTraroi Xcxccoi' be taken with orpo^oSivovvrai it is unintelligible. 
Mr Housman concludes that it is altogether unintelligible ; but this I 
do not yet accept. 

If vTraroi Xcxcwv is correct, the genitive must, as Mr Housman says, 
be of the partitive kind. But why not? No one would demur to 
llpojTrioi vatoucrtv (or ctati') ccrxaroi t^ Bot<i)Tui9, or to a description of 
the Athena of the Acropolis as 17 viran; oucra lepoiv she whose sanctuary 
is highest, literally she who is highest among sanctuaries, the name of the 
people or the goddess standing for the place of abode. On such 
analogy, I submit, is formed viroxoi. \v^ktav, literally highest oj nests (not 
of their fusts\ for nesting highest of all birds. And observe, that this 
again reinforces the point marked by cKTrartbi?, that the injured parents 
are invaded in their own solitudes. A prose writer, if in prose such an 
expression could have been used at all, would have written viraTot ovr« 
XcxcW : but it is equally certain that Aeschylus would not insert the 
participle; his style abounds in these participial adjectives {e,g, Ag, 


I should translate then literally, *who, in grief among- the- solitudes 
inflicted-by-boys, being-highest-nested, wheel round and round with 
stroke of their wings* etc., to which the paraphrase above given comes 
as near as our language permits. 


W» 1 25 — 129. KcSvos 8c OTpard/iai^is iSwi/ 8uo krjfiaxri Surtravs 

*Arpci3a^ fjLa\L/xovs c3ai/ Xayo8aiTa9 
7ro/u.7rovs r dp\d^. 

From the difference (Smto-ov?) which Calchas saw between the royal 
brothers, he perceived that they were typified by the two different 


eagles, and that the appearance was ominous. The writer of Xi^/iao-i 
conceived the difference to lie in the tempers of the princes, Agamemnon 
being conspicuously brave, Menelaus pja>SaKo% alxiitfnjs (//. 17, 588, 
cited by Plato Symp. 1 74 c). The eagle with white feathers in the tail 
and wings was commonly called irvyapyos (Schol. on z/. 1 1 7 o i^oTruna 
Xcvico9, o ioTiy 6 irvyopyos), and the word, whether because this species 
though larger than others was not so strong or for other reasons, was 
applied to cowards; itvYipyo^ cTSos acrov. So^okX^s cttI tov SctXov. aTro 
Ti}s XcvK^ irvy^ (Soph, fr, 962 a). Cf. the proverb * showing the white 
feather ', and see L. and Sc s.zk irvyapyos. 

Such is the ancient and traditional explanation, but it is far from 
satisfiactory. For first Menelaus was not a coward or unwarlike. He 
is Parjiv ayaB6% and his prowess is frequently celebrated. Plato, who 
requires for the sake of a jest to suppose him unwarlike, makes the 
most of a single expression divorced from the context, which shows it to 
be a mere insinuation made for the purpose of the moment. In this 
very passage of Aeschylus the epithet fiax^fiovs seems to be inserted to 
prevent any misconception. Secondly if the fact were so, it would be 
strange that Calchas should imply such an ignominy in the presence of 
Menelaus and his army. Thirdly l^v points to visi/de difference. 
Fourthly part of the present symbol, or at least something closely 
resembling it, is found in Sophocles (Ant. 114) with an explanation. 
There * the eagle with snow-white wings ' stands for the Argives (in the 
narrower sense, the people of Argos) distinguished by their white shields. 
Note also that in the passage before us not only does the word Trvyupyos 
not occiu:, but there is nothing definitely referring to the tail at all. The 
words are * white-marked at the back '. 

Putting this together, we may well believe that the difference which 
Calchas *saw' was not in the characters of the brothers, but in the shields 
slung upon their backs ^ and consequently that Xiy/Aao-t is a false correc- 
tion of some word unknown. These considerations or some of them 
led Haupt to propose Xc/ifwuri and Pleitner djfiaa-L But no known 
or credible meaning of Xififm will fit, and it is not the emldems {(njixaTo) 
of the shields to which we are directed by the passage in Sophocles, but 
their colours. Certainty in such a matter is impossible, but a word 
which would fit all the conditions is the derivative, whatever it should 

be, not of Xa- but of Xi^- to paint — Xt/m/Aa, akLfifia, Xctfifta or oXci^/ma. 

That this stem (Hke the Latin lin-ere) originally had this sense is shown 
by the use of d\€uf>€iv (/uXtw, ij/tfjivduf etc, see L. and Sc. s.v.): 
\ififia<ri Sio-o-ovs different in their tincts gives the sense we should 
seek. Critically it is little less probable than Xiy/Acurt itself. The type 


of misspelling is common (see e.g, Ag, 867) and nowhere more likdy 
to occur than in a technical term of ancient ' heraldry '. 


Z'V, 146 — 149. Too'crcov ircp cv^pcov, icoAa, 

8fKxrouriV acRTOi^ fiaX€pw¥ iovrwv 
iravTCtfv r* dypovofjuav <f>i\ofJtaaTois 
Orjpwv oPptKaXoiai rcpnra, jcrX. 

A7//^ ^j* //lou ar/f fair goddess, to the uncouth offspring of the many 
creatures fierce, as well as sweet unto the suckling young of all kinds that 
range the field, etc. — /xaXepcGv iovTtav {Srjpwv) literally *of fierce 
creatures, though they are fierce \ For the use of the form c<i>f in the 
lyrics of tragedy cf. Eur. Andr. 124 a/i^l XiKTptav SiSuftwv cirucouw 
cuvcray. The reference to fierce animals is, strictly speaking, irrelevant, 
as the sympathy of the goddess had been evoked, in the case of which 
Calchas is speaking, by hares. But the suggestion, that her universal 
love (note the emphatic toWwi/, irdvTuiv) extends to the savage kinds as 
well as the rest, is very much to his present purpose, which is to per- 
suade her not to involve in the punishment of the Atridae the hapless 
Iphigenia, and to propitiate her on behalf of the * house of the eagles\ 

1 have ventured to write conrwv for ovtcuf (M), and not XcoWcdv, in 
spite of the testimony that Xcoi^wi' was actually an ancient reading. 
The objection to Xcovrwv is mainly critical. 

In the first place XcoVtwv is of course inconsistent with too-o-oii^ and 
requires us to assume that some one, without any motive, wrote tcktctcdk 
for t6(T(tov. But further if the original reading was Spdaouriv deirroi^ 
fiaK€pwy XeovTuyv, it is impossible to account for the present reading of 
M, Sp6a'ounv acXTrrots /xaXcpwv ovTiav, descended, as the scholium shows, 
from a ms. which had acTrroi?. No editor would invent, except upon 
some supposed evidence, a reading so absurd as SpoaourLv aeXirrocs: 
and none would be likely to mistake a word so common as Xcovtcdf. 
On the other hand, if iovrtav was the original, the history is simple. 
To the line as it originally stood were appended two marginal notes, 
oKTwv and XctTTct TO X, the first explaining iovnav, the second on the 
contrary proposing the correction of it given by the Etym. Mag., 
Xcorrwv. The two notes indicated in fact the two ancient opinions 
about the reading. The scribe of M, or some preceding scribe, took 
the gloss oi^cDv as a correction into the text: as the note XciVct to X 
had so lost its application, he or some other /ut the X into the wrong 

APPENDIX /. 189 

word^ thus manufacturing oeXTrroi?. The existence of the reading 
Vcovroiv is perfectly well accounted for as a mere slip of memory. 
The quotations of the ancients are even more inaccurate than those 

of the present day; nothing would be more likely than that a writer 

who was concerned only with the use of ^^o^i should be misled by 

fuiXcpcuv into the false quotation of the etymologist. 

It may be added that lions have nothing to do with the matter, 

either directly or indirectly. 


W, 183 — 185. Z^va 8c Tis TrpcM^povws iinvLKta Kka^tov 

MS. KXd(iav ...TO TTttV. 

Scholia. 184 CTTi Airi8i vikt/s. 185 6\o(r\€p<D*: <t>p6vLfJL0S co-rat. 

The general meaning here is clear, * trust in Zeus will not be misplaced, 
his strength is invincible '. Upon the words three questions arise : — 
(i) as to the sense of Trpoc^poVws, (2) as to the reading icXa^oiv, (3) as to 
the reading to irdv. It will be convenient to take (3) first. 

In a paper in the Journal of Philology, Vol. ix., it was pointed out 
that the existence and use of the words TOTrafw, vTroroTrcw, iLtoitos and 
others, warranted, under the general laws of Greek formation, the 
assumption that there also existed the corresponding words totti/ (or 
TOTra) and T07ro5 a conjecture, guess, and Toirdu) to guess, a parallel form 
to Ttwrafoi : that these words are very liable to be confused with others : 
and that they should be borne in mind in interpreting our mss., 
especially those of the tragedians. These positions, in their general 
and a priori bearing, have not, so far as I know, been disputed ; and 
are approved by (among others) Mr A. Sidgwick'. In the i)aper 
mentioned were collected the passages which seemed to re(]uire 
consideration from this point of view, among them m^ 185, 687, 982 of 
this play, each exhibiting the ambiguous letters Toizav. Mr Sidgwick 
prefers to irdv in each and, as will be seen from my text, I agree with 
him as to the two last, though as to ?'. 687 with much hesitation. In 
the present passage I believe that to irdv cannot be construed, and 
that Tonrdv is right. Mr Sidgwick (with modern editors generally) 
accepts the explanation of the scholia, and translates * shall find wisdom 
altogether*. But the sense put upon tcv^ctqi {fiptvwv cannot be got 
from the words. 4>p€V€s (or <l>pr}v) does not mean * wisdom ', it means a 

* See his edition of the Agamemnon, App. ii. * The a priori probability * etc. 

mind: ^piva^ ^iv is not 'to be wise' but la have a mntewtamtaiU 
amicieiu, as in the address of Philoctetes to his bow (Soph. J'AS. e 
■^ vov JAtirof op^%, ^iyat (i nva% <X"^' "^^ ■ ^powi- rwifPoKov B t 
sjTionym not of tro^kM but of iwovt and means poiftssed of ku mtdkd, 
marking the difference between the man and the infant {P.V, 460); 
^pcruF K*va% (Soph. Ant. 734), aTotr^aAci's (Aesch. P. V. 48S), o/iapxna 
(EuT. AU. 337), are all, as the context will show, veiy Sttwig 

I expressions, imi>orting the absence or loss not of wisditm but of seiac 
or the faculty of thought- The exact expression rvyj^acew 4 fi * *^ ' 

■ cannot find, and am not surprised, for in its proper sense it wonld 
require a very peculiar context to justify it : the nearest approadi B 
Soph. £/. 992, « ^ptvvv I iruyxf^r ui^ fiij kqkwi-, Jo-wfcr' «r | T^ 
tvkafituiv, had she betn blessed xnith a mind not tftischievous, where ibe 
qualilicalion fit) rninmv would be needless and injurious, if -nrfypna 
^cvuiv could bear the meaning assumed for the present passage. 
Abundant evidence, positive and negative, goes to show that Tniftroi 
^pcvuv TO ir«^ could mean only "will find wits' or 'will be blessed with 
a mind altogether', and therefore for the present purpose has not a 
meaning at all. On the other hand Ttitftrm ^pcvuv T<nra'f will be r^hl 
in the guess 0/ his theugkl is simple, and has a special 6tness here from 
its correlation with the preceding passage (jrpoeroKOCTOi v. 173) and, as 
will be immediately shown, with the words irp()^'vius inaiUta. 

Next as to Trpix^viusL — irpo'^puiv, liti-rally 'forward-minded' or 
'fore-minded ', means elsewhere ivilling or zealous. But ancient tradiUtMi 
was right in saying that here the poet has used irpo^po'ivit so as to 
suggest the meaning (equally admitted by the form of the word) _/5>nr- 
easting, prophet ically, by antieipation. That this was the ancient tradition 
is shown by the note in the scholia 'in expectation of his victory", 
which has nothing to go upon except Trpo^oVcus thus interpreted. The 
difference is very small, in substance indeed none at all, but the 
purpose of the ixwt is clearly indicated by the antithesis of fore and 
a/ler in Trpo^povnn-hnvutia (properly 'such as follow a victory'), and 
by the correspondence between Trpo^p6vas<i and ^ptvo^ nardv. Such 
development of latent capacity in a word is the very essence of poetical 
expression, and here saves the word itpo<jtp6vaii from being flat and 
superfluous. The very point of (he whole passage and of this sentence 
is that Zeus' power is supreme and his triumphs therefore certaio 
beforehand. The certainty of an event cannot be put more strongly 
than by saying, that ' he who guesses it will be so will be right *. 
Whether irpo^wv was often used by the poets in this sense, we are not 
in a position to say, nor is it material. The prevalence of another 


sense is no argument to the contrar)*, as may be seen from innumerable 

other compounds, e.g. t-poSucoq^ vpoytnr<K, vpovS^, rpocIiroKf Tpcyiyi-OfjuiLL, 

vpo8tiSa>/u, all of which have various meanings. 

Lastly as to the reading xXa^wv cxirixta singing son^s of vicicry or 
kX^^qif (the quasi-Doric equivalent for xXi^wr) crtrixia giving titUs of 
victory. The ms. offers the choice, for the presence or absence of the 
iaia subscript is nothing. My reasons for preferring mkai^^mr are ( i ) that 
the name of Zeus is the topic of the passage (v, 170) and the significance 
of that name has already been hinted (see r-. 175 and the reference given 
above); (2) that KXa^co, which applies properly to harsh discordant 
sounds, such as the screaming of birds (v. 48), always, even in its looser 
applications, signifies the quality or tone of the sound, as deep or harsh 
or repellent or terrible or the like (see cT*. 165, 2 i i ), whereas here no such 
suggestion can be intended. The only apparent cases I can find to 
support the view that icXa{a>y could mean merely to sing are Sojih. Track. 
206, and Eur. Ion 905. But in the first there is an antithesis between 
the treble voices of women and opawny icAayyci the masculine bass ; 
and in the second the terms KiOdpa icXo^ci?, addressed to Aj^^Uo, are 
purposely offensive (see the context) and suggest a comj^arison 1 eiwcen 
the * song ' of the cruel god and the * screams ' of a bird of prey. 

V7K 286 — 7. XO. xorcpa S' 6v€ipofv ifMaiun* cvTrSrj crc/^ci? ; 

KA. ouS* cufrav dv Xapoifii pptinvtnf^ ^€109. 

ov 8dfdv M. owS* o^of' Wecklein. I have accepted, provisionally at 
least, his suggestion, agreeing with him that the text is faulty. 

Dr Wecklein explains his reading thus: "ov8' &v Xiipoiiu, das ist, 
* ich verwahre mich dagegen, dass ich hinnehme (teal x«iV'«*' ««Xci'-a))*. 
VgL Eum. 228 ovS' ai' S€xoifirpf war* Ix^iv ri/ia? a€$€v, Soph. A/i/. 730 
KP. Hfyyoy yap i<m tov^ cucoo-ftoiKra? <rip€iv', AIM. ovo' av K€\€v<raift' 
cwc/^ctv CIS TOV9 jcaxous". In these passages * I would not so much as' 
stands for *I would not care to*, and so Dr Wecklein takes ov6 

av,,.Xdpoifu here. 

So far however I cannot follow him. This would require, as Dr 
Wecklein himself shows by his citations and his lemma, the order ovo" 
ay XaipoifJii in^fava. 

If i^^ 6il/av* ^ Xdpoifu is right, the translation is / zcou/d not accept 
even the o^am of a sleepy mind, and we must distinguish o\}/av(L, as 
something more valid or convincing, from ovtipwv ffxiafAaTa. Such a 

Btinction is not improbable or Inexplicable The word Stfrarof 
> occur only once, in ihe description of Clytacranestra's dream, tlut 
she suckled a snake (Orestes) which drew blood from the icat (Cfa 

XO, avnj wpmrm^t fiairrov iv mti'ttpan, 
OP. Kai n-ils QTptuTov ovBap rp/ riro CTTvynw ; 
XO. uMTT iv yaXatni 0po/L^ov a^tarov mntiroi. 
OP. oiJTcn fiMTainv aiv ToS' Sifiavov wtXai'. 
XO. ^ h' ii VTVov KocXayyO' twrmjiuyrj. 

'She herself gave it the breast". "Then the teat must have been 
wounded?' "Yes, it even drew blood with Ihe milk', 'This Siparmr 
cannot be insignificant'. ' .'Vnd she woke with a cry". It will be 
noticed here that it is to the oipavov that Orestes attaches particular 
weight. Taking this with Dr Wecktein's proposal here, I would surest 
that, according to the true meaning of the passage in the Cketphori, 
the teat was actually flecked with blood, as the sleeper found upon 
waking, and lliat (K^avov (o^iirfiut) properly meant, in the language of 
divination, a dream visibly confirmed, or the visible confirmation oi a 
dream. It need hardly be said that those who ' believe in dreams' will 
vouch for many such proofs of their reality. This interpretation futtber 
brings out the force of ySptfou'inis, which, as distinguished from tHevir^. 
means not ' sleeping ' Init ' nodding, sleepy'. The aj/avov, in ihe sen.« 
supposed, would of course be perceived or imagined by a mind not 
asleep but, as Clytaemnestra contemptuously says, ' half-asleep '. ' I 
would not accept', she says, 'dream-proof in what they call its 
strongest form', and therefore a fiortiori nothing less. Her robust 
scepticism here offers an effective contrast to her guilty terror in the 
following play. 

The MS. reading is commonly rendered ' I would not accept the 
fancy of a sleeping mind '. But So^av is emphatic by position (Paley), 
and with (his emphasis the sentence implies that she might accept 
something from a sleeping mind, but not a &>£a : which I do not 
understand. In fact this explanation also requires the order o^x av 

The origin of the ms. reading is easily explained by the rarity of 

I the word and the false division oi So'^av. 

I hnve taken provisiunnlly the coi 
jecture of Mnrlin {it riS' Tor irSpis) givf 
liy Wccklciii. To discuss it hete woiil 

lead us off ihc subjecl. The wnse of iKe 
verse is, foi our present puipose. Iieyond 



V. 3^3- irXcoK Kouovcra t(^v etpi/ftcvcov. 

Weil's translation here is certainly right. The alternative * raising a 
fire larger than those before mentioned' is not only prosaic but pointless 
and even absurd. The beacon on Cithaeron, which has the smallest 
distance of all to light, cannot be meant to be represented as larger than 
that of Athos, which was to * pass the wide main *. But that it might be 
• greater than was commanded ' is natural enough. 

It may be thought, and it seems to me very probable, that there is a 

particular intention in this compliment paid to the enthusiasm shown 

upon the occasion of the triumph of Hellas over Asia by * the watchers 

upon Cithaeron '. On the north slope of Cithaeron, the side to which 

the message came, lay the little town of Plataea, the whole of whose 

fighting force, unsolicited and alone, came over the mountain to join 

the Athenian army just before the battle of Marathon, while all the 

other Greek cities delayed and made excuses. This service, which 

produced the deepest impression upon the Athenians and was 

constantly commemorated in their public prayers, cannot, I think, 

have been forgotten by the writer or any Athenian hearer of tliese lines. 

For the facts and an eloquent commentary upon them see Grote, Part 

II., Chap. 36. From this point of view the text is much more than 

defensible, and the alternative reading to be next mentioned derives 

no support from any difficulty in the ms. 

vpo<r(uOpl^ov(ra irofiTrifiov <^Xoya : raising to the skies a missive flame. 
These words are cited, without name of author, by Hesychius. It was 
proposed by Dindorf to place them here after <^povpa, and thougli not 
so pointed and apposite as the ms. reading, they fit the place with an 
exactness surprising if accidental. On the whole it seems most probable 
that the quotation of Hesychius really is a very ancient reading of this 
passage, and it is quite possible that both readings descend from the 
poet himself. 


V. 326. vtK^ 8' o 7rpa)T09 Kttl TcXcvraio? Spafxtav. 

But the winner is he who ran first and last. The difficulty found in 
this verse is attested by a great variety of interpretations, of which a 
terse summary is given by Mr Sidgwick. On the one hand the natural 

V. ^ A, 13 


meaning of the words is perfectly clear, as gii'en above If the line 
were preseoicd alone, no one would hesitate to render it so, or think cf 
any other tendering as possible. On the other hand it is equal}]' dear 
that so interpreted the remark is not properly applicable either to the 
chain of beacon-couriers or to the chain of Xofna&tft/Kipai. There is no 
'runner who runs first and last'; the very point is that they run 
mcassively. To a race between single runners the formub might 
certainly apply in one single case, in [he case, that is, of what we rjfl 
a 'walk-over'; and it is likely enough, as has been suggested to me bf 
Mr E. S. Thompson, that for this case (he formula, as a sort of jesting 
proverb, was in popular use. But for a race between chains ti 
runners even this sense would not hold, and we must still ask why tbe 
phrase should be thus mis-applied. 

To avoid this are proposed these interpretations: (i) 'the victoiy is 
won liy the first and last runners ' i.e. by the runners from Bret to last, bj 
the whole chain ; and (2) ' the victory is won by the first runner, who 
also the last ' or ' although he is the last ', i.r. by the runner who comi 
in sooner than the final runner of any other chain (and is in this sen 
fini) though he is last to run in his own chain. Under these two beads 
all the views may be reduced. 

Now without saying that either of these is impossible, it may be saidt 
and will hardly be denied, thai both are highly artificial. And taking 
either, there remains the question, What is the point of the remark in 
this place? Why should Clytaemneslra insist upon the fact, that all the 
beacons contributed to the success of her design? Or that the winning 
runner in a Aa/ijraSij^opi'a might in a somewhat fanciful sense tie called 
'the first runner and last "? 

It is, I submit, no small confirmation of the view here taken as lo 
the foregoing narrative, that it will solve this difficulty at once. The 
verse appears enigmatic because it is and is meant to be so. 
intelligible to those only who know the truth, to Clytaemneslra, to those 
in her confidence, and lo the audience acquainted with the story. 
these it means simply what it says, that in this Xa/nraSiiitiopia of beacons 
' the victory is won ', i.e. the queen's design is accomplished, 
runner who ran first and last ', or, in other words, by the only one who 
' ran ' at all, the beacon upon Arachnaeus. To the audience only it is 
m effect addressed. The elders, if lliey had leisure to consider the 
matter, might explain it in any of the ways suggested by the modem 
editors: but in such a moment as this an obscure phrase would of 
course not attract their aiiention at all, and the queen might enjoy her 
vith impunity. 

APPENDIX /. 195 


VZ\ 357 — 359. ^coi$ 8* avofiTrXaici/ros ci fiokoi fTTparo^^ 

€yfrrfyopo% to injfKa tQv oAtoXorcDv 
yivoiT avy ct Trpoairaia firj tv;(oi Koxa. 

As will be seen from the notes, the difficulty of this passage has 
arisen, in my judgment, entirely from wrong punctuation. With the 
common punctuation (as above) it is given up by the majority, who 
propose emendations. Those who retain it, as for example Mr Sidgwick, 
interpret it thus; ***But if the army returned without such offence to 
the gods, the woe of the dead might yet wake, if sudden ills did not 
befall'. The second 'if is a repetition of the first in other words... *if 
they kept free of such offence (and accordingly) if no... sudden judgment 
befeir." The sense of this is, I conceive, right, and the supposed 
accumulation of parallel hypothetic clauses is not in itself impossible. 
But where, as here, the clauses are separated, the effect is, and is 
admitted to be, to produce very great obscurity. And there are other 
objections. It does not appear why the judgments of the gods should 
be distinguished from the Nemesis of the dead as necessarily * sudden'. 
Surely either danger might fall at once or fall later. And further, with 
this punctuation the words ycvoir av are, if not superfluous, wholly 
without emphasis. But according to their place in the sentence and in 
the verse they ought to be emphatic ; and the result is feebleness. I 
do not however think this punctuation and explanation impossible, but 
only that it makes difficulty without cause. 

Of the emendations, the majority have for object to get rid of the 
negative in oFa/i^XcuciTros, the earliest being apparently Canter's ^coi? 
ff ovK dvafjLirXoKtjTo^, the simplest that of Pauw ^coi? 8* av afxirXdKyjros (a 
word however not unimpeachable), and the best Iva^irXoKryro^ (adopted 
by Dindorf). The sense would then be, *if the army return having 
offended the gods, the woe of the dead may wake, if no sudden 
mischief should occur*. But this, if somewhat less obscure, is still 
unsatisfactory. The last clause still comes too late, as an awkward 
afterthought, and its relation to the whole is still difficult to perceive. 
And fresh difficulty is even introduced, for the emphasis on ^cot?, 
necessary according to the first view (and my own), is no longer necessary 
or proper when there is no antithesis between *the gods' and *the 


Dr Wecklein, following H. L. Ahrens, by transposition and cona- 
tion produces this, 

^cois S* dyofurXajcrfTO^ ci fu^Xoi arporoSy 
Kaful/ax ScavXov Oartpov ictSAoy mXiv 
y€voir avj ci xpo<nraia fjoj ^^y^ jcaica 
iyptfyopo^ to Trrjyjk rcSv oXoiXorttr. 

This though not faultless (icafi^ai...ycroir jb^ is not an el^ant 
construction) might pass in itself; but the changes are very bold and, 
as I think, unjustifiable. 


7^- 3^3* ^O. P^, yvvcu, Kar SySpa a'iaif>poy ev^povtos \eyci?. 

cya* 8* afcoixras irurrd aov rtKyki/jpui 
Otov^ irpocrciirciv cv 'rap€urK€vd^ofuu' «crX. 

Here for the first time a question presents itself, which will occur 
several times hereafter in the play. What is the character of the 
speaker ? 

It is commonly assumed that every speaker, who is not one of the 
principal actors, is one of the elders, by whom are sung the great odes 
of the play. In the foregoing Introduction (§ 3) I have tried to show 
that there is no a priori ground for assuming this. It is plain from the 
plays themselves, that in Greek drama there were often on the stage 
together, besides the principal actors, subordinate persons of various 
descriptions. It is a priori not probable, that all speaking should be 
confined, against manifest convenience, to one sort of persons. And 
in fact the assumption that there is only one chorus and only one class 
of xop€VTai makes in the Agamemnon great and hopeless difficulties. 

