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Full text of "A general history and collection of voyages and travels, arranged in systematic order: forming a complete history of the origin and progress of navigation, discovery, and commerce, by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time"

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»• 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 

MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 



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■ittHiMMiii 




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A 

GENERAL 
HISTORY AND COLLECTION 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS, 

ARRANGED IN SYSTEMATIC ORDER: 



FORMING A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS 

OF NAVIGATION, DISCOVERY, AND COMMERCE, 

BY SEA AND LAND, 

FROM THE EARLIEST AGES TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



BY 

ROBERT. KERR, F.R.S. & F.A.S. EDIN. 



ILLUSTRATED BY MAPS AND CHARTS. 
VOL. XV. 

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD, EDINBURGH: 

AND T. CADELL, LONDON. 

MDCCCXXIV. 



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'; ...^"^ 



s. 



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CONTENTS 

. OF 

VOL. XV, 



PART III— BOOK II. 

6H AP. IV.^— Cbn^jntftfi/.— From leaving New Zealand to our 

return to Eneland, . . • • • 1 

Sect* IIL Range nom Christmas Sound, round Cape 
Horn, through Strait Le Maire, and round 
Staten Land ; with an Account of the Dis- 
covery of a Harbour in that laiand, and a 
Description of the Coasts, . • ik 

IV. Observations^ geographical and nautical, with 
an Account of the Islands near Staten Land, 
and the Animals found in them, . 11 

V. Proceedings after leaving Staten Island, with 
an Account of the Discovery of the Isle of 
Georna, and a Description of it» • 18 

YL Proceedings after leaving the Isle of Georgia, 
with an .Account of the Discovery of. Sand- 
wich Land; with some Reasons for there 
being Land about the South Pole, • 28 

VII.' Heads of what has been done in the Voy^e ; 
with some Conjectures concerning the ror- 
mation of Ice-Islands ; and an Account of 
our Plroceedings till our Arrival at the Cape 
of Good Hope, • . . • 41 

yilL Captain Furneaux*s Narrative of his Proceed-, 
ings, in the Adventure, from the Tiine he 
was separated from the Resolution, to his 
Arrival in England ; including Lieutenant 
Burney's Report concerning the Boat's Crew 
who were murdered by the Inhabitants of 
Queen Charlotte's Sound, , • 51 



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ir CONTEXTS* 

Page» 
Sect. IX. Transactions at the Cape of Good Hope ; with 
an Account of some Discoveries made by 
the French ; and the Arrival of the Ship at 

St Helena, 60 

%. Passaee from St Helena to the Western Islands, 
with aDescription of the Iskmd of Ascension 
' and Fernando Noronha,^ ^ • 65 

XL Arrival of the Ship at the Island of Fayal, a 
Description of the Place, and the Return of 
itie Resolution to England, • • 73 

A Vocabulary of the Language of the Society Ides, 8( 

]pOOK IIL A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, undertaken by 
the Comqiand of his Majesty, for making Discoveries 
in the Northern Hemisphere ; to determine the Posi« 
tion and Extent of the West Side of North America, 
its Distance ifrom Asia^ and the Practicability of a 
Northern Passage to Europe. Performed under the 
Direction of Captains Cook, Gierke, and Gore, in hisf 
M^est/s^Ships the Resdution and Discovery, in the 
Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, & 1780, . H* 

Introduction, •••:•• f 6, 

PH AP, L Traosactimif ISroMi the Beginning of the Voyage 

till oar Departure from New Zealand, . 180 

Sjccs* i. Vaiious Preparations for the Voyage. Omai's 
Behaviour on eqsbarkin^, , Observations for 
determkiing the Liingitade of Sheerness, 
and the North Foreland. Passage of tho 
iRasoiution froin Deptford to Plymouth. 
Empl03rmeDts there. Complements of the 
Crews of both Ships, and Names of the Of- 
ficers. Observations to fix the Loneitude 
of Plymouth. Departure of the Resolution, H^ 
n. Passage of the Resolution to Teneriffe. Re- 
eeptkm there. Descriptioii of Santa Cruz 
Road. Refreshments to be luet with. Ob- 
servations for fixing the Longitude of Tene- 
rtffe. Some Account of the Island. Bota- 
nical Observations. Cities of Santa Cruz 
and Laguna. Agriccdture. Air and Cli- 
mate. Commerce. Inhabitants, ^ 189 
m. iDeparture from TeneriAs. Danger of the 
Ship near Bonavista. Isle of Mayo. Port 
Fraya. Precautions against the Rain and 
aultrv Weather in the Neighbourhood of 
the Equator. Position of the Coast of Bra- 
zil. Arrival at the Cape of Good Hope. 

Transactions 



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Page* 
Transactions theref Junction of the Disco- 
▼ssy. Mr Anderson's Journey up the Coun- 
try. Astronomical Observations. Nautical 
Bemarks on the Pass^e from England to 
the Cape, wfdi regard to the Currents and 
the Variation, .... 200 

0^CT. IV. The two Ships leave the Cape of Good Hope*. 
Two Islands, named Prince Edward's, seen, 
and thdr Appearance described. Kergue« 
len's Land 'Visited. Arrkal in Christmas 
Hafbour. Occurrences there* Description 
of it, • , • . • • 217 
V, Departure from Christmas Harbour. Range 
fuong the Coast, to discover its Position and 
Extent Several Promontories and Bsiys^ and 
a Peninsula, described and named. Danger 
from Shoals. Another Harbour and a Sound. 
Mr Anderson's Ol)servatioos on the Natu- 
ral Productions^ Animals, Soil, &c» of Ker* 
guelen's Land, ^ , * • 231 

VL Passage from Ker^elen*s to Van Diemen*s 
Land« Arrival m Adventure Bay. Inci* 
dents there. Interviews with the Natives* 
Tlieir Persons and Dress described. Ac- 
count of their Behaviour. Table of the 
Longitude, Latitude, and Variation. Mr 
Anderson's Observations on the Natural 
Productions of the Country, on the Inhabi- 
tants, and their Language, • . 246 
yil. The Passage from Van Diemen's Land to New 
Zealand. Employments in Queen Char- 
lotte^s Sound. Transactions with the Na* 
tives there. Intelligence about the Mas- 
sacre of liie Adventure's Boat's Crew. Ac- 
count of the Chief who headed the Party on 
that Occasion. Of ihe two young Men who 
embark to attend Omai. Various Remarks 
on the inhabitants. Astronomicd and Nau- 
tical Observations, .... 266 
yilL Mr Anderson's Kemaiks on the Country near 
Queen CharloUe's Sound. Hie Soil. Cli- 
mate. Weather. Winds. Trees. Plants. 
Birds. Fish. • Other Animals. Of the In- 
habitants. Description of their Persons. 
Their Dress. Ornaments. Habitations* 
ipoats. Food and Cookery. Arts. Wea- 

pon% 



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Page, 
pons. Cruelty to Briionen. Various Ciu* 
toniB. Specimen of their Language, 287 

CHAP. IL From leaving New Zei|land to our Arrival at 

OtaheitOy or the Sopiety Islands, • 90S 

Sect* I. Brosecution of the Voyage. Behaviour of die , 
two New Ze^landers on board. Unfavour- 
able Winds. An Island called Mangeea dis* 
covered. The Coast of it exunined. Trans- 
actions with the Natives. An Account of 
their Persons* Dress* and Canoes. Descrip- 
tion of the Island. A Soecimen of the Lan- 
guage. Disposition oC tne Inhabitants* tS. 
II. The Discovery of an Island called Wateeoo. 
Its Coa9ts examined.— -Visits from the Na- 
tives on board the Ships. Mess* Gore* Bur- 
ney* and Anderson* with Omai* sent on 
Shore. Mr Andersoh's Narrative of their 
Beception. Omai*s Expedient to prevent 
their being detained. His meeting with 
some of his Countrymen* and their distress- 
ful Voyage. Farther Account of Wateeoo* 
and of its Inhabitants* • • • S12 

III. Wenooa-ette* or Otokootaia* visited. Account 

of that Island* and of its Produce. Hervey*B 
Island* or Terougge mou Attooa* found to be 
inhabited. Transactions with the Natives. 
Their Persons* Dress* Language* Canoes. 
Fruitless Attempt to land there. Beasons 
for bearing away for the Friendly Islands. 
Palmerston's Island touched at. Descrip- 
tion of the two Places where the Boats land- 
ed. Refreshments obtuned there. Conjec- 

^ tures on the Formatio.n of such low Islands. 

"- Arrival at the Friendly Islands* . $92 

IV. Intercourse with the Natives of Komango* and 

other Islands. Arrival at Annamobka. 
Transactions there. Feenou* a principal 
Chief* from Tongataboo* comes on a Visit. 
The Manper of his Reception in the Island* ' 
and on board. Instances of the pilfering ' 
Disposition of the Natives. Some Account 
^ of Annamooka. . The Passage from it to 
. Hepaee* . . • . . . 347 
V. Arrival of the Ships at Hepaee* and friendly 
Reception there. Presents and Solemnities 
en tb^ Occasion. Single Combats with Clubs. 

Wrestling 



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COMTBNTftv YU 

Page* 
Wrestling and Boxing Matches. Female 
Combatants. Marines exercised. A Dance 
performed by Men. i Fireworks exhibited. 
Tlie Night-entertainments of Smging and 
Dandng particularly described^ 
Ssci, VL Description of Lefboga. Its cultivated State* 
Its Extent. Transactions there* A female 
Ocidist. Singular Expedients for shaving 
. off the Hair. . The Ships change their Sta- 
. tion. . A remarkable Mount and Stone. De- 
scription of Hoolaiva. Account of Poulabo, 
King of the Friendly Islands. Respectful 
Manner in which he is treated by hu Peo- 
ple. Departure from the' Hepaee Islands. 
Some Account of Kotoo. Return of the 
Ships to Anaamooka. Poulaho and Feenou 
meet Arrival at Tongataboo, • . : 

VII. Friendly Reception at Tongataboo. Manner 
of distributing a baked Hog and Kava to 
Foulaho's Attendants. The Observatory, 
&c erected. The Village where the Chie& 
reside^ and the adjoining Country, descri- 
bed. Interviews with Mareewagee, and Too- 
bou, and the King's Son. A grand Haiva, 
or Entertainment of Songs and Dances, gi- 
ven by Mareewagee. Exhibition of Fire- 
works. Manner of Wrestling and Boxing. 
Distribution of the Cattle. Thefts commit- 
ted by the Natives. Poulaho, and the other 
Chiefs, confined on that Account. Poula- 
ho*s Present and Haiva, • • . 385 
VlU. Some of the Officers plundered by the Natives. 
A fishing Par^. A Visit to Poulaho. A 
Fiatooka described. Observations on the 
Countrv Entertainments at Poulaho's House* 
His Mourning Ceremonv. Of the . Kava 
Plant, and the Manner of preparing the Li- 
ouor. Account of Onevy, a little Island. 
Une of the Natives wounaed by a Sentinel. 
Me^rs King and Anderson visit the King's 
Brother. Their Entertainment. Another 
Mourning Ceremony. Manner of passing 
the Night. Remarks on the Country thev 
fwssed through. Preparations made for Sau- 
mg. An Eclipse of the Sun, imperfectly 
olMerved. Mr Anderson's Account of the 
bland| and its Productions^ • • « iff7 



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VUl COMTBMTS* 

Page. 
Sect. JX. A grand Soteranityy called Natohe, in Honour 
of the King's Son, perfoittied. The Proces- 
sion and other Ceremoniesy during the first 
Day, described. The Manner of passing 
the Night at tlie Kite's House. Continua- 
tion of the Sokmnitjr the next Hhy. Ctm* 
jectures about the Nature of iL Departure 
from Tongataboo, and thfe Arrival at Eooa. 
Account of l^t Iskmdy and Transactions 
there» ••.•••• 427 

SL Advantages derived fVom nsitiug ike Friendly 
Islands. Best Ardcles for Traffic. Refiresh- 
ments that maybe procured. The Number 
of the Islands, and their Namea KeppePs 
and Boseawen's Islssids belong to them. Ac- 
coumt of Vavaooy of HsonttO) of Peejee. 
Voyages of the Natives in their Cannes^ 
Difficulty of procuring exact Information. 
Persons of the Inhabitants ef both Sexes. 
Their Colour. Diseases. Their general 
Chairacter. Manner of Wearing their Hair. 
Of pancturing their Bodies. Their Cloth- 
ing and Ornaments. Personal Cleanliness, 447 
XL EmploymenU oi the Woden at the Friendly 
islands. Of the Men. Agriculture. Con- . 
structiori of their Houses. Their working 
Tools. Cordage and fishing Implements. 
Musical Instruments. Weapons. Pood and 
Cookery. Amusements. Marriage. Mourn- 
ing Ceremonies for the Dead. Their Divi- 
. nities. Notions about the SotA^ and a fu- 
ture Stale. Their Phces of Worshfpi Oo-^ 
yernment. Manner of pacing Obeisance to 
the King. Account of the Royal Family^ 
Remarln on their Language, snfd Specimen 
of it. .Nautical and othfer Obscnrvations, 467 

A Vocabulary of the Language of the Friendly 
It$les, . « • 4 « . . 491 

A Vocabulary of the Language of Atooi, one of 
the Sandwich Ishinds, % 4 4 « 507 



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GENERAL HISTORY 

AMD 

COLLECTION 
or 

VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



PART III. BOOK IL 

(CONTINUED.) 



. CH APTfiR IV.— Continued. 

. VROK I4BAVLNQ.KBW Z9ALANI> TO OU« &XTURN TO 

Section III. 

liange from Christmas Saund^ round Cape Horn, through 
Strait Le Maire, and round Staten Land; with an Account 
. of the Discovery of a Harbour in that Island, and a De^* 
scription of the Coasts. 

AT four o'clock in the morning on the fiSth^ we begaa 
to unmoor^ and at eisbt weighed^ and stood out to 
sea. With a light breeze at N. W .^ which afterwards freshened^ 
and was attended with rain. At noon, the east point of the 
sound (Point Nativity) bore N. | W., distant one and a half 
leagues, and St Udefonzo Isles S.E. i S., distant seven 
leagues. The coast seemed to trend in the direction, of B* 
hjo. ; but the weather beiog very liazy> nothing ^{ipeared 
distinct. . , . . 

VOL. XV. PART I. • *' 'We 



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2 Modem Circutnnavigatiom. vaut Hi. book lu 

We continued to steer S.E. by E. and E.S.E. ; with a 
fresh breeze at W.N.W., till four o'clock p. m., when we 
hauled to the souths in order to have a nearer view of St 
Ildefonso Isles. At this time we were abreast of an inlet^ 
which lies E.S.E., about seven leagues from the sound ; but 
it must be observed that there are some isles without this 
distinction. At the west point of the inlet are two high 
peaked hills^ and below them^ to the east^ two round hills^ 
or isles^ which lie in the direction of N.E. and S.W. of 
each other. An island^ or what appeared to be an island^ 
lav in the entrance ; and another but smaller inlet appear- 
ed to the west of this : Indeed the coast appeared indented 
and broken as usual.- 

At half past five o'clock^ the weather clearing up, gave 
us a good sight of Ildefonzo Isles. They are a group of 
islands and rocks above water^ situated about six leagues 
from the main^ and in the latitude of 55^ 53' S.^ longitude 
69^ 41' W. . . 

We tiow resumed our course to the east, and, at sun-set^ 
the most advanced land bore S.E. by E. | E. ; and a pointy 
which I judged to be the west point of Nassau Bay^ disco* 
vered by the Dutch fleet under the command of Admiral 
Hermite in 1624, bore N. 80^ E., six leagues distant. In 
some charts this point is qalled False Cape Horn, as being 
the southern point of Terra del Fnego. It is situated in la- 
titude 5.5® Sg' S. From the in^t above-mentioned to this 
fdhe cape, the direction of the coast is nearly east^ half a 
point south, distant fourteen or fifteen leagues. 

At ten o'clock, having shortened sail, we spent the night 
in making short boards under the top«sails, and at threa 
next morning made sail, and steered S.E. by S., with a 
fresh breeze at W.S.W., the weather somewhat hazy. At 
this time the West entrance to Nassau Bay extended from 
:N. by E. to N.E. i E., and the south side of Hermite's Isles, 
E. by S. At four. Cape Horn, for which we now steered> 
bore £. by S. It is known, at a distance, by a high round 
hill oVer it. A pdint to the W.N.W. she?ws a surface not 
utilike this ; bat their sttuati'pns alofie will always distin- 
guish the one frorai the other. 

At half past seven, w6 passed this famous cape, and enter- ' 
ed the southern' Atlantic ocean. It is the very sating point 
of land I took for the cape, when I passed ii in I7^9> which 
at that time I was doubtfiJ of. It is the most Southern ex- 
tremity on a group of islands of unequal extent^ lying be- 
fore 



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6hap. IV* SECT. 111. Captain James Cook: S 

for^ Nassau Ba^^ known by the name qF Herylit^ Island^^ 
hid is situated in the latitude of 55 58',; and in the longi- 
tude of 68* iSf W., according to the observations made oj^ 
it in 1769. l^i^i the observations whicti we had in Christ- 
inas Sound, and reduced to the cape by tlje watch,. ana 
others which we had afterwards, and reduced back to it by 
the same means, place it in o7^ 19"* It is most probal)le that 
& mean between the two, viz. 67® 46', will' be nearest the 
truth. On the N.\^. side of the. cape are two peaked rockis;,^ 
like sugar-ldiaves,* Tfiey h'e l^.W. by N., and S.£. by S., 
By compass, of eacb otheiC Some other straggling low 
locks lie west of ihe cape, and que south of it ; but they 
are all nea^ the shore. I^rom Christmas Sound to Cape 
llorn the course' is £.S.E j^ £., distant thirty-one leagues. 
In the directioh of E.NpE., three leagues frpm CJape Horn, 
is a rocky poih^, which t called Mistaken Cape, and is the 
southern point of tbe easternmost of Hermile Isles.. Be- 
tween these two c4pes there seemed to be a passage direct- 
ly into Nassau Bay; some small isles were seen in the pas- 
sage ; dnd the coast, on the west side, had the appearance 
of forming good bays or harbours. In some charts, Cape. 
Horn is laid down as belonging to a small island. This was 
lieither confirmed, nor can it be contradicted by us ; for 
several breakeh appeared on the coast, both to the east and 
west of it; and the hazy weather rendered every object in- 
distinct. The summits of some of the hills were rocky, but 
the sides and vallies seemed covered with a'green turf, ancf 
wooded in tufts.^ 

From Cape Horn we steered E. by N. i N., which direc- 
tion carried us without the focfes that lie off Mistaken Cape» 
These rocks are white with the dung of fowls, and vast 
numbers were seen about them. After passing them we 
ijteered N.E. f E. arid N^E^ for Strait Le Maire, with a view 
of looking into Success Bay, to see if there were any traces 
of the Adventure having been there^ At eight o'clock ia 
the evening, drawing near the strait, we shortened sail, arid 
hauled the wind* At this time the Sugar-loaf on Terra del 
Fuego b6re N, S3* W". ; the point of Success Bayj just open 
^ , • . of 

^ ' True Cape Horn, distinguishable at' a distance by a round hill of con- 
siderable height, is the south jsoint of Hermite^s Isles, a cluster which se^ 
parates the Atlantic and F^acific oceans. False Cape Horn lies nine miles 
to the north-east, and is the west point of Nassau Bay, where James Her* 
mite cast anchor. Vide vol. x. page 19r.— E. 



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4 Modem tifrtmnatigaiiohs. >aM iti. bbbit li. 

of the cape of the same name^ hearitig M. £0^ £; ; atid §ta- 
ten L&nd, extending from K. 53* ft. to 67** E. Soon after 
the \^iDd died away, and We had Irght 'airs jSthd calais by 
tHrtis t^Il near noon the tie^t day^ dtiring which titne we 
. were driveti by th6 current over to Sl&ten Land. 

The talm being succeeded by d light breeze at K.N.W., 
ive stood over for St^ccess Bay/ assisted by the currents, 
which s^t to the north, [before this We had Hoisted our co- 
lours^ atid fired tWo guns; and sboh d^eir saw a smoke rise 
out of the woods, above the Sotlth poitit of the bay, which 
1 fudged was mdde by the natives^ 'aS it was it the place 
where they resided when 1 Wjis her^ in '1709. As soon 
as we gbt off the bay, 1 seiit Lieutenant PickefsglU to see 
if any traces remained of the :4<lventtii*e having been there 
lately vatid in the mean time We'Stobd on and off with the 
Alp. At two o'clock, the Clirreht turiied and set to the 
south ; and Mr Pickersgill infoftoed tne. When he returti- 
ed, that it wa$ fdlHttg water on shbte, Wliich wats contrary 
to what I had observed when I was here before^ for l 
thought then that the flood came FrOto the fidrth. Mr 
Pickei-sgill saw not the least slgn^ of any ship having beeii 
there lately. I had inscribed ou^ ship^s name on a card, 
which he nailed to a tree at the place whi^re the Endeavour 
watered. This was done with a vieW of giving Captain 
Turneaux some information, in case he should be behind us 
and put in here. 

On Mr PickerSgiirs landing he was (courteously received 
by several of the natives, who were clothed in guanicoe and 
seal skins, and had On their arms bracelets, made of silver 
Wire, and wrought not tmllke the hilt of a sword, being no 
doubt the manufacture of some Europeans. They were the 
same kind of people we had se^n in Christmas Sound, and, 
like them, repeated the word pfechefra oh every occasion. 
One man spoke much to Mr Pickersgill, pointing first to 
the ship and then to the bay; as if he wanted hdr to come 
in. Mr Pickersgill said the bay was full of whales and 
seals; and we had observed the same in the strait, 'especi- 
ally on the Terra del Fuego side, where the wbales, in par- 
ticular, are exceedingly numerous.* 

As . 

3 '* ^ot less than thirty large whales, and some hundreds of seals, play- 
ed in the water about us. The whales went chieflj in couples, from whence 
we supposed this to be the Reason when the s^xes meet. Whenever they 

spoutea 



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qHAPf IV, i^ECT. in. Captain Jam^ Cooh <? 

As §oon as the boat was bpisted ip, which was not till 
near six o'clock, we ma4e sail to the east, with a fine breeze » 
at north. For since we had explored the south coast of 
Tejra del Fqego, I resolved to do the qame by Staten Land, 
whiph I believcfi to h^ve been as little known as the former. 
At nine o'clock the wind freshening, and veering to N W., 
we tacked, and stood to S.W., in prder to spend the night; 
which proyed none of the best, being stormy and hazy, with 
rain. . . 

Jfext mbrqing, at three o'clock, we bore up for the east 
end of iStaten Land, which, at half past four, bore S. 60^ B., 
the west end S. g« E.', atjd the Und of Terra del Fuego S. 
40* W. Spon after I ^ad taken these bearings, th* land 
was ?gain obscur<ed i;i ^ thick haze, and we were obliged to 
make way, as i\, were, in the dark ; for it tfas but neW iwid 
then we got a sight pf the coast. As-we advanced td'ifee 
east,^w^ p^rceivecjl several islands, pfuAeqijal extent, lying 
pff the land; There seenied to be a cletif passage beWe^n 
Uje e^^rnmost, and the one next to it; to fl^e west J wodd 
gladly have cone thro^ffh this passage^ and anchored under 
pne pf the islands, Xo have waited for teHef weather^ fdr en 

^spiinding we found only' twentjy-nipe fathoms Water j btit 
vrhei) t cojji^idered that tljis was^^unQlrig; to leeward ihitfee 
.da,rt',;I;ph6se to keep wittjout the islands; and accortflrii^y 
ha.ulecj off to .the north. At eigdt o'doc^ we were abxeast 

'fpf thte liapst Eastern isle, distant from it abonj: two Infl^s, 

^- •■'[ And 

.spouted. up ^1^ water^ or, as the safiors term If, Were seto blowing;^ 
whidward, die w&oJe sliip was ktfested with -a tiiosf dettstabler itnfc* and 
poiBolicaia itaoofa, whkih went joff in .the fip^M. ^WP or three raimites. 
/Spi^liflci^ fbfM ^e a^Eiu^ala Jay qn their bi!(4»,.ap4 with t^r long'pac- 
|;q^al ^us be^t the surface oT^ the sea, which always caused a great noise, 
equal to the explosion of a swivel. This |cind of pfay has doubtless gt^n 
rise to the manner's story of a fight between the lihraaher and the^wha2e» 
«f wfaicb the fomer is aiid to lBa{>.oat of the Mer. io order to .&U heavi- 
i^ ^n (Ijbe |fi^r>' Ijkrp ^e \ia4 aaopportpni'ty <>f observing the san^e ex-^ 
«rQiae m^y tiroes ;'e()efit^d> fnd discovered .that all the belly and iind^ 
side of the fin^ and tail pre or a white colour, whereas the re^t are b1ack« 
As we happened to be only sixty yards from one of these animals, we per* 
ceived a oumber^ longitudiaal turrowa, jqt wxmislee,. on its beUy» fr^m 
. jfpbenoe we concluded it was the species by Linnaeus named balana boops. 
Besides flapping their fins in the water, these unwieldy animals, of forty reet 
in leiyth, ai:\d not less than ten feet.in diameter, sometimes fair)y. leaped 
into the air, and dropped down again with a heavy fall, which made the 
water foam all rouoia them. The prodigious quantity of power required 
to raise fuch a vast creature out of the water is astonishina^; and their pe-, 
c^ljar ecbilomy cannot bat give room to many reflections."— O. F. 



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6 Modern Circumnavigaiions^ part hi. book it^ 

^nd h^d the same d^pth of water as before. I now short- 
ened sail to the three top-sails, fo wait for clear weather ; 
. for the fog w:as so thick that we could see no other land, 
than this island. After waiting aa hour, and the weather 
not clearing, >^e bore up and hauled found the east end of 
the island, for tb,e sake of smoo^ wftter and anchorage, if 
it should hp necessary. In hauling round, we found a strong 
race of a current, like unto broken water; but we had no 
less than nineteen fathoms. We al^o saw on the island 
labundance of seals and birds. This was a temptation too 
great for peoplje ip our situation to withs^md, to whom 
fresh provisions of any Ifind were acceptable) and d^ter- 
piined me to anchor, in order that we might tast^ of what 
W.P now only s^w af; a distance. At length, after making a 
f^W boards, fishing, as it were, for the best ground, we an- 
chored in twenty-one fathbrns water, a stony bottom, about 
la inile fjron^ the island, which extended from N. 18* £• to 
N. 55^ J W. ; and soop after, the ^v^ather clearing up, nfe 
saw Cape St John, or the east end of Staten Land, bearing 
' iS* 75* E., distant four leagujss. We were sheltered from 
the «outh l^ind by Staten li^nd, and from the north wind 
I Jbyithe island ; the other isles lay tp the west, find secured 
, us from that wind ; but beside being open to th^ N.k. and 
'3E„ we alsp lay exposed to the N.N-W. winds. This'migfat 
have been avoided l^y anchoring inor^ to the west^ biit I 
pade choice of my situation for two reasons ; first, to be 
near the island we intended to land upon, and, secondly, to 
.<be able to get to sea with any wind. 

After dinner we hoisted out three boats, and. landed with 
a large party of men ; some to kill seals, others to catch pr 
kill birds, fish, or what came in our way. To find the former 
it mattered not where we landed, for the whole shore was 
covered with them ; and by the noise they made one would 
have thought the island was stocked with cows and calves, 
pn landing we found they were a different animal from 
seals, but in shape nnd ^notion exactly resembling them. 
We called them lions, on account of the great resem'braoce 
the male has to that beast.3 Here were also the same kind 

; ' •■ ■ ; of 

3 The resemblance had been po|;iced by earlier voyage^, and procured 
for these animals the same name. T^is is mentioned by Mr (jr. F., Who 
refers to Francis Petty in Hackluyt's collection, Sir Richard Hawkins, 
pir Jojin Nasborough' and Labbe, in Pes Brosaes* N6v. aux Terres Aus- 

" ' ' ■ tralei. 



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CHAP. IT. SECT* III* Q^am James Cook* 7 

of seals wiiiiBb y^e fdjjnd in;Nfiw Zeolnnd, ^•enerally knovrn 
-by ibc name of sea-bears, at leaat we gaveHbein tbat nam^. 

••/ They 

trales. The (description wbicti'tl^ same gentleman ha? given of th^^e 
remarkable creatures is too interesting (though Cook's account afterwards 
given might suffice) to be omitted. " The M males were, in senera], very 
fat, and measured from ten to twelve feet in length $ me females were 
nsore slender,, and from six U> eig^ iieet Ipng, The weight of the largest 
male amounts to 1200 or 1500 lb., for one of a middle size ^eigh^d 550 lb. 
after, the skin, entrails, and blubber were taken pfiT. The head of the male 
has really some resemblance to a Iron^s head, and the colour is likewise 

' very nearly the same, being only a darker hue of tawny. The long shaggy 
hair on thie nepjfi and throat of the ma)e^ banning at the l»a$k'of the hea<f, 
bears a strong resemblance tp a manei and is hard and coarse to the touch ; 
all the rest ofthe body is covered witn short hairs, which lie vefy close to 
the skin, and form a smooth glossy coat. The lioness is perfectly smooth 

' all ovet the body; but %oth seizes are formed ali]i:e with reg$ird to the fe^, 
ior rather fins. Those fins, which originate near the breast, are large flat 
pieces of a black coriaceous membrane, which have only some small in- 

, distinct vestiges of nails on thejr middle. The hinder fins are rather more 
like feet, being black membranes divided into five long toes, with a thin 
thong, or membrane, projecting far beyond the nails, which are very small* 
With these nails, however, we have seen them scratch all parts of their 
body. The tail is e^cessivdy.short, and hid between the hind feet or fins, 
which grow close together. The whole hind quarters are very round, be- 
ing covered with an amazing quantity of fat. The noise which all the ani- 
mals of |;his kind made together wa^ various, and sometimes stunned oqr 
ears. The old males snort apd roar like mad bulls or lions ; the females 
ble^t exaptly like calves, and the young cubs like lambs, pf the young 
we saw great numbers on the beaches ; and one pf the females being 
knocked down with a club, littered in the same instant. The sea-lions 
live together in numerous herds. The oldest and fattest males lie apart, 
each having chosen a l^^e stone, which none of the rest dares approach 
without engaging ip a furious battle. We have often seen them seize each 
other with a degree of rage which is not to be described ; and many of 
them had deep gashes on their backs, which they had received in the 
wars. The younger active sea-lions, with all the females and thp cubs, 
lie together* T^ey commonly waited the Approach of our people, but as 
soon as some of the herd were killed, the rest took flight with great pre- 
cipitation, some females carrying off a cub in their mouths, whilst many 
were so terrified as to h^ave tnem behind. When left to themselves, they 
were often seen caressing each other in the' most tender manner, and their 
snouts often met together, as if they were kissing. They come ashore on 
these uninhabited spots to breed; they do not, however, breed during 
their stOT on shore, which sometimes lasts several weeks, but grow lean, 
and swallow a considerable quantity of stones to keep their stomach dis- 
tended. We were. surprised to find the stomachs of many of these ani- 
mals entirely empty, and of others filled with ten or a dozen round heayy 
stones, each of the size of two fists." — ^Professor Steller's description of. 
these aniraalf, which he found at Bering's Isle, near Kamtchatka> corre- 
sponds perfectly with tbat now given, and is referred to by Mr G. F. Per- 
netty, BqugamviUe^ and others also speak of thwk as m^t with in their 
voyages.— £. 



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6 Modem Ciroummdgaiiam* vabt hi. book ii« 

Hiey were; in general, so tame, or rather stupid, as to suf- 
fer 08 to come near enough to knock them down wiJth sticks ; 
but the large ones we shot, not thinking it safe to approach' 
them. We also found on the island abundance of penguins 
and shags ; and the latter had young ones almpst fledged, 
and just to our taste. Here were geese and docks, but not 
many ; birds of prey, and a few small birds. In the even- 
ing we returned on board, our boats well laden with one 
thing or other.* 

Next day, being January the 1st, ]775> finding that no- 
thing was wanting but a good harbour to make this a to- 
lerable place for ships to refresh at, whom chance or design 
might bring hither, I sent Mr Gilbert over to Staten Land 
in the cutter to look for one. AppearaiH^es promised siic- 
cess in a place opposite the ship. I also sent two other 

boats 

* '' Having made some Imvock among the sea-lion% we walked upon 
the summit of the island, which was nearly level, but covered with innu- 
merable little mounds of earth, on each of which grew a large tuft of gn&s 
(dacfylis glomerata). The intervals between these tufts were very muddy 
and dirty, which obliged us to leap /rom one tuft to another. We soon 
discovered that another kind of sealsi occupied this part of the bland, and 
caused the mud by comins out of the sea. These were no other than the 
sea-bears which we had already seen at Dusky Bay, but which were here 
infinitely more numerous, and grown to a mudi larger size; eijualiing that 
assigned' to them by Steller. They are, however, far inferior to the «ct- 
lions, the males being never above eight or nine feet long, aad thick In 
proportion. Their hair is dark-brown, minutely sprinkled with grey, and 
much longer on the whole body than that of the sea-lion, but does not 
form a mane. The general outline of the body, and the shape of the fins, 
are exactly the same. They were more fierce towards us, ana their females 
commonly died in defence of their young. We observed on another oc- 
casion, that these two species, though sometimes encamped on the same 
' beach, always kept at a great distance asunder, and had no communitation. 
A strong rank stench is common to them, as well as to all other seals ; a 
eircumstanee as well known to the ancients, as their inactivity and drow- 
siness whilst they lie on shore-r- 

Web-footed seals forsake the whitening waves. 
And sleep In herds» ^exhaling nauseous stench. 

HOM£R. 

Great numbers of a species of vukures, ^xxnmonljrcaUed canaonerotwi by 
tbe ^\\oc%{vuUur aura\ were seen upoa tbis iBlaiad, andpsobabLy £eed on 
3MHifig seal'Cttbs, which either die:iD tiie birth, .er uriiieh they^iake an «f>- 
portuGoty to seize uppn. Besides fkixm we also fomnl a new aptoies of 
hawks, and'Several geese of the sort wlnoh had so well isriiislied 41111 eur 
Christmas entertainment. Here we Nkewise saw a .few peofBini^ iif; a 
species which we had not met with before, some iaqje petrels m£ the sfiEe 
of albatrosses, being the same species wiiich the Spaaianis nwBa»fwe4frantar. 
huessos, or the bone-breakers, and some shags." — G« F. . ^ 



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CHAP. IV. SECT. in. * Ci^imnJamaC^. \ g 

boatif ibr the ]io&8,>8cf;. we bad kiikd «h^ precadwg day ; 
and soon after I went myself^ and observed the sun's raeri- 
diftii afiitude at the N.E. end bf the idaad, which gave the 
latitude 54^ A^S^ S. Aft^ shooting ^a few ge^se, some 
other birds^ and plentifally 8Up[xlying ourselves witb young 
. sbags, we ceturned on boards laden with sea-Iioas, sea- 
bears^ inc. V The old lions and bears were killed chiefly for 
llie BSkbe of tlieir blubber^ or fat, to make oil of.; I^r^iexcept 
tbeir haslets^ which were tolerat^^ the flesh was too rank 
td be eaten wifafai any degree of :relisb. But tbe young cubs 
, were very palateable^ and even die flesh of some of the old 
Jionesses nbas^not mttch amiss, but that of the old mates was 
tf^oaajQuble. In the afternoon I sent some people oh shore 
to skin and cut off tthe fat of those which yiet netoained dead 
> oo shore, for. we had already more car^cases on^ board than 
-necessary; and I went myself, in aoother boaV to ooHect 
birds, ^boot ten o'clock Mr Gilbert wtarned from Staten 
Land, where: be found a good pott, 'si4luated>thiuBe leagues 
to the westward <»f Cape St J^ohir, ta|)d* ih iiier dii^ctioa of 
north, a kittle easterly, from the 1S^£. 45«id 6f the ^astern 
isl^uiii. It may be known by «otnre «mall islanda lying in 
the entrance. The channel, which is oa tba «ast sid^ ^f 
these tdandif, is iialf a mile ^d»4 ?lbe course h in k.W. 
by SLi, itwinfa^g gcadaally 4^ W. by S. «n(i W.^ The hat^oitr 
lies^vjieajdy 'in, tins last dii^ectioff^ ^is ^aimoi^ two miles In 
length; in some places near a mile broad ; and hath in it 
. from fifty to ten fathoms water^ a bottom of mud and sand. 
Its shore's are covered with wood <it for fii^lj and fti it are 
several streams of. fresh water^ t)n the islands, were sea^ 
lions, &c« and «iicb an innmcperabl^ %Qa»ti<y of guUs as to 
darken the air when die^urbed^ and wihost to sunoeate our 
people with* their duAg. This ther seemed to void hi a wjay 
of defence^ and it stunk worse than assafoetidat, ,or what is 
commonly <mUeid devil's dung. Out pepjjle saw ^verial 
geese, docks; and race-horses, wbich k also a Mud' af* dnek. 
The day on which this port wa« discovered t)ccasion6d my 
calling it New- Year's Harbour. ' It Would bi^ mpre conv/s- 
-. nient for ^hips bound tp the weat, or round Cape Uprn, ,if 
its situation would permit them to pot to sea with an east- 
,erly and northerly wind. This inconvenience^ however, ^s 
^ of little consequence, since the^e winds are never known *o 
be of long duratioki. The southerly wd westjerJ^ are the 

ftrevailiiig 
13. 



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10 Modem CircunmaoSgaHons. pabt hi. book ii. 

prevailing winds^ so that a ship never can be detained long 
in this. port*' 

As w^ could not sail in the morning of the 2d for want 
of wind, I sent a^party of men on shore to the island, oa 
the same duty as before. Towards noon we sot a fresh 
breeze at west ; but it came too late, and I resolved to wait 
till the next morning, when, at four o^clock, we weighed, 
with a fresh gale at N.W. by W., and stood for Cape St 
John, which, at half past six, bore N. by E., distant four 
or five miies. This cape, .being the eastern point of States ^ 
Land, a description of it is unnecessary. It may, however, 
not be amiss to say, that, it is a rock of a considerable 
height, situated in the latitude of 54** 46' S., longitude 63* 
47' W., with a rocky islet lying close under the north part 
of it. To the westward of the cape, about five or six miles, 
is an inlet, which seemed to divide the land, that is, to pom- 
municate with the sea to the south ; and between this inlet 
and the cape is a bay, but I caunot say of what depth. In 
sailing round the cape we met with a very strong current 
from the south : It made a race which looked like breakers ; 
and it was as much as we could do, M^ith .a strong gale, to 
make head against it.^ 

After getting round the cape, I hauled up along the south 
coast, and; as soon as we haa broueht the wind to blow off 
the land, it came upon lui in such heavy squalls as obliged 

us 

s '^ The. largest of the New.Year's Islands, as we. called them, opd 
which we now left, is about &ix leagues in circuit, and that under which 
we lay at anphor, between three and four leagues; They are excellent 
places of refreshnient for a sbip^s crew bound on expeditioos like ours ; 
for though the flesh of sea-lions and penguins is nott the most palateable 
food, yet it is infinitely more salubrious than salt meat; ^nd by searching 
the dinerent islands, it is not improbable that a sufficient quantity of cele- 
ry and scurvy-grass might be found to supply the whole crew, espedafly 
as we saw both the species on our excursions. Our seamen lived several 
di^S oa young shags and peneuins, of which they found the former ex- 
tremely palateable, comparinfi; them to young pullets. They likewise roast- 
ed seyeial little cubs ot sea^, but there was a degree of softness in the 
meat w^ich made it disgustful, 'the flesh of young, but full-grown s^- 
bears, md greatly preferable, and tasted like coarse and bad beef; but 
that of the oki aea^ioos and bears was so rank and offensive, that we oould 
not touch it"— G.F. 

^ Captain Erusenstem, as has been noticed in vol. 12, page 413, veri- 
fied Cook's longitude of Cape St John, having found it to a^ree exac^v 
with that pointed out by the watches on board his consort the Neva, whkji 
differed b|it a few minutes from those in his own vessel.^-E. 



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imAT* rr. sect, it* Certain James Cook. 1 1 

fis to double-reef oiur top-sails. It afterwards fell, by little 
and little, and at lioon ended in a cal^i. At this time Cqipe 
St John bore N. tO^ £., distant three and a half leagnes ; 
Cape St Bartholomew, or the S.W. point of Staten Land, 
S. 83° W. ; two high detached rocks N. 80* W. ; and the 
place where the land seemed to be divided, which had the 
same appearance on this side, bore N. 15^ W. three leagues 
distant. Latitude observed 54*^ 5&. In this situation we 
sounded, but had no bottom with a line of 120 fathoms. 
The calm was of very short duration, a breeze presently 
•springing up at N»W. ; but it was too faint to make head 
against the current, and we drove with it back to thte 
I1.N.E. At four o'clock the wind veered, at once, to S. by 
£., and blew in squalls attended with rain. Two hours af- 
ter, the squalls and rain subsided, and the wind returning 
back to the west, blew a gentle gale. All this time the cur- 
teiit set us to the north, so that, at eight o'clock. Cape St 
John bore W.N. W,, distant about seven leagues. I now 
gave over plying, and steered S.E., with a resolution to leave 
the land ; judging it to be sufficiently explored to answer 
the most genend purposes of navigation and geograjphy.^ 



Section IV. 

Observations, geographical and nautical, mth an Account of 
the Islands near Staten Land, and the Animals found in 
them.' 

The chart will very accurately shew the direction,* ex- 
tent, and position of the coast, ^ong which I have sailed, 
either in tnis or my former voyage. The latitiides havel)een 

determined 

7 The very intelligent officer mentioned in the preceding nbte, seems 
to have been vefy materially benefited by the observations of Captain 
Cook, in navigating this quarter^ and does not hesitate to avow his obb'ga- 
tions. An instance of this is recorded in our account of Byron's voyage, 
vol. 13, p. 74, which refers to a passage in the next section as to the cur- 
^nts losmg their force at ten or twelve leagues from land. — ^E. 

' It lu» been thought advisable to retain this section verbatim^ although 
the references it makes to Captain Cook's chart can scarcely be understood 
without that accompaniment, and several observations of another sort 
>which it contains, are given elsewhere. In justice to the memoir of Co^, 
it ^as resolved to preserve the'' whole of his relation, at the risk of a veiy 
trivial repetition, which tlie reader^ it is bclievedi will be little disposed 
to resent— £• 

9 



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12 Modern Circumnavigatious. fAT3i,Tiiu}iO0%,i%. 

detertnined bj the Pirn's meridian altitude, which we w$re 
so fortupate as to ohtsm every day, exicept the one we /B«^l- 
jed frob Christmas SouDd, wliich was^of qo , coqseqiOffliGff, 
as its latitude was know^ before.. The longitudes have beep 
settled by hiaar observations, as is already ment^pned. I 
have talfjen 67** 4& for the l9ngitude of Cape Horn* PrpiA 
iim meridian lbs longt tod^s of all the other parts are dedn-p 
ced by the watqh, by which the extent of the whol^ funst 
be deterfuined to a few miles; and whatever errors tbejEe 
viay be in longitude, must be general. But I tbii^ it higji^ 
ly prx^babl^ that the longitiide is dejeruiiped to witbfn a 
qqarter of a degree. Thus, the extent of Terra ^el Fju^gp 
n-oo:^ east to west,, and consequently that of tbe straits of 
Magalb^^A^x will be /oujpd le&s tji^an 019;^ nayigators .bane 
made it- . . ; ! 

In QifAfiv to illusjtrAte tbis, ^xi4 to fhf^w the sjtpatip^ oi \b(d 
neighbouring lai^dsu^nd, by this means, anake tbe c^ai-t 4^f 
more general usjb, 1 have exteAded it d^v?i JtP *'7** of lalj- 
tude. ] But I sm oi^y ^swerable for the accuracy of such 

^^J:^^J^».JL have explojqed myself, Ip laying down th^ rest 
had recourse to Ho^ following authorities* 

The longitude of Cape Virgin Mary,' which is the most 
essential point, as it determines the length of the straits of 
Magalhaens, is deduce^" frpm I*ord Anson, who made £• SCf 
difference of longitude between it and the Strait lie Maire, 
• Now as\the latter lies in 05* 2^, Cape Virgin AJwrjr jQ^i^t 
lie in 67^ ^^V^hick is the longitude I. have assigpipd t9 it, 
and which, I have reason to think, cannot be far fro^n the 
truth. 

The- strait of Magalhaens, and the east coast of Patago« 
nia^ j[ire laid downJrom the observations made by the late 
! ^English jand French yayijgator^. » 

The position of the west coast of America, from Cape 
Victory northward, I have taken from tbe discoveries of 
Saftm&dc^ a Spanish riavigator, communicated to me' by 
Mr Stwatt, F/R.S. 

Falkland Islands are copied from a sketch taken from 
Captain M'Bride^ who circumnavigated them some years 
ago in his nuajesty's ship Jason; and their distance from 
the «aa(in is a^feeable to the run of the Dolphin, under the 
command of Commodore Byron, from Cape Virgin Mary 
tp Pprt Egmant^ and frpm Port figmont to Port I>esii«, 

both 



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c^A*. IV. JJECT. iv, J Captmn James C^. 18 

icth of wlitch runs were inadfe Ju }i:iiM daysr ; consequents 
Ijr fio material errors cotiM happeii. 

The S. W. coa&t of Terra del Ftaego, #ltti respeei to inlets. 
Inlands, 8cc. may be compared to the doiwt of Norniray ; for 
J dout>t if there be an extent of three leagues where there 
fs tiot ah inlet or harbour which #ill receive and shelter the 
largest shipping. The worst is^ that iilF these inletd are bet>^ 
ter kfiown, one has, as it were, to fish for anchorage. There 
4re several lurking rbcks on the coasts but happily none of 
thetn'Ile far from iLnd, the approach tb which may be known 
by soUhdhi^, supposing the weather so obscore that yoU 
catindt see it. For .to judge of the Whole by the parts w^ 
have sounded, it is mdre than probable that there are sonnd-*- 
iftgs all aloilg the coast, and for several leagues out to sea. 
tJpon the whole, this is by no means the dangerotis coast it 
has been represented. 

Staten Land lies near E. by N. and W. by S., and is leu 
leagues long^in that direction, and no where above three or 
fout leagues broad. The coast is rocky, much indented, and 
seemed to form several bays or inlets. It shews a surftice of 
<5r^ggy hills which spire up to a vast height, especially near 
the west end. Except ttie craggy summits of the hilh, the 
greatest part was covered with trees and sllrubs, or some 
tott of herbage, and there was little or no snow on it. The 
currents between Cape Deseada and Cape Horn set from 
west to east, that id, in the same direction as the coast: bu€ 
they fire by no means considerable. To the east of the 
cape their strength is much increased, ahd their direction 
is N.E. lowi^rds Statfen Land. They are rapid in Strait' Lo 
Maire and along the south coast of Staten Land, and set 
lik^ a'torfent round Cape St John ; where they take a N.W. 
direction, and c^ontinue to run very strong both within and 
Without New Year's Isles, While we lay at anchor within 
this island, Lobserved that the current was strongest during 
(he flood ; and that on the ebb its strength was so much 
impaired,, that the ship would sometimes ride head to the 
wind when it was at W. and W.N.W. This is only to be 
Understood of the place where the ship lay at anchor, for at 
the very time we had a strong current setting to the west- 
Ward, Mr Gilbert foiind one of equal strength near the coast 
6f Staten Land $etting to the eastward, though probably this 
Vih.% an eddy current or tide. 

If the tides are regulated by the moon, it is high-water 

by 



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14 Modem Circwma'Cigaiionu i^aut m. book ii. 

by the shore at this pla^ on the days of the new and full 
moon^ about four oVlock* The perpendicular rise and fall 
is ver}'^ inconsiderablCy not exceeding four feet at most. la 
Christmas Sound it is high-*water at half past two o'clock 
on the days of the full and change, and Mr Wales obser* 
ved it to rise and fall on a perpendicular three feet siiT 
inches; but this was during the neap tides> consequently^ 
the spring tides must rise higher. To give such an account' 
of the tides and currents on these coasts as navigators migh£ 
depend oii^ would require a multitude of observationg^ and 
in different places^ the making of which would be a work 
of time. I confess myself unprovid^ed with materials for 
such a task ; and believe that the less I say on this subject 
the fewer mistakes I shall make. But I think I have been 
able to observe^ that in Strait Le Maire the southerly tide 
or current, be it flood or ebb, begins to act on the days of 
new and full moon about four o'clock, which remark may 
he of use to ships who pass the strait. 

Were I bound round Cape Horn to the west, and not in 
want of wood or water^ or any other thing that might make 
it necessary to put into port, I would not come near the 
land at all. For by keeping out at sea you avoid the cur- 
rents, which, I am satisfied, lose their force at ten or twelve 
leagues from land ; and at a greater distance there is none^ 

During the time we were upon the coast we had more 
calms than storms, and the winds so variable, that I ques* 
tion if a passage might not have been made from east to 
west in as short a time as from west to east; nor did we ex- 
perience any cold weather. The mercury in the thermo-' 
meter at noon was never below 46®; and while we lay ini 
Christmas Sound it was generally above temperate. At this 
place the variation was 23* SC E. ; a few leagues to the S. 
W. of Strait Le Maire it was 24^ ; and at anchor^ withini 
Kew Year's Isles, it was 24* 20^ E. 

These isles are, in general, so unlike Staten Land, especi- 
ally the one on which we landed, that it deserves a particu-* 
lar description. It shews a surface of equal height, and ele- 
vated about thirty or forty feet above the sea, from which 
it is defended by a rocky coast. The inner part of the isle 
is covered with a sort of sword-grass, very green, and of a 
great length. It grows on little hillocks pf two or three feet 
in diameter, and as many or more in height, in large tuftsj 
which seemed to be composed of the roots of the plant 

matted 



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OHAP. IV. SECT. IT. Caj^itt Jamds Cook^ 15 

matted togethen Among these hilfecks are a vftst nutnber 
of paths made by sea«bears and penguins^ by which they 
retire into tbe centre of the isle. It is^ nevertheless^ ex- 
cee<)ingly bad travelling v for these paths are so dirty that 
one. is sometimes up to the knees in mire. Besides this 
plant, there are a few other, grasses^ a kind of heath, and 
some celery. The whole.snrface is moist and wet, and on the 
qoast are several small streams of water. The sword-grass, 
as I call it, seems to be the same that grows in Falkland 
Jsles, described by Bougainville as a kind of gladiolus, or ra- 
ther a species of grama/t,* and named by Pernety corn-flagsi 
The animals found on. this little spot are sea-lions, sea^. 
be^rs, a variety of oceanic, and some land-birds. The sea- 
lion is pretty well described by Pernety^ thoqsh those we 
saw here have not such fore-feet or fins, as that he has given 
a plate of» but such fins as that which he calls the sea-wolf. 
Nor did we see any of the size he speaks qf'; the largest not 
being mprethan twelve or fourteen feet in length, and per- 
haps eight or ten in circumference. They are not of that 
kind described under the same niune by Lord Anson ; but, 
for aught I know, these would more properly deserve that 
appellation: The long hair, with which the back of the 
head, the neck aud shoulder?, are covered, giving them 
greatly thC; air and appearance of a lion. The other part of* 
the body is covered with short hair, little longer than that 
of a cow or a horse, and the whole k a dark-brown. The 
female is not half so big as the 'male, and is covered with a 
short hair of an ash or light^dnn colour. They live^ as it 
were, in herds, on the rocks, and. near the sea-shore. As 
this was the time, for engendering as well as bringing forth 
their young, we have seen a male with twenty or thirty fe- 
males about him, and always very attentive to keep them 
all to himself, and beating.off every other male who attempt- 
ed, to come into his flock. Others again had a less number ; 
Qome no more than one or two ; and here and there we have 
seen one lying growling in a retired place, alone, and suffer- 
ing neither males nor females to approach him : We judged 
these were old and superannuated. 

. ,The sea-b^ars are not so large, by far, as the lions, but 
rather larger than a common seal. They have none of that 
long hair which distinguishes the lion. Theirs is all of an 

equal 

I See English Translation of Bougainville, p. 51. 



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16 Modern Chcknmaiiga&ons. .tIkBT iH. aoott it; 

c(|iial ieifglfa, Bod finer thrni diat of the Bon, somedkiitg Yik^ 
an otter 9, and tlie general coknir 19 that of an irot>*grey. 
This k the kind which the French. ctiV sea-wo)f9^ and tb^ 
English seak ; they are^ however, different &om the seals 
we have in Europe and North America. The lions niay> too, 
without any great impro|Nri€ty^ be called over*gmwn seals ; 
for they are all of the same species. . It was not at aH dan- 

Serous to go among them^ for they either fted or lay stilt. 
'be only danger was in going between them and the sea; 
for if they took fright at any thing, fhey woold come down 
in such Dombers^ that, if you could not get out of their way, 
yoQ wonid be run over. Sometimes, when we came snddenly 
i^xm them, or waked them out of their sleep, (foi* they are 
a slttggisih sleepy animal), they would raise up theif heads, 
snort and snarl, and look as fierce as if they meaoit to devonif 
ns; but as we advanced upon them they always run awdyy 
flo that they are downright bullies. 

' The penguin is an amphibious bird, so well known to 
most people, that I shall only observe, they are here in pro- 
digious nnmbers, so thi^t we could knock down as mskuy as 
we pleased with a stick. I cannot say they are good eating. 
I have indeed n>ade several good meals of thent, but it was 
for want of better victuals. They either do not breed here, 
or else this was not the season ; for we saw neither eggs nor 
young ones. 

Shagft breed here in vast ntimberi^; and we Clirried on 
board not a few, as they are very good eating. They take 
certain spots to themselvea, and build their nests near the 
edge of the cliffs on little hillocks, which are either those 
of the sword-grass, or else they are niade by the shag» build* 
kig on them from year to year. There is another sort rather 
smaller than these, which breed in the cliffs of rocks. 
' The geese are of the same sort we found in Christmas 
Sound ; we saw but few, and some had young ones. Mr 
Forster shot one which was different from these, being lar» 
ger, wilh a grey plumage, and black feet. The others make 
a noise exactly like a duck. Here were ducks, but not mai^ 
ny ; and several of that sort which we called race->horses. 
We shot some, and found them to weigh twenty-nine or 
thirty pounds ; those who eat of them said they were very 
good. 

The oceanic birds were gulls, terns, Port Egmont hens, 
and a large brown bird, pf the size of an albalXQss, which 

Pernety 



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CHAF« IV. SECT. iv. Captain James Cook. 17 

Pernety calls quebrantabuessas. We called them Mother 
Carey's geese^ and found them pretty good eating. The 
land- birds were eagles^ or hawks^ bald-headed vultures^ or 
what our seamen called turkey-buzzards^ thrushes^ and a 
few other small birds. 

Our naturalists found two new species of birds. The one 
is about the size of a pigeon^ the plumage as white as milk. 
They feed along-shore^ probably on shell-fish and carrion, 
for they have a very disagreeable smell. When we first saw 
these birds, we thought they were the snow-peterel, but the 
moment they w^re in our possession the mistake was disco-, 
vered ; for they resemblie them in nothing but size and co- 
lour. These are not webb-footed. The other sort is a species 
of curlews nearly as big as a heron* It has a variegated 
plumage, the principal colours whereof are light-grey, and 
a long crooked bill. 

I had almost forgot to mention that there are sea-pies, or 
what we called, when in New Zealand,. curlews ; but we only 
saw a feiw straggling pairs. It may not be amiss to observe, 
that the shags are the same bird which Bougainville calls 
saw-bills; but he is mistaken in saying that the quebranta- 
bucssas are their enemies ; for this bird is of the peterel 
tribe^ feeds wholly on fish, and is tp be found in all the 
high southern latitudes. 

It is amazing to see how the different animals which in- 
habit this little spot are mutually reconciled. They seem to 
have entered into a league not to disturb each other's tran- 
quillity. The sea-lions occupy most of the sea-coast; the 
sea-bears take up their abode in the isle; the shags have 
post in the highiest cliffs; the penguins fix their quarters 
where there is the most easy communication to and from 
the sea ; and the other birds choose more retired places. 
We have seen all these animals mix together, like domestic 
cattle and poultry in a farm-yard, without one attempting 
to molest tne other. Nay, I have often observed the eagles 
and vultures sitting on the hillocks among the shags, with- 
out the latter, either young oV old, being disturbed at their 
presence. It may be asked how these birds of prey live? I 
suppose on the carcases of seals and birds which die by vari- 
ous causes; and probably not few, as they are sq numerous. 

This very imperfect account is written more with a view 
to assist my own memory than to give information to others. 
I am neither a botanist wqx a naturalist; and have not words 

VOL, XV, B to 



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1^ Modern Circumnavigations, PAiCt tit. JiOot fr. 

to deserrbe the productions of njiture, eitbef itt tfee one 
brlinch' of knowledge or the other. 



Section V. 

Proceedings afUr leating Stattn Island, with an Account (if tH^ 
Discovery of the Isle of Georgia, and a Description Ojit. 

ilAVniirG left the land in th6 everiing of the Sd, aS befbre 
mentiorted, we saw it again next morning, at three dVl6crk, 
Bearing west. At^ ind continued to blow a steady fresh breeze 
till six p- m., when it shifted in a heavy squall to S.W., 
which came so suddenly upotf us, that We had not lime to 
take in the sails, atid was the occasion of^ carrying away ik 
top-gallant mast, a studding*sail boon), and a fbfe stud- 
ding-sail. The squall ended in a heavy shower of rain, but 
the wind remained at S.W. Ouf course was S.E., with A 
view of discovering that extebsive coast laid down by Mr 
Dalrymple in his chart, in which is thegutph of St Sebas- 
tian. 1 designed to make the western point of that gtlph, 
in order to have all the other parts before me. Indeed I 
had some doubt of the existence of such a coast; and thii 
appeared to me the best route for clearing it up, and fo^ ex- 
ploring the southern part of this ocean. 

On the 5th, fresh gales, and wet and cloudy weather. At 
noon observed in 57* 9^ latitude made from Cape St John; 
5* 0/ E. At six o'clock p. m., being in the latitude 57* Sl'i 
and in longitude 57** 45'^ W., the variation was 21* 28^ E. 

At eight o'clock in the evening of the 6th, being theh irt 
the latitude of otf* 9' S., longitude 5^ W W., we close- 
reefed our top-sails, and hauled to the north, with a very 
strong gale at west^ attended with a thick haze and sleet., 
The situation just mentioned is neatly the same that Mr 
Dalrymple assigns for the S.W. point of the gulph of St 
Sebastian. But as we saw neither land, nor signs of fend, I 
was the more doubtful of its existence, and was fearful that, 
By keeping to the south,' I might miss the land said to be 
discf^vered by La Roche in lfj75, and by the ship Lioh in. 
1756, which Mr Dalrymple places' ih 54*^ SOMatitud^, a:nd 
45® of longitude; but on looking over D*Anville'8 chart, I 
found it laid down 9** or 10° more to the west ; this differ- 
erice of situation being to me a sign of the uncertainty of 

botb 



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CHAP. IV. SECT. T. CapiatH James Cook. 10 

both ac<l0iinls> defermiitetl me to g^t into the p&raUel als 
soon as p«»%s»ble^ and was the r^amm of my hauling to the 
north at this time. 

Towards ^e momiiig of the 7th the gale abated^ the 
_ weather bleared trp, and the wind veered to the W.S.W;, 
where it contjiitted till midnight^ after whioh it veered to 
N*W* Being at tWs time in the latitude of \S6* 4' S., lon- 
^tude SS^^' W., we sounded, but found no bottom with a 
. Ime of one hundred and thirty fathoms. I ^till kept the 
wind on the larboard--taek, having a gentle breeise and 
fiieaBant weather* On the 9th, at noon/ a bed of sea-vireed 
passed the ship; In Ihe afternoon, in latitude 5d^4'> longt- 
tudfe 5V 45' W., the variation was 20* 4' E. 

On the 9th, wind at N.E., attended with thick httzy wea- 
ther; saw a- seal, and a piece of sea-weed. At notMl> lati«- 
tude 55* W S., longitude 50** 15' W., the wind and weather 
continuing the same till towards midnight> when the latter 
cleared up, and the former veered to west, and blew a gentle 
gale. We- continued to ply till tn^ o'clock thfe next mom^ 
tng, when we boie away east> ^nd at eight £.N/E. ; at noon, 
observed in klitude 54* 35' S., longitude 47* S& W., a great 
many albatrosses and blue peter els about the ship. I now 
ateieired east, and the next morning, in the latitude of 54* 
38% longitude 45^ W W., the variationivas IQ'* 25' E; In 
the afternoon saw several penguins, and some pieces of weed* 

Having spent the night lying-to, on the 1 2th, at day- 
break, we bore away, and steered east northei-ly, with a fine 
fresh breeze at W.S.W. ; at noon obseiVed in latitude 54" 
€8* S., longitude in 42** 8*^ W. ; that is, near S^ E. of the si- 
toation in wiiioh Mr Daljymple places the N.E. point of the 
gulph of St Sebastian ; but we had no other signs of land 
than seeing a «eal and a few penguins ; on the contmry, we 
had a swell from E.S.E., which would hardly have been, if 
any extensive track of latid lay in that direction. In the 
evening the gale abated, and at midnight it fell calm. 

The calm^ attended by a (hick fog, continued till six 
next morning, when we got a wind at east^ but \he fog still 
prevailed. We stood %& Sie sottth till noon, when, being in 
the latitttde of 55"* ?', vl^e tacked fiind stretched to the north 
wi«b « frecfh breeze at B. by 8; and E.S/E., cloudy weather ; 
saw several p^i^gnin^ and a snow-peterel, which we looked 
on to be signs i^ tfa^ vi«*tmt^ of ice. The air too was much 
colder than we had felt it since we left New Zealand. la 

the 



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£0 Modem Circumnatiguiimis. p;ARt hi. book ii. 

:th6 afternoon the wind veered to the S.E.^ and in the night 
to S.S.E.^ and blew fresh, with which we 9tood to the N.E. 

At nine o'clock the next morning we saw an island of ice, 
as we then thought, hot at noon were doubtful whetbei^ it 
was ice or land. At this time it bore £• | S., distant thirteen 
leagues; our latitude was dS'' 56' i, longitude Sg"" 2V W.; 
several penguins, small divers, a snow-peterel, and a vast 
number of blue peterels about the ship. We bad but little 
wind all the morning, and at two p. m. it fell calm. It was 
now no longer doubted that it was land, and not ice, which 
we bad in sight. It was, however, in a n^anner wholly co* 
vered with snow. We were farther coofirojed in our judg* 
ment of its being land, by finding soundings at one hundred 
and seventy-five fathoms, a muddy bottom* The land at 
ijiis time bOre £• by S., about twelve leagues distant. At 
six o'clock the calm was succeeded by a breeze at N.£.f 
with which we stood to S.E. At first it blew a gentle gale^ 
•but afterwards increased soas to bring us under double-reefed 
.top-sails, and was attended with snow and sleet. 

We continued to stand to the S.E. tiU seven in the morn* 
ing on the 15th, when the wind veering to the. S.E*, we 
tacked and stood to the north. A little before we tacked, 
we saw the land bearing £* by N. At noon the mercury in 
the thermometer was at 3&*i. The wind blew in squalls, at- 
.tended with snow. and sleet, and we had a great sea to en- 
counter. At a ke-lurch which the ship took, Mr Wales ob- 
served her to lie dpwn 4%''. At half past four p.;n, we took ' 
in the top-sails^ got down top-gallant yards, wore the ship, 
^nd stood to the S. W., under two courses. At midnight the 
'^tqrm abated, so that we could carry the top-sails double- 
reefed. 

'At four in the morning of the 16 th we wore and stood to 
the east, with the wind at S.S«E., a moderate breeze, and 
fair ; * at eight o'clock saw th0 land extending from £. by N. 
to N,E. by N. ; loosed a reef out of each top-sail, got top- 
gallant yards across, and set the sails. At noon observed in 
Qalitude 54^ 25'i, longitude ^8*» 18' W. In this situation, wc 
Jiad on^ hundred and ten fathoms water ; and the land ex- 
tended from N. J W. to £., eight leagues distant. The 
northern extreme was the same that we first discovered^ 
and it proved to be an islands which obtai^jed the name of 
Willis's Island, after the person who fijist saw il. 

At this time vpe had a great swell from the south, an in- 
dication 



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CHAP. IV. SECT. v« Captain James Cook. 21 

dication that no land was near us in that direction; never* 
theiess the vast quantity of snow on that in sight induced us 
to think it was extensive^ and I chose to begin with explo- 
ring the northern coast. With this view we bore up for 
Willis's, Island^ all sails set, having a 6ne gale al S.S.W. As 
we advanced to the north, we perceived another isle lying 
east of Willis's, and between it and the main. Seeing there 
was a clear passage between the two isles, we steered for it, 
and at five o'clock, being in the middle of it, we found it 
about two miles broad. 

Willis's Isle is an, high rock of no great extent, near to 
which are some rocky islets. It is situated in the latitude^ 
of 54* S., longitude 38** 2S' W. The other isle, which ob* 
tained the, name of Bird Isle, on account of the vas't number 
-that were upon it, is not so high, but of greater extent, and 
is dose to ttie N.E. point of the main land, which I called 
Cape North. 

The S.E. coast of this land, as far as we saw it, lies in the 
direction of S. 50* E., and N. 50** W. It seemed to form 
several bays or inlets; and we observed huge masses of 
snow, or ice, in the bottoms of them, especially in one 
which lies ten miles to the S:S,E. of Bird Isle. 

After getting through the passage, we found the north 
coast trended h* by N., for about nine miles; and then east 
and east-doutherly to Cape Buller, which is eleven miles 
more. We ranged the coast, at one league distance, till 
near ten o'clock, when we brought-to for the night, and on 
sounding found fifty fathoms, a muddy bottom. 

At two o'clock in the morning of the l7th we made sail 
in for the land, with a fine breeze at S.W. ; at four, Wil- 
lis's Isle bore W. by S., distant thirty-two miles; Cape BnU 
ler, to the west of which lie some rocky islets, bore S-W. 
by W. ; and the most advanced point of land to the easty 
S. 63^ E. We now steered along shore, at the distance of 
four or five miles, till seven o'clock, when, seeing the ap- 
pearance of an inlet, we hauled in for it. As soon as we 
drew near the shore, having hoisted out a boat, I embarked 
in it, accompanied by Mr Forster and his party, with a view 
of reconnoitring the bay before we ventured in with the 
ship. When we put off from her, which was about four 
miles from the shore, we had forty fathoms water. 1 con- 
tinued to sound as I went farther in, but found no bottom 
with a line of thirty-four fathoms, which was the length qf 

that 



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ti Modem Chxummvigationt^ Vi^W iiu ^ook ii. 

that Ihad In the bo<kt, mi which al4o proved ioo short to 
soand the bay> so far as I went up it. I observed it to lie 
in S.W. by S. about two leagues^ about two mites broad, 
well sheltered from all winds; and I judged tliere might be 
good anchorage before som^ sandy beaches which are on 
each sid^9 and likewise near a low fiat isle, towards the bead 
of the bay. As 1 biad come to a resolution not to bring the 
ship in, I did not think it worth my while to go and examine 
these places ; for it did not seem probable tha^t any ope would 
ever be benefited by the discovery. I landed at three diffdr*- 
ent places, displayed our colours, wd took possession of the 
country in his iuaj<e$ty's name, under a> discharge of small 
arms. 

I judged that the tide rises about four or five feet, and 
that it is high water on the full and change days id^ut ele- 
ven o'clock. 

The head of the bay, as well as two places on each side, 
was terminated by perpendicular ice-cl4£b <^ considerable, 
height. Pieces were continually breakifiig o^ apd floating 
out to sea ;- asd a great fall happened while we w^r^ in the 
bay, wluch made a noise like canA<Hi. 

The inner parts of the country were not less savage and 
horrible. The wild rocks raised their lofty summits till they 
were lost in the clouds, and the valleys lay covered with 
everlasting snow. Not a tree was to be seen, nor a. sbcub 
even big enough to make a toothpick. The only vegeta- 
tion we met with was a coarse strong-bladed gra^s growing 
in tufts^ wild burnety and a plant like moss, which spiung 
from the rocks. 

Seals, or sea-bears, were pretty numerous. They were 
pmaller than those at Staten Land: Perhaps. the most of 
those we saw were females, for the shores swarmed with 
young cubs. We saw none of that sort which we call lions ; 
but there were some of those which the writer of I^ord An- 
son's voyage describes under that name ; at least they ap« 
peared to us to be of the same sort ; and are, in my opinioii, 
very improperly called lions^ for I could not see an^ grounds 
for the comparison. 

, Here were several flocks of penguins, the largest I ever 
^aw ; some which we brought on board weighed from twei^- 
ty-nioe to thirty-eight pounds. It appears by Bougainville's 
account of the animals of Falkland islands, that this pen- 
gi)in is there ; and X thii^k it is yery well described by htm 

under 



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CHAP. IV, $ij$9T. V. Cf^ain Jams Cook. ^ 

i}od$r th^ ^^^k^ of fifst class of pcjnguins. The oceanic 
birds were albatrosses^ ^qfaxmQtx gyals, and that sort yrhicj^ 
I C9II Por,t jE^mpnt l^m, Xexns, shags, divers^ the ne,w w^ite 
Virdi aiKJl la^maU bir^ liike those of the Cape of Good Hope^ 
<^alied yellow birds ; which^ ba.vijQg shot two, we foUnd most 
delicious foQfi. 

All tb^ laad birds w^ ^w consisted of a few small larks^ 
oor did we laeet with any quadrupeds. Mr Forster indeed 
^bsery^d some duug, which he judged to come from a fox^ 
pr some such animal* The lands^ or rather rocks^ bordering 
^u the sea-coast^ were oot.eovered with snow like the inland 
parts ; but all the vegetation we could see on the clear places 
was the gi'ass above-mentioned. The rocks seemed to cour 
Uija iron. Having made the above observations^ we set out 
for tbe Bkip, and got on board a little after twelve o*ciock> 
with ^ quantity of seals and penguins^ an acceptable present 
to ^lie crew, 

. It iQustnot, howevier^ he uivilei'Btood that we were in want 
of provisions : we had yet plenty of every kind ; and since 
ive ha4 been on this cctast^ I had ordered^ in addition to the 
i^j/^mon ailowaace, wheat to be boiled every morning for 
break^t ; bpt any kind' of fresh meat was preferred hy 
H^Ojist on board to .salt. For my own part^ I was uovv^ for 
tbe 6ni time, heartily tired of salt meat of every kind ; and 
though the flesh of the penguins could scarcely vie with 
bullock's liver^ its ked^g fresh was sufficient to make it go 
down. I .called the bay we had been in^ Possession Bay. 
It is sit^ated in the latitude ofw54'' d' S., longitude S?"" 18' 
W^, and ekven leagues to the east of Cape North. A few 
^iles Ho the west of Possession Bay> between it and Cape 
JBuller, lies the Bay of Isles, so named on account of seye- 
x%l spiali i^Jes lying in and before it. 

As soon as the boat was hoisted in> we made sail along 
^he coast to the east, with a fine breeze at W.S.W. From 
Cape BuUer tbe direction of the coast is S. 72"* SQf £.> fpr 
.the space ^f ejeven or twelve leagues, to a projecting point, 
3vbich obt£^ined the name of Cape Saujuders. Beyond this 
cape is a pretty large bay^ which I named Cumberland 
Bay. In several parts in tbe bottom of it, as also in some 
others of less extent, lying between Cape Saunders and 
Possession Bay, were vast tracks of frozen snow, or ice, not 
yet broken loose. At eight o'clock, bein^ just past Cum- 
berlwd Bay, and falling little wind, we hauled oif the coast, 

from 



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£4 Modem Circmnnac^aiioiu. vaet hi. book ii. 

from which we were distant about four milesj and found 
one hundred und ten fathoms water. 

We had variable light airs and calms till six o'clock the 
next morning, when the wind fixed at north, and blew a 
gentle breeze ; but it lasted no longer than ten o'clock^ 
when it fell almost to a calm. At noon, observed in lati* 
tude 5^^ so' S., being then about two or three leagues from 
the coast, which extended from N. 59* W. to S. 13** W. 
The land in this last direction was an isle, which seemed to 
be the extremity of the coast to the east. The nearest land 
to us being a projecting point which terminated in a round 
hillock, was, on account of the day, named Cape Charlotte. 
On the west side of Cape Charlotte lies a bay which ob- 
taiiied the name of Royal Bay, and the west point of it was 
named Cape George. It is the east point of Cumberland 
Bay, and lies in the direction of S.E. by £. from Cape 
Saunders, distant seven leagues. Cape George and Cape 
Charlotte lie in the direction of S. 37* E. and N. 37"* W., 
distant six leagues from each other* The isle above-men- 
tioned, which was called Cooper^s Isle, after my first lieute- 
nant, lies in the direction of S. by £., distant eight leagues 
from Cape Charlotte. The coast between them forms a 
large bay, to which I gave the name of Sandwich. The 
wind being variable all the afternoon we advanced but lit- 
tle; in the night it fixed at S. and S.S.W., and blew a gen- 
tle gale, attended with showers of snow. 

The IQth was wholly spent in plying, the wind continuing 
at S. and S.S.W., clear pleasant weather, but cold. At sun- 
rise a new land was seen, bearing S.E. | E. It first appear- 
ed in a single hill, like a sugar-loaf; some time after other* 
detached pieces appeared above the horizon near the hill. 
At noon, observed in the latitude 54** W 30" S., Cape Char- 
lotte bearing N. 38** W., distant four leagues ; and Coop- 
er's Isle S. 31^ W. . In this situation a lurking rock, which 
lies off'Sandwich Bay, five miles from the land, bore W. § N., 
distant one mile, and near this rock were several breakers. 
In the afternoon we had a prospect of a ridge of mountains 
behind Sandwich Bay, whose lofty and icy summits were 
elevated high above the clouds. The wind continued at 
S.S.W. till six o'clock, when it fell to a calm. At this time 
Cape Charlotte bore N. 31* W., and Cooper's Island 
W.S.W. In this situation we found the variation, by the 
azimuths, to be 1 1* 39', and by the ampUtude, 1 1"" 12' E. At 

ten 



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CHAP* IV. SECT. V; Captain James Cooh ^ £5 

ten o'clock, a light b^reeze springing up at norths wc steered 
to the south till twelve, and then brougbt-to for the night. 

At two o'clock in the morning of the €Oth we made sail 
to S.W, round Cooper's Island. It is a rock of considera- 
ble height, about five miles in circuit, arid one mile from 
the roam. At this isle the main coast takes a S.W. direc- 
tion f6r the space of four or five leagues to a point, which 
I called Cape Disappointment. Ofl* that are three small 
isles, the southernmost of which is green, low, and flat, and 
Kes one league from the cape. 

As we advanced to S.W. land opened, ofl^this point, in 
the direction of N. 60** W., and nine leagues beyond it. It 
proved an island quite detached from the main, and obtain* 
cd the name of Fickersgill Island, after my third officer. 
Soon after a point of the main, beyond this island, came in 
sight, in the direction of N. 63* W., which exactly united 
the coast at the very point we had seen, and taken the 
bearing of, the day we first came in with it, and proved to 
a demonstration that this land, which we had taken for part 
of a great continent, was no more than an island of seventy 
leagues in circuit. 

Who would have thought that an islapd of no greater 
extent than this, situated between the latitude of 54* and 
55% should, in the very height of summer, be in a manner 
wholly covered, many fathoms deep, with frozen snow, but 
more especially the S.W. coast ? The very sides and craggy 
summits of the lofty mountains were cased with snow, and 
ice ; but the quantity which lay in the valleys is incredible ; 
and at the bottom, of the bays the coast was terminated by 
a wall of ice of considerable height. It oan hardly be 
doubted that a great deal of ice is formed here in the wa- 
ter, which in the spring is broken off, and dispersed over 
the sea; but this island cannot produce the ten-thousandth 
part of what we saw; so that either there must be more 
land, or the ice is formed without it. These reflections led 
me to think that the land we had seen the preceding day 
might belong to an extensive track, and I still had hopes 6f 
discovering a continent. I must confess the disappoint- 
ment I now met with did not aflect me much ; for, to 
judge of the bulk by the sample, it would not be worth the 
discovery. 

I called ibis island the isle of Georgia, in honour of his 
majesty. It is situated between the latitudes of 53* 57' 

and 



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^ Modem ^irjcmttmigaticms. faet ly . ^ooi^ n. 

pud 34" 6V S. ; and between 3^ 18' wd 35* 34' w^^ijt Ipo- 
gitude* It extends S.E, by E. and N.W. by W., w4 i» 
thirty-one leagues long in that direction ; and its greatest 
Jareadth is about ten leagues. It seems to abound with ba|w 
find harboursj the N.E* coast especially ; but the vast quiMi- 
.jtity of ice must render t^em inaccessible the greatest part 
of the year ; or, at leasts it must be dangerous lying in tae^f ^ 
on account of the breaking up of the ice cliffs. 

It is remarkable that we did not see a river, or stream of 
fresh water, on the whole coast. I think it highly proba- 
ble that there are no perennial springs in the country ; and 
that the interior parts, as being much elevated^ never enjc^ 
Jieat enough to melt the snow in such quantities as to pro- 
duce a river, or stream, of water. The coast alone receives 
warmth sufficient to melt the snow, and this only on the 
a.E. side ; for the other, besides being exposed to the cold 
soutJi winds, is, in a great d^ree, deprived of the sun's 
rays, by the uncommon height of the mountains* 

It was from a persuasion that the sea-coast 9( a land si- 
tuated in the latitude of 54^, could not, in the very heigjl^t 
of summer, be wholly covered with snow, that I supj[M>sed 
Boiuvet's discovery to be large islands of ice* But :tf$.ei I 
had seen this land, I no longer hesitated about the exist- 
ence of Cape Circumcision ; nor did I doubt that I should 
iind more land than I should have time to explore* With 
these ideas I quitted this coast, and directed my course to 
the E.S.E. for the land we had seen the preceding day* 

The wind was very variable till noon, when it fi^ed at 
N.N.E., and blew a gentle gale ; but it increased in such a 
manner, that} before three o'clock, we were reduced to our 
. two courses, and obliged to strike top^gallant yards. We 
were very fortunate in getting clear of the land, before this 
gale overtook us ; it being tiard to say what might have 
been the consequence bad it come on while we were on the 
north coast. This storm was of short duratioya; for, at 
eight o'clock it began to abate ; and at midnight it w#ts lit- 
tle wind. We then took the opiportunity to spuiiid, but 
. found no bottom with a line of an hundred and eighty ^- 
thoms. 

Next day the storm was succeeded by a thick fog, attend- 
ed with rain ; the wind veered to N.W., and, at five in the 
morning, it fell calm, which continued till eight; and then 
we got a breeze southerly, with which we stood to the east 

till- 



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€VA?, ff. s^of • r. C^«i4i J0m% Coo*, gy 

^il 4brqe in Uie ^ftferad^. T^j^ w^a^bw than coming somer 
wb^ ^te«r, 4!ip e>a(}e a^U^ 9ia4 atcer^ ftorth in search of 
land; bol, i^t ^c^past six, we wefe «gdo itiveived in a 
thick niist^ which made it necessary to haul the. wind and 
$pend the night in naiaking shoit h<)«rd9. 

We had variable light aira m%% to a calm, and thick 
foggy weather, till balf-paal wven o*cteck in the evening of 
the 82d, wbeq we got a fine breeze at north, a&d the weafi- 
ther wfw so cleaf that we eoqld ^e two w three leagues 
rgnnd ns. We s^«©d the oppor t^qily, and steered to west • 
jadgkig we were to theeae^t of the land/ After ronning ten 
»iile9 to the west^the weniher again became foggy^ and we 
hauled the wind, and 9pei)t the night under top^sails. 

Next morning at six o'elook, the fog clearing away, so 
that we conld see three ofibur miles, I took the opportuni* 
ty to steer i^gain to the west, with the wind at east, a fresh 
^hreeae; but two hours after, a thick fog once more obliged 
^s to haul the wind to the south. At eleven o'clock, a s^rt 
interval of clear weather gave ns view of three or four rockj 
islets extending from S.£. to E#N.£., two or three mii^ 
distant ; bqt we did not see the Sugar-Loaf Peak before^ 
mentioned. Indeed, two or three miles was the extent of 
our horiEon. 

We were well assured Ihat kbts was the land we had seen 
before, which we had now been quite round ; and therefore 
it could he no naoire than a few detach^ rc»ks, receptacles 
for birds, of which we now saw vast nnmbers, especially 
shags, who gave us notice of the vieioity of land before we 
saw it. These rocks lie in the latitude of 66** S., and S. 76* 
£., distanft twdve leagues from Cooper^a Isle. 

The interval of clear weather was of very short duration 
before we had as thick a fog as ever, attended with rain' 
on which we tacked in sixty fathoms water, and stood to 
the north. Thus we spent our time, involved in a continual 
thick mist ; and, for aught we knew, surrounded by danger- 
ous rocks. The shags and soundings were our best pilots • 
for after we had stood a few miles to the north, we got out 
of soundings, and saw no more shags. The succeeding day 
and night we spent in making short boards ; and at eight 
o'clock on the 24th, jadgii\g ourselves not far from the 
rocks by some straggling shags which came about us, we 
•ottttded in sixty fathoms water, the bottom stones ^and 
broken shells. Soon after, we saw the rocks bearinff 
S.S. W. J W., four miles distant, but still we did not see the 

peak. 



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28 Modem Circtmnaiftgaiions. part hi. book ii. 

peak. It was, no doubt> beyond our horizon, which was Ii* 
mited to a short distance ; and, indeed, we had but a tran- 
sient sight of the other rocks, before they were again lost 
in the fog. 

With a light s^ir of wind at north, and a great swell from 
N.E., we were able to clear the rocks to the west ; and, at 
four in the p. in., judging ourselves to be three or four 
leagues east and west of them, I steered south, being quite 
tired with cruizing about them in a thick fog ; nor was it 
worth my while to spend any more time in waiting for clear 
weather, only for the sake of having a good sight of a few, 
straggling rocks. At seven o'clock, we bad at intervals a 
clear sky to the west, which gave us a sight of the moun* 
tains of the isle of Georgia, bearing W.N.W., about eight 
leagues distant. At eight o'clock we steered S.E. by S., 
and at ten S.E. by E., with a fresh breeze at north, attend- 
ed with a very thick fog ; but we were, in some measure, 
acquainted with the sea over which we were running. The 
rocks above-mentioned obtained the name of Gierke's 
Rocks, after my second officer, he being the first who saw 
them.' 



Section VI. 

Proceeditm after leaving the Isle of Georgia^ with, an jiccount 
of the Discovery of Sandwich Land; with some Reasomfor 
there being Land about the South Pole. 

On the 25th, we steered E.S.E., witb a fresh gale at 
N.N.E., attended with foggy weather, till towards the even- 
ing, 

' There was no inducement to oifier a single remark on the discoveries 
mentioned in this section, and the one tb«t follows, or to give any addi« 
tionai observations from the works hitherto used. It is utterly improba- 
ble that any human being could be benefited by the most perfect in- 
formation that might be a^rded, respecting these desolate regions. Mr 
G. F. it is true, hazards a speculation, that if the northern ocean should 
ever be cleared of whales, by our annual fisheries, this part of the south* 
em hemisphere might be visited for the sake of procuring these animals so 
abundant in it. But as besides this proviso, he thinks it necessary that 
Patagonia and Tierra del Fuc^o should be inhabited and civilized like 
Scotland and Sweden, there will evidently be time enough some centuries 
hence, to investigate nrinutely the geography ^natural history of Geoi> 
gia and its kindred neighbours. — E. 



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cB^p. iv« ssCT» VI, . Captain James Cook* & 

ing, when tb^ ^ky becoming cleaiy we found the variation 
to be 9« 26' E., being at this time in the latitude of 56**i6' S., 
longitude 32^.9' W. 

Having continued to steer EJS.E.^. with a fine gale at 
U.N.W., till day-light next mornings on seeing no land to 
the east, Irgave orders to steer sputb, .being,at this time in 
the. latitude of 56o 33' S., longitude 3l*> 10'. W. The wea- 
ther continued clear, and gave us an opportunity to observe 
several distances of t|ie. sun and moon for the correcting 
our longitude, which at noon wa$ 31'' 4' W., the latitude 
observed 57^ 38' S. We continued to steer to the southtill 
the 27th, at noonj^ at which time we wereju the latitude of 
59^ 46' Sr, and had so thick a fog that we could not seea 
ship's length. It being ao Jonger safe to sail before the wind> 
as we w^i^^.^o expect soon to fall in with ice, I therefoxe 
hauled to the east, having a gentlet breeze at N.N.E* Soon 
aftpr the fog clearing away, we resunaed our course to the 
sopth till four o'clQ<^k, when it returned again as thick as 
ever, and made it necessary for us .to haul upon a wind. 

I now reckoned we were in latitude 60^ S., and farther I 
did not intend to gp,^ unless I observed some certain signsi 
ojf.sopn meeting with land. ,For It would not have been 
prudent in me to have spent my time in penetrating to the 
south, when it was at least as probable that a large tract of 
land might be fpund near Cape Circumcision. Besides,.! 
was tired of these^high southern latitudes, where nothing 
was to be found but ice and thick fDgs. We had now a lopg 
hollow swell from the west, a strong indication that there 
was no land in that direction ; so th^t I think I may ven- 
ture to assert that the. extensive coast, laid down in Mr 
Dalrympley chart of the ocean between Africa and Ame- 
rica, and the Gulph of St Sebastian, do not exist. 

At seven, o'clock in the evening, the fog receding from 
OS a little, gave us a sieht of an ice island^ several penguins 
and some snow peterels ; we sounded, but found no ground 
at one hundred and forty fathoms. The fog soon returning^ 
we spent the night in making boards over that space which 
we had;» in some degree, made ou^elves. acquainted with in 
the day. 

At eight in the mprning of the £8lh, we stood to the east, 
with a gentle gale at north ; the weather began to clear up.;, 
and we/ound the sea strewed with large and small ice ; se- 
yeral penguins, snow peterels^ and ot|ier birds were seen, 

and. 



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Md iottit wtiales. Soon after we had ftuti-^n^^ bttt tfere air 
was tbtd ; the merctiry in the thermometer siotdd g^^ietally 
at thirty-five, but at noon it was 37* ; the klltude by obseiw 
vation was 60» 4' S*^ longitude ^ «^' W. 

We c^tttiilued to stetrd to the east ti4l half-past two 
6*tloek, p. m., when we fell in, all at once, with a vast oum- 
her of large ice-^islands, and a sea strewted with looii^ iee^ 
The weAther too was become thick and htey, attended with 
di^izzliti^ rain and sleet, which made it the oioi^ dftn^roas 
to fftaiHim among the ice. For this reason we ticked and 
^tood back to the wedt, with the wind at north* The ice-* 
islands^ which at this tini^ surrounded us, were neariy all of 
^ntA height, and shewed a flat even surfaces ; but they wfe#e 
«f V^tious extent, some being two or three miks iH' cireuit^ 
The loose ice was what had bf6ken from thesie islest 

Next mbrning, the wind falling and yeeriiig to 84 W., vre 
Peered N.E. ; but this course was soofr iniereepted by on^ 
iHerotts ice-islands ; and, ha:ving but very litUe wind, We 
were obliged to steer such courses as carried us the I3le«re6l 
of them ; so that we hardly made any advance, one way or 
othei^, during the whole aay; Abundance of whales and 
^jetiguttis were about us aH the time ; and the weather fiiir^ 
hni dark and gloomy. 

At midnight the wind began to freshen at N.N.E*, with 
ifrhich we stood to the N.W., till six in the morning of the 
30th, when the wind veering to N.N.W., we tacked and 
stood to N.B., and soon after sailed through a good deal of 
loosei ice, and passed two large islands. Except a short in* 
terval of clear weather about nine o'clock, it was cdntinnal* 
ly foggy, with either sleet or snow. At no6n we were, by 
6ur reckoning, in the latitude of 5<^® 80' S., longitude 129^ 
24' W. 

Continuing to stand to N.Ei with a fresh breeze at 
.N.N.W., at two o'clock, we passed one of the largest ice- 
islands we had seen in the voyage, and some time after 
passed two others, which were much smaller. Weather still 
foggy, with sleet : And the wind continued at N* by W., 
with which we stood to N.E., over a sea strewed wkh ice. 

At half an hour past six next morning, as we were standi 
ing N.N.E. with the wind at west, the fog very fortunately 
clearing away a little, we discovered land ahead, three or 
four miles distant. On this we hauled the wind to th^ 
north ; but filiding we could not weather the land an this 

tack. 



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ti^, ^ s^n lifter taok^ iw <W6 hundred And t^veiitj^fitd 
ta&iot^ i^atety thi^e miles fi^ctti th6 sbore, and al>out half 
h teagtie ftoto sotM break^rtw The weather then eleared tip . 
ib KttW mw^, a»d gave us & fdletably good sight of the Iand« 
'j'hat which w^ had fallen iit with ptcnfed three rocky islets 
of e<MiiJderM^e height. The out^rmdst terminated in A 
lofty peA Nke a sugar-loaf^ avii obtained the name of 
Fi^e^elarid Peak, afferthe man who i^rst discovered it. La- 
titade ^* S., longitude Qf W. Behind this peak, that is 
to the east of it, appeared an elevated coast, whose lofty 
jlho#<(-clad^Yninits were seen above the clouds. It extend- 
eiifrom N. by E.' to E.S.E., and I called it Cape Bristol, iiit - 
faoilMr of the noble family of Hervey. At the same time 
Another elevated coast appeared in sight, bearing S.W. by 
S., and at noon it extended from S.E. to S.S.W., from four 
to eight leagues distant ; at this time the observed latitude 
was 59* 13' 30" S., longitude 27^ 45* W. I called this laftd 
Southern Thule, because it is the most southern land that 
has ever yet been discovered. It shews a surface of vast 
height, aiid is every where covered with snow. Some 
ihought they saw land in the space between Tbule and Cape 
Bristol. It is more than probable that these two lands are 
connected, and that this space is a deep bay, which I call- 
ed Forster's Bay. 

At one o'clock, findine that we could not weather Thule, 
we tacked and stood to the north, and at four, Freezeland 
Peak bore east, distant three or four leagues. Soon after, 
it fell litde wind, and we were left to the mercy of a great 
westeriy swell, which set right upon the shore. We sound- 
ed, but a li[\e of two hundred fathoms found no bottom. 
At etjght o'clock, the weather, which had been Very hazy, 
dearing up, we saw Cape Bristol bearing E.S.E., and termi- 
nating in a point to the north, beyond which we could see 
no land. This discovery relieved us from the fear of being 
eart'ied by the swell on the most horrible coast in the world, 
and we continued to stand to the north all night, with a 
Kght breeze at west. 

On the. 1st of February, at four o'clock in the morning,, 
we got sight of a new coast, which at six o'clock bore ]V. 
ety east. It proved a high promontory, which I named 
Cape Montagu, situated in latitude 58'' 21' S., longitude 
S6* 44' west, and seven or eight leagues to the north of 
Cape Bristol. We saw land from space to spftce between 

them. 



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dieiD^ whicli'inade me coocludis that the whole way cooe 
neoted. I was sorry I could not. determine this with greater 
certainty \ but prudence would not permit me to venture 
near a poast^ subject to thick fogs^ on which there was no 
anchorage ; where every port was blocked or filled up with 
ice ; and the whole country^ from the summits of the moun- 
tains, down to the very brink of the cliffs which termini^te 
the qpast, covered, many fathoms thick, with everlasliug 
snow: The cliffs alone was all which was to be seen like 
land. 

Several large ice-islands lay upon the coast ; one of which 
attracted my notice. It had a flat surface, was of consider- 
able extent both in height and circuit, and had p^rpendi« 
cular sides, on which the waves of the s^a had made no im-* 
prei^siQn ; by which I judged that it had not jbeen long from 
land> and that it might lately have come out of some bay 
on the coast, where it had been formed. , 

At noon we were east and west of the northern part of 
Cape Montagu, distaut about five leagues, and Freezeland 
Peak bore S. 16<* east, distant twelve leagues; latitude ob- 
served 58® 25' S. In the morning the variation was 10** 11' 
east. A^t two in the afternoon, as we were standing to the 
north, with a light breeze at S.W., we saw land bearing 
]N. £5' east, distant fourteen leagues. Cape Montagu bqre 
at tbis time, S. G&* east ; at eight it bore S. 40^ east ; Cape 
Bristol, S. by E. ; the new land extending from N. 40** to 
52^ east ; and we thought we saw land still more to the 
east, and beyond it. 

Continuing to steer to the north all night, at six o'clock 
the next morning a new land was seen bearing N.J 2® east, 
about ten leagpes distant. It appeared in two hummocks 
just peeping above the horizon ; but we soon after lost sight 
of them ; and having got the wind at N.N.E. a fresh breeze, 
we stood for the northernmost land we had seen the day be- 
fore, which 9t this time bore E.S.E. We fetched in with 
it by ten o'clock, but could not weather it, and were obliged 
to tack three miles from the coast^ which extended from E» 
by S. to S.E., and had much the appearance. of being an 
island of about eight or ten leagues circuit. It shews a sur- 
face of considerable height, whose summit was lost in the 
clouds, and, like all the neighbouring lands, covered with a 
sheet of snow and ice, except in a projecting point on the 
north side,iand two hills seen over this point, which prober 

bly 
1 



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eiUBi iT« sBcr. yi« C^tom JTame^ Cooi» / SIT 

Hy migkb b^ two islandft. Th^«e only were clear of mow, 
SLod seemed covered with h greeu tarf. Some large ice 
islands lay to the N.E.> abd some others to the south. 

We stood off till noon^ aiid then tacked for the land again, 
in order to see whether it w»9 aa island or no* The weathet 
was now become yery hazy^, which ^oon turning to a thick 
fog, put a fitop to discovery, and made it unsafe to sl;a9d 
for the shore ; so that aft^r Wing run th^ ^^me distance 
in^ as we bad run off, we tacked and stood, to N.W., for the 
land we had seen in the mornmg, which was yet at a consU 
deraUe distance. Thus we were obliged to If^ave ^he othej^ 
under the supposition of its bein^ an island^ vfhieh I ii||me4* 
Ssonders, after my bonourable friend Sir CHarles., It i^ sit) 
tnated in the latitude of 57^ 49' soi^th longitnde, £6^ 44f: 
west:; ai^d norths distant thirteen leagues^ ftfm Capie M^; 

. At $i^ o'clock in the eveningj the yrind shifting tp the. 
west, we tacked> and stood to the nor^ ; and at e^gjht t^e. 
hg clearing away, gave ps a sight of Sanaders's ]sle> exr 
tending from SJE. by S. to E.S.B. We w?re still in douht^^ 
if it was an island $ for, at this tio^e, land was seen bearii^g. 
£. fa^ &> which might or might pot be connected with it ; 
it might also be the same that we had se^n the preceding 
evenmg* But, be this as it may, it was now neoes^ary t<]^ 
taike a view of the land to the north, before we proceedc^ijL 
aay farther to th^ east. With ijiis inteation, we stood ta 
the north, having a light breeze at W. by S^ which at twoi 
o'clock in the morning olP the Sd» was succeeded by a calo^ 
that ecmtinued till eight, whan we got the wind ^^ £• Vj ^? 
attended by hazy weather. At this time we saw the land we 
werebdcihg for, and which ^oyed to be two isles. The 
day on which they were discovered, was the occasion of 
calling them Candlemas Isl^; latitude 57^ 11' S., longi- 
tude ^^ & W. They were of no grefiit exteut, bi^t of con-* 
siderable height, and were covered with snow. A smalt 
itoch was seen between them, and perhaps thfre may be^ ^ 
more ; for the weather wa9 so hazy that we soon lost sight 
pf the islands, and did i|Qt see them again till noon, a^ 
which time they bore west, distant three or four lea|;ues. 

As the wmd kept veering to the south, we were 6blige4 
to stand to the $j.£., in which route we met with saveiri^ 
Wee ice islands, loose ice, and many penguins ; and, at 
midnight, came at lonce into water uncommonly white, 
which alarmed the officer of the wa|/c|^ ^o giuch, that he 

VOL. XV. c tacked ^ 



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54 Modem CircumnavigaiioM* part hi. book n. 

tacked the ship instantly. Some thought it was a float of 
ice ; others that it was shallow water ; but, as it prorved nei- 
ther« probably it was a shoal of fish. 

We siood to the south till two o'clock next morningj 
when we resumed our course to the east with a faint breeze 
at S.S.E. which having ended in a calm^ at six, I took the 
opportunity of putting a boat in the water to try if there 
were any current; and the trial proved there was none. 
Some whales were playing about us, and abundance of pen- 
guins : a few of the latter were shot, and they proved to be 
of the same sort that we had seen among the ice before^ 
and different both from those on Staten Land, and from 
those at the isle of Georgia. It is remarkable, that we had 
not seen a seal since we left that coast. At noon we were 
in latitude of 56* 44' S., longitude 25* 33' W. At this time 
we got a breeze at east^ with which we stood to the souths 
with a view of gaining the coast we had left ; but at eight 
o'clock the wind shifted to the south, and made it necea* 
sary to tack and stand to the east ; in which course we 
met with several ice-islands and some loose ice ; the weather 
continuing hazy with snow and rain. 

No penguins were seen on the 5th9 which made me con- 
jecture that we were leaving the land behind us, and that 
we had already seen its northern extremity. At noon we 
were in the latitude of 57^ ^ S., longitude 23^ S4' west* 
which was 3* of longitude to the east of Saunders's Isle. In 
the afternoon the wmd shifted to the west ; this enabled us 
to stretch to the south, and to get into the latitude of the 
land, that, if it took an east direction^ we might again fiUl 
in with it 

We continued to steer to the south and S.E. till next day 
at noon, at which time we were in the latitude of 58* 16' 
S., loneitude 21* 34^ west, and seeing neither land nor 
signs of any, I concluded that what we had seen, which I 
named Sandwich, Land, was either a group of islands, or 
else a point of the continent. For 1 firmly believe that 
there is a tract* of land near the Pole which is the source of 
most of the ice that is spread over this vast southern ocean. 
I also think it probable that it extends farthest to the north 
opposite the southern Atlantic and Indian oceans ; hecanse 
ice was always found by us farther to the north in these 
oceans than any where else, which I judge could not be, if 
there were not land to the south ; I mean a land of consi- 
derable extent. For if we suppose that no such land exists, 

and 



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"CHAP. IV. SECT« Ti. CopioiH Jomu Coak. i5 

and that ice may be formed without it, it will follow of 
course that the cold ought to be every whete nearly equal 
round the Pole, as far as 70* or 6(/ of latittide, or so far as 
to be beyond the influence of any of the known continents ; 
consequently we ought to see ice every where under the 
same parallel, or near it ; and yet the contrary has been 
found. Very few ships have met with ice going round 
Cape Horn : And we saw hot little below the sixtieth de- 
gree of latitude, in the Southern Pacific Ocean. Whereas* 
in this ocean, between the meridiem of 40^ west and 50^ or* 
60* east, we found ioe as far north as 51^ Bouvet met with 
some, in 48% and others have seen it in a much lower lati- 
tude. It is true, however, that the greatest part of this 
southern continent (sapposing there is one), must lie with« 
in the polar circle, where the iea is so pestered with ice, 
that the land is thereby inaccessible. The risque one runs 
in exploring a coast, in these unknown and icv seas, is so 
very great, that I can be bold enough to say that no man 
will ever venture farther than I have done ; and that the 
lands which may lie to the south will never be explored. 
Thick fogs, snow storms, intense cold, and every other 
thing that can render navigation dangerous, must be en* 
countered, and these difficulties ar^ greatly heightened by 
the inexpressibly horrid aspect of the country; a country 
doomed by nature never once to feel the warmth of the 
sun's rays, bpt to lie buried in everlasting snow and ice. 
The ports which may be on the coast, are, in a manner, 
wholly filled up with frozen snow of vast thickness ; but if 
any should be so far open as to invite a ship into it, she 
would run a risque of being fixed ther^ for ever, or of co** 
ming out in an ice island. The islands and floats on the 
coast, the great falls from the ice-cliffs in the port, or a 
heavy snow-storm attended with a sharp frost, would be 
equally fatal. 

After such an explanation as this, the reader must not 
expect to find me mubh farther to the south. It was, how- 
ever, not for want of inclination, but for other reasons. It 
would have been rashness in me to have risqued all that 
had been done during the voyage, in discovering and ex- 
ploring a coast, which, when discovered and explored, would 
nave answered no end whatever, or have been of the least 
use, either to navigation or geography, or indeed to any 
Other science. Bouvet's discovery was yet before us, the 

4 existence 



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36 Modtrn Greiiafm0ingati<mu riEy in. jioop: ii. 

existence of wbich was to be defied up ; wi, besides ril 
lhis> we were not now in a cpoditjpn to undertake gnsat 
things ; nor indeed was there time, had we been ever la 
well provided. 

** These reasons induced me to alter the conrse to the east^ 
with a very strong gale at norths attended with an exceed- 
ingly heavy fall of snow. The quantity which lodged on 
our sails was »o great, that we were frequently obliged to 
throw the ship up in the wind to shake it out of them^ 
otherwise neUh^r they nor the ship could have supported 
the weight. In the evening it ceased to snow; the wea- 
ther cleared up^ the wiiad backed to the west, and we spent 
the night in mlftkiqi^ two ahoit boards, nnder close-reefed^ 
top-sails .and fore-sail. 

' At day-break on the 7tb; we reauwed our eourse to the 
east, with a very fresh gale at S-W. by W., attended by a 
itigh sea from Uie same direction. In the afternoon, being 
Ml the latitude of 58* 24f S., longitude 16? 19' west, the va- 
riation was 1? 52' east Only three ice-islands seen this day. 
At eiglit o'clock, shortened sail, and hauled the wind to the 
S.E. for the night, in which we had several showers of au^w 
and sMet. 

On the 8th at day-light, we resumed our east course with 
a gentl^ breeze and fair weather* After sun-rise, being 
then in the latitude of 58f SC S., longitude 15^ 14' west, 
the variation, by the mean resalts of two compasses, was S^ 
43' east. Th^se observations were more to be depended on 
than those made the night before, there being much less 
sea now than then. In the afternoon, we passed three iee« 
islands. This night was spent as the preceding. 

At six next morning, being in the latitude of 58** 2/ S., 
longitude 1$^ 4' W., the variation was 26' £.; and in the 
afternoon, being in the same latitude, and about a quarter 
of a degree more to the east, it was 2' west. Therefore this 
last situation must be in or near the Line, in which the com- 
pass has no variation. We had a calm the most part of the 
day. The weather fair and clear, excepting now and then 
a snow-shower. The mercury in the thermometer at noon 
rose to 40; whereas, for several days before, it had been 
no higher than 36 or SB. We had several ice-islands in 
sight, hat no one thing that cbuld induce us to think that 
any Ismd was in our neighbourhood. At eight in the even«r 
ing a breeze sprunjg up at S.E*, with wbich we stood to N.E. 

During 



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CRAP. IT. 6ACT< VI. Captain James Cook. 57 

'DuriDg the night the wind freshened and veered sonth^ 
whiob enabled us to steer east. The wind was attended with 
showers of sl^et and snow till day-light, when the weathe* 
beeame fair, hut piercing cold, so that the water on 'deck 
Wad frozen, and at noon the niercarv in the thermometer 
was no higher than M^. At six o'clock in the morning, the 
variation was Q$f west, being then In the latitude of 5S* 15' 
S., longitude 11*41' W.; and at six in the evening, bein^ 
in the same latitude, and in the longitude of 9^ 24' W., it 
was !• 51' W.' In the evening the wind abated ; and du- 
ring the night, it was variable between south and west* 
tee-islands contindalljr irf sight. . . ' 

On the 11th, wind W^esterly, light airs altend'ed with hea- 
vy showers of snow in ihe morning; btt as the day advah- 
€ed, the weather became fair, clear, and serene. Still con^ 
iinuing to steer east, at noon we observed in lajtitude 68^ 
1 r, longitude at the same time 7^ 55' west* . Thermometer 
S4f . In the afternoon we had two hours calm ; after which 
we had faint breezes between the N.B. and S.E. 

At six o'clock in the morning of the 12th, being in the 
latitude of 38^ 25' S., longitude 6^ 5V W., the variation was 
d<> 23' west* We had variable light airs ne^f t to a calm all 
this day, aa^ the weather was fair and clear till towards the 
evening, when it became cloudy with snow^^showers, aiid 
the air very cold. Ice-islands continuailly in sight ; most 
of tfaem small and breaking to pieces^ 
, In the afternoon of the Idth, the wind increaised, the sky.* 
becaoae clouded> and soon after we had a very heavy fall of 
•now^ which continued till eight or nine o'clock in the even^ 
faig, when the wind abating and Veering; to S.E., the sky 
deared up, and we had a fair night, attended with so sharfi 
a frost, that the water in all our vessels on deck was next 
moraing coieted with a sheet of ice. The mercury in the 
^eraiOknetet ^std as low as 29^ whiqh is 3' below freezing, 
or rather 4 ; for we generally found tfate watet freeze whert 
the merbmy stood at Sd<^. 

Towii^rds noon on the I4\h, the wixid veering to the souths 
iocrenied to a Very strong gale, ^nd blew in heavy squalls 
attended with snow. At intervals, between the sqtialls, the 
weather was fair uid clear, but exceedingly cold. VVe con"^^ 
linued to* steer east, inclining a littlci to the norths and iif 
^e afternoon crossed the first meridian, or that of Green* 
Wich^ in the latitnde of Sl^ 6Qf S. At eight in the evening, 

we 



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58 Modem Circumnacigationu fart hi. book ii. 

we close-reefed the top-sails^ took in the main-sail^ and^ 
steered east with a very bard gale at S^S.W.) and a high 
sea from the same direction. 

At day-break on the 15th, we set the main-sitil> loosed a 
reef out of each top-sail^ and with a very strong gale at 
S.W., and fair weatner^ steered E.N.E. till noon, at which 
time we were in latitude of 56* 37^ S., longitude 4'' 11' E., 
when we pointed to the N.E., in order to get into the lati-* 
tude of Cape Circumcision. Some large icfe-islands were in 
sight, and the air was nearly as cold as on the preceding 
day. At eight o'clock in the eveninff, shortened sail, and 
at eleven hauled the wind to the N.W., not daring to stand 
on in the night, which was foggy, with snow-showers, and 
a smart frost. 

At day-break on the l6th, we bore away N.E., with a 
light breeze at west, which, at noon, was succeeded by a 
calm and fair weather. Our latitude at this time was 55* 
26' S., longitude 5* 52' E., in which situation we had a great 
swell from the southward, but no ice in sight. At one o'clock 
in the p. m., a breeze springing up at £.N.E.^ we stood to 
S.E. till six, then tacked, and stood to the north, under 
double-reefed top-sails and courses, having a very fresh gale 
. attended with snow and sleet, which fixed to the masts and 
''gging ^ it fell, and coated the whole with ice. 

On t)ie 17th the wind continued veering, by little and 
little, to the south, till midnight, when it fixed at S.W. 
Being at this time in the latitude of 54"" 2(/ S., longitude 
6° 33' east, I steered east, having a prodigious high sea from 
the south, which assured us no land was near in that direction. 

In the morning of the 18th, it ceased to snow ; the wea- 
ther became fair and cleajr ; and we found the variation to 
be 13^ 44' west At noon we were in the latitude of 54° 25', 
longitude 8** 4& east. I thought this a good latitude to keep 
in, to look for Cape Circumcision ; because, if the land had 
ever so little extent in the direction of north and south, we 
could not miss seeing it, as the northern point is said to lie 
in 54\ We had yet a great swell from tne south, so that 
J was now well assured it could only be an island, and it 
was of no consequence which side we fell in with. In the 
evening Mr Wales made several observations of the moon, 
and stars Regulus and Spica ; tlie mean results, at four 
o'clock when the observations were made, for finding the 
time by the watch, g»ye 9** 15' 90" east longitude. The 

watch 



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enhv. iv« 8BCT. VI. Ce^/ojn James CooJt. $9 

tratch at the same time gave 9° d& 45^. Soon after the va* 
nation was found to be 13* IC/ west. It is nearly in this si. 
tnation that Mr Bouvet had P east. I cannot suppose that 
the variation has altered so much since that time^ but rather 
think he had made some mistake in his observations. That 
there could be none in ours was certain, from the uniform* 
ity for some time past. Besides, we found 1£* 8' west, va-^ 
riation, nearly under this meridian, in January 1778. Du- 
ring the night the wind veered round by the N.W. to N.N.E. 
and blew a fresh gale. 

At eight in the morning of the 19th, we saw the appear^ 
ance of land in the direction of £. by S., or that of our 
course ; but it proved a mere fog-bank, and soon after dis- 
persed. We continued to steer £. by S. and S,E., till seven 
o'clock in the evening, when being in the latitude of 54^ 
42f S., longitude 13* 3' £., and the wind having veered to 
N.E., we tacked and stood to N.W. under close^reefed top- 
sails and courses ; having a very strong gale attended with 
8QOW*shower8. 

At four o'clock next morning, bieing in the latitude of 
54* 30' S., longitude li^ S3' east, wte tacked and stretched 
to N.E. with a fresh gale at S.W.,. attended with snow- 
showers and sleet. At noon, being in the latitude of 54^ 8' 
S., longitude 1£* 59' £., with a fresh gale at W. by N., and 
tolerably clear weather, we steered east till ten o'clock in 
the evening, when we broughtrtp, lest we might pass any 
land in the night, of which we however had not the least 
signs. , 

At day-break, having made sail, we bore away &^ and at 
noon observed in latitude 54* 16^ S., longitude 16* 13' east, 
which is 5* to the east of the longitude in which Cape Cir- 
cumcision is said to lie ; so that we began to think there 
was no such land in existence. I however continued to 
steer east, inclining a little to the south, till four o'clock in 
the afternoon of the next day^ when we were in latitude 54* 
24' S., longitude 19* 18' east. c 

We had now run down thirteen degrees of longitude in 
the very latitude assigned for Bouvet's Land. I was there- 
fore well assured that what he had seen could be nothing 
but an island of ice ; for, if it had been land, it is hardly 
possible we could have missed it, though it were ever so 
small. Besides, frpm the time of leaving the southern lands, 
we had not met with the least signs of any other. But even 

suppose 



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40 Modem CircmxiUmgatiim. part hi. book ii. 

sii|:^08^ we bad^ it would have beea no proof of the exisl- 
ence of Cape Circumcision ; for I ain well asaored that nei*^ 
th^r seals nor peoguinfl, nor any of the oceanic birdS) are 
indubitable signs of the vicinity of land. I will allow that 
they are found on the coasU of all these southern landa ; 
but are they not also to be found in all parts of the southern 
ocean I There are, however, some oceanic or aquatic birds 
which point out the vicinity of land ; especially sbags» which 
seldom.go out of sight of it ; and gannets, boobies, and men- 
of-war birds, I believe, seldom go very far out to sea. 

As we were now no more than two degrees of longitude 
from our route, to the south, when we left the Cape of Good 
Hope, it was to no purpose to proceed any farther to the 
east tinder this parallel, knowing that no land could be 
there. But an opportunity now offering of clearing up some 
doubts of our having seen land farther to the south, I steer* 
ed S.E. to get into the situation in which it was supposed 
to lie* 

We continued this course till four o'clock the next mornM 
ing, and then S.E. by £• and E.S.E., till eight in the even- 
ing, at which time we were m the latitude of 55* 85' S;, 
longitude 23* £2' east,,both deduced from observations made 
the same day ; for, in the morning, the sky was clear at ii>- 
tervals, and afforded an opportunity to observe several di^ 
taoces of the sun and moon, which we had not been able 
to do for some time past, having had a constant succession 
of bad weather. 

Having now rtm over the place where the land was supi^ 
posed to lie, without seeing the least signs of any, it wiA no 
longer to be doubted but that the ice-islands had deceived 
ns as well as Mr Bouvet. The wind by this time having 
Veered to the north, and fncireased to a perfect storm, at- 
tended as usual with snow and sleet, we handed the top-sails 
atid hauled up E;N.E. under the courses. Baring the night 
the wind abated^ and veered to N. W., which enabled ns t^ 
steer more to the norths having no business i«rtfaer south; 



SfiCTIOjf 



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OHAP* iti( SBCT* yii* PtipiaiM Jama Cook. . 41 



Section VIL . 

Heads cf what has been dene in the Vwfo^e; with same Con* 
jecturee concemif^ the Formation of Ice-hianb; and a^ 
Account of our Proceedings till our Arrival at the Cape c/* 
Good Hope. 

I HAS now made the circuit of tbe southern ocean in a 
high latitude, and traversed it in such a manner as to leave 
not th^ least room for the possibility of there being a con- 
tinent, unless near the Pole, and out of the reach ot naviga** 
<ion. By twice visiting the tropical sea^ I bad not only set« 
tied the situation of some old discoveries, but made there 
many new ones, and left, I conceive, very little more to be 
done even in that part. Thus I flatter myseir, that the in- 
tention of. the voyage has, in every respect, been fully an*- 
Swered; the southern hemisphere sufficiently explored,, and 
a final end put to the searching after a southern continent^ 
which has, at times> ingrossed the attention of some of the 
maritime powers, for near two centuries past, and been at 
favourite theory amongst the geographers of all ages. 

That there may be a continent, or large tract of land^ 
near the Pole, I will not deny ; on the contrary I am of 
opinion there is ; and it is probable tbat we have seen a 
part of itw The excessive cold, the many islands and vast 
floats of ice, all tend to proVe that there must be land to 
the south ; and for my persuasioa tbat this southern land 
must lie, or extend, farthest to the north opposite to the 
southern Atlantic and Indian oceans, I have already iv^ign- 
^d some reasons ; to which I may add the greater degree 
of cold experienced by us in these seas, than in the southera 
Pacific ocean under tbe same parallels of latitude.' 

is 



^ Ai^whathasteeBiMdoftiwH(terinidi%afa8(nitiKm4 
to any humaai being» or even in the way of hyfMthesis to explain the oon- 
^tcltioD of Bature, it may seem quite unnecessary to occupy a moment's 
attention about anv argmnents for its existence. As, howeVei', a few rf 
tinurks were haxaroed respecting those of a malbematical kind, it may b9 
Pi^ot^ to say a word or two as to others of a physical nature. Two rea- 
sons for thyi supposition liave been uiged ; vi^^ toe presence of rivers ae« 
^eisiury to account for the large masses of fresh«water ice, found in liigh, 
^thern latitudes; and the existence oi firm and immoveable points of 
«Qd round which these masses nught form. The first of these is glaringly 



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4e Modetn Grewnnavigatiom. ^aet in. book ii. 

la this last ocean^ the mercury in the thermometer seU 
dom fell so low as itbe freezing pointy till we were in 60^ - 
and upwards ; whereas in the others, it fell as low in the 
latitude of 54^ This was certainly owing to there being a 
greater quantity of ice, and to its extending farther to the 

north, 

ittToneoiis ia point of principle and fact In the 6nt place, it is most otf> 
tain, that the waters of the oceto adtnit of beiiia frOsen, and that whe4 so, 
they either do or do not contain the salts they held in solution, according 
to certain circuinstanoes, which the argument does not rec]uire to be ex- 
plained. And, secondly, it is absurd to imagine that lands in the vichiit^ 
of the Pole should have any rivers, as the snow-line, as it has been callea, 
reaches so low down there as the surface of the earth, and as the tempe* 
rature of the atmosphere, reckoning from what is kifown of it in high lati- 
tudes, can scarcely ever be above that point at which water becomes solid. 
The second alignment is etftaily unsubstantial, and may be as readily inva- 
lidated. In fact, the prinapal thing requisite for the congelation of water 
In BBj dfoumstances of situation, is the reduction of the temperature to a 
certain ndnt, to the efiect of which, it is well known, the agitation of the 
water onen materially contributes. It may be remarked also^^ that as the 
beat of the ocean seems to diminish in pretty regular progression fiom the 
aurfiuse downwards, so it is highly probable, that, even at considerable dia* 
tances from the Pole, the lower strata may be in a state of congelation ; 
much more probably, therefore, there may exist at and near the Pole, a 
mass of ice of indefinite size and durabihty, which, extending to greater 
or smaller distances according to different circumstances, may serve as the 
basis, or point d^ajfpuit of all the islands and fields of ice discoverable in 
thi^ r^ion. loe, in fact, is just as capable of a fixed position as earth is» 
or any other solid body, and may accordingly have constituted the sub- 
Stratum of the southern hemisphere within the polar circle, since the time 
that this planet assumed its present form and condition. So much then 
on the snqject df a southern continent, which, after all, we see is not worth 
being disputed about, and appears to be set up, as it were, in absolute de» 
rision of human curiosity and enterprise. Wise men, it is likely, notwith^* 
standing such promissory eulogiums as Mr Daliymple held out, will neither 
venture their lives to ascertain its existence, nor lose their tune and tam- 
pers in aiguing about it. Cook's observation, it is perhaps necessary ta 
remark, as to the ice extending further towards the north opposite the 
Atlantic and Indian oceans than any where else, may be accounted for 
Without the supposition he makes in explanation of it. Thus certain warm 
currents of water may be conceived to proceed from the north, towards 
those other parts where the ice has not been seen to extend so &r, and to 
prevent the formation of it to the same distance s or again, there may be 
islands and rocks, to which the ice adheres, in the situations mentioned 
by Cook. Both causes, indeed, may operate, and there may be others also 
^te equivalent to the effect. But it is full time to leave this mereljr ca- 
rious subject. Mr G. F. has somewhat wittily remarked, that the opinion 
of the existence of a southern continent maintained by some philoscpherv 
though much invalidated by this voyage, is nevertheless a proof or their 
great intelligence, considering the ^w data on which they could proceed. 
8ome readers may incline, perhaps, to give as much credit to the writer, 
for hasardiiig, on about equal grounds, any opinion in opposition to it.^£* 



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cfiAP. iv.'MCT. VII. Capium Jam€$ CocL 4S 

norths in these two seas than in the south Pacific; and i^ 
ice be first formed at^ or near land^ of which I have no <bubt^ 
it will follow that the land also extends farther north* 

' The formation or coagulation of ice-islands has not^ to 
my knowledge^ been thoroughly investigated. Some have 
supposed them to be formed by the freezing of the water 
at the mouths of large rivers^ or great cataracts, where thej 
accumulate till they are broken off by their own weight. 
My observations will not allow me to acquiesce in tbis opi^ 
nion ; because we never found any of the ice which we took 
up incorporated with earth, or any of its produce, as I think 
it must nave been, had it been coagulated in land-watera. 
It is a doubt with me, whether there.be any rivers in these 
countries. It is certain, that we saw not a river, or stream 
of water, on all the coast of Georgia, nor on any of the 
southern lands. Nor did we ever see a stream of water run 
frpm any of the ice»islands. How are we then to.suppose 
that there are large rivers? The valleys are covered, manj 
fathoms deep, with everlasting snow;^nd, at the sea, they 
terminate in icy cliffs of vast height It is here where the 
ice-islands sgre formed ; not from streams of water, but from 
consolidated snow and sleet, which is almost continnally 
falling or drifting down from the mountains, especially ia 
the winter, when the frost must be intense. During that 
season, th^ ice-clifis must so accumulate as to fill up all the 
bays, be they ever so large. This is a fact which cannot be 
doubted, as we have seen it so in summer. These clifli ac* 
cumulate by continual falls of snow, and what drifts from 
the mountains, till they are no longer able to support their 
own weight; and then large pieces break off, which we 
call ice-islands. Such as have a flat even surface, must be 
of the ice formed in the bays^ and before the fiat vallies ; 
the others, which have a tapering unequal surface, must be 
formed on, or under, the side of a coast composed of point- . 
ed rocks and precipices^ or some such uneven surface. For 
we cannot suppose that snow alone, as it falls, can form, on 
a.plain surface, such as the sea, such a variety of high peaks 
and hills, as we saw on many of the ic.e-isles. It is certain- 
ly more reasonable to believe that they are formed on a 
coast whose surface is something similar to theirs. I have 
observed that dl the icie-islands of any extent, and before 
they begin to break to pieces, are terminated by perpendi- 
cular cliffs of clear ice or frozen snoW/ always on one or 

more 



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44 Modem Circumnav^Hons. tam tiu %of>^ n. 

more sides^ but most g^neritlly all ronnd. Many/and those 
of the largest size, which had a billy and spiral surface^ 
shewed a perpendicular cliffy or side> tram the summit of 
the highest peak down to its base. This to me was a con** 
TiQcing proofs that these^ as well as the flat isles, must hav6 
broken off from substances like themselves^ that is^ from 
•onie large tract of ice. 

\Vhen 1 consider the vast quantity of ice we saw^ and the 
vicinity of the places to the Pole where it is formed^ and 
where the degrees of longitude are very sniali, I am led to' 
believe that these ice-cliflfs extend a good wsry into the sea, 
m some parts^ especiirily in chicb as are sheltered from the 
violence of the winds. It may even be doubted if ever the 
wind is violent in the tery high latitudes. And tb4t the sea 
will freeze oVer^or tbe^now that falls upon it, whibh amounts 
to the same thing; we have instances in the northern hemish 
phere. The Baltic, the Oulph of St Jaarence, the Straits 
of Belie-Ifle, and naany other equally large seasy are fi^e- 
ttuently frozen over in winter.* Nor is thiia at all extraor* 
ilmary , for we have found the degree of cold at the surface 
of the sea, even in sumifier, to be two degrees below the 
freezing point ; consequently nothing kept it from freezing 
iui the salt it contains, and the agitation of its surface* 
Whenever this last tease th In winter, when the frost is set 
in, and there comes a fall of snow, it will freeze on the sur* 
face as^ it falls, and in a fei^ days, or perhaps in one night, 
form such a sheet of ice d's will not be eauly broken up. 
Thus a foundation will be laid for it to accumulate to any 
thickness by falls of snow, without its being at all necessary 
for the sea-water to freeze. It may be by this means these 
vast floats of low ice we find in^ the spring of the year are 
formed, and which, after they break up, are carried by the 
currents to the north. For, from' ail the observations I havi 
been able to make, the currents every where, iji the high 
latitudes, set to the north, or to the N.E. or N.W. ; but we 
have very seldom found theni considerable. 

