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■I 



%, 



A GUIDE 



TO 



THE MALTESE ISLANDS, 



BY THE 



Reyd. p. N. Godwin, 

CHAPLAIN TO THE FORCES. 



MALTA: 

PRINTED BY PAOLO BONAVIA :— M.DOCC.LXXX. , 

LONDON: W. Whittingham and Co. 91, Gracechm-ch Street, 
MALTA. "W. Watson, 248 Strada Reale, 
L. Cbitien, 28 Strada S. GioyoTim- 
Also from the Author, and cW "BwiV^^^T^* 

[All Bights Resefiroed-^ 

^ JC ^ >^ 






■• /.% 



'4 



■< 



i!>y 









DEDICATED 

(by permission) 

WITH MUCH EESPECT 

TO 

HIS EXCELLENCY 

GEN. SIR ARTHUR BORTON, K. C. B. 

GOVERNOR 
AND COMMANDER IN CHIEF 

IN 
MALTA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES. 



.. D--©*-r^*wMijr iurm put <« ^asm^^ ^>SMC ^«^ ^sr^ 



JPJ^:EijT ]PII^ST 



CHAPTER I. 
The Maltese Islands. 

Situation. — Dimensions. — Bays and Inlets, — Population. — 
Wages. — Food. — Greatest elevation of the islands. — Appearance 
from the sea. — The ancient Athalantis. — Evidenees of diminution 
of area. 

THE Maltese islands, viz., Malta, Gozo, Oomino, and 
Cominotto, are situated at a greater distance from 
the mainland than any others in the Mediterranean. 
They occupy an area S. E. by E. and N. W. by W. 
true 8| leagues. Cape S. Demetri the N. W. extremity 
of Gozo is in lat. 36^. 3^ long. 14° 10' and 50 miles 
S. B. i E. from the S. E. point of Pantellaria; Benghisa 
Point, to the S. B. of Malta being in lat. 35° 49^ Ion. 
14° 33 J'. The axis of the group, 29 miles in length, 
runs from S. E. to N. W. in the same direction as the 
Apennines. The eastern extremity of Malta is 55 miles 
S. S. W. i W, from Gape Passaro, and 54 miles S. J IS. 
from Cape Scalambri in Sicily. Cape San Demitri in 
Gozo is distant from Cape 8calambri S. S. W. rather 
southerly, 46 miles. The intervening strait is called 
the Malta Channel. Cape Spartivento the nearest point 
of the Italian mainland is 190 miles away; nor will Cape 
Bon on the African shore be reached nntil nearly 200 
miles of sea have been traversed. Malta and the adjacent 
islands which are officially styled it^ ^^Sl'S^^xA^s^^^'^ 
now geographically form part o£ 'Eixvro'^e, ^\S^^^ ^"^ ^^"^ 



I 



8 

climate and prodactions they have much in common 
with Africa. Malta itself is 17i miles long, 9 J broad, 
and about 60 miles in circumference. A boat sailing 
round it would traverse some 44 miles. Its area is esti- 
mated at 95 statute square miles, and its longest day is 
14 hours 52 minutes. Its principal ports are the Great 
and Quarantine Harbours of Valetta which are separat- 
ed by Mount Sceberras on which the city is built. Of 
these we shall speak hereafter. There are also on the 
northern shores the Bays of Melleha, St. Paul, Saline, 
•Maddalena, St. George, St, Julian, Marsa Scala, St. 
Thomas and Marsa Scirocco, several of which could be, 
and have often been, extensively used by shipping. 
The straits of Freghi or Flieghi separate Malta from 
Gozo. They are about four miles in width, sufficiently 
deep to be navigated by large vessels, and wash the 
shores of the two small islands of Oomino and Comi- 
notto, which lie between the larger ones of the Maltese 
group. Comino and Cominotto are two miles long by 
one broad. Gozo is 9 miles in length and five in 
breadth. On the northern shore of Gozo are the Bays 
of Ramla and Marsa el Forn, and on the southern those 
of Sclendi and Dueyra. But for the most part landing 
is impracticable on the southern shore of either Malta 
or Gozo as precipitous cliffs rise sheer from the 
water's edge, frequently to a height of several hun- 
dred feet. There is also off the southern shore of 
Malta a small island named Filfla from the Arabic 
word ^^FilfeP' which means a "peppercorn," on ac- 
count of its diminutive size. About one third of 
Malta and Gozo is bare rock, and only one half is 
actually under cultivation. This renders it the more 
surprising that so large a nnmber of people can find 
existence here. 



9 

The population of Mialta, excluding the army and 
Navy, accordincf to the census taken in 1871, was 
124,384, that of Gozo being 17,391, making a total 
of 141,775. The present population is (1880) about 
152,000. Malta with an area of 95 statute square 
miles has a population of nearly 1500 per square 
mile, and Gozo with an area of 20 square miles, 
has a population of 900 per square mile. But ex- 
cluding the one third of the island which is unsuitable 
of cultivation, and the area occupied by buildings, 
the population of Malta reaches the enormous num- 
ber of 2000 persons per square mile. Something 
must be done and that speedily to relieve this ever 
increasing and but too often impoverished mass of 
striving, toiling humanity. A few statistics as to wa- 
ges, &c., may be of interest. Of a total Maltese popu- 
lation of 149,270 a Government report estimates the 
working classes to number 112,360 and the non-ma- 
nual classes 33,910. 

The P. & 0. Company pay the men who coal 
their steamers 2s, 6d. per diem but the generality 
of Maltese coalheavers only earn from Is, 6cZ. to Is, 
8d. daily. The boatmen who ferries you across the 
harbour gets on the average from Is, to la. 4d. per 
diem, the porter earns Is, and the carter lOd. daily. 

The best paid artisans are skilled engravers, 
who earn from 2s. to 5^. per diem according to ' 
ability. Compositors earn from lOd. to Is, Sd,, shoe- 
makers Is, to Is.Sd,, the makers of common cigars 
id, to 7id., spinners 2Jc?. per diem. Gardeners re- 
ceive from Is, 6d. to 2s, 6d. daily, agricultural 
labourers Is, Oid. to Is, 8d, women employed in 
field labour from 4d. to lOd, Only t^^-^^SJ^Sosw A 
the meat eaten on the island \& lioija&xixcfik^ ^s^ "^^"^ 



10 

# 

Maltese, the remainder being required by the En- 
glish population. The boatman eats about 4 lbs. 
8 oz., of bread or ^asta every day, the farm labourer 
5 lbs., and the artisan 3^- lbs., at a cost of S^c?. 
per rotolo of 28 oz. A little oil, fish, or cheap 
Sicilian cheese forms a relish to this frugal fare, 
which, when times are good is moistened with from 
half a pint to a pint of common Sicilian wine. 
Brandy, costing 4s. 6d, per gallon, is largely con- 
sumed. 'Many a dweller in the Fior del Mondo or 
the Flower of the World as the Maltese love to 
call their rocky home knows full well, from hard 
experience the meaning of that oft repeated phrase 
"the battle of life." 

The highest point of Malta is a rising ground near 
Casal Dingli, elevated 750 feet above sea level. The 
hill of Dibiegi 743 feet above the level of the sea is 
the greatest elevation of which Gozo can boast. The 
Maltese islands are visible at a distance of 24 miles 
and when seen from the sea have the appearance 
of low-lying shores intersected by channels and 
ravines. The want of trees and the numerous stone 
walls which divide the fields give a dreary and bar- 
ren appearance to the landscape. But there are 
minds on which colour makes a deeper impression 
than form, and there is something in the contrast 

* between that burnt yellow soil, the intense white 
of the limestone where exposed, the dark verdure 
of the caroubier and other scanty trees which leaves 
its mark upon the memory when the vividness of 
far fairer scenes has faded away, and sunsets 
steal over these waters the glowing gold of which 

, an artist may well despair of imitating. Many of 

' /^^ heights in Gozo are cone shaped. 



11 

These islands are supposed with good reason to 
have formed part of a much larger tract of land 
now submerged, and which was either a large island 
or islands, or else formed part of Europe or Afri- 
ca, if not of both. Signer Borzesi has done his 
best to prove that Malta, Gozo, and Comino re- 
present the summits of lofty mountains belonging 
to the island of Athalantis, £^nd brings forward 
many classical quotations in support of his theory. 
Signer Grongnet bad formerly in his possession a 
stone which it is said was dug up at Gitta Vec- 
chia in May 1826, on which was an inscription des- 
cribing Athalantis, and also another to the effect 
that the consul Tiberius Sempronius in the year of 
Eome 536 had ordered the preservation of this stone. 
A fine field for discussion is here open to Arch- 
asologists. It is evident that Malta has diminish- 
ed in size during the historic period. On the south- 
ern shore are to be seen near Fom-e-Rieh cart 
tracks which extend to the very edge of a cliff 
some 80 feet in height. Similar ruts are also to 
be seen at the St. George's Creek of the Bay of 
Marsascirocco and at Marfa from whence passengers 
take boat for Gozo. 



12 

CHAPTER II. 

Historical Outline. 

Malta in the days <3f the Giants. — The PhoBnioians, Greeks, 
Carthaginians and Bomans. — Arab Bole. — Arrival of Gouni} 
Boger. — French and German Sovereigns. — The Knights of 
St. John and the Great Siege. — Decay of the Order. — Malta 
surrenders te Buonaparte. — ^Capitulation of General Yaubois. 
— English Governors in Malta. 

fjNE of our sweetest singers has saidt hat we may 

^ departing leave behind ur, 

Footprints on the sands of time^ '' 

and as it is with ourselves so has it been with those 
who have preceded us. Many and varied are the 
nationalities which have found a home ia Malta and 
which have ^ left behind them footprints^ more or 
less distinct. 

The first inhabitants of whom we have any record 
are the Giants who dared to war with Jupiter, and to 
take high heaven by storm. The curious in such matters 
will find a long dissertation on the subject of the Giants 
and their doings in Giantars Malta Illustrata (Book II). 
That most useful but somewhat credulous historian says 
'^But lastly what further testimony can we desire of 
the habitation of the Cyclops than that given us by 
the gigantic bonea found in Malta and their hollow 
burial places cut in the living rock and very often 
of enormous size, as for example a bone which the 
owner of a house used as a cross-bar for the door ? 
^^ ourselves have Been a molar tooth of the thick- 



13 

ness of the finger and an inch in length which 
was extracted from a gigantic head found outside 
Birchircara I" 

Alas for romance and the fabled kingdom 
of the giants ! Dr. Adams clearly shews that 
these remains belonged to some fossil elephant or 
hippopotamus^ and not to any monster in human 
shape ! According to Homer these first gigantic 
inhabitants of Malta were named Phoeacians^ and cal- 
led their island home Hyperia. Eurymedon was their 
sovereign^ but his grandson Nausithous having taken 
part in the great Titanic conspiracy against Jupiter 
shared the fate of his brother jgiants. His subjects 
were either put to the sword or dispersed, some 
of them escaping to people the island of Scheria^ 
(Corfu). The fascinating nymph Calypso is said to 
have had two residences in these islands, viz., one 
in Malta and the other in Gqzo, at one or both 
of which she entertained Ulysses on his return 
from the siege of Troy whilst his wife Penelope 
was waiting for him at home and usefully employ- 
ing herself with plain needlework and shirtmaking. 
But to pass from fiction to reality. At a very 
early date probably about 1400 B. C. those daring 
sailors the PhoDnicians who have been well styled 
'^ the English of antiquity " colonised the island, ' 
changing its name from Hyperia to Ogygia, Some 
authors give the year 1519 B. C, as the date of 
their arrival. They speedily rendered Malta flour- 
ishing and prosperous. 

Traces of their occupation are still to be seen 
ill the ruined temples of Hagiar Khem and Mnai^ 
dra near Krendi, the Giants^ Tower in Qo'w^^ ^ss^^ 
of Melcarte, the Tyrian Hexc\x\^^ *^ Si^-^^^^ ^*l ts^^ss?^' 



14 

near the Bay of MarsaScirocco. Some of the Phoe- 
nician inscriptions which enrich the British Museum 
have been brought to light at Bighi and elsewhere. 
The graves of this mysterious race cover a hillside 
at Bingemma, which is by no means the only rest- 
ing place of their dead in the Maltese islands. Votive 
tablets and coins have also been upturned. In a 
tomb near Benghisa a square slab was found with 
this inscription " The inner chamber of the sanct- 
uary of the sepulchre of Hannibal, illustrious in 
the consummation of calamity. He was beloved ; 
the people lament, when arrayed in order of bat- 
tle, Hannibal the son of Bar Malech.^^ Of course 
many of these vestiges of antiquity belong to the 
second period of Phoenician occupation, when Carth- 
age ruled supreme in these seas. 

Diodorus Siculus says : " There are over against 
that part of Sicily which lies to the south, three 
islands at a distance in the sea, each of which has 
a town and safe ports for ships overtaken by 
tempest. The first called Melite, is about 800 sta- 
dia from Syracuse, and has several excellent ports. 
The inhabitants are very rich, in as much as 
they exercise many trades, and in particular they 
manufacture cloths remarkable for their softness 
and fineness. Their houses are large and splen- 
didly ornamented with projections and stucco. The 
island is a colony of the Phoenicians, who, trading 
to the Western Ocean, used it as a place of refuge, 
because it has excellent ports and lies in the midst 
of the sea. Next to this island is another named 
Gaulus (Gozo), with convenient harbours, which is 
also a colony of Phoenicians.^^ An ancient tiadi- 
^/on asserts that the Phoenicians only took posses- 



15 

sion of the islands after a fierce struggle. They 
were no doubt attracted hither by the convenient 
position of Malta and Gozo as commercial store- 
houses and depots for goods. Diodorus Siculus 
speaks of Gozo as possessing good harbours, a 
statement which shews clearly that the ships of these 
hardy navigators were of no great size. 

For nearly seven centuries Punic governors ruled 
our islands in peace and the worship of Juno in 
the stately temple which stood on the spot now 
occupied by the moat of Fort St. Angelo attract- 
ed crowds of devotees, both native and foreign. But 
troublous times were at hand. Archias of Corinth 
founded Syracuse in 732 B.C., and it is probable 
that Malta changed hands soon afterwards. Some 
authors however variously give 755 B.C., and 786 
B.C., as the date of the arrival of the Grecian 
conquerors, who occupied the centre of the island, leav- 
ing the coast in possession of the natives. The 
form of government during this period was repub- 
lican, with a Senate, high Priest and two Archons. 
Demetrius, son of Diodotus of Syracuse received the 
thanks of the Eepublic of Malta for some signal 
services which he had rendered to the island. Gozo 
now bore the name of Gaulos, Comino that of 
Hephaestia whilst the appellation of Ogygia was 
exchanged for the well known name of Melita or 
Melissa. Some say that Malta was so called '^ from 
the abundance of honey they have there, gathered 
by the bees from the anice seeds and fl^owers 
thereof, which grow on this island abundantly." 0- 
thers again assert that this name was given in 
honour of the Nymph Melita, the davi^^'e^ <:iS.^^- 
reus and Doris. The learned BoOdi%x\» ^'e^^'^ '^'^ 



16 

name of Malta or Maltha from a word meaning 
'Vhite stucco/Vith which according to Diodorus Siculus 
the houses of the natives were ornamented. It is 
also thought that this name is of Phoenician origin 
and derived from the same root as the Hebrew word 
Malet which signifies a refuge or asylum. 

The Greek Ouulos and the Roman Oaulum ap- 
plied to the island of Qozo, mean a cup and pro- 
bably refer to its shape. The name Hephcestia means 
" the island of Vulcan/^ and one author speaks of 
Comino under the name of Lampas or ^*the Lamp." 

The Greeks who did not live on the most 
amicable terms with the original inhabitants, greatly 
extended the trade in Maltese cotton cloths, and 
carried oa a considerable commerce with Sicily. 
Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum, was their firm friend 
and a district near the Boschetto still bears the name 
of Gorghenti from his once famous city. The Greeks 
erected a temple to Proserpine on the heights of 
Mtarfa, and another to Apollo with a theatre at- 
tached, close to the site of the present Sanatorium 
at Citta Vecchia, which city is honourably mentioned 
under the title of Melita. A Greek Pages or village 
seems to have stood near the Bingemma hills, whilst 
another was situated near Zurrico. Greek coins, me- 
dals and inscriptions have also been met with in 
various places. 

About the year 480 B. C. the Carthaginians ob- 
tained possession of Malta. They trafficked in marbles 
and gold from Greece, cotton from Malta, bitumen 
from Lipari, wax, honey, and slaves, from Corsica, 
and iron from Elba. In the year 264 B. C. the 
^irst Punic War broke out and seven years after- 
'ds the Consul Attilius Begulus on his way to 



i{^ 



17 

invade Africa took possession of Malta. After the 
defeat of Regulus by the Carthaginians under Xan- 
tippus the Lacedemonian in the following jear^ the 
Eomans were obliged to retire and Malta again be- 
came subject to Carthage. In 242 B. C. the Con- 
sul Lutatius Catulus gained a great naval victory 
off Trapani, and Malta amongst other islands was 
ceded to Rome. The Carthaginians, whose Punic 
faith is proverbially synonymous with treachery, soon 
returned and resumed possession. In 220 B. C. the 
historian Livy tells ns (Bk. xxi. c. 51): "The con- 
sul Titus Sempronius Gracchus having dismissed Hiero 
king of Syracuse, and having left the praetor to 
defend the coast of Sicily, himself crossed from 
Lilybceum (now Marsala) to the island of Malta which 
was held by the Carthaginians. On his arrival Ha- 
milcar the son of Gisco, the commandant (a brother 
of the famous Hannibal) surrenders to him both the 
town and island with nearly 2000 soldiers. Thence 
after a few days he returned to Lilybceum^ and the 
prisoners taken both by the consul aTid the praetor 
with the exception of those illustrious for their rank 
were publicly sold as slaves.^^ Many of the hapless 
garrison are said to have been Greeks. Thus after 
nearly three centuries of Punic rule, Malta finally 
bowed beneath the yoke of all subduing Rome. 

Although it is impossible to fix the date of their 
arrival with any degree of certainty, it is neverthe- 
less beyond doubt that the Egyptians had for- 
merly settlements here. This is evident from the 
rock chambers discovered in the year 1847 at the 
distance of three fourths of a mile from Citta Vec- 
chia, in the district of Kasam 11 GevdetA^ ^^\a.Sisis^ 

2 



► 



18 

Sarcophagi of terra cotta found at Ghar Barca and 
from other objects preserved in the Malta Museum. 
These Egyptian settlers were, it is thought, con- 
temporaneous with the Phoenicians. In 1694 a golden 
plate covered with Egyptian hieroglyphics was found 
near Citta Vecchia and given to Cardinal Cantani Arch- 
bishop of Naples. 

The Romans treated the inhabitants of the Maltese 
islands, many of whom were of Grecian origin, with 
great kindness, permitting them to continue their 
ancient customs and to be governed by their own 
lawSi Malta retained its name of Melita, and to- 
gether with Gozo was raised to the rank of a Roman 
Municipium, so that the inhabitants enjoyed either 
wholly or in parti the privileges of Roman citi- 
zenship. Many coins and inscriptions have been found 
especially in Gozo, which prove that .the Romans 
did much to restore and beautify the temples of the 
gods and to enlarge the theatre at Citta Vecchia. 
The Government was administered by a Proprs9tor whose 
actions were controlled by the Praetor of Sicily. 
Commerce and manufactures were encouraged and 
Maltese cotton cloths were looked upon as articles 
of luxury at Rome. The temple of Juno in Malta 
was an object of great veneration both to natives 
and foreigners. Even the very pirates who used to 
winter in our harbours refrained from laying sacri- 
legious hands upon its treasures. But the tempta- 
tion proved too strong for Verres the avaricious praetor 
of Sicily, as we know from the orations of Cicero, 
(in Verrem. iv. 46.) One of the Generals of Massi- 
nissa King of Numidia took from this temple some mas- 
sive pieces of exquisitively carved ivory and presented 
ihem to his sovereign, who accepted them not knowing 



19 

whence they had come from. On learning the truth, the 
king at once restored them with all due solemnity. 
This story Cicero did not fail to turn to good ac- 
count when detailing the iniquities of the rapacious 
Verres. 

Some remains of a. vast mole of Eoman work- 
manship have been discovered near the head of the 
Grand Harbour. In the year 58 B. C. the ship- 
wreck of St. Paul, recorded by St. Luke, is believed 
to have taken place in the bay which bears his name. 
Tradition assigns February 10th as the date of this 
important event. It is said that during the three 
months' stay of the Apostle in these islands he con- 
verted the inhabitants and his fellow voyagers to 
the faith of Christ, the dwellers at Naxaro being 
the fii'st to receive Christian baptism. On his de- 
parture for Rome he is reported to have consecrated 
St. Publius who afterwards suffered martyrdom at 
Athens, as first Bishop of the Church in Malta. 

In 337 A. D. the Roman Empire was divided 
amongst the three sons of Constantino the Great, 
viz., Constantine, Constantius and Constans, Malta, 
with Italy, Illyria, and Africia was assigned to the 
latter. The Empire, reunited under Theodosius, was 
at his death again divided between his sons, Honorius 
reigning in the West, and Arcadius in the East. 
The dominions of Arcadius comprised the whole of 
Greece, Egypt, the provinces of Western Asia, and 
the islands of the Mediterranean. Malta therefore 
for several centuries formed part of the Eastern Roman, 
or, as it was afterwards called, the Byzantine Em- 
pire. 

Some historians assert that first the Vandals ^-^^ 
afterwards the Goths made ttiem^^\Ne^ xx^^'^Xfcx's* cji 



I 



20 

Malta^ but that the latter were expelled by Belisarins 
in the year 534 A. D. This is however somewhat 
doubtful. For 475 years, viz., from 899 A. D. to 
870 A. D. the Maltese islands, concerning which 
during this period little or nothing is known seem 
to have remained as dependencies of the Eastern 
Empire. 

The Arabs were the next to take possession 
of Malta. Tradition recounts various predatory in- 
cursions at an earlier date, but it seems certain 
that in the year 870 A. D. they made a descent 
upon Gozo from whence they crossed over to the 
larger island. All the Greeks to the number^ it is 
said, of 3000, were put to the sword, and 3614 women 
and children sold for 5000 pieces of gold. The 
government of the island was assumed by an Arab- 
ian Emir. Some historian say that the Arabs 
treated the Maltese inhabitants with great kindness, 
allowing them the free exercise of their religion, but 
from other evidence it seems far more probable 
that Christianity was proscribed here as elsewhere, 
and that the Christians were obliged to assemble 
for worship in crypts, catacombs, and similar places. 
The catacombs at Citt4 Vecbhia are believed by 
many to have been excavated during this period. 
The Arabs altered the name of Citta Vecchia 
from Melita to Medina or the "Great City,^* streng- 
thened its fortifications, and diminished its area, 
so as to render it more capable of defence. In 
order to protect the Great Harbour they erected 
a castle on the site of the present Port St. Angelo. 
Arabic coins and a stone on which is a touching 
epitaph have been discovered together with other 
reilca of Arab dominion. But the most lasting 



21 

memorial which remains to us is the Maltese lan- 
guage of which the late Mr. Schlienz says '' that 
all its words, with the exception of a very few 
are purely Arabic and conform in every respect to 
the rules, nay even to the anomalies of the Arabic 
grammar. ^' This remark applies more fully to Gozo 
and the casals or villages than to Valletta. The Arab 
rulers and their Maltese subjects frequently sallied 
forth from their harbours bent on piracy and plun- 
der. The Byzantine Emperors in vain endeavoured 
to check their ravages, and on one occasion their 
admirals Nicetas and Manianes were put to flighty 
although in command of a considerable force. 

But in the year 1090, Count Roger, the son of 
Tancred de Hauteville, after almost entirely expell* 
ing the Arabs from Sicily arrived in Malta^ where 
he was gladly welcomed by the Christian natives as 
a deliverer. After a short siege the city of Medina 
fell into his hands. The terms of surrender were that 
the Emir should have full liberty to quit the 
island, together with his property and all those who 
wished to share his fortunes;* that a certain number 
of horses, mules and warlike stores should be given 
up ; that all Christian slaves should be set at liberty ; 
and that the Arabs who chose to remain in the 
island should pay an annual tribute. Many Arabs 
continued to reside in Malta until the year 1243, A. D. 
when by order of the Emperor Frederick, they 
were conveyed to Nocera in Apulia. 

Count Roger erected a fortress at Citta Vecchia 
which was afterwards dismantled by royal authority 
in 1455, strengthened *^tlie Castle on the Rock^^ now 
Fort St. Angelo, and rebuilt the rum^^ ^^K^'^^^-t'^ 
in the ancient capital. Malta "havrng 'b^^T^.^ot ^^^ -^vi»x'^ 



22 

without a regular succession of bishops, Count Roger 
presented to Pope Urban II. a pious priest named 
Walter (Gualtieri) for consecration. He also establi- 
shed in Malta a Popular Council for the government 
of the people, composed of nobles, clergy, and 
elected members. The Arabs were treated with 
lenity, and allowed to issue gold coins with the 
motto " There is but one God and Mahomet is the 
Prophet of God " and on the reverse " King 
Roger. ^* The Arms and Standard of Malta consist- 
ing of the two colours white and red were grant- 
ed by Count Roger, and were taken from his own 
escutcheon. Having settled the affairs of Malta, 
the Count returned to Sicily taking with him many 
liberated Christian slaves, and died at Mileto in 
Calabria at the age of 70 in the year 1101. A. D. 
The Arabs who had not quitted the island were 
not content to remain as a subject race. Accord- 
ingly in the year 1122, they conspired to massa- 
ere the Christians whilst the latter were occupied 
with the religious servibes of Holy Week. The 
plot was discovered, and the Christians attacked 
their would-be assassins at the fountain known as 
Ghain Clieb (on the roadside between Citt^ Vecchia and 
Bingemma), with shouts of "Kill the Dogs,^* from 
whence the fountain derives its present name of 
" the Dogs^ well. ^' Overpowered, the Arabs fled 
to a natural stronghold called Kalaa tal Bahria or 
" the fortress on the shore " where they held out 
for some time, until King Roger I arrived from 
Sicily with a fleet, and compelled them to surren- 
der. Some of the chief conspirators were put to 
deaih and others banished to Barbary. 



23 

In spite of strenuous eJBTorts made by the By- 
zantine Emperor Emmanuel Commenus in 1114, A. D. 
Malta remained subject to King Eogef. During 
the reigfn of his son King Tancred, Malta and Gozo 
became a County and Marquisate. William the Fat, 
Grand Admiral of Sicily was one of its lords. By 
the marriage of Constance, the posthumous daughter 
of King Koger I, to Henry II. Emperor of Ger- 
many, the son of the famous Frederic Barbarossa, 
Malta and Gozo passed under German rule for 72 
years. In the year 1224 the inhabitants of Celano 
in Calabria were transported hither, and did much 
to improve the condition and increase the pro- 
sperity of the island. 

During the reigns of Henry VI. and his son 
Frederic II. the Maltese earned great renown at sea. 
Under the command of a native admiral they 
attacked and destroyed a squadron of the Republic 
of Pisa which was threatening Syracuse, took the 
island of Oandia from the Venetians, after destroy- 
ing their fleet, and taking prisoner their admiral 
Andrea Dandalo. The battle of Benevento on Febr. 
26th. 1266, placed Charles^ of Anjou on the throne 
of Naples and Sicily and put an end to the rule 
of the German Emperors in Malta. In 1282, the 
terrible massacre known as the Sicilian Vespers 
took place and Peter III. King of Aragon was 
crowned King of Sicily with the title of Peter I. 
It is said on insufficient grounds that the plot 
from which the Sicilian Vespers resulted was 
arranged in Malta. A fierce contest took place off- 
the mouth of the Grand Harbour which decided 
the fate of Malta. The French. ^4.\ii\t^ ^'^^^^^ 
name is variously given aa ^tJX\wxi CjOircL^'t^ ^^'^^ 



24 

niero^ Corneille, and Coma was defeated and slain^ 
and the Aragonese fleet entered the Marsamuscetto 
Harboar in triumph. The town surrendered at 
discretion^ and was obliged to furnish provisions 
as well as 2,500 crowns by way of contribution. 

Charles of Anjou ruled over the islands for 18 
years during which period the condition of the 
inhabitants was pitiable in the extreme. Nor was 
it improved under the government of the Arago- 
nese monarchs. During the whole of this period 
the Popular Council established by Count Boger 
retained its influence. Its members were elected 
from the clergy, nobles, honourable citizens, pro- 
fessors of arts and liberal sciences, traders, and 
artizans. Each head of a family possessed the 
franchise. ' The superior clergy and the proprietors 
were also represented, and the casals each sent 
from one to three deputies to the Assembly. Amongst 
other privileges this Popular Council used when 
the See was vacant to present three names to. 
the Sovereign one of whom was to be ap- 
pointed Bishop. The Genoese led by Tommaso 
Morchio attacked Malta in 1371. 

Over' and over again were these islands given 
as a fief or mortgaged by the Kings of Aragon or 
by the Castilian monarchs who succeeded them in 
the year 1412. The Maltese were terribly oppressed 
by their feudal lords and complained with justice to 
Prince Louis son of King Peter II. A solemn pledge 
was given at Messina on Oct. 7th. 1350, that the 
Maltese Islands should be united in perpetuity to 
Sicily, and that the inhabitants should enjoy the same 
^privileges as those of any other city in the king- 
Hbo?. Also that under no pretext of lordship should 



25 

the islands be transferred to any private person. These 
promises were speedily broken. King^ Martin soon 
afterwards mortgaged or sold Malta and 6ozo first 
to Don Antonio CordoVfi, Viceroy of Sicily in 1420, 
and afterwards in 1425 to Don Gonsalvro Monroi^ a 
wealthy Spaniard, for 30,000 golden florins, (about 
£15,000). Monroi And his family ruled the island 
for two years until the natives weary of his oppres- 
sions determined to make a vigorous effort for free- 
dom. They therefore rose against hhn, seized his . 
ships, and forcibly carried off his wife Dame Con- 
stance as a hostage. They then offered to repay the 
sum for which the islands had been mortgaged. The 
offer was accepted, the money was paid, and King 
Alfonso confirmed the previous grant of 1350 by a 
decree signed at Valencia on June 20th, 1428, which 
conferred upon the Maltese the same privileges as 
those enjoyed by the citizens of Palermo, Messina, 
and Catania. On this occasion the ancient capital 
received the name of Notabile. Kiug Alphonso hav- 
ing spoken of it as "Jocale Notabile regise coronae," 
the brightest jewel of his crown, 

Uutil the year 1530, no other cession of the 
islands took place. In 1427 an army of Moors 18,000 
strong invaded Malta, and were pressing the gar- 
rison hard, when, it is said, that St. Paul, accom- 
panied by St. George and St. Agatha completely 
routed and dispersed the enemy. 

Plague followed in the train of war, and the po- 
pulation of Malta which before the Moorish invasion 
amounted to 24,000 whilst Gozo had 8,000 inhabi- 
tants, was terribly diminished and the survivors left 
in great poverty and misery. About this tim.^ \s!ir».- 
sures were taken to provide Wi ^SvaVetL\»xsSc^^aA.^2s^ 



ua 



26 

also a cavalry force, 200 strong. The Maltese were 
forbidden to arm ships under a penalty of 1000 
florins. On April 16th, 1431, King Alphonso, in con- 
sideration of the poverty of Malta and Gozo granted 
them full exemption from custom house dues in 
Sicilian ports. In 1466 the Jews resident in Malta, 
petitioned that they might no longer be under the 
jurisdiction of the Hakem or Captain of the Rod at 
Citta. Vecchia, and that they might cease to wear 
the Little Red Wheel, This was a round piece of 
red cloth which men and women alike were obliged 
to wear constantly on their breasts, as a distinctive 
badge of nationality, under a penalty of 15 days 
imprisonment. Their requests were denied, and in 
the year 1492, King Alphonso banished them from 
Malta and the rest of his dominions. The 70 oz. of 
gold, which was the University's share of the pro- 
perty of the Hebrews was applied by that body on 
Sept. 14th. 1513, to the repair of the castle in the 
Great Harbour. 

From 1467 to 1470 Malta suffered greatly from 
drought, no rain having fallen for three successive 
years. In the year 1488 eleven Turkish galleys landed 
men in the Marsamuscetto Harbour and made an 
unexpected attack upon the Borgo, plundering it, and 
carrying off 80 of the inhabitants as slaves. In con- 
sequence of this surprise, the Tower of St. Elmo 
was ordered to be constructed, consisting of a small 
fort with a shallow ditch of which more hereafter. 
In 1519 the plague again made its appearance 
and in 1526 some Moors landing by night near Ben- 
uarrat, plundered the village of Musta, carrying off 
(00 captives into slavery, amongst whom were a bride 
if a party of wedding guests. The relatives of the 



27 

prisoners were obliged to reduce themselves to po- 
verty in order to ransom their unhappy kinsmen. 

But brighter days were at hand. On January 
1st. 1523, the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem left 
Ehodes for ever, after having made such a gallant 
defence against an immense Turkish force as to cause 
the Emperor Charles V. to exclaim " There never 
was anything so well lost as Rhodes.^' Into the pre- 
vious history of this famous Order it would be foreign 
to our purpose to enter, and the reader is referred 
to Malta and its Knights j by Lieut. Col. Porter, R. E. 
the Sea Kings of the Mediterranean, by the Rev. C. 
F. Townsend, Malta Past and Present, by the Rev. 
H. Seddall, and the Sforia di Malta by Dr. G. A. 
Vassallo, the histories of Boisgelin, Vertot, Bosio, and 
other kindred works. Suffice it here to say that from 
the erection of a small hospital at Jerusalem in the 
year 1050 A. D. gradually developed that famous and 
illustrious Order of Knighthood which long formed 
one of the bulwarks of Christendom against the sword 
of Islam. 

Expelled from Palestine in 1291, the Knights re- 
tired to Cyprus, from whence in 1310 they removed 
to hardly won Rhodes. Driven forth once more, as 
we have seen in the year 1523, they wandered in 
search of an asylum for nearly seven years until at 
length by a deed of gift signed at Castel Franco 
near Bologna, and confirmed by the Pope on the 
25th of the following month, Charles V, Emperor 
of Germany granted "to the Most Reverend the Grand 
Master and the Knights of St. John, as a noble^ 
free and uncumbered fief the castles, fortresses, and 
towns of Tripoli, Malta, and Gozo> witk ^t^K^ ^q^<kx^ 
jurisdiction^ both civil and m\\\\«r5, ^^^ "s^^ ^*^ia^^ 



i 



28 

condition than that they should annually on the day 
of All Saints^ (Nov. 1st.) present a falcon to the 
Viceroy of Sicily, in the name of the Order." L'Isle 
Adam the hero of Bhodes and 44th Grand Master 
of the Order also agreed that the Knights should never 
make war against the Emperor or the kingdom of 
Sicily; that the Emperor should select the .Bishop 
of Malta from three candidates chosen by the Or- 
der, one of whom must be a Spanish subject; 
that the admiral of the fleet or his lieutenant should 
always be an Italian; and that the Order should not 
be able to transfer the sovereignty of the island 
to any other power without the consent of the Em* 
peror. 

The Maltese might, in accordance with the decree 
of 1428 before mentioned, have resisted the ces- 
sion of their island home to the Knights, but as 
the latter solemnly swore to observe and keep in- 
violate all their ancient laws and privileges they after 
some little demur received them with open arms. An 
oath to the same efiect was taken by each Grand 
Master on his entry into oflSce. The University or 
governing body relinquished in favour of the Order 
the sum of 30,000 florins due to it from the royal 
treasury. 

Commissioners sent by the Knights to examine 
their new possession reported that Malta was about 
60 miles in circuit, that it was but an arid rock 
covered in many places with sand, and here and there 
with a small amount of soil, without river, rivulet, 
or spring. That the inhabitants were dependent for 
their water supply on tanks and a few brackish wells, 
that the supply of corn was insufiicient for the 
peoploj some 12^000 in number, l\i^\.yTOod was sold 



29 

hj tbe pounds that dried cowdnng and thistles were 
in general use as fuel. The houses of the people were 
miserable huts^ the old capital and its fortifications 
crumbling to decay, whilst the two or three guns 
of Fort St. Angelo wer6 insnflScient for the defence 
of the little town which had grown op around it. 
Figs, melons, fruits, cotton, cummin, honey, and locust 
beans were its principal productions. 6ozo with a 
population of 5,000 and defended by one xuinous for- 
tress was described as being smaller, but in comparison 
with Malta fertile and pleasant. Pirates and sea rovers 
made constant attacks upon both islands. The natives 
wore quilted cotton vests thick enough to stop an 
arrow, or even sometimes to turn a bullet. 

The magnificent harbours and the central position 
of the islands were irresistible temptations to the 
Knights of St. John, and after arranging for the estab^ 
lishment of a mint in Malta and for the importation 
of corn from Sicily duty free, L* Isle Adam and his 
knights took possession of their new dominions 
on October 26th 1530 with a squadron composed of the 
three galleys, S. Croce, S. Filippo, and S. Giovanni, 
a galiot and a brigantine. 

Only in briefest outline can we sketch the residence 
of the Knights of St. John in Malta. The members 
of this illustrious Order were divided into three classes, 
the first being sty led Knights of Justice, who were obli- 
ged to produce proofs of nobility. None but those who 
had already received the honour of knighthood were 
eligible for this class. The second class which was 
composed of ecclesiastics was subdivided into Conven- 
tual Chaplains who were attached to the Church of 
St. John, the Hospital, and the Galleys, and tfea ''S'^^'si^ 
of Obedience who were not oVAig^^i \»o ic^'sAa Sca."^^^'^ 



30 

but were attached to some of the churches belougin 
to the Order or under the authority of a (irand Pric 
or Commander. The third class was composed < 
servants at arms and brothers de stage or donat 
The former of these were esquires and eligible f( 
the honour of knighthood. The latter were menii 
servants who wore the demi -cross, but who neve; 
theless possessed many privileges. Each knight too 
the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, nor 
of which, in later times, were scrupulously observe* 

I There were also houses of Religious Dames of tl: 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem in France, Italy, an 

j Spain, admission into which was reserved for ladi( 

of most ancient and noble lineage. 

The Ursuline nuns in Malta received from tt 
Order an annual pension of £51. 18. 10. The nun 
of Toulouse, received £ 73, 0. 0. and those of Mart( 
in Querci, £ 29. 10. 6. annually. 

The knights were divided into eight Lnnguages 
viz., Provence, A uvergne, France, Gerili any, Italy, Ai 
agon, Castile, England, and Portugal. At the Reformatio 
the Language of England was suppressed, the Anglo 
Bavarian Language being substituted for it in th 
yeai' 1784. Each of these Languages had its ow; 
Palace or Auberge, presided over by a chief calle< 
the Pilier, who received from the treasury either mone; 
or an equivalent in grain for the supply of his Auberge 
All members of the Order of whatever grade migh 
eat in their respective Auberges but Commander 
seldom did so, and those holding Commanderies wortl 
£ 200 per annum or servants at arras holding Com 
manderies of more than £ 100 per annum wen 
^ittteot admitted. 



31 

The Pilier of each Auberge found his dignity 
somewhat costly, au^ was usually rewarded with the next 
vacant Comraandery. The nondining members received an 
allowance in money. The Grand Master presided over 
the Great Council which was composed of the 54 
Grand Crosses of the Order. Besides this, there were 
other tribunals with less authority, and the Grand 
Master had numerous important* offices' in his gift. 

To each Language were attached various lucrative 
Bailiwicks, Commanderies and Priories, the attain- 
ment of which was naturally an object of ambition. 
Letters were addressed to the Grand Master (whose 
office was elective) thus: "To his Most Eminent High- 
ness the Grandmaster,*' and in official documents he 
was styled "Most Eminent and Eeverend Signer Grand 
Master/' 

The general income of the Order was derived 
from Responsions or fixed contributions from the 
various Commanderies and Priories belonging to 
the Order in various countries, which produc- 
ed about £ 47,520 annually. Two years income 
of Commanderies vacant by death brought in nearly 
£21,472. Fees paid by all admitted into the Order or 
receiving promotion in it amounted to £20,334 per 
annum. Four fifths of the income of deceased knights, 
was estimated at £24,755 yearly. The first year's 
revenues of certain Commanderies was reckoned at 
£477 per annum. Priory and other presents £197. 
The sale of forest trees on ' the estates of the Order 
(mostly in France) £4,798. Renounced pensions, va- 
rious foundations, rent of houses, &c. £7,630. One 
per cent of the value of the goods stored at the 
Lazfvretto produced annually £130. The Governmen^t 
Printing Press and the sale of Sl ^^'CTXiS.^^va^ ^^is^^^ 



% 



32 

by Papal Bull to eat eggs and batter during Lent 
realized £1,055 yearly. The ransom of Turkish slaves 
brought in on an average £7,661. Omitting other 
items^ we may estimate the annual general income 
of the Order between 1778 and 1788 at £136,417. 

The expenditure included — Ambassadors £3,802, 
Receivers in various countries £6,643. The Conven- 
tual Churches £2,991. Alms given to the Capuchins, 
clothing to all liberated Christian slaves passing through 
Malta, allowances of bread and meat for services 
rendered to the Order, £140 given to the infirmary 
at Floriana, and a yearly distribution of 600 qrs. 
of corn and £245 in money amounted to £1,730. 
The Great Hospital cost £7,947, and that for women 
£2017. Foundlings and children of poor parents £614, 
Pensions £4,032. Nuns of the Order £154. The 
Navy and the Port cost £47,494; the Land Forces 
and fortifications £17,303, and Public works £3,451. 
The Grand Master received annually £ 600 in aid 
of his table and £20 towards the repairs of palaces. 
Each member of the Order was allowed annually 4 
qrs. of wheat, 9 gallons of oil, and £4. 8s. in money, 
amounting in all to some £15. Clothing was allowed 
annually varying in value from £2 4s. for a knight 
to lis. for a novice. The falcons presented yearly 
to the Viceroy of Sicily and the Kings of France, 
Spain, Portugal, and Naples, involved an expence of 
£103. Public offices £1,002. Slaves and slave prisons 
£4,275. Conveyance of letters, £2,036. Maintenance of 
state silver plate £327. Workshops and magazines 
j6 1,826. These and other items make the aver- 
age annual expenditure £ 128,533. The Grand Mas- 
ters received £29,689 in 1797 from the Treasury 
oy which £2j527 were expended for the direct be- 



33 

nefifc of the inhabitants. The yearly expetisfes of the 
Grajid Master for himself^ his household^ bodyguards 
and state attendants for the same year wcms £13^861. 
Altogether the Order spent for the benefit of Malta 
uot more than £200,000. These figures are t&ken from 
the valuable pamphlet of W. H. Thornton^ Esq., 
formerly Auditor General, 

The Revenue for 1880 is estimated at ^176,800, 
derived from Customs, £ 115,100; Land sales/ £100^ 
Land Revenue £14,700. Rents exclusive of Land 
£22,140. Licenses £3,020; Postage £140; Fines, For- 
feitures, and Court fees £5,710; Pees of Office £1,290. 
Reimbursements to Government £ 2,600; Interest 
£8,370; Special Reoeipts £3,530. Estimated Expen- 
diture, Establishments £76,6575 Works £20,734; Other 
Services £65,603; Sanitary Office £690. When wd 
add to this the enormous amount &peat annually by 
English residents and visitors, by the fleet and gar- 
rison, and by the numerous ships which crowd our har-« 
bours, we shall s^e at a glance that financially, as indeed 
in many othei^ respects Malta has no cause to regret 
the vanished dominioti of the " White Oross- 
Knights.'^ 

Greatly to the regret of L^Isle Adam, the Em* 
peror Charles V. insisted that the Order should under- 
take the defence of Tripoli in addition to that of 
Malta. On November 13th, 1530 the Grand Master 
made his public entry into Citt4 Vecchia, and for- 
mally commenced his government. One of the first 
cares of the OriSer was to take possession of tl\^ 
Church of San Lorenzo in the Borgo as the Con- 
ventual Church of the Order, and to establish a Hospi- 
tal. L'Isle Adam did much to strengthea the fortifica- 
tions, and died at Citta Vecchia ixi \^44 ^*^ ^^ ^"si^ 

3 



34 

of 65, revered and beloved by all over whom he 
ruled. His remains were interred in the chapel of 
Fort St. Angelo, from whence they were subsequently 
removed to St. John's Church. 

In this year Henry VIII. confiscated the 
possessions of the Order in England. Many of the English 
knights died on the scaffold or in prison, others 
abjured, the Order, and the rest fled to Malta where 
they met with a most kindly reception, and were 
allowed to retain all the dignities attached to their 
Language. The post of the English knights during 
the Great Siege was between those of Castile and 
Germany. A Turkish fleet of 10 sail threatened 
Malta and landed troops who penetrated as far as 
Casal Gudia, but the invaders were obliged to re- 
tire to Comino '* the nest and lair of Saracens '' 
where they waited in vain for a chance to plunder. 
The knights did not fail to make reprisals in va- 
rious directions. In 1540 the celebrated corsair Dragut 
first attacked the island, and eleven years afterwards 
Sinam Pasha after threatening the Borgomade a descent 
upon Gozo, and committed great ravages. In May 
1553 the Forts of St. Michael and St. Elmo were 
completed, as well as some bastions at the head of 
the Borgo. 

During the fatal expedition of Charles V. against 
Algiers in 1546 the Order lost eighty knights and 
four hundred soldiers- During a terrible storm, Charles 
V. exclaimed: "They must indeed be Maltese gal- 
leys to outride such a tempest.'* The Grand Master 
Claude de La Sengle in 1554 enclosed the whole of 
St. Michael's Mount with a line of fortifications within 
which soon arose the town of Senglea, called after 

founder or defender. 



m^ 



35 

Three years before TrlpoU had b^en captured by 
Dragufc, and its brave defeqder De.Vali^r stripped 
of bis habit and imprisoned in deference to popular 
clamour. On the night of Oct* 23rd, 155S a sudden 
and unexpected storm sank four galleys in ,the Dock- 
yard Creek, then known as the Port, of i the. Galleys, 
600 slaves and two knightd .being drowned. Early 
in 1556 Dragnt effected a landing in tine Bay of Marsa 
Scirocoo, but was: repulsed. In .the following year 
a Maltese knight boarded a Tntkish galley, .^ud,, find- 
ing escape impossible, boldly set £lre to seme gun- 
powder, and. was blown to pieces Switfh the ship. 

The Maltese Admiral Bojnegas haying capturejl 
many prises ai sea the Saltan swore ^'by his own 
head'^itO'be'Tfevetiged and to mal^e himself master of 
Malta- at all costs. Fortunately for the* Order theyjbad 
at their ; h^ad . ai ; true hero. The,;^^ame of La Val- 
lette: is* synonymous with genius, oojnrage, wid'pietj, 
afld- when on' the.; 18th of M^J,. 156§, t£e • Turkish 
fleet r of i tSO'.iresels beeidea Sfit smaller criaft, ^and ^ 
number, f of storeships has^ingl j'on board SS^^OP-iaei?, 
BO0Q. 6f '.whom: ^er6: janissaries, and 63 guns pf 
dairge calibre hove in sight tibc kbights, 474 in number 
widi £7 servamta at armsv and &^155 soldiers were 
nort -tiken by surprise. The starshaped Fort St. 
BliDo fwas almost the first point of attack. Glorious 
indeed is. the story of its defence. The first attack 
was made oh May 31st, but it was not until June 
22nd that the victorious Crescent floated above its 
ramparts^ and the Ottoman fleet entered the Marsa- 
muscetto Harbour. .• "What may we not expect the 
parent to cost us when we have purchased the child 
at such a price P:^ ' exclaimed the Pacha Jkfustapha a«. 
he examined 1;he fortifications on tTcia oXJafex ^\^<& ^^ '^^ 



36 

barboar^ . of which a knight said " this is the place 
which we mdati to sunrender to the Bashaw and we 
redenre it on purpose to bnry him and his janissaries!^' 
But why prolong the story ? The Turks dragged 
boats across the isthmus which separates the two har- 
bours^ tried to destroy the stockade which closed 
the entrance of the fVench Creeks repeatedly attacked 
and almost earned by assault Fort St. Michael and 
the Bastion of Castile;^ and did all that brave men 
could do^ but in vain. 

On the 7th of September^ a day ever since memo- 
rable in the annals of Malta, tardy succours arrived 
from Sicily, and landed in Melleha Bar.' An engage* 
ment took place near Musta^ after waich the Turks 
quitted the island with all speedy having lost no 
less .than 25^000 meti^ whilst on the side of the 
Order 200 knights, 2500 soldiers, and 7000 inhabitants 
had lost their lives. The Borgo received the proud 
title of "Oitta Vittorfosa*' or "the Victorious City/' 
whilst 'Senglea has ever since been styled "Invicta '' 
or ^' Cnconquered.'- The Turks prepared fresh ar- 
maments but incendiaries ip the pay of La Yallette 
destroyed the arsenals at Constantinople, and Malta 
was left in peace. On Thursday, March 28th, 1566, 
La Yallette laid the foundation stone of the city 
which has ever since borne his name. The daily 
sum expended for building purposes varied from 
£150 to £200, and Cittii, Notabile thence forward 
bore its present name of Cittd Veochia, On August 
21st, 156S La Yallette died, lamented and honoured, 
from the effects of a sunstroke. His grave is iu 
the Church of St. John, 
fc*- On March 17th, 1570, the Order removed from 
B&^ Borgo to the new City. Each Language had 



37 

its own post' to defend^ and its own Auberge or 
palaco. In 1570 Admiral St. Clement was defeated 
near (iirgenti by a Tarkish a^uadron^ but on Oct. 
7th, in the following year Maltese galleys took part 
in the great victory of Lepanto. In 1575 the In- 
qaisition was established id , Malta, and retained its 
power utitil the arrival of the. French in 1798. The 
Grand Master John de La Cassiere (1572-1582) ex- 
pelled all Jews from the islands, And tried to' remove 
from Valletta all women /of bad character. In 1583 
the city of Valletta contained ' 2000 -houses; there 
were on the ramparts 150 hcaas !gans, b0sid«s 12 
mounted at St. Angelo, 20,000 qrs. . of Wlieat werjB 
impoVted anntially from ' Sicily, and MaUa produced 
about 100 casks of wine yearly » The Maltese strictly 
performed their religious duties, but,! adds the Pope's 
Legate ^' Would to God the . same cojilld be said of 
the knights! " Diirliiig this year, we are told by 
Dr. VassaUo,. that a dispute havidg! tirisen between 
Bishop. Gargallo and the <3anons of the Cathedral 
at Citt^ Vecchia, the Bishop seized the Canons in 
the Calihedral, dragged them, arrayed in full canon- 
icals, behind hia horses to the prisons of the Bdrgo, 
and coiafidcated their property. For this high handed . 
proceeding the Bishop was justly eondemted by the 
Pope to sQspensiou, banishment, and fine. 