Here we have two speeches, neither of which can be assigned to 
any of the principal actors, separated by a speech from Clytaemnestra 
(77'. 329 — 366). The attitude of the two speakers towards the subject 
before them is not merely different but diametrically opposed. The 
first speaker {v. 329) treats the queen's proffered 'proof of the Greek 
victory with a reserve which is barely saved from discourtesy. He 
distinctly declines to act upon it at once, and requests that the amazing 
story may be repeated again ' in full detail \ His behaviour is in fact 
only distinguished from the open incredulity of the speakers at the 
close of the following ode (z\ 481) by such a decent disguise as the 
queen's presence necessarily commands. 


On the other hand the second speaker, he of the lines now before 
us, is entirely satisfied with the queen and her statement. Contra- 
dicting the other almost in his own terms, he says that after the sure 
proofs which he has heard * he for his part ' (note hf*a) * will thank the 
gods for the victory ', which is exactly what the first declines to do, till 
he has heard something more. 

Now if these two speakers are the same person (or persons in like 
situation) what explains this change of mind ? What has Clytaemnestra 
said to satisfy his curiosity and remove his hesitation ? He asked for a 
repetition, with details, of the statement about the beacons. The queen 
has not taken the least notice of his request. Her reflexions may or 
may not be very laudable and wise, but what have they to do with the 
'evidence' of the victory? 

I am by no means the first to notice these difficulties, though they 
are commonly rabed only to be thrust aside again. Thus on v. t^Z i I^r 
Wecklein says, that the speaker 'desires a repetition, a wish which 
Clytaemnestra satisfies to this extent, that she gives in v, 332, Tpotav 
*Axau>t rgS* cxovo** kv vf'^P9^ ^^^ substance of the beacon-message, and 
appends to it reflexions' etc. If the speaker is content with this 
measure of satisfaction, he might surely have spared the queen the 
doubtful compliment of his request. The question which Clytaemnestra 
has professed to answer in the foregoing description of the beacons is 
the question of v. 292, *What messenger could possibly come so 
quick?' Here is the 'amazing' circumstance which provokes further 
enquiry. And the queen satisfies this enquiry by stating that the 
victory is this day won ? 

It would be hard, I think, for two speeches to offer stronger internal 
evidence that they do not proceed from the same lips, than is contained 
in the two before us. We shall not look far for external confirmation. 

It is plain that the second speaker, whoever he is, is also the singer, 
or one of the singers, of the hymn in anapaestic march-time which 
immediately follows. He proposes to praise the gods for the victory, and 
he does so accordingly. But are these the singers of the following 
strophic ode? If so, what is the meaning of the first line of the 
ode {v. 379)? 

Aios irXaydv ix9v<r dvtvirtiv. 

*7h a stroke of Zeus which they are able to proclaim. The ms. (f) 
has l^ovo-av clirciK with the word l^virav corrected to cxovo-*. It is 
palpable that 1^(owt dvctTrctv is the tradition thus represented. The 
suggested emendations t)(Wi avcMrctv (Schmidt), \y(p\.% av €t7r€tv (Karsten), 


€xovaiv ciirctv {Cod. Pant, i.e, Triclinius), and the forced explanadoo of 
this last, Aios xXayaK ^xcwrw cutcck, by 'they (the Trojans) have the 
blow of Zeus to tell of — all these are but mutually contradictory 
testimonies to the impossibility, upon the current assumption as to tbe 
course of the preceding scene, of reading and translating the verse in 
the obvious way. 

But give up the attempt to assign all the speaking and singing to 
the same persons, and there is no difficulty at alL The queen comes 
naturally not unattended ; and from the course of the play both before 
and afterwards it is evident (as was shown in the Introduction) that bj 
this time there have gathered about her many of those who are in her 
secret. It is they who here interfere to rescue her from an embarrassing 
and dangerous situation. She has partiy missed her effect Those who 
are to be deceived have found her story more wonderful than con- 
vincing. They believe her to be the victim of a delusion {v. 489) and 
have shown a desire to press enquiries impossible to satisfy and perilous 
to elude. Her accomplices take up the cue and, to cover her escape, play 
the required part of plain citizens, who feel none of these doubts. They 
admire her wisdom and good feeling. They think her evidence certain. 
They will offer thanks to heaven accordingly. While they perform this 
impious mockery, driven like other liars farther than they meant, the 
queen retires, and the elders are left to act as they may. 

They act precisely as might be expected, so as, if possible, not to 
commit themselves in any event. To the victory which the others 
* can proclaim ', they refer in brief, vague, and carefully guarded terms 
{tn*, 379 — 381). Then glancing off into generalities they pursue the 
reflexions with which they are themselves pre-occupied, the miserable 
cause for which the war has been waged, the sufferings which it has 
caused, and the menacing discontents which are the result of those 

It then occurs to th^m {v. 481) that the news of the victory, 
unproved as it is, must be spreading; and in the vexation of this 
thought their disbelief breaks out openly, whereupon Csee v, 591) this 
new turn is reported within by their observant enemies. What they 
might have done next we do not discover, for at this moment the 
herald appears and the situation is completely changed. 

As to MS. authority on the distribution of these speeches, there is 
none. The ms. (following doubtless M itself) assigns vtK 363 — 366 to 
a certain ayycXos, first introduced in M as the speaker of vz*. 270 — 275. 
The modem editors have properly dismissed this personage to limbo. 
Everywhere in Aeschylus the distribution of speeches is a matter of 


discretion. The Mediceus frequently gives no more than a mark 
indicating without further specification that the speaker is changed. 
The £sict is that the company commonly assigned to the Agamemnon 
does not provide characters enough for this scene and others. The 
designation XO. for v. 363 is correct, though not complete. As it will 
be convenient to mark the different types of xopcvra^ I have marked 
the accomplices of Clytaemnestra (who here not only speak but sing, 
like the sub-chorus of young men in Euripides' Hippolytus) by the 
designation XO. p. 


W, 417 foil. iroXv 8* avtarevov 

t6^ iyvvTovT€% So/MOV irpo<f>rJTaLf 
id) (CO d<D/4.a ooDfUi Kai irpofioi, 
lia Xep(05 KOI oTt)3oi <t>Lkdvop€^' 
irdptcm (Tiyds ari/mo? a\oi8opo9, 
aSioTos a<f>€fjL€V(av iSciv. 

I am almost unwilling to vex these lines, exquisitely beautiful even 
in the doubt and obscurity which rest upon them, with any further 
attempt at exact interpretation. Whether it is worth while to do so 
must depend on the view we take as to the nature of the responsion in 
metre between strophe and antistrophe used by Aeschylus. If the last 
two verses originally corresponded syllable by syllable to vv. 438 — 9, 

TO Trdv 8* d<t> *EXXa^5 atas crwop/xcvois 
ir€v$€Ui rXTjaiKapSu}^ ktX. 

the accidental injury must be greater than we can hope to repair. 
By writing 'ElXXavos (Bamberger) in v. 438 and criyas drtfxovf: dkoi^povs 
(Hermann) in v. 421 we may make these verses correspond with 
changes singly slight but not really probable. If a copyist having 
before him the simple words o-iyas drlfiov^ aXoiSopov? could convert 
them from mere inattention to something so much less obvious as 
o-iyas drifjLo^ dkoiSopo^ he may have done anything, and further 
consideration is useless. The case of zk 422 is still harder: aTrto-ros 
c/i<^F(tfv IScii^ (Margoliouth), nof believing what is before his eyes, though 
not perhaps beyond suspicion in point of grammar, is a very striking 
suggestion and the best made: but there is nothing in it to provoke 
mistake, and if the scribe could change it into aStcrro^ ac^c/xcVcui/ lhu.v^ 
it must again be said that he has escaped beyond pursuit. 

But since I hold, for reasons explained in the Appendix to my 


edition of the Septem and in Appendix II to this, that as fiu- as the 
metre is concerned both strophe and antistrophe oiay be light as thej 
stand, and as I see no reason to doubt the sense of the antistrophe, 
I think it worth while to consider further the sense of this. 

The first question is, Who are the speakers, the hoyjta¥ rpo^ajru} 
Opinion was divided between Hhe seers of Menelaus' house' and 'the 
seers of Priam's house', till it was pointed out independently by 
Bamberger, H. L. Ahrens, and Housman that x/K>^ifn^ does not mean 
a seer at all, but always one who interprets or speaks on dekeiif of some 
one either stated or implied in the context S and that rpoi^^rai hifjm 
must mean 'those who interpreted the house' or something of this kind. 
The * interpreters of the house ' then, it is said, will be those who at 
the time of the flight of Helen represented the scene in the hoase 
of Menelaus to the elders, who would not otherwise know of it, 
* purveyors of gossip about the royal family' (Housman). It is however 
diflicult to believe that a word closely associated with supernatural 
powers would be applied, without explanation, to such a function as 
this, even if we assume that the elders would have required *a 
revealer ' or * interpreter *, being themselves, it would seem, as likely as 
any one to have had the king's confidence. I must hold therefore that 
the meaning of hoyMxv vpoifnjrai is still to seek. 

In truth this appears to be one of those passages, which from the loss 
of knowledge, familiar at the time of writing, about the terms used and 
the story told cannot, except by guess-work, be explained at all. From 
the way in which So/nwv irpo^rirr^^ is here used I think it clear that it had 
some fixed conventional significance, connected, as the general use of 
the word would indicate, with divination. For instance, a person, who 
professed to report or communicate to one absent from home what 
was said in the house which he had quitted, might not unnaturally be 
called 8o/ia)v 7rpo<^i7n7s, being an intermediary between the enquirer and 
his house, as the irpw^^i^rrfi B^ov between the enquirer and the god. 
If we may further suggest that such services were often used by 
women, when they quitted one hoiJLo^ for another upon marriage, we 
should account for the mention of the irpw^^ax here; for the bitter 
comparison of the rape to a marriage is pursued in this play repeatedly 
and in this very passage {v. 415). The 'home-interpreters' ^ill then be 
the seers who at Troy revealed to Helen and Paris what was passing at 
Argos, sigliing, in spite of their intention to mock, at the suffering 
which they could see. The elders put into their mouths what they 

* Tkeb. 596 is no exception to this. genitive dtCw* 
The context sufficiently suggests the 


know to have been the facts. The picture (whether this be the true 
account of it or no) was probably based upon some scene existing in 
literature, by reference to which it could easily be understood and 

Now as to iw. 421 — 422. One thing I consider certain, that 
oSurros o^cficycov l^civ, by whomsoever written, was not written accident- 
ally but deliberately. The nominative to irapcort is of course anyp, the 
kushand^ supplied from ^iXavopcs. *A<l>Ua-6at yvvalKa (see L. and Sc 
1. V.) is * fo put away a wife ', and o\. d<l>€fjL€vot therefore in this context 
means Menelaus and his friends, by whom Helen, in the language of 
the robbers* irony, has been dismissed or divorced. Take this with the 
use of iJSmttos in Soph. Ai, 105 iJSmttos, (S Sccnroiva, 8€<Tfj.iijmjs co-w daKcI, 
jffie sitSf my most delightful prisoner , within^ and we see that irdptfrriv 
SBumts a4>€fi€y(Dv I8€lv is an appropriate and idiomatic description of 
Menelaus, as the Trojans might describe him in mockery of his rage 
and grief. Precisely as in the Aias, lyStoros describes the object of a 
malicious joy. Such words were never thrown casually together by a 
blundering pen. They were written either by the poet or by some 
singularly learned and cunning editor making poetry for Aeschylus 
after a conception of his own. I believe they were written by the poet. 
They represent the feelings which the trpo^ijTat. ^fjuavf speaking to the 
taste of their Trojan auditors, desired to express, sharply contrasted 
with the pathos, which they felt in their own despite. The words 
(Tiya^ arifios oXotSopos (literally * unregarded, unscolded on the part of 
the silence' i.e. *with none to answer his contemned invectives') are 
conceived in the same spirit': and the ambiguity of ta>, expressing 
either triumph or grief, is also adapted to the purpose. 

I should translate the whole then somewhat thus : And oft they 
sighed^ the interpreters of the home, as they said: ^Ah, for the home I 
Aha, for the home! Aha! and ah! for the princes thereof! for the 
husband's bed yet printed with her embrace / There he stands^ his curses 
mocked with silence, the parted spouse, the sweetest sigJit of them ail ! ' 

If we were bound to change either this or the antistrophe, 1 would 
say, let it be the antistrophe. 

^ The common rendering of iLkakho^ with the use of Xocdo/^^a, \oi^opCiv, 
[unreprocuhful) is scarcely in accordance 



V, 438. TTCV^CiO. 

I have said in the note that I endorse unreservedly the old 
objection, formulated most recently by Mr Housman, against the 
transbtion of w€vO€ta by mourning, as if it were a possible equivalent 
for w€vOo^ But from this to the conclusion that the reading is corrupt 
is too long a step. 

If TTcv^cia is a word (and we are not entitled to assume that it was 
not, merely because we do not easily recognize its origin and meaning), 
it must signify, as rXTo-ixapStos shows, a person, and, as the termination 
shows, must be a feminine of the type of jSoo-tXcio, I^cia etc There is 
no reason why it should not be this, and from the context and other 
evidence we can fairly infer its meaning. We have a suitable stem in 
that of 7r€vO-€p6^y connected according to the etymologists with the 
English dintfy and signifying at all events the idea of connexion or relation' 
ship. The termination -cvs (feminine -cia) is also proper to a word 
of this class, as in ayxurrw {a kinsman), yovcvs, etc. llius formed, 
irivBiLa (with a presumable ancient masculine v€v6€vs) would mean 
kinsivoman, strictly perhaps * connexion by affinity\ but likely to be 
so used as to include cither kinship or connexion generally. Now this 
is the very thing which the context requires. It is the women left 
behind, the mothers, wives, sisters, daughters of the absent men, who are 
most naturally taken as types of the anxiety at home ; nor is there of 
course any difficulty in the common usage of the person for the class, 
*the kinswoman' for * the kinswomen*. And to this ircy^cia the genitive 
hoyMiv * kinswoman of the house' attaches itself quite naturally. It 
would be strange, I think, if accidental error had produced so 
plausible an appearance of sense, and I would therefore retain the text, 
translating, * heavy in each house must be the hearts of the women-folk*. 
Another trace of this archaic group of words may be found in n crocus. 
Proper names in Greek (e,g, Medon ruler, Mnestor wooer etc) 
are often words gone out of common use. It is not to be supposed 
that the name of Pmtheus was given with consciousness of the evil 
significance found in it by fate (cvSucrryx^o-cu roivofu eirin^ios cT) : this 
intention would take all the point out of the coincidence. The name 
of * kinsman' is a happier and a more likely name to attach to an 
infant ; and Euripides has perhaps preserved a glimpse of the primitive 

sense in KdSfio^...TVpavvC8a H€v6€i8CSuxTi, Ovyarpo^ €Kir€ffiVK6Ti{Bacch, 44). 


For proposed conections see Wecklein. None are satisfactory, nor 
if ir€v$€ta be given up can the text possibly be reduced to sense without 
being re-written. 


W. 498 foil. KiipvK av dicnj^ tovS* opta KaraaKiov 

KXaSoi9 ^Xaia9 ' fJLafyrvp€L Sc fioi Kaais 
mjXov ivvovpo^ Biij/Ca #covi9 toSc, 
(09 ovT ovavSos ovrc 0*01 Saicuv ff>\6ya 
vkrji op€ta9 <TyjfjLav€i Kaw^ irvpo^, 
clAA' ^ TO ^aip€LV fiaXkov €#c)3(i^ci Xcycov' k.t.X. 

On the diflSculty of this passage and the impossibility of accepting 
the current interpretations I have spoken above. The only remedy 
proposed by way of correction (see Wecklein) is to read in v, 501 os 
(Stanley) or o 8* (Keck) for m. It is easy to see why this has not been 
found satisfactory. It makes sense of the second clause, *who (or *he') 
will give us the news better than by beacons ', but only to raise another 
question — What then is rdSc in v, 500? What does the dust testify? 
But a wholly new suggestion has lately been made by Mr Housman 
(Journal of Philology xvi. 264), which deserves to be stated in full : 

The coryphaeus catching sight of the herald sees also in the distance a cloud of dust 
which he supposes to be raised by the returning army; and the return of the army 
means something decisive, either victory or defeat. The crew of Agamemnon's ship, if 
Aeschylus followed Homer, would be 1 20 men ; and these together with an ofia^riprjs 
Bpowos for Agamemnon and Cassandra, would raise in clear dry southern air a cloud of 
dust to be seen a great way off. No doubt to us the allusion seems obscurely worded ; 
but I fancy the Attic audience recognized an old friend. Of the plays of Aeschylus 
only a tithe has come down to us, but in that tithe we Bnd Sup/. 186 dpCo koviv^ dvavSov 
fCyyeXor ot/mitoD, and S^/l. 79 /AtOeirai arparbs OTfMToxcSoy \ixwv | ...oUdepla kovis fxe 
vtl0€i ^Miftiff I d^avdos cra^trfs irvfios oyyeXos. It may be guessed that by the time the 
poet wrote this play — three years before his death— he had so familiarised his hearers 
with the conception of kopis as an dyt^^o^ arparoO that he could dispense with an 
explicit reminder. The addition Kauris ttiXoO ^vpovpos is mere ornament, like the 
ai6\v ri^* «<^^^ oiSept. 481. 

Now it will, I think, be admitted that this explanation, in referring 
the 'dust* to the approach of the king and his company, offers at any 
rate a conception intelligible and natural, if only we can fairly find it in 
the words. The difficulties which Mr Housman leaves arc those which 
he has himself perceived. First, although it is probable enough that 
the notion of 'dust' as 'announcing' the approach of a large body was 


familiar to the audience of Aeschylus*, we still feel the want here 
of some indication that the dust is actually seen in the distant 
landscape. Secondly, we are still without any light upon KxUrvi vfXaS 
(yvovpot Suj/ia, Mr Housman justifies this as mere ornament by the 
traditional reference to 5^/. 481. But the parallel will not bear a 
moment's examination. To describe the red smoke which proceeds 
from the mouth of a fire- breathing monster as 'smoke akin to fire' 
is ornament indeed, and appropriate ornament But is it equally 
appropriate, is it ornamental at all, to describe the dust-cloud raised by 
men marching as thirsty dust^ sister and neighlwur to mirel Tlurstfy 
though not very suitable to dust in the air, might pass as a mere 
epithet of dryness, but sister and neighbour to mire gives surely just the 
suggestions which are not appropriate. Here then are the points to 
which, following Mr Housman' s lead, we should direct our attention. 

Considering so, it will occiu* to us that the obscurest point of all, so 
far, is the word ^vvovpos. I have used above the common rendering 
* neighbour*. But i;\)voiipo% really means conterminous, bordering upon^ 
marching with, and is applied always to contiguous territories or other 
figures of space. Now if we should grant that dust, as such, whether 
on clothes or in the air or wheresoever, might be called akin to mire, 
as being a thing of the same class (?), yet why should these kinsmen 
have contiguous territories? The idea of *dust contiguous to mud' 
is simple enough ; the dust of a road, for example, is ' contiguous ' to 
the mud of the ditch : but dust in the air is not contiguous to mud, 
nor is dust in general. In short, to have a satisfactory sense, the de- 
scription TTT/Xoi) ivvovpos Kovic must bc not metaphorical at all, but locaL 

Now the speakers are looking out towards the sea over Argolis, a 
land so notorious for its dryness as to have been named from Homeric 
times The Thirsty (irokvhi\lfiov "Apyos, cf. "Apyovs 8i^ia \Owy Eur. Ale. 
563). The streams are scanty and in the summer fail entirely, so that 
the Argives had a legend that Poseidon, defeated in a contest with 
Athena for the possession of the land, avenged himself by cutting oflf 
the water (Pausanias 2. 15. 5). For this reason in the Supplices (784) 
the swarthy fugitives from Egypt, who have found refuge in Argolis, 
seeing that their pursuers are near, and calling upon the land to hide 
them, wish that they might themselves be turned into dust and mix 
indistinguishably with the black clouds which are sweeping over the 
downs. In reference therefore to the plain of Argos the description 
Zv^la. icoVis is not merely appropriate, but almost sufficient of itself in 

* Some confirmatory evidence as to ScpUm^ Appendix II. 
this will be found in my edition of the 


the circumstances to suggest the local use. But this dust is 'sister 
to the mire, contiguous to him*. Why so? Here is the more 
exact description of the plain of Argos : * The eastern side is much 
higher than the western; and the former suffers as much from a 
deficiency as the latter does from a superabundance of water. A 
recent traveller (Mure) says that the streams in the eastern part of the 
plain are all drunk up by the thirsty soil, on quitting their rocky beds 
for the deep arable land. ...The western part of the plain, on the 
contrary, is watered by a large number of streams, and at the south 
western extremity near the sea there is besides a large number of 
copious springs, which make this part of the country a marsh or morass 
(the marsh of Lema)...In the time of Aristotle this part of the plain 
was well-drained and fertile, but at the present day it is again covered 
with marshes.' (Mure, abridged in Smith's Dictionary of Geography i. 
p. 200.) A glance at the map will show the situation ; and see also 
the account in Pausanias (11. 36. 6 — 7) of the journey from Argos to 
Lema. Now the mud or ooze of watery land, of the Egyptian Delta 
for instance, is called among other things TnyXos (see L. and Sc. s, r.). 
From these facts and the evidence of the context here it is a reasonable 
conclusion that the brother and sister whose lands lie side by side, the 
Dust and the Mire, is simply an ancient and traditional description of 
Argolisy parched in its eastern part, drenched in its western. The 
speakers are looking from Argos eastwards towards the sea, across the 
waterless region; and it is therefore the Sister, the Dust, which tells them 
that a large body of ,men is approaching from the port. Even if the 
conception of dust announcing an army was not, as it is likely to have 
been, an Aeschylean commonplace, the local description is quite 
sufficient to show what is meant, especially interpreted, as on the stage, 
by the gestures of the actors. On seeing the herald they naturally look 
out over the country to see what comes behind. The sight of the dust 
assures them that he is followed by a crowd, and that his news therefore 
must be important and is probably decisive. As we have seen in the 
Introduction, the party with the king would be very large, consisting 
not only of his own soldiers and companions, but of those who had 
gone to meet him and bring him as rapidly as possible to the fortress. 
This indication that they are now in sight is extremely important to the 
plot. The critical situation created by the arrival of the herald could 
not possibly have been maintained for any great length of time. 

As is said in the notes, the reference to the * olive boughs ' is itself 
a touch of local colour and thus leads up naturally i > the local 
description which follows it, 



"'- 578—584- 

To« XoixowTU- 'hpytuoif a-rpoTov 

viK^ TO KtpSof, injiia S ovK uirriftpiKti. 

u; KOfiiratrat t^K (iicot 17X101/ <^ti 

uirip fuXamnj! xai ^oyov iraTiiifUvoit, 

Tfioir/v iXovTt^ SvJitot Apyci'tui- o-toXoi 

^(oiS Xiiifnipa ravra roU xaff 'EXXa'Sa 

So/ioti JiriuriniAimcrav o^olbv yamtit. 
The difficulty in fn: 580—581 is well known, and perhaps cannot be 
solved wi I h certainty on ihe present niaierials. The points to obsem 
are these: (1) The kd/iww or Kiifiiraa-fia is to be made ihroiighoul 
future time, as is shown by the expressions Siproi-c and afix'^"»', whidi 
would only become aj)plicah]e long after. To stich a case as this the 
use of an anlicipatorj' (proleptlc) predicate does not fairly extend, as 
the Xa<ftvpa did not become an a/ixaiov yai-os by being nailed to the 
temples. It is natural that in making the most of the triumph the man 
should speak of eternal, not of immediate, fame. This indicates thai i* 
is the sun, and not any human person, who is the agent and herald ot 
the Kofiiraa/ui, as the grammar itself would also prove: for {1) T^*^ 
order of the words in v. 580 favours decidedly the close connexion *^ 
T^(...iJA('ou tftati with (i'ko's inserted in the middle of them. Anolh^^^ 
construction is however grammatically possible; we may take t»^^' 
^(1 either as temporal or as the object of no/uniVai {iomt to ihe sur^ 
doubtful Greek but conceivable), and supply from v. 578 ij^v as ih-* 
subject of it depending on einos. So it appears to be taken by all wh - . 

retain the text, t.g. Paley "The sense is 'the .Argives, as ihey joyfutl • ^\ 
speed on their way, may boast of having fixed up Trojan arms' etc.". 

But those who reject this (Weil, Wecklein and others, proposinj * *''. 
corrections) are in my opinion certainly right ; for (1) the usu^^ -*7 
construction after cIkd's &m is the accusative and infinitive (not th *^ 
dative), and in the accusative ("jfi^O the pronoun, if the subject c^ 
BOfiTrafftti, would naturally be thought: totiu^o-ou! therefore (Stanley^!;^' 
not jroTiufjt'i'ois would have been written, especially as the accusativ^^'* 
would have been free from ambiguity ; and (ii) to speak of an army c:^ 
of messengers as 'flying over land and sea ', in the sense of ' moving"*' '"^ 
rapidly ', is not according to the habit of Greek metaphor. At least ^^^^ ' 
can find nothing like it. 

Of the suggestions made on the assumption that the text 


unsound, the most probable is that of Merkel, that after v. 580 a verse 
is lost by which itotcd/acfois was explained. Against all the mere 
corrections (such as vortufUvif Heath, TaSc-irorw/xcva Weil) there is this 
general objection that they do not account for the reading we find. If 
the text is not sound, though I believe it is, we had better suppose a 


^'' ^55* (vvtafioaav yop ovtcs ll)(OiaToi to wplv 

vvp Koi OdXacca^ ocat rd irlar cScifanyv 
ff}0€ipovT€ Tov Svarrivov 'Apycwov (Trparov. 