If this imperfect account of the formation of these er-* 
t#aordinary flbatihj^ islands of ice, which is written wholly 

from 

* ForsCer the elder, iti his observations,, has rdlat^cl many instances of 
0)is sort, and given soifie very in|renieu8 remarks on tho subject of the 
formation of ice in high latitudes ; but it is impossible to do justice to 
fhem vtrithin thecompa^ of a note, and perhaps most readers are of opi- 
nion- that the t<xt lit abundantly copious on this part of the voyage*— E. 



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ciiAP. IT* 0«OT* ▼!!. Cf^ak Jmm Cook. 46 

from my own cAaenratidns, ioes not coiiVey same' tfstful 
bints to an aWer pen, it will, bo^reH^er, convey some idea of 
the lands where they are formed : Lands doomed by Na- 
tare to perpetual frigidness; never to feel the warqoth of 
the sun's rays ; whose horrible and savage aspect I have 
not words to describe. Such are the lands we have disco* 
vered ; what then may we expect those to be which lie 
still fkrther to the south i For we may reasonably ifuppose. 
that we have seen the best, as lying most to the north. If 
any one should have resolution and perseverance to cfear 
up this point by proceeding farther than I have done^ I 
shall not envy him the hoqour of the discovery ^ but I wiU 
be bold to say, that the world will not be benefited by it. 

I had, at this time, some thoughts of revisiting the piace 
where the French discovery is said to Ha. But then I c<)n« 
aicicired that, if they had really made this discovery^ the eiid 
would be as fully answered as if I had done it myself. We 
l^now it can only be an island ; and if w^ niay judge from 
die degree of cold we found in that latitude, it cannot be a 
fertile one. Besides, this would have kept me two months 
langer at sea, and in a tempestuous latitude, which we were 
not in a condition to struggle with. Our sails and rigging 
were so much worn, that som<^thing was giving way every 
hour ; and we had qothing left either to I'epair (Jr toreplace 
them. Our provisions were in a stale of decay, and conscr 
quently afforded little nourishment, and we had been a long 
time without refsesbments. My people, indeed, were-yet 
healtby^ and would have cheerfully gone wherever I had 
thought proper to lead them ; bat I. dreaded the scurvy 
laying hdd of them at a time when mre had nothing U(t to' 
remove it. I mustsa^ farther, that it would have b^a cruel 
in me to have contmued the fatigues and hardships they 
were continually exposed to, longer than was absolutely 
necessary. Their behaviour, throughout the whble voyage, 
merited every indulgence whicb it was in my power to givd 
them. Animated by the conduct of the officers, they shewt 
ed themselves capable of surmounting every difficulty and 
danger which came in their way, and never once looked 
either upon the one or the other, as being at all heighten- 
ed, by our separation from our consort the Adventure.' 

All 

3 ^ The sour kroat, tiiat exeeUent anti-scorbutic food, of whicli sixt^ 
laf^ casks wer« put on board our ship, vas now entirely consumed, and 

14 Ibc 



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46 Modem Circunmat^aHom. - faat in. boche ir; 

All these considerations induced me to lay aside looking- 
fer ^e French discoveries^ and to steer for the Cape of 
Good Hope ; with a resohition, however^ of looking for the 
isles of Denia and Marseveeu, which are lud down in Dr 
Bailey's variation chart in the latitude of 41^ i S., and 
about 4* of longitude to the east of the meridian of the 
C^pe of Good Hope. With this view I steered N.E.^ with 
M hard gale at N. W. and thick weather ; and on the d5th^ 
at noon^ we saw the last ioe-island, being at this time in the 
latitnde of 52* S£' S., longitude 26^ 3 1' E. 

The wind abating and veering to the souths on the first 
cf March^ we steei«d west^ in order to get farther from Mr 
Bouvet's track, which was but a few degrees to the east of 
«sy being at this time in the latitude of ^ 44' &, longitude 
38^ €(/ £., in which situation we found the variation to be 
23* 36^ W. It is somewhat remarkable^ that all the time 
we bad northerly winds, which were regular and constant 
for several days, the weather was always thick and cloudy; 
Imt, as soon as they came south of west, it cleared up, and 
vras fine and pleasant. The barometer began to rise seve- 
lal days before this change happened ; but whether on ac^ 
count of it, or our coming northward, cannot be deterraw 
ncd.^ 

The wind remained not long at south before it veered 
loond by the N»E. to the N!W,, blowing fresh and by 
squalls, attended, as before, with rain and thick misty vrea* 
ther. We had some intervals of clear weather in the after* 
Boon of the 3d, when we found the variation to be £2* efi^ 
W. ; latitude at this time 45^ 8' S., longitude SO" 5€f E. 
The following night was very stbrmy, the wind blew hont 
S.W. and in excessively heavy squafk At short intervals 

betweea 

Ae vmnt of it was severely fdt from the CKfitmn d6wa to the stikMV il 
fnaUed us to eat our poitioa of salt mett, of which it oorrected the sep- 
tic quality. The wish for a speedy release from this nauseous diet now 
became universal, and our continuance in the hidi latitudes was dismee* 
iMe to all on boaitL"-0. F. 

* It may be worth while oreserriqg here the remark made by Mr Wales. 
When <di and in the ne^hbourhood of Georsia, the cold was much less 
severe when the wind blew from the sooth, mn when it came from the 
porth. He assigns no reason for it, and perlnps the observatioBS were too 
limited to phoe and time to justify any general inferences. It ma?; how- 
cwcr, be suggated,with little risk of error, that the northerly wind would 
be most knded widi moisture, faenoe the ^wdy sort of weather aolieed 
Awing Its cnBtiraamce; and thati on ntj 
tmt is a oooadcnhle source of cold.^ 



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CEAF. IV. 8XGT. YIl* .Gq^OtH JwM Cook. 47. 

betwam tbe squalb thie wind would £dl almoftt ta a cailin, 
and then come on again with 9uch fury, that neither our 
sails nor rigging could withstand it^ several of tbe sails be- 
ing split, ami a middle stay-saiL being wholly lost The 
next morning the gale abated, and we repaired the damage 
we had sustained in the best manner we could. 

On the 8th, being in the latitude of 41 ""SCyS., longitude 
d6^ 51' E., the mercury in the thermometer rose to 6l, and 
we found it necessary to put on lighter clothes. As the 
wiud continued invariably fixed between N.W. and W., 
we took every advantage to get to the west, by tackine 
whenever it shifted any thing in our favour ; but as we had 
a great swell against us, our tacks were rather disadvanta* 

feous. We daily saw albatrosses, pet^relsy and other oceanic 
Uds ; but not tbe least sign of land. 

On the 11th, in the latitude of 40^ 40' S., longitude 23"* 
AT E., the variation was 20^ 4d' W. About noon the same 
day the wind shifted suddenly from N.W. to S.W., caused 
the mercury in the thermometer to fall as suddenly from 
62* to 52^ ; such was the different state of tbe air, between 
a northerly and southerly wind. The next day, having se- 
veral hours calm, we put a boat in tbe water, and shot some 
albatrosses and peterels, wliicb, at this time, were highly 
{u^ceptable. . We were now nearly in the situation where 
the isles which we were in search of, are said to lie; how-* 
ever, we saw nothing that could give us the least hope of 
finding them. 

The calm continyed till five o'clock of the next mominff, 
when it was succeeded by a breeze at W. by S., with which 
we stood to N.N. W., and at noon observed in latitude 3SP 
5V S. This was upwards of thirty miles more to the north 
than our log gave us ; and the watch shewed that we had 
been set ^o the east also. If these differences did not arise 
from some strong current, I know not how to account for 
them. Very strong currents have been found on tbe Afri* 
(can coasts between Madagascar ai^d tbe Cape of Good 
Hope, but I never heard of their extending so far from the 
land ; nor is it probable they do. I rather suppose that this 
current has no connection with that on the coast; and that 
we happened to fall into some stream which is neither last^ 
ing nor regular. But these are points which require much 
time to investigate, and must therefore be left to the indus* 
try of future navigators. 

We 



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48 Modem CireimimtoigMpm. 9Art sii« »ooit n. 

We were now two fi8gree§ to the north of the psaialfel in 
which the isles of Denia and Marseveeii are said to lie. We 
had seen nothine to eneourage us to persevere in lodwii)gr 
after them^ and it must have taken up some time longer to 
find tbiem, or to prove their non-existence. Every one was 
impatient to set into port^ and for good reasons : As for a 
long time we had had nothing but stale and salt proviaons^ 
ibr which every one on board had lost all relish. These 
reasons induced me to yield to the general wish, and to 
steer for the Cape of Good Hope, being at &is time in liie 
latitude of 38* S8' S., longitude 2S* 37' E. 

The next day the observed latitude at noon was only scr 
venteen miles to the north of that given by the log; so that 
we had either got out of tiie strength of the cnrrentj or it 
bad ceased. 

On the 15th the observed latitude at noon, together with 
the watch, shewed that we had had a strong current setting 
to the S.W., the contrary direction to what we had experi^ 
enced on some of the preceding days, as hath been men* 
tioned.' 

At day-light, on the l6th, we saw two sail in the N.W, 

Siarter standing to the westward, and one of them shewing 
ntch colours. At ten o'clock we tacked and stood to the 
west also, being at this time in the latitude of 39* 9^ 8.. 
longitude 22* 38' E. 

I now, in pursuance of my instructionsi demanded of the 
officers and petty officers, the log-books and journals they 
had kept ; which wer6 delivered to me accordinglv> and 
sealed up for the inspection of the Admiralty. I also en* 

1'oined them, and the whole crew, not to divul^ where wt 
lad been, till they had their lordships* permission so to do. 
In the afternoon, the wind veered to the west, and inorea** 
§ed to a hard gale, which was of short duration ; for, the 
next day, it fell, and at noon veered to S.E. At this tiuM 
yre were^n the latitude of 34^ 49' S., longitude 99^ E. ; wd^ 
pu sounding, found fifty-^six fathoms water. In the eyening 

we 

' It is highly probable, that both these currents were brancfafs ^f thft 
equinoctial current, that flows from east to west— tbe first, which was 
farthest off from land, being on the return towards the east; and the se- 
cond, which was found nearer to the land, having still enough of its oru;t- 
nal impulse to direct it onwards by the coast to the southern p^int of Af^. 
rica, from which it would afterwards be defli9dted Similar circuitf are well 
known to be performed by the equinoctial current; ^ t|^e Atlantic OcesO| 
on both sides of the equator.— £, * > - 



r 



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CHAP. IV. sBtoT. Til. Ci^am Jama Cooh 49 

we saw the land in die direction of E.N.E. alKmt six leagues 
distant ; and, dnring the fore-part of the nighty there was 
« great fire or light upon it. 

i^t day-break on the 18th, we saw the land again, bear- 
ing N.N.W., six or seven leagues distant, and the depth of 
-water forty-eight fathoms. At nine o'clock, having little 
or no wihd, we hoisted out a boat, and sent on board one 
of the two ships before-menttoned, which were about two 
leagues from us; but we were too impatient after news to 
Tegard the distance. Soon aftei, a breease sprung up at 
west, with which we sto6d to the south; and, presently, 
thi^ee sail more appeared in sight to windward/ one of which 
shewed English colours. ' 

At one, p. m., the boat returned from on board the Bown<i 
kerke Polder, Captain Cornelius Bosch; a Dutch Indiamaa 
from Bengal. Captain Bosch, yery t>bligingly, offered us 
sugar, arrack, and whatever he had to spare. Our p<eople 
were told by some English seamen on board this ship,, that 
the Adventure had arrived at the Cape of Good Hope twelve 
months ago, and that the crew of one of her boats bad beea 
murdered and eaten by the people of New Zealand ; so that 
the story which we heard in Queen Charlotte's Sound was. 
now no longer a mystery. 

We had light airs next to a calm till ten o'clock the next 
morning, when a breeze sprung up at west, and the English' 
ship, which was to windward, bore down to us. Sha^proved 
to be the True Briton, Captain Broadly, from Chiqa. As 
he did not intend to touch at the Cape, I put a. letter on 
board him foir the secretary of the Admiralty. 

The account which we had heard of the Adventure was 
now confirmed to us by this ship. We also got, from on 
board her, a parcel of old newspapers, which were new to 
us, and gave us some amusement ; but these were the least 
favours we received from Captain Broadly. With a gene- 
rosity peculiar to the commanders of the India CoApany^ 
ships, he sent us fresh provisions, tea, and other articles 
which were very acceptable, and deserve from me this pub- 
lic acknowledgment In the afternoon we parted company. 
The True Briton stood out to sea, and we in for the landj 
having a very fresh gale at west, which split our fore top- 
sail in sQch a manner, that we were obliged to brin/; ano« 
ther to the yard. At six o'clock we tacked within four or 
five miles of the shore ; and, as we jodged^ about five or six 

vo|.. XV. p league^ 



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so Mpdem CimmnM^^tioml part ni, book xi. 

leMQ^ to the east of Cape AguUa«. We stood off till mid* 
night, wheD> the wind havine veered round to the south, 
we tacked, and stood along-shore to the west. The wind 
l^ept veering more and more in our favour, and at last fixed 
»t £*^.E. ; wd blew for some hours a perfect hurricane. 

As soon as the storm b^an to subside, we made sail, and 
hauled in for the land. Next day at noon, the Table Moun* 
tain over the Cape Town bore N.E, by K, distpint nine or 
ten leagues. By making use of this bearing and distance 
to Induce the loogitude shewn by the watcn to the Cape 
Town, the errpr was found tp be no more than 18' in longi- 
tude, which it was too far to the east. Indeed the difSprence 
found between it and the lunar observations,, since we left 
Hew Zealand, had seldom exceeded half a degree^ and al« 
'Wus the sfune way. 

The next morning, being with us Wednesday the 22d, 
but with tde people here Tuesday the £lst, we anchored 
in Table Bay, where we found several Dutch ships ; some 
French ; and the Ceres^ Captaia Newte, an Edrglish East 
India Company's ship, from China, bound directly to En^« 
land, by wnom I sent a copy of the preceding part of this 
journal, some charts, and other drawmgs to the Admiralty^ 

Before we had well got to an anchor, I dispatched an 
officer to acquaint the governor with our arrival, and to re- 
quest the neqessarv stores and refreshments ; which were 
xeadily graiitjBd. As soon as the officer came back, we si^ 
hiied.the {[arrison with thirteen guns, which compliment 
was immediajtely returned with an equal number. 

I now learnt that the Adventure had called here, on her 
xeturii ; and I foapd a letter from Captain Furneaux, ac^ 
quai^l^g ipe with the loss of his boat, and of ten of hia 
best men, in Queen Charlotte's Sound. The captain, af-* 
terwards, on iny arrival in England^ put into my hands a 
OQCoplete narrative of his proceedings, from the time of oiir 
second %u»d iiiud separation, which I now lay before the 
public im the following section. 



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CHAP, n, sfiOT. VIII* Ck^tidn Jamef Cook. 51 

S^GT10N VIIL 

Captain JF^^fiar'f Ni^rratioe of his Proceedingsii in the A^ 
ventureffrom the Time he was separatedfrom the UesoluHon, 
to hi^ Arrival in England; including Lieutenant Bumej/s 
Hepart concerning the Boafs Crem who were murdered b^ 
the Inhabitants ijf Queen CharlMe*s Sound* 

After ^ passage t>f fourteen days from Amsterdam^ wi^ 
made the coast of New Zealand near the Table Cape^ and 
Stood along-shore till we came as far as Cape Turnagain* 
The wind then began to blow strong at west, with heavy 
soualls and rainj which split many of our sails, and blew usr 
off the cof^st for three days ; in which time we parted com<- 
pany with the Re^o|u^on, and never saw her afterwards. 

On the 4th of November, we again got in shore, neai 
Cape Palliser, and were visited by a number of the natives 
in their canoes; bringing a great quantity of cray-fish, 
which we bought of Uiem for nails and Otaheite cloth. 
The next day it b)ew hard from W.N.W., which again 
drove us off the coast, and obliged us to bring-to for two 
days ; durips which t|me it blew one continual gale of wind, 
with heavy falls of sjeet. By this time, our decks were very 
leaky ; our beds and bedding wet ; and several of our people 
eomplaining of colds ; so that we began to despair of ever 
getting into Charlotte's Sound, or joming the Resolution. 

On the 6th, being jtp the north of the cape, the wind at 
S.W., and blowing ptrong, we bore away for some bay to 
complete ^nx water and wood» being in great want of both> 
having been at the allowance of one quart of water for some 
days past ; and even .that pittance could not be come at 
above aix or s^ven days longer. We anchored in Tolaga 
Bay on the 9lli, in latitude 38* 2V S., longitude 178» Si' 
^Ast* It affords good ridiqjg; with the wind westerly, and 
regular soundings from eleven tx> five fathoms, stiff muddy 

Bound across the bay for about two miles. It is open from 
.N.E. to E.S.£. It is to be observed, easterly winds seU 
dom blow l)ard on this shore ; but when they do, tiiey 
throw in a great sea, so that if it were not for a great un« 
dertowy togetfif r widi a large river that empties itself in the 
bottom of the bay, a ship wouli not be able to ride here*. 
Wood aqd water are. easily tQ be had, except when it blows 

bard 



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5d ' Modern CireumnMigaHoru. part hi. book m 

hard easterly. Tlie natives here a^e the same as those at 
Charlotte's Sou ndy bu^more numerous^ and seemed settled^ 
having regular plan;tation8 of sweet potatoes^ and other roots^ 
\^bich are veiy good ; and they nave plenty of cray and 
other fish^ which we bought of them for natlsj beads^ and 
other trifles, at an easy rate. In one of their canoes we 
observed the head of a woman lying in state, adorned with 
feathers and other. ornaments. It had the appearance of 
being alive ; but, on examination, we found it dry, being 
preserved with every feature perfect, and kept as the relic 
of som^ deceased relation. 

Having got about ten tons of water, and some wood, we; 
•ailed for Charlotte's Sound on the 12th. We were no 
sooner out than the wind began to blow hard, dead on the 
shore, so that we could not clear the land on either tack. 
This obliged us to bear away again for the bay, where we 
anchored the next morning, and rode out a very heavy gale 
of wind at E. by S., which threw in a very ereat sea. Y^e 
now began to fear we should never join tne Resolution ; 
having reason to believe she was in Charlotte Sound, and 
by this time ready for sea. We soon found it was with 
great difficulty we could get any water, owing to the swell 
setting in so strong ; at last, however, we were able to go 
on shore, and got both wood and water. 

Whilst wie lay here we were employed about the ringing, 
which was much damaged by the constant gales of wind 
we had met with since yre made the coast. We got the 
booms dowa on the decks, and having made the ship as 
snug as possible, sailed again on the loth. After this we 
met with several gales of wind off the mouth of the Strait ; 
and continued beating backwards and forwards till the 80tb^ 
when we were so fortunate as to get a favourable wind, which 
we took every advantage of, and at last got safe into our 
desired port. We saw nothing of the Resolution, and be- 
gan to doubt her safety ; but on going ashore, we discern- 
ed the place where she had erected her tents ; and, on an 
old stump of a tree in the garden, observed these words cut 
out, ^^ Look underneath." There we dug, and soon found a 
bottle corked and waxed down, with a letter in it from Ciip- 
tain Cook, signifying their arrival on the 3d instant, atid 
departure on the £4th ; and that they intended spending a 
jTew days in the entrance of the Straits to look for us. 
' We immediately set about getting the ship ready for sea 

as 



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CHAP» ivi scjtrf; Yiu. Captam Jumei Codk: 63> 

93 fiEist' as possible ; ei'ected oar tents ; sent the cooper 611 
sholre to repair the casks; and began to unstow the hold/ 
to get at the bread that was in batts ; but on opening thenx 
found a great quantity of it entirely Spoiled^ ahd most part: 
«o damaged J thai we were obliged to fik. our copper 'oveni 
on shore to bake it oter ag^in^ which undoubtedly delayed 
us a considerable ijme. Whilst we lay here, the inhabitants 
came on board as before^. supplying us with.fish>.and other 
things of theijr own manufacture, which we bought of them 
for nails> &c. and appeared very friendly, though twice ia 
the naiiddle of the night they came to the tenti with an.in-^ 
tiention to steal ; but wete discovered before they could get 
any .'thing into their possession, . • .; > 

. On. the 17 th of December, having refitted the ship, com^ 

pleted our ^ater and woodi ^nd got every thin^ ready iPor 

sea, we sent our large cutter> iwith.Mr Rowe, a midshipman; 

and the boat's crew, to gather wild, greens for the ship's 

company ; with orders to return that evening, a^ I. intend-' 

ed to sail the next morning. But on the boat's not returA-. 

ing the sasne evenings nor the next itiorning, bei<ig. under 

great uneasiness about her, I hoisted out the launch, and 

sent her with .the secopd lieutenant, Mr Bnmey, manned 

with the boat'js crew and ten nliarihesi iq search of her. 

My orders to Mr Burney were first, to look well into East 

Bay, and then to proceed to Grass Cove, the place to which 

JAi Rowe had been sent; and if he heard nothing of the 

boat there, to go farther up the sound, and come baek along. 

the west shore. As Mr Rowe had left the ship an hoyr be* 

fore the time, proposed, and in a g^^at hurry, I Mra^ ^rongr 

h persuaded that his curiosity had carried hioa into East 

Bay, none in our ship hating ever been there ; or else, that 

some accident had happened to the boat, either by going 

adrift thrptigh the boat-keeper's negligence, or by >eing 

stove among the, rooks. This was almost every body's opi-' 

nion; and on this supposition, the carpenter's mate was 

sent in the launch, With some sheets' of tin. I had Hot thQ 

least suspicion thait our people h^d ]recei?;ed.any injury from: 

the natives, oui: boats, having ficemently been higher upjf 

and Worse provided., How ofiuch I was mistaken, too $ooa 

• appeared ; for Mr Burney having returned about eleven* 

p clock the same night, made his report of a horrible scene 

indeed, which cannot be better described th^tt In his ownf 

words, which now follow; 



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44 Modoi^ CbtummiicigMlioM. if art iil book lu 

^^ Oa the l&thj we left tb^ skip ; and having a light breeze 
in our fayoor, we soon got round Xiong Island, and wi^iii 
Long Point. I examinra every coTe> on the larboard hand, 
as we went along, looking well all aronnd with a spj-glass, 
which I took for that purpose. At half past one, we stop- 
ped at a beach on the left-hand side ^otng up East Bay, to 
noil f ome victuals, as we brought nothtng but raw meat with 
us. Whilst we were cooking, I saw an Indian on the oppo- 
site shore, rnnniufi; along a be&ch to the head of the bay. 
Our meat being dtest, we got into the boat and put ott^ 
and, in a short time, arrived at the head of this reacb^ 
where we saw an Indian settlement. 

'' As we drew near, some 4){ the Indians came down on 
the rocks, and waved for us to be gone, bat seeing we dis* 
regarded them, they altered their notes. Here we found 
six large canoes hauled up on the beach, most of them 
double ones, and a great many people ; (hough not so ma- 
ny as one might expect frokn the number of bottses and size 
of the canoes. Leaving the boat^ft crew to guard the boat, 
I stepped ashore with the marines (the corporal and five 
men)^ and searched a good mtoy of their houses, but found 
nothing to eive me any suspicion. Three or four welUbeat* 
en paths led farther into the troods, where were mmy more 
houses ; biit the people continuing friendly, I thought it 
unnecessary to continue our search. Coming down to the 
beach, one of the Indians had brought a bundle of Htpatoo9 
(long spears), but seeing I looked very earnestly at him, he 
put them on the ground, and walked about with seeming 
unconcern. Some of the people appearing to be frighten- 
ed, I gave a looking-glass to one, and a large Uait to too- 
ther. From this place the bay ran, as nearly as I could 
guess, N. N.W. a good mile, where it ended in a long sandy 
beach. I looked all around with the glass, but saw no boat, 
canoe, or sign of inhabitant. I therefore -contented myself 
with firing some guns, which I had done in every cove as 
I went along. 

** I now kept close to the east shore, and came to anotheir 
settlement, where the Indians invited us ashore. I enquired 
of them about the boat, but they pretended ignorance. 
They appeared very friendly here, and sold us some fish. 
Within an hour after we left this place, in a small beach 
adjoining to'Grass Cove, we saw a very large double canoe 
just hauled up, with two men and « dog. The men, on sec* 

ing 






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CHAP. IT. sKcr. nil. Captain Jama Cook. Si 

iog tis, left their canoe, and ran up into the Wopds* This 
gaye me reason to suspect I should here get tidings of the 
cutter. We went ashore, and searched the canpe, wheri 
we found, one of the ruUock-ports of the cutter, and some 
shoes, one of which was known to belong to Mr Wood-^ 
house, one of our midshipmen. One of the people, at the 
same time, brought me a piece of meat, which he took to 
be some of the salt meat belonging to the cutter*s crew* 
On examining this, and smelling to it; I found it was iresh., 
Mr Fannin (tne master) M(ho.was with me, supposed it was 
dog's flesh, and I was of the same opitiion ; for i still doul)t« 
ed their being cannibals. But we were soon convinced by 
most horrid and undeniable proof. 

^ ^' A great many baskets (about twenty) lying on the beach 
tied up, we cut them open. Some were full of roasted fleshy 
and some of fern-root, which serves them for bread. Ott 
farther search, we found more shoes, and a hand, which we 
immediately knew to have belonged to Thomas Hill, one 
of our fore-castle men, it being marked T. H. with an Ota^ 
heite tattow-instrument. I went with some of the people 
a little way up the woods, but saw nothing else. Com'ing 
down again, there was a round spot covered with fresh earthy 
about four feet dijameter, where something had been buried. 
Having no spade» we began to dig with a cutlass j and in 
the mean time I launched the canoe with intent to destroy 
her ; but seeing a great smoke ascending over the nearest 
hill, I got all the people into the boat, and made what haste 
I could to be with them before sun-set. 

*' On opening the next bay, which was Grass Cove, we 
saw four canoes, one single and three double ones, and a 
great many people on the beach, who, on our approach^ 
retreated to a small hill, within a ship's length of tne water 
side, where they stood talking to us. A large fire was on 
the top of the high land, beyond the woods, from whence, 
all the way down the hill, the place was thronged like a 
fair. As we came in, I ordered a musquetoon to be fired 
at one of the canoes, suspecting they might be full of men 
lying down in the bottom ; for they were all afloat, but no- 
body was seen in them. The savages on the little hill still 
kept hallooing, and making signs for us to land. However, 
as soon as we got close in, we all fired. The first volley did 
not seem to affect them much ; but on the second, they be- 
gan to scramble away as fast as they could, some of them 

howling. 



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&6 Modem Citeiminaoigaiuna. part lu. book lU 

howling. We oontitiiied. firing as long as we could see the 
glimpse of any of them throogh the bushes. Amongst the 
Indians were two very stout men^ who never offered to move 
tiU they found themselves forsaken by their companions $ 
and then they marched away with great composure and de- 
liberation ; their pride not suffering them to run. One bf 
Ihem^ however^ got a fall^ and either la^ there, or crawled 
off on alUfours. The other got clear, without any apparent 
hurt. I then landed with the marines, and Mr Fanmn staid 
to guard the boat. 

" On the beach were^ two bundles, of celery, which had 
been gathered for loading the cutten A broken oar was 
stuck upright in the ground, to which the natives had tied 
their canoes ; a proof that the attaqk had been made here. 
1 then searched all along at the back of the beach, to see 
]f the cutter was there. We found no boat, but instead of 
herj such a shocking scene of carnage and barbarity as caa 
never be mentioned or thought of but with horror ; for the 
b^ds, hearts, and lungs of several of our people were seen 
lyinff on the beach, and, at a little distance, the dogs gnaw-» 
ing their entrails. 

'^ Whilst we remained almost stupified on the spot, lift 
]PanniB called' to us that he heard the savages gathering 
together in the woods ; on which I returned to the boat, 
and hauline along-side the canoes, we demolished three of 
them. Whilst this was transacting, the fire on the top of 
the hill disappeared ; and we could hear the Indians in the 
' woods at high words ; I suppose quarrelling whether or no 
they should attack us, and try to save their canoes. It now 
grew dark ; I therefore just stepped out, and looked once 
more behind the beach to see ii tne cutter had been hauled 
tip in the bushes ; but seeing nothing of her, returned, and 
put off. Our whole force woCild have been barely sufficient 
to have gone up the hill ; add to have ventured with hair 
(for half must have been left to guard the boat) would have 
been fool^'hardiness. 

'' As we opened the upper part of the sound, we saw ar 
very large fire ^bout three or four miles higher up, which 
formed a complete oval, reaching from the top of the hill 
down almost to the water-side^ the middle space being in- 
closed all round by the fire, like a hedge. I consulted with 
Mr Fannin, and we were both of opinion that we could ex- 
pect to reap no other advantage than the poor satisfaction 

of 
S 



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^HAF. IV, SBGT» VIII, Captain James Cook, . 57 

of killing some more of the savageis. At leaviog Gl*as8 Cove, 
we bad fired a general volley towards where we heard the 
Indians talkiog ; but^ by going in and out of the hoat^ the 
Krms had got wet^ and four pieces missed fire. What was 
still worse, it began to rain ; our ammunition was more than 
half expended, and we left six large canoes behind us in 
one place* With so many disadvantages, I did not think 
it wortb while to proceed, where nothing could be hoped 
for but revenge. 

^' Coming between two round islands, situated to the 
southward of East Bay, we imagined we heard somebody 
calling ; we lay on pur oars^ and listened, but heard no mote 
of it ; we hallooed several times, but to little purpose ; the 
poor souls were far enough out of hearing, and, indeed, I 
think it some comfort to reflect, that in all probability every 
man of them must have been killed on the spot." 

Thus far Mr Burney's report; and to complete the ac« 
count of this tragical transaction, it may not be unnecessa* 
ry to mention, that the people in the cutter were Mr Rowe, 
Mt Woodhouse, Francis Murphy, quarter-master; William 
Facey^ Thomas Hill, Michael Bell, and Edward Jones,.fore- 
castle men ; John Cavanaugh, and Thomas Milton, belong- 
ing to the after-guard; and James Sevilley, the captain^s 
man, being ten in all. Most of these were of our very best 
seamen, the stoutest and most healthy pepple in the ship^ 
Mr Burney's party brought on board two bands, one belong- 
ing to Mr Rowe, known by a hurt he had received. on it; 
the other to Thomas Hill, as before-mentioned ; and the 
head of the captain's servant. These, with more of the re- 
mains, were tied in a hammock, and thrown over-board, 
with ballast and shot sufficient to sink it. None of their 
arms nor cloaths were found, except part of a pair of trow- 
aers, a frock, and six shoes, no two of them bein^ fellows^ 

I am not inclined to think this was any premeditated plaa 
of these savages; for, the morning Mr Rowe left the ship, 
he met two canoes, which came down and staid all the fore* 
noon in Ship Cove. It /night probably happen from some 
quarrel which was decided on the spot, or the fairness of 
the opportunitv mi^ht tempt them, our people being so in- 
cautious, and thinking themselves too secure. Another thing 
which encouraged the New Zealanders, was, they were sen- 
sible that a gun was not infallible, that they sometimes miss- 
ed, and that, when discharged, tiiey must be loaded before 

they 



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58 Modem CimmmacigaHaM* part in. fioQK ii. 

they could be used again, which time they knew how to 
take advantage of. After their saccess, I imagine there was 
a general meeting on the east side of the sound. The In- 
dians of Shag Cove were there ; this we knew by a cock 
which was in one of the canoes, and by a long single canoe, 
whi^h son^e of our people had seen four days before in Shag 
Cove, where the;f had been with Mr Rowe in the cutter. 

We were detained in the Sound by- contrary winds font 
days afler this melancholy affair happened, during which 
time we saw none of the inhabitants. What is very remark* 
able, I had been several times up in the same cove with 
Captain Cook, and never, saw the least sign of an inhabi- 
tant, except some deserted towns, which appeared as if th^ 
had not been occupied for several years ; and yet, when Mr 
Bnmey entered the cove, he was of opinion there could not 
be less than fifteen hundred or two thousand people. I doubt 
not, had they been apprized of his coming, they would have 
attacked him. From these considerations, 1 thought it im« 
prudent to send a boat up again ; as we were convinced 
there was not the least probability of any of our people be- 
ing alive. 

On the £Sd, we weighed and made sail out of the Sound, 
and stood to the eastward to get clear of the straits; which 
we accomplished the same evening, but were ba£9ed for two 
or three days with light winds, before we could dear the 
coast. We then stood to the S.S.E. till we got into the 
latitude of 56^ south, without any thing remarkable hap- 
|>ening, having a great swell from the southward. At this 
time Uie wind began to blow strong from the S.W., and 
the weather to be very cold ; and as the ship was low and 
deep laden, the sea made a continual breach over her, which 
kept us always wet ; and by her straining, very few of the 
people were dry in bed or on deck, having no shelter to 
keep the sea from them. 

The birds were the only c<Mnpanions we had in this vast 
ocean, except, now and then, we saw a whale or porpoise; 
and sometimes a seal or two, and a few pengums. In the 
latitude of 58* S., longitude SIS'"* cast, we feU in widi some 
ice, and, every day, saw miMne or less, we then standing to 
tlie east We found a very strong cnrrent setting to the 
aslWBfd ; for by the time we were abreast of Cape Horn, 

being 

* About 147 west kNDsitade, as I re^oOi 



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Cit jLf. It* s£Crr% Vili. CujiisAn James Cmk^ 59 

heiikg ia the latftude of 61"" S., the ship was a^head of 6ut 
account eight degrees. We were very little more than a 
month from Cape Palliser in New Zealand to Cape Horn^ . 
which is an hundred and twenty-oiie degrees* of longitude, 
and had continual westerly winds from S.W. to N.W., with 
a great sea following. 

On dpening some casks of peoise and flour, that had been 
stowed on the coals^ we found them very much damaged, 
and not eatable ; so thought it most prudent to make for 
the Gape of Good Hop^, but Hist t<f stand into the lati*« 
tade and longitude of Cape Circumcision. After being to 
thf eastward of Ca^ Horn^ we fotind the winds did not 
blow so strong from the westward as usual, but came more 
from the north, which brought on thick foggy weather; so 
tkut for several days together we could not be able to get 
an observation, or see the least sign of the sun. This wea- . 
ther lasted above a month, being then among a great many 
islands of ice, which kept us constantly on the look-out, for 
fear of running foul of them, and, being a single ship, made 
us more attentive. By this time our people began to com- 
plain of colds and pains in their limbs, which obliged me 
to haul to the northward to the latitude of 54"^ S. ; but we 
sUIl continued to have the same sort of weather, though We 
had oftener an opportunity of obtaining observations for 
the latitude. 

After getting into the latitude aboVe^-ftientioned, I steer- 
ed to the east, in order, if possible, to find the laiid laid 
down by Bouvet. As we advanced to the east, the islandt^ 
of ice became more numerous and dangetous ; they being 
much (Mailer than they used to be ; and the nights begaa 
to be dark. 

On the dd of March, being then in the latitude of 54*^ 4' 
S., longitude 15* £., which is the latitude of Sou vet's dis- 
covery, and half a degree to the eastward of it, and not 
st^eitig the least sign of land, either now or since we have 
been in thb parallel,;! gave over looking for it, and hauled 
away to the northward. As our last track to the southward 
was within a few degrees of Bouvet's discovery in the longi- 
tude assigned to it, and about three or four degrees to the 
siOuthward, should there be any land thereabout, it musfbe 
a very inconsiderable island. But I believe it was nothing 
but ice : As we, in our first setting out, thought we had seen 
had sev^al timeii, but it proved to be high islands of ice 

at 



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60 Modem Circummt)igaiiam. pabt. m. book lU 

at the back of the large fields; and as it was thick foggy 
weather when Mr Bouvet fell in with it^ he might very ea- 
sily mistake them for land. 

On the seventh^ being in the latitude of 48* 3(y S., Ion* 
gitude 14° 26^ E.^ saw two laree islands of ice. 

On the 17th, made the land of the Cape of Good Hope» 
and on the 19th anchored in Table Bay, where we found 
Commodore Sir Edward Hughes, with his |»ajest/s ships 
Salisbury and Sea-horse.^ I saluted the commodore with 
thirteen guns ; and, soon after, the garrison with the same 
number ; the former returned the siuute, as usual, with two 
guns less, and the latter with an equal Aumber. 

On the 24tb, Sir Edward Hughes sailed with the Salis* 
bury and Sea-horse for the East Indies; but I remained ^ 
refitting the ship and refreshing the people till the l6th of 
April, when I sailed for England, and on the 14th of July . 
anchored at Spitbead. 



Section IX, 

Ttamactions at the Cape of Good Hope ; with an Jccaimt cf^. 
m wme Di9coverie$ made by the French ; and the Arrival of 
the Sh^ at St Helena. 

I Kow resume my own Journal, which Captain Fur* 
neaux's interesting narrative, in the preceding seciionyhad 
oblieed me to suspend. 

The day after my arrival at the Cape of Good Hope> i. 
went on shore, and waited on the Governor,^ Bacon Plet-. 
tenberg, and other principal officers, who received, and 
treated us, with the greatest politeness, contributing all in 
their power to make it agreeable. And, as there are few 
people more obBging to strangers than the Dutch in gene- 
xal, at this place, and refreshments of all kinds are no where* 
to be got in such abundance, we enjoyed some real repose, 
after the fatigues of a Icmg voyage. . 

The Eood treatment which strangers meet willi al the Cape 
of Good HopCj and the necessity of breathing a little fresh: 
air, has introduced a custom, not common any where ebe 
(at least I have no where seen it so strictly obserred]^ which 
is, for all the officers, who can be spared oot of tt^ ship, to 
leside on shore* We followed this custom. Myself, the 

twa 



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CHAP. IV. SECT. IX. Captain James Cook. 61 

two Mr Forsters^ and Mr Spamnan, took tip our abo^e with 
Mr Brandt^ a gentleman well known to the English^ l^y bis 
obliging readiness to serve them* My first care, ai%er my 
arrival, was to procm'e fresh-baked bread, fresh meat^ greens, 
and win^^ for those who remained on board ; and being pro^ 
vided, every day daring our stay, with these articles, they 
were soon restored to their usual strength. We had only 
three men on board whom it was thought necessary to send 
on shore for the recovery of their health ; and for these I 
procured quarters, at the rate of thirty stivers, or half-a<- 
crown, per day, for which they were provided with victuals, 
drink, and lodging. 

We now went to work to supply all our defects. For this 
purpose, by permission, we erected a tent on shore, to which, 
we sent our casks and sails to be repaired. We also struck 
the yards and topmasts, in order to overhaul the rigging, ' 
ifhich we found in so bad a condition, that almost every 
thing, except the standing rigging, was obliged to be re- 
placed with new, and that was purchased at a mdst exorbi- 
tant price. In the article of naval stores, the Dutch here, 
as well as at Batavia, take a shameful advantage of the dis- 
tress of foreigners. 

That our rigging, sails, &c. should be worn out, will not 
be wondered at, when it is known, that during this circum- 
navigation of the globe, that is, from our leaving this place 
to our return to it again, yre had sailed no less than twenty 
thousand leagues ; an extent of voyage nearly equal to three 
times the equatorial circumference of the earth, and which, 
I apprehend, was never iiailed by any ship in the same space 
of time before. And yet, in all this great run, which had 
been made in all latitudes between 9* and 71 j we sprung 
neither low-masts, top-mast, lower, nor top-sail yard, nor so 
much as broke a lower or top-mast shroud ; which, with the 
great care and abilities of ray officers, must be owing to the 
good properties of our ship. 

One of the French ships which were at anchor in the bay, 
was the Ajax Indiaman, bound to Pondicherry, command- 
ed by Captain Crozet. He had been second in command 
with Captain Marion, who sailed from this place with two 
ships, in March 1772, as hath been already mentioned. In- 
stead of going from hence to America, as was said, he stood 
away for New Zealand ; where, in the Bay of Isles, he and 
some of his people were killed by the inhabitants. Captain 

Crozetji 



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69 Modem Ciramnaxdgati^ns. paet iu. book ir* 

CrOzet^ who succeeded to the command^ returned by Uie 
ivay of the Phillipine Isles^ with the two sbipa^ to the islaiid 
of Mauritius. He seemed to be a man possessed of the. 
true spirit of discovery/ and to have abihties. In a very 
obliging manner he communicated to me a charts wherein 
were delineated not only his own discoveries, but also that 
of Captain Kerguelen, which 1 found laid down in the very 
situation where we searched for it ; so that I can by no means 
conceive how both we and the Adventure misseo it« 

Besides this land, which Captain Crozet told us was a long 
but very narrow island^ extending east and west. Captain 
Marion, in about the latitude of 48* south, and from 16* to 
SO* of longitude east of the Capia of Good Hope, discover- 
ed six islands, which were high and barren. These, toge-- 
ther with some islands lying between the Line and the sou- 
thern tropic in the Pacific Ocean, were the principal disco- 
Teries made in this vovage, the account of which, we were 
told, was ready for publication. 

By Captain Crozet's chart it appeared, that a voyage had 
been made by the French across the South Pacinc Ocean 
in 1769/ under the command of one Captain Surville; who, 
on condition of his attempting discoveries, had obtained 
leave to make a trading voyage to the coast of Peru. He 
fitted out, and took in a car^o, in some part of the East In* 
dies; proceeded bv way of tue Phillipine Isles ; passed near 
New Britain ; ana discovered some land in the latitude of 
10* S., longitude 158* east, to which he gave his own name. 
From hence he steered to the south ; passed, but a few dei- 
grees, to the west of New Caledonia; fell in with New Zea- 
land at its northern extremity, and put into Doubtful Bay^ 
where, it seems, he was, when I passed it, on my former 
voyage in the Endeavour. From New Zealand Captain 
SurvUle steered to the east, between the latitude of 35* and 
41* south, until he arrived on the coast of America ; where, 
in the port of Callao, in attempting to land, he was drowned. 

These voyi^es of the French^ uough undertaken by pri- 
vate adventurers, have contributed something towards ej^ 
ploring the Southern Ocean. That of C^taiq Surville clears 
up a mistake which I was led into^ in imagining the aboak 
ofF tlie west end of New Caledonia, to extend io the west 
m far a§ New Holland ; it proves that there is an open sea 
ID that space, and that we saw, the N.W. ext|remity of that 
country- 

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CHAF* IV. iKCT* if» Captain Jama CeoJu 63 

From the same gentleman we learot, that the ship which 
had heen at Otaheite before our 6rst arrival there this voy« 
a^e, was from New Spain ; and thatj in her return, she had 
discovered some islands in the latitude of 32* S.^ and under 
the meridian of 130'' W. Some other i^slands, said to be 
discoveredlby the Spaniards, appeared on this chart ; but 
Captain Crozet seemed to think they were inserted from no 
good authorities. ' 

We were likewise informed of a later voyage undertaken 
by the French, under the command of Captain Kerguelen, 
which had ended much to the disgrace of that comoianden 

While we lay in Table Bay> several foreign ships put in 
and out, bound to and from India, viz. English, French, 
Danes, Swedes, and three Spanish frigates, two of them gOf 
ing to, and one coming from Manilla. It is but very lately 
that the Spanish ships have touched here ; and these were 
the first that were allowed the same privileges as other Eu- 
ropean friendly nations. 

On examinmg our rudder, the pintles were found to be 
loose, and we were obliged to unhang it, and take it on 
shore to repair. We were also delayed for want of caulkers 
to caulk the ship, which was absolutely necessary to be done 
before we put to sea. At length I obtained two workmen 
from one of the Dutch shipist; and the Dutton English East 
Indiaman coming in from Bengal, Captain Rice obliged me^ 
with two more ; so that by the 26th of April this work was 
finished: And having got on bos^rd all necessary stores, and 
a fresh supply of provisions and water, we took leave of 
the governor and other principal officers, and the next 
morning repaired on board. Soon after the wind coming 
fatr, we weighed and put to sea ; as did also the Spanish 
frigate Juno, from Manilla, a Danish Indiaman, and the 
Dutton. 

As soon as we were under sail, we salmted the garrison 
with thirteen guns ; which compliment was immediately re- 
turned with the same number. The Spanish frigate and 
Danish Indiaman both saluted us as we passed them, and I 
retttrned each salute with an eoual number of guns. When 
we were clear of the bay the Danish ship steered for the 
East Indies^ the &Minisb frigate for Europe, and we and tb9 
' Dutton for St Helena. 

Depending on the goodness of Mr Kendall's watch, I r&« 
solved to try to make the ialwd by a direct eomrse. For 

the 
9 



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^ Modem CircunmavigatioM. part ni. book it. 

the first six days^ that is^ till we got into the latitude of 
fi7* S., longitude 11*^ i W. of the cape, the whids were 
southerly and S.E. After this we had variable light airs for 
two days ; they were succeeded by a wind at S.E. which 
continued to the island, except a part of one day, when it 
was at N.E. In, general the wind blew faint all the passage, 
which made it longer than common. 
. At day-break in the morning of the 15th of May, we saw 
the island of St Helena at the distance of fourteen leagues ; 
and at midnight anchored in the road before the town, oa 
the N.W, side of the island. At sun-rise the next morning, 
the castle, and also the Dutton, saluted us, each with thir« 
teen guns; on my landing, soon after, I was saluted by the 
castle with the same number, and each of the salutes was 
. returned by the ship. 

Governor Skettowe, and the principal gentlemen of the 
island, received and treated me, during my stay, with the 
greatest politeneft ; by shewing me every kind of civility in 
their power. 

Whoever views St Helena in its present state, and can 
but conceive what it must have been originally, will not 
hastily charge the inhabitants with want of industry. 
Though, perhaps, they might apply it to more advantage, 
were more land appropriated to planting of corn, veeeta- 
bles, roots, &c. instead of being laid out in pasture, which 
is the present mode. But this is not likely to happen, so 
long as the greatest part of it remjains in the hands of the 
company and their servants. Without industrious planters, 
this island can never flourish, and be in a condition to sup- 
ply the shipping with the necessary refreshments. 

Within these three years a new church has been built; 
some other new buildings were in hand ; a commodious 
landing-place for boats has been made ; and several other 
improvements^ which add both strength and beatity to the 
place. 

During pur stav here, we finished some necessary repairs 
of the ship, whicn we had not time to do at the Cq)e. We 
also filled all our empty water-casks ; and the crew were 
served with fresh beet, purchased at five-pence per pound. 
Their beef is exceedingly good, and b the only refreshment 
to be had worth mentioning. 

By a series of observations made at the Cape town, and 
at James Fort in St Helena, fit the former by Messrs Mason 

and 




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CHAP. IT. SECT. X. Captain James Cooi. 65 

and Dixon^ and at the latter by Mr Maskelyne^ the astro* 
nomer royal^ the difference of longitude betiveen these two 
places is 24* W 15", only two miles more than Mr Kendairs 
watch made. The lunar observations made by Mr Wales, 
before we arrived at the island, and after we left it, and re- 
duced to it by the watch, gave 5* 51' for ^he longitude of 
James Fort ; which is only Eve miles more west than it is 
placed by Mr Maskelyne. In like manner the longitude of 
the Cape Town was found within 5' of the truth. I men* 
tion this to shew how near the longitude of places may be 
found by the lunar method, even at sea^ with the assistance 
of a good watch/ 

Section X. 

Passftgefram St Helena to the. Western Islands, with a De* 
scriptian of the Island of Ascension and Fernando Noronha. 

On the 2 1st in the evening, I took leave of the governor; 
and repaired on board. Upon my leaving the shore, I was 
saluted with thirteen guns; and upon my getting under sail, 
with the Dutton in company, I was saluted with thirteen 
more ; both of which I returned. 

After leaving St Helena, the Dutton was ordered to steer 
N.W. by W. or N.W. by compass, in order to avoid falling 
in with. Ascension; at which island, it was said, an illicit 
trade was qarried on between the officers of the India Com* 
pany^s ships, and some vessels from North America, who, 
of late years, had frequented the island on pretence of fish- 
ing whales or catching turtle, when their real design was 
to wait the coming of the India ships. In order to prevent 
their homeward-bound ships from falling in with these 
smugglers, and to put a stop to this illicit trade, the Dut- 
ton was ordered to steer the course above-mentioned, till 
to the northward of Ascension. I kept company with this 
ship till the 24th, when, after putting a packet on board her 
. YOi*. XV. £ for 

' Mr G. F. has communicated several very interesting particulars re* 
i^ectiDg St Helena, but it is not judged proper to insert them in this place, 
as having no connection with the purposes of the voyage. A similar re- 
mark is applicable to some of the subjects mentioned in the following sec-' 
tioD. Another opportunity may, perhaps, present of giving full informa- 
tion on these topic8.**-£. 



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66 Modem CiramnwigatiQm. pakt in. book iu 

for the Admiralty, we patted : She continuing her courfie to 
the N.W., and 1 steering for Ascension. 

In the morning of the fi8lh I made the island ; and the 
same evening anchored in Gross Bay on the N.W. side, in 
ten fathoms water, the bottom a fine sand, and half a mile 
Orom the shore. The Cross Hill, so called on acconnt of^ 
cross, or flag-slafFerected npon it, bore by compass Si 38* E.; 
end the two extreme pdinta of the bay extended from N.Eb 
tb S.W. We reniained here till the evening of the Slst» 
and notwithstanding we had siBveral parties out exery Aigh<^ 
we got bat twenty-fonr turtle, it being rather too late in the 
season; however, as they weighed between four or five 
hundred pounds each, we thought ourselves not ill oflT. We 
might have had a plentiful supply of fish in general, espe* 
ciaTly of that sort called Old Wives, of which I have no 
where seen such abundance. There were also cavaliea, eoiv 
ger eels, and various other sorts ; but the catching of any 
of these was not attended to, .the object being turtle, 
lliere are abundance of goats, and aquatic birds^ sucb as 
meii-of-war and tropic birds, bdobies, &c. 

The island of Ascension is about ten miles in length, m 
the direction of N.W. and S.E., and about fivd or six in 
breadth. It shews a surface composed of barren hiB» and 
vallies, on the most of which not a shrub or plant i« to be 
seen for several miles, and where we found nothitig bat 
stonies and sand, or rather flags and asbeg ; an iadu&itabitt 
sign that the isle, at some reinote time, has be«> destmjed 
by a volcano, which has thrown up vast heaps of st^ne^ 
and even hills. Between these heapft of stonea we foiUid' a 
smooth even surface, composed of ashes and sand, and vei^ 
good travelling upon it ; but on^ may as easth walk over 
broken glass bottles as over the stiones. If the n>ot deceives 
you, you are sure to be Cut or lamed> which happened ta 
some of our people. A high mountain at the S.£. end of 
the isle seems to be left in its original state, and to tiav^ 
escaped the general destruction. Its soil is a kind of white 
marl, which yet retains its vegetative qualities, and produ- 
ceth a kind of purslain, spurge, and one or two grasses. On 
these the goats subsist, and it is at this part Of the iaile 
where they are to be found, as also land-crabis, Which are 
said to be very good. 

' I was told^ that about this part of the isle is some very 

good 
4 



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CKAP. iv« sucTi X. Cttptain Jmtu$ Cook. Qf 

good land oa which might be laised mftay necessary arUi-- 
de^ 9 hiid some h^ve been at the trouble of sowing turnips 
sasfi atfaer useful vegetables. I was alsd told there is a fine 
sfimtg in a yallej which dasioins two bills on the top of the 
liiounteia aboTe^mentioned (. beside great quantities of 
&esh wkter in holes in the rocks, which the person who g^aye 
me tfab information, believed was coUeleied from rains. Bull 
llwae supplies ,of waiter cad ottly be of use to the taraveUer $ 
or to ihose who may be sd anfortubate as to be shipwrecks 
^d dn the island; whicti aeems Xo hanre been the fate cif 
seiBiS'ndt lon^ ago, its appealed by the remains of a wreck 
we fDttfid on the N.E. sidei B^ what ive eould judge, shei 
aBtmed to have been a vessel of abotit one hundred and fifty 
tbns bnrtbeta. 

iYhile we lay in the road, a sloop of about seventy tons 
burthen came to an anchor by us. She belonged to New 
Yof k, which place she left in Febtuar jr^ and haviag been to 
tiHS co^st of Ohiinea with a cargo of goods, was come hetcf 
toitakeutr tuttie to carfy to Barbadoes. This was the story 
wbdefa the master^ Whose name was Grevfes, was pleased to 
telly and iVhidi may, in part, be itue. But I believe the 
dbtef view of his coming here, was the expectaition df meei<» 
ing widi dome of the India i^ips. He had been in the 
island near a week, and had got on board twenty turtle. A 
sloop, belorigiifg to Bermuda, had sailed but a few days be- 
fore with one hundred ^and five on board, which was as 
maflF as she couM take in ; but h»ving turned several more 
on the difiereot sandy beaches, they had iripped open their 
belKes, taken ont the eggs, and left their carcasses to pu« 
irify ; an a^t as ibhuman as injurious to those who came af«» 
ter them. Part laf .the atooiint I have gi^en of the interior 
pads df this isbnd I received from Oaptain Greves, who 
•fanned to be jt seiisible intelligent man, and had been all 
over it* He sailed in the awning of the same day we did; 

Tocde^ I am told, ^re ie be found at this isle from Janii^ 
arjr to Jtme. TYw method of catching them is to have peo^ 
pie i^on the several sandy bays, to watch their coming oa 
shoire to lay thdb eggs, which is always in the night, and 
tbem to tarn them on their backs, till there be an opportn^^ 
BBtjr to tt&e them off the next day. It was recommended 
to as to send a g^od many men to each beach, where they 
were to lie quiet till the turtle were as^or^, and then rise 
ni torh Ihem at once. This method may b^ the betl when 

the 



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cm Modem Grcimnav^ations^ pakt lU. bocmk ii. 

the turtle are numerous ; but when there are but few, three 
or four men are sufficient for the largest beach ; and if they 
keep patroling it, close to the wash of the surf^ durine the 
nighty by this method they will see all that come ashore^ 
and cause less noise than if there were more of them. It 
was by this method we caueht the most we got ; and this is 
the method b^ which the Americans take them. Nothine 
is more certain^ than that all the turtle whieh are found 
about this island^ come here for the sole purpose of layine 
their eggs ; for we met with none but females ; and of afl 
those which we caught^ not one had any food worth men- 
tioning in its stomach.; a sure sign, in my opinion, that they 
xnust have been a. long time without any ; and this may faie 
the reason why the flesh of them is not so good as some I 
have eat on the coast of New South Wales^ which were 
caught on the spot where they fed. 

Tne watch made 8* 45' difference of longitude between 
St Helena and Ascension ; which^ added to 5* 49^, the loa- 
situde of James Fort in St Helena, gives 14*34' for the 
longitude of the Road of Ascension, or 14® 3(y for the mid- 
dle of the island, the latitude of which is 8® S. The lunar 
observations made by Mr Wales, and reduced to the same 
point of the island by the watch, gave 14® 28' dC/' west lon- 
gitude. 

On the 3 1st of May, we left Ascension, and steered to 
the northward with a fine eale at S.E. by £. I had a great 
desire to visit the island of St Matthew, to settle its situa^ 
tion ; but as I found the wind would not let me fetch it, I 
steered for the island of Fernando de Moronha on the coast 
of Brazil, in order to determine its longitude, as I could not 
£nd this had yet been done. Perhaps I should have per* 
formed a more acceptable service to navigation, if I nad 
gone in search of the island of St Paul, and those shoals 
v^hich are said to lie near the equator, and about the meri- 
dian of 20* W. ; as neither their situation nor existence are 
well known. The truth is, I was unwilling to prolong the 
passage in searching for what I was not sure to find ; nor 
was L willing to give up every object, which might tend to 
the improvement of navigation or geography, for the sake 
of getling home a week or a fortnight sooner. It h bift tel- 
doin that opportunities of this kind offer ; and when they 
do, they are too often neglected. 

In our passage ta Fernando de Norraha^ we had steiulv 

fresh 



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euAW. !▼• SECT. X. QqO&iM Jame$ Cook. 49 

firesh sales between the S.E. and KS.E., attended witli fair 
and ctear weather ; and am we iiad the advantage of the 
moon, a day or night did not pass without making lunar 
observations for determining our longitude. In this run, 
the variation of the compass gradually decreased from 
11* W., which it was at Ascension, to 1* W., which we • 
found off Fernando de Noronha. This was the mean result 
of two compasses, one of which gave 1* 37', and the other 

On the 9th of June at noon we made the island of Fer- 
nando de Noronha, bearin)^ S.W. by W. i W., distant six 
or seven leagues, as we afterwards found by the log. It ap* 
peared in detached and peaked hills, the largest of which 
looked like a church tower or steeple. As we drew near the 
S.E* part of the isle, we perceived several unconnected 
sunken rocks lying near a league from the shore, on which 
the sea broke in a great surf. After standing very near 
these rocks, we hoisted our colours^ and then bore up round 
the north end of the isle, or rather round a group of little 
islets ; for We could see that the land was divided by nar- 
row channels. There is a strong fort on the one next the 
main island, where there are several others ; all of which 
aeemed to have every advantage that nature can give them, 
and they are so disposed, as wholly to command all the an- 
choring and landing-places about the island. We con- 
tinued to steer round the northern point, till the sandy 
beaches (before which is the road for shipping) began to 
appear, and the forts and the peaked hills were open to the 
westward of the said point. At this time, on a gun being 
fired from one of the forts, the Portuguese colours were dis- 
played, and the example was followed by all the other 
forts. As the purpose for which i made the island was now 
answered, 1 had no intention to anchor ; and therefore, af- 
ter firing a gun to leeward, we made sail and stood away to 
the northward with a fine fresh gale at E.S.E. The peaked 
hill or church tower bore S., 27* W., distant about four or 
five miles ; and from this point of view it leans, or over- 
hangs, to the east. This hill is nearly in the middle of the 
island, which no where exceeds two leagues in extent, and 
shews a hilly unequal surface, mostly covered with wood and 
herbage. 

Ujloa says, '* This island hath two harbours capable of 
receiving ships of the greatest burden} one is on tne north 

• side. 



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79 Modem CirmmtmvigtiAmii^ 9An in. Bomi n. 

aide, and the other Is on the N«W. The fbraier 'n, in every 
respect^ the priQcipal, hoth for shelter and eftpacity^ and 
the goodoeas oC ita bottom ; bnt both are exposed to the 
north and west, though these winds, partictrlarly the Dorth> 
$ie periodical, and c^ no long continuance." He fnrthet 
aays, ^ That you anchor in the north harbour (which is fi6 
more thioi what I woiild call a road) in thirteen fothonis wa* 
ter^ one*third of a league from shore, bottom of fine sand ; 
the^peaked hill above-mentioned bearing S.W. 2* souths 
•rly.*'' 

This road seetns to be well sheltered from the south and 
•ast winds. One of my j^eam^ hdd been on boaid a Dutch 
' India ship, who put in at this isle in her way out in l770. 
They were very sickly, and in want of refreshments and 
water. The Pbrtfiguese supplied them with some buffaloed 
and fowls ; and they watered behind one of the beaohes in 
^ little poo]> which was hardly big enough to dip a bucket 
itt. By reducing the observed latitude at noon to the peab- 
cd hill, its latitude will be 8* 5d' S. ; and its lougitudte^ by 
the watch, carried ofi from St Helena, is 3£^ 94' W. | and 
|>y observations of the sun and moon, made before and lif- 
ter we made the isle, and reduced to it by the watch, 
SS* 44' SO* W. This was the mean result of my observftp- 
ttoos. The results of those made by Mr Wales, which were 
mdre numerous, gave 3£* &^. The mean of the two will be 
prettjr near the watch, and probably nearest the truth. By 
knowbg the longitude of this isle, we are able to deter- 
mine that of the adjacent east coast of Brazil ; which, ac- 
cording to the modem charts, lies about sixty or seventy 
leagues more to the west We might very safelv have 
trussed to these charts, especially the variation chart for 
1744, and Mr Dalrymple's of the southern Atlantic ooeanv* 
On the 1 Ith^ at three o'clock in the aftemdon> we crosa- 
ed the equator in the longitude of S£* W W. We h^ 
iresh gales at E.8.E., blowing in squalls, attended by showers 
of rain^ that continued at certain intervals^ till noon the 

nett 

" See Ddd AatcuiSb 4*01108*8 Bbdl:, vol. ii. cfiap. S. psge 95 tb loe, 
where there is a very partieular aooeuat of this isb^ 

^ UUoa aa^rs, that the chart places this ishmd sixty leagues fiuaa the 
coast of Brazil ; and that the Portittuese pilot^ who <iiten make the voy- 
lige, jud|^ tt to be eighty leagues'; but, by taking the mean between the 
two opiaioDli the <fistance J|i*y be fixed at seventy leagues. 



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CHAT^ ir. SECT. x« Caftm» Jama Oiok. 71 

QfKt da7> after whidi we had twenty*fonr hoors fair wea« 
, tbcr. 

At aaoa on the ISjth, being in the latitude of S^ 40^ N.^ 
loDgltude Si^ 47\W.^ the wind became variable^ between 
tbe N.£L and S. ; and we had lieht airs and. squalls by 
tarns, attended by hard showers of rain^ and for the most 
part dark gloomy weather^ which continued till the even- 
loe: of the 15th^ when, in the latitude of 5* 47' N., longitude 
%i^ Wb, we had three calm days, in which time we did not 
advance above ten or twelve leagues to the north. We had 
fair weather and rain by turns ; the sky, for the most part, 
b^Qff obscured, and sometimes by heavy dense cloudt 
which broke in excessive hard showers. 

At seven o'clock in the evening on the 18th, the calm 
wa» auoceeded by a breeze at east, which the next day in* 
creasing and veering to and fixing at N.E., we streti^hed to 
TShW. with our tacks on board* We made no doubt that we 
bad now got the N.E. trade-wind, as it was attended with 
fair weather, except now and then some light showers of 
rain ; mod as we advanced to the north the wind increased, 
8Uid blew a fresh^ top-gallant gale. 

On the 21st, I ordered the still to be fitted to the largest 
4:^per, which held about sixty*foar ^lons. The fire wa« 
limited at four o'clock in the morning, and at six the still 
hq^n to run. It was t^ontioued till six o'clock in the even* 
ii^; in which time we obtained thirty<-two gallons of fresh 
water, at the expence of one bushel and a half of coals ; 
which was about three-fourths of a bushel more than was 
necessary to have boiled the ship's company's victuals only ; 
but the expence of fuel was no object with me. The vie* 
toals were dressed in the small copper, the other being ap- 
plied wholly to the still ; and every method was made use 
of to obtain from it the greatest quantity of fresh ^ater 
possible ; as this was my sole motive for setting it to work. 
The mercury in the thermometer at noon was eighty-four 
and a half, and higher it is seldom found at sea. Had it 
been lower, more water, under the same circumstances, 
would undoubtedly have been produced ; for the colder the 
air is, the cooler you can keep the still, which will cpndensis 
the steam the faster. Upon the whole, this is an useful in^^ 
vention ; but I would aavise no man to trust wholly to it. 
For although you may, provided you have plenty of fuel and 
good coppers, obtain as much water as will support life, you 

caonot. 



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72 Modern CireumnaMgaiions. paet hi. book ii« 

cannoty widi alLyour eflForts, obtain suiBcient to support 
healthy in hot cliniates especially, where it is the most want- 
ing : For I am well convinced, that nothing contributes more 
to the health of seamen^, than having plenty of water. 

The wind now remained invariably fixed at N.E. and 
E.N.E., and blew fresh with squalls, attended with showers 
of rain, and the sky for the most part cloudy. On the 25th, 
in the latitude of Iff" W N., longitude S?'' WW., seeing a 
ship to windward steering down upon us, we shortened sail 
in order to speak with her ; but finding she was Dutch by 
her colours, we made sail again and left her to pursue her 
course, which we supposed was to some of the Dutch set^ 
tlements in the West Indies. In the latitude of £0^ N., Ion-' 

fitude 39* 45' W., the wind began to veer to E. by N. and 
!• ; but the weather reqiained the same ; that is, we conti- 
nued to have it clear and cloudy by turns, with light squalls 
and showers. Our track was between N.W. by N. and 
N.N.W., till noon on the 28th, after which our course made 
good was M. by W., being at this time in the latitude of 
21* 21' N., longitude 40** 6' W. Afterwards, the wind be- 
gan to blow a little more steady, and was attended with fair 
and clear weather. At two o'clock in the morning of the 
SOth, being in the latitude of 24"" 20^ N., longitude 40* 47' 
W., a ship, steering to the westward, passed us within hail. 
We judged her to be English^ as they answered us in that 
language ; but we could not understand what they said, and 
they were presently out of sight 

In the latitude of 29** 30', longitude 41* SO', the wind 
slackened and veered more to the S.E. We now began to 
see some of that sea-plant, which is commonly called guiph- 
weed, from a supposition that it comes from the Gulph of 
Florida. Indeed, for augh,t I know to the contrary, it may 
be a fact ; but it seems not necessary, as it is certainly a 
plant which vegetates at sea« We continued to see it, but 
always in small pieces, till we reached the latitude 36*, lon- 
gitude 39^ W«, beyond which situation no more appeared. 
On the 5lh of July, in the latitude of 22® 31' 30* N., lon- 
gitude 40^ ^1/ W., the wind veered to the east, and blew 
very faint : The next day it was calm ; the two following 
days we had variable light airs and calms by turns; and, at 
length, on the gth, having fixed at S.S.W., it increased to 
a fresh gale, with which we steered first N.E. and then 
E.N.E., witli a view of making some of the Azores, or 

Western 



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CHAP. IV. SCOT, xir • Cojpiain Jtm^ Co6k. 7s 

Western Isles. On the 1 1th, in the latitude of S6* 45^ N.^ 
longitude 36* 45' W., we savr a sail which was steering to 
the west ; and the next day we saw three more. 



Section XL 

Arrioal of the Ship at the Island ofVaycl^a DcBcription of the 
Place, and the Return of the Resolution to England. 

At five o'clock in the evening of the ISJth, we made the 
island of Fayal, one of the Azores, and soon after that of 
Pico, under which we spent the night in making short 
boards. At day-break the next morning, we bore away for 
tiie bay of Fayai, or De Horta, where at eight o'clock, we 
anchored in twenty fathoms water, a clear sandy bottom, 
and something more than half a mile from the shore. Here 
we moored N.E. and S.W., being directed so to do by the 
master of the port, who came on board before we dropped 
anchor. When moored^ the S.W. point of the bay bore 
S. 16* W., and the N.E. point N. 33*^ E.; the church at the 
N.E. end of the town N. 38* W., the west point of St 
George's Island N. 42^ E., distant eight leagues ; and the 
isle of Pico, extending from N. 74* E. to S. 46* E., distant 
four or five miles. 

We found in the bay the Pourvoyeur, a large French 
frigate, an American sloop, and a brig belonging to the 
place. She had come last from the river Amazon, where 
she took in a cargo of provision from the Cape Verd Islands; 
but, not being able to find them, she steered for this place, 
where she anchored about half an hour before us. 

As my sole design in stopping here was to give Mr Wales 
an opportunity to find the rate of the watch, the better to 
enable us* to fix with some degree of certainty the longitude 
of these islands^ the moment we anchored, 1 sent an officer 
to wait on the English consul, and to notify our arrival to 
the governor, requesting his permission for Mr Wales to 
make observations on shore, for the purpose above men- 
tioned. Mr Dent, Who acted as consul in the abstfuce of 
Mr Gathorne, not only procured this permission, but ac** 
commodated Mr Wales with a convenient place in iiis gar- 
den to set up his instruments ; so that he was enabled to 
ebserye equal altitudesthe s^me. day. 

We 



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74 Modem CirmAna^aiiom* fam hi. book ii. 

We Tfere not more obliged to Mr Dent £pr tfce yfijr 
fiieadlj readioess hi^ thewed in procuriog us tliis apd eraij 
other thing we uranted, than for the very Itberf^ ^ad hospi*. 
table entertainment we met with at bis bouse^ which was 
open to accommodate us both night and day. 

During our stay^ the ship's company was served with 
fresh beef; and we took on board about fifteen tons of wa- 
Ur, which we brought off m the country ^ato, at the rale 
of about three shillings pier ton. Shi j^s are allowed wa* 
ter with their own boats ; but the manv inconveniencies at- 
tending iU more than overbalance tne expence of hiriag 
shore-boats, which is the most general custom. 

Fresh provisions for present use may be go^ suph as beef, 
vegetables^ and fruit ; and ho^s, sheep, and poultry for sea 
stock, all at a pretty reasonable pride ; but I dp not know 
that any sea*provisions are to be had, except mit^e, Tb# 
l^allocks and hogs are very good, but the sheep are small 
and wretchedly peon 

The principal produce of Fayal is wheat and Indian cor9# 
with whibh they supply Pico and some of the other isles» 
The chief town is called Villa de Horta. It is situated ia 
the bottom of the bay, close to the edge of the sea, and it 
defended by two castles, one at each end of the tQ'^n, and 
a wall of stone-work, extending along the sea-eboie froua 
-tfie one to the other. But these works are suffered to go 
to decay, and serve more for shew than strength* They 
heighten the prospect of the city, which makes a fine ap^ 
iiearance from the road ; but, if we except the Jesuits' col* 
lege, the monasteries and churches, there is not another 
Irailding that has any thing to recommend it, either outside 
or in* There is not a glass window in the place, except what 
are in the churches, and in a country«house which lately be* 
longed to the English consul ; all the others being latticed^ 
which, to an Englishman, makes them look like .prisons. 

This little city, like aU others betongiilg to the Portqh 
guese, is (crowded with religious buildings, there being no 
less than three convents of men and two of women, and 
eight churches, including those belonging to the convent9» 
and the one in the Jesuits' colleee. This college is a fine 
structure, and is situated on an elevation in the pieasantesfc 
part of the city. Since the expulsion of that order, it haa 
been suffered to go to decay, and will probablyi in a feir 
years, be no better than a heap of ruins. 



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0BAV* IV. SEev^ XI. Gi|9teMi Jwm$ Cook^ f§ 

' Fayaly dthoogh the most noted for wiiti5s> ^es not raue 
•ilffioient for its own ocmsiiniption. This ariiele is raised 
Oft Pico> where them is no road for 9bipp}ng ; )>qt beiilg 
brought to Be Horta, and from thence fhipped abr^ii^ 
chiefly to America, it has acquired the name of Fayal 
Wine. 

The bay, or road of Fayal, it sitoated ^t the east end of 
the isle, before the Villa de Horta^ and facing the we9t end 
of Pico, It is two miles foroad, and three quarters of a niile 
deep, and hath a semtHcircular form. The depth of water 
is from twenty to ten and even six fathoms, a sandy bot« 
tomi except near the idiore, and particularly near the S.W» 
head, off which the bottom is rocky, also Ivitboilt the line 
whieh joins the two points of the bay, so that it is not safe 
to anchor far out. Th^ bearing^ before memtioned, taken 
when at anchor, will direct any one to the best ground. It 
is by no means a bad road, bat the winds most to be ap- 
prehended, are those which blow from between theS.S.W. 
and S.E. ; the former is not so dangerous as the latter, be- 
came, With ft, you can always get to sea. Besides this 
road, there iift a small cove round the S.W. point, caUed 
Porto Pierre, in which, I am told, a ship or two may lie in 
tolerable safety, and where they sometimes heave small 
veflseb down. 

A Portuguese captain told me, that about half a league 
£rom the road in the direction of S.E., in a line between it 
imd the south side of Pico, lies a sunken rock, over which 
is twenty«two feet water, and on wbieh the sea breaks^ ia 
bard gales from the south. He also assured me, that of all 
the shoals that are laid down in our chaitaand pilot-books 
about these isles, not one has any existence but the one hfr- 
tween the'ldinids of St Miehael and St Mary, called Hor- 
mingan. This account may be believed, without relying 
entirely upon it; He further informed me* that it is fortyi- 
five leagues from Fa^al to the island of Flores ; and that 
there runs a strong tide bietween Fayal and Pico, the flood 
setting to the N.E. and the ebb to the S.W., but that, oiit 
at sea, the direction is E. and W. Mr Wales having obr 
served the times of high and low water by the shore, con- 
cluded that it must be high water at the full and change^ 
libout twelve o'clock, and the water riseth about four or£ve 

The distance between Fayal and Flares was confirmed 

T.. ., *f . 

by 



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7tf Idoiem CimimiMW^rJbfii. part in. book in 

by Mr Rebien, lieutenant of the Freneb frigate^ who told 
me^ that after being by estimation two leagues due soath 
of Flores, they made forty-four leagues on a S.E. by £• 
course by compass, to St Catherine's Point on Fayal* 

I found the latitude of the ship at an- 7 ^g. ^^, ^^^jj 

chor in the bay 5 

By a mean of seventeen sets of lunar ob-^ 

servations, taken before we arrived, f ^j. ^ . «, 

and reduced to the bay by the watch, J «» «4 ^ ^• 

the longitude was made*. • 3 

By a mean of six sets after leaving it, 7 ^^ ^^ 

and reduced back by the watch 5*^ ^^ ** 

Longitude by observation...**** *• 28 38 56 

Ditto, by the watch 128 55 45 

Error of the watch on our arrival at"? ^g ^g, 

Portsmouth t 5 

True longitude by the watch « 28 39 18{ 



I found the variation of the compass, by several azimuths, 
taken bv different compasses on board the ship, to agree 
very well with the like observations made by Mr Wales on 
shore; and yet the variation thus found is. greater by 5* 
than we found it to be at sea, for the azimuths taken on 
b#ard the evening before we came into the bay, gave no 
more than 1 6* 18 W. variation^ and the evening after we 
came out 17*^ 33' W. 

' I shall now give some account of the variation, as ob- 
served in our run from the island of Fernando De Noronha 
tO'-FayaL The least variation we found was 37' W* which 
wasf the day after we left Fernando De Noronha, and in the 
latitude of S3' S., longitude S2* }& W. The next day, be- 
ing nearly in the same longitude, and in the latitude <^ 
1^ ^5' N., it was 1* 23' W. ; and we did not find it increase 
till we got into the latitude of 5^ N., longitude 31* W. 
After this our compasses gave different variation, viz. from 
S"* 57' to 6* 1 1' W. till we arrived in the latitude of 26^ 44' 
N., longitude 41* W., when we found ff* W. It then in- 
creased gradually, so that in theJatitude of S&^ N., longi- 
tude 



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CHAY. IV. SECT. XI. Capioin James Cook, 77 

tude 40* W.> it was 10* S4' W. ; in the latitude of 38* \9f 
N., longitude 32^ J W. it was 14* 47'; and in sight of Far 
yal 16* IB' W., as mentioned above. 

Having left the bay^ at four in the morning of the 19thj 
t steered for the west end of St George's Island. As soon 
as we had passed it^ I steered E. i S. for the Island of Ter- 
cera; and after having run thirteen leagues^ we were not 
more than one league from the west end. I now edged 
away for the north side^ with a view of ranging the coast 
to the eastern pointy in order to s^cerlain the length of the 
island ; but the weather coming on very thick and hazy^ 
and night approaching^ I gave up the design^ and proceed* 
ed with all expedition for England. 

On the 29th, we made the land near Plymouth. ' The 
next morning we anchored at Spithead ; and the same day 
I landed at Portsmouth, and set out for London, in compa- 
ny with Messrs Wales, Forsters, and Hodges. 

Having been absent from England three years and eigh- 
teen days, in which time, and under iall changes of climate, 
I. lost but four men, and only one of them by sickness, it 
may not be amiss, at the conclusion of this journal, to enu« 
merate the several causes to which, under the care of Pro- 
vidence, I conceive this uncommon good state of healthy 
experienced by my people, was owing. 

In the Introduction, mention has been made of the ex- 
traordinary attention paid by the Admiralty in causing such 
articles to be put on board, as eiUier from experience or 
suggestion it was judged would tend to preserve the health 
of the seamen. ' I shall not trespass upon the reader's time 
in mentioning them all^ but confine myself to such as were 
found the most useful. 

We were furnished with a quantity of malt, of which was 
made Sweet Wort. .To such of the men as shewed the least 
syUQptoms of the scurvy, and also to such as were thought 
to be threatened with that disorder, this was given, from 
one to two or three pints a-day each man ; or in such pro- 
portion as the surgeon found necessary^ which sometimes 
amounted to three quarts. This is, without doubt, one of 
the best anti-scorbutic sea-medicines yet discovered ; and^ 
if used in time, will, with proper attention to other things, 
1 am persuaded, prevent the scurvy from making any gretft 
{H-egress for a considerable while. But I am not altogether 
Of opinion that it wiU cure it at sea. 

Sour 



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78 Modem Cireimuum^aihm^ past hi. book it. 

Sdm Kftmif of which we had a large quantity^ is liot only 
a ivholesome vegetable food^ biit^ in my jttdgmetit^ highly 
antiscorbutic; and it spoils not by keeping. A pound of 
this was served to each sian^ when at sea, twice-a*-week, or 
oftener, as was thought necessary. 

Portable Broth was another great article^ of which we bad a 
large supply. An ounce of this to each man^ or luch other 
proportion as circumstances pointed out, was boiled in their 
pease^ three days in the week ; and whed we were in places 
where vegetables were to be got, it was boiled with then}, 
and wheat or oatmeal, every momtng for breakfiut ; and 
also with pease and vegetables for dinner. It enabled us 
to make several nourishing and wholesome messes, and irm 
the means of making the people eat a greater quantity of 
vegetables than they would otherwise have done. 

nob of Lemau and Orange is an antiseorbutie w« weie 
not without. The surgeon made use of it in many eases 
with gmat sueeess. 

Amongst the articles of victualling, we were supplied 
with Sugar id the ro6m of Oil, and with Wheai for a pfeiit 
of our (Oatmeal ; and were certainly gainers by the estchanga* 
Sugary I apprehend, io a very good antiscorbutic ; wfaenas 
oil (soch as die navy is usually supplied with), I am of opi- 
nion, has the contrary effeet. 

. But the introduction of the most salutary articles, either 
as provisions or medicines, will generally prove unsuoocs^ 
hi, unless supported by certain regulations* On this pn»* 
tiple^ many years experience, together with somcj hints I 
had from Sir Hagh Palliser, Captains Campbell, Wallis, 
and other intelligent offi^sers, enabled bm to lay a plan 
whereby all was to be governed. 

The orew were at three watches, eKcept upon 8om< ex- 
tntirdinaTv occasions. By this means ihey Were isat so 
much exposed to the weatner as if they had been at wal^ 
and watch ; and had generally dijr clothes to shift tbeni- 
selves, when they happened Ut get wet. <lare was aiso to* 
keu to expose (hem as little M wet wettCher as possible. 

Proper methods were used to keep their persons, bum* 

mocks, bedding, eloaths, 8cc. constantly clean and dry. 

£qua3 care wa* t«ken Io keep the ship clean and dry be- 

. fwtiLt decks. Once or twice a week she win nired with 

^ fillies ; and when this could not he done, she was amokefl 

i vritb gun-powder, mixed with viMgae Or wale/. I had al- 

; • ^ SO, 



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CHAP* IV. Btcv. xf. Capi^ JmM$ Cook» 7§ 

fio/fVeqoeiidy, a fire made in lifi iron pot, at die bottoih of 
the well, wbicb was of great use in purifying the air in the 
lower parts of the sfaip« To this, and to cleanliness, as well 
in the ship as amongst the people^ too greM attention can* 
not be paid ; the least neglect occasions k putrid and di»- 
i^greeable smell below, which nothing but fires will remove* 

Proper attention was paid to the ship's coppers, so that 
they were kept constantly clean. 

The fat #bich boiled out of the salt beef arid p>ork> I ne- 
ver suffered to be given to the people ; being of opinion 
that it promoter the scurvy* 

I was careful to take in water wherever it was tM be got, 
even though we did not want i^, because I look upon fresh 
Water from the shore to be mofe wholesome than that wbieh 
has been kept some time on board a ship. Of this essentisil 
article we were never at an allowance, but bad alv^ays plen- 
ty for every necessary purpose. Navigators in general .cfin- 
not, indeed, expect, nor would they wish to meet with such 
advantages in this respectj as fell to my lot. The pature oS 
our voyage carried us into very high latitudes. But ibe 
faardships sEiid dangers irisepira€te from that sitnatioitr, wete 
in some tfegifet* conipcnsated by the singular felicify we en- 
joyed, of extractmg inexhaustible supplies of fi:<^sb water 
from an ocean* strewed with icev< 

We eaaite to few plaees, wbetfe either the art of nmny or 
the bbntfty of nature, had riot inrbvlded some sort <yf re- 
freshment or other, either in the animal or vegetable w^y« 
It was my first care to procure whatever of my kind cc^ld 
httset Withy by every means in my power ; ami tio oblige 
ottif people to make use thereof, both by my ejiample and 
authority ; but the beriefifg arising from refresbujents of 
any kino soon became so obvious, that L bad litde ^wamrn 
to reoommiHid the one, or to exert the othei^v 

It i^h not bMome mt to say how far thifr' prtn^ips^ ob- 
jects of our voyage have been obtained. Though it hath 
not abounded wiw remarkable events>> nor been diversiiii^ 
by 'sudden transitions of fortune; though my ]ielaiio& of 
it has been more employed in tracing our course by sea, 
than in recording our operations on shore ; this, perhaps^ 
is a circumstance from which the curious reader may inier^ 
that the purposes for which we were sent into the Southern 
Hemisphere, were diligently and effectually pursued. Had 
we found out a continent tbere^ we might have been better 

enabled 



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80 Modem Circi»»maicigations» pabt hi. book iu 

enabled to gratify curiosity; but we hope our not having 
found it, after all our persevering researches, will leave less 
room for future speculation about unknown worlds remain- 
ing to be explored. 

But, whatever may be the public judgment about other 
matters, it is with real satisfaction, and without claiming 
any merit but that of attention to my duty, that I can con- 
•c^lude this account with an observation, which facts enable 
me to make ; that our having discovered the possibility of 
preserving health amongst a numerous ship's company, for 
such a length of time, in such varieties of climate, and 
amidst such continued hardships and fatigues, will make 
this voyage remarkable in the opinion of every benevolent 
person, when the disputes about a Southern Continent shall 
have ceased to engage the attention^ and 1;o divide the judg- 
mentj of philosophers/ 

' We cannot better express the importance of the preservative mea- 
sures adopted during this voyage, and therefore the value of the voyage 
itself, than by quoting a passage from Sir John Pringle's discourse on asi- 
' signing to Captain Cook the Royal Society's Co(>leyan medal, a distin- 
guish^ honour conferred on him, though absent on his last expeditioi^ 
shortly after having been elected a member of that iUustrious body. " I 
would enquire of tne most conversant in the study of bills of mortaUtv, 
whether, m the most healthful climate, and in the best condition of m^ 
they have ever found so small a number of deaths, within the same space 
of Oi^e ? How great and agreeable then must our surprise bc^ after peru- 
sing the histories of long navigations in former days, when so many pe- 
rished by marine diseases, to find the air of the sea acquitted of all ma^ 
nity, andy in fine, that a voyage round the world may be undertaken with 
less danger, perhaps, to health, than a common tour in Eun^ !" — <' J£ 
Rome," he says in conclusion, ** decreed the civic crown to him who sa- 
ved the life of a single citizen, what wreaths are due to that man, who^ 
having himself saved many, perpetuates in your Transactions, (alluding to 
Captain Cook's paper on the subject) the means by which Britain may 
now, on the most distant voyages, preserve numbers of her intrepid sons, 
her marinen ; who, braving every danger, have so liberaUy contributed 
to the fame, to the opulence, and to the maritime empire, of their coun- 
try f" — An acknowled^em^t so judicious finds a response in evei^ breast 
that knows how to estimate the value of human life and happiness, and 
will not fail to secure to the name of Cook, the gntefiil applause oiewerj 
succeeding geoeiatioiu— £• 



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VOCABULARY 

OY THE 

LANGUAGE OF THE SOCIETY ISLB& 



JDIRECTIONS 
For the Pronunciation of the Vocdbvlary. 



AS all nalioQs who a^e acquainted with the method of 
commuQicating their ^deas by characters^ (which re« 
present the sound that conveys the idea^) have some parti- 
jcular method of managing^ or pronouncing, tlie sounds re^ 
presented by such, characters, this forms a very essential 
article m the constitution of the language of any particular 
nation; and must^ therefore,- be understood before we cay 
make; any progress in learning, or be able to converge in it. 
But as this is very complex and tedious to a beginneri by 
reason of the great variety of powers the characters, or let- 
ters^ are endued with under different circumstances^ it would 
seem necessarjrj at If^ast in languages which have never, be^ 
fore appeared in writing, to lessen the number of these va- 
rieties^ by restraining the different sounds, and always re- 
presenting the same simple ones by the same chaiacter ; 
and this is no less necessary in the English than any other 
langpage^ as this variety of powers is very frqquent^ and 
without being taken notice of in the following Vocabulary, 
might render it entirely unintelligible. As the vowels are 
the regulations of all sounds^ it is these onlv that need, be 
noticed^ and the powers allotted to each of these in the Vo« 
cabulary is subjoined. 
VOL. XV. F A in 



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82 DirecHomfor the 

A in the English langnage is used to represent two differ- . 
ent simple sounds^ as in the word Arabia^ where the first 
and last have a different power from the second. In the 
Vocabulary this letter must always have the power, or be 
pronounced like the first and last in Arabia. The other 
power^ oi;80und, of the second a, is always represented in 

^ the Vocabulary by a and t, printed in Italics thus, at. 

E has likewise two powers, or it is used to represent two 
simple sounds, as in the words Eloquence, Bred, Led,&c. 
and it mav be said to have a third power, as in the words 
Then, When, &c. In the first case, this letter is only 
used at the beginning of words, and wherever it is met 
with in any other place in the words of the Vocabulary, 
it is used as in the second case : But never as in the 
third example ; for this power, or sound, is every where 
expressed by the a and t before-mentioned, printed in 
Italics. 

I is used to express different simple sounds, as in the words 
Indolence, Iron, and imitation. In the Vocabulary it is 
neve/' used as in the first case, but in the middle of words ; 
it is never used asin the second example, for that sound 
is always represented by y, nor is it used as in the last 
case, that sound being always represented by two t\ 
printed in Italics in this manner, ee. 

O never alters in the pronunciati6n, t. f . in this Vooabulaiy, 
of a simple sound, but is often used in this manner, oo^ 
and sounds as in Good, Stood, 8cc. 

U alters, or is used to express different simple soundil, As in 
Unity, or Umbrage. Here the letters e and ti; printed in 
Italics eu, are used to express its power as in the first ex- 
ample, and it always retains the second poWer, wherever 
it is met with. 

T is used to express different sounds, as in My, By, 8Cc. 8tc. 
and ill Daily, Fairly, &c. Wherever it is met with in the 
middle, or end, (t. e. anywhere but at the beginnings) of 
a word, it is to be used as in the first example ; but is 
never to be found as in the second, for that sound, or 
power, is always represented by the Italic letter e. It has 
also a third power, as in the words Yes, Yell, &c., which 
is retained every where in the Vocabulary, At least in the 
beginning of words, or when it goes bcfdte another vovrel, 
unless directed to be sounded separately by a mark over 
it, as thus, y a. 

Unless 



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Prtmundaiion of the Vocabulary. 8S 

Unless in a few instances^ these powers of the vowels are 
used throughout the Vocabulary ; bnt^ to make the pronun- 
ciation still less liable to change^ or variation^ a few marks 
are adcb^d to the words^ as follows : — 

This mark •• as oa^ means that these letters are to be ex« ' 
pressed singly. 

The letters in Italic, as ee/ot 66, lobake but one simple 
sound. 

When a particular stress is laid on imy part of a word in 
the pronunciation, an accent is placed over that letter 
where it begtns> or rather between that aiid the preceding 
one. 

It often happens that a wOrd is compounded as it were 
of twoj or in soiok cases the same wordj or syllable, is je^ 
peated. In these circumstances, a cdmma is placed imder 
them St tikis division, where a rest, or small space, of time 
is left before you proceed to pronounce the other part, but 
it must not be imagined that this is a full st6p« 

Examj^^ in all these Cases. 



* 



ftcya, - * Greatsf loo^, distant. 

E'r^ema, - Five. . 

ft/pb eea, - Pog, or ^Ast. 

E'hoora, - To invert, or turn upiide down* 

Paroo, t60, * ' Jl |>krtiG6n, dhisionf Or kf'een* 



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VOCABULARY, &c. 



TO abide, cr retmin, - - Ete^et. . 
jIn Abode^ or place qfreridencd NohoVa« 

Altov^V not btUm, - ^ Heea, s. Tie^ndur. 

jln Abscess^ . . - Fe'fe^ 

Action^ opposed to rest, - - Ta'eree. 
Adhesive^ ^f iiii adheswe or sticking I q^^^^^q 
qmUty, - - - 3 *^ * 

Aajoining^ or contiguous to, - Kpeeiho* 

AAmixaixon, an interjection of, - { ^ p^era £ftf ^^^^^ *"* 
^a adulterer,, or one that Dexes a\ Techo teeho^ s. Teeho 

married woman, -^ 3 ta-rar. 

To agitate, or shakea thing, as tt?a-1 g^^^^^-^ 

••^r, cCc* " " 3 

Aliment, or food of any kind, 
Alive, that is not dead, 
AM, the whole, not a part. 
Alone, by one^s self, ^^ 

Anger, ot to be angry, - 

To angle, or fish. 
The Ankle, 

The inner Ankle, - - 

Answer, an answer to a question. 
Approbation, or consent. 
Punctuated Arches on the hips. 
The Arm, 

The Armpit, - 

An Arrow, 

Arrow, the body of an arrow or reed, Cwha. 
The point of an Atrow^ - -^ To'di, s. (ymoa. 

Ashamed^ 



Maa. 
Waura. 
A'maoo. 
pta'hot. 

tVarradcc, 8. Reed^f* 
E'bootee. 
'Momoa. 
A'tooa,ewy. 
Oo'maia. 
MadoohoVby. 
E'var're. 
Reema. 
Fe. 
E'oome. 



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A Vocabulary, t^c. 



85 



} 



Ashamed^ to be ashamed or confmed, 

Ashore, or on Hiore^ 

To Bskfor a thing, 

Aspeiiiy, roughness^ - * - 

jtn Assassin, murderer, or rather man^ 

killer, soldier, or warrior, 
jin Assembly, ormeetingf 
Atherina^ 

Avaricious, parsimonious, ungenerous, 
Averse, unmllingness to do a thing, 
AutbeDtic, true. 
Awake, not askepf 
Awiy, or to one side ; asa wry neck, 
An Axe, hatchet, or adze,, 
Ay,2/es; an affirmation, 

j1 Babe, or child, - " - 

jt Batchelor, or unmarried person. 
The Back, - , — 

To wype, the Backside, ' -, 
Bad, it is not good, * - - 

A Bag of straw, 

BsXi, for fish, - » - 

Baked in the oven, . - 
Bald-headed, -, - / 

Bamboo, - • 

A Bank, or shoal. 

Bare, naked, applied to a person that 1 rp„/*„^^« 
is undressed, - - ^latnrra 

The Bwck of a tree, 
Barren /and', - . 

A large round Basket oftmg, 
Jt small Basket qfcQCoa leaves, 
A long Basket if cocoa leaves, 
A Basket of plantain stock, 
A fisher*s "Bosket, ^ 
A round Basket of cocoa leaies, 
A Bastard, - - ' 

Bastinado, to bastinade or flog a person, TaprnHiai 
To bathe, - - Obfoo. 

A Battle, or fight, - - E'motto. 

uf Battle-axe, • - O'morre. 



Ama, s. He'ama. 
Te Euta. 

Ho'my, s. Ha'py my, 
Tarra, tarra. 

Taata^ toa. 

Eteozi'rooa. 

A'naiheu. 

Viffipeexe. 

Fata, hpiio' hqitq, 

TaroUfXaqu. 

Arra arra, s. E'ra. 

Na'na, 

Toe. 

Ai, 



Mydidde. 

£'eve^(taata. 

ToosL. 

Fy'roo, too'ty, 

'E^'no. 

Ete'oe, s. Eate. 

Era'etiQOO. 

Etoonoo* 

Oopo'boota, 

Eenee'ou* 

E'paa. 



Ho'hore. 
Fe'nooa Ma'oMre. 
tie'na. 
VflThee. 
Apo'atra. 
Papa' Maieea. 
Ei're'vy, 
Mo'ene. 
Fanna too'neea. 



To 



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?? 



A Voedbulary qfthe 



To bawl^ or cry ahud, 

JBe&d, ... 

Uie Beardy 

To beat upon, or strike a thing, 

To beat a drum. 

To beckon apenon with the hand, 

A Bed^ or bed-place. 

To b'edaub^ or bespatter, 

A Bee, 

^Beetle, 

Before, not behind, - . 

A Beggar, a person that is trouble*'^ 

somes, contimially asking for some* > 

what, - - 3 

Behind, not before, 
To belch. 

Below, as below stairs, 
Belowy under neathf far below. 
To bend any thing, as a etick, &c. 
Bene volence, £;enerost/y, 

e. g. iqu are a generomman, 
Between, in the middle, betwixt two, 
To bewailj or lament by crying. 
Bigness, largeness, great, 
^Bird, 

u4 Bitch, ... 

To bite, ajs a dog. 
Black, co/bttf. 

Bladder, ... 

A Blasphemer, aperum who qfeaksl 

disrespectfully of their deities, 3 

Blind, 
A Blister, raised by a bum or other 1 

means, - . - y 

Blood, 

Tohl<mthenose, 

The blowing, or breathing of a whale, 
Blunt, ojs a blunt tool of any sort, 
The carved Boards tfa Moray, 
A little Boat, or canoe, 
^Boil^ 

Boldness, « • 

A Bone, - i ' 



T«mo't9ro. 

Poe. 

Oome oome. 

Too'py or TocfhBee. 

Eroakoo, 

Ta'rappe. 

E'roee, s. Moi'&> 

Par'iy. 

EYao. 

P«re'te€e, 

Te'moa. 

Tapa'roo. 

Temooree, 

Eroo'y. 

Tei'dirro,8« Tecdiiaro^ 

O'raro. 

Fafefe. 

HoVoa. 

Taata hoxoa oe. 

Fero'poo. 

Ftatef. 

Ara'hay, 

Manoo. 

Oore, e'ooha* 

Aahoo. 

Ere, ere« 

Toaineeme* 

Toona, (taoUu 

Matta-po. 

Toto^s. Ehooet. 

Fatte. 

Ta'bora. 

MaWa. 

Fra. 

EVaa. 

Fe'fe. 

Eawoti. 

E'efee. 

jfBonetto, 



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Langnnf^e ^tkS^i^ Ida. 



87 



EhooVej 8. Ehooa 
Ffanoa. 

Etoo'o. 
M/didde. 
He'aoiaiiee. 
A booba* 
£'aiii». 



^ Bonettoj a^ so adkd^ 

To bore a Ao/^, • 

A Bowj « 

^ Bow-string, 

To horn with the head^ 

J ^aung Boy, 

Boy, ajamiliar nm of speaking. 

The Brain cfan3^ animal, . 

^ Branch o^a tree orplsirit, 

Bread-fruitj or fruit of the bread-tree, Ooxoo. 

Bread-fruit, a particular sort ofit^ Kpatea* 

An in^nd paste ^Bread-fruit, 

The gum of the Bread-tree, 

3^ leaf tf the Bread-tree, 

The pith of the Bread-tree, 

To break a tMr^, 

The Breast^ 

A BreBAt'flhte made of twigB, oma-'^ 

menied with feathersy dogfs Wr^>Ta'ooiiie. 

and pearl-^tf, -* > 

To breathe, - - . ^W»"« ''*«»* ^'^ 

Brings tQuAofuto bring a tUng$ 
Briabiess^ bmg brisk or qifick. 
Broiled, or roasted, a$ broded meat, 
Broken, or cut. 



Eh'oe. 

Tappo'ooroo. 

E'daWoQ* 

Tooor^oOm 

JO wbatte,s.Owfaan« 
1 ne, s. Fatte. 

(Xnia« 



3^ Brow, or forehead, 
A hiowa colour,- 
Bttdi of a tree or plant p 
A Bqnch of amf fruit. 
To burn a thing, 
A Butterfly, £ 



1 ^ te,^'aho. 
Ho'my* 
Tee'teere. 
Ooaweera* 
'Motoo. 
ETry, 
Auratira* 
Te, arrehaaa. 
Eto. 

Doodooe. 
Pepe. 



C. 



To QdSL a person at a diUanu,, ^ Toootooooo* 
A Calm, - - Manecno. 

A Calm, or rather to be so placed,! x:^, ^^ 

that the wind hqs no accets to you, J *^^^ ^^^ *• 
Su^r Cwe, - - - 'Too, s* Etoo. 

A Cap, or covering for the head„ Taumaiia. 

To carry nt^ thing, - - EVmo- 

To canj a person, m the back, - Eva'ha. 



To 



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B8 A Voeahtlary of the 

To csAxiYi a baU, - - Amawheea. 

To catchy with a Une, - E'hoote^ 

A Caterpillar, - « - ETtooa. 

Celerity, iwiftness, - - Tee teere^ s. ETtirre. 

The Centre^ or mddk of a thing, Tera poo. 

Chalk, • - - - Mamma'tea. 

Chearfulness, - . - Wara. 

The Cheek, ^ . - Pappar^ea. 

J Chest, ^ • . 'Peeha. 

The Chest, or boAf, * ^ O^poo. 

To chew, or ear, - - E^j. 

Chequered, or jpatWeimsg^uarei, . Poore, popre. 
A Chicken^ - ,- - Moa peeViaia. 

J Chief, orpnnapalperwn; one of\ p.. 

thefint rank among the people^ 3 
An inferior Chief, or one who i$ on-.^ 

ly m an independent state, a gen- >Too'om. 

wmanf ,L ^ y 

Child-be^iDg, ^ >-'^ Fanou^ e'vaho. 

^Father, O'poo^noo, and Papa. 

CSister, - TeWa. 
The Chin, unc? lower jaw, - Ktoo. 

.Choaked, ^o be choaked as n^tVA vic-l c. ' • v< / 

ftia&,&c. . . }Epopneina,8.Erpoy. 

To chuse, or |)icA:oti/, • - - £heee,te,mie,my ty. 
CircumcisioBf, dr ra/Aer ail wicrnon 7 u^^^-i: .' 
' of the foreskin, . - - jEoore,tehai. 

A sort of Clappers, used atfunerab, Par'haoo. 
papping the bend of the arm smartfy ^ 

with the hand, so as to make a noist, ^ E^too. 

an Indian cuiUorh, - - j 
The Claw of a bird, - - A'ee oo. 

Clay, or cUmm^ earth, - - £^hdu,arra. 
Clean, not nasty, - ^ - Oo'ma, s. Eo</ec. 

Clear, piire^ as clear water, &c. Tea'te. 

White clayey Cliffs, - - - £ mammatea. 
CloBe,shut, .. /. - • 1 Evahee. 
• ' Colth 



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Ltti^aage rffhe Society Ides. 



86 



Cloth qfam^ kind, or rather the co^ 
vering or raimenU made of it, ^ 

A piece of cMong <bloth^ 3it in thel 
mddk, thrdugh which the head isK 
puts and it then hangs down behind \ 
and before, - - • 

Brown thin Clotb^ 

Dark-hrown Cloth, 

Nankeen-colowred Clotb^ 

Gummed CloA,. t 

refliw Cloth, 

Cloth, a piece of thin white cloth' 
wrapt round the waist, or thrown \ 
over the shoulders, • * - 

A Cloth*beater, or nit oblom square' 
piece of wood grooved, ana tied in\^ 
making chth, 

The Cloth-plant, a sort qf^mdberrjf»\ 
tree, . - 

ACioxA, 

A Cock, 

Cock, the cock daps his wings, 

^Cock*roach, 

A Cocoa-nut, ' - 

Thefbrous husk of a Cocoa-nut, 

Cocoa-nut oil. 

Cocoa leaves, 

Coitiop, 

The sense of Cold, 

A Comb, - 

Company, acquaintance, gossips. 

Compliance with a request , consent. 

Computation, or counting of numbers, 

A Concubine, ' - 

Confasedness, without order, 
Consent, or approbation, 
Contempt, a name of contempt pfoen'^ 
to a maid^ or unmarried woman, 5 

Conversation, • •• 



Ahoo. 



Teeboota* 

Oo'erai. 
Poo'beere* 
Aheere, s. Ooa.' 
Oo'^zir ara. 
CHeappa,beappa, s, 
X A'ade, poo ee d, s. 
tOora poo'ee ei. 
) Varoo'j, by which name 
thei/ dso call a white 
shirt* 

To'aa. 

faottte. 

E'ao, 8. Eaoo* 

Moa,e't6a. 

Te Moa Pae^, pace. 

Potte potte. 

A'rec. 

PoorooVaba,s* Pooroo 

E'red€,yae. 

£>nehaoo. 

E'y. 

Ma'reede. 

Pa'boro, s. Pa'herrc. 

Teef'ysL. 

MadoOjho'wby. 

Ta'toii. 

C Wa'brine, Moebo, 
/ s. Etoo'neea. 

E'vaheea. 

Madoo,bo'wfay. 

Wabeine,poo'ha. 

C Paraou,maro, s« 
. ^ Para'paraof/. 

A sort 



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90 



A Focahi^rSf (fth 



common in the idandg, ^ ^ 
Cook'd> drea'd ; not raf^ - Ee'oo, 0. Ee^i^eriU 

To Cool one with afati^ - TahaVe^ 

Cordage of am/ kind, - Talira. 

The Core of an apple, - Boe* 

A Cork, or stopper of a bottle orgourdl Qra'^h 

A Corner, - - E'pecho. 

Covering, the covering ofafUt^i gt/i&, . Pee^e;a« 
Covetousness, w rather one not in^lx^ 

cUhedtogive, - .. J Pee^peerc. 

A Cough, - • Ma're. 

To Court, zDoo a woman, • Ta'raro, 

Coyness in a woman, • No'noa. 

^Crab, • - Pappa. 

Cr»b, a large land-crab that climb$lv! 






oowa* 



the cocoo'^iut treaforfrwJt, 
A Crack, cleft, or fissure. 
Crammed, Itunbered, crowded. 
The Cramp, 

A Cray-fish, • ^ 

To Creep on the hands and feet. 
Crimson colour,. 
Cripple, lame. 
Crooked, not straight. 
To crow ai a cock. 
The Crown of the heacf. 
To cry, or med tears, 
A brown Cuckoo, with black barsand 

a long tail, freauent in the isles. 
To cuflF, or dap the chaps, - ' E'paroo. 

Curlew, a small curlew or whimbrdl rr. .. 

found about the rivulets, ^ > ^ ^^^^ 
' Cut, or divided, . • MqIoo« 

To cut the hair mih scissars, - Otee. 



Motoo* 

Oo%pim'pe,8JBbDtt0b 

Emo'too too. 

O'oora. 

Enefoi. 

Qoraopnu 

Tcftfi. 

Ooo'peeo. 

A'^ ooa* 

Toa'pooe. 

Ta^e. 

ArsL^wexewa. 



A Dance, 

Darkness, 
To Darn, 
A Daughter, 



D. 



JieiVJBu 

Poeet'reep a. Poocftee^ 

O'ouo. 

Ma'hetne. 

' Day, 



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Language of the^ Society Ides. 



91 



Bayj or da^-ligii. 



CMara'maramatS. 
^ A'otf, 8. A'aoti. 
Oota'tahetta* 
Aocfnai. 
Matte roa« 
Matte nosu 
Ta!teeh, iooxee. 
Epoo'tooa. 
Mona^ 
Ehoo^noa* 
Eooer. 
E'tee. 
Ahe'aoo.' 
iiawa^ hawa. 



Day-bredc^ 

D^y, to-day, 

Dead^ 

^ no/ura/ Deaths 

Deafnessj i- . . 

Decrepidj 

Deep water, 

A Denial, or refiual. 

To desire, or wish/or a thing, 

A Devil, or evil spirit. 

Dew, - - ' - 

A Diarrhoea, or looseness, 

To dip meat in salt water instead qfl t:^„^j„^ 

salt, {an Indian custom,) • ^^^eewo. 
DiTt,'ornastinessqfanykindf ' E'repo. 

Disapprobation^ « • Ehoonoa. 

A Disease, where the head cannot bel vr^^ 

held up, perhaps the palsy, j P^ 

To disengage, untie or loosen, Eaoo'wflt* 

Dishonesty, - * Ee^SL. 

Displeased, to hedispleaud, vexed, or\ ^^/^^ 

in the dumps, - - j *^^^^ 

Dissatisfactiony to grumble, or he rfw-l paoi/oue 

satined, " « - J 

Distant, yarq^ - - Roa* 

To distort, or writhe the limbs, body,X v^^^*^^^ 

UpSf ^c. - - 3 

To distribute, dioide or ^re out, Ato&heu 
A District, « - Mat^i na« 

A Ditch, - • - Eo'hoo* 

To dive under water, * Eho'poo* 

A Dog, - - - Oo'xee» 

A Don made of cocoa^lants, AdootSk^ 

A Dolphin, * . * A^ovna. 

Done, have done ; or that is enough,'! A/|g^-« 

or there is no more^ - j Aieera. 

A Door, - - - ' Oo'boota. 

Double, or when two things are «'»1 Tau'rooa. 

one, at a double canoe, - 3 
Down, Of s^ Aa^, - - E'waou. 

Todrawaiov, ? ^ Etea. 



To 



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92 



A Vocahutarjf of the 



To draw, or drag a thing hy fierce, 

Dteadj or fear, 

Dress'd, or cooked, not raw, 

J head Dress^ tiseJ atfunerab, 

To dress^ or fui on the chaths, 

To drink. 

Drop, a single drop of any liquid. 

To drop, or teak, 

Drops, as drop of rain. 

Drowned, 

ji Drum, 

Dry, not wet, 

A Dock, . - - - 

A Dug, ^eat, of nipple. 

Dumbness, 

E. 

TAetar, . , . . 

The inside of the Ear, 

An Ear-rin^, - • - 

To eat, or chew, - - - 

An Echinus, or sea'^gg^ 

Echo, - ... 

An Egg of a bird, - 

A white Egg-bird, 

Eight, 

The mhow, - - - 

Empty, - - 

An Enemy, - - - 

Entire, whole, not brokCf ' • 

Equal, ' - 

Erect, upright, 

A Euphorbium tree, with white Jlowers,Te'tooee. 



Erafko. 

Mattott'. 

Ee'oo. 

Pa'ra^e. " 

EUfhsLVihooo t'Ahoa. 

Aeefnoo. 

Oo,ata'hai. ' 

Eto'tooroo, s. E'tooroo. 

To'potta, 

Parre'mo. 

Pa'hoo. 

Oo'maro. 

Mora. 

Eoo. 

ETao. 



Ta'reea. 

Ta'toor^^. 

Poe note iateea^ 

Wj, 8. Maa. 

Heawy. 

Tooo. 

Ehooero te Manoq. 

Pee'ry. 

AVaroo. 

Too'xee. 

Oooata'ao, 8.Tata^ooa; 

Taata'e. 

Eta, Eta. 

Oohy'tei. 

Etoo. 



The Evening, 

Excrement, 

To expand, or spread out cloth, S^c* 

The Ey^, 

The Eye-brow, and eye-lid. 



Ooohoi'hoi. 

To(/ty. 

Ho'hora* 

Matta* 

Tooa,matta« 



E'moteea. 



TheT?6Lce, 

To hide or hold the Face away, fis\^^^,^. 
when ashamed, - - JFaree^aa.. 



Facetious 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



hmgrngt oftkerSomty Ides. 



93 



FfUttta litta. 

Topa. 
Ha'warre. 
Taha'rec. 
Ehoo* 

Maee. 

Medooa tanne. 
Tanne^ te boa* 
E'he/eu, s. Faea. 
Mattou. 

HooxoQfhooxoo, manoo. 
Ora^ hooroo te maooo. 
Fara'ra, £k Tooro'r^^. 
Fa'fa. 
Tear'ro. 



Facetious^ fnerry> ^ - 

Fainting^ to faint. 

To MX down - 

False^ no^ /me, 

A Fan, or /oyJwi the face or cool it. 

To fart, or a fart, - 

'Fat,Jidl offleA, lusfy. 

The Vat of meat, 

A Fiather, - - . 

A step^^Xher, - 

Fatiguedj /trf£?. 

Fear, - -^ - 

A ¥e&iheTf or quHl, - 

ISe^I Feathers, « 

Feebleness, weakness, 

The sense of Feeling, 

Tpfeel, - - 

A young clever dexterous Fellow, or boy, Te'my de pa'aiee. 

7%e Female kind of any animal, E^ooha. 

3%e Fern-tree, - - Mafmooo. 

Fertile land, - - _ - Fenooa,maa» 

Fetcb, go^e/cA »/, - ^ - Ateew 

Few in number, - - Eote. 

To fight, - - E'neotto. 

A Fillip, zpith thejfingers, - * EpatUu 

The Fin of a fish, - - Tirra^ 

To finish, or make an^endf - Eiote. 

A Finger, - - E'reema. 

Fire, r - -. • Ea'hai. 

AJlying Fish, - - -Mara^ra. 

A greenjlat Fish, - - Beume. 

A yellow flat Fish, - • Oo'nH>Fehe; 

Aflat green and red Fish, - Vai'ou. 

The cuckold Fish, - - Etala. 

A Fkh, - - - JEya. 

Fishing wall for hauling th^ sdneatl g^ 

the nrU point, - • ^ -"^ • 

A Fish pot, . - - - E'whaw 

A long Fishing rod of Bamioo, used') i^^'ked'a. 

to catch bonetloes, S^c» ^ $ 

A Fissure, or crack, - ^ Motoo. 

Fist, to open theflst, - - _ Ma'hora, 

Fist, string withiheflst in dffncing, A'molo. 



Affif 



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94 ^ Vocahiiary of the 

Afiy Flapper, or to flap Jim, - Dahee^ere eV^pa. 
Flatness, applied to a nose, or a ves^'i 

set broad and flat ; abo a jspfeading > Papa* 

Jlat topt tree, - - j 

jt red Flesh mark, - Eee'da. 

To float on thefacepfthe water, Pa'noo. 

TheYXovitxofapldnt, - Pooa. 

Spm Flowers, - - Teearre'oo wa. 

owers, wUte odor\fi^ous flowen,lr^ 

used as ornaments in the ears, 5 * w»"«^«f«» 
Flown, it isjhtm or gone away, Ma'hoirta. 

Jf Flute, • - - Weewo. 

j1 black Fly-catcher^ a bird so catted, (ymam'ao. 
^ Fly, -\ - Poore'hooa. 

To Ay, as a bird, - - E'ranre. 

Fog, or mist, , - - Ry'po^^a. 

To fold t^ a thing, as cloth, 8fc. He'fetoo. 

A Fool, scoundri^ or other epithet of) j^f^^^^^ 

contempt, - * 5 

TheVoot,or soleqfthefootf - Tapooy. 
3^ Forehead, - - E'rv. 

Forgot, or lost in memory, - Oo aro. 
Foul, dirty, nasty, - - Erepo* 

-rfFowl, - - - Moa. 

Four, - - * -- E'ha. 

The Trapping ofaftute, - Ahei^ 

Freckles, - - Taiha. 

Fresh, nof saZf, - - Eanna,anna. 

Friction, rubbing, - - E'oo ee. 

Friend, a met&d of addressing ^^gj^jj^^ 
zer, ... 



A particular Friend, or the saluta^l E'aDatte. 

tion to him, - - 5 * 

To frisk, to wanton, to play, - E'hanne. 
From there, - - No,rcira, s. Na,retda. 

From without, . - . Ko,wabo'oo. 
From btfore, - - No,moOB, 

Fruit, - - 'Hoo'ero. 

PerW Fruit, from Tethuroa, «jHooero temanoo. 

tmall island, - 3 

A yellow Fruit, like a large P^^^^X/J^p^ 

with a roush core, - > * 1 

tull, satisfied with eating, - Pya,s.O(/pya,s/Pafa. 

A Fur- 

I 



i^r ■ Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Lar^aage tfihe Scdet^ Isles. 
A FaroiMmlttft^ at a vndli hard boil, Apoo. 



95 



' Gi . 

A Garland qjtjhwen, 

GeneT€>sitj, benecolence, 

A Gimblet, 

^Girdle, 

A Girl^ or y&tmg woman, 

A Girthing manufacture. 

To give a thing, 

A looking-Glass, - fi 

A Glatton^ or great eater. 

To go, or movejfrom where you stand,! 
to walk, - * J 

To go, or leave a place, 
Go, begone, make harie and doit. 
Go ana fetch it. 

Good, it is good, & is very well, - 

GooA'^natured, - ^ 

A Grandfather, 

A Great-grandfather, • 

A Great glreat-grandfather, 

A Grandson, 

To grasp with the hand, 

Grasping the antagonists thigh whenl 

dancing, - * 3 

Grass, used on the Jtoors tf )Am>1 

houses, •» .J 

To grate cocoa-nut kerkel, 
6reat> large, big, • • 

Green colour, •> «^ 

To groan, 

7%e groin, - r 

To grow as a plant, i^c. 
To grUnt, or strain, 
ThebUndQnt, 
The Guts of any aninuff. 



{A'votitoo,si. A'rotttod 
E'fha, abait 
Ho^riJa. 
Eho'oo. 
Ta'tooa. 
Too'ne^a* 
TatooV. 
Uod'm. 
He^o'ceota. 

{Taata A'ee, s. 
Era'poa nd^e. 

Harre, 

EraVa. 

Haro. 

Alee. 

f MjV, s. Myty,tye, 

I s, Maytay. 

Mama^hdii, s* Ma^oo. 

Tod'boona. 

Tooboona tflh^^oo. 

Ouroo. 

Mb'boonik. 

Hara'wd^n 

Tomp. 

Ano'noho. 

E'annatehea'ree. 

Ant'hiif. 

Poore poorcm 

Eroo^wbe. 

Ta'pa, 

We'rooa. , 

£tee»foowhe* 

Ora'booboa. 

A'aoo. 



The Hair of the head, 



H. 



E'roroo, s. E'rohooroo. 
Grey 



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m 



A Vocabulary of the 



GreyHaifj - - . Hinaalieiliav 

l^d Hair^ or a red-headed man, E'hoo. 

CurkdUm, - - Peepee* 

JVool^fmzkd Haiti - Oe'toeto. , 

To pull the Hair, -> EVoua* 

Haifj fied on the crown of the head, TSpooUm 

Half of any thing, - , Papeete. 

A Hammer^ * - . ISXeefte. 

Hammer it out, - . - Atoo'bianoo^ 

The Hand, - -«. E^reema* 

A deformed Hand^ ^ ^- . Peele'pK 
A motion with the Hand in dandngf .O'ne o'ae. 

j4 Har^Higuej or speech, - Oraro. 

A Harbour, or anchpring-pldce, Too'tou. ' 

Hardness, • * Ktaje'tft» 

A Hatchet, axe, or adte, - Toe. 

He, - - - Nana. 

TheHeaA, - - Oo'po* 

A shorn Head, - - . E'votia. . . 
TAe Head-ache, in consequence qfl gw-j^i 

drunkenness, - J 
TAesfffse <^ Hearing, 
TA^ Heart .^ an animal. 
Heat, warmth. 
Heavy, not light. 
The sea Hedge-hog, 
A blue Heron, - 
A white Heron, 
To hew with an axe, ' 
Hibiscus, the smallest specie ofHibiS'^ 

cm, with rough seed cases, that aJ- >P€ere,peere* 

here to the clothes in waUdng, j 
Hibiscus, a species of Hibiscus withlp . 



Faro. 

A'houtoo* 

Mahanna,banna# 

Tetma'ha. 

Totera. 

Otbo. 

Tra'pappe. 

Teraee. 



largt yeUowJhwers, 
The Hiccup, 
Hide, to hide a thing. 
High, or steep, 

A Hill, Of mountain. 

One-tree Hill, a lull so called in Ma^ 

tavai Bay, 
To hinder, or prevent. 
The Hips, 



Etoo'ee, s. Eoo'wba^ 

E^hoona. 

Mato. 

5 Maoo, 8. Ma(H/a,.9. 

t Motia. 



jTaPha. 

Tapea. 
E'tohe. 



Hips, 



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Language of the Society Ides* 



97 



Hips, the black punctuated part ofl Tamo'roM 

the hips, - " 3 

To hit a marks r - Ele'baou, s. Wa'poota. 

Hissy to hiss or hold out the finger ^^ ]. ^ /u 

Qne, - - j ec e. 

Hoarseness^ - - E'f'ao. 

^ Hog, - ^ Boa. 

To holdfast, - - Mou. 

Hold your tongue, be quiet or silent. Ma' moo. 
A Hole^ 05 a g^mblet hole in wood, 8^c, E'rooa, s. Poota» 



To hollow, or cry aloud to one. 

To kjeq} at Home, 

Honesty, - 

A fish Hook> - r 

A fish Hook of a particular sort, 

The HorizoD, 

Hot, or sultry air, it is very hot, 

A House, - * - 

A House of office, 

A large House, r 

A House on props. 

An industrious Housewife, 

How do you, or how is it with you. 

Humorous, droll, merry. 

Hunger, 

4 Hut, or hQuse, ^ •- 

I. 

I, mysdf, first person mgular. 

The lower Jaw, 

Idle, or lazy, - 

Jealousy in a woman, 

Ignorance, stupidity. 
Ill-natured, cros% 

An Image of a human figure, «- 
laips, the young imps. 
Immature, unripe, as unripe fruit. 
Immediately, instantly. 
Immense, very large, 
Inicest, or incestuous, 
Indigent, poor, necessitous, 
.Indolence, laziness, 

VOL. XV. G 



Too'o. 

Ate'ci te Efarre. 

Eea'ottre. > 

Ma'tflM. 

Weele,weete. 

lEfpaee, no t'Era^e. 

Pohee'a. 

E'farre, s. EVharre. 

Eha'moote. 

Efarre'pota. 

A'whatta. 

Ma'heine Amau'hattoi 

T'^ianooe. 

Fa,atta,'atta. 

Poro'r^e, s. Poe«'a. 

E'farre. 



Fta. 

IWpy- 

C Ta'boone, s. Fatee 
^ no, 8. Hoo^hy. 

We^a'ta. 

Oore,'eVeorc« 

E'tee. 

Teo'he. 

Poo. 

To'hyto. 

Roa. 

Ta'wytte. 

Teeyiee* 

Tee'py* 

Industrf 



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9» 



A Vocabulary of the 



Industry^ oppo$ed to idkness. 
Inhospitable, ungenerous, 
To inform, - - - 

A sort of Ink, used to punctuate, 
An inquisitive tattling woman, 
To interrogate, or ask questions, 
lo invert, or turn upside down. 
An Islet, 

The Itch, an itching of any sort, 
^0 jump, or leap, 

K. 

Keep it to yourseif, 

!rhe Kernel of a cocoa-nut, • 

To kick with the foot, r 

J%«Kidnies, - - - 

KiWed^ dead, - - - 

To kindlejf or light up, 

A King, - 

A King-fisher, the bird so called. 

To kiss, ^ - - 

Kile, a boy s play-kite. 

The Knee, * 

To kneel, - - - 

A Knot, ^ - - 

A double Knot, 

The female Knotformed on the upperl 
part of the garment^ and On one [• 
side, " " T J 

afo know, or understand, 

The Knuckle, or Joint of the fingers. 



Ta^/a. 

Pec'peere, 

E'whae. 

EVahoo. 

Maheine Opotai€ehu« 

Faeete. 

E'boora, tela'wby, 

Mo'too* 

Mjrro. 

Mahotita, s. Araire. 



Vflihec^o. 

Emo'teea. 

Ta'bee. 

Foaa'hooa. 

Matte. 

Bm'aa* 

Ear^,da^hai. 

E'rooro. 

E'hoe^. 

O'omo. 

^tooree. 

Too'iootee. 

Ta'pona. 

Va'hpd^w. 



Teebona. 

jEete. 
Tfe,pop. ' 



To labour; or work, 

^ Ladder, - ^ 

A Lagoon, 

Lame, cripple, - 

A Lance, or spear^ 

Land in general, a country. 

Language, speech, words, 

. iianguage, used when dancing, 



EhSa. 

Era'a, s. E^ara. 

Ewha^Ottna, s. Ea'ouna 

Tet^tei. 

Tao. 

Fe'nooa> s. Whe'nooa. 

PaVaou. 

CTimoro'dec, te'Ti* 

i moro'dee. 

Largeness, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Language of the Sodefy Isles. 



99 



%aatgene%s, when applied to a eotm-7 
fry, *c. - - 5 

To laugh. 
Laziness, 

Lean, the lean of meat. 
Lean, slender, not fleshy, 
To leap, - - 

Leave it behind^ let it remain, 
To leave, - - - 

The Leg, - - . - 

Legs, my legs ache, or are tired, 
A Liar, t - , • 

lb \\edovm, or along, to rest one's se^^ 
To lift a thif^ up, - - 

Dfl^Lighti - - * . 

Light, orjire of the great people. 
Light, orjire of the common people, 
Light, to light or kindle the fire, 
Light, not heavy. 
Lightning, r - • 

jTAe Lips, - - ^ 

Little, <7?{a2J^, , - r 

A Lizard, - - - 

Loathsome, nauseous^ 
A sort of Lobster, frequent in the isles, 
To loll about, or be lazy. 
To loll out the tongue. 
To lookybr a thing that is lost, 
A Looking-glass, 
Loose, 910^ secure, 
A Looseness, or purging, " - 
To love, • - 
A Lover, courtier, wooer, 
A Louse, - - - 

Low, not high, fis low land, S^c. * 

The Lungs, 

Lusty, fit, fuU ofjleih. 



krzkbai. 
Nooe. 
Atta. 
Teefpy. 
Aeo. 
Too%ai. 

M a'houta, s. A'rerff; 
■Vaiheo, 
E'whceoo. 
A'wy. 
A'hooa. 

Taata,ha'warre. 
Ete'raba, s, Te'poo* 
Era'wfli. 
Mara'marama* ' 
Tot«toi,papa. 
N6eao,papa; 
A'toonoo t'Eee'wera. 
Ma'ma. 
OoVaira. 
Ootoo. 
JSete. 
'Moo. 
E,aVawa« 
Teeonoi. 
Tee'py. 