The Turks having again carried off slaves from 
Gozo. the Grand Master Cardinal Verdala erected 
fortifications for the protection of the western por-. 
tion of .the island. In 1592 some Tuscan galleys 
coming from the Leviant introduced the plague to 
which »S;800 fell victims. The population of Malta 
and Gozo. in 1690 was 30,500. The Jesuits were, 
first introdubed . into Malta in 1^9^, 



40 

and which are nearly three miles in length. Some 
50 years ehpsed before these works were complet- 
ed. At the close of the year 1675 the plague re^ 
appeared^ an^ it id said thckt 11^300 persons perished. 
A terrible earthquake in Jannary 1698 which last-^ 
ed several days^ caused great damage to buildings 
and destroyed the Cathedral at Citt4 Yecchia. It 
was however rebuilt by the yjsar 1700. 

The Gronil M^ister Baynioad Perelloir y. Roccafull 
did much to iticrease the navy, but when engaged 
with a Turkish foe the flagship sank with five hundred 
men^ the Admiral Spinola and a few others escaping 
with difficulty. In 1709 the Turks attacked 6ozo, 
and in 1722 they endeavoured in vain to excite a revolt 
amongst the numerous Mahometan slaves in Malta. 
The Grand Minster Manoel de Vilhena did much ta 
strengthen the fortifications, and built at & cost of 
£2,500, defrayed by himsetf, the fort on the island 
in the Marsamuscetto or Quarantine Harbonr which 
bears his name. Grand Master Pintd improved the 
Palace, established a printing press nnder Govern- 
ment control, built the " Pinto Stores '* near, the Great 
Harbour, etectod the OAatelliutia <Mr G^nrta of Justice, 
finished Fort Chambray iu Groao, encouraged the 
planting of mulberry trees, and the manufacture of 
silk, built bomb proof shelters at F<»rt St. Elmo for 
women and childrai in the event of a siege, armed 
men of war, oommeooed the excavmtion of a dock 
and the building of the Cnstom Houae, and suc- 
cessfully resented the interference o£ the King of 
Sicily in the internal a£bira.6f the idand. 
' There Were in the year 1749 about 4000 Turk- 
ish or Moorish jBlavea .in. Malla ancl : a eonspiracy 
9Fi^ A?riaed amobgst tbem to jouucder Ae knights 



4t 

on the festival of S. S. Peter and Paul (June 29th) ^ 
The appointed signal for the rising . was to be the" 
exhibition of the head of the Grand Master Pinto^ 
from the balcony of the Palace. The plot wafs dis'< 
covered^ and about 60 of the ringleaders were put 
to death. A great storm did mtich damage in 1 755/ 
and the church of Melleha fell^ burying many persons. 
The Public Library and the Church of St. John 
owe much to the Grand Master Pinto^ who in 1768 
expelled the Jesuits^ forbidding them ever to retutttf 
and confiscated liieir convent and property. In 1775 
a popular rising known as the '^ Rebellion of the 
Priests ^' took place against the unpopular Grand 
Master Ximenes de Texada. It was soon put down, 
add the leader Don Gaetano Mannariuo was impri^' 
Boned for 23 years until the arrival of the French 
in 1798. 

The Grand Master Emmanuel de Rohan did 
much for Malta. Amongat other benefits the laws 
of Malta were revised and embodied in the ceie« 
brated Code Rohan. In 1783 a terrible earthquake 
oautied much misery and destruction in Sicily and 
Oalabria, whereupon the Maltese galleys at once 
put to sea^ carrying timely relief to the distressed 
inhabitants of Messina to the value of £1^703. The 
year 1784 saw the establishment at a cost of if 1^405 
of the new Anglo-Bavarian Language^ and the union 
of the Order of Jerusalem with that of St. Anto- 
nio of Vienna. In 1793 Fort Tigne was completed^ 
at the entrance of the Quarantine Harbour. It Ik 
named aftet* the Grand Prior of Champagne who 
designed it. c But the fall of the Order was at hand. 
' On Septr. Idth, 17d2, the National AssemU^ ^ 
Franofe decreed tihat the Order o5 Aft.^\». VQ.^^e«»«« 



42 

should be entirely annulled, and its property annexed 
to the national domains. The decrease of annual income 
at once amounted to £51^816. German and Arra- 
gonese, Spanish, Sicilian, PortQguese> end Neapolitan 
Gommanderies shared the same fate. A party which 
desired the snrrender of Malta to France was form* 
ed in the island. : The plate belonging to the men 
of war, galleys, Palaoe, and Hospital was entirely 
or in part coined into money!. The greatest economy 
was practised, and the Niavy greatly reduced. The 
deficit, however, continued to grow larger day by 
day. 

On June 6th, 1798, a French fleet commanded by 
Oommodore Sidoux, . consisting of eighteen men of 
war and seventy transports appeared off Malta, fol- 
lowed three days afterwards by a still' larger one 
under Admiral Brueys, composed of 18 sail of the 
line, 18 frigates, and more : than 4D0 transports. 
There were 282 knights capable' of bearing arms 
out of 332 who were present in Malta, besides land 
and sea forces numbering 6,800. Refused permis* 
sion to enter the . harbour^ : the French effected a 
landing on the morning of Sunday, June 10th at 4 
a. m. at eleven different points in Malta and Gozo^ 
Within the walls of Valletta all was panic and con-» 
fusion, and on the 12th of June a capitulation was 
signed on board the man of war L' Orient by which 
Malta was surrendered to Bonaparte. The Grand 
Master Hompesch was promised his income for his 
lifetime; and French knights might return to France. 
Private property belonging to the knights was to 
be respected, and eada kmght was to receive an 
annual pension of 700 francs and those above 60 
years of age 1000 francs. The religion^ privileges^ 



43 

and liberties of the Maltese were to be respected. 

The same afternoon 15,000 French troops took 
possession of the forts, and the victorious fleet en* 
tered the harbour. Two men of war, one frigate, 
four galleys, 1200 guns, 1,500,000 lbs. of powder, 
40,000 muskets, besides shot and shell in abund- 
ance, were found in Malta. The weak and feeble- 
minded Grand Master Hompesch embarked with 12 
knights on the night of June )7th on board an 
Austrian merchant ship bound for Trieste. He died 
in obscurity at Montpellier in th^ year 1804. Thus 
fell the Order of St. John. 

The French at once set to work to make Malta 
a Gallic colony. Knights under sixty years of age were 
obliged to leave the island within three days,, all 
coats of arms and escutcheons were to be defaced, 
and nearly all the church plate together with that 
belonging to the Palace and the Auberges found 
its way to the crucible. On June 21st Buonaparte 
left Malta, carrying with him the Maltese regiment, 
the Grand Master's guards, and many Maltese sailors. 

General Yaubois who was left behind with 3,053 
infantry and five companies of artillery to garrison 
Valletta carried on the work of spoliation, until at 
length on September 2nd 1798 the Maltese, exas- 
perated beyond endaranbe by an attempted sale of 
church property at Citta Yecobia, rose against and 
put to the sword the 65 men who formed the gar-* 
rison of the town. Next morning a French de- 
tachment proceeding to Citt4 Yecchia was compelled 
to retreat into the town by some peasants led by 
Yincenzo Borg. All Malta heroically rose in arms 
against the oppressors, and, unaided by any Euro- 
pean power, formed the blockade o€ Y^\N!^V^^% ^^ 



44 

the i*eqaest of Lord Nelson to whom messengefa 
Were despatched by the insurgents, a Portuguese 
squadron blockaded the harbour, until the arrival of 
Lord Nelson himself. The city of Valletta was sev- 
eral times bombarded, both by se& and land. 1? he 
Maltese mortgaged every thing to raise money, and 
suffered terrible hardships, but still the French held 
out. A plot to give up the citj to the insurgents 
was detected, and the conspirators were put to death 
without mercy. Famine and disease did their work> 
and, during the two years siege, 20,000 Maltese 
are said to have perished. A congress was asisem* 
bled, which sat at the Palace of St. Antonio, and of 
which Sir Alexander Ball who had been left by 
Ndson to direct operations, was the president* The 
English flag was first hoisted in Malta at Citta 
Veeohia on the house of Baron Gauci, at which 
Major- General Pigot was a guest, and at which the 
Anglo-MaltiBse Convention waa signed. 

In De^ 1799 Brigadier General Graham landed, 
with the SO^h and SdtL Regiments and some ar- 
tillerymen, numbering in all 1,309 men. These were 
followed by two Neapolitan regiments, and in June 
1800, Major General Pigot took command, having 
brought with him the 48th Regiment and the two 
Battalions qf the 35th Regiment. Still the French 
keld out gallantly^ and madid 36^000 qrs. of wheat' 
supply the garrison for two years instead of for 
jieven months,- In September- 1799 a lb. of fresh 
pork was sold in Valletta for. 6s., a lb. of salt 
Qieat for 2», lOd.^ the commonest fish for 2s. 2d. a 
b., a fowl ct)st bOs., a pigeon 10^., a lb. of sugar 
iSs, Ad., a lb. of cx>fkeils. 8d., and a good fat rat: 
^M' 7ci, 2!S^. ships- which tried to escape from thai 



45 

harbour vrere captured by the English fleet, apd it 
was not until only four days' pi'ovisions were left 
in the fortress that General Vaubois surrendered 
Valletta to the allied English, Maltese, and Neapo^ 
litan forces, On September 8th, the anniversary of 
the defeat of the Turks, the French troops sailed 
for Marseilles in English transports, and the two 
years* sie^^ came to an end. 

On February I9th, 1801 Major General Pigot 
issued a proclamation to the ^fkot that bis Britan^ 
nic Majesty took the Maltese uti^er his protection, 
and granted' them the full eiyoymeut of their reli- 
gion, property, and Ubertiea. This was confirm- 
ed by Sir C. Cameron, Civil Commissioner, on June 
15th, 1801. la 180;2 the English govei*nment spent 
j63,783 for. the redemption of Maltese slaves at Con* 
stantinople. According to the terms of the Treaty 
of Amien9, Mailta.was to be restored to the Knights 
of St. John. A Maltese La»gue was to be estab- 
lished, those of. France and England being sup- 
pressed, and the English tiHX>ps were to evacuate 
the islands within three months. The Maltese at 
once despatched a deputation to Xiondon to protest 
against this arrangement, and to claim either entire 
freedom or the protection of England, The Gover- 
nor Sir Alexander J. Ball did all in his power to 
prevent the cej^aion of the islands, war broke out 
once more, and in 1814, by the 7th article of the 
Treaty of Paris it was declared that '^ the island 
of Malta with all its dependencies shall appertain 
in full authority and sovereignty to His Britannic 
Majesty." 

The Latin inscription placed on the Mam G\i»j^^ 
by order of Sir Thomas Mait\8i.ix9k. 'feLSv.^ ^ ^^'sj^.^'s^^'^ 



50 

after remaimng in harboor for more tlian a year, 
to repair damages caused by the terrible bursting 
of one of her 38 ton gans on Jan. 12th 1S79, bj 
which several valuable lives were sacnfitilBd. Great 
storms in Sicily and heavy weather prevented the 
arrival of the Italian mail steamers for a whole 
fortnight of the month of February 1830. Important 
reforms of the Civil Establishments of Malta, recom- 
mended .in the Official Beport of Sir Penrose Jnlyan 
C. B. are under consideration. The present Governor 
of Malta is H. E. Sir Arthur Borton K. C. B, 
to whom this handbook is with much respect (by 
permission) dedicated. 



LIST OP GRAND MASTERS WHO RULED IN 
MALTA FROM 1530 TO 1798. 

L'Isle Adam 1530 Martin de Bedin 1657 

Peter da Pont 1534 Annet de Clermont Ges- 

san 1660 

Pjdior de St. Jaille ,1536 Raphael Ootoner. 1693 

John D'Omedes 1536 Gregory Caraffa 1680 

Claude de la Sengle 1553 Adrian Wignacourt 1690 

John de la Vallette 1557 Raymond Perellos 1697 

Peter de Monte— ...... ......1568 Mark A^nthony Zondadari 1720 

John do la Cassiere 1572 Anthony Manoel de Vil- 

Hugo de Verdalle. 1582 hena 1722 

Martin Garzes 1595 Raymond D'Espuig 1736 

Alophius Wignacoui't 1601 Emmanuel Pinto 1741 

Louis Mendes Vasconcelloa 1622 Ximenes de Texada 1773 

Vhony de Paulo- 1623 Emanuel de Rohan 1775 

5flS77> Caatellar 1635 Ferdinand de Hompesch 1797 



51 



CHAPTER I. 



iTY OF Valletta,. 



The .City of V 



Situation of Valletta. — Foundation of the City. — Streets 
of staira. — Arrangement of Streets. — Houses, Lodgings, and 
Hotels. — Boat and Carriage fareis. — Postal information. — Te- 
legraph Companies. — ^Medical Men and Merchants. — Lines of 
SteameriB, and Steam Ship Agents. — Consuls. — ^Weights and 
Measures. 



THE city of Valletta is situated on the n< 
em shore of the island, in Long. 14°. ST. 



north east- 
and Lafr. 
35° 53\ N.. and stands upon a promontory* or tongue 
of land wnich separates . the Quarantine and Great 
Harbours. This promontory bears the Arabic name 
of Mount Sceberras, vsrhicli is variously said to mean 
^'the lofty place" or *'the jutting out of .the cape.'^ It 
was also formerly styled ^'Gruardia " from the coii- 
stant watch maintaitied here both by day and night; 
From its shape it has also received the English 
appellation of ''The Hog's Back.'' Mount Sceben*as, 
which projects ioto the sea in a north easterly direction, 
is 3200 jards in length by about 1200 in breadth; 
except ^t its seaward extremity where it narrows 
considerably. * Its highest point is about 200 feet 
above sea level, but this elevation becovci^^ tcvnx^X'^'s.'^, 
towards its junction with the mamVcvxid. AJiiS.^^ l-ev.-^^^- 



52 

able circumatancea the snow-cl^d summit of Mount 
Etna 128 miles distant may be seen from Valletta, 
and the eruptions of this volcano are distinctly visible 
at night. 

Mount Sceberras was formerly the property of 
a Maltese family of the same name, to whose re- 
presentatives the Grand Masters were accustomed to 
present annually a small coin as an acknowledgment 
of their rights. An ancient chapel formerly stood 
at the seaward extremity of Mount Sceberras dedicated 
to St. Erasmo, or St, Elmo, the patron saint of 
sailors. In 1488 a sin^ll star-shaped fort was ord- 
ered to bp erected here, which received th^ name of 
St. Elmo from the already existing chapel. . A fort of 
the same name formerly defended the entrance to tlie 
harbour of Rhodes. Port St. Elmo was capturec^ 
by the Turks in 1565 after a most heroic defence^ 
and after the departure of the besiegers the Grand 
Master John de la Vallette determined to carry 
out his preconceived desigin of fortifying Mount Sceber- 
ras, and of making it the site of a flourishing city. 
Accordingly on the 28th of March 1566 the foundation 
stone of the new city was laid amidst great pub- 
lic rejoicings, on the spot whereon now stands 
the Church ofVittoria. La Vallette^s name was given 
to his projected city, and he desired that the only 
epithet applied to it should be that of "Urailissim^** 
" Most Humble.*^ From the day of its foundation, 
Valletta has continually increased in population and 
importance, being admirably situated for commerce, 
and strongly defended against all attacks either by 
sea or land. The history of Malta has therefore for th^ 
last three centuries been intimately and inseparably 
linked with that of Valletta and its sister towqs. 



53 

Accordrag to Ihecehftus of 1871 the population of Val- 
letta amounted to 24,818, the three cities of Vittoriosa, 
Oospicua, and Senglea on the other side of the Great 
Harbour having almost the sai^e number of inhabi- 
tants. 

Many of the streets are ^ery steep, being upon the 
sloping sides of Mount Sceberras, and are either 
broad flights of stairs, or are flunked with steps for 
the conveiiience of fbot passengers. It was the inten- 
tion of the engineers who drew the plans for the 
city to lei^el the sumtiift of Moiinlt Sbeb^rias, and 
to form jBk level fjlatform bn which the ciiiy was 
to stand, defi^ded by i^aniparts, which were to be 
in great measurei formed from tne solid i^dk Scarped 
down to the watei-^gf ed^. Farlse alarms of a threatened 
attack from Constfetntinople pr^veiited the exectitiori 
of this design, atid only &e central port Jon of the 

work was cbmpleteif. H^nee the Well- known lines 

' ■ 1.1 ».'■'• . 

.'^Adiertii >^ ' Joys' cJfiJLi Vallettj^. 
- .-■' i" - Adieu, iBoh^dcco, 'dttti; and srvreat, 

. . . ;Adieu,' yedorsed: streefts of stairs, 

^How surety h^ who mounts you sw^rs!"- 

• * ■ 

■ . , ■ • 

• ■ » . • • ■ 

UitJer -the fiill blaze of the July sun, to which 
however it i4 Currently reported that only newly 
arrived "Englishmen and mad dogs expose themselves, 
the streets ' of stairs are decidedly a weariness and 
a toil to mount ! 

Ten streets traverse the peninsula lengthwise, and 
are intersected at right angles by eleven others 
which, rwith but few* excf^tiona connect the Great 
and' Qoarantine Harbotirs. / The principal street is 
Strada Beate whricb runs: i&om SQt^'^j^^ M^ ^^^^ 



54 

St. Elmo^ a distsnoe of three quarters of a mile. 
Many of the best shops are situated in this street. 
Valletta was first lighted with gas in 1857. For 
commercial information we recommend all visitors 
to Malta to purchase the ''Malta Almanacks'^ pub- 
blished annually by Mr. Critien, Bookseller, 28 Str. 
San Giovanni^ and by Mr. Watson, Bookseller, 248 
Strada Beale^ which contain a mass of useful inform- 
ation. We can only note a few matters of general 
interest. 

The houses in Malta are for the most part 
large, roomy, and convenient. The walls, especially 
those of the older houses, are of considerable thickness, 
for the sake of coolness. The roofs are flat and 
form terraces which serve to collect the rain-water, 
which is carried by pipes into underground tanks 
affording a s^ply during the rainless sultry days 
of summer. The terraced roofs also form a pleasant 
and favourite promenade during the summer evenings. 
The city is abundantly supplied with fresh water which 
is brought from the Bingemma Hills and their neigh- 
bourhood by means of an aqueduct more than nine 
miles in length. A great deal of attention has lately 
been directed to the question of drainage, and nume- 
rous sewers have been constructed under the su- 
perintendence of Colonel H. Wray, 0. R. B. 

Most of the houses in Malta are provided with one 
or more balconies, which, projecting over the streets, 
give a pleasant appearance of irregularity to the 
general outline, and afford both shelter and a view 
of the street to those within. Charcoal is generally 
used as fuel. Houses are usually hired by the month, 
quarter, half year, or year. . The. rent of a furnished 
house in Yalietta ia about £12 per monthj unfurnished 



55 

hoases being obtainable for half this amount. Furniture 
can be hired, and lodgings are fairly plentiful. Beef 
and mutton cost about %\(L per lb. Fruit and vege- 
tables are abundant and cheap. 

The principal hotels are the '' Imperial, ^' 91 
Str. S.. Lncia^ also another of the same name, and 
belonging to^the same proprietor at Stiema. Dunsford's 
Hotel, 251 Str. Reale; MorelFs Family Hotel, lo6 
Str. Fomi; Hotel d' Angleterre, 34 Str. Stretta; 
Great Britain Hotel^ 42 Str. Mezzodi, St. George's 
Hotel, 74 Str* Teatro; Australian Hotel, 53 Str. Stret- 
ta; British Hotel, 267 St. S. Ursola; Europe Hotel, 58 
.Str. Zaccaria; Duke of Edinburgh, (Landing Place 
Sliema); Bising Sun Hotel, 7 Str. Giardino, Floriana; 
Old Minerva Hotel, 141 Str. Stretta; Crown Hotel, 
69 Str. Stretta; and the Oriental Hotel, 29 Str. 
Stretta. Boats are easily obtainable at the various 
landing places. The usual charge for a boat to 
cross either of the harbours is 3d. Those who cross 
in company with other passengers pay ^d. Between 
one hour after sun set and sunrise, and on festival 
days these fares are increased one half. When a 
blue flag is hoisted as a sign of stormy wea- 
ther, double fares are chargeable. The tariff fare 
for a boat by time is &i for the first hour, and 
3d for each succeeding one. A carriage drawn by 
two horses if hired for less than half an hour 1«. 8^., 
for each succeeding quarter of an hour 8(Z. Any time 
beyond one hour to be paid for at half the above 
rates. For a carriage drawn by two horses, the 
fare for any distance not exceeding one mile is 8c2., and 
for every half mile beyond that distance, 4(i. Bet urn 
fares one-half. For a carriage drawn by one hoi:^<^ 
tvo-^hirds; and for a cart or *' go-^at\»^^ w^fc-'V^^ 



56 

of the above &res. Carriage, coacliman^ and pair 
of horses £8 per month. One horse carriage op 
saddle-horse £4. A carriage and pair for the day 
about 10^. Shorter periods in proportioxi. Settle 
terms before starting* Tariff changes proposed. 

The Post Office is at 197 Strada Mercanti, and 
is open daily from 9 a. m. till 6 p. m. On the 
arrival of mails daring the night the office is open 
for a short time. Mails for England via Italy are 
made np on Mondays^ Thursdays, and Satardays, 
but we are promised five mails per week ere long. 
Postage for all coantries within the Ghederal Postal 
Union 2id. Mails are also despatched on the 29th 
of each month via Naples. Mails for India ate de- 
spatched every Thursday viA, Brindisi, and letters 
specially addressed " per P. & 0. Steamer'' are for- 
warded every Saturday. Local letters id. per oz., news- 
papers free. Where time is an object, local letters 
should be sent by a messenger. The Mediterranean 
Pjztension and the Eastern Telegraph Oompauies have 
offices at 7, Strada Marsainuscetto. The first named 
of these Companies has Branch Offices at the Barsa 
(Strada Pederico), and the Marsa, Great Harbour. 
The Branch Offices of the latter are at 95a Strada 
Santa Lucia, and 3 Strada Ghar Illembi, Sliema. 
Charge for a telegram of 20 words to London by 
either Company about 10«. Messages may be sent 
to Gozo by means of the Military Telegraph at 
very moderate rates. 

There are many able aind skilful medical men 
resident in V^alletta, and Police: Physicians are ap- 
inted ill every district. There are also throughout 
alta' numerous Gavern.ment Dispensaries where -the 
o»n dbiflija medicines -gratuiiidluslly.!^ The- p»o- 




5t 

fessional fees of Physicians and Surgeons are regulated 
by a Government Ordinance. The Qhamber of Cofti- 
merce appointed annually by the mercantile com* 
munity of Malta has its head « quarters at the Borsa 
or Malta Exchange in Strada Reale^ as hijive also 
the Malta Bank and the Anglo-Maltese Bank. Hour<) 
from 9 0. a. m. till 4. 0. p. m. Messrs. James Bell, 
and Co., 118 Strada San Domenico, and R. Ducbwortli 
and Co., 14 Strada Pooente, are English Bankers. 
Shipping Suppliers and Bankers; 0. Caruana, 8^1 Str. 
Nuova, Marina, Mortimer and Co., Molo, Marina, and 
Michael and Sons, 7 Marina. 

Weekly P. and O. steamers, nine days outward 
bound from Southampton arrive about Friday. 
Homeward bound steamers on Monday, but sometimes 
later. Stay in Malta 6 hours. Fares to Southampton: 
first class £15: second class and servants £9: soldiers, 
sailors and their wives £6. Office, ^l Strada Mercanti. 

The Fraissin^t Cies mail steamers (Agent T. 
G. Micallef Esq., 157 Strada Mercanti), arrive from 
Marseilles and Naples every fortnight, and also from 
Ale:tandria for Naples, Genoa, and Marseilles, twice 
monthly, leaving the same day. Fares to Marseilles: 
first class £ 8., second class £6. Fares to Alexandria: 
first class^ £6 : second class £1. 8^. Od, Fares to 
Naples : first class 80 francs: second class 60 francs. 
To Genoa: first class 170 francs, second class ISO 
franos. Messrs. Smith and Co., 12 Strada Cristoforo, 
are Agents for the British India Line of steiamei^s. 
Fares to Loudon: first class £12. 12. 0: seteond class 
£8. Ok 0:- Fares to Bombay and Calcutta: first clffss- 
£40, second class £ 24. Also for the Moss Line 
tQ Liverpool, first class £12 0. 0: second class 
£10. Fares to Alipxandfia:^ first dlasa £5> ^^^^xA a^^^ss^ 



58 

£, 2* 10. Also for the Ocean Steamship Co., Corin* 
thtan Shipping Co.^ Nortbamberland Steam Shipping 
Co., Wilson s Line^ and the Orient Line. Fares bj 
these steamers as per Moss Line. 

C. Lowe Esq. 9^ Strada Fomi, is the Agent 
for the Canard Line to Liv^erpool^ Constantinople, 
Sjra, Smyrna, &c. Fares to Liirerpool: first class 
iSl2. Fares to Constantinople £6, to Smyrna £5, to 
Syra £3. 10«. A. Camilleri Esq. 9 Strada Levante, 
is Agent for Leyland's Steamers and the Papayanni 
Line to Inverpool. Fares to Liverpook first class 
£12. Fares to Alexandria, Constantinople and Smyrna 
£5. Syra £4. Malk^ has also steam commnnication 
with UoUaod, Belgium, North Africa, the Levant, 
Calcotta, and Shanghai. 

Messrs. Addison Dnncan h Co. 73d. Strada Mer- 
canti, are Agents for steamers trading to the Black 
Sea and Levant. O. F. Gollcher Esq. 2 Strada Zac- 
caria, is the Agent for the Anchor Line, Henderson's 
Steamers, for London, Liverpool, and Rangoon, Boyal 
Netherlands Steam Navigation Co., the Hall Line 
for Liverpool and Bombay, also steamers for London, 
the Levant, and Black Sea, as well as for 1'anis 
(eveiT Saturday). 

r. G. Micallef Esq. 57 Strada Mercanti is Agent 
for the Clan Line. Fortnightely from London and 
Liverpool to Bombay. Fares to London: first class 
£12: second class £9. S. Micallef Eynaad Esq. 
114 Strada S. Paolo, is Agent for steamers from 
Liverpool and North Shields to the Mediterranean 
and dlack Sea. P. Eynaad and Co. 11 Marina, are 
^gei^ts for the Florio Co's steamers which arrive 
on Monday, Thursday, and S^tqrd^y, returuing 
i^ jame evening. Fares to Naples: first class i|4f 



59. 

second class £2. 15: deck passage j61. 2. Also for 
the Rubattino Line to Tunis and Tripoli. Fares to 
Tunis: first class 61 francs: second class 41 francs. 
To Tripoli: first class 41 francs, secjond class 31 
francs. For Tripoli on Wednesdays, and for Tunis on 
Saturdays. R. Ferro & Co. 34 Strada Federico, are 
Agents for steamers between Italy, Antwerp, Egypt, 
the Black Sea, also to London and India. R. Soler 
Esq. 15-16 Marina, is Agent for the Ottoman Steamer 
Trabulus Garb to and from Tripoli. . Fares: first class 
40 francs: deck passage 15 francs. Weekly depart- 
ures. Messrs. Walker and Pace, 44 Strada S, Gio- 
vanni are Agents for. various lines of steamers, and 
also for the Shipping and Mercantile Gazette. 

The other principal merchants are W. Hearn 
Esq., 219 Strada Reale^ Messrs. Turnbull Jun. and So- 
merville (^Agents for Messrs. Henry S. King & Co.) 20 
Strada Reale^ and C. B. Eynaud Esq., 21 Marine, 
Barriera. 

Ships of 3000 tons register can have hull or 
machinery repaired at the Clarence Hydraulic Lift 
Dock at the head of the Quarantine Harbour. 

The following States have either Consuls or 
Vice-Consuls resident in Valletta — United States of 
America, Anstria, Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, France, 
Germany, Greece, Italy, Morocco, the Netherlands, 
Persia, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden and Norway, 
Turkey, and Tunis. The Rotolo is the usual standard 
of weight, and is often spoken of as if it were 
equivalent to two lbs. English, but it is actually 
28 English or 30 Maltese oz. The Maltese salm is 
the same as the Englisl^ qr,j f^n4 the qt^ntar coi^t 
tains 100 rotolos. 



II . J mu 



60 

CHAPTER II. 



P 



LIMATE. 



Mild in winter. — ^Prevailing "Winds.— Gregale and Sci- 
roooo. — Sultry in Summer. — Winter attractions for invidids. 

FROM the end of October until May, the climate 
of the Maltese islands is exceedingly pleasant atid 
healthy. Bain falls abundantly daring the winter 
season/ the annual average being about 24. 28. inches, 
but only at intervals, and many bright and sunny days 
are enjoyed even during this season. Hail some- 
times falls, but snow never. Ice may Occasionally be 
found, though only in thin layers, on calm winter morn- 
ings, or when a very light breeze is blowing from 
the N. Wi It has been seen at Polverista GcKte, 
in the Dockyard Creek, at the Marsa, and at Pie^bi. 
Throughotit the Winter aii entire day without sun- 
shine or an entire day of rain is equally rard, though ' 
they do sometimes occur. Rain falls chiefly during 
the night, and, though almost tropical in its violence, 
is s^^dily absorbed by the highly porous soil. Invalids 
may^with due precautions take open-afr exercise at 
some tirtie or other on almost «very day of the 
year, but Ho one suffering from ddbility should 
rerwain in Malta during the great heats of summer. 
No place can boast of a greater equality of temp- 
erature. During the eight cool months the thermo- 
meter at rio period of the 24i hours falls below 
&1-^, excfepi? on rare occasions, nor does it rise above- 
71. During the four summer month*? ^^^ is the. 
highest temperature usuaHy attamea, 73° being the 



61 

lowest. The average annual temperature of Malta 
is 67° S\ The prevailing winds are from the N. W. 
and S. E. The Commander I)olomieu has calculated 
that the former blow on 200 d^ys in the year, and 
the lattei' during the remaining 165. The Northerly 
winds called by the natives Venti alti are bracing 
and invigorating, passing as they do over a wide 
expanse of sea, but those from the south called 
Venti Bas^x, with their attendant clouds and mists 
are warm and enervating, having first swept over 
the burning sfmdy plains of Africa. 

Many of the poorer clsases habitually sleep out 
of doors during the summer months without expe- 
riencing any ill effects The coldest winds are from 
the N, W. Westerly winds generally bring rain. The 
Gregale or N. E. wind sometimes blows with hurricane 
force. Ships have been sunk in the harbours, the 
quays torn up, and the lower tier of merlons at 
Port Saint Angelo, with an estimated weight of 90 
tons each, uprooted and shifted for several yards. 
Fortunately the gregale is not a frequent visitor, 
and is not in the habit of prolonging its stay on 
thesjR shores. Easterly winds are mild,^but the S. E. or 
Scirocco win4 is close, damp, and misty. This wipd 
is especially prevalent in September but also visits 
Malta at other times. Whilst it is blowing the 
pavement of th^ streets is quite wet, and every thing 
18 covered witl^ a moisture resembling heavy dew. 
Paint applied during the prevalence of a ftBirocco 
never thoroughly dries, metals become tarnished, an4 
gum loses its, adhesive properties. Many feel languid, 
depressed; and in low spirits, but others seem in- 
sensible to its influence. It appears to affect th^ 
natiyes (juite as much if not more tWxx ^Jt^a^^'^'v^^ 



c 



62 

residents. Though a '%lack sciroc*' does not deserve 
qnite all the hard things that have been said against 
it, its advent is nevertheless by no means welcomed 
by dtrellers in the "Fior del Mondo/* In Africa 
it is an exceedingly dry and rather strong wind, 
but when it arrives in Malta, having traversed a 
considerable expanse of sea, it has become heavily 
charged with vapour, whilst retaining the heat accumu- 
lated in its passage over the deserts of Africa. 
Iced beverages are very pleasant during a "Sciroc," 
and in the time of the Knights whenever supplies 
of snow from Sicily were small, the contents of the 
icehouses were reserved for the use of the hosp- 
ital. An old author says that a century ago the 
Maltese used to emerge from a bath by de^ees 
without making use of a towel in order to ward 
off inconveniences resulting from this wind. Windows 
and doors should be kept closed whilst it blows. The 
mean quantity of moisture in the air of the Mediter- 
ranean basin is only equal to one half of that in 
the atmosphere of England. 

The summer days are sultry, but the mornings 
and evenings are deliciously cool. The sun remains 
so long above the horizon, and the countless stone 
walls absorb abundant heat which radiates from them 
so copiously . after sundown that the nights are often 
uncomfortably hot and sultry. Both by night and 
day there is frequently a sensation of heat far 
greatcf than that warranted by the actual indica- 
tion of the thermometer. The Mediterranean cur- 
rents which run not less than three knots an hour 
considerably modify the temperature. It is the de- 
cided opinion of the medical authorities that regi- 
ents and departmental officers ought not to be 



63 

stationed in Malta for a longer period than three 
years at a time. 

The Maltese enjoy good health and often live 
to a great age, the peasantry being especially ro- 
bust and vigorous. The "colpo d'aria" or sudden 
cheeking of perspiration must be guarded against, 
as speedy and fatal illness results from it. During 
the winter- months, invalids will do well to visit 
Malta. It is easy -of access and the climate is de- 
lightful. The markets are well supplied with both 
luxuries and necessaries, green peas being in season 
from November till May. The houses are spacious 
and airy, and much attention has of late been paid 
to drainage and sanitary measures. Amusements 
abound, and cosmopolitan Valletta the meeting place 
of nations, can offer, much during the season to 
divert the tourist or pleasure seeker. To the ar- 
chaBologist, geologist, botanist, or artist, as well as 
to him who voyages in quest of health Malta pre- 
sents many objects of interest, whilst the lover of 
animals will be pleased to learn that hydrophobia 
is said to be an unknown disease in Malta, and 
that horses never suffer from glandet*| or from grease. 



64 

CHAPTER III. 

The Months in Malta. 

The following TalaBble obsenradcms are kindly ooctrib- 
nted hj Sig. G. Abela Palis. 

JANUARY. 

THE Japanese medlar, almond, caroubier, Neapol* 
itan medlar, borteosia, elder, and malberrj trees are 
in leaf, also the jessamine and various roses. The 
almond, and lemon trees are in flower, also the 
Asiatic ranunculus with its numerous varieties, and 
hyacinths. The lime {Citrus limeita), sweet orange 
(6\ Aurardium), mandarin (0. aur. nobile), and Seville 
{(J, Blqaradia) orange, bear fruit. The countryman 
Kows cabbages, turnips, cumin, tomatoes, lentils, maize, 
vetches, and anise: plants potatoes, using foreign 
tubers, and onions: weeds beans, corn, garlic, &c., 
reaps green barley for forage, and stores winter 
potatoes. Meanwhile the gardener sows the almond: 
prunes and grafts the vine and gum-producing trees: 
and plants vines, mulberry trees, and strawberries. Of 
spontaneously growing plants there are in flower the 
Anemone coronaria, En'ca multiflora, red cornucopia, 
and rosemary, &c. The Channa is plentiful, also mullet 
of exquisite flavour. On January 25th 1865 was cap- 
tured a female Alopua filamentoaus, called by Sicilians 
the imperial blackbird. All the species of sea mews 
and gulls are plentiful, with starlings, woodcock, &c. 
and many aquatic birds. The Actinia Fordaica with 
fitbor speoiea of sbellflsh swarm in all the harbours. 



65 

The prbvefrb saya ^^Dry days in January make plenty 
of fruit !^' 

FEBRUARY. 

Tke nectarine, service, banana, apple, pomegran* 
ate, sweet pepper, sulphur rose, and plane treea 
are in leaf: the apricot, stra^wberry, pipe, and 
laurel are in flower: limes, lemons, peas, and beans yieldi 
their stores. Meanwhile the peasant sows March 
grain, cumin, and potatoes: weeds corn, late beans, 
potatoes, and cumin. Ground intended for cotton must 
be ploughed; sulla or clover, and trefoil are cut for 
green forage. The gardener sows gourds, sweet 
pepper, and pumpkins: Adonis cBstivaliSf Viola odorata, 
Oxalis cemuuy Goronllla EmeruSj Goronilla stiputaris^ 
the laurel, African pea or Krewpuc^ and other species 
are in flower^ Birds approach our shores, also several 
species of the Cookrell, which are caught during 
April, and sometimes even as late as June. On 
February 7th 1866 several large band fish were 
captured, and on February 17th 1854 a very fin^ 
•word fish. Lizards and wood snakes awake from 
their winter sleep. Some woodcock arrive, also the 
robin redbreast, and other birds. The farmers' proverb 
•ays: ''February's rain is as good as a dunghiU, 
and fills every garner." 

MARCH. 

This is the month of leaves, sun- strokes, colds, 
and rheamatic fevers. Amongst the trees and plants 
in leaf are the vine, oleander, peach, pine, pear, 
lemon, plum, caroubier and cotton ^lai\iV. xVl^ ^^f^;»^^<> 

6 



66 

orange, Isiirel^ Japanese medlar^ pear> apple, artr 
emisia, plum, and barley are in flower. Lemons^ 
peas, and beans are productive. In the country, com- 
mon anise, vetches> Mai?Gh corii, beetroot, kidney 
beans, maize, melons, water-melons, cotton, and white 
Indian wheat are sown. Corn, cumin, and anise are 
weeded. Labour in the gardens is directed to the 
sowing of oranges, cucumbers, sweet basil, and sweeli 
pepper, to the transplanting of vegetable marrbwsj 
and the pruning and grafting of olives. The Niffeltu 
damasceha, variotis poppies, the Cmtegus oxyacant^, 
and many other plants ' are in flower. Mardi is the 
best month for botanical rambles. The districts with 
the greatest varfety of speciies ai^e- the Wied Baba 
on the south side of the island, Ohdna, oh the S* 
W. shore, Puales, near St. VaixV^ Bay, and the whote 
of Qrozo. P?sii begin to be pleheifiil, and the whiting 
is caiight until' the end of June. Many birds amt'e-. 
The Catalogue by Mr. O. A. Wright will be found 
vet-y tr^i^fal by the ornithologist. Sitkvlortns aii4> 
hatched, but the manuficture of silk is no iotigoi' 
cari-iedoii. • ^^ If Marcli be hot deasoh^'bte June w*U 
libt' be festive H' , • 

APRIL. ' " '■■■"'■■' 

The month for flowers. Cases of apoplexy *ar« 
not uncommon. The iujube, black mulberry, walnut, 
olive, apple, cherry, pJickly pear, and pistacchio trees 
are in leaf. Spinach, mushrooms, onions, olives, 
quinces, potatoes, artichokes, pomegranates,- and the 
white mulberry are in .blossom. Strawberries, Jap* 
medlars, tomatoes, and Vfetches yield- their 

^asB:' the otange tree sheds its leaves. Rural 






67 

occupations in 6e\ia and gardens are: aowing cafcton, 
white Indiap wheat, melons, water-melona, loaise, fha 
Syrian marah-mallow, and fennel: thinning cotton, 
and mowing clover for hay. CloTer and beans are 
nprooted, and potatoes dng' np. The gardener sows 
pumpkins, cauliflowers, and Cayenne pepper, b-ana- 

S'anta tjnmptins, and- nproota the bulba of gallic, 
any flowera bloom, amongst which are the varie- 
ties of the caper. The botanist is stilt buay. Black- 
birds are canght in large numbers, swordfish appear, 
and T&Hoas cmstaceans are canght. See Dr. Gulia'a 
" Pesci di ' Malta." Sheep are shorn. Beea prepare 
to swarm. "April briiiga flowers of which May get^ 
the credit." 

.:.,: '" MAY. 

' The m6ntti 'foV mowing. Th6 jujuHe, olive, cas- 
sia' and cotton plant si'e in leaf: spinach, otaions. 
daSVoQ, vfnes, and wild marjoram, prickty pearj iris„ 
and a t^ofiaand others are iti blossom, wnilat'bar^ 
ley, black fetches, kidney b^ans, almouda, cabbages, 
apricots,' and chick-peas, cherries, cumin, ctjcumbers, 
toftiatbes, gourds, at|d coriander hiive reached ma- 
turity. Cotton is sown on ciay soils, cuioin is gath- 
ered, andl barley being mown tLo threshing-flooc 
isgof feaBy." The gardener transplants pampkinfij 
Sweet, anfd Cayenne pepper, sweet basil, and gourds. 
He also prnpes his rine9, aild hoea his' pot-herbs,' 
The *illow, wild plnm, the star of Bethlehem, call- 
ed in Maltese speech "Ptfwl's milk,^' convolvulus, arid 
many others blossom. The learned rock-fish, which 
is caught with the net, is excellent. G<^T>\\.«.tv% '^Sq- 
for the boops: quails, roller bwdB, s^mXyo.^?., ^-"^"^ 



68 

other birds arrive. Migratory locnsts are frequent 
bat nnwelcome visitors. ''A carefal man is never 
poor!'* 

JUNE. 

The month for threshing. The first signs of 
epidemics nsoallj appear daring this month. The 
Japanese medlar puts forth branches for the second 
time^ and the anise, sweet and wild marjoram^ sweet 
plum^ jajube^ and pomegranate trees are in flower. 
Cherries^ corn^ beetroot^ St. John^s figs, black mal- 
berries^ water melons, pears^ anise^ and horse radish 
are gathered. 

The peasant toiling beneath a baming san plants 
cauliflowers between his cotton and water-melons^ 
weeds and thins his cotton, reaps^ and threshes his 
corn. Onions and potatoes are dug up. The gar- 
dener^ less exposed to the sun, sows mulberries and 
leeks, caprificates figs, prunes, grafts, and irrigates 
the orange trees. Meanwhile the women pick the 
buds of the caper, which are sold by measure. Thyme, 
thorny endive, myrtle^ and Jerusalem sage are notice- 
able plants. During the heat of the day, the grasshop- 
per chirps in the fields; the lesser daw incubates 
at Filfla; glow-worms shine, and the tortoise lays 
its eggs. The cockrell is abundant, as are also several 
rarieties of the ray and skate. The tunny fish taken 
off Trapani supplies our markets. When silkworms 
were reared, the cocoons were collected daring this 
mouth. '^ Sickle in hand in June V' 



69 
JULY. 

The month for heat, sun-strokes, lock-jaw, typhoid 
fevers, &c. 

The orange, elder-tree, laurel, endive, mint, and 
caroubier are in leaf. Maize and cotton flower, and 
the apricot, melon, pear, apple, plum, pumpkin, 
onion, prickly pear, sweet pepper, nectarine, fig and 
vine are laden with fruit. The almond tree sheds 
its leaves. The peasant is busied in gathering anise, 
pulling up beetroot, in beating the heads of saf- 
fron, threshing corn, or sowing clover. Gardeners sow 
different kinds of cabbage, and gather almonds. Two 
species of Yerbascum, the Orsinia Camphorata, on 
the forts and seaside cliffs of 6ozo, the agnus castus. 
For Maltese Flora see Dr, Gulia's "Repertorio Botani- 
co" and ''Repertorio di Storia Naturale." Several spe- 
cies of the genus Sparus are caught by fishermen, also 
delicious white bait, and the Marroon or Castagnola, 
good for cats. and raep. A specimen of the Smaris 
msidiat)r was captured on July 6th 1865. Honey 
is collected, and weasels are born. "He who doubles 
his dunghill doubles his field! '^ 

AUGUST. 

The month of fruit and fevers. The wild and 
sweet marjoram, artichoke, and lemon are in leaf: 
the tuberose blossoms, and the peach, vine, pumpkin, 
pippin, walnut, Cayenne pepper, maize, caroubier 
and cotton yield increase. Figleaves fall, cotton is 
cut, and winter potatoes are planted, with the pro- 
duce of Malta. Farmers begin to manure their land. 
Onions, horse-radish, and peas ^re sown. On the 



70 

sea shore are in flower the sweet smelling ambrosia, 
the marine x^ritmo^ and the medicinal squill. The 
lampnca^ One of the best fish of the Mediterranean, 
is caught from August until the end of the year, 
and sometimes till the end of March. Mullet are 
plentiful, and also the boopS which is caught in bow* 
nets, and we see shoals of sardines. The old say<- 
ing is often true. '*B. Antonio (17th Jan.) great 
cold.— S. Lorenzo (Aug. 10th) great heat. — * Both 
X)f short duration ! ^* 

SEPTEMBER. 

The vintage month. Catarrhal ophthalmia, liver 
complaints, and bilious fevers are prevalent. The 
date palm, onion and laurel are in leaf, and the ju- 
jube, walnut, yellow peach, bergamot, lime, lemon, 
sv^eet basil, and white Indian wheat are fruit bear- 
ing. The black mulberry and sweet plum shed their 
leaves. Fields are ploughed and manured before the 
bowing of vetches, barley, and garlic, the planting 
of winter potatoes, and the transplanting of various 
sorts of cabbage. The peasants are busily engaged 
in picking cotton-pods, and gathering the ears of 
maize. In the gardens tomatoes, endives, turnips, 
horse-radish, lettuce, onions, and artichokes are sown: 
pot-herbs are thinned xmd grafted, ripe pumpkins 
are cnt, and exposed to the sun. Of spontaneous 
plants there are in flower the Nepela Galamintha, 
Timo capitato, several of the Hypericum tribe. Inula 
visdosa, and the Datum metel, poisonous to birds. 
In the waters are the razor-fish, the pearl-fish, (a 
^^ficacy), and the basse which pursues its prey es- 
ially into the Qoarantine Harbour. Ladybirds and 






Tl 

beetles are plentiful in tbe countt'y, as well as other 
insectSj such as the Acherontia atropos, Deilephila 
Uneata^ EpS^chna ishrysoMelina, and Auida sfcula, 
^'Tb^ September moon draws seven moons/' 



OCTOBER. 

The month for sowing. Colds and rheumatism 
are the order of the day. During this month diph« 
teric aifection^j such as croup^ &c. are common. 
Garlic^ squills^ saffron^ and strawberries are in leaf^ 
and the caroubier^ fennel^ and the Japanese medlat 
bloom. Fruit is yielded by the vine, olive, pome- 
granate^ pear^ laurel, service tree, quince, and apple. 
The peach, quince, pear, apple, jVjube, apricot, and 
service trees shed their leaves. The fields are ma- 
nured and sown with barley, vetches, peas and beans; 
tomatoes^ and various turnips are planted. Spinach 
is sown, and olives, asparagus, and artichokes planted. 
Leeks are uprooted, and pumpkins cut. Fennel and 
the late narcissus are among the few flowers of this 
month. Various kinds of anchovy are .caught, and 
Sig. Borg's tonnara at Melleha lays snares for the 
tunny which visit our shores. Shoals of the deli- 
cious white tunny are often cisiught at the same 
time. The cross spine is caught off the Great Har- 
bour. This is the' lambing season, and various birds 
arrive, such as the robin redbreast, water wagtail, 
bullfinch^ greenfinch, chaffinch, &c., and some aqua 
tic species. "If you would reap well sow quickly! 



ff 



: i 



72 

NOVEMBER. 

This leaf-falling month is very trying to per- 
sons in the last stage of consumption. The Japan- 
ese medlar is in leaf: the cauliflower^ artichoke^ and 
saffron bloom. The Japanese medlar bears fruit. 
We remark the shedding of leaves by the vine, po- 
megranate, Cayenne pepper, and elder tree. In the 
delds saffron, barley, and wheat are sown; onions 
and winter potatoes are planted. Carrots are sown 
and cabbages planted, in gardens. Vines and pome- 
granates are pruned and cultivated. A sacred plant 
which formerly wrought many wonders blossoms in 
lonely places. It is collected by herbalists and sold 
to poor women to be used in baths for ricketty 
children. Sage (clandestina) and the ranunculns are 
in flower. Several kinds of sharks, amongst which 
are the Small Spotted and the Great Shark are 
caught in large numbers, except the last named, 
which is, fortunately, rare. Prom November until 
the end of February they have savoury flesh, vhich 
is more or less esteemed. The needle-fish and the 
flying-fish are plentiful in the markets, and are ob- 
tainable until the end of May. '^A good manager's 
eye is worth as much as a dunghill ! ^* 

DECEMBER. 

A rainy month. The sweet orange, mandarin, 
and the other i^pecies aud varieties of the genus 
Citrus continue to bear fruit: the cherry, pistac- 
chio, caper, and cotton shed their leaves. Wheat is 
wn, onions and figs planted : and fennel pulled 
The gardener sows almonds and beetroot, plants 



« 



73 

the peachy plom,. vine, apple, and strawberry: grafts 
the apricot, the plum upon the wild variety, and 
the pear upon the quince: he also prunes his vines. 
The flowers of the daffodil make the fields gay. 
Mullet are excellent: the Maltese say that red fish 
should be eaten in winter, and azure fish in sum- 
mer. The Streaked Sparus appears from time i& 
time. Storks arrive, and the caves of Qhar Da^ 
lam and Ghar Hassan are full of hybemating bats. 
We must not forget the bees, which, as flowern 
are scarce, require to be fed. ^^ December sells and 
gives not back I ^' 



74 



P 



CHAPTER IV. 

TICKETS AND BuiLDINGS. 



Porta Beftle. — Stvada Beale* — Opera Honfie.-— Umon Club. — 
^linrdbL of St. John.— <5onrts of Justiod,-— Public Library. — 
Govemor'B Palace.^-- €t. George's Square. — Thi» BorB% ap4 
Fort St. Elmo. — Stftida .Strett% the old PueUing-^roqncU 
Strada Fomi — Auberge de France, the Bake;^, aad the 
Auberge de Bayiere.^-Strada Zecca, and the Mint. — St. Panl'v 
Churchy and the Auberge d' Aragon — Marsamuscetto Steps 
and neighbourhood. — Walk round the Bamparts, &c, 

AS we approach Valletta from the country, and note 
its thickly clustering houses of stone, we are 
reminded of the ancient prophecy that "every palm 
of Mount Sceberras (on which the city stands) would 
be worth a zecchin of gold^' and of the words of 
Lord Beaconsfield: "Malta is certainly a most delight- 
ful station. Its city, Valletta, equals in its noble archi- 
tecture, if it even does not excel, any capital in 
Europe. And although it must be confessed that 
the surrounding region is little better than a rock, 
the vicinity nevertheless, of Barbary, of Italy, and 
of Sicily, presents exhaustless resources to the lovers 
of the highest order of natural beauty. If that 
fair Valletta, with its streets of palaces, its pict- 
uresque forts, and magnificent church, only crowned 
some green and azure island of the Ionian Sea^ 
Corfu for instance, I really think that the ideal of land- 
scape would be realized.^' 

We cross by a drawbridge the ditch which 
extenda from the Great to the Quarantine Harbour, 



77 

A few yards farther down Strada Reale at 
No. 20 are Messrs. Henry S. King and Go's suit© 
of commodious Reading and Writing Rooms, Offi- 
ces, &c. for ladies and gentlemen, which are spe- 
cially intended for the use of passengers to and 
from the East. These Rooms whic^h are under the 
management of Messrs. Turnbull Jun. and Somer- 
ville are kept open day and night when mail steamers 
are due. Passengers can receive and answer letters, 
see the latest telegrams, as well as English, Indian, 
and Colonial papers &c. free of charge. Instruc- 
tions can be given here as to the forwarding of bag- 
gage and the execution of commissions in Malta, 
or by Messrs. Henry S. King & Co. either in London 
or at any of their Branch Houses. These Rooms, 
are a great boon to travellers, who can here 
obtain all information relative to Cook's Tourist 
Arrangements, and also O ye smokers! good cigarettes! 
Members of the Indian Co-operative Agency will 
find the Malta Branch at Mr. Archer's, 303-306 
Strada Reale, nearly facing the Opera House. 