As to the primary meaning of these lines there is no difficulty. 
The only question to be raised is whether we are to look beyond this. 
It will be recognized as suitable to the genius of Greek tragedy that 
one who is unconsciously in imminent danger should unconsciously use 
expressions exactly signifying his danger to the audience better in- 
formed. I believe Aeschylus has here sought that effect. * A conspiracy', 
says the man, * was made between utter foes, vvp and ddKaoraa, and 
for pledge of their league they destroyed the hapless army of Argos '. 
Now the speaker himself and the remnant that are returned are about 
to be ensnared, and some if not all of them to be slain, by 'a conspiracy* 
between two that had been utter foes', Clytaemnestra, that is, and 
Aegisthus, the hereditary enemy of Agamemnon's house. If then the 
parts of these two conspirators are properly symbolized by wvp and 
OdXaa-aa, the coincidence is such as I at least cannot believe to be 

As to the vvp it is, I hope, unnecessary to say more. More than 
half of this play is occupied with the part which, under the direction of 
Aegisthus, * the fire ' contributes to the plot by which Agamemnon fell. 
It remains then to ask whether OdXaa-aa is in like manner a symbol of 
the part contributed by Clytaemnestra. 

Now if we read the strange and thrilling speech which the queen 
pronounces while her husband passes along the purple-strown pathway 
to his death (v. 949) 

€cmv OdXaaaa — T19 8c viv KaTacr^cVci ; — 
rpc^ovora ttoAXiJs 'irop<f>vpas Wdpyvpov 
KT^KiSa irayKaiVUTTOVy ci/tarcoi/ ^a^d^.., 

* Cf. Cho, 976 ^wdtyuocav fji^v dayarov foregoing history which wc have now no 
d^X^ varpL koI ^wBavtlaBai * koX t6£' means of tracing fully. 
ci;6pK(tfs ^ei, an allusion to details in the 


and compare it with her description of the bloody bath-robe folded 
about his corpse {v, 1382) 

irXovrov ctfu&ro? icojcor, 

and again with the description of the same as it is produced long ate 
by Orestes (Cho, 1008) 

ifiapa^ ro8^ (09 IpoAlftv AlyifrOov (vf^o^ 
ft>6vov S^ ici;ici9 $vv xpovif (vfifiaXXerai 
iroWa^ PafJM^ if>$€ipov(ra rov irouctX/uuiroS} 

and again with the narrative of Orestes in the Eumenides (464) 

irouciXo(9 dyptvfjuaxn 
Kpwl/a(Ty d XovTpiiiV €$€pjapTvp€i ifiavoVy 

we shall feel that the * sea full of welling crimson ', of which in the lines 
first quoted the murderess is really thinking, is the bloody bath, in 
which the colours of the fatal robe would be blotted out in one tint 
more precious than them all. Is there then reason to believe that the 
term OdXaaaa was so applied to a bath as to make the phrase v^ 
KQi ddXaaaa in the passage before us intelligible as an allusion to it? 
I think there is. There is evidence that for a lustral bath of ceremony, 
such as was that which Agamemnon took*, the term BaXtunra. was 
technical. This supposition will explain a passage of well-known 
difficulty in Aristophanes, where the rites are described which are 
practised in curing the blind Plutus at the temple of Asclepios (/VW. 


•KpOrov fi€v avTov itrl OdXarrav i^yo/xcv, 

There is nothing in the circumstances there described to make it likely 
that the real sea was accessible, and the abrupt appearance of this 
^aXttTTtt in the description has naturally caused perplexity. But the 
difficulty disappears if the water of purification as such was called 
OdXaaa-a. And this is probable enough in itself. That mysterious 
qualities of purification were attributed to sea-water is shown by the 

OdXaaa-a k\v^€i wdvra rdvOpiOTruiv icaica (Eur. TjfiA, T. I191). 

Where the sea was accessible it was for lustral purposes preferred 
(Soph. Ai\ 654), and for the purpose of lustration salt water was 

* Euw. 636 dpolry Tcpwfn-i \ovTpa: fact the bath which one coming from a 
here and elsewhere the ritual term \oirrpd journey and from war would properly 
is applied to it repeatedly. It was in take as preliminary to sacrifice. 


artificially made (Theocr. 24. 96). From this belief to a ritual use of 
the term for the water of ceremonial lustration, whether actually drawn 
from the sea or not, is a natural process of language ; and that this step 
actually taken is indicated by the gloss of Hesychius^aXaao-w^cts* 


Putting these facts together I cannot avoid the conclusion that this 
'conspiracy of fire and water, utter enemies before' is a phrase intention- 
ally ominous. It is manifest what an excellent opportunity for dramatic 
eflfect is given, when the man is made to speak accidentally in a 
manner so apt to startle the guilty consciences of those about him who 
are apprised of the deadly secret and at this moment are in the extreme 
agony of suspense. 


V, 817* ofi^i nXeia3<uv Svaiv. 

" About midnight^ at which time the lion goes to his prey and Troy 
was taken. The poet naturally marks the hour according to the time 
of the representation of the play; for in the second half of March, 
when the Great Dionysia were celebrated, the setting of the Pleiads 
occurs for observers in Greece between ten and eleven at night (Keck, 
Neue Jahrb. 1862, p. 518)." Wecklein. 

I think that I ought to mention this new interpretation of these 
words, because the traditional interpretation, which I accept, is in my 
view of the play not unimportant to the plot. But I cannot say that I 
hold the alternative possible. The passages cited by previous com- 
mentators (see the note) prove, I think, that the sdtin^ of tJu Pleiads 
had a fixed conventional significance, established long before the time 
of Aeschylus and still familiar; it marked the season of the winter 
storms and the end of the season for sailing. But apart from this, I do 
not see how, without explicit specification of the time of year, the setting 
of a constellation could possibly be used as the mark of a particular hour 
of the day. Surely the audience could not be expected to bethink 
themselves, or indeed to know, at what hour the Pleiads set at the time 
of the Great Dionysia ; and even if they could, would it not be a strange 
device, destructive of all dramatic illusion, to make a character on the 
stage, suddenly and without any indication of the pur[)Ose, use language 

' My attention was directed to this term ^dXcuroxi was used also for certain 
gloss by Mr H. B. Smith, who also religious vessels; see e.g. Sophocles 
observes that in later Greek at least the Lexicon s.v. daXaaffldiw. 

V. M. A. 14 


not intelligible at all except under the particular circumstances of die 
representation ? What, we may ask, did the poet intend the actor to do^ 
if the play should be repeated at some other time of the year? 

Nor do I see why Agamemnon should recall the faxX that Troyms 
taken at midnight He had only too good reason for remembering at 
this moment that it was taken just before the season of storms. The 
details of the capture of Troy have no connexion with this play and are 
never mentioned in it. It is possible indeed to detect in this passage 
an allusion to the ' wooden horse ', but it is doubtful and at any rate 
not essential 


77'. 887 — 894. Xeyoi/i* OF av8pa tovSc tc3v crra^fuuv miva, . . . 

o8oi7rop<p Sn/rwvTi iriTyoibv pco9, — 
TcpTTvov Sc Tavayfcoiov ^ic^vyctv arav* 
rocourSc roivw d(iw vpofr^rfiuurw. 

If this passage has been rightly explained above, much of the 
difficulty of it has been made, as will be seen, by the specious emendation 
of Schiitz, Toi viv for rolvw in v, 894. As I understand the words, 
Toivw is indispensable. The majority of recent texts have rot rtr, 
with full stops at pcos and at iwav, Weil however and others are justly 
dissatisfied, and for myself I scarcely think Mr Housman too trenchant 
when he says of this reading and punctuation "That Aeschylus did 
not put V. 893 where it now stands, severing ik 894 from the rpwnffief- 
fiara to which it refers, is evident to every one who understands, I do 
not say the art of poetry, but I say the art of writing respectable verse" 
{Journal of Philology^ xvi. p. 269). Nor is the matter much mended 
if we move v, 893 to some other place. If the catalogue is supposed 
to be properly ended at wT^yatov pcos, there is no excuse at aU for the 
addition of roiowrSc toi vw etfiw irpoaxftOeyfiaa-iv as a separate remark. 
The fact is that V7'. 893 — 894 are feeble, irremediably feeble, both in 
themselves and in contrast to the noble lines which precede them ; and 
if we are really to explain the passage, we must accept this bathos for pari 
of what ive have to explain^ which in the note I have endeavoured to do. 
What the ms. gives us is certainly not successful eloquence ; but was it 
meant to be ? 

To omit the two verses (one is not enough) is a simple method, but 
purely arbitrary. Mr Housman boldly carries off w, 890 — 893 (inter- 
changed and slightly altered) to the end of the speech, and places them 


tcr V. 902. What he thus produces is certainly sense, though v. 893 is 
ill troublesome: but how then the verses came where they are we 
liould be troubled to say. 

V. 922 — 933. 

It has been noticed in the Introduction that this altercation between 
Kgamemnon and Clytaemnestra may have different effects according to 
he manner in which we suppose it to be delivered and acted. Does 
;he king willingly change his purpose? The general opinion, which 
in such a matter has much weight, seems to be that he does, that he is 
pleased by the pomp which he pretends to dislike, and gladly submits 
to the pretended compulsion. 

Undoubtedly the words admit this and the scene might be so acted. 
But it should be pointed out that neither the words nor the circumstances 
require it. Whatever the king's wishes, he could not, if the queen were 
resolved, escape the scene she had prepared without a scandalous and 
ridiculous disturbance which the matter in itself was not worth. Mr 
Sidgwick (Introduction, p. xvii.) speaks of *the almost pathetic futility 
of his pious caution in taking off his shoes, when at last he agrees to 
tread the purple.' The futility at any rate is apparent ; and I confess that 
to me the act seems to be that of a man who dislikes what he is doing but 
cannot help himself. Clytaemnestra's object in the whole demonstration 
is to exhibit the king to the gazers in an unpopular light, to make it 
appear that he has come back from Asia with his soldiers to assume (like 
some Pausanias) the state and manners of an Asiatic tyrant. The king 
takes off his shoes by way of a counter-demonstration. But, as he 
remarks with vexation, he is still at a disadvantage {v, 937). Every 
one could see that his servants were prostrating themselves and spread- 
ing the pavement with carpets, while those at a distance could not 
appreciate or perceive his reluctance. 

Our reading of the scene will depend on the view we take of the 
king's state of mind in relation to his wife. The impression which his 
language makes upon me is that he hates her, or rather is prepared to 
hate her, as cordially as she hates him, that he suspects her to be the 
chief thing onp Set ^op/iOKcov TraimvUav^ and that if he had lived another 
day, she and her abettors would have assisted at a memorable demon- 
stration of his 'kindly surgery '. If he does not fear her (and he has one 

14 — 2 


77'. 966 — 969. TiVrc fioi T08' ifiTriStoi 

Sciy/ia vpoaranipiov 
Kophia^ rcpoaicoirov Trorarou, 
/laKriiroXei S* k.t.X. 

The question of the probability of the ms. reading Sciy/uia depends 
upon our conception of the metaphor by which this passage holds 
together. The boding heart is a Tcpao-Koiros, t\e, a fiavrw, a professional 
interpreter of signs, prodigies etc. What is the relation to this figure of 
the words Scty/ia wpocTaTijpLov Trorarai ? 

To answer this we must start from irpoaranjpto^f a word of well- 
marked associations. It signifies standing before or set before a door or 
gate, and applies usually to images of the gods there placed. That it 
should be used without any reference to this its proper meaning is 
unlikely, especially here, where the whole scene, with the Trpoarar^pioi 
OioL around, is ready to suggest the usual connexion of ideas. Secondly, 
we observe that the speakers have not a definite anticipation but only 
a vague surmise of something wrong ; or, to put the same thing in terms 
of the metaphor, the heart is not actually prophesying but only offering 
as it were to prophesy. Tlius, to satisfy the context, MyfAa vpoarur^cv 


moment almost of fear, v. 915), that is because he is necessarily ignonnt 
of all that makes her formidable. 

There is another point in this scene which is well worth notice, as 
illustrating the supposed relations between Agamemnon and Qytacm- 
nestra. If the king has the slightest regard for his wife or attributes to 
her any affection for him, why does he insult her by his behaviour to 
Cassandra? Is there any evidence that an Athenian audience would 
have thought it decent in a returning husband to bring a hf^pUnqm 
Xexo9 along with him in state to the door of his own house and give to 
the mistress of it a public order to receive her kindly? Contrast the 
behaviour which Sophocles attributes in like circumstances to tbe 
Heracles of the Trachiniae (225 foil.), the indignation of the spectatois 
when his purpose is discovered, and the bitter feelings of Deianin 
herself. The language of the king respecting Cassandra and the manner 
in which he puts her forward has, to my mind, only one possible 
meaning ; and if anything is required to perfect the outrage, it is the 
canting phrase with which it is accompanied. There is at any rate no 
doubt that this is the view of Clytaemnestra (see v, 1438 foil.). 


npocTKoirov should be something set before the door of a fxavri^ to 
mdvcrtise him as siuh : and this something, it would seem, Trorarat, />. 
: kevers ox flutters. 

Now it is a coincidence curious, if accidental, that in another place 
) we find again this same rare word Sciy/ia associated with similar expres- 
[ sions. In the Acharnians (989) Dicaeopolis has retired into his house 
\ to prepare a feast of the birds which he has bought from the Boeotian ; 
[ and the chorus outside perceive traces of the preparations in the feathers 
\ which are flung out before the door. This they describe in the odd 

[ phrase rot) jStbv 8' c^cjSoXc Sciy/ia raSc ra irrcpa Trpo r^v dvpwv. Clearly 
here the words rov piov Sciy/Lia, as an advertisement of his ivay of 
livings are not such as would first occur, but are chosen for the sake of 
some familiar association. The two passages look as if they should 
have a common explanation and strongly suggest, I think, that the 
professional /xavris used a Sciyfia or sign before his door, and that this 
sign was 2l feather 01 feathers (Trrcpa), a rebus explaining itself at once by 
the fact that irrcpoV means an omen, (Aristophanes perhaps borrowed 
from this custom the notion of a dealer in irrcpa {wings) which is used in 
the Birds \ see IK 1330 <n) Si ra irrepd wp&rov Stance tciSc Kocfxtf rd tc 
fjunxrix ofiov rd re fiavriKa xal ra ^oXarrta #c.r.X.). If this were SO, 
the meaning of Aeschylus would be simple, IVhy doth my hearty prophet- 
like^ still set in front this fluttering sign f 

At any rate here is reason for retaining Sciy/ia provisionally and on 
the chance of more certain information. The simile will appear 
specially effective and natural, if we remember the scene, the palace-front 
* fluttering' doubtless with gorgeous draperies, and the door through 
which the king has just passed, according to the image suggested in 
V. 963, like a victim going to the sacrifice. 


W. 995 — 1000. Kttt TO fi€y TTpo xprffidrtav 

a<fi€y^vai air €VfieTpoVf 
ovK HBv wpoiras 80/xos 
vafiovd^ yipuuiv ayav, 
ovS* lir6vri(T€ <TKdf\io^, 

As is said in the note, the essential difficulty of this passage turns on 
the words o-^i'Sdwx? air* cv/xcrpov. A * measured sling ' seems an idea 
inapplicable, both literally and metaphorically, to a ship and its cargo. 


Cargo may be flung away, but could not surely be slung away. 
S^cvSon;, as the Lexicon will show, has many meaniogSy and ttis 
passage demands one more. Of course in such cases we cannot get 
beyond a guess. The main idea of the word, as of the English s^, 
seems to be not throwing but suspension. Thus *a sling ioi theann', 
' a suspending bandage ', and the ' bezel ', which contains the jewel of a 
ring, are called o-^cvSon;. It is possible that some kind of instrument 
for suspending and weighing heavy goods was called a sUf^'y and 
cvficrpos points to something like this. In that case oxyos PaXm would 
be not the terror which flings away a cargo in a storm, but the prudent 
apprehension which re/ecfs and refuses to embark part of a load 
found to be too heavy for the boat, though it would always be nxnre 
profitable to take more. This would not be open to the just objection 
of Mr Housman against the common view, that Skvo^ means prop^ly 
not terror but shrinking, hesitating : okvo% would not suggest but prevent 
such prompt action as throwing away cargo in a storm. And we have 
then also a better explanation of avo, discharging from the scale. This 
would give the sense adopted in the translation. 

Mr Housman (see the article cited) would correct these lines, and 
indeed the whole passage, freely. In any case, until the meaning of 
(T^cv^vi; in connexion with cargo can be positively ascertained, the 
whole must remain uncertain and would scarcely repay further discussioa 


V, 1076. avTO^va KOKO. Kopra' vax, 

dyhpofrffiaytiov kt\, 
V, 1 08 1. fcAacd^ei^ ra fip€<lnj a^yas 

oirrds T€ cdpKas ictX. 

M 1076 KaprrwaXf 1 08 1 rdde. 

In spite of the scholium ai^Tt rov dyxpyrf, which with naive in- 
difference to sense and construction assumes that Kofnavai stands for 
Ktti apTttv^, they are right who hold that the word dprdvii did not 
here occur. Hanging was to the Greek mind a type of suicide, and 
with neither hanging nor suicide have we anything to do. Most 
of the bolder suggestions, e,g, KopdrofAa (Kayser), proceed on the 
assumption that the metre of v, 1076 should be corrected to that of 
V, 1 08 1. But I think the error, a very small one, is in v, 1081. 

In V. 1076 Cassandra, as the elders observe, is * tracking the scent' 


of the Thyestean crime, coming nearer to it with each word : Nay^ it is 
mn accursed hause^ full of guilty secrets, yea, of murders unnatural^ aye 
verify^ a place where human victims bleed, where babes besprinkle the 
eMar, The asseverations ovk, ko^o, and vol mark the growing 
deamess and certainty, till it rises {v, 1080) to actual vision. The word 
KOftiMj here qualifying avro^va, is a favourite with the poet. 

In r. 1 08 1 on the other hand we have only to adopt for toSc the 
aichaic demonstrative to, in which reading, strangely enough, the later 
ifSS. (Florentinusj Venetus, Farnesianus) all agree. It would almost 
teem as if they must in this place have been guided by some note or 
tradition, independent of M, which has now disappeared. At any rate 
it is likely enough that roSc, a correct explanation of to, should have 
come wrongly into the text of M, as roSc (a not very correct explana- 
tion) has for to in e^. 175. 


W. 1 1 67 — 1 17 1. Utf vpoTTVpyoi Ovaiai warpo^ 

TToXvKavcis fior^v vowvofitav' a#cos ^ ouScv i'irrjpK€aav 
TO fiTQ voXiv lijkv Zairtp cvv ^x^w Tra^ctv, 
iyta SI 0€pfi6vovs rd^ ifiiriSif fiaXu. 

The question presented by this last line does not perhaps admit 
complete answer. But I would call attention to one most important 
consideration overlooked. It is a common groundwork of all views 
that i/iir&tf at least is wrong. Now it is, I submit, on the contrary 
certain that ifiv&t^ is right. Let us consider what the context requires : 
iym Sk ktX. answers to iroXiv fikv «crX., the second part of a dependent 
antithesis being turned, as often in poetry {e.g. v. 1287), into an 
independent sentence ; ' Alas ! how many a victim from his rich herds 
did my father sacrifice on behalf of hb town ! Yet they availed not at 
all to save the city from receiving such fate as it hath, while T etc. In 
spite of Priam's offerings, he and his are utterly destroyed, all but 
Cassandra, and she will soon be added to the rest. Such is the 
connexion of thought. 

Now we must not suppose that by mere error the ms. could offer 
exactly what is wanted to round off the period effectively, that is 
to say, an antithesis bringing together Cassandra and Priam. That 
^cpfu^Fovs hot-brained, rash-witted is in itself an excellent word is not 
disputed, nor that it fitly applies to Cassandra, as she was regarded by 
her incredulous countrymen. But ^ttcSos (tok vovv) solid or sound (of 


judgment) is not only a good antithesis to 0€pfij6yfnj% dui is afipHei m 
Honur as a characteristic description to Priam j eg, IL 20. 183 viavtjt^ 
oi (nptofup) iroTSc^, o S* ^irc$os ovf aetrl^gwf (see L. and Sc i* v\ 
Aeschylus and his audience would not foiget this; and the contrast of 
the epithets here (^yw ^cp/iovovs, IftircS^ a^rfX when the prophecies of 
the ^sick-brained ' Cassandra have been realized in the ruin of her 'wise' 
father and all his kin, is a touch of irony not to be attained by copy* 
ing carelessly. Whoever wrote c/axc8^ meant to oppose it, as the 
Homeric epithet of Priam, to ^cpfu>vov9. Neither is it in the manner of 
ancient editors, so far as we know them. Indeed an editor capable of 
it must have known more about Aeschylus than any one knows now 
and have had much better material for his text. 

From this antithesis then we have to start, whether for interpretation 
or correction. Nor is there room for much variation of meaning : cy«i 
Sc Oepfiovov^ '''^X^ irpo9 c^ttcSov avrov ipp'^ata — something like this is 
what we should look for. But again, in the verb at least this is exactly 
what we have ; for that the intransitive /SoXXciv to /a//, to go was used 
for €pp€Lv is proved by the popular phrases PaXX cs /micapuiy, fioXX h 
KopaKa^ etc.: nor are we in a position to say that the popular use 
might not find a parallel in archaic poetry. 

The question then narrows itself to this, whether the case of c/iwc&ii 
could be constructed with fiaXw in the sense required, a question 
difficult to answer. An ordinary locative dative would offer no difficulty. 
In the older grammar of poetry pdXXtiv (in the sense of goif^ to) would 
naturally take that case, on the analogy of ttcSo^ irco-c, ovSci ip€ur0rif 
OaXda-a-rj cA^ai 'Axaiov? etc. (Kiihner Gr. Gramm. § 423. 4; Monro 
Homeric Grammar § 145. 4) and of the transitive pdXXw (Eur. Med, 
1285 etc.). The extant *locatival datives of persons* (Monro If, G, 
§ 145. 4) do not offer a parallel, and we should scarcely expect it. But 
there is, I think, good reason here for a construction not exactly proper 
to a personal object. The ruined city, the slaughtered Trojans, and the 
dead king, who is the type of the whole, are not here truly conceived 
as persons at all. They are, if we may mark the latent metaphor more 
precisely, the heap on which the survivor will soon be flung. In the 
circumstances I do not myself feel the locative case to be unnatural. If 
there is error, it is in /^oAo), but I do not suspect it. 

The elision of rdxa- is noticeable, being generally confined in 
Aeschylus to set phrases such as rax' a*', rdx cio-o/iai (see on v, 898;, but 
it is not a ground for objection. 



V. I2IO. XO. ir<u$ htfT ovoKTOs ^<r^a h^o^icn) Korif ; 
KA. hr€i$ov ovSiv ovSh^ cus raS* 17/i.TrAAKOv. 

All texts here adopt some conjectural reading, for the most part one 
^^ these two : 

wi3s S^T* dvaKTo^ ^6a Ao$iov kotov ; Wieseler : 
ir<o$ SiJT dyaros rf<rOa Ao^iov icortp ; Canter : 

■^^tli assuming the sense to be I/ow then could Apollo punish tliee f 

**X'Om the first, though avaicros is feeble and the use of i<rOa (didst tJiou 

-^^c^) very doubtful, the sense sought can perhaps be obtained. The 

^^c^ond, though largely supported, seems to me impossible. The words 

^^^Vild only mean Hou» didst thou escape the anger of Loxias ? to which 

*^^ answer does not correspond ; nor can the Elders, who know the 

^^^ry by rumour (7'. 1683) and are drawing it out by leading questions, 

^^>ssibly suppose that Cassandra did escape'. Moreover, as Blomfield 

^Jd, usage would require not kot<j» but kotov. 

But further there is error in the assumption, common to both 

Viggestions, as to the sense required. There is nothing in the foregoing 

^Xarrative to prompt the question Ifow then could Apollo punish thee ? 

-^he god might have taken vengeance in a hundred ways. From the 

Emphasis laid upon 17817 in w. 1208 and 1209 it is clear that the problem 

>vas this. Before Cassandra proved false, Apollo had already conferred 

The prophetic gift. Now it was the established rule that " the gods 

themselves cannot recall their gifts". How then, asks the enquirer, 

could he undo what had been done ? Cassandra answers that he did so, 

and shows how. He left the prophetic gift (which he might not take 

away) but yet effectually annulled it by causing her never to be believed. 

From this point of view we shall see that there is in v, 12 10 no 

error at all, or at most a mere editorial error of accentuation. "A^ktos 

is not the genitive of ai/a^ but the verbal adjective from aVayciv, 

represented in Latin by revocabilis^. That which is ovk di/afcrdv rtvi, alicui 

non revocabile^ is that which he cannot bring back or which, as we should 

Say, *has escaped beyond his reach \ Cassandra, having received 

the stipulated reward upon a mere promise and before performance, 

* Cho. 539 kqX wCjs drpuyrop kt\. differs * On the question of accentuation sec 

essentially both in the form of the question iwaxros or iwaKT6s, 
and io the form of the answer. 


might have seemed to be beyond the reach of Loxia^ wrath \ and the 
question asked is, how then the angry god could bring her back into 
his power. The use of the word was probably suggested by the legal 
associations of amyciK and avayoryi; as applied to the process for the 
recovery of what was paid by mistake or fraud. 

In w, 1205 — 1208 there is dispute as to the meaning of waXoomfs, 
vo/iA>, and 'jSfnffiar/fj upon which I shall only say that I believe the text 
to be sound. 