EwhaHoroo t'Arere^ 
Tapoonee. 
Haeo^ee'otta. 
Aoo'weewa. 
Hawa/hawa. 
Ehe'narop. 
Ehqo'nba, 
Oo^too, 

C Hea,hea, s, Papoo, 
^ Eee^oa. 
Td^too,arapda. 
Oo'peea. 



Maggots, 

A Maid, or young woman, 



M. 



E'hoohoo. 
Too^ne^a^ 



Ta 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



100 



A Vocabulary of the 



To make the bed, 

The Male ofani/ animal, male kind, 

A Man, - - 

An indisposed or insincere Maq, 

A Man-q/'ayar bird. 



Many, a great number, 

A black Mark on the skin. 
Married, iM a married man, 
A Mat, - 

A ulky kind of M^t, - 

A rough sort o/Mat, cut in the mid-l 
die to admit the head, - $ 

A Mast of a ship or boat. 
Mature, ripe ; as ripe fruit, - . 

Me,/; - - 

A Measure, - - • 

To measure a thing, 

To meet one, - - 

To melt, or disspke a tf^ng, ^$ grease,^ Toe'looe. 



Ho'hora, te Moe'ya. 
E'ota. 

Taata, s. Taane. 
Taata,ham'aneeno« 
Otla'ha. 

C Wo'rou,woTOu, s* 
Jf manbo, manoo. 
Ee^ree. 
fanou'no\u 
E'vanne* 
Mbe'a. 

Poo'rou. 



Teera. 
Para, s. Pe. 
Won, s. ]VIe«. 

Fafeete. 
Kwharidde. 



£fc. 
The middle, or midst of a thing, 
Midnight, 

To miuce, qr cut small, 
Mine, it is mine, or belongs to me, 
To mm, not to hit a thing, 
Mist, orfogi 

To mix things together, r 

To mock or $ceff at one, 
Mpdesty, 

Moist, wet, - • 

A Mole upon the skin, 
A lunar Month, 
A Monument to the dead. 
The Moon, - 

The Morning, 
To-morrow,' 
The day after ^o-morrow. 
The second day after fo-morrow, 
A Moth, 

A Mother, - - 

A motherly, or eUtrhf woman. 



Teropoo. 

OUoora,he/f(>o* 

E'ppota. 

No'oo. 

Oo'bappai 

Ry'poeea. 

A^pooe/pooe. 

Etoo'hee. 

Mamma'baoo. 

Wara'rce. 

Atoo'noa. 

Mara'ma. 

Whatta'raw. 

Mara'ma. 

Oo'poec'poc^, 

Bp'bo, s. A,Bo'bo. 

A'bo'bo doora. 

Poee,poee,addoo. 

E,pepe. 

Maaooa, wa'b^mc. 

Pa'tea, 

Motion, 



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Language qfthe Society Isles* 



101 



MotioQ^ opposed to rest, 
A Mountaiu^ or hill, 
Mountains of the highest order, 
Mountaim of the secornl brder. 
Mountains of the third or lowest order, 
Mourning, - - •^ 

Mourning leates, viz* those of the co-l 

coa-tree, used for thai purpose, J 
TAe Mouth, 
To open the Mouth, 
ji Multitude, or vast fiwnbh'. 
Murdered, killed, 
A Murderer, 
A Muscle-shell, 
Music tjf any kind^ 
A Musket, ois^o/, orffe^arms of any \ 

kind, . . - j 

Mute; silent, - 

To muttery or stammer, - 



Ooa'ta. 

Maooa, s. Mo2ia» 
Mowa tei'tei. 
Motia 'haha» 
Pere'raoM. 

Ta'paob., 

Eva'ha. 

Ila'uiamma* 

Wo'roM, wo'roii. 

Matte, s. matte roa» 

Taata l(ia« 

Hou,ou» 

He^va.- 

Poo,poo, s. Poo* 

Fatebooa. 
E'whaoii. 



. The Nafl df the fingers; 
A Nail of iron, . - 
Maked, I. e. with the clothes of, un- 
dressed, - * 
TheNaLUxecfathihg, 
Narrow, strait, not widi, 
Nasty^ dirty^ not tlean, 
^Native, - - 
The Neck, 

Needles, ' - - 

A fishing Ket, - ... 

New, young, sound. 
Nigh, 

Night, - - , - 

3'o-Night, or to-day ttt night. 
Black Hxght-shade, 
-Nine, - - 

The Nipple qfthe breast. 
A Nit; 

No, a negation, * • 



1 



Eure. 
Taturra. 



Pefcre,peere. 

E^repo. 

TaatVtoobbo. 

A'ee. 

Naireeda. 

Oo'paia. 

toto, s. Whalta'ta. 

Fp, s. E'aoo. 

A'oone te' Po. 
• Oporo. 

A'eewsil 

"EIoo. 

Erjha. 

OAy'ma, »Yfliha, 
< ^A'oure, *Aee, 
(^ ^Yehae^a. 



To 



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102 4 Vocabulary of the 

Jbnod, - - ^UMoii. 

Noisy, chattering, impertinent, Emoo. 

Moon^ . - . Wawa'tca. 

2%i? Nostrils, - - - Popo'heo. 

Numeration, or counting of numbers, Ta'tou. 
A cocoa Nut, ^ - Aree. 

A large compressed Nut, that fai/es? p>-u^- 
eke chesnuttiDhen roasted, - j ««^n«^* 

d 

Obesity, corpulence, - Oo'pcea. 

The Ocean, - - . Ty, s. Meede'. 

G^oriferous^ so^f-^fneffedf, - No'noa. 
Perfumed Git they put on the hair, Mo'nbe. 
An Ointment, plaister, or any thingl pz-^/p^^^ 

that heals or relates to medicine, J P 
Old, . * . Ora'wheva. 

One, . - - A'tahai. 

Open, clear, q>acious, - Ea'tea. 

Open, not diutj - - Fe'rei', 

To open, - - ^ - Te'haddoo. 

Opposite tOf or over against, - Wetoo'wheitte. 
Order, in good order, regular, mth-"} ^a^aVara. 

out cotffusion, - 5 

Ornament, any ornament for the ear, Tooee ta'reea. 

An Orphan, - - Oo'boppe, poo'aii^ 

Out, not in, not withirt, - T^eiwenoi. 

The Outside of a thing, - Oosfpee. 

An Oven in the ground, -* Eoo'moo. 

Over, besides, more than the quantity, T^'harra. 

To overcome, or conquer, - E'n^a'ooma. 

To overturn, or overset, - Eha^ps^oo. 

AA Owiier, - - * E'whattoo. 

A large species of Oyster, - Vieea. 

The large rough Oyster, or Spdndylus,Vaho'oek^ 

P. 

The Paddle of a canoe, or to paddle, £'hpe* 

to paddle a canoe's head to the right. What' tea. 

To paddle a canons head to the l^i, Wemma. 

Paid} or tiortness, the seme ofpain, Ma'my* 



Pair, 



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Google 



Language of the Socidy Ides, 103 

ji Pair, or Udo of any thing together^ Ano'ho. 
TAc Palate, - - EWr^ea. 

The Palm of the hand, - Apoo^eema, 

To Pant, or breathe quUkly^ - Op'pou'pou^tea'ho* 
Pap, or child's food, - - Mamma. 

A Parent, - - - Me'dooa. 

ji small blue Parroquet, . - E'vei^nee* 

A green Parroquet, with d redfore-l p./ , 
head, - - ^ jiiaa. 

Tlie Part behw the tongue, - Eta'raro; 

A VB.x\\i\on, division, flT kcften, Paroo'rooi 

A Pass, or strait^ - . - E,aree'ea. 

A ferfHented Paste, of breads fruity ? ti/i^/l^^ 
J ml c ^* " nee* 

arm others, - - j 

^ Path, or road, - , - Ea'ra, 

TAe Pavement before a house or hut, Pye,pye. 

A Pearl, - - Ppe. 

The Peduncle, and stalk of a plant, A'maa, s. E^atta; 

To peel, or take the skin off a cocoa^l ^ ^^ ^ 

nut, c^c. " ^ 3 * 

"Peeled, it is peeled, - - Me'ate^. 

A Peg to hang a ha^ on, , - Te'aoo; , 

A Pepper-pplant, Jrom the root ofl 

ivhibh they prepare an inebriating > Awa. 
. liquor, - r J 

Perhaps, iV may fee 50, - E'pa'ha. . 

Persons <f distinction, - Patoo'nehe. 

A Petticoat qfplantane leaves, . A/ivouaxaieeaii 
Petty, small, tr^ling, opposed to Nooe, Ree: 
A Physician, of person who attendsl t_ jyVanaoo 

the sick, - / ^ ^ 1 aala no li rapaao. 

Pick,' to pick or choose, - - Ehee te mai my ty, 

A large wood Pigeon, - Eroopc. 

A large green ana white Pigeon, Oo'oopa. 

A small black and white Pigeon,? Oooowy'deroo. 

with purple wings, - 3 

A Pimple, - - Hooa^hoi/a. 

To Pinch mth the fingers, - Ooma. 

A Plain, or flat, ' - U'peeho. 

Plane, «mooM, - - Pa'^ea. 

A Plant of any kind, - - ^ (Xmoi 

A small Plant, - - E'rabp. 

The fruit of a Plantane-tree - Maieea, s. Maya. 

Horse 



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104 A Vocabulary of the 

Hone Plantancs, - - Vatee. 

Pleased, good humoured, not cross orl w 

surly, - - - I ^ ^* 

Pluck it up9 - - Areele. 

To pluck hairs from the beard, Hoohootet. 

To plunge a thing in the water, E,oo'whee. 

The Point of any thing, - Oe,6e, or Oi,oi, 

Poison, bitter, * - Awa,awa« 

^PoU, ' - . - Oora'hoo. 

Poor, indigent, not rich, - Te^Xee. 

A bottle-nosed Porpoise, - E'oiia. 

Sweet Potatoes, - - Oo'marra* 

To pour out an^ liquid substance, Ms! nee. 

Pregnant with young, - - Waha'pod. 
To press, or squeeze the legs gently \'n , 

mth the hand^ when tired or pained, l ^^^ ^^* 
Prick, to prick up the ears, ' - Eoma ie ta'r^e. 

^Priest, . - Ta'hotia. 

Prone, or face downwards, - Tee'opa. 

A sort of Pudding, made of fruits,! p , , 

oil,bic. - ^ ^ropoee. 

Pumpkins,. - - A'hooa, 

To puke, or twffwV, . - E'awu, g. Vroc^y. 

Pure, c/eflfr, - . Eoo'ee. 

A Purging, or looseness, - Hawa,hawa. 

To pursue, and catch a person wholh, ^j. *t?u / 

has done some mischief, ^ \ hAoo,^too, s. Eharoo. 
To push a thing with the hand, Too'ra^e. 

Put it up, or away, - ' Orno. 

Q. 

Quickness, briskness, - - Ftrrre. 

To fjya/A quickly, - ; - Harre'neina. 

Quietness, silence, a silent or seem- 7 t? n /u 

ingly thoughtful person, - J ^^^^^ ^^^*^- 

A Quiver/or holding arrows, Teeha. 

R. 

A small blachUM, with red eyes, Matho. 
A mall black Rail, spotted and burr edl t* , 
with white, . . jPooanee. 

Rain# - - Fooa. 






Raft, 




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Language of the Society Ides. 105 

Raft, a raft of bamboo, - Majto'e. 

Rank^ drong, urinous, - Ewao wao. 

ji Rasp, orj^e, - - Ooee. 

A Rat, - - 'Yotee, s. Eyore, 

Raw meat, flesh that is not dressed or\ ^/^^^ta. 

cooked, - - 3 

Raw"/rw//, asplantanes, S^c, that ^^^^ I paroure. 



not baked, 
"To recline, or lean upon a things 
Red colour. 
To reef a sail, 

^ Refusal^ - - 

The ReitiaHider<>/'flwy tUng, 
To rend, burst, or splits 
Reiit, cracked, or torn. 
To reside^ live, or dweS, - 

Respiratiofl, breathing, 
A Rib, 
Rich, mt poor, ha/ving plenty ^fjEpo'tod* 

^ods, SfCi - * - 3 _ . 

^Ring, - - 

The Ringworm, a disease so called, 

Ripe^ m ripe fruit, S^c* 

llise, to rise up, - ' - 

To rive, or split, 



E'py. 

.Oora^oora^ s. Ma^e. 

ETpo'uie te rya. 

Eho(/noba. 

T/Ewaheu 

Moo'maomaflU 

E>ha. 

E'lioho. 

Tooe, tooe. 

A'wao, 



A Road, or path. 

Roasted, or broiled^ 

A Robber, or thief, 

A Rock, 

A r^e^ of Rocks, 

Rolling, the rolling of a ship, 

A Root, - 

A Rope of any kind. 

Rotten, as rotten fruit, 8^c. 

Rough, not smooth. 

To row mth oars. 



Miitno. 
E'nooa. 
|Para,s. Pai,4J.Ob* 

A'too. 

EwhaOo'whaod« 

Ed'ra. 

Ooa'wfl«ra. 

Eee a (taatau 

Paoo. 

E'aoii. 

Too'roore. 

Apoo, s. Ebu 

Taura. 

Roope. 

Ta'rra, tarrau 



E'oome, s. Fhoe.' 
To rub a thing, as in washing the handsl n^^j.^^ 
. andfacCf " - J 

The Rudder of a boat, or steering! ^^ f^,,^^^ 

paddle of a canoe, - 3 

Running backwards fl''^ /^^«^^«/| Oo'atapoftc 



endeavouring to escape. 



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206 



A Focabulary oftkt 



The Sail of a ship or boat. 
To sail, or to, be under sail, r 
Salt, or salt water^ 
Sand, dust, - 

Saturn, 

Saunders's islaiid, 

A Saw, -. - - . 

A Scab, - - 

AJish^s Scale or scales, 
A pair of* Scissars, 

A Scoop, to empti/ water from a canoe. 
To scrape a thing, - - - 
To scratch with the fingers^ 
Scratched, a scratched metal, 8^c. 
The Sea- cat, a fish so called. 
The Sea, 
4 Sea-egg, 

A Seam between two planks. 
To search for a thing that is lost, 
A Seat, 

Secret, a secret whi^>ering, or slan-^l 
dering another, - - J 

The Seed of a plant. 
The sense qjf seeing^ - 

To send, - - - 

A Sepulchre, or burying-ptace, 
A Servant^ 

Seven, - - - ■ 

To sew, or string', 
Se}'ne, to hatU a seyne, 
Shady, 

To shake, or agitate a thing, 
A Shark, 
Sharp, not blunt. 

To shave, or take off the beard, 

A mall Shell, 
A tyger Shell,- 
$hew it me, - 

4 Ship, 4 



E'whanb* 

Ty'ty, s. Meedc. 

E'one. 

Whati'hea. 

Tabooa, Manoo» 

Eee'oo. 

Ftona. 

Poa, 

O'toobo, s. Cloboo. 

E'tata. 

Oo'aoo. 

EraVaoo. 

Pahoore'hoore. 

Poohe. 

Tae-e, s. Meedfe. 

He'awy. 

Fatoo'whflira. 

Ob, s. Pae'jmee. 

Papa. 

Ohe'moo, 

Hooa'tootoo^s.Ehooero 

E'hVo. 

Eho'pbcf. 

Ma'ray. 

kowtow. 

A'Heetoo. 

E'tboe. 

Etoroo te pata, 

Maroo^maroo* 

Eooa'wai. 

Mao. 

Ob'ee. 

f Eva'roo, s. Wharine, 

\ vvhanne* 

Ot'eo. 

Voxt'[\oo» 

Enara, 

Pahee. 

Shipwrctkj 



h- 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Language of the Society Isles. 



107 



Shipwreck, ^ . ^ 

Jl white Shitt, , - 

To shiver mth cold, 

Mud Shoes, of fishing shoes. 

The Shore, 

Short, 

Shut, not open, 

Sickness, - - . 

The left Side, 

The Side, 

The right SiAes 

Sighing, 

Silence, , - 

Similar, or alike, 

Tosinkj 

A Sister, 

To sit dotm. 

To sit cross-legged, 

Six, 

A Skate-fish, 

The Skin, 

The Sky y 

To sleep, - - -; 

Tlie long Sleep, or death, 

To sleep, ibheri sitting, 

A Sling, 

Slow, 

Small, little, 

The seme of smelling. 



Ara'wfea. 
Paroo'/, 
A'tete. 
Tama. 
Euta. 
Po'poleo. 

Opa^iiee, s. Poo^peepej 
Matte my Mariiy* 
A^roode. 
E'reea'wd. 
Atou,a'taou« 
Fa^a. 
Fatte'booa. 
Oowhyada. 
A'tomo. 
Too'heme. 
A'noho. 
Tee'py. 
A'Honoo. 
EVhaee. ' 
JE^ree. 
E'raec. 
Moe. ^ 
iVloe roa. 
Too'roore,moe» 
E'^iia. 

14 al'ra,rn arroa, s. l^ateV 
^le. 

tFata'too, s. 

\ 6otoo,too,too. 

liozna. 

Ahe'oi. 

E'oora* 

Pa'ya. 



Smell it. 

To smell, . - - - 

Smoke, - - . - 

Smooth, - - " 

Smutting the face mth charcoal for\ e^pf ^ra. 

funeral ceremonies, - S ^^ 

A sea Snake, that has alterndte ringsl p^^hee'aroo* 

of a white qnd black iolour, j 

To snatch a thing hastily, - E'hairoo. 

Sneezing, - - - , • MachceW, 

Snipe, a bird resembling a snipe, of 7 jet'tee* 
a black and brown colour, 3 



Snot, 



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108 A Vocabulary of the 

Snot, - - 'HoopTr 

Soberness, tobriefy, sober, not gbfen\ npetreida, 

to drunkenne», - 3 ' 

Ta soften, - * Eparoo'paroo* 

Softness^ that h, not hard,, - Maroo. 
The Sble of the foot, - Tapo(/y. 

j^Son, • - My'de. 

A Son-m-laWi - ^ • Hoo^noa. 

j^Song, - - Heeva, 

ji Sore, or ulcer, - - CXpai. 

Soreness, or pain, - - Ma'may. 

Sonnd, ant^ sound that strikes the ear, Pa^ena. 
^Span, - - Ewhaeono* 

To speak, - - - Paraou, 

Speak ; he speaks not from the Aear^, 7 Neeate ooXoo te parott 

his words are onlif on his lips, 3 no nona. 

jf jSpear^ or lance, - • Tao. 

To srpill, - - Euiare, 

To spit, . - • Too'looa. 

To spread, or to expand a thi^, as\ xiQ/UQ-a 

cloth, S^c* - - 3 

To squeeze, or press hard, - Ne,'neee, 

To squeeze, or^press gently mth the hand, Roro'mee* 
Squint-e^e^, - - Matta'areva. 

Afghting Stage tn a boat, - E'tootee. 
To stamp with the feet, to trample on\ To*ofk«. 

a thing, • . . Jiatany. 

Stand up, - - Atearenona. 

A Star, - - - » E'faitoo, s. Hwettoo. 

A Star-fish, - - Eve'rec. 

To startle, ts when one dreams, Wa'hee, te'dirre. 

SiSLy,or wait a little, - • A'reea/s. Are^ana. 

To steal, - - 'Woreedo. 

Steep, as steep rocks, or cliffs, • Mato. 

A walking Stick, - - Tame. 

Stinking, ill-melled, as stinking wa^7 jja^oaa, a. Nrt^nrto, 

ter, c^c» "* "* i3 

Stink, to stink or smell ill, - You, fou. 

To stink, as. excrement, - - Veero,peer6^ 
TAe Stomach, \ - - 'Paraee'a. 

A Stone, - - Owhay. 

A polished Stone, used to beat vtctualsl t> -^ ^ 

intaapastei ' . - . ^Vamoo. 

Siottes^ 



Digitized by LjOOQ iC 



Language of the Society Ides. 



JO9 



Stonesj upright stones which stand otil T'^^^^Qyg 

the paced area before huts, J 

Am^dl Stool, to lay th^headonwhenl ^^^^^ ^^ Papa^tooa. 



Stool, to go to stooli 

To stop, 

The Stopper of a quiver, r 

A Storm of wind, rain, thunder, S^c* 

Strait, narrow, not wide. 

Striking, hoUm striMng in dancing. 

The String (fa quiver. 

Strong, as a strong man, 

Struck, - - ,- 

Stupidity, ignorance. 

To suck as a chUd, 

Sugar cane, 

Suicide, - - . - - 

Sultry, or hot air, 

3%eSun, 

The meridian Sun^ 

Supine, ^*itg> - -«. - 

Surf of the sea. 

An interjection 0/ Surprise, or admi-l Allaheuee'ai. 



Tectcc^o. 

A'too. 

Ponau« 

Tarooa* 

Peere,peeie. 

Apee. 

E^aha. 

O'om^ra. 

A'boola. 

W^eaHa. 

Ote,ote. 

E'To,s.r6o. 

Euha'aotf. 

Pohe^a« 

Mahanna, s. Era. 

Te/neea te Mahansuu 

Fateeraha. 

Horo'woi. 



ration. 
To surround. 

To swallow, - • - • 
The Sweat of the body,, or to sweat, 
A sweet taste. 
Swell of the sea^ - -1 . 

T. 
ATsii], 

A Ta\l of a bird, . - - 
To take a friend by the hand, 
To take off, or unloose. 
To take care of the victuals. 
To talk, or converse. 
The sense of tasting, 
A Tetotum, or whirUgig, 
To tear a thing, * ^ 

A Teat, or dug, - 

KeTeetb, 
Ten, :. r - 



A'boone. 

Hor'q^aaee. 

E'hou, s* Ehot^ hou^ 

Mona. 

E'roo. 



Ero. 

Efhoppe* 

EtocTyaop, 

Eve'vette. 

Ewbaapoo te mai^. 

Paraou. 

Tama'ta. 

E^piroa* 

Ha?hy,8.Whatto 

E'oo. 

E'neehara, 

A'hoorw. 



7i» 



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Google 



110 



A Focabuiary of ike 



To tend^ or feed kogi, 

Tenants, 

A black Tern, with a wkiiiMh head, 

There, - - 

They, them, or theirs, 

Thickness, applied to solid bodies. 

Thick, as thick cloth, ^c. 

thick, muddy, - 

Thine, it m yours, or belongs to you, 

Thirst, 

Thoughts, - - -, 

An appearance o/*thoughtfulnesa^ 

Three, • 

TAe Throaty ^ - 

To throw, or heave a thing,. 

To throw a thing away, * • 

To throw a ball, * 

To throw a lance, v 

Throw,' shaU I throw it. 

Throwing in dancing. 

The Thumb, 

Thunder, 

Tickle, tq tickle a person, 

A Tide, or current^ -» - 

To tie a knot. 



Evfhstee te Boa. 

Afet^hau. 

0«^o. 

TeVaee. 

To'taooflf. 

Meoo'meoo. 

Tooe'too'e. 

E wore'roo, s. Eworepo^ 

«o 6e.' 
^'ahe^y. 
Paraotf, no te o'poo. 
Fate'booa. ' 
Toroo. 
Ara'poa. 
Taora. 
Harre'wai, 
AmsfhodB. 
Evaratowha. 
TaureVa. 
Hoe'aire. 
£frefma,erabai« 
Pa'tare. 
My'neena. 
A'ow, 



r Ty. 
Time, a space of time, from 6 to lOl ^. ^ . . 

Utnighr -^ - - i^'^^^^^'V^ 

Time, a little, time, a small ^ce, Popo'eunoo. 

Time, a long time, a great while; Ta'moo. 

A Title belongif^ to a woman of ratAg E'tapayVoa. 



A Toe of the foot,i 

A Tomb, 

The Tonguep 

A Tortoise, * 

Touching, 

Toi}gh> as tough meat, i^d 

A Town, 

To trample with the foot, 

A Tree, - 

A Tree; from which they make clubs, 

spears, S^c. - 

lib tremble, or shudder with cold, 



Ma^neeo. 

Too,pap'pou. 

Krero. ^ 

E'honoo. 

Fa'fa. 

Ahoo'oue. 

E'farre pooto pooto«« 

Tata^he, s. TaWhyi 

E^rao. • ' 



} Toa (Erao. 



Ooa'titte, «. Eta. 

Trembling. 



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Language of the Society Isles* 



111 



.Trembling, shaking. 

To trip one up in wrestlings 

A Tropic-bird, 

Truth, 



Aaa'dou, 

Me'h'ae. 

Manoo'roa. 
f Evaec'rba> s. iParaoi^ 

\ mot*. 

To tumble, - - - Poiita'heite. 

A Turban, - • E'tae. 

To turn, or turned, - - Oo'ahoe. 

To turn, as in walking backward and > tt j 
>mards, . . ^Uoodeepeepe. 

Twins, tmn children, - Mal/ea. 

To twist a rope, - - Tawee'ree. 

Two, . » ^ E'Rooa, 



An Ulcer, or siore^ ^ 

Under, be/ow, low dawn. 

Under saily 

To understand. 

To undress, or take off the clothes. 

An unmarried person. 

Unripe, as unripe fruit, S^c. 

^ . V, 

Lummous Vapour, ^^ r? 

Vassal, or subject, « 

Vast, - ^ ' ^ 

The Veins that run under the skin, 
Venus, 



Vessel, any hollow vessel, as cups qfl .,, 
nMts,8^c. . / -^l^t'boo. 

Vessel, a hollow vessel in which they \ p. , 
prepare an inebriating liquor, 3 °J"tte. 



CVpfli. 

Oraro. 

Pot/pouee. 

Ee'te. 

Ta'turra. 

Aree'ot. 

Poo. 



Epao. 

Manna'hot^na. 

Ara,hai,s. Mai,ara'hflti. 

E'woMa. 

Tott'rooa, 



To vomit. 



Eroc/y. 



W. 



Wad, tow, fibres like hemp, 
W^ait, stay a little, - 

Wake, aapaAre, 

jTo walk out, • • 

To walk backwards andforwards, -*^^« ^^^^^ 
A Warrior, soldier, or rathef a man- 2^ * x- 
killer, . . . ^Taatatoa. 



Ta^mou. 

Areeana. 

Arra arra^ s. Era, 

Avou^oia. 

Hooapeepe* 



Warmtli^ 



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Google 



lie 



A Voc^huhiry of the 



Warmtbi heai, 

^Wart, 

To wash, 09 to wash cleth in water. 

To watcb. 

Water, - - . 

Water-cresses, 

We, both of MS, 

A wedge. 

To weep, or cry. 

Well recovered^ or well escaped, 

Well, it is well, charming, Jine, 

What, whaV^ that, - r 

What do you call that, what is the 

nam^ of it, 
When, at what time. 
Where is it, - 

Whet, to whet or sharp a thing, 
To^ whistle, - - 

Whistling, a method of whirling to\ 

call the people to meals, - j 
To whisper secretly, as in backbi'l 

Hng,^c. - - I 

Who is that, what is he called. 



Mahaiina,hanQa» 

Toria. 

Mare. 

Eteae.' 

AVy. 

Pa'toa- 

Taooa, s. Aroo^xoosu 

Era'hei. 

Ha n<5a,a,taee. 

Woura, s. woo,ara» 

Pooro'^Loo, 

f E'hara, E'ha'rya, s^ 

< . Ye'haeea, express^ 

^ ^ed inqvisUively. 

Owy te ^eeoa. 

W^heea. 
Te'hea. 
Efvoee. 
Ma^poa* 

Epotf,niaa. 



Whale, the whole, not a part of a thing. 
Wide, not strait or narrow, 
A Widow, - . - 

^ife, my wife. 
The Wind, - • 

The southriast Wind, 
A Window, 
The Wing offs bird. 
To wink, - - . , 

To wipe a thing clean. 
Wish, u msh to one who sneezes, 
Within side, - - . 

j< Woman, 
A mmried Woman, 
Wotnan, she is a niarriedwomanf shel 
huM got another husband, t j 



Ohe'moa. 

fOwy,tanna, s. 

I Owy,nana. 
E-ta^'tea, s. A^maocfe, 
Whatta,wbatta» 
Wa'tooneeab 
Ma'heine. 
Mattay. 
Mattaee, 
MaMaee pu'pan^e* 
Ere'oM. 
£'am(m,amoo. 
Ho'ro^e. 

Eva'rotia t ]Satooiu 
Tee'ro to. 
Wa*heine. 
Wa'heine moti. 

Terra,tanne. 



TVon't^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Googll 



^Jmk, exhibiimgaiimgKem, ^^ NewCaledafm, 



A Cano$f • • 

€ioihf . . . 
A Co€othnutt 

To dtirnk^ . 

7!keJ^ . 

7%e &Wf • 

JKiht . . • 

AFMi . . 
TheHan^ 
TheHead^ 

A Mogi . • 

J, mxiMeif^ i- 

To laugk^ • 

AMon, . . 

NOf, • • « 
Fiimtaini^ 
FuTieiuroiiom^ 
JCaiiiy • • 
Sugar^amef 
ThtTeiikf. 
Water, . • 
To WkUtU, 
A WomaUf 
. Jbffu, • . 
Tei, . • • 
You, • • • 

Tofo, .. 
TAree, 

Five, 

Six, . 

Nine, 
Ten, . 



'MaiMKi^'f . • • • • 

Etaooay 

Ooroo, » 

E'wii^ 'Waggt, • 

'Ahoo^ •••«•• VkliA)^ • 

'Arf r, • 

Aynoo, . • • • • Aeaiat^ •' 
Matta, . « • • • Matta, • 
Ta'reM, • • • • « Ta'^Kcatt, • ; 

'^j^a^ • .Eeka, • . , 

Moa, * Moa, • .1 

tifeetoBf • • • • • ReeiOB, • . 
Od^o% • • » • • Ao*po» J 
'Boa, ...... . . . . 

'Atta,» 

l^iata^ • • • • • Pupa? . 

Teeto, . . . • 

■^Ayma^'Yasbay^AVmre/JS/sa, . . 
'Matya, • . . . • 'Moyay'Fot 

TaW ' 

B'o0a, tXw, . . 

ETo, To^ . 

^nuheeo, • • • » 'Neeho^ 
AVay, • • • • • E'vy, • 

'Mapuo, • • I 

Watcine^ ! 

E'oobe, Odbt, . .; 

Oa, 

ATabejr, .... Katti^iaM^ 

E'Hooa, » . • • • Hooa, • ., 

Toroo, 'Totoo, . 

A'Haa; ;Haa,8.F«4 

E'R^ema^ • • • • 'Reona,' . 

A'bnOy • • • • • llonoo^ • 

A'lUttoOy • • » • 'Heedoo^ . 

AVaroo,' • • • • » 'Varoo, 

A'eevRf . • • • • He«va» 

A'booro^ • * » » Attaliooroo^ 



Manee, b, Man^A* 



Wang. 

Ham tMti. 

'Neeoo. 

'Oodoo, 8. Oonddck 

Gain'^tfDg. 



Badon'bem. 
Gar'moiDg, 

Ap« 8. Gyc^ap. 



Wbanbooean. 
''^(sva, Beba. 



'Gan, 8. GaiLflabng. 
One 

Peona'weiih 

Ooe. 

'WyoQ. 

Tannu 

Oobe. 

'Ela^ 8. £eo, 8i 6e. 



Wagee^atDg. 

'Waroo. • 

Wateeen. 

WaiulMcek. 

Wannim. 

WanniiD-ge£ek» 

WaoQim'noo.. 

Wannim'gatn. 

Wanmni'liaeeL 

Wannoo'iiasuk. 



• It may be easfly peicehred, that notwitbstandi t^e dwtanee fron Easter 
island ta New ZeaWd is upwards of fifteen huadr > Amvterdain, and New 
Zealand, is more harrii, or guttural, thaa at tbc Mi ** ^^f Y™^ " "^"^ 
extraordinary thae the agreement of the others, as i ' ''"® ^^^ P*«»- In the 
language o^Malicolo a great number of harsh labialF*8n» ^ut rather guttural, 
and the inhabitants of New Caledonia have many off*, some words are found 
which seem to have a distant resemljlance ta those ^^^^" ^\ Otaheite and the 
Marquesas, is expressed by the word 'Boa, and at /letermme ; bemuse they 
frequentlv use two words to express the same thing ^"8<*«»"'.to *ne general 
composition of their language,, whereas tbe second ^^^ration, it is commonly 
called a Gaa^ or GaB,giaan ; but sometimes they sa^''°*"'* , , . ^ 

t The tetters in Itahc, as 00, ee, &c. are td be sor signifies the chief stress 
m pronunciation is to be laid there; if over it, at atf^ ^'^ber signifies, that it 
JO compoimded of two, or, that the nunc 8yUaUe8 n^* 

3 OF VOL. XV.] 



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Language of the Society Ides, 



lis 



Yfon\Iw(nttdo%t, 

Wood ofaf^ land, 
A Wound, 
A Wrestleo 
Wrinkled til the face, 
The Wrist, - -^ 
A Wrj-neck, 



To yawn. 

Yellow eohur, 

Yes, 

Yesterdny, 

Yesternight^ 

YcH'k idand. 

Yon, 



Y. 



yom^^asaywrngmiimalofanyhmd, l?e^nai% 



VAeeoo, expreiMl 
, \ angribi. 
E'rai). 
Ootne. 
Motina. 
Meeo,meeo^ 
Mo'moa. 
Na'na* 



Ha'^mannna* 

He'appa. 

Ay, 8. ai. 

NinnaS'hay* 

Ere'po. 

E^meo. 

Oe. 



VOL. XV. 



9 



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PART III. BOOK lit ' 



Voyage to thb pacific ocban^ vnoertakbn by thb 
command of his hajeta'y, f«r makino-biscovbribs 
in thb northei^n hemisphere ; to determinb the 
position and extbnt/of thb vest side of north 
america^ its dl&tancb from asiaf and the prac- 
ticability of a northern passage to buropr. 
performed under the direction of captains 
cook^ clerks^ and gore^ in his majbstt^s ships 
the resolution. and dispovrryj in thj^ tears. 
1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, & 1780/ 



INTRODUCTION. 

THE spirit of discovery, which had loDff aaiaiRted the 
European nations, having, after its arduous and suc^ 
cessful exertions, during the fifteenth and sixteenth cen* 
turies, gradually subsided, and for a considerable time lain 

dormant, 

' ' The accoutit of this vovage was originally published in three volumes 
4to, the first and second of which were written by Captain Cook himself> 
ftnd the third by Captain King, one of his officers. The work, however, 
as the reader will soon find, is materially enriched by the communications 
of Mr Anderson, surgeon of the Resolution. The valuable introduction, 
and the notes interspersed throughout the volumes contributed by Cook, 
were the production of Dr Douglas, Bishop of Salisbury, who, at the re- 
quest of Lord Sandwich, undertook also the office of editor. Of the 
amount of his services in this character, we have his own statement, to- 
wards the end of the introduction. From this, it appears, that Cook, when 
be set out, knew he was expected to relate, as Well as to execute, the 
operations committed to him ; and that his journal, in consequence^ was 
faithfully adhered to. This seems to imply the non-interference of the edi- 
tor, at least in any important sense. The same thing may be inferred from 
what he says respecting Mr Anderson's journal. And as to the third vo- ^ 
lume, we are expressly told, that it was completely prepared for the press* 
by Captain King himself. There is surely^ tnen, very Utde foundation for 

tin 



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Cookf Ckrke, and Gore, 116 

dormant^ began to xevive in Great Britain in the late reign ;^ 
and recovered all its iPormer activity^ under the cherishing 
influence^ and. munificent encouragement, of his present 
majesty.. 

Soon after his accession to the throne^ having happily 
closed, the destructive operations of war^ he turned his 
thoughts to enterprises more humane^ but not less brilliant^ 
adapted to the season of returning peace* ' While every li- 
beral art^ and useful study> flourished under his patronage 
at home, bis superintending care was extended to such 
branches of knowledge^ as required distant examinatioii 
aud enquiry; and his ships^ after bringing back victory and 
conquest from every quarter of the known world, were now 
employed in opening friendly comioiunications with its 
hitherto unexplored recesses. 

In the prosecution of an object so worthy of the monarch 
of a great commercial people, one voyage followed anothec 
in close succession ; and, we mayadd, in regular gradation* 
What Byron had begun, Wallis and Carteret soon impro- 
ved. Their success gave. birth to a far more extensive plan 
of discovery, carried into execution in two subsequent voy- 
ages, conducted by Cook. And thalt nothing might be left 
unattempted, though much; had been already done, the 
same commander, whose professional skill could only be 
equalled by the. persevering diligence with which he had* 
exerted it, in the course of his former researches, was call- 
ed upon^ once more, to resume^ or rather to complete, the> 

survey 

w assertioA made in the memoir of Captain Cook, inserted tn the new 
edition of the General Biographical Dictionary, vol. 10. viz.- that Dr 
Douglas ^.has levelled down the more striking peculiarities of the different 
writers* into soime appearance of equality." Certainly, we are bound ei- 
ther to refuse such an insinuation, or to charge falsehood on Dr Douglas* 
who expressly states, that all he has to answer for, are the notes in Cap-. 
tain Cook's' two volumes anil the introduction.' But the alternative will- 
give no trouble to any reader acquainted with the worthy character of thd 
bishop, or who can comprehend, how very readily a probable conjecture 
may become thei basis of an erroneous opinion. 

It is necessary to apprise the r^der, that the letter D is placed at such 
of Dr Douglas's notes as it is thought advisable to retain in this work, and 
that for the rest marked £., the editor, as formerly, is responsible. — E. 

* Two voyages for discovering a north-west passage, through Hudson's 
Bay, were then performed; one under the command of Captain Middle* 
ton, in his majesty's ships the Furnace, and the Discovery pink, in 174t 
and 1743. The other under the direction of Captains Smith and Moore, 
in the ships Dobbs and California, fitted out by subscription^ in 174^ and 
1747.— D. 



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116 Modern Circummivigaiiom. »abt hi. book iir. 

warrev of the globe. Aceordiogly, another wyage was qii-» 
dertaken, in 1776; which, thou^ last in the order of time, 
was fer from being Uie least considerable, with respect to 
the extent and importance of its objects ; yet, stilly far tess 
fortoaate than any of the former, as those objects were not 
accomplished, bat at the expence of the valuable life of ita 
(x>oduc4or. 

When plans, calculated to be of general utility, are cai^ 
lied into execution with partial views, and upon interested 
motives, it is natural to attempt to confine, within some 
sarrow circle, the advantages which might have been de^ 
rived to the world at large, by an unreserved disctosure of 
all that had been effected. And, upon thia principle, it haa 
too frequently been considered as soand policy, perhaps^ in 
this country, as well as amongst some of our neighbouis, 
to affect to draw a veil of ftecrecy over die result of enter- 
prises to discover and explore unknown quarters of the 
globe* It b Co the honour of the present reign, that more 
liberal views have been now adopted. Oar late Voyages^ 
fkom the very extensive objects proposed by them, could 
not but convey useful information to every European na- 
tion ; and, indeed^ to eVerv tuition, however remoie> which 
cultivates commerce, and is acquainted with navigatioo : 
And that information has most laudably been anorded. 
The same enlarged and benevolent spirit, which ordered 
these several expeditions to be uudertakeu, has also taken 
care thft the result of their various discoveries shouM be 
authentically recorded. And the transactions of these voy- 
ages round the world, having, in due time, been communi- 
cated, under the authority of his majesty's naval minister ; 
those of the present, which, besides revisiting many of the 
former discoveries in ^e southern* carried its operations 
into untrodden paths in the northern hemisphere, are, un- 
der the same sanction, now submitted to the public in these 
vplumes. 

One great plan of nautical bvestigation having been pur- 
sued throughout, it is obvious, that the several voyages have 
a dose connection, and that an exact recollection of what 
had been aimed at, and effected, in those that preceded, 
will throw considerable light on our period. With a view, 
therefore, to assist the reader in forming a just estimate of 
the additional information conveyed by this publication, it 
may not be improper to lay betbre him a short, though 

comprehensive. 



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Cook, Clarke^ MdT GCH. I17 

comprebensivei abstract (^ the principal olgecto thai had 
been previously accomplished^ arranged io such a maimer, 
as maj serve to unite into one point of view, the various 
artides which lie scattered ihron^h the voliuniBOUs journals 
already in the hands of the pubhc ;. those compiled by Br 
Hawkesworth ; and that which was written by Captain 
Cook himself By^ thus shewine what had been formerly 
done, how much still remained ior subsequent examinatioQ 
will be more apparent ; and it will be better understood on 
what grounds, tnongh the ships of his majesty had aheady 
circumnavigated the world five different times, in the 
course of about ten y6ars, another voyage should still be 
thought expedient. 

There will be a farther use in giving such an abstract a 
place in this intcodnction. The plan of discovery, carried 
on in so many successive expeditioiA, being now, we may 
take upon us to say, in a great measure completed, by sum^ 
ining up the final result, we shall be better able to. do jus^ 
tice to the benevolent purposes it was designed to answer ; 
and a solid foundation will be laid,, on which wc may build . 
jfL satisfactory answer to a question, sometimes asked by 
peevish refihement^and ignorant malevolence. What bene** 
iicial consequences, if any, have followed, or are likely to 
follow, to the discoverers, or to the discovered, to, the com- 
mon interests of humanity, or to the increase of useful 
knowledge, from all c»ir boasted attempts to explore the dis- 
tant recesses of (he globe i 

The general object of the several voyages round the worid, 
undertaken by the command of his majesty, prior to that 
related in this work, was to search for unknown tracts of 
iand that might exist within the bosom of the immense 
expanse of ocean that pccupics the whole southern he* 
misphere. 

Within that space, so few researches had been made, be- 
fore our time, and those few researches had been made so 
imperfectly, that the result of them, as communicated to 
the worid in any narration, had rather served to create nn*- 
certaint]^, than to convey information ; to deceive the cre- 
dulous, rather than to satisfy the judicious enquirer ; by 
blending the true geography of above half the superficies 
of tlie earth with an endless variety of plausible conjectures, 
suggested by ingenious speculation ; of idle tales^ handed 

down 



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118 Modem Grammaeigatiang. fart iii. book iik 

down by obscure tradition ; or of bold fictions^ invented by 
deliberate falsehood. 

It wonld have been very unfortunate^ indeed j if five dif- 
ferent circumnavigations of the globe, some of them^ at 
least, if not all, io tracks little knowoj and less frequented, 
bad produced no discoveries, to reward the difficulties and 
perils unavoidably encountered. But' the following review 
^y ill furnish the most satisfactorv proofs, that his majesty's 
^instructions have been executea with ability ; and that the 
lepeated visits of his ships to the southern hemisphere, hav& 
very considerably added to our stock of geographical know- 
ledge. 

1. The south Atlantic ocean was the first scene of ouc 
' operations. Falkland's Islands had been hitherto barely 
known to exist; but their true position and extent, and 
every circumstance. which coi^ld render their existence of 
any consequence, remained absolutely undecided, till Byron 
visited them in 1764. And Captain Macbride, who follow- 
ed him thither two years after, having circumnavigated 
their coasts, and taken a complete survey, a chart of Falkr 
land's Islands has been constructed, with so mirch accuracy^ 
that the coasts of Great Britain itself, are not more authen- 
tically laid down upon our maps* 

-How little was really known of the islands in the south 
Atlantic, even so late as the time of Lord Anson, we have 
the most remarkable proofs, in the history of his voyage. 
Unavoidably led into mistake, by the imperfect materials 
then in the possession of the world, he had considered Pe- 
pys's Island, and Falldand Isles, as distinct places, distant 
from each other about five degrees of latitude. Byron's re* 
searches have rectified this capital error ; and it is now de- 
cided, beyond all contradiction, that, as Captain Cook says, 
'^ Future navigators will mispend their time, if they look for 
Pepys's Island in latitude 47*; it being now certain, that 
Pepys's Island is no other than these islands of Falkland.^ 

Besides the determination of this considerable point, 
other lands^ isituated in the South Atlantic, have been 
brought forward into view. If the isle of Georgia had been 
formerly seen by La Roche in 1675, and by Mr Guyot, in 
the ship Lion, in 1756, which seems to be probable,' Cap- 
tain Cook, in 1775, has made us fully acquainted with its 
extent and true position; and, in the same jrear, he added 
io the map of the world Sandwich Land, hitherto not 

known 



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Cook, Clerke, and Gore. 119 

knowd ta exUt^ and the most southern discovery that has 
been ever accomplished. 

II. Though the Strait of Magalhaens had been formerly 
visited^ and sailed through by ships of different nations^ be* 
fore our time^ a careful examination oif its bays> and har- 
bours^ and head-lands ; of the numerous islands it contains^ 
and of the coasts^ on both 'sides, that inclose it; and an 
exact account of the tides, and currents, and soundings, 
throughout its whole exf en t, was a task, which, if Sir John 
NarboFou^h, and others, had not totally omitted, they can- 
not be said to have recorded so folly, as to preclude the 
utility of future investigation. This task ha$ been ably and 
eflectuially performed by Byron, Wallis, and Carteret; 
whose transactions in this strait, and the chart of it, found- 
ed on their observisitions and discoveries, are a most valua*- 
ble accession to geography. • 

III. If the correct inrormation, thus obtained, about 
every part of this celebrated strait, should deter future adr 
venturers from involving themselves in the difBculties and 
embarrassments of a labyrinth, now known to be so intri- 

. cate, and the unavoidable source of danger and delay, we 
have the satisfaction to have discovered, that a safer and 
more expeditious entrance into the Pacific Ocean, nlay be 
reasonably depended upon. The passage round Cape Horn 
has been repeatedly tried, both from tne east and from the 
west, and stript of its terrors. We shall, for the future, be less 
discouraged by the labours and distresses experienced by 
the squadrons of Lord Anson and Pizarro, when we recol- 
lect that they Were obliged to attempt the navigation of 
those seas at an unfavourable season of the year ; and that 
there was nothing very formidable met with there wheifi 
they were traversed by Captain Cook. 

* ^ To this distinguished navigator was reserved the honour 
of being the first, who, from a series of the most satisfac- 
tory observations, beginning at the west entrance' 6f the 
Strait of Magalhaens, and carried on with unwearied dili- 

Sence, round Tierra del Fuego, through the Strait of I^e 
laire, has constructed a chart of the southern extriemity 
of America, from which it will appear, how much former 
navigators must havd heeti at a loss to guide themselves, 
and what advantages will be now enjoyed by those who 
ahall hereafter sail round Cape Horn. 
IV. As the voyages of discovery, undertaken by his ma- 
jesty'^ 



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iflQ Modem CireimuuMga&om. r^BT ii|. book iu« 

jesly's command, have facilikated the acoe9a of sbipi into' 
the Pacific Ocean, they have also greedily enlarged one 
knowledge of its contents* 

Thoogb the immense expanse nsually distingniished by 
this appellation, had been navigated by Eo^opeans for near 
two centaries and a half, by far the greater part of it, par- 
iicularly to the south of the equator, bad remained, dnriog 
all this time, unexplored. 

The great aim of Magalbaens, and of the Spaniards in 
general, its first navigators, being merely to arrive, by this 
passage, at the Moluccas, and the other Asiatic spice i»* 
lands, every intermediate part of the ocean that did not lie 
contiguous to their western track, which was on the north 
aide of the equator, of course escaped due e^mination* 
And if Mendana and Quiros, and some nameless conduct* 
ors of voyages before them, by deviating from this track, 
and steering westward from CaUao, within the southern 
tropic, were so fortunate as to meet with various islands 
there, and so sanguine as to consider those islaiids as marks 
of the existence of a neighbouring southern continent, in 
ihe exploring of which they flattered theoEiseives they should 
tival tne fame of De Gama and Columbus, these feeble ef- 
forts never led to any effectual disclosure of the supposed 
bidden mine of a New World. On the contrary, their 
voyages being conducted without a judicious plan, and 
their discoveries being left imperfect without immediate 
ikettlementf or subsequent examiuation, and scarcely records 
ed in any well-authenticated or accurate narrations, had 
been almost forgot ; or were so obscurely remembered, as 
only to serve the purpose of producing perplexing debates 
about their situation and extent, if not to suggest doubts 
about their very existence. 

It seenis, indeed, to have become a very early object of 
policy in the Spanish councils, to discontinue and to dis- 
courage any farther researches in that quarter. Already 
masters of a larger empire on the continent of America 
than they could conveniently govern, and of richer mines 
of the precious metals on that continent than they €H>uld 
convert into use, neither avarice nor ambition furnished 
reasons for aiming at a fresh accession of dominions. And 
thus, though settled all along the shores of this ocean, in a 
situation so commodious for prosecuting discoveries thcougb* 
bu.t its wide extent, the Spaniards remained satisfied with 
* * a coasting 



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Cook, Chrkfi^ and Gore* isi 

M GCMMlisg inteicoarse between tbeir own ports; never 
stretching across the vast gulpb that separates that part of 
America from Asia^ but in an unvarying line of navigation^ 
perhaps in a single annual ship^ between Acapulco and Ma^ 
nilla* 

The tracks of other European navigators of the South 
Pacific Ocean, were, in a great measure, regulated by those 
pf the Spaniards, and consequently limited within the same 
narrow bounds. With the exception, perhaps, of two in* 
stances only, those of Le Maire and Roggewein, no ships 
pf another nation bad entered this sea, through tlie Strait of 
iMagalhaens, or round Gape Horn, but for the purposes of 
trade with the Spaniards, or of hostility against them, pnr^^ 
poses which could not be answered, without precluding 
any probable chance of adding much to our stock of dis- 
covery. For it was obviously incumbent on all such ad* 
venturers, to confine their cruises within a moderate dis* 
tance of the Spanish settlements, in the vicinity of which 
alone they could hope to exercise their commerce, or to 
execute their predatory and military operati(H|8. Accord* 
iogly, soon after emerfi;ing from the strait, orVompleting 
the circuit of Tierra del Fne^o, they began to hold a north* 
erly course, to the uninhabited island of Juan Fernandez, 
their usual spot of rendezvous and refreshment. And after 
ranging along the continent of America, from Chili to Ca»' 
lifornia, they either reversed their course back to the At* 
lantic, or, i? they ventured to extend their voyage by 
stretching over to Asia, they never thought of trying ex- 
periments in the unfrequented and unexplored parts of the 
ocean, but chose the beaten path (if the expression may be 
used,) within the limits of which it was likely that they 
might meet with a Philippine galleon, to make their voy* 
age profitable (o themselves ; but could have little prospect, 
if they had been desirous, of making it useful to the pub* 
lie, by gaining any accession of new lamd^to the map of 
the world. 

By the natural operation of these causes, it could not but 
happen, that little progress should be ma^e toward obtain* 
ing a foil and accurate knowledge of the South Pacific 
Ocean. Something, however, had been attempted by the 
industrious, and once enterprising. Butch, to whom we are 
indebted for three voyages^ undertaken for the purposes of 
discovery; and whose researches, in the southern latitudes 
9 of 



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12£ Modern Circumnap^twis. vabt hi. boor iiu 

of ibis oeean, are nuich better ascertained than are those 
of tbe earlier Spanish navigators aboYe tneiitionecl. 

Le Maire and Scfaooten^ in 1616^ and Roggeweioj in 
1722^ wisely iudging that nothing new could be gained by 
adhering to the usual passage on the north side of the LinCj 
traversed this ocean from Cape Horn to the East Indies^ 
crossing the south tropic^ a space which had been so sel* 
dpBi^ and so iBefifectually, visited ; though popular belief, 
fortified by philosophical speculation, expected there to 
reap the richest harvest of discovery. 

Tasman, in 1642, in his extensive circuit from Batavia^ 
through the South Indian Ocean, entered the South Paci- 
fic, at its gr^test distance from the American side, where 
it never had been examined before. And bis range, con* 
tinued from a high southern latitude, northward to New 
Guinea, and the islands to the east of it near the equator, 
produced intermediate discoveries, that <bave rendered hi$ 
voyage memorable in the annals of navigation: 

But.still, upon the whole, what was effected in these three 
expeditions, served only to shew how large a field was rcr 
served for future. and more persevering examination. Their 
re9ult3 had, indeed, enabled geograpners to diversify the 
vacant pniformiiy of former charts of this ocean by the in^ 
sertion of some new islands. But the number, and the ex- 
tent of these insertions, were so inconsiderable, that they 
may be said tp appear 

Rari^ naaiesin gurgiie taOo. 

And, if the discoveries were few, those few were made very 
imperfectly. Some coasts were approached, but not landed 
upon ; and passed without waiting to examine their extent 
and connection with those that might exist at no great dis- 
tance. If others were landed upon, the visits were^ in ge- 
neral, so transient, that it was scarcely possible to build 
upon a foundation so weakly laid, any information that 
could even gratify idle curiosity, much less satisfy philoso- 
phical enquiry, or contribute greatly to the safety, or tp the 
success, of future navigation. 

Let us, however, do justice to tbese beginnings of disco- 
very. To the Dutch, we must, at least, ascribe the merit 
of being our harbingers, though we afterward went beyond 
tbem in the road they had first ventured to tread. And 

with 



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. Cook, derke, and Oore, . ISS 

ivith.wliat success bis majesty's ships have, io their repeated 
voyages, penetrated into the obscurest recesses of the. South 
Pacific Ocean, will appear from the following enumeratioa 
of their, various and very extensive operations, which have 
dra.wn up the veil that had hitherto been thrown ovier the 
geography of s^ great a proportion of the globe. 

1. Tne several lands, of which any account bad been 
given, as seen by any of the preceding navigators, Spanish 
or Dutch, have been carefully looked for, and most of them, 
{at least such of .them as seemed of any consequence) found 
out and visited ; and not visited in a cursory manner, but 
every means used to correct former mistakes, and to sup- 
ply former deficiencies, by making accurate enq ui ries ashore^ 
and taking skilful surveys of their coasts, by sailing round 
them. Who has not heard» or read, of the boasted Tierra 
jimtraUa dd Eqnritu Santo of Quiros i But its bold pre^ 
tensions to-be a part of a southern continent, could not 
stand Captain Cook's examination, who sailed round it, and 
assigned it its true position and moderate bounds, in the 
Archipelaeo of the New Hebrides.' 

2. Besides perfecting many of the discoveries of their 
predecessors, our late navigators have enriched. geographic 
cal knowledge with a long catalogue of their own. The 
Pacific Ocean, within the south tropic, repeatedly traver- 
sed, in every direction, was .found to swarm with a seem* 
ingly endless profusion of habitable spots of land. Islands 
^cattetred. through the amazing space of near fourscore de- 
grees of longitude, separated at various distances, or group- 
ed in numerous clusters, have, at their approach, as it were, 
started into existence ; and such ample accounts have been 
brought home concerning them and their inhabitants, as 
may serve every useful purpose of enquiry ; and, to use 
Captain Cook's words, who bore so considerable a share 
in those discoveries, haoe left Jittk more to be done in that 
part. 

. 3. Byron, Wallis, and Carteret had each of them con- 
tributed toward increasing our knowledge of the islands 
that exist in the Pacific Ocean, within the limits of the 
southern tropic ; but how far that ocean reached to the 

west, 

' BougEiinville, in 1768, did no more than discovsr that the land here 
yfU not connected, but composed of islands. Captain Coofc^ in 1774, ex- 
Fored the wjiole group.— D. 



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124 Modem CirewnnatigaHom^ paet iin boo% hi. 

west, what lands bounded it on that tide, and the conneo 
tion of those lands with the discoveries of former naviga^r 
tors, was still the reproach of geographers, and remained 
absolutely unknown, till Captain Cook, daring his first 
Toyage in 1770, brought back the most satisfactory deci^ 
sion of this important question. With a wonderful perse* 
Tcrance, and consummate skill, amidst an uncommon com-* 
bination of perplexities and dangers, he traced this coast 
near two thousand miles, from the 38* of south latitude, 
cross the tropic, to its northern extremity, within \(f i of 
the equinoctial, where it was found to join the lands alrea* 
dy explored by the Dutch, in several voyages fr9m their 
Asiatic settlements, and to which they have given the name 
of New Holland. Those discoveries made in the last ceur 
lury, before Tasman's voyage, had traced the north and the 
west coasts of this land ; and Captain Cook, by his exten- 
sive operations on its east side, left little to be done toward 
completing the full circuit of it. Between Cape Hicks, in 
latitude 58*, where his examination of this coast began, and 
that part of Van Diemen's Land, from whence Tasman took 
his departure, was not above fifty-five leagues. It was high- 
ly probable, therefore, that they were connected ; thovrii 
Captain Cook cautiously says, that he couid not determine 
whether his New South Wales, that is, the east coast of New 
Ho]land,jofi}s to Fan Die$nen*s Land, or no. But what was 
thus left undetermined by the operations of bis first voyage, 
was, in the course of his second, soon cleared up ; Captain 
Fumeaux, in the Adventure, during his separation from the 
Resolution (a fortunate separation as it thus turned out) in - 
1773, having explored Van Diemen's Land, from its southern 
point, along the east coast, far beyond Tasman's station, 
and on to the latitude SS% where Captain Cook's examinar 
tion of it in 1770 had commenced* 

It is no longer, therefore, a doubt, that we have now a 
full knowledge of the whole circumference of this vast bo- 
dy of land, this fifth part of the world (if I may so speak), 
which our late voyaees have discovered to be of so ama- 
zing a magnitude, that, to usie Captain Cook's words, it f$ 
of a larger extent than any other country in the known world, 
that does ndt bear the name of a continent.^ 

4. Tasman 

^ What the learned editor asserts here, as to the ftill knowledge tue^ 
red by the voy^es to which he alludes, must be restrioted» as Captain 

Flinders 



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Cook, Ckrke, and Gore, 1£5 

4. Tasman having entered the Pacific Ocean^ after lea* 
ving Van Diemen's Land^ had fallen in with a coast to 
which he gave the name of l^ew Zealand. The extent of 
this coasts and its position in any direction but a part of 
its west side^ which lie sailed alone in his course northward^ 
being left absolutely unknown^ it had been a favourite opi* 
nion amongst geographers^ since his time^ that New Zealand ' 
was a part of a southern continent, running north and souths 
from the S3* to the 64^ of south latitude^ and its northern 
coast stretching cross the South Pacific to an immense dis- 
tance^ where its eastern boundary had been seen by Juan 
Fernandez^ half a century before. ' Captain Cook's voyage 
in the Endeavour has totally destroyed this supposition. 
Though Tasman must still have the credit of having first 
seen New Zeaiatid^ to Captain Cook solely belongs that 
of having really explored it. He spent near six months 
upon its coasts m 1769 and 1770> circumnavigated it com* 
pietely, and ascertained its extent and division into two 
islands. Repeated visits since that have perfected this im- 
portant discovery^ which^ though now known to be no part 
of a southern continent^ will probably^ in all future charts 
of the worlds be distinguished as the largest islands that 
exist in that part of the southern hemisphere. 

5. Whether New Holland did or did not join to New 
Guinea, was a question involved in much doubt and uncer-- 
tainty^ before Captain Cook's sailing between them^ through 
Endeavour Strait^ decided it. We will not hesitate to call 
this an important acquisition to geography. For though 
the great sagacity alid extensive reading of Mr Dalrymple 
had discovered some traces of such a passage having been 

found 

Flindefs verv properiy remsiks, to the gener*! extent of the viist region 
explored. It will not apply to the particular fbrmation of its coasts, for ' 
dus plain reason, that the chart acoompanyinff the work, of which he was 
writing the introduction, represents mudi of tne south coast as totally un- 
known. It is necessary to mention abo, that what he savs Immediately. 
before, in allusion to the discoveries made by Captain Fdmeaux, must 
fittlnnit to correction^ That officer comnutted some errors, owing, it would 
appear, to the imperfection .of preceding accounts : and he left undeter* 
mined the interesting question as to the existence of a connection betwixt 
Van Diemen's Land and New South Wales. The opinion which he gave* 
as Co this point, on very insufficient data certainly, viz. that there is *' no 
stnit between them, but a very deep bay," has been most satisfactorily 
disproved, by the discovery of the.extensive passage which bears the name 
of f lindera's friend, Mr Bass, the enterprising gemlcmaD that acco9)plish- 
cd it.^£. 



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If $ Modern CiMtrntucoigatidfiSi^ tart hi. book iir« 

feiin4 IMore, y^t these traces were so obscure^ andid little 
known in the present age, that they had hot generally re-*- 
eulated the constractioii of our charts ; the President de 
Brosses, who wrote in 1756^ and was well Tensed iir geo-i 
graphical researches, had not been able to satisfy himself 
about them ; and Mods, de Bougainville, in 1768; who had 
ventured to fall in with the south coast of New Guinea^ 
near ninety leagues to the westward of its south^^east pointy 
chose rather to work those ninety leagues directly to wind-' 
ward, at a time when hid people were in such dbtress for 
provisions as to eat the seal-skins from off the yards and 
Tigging,, than to run the jisk of fading apaadage, of the 
existence of which be entertained the $tron^e8t; doubts, by 
pehevering in his westerly course. Captain Cook^ there-' 
lore, in this part of .hia voyjage (thoagn he modestly dis^ 
claims all mefit), has established, beyond., future^ controvert. 
^yj a fact of essential service to navigation, by opening, if; 
not a new, at lea^t an unfrequented and forgotten commu- 
nication between the South Pacific and Inman Qce»is.^ 

6. One more discovery, for which we are indebted to 
Captain Carteret, as similar in some degree to that last 
mentioned^ may properly succeed it, in this enumerattob*' 

Dampitcr^ 

' We are indebted to Mr Dalrymple for the reeovery of an interestii^ 
document respecting a passage betwixt New Holland and New Guinea, 
discovered by Torres, a Spanish navigator, in 1606. It was found among 
the archives of Manilla^ when that city was' taken by the British, in 176^, 
being a copy <^ a Jetter which Torres addressed to the king of Spain, gi- 
ving an acooant of his discoveries. The Spaniards, as usual, had ke^t t^e 
matter a profound secret, so that the existence of the strait was generally 
unlcnown, till the labours of Captain Cook, in 1 770, entitled him to the 
ifient here assigned. Captain Flinders, it must be remembered, is of opi- 
nion, that some suspicion of such a strait was entertained in 1644, when 
gasman sailed ob his second voyage, but that the Diitch, who were then 
engaged in making discoveries in uese regions, were ignorant of its ha»^ 
ymg been passed. Several navigators have sailed through Torres's Strait, 
as it has been justly enough named, since the time of Cook, and have im'* 
proved our acquaintance with its geography. Of these may be mentioned. 
Lieutenant (afterwards Rear-Admiral) Bligh, in 1789 ; Captain (afterwards 
Admiral) Edwards, in 1791 ; Bligh, a second time, accompanied by Lieu- 
tenant Portlock, in 1792; Messrs fiampton and Alt, in 1793; and Cap- 
tain Flinders, in J802>d. The labours of the lastrmentioned gentleman 
in this quarter surpass, in utility and interest, those of his predecessors^ 
and, if he had accomplished nothing else, woul^ntitle his name to be 
ranked amongst the benefactors of geography. What mind is so insen- 
sible as not to regret, that afler years of hardship and captivity, the very 
day which presented the public with the memorial of his services and suf«; . 
ferings, deprived him of the possibility of reaping their reward f—E. 



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Cook, derke, and Gatt, l$j 

DaoKpier, in sailing, round ivhat was supposed to be part of 
the coast of New Guinea^ disGovered it to belong to a se^ 
parate island^ to wbtcb he gave the name of New Britain. 
But that the land wbieh he named New Britain should be 
subdivided again into t^o separate large islands^ with ma-^ 
ny smaller intervening, is a point of geographical informa- 
tioD, which^ if ever traced by any of the earliest navigators 
of the South Pacific^ had not been handed down to the pre- 
sent age : And its having been ascertained by Captain Car-^ 
teret, deserves to be mentioned as a discovery^ in the strict-* 
est s^nse of the word ; a discovery of the utmost importance 
' to navigation. St George's Channel, through which his^ 
ship found a way^ between New Britain and New Ireland, 
from the Pacific into the Indian Ocean^ to use the Cap- 
tain's own words, *' is a much better and shorter passage, 
whether from the eastward or westward, than round all toe - 
islands and lands to the northward."^ 

V. Tlie voyages of Byron, WalBs, and Carteret, were 
principally confined to a favourite object of discovery in 
the South Atlantic ;. and though accessions to geography 
were procured by them in the South Pacific, Siey could 
do but little toward giving the world a complete view of 
the contents of that immense expanse of ocean, through 
which they only held a direct track, on theii* way home-, 
ward by the East Indies. Cook, indeed, who was appoint^ 
ed to the conduct of the succeeding voyage, had a more 
accurate examination of the South Pacific entrusted to him. 
But as the improvement of astronomy went hand in hand, 
in his instructions, with that of geography, the Captain's 
solicitude to arrive at Otaheite time enough to observe the 
transit of Venus, put it out of bis power to deviate from hi» 
direct track, in search of unknown lands that might lie ia 
the south-east of that island. By this unavoidable atten- 
tion to his duty, a very considerable part of the South Pa- 
cific, and that part where the richest mine of discovery was 
supposed to exist, remained unvisited and unexplored, du- 
ring 

^ The position of the Solomon Islands^ Mendana^s eekbvated dtscov^ • 

2, will no loAper remain a matter in debate amongst geographers, JV^r 
alrymple having, on the most satisfactory evidence, proved, that they 
are the ehister of islands which comprises what has since been called 
New Britain, New Ireland, &c The great light thrown on that cluster 
hy Captain Carteret'sjdiscovery, is a strong confirmation of this.->Sce Mr 
I/ahTmple's Collection of Voyages> voL I p. 162-1.-- D. 



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188 Modem Ctftumnatigatidm. I^abt Hi. book in. 

Ting that Toyage in the Endeavour. To remedy this^ and 
to clear up a pointy which^ though many of the karned 
were confident of, upon principles of speculative reason-- 
ing^ and many of the unlearned admitted, upon what they 
thought to be credible testimony^ was still held to be Very 
problematical) if not absolutely groundless^ by others who 
were less sanguine or more incredulous ; his majesty^ al- 
ways ready to forward every enquiry that can add to the 
stock of interesting knowledge in every branch, ordered 
another expedition to be undertaken. The signal services 
performed by Captain Cook, during his first voyage, of 
which we have given the outlines, marked him as the fit- 
test person to finish an examination which he had already 
so skilfully executed in part. Accordingly^ he was sent out 
in 111% with two ships, the Resolution and Adventure, 
upon the most enlarged plan of discovery known in the 
annals of navigation. For he was instructed bot only to 
circumnavigate the globe, but to circumnavigate it in high 
southern latitudes, making such traverses, from time to 
time, into ever^ corner of the Pacific Ocean not before 
examined, as might finally and efi^ectually resolve the much- 
agitated question about the existence oi a southern conti- 
nent, in any part of the southern hemisphere accessible by 
navigation. 

The ample accessions to geography, by the discovery of 
many islands within the tropic ni the Pacific Ocean, in the 
course of this voyage, which was carried on with singular 
perseverance, between three and four years, have been al^ 
ready stated to the reader. But the general search now 
made, throughout the whole southern hemisphere, as being 
the principal object in view, hath been reserved for this se- 
parate article. Here, indeed, we are not to take notice of 
lands that have been discovered, but of seas sailed through^ 
where lands had been supposed to exist. In tracing the route 
of the Resolution and Adventure, throughout the South At- 
lantic, the South Indian, and the South Pacific Oceans that 
environ the globe, and combining it with the route of the 
Endeavour, we receive what may be called oculsCr demon- 
stration, that Captain Cook, in his persevering researches^ 
sailed over many an extensive continent, which, though sup- 
posed to have been seen by former navigators^ at tne ap- 
proach of his sbips^ sunk into the bosom of the ocean> and, 

•Mike 



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^ Yike the teseless fabric of a viaioa^ left not a fack befaiod/'' 
It haibeen urged, that the existence of a somhern coatinent 
is necessary to preserve an eqailibrium between die two be^ 
miftpberes. But however plausible this tbeor; may seem at 
fiiBt sight, experience has abandantly detected its fallacy*, 
la condeqaence of Captain Godk's voyage^ now under con« 
fltderation^ we have a thorottgh knowledge ot jlhe state of 
the southern hemisphere^ atid can pronounce with- certain-^ . 
ty> that the equilibrium of tHe globe is^eifectoellly (d'eserved^ 
though the proportion of sea actually sailed through^ leaves- 
no sufficient space for the corresponding mass of land^ 
which^ on speculative argomenti^ hild been maintained tc^ 
be necessary.^ 
VOL. XV. i ii 

if. . i 

* . 7 A very long iackit in the original is oocopied by Mr Wales's r«piy t6 
the oDservations of Monsieur Le Monier, in the memoirs of the French 
Academy of Sciences for 1 776> respecting what CQptaIn Cook alleged iii 
the account of his second voyage, of the npn-existence of Cape Circum« 
cision, said to have been dis<?overed by Boiivet in 1738. As the subject^ 
though exceedingly Well treated by Mr Wales, is in itself of scarce any 
importance, and has long lost interest amon^ scientific enj^uirers, who rest 
seirfectiy content with Captain Cook s isxainmation, there appeared no in- 
ouoement whatever to retain the note., The reader, it is confidently pre- " 
sumed, wjU be satisfied with what wiis said of it it the account of the for«> 
mer voyage.-^£. ^ ^ , 

' The judgment of tlie ingenious author of Mecherches sur Amiricaini^ 

on this question, .seems to be very deserving of a place here: '' Qu'on 

. " calcule, comae oh voudra, on sei^ toujours contraiiit d'avouer, qu'il y 

f' a une plus grande portion de continent situ^e d&as la latitude septentri* 

^ onale, que. dana la latitude australe. 

" C!est Ibrt ma] j-propos, qu'on a 8outeil^ que cetie repartition in^galdf 
^ ne saitrpit exister, sous pr^texte que le globe perdroit son ^ijuilibrey faute 
■^ d'iin contrepoids suffisant au pole in^ridlonale. II est vrai qu'un pied 
^ (cabe d'eau sal^e ne pese pas autiint iqu'un pied cube de terre ; mais oii 
** aurbit djfi r^echir, qu'il pent y avoir sous J ocean des lits,4c des couched 
^ de mati^es^ dont la p^nteiu* f^p^cifique varie k Tinfini, & que le pen dje 
**proCpadeur d'une iiier, vers^e sur une grande surface, contrebalaiice liss 
'* endroits oi^ y a moins de mer, mais oh elle est plus profondis." — Re* 
cherches PHiomphAqutM^ torn, ii, p. 375. — X). 

We o&red some observations on this topic in the preceding volume^ 
and need scarcely resume it, as it cannot be imagined that any of out 
readers 6till entertain tlie belief of tlie necessity for siich an equiUbrium. 
.7he ol>ject in again alluding to it, is to call attention to some observations 
of another kind, which Mr Jones has hazarded m one of bis Physiological 
PilM^ptisitions. According to him, no such thing 9s a sotithern counterpoise 
ought to haye been expected, for it seems to be the constitution of our 
g|o|)c^ that land and water are contrasted to each other oii its. opposite 
sj^es. ** If," says he, ** you bring the meridian, of the Cape of Good Hop^ 
under the brazen circle, or universal meridian of a terrestrial globe, bb- 

14k , iierving 



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ISO Modem Circumnmvigaiionu part hi* book xii. 

If former navigators have added more land to tlie Inoim 
globe than Captain Cook^ to him^ at leasts was reserved the 
honour of bein^ foremost in disclosing to us the extent of 
aea that covers its surface. His own summary view of the 
transactions of this voyage^ will be a proper concldsion to 
these remarks c ^* I had now made the circuit of the sou- 
** them ocean in a high latitude, and traversed it in such 
^' a manner as to leave not the least room for there being 
*f a continent^ unless near the Pole^ and out of the reach of 
'* navigation. Bv twice visiting the Tropical Sea^ I had nofe 
^* only settled the situation of some old discoveries^ but 
'' made there many new ones> and left, I conceive^ very 
*' little to be done^ even in that part. Thus I flatter my- 
'* self| that the intention of the voyage has^ in every respect, 
*' been fully answered ; the southern hemisphere sufficient- 
^' ly explored ; and a final end put to the searching after a 
*' southern continent, which has, at times^ engrossed the 
^ attention of Some of the maritime powers for near two 

" centuries 



Serving that ttiis tneHd&n passes through the heart of the continents of 
Europe and Africa, you will find that the opposite part of the meridian 
passes through the middle of the great south sea. When the middle of 
the northern continent of America, about the meridian dif Mexico^ is ex- 
amined in the same way, the opposite part passes very ei^actly through 
the middle of the Indian ocean. The sbuthern continent of Amenca is 
opposed by that eastern sea which contains tlie East India Islands. The 
southern continent of New Holldnd is opposite tQ the Athintic ocean* 
This alternation, iff mav so call it, between the land and 8ea» is too re- 

giilar to have been casual ; and if the face of the earth was so laid out bv 
esign. it was for some good reason. But what that reason may be, it will 
be difficult to shew. Perhaps this dispofcitibh may be of service to keep up 
a proper balance ; or, it ma^ assist toward the diiimal rotation of the earth, 
the free motions of the tides, &c. ; or the water oh one side may give 9 
/reer passa^ t6 the rays of the sun, and being convex and transparent 
inay concentnite, or at least condense, the solar rays intemaUv, for some 
benefit to the land that lies on the other side."^— This sort of reasoning, 
from our ignorance, is no doubt liable to objection, and Mr Jones had 
j^od sense and tandour enough to adroit, that the questions were too ab- 
struse for him to determine. The proper part, indeed, for man to act, is 
to investigate, what Nature has done, not to do^atize as to the reasons 
for her condiict-^to ascertain facts, not to substitute conjectures in pkde 
of them. But it is allowable for us, ^hen we have done our best in xxAf 
lecting and ekainining phenomena, to arrange them together according to 
ftny plausible theoty wnich our judgments can stkggest Still, however* we 
ought to rem^mt>er, that the most obviously imperative dictates of our 
reasoning faculties are only inferences from present appearances, and de- 
tersrine nothing as to the necesiitjr of existing things.— ■&• 



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. Cook, Gfirke^and Gore ISI 

^ centuries past^ andfaeen a faYotrile t)ltory, araoQgst the 
^' geographerB of all ages/*^ 

- Thus far^ therefore^ th6 voyages to disclose new tracks 
of navigation, and to reform old defects in geography, ap« 
pear to have been prosecuted with a satisfactory share ol 
success. A perusal of the foregoing summary ot. what had 
been doDe> will enable every one to judge what wss istill 
wanting to complete the great plan of discjov/^ry. Tl^e 
southern hemisphere had, indeedi been repeatedly visited^ 
and its utmost accessible extremities been surveyed* But 
much uncertain ty> andj of. course, great variety of opinion, 
subsisted^ as to the navigable extremities of our own hemis-r 
phcre; particularly as to the exist<ence^ or, ^t leasts, as to 
the practicability of a northerti passage between the Atlap^ 
tic and Pacific Oceans, either by sailing eastward, rpiyra 
Asia, or westward, round North America. 

It was obvious, that if Such a passage, could W effected, 
voyages to Japan and Chioa, and, inde^d> to the East In« 
died in general^ would be much shortened ; and consequent- 
ly become more profitable, than by making the tedious cir- 
cuit; of the Cape of Good Hope*. Accordmgly, it became 
a favourite object of the English to effectuate this, above 
two centuries ago ; and (to say nothing of Cabot's prjiginal 
attempt, in 1497> which ended in the dispQvery of New- 
foundland and the Labradore coast) from Frobisher^s first 
voyage to find a western passage, in 1576, to tbos^ of James 
and of Fox, in 16S], repeatecT trials had been made.bv our 
enterprising adventurers. But though farther knowledge 
of the northern extent of America. was obtained in the 
course of these voyages, by the discovery of Hudson's and 
Baffin's Bays> the wished*for passage, on that side, into the 
Pacific Ocean, was still unattained. Our countryraen, and 
the Dutch, were equally unsuccessful, in varioys attenipts» 
to find this passage in an eastern direction. Wood's fail- 
ure, in 1676, seems to have closed the long list of unfortu- 
nate bortbern expeditions in that century ; and. the disco« 
very, if not absolutely despaired of^ by having been so often 
missed, ceased, for many years, to be sought for. 

Mr Dobjbs, a warm, advocate for the. probability qf a 
north-west passage through Hudson^s Bay, m our own tiine, 
once more recalled the attention of this country to that 

undertaking) 

• Cook^s second Voyage; . , 



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iM Modern Ci0tum$mcigMti&m; wAut in. bo^k hi, 

^mlerlftkiftg ; and, by his eclive mk], eod perseventtf so* 
licitation^ rei)ewed the spirit of discovery^ But it was re«i 
iiew«d in ti^n. Por Ctptaiii Middleton, sctit pttt b^ go*^ 
fcrbittefit ia 1741, sud Csptains Smith and Moore^ by a 
private society^ in 1746, though eacaamg^d by an act of 
parliattietil pass^ v^ the precsdiog year» that anoNised a 
teward of tw^dty thousand peands to the discovery of a 
^lX8Sage> retai-fi^ iVolkt Hudson's Bby widi reports of tbeit 
pfdceeditigs, that left the accompUmntnt of this favourite 
object at M great a distance as ev«r« 

When researches of this kind,. no ioager ieft to die soli* 
Citation of an individaal, oc to the snbscriptions of priyatc 
tidvebtorers, becttme eheyished by the royal attention, in 
the preseAt ireign, and warmly prowoied by the minister at 
ttte nead of the daval department, it was impossible, while 
so much was done towai^ tlcplorlng the remotest oorners 
of tlie BOtithem hemisphere^ that the Jiorthern passage 
Shoald Aot be altempled. Accoidtngly^ while Captain Cook 
^ms pms^cntitt^ hid Voyage toward the South Pole in 1773^ 
Lb^d Mulgftet^e saikd with tW6 shios, t9 detmnint how far 
ftatigation ^^^pNi^mdk toward the North F0I: And though 
liis lordship met with the same insuperable bar to bis pro*- 
grefs whiefii fecmer navigators had eaperteuced^ the hopes 
of opening a commnnication between, the Pacific and 
Atlantie Oceans by a northerly course, were not abandon- 
ed ; Md a voyage for that purpose was ordered to be im- 
dfetttiken.** 

The operations proposed bd be pursued were so new> so 
eittetisiVe^ and so vnrious^ that the skill and experienee of 
Osplain Cook^ it was thought, would be requisite to con- 
duct tbein. WlOhdnt beitig^ liaMe to any charge of want of 
tep[ for the pnMie 8erviee> he might have passed the rest 
of hU dnys in the eoioainaiid to which he had been appoint- 
ed !n Git^enwieh Hospital, there to enjoy the fame he had 
3deaf ly eanied in two circumnavigations of the world* But 
he dti6eifaliy relin<|uiihed this honoutmble station at home; 
'ttndi hiippy that the Etirl of Sandwich had not east his eye 
upon any otbei^ eommiiader, engaged in the conduct of the 
expedition^ the bteioiy of which is now giveo^ an expedi- 
tion 

^^ Dr Ddligiss refers to the introduction to Lord Mulgnive's Journal 
for a history of former attempts to sail toward the North Pole \ and to 
Barrington's MisGellamts for several instances of ships reaching very high 
north latitiides.-— E'. 



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Cook,Ckrh€,im4Qore^ , 1S8 

tioo tb^t would expose bim to the l<^ls and pcviU^ & iUfd 
circumnavjgalion, by a trapk hitherto unattempted*'^ ip^very 
former navigator round the globe had made bis passage 
bpme to Europe by the Cape of Good Hope \ the arduous 
task was ndw assigned tp Captain Copk of attempting -itj 
by reaching the high northern Jatitude^ between Ai»^ m4 
i^merica. So that the usual plan of discovery was rever- 
sed ; and^ instead of a passage ixota the Atlantic to the Pa- 
cific, one from the latter into the former was to be tried. 
For it waft wiaely foreseen, that whatever ^openings or inlets 
there ttiight be on the east side of America, which Ije in a 
direction that could give any hopes of a passage^ the ulti- 
^mate success of it would still depend upon there being ^ti 
open sea between the west side of that continent and the 
extremities of Asia. Captain Cook^ therefore, was ordered 
prooeed into the Pacific Oceaoi through the chain of 
his new islands ^n the southern tropic ; and, having cros$e4 
the equator into its northern partSj then to bold such h 
course as might probably fix many interesting points it| 
geography, and produce intermediate discoveries, in bi^ 
progress northward to the principal scene of his operations* 
. 'But 

*® it k due to faiatofy, ^xA ta the character of Cook, to mention a a>« 
pamstance rstpactiDg bis pppoiaUneat to this expedition, which sNkjiigly 
liTDves the high opinion satertsined of his abilities for it, and» at the save 
time, his zeal for the promotion of useful ^discoveries, and the prosperity 
of his coufitfy. This is dope from the information of Lord Sandwich, as 
eonununicated io the memoir of Cook mserCed ki the Biog. Brit. When 
tiie enterprise was deternuned oo, iit became of extreme consequeoce to 
sdect a proper person tP undertalue the execatioa of it. Captaia Cook 
most natarally obtained this respect ; and at once, without the possibility 
of rivalship, would have been appointed to the command, did not a con« 
viet^n aiid feeling of sympathj^ for ht« former sufferings and important 
serriosiy Mstmis his warmast fneods firom the slightest expression of what 
thef unaaimoaslv desved. CpnoeaJing, therefore^ their opinson, and 
avoiding every thing of the nature of solicitation, they, nevertheless^ 
thought it advisable In consiilt bis well-ipformed judgment relative to the 
nature of the undertakiiigy fl»d the person most fikely to perform it For 
tto paipooi. Captain Cook, Sir Hugh Paliiser, and Mr Stephens, were 
mwA to dine wkh I.K»fdBaiidwiob, whea the whole aJ0air was discussed^ 
The representation of its magnitude, and beneficial consequences, roused 
the enthusiasm of the navigator ; and starting up, he declared that-he him- 
self would undertake Its accomplishment. This magnanimous resdution 
was joyfuiHy received, and could aot fail to fwoduee the aiost sanguine 
bopes of at least api honourable, if iaot a saocessiU» i^uie, His apjpoiat*. 
nieot was immediately made out; jind it was agreed^ thai; go returmi^ to 
England, he should have his situattion at Greenwich restored,— £• 



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134 Jdoiem Ckcumnafcigatiom • part hi. book hi. 

But the plan of the voyage, and the various ol>jecti it 
embraced, will best appear from the instructions under 
which Captain Gook sailed ; and the insertbn oFtbem here, 
will convey inch authentic information as may enable the 
reader to judge with precision how far they have been car* 
tied into execution. 



By the Coniinistioners for execntiDg tiie Ofioe of 
Lord i{i^ Admiral of Great BQtun and !»• 
landydcCi 

Secret imiructions for Captain James Cook, Corpmc^ndir of 
hUmaj^ys Shop' the fLesohiitio^. 

Whereas the Earl of Sandwich has siraified to nkbis 
inajesty's pleasure^ that an attempt should be made to fikid 
but a northern passage by sea from the Pacific to the At- 
lantic Ocean ; and whereas we have^ in pursuance thereof, 
caused his majesty's sloops Resolution and Discovery to be 
fitted, in all respects, propei* to proceed upon a voyage for 
the purpose above-mentioned, and, from the experience we 
have had of your abilities and good conduct in your late 
voyageis, have thouj^ht fit to entrust you with the conduct 
of the present intended voyage, and with that view appoint- 
ed you to command the first-mentioned sloop, and directed 
f]!!aptain Gierke, who commands the other, to follow your 
orders for his further proceedings. You are hereby requi* 
red and directed to proceed with the said two sloops directly 
to the Cape of Qood Hope, unless you shall judge it neces- 
sary tp 9t:op at Madeira, the Cape de Verd or Canary Is- 
lands, to take in wine for the use of their companies ; ia 
which case you are at liberty to do so, taking care to re«« 
tDain there no longer than may be necessary for that pur- 
Jose. 

On your arrival at the Cape of Opod Hope> you are to 
refresh tlie sloops' companien, and to cause the sloops to be 
supplied with as much provisions and water as they can 
ffconvenientiy stow. 

You arc, if possible, to leave the Cape of Good Hope by 
the end of October, or the beginning of November next, 
und proceed to the southward in search of some islands 
t^id to have bpen lately seei^ by the French, in the lati* 

tude 



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Cook, Gierke, and Gore* 185 

tude 48^ (y S.^ and about the meridian of Mauritius. In 
case you find those islands, you are to examine them tho- 
roughly for a good harbour; and, upon discovering one, 
make the necessary observations to facilitate the finding it 
again, as a good port, in that situation, may hereafter prove 
very useful, although it should afford little or nothing move 
than shelter, wood, and wateh . You are not, however, to 
spend too much time in looking out for tho^e islands, or in 
the examination of them, if foundf but proceed to Otaheite, 
or the Society Isles, (touching at New Zealand in your way 
thither, if you should judge it necessary and convenient,) 
and taking care to arrive there tuue enough to admit of 
your giving the sloops' companies the refreshment they 
may stand in need of; before you prosecute the farther ob« 
ject of these instructions. 

Upon your arrival at Otaheite, or the So<;iety Isles, you 
are to land Omiah at such of them as he may choose, and 
to leave him there. 

You are to distribute among the chiefs of those islands 
such part of the presents with which you have been sup- 
plied, as you shall judge proper, reserving the remainder 
to distribute among the natives of the countries you may 
discover in the northern hemisphere. And haying refresh- 
ed the people belonging to the sloops under your com- 
mand^ and taken on board such wood and water as they 
may respectively stand in need of, you are to leave those 
islands m the beginning of February, or sooner if you shall 
judge it. necessary, and then proceed in as direct a couroe 
as vou can to the coast of New Albion, endeavouring \q 
fall in with it in the latitude of 45^ 0' N. ; and taking care^ 
in your way thither, not to .lose any time in search of new 
lands, or to stop at any you may fall in with, unless you 
find it necessary to recruit your wood and water. 

You are also, in your way thither, strictly enjoined not 
to touch upon any part of the Spanish dominions on the 
western continent of America, unless driven thither by some 
unavoidable accident; in which case you are to stay no 
longer there than shall be absolutely necessary, and to be 
¥ery careful not to give any umbrage or offence to any of 
the inhabitants or subjects of his catholic majesty. And 
if, in your farther progress to the northward, as hereafter 
directed, you find any subjects of any European prinee or 
ftate upon any part of the coast you may think proper to 

visit. 



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1S6 Modem Grcwnmmgaiionu part hi. book nu 

tisit, you fire not to disturb them, or give them eny jult 
cause of offeoce/bui, on the <^oiitrary> U> Ireat them with 
ciyility and friendship. 

Upon your arrival on the rpast of New Albion, you are 
to put into the firat eonvenieqt port to recruit your wood 
and water, aqd procure refreshufientSy and then to [Ntoceed 
northward along the coast as far as the latitude of 66\ 
pr farther^ if you are npt qUtructed by lands or ice, takittg 
Care not to Ipse any time in exploring rivers or inlets^ or 
upon any other accoont, until you get into the before-meiw 
tioned latitude of 65^, where we could wish you to arrive ia 
the month of June next. When you get that kng^, you 
lire carefully to search for, and to explore, such rivera or 
inlets as may appear to be of a contiderable extent, and 
pointing towards Hudson's or Baffin's Bays; atid if, from 
your own obsef vations, or frooi any informatfoo you may 
receive from the natives, (whoj^* there is reason to believe, 
are the saipe race of people, and speak the same language, 
of which you are furnished with a vocabulary, as the £s- 
iquimaux,) there shall appear to foe a certainty, or evea a 
probability, of a water pai|sage into the afore *meotiooed 
bays, or«either of them, you are,' in such case, to use your^ 
utmost endeavours to pass through with one or both of 
the sloops, Unless you shall be of opinion that the passage 
may be effected vrith more certainty, or with greater pro- 
bability, by smaller vessels ; in which case you are to set 
|]p the frames of one or both the sonall vessels with which 
you are provided, and, when they are put together, and are 
properly fitted, stored, and victualled, yon are'to dispatch 
^ne or both of tbeai, under the care of proper officers, with 
^ stafficient number of petty officers, men, and boats, in or- 
der to attempt the sf id passage, with such instructions for 
their rejoining you, if they should fail, x^r for their farther 
proceedings, if they should succeed in die attempt, as you 
$ha]l judge most proper. But, nevertheless, if you shall find it 
inore eligible to pursue any c^er measures than thoseabove 
]:H^inted out, iti order to make a discovery of the before^ 
trfentiocted passage, (if any such there be,) you are at li- 
berty, add we leave it to your discretion, to pursue such 
tneasures accordingly. 

In case you shall be sati06ed that there is no passage 
through to the above-mentioned bays, sufficient for the pur* 
p08e$ ef navigation^ yon are, at the proper seasoQ of the 

year, 



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€k>ol^Cbrke,MdGope, isT 

yeBX, to repair to tbe port of St P«ter and Si Paul in Kamt-ir 
3€blatka, or wherever elie you shall judj;^ more proper, in 
order to refresh your people and pass the winter ; and, in 
the spring of the ensuing year 177B (o proceed from thence 
to the northward, as far as, in your prudence, you may 
think proper, in further search of a N.E. or N. W. passage 
from the Pacific Ocean into the Atlantic Ocean, or the 
North Sea ; and if^ from your own observation, or any in* 
formation vou may receive, there shall appear to be a pro* 
iiaiMlity of such a passage, you are to proceed as above di* 
reeled : and having discovered such passage, or failed in 
l^e attempt, make the best of your way back to England, 
by such route as you may think best for the improvemeni 
of geography and navigation, repairing to Spithead witli 
boSi sloops, where they are to remain till further order. 
. At whatever places you may touch in the course of your 
voyage, whereaccnrate observations of the nature hereafter 
mentioned have not already been made, you are, as far aa 
your lime will allow, very carefully to observe the true si- 
tuation of such places, both in latitude and longitude ; the 
yariatioo of the needle ; bearings of bead*lands ^ height, di- 
rection, and course of the tides and currents ; depths and 
aoufidings of the sea^ shoals, rocks, &c. ; and also to sur-' 
vey, make charts, and take views of such bays, harboura, 
and diiferent parts of the coast, and to make such notations 
thereon as may be useful either to navigation or commerce* 
You are also carefully to observe the nature of the soil, 
and. the produce thereof; the animals and fowls that inha- 
bit or frequent it ; the fishes that are to t>e found in tlie ri- 
vers or iipon the coast, and in what plenty ; and, in case 
there are any pecuUar to such places, to describe them aa 
minutely, and to make as accurate drawings of them, as 
yon can ; and, if you find any metals, minerals, or valuable 
stones, or any extraneous fosjiils, you are to bring home 
specimeqis of each, as also of the seeds of such trees, idirubs, 
plants, fruits, and grains, peculiar to those places, as you may 
be^able to collect, and to transmit them to our secretary, 
that proper examination and experiments may be made of 
them* You are likewise to observe the genius, temper, dis- 
position, and number of the natives and inhabitants, where 
you find any ; and to endeavour, by all proper means, tq 
caltivatc a friendship with them, making them presents 
of siict^ trinkets as you may have on boaod, and they may 

like 



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t98 Modem Circummnigaiiini^ part hi. book nu 

like besti invitiiig tbem to traffic^ and shewing them everjr 
kind of civility and regard ; but taking care, nevertheless 
not to sttfier yourself to be surprised by them, but to be ai-> 
ways ouyour guard aaaioH any accidents. 
' You are also, with the consent of the nativesy to take pos- 
sessipn, in the name of the King of Great Britain, of con<» 
venient situations in such countries as you may discover, 
that have not* already been discovered or visited by any 
other European power, and to distribute among the inha* 
bitants such things as will remain as traces and testimoni^ 
of your having been there ; but if you find the countries so 
discovered are uninhabited, you are to take possession of 
tbem for his majesty, by setting up proper marks and in* 
scriptions, as first discoverers and^possessors. 
■ But forasmuch as, in undertakings of this nature, several 
emergencies may arise not to be foreseen, and therefore not 
particularly to be provided for by instructions before«»band, 
you are, in all such cases, to proceed as you shall judge 
most advantageous to |he service on which you are em* 
ployed. 

You are, by all opportunities, to send to our secretary^ 
for our information, accounts of your proceedings, and cp^ 
pies of the surveys and drawings you shall have made ; and 
lipon your arrival in England , you are immediately to repair 
to this office, in order to lay before us a full account of your 
proceedings in the whole course of your voyage, taking 
care, be/ore ypu leave the sloop, to demand from the offi- 
cers and petty officers the log-books and journals thejr may 
hi^ve kept, and to seal them up for inspection ; and enjoin'^' 
iug then), ^od the whole crew, not to divulge where they 
have bpeq, until they shall have permission so to do : And 
you are (o direct Captain Gierke to do the same, with re- 
spect to the officers, petty officers^ and crew of the Disco- 
very. 

If any accident should happen to the Resolution in the 
couri^e of the voyage, so as to disable her from proceeding 
any farther, you are, in such case, to remove yourself and 
her crew into the Discovery, and to prosecute your voyage 
in her ; her commander being hereby, strictly required to 
receive you on board, and to obey your orders, tne same, 
ia every respect, as when you were actually on board the 
]^esolution. And, in case of your inability, by sickness or 
Qtbery^is^^ to garry these instruction3 into execution^ you are 



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. Ceak^ Clerke, and Oorc. 139 



f 



* t0 be careful to leave them with the next officer in command^ 
who is hereby required to execute theip an the best manncHr 
he can. 

Qiven under our hands the 6th day of July^ 1776^ 

Sandmtich, 
C. Spencer> 
H. Palluee. 
By command of their lordshipk. 

Ph. Stephens. 



Besides ordering Captain Cook to sail on this important 
voyage, government^ m earnest about the object of it> , 
adopted a measure, which, while it could not but have a 
poweiful operation on the crews of the Resolution and Dis- 
covery, by adding the motives of interest to the obligations 
, of duty, at the same time encouraged all his maiest/s sub- 

i*ects to engage in attempts toward the proposed discovery. 
)y the act of parliament, passed in 1745,'* a reward' of 
twenty thousand pounds had been held out. But it had been 
held out only to the ships belonging to any of his majesty's 
subjects, exclusive pf bii9 majesty's own ships. The act 
had a still more capital defect. It held out this reward only, 
to such ships as should discover a passage through Hud- 
flon-s Bay ; and, as we shall soon take occasion to explain, 
it was, by this time, pretty certain that no such passage 
existed within those limits. Efiectual care was taken to 
remedy both these defects by passing a new law ; which, 
after reciting the provisions of the former, proceeds as fol- 
lows :— *'' And whereas many advantages, both to commerce 
and science, may be also expected from the discovery of 
any northern passage for vessels by sea, between the At-> 
lantic and Pacific Oceans, be it enacted. That if any ship 
belonging to any of bis majesty's subjects, 01: to his maje^ 
1y, shall find out, and sail thrpugh, ahy passage by sea bb» 
tween the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans> in any direction, or 
parallel of the northern hemisphere, Xq the northward of 
the 59^ of northern latitude, the ownefii of such ships, if 
belonging to any of his majesty's subjects, or the command^ 
er, officers, and seamen ot such ship belonging to His ma« 

jesty. 



See the Statutes at Largei IB Gevge U. chapb 17; 



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140 Modttnn CirpmmAmgatumu past ni« book hi* 

jesty^ shall receive, as a reward for «iich ditcovery, tiie tarn 
of twenty thousand pounds. • 

*^ And whereas ships employed, both in the Spitxbergeit 
Seas, and in Davis's Straits, have frequent opportanities of 
approaching the North Pole, though they nave not time^ 
during ttie course of one summer, to penetrate into the Pa- 
cific Oceajti ; and whereas such approaches may greatly tend 
to the discovery of a commilnication betwieen th« AUadtic 
and Pacific Oceans, as well as be attended with many ad- 
vantages to commerce and science, &c. be it enacted, That 
if any ship shall approach to within 1^ of the North Pole^^ 
the owner, &c. or commander, 8Cc. so approaching, shall 
racetve, as a reward for such tirst pfifuoacb, the swn of five 
thousand pocind&"*> 

That nothing might be omitted that could facilitate the 
aoocess of Captain Cook's expedtiioo, some time before ht 
aailed, in the beginufog of the stpmsier of 1776, Lieqteoaat 
Pickersgill, appointed commander of his majesty's armeil 
brig the Lion, was ordered '' to proceed lo JXstvia's Straits^ 
for the protection of the British whale fishers ;* and that 
jiM object being secured, ** he was thea required and di** 
rected to proceed on Baffin's Bay, and. explore the coasta 
thereof, as far as in nis judgment the. same could be dOioe 
withool appurent risk, taking care to leave the above«m«»- 
tioned bay so timely as to secure his return to Eoglaod in 
the fall of the year ;" and it was farther enjoined to hiai| 
*^ to make nautical remarks of every kiad, and lo eoplojr 
Mr Lane (master of the vessel under his comuMind) in sur^ 
▼eying, making charts, and taking views of tlie seveml 
bays, harbours, and difierent parts of the coast which he 
might visit, aad in making such aotaltons thereOa as might 
be useful to geography and oavigalion.*'* 

PickersgiU, we see, was not to ottenpi the discovenr of 
the passage* He was directed to explore the eoaals of Ba^ 
fa!% Bay, only to enable him to bring back, the same year, 
aome informatioa, which might be an useful direetioo to^ 
ward planning an intended voyage ioto that bay the eosii^ 
teg sBoitmr^ to try for the diaeovery of a passage on tba^ 
side, with a view to ooroperate with Captain Cook ; who, it 
was supposed^ (from the tenor ^ \m iq^tnictioasi) woui4 



^2 See the Statutes at Large, 177% \6 Geor^ III. chap. S. 
■^ rrpni iuB M». MtruetioB^ dated May !#, tV7tf. . 



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CookiCkriefmulOore. 141 

be tiding for tbii paiMge/ aboot the same time^ from ib^ 
oMNDstte Bide of America* 

Picfcerigiil, obeying bis iiftatruciioni, al least m this io<- 
tftanee^ did retam thut year, btit there ¥cere tuffieieiit rca^ 
flons for not sending bim ont.ligai% and the .command of 
Ibe eext expedition into Baffin's Bay was conferred om 
Lieutenant Yonmg ; whose insiructions, having an immedi* 
ale ooiuiectioil wilh onr voyage^ are here inaerted* 



Etiruct^ Tmtructkms to LieUtenani IfoMg^ tommaluluig tkt 
Lion Armed Fissel, dated, \3ik March, ml. 

Resol^ion.X WanttKA^^ in porsnaticeof the king's plesmre. 
Discovery. 3 signified to us by the Earl of Sandwich, hii 
majesty's sloo(>s hamed in the margin have been sent out 
linder the coniai«lnd oif Captain Cook^ in order^ during thia 
and the ensuing year^ to attempt a discovery of a iiof therai 
passage, by sea, from the Pteific to the Atlantic cfcean ; 
and) for that purpose^ to ran up as high as the hUttnde of 
6&^ N.> where it is hoped h^ will be able to arrive in the 
month of June next ; and tl)ere, and as mi^ch further to the 
northward as in bis prudence he shall think proper^ verjr 
carefully to search for and explore such rivers^ or inlets, as 
may appear to t>e of a considerable extent, and pointing to 
Hudson's or Baffin's Bays, fix the north sea ; and, upon find- 
ing any passage throogb^ safficient for the porposea of na^ 
ligation, to attempt 8U<?b passage with one i^x both of the 
sloops ; or, if they are judged to be too large, witli smaller 
vessels, the frames of which have been sent out with him 
for that purpose : And whereas, in pursuauce of his majes-' 
\y% further pleasure, signified as amresaid, the armed vessel 
under your command hath been fitted in order to proceed 
to Baffin's Bay, with a view to explore the western parts 
thereof, and to endeavonr to find a passage on that side, 
•fWMn the Atlantic to the Ptoific ocean, and we have thought 
fk\ to intrust you with the conduct of that voyage ; you ane 
therefore hereby. required and directed to pat to sea in the 
said armed vessel, without a moment's loss of time, and 
mabe the best of your way into Baffin's Bay^ and to use your 
best endeavours to cKplove the western shores thereof, asi 
far ai in year judgment tbe same can be done^ without ap- 
parent 



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142 Modem CinlimmoiglMdm. ' ipart hi. book iiu 



parent Tisky aodito exammasnch consiikraUe riven or itt^ 
Jets afl you may discover; and, in < case yoa find aoy^ 
through whicb there may be a probabiiity of passing into 
Ihe Pacific ocean, yon are to attempt sueh passage ; and if 
you socceed in the attempt, and shall be able to repass it 
again^ so as to return to England this year, you are to make 
the best of your Wjsy to Spithead, or the Nore, and remain 
there until you receive further, order ; sending us an ac- 
count of your arrival and proceedin&:s. But if you shall 
tMicceed in the attempt, and shall find the season too far ad* 
Vabced for you to return the same way, you are then to look 
out for the most convenient place to winter in, and to en- 
deavour to return by the said passage as early in the next 
year as the season will admit, and then to msike the best of 
your way to England^ as above directed. 

In caa^, however, you should not find, or should be satis* 
lied there is not any ptrobability of finding any such pas- 
sage, or, finding it, you should not be able to get through 
in the vessel yon command, you are then to return to Eng- 
land, as before-mentioned, unless you shall find any branch 
of the sea leading to the westward which you shall judge 
likely to afibrd.a communication between the Atlantic and 
Pacific oceans, and which you shall not be able to explore 
in the course of this year, it being, in that case, left to vour 
discretion to stay the winter in the most commodious situa- 
tion you can find, in order to pursue the discovery next 
year, if you shall find it advisable so to do ; and, having 
discovered such passage, or not succeeded in the attempt, 
you are to make the best of your way to England, as above 
directed. 



it was natural to hope> that something would have been 
done in one or other, or in both these voyages of the Lion, 
that might have opened our views with regard to the prac- 
ticability of a passage from this side of America, But, un- 
fortunately, the execution did pot answer the expectations 
conceived. Pickersgill, who had acquired professional ex- 
perience when acting under Captain Cook, justly merited 
the censure he received, for improper behaviour when in- 
trusted with comman*d in Davis's Strait; and the talents of 
Ypung, as it afterward appeared, were more adapted to 
contribute to the glory of a victory^ as commander of a 

line 



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Cobk, Ckrkeiand Gore. 143 

lioe of battle-ship^ than to add to geographical discoveries^ 
by encountering mountains of ice^ and exploring unknown 
coasts." 

Both Pickersgill and Young hating been ordered to pro Y 
ceed into Baffin's Bay ;'and Captain Co6k being directed 
'not to begin his search till he should arrive in the latitude 
of 65% it may not beim]>roper to say soniething here of the 
seasons which Weighed with those wlSlo planned the voyages^ 
and framed the instructions^ to carry their Views mo hi 
northward> as the proper situation^ where the passage^ if i( 
existed at all^ wa« likely to be attempted with success* It 
may be asked^ why was Hudson's Bay neglected on our sidii 
of America ; and why was not Captain Cook ordered to be« 
gin his search on its opposite side^ in much lower laUtndes f 
particulariy^ why not explore the strait leading into the 
western sea of John de Fuca^ between the latitudes of 47* 
4lnd 48*^ ; the Archipelago of St Lazarus of Admiral de 
Fonte, between 50^ and 55^ ; and the rivers and lakes 
through which he found a passage north-eastward, till he 
met with a ship from Boston ? 

As to the pretended discoveries of de Fuca^ the Gireek 
pilot^or of de Fonte, the Spanish admiral, though they have 
sometimes found their way into fictitious maps^ or have 
been warmly contended for by the espousers of fanciful sys^ 
tems^ to have directed Captain Cook to spend any time in 
tracing them, would have been as wise a measure as if he 
bad been directed to«trace the situation of Lilliput or Brob- 
diguag. The latter are, indeed, confessedly, mere objects 
of imagination ; and the former, destitute of any sufficient 
external evidence, bear so many striking marks of internal 
absurdity, as warrant our pronouncing them to be the fabric 
of imposture. Captain Cook's instructions were founded on 
an accurate knowledge of what had been alreiidy done, and 
of wlrnt still remained to do ; and this knowledge pointed 
out the inutility of t>eginning his search for a passage till 
his arrival in the latitude of 65*. Of this every fair and ca 

pable 

■s In the Philosophical TransQctloni, vol. IxviiL p, 1057, we have the 
track of Pic^ersgill's voyage, which, probably, may be of use to our Green* 
htnd ships, as it contains manv observations for fixing the longitude and ' 
latitude of the coasts in Davis s Strait But it appears that he never en- 
tered Baffin's Bay, the highest northern latitude to which he advanced be- 
ing 68"* 14', As to Youi^s proceedings, having failed abeolutely in ma* 
king any discovery, it is orless consequence, that no communication of bis 
jour^ could be procured. — D« 



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144 Modem CircW^wmguAkf^ ^AUT iii. book hi. 

pable enquirer will be abundantly convinced, by an attend 
lion to the following particulars: 

Middleton^ who commanded the expedition in 1741 and 
174^^ into Hudson's Bay, had proc^ded farther north thaa 
any of his predecessors in that na^'igation. Bat though^ 
from his former acquaintance with that bay> to which he 
had frequently sailed in the service of the company^ he bad 
entertained hopes of finding dut a passagie through it into 
the Faci&c Ooean^ the observations which he was now ena« 
bled to diake^ induced him to change bis opinion ; and^ on 
l^is r^turb tO England^ he made an unfavourable report. Mr 
Dobbs> the patron of the enterprise, did not acquiesce in 
ibis ; aiptdj fortified in his original idea of the practicability 
of the passage^ by the testimony of some oi jVliddiefcon s 
officers, he appealed to the public, accusing him of having 
misrepresented factjs> and of having, from interested mo- 
livesy in concert with the Hudson's Bay Company, decided 
ilgaiqst; the practicability of the passage^ though the discos 
neries of his own voyage had put it within his reach. 

He had, between the latitude of 65^ and 66*^, found a very 
ieon^erable inlet running \^estward, into which he entered 
wirth his ships ; and, '' after repealed trials of the tides, and 
Endeavours to discover the d'ature and course of the open* 
ing> for three weeks successively^ he found the flood con** 
fttantly to come from the eastward, and tKat it was a large 
liver he had got into/' to which he gave the name of Wa« 
ger River. '^ 

The accuracy, or rather the fidelity, of this report, wasde* 
mied by Mr Dobbs> who contended that this opening is a 
jUrait^and not afresh-waier river; and that Middieton, if he 
bad examined it proper!}', would have found a passage 
through it to the western American Ocean., The failure of 
this voyage, therefore, only served to furnish our zealous 
advocate for the discovery, with new arguments for at<* 
tempting it once more; and be bad the good fcurttlne^ ai%er 
getting the reward of twenty thousand pounds established 
by act of parliament, to prevail upon a society of gentlemen 
and merchants to fit out the Dobbs and California ; which 
ships, il was hoped, would be able to find their way Into the 
pacific Ocean, by the very opening which Middletop's Voy- 
age 

*^ See tlie Abstract of his Jouriial, published by Mr XhVbs, 



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Cook, Cb^ke, and Gore. 145 

a^e had pQiMed* c^M^ and wbi<dk be \9»is li^Ueve4 to bckte 
misrepresented. 

This.te«pvation of bope only pr^daoed fresh disappoint- 
meat For it k we}l knowOi that Ibe ^royage of tb^ Pobbfi 
and CaUforoia^ instead of confutiii^/stroiigly confirmed i^U 
l^at Middleton bad asseirted. The supposed strait was fonnd 
to be noAbing more than a freah-water ri^ar^ and its utmost 
mest^rn navigably boundaries were now ascertained, by ac-r 
cosate examination. Bnt though Wager's Strait had thoji 
disappointed onr bopes» as bad also done Rankin's Ii^Ieli 
lifhipb vas now found to be a close b«y> and though other 
argum«its,> founded on tke supposed epurse of the tideo in 
Hudaoa's Bay, appeared to be groundless, such is our at* 
iachmeni to an opinion onee adopied^ that, even after the 
uiisuceeasfol issue of the voyage of the Dobbs aud CaUfor* 
Bia, a passage through some othi^c place in that bay wa% 
by snany, considered as attaidable; and, particularly, Cbe&r 
ferfiiald's (formerly o^fUed Bowdeii^a) Intel,, lying between 
latitude €Sf and 64% Auceiseided Wageff'9 Strait, in thesanf^ 
^oineexpectaiions'of those who remained, iinoonvisiced bjr 
tormer disappomtmentfa. Mr Ellis, who was on board tb<^ 
Dobbs, and who wrotethe' history of the voyage, holds up 
Ubis.aa )ooe of the places where the passage n^ay be sought 
for, upon very rational grounds, and with very good e£* 
fiects.'^ ^fike also meiftions Repulse Bay^ yearly in latitude 
^^ ; but as to ibis he speaka less confidently ; oi)ly saying^, 
thai by an atfa^mpt there, ife might probably approach 
nearer to the discovery.'^ He had good reason for thus 
guarding his expression ; for the committee, who directed 
this voyage, admitting thetimpmclicability of efiecling a 
passage at Repulse Bay, had refused allowing the ships to 
go into it, being satisfied as to that place*'^ 

Setting Repulse Bay, therefore, adde, within which we 
have no reason for believihg that any inlet.exists, there did 
not remain any part of Hudson's Bay to be searched, but 
Chesterfield's Inlet, and a small tract of coast between the 
latitude 6£% and what is called the Soqth Point of Main, 

vol*. XV. K ' which 

>7 BHis'fr Voyi^, p. 928. 

■' Ibid, p. aso. 

'^ AccpuDt of the voyage, by tbe clerk of the California, vpl. ii. p. 273. 
Mr Dobbs himself says, ** That he thought the passage would be imprac- 
ticable, or, at least, very difficult, in case there was one farther north than 
«7«.^— Account of jffMdwTi'* jBo^, p. 99.— D. 



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146 Modern Circunitumgaihni, i^art ni. book hi.. 

trbich had been left unexplored by the Dobbft and CaU- 
fornia. 

But this last gleam of hope hag now disappeared. The 
aversion of the Hudson's Bay Company to contribute any 
thing to the discovery of a north-west passage had been 
loudiy reported by Mr Dobbs; and the public seemed to 
believe that the charge was well founded. But still, in jus-r 
tice to them, it must be allowed, that in 17^> they had sent 
Messrs Knight and Barlow, in a sloop on this very disco- 
very ; but these unfortunate people were never more beard 
of. Mr Scroggs^ wbd sailed in search of them, in 171^, 
only brought back- proofs of their shipwreck, but no fresh 
intelligence about a passage, which he was also to look for. 
They also sent a sloop, and a shallop, to try for this disco* 
very, in I7S7; but to no purpose. If obstruptions were 
thrown in the way of Captain Afiddleton, and of tte com- 
manders of the Dobbs and California, the governor and 
comrmittee of the Hudson's Bay Company, since that time^ 
we must acknowledge, have made amends for the narrow 
prejudices of their predecessors; and we have it in our 
power to appeal to facts, which abundantly testify, that 
every thing has been done by them, that could be required 
by the public, toward perfecting the search for a north-west 
passage. 

In the year I76I, Captain Christopher sailed from Fort 
Churchill,, in the sloop Churchill ; and his voyage was not 
quite fruitless ; for he sailed up Chesterfield's Inlet, thirough 
which a passage had, by Mr Ellii's account of it, been so 
generally expected* But when the water turned brackish, 
which marked that he was not in a i^trait, but in a river, he 
returned. • 

To leave no rooiq for a variety of opinion, however, he 
was ordered to repeat the voyage the ensuing summer, in 
the same sloop, and Mr Norton,*ln a cutter, was appointed 
to attend him. By the favour of the governor and com- 
mittee of the company, the joumalsof Captain Christopher, 
and of Mr Norton^ and Captain Christopherls dhart of the 
inlet, have been readily communicated^ From these au- 
thentic documents, it appears that the sear<^h and examina- 
tion of Chesterfield^s Inlet was now completed. It was 
found to end in a fresh-water lake, at the distance of about 
one hundred and Seventy miles from the sea. This lake was 
ipund also to be about twenty-one leagues long, and from 
' five 



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'; C0ok, Gierke, and Gore. 147< 

five td ten btoad^ and to i>e conipletely dosed up on every 
side^ except to the west^ where there was a little rivulet ; to . 
survey the state of which« Mr Norton and the crew q£ the 
cutter having landed^ and mwrcbed up thecountry, saw that 
it soon terminated in three falls, one above another, and. 
not water for a small boat over them ; and ridges, mostly 
dry from side to side, for five or six miles higher. 

Thus ends Chesterfield's Inlet, and all Mr Ellis's expecta^ 
tions of a passage through it to the western ocean.. The 
other parts of the coast, from latitude 6^, to the Soutji 
£oint of Main, within which limits hopes were also enter* « 
tained of finding a passage, have, of late years, been 
thoroughly explored. It is here that Pistol Bay is situated ; 
which the author who has writ last in this country, on the 
probability of a north-west passage, ^^ speaks of as the only, 
remaining part of Hudson's Bay where this western com-^ 
munication may exist. But this lias been also examined ; 
and, on the autnority of Captain Christopher, we can assure^ 
the reader, that there is no inlet of any consequence in all 
that part of the coast* Nay, he has, in an open boat, saiW 
ed round the bottom of what is called Pistol Bay, and, in 
stead of a passage to a western sea, found it does not run 
above three or four miles inland. 

Besides these voyages by sea, which satisfy us that we 
must not look for a passage to the south of 67^ of latitudcj 
we are indebted to the Hudson's Bay Company for a jour- 
ney by -land, which has thrown much additional light on 
this matter, by affording what may be called demonstration,, 
how much farther north, at least in some part of their voy- 
age, ships must hold their course, before they can pass from^ 
one side of America to the other; The northern Indians, 
who come down to the company's forts for trade, had 
brought to the knowledge of our people, the existence of i^ 
river, which, from copper abounding near it, had got the 
name of the Copper-mine River. We read much about this 
river in Mr Dobbs's publications, and he considers the lur 
dian accounts of it as favourable to his system? The com- 
pany being desirous of examining the matter with precis 
sion, instructed their governor of Prince of Wales's Fort, 
tp send a proper person to travel by land, under th^ escort 

of 

*^ Printed for Jeffreys, in 1768. His words are, *' There remains then 
to be searched for the discovery of a passage, the opening called Pistol Bay, 
in Hudson's Bay/' p. l%2 «-D 



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148 Modem Cipv m immgMmi. mbt in. book hi. 

of some ttmty northern Indiatib^ With orders to proceed to 
thrs famous nver> to take an accurate survey of its course, 
and to trace it to the sea^ into which it empties itself. Mr 
Hearne, a young eendeman in their service^ who^ having 
been an officer in the navy, was well qualifiefl to make ob- 
servations for fixing fbe longitude and latitude, and make 
drawings of the country he should pass through, and of the 
river which be was to examine, was appointed for this ser- 
vice. 

Accordingly, he set out from Fort Pritice of Wales, on 
Churchill River, in latitude 58* 5(y, on the 7th of Bfecem- 
ber, 1770 ; and the whole of his proceedings, from time to 
time, are faithfully preserved in bis journal. The publica- 
tion of this is an acceptable present to the world, as it 
dittws a plain artless picture of the savage modes of life, 
the sca,nty means of subsistence, and indeed of the singular 
wretchedness, in every respect, of the various' tribes, who, 
without fixed habitations, pass their miserable lives, roving 
throughout the dreary deserts, and over the frozen lakes of 
the immense tract of continent through which Mr Hearne 
passed, and which he may be said to have added to the geo- 
graphy of the globe. His general course was to the north- 
west, in the month of June 177 1> being then a\ a plietce 
called Conge catka wka Chaga, he had, to use his own words, 
two good observations, both by meridian and double alti- 
tudes, the mean of which determines this place to be in la- 
titude 68* 46' N., and, bv account, in longitude W* £' W. 
of Churchill River. On the 13th of July (having left Conge 
catha wha Chaga on the 2d, and travelling still to the west 
of north) he reached the Copper-mine River ; and was not 
a little surprised to find it differ so much from the descrip- 
tions given of it by the natives at the fort ; for; instead of 
being likely to be navigable for a ship, it is, at this part, 
scarcely navigable for an Indian canoe ; three falls being in 
sight, at one view, and being choaked up with shoals and 
stony ridges. 

• Here Mr Hearne began his survey of the river. This he 
continued till he arrived at its mouth, near which his north- 
ern Indians massacred twenty-one Esquimaux, whom they 
surprised in their tents. We shall give Mr Hearne's account 
of his arrival at the sea, in his own words : '' After the In- 
dians had plundered the tents of the Esquimaux of all the 
copper, &c. they were then again ready to assist me in ma- 
king 



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Cook^ Clerkef €mi G9ft^ 149 

king an end to the survey ; the sea then in sight from, the 
K.W. by W» to the N.£.> distant about eight miles^ I| was 
then about five in the morning of the I7tbj when I agai^i 
proceeded to survey the river to the moatb, still founds in 
every respect^ no ways likely^ or a possibilily of beins made 
> navigable^ h&ng fall of shoals and falls; and> at me en- 
trance^ the river emptying itself over a dry flat of the 
abore^ for the tide was then out^ and seem^^ by the edges 
of tiae tce^ to flow about twelve or fourteen feet> which will 
only reach a little within the rivei^s mouth. That being 
the Gas<t^ the water in the river had not the least brackish 
taste. But I an sure of its- being the sea;, or some part 
thereol^ by the quaiktity of wbale^bone and seal-skins the 
Esquimaux had at their tents ; as also the number of seals 
which I saw upon the ice. The sea, at the river's mouthy 
was full of islands and shoa1s> as far as I eould see, by the 
assistance of a pocket-telescope ; and the ice was not yet 
broken up, onlv thawed away about three quarters of a 
mile from the shore^ and a little way round the islands and 
shoals. 

*' By the time I had completed this survey^ it was about 
one in the morning of the 18th ; but in these high latitudes, 
and this time of the year, the sun is always a ^ood height 
above the horizon. It then, came on a thick drizzling rain> 
with a thick fog; and, as finding the river and sea> in every 
respect, not likely to be of any utility, I did not thiDk it 
worth while to wait fbr fair weather, to determine the lati- 
tude exactly by an observation* ' But, by the extraordinary 
care I took in observing the courses and distances, walked 
from Come catkatBha Chma, where I had two good obseiv 
vations, me latitude may be depended on, within twenty 
miles ai fdrtbest/^ 

From the map which Mr Hearne constructed of the 
country through which he passed, in this singular journey, 
it appears that the mouth of the Copper-mine River lies in 
thfe latitude 7^*, and above 9,5* west longitude from the fort, 
from whence he took his departure.** 

The 

** Bfr Heartie's journey, back fh>m the Copper-miae Rifer, to Fort 
Pkinee of Wales, lasted till 3ane 90, 1773. From his first seCtmg out tilt 
his fetnrn, he had en^loyed near a year and seven months. The unpemli- 
Isled harclsbips he soflhred, and the (sssentud scrvioa he performed, met 

wiCh 



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150 Modem Cireunuutv^atunn. fart in. book hi. 

The consecmences resulting from this extensive diacoverj, 
are obvious. We now see that the continent of North Ame* 
rica stretches from Hudson's Bay so fiur to the north-west^ 
that Mr Heame had travelled near thirteen hundred miles 
before he arrived at the sea. His most western distance 
from the coast of Hudson's Bay was near six hundred miles ; 
and that his Indian ^ides were well apprised of a vast tract 
of continent stretchmg farther on in that direction^ is cer- 
tain from many circumstances mentioned in his joamal. 

What is now mentioned with regard ta the discoveries 
made by the Hudson's Bay Company, was well known to 
the noble lord who presided at the Board of Admiralty 
when this voyage was undertaken ; and the intimate con- 
Bection of those discoveries with the plan of the VOTage, 
of course, regulated the instructions given to Captain C!ook. 

And now, may we not take it upon us to appeal to every 
candid and capable enquirer, whether that part of the in- 
structions whieh directed the captain not. to lose time, in 
exploring rivers or inlets, or upon any other account, till 
he got into the latitude of 65% was not framed judicious- 
ly ; as there were such indubitable proofs that no passage 
existed so far to the south as any part of Hudson's Bay, 
and that, if a passage could be effected at all, part of it, at 
least, must be traversed by the ships as far to the north- 
ward as the latitude 79^, where Mr Heame arrived at the 
sea? 

We may add, as a farther consideration in support of 
this article of the instructions, that Beering^s Asiatic dis- 
coveries, in 1728, having traced that continent to the lati- 
tude of 67% Captain Cook's approach toward that latitude 
was to be wished for, that he might be enabled to bring 
back more authentic information than the world had bi- 

' therto 

^ith a suitable reward from his masters, and he was made gOTemorof Fort 
prince of Wales, where he was taken prisoner by the Fre^ in 178e ; bnt 
soon afterwards returned to his station.."— D. 

This opportunity is taken to mention, that Mr Arrowsmith lays down 
Copper-mine River in longitude 113% and not in 1S0%. according to Mr 
Heame. In the opinion of Mr H. this river flows into an inland sea. Be 
this as it may, the result of his discoveries is un&voumble to the alipposi- 
tion of there being a north-west passage. Mr Heame^s joamal waa not 
iNiblished till 1795, considerably after the date of Dr Doaglas'a writing. 
Some altemtions. have iconsequently been made on the text and notes w 
thai gentlemanJ-*£. 



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thei!l^ obtaiiiedj aboiit th^, r^^tiYe sitaaiidn and vicinity 
of the t'^Q continents^ whicb was absolutely necessary to 
be knowD, before the pri^oa/si^bility of sailing between the 
Pacific and Atlantic OceAas> ia any northern direction^ 
could be ascertiiined. 