Opposite Messrs H. King's Reading Rooms ai*e 
the Franciscan Church and Convent. The first Fran- 
ciscan Convent in Valletta was founded in the year 
1600 mainly through the exertions of Father Daniele 
La Greca a Sicilian priest. On April 5th 1730 the 
Work of rebuilding it was commenced, the Grand 
Master Manoel de Yilhena giving £300 and lending 
■laves, convicts, and two carts. A large picture in 
the choir represents this Grand Master superinten- 
ding the erection of a lapge convent. In 1681 the 
diurch was rebuilt by the Grand Master Gregorio 
Caraffii, whose portrait is in the sacristy. It is 
jumole in architecture and consists of a nave. It 



76 

Bellini's Opera of "I Puritani." Mr. 0. Barry was 
the architect. Oa May 25th 1873 a fire destroyed 
the interior fittings and decorations^ but on Oct. 
11th 1877 the Theatre was re-opened with Verdi's 
Opera of "Aida.'' 

It is under the superintendence of a Committee 
appointed by the Government. The Opera season 
commences on October 15th of each year^ and closes 
on the following 14th of May. Performances are 
usually given on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednes- 
days, Thursdays, and Saturdays, with the exception 
of certain festivals, days of public mourning, &c. 
The imprMario is bound to produce not less than 
18 operas during the season, two of which must 
be entirely new to the Malta stage. Performances 
commence at 8. 30. p. m. Boxes for the season, 
per month from 6 ^. 3c2. to £1. Stalls per month 
£1. 11. For the season, per month 12 5. 6 d. For 
one night 2 8. Amphitheatre 9d, For further imi> 
formation see Malta Almanacks. 

Strada Reale No. 7 is the Palazzo Azzopardi, 
and on the same side as the Opera House is the 
Church of Sta. Barbara with the inscription "Sanctae 
Barbaras Dicatum,^^ The first church on this site was 
erected in 1573. Having fallen into decay it was 
rebuilt in 1740 and solemnly blessed by Mons. Bull 
Grand Prior of the Order on December 1st of that 
year. The principal picture is by the Cavalier Favray, 
Connected with the church is the very ancient Confra- 
ternity of the Bombardiers, which has existed for 
three centuries. Many of its members are buried 
beneath the church, Sta. Barbara being the patro- 
jaess of artillery and all things therewith connected. 



77 

A few yards farther down Strada Reale at 
No. 20 are Messrs. Henry S. King and Go's suit© 
of commodious Heading and Writing Rooms, Offi- 
ces, &c. for ladies and gentlemen, which are spe- 
cially intended for the use of passengers to and 
from the East. These Rooms whic^h are under the 
management of Messrs. Turn bull Jun. and Somer- 
ville are kept open day and night when mail steamers 
are due. Passengers can receive and answer letters, 
see the latest telegrams, as well as English, Indian, 
and Colonial papers &c. free of charge. Instruc- 
tions can be given here as to the forwarding of bag- 
gage and the execution of commissions in Malta, 
or by Messrs. Henry S. King & Co. either in London 
or at any of their Branch Houses. These Rooms, 
are a great boon to travellers, who can here 
obtain all information relative to Cook's Tourist 
Arrangements, and also O ye smokers! good cigarettes! 
Members of the Indian Co-operative Agency will 
find the Malta Branch at Mr. Archer's, 303-306 
Strada Reale, nearly facing the Opera House. 

Opposite Messrs H. King's Reading Rooms are 
the Franciscan Church and Convent. The first Fran- 
ciscan Convent in Valletta was founded in the year 
1600 mainly through the exertions of Father Daniele 
La Greca a Sicilian priest. On April 5th 1730 the 
work of rebuilding it was commenced, the Grand 
Master Manoel de Yilhena giving £300 and lending 
slaves, convicts, and two carts. A large picture in 
the choir represents this Grand Master superinten- 
ding the erection of a lapge convent. In 1681 the 
church was rebuilt by the Grand Master Gregorio 
Carafia, whose portrait is in the sacristy. It is 
simple in architecture and consists of a nave. It 



78 

was beautified in 1862. There are. several pictares 
here hy Mattia Preti, and that of S. S. Cosmo aud 
Damiano is by Paladini. Amongst other confrater- 
nities connected with this church i^- that of phy- 
sicians and surgeons whose patron saints are S. S. 
Cosmo and Oamiano. The confraternity of artists 
and painters formerly used to assemble here on St. 
Luke's Day. 

Close at hand on t^e same side of the street 
is the Auberge de Provence, now occupied by the 
Union Club. This was the headquarters oi the 
knights of the Langaage of Auvergne whp ha4 an 
annual revenue of £19,791. 10. 0. and who seem to 
}iave usqajlly numbered aboi)t 60 resident in Malta^ 
The head qf each Auberge w»s called a PiUer who^ 
was responsible,' for the common table: (see p, 30). Th§ 
brethi*en were ' evidently sometimes: unruly, for "if 
a brother be guilty of any insolence or indecency 
in the inn where he eats: if he break the doors/^ 
benches, tables, or. any thing of the like nature or 
fling them away carelossly^ he shall be punished by the 
master and the council. Whoever shall strike the 
piliers, p^ges, servants, or slavey, though hie draws nq 
blood fifhall be puqished with, the, quaraf^taiiiQj (4sO 
days fas>,, qoftifinei^ent tp q^a^tters^ attendance at 
all. chutcb services, bread and v^ater on Wednesday 3 
and Friditys eaten on the gr^nndi in addition to a 
flog&ring : in, a state of nudity : )>y ,)^ priest), with 6 
months . ^jmpriflonisaen.t fo^r ,i,he : sfKJonJd: . offeivce. ^' 
The giving of ill langua^l.to a brother in th^ 
^^aster's Palace was punished ^ith. the loss of threi^ 
Smfs^ seniority: if in an iqn, pf two yeara' senio* 
^pj|.i "If they di»aw their sviror4>, or give a hqx, 
mt kipki. they shall ^^ expeUe4.Wiiti^o^t- a p9saibjiit][ 



79 

of pardon. Tlie brothers shall not bring any dogs 
with them to derour the bread diat might else be 
left for the poor. If any dogs come in they shall 
be drove ont^ and if their master offers to oppose and 
oom plain of it^ he shall suffer the same punishment/' 

This Auberge formerly contained many fine pic- 
tnreSy amongst which was one of La Yalletto taking 
possession of Malta by the Cavalier Favray^ and 
another of the Grand Master Sohan. The superior 
of the Auberge de Provence was called the Grand 
Commander; who by virtue of his office was per- 
petual president of the common treasury, comptroller 
of the accounts, superintendent of stores, governor 
of the arsenal, and master of the ordnance. He 
had the nomination (subject to the approbation of 
the Grand Master and Council) of all officers from 
tiiB different Languages; and to this he added the 
power of appointing persons to various places of 
trust in the church of St. John, and in the Infirmary. 
The church of Sta. Barbara belonged to the Language 
of Provence which also had a chapel in the Church 
of St. John. 

The Union Club was established in 1826, and 
is tooonsist of 150 members present i^ Malta. 
Officers of the Army and Navy, Civil employes of 
the Malta Government, and gentlemen residing in 
Malta are eligible. This Club is under the mapage- 
ment of a Committee of nine members, including 
an Honorary Secretary and Treasurer. Members ar^ 
elected by ballot. Visitors to Malta may be introduced 
for one week by. a Member. The ceiling and walls 
of the Ball-room are very handsome, and are very 
good specimens of antique mural decoration. Quarterly 
^Subscription £1. .Entrance £b. 



^ ho 



80 

Pursuing our wkj down Strada Beale we speedily 
reach an open square which was planted with trees 
under the administration of Sir Gaspard le Marchant^ 
and which was formerly a sanctuary. A criminal^ 
however^ who once dared to insult the Grand Master 
as he passed was dragged forth and hanged on 
the spot. We note a granite fountain surmounted 
by a Won, and another over which a unicorn presides^ 
and have now reached the crowning glory of Valletta. 

The Church of St. John. 

On either side are two large honses. The one 
on the right was formerly the residence of the Grand 
Prior of the Order, and the upper portion is now 
occupied by the Circolo Maltese^ one of the Maltese 
clubs. Kntrance 8s, Ad. Annual Subscription £1. 
Admission by ballot. The house on the left was the 
abode of the Vice Prior, who guarded the treasures 
of the church, almost all of which were unfortu- 
nately carried oflf by the French in 1798. The fa- 
cade, which is built in the semblance of both church 
and fortress, as belonging to an Order at once mi- 
litary and religious, has nothing striking in its ap- 
pearance. It is surmounted by a Maltese cross, be- 
neath which is a figure of Our Saviour, the work* of 
Algardi of Bologna, which was brought from the 
now demolished church of S. Salvatore on the Ma- 
rina. Above is the inscription '' Salva nos '^ (save 
us). The clock constraoted by a Maltese called Cle- 
rici, has three faces, which mark respectively the 
hour, the day of the week, and that of the month. 
ilThe two flanking bell-towers contain ten bells, seven 
which give warning of ihe church services whilst 



81 

the other three are connected with the clock. Two 
of the largest were given by the Grand Master Pinto,- 
and were consecrated by Bishop Alpheran de Bussan. 
The building of the church was commenced during the 
rale of the Grand Master De La Cassi^re^ who employ- 
ed the architect Girolamo Cassar^ who also drew the 
plans for the city of Valletta, and designed the Auber- 
ges of the various Languages. The first stone was laid 
m November 1573, and in 1578 the Church was suf- 
ficiently far advanced for consecration. The see of 
Malta being at that time vacant, Bishop Gargallo 
not being as yet consecrated/ Mens. Ludovico di 
Torres Archbishop of Monreale in Sicily came to 
Malta, and consecrated the church on the 20th of 
February 1578. The coats of arms of the Grand 
Master De La Cassi^re, and of Archbishop Torres, 
togfether with two Latin inscriptions over the en- 
trance record the erection and consecration. 

Let us raise the large mat which hangs at the 
door and enter. It is impossible not to be struck 
with the magnificence which is everywhere display-^ 
ed. The church is of an oblong form, 187 feet 
in length. The nave is 50 feet in breadth, or in- 
cluding the side chapels 118 feet. The height to 
the centre of the roof is 63 feet 6 in.^ and the walls 
were inlaid with slabs of green marble between 
1663 and 1680 by the Grand Master Nicholas Goto- 
ner. The corridors date from 1735. As we enter 
we notice two marble fonts, which were presented 
in 1641, and another of plain marble which was 
brought in 1643 from the Church of Vittoria. 

The church consists of a choir and apse, nave, 
and two side aisles, the latter being divided into 
tide chapels, one of which was assigned to each 

6 



82 

of the variond Languages of the Order by the first 
General Chapter held in Malta in the year 1604. 

We cannot fail to notice the pavement which 
is composed of some 400 richly inlaid marble slabs, 
commemorating many famous and illustrious mem- 
bers of the Order. These slabs are adorned with 
many quaint and appropriate emblems/ and bear 
suitable epitaphs. Any one who wishes to study 
these monuments should consult the able work of 
the Maltese artist Caruana, which can be obtained 
at the Libraries and elsewhere. 

Successive Grand Masters and Grand Priors 
vied with one another in adding to the treasures 
6f the Church of St. John, individual knights gave 
costly gifts, and every member of the Order on 
promotion was bound to give a "gioja^^ or present 
to the church, the amount of which was recoverable 
by a lien upon his property. The ^'gioja'^ of the 
Grand Master was limited to 50 oz. of gold. The 
carved ornaments of the nave and side chapels were 
gilded with sequin gold at the expense of the Grand 
Master Nicholas Cotoner. The paintings on the 
roof are worthy of special notice. They are the 
work of Mattia Preti generally known as "the Oa- 
labrese^^ from the place of his birth. He came to 
Malta in 1661 at the invitation of the Grand Mas- 
ter de Bedin, and resided here until his death 
in 1699. The Grand Master Nicholas Cotoner was 
also one of his patrons. During this whole period 
he was more or less engaged in adorning and 
beautifying the Conventual Church. He refused 
to receive payment, whereupon the Order bestowed 
upon him the rank of Commander, and each of 
the Languages granted him a pension. He was a 



•"« Graoj Jr,3^"» »itt«- aids' ""'» "» otl,°r 
If^i, oiothj"^, ''° «■» left Z'"^'*" ft-tooerf 

'wfe ^'.-^onl 6^„?*?"«- «/f?T °' s,: 

.K?«. rl|' Ks i:S «"« 

w».x' ;? •« 'k^m.'^f.»"G's:"''?4t''"■ 
• Abope are tie 



84 

Heavenly Father^ angels^ and a scroll ^'Hic est Fi- 
lms mens dilectas/' 

The fourth zone ' represents the arrest of St. 
John by Herod. On the right the Baptist makes 
reply to the messengers from Jerusalem^ and in the 
centre he gives advice to the soldiers. The fifth 
zone shews how Herod was reproved by St. John^ 
on the right the Baptist^s followers are being sent 
with a message to our Lord, and in the centre is 
the daughter of Herodias with the severed head in 
a charger. The sixth zone represents on the left 
the dance of the daughter of Herodias, whilst evil 
spirits whisper to her mother, and on the right the 
executioner does his work. Above is a chorus of 
angels. In the apse St. John carrying the banner 
of the Order kneels before the ^^Holy and blessed 
Trinity." At the corners of each of these arches 
are twenty four figures of martyrs and heroes^ illus- 
trative of the history of the Order. 

The pavement was partially restored under the 
administration of Sir H. F. BouverieT, and the pic- 
tures under that of Sir Charles T. Y. Straubenzee, 
G. 0. B. by Sig. Cortis between December 21st 
1867 and the year 1874. Turning to the right as. 
we enter the church we see before us the Chapel 
of the Decollation of St. John or the Oratory. This 
was erected in 1603 by the Grand Master Alofio 
Wignacourt for the instruction of novices and otb^r 
pious purposes. The Altar is formed of rich marbles, 
and is surmounted by a group representing the 
Crucifixion by Algardi of Bologna. The three lunet- 
tes are by Favray, who has also enriched by his 
pencil several other churches in Malta. The large 
picture behind the altar is by Michael Angelo de 



85 

Caravaggio. This painter who derived his surnaiDe 
from a castle iu the Milanese in which he was born 
in the year 1560^ was the son of a mason^ and 
was at first employed to prepare colodrs for pain- 
ters in fresco. He studied at Venice where he learn- 
ed to imitate the colouring of Giorgione^ and in 1608 
came to Malta to paint the roof of this churchy was 
knighted by the Grand Master Wignacoart, departed^ 
and died in the following year. The remaining pictures 
in the Oratory are by Preti. Over the altar in a 
special monstrance made by Bernini at the expense 
of the Grand Master Caraffa^ was formerly preserved 
the most highly prized relic of this churchy viz.^ 
the right hand of St. John the Baptist. It was 
originally kept at Constantinople in a church built 
by the Emperor Justinian expressly for its recep- 
tion^ after its removal from a church in Antioch. 
The Sultan Bajazet presented it to the Grand Mas- 
ter D' Aubusson, and when the knights were ex- 
pelled from Rhodes L' Isle Adam conveyed the 
precious relic to Malta. It was encased in gold^ 
an(| adorned with many precious stones. By its 
side with many other votive offerings was a costly 
diamond ring. This Napoleon appropriated^ but re- 
turned the hand itself to the Grand Master Hom- 
pesch, who carried it away with him to St. Pe- 
tersburg^ where it is still carefully preserved in the 
Winter Palace. In the Oratory are kept the splen- 
did tapestries presented to the church by the Grand 
Master Perellos at a cost of £6000. These tapestries, 
which are well worth seeing, were executed in Brus- 
sels by the firm of J. D. Vos. They form part 
of the decorations of the church on St. John's 
Day^ from the festival of Corpus Christi to that of 



86 

S. S. Peter and Panl^ and from Christmas Day until 
the Epiphany. 

The first side diapel in the sonth aisle is de- 
dicated to St. James^ and was assigned to the Lan- 
Saage of Castile. The bronze monument of the Grand 
[aster Manoel de Vilhena is very handsome^ and 
recalls to mind the building of Fort Manoel on an 
island in the Quarantine Harbour. Grand Master 
Emmanuel Pinto who was a great benefactor to the 
churchi giving to it amongst other gifts two large 
bells^ is also buried in this chapeL His tomb is 
adorned with a fine portrait in mosaic which was 
painted by the Cav. Pavray for fifty magisterial 
secchins (£17. 14. 2.) at the expense of the Vea-^ 
erable Assembly in gratitude for the nmce granted 
to that body by Pinto. 

We next visit the Campo Santo^ which consists 
of a large plain stone slab with a pyramid in the 
centre^ in memory of many a valiant soldier. The Chapel 
of St. John was assigned to the Language of Ar<- 
agon. Grand Master Despuig whose bust and arms 
are seen here gave the altar. In this chapd are 
preserved the relics of St. Fidele given by Pope 
Clement the Twelfth in 1738 and solemnly trans* 
lated hither in September 1739. The Grand Mas* 
ter Martin de Bedin^ the two Gotoners^ and Perellos 
are buried here. The monuments of Perellos and 
of Nicholas Cotoner \^o was a great benefactor to 
the church, were executed in Bemini^s studio at 
Borne, in which the Maltese sculptor Melchior GbI& 
was a pupil. The allegorical figures of Asia and 
Africa which are copies from the celebrated bronze 
originals of Giovanni di Bologna, support a well 
executed figure of Ffbine. 



87 

The Chapel of St. SebaBtian^ assigned to the 
Language of Auvergne is adorned with numerous 
figures of dolphins, the emblem of Auvergne. It 
contains a picture of St. Sebastian by Paladiniand 
the tomb of the Grand Master De Gessan. On the 
South side of the Choir is the Chapel of the Most 
Blessed Sacrament or of "Our Lady of Philermos.^' 
This latter title was given because this chapel for- 
merly contained an image of the B. V. Mary^ of 
which many miracles are recorded. This image was 
carried to St. Petersburg by the last Grand Mas- 
ter. Monsignor Alpheran^ formerly Bishop of Maltay 
was the donor of the silv:er tabernacle, and the 
silver rails valued at £800 were given in 1752 by^ 
the Bailiff Gu^rani, and a knight named De La 
Salle, as a votive offering of one-fifth of their personal 
prop^ty. These costly rails escaped the notice of 
the aU-plandering French, thanks to a coat of 
paint. 

Notice those ancient keys. They are those of 
Patras^ Passava, Lepanto, and Amameta. This last 
wias an AfHcan city, captured by the galleys in 
1^U3« We now enter the choir whidi dates from 1598. 

The marble Baptism of Christ was worked at 
Borne at the expense of the Grand Master Caraffa, 
after the designs of Melchior G&fa. This eminent 
sculptor was bom in Malta in 1635, and studied 
at fioniA under Ferrata. He commenced this group^ 
bnt an accident prevented him ^from completing it 
himself. The sculptore was placed in position in 
1714. 

The Grand Master Perellos gave the marble 
altar at tiie extremity of the apse. The high altar 
of lapis lazuli and other marbles cost 4^500 Boman 



88 

ficudi^ and was designed in Rome by Bernini in 
1686. A former prior gave the six large silver 
candlesticks, and in 1669 the large silver lamp waa 
the gift of the Bailiff Bospiglion. The Grand Ma- 
ster Qarzes gave the pulpit and choir seats in 
1598. Two silver statues brought from Ehodes re- 
presenting Moses with the Tables of the Law, and 
the Angel of the Apocalypse, in the choir were melted 
down in August 1761, for fear of a threatened Turkish 
invasion. The old service books are very curious. 
The Crypt below the Choir is called the Chapel of 
the Crucifixion. Here lie twelve Grand Mtisters amongst 
whom are L' Isle Adam and La Vallette. Here also 
rests Sir Oliver Starkey the faithful secretary of La 
Yallette, who was the last English Turcopolier^ and 
one of the three Englishmen who took part in the 
famous siege of 1565, and the writer of the epi- 
taph on the tomb of La Vallette. The frescoes are 
by Nasone. 

The Chapel of St» Carlo or the Chapel of the 
Belies. Here are preserved in two handsome re-, 
liquaries above the altar a thorn which was for- 
merly a portion of the crown worn by Christ, a 
fragment of the cradle of the infant Jesus, one of 
the stones which slew St. Stephen, the foot of Laz- 
arus, and some of the bones of St. Thomas of 
Canterbury. The crucifix over the altar is said to 
have been made from the basin used at the wash- 
ing af the disciples feet. A very ancient wooden 
figure of St. John the Baptist, which is preserved 
in this chapel, was formerly attached to the stern 
of the flagship of the Order. This chapel was as- 
signed to the Anglo-Bavarian Language, established 
in 1784 by the Grand Master de Kohan. 



89 

The Chapel of St. Michael assigned to the Lan- 

Siage of Provence^ contains the tombs of the Grand- 
asters Antonio de Paula (died 1636)^ and John 
de Liascaris (died 1657). The tabernacle contains 
a portion of the wood of the true cross. Above 
the altar is a copy of Ouido Renins celebrated pic- 
ture of St. Michael doing battle with the Dragon. 
The Chapel of St. Paul was assigned to the 
language of France^ and contains the monuments 
of the Grand Master Alofio Wignacourt and his 
brother John^ of the Grand Master Emmanuel de 
Bohan, and of the Comte de Beaujolais. This last 
monument is by Pradier^ and was erected by Louis 
Philippe, brother, to the deceased Count. The Cha- 
pel of Sfc. Catherine, the altar of which is elabo- 
rately ornamented, was assigned to the Language 
of Italy. The Grand Master CarafFa is buried here, 
and the chapel contains relics of St. Catherine and 
the body of St. Euphemia. Notice the picture of 
S. S. Gerolamo and the Magdalen by Caravaggio, 
and the picture of St. Catherine by Mattia Preti. 
The Chapel of the Magi was assigned to the 
Language of Germany. The two lunettes and the 
picture above the altar are by the Maltese Stefano 
Erardi. In the entrance to the Sacristy is the tomb 
of Preti, who so greatly beautified the church. The 
Sacristy contains 15 pictures, and an ancient paint- 
ing' of a Christ on wood which is said to have been 
brought from Rhodes. A Mass of requiem is sung 
annually on the 7th of September for those who 
fell in the famous siege of 1565. As the bells of 
St. John^s toll mournfully at 10 a. m. the people 
exclaim " It is the Deliverance of the Knights." 



90 

The clergy of St. John's enjoy several special 
privileges. After plundering it of its treasures^ tho 
First Napoleon restored the church to Bishop Labinij 
and it has since borne the title of Co - Cathedral. 
The clergy forming the Chapter of the Diocese 
officiate. The cost to the Local Gov^nment of the 
restoration of this church between the years 1867 
and 1875 was £5,886. 8. 5. The niece of the' Grand 
Master Boban was permitted by Sir Thomas Maitland 
to find a grave at ' the feet of her uncle. 

Quitting the church and returning to Strada 
Beale we pass another open space planted with trees, 
and ornamented with an obelisk of red granite which 
serves as a drinking fountain, erected during the 
role of Sir Gaspard Le Marchant. 

On the opposite side of the street is the ^Brge, 
massive, and unadorned Auberge d' Auvergne. The 
revenue of the Language of Auvergne waa about 
£7,198, and its emblem was a dolphin. 

The head of this Auberge was called the Grand 
Marshal. He had the military command over the whole 
Order, e;s:cepting the Grand Crosses or their lieu- 
tenants, the Chaplains, and otker persons of the 
Grand Master's household. He entrusted the stand* 
ard of the Order to the knight whom be jndged 
most worthy of such distinction. He had the right 
of appointing the principal equerry; and wb^ at 
«ea commanded not only the general of the galleys 
^ut even the grand admiral himself. 

The upper floor is occupied by the Archives, 
with the Courts of Appeal and the Commercial, Civil, 
^nd Criminal Courts, in which S. M. Judges preside, 
whilst on the ground floor the Magistrates of Ja«t, 
dicial Police administer justice. There are poUoe 



91 

cells for persons awaiting trials or sentenced to 
not more than three days' detention^ and also a 
small ohapel. The Language of Auvergne had a 
chapel in St. John's Charch (see p. 87)^ and also another 
w4thin their Anberge. The paintings on the roof 
of Messrs. Crookford's Drapery Establishment which 
forms part of the Anberge, were executed some 
years since at a cost of £200. 

Adjoining the Anberge d' Anvergne is a large 
bmlding formerly called the Conservatorio. This was 
, the repository for the gold^ plate, and money of 
the Ord^^ and from hence payments were made 
wiien authorised by the Treasury. This Conser^ra- 
tone was under the control of a knight called the 
Conservator^ who was appointed every three years 
from the several Languages in turn according to 
seniority. 

Adjoining the Conservatorio was the Treasury, 
situated in the large block of buildings forming 
the left hand side of St. George's Square. This 
building was formerly devoted to the keeping of 
ftcoount books and records. It was managed by a 
committee, of which the Grand Commander or some 
knight of the Language of Provence was the pre- 
sident. The expenses of the Treasury and Gou'* 
sarvatorio amounted to .£833 per annum. The mag- 
nilioent rooms of the latter were a few years since 
ooenpied by the Casino Maltese. 

On the opposite side of the street is Victoria 
Square formerly called ''the square of the knights/' 
which was enclosed by Sir Gaspard Le Marchant. 
The Caf^ de la Beine with its pleasant seats beneath 
the trees and plashing fountain is much frequented. 
In the centre of the square is a statue ^of the 



92 

Grand Master Manoel de yilhena, the work of the 
Cav. Sa^asse^ which formerly stood in the centre of 
the sqaare at Fort Manoel, (Part ii. Chap, v.), but 
was removed hither by Sir Gaspard Le Marchant. 
Surrounding this Sqaare, opposite to which is Dnnv- 
ford's Hotel, are covered arcades lined with shops, 
forming an agreeable promenade on wet days and 
daring the great heats of sammer. 

The entrance to the noble Pablic Library is 
by a staircase on the eastern side of Victoria Sqaare. 
This Library first had a beginning in the year 1650, 
when the room above the Oratory at St. John's 
Charch was set apart for its accomodation. The 
books were afterwards transferred to a room over 
the larger sacristy. The general Chapter of 1612 
had also ordered that books, instruments, and cariosi- 
ties belonging to deceased knights were not to 
be disposed of. 

The Cardinal Portacarrefo died in August 1760, 
and on the 26th of that month was honoured wilji 
a solemn funeral in St. John's Church at the ex- 

fense of the Treasury and the several Languages, 
n the following year the Bailiff Tencin bought for 
£700 granted by the Treasury, the books of the 
deceased Cardinal to come to the Order as univer- 
sal heir, on condition that a Public Library should 
be provided, together with rooms for a librarian. 
This was agreed to, and the Bailiff Tencin sent for 
French workmen to bind the volumes, converting at 
the same time the cases in which the books were 
sent from Rome into the present book-shelves. He 
then added his own books and those of his lieuten- 
ant 4,030 in number, making a total of 9,700 vol- 
umes. 



93 

Dr. Fra. Oias. Zammit who died at the age of 
94 on Nov. 2Qd 1740, and was buried in the par- 
ish charch of Gasai Balzan^ bequeathed to the Hos- 
pital 15,000 volumes, many of which were after- 
wards added to the Public Library, which possesses 
portraits of the fiailiff Tencin, of Dr. Bruno, of Dr. 
Zammit, of Cardinal Portocarrero by the Cav. Favray, 
and of Sir H. Oakes. Additions were also made 
firom the Libraries of the Camerata, St. John's, and 
the Order of St. Antonio. The first librarian ap- 
pointed in 1763 was Canon Agius di Soldanis of 
Gozo, with a salary of £1 per month and lodging. 
The knights' books accumulated, duplicates being al- 
ways sold, so that the library cost only £8. 10«. per 
annum. In 1782, Dr. Gterolamo Bruno left £1000, 
the yearly interest of which was to be devoted to 
the purchase of new books. The Library was after- 
wards established in the present building, which was 
built during the rule of De Bohan, but not used 
until 1812. There were then 30,000 volumes, to 
whieh 20,000 have since been added. This Library 
to which additions are constantly being made, and 
which is well supplied with magazines and reviewsy 
is rich in unedited manuscripts. Open on every 
workings day from 9. 0. a. m. till 3. 0. p. m. and also 
for two hours in the evening during the winter 
months. Admission free. Books are Tent with the 
sanction of the learned and kindly Librarian C. Yas- 
sallo L. L. D. F. S. A. to whom I return grateful 
thanks for much valuable information, always most 
readily and patiently given. 

Close to the Public Library, is the large, mas- 
sively-built Governor's Palace, about 300 feet square, 
and surrounded by four of the principal streets. 



94 

The front has tiro entraaces from SL George's Square, 
of which it forms one side. Each gateway opens into 
a large conrtfard planted witii orange and other 
trees and gay with o-eepers. The other three sides 
of the Palace ha^e each an entrance in the centre, 
and open and cohered balconies almost snrronnd 
three sides of the bnilding. One conrtjrard was al- 
lotted to the sedan-chairs of the Grand Crosises, and 
in the other were the stables of the Grand Master. 

The right-hand gateway, opened by the Grand 
Master Pinto who greatly beautified the Palace, leads 
into Prince Alfred's Coart, so named in honoor of 
the first visit to Malta in 1850 of H. B. H. the 
Dake of Bdinbargh, who planted here a thriving 
Norfolk Island Pine aboat 40 years of age. There 
is a fountain in the centre of this courtyard, which 
is surrounded by the Head Quarters' Office, Chief 
Secretary's Office, the Government Printing Office, 
Public Record Office, and the Offices of the Controller 
of Charitable Institutions, and the Crown Advocate. 
We may remark in passing that the Grand Master 
Lascaris was the first to establish a printing press 
in the year 1643, over which, however, he exercised 
strict control. This square was first planted by Sir 
Gaspard Le Marchant in 1858. The clock resembles 
that of Old St. Dunstan's Church in Fleet Street 
fifty years ago. Quaint Moorish figures have been 
striking the hours and quarters with hammers ever 
since June 22nd 1745. 

Beneath the archway leading into the second 
courtyard are two fieldpieces^ and a tablet comme- 
morating the visit, to Malta on Oct. 30th 1862, of 
T. R, H. the Prince of Wales and the Crown Prince 
aad Princesa of Prussia. Tko courtyard • has borne 



95 

the name of H. B. H. the Prinoe of Wales since 
his first visit to Malta on Jane 5th 1862, and has 
in it a statae of Neptune by Giovanni of Bologna^ 
holding the escutcheon of the Grand Master Alofio 
Wignaconrt who defrayed the cost. This statue was 
brought from the fish market in 1858 by Sir Gas- 
pard Le Marchant. 

The Treasury and Land Revenue Office, the latter 
of which was formerly used for Divine Service by 
the English residents in Valletta before the erection 
of the Collegiate Church of St. Paul by the libe- 
rality of the late Dowager Queen Adelaide, are beneath 
the arched portico which surrounds this courtyard. 

The knights intended to build the Grand Mas- 
ter's Palace on the site occupied by the Auberge 
de Castile^ but Eustace de Monte nephew to the 
Grand Master of the same name, having erected this 
building in 1572 from the plans of Gerolarao Cas- 
sar, it was purchased from him. The grand marble 
staircase on the right of the entrance erected in 
1866, with broad steps of no great height, is a 
copy of the old one up which the Grand Master 
was carried in his chair of state, and which the 
young knights said was specially designed for the 
benefit of gouty dignitaries. A staircase on the left 
led to the Grand Master's summer apartments. The 
floors of the corridors are inlaid with escutcheons 
formed of variously coloured marbles. The walls of 
the Council Chamber, and other parts of the Palace 
are adorned with frescoes, most of which are by the 
two principal pupils of Giuseppe d' Arpino. There 
are also portraits of various Grand Masters, some of 
which are by the Cav. Favray. That of t\i^ QtkwtA^ 
Master Alofio Wignaconrt is \>y C»xv?^?,'g^* ^^^^ 



96 

Grand Master Zondadari enriched the picture gal- 
lery, which was full in days of old. 

There are in the Dining Room portraits of 
Louis XVI. by David presented by himself^ and of 
his son the hapless Dauphin. Also portraits of 
Louis XIV., George IV., and Queen Victoria. The 
inlaid marble mosaics on either side of the fireplace in 
this room are very fine. Along the corridors are 
ranged figures of knights and men at arms in 
full armour, bearing on their shields escutcheons in 
chronological order, commencing with that of the 
first Grand Master, and ending with that of the 
present Governor. 

In the Council Chamber are the velvet chairs 
and neat desks of the Cpuncil, and the Governor's throne 
on which are the gold-embroidered arms of Eng* 
land. Upon the walls are frescoes, but the costly 
tapestries, some 22 in number, each about 15 feet 
square, crowded with colossal figures, representing 
scenes in India, Africa, and South America, are the 
chief attraction here. They were purchased in Brussels 
by the Grand Master D'Espuig from the firm of 
J. D. Vos. 

In the Armoury (253 feet long by 38 broad), are 
the old colours of the Malta Regiment. Carefully 
preserved in glass cases are the original Bull of 
Pope Paschal IL, sanctioning the foundation of 
the Order, the deed of gift by which Charles V. 
transferred Malta to the Order of St. John, and 
the trumpet which sounded the retreat from Rho- 
des. Also the sword, axe, and surtout of Dragut 
the famous Algerine Corsair who held high com- 
zoand during the famous siege of 1565, and the 
batoaa of of&ce of the two celebrated Grand Mas- 



97 

ters La Vallette and Alofio Wignacourt. The suit 
of armour formerly worn by the last named Grand 
Master richly inlaid with gold is also in the Palace. 
None but a giant could wear armour nearly seven 
feet in lieight, and a helmet weighing 37 lbs. must 
have been an unconfortable head dress. This figure 
is commonly called by the Maltese "John BuU.^^ There 
is a remarlt^ble cannon in the Armoury which is said to 
have been taken from the Turks during one of their 
attacks upon the city of Rhodes. It is about five 
feet in lengthy and the bore is three inches in 
diameter. This probably unique cannon is made of 
tarred f inch rope bound round a copper cylinder 
and covered with cement^ the whole being painted 
black. Notice the various ornaments made with wea- 
pons which adorn the Armoury. Fourteen thousand 
muskets were formerly kept in store^ and as late as 
the year 1761 a number of new arquebusses were 
placed in the Armoury^ the old ones being worn 
out. 

At the foot of a staircase near the Armoury 
is the state carrriage of the last Grand Master^ which 
is said to have been used by Buonaparte. Baron 
Azzopardi however expressly states that Buonaparte 
declined to use it, preferring to march into the qity 
at the head of his guards. Within the palace is 
the noble- hall of S. S. Michael and George so 
called as being the scene of all investitures and assem- 
blies connected with that Order. This distinguished 
Order, instituted by Letters Patent dated 27th August 
1818, consists of the Sovereign, Grand Master, 35 
Knights Grand Cross, 120 Knights Commanders, 
and 200 Companions, and is limited to tRe Bvv\a«J^ 
Colonies. The insignia are, the Slax, Vvi^^Yte^ hoJ^ 

7 



98 

the raotfeo "Anspioiam Melioris Aevi" and tlie Collikp 
and Badga saspended from a watered Saxon bliie 
riband with a scarlet stripe. On the highest paitfc 
of the Palace is a small sqaare tower from whence 
signals are made announcing the approach of ships^ 
which^ by means of the signal stations at Gozo and 
Delimara^ are sometimes reported at a distance of 
56 miles to the East, and 20 miles to the West 
of the anchorage. Sheets shewing these signals can 
be obtained from the local booksellers. 

An observatory, whereat many important mete- 
orological facts have been recorded^ is established 
ih this tower. It owes its origin to the Grand Mas- 
ter Rohan, who provided an astronomer, and ocien^ 
tific instruments to the value of £5000. During 
the French occupation these valuable instruments 
Word coticealed in the tower, which is called the 
Torretta, and their hiding place was discovered in 
1M6 hy Captain Smyth. Sir A. J. Ball converted 
the room in which astronomical observations used 
to be made into a store for signals. The Torretta 
commands a fine view of the city and island. 
Lamartine said that from this point "Valletta resem- 
bles the shell of a tortoise stranded upon a reef, 
and appears as if cut out of a single piece of liv* 
ing rock !" 

In the basement of this tower werer carefully 
guarded amongst other treasures the sword and dag- 
^1^ presented to the Grand Master La Vallette b/ 
Philip II. of Spain The golden hilt of the sword 
was set ^th diamonds, and the sword and dagger 
were aniiiijany carried in procession before the Grand 
MaatBi^ on Sept. 8th. The French seized them, and 



99 

Macgill states that before leaving Malta Napoleon 
had the sword balanced for his own use. 

Viaitoi'8 who intend to remain some time iu 
Malta will do well to inscribe their names in a book 
kept at the Palace for that purpose. The side of the 
■ Palace towards Str. Teatro was formerly assigned to 
the Pages of the Gr^nd Master and was called the Pag- 
geria. These young gentlemen of noble birth, werq 
16 in number ^nd were received into the Order as 
Knights of Justice at 12 years of age instead of 16, as 
were other candidates. Their position, although ivolv- 
ing heavy expenses, was much coveted. Two of them, 
attended the (^rand Master on all occasions, one acted 
as taster when he din^d in public, and during the Car- 
nival they njade.^ brijive show in a splendidly decorated 
car, dr^wa by si^p richly caparisoned rp ales and p.reced-> 
ed by twp trupip^tQrs .^^d a kettle drummer on horse-r 
backp 

Two centuries ago the Grand Master Nicholas Cqt 
toner r-uled in this pajace with more than regal state, 
He never laddreassed a k^^ght except (??i MaiU'e, and 
Wa« atte^fdf^d at church by 400 knights, who also rang- 
ed thei3(w?elyes in . the hall when he dined in public; 
and did not move until he gave them permission, 
9rydoQQ, ^^yi9 tjbs^t in 1770 no Kuropeau sovereign, 
with. the iexc^ptioH perhaps of the king of Sardi- 
Tli^y was aftwelJ lodged as the Grand Master. Though 
the Grand Master did not pay state visits to the digni- 
taries of th^ Order, he nevertheless always received 
them ip his own palace standing and uncovered. At 
state banquets whenever the Grand Crosses dra^k a 
heaUh they uncovered, as did also the Grand Master. 
On these opcjasions it- was contrary to etiquette to leav^ 
the table before the Grand Master laaidip\e^g,^^V\^^^^'^^ 



100 

in wine. The sammer apartments were gaj with hang- 
ings woven in the looms of Damascus^ and dnring the 
month of May flowers and branches of poplar from the 
Boschetto were constantly to be seen in the bal* 
cony overlooking St. George's Square. The exhib- 
ition of the head of the Grand Master Pinto from 
this balcony was to have been the signal for the 
general rising of the slaves in ] 749, and fft>m hence 
permission was given to commence the popular amuse- 
ment of the Coccagna. 

In front of tho Palace is St. George's Square, 
which was formerly called in common with the pre- 
sent Victoria Square ''the Piazza dei Cavalieri" or 
''the square of the Knightn.^' No Maltese were allow- 
ed to walk here except such as received a per- 
mit, of which they were expected to make but 
moderate use. The French called it the Square of 
Liberty and it was here that the Festival of 
Liberty was held on July 14th 1798. The conspi- 
rators who wished to give up Valletta to their insur- 
gent countrymen during the siege of 1798 — 1800 
were shot in this square. It was the scene of numerous 
festivities under the Knights of St. John, and it is 
still the heart and centre of the Carnival and of 
various festivals. During the winter months a weekly 
public guard mounting, a monthly trooping the colours, 
and an occasional brigading of regimental bands attract 
crowds of spectators. At the right and left hand 
comers of the square are drinking fountains. Closely 
adjoining the one on the left is the house formerly 
occopied by the family of the Vice-Chancellor Abela 
who first descrtbed Malta, (at present the S^ad 
quarters of the Maltese Casino San Giorgio). Entrance 
6s. 3d. Quarterly subscription 9s. 



101 

In the centre of the square is the Main-Guard 
with an electric clock. The Latin inscription above 
the entrance is to the effect that. "The love of 
the Maltese and the voice of Europe confirm these 
islands to great and invicible Britain.^' A. D. 1814. 
There are some clever sketches here done in hours 
of leisure by successive officers on guard. The Knights' 
•Main Guard occupied the same site. To the right 
is the Brigade Office, adjoining which is the Gar- 
rison Library. This building was the former depository 
of valuable documents and papers, and was under 
the charge of the Vice Chancellor of the Order. The 
Garrison Library which contains about 20,000 vol- 
umes is well supplied with newspapers and periodi- 
cals, and is much frequented by residents and visitors. 
Naval and Military Officers and Civil Servants whose 
yearly salary is not less than £100, are eligible 
AS Proprietors. Entrance for Officers 10»., for 
Civil Servants £1. Quarterly subscription 10«. payable 
in advance. Visitors to Malta may be introduced 
for one week. Yearly Members are elected by ballot. 
Entrance £2. Quarterly Subscription 10«. Visitors to 
Malta pay in advance 6s, per month; 7«. 6rf. for 
two of the same family, and 10s. for any num- 
ber ezceding two of the same family. The Reading 
Rooms are open daily from 9. 0. a. m. till 9. 0. 
p» m. The Library is open daily from 9. 0. a. m. 
until sunset during winter, and until 6. 0. p. m. 
in summer, except on Sundays and certain other 
days whpn it closes its doors. On Festivals the 
Library is closed ^t noon. Visitors to Malta 'will 
do well to subscribe to this Library. 

In the Strada Vescovo on the left of tlva ^o^^xs^ 
is a block of buildings witlx a 1cLWi9La^iCL!^X ^"^"^^^^ 



102 

atone facade, one of which is the t^sidfefice of the 
Ven. Archdeacon Cleugh. This is the Hofetel d6 
VerdeKn, and was the old home of the Cavaliei^ d^ 
Verdelin Commandant of Artillery, whose portrait i$ 
in the Palace. The next house in the same block, which 
was then ^n hotel, was the temporary houie of Lore! 
Byron wheti in Malta. 

Leaving St. George^s Square and pursuing otir 
way down Strad^ Beale, we pass Bisazza's 6t ''the 
bick tnatfs" (fJo. 63), whereat a great constimp^ 
tion of ices and confectionery is bontinually in pro- 
gress, and the handsome Boi-sd. or Exchaiige *'Wher6 
merchants most do congregate," and Whereftt th6 
arrivals and departures of ships Are cfcirefully recorded. 
Big. Gins. Bonavia was the arehitecti and it Wai 
opened on April Uth. Two days aftei*trards, 800 guests 
assembled at a ball, and the visit of H. B. H. the 
Prince of Wales in June 1862 was another' memo- 
rable event in the history of the Bprsa, The uppet 
floor is occupied by the Casino della Borsa. Entrance 
10^. Quarterly subscription 125. 6d. The rooms cotitaiti 
some curious old pictures of Vall^ftfca. Admission by 
ballot. Members may introduce visitors for a tnbnth 
(see also p. p. 56-7). When King LoUis Philippe 
came to Malta to visit the totnb of his brother^ 
the Comte de Befiiujolais in St. John's Church, ke 
lived at the house now oocfupied by Sig. A. Dedpotl. 
Up thid sloping street at to early hour on Eastet 
Day a procession headed by the B. C. Priesti of 
the Greek Rite carries a life-size figure of Our Lord 
at tull speed with shouts of 'Tiva ! Christ is risen!'' 
amidst crowds of spectator^. On the left are the 
chaivb ^nd iiunnery of Santa Caterina. The ntmnery 
originated in an ofphaii&ge founded by a Jesuit priest 



103 

in 1806 near St. Jobn's Church. The preisenfc building 
was commenoed in 1 714^ but want of funds hindered its 
completion until 1766. The architect was the Cav. 
Oarapeoohia^ and the sisterhood of Sta. Maddalena 
were received here when the French converted their 
nanherj into a hospital, fiishop Labini consecrated 
th^ dinrch on July 15th 1783. The Bailiflf PereirA 
lived at No. 219. 

An open space is now reached^ studded at intervals 
with large round stones^ which cover underground gra»- 
naries wherein corn may be kept for years without de- 
trimentj and 70 of these ^'Fosse^^ contain nearly 40,000 
qra. 

An ancient chapel dedicated to Sant' i/lmd or 
Telmo die patron saint of seamen, stood on this 
Bttdy^and a watch was kept for all vessels enter- 
ing or leaving port. In 1488 the Viceroy of Sicily 
gave orders for the construction of a fort incon- 
sequence of a Turkish invasion, which was rebuilt 
ana arined in May 1658. It was of no great size, 
Bbmewhat resembling a star in shape, protected by 
a ravelin on the . side of the Quarantine Harbour, 
and having a cavalier or elevated work on the sea face. 
The Prior of Capua was the architect, and some of the 
workmen werfe, Sicilians. The narratives of Porter, 
Townsend, and Seddall tell how in 1565 the heroic 
garrison held out from .May 25th until June 23rds 
and preferred death ta surrehdei^. On May 28tk 
1687 the engineer Don Carlos de Grunemberg com- 
menced extensive additions, and a few years after- 
wards the Grand Master Perellos added several baatioti 8 
which have lately been materially strengthened. 
This heavily-armed fort, which is built of ''zoncor'' 
or hard limestone^ has accomod^licm t^t \Si^t^ '^^•^ 



104 

200 men. A few years since Col Montague R. B. 
discovered a little^ forgotten chapel just within the 
gate^ wherein the garrison assembled to receive the 
Sacrament on the night before the final assaalt. The 
date 1649 probably refers to a restoration. The 
stone carvings are elaborate, and the chapel has been 
partially restored by Colonel Montague. Another chapel 
with the date 1729 is used as a schoolroom.. On 
the night of September 9th 1775, a band of priests and 
conspirators against the Grand Master Ximenes obtiun* 
ed possession of the fort, by the aid of a corpo- 
ral who admitted them. Their leader was Don Gaetano 
Mannarino, and they disarmed the garrison, impri- 
soning the commandant De Guiron, and hdisting 
the ancient Maltese standard. The revolt was how- 
ever speedily put down^ some of the conspirators 
being executed, and Don Gaetano. Mannarino remained 
in prison for twenty three years until the arrival 
of the French in 1798. 

Over a gateway is a. large eye carved in stone 
emblematic of vigilance. General Abercombie who 
fell at Alexandria and \Sir A. J. Ball the first En^ 
glish governor of Malta are . buried in two bastions 
which bear their names. Above the fort is a light- 
house erected in 1766 and formerly lighted only in 
winter, with a white light visible fifteen miles away, 
the lantern of which commands a fine view, and of 
which the Due de Bivas says 

' 'Across the dark blae wiav6s, 
Thy colbssal form and dUdem 
Fl{»ues on a level with the stars.'' 

Xn the last ceatury a new lantern cost £110. 



103 

The approach of ships is notified by signals 
from this fort. The barracks of Lower St. Elmo 
{oidonpied by an Infantry Regiment) with a fountain 
formed of four stone shells, were built in the last 
century by the Chevalier Tigne as a treble row of 
casemates to be used either as stores or as a re* 
fuge for women and children in a case of bombard* 
ment. 

Skirting Fort St. Elmo we pass along the French 
Curtain, to the foot of Strada Stretta '^the Narrow 
or straight Street" as it is variously interpreted to 
mean. This street runs the whole length of the 
city^ and contains numerous hotels and lodging houses. 

The Garrison Library, Brigade OflSce, Courts of 
Justice, and the Commissariat Bakery have entrances 
in this street which, from its narrowness, is much 
used during the shadeless days of summer. The 
Masonic Hall is at No. 27, The following are the 
Masonic Lodges, &c. in Malta. St. John and St. 
Paul Lodge, No. 349, E. C, Zetland Lodge, No. 
615, E. C, Union Lodge, No. 407, E. C, Keystone 
Mark Lodge, No. 107, E. C, Broadley Mark Lodge 
No. 248, E. C, Royal Arch Chapter M ell ta. No. 849 
E. C. Rose Croix Chapter, '^Rose of Sharon," Melita 
Preceptory of Knights Templar, and Priory of Knights 
of Malta, Provincial Priory of the Mediterranean, 
District Grand Lodge of Malta, Sanct' Elmo Lodge 
of Royal Ark Mariners, Provincial Grand Mark 
Lodge of Tunis and Malta. Also the Wignacourt 
Conclave of Knights of Rome, and of the Red Cross 
of Constantino, as well as Ithe William Kingston 
R. A. Chapter, and the Melita Council of Royal and 
Select. Masters. The Leinster Lodge, No 887, Irish 
Qonatitutioa is h^Id in Strada delle due Porte,- Sengleia. 



A Mark Lodge and Royal Arch Chapter are 
attached to thin Lodge. 

Strada Stretta Wkd the duelling gronnd of the 
knights^ who were strictly forbidden to fight else- 
where, and were obliged to sheath their swords at 
the request of a woman, a priest, or a knight. A 
cross on an adjoining house marked the scene of a 
fatal fray. Oue^ such cross at least is still to be 
seen. 

Strada Pomi is the next street which trarelr^S 
the whole length of Vallei>ta. At its upper end lA 
the Presbyterian Church, in connection with thd 
Free Church of Scotland. This church which can 
accomodate 450 persons was commenced in 1856 and 
complete in 1857. 

The house of the Revd. 6. Wisely M. A. is at 
210 Strada Forni, adjoining the chnrch. The seiv 
vices are announced in the local papers. Opposite 
6he church is the plain massi\re and unadorned an- 
berge de France. In 1687 this Auberge contained 
Bome fine pictures, many of which were blackened 
by age* The best were by the Cav. Favray. The 
Language of France had an annual revenue of £80,951, 
and possessed very great influence in the Order. 
This Auberge was under the control of the Grand 
Hospitalier, who was in charge of the Hospital, ap- 
pointing its Overseer and Prior and also ten writers 
to the council. The District Commissary General 
i-esides here, and the Military Treasury, the Pay, 
Supply, Transport and Barrack Departments are con* 
ce^trated beneath its roof. 

Descending a slope we see on the right i^e 

Commissariat Bakery, which gives the name of ^'For^ 

ni'^ or ''the orens'' to this street. The knights 



107 

nstially leased this bakery to a contractor. PairbairDs' 
tnachinefy driven by an engine of 16 horse power 
npminal, grinds about 16 qrs. of wheat per diem, 
but 35 qr6. could, if nrecssary be ground within 
24 hours. Mules fortnerly supplied the motive power, 
^e Bakety keeps three of its seven ovens constantly 
tit tvork, using- daily about 5250 lbs. of flour, and 
Issuing an avef^ge of 6,700 lbs. of bread. English 
Inalt and hops are used in the manufacture of yeast, 
tad the rate of production could easily be doubled. 
The Ordnatice Stol-e Workshops are in this buildingi 

Pacing us are the Augustinian Church and Con- 
vert. The site was granted in 1672, the architect 
being Gerolamo Oassar, and the Convent was rebuilt 
between 1764 aiid 1794. The present church con- 
tains a .picttjire of S. Nicola by Mattia Preti. Pree 
Schools for 200 boys are connected with this con- 
tent. 