7fV. 122 J — 1229. ovK oIScv old ykwavu fiiairjr^ kvkos, 

Xc^oura KOKTiivaaa <fHU&pW€Vi hucqv 
arrj^ XadpaioVy rcvfcreu kojcq rv)(2^ 

These lines, according to the explanation which I take, by combina- 
tion, from Mr Macnaghten and Mr Bury (partly anticipated many years 
ago by Mr E. S. Thompson), are open to one objection, not, I think, 
serious. There is undoubtedly great boldness of. metaphor in saying 
that *a tongue... reaches forth a cast*. But we must observe that there is 
no mixture of metaphors, for there is only one metaphor : yXokrcra is not 
metaphorical at all ; neither is icwos properly speaking metaphorical ; it 
is simply an opprobrious term for the adulteress. Except in hcrtC^atra 
Sucqv (secondary sense) there is no metaphor, and to this metaphor 
rcv^crai is accurately adapted. It is also material that the words 
yXokrcra and Biicrp^ are far from each other, and the transition is neatly 
smoothed by the intermediate steps X^fcura and iKrtCvaau, The real 
subject being Clytaemnestra^ yXokro-a easily drops out of view. And 
besides, the allusive force of Imdvoxra and of Scki/v would go frir to 
palliate what otherwise might not please. When a writer wishes to 
make verbal points of this kind (and Aeschylus loved them, though 
there is a great difference in this respect between the Seven against 
Thebes for instance and the Agamemnon\ he often does some violence 
to his language. The transition supposed is very different in kind from 
the grotesque and unthinkable imagery of yXciixrcra kvkos Xct^cunn icajc- 
TctVao-a </>ai8pov ovs (Ahrens and Madvig) * a tongue licking and pointing 
a joyful ear '. 

Of my own previous remarks on the passage (Journal of Philology^ 
X. 299) I find in the negative part nothing to change; but the reference 
to V, 90 2; pointed out by Mr Macnaghten, makes it very improbable 
that hiKTqv is wrong, and thus puts out of court my suggested correction. 


as well as the late Dr Munro's {^ktjv /, Ph. xi. p. 133) and many 
others. What was wanted was something to make natural, with Stin/v, 
Ae use of the verb ^ictc«k€iv and the genitive on/s XaOpalov, Exactly 
that Mr Bury supplies. If it is to be objected against Mr Bury that we 
have not another specimen of hLicti (or ^unj) = p6\o^ that objection will 
not be made by me. Aim; necessarily meant cos/ in Greek, as long as 
die verb Succu^ existed and was known, and might have been used in 
tbat sense by Aeschylus, even if (to take a most improbable supposi- 
tion) no one had done so before or did so afterwards. 
The reading adopted by Dr Wecklein is 

ovK oIScv olav yXaxrcra fiurrinj, fcwos 
Xci^dira KaKTiivaxra fjxuZpov ov9 SiKrjVf 
arqy Xa$patov ktX. 

The suggestion to separate kvv6^ from the preceding words and to 
write iiMnfrq is attributed to Kirchhoff. I mention this as being the 
only version adopting the readings Xcc^oo-a (Tyrwhitt) and <j>aihp6v oZ^ 
(Ahrens, Madvig), which appears to me at all tolerable. But after all, 
it does not really avoid the fatal phrase yXokro-a...^icTctVa(ra ovs: and 
moreover the positions of the words Kvvo9...3tiKip' make it difficult to 
suppose that they mean like a dog. 


V. 1266. It k iliOofiov irccrovr' dyaOtti 8* dfJL€CPoiJtjtuf, 

With diffidence I repeat here the conjecture offered in the Appendix 
to my edition of the Medea (and adopted by Mr Sidgwick) TTECON- 
TAOnA (»co-oWo 9 <S8*) for HECONTArAGnA. It has at least the 
advantage of accounting perfectly by repetition of letters (TATA), for 
the corruption: see an exact parallel in v, 222 TEfE for re I retain 
however o/lici^o/uuu, the original reading of f, not the future a/jLcii/^o/Aai, 
easily explained as an alteration to suit 8ta</>dcpcu. Hermann's ^yw 8* a/i* 
hlfofuu (followed by Dindorf, Wecklein and others) gives no satisfactory 
account of the corruption. Moreover v, 1267, properly explained, is 
strong evidence for retaining the verb aftct/^ccr^ai. 

It was objected however to my suggestion by no less an authority 
than Munro {/. Ph. xi. p. 139) (i) that 8c not rt would be required, and 
(2) that ''irccroKTo in such a sentence cannot be the same as Kci/xcva". 
As to the second point, I can see no difference between itcctokto a/ici- 
^oyjox here and rov irccrovra Xoirrio-ai irX^ov (z/. 876) to spurn the man 


who is dinvn^ literally 'him who has fallen'. Dr Munro cited the 
difference between ^aywv and rc^n^Kcu?. But though rc^niim? cannot be 
used for BxanLv^ ^ovoiv is used for rc^icok constantly. It seems to be 
purely indifferent in such cases whether the past ' act ' be given (6b^, 
irc(r<i>k) or the resulting state (rc^nyxok, imrTWJcws). The first objection 
is more solid, but I do not think it sustainable. Doubtless hk would be 
required if ir* 1% <l>66pov and TrccrdKra ofjLtCPo/itu described separate actions 
entirely distinct. But they do not. The whole is one cumulative action 
and the copula tc (a»d so) really joins not so much clauses as verbs. 
It is as if she said <f>6aprjT€ re <f>Oap€VTa r d/itiPofiai, So in Soph. AL 

654 dXX €tfiL irpo^ TC XovTpd KoX irapaKTiavs Xci/uSi'as fiokiiv T€...Kpvilm 

T08* tyxo^t wliere fiohav resumes cT^t as v€a-6vTa (cl/u having no aorist 
participle of the sense here required) resumes it cs <fi$6pov. Find. 0/. i. 90 
cXci' wapOeiov <tvv€vvov tckc tc Aaycras cf viov?, Lys. 1 3. I carpofeK orros 
ToiaiTa Bi a vir ifiov fiKrelrai vrro tc vfitav Ti^cupi^^o'crai. See Other 
examples in Kiihncr Gr. Grammar § 519, 3. Munro himself suggested 
IT* cs <fiH6f}ov TTctroiT- — 10\ <o6' dfji€p$ofjiai *thus will I tear you*, comparing 
the parallel scene in Eur. Troadcs 451 foil. <5 Krri^i] tou ^lArarov /km 
6'cu>i^...rT ttir' l\ko\3 ;(/)wTo9 avapayfiol^. 


in'. 1276 — 1277. pw^ov waT fHDOv 8' ai^T hri^vov fUvn 

0€pfAM KOV€i<nfS ffxHvCia irpoir^y/iari. 

These verses have been interpreted as if Otpfu^ ^oivuu irpoo-^ayfiari 
were an instrumental dative, 7£7/// /lo/ and bloody sacrifice, I do not 
think this possible. In the first place Trpoo-^ayfia cannot mean simply 
sacrifice. For this is cited Eur. Tro, 624, where irpo<T<l>dyfiaTa is used 
of Polyxena slain at the tomb of Achilles, />. in its usual sense *an 
offering /<>r f/ie dead'; so also in Eur. /fee. 41 (of Polyxena), id. Hel, 
1255, id. A/c. S45. The meaning of Trpo- in the compound, as in other 
compounds, probably varied. In general it meant on befiaif of (vpo- = 
vvip); thus while the living chiefs received their allotted cajitives Poly- 
xena was slain on behalf ^/the dead Achilles. So in Eur. Iph, T, 458, 
the human victims of Artemis are Trpoo-^ay/Aa dtd^ slain for the goddess^ 
where the object of the preposition is expressed. But Eur. Nel. 1255, 
irpo(T<l>d^€TaL fikv alfia 7r^<oTa rcprcpoi^, shows that Trpo- easily lent itself to 
the temporal sense, *the blood shed first', the 'opening sacrifice', and 
that is perhaps rather the meaning here. At the same time the common 


meaning 'a sacrifice for the dead' is not inappropriate, since Agamemnon 
and his paramour are 'wedded in death' according to the grim concep- 
tion of Clytemnestra (i;. 1447) and each therefore slain y^Tr the other. 

Secondly, B^py.^ must be a predicate and equivalent to ^cp/itp oyrL 
In Aeschylus, where iuto adjectives are used, one almost always is 
a predicate (see on Theb, 850), and here the separate and emphatic 
position of ^cpfi^ marks it clearly as such. As an epithet moreover it 
has no point. 

.The construction of the dative is that which with strictly personal 
subjects is not uncommon even in the older prose writing and might 
be called a dative * absolute* with as much or as little propriety as the 
corresponding genitive (Gildersleeve, Pindar 01. and Pyth.^ Preface 
p. xdii.). The genitive * absolute' indicates that the act or condition 
described by it stands in a relation to the main act conceived as resem- 
bling that of the origin or * point from which', or some other relation 
expressed by this case. Where the relation to be described resembles 
rather that of the dative, the older language uses that case also with 
freedom. Most common are datives 'absolute' modelled on the 
personal dative *of interest' t,g, Herod. 6. 21 irodTo-avrt ^pvvix4> Spa/xa 
MiXifrov oAoxriv C9 SaKpva eircac to dci/rpov, Thuc. 4. 120 dirooTacn ? 
avroU 6 Bpoo-iSas 8i€irX€v<r€: but there are also datives 'absolute' resem- 
bling the instrumental, as Theocr. 13. 29 'EXXocnrovrov lkovto v&na rpirav 
aifiap aivTi, and Others again where, as with the genitive, special relation 
disappears in the general relation of circumstance^ Xen. Ages, i. 2 rots 
wpoyovois ovofJLoiofityoiSi diro/ivrffiov€V€TaL oiroo'ros a^* 'HpaxXcot/s lyivero^ 
Pind. OL 2. 76 X€Lif>6rf 0cp(ravSpos Ipiirhrn IIoXvvcikci etc. (See for a 
large collection of examples Kiihner Gr, Gramnu § 423, 25, f^ and 
also note on Theb, 217.) The use is very seldom found in the fully 
developed prose style, having been driven out partly by the genitive, 
partly by the more precise though more cumbrous use of prepositions 
or of dependent clauses with conjunctions. So in Eum, 592 ov kc(/jick<^ 
x«0 rovSf KOfAiro^ci^ Xoyov the dative represents what a prose- writer 
would more accurately have expressed by hrl or, if he had used a 
simple case at all, by the genitive kci/lickov. See also Ag, 1298, and 
note there. Here the relation of the dative, so far as it is specialized, 
is partly that of 'interest', extending itself after Aeschylus' manner to 
a subject not strictly personal, partly that of mere succession to^ as 
in w. 117I1 1338 and Soph. O* T* 175 aXXov 8* av aAAa> (one after 
another) irpoaiiSois op/xcvoF, where see Prof. J ebb's note. Either way 
the meaning is that the slain Agamemnon will immediately receiife 
another victim in Cassandra. 


The use of this dative 'absolute' is particulariy natural here 
a similar reason in Theb. 217) where the genitive case is appro 
so to speak, by jcorcunT?. As to this genitive itself, which is soi 
suspected, it would seem that no other case could be used: j 
with ficFCi would hardly be correct ; a present or future participl 
be required. But xoircun;? as explained in the note is really 
and therefore properly in the aorist 


On the correspondence of Strophe and Antistrophe, 

On this subject, which is happily not very important to the play 
before us, I shall be as brief as possible, referring the reader to my 
edition of the Seven against Thebes^ Appendix /, the conclusions of 
which I shall here assume. "Upon the whole review, we see that three 
t3rpes of variation from strict syllabic correspondence are common in 
the Seven against Thdfes — for we are not justified in assuming that an 
equal strictness must be found in all the works even of the same poet.— 
(i) a 'syncopated' foot answering to a complete foot*; (2) the trochaic 
or ' cyclic ' dactyl answering to a trochee proper ; (3) a long syllable in 
• thesis * answering to a short syllable ". I have reason to believe that 
the evidence offered for this has been found satisfactory, and as to (i), 
the only part of the statement likely to cause surprise, I may now cite 
the express agreement of Dr Fennell*. 

The case of the Agamemnon is different. The evidence proves 
indeed not a few departures from syllabic correspondence. They are of 
exactly the same kind as those which are common in the Septem and, 
taken in connexion with them, are not open to reasonable suspicion. 
But they are exceptional; and in general this play exhibits a much 
nearer approach than the Septem to that strict treatment which seems to 
have been approved by Sophocles. This fact, we may observe, so far 
from diminishing the strength of the evidence for these variations, 
increases it very greatly. If Aeschylus had always used the stricter 
system, and if the departures from it in the ms. text were the result of 
enx>neous copying, we should expect to find them on the average 

* - = - ^, in musical notation * 7^ Parodos of Aeschylus' Septem 

^ • = p p etc, Cambridge, Univ. Press, 1889. 


equally prevalent in different plays. And the contrary fact points to 
the contrary inference. 

I will now simply enumerate in classes the variations which may be 
called regular, and add a few words on some cases of more peculiarity 
or difficulty. 

















205. va I lav— I #rcu— | wtur/ia | rwv 
218. rcK I vov Sa | i^- | o Sofi | «jv 

The vertical lines mark the divisions of the feet The mark - 
indicates the ' holding * of the preceding note. 

I €OTt I TovT- I €(i\ I vcvcrac 
PovXo I ir(U9 a | if>€pTO^ \ ara^ 

ci>- I KOI— I irpoo'Po I Aai9— 

ov— I Tiiiv— I /ACi^ov I 17 Sue I auii9 
io— I Kci— I ir(U9^ I vravov | opviv 

I nav— I ScofUi | tcw v \ ircp— | ^cv^ 
irpos- I rpififi a | ^cp- | toi^ | ^ci9— 

{390. /iavTov I axrr air | apK— | civ- | cv wpain \ 8ci>v Aa | ;(ovra 
407. rov S c I irurrpo \ ^ok» | riovSc | ^^<i>r aSuc | ov ica^ | eupcc 

414. k\ov I 0V9— I Xoy^i/i I ovf re | jcai— | vavfiar | as oir | Xi<rfiots 
430. vap I c((ri I Soi- I ou ^p | ova"— | cu x<if> | ^^ f^T | aiav 

"449. ilrqyyLa \ SvaSaK \ pvrov \ av- | 

rrjvop I OS OTToS | ou y€ | fii- 

467* ro>v TToX I VKTOv | (tfv yof) I OVK a 

wocKOir I 01 ^c I oi iccX I at— | 

{699. KcXaav I r<i>v Sifio | cvros | ajcr-* | as cir | a^c | ^vXXovs 

715. iraynrpOfjO \ ff ttoXv | Oprjvov \ at- | wv- | afjL<f>i iroX | itxlv. 

1482. rj /JL€Yiv I oiKOis I rourSc | Sai/Aova | koi fiapv 
1506. (OS /iLCV av I our 10s | ct- | rovSc ^v | ov ris o 

In this list of examples one striking fact is the extraordinary 
prevalence of the 'syncopated' foot, both as a regular form and as a 
variation, in v7k 379 — 412, a strong argument that it proceeds from 
some purpose of the poet and not from accidental injury of the text, 
which cannot reasonably be supposed to have acted upon a particular 
strophe and antistrophe in this exceptional but yet methodic manner. 




Some of these variations may, as we should expect, be reduced to 
syllabic regularity by such expedients as the insertion of tc or yc^ 
But others cannot. Not the least objection, except that grounded on 
metre, lies against oIkol^ roTxrhi (the common dative of relation) in v, 
X482. In z'. 414 the supposed metrical difficulty has led to criticisms 
&nd proposals, which without it would not have been entertained for 
SL moment. In the order of the words dcnrCoTopa^ kXovov^ XoyxCfiovs t€ 
(^g.e. kXovovs flurirtoTopas \oy)(ifiov^ tc din of shield and spear) there is 
nothing irregular : tc follows according to rule the- word (A.oy;(t)utovs) 
mrhich it serves to couple on : and where adjectives are thus coupled 
by TC some other word constantly stands between them, e.g. in Eur. 

Jlcc, 267 ac;(fiaXa>Tov XP'? '^^-'^ i^KKpiTov $av€lv xaAAci 0* vTrcp^cpovcrav 
(/.^. lic#rpiTov...icaXXci ^* vTrcp^cpovcrav). On the Other hand the double 
change proposed for the sake of syllabic responsion (acnrtcrTopas 
jcXovovs TC ical \oy\Lfiovs vavfiaTa^ 0* oTrXtcr/jious) makes an arrangement 
not only improper but unconstruable. The first tc, however it be 
taken, is both useless and out of its place*. 

§ 2. - = w in the unaccented part of the foot. 

This (the ' unnatural ' long syllable of H. Schmidt's terminology) is 
found in almost all poets and in every kind of metre. It occurs in the 
sirophae of the Agamemnon with moderate frequency. 

ri92. yap I 49 /3i I ai<i)9 | (rcX/xa 
(.200. ex I <»v TraX I cppo | Boi.% cv 

r207. Tpt/3 I 01 KOLT I c^ — I atvov I a.vBo% \ Apyct | wf. 
I220. pcc^ I poi9 ?raT I po) — I ov9 X^P I ^^ ^^ I f^^^ ^^^ I ^^* 

Here, as is not uncommonly the case, the feet interchange. All the 
feet are equal, most of them true trochees, the second in each set (not 
counting the anacrusis) a * syncopated * trochee, while the trochaic - - 
appears in the fifth foot of the first set, and in the fourth foot of the 
second. So also in the first feet of w. 392, 3, 4 compared with 7ru. 
409, 10, II and in the last foot oiv. 393 compared with that of v, 410. 
So in tr;;. 426, 27, 28. So in v, 11 05 ycVci by 11 19 tcvx^i : see Soph. 

^ Not that these insertions are justi- valent for re or «ra/. 

fied by the usage of the poet. Both in ' According to the MS. there would 

ao5 and in 401 the inserted re is perfectly be a 'syncopated' foot in v. 441 om- \ ^icv 

otiose and offensive. Aeschylus is not in yap e \ wcfi^l/ev : but see note there. 
the habit of using re iccU as a mere equi- 

V. iE. A. 15 


O. C 1SS7 ^"fl ^S'^S. So in the first syllable (anacmsis) of v. ii6> 
vmyvot compared with v. 1173 ■qi tis trt. 

One or two more cases are HJouhtful. In v. 1469 the conertion 
tiiittrvfK is probable, in v. 1512 vpofiaivwv is not improbable. Inf. 
4^2 Orelli's conjecture lj(9<vma.i would give an instance, but the KS- 
i)(pyrai is better. 


This, which in the Stpietn is scarcely less frequent than (i) and (1^ - 
in the Agamemnon rare. Two certain examples arc close together; 


t\ 6p^ - 


yap rpotft 

CV S( Ac I OITOV I 1 - 

OK aya \ XaxTov | 01 - 

t)p ^lAo [ fiatrrov | 

Tou TpoTC I A<i(Ht etc 

^€« S- QX. I &,iitV I ., - 

vpa^ TOKt I luv j(ap I IV ' 

as a I fui^-tv ] 

owiv I artu^ etc. 

Both the last lines have been variously emended, but the suggesic 

changes in n. 730 (eg: rpo^as dwa/iei'^aiv) are arbitrary and those Li 
V. 73 1 (see note there) very unhappy. From the mere fact that th 
same peculiarity occurs in two successive lines, we may be su 
there is no error. Such variations are naturally often grouped togethei 
See also v. 715, as given in g i above. In w. 412 we should pcrhap 
retain kAottqis, and in t. 458 irpoSiKouriv : but these dative forms ar 
always uncertain. 

S4. -.--(j.J3). 

This, the so-colted 'resolution of a long syllable', is not unfrequent. 

f 394. AoKTw I ttVTi /My I oAo ' Six I as — I 

1411. rfffxv I ve fm | of rp0.1t \ «f- j 

f 4 1 7 . a I tAijto I rXatra | iroAu 8 av | (oxt | vay — [ 

1433- j8« I ^""O- I o^is I ov ,1.5 I wrr*p \ ov - \ 

fI090. «)tas a I iroarar | a - | 

1 1098. x'P"s ° I pty*'"' I " - I 

e also ?7'. 422, I no, ri6i, 1454, and 1482. Some of these can be 


J^inoved by plausible changes, some not without great violence. But 
thete is no reason to suspect any of them. 

I have reserved for separate consideration one or two places of 
special character or special importance. 

'421. irop I coTi I criy — | as a | thjm^ a | XotSop { oc — | 

a I Zvcrro^ | a^/i,cv | cov iS | civ — | 

437. TO I TToy 8 a^ I £AAa8os | ai — | as ^w | opfiev | otc - | 

ircv I 0€ia I rkfja-i \ KopSi \ os - | 

It will be seen that there is here no variation other than those 

which have been illustrated above, except the lengthening of the last 

syllable of aXoi8opo9 by the ictus of the verse and by the rhythmical 

or musical break between Mine' and Mine'. This is found again at 

V. 436 

r(tfv8 w I €pPaT I CO rep | a — | 

and is in fact too familiar to require further noticed In 422 = 438 there 
is one variation, in 421 = 437 there are two, all of common types. And 
I would ask the reader to notice, as a significant testimony in favour of 
the MS. text, the subtle and nicely calculated balance of w, 421 and 
437. The metre of both verses is trochaic. Each verse exhibits two 
variations or quasi trochees, an// the same two (see above, ^ i and 3), 
differently disposed in the verse^ so that the total quantity, so to speak, 
of each verse is exactly the same. That this delicacy of rhythm has 
been produced by mere blundering I cannot believe, and I therefore 
hold both verses correct. 

743. irtLpa. I kXi - I voor cttc | icpa - | vcv 8c ya/A | 

ov TTiic I pov T€ I Xcvras. 

754. 8ixa 8 I aXX - I cov /xovo | ^pcuv - | ct/u ro | 

yap - I 8v(ro'c)9c9 | cpyov. 

Here exact correspondence may be restored by changing the order of 
the words (ro 8voro'c)9c9 yap Pauw) ; and though mistakes of this kind 
are not nearly so common in the mss. of verse as they are sometimes 
said to be, still the case is doubtful. We should notice however that 
the antistrophe (not the strophe) has the rhythm which we should 

^ The principle extends to the case of does not really affect the question. The 

V. 1410 dWdc/tef, dvirofji^t' | olt&itoXis S* break of music and rhythm, correspond- 

iceif where to produce the appearance of ing to the pause in the sense, is there, 

regularity we ought to print air6iro\tt however we mark it, and is allowed to 

kt\. in a separate line. But the arrange- protect the final syllabic of air4ra/ies from 

iiient of lines, which is purely arbitrary, abbreviation. 


228 APPENDIX 11. 

expect ; the metre is the so-called Ionic a mtnore, one of the many 
forms of the lyric trochaic 

A still more doubtful problem is presented by the following: 

/ 990. /ioXa yap roi rSs ToXXas vyutiois 

ajcopcoTov ripfjLa- vocroc yap 

ytCrtav o/ioroixof ^tSct. 
1004. ro 8" iwl ySy irccrof^ airof Atvcurifuir 

TTpowap avSpos fUXay alfui TiS ay 

xaXiv ayicaXcotur* IractSciy; 
Here the question is embarrassed by the fact that there is undoubtedly 
some error, since v. 1004 has no construction. The correction com- 
monly received (irco-ov Auratus) is facile but far from certain, as there 
is no apparent likelihood in the error supposed. It is perhaps more 
likely that cttI yav, which could well be spared, covers some neuter 
adjective or participle to which irc<rov tc was attached. The whole 
rhythm also of V7f, 990 and 1004 is or appears to be exceptional and 
complicated. It is not probable that the correspondence here was 
strictly syllabic, but no positive conclusion is to be reached. I will 
note merely that the lines which can be construed as they stand can 
also be scanned as they stand, 

991. cucop I ccrrov | rcpfia voa \ os — | yap yci | roiv o/ao 

I roi^os cp I ci8ci- 
1005. vponrap | av8 — | po^ ficXav | aiparis | av iroXti^ | ayicaXco' 

I air cira | ci&ov, 

and that they exhibit the same kind of balance which has been noticed 
in vtK 421 and 437. 

In w. 249 and 11 32 we have metrical irregularities which, though 
at first sight widely dissimilar, may perhaps be referred to the same 
principle. In v. 249 there is apparently a strange hiatus 

KpoKov Patfia^ 8* C9 ircSov xiovca^ 
ipaXX€ ktX, 

and in v, 1132 a hypermetric syllable, vaOo^ cireyxcocra answering to 
TTTcpof^pov Sc/xas. In neither place does the sense give any hint of 
error, nor has either been found amenable to correction*. With regard 

^ Note that a hiatus of this kind has ' 249 ^^s...^owras Keck, x^o^' 

no resemblance to those cases where at w3* Hermann, x^^^ 5^* Kennedy, j8o- 

the end of the line a short syllable taking \ovir* iKatrrov Karsten, /9dX* dv iKaam^ 

the stress of the rhythm is treated as Ahrens. — 1131 6po€ts...iir€yx^as Franz 

long. This is quite common ; while the etc. The conjectures (see Wecklein) arc 

examples of the other are rare and un- too numerous to quote. None of them 

satisfactory. give a sense so good as the MS. reading. 


\ the first, ihe solution is, I believe, that the short vowel actually is 

iidecl according to rule, the 

being this : 

-I «7r.S 1 0.- X* I '^■^- \ * l^-^etc 
IJ.^IJ.^I J In/I J. 