After all, that search, in a lower latitude, which they 
who give credit (if any such there now be) to th6 pretend- 
ed discoveries of De Fotite, affect to wish had been recom^ 
madded to Captain Cook, has (if that will cure them of 
their credulity) been satisfactorily made: The Spaniards, 
roused from their lethargy by our voyages, and having 
caught a spark of enterprise from our repeated visits to 
the Pacific Ocean, have fojilpwed us more than once into 
. the line of our discoveries within the southern tropic ; and 
have also fitted out expeditions to explore the American 
continent to the north of California. It is to be lamented, 
that there should be any reasons why the truasactiqns of 
those Spanish voyages have not been fully disclosed^ with 
the same liberal spirit of information which other nations 
.have adopted. But, fortunately, this excessive caution of 
the court of Spain has been defeated, at least in one in* 
. stance, by the publication of an authentic journal ^f their 
.voyage of discovery upon the coast of America, in 177^^ 
for Which the world is indebted to the honourable Mr 
, Daines Barrington. This publication, which conveys some 
information of real consequence to geography, and has 
therefore been referred to more than once in the foUoW^ 
ing work, is particularly^ .valuable in this respect, that some 
parts of the coast which Captain Cook, in his progress 
northward, was prevented, by unfavourable winds, from 
approaching, were seen and examined by the Spanish ships 
who preceded him ; and the perusal of the following ex- 
tract from their journal may be recommended to those (if 
any such there be) who would represent it as an imperfec- 
tion in Captain Cook's voyage, that he bad not an oppor- 
tunity of examining the coast of America, in the latitude 
assigned to the discoveries of Admiral Fonte. '' VTe now 
attempted to find out the straits of Admiral Fonte, though^ 
as yet, we had not discovered the Archipelago of St Laza^^ 
rus, through which he is said to have sailed. With this 
intent, we searched every bay and recess of the coast, and 
sailed round every headland, lying-to in the night, that we 
might not lose sight of this entrance* After these pains 

taken^ 



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152 Modem Ct>Y;tiffill^^i/tViit. part hi. book hi . 

taken^ and being fkVoaifea \^ A nbilh^l^Bt wiiid> U ntoy be 
proDOQQced that no such atraitft ate id b^ Awndi"** 

In this journal^ the Spaniards boast of '^ having reached 
80 high a latitude as 58% beyond what anv oth^r navi^tors 
had been able to effect in those seas."*' Without dibiinisb* 
ing the merit of their performaooe^ we teay be pcttftttted 
to sajj that it will appear vetr inconsiderable indeed, in 
comparison of what Captain Cook effected, in the Toyi^ 
of wnich ao account is given in these volumes* Besides 
exploring the land in the South Indian Ocean, of whidi 
Kergueien, in two voyages, had been able to obtaih but a 
very imperfect knowledge ; adding also many coflsidembie 
accessions to the oeography of the Friendly Islandis^ and 
discovering the noble group, now called Sandwich islaftdb, 
in the northern part of the Pacific Ocean, of which not the 
faintest trace can be met with in the account of any fbitner 
voyage ; besides these preliminary discoveries, the read^ 
of the following work will find, tnat in one summer, our 
Boglish navigator discovered a much larger proportion df 
the north-west coast of America than the Spaniards) thoU|^ 
^settled in the ndghbourhood, had, in ell their attempts, for 
above two hundred years, been able to do ; that he has put 
it beyond all doubt that Beeritig ai)d Tsch«rikoff bad t«al- 
ly discovered the continent of Anierica in 174t, «nd has 
also established the prolongation of that continent Mresl- 
ward opposite Kamscnatka, which speculative Writer^ ted- 
ded to favourite systems, had affected so much to disbe- 
lieve, and Which, though admitted by Multer, had, 'smde 
he wrote, been considered as disproved, by later Rnsstafci 
discoveries ;>« that, besides ascertainitig the true position 
of the western coasts <^ America, with some inconsideN 

able 

^ Jonmal of a vdyage in 1775 by Don Francisco Antonio lifaoiellsy in 
Mr Harrington's Miscjellanies, p. 508.^D. 

*' liid.p, 60J. We learn from Maufelle's Journal^ that ttiother voy- 
age had been sbm^ time before performed upon the coast of America ; 
l^ut'the aCmost northern progress of h was to latitude 5S9. — D. 

^ Seel Coke's Russkn Discoveries^ p. 36, 87, &c. The fiotiblisB of spe- 
culative geOgrapberi^ in the southern hemisphere, have be^n oontiiieDts; 
in the northern heimisphere, they have been seas. It may be observed, 
therefore, that i£ Captain Cook in his first voyages annihilated imagiinaiy 
soirthern lands, he has made amends for the havock, in his third ^oya^, 
by annihilating iifidginaTy northern seas, and filling up the vast spsoe which 
had been allotted to them, with the solid contents of his new discoveries 
of American land farther west and north than had hitherto been traced. 
— D. 



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€k>oky:Cierke,and GoTB^ 153 

jAlkiBterniptidQ6^fr6m }iUittde 44* up to beyond tbe lati- 
tude 7<f^, he has ako asoertained the {»osition sof the north- 
lea^tem extremity t>f Asia^ by conlSrtning Beerit^'s disco* 
weiies iii> 1 70,9, aiid adding extensive accessions of his own $ 
iliat he has gireii as more tathentic information cooceni'- 
ing the iskmds lying between the two continents^ than the 
Kanrtschatka traders, ever since Beering first taught them 
to veiKtuM tm. thi&sea^.had been able to erocnre; that, by 
£3dlig'the telative sitaation of Asia a!iid Amexica^ and dis* 
covering the narrow bounds of the strait that divides theoiy 
be has thrown a bkrze of light npon this important part of 
tbe geography of the globe, and sdved the puzjsling pro.- 
blem about the peopling of America, by tribes destitute c£ 
the necessary means to attempt long navigations ; and, last^ 
ly, that, tboagh the principal object of the voyage failed 
the w<nrld will be greatly benefited even by tbe failure, as 
it has brougbt us to the knowledge of the existence of the 
impediments which future navigators may expect to meet 
witii, in attempting to go to the East Indies through Beer«- 
ing's strtiit«^^ 

The 

^^ The RuBsiiun se^m to owe nucfa to England, m matters reipoctin^ 
^tm own-possesskms* It is singular enoi^h xhBt one of our countrjrmeiit 
Dr Xl^ampoell, (see his edition of Harris's voyages, vol. ii. p. 1021) has 

S reserved many valuable particulars of Beering^ first voyage, of whidi 
luller himself, the histori&n of their earlier discoveries, m^es no men- 
tion; '^t it should be snotber of ou^ oountryraen, Mr €0:1%, who fii^ 
pubb'shed a satisfactory account of their later discoveries ; and that the 
King of Great Britain's ships should traverse the globe in 1778, to con- 
ten to tbe Russian empire the possession of ne^ thirty degrees, or abov^ 
six^wndred miles* of continent, which Mr Engel, in his zeal for the prac- 
ticability 0f ft vortb-east passage^ would prune, away from the length of 
Asia to the eastward* See his Alemoires GeograpkiqueSy &c Lausanne 
17^5; which, however, contains much real information, and many parts 
of which are confirmed b^ Captain Cook's American discoveries. — ^D. 

It shews some ineonsistewQr hi Captain Krusenstem, that whilst he 
speaks of the too iwocessful policy of the commercial nations of Europe 
to lull Russia into a state of uumber as to her interests, he should give 
as to understand, that the same efiect which Captain Cook's third voyage 
produced on tbe speculative and enterprising spirit of English merchants. 
had -been occasioned -among his countrymen forty years sooner, by the dis- 
ooveiy of the Aleutic islands fuid'the north-west coast of America. But, 
in fact, it is the baghest censure be could possibly have passed on his own 
gDvermneot, to admit, that it had been sid>j6cted to such stupifying treats 
ment. This it certainly could n^t have been, without the previous exist^ 
ence of such a lethargy as materidly depreciates the virtue of any opiate 
sinploy.ed« There is no room, however, for the allegation made; and the 

full 



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IM Modern CircummnigaHom. part iii« book uu 

The extended review we have taken of the precedii^ 
voyages, and the general outline we have sketched out^ of 
the transactions of the last^ which are recorded at fidl 
length in these volumes^ will not^ it is hoped, be consider- 
ed as a prolix or unnecessary detail. It will serve to give 
a just notion of the whole plan of discovery executed by 
his majesty^s commands. And it appearing that much was 
aimed at, and much accomplished^ in the unknown parts 
of the globe^ in both hemispheres, there needs no otber 
consideration, to give full satisfaction to those who possess 
an enlarged way of thinking, that a variety of useful pur- 
poses must have been effected by these researches. But 
there are others, no doubt, who, too difBdent of their own 
abilities^ or too indolent to exert them, would wish to have 
their reflections assisted, by pointing out what those useful 
purposes are. For the service of such, the foltowing enu- 
meration of particulars is entered upon. And if there should 
be any, who affect to undervalue the plan or the execution 
of our voyages, what shall now be offered, if it do not con- 
vince them, may, at least, check the influence of their un- 
favourable decision. 

1. It may be fairly considered, as one great advantage 
accruing to the world from our late surveys of the glote, 
that they have confuted fanciful theories, too likely to give 
birth to impracticable undertakings. 

After Captain Cook's persevering and fruitless traverses 
through every corner of the southern hemisphere, who, for 

the 

full amount of her slumber is justly imputable to the |ro8S darkness wfaicb 
flo long enveloped the horizon of Russia. Whose business was it to rouse 
her ? What nation could be supposed to possess so much of the spirit of 
knight- errantry, as to be induced to instruct her savages as to the advan- 
tages of cultivating commerce, without a cautious r^ard to its own parti- 
cular interests in the first place ? But the bold, though somewhat impoli- 
tic seaman, has perhaps stumbled on the real cause of the slow progress 
which she has hitherto made in the course which his sanguine imagination 
has pointed out for her. Speaking of her inexhaustible springs and incen- 
tives to commerce, he nevertheless admits, that there are obstacles whidi 
render it difficult for her to become a trading nation. But these obstacles* 
he says, do not warrant a doubt of the possibility of removing them. " Let 
the m6narch only express his jsleasure with r^ard to them, and the, most 
difficult are already overcome /*' The true prosperity of Russia, it is in« 
dubitably certain, will be infinitely more advanced by fostering her in^t 
commerce, than by any augmentation of territories which the policy or 
arm» of her sovereign can accomplish. But he will alwavs require much 
«elf-denial to avoid intermeddling with the concerns of other nations, and 
to restrict his labours to the improvement of his own real interesta.— ]E. 



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Cook, Clerke, and Gore. ' 165 

the fature^ will pay any attention to the ingenious reveries 
of Campbell, de Brosses, and de Buffon i or hope to esta- 
blish an intercourse with such a continent as Maupertuis's 
fruitful imagination had pictured i A continent equal, at. 
least, in extent^ to all the civilized countries in the known 
northern hemisphere, where new men, new animals, new 
productions of every kind, might be brought forward to 
our view, and discoveries be made, which would open in- 
exhaustible treasures of coiAmerce i*^ We can now boldly 
take it upon us to discourage all expeditions, formed on 
such reasonings of speculative philosophers, into a quarter 
of the globe, where our persevering English navigator, in- 
stead of this promised fairyland, found nothing but barren 
rocks, scarcely aiTording shelter to penguins and seals; and 
dreary seas, and mountains of ice, occupying the immense 
space allotted to imaginary paradises, and the only treasures 
tnere to be discovered, to reward the toil, and to compen- 
sate the dangers, of the unavailing search. 

Or, if we carry our reflections into the northern hemi- 
sphere, could Mr Dobbs have made a single convert, much 
less could he have been the successful solicitor of two dif- 
ferent expeditions, and have met with encouragement from 
the legislature, with regard to his favourite passage through 
Hudson's Bay, if Captain Christopher had previously es> 
plored its coasts, and if Mr Hearne had walked over the 
immense continent behind itf Whether, after Captain 
Cook's and Captain Cierke's discoveries on the west side 
of America, and their report of the state of Beering's Strait, 
there can be sufficient encouragement to make future at- 
tempts to penetrate into the Pacific Ocean in any northern 
direction, is a question, for the decision of which the pub- 
lic will be indebted to this work. 

2. But our voyages will benefit the world, not only by 
discouraging future unprofitable searches, but also by less- 
ening the dangers and distresses formerly experienced in 
those seas, which are within the line of commerce and na- 
vigation, now actually subsisting. In how many instances 
have the mistakes of former navigators, in fixing the true 

situations 

*^ See Maupertuis's Letter to the King of Prussia. The author of the 
Preliminary Discourse to Bougainville's Voyage aux Islet Malouinesy com- 
putes that the southern continent (for the eiustence of which, he owns, 
>ve must depend more on the conjectures of philosophers, than on the 
testimony or voyagers) contains eight or ten ooillions of square leagues. 



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156 Modem Circunmavigations. part iti. book hi. 

ftitttatioDs of importaiit places, been rectified i What ac- 
cession to the variation chart ? How manjr nautical obser- 
vations have been collected^ and fire now ready to be con* 
suited, in directing a ship's course, along rocky shores, 
through narrow straits, amidst perplexing currents, and 
dangerous shoals f But, above all, what numbers of new 
bays, and harbours, and anchoring'^places, are now, for the 
first time, brought forward, where ships may be sheltered^ 
and their crews find tolerable refreshments ? To enumerate 
all these, would be to transcribe great part of the journals 
of our several commanders, whose labours will endear them 
to every navigator whom trade or war may carry into their 
tracks. Every nation that sends a ship to sea will partake 
of the benefit ; but Great Britain herself, whose commerce 
is boundless, must take the lead in reaping the full advan- 
tage of her own discoveries. 

in consequence of all these various improvements, less- 
ening the apprehensions of engaging in long voyages, may 
we V not reasonably indulge the pleasing hope, that fresh 
branches of commerce may, t^ven in our own time, be at- 
tempted, and successfully carried on ? Our hardy adventa- 
rers in the whale-fishery have already found their way, with- 
in these few years, into the South Atlantic ; and who knows 
what fresh sources of commerce may still be opened, if the 
prospect of gain can be added, to keep alive the spirit of 
enterprise ? If the situation of Great Britain be too remote, 
other trading nations will assuredly avail themselves of our 
discoveries. W^e may soon expect to hear that the Russians, 
now instructed by us where to find the American continent, 
have extended their voyages from the Fox Islands to Cook's 
River, and Prince William's Sound. And if Spain itself 
should not be tempted to trade from its most northera 
Mexican ports, by the fresh mine of wealth discovered in 
the furs of King George's Sound, which they umy transport 
in their Manilla ships, as a favourite commodity for the 
Chinese market, that market may probably be supplied 
by a direct trade to America^ from Canton itself, with those 
valuable articles which the iidiabitants of China have hi- 
therto received, only by the tedious and expensive circuit 
of Kamtschatka and Kiachta.*' 

These, 

^' It is not unlikely that CaptaiM Knisenstem was indebted to die hint 
now given^ for his propoeal to estabUsha direct commercial intercourse 

with 



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Cook, Gierke, e^ Gore* 157 

Tbese^ and many other commercial improvement^^ msjr 
reasonably be expected to result from the Britifth discove-< 
rie8> er^n in our own times. But if we look forward to fu- 
ture ages^ sted to ititure changes in the history of commerce^ 
by recoliecting its various past revolutions and migrations^ 
we knay be allowed to please ourselves with the idea of its 
finding its way^ at last^ throughout the extent of the regions 
With which our voyages hav^ opened an intercourse ; and 
there will be abundant reason to subscribe to Captain Cook's 
observation with regard to New Zealand^ which may be ap« 
plied to other tracts of land explored by him^ that^ ^' aU 
though they be far remote from the present trading worlds 
we can^ by no means^ tell what use future ages may make 
of the discoveries made by the present."*? In this point of 
view^ surely^ the utility of the late voyages must stand con- 
fessed ; and we may be permitted to say^ that the history 
of their operations has the justest pretensions to be called 
icTnjbUB U &tii as it will convey to latest posterity a treasure of 
interesting information. 

3. Admitting^ however^ that we may have expressed too 
sanguine expeo^tions of commercial advantages, either 
within our own rbach, or gradually to be unfolded at some 
falute period, as the result of our voyages of discovery, we 
may still bie allowed to consider thedk as a laudable effort 
to add to the stock of human knowledge, with regard to an 
object which cannot but deserve the attention of enlight- 
ened 

with China. The reader who desires infbmiation respecting the nature 
ef the fur trade carried on batwixt the north-west coast of Ajnerica, the 
neighbouring islands* and China, may consult his introduction. The af- 
fain of Spain, it may be remarked, long precluded the requisite attention 
to her commercial mterests, and do not now promise a speedy recoveir 
tader her apparendy infatuated government To Nootka or King George^s 
Soand, mentk>ned m the text, that power abandoned all right and nreten- 
aionsy in favour of Great Britain, in 1790, after an altercation, which at 
one time bid fair to involve the two kingdoms in war. It was during this 
dispute, and in view of its hostile termination, that Mr Pitt gave his sancr 
tion to a scheme for revolutiom'zing the Spanish colonies, an event which, 
if not now encouraged by any direct assistance, bears too complacent an 
aspect on our commercial interests not to be regarded with a laige portion . 
or good wishes. It is impossible, indeed, excluding altogether every idea 
of personal advantage, not to hope highly, at least, of any efforts which 
may be made to wrest the souls and bodies of millions from the clutch of 
Ignorance and tyranny. The fate of these colonists is by no means the 
moat uniii^>ortant spectacle which the passing drama <^ the world exhibits 
to the eye of an enlightened and humane politician,— *£• 
^ Cook's second voyage. 



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158 Modern drcumnac^aiiam* part hi. book hi. 

ened mtin. To exert ovr faculties ip devising ingenious 
modes of satisfying ourselves about the magnitude and dis- 
tance of the sun ; to extend our acquaintance wiih the sys- 
tem, to which that laminary is the common centre, by tra- 
cbg the revolutions of a new planet, or the appearance of 
a new comet; to carry our bold researches through ail the 
immensity of space, where world beyond w^rld rises to the' 
view of the astonished observer ; these are. employments 
which none but those incapable of pursuing them can de- 
preciate, and which every one capable of pursuing them 
must delight in, as a dignified exercise of the powers of the 
human mind. But while we direct our studies to distant 
w<^Ids, which, after all our exertions, we must content our- 
selves with having barely discovered to exist, it would be 
a strange neglect, indeed, and would argue a most culpa* 
ble'want of rational curiosity, if we did not use our best 
endeavours to arrive at a full acquaintance with the con- 
tents of our own planet; of that little spot in the immense ' 
universe, on which we have been placed, and the utmost 
limits of which, at least its habitable parts, we possess the 
means of ascertaining, and describing, by actual examina- 
tion. 

So naturally doth this reflection presoit itself, that to 
know something of the terraqueous globe, is a favourite 
object with every one who can taste the lowest rudiments 
of learning. Let us not, therefore, think so meanly of the 
times in which we live, as to suppose it possible that full 
justice will not be done to the noble plan of discovery, so 
steadily and so successfully carried on, since the accession 
of his majesty ; which cannot fail to be considered, in every 
succeeduig age, as a splendid period in the history of our 
country, and to add to our national glory, by distinguishing 
Great Britain as taking the lead in the most arduous under- 
takines for the coinmon benefit of the human race. B^ 
fore these voyages took place, nearly half the surface of the 
globe we inhabit was hia in obscurity and confusion. What 
is still wanting to complete our geography may justly he 
termed the mintUia of that science. 

4. fiCt us how carry our thoughts somewhat farther. It 
is fortunate fpr the interests of knowledge, that acquisitions 
in any one branch, generally, and indeed unavoidably, lead 
to acquisitions in other branches, perhaps of still greater 
consequence ; and that we cannot even gratify mere curio- 
sity 
3 ^ 



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y r Cook, Chrke^ and G6re. 1^9 

1 ity without beio^ rewarded with valuable instruGtion. This 
. observatioD applies to the subject before us. Voyages, ia 
which new oceans have been traversed^ and in which new 
jcountries have been visited, can scarcely ever be perform- 
ed without bringing forward to our view fresh objects of 
scienpe. Even wben we are to take our report of what was 
discovejred from the mere sailor> whose knowledge scarcely 
goes beyond the narrow limits of his own profession, and 
whose enquiries are not directed by phHosophical discern- 
ment, it will be ijnfortunate indeed if something hath not 
been remarked, by which the scholar may profit; and use* 
ful accessions be made to.our old stock of information. And 
if this be the case in general, how much more must be gainr 
ed by the particular voyages now under consideration F Be- 
sides naval officers equally skilled to examine the coasts 
they might approach, as to delineate them accurately upon 
their charts, artists*' were engaged, who, by their draw- 
ings, might illustrate what cou<ld only be imperfectly de- 
scribed ; mathematicians,'^ who;might treasure up an ex- 
tensive series of scientific observations ^ and persons versed 
in the various departments of the history of nature^ who 
might collect, or record, all that they should find new and 
valuable, throughout the wide extent of their researches. 
But while. most of these associates of our naval discoverers 
were liberally rewarded by the public, there was one gen- 
tleman, who, thinking it the noblest reward he could re- 
ceive, to have an opportunity of making the ample fortune 
he inherited from his ancestors subservient to the improve- 
ment of science, stepped forward of his own accord, and, 
submitting to the hardships and dangers of a circumnaviga- 
tion of the globe, accompanied Oaptain Cook in the En- 
deavour. The learned world, I may also say the unlearned, 
will never forget the obligations which it owes to Sir Joseph 
Banks. 

What real acquisitions have been gained by this mtmi- 
ficent attention to science, cannot be better expressed than 
in the words of Mr Wales, who engaged in one of these 

voyages 

^' Messrs Hodges and Webber, whose drawings have ornamented and 
llttstrated this and Captain Cook's second voyage. — D. 

^^ Mr Gr^n» in the Endeavour ; Messrs Wales and Bayly, in the Re- 
solution and the Adventure ; Mr Bayly, a second time, jointly with Cap- 
tains Cook and King in this voyage ; and Mr Lyons, who accompanied 
.Lord Mulgravc.— D. 



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160 Modem Cirmmimigafumiu 9kvt iii. book hi. 

Toyages himself, and contrilrated largely to the beae^ts 
derived from them. 

'' That branch of natural knowledge which may be called 
nautical astronomy, was undoubtedly in its infancy wbea 
these voyages were first undertaken. Both iostrumeols aad 
observers, which deserved the name, were very rave ; and 
so late as the year 1770, it was thought necessaiy, in die 
appendix to Mayer's Tables, published by the board of 
Longitude, to state facts, in contradiction to the assertions 
of so celebrated an astronomer as the Xhb^ de la Caille, that 
the altitude of the sun at noon, the easiest and most simple 
of all observations, could not be taken with certainty to a 
less quantity than five, six, seven, or even eight minutes.^' 
But those who will give themselves the trouble to look into 
the astronomical observations, made in Captain Cook's last 
voyage, will find, that there were few, even of the petly 
officers, who could not observe the distance of the moon 
from the sun, or a star, the most delicate of all observa- 
tions, with sufficient accuracy. It may be added, that the 
method of making and computing observations for finding 
the variation of tne compass, is better known, and more 
frequently practised, by those who have been on these voy- 
ages) than by most others. 'Nor is there, perhaps, a per- 
son who ranks as an officer, and has been concerned in 
them, who would not, whatever his real skill may be, feel 
ashamed to hav6 it thought that be did not know how to 
observe for, and compute the time at sea; though, but a 
9hprt while before these voyages were set on foot^ sneh a 

thing 

^' The Abba's words are, — ^* Si ceux ^ui proraettent une si graade pre- 
cision dahs ces sortes de method^s, avoient navigue quelques temps, ils 
auroient vfi souvent, que dans I'observation Ja plus simple de toutes, qui 
est celle de la baiiteur du soleil k midi, deux obkisrvations, munis de bons 
quartiers de reflexion, bien rectifies, difierent entr'eux, lorsqu'ils dbservent 
chacun ^ part, de 6', 6', T', & 9^?*'^Ephi,mfr. 1755 — 1765. Introduction^ 
p. S2. 

It must be, however, mentioned, in justice to M. de la Caille, that he 
attempted to introduce the lunar method of discovering the londtude,and 
proposed a plan of calculations of the moon's distance from the sun and 
fixed stars ; but, through the imperfection of his instruments, his success 
was much less than that method was capable of affording. The bringing 
it into general use was reserved for Dr Ma^elyne, our Astronomer It^n. 
See the pireface'to the Tables for correcting the Eiects of Refraction and 
Parallax, published by the Board of Longitude, under the darecdoB of Dr 
Shepherd, Plamiaq Professor of Astronomy and Experimental l^losopby 
at Cambridge, in 1773.— -D. 



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Cook, Cterke, and Gore. 161 

thing was scarcely ever heard of amongst seamen ; and even 
iirst-rate astronomers doubted the possibility of doing it 
with sufficient exactness.** ^ 

vol.. XV. 1. ** The 

3* la addition to Mr Wales's remarlCi it may be observed, that the pro^ 
ficiency of our naval officers in taking observations at sea, must ultimately 
be attributed to the great attention paid to this important object by the 
fioard of Longitude at home ; liberal rewards having been given to mathe- 
maticians for perfecting the lunar tables^ and facilitating calculations^ and 
to artists for constructing more accurate instruments for observing, and 
watches better adapted to keeping time at sea. It appears, therefore, that 
the voyages of discovery, and the operations of the Board of Longitude* 
Went band in hand; and they must be combined, in order to form a just 
estimate of the extent of the plan carried into execution since his majes^ 
ty's acces8ioD,for improving astronomy and navigation. But, besides thd 
establishment of the Board of Longitude on its present footing, which has 
had such important consequences, it must also be ever acknowledged* 
that his present majesty has extended his royal patronage to every branch 
of the hbco^ arts and useful science. The munificeht present to the 
Royal Society for defraying the expence of observing the tramit of Ve« 
aus ; the institution of the Acadfsmy of Painting and Sculpture; the mag-^ 
nificent apartments allotted to the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, anc| . 
to the Royal Acadeniy at Some^8e^P]ace ; the support of the Garden o£ 
Eicotics at Kew, to improve which Mr Masson was sent to the extremi- 
ties of Africa; the substantial encouragement aiforded to learned men 
and learned works in various departments, and particularly that afforded 
to Mr tlerschel, which has enabled him to devote himself entirely to the 
improvement of astroiiomy; — these, and many other instances which 
night be enumerated, would have greatly distinguished his majesty's reijp, 
even if he had not been the patron of those successful attempts to perfect 
geography and navigation by so many voyages of discovery. — ^D. 

It is scarcely necessary to add to this note by saying, that th^ period 
%hich has elapsed since the first publication of this voyage, has not wit* 
nessed any failure of the promises held out by the previous state of sci<«i 
enoe, notwithstanding the calamities and embarrassments attendant oik 
tt)e revoliitionaty frenzy that, in some degree, infected every country in 
Europe. Science, indeed, has peculiarly prospered amid the miseries o£ 
the world. In pity of the destructive work, in which man's bad passion^ 
bad been engaged with such industrious ferocity, she has held out in one 
hand a jnem^y for theevil^ and pointed with the other to. the blessings o£ 
peace. Is it unreasonable to fao^ that the precious seed sown in such • 
tumultuous times as we have witnessed, and are now witnessing, will ere 
long yield a rich harvest to reward the industry of her labourers ? But let 
Us not limit our expectations and toils to the completion of mere minutm, 
as Dr Douglas speaks. The opinion of plenty, says Lord Bacon, is one 
of the causes of want. A more unfavourable symptom of our condition 
' could hardly be found, than a belief that we hao reached perfection. Let 
us rather think that greater progress may yet be made in beneficial arts 
and Sciences than ever was made hitherto, and be therefore stimulated to 
more ambitious exertions. It will be no glory to the next generation that 
we have gone so fivr^ if they th^nselvea are not invited and enabled by our 
Mccess to get beyond U9.«*^E, 



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162 Modem Circumnamgatkm* part hi. book in. 

'^ The number of places at which the rise and timea of 
llQwibg o( tidea have been observed, in these veyaws^ is 
very gfeat, and hence an important article ofidsefnl know- 
ledge is afforded. In these observations^ some very dn- 
jriiG^S) and even unexpected, circumstances, have .offisred 
themselves to our consideration. It will be sufficient to in« 
atapce th<e exceedingly soiaD hiei^Kt ta which 'tlieiide^ rises 
ih the middle of the grfeat Pacific Ocean, where it faljs 
short, two-thirds at least, of w.6at might have been expect* 
ed from theory and calculationi 

^ ^* The direction and force of currents at sea, -make also an 
important dbjecl. These voyAges will be found to contaid 
xnuch useful information on this head, as well relating to 
leas hearer home^ and which, in consequence, are navigated 
every day, as to those which are more remote, but where, 
notwithstanding, the knowledge of these things may be of 
great feervifce to those who are destined to navijgate theni 
pereafter. To this head also we may refer the great nciin- 
be^ of experiments which have b^en made -ibr enquiring 
into the depth x>f the sea, its temperature, and saltlhessat 
different depths, and in a variety of places and climates. ' 
. ''An extensive foundation has also been laid for improve* 
ments in magnetism, for discovering the cause and nature 
of the polarity of the needle, and a* theory of its vbtf^tioiis, 
by*the number and variety of the observations and .6Xperi-i 
itients which have been made, both on the variation and 
dip, in almost all parts of the world. Experiments. also 
have been made, in consequence of the late vbya^edj on 
the effeidts of gravity in different arid very distant places, 
which 'may serve to increase our stock of natural know- 
ledge. From the same source of information we h&ve 
learned, that the phenomenon, usually called the atirom 
iareaik, is hot peculiar to high northern latitudes, but be- 
longs equally to ail cold climates, whether they be north or 
sputh. 

.! ^' 0ut, perhaps, no part of knowledge has been so great 
a gainer by the late voyages as that of botany. We ans 
U)ld>^^ that at l^east twelve hundred new plants have been 
added to the known^system ; and that very considerable ad« 
ditions have been made to every other branch of natural 
History, by Uie great skill and industry of Sir Joseph Banks, 
' and 

^3 3ee Dr Shepherd's Breface, as alK>ve«r 



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Co^^Cltrke,andtSart. t«S 

«md the otheir gentlem^tf who have accdmpaiiied Coptaia 
Cook for that purpose/' 

To our naval officers in general^ or to their learned asiko- 
ciates in ihei e^peditiops> all thie foregoing improvements of 
knowledge may be traced ; but there is one vary singuhir 
improveiment indeed^ stiU behind, for which, as we are solely 
inaebted to Captain Cook^let us state it in his own wordis 
-'' Whatever may Jbe the public judgment hbout other ihat- 
tersy it is with real satisMdtion> and without claiming any 
n^erit but that of attention to my duty^ that I cark conolode 
this account with an observation, which facts enaUld nie to 
inaice, that our having' discovered the potiiibflity of pre-^ 
serviag health amongst a nnmenms ship's doiilphiiy f6r 
such a length of time> in Wch varieties of climate^ and 
amidst sQch continued hardships and fatigues, will mabe 
this voyage remarkable in the opinion of eveiy benevolent 

gerson, when the disputes abouta southern oontinisnt shall 
ave ceased W engage^ the-^tention and to dWide tbe 
judgment of philosophers/'^^ 

^ ^. But while Our latel voyaged have opened sb'mimyehait- 
pets to an increase of knowledge in the sev^rkl af titles A-^ 
ready enu^merated ; while the^ have e^tend^d ouhr afc^tiainiih 
^i^ce: witt^ ^eeoments of the globe ; while libejr ha^e fjith 
iltatecf o]4 tracfks,^ and opened riew^ oti^s fot comthbide; 
while they have been the means of improving tbe skill of 
the navigator^ and the science of the astronditt er ; \Ai\ le they 
have procured to us so valaaMe accession^ in the severtu 
departments of natural history^ ankl furnished such oppor^- 
tuQities of teaching us how to preserve the healths and tiv^ 
of seamen^ let us not forget ahotheir very impoi^tatit object 
€>f stady> for which they have afforded to the spieculative 
philosopher ample nnifterials ; I mean the study of humaii 
nature in various situations, equally interesting as they are 
Dncomifton. 

However remote or secluded from frequent intercourse 
with more polished nations the inhabitants of aiiy parts of 
4he world be, if history or our own observation should make 
it evident that they have been formerly visited, and that 
foreign manners and opinions^ and langnag^^, have heed 
, blended with their own, little use can 1^ made of what is 
observed amoBgftI such people toward drawing a real pic- 

tiure 

<^ Cook's second voyage. 



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164 Modem Greumndingatiam. part hi. book hi. 

tnre of man in his natarai uncultivated atate. This seems 
to be the situation of the inhabitants of most of the islands 
■ that lie contiguous tp the continent of Asia, and of whose 
manners and institutions the Europeans, who occasionally 
yisit them, have frequently given us accounts. But the is- 
lands which our enterprising discoverers visited in the cen« 
tre of the South Pacific Ocean* and are indeed the princi-^ 
pal scenes of their operations, were untrodden ground. 
The inhabitants, as far as could be observed, were unmixed 
with any different tribe, by occasional intercourse, subse- 
quent to their original settlement there ; left entirely to 
their own powers for every art of life, and to their own le-^ 
mote traditions for every political w religious custom or 
institution ; uninformed by science ; unimproved by educa- 
tion ; in short, a fit soil from whence a careful observer 
could collect facts for forming a judgment, how far unas- 
sisted human nature will be apt to degenerate, and in what 
re[»pect3 it can ever be able to excel. Who could have 
thought, that the brutal ferocity of feeding upon human 
ilesb, and the horrid superstition of offering human sacri- 
fices, should be found to exist amongst the natives lately 
discovered in the Pacific Ocean, wbo, in other respects, 
appear to be no strangers to the fine feelings of huma:nity, 
to have arrived at a certain stage of social life, and to be 
habituated to subordination and government, which tend so 
naturally tp repress i)^e ebullitions of wild passion, and ex- 
pand the latent powers of the understanding i 

Or, if we turn from this. melancholy (Picture, which will 
suggest copious matter for philosophical speculation, can 
we, without astonishment, observe to what a degree of per- 
fection the same tribe (and indeed we may here join; in 
/»ome of those instances, the American tribes vkited in the 
course of the present voyage) have carried their favourite 
amusements, tne plaintive songs of their women, their dra- 
matic entertainments, their dances, their olympian g^mes, 
as we may call them, the orations of their chiefs^, the chants 
of their priests, the solemnity of their religious processioh^, 
tbeir arts and manufactures, their ingenious contrivance! 
to supply the want of proper materials, and of effective tools 
and machines, and the wonderful productions of their per- 
severing labour under a .complication of disadvantages! 
their cloth and their mats, their weapons, their fishing in- 
struments, their ornaments, their utensils^ which in design 

and 



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eooTc,.CMce,MdGor€i l65 

and in execution may yie with whatever modern Europe or 
daaucal antiquity can exhibit f 

It is a favourite study with the scholar to trace the re- 
mains of Grecian or Roman workmanship ; he turns over 
his Kfontfaucon with leamed'satisfaction ; and he gazes witii 
rapture on the noble colle<Stion of Sir William Hamilton. 
The amusement is rational and instructive. But will not 
his curiosity be more awakened^ will he not find even more 
^al matter for important reflection, by passing an hour in 
surveying the numerous specimens of the ingenuity of our 
newly-discovered friends, brought from the utmost recesses 
of the globe to enrich the British Museum, and the valna- 
Ue repository of Sir Ashton Lever i If the curiosities of Sir 
Ashton's Sandwich-room alone were the only acquisition 
gained by our visits to the Pacific Ocean, who, that has 
taste to admire, or even eyes to behold, could hesitate to 
pronounce that Captain^ook had not sailed in vain ? The 
expence of his three voyages did not, perhapsf far exceed 
that of digging out the buried contents of Hercula(neum» 
And we m^iy add, that the novelties of the Society or Sand* 
nvich Islands seem better calculated to engage the attention 
of the studious in our times, than the antiquities which exr 
hibit proofs of Roman magnificence. 

The grounds for making this remark cannot be better ex«- 
plained, than in the words of a very ingenious writer : '^ In 
nn age,* says Mr Warton,** '^ advanced to the highest de- 
gree of Refinement, that spepie^ of curios^y commences^ 
which is l)U9ied in contemplating the progress of social life, 
pn displi^ing the gradation of science, and in tracing the 
transition from barbarism to civility. That these specula* 
lions should bepome the favourite topics of such a period, 
is extremely natural. We look back on the savage condi- 
tion of our ancestor^ with the triumph of superiority ; and 
are pleased to mark the steps by which we have been raised 
from rudeness to elegance ; and our reflection&i on this sub- 
ject are accompanied with a ppnscious pride, arising, in a 
great measure, from a tacit comparison of the infinite dis- 
proportion between the feeble efforts of remote ages, and 
our present improvements in knowledge. In the mean time, 
the manners, monuments, customs, practices, and opinions 
of antiquity^ by forming so strong a contrast with those of 

our 

^^ Preface to his History of English Poetiy; 



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iSBi Modem Ci ftmi na mgatumL BUtT ni. book ii|. 

ovjx own times, andby ^xbibittDghiiniaanatnpe and human' 
inventions in new lights, in unexpected, appe^ances, and » 
in ▼arious forms, are objects which forcibly strike a feeling 
imagination. Nor does this spectacle aflbrd nothing more 
than a fruitless gratification to the fancy. It teacb^ us t» 
set a just estimation on our qwiI acquisitions^ aod>encou« 
rages us to cherish that culttvatiou, which is so closely^ 
connected with the existence and the errercise of every so* 
cial Tirtne/' We need not here observe, that the manners^ 
monuments, customs, practices, and opinions of the present 
inhabitants of the Facifio Ocean, or of the west side of 
Korth America^ form the strongest contrast with Uiose of ^ 
pur own time in polished' Europe ; and that a feeling ima* 

£ 'nation will probably be more struck with the narration of 
e ceremonies of a Vfatche at TongHti^oo, than of a Gothic 
tournament at London; with the contemplation of the co» 
iossuses of Easter Island^ than of the mysterious remains of 
Stonehengc'l 

Many 

^^ T)u8 iqay be dmutod* b^th in PWl of M» widfm mri|tfa(4cs^l«»T ' 

sqnin^. As to th^ n^st, the fact, let readers in geneta) enquire as to the , 
comparative degree and frequency of attention bestowed on the difierent 
kinds of topics alluded to by the doctor. What is the conclusion from 
thdr observations on the subject ? The writer for one, does not hesitatesto 
napert^tb^jt h^.is CQnvinoed, the evidence bears against the qpnniop of :tfae - 
learned editor. So f^ as his. notice estends» it appears^ thst the fooleries • 
otsL superstitious age, the lies of legendary mbulists, tHe incomprehensible 
rdlcs of long-f6rffotten delusions, really obtain more regard as objects of ' 
curiosity^ than wnatever of ingenuity or labour is to be found in the liis^ 
iofy of presently existing savages* Then again as to the ressons for sud^ 
a preference. Is tbere nqt a sort of fa^i^n^e taste for, the pi^pdafiions 
of antiquity, the want of which is ^uite ui^pardonable in our polished and 
literary dfcl'es ? D6es not tne attainment of this taste, in any meritorious 
dW'ee, by necessarily requiring much study, operate as preclusive of in- 
^ONnaatiop to the possession of which no neouliar epithet of a oommendar 
tofy nature has.hitberto.be^fiwiiyd^ I Nf^, is. there not a sort of preju-* 
dice allied to a notion of vulgarity, directed agaipst almost any shiew' of 
acquaintance with the habits and histories of uncultivated nations ? But it 
would foe unpardonable to imagine, there were not other reasons of a less 
invidious nature to explain the fact We must certainly be allowed to 
paQr higher respect to the .particulai: cofn(oems of those, people pitfa v^nna • 
^e stand in the ^gl^t^of ompring or relative^, or who^ tia^iyictionf, fnd . 
fates hiave rendered the history of the world wbat it is, almost superlative*. 
ly important to every intelligent mindl If time shall witness the triump}| 
oPciviliBBtion over the isavages of the southern hemisphere, then, it if * 
highlv probable, a similar enthusiasm will prevaQ among their literary de^ 
^cendants; and objects r^;arded by us as mere dust, in the high load of 
nature, will be enshrined ,w^h all the parljiality and fondness of national 
Idolatry.— E. "■'"'' • • .■-»'..•.•«.'•• 



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Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. l67 

Mahyjpiiigpl^rities^ ,reap^ing what m^y be caj}«d, tbi^i 
naturafj^history qf ^he bumi^n spfcies^^ip differ^nlt QliaMLtefii.^ 
will^ OQ tihe authority of our la^, n^vigatore, Qpen a^uD^aiiEl) 
sources for philosophical dis9Us$ion. . Qpe, question qf^tl^fi 
sort^ih {^rticular, whjch had fqrpierly cfiyifled the ppii^pi^) 
of the inquisitive^ as to. the exi^t^p(;^.,jf not of " giants^o^;, 
the earthV' at least of a race, (ix^habiting a diMtri^^t.bpiic^r.! 
ipg op tbe nc^th sid^ of the strait; of Ma^lba^pSi) whosc^^ 
stature considerably exceeds that o£ the..bul)[ ^ Q^aob^jjgk^ 
win no longer be double^ or. disbelieved. And th^tingeniy-. 
ous, objections of the sceptical author of B^herches sur. k$ » 
^m€waiiii,'^.wjll. weigh nothing in jthe bi^lan^e ee^imi tbq t 
' concurrent and accurate testimony of Byron^ WalliS} and^ 
Carteret, .. ... ^ . ... ^ ••■.'' ' ■• •• * '* " 

Ppbaps* there cannot be i^.more ipterepftiAg enqairy thaai 
to trace the migrations of the various families.or tribes that, 
have peopled the globe; and in. no r,e^pQcV We our lale* 
yoyi^es been more fertile in curious .di^cavejj^s^ Itwa^, 
known in general, (and I shall ps^ the ^rqrds of Kasmpfer/*) 
that the Asiatic natipQ cajled Majay^s. <f in former .tioies^ 
had by much the greater trade in the; lpdi^s» ai^d frequ^nt^ . 
e^ with their merchant ships, not pn|y fill t,he qpastp ot Aaia^. 
but ventured even over to t^e ^pasts of Africa^ parti/eiilarlj; 
to the ^reat island of .M/^djagascar.^^ Th^ title which the 
king of the Malayans assumed tp hjins^lf, of J4>rd of' thct 
Winds and Seas to the JS^ast and to the, fVg^^ i^.aii evident: 
proof of this ; biit nuicb more the Malays laogvuiigej. which . 
spread most all over the Eastymuoh^afte/the sametmanaer : 
a§ formerly the Latin, .and of late the,jPrQi|Qh>.4id:aU aveff* 
E^rope.^ Thus far, I say, was known. But that from Ma* 
dagascar to the Marqueses and Easter Island, that is, near« 
]y from the east side of Africa^ till weapprp^^ob toward the 
wiest side, of America, a space including above half the cir* : 

cumference 

«^ Tom. L p. 331. 

'* Histoiyof jrapai),voLL p. 93. . , . . \ 

^ That the Malayans havje not only frequented K^ogasear, but havs ^ 
also been the progenitors of some of the present race of inhabitants therei, * 
ia confirmed to us by the testimony of Monsieur de Pag^, who visited that > 
island so late as 1774. *' lis m'ont paru provenir deft di verses races ; ieuf ^ 
(X>uleur,, leur cheveux, et leur corps I'indiquent. Ceui. que je n'aiipas era ; 
originaires des anciens naturels du pays, sont petits et trapus; ils oatles '. 
cheveux presque unis, et sont olivdtres coirime les Malayes, avecquiiit . 
otUt e» gtneruly une e^ece de raemblancc^^^^Voyaget da M» des ^agcs, 
Ip^ u. p. 9Q.— D« 



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168. Modem Cktilimmcigtam^ VAltT iil book m . 

cumfereiice of the globe, the same tribe or nation, the 
Phoenicians, as we may call them, of the oriental worldj^ 
•hould have made their settlements, and founded colonies 
throughout almost every intermediate stage of this immense 
tract, in islands at amazing distances from the mother con- 
tinent, and ignorant of each othei's existence ; this is an 
historical fact, which could be but very imperfectly known 
before Captain Cook's two first voyages discovered so many 
new-inhabited spots oT land lurking in the bosom of the 
South Paciiic Oeean; and it is a fact which does not rest 
solely on similarity of customs and institutions, but has been 
established by the most satisfactory of all proofs, that drawn 
from affinity of language. Mr Marsden, who seems to have 
considered this curious subject with much attention, says, 
^' that the links of the latitudinal chain remain yet to be 
traced."^^ The discovery of the Sandwich Island^ in this 
last voyage, has added some links to the chain. But Cap- 
tain Cook had not an opportunity of carrying his researches 
into the more westerly parts of the North Pacific. The 
reader, therefore, of the following work will not, perhaps, 
think that the editor was idly employed when he subjoined 
some notes, which contain abundant proof that the inhabit* 
tants of the Ladrones> or Marianne islands, and those of the 
Carolines^ are to be traced to the same common source, 
with those of the islands visited by our ships. With the 
like view of exhibiting a striking picture of the amazing ex- 
tent of this oriental language, which marks, if not a com- 
mon originaly at least an intimate intercourse between the 
inhabitants of places so very remote from each other, he 
ibas inserted a comparative table of their numerals, upon a 

more 

^ Arcbaolog. vol. vi. p. 155. See also his History of Sumatra, p. 166, 
from which the foUowing pesssge is tmnscribed :— <* Besides the Mahiy^ 
there are a variety of languages spoken in Suiiiatra, which, however, ^have 
not on)y a inanifest affinity among themsehres, but also to that general 
language which is found to prevail in, and to be indigenous to, all the 
islands of the eastern seas ; from Madagascar to the remotest of Captain 
Cook's discoveries, comprehending a wider extent thun the Roman or any 
other tongue has yet boasted. ')h different places, it has been more or less 
mixed and corrupted; but between the most dissimilar branches, an emi^ 
n^nt sameness of many radical words is apparent ; and in some very dis- 
tsnt from each other, in point of situation : As, for instance, the Philip 
pines and Madagascar, the deviation of the words is scarcely more than is 
observed in the dialects of neighbooridg provinces of the same kingdom*'* 



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' Cook, Clerhe, and Gore. ]€^ 

more enlarged plan than any that has hitherto been exe- 
cuted. 

Oar British discoverers have not only thrown a blaze of 
light on the migrations of the tribe wnich has so wonder* 
fully spread itself throughout the islands in the eastern 
ocean^ but they have also favoured us with much curious 
information concerning another of the famifies of the earth, 
whose lot has fallen in less hospitable climates. We speak 
of the Esquimaux^ hitherto only found seated on the coasts 
of Labjadore and Hudson^s Bay, and who differ in sevei:al 
characteristic marks from the inland inhabitants of North 
j\merica« That the Greenlanders and they agree in every 
circumstance of customs, and manners, and language, which 
are demonstrations of an original identity of nation, had 
been discovered about twenty years ago.*" Mr Hearne^ ia 
177 19 traced this unhappy race farther back, toward that 
part of tlie globe from whence they had originally coasted 
along in their skin boats, having met with some of them at 
the mouth of the Copper-mine River, in the latitude of 72*, 
and near five hundred leagues farther west than Pickersgill's 
most westerly station in Davis's Strait. Their being the 
same tribe who now actually inhabit the islands and coasts 
on the west side of North America, opposite Kamtschatka^ 
was a discovery, the completion of which was reserved for 
Captain Cook. The reader of the following work will find 
them at Norton Sound, and at Oonalashka and Prince Wil- 
liam^s Sound ; that is, near 1500 leagues distant from their 
stations in Greenland and on the Labradore coast. And lest 
similitude of manners should be thought to deceive us, a 
t^ble exhibiting proofs of affinity of language, which was 
drawn up by Captain Cook, and is inserted in this work, 
will reniove every doubt from the mind of the most scrupn* 
lous enquirer after truth.«* 

There are other doubts of a more important kind, which, 
it may be hoped, will now no longer perplex the ignorant, 

or 



' ^ See Crantz^s History of Greenland, vol . i. p. 26S ; where we are told 
ithnt the Moramn brethren, who, with the consent and furtherance of Sir 
Hugh Pailiser, then governor of Newfoundland, visited the Esquimaux on 
the Labradore coast, found that their language, and that of the Green- 
landers, do not differ so much as that of the High and Low Dutch.— D» 
** The Greenlanders, as Crantz tells us, call themselves Karalit ; a word 
not very unlike Kanagytt^ the name assumed by the inhabitants of Kodi- 
aek, one of thie Sdminagin islands, as Stsehlin informs us.— D. 



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}70 Modem C&crnnnmngijaidm. pAUt iil book iii* 

cnr furnish ui&tter of cavil to the ill^iatedtloned. Aft^r the 
great discovery^ or. at least the full coufirmation of tbesreat 
cBscovery, of the vicinity of thef Iwd continetits of Asia and 
America^ we trust that We shall not^ for tbie future^ be r^di-» 
Med, for bellevitie that the former could easily furnish its 
inhabitants to thelkter* And thus> to all the various good 
piiirpbses already enumerated^ as answered by our late voy- 
ages, we rbay add this last^ though not'the least importa^t^ 
that thiey tiav^ done serVic^ to religionj by robbing infideli- 
ty of a favourite objection to the credibility of the Mosaic 
account of the peopling of the earth.*^ 

6. Hitherto we have tonsidered our voyaged as having 
benefited the discoverml But it Will be askied, Have they 
conveyed, or are they litely ever to convey, aiiy benefilt to 
the dtscoteredf It would afford' exiquisite satisfaction! ,ta 
every benevofenl mind, to be idstructed in facts^ wb^6h' 
niigfat enable us, without hesitation, to answer this ques- 
tibti in the affirmative. Alid yet;, ^erhaps^ we may indilTee 

^' A ccMitempI of revelatidB is gener&Ay the resott cff igAoranpe^ boo- 
c^d of Its poBsessing 8a|)eifdr knowledge. Observe how theisuthorof 
Reth^chet Phitotophique$ »ur le» Amerfcains^ expfwes.hji^i^f oa.thin 
v^ point " Cette distance que Mr ADtermon^ yeut trpui^er si peu im« 
portante,e8t ^-pen-^i^'de huit cent lieut GauUtsesau travers fun oceain. 
piriUeujr^ et impossible' ^fmhcbir avec des canots aussr chetifs et aussi* 
fnig^les que le sont, au rapf)qrt d^Ysbrand Ides, les chidoupes deft Tun-i • 
gnsesy'* &c. Sec U i. p. 156. Had this writer, knoiwa tbat to« two conti* 
nents are not above thirteen, leagues (insteai} of eight hundred) distant 
fiDin each oth^r^.and that, even in that narrow space ofsea^^tb'ere .arp in- ' 
tc^eningi81ahd8^h6 would not have ventured to urfiie this amiment in 
opposition to Mr Bell's notion of the quiEUter from which Nor£ America ' 

received its original inhabitants.— *D. ^ 

No intelligent reader needs to be j^fpnnedy that a much closer uppNmsb, 
of the'two continents of Asia and America than is here alleged to eiU8t» . 
would be inadequate to account for thepeojplingof the latter, throughout ' 
its* imniedse extent and y6fy important diversities of appearance. The . 
opiniop 13 more plausible, and gains ground in th^ world, that mifch of • 
South America derived' its original inhabitants from the opposite coast of 
Africa. It is enough to state this opinion, without occupying a moment's 
attention, in discussinjj the arguments which can be adduced in its Btxfportf 
The truth of Revelation, it may be r^marked> is quite unaffected by the 
controversy^ and, in fact, can reteive nether injun: nor advantage from 
a^y decision that is given to it The real friends of that cause attach lit* 
tie imjportance to aqy weight of htimfta .argument in its favour^ and tqs^ 
entirely on diyine evldepce, for bdth the paiafbl andihe comfortable e^.. 
fd^ it produces on their consciences. Any other, th^ are sure, mar hi- 
de^ furxvsh matter for the display of Ingemiity and learning, but will fall 
short of that eonvictioa which 'secures self<Uaued obedieocse to its pf)« 
eepts.— E. 



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thd pi^a$iiig bope> thiBt> even in^this respecMy 6tfr'«^i[is haktd 
not bbAM in vain. Other discoveries of new countries have^ 
in eSkei, teen wars, or rather nlassacres ; naftons have beett 
He sooner found out, tfian they have been extirpated; and 
the horrid cruelties of the conquerors of Mexico and Pern 
fcan nerer be remembered^ without blushint: for religion anti 
bvman nature. But when the recesses of the globe are in^ 
veetigated, not to enlarge private dominion, but to promote 
genera} knowledge; when we visit new tribes of our fellow^^ 
creatnres as friends ; and wish only to learn thiat they exists 
in order to bring them within the pale of the ofB^cres of faii<i» 
xnenity, and to relieve the wants of their imperfect state of 
society^ by communicating to them our superior attain^^ 
inents ; voyages of discovery planned with such benevolent 
views by George the Thirds and executed by Cook, have 
not, we trust, totally failed in this respect* dur repeated 
visits, and long->continued intercourse with the natives of 
the Friendly^ Society, and Sandwich Islands, canuot but 
have darted some rays of light on the infant minds of those 
poor people. The uncommon objects the^ have thus had 
opportunities of observing and admiring, will naturally tend 
to enlarge their stock of ideas^. and to furnish new materii^ 
als for the exercise of their reason* Comparing themselves 
with their visitors^ they cannot but be struck with the deep* 
est conviction of their own inferiorityj and be impelled, hy 
the strongie$tfmotives, to strive to emerge from it, and ta 
rise nearer to. A. level with those i children of the Srnij who^ 
deigned'to lookupon thiero) and left behind so many specie* 
inens of their generous and humane attentibn; liie vety 
introduction of our useful animals. and vegeftables, by. add- 
ing fresh means^ of subsifttenee^ .will have, added to their 
pomfortsof life^ and immediate enjoyment^; and if this be^ 
the only benefit they are ever to receive, who will ptonotmee* 
that much has not been gained ? But may we not carry our^ 
iMrishes.andourbopes still farther? Great Britainitself, whea< 
^t visited by thePbcenioiaiM, was inhabited by painted 
savages', not; perhaps, blessed trith higher attdittments than^ 
are possessed by the present natives of New Zealand ; cer- 
tainly less civiUae^ than, those of Tongataboo or OtaheitAi 
Our having.iopeiied'aoiiit^coursei with them, is the £rst^ 
atep toward their improvement. Who knows, but that out 
late voyaj^es may.be the means appointed by Providence, 
pf spieadmgj. ia.dtt^. tiwe^ the blessingii of civilizatioii 

amongst 



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17S Modem Cireimmais^atioiiu «4BT iii. book in. 

amongst the numerous tribes of tbe South Padfic Oo^an ; 
of abolishing their horrid repasts and their horrid rites ; 
aad of laying the foundation for future and more effectual 
plans^ to prepare them for holding an honourable station 
amongst the nations of the earth f This^ at leasts is certiun, 
that our having, as it were^ brought them into existence hj 
our extensive researches, will suggest to us fresh motives of 
devout gratitude to the Supreme Being, for having blessed 
n^ with advantages hitherto withheld from so great a pro* 
portion of the human race ; and will operate powerfully to 
Incite us to persevere in every fi^asible attempt, to be his 
instruments m rescuing millions of fellow-creatures from 
their present state of humiliation*^ 

Th^ 

^ It 18 painful to a liberal mind to qucstioQ the betif of any hop^ or 
to doubt the validity of any expectations, in behalf of our spedes. OnQ 
would rather foster a mistaken benevolence, which, scorning selfish inte* 
rests, embraced the future welfare of distant and unknown people, were 
it not that the indulgence of them might tend to prevent the very dject 
which they regard from being attained. Does not the weli-meaning edi- 
tor anticipate too much from the diffusion of foreign knowledge among 
the tribes of whom he speaks ? Is he not somewhat inattentive to the mass 
of inseparable evil whicn every such accession brings along with it? Does 
he not seem to confound together the acquisition of knowledge, and the 
ability to do what is requisite for human happiness i May we Qot perceive 
by tbe very items of hi^ calculation, that he has neglected to consider that 
nice adjustment of the faculty and the means of enjoyment, which evinces 
the general care and universal aflfection of Providence i The consequence 
of such neglect or mistake, would be an injodicioui and hasty effi>rt to in- 
duce what we call dviliation, on tl^e too much ooo^miserated objects of 
our philanthropy. Without disputing for a moment, that the intercourse 
with Europeans has proved beneficial to these people, though, aa every 
intelligent reader knows well, a thousand arguments would be thrown 
away on an attempt to shew diere was no occasion to do so, we may fidr- 
]y enough affirm, that such cealous exertion^ ai are here virtually recom* 
mended, are liable to the charge of being premature, and not altogether 
according to knowledge. We are too apt to imagine that barbarous peo- 
ple are easily made to believe their institutions and manners are erroneous 
or impolitic ; and that they will acoordingly readily listen to the sugges- 
tioas of those who, they acknowledge, are in many respects suoerior to. 
themselves. But^ in fact, the very reverse is the case^ and it will ever be 
found that the simplest states of society are least sensible of inconveni- 
ences, and therefore most averse to innovation. Besides, it ought to be 
remembered, that, independent of any adventitious assistBBoe» there is im- 
planted in every such sodeljr, how contemptible soever it may seem to 
others, a certain principle orameliorationy which never fails, in due time, 
to yield its fruit, and which, there is some reason to apprehend, may re- 
ceive detriment from obtrusive solicitude to hasten its product Every 
boy has within him the seeds of manhood, whichi at the period appoiq^ 

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Cook, Clerke, and Gore. I75 

The several topics Which occunred^ as suitable to this ge-' 
' neral Introduction^ being now discussed, nothing remainis 
but to state a few ptirticulars, about which the reader of 
these volumes has a right to expect some information. 

Captain Cook, knowing, before he sailed upon this last 
expeaition, that it was expected from him to relate, as well 
as to execute, its operations, had taken care to prepare such 
a journal as might be made use of for publication. This 
• journal, which exists in his own hand-writing, ha^ been 
faithfully adhered to. It is not a bare extract from his log- 
books, but contains many remarks which, it appears, had 
not been inserted by him in the nautical register; and it is 
also enriched with considerable communications from Mr 
Anderson, surgeon of the Resolution. The confessed abi- 
lities, and great assiduity, of Mr Anderson, in observing 
every thing that related either to natural history, or to man-^ 
ners and language, and the desire which, it is well known. 
Captain Cook, on all occasions, shewed to have the assist- 
ance of that gentleman, stamped a great value on his col- 
lections. That nothing, therefore, might be wanting to cbn- 
vey to the public the best possible account of the transac- 
tions of the voyagie, his journal, by the order of Lord Sand- 
'wich, was also put into the hands of the editor, who was 
authorised and directed to avail himself of the information 
it might be found to contain, about matters imperfectly 
touched, or altogether omitted, in Captain Cook s manu- 
script. This' task has been e:!^ecuted in such a manner, that 
the reader will scarcely ever be at a loss to distinguish in 
what instances recourse has been had to Mr Anderson. To 
precludej if pos8ible,'any mistake, the copy of the first and 
•' ^ ' ' ^ second 

by natare, germinate, blosflom, and fructify ; but anxiety to accelerate the 
process loo often ruins the soil on which they grow, and mars the hopes 
of the cultivator, hy unseasonable maturity and rapid decay* So is it 
with societies. The progress of human a£Biirs on the large scale, is pr&> 
dsely similar to what we daily witness on the small. It has been descri* 
bed, with equsl beauty and correctness, by the judicious Ferguson, in his 
Essays on the History of Cndl Society^ '< What was in one generation,'* 
javs h^ '* a propensity to herd witli tli^ fptsdcs, becomes, in the ages whick 
follow, a principle of natund union. What waa originally an alliance for 
common aefehce, becomes a concerted plan of political force ; the care of 
Bnbsisteiice becomes an anxietv for accumulating wealth, and the founda- 
tion of commercial arts/'-— Wno can say that the officiousness of friend- 
. ship is not likely to disorder the series, and» though it escape, the charge 
and the fate of presumption, is not deserving to be considered as linneces^ 
eary enthusiasm f-— £. 



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174 Modem Greun^ntrngtOipni^ jpaet Hi. book iii^ 

ffei;ond yotasqieBji bi^fore it went to tbe prioter, was snVmit^ 
ted to Captain Kiog ; and after it baa be^n reful over and 
corrected by one 90 well ciualified to poiol put aay ioacen* 
racies^ tbe Earl of Sandwich ^d tbe goodness to giwe it a 
perusal. As to tbe third volame^ nothing n^o^ oeed be 
^aid^ than that it w^s completely prepared fpr tb^ press- by 
<!7aptain Kipg.biniself. All tbat the editor of tbe work bfis 
tp answer for^ are the nojLes occasionally introduced in tbe 
course of the two volan^es contributed by Captain Qoofe ; 
and this (btrodiiction^ which was intended as a kinid of epi- 
loffue to our Voyages of Discover;^.. He^ must be pernujt- 
teH, howeyerj to say> that he ipopsiders himself as entitled 
ip'no iucpDsiderable shar^;^ of candid indulgence, from iiie 
public ;, h^ivlpg engaged.ia a very tedious and troublesome 
imdert^kii^g upon tbe most disinterested motives ;. his only 
reward bf ihg.'uie satisfaction he fee^ in hayitigbeen able 
to do an. essential service to tbe family of our greait naviga- 
tor^ who had honoured him^ in the journal of this voyage, 
ifrith tb^ appellation of friend. 

They who. repeatedly asked why this pub^catioii was^ so 
long delayed, heeded only to look at the volumes^, and. their 
attendant illustrations and ornamentsj to be satisied tbat^it 
'might, with at least equal reason, be wonder^.aty that it 
was not delayed longer* The joarnal of Captain Co<d^ 
frpm the first . moment that it came into the hsfnda of the 
editQJi:, had been ready for the press; and Captain King 
lad lei^t with him his part of the narrative^ so long ago as 
his departure for the West Indies, when ^ he commanded 
tbe Resistance man-of-war. But much, ,besid^s> remained 
to be dotxe^ The charts, particularly the gipAeri|l poe, were 
to be. prepared by Mr Roberts; the very numerous and 
elegant drawings of Mr Webber were to be reduced by 
fkim to the proper size*; artists were nejct to be foand out 
who would undertake to engrave them ; the ptior engage^i 
inents of those artists were to be fulfilled before they could 
begiju ; the labour and skill to be exerted in finishing ma^ 
ny of them* rendered this a tedious operation ; paper fit for 
printing them. upon, was to be procured from abroad ; and 
after aU these various and unavoidable difiicultieli were snr-^ 
mounted, much time was necessarily required for executing 
a numerous impression of tbe long list of platest with so 
much c^re as* might do justice both to Ms Webbinr^ and to 
his several engravenr. 

4 And 



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Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. 175 

And here it seiems to be incumbent iipop tis to add, 1^ 
«notiier ihsUhce oF munificenft attention^ that care was ta- 
ken to mark, in tbe ipbst significant manner, the just sense 
iehtertained of the buniane and liberal relief a^rded to our 
i^pl^in Kamtschatka. Colonel Behm, the commapidant of 
that province; was not rewarded merely by the pleasure 
Which a benevolent ipind feels in reflecting upon the bless* 
ings it confers, but also thanked in a manner equally con«> 
fiistent with the dignity of his own sovereign and of ours, 
to whose subjects he extended protection. A magnificent 
piece of plate was presented to hini, with an inscription^ 
worthy of a place in' the same boolc where the history of 
bis humanity to our countrymen is i^ecorded, and which^ 
While it does honour to our national gratitude, deserves al- 
db to be preserved as a monument of our national taste for 
elegant composition. ' ' li is as follows : 

ViBO EQBEOio MAOKO DB BeRm ; qui, Imperatficis Aw- 
gudhnma C'athannk mmiciis, summdque animi benignitate, 
tseva, qitibm tfraerdi, iamischatka littora, navibus naufisqu^ 
Sritannicis^ hbqdta pmbmt.; eosque, in terminisj in qui essent 
imperio Rtisncd,frmtrd exjiloranm mala mulia perpems^ite" 
tata ijice excepit, rtfedt^ re^eatit^ et comh^eatu qmnici^laii 
tituctos dimint ; Rbi.navAlis Britannic^ Septemvii^i in 
aJiquam beneookntia tarn. Hmgnii'memoriclmy amicissimp^, gra^ 
^mmoque animp, mb, patriame ncmne, Q.X). p. 

^ This testimony of public gratitude reminds the editor 
that there are sinfiilar c^Hd upon himself. He owes much 
to Captain King for his advice and direction^ in a variety 
of instances^ where Captain Cook's journal required expla- 
nation; for filling up several blanks with the proper longi- 
tt^de and latitude ; and for supplying deficiencies in the ta- 
bles of astronomical observations. 

'Lieutenant Roberts was also frequently consulted, and 
was always found to be a ready and effectual ^assistant^l 
when any nautici^l difficulties were to be cleared up. 

But particular obligations are due tc M r Wales, whoj^ 
besides his valuable communications for this Introductionj^ 
seconded most liberally the editor's views of serving Mrs 
Cook, by cheerfully taking upon himself the whole trouble 
of digesting, from the log-books^ the tables of the rou^e of 

the 



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1^6 Modern Circumndvigations. pabt III. booe iiU 

the ships^ which add so greatly to the ttUlitjr of thU publi^^ 
cation* 

Mr Wegg, besides shaiting in the thanks so justly due ta 
the committee of the Hudson's Bay Company^ for their ua- 
reserved communications^ was particularly obliging* to the 
editor^ by giving him repeated opportunities of conversing 
with Governor Hearne and Captain Christopher. 

The Honourable Mr Daines Barrington bad the good^ 
ness to interest himself with his usQal zeal for every work 
of public utility^ in procuring some necessary information^ 
and suggesting some valuable hints^ which were adopted* 

It would be great injustice not to express acknowledge*^ 
ments to Mr Pennant^ who^ besides enricbine the third vo» 
lume with references to his Jrctic Zoology, the publication 
of which is an important accession to natural history^ also 
communicated some very authentic and satisfactory manu^ 
script accounts of the Russian discoveries* 

The vocabularies of the Friendly and Sandvdch Isiandb, 
and of the natives of Nootka^ had been furnished to Cap^ 
tain Cook^ by his most useful associate in the voyage, Mr 
Anderson ; and a fourth, in which the language of we Es* 
quimaux is compared with that of the Americans or thci 
opposite side of the continent^ had been prepared by the^ 
captain himself. But the comparative Table of Numerab> 
was very obligingly drawn up, at the request of the editoiji 
by Mr Bryant, who^ in his study, followed Captain Cook^ 
and^ indeed^ every traveller and historian, of every age, in*- 
to every part of the globe. The public will consider this 
table as a very striking illustration of the wonderful migriiH 
tions of a nation, about whom so much additional informa-* 
tion has been gained by our voyages, and be ready to ae« 
knowledge it as a very useful communication. ^ 

One more communication remains to be not only ac«; 
knowledged, but to be inserted at the close of this fntro*- 
duction. The testimonies of learned contemporaries, in 
commendation of a deceased author, are frequently di|^ 
played in the front of his book. It is with the sreatea^ 
propriety, therefore, that we prefix to this posthumous 
work of Captain Cook, the testimony of one of his own: 

fTofession, not more distinguished by the elevation of rank, 
han by the dignity of private virtues. As he wishes to re^ 
main concealed, perhaps this allusion, for which we entreat, 
his indulgence, may have given too exact direction to the 

eyes 



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Cook, Ckrke, and Gori. I77 

€jei of the pnUic vrbcre to look for socb a character.^ Let 
WQ h&mejtr, test sa^dfied with th^ tatrinsic merit of a 
•tnwtpoeition^ convey eicl tinder the injnnetipn of secreej; 
and eonelade our long prefimmarj dissertation with ex>- 
prei»]og a wi^> or rattier a welt-grounded hope^ that this 
vohnno may not be the only place where posterity can meet 
witb'a monumental inscription^ eommemoofttrre of a mait^ 
.in recounting and applauding whose services; the whole of 
«o}igl^tMed Europe will equally coDeut with Great Britain. 



rro THB MEMORY C^F 

CAPTAIN JAMES COOK, 

The mbUa md moarmoemei Ntmigaior iMs or aiqf oiher 
€mmiry haih freduetd. 

He raised himself> solely by bis merit, frcmi a Very ob- 
scure birtbj to the rank of Post Captain in the royai navy, 
and was, unfortunately, killed by the tava^s of the island 
Owliybc«, on the 14tb of February, 1779; wbich island be 
bad, not long before, discovered^ wheo prosecntuig his third 
voyage round the globe. 

He possessed^ iu an eminent degree,, all the qualifications 
requisite fotf his profession and great undertakings ; toge* 
ther with the amiable and worthy qualities of the best men. 

Ceci and ckilibefate in judging; sagacious in determt- 
ning ; active in executing ; steady and persevering in en- 
terprising vi^lanee and unremitting caution ; nnsttbdaed 
by labour, difficulties, and disappointments ; fertile in ex- 
pedients; never wantine presence of mind; always pos* 
sessing: himself 9 and the full use of a sound understanding. 

Mud, just, bat exact in discipline : He was a father to 
htspeopfe, who were' attached to him from aflection, and 
obedient from ecmfidence. 

▼01. XV. M His 

^ TUi w aodcrstood to 1)6 spoken of the Hoooorsble Adniral Fotfoes^ 
Adoumt «r tbe Fleet, and General of the Marmes, to wlioia» on the an* 
thority of Sic Hugh Palliser, the eulogitim is ascribed in the Biog. Brit. 
He is said to have known Cook only by his eminent merit and extraordi- 
nary actions. The testimooy, therefore, is the more to be prized, as it 
cannot be ciiarged with the partiality of frieDdship.*-E. 



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478 Modem Circmmavigations. part hi. book hi. 

ttis knowledge^ Ub experience, his sagacity, rendered 
him so entirely master of his subject, that thf greatest ob* 
stacles were surmounted^ and the most dan^ero^us naviga- 
tions became easy, and almost safe, under his di^rection. 

He explored the southern hemisphere io a much higher 
latitude than had ever been reabhed, and with fewer acci« 
dents than frequently befal those who navigate the coasts 
of ihis island. 

By his benevolent and unabating attention to.the welfare 
of his ship's company, he discovered and introduced a sys- 
tem for the preservation of the health of seamen in long 
voyages, which has proved wonderfully efficacious^ for in 
his second voyage round the world, which continued up- 
wards of three years, he lost only one man by distemper, 
of one hundred and eighteen, of which his company con- 
sisted. . 

The death of this eminent and valuaUe man was a loss 
to mankind in general ; and particularly to be deplored by 
every nation that respects useful accomplishments, that ho- 
nours science, and loves the benevolent and amiable affec- 
tions of the heart. It is still more to be deplored by this 
country, which may justly boast of having produced a man 
hitherto unequalled for nautical talents ; and that sorrow is 
fartkex aggravated by the reflection, that his country was 
deprived of this ornament by the enmity of a people, from 
whom^ indeed, it migh|;have been dreaded, but from whom 
it was not xleserved. For, actuated always by the most at* 
tentive care and iender compassion for the savages in gcr 
neral, this excellent man was ever assiduously endeavour- 
ing, by kind treatment, to dissipate their fears, and court 
their friendship ; overlooking their thef^ts and treacheries^ 
and frequently interposing, at the hazard of his life, to pro- 
tect tl^iem from the sudden resentment of his own injured 
people. 

The object of his ]ast mission was to discover and ascer- 
tain the boundaries of Asia and America, and to penetrate 
into the northern ocean by the north-east Cape of. Asia. 

Traveller 1 contemplate, admire, revere, and erpul^te this 
great master in his profession ; whose skill and labours have 
enlarged natural philosophy ; have extended nautical sci- 
ence ; and have disclosed the long-concealed and admira- 
ble arrangements of the Almighty in the formation of this 
globe^ and^ at the same time, the arrogance of mortals, in , 

presuming 



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Cook, Clerhi, and Gore. 179 

|>restt]niDg to account, by their speculations, for the laws 
by which he was pleased to create it. It is now discover- 
ed, beyond all doubt, that the same Great Being who cre- 
ated the universe by his^a^, by the same ordarned our 
earth to keep a just poise, witliout a corresponding south- 
ern continent — and it does so ! ** He stretches out the north 
over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing." 
^^Job, xxvi. 7. 

If the arduous but exact resiearches of this extraordinaiy 
man have not discovered a new world, they have discover- 
ed seas unnavigated and unknown before. They have made 
us acquainted with islands, people.and productions, of which 
we had no conception. And if he has not h^n so fortunate 
as Americns to give his nam^ to a continent, his pretensions 
to such a distinction remain unrivalled ; and he will be re* 
vered, while there remains a page of his own i^odest ac- 
count of his voyages, and as long as mariners and geogra- 
£hers shall be mstructed, b^ his new map of the southern 
emisphere, to trace the various courses and discoveries he 
has made* « 

If pabiic services merit public acknowledgments ; if the 
man who adorned and raised the fame of his country is de- 
serving of honours, then Captain Cook deserves to have a 
monument raised to his memory, by a generous and grate* 
fuf nation. 

Virtutis uberrimum alimentum est honos. 

Vau Maximus, lib. ii. cap. 6L 



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COOK'S VOYAGE 

TO 

THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 



CHAPTBR I. 



TRAK9ACT10N8 FROM THB BBGrNHflfe #9 THB YOYAC^B 
- T1£L OVB BBPABTVBB VBOUff IVBlKr f BA1.ANB. 



Variom Pr^pof^Hom f»r the Voyage. — Omaf9 Behafhur en 
etnb(»rkiitg. — ObmtMfkmfif deHmninhg ike Let^ittuk ef 
Sheemeuy and the North Ihrehmd, — Pamttge of tM JRim- 
hHmfrom Def4fbrd ioPltfrnov^* — Bn^oymenti ^here.--^ 
Complements of the Crews of both Shif^, and Namet ofit& 
Officers. — Observations to fit the^ Longitude qfPlipnouth. — 
Departwtoofthe Beeohiiion. 

SAVING, on the 9th day of February, 17?6, received 
a commission to command his majesty's sloop th^ 
lution, I went on board the next day, hoisted^ the 
pendant, and began to enter men. At the same time, the 
-Discovery, of three hundred tons burthen, was purchased 
into the service, and the command of her given to Captain 
(^lerke, who had been my second lieutenant on boaird the 
Resolution, in my second voyage round the world; from 
which we had lately returned. 

These two ships were, at this time, in the dock at Dept- 
ford, under the hands of the shipwrights; being ordered 
to be equipped to make farther discoveries in the Pacific 
Ocean, under my direction. 

On the 9th of March, the Resolution was hauled out of 
dock into the river; where we completed her rigging, and 
took on board the stores and provisions requisite for a voy- 
age 



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CHA»* I. 8sct. r^ Cook, Cierkt, 0nd Gore. 181 

of luch daration. Both ships, indeed^ were supplied 
„.th nd mueh of every necessary article as Vft could convex 
niently stow, and with the best of every kind thiat could 
be procar^. And, besides this, every thing that had been 
foand> by the experleno^ acqutred during our former ex* 
teaaiv^e voya|ftt, to be of any utHtty in preserving the health 
of secrttton^ wa^ sttpplied iti abiindance. 

It was our intention to have sailed to Long Reath on th^ 
6th of May^ w^en a pilot eame on board to carry nii thither ; 
btti it waft the ligth before the wind would permit us to move, 
mmI the 90th before we arrived at that station, where out 
artilkfy, powd^r^ shot, and other ordnance stores were re- 
eeiv^. 

While Vfa lajr in Loo^Reach, thus employed, the Earl 
of Ssuadwtch, Bir Hu^h Palliser, and others of th« Board 
of Admiralty! as the last mark of the very great attention 
thty bad all along shewn to this equipment, paid us a' visit 
on the 4tli of June, to examine whether every thing had 
bMfl oompleted conformably to their intentions and orders^ 
and to the satisfaction of alt #ho were to embank in the 
Toyage* They, and several other noblemen and gentlemen 
their friends, honoured me with their comp^tiy at dinner 
00 that day | and, on tfa^ir cbming on borard, and ajso on 
their going ashore, we saluted them with seventeen guns, 
and throe cfheers. 

With the fa^tiovolent view of conveying some permanent 
benefit to the inhabitants of Otaheite, and of^tbe other 
islands in die P^oiflo Ocean, Whom we might happen to 
visit) hi* majifttty havillg commanded some useful animals 
to be earned otitj we took on board, on the 10th, a bull, 
two Mws with dieir catves> and some sheep, with hay and 
oora for their subsistence i intending to add to these other 
iMefo^£mimate>wtien I ihouhl arrive at the Cape of Good 
Hope« 

I was alsOi from tho same laudable motives, furnished 
with a saA^ieot quantity of such of our European garden- 
seeds, aa could not fail to be a valuable present to our 
mwly diieovered islands, by adding fre^h supplies of food 
to their own vegetal^e prodOctions. 

Maiiy Other articles> cakmlated to improve the condition 
of ottr friends in the other hemisphere in various ways, were, 
«t the same time, delivered to us by order of the Board of 
A4taiiralty. And both ships were provided with a proper 
assortment of iron tools and trinkets, as^the means of ena- 
bling 



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182 Modem CircmmiangaiumL pa^t im book hi.. 

bling U9 to traffic^ and to cultivate a friendly intercourse 
with the inhabitanU of such new countries as we, might be 
fortunate enough to meet with. 

The same humane attention was extended to. our own 
wants. Some additional clothings adapted to a, cold cli* 
]|iate^ was ordered for our crews ; and nothing was denied 
to us that could be supposed in the least conducive to 
healthier even toconvemence* 

Nor did the extraordinary care of those, at the head of 
the naval department stop here. .T^ey were equally soli- 
citous to afford us every assistance towards rendering our 
voyase of public utilitv* Accordingly^ we received on 
boards next day, several astronomical and nautical insUrn- 
ments, which the Board of I/)ngitude entrusted to me^ and 
to Mr King, my second lieutenant ; we having engaged to 
that board to make all the necessary observatioosj ouring 
the voyag^, for the improvement of astronomy and navigar 
tion ; and, by our joint labours, to supply ue place of a 
professed observator. Such a person haa been originally 
intended to be sent out in my snip. 

The board, likewise, put into our possession the same 
watch, or time-keeper, which I had carried out in my last 
voyage, and liad performed its part so well. It was a copy 
of Mr Harrison's, constructed oy Mr Kendall. This day, 
at noon, it was found to be too slow for mean time at Green- 
wich, by S' 31^ 89 ; and by its rate of goipg^ it lost,, on mean 
time, 1", 209 per day* 

Another time-keeper, and the same number and sort of 
instruments for making observations, were put on board the 
Discovery, under the care of Mr Willii^n Baylv; who, ha- 
ving already given satisfactory proofs of hfs uill and dili- 
gence as an -observator, while employed in Captain Fur- 
neaux's ship, during the late voyage, vi^as engaged a second 
time, in that capacity, to embark with Captain Clerke. 

Mr Anderson, my surgeon^ who^ to skill in his immedi- 
ate profession^ added great proficiency in natural history, 
was as willing, as he was well <}ualified, tO' describe every 
thing in that branch of science which should ocpur worti^ 
of notice. As he had already visited the South Sea island 
in the same ship, and been of singular service, by enabling 
me to enrich my relation of that voyage with various useful 
remarks on men and things/ I reasonably expected to de- 

'itiivc 

' The very oopioul vocftbulary of the bogoage of Otabeite, and the 

compRiBtive 



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CHAP. I. 8£CT. I. Cook, Clcrke, and Gore. 183 

rive considerable assistance from him^ in recording oiir nevr 
proceedings. 

I had several young men amongst my sea-ofiicers> who, 
under my direction^ could be usefully employed in con- 
structing charts^ in taking views of the coasts and headlands 
near which we should pass, and in drawing plans of the bays 
and harbours in which we should anchor. A constant at** 
tention to this I knew to be highly irequisite^ if we would 
render our discoveries profitable to future navigators* 

And that we might go out with every help that could 
serve to make the result of our voyage entertaining to the 
generality of readers^ as well as instructive to the sailor and 
scholar^ Mr Webber was pitched upouj and engaged to 
embark with me, for the express purpose of supplying the 
unavoidable imperfections of written accounts^ by enabling 
us to preserve, and to bring home, such drawings of the 
most memorable scenes of our transactions^ as could only 
be executed by a professed and skilful artist. 

Every preparation being now completed^ I received ai^ 
order to proceed to Plymouth, and to take the Discovery 
under my command. I accordingly gave Captain Gierke two 
prders^ one to put himself under my command^ and the 
other, to carry his ship round to Plymouth. 

'On the 15th' the Resolution sailed from Long Reachj. 
with the Discovery in company, and the same evening they 
anchored at the Nore. Next day the Discovery proceed* 
ed, in obedience to my order ; but the Resolution was or* 
dered to remain at the Nore till I should *foio her^ being at 
this time in London. 

As we wiere to touch at Otaheite and the Society Islands 
in our way to the intended scene of our fresh operations^ i( 
had been determined not to omit this opportunity (the only 
one ever hkely to happen) of carrying Omai back to his 
natire countiry. Accordingly^ every thing being ready for 
our departure, be and I set out together from London on 
the 24th, at six o'clock in the morning. We reached 
Chatham between ten and eleven^ o'clock ; and, after dining 
with Commissioner Proby, he very obligingly ordered his 
yacht to carry us to Sheerness, where my boat was waiting 
to take us on board. 

Omai left London with admixture of regret and satisfac- 
tion 

comparative spedmen of the languages of the several other islands visited 
dariDff the former voyafle, and published in Captain Cook's account of it» 
were nimished Kyy Mr iuid^r»on«-»9. 

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184 Modem Circmmunistthm* Ipabt um. bo^k iiu 

tion. When vrt talked about Enolaiidy aftd riMWt time 
who^ during his 8tay> had honoared him with thdr pPOteo«^ 
tiotiorfriendthipy 1 ooald obasrTe Aat his spirits wen 86q« 
stb]y affected, and that it was with difBculty be eoiiM hk 
ftain ftcm tears. Bat die instant the cooversation tnmedi 
to bis own islands, bis eyes began to sparkle with joy. H« 
was deeply impresasd with a sense of die good treatment 
be bad nvet with in England, and entertained the highest 
ideas of (he country and of the people ; but (be pleasiiig 
pmspect bie mm bmi before hint of retomin|^ homo, loaded 
with what he well knew wouM be esteemed uiTalaable tie»* 
sQffes tbeie, and the flattering hope which the nesseattoo of 
these gaye him, of attaining to a distinguished saperiority 
amongst his coantrymeo, were considefations which ope« 
raled, by degrees, to sapptess erery uneasy sensation ; and 
he deemed to be qaite happy when be got on board the 
ship. 

He was furnished by his Majesty witb an ample ptOTi* 
sion of eveiy article which, darmg our iiilei«onrse with his 
coontry, we had observed to be in anr estimation there, 
either as useful or as ornamental. He had, besides^ Mcei^ 
Ycd many presents of the same natjsie from Lord Saodwich^ 
Sir Joseph Banks, and several other gentlemen and ladies 
of his acqnaintaace. In shoort, efery method had been em- 
ployed, both during his abode in England, and nt bis de» 
partare, to midce htm the instmment of conveying to the 
inbabitants of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, the most 
exalted optnioa of the greatness and generosity of the Bri-> 
tish nation. 

While the Resolution lay alt the Nore, Mr King made 
several obeervattona far lading the lonffitnde by the watch* 
The mean of them all gavte O* 44' O' for the longitude o^ 
the ship. This^ tedoced to She(»rnesa, by the bearing and 
estimated distance^ will mid^e that place to be O* S?' CT £• 
of Greenwich^ whidi is more by eevtn miles tbsn Mr Lyons 
made it by the watch which Lord Mulgrave bad witb bhn^ 
on his voyage toward the North Pole. Whoever knows 
any tiling of the distance between Sheemess and Green** 
wieb,..wiit be a judge which of these two observalioma is 
nearest the truth. 

The variation of the needle here, by a metfn of diierent 
sets, taken with different compasses, was 20^ 37' W. 

On the 25th, about noon, we weighed anchor^ and made 

. sail 



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€UkT. I. iE«t. I* Cook, Ckrke, nni Oore* 185 

Miil for tilt' tHwiiB through the Que^ti*s ChMnd^ with a 
gmtk b^eiae al N.W. by V^. At tAttt in the ^tetiing we 
aiich<ired^ wilh the North Foreland beariog S. by E. and 
Margate Point S.W. by S. 

Next taoming^ at two o'clock^ we weighed and stood 
round the foreland ; and when it bore north by the com«> 
pa88^ the watch gave I* 9Af £• longitude^ which^ tednced to 
the Forekmd, will be 1* €1' £. L^nar observittibns made 
the preceding evening^ fixed it at I* 9ff E. At ^ight o'clock 
the same morning we anchored in the Downs. Two bo^ts 
bad been butU for «i$ at Deal^ and I immediately sent on 
shore for tiiem% I was told that many pedt>le bad assem-* - 
bled there to seeOmai^ but^ to their great disappointment^ 
he did .not land. 

Hating received the boats on boards and a light breeze 
at SiS^E. springing lip^ we got ulider sail the next day at 
two o'clock in the afternoon ; bat the breeze soon died 
away, and we were obliged to anchor again till ten o^clock 
at night. We then weighed with the wind at E. and pro* 
cet^M down the Channel. 

On the SOth, at three o'clock in the afternoon, we an« 
chored in Plymonth Saond, where the Discoveiy had ar« 
riTed only three da^s before. I saluted Admiral Amherst^ 
whose flag was flying on boanl the Ocean, wRh thirteeni 
glims, and he retamed the compliment with eleven. 

It was the first object of our care on arriving al Ply* 
mottth> to replace the water and provisions that we had ex* 
pendad, and to receive on board a supply of pott wine* 
This wii$ the emplcrfment which occupied us on the 1st and 
12dofJ«rty. 

During our <tay here, the crews were served wilh fresh 
beef every day. And I shouki not do justice to Mr Om- 
manney, the agent victualler, if I did not take this oppor-^ 
ttinity to mention, that be shewed a very obliging readiness 
to ftimiih ine with the be^t of every thing l£at lay within 
his depaitmeat. I had been under the like obligations to 
him ^n my netting oat upon my last voyage. Commissioner 
Onrry, with equal aeal for the service, gave us every assist- 
ance that we wanted from the naval yard. 

It could not but oceur to ns as a singular and affe^ih^ 
circanislance, that at the tery instant of- our departure upon 
a voyage, 1*te object of which Was to benefit jEdrope by 
makiag f^h ^ifiMveries in Hotlh America^ thert should be 

7 the 



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186 Modem'Circumna/cigatiom. paut »i. book iiu 

the unhappy necessity of employing others of his majesty's 
ships, and of conveying numerous bodies of land forces* to 
secure the obedience of t;hose parts of that continent which 
had been discovered and settled by our countrymen in the 
last century. On the 6th his majesty's ships Diamondj 
Ambuscade, and Unicorn, with a fleet of transports, con- 
sisting of sixty-two sail, bound to America, with the last 
division of the Hessian troops, and some horse, were forced 
into the Sound by a strong N.W. wind* 

On the 8 th I received, by express, my instructions for 
the voyase, and an order to proceed to the Cape of Good 
Hope wiUi the Aesolution. I was also directed to leave an 
order for Captain Gierke to follow us as soon as he should 
join his ship, he being at this time detained in London. 
. Our first discoverers of the New World, and navigators 
of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, were justly thought to 
have exerted such uncommon abilities, and to have accom- 
plished such perilous enterprises, that their names have 
been handed down to posterity as so many . Argonauts* 
May, even the hulks of the ships that carried, them, though 
not converted into constellations in the heavens, used to be 
honoured and visited as sacred relics upon earth* We, in 
the present age of improved navigation, who have been in- 
structed by their labours, ^and have followed them as our 
guides, have no such cla.im to fame. Some merit, however^ 
being still* in the public opinion, considered as due to those 
yfho sail to unexplored quarters of the globe ; in conformity 
to this favourable judgment, I prefixed tO: the account of 
my last voyage the names of the officers of both my ships, 
and a table of the number of their respective crews* The 
like information will be expected from me at present 

The Resolution was fitted out with the same complement 
of officers and men as she had before ; and the Discovery's 
establishment varied from that of the Adventure, in tne 
single instance of her having no marine officer on board. 
This arrangement was to be finally completed at Plymouth ; 
and on the 9th we received the party of marines allotted 
for our voyage. Colonel Bell, who commanded the divi- 
. sion at this port, gave me such men for the detachment as 
I had reason to be satisfied with. And thfs supemumeraiy 
seamen, occasioned by this reinforcement^ being turned 
over into the Ocean man-of-war, our several complements 
remained fixed^ as represented in the following table :— 



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CHAP.:i. SECT, t* Caokf Ckrkef and Gore. 



RESOLUTION. 


DISCOVERY. 


Officers and Men. 


No. 


Officers Names. 


No 


Cfffieerp Names. 


Captains, 


1 


James Cook. - 


1 


Charles Clerke. 


Lieutenants/ . - 


3 


John Gore. 
James King*. - 


2 


James Bumey, 
John Rickman. 


* 




John Williamson. 






IVfaster, 


1 


William Bligh. 


1 


rhomas Edgar. 


Boatswaib, - 


1 


V^illiam Ewm. 


1 


tineas Atkins* 


Carpenter^ -: 


1 


James Clevely. 


1 


Peter Reynolds. 
William Peckover. 


Gunner, 


1 


Robert Anderson. 


1 


Surgeon, - 


1 


William Anderson. 


1 


John Law. ' 


Master's Mates, 


«: 


_ . 


2 


' 


Midshipmen, 


6 


- -, - - 


4 




Surgeon's Mates, 


. 2 


- - 


2 




Captain's Clerk, 


1 


- - - - 


1 


^ 


Master at Arms, 


1 


- - - - 


1 




Corporal^ 


1 








Armourier, - - 


1 


- ■ - 


1 




Ditto Mate, - 


1 


- - 


1 




Sail Maker, - 


1 


- - 


1 




Ditto Mate, - 


1 


- . - ■ - 


1 




Boatswain^s Mates, 


8 


M a « a 


2 




Carpenter's Ditto, 
Gunner's Ditto, 


2 


■ " * * 


2 

1 




Carpenter's Crew, 
Cook, . - 


4 

1 


- • - • 


4 

1 




Ditto Mate, - 


1 








Quarter Masters, 


6 


• . •* - 


i 




Able Seamen, - 


*5 


• ' . 


33 








Marines. 






Lieutenants, - 


1 


Molesworth Philips. 






Serjeant, , - - 


1 


- - - 


1 




Corporals, 


2 


M ■ a " 


1 




Drummer, - 


1 


• • « •> 


1 




Privates, 


15 


- - - - 


8 




Total, - - 


in 


- - 


80 


# 



On 



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188 Modem Graunnav^tiam. ^AkT lu. boos itf« 

On the lOth^ the commissioner and pay clerks came on 
1»oard^ and paid the officers and crew up to the 30th of last 
month* The petty officers and seamen hadj besides^ two 
, months wages in advance. Such indulgence to the latter 
is no more thaa what is customary in tl^e nayyr But the 
payment of what was dae U> the superior officeirs was hu« 
manely ordered by Ibe Admiralty^ in consideration of our 
peculiar situattot)> that we mi^ht be betler able to defray 
the very great expeiice of furnishing ourselves with a stock 
of neceasariea for a voyage which, probably, would be ot 
unusual duration^ ai^d lo regions wbcte i^ supply could bo 
exoected. 

. Nothing now obstructing my depiurtiire but a coatiary 
wind, which blew strong at S«W.j» m the morning of tha 
11th,. I delivered into the hands of Mr Bumey, first Uente* 
nant of the Dlscoveiy, Captain Clarke's sailing ordera ; a 
copy of which I also left with the ofScer commandidg hb 
majesty's ships at Plymouth, to' be delivered to the captaiii 
immediately on his arrival In the afternoon, the wina mo-* 
derating, we weighed. with the ebb, add got farther out,be^ 
yond all the shipping in the sound ; where, after making aa 
unsuccessful attempt to get to sea, We wiere detained most 
of the following day, which was emf^oy^d in receiving an 
board a supply of water; and, by the same vcasd thai 
brought it, all the empty casks were returned. 

As I did not imagine my stay at l^lymouth wottM havd 
been so long as it proved, we did not g6t our instrmnefits 
on shore to make the necessary observations for ascertain-* 
ing the longitude by the watch. For th0 same reason, Mt 
Bayly did not set about this, till he found that the Discovery 
would probably be detained some days ^fter ua. He ifiQU 
placed nis quadrant upon Drake's Island ; and had tioiey Ih^ 
fore the Resolution sailed, to tnake observations sufficient 
for the purpose We had in view. Our Watcih made tiM isiaii4 
to lie 4** 14', and hit, 4^ 13 JV West of Greenwich. Its lliti-» 
tude, as found by Messrs Wales and Bayly, oli the last Voy-» 
age, is50**2l'3(y N. . . . ^ * 

We weighed again at eight in the ejvening, and stood out 
ef the sound, with a gentle breeze at N.W.. by W» \ ' 



S£CTION 



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C9AP* I. MOT* iif Cook, Ckrke, mi G^ru 18$ 



Sbction IL 

Pwagt 0fiU Mmhaitm te TenmJfk^Meteptmn ihere.^ 
Dmeripiien tfSmfta Crmz Road.-^S^etknUnU to be nut 
wUk^ObmrMlhmfotJixmg tkt Longit^of Tkner^e.-^ 

(Him of Satttm Cruz md Ldgmm.^^jigriatkm'e.*^Jir ami 

Wir h«d net been long out cf nyttiouth Sevmi, before 
th0 wifkl oame mere wtslerly, and blew fmhi« no thiat we 
were obliged to ply down the Channel ; and it wasi mok till 
tbe I4tb^ at eight in the e^miag^ thai- we were ofiF the 
lizards 

- On the I6lh^ at noen^ St Agne»'» lighthbense e^ tbe kfea 
of Scittf bore N.W. by W^, dislawt seren or eight maioL 
Our latitude waa new 49^ 5S' SGP N., and our loegitiide, hgr 
tbe wateb^ 6^ 11' W. Henee^ I reckon that St i^gnaa'a 
light-house 19 ia 49i» 57* 50» N. latitude, and in d^" 2(/ of W. 
longitude. 

On the 17th* and 18th we were off Usbaat^ and fottnd tbe 
longtiBde of tbe island to be^ by the watch, 31" l^ SI' W. 
Tbe variatioii was 93** 0^ 5(f', in the same directioii. 

With a stroBg gale at S.^ on the 19th^ we steed to. the 
Tvestward^ till eight o'clock in the oaemiiigf when the winid 
shifting te the W« and N*W*^ we tacked and atietched ti> 
the soathward. At tkia tiiM^ we saw nine sail of bxge 
fhipe^ which we judged to be Fxench mea-of*war. They 
toc4c ne plirlieiilar notice of us> nor we of them. 

At ten o'dlock in the nNMmkig of the ££d, we saw Gafie 
Ortegal ; which at noon bore S. JSL i S,, aboaA feoa leagues 
distant. At this time we were in the latitude of 44*^ & N. ; 
and our longitude, by the watch, was S*" dST W. 

After two days of calot weather, we passed Cape Fi- 
ntstenre on tbe afternoon of the 24lh>, with a fine gale at 
N.N.E. The longitude of this cape, by the watch, is Sf 29^ 
y^. ; andy by^ the mean of forty-^one iaxiar observations. 



> It s pp csn Ao» Ciapiaia Cook's loc-faool^ that he becaa hip judicioas 
opiinlidiy k^, Mscpvii^ the heelth of hk crew, ves]^ earfy in tbe voyage. 
Cm tbe 17tb, tbe ship was smoked between ded^s with gunpowder. The 
spare sails also were then well aired.— D. * 



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igo Modem Circmmumgations., past, iii^ book lu. 

made before and after we passed it^ atid reduced to it by 
the watch> the result was 9* I9' 12*. 

On the SOih, at six minutes snd thirty*eight seconds past 
ten o'clock at nighty apparent time^ I observed^ with a night 
telescope^ the moon totally eclipsed. By the qfkemem, the 
same happened at Greenwich at nine nxinutes past eleven 
o'clock ; the difference being one hour^ two minutes^ and 
twenty-two seconds, or 15^ 35' 3(f of longitude. The watch^ 
for the same time^ gave 15^ 26' 45' loi^itude W. ; and the 
latitude was 31^ ICV N. No other observation could be 
made on this eclipse, as the moon was hid behind the 
, clouds the greater part of the time ; and, in parti^cular^ when 
^ the beginning and end of total darkness^ and the end of • 
the eclipse^ happened. 

Finding that we had not hay and corn sufiicient.for the 
subsistence of the stock of animals on boardj till our arrival 
at the Cape of Good Hope, I determined to touch at Te- 
. neriffe, to get a supply ot these^ and of the usual refresh- 
ments for ourselves; thinking that island^ for such pur- 
poses, better adapted than Madeira. At four in the after- 
noon of the 31st, we saw Teneriffe^. and steered for the 
eastern part. At nine, being near it, we hauled up, and 
stood off and on during the night. 

At day-light, on the morning of the 1st of August, we 
sailed round the east point of the island ; and, . about eight 
o'clock, anchored on the S.E. side of it, in th^ road, of 
Santa Cruz, in twenty-three fathoms water ; the bottom, • 
> sand and ooze* Punta de Nago, the east point pf ,the road, 
bore N. 64^ £. ; St Francis's church, remarkable for its high 
steeple, W:S. W. ; the Pic, S. 65* W. ; and the S.W. point 
of the road, on which stands a fort or ce^tle, S. 39* W* la 
this situation, we moored N.£. and S.W«, with a cable each 
way,. being near half a mile from the shore. 

We found, riding in this road. La Boussole, a French 

frigate, commanded by the Chevalier de Borda ; two bri- 

~ gantines of the same nation ; an Eiiglish brigantine irom 

London, bound to Senegal ; and fourteep sau of Spanish . 

vessels. 

No sooner had we anchored, than we were visited by the 
master of the port, who satisfied himself with asking the 
ship's name. Upon his leaving us, I sent an officer amore, 
to present my respects to the governor; and to. ask his 
leave to take in water, and to purchase such articles as wt 
• were 



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CHAP* I* SECT.' f I. Coek, Cierke, and Gore. igi 

<were in want of. All this he granted with the.^eatest po-^ 
Uteness; and, soon after, sent an officer on board, to com- 
pliment me :on my arrival. In the afternoon, I waited up* 
on him in person, accompanied by some of my officers ; 
mnd, before 1 returned to my ship, bespoke some corn and 
straw for the live stock ; ordered a quantity of wine from 
Mr M'Carrick, the contractor, and made an agreement with 
the master of a Spanish boat to supply us with water, as I 
found that we could not do it ourselves. 

The road of Santa Cruz is situated before the town pf the 
Bame name, on the S.£.*side of the island. It is, as I am 
told, the principal road of Teneriffe, for shelter, capacity, 
and the goodness' of its bottom. It lies entirely open to 
the S.£< and S. winds. But these winds are never of long 
continuance ; and, they say, there is not an instance of a 
«hip driving from her anchors on shore.* This may, in part^ 
be owing to the great care they take in mooring them -, for 
I observed, that all the ships we met with there, had four 
anchors out ; two to the N.E., and two to the S. W. ; and 
their cables buoyed up with casks. Ours suffered a little by 
not observing this last precaution. 

At the S.W. part of the road, a stone pier runs out into 
the sea fVom the town, for the convenience of loading and 
landing of goods. To this pier, the water that supplies the 
shipping is conveyed. This, as also what the inhabitants of 
Santa Cruz use, is derived from a rivulet that runs from the 
hills, the greatest part of which comes into the town in 
wooden spouts or troughs, that are supported by slender 
oosts, and the remainder doth not reach the sea ; though 
It is evident, from the size of the channel, that sometimes 
large torrents rush down. At this time these troughs were 
repairing, so that fresh water, which is very good here, was 
scarce. 

Were we to judge from the appearance of the country in 
the neighbourhood of Santa Cruz, it might be concluded 
that Teneriffe is a barren spot, insufficient to maintain even, 
its own inhabitants. The ample supplies^ however^ which 

we 

^ Though no such instance was known to those from whom Captain 
Cook tiad this information, we learn from Glas, that some years before he 
was at Teneriffe, almost all the shipping in the road were driven on shore. 
See Glas's History of the Canary Islands, p. 335. We may well suppose 
the precautions now used, have prevented any more such accidents nap- 
.pening. This will sufficiently justify Captain Cook's account««-*D. 

8 



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]QC Modern Cireummw^aiiouL paet iiu book uu 

we receivedj convinced ns that thej had enough to^spaie fee 
visitor«« Besides wine, which it the chief prodvoe of the 
island, beef inay be bad at a moderaite price. The oxen aie 
small and bony» and weigh aboat ninety povnda a qoarteiv 
The meat is but lean, and was, at present, sold for hfdf a 
bit (three-pence sterling) a pound. I» unadvisedly, boogbt 
the bullocks alive, and paid dmsiderably more. Hon, 
sheep, goats, and poultry, are likewise to be bought at the 
same moderate rate ; and fruits are ia gfeat plenty. At 
this time we had grapes, fi^s, pears, mulberries, plantains, 
and musk^mdods. Tbete is a variety of other fruits pro» 
dueed here, though not in season at this time. Iiicir 
pumpkins, ^tnions, and potatoes, are exceedingly good of 
their kind, and keep better at sea than any I ever before 
met with. 

The Indian com, which is also their produce, cost me 
about three shillings and sixpence a bushel ; and the fruits 
and roots were, in general, ^ery cheap. They hare net any 
pleutiful supply of fish from the adjoining sea ; hot a very 
considerable fishery is carried on by their Teasela upon tlie 
coast of Barbary ; and the produce of it sells at a reaaoaap 
ble price. Upon the whde, I found Teneriffe to be a more 
eligible place than Madeira, for ships bound on long voy- 
ages to touch at ; though the wine of the latter, acecurding 
to my taste, is as much superior to that of the former, as . 
strong beer is to small. To compensate for this, the differ- 
euce of prices is considerable ; for the best Teneriffe wine 
was now sold for twelve pounds a pipe ; whereas a pipe of 
the best Madeira would have cost constderaUy more than 
double that sum.^ 

. The Chevalier De Borda, commander of the French fri- 
gate npw lying in Santa Crnz road, was employed^ in con* 
junction with Mr Varila, a Spanish gentleman, in making 
astronomical observations for ascertaming the going of two 
time-keepers which they had on board their ship. For this 

purpose, 

' Formerly, there was made at Teneriffe a great quantity of Canary sack, 
which the French call Fin de Malvesie ; and we, corruptly after them» 
name Malmsey (from Malvesia^ a town in the Morea» famous for such lus- 
cious wine). In the last century, and still later, much of this was im* 
ported into England ; but little wme is now made there» but of the sort de« 
scribed by Captain CooL Not more than fifty pipes of the rich Canary 
were annually made in Glas^s time; and he says, they now gather the 
grapes when green, and make a dry hard wine of them, fit for hot climates, 
p. 262.— D. 



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e&ikp. 1. SBCT. H* Caek, Ckrke, and Gore. 193 

parpose^ they had a tent pitched on the pier head, where 
they made their observations, and compared their watches^ 
every day at noon, with the clock on 'shore, by signals* 
These signals the chevalier very obligiogly communicated 
to us;, so that we could compare our watch at the same 
time. But our stay wa3 too Bhort, to profit much by his 
kindness. 

The three days comparisons which we made, assured us 
tl)at ihd watch had not materially, if at all, alteired her rate 
oF going; and gave us the same longitude, within a very 
few seconds, that was obtained by finding the time from 
observations of the sun's altitude from the horizon of the 
sete. The watch, froni a mean of these observations, on the 
l8t, 2d, and Sd of August, made the longitude 16** 31' W.; 
-and} ifi like manner, the latitude was found to be 28^ 3(/ 
11' N. 

Mr Varila informed us, that the true longitude was 
18* 35' SO", from Paris, which is only 16» l& 30" from 
Oreenwich; Ipss than^ what our watch gave by 14' 30*. 
•But, far from looking upon this as an error in the watch, I 
rather think it a coiifirmaction of itsi having gone well ; and 
that the longitude by It may be nearer the truth than any 
-other. It is farther coDfirofed by the lunar observations 
that we made in the road, which gave 16^ 37' 10\ Those 
made before we arrived, and feduced to the road by the 
'watch, gave 16*' 33' 30^; and those made after we left it, 
and reduced back in the same manner, gave 16^ £8'. The 
mean of the three is 16^ SO' 40^. 

To reduce these several longitudes, and the latitude, to 
the Pic of Teneriffe, one of the most noted points* of land 
with geographers, (to obtain the true situation of which, I 
have entered into this particular discussion,) I had recourse 
to the bearing, and •!(' tew- hours of the ship's run after lea*- 
ving Snnta Cruz road ; and found it 4:o be 12' ll'^S. of the 
road, and 29' 30" of longitude W. of it. As the base, which 
helped to determine this, was partly estimated, it is liable 
to some error} but I think I cannot be much mistaken. 
J)t Maskelyne, in his British Mariner's Guide, places th^ 
Pie in the latitude of 28* l^C 54". This, With the bearing 
from t^ie road, will give the difference of longitude 43, 
which considerably exceeds the distance they reckon the 
Pic to be iVom Santa Cruz* I made the latitude of the Pic 



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Ifti Modem Ckctimnfltigatiom* part iii. book 4il* 

to be 28* 18" N. Upon that supposilion^ito longiiude will 
be 88 follows : 

fThetime-kceper, - - !?• 0' SO*^ 

By ^ Lunar observations, - le^ S(/ 20*> W. 

/MrVarila, - - J 6* '46' 0-'3 

But if tbe latitude of it is £8* Jd' 54% as in the British Ma- 
riner's Guide, its longitude will be 13^ SC more westerly. 

Tbe variation, when we were at anchor in the road, by 
the mean of all onr compasses, was found to be 14^41' 20^ 
W. The dip of the N. end of the needle was 6l* 59^ SO^. 

Some of Mr Anderson's remarks on the natural appear- 
ances of Teneriffe, and its productions, and what be ob* 
served himself^ or learnt by information, about the general 
state of the island, will be of use, particularly in marking 
What changes m&y have happened there since Mr GJas vir 
sited it. They here follow in his own words : 

'' While we were standing in for the land, the weather 
being perfectly clear, we had an opportunity of seeing the 
.celebrated Pic of Teneriffe. But, I own, 1 was much dis* 
appointed in my expectation with i:esp^t to its appearanqe* 
It is, certainly, far irom eqnalling the noble figure of Pico, 
one of the western i^les which I have seen; though its per- 

Kendicular height may be greater. This circumst^oe, perh- 
aps, arises fropa its being surrounded hv other very higb 
hills ; whereas Pico stands without a rival. 
, '' Behind the city pf Santa Cruz, the country rises gpra*- 
dually, and b of a moderate height. Beyond this^ to tbe 
south-westward, it becomes higher, and.contiaoes to rise 
toward the Pic, .which, from me road, appears but little^ 
higher than tbe surrounding hills. From thepoe it seem9 
to decrease, though not suddenly, as far as the eye can 
reach. Front a supposition that we should not stay above 
one day, I was obhged to contract my excursions into the 
cQjantry ; pthei^wjse, I had propo»e4 to visit the top of this 
4amou^ mountain.^ 

''To 

^ See an accQunt of a joyrney to tlie t^p of the Pic of Tenerifie, m 
Sprat's History of the Royal Societv, p. 200, &c Gfas also went to tl^e 
fop of it— Histpry of the Canary Islands, p. 253 to 259. In tbe Phitoso-' 
phtcal Transactions, vol. xlvii. p. 853—856, we have observations made, in 
going up the Pic of Teoeriffi^ by Dr T. tieberden. The doctor makes its 
he^ht,. atiove the Uy^ ^f |he sea^ to be 2560 lithodis, or 15,89$ £n^i|h 
feet; and says, that this was confirmed by two subsequent observatioi^ by 
nim£elfy and another made by Mr Crosse, the consul. And yet I find that 

the 



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CHAP. I* 8S€T. II. Cook^ Ckrke, and Gore^ 195 

'' To th^ Eastward of Santa Gruz^ the idlan J appears per- 
^ fectly barren. Ridges of hills run toward the sea.; between 
^ vhich ridges are deep valleys^ terminating at mouotains or 
hills that run across^ and are higher than Uie foroi^en Those 
that run toward the seil>;are marked by impressions on theiic 
aides^ which make them appear as a succession ef oonic 
hills, with their tops very rugged* The higher ones that 
run across, are more uniform in their appearance. 

*' In the forenoon of the 1st of August, after we had an* 
chored in the road, I went on shore to one of these vallevs^ 
with an intention to reach the top of the remoter hills, 
which seemed covered with wood ; hut time would not z\m 
low me to get farther than their foot. After walking about 
three miles, I found no alteration in the appearance of the 
lower hills, which produce great quantities of the euphorbia 
Canariensis* It is surprising that this large succulent plant 
should thrive on so burnt-up a soil. When broken, which 
ia easily done, the quantity of iuice is very great; and it 
might be supposed that, when dried, it would shrivel to no- 
thing; yet it is a pretty tough, though soft apd light wood. 
The people here believe its juice to be so caustic as to 
erode the skin ;' but 1 convinced them, thoueh with much . 
difficulty, to the contrary, by thrusting my finger into-tbe 
plant full of it, without afterward wiping it off. They break 
down the bushes of euphorbia, and, sumring them to dry, 
carry them home for fuel. I met with nothing else grow- 
ing there, but two or three small shrubs, and a few fig-trees 
near the bottom of the valley. 

'* The basis of the hills is a heavy, compact, bluish stone, 
mixed with some shining particles; and, on the surface, 
large masses of red friable earth, or stone, are scattered 
about. I also often found the same substance disposed in 
thick strata ; and the little earth, strewed here and there, 
was a blackish mould. There were likewise some pieces of 
slag; one of which, from its weight and. smooth surface, 
seemed almost wholly metalline. 

«' The 

the Chevalier de Borda, who measured the height of this mountain in Au- 
gust 1776, makes it to be only 1931 French toises, or 12,340 English feet. 
See Dr Forster's Observations during a Voyage round the World, p. 32, 
■*"*^» 

' Glas^ p. S8], speakingof this plant, says, ^ that be cannot imagiBc whj 
tile natives of the Canaries do not extract ^e juice, and use it instead of 
pitch, for the bottoms of their boats/' We now leara from Mr Anderson 
tifeir reason for not using it. — D« 



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19(S Modem Cireumnamgatiom. ' yaBT iii. book ih« 

''The mouldering state of these hills is^ doubtless, owing 
to the perpetual action of the sun, which calcines their surr 
face. This mouldered part being afterward washed away 
by the heavy rains^ perblips is the cause of their sides being 
so uneven. For, as the different substances of which they 
are composed^ are more or less easily affected by the sun's 
beat, they will be carried away in the like proportion^. 
Hence, perhaps, the tops of the hills, being of the hardesi 
rock, have stood, while the other parts on a declivity have 
been destroyed. As I have usually observed, that the top? 
of most mountains that are covered with trees have a more 
uniform appearance, I am inclined to believe that this is 
owin^ to their being shaded. 

•* The city of Santa Cruz, though not large, is tolerably 
well built, fhe churches are not magnificent without; but 
within are decent, and indiffetently ornamented. They are 
inferior to some of the churches at Madeira; but I imagine 
this rather arises from the different disposition of the peo* 
pie, than from their inability to support them better. For 
the private houses, and dress of the Spanish inhabitants of 
Santa Cruz, are far preferable to those of the Portuguese at 
Madeiia ; who, perhaps, are willing to strip themselves, that 
they may adorn their churches. 

^' Almost facing the stone pier at the landing-place, is a 
handsome marble column lately put up, ornamented with 
some human figures, that do no discredit to the artist; 
iirith an inscription in Spanish, to commemorate the occa<r 
sion of the erection, and the dale. 

'• In the afternoon of the 2d, four of us hired mules to 
ride to the city of Laguna,* so called from an adjoining 
lake, about four miles from Santa Cruz. We arrived there 
between five and six in the evening ; but found a sight of 
it very unable to compensate for our trouble, as the road 
was very bad, and the mules but indifferent. The place is, 
indeed, pretty extensive, but scarcely deserves to be digni- 
fied with the name of city. The disposition of its streets is 
very irregular ; yet some of them are of a tolerable breadth, 
and have some good houses. In general, however, Laguna 

is 

^ Its extended name is St Chrietobal de la Laguna ; and it used to be 
redtoned the capital of the island, the gentry and lamrers living there; 
though the governoi^general of the Canary Islands resides at Santa Cnisv 
as being the centre <]f (heir trade, both with Europe and America. ^^ 
Glas's History, p. 248.— D. 



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cnkT. I. SECT. II. Cook, Gierke, and Gore. 197 

IB infeTior in appearance to Santa Craz, thotigh the latter is 
but small, if compared with the former. We are informed, 
likewise, that Laguna is declining fast; there being, at pre- 
sent, some vineyards where houses formerly stood ; where- 
as Santa Cruz is increasing; daily 

** The road Jeading from Santa Cruz to Laguna runs up 
a steep hill, which is very barren ; but, lower down, we saw 
some fig-trees, and several corn fields. These are but small, 
and not thrown into ridges, as is practised in England* 
Nor does it appear that they' can raise any corn here with- 
out great labour, as the ground is so encumbered with 
stones, that they are obliged to collect and lay them ia 
broad row3, or walls, in small distances. Thie large hills 
ihat run to the S.W., appeared to be pretty well furnished 
with trees. Nothing else worth noticing pre^enited itself 
during this excursion, except a few aloe plan,t$ in flowerj 
Bear the side of the road, and the cheerful dess of our 
guides, who amused us with songs by the way* 

*^ Most of the laborious work in. this isla&d is performed 
by mules ; horses bein^ to appearance scarce, and chiefly 
reserved for the use of the officers; They are of a small siae> 
but well shaped and spirited. Oxen are .also employed to 
drag their casks along upon a large clumsy piece of wood; 
and they are yoked by the headi* though it doth not seem 
that this\bas aiiy peculiar advantage over out: method of 
fixing the 'harness on the shoulders. In my walks and ex- 
cursions I saw some hawks,, parrots which are natives of 
the island, the sea^swallow or tern, sea-gulls, partridges^ 
wagtails, 8wallows> martins, blackbirds, and Canary«-birds 
in large flocks. There are also lizards of the cQmmon> and 
another sort; some insects, as locusts; and three or four 
sorts of dragon flies. 

*' I had an opportunity of conversing with a sensible and 
well-informed gentleman residing here, and whose veracity 
I have not the least reason to doubt. From him I learnt 
some particulars, which, during the short stay of three days, 
did not fall within my own observation. He informed me^ 
that a shrub is common here, agreeing exactly with the de- 
scription given by Toiirnefort and Linnaeus, of the tea 
shrub> as growing in China- add Japan, it is reckoned a 
weed, and he roots out thousands of them every year from 
bis vineyards. . The Spaniards^ however,, of the .island, 
sometimes use it as tea^ and ascribe to it all the qualities of 

that 



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'198 Mo3em Circumniangations: pabt luu book hi. 

iJiat imported ftom China. They also give it &e name of 
tea ; but what is remarkable^ they say it was fomid here 
when the islands were first discovered. 

^ Another botanical curiosity^ mentioned by him^ is what 
they call the impregnated lemon/ It is a perfect and dis- 
tinct lemon, inclosed within another, di£fering from the 
outer one only in being a little more globular. The leaves 
of the tree that produces this sort, are much longer than 
those of the common onq ; and it was represented to me as 
heing crooked, and not equal in beauty. 

'' From him I learnt also, that a certain sort of grape 
growing here, is reckoned an excellent remedy in phthisi- 
cal complaints; and the air and climate, in general, are re- 
markably healthful, and particularly adapted to give relief 
in such diseases. This he endeavoured to account for, by 
its being always in one's power to procure a different tem- 
perature of the air, by residing at different heights In the 
island ; and he expressed his surprise that the English phy- 
sicians should never have thought of sending ^eir con- 
sumptive patients to Teneriffe, instead of Nice or Lisbon* 
How much the temperature of the air varies here, I myself 
oould sensibly perceive, only in riding from Santa Cru2 up 
to Laguna ; and you may ascend till the cold become? in* 
tolerable. I was assured that no person can live cpmforta- 
t>ly within a mile of the perpendicular height df the Pic^ 
after the month of August.^ 

^' Although some smoke constantly issues from near the 
top of the Pic, they have had no earthquake or eruption of 
a volcano since 1704, when the port of Garrachica, where 
much of their trade was formerly carried on^ was destroyed.^ 

'* Their trade, indeed, must be considered as very con- 
siderable; for they reckon that forty thousand pipes of 

wine 

^ The writer of the Relation of Tetieriffe, in SpratS ttistory, p. 20r, 
takes notice of this lemon as produced here, and ouls it ^regntuUh Pio* 
bably. emprennadOf the Spanish word for impregnated, is the uiote it gom 
by.— D. 

« This agrees with Dr T. Heberden's account, who says that the sugar- 
loaf part of the mountain, or la pericosa^ (as it is called,) which is an eighth 
part of a league (or 1980 feet} to the top^ is covered with snow the greitf* 
est part of the year* See Pnilosophical Transactions, as q^pted above. 

' ^ This port was then filled up by the rivers of burning lava that flowed 
Into it from a voteano; insomuch that houses are now built where ships for- 
merly lay at anchor. See Glas's History, p. 244.— D. 



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CHAT, n 91CT* in Cvok, Cla^, and Gore. 10d 

vfin^ ate annually made, the greate^rt part of wHich is either 
consumed in tbe island^ or made into brandy^ and send to 
the Spanish West Indies.'* About six thousand pipes were 
exported every year to North America, while ifxe trade 
with it was uninterrujpted ; at present, they think not above 
half the quantity. The corn they raise is, in gfeneral, in- 
sniHcieitt to maintain the inhabitants; but the deficiency 
used to be supplied by importation from thb^ North Ameri- 
cans, who took their wines in return. 

^' They make a little silk ; but unless we reckon' th^ fil- 
terioMtones, brought in great numbers from Grand Cana- 
ly, the wine is the only considerable article of the foreign 
commerce of Teneriflfe. 

'^ None of the race of^ inhabitants found here when the 
Spaniards discovered the Canaries, now remain a distinct 
people ;" having intermarried \Yith the Spanish settlers ; 
but th^iT'dcfecendaDts are known, from their being remark- 
ably tall^ large^boned, and strong. ^ The men are, in gene-^' 
raV of a tawny colour^ and the women. have a pale com- 
plexion, entirely destitute of that bloom which distinguishes 
odr northern beauties. The Spanish custom of wearing 
black diothes continues amongst them ; but the men seem 
more indifferent about this, and in some measure dress like 
the French. In other respects, we found the inhabitants of 
Teneriffe to be a decent .and very civil people, retaining 
that grave cast which distinguishes those of their coutitry 
from other European nations. Although w'e do not tliinkf 
that there is a great similarity between our manners atid' 
those of the Spaniards^ it is* worth observing, that Omai did* 
not think there was much difference. He only saidj ' thbt 

they 

■* Glas, p. 349, says, that they annually export no less than fifteen thpu-» 
sand pipes of wine and brandy. In another place, p. 25^9 he tells us^ that 
the number of the inhabitants of Teneriffe^ when the last account was ta- 
ken, was no less than 96,000. We may reasonably suppose that there has 
been a considerable increase. of population since Glas visited the island, 
whicb is above thirty years aga Tne quantity of wine annually consumed/ 
as the common beverage of at least one hundred thousand persons, must* 
amouiut to several thousand pipes. There must be a vast expenditure of 
it, by conversion into brandy ; to produce one^ pipe of which, five or six 
pipes of wine must be distilled. An attention to these particulars will /ena- 
ble every one to judge, that the account given to Mr Anderson, of an an-> 
nyal produce of 40,000 pipes of w^ne, has a foundation in truth. — D. 

''It was otherwise inUlas's time, when a few families of theGuancA^f 
(as they are called) remained still in Teneriffe, not blended with the Spa- 
niards. Glas, p^ 240.^D. 



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900 Modem Cirmmmtigaivom. part in. Bdos tn. 

the^ seemed not so friendly as the English y and tfaat^ in 
their persons, they approached those of his countrymen/ '* 



Section III. 

I)eparfHn from Temriffe.--^Dang€r of the Ship near Bona-* 
vista. — Isle of Mayoi^^Port Praya, — Precautions against 
the Rain and sultry Weather in the Neighbourhood of the 
Equator.^^Position of the Coast (f Brazil. — Arrioal at the 
Cape of Good Hope. — Transactions there. — Junction oftht 
Discovefy.* — Mr Anderson*s Journey up the Country. — As*^ 
tronomical Observations, — Nautical Ranarks on the Passage 
from England to the Cape^ with regard to the Currents and 
the Variation. 

. Having completed our water^ and got on board every 
other thing wc wanted at Teneriffe, we weighed^nbhor oa 
the 4th of August, and proceeded on our voyagey with a 
fine gale at N,E. 

At nine o'clock in the evening on the 10th/ we saw the 
island of Bonavista bearing soutb> distant little more than 
a league ; though, at this time, we thought ourselves much 
farther off: But this proved a mistake. For, after hauling 
to the eastward till twelve o'clock, to clear the sunken rocks 
that lie about a league from the SkE» point of the island, 
we found ourselves, at that time, close upon them> and did 
but just weather the breakers. Our situation^ for a few mi« 
nutes, was very alarming. I did not choose to sound, as that 
mi^ht have heightened the danger, without any possibility 
of lessening it. I make the north end of the island of Bo- 
navista to lie in the latitude of 16* 17' N., and in the longi- 
tude of 22*^ 59' W. 

As soon as we were clear of the rocks, we steered S. S.W.^ 
till day-break next morning, and then hauled to the west^ 
ward, to go between Bonavista and the isle of Mayo, in- 
tending to look into Port Praya for the Discovery, as I had 
told Captain Gierke that F shoukl touch there, and did not 

know 

' As a proof of Captair> Cook's atteBtion,>Q^ to the discipline andto'' 
the health of his ship's company, it may be worth while to observe here^ 
that it appears from his log-book, he exercised them at gr^at gunfr akid 
small arms« and cleaned and smoked the ship betwixt decks, twice ixi'the 
interval between the 4th and the 10th of August*— P* 



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OHA?. I* SE€T« III. Coofc, Ckrke, and Gore. 801 

know how soon be might sail after me. At one in the af- 
ternoon, we saw the rpcks that lie on the S.W. side of Bo* 
navista, bearing S.£.> distant three or four leagues, 

Neajt morning, at six o'cjock, the isle of Mayo bore S,S.E.^ 
distant about five leagues; la this situation we sounded, and 
found ground at sixty fathoms. At the same time, the varia* 
tion, by the. mean of several. c^eimutbs taken with three dif* 
ferent compasses, was 9** 3£j' W, At eleven o'clock^ one 
extreme of Mayo bore E. by N., and the other S«E. by S; 
In this position, two roundish hills appeared near ita N.E. 
part ; farther, on, a large and higher hill ; and, at about 
two-^thirds of its length, a single one that is peaked. . At 
the distance we now^aw this island, which was three oc 
four miles, there was not the lea^t appearance of vegeta-> 
tion, nor any relief to the eye from that lifeless brown which 
prevails in countries under the Torrid 2^ne that are un^ 
l¥ooded. 