The Bailiff Platft resided at No. 61. No. 94 was 
the Palazzo Delicata, and at the Corner of Strada 
TeatfO was the residence of Hompesch before his 
t&lection as Grand Master. MorrelPs Hotel was the 
hdtae of the Bailiff Eospiglioni, and No. 106 wad 
the Palazzo of the Portuguese Bailiff Casca^ares* 
The children of Israel were formerly obliged to re*- 
side At the lower end of Strada Forni, in close 
ptroxiraity to a powder mill, which cost £796 
to build. Prom the Jews Sally Port, boats Cross to 
Port Tign^ and Sliema. 

On the right is th6 Auberge de Baviire, a 
handsOtne building overlooking the Quarantine Hair*- 
bour and occupied by thd officers of the infantiy 
regiment quartered at Lower 8t. Elmo* The Atv^t^ 
Bavarian Language established in Yl%\^\ ^ c^^t^c^ 



108 

£1^408^ was united to the Priory of Poland and 
had an annual income of £877. Some curiously 
painted ceilings still exist. 

The undulating Strada Zecca, (named from the 
Mint^ which formerly belonged to the Language of 
France, and which was established at the present 
No. S,) runs parallel to Strada Forni. 17 Isle Adam 
before coming to Malta claimed the right to coin 
money. Nearly every Grand Master struck medaU 
and eighteen at least of the Grand Master Pinto 
are in existence. The copper coinage of the Order 
was withdrawn from circulation on Novr. 20th 1827. 
For full particulars respecting the Mint see Furse's 
Medagliere Gerosolimitano. The official residence of 
the Officer in charge of the Ordnance Store De* 
partm^nt is in this street. 

The Ordnance Store office is in Strada Scoz- 
zese or " Scotch Street." Descending some steps, 
crossing Stri^da San Marco, and traversing Stradia 
San PatrisHo we reach the steep Strada Ponente or 
"West Street." No. 14 was the Palazzo Britto. It 
contains some old pictures^ the bust and. arms of 
the Grand Master Pinto, some interesting mural de*> 
oorations, and frescoes of Belem Castle and "Black 
Horse Square" at Lisbon. 

The Auberge of Germany stood close by, but 
was pulled down about forty years ago to mak^ 
room for the English Church. The Language of 
Germany had an annual income of £4,095. Its chief 
wa3 the Grand Bailiff who had jurisdiction over the 
fortifications of CittsL Yecchia and of Gozp. The 
Auberge of Germany was a plain massive building, 
with a central corridor from which rooms opened on 
either 9ide0 



The Anglican Church of St. Paul (see p. 57) is 
styled Collegiate, objections having been raised to 
the title of ''Cathedral." 

Its architecture is Grecian, and its detached 
tower and lofty spire are visible from afar. The 
church has 750 sittings, a fine peal of bells, a good 
organ, stalls for clergy, and a Bishop's throne. Be- 
neath the spire is a valuable theological library for 
the use of the clergy. The Revd. E. A. Hardy resides 
ati No. 82 Strada Marsamuscetto, and the clerk (R. 
Beck) lives close to the church. For church services 
see local papers. Church expenses are met by means 
of oflfertories. 

On the opposite side of the square, which is 
called Piazza Gelsi from three old mulberry trees 
long since uprooted, stands the Auberge d'Aragon, 
the former residence of the Bishop of Gibraltar, but 
at present occupied by the General Commanding the 
Infantry Brigade. The head of the Language of 
Aragon, which had a yearly income of £11,505, was 
the Grand Conservator, who was in charge of the 
Gonservatorio, and of clothing, and who purchased 
all necessaries for the troops and hospitals. The Priory 
of Aragon was the present Nos. 32. & 33. Strada 
Marsamuscetto. 

In Strada Ponente is the church of Our Lady 
of Pilar the principal picture in which is said to 
he by Erardi. It was built in 167U by the Language 
of Castile and Portugal to which it belonged, beau- 
tified in 1718 by the Grand Master Perellos, and 
restored in 1864. The Commander Felice Inni^nes 
d' Ayerbe, who was buried here in 1691, and Ray- 
mondo de Soler, Bailiff of Majorca, were grea^ W- 
nefactors. 



no 

We turn to the left at the bottatt^ of Sirada 
Ponente^ aud skirt the ^an Sebastian BastiQn, and 
the German Curtain, opposite to which fs, the Tele- 
graph Office (p. 56.). On our left are numerous stables 
and storehouses, and high above us rises the grace- 
ful spire of the English Church. 

Half a battery of artillery is stationed at the 
Marsamuscetto Barracks^ clos^ to which are the Mar« 
samuscetto steps, at which P. & 0. passengers land, 
and from whence boats ply to Sliema, Pieti, Porta 
l^igae and Manoel. Half way down these steps is 
the Marsamuscetto Gate, with its drawbridge, electric 
clock, and escutcheon with the date 1508. A t^riflf 
of boat . fares is exhibited at the landing. 

The road to the right leads to tl^e Jews' Sally 
Port. The rocks hereabouts swarm with bafhers on 
suminer evenings, and boats aiQ^^panoescan be Ipiired 
at moderate prices froip Po^ts aijd others. The old. 
Quarantine buildings oii, the l^ft ^r^ npw. Public 
Baths (4ti. per hour), and the Royal Laboratory. (Light- 
ed cigars and red-hot pokers objected to, gqnpo^wder 
being plentiful.) , . 

4 ^t^ep path beneath the lofty ramparts lead* 
past . the San Rocco Baths (4d per boqr)^, an4 the 
San Rocco Chapel, (formerly assigned for the benefit 
of persons in quarantine) to the Hay Wharf, so named 
during the Crimean War, at which corn was landed 
in the days of quarantine. The conspirators who 
wished to seize Valletta during the siege of 1798 
J800 were captured amongst these rocks. In yonder 
red painted boats the Royal Engineers conduct expe- 
riment^ .in submarine mining. 

J^turning to the top of the Marsamuscetto Steps, 
We see' before us the bustling Strada San Marco, 



Ill 

wiiidi leads into strada Forni and the heart of Valletta* 

On the left is the entrance to the Manderaggio, 
This nan)^ mean? ''a place for cattle/^ 

A number of the poor and needy here herd toge- 
tixefc in underground qhambers originally intended 
for an arsenal. It is in contemplation to erect good 
houses in the suburbs for the denizens of the Man- 
deraggio. On the right are the stables of the fine 
Government mules which are shipped from Spain 
to Malta and Cyprus, at a cost of about £ 25 each. 

Climbing a street of stairs we reach th^ Bar- 
rack Department Stores wi^h the date 1807 upon 
them^ but which are evidently far more ancient. On 
St. Andrew's Bastion is the base of a column 70 
feet, ia height, which wa^ erected by Maltese sub- 
scribers, in memory, of the Hon F. C. Ponsonby, 
who was Governor of Malta from 1827 to 1836. This 
column was greatly damaged by lightning in Jan- 
uary 1864, and was taken down in consequence. Qn 
the Spencer Bastion is the tomb of the Hon, Sir 
Robert Cavendish Spencer, C. B, who died on board 
and in command of H. M. S. Madagascar at Alex-, 
andria on November 4th, 1836, 

ThesQ Bastions command fine views over tho 
open sea,, the Quarantine Harbour, and the interior 
of th^ island. Strada Molini a Vento. which skirts 
the ramparts, bordered by a triple row of trees, 
derives its name from two wind mills on St. Mi- 
chael's Bastion, one of which is in ruins. In a gar- 
den upon St. John's Bastion close to St. John's 
Cavalier, sleeps the Marquis of Hc^stingg, who was 
Bovernor from 1824 to 1826, and whose tomb for 
six months after his funeraj was covered witji jChoice. 
flqwQrs and garlands by th« unseen k^nd^ cs^ Sb«v 



112 

peasants^ bringing their farm produce to market ere 
the dawn. 

St. John*8 Communication gives access to Flo- 
riana by means of a drawbridge, and the two neigh- 
bouring Cavaliers or elevated works styled res|>ec- 
tivety St. John and St. James^ the former of which 
is at present used as a store^ whilst the latter can 
accommodate 130 men, were amongst the first for- 
tifications constructed in Valletta, and were respect- 
ively assigned to the Languages of Provence and 
Prance. Col. Porter quotes the words of General 
Marmont. " The Maltese were furious. We had at 
first much uneasiness as to the carrying into effect 
of the capitulation. These peasant soldiers were in 
possestjion of two inner work:?, very lofty cavaliers 
closed at the gorge, armed, and commanding the 
whole town, called St. John and St. James. They 
refused to surrender them, even after we had en- 
tered the gates and penetrated within the enceinte. 
It was by the merest chance that they did not 
continue their resistance; and, if they had, it is 
impossible to say what effect this one obstacle would 
have had in the position in which we then were." 
These Cavaliers were used as prisons, and were af- 
terwards occupied by the Malta Fencibles. 

We reach the Guard -house above Porta Reale, 
and must now briefly glance at a few objects of 
interest in the streets which cross Strada Reale at 
right angles. 

Turning to the left opposite the Opera House 

into Strada Mezzodi or " South Street" we pass 

on the left some Ordnance Stores, and on the right the 

Scotch Church and the Auberge de France (see p. 106) 

Mo, 12 ia the official residence of the Colonel of 



ii3 

Artillery on the Staff, and Admiralty House, the 
official reflidence of the Naval Commander in Chief, 
was the home of the Bailiff Don Eaymondo Oon- 
salvi. Buonaparte gave this house to Bishop La- 
bini, to be used as a seminary. 

In a narrow street parallel to Strada Mezzodi 
called Strada Cavaliere or the ''Street of the knights'' 
is the United Service Institute which provides shel- 
ter, welcome amusement and religious instruction 
for soldiers, sailors and marines. It is managed by 
a Committee and is doing good work in the garri-' 
ion. Visitors to Malta should see for themselves 
what is being done, and contributions towards the 
funds will be gladly received by the Secretary. 

Strada Britannica, the next cross street was 
formerly • called the "Street of the Grand Falconer'* 
who commanded the 800 falconieri, and who pro- 
vided the falcons annually presented to the kings 
of France, Spain, and Portugal, and to the Viceroy 
of Sicily, at a cost of £103. This dignitary resided, 
at No. 74, the present official residence of the Com- 
manding Royal Engineer. There are still some pic- 
tures of Grand Masters and ecclesiastics in the house. 

In Strada Teatro is the Teatro Manoel built by 
the Grand Master Manoel de Vilhena ** for the J^o- 
nest recreation of the people.'' The building on the 

£lan of the theatre at Palermo, was commenced on 
[arch 20th 1731, and completed during the follow- 
ing year, '*Merope" by Maffei was the iirst perform- 
ance. During the two years' siege, the French kept 
open this tiiigatr^ to the last. It was restored by 
order of £leii. Sir H. Oakes, and re- opened on Au- 
gmt fith wiA iike musical drama of £liaa. TW 
aeto^a.^iuid hoiii^ adjoining IViq ^^^Vc^ ^\cvOcw S»^ 



114 

said to be the oldest in Enrope and can accoma* 
date 770 persons. Vernacular performances, chiefly 
on Sundays. This theatre, in which operas were per- 
formed before the erection of the Opera House, is 
sometimes hired by the Amateurs of Uie Fleet and 
Garrison. 

Just below the theatre are the Carmelite church 
and convent, founded by public subscription in 1573. 
Gerolamo Cassar was the architect of the church 
which contains pictures by Mattia Preti, Haymondo 
di Domenici, &c. The two Oratories of San Giu- 
seppe and of our Lady of Carmel are connected 
with the church* 

In Strada Vescovo or 'VBishop's Street" ai'e 
the Hotel de Verdelin,; and the Palace of the Arch- 
bishop of Rhodes and Bishop of Malta, commenced 
in 1622 by Bishop Baldassare Cagliares. The Grand 
Master Alofio Wignacoiirt raised objections, saying 
that no one except the Grand: Master ought to have 
jiuriiidiction in Valletta. On a.ppi^al to Borne it ^as 
decided that the palaoe should be completed^ the 
Bishop/s Prison still remaining in Vittoriosa. Bi- 
shop Cagliares left, this pajace io the Cathedral by 
will* The architect was tiie Maltese Tommaso Din- 
gli« It has been t^e official jeeidence of sixteen 
successive Bishops of Malta and is at present occu- 
pied by the Most Revd. Count D. Carmelo Scicluna 
D. D. who was consecrated in St. John's Church by 
thp Archbishop of Beggio on April 11th 1875. 

No. 138 Strada Cristoforo, now occupied by Mr. 
H. B. Bennett as a first class lodging house, is the 
Palazzo Co toner. The Graixd Master Nicholas Co- 
toner liveji her^ befpre his elevation .to supreme power. 
1111111 ^abieiranean .\^mij^^' 97 . tunnel ccmnects this^Pa- 



lazzo with that of tli^ Gpvemor^ and there is a ca- 
rious communication in the wall between the upper 
and lower rooms. A inarble bust of the great Ni- 
cholas is still to be seen in his old home. No. 58 
is the Palazzo Ximenes^ the former residence of the 
Grand Master of that name^ previous to his elec- 
tion. Having explored Western Yalletfca, let ns re- 
turn to Porta Beale^ and ^tart over figai^p. 






. •• .• • » " 1 .•: : >■ ' . \t..- . ' - * .•■ . • ■ 1 

'•■■••'•'-:■•':.; -I .• I? .■■.'• ■: ■ . • } ' ,. 

' • : . ' ' 

;; J: ' ' I ■ ■". I - : \ ■ , ' \ ■ J . ■ • • • . _■ / • . . 

' ■ " . ' . • : • , ■■■••'■' 1 '. r . ■ ' ■ ■ ■ 

I . . . , . . 



116 

CHAPTER V. 

StRBBTS and JBUILDINGS 
(Goniinued). 

St. James' GaYiilier and the Anberge de Oaetile. — 
Upper Baraocay Ghnrch and Garden. — View from Upper Ba- 
racca. — Churches of Vittoria and Santa Caterina d' Italia. — 
Anberge d' Italia, Palazzo Parisio, and Chnrch of San Gia- 
como. The Caatellania, and Post Office. — Monte di Pietib 
and Market. — Church of Onr Lady of Damascos. — Jesuits' 
Church, University, and Lyceum. The Dominican, and Anime 
Purganti Churches. — Militaiy Hospital and the Camerata. — 
Cemetery, Nibbia Church, Hospital for Incurables, and Or- 
phan Asylum. — Strada San Paolo and the Church of St. Paul 
Shipwrecked. — Churches of the Minori Osservanti, San Boooo, 
and Santa Ursola. — Old Slave Prison and the Lower Baraoca. 
— Strada Levante, and the Santa Barbara Bastion. — ^The Sul- 
tan's Garden, Nix Mangiare Stairs, Barriera, and Church of 
Santa Maria di Liesse.— The Mina Lascaris, Custom House^ 
and Marina. 







|N the ramparts to the right of Porta Beale ia 
the Military Gymnasium erected in 1873^ facing 
which is St. James' Cavalier, which was formerly called 
the Cavalier of Italy. The ancient Maltese standard 
was hoisted upon it by the insurgents in 1775, 
but, 50 carabineers having been posted on the roof 
of the adjacent Auberge de Castile, this important 
post was easily stormed by 100 knights, 120 French 
^merchant seamen, and numerous volunteers. Their 
^/ftfier an Italian knight named Corio, was killed, 



117 

bat a few dajs afterwards^ the heads of three of 
the defenders were exhibited on the roof. 

St. James communication here connects Valletta 
with Floriana^ and focing as is the Auberge de 
Castile^ on a site which was originally set apart 
for the palace of the Grand Master. This is the 
finest of all the Aaberges. The architect was Ge« 
rolamo Cassar. The Language of Castile and Por- 
tugal was one of the most powerful, and*' possessed 
an annual income of £15,689. Bivalry^ between the 
French and Spanish Languages ran high. The Grand 
Chancellor who ruled this Auberge always presented 
the vice-chancellor to the Council^ and was obliged 
to sign and witness the stamping of bulls with 
the great seal. ^'Those who filled this office were 
required to know how to read and write/^ This 
Auberge is occupied by the officers B. A. and B. E. 
The Senior Chaplain has also quarters here. 

Over the entrance is a trophy of warlike weap- 
ons carved in marble, surmounted by a bust of the 
Portuguese Grand Master Pinto, who ruled for 32 
years and died at the age of 92^ greatly to the 
disgust of those who would fain have filled his 
place. The Grand staircase is much admired, and 
the corridors . are delightfully cool when summer days 
are long. The rooms are lofty and spacious, and 
could formerly boast of beautifully painted ceilings 
which have . been destroyed, the cost of restoration 
being too great. The left hand corner of the build- 
ing bears the mark of a shot fired from Corradino 
during the sie^e of 1798-1800. Between the Au- 
berge and St. Peter's Curtain are 15 Fosse con- 
taining 6,705 qrs. of corn, and near at hand is the 
Baracca Sobool-Chapel, which ia \x^ed «L"^^Qi«cY\awx 




iMrt jBut^eo. of the 

tiie KMiooBuoo-jIgiariaa So ci mj, wkiekhoUs 

Bttfl lloirer Aam hereL Ho BMokiB^ p Ic MO^ wkn 

iIk red fl^ is hoistod, Tkere is pofwihr bo4 fiur 

off! 

The tomb of Sir Tlioiiims Msitknd, wko idwn 
Goranor of MslU froni 1813 to 1824^ was gen^- 
rslij known ss ''King Toss,'' is in the eentro of 
tiie garden. Several oAer moansMnls sie not ftr 
off^ and a French author says that the "Sngfish 
ha^e made Uie prond battleinentB of Yalletta sewiit 
ehral ! '' 

This Baraoea was caDed the Poria f ItaKa, be- 
ing inclnded in the station of Aat Langoage. Tiv^ 
half-obliterated inscriptions tdl how 1^ Balbiani 
Prior of Messina^ roofed and greatly imiinnred it 
at his own expense in 1661. Hie conspirators of 
1775 assembled bere^ whereupon the Grand Master 
ordered the removal of the roof. The oM pictures 
of Valletta at the Borsa represent the two Baraocas 
as roofed in 1715^ the Doc do Yenddme^ Grand 
Prior of France gave a great banquet at this Ba<- 
racca to the knights wl^ had assembled in fi»POO 
to repel a threatened Turkish invasion. 

From the prqjecting gallery we look over the 
open sea. On the lefft is the entrance of the Oreat 
harbonr overlooking which is the Lower Baraeoiii 
also the busy Marina^ and the conntlesi^ roofs of 

tta^ above which rises the Torretta of the Palace^ 

WitlA si^al flagSr Immediately bebw us at# 



aiso 
rfjffilli 



119 

tto garden called " the Sultanas/' Fort Lascaris, in 
which the Royal Malta Pencible Artillery are quar- 
tered; the dome of the Kttle church of Santa Maria 
di Liesse^ the semicircalar fish-market^ and the Gus- 
tom-honse. A few feet below us is the Saluting 
Battery^ the name of which explains itself. 

Looking across to the other side of the har- 
bour we note Fort Ricasoli, which, with Fort Sant 
Elmo protects the entrance. In the distance is Fort 
San Bocco on a hill-top. Rinella Greek almost washea 
the walls of Fort Ricasoli, and on the promontory 
of Bighi stands boldly out the Royal Nayal Hos- 
pital, below which is Galcara Greek. 

Fort St. Angelo, — which, in some shape or other, 
has existed for a thousand y^ars — gives challenge 
to all hostile intruders, and sheltered beneath its 
protection are the houses of Vittoriosa, with the 
Naval Victualling Yard and Bakery. The Dockyard 
Creek runs far inland, and at its extremity are the 
suburb of Burmola and H. M. Dockyard. This Creek 
was formerly called the Port of the Galleys. The 
town of Senglea terminating in Isola Point separates 
the Dockyard Creek from the French Creek or Man 
of War Harbour, beyond which are the heights of 
Corradino on which we note an obelisk in memory 
of Captain Spencer, of H. M. S. Madagascar, and the 
Military and Civil Prisons. In the far distance are 
the massive fortifications of Cotonera and the Coto- 
nera Military Hospital stands out against the sky-line. 

Now let us walk to the other end of the Ba- 
racca and look down into the yawning gulf belowt 
The Turkish captives who excavated that moat mus# 
have heartlily loathed their task! Beneath this arch 
Wf^ once a ''l^uge and ^pormou^" bx^xi'L'^ ^^o^^* ^^ 



120 

<«!jwagiKdaG612Iaimi as after aS! TW aispor 
yuiUoa of tihe Wriioar is epjvded vitk aiaa^-cnft» 
aad great addhioas kw« cf kie jws iwen sado 
to its area. The fiii aaiiii, legvlarir baih sahnbof 
VlcmukM with ia fcrrifeatioiis is jast m front of as, 
wfaibt upon a distant kSl ate the doaaes and towers 
of Citta Veccfaia, the ancient capital whereat St. Faal 
probably wojcfomed for three moaths. The tower of 
Verdala Paboe is Tisible on the lioriaon, and several 
popoknu Tillages are in si^t. Bat we mast fsooeed. 

Leafing the Baraoca, and le-pa^sing the Anberge 
de Castile we reach the head of Strada Mercanti, 
where we mast halt for awhile. On onr Jie& is the 
Chnrch of the Nativity of the B. V. M. commonly 
called Delia Yittoria. 

The foundation stone of Valletta was laid on 
this site (Malta and Its Knights p. p. 152-156} on 
March 28di^ 1566 amidst great pnUic rejoicings. La 
Yallette erected a chapel here dedicated to Oar Lady 
of Victory, which was used by the workm^i and 
others daring the bailding of Uie city, and wherein 
his remains rested from August 22 ad 1568 until 
their removal in the following year to St. John's 
Church. In 1617 the Order made this church par- 
ochial, and it was restored and enlarged in 1752. 
The paintings on the roof are by the Maltese artist 
Enrico AmauX; and the picture of the Good Shepherd 
is by A. falzon. The VeDetian admiral Ems who 
died in Malta ou March 1st. 1792 is buried in this 
church at which the annual blessing of the animals 
takoH place ou January 1 7th and wherein the Malta 
Fenciblos . Artillery, and Roman Catholics sailors have 
attended muss since 1837. 



121 

Oq the facade is a bronze bust of Pope Innocent 
XII. who settled certain differences between Bishop 
Palmieri^ and the Prior of the Church. The G. M. 
Perellos was the donor. 

Facing this church is another, Santa Gaterina 
d^ Italia^ which was erected by the Language of 
Italy in 1576, from the designs of Gerolamo Gas* 
sar, and was attached to the adiacent Aubersre d'ltah'a. 
Th; principal picture, representing the martyrdom 
of St. Catherine, is by Mattia Preti, who intended 
it for the church of Zurrico. It was \however so 
much admired that the Italian knights retained it for 
their own church. The picture of Our Lady of Sorrows 
is the only work in Malta of the Bolognese artist 
Benedetto Luti, 

Large numbers of children attend this church 
for religious instruction. Adjoining the church is 
the plain massive Auberge d' Italia. Over the en- 
trance is a bronze bust of the G. M. Gregory Garaffa, 
with an inscription recording his two victories over 
the Turks at the Dardanelles, and a marble trophy 
of warlike weapons carved from one of the columns of 
the ruined temple of Proserpine on the heights of Em- 
tarfa, near Gitta Vecchia. The head of the Language of 
lialy, which had an annual revenue of £23,533, was the 
Admiral of the Order, who also held military com- 
mand, when the Grand Marshal was absent. Within 
the entrance gateway are two memorial tablets. An- 
other tablet, affixed to the walls of a room gives 
an account in spirited Latin of the great victory 
over the Turks at the Dardanelles on* June 26th 
1656. Another inscription is *^tho accustomed place 
of the Congregation of the Galleys,^' or, in other 
words, the Admiralty of the Order. ^ Vv>.\\^%vi\s^<5i 



122 

arck above a well stands in the garden in the centra 
of the building. Each Auberge had its garden. In 
the Auberge which is occupied by the Boyai Engi- 
neers^ are preserved the archives of deceased notaries 
public. 

Saliba^s Livery Stables are opposite. Horses 
and carriages on hire. Four omnibiisses daily to 
Citti Vecchia. Fare 6d. Omnibusses daily at 7. 0. 
a« m. for Marfa and Oozo. Fare to Migiarro in 
<jrozo, including ferry boat 2$. To St. Paulas Bay l^. 

This building, the old Palazzo Parisio, was of^ 
fered by its owner, the Baron Paolo Parisio, a 
Maltese nobleman, to the First Napoleon, who made 
it his head-quarters. Here he treated the Grrand 
Master Hompesch with cool contempt, and here as- 
sembled Bishop Labini and his clergy. Let Sigr. 
Ferris speak: ''Buonaparte, turning to the ecdesia- 
atical assembly, said in a loud voice, " Beverend 
sirs, preach the Gospel, respect, and cause to be 
respected, the constituted authorities, recommend to 
the people submsssion and obedience to the French 
laws. If you are good priests, I will protect yon, 
but, if you are bad ones, I will chastise you ! ' '* 
Summary certainly ! 

The church of San Giacomo or St. James is 
nearly opposite. Frected in 1612 at the expense 
of the Grand Chancellor Pietro Gonzales de Men- 
doza who enriched it with carvings, it belonged to 
the Language of Castile. The architect was a Mal- 
tese named Barbara. The church contains a picture 
of St. James by Paladini, and another of Our Lady 
of Sorrows, which has a curious history. The lat* 
ter was presented by a Conventqal Chaplain in 1646. 



123 

Tius ehardh hr the Oraiary of the Institution of 
Catholic Bducafeion. 

A handsome facade^ With an inscription and 
marble statues of Justice and Truths points out the 
old Castellania or prison which waa rebuilt and en* 
hktgei, beautified by the Grand Master Pinto. The 
work wad commenced in 1757, under the direction 
of the Civil Architect Francesco Zerafa, who how- 
ever, died on April 21st 1758, and was succeeded 
by Giuseppe Bonnici, who completed the building 
in 1760. The Chapel was blessed by the Vice- prior 
Mens. Constans on Nov. 15th of that year. Three 
day^ afterwards the prisoners were brought from 
" the tow'er of Porta Beale/' and the G>urts sa4) 
at 9* 0. a. m. The carvings on the facade and in 
the chapel ard the work of Maestro Gian, a Sicilian 
imprisoned for homicide* 

The President of the Gastellunia was a knight 
selected by the Grand Master every two years from 
the several Languages according to seniority, and 
styled the ^'Castellano.^^ He was constantly followed 
by a page bearing a wand. The Castellania is now 
Occupied by private families and the Gas Office 
At the top of the descent of Strada San Giovanni 
is a pillar on which those condemned to the punish- 
ment of the " strappado " used to stand. During 
the Carnival a plank was placed across the street 
to shew that judicial punishment were in abeyance. 
This slope is called ''the prisoners^ Hiir' because 
those in durance used to ask alms from passers by* 
From th6 door of the present Gas Office came forth 
criminals condemned to death, and those sentenced 
to be flogged through the streets mounted upo4 



124 

an ass. Lord Cochrane escaped from the balcony 
over-head^ by the aid of a rope ladder. 

We pass St. John's Church (p. 80), The office 
of the P. and 0. Co. with its electric clock, is at 
No. 41. On Sundays and festivals an open-air market 
is held in the Strada Mercanti, for the sale of odds 
and ends and ''unconsidered trifles.^' The Post Office 
is at No. 197 (p. 56). Many efforts have been made 
to rebuild or remove it to a more convenient po* 
sition. The building was erected in 1640, at th« 
suggestion of the Commander Abela as a place of 
security for the Archives of deceased notaries pu- 
blic, and as the Banco dei Giurati or town HalL 
The Giurati or Magistrates (see Ciantar's Malta Illn- 
strata. Vol I. p. p. 66-7) sat here daily to regulate 
the price of provisions, and until 1-^18 the Grain 
Department was also under the same roof. The G. 
M. Zondadari made great improvements in 1721, 
and in 1798 Buonaparte had a bad fall onthestairs; 
An adjoining house having been given in 1611 by 
the Commander C. Ballot was restored in 1746 by 
the Assembly of Conventual Chaplains. 

Opposite to the Post Office is the Monte di 
Pieta, or Government Pawnbroking Establishment 
In 1598 the Portuguese knight Kmanuele Couros 
(Luiros?) offered £200, and the Cav. Francesco Moleti 
also advanced £100 for five years without interest 
to start the Monte, which commenced operations 
under the name of Santa Anna, with the G; M. 
Garzes as psitron. 

In 1607 F^^ Raffaele Maltese, Capuchin Friar, 
proposed from the pulpit of St. John^s Church the 
formation of a Monte di Redenzione for the ransom of 
Multeae and Gozitans captured by the Turks. The 



125 

knights and Maltese eagerly subscribed, and in 1619 
Caterina Vitale a Maltese of noble birtb^ endowed 
the Monte with all her property and jewels. Six 
years afterwards Dr. 6. D. Felici gave £600 for 
the same purpose. Ou June 23rd 1787 the Grand 
Master De Rohan united these two charitable ins- 
titations. The French plundered the Monte of nearly 
£85000, but after the surrender of Valletta the En- 
glish Oovernment advanced £5,300 without interest, 
and the institution is again prosperous. It benefits 
others besides the poor, as advances are made to 
the amount of £600. Fl*ecious metals and jewellery 
are retained for three years, linen for two years, cloth 
and woolen goods for six months, after which time 
unclaimed pawns are disposed of, any profits of sate 
being handed over to the holders of the tickets. 
Interest 5 percent. Open from 8. 0. a.m. till 3. 0. p.m. 
A Savings^ Bank open on Saturdays and Mondays 
from noon till 1. 0. p. m. and which allows interest 
at the rate of 2 per cent on amounts below £100, 
18 attached to the Monte. The number of depositors 
on December 31st 1878 was 3,407, with £217,287. 0. 9. 
placed to their credit. In the 6ozo Branch Bank 
241 depositors were credited with £9,120. 4. 7. The 
Committee of Charitable Institutions has managed the 
Monte since January 1st 1838. 

The street is crowded. On one side is the Go- 
rernor's Palace, and on the other the Market House 
which was commenced in 1859 and completed in 
1861, a teioporary Market being held meanwhile in 
the Lower Baracca. The old market ETouse was very 
badly arranged. The new one, which Valletta owes 
to Sir Oaspard Le Marchant, is square in form^ 
with stores below. Light and airy \u ^^'Q«dkXvciR><^v 



126 

it is divided into five 'gas-lighted aveniies^ with six 
entrances, three in front, and three at the aides. 
An electric clock keeps time, meat and ponltty are 
on the right, fish at either end, and fruit and ve- 
getables are abundant and cheap. For weights see 
page 59. 

Turning for a moment out of Strada Mercanti 
into Strada Vescovo, the next cross street, and pas- 
sing a police- station, we ent^ the church of Oar 
Lady of Damascus (Grreek rite) built between 1S76 
and 1580 at the expense of Giovanni Calamia, a 
noble Bhodian who followed the Order to Malta. 
This church was made parochial for the Oreeks m 
1587, and contains a picture of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary which is said to have journeyed without hu- 
man aid from Damascus to Rhodes, after the cap- 
ture of the former city by the Saracens. The pic- 
ture of the Resurrection is by Stefano Erardi. 

Returning to Strada Mercanti, we enter the church 
of the Jesuits, who were invited to Malta by Bishop 
Gargallo in 1593, and banished by the G. M. Pinto 
in 1768. The engineer Bonamici was the architect 
in 1592, and Bishop Gargallo, who is buried here> 
and whose portrait is in the sacristy, was .a great 
benefactor. The church which consists of a ohoir, 
nave, and side aisles, was consecrated in 1731. The 
principal picture representing the Grcumcision of 
Christ is by Baldassare Pernzzi, and in the ' second 
chapel from the entrance are three pictures by Mattia 
Preti. Two Oratories are coi^nected with this church 

^^pJ|Ucb IS attached to the University. Roman Catholid 

^^^nBteljl ' attend mass here. 

^ne adjacent College was under the contirol of 
^tmaitb fjK)m. 1592 until their expulsion in 1768| 



127 

wben the Pope transferred fcheir property to the Grand 
Master with the obligation to found a University. 
Great changes were made after the arrival of the En- 
glish in Malta^ and also in 1839 in accordance with 
the report of the Royal Commissioners. The Uni- 
versity has four Faculties, viz., of Law, Philosophy 
Arts, Medicine, and Theology. The Museum is rich 
in geological and natural history specimens. Admis- 
sion free, on application to the Secretary. A Lyceum 
or preparatory school is connected with the Univer- 
sity, Both the Univerity and Lyceum are under the 
superintendence of a Rector, For the names of profes- 
sors, subjects of study, &c. see the Malta Almanacks. 
There are also Lyceums in the Three Cities and at 
Gosso. 

Just below, on the left are the Dominican Church 
and Convent. The church which is also called Porto 
Salvo was originally designed by Gerolamo Cassar, 
and was rebuilt between 1804 and 1815. It con- 
^sts of a choir, nave, side aisles, and side chapels. 
The decorations are rich, and the principal picture 
is by P. P. Garuana. The Oratory of the Rosario 
16 attached to the church. 

Nearly opposite is the church of the Anime 
Purganti or Souls in Purgatory. Originally dedicated 
to 8. Sicola, it was built in 1580 as the first pa- 
rochial church of the Greek Rite, and rebuilt bet- 
ween 1652 and 1658 by the Society of the Anirae. 
Purganti. It was consecrated in 1782. The prin- 
cipal picture is by Mattia Preti, and there are two 
others in the sacristy by the Cav. Favray. The 
Grand Master Pinto appropriated a larger sum be- 
longing' to this church, and on being told t\^'&.\i SJaa 
souls would suffer in conseqneiiceij xerfSAa^ ^''^ ^*^ 



128 

very old^ in a short time I shall join them^ and I 
promise to settle with thera!^' 

Below the church is the Military Hospital^ bnili 
in 1575^ with accomodation for about 200 patients* 
It is large and spacious one portion being assigned 
to the sick belonging to the Malta Fencible Artil- 
lery. There are three quadrangles^ one of which i» 
surrounded by wide corridors, also quarters for me- 
dical officers, and a detachment of the Army Hos- 
pital Corps, a medical library containing about 1200 
volumes and a portrait of Dr. Henin, a celebrated 
anatomist, who died in 1754. In front of the libra- 
ry is a fountain with three stone pears, the arms 
of the Grand Master Perellos, carved upon it. The 
office of the Principal Medical Officer, and the Staff 
Dispensary are also here. In the Dispensary are a 
huge pestle and mortar of bell-metal, with the ^ate 
1710, and the arms of Perellos. Above the guarded gate 
within the quadrangle is a sundial and the date 1774 
when £722 was spent in repairs. The basement wallf 
are of enormous thickness^ and one ward, at the ex- 
tremity of which is a picture representing the gift of 
{he right hand of St. John the Baptist to the Grand 
Master D' Aubusson by the Sultan Bajazet, is said 
to be the longest room in Europe unsupported by 
pillars. It is 185 ft. 5 in. long, 34 ft. 9 in. broad, and 
30ft. 11 in. high. 

Above a window is an unfinished inscription 
^'Francisco Alle;" the bells of the clock, removed some 
time since, were cast in 1646, and at the post- 
ern gate is the date 1633. Successive Grand Hos- 
pitaliers ruled the hospital, emblazoning their uraM 
upon its walls. They, as well as the Infiroamriaiui 
whom they appointed^ belonged to the Langmtg^ ^ 



129 

France. The Infipmarian resided in the hospital, as 
did also at least one surgeon. In 1687 the physicians, 
surgeons, and students were nnmerous. The Hospital 
was a sanctuary, and all officers, except the Grand 
Hospitallers, were obliged to leave their badges of 
authority at the door. In 1712 the officials of the 
Inquisitors entered by surprise, but were instantly 
expelled. The Prior, Vice Prior, and other officers 
were appointed by the Grand Hospitaller. The Prior 
was a Conventual Chaplain, belonging to one of the 
three Languages of France, Auvergne or Provence. The 
Vice Prior was usually a Maltese. The other offi- 
cers were, for the most part. Conventual Priests. 
The chapel was built by the Grand Master Perel- 
los in 1712. Ten chaiplains were attached to the 
hospital, in the centre of which was an altar. There 
were also altars in the various wards. This was 
the first hospital in Europe that admitted patients 
of various creeds. Patients who were not Roman 
catholics, and also those suffering from wounds and 
ulcers, had separate wards. The Great Hall con- 
tained 24 beds, which were reserved for the knights. 
There were usually 500 beds, with space for 2000. 
The annual average of patients was 2000, who were 
served on silver plate for the sake of cleanliness. 
This plate, which was afterwards melted down 
by the Order, or confiscated by the French, was 
on April 30th 1 788 valued at £3,449. The knights 
of Provence took charge of the patients on Sundays, 
and were followed by the other Languages accord- 
ing to seniority, the Anglo- Bavarian and the Ger- 
man Languages being united. Illegitimate and des- 
titute children were reared at an annual cost of 
£614, and Vertot estimates the whole yearly expense 
9 



130 

of thd hospital at 50,000 golden crowns. In 1788 
the annual cost was £7,947, or a daily average of 
lOcZ. to 1^. per patient. The French, who lost at 
least 725 men between Sept. 1798 and August 180 , 
used the building as a Military Hospital, and it was 
jsubsequently used as a wine-store. The rope-walk 
of the Order, which cost in construction £542, was 
close by. John Howard gives a terrible account of 
this hospital in 1786, but on August ^nd, 1676, 
the Revd. H. Teonge, Chaplain of H. M. S. Bristol 
thus writes: — "The hospital is avast structure, wherein 
their sick and wounded lye. ^Tis so broad that 12 
men may with ease walke a brest up the midst 
of it: and the beds are on each syd, standing on 
4 yron pillars, with white curtens, and vallands and 
CO veiling, extreamly neate, and kept cleane and sweete: 
the sick served all in silver plate: and it containes 
above 200 bedds below, besyds many spatious rooraes 
in other quadrangles with in; for the chiefe cava- 
liers and knights, with pleasant walkes and gardens; 
and a stately house for the chiefe doctor, and other 
his attendants.^^ 

The sick soldier here receives every care and 
attention. There are also wards for women and 
children. A Laboratory and Meteorological Obser- 
,yatory do useful scientific work. 

Facing the Hospital is the Camerata, occupied 
by married soldiers and their families. On this site 
formerly stood a large building, erected in 1593, 
and restored in 1696 by a grant from the Trea- 
sury. The rooms on the right were occupied by 
th€> pious knights who lived in community, assem- 
.bling at stated hours for purposes of devotion. Those 
Jon. th9 left were, called La Lipgerie, and were in 



131 

fact tbe linen stores of the hospital^ as well as a 
laandry for bedding and clothing. The College of 
St. Paul directed by the Jesuits was transferred 
from CittsL Yecchia and established here in 1852^ 
but in 1859 Bishop Casolani erected on the old 
site the present building for the aGCommodation of 
poor families; it has since passed into the hands of the 
Government. 

The Camerata formerly possessed a Library, 
which was founded by. the Commander Sansedoni, 
and augmented by the Bailiff Chiurlia Cavaniglia. 
Most of the books are now in the Public Library. 

Close to . th^ hospital is its former cemetery. 
All Brethren of the Qrder were buried in their 
mantles d bee,, i. e. .with points, and with the white 
cross. "We order, thait t&e corpses of secular per- 
sons that die in our infirmary should be buried 
handsomely; that the chaplains shall walk before the 
corpse and pray for. the soul of the deceased: that 
the four persons that carry the bier shall wear 
black roboH' which shall be made and kept for this 
particular purpose." No mourning was to be worn 
at funerals, even for the G-rand Master. On a por^ 
tion of the cemetery stands a semicircular building 
u§ed as a . dissecting room by the medical students 
of the University, and close by is a large charnel 
house the walls of which were ornamented with 
bones and skulls by a priest some years since. 

Hard by stands the little church of Nibbia or 
the Holy Na-me of.Mary, erected in 1619 at the 
expense of the Commander Giorgio Nibbia, who was 
interred here. The church was rebuilt in 1731. 

The neighbouring Hospital for Incurables w&^ 
formerly a female Hospital called L^ C)^^^^VVi"^> \y\:AKt 



132 

the charge of a Grand Gross and two Commissa- 
ries. It was endowed by a charitable lady named 
Caterina Scappi of Siena with all her property in 
1642^ which beqnest was aagmented by a legacy of 
iBlaraminia Valenti in 1717. The Hospital fwmerly 
contained 250 inmates^ but at present accomodation 
is prorided for 221. The chapel ia dedicated to 
Santa Caterina^ and the hospital was applied to its 
pfesent use in 1850. 

Pacing the Hospital for Incurables was the 
Nunnery of Santa Maddalenia/ established here in 
1609. The French marched out the sisterhood be- 
tween files of soldiers in 1798, and converted the 
building into a hospital, this si&tera retiring to the 
Nunilery of Santa Caterina. The church was used 
as a ward for patients tofiforing from Wounds and 
broken limbs. It was coria^rated by Monsignor Al- 
pherati on May 23rd 1748. The old Nunnery was 
in 1852 converted into an Orphian Asylum, attached 
to which are the Government Primary Normal Schools, 
the hoi3pii;als being removed'ito a new li&rge build- 
ing at Fbriana. ' .. 

* In rear of the Military Hospital are St. I^a* 
rus Curtain and the Castile Bastion, cpittmanding a 
fine view of the open sea and of the Grfeat Har- 
bour. 

Strada San Paolo runs parallel with Sfcrada Mer- 
canti. In this street are entrances to the Univer- 
sity and Lyceum, and the Church of St. Paul Ship- 
wrecked. It is said that an ancient chapel formerly 
stood on the site of Valletta, dedicated to St. Vbxl\, 
which was almost destroyed during the Great Siege 
of 1565. The first church dedicated to St. Paul 
Shipwrecked was erected in 1677, at the expenst 



\ 



133 

^t ihd Oatheqlrat^ from : the plans of Gerolamo Gas* 
saTk The parochial boundaries were settled in 1605, 
and i« 1591 a synod ordered the church to be enlarged. 
The present church was commenced in 1639 and comr 
pleted in 1679. It is chiefly of die Ionic order of ar- 
chitecture^ anid is itt the form of a Latin cross^ consisting 
of^naye^rth sjx.si^e chapels, tvfo large chapelsy 
and a sacristy. The treasury of the church cou-i 
tains maliy valuables, and, at icert^in times ^f the 
year, marriiages, are not only celebrated gratis, bui 
the bride ev^eft: jfeicQives a present of £8. 6. 8. 

This ohurch: claims to posses^, amongst other re** 
lies, a porti^ of th^ column upon which Bt. Paul puf- 
ferpd. n^^tyrdam* : The principfij picture representing, 
the -ahipwrieck of St. PdtuI is by Paladiui.- It con«- 
tc^ins; a- po^tiiait of Bi^hojp Grargalloy at whos^ e;2Epense 
it was paisot^. The picture of Tho.Last 3uppfer ie by 
Faviray: tb<Lt pf $t. Michael h by Mattia Pteti, that 
of St. Martin r by $tefano jBraridi, and that of ,St, 
Qm^hpiQq i^j the Maltese je^rtist Oeci. A wooden 
statue .ii^< the choir was oar.ved.at Rome by Mel-f 
chiorre Gafa in 1657. The festival of the Shipwreck 
of St* Panl i$ ?cplebrated annually oti Feb. 10th. 

W/e tfiurn pinto Strada Sen Giovanfii, which is here, in 
yeiy dee4i .-^ ^^street of ^tairs/^ and enter the Ghurch 
of the Minori Osservanti (Franciscans). The adjoin- 
ing : iConvent was commenced in 1571 and com- 
pleted four y^ars afi|)6rwards. The Grated Master Manoel 
contributed towards its^restoration, ^d additions were 
made; iu 1.^10. Tha. church i& large and of composite 
arcbiteeturei vonsistuQg ,of . a Jiiave with side aisles^ 
whiob ^.ere iorpam^nt^! by the Grand Masters N« 
CSotpner and Cpiraflb. Much of the painting ul ti^^ 
churo^ was ei^eoute^ as a labQus ^i W^. Vj ^^^^^"^^^ 



134 

Maltese artists. Near the charch is the Oratory of 
the GrHcifixioQ. The present boilding dates from 
1698. The principal picture in the church, repre- 
senting the Betrothal of Santa Caterina is by Antonio 
Catalano and was painted in ICOO. The pictnre of 
St. Carlo Borromeo and other saints is ascribed to 
Gaido Beni: and that of Oar Lady of Sorrows is 
by Erardi. 

Tarning to the left at the comer of the chnrch 
we find oarselves in Strada Sant' Ursola, in which 
are the Chnrch of San Bocco and the Chnrch and 
Nunnery of Sant' Ursola. The former was founded 
in 1592 by the University of Malta in fnlfilment 
of a vow on the cessation of the plagne. Af tor the 
plague of 1675-6 the Ginrati of Valletta, making a 
vow in the name of the University rebuilt it in 
1680. Lorenzo Gafd was the architect, and the Grand 
Master Carafa defrayed much of the cost. The chnrch 
which contains two pictures by Erardi was solemnly 
blessed on August 12th 1681. An institution of 
Catholic Education for Children was established on 
March 25th 1863. 

The Ursoline Nunnery was'founded hf the Grand 
Master Verdala in 1583, transferred from Vittoria 
to its present site in 1595, and enlarged by the Grand 
Master Pinto in 1759. Tho hutis belong to the Order 
of Saint John of Jerusalem, and stiil wear the 'cloak 
of that order. They received an annual pension from 
its funds of £594. 

The church was restored by the Grand Master 
De Paola, whose arms are ovei^ the entrance. The 
roof was painted in 1717 by Alessio Erardi at the 

Bse of the Grand Master Pierello's. The prin- 
picttire representing the martyrdom of Santa 




153 

Ursote IS by Mattia Pretei, The silver group repre-^ 
sen ting the Flagellation^ was given to the Grand 
Master Pinto, by Monwgnor Gregorio Salviati> on 
his arrival in Malta as Inquisitor in 1754. 

Turning to the right into Strada Gristoforo, we 
pass on the right No, 12 the Palazzo Gonnidi, built 
as his- escutcheon testifies, by the Grand Master 
Perellos (p. 67), and on the left the ancient Slave 
and Givil Prisons (see Howard's Hospitals and La- 
zarettoes of Europe). The slaves were about 4000 
in nunaber, obtained either by capture or purchase^ 
and were employed in the construction of fortifications^ 
the manufacture of cotton sail cloth, or as domestic 
servants. Their prisons maintained at a yearly cost 
of £3,826| Were miserable places. The Order spent 
£449 per annum ip purchaising slaves, whilst the 
ransom of these hapless captives brought in £1,661. 
Constant fears of a rising were entei*tained. Slaves 
who had been baptised, and Maltese convicts were 
kept separated from the rest. The Civil Prison had 
in the centre a large courtyard for exercise, intersected 
by four diagonal walls meeting in the centre. Govern- 
ment schools and stables, together with the vast 
wine stores of Messrs Woodhouse and Co. occupy 
the old prisons. This firm has been established 
here ever since the arrival of the English. We note 
that Sicilian wine is kept in casks of chestnut wood, 
but other wines in American oak. 

Strada Gristoforo is behind us, and on our left is 
Strada Irlandese or "Irish Street'^ with numerous 
blacksmiths' shops, leading to St. Lazarus Curtain 
and the Military Hospital. On our right is Strada 
Levante. Immediately before us is the Lower B&- 
racca^ with a monument to the Tae^TCiOT^ ^^ ^"vt K, 



136 

J. Ball^ ^'who seems to have been a good man all 
ronnd/' and who has found a grave at Fort St. 
Elmo, in the bastion which bears his nanie< The 
monament is a miniature reproduction of the Tem« 
pie of Theseus at Athens, and is fast going to de- 
cay. I^hia Baracca was, like the other, formerly 
roofed. The enclosure was converted into a mafket 
garden by the French during the siege of 1798- 
1800; and during the erection of the new Market- 
house in Strada Mercanti, a temporary market was 
held here under canvas. From hence we have a 
fine view of Valletta, the Great Harbour, the Three 
Cities, and Fort Bioasoli. 

Beturning to Strada Levante we note, a large 
wooden shed^ which is the centre of the wholesale ve- 
getable market. Strada: Levante, in which dweli 
marble cntters and ship-chandlers, has on the right 
the Ursuline Nunnery, and on the left the Ca-* 
stile Curtain, and the Bastion of Santa Barbara. 
From the broad terrace of the latter we have a 
fiae view of the harbour. The old i<^e-house is here 
which, when snow from Sicily was scarce, reserved 
its stores for the use of the hospital. Facing the 
street of the same name is the Church of Santa 
Lucia, built in 1570, and originally dedicated to 
fian Francesco di Paola. It was served by the 
Dominicans until the erection of their convent in 
1771, and was rebuilt by the wine merchants of 
the Carina with the dedication of Santa Lucia and 
San Vinceozo Ferreri. 

At the Marina Gate is a fountain surmounted 
hy a marble Baptism of Christ with the Latin in- 
scraption. '^Amongst those born of women there 



137 

hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist/' close 
to which is a standard barometer. 

To the left of the drawbridge are bambpo*tising 
basket makers^ and on the right the /'Saltan's Garden'V 
laid oat by the Grand Master Lascaris^ who also 
bailt close by a house wherein the Grand Master 
and his knights might, play cardsi regaling them* 
selves meanwhile with ioes and sherbet. The word 
"Sultan^* means in Maltese a "King'' or ''^^Ier/^ 
In this garden is a fountain with papyrus pl^pts. 
The house was afterwards occupied by the (Captain 
of the Port, but was pulled, down a few years since, 
and its site occupied by Fort Lascaris, which, is 
garrisoned by the Royal Malta Fencible Artillery. 

On the left are the beggar haunted "Nix Man* 
giare" or "nothing to ej^t" Stairs, visited by Midr 
sbipman E^sy, at the bottom of which is ,a landing 
place off which lie steamers and sailing craft. Tp 
the left is a range of stores built by the Granj 
Master Perollos, and the old Health Office ov^r thg 
door of which is a Latin inspription which means 
" Love of the P^ople did this." The little church 
of SS. Salvatore formerly stood here, for. the bene- 
fit of persons in quarantine. It has been demo- 
lished, and the bronze bupt of Our Saviour is above 
the principal door of St, John's Church. On the 
quay are a number of stone pillars, connected when 
necessary by wooden bars, and called the Barrlera. 
Here merchants and others were allowed to speak 
to their friends in quarantine. Two thousand per- 
sons could assemble here. T.fae' purious in anciept 
rules of quarantine at l^alta are referred tO; ^. 
Houel's Voyage Pittoresque (1.087,) in the Publio 
Library. 