I KoA— I •f^vTOii I OUK a, \ itpavToi | 

I a etc 


r so, the case really falls under § i {see above), and it may throw 
me light upon v. 1 13?. In mere principle there is nothing surprising 
:currence of such a ' hypermetric ' syllable as we find in ira'tfos 
fxiaira. If it were common, every one would regard it as quite 

latural, and the wonder is that it is not. The final trochee of Wflos 
eyX^'""^ answers to the final long syllable of irrfpoiticpov S^xas, or to 

Hit the same thing otherwise, the musical bar is completed by a note in 
e first and by a rest in the second. When the Romans first began to 

mitate Greek metres they abounded in such 'hypermetric' lines, as well 
__ .„ „..^s with a superfluous 'anacrusis' ', and the same thing is true 
imuia//s mutandis of most modern versification. It is not likely /r/'«Hi 
jjfiwTir that the most severe treatment would avoid an occasional lapse (if 
isuch it is) of this kind, and where the genuineness of the exception is 
Isupported by the meaning, it would be rash to reject it on the bare 
i«vidence of a metrical discrepancy rather apparent than real. 
I Lastly in those parts of the play which are written in doc/imii', or 
Un metre for practical purposes not distinguishable from the dochmiac, 
Ethcre are a few noticeable variations. In v. 1408 f^ oAds opofitvov {ms. 
f iptiiitvov) may be correct, though exact correspondence is restored by 
ISp/itvov. In V. 1 164 (if Koita, as seems probable, be omitted) we have 
' ^wpa BptofiivoM answering to yotpa, Sai'aroijiapa. The first is a not 
I uncommon variety of dochmim, in which the first and second 'long' 
m"*'^'^* ^^^ ' resolved '. Tlie second would be an iambic trimeter with 
I* resolved' syllables {yotpa \ flo«iTo | iftopa): on the iambic trimeter as 
lift variation in this metre see on the Stptcm zo6, 219 etc (Afpendix I. 
j.p- 133 in my edition). The same variation is exhibited by M in Ag. 
1.1143 f^^vat ftipav, answering to v. 11 30 KONoiror/ioi TV)(aL: it is not 

> As to the sapeiduous 'anacnisis' miiis will be Found in the paper of Dr 

e on S. C. Th. v. 713, Appendix I. p. Fennell already ciled, pp. 6 foil, With 

16. most al what he says I entirely agree. 
* An inteieiiling discussion of Ihe d^k- 


certain therefore that Hermann was right in changing the order to fMf»r 

A small question, partly metrical partly linguistic, is presented by 
the word oxopcoros iyv, 1105, 1138), where it is usual to substitute the 
supposed equivalent form axopcros. But the metrical evidence is 
dubious as well as the form. In v. 1105 there is already exact 
responsion, if the second syllable of hrSbp^ (9. 1 1 19) be scanned as long. 
In V, 1 138, the scansion intended, since in the dochmii of this scene 
the metre is generally continuous, may be {ovM "jcopccrros : that Vopftr- 
To« might answer to /tcXaTuircis all would admit The general question 
whether in the dochmius the first iambus might be represented by an 
anapaest (w w - | - | v^ - for w - | - | v^ -) cannot be answered 
certainty in the present state of the evidence. 


{For the scenery and action see the Introduction,) 

A Watchman, A whole long year of watch have I prayed heaven 
for release, a year that, like a dog, I have made my bed in the embrace 
^^-thisipalace-roof, till I know all the nightly company of the stars, and 
cmienymose chief signs that, marked by their brightness for the princes 
of the sky, bring summer and winter to man, afl^ their wanings and the 
risings thereof. And still I am watching for the token-flame, the 
beacon-blaze which is to carry the news from Troy, the tidings of the 
capture ! This it is to be commanded by a woman, who brings her 
quick hopes into the business of men ! When I have found my bed, 
rain-wetted, restless, and safer than some are from the visit of dreams 
(for instead of sleep comes the fear that sleeping might close my eyes 
for ever), and when the fancy comes to whistle or sing by way of 
a salve for drowsiness, then tears arise of sorrow for what hath 
befallen this house, now put to no such good work as in the old 
days. But ah, this time may the blessed release be given, the blessed 
beacon dawn with its message from the dark. 

O joy ! O welcome blaze, that showest in night as it were a dawn, 
thou harbinger of many a dance, that shall be set in Argos for this good 
hap ! What ho ! What ho I Lady of Agamemnon, I cry you loud. 
Up from the dark couch, quick, up, and raise the morning-hymn of 
thine house in honour of yon fire, if, as the signal doth manifestly 
announce, Troy town is taken indeed. Aye, and myself at least will 
prelude the dancing; for my score shall profit by my master's game, 
the treble-six, thrown me by yon fire-signaL 

Well, may the king return, may I clasp his welcome hand in mine. 
The rest shall be unspoken (my tongue hath upon it an ox-foot weight), 
though the house itself, if it could find a voice, might declare it plain 

232 TRANSLATION w. 38—102. 

enough \ for I mean to be, for my part, clear to who knows and to him 
who knows not blind. [-£«t] 

Chorus of Elders, Tis now the tenth year since, to urge their 
powerful right against Priam, King Menelaus and King Agamemnoiif 
the mighty sons of Atreus, paired in the honour of throne and sceptre 
derived from Zeus, put forth from this land with an Argive armament, 
a thousand crews of fighting men, summoned to their aid. 

Loud rang their angry battle-cry, as the scream of vultures who, 
vexed by boys in the supreme solitudes where they nest, wheel with 
beating pinions round and round, when they miss the young brood 
whose bed it was their care to watch. And the shrill sad cry of the 
birds is heard by ears supreme, by Apollo belike or Pan or Zeus, who 
to avenge the licensed sojourners of their dwelling-place, sends soon or 
late on the offenders the ministers of punishment. Even such ministers 
are tlie sons of Atreus, sent to punish the triumph of Paris by their 
mightier Zeus, guardian of hospitality, that so for a woman whom many 
could win there should be wrestlings many and weary, where the knee 
is pressed in the dust and the shaft, the spousal shaft, is snapped, 
between suffering (Jreek and Trojan suffering too. 

The cause is this day no further: the end will be as it must. By no 
increase of fuel or libation, and by no tears, shalt thou overcome the 
stubbornness of a sacrifice that will not burn. 

As for us, whose worn thews could not render their service, that 
martial gathering left us behind, and here we bide, on guiding-staves 
supporting our childish strength. For if the young breast, where the 
sap is but rising, is no better than eld but in this, that the spirit of war 
is not there, oh what is man, when he is more than old ? His leaf is 
withered, and with his three feet he wanders, weak as a child, a day-lit 

"" But what of thee, daughter of Tyndareus, Queen Clytaemnestra? 
What chance? What news? On what intelligence, what convincing 
report are thy messengers gone round bidding sacrifice? To all the 
gods that dwell in Argos, upper and nether gods, the high gods and the 
low, the altars blaze with gifts, while on all sides the flames soar up to 
the sky, yielding to the innocent spell and soft persuasion of hallowed 
oil, rich from the store of kings. All this (so far as thou canst and 
mayest consent) do thou explain, and thus cure my present care, which 
vexes me now anon, although at whiles the sacrifices call up a kindly 

TRANSLATION m\ 103—174. 233 

and drive from my mind the unsated thought that still returns tb; 
the prey(?). 

It is my right to tell — it is an encouragement upon their way 
permitted to ihem whose vigour is pasl, that still at their years they 
draw from heaven that winning insjjiraiion, which is the strength of 
song, — how the twin-lhroned Achrean Kings, concorOatit leaders of 
Hellas' youth, were sped with avenging arm and spear lo the Teucrian 
land by a gallant omen, when to the kings of ships appeared the black 
king of birds and the white-hacked king together, seen near the palace 
oti the spear-hand in conspicuous place, feasting on hares, then full of 
young, stayed one course short of home. 

Be sorrow, sorrow spoken, but still let the good prevail! 
' Then the good seer, who followed the host, when he saw how the two 
brave Atridae were in temper' twain, took cognisance of those hare- 
devouring birds and of the princely captains, and thus he spake 
interpreting : ' After long time they tliat here go forth must win King 
Priam's town, though ere they pass the wall all their cattle, their public 
store, shall perforce be divided and consumed. Only may no divine 
displeasure fore-smite and overcloud the gathering of the host, whose 
might should bridle Troy. For the wrath of holy Artemis rests on the 
house of those winged coursers of her sire, who sacrifice a trembling ■ 
mother with all her young unborn. She loathes such a feast of e 

' Be sorrow, sorrow spoken, but still let the good prevail. 

' Yea, fair one, loving though thou art unto the uncouth whelps of 
many a fierce breed, and sweet to the suckling young of all that roam 
the field, yet to this sign thou art prayed to let the event accord. 
Auspicious are these eagle-omens, but not without a flaw. But oh, in 
the blessed name of the Healer, raise thou not hindering winds, long to 
delay from the seas the Argive fleet ; urge not a second sacrifice, foul 
offering of forbidden meat, which shall put hate between flesh and bone 
and break marital awe. For patient, terrible, never to be laid, is the 
wrath of the wife still plotting at home revenge for the unforgotten child." 

Thus Calchas crossed his chant of high promise to the royal house 
from the omens of the march : and so with according burden 

Be sorrow, sorrow spoken, but still let the good prevail ! 

' Zeus' — power unknown, whom, since so lo be called is his own 
pleasure, I by that name address. When I ponder upon all things, I 



■"' I ""153, 1 I 

can conjecture nought but "Zeus' 10 fit the need, if the burden of raniij 
is in very truth to be cast from the souL Not he, who perhaps *u 
Strong of yore and flushed with victorious pride, could now be so tnudi 
as proved to have had being : and he that came nerl hath found his 
conqueror and is gone. But whoso to Zeus by forethought givclii liiles 
of v-ictoiy, the guess of his thought shall be right And Zeus il is *ho 
leadeth mtn to understanding under this law, that they leam a tnilh 
by the smart thereof. The wound, where it lies dormant, will Weed, 
and its aching keep before the mind the memory of the hurt, so diat 
wisdom conies to them without Iheir will. And it is perhaps a mo^ 
from a Power, who came by struggle to his majestic seat. 

Thus it was with the Achsan ammiral, the elder of the twain, k 
prophet, thought he, is not to blame, so he bent before the blast. But 
when his folk began to weary of hindering winds and empty cade, sdH 
lying over against Chalcis, where the tides of Aulis rush to and fro, 
while still the gales blew thwart from Stiymon, stayed them and starved 
them, and penned them in port, grinding the men and making of ship 
and tackle a prodigal waste, and with lapse of time, doubled over and 
over, still withering the flower of Argos away; then at last, when the 
prophet's voice pointed to Artemis and told of yet one more means to 
cure the tempest's bane, a means pressing more on the princes, which 
made the sons of Atreus beat their staves upon the ground and lei 
the tear roll down : — the elder then of the twain found voice and 

'Sore is my fate if I obey not, and sore if I must slay my child, the 
jewel of my home, staining paternal hands with virgin stream from the 
victim at the altar's side. Are not the two ways woeful both ? How 
can I fail my fleet and lose my soldiery ? For eager is their craving 
that to stay the winds her virgin blood should be offered up, and well 
they may desire it. May it be for the best !' 

So, having put on his neck the harness of Necessity, his spirit set 
to the new quarter, impious, wicked, unholy, and from that moment he 
took to his heart unflinching resolve. For to put faith in the shedding 
of blood is an obstinate delusion, whose base suggestion is the 
beginning of sin. Howsoever he did not shrink from slaying a victim 
daughter in aid of war waged for a stolen wife, a spousal-rite to bind 
unto him his fleet I 

Her prayers, her cries to her father, mere life-breath of a girl, the 
spectators, eager for war, regarded not at all. Her father, after prayer, 
gave word to the ministers, while casting her robes about her she bowed 
herself desperately down, to lift her, as it were a kid, over the alias. 

TRANSLATION tw. 24,$—i^2. 

and, for prevention of her lieauuful lips, to slop the voice that 
irse his house with the dumb cruel violence of the gag. 

And she, as she let fall to earth her saffron robe, smote each 
the sacrificers with glance of eye that sought their pity, and seemed like 
as in a painting, fain to speak : for oft had she sung where men were 
met at her father's noble board, with pure voice virginally doing dear 
honour to the grace and blessing that crowned her father's feast. 

What followed I saw not, neither do I tell. The rede of Calchas 
doth not lack fulfilment. Yet is it ihe law that only to ejiperience 
knowledge should fall : when the future cotnes, then thou mayest hear 
of it ; ere that, I care not for the hearing, which is but anticipating 
sorrow ; it will come clear enough, and with it the proof of the rede 
itself. Enough : let us pray for such immediate good, as the present 
matter needs. Here is our nearest concern, this fortress, sole protection 
of the Argive land. 

\^Enler Clvtaemnestra, Conspihators, etc.'] 

I am come, Clytaemnestra, in observance of thy command. 'Tia 
right to render obedience to the sovereign and queen, when the 
husband's throne is empty. Now whether tidings good or not good 
have moved thee by this ceremony to announce good hope, I would 
gladly learn from thee : though if thou would'st keep the secret, 1 am 

Clytaemnestra. For ' good ', as says the proverb, may the kind mom 
announce it from her kind mother night. But 'hope' is something short 
of the joy Ihou art to hear. The Argive army hath taken Priam's town. 

An Elder. How sayest thou? I scarce caught the words, so 
incredible ihey were. 

CL 1 said that Troy is ours. Do I speak clear ? 

Eld. 'Tis joy that surprises me and commands its tear. 

CI. Yes, 'tis a loyal gladness of which thine eye accuses thee. 

Eld. And what then is the proof? Hast thou evidence for this? 

CI. I have indeed, if miracle deceive me not. 

Eld. Is it a dream-sign that commands thine easy credence ? 

CI. Not sight-proof would I accept from a brain bemused, 

Eld. Yet canst thou have taken cheer from some uncertified 

CI. Thou boldest my sense as low as it were a babe's. I 

Eld, And what sort of time is it since the city fell ? 

CI. It fell, I say, in the night whence yonder light is this moment 

Eld. But what messenger could arrive so quick ? 


TRANSLATIOtf w. 293—348- 

C/. The fiie-goil was the messenger. From Ida he spcJ forth Oic 
bright blaze, which beacon after beacon by oourier flame passed on ti 
us. Ida sent it first to Hermes' rock in Lcmnos ; and to the grat 
bonfire on Lemnos' isle succeeded third Zeus' mountain of Athos, wiili 
such a soaring pile of wood upon it as might strengthen the traveliinj 
torch to pass joyously over the wide main ; and this, with the golden 
light as it were of a sun, blazed on the message to the outlook on 
Malustos. Nor he for any delay or for overcoming sleep neglecttd 
heedlessly his messenger-part Far over Euripus' stream came his 
beacon-light and gave the sign to the watchers of Messapius. These 
raised an answering light to pass the signal far away, with pile n( 
withered heaih which they kindled up. And the torch thus strengthened 
flagged not yet, but leaping, broad as a moon, over Asopus' plain 10 
Cithaeron's scar, roused in turn the next herald of the fiery train ; not 
there did the sentinels refuse the fax-heralded light, but made a bon6te 
higher than was bid, whose flying brightness lit beyond Gorgopis' waiet, 
and reaching the mount of Aegiplanctus, eagerly bade them not 10 
slack the commanded fire. They sped it on, throwing high with force 
unstinted a flame like a great beard, which could even overpass, so tu 
it flamed, the headland that looks down upon the Saronic gulf, and 
thus alight then, and only then, when it reached the outlook, nigh to 
our city, upon the Arachnaean peak; whence next it lighted (at last!) 
here upon our royal roof, yon light, which shows a pedigree from tllB 
fire of Ida. Such are the torch-bearers which I have ordained, I9 
succession one to another completing the course: — of whom the victor ii 
he who ran firs! and last. Such is the evidence and token I give thee^ 
niy husband's message sped out of Troy to me. 

Eld. My thanksgiving, lady, to heaven shall be presently pud; 
but first this story — I would fain satisfy my wonder by bearing it 
repeated, in thy way of telling, from point to point 

CI. Troy is this day In the hands of the Achieans ! Methinks 
there must be sound there of voices that will not blend. Pour 
with the same vessel vinegar and oil, and thou wilt exclaim at their 
unfriendly parting. Even so their tones, the conqueror and the con- 
quered, fall different as their fortunes upon the ear. These on the 
ground clasping the dead, their husbands, brothers, fathers, sons, young 
children weeping for gray sires, themselves enslaved, are wailing for their 
beloved. Those the hungry weariness of fighting and a restless night 
hath set to break their fast upon what is in the town, not billeted 
orderly, but lodging themselves forthwith, by such chance as falls to 
each eager hand, in the captured houses of Troy, to escape as tfaey may 


TRANSLATION -f.: 349-410, 23; 

rtie miseries of the open air, the frosts and the dews, With no watel 
to keep they will sleep the whole night long. 

Now must they pay due respect to the gods that inhabit the town,' 
the gods of the conquered land, or their victory may end in their own 
destruction after all. Too soon belike for their safety, the soldiery, 
seized with greed, may yield to (heir covelousness and lay hands on 
forbidden spoil. They have still to bring themselves home, have still 
the backward arm of the double course to make. And if no sin against 
heaven rest on the returning host, there is the wrong of the dead that 
watches. Evil may find accomplishment, although it fall not at once. 

But for all these my womanish words, may [he good prevail, plainly^; 
I say, and undoublfuUy ; for choosing so, I choose more blessings thi 

A Conspirator. Lady, no man could speak more kindly wisdoi 
than thou. For my part, after the sure proof heard from thee, 
purpose is now to give our thanks to the gods, who have wrought 
return in full for al! the pains. \Exit Clytaemiieitra^ 

CoKspiraton. Hail, sovereign Zeus, hail, gracious night, high is 
glory thou hast won, thou night, that hast cast over the lowers of Troy 
meshes so close, that none full-grown, nay, nor any young could 
the wide enslaving net, one capture taking them all. Zeus, god of host 
and guest, I confess him great, who hath wrought this vengeance for 
Paris' sin, though long he bent his bow, that so neither heaven-high thi 
boll might go, nor short of the mark might fall. 

Elders. Zeus' stroke it is which they dare proclaim. This thought 
we may follow out. As He determines, so He accomplishes. It was 
said by one that the gods deign not to regard sinners, when they trample 
upon the grace of sacredness. Rut impiously was it said. It is mani- 
fested, how pregnant is the insolence of a too defiant pride, when 
fulness of the house grossly exceedeth the best. And this best sht 
be so much, as will let a man blest with sense live of it undistressed. 

For there is no defence for that man, who in the pride of wealth 
doth haughtily spurn the fixed foundation of Right, whereby he may 
be unseen ; though strong is that obstinate persuasion, servant of 
Blindness and shaper of her decree. Remedy is all vain. Unhidden 
the mischief glows with a baleful light. Like base metal beneath the 
rub and touch, he shows the black grain under justification (fc 
I pursuit is idle as the boy's who follows the fiying bird), and leaves upor 
I his people a fatal mark of the touching. Deaf to supplication, the g( 

condemn for wicked whosoever is conversant with such. 
I Such was the sin of Paris, who came to that house of the Atridae and\ 


am- ^^^ 

ii.ii T 


TRANSLATION a>. 4ti— ^t. 


dishnnoured ihe hospitable hoard by theft of the wife. Leaving to liff 

countrymen the din of shield and spear and the arming of flc«s,»Dd 

inging to Ilium ruin for her dower, she had passed with l^ht Sep, 

eless of sin, through the gates. And oft they sighed, the interptflat 
of the home, as they said, 'Ah for the home! aha, for the how' 
Aha, and ah, for the princes thereof, for the husband's bed yet primed 
with her embrace. We can see him there, his curses mocked wiih 
silence, the parted spouse, the sweetest sight of them all ! He shall 
pine for her that is far beyond sea, till he seems but a phantom 
lord of the house. Grace of beautiful statues the husband hiielh'. 
with the want of the eyes all the passion is gone. Dream-forms slay 
with him a while, convincing semblances, and offer delight in vain; 
for lo, when vainly he thinks to grasp the phantom, the vision escape 
through his arms and is gone that instant on wings that follow the 
passing of sleep.' 

Such was the home-sorrow ere they parted hence ; and other woes 
they have, woes surpassing yet beyond these. And in every home of 
those who set forth together from Hellas' land the hearts of their 
women-folk ache, as ache ihey must, with all they have to wound 
them. Whom they sped forth, them they know; but it is not the 
man they know that comes to his home; it is but an urn and ashK- 
A merchant in gold is Ares, and bodies of men are his gold ; in batik 
he holdeth his scale. He sends from Ilium dust out of his fir^ a 
heavy gold to weeping love, powder that once was a man, now pressed 
into the compass of a jar. 

And they lament them, telling their praises, how skilled was the 
dead in battle, or how bravely he shed his blood — 'And all through 
another's wife', snarls some one in a whisper; and so there spreads a 
resentful anger against the quarrel of the sons of Atreus. 

Others there by the town, in their own shapes, possess graves in 
Trojan earth, which hating them doth hide its fair possessors away. 

Now when one anger moves a people, there is danger in their talk ; 
it is a bond no less than a covenant sworn. And I am waiting in fear 
for a voice from the darkness of my thoughts. 

For whosoever are guilty of lives, upon them God's eyes are fixed 
The time comes when fortune unmerited turns to misfortune at a touch, 
when the dark Chastisers take the man's strength away : and once he is 
gone, no help for him. Glory too high is dangerous; it is upon the peak 
the thunder strikes. Nay, let my happiness challenge no jealousy ; 
let me be no conqueror, nor see myself a conquered slave. 

J^'irst Hldtr, The beacon hath spoken fair, and the report is 

TRANSLATION iiK 482—515. 239 

I ^reading swiftly among the folk; but hath it spoken true? Who 
\ *nows? It is indeed miraculous, — if not false. 

Saond E!der. How can one be so childisli, so crazed of wit, to fire 
[ *ith hope at a sudden message of flame, and risk the pain of altered 
I n«ws? 

TTiird Elder. With woman's impulse il is natural to give indulgent ' 
Credit before the proof. 

Fourth Elder. She is too ready of belief, a boundary quickly 
passed and encroached upon ; but quick to pass away is the rumour that 
*omen cry. 

Eirsi Elder. "Twill not be long ere we know of this line of torch- 
bearers, this beacon chain of succeeding fires, whether they be true, or 
whether this gladding light, a dream-like visitor, hath beguiled the 
sense. Yon herald comes from the shore, I see, with his shade of olive 
boughs. And the information of the thirsty Dust, sister and neighbour 
to the Mire, assures me of this, that with something more than dumb 
signals of fire-smoke, more than a bonfire of wood burnt you upon a hill, 
he with a plain word will either explicitly bid us rejoice, or else^but 
the other word, for the sake of these, shall remain unspoken. May 
the fair appearance receive a like addition ! 

A Conspirator. If there be any that agrees not in this patriot 
prayer, let him reap himself the consequence of his mistake. 
{Enter 3. Herald.] 
77u Herald. O native earth, O Argos, my country, hail I With 
the dawn of this tenth year I am come to thee, at last. Many a hope 
hath broken, but one I have grasped. For 1 never thought I should 
die here, in this land of Argos, and have my plot in her well-beioved 
soil But now I bless' the land, I bless the bright sun, blessed be our 
Zeus supreme, and blessed he, the lord of Pythoi may he shoot his 
shafts not upon us any more. Long enough he came in enmity to 
Scamander's plain. But now be Saviour, O king Apollo, and Healer 
again ! And the gods assembled here, I salute them all, him loo, mine 
own protector, Hermes the Herald, whom heralds love and revere, and 
all the deified, them who sent forth the host, I bid them now receive 
it, so much as the spear hath spared. Hail royal palace, mansion 
beloved, and solemn seats, and deities eastward looking (and oh, how 
long ye have looked !) ; with this bright gladness in your eyes welcome 

' An adequate translation is here iS^', vpostiTtir) common to both. The 

impossible, Iwcause in English Hie fotnis ambiguity of the Greek is an 

for gCPelinE nnd farewell are aliwlulely point. Sec the note on v. 508. 
distinct and not (lilic x<"r" !""! '(woau- 


TRANSLATION vo. sb6— 571. 

long away. For our prince is returned, bringing 
to impart unto all thai are here, even Agamemnon 


filly the king 


our king. 

But ye must greet him observantly, as is his due, having digged 
Troy out of the earth with the mattock of Zeus the Avenger, which hath 
broken her soil to dust Her founiiaiions cannot be found, or her fixed 
religious fanes, and all she might grow from is perishing out of l]te 
ground. So strong compulsion hath the elder son of royal Alreus put 
upon Troy, and happiest of mankind he comes home. None hath 
such claim to requital, not one in the live worid. As for Paris and 
his people, bound with him to payment, they cannot boast a balance 
of damage done. Sentenced for theft and rapine too, he hath not 
only lost the reprisal but also hath ruined and razed his very father^ 
house, it and the place thereof together. Two-fold the loss the so narf 
Priam have paid. 

An Elder. Joy to thee, herald of the coming Achaean host ! 


Eld, Hast thou longed for thy native land with a torturing 

Her, Aye, so that for joy mine eyes weep tears upon it. 

Eld. Then learn that 'tis a sweet languishing ye have taken. 

Htr. How so ? I need a lesson to master thy saying. 

Eld. As being struck with a passion not unretumed. 

Her. Argos, thou sayest, pined for her pining soldiers. 

Eld. So pined, as oft to sigh for thee from a weary heart. 

Her. Whence this melancholy? Was there yet this distress reserved 
for us that have fought ? 

Eld. For long past I have used silence to prevent hurt. 

Her. But how so? Wast thou, the kings being away, in fear of 
some one ? 

Eld. So much that now, as thou sayest, e'en death were gratefiil. 

Her. Yes, we have done well every way, well, for the length of 
time. A man must speak well of his fortune, though part be not so 
good. Only a god can be without trouble all his time. For were I to 
count our sufferings in bad quarters, the narrow and comfortless berths 
{and in the day-time miserable for want of everything), and other 
miseries by land (and there it was worse, our camp being close to the 
enemy's wall), how the sky rained, and the dews firom the marshy 
ground, ever rotting our garments and breeding foul life upon us : or 
were one to count the winter's cold, made so intolerable by the 
snows of Ida that the birds fell dead, or the heat, when in his 
noon-day rest the sea sank windless and waveless to sleep — but what 

TRANSLATION 7^, 572—621. 241 

•need to grieve for these things ? The pain is past ; so past for the 
dead, that they care not so much as to rise up any more. Ah why 
should we count the number of the slain, when the living suffer by 
fortune's persistency ? A full release from chance is also, say I, some- 
thing worth. And for us who are left of the Argive host, the gain 
on the balance overweighs the hurt, seeing that yon bright sun may 
proclaim in our honour, winging our fame over land and sea, * Troy 
in old time was won by an Argive armament : and these are the 
spoils which, to the glory of the gods throughout Hellas, they nailed 
upon the temples for a monumental pride.* Hearing this, men must 
needs praise Argos and them that led her host ; and the grace of Zeus 
that wrought it all shall be paid with thanks. And so I have said my 

Eld, Defeat in argument I do not deny. To be teachable is a 
thing that ages not with age. But the household and Clytaemnestra, 
whom this news should most nearly interest, must share the gain with 

Clytaemnestra (entering). My joy was uttered some while ago, 
when the first fiery messenger came in the night, telling that Ilium was 
taken and destroyed. Then there were some who found fault with me, 
and said, * Art thou for a beacon persuaded to think that Troy is taken 
now ? How like a woman's heart to fly up so high ! * Thus they argued, 
proving my error. But for all that I would sacrifice ; and by womanly 
ordinance the townsfolk one and all took up the loud cry of holy 
gladness and in the sacred temples stilled with feeding incense the 
fragrant flame. 