Here I cannot help remarking that Mr Nichelson, in hh 
Preface to '^ Sundry Remarks and Observations made in a 
Voyage to the East Indies/'* tells us, that ^' with eight de- 
grees west variation, or any thing above that, you may ven- 
ture to sail by the Cape de Verde Islands night or day, be^ 
ing well assured, with that variation, that you are to the 
eastward of them." Such an assertion might prove of dan- 
gerous consequence, were there any that would implicitly 
trust to it. . We also tried the current, and found one set- 
ting S.W. by W., something more than half a mile an hour. 
We had reason to expect this, from the differences between 
the longitude given by the watch and dead reckoning, which, 
since pur leaving Teneriffe, amounted to one degree. 

While we were amongst these islands, we had light breezes 
of wind, varying from the S,E. to E., and some calms. This 
shews that the Cape de Verde islands are either extensive 
enough to break the current of the trade wind, or that they 
are situated just beyond its verge, in that space where the 
variable winds, found on getting near the Line, begin. The 
first supposition, however, is iWe most probable, as Dam-* 
pier found the wind westerly here in the month of Februa- 
ry ; at which time the trade wind is^ supposed to extend iar* 
thest toward the equinoctial.^ The weather was hot and 

sultry^ 

* On board his majesty's shrp Elizabeth, ftota 1758 to 1164 ; by Wil- 
Mam Nichelson, master of the said ship. — London, 1773. 
i Dampier's Voyages, vcL iii. p, 10,---Captaia Krusenstem appears to 

be 



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fiO£ Modem Circunmavigatians. fast in. book iir. 

snHry, with some rain ; and^ for the most part^ a doll white- 
ness prevailed in the sky, that seems a mediam between fog 
and clouds. In general, the tropical regions seldom enjoy 
that clear atmosphere observable where variable winds blow ; 
nor does th^ sun shine with such brightness. This circum- 
tance, however, seems an advantage ; for otherwise, per« 
haps, the rays of the sun, being uninterrapted, wonld ren- 
der the heat quite unsupportabfe. The nights are^ never- 
theless, often clear and serene* 

At nine o'clock in the morning of the 13th, we arrived 
before Port Pray a, in the island of St Jago, where we saw 
two Dutch £a8t India ships, and a small brigantine, at an- 
chor. As the Discovery was not there, and we had expend- . 
ed but little water in our passage from Teneriffe, I did not 
think proper to go in, but stood to the southward. Some 
altitudes of the sun were now taken, to ascertain the true 
time. The longitude by the watch, deduced therefrom, was 
23^ 48' west; the little island in the bay bore W.N.W.^ 
distant near three miles, which will make its longitude 2S* 
51\ The same watch, on my late voyage^ made the longi- 
tude 

be of the same opinion, as to the Cape de Verde isltinds beings of sofficienC 
magnitude to alter the direction of tbe trade winds^ remarking that S.W. 
winds are frequently met with there^ and that if they are not, the wind is 
aJways very moderate in their vicinity. He recommends vessels, on their 
passage to the equator, to take their course to the westward of these 
ulan&, so as to cross the parallel of 17% or that of the island of Antonio 
in 96i^9 or even that of 27^, and then to steer S.£. by S. directly to the 
equator. He further advises, that, if (possible, tbe passage of the Line be 
enected in 20^ or 21% as then there is the advantage of a directly free 
wind as soon as the S.E. trade sets in, and oT course the ship gets quicker^ 
to the southward. But this can rarely be done. He himself crossed the 
equator in 24^ 20' W., after a passage of thirty days from Santa Cruz. 
Ships, he informs us, when crossmg in a more westerly direction than 2^ 
and 26% have been driven by strong currents, and a too southerly trade 
wind, so near the coast of Brazil, as not td be able to clear Cape St Au|us- 
tin. The present opportunity is taken of mentioninj?, that this very cautious 
and intelligent navigator agrees, in general, with Cook, as to Nicheleon's 
rule. ** His instructions for crossing the Line, on the voyage to India* 
with 6^ scf and 7^ GO' west variation, but in returning to Europe^ with 
eight degrees, might have been of use forty years ago, when the method 
of finding the longitude at sea by distances of the sun and moon was 
known to very few navigators, and for a time no great error was commit- 
ted by pursuing them; but at present a variation of seven d^;ree8 would 
fiardly be found on the coast or Africa.''— The reason is, as the scientific 
reader must know, that the variation has been on the western increase 
since tbe period alluded to. Thus Nichelson found it at St Helena, in 
176^, tabe 11^ 38', and Captain Krusenstem, in 1006, a space of fbrty- 
two years, 17° 18' 10".— £• 



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«nAj>. I. SECT, iiu Cook, Clerke, and Gore. fi03 

tade t0 be 93* 30^ W. ; and we observed the latitttde to be 
14* 5Sf S(fH. 

The day after we left the Cape de Verd6 islands, we lost 
the N.E. trade wind ; bujb did not get that which blows 
from the S.E. till the dOth, when we were in the latitude 
.of £* north, and in the twenty-fifth degree of west longi- 
tude. 

Daring this interval/ the wind was mostly in the S.W. 

auarter. Sometimes it blew fresh, and in squalls ; but for 
le most part a gentle breeze. The calms were few, and of 
short duration. Between the latitude of 1£^ and of 7* N.^ 
the weather was generally dark and gloomy, with firequent 
rains, which enabled us to save as much water as filled most 
of our eippty casks. 

These rains, and the close sultry weather accompauyiag 
them^ too often bring on sickness in this passage. Every 
.bad consequence, at least, is to be apprehended Kom them; 
and commanders of ships cannot be too much upon their 
guard, by purifying the air between decks with fires and 
sm^oke, ma by obliging the people to dry their clothes at 
every opportunity. These precautions were constantly ob- 
served on board the Resolution^ and Discovery; and wex 
certainly profited by them, for we had now fewer sick than 
oa .either of my former voj^agea. We had,, however, the 
mortification to find our ship exceedingly leaky in all her 
upper works. The hot and sultry weather we had just pass- 
ed through, had opened her seams, which had been badly 
caulked at first, so wide, that they admitted the rain-water 
through as it fell. There was hardly a man that could lie 
.dry in his bed ; and the officers in the gun-room were all 

driven 



^ On the I8th« I sutt a bucket with a thermometer seventy iathoms 
bek)w the surface of the sef^ Where it renuuQed two jpifiutei ; and it took 
three minutes more to baxA it up. The mercury in the thermomeWr was 
«t 66f which before, in the air, stood at 78, and in the surface of the sea 
At 79. The water which came np in the bucket, contained, by Mr Cavei^ 
dish's table, ^^ , 7 part salt; and that at the suri^ce of the sea -ip A* As 
this last iwas taken up after a smart shower of jaun, it might be lighter 0«~ 
'that aoooontd — Captain OMs log-iook. . • 

^ The.particidarBare mentioned in his log-book. On the 14th of Aup 
.guflit, a fiiie was made in the well, to air the ship below. On the l^th, liii 
snrevsailB weoe aired upon deck, and a£re made to air the sait^vxim. Oa 
.we-Kth, cleaned and smoked betwixt decks, and the^breadnroom aired 
«with fieas* On the 2l8t, cleaned and smoked betwiaLt decks ; and on the 
2%d| the men's bedding was spread on deck to air.— D. 



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£04 Modem Citeumnaingations* part iii . book iii» 

•driven out of their cabins^ by the water that came through 
the sides. The sails in the sail-room got wet ; and before 
y^e had weather to dry them, many of them were much da- 
xnaged) and a great expetlce of canvas and of time became 
necessary to make them in some degree serviceable. Ha- 
ving experienced the same defect in our saiUrooms on my 
late voyage, it had been represented to the yard-officers, 
who undertook to remove it. But it did not appear to me 
that any thing had been done to remedy the complaints 
To repair these defects the caulkers were set to work, as 
60on as we got into fair and settled weather, to caulk the 
decks and inside weather-works of the ship ; for I would 
not trust them over the sides while we were at sea. 

On the first of September** we crossed the equator, in the 
longitude of 27* 38' W., with a fine gale at S.E. by S. ; and 
notwithstanding my apprehensions of falling in with the 
coast of Brazil in stretching to the S.W^, I kept the ship a 
full point from the wind. However, I found my fears were 
ill-grounded ; for on drawing near that coast, we met with 
the wind more and more easterly ; so that, by the time we 
were in the latitude of 10° S., we could make a south-east* 
ferly course good. 

On the 8th, we were in the latitude of 8® 57' S. ; which 
is a little to the southward of Cape St Augustine, on the 
coast of Brazil. Our longitude, deduced from a very great 

number 

^ The afternoon, as appears from Mr Anderson's Journal, was spent 
in performing the old ana ridiculous ceremony of ducking those who had 
not crossed the equator before. Though Captain Cook did not suppress 
the custom, he thought it too trifling to deserve the least mention of it in 
his Journal, or even in his log-book. Pernetty, the writer of Bougainville's 
Voyage to the Falkland Islands, in 1763 and 1764, thought differently; for 
bis account of the celebration of this childish festival on board his ship, is 
extended through seventeen pages, and makes the subject of an entire 
chapter, under the title of JBaptime de la Ligne, 

It may be worth while to transcribe his introduction to the description 
of it. ** C'est un jusage qui ne remonte pas plus baut (jue ce vojage c%l^- 
hre de Gama, qui a fourni au Camoens le sujet de la Lusiade. L'ld^e qu'ofi 
ne sf auroit %tte un bon marin, sans avoir traverse P£quateur, I'emiui io^ 
separable d'une longue navigation, un certain esprit republicatn qui r^gne 
dans toutes les petites societ^s, peu^^tre toutes ces causes reunies, ont pa 
do'nner haissance k ces fcspeces de saturnales. Quoiqu'il en soi, elles furent 
•dopt^s, en un instant, dans toutes les nations, et les hommes les plus 
cclair^s furent obliges de se soumettre d une coutume dont ils reoonnois^ 
soient i'absurdit^. Car, partout, d^s que le peuple parie, il faut que le 
lage se mette ^ runison.^'— JEIutoire cTun Vojfagc aux hies Jfamtne^ 
p. 107, 108,— D. 



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dfiAJP* i:« SECT* III. Cook, Ckrk, and Gore. fi05 

number of lanar observations^ was 34^ 16' W* ; and by the 
watch, 34** 47'. The former is 1^ 43^ and the latter 2* 14' 
Biore westerly than the island of Fernando de Noronha, the 
situation of which was pretty well determined during my 
late voyage. Hence I concluded that we could not now be 
farther from the continent than twenty or thirty leagues at 
most; and perhaps not much less, as we neither had sound- 
ings nor any other signs of land. Dr Halley, however^ ia 
his voyage, published by Mr Dalrymple, tells us,' thaf be 
made no more than one hundred and two miles, meridian 
distance, from the island [Fernando de Noronba] to the 
coast of Brazil ;'' and seems to think that '' currents could 
not be the whole cause'' of his making so little. But I ra-« 
ther think that he was mistaken, and that the currents had 
hurried him far to the westward of his intended course. 
This was, in some measure, confirmed by our own observa-* 
tions ; for we had found, during three or four days prece- 
ding the Sthy that the currents set to the westward ; and^ 
during the last twenty-four hours, it had set strong to the 
northward, as we experienced a difference of twenty-nine 
miles between our observed latitude and that by dead reck- 
oning. Upon the whole, till some better astronomical ob- 
servations are made on shore on the eastern coast of Brazil^ 
I shall conclude that its longitude is thirty-five degrees and 
A half^ or thirty-six degrees W., at most. 

We proceeded on our voyage, without meeting with any 
thing of note, till. the 6th of October. Being uien in the 
latitude of 35** ly S., longitude 7* 45' W,, we met with 
light airs and calms by turns, for three days successively. 
We had, for some days before, seen albatrosses, pintadoes^ 
and other petrels ; and here we saw three penguins, which 
occasioned us to sound ; but we found no ground with a 
line of one hundred and fifty fathoms. We put a boat ia 
the water, and shot a few birds ; one of which was a black 
petrel, about the size of a crow, and, except as to the bill 
and feet, very like one. It had a ievf white feathers under 
the throat ; and the under-side of the quill-feathers were of 
an ash-colour. All the other feathers were jet black, as also 
$he bill and legs. 

On the 8th, in the evening, on^ of those birds which 
jailors call noddies^ settled on our rigging, and wa^ caught. 

It 

^Pagell. 



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S06 Modem Circumnavigatiom* pabt nu book hi. 

It was something larger than an English Uaci-birdj and 
nearly as black, except the upper part of the head, which 
was white, looking as if it were powdered ; the whitest fea- 
thers growing out from the base of the upper biU, from 
which they gradually assumed a darker colour/ to aboal 
the middle of the upper part of the neck, where the white 
shade was lost in the black, without being diyidtd by any 
line. It was web-footed ; had black legs and a black bill, 
which was long, and not unlike that of a curlew. It is said 
these birds never fly far from land. We knew of none 
nearer the station we were in, than Gough's or Richmond 
Idand, from which our distance could not be less than one 
hundred leagues* But it must be observed that the Atlan- 
tic Ocean, to the southward of this latitude, has been but 
little fi^equented ; so that there may be more islands there 
than we are acauainted with. 

We frequently, in the night, saw those luminous marine 
animals mentioned and described in my first voyage. Some 
of them seemed to be considerably larger than any I had be- 
fore met with ; and sometimes they were so numerous, that 
hundreds were visible at the same moment. 

This calm weather was succeeded by a fresh gale from 
the N.W., which lasted two days. Then We had again va-* 
riable light airs for about twenty-four hours; when the N.W. 
wind returned, and blew with such strength, that on the 
I7th we had sight of the Cape of Good Hope; and the 
next day anchored in Table Bay, in four fathoms water, 
with the church bearing S. W. J S., and Green Point N.W» 
}W. 

As soon as we had received the usual visit from the mas- 
ter attendant and the surgeon, I sent an officer to wait on 
Baron Plettenberg, the governor ; and, on his return, salu- 
ted the garrison with thirteen guns, which compliment was 
returned with the same number. 

We found in the bay two French East India ships ; the 
one outward, and the other homeward bound. And two or 
thrte days before our arrival, another homeward*bound ship 
of the same nation had parted from her cable, and been 
driven on shore at the head of the bay, where she was lost. 
The crew were saved ; but the greatest part of the cargo 
shared the same fate with the ship, or (which amounted to 
the same) was plundered and stolen by the inhabitants, ei- 
ther out of the ship, or as it was driven or carried on shore. 

This 



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fiWAjP. X. ,$zpx* IV^ Coqk, Ckrke, and Qore. £07 

ThU is the ^KiCpwt t^iie FreDch officers gave v to me; aod 
tbe Dutoh tbemselves could not deny the fact. But^ by 
Iffty of ^^cttiipg thepvBelves from beipg guilty of a crime 
^figiiacefbl to eiFery civilized state^ they endeavoiured to iay«^ 
the whole blame on the French captain, for not applying 
in time for a guard. 

As soon as we had saluted^ I went on shore, accompanied 
by Some of my officers, and waited on the Governor, the 
Lieutenant-Governor, the Fiscal, and the Commander of 
the troops. These gentlemen received me with the great- 
est civility ; and the Governor, in particular, promised me 
every assistance that the place affi)rded. At the same time 
J obtained his leave to set up our observatory on any spot 
I ahonld think most convenient ; to pitch tents for the sail- 
iOai;ers and coopers ; ^nd to bring the cattle on shore, to 

fraze near our encampment. Before I returned on board^ 
ordered soft bread, fresh meat, and greens, to be provi- 
ded, every day, for the ship's company. 

On the 29d, we set up the tents and observatory, and 
began to ^end the several Articles out of the ship which I 
^wanted on shpre* This could not be done sooner, as the 
militia of the place were exercising on, or near, the ground 
which we were to occupy, 

. The next dfiy^ we began to observe equal altitudes of the 
sun, in order to ascertain tbe rate of the watch, or, which 
is the same thiiig, to find whether it had altered its rate. 
These observations we;re continued every day, whenever the 
weather would permit^ till tbe time of our departure drew 
^4ir« But before this, the caulkers had been set to work to 
4caulk the ship ; and I had concerted measures with Messrs 
^r^ndt and Chiron, for supplying both ships with such . 
|U!ovisions as I should want. Bakers, likewise^ had been 
iorderedi. immediately after our arrival, to bake^uch a quan- 
tity of bread as I thp^ght would be requisite. As fast as 
the severfkl article^ destined for the Resolution were got 
ready* they were carried on board. 

On the %6tb, the French ship sailed for Europe, ^nd by 
h^v yre sent Jetters to England. The next day, the Ha^ip- 
shire East India ship, from Bencoolen, anchorjed 19 the bay, 
and salut€id us with thirteen guns, which we reti^med with 
.eleven. . 

Nothing remarkable happened till the evening of the 
3Ut, when it came on to blow excessively hard at S.E., 

and 



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208 Modem Chtumnaivigaiioni. PAiiT iir. book iA 

and continue^ for three days ; during which time there 
was no communication between the ship and the shore. 
The Resolution was the onlj ship in the bay that rode out 
the gale without dragging her anchors. We felt its effects 
as sensibly on shore. Our tents and observatory were torn 
to piqces; and our astronomical quadrant narrowly escaped 
irreparable damage. On the 3d of Novetober the storm 
ceased^ and the next day we resumed our different employ- 
ments. 

On the 6th^ the Hampshire India ship sailed for England* 
In her I sent home an invalid, whom Captain Trimbfe was 
nSO obliging as to receive on board. I was* afterward sorry 
that I nad not availed myself of this opportunity to part 
with two or three more of my crew, who were troubled 
with different complaints ; but, at this time, there was sooio 
hope of their health being re-established. 

In the morning of the 10th, the Discovery arrived in the 
bay. Captain Clerke informed me that he had sailed from 
Plymouth on the 1st of August^ and should have been with 
US here a week sooner, if the gale of wind had not blown 
him off the coast. Upon the whole, he was seven day* 
longer in hie passage from England than we had been. He 
had the misfortune to lose one of his marines, by falling 
overboard ; but there had been no other mortality amongst 
his people, and they now arrived well and healthy. - 

Captain Clerke having represented to me that his ship 
was in want of caulking ; that no timemight be lost in re- 
pairing this defect, next day I sent all my workmen on board 
tier, having already completed this service on board the Re^ 
solution. I lent every other assistance to the captain to 
expedite his supply of provisions and water^ ImVihg given 
him an order to receive on board as much of both articles 
as he could conveniently stow. I now found that the ba- 
kers had failed in baking the bread 1 had ordered for the 
Discovery. They pretended a want of flour; but the truth 
was, they were doubtful of her coming/ and did not care 
to begin till they saw her at anchor in the bay. 

I have before made mention of our gettingour cattje on 
shore. The bull and two cows, with their'calves, were sent 
to graze along with some other cattle ; but I was advised 
to keep our sheep, sixteen in number, close to our tents, 
where they were penned up every night. During the night 
preceding the 14th> some dogs having got in ambngst them^ 

force4 
4 



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CH AV. I. tMV. til* Qfok^ CMse^ ^id Gorf, 408 

£iroed them oot of the pte, kilUftg foqrf and di^peming the 
' rest. SqE of ihent^ wene recovered the ne^t day; but the 
two rams, and two of the finest ewes in the whole Aovk, 
wene amongst those missing. Baron Plettenberg being now 
in the country^ I applied to the Lieiitenanl-Grovernor, Mt 
Hemmy, and to the Fiscal. Both these gentlemen promi- 
sed to use their endeavours for the recovery of the lost sheep* 
llie Ihitcb, we know, boasted that the poIiQe at the Cape 
was so carefully executed, that it was hardly possible for a 
slave, with all bis cunning and knowledge of the countty^ 
Ho effisctnate his escape. Yet my sheep evaded all the vi^ 
gilance of the Fiscal's officers and people. However^ after 
much double and expence, by employing some of the mean^ 
est and lowest scoundrels in the place (whoi to use the phrase 
of ti^e person who recommended this method to me, would« 
for a ducatoon, cut their master's throat, burn the house 
c^ver his head, and bury him and the whole family in the 
ashes)^ I recovered them all but the two ewes. Of these I 
never could bear the least tidings ; and I j^ave over all en<- 
qniry after them, when I was told that, since I had got the 
two rams, I might think myself very well off. One of tbese^ 
bowcFer, was so much hurt by the dogs, that there was lea^ 
son to believe he would never recover. 

Mr Hemmy very obligingly offered to make up this loss, 
by giving me a Spanish ram, out of some that he had sent 
for from Lisbon. ,But I declined the offer^ under a persua- 
sion that it would answer my purpose full as well, to take 
with me some of the Cape rams : the event proved that I 
^&s under a mistake. This gentleman had taken some pains 
to introduce European sheep at the Cape ; but his endea- 
vours, as he told me, had been frustrated by the obstinacy 
of the country people, who held their own breed in greater 
estimation, on Account of their large tails, of the fat of which 
they sometimes made more money than of the whole car- 
case besides ; and who thought that the wool of Curopeaa 
sheep would, bv no means, make up for their deficiency ia 
this respect.^ Indeed, I have heard some sensible men here 
toL. XV. o make 

^ *' The most remarkable thing in the Cape sheep^ is the length and 
thickness of their tails, which weigh from fifteen to twenty pounds. The 
fat is not so tallowish as that of European mutton, and the poorer sort use 
it for butter." — Kolben*8 Cape of Good Hope (English translation), vol. ii. 
p. 65« De la Caille, who finds eveiy thing wrong in Kolben, says, the 

weight 



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tlO Modem CircumnaingaHonsk pakt iif • book hi. 

mate the same observation. And there seems to be'fomi-* 
dation for it, For^ admitting that European sheep were ta 
produce wool of the same quality here as in Europe^ which 
experience has shewn not to be the case^ the Dutch had 
hot hands^ at the Cape of Good Hope, to spare for the 
manufacturing even their own clothing* It is certain that^ 
were it not for the continual importation of slaves, this set- 
tlement would have been thinner of people than any other 
inhabited part of the world. 

• . While the ships were getting ready for the prosecution 
of bur voyage,^some of our officers made an excursion to 
take a view of the neighbouring country. Mr Anderson^ 
my surgeon^ who was one of the party^ gave me the follow- 
ing relation of their proceedings.' 

• '' On the l6th, in the forenoon, I set out in a waggon, 
with five more, to take a view of some part of the country. 
We crossed the lar^e plain that lies to the eastward of the 
town, which is entirely a white sand, like that commonly 
found on beaches, and produces only heath, and other small 
plants of various sorts. At five in the afternoon we passed 
a Ijarge farm-house, with some corn-fields, and pretty con- 
siderable vineyards, situated beyond the plain> nei^r the foot 

of 

weight of the tails of the Cape sheep is not above five or six pounds* 
-r-Voyage de la Caille, p. 343. If the information given to Captain Cook 
may be depended upon, it will prove, that, in this instance at leasts K!oI« 
ben is unjustly accused of exaggeration. — D. 

. According to Mr Bingley and others, the tail of this sheep sometioies 
weighs nearly one-third of the whole carcase, and consists ot a substance 
intermediate betwixt fat and marrow, which is oflen used instead of but<« 
ter. The fleeces are very fine, long and beautiful ; and, in Thibet, where 
the breed is also found, are worl^ed into shawls. A similar breed is said 
to be found in other countries, as Barbary, Etiiiopia, the vicinity of Alep- 
|K), Persia, and Asiatic Russia. Kolben's account is conceived to be per* 
fectly credible. — ^^E. 

^ In the Philosophical Transactions, vol. Ixvi. p. 268 to S10, is an Ac- 
Count of Three Journies from the Cape Town into the Southern Parts of 
Africa, in 1772, 1773, and 1774 y by Mr Francis Masson, who bad been 
sent from England for the discovery of new plants, towards the improve- 
ment of the Royal Botanical Garden at Kew. Much curious information 
is contained in Mr Masson's account of these journies. M. de Pages, who 
was at the Cape in 1773, gives some remarks on the state of that settle- 
ment, and also the particulars of his journey from False Bay to the Cape 
Tov9n.-^Vo]/age vers le Pole du Sud, p. 17 to 32. — ^D. 

It is unnecessary to apprise the reader, that our acquaintance with the 
Cape has been most materially increased since the date of this publica- 
tion, and that several travellers have devoted their labours to the illustra- 
tioa of it0 natural history, — £. > 



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CHAF. 1. 0£CT. im - Cobk, Clerkei dfid Gore. £11 

of some low hilb^ where the soil becomes worth caltivating. 
Between six and seven we 'arrived at Stellenbosh^ the colo<^ 
nj next to that of the' Cape for its importance. 

'^ The village does not consist of more than thirty houses^ 
and stands at the foot of the range of lofty mountains^ above 
twenty miles to the eastward of the Gsme Town. The houses 
are neat; and, with the advantage or a rivulet which runs 
near^ and the shelter of some large oaks^ planted at its first 
settlings forms what may be called a rural prospect in this 
desert country. There are some vineyards and orchards 
about the place^ wbich^ from their thriving appearance, 
seem to indicate an excellent soil; though, perhaps, they 
owe much to climate, as the air here has an uncommoa 
serenity. 

^^ I employed the next day in searching for plants Btxi 
insects about Stellenbosh, but had little success. Few plants 
are in flower here at this season^ and insects but scarce. L 
examined the soil in several places, and found it to consist 
of yellowish clay, mixed with a good deal of sand. The 
sides of the low hills, which appear brown^ seem to be con« 
stituted of a sort of stone marl. 

'' We left Stelienbosh next morning, and soon arrived at 
the house we had passed on Saturday ; the owner of which> 
Mr Cloeder, had sent us an invitation the evening before 
to visit him. This gentleman entertained us with the greats 
est hospitality, and in a manner very difierent from what 
we expected. He received us with music> and a band also 
played while we were at dinner; whichj considering the 
tiituation of the place, mieht be reckoned elegant. He 
shewed us his wine-cellars, his orchards, apd vineyards ; all 
which, I must own, inspired me with a wish to know in 
what manner these industrious people could create such 
plenty, in a spot where, I believe, no other European na-^ 
tion would have attempted to settle. 

" In the afternoon we crossed the country, and passed a 
few plantations, one of which seemed very considerable, and 
was laid out in a taste somewhat different from any other 
we saw. In the evening we arrived at a farm-house, which 
is the first in the cultivated tract called the Pearl. We had. 
Hi the same time, a view of Drakenstein, the third colony 
of this country, which lies along by the foot of the lofty 
hills already mentioned, and contains several farms or plan* 
tations^tiot very extensive. 

^' I went. 



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3 1% Modan CkQtkmafig^iiOMa. var m. book hi, 

'^ I w^nl^ on the iStfi in the fbrcnooii, ia quest of plants ' 
rad iiuect^ which I found alntost as scarce as at SteHen- 
bosh ; but I met with mere shrobs or small tfces^ nafcnraHy 
produced; in the vaUeys/than in any patt of the country I 
bad hitherto seen. 

. '* In the afternoon we went to see a stone of^ a remark- 
able size, called by the inhabitants the Tower of Babylon^ 
or the Pearl Diamond.'* It lies^ or stands, npon the top 
of aorae low hiils> at the foot of which our farm-house was 
situated'} and though the road to it is neither very steep 
nor nigged, we were above aa hour and a half in walking 
to it. It, is of an oblong shape, roanded on the top, and 
lies nearly S. and N. The £. and W. sidea^aire steep, and 
almost perpendicular. The S. end is likewise steepi and its 
gieatest height b there ; from whenee it declines gently to 
the N. part, by which we ascended to its top, and had an 
extensile view of the whole country. 

*' lu circumference, I think, must be at least half a mile, 
as it took us above half an hour to walk ronnd it, including 
every allowance for the bad road,, and stopping a littie. At 
its highest part, which is the S.end, comparing it with a 
known object, it seems to equal the dome of St Paul's 
chnrefa* It is'one utiinterrupted mass or stone, if we except 
some fissures, or rather impressions, not above three or four 
feet deep^ and a^ vein which runs across near its N. end. It 
is of that sort orf stone called, by mineralogists^ Saxum can* 
ghtinatum, and consists chiefly of pieces of coarse quartz 
and glimmer, held together by a clayey cement. But the 

vein 

'^ In the Philosophical Transactions, tolp Ixviii, part i. p. lof, we have 
a letter frqm Mr Anderson to Sir John Pringle» describing, this remark* 
able stone. The account sent home from the Cape, and read before the 
Royal Society, is much the same with that now pubh'shed, but rather full* 
er. In particular, he tells Sir John, that he went to see it at Mr Masson's 
desire, who probably had not had an (^>portujHty of suffid^tly eaiaioiBing 
it himself. In the account of his journiesjabove referred to, p. 270, he 
only says, ** there are two large solid rocks on the Perel Berg, each of 
which (he believes) is more than a mile in circamference at the base, and 
lipwards of 900 feet high. Their surfaces are nearly smooth, without 
chink or fissures ; and they are found to be a species of granite, different 
from that which composes the neighbouring mountains." 

Mr Anderson having, with his letter to Sir John Pringle, also sent home 
a specimen of the rock, it was examined by Sir William Hamilton, whose 
epiniop k, that ** this singular, immense fragment of granite, most proba* 
bly has been raised by a volcanic explosion* or spme-sacht cause." See his 
Letter to Sir John Pringle, annexed to Mr Anderson's, in the Philosophi- 
cal Transactions.— D. 



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cH A3P« I. &BCfT. Ill* . Cook, XJkifke^ tmd G«««« AI3 



i ivfcioh cvolDeft it, thbUgh ^ the fltame trfaleriali, is m^dk 
oompacter. This veia is not ftboye a foot broad or Ihick ; 
and its diirfiace m cut into liltte squares or obl/Qrogs, dis]pi08ed 
obliquely, which inak«i8 it look like fhe remains of tome arv 
ttfictal work. Bui I cou\d not obsen^e wliether it ptfaetra^ 
ted far iMo tbe large rock, or was only superficial. la de^ 
ficending, we found at Jis foot a very rich black >aiould ; and 
on the sides of the bills eome trees of a considerable siiee^ 
natives of the place, which are a species. of olea**^ 

^* In the morning of the 20th we set out from the Pearl; 
and going a different road from that fay which we catne, 
passed through a country wholly unc«dtivated; iili we got 
to the Tiger hilk, wheb some tolerable cornt-fields appease 
ed« At Booii we stopped in a hollow: fee refreshment, bul^ 
in walking about here, ware plagued with a vast number of 
nuaqmloes or ^and^flies, which wetie the finst I saw in ibi 
country^ In the aftejruoon we set out iEtgaib, and in the 
evening amived at the Gape Town^ Itred n^ the joitiag 
waggon.'' . . ' : 

On the €Sd we got on board the observ^toiy, clock, ius 
By a mean of the several results of the equal altitudes of 
this Buw, taken with the astronomical quadrant, the astroooN 
mical clock was found to lose on sidereal time, 1' 8*^^68 
each day. Tbe pendiriam wsks kept ai the same length as 
mt Greenwich, where the daily loss of the clock on sidereal 
lime was 4^ 

Tbe watch, by the mean of the results of fifteen days ob- 
aeriations, was found to be losing £",26 1, on mean time, each 
day, which is 1*^,052 more than at Greenwich ; and on the 
£l3t, ai noon, she was too slow for mean time by 1^ 20^ 
QT'/S^. From this & 48^9^ is to be subtracted, for what 

she 

" It is strange that neither Kolben nor de la Caille should have thought 
theTqwer of iSibylon worthy of a particular description. The former [vol. 



il p. 52, 53, English translation] only mentions it as a high mountain. The 
latter cont^ts himself with telling us, that it is a very low hillock, tin tri$ 
bat nwuHcule. Voyage de la Caille^ p. 341. We are much obUged to Air 
' Anderson for his very accurate account of this remarkable rock, which 
agrees with Mr Sonnerat's, who was at the Cape of Good Hope so late as 
1781, His words are, *^ La Montague de la Ferle^ mente d'etre observe. 
<7est undes plus halites' des environs du Cap. Elle n'est oompos^e que 
-d'oB seul bloc de gmait crevais6 dans plosieors enckxnta" Voyage awe 
Indetj torn, il p. 9l. 

Mr Sonnerat tells us, that Mr Gordon, commander of the troops at the 
CsLpe, had lately made three journies up the country, from which, wh^ 
he publishes his journal, we may expect much curious informa|aoii.-*-'I>. 



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i214f Modem Cireumnao^atiom. PAftTiii. bookiiv. 

she was too slow oor the 1 1th of June at Greenwich, and 
her daily rate since ; and the remainder^ viz. l*" 14' 8^704, 
or 18^ 52! l&^f will be the longitude of the Cape Town by 
the watch. Its true longitude, as found by Messrs Masson 
and Dixon, is 18^ QS' 15". As our observations were made 
about half^ mile to the E. of theirs, the error of the watch 
in longitude is no more than 8' 25^. Hence we have rea- 
son to conclude, that she had gone well all the way from 
England, and that the longitude, thus given, may be nearer 
the truth than any other. 

If this be admitted, it will, in a great measure, enable me 
to find the direction and strength of the currents we met 
with on this passage from England. For, by comparing 
the latitude and longitude by dead reckoning with those by 
observation and the watch, we shall, from time to time, 
have, very accurately, the error of the ship's reckoning, be 
the cause what it will. But as all imaeinable care was 
taken in heaving and keeping the log, and every necessary 
allowance made for lee-way, heave of the sea, and oth^ 
fiuch circumstances, I cannot attribute those errors that did 
happen to any other cause but currents; but more parr 
-ticuiarly when the error was constantly the 4Kime way for 
several days successively. 

On the contrary, if we find the dhip a-head of the reck- 
!oning on one day, and a-«tem of it on another, we h^ve 
reason to believe that such errors are owing to accidental 
•causes, and not to currents. This seems to have been>the 
case in our passage between England and Tenerifie« But, 
from the time of our leaving that island, till the 15th of 
'August^ ]{;>eing then in the latitude of 1^* N. and longitude 
124* W. the ship was carried 1*?20^ of longitude to the west- 
ward of her reckoning. 'At this station the currents took a 
contrary direction, and set to E.S,£. at the rate of twelve 
or fourteen miles a day, or twenty-four hours, till we arri- 
ved into the latitude of 5* N. and longitude of 20* W.-; 
which was our most easterly situation after leaving the Cape 
de Verde Islands till we got to the southward. For in this 
situation the wind came southerly, and we tacked and 
stretched to the westward ; and, for two or three days, could 
^ot fiud that our reckoning was affected by any current. 
So that I judged we were between the current that general- 
ly^ if not constantly, sets to the east upon the coast of Gui- 
pea, ancl that whiqh sets to the west tp^ward the coast C|f 
Brazil/ ' 

This 



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CHAP. I. SECT, xii^ : ,Cq(^, Gierke, and Go^^e* : 215 : 

This westerly current was opt considerable till we got into 
2* N. and 25** W. From this station to 3"" S. and SO* W. 
the ship, in the space of four days, was carried 115 miles in 
the direction of S.W. hy W. beyond her reckoning ; ^n 
error by far too great to have any other cause but a strong 
current running in the same direction. Nor did its strength 
abate here ; hut its course was afterward more westerly^ and 
to the N* of W., and off Cape Augustine N., as I have al 
ready mentioned. But this northerly current did not exi$t 
at twenty or tliirty leagues to the southward of that Cape, 
nor any oth^, that J could perceive, in the remaining part 
ef the passage. The little difference we afterward found 
between the reckoning and observations, might very well 
happen without the assistance of cuiTents^ as ^^ill appear by 
the table of Day's Works." 

' In the accounts of my last voyage, I remarked, that the 
currents one meets with in his passage, generally balance 
each other. It* happened so then, because w^ crossed the 
Line about 20* more to the eastward than, we did now ; so 
ihat we were, of consequence, longer under the influence 
of the easterly current, which made up for the westerly one. 
And this, I apprehend, will generally be the case, if you 
cross the Line 10* or 15* to the £. of the meridian of St 
Jago. 

From these remarks I shalh draw the following conclusion, 
that after passing the Cape de Verde Islands, if you do not 
make above 4* or 6* easting, and cross the Line in, or to 
the westward of, the meridian of St Jago, you may expect 
to find your ship 3* or 4* to the westward of her reckoning 
by the time you get into the latitude of 10* S. If, on the 
other handy you keep well to the £. and cross the Line 15^ 
or 20* to the E. of St Jago, you will be tb^ as much to the 
£• of your reckoning ; and the more you \eep to the east- 
ward, the greater will be your error, as has been experien- 
ced by some India ships, whose people have found them- 
selves close upon the coast of Angola, when they thought 
its distance was above 200 leagues. 

During the whole of our passage from England, no op- 
portunity was omil^d of observing, with all the attention 
and accuracy that circumstances would permit, the varia- 
tion 

^^ The curious reader will find fi(ome interesting, though not dedsive^ 
remarks concerning the currents of the Atlantic Ocean in Gierke's Prog^ 
of Mar. Disc. vol. i. p. 8*58. — E. 



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3i6 M4Arfi ISihMMtrigdiim^. TAti*tii*^6io6iLitt. 

tfbfi of tte cotti^ft^ wbieti I h^ve iirsertfed ifi & tlible^ ^th 
the latitude eild longitude of thie 9hip at thfe tiihe bf obser- 
Tatioti. A« th^ longitode may be depended upon^ to a quar- 
ter or half a degree at most, thrs table mtHI be of use to 
those navi^tors who correct ttieir mckonin^ by the varia- 
tion. It will alfto doable Mr Btfn to correct nSs new Vatia- 
tibn Chart, a thing very much wanted. 

It seem# strange to me, that the advocates for the varia* 
tion sKbtild not ^gree amongst thenrselves*. W^ find one;'' 
of theui tellirtg us, as I have alteady observed, ^^ that with 
8* W. variatiott, bk* any thing above that, ybu may ventare 
to sail by the Gape de Verde Islands by night br day, being 
ifrell assulredj with that vaHatibrt, that ybti nYe to the eastr 
ward of Iheto/' Another, ito hii chart/* lays do^n thin va- 
riation ninety leagues to the westward of therti; Sli<5b a dis- 
agreement as Ibis, is a strbn^ proof of the utibettainty of 
both. Hoi^ever, I have ^o doiibt the fbitner found heire, 
as well as in other plac^sy the Irariatton he njfentions. But 
he should haVe consid^k^d, that at ^a, n^y >even dn Iatld| 
tlie results of the most accurate observatibnd will trot always 
be the same. Dtfierent compasses will give diffi^rent vatia- 
tions ; and eVen the same coit^pass will differ from itself 
two degrees, without our beikig able to aiscov^r, much les^ 
to remove, the cause. . ^ , , 

Whoever itkiagines he can find the variation within a de- 
gree, will very often see himself much deceived. For, be- 
sides the imperfection which may be in the contraction of 
the instrui^iit, or in the pow^ of the needte, it is certain 
that the moiibn of the ship, or attraetiod bf the iron-work, 
br some bther cause rtot yet discovered, wiH frequently oc- 
casioh far greater errors than this. That the Variatibo inay 
be fouad, with k share of accuracy more ttian suffibietkt i& 
determine the ship's cCurse, is aHowed ; but that it can bfe 
fbund so exactly as to fix the longitude Within a degree, or 
Bi!xty miles, I absolutely deny.** 

SketioS 

'♦ Mr bun. 

^' Few readers, it is presumed, require to be informed, that the mode 
of endeaVourfA^ toaseeftam die longitude by tlie variatioh bf'the compass 
fs nb longer in use. In a work already referred to, Gierke's Prog, of Mar. 
Disc, a singular enough communication is inserted respecting the e^ect of 
4H116W *on the edfApass. It is ^vh^iibeii by Lieutenant Mason of die ma- 
iisieBf bat iAi»tlkft ^ ^kperfnten/ts it relating have been repeated Vv 

others, 



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0HAF.m.MI(}*ilv. Co6tc,Ct^,andO&re. SI7 



vmmed Prinfie EiaareTi, tseHfh ^rf their ApptdYattde desert^ 
ied^—Keg^l»fs Ltmd imttd^-^Aaioal in Chthtmas 
)k^fbfyi^r.-^0emMren6^'ehe^t.*--4)esi^^ (fit. 

At'r%% ^6 ^stidter wMch hAppen^io ovtt Bheep^ it may 
be well supposed ih&t 1 did not trust rtiose that remained 
loilig Ofcl dbor^^ bftt got \httti &<id rtie other <;attle on board 
ai ft^t ai poMibi^. I also added to my origiaal stoek by 
Mrchasitig t^o 5;>M0g bUrilHy two heifers, two young stone^* 
mma^, two ^ar^^ two ra«is, seteral ewes and goati, and 
0^iyM rabbite Md poultry. 

All of thfeta Welre intended for New Zealand, Otalheite, 

and 



•there, or if tbe inference it maintainfl has been otherwise confirmed, the * 
writer has yet to learn. He thought it right, however, to notice it, as the 
more extensively hints are spreadwfaich cohccfm the advane^m^t of use- 
^1 disoov^y^ the ^i^r^t^r chttn^e we iuiive of €6it^ecting ei^rdrs, and per- 
fbcting scienc& Tbe same reason justifies his remaridng^ that the most 
ixnportsBit observations respecting the variation of the pompfiss made of 
)ate years, are those of Captain Flinders, as to the enect of the ship's 
course up<m it. The reader will find them in the ^pendik to the ac- 
«30unt of his w>yage kteiy pnbltsbed, Sd voldme. Similar observations 
-fatfve stiU. more recentlv been made by an officer on bonnd his maijesty^ 
ship Sibyl^ while in the North Sea protecting our Gr^ei^and ^sbery. 
They fornv an appendix to the Account of a Voyage to Spitzbergen, by 
Mr JohnLaing, Surgeon, published at Edinburgh, idliS. Of their im- 
portance and ^curacy, notwithstanding the small scale on which they were 
made, and the aieagre manner in whi(£ they have been eonunuaicated, it 
is impossible for a moment to doubt. The conduding -remark is entitled 
Ito considerable recard. — " Af^er a more enlarged series of observations 
l^haH have been taken, and after the attention t^ astronomers is directed 
t6 this fact, one may confidently exnect a most important improvement m 
the science of navigatimi." The vMue ^f the disoovery alhtded to, will at 
once appear from what is said in die \^y of enquiry.as to similar observa- 
tions to those made in the North $ea applying to ships coming from tbe 
Baltic, viz. that if so, **^ tliey most effectually account for ships getting 
down on the coast of Hollemd, when they Suppose themselves well over in 
Mid- channel 4 and therefore prove the loss of so many of our brftve tars 
when coining from that sea. —-P. 163. As a paper, containing Captain 
Flioders's observations on this sulHect, had been sent to the officer who 
makes this communication, by the Lords of the Admiralty, it is reasonable 
to expect that official agency is engaged to benefit the world by maturing 
be discovery.— E. 



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£18 Modtrn Circmm«9igiitiam» , part ui. book iii» 

and the neighbouring islands^ or any other places in the 
course of our voyage'^ where there might be a prospect that 
the leaving any of theqi, would be useful to posterity. 

Toward the latter end of Noyember the caulkers had fi* 
nished their work on board the Discovery, and she bad re- 
ceived all her provisions and water. Of the fprmer, both 
ships had a sufficient supply for two years and upward. And 
every other article we could think of^ necessary for such a 
voyage^ that could be had at the Cape, was procured ; nei- 
ther knowing when^ nor where, we misht come to a place 
where we could furnish ourselves so well. 

Having given Captain Clerke a copy of my instructions, 
and an order directing him how to proceed in case of separa- 
tion, in the morning of the 30th we repaired on board. At 
five in the afternoon a breeze sprung up at S.E. with which 
we weighed, and stood out of the bay. At nine it fell calm^ 
and we anchored between Pensuin Island and the east 
shore, where we lay till three o'clock next morning. We 
then weighed and put to sea, with a light breeze at S.^ but 
did not get clear of the land till the morning of the 3d, 
when, with a fresh gaje at W.N.W. we stood to the S.E. to 
get more into the way of these winds. 

On the 5th a sudden squall of wind carried away the Re^ 
solution's mizen top-mast. Having another to replace it^ 
the loss was not felt, especially as it was a bad stick, and 
had often complained. On the 6th, in the evening, being 
then in the latitude of 39^ 14' S. and in the longitude of 
2S^ 5& £., we passed through several small spots of water 
of a reddish i^olour. Some of this was taken up, and it was 
found to abound with a small animal, which the microscope 
discovered to be like a cray-fish, of a reddish hue. 

We continued our course to the S.E. with a very strong 
gale from the westward, followed by a mountainous sea^ 
which made the ship roll and tumble exceedingly, and gave 
us a great deal of trouble to preserve the cattle we had on 
board. Notwithstanding all our care, several goats, espe- 
cially the males, died, and some sheep. This misfortune 
Was, in a great measure, owing to the cold,-which we now 
began most sensibly to feel. 

On the 12th, at noon, we saw land extending from S.E. 
by S. to S.E. by E. Upon a nearer approach we found it 
to be two islands. That which lies most to the south, and 
is also the largest, 1 judged to be about fifteen leagues in 

circuity 



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I31IA7* I* SECT* !▼• Cook, CMie» and Gore. 2 igr 

circuit, and to be in Ae latitude of 46^ 53' S. and in the 
longitude of 37*46^ E«% The most northerly one is about 
nin^ leagues in circuity and lies in tbe latitude of 46^ 4cy S^ 
Udd ift $8* 8' E* longitude. The distance from the one to 
the other is about five leagges. 

We passed through this channel at equal distance from 
both islands ; and could not discover, with the assistance of 
our best glasses, either tree or shrub on ^ith^r. of them. 
They seemed to have a rocky and bold shore ; and, except- 
ing the S.E. parts, where the land is rather low and flat, a 
surface composed of barren moqntains, which rise to a consi- 
derable height, and whose summits and sides were covered 
with snow, which in many places seemed to be of a consi- 
derable depth. Tbe S.E. parts had a much greater quaatily 
on them than the rest, owing, probably, to the sun acting 
for a less space of time on these than on the N. and N.W« 
parts. The ground, where it was not hid by the snow, from 
the varipus shades it exhibited, may be supposed to be co- 
vered with moss, or perhaps such a coarse grass as is found 
.^1 some parts of Falkland's Islands. On the N. side of each 
of the islands is a detached rock ; that near the S. island is 
shaped like a tower, and seeiped to be at some distance 
from the shore. As we passed along, a quani'*ty of sea* 
^eed was seen, and the colour of the water indicated sound-* 
ings*. . But there was no appearance of an inlet, unless near 
ihe rpck just mentioned ; and thatj from its smallness, did 
pot promise a good anchoring-place* 

These two islands, as also four others which lie from nin^ 
to twelve degrees of longitude more to the E. and nearly in 
the same latitude, were discovered^ as I have mentioned in 
my late voyage/ by Captains Marion du Fresne and Crozet, 
;^ench navigators, in January, 177^, on their passage in 
two ships from the Cape of Good Hope to the Philippine 
islabds. As they have no names in the French chart or the 
southern hemisphere, which Captain Crozet communicated 
\o me in 1775/ I ^hadl distinguish the two we now saw by 

calling 

* Cftptain Cook's second voyage. These islands are said to be in the 
latitude of 48'' S. ; that is, 2° farther S. than what here appears to be their 
,real postiion^^D. 

^ See Cook's voyage, as above. Dr Forster, in his Observations made 
during that Voyage, p. SO, gives us this description of the chart then com- 
municated by Monsieur Crozet; that it was '* published under the patron- 
age of the Duke de Croye, by Robert de Vaugondy." Captain Cook tells 
JQS> lower in this chapter, that it was published in 1773.-— D. 



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2Sa Modern Grcumnaoigaiums. part hi. book nu 

calling them Prince Edward's Islands^ after bis majesty^ 
fourth son ; and the other foor^ by the name of Marion's 
and Crozet's Islands, to commemorate their discoverers. 

We bad now^ for the most part^ strong ^ales between the 
N. and W., and but very indifferent weather ; not better> 
indeed^ than we generally have in England in the very depth 
of winter^ thon8;h it was now the middle ^f summer in this 
hemisphere. Not discouraged, however, by this, after lea-* 
ving Prince Edward's Islands, I shaped our course to pass 
to the southward of the others, that I might get into the 
latitude of the land discovered by Monsieur de Kerguelen: 

I had applied to the ChevaHer de Borda, whom, as 1 
have mentioned, I found at Tenerifll^, requesting, that if hift 
knew any thing of the island discovered by Monsi«tir de 
Kerguelen, between the Cape of Good Hope and New Hol- 
land, be would be so obliging as to commttiiicale it to me; 
Accordingly, just before we sailed frpm Santa Cruz Bay, 
he sent me the following account of it, vis. '^ That the pilot 
of the Bonssole, who was ii) the voyage with Monsieur d^ 
Kerguelen, had given him the latitude and longitude of t 
little island, which Monsieur de Kerguelen called the Isl6 
of Rendezvous, and which lies not far from the great tftkiid 
which he saw. Latitude of the little isle, by seven dbserva^ 
tiofbs, 48^ 26" S. ; longitude, by seven observations of 'the 
distance of the sun and moon, 64* 67' E. from Paris.** I 
was very sorry I had not sooner known that diere was on 
board the frigate at Teneriffe, an officer who had been with 
Monsieur de Kerguelen, especially the pilot ; because from 
him I might have obtained more interesting information 
about this land than' the situation alone, of which I was not 
before entirely ignorant.^ 

My 

3 Obtain Cook's proceedaigs» as related ki the remainii^ part of dub 
chapter, and in the next, being upon a coast newly discovered by ths 
French, it could not but be an object of his attention to trace the foot- 
steps of the original explorers. But no superiority of professional sldlt 
lior dih'gence in exerting it, could possibly Qualify him to do this success- 
fully, without possessing, at the same time, luU and authentic intelligence 
of ail that bad been p^ormed here by fais prfedeoeKors to the disecrv^iy. 
But that he was not so fortunate as to be tinis suffidentiy instructed, wra 
appear from the following facts, which the reader is requested to atteadto^ 
kk€<fre he proceeds to the perusal of this part of the joamal. 

How very Httle was known, whh atny precision, aboot the opemtions of 
Kerguelen, when Captain Cook sailed in 1776, may be inferred flrom the 
Ibllowiiig paragraph of his instf udioM v^^ Yarn are to proceed in seardi 



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CHA9. 1. sxcT, IT. Cook, Ckrke^ 0ml Gm. t£l 

' My instrnctions direclmg i»e to ezamuie it^ with a View 
to discover a good* harbour^ I proceeded in the search ; and 
on th^ lOtb^ beiag then in the latitude of 48^ 45', and ia 

the 

ef some islands said to have been lately seen by the French m the latitude 
•f 48^ &, and in the meridian of the Mauritius/' This was, barely^ the 
amount of the very indefinite and imperfect information^ which Captaia 
Cook himself had received frbm Baron Plettenberg at the Cape of Grood 
Hope, in November 1772 ; in the beginning of which year Kerguelen^ft 
first voyage had taken place. . 

^ The eaptain, on his return homewatd, in March 377^, heard, a secondl 
^e^ something about this French discovery at the Ciqse, where he me( 
vith Monsieur Crozet, who very obligingly communicated to him a chart 
q£ the southern hemisphere, wherein were delineated not only hii own 
^'scoveries, but also that of Captain Kerguelen. But what little infomuiF* 
tion that chart could convey, was still necessarily confined to the opera- 
tRMM of the first vo^mge; the chart bere referred to» having been publish« 
6d in France in 1773, that is, foeford any intelligence could possibly be 
conveyed from the southern hemisphere of the result of Kerguelen'^ se^ 
cond visit to this new land, which, we now know, happened towards the 
dose of the same year. 

Of these latter operations, the only account (if. that can be caHed an ac« 
eoont, which conveys no particular information) received by Captain Copk 
Irom Monsieur Crozet, was, that a later voyage had been undertaken by 
tite Ffench, under the command of Captain Kerguelen, which had ended 
naeh to the disgrace of that commander. 

What Crozet tiad not communicated to our author, and what we are 
0iire, from a variety of circumstances, he had never heard of from any 
ether quarter, ha missed an opportunity of learning at Teneri£fe. He ex- 
piwssed bis being sorry, as we have just read, that he did not know sooner 
that there was on board the frisate an officer who had been With Kergue* 
len, as he nnght have obtained from hira more interesting inforraetion 
about this land, than its sftuatioo. And, indeed, if he had conversed with 
that officer, he might have obtained information more interesting than he 
Was aware of; he might have learnt that Kerguelen had actually visited 
tins southern land a second time, and that the little isle of which he then 
l^eceived the name and position from the Chevalier de Borda, was a disco* 
very of this latei! voyage. But the account conveyed to him, being, as the 
veacbr will observe^ unaccompanied with any date, or other distinguishing 
ch*cumstance, be left Tenerifle, and arrived on the coasts of Kerguelen'e 
Land^ under ja ftill persuasion that it had been visited only once before. 
And|^ even with regard to the operations of that first voyage, he had no- 
thing to guide him, but the very scanty materials affi)rded to him by Baron 
Plettenberg and Monsieur Crozet. 

The truth is, the French seem, for some reason or other, not surely 
founded on the importance of Kerguelen's discovery^ to have been veiy 
shy^of publishing a full and distinct account of it. No such account had 
been published while Captain Cook lived. Nay, even after the return of 
hifrslnps in 1780, the gentleman who obligingly lent his assistance to give 
a view of the prior observations of the French, and to connect them on 
the same chart with those of our author, though his assiduity in procuring 
- * ' geographical 

9 



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822 Modem Cireumnat^atiom. mnv iii. book iiu 

the longitude of 52^ £.> we saw penguins and divers^ and 
tock*weed floating in the sea. We continued to meet with 
more or less of these every day^ as we proceeded to the 
eastward; and on the 21st^in the latitude of 48^ 27' S.^ and 
in the longitude of 65* E., a very large seal was seen. We 
had now much foggy weather^ and as we expected* to fall 
in with the land every hour^ our navigation became both 
tedious and dangerous. 

. At length, on the 24th, at six o'clock in the morning, as 
we were steering to the eastward, the fog clearing away a 
Kttle, we saw land,^ bearing S.S.E., which, upon a nearer 
approach, we found to be an island of considerable height^ 
and about three leagues in circuit.' Soon after^ we saw^an-^ 

other 

geographical infonnatk>n can be equalled only by his readine«B in commu^ 
nicating it, lied not, it should seem, been able to procure any materials for 
that purpose, but such as mark the operations of the first French voyage ^ 
and even for these, he was indebted to a MS. drawing. . 

But this veil of unnecessary secrecy is at length drawn aside. Kergue*- 
len himself has' published the journal of his proceedings in two successive 
voyages, in the years 1772 and 1773 ; and has annexed to his narrative a 
chart of the coasts of this land, as far as he had explored them in both 
voyages. Monsieur de Pag^, also^ much about the same time, favoured us 
with another account of the second voyage, in some respects fuller thaik 
Kerguelen's own, on board whose ship he was then an omcer. 

From these sources of authentic information, we are enabled to dn«F 
every necessary material to correct what is erroneous, and to illustrata 
what, otherwise, would have remained obscure, in this part of Captain 
Cook's joumaL We shall take occasion to do Uiis in sefMUiite notes on 
the passages as they occur, and conclude this tedious, bat^ it is hoped, not 
unnecessary, detail of facts, with one general remark, fully mressive of ^ 
the disadvantages our author laboured under. He never saw that part of 
the coast upon which the French had been in 177S ; and he never knew 
that thev had been upon another part of it in 1773, which was the very 
scen6 of his own operations. Consequently, what he knew of the former 
voyage, as delineated upon Crozet's chart, only served to perplex and mis* 
lead his judgment; and his total ignorance of the latter, put it out of his 
power to compare his own observations with those then made by Kcrgue- 
ien ; though we, who are better instructed, can do tliis^ by tracing the 
plainest marks of coincidence and agreement — D. 
. '*' Captain Cook was not the original discoverer of these small islands 
which he now fell in with. It is certain that they had been seen and 
named by Kerguelen, on his second voyage, in December 1773. Their po« 
sitiou, relatively to each other, and to the adjoining coasts of the greater 
land, bears a striking resemblance to Kerguelen's delineation of tUsm ; 
whose chart, however, the public may be assured, was unknown in Eng- 
land till afler that accompanying the account of this third voyage had been 
engraved.— -D. 

^ This is the isle to which Kergudcn gave the name of Croy^ or Crouy* 

Besides 




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QAAF* u SECT. IT. Cook, Clerke, and Gore* ^iS 

btber of the same magnitude, one league to the eastward f 
and between these two^ in the direction of S.E., some 
smaller ones/ In the direction of S. by E. { Ej, from the 
£• end of the first island, a third ^ high island was seen. At 
times, as the fog broke away, we had the appearance of 
land over the small inlands ; and I had thoughts Of steering; 
for it, by running in between them. But, on drawing near^ 
er, I found this would be a dangerous attempt, while the 
weather continued foggy. For if there should be no pas« 
aage> or if we should meet with any sodden danger> it 
would have been impossible for us to get off; the wind be- 
ing right a-stem, and a prodigious sea runnings that broke 
on ail the shores in a frightful surf. At the same tinse, see- 
ing another island in the N.E. direction, and not knowing 
but that their might be more, I judged it prudent to haul 
off, and wait for clearer weather, lest we should get entan- 
gled amongst unknown lands in a thick fog. 

We did but just weather the island last mentioned. It is 
a high round rock, which was named Bligh's Cap. Per- 
haps this is the same that Monsieur de Kerguelen called 
the Isle of Rendezvous;* but I know nothing that can ren-« 
dezvous at it, but fowls of the air ; for it is certainly inajt^ces^ 
sible to every other animal. 

At eleven o'clock the weather began to clear up, and we 
immediately tacked, and steered in for the land. At noon^ 
we had a pretty good observation, which enabled us to de- 
termine the latitude of Bligh's Cup, which is the northern- 
most 

Betides delineating it: upon his chart, he has added a particular view of it, 
exactly corresponding with Captain Cook's account of its being of oonsi* 
derabie height.— D. 

^ Keiguelen called this Isle Holland, afler the name of his own ship. 
There is also a particular view of it on the French chart. — D, 

^ The observations of the French and English navigators agree exactly 
as to the position of these smaller isles. — D. 

^ The situation of Kerguelen's Islie de Clugny, as marked on this charts 
shews it to be the third high island seen by Captain Cook.— D. 

^ This isle, or rock, was the single point about which Captain Cook had 
received the least information at Teneriffe; and we may observe how sa- 
gacious he was in tracing it. What he could only speak of as probable, a 
comparison of his chart with that lately publishei by Kerguelen, proves 
to be certain; and if he ha^ even read and copied what his predecessor ia 
the discovery says of it, he could scarcely have varied his account of its 
riiape. Kerguelen's words are, ** Isle de Reunion, qui n'est qu'une Roche, 
nous servoit de Rendezvous, ou de point de ralliement ; et rjessemble h. un 
CDtn d^ mire.''— D. 



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9%^ Modem Cite mnna tigaitiam. pa«t iiu boom inr; 

moat itlMid, to be 48* 99^ S., Md itt longifcode 66« 40f B.^ 
We passed it at three o'clock, atandtng to the fi.S.E*> with 
It fresh gale at W.^ 

Soon after we sair the land, of which we bad a filial 
Tiew ill the morniDg ; and at foar o'clock it emtenckd^Vom 
S.E, h E., to S.V¥. by &, distant about four miles. The left 
extreme, which 1 judged to he the northern point of this 
had, called, in the French chart of the southern heogii^ 
sphere. Cape St Louis,'* terminated in a perpendicular roek 
pf 9 Qonsiderable height; and the right one (near which is 
a detached rook) in a high indented point.'* From this 
point the coast seemed to. ti}m short cound to the 90uth-< 
ward, £oir.we could see no land to the westwacd of the di^ 
lection ia which it now bore to us, but the islands w« bad 

observed 

^ The French and English agree very nearly (as might he expected) ii| 
tbeic acceunta of the latitu^ of thi« i^Upd ; but the ob^ervatipni by which 
they fix its longitude v^ry coii&ider2^>Iy. The pilot at Teoeri0e made it 
<?nly 64<*"57'E. from Paris, which is about 67*^16' E. from Lpn^on*^ pr 
1° 24' more westerly than Captaiq Cook'^ observations fix it Monsieur 
de Pag^ gays it i$ 66^ 47' £. from FaHs, that is, 09® 6' £. from London, 
or twentyrsix milea more eaaterly than itis pUced by Captain Cook. Ker* 
guelen himself only says that it is about 6a^ of Q. longitude par G^P 44 
igngitude, — D. 

'' Hitherto, we have t>uly had occasion to supply defects, owing to 
Captain Cook's entire ignorance of Kerguelen's second voyage in 1t7S ; 
we mugt now correct errors, o^ing to his very limited knowledge ot the 
operations of thf &rs^ voyage in 1772. The ch^rt of the $outl}eri| hefi|i9r 
pnere, his only guide, having given him, as he tells us, the name of Cape 
St Louis (or Cape Louis) as the most northerly promontory then seen by 
the French ; and his own observations now satisfying him that no part of 
the main land stretched farther north than the left ext^eipe pow befoif 
bim ; from this supposed similarity of situation, he judged that his ovfU 
perpeUr 'icular rock roust be the Cape Louis of the first discoverers. Bv 
jOQkiiu; upon the chart originally publislied with this voyage^ we sbaU 
jind Cape Louis lying upon a different part of the coast ; and by com- 
paring this chart with that published by Kerguelen, it will appear, in 
the clearest manner, that the nortliern point now described by Captaia 
Cook, is the very san^q to which th^ French have given the name of Cape 
Francois — D. 

^^ This right extreme of the coast, as it now shewed itself to Captain 
Cook, seems to be what i^ represented on Kerguelen's chart under the 
name of Cape Aubert. It amy be proper to observe here, that all that ex- 
tent of coast lying between C^pe Louis and Cape Francois, of which the 
French s^w very little diirin^ th^ir first visit in 1772, aiyq m^iy be called the 
N>W. side of this land, tliey had it in their power to trace the position pf 
in 1778, and have assigned names to spme of its h^ysy ^vere, and prQiD<>ii# 
iories, upon their chart.*^!)* 



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.«iRAP. I. 8XCT. IV* Cook, Clerke^ and Gore. £25 

observed in the morning; the most southerly'* of them ly- 
ing nearly W. from the pointy about two or three leagues 
distant* 

About the middle of the land there appeared to be an in- 
let, for which we steered ; but, on approaching, found it 
was a bending in ihe coast, and therefore bore up, to go 
round Cape St Louis/« Soon after, land opened off the 
cape, in the direction of S. 5S* E., and appeared to be a 
point at a considerable distance ; for the trending of the 
coast from the cape was more soittheriy. We also saw se- 
veral rocksand islands to the eastward of the above direc- 
tions, the most distant of which was about seven leagues 
from the cape, bearing S. 88* E-'^ 

We had no sooner got off the cape, than we observed the 
coast, to the southward, to be much indented by projecting 
points and bays ; so that we now made sure of soon find- 
ing a good harbour. Accordingly, we had not run a mile 
farther, before we discovered one behind the cape, into 
which we began to ply; but after making one board, it fell 
calm, and we anchored at the entrance in forty-five fathoms 
water, the bottom black sand ; as did the Discovery soon 
after. I immediately dispatched Mr Bli^h, the master, ia 
a boat to sound the harbour ; who, on his return, reported 
it to be safe and commodious, with good anchorage in 
every part ; and great plenty of fresh-^water, seals, pen* 
guins, and other birds on tne shore ; but not a stick of 
wood. While we lay at anchor, we observed that the flood 
tide came from the S.&, running two knots, at least, in an 
hour* 

At day--break, in the morning of the 25th, we weighed 
with a gentle breeze at W* ; and having wrought into the 
harbour, to within a quarter of a mile of the sandy beach 
at its head, we anchored in eight fathoms water, the bottom 
a fine dark sand. The Discovery did not get in till two 
o'clock in the aftemooq, when Captain Clerke informed me, 
that he had narrowly escaped being driven on the S. point 
of the harbour, his anchor having started before they had 
time to shorten iix the cable* This obliged them to set sail^ 

VOL. XV. p and 

*^ Kergaelen's Isle de Clusny.— D. 

H Cape Fran^oisy as already obseFved.*— D. 

'^ The observations of the French, rouad Cape Francois, remarkably 
coincide with Captain Code's in this paragraph ; and the rocks and islands 
^ere mentioned by bim, 4lso appear upon th^ir qbart.T*-0. 



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226 Modem GrcmninavigatioM. fart hi. book ii i« 

n&d drag the anchor after th^m, till they had ropfn to 
heave it up, and then they found one of its palms was bro« 
.ken off. 

As soon as we had anchored^ I ordered all the boats to 
be hoisted out^ the ship to be moored with a kedge-anchor^ 
^d the water-casks to be got ready to send on shore* In 
th^ mean time I landed, to look for the most convenient 
spot where they might be filled, and to see what else the 
place afforded. 

I found the shore^ in a manner, covered with penguins 
and other birds, and seals. These latter were not numerous 
]>ut so insensible of fear, (which plainly indicated that they 
were unaccustomed to such visitors,) that we killed as many 
as we chose, for the sake of their fat, or blubber, to make 
oil for our lamps, and other uses. Fresh water was ia no 
less plenty than were birds; for every gully afforded a large 
streaga. But not a single tree, or shrub, nor the least sign 
pf any, was to be discovered, and but very little herbage of 
any sort. The appearances, as we sailed into the harboor, 
bad flattered us with the hope of meeting with somethiQg 
considerable growing here, as we observed the sides of 
jnany of the hills to be of a lively green. But I now found 
that this was occasioned by a single plant, which, with the 
other natural productions, shall be described in another 
place. Before 1 returned to my ship, I ascended the firM 
lidge of rocks, which rise in a kind of amphitheatre st^ovQ 
one another* I was in hopes, by this means, of obtainiog 
a view of the country ; but before I reached the top, there 
came on so thick a fog, that I could hardly find my way 
down a^ain. In tlie evening, we hauled the seine at the 
Iiead of the harbour, but caught only half a dozen small 
fish. We had no better success, next day| when we tried 
^ith hook and line. . So that our only resource here, for 
fresh provisions, were birds, of which there was aa inex- 
haustible store. 

The morning of the '26th proved foggy, with rain.* How- 
ever, we went to work to fill water, and to cut grass for our 
cattle, which we found in small spots near the head of the 
harbour. The rain which fell swelled all the rivulets to 
such a degree, that the sides of the hills, bounding the 
harbour, seemed to be covered with a sheet of water. For 
the rain, as it fell, run into the fissures and crags of the 

Tocks 



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CHAP. I. SECT. IV. Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. Qff ' 

rocks that composed the interior parts oi> the hills^ and was 
precipitated down their sides in prodigious torrents^ 

The people having wrought hard the two preceding dajs^ 
and nearly completed our water, which we filled from a 
brook at the left corner of the beach, I allowed them the 
27th as a day of rest, to celebrate Christmas. Upon this in- 
dulgence, many of them ivent on shore, and made excur-- 
sions, in different directions, into the country, which they 
found barren and desolate in the high^t degree. In the' 
evening, one of them brought to me a quart bottle which he 
had found, fastened with some wire to a projecting rock on 
the north side of the harbour. This bottle contained a 
piece of parchment, on which was written the following iiir 
scriplion : 

Ludovico XV. GalUarum 
rege, et rf.** de Boynes , 
regi a Secretis ad res 
mdritimas annis 1112 et 
1773. 

From this inscription, it is clear, that we were not the first 
Europeans who had been in this harbour. I supposed it to 
be left by Monsieur de Boisguehenneu, who went on shore 
in a boat on the 13th of February, 177^/ the same day thajfc 
Monsieur de Kerguelen discpvered this land, as app^yp&by 
a note in the French chart of the southern hemisphere^ 
published the following year.'^ 

As 

'^ The (^.), no doubt, is a contraction of the word Domino* The French 
secretary of the marine was then Monsieur de Boynes. — D. 
' ^^ On perusing this paragraph of the jouma], it will be natural to ask. 
How cootd Monsieur de Boisguehenneu, \ti the beginning of 1773, leave 
an inscription, which, upon the very face of it, commemorates a transac- 
tion of the following year I Captain Cook's manner of expressing himself 
here, strongly marks, that he made this supposition, only for want of in- 
formation to enable him to make any other. He had no idea that, the 
French had visited this land a second time ; aiid, reduced to the necessity 
of trying to accoinmodate what lie saw himself, to what little he had heard 
of their proceedings, he confounds a transaction which we, who have been 
better instructed, know, for a certainty, belongs to the second voyage^ 
with a similar one, which bis chart of the southern hemisphere has record- 
ed, and which happened in a difierent year, and at a difierent place. 

The bay, indeed, in which Monsieur de Boisguehenneu landed, is upon 
the west side of this land, considerably to the south of Cape Louis, and 
not far from another morie southerly promontory, called Cape Bourbon ; 

a part 



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2fjB Modem CireumnamgaHam. fart hi. book hi; 

As a memorial of our having been in tliis harbour^ I 
wrote on the other side' of the parchment;, 

Nave$ Uexolvtum 

et Discovery 

dt £i^ Ma^Mi Britannia, 

lyecenwm 1776. 

I ihen put it 9gain into a bottle^ together with a silver two? 
jpenny piece of 1772 ; and having covered the mouth of 

the 

• pirt p£ t^e oo^t vhich our sbipi yere not upon. Its situation is niark« 
ctTupon the chart constructed for this voyage ; and a particular view of the 
)my du Lion Marin, (for so Bot8jj;uehenneu odled it,} with the soundings, 
is preserved by Keiguelen. 

But if the bottle and inscription found by Captain Cook's people were 
pot left here by Boisguehenneii, by whom and when were thev left ? This 
we Itwm moat satisfactorily, Urom the accounts of Keigufefen's second 
^roySge, as published by himself and Monsieur de Pag^ which present us 
with the following particulars s— *' That they arrived on the west side of 
this land on the 14th of December, 1773 ; that steering to the N.E., itiey 
discovered, on the 16th, the lele de Reunion, and the other small islands 
as mentioned above ; that, on the 17th, they had before them the prind- 
pel land, (which thev were sure was connected with that seen bv them on 
the 14th,) and a high point of that land, named by them Cape Franpojs; 
that beyond this cape, the coast took a south-easterly direction, and be- 
hind it they found a bay, called by them fiaie de I'Oiseau, from the name 
of their frigate ; that they then endeavoured to enter it, bpt were prevent- 
ed by contrary winds and blowing weather, which drove them off the 
coast eastward ;• but that, at last, on the 6th of January, Monsieur de 
Rosnevet, captain of the Oiseau, was able tp send his hoat on shore into 
t;|iis bay,' under the command of Monsieur de Rochegude, one of his offi- 
cers, who took possession of that bay, and of all the country, in the name 
pf the King of France, with all the requisite formalities." • 

|Iere then we trace, by the most unexceptionable evidence, the history 
pf the bottle and inscription ; the leaving of which was, no doubt, one of 
the requisite formalities observed by Monsieur de Rochegude on this oc- 
casion. And though he did not land till the 6tb of January 1774, yet, aa 
Kerguelen's ships arrived upon the coast on the )4;th of December 1773^ 
and had discovered and looked into this very bay on the 17th of that 
month, it was with the strictest propriety and truth that 1773, .and not 
1774, was mentioned as the date of the discovery. 

We need only look at Kerguelen's and Cook's charts, to judge that the • 
Baie de I'Oiseau, and the harbour where the French inscription was found* 
is one and the same place. But besides this agreement as to the general 
jposition, the same conclusion results more decisively still, fron^ another 
circumstance worth mentioning : The Freqch, as w^H as the English vis^^ 
brs of this bay and harbour, have given us a particular plan of it; and 
whoever compares them, must be struck i^ith a resemblance that coidd- 
only be produced by copyitog one common original with fidelity* X*7ay, 

even 



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cHAi^. t. sfiCTi it; Co^k, Clerkc, and Gore. &ft9 

the bottle with a leaden cap^ I placed it the next mohiing. 
in a pile bf stones erected for the {>urpose^ npon H little 
eminence on the north shore of the harboui^; aifd iiedr td 
the place where it was first found> in which position it can^ 
not escape the notice bf any Europeaii^ ^hooii chaiice or de^ 
sign may bring into this port. Here I dis{jlayed the British 
flag^ and named the place Christmas HarboUr^ fj^ool our 
having arrived in it on that festival. 

It is the first or northernmost inlet that we meet with oa 
the S.E. side of the Cape St Loais/^ which forms the N. 
side of the harbour, and is also the northern point of this 
land. The situatiqn alone is^su^cient to distinguish it from, 
any of the other inlets ; and> to make it more remarkable, 
its S. point terminates in a high rock^ which is perforated 
quite through^ so as to appear like the arch of a bridge. 
We saw none like this upon the whole coast.'*^ The harbour 
has another distinguishing mark within^ from a sinde stone 
or rock, of a vast size, which lies on the top of a h3l on the 
^ S. side^ 

even the soundings are the same upon the same spots in both plans, bein^ 
ibrty-five fathoms between the two capes, before the entrance of the h^ 
sixteen fathonJs farther in, where the shores begin to contract; axid eigiit 
fathoms up^ near the bottom of the harbour. 

^o these particulars, which throw abundant hght on this part of our act* 
thor's journal, I shall only add, that the distance of our harbour from t-| i a t 
where Bois^aehenneu landed in 1773, is forty leagues. For this we have 
the authority of Kerguelen, in the following passage : — ** Monsieur de 
Boisguehenneu descendit le 13 de Fevrier 1773, dans un bale, qu'fl nomilid 
Baie du Don Marin, & prit possession de cette terre aii nom de Roi s ii 
n'y vit aucune trace d'habitants. Monsieur de Rochegude, en 1774, a 
descendu dans un autre baie, que nous avons nomm^ Baie de TOiseau, & 
cette seconde rade est ik quarantes lieues de la premier^. 11 ^q a 6gale- 
ment pris possession, & il n'y trouva^galement aucune trace d'habitants/' 
Kerguelen, p, 92. — D. 

18 Cape Francois, for reasons ahready ass%ned.^«^D« 
*' If there could be the least doubt remaining, of the idfeiitity of the Bafa 
de rOiseau and Christmas Harbour, the circumstance of the perforated 
rock, which divides it from another bay to the south, #ould amount to a 
strict demonstration. For Monsieur de Pagds had observed this discrimi- 
nating mark befqire Captain Cook. His wonU are as follows i— ^*< L'oii vit 
que la bote de I'Est, voisine du Cap Francois, avoit deux baies; dies 
£toitot sepaito par une pointe tr^ reconnoissable par sa fbrme, quires 
Pf^ntoit unt parte cochert, au tracers de laquelle Pon voyoit UjourJ^'^m 
Voyages du M. de Pagds, vol. ii. p. 67. Every one kndws hoW etactly the 
#orm o£ a parte caehere^ or arched gateway, corresponds with that of the 
arch of a bridge. It is very satisfactory to find the two navigators, neither 
6f whom knew any thing of the other's description, adopting the^me 
idea; #hicfa both proves that they had the same uncommon object befon^^ 
iheir qres, and that tbey made an accurate reportd-^D. 



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■fe^^^^i^Ma^ 



^30 Modem, Circumnav^afton$* ^aut hi. book hi. 

S» side» near its boitoip ; and pf>posite this, on the N..8ide^ 
there is,fi,uother bill, much like ivbut smaller. There is a 
&fi^ll j^eaql^ at its bottom^ where we connnonly landed ; 
a#^, Jbehind it^ some gently rising ground, on the top of 
which is a.Iarjge .pool of fresh^Water. The land on both sides 
of the inlet'is high, and it runs in W;, and W.N.W,, about 
twp miles. Its breadth is one mile and a quarter, for more 
than half its length, above which It is only half a mile. 
JThe depfh of water; which is fortyrfive fathoms at the en- 
. ^ti?Bnce, variesjj as w,e proceed farther in, from thirty to five 
'^pA four fathoms. The shores are steep ; and the bottom 
13 eveQT where a fine dark sand,,€xcept in some places close 
4o the. shore, where there are beds of sea-weed, which al- 
ways g^ows.pn rocky ground. The head of the harbour lies 
open onW tq two points of the compass ; and even these are 
covered oy islands in the .offing, so that no sea can fall in 
to hurt! a ship. The appearances on shore confirmed this ; 
for we found grass growing close to high* water mark, which 
is. a sifre sign of a pacific harbour.*** It is high-water here, 
at the full and change days, about ten o'clock ; and ftie tide 
lii^Q and falls about fonr feet. 

After I had finished this business of the inscription^ I 
Went in iny boat round the harbour, and landed in several 

places, 

*° In the last note, we saw how remarkably Monsieur de Pag^ and 
Captain Cook agree about the appearance of the south point of the har- 
bour ; I shall ber^ subjoin another quotation from the former, containing 
his acepunt of the harbour itself, in which the reader ma^^ trace the same 
itistinguibhing features observed by Captain Cook in the foregoing para* 
grapftt . ' . 

" Le 6, rpn mit ^ terre dans la premiere baie a l*Est du Cap Franpois, 
'& Ton prit p^ossession de ces contrees. Ce mouillage consiste en une pe- 
tite rade, qui a environs quatres encablures, ou quatre cents toises de pro* 
fondeur, sur un tiers en sus de largeurl £n dedans de cette rade est un 
petit port, dont I'entr^e* de quatres encablures de largeur, presente au 
Siid-Est. La sonde de ia petite rade est depuis miarante-cinq jusqu*ll 
^ente brasses j. et celle du port depuis seize jusqu'a huit. Le fond de« 
deux est de ^ab)e noir et vaseux.- La cote des deux bords est haute, & 
pajr une ponte tr^s rude; elle est couverte de verdure, & il ya une (^uan- 
tit^ jprodigieuse d'Outardes. Lefond du port est occupy par un monticule 
quJTai^e^entre lui, et la mer une plage de sable. Une petite rivierg, d^ 
iris bonne eau, coule ^ la mer dans cet endroit ; & elle est fournie par un 
fac qui est un peu agi join, au dessus du monticule. 11 y ayoit sur le plage 
beaucoup de plnguoins & de lions marins. Ces deux especes d'animaux 
ne fuyoient pas, & I'on augura que le pays n'^toit point habits ; la terrt 
rapftertoit de I'herbe large, noire, & bien nourrie, qui n'avoit cependant 
que cinque pouces ou plus de hauteur. L'on ne vit aucun arb^e, hi signe 
a'habitation/^ — Voyag€ du M<msi€ur de Pagh^ torn, ii. p. 6d» 70. — D. 



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CHAP. I. SHOT* V. Coek, derke, and Gore. 231 

plfte€8^ to exanane what the shore afforded ; and, particu* 
larly, to look for drift wood. For, although the land here 
was totally destitute of trees^ this might not be the case iii 
other parts; and if there were any^ the torrents would force 
some^ or, at least, some branches, into the sea, which would 
afterward throw them upon the shores, as in all othe^ coun- 
tries where there is wood, and in many where there is none : 
But throughout the whole extent of the harbour, I found . 
not a single piece. 

In the afternoon, I went upon Cape St Louis,*" accompa-^ 

. nied by Mr King, my second lieutenant. I was in hopes, 
from this elevation, to have had a view of the sea-coast, 
and of the islands lying 6ff it. But^ when 1 §ot tip, I found 
every distant object below me hid in a thick fog. The 
land on the same plain, or of a greater height, was visible 
etiough, and appeared naked and desolate in theiiighest de» 

- gree, except some hills to the southward, which were cover- 
ed with snow. 

' When I got on board, I found the launch hoisted in, the 
ghips unmoored, and ready to put to sea ; but our sailing 
was deferred till five o'clock the next morning, when we 
weighed atichor,** ' 



Section V. . 

Departure from Christmas Harbour^-^-^Range along the Coasts 

to discover its Position and Extent — Several Promontories 

and Bays, and a Peninsula^ described and named.-^Danger 

from shoals, — Another Harbour and a Soufnd.—Mr An-^ 

dertoris Obseroatiom on the Natural Productions, Animals^ 

' Soil, 6iC. of Kerguelens Itond. 

As soon as the ships were out of Christmias Harbburi 
we steered S.E. | S., along the coast, with a fine breeze ^t 
N.N.W., and clear weather. This we thought the mord 

fortonatei 

*• Cape Franfois,— D. . - • 

^^ The reader is probably not a little wearied with Dr Douglas'sjoQuiat^ 
comparisons of Kerguelen's j^nd Cook's accounts of the lands in qu^o% 
which 'indeed seem unworthy of so much concern. It was of consequence* 
however, to guard our navigator's reputation ; and some persons may relish 
the discussion, as exhibiting the acumen and good -sense which it^e de- 
tector of the infamous Lauder^ and the author of" The. Criterion," so emi- 
nently possessed.— £• 



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dS2 Modem Cireitmnao^atums* .part iiit hook iii^ 

fortuaate^ as, for 80in€ time past^ fogs had prevailed, more 
or less, every day ; and the continuance of them would 
have defeated. our plan of extending Kerguelen's discove- 
ry. We kept the lead constantly going; but seldom struck 
ground with a line of fifty or sixty fathoms. 

About seven or eight o'clock^ we were off a promontory^ 
which I called Cape Cumberland. It lies a league and a 
half from the south point of Christmas Harbour, in the di- 
rection of S.E. i S. Between them is a bay with two arms, 
both of which seemed to afford good shelter for shipping. 
Off CeLpe Cumberland is a small but pretty high island^ oa ' 
the summit of which is a rock like a sentrv-box^ which oc- 
casioned our giving that name to the iafand. Two miles 
farther, to the eastward^ lies a group of small islands and 
rocks^ with broken ground about them : We sailed be- 
tween these and Sentry-Box Island, the channel being a 
full mile broad, and more than forty fathoms deep ; for we 
found no bottom with that length of line. 

Being through this channel, we discovered, on the south 
side of Cape Cumberland, a bay, running in three leagues 
to the westward. It is formed by this Cape to the north, 
and by a promontory to the south, which I named Point 
Pringle, after my good friend Sir John Pringle, President 
of the Royal Society. The bottom of this bay was called 
Cumberland Bay ; and it seemed to be disjoined from the 
sea, which washes the N.W. coast of this country, by a 
narrow neck of land. Appearances, atleast, favoured such 
a conjecture, , 

To the southward of Point Pringle, the coast is farmed' 
into a fifth bay ; of which this point is the northern ex- 
treme ; and from it to the southern extreme, is about four 
miles in the direction of S.S.E. i E. In this bay, which ob- 
tained the name of White Bay, on account of some white 
$pot8 of land or rocks in the bottom of it, are several lesser 
bays or coves, which seemed to be sheltered from all winds. 
Off the south point are several rocks which raise thei^ heada 
above water ; and, probably, many more than do that. 

Thus far our course was in a direction parallel to the 
coast, and not more than two miles from it. Thither our 
glasses were continually pointed ; and we could easily see 
that, except the bottoms of the bays and coves, which, for 
the most part, terminated in sandy beaches, the shores were 
Yocky, andy in many places, swarmed with birds; but the 

country 



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0HAi^. I. 8BCT. V. Cook, Ckrhe,and Gore. 2S3 

country had the same barren and naked appearance as m 
the neiffhbourhood of Christmas Harbour. 

We bad kept, on our larboard bow^ the land which first 
opened off Cape St Louis/ in the direction of S. 53* E.^ 
tninking that it was an island^ and that we should find a 
passage between it and the main. We now discovered this 
to be a mistake ; and found that it was a peninsula^ joined 
to the rest of the coast by a low isthmus. I called the bay^< 
formed by this peninsula* Repulse Bay ; and a branch of it 
teemed to run a good way inland towards the S.S. W. Lea^ 
iring this, we steered for the northern point of the penin- 
sula, which we named Howe's Foreland^ in honour of Ad*' 
miral Lord Howe. 

As we drew near it, we perceived some rocks and break- 
ers near the N. W. part ; and two islands a league and a half 
to the eastward of it, which, at first, appeared as one; I 
steered between them and the Foreland ;* and was in the 
middle of the channel by noon. At that time our latitude, 
by observation, was 48* 51' S. ; and we had made twenty- 
six miles of east longitude from Cape St Louis^ 

From this situation, the most advanced land to the.south- 
^ard bore S. E. ; but the trending of the coast from the Fore-r 
land was more southerly. The islands which lie off Christ- 
mas Harbour bore N. ; and the north point of the Foreland 
a. 60* W., distant three miles. The land of this Peninsu- 
la, or Foreland, is of a moderate height, and of a hilly and 
rocky substance. The coast is low, with rocky points shoot- 
ing out from it; between which points are little coves, with 
sandy beaches ; and these, at this time, were mostly cover- 
ed with sea birds. We also saw up9n them some seals* . 

As soon as we were clear of the rocks and islands before 
mentioned, I gave orders to steer S.E. by S. along the coast. 
But before these orders could be carried into execution^ we 
discovered the whole sea before us to be chequered with 

large 

■ Cape Frauf (Hs. 

^ Though Sfeiiguelen's ships, in lt7S, did nottrentore to explore this 
part of the coast. Monsieur de Pag^s's account of it answers well to Cap- 
Cain Cook's. ^ Du 17 au 33, 1'on ne prit d'autre oonnoissanoe que celle 
de la figure de la cote, qui, oourant d'aboid au Snd-Est, & revenant en« 
suite au Nord^Est, formoit un grand golfe. II ^toit obcupfe par des brisans 
& des rochers ; il avoit auasi une isle basse, & asses etendue, & Ton usa 
d'une bien soigneuse precaution, pour ne pas s'affaler daos oe gjalfe/'**^ 
Vm^e du M. de Pag^tf torn. li. p. 67.— D. 

f Cape.Fnm^iir ' 



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234. Modem Greumnav^ations. fart hi. book iii. 

large beds of rock-weed^ which we knew to be fast to the 
bottom^ and to grow on rocky shoals. I had often found a 
ffreat depth of water on such shoals ; and I had^ as often^ 
found rocks that have raised ttieir heads nearly to the sur- 
face of the water. It is always dangerous, therefore^ to sail 
over them before they are well examined ; but more espe- 
cially^ when there is no surge of the sea to discover the 
^danger. This ^as the case at present, for the sea was as 
'stnooth ks a mill-pond. Consequently we endeavoured ta 
avoid them, by steering through the winding channels by 
which they were separated. We kept the lead continually 
going ; but never struck ground with a line of sixty fathoms. 
This circumstance increased the danger, as we could not 
anchor, whatever necessity there might be for it. After 
running in this manner above an hour,. we discovered a 
, lurkiag rock, just even with the surface of the sea. It bore 
N.E. i £., distant three or four miles, and lay in the middle 
of one of these large beds of weeds. This was a sufficient 
warning to make us use every precaution to prevent our 
coming upon them* 

We were now cross the mouth of a large bay, that lies 
about eight miles to the southward of Howe's Foreland. In 
and before the entrance of this bay are several low islands^ 
rocks, and those beds of sea-weed. But there seemed to 
be winding channels between them. After continuing our 
course half an hour longer, we were so much embarrassed 
with these shoals, that I resolved to haul off to the east-v 
ward, as the likeliest means of extricating: ourselves frodl 
the danger that threatened us. But so far was this from 
answering the intended purpose, that it. brought us into 
more. I therefore found it absolutely necessafy to secure 
the ships, if possible, in some place before night ; espeei* 
ally as the weather had now become hazy, and a fog wad 
apprehended. And seeing some inlets to the,S*W. of us> 
I ordered Captain Clerke, as the Discovery drew less water 
than the Resolution^ to lead in for the shore ; which was. 
accordingly done. 

In standing in, it was not possible to avoid running over 
the edges of some of the shoals, on which we found from 
ten to twenty fathoms water; and the moment we were 
over, had no ground at the depth of fifty fathoms. After 
making a few boards to weather a spit that run out from 
an island on our lee. Captain Clerke made the signal for 

haying 



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CHAP. I. SECT. ▼• Cookg Gierke, and Gore. 23^ 

biiVing ducbvered an harbour ; in which, about five o'clock, 
We anchored in fifteen fathotns water, over a bottom of fine 
dark sand, about three quarters of a mile from the shore-; 
the north point of the harbour bearing N. by E, J E., one 
mile distant ; and the small islands in the entrance, within 
which we anchored, extending from E. to S.E. 

Scarcely were the ships secured, when it began to blow 
Very strong ; so that we thought it prudent to strike top- 
gallant yards. The weather, however, continued fair ; and 
the wind dispersing the fog that had settled on the hills, it 
Was tolerably clear also. The moment, therefore, we had 
Anchored, I hoisted out two boats ; in one of which I sent 
Mr Bligh, the master, to survey the upper part of the har- 
hour, and look for wood ; for not a shrub was to be seen 
from the ship. I also desired Captain Gierke to send his 
inaster to sound the channel that is on the south side of 
the small isles, between them and a pretty large island 
which lies near the south point of the harbour. Having 
given these directions, I went myself, in my other boat, ac- 
companied by Mr Gore, my first lieutenant, and Mr Bay- 
ly, and landed on the north point, to see what I could dis- 
cover from thence. 

From the highest hill over the point, we had a pretty 
good vi^w of the sea-coast, as far as Howe** Foreland. It 
is much indented, and several rocky points seemed to shoot 
out from it, with coves and inlets of unequal extent. One 
of the latter, the end of which I could not see, was disjoin-* 
ed from that in which the ships were at anchor, by the point 
we then stood upon. A great mauy small islands^ rocks, and 
breakers, appeared scattered along the coasts as well to the 
southward as northward; and I saw no better channel to 
get out of the harbour, than by the one through which we 
had entered it. 

While Mr Bayly and I were making the observations, 
'Mr Gore encompassed the hill, and joined us by a diffferent 
route, at the place where I had ordered the boat to wait for 
tis. Except the craggy* precipices, we met with nothing ta 
obstruct our walk. For the country was, if possible, more 
barren anci desolate than about Christmas Harbour. And 
yet, if there be the least fertility in any part of this land, • 
we ought to have found it in this, which is completely shel- 
tered from the predominating bleak southerly and westerly 
winds. I observed, with regret, that there w^» neither food, 

nor 



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t$6 Modern Circuinnawgationis pabt iii. book liK 

nor covering for cattle of any sort ; and tbat^ if I left any, 
they must inevitably perish. In the little cove where the 
boat waited for us (which I called Penguin Cove, as the 
beach was covered with these birds), is a fine rivulet of 
fresh water, that may be easily come at* Here were also 
some large seals, shags, and a few ducks; and Mr Bayly 
bad a transient sight of a very small land bird ; but it flew 
amongst the rocks, and we lost it. About nine o'clock we 
got on board. 

Soon after, Mr Bligh returned, and reported, that he had 
been four miles up the harbour, and, as he judged, not far 
from the bead of it. He found that its direction was W.S.W. ; 
and that its breadth, a little above the ships, did not exceed 
a mile ; but grew narrower toward the head* The sound- 
ings were very irregular, being from thirty-seven to ten fa- 
thoms ; and, except under the beds of sea-weed, which ia 
many places extended from the shore near half channel 
over, the bottom was a fine sand. He landed on botb 
shores, which he found barren and rocky, without the least 
signs of tree or shrub, and with very little verdure of any 
kind. Penguins, and other oceanic birds and seals, occu-» 
pied part of the coast, but not in such i^umbers as at Christ- 
mas Harbour. 

' Finding no encouragement to continue our researches^ 
and, the next morning, both wind and weather being fa- 
vourable, I weighed anchor and put to sea. t^o this har- 
bour I gave the name of Port Palliser, in honour of my 
worthy friend Admiral Sir Hugh Palliser. It is situated in 
the latitude of 49* S' &, in the longitude of 69* 37' E., and 
five leagues from Howe's Foreland, in the direction of S. 
25^ £• There are several islands, rocks, and breakers lying 
in and without the entrance. We went in and out between 
them and the north head ; but 1 have no doubt that there 
are other <!;hannels. 

As we were standing out of Port Palliser, we discovered 
a round hill, like a sugar-loaf, in the direction of S. 72^ E., 
about nine leagues distant. It had the appearance of an 
island lying at some distance from the coast ; but we after- 
ward found it was upon the main land. In getting out to 
sea, we had to steer through the winding channels amongst 
the shoals. However, we ventured to run over some of 
them, on which we never found less than eighteen fathoms, 
and often did not strike ground with twenty-four f so that. 



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CHAP* 1. SECT. V. Cook, Ckfke, and Gore* 457 

had it Dot b^en for the sea-weed growing upon all of them, 
thev would not have been discovered. 

After we had got about three or four leagues from the 
coast^ we found a clear sea> and then steered £. till nine 
o'clock, when the Sugar Loaf hill, above mentioned, which 
I named Mount Campbell, bore S.E., and a small island 
that lies to the northward of it^ S.S.E., distant four leagues. 
I now steered more southerly, in order to get in with the 
land. At noon, the latitude by double altitudes was 49* 8' 
S. ; and we had made eighty miles of east lo;ngitude from 
Cape St Louis.* Mount Campbell bore S. 47* W., distant 
about four leagues; a low pointy beyond which no land was 
to be seen, bore S.S.£., at the distance of about twenty 
miles ; and we ytere about two leagues from the shore. 

The land here is low and level.^ The mountains ending 
about five leagues from the low point, a great extent of low^ 
land 4s left, on which Mount Campbell is situated, about 
four miles from the foot of the mountains, and one from 
the sea coast. These mountains have a considerable elev&* 
tion, as also most of the inland ones. They seemed to be 
composed of naked rocks, whose summits were capt with 
snow. Nor did the valleys appear to greater advantage* 
To whatever quarter we directed our glasses, nothing but 
fiterility was to be seen. 

We had scarcely finished taking the bearings at noon, 
before we observed low land opening off the low point just 
mentioned, in the direction of S.S.B., and eight miles be- 
yond it. This new point proved to be the veiy eastern eX"** 
tremity of this land, and it was named Cape I)igby. It is 
situated in the latitude of 49^ SS' S., and in the longitude 
of 70* 34' E. 

Between Howe's Foreland and Cape Digby, the shore 
forms (besides the several lesser bays and harbours) one 
^reilt bay that extends several leagues to the S.W., where 
it seemed to lose itself in various arms running in between 
the mountains. A prodigious quantity of sea-weed grows 

all 

f Cape Franpois. 

' This part of the coast seems to be what the French saw on the 5th 
pf January 1774. Monsieur de Pag^ speaks of it thus : ** Nous recon- 
Dumes jiAe nouvelle cote etend|ie de toute veu dans ]'£st, & dans le 
Puest. Les terres de cette cot^ |§toient moins elevto que celles que nous 
avions vaues ju8(]ues ici ; elie^ ^toient Aus&i d'ua aspect moios rude/'-— 
Pe Fa^hf torn. ii. p. 68.— D. 



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t38 Modttn Circumnat^aiians., pabt hi. book iii» 

all over it^ which aeemed to be the same sort of weed thai 
Sir Joseph Banks distinguished by the name of fucus gi-^ 
ganteus. Some of this weed is of a most enormous length, 
though the stem is not much thicker than a man's thumb. 
1 have mentioned^ that on some of the shoals upon which 
it grows, we did not strike ground with a line of twenty- 
four fathoms. The depth of water, therefore, must have 
been greater. And as this weed does not grow in a perpen- 
dicular direction, but makes a very acute angle with the 
bottom, and much of it afterward spreads many fathoms on 
the surface of the sea, I am well warranted to say, that some 
of it grows to the length of sixty fathoms and upward* 

At one o'clock (having run two leagues upon a S.E. i £• 
course, from noon) we sounded, and found eighteen fathoms 
water, apd a bottom of fine sand. Seeing a small bending 
in the coast, on the north side of Cape Digbv> I steered for 
it. It was my intention to anchor there, if I should find it 
might be done with safety, and to land on the Cape, to ex* 
amine what the low land within it produced* After running 
in one league, we sounded again, and found thirteen fathoms ( 
and immediately after, saw a shoal right before usi, that seemr 
ed to extend off from the shore, from which we were distant 
about two miles* This discovery obliged us to haul off, E; 
by S., one league, where our depth of water increased to 
twenty^^five fathoms. We then steered along shore, and 
' continued in the same depth, over a bottom of fine c^nd^ 
till Cape Di^by bore W., two leagues distant, when we found 
twenty-six fathom9* 

After this we did not strike ground, though we tried se- 
veral times ; but the ship having a good deal of way, ran 
the line out before the lead could reach the bottom, and 
being disappointed in my views both of anchoring and of 
landing, I would not shorten sail, hut pushed forward, in 
order to see as much of the coast as possible before night* 
From Cape Digby, it trends nearly S.W. by S. for about 
four or five leagues, or to a low point, to which, in honour 
pf her majesty, I gave the name of Point Charlotte^ and it 
is the southernmost on the low coast. 

Six leagues from Cape Digby, in the direction of S.S. W. 
J W., is a pretty high projecting point, which was called 
Prince of Wales s Foreland ; and six leagues beyond that, 
|n the same direction, and in the latitude of 49* 54* S., and 
Jhe longitude of 70 IST £., is the most southerly point of 

5 ' V the 



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igilAP. I. SECT. v# Cook, Ckrkej and Gore. isg 

tbe wh^Ie coBAi, which I distinguished by the name of Capie 
* George, in honour of his. majesty. 
, Betyireen Point Charlotte and Prince of Wales's Fore- 
land, where the<;ountry to the S.W. began again to be hilly, 
is a deep inlet, which was called Royal Sound. It runs in 
W. quite to the foot of the mountains which bound it on 
the S. W., as the low land before-mentioned does on the N. 
There are islands lying in the entrance, and others higher 
up, as far as we could distinguish. As we advanced to tbe 
S. we observed, on the S. W. side of Prince of Wales's Fore- 
land, another inkt into Koyal Sound ; and it then appear- 
ed, that the foreland was the £. point of a large island ly- 
ing in the mouth of it. There are several small islands m 
this iniet ; ^nd one abput a league to the southward of Prince 
9f Wales's Foreland. 

All the land on the^S.W. side of Royal Sound, quite to 
Cape George, is composed of elevated hills, that-rise di- 
rectly from the sea, one behind another, to a considerable 
)ieight. Most of ^e summits were capt with snow, and 
they appeared as naked and barren as any we had seen. 
The smallest vestige of atree or shrub was not discover- 
able, either inland or on the coast ; and, I think, I may ven- 
ture to pronounce that the countiy produces none. The 
low lancj. about Cape Digby, when examined through our 
glasses, i^sembled the rest of the low land We had before 
jnet with ; that is, it appeared' to be partly naked and part- 
ijy covered with a green turf, a description of which shall 
be given in its proper place. The shore is composed of 
sandy beaches, on which were many penguins,' and other 
oceanic birds; and an immense number of shags kept per- 
petually -flying about the ships as we sailed along. 
. Being desirous of getting the length of Cape George, to 
be assured whether or no it was the most southerly point 
of the whole land, I continued to stretch to the S. under all 
the sail we could carry, till half an hour past seven o'clock, 
when^ seeing no likelihood of accomplishing my design, aisi 
the wind bad by this time shifted to W.S.W., the very di 
rection in which we wanted to go, I took the advantage of 
the shifting of the wind, and stood away from the coa/st. 

At this time Cape George bore S. 53® W. distant about 
aeven It^agiies. A small island that lies off the pitch of the 
cape was tbe only land we could- see to the south of it ; and 
^e were farther confirmed that there was no more in that 

quarter 



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^40 Modem drcumntrngntians. paet hi. book hi, 

auarter by a S. W. swell which we met as soon as we brought 
iie cape to bear in this direction. 
But we have still a stronger proof that no part of this 
land can extend much^ if at all^ to the southward of Cape 
George^ and that is. Captain Furneaux's track in February, 
1773, after his separation from me during ray late voyage* 
His log-book is now lying before me ; and I find from it, 
that he crossed the meridian of the land only about seven- 
teen leagues to the southward of Cape George, a distance at 
which it may very well be seen in clear weather^ This 
seems to have been the case when Captain Fumeaux passed 
it For his log-book makes no mention of fogs or hazy 
weather ; on the contrary, it expressly tells m, that, whea 
in this situation, they haid it in their power to make obser- 
vations, both for latitude and longitude, on board his ship ; 
ao that, if this land extends farther S. than Cape George^ 
it would have been scarcely possible that he should have 
passed without seeing it. 

From these circumstances we are able to determine, within 
a very few miles, the quantity of latitude that this land oc- 
cupies, which does not much exceed one degree and a 
quarter. As to its extent from £. to W. that still remains 
undecided. We only know, that no part of it can reach so 
far to the W. as the meridian of 65**, because, in 1773, un- 
der that meridian, I searched for it in vainJ 
. The French discoverers, with some reason, imagined 
Cape St Louis^ to be the projecting point of the southern 

continent* 

3 If the French ohservatfons, ^ marked upon Captain Cook's chart, 
and still more authentically upon tliat published by their own discoverersp 
may be depended upon, this land doth not reach so far to the W. as the 
meridian of 63° ; Cape Louis, which is represented as its most westerly 
point, being laid dowp by them to the £. of that meridian.^— D. 

^ The i^ea of Cape Louis beiqg this projectii^ point of a southern con^ 
tinent must have soon vanished, as Cap^ Francois, within a year after, was 
found, by the same discoverer, to lie above one third of a degree ferthef 
N. upon the same land. But if Kerguelen entertained any such imagina- 
tion at first, we ;ure sure that afterwards he thought very diflferently. This 
fippears from the following explicit declaration of his sentiments, whicli 
deserves to be transcribed from his late publication, as it does equal ho^ 
Ttour to his candour, and Captain Cook^s abilities: — ** La terreqiierai 
ilecou verte est oertainement une Isle ; puisque le c^lebre Capitaine Cook a 
p^££^ au Sud, \Qt% de son premiere voyage, sans rien rencontrer. Je juge 
m^me, que cette isle fCest pas bien grande, II y a aussi apparence^ d'apres 
k Voyage ae Monsieur Cook, que toute cette ^tendue de Mers Meridiof 
ndes, est sem^e d'Isles ou de rochers ; mais qu'il n'y a r^i continent ni 
grantk terre*' Kerguelen, p. 92. — D. 

5 



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CHAP. 1. »B€T. y« Cook, Ckrhe, uhdGore. 241 

continent Thefinglish have since proyed that no such con* 
tinent exists, and that the land in question is an island o^ no 
great extent ;< which, from its sterility, f should, with great 
propriety, call the Island of Desolation, but that I would 
not rob Monsieur de Kerguelen of the honour of its bear* 
ring his name.^ 

Mr Anderson, toy. surgeon, who, as I have already men* 
tioned> had made natural histoiy a part of his studies, lost 
no opportunity, during the short time we lay in Christmas 
Harbour, of searching the country in every direction. He 
afterward communicated to me the observaiions he made 
on its nutural prodoctidns ; and I shall insert them here in 
kis own words. 

** Perhaps no piace hitherto discovered in either hemi-' 
sphere, «nder the same paraUel of latitude, aiFords so scanty 
a field for the naturalist as this barren spot. The verdure 
which appears, when at a little distance from the shore, 

VOL. XV. g would 

^ Kefguden, as we vte in the last note, ecmoors with Gsptain Cook as 
to this. However, he tells us, that he has reason to believe that it is ahout 
SOO'Ieggues in drcuit ; and that he was acquatnted with about foursoore 
leagues of its coast. *^ J*en connois environs quatre-vingt lieues des cotes } 
et pai Men dexroire, qu'ette a environ deux cents lieues de circuit." JTer- 

. ^ Some of Monsieur de Kerguelen's own cottntrymen seem more desi- 
rous than we are to rob him of his honour. It is very remarkable, that 
Monsieur de Pag^ never once mentions the name of his commander ; and, 
diough he tid:e8 occasion to enumerate the several French explorers of the 
southern hemispherOi from Gonneville down to Crozet, he aflfects to pre- 
serve an eatire silence about Kerguelen, whose first voyage, in which the 
discoveiy of this considerable tract of land was made, is kept as much out 
of sight as-if it never had taken place. Kay, not satisfied with refusing to 
iicknowledge the ri^t of another, he almost assnmes it to himself For, 
upon a map of the world annexed to his book, at the spot where the new 
fcuDd is delaieBfeed, we read this inscription, hUi nonveliet Auttralet vuU$ 
par Monueur de Pagh^ en 1774. He could scarcely have expressed him* 
self in stronger terms, if he had meant to convey an idea that he was the 
Conductor of die discovery. And yet we know that he was only a lieute- 
BBBt [EnseigDe de vaisseau] on board of one of three ships commanded by 
Keignelen ; and that the discovery hod been ahready made in a former 
▼oyw, undertaken while he was actually engaged in his singular journey 
round the world. 

. After all, it cannot but be remarked, that Kerguelen was peculiarly un- 
fortunate in having done so little to complete what he had begun. He 
^iseovered a new umd indeed ; but, in two expeditions to it, he could not 
ODoe bring bis ships to an anchor ui)on any part of iU cossts. Captain 
Cook^ as we have seen in this, and in the foregoing chapter, had either 
fewer difficulties to struggle with, or was more successful in surmoupting 
tfiem.— D. 



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242 Modem dreumnav^aiionM. pabt hi. book uu 

would flatter one with the expectation of meeting with 
some herbage ; but in this we were much deceived. For 
on landing, we saw that this lively colour was occasioned 
only by one small plant, not much unlike some sorts of 
saxifrage, which grows in large spreading tufts to a consi- 
derable way up the hills. It forms a suifaice of a pretty 
large texture, and grows on a kind of rotten turf, into which 
one sinks a foot or. two at every step. Tbig turf, dried^ 
might, in cases of necessity, serve for fuel, and Is the only 
thing we met with here that could possibly be applied to 
this use. 

'' There is another plant, plentifully enough scatto'ed 
about the boggy declivities, which grows to near the height 
of two feet, and not much unlike a small cabbage, when it 
has shot into seeds. The leaves about the root are nume-' 
rous, large, "and rounded ; narrower at the base, attd ending 
in a small point. Those on the stalks are mueb smaller^ 
oblong, and pointed. The stalks, which are often three or 
four, all rise separately from the root, and run into long 
cylindricd heads, composed of small flowers. It has not 
only the appearance, but the watery acrid taste of the anti- 
scorbutic plants, and yet differs materially from the whole 
trrbe ; so that we looked upon it as a production entirely 
peculiar to the place. We ate it frequently raw, and found 
it almost like the New Zealand scurvy grass. But it seem- 
ed, to acquire a rank flavour by being boiled ; which, how- 
ever, some of our people did not perceive, and esteemed it 
good* If it could be introduced into our kitchen gardens, 
it would^ in all probability, improve so far by cultivation as 
to be an excellent pot-herb. At this time none of its seeds 
were ripe enough to be preserved^ and brought home, to 
try the experiment. 

'^ Two other small plants were found near the brooks and 
boggy jilacesi which were eaten as salhid ; the one almost 
like garden creSses, arid very fiery, and the other very mild. 
This last, though but small, is in itself a curiosity ; having 
not only male and female, but what the botanists call an-. 
drogynoui phtitn, 

*^ A coarse grass, which we cut down foi* the cattle, 
growsf pretty plentifully in a few snaall spots about the sides 
of the harbour, with a smaller sort, which is rarer; and upoa 
the 'flat ground a dort of goose-grass, and another small 
plant much like it. In shorty the whole catalogue of pl«ttts 

dbe^ 



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CWAF. U B£CT» V. . Cooij Ckrke, and Gort. 2iS 

doesupt exceed sixtefSjn or eighteen, inc]^d|ng same sosrU 
of moss, *njcl a beautiful ap/ecies of lictien, which erows upoa 
the rocks, higher up than the lestof the vegetable produc- 
tionts. Not is there even the least appeArance of a shriib 
in 4h^ whole country. 

" Nature has' ratjber been more bountifuliiafurnishiog.it 
with Jiivmals, though, strictly speal^iog, they are not inha- 
bitants of the place, beipg all of the marine kind ;i and, in 
geaerj^)^ only :using thesland for breeding and for a resting- 
place. The most coo^icferatle are 9eals, or (as we used to 
cairthefli).sea-bearsi. V^\x\^ that sort called the ursine seal. 
These qome ashore to rest or breed ; but they were not very 
numerous, which is not to be wondered at, as it is known 
that these xinlmals rather frequent out-rocks, and little is- 
lands lying off coasts, than bays or inlets/ They were, at 
this time^ sheddiing their hair, and so tame, that we killed 
what number we chose. 

*' No other quadruped, either oF the sea or of the land 
kind, was seen ; but a great number of birds, viz. ducks, 
petrels, albatrosses, shags, gulls, and sea-swallows. 

^* The ducks are about the size of a teal or widgeon, but 
somewhat different in colour from either. They were in 
tolerable plenty about the sides of the hills, or even lower ; 
and we killed a considerable number, which were good, 
and without the least fishy taste. We inet with some of 
the same sort at the island of Ueorgia in our late voyage. 

^' The cape petrel, or pintado bird ; the small blue one, 
which is always seen at sea, and the small black one, or 
Mother Carey's chicken, are not here in great numbers. 
But we found a nest of the first with an egg in it, about the 
si^ of a pullet's \ and the second, though scarce, was met 
with in some holes like rabbit-burrows. 

** Another sort, which is the largest of all the petrels, and 
called by the seamen Mpther Carey's goose, is in greater 
numbeis, and so tame, that at first we could kill them with 
a stick upon the beach. They are hot inferior in size to aa 
albatross, and are carnivorous, feeding on the dead car- 
casses of seals or birds that were thrown into the sea. Their 
colour is a sooty brown, with a greenish bill and feet ; and, 
doubtless, they are the same that the Spaniards call quC'- 
brantahuessos, whose head is figured in Fernetty's Voyage 
to Falkland Islands.^ 

^'Of 

? Fig: 3, plate vHi. , 



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244 Modem Circumnavigaiiom. pabt iti. book in. 

*^ Of the albatrosses^ none were found on shore except 
the grey one^ which is commonly met with at sea in the 
higher southern latitades. Once I saw one of these sitting 
in the cliff of a rock, but they were frequently flying about 
the harbour ; and the common large sort, as well as the 
, smaller with a black face^ were seen farther out 

** Penguins form, by far^ the greatest number of birds 
here, and are of three sorts ; the first, or largest^ I have seen 
formerly at the island of Georgia.* It is also mentioned 
by Bougainville f but it does not seem to be so solitary as 
he represents it^ for we found considerable numbers flock- 
ing together. The head is black, the upper ]part of the 
body a leaden grey, and the under part white^ with black 
feet. It has two broad stripes of fine yellow, that l>egin on 
the sides of the head, and^ descending by each side of the 
' neck^ meet above its breast. The bill is partly reddish, and 
longer than in the other sorts. 

'' The second sort of penguins scarcely exceeds half the 
size of the former. The upper part of the body is a black- 
ish grey, with a white spot on the upper part of the head, 
growing bi^oader at each side. The bill and feet are yel- 
lowish. A very accurate figure and description, both of 
this and of the preceding, is given by Mr SonneraU'* 

'* The third sort of pengum met with here, had never 
been seen by any of us before. Its length is twenty-four 
inches, and its breadth twenty. The upper part of Ae 
body and throat are black, the rest white, except the upper 
part of the head, which has a fine yellow arch, looking 
l)ackward, and ending on each side in Io0g soft feathers, 
which it can erect as two crests. 

^ The two first sorts were found together on the beach ; 
the lai'ge ones keeping by themselves^ and walking in small 
flocks amongst the others, which were more numerous, and 
were sometimes seen a considerable way up the sid^s of the 
hills. * The third sort were only found by themselves, hvA 
in great numbers, on the outer shores of the harbour. They 
were breeding at this time ; and they lay on the barie stones 
only one white egg, larger than that of a duck. All the 

three 

* Pennant's Patagonian penguin. See his Gtaeni of Birds, tab. ^4^ p. 

' Voyage autotir du Monde, p. 69. 

!'' Voyage ik la NouvelleGfiin^p*. 101, I8S. Tab. lid, 115. 



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cm^» u 8£GT« V. Coqki Ckrke, an^ P(^^* S45 

tbree soc^ of peneoin^ were fiQ tanie> that w^e topk.jas many 
as we pleased witn our baa<^. 

^' XBe shags oiF this place are of two sorts ; the lesser cor- . 
moraqt or water-croW| and another^ which is black above, 
with a white belly, the same that is found in New Zealand, 
Terra del Fuego, and the ^alaod of Georgia* . 

*^ We also met with here the ccnounion sea-gull, sea^swal- 
low, tern, and Port jp^gmont hen ; the last of which were 
tame apd numerous. 

^* j(lnpther.sort of white bird, flocks of which flew about 
the bay,' is very singular, having the base of the bill cover- 
ed with a horny crust." It is larger than a pigeon, with the 
bill black apd the feet white, made like those of a curlew.- 
Some of our people put it in competition with the duck as 
food. 

^ The seine was hauled once, but we found only a few 
fish about the size of a small haddock, though quite differ^ 
ent from any we knew. The snout is lengthened, the head 
armed with some strong spines, the rays of the bacl^-fin 
long, a|id veiy strong, the belly is large, and the body with- 
out scales* The onlv shell-fish are a few limpets and mus- 
cles ; and amongst we stones a few small star-fish and sea- 
anemoniesVere found. ... 

'' The hills are of a 9i9derate height ; yet many of their 
tops w^re covered with snow at this time, though answering 
to our June. Some of them have large quantities of stones, 
irregularly heaped together at their foot, or on their sides. 
The sides of otners> Mihicb form steep cliflb toward the sea, 
are rent from the top downward, and seem ready to fall ofl> 
having stones of a considerable size lying in the fissures. 
Some were of opinion that frost might be the cause of these 
fissures, which I shall not <;lisptite ; but how others of the 
appearances could beefiected, but by earthquakes, or some 
such severe shocks, I cannot say. 

*' It appears that rain must be almost constant here, not 
only from the marks of large torrents having rushed down, 
but from the disposition of the country, which, even on the 
hills, is almost an entire bog or swamp, the ground sinking 
at every step. 

'* The rocks, or foundatioifs of the hills, are composed 
chiefly of a dark blue, and very hard, stone, intermixed 
with small particles of glimmer or quartz. This seems to 

' ThesheathbiU. See Pennant's , Genera of Birds, p. 43. 

8 



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f 46 ModirtL ^Ycumittcigatimu part rii. bo6k hi . 

be one of th'e most universkl prodactions of nature/ as it 
constitutes whole mountains iitSWedeti^in Scotland, at the 
Canary l5la9^^,;t!:l^.^ip'feorf GtJOllflBpe, and at this place. 
Another brrbwrtlsh, brittle stone" rofftis here some cdnsider- 
able rocks ; ahd'bnewhidi \^ blackc^j, and found , in dfetach- 
ed pieces^ incloses bits or Icoarse t^jiiarty/' A red, A dulijel- 
loW, and a purplish sand-stohe,'-* are 'WJso found in Wall 
pieces ; and prfetty large liimps of'senart-transparent quartz, 
disposed irregularly in poiyedral pyramidal crystals of long 
sbihing fibre?. • Some small pieced 6f the common sort ai^e 
met with in the brooks, hiiaderc»und''bjrattrttlbn';bHt.nohe 
hard enough to i resist a file ' Nor were any of the oiher 
stones acted* on by aquaforti's/or attracted by the magnet, 
^^ Nothing/ that bad the Jeaist appearance of- an ore or 
metal, lyas seen.*' •' 

■' "' •• •• " Se^c+IonVI.-"'- ' • : •• ;' - 

Passage from KerguehrCs to Van Dzemen*s LahcL-^jft^ivatm 
Adventure Bay.'—Incidtnts there,— Interviews with Ihe'Sa^ 
ihes^— Their Persons andlhess d^cribed — Actoiint &f\heir 
Behaviour. — Table of the Ij)n^tfude,*'Latitiidey andVaiHa^ 
tion, — Mr Anderson's ObserCi/titins*ori thA Natural Vroduc^ 
tions of\thc Country, on the Inhabitants, and their Lan^ 

After leaving Kerguelen^s Land, I'steered E. by N. in- 
tending, in obedience to my instructions/ to' touch hext at 
New Zealand, to recruit our water, to take in wooff; anW to 
make hay for the cattle. Their number, by ihis'tiche, had 
been considerably diminished ; two young bulls, one of the 
heifers, two rams, and several of the gdats, having of late 
died, while we were employed in ejjploring this desolate 
co^st. I . 

The 31st in the morning, being the day after westood 
out to sea, we had several observations of the sun and moon. 
Their results gave the longitude 7^*^ 33' 36" E. The time- 
keeper, in th's situation, gave 7S® 38' 15". These observa- 
tions were the more useful, as we had not been able to get 
any for some time before, and they now served to assure 
tis that no material error had crept mto the time-keeper. 
" On the 1st of January, being then in the latitude of 48* 

41 



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CHAP. I. SBCT. yi» Cook, €krhe, and Gore* 247 

'41' S. longitude 76^ 5(y E., the variatiba was SO* 39' W. ; 
and ia the. next day, in the latitude of 48^ 2^ S. longitude 
SO^ 32r E., it was 30* 47' 18* W, ^ This was the greatest va- 
riation we found in this passage ; for afterward it began, to 
.decrease^ but so slowly> that on the ^d, in the evenings •be- 
ing then m the latitude of 48^ i6'.S. longitude 86"^ E.^ it 
was^Q^Sa' W, 

Thus far we had fresh gales fronr the W. and S.W., and 
tolerably clea^ weather. But now the wind veered to the 
N. where it continued eight dagrs^ and was attended wkh a 
thick fog. During this time we ran above 300 leagues ia 
the dark. Now and then Ahe weather would clear up, 8n4 
give us a sight of the sun ; but this happened very seldom^ 
and was always of short continuance. On the 7th 1 hoistf 
ed out a boat^ and sent an order to Captain Gierke, ap^- 
pointinff Adventure Bay,^ in Van Diemen's Land> as bur 
place of cendezvous^ in case of separation before we arrived 
in the meridian of that land. Bu t we were fortunate enough^ 
amidst all this ^og^y weather, by frequently firing guns aib 
^ignals, though we seldom saw each other^ not to lose com* 
pany. 

On the 12th, being in the latitude of 48"^ 40^ S. longitude 
1 10* £6" £. ;the northerly winds ended in a calm ; which, 
after atfdw hours> was succeeded by a wind from the south- 
iward. This, with rain, continued for twenty^four hours, 
when it.frissbened, and veered to the W. and N.W.^ and 
brought on fair and> clear weather. 

We continued our course .to the eastward^ wUhoot meet- 
ing with any thing worthy of notice^ tlU four o'clock in the 
morning of the 19th, when, in a sudden squaRof wind^p 
though the Discovery received no damage, our fore-top-mast 
wept by the board, and carried the main-top-gallant*mast 
with it. This occasioned some delay, as it took* up the 
whole day ; to, clear the wreck, and fit another top-mast. 
The formeiswaa accomplished without losing any part of it, 
except a few fathpms of small rope. Not having a spare 
main-top-gallaotTmast on board, the fore-rtpprgallant-mast 
wa? converted into one for our immuediate use. 

The wind continued westerly, blew a fresh gale, and was 
attended with clear weather, so that scancely a day passed 
without being able to get observations for fixing the longi- 
tude, and the variation of the compass. The latter decrea- 
fed in such a manner^ that in the latitude of 44^ 1^8' S. lour 

gitude 



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448 JUMsm Circmma^^atidtt. vftUT nu book ui. 

:gUiicle IM* 9f E., it was no maw then 5* dV 18*' W. ; and 
on the fiSd, being then in the latitude of 4S^ 27' S. longi- 
tude 141"* 50' E., it was 1* 24' 15'^ B. So thai we had crosa- 
^ the Line where the compass has no variation. 

On the %^%h, at three o'clock in the mornings we disco- 
vered the coast of Van Diemen's Land, bearing N. f W. 
At four o'clock the S W. cape bore N.N W. i W., and tke 
Mewstone N.E. by E. three leagues distant. There are se- 
veral islands and high rocks lying scattered along this paft 
of the coasty the soutliernmost of which is the Mewstone. 
It is a round elevated rock^ five or six leagues distant from 
the S W. cape, in the direction of S. 55* E. 

At Boo», our latitude was 43*^ 47' S. longitude 147* E., 
and the siuiation of the lands round us as follows: An ele- 
vated round-topped hill bore N. 17* W.; the S.W. cape N« 
74^ W.; the Mewstone W. J N.; Swillyisle^ or Rock, S. 
49* E. ; end the S.E. or S. cape N. 40* E. distant near throe 
Jeaii&oes. . The land between the S. W. and 8. capes is bi^ 
ken and hiliy, the coast winding, with pcmts shooting oat 
£r€Hn it ; but we were too far off to be able to judge whether 
the bays formed by these points were sheltered fron the 
sea winds. The bay which appeared to be the largest and 
deepest^ Ues to the westward o^' the peaked hill above men- 
iioaed. The variation of the compass here was ^ 15' E. 

At six o'clock in the. afternoon we sounded, and found 
sixty fathoms water, over a bottom of brokeacorai and shetk. 
The S. cape then bore N. 75* W. two or tbvee leagues dts^- 
tant; Taxman's Head N.E. ; and Swiliy Rock S. by W | W. 
About a league to the eastward of Switly is another eleva«- 
ted vock^ that is not taken notice of by Captain Fumeauz. 
I called/ it, the Eddystoue^ from its very great resemblance 
to thab iighb-hottse. Nature seems to have ]eh these 
two rocks here for the same purpose that the Eddystone 
lighlhbouse was* built by man, viz. to give navigators notice 
oi the dapgers. around thelm<; for they are the conspicuous^ 
summits of a ledge of rocks under water, on which the sea^, 
in many placeg, breaks very high% Their surfece is white 
with the dung of sea^fowls ; so that they may be seen at 
some distance even in the night. On the N*E. side of 
Storm Bay, vthick lies between the S. ciape and Tasmania ' 
Head, thei^e are some coves or creeks^ that seemed to be 
sheltered foom the sea*winds ; and I am of opinion^ that, 

were 



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jcft A^« US BCT.. TKi GooXp, &krk^ ^nid Gore* 94^ 

w^e.tb& c6iu9t :Q»Qnbje4;thebe wwld be fthindBoiM ffooi 
harbours. 