138 

Either once more climbing the Stairs of Nix 
Mangiare^ and descending a slope, or else following 
the shore we reach the semi-circalar fish market, 
erected by the Grand Master Despnig. The fountain 
in the centre was formerly surmounted by a statue of 
Ifeptune which is now at the Palace. 

On our right is the much venerated Church 
of Our Lady of Liesse with its legend of Ismaria and 
the three captive knights. It was first built in 1620 
at the expense of the Bailiff d' Armenia, and belonged 
to the Language of France, by which it was rebuilt 
in 1740. The principal picture is by Enrico Amaux, 
and refers to the legend above alluded to. The 
French knights were specially devoted to this church, 
and the Comte de Beaujolais, brother of Louis Phi- 
lippe, directed that his heart should be interred here. 
The marble altar was given by a former rector, 
and the church contains an image of the Virgin, 
which was brought from Fort St. Elmo or, some 
say, from Liesse in Picardy. 

We "bass through a tunnel called the Mina Las- 
caris, it having been cut through a projecting rock 
by that Grand Master, as a Latin inscription above 
the entrance testifies. At the further extremity is 
the Dogana or Custom House. A portion of the 
site was formerly called ''the bay of insects," this 
being the basking place of the slaves. The Custom 
House was built on piles by the civil and military 
architect Giuseppe Bonnici, a pupil of the Chev. 
Tign^, during the rule of the Grand Master Xi- 
menes. Exports are free, and ships taking a cargo 
from the island pay no tonnage. For duties on 
ports see the Malta Almanacks. It was origin- 

intended to accomodat'e exports here, but the 



^ 



139 

Space designed for that purpose is now occupied by 
the Port Department. Just within the entrance ^<« 
the Custotn Houe^ is a monument to the Cavaliere 
Giulio Amati^ an Italian Knight and Admiral of 
the Order, who, at his own expense^ greatly im- 
proved the landing place in 1651 before the erec- 
tion of the Custom House. TEis monument was 
rescued from oblivion by the Hon, V. Inglott C. M. G. 
Collector of Customs, who has most kindly given me 
fiiueh valuable information. The Long Boom is or- 
namented with a complete* series of the escutcheons 
of the Grand Masters, and there are in the build- 
ing portraits both of the founder and architect, and 
also a picture of the quay previous to the erection 
of the Custom House. 

The busy bustling Marina is always full of 
interest to the traveller. On one side is the har- 
bour with its numerous steamers, sailing craft, men 
of war, speronaras and dgbaisas, and on the other 
are long ranges of stores erected by the Grand 
Masters Lascaris, Pinto and Zondadari and also by 
the University of supplies, which provided Malta 
not with learning, but vvjith corn, meat, oil, and 
charcoal, for 250 years until its abolition in 1818. 
Some of these stores were for the supply of the 
galleys and men of war. The Order intended to 
establish its arsenal near the site of the present 
Custom House, but the sparks from the pipe of an 
idiot, who chanced to stand upon the Baracca, burnt 
a new galley, and the design was abandoned as too 
dangerous. 

Galcara Gate, at which a guard is posted, and 
. which is reached by the steep ascent of the Cro- 
cefisso from the Marina, is nam^d. Itoxcl ^ \Sc^ ^>^ 



140 

which all the lime was bnrn(i for the public build- 
lags of the Order. At the end of the niueteen Pinto 
stores is a small churph erected by the same Grand 
Maa[ter in 1752i olose to which is a fountain which 
supplies water to shipping. The old Naval Bakery 
was adjacent to the churchy and is at preaen(t used 
as an oil store. ** 

We pass through the Bight Marina Gate. A* 
bore is the Capuchin Monastery^ and around us are 
the Ordnance Wharf, Gas Works, Mortuary, a Flour 
Millj and the Government Slaughter-house* 

An obelisk marks the former termination of an 
avenue of poplars planted by the* Grand Master 
Manoel de Vilhena. We have now completed our 
itinerary of Valletta. 



141 
CHAPTER VL 



Floi\iana. 



Politeama Theatre. — The Suburb of Vilhena. — Gates 
and Fortifications. — The Maglio, and Pavillion. — Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Home. St. Francis' Barracks, Princess' Theatre, 
Capuchin Convent. — Wignaoourt's Aqueducts, and Bouve- 
rie. — Churches of Sarria and Saint Public. — The Argotti 
Garden, Casa di Manresa, and Central Civil Hospital. — 
Floriana Barracks, Charitable Institutions, and English Ceme- 
teries. — Sa Maison and its Beoreation Ground. 



JUST outside Porta Reale is an obelisk with no 
inscription, and below us is the Politeama The- 
atre, open daring the summer, for Italian performan- 
ces at moderate prices. A winding* road through 
the fortifications brings us to a large open space, 
commanding a fine view over the Great Harbour 
and the interior of the island. Before us is the 
suburb of Floriana, named after Col. Pietro Paolo 
Fioriani, an Italian engineer in the service of the 
Pope, (by whom he was despatched to Malta at the 
request of the Grand Master, in the year 1635,). 
who designed the fortifications by which it is defended. 
It is also called the "Suburb of Vilhena," who or- 
dered the erection of many of its buildings. It has 
four gates. The one giving access to the Quaran*- 
tine harbour is called "delia Marina,^' and also "under 
the gallows^^ as criminals were formerly executed 
close by. 



142 

Notre Dame Qate opening towards the country 
13 called " the gate' of pears/' from the arms of the 
Grand Master Perellos, viz, three pears. 

St. Ann's Gate, sometimes styled " Porter's 
Straits," (having been remodelled by Major Porter 
R. E.,) is the "Dog's Gate," from two pillars sur- 
mounted by dogs which formerly stood on either 
side. . : 

The outer gate, called Porte des Bombes, which 
derives its name from some large stone shells, was 
erected, jn 1721, and has upon it the arms of the 
Grand. Master Perellos. This gate and that of St. 
Ann were rebuilt in 1868. 

The French were repulsed at this point in 1798 
and marks of shot fired from the Maltese batteries, 
during the two years' siege, are still to be seen. 
By this gate the allied English, Maltese and Nea- 
politan troops entered Valletta in 1600. 

The fortifications commenced in 1636 were dis- 
continued two years afterwards, and not recommenced 
until 1716, the defences of Margarita Hill and the 
Cotonera Lines having been ''taken in hand mean- 
while. Part of the cost was defrayed by a corn- 
tax of about .7rf. per qr. 

To the left is a large parade ground, sacred 
to drill and cricket, whilst - directly facing ua is the 
Maglio or Mall,: which forms a pleasant and favour- 
ite walk. It . wais laid out in 1805, during the 
rule of Sir A. J. Ball, is maintained by the Go- 
vernment, and. ; contains a bust of Dr. hnigi Pisani 
who died in '1865. This spot was formerly set 
apart for tiie game of hand-ball, and the Grand 
Master Lascaris ordered the erection of a Latin 
inscription to that effect. 



143 

To the left of the MagHo are numerous Fosse 
for graiu, which contain many qrs. and form. a Jarge 
paved space known as '^the granaries," a favourite 
public resort. Military and other bands often per- 
form here. The Pavillion now occupied by the of- 
ficers of the Infantry Begiment quartered at the 
Floriana Barracks was originally built by the Uni- 
versity of Supplies as the Market of Floriana. 

The houses in this suburb are arranged in blocks 
and the streets intersect at right angles. Through 
the <)entre runs Strada Sant^ Anna^ a broad street 
with arcades on either side. 

In the Piazza Maggiore is the Soldiers' and 
Sailors* Home, of which the Revd. J. Webster, Wes- 
leyan Minister to the Forces, is Secretary and Trea- 
surer, and which is doing good work in our midst. 
It has a well furnished Library and Reading Room, 
Dining . and; Smoking Rooms, with ample smoking 
aocomodotioq. Charges very moderate. The Secre- 
tary will be glad to receive contributions. 

At the end of the cross streets, we have a 
fine view of the Great Harbour, and near the outer 
defences are St. Francis* Barracks, the head quar- 
ters of the Royal Engineers. 

Adjoining the Barracks is the Princess* Theatre 
in which the K. E. Dramatic Club and other amateurs 
tread the boards. A large wooden cross stands on 
St. Mark's Bastion, close to which are several Fosse 
for grain, and we reach the Capuchin Church and 
Convent. The former is' dedicated to the Invention 
of the Holy Cross, and was consecrated in 1773. 
The principal picture was painted by Paladini, at 
the expense of the Grand Master Nicholas Cetoner. 
The picture of St. Francis is the work of Erardi. 



I 



144 

An image of the B. V. Mary is kept here which 
some Christian slaves broaght from Constantino- 
pie, having made themselves masters cf a Tnrkish 
galley. A qaaint picture commemorates this event. 

The Convent was founded in 1588, (the andii- 
tect. being Oerolamo Cassar.) bat has since been 
restored and enlarged. It has a good library tmd 
the monks number about 60. They support them- 
selves and a large number of the poor and afflict- 
ed by means of daily- collected charity. If you visit 
the Convent, do not forget to give alms! For many 
visitors come hither to see what are popularly cal- 
led the ''Baked Monks.*' The bodies of deceased 
monk? are placed in niches^ in a vault, dressed in 
the robes which they wore daring life. They have 
not, however, been embalmed, baked, or otherwise 
prepared, but have simply been laid for at least 
twelve months in sloping graves. This is not a 
Maltese, but a Sicilian custom, introduced by the 
first Fathers who founded the Convents. Deceased 
brethren are now interred in the Addolorata Ce- 
metery. The Church of Rome tolerates such expo- 
sition of the remains of the faithful simply as a 
check to human pride. 

We pass St. Ann's Gate and fountain erected 
in 1728 by the Grand Master Vilhena, and skirt- 
ing St. Ann's Curtain, reach a tower which serves 
as a drinking fountain supplied by the Grand Mas- 
ter Alofio Wignacourt's aqueduct, about which we 
must say a few words. 

It was commenced in 1610 in order to supply Val- 
letta with water, which was formerly brought with 
^reat labour from a spring called Ghain - Filep 
M^ the bead of the Great Harbour. Several spring! 



145 

amongst the Bmgemma Hills were nnited by means 
of pipes^ and their waters led into one channel. 
The principal spring is at Diar Ghandul about 9| 
miles distiuit from Valletta. The whole cost of the 
work waa £15,480, of which £11,480 was defrayed 
by Wignacourt himself, the remaining £4000 bein^ 
madia up by a tax upon the Public Granaries and 
Bakery. The first architect was Padre Natale To- 
masncci a Jesuit of Messina, who brought the water 
as far as Gasal Attard. He then resigned, and the 
work was completed by Bontadino. On April 21st 
1615 the water was admitted into a fountain in 
the centre of St. George's Square; amidst great pub- 
lic rejoicings. All praise to Wignacourt giver of 
water. The aqueduct supplies a daily average of 
108,000 gallons to Valletta and T'loriana. 

To the slight detriment of rural gardens, but 
to the great benefit of the Three Cities of Burmola, 
Vittoriosa^ and Senglea, which were formerly depend- 
ent npom the somewhat brackish water found at 
the head of the Great Harbour, Sir H. F. Bouve- 
rie oonatnicted an aqueduct, which collects the 
waters of numerous springs at Fauara, Imtahleb, 
and in the neighbourhood of the Casals of Curmi and 
Dingli^ &c. It runs underground to the Three Cit- 
ies a distance of about seven miles, and supplies 
daily about 57.600 gallons. 

Opposite the aqueduct tower is the circular 
Church of the Conception of the B. V. M., usually 
called Sarria, having been built at the expense of 
a Navarrese knight of that name in 1585. During 
the visitation of the plague in 1675-6 the Grand 
Haster B. Cotoner and the Council vowed t<^ V^^a^^ 
a church upon the site of tlais o\3l dsva»^^> -^VxOo. 

10 



146 

was accordingly done in 1678. Several pictares by 
Mattia Preti were placed here. The pictoire of Santa 
Atina is by A. Falzon. In the sacristy are portraits 
of the fonnder and of the Grand Master Ck>toner^ 
together with an ancient pictare> whieh^ perhaps^ 
belonged to the old church. 

Vfose by is the Parish Chnrch^ dedicated to 
S. Pnbblio. The i first stone of the presek^t stmcture 
was laid in 1733 by Bishop' Alpheran de Bnssan, 
but it was not completed an til 1768. Ifr was en* 
larged between 1856 and 1862, and now consists 
of a choir^ nave; two large chapels^ and side aisles. 
The principal ]Mctnre representing the Martyrdom 
of 6an PubbUo is by Favray. Near these ohnix^hes 
are large Infant and Primary Schpolsy and hard by 
the end of the Maglio is the Argotti Garden^, in 
which was formerly the house of the Bailiff 
Argotti.^' It is a pleasant place of resorty ^nd was 
much improved by the late Lieut. General Villettes^ 
to whose memory a monument has been erected 
within it. . , j. . 

Nearly opposite are i^e Ohurch and Souse of 
San Oilcedonio^ which are also styled those of Our 
Lady of Manresa.^' This almshouse owes its origin 
to Father Francesco Bosignoli> and was opened in 
1751. It. serves as a religious retreat for pious. per*^ 
sons during the days of Carnival^ for oasdidates 
for ordination, and for pious ecclesiastics and > lay- 
men. In 1858 Bishop Pace Forno founded -a; s^ 
minary in this bailding at his own expense . witit 
a chapel dedicated to Our Lady of Sorrow.- / - 

The chapel of this almshouse owes its- origiki 
/o Don Pietro Infante of Portugal, Grand Prior 6f 



147 

Grato^ and was consecrated in 1786t It contains 
pictures by the Cav. Favray and other artists. 

. Facing the Casa di Manresa is the Central Civil 
Hospital originally built as a Conservatorio for Poor 
Girls by the Grand Master Manoel de Vilhena. In 
J 825 great reforms were introSuced. The inmates/ 
about 200 in number, were taught varibnis^ trades 
aud^ occupations. They could not go out without 
permission, but inight become domestic kervants un- 
der proper sanction. They might leave to be mar- 
ried, but could not return again. 

The outbreak of cholera in 1837 checked the 
prosperity of the Institution, and about thirty years 
ago the boilding was ^appropriated to its present 
use. The girls were removed to the Aged Asylum - 
and gradually dispersed. 

The Hospital with accombdation for 250 patients 
has a daily average of 170, and it^ professional 
staff comprises, in addition to two Visiting Physi-^ 
cians aad Surgeons^ three resident pi^ofSrasionalmen. 
The sick are tended by Sisters of Charity, and are" 
visited by clergymen of thdr own faith. The remo- 
val of this hospital to another site is under con- 
sideration. 

. • At the back of the H-ospital are the Floriana 
Barracks, which are Occupied by an infantry regi- 
m^it. 

Passing through the neighbouring Pol verista Gate 
we aete the Asylum for the Aged and Infirm, 
which was built for a powder mill by the Grand 
Master Piato in 1762. Col. Porter says that the 
saltpetre was refined at another mill in Valletta, 
the proceds of manufacture' being completed Vi^-t^* 
These two i mills could produce \AsQ% \^* ^^€*s\^ ^"^ 



148 

bid. per lb. Farther sapplies were procured from 
Frauce. 

The bailding is now occupied by about 700 aged 
and infirm persons, and connected with it is the 
Female Prison (having on an averaflfe nineteen prison- 
ers with h'ght sentences), under the amiable custody 
of a Sister of Charity. Also, the Magdalen Asylum 
containing about fifteen voluntary inmates, and the 
Foundling Hospital, in which, in 1878, sixteen young 
children were being nursed. 

Close to this Asylum a road leads to the cem« 
eteries long since fiilled with English dead, which 
afford food for much quiet and profitable thought. 

Passing the Asylum, and threading our way 
through a labyrinth of fortifications, we reach 8a 
Maison, the old home of a Bailiff of that name. 

The Government house which formerly stood 
here is said to have been used for the meetings 
of the Masonic Lodge, founded in 1785 by the 
Bohemian Count Kollowart. Great numbers of knights 
were initiated, and the Grand Master Rohan only 
closed the Lodge in consequence of stringent orders 
from Borne. 

The Malta General Recreation Club has estab« 
lished itself at Sa Maison. Family Tickets, lbs. 
per annum; 5a. per month. Single Ticket lOa per 
^nnum; 2a. 6d. per month. Full particulars on appli« 
cation to the Seci^tary. The gardens are tastefully 
laid out, and we pass a curious well with quaint 
carvings. Fortifications are above us and around us. 
Connecting two bastions is the celebrated arch of 
Sa Maison thrown across a small ravine called Oiorff 
Jd-del^ or the "Shady Precipice" which has since 
^Jbeea dlled ia with stones and earth, and in which 



149 

formerly dwelt a hermit. This arch was constructed 
by the Maltese Architect and Superintendent Gio- 
vanni Barbara who assisted Col. Floriani in the 
erection of these works. It is intended for the pas- 
sage of artillery^ and curves obliquely for more than 
half its length. Its diameter is 42 feet 6 in.^ its 
thickness 35 feet^ and it presents a different ap- 
pearance according to the position of the spectator. 
Amongst other monuments we remark one to 
" Rose '' the favourite dog of the Band of the 74th 
Highlanders^ with these lines: 

Of you my new comers^ 
I humbly request 
This small spot of ground, 
Wherein I may rest* 

The road to the left leads directly^ and that 
to the right by a more circuitous route, back to 
Floriana and Valletta. 



150 



CHAPTER VII. 



J 



Pembroke Camp, jSt, Julians, 

AND jSliema. 

The Wimbledon of Malta.— St. Julian's Bay, and the 
Forrest Hospital. — Fongasses. — Jesuit College. — The Forgot- 
fen Church. — Boat and carriage . fares.-^Cure for fever.-^ 
Sliema. — OflSceis' Bathing House, and Fort Tign^. — Chur- 
ches of Sliema. — Fort Manoel an^ its Island.*— The Lazaretto^ 
Misida and the Hydraulic Dock.— Pieta and its Cemeteries. 

AT a distance of about fbdr and a half miles by 
road from Valletta is Pembroke Camp: Sliema, 
and St. Julians are not quite four miles away. But 
Sliema can be reached in A few minutes by boat 
from the Marsamuscetto Steps, Pare 3d, (or, in com* 
pany with other passengers, id), and from thence 
to St. Julians and Pembroke Camp is only a short 
walk or drive. Targets, firing-points, and the crack 
of rifles are the prevailing characteristics of Pembroke 
Camp, which is named after the late Lord Herbert 
of Lea. The first stone was laid by H. B. H. the 
Prince of Wales on June 6th 1862. The camp has 
accomodation for 1200 men, and was built at a 
cost of about £20 per man, or about one-fifth of 
the ordinary cost of barracks. Brawny arms which 
first gained pith and vigour on the shores of the 
English Channel, here love to breast the laughing 
anlit; waves with sturdy stroke, or to pull vigor- 
asljr sea wards J in some or other of the many boats 



which he moored within the landlocked bay. But 
Pembroke Camp is- also a place for hard- work^ as 
every soldier in Malta is well aware^ a plabe^ for 
aoquiriDg skill i in the use ^ of the ^^ Martini, ** tind 
the scene of the Annual Malta Bifle Meeting. < Pem*- 
bro^ke .C^mp is oifrr Maltese Wimbledoni" Themeigh- 
bpnring iSt.: Gearg^e's- Bay, to goatd which' % tbwer 
was built' iby the 'Oraiid Master Latcai^^ iS'iiamedj 
according to Ciantar> from a- neiffhbduritigi daninoh. 
The guard 'Stationed atthispoinlJ was celled //'the 
wei^tem look^oat.^' The . mansion of the -MaTchesa 
Seicluna ^stands u]l)on Dragoiiava Pointyj wUiob is: 
caUf)d by the natives< Char|: el Hamiem. ior'^'tha 
donrea^ .cleft/' as wild dor-es found rest> thpre. .<Dbe' 
noise <^ the waves gave rise to wild siories that thisi 
was the home of either a seaptti ouster- or gigantio 
eelsy iand/ that' the waters of this bay had :« jsnb* 
tdrraueai^ ctonecti^ni with those of the Oveat lELapbour. 
Bt;^ Julianas* Bay was fortified at the eipense' 
of 'the Grabd^ Master • Pinto. Just outside are -St.^ 
6isorg6'si4Bank> with froiki four to; seven* fathoms of 
water upon it^ and the Spinoli' or Mepcanti Bebf, 
natiiied "afteir • the Bailiff Spinola:, wfaohadia t^ountry 
hottfie here, ; which is at present c4Hed the For-* 
pest Hospital^ from its origiBatoi* X)r« Foi*rest, Ins^ 
pector' of Hospitals. It is a Militiiry Hospital. 
The . church whidh gave it* »iaoie to : the^ bay' 
iS' now. called Ta Lapsi or ^'the"'A8ceiisioii/''posteibly 
from a picture by Raffaele Camaba^ H was fdun^ded in 
1580, rebuilt in 16B2, made vice- parochial ib 1848, 
and enlarged betweeh August 20ti 1852 and Feb. 
20th 1853, when it was re*blessed. The principal 
picture represents the assumption of the B. V. Mat^^ 
with S. 8. Peter and Paul, 



152 

Oa ibe ahore below the Forrest Hospital is a 
fonffasse or mortar cat oat of the rock^ intended 
to harl showers of stones npon hostile boats. These 
foog^ses were formerly about fiftj in nnmber^ the 
months of some being six feet across. Others may 
be seen at St. Panics Bay and Marsa Seala. . On 
the beach is a statae of St. Jnlian. In Maj 1768 
abundance of alabaster was fonnd near the shore, 
and nsed to beautify the Palace. 

A Protestant College formerly existed at St. Ja« 
lians^ of which the late Dr. Gobat^ afterwards An* 
glican Bishop of Jerusalem was the first principal. 
The grounds, which are planted with orange and other 
trees, slope down to the shores of the bay and com« 
mand a fine view seaward. The Protestant College 
proved a failure^ and the buildings were in April 1«^77 
occupied by the Jesuits^ who have purchased them, 
and are making great improvements. A new Col« 
lege chapel is in course of erection, also a dormitory 
70 feet long, class rooms, and Professors' houses, &c. 
This College will probably do much to raise the stand* 
ard of education in Malta. 

Close to the shore, in the district called Tal Bal- 
lut or ''the oaks'' is the pretty church of the Ma- 
donna del Carmelo, the foundation stone of which was 
laid on Nov. 21st 1858, and which was built at the 
expense of the Valletta confraternity ''del Carmine/' 
Sig. Gius. Bonavia was the architect, and it was 
solemnly blessed on Sept. 18th 1859. It is proposed 
to build a new Military Hospital on the hilUtop 
above the bay. Not far from the intended site is 
the curious rock-hewn church of Minsia or " the 
forgotten," fashioned about four centuries ago. The 
priest who lives close by keeps the key, and we 



1&3 

descend a flight of steps. There are the usual 
votive offerings. One picture represents the bump- 
ing of a line-of-battle ship about the year 1800, 
and another pourtrays a scene at Floriana during 
the Plague of 1813. Near the church is a pictu- 
resque valley. 

Many English officers and residents live at Slie- 
ma and St. Julian's Bay/ which is a favouinte and 
rapidly increasing suburb of Valletta. Boat from 
Marsamnscetto steps to landing place at Sliema 8d, 
four-wheeler from thence to St. Julian 8d,, go*cart 
4c7. Four-wheeler from Yiklietta round the head of 
the Quarantine Harbour 1«. 8d. Batum 28, 6d. Houses 
may be obtained at moderate rentals. Tariff changes 
proposed. The English church at Sliema, (Holy Tri- 
nity), is conveniently situated for residents at St. Ju- 
lian's Bay. The situation is healthy, and sea-bathing 
very enjoyable, with a bottom of sand in some places. 

Fever patients were formerly placed in the sand 
and mud at the head of the farther arm of the bay, 
and afterwards washed in a neighbouring spring. 
This was considered an almost certain cure. Along 
the shore are numerous salt-pans, which are Go- 
vernment property, and which used to be under 
the control of the Grand Master's Secretary. There 
is a heavily armed battery on Sliema Point and 
not far off another fort is in course of construe* 
tion, yet one more link in that girdle of stone and 
iron which will ere long completely encircle *' The 
Flower of the World," which is beyond all question 
one of the brightest jewels in the British crown. 
How many there are now scattered far and wide 
over the world's surface, who have, at some time 
or other, called Sliema or St. Julians "home!" 






154 

and to whom the very mention of those names 
calls back pleasant memories of happy family life, 
memories which, perchance, cannot now be. recalled 
without a certain huskiness of voice, and an unwonted 
dimness of vision. 1 

Sliema derives its name from a chnrch dedi** 
Cated to onr Lady of Safety, whidi MfUtese sftilors 
used/to salute when entering or leaving port. Sliema 
is a Maltese word meaning ''Hail-- and is equivalent to 
the Latin ''A^e:*' This church was built in the 17th 
century, restored in 1741-, incorporated with -a six-gun 
battery constrtidted in 1757 and 1760 by the Grand 
Master Pinto at Cala-ta-lembi or "Basin Bayy^' aud fi- 
nally destroyed by the fire of the Maltese batteries dur» 
ing the siege of 1798-1800. THe magazine of: Pinto's 
battery Was called Santa Barbara, she being the 
patroness of guns and gunners. The -magazine of 
a French man-of-war is called St. Barbe. 

The rapidly increasing population of Sliema al- 
ready numbers nearly 3000. During the last few yeiars 
many new and handsome houses have been built, 
and numerous shops opened. The principal hotel 
is the Imperial (p. 55)^ and daring the summer 
months a branch of the Union Club is opened in 
Sliema. . 

Along the shores of the Quarantine Harbour 
are numerous baths.' Take a dip: only ^d an hour. 
Close to Fort Tign^ an Officers' Bathing House 
has been erected, fitted up with every comfort, at 
which refreshments can be obtained. Admission is 
limited to Officers of the Fleet and Garrison, and 
to visitors introduced under certain restrictions. 

Fort Tign^ stands upon Dragut Point, oflf which 
tie Di'agnt Bock< Both the rock and the point 



155 

bear the name of the famous Algerine corsair who 
vas seoond in command during the Great- Siege of 
1565^ and /^who had • the wisest head and the bra-* 
vest heart in all that mighty host, ^* He erected 
a fonr-gun battery upon this point at the entrance 
pf the Quarantine* or Marsamuscetto Harbour. This 
harbour derives its name from the Artfbio words 
'^Marsa^' '^a port/^and ^'taghhus eiait*' **iiot an open 
coast/f meaning therefore "a harbour tb' winter in/' It 
^es itiQ the west-.of Yallettay and is principally used 
by .V6ssete not admitted to freie pratique^ whence 
its AJEUne of the Quarantine Harbotir. The P. and 
Of. steamers are however always mooi^ed in it for 
convenience of coaHng and easy access to their stores. 
The steamers belongings to the Telegraph Companies 
also lie here. It is defended on the East by Fort. Si. 
Elmo and other batteries> and on the West by Forts 
Manoel. and Tigne in conjunction with the coast de- 
defences of Sliema. Fort Tign^was coiiistructed and 
solemnly dedicated in 1793 by the Grand Master 
Emanuel de Bohan and named after the Cheivalier 
de Tign^ who designed it under the direction of 
the Commander Stephen de Tousand. The latter 
caused solemn prayers to be ojSered ''that' the 
Very good and great God would prosper the under- 
taking.^' Copper and silver coins were placed be» 
heath the foundation stone^ and the Grand Master 
sanctioned a contribution from the treasury. This 
small fort has been modernised and greatly strength- 
ened and has a small garrison of artilleryihen. Manv 
eavities have been worn by the waves in the soft 
limestone cliffs. The fossil echinus or sea egg is 
found h&te, and the echinus sphoena is «.\stv\^^»;:f^ 
all along. the coast from E. \»o ^- Q^t%%^^^ «^ 



156 

north easters have laid bare the hard crystalline lime 
stone^ and saltpans are nnmerous. The Malta Oun Clab 
meets at Fort Tign^^ usually on Tuesdays. Entrance 
£1. Members pay Is when taking part in the 
Shooting. The Royal Malta Tacht Squadron^ of which 
the Admiral Superintendent is ex officio Commodorey 
often musteri^ here. 

To return to Sliema. The Eastern Telegraph Co^ 
has a Branch Office at 3, Strada Ghar Illembi. The 
foundation stone of Holy Trinity Church (Anglican) 
was laid on Sept. 20th 1866, by the late Sir W. J. 
Bidley, then administering the Government of Malta, 
and the church was consecrated on April 23rd 1867, 
by the Bight Bevd. Dr. Trower, the late Bishop of 
Gibraltar, to whom its erection is due, and who de- 
frayed much of the cost. The church is built in the 
Early English style, with about 200 sittings, on a 
commanding site overlooking the open sea and the 
Quarantine Harbour. The present chaplain is the 
Bevd. J. Knight Law B. A. and the services are duly 
advertised in the local papers. Church expenses and 
other funds are provided for by means of offertories. 
The Parsonage is close to the church. 

A large Boman Catholic Church is being built 
by voluntary labour, but at present the principal 
church of that faith in Sliema is dedicated to the 
B. V. Mary under the title of "the Star of the Sea." 
The first stone was laid on April 28th 1853. The 
22nd Nov. 1854 saw the church completed, and it 
was blessed on August 11th 1855. The architect 
G. Bouavia drew the plans gratuitously, superintended 
the work for two years, and presented the church 
Muth a bell. It holds 600 persons, was built at a 
^^pt of £1200, and is. of the Ionic style of archi- 



157 

tectare. The principal picture is by Raffaele Carnana, 
and the festival is on the Sunday after August 18th. 

Sliema is connected with YaUetta by a good road 
which is much used as a pleasant drive on summer 
evenings. Fare by four-wheeler about 2s. Tn the 
Quarantine harbour is Gezira or '^the Island/' gene* 
rally known as Fort Manoel Island, and connected 
with the mainland by a bridge. This is a favourite 
spot, with the botanist and ornithologist (See Tal* 
lack's Malta under the Phoenicians, Knights and 
English" also Seddall's ''Malta Past and Present'')* 
On this island stands Fort Manoel built in 1726 
by the Grand Master Manoel de Vilhena at his own 
expense. The estimated cost was only £2,500 but 
whether this amount was exceeded we know not. 
It was constructed for the protection of Valletta on 
the side of the Quarantine Harbour, which was pre*, 
vionsly almost defenceless. The whole design of Mens. 
de Tign^ (who was not the engineer who built Fort 
Tign^) has never been carried out. 

The Fort has accomodation for a garrison of 
329 men, with officers' quarters, &c. Its founder 
not only provided it with all things necessary, but 
also endowed it with a yearly income of £1050 for 
the support of the Governor, his Lieutenant, Chap- 
lain, and Garrison. The first Governor was the Bai* 
liff F. D. Emanuele Sousa, a Portuguese, whose first 
Lieutenant was Fr. Giuseppe Coulon, a Frenchman 
who defrayed the cost of the chapel of St. George 
in the church of the Fort. This church dedicated 
to St. AntboBjcj^f Padua is now used as a chapel 
school, ^nd Divine Service is performed in it eveiy 
Sunday by the Chaplains to the Forces. Its archi- 
tecture, carvings, and monuments^ deserve careful 



158 

preservation, and are worth a visit. Ifca first Rector 
was Fr. Mederico Attard^ who erected four of the 
six altars which the chttrch formerly contained, and 
established two pious Confraternities. In. the centre 
of the square formerly stood a statue of the foun* 
der, the ! work of the Cav. Savasse, with a suitable 
inscription on the pedestal. This statue was removed 
by order of Sir Gaspard Le Marchaint whilst Go^ 
vernor of Malta and placed in front of the Public 
Library. Over the principal entrance there is also 
an inscription in praise of the founder. Fort Manoet 
which still ibears mai*ks of the several bombardments 
to which it was subjected by the combined English 
and Maltese forces between 1798 and 1800 was for- 
merly used as a Lazaretto, and enjoyed the repu- 
tation of being the best and the most confortabla 
in the Mediterranean. 

During the winter of 1856, an Italian Legion, 
stationed in this fort> broke .out into mutiny. The 
Bridge connecting the island with the mainland was 
at once secured, and:H. M. S. Haunibal took up 
her station abreast of the fort, whereupon the mu- 
tineers submitted, were disarmed^ deprived of their 
uniforms, disbanded, and left to shift for themselves. 
Boat, fare to Fort Manoel : 1^. in>eompany with others: 

Close to Fort Manoel arathe buildings of the Last- 
zaretto erected under the rule of the Grand Master 
Lascaris, the Cathedral receiving lands at Fid- 
deni in exchange, for the island. Quarantine regu« ; 
lationis were formerly very strict, and each. Grand 
Master was bound by oath not to interfere, wit^ 
them. M. Houel, writing in 1687 gives a very . gra- 
phio description of the precautions taken. The crew 



159 

and: passengers of a ship were shut up in a room 
in which a quantity of straw was burnt, together with 
14oz. of aromatic herbs. Those in quarantine were 
put upon oath as to their state of health both before 
and since their arrival in Malta: the health officers 
awor^ tUit they had faithfully discharged their duty: 
and : if any :OQe was detected in a falsehood he was 
hanged at once. The Lazai*etto has been but little 
used of late and was occupied in 1378 by some of 
the officers and men belonging to the Indian Con* 
tingent, a portion of which was encamped neai: the La* 
zi»*etto. 

The rocky he?idland of Tasbiesch with itp coal 
stores and numeroud coal barges belonging to the 
P. and 0. and to the l^elegraph Companies project^ 
into the harbour* The steamers of these Companies 
lie off this point. Fare for passengers between a P. 
and 0. steamer and the Marsamuscetto Steps Is. per 
boat. Fare for others, going on boards 3d, The harbour 
here divides into two arms. The one to the right 
between Tasbieseh andthje Public Baths built during 
the administration of Sir Alexander J. Ball, {id, per 
hour) is (Jailed Misida Creek. This was formerly an 
unhealthy neighbourhood, but Sir A. Ball did much 
to improve! it by the construction of a stone quay 
and wide road.: There are some good houses at 
Misida which has.. a population of 2000. Misida is 
variously interpreted to mean "the valley of fishinc"'* 
or f'the fishers'' or *The Mother of Our Lord.'' This 
latter: title is derived from a tradition that thechurck 
dedicated to the B. V. Mary was erected in gra- 
titude for deliverance from a Turkish invasion. This 
ohnrch i9- first rt^entioned in 1575, and was originally 
a - i^okrhewn crypt. It w:as rebvxUt %b^\x\k \^^5^ ^ ^^- 



160 

lariifed in 1670, and again enlarged b e tween 1836 
and 1859 at a cost of £250. 

In the Misida Creek is situated the Hydimiilic 
Dock, which was opened bj Admiral Lord Clarence 
Paget on Jan. 23rd 1873. Ships of 300U tons cam 
hare either ball or machinery repaired* H. M. & 
Cmiser was the first ressd hfked upon the pontooei. 
This dock is a great conFenienoe to ship owners, is 
in constant requisition, and employs numerous work* 
men. At the head of the creek the straight road 
leads to the village of Birchircara two miles distant. 
The branch to the right ascends a slope, and pass- 
ing Holy Trinity Church, Sliema, turns off to St. 
Julians and Pembroke Camp whilst the road whidi 
skirts the shore of the promontory of Tasbiesch 
is the route for SKema landing place. 

Betuming to the Public Baths, and turning to 
the right we are in the suburb of Pieta, named 
from the church which is built on the site of a 
cemetery wherein many victims to the plagne are 
interred^ and which is dedicated to Our Lady of 
Sorrow or of Piety. Built in 1590 it is the most 
ancient within the district of Floriana. Its festival 
is on Sept. 17th. Mustapha Pasha resided at Pieta, 
and organized the Slaves Conspiracy in 1749. An* 
nnal races are held on the Pietd road on August 
16 th, which were instituted after a visitation of the 
plagne. 

A lane on the right leads from the head of 
the harbour to the Military Cemetery wherein sleeps 
in peace many a brave soldier, together with sol- 
diers' wives and little children. To the rieht of the 
main road which here ascends a hill is the pretty 
Ta Braxia Cemetery, wherein rest many English 



161 

residents and visitors, together with others who have 
breathed their last in Malta. It is under the manage- 
ment of a Committee. All information can be ob- 
tained from Mr. Martin at the Garrison Library. 
The Jewish Cemetery, opened on January 19th 1836 
through the exertions of Sig. Jacob Abeasis is close 
by. We re-enter Porte des Bombes, and return to 
Valletta. 



1 1 



162 



CHAPTER VIII. 

The Maf^a and Eurmola. 

Out of Porte des Bombes. — Porto Nuovo. — The Marsa, 
and the Eace Course. — Corradino, its Fortifications, and Pri- 
sons. — The French Creek and the Naval Canteen. — Burmola, 
its Fortifications, and Gates. — The Cotonera Hospital. — Chur- 
ches and Convents. — The Dockyard and Marina. 

LEAVING- Ploriana by the Porte des Bombes, 
we reach a place where the road forks. The right 
hand branch goes to Pieta, Misida, Sliema, and St. 
Julians, and that in the centre to the Ta Braxia 
Cemetery, whilst our road to the Marsa lies straight 
before us. On the left are the fortifications of Flo- 
riana, and we soon reach another division of the 
road. To the right the San Giuseppe Road goes 
to Citta Vecchia and the interior of the island. Be- 
tween the roads is a cemetery in which the poorer 
classes were interred from 1813 until just before 
the opening of the Addolorata Cemetery. Soldiers "Slso 
lie here. No less than 15,000 are interred at this 
spot. We remark a monument to the men, women, 
and children of the 44th Regt who died in Malta 
between 1848 and 1851. 

We incline to the left, and see below us numerous 
barges laden with " black diamonds '^ for the use 
and benefit of steamers. Two trees upon a slope 
mark tl^e site of the ancient burial place of galley 
ves and other Mahometans, which was granted 



■.^ ma 



163 

by the kaights in 1674. The walls were pulled 
down a few years since, and the human remains trans- 
ferred to the new Mahometan cemetery. 

For some distance we have on the left Porto 
Nnovo or the New Harbour. The Romans emban li- 
ed this portion of the harbour, and at a later 
period basins were constructed, but becoming silted 
up, an extensive marsh was formed. This whole 
neighbourhood, called the Marsa or port was most 
unhealthy, but about twenty years ago the upper 
part of the harbour was extended and deepened. 
Coal stores, quays and all possible couveniences for 
shipping are found here, including a telegraph 
office (p. 56). 

On our right is the expanse of the Marsa, on 
whi^h the Turkish army was encamped during the 
Great Siegre. One day the garrison of Citta Vec- 
chia attacked the camp, slaying all the sick and 
wounded in hospital! Chivalrous times, truly! 

The Government Laundry is on the right, and the 
Steam Flour Mills and Contractors' Cattle Store and 
Depot on the left. We note the Mahometan Cem- 
etery, with its domes and minarets, and on a 
hillside the graceful spire of the Gothic Church of 
the Addolorata Cemetery. This Cemetery is con-* 
structed in terraces, connected by flights of steps. 
It is laid out on the plan of the Highgate Ceme- 
tery near London, was consecrated in November 
1869, and is supplied with water from the aqueduct 
which passes down the road behind. The inhabi- 
tants of the four cities of Valletta, Vittoriosa, Cos- 
picua, and Senglea, as well as FJoriana are buried 
here. More than 1500 interments take place annually. 
The cemetery is well worrfi a visit. The Marsa is 



164 

the largest and most level plain in Malta. It collects 
the water from the high grounds, and is itself drained 
by a canal. The Malta Jockey Club holds two annual 
meetings here. The race course near which is a well 
cultivated market garden celebrated for its artichokes 
is a favourite riding ground Season tickets 12« 6d. 
Quarterly tickets 5s. The Grand Stand is on the 
N. side of the oval course, which is about one mile 
and three quarters in circumference. The soil of 
the Marsa is deep and well watered. iJeyond the 
flour Diills is the Casal or village of Luca and on 
the right is Casal Curmi. 

On the eastern side of the Grand Harbour are 
the heights of Corradino. This name means a pro- 
montory. The Phoenicians erected a temple here, 
which was unfortunately destroyed a few years since 
by the Royal Engineers, during the construction of 
some new works. A few traces may still be seen 
close to the moat. These heights on which were 
situated the haras or horse breeding establishments 
and the game-preserves of the Grand Masters, were 
fortified a few years since, and connected with the 
Cotonera Lines, of which we must say a few words. 
They were designed by Count Valperga, Chief En- 
gineer to the Duke of Savoy in 1670 at the re- 
Saest of the Grand Master Nicholas Cotoner, en- 
osing the whole of the Margarita heights, and 
connecting with the fortifications of Senglea and 
Vittoriosa. The first stone was laid with much cere- 
mony in the Bastion of St. Nicholas on August 28th, 
1670. The works were intended to afibrd a refuge 
for the population and their cattle in the event of 
II siege, and a poet, wishing to be complimentary, 
compared the Grand Master to Noah, since he had 



165 

provided shelter for all the animals. The Com- 
mander Blondel designed nine gates, only three of which 
have ever been used. After ten years labour and 
an enormous outlay, the lines were left unfinished, 
and it was not until 1716 that they were proceed- 
ed with and rendered defensible. Their extent aud 
magnitude excite the astonishment of even the most 
casual observer. 

On the Corradino heights are situated the Military 
and Civil Prisons, the former of which has acco- 
modation for 1.16 and the latter for 250 prisoners, 
also large water tanks for shipping, and a powder 
magazine. Not far from the Military Prison are 
the remains of a Maltese battery, constructed dur- 
ing the siege of 1798-1800, near to which is a 
monument to Capt. Spencer of H. M. S. Mada- 
gascar who is buried on St. Andrew^s Bastion, Val- 
letta. A flight of steps leads down to the water 
from this monument, and off this point men of war 
are allowed to ride out their quarantine. The Turks 
erected batteries on these heights during the Great 
Siege of 1665. 

Near at hand at the water^s edge is the Naval 
Canteen, which provides refreshment combined with 
anjuseraent both for mind and body. A Library, 
racquet courts, reading room and theatre, are amongst 
the attractions of this deservedly popular institution. 
On the shores of the French Creek or Man of 
War Harbour are the Naval Barracks in which a 
ship^s company is now and again quartered, the 
Admiralty coal stores, and the pumping station for 
the new drainage works. A spring called Ghain 
Duieli or "the spring of vines'' is v^^^ \i»fci\iS. *v^^ 
washing purposes. Much skip bvxWivu^ v^^'e^ iQ»>:\sx^^^ 



166 

carried on here ia private yards, in which the 
Russian squadron was refitted after the battle of 
Navarino in 1827. 

At the head of this creek is populous Burmo- 
la, which means either "the well of the Lord'^ or 
"the lofty place/' It also received the name of 
Cospicua from the Grand Master Zondadari in 1721, 
on account of its massive fortifications, which con- 
nect with those of Vittoriosa and Senglea, and of 
which the first stone was laid on December 30th 
1635. They were designed by P. Fr. Vincenzo Ma- 
culano da Firenzuola, a Dominican monk, who was 
one of the Pope's Engineers. The Grand Masters 
Perellos in 1716, and Zondadari in 1721 carried 
on the work which was completed by Manoel de 
Vilhena in 1736. 

The gates are five in number, viz, the Upper 
and Lower Burmola Gates close to the Somerset 
Dock under . the walls of Fort St. Michael, St. 
Helena Gat^ from the Old Market, one on the other 
side called the Rock Gate, and the Santa Marga- 
rita Gate. The Gates of the Cotonera Lines are 
those of St. Paul, St. John, St. Nicholas, St Clement, 
or Polverista, Notre Dame, St. James, Zabbar, St. 
Louis, and S. Salvatore only three of which are open, 
viz., St. Clement's or Polverista which gives access to 
the Casals of Zeitun, Tarxien, &c. Also St. Helena 
Gate above which is an inscription, and within which 
proceeding upwards we reach a large parade ground 
called St. Clement^s Retrenchment which commands 
the entrances from the Polverista and Zabbar Gates 
by means of long curtains. Below are casemated 
batteiiea^ and communications with Verdala Barracks. 



167 

The third open gate is that of Zabbar, a lofty structure 
visible from afar, upon which is a bust of the 
(irand Master Nicholas Cotoner, with a most eu- 
logistic inscription An infantry detachment is sta- 
tioned at this gate, and close by is the Military 
Hospital for the Cottonera District. Commenced in 
November .1870, it was not .completed until July 
1873. The building contains 4 large wards, each 
of which can accomodate 32 patients. Also 4 small 
wards for serious cases, and on the ground floor 
a ward for prisoners, and another for opthalmic cases. 
The ventilation is perfect, and nothing is forgotten 
that can conduce to the comfort of the sick soldier. 
Officers^ wards have lately been opened. There is 
a very extensive view from the terrace, embracing a 
wide expanse of sea, and nearly half the island. 

Between the Zabbar and Rock Gates is a hollow, 
in which is a garden. Here many victims of the 
plague are interred. There is a burial ground just 
outside the * Bock Gate, and another close under 
the Cotonera Lines. * 

The southern extremity of Burmola is protected 
by Fort St. Francesco di Paola, which is garri- 
soned by English infantry. The Verdala Barracks 
are situated on the highest part of the city. 

Burmola is partly low lying and partly on a slope. 
It is thickly populated, has narrow, steep, irregular 
streets, and is chiefly inhabited by artisans. On 
October 10th, 1869 the lower portion was flooded, 
and it was necessary to break down the Dockyard 
Gates to provide an outlet for the water. A tun- 
nel has since been cut in the fock to prevent any 
fiimilar disaster in future. 



168 

Thoagh not requiring detailed description Bar- 
mola will repay a visit as it is mnch more Maltese 
in character than cosmopolitan Valletta. In 1575 
the inhabitants numbered 1200, but the present popu- 
lation is about 13,000. The parish church dedicated 
to Our Lady of Succour or della Concezione was 
commenced in 1587, and rebuilt in 1637: various 
additions were made until 1690. It was consecrated 
by Mons Alpheran do Bussan, on July 26th 1782. 

The principal picture is by P. P. Caruana, and in 
a side chapel is a picture of Our Lady of Grace 
by the Cav. Favray. There are numerous pictures 
and carvings by various artists. The Oratory of the 
Grucifiidon, consecrated by Mons. Labini in 1793, 
adjoins the church. St. PauPs Church was first 
built in 1590. The present building was erected on 
the site of the old one in 1741, and the principal 
picture representing the Conversion of St. Paul is 
by Rocco Buhagiar. This church is in Strada San 
Paolo. 

The Church of St. John the Almsgiver out- 
side St. Helena Gate was pulled down in 1680 to 
make room for the Cotonera Lines, and was rebuilt 
on its present site in 1682 at the expense of Fra 
Pietro Viany. 

The Church of San Francesco di Paolo is sit- 
uated on the Corradino quay. It was built in 1747 
together with an adjoining villa by the Bailiff Frances- 
co de Sousa, the nephew of the Grandmaster Manoel. 

At the foot of Santa Margarita Hill are the 

Carmelite Church and Convent. The convent was 

founded in 1625, and in 1681, an Oratory for pious 

kmghts was added, the Grand Master Carafa con- 

trlbating £50, The church CGUsists of a nave with 



169 

six side chapels, and was consecrated in 1787. The 
principal picture, representing the Coronation of Santa 
Teresa is by Fra Luca Garnier. The picture in 
the Oratory of the Convent was left unfinished by 
Mattia Preti at his death. 

On the hill of Santa Margarita just outside 
the entrance of Vittoriosa are the nunnery and church 
of the same name. This, the last nunnery esta- 
blished in Malta, was founded in 1726, and com- 
pleted in 1730 by the Grand Master Manoel de 
Vilhena. The nuns belong to the Order of Santa 
Teresa. The church was consecrated in 1787 and 
the principal picture representing St, James is by 
Francesco Zahra. 

The Conservatorio of San Giuseppe in Strada 
San Giorgio receives and educates poor girls. The 
old building is now used as the Primary Schools 
of Burmola. The present building was erected in 
1810. The adjacent church of San Giuseppe has 
over the door the arms of the Bishops Labini and Mat- 
tei. The principal picture is by Sebastiano Conca. 

On the hill of Santa Margarita is a School 
Chapel with accomodation for 500 persons, which 
is used as a Garrison Church, in which the Cha- 
plains to the Forces officiate, 

Burmola is intersected by the Port of the Galleys, 
now called Dockyard Creek, at the head of which 
was the old market of Burmola the site of which 
is now converted into spacious docks. Two new 
markets have been built close by. 

The old Arsenal for the Galleys was constructed 
between 1776 and 1783 at a cost of £6,098, storehouses 
costing in addition £715. The Order ^\i^\i\» ^'^'«c^^ 
upon its navy £47,494. • Tke GeW©^^, ota^v^^'^'S ^^^ 



170 

or seven iu number, were afterwards reduced to four. 
The seamen and galley-slaves were clad in French 
cloth, and were under the command of the Con- 
gregation of the Galleys. A proveditore superin- 
tended the rigging, and the Commandant of the 
Arsenal the refitting of the galleys. 

The building of a galley cost £4,272. She had 
26 oars on either side, with five men to each, and 
was 166 ft. long with 26ft 8 J in beam, 116ft. 6 in, 
being decked. When not in use the galleys were 
drawn on shore, and placed under covered arches, 
some of which stood on the site of the Naval 
Bakery, and others within the present Dockyard. 
Three ships of the line were first built in 1704, 
Their number was afterwards increased to four, but 
the fleet was eventually reduced to one sixty- gun 
ship and three frigates. The latter co^t £1 1,834 
each, and two men of war were sold in 1781 for 
£17,722. Cleansing the Port cost £468 per annum. 

Fruitless eflforts to construct a dock were made 
in 1815, but in 1841 operations were again com- 
menced, and the first pile was driven in the spring of 
1843 under the superintendence of Rear Admiral 
Sir George Lewis. 

The first stone was laid on May 1st. 1843, 
at a depth of 43ft. 6 in. below sea-level, and the 
first stone of the Dockyard was laid by Sir Patrick 
Stuart, then Governor of Malta on Coronation Day, 
1844. The first vessel docked was the Antelope, on 
Saturday, September 5th, 1848. There are now two 
docks in the Dockyard Creek, in which three ships 
were last year placed at once. Their whole length 
I is 52b ftj with nearly 30 feet of water on the sill, 
^ and they can be pumped drj iu about six hours.' 



171 

The Dockyard possesses the usual ranges of 
store-houses and workshops, and also a chapel, which 
Admiral Inglefield did much to improve. The Dock- 
yard Chaplain officiates and services are amounted 
in the local papers. 

A tunnel leads to the Somerset Dock, which can 
receive the largest iron-clads. It was designed by 
Colonel Clarke, R. E., Admiralty Director of Works, 
constructed by C. Andrews Esq., C. E, and opened 
in 1870 by the Duke of Somerset then First Lord 
of the Admiralty, under the superintendence of Bear 
Admiral Sir Astley Cooper Key. Length 468 feet, 
at bottom 427 ft. Breadth 104 ft. Depth of water 
on sill 34 ft. It holds 7,000,000 gallons of water, 
and can be pumped dry in four hours. 