And now, for the fuller tale, what need I to take it from thee? 
From the king himself I shall learn it all. Rather, that I may bring 
my revered lord with swift return to my loving reception — what light 
more sweet to the eyes of a wife than this, when she opens the gate to 
her husband, restored by heaven safe from war ? — take thou back to my 
lord this message : let him come with all speed to the people that love 
him, come to find in his home the wife faithful, even such as he left her, 
a very house-dog, loyal to one and an enemy to his foes ; aye, and in 
all else unchanged, having never broken seal at all in this long while. I 
know of pleasure or scandalous address from any other no more than of 
dyeing bronze. [Exit,'] 

A Conspirator, Self-praise like this, filled full with its truth, it doth 
not misbeseem a noble wife to sound. 

An Elder, What she hath said and they admire thou by their plain 
comment dost understand. 

V. M, A. 16 


TRANSLATION w, 622—657. 

But herald, say thou : I would know of Menelaus, our well-loved 
king, this only, whether he hath returned safe and will arrive with you. 

Her, It were impossible, if I told a &lse tale Oadr, that as time goes 
on, your love should enjoy it still ! 

Eld, Oh, that thy true tale might be happily told ! Tis not easy 
to hide, when good and true are parted. 

Her, The prince is gone from the Achaean host, himself and his 
ship also. It is the truth. 

A Conspirator, Did he put forth in your sight from Ilium? Or 
was he snatched from the rest by a storm which fell upon all?* 

Her, Thou hast, like a master bowman, hit the mark, and put a 
length of trouble in a brief phrase. 

Eld. What then of the prince ? Did the general rumour of the 
voyagers declare him living or dead ? 

Her. None can tell that for certain, save one only, the Sun that 
sustaineth life over all the earth. 

Eld, And what from first to last was the story of the storm, thus 
sent on the fleet by angry gods ? 

Her. A day sacred to joy should not be fouled by the tongue of 
evil tidings. Religion sunders the two. When one with sad counten- 
ance brings to a people heavy tidings of an army fallen, the state 
wounded with one great national grief and many a home robbed of its 
single victim by Ares* fork, his weapon beloved, two-headed, horrible, 
red in both prongs with blood ; he that beareth such a pack of woe may 
well say a hymn to those who punish. But when one cometh with 
tidings of deliverance to a folk rejoicing in happiness — how shall I 
mingle this good with that ill, with a tale of storm, at which our 
national gods must needs be displeased ? 

A conspiracy there was between two that had been utter foes, 
between fire and sea, and for pledge and proof of their league they 
destroyed the hapless men of Argos. In darkness it was done, which 

^ I have here assigned these lines, as 
I think they belong, to the speaker of 
w. 6f8 — 619. The Herald is surprised, 
as well he may be, at the rapidity with 
which the questioner, out of a hundred 
possibilities, lights upon the exact truth. 
But as a fact this questioner has the same 
knowledge of the facts which Clytacm- 
ncstra exhibits before the Herald's arrival, 
and his question is put merely in the 
hope of cutting this dangerous conversa- 

tion short. Clytaemnestra does her best 
to send the Herald away at once. She 
then departs, because she dares not ex- 
pose herself to questions, and the Elders 
detain the Herald to ask about Menelaus. 
Even now they are not to be satisfied till 
they have had the story. The common 
arrangement (as in the text) is possible, 
but in my judgment much injures the 
truth and point of the scene. 

TRANSLATION i-v. 658—713. 243 

Swelled the agony to its heighl ; for the ships were dashed one a|;3mst 
!ino|lier by Thracian winds, till butting violently beneath the storm of 
"^L- hurricane and the beating rain of the surge they fled away and away, 
'ashed round by their cruel driver. And when the bright dawn rose, 
*e siw on the /Egean corpses thick as flowers, our dead and wreck 
^'f our ships. As for ourselves and our ship, yet whole in hull, we were 
stolen away or, may be, were begged off by some one more than human, 
'ho took her helm. Fortune, to save us, was pleased to ride aboard of 
het, and keep her alike from taking in the surging water between her 
planks and from running upon rocks. So having escaped a watery grave. 
there in the white day, scarce sure of our good fortune, we brooded 
melancholy upon our altered case, our host undone and utterly dashed 
to pieces. And at this moment if any of them is living and draws 
breath, they are doubtless speaking of us as lost, while we imagine the 
same case for them. But let us hope the best 

For Menelaus then, be it first supposed and soonest, that he got 
home. And at worst, if any where the sun's ray is discovering him, 
Zeus, we may hope, who cannot mean to destroy his offspring quite, 
will contrive to bring him alive and well to his home again. So much 
fa all I can warrant you for fact {Exit. 

-' The Eiders. Who can have given that name, so to the very letter 
true? Was it some unseen power, who by foreknowledge of fate 
guided his tongue aright, that named the woman wooed with battle 
and speai by the name of Helen? She proved lier name indeed 
upon ship and men and peoples, when from the delicate veils of 
her costly bower she passed over sea before the gale of the felon 
West, and after her a great hunt of shielded soldiers, following by 
the vanished track of the oar a quarry landed on Simois' banks, 
whose woods were to be wasted by their bloody fray. 

A bride? A sorrowful bride she was 10 Ilium, pursued by sure- 
remembering wrath, destined one day to avenge the dishonour of 
the board, and of Zeus the sanctifier of the feast, upon those that 
gave significant honour 10 that bridal music, the marriage-hymn of 
the groomsmen, their vantage of an hour. The aged city of Priam 
hath learnt an altered song, a burden surely of loud lamentation, 
and finds for the wedded Paris an evil name ; for burdened with 
lamentation have been all her weary days till this for the miserable 
slaughter of her people. 

A shepherd man in his house brought up a lion's whelp, weaned 
from the leal, a hungry suckling. Gentle it was in its infant days 
of love, made friends with youth, drew smiles from gravity's self, 

16 — 2 


TRANSLATION w. 724—791. 

many a thing it got when, like a tiureiiig-diild embraced, it 
fixed a bright eye on the hand and fawned for its belly's need. But 
after a time it showed the way that was tx>rn in it ; for it paid thanks 
for its rearing by bloody ravage of the tlock, making a feast unbidden; 
and the house was dabbled with gore, and the house-folk helpless 
in agony, and wide was the murderous waste. God sent it to dut 
dwelling with a mission of ravage therein. 

Even so came, would I say, to Ilium what seemed to fency a 
windless calm, a darling of rich indolence', whose gentle eye shotlhil 
soft bolt, which pricks from the heart the flower of love. But swerring 
from that, she made them rue in the end that she was won, blasting 
with her companionship the niined house of Priam's sons, whither the 
god of guest -plight sped and conducted her, a fiend to wed and repent. 

It is an ancient maxim, made long ago among men, that wealth of 
man, grown big, gets offspring of its body before it die, and that of 
good fortune the natural scion is unappeasable woe. But I think not 
with the generality. It is in truth the impious deed, which al^et 
begetteth more, and like to its own kind. The house that keepeth 
righteousness, fair is the generation thereof for ever. But it is the 
way of old pride to beget in the wicked soon or late, when the destined 
hour arrives for the youthful birth, a young pride and the kindred 
spirit (?) of insolence, godless, resistless, masterless, black curses both 
to the mansion and like their parents both. 

But righteousness shineth in sooty dwellings and pri^eth the modest 
man. If the palace is gilt but foul the hands, with eyes averted die 
goes thence to the pure home, disdaining the might of wealth mis- 
stamped with praise. And she guideth all to the goal. 
\Enter Agamemnon, Cassandra, etc.] 

See now, O sovereign, Troy's conqueror, Atreus' son, how shall 1 
address thee? How pay thee homage neither above nor short of due 
complaisance ? 

Many rate semblance above reality, and do injustice so. Sighs for 
the suffering all have ready, although of the outward grief none 
touches the heart ; and they copy the looks of him that laughs, putting 
force upon faces where no smile is, But he that knoweth the points of 
a man is sure to detect when the human eyes, which pretend to glisten 
with kindness, are flattering him with a love that is but water. 

Thou in past time, while warring still for Helen's sake (frankly be it 
said) didst make an ungracious figure in mine eyes, didst seem an 

' Reading 6xo.gKiii<av ond adopting Hesychius. But with djuuriaTie t the 
the gloss iisirj(iai [mHrfmin) from sense may be much the si 

TRANSLATION mi. 793—835- 245 

steersman to thy wits, that thou for a willing wanton 
would'st spend the lives of men. But now we contemplate thee with 
riper judgment and less unkind. Happy the labour that is happily 
done. Thou wilt learn by inquisition hereafter, who here at home hath 
done his duty, and who hath mis-spent the time. 

Agamemnon. To Argos first my salutation is due, and to the gods 
that inhabit here, who have aided me to my home-coming and the 
justice which I have taken of Priam's town. For they, having heard 
the mortal argument which with main force we pleaded for Troy's 
destroying, put their votes undivided into the vase for blood, while to 
the opposite um hope of the hand came nigh, yet it was not filled. By 
her smoke the conquered city is conspicuous even yet. Life in the ruin 
ptmts, and from the expiring ash is breathed a reek of richness. For all 
this there must be paid to the gods a memorable return, even as the 
fine is great, which our wrath hath taken, since for one woman stolen a 
city halh been laid level by the fierce beast of Argos, the foal of the 
horse, the folk of the shield, that launched himself with a leap in the 
season of the Pleiads' fall. Over the wall he sprang and, like a lion 
fleshed, lapped his fill of proud princes' blood'. 

Now, having given to religion this amplt precedence, I come to thee 
and thy feelings. I remember what I have heard. I am with thee, and 
support thine accusation. Rare among men are they to whom it is 
natural to love and admire the fortunate without envying, The poison 
of ill-will settles to the heart and doubles the load of him that has aught 
amiss: at once his own sorrows press upon him and he sighs to see 
the other's happiness. I may speak with knowledge, having learnt 
thoroughly that mirror of friendship, image of a shadow, the hypocrites' 
semblance of devotion to me. Ulysses only, Ulysses, who joined the 
fieet against his will, I found, being once in harness, mine own right horse. 
That I will say for him living or dead. 

\Entcr Clytaemnestra'.] 

And for the rest, the afiairs of state and religion too in general 


We wont a beltei wDid for ri^ta^ 
I Englisii supplies. Dejfol ax tyrant 
is too specific and would not here do at 
mil; and yet the distostcrul sound of the 
word lo deck ears is almosl always 
important, nnti here especially s 

say, a 

that the dramatists habitually use ripav- 
rm, Tvpanlt etc. withoul regard lo theit 
They scarcely ever do so, 

and for the Agamemnon at least the 
wards have their fult and worst meiming 
(see i-B. 13S4, 1633). The Asiatic royalty 
of Priam might of course be called a 
■nipatrU, and the unplea^g title suits the 
tore o( the speaker. To ihe conspirators 
it is only too suggestive. 

' See on w. 903, 904. The king does 
nol [icrctive her, lill at the end of his 
speech be lurcb to enter the palace. 

246 TRANSLATION w. 836—892. 

assembly summoned together we will debate ; where we must take sodi 
counsel that what is well may endure so and abide, while as for whit 
must have medicinal remedy, we will do our kind endeavour with lancet 
or cautery to defeat the mischief of the sore. 

For the moment, I go to mine house and private chambers, where 
my hand's first greeting must be to the gods, who sent me foith and 
have brought me back. May victory, as she hath attended me, 
constantly abide with me still ! 

Clytaemfustra, Townsmen of Argos, her noblest present here, what 
love I have practised toward my husband my modesty will let me 
declare to you. With time men lose their fear. 

Ui)on no witness but mine own I can say, how weary were my days 
all the long while my lord lay before Ilium. A sore grief it is in itself, 
for a woman without a man to sit in the empty throne of the house, 
with ever persistent flatteries at her ear, and one coming after another 
with loud tidings of woe to the house each worse than the last As for 
wounds, if my lord was wounded as often as the conduits of fame 
brought news of it, he hath holes in him more in number than a net 
And had he died, as report thereof multiplied, he might, with three 
bodies like another Geryon, have boasted many times three — not beds, 
but coverlets rather of earth taken on to him, if he had had one death 
for each of his shapes. Such, ever present at mine ear, were the 
rumours that put me many times to the hanging noose, which otheis, 
preventing my eagerness, loosed from my neck. 

This is indeed why the boy Orestes, he who might best make 
confidence between thee and me, is not, as he should be, here ; be not 
surprised. He is in the special care of our ally, Strophius of Phocis, who 
warned me of double mischief, the peril first of thee before Ilium, and 
the chance that noisy rebellion from below might risk a plot against us, 
as it is native to man to spurn the more him that is down. The excuse 
however is such as cannot have guile in it 

But as for me, tlie fountains of my tears have run themselves dry, 
and there is no drop there. With watching late mine eyes are sore, 
with weeping for thine attendance of torch-bearers neglected still. The 
droning gnat with lightest flutter would wake me from dreams, in 
which I saw thee pass through more than the time of my sleep. 

Now, after all this misery, in the relief of my soul, I would hail 
this my husband as a watch-dog to the fold, the ship's securing stay, 
the high roof's grounded pillar, the father's sole-bom child; or as a 
land espied by mariners in despair, dawn as it looks most beautiful 
after storm, a flowing spring to the thirsty wayfarer, — but everywhere 

TRANSLATION w, 893—931. 247 

scape from distress is sweet; let these then stand for types of my 
Mhitatioiv. And let jealousy refrain, seeing how much was the woe we 
endured before. 

But now, I pray thee, beloved, step from this car — but not on the 
earth, king^ set that foot of thine, which has humbled Troy. Slaves, 
triiy delay ye to do your commanded office, and strow the ground 
of his way with coverings ? In a moment let the laid path be turned 
to purple, that to a home unexpected he may have conduct due. 

*And for the rest', a vigilance never laid asleep shall order it as 
just providence, I trust, intends'. 

Ag, Daughter of Leda, who hast my house in charge, if to the 
measure of my absence thou hast stretched the length of thy address, 
still, for a modest praise, the honour should proceed from some other 
lips. For the rest, offer no womanish luxuries to me, nor before me, 
as before a king of the East, grovel with open-mouthed acclaim, nor 
with vestures strown draw jealous eyes upon my path. To the gods 
these honours belong. To tread, a mortal, upon fair fineries is to my 
poor thoughts a thing of fear. Give me I say the worship not of thy god 
but of thy lord. No foot-cloths, no false refinements, need proclaim 
what rumour cries. An unpresumptuous mind is God's greatest gift : 
happy let him be called, who has come prosperously to the end. And 
that such will be ever my rule is the confidence for me. 

CI. Come answer, saving thy judgment, one question from me — 

Ag. My judgment, be assured, is fixed beyond change by me. 

CL — Didst thou bind thyself belike, in some hour of terror, to this 
observance ? 

Ag, Never was last word spoken on better reflexion than this. 

CL What had Priam done, thinkest thou, if he had achieved the 

Ag, He had made him a fine fair path, I am very sure. 

CL Then let not blame of men make thee ashamed. 

Ag, But the voice of the multitude is a mighty thing. 

CL Aye, but who moves no jealousy wins no envy. 

Ag, To love contention is not a woman's part. 

* I suspect that the MS. here has pre- perhaps expresses more doubt of the text 

served the letters (aya{) correctly and than I intend. I mean only to object to 

that we should write not ^va\ but aya^» the construction of elfJMpfUva as a predi- 

the vocative with the article, often used cate with ^cret. Properly divided and 

in abrupt and peremptory apostrophe. constructed I do not find the words open 

She stops him in the act of descending. to any objection. 

' The note here is not quite clear and 

248 TRANSLATION w. 932—984. 

CL Nay, but the great may e*en yield a point with grace. 

Ag. Thou plainly, no less than I, thinkest the point worth fight 

CL Yield : I constrain thee ; let it be with consent 

Ag, Then, if this be thy will, quick, let one loose my shoes, these 
trodden slaves to the serving foot — Even with these bare soles, as 
I walk the sacred purple, I hope no distant eye may give me an evil 
glance. It is shame enough ' to stain with the stain of human feet 
textures of price, purchased for silver. 

Of this enough. But here is one, whom thou must receive into the 
house with kindness. A gentle master wins from the distant eye of 
God an approving glance ; for none takes willingly to the yoke of a 
slave. This damsel was the choice flower of a rich treasure, bestowed 
by the soldiers upon me, with whom she goes. 

And now, since I am reduced to obey thee herein, I will proceed to 
the palace along your purple path". 

CL There is a sea (and who shall drain it dry?) which hath in 
it purple enough, precious as silver, oozing fresh and fresh, to dye 
vestures withal. And we have, O king, I trust, a chamber of such from 
which to take thereof, our house being unacquainted with poverty. 
Vestures plenty would I have devoted to the trampling, had it been 
proposed to me in some temple of divination, when I was devising 
means to bring this dear life back. It is the root of the house, whereby 
the leaves arrive that make a shade overhead against the dog-star. Yes, 
now, at thy coming to the famihar hearth, thy winter-coming betokens 
warmth, and when Zeus from the grape's sourness is making wine, then 
it is to the home like a sudden coolness to be visited by the crowned 
lord thereof. \Exit Agamemnon- 

Zeus, Zeus, who crownest all, crown but my prayer and let thy 
providence do even what thou wilt \Exit Ciyiaemnesira, 

The Elders, Why is it that so constantly my auguring soul shows 
at the door this fluttering sign, and the prophet-chant offers itself without 
bidding or fee? Canst thou not spit it away, hke an unexplainable 
dream, and reach such willing trust as the mind is glad to rest upon? 
Yet time hath heaped the sands of the shore upon the anchor-stones, 
since the naval host set forth to Troy: and they are returned, mine 
own eyes tell me so. But yet, as without the lyre, my bosom repeats 
that dirge of Doom, unlearned and self-inspired, unable to grasp in full 
the welcome assurance of hope. It cannot be for naught, the throb 

* See 7w. 950, 1655 etc phasis, given in Greek by the position 

* I have inserted the word your as and mere sound of the words xop^pvpas 
bome compensation for the loss of em- Tarwir, 

TRANSLATION w. 985—1045. 249" 

that with meaning recurrence ihe heart repeats lo the unmistaken breast. 
But I pray my false expectation may lose itself in void. 

Too true it is, thai the health which abounds encroaches ; for 
sickness is its neighbour right up to the wall : and human fortune, 
running straight, will strike on a hidden reef. And as to the saving of 
goods, fear, discharging the measured scale (?), may keep the whole 
house from sinking under an over-freight of riches, and the boat from 
going down. {Rich we know and abundant is the gift of Zeus, and fids 
the plague of hunger out of the annual field.) But as for a man's red 
blood, once shed from his dying body upon the ground, who with 
incantation may call it back ? Nay, not the straitest in virtue may be 
called from the <lead without sin ! 

And were it not that one god's purpose doth check and limit 
another's decree, my heart outrunning my tongue would have poured 

I these bodings forth ; but now she mutters in darkness, vexed and hope- 

' less ever to wind ofTher task in time, and stirring the fire within rae. 
\_Enter Clvtaemnestka.] 
Cfytaemnatra. Come in with thee, thou also, Cassandra, thou : 
since Zeus of his mercy hath set thee in a house, where thou mayest 
share the holy water in thy place with the crowd of slaves at the 
altar of stead and store. Descend from the car, and be not 
proud. They say tliat Alcmene's son himself was sold and still bore 

, up in spite of the slave's low fare. If it so fall that one needs must 
take that state, masters not new to wealth are a thing to be thankful for. 
They to whom a rich pile hath come by surprise are to their slaves 
cruel always and over-strict. From us thou art receiving what custom I 

An Elder. Tis to thee she speaks, and plainly. She waits for d 
thee. And may-be, since, thou art in the toils of fate, thou should'sl 
obey, if it may be, — though, may-be, thou wilt not. 

CI. Nay, if her foreign tongue is anything less unintelligible J 
than a swallow's twitter, my reason urged is spoken within her under- I 

Eld. Go with her. She urges what, as things are, is best Obey, I 

\ arise, and leave the chariot 

I CI. I have no leisure, you may know, to be thus dallying abroad. | 

For at the hearth, 'the central hearth", there are victinns standing already 
for the sacrifice of the fire— since of the present joy there was no expec- 
tation ! And thou, if thou wilt take part in this, must not delay. If 
for want of understanding thou takest not what I say, then with thy 
foreign hand converse instead of voice. I 

250 TRANSLATION m. 1046— 1094. 

Eld. An interpreter, and a plain one, the strange lady doth indeed 
seem to want. She hath the air of a beast new-taken. 

CL Aye, mad she is, and listens to her folly. She comes here from 
a new-taken town, and yet she has not the sense to bear the bridle, 
until she foam her humour away in blood ! But I will waste words no 
more, to be so scorned 1 \Ex\JU 

Eld. And I, for I pity her, will not be angry. Come now, 
unhappy, come down from where thou ridest and take on thee willingly 
the new yoke of hard fate. 

Cassandra, Ah ! . . . O God ! . . . Apollo, O Apollo ! 

Eld, What means this sad cry on the name of Loxias ? It suits 
him not to meet a singer so melancholy. 

Cass, Ah !...0 God !.. .Apollo, O Apollo ! 

Eld, Once more the ill-omened cry, and upon that* god, one all 
unfit for a scene of lamentation ! 

Cass, Apollo, God of the Gate, a very Apollo to me ! Thou hast 
more than proved thy name, before and now again. 

Eld, She will prophesy, methinks, upon her own miseries. The 
soul retains that gift, when all but that is slave. 

Cass, Apollo, God of the Gate, a very Apollo to me ! Ah, where, 
where hast thou led me? Oh, what house should this be*? 

Eld, The palace of Atreus sure it is. That, if thou conceivest it 
not, I tell to thee : and thou canst not say it is false. 

Cass, Ah no, ah no, an abominable place, full of guilty secrets. . .yea, 
of unnatural murderers... aye verily, a place of human sacrifice, sprinkled 
with blood of babes! 

Eld, The strange woman doth indeed seem keen as a hound upon 
a scent. She is on a track of murder where she will find. 

Cass, Yes, there is the evidence that I trust upon ! See yonder 
babes, weeping their sacrifice, their flesh roasted and eaten by their sire! 

Eld, We had heard of thy fame as prophetess, had heard of it : 
we seek none to speak for thee. 

Cass, Oh God!... What is this, what purpose of strange woe, 
horrible, horrible, that she purposeth here within? The fate of her 
nearest, fate beyond remedy, and no help nigh ! 

Eld, This prophesying is beyond my knowledge. The other I 
knew, for all the town is loud with it. 

Cass, O cruel ! Wilt thou do it ? The partner of thy bed, wilt 

* rhv is demonstrative. between To what a house ?, as the words 

^ It is hard, if not impossible, to pre- are meant, and To what house ?, as the 
serve perfectly the ambiguity of the Greek hearers understand them. 

TRANSLA TION m 1 095— 1 1 60. 251 

thou cleanse him with lustration, and then — O, how can I say it? Aye, 
soon it will be done. She is reaching forth, she is stretching hand after 
liand ! 

Eld. I understand not yet. Then hints, now oracles blind perplex 
me still. 

Cass. Ah! 

What appeareth now? Surely a net of Death? Nay, rather the 
snare is she, who shared the bed, who shares the crime. Now let the 
Chorus of Death, who thirst for the blood of the race, raise their ritual 
cry over their victim stoned. 

Eld. What fiend is this, whom thou biddest sing triumph over this 
house ? Thou lookest not glad thyself at the word. Pale is the drop 
that runs to thy heart, even such as from a mortal wound drips slow 
and slower when life's light sets and death is coming quick. 

Cass. Ah! Ah! See, see! 

Keep the bull from the cow ! She hath caught him in a vesture and 
gores him with her black, crafty horn. He falls in a vessel of water. In 
a treacherous murderous caldron is done the thing I tell thee. 

Eld. I cannot boast high skill in judging words inspired ; but these 
I judge to figure some ilL But by this way what good word ever is sent 
to man ? It is all ill, a skill of manifold phrases, offering for knowledge 
a terrifying chant. 

Cass. Alas, alas, for the hapless doom of a wretch, for mine own 
fate ! It shall have its drop in the lament. 

Where is this thou hast brought me, a hapless wretch, just only 
to die with thee, and nothing more? 

Eld. Thou art in some sort crazed by the god who hurries thy 
thoughts, and wailest thyself in a wild tune, like some brown nightingale, 
that with singing never sated laments, alas, heart-sore, for Itys, Itys all 
her sorrow-filled days. 

Cass. Ah, the fate of the musical nightingale ! For her the gods 
did clothe in a winged form, a sweet passage and a tearless, while I 
must be parted by the steel's sharp edge. 

Eld. Whence sent, by what power imposed, is thy vain agony, 
that thou shapest that fearful song with words so hard and harsh and yet 
with a march so clear? How findest thou the terms of woe which 
guide thine inspired way ? 