SoQD after w^ bad s^ht of landi tfie .westerly} wuids left 
os^ and we^e succeeded by. variaUe ligbt aira and alternalc 
calms^ till- the d6tb at noon. At that time a breeze ^sprung 
jip and freshened at S.E. which pui it in. eny power to car-^ 
ry into execnlion the design 1 hMd, apoodtteconsideration^ 
M>tmed, of carrying the ships. into Adventure Bay^ wheie I 
nught expect to get a 9upply of wood and of grass, for the 
eattle; of both which, articles vRei.abould as I noai founds 
have been in* great want if I badwaited till our arrival in 
lijew Zealand. We therefore stood for tlie bay^ and an^ 
chored in it ai four o'clock in. the aflisrnoQii, at twelve fai* 
thorns water^ over a bottom of sand and oo2e... Penguia 
Uaiid^ which lies close to the £» poial of the bay^ bote N. 
84^ £• ; the southernmost point of Maiia's islands: bore N4 
fL&^ i £. ; and Cape Frederick Henry, or tbc N. point of 
the bay, bcxre M. 33^ £• Our distance from tlie nearest 
shore was about three quarters of a* mile* 

As soon as we bad anelMMned^ I orxteced the/ boats to bcf 
lioisted out. In one of tbemt I went myself to hok for th« 
siost eommodious place ibc fuoNshing ourselves with the 
necessary suppJaes ; and Gaptaiii Clerke went. in: his boat 
upon the same service. Wood and water we found in plea*- 

g, and in situations convenient enough, especially the first* 
i&t grass^ of which we stood most, in need, was scarce, and 
also very, coarse. Mecesaity,. however, obliged us. to take 
tfHch as. we couM get. 

Next morning early, I sent Lieutenant Kiqg to the £• 
^e of the bay with two paDties;^ one to cat wood, and the 
ether to cut grass, under the protection of the. marines^ 
whom I judged it prudent to land as a guai^d. For although^ 
as yet, none of the natives had appeared^ there could- be no 
doubt that some were in our nei^baurlioed^ as we had seen 
eolamna of smoke from the time of our approaching the 
coast,, and some now was observed at no great distance up 
in the woods. 1 also sent the lannch for water ; and after- 
ward visited all the parties myself. In the evening, wo 
drew the seine at the head of the bay, and^ aHone haui^ 
eaught a great quantity of ^h. We should have got many 
move, had not the net broken in drawing it ashoi^e. Most 
of them were of that sort known to seamen by the name of 
elephant fish. After this^ ev«ry one repaired on board with 

what 



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ftS6 Modern CircumnavigaHons. fakt hi. book i lu 

what wood and grass we had cut^ that we might be ready 
to sail whenever the wind should serve. 

This.not.happening nesct morning, the people were sent 
OD shore kgain on the same duty as the 'day before. I also 
semployed die carpenter, w$th part of bis crew, to cat some 
apars foc/the aK:of theshi^; and dispatched Mr Roberts^ 
one of the maftioB, in a BmaU boat to survey the bay. 

la th^ afbernobn, we were agreeably surprised, at the 
place where we were cutting wood, with a visit from some 
of the natives, eight men and a boy. They approached us 
from the woods, without betraying any marks of fear, or 
lather with the greatest confidence imaginable ; for Dane 
of them had any weapons^ except one who held in his hand 
a stick about two feet long, and pointed at one end. 
. They were quite naked, and wore no ornaments, unless 
we consider as such, and as a proof of their love of finery, 
some small punctures or ridges raised on different parts of 
these bodies, some in straight, and others in curved lines. 

They were of the common stature, but rather slender* 
Their skin was black> and also their hair, which was as 
woolly as tfaatof any. native of Guinea ; bat they were not 
distinguished by remarkably thick lips, nor flat noses. On 
the contrary, their features were far from being disagree- 
aiAe* They had pretty ^ood eyes ; and their teeth were 
tolerably even, but very dirty*. Most of them had their hair 
and bearda smeared with a red ointment ; and some had 
their faces also painted with the ^me composition. 

They received every present we made to them without' 
the least appearance of satisfaction. When some bread was 
given, ai^ soon as they understood that it was to be eateo, 
they either returned it, or threw it away, without even tast<* 
ing it. Theyialso refused some elephant fish, both raw aad 
dressed, which we offered to them. But upon giving some 
birds to them, they did not return these, and easily made 
us comprehend that they were fond of such food. I hud 
brought two pigs ashore, with a view to leave them in the 
woods. The instant these came within their reach, they 
seized them, as a dog would have done, by the ears, and 
were for carrying them off immediately, with no other in-* 
tention, as we could perceive, but to kill them. 

Being desirous of knowing the use of the stick which one 
of our visitors carried in his hand, I made signs to them to 
shew me i and so far succeeded^ that one of them set up a 

piece 



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eHAP. I. siCT. vi.'» Cook, Cletke, atlH Gore. tj^t 

]pliece of wood ad a Vfeark, and threw at it at Ae distanib of 
abbut twenty^atdsi^^'Batwehad lUlle reason to comttieiii ' 
his dexterity; for, after repeated trials, be wa^ 8tHi>veiy 
wSde from the object. ^ Omai, to MieW'theto' b6w tdueh^iK 
peribr^ouir weapons Were to theirs, then %ed his fflufqaetaf 
i!f; Mi^tifr alafrn'i^d tfiem so vMith, that^tiOlwith6taEiditigri|ll 
w^ ed^ld il6 or 8a(y> ihjiey i^h instantly Itttotlife woods. One 
Wtfetrf was so frightened, that ti^ let drop an axe ahditwa 
bni^^stbat had l>efed given to him. From as, hdwetrer, liiisj 
'"i»ent* tO''thfe'|>lace'wheipe some of the Discovei^B' people 
Ti^ere- Employee} in taking water mto iheir boat, llie officer 
of that paKy/not knowing that they had paid ns so'frietidlj 
il visit; nt^r what their intent might be, fired a masqfiet in 
ihfeaii-, which sWtth^m off with thre 'greatest precipifatiom 
* '^Thus ended otir first interview with the natives* IniJie- 
'^fet^iy after their filial retreat, judging ttiattiieit fears would 
']()fevefit t-heir remaitting tiear Enough* to observe what was 
|>assriig,'l iordered the two pigs, being a boar and »ow, to 
be carried 'About a toife wttlrin the tvoods at the heact^f the 
bay.' i saw them left there, by the side of a fresh-water 
brook. A young bqlj and a cow, and ^pme sheep and goats, 
^j^ie also, at fijrst^ intended to have been left by me, ks/an 
additional present, to Van Diemen's Land. But I soon liiid 
aside all thought' of this, from a persuasion that thOrlURt < 
tives, incapable of tjritering into my 'views of impi^brHiig 
their counlj^y,' would destroy them. If ever thev should 
jaaee^t with the pigs^ I have no doubt this will be tlieir fate. 
Sot as that race of animals soon becomes wild, and is fond 
^f the thickest cover of the woods, there is great probabi- 
lity of their being preserved. An open place must hav^ 
J^sien chosen for the accommodation of the other cattle ; 
«ild> in auch a situation, they could not possibly have xe* 
mained concealed many days. 

The morning of the 29th was ushered- in with a dead calm, 
which continued all day, and effectually prevented our sail- 
ing. 1 therefore sen^t ^ party pver to the E. point of the 
bay to cut grass, having been informed that some of a sit* 
perior quality grew there. Another party, to cut wood, was 
ordered to go to the usual place, and I accompanied them 
myself. We had observed several of the natives this morn* 
ing sauntering along the shore, which assured us, that 
thotigh their consternation had made them leave us so ab- 
ruptly the day before, they were convinced that we intend-- 

ed 



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%i^ Modem Circfwwav^iia99M.. pa^t i&i, book iu«^ 

^d them ho mrschief^ md were desirous of re^^mog the 
intercourse. It was natural that I 3hottld v^ish tabe pte«< 
aeot on the occasion* 

. We bad not been long landed^ before about tweptj of 
Ihenij men and bQ78> joined us, without expressing the least 
sign of fear or distrpst. There was one of this compai^ 
conspicuottsly deformed^ and who was not .more dj^tiar 
guisbable by the hump upon his back ^ than by the dr^lerjr 
of his gestures, and tne seeming humour of his speeches, 
which be was very fond of exhibiting, as we suppo^d, for 
our entertainment* But^tunfortunat^lyj wfe could not un* 
d^rstand him ; the language spoken h^re beinp wholly uor 
intelligible to us. It appeared to me to be different froni 
tbat spoken by the inhabitants of the mpre. northern partf 
ef this country, whom I met with in my .first voyage ; which 
is not extraordinary, since those we now saw, and those we 
then visited, differ in many other respeqts.' Hot did tb€»y 
seem to be such miserable wretches as the nati{ires whom 
Dampier mentions to have seen on its western coast.* 

Some 

* The most striking difierence seems to be with regard to the texture 
of the hair. The natives whom Captain Cook met with «t Bndeavodir 
River in 1769, are said, by him, to have ^ naturally long apd blaek haiiV 
though it be universally cnmped short. In general it is straight, but soiner 
times it has a slight curL We saw none that was not matted and filti^. 
Their beards were of the same colour with the hair, and bushy and Undk/* 

It may be necessary to mention here, on the authority of Captain King, 
that Captain Cook was very unwilling to allow that die hair of the natives 
now met with in Adventure Bay was wooUy^ fancying that his peoBle^iwho 
first observed this, had been deceived, from its beio^ cbtted with grease 
and red ochre. But Captain King prevailed upon him afterward to ezar 
mine carefulhr the hair of the boys, which was generally, as well as that ci 
the women, free from this dirt ; and then he owned himself satisfied thait 
it was naturally woolly. Perhaps we may suppose it possible, that Jie hxm" 
self had been deceived when he waa tn Endeavour Bjvery from this veiy 
circumstance^ as he expressly says, that *' they saw none that was not mat- 
ted and filthy."— D. 

' And yet Dampier^s New Hollanders, on the western coast, bear a 
striking resemblance to Captain Cook's at Van Diemen's Land, in mai^ 
remarkable instances :— • 

1st, As to their becoming familiar with the strangers. 

Sifly, As to their persons; being straigh^bodied and thm, their skin 
black, and black, short, curled hair, like the negroes of Guinea, with wide 
mouths* 

Sdly^ As to dielr wretched condition, having no houses, no garment, no 
canoes, no instrument to catch large fish ; feeding on broiled muscles* 
cockles, and periwinkles ; haviqg no fruits of the earth ; their weapons a 
straight pole, sharpened and hardened at the end, &c. &c. , 

The 




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CHAP. I. 8E€T. Ti. Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. tS9 

Some of 6ur presen* group wore> loose, rbund their necks, 
three or four foldis of small cord, made of the fur of aome 
animd ; sum) others of them had a narrow slip of the kaa* 
gooroo skin tied round their ankles. I gave to each of 
them a string of beads and a mcijal, which I thought thef 
received with some satisfaction. They seemed to set no va* 
toe on iron, or on iron tools. They were even ignorant of 
the utfe of fish-hooks, if we might judge from their manner 
of looking at some of ours which we snewed to them* 
' W^ cannot, however, suppose it to be possible that « 
{>eople who inhabit a sea-coast, and who seem to derive no 
part of their sustenance from the productions of the ^roundy 
should not be acquainted with some mode of catching fish^ 
though we did not happen to see any of them thus employ- 
ed, nor observe any canoe, or vessel, in which they could 
go upon the water. Though they absolutely rejected the 
sort of fish that we offered to them, it was evident that 
dhell-fish, at least, made a part of their food, from the many 
heaps of muscle-shells we saw in different parts near the 
^hore, and about some deserted habitations near the head 
of the bay. These were Uttle sheds, or hovels, built of 
sticks, and covered with bark. We could also perceiv^ evi- 
dent signs of their sometimes taking up their abode in the 
trunks of larse trees, which had been hollowed out by fire, 
most probabfy for this very purpose. In or near all these 
tiabitations, and wherever there was a heap of shells, there 
remained the marks of fire, an indubitable proof that they 
do not eat their food raw. 

After staying about an hour with the wooding party and 
the natives, as I could now be pretty confident, that the 
iatter were not likely to give the former any disturbance, I 
left them, aiid went over to the grass-cutters on the eaaft 
point of the bay, and found that they had met with a fine 
jiatch. Having ^een the boats loaded, I left that party, and 
returned on board to dinner; where^ some time afi;er, Lieu- 
vlenant King arrived* 

, From 

The chief peculiarities of Dampier's ftiiserdble wretchei are, ist, Th^ 
4gre-lid8 being always half closed, to keep the flies out, which were eices- 
isively troublesome there ; and, 2dly, Their wanting the two fore-teeth of 
the upper jaw, and their having no beards. See Dampier's Voyages, vd. 
i, p. 464, &c. There seems to be no reason for supposing that 0Rilip|er 
was Hvstaken in the above account of what he saw.-*!)* 



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t5* Modem Chomnskiieigatkmk* ^kvt nu book iiti 

Frcntt bim I learnt^ that I had' bat jnst left the shore, 
when several women and children made their appearaoce^ 
am) were introduced to him by some of the. men who at- 
tended them, ile gave presents to all of them^ of sQch^ 
Vifles as he had about him. These females .wore, a, kangoo- 
roo skin (in the same shape as it came from the animal) 
tied over the shoulders, and round the. waist. But its only 
use seemed to be to support their children when carried oa 
their backii^ for it did not cover those parts which most na* 
tions eonceal ; being, in all other respects* as naked as the 
men, and as black, and their bodies marked with scars ia 
the same manner. But in this they differed from the men, 
that though their hair was of the same colour and texture, 
some of them had their heads completely shorn or shaved ; 
in others this operation had been performed only on one 
tide, while the rest of them had all the upper part of the 
head shorn close, leaving a circle of hair all round,. some- 
what like the tonsure of the Romish ecclesiastics.' Many 
of the children had fine features, and were thought pretty ; 
but of the persons of the women, especially those {^dvanced 
in years, a less favourable^ report was made. However, 
tome of the gentlemen belonging to the Discovery, I was 
told, paid their addresses, and made liberal offers of pre- 
sents, which were rejected with great disdain; whether 
from a sense of virtue, or the fear of displeasing their men, 
I shall not pretend to, determine. That this gallantry wa» 
not very agreeable to the latter, is certain ; for an elderly 
man, as soon as he observed it, ordered all the women and 
children to retire, which they obeyed, though some of then 
shev^ed a little reluctance. 

" This conduct of Europeans amongst savages, to their wo- 
men, is highly blameable ; as it creates a jealousy in their 

men, 

' Captain Cook's account of the natives of Van Diemen's Land, in this 
chapter, no doubt proves that they differ, in mahy respects, as he sayd, 
from the inhabitants of the more northerly parts of the east coast of New 
Holland, whom he met with in his first voyage. It seems vtry remarka- 
ble, however, that the only woman any of bis people came close to, in Bo- 
tany Bay, should have her hair cropped short, while the man who was 
with her, is said to have had the hair of his head bushy, and his beard long 
and rough. Could the natives of Van Dieoien's Land be more accurateqf 
described, than by saying that t^e hair of the men's heads is bushy, and 
their beards long and rough, and that the women's hair is cropped short ? 
So far north, therefore, as Botany Bay, the natives of the easfe coast? of 
Kew Holland seem to resemble those.of Van Diemen's Land, in this cir- 
Gumstance.— D. 



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imAP. I. SECT. Yi. Co^, Ckrhe, ondQore. 255 

meD, that may be atttaded with oonseqiiences fetal to the 
success of the common enterprise^ and to the whole body of 
adventurers, without advancing the private purpose of the 
individual^ or enabling him to gain the object of his wishes* 
I believe it has been generauy found among uncivilized 
people, that where the women are easy of access, the men 
are the first to offer them to strangers; and that, where this 
is not the case, neither the allurement of presents, nor the 
opportunity of privacy, will be likely to nave the desired 
ef!ect. This observation, I am sure, will hold good, through- 
out all the parts of the South Sea where I have been. Why 
> then should men act so absurd a part, as to risk their owa 
safety, and that of all their companions^ in pursuit of a gra« 
tification which they have no probability of obtaining M 

,In the afternoon I went again to the grass-cutters, to for- 
ward their work. I found tnem then upon Penguin Islandf 
where they had met with a plentiful crop of excellent grass. 
We laboured hard till sun-set, and then repaired on board^ 
satisfied with the quantity we had collected, and which I 
judged sufficient to last till our arrival in New Zealand- 

During our whole stay, we had either calms or light airs 
from the eastward. Little or no time, therefore, ^was, lost 
by my putting in at this place. For if I had kept the sea^ 
we should not have been twenty leagues advanced farther 
on our voyage. And, short as our continuance was here, it 
has enabled me to add somewhat to the imperfect acquaint- 
ance that hath hitherto been acquired, with this part of the 
globe. 

Van Diemen's Land has been twice visited before. It was 
• ' so 

^ tn uTidvilizei] nations, the women are completely subservient to the 
power fiind desires of the men, without seeming to possess, or to be allow* 
€d, a will or thought of their own. Amongst tbem, therefore, the primi- 
tive mode of temptation must be reversed, and the husband is first to be 
gained over. When this is done, all that folkws, is understood and in- 
tended by him, as a sort of temporary baiter ; and the iavdun of his mf&, 
or daughter, are valued by him just in the proportion they ate sought for 
by those with whom he is dealing. But where. his- animai^necessities csin 
scarcely be supplied, it cannot be inu^td that he will bb veryt sensible td 
the force of toys and trinkets as objecis of temptation.. -These; on the 
other hand, will carry most perenasiooj'wliere^ through the greater bouni^ 
of nature, an avenue has been opened for the display of vanity 'and the 
love of ornament. Any opposition on the fenale pait in either cafae, is o^ 
no avail as a barrier against strangers, As he who is most eoncemed to pro- 
tect it, finds his account in its satnfice. We have instances of bodi in Cap- 
tain Cook's voyages.^£. 

4 



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ftS6 Modem Cireimuuimgaiiatu* fast lu. book zijc» 

8o named by Tasnfian^ who discovered it ia Novdnber \64^8^ 
From that time it had escaped all farther notice by Earo*' 

San tiavieaiors^ till Captain Fumeanx touched at it in 
arch 1775.^ I hardly need eay^ that it is the soathera 
point of New Holland, which, ir it doth not deserve the 
name of a continent^ is by far the largest island in the 
world.. ... 

The land is, for the most part, of a good height, diverai* 
fied with hills and valleys, and every where of a greenish 
hoe. It is well wooded ; and, if one may judge from ap- 
pearances* and from what we met with in Adventure Bay, 
is not ill supplied with water. We found plenty of it in 
three or four places in this bay. The best, or what is most 
convenient for ships that touch here, is a rivukl, which is 
one of several that fall into a pond, that lies behind the 
beach at the. head of the bay. It there mi^es with the sea* 
water, so that it must be taken up above this pond, which 
may be done without any great trouble. Fire-wood is to be 
got, with great ease, in several places. * 

The only wind to which this bay is exposed, is the N B* 
But as this wind blows from Maria's Islands, it can bring 
no very great sea along with it ; and therefore* opon the 
whole, this may be accounted a very safe road. The hot* 
torn is clean, good hoi ing ground ; and the depth of w«i» 
ter from twelve to five and four fathoms. 

Captain Furneayx's sketch of Van Diemen's Land, pab* 
lisheo with the narrative of my last voyage, appears to me 
to be without any material error, except with regard to Ma- 
ria's Islands, which have a different situation from what is 

there 



' This is a mistake, thoufth unintentional, no doubt, and ignonintly on 
the part of Cook. Captain Marion, a French na?ig8tor, and mentioned oo> 
casionally in these voyages; visited Van Diemen's Land i^ut a twelv*i 
ittonth before Captain Fumeaux. The account of bis voyage was pHiblisb- 
jtd at Paris in 1788, but is little known in England; for which reason^anA 
|)ecause of its poeseflsing a considerable degree of interest. Captain Flitt- 
ders has given an abridgmentof that portion of its contents which respecti 
4he land in question This the tender will find in his introduction, p. 88i» 
•or he may content hhnidf with being informed, that the description k 
gives of the nativc8» &o. genendly coincides with what is furnished ia the 
text Subsequent to this voyage, it may be remarked, Captain Bligh put 
into Adventure Bay with his majesty's ship Bounty, viz. in 1788 : and after- 
wards, vis. ID 1792^ the coast df Van Diemen's Land was visited by tiie 
French ReamAdmiial D'£ntreo8steaux.--£. 



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cttAV^ i. ffiicr. ▼!• CoaJtTi CUrkesf ami Gore. ^Sl 

diere represented** The longitude was determtned by a 
great oumber of lanar observations^ which we had before 
wfe mode the land, while we were in sight of it^ and lafter 
^we had left it; and redtieed to Adventure Bay, and the se- 
veral principiiil points, by the timekeeper. The following 
table Will exhibit both' the longitude ahd lifctitude at one 

•view' : 

LaUtudi 8&uth. 

Adventure Bfty, 48^ 2t' ^- 

Tasn^aq's Head, 48 S3 O 

South Cape, 43 4^ O- 

Souj(h*w,est Cape/ 4* 37 a 

^Swillylsle,, ,43 55 O 

AdvQntiire C Variation of the compass 5* 15' E. 

Bay, / Dip of the south end of the needle 70* I5i\ 
, Wie hud high-rwiiter On the ^h, beings two days before 
ihe last quarter of the moooy at nine in the morning. The 
perpendicular rise then wias eighteen indies^ abd there was 
no appearance of its ever haviii^ exceeded twoTeet aod a 
half. Theset are all the memorials useful ia nayi^atiov, 
which my short stay has : enabled nie to preserve, with re* 
spe^ to Van Diemeil's titnd. 

Jm Anderson-, my surgeon^ with his usual diligence, 
apent the few dayfi we remained in' Adventure Bay, in exa^ 

YOU XYf vj^T. II. ft mining 

^ Biit Captain Flinders bas pcunted out some other mistakes, especially 
as tb'tbo* Storm ahid Frederik Hendrik*s Bay^ pf Tasinan, in which, says 
be, ** Hb has beeii followed by all the succeedftfg navigators, of the sam6 
iuitioa,'ifbfl:h hasvnested not a little confusion in the geography of tM& 
]fftn or theworld." Let us prevent the perpetuity of errors, by qnotii^ 
another passage fi;oin the same most aocurate and skilful navigator. " Th^ 
Ikky snppod^ t6 have been Storm Bay, has no name in Tasman's chart ; 
though the particular plan sheyirs that he noticed it, as did Marion, more 
diitiaclly. The rocks marked at the east point of this bay, and called the 
Vriars» are the BoreaPs Eyianden of Tasman ; the true Storm Bay is the 
deep inlets of which Adventure Bay is a cove. Frederik Hendrik's Bay is 
not iM^ithin this in)e^ but lies to the north-eastward, on the outer side of 
the land whidi Captain Furneaux, in consequence of his first mistak^ 
tdok to bc^ filaris(*s Island, but which, in fkct, is a ^rt of the main land. 
A cot>y .of Tasman's charts is given in the atki^ to D'Entrecasteaux's voy* 
1^^ it is taken from Valadtyn, and is conformable to the manuscnpt 
doarts in the Dutch journal, fiut aooocding to Flioders, it has an error of 
one decree' too mu^n east, in the sosle of longitude. Besides, be informs 
ufl» ** In the plan of Frederik Hendrik's Bay, the name is placed nntkin 
the inner lay» instead of being written, as in the origmal, on the point of 
land betfreen Che inner and outer bays.'' He imagines the name was in- 
tended to comprise both, and refers to voL iiL of Captain Bumey's History 
of Discoveries in the South StBlly fpr a copy of Tasman's charts as they 
Stand in the original.— £• 



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958 Modern Ckcumnavigatiom. past iii. book it ^« 

.^mining Uie country. His aecooQt of its natural prdduc- 
tionsj with which be favoured me, will more than coenpen- 
.sate for my silence about them : Some of his remarks on the 
inhabitants will supply what I may have omitted, or repr^ 
sented imperfectly; and his specimen of their language^ 
Jiowever short, will be thought worth attendingXo, by those 
who wish to collect materials for tracing the origin of na- 
tions. I shall only premise, that the tall strait forest trees^ 
which Mr Anderson describes in the following account, are 
of a different sort from those which are found in the more 
northern parts of this coast. The wood is very long and 
close-grained) extremely tough, fit for spars, oars^ and many 
other uses ; and would, on occasion, make good masts, 
(perhaps none better,) if a «iethod could be found to light- 
en it. 

" At the bottom of Adventure Bay is a beautiful sandy 
beach, which seems to be wholly formed by the pai'ticles 
^washed by the sea from a very fine white sand-i^tone, that 
in many pWes bounds the shore, and of which Fluted Cape^ 
.in the neighbourhood, from its appearance, seems to be com- 
posed. This beach is about two miles long, and i« excellent- 
ly adapted for hauling a seine, which both ships did repeat- 
;edly with success. Behind this is a plain or flat/ with a salt, 
or rather brackish lake (running in length parallel with the 
beach), out of which we caught, with, angling rods^ many 
whitish bream^ and some small trout. The other parts of 
the country adjoining the bay are quite hilly ; and both 
those and the flat are an entire forest of very tall trees, 
jendered almost impassable by shrubs, brakes of fern, and 
fallen trees; except on the sides of some of the hills, where 
the frees are but thin, and a coarse grass is the only inter- 
jrnption. 

'^ To the northward of the bay there is low land, stretch- 
ing farther than the eye can reach, which is' only covered 
with wood in certain &pots ; but we had no opportunity to 
examine in what respects it differed from the hilly country* 
The soil on the flat land is either sandy, or consists of a yel-* 
lowish i^ould, and, in some places, of a reddish clay. The 
same is found on the low^r part of the hills ; but farther up, 
especially where there are few trees, it is of a grey tough 
cast, to appearance very poor. 

*^ In the valleys between the hills, the v^ater drains down 
irom their sides ; and at last, in some places^ forms small 

brooks; 



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cBAir. I* SECT. in. Cook, Clerke, and Gora. J159 

brooks ; spcli^ indeed^ as were suf&cient to supply us with 
water^ but by no means of that size we might expect in so 
extensive a country^ especially as it is both hilly and well 
wooded. Upon the whole^ it has many marks of being na^ 
turally a very dry country ; and perhaps might (independent 
of its wood) be compared to Africa, about the Cape of Good 
Hope, though that lies ten degrees farther northward, rather 
than to New Zealand, on its other side, in the same latitude^ 
where we find every valley, however small, furnished with 
a considerable stream of water. The heat, too^ appears to 
be great, as the thermometer stood at 64, 70/ana once at 
74. And it was remarked^ that birds were seldom killed an 
hour or two, before they were almost covered with small 
maggots, which 1 would rather attribute merely to the heat; 
as we had not any reason to suppose there is a peculiar dis<* 
position in the climate to render substances soon putrid. 

'^ No mineral bodies^ nor indeed stones of any other sort 
but the white sand one already mentioned, were observed. 

*' Amongst the vegetable productions, there is not one, 
that we could find^ wnich afforded the smallest subsistence 
for man. 

'' The forest trees are all of one sort, growing to a great 
height, and in general quite straight, branching but little^ 
till toward the top. The bark is white, which makes them 
appear;, at a distance, as iF they had been peeled ; it is also 
thick ; and within it are sometimes collected, pieces of a 
reddish transparent gum or rosin,, which has an astringent 
taste. The leaves of this tree are long, narrow, and pointed ; 
and \i bears clusters of small white flowers, whose cups were, 
at this time, plentifully scattered about the ground, with an- 
other sort resembling them somewhat in shape, but much 
larger ; which makes it probable that there are two species 
of this tree. The bark of the smaller branches, fruit, and 
leaves, have an agreeable pungent taste, and aromatic smelly 
not unlike peppermint ; and in its nature, it has some affi- 
nity to the myrtm of botanists. 

^ The most common tree, next to this, is a small one 
about ten feet high, branching pretty much, with narrow 
leaves, and a large, yellow, cylindrical ilower, consisting 
only of a vast number of filaments ; which, being shed, 
leave a fruit like a pine-top. Both the above-mentioned 
trees are unknown in Europe. 

*^ The underwood consists chiefly of a shrub somewhat 

resemblinj^ 



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jlQQ Modem Ci^cummmf^lfUm^ va&t m.. book tii; 

reiembling a myrUei and wbicb seemai to be the leptqtper^ 
fnum seoparium, ipentionetf in Or Foster^s Char. G^r^^ J^laht^ ; 
aaid^ iQ som? places^ of anotbi^ri ratber smaller, wbich is a 
new fiDfcies of the melaUuca of l4inna&U3. 

'^ Of other plants/ which are by no mean» nomerpnsj, 
there i^ a tpecU^ of gladiduSjf m$h, bell-flower^ s^mpl^ire, ^ 
amall soijt of ^ood-sorrel^ milk-wort, cudweed^ aa<I, Job's 
tears ; with a few otberSj^ peculiar to the place* There are 
several kinds of fern, as polypody^, spleen wort> female fem^ 
and some mosses ; but the ^cies are either commo% or at 
least found in sQme pther qountries^ especially New Zea- 
land. 

'^^ The only animal of the auadmped kind, we got, was a 
sort of opoman, about twice the si;5e of a large rat ; and" i^ 
most probably, the male of that species found a^ Endeavour 
river^ as mentioned in Cook's first voyage. It is of a dusky 
colour above, tin^d with a brown or rusty cast, and whitw 
below. About a third of the tail, towards its tip, is whit^, 
and baje underneath ; by which it probably hangs oa the 
branches of trees, as it climbs theses and lives on berries. 
The kamooroQ, another Wnimal found farther northward in. 
Mew Holland, as described in tbe same voyage, without ^1 
doubt iilso inhabits here, as the natives we met with had 
some pieces of their skins; and we several times, saw ani-^ 
mals, though indistinctly, run from, tbe thickets, when we 
walked in the woods, which, from the. size, could be no 
other. It should seem also, that they are in cousideraj^le 
numbers, from the dung we saw almost every where, and 
from tbe narrow tracks or paths they have made ama^gst 
the shrubbery. 

'' There are several sorts of birds, but all so scarce and 
shy, that they are evidently harrassed by the natives, who, 
perhaps, draw much, of their subsistence from them. Ii^ 
the woods, the principal sorts are large brown hawks or 
e^les ; crows, nearly the same as ours in England ; yel- 
lowish paj-oquets ; and large pigeons. There are also three 
or four small birds, one of which is of the thrush kind ; and 
another small one, with a pretty long tail, has part of the 
head and heck of a most beautiful azure colour ; from whence 
we nsaaed it mptacilla cyanea. On the shore were several 
common and sea gulls ; a few black oyster-catcherji> or sea- 

Jies ; and a pretty plover of a stone colour, with a black 
Qpd. About the po»d.oi;.liUie behind the Keacb* a few 

wild- 



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WkfiXHEi^. vt Cook, tldrke, and Core. t6l 

iB^iid-ducks were seeh ; m^imine stiags used to perch upon 
the high leafless triees hea^ the shore, , 

^ Some pretlj lar|^e bWclish snakes were seen in the 
woods ; and we killed a iarg&> hitherto unknown^ lizard^ 
fifteen inbbes long, and six roiindi elegantly clouded with 
hlack and yellow ; besides a smaU sortj of a brown gildea 
colour above, and rusty below. , 

, ^^ The sea aiSbrds a much greater plenty, and at least as 
great a variety, as the laud. Of these the elephant fish, or 
jpgegatlo,, mentioned in ^rezier^s voyage/ are the most nii- 
inero'us ; and though inferior to many other fisbt were very 
palatable ibod. Several large rays, niirses, and ^mall lea^ 
ther-jackets, were caught; with some small white brea»m^ 
which were firmer and better than those caught in the lake^ 
We likewise sot a few soles and fiounders ; two sorts of gur^ 
nards, 6h^ of them a new species ; ^me small spotted rnXkU 
let ; and. Very unexpectedly, the small fish with a .silver band 
on its side, called atherind kipsetm by Hasselqui^t.^ 

^^ but that next in nuinber, and superior in goodness, to 
the elephant fish, was a sort none of us recollected to have 
^en before. It partakes of the nature both of a round and 
of a fiat fish, having the eyes placed very near each other { 
the fore-part of the body much flattened or depressed, and 
the rest rounded, tt is of a brownish sandy colourt with 
rusty spots on the upper part, and whitish below« From the 
cjiiantity df slime it was always covered withf it seems to 
hve after the manner of fiat fish, at the bottom. 

'^ Updii the rocks are plenty of muscles, and some othei 
gmall snell-fish. There are also great numbers of sea^taTs; 
some small limpets ^ and large quantities of sponge j one 
sort of Which, thai is thrown on shore by the sea, out not 
Tery common, has a most delicate texture ; and another, is 
the spbmjia dichofoma. 

^< Many pretty Medmds heads were found upon the beach ; 
and the stinking Ic^lyda or sea-hare, which, as mentioned 
by some aiithors, has the property ef taking ofi^ the hair by 
the acrimony of its juice ; but this sort was deficient in this 

. *^ IhsecU^ though not numerous, ar^ here in considerable 
variety. Amongst them aire gFasshopp^rs^ butterflies, and 

iieveraf 

^ Tom. iL p. 211. lemo, Prancfae XVlt 
? Iter PaJk$timan* 

\ 



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tOa^ Modem Grcumnaoigaliom. fabt hi. mo^il iix* 

several sorts of smalt tfmoths, finely variegated. There are 
two sorts of dragoni-flies^ gad-flies^ camel-flies ; several sorts 
of spiders ; and some scorpions ; but the last are rather rare. 
The most troublesome^ though not very numerous tribe of 
insects, are the musquitoes ; and a large black ant, the paia 
of whose bite is almost intolerable, during the short time it 
lasts. The musquitoes, also, make up the de6ciency of their 
tiumberj by the severity of their venomous proboscis. 

** The inhabitants whom we met with here, had little of 
that fierce or wild appearance common to people in their 
situation ; but, on the contrary, seemed mild and cheerful^ 
without reserve or jealousy of strangers. This, however^^ 
may arise from their having little to lose or care for. 

«< With respect to personal activity or genius, we can say 
but little of either. They do not seem to possess the first ia 
any remarkable degree ; and as for the last, they have, to 
. appearance, less than even the half-animated inhabitants of 
Terra del Fuego, who have not invention sufficient jto make 
clothing for defending themselves from the rigour of their 
climate, though furnished with the materials. The small 
stick, rudely pointed, which one of them carried in His hand, 
was the only thing we saw that required any mechanical ex- 
ertion, if we except the fixitig on the feet of some of them 
pieces of kangooroo skin, tied with thongs ; though it could 
not be learnt whether these were in use as shoes, or only to 
defend some sore. It must be owned, however, they are' 
masters of some contrivance in the manner of cutting their 
arms^ ami bodies in lines of different lengths and directions, 
which are raised considerably above the surface of the skin^ 
so that it is difficult to guess the method they use in execu- 
ting this embroidery of their persons. Their not expressing 
that surprise which one might have expected from their see- 
ing men so much unlike themselves, and things, to which, 
we were well assured, they had been hitherto utter stran- 
gers ; their indifference for our presents ; and their general 
mattention ; were sufficient proofs of their not possessing 
any aputeness of understanding. 

'^ Their colour is a dull black, and not quite so deep as 
that of the African negroes. It should seem also, that they 
sometimes heightened their black colour, by smutting their 
. bodies ; as a mark was left behind on any clean substance, 
such as white paper, when they handled it. Their hair, 
however, is perfectly woolly^ and it is clotted o^ divided 

iat# 



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CH Ar. Y. sxCT. VI, • Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. 96) 

iato small pai^cels^ like that of the Hottentots^ with the use 
of some sort of grease^ mixed with a red paint or ochre^ 
which they smear in great abundance over their heads. 
This'practice, as some might knagine^ has hot the effect 
of changing: their hair into the frizzlin]; texture we obser- 
ved ; for, on examining the head of a boy, which appear- 
ed never to have been* smeared, I found the hair to be of 
the same kiod. Their noses, though not flat, are broad and 
full. The lower part of the face projects a good deal, as is 
the case of more Indians 1 have seen ; so that a line let fall 
from the forehead would cut off a much larger portion than 
it would in Europeans. Their eyes are of a middling size^ 
withlhe white less clear than in us ; and though not remark- 
ably quick or piercing, such as give a frank cheerful cast to 
the whole countenance. Their teeth are broad^ but not 
equal, nor well set ; and^ either from nature' or from dirt,' 
not of »o true a white as is usual among people of a black 
colour. Their mouths are rather wide; but this appearance 
seems heightened by wearing their beards \ongi and clotted 
with paint, in the same manner as the hair on their heads. 
In other respects, they are welKproportioned ;. though the 
belly seems rather projecting. This may be owing to the 
want of comfnresston. there, which few nations do not use,, 
more or less. The posture of which they seem fondest, i» 
to stand with one side forward, or the upper part of the bo- 
dy geBtly reclined; and one hand grasping (acrossthe back) 
the opposite arm, which hangs down by the projecting side. 
** What the ancient poets tdl ns of Faum and <Sbfyrs li- 
ving in hollow trees, is here realized. Some wretched con- 
structions of sticks, covered with bark, which do not even 
deserve the name of huts, were indeed tound near the* shore 
in the bay; but these seemed only to have been erected for 
temporary purposes ; and many of their largest trees were 
converted into more comfortable habitations. These had 
their trunks hollowed out by fire, to the height of six or 
seven feet; and that they take up their abode in them 
sometimes, was evident from the hearths, made of clay, ta 
'contain- the tire in the middle, leaving room for four or five 
persons td sit round it.^ At the same time, these places of 

shelter 

^ Tasman, when in the bay of Frederick Heniy, adjoining to Adventure 
Bav, found two tress, one of which was two fathoms, and the other, two 
ikthoms and a half in girth, and sixty or sixtv-five feet high, from the root 
to ttie branches.— See his Voyage, in Harris • Collection,. Campbell's £di- 
ftiOD, vol. i. p. dS6.— D. 



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^ Modem ijitdrnmavigoAMU. fam ivu lops lu* 

•belter jare durable ; for tb^ take care to ieam one aide a£ 
liie tree soimd, which is sufficient to keep it gronviog as lux* 
uriaptly as those which remain untouched. 

^' The inhabitant3 of this place are» doubtleasy firofi the 
same stock with those of the northern parts of N£w Hol^ 
land. Though some of the circumstances mentioned by 
Pampier^ remtive to those he met with on the western coaat 
of this country^ such as their defective siffht, and want ot 
fore-teeth^ are not found here ; and though Uawkeswortfar^g 
account of those met with by Captain Cook cm the east aide, 
shews also that they differ in many respects ; yet still, upoa 
the whole, I am persuaded that distance of f^ace, entire se* 
paration, diversity of climate, and length of time, all gob* 
curring to operate, will acccHint for greater diferenoes, both 
as to jSieir persons and as to dieir customs, than really eac** 
iat between our Van Diemen's Land natives, and tlKise de- 
scribed by Dampieri and in Gs^tain Cook's first voyase* 
Hiis is certaiii, that the figure of one of those seen in hnm 
deavour Riveri and represented in Sidney Parkinson^s Joqv-» 
nal of that voyage, v^ much resemUes our visitors in Ad^ 
venture Baj. That there is not the like xefemU^nce in their 
langua^) is a circumstance that need not cveate any di&« 
<;ulty. For though the agreement of the limg^juiges of peo-* 
pie living distant from each ofber^ may be assumed as « 
strong argument for their having sprang from one comnKm 
spurce, disagreeiiient of language is by no meaoa a proof of 
the contrary f^^ 
^^ However, we must have a fiur more intimate acquaint- 

anos 

'^ The ingemouB author o( RUherd^tur la Amerjcaint illustrates tl^ 
grounds of this assertion in the ^onowii^g satisfactory manner: ^C'e^ 
. quelque chose de surprenant, que la foule des idiomes, tous varies entr'euk, 
(tae parlent les natureh de rAm^riqoe Septentrionale. Qu'on r^duise ces 
idiomes k des ractoes qu'on les siispUfie, qu'on en s^ipare lee dialeofees st 
les jargons derives, il en resqlte toujour^ cinq ou six laQgues^nerfs^ reipf^ 
tifement incoonprehensibles. Op ^ observe la m^me singularity dsns la Si*> 
berie ^ )a Tartariey oii le nombre des idiom^t ei les cnuectes» est ^^e- 
ment ]nultipli6 ; et nen n'est plus commun, que d'yvoir deux hordes voi- 
sines qui ne se comprennent point. On r^trouve oette mteae muWplioit^ 
de jargons daps toutes ^s Provinces de I'Am^rique Meridionals.'' fjiio 
i]pight also have included Africa.] ** II y a beaucoup d apparence que ia 
trie tauvagef en ditpersant let honrnet par petitet troupes uoUet dans des 
h&U ipaiif occatione nccessairei^ent cette grande diversity de$ leagues, dont 
l& Ti ombre diminue k m^siire qu^ la socilt^^ en rastemblant les ^ariisr<9 
vagabonds, en forme un corps Ae nation. Alora t'idiome le plus riiAe, oil 
le moias (Hiuvre en mots, deviei^t dpmixiant. et sbsprbe les autres/' 'Tom* 




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«ilAi». I. SBW. VI. CoGik, Clerhe, and Gore. S65 

ftnce with the languages spoken 'ber^^ an^ in the thorfe nor- 
Ibem parts of New Holland^ before we .can be warranted 
to pronounce that they are totally different. Nay^ we have 
good grounds for the opposite opinion ^ for ;we found that the 
animcd called kangooroQ at Endeavour river^ was known un- 
der the same name here ; and I need not observe^ that it is 
scarcely possible to suppose that this was not transmitted 
from one another^ but accidentally adopted by two. oa- 
lAons^ differing in language and extraction. Besides, as it 
seems very improbable that the Van Diemen's Land inha- 
bitants should have ever lost the n^e of canoes or sailing 
Tessels, if they had been originally conveyed thither by sea, 
we must necessarily ^mit that they, as well as the kangoo^ 
too itseif| have be^n stragglers by land from the moTe nor<* 
them parts of the country. And if there be any force in 
this observation, while it traces the origin of the people, it 
will, at the same time, serve to fix another point, if Captain 
Cook and Captain Fumeaux have not already decided it^ 
that New Holland is no where totally divided by the sea 
into islands, as some have imagined.'^ 

*^ As the New Hbllancjers.seeqi all to be of the saipe ejn:- 
traction, so iieither do I think there is any thing pecuKat 
in them. On the contrary, they much resembje (Uany of 
the inhabitants whom I have seep at the islands T^i^na atid 
M2|.llicoHa. Nay, there is even some; foundatiqnibr hazard- 
ing a sfrppositioB, that they m$^ have originally cpme from 
die same place with all tb^ inhabitants of the South S^a. 
For, of only^aibout ten words which we could get from them, 
that whiph expresses co/J, differs little from that; of New 
Zealand and Otaheite; the first being MaUareede, %b0 se^ 
cond Makkareede, and the thin} Mareede. The^est 6f our 
irery scanty Van Diemen's I^d Vocabiilary is a^ follbWs :' 

Qli^dpej, Jwimtifff^ 

Everai, T/tf^ejih ■ ■■ ^ h • ■■-.<• • ■.•/*.■ "/-,:' 

'* Th^ Msder is aware of tike ^enronecws opinioa genem^ entwumedl 
a| this tkoe, of Vaa Biemen'v Land ftfehij^ ocnnecftsd with tii««diitlti«nt' 
of New Holland. He will therefore modify the remark tihoH giveav ^ ^ 
i|s ufaajbitants hmg stcaggkfs bj land ir omtih^ oAore northern parts Of iha 
oooDtty. k is of some oonfieq^ence b1s«o tQ infonx^ hixn^ that ha tli^ i^it vf 
KFjitrecaateaiiY, it was fbuad tjiaft the peopk wh0 jnhabiledi ikt «lioitt9 
#f the chaand were in possession of bark caitoes?«4&. 



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26S Modtm Circwnnadgaiions. fabt iii. book iii. 

Kamy, The teethe mouthy or ton^. 

Laerenne^ A imall bird^ a native of the woods here* 

Koygee, The ear. 

Noonga, lllevated scars on the body. 

Teegera, To eat. 

Togarago, I must be gone, or^ / will go» 

^' Their pronunciation is not disagreeable, but rather 
quick ; though not more so than is that of other nations 
of the South Sea ; and, if we may depend upon the affini- 
ty of languages as a clue to guide us in discovering the ori* 
gin of nations, 1 have no doubt but we shall findi on a dili-^ 
gent enquiry, and when opportunities offer to collect accu- 
rately a sufficient number of these words^ and to compare 
them, that all the people from New Holland, eastward to 
Easter Island, have beea derived from the same commoa 
root.''" 



^ Section VIL 

2^ Passage from Van Diemen^s Land to Nesv Zealand. — 
Employmetits in Queen Charlotte's Sound.-r-Transactiom 
witn the Natives there* — Intelligence about the Massacre of 
the Adventures Boat's Crew. — Account of the Chief wh(k 
headed the Party on that occasion, — Of the two young Mess 
who embark to attend 0mm.- Vnriom Remarks on the In^ 
habitants.'^Astronomical and Nautical Observations. 

At eight o'clock in the morning of the 30th of January, 
a light breeze springing up at W., we weighed anchor, and 
put to sea from Adventure Bay. Soon after, the wind veer^- 

cd 

'* We find Mr Anderson's notions on this subject conforaiable to those 
of Mr Marsden, who has remarked, ** that one general langnage ] 



(however mutilated and changed in the course of time) throughout all this 
portion of the world, from Madagascar to the most distant discoveries east- 
ward ; of which the Malav is a diuect, much corrupted or refined b> a mix- 
ture of other tongues. This very extensive similarity of language indicates 
a common origin of the inhabitants; but the drcumstahoesand progress 
of their separation are wrapped in the darkest veil of obscurity.?' — Eiit&ry. 
^ Sumatra, jf. S5. 

. See also his venr curious paper, read befinre the Society^ of Anti^aaries,. 
and published in their Arckmrngioj vol. vi« p. 155 ; where his senttments- 
oa this subject are explained more at large, andJllHStrated by two IWos. 
of oorrespondijig Woros.— D.^ 



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CHAP* I. SSCT. viu Cook, Clerkc, and Gore. 867 

ed to the southward, and increased to a perfect storm. Its 
fury abated in the evening, when it veered to the E. and 
KE. 

This gale was indicated by the baronjeter, for the wind 
no sooner began to blow, than the mercury in the tube be- 
gan fo fall. Another remarkable thing attended the coming 
on of this wind, which was very faint at first. It brought 
with it a degree of heat that was almost intolerable. The 
mercury in the thermometer rose, as it were instantaneous- 
ly, from about 70* to near 90^ This heat was of so short 
a continuance, that it seemed to be wafted away before the 
breeze that brought it ; so that some on board did not per- 
ceive it. • 

We pursued our course to the eastward, without meeting 
with any thing worthy of note, till the night between the 
6th and 7th of February, when a marine belonging to the 
Discovery fell over-board, and was never seen afterward. 
This was the second misfortune of the kind that had hap« 
pened to Captain Gierke since he left England. 

On the 10th, at four in the afternoon, we discovered the 
land of New Zealand. The part we saw proved to be Rock's 
Point, and bore S.E. by S., about eight or nine leagues dis- 
tant. During this run from Van Diemen's I<and, the wind, 
for the first four or five days, was at N.E., N., and N.N. W., 
and blew, for the most part, a gentle breeze. It afterward 
veered to S.E., where it remained twenty-four hours. It 
then came to W. and S.W. ; in which points it continued, 
with very little deviation, till we reached New Zealand. 

After making the land, I steered for Cape Fare wdl, which 
at day-break the next morning bore S. by W., distant about 
four leagues. At eight o'clock, it bore S.W. by S., about 
five leagues distant; and, in this situation, we bad forty- 
five fathoms water over a sandy bottom. In rounding the 
Cape we had fifty fathoms, and the same sort of bottom. 

I now steered fpr Stephens's Island, which we came up 
with at nine o'clock at night ; and at ten, next morning, 
anchored in our old station, in Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
Unwilling to lose any time, our operations commenced that 
very afternoon, when we landed a number of empty water- 
casks, and began to clear a place where we might set w 
the two observatories, and tents for the reception of a guard, 
and of such of our people whose business might make it ne- 
cessary for them to remain on shore. 

■' We 



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«68 Modern tkemnavigatkm. »a«t iit. imk i!tt: 

We had not been long at anchor before several cahoe^, 
filled with natives, came along-side of the ships ; but very 
few of them would venture on board ; which appeared the 
more extraordinary, as I was well known to them all. Th)ere 
was one man in particular amongst them, whom I had treats* 
ed With remarkable kindness, during the whole of my star 
when I was last here. Yet now, neither professions of friena- 
ship, nor presents, could prevail upon him to come into die 
ship. This shyness was to be accounted for only upon diis 
aupposition, that they were apprehensive we had revisited 
their country, in order to revenge the death of Captain Fur* 
neaux's people. Seeing Omai on board my ship now, wholft 
they must have remembered to have seen on board the Ad- 
venture when the melancholy affair happened, and whose 
first conversation with them, as they approached, generally 
turned on that subject, they must be well adsdred that I ^as 
no longer a stranger to it I thought it necess^y» therefor^p 
to use every endeavour to assure them x>f the continuance 
of my friendship, and that I should not disturb them on thai 
account.^ I do not know whether thid had any Weight with 
them ; but <^ertain it is, that they very Soon laid aside ^11 
manner of resti'aint and distrust. 

On the 13th We set up two tents, otie from each ithip, oil 
the same ispot where we had pitched them formerly. Tht 
observatories were at the same time erected ; km MeM^ 
King and Bayly began their operations immediately, to fin^ 
the rate of the time-keeper, and to make oth^r bbservation:^. 
The remainder of the empty water-caskd were ats6 sent dd 
shore, with the cooper to trim, and a sufficient dtimbet qf 
sailors to fiQ th^m. Two men were appointed to btew sprues 
beer ; and the carpenter and his crew weffe ordered to tJtit 
wopd. A boat, with a party of men, under the dii-ection 6i 
one of the mates^ was sent to collect gr^i^s f6r dttr cattte ; 
and the people that remained on board were empiolfed itt 
refitting the ship, and arranging the prbvisionsr* in this 
manner We were all profitably busied duriti^ duir stay. V6i 
the protection of the party On shorej^ f appointed a gtisti 
of ten marines^, and ordered arms for atl the 1^6rknaen ; atta 
Mr King, and two or three petty officers, eon&tetntty rem^n- 
e^ With them. A boat was never sent to atiiy con^derable 
df^tanee from the ships without being armed, and under di* 
rection of such officers as I could aet>etid ujloiij and'whd 
were well acquainted With the natives, Biitinf^ ihy fotMet! 

visits 



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vjbi|t9 to thif cQu.mj:;>l Ii»d ^eyer. tabea som^ of these j|r£i- 
Ca^tioos.; no;? w.er,e tfiey, I firmlv believe, more neeessai^t 
Bpw thft^ tbey bad been formerly. But after the UagiQal 
/ajl;?; of th^ Adyenture^s boat> crew ia this aouQcI^ ana. of 
&gteiA Marjoa^du Fresae, and of abme of his people^ la 
-Uie'Bay of Islands (in 177^)> it was impossible totally tp 
^ivest oursely^i^,QC all apprehension of experiencing a rnii- 
I^, calamity. 

if the n^|;ivea entertained any suspicion of our revenging 
Ij^e^e acts of barbarityj.^ they very soon laid it aside. For^ 
during, tbq course of this 4ay, a great number of families 
ca,a^e from< diflSbrent parts of the coast, and took up; their 
i^side.nce close tp us^ so that there was not a spot in the 
cove wt^^re a hu!; could be put up, that was not occupied 
b^,. tl^ecn,; ejs^pepti thj5 place wb^e we had fixed our little en-r 
CisifppmQUtf: This they lefl^ usJn quiet, possession of; but 
^eyeaoie and, took away the ruins of some old huts that 
w^re th/ere^. as. materials tor their new erections. 
" Itits curfous to.obserye with what facility tbey build these 
oqqasiQiu^ plapeis. of . abode* I have seen, abova twenty of 
them erected on a spot of ground, that, not an hour before, 
"Was cpvered. with. sbjruhs and plants-. They generally bring 
somip Dart of the materials with them; the rest they find 
iinon. thet pr^;misi^^ 1 waspfesent when.a number of peo^ 
pip laudcQ, ^d built one of! these villages* The moment 
wi^eanoestre^hed the shore,, the men- leaped' out, and at 
onee took possessj^onof a j^iece of ground, by; tearing up 
th^ plants and, shrubs^ or sticking, up some part. of t^e fra«v 
iping of abutr lli^y then returned to their canoes,. and se- 
cured their weapons, by setting; them up against a. tree, or 
placing them in such a position, that they could be laid bold 
of in an instfint* I took particular notice thai no one ne- 
glected this. precaution. While the. men wer^ employed in 
rsasing.the butS|th& women were not idle. Som^ were sta- 
tioned to take care of the canoes ; others to secure the pro* 
visions, and the few- utensils in their possession ;. and the rest 
went tot gather diy sticks^ thf^t a fire might he prepared for 
dressing their vjctudb^. As to the children^ I kept tiiem, as^ 
idso spme of the more aged, sufficiently occupied in scram^. 
bling for b^s, till I had emptied.my pockets, and then I 
lejEk them. 

iTbese temporary habitations are abundantly sufficient t^ 
a|f9(4«hflte( froQi the wia4«dcai^^.which is the only pur^ 

pose 



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STO Modem Ctreummrtilgaiumi. vabt ni. book in.' 

pose tfaey are meant to answer* . I observed that> generally^ 
if not always^ the same tribe or family^ though it were ever 
$o large, associated and built together ; so that we frequent- 
ly saw a village, as well as their larger towns, divided into 
diiTerent districts, by low pallisades, or some similar mode 
of separation. 

The advantage we received from the natives coming to 
live with ns, was not inconsiderable. For, every day, when 
the weather would permit, some of them went out to catch 
fish ; and we generally got, by exchanges, a good share of 
the produce of their labours. This supply, and what our 
own nets and. lines afforded us, was so ample, that we sel* 
Som were in want of fish. Nor was there any deficiency of 
other refreshments. Celery, scurvy-grass, and portable soup 
were boiled with the pease and wheat, for botn ships' com- 

Eanies, every day daring our whole stay ; and they had spruce* 
eer for their drink. So thai, if any of our people had con- 
tracted the seeds of the scurvy, such a regimen soon remo- 
ved them. But the truth is, when we arrived here, there 
were only two invalids (and these on board the Resolution) 
upon the sick lists in both ships. 

Besides the natives who took up their abode close to us^ 
we were occasionally visited by others of them, wiiose resi- 
dence was not far off; and by some who lived more remote. 
Their articles of commerce were, curiosities, fish, and wo- 
men. The two first always came to a good market, which 
the latter did not. The seamen had taken a kind of dislike 
fo these people, and were either unwilling, or afraid, to as- 
sociate with them ; which produced this" good effect, that 
I knew no instance of a man's quitting his station, to go to 
their habitations. 

A connection with women I allow, because I cannot pre- 
vent it ; but never encourage, because I always dread its 
consequences. I know, indeed^ that many men are of opi- 
nion^ that ^uch an intercourse is one of our greatest securi-i 
ties amongst savaged; and perhaps they who, either from 
necessity or choice^ are to remain and settle with them, may 
find it so. But with travellers and transient visitors, such as 
we were, it is generally otherwise ; and, in our situation, a 
connection with their women betrays more men than it 
saves. What else can be reasonably expected, since all 
their views are selfish, without the least mixture of regard 
or attachment f My own experience^ at least, which bath 

been 



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€HA^. I. SBCT. VII. Cook, Ckrkc, and Gore. 271 

«been pretty extensive, hath not pointed ou£ to me one in* 
stance to the contrary." 

Amongst our occasional visitors was a chief named Ka- 
boora, who, as 1 was informed, headed the parly that cut 
off Captain Furneaux's people, and himself killed Mr Uowe, 
the officer who commanded. To judge of the character of 
Kahoora, by what I heard from many of his countrymen, 
he seemed to be more feared than beloved amongst them. 
:Mot satisfied with telling me that he was a very bad man, 
-some of them even importuned me to kill him ; and, I be* 
-lieve, they were not a little surprised that I did not listen 
to them; for, acoordini^ to their ideas of equity, this ought 
to have been done. But if I had followed the advice of all 
our pretended friends, I might have extirpated, the whole 
«ce ; for the people of each hamlet, or village, by turns, 
applied to me to destroy the other. One would have al- 
4nost thought it impossible, that so striking a proof of the 
•divided state in which this miserable people live, could have 
been assigned. Anid yet 1 was sure that I did not miscon- 
ceive the meaning of those who made these strange appli- 
cations to me; for Omai, whose language was a dialect of 
their iQwn, and perfectly understood all that they said, was 
joiir interpreter. ' 

, On the \5\kii I made an excursion in my boat to look for 
(grass, and visited the Hippah, or fortified village at the S. W. 
point of Motuara, and the places wherebur gardens had been 
planted on that islands There were no people at the former; 
but the houses and pallisades had been rebuilt, and vtevQ now 
in a state of good repair; and there were other evident marks 
of its having beeil inhabited not long before. It would be 
unnecessary, at present, to give a particular account of this 

Hippah, 

* We ought to distinguish betwixt the affection of the sexes, and those 
cross ph^'sical principles which lead to their temporary intercourse. The 
utter exist, in some degree or other, wherever the difference of sex is 
found ; but the foriner is the result of refinement in feeling, and a habit 
of reflection on objects of common interest, which civilization alone can 
produce. This is with respect to members of the same community ; much 
more does the rule hold wlfere strangers are concerned. It is positively ' 
•bsurd for them to expect affection, where the lawful and accustomed pos- 
sessors of the she^savage have never yet been fortunate enough to elicit its 
display. Well, therefore, has Captain Cook remarked, that the motives 
which lead to their occasional connexion are selfish, by which must be un- 
derstood; the mercenary nature of the principle which actuates the female. 

8 



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«72 Modem Circumna^albmk paks uu book itx* 



Hippahj sufficient notice bayicg been taken ef it in Ae 
couilt of my first voyage.* 

When the Adventure arrived* first at Qaeen* Chariotte'a 
Sbt)^^, iniTiSj Mr Bayly fixed upon this place for making 
hii ohdervations ; abd' be, and the people with' biibi a4 tikeir 
lei&tkre bours^ planted several spots with English gardf^u 
s^edis. Not thQ le^i vestige of these now remained. It ia 
«itobalb1e that they had been all rooted out* U^ tniat room 
m builcKngs, when the village was re-inhal»ted; forf>ait idl 
the' other gardens then planted by Captain Fuiinteuxi ab» 
th^ifgti now wholly over-run with the w^eds. of tbk» connv- 
try, we found cabijaeesi onions, lee^, porslain, iiadishen^ 
xdustard, &c. arid a few potatoes. These notelods>! wHic^ 
irer'e first brought from the Cape of Gpod Hope, hadf been 
greatly improved by change of soil; andt with'pfojper cul*- 
tivatibi^j would be superior to tbpse produced in moat other 
cO\jntries. Though th« New 21ea]anders' are fond of this 
I'Oiiit; it wasevident that they had not taken .the troul^ to 
platlt a single one (much less any>otber of the ar tt clea which 
^e had introduced) ; and if it were not tor thedifiieiilty of 
cl^aribg ground wliere potatoes had beeooncephuited^tbane 
Would not have been any now remainio^i, y 

Oil the l6th, at day-break, I set but with a party d^nMn^ 
in five boa,t8» to collect .food for our cattle* CMtam'Cl^e, 
tod several of the officers,. Omai, and two or the nativei^ 
Accompanied me. . We proceeded about three leagues up 
the soundj and then landed oi^ the east side> at a- place 
where 1 had formerly been. Here we cut at much gram 
as loaded the two launches.. 

' As we returned dowp tt^e jsound, we visited Gfarass Cove, 
the memorable scene of the massacre of Captain Fumeauac'^ 
f^eople. Here I met with my old friend Pedro, who was al« 
tndst 'continually with me the last time I was in this sound, 
and is mentioned in my History of that Voyage* He> and 
another of his countrymen, received us on the beacb^ arm- 
ed witb'the pa^too and spear. Whether this form of recep^ 
tion was a mark ot' their courtesy or of their fear^ I cannot 
say; but 1 thought they betrayed manifest signs of the lat- 
ter^ However, if they had any apprehensions, a few preseati 
soon removed ]them, and brought down to the beach two or 
three more of the family ; but the greatest part of ihem xt* 
mained out of sight 

Whilst we were at this place, our curiosity prompted us 




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€IIAY« X* SECT. Yix. Cook, Clcrkc, and Gqre^ fJS 

to enquire into the circumstances attending the melancholy 
fate of our countrymen ; and Omai was made use of as our 
interpreter for this purpose. Pedro, and the rest of the na-^ 
tives present, answered fill the questions that were put to 
them on the sutject, without reserve, and like men who are 
under no dread of punishment for a crime of which they 
are not guilty. For we already knew that none of them had 
been concerned in the unhappy transaction. They told us^ 
that while our people were sitting at dinner, surrounded by 
several of the natives, some of the latter stole, or snatched 
from them, some bread and fish, for which they were beat. 
This being resented, a quarrel ensued, and two New Zea-r 
landers were shot dead, by the only two musquets that were 
^ed. For before our people had time to discharge a thirds 
or to load again those that had been fired, the natives rushr 
ed in upon them, overpowered them with their numbers^ 
and put them all to death. Pedro and his companions, be- 
sides relating the history of the massacre, made us acquaint- 
ed with the very spot that was the scene of it It is at the 
eomer ,of the cove on the right hand. They pointed to the 

Elace of the sun, to mark to us at what hour of the day it 
appencfd ; and, according to this, it must have been late 
in tne afternoon. They also shewed us the place where the 
boat lay ; and it appeared to be about two hundred yard^ 
distant from that where the crew were seated. One of their 
nuxaber, a black servant of Captain Furneaux^ was left ii^ 
the boat to take care of her. 

We were afterward told that this black was the cause of 
the quarrel, which was said to have happened thus : One of 
the natives stealing something out of the boat, the Negro 
gave him a. severe blow with a stick. The cries of the fel- 
low being heard by his countrymen at a distance, they ima-r 
gined he was killed^ and immediately began the attack on 
our people ; who, before they had time to reach the boat^ 
or to arm themselves against the linej^pect^d impending 
4aP2er, fell a sacrifice to the fury of their savage assailants^ 
Tn^ fifst of these accounts was confirmed by the testimo- 
ny of many of the natives whom we conversed with at difr 
ferent times, and who, I think, could have no interest in 
deceiving us. The second manner of , relating the transac- 
tioD, rests upon the authority of the young New Zealander, 
who chose .to fibandon his country and go away with us, 
and who, consequently^ cpuld have no possible view in'dis- 
▼fO|.. XV. 8 guising 



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£74 Modern Cireunmatigatima. pabt mi. book iifC 

guising the truth. All agreeing that the quarrel happened 
vihea the boat'? crew were sitting at their meal^ it is highly 
probable that both accounts are true^ as they perfectly co- 
incide. For we may very naturally suppose, that while some 
of the natives were stealing from the man wj^o had beenr 
left in the boat^ others of them might take the same liber* 
ties with the property of our people who were on shore. 

Be this as it will, all agree that the quarrel first took 
its rise from some thefts, in the commission of which the 
natives were detected. All agree, also, that there was no 
premeditated plan of bloodshed, and that, if these thefts 
had not been unfortunately too hastily resented, no mischief 
would have happened. For Kahoora's greatest enemies^ 
those who solicited his destruction most earnestly, at the 
same time confessed that he had no intention to quarrel, 
much less to kill, till the fray had actually commenced. It 
also appears that the' unhappy victims were under no aort 
of apprehension of their fgite, otherwise they never would 
have ventured to sit down to a repast at so considerable a 
distance from their bo^t, amongst people who were the 
liext moment to be their murderers. What became of the 
hoat I never could learn. Some said she was pulled to pieces 
and burnt; others told us that she was carried, they knew 
not whither, by a party of strangers. 

We stayed here till the evening, when, having loaded 
the rest of the bohts with grass, celery, scurvy*grass. See. we 
«mbarked to return to the ships. We had prevailed upoa 
Pedro to launch his canoe, and accompany us ; but we had 
scarcely put off from the shore when the wind began to 
blow very hard at N,W., which obliged him to piat back* 
'We proceeded ourselves, but it was with a good deal of 
difficulty that we could reach the ships, where some of the 
hoatd did not arrive till one o'clock the next morning ; and 
it was fortunate that they got on board thent, for it after- 
^ "ward blew a perfect storm, with abundance of rain, so that 
^o manner of work could go forward that day. In the 
evening the eale ceased, and the wind, having* veered to 
the E., brought with it fair weather. « . »' v « i - 

The next day we resumed our works ; the natives ventu- 
red out to catch fish ; and Pedro, with all his family, came 
and took up his abode near us. The chiePs proper naaae is 
M atahouah ; the other being given htm by some of my 
people during my last voyage, which I did not know till 

• now» 



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CHAP. I. «BG». vii# Cook, Ckrke, and Qore» ^75 

HOW* He was^ however^ equally well known amongst hia 
countrymen by both names. 

On the ^Oth, in the forenooh^ we had another storm from 
the N.W. Though this was not of go Icyng continuance as 
the former^ the gusts of wind from the hills were far more 
violent, insomuch that we were obliged to strike the yards 
and top-masts to the very utmost ; and^ even with all this 
^ecaution, it was with difficulty that we rode it out. These 
storms are very frequent here, and sometimes violent and 
troublesome. The neighbouring mountains, whieh at these 
times are always loaded with vapours, not onlyincrease the 
force of the wind, but alter its direction in such a manaer, 
that no two blasts follow each other from the same quarter f 
and the nearer the shore, the more their effecti are felt. 

The next day we were visited by a tribe or family, con-- 
sisting of about thirty persons, men, women and children^ 
who came from the unper part of the Sound. I had nevei^ 
seen them before. Tne name of their chief was Tomaton* 
geauooranuc, a man of about forty-five years of age, with 
a cheerful open countenance ; and, indeed, the rest of his 
tribe were> in general, the handsomest of the New Zealand 
race I had eveir met with. 

By this ^me more than two-thirds of tlie inhabitants of 
the Sound had settled themsielvcs about us. Great numbers 
of them daily frequented the ships, and the encampment 
on shore ; biit the latter became, by far, the most favourite 
place of resort, while our people there were melting some 
seal blubber. No Greenlander was ever fonder of 1^ainK>il 
than our friends herq seemed to be. Tbey relished the very 
skiinmings of the kettle, i^id'dregs of the casks ; but a little 
of the piire stinking oil was a delicious feast, so eagerly de« 
sired, that i suppose it is seldom enjoyed. 

Having got on board as much hay and ^rass as we jad- 
ged sufficient to serve the cattle till our arrival atOtabeite, 
and having completed the wood and water of both ships^ 
on the 2Sd we struck our tents, and carried every thing off 
from the shore, and next morning we weighed anchor, and 
stood out of the cbvcl. But the wind not being very fair> 
and finding that the tide of ebb would be spent before we 
conld gel out of the Sound, we cast anchor again a little 
•without the island Motu^.ra, to wait for a more favourable 
opportunity of putting into the strait. 

While we were iinmoc»ing and getting under sail, To^ 

matongeauooranuc. 



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St6 Modem CmumnaicigaiiatUp ^mt |II. %oom nt. 

liiatong«auoor«nuc9 MaUhoiiab,;aQd many more oftbe oap 
tives^ came to take tbeir leave of us^ or ratber to obtain, if 
tbey. could, some additional presents from os before we left 
tbem. These two chiefs became suitors to me for tome 
goats and hogs. Accordingly^ I gave to Matahouab two 
goats, a male, and female with kid ; and to Tpmatongeanoo- 
ranuc two pigs, a boar and a sow. They made me a promise 
Bot to kill them ; though, I must own, I put no great faith 
in this. The animals which Captain Furueaux sent on 
shore here, and which soon after fell into the bands of the 
natives, 1 was now told were all dead ; but I could get no 
intelligence about the fate of those 1 had left in West Bay, 
and in Cannibal Cove, when I was here in the course of my 
last voyage/ However, all the natives whom I conversed 
with, agteed, that poultry are now to be met with wild in 
the woods behind Ship Cove ; and I was afterward inform- 
ed, by the two youths who went away with us, that Tiratou, 
a popular chief amongst them, had a great many cocks 
and hens in his separate possession, and one of the sows. 

On my present arrival at this place, I fully intended to I 
have left not only goats and hogs, but sheep, and a young j 
bull, with two heifers, if I could have found either a chief I 
powerful enough to protect and keep them, or a place where 
there might be a probability of their beiqg concealed from i 
those who would ignorantly atteiqpt to destroy them. ; But 
neither the one nor the other presented itself to me. Tira* 
tou was now absent ; and Tringoboohee, whom I had met 
with during my last voyage, ami who seemed to be a per- 
son of mucn consequence at that time^ had been killed fiVe 
months £^q, with about seventy persons of his tribe ; and I 
could not le^rn that there now remained in our neighbour* 
hood any tribe, whose numbers could secure to them a su- 
periority of power over the rest of tbeir countrymen. To 
have given the animals to any of the natives who possessed 
no such power, would not h^ve answered the intention ; for 
in a country like this, where no man's property is secure, 
they would soon have fallen a prey to different parties, and 
been either separated or killed, but most likely both. This 
was so evident, from what we bad observed since our arri- 
val, that 1 had r^olved to leave no kind of animal till Ma<- 
tabouah and the other chief solicited me for the hogs and 
goats. As 1 could spare tbem^ I let them go, to take their 
chance* I have at different times^ loft in JNew :ZealaQd mot 

less 



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CMAPi r. «ECT. vil. C6o*> Cjerke, and Qore. 877 

Jess tban ten or a do2en bbg^^ besides those put on shore by 
Captain Furheaux. It will bie a little exltaordinary^ there<« 
fore, if this race should not iricrease and be preserved hert, 
either in a wild or in a domestic state, or in both. 

We had not been long at anchor near Mbtuaira, before 
three or four canoes, filled with natives, came off to us from 
the S.E. side of the sound; and a brisk trade was carried 
on with them for the curidsilies of this place. 'In one of 
these canoes was Kahoora^ whom I have already mentioned 
as the leader of the party who cut off the crew 6f the Ad-^ 
venture's boat. This was the third time he had Visited us^ 
without betraying the smallest appearance of fear.* I was 
ashore when he now arrived, but had got on board just as 
he was going away. Omai, who had returned with me, pre-> 
sently pointed him out, and solicited me to shoot him. Not 
totisfted with this, he addressed himself to Kahoora^ threat- 
ening to be his executioner if ever he presumed to yiaitus 
again. : ; ' 

The New Zealander paid'so little regard to theise threats, 
that h6 returned the next morning with his whole family, 
inen, women, and children> to the number of twenty and 
upward. Omai was the first who acquainted me with his 
being along-side the ship, and desired to know if he should 
ask him to come on board. I told him he might ; and ac- 
cordingly he introduced the chief into the cabin, saying, 
•^ There is Kahoora, kill himP* But, as if he had foi-got 
his former threats, or were afraid that I should call upon 
him to perform them, he immediately retired. In a short 
time, however, he returned ; and seeing the chief unhurt, 
he expostulated with me very earnestly, saying, *' Why do 
you not kill him ? You tell me, if a man kills another in 
England that he is hanged for it. This man has killed ten, 
and yet you will not kill him, though many of his country- 
men desire it, and it would be very good.'' Omai^s argu-. , 
mentB, though specious enough, having no weight with me^ 
I desired htm Xfy ask the chief why he had ki^Ued Captaiti 
Fumeaux's people ? At this question, Kahoora folded his 
arms, hung down his head, and, looked like one caught in 
a trap; and i firmly believti'^he expected instant deaths 
But no sooaer was he assured of his safety, than he became 
cheerful. He did bot, however, seem willing to give me an, 
answer to the question that had been put to him, till I had, 
«^ain aad Bq^^ iiepeaUd ipy pronuse that be. should not 



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278 Modern Circumna'9igatiom. part iii. boos uii 

be hurt. Then he ventured to tell us, ^' That one of his 
countrymen having brought a stone hatchet to barter, the 
n}an> to whom it was offered, took it, and would neither re- 
turn it, nor give any thing for it ; on which the owner of it 
snatched up the bread as an, equivalent, and then the quar- 
rel began." 

The remainder of Kahoora^s account of this unhappy af- 
fair, differed very little from what we had before learnt 
from the rest of his countrymen. He mentioned the nar- 
row escape he had during the fray ; a musquet being level- 
led at him, which he avoided by skulking behind the boat; 
and another man, who stood close to him, was shot dead* 
As soon as the musquet was discharged, he instantly seized 
the opportunity to attack Mr Rowe, who commanded the 
party^ and who defended himself with his hanger, (with 
which he wounded Kaboora in the arm,) till he was over^ 
ppwered by numbers. 

Mr Burney, who was sent by Captain Furneaux the next 
day, with an armed party, to look for his missing peopIe» 
upon discovering the horrid proofs of their shocking fate, had 
fired several voliies amongst the crowds of natives who still 
remained assembled on tne spot, and were probably par- 
taking of the detestable banquet. It was natural to suppose 
that he had not fired in vain ; and that, therefore, some o^ 
the murderers and devourers of our unhappy countrymen 
had suffered under our just resentment. Upon enquiry^ 
liowever, into this matter, not only from Kahoora, but from 
others who had opportunities of knowing, it appeared that 
our supposition was groundless, and that notoneof the shot 
fired by Mr Burney s people had taken effect, so as to kill, 
or even to hurt, a single. person.* 

Il 

* Mr Bumey was not warranted in firing* It was not possible for him, 
at the time, to know whether or hot his comrades had'been justly punish* 
€d for aggressions on the savages. He acted, therefore, from the impulse 
of blind revenge. - But such a motive^, though natural enough it may be^ 
must, neverthelessy l)e condemned by every law recognised among civilized 
nations. Even his observing these people engaged m feasting oh the vic- 
tims of their fury, much indeed as it>Krould necessarily augment his abhor« 
rence, could not be dlowed a sufficient plea for bis attacking them ; be- 
€Buse the principles which ought to govern the conduct of a meii^ber of 
such a society as he belonged to, are indiscriminately imperative in their 
nature, and do not allow any latitude of dispensation to an individual. 
The only thing that warrants the violation of them, is the necessity im- 
posed by a still higher law.— that of preserving his own existence. But, 
m the present instance, it aoes not appear that he was in any danger. — E. 



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tlEiAP. I. SECT. VII. Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. VJ9 

, It was evident, that most of the natives we had met wiih 
since our arrival, as they knew I was fully acquainted with 
the history of the massacre, expected 1 should avenge it 
vith the death of Kahoprs^. And many of theip seemed not 
6nly to wish it^ but expressed their surprise at my forbear- 
ance. As he could not be ignorant of this, it was a matter 
o£ wonder to me that he put himself so often in m,y power. 
When he visited us while the ships lay in the cove, confi- 
ding in the number of his friends that accompanied him, 
he might think himself safe ; but his two la^t visits bad been 
made under such circumstances, that he could no longer 
rely upon this. We were then at anchor in the entrance of 
the sound, and at some distance from apy shore ; so that he 
could not have any^ assistance from thence, nor flatter him- 
self he could have the m^ans of making bis escape, had I 
determined to detain him. And yet, after his first fears, on 
being interrogated, were over, he was so far from entertain- 
ing any uneasy sensations, that, on seeing a portrait of one 
dt bis countrymen hanging up in the cabin, he desired to 
have his own portrait drawn ; and sat till Mr Webber had 
finished it, without marlilng the least impatience, I must 
confess I admired his courage, and was toot a little pleased 
io observe the extent of the confidence he put in me ; foe 
he placed his whole safety in the declarations I had uni- 
formly made to those who solicited his death. That I had 
always 'been a friend to them all, and would continue so, 
unless they gave me cause to act otherwise ; that as to their 
inhuman treatment of oiir people, I should think no more 
oFif, the transaction having happened long ago, and when 
I was not present ; but that, if ever they made a second at- 
tempt of that kind, they might test assured of feeling the, 
^^eight of my resentment.^ 

For 

' ' Here Captain Cook acted wisely ; and, indeed, througliout the whole 
transaction, nis conduct merits the highest applause. To resist the solici- 
tations of envy and revenge, where acquiescence would have proved so 
availing to his reputation, and so secure in its display, implied a conscien- 
tious regard to an invisible authority, which must ever be allowed to con- 
stitute a feature of excellence in any man to whom power is committed. 
His threatening is not to be considered as any exce^timi to what is now 
said in his prai^, being, in fact, a beneficial intimation c^culated to secure 
^subjection to a necessary law. Here it may not be amiss to remark^ that 
tovages, little as some men think of them, are possessed of all the facul- 
ties o£ human nature ; and that conscience, that principle, which, more 

than 



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2tt^ Modem Circmnnacigatiom. part iii« book iir* 

For some time before we arrived at New ZetJand^ Omai 
bad expressed a desire to take one of the natives with him 
to his own country. We had not been there many days 
before he had an opportunity of being gratified in this ; 
for a youth, about seventeen or eighteen years of age, na- 
Hoed Taweiharooa, offered to accompany him, and took up 
his residence on board. I paid little attention to this at 
first, imagining that he would leave us when we were about 
to depart, and after he had got what he could from Omai« 
At lengthy finding tbat be was fixed in his resolution to go 
with us, and having learnt that he was the only son of a de* 
ceased chief, and mat his mother, stiil living, was a woman 
much respected here^ I was apprehensive that Omai had de- 
ceived him and his friends, by giving them hopes and assu- 
rances of his being sent back. I therefore caused it to be 
made' known to them all, that if the young man went away 
with us he would never return. But this declaratioil seem- 
ed to make no sort of impression. The afternoon before 
we left the cove, Tiratoutou, his mother, came on board, to 
receive her last present from Omai. The same evening she 
and Taweiharooa parted^ with all the marks of tender de- 
fection that might be expected between a parent and a 
child, who were never to meet a^in.' But she said she 
would cry no more ; and, sure enough, she kept her word. 
For when she returned the next morning, to take her last 
farewell of him, all the time she was on board she remain- 
ed quite cheerful, and went away wholly unconcerned. 

That 

tlum reason, characterizes our epecies, has as true and aa effident an ex« 
istence in their breasts. Now this always respects a superior power, and 
is the source of that indescribable dread of some opposing and awful 
agenqr, which never fails to visit the transgressor of its dictates. We arnst 
Hot,, however, ascribe to it every appreliension of danger with which the 
mind is occasionally disturbed. There is a sort of fear of evil which seema 
common to us with the lower animals, and which cannot therefore be ima- 
gined to have any connection ^ith moral delinquency. This latter, it ia 
probable, was all that Kahoora experienced in his first interview vrith 
Cook afler the massacre ; and hence his apprehedsions would easily be 
subdued by the assurances which that gentleman made him. In fiict, from 
the facility of his confidence, we may almost certainly infer his conscious- 
ness of innocence, notwithstanding his share in the commission of the 
deed. This implies no inconsistency, as every thinking person will at once 
perceive } for it must be remembered, that there is no evidence whatever 
as to any design or premeditated plan on the part of the sav^s. Had 
his dread been of the former kind, it is scarcely conceivable that the ut« 
most assurances of indemnity which Cook could give, would have produ- 
ced 80 unaffected a manifestation of ease as is described-^E. 



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CHAF. I* sBCT« Til. Cook, Ckrke, and Qore. Wl 

That Taweibarooa migbt be sent away in a manner be* 
^<:omihg his birth; anotberyouth* was to have gone with' him. 
as his servant ; andj wilh this view^ as we supposed, he re- 
mained on board till we were about to sail^ when bis friends 
took him ashore. However, his place was supplied next 
morning by another, a boy of about nine or ten years of 
age> named Kokoa. He was presented to me by his owa 
father, who, 1 believe, would have parted with his dog with 
far less indifTerence. The very little clothing the boy had 
he stript him of, and left him as naked as he was born. It 
mr^ to no purpose that I endeavoured to convince these 
people of the improbability, or rather of the impossibility, 
of these yduths ever returning home. Not one, not even 
their nearest relations, seemed to trouble themselves about 
their future fate. Since this was the case, and I was well 
satisfied that the boys would be no losers by exchange of 
" place, I the more readily gave my consent to their going. 

From my own observations, and from the information of 
Taweibarooa ^nd otbers, it appears to me that the New 
Zealanders must live under perpetual apprehensions of be- 
ing destroyed by each other ; there being few of their tribes 
that have not, as th($y thinks sustained wrongs from some 
other tribe, which they are continually upon the watch to, 
revenge. And,, perhaps, the desire of a good meal may be 
no small incitement. I am told that many years sometinies 
elapse before a favourable opportunity happens, and that 
the son never loses sight of an injury that has been done to 
his'fiither.^ Their method of executing their horrible de- 

^ Every reader ahntyst wiTI here recollect^ that a similar dispoeftlon to 
perpetuate grievanoes has been found to operate in all barbarous nationsb 
and indeed amongst many people who lay great claims to refinement in ci- 
vilizatioD. It will be found, in truth, too strong an effort for most men's 
diarity, to regard with perfect impartiality either a person or a nation 
whom their fathers had pointed out as an enemy. On the great scale of 
the world, we see it is the nearlj inevitaUe consequence of war to gene- 
rate malicious feeKngs. In addition, then, to some contrariety of interest, 
to some real or imaginary agression, or even a bore possibility of being' 
injured, h is idmost enough, at any tine, for the commencement of a new 
stmgg^e betwixt rival nations, that one, or both of them, remember they 
were formeilv at variance. Nor is it at all requisite for due rancour in 
such cases, that politicians explain the grounds of the quarrel, and aggra- 
vate the enormous injustice of the opponent, or prove his readiness to do 
laischief. The animosity is already conceived, and waits only the remo* 
val of the gauze^ike partitbn^ to be able, with greater certainty of efiect, 

to 



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882 Modern Circumnatigatiom. pabt ui. bq6k hi* 

signsj is by stealing upon the adverse party ia the nigbt ; 
and if they find them unguarded, (which, howeter, I be- 
lieve, is very seldom the case,) they kill every one indiscri- 
minately ; not even sparing the women and children. When 
the massacre is completed, they either feast and gorge 
themselves on the spot^ or carry off as many of the dead 
bodies as they can, and devour themat home, with acts of 
brutality too shocking to be described. If they are disco- 
vered before they can execute their bloody purpose, they 
generally steal off again, and sometimes are pursued and 
attacked by the other party in their turn. To give quarter,t 
or to take prisoners, makes no part of their miUtary law ; 
so that the vanquished can only save their lives by flight. 
This perpetual state of war^ and destructive method of con- 
ducting it, operates so strongly in producing habitual cir- 
cumspection, that one hardly ever finds a' New Zealander 
off his guard either by night or by day. Indeed^ no other 
man can have such powerful motives to be vigilant, as the 
preservation both of body and of soul depends upon it ; for, 
according to their system of belief, the soul of the man 
whose flesh is devoured by the enemy, is doomed to a per- 
petual fire, while the soul of the man whose body has been 
rescued from those who killed him, as well as the souls of' 
all who die a natural death, ascend to the habitations of^ 
the gods. I asked. Whether they cat the flesh of such of 

their 

to guide its instruments of destruction. *^ Hear," says Mr Fergusoo, m 
ills essay bii this subject, ^* hear the peasants on different sides of the Alps, 
and thfe Pyrenees, the Rhyne, or the British channel, give vent to their 
{Mrejudices and national passions ; it is among them that we find the mate- 
rialkof war and dissension laid without the direction of government, and 
sparks ready to kindle into a flame, which the statesman is frequently dis-^ 
posed to extinguish. The fire will not always catch where his reasons of 
state would direct, nor stop where the concurrence of interest has produ- 
<;ed an alliance. * My father,' said a Spanish peasant, * would rise from 
his grave iS he could foresee a war with France.' What interest had he, 
or the bones oi his father, in the quarrels of princes ?" The answer ^ght. 
easily be given by another anecdote. Puring a parley betwixt theieaders ot 
<wo rival Highlaud clans, which had for its object the jpeaceable termina- 
tion of their di^erences, a subordinate ofiioer, not relishing the unusual ho- 
mily, went up to his chief in a rage, and iipbraided him for delaying the 
combat. *' Don't you see,'' s^s he, bnmdishing his claymore, '* that the 
sun is almost set ?— we'll no hae half time to kill thae rascab !" The pea- 
sant naturally enough wished that his father might rise aeain to take his 
share in the delightful work of slaughter. Pray, what childish scruples 
withhold persons of such keen appetites from occasionally taking a belly- 
full of their enemy's flesh f •*£• 



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teHAP. x« 8E^T. Tiz. Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. ggS 

their friends as had been killed in war^ but whose bodies 
vere saved from falling into the enemy's hand$? They 
i^eemed surprised at the question, which they answered in 
the negative^ expressing some abhorrence at the very idea, 
'their common method of disposing ofaheir dead, is by de- 
positing their bodies in the earth ; but if they have more 
of their slaughtered enemies than thej can eat, they throw 
them into the sea. 

They have no such thing as morais, or other places of 
>public worship; nor do they ever assemble together with 
this view. But they have priests, who alone address the 
gods in prayer for the prosperity of their temporal affairs, 
. such as an enterprise against a hostile tribe^ a fishing party^ 
<or the like. 

' Whatever ^ the principles of their religion may be, of 
which we remain very ignorant, its instructions are very 
strongly inculcated into them from their very infancy. Of 
this t saw a remarkable instance, in the youth who was first 
destined to accompany Taweiharooa. lie refrained from 
eating the greatest part of the day, on account of his hair 
being cut, though every method was tried to induce him to 
break his resolution, and he was tempted with the offer of^ 
such victuals as he was known to esteem the most. He said, 
if he eat any thing that day the Eatooa would kill him; 
However, toward evening, the cravings of nature got the 
better of the precepts of his religion, and he ate, though 
but sparingly. I had often conjectured, before this, that 
they had somie superstitious notions about their hair, ha- 
ying freqiiehtly observed quantities of it tied to the branches 
of trees liear some of their habitations ; but what these no- 
tions are I could never learb. 

[ Notwithstanding the divided and hostile state in which 
the New Zealariders live, travelling strangers, who come 
with no ill design, arp well received and entertained during 
their stay; which, however, it is expected will be no long^ 
er than is requisite to transact the business they come upon. 
Thus it is that a trade for poenammoOj or green talc, is car* 
lied on throughout the whole northern island. For they 
tell us, thai there is none of this stone to be found but at a 
place which bears its name, somewhere about the head of 
Queen Charlotte^s Sound, and not above one or two days 
journey, at most, from the station of our ships. I regret- 
ted much that I could not spare time sufficient for paying a 

visit 



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2B4k Modem drcwnnavigaiiow.^ part hi. book ml 

visit to the place ; as we were told a hundred fabulous sto- 
ries about tnis stone^ not one of which carried with it the 
least probability of truths though some of their most sensi- 
ble men would have us believe them. One of these stories 
18^ that this stone is originally a fish^ which they strike witbi 
a gig in the water^ tie ^ rope to it^ and drag it to the shore, 
to which they fasten it^ and it afterwards becomes stone. 
As they ail agree that it is fished out of a large iake^ or col- 
lection of waters^ the most probable conjecture is, that it i» 
brought from the mountains, and deposited in the" water 
by the torrents. This lake is called by the natives Tavai 
Poenammoo, that is, the Water of Green Talc ; and it is 
only the adjoining part of the country, and not the whole 
southern island pf New Zealand, that is known to them by 
the name which hath been given to it on my chart. 

Polygamy is allowed amongst these people ; and it is not 
uncommon for a man to have two or three wives. The wo- 
men are marriageable at a very early age ; and it should 
seem, that one who is unmarried, is but in a forlorn state. 
She can with difHcultv get a subsistence ; at least she is, in 
a great measure, without a protector, though in constant 
want of a powerful one. 

The New Zealanders seem to be a people perfectly satis- 
fied with the little knowledge they are masters of, without 
attempting, in the least, to improve it. Nor are they re- 
markably curious, either in their observations or their en- 
quiries. New objects do not strike them with such a de- 
gree of surprise as one would naturally expect ;,nor do they 
even fix their attention for a moment. Omai, indeed, who 
was a great favourite with them, would sometimes attract a 
circle about him ; but they seemed to listen to his speeches 
like persons who neither understood, nor wished to under- 
stand, what they heard. 

One day, on our enquiring of Taweibarooa, how many 
ships, such as ours, had ever arrived in Queen Charlotte's 
Sound, or in any part of its neighbourhood i he began with 
giving an account of one absolutely unknown to us. This, 
he said, had put into a port on the N.W. coast of Teera- 
witte, but a very few years before I arrived in the Sound in 
the Endeavour, which the New Zeaianders distinguish by 
calling it Tupia's ship. At first. 1 tbought he might have 
been mistaken as to the time and place ; and that the ship 
ki question might be either Monsieur Surfille's, who is said 

4 to 



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CBAP. I. tSjiOT, viu Cook, Gierke, and Gore. ^85 

to h&ve touebed upon the N.E* coast of Eabeinomauwe^ the 
same year. 1 was there ia the Endeavour ; or else Monsieur 
Marion du Fresne's^ who was in the Bay of Islands^ on the 
fiaine coast^ a few years after. But he assured us that he 
was not mistaken^ either as to the time, or as to the place 
of this ship's arrival, and that it was well known to every 
body about Queen Charlotte's Sound and Teerawitte. He 
said, that the captain of her, during his stay here, cohabi- 
ted with a woman of the country ; and that ^he had a son 
by him still living, about the age of Kokoay who, though 
not born then, seemed to be equally well acquainted with 
the story. We were al^ informed by Taweiharooa, that 
this ship fi];st introduced the venereal disease amongst the 
New Zeal^nders. 1 wish that subsequent visitors from Eu ; 
rope may not have their share of guilt in leaving so dread- 
ful a reo^mbrance of them amongst this unhappy race. 
The disorder now is but too common here, though they do 
not seem to rq^rd it, saying, that its effects are not near so 

?erniciQU8 at present as they were at its first appearance, 
'he only method, as iar as I ever heard, that they make 
use of as a remedy, is by. giving the patient the use of ft 
fiort of hot bath, which they produce by the steam of cer- 
tain green plants laid over hot stones. 

I regretted much that we did not hear of this ship while 
we were in the sound, as, by means of Omai, we/ might 
have had full and correct information about her from eye- 
witnesses. For Taweibarooa's account was only from whi|t 
hejiad been told, and therefore liable to many mistakes. I 
have not the least doi^bt, however, that ^is testimony may 
so far be depended upon, as to induce us to believe that a 
ship really had been at Teerawitte prior to my arrival in the 
Endeavour, as it corresponds with what I had formerly 
heard. For in the latter end ol' 177 S, the second time I 
visited Mew Zealand, during my late voyage, when we were 
continually making enquiries about the Adventure, after 
our separation, some of the natives informed us of a ship's 
having been in a port on the coast of Teerawitte. But, at 
this time, we thought we must have misunderstood theo?^ 
and took no notice of the intelligence. 

The arrival of this unknown ship has been marked by the 
Mew Zealanders with more causes of remembrance than the 
unhappy one just mentioned. Taweiharooa told us their 
country ivas indebted to her plople for the present of an 

animal 



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ess Modem Circumnavigations^ fart iii. book iif^ 

unimal^ \vhich they left behind them. Bot as be had nol 
seen it himself^ no sort of judgment could be formed from 
his description of what kind it'wB& 

We had another piece of intelligence from him, more 
correctly given, though not confirmed by our own observa- 
tions, that there are snakes and lizards there of an enormous 
size. He described the latter as being eight feet in lehgth> 
and as big round as a man's body. He said they some-, 
times seize and devour men; that they burrow in the 
ground ; and that they are killed by making fires at the 
inouths of the holes. We could not be mistaken as to the 
animal ; for, with his own btod, he, drew a very good re- 
presentation of a lizard on a piece of paper^ as also of a 
•nake, in order to shew what he meant.' 

Though much has been said, in the narratives of my two 
former voyages, about this country and its inhabitants, Mr 
Anderson's remarks, as serving either to confirm or to cor- 
rect our former accounts, may not be superfluous. He had 
been three times with me to Queen Charlotte's Sound du- 
ring my last voyage; and, afler this fourth visit, what he 
thought proper to record, may be considered as the result 
of sufficient observation. The reader will find it in the ne»% 
section ; and I have nothing farther to add, before I quit 
New Zealand, but to give some account of the astronoml-* 
cal and nautical observations made during bur stay there. 

The longitude of the observatory in Ship 

Cove, by a mean of 103 sets of obser-.' 

vations, each set consisting c^ six or 

more observed distances, was - - - 174*^ S5' 16^' E, 
By the time-keeper, at Greenwich rate, it 

was ..--....--. 175 26 30 
By ditto, at the Gape rate, it was - - - 174 56 12 
Variation of the compass, being the mean 

of six needles, observed on board the 

ship 12 400E. 

By the same needles on shore, it was - * 13 53 O ' 
The dip of the south end, observed on 

shore, was -------- -63 42-0 

By 

^ There can be little doubt that the animal here ca lied a Iisafd is an al- 

, lJgator.-^£. 

13 



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^HAP. f. SECT, viiit Cook, Gierke, and Gore. ' €87 

By a mean of the results of eleven days observations^^ the 
time-keeper was too sldw for riean time on February 22, 
feit noon, by 1 1* 5(/ 37^396 ; and dhe Was found to be losing 
on mean time at the rate of 2^915 per day. From this rate 
the longitude will be computed, till some other opportunity 
offers to ascertain her rate anew. The asti^onomical clocf, 
with the same length of pendulum as at Greenwich, was 
found to be losing on sidereal time 40",239 per day. 

It will not be amiss to mention, that the longitude, hf 
kinar observations, as above, differs only & 46f fr^om'what 
Mr Wales made it during my last voyage; his being 86 
much more to the W. or 174* 18' SO*'. / 

The latitude of Ship Cove is 41** 6' 0", as found by Mt 
-Wales, ' \; ' ^' 

Section VIII, 

Mr Anderson's Remarks on the Country near Queen Char^ 
loiters Sound. — The SoiL-r^Climate, — Weather. — fVinds.-^ 
Trees.^^Plants^ — Birds. — Fish. — Other Animals. — Of the 
Inhabitants. — Description of their Persons. — TAwV Vress. 
— Ornaments. — Habitations.-^ Boats. — Food and Cookery* 
— Arts. — Weapom. — Cruelty to Prisoners. — Various Cus^ 
ioms. — Specimen of their Language. 

The land every where about Queen Charlotte's Sound is 

uncommonly mountainous, rising immediately from the sea 

•into large hillsf with blunted tops. At considerable drs-*, 

stances are valleys^ or rather impressions on the sides of the 

hills, which are not deep, each terminating toward the sea 

in a small cove, with a pebbly or sandy beach ; behind which 

are small flats, where the natives generally build their huts, 

at the same time hauling their canoes upon the beaches. This 

situation is the more convenient, as in every cove a brook 

of very fine water (in which are some small trout) empties 

itself into the sea. ♦ 

The bases of these mountains, at least toward the shore, 
are' constituted of a brittle, yellowish sand-stene, which ac- 
quires a bluish cast where the s^a washes it. It runs, at 
isome places,' in horizontal, and, at other places, in oblique 
strata, being frequently divided, at small distances, by thfn 
veins of coarse quartz, which commonly foUow the direc- 
• tioa 




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«88 Modem Circuamac^atiomi part hi. book nr* 

lion of the other, though they flometimes ioteraect it. The 
mould, or soil, which covers this, is also of a yellowish cast, 
not unlike marl ; and is eommonly from a foot to twOj or 
saore^ in thickness* 

The quality of this soil is best indicated by the luxuriant 
growth of its productions. For the hills (except a few to- 
'iward the sea, which are covered with smaller bashes) are 
one continued forest of lofty trees, flourishing with a vigour 
aknost superior to any thing that imagination can conceive, 
and aiSfording an august prospect to those who are delight* 
^d with the grand and beautiful works of nature. 

The agreeable temperature of the climate, no doubt, c<m- 
tributes much to this uncommon strength in vegetation. 
For, at this time, though answering to our month of Au- 
gust, the weather was never disagreeably warm^ nor did it 
raise the thermometer higher than 60^ The winter, also, 
seems equally mild with respect to cold ; for in June, 1773, 
which corresponds to our December, the mercury never fell 
lower than 48'' ; and the trees, at that time, retained their 
.yerdure, as if in the summer season ; so that, I believe, their 
foliage is never shed, till pushed off by the succeeding 
leaves in spring. 

The weather, in general, is good, but sometimes windy, 
^with heavy rain, which, however, never lasts above a day ; 
nor does it appear that it is ever excessive. For there are 
no marks of torrents rushing down the hills, as in many 
countries; and the brooks, if we may judge from their 
.channels, seem never to be greatly increased. I have ob- 
served, in the four different times of my being here, that 
the winds from the south-eastward are commonly mode- 
rate, but attended with cloudy weather, or rain. The S.W. 
winds blow very strong, and are also attended with rain, 
but they seldom last long. The N.W. winds are the most 
prevailing ; and though ofJten pretty strotig, are almost con- 
stantly connected with jBne weather. In short, iJie only ob- 
stacle to this being one of the finest countries upon earth, 
is its great hillyness ; which, allowing the woods to be cleat^ 
ed away, would leave it less proper for pasturage than flat 
Jand, and still more improper for cultivation, which could 
never be effected here by .the plough. 

The large trees which cover the hills are chiefly of two 
.sorts. One of them, of the size of our largest firs, grows 
9U}oh after their manner, but the leaves^ and small berries 

on 



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i 



CHAP. I* SECT. VIII. Cook, Ckrke, dmi Gere. £89 

on their points, are much liker the yew. Ijt was this which 
supplied the place of spruce in making ^eer ; which we did 
with a strong decoction of its leaves, fermented with trea- 
cle or sugar. . And this liquor, when well prepared, was ac- 
knowledged to be little inferior to the American spruce 
beer, by those who had experience of both. The other sort 
of tree is not unlike a maple, and grows often to a great 
size ; but it only served for fuel, as the wood, both of this ^ 
and of the preceding, was found to be rafther too heavy 
for masts, yards, and other similar repairs. 

There is a greater variety of trefes on the sm^ll flat spots 
behind the beaches. Amongst these are two that bear a 
kind of plum of the size of prunes, the one yellow, called 
karraca, and the other black, called maiitiOj but neither of 
them of a verv agreeable taste, though the natives eat both> 
and our people did the same. Those of the first sort grow 
on small trees, always facing the sea ; but the others belong 
to larger trees that stated farther within thjC woo.d, apd 
which we frequently cut down for fuel. 

A species of fiiiladdphm grows on the eminences which 
ut out intp tji^e siea; and also a tree bearing flowers almost 
ike myrtle, M'^ith roundish spotted leaves of a disagreeable 
smell. We drank the leaves of the phUadelpkus as tea, and 
found that they had a pleasant taste and smell, and might 
make an excellent substitute for the oriental sort. 

Among other plants that were useful to us, may be reck- 
oned wild celery, which grows plentifully in almost every 
cove, especially if the iiatives have ever resided there be- 
fore ; and one that we psed to call scurvv-grass, though 
entirely difierent from the plant to whicn we give that 
name. This, however, is far preferable to ours for commoii 
use, and may be known by its jagged leaves, and small 
clusters of wliite flowers on the top. Both sort^ were boil- 
ed every morning, with wheat ground in a mill, find with 
portable soup, for the people's breakfast, and also an^ongst 
their pease^soup for dinner. Spmetimes they were used as 
sallad, or dressed as greens. In ^11 which ways they are 
good ; and, together with the fish, with which we were con- 
stantly supplied, they formed a sort of refreshment, perhaps 
little inferior to what is to be met with in places most no- 
ted by nayigal^ors for plentiful supplies of animal and vege- 
table food. 

Amongst the known kinds of plants met with here, are 

VOL. XV. T common 



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^ MoA»n Ciremmavigaiums. pam hi. BobK ut. 

common and rough bindweed; night*shade and nettles^ 
both which grow to the size of small trees; a shrubby 
speedwell^ found near all the beaches^ sow-thistles^ virgin's 
bower^ vaiielloe^ French willow^ euphorbia^ and craneV 
bill ; {Jso cudweed^ rushes^ bull-rushes, flax, all-heal, Ame- 
rican nightshade, knot-grass, brambles, eye-bright, and 
groundsel ;' but the species of each are different vrom any 
we have in tlurope. There is also polypody, spleenwort, 
and about twenty other different sort of ferns, entirely pe- 
culiar to the place, with several sorts of mosses, either rare, 
or produced only here ; besides a great number of other 
plants, whose uses are not yet known, and subjects fit onljr 
for botanical books. 

X)f these, however, there is one which deserves particular 
notice here, as the natives make their gannents of it, and 
it produces a fine silky flax, superior in appearance to any 
thmg we have, and probably, at least, as strong. It grows 
every where near the sea, and in some places a consider- 
able way up the hills, in bunches or tufts, with sedge^Iike 
leaves, bearing, on a long stalk, yellowish flowers, which 
are succeeded by a long roundish pod, filled with very thin 
shining black seeds. A species of long pepper is found 
in great plenty, but it has little of the aromatic flavour 
that makes spices valuable ; and a tree, much like a palm 
at a distance, is pretty frequent in the woods, though the 
deceit appears as you come near it. It is remarkable, 
that as the greatest part of the trees and plants had at this 
' time lost their flowers, we perceived they were generally of 
the berry-bearing kind ; of which, and other seeds, I brought 
away about thirty different sorts. Of these, one in parti-r 
cular, which bears a red berry, is much like the supple<jack^ 
and grows about the trees, stretching from one to another, 
in such a manner as to render the woods almost wholly im- 
passable^ 

The birds, of which there is a tolerable stock, as well as 
the vegetable productions, are almost entirely peculiar to 
the place. And though it be difficult to follow them, oh 
account of the quantity of underwood, and the climbing 
plants, that render travelling, for pleasure alone, uncom* 
^ monly fatiguiog, yet ^ person, by remaining in one^place, 
may shoot as many in a day as would serve six or eight 
others. The principal sorts are large brown parrots, with 
white or greyish heads ;. green parroquets, with red fore- 

' heads; 

n 



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cRAP.JUsjiCT. vui. Cook, Clo'kej and Gon» jjgj 

beada; large m)oi pigeons^ brown a^ove^ with wjbite bel- 
}ieaj thei^est green^ and the bill and feet red; two sorts of 
.cUoko<N»^ one as large as our common sort;, of a brown cp- 
lourj yariega'ted with b^tck, thf other not larger than ^ 
sparrow^ of a splendid green east abovej, and elegantly v^ 
r^ed wi^ih waves of goldep^ green^ browi^ and white colouis 
below. Both these are scarce^ but several others are in 
greater plenty ; one of which^ of a Uack cok»ur, with a 
gref^iah cast^ is remarkable for having a tuft of white curl- 
ed feathers hanging ulider the throaty and was called tbe 
po9f bird* by 'Our people. Another sort^ rather smaller^ is 
black, with a blown back and wings, and two small gills 
ua4^ tbe^voot of the biU. This we called the small wattle 
birdi to distinguish it from another, which we called tb^ 
large one^ of the size of a common pigeon, with two larce 
yiUow and purple membranes abp at the root of the bm. 
It is black, or rather blue, and has no resemblance of the 
otber but in name, for the bill Is thick, short, and crooked, 
and has all together an uncommon appearance. A gross*- 
beak> about tte size of a thrush, of a brown colour, with/a 
jreddish tail, is frequent^ as js also a small greenish bird^ 
whiiah. is almost the only:mn^cal one here, but is sufBcieftt 
^by itself to fill the ivoods with a melody that is not only 
aweet, but $o varied, that one would imagine he was su)c- 
rounded by a hundred di0erent.sorts of birds when the. lit^ 
tie warbler is n^ar. from these circumstances we nam^d 
it the mocking bird. There ,are likewise three or four 8oi;ts 
of smaller birds ; one^f which, in, figure and tameness, ^ic-* 
acdy resembles our robin, but is black-where that is Wolfn, 
anid white where that is red. Another difiers but little from 
this, except in .being smaller ; and a third sort has a long 
tail, whioh it expands as a fan on coming near, smd makes 
a chirping noise when it perches* King-fishers are seen, 
tbough rare, and are about the size of our English, ones^ 
but with ;an inferior plumage. 

About the rocks are seen black sea-pies with red, bills ; 
and csested shags of a leaden colour, with small black spots 
on. the wings and shoulders, and. the rest of the upper part 
of a velvet black tinged with green. We frequently 3hot 
both ibese^ and also a more common sort of shags, black 

. above 

* It bad this name from its tuft of feathers, resembling the white flov^- 
ers used as ornaments in the ears at Otaheite, and called there Poowa* 



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fgt Modem GrcumnavigafiQm. part hi. book hi, 

above and white underneath^ thiat build their nests upon 
trees^'on which sometimes a dozen or more sit at once. 
There are also^ about the shore; a few sea-guUs/ some bine, 
herons^ and sometimes, though very rarely, wild^ducks^ a 
small sandy-coloured plover, arid some sand-latks. Aitd 
small penguins, black above, with a white belly, as well as 
numbers of little black divers, swim often about the sound. 
We likewise killed two or three rails, of a brt)wri or yellowish 
colour, variegated with black, which feed about the smalt 
brooks, and are nearly as large as a common fowl. No 
other sort of game was seien, except a single snipe, which 
was shot, and' differs but little from that of Eordpe; 
' The principal fish we caught by the' seine wefre mnllets 
and elephant fish, with & few soles and flounders ^ but those 
that the natives mostly supplied us with were a sort of sea- 
bream, of a silver colour, with a black spot on the neck, 
large conger eels, and a fish in shape much like the bream^ 
but so large as to weigh five, six, or seven pounds^ It is 
blackish with thick lips, and called Mogge b]^ the natives. 
With hook and line we caught chiefly a blackish fish of the 
size of a haddock^ called cole-fish by the seamen, but dif- 
fering touch from that known by tbe'same nam,e in Europe ; 
Und another of the same size, of a reddish colour, with a 
little beard^ which we called night-walkers, from the great- 
?&st number being caught in the night. Sometimes we got 
a sort of small salmon, gurnards, skate, and nurses ; and the- 
tiatives now and then brought hake, paracutas> a small sort 
of mackerel^ parrot-fish, and leather-jackets ; besides an* 
Other fish, which is very rare, shaped almost like a dolphin, 
of a black colour, with strong bony jaws, and the b^ck fin, 
as well as those opposite to it, much lengthened at the end. 
All these sorts, except the last^ which we did not try^ are 
excellent to eat; but the Mogge, stnall salmon, and cole* 
fish, are superior to the rest. ^ 

The rocks are abundantly furnished with great <inahtities 
of excellent muscles; one sort of which, that is'iiot very 
<iommon, measures above a foot in length. There are also 
^cockles buried in the sand of the small beaches ; and In 
some places ovsters, which, though very small, are well 
tasted. Of otW shell-fish there are ten or twelve sorts, 
such as periwinkles, wilks, limpets, and some very beauti- 
ful sea-ears, also another sprt which stick to the weeds ; 
ivith some other things, as sea-eggs, star-fish, &c. several 



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CHAP. X. 8BCT* till. CcfoUp Gierke^ and Gore. ^s 

Qf which are peculiar to the place. The natives likewise 
sometimes brqught us very fine cray-fish, equal to our lar- 
gest lobsters^ and cuttle-fish, !Prhich they eat themselves. 

Insects are very rajre. Of tbe^e we only saw two sorts of 
dragonrflies, some butterflies, small grasshoppers^ several 
sorts of 9piders^ some small, black ants, and, vast numbers 
of ^corpiop-flies^ with. whose chirping the woods resound. 
The only noxious one is the sand-fly, very numerous here, , 
and ahnost as troublesome as the musquitoe ; for we found 
no reptile here, except two or three sorts of small harmless 
lizards,* , . ^ 

. It is remarkable, that, in this extensive land» there should 
not even be the traces of any quadruped, only excepting a 
few rats, and a sort of fox-dog, which is a domestic animal 
with the natives. 

Neither is there any mineral worth notice, but a green, 
jasper or serpent^stone, of which the New Zealanders make 
their tools and ornaments. This is esteemed a precious ar- 
ticle by them ; and. they have some superstitious notions 
about the. method of its generation, which we could. not^ 
perfectly understand. It is plain, however, th^fwherever 
It may. be found,, (which, they say, is in the channel of a 
large. river far to the southward,) it is disposed in the earth 
in thin layers, or perhaps in detached pieces, like our. flints; 
for, the edges of those pieces> which have not been cut, are 
covered with a whitish crust like these. A piece of this 
sort was purchased, about eighteen inches long, a foot 
broad, and. near two i.nchjes thick, which yet seemed to be 
only the fragment of a larger piece. 

The native^. do not exceed the common stature 6f Euro* 
peans ; and, in^ general, are not so well made, especially 
about the limbs. This is, perhaps, the eflect of sittmg, for 
the most part, on their naja^s, and of being confined, by 
the hilly disposition of th^ country, from using that sort of 
exercise which, contributes to render the body straight and 
weH-proportioned* There, are, however, several exceptions 
to thisj ,aQ.4 some are repiarkable for their large bones and 
muscles, but.few that I have seen are corpulent 

Their colour is of diflerent casts, from a pretty deep black 
to a yellowish or olive tinge; and their features also are va- 

« rious, 

^ In a separate memorandum-book, Mr Anderson mentions the mon- 
strous animal of the lizard kind> dejicribed by the two boys after they lefb 
the islaod.'-'D. 



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Modem Ciremnnavigatiom. TAUr iit. i^txa nt^ 

Tioas, some vesemblfng-EaropeoiiB. Bot^ in ^enem), tbeir 
faces are roand^ with meir lips fuU^ and aisa their noses to* 
ward the point ; thooeh the first are not uncommonly Aicfc^ 
DOT the last flat. I do not, however^ recollect to have seen 
an instance of the true aquiline nose amonest them. Their 
teeth are commonly broad, white, and well set; and their 
eyes large, with a very free motion, which seems the effect 
of habit. Their hair is black, straight, and strong, comm<m* 
ly cut short on the hind parti with the rest tied on die crown 
df the head : but some have it of a curling disposition, or 
of a brown colour. In the youngs the countenance i» gene-- 
rally free or open ; but in many of the men it had a serious 
cast, and sometimes a suUenness or reserve, especially if they 
are strangers^ The women are, in general, smaller than Uie 
men ; but^have few peculiar graces, eithei^ in form or fea« 
tures, to distinguish them. 

The dress of both sexes is alike ; and consists of an ob- 
long garment about five feet long, and four broad^ made 
from the silky flax already mentioned. This seems to be 
their most material and complex manufacture, which is 
executed by knotting ; and their work is often ornamented 
with pieces of dog-skin, or chequered at the corners. They 
bring two corners of this garment over the shoulders, and 
fasten it on the breast with the other part, which covers the 
body ; and about the belly, it is again tied with a girdle 
made of mat. Sometimes they cover it with large feathers 
of birds (which seem to be wrought into the piece of clotfi 
when it is made), or with dog-skin ; and that alone we have 
seen worn as a covering. Over this garment many of tbeni 
wear mats, which reach from the shoulders to near the heels. 
But the most common outer-coverine is a quantity of the 
above sedgy plant, badly dressed, which they fasten on a 
string to a considerable length, and, throwing it about the 
shoulders, let it fall down on all sides, as far as the middle 
of the thighs. When they sit down with this upon them, 
either in their boats, or upon the shore, itwould be diflScidt 
to distinguish them from large grey stones, if their blade 
heads, projecting beyond their coverings, didnot engage 
one to a stricter examination. 

By way of ornament, they fix in their heftds feathers, or 

' combs of bone, or wood, adorned witih pearl shell, or the 

thin inner skin of some leaf. And in the ears, both of men 

and women, which are pierced, or rather slit, are hung small 

pieces 



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OiAlP. ^ 6SQI* viii. Cook, Ckrhe, atid Gore* £95 

pieces of jasper^ bits of clothe or beads when they can get 
tbeai« A few also have the septum of the nose bored in its 
lower part ; but no ornament was worn there that we saw ; 
though one man passed a twig through it^ to she,w us that 
it was sometimes used for that purpose* They wear long 
beards^ but are fond of having mem shaved. 

Some are punctured or stained in the face with curious 
spiral and other figures^ of a black or deep blue colour ; but 
it is doubtful whether this be ornamental, or intended as a 
mark of particular distinction ; and the women, who are 
marked so, have the puncture only^on their lips, or a small 
spot on their chins. Both sexes often besmear their faces 
and beads with a red paint> which seems to be a martial 
•ochre milled with grease ; and the women sometimes wear 
Hiecklaces of shark's teeth, or bunches of long beads, which 
seem to be made of the leg*bones of small birds, or a par- 
.ticular shell. A few also have small triangular aprons adorn- 
ed with the feathers of parrots, or bits of pearl shells, fur- 
nished with a double or treble set of cords to fasten them 
about the waist. I have sometimes seen caps or bonnets 
made of the feathers of birds, which may be reckoned as 
. omamenta; for it is not their custom to wear any covering 
.on their heads. 

They live in the small coves formerly described, in com- 
panies of forty or fifty, or more ; and sometimes in single 
lamilies, building their huts contiguous to each other; 
which, in general, are miserable lodging-places. The best 
I ever saw was about thirty feet long,/ nfteen broad, and 
SIX high, built exactly in the manner of one of our count- 
jry barns. The inside was both strong and regularly made 
of supporters at the aides, alternately large and small, weH 
fastened by means of withes, and painted red and black. 
The ridge pole was strong; and the large bull-rushes, which 
composed the inner part of the thatching, were laid with 
great exactness parallel to each other. At one end Was a 
small square .bole, which served as a door to creep in at ; 
and near, another much smaller, seemingly for letting oat 
,the smoke, as no other vent for it could be seen. This, how- . 
ever, ought to be considered as one of the best, and the re- 
aidence of some principal person ; for the greatest part of 
them are not hau the above size, and seldom exceed four 
feet in height ; being, besides, indifferently built, though 
.proof f^ainst wind and rain, 

-No 



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$96 . Modem Circumnaingaiiom. fart hi. booiT f ii. 

No other fbrniture is to be seen in tbem^ than a few 
small baskets or bags> in which they put th,eir fishing-hooks^ 
and other trifles ; and they sit down ia the middle round a 
small fire, where they also probably sleep, without any 
other covering than wnat they wear in the day, or perhaps 
without that ; as such confined places must be very warm^ 
though inhabited but by a few persons. 

They live chiefly by fishing, makine use either of nets 
of different kinds, or of wooden fish-hooks pointed with 
bone; but so oddly made, that a stranger is at a loss to 
know how they can answer such a purpose. It also ap- 
pears, that they remove their habitations from one place to 
another when the fish grow scafce, or for some other rea- 
son ; for we found houses now built in several parts, where 
there had beei\ none when we were here during our last 
voyagfc, and even these have been already deserted. 

Tlieir boats are well built, of planks raided upon each 
other, and fastened with strong withes, which also bind a 
lon^ narrow piece on the outside of the seams to prevent 
■their leaking. Some are fifty feet long, and so broad as to 
be able to sail without an outrigger ; but the smaller sort 
commonly have one ; and they often fasten two together 
by rafters, which we then call a double canoe. They car*- 
ry from five to thirty men or more ; and have often a large 
head ingeniously carved, and painted with a figure at the 
point, which seems intended to represent a man, with 
hi^ features distorted by rage. Their paddles are about 
four. or five feet long, narrow, and pointed; with which, 
when they keep time, the boat is pushed along pretty swift- 
ly. Their sail, which is seldom used, is made of a mat of 
a triangular shape, having the broadest part above. 
. The only method of dressing their fish, is by roasting, or 
rather baking ; for they are entirely ignorant of the art of 
boiling. In the same manner they dress the root, and part 
of the stfilk, of the large fern-tree,, in a great hole dug for 
that purpose, which serves as an oven. After which they 
split It, and find, within, a fine gelatinous substance, like 
boiled sago powder, but firmer. They also use another 
smaller fern root, which seems to be their substitute for 
bread, as it is dried and carried about with them, together 
with dried fish in great quantities, when they remove theit 
families, or go far from home. This they beat with a stick 
till it becomes pretty soft^ when they chew it sufficiently, 
. . sued 



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cfiAi*. I. SBCT. Tin. Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. t^ 

and spit out the bard fibrous part^ tbe otber having a sweets 
ish mealy taste^ not at all disagreieabie. 

When they dare not yehture to sea^ or perhaps from, 
choice^ they supply the pkce of. other fish with muscles and 
sea-ears ; great quantities of the shells of which lie in heaps 
near their houses* And they sometimes^ though rarely, 
find means to kill rails^ penguins^ and shags, which help to 
vary their diet. They also breed considerable numbers of 
the dogs^ mentioned before, for food ; but these cannot be 
considered as a principal article of diet. From whence we 
we may conclude, that^ as there is not the least sign of 
cultivation of land, thev depend principally for their sub-^ ^ 
. sistence on tbe sea, which, indeed, is very bountiful in its 
supply. 

Their method of feeding corresponds with the nastiness 
of their persons^ which often smell disagreeably from the 
quantity of grease about them, and their clothes never be». 
ing washed. We have seen them eat. the verinin> with 
which their heads are sufficiently stocked. 

They also used to devour, with the greatest eagerness^ 
large quantities of stinking^ train oil, and blubber of seals^ 
which we were melting at the tentf and had kept near two 
months; and, on board the ships, they were not satisfied 
with emptying the lamps, but actually swallowed the cotton, 
and fragrant wick, with equal voracity. It is worthy of 
notice, that though the inhabitants of Van Diemen's Land 
appear to have but a scanty subsistence, they would not 
even taste our bread, though they saw us eat it ; whereas 
these people devoured it greedily, when both mouldy and 
rotten. !But this must not be imputed to any defect in 
their sensations; for I have observed them throw away 
things which we eat, with evident disgust, after only smell-* 
ing to them. 

They shew as much ingenuity, both in invention and 
execution, as any uncivilized nations under similar circum-* 
stances. For> without the use of any metal tools, they make 
every thing by which they procure their subsistence, clo- 
thing, and warlike weapons^ with a degree of neatness, 
strength, and convenience for accomplishing their several 
purposes. Their chief mechanical tool is formed exactly 
after the manner of our adzes ; and is made, as are also tbe 
chisel and goudge, of the green serpentnstone or jasper, al* 
ready mentioned ; though sometimes they are composed of 

a black 



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fS9 Modern Circumnavigatiofu. pabt hi. book nx. 

a blackj smooth^ aod very solid stone. But their masler- 
piece seems to be carving, which is found upon the most 
trifling things ; and, in particular, the heads of their canoes 
are sometimes ornamented with it in such a manner^ as not 
only shews much design, but is also an example of their 

treat labour and patience in execution. Their cordage for 
shing-lines is equal, in strength and evenness, to that 
made by us ; and their nets not at all inferior. But what 
must cost them more labour than any other article, is the 
making the tools we have mentioned ; for the stone is ex- 
ceedingly hard, and the only method of fashioning it, we 
can euess at, is by rubbing one stone upon another, which 
can nave but a slow effect. Their substitute for a knife is 
a shell, a bit of flint, or jasper. And, as an auger to bore 
holes* diey fix a shark's tooth in the end of a small piece of 
wood. It is true, they have a small saw made of some 
jagged fishes teeth, fixed on the convex edge of a piece of 
wo^ nicely carved. But this, they say^ is only used to cut 
up the bodies of their enemies whom they kill in battle. 
. No people can have a quicker sense of an injury done to 
ihem, ana none are more ready to reseat it. But, at the 
same time, they will take an (^portunity of being insolent 
when they think there is no danger of punishment ; which 
is so contrary to the spirit of genuine bravery, that, per* 
haps, their eagerness to resent injuries is to be looked upon 
ratner as an effect of a furious disposition than of great 
courage. They also appear to be of a suspicious or mis- 
trustful temper (which, however, may rather be acquired 
than natural), for strangers never came to our ships im- 

. mediately, but lay in their bqats at a small distance, either 
to observe our motions, or consult whether- or no they 
should risk their safety with us. To this they join a great 
degree of dishonesty; for they steal every thing thev can 

' lay their hands on, if there be the least hope of not being 
^tected; and, in trading, I have little doubt but they 
would take advantages, if they thought it could be done 
with safety ; as they not only refuse to trust a thing in one'a 
band for examination, but exult if they think they have 
tricked you in the bargain. 

Such conduct, however, is, in some measure, to be ex- 
pected where there appears to be but little subordination, 
aod consequently few, if any, laws, to punish transgressions. 
For no man*s authority seems to extend farther than his 

own 



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<;hap« !• sacT. v4ii. Cook, Cbrhe, and Gore. t99 

0vm family; end whea^ at any time, they join for mutual 
defence^ or any other purpose, those amongst them who are 
eminent f^ courage or prudence, are directors. How their 

Jmyate quarrels are terminated is uncertain ; but, in the 
ew we saw^ which were of little consequence, the parties 
coticerned were clamorous and disorderly. 
• Their public contentions are frequent, or rather perpe-- 
tual ; for it appears, from their number of weapons^ and dex- 
terity in nsing them, that war is their principal profes- 
sion. These weapons are spears, oafoos and halberts, or 
sometimes stones. The first are made of hard wood pointed, 
of different lengths, from five, to twenty, or even thirty feet 
long. The short ones are used for throwing as darts. The 
paiop or emeete is of an elliptical shape, about eighteen in- 
ches long, with a handle made of wood^ stone, the bone of 
some sea animal, or green jasper^ and seems to be their 
principal dependence in batfle. The haibert, of long clnb, 
is about five or six feet long;, taperine at one end with a 
carved head, and at the other, broad or fiat^ with sharp 
edges. 