The offices of the Admiral Superintendent arid 
of the principal officers of the Dockyard are situated in 
one of the bastions of Fort St. Michael upon the 
top of which are the Masting Shears. Passing the 
Workmen's Dining Hall we leave the Yard and find 
ourselves on the Anchor Wharf, so called because 
it was formerly covered with anchors, ranges of 
chain cables of every possible size, moorings &c. 
This wharf was also called La Sirena from the 
figure of a Siren carved in the rock within a small cave. 

From hence boats cross to the St. Lorenzo Steps 
in Vittoriosa on the opposite side of the creek. 
Fare id. On the site of the ancient dwelling of 
the Captains of the Galleys a row of handsome houses 
has been erected called Dock3&ard Terrace, which 
are occupied by various principal officers of the 
Dockyard. 

The Marina is before us, covered ^VOsi \i^Vi^»^ 
and picturesque, but lined m\i\i V.oo is^Kai ^^% 



172 

shops. Some of the smaller ships of war are gen- 
erally moored in the Dockyard Creek. We mount 
a long flight of steps on the left^ and speedily 
reach the principal street of Senglea. 



173 



CHAPTER IX. 



Senglea, 

VlTTORIOSA, AND FoRT RiCASOLI. 

Origin of Senglea. — Churches and Convents. — H. M. 
S. Hibemia, Fort St. Angelo, and the Temple of Juno.— 
The Victualling Yard, Blare Prison, and Naval Bakery. — 
The Old Palace and HospitaL — Churches and Convents. — 
San Lorenzo, — Soldier's Institute. — Column of Victory. — 
Inquisitor's and Bishop's Palaces. — La Vallette's Obser- 
vatory.— Salvadore Gate, and Calcara Bay. — Naval Cemetery 
and Hospital. — Binella Bay, and Fort Bicasoli. 

THE site of Citt^ Senglea was formerly called "St. 
Julian's HilF' from an ancient chapel erected early 
in the 14th century. It was also styled "Windmill 
Hill" from some mill of early date. Projecting 
as it does into the Great Harbour it bore in addi- 
tion th€ name of Charsoneso or peninsula. The 
Grand Masters had a menagerie here. It was for- 
tified by the Grand Master d' Omedes between 
1641 and 1552, and the guns of the principal fort 
having been mounted on May 8th. 1552, the day 
of the Apparition of St. Michael, the standard of 
the Order was hoisted upon it, and it was named 
St. Michael. How nearly both it and Senglea were 
captured during the Great Siege of 1565, and how 
gallantly they were defended, let Porter, Seddall, 
and Townsend tell. Fort St. Michael c.Ci\£i\sivw\\^'^ 
the entrance into the town, and «X&o \Jsife V^^^n^'^'^ 



174 

on either side, and has quarters for about oOO men. 
The Masting Shears have been erected upon one 
of its bastions. Senglea was considerably strength- 
ened by the Grand Master Claude de la Sengle, 
who also encouraged the erection of numsrous 
buildings. 

After the Great Siega it received the proud 
title of Invitta or "the Invincible," and its inhab- 
itants were exempted from the payment of certain 
taxes. It is also called "St. Michael's Island'^ or 
briefly Isola, from its principal fortification. The 
works were strengthened in 1716, and in subse- 
quent years. 

The streets of Senglea contain many good houses, 
and much attention has of late been paid to san- 
itary measures. 

In the principal street is a marble statue by 
Yincenzo Dimech, erected in gratitude for the ex- 
emption of Senglea from the plague in 1813, when 
6000 persons pei'ished. 

The Collegiate and Parochial church in Str. 
Vittoria had its origin in the before mentioned 
Chapel of St. Julian. It was made parocchial in 
1581, and rebuilt about 1650. It is of Doric ar- 
chitecture and consists of a choir, nave, and several 
side chapels. Length 142 ft., breath 46 ft., 6 in., 
breadth of nave 31 ft., The church was consecrated 
in 1743 and made Collegiate in 1785. 

Notice the carved seats in the choir made in 

17»30, and two statues of the B. V. M. by Gerada 

and Ronnici. The principal picture, representing 

the Nativity of the B. V. M. was painted by Tom- 

maso AJadioiia in 1850. There is also a picture of 

Santa Caterina by Erardi. A marble tablet records 



175 

the exemption from certain taxes of the people of 
Senglea after the Great Siege of 1565. Adjoining 
the church are two Oratories, and the Church of 
the Purification. The Oratory and Church of the 
Congregation of San Filippo Neri overlook the Great 
Harbour. The Oratory was completed in 1695, and 
rebuilt and enlarged in 1744. It possesses a gooi 
library bequeathed by Father S. Cassar in 1779. 
The present church was erected in 1662. The high altar 
was made in 1663 and the principal picture is by Er- 
ardi. St.Julian was formerly the patron saint of Senglea. 
The present church in Str. San Giuliano is the 
third built upon this site since 1311. It was fii- 
nished in 1711. The Hospital of St. Anna is on 
the Marina of Senglea. It was founded by two wealthy 
Maltese Nicola Dingli and Maria Cornelia jin 1794. 
It is intended for the reception of female conva- 
lescents belonging to Senglea and Casal Siggieui. 
This hospital, the chapel of which is dedicated to 
Sant' Anna, was blessed in 1817. From hence we 
take boat and cross the Dockyard Creek to Fort 
St. Angelo in Vittoriosa, passing close to H. M. 
S. Hibernia, which does duty as receiving ship and 
on board which the crews of ships of war under 
repair are berthed. She is almost stationary now, 
only shifting her berth during the summer months 
from below Fort St. Angelo to the centre of the 
Dockyard Creek. Our idea in Malta of the Greek 
Kalends is "When the Hibernia goes to sea I'^She 
has however been and still is most useful. The 
Hibernia fires a gun daily at sunrise, also at 8. 0. 
p. ra. in winter, and at 9. 0. p. m. in summer. 
On the point below Fort St. Angelo may ^^\VV\iV5 
seen some links of the chain \\\i\c\ij ^xx^^^^^"^^^ ^"3 



176 

pieces of timber and empty wine casks, was used 
during the Great Siege to close this creek then 
called the Port of the Galleys. 

Fort St. Angelo, formerly styled "the Castle 
on the Rock'' was built according to Marmol by 
the Arabs in the year 828, but 973 is a more 
probable date. It was under the Spanish monarch 
the hereditary governorship of the Nava family and on 
the ariival of the Knights, Alvarez de Nava trans- 
ferred the castle to them in consideration of an 
annual pension. The Commander Peter Pi ton, at 
the head of a company of foot first took possession. 
Its armament consisted of one small cannon, two 
falcons or three-pounders, and a few iron mortars. 

U Isle Adam stengthened it and in 1533 the 
Grand Prior of Toulouse added a bastion on the 
side towards Calcara Bay, then called the English 
harbour. In 1541 the Grand Master John d'Omedes 
by the advice of CaramoHn the Emperor's chief 
engineer erected a Cavalier or elevated work, "that 
they might see what passed in the port of Mar- 
samuscetto.'' A bastion still bears the name of Ome- 
des. La Vallotte erected a battery on the point 
l>elow the fort almost on a level with the water, 
which did good service daring the siege. In 1690 
Don Carlos de Grunemberg the King of Spain's 
Engineer constructed " three great batteries which 
hinder the coming into the harbour.'' St. Angelo 
was the state prison of the Order, and corresponds 
to our English Tower of London. This fort, in 
common with the other fortifications of Malta, can- 
not be visited without an order from the military 
authorities. The arms of Naples and Sicily may 
still be traced upon a defaced escutcheon above 
^a entrance to the Officers* Q,\iwV.^ic^. M» ^lie door 



177 

of the Comjnandant's Quarters are soine interefitihg 
Norman capitals and carviDg8> and .within are the 
arms of several Governors of the Castle between 
]714 and 1792. A Norman arch has been built 
up> and m the garden are the arms of L-Isle Adam 
with the dates 1531 and 1588. A time gun is 
fired daily, at noon^ and at snnset. Beneath the 
bastion on which it is placed is an ancient slave 

Erison. There are two chapels in the fort. The 
>wer one dedicated to the B. V. M. is said to 
date from 1090, and within it the ancient confra* 
ternity of Bombardiers used to worship. The chap- 
lain of the fort was independent of the .parish 
priest of Vittoriosa. The npper chapel was built by 
the Nava family, who were hereditary governors of 
the castle, and is dedicated to Sant' Anna. The 
Grand Master L'Isle Adam rebuilt it in 1531, and 
was buried in it in 1584. Notice his momiment. 
His remains together with those of sucoeeding Grand 
Masters were transferred to St. John^s Church in 
1519. The building is now used as a Chapel-school 
and its roof is supported hy a column of red gra* 
nite, (probably Egyptian) which is said to have 
originally formed part of SoIomon^s temple, and to 
have been brought hither from Bhedes. It seems 
more probable, however, that it is a relic of the 
temple of Juno which stood close by. Beneath .four 
shady trees is the grave of those who fell in the 
siege of 1565 and of the victims of the plague of 
1676. 

Quitting Fort St. Angelo we cross the bridge 
which spans the moat. Here again we are on classic 
ground, for this was the site of the celebrated 
temple of Juno (see p.p. 15, 18,V N?^ v^ ^^'^^^^^ 
12 



178 

left the B. E. workshops^ erected bv the Ginratt 
or Magistrates in 1665 as one of the granaries of 
the University of Bapplies^ in front of which are 
several sahterranean receptacles for ^ain. This 
was the scene of Midshipman Easy's tniingular daeL 
A covered portico extends along the adjoining quay 
on which are the official residences of the Admiral 
Saperintendeot^ ttha Naval Storekeeper^ and the Clerk 
in- charge, of the yictoalling Yard, which were form- 
efly. occopiedl by the Captain General of the two 
si^nadrona of the Order^ his Lieutenant, the Gap« 
tcun. of the GaJ(tejr8> and as: the Conrt Hoase of the 
Qiara<9. A long Tahge of ^tordiouees is filled with 
snppliesi for the Mediterranean FIeet> which is largely 
dependent upon tbe Malta Victaalling Yard. 

Imimediately in rear is the large galley-slave 
prison! ont bui of thei solid rock/ above- which is a- 
rninoas. building, now a dtrpenter^s shop, which wa» 
fbrmei^ly need for the same purpose. . Permission to 
visit these andetit and outdous prisons mcist b& 
obtained froili the Admiral Superintendent.^ 

A short walk >along the quay brings us to the- 
Navlil Sakery^ en the site of whibh formerly stood 
threei large arcbes^ beneath' wbiol^ the galleys were* 
drawB uip for repbins land, refitting.. The Bakery 
hm fifteen- ovens^! of which only two are generally ^ 
nsed^ 'nod Which bake about 3,200 lbs of biscuit; 
pec diem. This quantity could of course be largely 
ihcreased. Each biscuit is baked ^ in about 25 min- 
utes. The machinery is driven by steam power, 
and the rotary: oven bakes 4,500. lbs of biscuit in 
about ' eight hours. . . 

» . The old '' Borga del. Castello,'' or /? Town . of 
the. Xtastle". received the proud iiiAid of. ''Citt^ Vit- 



179 

toriosa** or the Victorious City," togetlier witn the 
escutcheon df an armed hand graspiiig a drawn 
Sword betwfeen two brancheis of palin ati^ cilive on 
li red ground^ after the defeat of ttie' 1?arlk in 
1565. The streets are narrow and .uiieve']fi.' Many 
old houses are tb be seen hete ^nd there bearing 
traces df former magnificence. Fo^ an' aWuiit* of 
its fortifications and. of it$ gallant d^feiiclB & 1565 
tile reader is referred to "A flistbr;^"of this Fortresai 
of Malta/^ and " Malta and its Ktiights/' by Lieut, 
Col. Porter R. E, . 

The Bastion of Castile which' wrfs tl^fe.dbene of 
such fierce co'ntentio^n overlooks Calcar^ Bay. Beit^ 
encircled by the Cotoniera I^iues the three Cities 
of Vittclribsfif, . Senglea, arid Cospicua ot Bdrmbla ar^' 
sdriietimes siyled Cittai. Cbtouera. In BtriSkda Antico' 
Palazzo del Govematore foi'nierly stood the old Go v- 
emor*^ Palace* which was. adorned wiiH ^lone me- 
dallion portraits of the Emperors. 'ThfesA w^te un- 
fortntiately destroyed \^heri the oTd brfil(jin% wad' 
demolished a few yiears sinCe^ The old entrance 
still .eiists at Noi 102. ; ' 

Iii Strada Scola6tica'are ihe Nuftiiet^ and Churcl^! 
df the sarrife naitid. This bmldiri^ erfeCted in 1533 
vras formerly the Knights* Hospital'. Afepve a^hand-J" 
somfe Lombard gateway ai'e tw'd defaced escutcheons 
with pdraegratiated the embleni of GVanadia' it the* 
cortjiei^s. For this arid many aiipther .interesting. heV 
raldiC detail in Valletta arid the Threo' CiiSfes I am 
-indi^bted to the Pevd. W. K. R. Bedford author o^ 
the "Blazon of Episcopacy.*' 

The Nunnery, of .Santa . Scolastica was founded. 
at C|itti Vecchia by' B^shqp'Valguarriera, under the 
rule of St. Benedict in 1496. The nuns were trans- 



180 

ferred to Vittoriosa in 1603 by Bishop Gargallo, 
in spite of mach popular opposition, and removed 
to their present home in 1652. ,The ehnrch was 
rebuilt in 1679, blessed in 1780, and consecrated in 
1787. The principal picture is by Mattia Preti. 

The Church of S. Filippo Neri dedicated to the 
B. Y. of the Angels, originated in the 15th century. 
The present structure was consecrated in 1788. A 
small picture of S. Girolamo Penitente is by Mat- 
tia Preti. An oratory adjoins the church. (Strada 
S. Filippo.) 

The Church and Convent of Carmine near the 
Naval Bakery were built at the. expense of the 
crews of the galleys in 1611. The convent was 
suppressed in 1652. This church was much fre- 
quented by the officers and crews of the galleys, 
and in 1670 Francesco Cara&, (leneral of the Gal- 
leys presented the picture of S. Francesco di Paola. 
The church of the SSma Trinita behind the Victual- 
ling Yard was erected in 1784 by Lncrezia Gauci 
Falzon whose portrait may be seen there. 

The Dominican Monastery was founded in 1518. 
The church in Strada Porta Maggiore, is called the 
Annunziata. It was rebuilt in 1659, contains an 
ancient statue which was formerly preserved at 
Fort St Angelo, and has a. picture of St. Peter 
by Mattia Preti. The Capuchin Monastery was 
completed in 1743. The church was consecrated in 
1747. The principal picture representing the Mar- 
tyrdom of Santa Barbara is by A. Massucci. The 
Monastery possesses a portrait of the Grand Mas- 
ter Manoel. 

''San Lorenzo by the sea^' is the principal chnrdi 
d eboald be visited. The parish dates from 1090, 



181 

and on the arrival of the Order in 1530 S. Lorenzo 
became the Conventual Church. The present build- 
ing was commenced in 1681 and consecrated in 
1723. The principal picture is a master- piece by 
Mattia Preti, and there are some old Byzantine pic- 
tures in the sacristy. Some ancient vestments from 
Rhodes are very interesting, also the chasuble of 
Pope Alexander VII. when Inquisitor of Malta. 
The silver crosses, chalice, censer, &o. brought from 
Rhodes can be seen on application to the sacristan. 

Adjoining the church is the Oratory " of San 
Giuseppe, or the Church of "Santa Maria dei Greci," 
so called from having been assigned to the Greeks 
who accompanied the Knights from Rhodes. Here 
are preserved the. hat and sword worn by La Val- 
lette on the day of his triumph over the Turks. 
The Oratory of the Crucifixibn stands Upon a por- 
tion pf the cemetery wherein those slain in "1565 
are interred. Thi^ cemetery covora the whole paved 
slope to the north of the' cliurch. 

Close to. San Lorenzo are the. San Lorenzo 
steps from which we may (iross the" Dockyard Creek 
to Setigfea, (Fare '^d) or to Valletta (Fare 3^/. (.r 
in company witb other passengers id.) 

To the right, and in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of . these steps is the " Soldiers' & Sail- 
ors' Institute,^* which is a centre of good and useful 
work. Subscriptions will . be gladly received by the 
Kevd 6. Wisely, The Manse; 205, Strada Forni. • 

Returning to the church of San .Lorenzo, aiid 
taming to the . right we reach the Piazza Vitt'o- 
riosa, in. which stands a monument erected in 1705 
in df . restored in 1760, surmounted by a fi^u\:v6 v:/L 
Victor/ in memory of the fep'vxU^ <i^ \\i^ ^^xxx^'^sv^ 



182 

1565. This mentime&t is now again under restors- 
tioQ. Qn tlie former centre of the sqnare stands 
» tower the clock in which ia said to bare been 
bronght from Bhodes. One of the bells was csBt 
in 1513. 

Learing Hazza Yititoripsa by Stra^ ^ella Por- 
ta Maggiore we see oq the left a plain massire 
building at the door of which a sentry is posted. 
This 13 the old Inquisitor's Palace, and is now o(> 
cupied by the officers of the regiment stationed in Vit- 
toriosa and at Fort St. Michael in Senglea. Two 
inscriptiona remain, which' refer to the Popes A.I-; 
exander VII. and Innocent VII. who were bofcll 
former Inquisitors of Malta. Many of the dungeons 
have been walled up, but some years ago workmea 
whilst excavating a wine cellar disoovered a rack. 
The Inquisition was first introdnced into Malta in 
August 1574, in order to settle certain disputes ber - 
tween the Bishop of Malta and the Grand Master^ 
In 1657 the Inquisitor Odi in^rfored to hinder, if 
poBsible, the election of De Bedin as Grand Mas- 
ter, and in 1711 the Inquisitor Delci insolently de; 
iaanded that the carriage of the Grand Mastei: 
should stop on meeting his, apd that Uie hospit^^f 
of the Order should be nnder his jurisdiotioQ. The 
Pope, however disallowed these lofty ctaims. The 
Inquisitors nsed to grant »a)!e7i(» the holders of whic^ 
exempi from all obedience except to the Inquisition- 
%e French suppressed this tribunal, and confiscate^ 
its' property. The Dominican Church aui^ Convent 
are on the right side of tfie street.. 

In the Strada del Vescovo or " Bishop's, ^treet" 
is the old Bishop^s Palace, built by Bishop, ^b- 
bell^ in \5i2'. Whea Biahop CagUare^ nof vi^boBt 



183 

macb^ opposition from the Grand Master retnoved 
the episcopal residence to Valletta in 1622, tho 
]E^^op's prisona remained here. The bcnlding has 
})een uaed as a ^vemment school since 1872« The 
arms of La Vallette are affixed to a house i^'hich 
face$ tbe Palace^ and at the end bf the street are 
the Vitt(»r9osa Barraeks^ which were formerly an 
formaar;^ and afterwards a hospital. Close by is a 
cfivalier or elevated wbrjc, which is said to have 
been La VaUette^s post of ohservatdon daring the 
Gt^at Siege. Upturning to ike main street and 
pa&siQK beneath 8t. Jolm's CaviaJier^ wie leave the 
loiciept Borgo by the main gate above which is a 
defaced ii^scriptiouy to the effect that Manod A^ 
Vilhena restored and strengthened the fortifit^tionii 
in 1737 aud the text '^ Then hast covered my head 
in the day of battW The emter works have npoil 
^m tb^ datea 1722 and 1723, having been taken 
in hand in 1716, by Mbiis. d6 Tign^ a French 
Wgvfk^fi Hnch rahitkblei infbrtnatio^ concbming the 
9<p^o has been most kind]^ given by. the Kevd« 
CaQoa Patiiliott, Officiating Gha^kuii to the Forces^ 
We have now reachlS the hill of Margarita^ 
(C9iapter viii,) and turning to the l6ft ik^ough 
the gate of the same namje we cross a larg^ 6pen space. 
^ 9ur right are the 2^bbar Qat6 and the Coionera 
hospital w^lsl elose by ia a hoUow with gardens. 
Thia wae also a pla^ae burial ground. On iks left 
are the Sail Si3klv<adoff Barraeks and we. pasii throngk 
th^ gate^ Qf the sasie name. Thd fortifications on 
ibis lieight which commands Yittoriosa werir cto'' 
stroipted by ike Orssnd Master Mano«l de Vilhena 
19 1724; A path to the right Iead» te the Ca- 



184 

Descending, a slope we reach the head A Cal- 
cara .Bay^ named from some ancient lime-kiln. Oas 
works and a boat-slip may be noted. Turning to 
the left we see on onr right hand the entrance 
to the old Jewish Cemetery, which dates from 1784. 
A narrow lane leads np the hill past the '^Milking 
Cow^^ grogshop, . and on i*eaching some cross roads 
we turn to the left. The Naval Cemetery,; which 
is kept in admirable order, is on our right.- Ad- 
mission by application to the Deputy Inspector 6en« 
eral at Bighi Hospital. Want of space forbids the 
insertion of several quaint akd touching epitaphs. 

We are at the entrance of the Royal Naval 
HospitaL To: the right is the ancient chiirch ofS. 
Salvador. Destroyed during the siege of 1565= it 
was rebuilt by La Vallette; Itnd afterwards jn 1651 
by Prior iQiovanni Biehi, from whom the whole pro- 
montory on which , the hospital sfiandid derives the 
name of - Bighi. Prior Bichi Ib^uilt a cottAtry house 
here, died: of tdie plague in 1676, And^- is buried in 
the charch.- Long before his day the Phoenicians 
knew this headland, as inscriptions found here which 
are now in the British Museum dearly prove. 

Prior Bichi's home afterwards belonged to the 
Cavalier Frisari, but was nearly destroyed during 
the siege of 1798-80. In -1880 it was converted 
into this noble institution. King William the Fourth 
was greatly interested in the matter, and the works 
were under ,the isaperintendenee of Admiral Sir Pul* 
teney: Malcolm;'. There, are^reftidences for tb^ Med- 
ical officers .and lothers' connected with tli^. ^ hospi- 
tal. The . grounds ai*e tastefully laid 6iit \and »<acco* 
modatioB is pr^osrided for 50 officeta "and 224 tnefti 
in 2i cabins and 16 wards. The bospitaif)' litokry^ 



185 

and officers' quarters occupy the central building, 
on which is the date 1832, and the wards, cabins, 
offices, &c. are on either side. A long flight of 
steps at tho entrance gate leads to the water, close 
to which are the Dockyard Chaplain's Quarters and 
the Infectious Hospital. Boats ply from these steps 
to Valletta, and also cross to the opposite sally- 
port in Vittoriosa. 

Eetracing our steps from the Naval Hospita! 
past the Naval Cemetery to the cross roads we turn 
to the left and descend the hill. On the right id 
the distance is Fort San Rocco upon an eminence, 
and a lane also on the right leads to the Military 
Cemetery. We pass on the right a carefully guarded 
powder magazine, and leaving Rinella Bay on our 
left reach Fort Ricasoli. This large fort istands up- 
on a promontory, ' and, in conjunction with Port St. 
Elmo, defends the entrance to the Great Harboirr. 
The Turks constructed a battery here during the 
Great Siege, and on Jan. 15th 1629, a fort to pre- 
vent the escape of the slaves was completed on this 
iaite which was afterwards called Point L'Orso from 
the Cavalier Alessandro Orsi, a Bolognese knight 
who superintended tlie Works. In 1670 the Com- 
mander Gio. Fran. Ricasoli expended £3,000 on the 
erection of the present fort, endowing it with all 
his property, to the amount of £ 300 per annum. 
For this act of generosity he was publicly thanked 
by the Grand Master and the Council, and it was 
ordered that the fort should in future bear his name. 
The Grand Master Nicolas Co toner also gave an 
endowment for the maintenance of the garrison, and 
the Grand Master Perellos strengthened the defences 
in 1698 and following years. On April 3rd 1807 



]186 

the celebrated Froberg Mutiny broke put in this 
fort, for an ^ccoantj of which see ''Malta and its 
Knights." Berieath tfee flag9.taff is an inscription 
pommemorating the h^roic death of Gunner John 
Johnston who was killed on this pccasion whilst 
defending tl^e n^agazine. Hia graye i^ in the little 
cemetery i^ttached to the fort> and greatly needs re- 
storation. In 1837 the inmates of the Poor House 
^nd of tbje Hospital for Inc^rables were removed to 
ibis ppot;, m x:holer^ h^d appeared amongst them, 
Tbey almost ^11 fe}l victims to its ravages, A light- 
I^Quse shewing two ^rpeudieular re4 lights guides 
sailors iQto port« The point Wlpw the fort fron^ 
whicb V^ shoal rp^s out, is called Gibbet point, as 
pirfites were fpro^erlj hung in chains there. For( 
Kicasoli is usually garrisoned by infantry find artiU 
leryi an4 i^ the pmcers' mess is a ms^rble bi^st of 
tifatp founder. The chapel dl^dio^ted to St. Nichpl^ 
pbntains a pictnre bv Mat^tia Preti, pa,inted fit the 
e^^pense of the Graijia Master Nicholas Cotoner> ai&p 
i^me, pld paintings of th^ ByzantiAe School. 

Desepnding the steps a^ th? entrance of the 
fprif we shout " Dghaisa^ Joe ! '' and for the su^i 
of 3d. are sp^dily conv^y^d to Valletta; 



/ 



DP-A-Ig^T TSZIK/X). 



CHAPTER I. 

Round thb Coast. 

l^^val Bifle R^ge, and Qrasia ^ower.— Geological 
Farmatioss. — ^iarsa ^cala, S. Tommasp Pay, and Delimara. — 
ilarsa Scirocco, and l^t. Lncian's Tower.— Fosbsb, Melcarte'? 
Teinple, and the Gave of Darkness. — Bit Zebbn^a and itf 
l^ortifications. — Bengbisa, ancl Hassan's Cave. The Sonthem 
Shore. — Faoara and Filfla. — Snts at Fom-er-Bieh. — Marfa.-— 
Hellehat Its Chnreh and Bay.-^P^ace of Selmoon. — St. Panl's 
iBay n^i Islan^. 7-7 Shipwreck of St* Paul* — ^Neighbonrhood 
of thie Bay. — Salme j^ay. Ghallig Bock. Maidd^ena Bay. 
and Casal Ganror. 



C^^E to Fort Bica^li is 1^ wf^ve wor^ bolk>w in 
the jpliff^ caU^ ,th(B ^IGrot^ of t\\^ Mattress- 
njakei:^'' ^i^oipi spmp popr fipliowa wHo y^fve frowned 
ipeire. The cp^i tre^<^ 3* E. b^ 8.> an^ we rei^ch 
^e 'N(^y9l RjHe ^ B^^ W 4jnpy, 

aud i;ept m pr^er ^y Marme mavkera &pm 4. i|l. 
p. Hiliieiraia^ Abpy^ on i^lie hil}-|pp ia Fprt San 
Kocco anq fpn^tiier. aw^y £9 I^o^ 8w Leonar^p. 
Jl^ny -salt pa^f w^. cijA if j^e i^ctsj and ^slf^^- 
m^n ^tti i;pd ap^ line opui^ve to fiu/^eir bas)^!^ 
The. agi^ be^t^ fi^?»ply iijpjiu tbp ahore/tut a Uw 
of di^^nf^ ^hicl^ y^ ^^f^ ^^ ^owpl^te^ pr elp^ 
l^i^a 9fnm%4 ip d^ajj ?^g^t fo^t %^^ "^^^^ "^ 



188 

shallow diteh before it^ is evidently intended to keep 
off hostile boats. Oar road is not passable for car- 
riages, and many branching lanes lead to fields and 
detached storehouses. A practicable road, however, 
leads from the beach to the village of Zabbar past 
the rained tower of the Madonna della Grazia, named 
from the charch of the village aforesaid, for the 
defence of whiab it. was erected in 1620 by the 
engineer and architect Vittorio Cassar. He was a 
Maltese, a serving bro|iher of the Order, succeeded 
his father Gerolamo Cassar as the Knights' ^ Engi- 
neer, and in 1618 built the Tower of Comino. The 
tower was formerly approached by means of a draw-, 
bridge thrown across to. a massive buttress upou 
which .was a. staircase. The drawbridge has disap- 
peared, and the tower is inaccessible except to catSj 
monkeys, bine- jackets or other species of tne natural 
order of oHmbSrs. The Qrand Master de Redin, 
(1657-60) erected fourteen of these watch-towers along 
the shore at his own expense. In this heighl)our- 
hood are the detached " Blata el .Bayda,'* or " Whit© 
"Rock*' and several caves knowti 'as* the ".drawing-* 
rooms" and frequented by pleasure seekers. The 
FQcks are very hard, reddish like pofous marble, 
*nd this district is" called '*el zonkor'^ or "hard 
itpne." Imbedded in the rocks are small stones of 
Tarious colours called ^' serpents' eyes," which in 
common with the Te^ra MSlitensis and*' the Tei^n 
figillata Melituce are said to be specifics against 
^anomons bitea. and pains in the .'side.. Mr. Ritchie 
%vy$: "Keeping the sea-beach, we pass over rugged; 
leaps of stones, displaced, 'by the w^ah of the sea, 
lame measdring iwelvfe dr ifouVteefl ffeet . in length, 
ht to ten feet in bread tfr; and two feet to' two 



189 

feet six inches in thickness^ of yeiiow. sandstone^ un-^ 
covering the hard underlyino; strata of limestone/' 
(See Geology of Malta by Capt. Spratt, 0. B.) The 
Zonkor or " Sard Stone" Tower is a landmark, and 
is painted with red and white bands. Thene coast- 
towers were formerly lettered, Zoncor being *' Z.*' 
We reach Marsa Scala or the " Ladder Port," 
from whence a road leads inland to Zeitan, Zab-^ 
bar, and the Three Cities. Many of the inhabitants 
of these places resort hither in spring time, as tjbie 
walk through Zabbar is pleasant. Marsa Scala ia 
also called "Biskallin" or the "Sons of Sicily" from 
the landing here of Sicilian traders or emigrants. 
A church dedicated to St. Catherine was founded 
in the 12th century. The shallow bay is only suited 
for small craft, and fisher folk dwell on its shores. 
On the eastern promontory is S. Thomas^ Tower, 
built in 1614^ after the fleet of the Order had caused 
60 Turkish galleys which landed troops on July 
6th of that year to beat a retreat. St. Thomas' 
Bay, between which and Marsa Scala is a huge 
rock-hewn mortar, derives its name from a neigh- 
bouring church, and is surrounded by extensive, 
terraced, and gentle slopes. We pass another fish- 
ing hamlet. This coast was defended by a fort 
erected in 1715 at his own expense by the I>oAe 
de Venddme, Grand Prior of France. The roeky 
spur of the Mousciar Beef a mile and a half ip. 
length with from five feet to six fathoms water nppii 
it, runs out below a white cliff. Prudent capi^ips 
give it ^ wide berth. The coast is very pictqresqpe 
before we reach the long promontory which tp^i' 
nates in Cape Delimara, at the mouth of t}^ great 
inlet of Marsa Scirocco. Delimara means '' the home 



190 

at the mooring place'' or^ perhaps '' the shadow of 
the woman/' Close to it is the islet of Ittactia/ 
or the "broken off spot." Upon the cape is a 
Ijghthonse 161 ft. above sea levels with a red ahd white 
lights revolving every 80 seconds, and visible at a( 
distance of 15 miles. Hard bj are a new and pow- 
erfnl fort^ and a telegraph station from whence the 
approach of ships is signalled to Valletta. A tun- 
ny fishery has until lately been carried on below 
the fort, but its continuonce is doubtful, as the pro- 
fits are not large. The bay of Marsa Scirocco is a 
safe harbour, but is exposed to the southerly winds;- 
whence its natne, the S. E. wind being known in 
Malta under the name of "Scirocco." There is good 
holding ground, but a sandy reef of shoal wat^r 
fringes tne shores. Marsa Scirocco Bay resembles 
in shape the harbours of Valletta, having in the* 
centre a tongue of land called Marnisi. Oil m^ even- 
ing of May 18th 1565, the Turkish fle6t entered 
this harbour, to commence th0 great siege of the 
Borgo, iand on June lOth 1798 General Delssaix ef- 
fected a landrng, under the orders of the First Na- 
poleon. A tower now used as a police bawack 
6n the northern shore still bears the nnrhe of the? 
French Forti and a* the head of the bay is the fish- 
ing vjltage of the same nam^. This is a favourite» 
resorfc for pleasure seekers from -Zeitim oti the after- 
noon of the pl-oeessipn of Sari Gregorio which takes 
place, weather Jpetmitting, on the first Wedniesday 
after EAster. There is a statue of St. Andrew near 
the shore, : and a spring, a little-above sea level is 
very listful as a. washing- J^laee.' The s^d. gi&ntly bathes' 
the shore - washing up ' large qcfantitifes of Weed which 
is used as fisrfttiure, • On the northern shore of -the* 



191 

bay are fishponds in which are kept fish of various 
sorts and of all sizes especially mullet to be sent 
hereafter to market. Vegetation thrives down to 
the water's edge. Fishing boats arrive, depart, or 
are drisfcwn up on the shofre. Nets are being made, 
repaired^ or dried. The Lampuca is a welcome finny 
Visitant to the fishermen in the autumn. A walk 
round the promontory known as Marhisi will bring 
the pedestrian to several crumbling fortifications, 
one of which as appears by an inscription on a 
marble slab was restored by the Congregazione di 
Guerra or the Knights' War Department, in 1795, 
and named after the Grand Master de Bedin who 
did so much to strengthen the defences of the is- 
Itad. In another fort pierced for fourteen guns, ten 
Cannon without carriages are rusting to decay. Cross- 
ing the base of the above named promontory* by a 
field path we pass a building with nine or ten mas- 
sive stone buttresses. This is a stable for cavalry 
built in 1711 by the Grand Master Alofio Wigna- 
oourt. The roof is arched. A stone manger for 25 
horses on^ one side, and fastenings for as many steeds 
oh the other, are still to be peen. Not far distant 
is St; Lucian's Tower built in 1611. The Grand 
Master Alofio Wignacourt named it St. Lucian's Tow- 
er from the church in Fjojoce in which he had)^^^ 
been baptised, and attended by numerous knights 
both of high and low degree, went down on board 
the flagship and galleys of the Order to superintend 
the mounting of the guns which were all of bronze. 
When the French landed on June 10th 1798, St. Lu- 
cian^s Tower was one of the few posts that offered 
any resistance, and it only surrendered after the gar- 
rison had been for 86 hours without food or water.* 



192 

It has lately been considerably strengthened and a- 
dapted for heavy modern artillery. Following the 
shore we reach the little bay of San Giorgio which 
is fall of interest. There is a little church of great 
antiquity here, dedicated to St. George which ■ was 
demolished in 1659 and restored in 1683, in which 
the crews of the galleys were wont to hear mass 
before starting on expeditions to Barbary or the Le- 
vant. A procession comes hither from Zurrico on 
Ascension Day. Close to the church is a small bat- 
tery and on the shore are 70 or 80 caldron shaped 
fossae from two to eight feet in depth,^ some of which 
are of considerable size. Some are below sea level, 
and all are more or less inundated when a scirocco 
is blowing. Several were evidently destroyed when 
the fort was erected. They are much wider at the 
bottom than at the month, all shew marks of intense 
heat, are calcined to the d<^pth of two inches, and 
seem to have been originally coated with bitnmen. 
Some authorities think that oil from the neighbour- 
ing district of Zeiton was stored in them previous, 
to shipment, whilst others are of opinion that in 
them were kindled the bonfires lighted by the wor- 
shippers of Melcarte the Tyrian Hercules wjiose 
temple stood about 700 feet distant on the hill 
above the bay. Similar cavities were discovered in 
1864 during the cdnstruction of a road to the Cit- 
adel of Rabato in Gozo, another of considerable 
size may be seen to the eastward of the temple 
of Melcarte, and one or two other cavities possibly 
of the same character exist on the hill top above 
the Boschetto, on the opposite side of the valley 
to Mount Verdala. Across these excavations run 
ancient deeply worn cart tracks which are visible 



193 

on the western side of the little bay which they 
cross, again emerging on the small peninsula on 
which are the fossae and then disappearing once 
more beneath the waves. What traffic wore these 
deep ruts, which passing as they do over the 
mouths of some of these cavities shew that the 
latter must have been formed since this ancient 
coast road was iu use? Do these submerged ruts 
indicate a local depression of the land during the 
historic period, or are the phenomena due, as Dr. 
Adams supposes, to the action of the waves upon 
soft strata? The temple of Melcarte or the Tyrian 
Hercules which stood on the hill top 700 feet to 
the north of the church of San Giorgio wafi form- 
erly held in great veneration. From its situation 
it could be seen from afar, and Quintinus some- 
what credulously asserts its circumference to have 
been not less than three miles 1 Ciantar speaks of 
seeing a portion of the pavement which was part-< 
ly formed of native marble, and partly composed 
of mosaic work of one colour (monocbromato) of 
Boman workmanship, of such hardness as to resist 
the long continued passage of carts, animals, and 
foot passengers. Bound stones like stone shot, broken 
columns,&e. have been dug up, and a huge bron^ 
hinge belonging to one of the gates was presented 
to the church of San Lorenzo in Vittoriosa, and 
now forms part of one of its bells. The only re- 
mains at present to be seen consist of a stone wall 
some 33 feet in length composed of very massive 
stones uniting two others of semicirculiar shape. 
Half way between the temple and the shore are 
three huge monoliths arranged in the form of a 
chamber or cromlech. The stone which serves ae 
13 



194 

architrave and roof is as usual somewliat slanting, 
and measares fifteen feet nine inches in length: the 
two vertical stones are respectiveiy eleven feet 
three inches, and ten feet seven inches in height. 
The largest blocks forming Kit^s Coty House in 
England are twelve feet long and those of the fa- 
mous Lion^s Gate at Mycenae are but eleven feet 
in length. Dr. Vassallo thinks that this was the 
sacred boundary beyond which no woman was per- 
mitted to pass, and which was united to the temple 
by walls giving a total area of 800 feet. 

Vases of coarse workmanship are sometimes met 
with and broken pottery is abundant, but Mel- 
carte's temple with its fire worship is literally no- 
thing but a heap of stones, of which it is impos- 
sible to trace the original outline. A cavity similar 
to those on the beach exists in an adjacent field, 
and not far oflf are the remains of a large reservoir 
which seems to have had some connection with the 
temple. It is about thirty three feet square, and 
apparently thirteen feet in depth. Like the temple 
it is much blocked up with stones. The roof is 
supported by twelve massive isolated pillars, without 
capitals and arranged in three row3. Some of these 
pillars are formed each by two blocks of stone 8 
ft. 8 in. thick, and others by three blocks, without 
the aid of mortar. Pieces of bitumen still adhere 
to the walls; the roof is flat, and tho structure is 
known as the Ghar-el-Giganti, "the Giants' Cave" 
and also "Gigantja'' the ''Giants' Land." ' On the 
opposite side of the valley to the west of the temple 
of Melcarte is the cave of El Dalam or "the dark- 
ness" which runs a long way through the lime- 
stone rock, and is worthy the attention of explor- 



195.. 

efs. Ciantar even supposes ifc to extend as far as 
Burraola, and to have its exit near the ancient church 
of Sant^ Elena. Proceeding eastward past the church 
of San Giorgio we speedily reach Ramla ta Bir- 
Zebbugia which means '^ the sandy space by the 
olive-well/' on which stands a little village, much 
frequented during the summer by residents in Val- 
letta and the Three Cities several of whom have 
country houses here. 

At the top of tha hill just before the houses 
are reached, there is a remarkable echo which, though 
not equal to the famous Irish one which when 
asked ^^How do you do Paddy Blake,'^ replies 
"Very well, thank you V is yet capable of repeating 
six or seven words distinctly in any language what- 
ever ! From Bir-zebbugia extend for some consider- 
able distance extensive fortifications near the shore, 
which were erected by the Grand Master Ema- 
nuel Pinto in 1764 under the following circumstances 
as recorded in the Annual Register of that year. 

*^ The Town of Malta was surprised on October 
6th, (1760) at the near approach of a large ship 
of Turkish construction, having a white flag with 
a crucifix at her mizen-top and a Turkish pendant 
embroidered with gold that reached to the very 
sea; Boats were immediately sent oflf, which were 
informed that it was a ship of the Grand Signer's 
commanded by his admiral, and called the Otto- 
man Crown, that she sailed the 2nd r of last June 
with two frigates, five galleys, and other small ves- 
sels from the Dardanelles, that the above mention- 
ed Admiral had been with this ship only to Smyrna, 
Scio, and Trio, and at length anchored in the chan- 
nel of Strangie, when he and his retinue, to the 



196 

number of 300 persons went on shore. The whole 
ship's complement was 700 men, but 400 bein^ on 
fihore on the 19th of September the remaining 300 
were attacked and overpowered by 70 Christian slaves 
armed only with a knife each, part being killed, 
part obliged to jump overboard, and the rest to 
sue for mercy. The heroes, now no longer slaves, 
bore away immediately for Malta, but were soon 
pursued by the two frigates and a Ragusian ship, 
which, by crowding sail, they escaped. On the 8th 
this ship, mounting 68 fine brass guns, and bored 
for 74, was brought safe into the harbour of Val- 
letta, amidst the acclamations of the people. The 
Order of Malta, as an encouragement to such brave 
fellows, have made them the sole proprietors of the 
ship and slaves, as well as all the contribution money 
which latter is said to amount to a million and a 
half of florins, and other effects on board. The 
Grand Signer was on this occasion so highly of- 
fended with the conduct of his admiral that he dis« 
missed him from the command of the fleet.*' Prize 
money must have been plentiful in Malta just then! 
The Knights feared an attack in force^ and erected 
these works besides making other preparations^ but 
a compromise was effected. A reef runs out from 
Benghisa Point which serves as a breakwater when 
the wind blows strongly from the N. W. In the 
year 1761 a tomb was discovered in this neighbour- 
hood with an inscription in memory of a certain 
Hannibal (see p. 14). 

In a gorge in this neighbourhood five miles 
distant from the Mnaidra Gap, is a cove or niiet 
up which the sea penetrates for 700 feet^ in wkich 
Dr. Adams made m«ny important geological diacor* 



197 

eries. (Notes of a Naturalist in the Nile Valley and 
Malta, pp. 189-196). 

Hassan's Cave is not far off, named, accord 
ing to Dr. Badger, from a certain Saracen who 
made his home in it for some time after the ex- 
pulsion of the rest of his countrymen "from the is- 
land. He must have been a brave man, and chose 
a worthy home for a true lover of freedom. Ghar 
Hassan or Hassan's Cave is about 200 feet above 
the sea and is a favourite spot for naval picnics. 
Crowds of sea birds know it well, and after sun- 
down the noises which they make are extremely 
curious, reminding the listener of the dulcet tones 
of Punch and Judy, 

The entrance is somewhat difficult, along a 
narrow path, bat is not dangrerous if ordinary care 
be used. Those however who easily become dizzy 
should not attempt the task. Within the cave which 
branches out in various directions forming a laby- 
rinth" of passages abounding in petrifactions, cool, 
fresh water is continually dropping. The view over 
the sea from the entrance is very pleasant. Wild 
doves haunt this cavern and the neighbouring cliffs. 
Ghar Hassan commands a fine view of the singular 
detached rock known as "The Lady.'* An Italian 
author wrote a Canto in 1846 on Ghar Hassan 
which well deserves perusal. In a field a little to 
the north of the cave is an erect monolith with 
no remains around it. 

The most interesting natural formations in Malta 
are in this neighbourhood, much of the rock hav- 
ing a calcined appearance. The cliffs rise higher and 
higher until they reach an attitude of from three 
to four hundred feet, broken here and there by some 



198 

XJied or ravine, such as those of Zurrico and Ma- 
]ak. Near Ghar Hassan are also apparently some 
remains of ancient buildings or rock tombs, which 
might repay the scientific excavator. The neigh- 
bouring district is called Kabar el gharib or "the 
strangers' gi'ave." Who were these strangers? Phoe- 
nicians? Perhaps so ! 

Close to the pretty Uied or ravine of Zurrico 
where cliffs rise high in air, are the curious rocky 
mass called from its shape " Monkar" or "the beak'* 
and II Kneia or "the arch'* the latter forming a 
sea-bridge of truly noble proportions. Notice Ghar 
Cattus or "Cat Cave." 

Fauara formerly called " Megira Serba," or the 
"place of joy and gladness" overlooks the sea and 
is a pleasant spot. The ground is very fertile and 
rises in cultivated terraces. The direct road to it 
from Valletta is through Casals Zebbug and Sig- 
gieui but it can be reached by means of a rocky 
path from the Inquisitor's Palace some two miles 
distant. Fauara was a favourite resort for pleasure 
seekers, until it was called upon to furnish the wa- 
ter supply of the Bouverie Aqueduct. 

A small island near the shoi*e named Hagra 
Seuda or the " Black Rock," is said to have for- 
merly been inhabited, plose by are Joseph's Rock 
(Hagra ta Usif,) and the fountain of the servant 
of God (Aaynghliem Alia), and about three milea 
from the mainland is the small anvil shaped island 
of Filfla or "Piper" whereon all the lizards are of 
a beautiful bronze black colour, none of their relatives 
on the mainland resembling them in hue. The 
stormy petrel, Manx, and the cinerous shearwater 
breed here. The eggs of the latter are pure white. 



199 

The only bird indigenous to Malta, the Thalassi- 
droma Melitensis also, builds its nest at Filfia. Both 
birds and lizards are exceedingly tame. A little 
church, dedicated to the B. V. M. since demolished 
and incorporated with the church of Bubakra near 
Zurrico, formerly stood on the eastern extremity. 
Landing is only possible in calm weather. The ascent 
to the top is difficult for ladies. Half way up the 
cliff is a natural shed, formed by a prodigious mass 
of fallen rock, the very place for a picnic. Men 
of war use the island as a target, and fragments 
of shot and shell are plentiful. The other day the 
remark was made, by a lady of course, that "the 
ships would be much more usefully employed iu 
giving dances in Valletta Harbour than in firing at 
Filfla." Fishing boats cruise off the island, going 
thither occasionally to collect shell-fish. Boat from 
the small creek a little to the right of Wied Zur- 
rico to Pilfla and back 2s. 6d. Now and again sports- 
men visit it in quest of pigeons and rabbits, but for 
the most part Filfla is left to solitude and deso- 
lation. 

There is a Maltese proverb " See Filfla and die." 
It derives its name from "filfeP' which means a 
" peppercorn;" at its western extremity are the rocks 
of Santa Maria. 

All along this coast coral is to be found and 
the fishery was formerly worked but has of late years 
been abandoned as unprofitable. A coral fishing 
boat is sometimes manned by more than 20 hands; 
the labour is excessive, and the expense great. One 
who knows full well what are the hardships of 
the fishermen, says " Slavery is a joke to it." A 
heavy iron cross, covered with swabs, is flung over- 



200 

board and dragged along the bottom, breaking off 
the branches and stems of coral in its coarse. It 
is then hauled np and stripped of its gathered spoils. 
The poor fellows who toil so hard live on the very 
poorest and plainest fare, subsisting when times are 
bad, as they but too often are, on little besides 
bread and water. Ladies! as you admire the beau- 
tiful ornaments fashioned at the cost of so much 
labour, spare now and again a kindly thought for 
these poor "toilers of the sea!'* 

Prom this point onwards we pass a succession 
of headlands and indentations which call for no spe- 
cial, remark; all bear Arabic names, and the cliffs 
are boldly picturesque. 

The most remarkable spots are Ghar Lapsi or 
the Grotto of the Ascension, a favourite spot for 
sea bathing on Ascension Day, the Ras el Baheb or 
the Cape of the Monk, so called from its appear- 
ance from the sea, and the Bay of Pora-er Rieh or 
" the mouth of the wind." The district called Re- 
dum Pellegrino or the Pellegrino Rooks derives its 
name from a noble family of the same name. On 
the edge of the cliff to the north of the Bay of 
Pom-er-Rieh are ruts which terminate abruptly on 
the brink of a precipice 80 or 100 feet high, prov- 
ing that the coast has been much washed away dur- 
ing the historic period. Traces of Roman or Gre- 
cian buildings are to be seen close by. 

Here and there a narrow ravine runs inland 
from the sea, and we pass the strongly-fortified hills 
of Bingomma, famous for their Phoenician tombs, 
along the northern face of which runs the great 
geological fault, which stretches across the island 
to the bays of Maddalena and St. Marco. Below 



201 

are the sandy Bay of Gineyna tal Migiarro or the 
''Garden at the carting place/' from whence stone 
was formerly exported to Barljary, the headland of 
Karraba or "the decanter*' so called from its ap- 
pearance, and Aayn ToflSeha or the "fountain of the 
apple/* Cape Majesa is called after an Arab of 
that name. The whole district of Melleha which we 
next reach, derives its name according to general 
opinion from the numerous salt pans which have 
been constructed on the shore, but the Revd. Dr. 
Camilleri thinks that the word Melleha is a corrup- 
tion of the name Mellea applied t(5 this district by 
the Greeks about the year 700 A. D. on account 
of the abundance of honey produced here. The Revd 
Dr. says that the salt pans only date from the 16th 
century. On the southern shore is the Tower of 
St. Agata, which was built and armed in the year 
1649. Ras-el-Kammieh means the "hill of corn/' 
and Died-el-Musa is the "valley of Musa" named 
trom a deceased Saracen. But here we are at Marfa 
where passengers for (tozo who have come by om- 
nibus from Valletta, take boat to cross the Straits 
of Flieghi four miles in breadth, the southern por- 
tion of which is known as the Roadstead of Frioul. 
Fare for omnibus and ferry-boat 2s. There is a po- 
lice barrack at Marfa and a house built by the late 
Marquis of Hastings when Governor of Malta nom- 
inally as a country house, but in reality as a 
shelter in bad weather for travellers to and from 
Gozo. 

The hills above Marfa are called Guedet-el-Rum 
or "the hills of the Christian Greeks." The cliffs 
rise sheer from the water's edge as we pass Cape 
Lahrash and Ras Lahrash the headlands which 



202 

mark the western extremity of Malta, where a tunny 
fishery has been long established. They are named 
from the rugged and barren nature of the soil. About 
three miles seaward is Ball's Bank sometimes called 
St. PauVs Shoal 3 J miles long by one broad with 
from 7 to 14 fathoms water. The Bay of Melleha 
opens out to the right. Here the tardy succours 
landed on Sept. 7th 1565 to relieve the hardly pressed 
knights after the famous siege of the Borgo, as 
did also General Baraguay d'Hilliers at the head of 
a French force on June 10th 1798. 