Cass. Alas, for the bridal of Paris, the doom of his kin ! Ah, 
sweet Scamander, my native stream ! Once on thy banks, ah me, was I 
nursed and grew. But now by the River of Wailing, aye, and of Woe, 
my prophet-voice, methinks, will be uttered soon. 


TRANSLATIOlf w. ii6t— mo. 

I Etd. What is this word thou hast spolceii, only too plain? A man 

\ new-bom might understand. 1 bleed beneath the wound of tlie pKous 

I singer's breaking misery, which shatters me to hear it 

F Can. Alas, for the bbour of Troy, Troy destroyed utl«l|f! 

Alas, for my father's sacrifices in her behalf, so" many grazing victims 

slain ! They served not at all to save the town from such &te as now it 

hath i and I, the sitk-brained, I shall soon be sent after the wise. 

Eld. Thy latter words go along with those before. Some po«a 
I thert is who with over-bearing press maddens thee to sing of sonows 
I tending to death, though the end I cannot see. 

I Cass. See now, my prophecy shall not any more be like a bride 

new-wed looking forth from a veil. It shall come in bright as a fresh 
wind blowing toward sunrise and rolling wave-like against the light a 
woe far higher than this now. My teaching shall be by riddles no 
longer. And be ye witnesses with how close a scent I run in the X^ 
I of the crimes done long ago. 

For out of that house there never departs a choir of voices in unison 
not sweet, for the words are not fair. Aye, and thty have drunk, to be 
the bolder, of human blood, and in the house they abide, hard to bt 
turned away, a rout of sister-fiends. They besiege the chambers and 
sing their song, with stiU-repeated burden denouncing the hated sin 
of him who deliled a brother's bed. 

Have 1 missed ? Or do 1 at all take observation like one that 
aimetb a shot? Or am 1 a false prophet, who babbles from door to doorp 
Bear witness, swearing first, that I do verily know the ancient sins in the 
story of this house. 

Eld. And how could an oath do good, being framed in its nature 
lo hurt? But I find it strange in thee, that bred beyond the sea 
thou should'st be as right about an alien city, as if thou hadst been there 

Cass. The prophet-god it was who gave me this power, for . , The 
time hath been when 1 dared not speak of it. 

Eld. For Apollo's self desired thee. Was it so? We are all more 
delicate in prosperity. 

Cass. Vea, then, he wrought with me, and migh^ was his 
And came ye too to the deed of kind in natural coursi 
I promised, but kept not faith with Loxias. 
And had he won thee with inspiration already g^ven? 
Yes, already I prophesied to my people all that 


And how could the wrath of Loxias reach thee then ? 

c hatBB. I 


u IxMII 


TRANSLATION w. laii— 1151. 


Cois. After I did that wrong, I could never make any believe me. 

Eld. To us however thou sternest a prophet worthy belief. 

Cass. Ah I. ..Oh agony! 

Again the fearful pangs of present vision' grow on me, whirling my 
soul in a confused beginning of— There!. ..Sitting there!. ye s 
them? Sitting before the house!. ..young children, lllte fonns in 

As infants slain by their parents they appear, their hands flill of that 
meat of which he ate, whose own flesh it was, carrying, oh pitiable 
burden 1, the hearts and inward parts, of which their father tasted. 

And hence the vengeance, plotted, I tell you, now by a certain lion 
of a craven sort, who haunting the couch hath watched at home for 
him, alas, who is come, who is lord — for the slave must bear the yolce — of 
me. Little he knows, the destroyer of Ilium, captain of a lost fleet, 
how the tongue of that lewd creature hath spoke and ' stretched', with 
joyful thoughts her ' plea ' (her cast !) of treacherous death, and fatally 
shall reach him ! So bold the crime, a woman to slay the man ! 

She is — ah what should the loveless monster be fitly called? A 
dragon, a Scylia, housed in the rocks, the mariner's bane, offering her 
fell sacrifices, like a priestess of Death, even while in the prayer of her soul 
her husband hath no pari. And how the bold wretch raised her cheer, 
as at the turn of battle, pretending to be glad of the safe coming- 
home ! 

And of this how much is believed, It matters not. What is to 
will come, nay, soon thou present thyself wilt say with compassion 
prophet only too true ! ' 

Eld. Thyesles' feast of children's flesh I understood, and shuddered. 
Truly 'tis more than semblance, and it makes me afraid to hear it. But; 
in what else was said I am thrown out of the track. 

Cass. I say that thou wilt see Agamemnon dead. 

O hush, poor creature, hush thy profane lips ! 

Nay, it is not as a Saviour that he directs this sentence. 

No indeed, if he will be present ; but I trust it shall 


be so. 

While thou prayest against them, they are busy to slay. 

Who is the man who is contriving this woe? 

Thou must indeed have looked far wide of what I showed. 

' By Ihc peculiar word SpBcuamla which [tic object becomes, as 

19 probably meant in the langunge perceptible to the actufll senses of tl 

fuivTiin) not Imt dh-tnalten but JirttI i^imt. 
diinnation. that is b corfimunlealion in 

254 TRANSLATION w, 1252— 1289. 

Eld, Tis that I understand not the plan of him who should 
do it. 

Cass, Sed now, I know the speech of Hellas, only too well 

Eld, Greek are the Pythian oracles, and yet hard to understand. 

Cass, Oh, this burning fire !...It is creeping over me I.. .Ah mercy, 
Apollo Lyc^us, mercy upon me ! * 

See the lioness two-footed, that couches with the wolf while the 
noble lion is away I She will slay me, wretch that I am ! Brewing as 
it were a medicine for her wrath, she will add to it also the recompense 
for me. She vows as she sharpens her man-slaying sword, to take of 
him for the bringing of me a bloody revenge. 

Why then in derision of myself do I bear these, and the sceptre of 
divination, and the stole about my neck ? 

Thee at least I will destroy ere I perish myself! 

Down, cursed things, to the ground, where thus I take vengeance 
upon you ! Because ye have been my ruin, die ye too, so as ye may. 

But see, Apollo himself, stripping from me the prophet's vesture \ 
He hath had the spectacle of me exposed, even in and along with this 
sacred garb, to the derision of friend and foe alike, and in vain — yes, 
* mountebank, beggar, starveling ' were the names, alas, that vagabond- 
like I had to bear: and now the Seer hath finished my seership and 
brought me to die like this, where there awaits me not the altar of my 
home but a butcherly block for a victim struck before the last blood is 

Yet not unregarded of heaven shall we die. For there shall come 
another yet to requite for us, one born to slay his mother, to avenge 
his sire. Exiled from this land, a wanderer disowned, he shall return, 
to put on this tower of unnatural crimes that pinnacle, whereto his 
father's death is the leading spire'. 

I am come to my * home ', and why thus wail ? Since I saw first 
Ilium meet the fate it hath, and now they, who were her captors, are 
brought by the gods of their choice to their present pass, I will go meet 
fate, will take death patiently, because the gods with a mighty oath have 
sworn it ! 

^ On the use of the title Lychis here, those master-strokes of language which 
somewhat in the sense of ^,rH)Kiw^ rpoo'- can be felt but not explained. 
TOTi^/Hof, see Prof. Jebb on Soph. 0. T, ' These terms of modem architecture 
^04. As the name also conventionally by no means fit as well as those of the 
imported protection, it is in itself an original, but I can do no better. Trans- 
appeal for mercy, and at the same time lation in such a case is more than com- 
portends, as it were, the Xi/KOf of the monly helpless, 
coming vision. It is in fact one of 

TRANSLATION w. 1290— 1329. 255 

Only I greet this door as the portal of Death, and my prayer is to 
receive a mortal stroke, that the blood-stream may flow easy, and I may 
not struggle but close mine eyes. 

Eld. O woman patient as miserable ! When all this is spoken, 
yet now, if verily thou dost know thine own death, why goest thou to it, 
stubbornly as the ox, which the god moves toward the altar ? 

Cass. There is no escape, friends, none, when the time is full. 

Eld, Yea, but the last of the time is best. 

Cass, The day is come. Little shall I gain by flight. 

Eld. Then be assured, that thou hast a stubborn patience ! 

Cass, So praised is never any save the unhappy. 

Eld, Yet a mortal may be glad to die with honour. 

Cass, Ah father, to think of thee and those, thy genuine children ! . . . 

Eld, What is it? What horror turns thee back ? 

Cass, O foul, O foul! 

Eld, What callest thou foul, if the loathing be not in thy fancy ? 

Cass, Tis the horror of dripping blood, that the house exhales. 

Eld, Nay, nay : it is the scent of the hearth -sacrifice. 

Cass, It is such a reek as might come out of a grave. 

Eld, Thou canst not mean the sweet incense of the palace*. 

Cass. Yet I will go, and within, as here, will wail the fate of me 
and of Agamemnon. Enough of life ! 

Oh friends, my friends 1 

I do not clamour for naught as a bird that dreads a bush. Bear this 
witness to me dead, when some day for my death another woman shall 
die, and for the hapless husband another fall'. This office I ask of you 
at the point to die. 

Eld, Ah miserable, I pity thee for thy death foretold ! 

Cass. I would speak one speech more — or is it mine own dirge ? 
To the sun I call, unto the last I see, that those my avengers may take 
of these my enemies a bloody vengeance also for the easy conquest of a 
poor slain slave. 

Alas for the state of man ! If happiness may be changed as it were 
by a shade, misery is a picture which at the dash of the wet sponge 
is gone. And this I say is the more pitiable by far. \Exit, 

^ Literally, *It is not the Syrian ^ The Greek implies, what cannot 

sweetness of the house which you de- with equal simplicity be conveyed in 

scribe'. But perhaps this verse should English, that both (Agamemnon and 

be read as a question, *Dost thou not Aegisthus) are ^Jpej to the same 7w^. 
mean the spicy incense?* 

256 TRANSLATION VD, 1330—1368. 

The Elders. Prosperity in all men doth naturally crave more. 
Though the palace be pointed at by jealous fingers, none forbidding 
shuts fortune out with these words ' Enter no more'. 

And so to the king the gods have given to take the town of Priam, 
and he comes honoured of heaven to his home : yet now if he must 
pay for the blood of those before, if adding death to deaths he is to 
crown the pile with yet other deaths in revenge, who hearing this could 
affirm that any mortal is bom with fortune beyond harm ? 

Agamemnon {within). Oh, I am struck, deep-struck and mortally ! 

Eld, Silence ! Who shrieks as wounded with a mortal stroke? 

Ag, Again, oh again ! Another stroke ! 

Eld, The deed, I doubt, is done, fi-om the cries of the king. But let 
us give each other safe counsel, if we may. 

The Elders in succession. 

1. I give you mine own judgment, that we summon a rescue of the 
townsfolk to the palace. 

2. Nay, 1 think we had best dash in at once, and prove the deed 
by the dripping sword. 

3. And I too am with this judgment so far', that my vote is for 
action. It is no moment for delay. 

4. There is occasion to beware. Their beginning betokens a plan 
to enslave the city. 

5. Yes, because we linger! They, while she hesitates, tread her 
honour down and work unresting. 

6. I know not what advice I may find to say. To a doer it belongs 
to advise about the doing. 

7. I too am of like mind, for I see not how with words to raise up 
again the dead. 

8. Are we to make death of life, thus yielding to the rule of those 
that have thus defiled a house ? 

9. Nay, 'tis intolerable, nay, death is better. It is a milder &te 
than to be enslaved. 

10. Are we then indeed by inference fi'om a cry to divine that the 
prince hath perished ? 

11. Best know the facts before we hear each other talk. Guessing 
and knowing are two things. 

* Literally * share a judgment like this*. 

TRANSLATION viK 1369— 1409. 257 

12. All sides support me in assenting to this, to have clear know- 
ledge how it is with Atreus' son. 

Clytaemnestra, If now I contradict all that to suit the moment 
I said before, I shall feel no shame. What shame should he feel, who 
plots as a foe against a foe ? With the semblance of friendship let him 
make his dangerous snare too high to be overleaped. 

For me, I have had long enough to prepare this wrestle for victory, 
though it has come at last. I stand where I struck, over the finished 
work. And such I made the death (I will own this also) as to forbid 
escape or resistance, a net unpassable, like the fisherman's round a shoal, 
a rich robe deadly dyed*. Twice I smote him, and with two shrieks 
he let himself sink down. And when he had fallen, I gave him yet 
a third stroke, an offering of thanks to the nether god, to Hades, safe 
keeper of the dead. With that he lay and himself gasped away his 
breath. And as he blew the spurts of his running blood, he rained 
upon me a crimson* gory dew, and I rejoiced no less than beneath the 
sweet rain of heaven doth the corn when it bursts from the labouring 

So stands the case, ye nobles of Argos here ; 'be glad of it, if ye 
will; for me, I triumph upon it. And could there be case fit for a 
libation over the dead, justly and more than justly now would it be. 
With so many imprecations of suffering homes this man hath filled the 
bowl which himself returning hath drained. 

Eld. We are astonished that thy mouth bears so bold a tongue, to 
boast over thy dead lord in such terms. 

CL Ye challenge me, supposed an unthinking woman. But I 
speak with unshaken courage to those who know, indifferent whether 
thou choosest to praise or blame. This is Agamemnon, my husband, 
wrought to death by the just handicraft of this my hand. So stands 
the case. 

Cho. What poison hast thou taken, woman, what drug born of 
the earth or draught from the great water, that thou hast brought on 
thyself the fury and the loud curses of yon folk ? Thou hast cut off, 

^ For the suggestion conveyed by the habit would demand more distinction of 
language here see on v, 949. colour. 

^ Literally 'dark-coloured ', but modem 

V. /E. A. 1 7 

258 TRANSLATION vik 1410— 1462. 

cast off* : and cast from communion shalt thou be, as a load on the 
people's hate. 

CI. Yes, now thou would*st award to me exile from my country, the 
hate of the people and their loud curses to bear. Thou dost not join 
in laying that reproach against him who lies here, against him who, 
caring no more than for the death of a beast, though his fleecy herds 
had sheep enough, sacrificed his own child, the darling bom of my 
pains, to charm the winds of Thrace. Is it not he whom thou should'st 
banish from Argive soil for his foul crime? No, it is in judgment 
of me that thou art an auditor severe ! But I warn thee, threatening 
thus, to think that I am prepared, ready that he who conquers me in 
fair fight should rule me; but if fate intends the contrary, thou wilt 
be taught, too late, the lesson of prudence. 

Eld, Thou art proud of thought, and presumptuous is thy note, 
for indeed the murderous stroke is maddening thee The blood-fleck 
in thinfc eyes is right natural. For all this, thou shalt find thyself 
friendless and pay retaliatory stroke for stroke. 

a. This also for thy hearing I solemnly swear. By the accom- 
plished Justice for my child, by Doom and Revenge, to whom I offered 
this dead man up, my hope doth not set foot in the house of fear, 
so long as fire be kindled for the lighting of my hearths by Aegisthus, 
still devoted as ever to me. 

For there, as our broad shield of confidence, lies, outraging his 
wife, my husband — the darling of each Chryseis in the Trojan camp ! — 
and with him his captive, his auguress, his oracle-monger mistress, 
who shared with him faithfully even the ship's bench and the canvas I 
But they did it not unpun'shed ! For he lies as ye see, and she, having 
sung swan-like her last sad song of death, lies by him loveably, adding 
to the sweet of my triumph a spice of sex. 

Eld. Ah, could some death come quick, which without agony, 
without pillowed watch, might bring to us endless sleep, now that our 
kindest protector is laid low, who having much endured for a woman's 
sin *, hath by a woman lost his life ! 

Oh... Helen, who didst alone destroy that multitude, that great 
multitude of lives at Troy, now, for thy final crown, thou hast destroyed 
one, the stain of whose murder shall not be washed away ! Surely 
there hath been in this house a hard-fought rivalry of fatal wives. 

^ Theconjectureof Wieseler,dW5i/ce<r\ But I think it injurious and (for reasons 

dvirafiey <r', should perhaps have been explaine4 in App>endix II.) unnecessary, 

mentioned in the note, as a simple re- • To l)e accurate, the word should be 

storation of the syllabic correspondence. ambiguous between woman and ttn/e. 

TRANSLATION in>. 1463— 1538- 


CI. Nay, pray not for death in indignation at this. Nor turn thine 
anger on Helen, as ir alone in destruction she had destroyed that 
multitude of Ai^ve lives and wrought incomparable woe. 

Eld. Oh Curse, how hast thou fallen on Tantalus' house in either 
branch, and shared between two women a life-destroying victory for 
which my heart is sore ! Lo, on the body, methinks, like a foul bird 
of prey he stands, boasting to celebrate a triumph lawful and just. 

Oh. ..Helen, who didst alone etc 

CI. Nay. now thou hast mended the judgment of thy lips, in that 
thou callest upon the fat-fed Curse of this race. For therefrom is bred 
this craving of the maw for blood to lick, ever new gore, ere the old 
woe be done. 

Eld. Verily mighty he is and malignant, the Curse of this house, 
of whose never-sated cruelty thou dost, alas, so grievously testify. 
And oh, and oh, it comelh by Zeus, the cause of all, the doer of all! 
For what without Him is accomplished upon men ? What of all this is 
not of divine appointment ? 

Oh king, oh king, how shall I weep for thee? Out of my heart's 
love what shall I say? And thou didst lie in this spider-web, dying by 
a wicked death, ah me. on this couch of slavery, struck down by a 
rrafiy arm with a weapon of double edge ! 

CI. Darest thou say this deed was mine? Imagine not that I am 
Agamemnon's spouse. No, in the shape of this dead man's wife, the 
bitter fiend, long since provoketl by Atreus the cruel feaster, hath made 
by this full-grown victim payment for those slain babes. 

Eld. That thou art guiltless of this murder, who shall aver? It 
cannot, cannot be : though perchance the fiend of his sire might be 
thy helper. He riots in fresh streams of kindred blood, the red Man- 
slayer, drawn to the infant blood-slot of the child-flesh served for meat. 

Oh king, oh king, how etc, 

A Conspirator. His death, methinks, is not a death of slavery, 

CI. And did he not then himself do a crafty crime against his 
house? Nay, for the thing he did lo thu blossom bom of me and 
him, my long-wept Iphigema, justice is done upon him '. I^t him not 
boast in Hades, for he hath paid, as he sinned, with death. 

Eld. My mind is blank and I find no ready thought, which way lo 
fly from the tottering house. The storm will strike it, I fear, and wreck 
it quite, the storm of blood. The rain is ceasing, yet Justice is but 
whetting once more on the whet-stone of hindrance her sword to punish 

26o TRANSLA770N w. 1539—1597. 

Oh earth, earth, would that thou hadst received me, before I had seen 
my lord laid thus low in the silver-sided bath ! Who shall bury him? 
Who sing his dirge ? Wilt thou dare to do it, thou, that hast slain thy 
husband, dare to lament his parted soul? The compensation will 
scarce atone the offence ! But who will stand over the hero's grave and 
pour forth the tearful praise with heart that truly aches ? 

CI. It belongs not to thee to regard this care. By us he fell, he 
died, and we will bury him, not with weeping of his household, no, but 
Iphigenia his daughter, as is fit, will meet her father with joy at the swift 
passage of the sorrowful ford, and fling her arms around him, and give 
him a kiss. 

Eld, Thus is reproach answered with other reproach ! Tis a hard 
case to judge. The spoiler spoiled, the slayer amerced ! And it 
abides, while Zeus abides on his throne, that to him that doeth it shall 
be done: for lawful is it. Who can expel the cursed breed from the 
house ? It is a kind that sticketh fast. 

Oh earth, earth, would that etc 

a. Up to this death it hath truly followed prophecy, but I now am 
ready to swear a compact with the Fortune of the house of Pleisthenes, 
that we accept, hard though it be, what is done, if henceforth he will 
leave this house and harass with kin-murder some other race. A part 
of the wealth is not much to me who have it all, and moreover I am 
content if I but rid the palace of this internecine frenzy. 

[Enter Aegisthus etc] 

Aegtsthus, Hail, kindly dawn of the day that brings justice ! 
This hour I will confess that from above earth gods look upon and 
avenge the woes of men, now that I see in a robe of the Furies' 
weaving this man lying as I would, and paying for what the hands of 
his father devised. 

For Atreus, ruling in Argos, this man's father, being questioned in 
his sovereignty by Thyestes, who was (to make all clear) father to me 
and brother to Atreus himself, banished him from his house and from 
the country also. And Thyestes, having returned as a suppliant to the 
hearth, found, unhappy man, safety so far, that his life-blood was not 
shed upon his father's floor. But taking the very occasion of his 
arrival, Atreus, the impious father of this slain man, pretending, with 
eagerness little welcome to my father, to hold a glad day of festival, 
served him a banquet of his children's flesh. Of the extremities, the 
foot-parts and fingered hands, he put a mince on the top, sitting down 
with tables apart And not knowing it at the moment for what it was, 
he took of the meat disguised, and ate of a meal, which, as thou seest, 

TRANSLATION Vf). 1598—1640. 26r 

his race have found unwholesome. And when he perceived ihi 
thing he had done, he shrieked and fell back vomiting the sacrifice, 
and called a terrible doom on the house of Pelops, aiding his 
imprecation by the spurning of the banquet, that thus might perish 
all the race of Pleisthenes, 

This is the cause which has laid this man where ye may see. And 
it is a justice that I am the maker of this murder. Me whom, for my 
miserable sire's 'just third', he sent, a swaddled babe, into exile along 
with him, that justice halh brought back again as a man. Even from 
beyond the border I reached my victim, contriving and combining the 
whole hard plan. And now 1 can even die with honour, having seen 
him in the toils of this just revenge. 

Eld. Aegisthus, I care not to insult distress ; but dost thou confess 
unasked to be this man's slayer, the sole contriver of this pitiable 
murder? I say that thou before justice wilt not escape, be sure, 'the 
people's dangerous imprecation ' of stones '. 

Aeg. Speakest thou so, thou, whose place is at the lower oar, while 
they of the deck are masters of the ship ? Thine age will learn how 
grievous it is for one of thy years to be schooled in the dictate of 
prudence. Yet the pains of bonds and the pains of hunger are most 
surpassing mediciners to school the oldest mind. Doth not this sight 
warn thee? Kick not against the pricks, lest hitting thou hurt thy- 

£iJ. (?) Thou woman ! Thou, who abodest at home, helping to 
defile a brave man's bed! And shall then warriors fresh returned from 
battle^ ? It is a captain of soldiers whose death tliou hast thus 
' contrived '. 

A^. These words again will prove the fathers of weeping. Thy 
tongue is the opposite of Orpheus': for whereas he drew all things along 
with the joy of his voice, thy soothing bark will provoke, till thyself art 
drawn along. But once mastered thou wilt prove tamer. 

Eid. And shall I think that thou shalt be despot of the Argives, 
who, being the ' contriver' of tlie king's death, didst not dare to do the 
deed of murder thyself? 

Aeg. The part of deceit fell manifestly to the wife ; 1, as a hereditary 
foe, was open to suspicion. In the wealth of the dead man I shall seek 
the means of control On the disobedient subject I shall lay a heavy 
yoke, and give him, I warrant you, less than a racer's provender. Yes, 


I The paint here made upon dpi and that no translali 
mo' is so far alien from modem English U. 

n faiily represent 

262 TRANSLATION w, 1 641— the end 

hunger, which doth not mate peaceably with high spirit, will not leave 
him till he is mild. 

Eld, Why then of thy cowaxxlice didst thou not butcher the victim 
alone ? Why, to the defilement of our country and our country's gods, 
join the wife with thee in the murder? Oh, doth Orestes haply live, 
that by grace of fortune he may return to this land and slay this pair 
victoriously ? 

Aeg, Nay then, if thou wilt so say and dp, thou shalt have a lesson 
at once ! 

A Soldier of Aegisthus. Come on, comrades ! Our work is not far 
off now. 

Aeg, Come on ! Make ready ! Draw every man his sword ! 

Eld. Nay, I too, sword in hand, am prepared to die. 

Soldier, * To die ! * An acceptable word ! We take the moment 

CL Nay, dearest, let us do no more ill. What is done is much 
to reap, a bitter harvest Begin pain with enough ; but let us have no 
bloodshed. Go ye at once and confine these old men to their destined 
dwelling-place before they come to harm (?). What we arranged should 
have stood*. And if we should find that enough has been inflicted, 
there we will stop, sore smitten as we have been by the heavy heel' of 

Aeg, And must they thus flaunt the folly of their tongues against 
me, and tempt fate with a fling of such high words ? 

CL And when they lose their senses, must he who is master of 
them do the like ? 

Eld, It is not the way in Argos to fawn upon a villain ! 

Aeg, Well, I will come up with thee one of these days yet 

Eld, Not if heaven guide Orestes back to the land. 

Aeg, I know myself how exiles feed upon hopes. 

Eld, Go on, make thee fat, and befoul the good cause, as thou 

Aeg, Be sure thou shalt make me amends for this kind insolence ! 

Eld Brag, brag with boldness, like a cock beside his hen ! 

CI, Care not for this idle barking. I and thou will make good 
order, being masters in this house. 