&efor« they begin the onsets they join in a war-song, to 
which they all keep the exactest time, and soon raise their 

Cion to a degree of frantic fary^ attended with the most 
id distortion of their eyes, mouUis, and tongues, to strike 
terror into their enemies; which, to those who have not 
be^i accustomed to such a practice, makes them appear 
more like demons than men, and would almost chill the 
boldest with fear. To this succeeds a circumstance, almost 
foretold in their fierce demeanour, horrid^ cruel, and dis- 
graceful to human nature ; which is^ cuttine in pieces, even 
before being perfectly dead, the bodies of their enemies, 
and> after dressing them on a fire, devouring the flesh, not 
onlv without reluctance, but with peculiar satisfaction. 
- One might be apt to suppose, that people, capable of 
such excess of cruelty, must be destitute of eveiy human 
feeline, even amongst Iheir own party ; and yet we find 
them lamenting the loss of their friends, with a violence of 
expression which argues the most tender remembrance of 
them. For both men and women, upon the death of those 
connected with them, whether in battle or otherwise, be- 
wail them with the most doleful crieiet ; at the same time cut- 
ting their foreheads and cheeks, with shells or pieces of 
flint, in large gashes, until the blood flows plentifully and 

mixes 



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9Q0 Jtfotfem Cireummttf^aiions, part in. book uu 

mixes with their teanu They also carve pieces of theif 
green stone, rudely shaped^ as hnmao figures^ which they 
ornament with bright eyes of pc^rl-shelT, aAd hang them 
' abont their necks, as memorials of those whom they held 
most dear ; and their affections of this kind are so strongs 
that they even perform the ceremony of cutting, and la« 
menting for joy, at the return of any of their friends, who 
have been absent but for a short time. 

The children are initiated, at a very early age, into all 
the praatices, good or bad, of their fathers ; so that .you 
£nd a boy or girl, nine or ten years old, able to perform all 
the motions, and to imitate the frightful gestures, by which 
the more aged use to inspire their enemies with terror, 
^keeping the strictest time in their song. They likewise 
sing, with some degree of melody, the traditions of theic; 
forefather^, their actions in war, and other indifferent sub* 
jects ; of all which tbey are immoderately fond, and spend 
much of their time, in these amusements^ and in playing on 
a sort of flute. 

Their language is far from being harsh or disagreeable^ 
though the pronunciation is frequently guttural ; and what> 
ever qualities are requisite in any other language to make is 
musical, certainly obtain to a considerable degree here,. if 
we may judge from the melody of some sorts of their songs J 
It is also sufficiently comprehensive, though, in many re- 
spects, deficient, if compared with our European languages, 
which owe their perfection to long improvement. But a 
small specimen is here subjoined, from which some judg-« 
ment may be formed* I collected a great many of their 
words, both now and in the course of our former voyage ; 
and being equally attentive, in my enquiries, about the lan- 
guages of the other islands throughout the South Sea, I have 
the amplest proof of their wonderful agreement, or rather 
identity. This general observation has, indeed, been alrea- 
dy made in the accounts of the former voyages. I shall be 
euabled, however, to confirm and strengthen it, by a fresh 
list of words, selected from a large vocabulary in my. pos- 
session ; and by placing, in the opposite coluoin, the cor-\ 
respondiag words as used at Otaheite, the curious rc^ader 
will, at one view, be furqished with sufficient materials for 
judging by what subordi^te change the difference of dia- 
lect has been effected* 

Water, 



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CHAP* I. 3BCT. ynu Cook, Ckrke, and Gore. 



SOI 



BogliBh* 

ffater, 

^ tail of a dog, < 

Death, dead, 

t/m 

JBl house. 

To deep, 

^JUh-hook, 

Shut, 

Jibed, 

Ji hutterfty, 

To chew, or eatf 

Cold, 

To^y, 

The hand. 

Large, 

Red, 

We, 

Where U it f 

A stone, 

A man. 

Slack, 

White, 

To reside, or dwell. 

Out, not within, 

Male kind (of any aiiimal)^ 

Female, 

A shark. 

To understand. 

Forgot, 

Yesterday, 

One, 

Two, 

Three, 

Four, 

Five, 

Six, 

Seven, 

E^ht^ 

Ntnc, 

Ten, 



Ne» Zealtmd. 

Ewy, 

Wyeroo, 

Kaoo^ matte^ 

Ererre, 

Ewharre^ 

Moea^ 

Makoee^ 

OpaneQ^ 

Moeoga^ 

Epaipe^ 

Hekaee^ 

Makkareede^ 

Agooanai^ 

ReeDga^ 

Keeerahoi, 

Whairo, 

Taooa> 

Kahaia^ 

Powhy, 

Tangataj 

Purra, purra, 

Ema^ 

Nohoanna^ 

Woho, 

Toa, 

Eoowha^ 

MangOj 

Geetaia^ 

Warre, 

TaeninDahoi^ 

Tahaee^ 

Rooa> 

Toroof 

Faa^ 

Reema^ 

Ono, 

Heetoo^ 

Waroo, 

Eeva, 

Angahoora, 



Evy. 

Ero. 

Matte^ roa« 

Eraire. 

Ewbarre. 

Moe. 

Matou* 

Opanee* 

Moera. 

Pepe. 

Ev. 

Mareede. 

Aooanai* 

Ereemiu 

Erahoi. 

Oorift^ oora. 

Taooa. 
Tehaia. 

Owhy. 

Taata. 

Ere^ ere. 

Ooama. 

Nohonoa. 

W6ho. 

Etoa. 

Eooha* 

Mao. 

Eetea. 

Ooaro. 

NioDahoi. 

Atahay. 

Erooa. 

Toroo. 

Ahaa. 

Ereema. 

Aono. 

Aheiloo* 

Awaroo. 

Aeeva. 

Ahooroo. 



The New Zealanders to these nomerals prefix Ma; bm. 

Eleven, 



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902 Modem C^rcunrnamgation^ fabt lu. boos »a. 

, fiMglbb. NwZeaUnd. 

Eleven, Matahee. 

r«refoc, &c* 8tc. Marooa, ^c. *c- 

Tweniyi Mangahoora. 



CHAPTER 



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CHAP. II. SBCT. I. Cook, Ckrh^, and Gort. S03 



CHAPTER 11. 

nOH LEAVING NSW 2B ALAND TO OUR ARBIVAL AT 
OTAHBITE^ OR TtfK SOCIBTlT ISLANDS. 



S^JBCTION I. 

Prosecution of the Voyage. — Behaviour t^the Two New Zea^ 
landers on board. — l^aoourable Winas. — An Ishmd catted 
Mangeea discovered. — The Coast of it examined. — Transact 
tions with the Natives. — An Account of their Persons, Dresg, 
and Canoe. — Description of the Island. — A Specimen of the 
Language. — Disposition of the Inhabitants. 

ON the 25th of Fehriiaryj at ten o'clock in the morn- 
ings a light breeze springing up at N.W* by W.^ we 
Weighed^ stood out of the Sounds and made sail through 
the strait^ with the Discovery in company. We had hara- 
]y got the length of Cape Teerawitte^ when the wind took 
tis aback aiS.E. It continued in this quarter till two o'clock 
the next 'tiiorning^ when we had a few hours calm. After 
which we had a breeze at north ; but here it fixed not long^ 
before it veered to the east^ and after that to the south. At 
lengthy on the 27 th^ at eight o'clock in the morning, we took 
otir departure from Cape Palliser, which, at this time, bore 
W«, seven or eight leagues distant. We had a fine gale, and 
I steered £• by N. 

We had no sooner lost sight of the land, than our two 
New Zealand adventurers, the sea sickness they now expe- 
rienced giving a turn to their reflections, repented heartily 
of the step they had taken. AH the soothing encourage- 
ment we could think of availed but little. They wept, both 
id public and in |>rivate, and made their lamentations in a 
kind of song, which, as far as we could comprehend the 
ineaning of the words, was expressive of their praises of their 
country and people, from which they were to be separated 
• for ever. Thus Uiey continued for many days, till their sea 

sickness 



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304 Modem Ciremuuw^atumu part hi. book iiu 

sickness wore off^ and the tumult of their minds began to 
subside. Then these fits of lamentation became less and 
less frequent and at length entirely ceased. Their native 
country and their friends were, by degrees, foreot, and they 
appeared to be as firmly attached to us, as if they had been 
bom amonest us. ^ 

The wind had not remained many hours at S., before it 
▼eered to S.E. and E. ; and, with this^ we stood to the N., 
till the 28th at noon. Being then in the latitude of 41^ 17'j 
and in the longitude of 177^ 17' E., we tacked and stood to 
Hie S.E., with a gentle breeze at E.N.E. It afterward fresh- 
ened, and came about to N.E. ; in which quarter it conti- 
nued two dayS) and sometimes blew a fresh gale with squalls^ 
accompanied with showers of rain. 

On the 2d of March at noon, being in the latitude of 42* 
35' 3<y, longitude 180° 8' E., the wind shifted to N.W. ; af- 
terward to S.W.; and between this point and north it con* 
tinned to blow, sometimes a strong ^ale with hard squalls^ 
and at other times very moderate. With this wind we steer- 
ed N.E. by E. and E., under all the sail we could carry, till 
the 1 Itb at noon, at which time we were in the latitude of 
SQr 29r, longitude 196* 4' E. 

The wind now veered to N.E. and S.E.> and I stood to 
the N., and to the N.E., as the wind would admit, till one 
o'clock in the morning on the l6th, when having a more 
favourable gale from the north, I tacked and stood to the 
east ; the latitude being 33"* 4(/, and the longitude 198^ 50^ 
E. We had light airs and calms by turns, till noon the next 
day, when the wind began to freshen at E.S.E., and I again 
stood to the N.E. But as the wind often veered to E. and 
E.N.E., we frequently made no better than a northerly 
course ; nay sometimes to the westward of north. Bnt the 
hopes of the wind coming more southerly, or of meeting 
with it from the westward, a little without the Tropic^ as I 
had experienced in my former visits to this ocean, encou- 
raged me to continue this course. Indeed it was necessary 
that I should run all risks, as my proceeding to the north 
this year, in prosecution of the principal object of the voy- 
age, depended entirely on my making a quick passage tp 
Otaheite, or the Society Islands. 

The wind continued invariably fixed at E.S.E., or seldom 
shifting above two points on either side. It also blew very 
faints so that it was the 27th before we crossed the Tropic^ 

aijid 
9 



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€HAF. II* SECT. I. Cook, CUrke, and Gore. 90S 

and then we were only in the longitude of 201^ 23' E., which 
was nine degrees to the westward of our intended port. In 
all this run we saw nothing, except now and then a Tropic 
bird, that could induce us to think that we had sailed nqar 
any land. In the latitude of.34*2(y, longitude 199% we 
passed the trunk of a large tree, which was covered with 
barnacles ; a sign that it had been long at sea. 

On the 29th, at ten in the morning, as we were standing 
to the N.B.,'the Discovery made the signal of seeing land. 
We saw it from the mast-head almost the same moment, 
bearing N.E. by E. by compass. We soon discovered it to 
be an' island of no great extent, and stood for it till sunset^ 
when it bore N.N.'C., distant about two or three leagues. 

The night was spent in standing off and on, and at day- 
break the next morning, I bore up for the lee or west side 
of the island, as neither anchorage nor landing appeared to 
be practicable on the south side, on account of a great surf,' 
which broke every where with violence against the shore, 
or against the reef that surrounded it 
* We presently found that the f^land was inhabited, and 
•aw several people, on a point of the land we had passed, 
wading to the reef, where, as they found the ship leaving 
them quickly, they remained. But others, who soon ap- 
peared in different parts, followed her course ; and spme- 
times several of them collected into small bodies, who made 
a shouting noise all together, nearly after the manner pf thi^ 
inhabitants of Ne\jr Zealand. 

Between seven and eight o'clock, we were at the W.N. W» 
part of the island, and, being near the shore, we could per- 
ceive with our glasses, that several of the natives, who ap- 
peared upon a sandy beach, were all armed with long spears 
And clubs, which they brandished in the air with signs of 
threatening, or, as some on board interpreted their atti- 
tudes, with invitations to land. Most of them appeared 
naked, except having a sort of girdle, which, being brought 
«p between the thighs, covered that part of the body. But 
some of them had pieces of cloth of different colours, white, 
atriped, or chequered, which they wore as a garment, thrown 
about their shoulders. And almost all of them had a white 
wrapper about their heads, not much unlike a turban ; or, 

VOL. XV. y in 

' A very ingenious and satisfactory account of the cause df the surf, 19 
te be met with in Marsden's History of Sumatn», p. S9-33.— >!)• 



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^ 



30$ Modern CircumMangqtiom* pa|it ii;. book iii. 

ia some mstaoeea, like a high conical cap* We cotild also 
perceive that they were of a tawny colour, and, in generalj, 
of a inicjdilng stature, but robtlst, and inclining to corpu-^ 
lence. 

At this time, a small canoe was launched in a great harry 
froni tlie further end of the beacb, and a man getting into 
it, put off, as with a view to reach the ship. On perceiving 
this, I brpught-to, that we might repeive the visit ; but the 
man's resolution failing, he soon returned toward the beach^ 
where, after some time, another man joined him in the ca- 
noe ; and then they both paddled toward us. They stopt 
short, however, as if afraid tp approach, until Omai, who 
addressed them in the Otaheite language, in ^ome measure 
quieted their apprehensions. They then came near enough 
to take some befids and najls;, which were tied to a piece of 
wood, and thrown into the canoe. They seemed afraid to 
touch these things, and put the piece^f wood aside without 
untying them* This, however, might arise frpin supersti- 
tion ; for Omai told us, that when they saw us offering them 
Eesents, they asked something for their Eatooa, or god. 
e also, perhaps improperly, put (be question to them^ 
Whether they ever ate human flesh i which they answer- 
ed in the oegative, with a mixture of indignation and ab- 
horrence. One of them, whose name was Moqrpoa, being 
asked how, he came by a scar on his forehead, told us that 
it was the consequence of a wound he had got in fighting 
with the people of an island, which lies to the north-east- 
v^ard, w^o sometimes came to invade them. They after* 
ward took hold of a rope. Still, however, they would not 
venture on board; but told Omai, who understood theqi 
pretty well, that their countrymen on shore h^d given them 
this caution, at the same time directing them to enquircji 
from whence our ship came, and to learn the name of the 
captain. On our part, we enquired the name of the island^^ 
"which they called Mangifa or Mangeea; and sometime^ 
added to it Nooe, nut, naiwa. The name of their chiefj| 
tliey said, was Qrooaeeka. 

Mourooa was lusty and well-made^ but not very talK 
His features were agreeable, and his disposition seemingly 
no less so ; for he made several droll gesticulations, which 
indicated both good-nature and a share of humour. He 
also made others which seemed of a serious kind, and re- 
lated some words with a devout air^ before be ventured 

t# 



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CHAP. n. SECT* J- Cook, CterkeyOhdOofip , 807 

to lay bold of the ropesat the ship's stern ; which ^i^s pro- 
bably to tecommeod himself to the protectiba of some Di^ 
Yinity. His colour was nearly of the same <^st with that 
common to the most southern Europeans. The other man 
was not so handsome. Both of them bad strong straight 
hair, of a jet colour, tied together on the crown of the head 
with a bit of cloth. They wore such girdles as we had per- 
ceived about those on shore, and we found they were a sul>- 
stance made from the Mtmis p^qfu/rifera, in the same manner 
BS at the other islands of this ocean. It was glaeed like the 
sort used by the natives of the Friendly Islands; but the 
cloth on their heads was white, like that which is found at 
Otaheite. They had i^n a kind of sandals, made o£ a grassy 
substance interwoven^ which we also observed wer^e worn 
by those who stood upon the beach ; and, as we supposed, 
intended to defend their £eet against the rough coral )N>ck. 
Their beards were bug ; and the inside of their arms, from 
the shoulder to the elbow, and some other parts, were puncr 
tured or tatooed, after the manner. 6f the inhabitaats of aU 
most all the other islands in the South Sea. The lobe cf 
their ears was pierced, or rather slit, and to such a length, 
that one of them stuck there a knife and fotq^ beads, which 
he had received from us ; and the same person bad two po- 
lished pearl-shells, and a bunch of human hair, lOQpely twisU 
ed, hanging about his neck, which was the only ornameot 
we observed. The canoe they came in (which was the on* 
}y one we saw), was not above tea feet loi^ and very nar- 
row ; but both strong and neatly made. The fore part had 
a flat board fastenea over it^ and projecting out, to prevent 
.the sea getting in on plunging, like the small Emos at Ota- 
be^ite ; but it had an upright stern, ^bqut five feet high, like 
fiome in New Zealand ; and the upper end of this stern-post 
was forked. The lower part of the canoe was of white wood, 
but the upper was black, and their paddles, made of wood 
pf the same colour, not above three feet long, broad at one 
end, and blunted. They paddled either end of the canoe 
Jforward indifferently ; and only turned about their face« tp 
paddle the contrary way* , 

We now stood off and on ; and as soon as the ships were 
in a proper station, about ten o'clock I ordered two beate^ 
one of them from the Discovery, to sound the coast» and 
to endeavour to find a landing-place. With this vie^, X 
went in 0^ of them myself, taking with me such articles 



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309 Modem dreumtumgations. pa^t hi. book hi; 

to give the natives, as I thought might serve to gain their 
good-wili. Lhad no Sooner put off n^om the ship, than the 
canoe> with the two men, which had left us not long before^ 
paddled toward my boat; and, having come along-side^ 
Mourooa stept into her, without being asked, and without 
amoment's hesitation. 

Omai, who was with me, was ordered to enquire of him 
where we could land ; and he directed us to two different 

E laces. But I saw, with regret, that the attempt could not 
e made iat either place, unless at the risk of having onr 
boats filled with water, or even staved to pieces. Nor were 
we more fortunate in bur search for anchorage ; for we could 
find no bottom, till within a cable's length of the breakers* 
There we met with from forty to twenty fathoms depth, over 
«harp coral rocks ; so that anchoring would have been at- 
tenthsd with much more danger than landing- 
•i;* While we were thus employed in reconnoitring the shore, 
great numbers of the natives thronged down upon the reef, 
all armed as above mentioned. Mourooa, who was now in 
imy boat, probably thinking that this warlike appearance 
hindered us from landing, ordered them to retire oack. As 
many of them complied, I judged he must be a person of 
some consequence among them* Indeed, if we understood 
him right, he was the king's brother. So great was the cu- 
riosity of several of them, that they took to the water, and, 
swimming off to the bbats, came on board them without re- 
serve. Nay, we found it difficult to keep them out ; and still 
more difficult to prevent their carrying off every thing they 
could lay their hands upon. At length, when they percei- 
ved that we were returnmg to the ships, they all left us, exr 
cept our original visitor Mourooa. He, though not without 
evident signs of fear, kept his place in my boat, and accom* 
panied me on board the ship. 

The cattle, and other new objects, that presented them- 
selves to him there, did not strike him with so much sur- 
prise as one might have expected. Perhaps his mind was 
too much taken up about his own safety, to allow him to 
attend to other things. It is certain, that he seemed very 
tineasy ; aild the ship, oti our getting on board, happening 
to be standing off shore, this circumstance made nim the 
more so: I could get but little new information from him ; 
end therefore, after he had made a short stay, I ordered a 
boat to carry him in toward the land. As soon as he got 

out 



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; «ut of the c^hioi he happened to stumble over one pf tbo 
goats^. His curiosity now overcoming bis fear^ he stopped^ 
looked at it^ and asked Omai> what bird thi^ was / and not 
receiving an immediate answer, from him^ be repeated the 
question to some of the people upon deck. The boat ha- 
ving conveyed him pretty near, to the surf^ he leapo^ into 
the ^a, and swam, ashqre.. He bad no sooner lanc^^ than 
tlie multitude of bis couptrymen gathered round him, as if 
with an eager curiosity to learn from hin^ what he had seen ; 
and in this situation they rei^iained^ when we lost sight of 
th^m» As soon as the boat returned^ we bpisted her in^ and 
made sailfrom the land to the northward. 

Thus were: we obliged to leave, unvisited, this fine island^ 
which see.mecl capable of .supplying all our wants. It lies 
in the latitude of 21* 57'. S., and in the longitude of 201^ 
^3' £• Such part^ of the coast as fell under our observa-* 
tion, are guarded by a reef of coral rock, on the outside of 
which the sea is of an unfathomable depth. It is full five 
leagues in circuit, and of a moderate and pretty equal height; 
though, in clear weather, it may be certainly seen at the dis- 
taqce of ten leagues ; for we had not lost sight of it at nighty 
when we had run above seven leagues, and the weather was 
cloudy. In the middle, it rises into little hills, from whence 
there, is a gentle descent to the shore, which^ at the S.W. 
part, is steep, though not above ten or twelve feet high'; 
and has several excavations made by the beating of the 
waves against a brownish sand-stone of which it is compo- 
sed. The descent here is covered with trees of a deep gre^a 
colour, very thick, but not high, which seem all of on,e sort, 
unless nearest the shore, where there are great numbers of 
that species of dracana found in the woods of New Zealand, 
which are also scattered in some other places. On the N.W. 
part, the shore, as we mentioned above, ends in a'sandr 
beach ; beyond which the land, is broken down into small 
chasms or gullies, and has a broad border of trees resem* 
bling taU willows ; which, from its regularity, might be sup- 
posed a work of art, did not its extent forbid us to, think so. 
jParther up^pp the ascent, tlie trees werie of the deep green 
mentionea before. Some of us supposed these to be the 
tima, intermixed with low cocoa palmis ; and a few of some 
other sorts.. They seemed not so thick as on the S.W«.part, 
andhigber ; which appearance might be owing to oi]|r neacer 
approach to the shore. On the little bills were some trees 

of 



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SIO 



Modem dnwrnMrngatiimi. TAkt uu BOolc lit. 



of a taller sort^ thinly scattered ; but the other parb of them 
were either bare» and of a reddish colonr^p or coTered with 
something like fern. Upon the whole, the iskuid has a pret* 
ty aspect, and might oe made a beantifid spot by cnltiva* 
tion. 

As the inhabitants seemed to be both numerous and weH 
fed> sudh articles of proTision as the island produces mml 
be in great plenty, it misbt^ however, be a matter of en* 
riosity to know, particulany, thdr method of subsistence ; 
for our friend Mourooa told us, that they had no animals, 
as hogs and dogs, both which, however, they had heard of; 
but acknowledged they had plantains, bread-fruit, and taro. 
The only birds we saw, were some white egg-birds, terns, 
and noddies ; and one wh^te heron, on the shore. 

The language of the inhabitants of Mangeea is a dialed 
of that spoken at Otaheite ; though their pronunciation, as 
that of the New Zealanders, be more guttural. Some of 
their words, of which two or three are perhaps peculiar to 
this island, are here subjoined, as taken, by Mr Anderson, 
from Omai, who had learnt them in his conversations with 
Mourooa. The Otaheite words, where there is any resem* 

blance, are placed opposite. 

.«) 

Eoglteh. 

A cocoa nut^ 

Breadfruit, 

A canoe, 

Friend, 

A many 

Cloth, or ehth plant. 

Good, 

A chib. 

Yes, 

No, ^ 

A ^fpear, 

AJighty or battle, 

A woman, 

A daughter. 

The sun, 

/, 

Theikore, 
What is than 
There, 

A chi^f 



Mtrngeem* 


Otokmu. . 


Eakkaree, 


Ai«e. 


Kooroo, 


Ooroo. 


Ewakka, 


Evaa. 


Naoo, mou. 




Taata, or Tangata, 


Taata. 


Taia, taia aoutee. 


Eoute. 


Mata, 


Myty. 


Pooroohce. 




Aee, 


Ai. 


Aoure, 


Aoure. 


Heyhcy. 




Etamagee, 


Tamaee. 


Waheine, 


Waheine. 


Maheine, 


Maheine..^ 


Heetaia matooa. 




Oh, 


Won. 


Euta, 


Euta. 


Ehataieee? 


Owy taieeoa f 


Oo. 





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4i»j». It. 8EC1V t. ' Co61t,Ckirkeydiid Gatt. ' 911 

Engliih. Mmig99a. 0$aheUe. 

A cMef, Ereekee^ Eree. 

Great, or powerful, ^ ^A« to^) 
7oA:t5ff, Ooma. 

The natives of Maageea seem to resemble those of Ota- 
faeite and the Marquesas in the beauty of their persons^ 
more than a6y other tiation I have seen in these seas ; ha- 
ving a smooth i^kin^ and not being muscular. Their general 
disposition alsd corresponds^ as far as we had opportunities 
of judging^ with that which distinguishes the first-mention* 
ed people. For they are not only cheerful, but, as M ourooa 
ehewed us, are acquainted with all the lascivious gesticula- 
tions which the Otaheitans practice in their dances. It may 
also be siipposed^ that their method of living is similar. For^ 
though the nature of the country prevented our seeing ma- 
ny of their habitations, we ^bderved 6ne bouse near the 
beach, which much resembled, in its mode of construction, 
those of Otaheite. It was pleasantly situated in a grove of 
trees, and appeared to be about thirty feet long, and seven 
or eight high, with an open end, which represented an el- 
lipse divided transversely* Before itj was spread something 
wnite on a few bushes ; which we conjectured to Jbie a fish- 
ing net, and, to appearance, of a very delicate texture. 

They salute strangers mucti after the manner of the Nc(V 
Zealanders, by joining noses ; adding, however, the addi- 
tional ceremotiy of taking the hand of the pejfson to whom 
they are payiilkg civilities, and rubbing it with a degree of 
force upon their nose and mouth.* 

* The hihabttants of the Palaos, New Philippine* €tr rather Caroline 
Islands, at the distance of almost fifteen hundred leagues from Mangeea^ 
have the same mode of sahitation. ^' l^eor civiliti^ et la marque de leur 
respect, oonsiste a prendre la main ou la pied de celui k qui lis veulent x 
faire honneur, et s en frotter doucement toute le visage/'— Xe^^i^f Edi^ 
fianta Sf Carieuset, torn. xv. p. 308. Edit 1781.— D. 



Section 



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ilt Modem Ciramnmg^tHijf^ »4et m. book-mw 



Section 11. 

The Ducovery iff an Island called Waiteoo. — Its Coaehexa^ 
mined. — Visits from the Natives on board the Ships. — Mas. 
GorCi Bumeyt and Anderson, mth Omai, sent oh SAore.— - 
Mr Andersons Narrative ofthtir Rtception.'^OmaVs JElr- 
pedient to prevent their being detained. — His meeting with 
some if Ids Countrymen, and their diUressful Foyage. — Far^ 
ther Account of Wateeoo, and of its Inhabitants, 

Afteb leaving Mangeea, on the afterDOon of the SOth of 
March, we continued oar course northward all that night, 
and till noon on the dlst ; when we again saw land^ in the 
direction of N.E. bj N., distant eight or ten leagues. 

Next morning, at eight o'clock, we had got abreast of 
its north end^ within four leagues of it^ but to leeward ; and 
could now pronounce it to be an island, nearly of the same 
appearance and e:ictent.with that we had so lately left. At 
the same time, another island, but much smaller^ was seeo 
right ahead. We could have soon reached this; but the 
largest one had the preference, as most likely to fumiah a 
supply of food for the cattle, of which we began to be in 
great want* 

With this view I determined to work up to it ; but as 
there was but little wind, an^d that little was unfavourable^ 
we were still two leagues to leeward at eight o'clock the 
following morning. Soon after, I sent two armed boats 
from the Resolution, and one from the Discovery, under 
the command of Lieutenant Gore, to look for anchoring- 
ground, and a landing-place. In the mean time^ we plyed 
np under the island with the ships. 

Just as the bo^ts were putting off, we observed several 
single canoes coming from the shore. They went first to 
the Discovery, she being the nearest ship. It was not long 
after, when three of these canoes came along-side of the 
Resolution, each conducted by one man. Tney are long 
and narrow, and supported by outriggers. The stern is ele- 
vated about three or four feet, something like a ship's stem- 
post. The head is fiat above, but prow-like below, and turns 
down at the extremity, like the end of a violin. Some knives, 
beads, and other trifles were conveyed to our visitors ; and 

they 



I 



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OHAVt u. 8BCT, ti. Cook, Ckrkt, and Gom 81S , 

they gave us a few cocoa-auts^ upon our asking for them. 
But they did not part with theni by way of exchange for 
.what they had received from us. For they seemed to have 
no idea of bartering ; nor did they appear to estimate any 
of our presents at a high rate. 

With a little persuasion^ one of th^m inade his canoe fast 
to the ship, and came on board; and the other two, encou- 
raged by his example^ soon followed him. Their whole be- 
haviour marked that they were quite at their ease, and felt 
so sort of apprehension of oQr detaining, or using them ill. 

After their departure, another canoe arrived, conducted 
by a mto who brought a bunch of plantains as a present to 
sne ; asking for me by name, having learnt it from Omai, 
who was sent before us in the boat with Mr Gore. In re- 
turn for this civility, I gave him an axe, and a piece of red 
cloth ; and he paddled back to the shore well satisfied. I 
afterward understood from Omai, that this present had been 
sent from the king, or principal chief of the island. 

Not long after, a double canoe, in which were twelye 
men, came toward us. As they drew near the ship, they 
recited some words in concert, by way of chorus,* one oif 
their number first standing up, and giving the word before 
each repetition. When they had finished their solemn 
chant, they came along-side, and asked for the chief. As 
soon as I shewed myself, a pig and a few cocoa-nuts were 
conveyed up into the ship ; and the principcd person in the 
canoe made me an additional present of a piece of matting, 
as soon as he and his companions got on board. 

Our visitors were conducted into the cabin, and to other 
parts of the ship. Some objects seemed to strike them with 
a degree of surprise ; but nothing fixed their attention for 
a moment. They were afraid to come near the cows and 
horses ; nor did they form the least conception of their na- 
ture. But the sheep and goats did not surpass the limits of 
their ideas ; for they gave us to understand, that they knew 
them to be birds. It will appear rather incredible, that hu- 

^ mar^ 

' Something like this oeremoii3r was per^rmed by the inhabitants of the 
Marc^uesas, when Captain Cook visited them in 1774. It is curious to ob« 
«erve» at what immense distances this mode of receiving strangers prevails. 
Padillo, who sailed from Manilla in 1710, on a voyage to discover the Pa« 
laos Islands, was thus received there. The writer of the relation of his voy* 
flg^ saysy ** Aussitot qu'ils approcherent de notre bord, iis se mirent k ch^at* 
ier. lis regloient la cadence, en frappant des mains lur leitni etiiases^"-^ 
Letires Edifiantu Sf Curituseif torn. xv. p. SSd.— P. ' 



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314 itfoefern Circumnavigations, part ill. book i^. 

man ignoriaticeroald erer make so strange a mistake ; there 
not being tbe most distant similitude^ between a sheep or 

foat^ and any winged animal. But these people seemed to 
now nothing of the existence of any other land-animals^ 
besides hogs^ dogs, and birds. Our sheep and goats^ they 
could see, were very different creatures from the two firsts 
and therefore they inferred^ that they must belong to the 
latter class, in which they knew there is a considerable Vit- 
riety of species.' I made a present to my new friend of 

what 

^**l would^dd," says Bfr Stewart, qi his Elements of tbe Phfl. of HubL 
Mind» p. 1 54, ^ ed., *^ I would add to Cook's very judicious remarks* 
that the mistake of these islanders probably did not arise from their con- 
sidering a 'sheep oi^ a goat as bearing a more striking resemblance to a bird^ 
than to the two classes of quadrupeds with which they were acquainted ; 
but to the want of a generic word, such at quadruped^ comprehending 
these two species ; which men in their situatioik would no more be led to 
form, than a person, who had only seen one individual of each specie^ 
would think of an appellation to express both, instead of applying a pro- 
per name to each. In consequence of the variety of birds, it appears that 
they had a generic name comprehending all of them, to which it was ndt 
unnatural for them to refer any new animal diey met with.''— This eola- 
tion is very specious, but when narrowly examined, will be found to reqt . 
on two suppositions not altogether borne out bv evidence, and also to hp 
liable to yield a conclusion not readily reconcileable with all the qrcuin- 
stances of tbe case. In the first place, it is not prdved that these islam}^ 
ers had no generic word to comprehend the two species of qimdrapeds 
with which they were acquainted ; and the reason given for their want of 
it, which, after all, is merely a probable one* cannot be allowed mucli force. 
Its weakness will appear from the consideration, that men in their situa- 
tion, having certainly an idea of number, must, according to Mr S/s own 
principles stated in the next page» have possessed the power of attending 
separately to the things which their senses had presented to them in a state 
of union, and have found it necessary to apply to all of them one commoii 
name, or, in other words» '* to have reduced them all to the same genus.** 
It is requisite, therefore, for the validity of Mr S.'s reason, to shew that 
these islanders either were not able to distinguish betwixt their hogs and 
dogs, or had never numbered them together, which it is quite Jtaipossibte 
to credit. Even the case of the person who had seen only one individual 
of each speciesi which Mr S. conceives similar to that we are consideris^ 
may be argued ^eainst in the same manner, and besides this, will be found 
Dot analogous. The reason is plain. He may or may not have been able, 
from a solitary observation, to infer that the distinction he noticed betwixt 
them was a radical difference, or, in the language of the sehbdmeD, was 
essential : Whereas the iskmders, from the constancy of the diflferenc^ 
they observed, must have been necessitated to form a dassificstion of the 
objects, the result of which would be, the use of one term for the common • 
properties or the resemblance, and two words for the c^miprehended indi- 
viduals. In the second plaoe^ it cannot otherwise be made appear, that 
these islanders had a generic name eomprehending tha varied of bitds 

with 



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CHAP. 11. SECT. II. Cook, Clerke, and Gore. sij 

what I thought might be most acceptable to him ; but^ oa 
his going Bway^ he deemed rather disappointed than plea- 
ted. I afterward underistood that he was very desiVous of 

obtaining 

Inth whidli ihey were aodaamted, than on silch princ^les of reasoning aa 
If e have now been considering, the prc^r inference fW>Bi which, as we 
have seen, is destructive of the foundation of Mr S.'s solution. Here^ it 
may be remarked^ it is somewhat unfortunate that we cannot d^n4 i«" 
fiiddy on Captain Cook's account as to the words in which the islanders 
conveyed the notions we have been commenting on ; because, as the read- 
er wiU find at the end of this section, these people, who, whatever nvlk 
tiiey may be allowed to hold as logicians, were at aK events very dexteroril 
thieves, stole the memorandum book in which Mr Anderson had lecordei 
a specimen of their language. But admitting Mr S.'s suppositions, it thea 
may be shewn, that not only tUe sheep and the goats, but also the horses 
and cows, eonsidfcredy in the words of Mr S., as new animaky would have 
been referred by these islanders to the same genus, and therefore const-" 
dered as birds. The circumstance of their greater size, or, indeed, any 
other discernible diflerence, cannot here be pleaded as exceptive^ without 
in reality abandoning the principles on which the solution is constructed. 
On the wholes perhaps, it may seem more correct to imagine^ that these 
ishinders were struck with some fancifiil and distant resemblance to cer- 
tain birds they were acquainted with, from which they hastily inferred iden- 
tity of nature, notwithstanding some very visible discr^ndes; whereas 
the remarkable dissimilarity betwixt the neW quadrupeds and those they 
were previously acquainted with, impressed their minds with the notion of 
complete contrariety. In other words, thev concluded, from the unlikeness; 
that these animals were neither dogs nor hogs, and, from the resemblance, 
that they were birds. It is erroneous to say, with Cook, that there is not 
the most distant similitude between a sheep or goat, and any winsed ani- 
mal. For the classifications adopted in every system of natural nistoryy 
proceed upon the discovery of still more remote resemblances among the 
objects of the sdence, than such as may be noticed in the present case ; 
and it will almost always be found, that there is greater difficulty in ascer* 
taining differences amongst those objects which are allied, than similarity 
amongst those which are unconnected. The facility with which ideas are 
assodated in the hiind, as Mr S. informs us, p. 295, is very diffbrent in dif- 
ferent individuals, and ** lays the foundation of remarkable varieties of men 
both in respect of genius and of character ;" and he elsewhere (p. 291) ad- 
mits, ** that things which have no known relation to each other are oflen 
associated, in consequence of their producing similar effects on the mind." 
With respect to the former remark, the facility, it might be practicable to 
shew, that, in general, it is pn^rtioned to the ignorance and imperfect 
education of the individuals, benoe children and the female sex (as Mr S* 
himself asserts) exhibit most of it ; and, in consistency with the latter ob- 
servation, we have but to imagfne, that some effect having been produced 
on the minds of these islanders by the sight of the animals in question » 
similar to what they bad previously experienced from some bird or birds 
which tbey had occasionally seen, led them to the remarkable association 
we have l>een considering. It would not be very difficult to intimate how 
this might have happened, but the length of our note, the reader may tliink. 



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SlG Modem CircumnavigtUifmL part ux. book iiii 

obtaining a dog, of which animal this island could not boa^t> 
though its inhabitants knew that the race existed in other 
islands of their ocean. Captain Gierke bad received the 
like present, with the same view^ from another man^ who 
met with from him the like disappointment. 

The people in these canoes were in general of a middlia^ 
size, and not unlike those of Mangeea; though several were 
of a blacker cast than apy we saw there. Their hair was 
tied on the crown of the head^ or flowing loose about the 
shoulders ; and though in some it was of a frizzling dispo- 
sition, }^et, for the most part, that, as well as the straight 
sort, was long. Their features were various^ and some of 
the young men rather handsome. Like those of Mangeea, 
they had girdles of glazed cloth, or fine matting, the enjla 
of which, being brought betwixt their thighs, covered the 
adjoinini? parts. Ornaments^ composed of a sort of broad 
grass, stained with red^ and strung with berries of the night- 
shade, were worn about their necks. Their ears were bored, 
but not slit ; jmd they were punctured upon the legs, from 
the knee to the. heel, which made them appear as if they 
wore a kind of boots. They also resemblea the inhabitants 
of Mangeea in the length of their beards, and, like them, 
wore a sort of sandals upon their feet. Their behaviour was 
frank and cheerful, with a great deal of good-nature. 

At three o'clock in the afternoon, Mr Gore returned with 
the boat, and informed me, that he had ei^amined all the 
west side of the island, without finding a place where a boat 
could land, or the ships could anchor^ the shore being eve-* 
ry where bounded by a steep coral rock, against which the 
sea broke in a dreadful surf. But as the natives seemed very 
friendly, and to express a degree of disappointment wbea 
they saw that our [>eople failed in their attempts to land, 
Mr Gore was of opinion, that by means of Omai, who could 
best explain our request, they might be prevailed upon to 
bring off to the boats, beyond the surf, such articles as we 
most wanted ; in particular, the stems of plantain trees, 
which make good food for the cattle. Having little or na 
wind, the delay of a day or two was not of any moment ; 

aiid 

is muqh greater than its importance, and he may prefer to amuse himself 
at another time, by following out the investiffation. Let it be our apoli^ 
for entering on it at all, that it is only by diligent reflectipaon such myste-^ 
rious trains of thought, we can hope to acquire any just conceptions (m the 
laculties and operaUoos of our own minds.— -£. 

5 



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CSAP. II. SECT. II.' Cook, Ckrke, and Gore, - 317 

and therefore I determined to try the experiment, and got 
every thing ready against the next morning. 

Soon after day-break, we observed some canbes coming 
off to the ships, and one of them directed its course to the 
Resolution. In it was a hog, with some plantains and co- 
coa nuts, for which the people who brought them demand- 
ed a dog from us, and refused every other thing that we 
offered in exchange. One of our gentlemen on board hap- 
pened to have a dog and a bitch, which were great nui- 
sances in the ship, ahd might have been disposed of 
on this occasion for a purpose of real utility, by propaga- 
ting a race of so useful an animefl in this island. But their 
owner had no such views, in making them the companions 
of his voyage. However, to gratify these people, Omai 
parted with a favourite dog he had brought from England ; 
and with this acquisition they departed highly satisfied. 

About ten o'clock, I dispatched Mr Gore with three boats, 
two from the Resolution, and one from the Discovery, to try 
the experiment he had proposed. And, as I could .confide 
in his diligence and ability, i left it entirely to himself, to 
act as, from circumstances, he should judge to be most pro- 
per. Two of the natives, who had been on board, accompa^ 
nied him, and Omai went with him in his boat as an inter 
preter. The ships being a full league from the island when 
the boats put off, and having but little wind, it was noon 
before we could work up to it. We then saw our three 
boats riding at their grapplings, just without the surf, and 
a prodigious Qumber of the natives on the shore, abreast of 
them. By this we concluded, that Mr Gore, and others of 
biir people, had landed, and our impatience to know the 
event may be easily conceived. In order to observe their 
motions, and to be ready to give them such assistance as 
they might want, and our respective situations would admil; 
of, I kept as near the shore as was prudent. I was sensible, 
however, that the reef was as effectual a barrier between us 
and our friends who had landed, and put them as much be- 
yond the reach of our protection, as if half the circumfe- 
rence of the globe had mtervened. But the islanders, it was 
probable, did not know this so well as we did. Some of them, 
now and then, came off to the ships in their canoes, with a 
few cocoa nuts ; which they exchanged for whatever was 
offered to them, withqtit seeming to give the preferenee to 
fiaj particular articiCf 

Thei> 



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518 Modem Circwmuimgatiom. fart hi; sook ut. 

TThese occasional visits served to lessen my solicitude 
about our people who had landed. Though we could get 
no information from our visitors, yet their venturing on 
board seemed to imply, at least, that their countrymen on 
shore had not made an improper use of the confidence pot 
in them. At length, a little before son-set, we had the sa- 
tisfaction of seeing the boats put off. When they got on 
board, I found that Mr Gore himself, Omai, Mr Anderson, 
land Mr Burney, were the only persons who had landed. 
The transactions of the day were now fully reported to me 
by Mr Gore ; but Mr Anderson's account of them being 
veiy particular, and including some remarks on the island 
and its inhabitants, I shall give it a place here, nearly in his 
own words. 

. ^' We rowed toward a small sandy beach^ upon which, 
and upon the adjacent rocks, a great number of the natives 
bad assembled ; and came to an anchor within a hundred 
yards of the reef, which extends about as far, or a little 
farther, from the shore. Several of the natives swam off, 
bringing cocoa«nuts; and Omai, with their countrymen, 
whom we had with us in the boats, made them sensible of 
our wish to land. But their attention was taken np^ for a 
little time, by the dog, which had been carried from the 
$hip, and was just brought on shore, round whom they 
flocked with great eagerness. Soon after, two canoes came 
off; and, to create a greater confidence in the islanders^ we 
determined to ^o unarmed, and run. the hazard of being 
treated well or ill. 

'^ Mr Burney, the first lieutenant of the Discovery, and ' 
I^ went in one canoe, a little time before the other ; and 
our conductors, watching attentively the motions of the 
surf, landed us safely upon the reef. An islander took bold 
0f each of us, obviously with an intention to support us in 
walking, over the rugged rocks, to the beach, where seve- 
ral of the others met us, holding the green boughs of a sp^ 
cies of Mimosa in their hands^ and saluted us by applying 
their noses to ours. 

<^ We were conducted from the beach by our guides, 
amidst a great crowd of people, who flocked with very ea- 
ger curiosity to look at us ; and would have prevented our 
proceeding, bad hoi some men, who seemed to have autho- 
rity, dealt blows, with little distinction, amongst them, to 

^ \, keep 



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<r94F* ihfi^cT.il. Cook^ Ckrke, and Gore. SI9 

k^ep ^m off. We were then led up an avenue of cocoa- 
^alms ; aad soon came to a number of men^ arranged in 
two row8> armed with dubs^ which they held on their shoul- 
ders^ much in the manner we rest a musquet. After walk-i' 
ing a little way amongst these^ we found a person who seem- 
ed a chiefj sitting an the ground cross-legged^ cooling him- 
self with a sort of triangular fan^ made from a leaf of the co- 
coa palm, with a polished handle, of black woody fixed to one 
Qprner. In his ears were large bprtches of beautiful red fea- 
therS| which pointed forward. But he had no other mark, 
or ornament^ to distinguish him from the rest of the people i 
though Aey all obeyed- him with the greatest alacrity. He 
either naturally had, or ajt this time put on, a serious, but 
ixot severe cpunienance ; and we were desired to salute him 
as h(e sat, by sorpe people who seemed of consequence. 

'' We proceeded still amopgst the men armed with clubs, 
and came to ^ second chief/ who sat fanning himself, and 
prnamentjed as the first, ^e was remarkable ^or his size^ 
^nd uncommon corpuleqca, though^ to appearance, not 
above thirty years of ^^e^ In the same manner> we we^e 
i^onducted to a third chief, who seemed older than the two 
former, and, though not so fat as the second, was of a large 
size. He al^o was sitting, and adorned with red feathers ; 
and after saluting him as wehad done the others, he desired 
us both to sit downi which we were very willing. to do, be- 
ing pretty well fatigued with walking up, and with the ^x^ 
ipessive heat we felt amongst the vast crowd that surroundr 
ed us, 

^^In a few minutes, the people were ordered to separate ; 
and we saw, at the distance of thirty yards, about twenty 
youug women, ornamented as the chiefs, with red feathers, 
enagaged in a dance, which they performed to a slow and 
jperious air, sung by them all. We got up, and went for- 
ward to see them ; and though we must have been strange 
pbject^ to them^ they continued their dance, without pay- 
ing the least attention to us. They seemed to be directed 
jby a man who served as a prompter, and mentioned eacli 
motion they were to make. But they nevisr changed the 
spot, as we dp in dancing, and though their feet were not 
at rest, this exercise consisted more in movine the fingers 
ireiy nimbly, at the same time holding the hands in a prone 
^ition near the face, and now and then also clapping 

tnem 



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620 Modem Circummmgaiionsi PAmr m. book iu^ 

(hem together.) Their motions and songs were perform* 
ed in such exact concert, that it should seem they had been 
taught with great care; and probably they were selected 
for this ceremony, as few of those whom we saw in the 
crowd equalled them in beauty. In general, they were r^i- 
ther stout than slender, with black hair, flowing in ringlets 
down the neck, and of an olive complexion. Their features 
were rather fuller than what we allow to perfect beauties, 
and much alike ; but their eyes were of a deep black, and 
each countenance expressed a degree of complacency and 
modestv, peculiar to the sex in every part of the world, 
but perhaps more conspicuous here, where Nature present- 
ed us with her productions in the fullest perfection, unbias- 
sed in sentiment by custom, or unrestrained in ipanner by 
art. Their shape and limbs were ele^ntly formed. For, 
as their dress consisted only of a piece of glassed cloth 
fastened about the waist, and scarcely reaching 'so low as 
the knees, in many we had an opportunity of observing 
every part. This dance was not finished, when we beard a 
noise, as if some horses had been galloping toward us ; and; 
on looking aside, we saw the people armed with clubs, who 
had been desired, as we supposed, to entertain us with tKe 
sfght of their manner of fighting. This they now did, one 
pafty pursuing another ^*o fled. 

** As we supposed the ceremony of being introdnced to 
the chiefs was at an end, we began to look about for Mr 
Gore and Omai ; and, though the crowd would hardly suf- 
fer us to move, we at length fou^d theih coming np. as . 
much incommoded by the number of people ^s we had 
been^ and introduced in the same manner to the three 
chiefs, whose names were Otteroo, Taroa, and Fatouweera. 
Each of these expected a present ; and Mr Gore gave them 
such things as be had brought with him from the ship, for 
that purpose. After this, making use of Omai as his inter- 
preter, he informed the chiefs with what intention w<& had 
come on shore ; but was given to understand, that he mos( 
wait till the next day^ apd then he should have what was 
wanted. 

^Thejr 

^ The dances of the inhabitants of the Caroline Islands have a great 
resemblance to those here described. See Lettres Edif. et Cktrieosea, tonv 
XV. p. 315. See alsoy.in the same volume, p. 207, what is said of the sing- 
ing and dancing of the inhabitants of the Palaos Islands, which betong t^ 
the same group."— D* 



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«HAP. tu siscT. iu Cook, fikrhe, and Gore. Sfl'i 

*'They now seemed to take some pains to separate us ^ 
iT<»n each other ; and evenr one of ns had his circle to sur^ ' 
round and gaze at him. For my own part^ I was^ at one' 
time^ above aft hour apart from my friends ; and when T 
told the chief) with whom I sat^ that I wanted to speak to 
Omai^ he peremptorily refused my request. At the same i 
time, I found the people began to steal several trifling* 
tilings which I had m my pocket ; and when I took the U'- 
berty of complaining to thechief of this treatment, he justi- 
fied it. From these circamstances, I now entertained ap- 
prehensions, that they might have formed tjpe.design of de- 
taining us amongst them. They did notf in^ed, seem- to' 
. be of a disposition so savage, as to make u^ anxious for the- 
safety of our persons ; but it was, neverth<e^e^^ vexing i6\ 
think we had hazarded being detained by tlfejr ctiriosityji 
In this situation, I asked fdr something to eat ; and;4h]^y«-^^ , 
readily brought to me some cocoa-nuts,. bread-fruit,;^and'4-^' 
a sort of sour pudding, which was pn^Q||||rd. by a woman.^ : 
And on my complaining much of the neat, occasioned by 
the cKowd, tbe cliief himself condescended to fan me, and 
gave me a small piece of cloth, which fae had round his 
waist. ; "^^ 

"Mr Barney happening to come to the place where £ 
was, I mentioned my suspicions to him ; and, to put it to 
the test, whether they were well-founded, we attempted to 
get to thfe beach. But we were stopped, when about half- 
^&y> by sprme men, who told us, that we must go back to 
the place which we had left. On coming up, we found 
Omai entertaining the same appTehensions* But he had^ * 
as he fancied, an additional reason for. being afraid; for- 
he bad observed, that they had dug a hole in the ground* 
for an oven, which they were now heating ; and he could 
assign no other reason for this^ than *that they meant to 
roast and eat us, as ispractised by the inhabitants of New 
Zealand. Nay, he went so far as to ask them the question ; 
at which they were greatly surprised, asking, in return, 
whether that was a custom with usf Mr Burney and I were '' 
rather an^y that they should be thus suspected by him ; 
there havmg,asyet, been no appearances, in their conduct 
toward us, of their being capable of such brutality. '. 

/'In this manner we were detained the greatest part of 
the day, being sometimes together, and sometimes separa- 
ted, but always in a crowd ; who, not satisfied with gazing 

VOJL. XY. X at 



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sae Modem Grcwanav^iObmM, TAm lu* bcx>k hi* 

^t usp fireqnentljT desired nn to vncoTer parU of our skin ; 
the sight of which commonly produced a seneral murmur 
of admiration. At the same time they did not omit these 
opportunities of rifling our pockets; and> a(t last^ one of 
them snatched a sm^ll bayonet from Mr Gore^ which hmig 
ia its sheath by his side. This was represented to the 
ehief^ who pretended to send some person in search of it. 
But^ in all probability^ he countenanced the theft ; for, socMt 
after, On:^ai had a dagger stolen from his side« in the same 
manner, though he did not miss it immediately. ' 

'' Whether they observed any signs of uneasiness in us, 
or that they voliintarily repeated their emblems of friend- 
ship when w^ expressed a desire to go, I cannot tell; but, 
Ht this time, they brought some ^en bou^hs^ and, stick* 
ing their ends in the ground, desired we mipht hold them 
as we sat. Upon out urging again the business we came 
upon, thev gave us to understand, that we must stay and 
eat with them ; and a pig which we saw, soon after, lying 
near the oven, which they had prepared and heated, re- 
moved Omai's apprehension of being put into it himself; 
and made us think it might be intended for our repast. 
The chief also promised to send some people to procure 
food for the cattle ; but it was not till pretty lafe in the 
afternoon, that we saw them return with a few plantain- 
trees, which they carried to our boats. 

. ''In the mean time, Mr Bumey and I attempted again 
to go to the beach ; but when we arrived, we found ourselves 
watched by people, who, to appearance, had been pla- 
ced th^re for this purpose. For when I tried to wade in 
upon the reef, one of them took hold of my clothes and 
dragged me b^ck. I picked up some small pieces of coral, 
which they required me to throw down again ; and, on my 
rf^$al, they made no scruple to take them forcibly from 
me. I bad gathered some small plants, but these also I 
could not be peri;nitted to retain. And they took a fan 
from Mr Burney, which he had received as a present on 
coming ashpre. Omai sfiid we bad done wrong in taking 
up. any thing, for it was not the custom here to permit free-* 
doipas of that kind to strangers, till they had, in some mea« 
sure, naturalized them to the country, by entertaining them 
with festivity for two or three days. 

/' Finding that the only method of procuring better 
treatment was to yield implicit obedience to their will, we 

went 



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CHAP* tu am. II. Cook, Gierke, and Gore. 3M 

-went up again to the place we had left ; and they now pro- 
mised that we should haye a canoe to carry us off to our 
boats^ after we had eaten of a repast which they had pre- 
pared for us. 

^ Accordingly the second chiefs to whom we had been 
introduced in the mornine^ having seated himself upon a 
low broad stool of blackish hard wood^ tolerably polished^ 
and^ directing the multitude to make a pretty large ring^ 
made us sit down by him. A considerable number of co- 
coa-ntits were now brought9 and shortly afler a long rreen 
basket^ with a sufficient quantity of baked plantains to have 
served a dozen persons. A piece of the young hog^ that 
bad been dressed^ was then set before each of tis, of which 
we were desired to eat. Our appetites^ however^ had fail- 
ed from the fatigue of the day ; and though we did eat a 
little to please them^ it was without satisfaction to ourselves. 

** It being now near sun-set^ we told them it was time to 

go on board. This they allowed^ and sent down to the 
each the remainder of the victuals that had been dressed^ 
to be carried with us to the ships. But, before we set out, 
Omai was treated with a drink he had been used to in his 
own country^ which, we observed^ was made here, as at 
other islands in the South Sea, by chewing the root of a 
sort of pepper. We found a canoe ready to pttt us off to 
our boats, which the natives did with the same caution as 
when we landed. But even here their thievish disposition 
did not leave them. For a person of some consequence 
among them, wh^ came with us, took an opportunity, just 
as lliey were pushing the canoe into the surf, to snatch a bag 
out of her, which I had with the greatest difficulty preserved 
all day, there being in it a small pocket-pistol, which I was 
unwilling to part with. Perceivmg him, I called out, ex- 
pressing as much displeasure as 1 could. On which he 
thought proper to return, and swim with the bag to the ca- 
noe ; but he denied he had stolen it, though detected in 
the very act. They put us on board our boats, with the 
cocoa-nuts, plantains, and other provisions, which they had 
brought, and we rowed to the ships, very well pleased that 
we had at last got out of the hands of our troublesome 
' masters. 

'^ We regretted much that our restrained situation gave 
us so little opportunity of making observations on the coun- 
try ; for, during the whole day, we were seldom a hundred 

yards 



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S24 Modem Circumnatng^iom. pabt iir* book hi. 

yards from the place where we were introduced to the 
chiefs on landing^ and^ consequentlyj were confined to the 
surrounding objects. The first thing that presented itself, 
worthy of our notice, was the number of people, which 
must have been at least two thousand. For those who wet* 
corned us on the shore bore no proportion to the multitude 
we found amongst the trees, on proceeding a little way up. 

'^ We could also observe, that^ except a few, those we 
had hitherto seen on board were of the lower class ; for a 
great number of those we now met with had a superior 
dignity in their air, and were of a much whiter cast. In 
general^ they had the hair tied on the crown of the -head, 
long, blacks and of a most luxuriant growth. Many of the 
young men yvexe perfect models in shapet of a complexion 
as delicate as that of the women, and, to appearance, of a 
disposition as amiable. Others, who were more advanced 
in years, were corpulent; and all had a remarkable smooth- 
Bess of the skin. Their genaral dress was a piece of doth, 
or mat, wrapped about the wsist, and covering the parts 
which modesty conceals. But some had pieces of mats, 
most curiously varied with black and white, made ioto a sort 
of jacket without sleeves ; and others wore conical caps of 
cocoa-nut core, neatly interwoven with small beads, made 
of a shelly substance. Their ears were pierced; and in 
them they hung bits of the membranous part of some 
plant, or stuck there an odoriferous flower, which seemed 
to be a species of gardenia. Some, who were of a superior 
class, and also the chiefs, had two little balk, with a com- 
mon base, made from the bone of some animal, which was 
hung round the neck, with a great many folds of ^mall cord. 
And after the ceremony of introduction to the chiefs was 
over,, they then appeared without their red feathers, which 
are certainly, considered here as a particular mark of dis- 
tinction, for none but themselves, and the young wodaen 
who danced, assumed them. 

'^ Some of the men were punctured all over the sides and 
back in an uncommon manner; and some of the women 
had the same ornament on their legs. But this method 
was confined to those who seemed to be of a superior rank ; 
and the men, in that case, were also generally distinguish- 
ed by their size and corpulence, unless very youne. The 
women of an advanced age had their hair cropped short ; 
and many wer^ cut in oblique lines ijl over the tore-part of 

the 



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CHAP* n. SECT. II. Cook, Ckrhe, and Gore^ ^25 

the body ; and some of the wounds, which formed rhom- 
boidal figares^ had been so lately inflicted, that the coagu- 
lated blood istill remained in them. 

*' The wife of one of the chiefs appeared with her child, 
laid in a piece of red clojh, which had been presented to 
her husband, and seemed to carry it with great tenderness, 
suckling it much after the manner of our women. Another 
chief introduced his daughter, who was young and beauti- 
ful, but appeared with ail the timidity natural to the seir, 
though she gazed on us with a kind of anxious concern, 
that seemed to struggle with her fear, and to express het 
astonishment at so unusual a sighU Others advanced, with 
more firmEie$s, and indeed were less reserved than we ex- 
pected, but behaved with a becoming modesty. We did 
not observe any personal deformities amongst either sex;^ 
except in a few who had scars of broad superficial ulcers 
remaining on the face and other parts. • In proportion to 
the numl^r of people assembled, there appeared not many 
old men or women ; which may easily be accounted for, 
by supposing that such as were in an advanced period of life, 
might neither have the inclination nor the ability to come 
from the more distant parts of the island. On. the other 
band, the children were numerous ; and both these and the 
men climbed the trees to look at us when we were hid by 
the surrounding crowd. 

'^ About a third part of the men were armed with clubs 
and spears ; and probably these were only the persons who 
had come from a distance, as many of them had small bas^i- 
kets, mats, and other things, fastened to the ends of their 
weapons. The clubs were generally about six feet long, 
maae of a hard black wood, lance-shaped at the end, but 
much broader, with the edge nicely scolloped, and the 
whole neatly polished.^ Others of them were narrower at 
the point, much shorter, and plain ; and some were even so 
small as to be used with one hand. The spears were made 
of the same wood, simply pointed, and, in general, above 
twelve feet long ; though some were sa short that they 
' seemed intended to be thrown as darts. 

'^ The place where we were all the day was under the 

shade of various trees, in which they preserved their canoes 

. from the sun. About eight or ten of them were here, all 

double ones, that is, two single ones fastened together (as 

is usual throughout the whole extent of the Pacific Ocean) 



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S26 Modem Circumtumgatunu. part hi. book hi. 

by rafters lashed across. They yrere about ttreot;^ fbei loiig^ 
about four feet deep, and the sides rounded with a plank 
raised upon tbem^ which was fastened strongly by noieans 
of withes. Two of these canoes were modi curiously stain- 
ed, or painted, all over with black, in immberiess 9ificill fi- 
gures, as squares, triangles, &c. and excelled by. ftir any 
thing of that kind I had ever seen at any other. tsland in 
this ocean* Our friends here, indeed, seemed to haYe ex- 
erted more skill in doing this than in puncturing their 6wn 
bodies. The paddles were about four feet long, nearly- el- 
liptical, but broader at the upper end than the middle. 
ISear the same place was a hut or ^hed, about thirty feet 
long, and nine or ten high, in which, perhaps, these boats 
are built; but at this time it was empty. 

*^ The greatest number of the trees around ns were cocoa* 
palms, some sorts of hibiscus, a species of euphorbia, and, to- 
ward the sea, abundance of the same kind of trees we had 
seen at Mangeea Nooe Nainaiwa,. and which seemed to 
Burround the shores of- the island in the same manner. They 
are tall and slender, not much unlike a cypress, but with 
bunches of long, round, articulated leaves. The natives call 
them eioa. On the ground we saw some grass, a species of 
convohulus, and a good deal of treacU^muMard. There are 
§lso, doubtless, other fruitrtrees and useful plants which we 
did not see; for, besides several sorts q{ plantains, they 
brought, at different times, roots which they call iaro, (the 
CQCcos of other countries,) a bread-fruit, and a basket of 
roasted nuts, of a kidney shape, in taste like a chesnut, but 
coarser. 

*^ What the soil of the island may be farther inland we 
could not tell, but toward the sea it is nothing more than 
a bank of coral, ten or twelve feet high, steep and rugged, 
except where there are small sandy beaches at some clefts, 
where the ascent is gradual. The coral, though it has pro- 
bably been exposed to the weather for many centuries, has 
undergone no farther change than becoming black on the 
surface, which, from its irregularity, is not much unlike 
large masses of a burnt substance. But, on breaking some 
pieces off, we found that, at the depth of two or three in- 
ches, it was just as fresh as the pieces that had been lately 
thrown upon the beach by the waves. The reef, or rock, 
that lines the shore entirely, runs to different breadths into 
the sea, where it ends all at once, and becomes Jike a high, 

steep 
9 



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CSBAF« II* nor. II. Cook, derke, and Gore, St7 

steep wall. It is nearly even with the snrfabe of the water^ 
and of a brown or brick colour ; but the texture is rather 
poronsy yet safficientto withstand the washing of the turf 
which continually breaks upon it'' 

Though the landing of oar TCntlemen proved the means 
of enriching my journal with me foregoing particulars, the 
. principal object! had in view was^ in a great measure, un- 
attained ; for the day was spent without getting any one 
thing from the island worth mentioning. The natives^ how- 
ever, were gratified with a sight they never before had, and 
probably will never have again. And mere curiosity seems ^^ 
to have been their chief motive for keeping the gentlemen 
under such restraint, and for using every art to prolong 
tiieir continuance amongst them. 

It has been mentioned that Omai was sent upon this ex- 
pedition ; and p^hans his being Mr Gore's interpreter was 
not the only service ne performed this day. He was asked 
>by the natives a great many questions coucerning us, our 
ships, our country, and the sort of arms we used ; and, ac- 
cording to the Acdonnt he gave me, his answers were not a 
little upon .the marveHous. As, for instance, he told them 
that our country, had ships ^ large as their island, on board 
which were, instruments of war (describing our guns) 6f 
such dimennoniB that several people might sit within them, 
and that one of thepi was sufficient to crash the whole is- 
land at one! shot. This led them to enquire of him what . 
sort of guns we actually had in our two ships. He said, that 
though they were but small in comparison with those he had 
just described, yet, with such as they were, we could, with 
the greatest ease, and at the distance the ships were from 
the shore> destroy the island, and kill every soul in it. Iliey 
persevered in their enquiries, to know by what means this 
could be done ; and Omai explained the matter as well as 
he could. He happened luckily to have a few cartridges 
in^his pocket. These he produced ; the balls, and the p;un- 
powder which was to set them in motion, were submitted 
to inspection; aud^ to supply the defects of his descrip- 
tion, an appeal was made to the senses of the spectators* 
It has been mentioned above, that one of the chiefs had 
ordered the multitude to form themselves into a circle. 
This furnished Omai with a convenient stage for his exhi- 
bition. In the centre of this ainphitbeatre, the inconsider- 
able quantity of gunpowder collected from bis cartridges 

was 



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9S8 Modem Cireumnavigatiom. paat m. book in. 

was propbrly disposed «pou the ground, and, by means of a 
^ bit of burning wood from tbe oven, where dinner wan diesa- 
in^j set on fire. Tbe sudden blast and loud report, the 
]ningled flame and smoke, ^hal instantly succeeded, now- 
filled tbe whole assembly with a^hishment. They no 
longer doubted the tremendous power of our weapons, and 
gave full credit to all that Omai bad said. 

If it had not been for the terrible ideas they conceived 
of the guns of our ships, from this specimen of their mode 
of operation, it was thought that they would have detained 
^ the gentlemen all night. For Omai assured them, that if 
he and his companions did not return on board the same 
day, they might expect that I would fire upon the island. 
And as we stood in nearer the land in the eveninff, than we 
had done any time before, of which position of the ships 
they were observed to take great notice^ they probably 
thought we were meditating this formidable attack, and, 
therefore, sufiered their guests to depart ; under the expec* 
tation, however, of seeing them agidn on shore next mom-< 
ing. But I was too sensible of the risk they hod already 
run, to think of a repetition of the experiment. - 

This day, it seems, was destined to give Omai more oc-< 
. caaions than one of being brought forward to bear a prin- 
cipal part in its transactions* The island, though never be- 
fore visited by Europeans, actually bsppened to have other 
strangers residing in it ; and it was entiriely owing to Omai's 
being one of Mr Gore's attendants, that this curious cir- 
cumstance came to our knowledge. 

Scarcely had he been landed upon the. beach, when he 
found, amongst the crowd there assembied, three of his 
own countrymen, natives of the Society Islands. At the 
distance of about «00 leagues from those islands> an im- 
mense, unknown, ocean intervetiing, with such wretched 
sea-boats as their inhabitants are known to make use of, 
. and fit only for a passage where sight of land is scarcely 
ever lost, such a meeting, at sach a place, so accidentally 
visited by us, may well be looked upon as one of those un- 
.expected situations with which the writers of feigned ad- 
ventures love to surprise their readers, and which, when 
. they really happen in common life, deserve to be recorded 
for their singularity. 

It may easily be guessed with what mutual surprise and 
. satisfaction Omai and his countrymen engaged m conver- 
^ • sation. 



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ctSLAVi II. 8BCT. 11* Cook, Ckrke, and Gore^ ^ SiQ 

sation. Their story, as related by them, is an affecting one* 

Aboot twenty persons in number, of both sexes, had em- 

' barked on board a canoe a% Otaheite, to cross over to the 

• neighbonring island'Ulietea. A violent contrary wind ari- 
i»ing; they could neither reach the latter nor get back to 

-the/former. Their intended passage being a very short 
one, their stock of provisions was scanty, and soon exhaust* 
ed. Ttie hardships they suffered, while Jriven along by the 

. ikorm they knew not whither, are not to be conceived* They 
passed many days without having any thing to eat or drink* 
Their numbers gradually diminished, worn out by famine* 
and fatigue. Four men only survived when the' canoe 
overset, and then the perdition of this small remnant seem- 
ed inevitatble. However, they kept hanging by the side of 
their vessel during some of the last days, till Providence 
brought them in sight of the' people of this island, who 
immediately sent out canoes, took tfiem off their wreck, and 
brought them ashore. Of the four who were thus saved, 
one was since djead. The other three, who lived to have 
this opportunity of giving an account of their almost mi« 
raculous transplantation, spoke highly of the kind treatment 
they here met with* And so well satisfied were they with 

• their situation, that they refused the offer made to them by 
our gentlemen, at Omai's request, of giving them a passage 

( on board our ships, to restore them to their native islands. 
The similarity of manners and language had more than 

' * naturalized them to this spot ; and the fresh connexions 
which they had here formed, and which it would have been 
painful to have broken off after such a length of time, suf- 

• ficiently acpQunt for their declining to revisit the places of 

• their bivlh. They had arrived upon this island at le&^t 
twelve years ago. For I learnt from Mr Anderson, that 
he found they knew nothing of Captain Wallis's visit to 
Otaheite in 1765, nor of several other memorable occur- 

. rences» such as the conquest of Ulretea by those of Bola- 
bola, which had preceded the arrival of the Europeans. To 
Mr Anderson I am also indebted for their names, Orououte, 

- Otirreroa, and Tavee ; the first born at Matavai in Ota- 
heite, the second at Ulietea, and the third at Huaheine. 

The landingof our gentlemen on this island, though they 
failed in the object of it, cannot but be considered as a 
very fortunate circumstance. It has proved, as we have 
fieen^ the means of bringing to our knowledge a matter of 

fact^ 



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880 » Modem Ciremmunigaiiom* ipaet hi. booe hi. 

fact> not only very curioiMj bot my ipttnictiTe* The ap- 
plication of the above narrative is obvioas. It will serve to 
explftio^ bettejp tlmo a thousapd conjectures of speculative 
reasoners^ how the detached parts of the earth, apd, in par- 
ticular, how the islands of the South Sea> may have be^i 
first peopledji especially those that lie remote from any in- 
habited continent, or from each other.^ 

This island is called Wateeoo by the natives, It lies in 
the latitude of 20* 1' S. and in the longitude £01<' 4$' K, 
and is about six leagues io circumference. It is a beauti* 
ful spot, with a surface composed of hills and plains^ and 
covered with verdure of many hues. Our gentlemen 
found the soil, where they passed the day, to be light and 
sandy. But farther up the country, a different sort perhaps 
prevails, as we saw from the ship, by the help of our glasses, 
a reddish cast upon the rising grounds. There the inha- 
bitants have their houses ; for we could perceive two or 
three, which were long and spacious. Its produce,, with 
the addition of hogs, we found to be (he same as at the last 
island we had visited> which the people of this, to whom 
we pointed out its position, called Owhavarouahj a name 
so different from Mangeea Nooe Nainaiwa, which we learnt 
from its own inhabitants, that it is highly probably Owhava- 
rouah is another island. 

Frcmi 

^ Such accidents as this here related, probably happen frequently in ffm 
]Pacific Ocean. In 1696, two canoes, having on board thirty persons df 
both sexes, were driven by contrary winds and tempestuous weather on 
the isle of Samal, one of the Philippines, after being tossed about at sea 
seventy days, and having performed a voyage from an island called by 
them Amorsot, 900 leagues to the £. of SamaL Five of thtfjiumber who 
had embarked died of the hardships sufiered during this extraordinaiy 
passage. See a particular account of them, and of the islands they b^ 
longed to, in Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses, torn. xv. from p. 196 to p. 
SI 5. In the same volume, from p. 38S to p. 890, we have the rela^on of 
a similar adventure in 17S1, when two canoes, one containing tmeaty^ 
four, and the other six, persons, men, women, and children, were^Qriven 
from an island they called Farroilep, northward to the Isle of Guam, or 
Guahan, one of the Ladrones or Mariannes* But these had not sailed'so far 
as their countrymen who reached Samalj as above, and they had been at 
sea only twenhr days. There seems to be no reason to doubt the general 
authenticity of these two relations. The information contained in the 
Letters of the Jesuits about these islands, now known under the name of 
the Carolines, and discovered to the Spaniards by the arrival of the ca- 
noes at Samal and Guam, has been adopted by all our later writers. See 
President de Brosse's Voyages aux Terres Austirales, tonk ii. fpom p^ 443 
to^p. 490. See also the Modern Universal History. — D. 



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CHiLTp II. SECT. II. Cwk, Clerke,Md Gore., SSI 

From the circumstances already mentiooed, it appears 
that Wateeoo.can be of little use to any ship that wants 
refreshment^ unless io a case of the most absolute necessi« 
ty« The natives, knowing now the value of some of our 
^commodities, might be induced to bring off fruits and bogs 
to a ship standing off and on, or to boats lying off th^e reef> 
as ours did* It is doubtful, however, if any fresh water 
could be procured ; for, though some was brought in cocoa- 
ilut shells to the gentlemen, they were tol4 that it was at a 
considerable distance ; and, probably, it is only to be met 
with in some stagnant pool, as no running stream was any 
where seen. ^ 

According to Omai's report of what he learnt in conver- 
isation with his three countrymen, the manners of these is- 
landers, their method of treating strangers, and their ge- 
neral habits of lif<g, are much like those that prevail at Ota- 
heite, and its neighbouring isles . Their religious ceremonies 
and opinions are also nearly the same. For, upon seeing 
one man who was painted all over of a deep black colour, 
and enquiring the reason, our gentlemen were told that he 
bad lately been paying the last* good offices to a deceased 
friend ; and they found, that it was upon similar occasions 
the women cut themselves, as already mentioned. From 
every circumstance, indeed, it is indubitable, that the na- 
tives of Wateeoo sprung originally from the same stock, 
which hath spread itself so wonderfully all over the immense 
extent of the South Sea. One would suppose, however, 
that they put in their claim to a more illustrious extraction ; 
for Omai assured us, that tb?y dignified their island with 
the appellation of fVenaoa no te Eatooa, that is, A land of 
gods ; esteeming themselves a sort of divinities, and pos- 
sessed with the spirit of the Eatooa. This wild enthusiastic 
notion Omai seemed much to approve of, telling us there 
were instances of its being entertained at Otaheite, but 
that it was universally prevalent amongst the inhabitants of 
Mataia» or Osnaburg Island* 

The language spoken at Wateeoo was equally well un- 
derstood by Omai, and by our two New 2^alandefs. What 
its peculiarities may be, when compared with the other 
dialects, I am not able to point out ; for, though Mr An- 
derson had taken care to note down a specimen of it, the 
natives, who made no distinction of the objects of th^ir 
theft, stole the memorandum book^ 

Section 



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3S2 Modem Circumnavigatkms. f abt hi. book lii« 



Section IIL 

Wemoa^ttte^ or Otokootetia, visited^^^Account of that Idand, 
and of its Produce. — Heroe^'s Island, or Terougse mou At* 
tooa,fotind to be inhabited. — Transactiom with me Natives* 
— Their Penom^Dress, Language, Canoes. — Fruitless At^ 
tempt to land there. — I^easons Jot bearing away for ike 
Friendly Idands. — Palmerston's Island touched at. — JDe- 
scription of the two Places where the Boats landed. — Re* 
fr^ments obtained there. — Cof^ectures on t/te Formation of 
such low Islands. — Arrival at the Friendly Islands. 

LxGHTaira and calms having prevailed, by turns^ all the 
night of the 3d of Ajiri), the easterly swell had carried the 
ships some distance4rbm Wateeoo before day-break. Bat 
as I had failed in my object of procuring at that place some 
effectual supply, I saw no reason for staying there any 
longer. I therefore quitted it, without regret, and steered 
for the neighbouring island, which, as has been mentioned, 
we discovered three days before. 

With a gentle breeze at E. we got tip with it before ten 
o'clock in the morning, and I immediately dispatched Mr 
Gore, with two boats, to endeavour to land^ and get some 
food for our cattle* As there seemed to be no inhabitants 
here to obstruct our taking away whatever we might think 

Siroper, I was confident of his being able to make amends 
or our late disappointment, if the landing could be effects* 
ed. There was a reef here surrounding the land as at Wa« 
' teeoo, and a considerable surf breaking against the rocks. 
Notwithstanding which, our boats no sooner reached the 
lee, or west side of the island, but they ventured in, and Mr 
Gore and his party got safe on shore. I could, from the 
ship, see that they had succeeded so far, and I immediately 
sent a small boat to know what farther assistance was want- 
ing. She did not return till three o^clock in the afternoon, 
having waited to take in a lading of what useful produce 
the island afforded. As soon as she was cleared, she was 
sent again for another cargo ; the jolly boat was also dis* 
patched, and Mr Gore was ordered to be on board, with all 
the boats, before night, which was complied with. 
The supply obtained here consisted of about a hundred 

cocoa 



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ceur. IX. fi«CT. in* Cookf Ckrke, and Gort* Si^ 

cocoa nuts for each ship ; and, besides this refrednneiit for 
ourselves^ we got for our cattle some grass> and a. quantity- 
of the leaves and branches of young cocoa-trees, and of the 
whairra*^^^^ as it is called at Otaheite, the pandamu of the 
'East Indies. This latter being of a soft, spungy, juicy na- 
ture, the catde eat it very well. when cut into small pieces; 
so that it might be said, without any deviation from trutb^ 
that we fed them upon billet wood. 

This island lies in the latitude of IQ^ 51' S. ancl the lon- 
gitude of 201* 37' E., about three or four leagues from 
W ateeoo, the inhabitants of wfaiph called it Otakootaia ; 
and sometimes they spoke of it under the appellation of. 
Wenooa-ette, which signifies, little island. Mr Aaderson^ 
who was^ on shore with our party, and walked round it, 
jessed that it could not be much more than three miles in 
circuit. From him 1 also learned the following particulars : 
The beach, within the reef, is composed of a white coral 
flandt above which the land within does not rise above six , 
or seven feet, and is covered with a light reddish soil, but , 
is entirely destitue of water. 

The only common trees found there were cocoa-palms, 
of which there were several clusters, and vast numbers of 
the wkarra. There was likewise the callopkyUum, Buriana,, 
guettarda^ a species of toumefortia, and taberme ntoniana, 
with a few other shrubs, and some of the etoa tree seen at 
Wateeoo. A sort of bind-weed over-ran the vacant spaces, 
except in some places, where was found a considerable 
quantity of treacle^mustard, a species of ^piirg^, with a few , 
other small plants, and the morinda dirtfolia, the fmit of 
which is eaten by the natives of Otaheite in times of scar- > 
city. Omai, who had landed with the party, dressed some 
of it for their dinner^ but it proved very indifferent^^ 

The only bird seen amongst the trees was a beautiful 
cuckoo, of Bi chesnut brown, variegated with black» which 
was shotk But upon the shore were some egg-birds; a 
small sort of curlew ; blue and white herons ; and a great 
nomberof noddiesr; which last, at this time, laid their eggs 
a little farther up on the ground, and often rested on the 
wharra-tree. 

One of our people caught a lizard of a most forbidding 
aspect, though small, running up a tree ; and many of an-^ 
other sort were seen. The bushes toward the sea were fre- 
quented by infinite numbers of a sort of moth^ elegantly 
^ speckled 



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334 Modim Cireumnavigatians. fabt hi. book tii. 

specMled with red^ blacky and white. Tbere were also se^ 
yeral other sorts of moths^ as well as some pretty butterflies, 
and a few other insects. 

Though there were^ at this time^ no fixed inhabitanta 
upon the island, indubitable marks remained of its being at 
least occasionally frequented. In particular, a few empty 
huts were found. There were also several large stones erect- 
ed, like monuments, under the shade of some trees, and 
several spaces inclosed with smaller ones, where, probably^ 
the dead had been buried. And, in one place, a great many 
cockle-shells, of a particular sort, finely grooved, andlarger 
than the first, were to be seen ; from which it was reason* 
able to conjecture, that the island had been visited by per- 
sons who feed partly on shellfish. In one of the huts Mr 
Gore kft a hatchet and some nails, to the full value of what' 
' we took away. 

As soon as the boats were hoisted in, I made sail again 
to the northward, with a light air of wind easterly, intend- 
ing to try our fortune at Hervey's Island, which was disco- 
vered in 1773, during my last voyage. Although it was not 
above fifteen leagues distant, yet we did not get sight of it 
till day-break in the morning of the 6th, when it bore 
W.S.W, at the distance of about three leagues. As we 
drew near it, at eight o'clock, we observed several canoes 
put off from the shore, and they came directly toward the 
ships. This was a sight that indeed surprised me, as no 
signs of inhabitants were seen when the island was first dis- 
covered ; which might be owing to a pretty brisk wind that 
then blew, and prevented their canoes venturing out as^the 
ships passed to leeward, whereas now we were to windward. 

As we still kept oti toward the island, six or seven of the 
eanoes, all double ones, soon came near us. There were 
from three to six men in each of them. They stopped at 
the distance of about a stone's throw from the ship, and it 
was some time before Omai could prevail upon them to 
come along*side; but no entreaties could induce any of 
them to venture on board. Indeed, their disorderly and 
clamorous behaviour by no means indicated. a disposition 
to trust us, or treat us well. We afterward learnt that they 
had attempted to take some oars out of the Discovery s 
boat, that lay along-side, and struck a man who endeavour- 
ed tb prevent them. They also cut away, with a shelly a 
net with meat, which hung ov^ that ship's stem^ and ab» 

solutely 



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c«AF« n* Mcr. inu Cook, Chrke, and Gort^ 335 

soldtely refused to restore it^ though we afterward purcha* 
Bed it from them. Thos6 who were about our iihip behaved 
in tbe.same daring manner ; for they made a sort of hook 
of a long sticky with which they endeavoured openly to rob 
uaof several things, and> at last^ actually got a frock^ be-^ 
longing to one of our people that was towing^ overboard. 
At the same time they immediately shewed a knowledge of 
bartering^ and sold some fish they had (amongst which was 
an extraordinary flounder^ spotted like porphyry^ and a 
cream-coloured eel^ spotted with black) for small nails, of 
which they were immoderate! v fond, dnd called themgoorr. 
But, indeed, they caught with the greatest avidity bits of 
paper, or any thmg else that was thrown to them ; and if 
what was thrown fell into the sea, they made no scruple to 
swim after it. 

These people seemed to differ as much in person as in 
disposition from the natives of Wateeoo, though the dis- 
tance between the two islands is not very great. Their co- 
lour was of a deeper cast ; and several had a fierce, rugged 
aspect, resembUng the natives of New Zealand, but some 
were fairer. They had strong black hair, which, in gene^' 
ral, they wore eitlier hanging loose about the shoulders, or 
tied in a bunch on the crown of the head. Some, however, \ 
had it cropped pretty short; and in two or three of them it' 
was of a brown or reddish colour. Their only covering was 
a narrow piece of mat, wrapt several times round the lower 
part of the body^ and which passed between the thighs ; 
but a fine cap of red feathers was seen lying in one of the 
canoes. The shell of a pearl-oyster polished, and huiig 
about the neck, was the only ornamental fashion that we 
observed amongst them, for not one of them had adopted 
that mode of ornament so generally prevalent amongst the 
natives of this ocean, of puncturing, or tdtooing, their bodies! 

Though singular in this, we had the most unequivocal 
proofs of their being of the samecomtmon race. Their lan- 
guage approached still nearer to the dialect of Otahelte ^ 
than that of Wateeoo or Mangeea. Like the inhabitants 
of these two islands, they enquired from whence our ships . 
came, and whither bound, who was our chief, the number 
of our men on board, and even the ship's name. And they 
very readily answered such questions as we proposed to 
them. Amount other things, they told us they had seen two 
great ships like ours before, but that they had not spoken 

with 



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336 Modem Circumnat^tHionh fjibt »u jbodx uu 

with them as they saiM past* There can be no doubt that* 
tiiese were the Resolution and Adventure. .We learnt from- 
thenii that the name of their island is Terouggemou Atooa^ 
and that they were subject to Teerevalooeahj king of Wa^^ 
teeooJ According to the agcotint that they gave, their iur« 
tides of food are cocoa-nuts^ fish^ and turtle ; the island not 
producing plantains^ or bread-fruit, and being destitute of 
hogs and do^s. Their canoes, of wliich near thirty were, 
at one time, in sight, are pretty large, and well built* la 
the construction of the stern, they bear some resemblance' 
to those of Wateeoo ; and the head projects out nearly in 
the same manner, but the extremity is turned up instead of 
down. 

Having but very little wind, it was one o'clock before we 
drew near the N. W. part of the island, the only part where 
there seemed to be any probability of finding anchorage for 
our ships, or a landing-place for our boats. In this position 
I sent Lieutenant King> with two armed boats, to sound * 
and reconnoitre the coast, while we stood off and on with 
the ships. The instant the boats were hoisted out, onr vi* 
sitors in the canoes, who had remained alongside, all the 
while, bartering their little trifles, suspehded their traffic, 
and, pushing for the shore as fast as they could, came neac> 
us no more. 

At three o'clock the boats returned, and Mr King iu^ 
formed me, '^ That there was no anchorage for the ships, 
and that the boats could only land on .the outer, edge of 
the reef, which lay about a quarter of » mile from the dry 
land. He said that a number of tbe. natives came down* 
upon the reef, armed with long pikes and clubs, as if they 
intended to oppose his landing. And yet, when he drew- 
near enough, they threw some cocoa-nuts to our people, 
and invited them to^coihe on shore ,- thought at the very 
same time, be observed that the women were very bpsy 
bringing down a fresh supply of spears and darts. But, as 
he had uo motive. to land, be did not give them an oppoF- 
tunity to use them." 

Having received this report, I considered, that, as th^ • 
ships could not be brought to an anchor^ we should. find. 

diat. 

. ' The reader will observe, that tins nStoe bears litde afiaify to ai^^one 
of the namsB oi the three chief? pf Wateeoo. as pmerved by Ur 4iideiw 
son.— D. 

6 

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CHAP* II. «a€T. im Ceok, Ckrhe, and Bm. 3S7 

that tbf /ijtjteropt to procure grass here woald occasiod tnuch 
clelaj> as well as be attended with some danger; Besidet, . 
we were equally in want of water ; and though the inhabit- 
ants h^d told ns that there was water on^beir island^yet we 
neither knew in what quantity, nor from what distance we 
might he< obliged to fetch it. And^ after all^ supposing no 
other obstruction, we were sure, that to get over the reef 
would be an operation equally difficult and tedious. 

Being thus disappointed at all the islands we had met 
with since our leaving New Zealand, and the unfavourable 
winds, and other unforeseen circumstances, having un« 
avoidably retarded our progress so much, it was now im^ 

i)ossible to think of doine any thing this year in the higli. 
atitudes of the norther^ hemisphere, from which we were 
still at so great a distancej, though the season for our ope«^ 
rations there was already begun. In this situation it waa 
absolutely necessary to pursue such measures as were most 
likely to preserve the cattle we had on board in the first 
place ; and, in the next place> (which was still a more ca- 
pital object,) to save the stores and provisions of the shipa^. 
t(iat we might be better enabled to prosecute our northern 
discoveries, which could not now commence till ^ye^r ^t^if 
than was originally intended. 

If I bad been so fortunate as to have procured a sfupply 
of water and of grass at any of the islands we had lately 
visited, it was my purpose to have stood back to the S. till 
I had met with a westerly wind. But the certain conse- 
quence of doing this, without such a supply, would have, 
been the loss -of all the cattle, before we could possibly, 
reach Otaheite, without gaining any one advantage with, 
regard to the great object of our voyage* 

1 therefore determined to bear away for the Friendly Is-, 
lands, where I was sure of meeting with abundance of every 
thing I wanted ; and it being necessary to run in the night 
as well as in the day, I ordered Captain Gierke to keep 
about a league a-hcfad of the Resolution. I used this pre- 
caution because bis ship could best claw off the land ; and 
it was very possible we migh^ fall in with some in our pas- 
sage. 

The longitude of Hervey'^ Islapd, when first discovered, 

deduced from Otaheite, by the time-keeper, was found to 

be SO IT 6" £., and now, by the same time«keeper^ deduced 

from Qu^ea Charlotte's Sound, 200* 56' £» {lence I cwt 

ypuxy. T elude. 



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5S8 Modem Circumnav^athm. fabt iii« book hi. 

clude^ that the ^rror of the time-keeper^ at this time^ did 
not exceed twelve miles in longitude. 

When we hore away, I steered W, by S. with n fine 
breeze easterly. I proposed to proceed first to Middle* 
burgh, or Eooa, thinking, if i\ie wind continued favoamble^ 
that we had food enough on board for the cattle to last till 
we should reach that island* Bat, about noon next day^ 
those faint bree2es that had attended and retarded us so 
long, again returned ; and I found it necessary to haul 
more to the N. to get into the latitude of Palmerston's and 
Savage Islands, discovered in 1774, during my last voyage^ 
that, if necessity required it, we might have recourse to 
them. 

This day, in order to save our water, I ordered the still 
to be kept at work from six o'clock in the morning to four 
in the afternoon, during which time we procured from thir- 
teen to sixteen gallons of fresh water. There has been 
lately mad^ some improvement, as they are pleased to call 
it, of this machine, which, in my opinion, is much for the 
worse. 

These light breezes continued till the 10th, when we had^ 
for some hours, the wind blowing fresh from the N. and 
N.]N.W., being then in the latitude of 18* S8^ and longi- 
tude 198* 114' £• In the afternoon we had some thunder 
squalls from the S. attended with heavy rain ; of which wa- 
fer we collected enough to fill five puncheons. After these 
squalls had blown over, tbe wind came round to the N.E* 
and N.W., being very unsettled both in strength and in 
position till about noon the next day, when it fixed at N.W. 
and N.N.W. and blew a fresh breeze, with fair weather. 

Thus were we persecuted with a wind in our teeth which- 
ever way we directed our course ; and we had the additional 
inortification to find here those very winds which we had 
reason to expect 8* or 10^ farther S. They came too late, 
for I durst not trust their continuance; and tbe etent pro- 
ved that I judged right. 

At length, at day-break in the morning of the 13th, we 
saw Palmerston Island, bearing W. by S. distant about five 
leagues. However, we did not get up with it till eight 
o'clock the next morning. I then sent four boats, three 
irom the Resolution and one from the Discovery, with an 
officer in each, to search the coast for the most convenient 
landing-place. For now we were under an absolute neces^ 

shy 



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CHAPr 11. 8ECT. III. Cook, Gierke, and Gore. 389 

aity of procuring from this island some food for the cattle> 
otherwise we must have lost them . 

What is comprehended under the name of Palmerston's 
Island^ is a group of small islets^ of which there are in the 
whole nine or ten^ lying in a circular direction, and con- 
nected together by a reef of coral rocks. The boats first 
examined the sooth-easternmost of the islets which com- 
pose >thi8 group, and, failing there, ran down to the second, 
where we had the satisfaction to see them land. I then bore 
down with the ships till abreast of the place, and there we 
kept standing off and on ; for no bottom was to be found to 
anchor upon, which was not of much consequence, as the 
party who had landed from our boats were the only human 
beings upon the island. 

About one o'clock one of the boats came on board, laden 
with scurvy-grass and young cocoa-nut trees, which, at this 
time, was a feast for the cattle. The same boat brought a 
message from Mr Gore, who commanded the party, in- 
forming me that there was plenty of such produce upon the 
island, as also of the wharra tree, and some cocoaruuts. 
This determined me to get a good supply of these articles 
before I quitted this station, and, before evening, I went 
ashore in a small boat, accompanied by Captain Gierke. 

We found every body hard at work, and the landing- 
place to be in a small creek, formed by the reef, of some- 
thing more than a boat's length in every direction, and co- 
vered from the force of the sea by rocks projecting out on 
each side of it. The island is scarcely a mile in circuit, and 
not above three feet higher than the level of the sea. It 
appeared to be composed entirely of a coral sand, with a 
small mixture of blackfsh mould, produced from rotten ve-^ 
getables. Notwithstanding this poor soil, it is covered with 
trees and bushes of the same kind as at Wanooa-ette, 
though with less variety ; and amongst these are some co-^ 
Goa palms. Upon the trees^ or bushes that front the sea, or 
even farther in, we found a great number of men-of-war 
birds, tropic birds, and two sorts of boobies, which at this 
- time were laying their eggs, and so tame, that they suffered 
QS to take them off with our hands. Their nests were only 
a few sticks loosely put together ; and the tropic birfls laid 
their eggs on the ground, under the trees. These differ 
' much from the common sort, being entirely of a moat splen 
did white^ slightly tinged with red, and having the two 

long 



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849 Modern Circurnnatngations. pabt hi. book. ui« 

long tailf-feathers of a deep crimson or blood colour. Of 
each sort our people killed a considerable number; andj» 
though not the most delicate food> they were acceptable 
enough to us who had been loog confined to a salt diet, and 
Mfho> consequently^ could not but be glad of the most indif* 
ierent variety. We met with y^st numbers of red crabsjk 
creeping about every where ai^ongst the trees; and we 
caught several fish that had been left in ^oles upon the 
reef when the sea retired. 

At one part of the reef^ which looks into> or bounds, the 
]$ke that is within, there was a large bed pf coral, almost 
even with the surface, which afforded, perhaps, on^ pf the 
npost enchanting prp^pects that nature has any where pror 
duced. Its base was fixed to the shore, but reached so fai: 
id that it could not be ^e^n ; >o that it seemed to be sus- 
pended in the water, which deepened so suddenly, that at 
the distance of a few yards theire n)ight be seven or eight 
fathoms. The sea was at this time quite unruffled ; and the 
sun shining bright, exposed the various sorts of coral in the 
most beautiful order ; some parts branching into the water 
lyith great luafuriance ; others lying collected in round balls, 
s|nd in various pther figure^ ;-^all which were greatly height- 
ened by spangles of the richest colours, that glpwed from 
a number of Ifirge plams, which were eyery where inter- 
spersed. But the appearance of these was ^till inferior to 
that of the multitude of fishes that glided gently along^ 
seemingly with the mo^t perfect ^eciirity. ^ The colours of 
the different sorts were the most beautiful thf^% can be ima«<. 
gined, the yellow, blue, red, black, flee, far exceeding any 
thiog that art can produce. Their various forms, also, con<^ 
tributed to increase the richness of this submarine grottpj, 
which could not be surveyed without a pleasing transport, 
mixed however with regret, that a work so stupendously 
Elegant should be concealed in a place where mankind 
could seldom have an opportunity of rentdering the praises 
justly due to 90 enchanting a spei^e.* 

There 

* How beautifully does Captain Cook's dc8crjptk>n illustrate those linef 
cf Dr Young- 



Such blessiogs Nature pours, 



O'erstockM mankind enjoy but half her stores} 
\n distapt midfi, by hugann eyes unseeo, " > 

- ' ' " She 



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kbAP. ii» skiCT. lit. CooJc, Clerke, ani Gore* s4l 

« There were no traces of inhabitants having ever been 
here, if we except a small piece of a canoe that was found 
iipon the beach^ which^ probably^ may have drifted froth 
tome otb^r island. Bot^ what is jpretty extraordinary, we 
saw several small brown rats On this spot, a circnmstanccfy 
perhaps^ di&icUlt to account for, unless we allchv that they 
wci'e imported in the cano^ of which we saw the remains. 

After the boats were laden I relumed on board, leaving 
Mr Gore, with a patty, to pass the night on shore, id ord^r 
to be ready to go to work early the next mbrnin^. 

That day, being the 15th, was accordingly Spent £is the 
preceding one had been, ^in collecting and bringing on 
board food for the cattle, consisting chiefly of palm-cab- 
bage, yoang cocoa-nut trees, and tne tender branches of 
the wharra tree. Having got a sufficient supply of these 
by sun-set^ T ordered every body on board. But having 
little or DO wind; I determined to wait, and to employ the 

iiext 

She fears her flower^i and spreads her velvet greeik i 
Pure gurglios rills the londv deceit, trace^ 
And waste their music on the savage race. 

fjrray has a similat thought in his ihimitable eleg^, which ever^ reader 
will immediately recollect, Gan it be imagined, that nature, which 
does nothing in vain, nor indeed without a reference to .the being Who is 
eminently signalized as lord of the lower creation, has been at pains to de- 
corate tbe^e s{)ots, but in anticipation, if ohe indy use the expression, of 
the praise and enjoyment which their lovdiness ^ill some lime or other 
occasion ? He that remembers th^ nature and foiunation.of the coral isles 
ia the southern oceap, will at 9nce conjecture that the Gre^t Architect is 
raising up the materials of a new world, which, from aught we can yet 
perceive, will not less indicate his power and goodness than that which we 
now inhabit How r^ily, then, can imagination fashioti out the future 
destiny of oar globe, on the supposition that the conflagration by ifirhich its 
presently ipha^it,^d portions arjB expected to be destroyed, shall not be so 
complete as to annipilate it from the universe ! Qr, believing what is usu- 
ally understood by that event, on the authority of scripture, how clearly 
^n reaton deduce from present appearance^ certain niinor, but neverthe- 
liess immense, changes^ which it may undergo previous to this final disso* 
iution I But the reader, it is prpbaible, will not chd3e to venture on so ter- 
r)fic an excursion, ^nd there is a motive for caution with respect to it, with 
which it may not be amiss to apprise the too zeialous enquirer. The fact 
is, that none of the caused which we knoW to be now operating on our 
globe, se^urat all adeqitete to account for all the changes it has already 
fmdergone. We may, therefor*, very fairly infer, that an indefinite allOw- 
liDce must be granted to exterior interference of some sort or other, the 
i^gency of which may altogether subvert whatever is now known to exisw 
f^ee Cuvidr's Essay^ lateljr puhh'shed at £daibargh««i-£. 



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642 Mq^m Circuf^umgatioms pabt hi. book in. 

next day by endeavouring to get spme cocoa-nuts for our 
people from the next island to leeward^ where we could oh^ 
serve that those trees were in much greater abundance than 
upon that where we had already landed, and where only 
the wants of oar ^cattle had been relieved. 

With this view I kept standing off and on all night, and 
in the morning, between eight and. nine o'clock, I went 
with the boats to the W. side of the island, and landed wi^ 
little difficulty. I immediately set the people with me to 
work to gather cocoa*nuts, which we found in ereat abun- 
dance. But to get them to our boats was a temous opera- 
tion, for we were obliged to carr^ them at least half a mile 
over the reef up to the middle m water. Omai, who was 
with me, caught, with a scoop net, in a very short time, as 
much fish as served the whole party on shore for dinder, 
besides sending some to both ships. Here were also great 
abundance of birds^ particularly mennof-war and tropic 
birds, so that we farea sumptuously. And it is but doing 
justice to Omai to say, that in these excursions to the un- 
inhabited islands he was of the greatest use; for he not 
only caught the fish, but dressed these, and the birds we 
killed, in an oven with heated stones, after the fashion of 
his country, with a dexterity and good-humour that did 
him great credit. The boats made two trips before night, 
well laden : With the last I returned on board, leaving Mr 
Williamson, my third^ lieutenant, with a party of men, to 
prepare another lading for the boats, which 1 proposed to 
send next morning. 

I accordingly dispatched them at seven o'clock, and 
they returned laden by noon. No time was lost in sending 
them back for another cargo ; and they carried' orders for 
every body to be on board by sunset. This being complied 
with, we noisted in the boats aiid made sail to the west-* 
ward, with a light air of wind from the N. 

We found this islet near a half larger than the other, and 
almost entirely covered with cocoa-palms, the greatest part 
of which abounded with excellent tints, having often both 
old and young on the same tree. They were, indeed, too 
thick in many places to grow with freedom. The other 

f>roductions were, in general, the same as dt the other is- 
et. Two pieces of board, one of which was rudelv carved, 
with an elliptical paddle, were fonnd dn the beach. Pro- 
bably these had belonged to the. same canoe, the remains 

of 



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CHAPf II* 3£Ct« III. Cook, Gierke, and Gore. Sid 

of which were seen on the olher heach^ as the two islets 
are not above half a mile apart* A young turtle had also 
been lately thrown ashore here^ as it was still full of mag- 
* gots. There were fewer crabs than at the last place ; but 
we found sonoie scorpions^ a few other insects^ and a greater 
number of fish upon the reefs. Amonest these were some 
large eels^ beautifully spotted, which, when followed, would 
raise themselves out or the water, aud endeavour with an 
open mouth to bite their pursuers. The other sorts were 
chiefly parrot-fish, snappers^ and a brown spotted rock*fish^ 
about the size of a haddock, sq tame, that idstead of swim- 
ming away, it would remaid fixed and saze at us. Had we 
been in absolute want, a sufficient supply might have been 
had ; for thousands of the clams, already mentioned, stuck 
upon the reef, some of which weighed two or three pounds. 
There were, besides, some other sorts of shell-^fish, particu- 
larly the large periwinkle. When the tide flowed several 
sharks came in over the reef, some of which our people 
killed, but they rendered it rather dangerous to walk in the 
water at that time. 

The party who were left on shore with Mr Williamson, 
were a good deal pestered (as Mr Gore's had been) with 
musquitoes in &e night. Some of them, in their excur-^ 
sions, shot two curlews^ exactly like those of £ng1and, and 
4iaw some plbversy or sand-pipers^ upon the shore ; but in 
the wood no other bird, besides one or two of the cuckoos 
that were seen at Wenooa-ette. 

Upon the whole, we did not spend our time unprofitably 
at this last islet, for we got there about twelve hundred co- 
<:oa-nuts> which were equally divided amongst the whole 
crew, and were, doubtless, of great use to them, both on 
account of the juice and of the kernel. A dhip> therefore, 
passing this way, if the weather be moderate, may expect 
to succeed as we did. But there is no water upon either 6f 
the islets where we landed. Were that article to be had> 
and a passage could be got into the lake, as we iday call it, 
surrounded by the reef, where a ship coiiid anchor, I should 
prefer this to any of the inhabited islands, if the only want 
were refreshment. For the quantity of fish that might be 
procured would be sufficient, and the people might roam 
, about unmolested by the petulance of any mhabitants> 

The nine or ten low islets, comprehended udd^r the nam^ 
of PaUuerston's Island, may be reckoned the heads or sum" 

mits 



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BQlils of the reef of coral rock ibat connecls them together, 
covered only with a thin coat of Band, yet clothed^.as al- 
ready observ^d^ with trees and plants^ most of which are of 
the seme sorts that are found on the low grounds of the 
high islands of this ocean. 

There are different opinions amongst ingenious theortats 
concerning the formation of such low islands as Palmer- 
ston's. Some will have it, that id remote times these little 
separate heads or inlets were joined, and formed one con- 
. tinned and more eleyated tract of land, which the sea, in 
the revolution of ages, has washed away, leaving only die 
higher grounds ; which, in time also, will, according to this 
theory, share the same fate* Another iconjecture. is, that 
they have been thrown up by earthquakes, and are the ef- 
fect of internal convulsions of the globes A third opinion, 
and which appears to me as the most probable one, main- 
tains, that they are formed from shoals or coral hanks, and, 
of consequence, increasing. Without mentioning the se« 
▼eral arguments made use of in support of each of thesie 
systems, I shall only describe such parts of Paimerston?s 
Island as fell under my own observation when 1 landed 
upon it. 

The foundation is every where a cord rock f the soil is 
coral sand, with which the decayed vegetables have but in 
.a few places intermixed, so as to' form any thing Irke mould* 
From, this a very strong presumption may be drawn, that 
these little spots of land are not of very ancient date, nor 
^tbe remains of larger islands now buried in the ocean ; for, 
upon either pf these suppositions, more mould must have 
. been formed, or some part of the original soil would have 
remained. . Another circumstance confirmed this doctrine 
of the increase of these islets. We found upon them, far 
^eyond the preseot reach of the sea even in the most vio^ 
lent storms, elevated coral rocks, which, on examination, 
appeared to' have been perforated in the same miMiner that 
the rocks are that now compose the outer edge of the reef, 
if'his evidently shews that the sea had formerly reached so 
far ; and some of these perforated cocks were almost in the 
centra of the land. 

But the strongest proof of the racrease, and from the 
cause we have assigned, was the gentle gradation observa* 
hie in the plants round, the skirts of the islands ; from withia 
a few inches of high-watier mark to the edge of the wood.' 

laf 



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. <tei(». It. lIMn*. lit. Cddk, Ckrkis, and Gm. 348 

In many places^ the dividions of the plants' of different 
growths were very distinguishable^ especially on the lee ur 
west side. This 1 apprehend to have been the operation of 
extraordinary high tide^i occasioned by violent, accidental 
gales from the westward^ which have heaped up the saud 
beyond the reach of common tides. The regular and gentle 
operation of these latter, &g&iD# throw up sand enough to 
form a barrier against the next extraordinary high tide or 
fltermi so as to prevent its reaching as far as the former had 
-done, and destroying the pknts that may have begun to 
Tegetate from cocoa-nuts, roots, and seed brought thithar 
by birds, or thrown up by the sea. This, doubtless, bap« 
pens verv frequently, for we found many cocoa-nuts, and 
some other things, just sprouting up, only a few inches 
beyond where, the sea reaches at present, in places where it 
ivas evident they could not have had their origin from those 
farther in, already arrived at theic full growth. At the same 
.time, the increase of vegetables will add fast to the height 
,of this new*created land, as the fallen leaves and broken 
branches are, in such a climate, soon converted into a true 
black mould or soil.' 

Perhaps there is another cause^ which,, if allowed, wiU 
accelerate the increase of these islands as much as anj 
other^ and will also aecount for the sea having receded 

from 

«, 3 VLr AndersoD; in his jourmd, mentidos tke following particulars rela- 
tivs to Palmerston's^ Island, which stronglv confirm Captain Cook's opi* 
iiion about its formation. ** On the last of the tVo islets, where we landed, 
the trees, being in great numbers, had already formed, by their rotteti 
«art8, little risings or eminences, which iti time, from the same cause, may 
become small hills. Whereas, on t^e first isletf the trees being less nu- 
nierous, no such thing bad as yet happened. Nevertheless, on that little 
spot the manner ot formation was more plainly pointed out; for, adjoining 
to it was a small isle, which had doubtless, been very lately formed, as it 
VfM not as yet covered with an^ trees, but had a great many shrubs, some 
4»f which were growing among pieces of oonl that the sea had thrown up. 
There was still a more sure proof of this method of formation a little far* 
ther x>n, where two paiches of sand, about fifty yards long, and a foot or 
Eighteen in^es high, lay upoti the reef, but not H yet furnished with a 
Mgle bush or tree* — D. 

In a former volume we quoted a passage from Dr Forster's observ*- 
iioos respecting the formation of oond islands. Captain Flinders gives a 
aimilar account in vol. li. p. 114, of his voyage, drawn up from his own 
observation's on Half-way Island, on the north coast of Terra Austral is. 
It is tbo lonff for this place.- The reader will find it transcribed, together 
with Fonters, in the notes to the Mnslatioa of Cutiei^s work, already 
ieferred to^— £. 



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946 M9^m Circunmmgations. . p^KT ,m. sook icr. 

from those elevated rocka before meniioned. Tbis ts the 
spreading of the coral bank> or reefj into the sea^ which, ia 
my opinion, is continually, though imperceptibly, effected. 
The waves receding, as the reef grows in breadth aod 
height, leave a dry rock behind, ready for the reception of 
the broken coral and sand, and every other deposit neces* 
aary for the formation of land fit for the vegetation of 
plants. 

In this manner, there is little doubt, that in time the 
whole reef will become one island ; and, I think, it will ex- 
tend gradually inward, either from the increase of the islets 
already formed, or from the formation of new ones upon 
the beds of coral within the inclosed lake, if once they in« 
create so as to rise above the level of the sea* 

After leaving Palmerston^s Island, I steered W., with a 
view to make tbe best of my way to Annamooka. We still 
continued to have variable winds, frequently between the 
N. and W., with squalls, some thunder, and much rain. 
During these showers, which were generally very copious^ 
we saved a considerable quantity of water; and finding 
that we could get a greater supply by the rain in one hour 
than we could get by distillation in a month, I laid aside 
the still as a thing attended with more trouble than prc^t. 

The heat, which had been sreat for about a month, became 
now much more disagreeable in this close rainy weather ; 
and, from the moisture attending it, threatened soon to be 
noxious, as the ships could not be kept dry, nor the skut- 
ties open, for the sea. However, it is remarkable enougfaf, 
that though the only refreshment we had received since 
leaving the Cape of Good Hope was that at New Zealand^ 
there was not as yet a sinele person on board sick from 
the constant use of salt food, or vicissitude of climate. 

In the night between the 24th and 25th we passed Savage 
Island, which I had discovered in 1774 ; and on the 28tb, 
at ten o'clock in the morning, we got sight of the islands 
which lie to the eastward of Annamooka, bearing N. by W. 
about four or five leagues distant. I steered to the S« of 
these islands, and then hauled up for Annamooka, which, 
at four in the afternoon, bore N.W. by N., Fallafajeea 
S.W. by S., and Komango N. by W., distant about fivfe 
miles. The weather being squally, with rain, I anchored, 
at the approach of i^ight, in fifteen fathoms deep water^ 
over a bottom of coral-sand and shellsi Komango bearing 
NiW. about two leagues distant^ 

3 Section 



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<»HAP« II. mCTk xr« Cook', Ckrke, and Gore.- $47 



Section IV. 

Jniercoune with the JJatives ofKomango, and other Islands*'^ 
Arrival at Annamooka. — Tmnsactiom there. — FeenoUy a 

, principal Chief, from Tongataboo, comes on a Visit. — The 
Manner of his Reception in the Island, and on board. — la-^ 
stances of the pilfering Disposition of the Natives. — Some 
Account of Annamooka.''— The Passage from it to Hapaee. 

Soon after we had anchored^ (April 28) two canoes, the 
one with four, and the other with three men, paddled to- 
ward us^ and came alongside without the least hesitation. 
They brought some cocoa-nuts, bread*fruit, plantains^ an(| 
fiugar-cane, which they bartered with us for nails. One of 
the men came on board ; and when these canoes had left 
US, another visited us ; but did not stay long, as night was 
approaching. Komango, the island nearest to us, was, at 
least, five miles off; which shews the hazard these people 
would run, in order to possess a few of our most trifling ar- 
ticles. Besides this supply from the shore, we caught, this 
evening, with hooks and l]ne», a considerable quantity of 
jSish. 

Next morning) at four o'clock^ I sent Lieutenant Kin^, 
with two boats, to KomangO} to procure refreshments ; aucj, 
at five, made the signal to weigh, in order to ply up to An- 
jnamooka, the wind being unfavourable at N.W. 

It was no sooner day-light, than we were visited by six 
or seven canoes from different islands, bringing with them^ 
besides fruits and roots, two pigs, several fowls, some large ^ 
wood-pigeons, small rails, and large violet->coIoured coots. 
All these they exchanged with us for beads, nails, hatchet^, 
2cc. They had also other articles of commerce'; such as 
-pieces of their cloth, fish-books^ small baskets, musical reeds, 
and some clubs, spears, and bows. But I ordered, that n9 
curiosities' should be purchased, till the ships should be 
supplied with provisions, and leave given for that purpose. 
Knowing also, from experience, that, if all our people might 
.trade with the natives, according to their own caprice, pec- 
.petoal quarrels would ensue, I ordered that particular per- 
sons should manage the traffic both on board and onshore, 
prohibiting all others to interfere. Before mid-day, Mr 
Kuig's boat returned with seven bogs, some fowls, a quan* 

tity 



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ilsf ifociem Circummmgatidtu. Plnthh lu>(fk tiiJ 

iitj of fruit and roots for ourselves, and some grass for the 
cattle. His parly was very civilly treated at Komango, Tlid^ 
inhabitants did not seem to be numerous; and their hots, 
lirhich stood close to each other^ withiii a plantain walk, 
were but indiflferent. Not far from them was a pretty large 
pond of fresh water, tolerably good ; but there was not any 
appearance of a stream, with Mr King^ came on board 
the chief of the islaoid, named Touboulangee; and anoUier, 
whose riame was Taipa. They brought with them a hog^ 
as a present to me, and promised more the next day. 

As soon lis the boats were aboard, I stood for Annank>o- 
Ica ; and the wind being scanty I intended to go betwe^ 
Annamooka-ette/ and the breakers to the S.E. of it Bat^ 
on drawing near, we met with very irregular soundings^ va- 
rying, every cast, ten or twelve fathoms. This obliged noe 
to give up the design, and to go to the southward of all ; 
^hich carried us to leeward, and made it necessary to spend 
the nisht under sail. It was very dark ; and we haci the 
wind, from every direction, accompanied with heavy show- 
ers of rain. Sd that, at day-light the next momiog, we 
found ourselves much farther off than we had been the 
Evening before ; and the little wind thalt now blew, was 
right in our teeth. 

We continued to ply, all day, to very little )>urpose ; 
ttnd, in the evening, anchored m thirty-nine fathoms wa- 
ter ; the bottom coral roCks, and broken sheik ; the west 
?oint of Annatnooka bearing E.N.E., foiur miles distant: 
'oiiboulangee and Taipa kept their promise, and brought 
<rfF to me some hogs. Several others were also procured by 
bartering, from different canoes that followed us ; and as 
Ikiuch fruit as we could well manage. It was renrsrkablej 
that, daring the whole day, our visitors from the islands 
would hardly part with any of their commodities' to any 
body but me. Captain Gierke did not get above one or 
two hogs. 

At fouV o'clock ncTct morning/ 1 ordered a boat to be 
hoisted oijit, and sent the mastei^ ta sound the S.W. side of 
Annamooka; where there appeared to be a harbour^ fonni- 
ed by the island On the N.E., and by small islets, and shoab,' 
to the S.W. and S.E. Iti the mean time, the ships were 
got under sail, and iitrrought ub to the inland. 
When the master retumea/ he reported, that he bad 

sounde4 

* That &» Little Aanamooka. 

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CpAPt 11' s^QT^iv^ Cook, Ckrh^ani Gore. 3^, 

spunded between Great and Little Aimamooka, 5!rhere he 
fpund tei^ and twelve fathoma depth of water, ti]i,e bottom 
coral sand ; that the place was very well sheltered frpin al} 
i¥]nds ; but that there was no fresh water to be found, ex^ 
cept at some distance inland ; and that^ even there, little 
of it was to be got, and that little not good. For this rea- 
sK)n only, and it was a very sufficient one, I determined to 
spchor on the north sjd^ of the island, where, during my 
last voyage, I had found a place fit both for watering an4 
landing. • 

It ^§8 pot above a leagpe distant ; and yet we did nof; 
xeach it till five o'clock in the fifternoon, being consider^- 
ably retarded by ihfi great number of canoes that continue 
ally crowdejd rpuni) the sbips^ bringii^g to us abundant sup-* 
plies of th|^ produce of their islandl Ampngst these canoes 
t^ere were some double ones, with a large sail, that carried, 
between forty and fifty mep each. These sailed round usi, , 
apparently, with the satpe ^se as if we had been at anchor*. 
There were' several women in tlie canoes, whq were, per-r 
liaps, incited by curiosity to yisi|; n^ ; though, at the same 
time, they bartered as eagerjy as the ipen» and used the^ 
paddle with equal labour and dexterity* * 1 caffke to an an- 
chor in eighteen fathoms water, the bottom c^oarse coral 
^and ; the island extending from E. to I^.W. ; aqd the W. 
point of the westernmost cove S.E., about thref; qiiariers of 
e mile distant. Thus I resumed the very s^i^ie statipq whicl^ 
J had occupied when I visited Annamooka thrge years be* 
fore ; and^ probably, almost in the same place where Tasn 
igian, the ^^t djsco verer of this, and some of the pe.ighl^om'^ 
j(ng islands, anchored in 1643. ' 

. The following day, while preparations were makipg fpr 
'watering, I went ashore, in the forenoon, accompanied by 
Captain Gierke, aad some of the officers, to fiac on a places 
fphere the observatories might be set up, and a gnard be 
stationed ; the natives having readily given us leave. They' 
f4so accommodate4 us with a boat-h6i|sei to serve as a tent, 
|md shewed us every othe^ mark of civility. Toobou, the 
chief of the island, conducted me and Omai to his house. 
yVe fou^d }^ situated on a plefisant spot,, in the centre of 
)iis pl^tation. ^ fine grass-plot surrounded it, which, he 
gave us to understand, was for the purpose of cleaning their 
feet, before they went within doors. I had not, before,, olvr 
ferve^ such an instance of attention to cleanliness at any o^ 
" . X the 



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B60' Modem Circumnatig€^ns. part nt. book hi. 

the places I had visited in this ocean ; bat^ afterward^ found 
that it was very common at the Friendly Islands. The floor 
of Toobon's house was covered with mUts ; and no carpet^ 
iti the most elegant English drawing-room^ could be kept 
neater. While we were on shore^ we procured a few hogs, 
alid some fruit, by bartering y and, before we got on board 
again, the ships were crowded with the natives. Few of 
tnein coming empty-handed, every necessary refreshment 
was now in nie greatest plenty* ■ 

I landed again in the afternoon, with a party of marines ; 
aiid, at the same time, the horses, and such of the csittle as 
were in a weakly state, were sent on shore. Every thing 
being settled to my satisfaction, I returned to the ship at 
stinset, leaving the command upon the island to Mr King. 
Taipa, who was now become our fast friend, and who seem-- 
ed to be the only active person about us, in order to be near 
our party in the night, as well as the day, had a house brought, 
on men's shoulders, a full quarter of a mile, and placed close 
to the shed which our party occupied. 

Next day, our various operations on shore be^an. Some 
were employed in making hay for the cattle; others in fill- 
ing our water-casks at the neighbouring stagnant pool ; and 
a third party in cutfing wood. The grieatest plenty of this 
last article being abreast of the ships, and in a situation 
the most convenient for getting it on board, it was natural 
to make choice of this« But the trees here, which our peo- 
ple erroneously supposed to be manchineel, but were a spe- 
Oies of pepper, called ^itoi?oo by the natives, yielded a juice 
of a milky colour, of so corrosive a nature, that it raised blis- 
ters on the skin, and injured the eyes of our workmen. They 
were, therefore, obliged to desist at this place, and remove 
to the cove, in which our guard was stationed, and where 
we embarked our water. Other wood, more suitable to our 
purposes, was there furnished to us by the natives. These 
■were not the only employments we were engaged in, for 
Messrs King and Bayly be^an, this day, to observe equal 
altitudes of the sun, in order to get the rate of the time- 
keepers. In the evening, before the natives retired from 
cur post, Taipa harangued them for some time. We could 
only guess at the subject ; and judged, that he was instruct- 
ing them how to behave toward us, and encouraging them 
to bring the produce of the island to market. We experi- 
enced 



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€tlAPt It. SEct. IV. Coolc, Ckrke, and Gore. S5\ 

e&ced the good effects of liis eloquence, in tHe plentiful 
supply of provisions which, next day, we received. 

Nothing worth notice happened on the 4th and 5th, ex- 
cept that, on th6 former of these days, the Discovery lost 
hfel? small bower-anchor, the cable being cut in two by the 
rocks. This misfortune made it necessary to examine the 
cables t)f the Resolution, which were found to be unhurt. 

On the 6th, we were visited by a great chief from Tong- 
ataboo, whose name wasFeenou, ana whom Taipa was plea- 
sed to introduce to us as King of all the Friendly Isles. I 
was now told> that, on my arrival, a canoe had been dis- 
patched to Tongataboo with the news ; in consequence of 
whi(ch, this chief immediately passed over to Annamooka. 
The officer on shore informed me, that when he first arri 
vied, all the natives Were ordered out to meet him, and paid 
tfaeif obeisance by bowing their heads as low as his feet, the 
soles of which they also touched with each hand, first with 
the palm, and' then with the back part. There could be 
littte room to suspect that a person, received with so much 
»^st>ect, could be any thing less than the king. 

In the afternoon, I went to pay this great man a visit, 
having first received a present of two fish from hitn, brought 
on board by one of his servslnts. As soon as I landed, he 
cdme up to me. He appeared to be about thirty ^ears of 
dgfe, tall,Mt thin, and had more of the European features, 
than any I had yet seen here. When the first salutation was 
over^ I asked if he was the king. For, notwithstanding what 
I had been told, finding he was not the man whom I remem- 
bered to have seen under that character during my former 
voyage, I bejgan to entertain doubts. Taipa officially an- 
swered for him, and enumeralifed no less than one hundred 
And fifty«three idlatids, of which, be sialid, Feenou was the 
fovereigh. After a short stay, our new visitor, and five or 
tix of bis attendants, accompanied me on board. I gave 
raitable presents to them all, and entertained them in such 
» manner, a» I thought would be most agreeable. 

In the evening, I atleikled them on shore in my boat, in- 
to which the chief ordered three hogs to be put, as a return 
for the presents he had received from me. I was now in- 
formed of ati actident which had just happened, the rela.- 
tion of which will c6nvey some idea of the extent of the 
aipilhority exercised here over the common people. While 
Fe^Qou was on lioard my ship, an inferior chiefj' for what 
, reason 



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|S69 Modem Cimmnamgatunu^ paet iii« book uu 

i^ason our people on shore did not know^ ordered all Uie 
natives to retire from the post we occupied. Some of them 
having ventured to return, he took up a large stick, and beat 
them most unmerfcifully. He struck one man oil the »ide of ^ 
the face, with so much violence, that the ,Mood gushed out 
of his mouth and nostrils ; and, after Ijiqg some time mor 
tionless, he was, at last, removed from the place, in.convulr. 
•ions* The person who had inflicted the biow, bein^ told 
that he had killed the man, only laughed at it ; and, it was 
evident, that he was not in the lea^t 9orrj for what had hftp* 
pened* We heard, af^rw^d, tjiat ^e ppor su^erer reco* 
'vered. 

The Discovery haying found ^gain h^r small bower an- 
chor, shifted Ifer birth on the 7th ; but not before her best 
bower c^Ie ha4 ^^l^^l^^ thf fate of the other. This day I 
had tjie compf^ny of Feeuou at dinner ; and also the nexl^ 
<|^y, when I^e was attended by Taipa, Toubou, and some 
other chiefs. It was remarkable, that none but Taipa waa al« 
iowed io sit at table with him, or even to eat in his presence* 
t own that I considered Feenou as a very convenient enesV 
on account of this etiquette. For, before his arrival, f had^ 
generally, a larger company than I could well ^nd TQOin for^ 
and my table overflowed with crowdy qf both fexe^. For ii 
is not the custom at the Friendly Islands, as it is at Qti^heiteji 
to deny to their femal^ %\Le privilege qf eatii^g ip coqipftov 
with the men. 

The first day of our arriyal at Anpamooka> one of the n»f 
tives had stolen, out of the ship, a If^rge junk axe. 1 naw 
applied tp Feenou ^o exert his authority tq get it restored 
to me ; a^d so implicitly wa? he obeyed^ that it was brought 
on board while we were at dinqer. These people gave u» 
very frequent opportunities of remarking what expert thieves 
the^ were. Even some pf their chiefs did not think this pror 
fes^ion bep^ath fhej^. On the 9tb, one of them was detectr 
ed carrying out of the ship, concealed under his clothes^ the 
bolt belonging to the spun-yarn winch ; for which I senten** 
ced hiiQ to receive a dozen lashes, and kept him confined 
till he paid a bog fpr his liberty. After this, we were not 
troubled with thieves of rank. Their servants, or slaves, 
however, were still employed in this dirty work ; and upon 
them a flogging seemed to make no greater impression^ 
than it would have done iipon the main-mast. When uny 
of them happened to hq caught in tb^e f^gt, tbeir masters^ 
,4 ' :^ ^ fax 



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fwitoin jttteroeding for tbeiOy would often advise us to kill 
them. As this was a punishment we did not choose to in- 
flict^ they gmerally escaped without any punishment at sdl ; 
for they appe^yred to us to be equally insensible of the shame 
and of the pain of corporal chastisement. Captain Gierke^ 
at last> hit upon a mode of treatment^ which> we thought, 
bad some effect. He put them under the hands of the bar- 
ber^ and completely shaved their heads ; thus pointing them 
qut as objects of ridicule to their countrymen^ and enabling 
ourpeopSU to deprive them of future opportunities for a re-* 
petition of itheir rogueries^ by keeping them at a distance. 