In the side* of the ravine below the village 
of Melleha are numerous caves of various sizes, 
both natural and artificial. Some of these may 
have been Phoenician tombs, as lamps and lachry- 
matories have been discovered, Niches for lamps 
exist as well as smaller recesses in the larger 
chambers, which have carefully smoothed floors. 
Thes^ caves were formerly, as some of them are 
still, inhabited, or used as storehouses. In and near 
one of them close to the church Captain Spratt 
C. B. and Dr. Adams discovered fossil remains of 
the Hippopotamus Pentlandi, as they did also at 
Malak &c. near Crendi. Calypso, the fair goddess 
with whom we were all so well acquainted in the 
days when we used to study our *' Aventures de 
Tel^maque," is popularly supposed to have resided 
at Melleha. Homer in the Fifth Book of the Odyssey 
gives a glowing description of her grotto, which 
is in truth a miserable cave. There is however a 
fine view from the hill side and from the grotto 
wells forth abundance of clear spring water which 
fertilises a large garden below. Some hermits lived 
here early in the 17th century. The honey of Melleha 



203 

has been compared to that of Hybia but since 
wild thyme has been less abundant in the dis- 
trict, the honey has lost its flavour. The Bay is 
broader than that of St. Paul, with excellent an- 
chorage but exposed to the N. E. winds. There is 
a rocky bank in the centre with shoal water, but 
on either side there is a depth of five or six 
fathoms. The Village of Melleha which is only a 
short distance from the landing place has a church 
much venerated by the Maltese. It is partly ex- 
cavated in the solid rock, is hung with numerous 
votive offerings, and the crypt below is various- 
ly said to have been consecrated by St. Paul, by 
St. Publius, by some bishops on their way to the coun- 
cil of Milevo in Africa in 402 A. D., by the 
bishops who accompanied Belisarius from Syracuse 
to Numidia in 540 A. D, or by those prelates who 
followed Count Roger hither in 1090 A. D. Many 
pilgrimages and penitential processions have been 
made to this church which contains a very ancient 
picture of the B. V. M, which is said to have been 
painted on the wall by St. Luke, and the village 
festival is held on Sep. 8th (Nativity of B. V. M.). 
There is a square with a fountain in the centre in 
front of the church for the reception of pilgrims 
and picnic parties. In the Grotta della Madonna 
below the church is a statue of the B. V. M., and 
also several headless figures which are said to have 
been decapitated by the French. Travellers will find 
moderate accomodation at several village hostelries. 
On the hill top near the villa^ of Melleha is 
the massive square tower known as Selmoon or Sa- 
lamone Palace, which commands a very extensive 
view over Malta and Gozo. Permission to visit it 



204 

must be obtained at the Palace, Valletta. In 1607 
Fra Etnanuele, a Maltese Capuchin Friar proposed 
from the pulpit of St. John's Church the formation 
of a " Monte di Redenzione " for the purpose of 
ransoming Maltese and Gozitan 8la>|DS from the Turks. 
The Grand Master Wignacourt became the patron 
of the " Monte," subscriptions flowed in, and in 1619 
Caterina Vitale a Maltese lady left all her property 
including the estate of Selmoon to this charity. 
In 1625 Dr. Gio. Domenico Felice bequeathed 6000 
scudi for the same purpose^ and numerous liberated 
slaves took part yearly in the solemnities of Easter. 
This charity was under the control of one of the 
Grand Crosses of the Order, and prospered exceed- 
ingly. Over the entrance to Selmoon Palace is an 
escutcheon with a large "R" and three mountains 
upon it. The latter emblem symbolises the Monte 
di PietA (p. 124). The Palace was erected as some 
say by the four commissioners who managed the 
property as a shooting box, whilst others ascribe 
its erection to the Grand Master Verdala as a de- 
fence against the Turks. From what funds the cost 
of construction was defrayed is uncertain. Leaving 
Selmoon Palace we soon reach the shore close to 
the island of the same name, so called from an 
ancient Maltese family which afterwards emigrated to 
Sicily. It is also known as Gzeier or the ** islands.'^ 
The channel which separates it from the mainland is 
shallow and the water is beautifully clear, reflecting 
objects at the bottom with the utmost distinctness. 
Rainbow tints of every hue, such as no artist in de- 
lirium ever had the faintest hope of imitating are 
below and at either side of ns, whilst above us tower 
high the cliffs, here verdure clad, and there rugged, 



205 

bare, and forbidding, at the foot of which that ill- 
fated vessel which bore St. Paul wens to pieces. 
Look about you, and say if yonder Bay of Mistra 
be not " a creek with a shore," and if this be not " a 
place where two seas meet." Think of all the other 
evidence in favour of this being the scene of the 
shipwreck, and you cannot fail to feel that you are 
on classic and sacred ground. And, moreover, you 
will hardly leave the island astern, marked as it is 
by a white statue of the Apostle, erected in 1845 at 
the expense of Sig. S. Borg and by public subscrip- 
tion with a commemorative inscription, and visible 
far to seaward, without a warm feeling of admira- 
tion for the manly courage displayed by that grand 
old man who, standing on the wet and slippery deck 
of a stranded ship, which might go to pieces at any 
moment, was more calm and self-possessed than any 
experienced mariner or veteran soldier of. that ship* 
wrecked company. 

The island of Selmoon was also the scene of an- 
other heroic deed. Marco di Maria, Royal Pilot of 
the Galleys of the Order was one day returning from 
an expedition to the coast of Barbary, and when off 
Gozo fell in with £he squadron of the Turkish Ad- 
miral Biserta. Being hotly pursued, he adopted the 
desperate expedient of running through the shallow 
channel between the island of Selmoon and the main- 
land. In this he succeeded by shifting his crew fore 
and aft^ and from side to side, according to the vary- 
ing depth of the water^ without checking the speed 
of his galley. The Turkish pursuer followed but took 
the ground. In recognition of his skill and courage 
the island was granted to the bold sailor and his de- 
scendants in perpetuity. John and Narduccio his 



206 

son and grandson, equally akilfal pilots with himself, 
succeeded him aa owners, but the latter being killed 
by a musket-ball at the capture of a Turkish - flag- 
ship, the island reverted to the Order. We may 
briefly sum up the controversy as to whether St. 
Paul was wrecked close to this island. Some have 
laid stress on St. Luke's words ^^we were driven 
up and down in Adria '^ to prove that Meleda in 
the Adriatic and not Malta was the scene of the 
wreck. But Procopius whose words agree with other 
authors says that "Adria" included the whole of 
the Ionian, Cretan, and kSicilian seas. " The islands 
of Gozo and Malta separate the Adnatic and the 
Tuscan sea." Euroclydon seems to have been a 
N. E. wind which would drive the ship towards 
Malta and not towards Meleda. A ship of the size 
of that which had St. Paul on board would drift 
at the rate of about 36 miles in 24 hours, or 463 
miles ill 13 days. Now the island of Clauda is 
480 miles distant from Malta, and it was "on the 
Jitb night" that "the shipmen deemed that they 
drew nigh to some country." The soundings in the 
bay agree with those given by St. Luke, and the 
little bay Mistra or " the North West " is just 
such "a creek with a shore" as a ship in distress 
would make for. The term " barbarous " that is, 
"not Greek speaking" people applies to the inhabi- 
tants of Malta but not to those of Meleda. The 
viper may easily have been brought in a bundle 
of firewood in St. Paul's own ship, or may since 
have become extinct. The disease from which the 
father of Publius was suffering is not uncommon 
during the autumn amongst strangers to the island, 
as the father of the Roman Publius was. Lastly 



207 

the course of ''the ship of Alexandria^* bound for 
Rome as described by St. Luke tallies completely 
and exactly with that taken now-a-days by vessels 
from Malta bound in the same direction, whereas 
from Meleda such a course is unintelligible. It there- 
fore appears, to say the least, probable that the 
traditional site of the wreck is the true one, al- 
though the exact spot is most hkely now submerg- 
ed, as the crumbling cliffs shew plainly that the 
waves have been doing a work of destruction for 
many centuries. The following is a description of 
the opposite shore of this world famous inlet. 

«T. PAULAS BAY. 

Here we are at last ! A broad and sunlit bay, 
with an entrance nearly two miles wide, and run- 
ning inland between two and three miles with 
from 18 to 24 fathoms of water at the mouth, 
and gradually shoaling towards its upper extremity, 
bears the name of the great Apostle St. Paul. The 
first object that attracts our notice is a square-built 
tower. This was erected in 1610 by the Grand 
Master Alofio Wignacourt, who laid the foundation 
stone on February 10th, the supposed anniversary 
of the shipwreck. There were great doings on these 
shores that day. The Grand Master rode down on 
horseback from Valletta, attended by grand crosses, 
commanders, and knights, galore. The clergy from 
Citta Vecchia the ancient capital, mustered in full 
force, litanies were sung, solemn prayers were said, 
and then the Grand Master duly laid the first stone 
of the tower, of which the cost of erection was 
defraved bv himself. Close bv • the tower is a httle 
church, also erected in 1610, on the site of a more 



208 

ancient edifice. It contains several frescoes repre- 
senting the shipwreck, the preaching of the Apos- 
tle, and his miracles of healing. Bat the chief 
interest connected with it is the fact that it is 
said to stand on the very spot whereon, according 
to ancient tradition, the fire was lighted by the 
barbarous people who showed no little kindness to 
the shipwrecked mariners. Nor is this unlikely, for 
it is evident at a glance that no other spot on the 
shores of the bay could be more suitable than this 
for a fishing village, such as then existed and still 
does exist here. The creek just below the church 
is still the refuge for fishing boats during a gregale, 
as Euroclydons are termed in modern days, and is 
called "The Bay of tjie Idle" or "Take it Easy Creek.'' 
Near the tower is a stone table with seats which 
picnic parties find very convenient. The Marchese 
Scicluna has a mansion here and refreshments for 
travellers of frugal minds may be obtained at 
several modest hostelries. Boats to St. Paul's Is- 
land, from near the tower. Fare, about 6d, each 
person. This excursion should be made by those 
who wish to understand the locality. 

Skirting the shores towards Kaura Point at the 
eastern entrance of the bay, we note a rained bat- 
tery and line of defence, erected some century since 
for the defence of the coast. Where are the sol- 
diers now who once manned these works and drew 
water from yonder well? This district is called by 
the natives buleben, or "The Father of Milk,'' al- 
though methinks to the eyes of an English gra- 
zier it would present a somewhat desolate appear- 
ance. Passing a tower for coast defence, built on 
a spot called Bugebba, by the Grand Master Las- 



209 

caris, we reach Kaaira Point, lashed without ceasing 
by the ever sounding waves. Here it was that St. 
Paul and his friends heard the road of breakers 
as the " shipmen deemed that drew nigh to some 
country/^ and it is no slight confirmation of St. 
Luke's account that modern soundings exactly agree 
with those which he records. Just off Kaura Point, 
to perceive which at night the ship must have appro- 
ached within a quarter of a mile, the depth of water 
is from 20 to 21 fathoms, whilst a little farther 
within the bay 15 fathoms are found. Close to 
this point is a district called "Benuarrat'' or "The 
Possessions of the Heir,'' so called because the posses- 
sions of Publius, which the Ethiopic version says 
consisted of lands, houses, and gardens, are said 
to have teen situated here. Retracing our steps 
and passing the Tower of St. Paul, we soon reach 
ft roadside spring called Ghain Rasul, or " the Fountain 
of the Apostle." Tradition asserts that St. Paul 
and his companions being tormented by thirst, the 
Apostle Caused this spring to burst forth. The 
probability is that he drank of its waters, and 
hence the name. Above on the hill top is IJardia, 
or "The Look-out Station," from whence it is said 
that the wreck was first descried by the watchers 
on duty. It may well have been so, for see yonder 
is a dghaisa bound for Gozo, close to the tradit- 
ional scene of the wreck. How distinctly in this 
clear air can her every movement be distinguished ! A 
winding road ascends the hill to Selmoon Palace 
and the village of Melleha from the bottom of tha 
bay from whence a plain called Uied-in-nahlia or 
" the valley of bees " extends across the island. 
Leaving St. Paul's Bay, we reach the inlet of 
U 



210 

the Saline or "the saltworks," where large and 
numerous saltpans earn money for the Government. 
The stream which during the rainy season flows 
in considerable volume down the Uied-el-Ghasel or 
''Valley of Honey^^ near Musta, here finds its way 
to the sea. This bay was protected by a fort 
before the year 1494, and sportsmen find amuse- 
ment here during the autumn migration or Grand 
Passage which lasts from September 10th till the 
end of the year in pursuit of plover, woodcock, 
and aquatic birds. 

Close in shore is the Ghallis Rock, wave-beaten 
for evermore. We pass the tower of Bahar-e-Ciaac 
or "the pebbly sea" and the little bay of San 
Marco, defended by "the tower on the ridge," square 
and stone built. Maddalena Bay fortified by the 
Grand Master Lascaris, was the scene of a French 
landing on June 10th 1798. The church of St. 
John the Evangelist just below the northern extre- 
mity of the great geological "fault" which inter- 
sects the island, was built about 150 years since 
in gratitude for an unexpected escape from Turk- 
ish corsairs. 

On the hill-top is the village of Gargur, and 
there are several caves in this neighbourhood. Mad- 
dalena Fort crowns the height, supported by Pem- 
broke Fort. Both these forts are heavily armed. 
Crossing the Rifle Ranges we reach Pembroke Gamp 
(p. 150.) 



211 



CHAPTER II. 
Country Excursions. 



?/» 



Route I. — To and from St. PauVs Bay. 

The San Giuseppe Boad. — Villages of Gurmi, Birchir- 
cara, Lia, and Nasciar. — Syndics and Villages. — The "Great 
Fault."— The Valley of Honey.— St. Paul el Milki. — Mus- 
ta Church. — Palace and Gfuxlens of Sant' Antonio. 

% 

LEAVING Floriana by the Porte des Bombes we 
soon reach the head of the Great Harbour (p. 
162)^ and take the right hand road. 

The San Giuseppe Boad^ along which our route 
now lies, traverses a very populous suburb, inhab- 
ited* by industrious working people. I^hey toil hard 
but they have labour to spare in the csuse of re- 
ligion. Witness yonder large and well-built church 
on our left, which is by no means the only one 
in the district. It was erected by the voluntary 
labour of those who dwell around it. Would the 
residents in many English parishes do likewise? 
Close at hand is the Franklin cigar factory, the 
courteous manager of which declares that he has but 
one fault to find with the ladies, *^They smoke, but 
not enough.'* To our left is Gasal Curmi (Casal is 
the Maltese name for a village), which was formerly 
the residence of nearly all the bakers who supplied 
the tables of the knights. The church is dedicated 
to St. George, of whom we in England know some- 




212 

thing, and claims to possess a piece of the stand-, 
ard carried by him as a Roman military tribune. 
We pass the cattle market, from whence comes much 
of our beef and mutton, and the arches of the aque- 
duct (p. 144). Just at the spot on which we now 
are a memorable skirmish took place. The French 
by their indiscriminate spoliation of churches and 
public buildings, had goaded the Maltese to mad- 
ness, until at last they rose in insurrection and mas- 
sacred the garrison of Citta Vecchia. Ignorant of 
this disaster General Vaubois, who commanded in 
Valletta, despatched a detachment of 200 men to 
the relief of Citta Vecchia. The Maltese met 
them at this point, and, armed only with stones, 
farm implements, and a few rusty muskets, and pro- 
£rting by the shelter afforded by the numerous stone 
walls to be found everywhere in Malta, completely 
routed the detachment and compelled it to retire 
to Valletta. 

On the right is the Gonservatorio Bug^a> a 
noble almshouse built by a Maltese gentleman named 
Bugeja at his own expense. It was opened a 
short time since, and is under the control of Sis- 
ters of Charity. It provides a home for orphans. 
The cost is estimated at £50,000. 

We here part company with the aqueduct, and 
turn to the right, passing through the village of Bir- 
chircara the name of which means "the flowing spring*^ 
with on the right its noble church dedicated to 
Sant' Elena, and on the left the ruins of another. 
Turning to the right in the village we soon reach 
Casal Lia sheltered by hills and with its church 
dedicated to S. Salvador. Here grow some of the 
weetest oranges of which the Mediterranean caa 



213 

boast, and the Villa Paris Hotel kept by G. B. 
Mallia has numerous visitors. 

For purposes of police Malta is divided into 
seven districts, each containing several casals or 
villages. Each district is under the charge of a 
Syndic or Country Magistrate. These "Sindaci^' were 
first appointed in 1839 as successors in legal, though 
not in military matters of the "luogo-tenenti'' or 
"Capi dei Casali'' who date from 1798. They have 
jurisdiction in civil cases below the value of £5., 
and in minor police cases, do various kind oflSces 
for the villagers, and are most useful as "Fathers 
of the People." 

One Maltese village is very much like another. 
The streets are narrow, so narrow, indeed, that in 
many places two vehicles can scarcely if at all pass 
one another, but they have the great advantage 
of excluding the burning rays of the summer sun. 

In the middle of the village there is always a 
noble church. In Malta church building seems to 
have been carried on to a great extent at two se- 
parate periods. The first was at the time when Eng- 
lishmen were fighting hand-to-hand at Basing house, 
^[arston Moor, and Naseby, and the other was in 
the days of the Second George. There are the 
usual statues of saints, a few stately houses, form- 
erly the homes of foreign knights or native nobles, 
and numerous dwellings, all filled to overflowing with 
a busy, industrious, Arab dialect speaking popula- 
tion. The people look up pleasantly as we pass, 
and return our "Buon giorno," or " Sahha ghali- 
com " (''Health be to you") with right good will. 
The women especially, like all races of eastern origin, 
ai*e exceedingly fond of in-door life, and the streets 



214 

are iolitory indeed compared with those of any ril- 
lage in England* The erer-barking doer, the chiq>- 
ing sparrow^ and the cicala, which, like Tennyson's 
'^Brook,'' "goes on for ever/' are often the only 
f»oand9 to be heard. And the cicalas do make a 
nouie* The other day a lady said "I must apolo- 
f^ize for calling when yon are jnst going to dinner. 
I can hear the frying of the fish.'' It was only 
the cicalaa in the gsuden. 

We cUmb a steep hill and reach the rock -perch- 
ed village of Naxaro or Nasciar. Let ns look 
for a moment at the fair and wide-spread prospect 
at onr feet. Tender, perched npon its hilltop, is 
Cittd Vecchia, a city of decaying palaces and crnmb- 
ling ramparts^ almost seeming a city of the dead. 
Yet it is has a stirring history of its own to tell. 
Built, according to an intelligent compositor in a 
certain Maltese printing office, 1404 years before, 
instead of after the flood, Carthaginians^ Greeks^ Bo- 
mans, and men of Tyre have alike toiled to strengthen 
it or called it ''home.'' Cicero speaks of its cotton 
cloth, and — but stop a bit, is not its history told 
in each and all of the encyclopsedias? Breaking the 
sky-line is the palace tower of Yerdala, built by a 
certain Cardinal Yerdala, Grand Master in Malta in 
the days when Good Queen Bess held sway in 
''Merrie England/* Afar in the distance are the 
towers of Zeitun, a name which means '^abundance 
of oil/' and of Zurrioo, where most of the people 
have blue eyes, and many a village more. All Val- 
letta seems to lie at our very feet, although in real- 
ity some miles distant, whilst nearer, and rising 
amidst groves of golden orange and sombre cypress, 
is Sant' Antonio, some time the residence of their 



215 

Broyal and Imperial Highnesses the Duke and Duch- 
ess of Edinburgh. Many another object of in- 
terest is there in that broad, fair^ and highly cul- 
tivated plain, but ''Forward^' is the cry, and we 
enter Nasciar, which is a very good type of an 
ordinary Maltese village. The church was com- 
menced in 1616, completed in 1630 and consecrated 
in 1742. 

Just outside the village is a statue of St. Paul, 
who is said to have preached on this spot. The 
people of Nasciar claim to have been the first to 
receive Christian baptism, and it is somewhat sin- 
gular that the Maltese still call themselves Naza- 
renes. But it is probable that Nasciar derives its 
name from an Arabic word, which ^eans "separated,'^ 
standing, as it does, on the top of the great geo- 
logical ^^fault" which runs completely across the island 
and has here lowered the strata some 400 feet. 
We cannot better describe this "fault/^ which is one 
of the most characteristic features of Malta, than 
by quoting the Rev. K. H. Seddall:— "To the exist- 
ence of this fault is due one of the most picturesque 
features of Malta. Often on a fine spring morning 
have I stood on the ridge of the Nasciar heights, 
the whole plain below glowing with the blossoms of the 
purple sulla or clover, the inlets of the bays of the 
Saline, and St. Paul and the Straits of Frieghi reposing 
like gems of deepest blue in their setting of white 
rock, which the sun irradiated into a dazzling lustre^ 
enjoying the first cool breath of the maestrale, as 
it dimpled the azure of the lazy deep, and map- 
ping out the course of present or future excursions 
with gun^ hammer^ or botanical boz/ 



)i 



216 

To the right is the village of Gargur, and we 
pass through the ruinous Nasciar Lines.* Descend- 
ing the hill we see the Great Fault towering high 
above us. To the left is the village of Musta with 
its wide spreading dome, nearly as large as that 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, and closer at hand is the 
Uied el Ghasel, or Valley of Honey, down the rocks 
of which, according to tradition, once literally flowed 
in a luscious stream the produce of the toil of the 
honey bees. But that was ^'once upon a time,'' 
and truth to tell, this deponent hath never been 
witness to any thing of the kind. The Uied el 
Ghasel is a rocky gorge, with lofty cliffs on either 
side, which during^ the winter rains, when a wild 
torrent fills the whole bottom of the ravine, might 
almost be mistaken for a mountain glen in Wales 
or bonnie Scotland. Within its recesses is a little 
chapel dedicated to St. Paul the Hermit, close to 
which is a spring, the water of which is so cool 
and delicious that some of the Grand Masters would 
drink no other. Tradition has it that a certain saint 
formerly dwelt in this secluded spot, and often had 
occasion to reprove the people of Musta for their 
wickedness. They laid a snare for him, hoping to 
convict him either of want of charity or immoral- 
ity. The saint was more than a match for his per- 
secutors, and walking down to the shore spread his 
cloak upon the waves and sailed away to Gozo. 
The people of Musta were, like Lord UUin, " left 
lamenting.^^ 

On the heights is a strong fort, during the 
construction of which many antiquities were discover- 
ed. Close to the highway side is a little shrine 
which is interesting as recording the fact that so 



217 

lately as the last century the Bishop of Malta bore 
also the proud title of Archbishop of Damietta, a 
touching instance of the tenacity with which the 
Knights of St. John clung to the ancient traditions 
of the Crusades, wherein Damietta, the key of 
Egypt, on the side of Syria, played no unimportant 
part. 

The plain of Nasciar is rich and fertile. One 
glance at its broad acres is sufficient to dispel for 
ever the myth that the soil of Malta was origin- 
ally imported from Sicily. Why, whole fleets of 
Great Easterns kept chartered for an indefinite period 
would never have accomplished so Herculean an 
undertaking. 

Here we are at length on the track of the 
great Apostle of the Gentiles. To the left, on the 
hillside above the road, is a little chapel, reared upon 
a spot which has for many centuries borne the tra- 
ditional name of San Paul el Milki or " St. Paul 
received,^^ whereon it has always been said that 
Publius, who was governing the island during the 
illness of his father, received, the shipwrecked voy- 
agers. Nor is it by any means improbable that 
such was the case. But no direct confirmation of 
the tradition existed until lately, when excavations, 
which are still going on, brought to light on this 
very spot the remains of a large and ancient oil 
mill, which, from various indications, is clearly proved 
to be contemporaneous with the visit of St. Paul 
to the island. Remains of a dwelling-house or villa 
are close by. The oil-vats and millstones, worked 
by mules or slave labour, are in situ. Fragments 
of tesselated pavement, a votive altar, partition walls, 
subterranean constructions, and in short, all the ac- 



218 

cedsories of the coantry residence of an opnlent 
Roman exist here. It is a great pity that this al- 
most solitary and priceless relic of Roman occupation^ 
and which is moreover connected by tradition with 
one of the most stirring incidents in the life of St. 
Paal^ is not more carefully preserved. 

From San Paul el Milki it is but a short di- 
stance to St. PauFs Bay, (p. 204). 

We may advantageously vary our route by re- 
turning viS Musta, to visit its noble churchy the 
dome of which is one of the largest in the world. 
That of the Pantheon is 143 feet, St. Peter's is 
139 feet, and St. Paul's Cathedral 107 ft. in dia- 
meter. 

The first stone was laid on the 30th of May 
1833. No scaffolding was used, and the new church 
was erected over the old one which was afterwards 
removed. The architect was Sig. G. Grongnet de 
Vass^^ and the cost in money was £21,000, sup- 
plemented by the voluntary labour of the people 
on Sundays and festivals. The new church was 
consecrated in 1864, the old one being entirely de- 
molished in eight days. A staircase leads to the 
summit of the dome. 

En route for Valletta we pass through Casals 
Lia and Balzan, the latter name meaning ''the place 
of paying toll.'' In Gasal Lia are the Palace and 
Gardens of Sant' Antonio. The Palace was built 
in 1625 by the Grand Master De Paula, and was 
used a9 a country house by his successors. The 
gardens are well worthy of a visit. A permit must 
be obtained at the Palace in Valletta to visit the pri- 
vate gardens. 



219 

From hence we return to Valletta from which 
Sant' Antonio is about four miles distant by the 
highroad connecting Valletta with Cittd Vecchia, 
passing the Bose^ Shamrock, and Thistle Hotel kept 
by J. Sheppard, opposite to which a portion of the 
Indian Contingent was encamped in 1878. 



220 



Route 1 1. — Citta Vecchia and its neighbourhoods 

Gasal Attard, and the Lnnatic Asylum. — Citta Veochiay 
its Sanatorium and Cathedral. — St. Paul's Grotto, and the 
Catacombs. — Bingemma, Nadur, and Imtarfa. — Meant Ver- 
dala, and the Boschetto. — The Inquisitor's Palace. — Casals 
Siggieui and Zebbug. 

AFTER passing Sant' Antonio Palace and Gardens 
(p. 218) we soon reach Casal Attard, "the 
village of roses'' which has a fine charch dating 
from 1613, consecrated in 1830, and dedicated to 
the Assumption of the B. V. M. The principal pic* 
ture is by Pasquale Bohagiar. Between* Gasal At- 
tard and Citta Vecchia is the new Lnnatic Asylum 
on the left of the road, in the Wied Incita. 

It contains about 400 inmates, and was com- 
pleted during the administration of Sir Gaspard Le 
Marchant. The old Lunatic Asylum was situated 
at Floriana. 

A long ascent brings us to Citta Vecchia the 
ancient capital. (For its history see Part I. Chap, 
ii.) In the time of the Order the city was governed 
by a Hakem or Ruler, chosen yearly by the Grand 
Master^ from the principal Maltese citizens. He 
was called " the Captain of the Rod," and his juris- 
diction usually extended over the civil and criminal 
cases of all the villages in the island. The Magis- 
tracy of the city consisted of three oflScers, called 
Giurati, who were also chosen annually by the Grand 
Master. The Civil Court was composed of three 
Judges one of whom decided lawsuits, whilst the 



221 

remaining two, called Idioti, only settled cases of 
small moment. 

Over the gates of the city are inscriptions 
recording the strengthening of the fortifications by 
the Grand Master Manoel de Vilhena in 1724 and 
1727. Under the principal gateway stands a bat- 
tered statue of Juno, with peacocks on her breast, 
and just within the gate is the site of the ancient 
Temple of Apollo and a Theatre, some remains of 
which were discovered in 1747. On the right as 
we enter is the old Palace of the Giurati which 
was converted into a Military Sanatorium by Sir 
Gaspard le Marchant. Numerous dungeons in one 
of which is a block of stone on which criminals 
were beheaded, and the justice room of the Giu- 
rati are still in existence. 

The Cathedral occupies the traditional site of 
the house of Publius, who entertained St. Paul, 
and is said to have been consecrated by him as 
first Bishop of Malta. The old Cathedral built 
about 1090, was destroyed by an earthquake in 
1693. The first stone of the present structure was 
laid on May 21st 1697, and it was consecrated on 
October 8th 1702. The architect was Lorenzo Gafa. 

On the west front are the arms of the Grand 
Master Perellos, of Bishop Palmieri, who conse- 
crated the Cathedral, and of the city. The two 
bell towers 126 ft. high contain six bells, one of 
which belonged to the old church. The length of 
the church is 170 ft, extreme breadth 97 ft. 3 
in. breadth of nave 36 ft. 2 in. 

The paintings on the roof the work of Vincenzo 
Manno a Sicilian artist in 1794, representing the Ufe of 



\ 



222 

St. Paul, the Apostles, and Prophets are very fine. 
Notice the marble mosaic tombstones in the paVe- 
ment. 

In St. Luke^s Chapel the Evangelist is depict- 
ed as painting the portrait of the B. V. M. In 
the Chapel of S. Gaetano the saint is represented 
as receiving in his arms the Infant Jesus. The 
Chapel of San Pablio contains pictures of his 
baptism and martyrdom. The Reliquary Chapel 
contains numerous relic<« and a curious Byzantine 
portrait of St. Paul covered with silver. The Choir 
has two beautiful mosaic pictures of S. S. Peter 
and Paul. The ancient wood work brought from 
Catania in 1480, the silver cross from. Rhodes, 
and the music books five centuries old, are worthy 
of attention. The high altar is formed of costly 
marbles, and the altar stone is said to have for- 
merly covered the grave of the father of Publius. 
In the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament are in- 
terred the Bishops of Malta, and -it contains a por- 
trait of the B. V... M. said to be by St. Luke. 
In the Chapel of the Annunciation is a picture 
representing St. Paul routing 18,000 Moors who 
besieged the city in 1470. The font and the doors 
of the sacristy belonged to the old cathedral. In 
the sacristy is a portrait of Count Roger who freed 
Malta from Arab dominion in 1090. The treasury 
contains many objects of value and there is a fine 
view from the windows of the Chapter Room. 

Near the Cathedral is the Bishop s Palace in 
which is a series of episcopal portraits. The Se- 
minary was built in 1733. The chapel contains 
some pictures by the Cav. Favray. The heart of 
Bishop Alpheran is interred here. 



223 

Passing tlie Cathedral tlie main street leads 
to a bastion from which there is a fine view. In Str. 
Magazzini may be seen the last calesse or Mal- 
tese carriage in the island. 

We proceed to the populous suburb of Rabato. 
Beneath the church of San Public is a grotto in 
which it is said that St. Paul lived during his 
three months^ residence in the island. The stone 
of this grotto is asserted to be of great eflBcacy 
in the cure of fevers, poisonous bites &c, and 
tradition affirms that the size of the grotto never 
alters, however much stone is taken from it. Close 
to the church of the Shipwreck of St. Paul is 
a cemetery in which many natives and foreigners 
are interred. Also a statue of St. Paul preaching, 
it being said that he preached on this spot and 
planted the cross on the place on which now stands 
a cross of stone. On this occasion his voice is 
said to have been audible in Gozo. There are 
several churches and monasteries in Citta Vecchia 
and Rabato, also two hospitals. The first of these 
dedicated to the Holy Ghost dates from at least 
1370 but was modernised in the 17th century. It 
is under the control of the local government. The 
other hospital is called ta Saura, having been 
founded in 1654 by a Maltese doctor who endowed 
it with all his property. Numerous other bene- 
factors have also contributed to its funds. 

Close to St. Paul's Church are some large 
catacombs, which are variously said to be of 
Phoenician, Roman, and Christian origin. Admiss- 
ion and a guide are readily procurable. Long pass- 
ages lead now and again to spacious chambers, s^j^^ 
ported by rudely formed columns. Sepulchral r"'*'^^' 



224 

for men, women, and children are to be seen in 
vafst numbers^ some still containing haman remains 
whilst other tomb.s are closed by a large stone. 
These catacombs cover a large area, and tradition 
tells of a schoolmaster and his pnpils who lost 
their way, and perished miserably. Ladies should 
put on shawls on coming ont as the air of the 
catacombs is cold. Some very interesting catacombs 
were discovered in 1878 not far from those of S. 
Paul, and similar excavations have been met with 
in various parts of the island. They all contain 
circular stones with raised rims, the use of which 
is as yet undetermined. 

Leaving Citta Vecchia in a westerly direction 
we pass the fountain of Ghain Clieb (see p. 22). 
The road to the right leads to Bingemma where a whole 
hillside is covered with tombs, apparently of Phoeni- 
cian origin, some of which are used as storehouses 
and even as dwellings. For a full acconnt of these 
tombs see Boisgelin's Ancient and Modern Malta. 
Extensive is the view over land and sea from 
that breezy hill-top. Good walkers who do not 
object to scaling an occasional stone wall will 
enjoy a walk along the cliffs to the new fort at 
Bingemma to which carriages may be sent^ and 
from which a good road leads to Valletta. An 
order from the Commanding Royal Engineer is 
required to visit this fort. 

Nadur is a pleasant spot upon the slope of 
the Bingemma Hills, about two miles to the S. W. 
of which is the rock fortress of Kalaa tal Bahria 
(see p. 22.) At Imtarfa formerly stood the tem- 
ple of Proserpine which was restored by the Roman 
Procurator Chrestion. Imtahleb which means the 



225 

"father of milk*^ near the shore, and about three 
miles to the S. W. of Citta Vecchia is a favour- 
ite spot for picnic parties. Wild strawberries abound, 
gardens are highly cultivated, water and shade are 
obtainable, and there is an extensive view from 
the neighbouring heights. Springs supply the Three 
Cities with water. 

About two miles to the S. of Citta Vecchia 
is Mount Verdala on which stands the fortress 
palace of the same name. Square built, it owes 
its erection to the Grand Master Cardinal Verdala. 
Notice the Latin inscription. "The dew and rain 
of Mount Verdala 1586.^^ Permission to visit Verdala 
Palace may be obtained at the Palace, Valletta. Some 
frescoes by the Florentine artist Filippo Paladini repre- 
sent the principal events in the life of the founder. 
H. E. the Governor sometimes resides at Verdala Pal- 
ace during the summer months. Verdala being 
too far distant from Valletta from which, however, it 
is distinctly visible, the Grand Master De Paula built 
the Palace of Sant' Antonio as a countly house. Un- 
successful attempts were made some years since to 
make Verdala Palace the centre of the manufact^ 
ure of silk. 

Descending the hill, either by the road or by 
a walk from the Palace we reach the garden called 
the Boschetto the country seat of the Grand Mas- 
ters previous to the erection of Verdala Palace, 
attached to which was an extensive deer park. The 
orange gardens are pleasant, and an artificial grotto 
with abundant water, and furnished with a stone 
table and seats attracts numerous picnic parties. 

The Economico-Agrarian Society holds an an* 
nual Agricultural Show in these gardens on June 

15 




226 

29th (SS. Peter and Paul), on which day from time 
immemorial a popolar festival has been held at this 
spot. 

A pleasant walk through a fertile valley to the 
left of the Boschetto brings us to the Inquisitor's 
Palace. This country house is government property. 
It has a desolate garden, and a* slope leads down 
to a spring called Chain el Kbira or the " Great 
Fountain.^' This whole district produces quantities 
of fruit. To the E. of the Inquisitor's Palace is the 
district of Gorghenti, (see p. 16), watered by 
springs one of which has its source beneath an 
old building called Ta Durrensi. The Torre tal 
Falia an ancient building is in this neighbourhood. 
To the B. of the Palace are also several enorm- 
ous stones in a wall above some caves, of the 
inhabitants of which there is an interesting account 
in Cian tar's Malta Illustrata. The neighbouring vil- 
lage of Siggieui or "Lord of air" so called from 
its commanding position has a fine church, but 
need not detain the traveller. It is called Citta 
Ferdinanda. From the Inquisitor's Palace we may 
either return direct to the Boschetto, or enjoy a 
somewhat longer but most enjoyable walk along the 
lofty cliffs which form Malta's southern shore. Casal 
Dingli near the Boschetto named from an ancient 
Maltese family need not detain us. We may return 
from Verdala through Casals Zebbiig "the village 
'^of olives" which is also styled Citta Bohan, and 
Casal Gurmi. This latter name means either "the 
vineyard", "the head", or the waters' -meet."- Casal 
Carmi bears the title of Cittd Pinto. The present 
church dedicated to S. Giorgio dates from 1584, 



227 

and was consecrated in 1731. The principal pic- 
tare and the small one above it are by Mattia 
Preti. 

Many cart builders, wheelwrights, millwrights, 
blacksmiths, and honse carpenters dwell at Casal 
Curmi. We speedily reach Valletta. 



228 



Route III. — The Southern and Eastern Villagea. 

Casals Loca, Micabiba, and Crendi. — The Maclaba.— 
Hagiar Ehem. — Casals Zorrico, Safi and Chircop. — Casal Zeiton, 
and its Procession. — Casals Tarxien^ Paola, and Zabbar, 

CROSSING the Marsa (p.l63,) we ascend a slope 
and enter Casal Luca or the "village of poplars'* 
inhabited by stone masons and quarrymen. The church 
dedicated to St. Andrew was rebuilt in 1650, con- 
secrated in 1783, and contains three pictares by 
Mattia Preti. The whole of this district is one 
vast quarry, ^fter the stone has been removed, 
the virgin soil found in the fissures is formed into 
fertile gardens. The first turn to the right leads 
to Micabiba and Crendi. Note the stone threshing 
floors on which muzzled oxen tread out the corn. 
Micabiba is distinguished by its square tower and 
mounds of quarry refuse. Its inhabitants are stone- 
cutters, and many of them attain a great age. Mica* 
biba " the pleasant place'* has a church dedicated 
to the Assumption of the B. Y. M. which was 
completed in 1689, and consecrated in 1750. Casal 
Crendi, 6 miles distant from Valletta ''the place 
of destruction'* is a small agricultural village, wherein 
beggars abound. Its church was commenced in 
1685 and finished in 1712. The principal picture 
is by Bocco Buhagiar. About half a mile from the 
village is the extraordinary chasm of the Macluba 
or " ruined place." This is an immense oval de- 
pression said to measure 350 feet by 200, with a 
depth of 130 feet. Obtain the key, and descend 



229 

by a rugged staircase to the garden below. The 
remains of a cistern are visible. The subsidence 
of a cave caused by an earthquake shock may 
, account for this remarkable depression. Tradition 
says that a village formerly stood here, which was 
swallowed up on account of the wickedness of the 
dwellers therein. The Macluba is the very place 
for a picnic. A rural policeman will be found 
useful to keep the beggars in check. Close by 
stands a little chapel dedicated to St. Matthew. 

A quarter of an hour's drive from the Macluba 
brings us to Hagiar Khem or the "Stones of Wor- 
ship/^ one of the ancient high places of Baal which 
resembles the famous structures of Mycense. Sev- 
eral altars are in situ and broken fragments of 
others strew the ground. Many of the stones are 
pitted with small punctures, the well known Phoe- 
nician sacred emblem. Excavations were made here 
a few years since and seven Phoenician deities were 
brought to light, which are now in the Public Mu- 
seum. (See the Guide to the Museum, by Dr. C. ♦ 
Vassallo, P. S. A.) 

The various chambers of the temples were form- 
erly separated by doors secured by bolts working 
in grooves. Ropes seem to have run through holes 
cut in the stones, and the mortice and tenon fas- 
tening was evidently in use. A mile distant from 
Hagiar Khem are the ruins of another temple called 
Mnaidra "the sheep fold^' said to have been de- 
dicated k> Esculapius. It stands on the cliff nearei* 
the sea to the W. of Hagiar Khem, is in a much 
better state of preservation, and shoi^ld be visited. 

Let us return through Casal Zurrico* This is 
a large village with some good houses. There is 



\ 



230 

a small ion near the charch^ recommended to travel- 
lers of modest reqairements kept by Felice Ferraro. 
The present chordi is dedicated to St. Catherine^ 
was commenced in 1634. completed in 1656^ and 
consecrated in 1731. There are several pictures by 
Mattia PretL Zurrico means "blae'^ and strange to 
say^ many of the people have blue eyes. Others 
derive the name from a neighbouring creek called 
"the blue sea/' whilst a tlurd derivation is from 
a word meaning "east'' on account of its position. 

In a street near the church are some huge stones 
forming part of a house. These are of either Phoe- 
nician or Greek workmanship, and are fully des- 
cribed in M. Houel's Voyage Pittoresque (1687) 
in the Public Library. In the adjoining hamlet of 
Bubakra "the Father of cows" is a large square 
tower, and in the church of San Leone is a triptych 
formerly belonging to the now demolished church 
on the islet rock of Filfla. (p. 198.) 

Between Zurrico and the next village S%fi are 
te be seen in Str. S. Andrea some huge stones 
forming part of a wall similar to those at Zurrico. 
In an adjoining field on the right are large tanks, pro- 
bably Phoenician, empty during the summer only. 
The word Safi means "clear, serene," and it is 
said that its inhabitants have never suffered from 
the plague. It is a small agricultural village. The 
church commenced in 1726, was completed in 1740, 
and consecrated in 1754. 

Between Safi and Gasal Chircop are Hke ruins 
of the Torre ta Giauhar, " the tower of jewels or 
treasure," built of immense stones and circular in 
form. Many Phoenician tombs exist hereabouts^ 
and this tower which needs careful clearing out^ 



231 

was probably erected by these hardy sailors, though 
some think that Arab masons reared it. The tower 
is somewhat difficult to find without a guide. 

Chircop a small agricultural village named 
from an ancient Maltese family, has a church built 
in 1500, enlarged in 1706, and consecrated in 1782. 
The principal picture is by B. Caruana. Gasal Gudia 
may be recognised by its tall spire 102 ft high 
ercted by subscription in 1860. The architect was W. 
Baker, Esqre. The word Gudia means "the lofty 
hill.'' The church with the dedication of the As- 
sumption of the B. V. M. dates from 1656. To 
our right is Casal Luca, but we incline to the left 
and enter Gasal Asciach, a quiet secluded village 
on the highest ground in this part of the island. 
The signal tower has conveyed much intelligence 
between Valletta and Marsa Scirocco. The word 
Asciach means "delight.'' The church was built 
between 1733 and 1756. 

^ We soon reach the large village of Zeitun wherein 
much lace is manufactured. Its name means "abun- 
dance of olive oil" The old parish church was com- 
monly called Biskallin or "the sons of Sicily" from 
an ancient chapel erected near Marsa Scala in the 
12fth century. The present church was commen- 
ced in 1692 and consecrated in 1742. On the Wed- 
nesday after Easter there is a solemn procession 
in this village: that of Our Lady of Piety. This 
procession is variously said to have originated aft- 
er a delifverance from locusts, from the plague of 
1675-6, or from a Turkish fleet which was wrecked 
near Marsa Scirocco. Maltese brides used former- 
ly to stipulate that their husbands should take 
them to the next festival at Zeitun^ seat them 



232 

upon a wall, and buy them a piece of hemp- seed 
sweetmeat. To our left is Casal Tarxien through 
which pass all the most direct roads to the east 
of the island. The Boaverie Aqueduct constructed 
in 1844-5 which brings water from Fauara, Imtah- 
lep, &c, to the Three Cities, passes near Ca&als 
Crendi, Luca, and Tarxien. The nameTarxien (pro- 
nounced T^shien), recalls the fact that the Car- 
thaginians had a settlement here in days of old. 
The church was built between 1610 and 1618. Casal 
Paola farther to the west than Tarxien was founded 
in 1626 by the Grand Master Antonio de Paola. 
Being only two centuries old, Casal Paola is also 
called Casal Nuova or " the new village.*' The 
Civil Prison is near this casal. The church de- 
dicated to S. Ubaldesca was built in 1626 by 
the Grand Master Antonio de Paula. Vittorio Cas- 
sar was the architect, but the church is still un- 
finished, and the village has never been densely 
populated. 

A straight road lined with trees leads to Casal 
2iabbar> the inhabitants of which are employed in cot- 
ton weaving and agriculture. The word Zabbar means 
*^the drinker** and in 1797 it received from the 
last Grand Master the name of Citta Hompesch, 
as Casal Siggieui did that of Citta Ferdinanda. 
The French made a desperate sortie in 1798, but 
were unable to capture this village. In the neigh- 
bourhood are the remains of an amphitheatre. The 
church dedicated to our Lady of Favour i^as com- 
menced in 1641, completed in 1696, and consecrated 
in 1784. The principal picture is by Stefano Erardi. 
This church is much frequented on Tuesdays, espe- 
cially in Lent, and is held in high esteem by seamen. 



233 

Less than a mile distant is Zabbar Gate pro- 
tected by a lunette. An infantry detachment is 
quartered at this gate upon which is a bust of the 
Grand Master Nicholas Gotoner with the date 1675. 
The inscription below the bust ends somewhat as 

follows: 

On the gate his name, 

In the city, world, his fame. 

We re-enter the Cotonera Lines, and return to 
Valletta. 



234 



CHAPTER III. 

GOZO AND COMINO. 

GOZO, our sister island is decidedly greener than 
the mass of heated stones commonly styled 
Malta. Some shooting is occasionally to be had 
there, it can boast of noble cliffs^ and of some relics 
of remote antiquity^ and it has occasionally been 
selected as the very place to spend a honey-moon. 

Gozo may be reached from Valletta by an 
omnibas to Marfa starting daily at 7. 0. a. m. from 
Saliba's stables in the Strada Mercanti. From Marfa 
a ferry boat crosses to Migiarro in Gozo. Fare from 
Valletta to Migiarro 28. Those who prefer a voy- 
age varying in length from two to six honrs may 
take passage in one of the sailing craft which ply 
between the islands. Fare about U. For a descrip- 
tion of the Overland Route to Gozo see Part III. 
Chaps. 1 and 2. 

Midway between Malta and Gozo which are 
separated by the straits of Flieghi is 

THE ISLAND OF COMINO. 

This small island^ or rather islands^ for though 
fragmentary it is yet further subdivided into Gomino 
and Cominotto was anciently known as Hephoestia 
or Phoestia, that is the island of Hephoestos or Vul- 
can^ and Cluverius speaks of it under the name of 
Lampas or '^the Lamp.'' Its present name seems 
Ihk to be an Arabic corruption of the Greek word ^'Xi- 



235 

meni" which means "adjacent/' Its length from 
N. E. to S. W. is two miles, its breadth one mile, 
and its circumference about five miles. The channel 
to the west is called the Passage of Gozo, and that 
to the east the Passage of Malta. Both are good 
and safe, with from twelve to thirty fathoms water 
and a sandy bottom. The straits of Flieghi with 
the islands of Gomino and Cominotto have been 
depressed by geological disturbances to a depth of 
about 400 feet which has brought the marl into 
juxtaposition with the crystalline limestone. Com- 
mino is partially cultivated and is famous for water- 
melons. Babbits are plentiful and the pheasant was 
formerly to be met with, but is now rare or extinct. 
In the middle ages Comino was a lair of Saracens, 
and in order to deprive the enemy of this retreat, 
the Grand Master A. Wignacourt in the year 1618 
ordered the erection of a tower which is still stand- 
ing. The architect was Vittorio Gassar, the son of 
the celebrated Gerolam'o Gassar. The profits derived 
from the cultivation of oats on this island were 
formerly applied in accordance with a Decree of 
Council passed in 1618 to the maintenance of this 
fort, and to the general expenses of government. 
King Alfonso at the request of the University of 
Malta imposed in 1419 a duty upon wine for the 
defence of Gomino. An ancient tomb and leaden 
pipes found here from time to time together with 
remains of buildings and of a church dedicated to 
St. Nicholas, seem to prove that this island had 
formerly more than its present number of thirty in- 
habitants. A very ancient chapel dedicated to tha 
B. V. Mary desecrated in 1667 and restored in 1716 
stands uear the bay of the same name, and there 



236 

are also a large government honse, and a few peas-* 
ants' dwellings. The island may be easily reached 
by boat from Migiarro in Gozo. It possesses several 
lovely caves^ some of which can be entered in a 
boat, and several cliSs on the southern shore re- 
semble at a distance the figures of animals. Still 
We hesitate to endorse the sentiments of Giovanni 
Fratta who in the 14th Canto of the Malteide sings 
the praises of Gomino as being 

''An ample, rich, and lovely land." 



The Bay of Migiarro the name of which means 
^'the carting place/' is the principal commercial 
port in Gozo. Tho Grand Master Garzes erected a 
tower for its defence, some remains of which are 
still visible upon the heights, but the guns lie« 
buried in the beach below, loved by bathers for 
its firm hard sand. The cliff of Bas et Taffal 
150 feet in height is crowned by Fort Cham- 
bray which was captured by the French in 1798, only 
to be again surrendered ere long. Like many of 
the other forts in Malta and Gozo, it owes its 
existence to the liberality of one of the members 
of the Order of St. John. It was commenced in 
1749 by the Bailiff Francesco de Chambray, a 
Norman knight, who expended a great deal of money 
upon it. He died whilst the works were in pro- 
gress but left one fifth of his estate to ensure 
their completion. Even this proved insufficient, 
and the Order made up the deficiency, calling the 
stronghold "Fort Chambray." If you have any regard 



I 



237 

for personal beauty, we will leave Migiarro at once, 
for, as the Maltese policeman on duty at the land- 
ing place remarks, there are "plenty of mosqui- 
toes on this station." But it is worth while, if 
you belong to the pachydermata, have as little 
sensibility as a rhinoceros or an alligator, and 
have ruined your complexion (if you ever pos- 
sessed one) in early youth, to linger at Migiarro 
to examine the baskets of fish brought in by the 
boats. All I know is that Mr. Frank Buckland 
would be ready, desirous, and eager to let sandflies 
and mosquitoes do their worst, if only he might 
watch the ever-changing hues and multiform phases 
of finny life here to be seen in abundance. But 
our car is waiting. Our triumphal chariot is drawn 
by a mule, and can boast of only a couple of wheels. 
Our "Joe" takes his seat beneath the white awn- 
ing which shields uh from the sun, and up the 
long hill we go. Every native of Malta is address- 
ed as "Joe," by Thomas Atkins, even as West 
Indian negroes one and all answer to the appel- 
lation of " Jim." For three miles we drive between 
low stone walls, getting lovely glimpses of the Straits 
of Flieghi, which look, from our point of view, 
more like one of those fair lakes which nestle amid 
the hills of Cumberland or Wales. The fields are 
well cultivated, but what skulls the population of 
6ozo must be possessed of! Any ordinary Enghsh- 
man would infallibly suffer from sun-stroke if he were 
io arttempt to do half a day^s work where these 
patient, enduring, sun-browned, and it is to be 
feared miserably under-paid peasants, toil uncomplain- 
ingly month after month. What a pace we are 
going atl "Joe" and his mule are evidently in 



238 

haste to get home^ and the stone walls fly past us 
at a marvelloas rate. 