' Taking dpffcu^ for Kcup^, fighting cock. Aeschylus draws upon 

' Modern English will hardly bear the this pastime for poetry more than once. 
Greek metaphor from the 'spur' of the 


(The numbers are those cU the head of the notes indicated,) 


-o, Doric in senarius, 1178 

o, retained in place of 17 after r, loi 

AfiKufiel^, 1007 

&pp6rifios, 694 

dyKa0«p, App, A 

iiTfvdvaii 0Xi;y, 699 

ik'^ofojiw. 0€oli 90 

dyvidrrfs, 1065 

'AtwaJj, 1146 

dytifif, dyowlaf 1144 

dyt^, meetin^i 836 

dytl^ioi d€oL, 518 

otditfTOf, App, K 

&TTOJ, 146 

-oi, elision of (?), 381 (see App, II.) 

cUrtw, 97 

oZ^of, neuter (?), 1547 

cUroOfuUf I am asked j 150 

«'X/*i>» impulse^ 489 

ai(^, 238 

(iiccur/ceuoSi 740 

OKSpeoTOSi 990 

aKdperos (?), 1105 

<{«/>af drd <pp€vbi^ 796 

dicciff^, without willy 189 

cOJyeip, 1550 

•AX^icwJpof, 61, 375, 708, 713 
dXi;, )04 

&XXof rts for fT€p6s ris, 1^67 
aXo/5opos, App, K 

dXoi;/>yi^, dXovp7£f, 937 

dfAdpriov, 541 

ctiMiw, 973, 1038 

dfiApCKeicTos, 871 

di', anticipatory, 1032 

dy, yriih past tense of indicative (con- 
jectural), 924, 1251 

dM, with subjunctive, as modified impera- 
tive, 1346 

Anucrof, or 

e2yarr6f, App, W 

dvaffriviiv, 551 

cjfdpcucdi Ka6rjiT0ai, 1594 

dif€tir€af, 379 

d^eXeiiOepoSt 1495 

«^P. 535 
din/jp=PpOT6st 994 
dvOtiVf 664 
dv^of, wreath J 1457 
df^Xtos, 514 
a{(0vXXof, 699 
({^{^raro;, 1468 
3op (?), i53« 
^ATayxpfUpfit 1107 
dvaydlj^eof, 1662 
dirairirof, 323 
dirapKeTyt 389 

diFipeijTOS, 886 
dm^/iayrof, 389 
uTOifMii^y 341 
diroin1^0'ai, 1191 



aT6ff KOTOS t 467 

diroTriyeiiff 504 

drrepof 4>dTis, 188 

apd, 464 

apd, 1616 

o^ dcnroF^oft 1234 

op^ety, 389 

i.pfx6tt 670 

"AfyrtfuSt 1107 

<^>X«"'» ^^ ^ aggressor^ 1531 

&pX€<r6cu Gfurov etc., 1 191 

dtf-To^dos df>(i, 1234 ' 

orat, 731 

rfny, rwi«, 810 

dWnyj, ariroj, 7 a 

-aroSf adjectives in, from substantives in 

-fULy 121 

a^Xa/3€(^, 1007 
ai)r6f, 684, 871, 1590 
oi>t6x^oi'os (?), 541 

ovTo'x^wi', 541 

OApicadcu (7vi'ouica), A^p» K 


Paivuy aor. middle, 770 
pdWciy = ippeiPf A pp. V 
/S/cuw, T/)6sTd, 133 
Picdbfs, 192 
/Sfcw, ir/)dj, 867 

/3/0I' KT€lv€lVt 1 36 1 

/9Xa^i7, hindrance, 1533 
fioi^=^i^d€ia, 1348 
/SouXi;, 875 
/9ot/s, proverbial, 36 
/3pa/3ci5s, 238 
/3p/f€iy, App. V 
pp6Toi = atfjLaTay 232 
/3w/wJf, 392, 532 


7, doubling of as a graphic device, 112, 

1 164 
W» 227 
yap, justifying (not proving) what was 

previously said, 1204 
yiyya, as a plural term, 121 
ycppolus, by nature, 1 1 97 
7CF0V, periphrastic imperative made with, 

origin of, 97 

76papiJt, 712 

7£7af, 696 

yviiiyap, vapd, 922 

7uv4 term of abuse, 1625 


d4y apodotic with resumptive proDonn 

{<rd d4), 1045 
U (and yap), postponed in the sentence, 

232* 308, 743» 954» i«90» »573. '590 
U, resumptive, 12, 194 

8i, for dXXi, 1062 

d€r7/ia, j/Jfw, App. S 

der7/xa, display, 783 

detrvoy, 142 

S^icaror f/iap, 509 

WpiJ. 34' 

SjIfiOKpatrros, 464 

dripLOKpaTos, 464 

8ri/jLoppuf>i^, 16 1 6 

$iairoi'er<r^ou, 19 

ducaioOr, 398 

dtici7 (dtKcty), 1227, -<4[/^. X 

5/«rT;, z&^;i/, custom, 261 

3Mri706poJ, 530 

«t^fa x^wi', App. M 

Spofioi, 121 

dpoaos and l/xri;, 147 

5u«"d7ijj, 1 164 

dv^iri/^s, 1254 


ipdfiriP, 770 

^770i'€ti', 385 

iyyopos, 385 

iyprnyopoi (?), 358 

€t, concessive, 357, 359 

e/ 5* oi^y, 681, 1026 

d wov, 524 

c^Kos, with dative, 580, App, N 

"RlXtiOvta, 136 

cf/ryw (Ip^w), 1657 

clpiifj^ya, TO, u/Ao/ woj commanded, 

App. G 
clpofiiyyj X^^j, 1532 
e/s (o^ou'eioy), 392 
^/coi/<r(OT, 794 
iKTroLTios, App, B 



ilCT€lP€V, 810, 1227 

^icreXijf, 105 
iK^OTiot, 708 

^«Xf«'» 334 
^ffibr 0dyeu, 161 3 

iXata, 498 

A^af , 693 

i\€60€pos, 1495 

ififiabfto, with accusative, 1566 

ifi^atot, 196 

tfjLiredoSi wis^t App, V 

iT€Uf6l^€a6cu, 1457 

^y, of * circumstance *, 487, 690, 909 

hOrfpoty 566 

Ixcty, hrcffBatf 146 

^Tco^eu, 552 

iiF€ta'ff>pibff 855 

eircjJxeroj, 1475 

eir£, of the object of an action, 61 

iiFialpuj, 288 

ivlducos, 1605 

iwiKpopiUt 1339 

iirafifuadcut passive, 491 
iwiifnifd^faOaif 117a 
iwopdpia^€iy, 29 
#irot (^iri;) KevOeiw, 791 


#/xT ipiifMTos, 1 46 1 (see also loii) 

ep/cof, 267 

^/xriy, 147 

^<rW, ^(TTt, 436 

Arrt, 676 

^(TT^, 1436 

ft-of (?), 763 

injT^fiws, 177, 687 

€5, assonance on, 557, 797 

cUSeros, 451 

€v<r€^iPt transitive (?), 350 

effroX/toT, 1297 

cifif>p6vri, two meanings, 276 

i^aSau irt)Xeus, etc., 12 16 

^X***'* ^^^^» recdwe, 670, 724 

iiijif for «!>, -<4//. D 


-17, preserved in Chorus, 385, 427, 715 
-1;, Epic, as an archaism, 580 

ripoLf III 

iliovii, flattery, 854 

^iJf, App. K 

7l/i€p64xiTOS, 82 

^iof, 163 1 
^ Tov, 524 


esucoi, 524 

tfdXoo'cra, ritual meaning of, App, O 

ddpffos, 794 

tfau/xd^ciy, construction of, 1198 

^etof, miraculous, 484 

^^/us, absolutely, like xMvv, 224 

6cpfjL6yovs, 1 171 

&ripiova0at, 566 

^tr>, 43' 

OviaKta {riBwrfKa), 544 

Opicoif 794 

6paa^€ip, transitive and intransitive, 232 

6pavfM, 1 164 

dpiyxds, OpiyKdv, 1283 

tftJco', 1234 

^i^XXa, 810 

^wi;X^, 810 

SOofuu, 142 

B{w,fury, 1409 

Ovpala, substantive, 1039 


-cas (d^^af), 1 1 7 

•urof, adjectives in, 15 10 

IVtj, 718 

/<ro-, in compounds, 75, 147 1 

/<roTpt/3^s (?), 1444 

Iffb^irxpi, 147 1 

iarvrpi^'tli, 1444 


ica^eu/>e(i', condemn, 408 
Koi — and particularly, 4 
Kodpios, mortal, 1342 
«a\d, as invocation, 146 
xdpra, App, U 
ifOTo^iw, 577 
Karawtlw, 107 
KarapplwreiP, 875 
KaT€pydj^€ffOai, 531 
icdrouof, 1284 



K{\ev$os = 656i, ^oin^t 132,434 
KfpdyvvfUf metaphorical application to 
contracts, 464 

KlP€l¥, 88 

K\dfiVf 880 

icXdfw, ^//. E 

«X4fw, ^//. E 

kMu^kX^^, 1 181 

KoXKoM, metaphorically, 1565 

KO/dj^eiVt 794 

K^ifts Kduris miXoOy App. M 

KpaHiPi figure for a bond or league, 1396 

KpdroSt victory t 1471 

KpLvta, prefer, 477 

KpUris, choosing, 1287 

iCT^roj, 133 

jm^ioj, 1021 

K6ptos, 869 

M^wr, ^, term of contempt, 1227, ^/!^» ^ 


XdxTur/na Seinvov, 1 60 1 

XaAiim7/9ovx'a, 881 

X^^s clpofUtnj, 1532 

X€(;<r(/Aoi' ^D/xa, 1 107 

XiJ^oAuu, 39 

X^retpoi, 1234 

X^wp, 1234 

X(/u/Mi (SKififjLa, \eififiat aXei/x/ma ?), ^//< C 

X^rro/Aou, 867 

Xoi$o/>€U', Xotdopfa, App* K 

Xi/pas, ({vei;, 980 


fidj^a douX/a, 1025 

fidirrtSt use of sign by, ^/^. S 

fjtdari^, 647 

/t€7(iXa, adv., 392 

fU\as, red, 1005, 1510 

/tieXXti (?), 1355 

/u^i', position of, 739 

pAv, not always inserted where admissible, 

yjkv Toi, separate force, 934 

fjL€a6/M<pa\oif 1040 

/x»J, with pres. subj., as independent sen- 
tence, 353 

fnfyrc-fnir* oiV, 371 

M^p, matron (?), 1234 

M-o^pa, drvision, 133 

/loipa, part, 1588 

M^pof, * means of death', 1380 

fwdwaOai, 1367 


Kf = ^4(?), 1480 

yoL, App, U 

if€6n7 = i'eurof (?), 1376 

vdpa (?), 1480 

retpof (?), 1480 

Woi', adverb, 1625 

i^ffTts, plural mjoreij (?), 343 

rgrepos (?), 161 7 

rt^fj d* 6 "wpCoTos ktK,, App, H 

y6fiof 6p0ios, 1 1 50 


^ui'-, tf/r., see oi/y-, rff. 
-^, -|o, tenses in, 686 


Wc, emphatic, the present, the last, 1041 
Wc, explained by gesture, 504, 937, 1566 
6d^, metaphorically for the journey of 

life, 105 
oZd, how, 1227 
o75a, emphatic sense, 1 193 
olKot, store, 953 
ofraj, olrrii, 720 
Acvos, -<f/^. T 
bpajf, beware, 1623 
6/rya(, 69 
hpQwi vhpjoii, 1 1 50 
5pKos, 1 1 97 
hpfiaUfeiy, 1387 
6affos, 6(Taov, peak, 475 
^€=5x01', 762 
0^^ 7dp...;, 1524 
oiidiv, emphatic negative, 783 
06 Tore, oCfdhf irorc, emphatic n^ative, 

oihriif, never, as strong n^ative, 683 
oOpdruM d€ol, 90 
Oitpavbi, Kp6yos, Zein, 170, 178 
-ouxos, 881 
6\f^a90P, App. F 




roMb', 154 

TfuSiopparr^fMif, 1077 

TM, 731 

Tcuf, servant, 397 

xeuf and riKyw^ App. B 

rcuwr, 1246 

irdXcuof (from irdXi;), 1376 

raX/7/corof, 865 

•KULiuvli {T6Dtuu)t etc., 995 

rofiTpoffOtt 715 

To/m in irapd roo-oDrw, irap' Ir, etc., 1068 

TopaAuSw, 973 

rrapajr^iMTtufj 441 

npaffKoreTw, 1351 

-wapaaraOfuot (?), 1039 

xdpavra, 738 

aropc^tf, 1 5 10 

»^l« (?), 561 
xo/K^tf (?), 561 

v&rost App. B 
vuOrifuay, 429 
V€i0(S>f 106 
rhOeia, App, L 
vevBii/uaiff 429 
■rep- for irc/x-, 1 144 
replTTefiTTa, ireplvcfirf/iSt 88 

ir^/io, of a dpxosi 1 197 

TlffrevfMt S62 

irXoDrof, emphatic sense, 940 

xretK, metaphorically of spirit, 1 234 

iryctF, compounds of, double sense, 107 

vpeieuf, 107 

voucCKoSt rd irot/cfXa, 916 

xo(bf ; 190 

x6X(f = iroXrreu, 398 

vordaOait metaphorically of person or 

thing renowned, 580 
vpdyfMt exaction, 1531 
Tpo^ts, 367 

irpdffffUi absolutely, 1288 
TTpdreit is naiuraliy, 439 
vp€w6ifTutPt gen. absol., 1394 
TpO'f ivi-f correlative, App. E 
TTpdPovXos, 397 
rpSdiKos, 457 
ir/)69ovXos, vicariusy 936 

vpoffhoKCLVt suppose , 689 
iFpoatUuf (?), 807 
irpoa€ucdl^€iP, 173 
TpoaijffOtUf 1 190 
rpo<rrcuos, 359 

T/HXTTp^W, 737 

Tpo<rrp4<p<a (?), 737 
Tp6<rTpififM, 398 
irp6ff4>cLyfMy App. Z 
irporAeui, 65, 237 
wpoTiftoM, with genitive, 1672 
irpo^ijnTS, 1083 
irpotftiiTrii dofitav, App. K 
TFpSippiaif, Tpo^poiKat, App. E 
irupds <r0aya/, 1041 
xw = ir(R;, 1508 


^TTeuf /SovX^y, 875, 16 16 
^i^iw, 540 


(To/yeiy, 787 
(Tilp^, muscle t 72 
<r€ipa4>6poSt 1640 
ffrifjuurrrfpiost 614 

(TTipfia, 532 
(nro^tiir^cu, 676 
tf-Tctfcu', 189 

OTcurtj ipovoVf 1 105, 1 107 
arpov66sf 152 
otJ (<r<H), 501 
crtJ^ficoToi, 463 
<rj6fiPo\os, 150 
<Tvii,Trv€i», 196 
ff^fjupvTot, 159 
ai^i', instrumental, 661 
awifi^Xoy, 973 
ff^€vyos ffcXfjdTUfVf 1443 
<rwriyopos, 822 
dri>y ^eocs, 904 
0*00702 -rvpos, 104I 
ff<f>€pd6inj, 995, ^//. T 
<rx€«poj, ax€6p6i, 1294 
aiapjoLTOtpOopetVy 939 
0-far7^p v€Kpiap^ 1385 




rayi\ (ro^ts), 813 

ravrnU^ 551, 13 19 

re, ii6f 128 

re and U^ 296, 1585, -^f/^/. Y 

rt..M, 1573 

re...ira^ as... so, 334 

re... re, as... so, 76, coupling closely related descrip- 
tions, 1226 

TCKfii^pioVf bilUtf 344 

T€\40€iy, 100, 473 

rActoj, of a victim, 963, 1505 

rAos, ^wa/ decisum, 925 

Hfufeip, as term in medicine, 1 7 

r«Jx«» €T€v^dfirfPy 153 

rix^ai, of the mantle art, prophecy, 260, 

T7;/)ear, 1193 

W, representing a verb, 79, 926 

riy^\ 1 134 

W oiJ; 561 

TlOeaOai, io score, as in a game, 32 

W(i;=d^((a, with genitive, 933 

r<i, etc., as demonstrative, 322, 362 

t6, etc., as relative, 354, 531 

-r^ y<H>y 755 
rh Si, 755 

t6 tUv...Th hi, 995 

r& tiff, with infinitive, depending on 0o- 

jSeur^eu, fl>6fioSf 14 

Tora, roT^, etc., -<^//. E 

r6 irar, 437 

r& irav, 01), 982 

rSffffos, 146 

Tore, before, 790 

rodrw /A^y o0T(u, 941 

Tpiwew vftffw, 841 

^p*^i 471 

rOfMvvos, 819 (see TranslcUion) 


0A<ycw ofxeaOai, etc, 1 191 

inrdpx^uf (rtyot), /i^ mo^ a beginmiMg of, 

Otp6w, 189 
^(?), 1 163 
u«^, with dative, 883 
vrrlojfffM, 1283 


^a-, 0d, 82 
0(ir(u ^ircb'y, 161 2 
<f»drLi, address, 616 
<t>d6voL, 824 
^tX^wp(?), 1445 

^£X(i7$ ^/A0<, 1 58 I 

<l)6^i cdfiaroffraY^s, 1307 
4>ov€wns, 132 1 

tppovrifia, presumption, 739 
^vraX/aoj, 339 
fpiaviav (e7ire), 215 


Xatlpf. 544 

Xftipeiy, with dative, 577 

XcU/>€ti', rA, 503 
XaXxoi; ficupcd, 617 
Xap<£, 722 
Xapll;€ff0al Ti, 315 
XO/HJ, <:Aflrw, 383 
X€\tS(ay, 1034 
X17X17, 1660 
Xp^os, obligation, 464 


yl^afi/dop, 973 
^i^^s, 987 


a;;, in limiting or qualifying sense, 347 
uVrre (^crru' wore), 1394 


(Only such references are given in this Index as could not conveniently 

find a plcLce in the foregoing^ 


Abstract for concrete (Tci/)e^4i=T6 irape- 

xhy^vov\ 1 510 
Accusative in apposition to the action, 

653* 734 
in apposition to the action, preceding 

the verb, 345 
of duration of time (^^pof), 561 
of * motion to *, extension of, 300 
Adjective, verbal, with construction of 
verb, 1075 
neuter used as substantive, 273 
treated as participle, 726 
Adverb with dependent case, 1581, 1590 
'Acolic* form of irepi- in compounds, 

Anapaests, hiatus in, 785 
Aorist in Oratio Obliqua with future 
tense (?), 680 
participle expressing action contempo- 
raneous with that of aorist verb, 300 
Apollo, image of, worn by priestess (?), 

Apollo and Cassandra, isoi 
Apostrophe to the absent, 11331 83 

to the speaker's self, 970 
Apposition, 105, 296, 740, 805, (rd iikv 
yiip iarlas) 1040, 1230, 1380, 1 461, 
I479» 1645 
Arcs, cannibal rites of, 647 

Ares, cannibal god, 15 10 

Argolis, natural division of, A/>p. M 

Argos, emblems of, 815, 816, 817 

Artemis * Kxayxofiivyi^ 1 107 

Article, Aeschylean use of, 30, 60, 90, 
i33» "87, 300, 336, 347, 396, 491, 
519, 589, 692, 694, 768, 887, 898 
(see Translation)^ 980, 1144, 1605, 
162 1 

Asyndeton between contrasted terms 
(0/Xcrfy inr' ixOpciv)^ 1 27 1 

Attraction of relative in form t6 etc. , 964 


Bathos, intentional, 893, A/>p. Q 
Betrothal, ritual of, 65 
Broken sentence (indignation), 1625 
Burden, repetition, in singing, 1 191, 1456, 

i49o» 1539 
Burial, * to cloak oneself in earth *, 860 


Caesura, affecting the sense, 1251 

Capital of pillar, 1283, 1339 

Chorus, number of, 1 347 

Second, 363, 506, 618, 631 (see Trans- 
lation), 1522, 1649, '^/A J 

Clause, coordinate, where English would 
have subordinate, 360, 575 
independent for dependent, mo 



Clause, independent for dependent in 
antithesis, 1421 
with finite verb instead of participle, 

"87» 1455 
Colour of shields, interprets a symbol, 

App, C 

Column, 1283, 1339 

Composition of adjectives in -lyf etc., 439 

of substantives and adjectives, 397 

Condylea, ritual of, 1107 

Council (place of), 524 


Dactyl, initial, 4 

Dative * absolute', 437, 1298, App, Z 

ethic, 504 

ethic, indefinite [9^,^ 501 

* of interest *, 27, 580, App, A 

of interest in relation to the sentence, 

737* "59 
instrumental-local with xpopalwta or 

xpofffialyta, 15 10 

instrumental, with ^«cxet^> 334 

instrumental of purchase, 794 

personal instrumental, 618 

* possessive ' or * of interest *, 1055 
possessive, combined with another 

dative, 139 
quasi -local of person, App. V 
signifying succession {roiai Oopowri 

Oavibp), 1337 
of * thing affected *, 1585 
Doric forms, 686, 693, 1508 


Elision of words having the quantity ^^^ 

Ellipse of optative with ar, supplied from 

foregoing clause, 1007 
of part of the subject, irregular, 565 
(of indignation), 1625, 1633 
in one clause of antithesis, 855 
of verb with twj;, 1373 
of verb to be supplied from verbal 

adjective, 483 
of verb supplied from previous clause, 

of verb common to two opposed clauses, 


Ellipse in ro&rtav fUw olha, 941 

of substantive in rpowata, Bvpaioj 1039 

of (5r, 484 

of (Sw with €ld4pai and adjective, 547 

with iS<nr€p oup etc., 11 70 
Ephymnium, 1456, 1490, 1539 
•Epic' forms in Chorus, 189, 714, 737, 

Epithet, personal, transferred to feelings 
etc., App. B 

transference of, 159 
Epode, recitative, not strophic, 165 
Espousal, ritual of, 65 
Etymologicum Magnum, false citation 

by, App, D 
Evil eye, App, R 


Fork or flesh-hook, 647 
Future, second person of, in place of the 
general rtf, 69 


Gender in partitive expression (6 OoTaros 
rov xp^ov), 1299 
partitive in 0iraTot Xex^wi*, App. B 
Genitive of agent following negative adj., 
App. K 
adjectival 'of equivalent' (^/taros /c^/nk), 

after adjectival substantive Sia, yvwaAxCap 

etc., 1 162 
of definition, combined with another 

genitive, 1447 
local, 1040 
of local' or quasi-local relation with 

adverb (iceirac ^\ifnat roOdc), 1445 
of person with Bfiutxi^^uf, 11 98 
Geryon, 860 

Gods, first salutation to, 801 
Goldsmith, metaphor of, 445 


Heracles as a slave, 1025 
Hermes, patron of heralds, 519 
Hesychius, origin of false gloss in, 133 
Hiatus, as a method of punctuation, 785 

after rt, 1 103 
Hippolytus, 1007 



Horse, as the type of Argos, 815, 816 
Hunger as a symbolical portent, 133 
Husband and wife, App, R 
Hyperbole {birkp Aorfxav)^ 377 


Imperative, periphrastic with 7€fov, origin 

of, 97 
Imperfect tense in antithesis to present, 

Infanticide, 1218 
Infinitives, consecutive, one depending on 

the other, 11 73 
Interrogative, double, 1340 
Ionic form, irregularly used, 659 


Law, ancient criminal, 537 
Leda (Ai^a; yheG\ov\ 905 
Legends of mythology morally interpreted, 

Lyre at feasts, 980 


Masculine gender of collective, notwith- 
standing feminine gender of indi- 
viduals, 338 

Medicine and surgery, terms of, in poetry, 

Metaphor of the 'falling house', 1531 
of the woman working at night, iqi 5 

Metaphorical language, crossed with 
literal, 841 

Metaphors, bold combination of, 137 

Middle voice, 142, 153 


Negative phrases, in the same sentence, 

collision of, 561 
Neuter, dative substantival (^fXoct with 

friendliness), 1373 
'Nominativus pendens', 995, 1479 


Oath, superstitious view of, 1197 

of the gods, 1289 
Olive-wreath, use of, at Argos, 498, 
App. M 

Optative, in coordinate clause (quasi- 
concessive) for English indicative, 
where main clause is optative, 360 
in dependent clause (temporal, modal 
etc.), where principal clause is opta- 
tive, 264, 331 
archaic, imperative use of, 557, 936, 

deliberative, 628 

expressing acquiescence in result, 964 

expressing admission of probability, 

1 162 

with dv in hypothetical clause, 921 

with Bviat d(r, 376 

Orphic discipline, 1007 


Participle with substantive, as Latin capta 
urbSf the taking of the city, 118, 645 

use of, rh ^ayip, proof 490 

subordination of, to another participle, 
186, 561 

with Xfyew, 281 

and verb, 418, 605, 610, 970, 1031, 
1036, 1052, 1548 

irard ffvve<riw, irr^[ular construction of, 

with tX^i»«, 1025 
passive, use of, 867 
Pause after first foot of senarius, used for 
emphasis, 13, 537, 835, 912, 1047, 
1079, 1083, 1 123, 1225 
after second foot of senarius, 1444 
after fourth foot of senarius, 12 15 
Pelopidae, wealth of, 1573 
Persians, destruction of Athens by the, 

Personification, 160, 807, 885, 973, 990, 

1025, 1055, 1416, 1435, 1641 
Philomela, 1144 
Pillar, 1283, 1339 
Plataea, allusion to, App. G 
Pleiads, setting of, 817, App. P 
Plural and singular, variation between, 549 
of a single subject, representing English 

indefinite article, 192 
of words of feeling, ^pBovoi etc., 824 
Preposition as adverb, 263, 591, 756, 

i«7o. 1358, 1414. 1644 



Present tense in prophecy, 1339 
Pronoun, obscurity arising from omission 
of, 1594 
demonstrative (^dc), resuming subject 
with emphasis, 650 
Purple dye, value of, 950 

Relative, attraction of, 964 


Sacrifice (^tdcurof Bwla^^ 157 

by T€plT€fi^iSi 88 

by stoning and by strangulation, 1 107 
Salt water, ritual use of, A/p. O 
Sea, as a type of water, 1408 
Seal, metaphor of, 614 
Shield, as a symbol, ^^« C 
' Sleep ' of a dormant pain, 189 
* Spear-hand *= right, 119 
Stoning as a method of sacrifice, 1 107 

Subjunctive with or, as imperative, 1346 

Substantive, construction depending on, 

as upon a verb, 186, 804, 866, 1287, 


Theft, ancient law of, 537 
Thyestean feast, 136, 1075, 1583 
Tmesis, 1599 
Troezen, ritual of, 1107 


'Vanity' (to ftdrop), 175 

Verb, finite, instead of participle, 1287, 

clause (independent) substituted for 

participial or other dependent clause 

in antithesis, 318 

Verbal adjective governing case, 434 

equivocation, 276, 530, 702, 1376, 

1456, 1623 




■ ^^' " 




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