Feenou was so fond of associating with us, that he dined 
on board every day ; though, sometimes, he did not partake ' 
of our fare. On the lOtfa, some of his servants brought a 
mess, which had been dressed for him on shore. It consist- 
ed of fish, soup/ and yams. Instead of common water to 
make the soup, cocoa-nut licjuor had been made use of, in 
which the fish had hjeen boiled or stewed ; probably in a 
wooden vessel, with hot stones ; but it was carried on board 
in a plantain leaC I tasted of the mess, and found it so 
good, that I, afterward, had some fish dressed in the same » 
way. Though my cook succeeded tolerably well, he could 
produce nothipg equal to the dish he imitate^. 

Finding ,that we had quite exhausted the island of almost 
every ariilcle of food that it afforde4, \ employed the .1 1th 
in moving off, f^om th^e shor/e, the horses, observatories^ and 
other, things that we had li^nded, as also the party of ma- 
rines who bijui mounted guard at ojur station, intending to 
sail, as soon as the Discovery should have recovered her 
best bow anchor. Feenou, understanding that I meant to 
proceed directly to Tongataboo, importuned me strongly 
to alter this plan, to which he expressed as much aversion, 
^ if be had some particular interest to promote by divert- 
ing me from it. In preference to it, he warmly recommend- 
ed an island, or rather a group of islands, called Hepaee, 
lying to the N.£. There, he assured us^ we could be sup- 
pUed plentifully with every refreshment, in the easiest man- 
ner; 9Adf to add weight to his advice, he engaged to at* 
tend us thither in person. I}e carried his point with me ; 
wd llepaee was made choice of for our next station. As 
it bad never been visited by any European ships, ^he es^a* 
inination of it bepame ^n object with me. 
; yo^E,. XV. 2 The 



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354 Modisrn t^ircimnapigathM' I^AAt f ii^ book ill.. 

Tiie Ifth and the ISA were spent in attemptiiig die^n- 
covery of Captain Clerke^s anchor, whkh, after nmch troo* 
ble, was happily accomplished ; and on the 14th4 ia the 
morning, we got under sail, and left Annamooka. 

This island is somewhat higher than the other small iaks 
that surround it ; but, still, it cannot be admitted ta die rank 
of those of a moderate height, such as Mangeea and 1V»* 
teeoo. The shore, at that part where our ships lay, is oooif 
posed o'f a steep, rugged, coral rock, nine or ten feet higfa, 
except where there are two sandy beaches, which hare a 
r^ef of the same sort of rock extending cross their entrance 
to the shore, and defending them froni the sea. The salt- 
water lake that is in the centre of the island, is about a 
mile and a half broad ; and round it the land rises like a 
bank, with a gradual ascent. But we could not trstce its 
)iaving any communication with the sea. And yet> the land 
that runs across to it, from the l9rgest sandy beach, being 
flat and low, and the soil fandy, it is most likely that it niay 
have, formerly, communicated that way. , Tkte soil on tlw 
rising parts of the island^ and especially toward the sea, is 
either of a reddish clayey disposition, or a blacky loose 
mould ; but there is^ no where, any stream of fresh water* 

The island is very well cultivated, except in a few places; 
and there are some others,'which, though they appear to lie 
waste, are only left to recover the strength exhausted by 
constant culture ; for we frequently saw the natives at work 
upon these spots, to plant them again. The plantations con- 
sist chiefly of yams and plantains.' Many of them are rety 
extensive, ancr often inclosed with neat fenced of reed, dis* 
posed obliquely across each other, about six feet high. 
Within these we often saw other fences of less compass, 
surrounding the houses of the principal people. The bread- 
fruit, and cocoa-nut trees, are mterspersed with little order, 
but chiefly near the habitations of the natives ; and the other 
parts of the island, especially toward the sea, and about the 
sides of the lake, are covered with trees and bushes of a 
most luxuriant growth ; the last place having a great many 
malngroves, and the first a vast oumber of the faiianoo tlrees 
already mentioned. There seem to b^ ao rocks or stones, 
of any kind, ^(bout the island, that are not coral, except in 
one place, to the right of the sandy beach, where there is a 
irock twenty or thirty feet higb^ of a calcareous stone, of a 

yellowish 



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€U^P* ii« 8ECSP. IT. CiH^Sf Cferlwy a$id Gere. 065 

yellowish colour^ and a very elose texture. But eien about 
that place^ which is the highest part of the laad^ lare large 
pieces of tdbe same ooral roek thai; composes the shore. 

Besides walkiog frequently up inl^o the countiy^ which 
we were permitted to do without interraption^ we sokae^ 
times amused ourselves in shooting wild-docks, not unlike 
the widgeon, which are very numetous upon the salt lake, 
and the pool where we gdt onr water. In these excorsions^ 
we found the inhabitants had often deserted .their houses to 
oome down to the trading place, without entertaining any 
suspicion, that strangers, rambling aboat, would take away, 
or destroy, any thing that beldnged to them. But though, 
from this circumstance, it might be supposcfd that the great- 
er part of the natives were sometimes collected at the beach^ 
it was impossible to form any accurslte computation of their 
number; as the continual resort of visitors from other islands^ 
mixing with tliem, might easily mislead one. However, as 
(here was never, to appearance, above a thousand persons 
collected at one time^ it would, perhaps, b& sufficient to al« 
low double that number for the Whole island. 

To the N. and N.B. of Annamooka, and in the direct 
track to Hepaee, whither we were now bounds the sea is 
sprinkled with a greait number of smdll isles. Amidst the 
shoals and rocks adjoining to this group, I could not be as 
sured that there was a free or safe passage for such large 
ships a? ours, though the natives sailed through the inter- 
vals in their canoes. For this substantial reason, when we 
weighed anchor from Annamooka, I thought it necessary 
to go to the westward of the above islands, and steered 
N.N.W., toward Kao* and Toofoa, the two most westerly 
islands in sight, and remarkable for their great height. 
Feenou, and his attendtats^ remained on board the Reso- 
lution 

■ As a proof of the great difficukj of knowiog aoetinltely the exact 
names of the South Sea Island^ as procured from the natives, I observe 
that what Captain Cook calls Aghao, Mr Anderson calls Kao ; and Tas< 
man's drawing, as I find it in Mr Dalrymple's Collection of Voyages, givesr 
Che aame of Kaifhay to the same island. Tssman's and Captain Cook's 
Jmattqfoat is, with Mr Anderson, Tafba. Captain Cook's K&tnango^ h 
Tasman's Amango. There is scarcely an instance, in which such varia- 
tions are not observable. Mr Anderson's great attention to matters of 
fliis sort being, as we learn from Captain King, well known to every body 
oa board,- and admitted always by Captain Cook himself, his mode of sp^^ 
ing kas teen adopted.— -D. 



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$56 Modem Cir€imma»^aium»» vxsLt nu book hi. 

lotion till near noon, when he went into the large sailing 
eanoe, which had brought him from Tongataboo^ and stood 
in amongst the cluster of islands aboTe mentioned^ of which 
we were now almost abreast ; and a tide or current from the 
westward had set us, since our sailing in the mornings much 
over toward them. 

They Ue scattered, at unequal distances^ and are, in ge- 
neral, nearly as high as Annamooka ; but only from two or 
three miles, to half a mile in length, and some of them 
scarcely so much. They have either steep rocky shores 
like Annamooka, or reddish cliffs ; but some have sandy 
beaches extending almost their whole length. Most of 
them are entirely clothed with trees, amongst which are 
many cocoa palms, and each forms a prospect like a beau- 
tiful garden placed in the sea. To heighten this, the se- 
rene weather we now had contributed very much ; and the 
whole might supply the imagination with an idea of some 
fairy land realized. It should seem, that some of them, at 
least, may have been formed, as we supposed Palmerston's 
Island to have been ; for there is one, which, a§ yet, is en- 
tirely sand^ and another^ on which there is only <Hie budi, 
or tree. 

At four o'clock in the afternoon, being the length of Kch 
too, the westernmost of the above cluster of small islands, 
we steered to the north, leaving Toofoa and Kao on our lar? 
board, keeping along the west side of a reef of rocks, which 
lie to the westward of Kotoo, till we came to their northern 
extremity, round which we hauled in for the island. It was 
our intention to have anchored for the night ; but it came 
npon us before we could find a place in less than fifty-five 
fathoms water ; and rather than come-to in this depth, I 
chose to spend the night under sail. 

We bad, in the afternoon, been within two leagues of 
Toofoa, the smoke of which we saw several times in the 
day. The Friendly Islanders have some superstitions no- 
tions about the volcano upon it, which the^ call KoUqfeea,^ 
and say it is an Oiooa, or divinity. According to their ac- 
crount, it sometimes throws up very large stones ; and they 
compare the crater to the size of a small islet, which has 
never ceased smoking in their memory ; nor hate they any 
tradition that it ever did. We sometimes saw the smoke n- 
fin^ froiii tl|e centre pf the island, while we were at Anna- 

mookfii 



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CHAi>. 11. flJSCT* IV. Cook, Ckrke,and Gore. SSJ 

mooka^ though at the distance of at least ten leagues. Too* 
foa^ we were tolcl> is but thinly inhabited^ but the water up- 
on it is good. 

At day-break the next mornings being then not far from 
Kao^ wnich is a vast rock of a conic figure^ we steered to 
the east^ for the passage between the islands Footooha and 
Hafaiva^ with a gentle breeze at S.E. About ten o'clock, 
feenou came on boards and remained with us all day. He 
brought with him two hogs^ and a quantity of fruit ; and, 
in the course of the day^ several canoes^ from the different 
islands round us, came to barter quantities of the latter ar- 
^cle> which was very acceptable, as our stock was nearly 
expended. At noon, our latitude was 19^ 49^ 45" S., and 
we had made seven miles of longitude from Annamooka ; 
Toofoa bore N., 88* W,; Kao N., 71^ W.; Footooha N., 
89^ W.; aad Hafaiva S. !£• W. 

After passing Footooha, we met with a reef of rocks ;. 
and, as there was but little wind, it cost us some trouble to 
keep clear of them. This reef lies between Footooha and 
Neeneeva, which is a small low isle, in the direction of 
E.N.E. from Footooha, at the distance of seven or eight 
miles. Footooha is a small island, of middling height, and 
bounded all round by a steep rock. It lies S. 6?^ £., dis-> 
tant six leagues from Kao, and three leagues from Kotoo, 
. in the direction of N. 33^ E. Being past the reef of rocks 
just mentioned, we hauled up for Neeneeva, in hopes of 
finding anchorage ; but were again disappointed, and obli<* 
ged to spend the night, making short boards. For, although 
we had land in every direction, the sea was unfathomable. 

In the course of this night, we could plainly see flames 
issuing from the volcano upon Toofoa, though to no great 
height. 

At day-break in the morning of the l6tb, with a gentle 
breeze at S.E., we steered N.E. for Hepaee, which was now 
in sight ; and we could judge it to be low land, from the 
trees only appearing above the water. About nine o'clock 
we could see it plainly forming three islands, nearly of an 
equal size ; and soon after, a fourth to the southward of 
these, as large as the others. Each seemed to be about six 
or seven miles long, and of a similar height and appearance. 
The northernmost of them is called Haanno, the next Foa, 
the third Lefooga, and the southernmost Hoolaiva ; but all 

four 
9 



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3j;8 Modern Ciramna^^iUm. par? nu book 41^ 

four are iachided^ by the natives^ viiid^r the gen^nl -n^^ae 
Hepaee. 

The \vitid scanting upon us^ we could not fetch the \mi^, 
soi that we were forped to ply to windward. In doing tkiis, 
we once passed over some coral rocks, oa which we ha^ OBb- 
ly six fathoms water ; but the moment we were oyef them, 
found no ground with eighty fathoms of line. At this tijaie, 
the isles of H^iaee bore, from N.) 50^ £., to S.9 9 W. We 
got up with the northernmost of these isles by sunset i and 
there found ourselves in the very same djatressji for want of 
anchorage, that we had experienced the two preceding eyen- 
ings ; so that we had another night io spend under sail, .witb 
land and breakers in every direction. Toward the efeoing, 
Feenou, who had been on board all day, went fofWar4 t^ 
Hepaee, and tpok Omai in the csjioe with him* He did 
not forget our disagreeable situation ; and kept up a gooil 
fire^ all night, by way of a land-mark^ 

As soon as the daylight returned, beii^ then clos^ in 
with Foa, we saw it was joined to Haanno, by a i;eef pun- 
ning even with the surface of the sea, from the ope, ialamd 
to the other. I now dispatched a. boat to Ic^k for anchof- 
age. A proper place was soon found; and we eame-to, 
abreast of a reef, being that which joins Lefooga to Fo4 
(in the same manner that Fo& ia joined to Hianna)^ having 
twenty-four fathoms depth of waAet ; the bottom coral samd* 
In this statioBy tbe northern point of Hepaee, or the north 
end of Haanno, bore N., 16^ £• The southern point oif 
Hepaee, or the south end of Hoolaiva, S*, 29^ W. ; and 
the north end of Lefooga, S*, 66^ £* Two ledges of rocks 
lay without us ; die one bearing S., 50* W» ; and tiie o&er 
W. by N. i N., distant two or three miles. We l«(y before 
a creek in the reef, which made it convenient landing at 9A 
iXtaes ; and we wei^e not above ihaee quacterd of a mile from 
the shore. 



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«i^jp« u^.ssci'. V. CoQk, Gierke^ and pRre* 



Section V» 

Arrival of the Ships at Hepdee, andfrimdly Keception there. 
-^Presents and Solemnities on the Occasion.^^ Single Com- 
bats v^h Clubs. — If resiling and Boxing Matches.'^-' Female 

, Combatants.r^Marines exercised. — A Vance performed by 
Men. — Fireworks exhibited. — The Night^enteriainments of 
Singpng and Dancing particularUf described. 

B|r the time we had anchored^ (May 17) the sl^ips we^e 
filled with .the oatives, i^od surrounded by a multitude of 
iQ^Doea, filled also with them* t^b^y brought from the shore; 
hoff, fowls^ fruity and roots^ which they exchanged for bat- 
cb^tfliy koive8> nalls^ beads^and cloth, feenou and Omai 
having come on boards after it was lights in. order to intro- 
duce me to the people pf the island, I $oon accompanied 
them on sborcj^ for that purpose, landing at the north part 
of Lefooga, ft little to, t;he right of the shlp'^ station. 

The,<?hief conducted me to a house^ or rather a hut, si- 
tuated, close to the sea^beach, which I had seen brought 
.thitt^r,! but a few minutes before^ for pur reception. In 
tbis^ F^epon, Omai, and myself^ were seated. Tlie other 
chiefs,^ and the multitude, opmpos^d a circle, on the out- 
side, frontiBg us ; and they also sat down* I was then ask- 
ed> How long I intended to stay i On my saying, Five days, 
Taipa. was ordered to come and sit by me, and proclaim 
.:this to the people. He then harangued them, in a speech 
mostly dictated by Feenou. The purport of it, as I learnt 
irom Omai^ was, that they were all, both old and young, to 
tqok upon m^ as ^ friend, who intended to remain with theipi 
a few days ; that, during my stay, they must not steal any 
thing, nor molest me any other way ; and that it was ex- 
piect^d, they should bring bogs, fowls, fruit, &c. to the ships^ 
wherp- they would receive, in exchange for them^ such and 
such things, which he enumerated. Soon aftei: Taipa had 
£mished this address to the assembly, Feenou left us. Taipa 
then took occasion to signify to me^ that it was necessary I 
should make a present to the chief of the island, whose name 
was £aroupa. X was not unprepared for this^ and gave him 
such articles as far exceeded his expectation. My liberali- 
ty to him brought upon me demands^ of the same kind> from 
two phiefi^ of other isles who were present; and from Taipa 

himself. 
S 



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S0O Modem Ctrcumnorigqiio^ ' itAift in. Mpt tiA 

himself. When F^nou retnrnedf which was immediately 
after I had made the last of thete presents^ be preteaded to 
be aneiy with Taipa for suflfering me to give away so inuch ; 
but I looked upon this as a mere finesse ; bring confident 
that he acted in concert with the others. He now took his 
seat again, and ordered Earoupa to sit by him, and to ha- 
rangue the people as Taipa had done, and to the same pur- 
pose ; dictating, as before, the heads of the speech/ 

These ceremonies being performed, the chief, at sby re- 
quest, conducted me to t&ee stagnant pools of fresh waiter, 
as he was pleased to call it : And, indeed, in one of these 
the water was tolerable, and the situation not inconvenient 
for filling our casks. After viewing the watering-place, we 
returned tb our former station, where I found a baked hog, 
and some yams, smoking hot, ready to be carried onboard 
for my dinner. I invited Feenon, and his friends, to par- 
take of it ; and we embarked for the ship ; but none but 
himself sat down with us at the table. After dikihef I con- 
ducted them on shore; and, before I returned on board, th^ 
chief gave me a fine large turtle, and a qustntity of yams. 
Our supply of provisions was copious; for, in the cbnrse of 
the day, we got, by barter, alongside the ship, about twen'^ 
ty small hogs, beside fruit and roots. I was told, that on my 
first landing in the momine;, a man came off to the ships, 
and ordered every one of the natives to go on shore; Pro- 
bably this was. done with a view to have the whole body of 
inhabitants present at the ceremony of my reception ; for 
when that was over, multitudes of them returned again te 
the ships. 

Next morning early, Feenou, and Oma», who scarcely 
ever quitted the chief, and now slept on shore, came on 
board. The object of the visit was to require my presence 
npon the islatid. After some time, I accompanied them ; 
and, upon landing, was conducted to the same place where 
I had been seated the day before; and where I saw a large 
concourse of people already assembled. I guessed that some^ 
thing more than ordinary was in agitation ; but could not 
tell what, nor could Omai inform me. ' 

I bad not been lon^ seated, before near a hundr^ of the 
natives appeared in sight, and advanced, laden with yams, 
bi*ead-fruit, plantains^ cocoa-nuts, and su^ar-canes. They 
deposited their burdens, in two heaps, or piles, upon our left, 
being the side they cauie fffom* Soon aner^ a ^ 



arrived a nnm» 
ber 



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CHAi*. II. lAcT/ir. Co0h, CMte, and Gfon. . Sfti 



ler of others from the right, heftring the same kind of aiw 
tides, which were collected into two piles upon that side. 
To these were tied two pigs, and six fowls-; and to those 
upon the left,; six pigs, and two tarlles. Earoupa seated 
himself before the several articles upon the left; and ano- 
ther chief before those upon the right; they being, as I 
judged, the two chiefs who had collected them, by order 
of Feenou, who-seemed to be as implicitly obeyed here; as 
he had been at Anminooka^ and, in consequence- of his* 
commanding superionty oyer the chiefs of Hepaee^ had 
Jaid this taxupon them for the present occasion, i^ 
' As soon as jthis manificent Collection of provisions was 
laid down in order, and disposed to the best advantage, the 
bearers of it joined the multitude, who formed a large cir^ 
de round the whole. Presently after, a number of men eti- 
tered this circle, or area, before us, armed with clubs, made 
of the green branches of the cocoa*nut tree. These para- 
ded about for afew minutes, and then retired ;lhe one half 
to one side, and the other half to the other side; seating 
themselves befoi^ the spectators. Soon after, they succes*- 
Mvely entered the list»| and entertained us with single com- 
bats. Oae champion, rising up and stepping forward from 
one side, challenged those of the other side, by expressive 
gestures, more than by words, to send one c^ their body to 
oppose him. If the challenge was accepted, which was ge^ 
nerally the case, the two combatants put themselves in. pro- 
per attitudes, and then began the engagement, which con- 
tinued till one or other owned himself conquered, or till 
their weapons were broicen. As soon as each combat was 
over, the victor squatted himself down facing the chief, 
then rose up, and retired. At the same time, some old 
men, who seemed to sit as judges, ^ave their plaudit in a 
few words ; and the multitude, espe.cialiy those on the side 
to which the victor. belonged, celebrated the glory he had 
acquired in two or thre^ huzzas. 

This entertainment was, now and then, suspended for a 
few minutes. Duriog these intervals there were both wrest- 
ling and, boxing matches. The first were performed in the 
same manner as at Otaheite ; and the second differed very 
little from the method phictised in England. But what struck 
ns with most surprise^ was, to see a couple of lusty wenches 
step forth, and begin boxing, without the least ceremony, 
and with as much art as the men. This contest^ however, 

did 



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iSOe Mmkkm Cmcmkimrigfilitfm. ipjwf i»* mq& hi. 

•did noil last above balf a laikiuit^^ befbre omr o£^ ttKm g^ve 
in vp* The conqoeriftg heroine t ececyed^ie sime applause 
from the spectators vhioh they bestowed qp^ii the success-* 
fal combatants of the other sex. We e^pr^ed some dis- 
like at this part of tiie enterlaiaiDeat ; wbicb^ bowevec^ did 
not prevent two other femdtlea fromenjbering the lists. Tbey 
aeemed tor be girls of spirit^ and woald <^ertainljF heve given 
each other a good drubbii^, if two old wooten had not ior 
ferposed to part tfaem. All these conhats wane enhibibed 
in the midst of, at leasts three ihoasand people^ and weie 
conducted wMa. the grratest good hiUnoiir on all sides*; 
tbeugb some of the cbampio&s, women uk weU as B»eBr re- 
leeived biows> wUick^ doubdefls> tbey msM hckv/e.£^t; for 
•ioine time after. 

' Au soon as theae dWersions were emledj, the chief told 
vie, that the heapa of pnorvistoDSi ott o«if rij^'haodl W^e a 
^ppesent toi Omai ; and tbat.thitte on- bait lefthand^. being 
i^out two*thiids of the whole qoaatitjr^ were given to me. 
He added, that I might take them. cm board wfaeneiFer it 
"Was conTenien«; but that tiieve woaUl' be no' occasion* to 
aet any of oar peopie as gnarda ov&t them^ aslmi^^.be 
assured^ thait not a single oocQa-aat would be taken aw^ 
by the natives. So it proved ; for I left every: tlnim bieibiad, 
and retucned to the abip to dirnier, Garrying the d^f vfitii 
mt ; and when the provkrioas were removed on boards in 
-tiie' aftemonn, not a single artide was missing* There was 
•«8 muoh as loaded foucboate; and L could not bat he. stniek 
with the munificence of Feenoo ; for this present far ex- 
•ceeded any I had ever received fixim any of the aover^gns 
of the various islands I' had visiJted in the Pacific Ocean. I 
lost no time in comvineing niy friend^ thftt I was sio^ insen- 
aibie of his liberality ; for^ before ka cpiittedi my ship, I be- 
stowed upon him suob of our cummoditien^ as> I guessed, 
.were most valuable in his; estknatiod. And 'the retiurn I 
made was so much to his satiBfactieia^. tbaA> aa soon, as be 
got on shore, he left me stiU indebted tofbim^ by sending 
me a fresh present, consisting^ of two large hogs, a consi- 
derable quantity of ck>ti), and some yama. 

Feenou had expressed a^ desire to see the marines go 
through their military exercise. As I was desirans. to gra- 
tify his curiosity, I ordered them ail ashore> horn both ships, 
in the morning of the 20th. After they had performed va- 
rious evolutions, and ^ fired severnl volneay with; which the 

numerous 



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c^ikvw i|. s$qT« v^ . O^^ Chrke^ ami Go^e. 90i 

^mero^ bbdjF of Bfi^etHtori $QeiBed w^ll pleased, 4be cbief 
entertained us» in his tarn, witrb an QiibibUioQ> whicb> •» was 
ackiiDwledged by u$ ai\, w^ perfoi mad nirith a dexterity and 
fxactnessj far siupaaising d>e »peQiiaen wt^ bad given c^ our 
military mwc^vres. It was a kipd of a dauce, so entirely 
different from any Lbing I bad ever seen, that, I fear, I caa 
give |H> descrip^ioih that wiU convey any tolerable idea of it, 
tQ my re9«de«rs. It was p^iformed by men ; and ome hundred 
and |ve persons bore th^ir parts in i^. Each of them bsul 
in h^ haiid an iasl|jrume«t i»ea% n»ade, shaped sc^newbat 
like a paddle, of two feel and a half m length, with .a small 
lifindtk^ apd n thin blade ; so that they weie v«ry ligbt# 
With these insfcriiii^eftts they made many ai¥l various floar 
rlsb^ ench of whieh wd$ ap^KWB^p&^ied wilb a difierealt at- ^ 
tiM^ of the body,, or a dtfii^re»ti oiovemeat. At ^sA^ the 
pierfoFmers ranged thecuselves in three lines; aod^ by vart«- 
oc^ evolutions.) eaqb man changed hts.silation in sitcb a man* 
per^ ihat those who b«d bi$en iatbe rear came into the:fi!ont^ 
Nor did they remain kmg in the same position ; but tbesie 
obaQges^ were made by pretty quick ^ansitions. At one time 
^y eKiended tbemselives' in oae lis*; tbey, the», formed 
in)tf0 a semi/Qircle ^ 4iid» lastly, iaJlo two sqysM colnmxia. 
Wbiie tbi^ las« movement wasr executing, one off them ad«- 
vanced, apd perf^inied aa antk daoee before ms; with 
wbicb the whole: ended^ 

. iW musioal iostrumenis cpnalsted. of two druseis, or ror 
tber two hollow logsof w>ood> from wfaieh some varied notes 
5iFeie pi^odqced, by beating on tbem with two sAicks. It did 
f^t, however, appear to me, that the dancers were miidbi 
assisted or direoted by these seuiids, bu4: by a chonis of vo<- 
cal music, in which a& tbe performers joined at the same 
lime. Their song w^: not destitute of pleasiiag melody; and 
all their corresponding motions were executed widi so much 
skill, that the numerous body of daneers seemed to; act, as 
if they were one great machine* It was the opinion of eve- 
vy one of us, that sach a performance would have met with 
suiiversal applause on a European theatre; and it so far ex- 
ceeded any attempt we had made to entertain them, that 
they seemed to pique themselves upon the superiority they 
bad over us. As to our musical instruments, they held nione 
><if tbem in the least esteem, except the drum ; and even that 
they did not think equal to their own. Our French horns, 
ni particular, seemed to be held in great contempt ; for nei- 
ther 



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S04 Madifn Circumnatigaikas* paAt hi. boos lit. 

ther here^ nor at any other of the islands^ would they pay 
the smallest attention to them. 

In order to give them a more favourable opinion of Eng- 
lish amusements^ and to leave their minds fully impressed 
with the deepest sense of our superior attainments, I direct- 
ed some fireworks to be got ready ; and, after it was dark, 
played them off in the presence of Feenou, the other chiefs, 
and a vast concourse of their people* Some of the prepa- 
rations we found damaged ; but others of them were in ex- 
cellent order, and succeeded so perfectly, as to answer the 
end 1 had in view.^ Our water and sky-rockets, in particu- 
lar, pleased and astonished them beyond all conception; 
and the scale was now turned in our favour. 

This, however, seemed only to furnish them with an ad- 
ditional motive to proceed to fresh exertions of their yeiy 
singular dexterity ; and our fireworks were no sooner end- 
ed, than a succession of dances, which Feenou had got rea« 
dy for our entertainment, began* As' a prelude to them, 
a band of music, or chorus of eighteen men, seated them- 
selves before us, in the centre of the circle, composed by 
the numerous spectators, the area of which was to be the 
scene of the exhibitions. Four or five of this band had 
pieces of large bamboo, from three to five or six feet long, 
each managed by one man, who held it nearly in a vertical 
position, the upper end open, but the other end closed by 
one of the joints. With Ibis close end, the performers kept 
constantly striking the ground, though slowly, thus produ- 
cing different notes, according to the different lengths of 
the instruments, but all of them of the hollow or base sort; 
to counteract which, a person kept striking cjuickly, and with 
two sticks, a piece of the same substance^ split, and laid along 
the ground, and, by that means, furnishing a tone as acute 
as those produced by the others were grave. The rest of the 
band, as well as those who performed upon the bamboos, 
sunff a slow and soft air, which so tempered the harsher notes 
of the above instruments, that no bye-stander, however ac* 
customed to hear the inost perfect and varied modulation 
of sweet sounds, could avoid confessing the vast power, and 
pleasing effect, of this simple harmony. 

The concert having continued about a quarter of an hour, 

twenty 

• ■ Mr Anderson's account of the night dances being much fuller than 
Captain Co6k\ the reader will not be displeased that it has been adopt* 
«d.— D. 




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cnkT. II. 8BCT. r. Cook, Gierke, and Gore. * M5 

twenty women entered the circle. Most of them had^ upon 
their heads^ garlands of the crimson flowers of the Chim 
rose, or others; and many of them had ornamented their 
persons with leaves of trees, cut with a deal of nicety about 
the edges. They made a circle round the chorus, turning 
their faces toward it, and began by singing a soft air, to 
which responses were made by the chorus in the same tone; 
and these were Repeated alternately. All this while, the wo- 
men accompanied their song with several very graceful mo- 
tions of their hands toward their faces, and in other direc- 

^tions at the same time, making constantly a step forward, 
and then back again, with one foot, while the other was fix- 
ed. They then turned their faces to the assembly, sung some 
time, and retreated slowly in a body, to that part of the cir- 
cle which was opposite the hut where the principal specta- 
tors sat. After this, one of them advanced from each side, 
meeting and passing each other in the front, and continuing 

'their progress round, till they came to the rest. On which, 
two advanced from each side, two of whom also passed each 
other, and returned as the former ; but the other two remain- 
ed, and to these came one, from each side, by intervals, till 
the whole number had again formed a circle about the cho- 
rus. 

Their manner of dancing was now changed to a quicker 
measure, in which they made a kind of half turn by leaping, 
and clapped their hands, and snapped their fingers, repeat- 
ing some words in conjunction with the chorus. Toward the 
end, as the quickness of the music increased, their gestures 
and attitudes were varied with wonderful vigour and dexte- 
rity ; and some of their motions^ perhaps, would, with us, be 
reckoned rather indecent. Though this part of the perform- 
ance, most probably, was not meant to convey any wanton 
ideas, but merely to display the astonishing variety of their 
movements. 

To this grand female ballet, succeeded one performed by 
fifteen men. Some of them were old ; but their age seem- 
ed to have abated little of their agility or ardour for the 
dance. They were disposed in a sort of circle, divided at 
the front, with their facesTiot turned out toward the assem- 
bly, nor inward to the chorus ; but one half of their circle 
faced forward as they had advanced, and the other half in 
a contrary direction. They, sometimes, sung slowly, in con- 
cert with th^ chorus ; md^ while thus employed^ they also 

made 



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908 Modem Cktummnigaihm^ past m. bmx in. 

an air so graceful, as might put to the blush our most Bp* 
plauded performers. He was answered in the same man* 
ner^ by the person at the head of the opposite party. This 
Ibeing repeated several times, the whole body, oa one side^ 
joined in the responses to the whole corresponding body on 
the opposite side, as the semicircle advanced to ttie front ; 
and they finished, by singing and dancing as they had be- 

l^hese two last dances were performed with so much spi- 
rit, and so great exactness, that they met with universal ap- 
probation. The native spectators, who, no doubt, were per- 
fect judees whether the several performances were properly 
executed, could not withhold their applauses at some par- 
ticular parts ; and even a stranger, who never saw the di- 
Tersion before, felt similar satisfaction, at the same instant. 
For though, through the whole, the most strict concert was 
observed, some of the gestures were so expressive, that it 
might be said, they spoke the language that accompanied 
them ; if we allow that there is any connection between mo- 
tion and sound. At the sanre time, it should be observed, 
that though the music of the chorus, and that of the dan- 
cers, corresponded, constant practice in these favourite 
amusements of our friends, seems to have a great share in 
effecting the exact time they keep \jx jtheir performances. 
For we observed^ that if any of them happened accidental- 
ly to be interrupted, they never found the smallest difficulty 
in recovering the proper place of the dance or song. And 
their perfect discipline was in np instance more remarkable, 
than in the sudden transitions they so dexterously made 
from the ruder exertions, and harsh soi^nds^ to the soft^f^ 
airs, and gentlest movements.* 

The 

* In a former hote* it was bbserved, that the songs and dances of 
the Caroline Islanders, in the North Pacific, bear a great resemblance to 
those of the inhabitants of WateeoO. The remark may be now extend- 
ed to those of the Friendly Islanders, described at large in this chapter. 
That the reader may judge for himself, I have selected die following par* 
ticolars from Father Cantova's account. ^ Pendant 1^ nuit, au clair de la 
)ane» ils s'assemblent, de temps en temps, pour chanter & danser devant la 
maison de leur Tamole^ Leurs danses se font au son de la voit, car ils 
n'ont point d'instrnment de musique. La beauts de la danse, ooasiste dans 
Texacte aniformit^ des mouvemens du corps. Les hommest separ^ des 
femmes, se postent vis-k-vis les uns des autres ; apr^ quoi, ils remuent 1» 
tke, les bras, les mains, les pieds, en cadence. Leur tete est couverte do. 
plumes, on de fleurs;--et Ton toit, attach^es k leurs oreillesy des^iUc^ 

da 



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CHA>B« n. ^EOT. VI. Cook, Ckrke, and Gore* S69 

Tb« place where the dances were performed was an open 
space amongst the trees^ just by the sea^ with lights, at small 
intervals^ placed rotund the inside of the circle. The cod- 
course of people was pretty large^ though not equal to the 
nnmber assembled ia the forenoon^ when the marines exer- 
cised. At that time^ some of our gentlemen guessed there^ 
might be present about five thousand persons ; .others thought 
there were more ; but they who reckoned that, there were 
fewer^ probaji)ly^ came nearer the truth. 



Section VI. 

Description of Lrfooga* — Its cultivated State. — Its Extent. — 
Transaetiom there^ — ji Female Oculist. — Singular Expedi" 
^entsfor khavingoffthe Hair. — The Ships change their Sta- 
tion. — A remarkable Mount and Stone, -^Description of 
Hoolaiva. — Account of Poulaho, King of the Friendljf Is- 
lands.'^Rtspectful manner in which he is treated by his 
People. — Departure from the Hapaee Islands. — Some Ac- , 
count cf Kotod. — Uetum of the Ships to Annamooka.^^ 
Poulaho and Feenou meet. — Arrival at Tongataboo. 

CuBiosiTY on both sides being now sufficiently gratified 
by the exhibition of the various entertainments I have de- 
scribed, i began to have time to look about me'. Aocord^* 
ingly, next day (May 21) I took a walk into the island of 
Lefooga, of which I was desirous to obtain some know- 
ledge. I found it to be, in several respi^cts, superior to 
Annamooka. The plantations were both more numerous 
and more extensive. In many places, indeed, toward the 
sea, especially on the east side, the country is still wasle, 
owing perhaps to the sandy soil, as it is much lower than 
Annamooka, and its surrounding isles. But toward the 
middle of the island the soil is beUer ; and the marks of 
considerable population, and of improved cultivation, were 
very conspicuous. For we met here with very large plan- 
tations, inclosed in such a manner that the fences, running 
parallel to each other, form fine spacious public roads, that 

VOL. XV. 2 a would 

dc pahmer tissues avcc assez d'art— Les femmes, de leur cot^,— se regard- 
ant leg ones les autres, commencent im chant path^tique tit langoureux, ac- 
compagnant le son de leur voix du mouvement cadence de la t£te & des 
laa3.*''^Lettres Edifiantes Sf Curiesuet^ torn. xv. p. 314, 315.— D. 



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370 Modern Gratnauwigaiionu pabt ^u book iii. 

would appear omameiital ia coantries where rural conTe- 
niences nave been carried to the greatest perfection. We 
observed large spots covered with the paper mulberiy-trees ; 
and the plaatationsj in genera), were weft stocked with such 
roots and fruits as are the natural produce of the island. 
To these I made some addition^ by sowing the seeds of In- 
dian com, melons, pumpkins, and the like. At one place 
was a house, four or five times as large as those of the com- 
mon sort, with a large area of grass before it ; and I take it 
for granted, the people resort thither on certain public oc- 
casions. Near the landing-place we saw a mount, two or 
three feet bigh^ covered with gravel ; and on it stood four 
or five small huts, in which the natives told us the bodies 
-of some of their principal people had been interred. 

The island is not above seven miles long, and in some 
places not above two or three broad. The east side of it, 
which is exposed to the trade-wind, has a reef running to 
a considerable breadth from it, on which the sea breaks 
with great violence. It is a continuation of this reef that 
joins. Lefooga to Foa, which is not above half a mile dis- 
tant ; and at low water the natives can walk upon this reef, 
which is then partly dry from the one island to the other. 
The shore itself is either a coral rock, six or seven feet 
high, or a sandy beach, but higHer tban the west side, which 
in general is not more than three or four i'eet from the level 
of the sea, with a sandy beach its whole length. 

When I returned from my excursion into the country, 
and went on board to dinner, I found a large sailing caooe 
last to the ship^s stem. In this canoe was Latooliboula, 
whom I had seen at Tongataboo during my last voyage, 
and who was then supposed by us to be the king of that 
island. He sat in the canoe with all that gravity, by which, 
as 1 have mentioned in my journal,' he was so remarkably 

distinguished 

' The name of this eltraqrdinarv personaae is there said to be Kohagee 
too FallangoUi which cannot, by the most skilful etymologist, be tortund 
into the least most distant resemblance of Latooliboula. It is remarkable 
that Captain Cook should toot take any notice 6f his having called the same 
person by two names so very different Perhnpi w6 may account for this, 
D^ supposing one to be the name of the person, and the other the descrip- 
tion ot his title or rank. This supposition seems well founded, when we 
consider that£ra^<N^ in the., language of these people, is sometimes used to 
signify a great ckieJT; and Dr Forster, in his Observations, p. 378, 379, and, 
elsewhere, speaks of the sovereign of Tongataboo under tne title of their 

Latoo^ 



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CHAP. xi. 8BCT. VI. Cpoie, Cltrket and Gored S7I 

distinguished at that time; nor could I^ by any entreaties, 
prevail upon him now to come into the ship. Many of the 
islanders were present^ and they all called him Jreekee, 
which signiifies king* I had never hrCjard any one of them 
give this title to Feenou/ however extensive his authority 
over them^ bqth hejre and at Annamooka^ had appeared to 
be, which bad all alon^ inclined me to suspect that he was 
not the king, though ^is friend Taipa had taken pains to 
make m^ believe, be was. Latooliboula remained und^r the , 
stern till the evening, yirhien he retired in his canoe to one. 
of the islands. Feenou was on board my ship at. jthe, same, 
time ; but neither of these great men took the least notice' 
of the other. , . . 

Nothing material happened the next day,, except that, 
some of the natives stole a tarpaulin, and pth^r things, fromt 
off the deck. They were Sdpn missed> and the thieves pur- 
sued, but a little too, late. I applied, the^-eforej.to Feenou,. 
who, if he was not king, was at least vested with the high-* 
est authority here to exert it, in order to haye my things, 
restored. He referred'me to Enroupa, who pirt me off fron» 
time to time, and at last nothing was done. 

In the morning of the 23d , as we were going to unmoor,, 
in order to leave the island, Feenou^ and bis .prime minister 
Taipa, came alongside in a sailing canoe, ana informed me^ 
that they were setting out for Vavaoo, an island which they 
said lies about two days sail to the northward of Hepaee. 
The object of their voyage, they would have me beli^ve,i 
was to get for me an additional sqpply of (lOgs, and some 
red-feathered caps for Omai to car^to Otdbeile, where> 
they are in high esteem . Feenou assured me that he should 
be back in four or five days, and desired me not to, sail till 
his return, wheii he promised he would accompany me to 
Tongat9boo. I thought this a good opportunity to get 
some knowledge of Vavaoo, and proposed to him to go thi-. 
ther with the shipf •' JBut he seemeo not to approve pf the 
plan ; and, by way ot diverting me from it, told me that. 

there' 

Latoo. This very person is^Ued iy Dr Fmt^, p. S7(^ LaiQihNipooroo/ 
which funiifhes.a very striJuDg iostiinoe of the variations of our people ijT 
writing down the same word as pronounced by the natives. However, we 
call easily trace the affinity between Nipooroo and Liboula, as th^ changes 
oTtlife consonants are sucn'as are perpetually made upon hearinjg a wora , 

C[>nounoed to whi<ih our ears have not been accustpmed. Mr And^rsoi^ 
re agrees with Captain Cook in writing Latooiiboula.-»D. 



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372 Modem Circumnavigdtion$. ' past fii. Booit iii. 

there was neither harbour nor anchorage aboat it. I there* 
fore consented to wait, in my present station, for bis return, 
and he.iminediately set out. 

The next day, pur attention was for some time taken up 
with a report, industriously spread about by some of the 
natives, tnat a ship like ours had arrived at Annamooka 
since we left it, and was now at anchor there. The propa- 
gators of the report were pleased to add, that Toobon, the 
chief of that island, was hastening thither to receive these 
liew comers ; and as we knew that he had actually left us, 
we were the more ready to believe there might be some 
foundation for the story of this unexpected arrival. How- 
ever, to gain some farther information, I went on shore 
with Omai, in quest of the man who, it was said, had brought 
the first account of this event from Annamooka. We found 
him at the house of Earoupa, where Omai put such ques- 
tions to him as I thought necessary ; and the answers he 
gave were so clear and satisfactory, that I bad not a doubt 
remaining. But, just about this time, a chief of some note, 
whoui we well knew, arrived from Annamooka, and de- 
clared that no ship was at that island, nor had been, since 
our leaving it. The propagator of the report, finding him- 
self detected in a falsehood, instantly withdrew, and we 
saw no more of him. What end the invention of thysi tale 
could answer was not easy toconjecttire, unless we snppose 
it to have been artfully contrived, to get us removed from 
the one island to the other. 

In my walk on the 25th, I happened to step into a house, 
where a woman was dressing the eye^ of a young child, 
who seemed blind, the eyes being much inflamed, and a 
thin film spread over them. The instruments she used wei^ 
two slender wooden probes, with which she had brushed 
the eyes so as to make them bleed. It seems worth men- 
tioning, that the natives of these islands should attempt an 
operation of this sort, though I entered the house too late 
to describe exactly how this female oculist employed the 
wretched tools she had to work with. 

I was fortunate enough to see a different operation going 
on in the same house, of which I can give a tolerable ac^ 
count. I found there another woman shaving a child's 
head, with a shark's tootb,^ stuck into the end of a piece of 
fiiick. I observed that she first wetted the hair with a rag 
<ypped in water^ applying her instrument to that part which 

. * she 



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CHAP. II. sscT. Yi. €ook^ CUrk$, and Gore. 373 

$he t^adjpreviously soaked. The operation seemed to give 
no pain to the .cbildy although the hair was taken off as 
close as if 9qe of our razors had been eo^ployed. 'Encou^ 
raged by, what I now say^^ L soon after tried one of these 
singular instruments upoii myself^ and found ittobeanex* 
cellent succedaneum. However, the men of these islands 
have recourse to another contrivance when they shave their 
beards. The operation is performed with two shells, one 
of which they place under a small part of the beard, and 
with the other, applied abpve, they scrape that part off. In 
this manner they are able to shave very close. The process ' 
is, indeed^ rather tedious^ but not painful ; and there are 
If en ampqgst them who seemed to profess this trade. It 
was as commpq, white w:e were here, to see our saijors go 
eshore to have their beards scraped off, after the fashion of 
Hepaee, as it w&s to see their chiefs come on board to be 
ahaved by our barbers. 

< Finding that little or nothing of the produce pf the is- 
. land was now brought to the ships, I resolved to change 
our station, and to wait Feenou's return from Vavaoo, ia 
spmepther convenient anchoring-plac.ei where refreshments 
'in%ht still be met with. Accordingly, in the forenoon of 
.the ^6th^ we got under sail, and stood to th^ southward 
along the reef of the island, having fourteien and thirteen far 
thorns water, with a sandy oottom. Ho\\^ever, we met with 
several detached shoals. 3ome of th^m w^r^ discovered by 
breakers^ some by the water upon them appearing disco* 
loured, and others by the lead. A% half p^st two in the af- 
ternpoDy having already passed several of these shoals, and 
seeiiig.more of them before us, I hauled into a ba^ that li^ 
betw^n the S. end. of Lefooga and the N# end of Hoolaiva, 
J9i^d there anchored in se^fnteen fathoms water, the. bottom 
Sk coral sand ; the point of Lefooga bearing S.E. by £. a 
mile and. a half distant. The Discovery did not get to an 
anchor till sunset. She had touched upon oqq of the shoals^ 
but backed off again without receiving any damage. 

As soon as we bad anchored^ I sent Mr BUgh to sound 
the bay where we were now stationed ; and mysejf, accom- 
panied by Mr Gore, landed on the southern part of Lefoq^ 
gib to examine the country, and to look for fresh water* 
Not that we now wanted a supply of this article, having 
^Ued all the casks at our late station ; but I had been \o]d 
that this part of the island could afford us some preferable 

to 



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S74 Modem Cweumnaimgatums* pabt in. book hi, 

to any we had got at the fonner watering-place. This will 
hot be the 6nlr time I shaH have occasion to remark that 
these people do not know what good water is. We were 
'conducted to two wells, but the water in both of them pro^ 
ved to be execrable, and the natives, our guides, assured us 
that they had none better. 

Near the S. end of the island, and on the W. side, we 
met with an artificial mount. From the size of some trees 
that were' growing upon it, and from other appearances, I 
guesscfd that it had been raised in remote times. I judged 
it to be about forty feet high, ahd the diameter of its sum- 
mit measured fifty feet. At the bottom of this mount stood 
« stone, which must bare been heWn out of coral rock. It 
was four feet broad^ two and a half thick, and fourteen 
high ; and we were told by the natives present that not 
kl>oye half its length appeared Above ground. They called 
il Tarigaia Artkee* and said that it had been set up; and 
the mount raised, by some of their forefathers, in naembry 
of one of their kings, but boW tong since they could not 
tell. 

'- Night coming on, Mr Gore and I returned on board; 
and, at the same time, Mr Bligh got back from sbunding 
the bay, in which he found from fourteen to twenty fathoms 
water, the bottom for the most part sand, but not without 
«ome coral rocks. The place where we now anchored is 
tnuch better sheltered than that which we had lately come 
from ; but between the two is another anchoring 'station, 
inuch better than either. Lefooga and Hoolaiva are divi- 
5ded from each other by a reef of coral rocks, which is dry 
at low water ^ tio that One may walk at that time from the 
one to the other, without wetting a foot. Some of our gen- 
tlemen, who landed in the latter island, did not find the 
least mark '6f cultivation; or habitation, upon it, except a 
single hut, the residence of a man employed to catch fish 
and turtle. It is rather extraordinary that it should be in 
this deserted state, communicMing so immediately with 
Lefooga, which iff so perfectly cultivated ; for though the 
Mil is quite sandy, all the trees and plants found in a natu- 
ral state on the neighbouring islands, are produced here 
with the greatest vieour. The £. side of it has a reef like 
{icfooga, and the W. side has a bending at the N. part, 
il '■ •'• ' • ' • • where 

I Taii|fal«, in their luigusgey is mao ; Artkee^ kiog. 



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OHAP H. sBCt. VI. Cook, Clerkc, and Gore. 875 

*where there seems to be gopd aDchorage. Uninhabited as 
Hoolaiva is^ an artificial mounts like that at the adjoiDing 
isiandy has been raised upon it^ as high as some of the sur- 
rounding trees. 

At day-break, next morning, I made the signal to weigh ; 
«nd as 1 intended to attempt a passage to Aanamooka, in 
my way to Tongataboo, by the S. W. amongst the interve- 
ning islands, I sent the master in a boat to sound before the 
" ships. But before we could get under sail the wind became 
unsettled, which made it unsafe to attempt a passage this 
"way till we were better acquainted with it. I therefore lay 
fast^ and made the signal tor the master to return ; and af*- 
terward sent him and the master of the Discovery, each in 
a boat, with instructions to examine the channels, as far as 
they could, allowing themselves time to get back to the 
ships before the close of the day. 

About noon a large sailing canoe came under our stern^ 
in whidi was ai person named Futtafaihe, or Poulaho, or 
both^ who, as the natives then' on board told us, was King 
of Tongataboo, and of all the neighbouring islands that wc 
had seen or heard of. It was a matter of surprise to me to 
have a stranger introduced under this character, which £ 
had so much reason to believe really belonged to another. 
But they persisted in their account of the supreme dignity 
of this new visitor ; and now, for the first time, they owned 
to me, that Feenou was not the king, but only a subordi- 
nate chief, though of great power, as he was often sent 
from Tongataboo to the other islands on warlike expedi- 
tions, or to decide differences, it being my intere&t, as 
well as my inclination, to pay court to all the great men, 
without making enquiry into the validity of their assumed 
titles, I invited Poulaho on board, as 1 understood he was 
very desirous to come. He could not be an unwelcome 
guest, for he brought with him, as a present to me, two good 
fat hogs, though not so fat as himself. If weight of bo- 
dy could give weight in rank and power, he Was certainly 
the most eminent man in that respect we had seen ; for, 
though not very tall, he was v&ry unwieldy, and almost 
shapeless with corpulence. He seemed to be about forty 
years of age, had straight hair, and his features differed a 
eood deal from those of the bulk of his people. I found 
him to be a sedate, sensible man. He viewed the ship, and 
the several new objects, with uncommon attention, and 
^ asked 



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V 



its Modkm Cirammamgaiiom. PAmr^m. iioox m« 

asked many pertiDent qaestions^ one of which was. What 
could induce us to visit these islands i After he had satisfied 
his curiosity in looking at the cattle^ and other novelties 
which he met with upon deck, 1 desired him to walk down 
into the cabin. To this some of his attendants objected, 
saying, that if he were to accept of that invitation, it must 
happen, that people would walk over his head, which could 
not be permitted. I directed mj interpreter Oaiai, to teli 
them that I would obviate their objection, by giving orders 
that no one should presume to walk upon that part of the 
deck which was over the cabin. Whether this expedient 
would have satisfied them was far from appearing, but the 
chief himself, less scrupulous in this respect than his attend- 
ants, waved all ceremony, and walked down witboat any 
stipulation. He now .appeared to be as solidtoos himself, 
as his people were, to convince us that he was king, and 
sot Feenou, who had passed with us as such ; for he soon 
perceived that we had some doubts about^ it, which doabis 
Omai was not very desirous of ranoving* The closest con- 
nection had been formed between him and Feenou, in tes- 
timony of which they had exchanged names ; and therefiMe 
he was not a little chagrined, that another person now put 
in his claim to the honours which his firiend had hitherto 
enjoyed. 

Poulaho sat down with us to dinner, but he ate little, and 
drank- less. When we rose from the table, he desired me 
to accompany him ashore. Omai was asked to be of the 
|)arty, but h&was too faithfully attached to Feenou to shew 
any attention to his competitor, and therefore excused 
himself. I attended the chief in my own boat, having first 
made presents to him of such articles as I could observe he 
valued much, and were even beyond his expectation to re- 
ceive. I was not disappointed in my view of thus securing 
his friendship, for the moment the boat reached the beach, 
and before he quitted her, he ordered two more hogs to be 
brought, and delivered to my people to be conveyed on 
board. He was then carried out of the boat by some of his 
own people, upon a board resembling a hand-barrow, and 
went and seated himself in a small house near the shore, 
which seemed to haive been erected there for bis accommo- 
dation. He placed meat his side, and his attendants^ who 
were not numerous, seated themselves in a semicircle be- 
fore us, on the outside of the house. Behind the chief, or 

rather 



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CEAV. lu ssDTi Ti. Cook, Gierke, and Gett. 8?7 

tattler on one side^ sat an oM woman^ widi a €ort of fan in 
her baiid^ whiase c^ce it was to prevent his being pestered 
mth tbe flies. . 

The several articles which his people had got, bj-trading 
on board tbe ships^were now displayed before him. He 
looked over them )bU with attention^ enquired what they 
bad given in exchange^ and seemed pleased with the bar- 
gains tbej.bad made. At length he ordered every ibingto 
be restored to the respective owners, exicept a glass bowl^, 
with which he was so much pleased that he reserved it for 
himself The persons who br^nght these things to hinr, 
first squatted themselves down before him> then they de«- 
posited their several purchases, and immediately rose up 
and retired. - The same respectful ceremony was observed 
In taking them away, and not one of them presumed to 
apeak to him standing. I stayed till several of his attiend^ 
ants left him, first paying him obeisance, by bowing tbe 
bead<]0wn to the sole of his foot, and touching or tapping 
tbe sane with the upper and under side of the fingers of 
both hands. Others, who weie not in the circle, came, as 
it seemed, on purpose, and paid, him this mark of respect 
«iid then retired, without speaking a word. I was quite 
charmed with the decorum that was observed. I had no 
where seen the like, not even amongst more civilized n»- 
tioos. 

I found the master returned from his expedition when I 
got on board. He informed me, that, as far as he had pro- 
ceeded, there was anchorage, and a passage for the ships, 
%ut that toward the S. and S.B. he saw a number of small 
i8le8,'shoak, and breakers. Judging, from this report, that 
my attempting a passage that way wouid be attended with 
«ome risk, I now dropped all thoughts of it, thinking it 
better to return toward Annamooka by the same rout^, 
which we had so lately experienced to be a safe one. 

Having come to this resolution, I should have sailed 
next morning if the wind had not been too far southerly, 
and at the same time very unsettled. Poulaho, the king, 
as I shall now call him, cptmeon board betimes, and 
brought, as a present to me, one of their caps, made, or at 
least covered, with red feathers. These caps were much 
-sought after by us, for we knew they would be highly va- 
lued at Otaheite. But though very large prices were offer- 
ed, not one was ever brought for sale ; which shewed that 

they 



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378 Modem Circwmumgi^iam. paet in« book iu« 

they were no less valuable in the estimation of Ihe people 
here; nor was there a person in either ship that could make 
himself the proprietor of one, except myself. Captain Gierke, 
and Omai. These caps, or rather bonnets, are composed 
of the tail feathers of the tropic bird, with the red feathers 
of the parroquets wrought upon them, or jointly with them. 
They are made so a^ to tie upon the forehead without any 
crown, and have the form of a semicircle, whose radius is 
eighteen or twenty inches. The chief staged pn board till 
the evening, when he left us ; but bis, brother, w^hose name 
was also Futtafaihe, and one or two or more of his attend- 
ants, continued in the ship all night. 

At day*break, the next morning, I weighed with a fine 
breeze at E.N.E. and stood to the westward, with a view 
to return to Annamooka, by the track we had already ex- 
perienced. We were followed by several sailing canoes, in 
one of which was the king. As soon as he. got on board 
the Resolution, he enquired for bis brother, add the others 
who had remained with us all night. It now appeared 
that they had stayed without his leave, for he gave them, 
in a very few words, such a reprimand as brought tears from 
their eyes, and yet they were men not less than thirty years 
of age. He was, however, soon reconciled to their making 
a longer dtay, for, on quitting us, he left bis brother, and 
five of his attendants, on board. We had also the company 
of a chief just then arrived from Tongataboo, whose name 
was Tooboueitoa. The moment he arrived he sent his ca- 
noe away, and declared, that he and five. more, who came 
with him, would sleep on board, so that I had now my ca- 
bin filled with visitors. This, indeed, was. sonoe inconve- 
nience ; but I bof^ with it more willingly, as they brought 
plenty of provisions with them as presents to me, for which 
they always bad suitable returns. 

About one o'clock in the afk;ernoon, the easterly wind 
was succeeded by a fresh breesce at S.S.E. Ourconrsenow 
being. S.S«W. or more southerly, we were obliged to ply to 
windward, and did but just fetch the N. side of Footooha 
by eight o'clock, where we spent the night, making short 
boards. 

The next morning we plyed up to Lofaoga, where, ac- 
cording to the information of our friends, there was anchor* 
age. It was one o'clock in the afternoon before we got 
soundings under the lee or N.W. side, in forty fathoms wa- 
ter. 



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pAkT. 11. SECT. VI. Cook, Gierke, and Gore. 379 

jkjer, near half a mile from the shore ; but the bank was 
steeps and the bottom rocky^ and a chain of breakers lay to 
leeward. Ail these circumstances bein^ against us> I stretch* 
,ed away for Kotoo^ with the expectation of findidg better 
anchoring groutid under that island. Butf so mutch' time 
had been spent in plying up to Lofanga^ that it Was dark 
'before we reached the other; and finding no place tolcti- 
chor in^ the night was spent as the preceding one. ^ 

At day-break on the dist I stood for the cnannel^ which 
is between Kotoo and the reef of rocks that lie to tiie west- 
ward of it; but^ on drawing near/ 1 found the wind too 
scant to lead us through. I therefore bore up on the out- 
side of the reef, and stretched to the S.W. till near noon^ 
When^ perceiving that we made no progress to'windWaif'd, 
and being apprehensive of losing the islands with so m£i.ny 
.of the natives on boards I tacked and stood back^ intending 
to wait till some more favourable opportunity. We did but 
just fetch in with Fbotooba^ between which and Kotoo we 
spent the nighty under reefed top^sails and fore-saiL The 
wind blew fresh, and by squalls^ with rain ; and we weric 
not without apprehensions of danger. I kept the deck till 
nfidnight, when I left it to the master, with such directions 
as I thought would keep the ships clear of the shoals and 
ro<3ks that lay round us. But, after making a trip to the 
'N., and standing back a^ain to the S., our snip, by a small 
* shift of the wind, fetched farther to the windward than Was 
expected. By this means she was very near tunning full 
tipon a low sandy isle, called Pootoo Pootooa, surrounded 
with breakers. It happened, very fortunately, that the peo- 
ple hdd just been ordered upon the deck to put the ship 
about, and the most of them were at their stations^ so that 
thie necessary movements were not only executed with 
judgment, but also with alertness, and this atone saved us 
from destruction. The Discovery being a-stem was out ol* 
danger. Such hazardous situations are the unavoidable 
companions of the man who goes upon a voyage of dis- 
covery. 

This circumstance frightened our passengers so much 
that they expressed a strong desire to get ashore. Accord- 
ingly^ as soon as day-light returned, 1 hoisted out a boat, 
and ordered the officer who commanded her, after landing 
them at Kotoo, to sound along the reef that spits off from 
that island for anchorage ; for I was full as much tired as 

they 



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S80 Modem CiramhavigaHms. vfinr uu booi^ iu, 

tbey 0ould be with beating aboqt amoDgi^t the ftarrounding 
isles and shoals^ and determined to get to an anchor some- 
where or other if possible. While the boat was absent^ we 
attempted to tarn the ships through the channel^ between 
the sandy isle and the reef of Kotoo, in expectation of 
finding a esoderate depth of water behind them to ancfaor 
in. But^ meeting with a tide or current against usj we were 
obliged to desist^ and anchor in fifty fathoms wfiter^ with 
the sandy isle bearing E. by N. one mile distant. 

We lay here till the 4th of June. While in this slatioii 
we were several times visited by the king^ by* Touboueitoa, 
and by people from the neighbouring islands^ who cimie off 
to trade with us^ though the wind Uew very fresh most of 
the time. The master was now sent to sound the channels 
between the islands that lie to the east,ward.; and I bnded 
on Kotoo to examine it in the forenoon of the 2d. 

This island is scarcely accessible by boats^ on account of 
coral reefs that surround it* It 1% not mp^e than a mile and 
hM, or two miles^ long, and not so broad* .1"^^ N%Wv^nd 
of it is low, like the islands of Hapaee ; but it rises sudden- 
ly in the middle^ and terminates in reddish clayey cliffs at 
the S.E. end, about tbirtjrfeet high. The spil^ in that quar- 
ter^ is of the same sort as in the cliffs, but in the other parts 
it is a loose black mould. It produces th^ same fruits and 
roots which we found at the other islands ; is tolerably cul- 
tivated, but thinly inhabited. While I was walking all over 
it^ our people were employed in cutting some grass for the 
cattle > and we planted some melon seeds, with which the 
natives seemed much pleased, and iocjosed them with 
branches. On our return to the boat we passed by two or 
three ponds of dirty water, which was more or less brackish 
in each of them ; and saw one of their burying-places> 
which was much neater than those that were met with at 
Hepaee. 

On the 4th, at seven in the morning, we weighed, and, 
with a fresh gale at E.S.B., stood away for Annamooka, 
where we anchored next morning, nearly in the same sta- 
tion which we had so lately occupied. 

I went on shore soon after, and found the inhabitants 
very busy in their. plantations, digging up yams to bring to 
market ; and, in the course of the day, about two hundred 
of them had assembled on the beach, and traded with as 
much eagerness^ as during our late visit* Their ^ock ap- 
peared 



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CHAP. it. Btcr, vt. Cook, Ckrke,aHd Gore. Si I 

peared fa have been recruited mutsb^ though we had re*« 
turned so soon ; but instead of bread-fruity which was the 
only brtide wie could purchase on our first arrival^ nothing 
was to be lieen now but yams, and a few plantains. This 
shews the quick isuccession of the ^easons^ at least of the 
different vegetables produced here^ at the several times of 
the year. It appeared also that they had been very busy 
while w« were absent in cultivating, for we now saw several 
large plantain fields, in places whi'ch we had so lately seen 
lying waste. The yams were now in the greatest perfec- 
tion^ and we procured a good quantity in exchanges for 
pieces of iron. 

These people, in the absence of Toubou, whom we left 
behind us at Kotoo, with Poulaho and the other chiefs^ 
seemed to be under little subordination. For we could not 
perceive this day that one man assumed more authority 
than another. Before I returned on board I visited the se* 
veral places where I had 'sown melon 'seeds, and had the 
mortification to find that most of them were destroyed by 
a small ant ; but some pine-apple plants^ which I had also 
left, were in a thriving state. 

About noon next day, Feenou arrived frofm Vavaoo. He 
told us, that several canoes, laden with hogs and other pro- 
Visions, which had sailed with him from that island, had 
been lost, owing to the late blowing weather, and that every 
body on bdard them had perished. This melancholy tale 
did pot seem to afifect any of his countrymen who heard it^ 
and, as to ourselves, we were by this lime too well acquaints 
ed with his character to give much credit to such a story. 
The truth probably was, that he had not been able to pro- 
cure at Vavaoo the supplies which he expected ; or> if he 
got any there, that he had left them at Hepaee, which lay 
in his way back, and where he could not but receive intel- 
ligence that Poulaho had been with us ; who, therefore, he 
knew, would, as his superior, have all the merit and reward 
of procuring them, though he had not any share of the 
trouble* The invention of this loss at sea was however well 
imagined, for there had lately been very -blowing weather; 
insomuch^ that the king, and other chiefs, who had follow- 
ed us from Hepaee to Kotoo, had been left there, not ca- 
ring to venture to sea when we did, but desired I might 
wait for them at Annamooka^ which was the reason of my 

anchoring 



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SM Modem Circumnavigatums. fakt ni. Boo&uk 

anchoring there this second time^ and of my not proceed- 
ing directly to Tongataboo. 

The following momins Poulaho^ and the other chiefs 
who had been wind-bonnd with him^ arrived. I happened, 
at this time, to be ashore in company with Feenoa, who 
now seemed to be sensible of the impropriety of his con- 
duct^ in assuming a character tliat did not belong to him. 
For be not only acknowledged Poulaho to be King of Too- 
gataboo, and the other isles, but affected to insist much on 
it, which, no doubt, was with a view to make amends for 
his former presumption. I left him to visit this greater 
man, whom I found sitting with a few people before him. 
But every one hastening to pay court to him, the circle in- 
creased pretty fast I was very desirous of observing Fee* 
nou's behaviour on this occasion, and had the most convin- 
cing proof of his superiority, for he placed himself amongst 
the rest that sat before Poulaho, as attendants on his ma- 
jesty* He seemed at first rather abashed, as some of us 
were present who had been used to see him act a different 
part ; but he soon recovered himself. Some little conve^ 
sation passed between these two chiefs, which none of w 
understood, nor were we satisfied with Omai's interpreti^ 
tion of it. We were, however, by this time sdfiiciently on- 
deceived as to Feenou's rank. Both he and Poulaho went 
on board with me to dinner, but only the latter sat at taUe. 
Feenouj having made his obeisance in the usual way, sahn 
ting, his sovereign's foot with his head and hands, retired 
out of the cabin ' The king had before told us that this 
would happen, and it now appeared that Feenou could not 
even eat or drink in his royal presence. 

At 



' Marks of profound respect, very similar to those paid by natives of 
the Friendly Islands to their sovereign, are also paid to the prindpal chiefi; 
or Tamolei, of the Caroline Islands, as appears from Father Cantova's so- 
count here transcribed. ** Lorsqu'un TamoU donne audience^ il paroit 
assis sur une table elev^e: les peuples s'inclinent devant lui jusqa'4 terre; 
et du plus loin qu'ils arrivent, il marchent le corps tout courb^, et la tfite 
presqu'entre les g^noux, jusqu'^ ce qu'ils soient auprH de sa personne; 
alor« i!^ s'fisseyent k plate terre ; et» les yeux baisi^, il re^oivent ses oidrei' 
fivui T«^ plus profond respect Quand le TamoU les coi^^ie, ik se reti- 
ri^rii, r u (le courbant de la mdme mani^re que quand ils sont venus, eC ne 
ie rvli'vent que lorsqu'ils sont hors de sa presence. Ses paroles sont au)* 
mm d 'oracles qu'on revere ; on rend ^ ses ordres une obensanceaveittle; 
ir»fin, 041 baise les mains et les pieds, quand on lui demande quelque 
gf iceL^-^trr/rei Edifiante$ et Curmsei, torn, xv« p« 312, S13,— J). 



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CHAP* H. SECT. Yi. Cook, CUrkt^ and Gore. 38^ 

At eight o'clock next morniog we weighed and steered 
for Tongataboo^ having a gentle breeze at N.E. About 
fourteen or fifteen sailing vessels^ belonging to the natives^ 
set out with us^ but every one of them outrun the ships 
considerably. Feenou was to have taken his passage in the 
Resolution^ but preferred his own canoe^ and put two men 
on board to conduct us to the best anchorage. We steered 
S, by W. by compass. 

Ac five in the afternoon we saw two small islands bearing 
W., about four leagues distant. Our pilots called the one 
Hoonga Hapaee> and the other Hoonga Tonga. They lie 
.in the latitude of 20^ 36^ and ten or eleven leagues from 
the W. point of Annamooka, in the direction of S. 46^ W. 
According to the account of the islanders on boards only 
five men reside upon Hoonga Hapaee^ and Hoonga Tonga 
is uninhabited ; but both of them abound with sea*fowl. 

We continued the same course till two o'clock next 
mornings when, seeing some lights ahead, and not knowing 
whether they were on shore^ or on board the canoes, we 
hauled the wind, and made a short trip each way till day 
break. We then resumed our course to the S. by W. ; and 
presently after saw several small islands before us, and Eooa 
and Tongataboo beyond them. We had, at this time, twen* 
ty-five fathoms water, over a bottom of broken coral and 
sand. The depth gradually decreased as we drew near the 
isles above mentioned, which lie ranged along the N.E. 
side of Tonntaboo. By the direction of our pilots we 
steered for the middle of it, and for the widest space be^~ 
tween the small isles which we were to pass, having our 
boats ahead employed in sounding. We were insensibly 
drawn upon a large fiat, upon which lay innumerable coral 
rocks, of different depths, below the surface of the water. 
Notwithstanding all our care and attention to keep the ship 
clear of them, we could not prevent her from striking on 
one of these rocks. Nor did the Dicovery, though behind 
us, escape any better. Fortunately, neither of the ships 
stuck fast, nor received any damage. We could not get 
back without increasing the danger, as we had come almost 
before the wind. Nor could we east apchor, but with the 
certainty of having our cables instantly cut in two by the 
rocks. We had no other resource but to proceed. To this, 
indeed, we were encouraged, not only by being told, but 
by seeiug, that iheire was deeper water between us and the 

sl^pre. 



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•984 ' Modem CmmtndfOigatiattM* part iii« book xii. 

t 
shore. Howeyeo that we might be betfcer infdrmed, ^e 
momeDt we found a spot where we could drop the anchor, 
clear of rocks, we came-to, and sent the masters with the 
boats to sound* 

Soon after we had anchored, which. was about nooo, ae- 
▼eral of the inhabitants of Tongataboo came off in their 
canoes to the ships. These^ as weU aa our pilots, assared 
us that we shoula find deep water farther iUf and a bottom 
free from rocks* They were not mistaken ; for about four 
o'clock the boats made the signal for having found good 
anchorage. Upon this we weighed, and^tood in till dart^ 
and then anchored in nine fathoms, having a fine, clear, 
sandy bottom* 

During the night we bad some showers of rain, but to- 
ward the morning the wind shifted to the S. and S.E*, and 
brought on fair weather. At day-break we weighed, and, 
working in to the shore, met with no obstructions, but sach 
as were visible and easily avoided. 

While we were plying up to the harbour, to which the 
natives directed us, the king kept sailing round us. in his 
canoe. There were, at the same time, a great many small 
canoes about the ships. Two of these, which could not get 
out of the way of his royal vessel, he run quite over, with 
as little concern as if they had been bits of wood. Amongst 
many others who came on board the Resolution, was.Ota^ 
go, who had been so useful to me when I visited Tongata- 
boo during my last voyage, and one Toubou, who, at that 
time, had attached himself to Captain Furneaux* Each of 
them brought a hog and some yams, as a testimony of his 
friendship ; and I was not wanting, on my part, in making 
a suitable return. 

At length, about two in the afternoon, we arrived at our 
intended station* It was a very snug place, formed by the 
shore of Tongataboo on the S*£. and two small islands on 
the £* and N.iQ* Here we anchored in ten fathoms water, 
over a bottom of oozy sand, distant from the shore one- 
third of a mile. 

. Section 



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€HAP\ !!• SBCT*. viif CoqU, Ckrke, and Gore. 986 



. ,.. . , • ^Section Vllt ■ -." -■ ; • ^[^ 

JFrien4ly Reception at T^i^ataboo. — Manner of ^ributing^ 
a baked Hog and Kawto Pouhfu/s AttendatUs.-^TAe 0b^\ 
servatorys Sfc. ereciedn-^The ViUag<^ where the Cki^» reside,^ 
and thjs a^oining Country , described. — Interviews with lHon^ 
reewagce, and Toobou, and thc^ King's Son: — A grand Haiva^\ 

' or Entejftainment of Songs 4ind Vamces^ given by Mareema-' 
gee^ — Exhibition of Fireworks. ^—Manner' of WrestUygand\ 
Bo^ng. — Distribution of "the Cattknr^Thefts committed by 
the mitives. — Potdaho, and\ the other Cluefs, (;qnfined on 
thai Accowt. — Pofuhdufs Present and Haiva. ' 

Soon after we had anchored, having first dined^ I land-^- 
ed, accompanied b^ Qoiai and some of the officers. We^ 
found the Ling waiting for u$ upon the beach. He imme- 
diately conducted us to a small neat house, situated a little 
within the skirts of the WQod» with a fine large area before 
it. This bouse, he told me, was at my service during our 
stay atthe island ; and a better situation we could not wish, 
for. ■ 

We had not been long in the house before a pretty large ' 
circle of the natives were assembled before usj and seated 
upon the area. A root of the kava plant being brought, and 
laid down before the king, he ordered it to be split into pieces, 
and distributed to several people of both sexes> who begaa 
the operation of chewing it, and a bowl of th^ir favourite 
liquor was soon prepared. In the mean time^ a^baked hog, 
and two baskets of baked yams, were produced, and after*, 
ward divided into ten portions. These portions were then . 
given to certain people present ; but how many were to 
share in each I could not tell« One of them, 1 observed, 
was bestowed upon the king's brother, and one nemained 
lindisposed of, which, I judged, was for the king himself, 
as it was a choice bit. Ihe liquor was next served out, but. 
Poulaho seemed tp give no directions about it. The first 
cup was brought to him, which he ordered to be. given to 
one who sat near himt - The second was also brought to 
him, and tliis ,he . kept. .The third wai) given tp me; but. 
their mapner of brewing having qqeoch^d o^ thirst, it be- 
came Omai's propenjty^ The rest, of th^ liqinpf w«s distri- 

VOL. XV. 2 b buted 



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iltf JIfMfem Ciiwmmig0ihi^ mat mA boo* m. 

buMd to different people^ by direction of the man who had 
the managemeiit of it. One of the cups bein|^ carried to 
the king's brother^ he retired wHh Chis» and with bis me» 
of Ticioals. Some others also quitted the circle with their 




tffter wi09t of meDfli withdrei^ canhvioK Wilb Ihem wlkf ttey 
had kioi eiit <yr dieir tbn» of tfete Ibasfti 

rl^obsttVeir Ai^.Mla fowrth |Wt of tte c^mpM^F Jted 
tMle4 eMbar the vt^niAl or the ^ink ; thoae irho pailEdak 
d( fkt fMAtr I sappoied to he of the ktng^s hoiweboU. 
Jtte ^tfWH Umh0 distribfttfUi llie^ baked^ meat and the JkMa, 
alwa^ detivered ilontaf thak haaA sittiag; noioistjr 4»the 
king but to every oilier person* It is worthy of remark, 
tbdcr^ tttia wa^ the ih^ tioKi of ofir itmdittg, and a great 
itoahy people were presenlrwho hai^ aever aeen^ w befoiej 
ye« iM>oiie was froubk^mxirf but the«gt«aCear^oe«d» evder 
^N^ pjt^i^ed lihroagbout the ^^bote assaofrbiy. 
' Befbre i r^tatwed oi> boards I went in search of a ^«toler* 
ili^pliice> afld was cdrtducted to some poods^ or rather 
boi^, emtainiag fresh wMsif^i as tha^^ wefe pteased to- cat 
it The coatenuof one of t(iese indeed were tolerable^ ba(f 
li^plM at so|it<^ dtslfldiee inlaiid, and the supply to l>e got 
fkHtt il WB %ets ineonsid€i^S(ble. Bemg ]t>fermed th«f (be 
IHtle islMd of Pttngiaiodoo^ near which the ships b.y> coaU 
hiWBt furnish this nec^ssafy artielp,. I went oter U> rt next 
laMnng, and was so fortunate as tn^ find there a tfoiaU poo) 
tha« hod rath«t fresher waiter tbao any we had met with 
aitoMgst these is)aiK]a« The pool being v^ dirty, I orde^ 
ed it to he clennad ; add here il was that we watered the 

ships* . '' I. : ' /■! ■''-••*« 

As I intended to make some stay atiTongattdMo^ we 
nrtehed ^ teat tn the ferenocmj just by th& ho>ase which 
Poulaho had assrgued fiw our use* The h^raea^ caltIWi and 
sbeepi wei« afterMrard hindadj and a* party of ooMiriilef^ wiA 
thfeir office^ statloa^c^ there as a guard. The observmtoiy 
was thetr setups et>a small distawccf horn the other t«at; 
a^lH^Khw reskikd on shore^ to ftte^d t^e obseryatioos, 
aftid «»>sii)iM$ri«tWd the^everal opertttion% liecessary to be 
cMdudted thi^re^ . For the sails were car^ried thither to be 
re**ire*| a pa^ty waa empJ^wed iaeaHtng wood fbr ftoel, 
and f^I*lb^«lte^u•eof theAip«jaiKHheg«Hiettof both 



were 



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wiUt lbc> initiT«t> whe tl^oiig^ ftom evfty pmfiot tbe hn 
iMidl with h<^> yam8^<H»CioM3cKt^ aodolher drItcAeA ^ ihetig 
{Mdiioe. fo aih<in tmie Mr land p^m waa Jilie a fiat) antf 
tN Aipi trdre av ^mwdhs A witfe wtowt^ diatiwe imi heMf 
iovrm toalirupoo the^dMieft;^ ^ ji sv '; :.^ 

F^uvoai li£id taben vp ^hit resiickmee iar oriNiim^Qdioin^ 
bcddf kut^heiraiFdo lMget4be iei^diiig ttii^Vt marertb^ 
Die stiil f amid . litai ta tie M fdhtkk af eonatqUetMy^ and wa; 
bad^daiiy prtefd^of Mia c/ft^i^d^^A Kberality^Vby th^ coii^ 
ikMiaaae of fai«^takisd>k*fkfei8iite. Bulrtltfe ktagTsrA^a^aiyr 
attentif a iwtim^tiespect,^ fo^scktiit^ 9 ^tty ipatasdj'WitiloQi 
]?waiirini||p froarhkii toine^cMlftkiki^la^dc^ now 

lieaad that there were olber great ineKi of the ialcad wbom! 
wm bad iM>t as yet b^€d. Ot^o and Taoboti> iit {laDticutary 
mentioDed a person natneif Mareewage^^ who^ Ihejr said, 
wss of Ibe fina Oonseqwrace in the plai^e^ and bald in great 
^viraetatieo, nay, \i Oinai did not midimderstand tbem, sn«f 
petiov eyen to Po«ittbo> to wbom be waa related ; bat beW 
log old, lived in rfetiremeiQl; and tbevefore would not vhi% 
as* SoiBe of tbe natirtft even hinted tbat be was too gveair 
a man to> cmtkf tbat bonoar apon as. Thia acccnin t exct^^' 
ting my dfricisity^ I ibia day mentioned to Poolabo that I. 
#aa tary deairoos of waiting upon Mareewagee ; aynd ba 
readily agreed to accompany me to the place of bis resi- 
dence tbe neat moratag. 

Accordingly, we set oat pretty early in tlite ^niiace> and 
Captaan C^iarke joined me in one of bia own boats. We 
proceeded rmm^, thivl is> to Ibe eastward'of tbe little isles 
tbat form the batbew, and tben^ turning to the St., aeeord« 
ing to Povkibo% directions, entered a sporioos bay or inlet,' 
tip which we ron^'Cd about a league, and landed amidst a 
cdosidefaUeminiberor people, wfao received us with a sort 
' of'acclaavation, noC tHtKlre our huazaif^. Tbeyimmediate* 
!y sepurated, to let Foulaho pass, who took as into a small 
hMrlosdne, a|id sbilted the ptede of cloth be wore for a new 
pieee, neatly Ibided, tbat was carried by a youhg man. Aa 
old woman assisted in' dresfiing him,' and pnt a mat ojrer Ms 
cloth, as we supposed^ to prevent its b^g dirtied when he 
aat down. On onr^now asking faSm where Mareeyv^ee was/ 
to otir great sarpriBe,"be said belbad gone fron) the place 
to tbe ship just before we arrived. Howe'ver/ he desired us 
to w^li( with hinl €» a arfl^/af^^or hbusie of public «esort> 

whick 



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388 Modem Circumnav^aiioni. pabt.iii. book-;!!!* 

which stood ahout half a mile up the comitiy. Bat when; 
we came lo a large area before it, he sat down in tbe'path^ 
and desired us to walk up to the house. We did ao,' and, 
seated ourselves in front, while the crowd that followed m 
filled up' the rest of the space. After sitting a little whiki 
we repeated our enquiries, by means of Omai, Whether we. 
were to see Mareewagee i But receiving no satisfstctory 
information, and suspecting that the old chief was.puipose^. 
. ly^ concealed from us, we went back to our boats moch 
piqued at our disappointment ; and when I got on board I 
found that no such person had been there. It afterward 
appeared, that in this affair we had laboured pnder some. 
gross mistakes, and that our interpreter Omai had either 
been misinformed, or, which is more likely, had misunder*. 
stood what was told him about the great man, on whose ao 
count we had made this excursion. 

The place we went to was a village^ most delightfully si- 
tuated on the bank of the inlet, where all, or most of the 
principal perlsdns of the island reside, each having his house 
in the midst of a small plantation, with lesser houses, and 
offices for servants.' These plantations are neatly fenced 
round; and, for the. most part, have only one entrance., 
This is by a door, fastened on the inside, by a prop of wood^ 
so that a person has to knock before he can get admit- 
tance; Pablic roads, and narrow lanes, lie between each 
plantation, so that no one trespasseth upon another. Great 
part of some of these inclosures is laid out in grass-plots, 
and planted with such things as seem more for ornameot 
than use ; but hardly any were without the kava.plant, from 
which they make their favourite liquor. Every article of 
the vegetable produce of the island abounded in others pf 
these plantations; but these, I observed, are not the resi- 
dence of people of the first rank. There are some large 
houses near the public roads, with spacious smooth grass* 
plots before them, and uninclosed. These, I was toMi he- 
longed to the king ; and probably they are the places where 
their public assemblies are held. It was to one of, these 
bouseS) as I have already mentioned, that we were.coa* 
ducted soon after our landing at this place. 

About noon, the next day, this Mareewagee, of whoro.w^« 
had beard so much, actually came to the neighbourhood of 
our post on shore, and with him a very considerable nwni- 
ber of people of all ranks. I was informed^ that he had 

taken 



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CHAF. ii« SECT. VII. . Cook,' Gierke, and Gore. 88^ 

tafeen this trouble on purpose to give me ao opportunityof ; 
waiting upon him ; having probably heard or the displea* 
suire I had shewn on my disappointment the day before* 
In the afternoion^.a party of us^ accompanied by Feenou^ 
landed^ to pay him a visit. We found a person sitting un- 
der a large tree near the shore^ a little to the right of the 
tent. A piece of cloth, at least forty yards long, was spread 
before him, round which a great number of people or both 
sexes were seated. It was natural to suppose that this was 
the gr^at man, bu,t we were undeceived by Feenou, who 
informed us tliat another, who sat on apiece of mat, a lit- 
tle way from this chief, to the right hand, was Mareewa- 
gee, and he introduced us to him, who received us very 
iiipiily, and desired us to sit down by him. The person who 
sat under the tree, fronting us, was called Toobou ; and, 
when I have occasion to speak of him afterward, I shall 
oall him old Toobou, to distinguish him from his namesake. 
Captain Fumeaux's friend. Both he and Mareewagee had 
a venerable appearance. The latter was a slender man, 
and, from his appearance, seemed to be considerably above 
threescore years of age ; the former was rather corpulent, 
and almost blind with a disorder of his eyes, though not so 
old. . 

Not expecting to meet with two chiefs on this occasion, 
J had only brought on shore a present for one. This I now 
found myself under a necessity of dividing between them ; 
but it happened to be pretty considerable, and both of them 
seemed satisfied. After this, we entertained them for about 
an hour with the performance of two French horns and a 
drum. But they seemed most pleased with the firing oiFa 
pistol, which Captain Clerke had in his pocket. Before I 
took my leave, tne large piece of cloth was rolled up, and, 
with a few cocoa-nuts, presented to me. 

The next morning old Toobou returned my visit on board 
the ship. He also visited Captain Clerke ; and if the pre- 
sent we made to him the evening before was scanty, the 
deficiency was now made up. Dui'ing this time Mareewa- 
gee visited our people ashore, and Mr King shewed to him 
every thing we bad there. He viewed the cattle with great 
admiration, and the cross-cut saw fixed his attention for 
some time. ' ' 

Toward noon Poulaho returned from the place where we 
had l^ft him two days before,' and brought with himi his 

son 



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$Qn, a youKh abont Mrehe yean of age. I ha4 ^8 compa* 

ny at diQQer ; bat tint ton^ thoagfa pi^ent, anas aot allowed 

to sit dowh wfib faka. U wfs v«ry comreoiest to hare hioa 

for my gneit. For fphen he was pimento wbich was gene^ 

rally we case while we stayed here^ every mtkmi natiHre was 

jcxcladed from the table, and but few of tbeoi woald temaijt 

|n the eabiQ. Whereas, if by chance it iteppened that nei^ 

ther he ior Feeoou were on board, the iofierior chiefs would 

be very inportunateto be of our dining party, or to be ad» 

bsitted iaio the cabin at that time, and then we were §6 

crowded ihi^t we could not sit doam to a meai with any 8a«> 

lisfactioti. The king waa very soon reconciled to i>ur man^ 

hereof ibookery^ But sttU I believe he dined thus frequenU 

Iw wilb nie more for the 8ak« of what we gave liiaa to driol^ 

mm for what we set before faim to eal. For he bad takcA 

IS liking to oisr wine, could enpty his bottle as wieB as most 

mec^' aod was as' cheerful over lU He now fixed bits resi* 

dcJice at the house, or nutUtee, by our tent; and tbeve ht 

entertained our people ibk evening with a danee. 1V> tfaa 

aarprise of every bendy, the mswieldy Poulaho eadeavooitd 

to vie wstfi others in that active amufiement. 

' Id thf morning of the Ijtfa I received a message from 

old Toobou that be wanted to see me ashore. AccordinB;ly 

Pmai aad { want to wait anon him. We found him; like 

JMl ancieiit patriardh, seated under theiliade of a tiwe, with 

fi hr^ piece of the ctoth^ made in^e isiatiA, spread ^«t 

at Ml length before bim, aad a number of respectably look<>* 

iug people siuing roimd it. He desired ns to pleGe oar** 

aelves fay bim ; and then he told Omai, that die etbllb io^ 

gather with a ipiece Of red feathers, and al^ioat a dozen: eo^ 

^oaHiull, were ^b piesedt to me. I thanked faim for tiie 

^VQqr> Add desired he lirduld go pa board with me, as I bad 

nothing on shore to give him in retuiW^ 

' OiDai now left me, being sent for by C^aolabo ^ and aoon 

after iPfenou cajne, and acouacnted me ihat young J^tta^^- 

iaih^, Poulahe's soo» desired to see me. I obeyed &e sutt^ 

moai^ and fouad Ihe prince and Omai sitting uttder « large 

imoopy of the finer sort of doth, v^ith a pieco of the coarser 

«jOrt spread under them and before theim, that was seventy^ 

Mc yards tong, and seven and a half broad. Otk one sidt 

was a large old boar, and on the other side a heap of cocoa* 

4MU. A nMsberef people were sealed round ibo bleHhj and 

irnqjUdit thism i nbsek^^ied J4aseewagpe, aad otfee^ of the 

>.>i * .. ... 4 ...*.:.. ,_ i . . . first 



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CHAP. u. u^T* VII. Coqk, iJkrks^ awd Gqrc^ ^l 

JBLmt xaak. I w^ ^eiired to sU down hj the |>rui8e ; and 
jtb^ OiBai iofo^rmed xoe^ thai be bad beea wjtructed )]jr 
the kiqg to t^U me^ that;^ as ht and I were frieod^ be hop^ 
thai; bis 30a might be joixied in this iVieodsbip, aad that^ m 
SL token of my cposent, I wpuld accept of hi» jpirexeat. ( 
very readily agreed to the proposal ; and it being aomt dm 
ner time, I invited them all on boards 

Accordingly, the young piince, Mareewagee, old Too- 
bou^ three or fonr inferior cnie&^ and two respectable old 
ladies of the first rank, accompanied me. ^ Mareewc^ee was 
dressed in a iQtew piece of cjotb, on the skirts of which weiye 
.fixed six pretty large patches of red fealliein« This ^re^ 
^le^m^d to have been made on purpose for this visit; for, 
as soon as he got on board, he put it off, and presented it 
jto me ; having, I guess, heard that it would be accepioble, 
on account of the feathers. Every one of my visitors recei« 
ved from me such presentsy as» I bad reason to believe, they 
were highly satisfied with. When dinner came upon taUe^ 
not one of them would sit downi or eat a bit of any thiag 
that was served up. On expressing my surprise at tms^ th^ 
were all tubooj as they said ; which word has a very co^m- 
prehensive meanings hut, in general, signifies that a thing 
is forbidden. Why they were laid under such uestraiuts, ^t 
present, was not explained. Dinner being over, and, having 
gratified their curiosity, by shewing to them every part pf 
the ship, 1 then conducted tbem ashore* 

As soon as the boat reached the beach^ Feenou, and som^ 
odiers, instantly stepped out. Young Fatta&ihe fpllowmg 
them, was called back by Mareewagee, who now paid tb^ 
heir-apparent the same obeisance, and in the same mannef, 
that 1 bad seen it paid to the king. And when odd To^bou, 
and one of the old ladies, had shewn him the same marks 
of jespect^ he was suffered to land; This ceremony being 
over^ the old people stepped from my boat iiito a canoe that 
was waiting to carry them to their place of abode. 

I was not sorry to be present on this occasion, as I was 
thus furnished with the most unequivocal proofs of the sur 
jureme dignity of Poulaho and his son, over the other prin 
cipal chiefs. Indeed, by this time, I had acquired some cer^ 
tain information about the relative situations of the several 
great men, mrfaose names have been so often meBtaoned. I 
(BOW ksew, that Mareewagee and old Toolxyu were brpthers. 
Boib of ihem weve men of great pmperty in the island, and 

seemei^ 



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S9t Modem Circumnatigatiofi^ vxblt iix. book nu 

teemed to be in bigh estimation with iJie'pe<lple ; ^be'lbis 
mer^ in particalar^ bad the very honoorable appellation gi- 
ven to him, by every body, of matooaTonga ; that is to say. 
Father of Tonga, or of his country. The nature of liis re- 
lationship to the king was also no longer a secret to us ; for 
we now understood, that he was his father-in-law ; Poulaho 
having married one of his daughters, by whom he had this 
son ; so that Mareewagee was the prince's grandfather. Pou- 
laho's appearance having satisfied us, that we had been un- 
der a mistake in considering Feenou as the sovereign of 
these islands^ we had been, at first, much puzzled about his 
real rank ; but that was, by this time, ascertained. Feenou 
*was one of Mareewagee's sons ; and Tooboueitoa was ano- 
ther. * 

• On my landing, I found the king, in the house adjoining 
*to our tent, along with our people who resided on shore* 

The moment I go^ to him, he bestowed upon me a present 
of a large bog and a quantity of yams. About the dusk of 
.the evening, a number of men came, and, having sat down 
in a round group, began to sing in concert with the music 
of bamboo drums, which were placed in the centre.^ ' There 
•were three long ones, and two short. With these they struck 
the ground endwise, as before described. There were two 
. others, which lay on the ground, side by side, and one of 
^them was split or shivered ; on these a man kept beating 
wjlth two small sticks. They sung three songs while I stay- 
ed ; and, I was told, that, after I left them, the ^ntertliin- 
iment lasted till ten o'clock. They burnt the leaves of this 
crAarra palm for a light ; which is the only thing I ever saw 
them make use of for this purpose. 

• * While I was passing the day in attendance on these great 
men, Mr Anderson, with some others, made an excursion 
into the country, which furqished htm with the following 
remarks : " To the westward of the tent, the country is to- 
tally uncultivated for near two miles, though quite covered 
with trees and bushes, in a natural state, growing with the 
greatest vigour. Beyond this is a pretty large plain, on 
which are some cocoa-trees, and a few small plabtations 

that 

' ' The same sort of evening concert is perfoitned round the house of the 
chief, or Tamole^ at the Caroline Islands. *' Le Tamote ne s'endort qu'an 
bruit d'un concert de musique que forme ymp troupe de Jeui)^ gens, qui 
s'assemblent le'soir, autour'de sa maisOn, et qui'chantent, h leur mani^e, 
tertaines poesies." — Leitres Edifiantet Sf Carieu$eSf tom, xv. p. 314.— D. 



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CHA1P. n. 8BCT. VII. Cook, Gierke, and Gore. S93 

-tbat appear to have been lately made; and^ seemingly^ on 
ground that has never beeii cultivated before. Near the 
^ireek, which runs to the westward of the tent^ the land is 
^uite flat, and partly overflowed by the sea every tide. 
•When that retires, the surface is seen to be composed of 
•coral rock, with holes of yellowish mud scattered up and 
down ; and toward the edges, where it is a little firmer, are 
'innumerable little openings, from which issue as many small 
crabs, of two or three difierent sorts, which swarm upon the 
spot, as flies upon a carcase; but are so dimbie, that, oii 
•being approached, they disappear in an instant, and baffle 
eveh the natives to catch any of them. 

At this place is a work of art, which shews- that these 
people are capable of some design, and perseverance, wheii 
they mean to accomplish any thing* Thid work begins, on 
k)ne side, as a narrow causeway, which, becoming gradual- 
ly broader, rises, with a gentle ascent, to the height often 
•feet, where it is five paces broad, and the whole length se- 
venty^four paces. Joined to this is a sort of circus,, whose 
tliameter is thirty paces, and not above a foot or two higher 
<than the causeway that joins it, with some trees planted in 
the middle. Oh the opposite side, another causeway of the 
^same sort descends ; but this is not above forty paces lo^hg, 
;and is partly in ruin. The whole is built with large coral 
atones, with earth on the surface, which is quite .overgrown 
with low trees and shrubs ; and, from its decaying in seve- 
ral places, seems to be of no modern date. Whatever may 
have been its use formerly, it seems to be of none now ; 
and all that we could learn of it from the natives was, that 
it belonged to Poulaho, iand is called £^cA^€."' 
. On the 16th, in the morning, after visiting the several 
^ork)3 now carrying on ashore, Mr Gore and I took a walk 
into the country ; in the course of which nothing remark- 
able appeared, but our having opportunities of seeing the 
whole process of making cloth, which is the principal ma- 
nufacture of these islands, as well as of many others in this 
ocean. In the narrative of my first voyage, a minute de* 
scription is given of this operation, as performed at Ota* 
heite; but the process, here, differing in some particulars, 
it may be worth while to give the following account of it:> 
' The manufacturers^ who are females, take the slender 
stalks or trunks of the paper-mulberry, which they cultivate 
for that purpose, and which seldom^^row more than six ol: 

seven 
9 



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fievea feet ia height, and gboiil four fyng^u ia tbiduien. 
From these iliej strip the bark« aad scrape off (he outer 
»tid with,f^ ioiisclei>8beU. The bark is tbeo rolled up^ to 
lake Q^ , tbexoavenity wbi^b 4t iiad round the staik^ ^ad 
macera^d in water for jome Uoie (they aay^ a nigbtX Af- 
ter this, it. ia laid across the trunk of a small tree fi4|aare4» 
aod heateo wish a square wooden 4Qstruiiietkt> about a foot 
io^g» full <)f oaar$e grooves on all .«ides ; but^ sometiincvi^ 
with one tbi^t^is plain^ ^ Accordiug to ttie size of the twrk, 
^ » picise >Sr aopo pro|lqiped .; but the operaUon is oTlen repeat* 
I ^i by^^^t^Vi^vhapdj or it is folded several times, aod beM 
lpi|gje|r^ which seems rather intended to close tha# U> divide 
jUs!^t^j|^ri^, , Wheto tbi^ is sufficiently effected^ it is spread 
(Ottl to^dry,; the pieces being /rom four to six, or 4Dore, feejt 
in Ung^ wd half as brpad^ They are then gjveo to «imh 
tber per8on> who joins the pieces, by smearing part of tbem 
,ov^,with the vi^oua juice of a berry, called i^ao, which 
. .serv^ as a glue. Haying been thus fengthenedj they are 
ikld i^v.er a large pieq^ of wood^ with a kind of atamp, made 
^ij^f^fk ^hro^ft anbstance pretty closely interwoven, plsured be** 
;|Bie;^jbu^They ,tbeo take a bit of cloth, and dip it in a juice, 
^fMjp[€^d from the bark of a tree, called koma, which they 

gl^nr^kly upon tbe piece that is making« This, at once> 
jcr^s^duU browo ooiour^ aod a drygkws npon ita aorface; 

. ih(e\it^P> at the same time^ makiog a alight impresaiopp 

Ub^^^firers no other purpo6e# that I could see, but to make 
the* several pieces, that are glued together^ stick a little 
ia^# firmly. In this manner they proceed, joining wA 
.ataiuing by degrees, till they produce a pie^^e of cloth, of 
such length and breadth as they want ; generally leavinig a 
jbojrder^ of a foot broad, at the sides, and longer at the^^nds, 
jinstaifiedf' Throughout tbe. whole, if any {>arts of tbe ori- 
ginal pieces are too thin, or have bojes, which is often the 
case, they glue «pare hits upon tbem« till they become of 
an eq«yil tbtpkoeas. Wh^i) they want to pj^odnce a black 
cobur, they mijc the aoot procured from an an oily na^ 

. called dooed0oe, with tbf juice of the kokka^ ia dilEerent 
jonentities, mcordiqg to the proposed deptii of the tinge. 

.^^'hey lajf^ that tlie bladk sort of qloth, which is common^ 
mostglaaed, makes a ccild dress, hot the other a warm 4Nie ; 

v«nd> tci obtain strength in both^ they are always carefol to 
join the small pieces lengthwise, which makes it xmpoasibic 
. «to tear tbe cloth in any .diteciioa hut oae. 

On 



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pa fur r€lmn fr^ffi the couatry^ we met with FeeAQii» 
jtud took kim^ ^^ ttaoUier young chief, on board to diur 
per* Whea oar fare^was set upoa the table^ neither of thevt 
urould eftt a hit; »ajing> that they were taboo acy* Bat, 
j^rfter 'epquiriiig how the victuals had been dresse^^ hariiig 
foun4 ^^ iK> avff (^ater) had been used in cooking ^ pig 
and ^me yi^msy they both sat dof^n, and made a very he^- 

gm^fd ; and^ on being aasni-^d that there was no waiter i« 
e wine^ they drank or it also. From this we conjectur^j 
tbat^ on some account or another^ they were^ at tbis ttme^ 
forbidden to ase water; or, which was more prqbable^ the/ 
did not like ^e water we made use of^ it being talteo lip out 
of one of ttaeir bathing-places. This wa^ not the oialy tioue 
* of our meeting with people that were 74i&ao avff;'mi, fbr 
^k$t reason^ we never could tell with any degree of csir* 
tainty. ' ' 

N«xt day^ the 17th, was fixed upon by Mareewagee^ for 
giving a grand Haiva, or entertainment^ to t?hich we wece 
all invited* For this purpose a large space had been clear* 
ed, before the temporary hut of this cbief> neair our post, 
US an area where the performances were to be exhibited* 
In the momi^gj great multitudes of the natives caaie Ui 
from the country, every one carrying a polci about m4i £iet 
lbng> upon his shoulder ; aiid at eadi end of every p^;^ a 
yam was suspended. These yams and poles were depositM 
on each side of the area, so as to form two lar^e heaps, der 
corated >rith different sorts of sinall fish, and piled up to the 
Jgreata^t advantage. They were Mareewagee's presept ta 
Captaia Gierke and me ; and it was hard to say^ whether 
the wood for fuel, or the yams for food^ were of most vahic 
to us^ As for the fish, they might serve to please the sight, 
lyut ware very offensive to the sipell ; part of them having 
been kept tw^ or t^bi?ee days^ tp be presented to us on this 
occasion. 

Every thitig being thus prepared, about eleven o'clc(cl( 
they began to eischibit various dance^ which they call mai 
The music^ consisted, at first;, of seventy men as a chonM^ 
whQ sai down ; imd amidst them were placed three instru* 
inents, which we called drums^ though very ii^lifce theou 
•niey are large cj^lindrical pjieces of wood, or trunks of 

'. 'ireefc 

* Idr Andenm^s dsicrijptioa of the eotertainments of this di^ hsnif 
much fuller than Captsin Cbok% it has been kdopted^ as on a IbmMiir oe^ 
■aston.«-D* 



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996 Modem dreumnav^atiofu* fart iii«> book iir, 

trees,, frdm three to four feet long, some twice as thick as 
an ordinary sized man, and some smaller, hollowed entire* 
ly 6wtl Uttt close at both ends, and open only by a chink, 
about three inches broad, running almost the whole length 
of the drunis ; by which opening, the rest of the wood is 
certtiinly hollowed, though the operation must be difficult 
This instrument is called n^^;^ ; and, with the cfiii^k turned 
toward th^m, they sit and beat strongly upon it, with two 
cylindrical pieces of hard wood, about a foot long, and as 
i\i\tk as the wrist; by whieh means they produce a rude, 
though loud and powerful sound. They vary the strength 
aiid'tate of their beating, at different parts of the dance ; 
and'at^o change the tones, by beating in the middle, or neat 
the end, of their drum. 

• The first dance consisted of four ranks, of twenty-four 
m^n each, holding in their hands a little, thin, light, woodm- 
en instrument, above two feet long, and, in shape, not un- 
like a small oblong paddle. With these, which are called 
paggtf they 'made a great many different motions ; such as 
pointing them toward the ground on one side, at the same 
time inclining their bodies that way, from which they were 
shifted to the opposite side in the same manner; then pass* 
Ing tlicim quickly from one hand to the other, and twirling 
theitt about very dextrously ; with a variety of other ma- 
boBU vterf; all which were accompanied by corresponding at- 
titudes of the body.' Their motions were, at first, slow, but 
quickened as the drums beat faster ; and they recited sen^ 
tences, in' a musical tone, the whole time, which were an- 
swered by the chorus ; but at the end of a short space they 
all joined, and finished with a shout. 

• After ceasing <ibout two or three minutes, they began as 
before, and continued, with short intervals, above a qtiarter 
of an hour; when the rear rank dividing, shifted themselves 
very slowly round each end, and, meeting in the front, form- 
ed the first rank ; the whole number continuing to recite 
the sentences as before. The other ranks did the same suc- 
cessively, till that which, at first, was the front, became the 
rear; and the evolution continued, in the same manner, till 
the last rank regained its first situation. They then began 
a much quicker dance (though slow at first), and sung for 
about ten minutes, when the whole body divided into two 
parts, retreated a little, and then approached, forming a 
sdrt of cirqular figure, which finished the dance ; the drums 



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HWJ^Ti ih sBOT. Til. Cook, Clerke, and Gore,' * aP7 

bieiog D^moved^ and the ehorus going 'off the .field at ibe 
lame time* . . 

The aecead dance had only two .dromsj with forty mea 
for a ohorua; and the dancers^ or lather actors^ consisted 
of two rimks^ the foremost having seventeen^ and the other 
fifteen persona. Feenou was at their he^ad, or in the middle 
of the front rank^ which is the principal place in these ca^ 
aes* They danced and recited sentences, with some very 
short intervals^ for about half an hour, aometimea quickly^ 
aometimea more slowly, but with such a degree of exact* 
n^sa, as if all the motiona were made by one iQao, which 
didvthem great credit. Near the close, the back rank divi- 
ded, caBde round, and took the place of the fi-pnt, ^hicli 
again resumed ita situation^ as in the first dance; and wbea 
they finished, the drums and chorus, as before, went off. . 

Three drums (which, at least, took two, and sometimei^ 
three men. to carry them) were now brought in ; and seveor 
ty men sat down, as a chojrus to the third dance. This con«- 
aisted of two ranks^ of sixteen person^ each, with youag Too* 
bou at their head, who was richly ornamented with a sort 
of garment covered with red feathers. These danced, sung, 
and twivted'the pogge, as before; but, in general, much 
quicker,, and performed so. well, that they bad the. cons^tant 
fipplausea of the spectators. A motion that met with par- , 
ticular approbation, was one in .which they held the face 
aside, as if ashamed, and the pagge before it. The back 
rank closed before the front one, and that again resumed 
ita place, as in the two former dances ; but then they began 
again, formed a triple row, divided, retreated to each end 
of the area; and left the greatest part of the ground clear. 
At that instant^ two men entered very hastily, and exercised 
the clubs which they use in battle* They did this, by first 
twirling them in their hands, and making circular strokes 
before them with great force and quickness ; but so skilful* 
ly managed, that, though standing quite close, they Qever 
interfered. They shifted their clubs from hand to hand, 
with great dexterity ; and, after continuing a little time» 
kneeled, and made different motions, tossing the clubs up 
in the air,, which they caught as they fell ; and then went 
off as hastily as they entered. Their heads were covered 
with pieces of white cloth, tied at the crown (almost like a 
nigbt>cap) with a wreath of foliage round the forehead ; but 
they had only v«ry amall pieces of white cloth tied about 

• their 



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§0 M6iifrn6iNfiHiMxtn^4j^ 'parm.9m>^tmy 

^r'wdfst§ ; fnrobM>l)f>^ Aal lAbej* A%bl l»e eMl^ and flM 
froqi ev^ry enoumbrance or weight A penoQ witb' a sfi^tr, 
Ae§ietf like tbc^ form^r^ tlMri «mme H aft4 in th« 8«»e hastj 
mMmef ; lookiotr aboot ^eagerty, ny if in ieilfth <if fknnehoif 
to thfCHUr it at. He then ran hM;ily to MV ri«te e^ die cii6w«l 
in the fWint, at!id j^iit himcwlf In a ibiMtMing i^fcMe^ a» if 
he n^Mt ID flfirike nith his §pear dt Mtf 0^ «lle^i bending^ 
fbe kwt u little, and trembU^ «i )l ft^ete^wicH if»ge. H« 
eonthni^d ift Chiv manner duly A few ie«dirfa^ ^4^ be twi^ 
Ted to iht other sidd^ and having sto<^'in ih€ lUivsm pmume 
^Here, for the same »faori time^ r^tveifted fr^oi tbe gvoM#^ 
aft fad t as when fa« itiade his artypechnmeei Th#^dAficiiera> w^ 
Ihad divided info two j^atfits, Kept repiMfbig iMS^flb/k%'tU^^ 
>f sfli this> while; Md aoWadNsttfie^d) and join#il iM^, Mkk 
ing with tiaiTemI'Ap|ytacise. ft sheaftd ^^tk iSmtmi^ daned 
Was eomrrdered as oncf of Aeii^ capital peHbrniaife(<s> if we 
' ^tr;^ge ftcfa^ some of the priaei^l pMfi4e Mag^MM* 
Hn iu For on^ of tfie drttm* Wasf b^at l>5^ Fotlifiilie^ fimf 
Iher of !PonIabo, another by F%enoa, and iho thtrd^ whiob 
Ad'nM belong eotho ohoras> by Mareewageiy hiMSoH^ at die 
entrance of his htilw 

Tba last damfe had fotty nett^ sftid two droms^ as a cho^^ 
nfs. Itconsistipd <if^sixVf iben> who bad nt>t i)aiie#d befenei 
<nsposed in three rows> bating t#enty^ft>ur in front. Bot^ 
before they begftn^ we were entertlsibied' with a ft^tf long 
preliminary )iaran^ue> in* wfaieh the- whole body liiMe fo^ 
sponses to a sing}e pelrsoa who^spoke^ Tbdy reellad sen-^ 
tences (perhaps verses) altermitely with th^ ebo^mr^ and 
made many motions with the pkgge, in a ^nr brisk aMto^ 
which were all appltad^ with mdnuil 9>xiAfi^a^! w^rdi 
expressing two dtffcfrent degrees of p#aise. They dbvided 
into two bodMs, with thistr baeks to eia^h other; formed 
agntn^ shifted their ranks^ as in the other dances | dhided 
and retreated, making f ooiif for two ebampimis^ who efSDer* 
cised tfaeir chibs as before; and after them two others| Uvs 
daneer«> all thc^ tinie> reehing slowly in torn with tbe^eho^ 
r»s ; after which they advanced and finished^ * ** 

'Itiese danees^ if they ean^ properly be caikd sO^ Jasbsd 
^m eleven till near^bree o'cJoeki and thoog^ thay were, 
doubdes% intend^^ panictilaarly^ eithef In honour ^ns^ or 
to sbew a speGtoien Vif tbetr dext^ity/ vast ntfnlMnrB of tbar 
ow» peopk attended as spectators* Tbetr nHtiabers covM 
jaot be computed exactly^ ott MCMM of th« ifieqailitf of 

the 



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tlM grooiiA; Imt^ hy tMkMiM; the imi^ irftdei an4 ilw 
mmiSer ia iepiby whkh wa» between MV!teniy^«nd^tbifigrl«f 
many places, we auppctted ltia« thett^ tiMial b« mm fbtir ihmi* 
ftuid. At th&Mmf ttme^. there mtmnnand tbe trading ^pkce 
at tha teat, and alwgglkig aboa«i al feaat a^ atanymeM^ 
aad f ome of oa o€Miimilifldt ihat, at ibii t)n^, there were not 
less tliMi ten Off twelw tboiiMiid peot»le ia oar oeigb^oiiiv 
hood ; thai is^ wUhki Ae covbffMrQt a quat tev of avaotle-; 
dmwn logetber^for the moai pari^ by menK cariopiljr^ 
• It k with regret I mentiooj, that we coaM not wadervtati^ 
what wwt spok6D> while we were aUe to ^^. wJhal; wad aeted^ 
in tbe«6 amuiettetitsr This^ doatelessi wi»ti4d haT0 afforded 
m aruob- mfoiHiiattoii, a» to 4he.geiM9S aod'Castom^'of Attwa 
peo^e. . It was pbserwUe^ thai, tfaaaghf the spoeuitors^ai^ 
waysapproved <^ the varioos tnotiom, inrben^elitmndff^ a 
gieet ahaie c^ the pleaaure they r^etted seeaved' to ariao 
from the seottmealfupart, or what the perforaiera deli«c»oA 
kk^Am tpeeofaes. ' Howeveri the aiere actiag part, tad^ 
peadeaily of the seateiices repeatedi utie well worth oiir Miw 
tiee, hfota with w^peet to the ex^adif e plan on which it w«ul 
executed^ and to the yarioas motions, aa well a» the exace 
an^l!^, witb wbioh they were petforaied; Neither peocil nor 
penioaa despiihe-theAttneroua^aetioaaaiid motioaif^, Ibfessitsh* 
gularity oi whicli wa* ool gi»ater> than was the ease and 
gracefaliiei9 with wbicb tb^ wm« perforned. > 

At. night; we were enlertaioedw^'.the fcaaxi, ortiigh^ 
daMefi^ on a tpaee beibre Fei^ap^V tepipiarary bahi tattoo. 
Thcjir lasted about thr^e hours ; m wl|Mh4iaie we had about 
twelve of them performed, laaeb^aifaw t)ia fame manner a# 
those at Hepaee; , But, in two^4hat aiere performed by wo^ 
zaea, a nambeir of men came andifonned a oireli^ wrtbiar 
theirV And> in another^ consisting of tweaty^tbur meUy 
t^re were a number of motioi^ wiUi the baods^ that w<r 
bad not seen before, and were highly applauded* The mu- 
sic was, ako, oaee changed, in the course of the oiebt ; «nd 
in one of the dances, Feeaoa appeared^ the head of Rhf 
meo who had performediSt Hepaee, and he was well dress-^ 
edwith linen, a large piece of gauze>.aod some Utile pictaree 
Itovg iwnd his oeckf But it was evb^cnt, after the dlvwr«^ 
sionswere closed, that we had pattbete poor people^ off^ra** 
ther that they had put theniselves,.to UEiach inoonvemeaioej 
Vor being drawn tMetlier on this uninhAbited parl(.of.tbeir 
island, aumbers of vk^ask were ol^liged^to Ije.dotfiajind sleep- 
under 



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i 



4Q0 Modem Cireimmaf0igaUom^ past hi. book hi, 

under the bushes^ by the'side of li tree^'or ofia <Hinoe; naji 
many either lay down in the' open air^ which they are aot 
fond of, or walked about all the night* 

The whole of this entertainment was conduct^ with iar 
better order, than could have been expected in ao large aa 
assembly. Amongst such a multitude, there must be a noiih 
ber of ill-disposed people ; and we> bQurly» esperieoced it 
All oar care and attention did not prevent their plundering 
us, in every quarter ; and that in the most daring and iiiMK. 
lent manner. There was hardly any thing that they did not 
attempt to steal ; and yet, as the crowd was always so.greaty 
I would not allow the sentries to fire, lest the innooent 
should suffer for the guilty. They once, at noon day, ven- 
tured to aim at taking an anchor from off the Discpvei/s 
bows ; and they would certainly have succeed^d^ if the 
flook had not hiooked one of the chain-plates in lowerisg 
down the ship's side, from which they could not disengage 
it by hand ; and tackles were things they were uoacquaiDt- 
ed with. The only act of violence they were guilty of, wn 
the breaking the shoulder-bone of one of our goats, so that 
she died soon after. This loss fell upon themselves, as she 
was one of those that I intended to leave upon the islaad; 
but of this, the person who did it was ignorant. 

Early in the morning of the 18tb, ao incident happened, 
that strongly marked one of their customs. A man got out 
of a cano6 into the quarter gallery of the Resolution,. and 
stole from thence a pewter bason. He Was discoveved, por- 
fued, and brought alongside the ship. On this occasioo; 
tliree old women, who were in the canoe, made loud lamen- 
tations over the prisoner, beating their breasts and faces in 
a most violent manner, with the inside of their fists; and 
all this was done without shedding a tear. : This mode of 
expressing grief is what occasions the mark which almost 
all this people bear on the face, over the cheekrbones. 
The repeated blows which they inflict upon this .parti 
abrade the skin, and make even the^blood flow out in a 
considerable quantity ; and when the woupds are recent, 
they look as if a hollow circle had been burnt in. Oft 
many occasions, they actually cut this part of the fiace 
with an instrument, in the same manner. as the people of 
Otaheite cut their heads. 

This day, I bestowed on Mareewagee some presents, in 
return for those we had received from him the day before; 

and 



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egaj^Tjf ii. sscr. m. Cook, Ckrke, and Gore^ 4QI 

and as the entertainmenU which he had theq exhibited for 
our amusement^ called upon us tp make soine exhibition ii^ 
our way, I ordered the party of marines to go throt^l^ 
their exercise on the spot where hig dances had been per- 
formed ; and, in the evening, played off spipe 0re-wofks at 
ihe same place. Poulaho, with all the, principal chiefs, 
and a jgreat number of people, of all deripmiijiations, were 
present. The platoon firmg, whicli was executed tolerably 
well, seemed to. give them pleasure ; but they w?re lost in 
aslonishn^ent when they behelii our water-rockets. They 

Said but little attention ti) the fife and (}n^,ab. oi; Frenph 
orns that played during the iotervaW." Jt^e^King sat be- 
hind every body, because ho one is allowed to sit behin4 
him ; and, that his view might not be obstructed, lipbody 
sat immediately before him ; but a lane, as it Were, was 
made by the people from him, quite down to the space 
allotted for the fire-works. 

In expectation of this- evening show, the. circle of native9 
about oqr tent being pretty large, they engaged, the greatr 
est part of the aftiernoop, in, poking and wrestling ; the 
first of which exercises they call^i^a^ooa, and the 8econ4 
Jbohoo. When any of them chooses to wrestle^ be gets i^p 
from one side of ttW rin]^, and crosses the ground in a sort 
of measured pace» clapping smartly on t|[ie elbow joint o^ 
one arm, which is bent, and produces a hollow sound ; tha^ 
is reckoned the challenge. If no person comes out from 
the opposite side to engage him^^ he returns in the sam^ 
manher, and sits down ; out sometimes stands clap(>ing ic^ 
the midst of the ground, to provoke some one to come out 
If an opponent appear, they come togethjpr with marks of 
the greatest good-nature, generally smiling, and taking 
time to adjust the piece of cloth which is fastened round 
the waist. They then lay hold of each other by this gir- 
dle, with a hand on each side ; and be who succeeds in 
drawing his antagonist to him, immediately tries to lift hin^ 
upon his breast, and throw him upon his back ; and if he 
be able to turn round wjth him two or three times, in that 
position, before he throws him, his dexterity never fails of 
procuring plaudits from the spectators* If they be more 
.equally matched, they close soon, and endeavour to throw 
each other by entwining their legs, or lifting each othcf: 
from the ground ; in which struggles they shew aprodi^ 
gious exertion of strength, every muscle, as it were, being 
VOL* XV. 2 c *^ ready 



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402 Modem Circumnavigations, j^art iti. booA: ik. 

ready to burst with straining. When one is thrown, he 
in^jmediately quits the fields but the victor sits down for a 
few seconds^ then gets up^ and goes to the side be came 
from, who proclaim the victory aloud, in a sentence de- 
livered slowly, and in a musical cadence. After sitting a 
short space, he rises again and challenges ; when some- 
times several antagonists make their appearance ; but he 
has the privilege of choosing whidh of them he pleases to 
wrestle with ; and has, likewise, the preference of challeng- 
ing agafh, if he should throw his adversary, until he him- 
self be vanquished ; and then the opposite side sing the 
song of victory in favour of their champion. It also often 
happens, that five or six rise from each side, and challenge 
together ; in which case, it is common to see three or four 
couple engaged on the field at once. But it is astonishing 
to see what temper they preserve in this exercise ; for we 
observed no instances of their I'eaving the spot, with the 
least displeasure in their countenances. Wnen they find 
that they are so equally matched as not to be likely to 
throw each other, they leave off by mutual consent. And 
if the fall of one is not fair, or if it does not appear very 
clearly who has had the advantage, both sides sing the vic- 
tory, and then they engage again. But no person^ who 
has been vanquished, can engage with his conqueror a se* 
cond time. 

The boxers advance side-ways, changing the side at 
every pace, with one arm stretched fully out before, the 
other behind ; and holding a piece of cord in one hand> 
which they wrap firmly about it, when they find an anta- 
gonist, or else nave done so before they enter. This, I 
imagine, they do, to prevent a dislocation of the hand or 
fingers. Their blows are directed chiefly to the head ; but 
sometimes to the sides ; and are dealt out with great acti- 
vity. They shift sides, and box equally well with both 
hands. But oue of their favourite and most dextrous blows, 
is; to turn round on their heel, just as they have struck 
their antagonist, and to give him another very smart one 
with the other hand backward. 

The boxing matches seldom last long ; and the parties 
either leave off together, or one acknowledges his being 
beat. But they never sing the song, of victory in these 
cases, unless one strikes his adversary to the ground ; which 
shews, tbat^ of the two, wrestling is their most approved 

diversioQ. 



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CHAF. ii.^ECT. VII. C6ok,Ckrke, and Gore. 403 

diversion. Not only boys engage, in both the exercises,' 
but frequently little girls box very obstinately for a ah,6tt 
time., In all which case^^ it doth not appear,. that they, 
ever consider it as the smallest disgrace to be vanquished ;^ 
ahd the person overcome sits 'dotvn, with a;^ much indiffer-' 
ence, as if he had iieyer entered the lists. S0me of bur 
people ventured to contend with them in both exercises, 
but were always worsted ; except in a few instances, where 
it appeared^ thkt the fear they were in of oflTending us, con-' 
tributed ^ore to the victoi^, than the superiority of the* 
person they engaged. i • ' 

The cattle, which we had brought, a^d \^hich were alV. 
on shores however carefully guarded, I was sensible, run no 
small risk^ when I considered the thievish disposition of 
many of rtie patitcs/ and their dexterity in appropriating 
to themselves; by stealth, what they saw no prospect' of ob- ' 
taining'by fair means. For this reason, I thought it pru- 
dent to declare my intenthin of leaving behln^ ^^® some of, 
our animals ; and even to make a distribution of them pre ; 
vioasly to, my departure. ' . . [ 

With thi^ view, in thcf evening of ih^ Iptb, laks^mbled' 
all the ^h}d^. before our honse^ and my inteiided presents 
to them were marked out*.' To Poulahb,' the king, I gave 
a young English bull and <jow; to Mareewagee, a Cape 
ram, and twb ewes ; and to Feenou, a horse and a ihare.' 
As my design, to make such a distribution, had been made 
known the day before, most of the people in the neigh«- 
bourhood were then present/ I instructed Omai to tell 
them, that there were no such animals within inany months 
sail of their island; that we had brought them, for their 
use, from that immense distance, at a vast trouble and ex- 
pence ; that, therefore, they must be careful not to kill any 
of them, till they had multiplied to a numerous race ; and, 
Iastly> that they and their children ought to remeuiber, 
that they had received them from the m^n of Britane. He 
alsoexpliained to them their several Uses, ahd what else 
was hecesi^ry for them to know, or rather as far as he 
knew ; for Omai was not very well versed in such things 
himself. As 1 intended that the above presents should re- 
main with the other cattle, till we were ready to sail, I de- 
sired each of the chiefs to send a man or two to look after 
their respective animals, along with my people, in order 
that they might be better acquainted with them, and with 

th^ 



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4(H Modern Circumna^igaiiom. VARTuif^QOK in. 

the manner of freezing them. The king aad Feeaou did 
sb. ; but neither ISlareewage^, nox any other person for biip, 
took the least notice of the sheep afterward ; nor did old 
Toobon attentat this meetinkj though b^ waa iftTited, and 
was in the neighbourhood. I had meant to give faim the 
coats^ viz. a riam and two ewes ; whichj as be waf .so indif- 
ferent abqut i\\pfp$ I added to the king's share. 

It spon appeared^ that fome were dissatis^fl with this 
allotment of our animals ; for^ early n^xi qiorpingy one of 
pur kids, and two ti)rkey-CQckS| were mifisiiig. X^^ovld no^ 
be so simple as to suppose, that this was merely ^n acci- 
denial loss ; apd- 1 was determined to have tb^m. agqin. 
The first step I took was to seize on three canoes that hap- 
pened to be alongside the i|hips. I. then, went ashore^ andj 
having found, the king, his brother, .il^^e^Qa^iiDd some 
other chiefs, iq the house that we occupiedi'I imoiediately 
put a guard owex them^ and gave them to undeistaiid. that 
they must reyiain under restraint^ till npt only the kid and 
the turkevS| j|)^t the other things that had beea stolen from 
US, at different times, were restored.. They coi|i<;ealed> as 
If ell ai| tljiey o^^ld, their feelingly oi^ findipg^U^fa^elves 
prisoners; ana, having assured m(e,^that every^p^ should 
be restored, ^s I desired^ .s^t doiyn to drink ij^ur ftoraj 
s^eemii^ly much at their ease*. It was not long before an 
axe, and an jrpn wedjgej were brought to me« in«tfae mean 
tiime^ s^m^ a^med natives began, to gather behind the hpnse ; 
but, on a part pf pur guard marching against tbem» they 
dispe^rsed ; and I advised the chiefs to.give order^j thatrno 
more should appear. Such orders were accordingly given 
by them, and they were obeye^. On asking them to go 
aboard with me to dinner, they readily consented* But 
some haying afterward objec^ted to the king's goi^,^ he in- 
stantly rojBe up> and declared h^ would be the ^rst man. 
Accordingly we came on board. I kept them there till 
Bear four o^clock^j when I conducted them ashore; and, 
^oon aftej, the kid, and one of the turJfey^coQkSji weie 
brought back*. The other, th^y said^ shpuld ^ leafored 
the next morifing. I believed t^is would happen^ and re- 
leased both them and the canoes. 

After th^ chiefs had left us^ t walki^d out with Omai, to 
observe how the people about us f»red y lor ^