Ere long we breast a slope, and enter Babato 
the quiet old world capital of Gozo. Lace making 
is the staple occnpation of its inhabitants, and from 
every open door you hear the ceaseless clicking of 
the bobbins, which fly quickly to and fro, apparently 
bent upon solving the problem of perpetual motion. 
Very eastern are the faces of the workers, very 
lustrous are their eyes, and very guttural is their 
speech, for here in Gozo the language of the peo- 
ple is far more akin to the original Arabic, than 
is the dialect in common use in Malta. In Roman 
days Gozo was a municipality, and in the last cen- 
tury the attacks of the Algerine pirates were so 
fierce and frequent, that no Gozitan dared remain 
in the open country after sunset. Mais novs An- 
glais avons change tout cela. There are plenty of flies 
and mosquitoes at Rabato, and if you kill one all 
his acquaintances are certain to attend the funeral. 
A comfortable little hotel, the " Imperial " by name, 
receives the traveller within its hospitable .doors, and 
Peppina, the hostess, is one of the most motherly 
natives of these inlands that I have as yet discov- 
ered. Take up that universally to be found volume, 
" The Visitors' Book,'* and there shall you read alike 
in prose and rhyme the praises of Peppina. Suf- 
fice it to say that you will be well lodged and fed, 
and, a word in your ear! for most moderate cost, 
at this hotel. There is also the Calypso Hotel nearly 
opposite the *' Imperial.'' 

Wheat sufficient for home consumption is grown 
in Gozo, barley and cotton are exported, fruit and 
vegetables are sent to Malta, as are also grapes, 



239 

honey, poultry, fish, and apples, as well as small 
and large cheeses, made from the milk of the long- 
legged, long-necked sheep which are everywhere to 
be seen. In their funeral ceremonies the Gozitans 
resemble Eastern nations, and the male survivors 
sometimes allow their hair to remain uncut for several 
months after the death of a relative. But come 
along, let us climb to the summit of the citadel! 
What a grand view we have from these half-ruined 
and crumbling battlements. Almost all 6ozo and 
half the island of Malta lie stretched at our feet. 
This must have been a formidable stronghold in by- 
gone days of chivalry, but now the works are crumb- 
ling piece-meal. They are utterly useless, being 
commanded by high ground on several sides. This 
old citadel of Rabato will, however, always have an 
interest for Englishmen, for in 1551, after an un- 
successful attempt upon Malta, Sinam Pasha cruelly 
ravaged Gozo. Gelatian de Sessa the Governor made 
but a feeble defence, leaving the inhabitants to pro- 
tect themselves. An English knight put himself at 
their head, until a shot from the Turkish batteries 
struck him down, and Gozo was taken, the Gover- 
nor and 6,000 captives being carried into hopeless 
slavery. Close to the Augustinian convent are a 
number of monumental stones which the Gozitans 
gravely assure you were erected in memory of a 
number of African bishops, who died in the island 
on their way to attend a general council. Horror 
of horrors, what would be the result, if an attack 
of measles were to break out amongst the Lords 
Spiritual on their way to some Pan Anglican synod? 
The walk from Kabato to the lighthouse at 



2W 

Goirdan is very pleasant, a&d the view over sea and 
land is very fine. 

Bat we have lingered long enough at Babato. 
We mast take a hasty glance at the Giants' Tower. 
Bidding farewell to Peppina, we again mount a 
country car and off we go. llie pace is, if possible, 
swifter than before, for our road lies down hill and 
Jehu is reckless. At length we slacken speed and 
begin to climb a long hill, at the summit of which 
is the Giants' Tower. Permission to visit it must 
be obtained either from the owner (24 Strada Mer- 
canti Valletta, Malta) or from his agent at Babato. 
It is always freely given, but application must be 
made, or admission will be refused by the tenant. 
A short walk brings us to this remarkable ruin, which 
was formerly the Temple of Astarte, the Phoenician 
Venus. We shall quote Dr. Badger: " The enclosure 
is of a circular form, and measures twenty five paces 
in diameter. It is formed by a wall of enormous 
masses of rock, piled up one upon another, without 
mortar or cement. It is entered by two massive 
doorways, constructed of four stones 18 feet high 
and five feet wide. These lead into separate ranges 
of rooms, each range laid out in the same order, and 
only differing in extent. At the extremity of the 
building, opposite the entrance is asemi-circulararea, 
the floor of which rises higher than any other part, 
and is paved at the threshold with very large hewn 
stones/' These are pitted with Phoenician sacred marks. 
^' Besides these, there are two oblong chambers in 
each range^ which cross the area at right angles, and 
which are separated by a thick wall, except along 
the nave, which is left open, and forms a second 
entrance into the inner room. There exist also the 



241 

remains of an oven^ and a conical atone about 2^ 
feet in height and one foot in diameter^ which was 
doubtless one of the deities of the temple. ^'To 
the right of the second apartment is a shallow cir- 
cular concavity imbedded in the floor^ with a raised 
rim resembling those which are met with in the 
Catacombs of Gitt£^ Yecchia. In the doorways are 
holes for bolts and loops cut in the stone as fas- 
tenings for the ropes with which victims were bound. 
The figure of a serpent is roughly carved on a 
stone close by the entrance of the second apartment 
of the smaller temple.^' Leaving this most interest- 
ing relic of Fhcenician idolatry with reluctance^ we 
have the village of Nadur on our left hand^ and learn 
that from thence come most of the apples with 
which Malta and Gozo are supplied. On reaching 
the little port of Migiarro once more, we are for- 
tunate enough to meet with a friend who has run 
down in one of the "Mosquito Fleet," as the Royal Mal- 
ta Yacht Squadron is often styled. Not much persua- 
sion is necessary on his part to induce us to circum- 
navigate Gozo, and ere long we are standing out 
of the Bay of Migiarro with a fresh breeze. There 
is a coral fishery on this coast and soon the Bay 
of Shlendi opens out from which a ravine stretches 
inland for a mile. Cape Bombardo towers high in 
air, and we must not hug the iron-bound shore 
too closely. The Bays of Shlendi and Duejra ofier 
opportunities for a hostile landing, but are of course 
guarded by fortifications. In the Bay of Duejra rises 
the General's Bock, about 150 feet from the shore on 
which grows the famous Fungus Melitenais formerly 
sent by the Grand Master to crowned heads. It grows 
to the height of five inches and blossoms in April 
16 



242 

6r iiskj. When firesh it is of a dark red colour 
aod rather aolky but when dried h is nearly black 
and becomes bard and solid. It was formerly rnndi 
iMed in the care of dya^itery, haemorrhage^ and 
eotaneona diseaaes, also of syi^tiHs, whsi giren in 
broth or wioe* A similar fongos is found at Tunis, 
and near Trapani Also in the islands of Lampe- 
dosa, Favigliana and BoncigHo, on the coasts of 
Leghom^ and in the neighbourhood of Pisa, and 
some say, also in Jamaica. 

Tieka Zetka or the " Azure Window " near the 
GeneraPs Bock is a great curiosity easily accessible 
from Babato. It is a natural arch, the grandeur 
of which must be seen to be appreciated. 

As we round Cape Demetri the breeze freshens 
aud ere loog we are abreast of the lighthouse at 
Ouirdan which stands 400 feet above the sea level 
and is visible at a distance of 24 miles. It shows 
a revolving light once every minute. From this 
point news of the comiug of steamers is telegraphed 
to Valletta, giving timely warning to traders and 
friends alike. Marsa el Fom, from which a remark- 
ably good road leads to Babato through a highly 
cultivated district, is a favourite summer resort. 
There is a safe anchorage here, as well as abundant 
water. If the position were not so isolated, Marsa el 
Forn would have been the metropolis of the island, 
AS the Council of the Order of St. John had al- 
most determined to remove the city to this spot. 
As we come abreast of Has el Gala the eastern ex- 
tremity of Gozo, we go under the stern of a P. 
and 0. steamer. We wish her a prosperous voyage, 
as she departs homeward bound, whilst, running 



243 

before a favouring breeze, we are not long in reach- 
ing Valletta, having thoroughly enjoyed our visit 
to Gozo. 

The Author will be much obliged for fuller 
information or suggestions for the improvement and 
correction of this Guide. 



ADDENDA. 



In April 1880 the Word Bate Tariff composed 
of the rate applicable to the actual number of words^ 
plus an additional rate or grundtax of five words 
per telegram was adopted by the Telegraph Com- 
panies. A telegram of eleven words to Great Brit- 
ain costs bs. 6d. plus the initial or grundtax of 28, 
6d., or a total of 8«. Bates for other places may 
be ascertained on application at the various tele- 
graph offices (p. 56.). 

Attached to the Public Library is a small Mus- 
eum originated by De Bohan^ and arranged dur- 
ing the rule of Sir W. Eeid which is well worthy 
of a visit. Description is needless as an admirable 
catalogue by Dr. Yassallo is lent to visitors on ap- 
plication. Admission free during the hours that the 
Library is open. This Museum deserves to be more 
known • and appreciated than it is at present. 

The price of Boxes at the Opera per month 
varies from £1 to £5. 

The Eevd W. K. B. Bedford says " I was for- 
tunate enough to find in the Academy at Marseilles 
the design of the tapestry in the Council Chamber^ 
Valletta. It is by Desportes^ and is rendered with 
wonderful faithfulness in the tapestry.'* (See p. 96.) 



246 

On April 23rd 1880 a new Tariff for Carriages 
came into operation. 
Fares by time at a speed of &ve miles an honr. 

One horse carriage for not more than 15 min- 
utes 6d. Under half an hoar Is, Under one hoar 
1^. &d. For every qaarter of an hour beyond the 
first hour 4d. 

Two horse carriages a fare and a half. 

Fares by distance. — One horse carriage for any 
distance not exceeding half a mile M. Not exceed- 
ing one mile 6d» For every half mile beyond the 
first mile 2d. 

Two horse carriages for one mile Is. For every 
half mile beyond the first mile 6d. 

Between one hour after sunset and one hour 
before sunrise these fares are increased one half. 

Fares from one place to another within Val- 
letta^ Floriana, Sliema^ or St. Julian's 3d. 

From Valletta to Floriana 4(2. 

From Valletta to the San Giuseppe Soad^ Pieta, 
Misida^ or Ta Braxia Cemetery lOd, To Gasal Paola, 
the Addolorata Cemetery, or to Birchircara, Curmi, 
Tarxien, Luca, and Sliema Is. 2d, To Zabbar^ Zei- 
tun^ Gudia, Asciach, Zebbug, Balzan^ Attard, Lia, 
or St. Julian's Is. 8d. To Musta^ Naxaro, Gargur, 
Siggieui, and Pembroke Camp 2«. To Citt4 Vecchia, 
Kabato, Zurrico, atid Crendi 2s, 6d. To the Boschetto 
or Inquisitor's Palace 3s, To Gebel Kim and Mnaidra, 
or St. Paul's Bay is. From Sliema to St. Julian's 
bd. From Sliema to Pembroke Camp 8d. From 
Valletta to Cbspicua, Senglea, or Vittoriosa Is. 8d, 

Some say that the two Baraccas (p.p. 118, 135.) 
were unroofed in consequence of the Priests' Re- 



247 

volution in 1775. Others state that the French gar- 
rison being in want of firewood daring the two 
years^ siege^ reduced these buildings to their pre- 
sent condition. 

The Turkish Fleet in 1565 did not assemble 
in the port of Migiarro in Gozo^ but in that of 
Gineyna tal Migiarro in Malta (p. 201). 

Sig. Bosario Denaro has lately been appointed 
Agent for the Florio and Bubattino Lines of Steam- 
ers (p. 58.). OflSce, No. 35 Marina. Weekly de- 
partures for Tunis. For Tripoli direct every Wed- 
nesday. 

The Author's thanks are due to Major Ewing, 
Stafi" Paymaster, for his kind correction of a portion of 
the proof sheets. 



CORRIGENDA. 



lease read Page 7, 

11, 

47, 
58, 
76, 

:84, 

90, 
99, 
106, 
108, 
115, 
118, 

[118, 
120, 

122, 
122, 
123, 
123, 
124, 
124. 
127, 
130, 
133, 
141, 
141, 

143, 
144, 
159, 
162, 
171, 
188, 



line 6, 
„ 23, 
„ 3, 
» 16, 
» 17, 



„ 
„ 
„ 

„ 

„ 
„ 
„ 
„ 
„ 

„ 
„ 
„ 

„ 

„ 



16, 

34, 
16, 
14, 
8, 
2, 
25, 
32, 

2, 

3, 

6, 

28, 

13, 
31, 
31, 

3, 

20, 

2, 

4, 

18, 
20, 

11, 
20, 

4, 

1, 



50 leagues. 

and p. 14 line 1, Marsa Scirocco* 

omit the word Esq. 

173 d. 

from £1 to £5. For one night 

from 68.3(2. to £1. 
Blessed. 
De Bohan. 

S tests, 
anse. 
Q«rosolmitano. 
once again* 
fitting. 

roofed. In 1715. 
Fencible Artillery and Boman 

Catholic. 
Each Anberge formerly had. 
this Anberge. 

rebuilt, enlarged, and beautified, 
punishments. 
Town Hall. 

a Maltese Capuchin Friar, 
large, 
from 10(2. 
St. Omobono. 

and p. 143 line 5, Pavilion. 
Wignacourt and Bouverie Aque- 
ducts, 
sleeping accomodatiou. 
Convent, 
close by. 
15,000 persons, 
announced, 
was. 



INDEX. 



Dedication and Preface p. 3 

PART FIRST. 
CHAPTER L 

The Maltese Islands. — Situation. Bays and Inlets. Popula- 
tion. Wages. Food. Greatest elevation of the islands. Ap- 
pearance from the sea. The ancient Athalantis. Evidences of 
diminution of area 7 

CHAPTER II. 

HiSTOKiCAL Outline.— Malta in the days of the Giants. The 
Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, and Bomans. Arab Bule. 
Arrival of Count Boger. French and German Sovereigns. The 
Knights of St. John and the Great Siege. Decay of the Order. 
Malta surrenders to Buonaparte. Capitulation of General Vau- 
bois. English Governors in Malta. 12 

List of Grand Masters 50 

PART SECOND. 
CHAPTER I. 

The City cf Valletta. — Situation of Valletta, Foundation 
of the city. Streets of stairs. Arrangement of streets. Hou- 
ses, Lodgings and Hotels. Boat and Carriage fares. Postal in- 






252 

formation. Telegraph Companies. Medical Men, and Mer* 
chants. Lines of Steamers^ and Steam Ship Agents. Ck>n8nls. 
Weights and Measures 51 

CHAPTER II, 

Climate. — ^Mild in winter. Prevailing winds. Gregale and 
SciroGCo. Sultry in summer. Winter attractions for in- 

VttULU). •>• ««• (I* (t* ••• ••• •!• ••• W 

CHAPTER III. 

The Months IN Malta. — 64 

CHAPTER IV. 

Steeets and Buildings. — ^Porta Beale. Strada Beale. Opera 
House. Union Club. Church of St. John. Coui*ts of Justice. 
Public Library. Governor's Palace. St. George's Square. The 
Borsa, and Fort St. Elmo. Strada Stretta, the old duelling 
ground. Strada Forni. Auberge de France, the Bakery, and 
the Auberge de Baviere. Strada Zecca and the Mint. St. 
Paul's Church, and the Auberge d' Aragon. Marsamuscetto 
Steps and neighbourhood. Walk round the ramparts. ... 74 

CHAPTER V. 

Steeets and Buildings (ContmuedJ.—St. James' Cavalier^ 
and the Auberge d'ltalia. Upper Baracca, Church and Garden. 
View from Upper Baracca. Churches of Vittoria, and Sta 
Caterina d*Italia. Auberge d'ltalia, Palazzo Parisio, and Church 
of S. Giacomo. The Castellania, and Post Office. Monte di 
Pieta, and Market. Church of Our Lady of Damascus. Jesuits' 

inrch, University, and Lyceum. The Dominican and Anime 
'ganti Churches. Military Hospital, and the Camerata. Cem- 



253 

etery, Nibbia Churchy Hospital for Incurables, and Orphan 
Asylum. Strada S. Paolo, and the Church of St. Paul Ship- 
wrecked. Churches of the Minori Osservanti, S. Bocoo, and St. 
Ursola. Old Slave Prison, and the Lower Baracca. Strada Lev- 
ante, and the Santa Barbara Bastion. The Sultan's Garden, 
Nix Mangiare Stairs, Barriera, and Church of Sta Maria di 
Liesse. The Mina Lasoaris, Custom House, and Marina. 116 

CHAPTER VI. 

Flokiana. — The Suburb of Vilhena. Gates and Fortifications. 
TheMaglio and Pavilion. Soldiers' and Sailors' Home. St. 
Francis' Barracks, Princess Theatre, and Capuchin Convent. 
Wignacourt and Bouverie Aqueducts. Churches of Sarria, 
and St. Publio. The Argotti Garden, Casa di Manresa, and 
Central Civil Hospital. Floriana Barracks, Charitable Institu- 
tions, and English Cemeteries. Sa Maison and its Becreation 
lirrounci. ••• ••■ •*• *•• ••• ••« ... x«x 

CHAPTER VII. 

Pembeokb Camp, St. Jtjuak's, and Sliema. — ^The Wimble- 
don of Malta. St. Julian's Bay, and the Forrest Hospital. Foug- 
asses. Jesuit College. The Forgotten Church. Boat and 
Carriage fares. Cure for fever. Sliema. Oflficers' Bathing 
House, and Fort Tign^. Churches of Sliema. Fort Manoel and 
its island. The Lazaretto, Misida, and Hydraulic Doek. Pieta 
audits Cemeteries. ... ... ... 150 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The Mabsa and Bubmola. — Out of Porte des Bombes. Porto 
Nuovo. The Marsa and the Race Course. Corradino, its for- 
tifications and prisons. The French Greek and the Naval 
Canteen. Barmola, its fortifications and gates. The Goto- 



u 



a 







GIBRALTAR SHERRY " 

SHIPPERS, 

Bbanches: 
MALTA, and 21, Water Lane, LONDON. 





SOLE PROPRIETORS AND SHIPPERS OP 

THE CELEBRATED 

" GIBRALTAR SHERRY" 

"FRONTERA" 

The finest Natural Pale Dry Sherry ever prodaced 

in Spain. — Free from acidity and heat, 

and with fine dietetic qualities. 

PRICE FREE OH BOARD, GIBRALTAR, 
£ 14 per Qr. Cask of 13 doz. 
£ 7 „ 10 per Octave of 6^ doz. 
28/- per doz. bottles duty paid in Malta. 

ALSO SHIPPERS OF THB CELBBBATED GIBBALTAB 



If 



MANZANILLA" 



(See Next Pa|^.) 



II. 



NAVAL }m MILITARY 



28S, STie,JLX)-Au E/E^LE, 





Every description of Provisions, Groceries, Wines, 
Spirits and Beers, can be obtained at about 
10 per cent above the prices published 
by the Service Co-operative Stores in London. 
The difference in price is necessary to cover Pack- 
ing, Shipping, and Freight Charges, which at the 
lowest estimate amount to about 14 per cent. All 
Goods Guaranteed of best quality and sold at En- 
glish weight 16 oz. to the lb., the Maltese lb. having 
only 14 oz. 

N. B.— MILITARY AND NAVAL CANTEENS, 
HOSPITALS, ETC., SUPPLIED. 



TIT. 

W. B. WHITTINGHAM & CO. 

Wholesale and Export 

BOOKSELLERS & PUBLISHERS, 

ACCOUNT BOOK MAKERS, 

\iMtxi, 

LITHOGRAPHERS & ENGRAVERS. 







NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS 

Despatched with regularity to any 
part of the World. 



ESTIMATES FOR PRINTING 

Catalogues, 

Pamphlets, Trade Circulars, 

AND books 



Printing Works: 4, White Hart Court, 
Bishopsgate Church. 



91, 6RACECHURCH STREET, LONDON. 



IV. 



BY APPOIimiBNT TO 
H. B. H. THE DUKE OF EDIKBUB6H. 





BOOKSELLER. 
STATIONER, & PRINTER, 

2S, Strada San Giovanni, 
VALLETTA - MALTA. 



C. CARUANA, 

€RO€SR, 

AND 

31 db 32, Strada Nuova^ Marina^ 
VALLETTA— MALTA. 

Ship Supplier, Dead and Live Stock. 

Orders executed on the shortest notice. 

Bills on London Cashed 

at the Lowest Rate of Exchange. 



V. 

TO PASSENGERS, CAPTAINS, & OFFICERS 
OF VESSELS CALLING AT MALTA. 



THE WINDSOR CASTLE 

HOTEL, 

REFRESHMENT ROOMS, 

TEA GARDENS. 

AND MUSEUM OF CURIOSITIES 

IS SITUATE 

22, Strada Zaccaria^ 

which is directly opposite the principal 
entrance to St. John's Church. 

Ale, Stout, Wines, Spirits, and Liqueurs of 
^ finest quality only. 

AMERICAN FANCY DRINKS. 

CLEANLINESS, COMFORT, AND 

MODERATE CHARGES. 
Edward Harris, Proprietor, 

Late of London, Melbourne, & New York. 



VI. 








[Late G. Muir] 

BOOKSELLER AND STATIONER, 

248, Strada Reale. 



A LARGE ASSORTMENT OF PLAIN 
AND FANCY STATIONERY. 

^aucl|mk jjrdttion 0|| Ip^li luthoiis. 

PERFUMERY, FANCY GOODS, CUTLERY, 
TOILET SOAPS, BRUSHES & COMBS. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEWS, 

Orders taken for Periodicals, Newspapers, &c. 

CRICKETING WAREHOUSE.— FENCING 
GLOVES, BALLS, GAMES, &c. &c. &c. 



WWt. ♦ 







xupt^ 



VII. 




HATTER, 




li^Z 



mttf 



308 & 309 STRADA REALE, MALTA. 

Exactly Opposite the Opera House. 

Branch of the well known firm of 20 & 21 Burlington 
Arcade, London. Brighton, Aldershot, Sandhurst, &c. 

An order given at this establishment will be 
completed and delivered to any address in England 
before arrival of steamers. 

PARCELS FORWARDED TO ENGLAND 

At One Shilling per cubic foot or under. 

Baggage, Oranges, &c., forwarded to any 

address in England or the Colonies. 

GOODS OBTAINABLE 

from all the London Co-operative Stores at 2^ 

per cent advance on their Price Lists. 

Freight not included. 

Ten pee Cent Discount Allowed fob Cash, 

and Fifteen per Cent to Members of Co-operative Stor- 
es and Subscribers to H. P.TRUBFITT'S Toilet Club. 
Agency transactions^ attendances^ and subscriptions 
excepted. 



VIII. 




M. A. CROCKFORD k SON, 

MILLINERS, 

UPHOLSTERERS, CABINET MAKERS, 

AND 

AGENTS FOR MAPPIN BROTHERS' 
CELEBRATED CUTLERY 

AND 

ELECTRO PLATED GOODS. 

257, 258, Strada Reale, and 

28, STRADA ST. LUCIA, 

AND 

86, STRADA PONENTE, 

Vaiktta-MaUa. 



IX. 



HOSKIN & CO. 

BHAPKHS, 



illitim & ims-mate, 




FANCY GOODS, UNDER CLOTHING, &c. 

292d, Strada Reale, 



HOSKIN & CO. 





WINE & SPIRIT MERCHANTS, 

288, Strada Reale, 



BILLS CASHED. 



BY JipponmiEirT to h. b. h. the whiice of wales. 

V. MARICH & CO 



k 



44, Palace Square, 
MALTA. 

Established A. D. 1838. 

ALSO REFRESHMENTS TO BE HAD. 

ENGLISH 

BREAD ft BISCUIT BAKER, 

CONFECTIONER, &C. 

By Appointmeni to H. R. H. the Duke 

of Edinburgh. 

No, 21 Strada Reale, 

VALLETTA-MALTA. 

ALLSOPS'S & BASS'S ALES ON DBAUGHT. 




' GENUINE GUINNESS' STOUT 

AND 

BASS' ALE, 

In Bottles at the usual low prices ; 

Vvi: Stout at 3s. and Gs. per dozen. 
Ale at 48. and Is, 6d. per do. 

MOW IN EXCELLENT CONDITION AT 

B. KIND'S, 

287, Strada Reale, Valletta. 

1|S=* Orders left at the above Depot, will 
receive prompt and careful attention. Car- 
riage Free. 



xu. 



LONDON STUDIO 



Ualta. 



DAVISON & CIANTAR PREZIOSI 

PHOTOGRAPHERS. 

PAUCE SQUARE ENTIiAIICE 

133 Strada Teatro, and 
134 Strada Stretta. 



VIEWS OF MALTA. 



This is the only House in Malta employing 
a Complete Staff of London Artists where 
every description of work is executed the 
Hame aH in London, from the delicate Min- 
iature on ivory, to the beautiful life size 
in Monochrome, Oil or Water Colour. On 
Carbon, — Opal — Ivory — Paper — Canvas &c. 
cimens to be seen at the 



mn^ 



XIII. 




A. DIACONO 











TAILOR & OUTFITTER 

LADIES' HIDING HABITS. 

GREAT STOCK OF CLOTHING do. 

295, 4 296, STRADA BKALK, 

Between the Union Club and the Opera House 

Valletta, - Malta. 




XIW 



E. X. ARCHER. 

303 7, SIR. REALE, & 46/8, 8TR. MEZZODI, 

VALLETTA-MALTA. 

Opposite the New Opera Hoiue, 

Draper, Hosier, and Haberdasher, 
MILLINER, 

DRESS & MAHTLE MAKER 

FAMILY MOURNING, 
TOY & (>RICKET WAREHOUSE, 

lauiks* and chilurex'g boot and shoe depot, 
ladies' asd gestlemex's outfitting, 

gloves, pekpt'mebv, corsets, etc. 
kills and bank notes exchanged. 



SOLE AGENT FOR THE UNDERSIGNED. 

Hink's Patent Triple Action Exthiguisher 

Duplex Lamps. 

AMD - BAVARIAN \wm mm, 

In Wood and Bottles. 

INDIAN CO-OPERATIVE AGENCY. 

Horniman's Pure Tea. 
Prof: Hermann's Vermin Destroyer. 



ouitTiss de S02TS, I'oit'rsnsffo'tjcrii, 
General Camera and Forwarding Agents. 



XV. 



CURTISS & SONS 

RAILWAY k SHIPPING AGENTS 

PORTSMOUTH. 



■0- 



THE UNION S. S. CO. ROYAL 

MAIL STEAMERS. 

ALLAN LINE OFjmiCAN STEAMERS. 

LONDON BRIGHTOflid SOUTH COAST AND MIDLAND 

RAILWAY COMPANIES. 



OFFICERS BAGQAQE, ETC. WAREHOUSED, SHIPPED, 

CLEARED AND FORWARDED 

TO ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD. 



MADDEN & Co. — ElpMnstone Circle, Bombay. 

J. SACCONE, — Gibraltar. 
E. N. ARCHER,— /Sfr. Bec(le, Valletta-Malta. 



xn. 



JOSEPH jlZZOPARDI k Co. 

<f kip efimilmf 

AND GENERAL AGENTS. 

PROVISIONS, BONDED AND SHIP STORES 

OF EVEBT DESCBIFTIGN. 

CANVAS, HEMP, AND MANILLA ROPE 

OF ALL SIZES. 

WIRE HIGGIHG, &a 

DIVER and Piving Apparatus always ready 
for use on immediate demand, 
at Moderate Charges. 

^GENTS FOR THE 

BRITISH SHIP-MASTERS' & OFFICERS' PROTECTION 

S O CIET Y, 

SUNDERLAND 



No. 12, MARINA, close to ihe Custom House 

^ MALTA. 



xvn. 





EXCURSIONS, TOURS, 

t 

AND 

GENERAL TRAVELLING ARRANGEMENTS. 



THOMAS COOK Z SON, 



Pioneers, Inangnrators, and Promoters of the princi- 
pal systems of Tours established in Great Britain and 
Ireland, and on the Continent of Europe, are now giving 
increased attention to Ordijiary Travelling AiTangements, 
with a view to rendering them as easy, practicable, and 
economical as circumstances will allow. Dui'ing 38 years 
more than six millions of travellers have visited near and 
distant places under their arrangements ; and their system 
of Tickets now provides for visiting the chief }x>int8 of 
interest in the Four ^larters of the Globe. 

Owing t^ the large number of officers of the Army 
and Navy and others wfio are oontinnatly travelling to and 
from ld!alta and all piurts of the Universe Ifessrs. Cook 
& Sons have opened an office at 280, Strada Eeale, Val- 
letta, for giving information and issuing tickets by any 
route to all parts of Central Europe, the United States, 
Canada, Aus^alia, Ao. They have placed Mr. C. Aquilina 
in charge of the new office, who is well known in con- 
nection with -their Egypt and Palestine basiness. 

Office opened on 1st Jtiily, \%^. 



I 



XVIIf. 

STEAM SHIP AGENTS 

MALTA. 






SOLS ifiSMTS fm 

HARRIS' NAVIGATION COALS, 

LARGE STOCK OF THE 
BEST WELSH, 

And North Country Coals always on hand. 
Steamers supplied on the shortest notice 
at very moderate prices. 

AGEHTS FOB 

BRITISH INDIA STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY. 
Mes^s. MACGREGOB GOW & Co. Lcmdon. 
The Moss Steam Ship Co. Liverpool. 
The Ocean Steam Ship Co. do. 
Mmrs Lamport Holt, k Co. do. 



LONDON AGENTS 

Messbs Lambebt Brothers 

85 Gracechurch St. 
Messbs Henbt Clabke & Co. 

17 Gbacechubch St. 



XIX 

ITALIAN POSTAL LINE 

OF STEAMERS OF I. &V.FLORIO (SCO. 

OF PALERMO. 

DEPARTURE FROM MALTA, 

EVERY MONDAY, THURSDAY, & SATURDAY, 

At 6 o'clock, p. m. 

For Italy &c. in Postal Service. 
Monday, For Syracuse, Catania, Messina, Naples, 

Genoa and Marseilles. Coincidence for the North Coast 
of Sicily, to Palermo, and for the Piraeus, Smyrna, 
Salonica, Constantinople and Odessa. 

Thursday. For Syracuse, Catania, Messina, and 
Naples. Coincidence at Catania, for Taranto, Gallipoli, 
Brindisi, and ports of the Adriatic. 

Saturday (direct). For Messina and Naples, Leg- 

fhorn, Genoa, Nizza, and Marseilles. Coincidence at 
lessina, for Palermo and Tunis. 

On the direct voyages the fastest steamers 
(probably paddle) will be employed. 

For freight or passage apply to 

ROSARIO DENARO, Agent 

No. 35 Fuori la Mina. 
FOR TUKrs- 
Taking goods and passengers for Susa, Monastier, Mehdia, 
Sfax, and Gerbi, Cagliari, Leghorn, Genoa, and Marseilles. 
Weekly Ihpartures For Triyoli (Direct.) 
The Italian Steamer Sardegna, Captain Canepa, will 
staiii for the above mentioned ports every Wednesday at 
3 p. m. precisely. 

For freight or pasRage apply to 

ROSARIO DENARO Agent, 
No. 35, Fuori la Mina. 



I 



xr. 



O. F. GOLLCHER 

STEAM SHIP AGEXT 



2L STBADA ZACCARIA^ MALTA. 

ready on Lighters. 

A^entB in London: Messrs. Bcrkkss & Soxs, 

138, Leadenhall Street. 

Agent for the HALL LINE between LiTerpool 

and Bombay, calling regularly at Malta. 

Also for the Anchor Line of Peninsular and 

Mediterranean First Glass Steam Pack^s. 

Commonication 
between Glasgow, Liverpool^ Gibraltar, Tonis, 

Malta, and Alexandria. 

F. HENDBHSGN AND COMPANY'S 

Line of Steamers between London, Liverpool, 

and Rangoon. 

Moyal Netherlands Steam Navigation Company. 

Communication between Holland and the East 

Line of Steamers 
between London, the Levant, and the Black Sea. 

Steam CommzmicoHon 
Between Malta and Tunis. (Weekly departures J 



■'ViA.A* 




Cunard Line 

BURNS & MAC IVER'S 

FIRST GLASS SCREW STEAMERS 

BETWEEN 

Liverpool & Constantinople, 
Smyrna, & Alexandria, 

CALLING AT 

GIBRALTAR, 
MALTA, AND SYRA. 

For rates of freight or pass- 
age apply to 

CHAHLES LOWE, 

Agent. 



MALTA 

IMPERIAL HOTEL 

91, Strada Santa Lucia, 

BT 

G. ELLUL. 



IMPERIAL HOTEL 

BY 

G. ELLUL. 

This Establishment is situated in the highest 
part of Sliema and commands an uninter- 
rupted view of Valletta, the sea and country. 
The apartments, suites and single, are more 
than usually lofty, well ventilated and elegantly 
furnished. 

TABLE W HOTE. 




DUNSFORD'S CLARENCE 

254, Strada Reale, 

BSTjftJBLisHED 1824. 

For Families and Gentlemen. 

TABLE D'HOTE. 

WARM AND COLD BATES. 
MODBKATB CHAHOES. 

F. DINNING PROPRIETOR. 



XXIV. 



6REAT BRITAIN HOTEL 

42, STRADA MEZZODI 

{Near the Opera House,) 



■o 



This First Class Family Hotel is sitaated 
in the best part erf the Town. 

LARGE & SMALL 

SUITES OF APARTMENTS 

AND BEDROOMS, 

Commanding a view of the Street. 

Visitors to Malta will find Home Comforts 

combined with Moderate Charges. 

EXCELLENT TABLE D'HOTL 

WARM AND COLD BATHS. 

This Hotel which has the personal Superin- 
tendence of the Proprietor, 

(C. LAWRENCE) 

IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED BY 
ENGLISH FAMILIES. 




XXV. 




BY 



yiNGENT Z AM MIT 

PRIVATE LOOSiNeS 

OPPOSITE THE OLD OPERA. 

Strada Teatro No, 74 



HOTEL D'ANGLETERRE 

It 

BY 

JOHM BELLHTI 

Strada Sta. Lucia. Entrance No, 34, Strada Stretta, 

Every accomodation for Families & Gentlemen 

visiting the island. 

Well Furnished Rooms. Excellent 

Table d' Bote. 

(established 1856). 



XXVI. 



AN UNKNOWN POEM 
ON A WELL KNOWN SPOT 



Now as the San gains height and strength. 
And days are stretching out their length, 
'Tis well to know some sheltered spot. 
To cool our thirst when 'tis so hot. 
A shady place I would suggest. 
Where weary, parched, or "peckish'* guest, 
May calm enjoy, 'mong trees and shrubbery. 
The blessings of a quiet snuggery. 
Within the WINDSOR CASTLE's waUs, 
Are fresh and green embower'd stalls. 
Hid from the throng'd and busy street. 
Affording all a cool retreat. 
Near, and in front, St. John's Church door. 
The street's direct and straight before, 
Call'd Zaccaria, Twenty Two, 
But at the front there's noaght to view: 
'Tis when the house we enter in 
Our int'rest and delight begin. 
There ease and quiet reign sublime. 
Choice Drinks, made antidote to clime. 
Refresh and cheer our drooping " sprites,' 
Aud stimulate our appetites. 
The cheapest Lunches have such zest, 
e bless OLD HARRIS and the rest. 



9f 




For his cheap bills of fare I think, 
Exhaust the lists of food and drink. 
He caters well, just go see him, 
And his Museum kept so trim, 
GocktaiUy grina^ and smiles preparing 
Prairie Oysters so ensnaring; 
Pleasing all with well spun "cuffers," 
Anecdotes of "ancient buffers," 
And yarns both truthful and polite 
For Harris is "Cosmopolite;" 
Treats all his friends as they desire, 
His suavity you must admire. 
He loves to please, but not for " pelf," 
For pleasing m5, he's pleased himself; 
But call on him and then decide. 
From St. John's Church 'tis but a stride, 
Call morning, noon, or e'en at night, 
He'll welcome you with much delight. 



THE WINDSOR CASTLE 

EEFRESHMENT ROOMS & GARDENS, 

Cleanliness, INspstch, Comfort and Moderate Charges. 

HARRIS, (Cosmopolite) 

PROPRIETOR, 

Late of London, Melbonrne and New York. 



XXVI II. 



V. FALZON 



lATE 



J. BUCKLEK & Co. 

NAVAL & MILITARY TAILOR, 

HABIT MAKER &c. &c. 

No. 19. Strati a Beale 

MALTA. 



BY APPOINTMENT TO H. R H. THE PRINCE OF WALES 

. 8ALVAT0RE ZARB & CO. 

ARMY AND NAVY TAILORS AND OUTFITTERS 
50, Strada Reale & 

97, STRADA SANTA LUCIA. 

BILLS CASHED. 

ESTABLISHED 1840. 

HABIT MAKERS. 
VALLETTA-MALTA. 





PAUL BONAVIA, 

^mral friitte, 

S3, STE,. OE-ISTOE'ORO, 

VALLETTA, - MALTA. 

Every iSescriptioQ of Printiog executed vith taete 
and accuracj, at very moderate charges. 

THQMAS CERAVOLQ 

Book -Binding 
In all its branches. 



S2, Strada Teatro, 

VALLETTA— MALTA. 



If UNnraBT Tl ft ft ft IK 



CHARLES SHAW DAL2EL & Ca 

^XrOnOlSTIESEIiS 

'AVBK.uaz i>E pboitesce" 
VALLETTA. 

IV AffOIITREIT n H. K R. THE PHKE HF WMiS. 



^ 



FD11NITURE_^DEC0RATI0NS. 

^0bit <f ^$011(1 and ^xtithtXf 

28, STRApA SAN GIOVANNI, 

[opPosiTK 8T. John's chi'bch.] 

PianoB from Erard's Manufactory. 
Furniture on hire at moderate prices. 

WHEELER & WItSOH'S 



XXXI. 





WILLIAM ROTHERHAM. 

ENGLISH TAILOR 

NAVAL AND MILITARY UNIFORMS. 
252, STRADA REALE, 

alta. 

GODFREY CRITIEN, 

VALLETTA, 

(Opposite the Union Club). 

ENGRAVER, BOOKSELLER, & STATIONER. 

A Large Variety of Fancy Paper and Envelopes. Card Plates, 
Monograms, Crests, and Inscriptions neatly cat. Paper 
and Envelopes stamped &om Cypher and Crest 
in various colors. 



XICXJl. 



DIIDIO CBmEX. 




GOLD AHD SILVER SMITH. 

58, Strada ReaU, 

rOFFOSITE mrSSFOBD'S HOTEL: 

VALLETTA 'MALTA. 



LAWRENCE VASSALLO 

GENEIIAL GPiOCEKY 

AND 

PROVISIOR WAKNOUSE 

WINES, SPIRITS, ALB, AND PORTER, 

289, Strada Reale, 

[NKAB THE UNION CLUB.] 



XXXI IT. 



EASTERN tSrAPH 00^- 

TARIFF per SINGLE WORD from MALTA 



on and after APRIL 1st, 

EusoFEM mm m wosd witb 



Algeria and Tunis — Direct Cable 

Anstria ... 

Belgium 

Denmark... 

France and Corsica 

Germany... 

Gibraltar... 

Great Britain 

Heligoland 

Holland ... 

Hungary... 

Italy and Sardinia 

Luxemburg 

Norway 

Portugal 

Bussia — in Eui'ope 
in Caucasus 

Spain... via Vigo or Carcavellos 

,, Marseilles and Land-lines • 
,, „ and Barcelona Cable 

Sweden... 

Switzerland 



1880. 



£ 


s. 


di 








3 








5i 








4J 








6 








4 








5 








6J 








6 








6J 








5 








6 








5i 








4* 








6* 








5J 








8 








10 








6J 








5| 








7i 








6* 








H 



In addition to the above rates per single word, an 
initial chai*ge, equal to the charge for five words, will be 
levied on I'elegraras for all places in Europe, for example: — 
a Telegram of Eleven words to Great Britain will coili 
5] 6, plus the initial qr grondtax 2j6, total 8|. ^ 



EXTRA EUROPEAN TARIFF PER WORD 
WITHOUT GRUSDTAX. 



£ B. d. 



BttfsiA in Ansy 
BegioQ 
Do. 2iid 
Cyprus ... -. 
£|^rpi, Alexandria 



Ist 










Igt regionfCai- 
rOySQeSyftCanal 

StstioDB 

2nd Be^ion 
(Upper Egypt) 

Ad^n " 

Africa, Zanzibar ... 
Mozambiqne... 
Delagoa Bay... 
Natal— Durban 
Other places... 
Cape Ck)lony, 
Transvaaly and 
Oi-ange Free 
State 

India, West of CSiit- 

tagong 

East of Chitta- 
gong & Ceylon 

Native Bormah 

Penang 

Malacca 

Singapore 

«l Si V & ••« •.• ••• 

Australia, — Victoria, 
Tasmaoia^South 
and Westei-n 



2 
3 
1 
1 



1 
3 

7 
8 
8 
8 
9 





1 
1 



1 4 



6 
3 
5 

6 
6 
6 




on 


4 11 


... 


5 1 


... 


5 8 


... 


6 3 


... 


6 6 


... 


6 11 



£ s. 

Ansftralia ... 10 
New Sth Wake 
AQoeenslaiid 11 



d. 
9 



... 11 11 

...0 7 4 

... 8 

... 10 

... 12 

... 1 

... 4 



4 
2 



8 
1 
1 



8 



9 



4 8 



NewZealmd 
, Cochin China 

j China 

j Manila 

\ Japan 

' Kadeira ... 

; St. Vincoit 

i Brazil^ — Pemambaoo 9 

Bahiaand Ma- 

ranham 12 

Bio de Janeiro, 

and Para ... 13 

Santos, StaCa- 

tarina, and Bio 

Grande do Sul. 15 9 

Other places... 16 2 
Uruguay. Montevideo 15 9 

Other places... 16 2 
A rgentine Bepublic — 

Buenos Ayres ... 16 6 

Other places .. 16 11 

V./aXXXA •«• ••• ••• «•• 

Peru, — Icjuique 

Aiica & Tacna. 

Islay, Mollendo 

Puno and Are- 

quipa 

Lima & Callao. 
Bolivia, Autofagasta. . . 



1 
1 
1 



1 
1 
1 



1 
1 
2 



4 

7 
4 



8 
2 
9 



4 

5 

10 



COMPANY'S STATIONS: 

Cbnteal Oppice — 7, Strada Marsamnscetto, VALLETTA. 
Branch Oppices — 95\, Strada Santa Lucia, Do. 

3, Strada Ghar Illembi, SLIEMA. 
4»nl Ut, 1880. By Order, 

BOBEBT POBTELLI,^ 
Manager. 



XXJCV. 




mnsittlav & (6xmM f team 

INCORPORATED BY ROYAL 
CHARTER IN 1840. 



The Company's Steamers leave Malta out- 
ward — via Suez Canal — for Port-Said, Suez, 
Aden and Bombay every Thursday. 

For Galle, Madras, Calcutta, Penang, Sin- 
gapore, China, Japan and Australia every alter- 
nate Thursday. 

The homeward steamers are due at Malta 
from Bombay and Aden every Tuesday^ * and 
from Australia, Japan, China, Singapore, Pe- 
nang, Calcutta, Madras, and Galle every alter- 
nate Tuesday. 

For particulars of Freight or Passage 
Money, apply at the Company's Office, 41, 
Str. Mercanti. 

GEO. S. BROOKS, 
Agent. 

(*) During S. "W. MonRoon from June till September, the 
arrivals will probably be on Thursday. 



XXXVI. 

LEYLAND LINE 

FIRST CLASS SCREW STEAMERS 
FR03I LIVERPOOL 

TO SYRA, SMYRNA, AND CONSTANTINOPLE, 

FROM LIVERPOOL TO ALEXANDRIA, 
(JALLING AT GIBRALTAR AND MALTA. 




LIVERPOOL AND THE EAST 

PAPAYANNI X CO.'S LINE 

OF BRITISH SCREW STEAMERS 

SAILING BETWEEN 

LIVERPOOL. SYRA, SMYRNA, & CONSTANTINOPLE, 

LIVERPOOL AND ALEXANDRIA 

CALLING AT MALTA. 

These Steamers have good accommoda- 
tion for passengers and carry a Stewardess. 

ACHILLH CAMILLEHI, 

AGENT, 
91, Strada Levante, 

VALLEHA. 



xxxvir. 




T. G. MICALLEF 

COAL AHQ GEHERAL MEHGHAHT 
STEAM SHIP AGENT, MALTA. 

AGENT FOR 

Messrs CORY BROS. & Co., Cardiff & London. 
Messrs BAZIN & Co., Marseilles & Port Said. 
Messrs FRAISSINET & Co., Marseilles. 

LINE OF STEAMERS TO THE BLACK 

SEA, EGYPT, &c. 

FRENCH PACKETS FOR NAPLES, 
GENOA, AND MARSEILLES, 

AND 
VICE VERSA. 



xxrwnu 



MICSAEL & SONS, 



IT WECML HfmU W kMl RHEMB Tl TKH ■ML 
■MMKSSeS IK ■»£ IF EmNKI. 

THE DUKE OF G0NNAU6HL 

AND 
THE DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE. 



NAVY AGENTS 
AND WINE MERCHANTS. 

GENERAL EXPORT PROVISION 

WAREHOUSE. 

(Established 1826; 
7, Marina, Custom House Quay. 

Agents and Poryeyon to British and Foreign Yaehta. 
Agents for Messrs Pickford & Co., Shipping Agents all oyer the 

United Eingdonu 
Agents and Pnrveyors to H. I. Japanese M's Navj. 



The above Firm has recently removed to one of the largesit 
houses in Malta, which will be found in every respect convenient 
for the Shipping Trade in general. A very large stock- of stores 
on sale at wholesale prices. 



MICHAEL & SONS are represented by Agents in almost 
every part of the Globe. 



red Telegraphic address: ''Michael, Malta." 



XXXI-Xi 



HENIiY S. KING jlND CO.'S 

MALTA 
READING ROOMS, 

Are open during the stay of the P. & 0. 
Steamers in port for the convenience of pass- 
engers free of charge. 

# 

The " Kaisar-i-Hind " Cigarettes which 
in the opinion of Connoisseurs ^re second to 
none^ may he obta,ined at this Establishment. 

These cigarettes are made by hand froip. 
the choicest Turkish tobacco, and the paper 
used in their manufacture is specis^Hy pre- 
pared for the sole Manufacturers. 

TURNBULL Junr. ik SOMERVILLMf 

2Q» Strc^ Ee(^. 



MEDITERRANEAN EHENSiON 
TELEGRAPH OWIPANT LIMITED 

WORD RATE TARIFF 

EUROPEAS SYSTEM 

f//atVAfA of tLe nee sppHzabje to die icssu 
Onut<itax cf 5 wcfTdi per teJegr-hOL 

t;sdee the i/jsvjs coxvextios 

Fr«7/» AFBIL 1580. 

^ i^lt^jtk^ -.* --» --- -— — — "• 

hifhpvm, ,.^ ..* - — — — *t 

0^-9, 4ii)*et or Vtt Tai^,,., ... ... ... 4^ 

iMpumMrk, .., ... ... ... ... — 5 

¥f%imfif >.. ... — -.. — ... . 4 

^/*nrtt*«y, .,, ,.. ... ... ... ... 4t 

i'tfiratX »rrtns» k intUiBd, ... ... ... ... 6 

y^ ]4Mnr%f Hhsi^Af ^nte, Cephxlnm*^ Hrdn & Spezzia, do. 5^ 
Art4rm, Tiww, k Kjthiu/§, ... ..'. ... do. 6 

iUftin waA ^T^t -' -- — — ^- ^ 

lyoniiiyfaUd (jrntanM^ Hi*, Ha^xurA, Itbaea, Cephalonia, Zante, 

lijlrtk and Hpezmn, ,.. ... ... Via Corfii 6^ 

Andr'^, Tinoi, Kyihtum^ ... ... ... do. 7t 

Coniii 



do. 8 



o 



/fiitiMmial (yrtftsfj^f ... ... ... ... Via Zante 

htii, yi%tir%, itba^a, Cephalonia, Zante, Hjdra & Spezzia do. 5| 

Aridrr^, Tim^, k Kyibnof, ... ... ... do. 6 

nVfUf >>> ... ... ... ... do. 6j 

lhlif(oland, ... ... ... ... ... 6 

HolUrid .,. ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Kiin^nr/, ... ... ... ... ... ... 4^ 

l>iixMnbur((,... ... ... ... ... ... 4^ 

XouUimiK''';, ... ... ... ... ... 4^ 



XLI. 

d. 

i^ orw^HiV^ ••• ««• ••• •••. ••• ••• o 

J vOil V y ••• «»« p«« ••• ••• ••• o 

Persia, Via Rassia 1 Extra European System and without 1/8 

' do ,, Turkey] Gmndtax, ... ... ... 1/8| 

Poi'tngal ... ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Kussia in Europe ... ... ... ... ... 7 

do Caucasus ... ... ... ... ... 8^ 

Koumania ... ... ... ... ... ... 4| 

Ocrvia ... ... •*. ... ... ... Q 

ispain ... ... ... ... ... ... ^2 

O W6\XCT1 .*. ... ... ... ... ... \l 

Switzerland ... ... ... ... ... ... 34 

Turkey in Europe ... ... ... ... Via Vallona 5 

Do Asia Seaports ... ... ... do 7 

Do do Inland ... ... ... do 9 

Mytilene, Chios, Samos, Rhodes ... ... do 8 

Cyprus, ... ... ... ... ... do 8i 

Candia ... ... ... ... ... do 9 

Seaports of Turkey in Europe and Asia Via Otranto Zante 7 

Turkey in Europe and Asia inland Via Zante ... 9 

Mytilene, Samos, Rhodes ... ... do ... s 

Chios ... ... ... ... do ... 51 

Candia Cable direct ... ... ... ... ... 9 



EDWARD ROSENBUSCH C. E. 

General Superintendent, 

COMPANY'S OFFICES 

Central Office, 27 Strada Mercanti, Valletta, 

(behind St. John's Church) . 

Branch Office at the "Borsa" Str. FedericjO; Valletta, 



Xidi, 



W. KINGSTON 

CflEMM & DRr(5<5ISr. 



OF EDIXBL'BGfl- 

ENGUSH DISPENSARY 

yhy^AAimf Pre?i^enutk«3S aad fiuonl j recipes 

m^iLina k fbkxch patent medicines. 

AtkfOiKio Ji^ WhiiUik^ k Groesniitli's 

Seltjct Perfamery. 
iouk% Makia VAut%A Eav de Cologsk 

kg^mi tiff Vicbj M'menA Water and 
f<^ darkens Blood 



Bisar Toif/CT BisQciaiTBg. 



iloor* of Boaineita doring the week 
From 7. a, m« to 9. p. m. 
On Siind«jr from 7« to 11 a« m, and from 5 to 9. p. m. 

Uuriog the nigbt at bia private bouse 76^ Str. Fornix 

Oppotfite MorrelFs Hotel. 



SIG. S. MITROVICH 

PROFESSOR OF FRENCH AND ITALIAN, 
69^ Strada Teatro, 

References To Former Pupils. 



G. BRIFFA 

ARMY AND NAVY TAILOR & OUTFITTER 

HABIT MAKER Ac. &c. 

28 ^ 236 Strada Eeale 

Under the Union Club. 

V.1LLETTA=MALTA. 

Bills Cashed. 
No connection with any other Firm. 

ANTONIO ZARB 

GENERAL GROCER 

WIHE AHD SPIRIT MERCHAHT 
135, Strada Teatro, 

VALLETTA-MALTA. 



XLtr. 

Naval and Militarr Industrial ExhibitioD. 

Malta, 1~«0. 

BOSSWARD'S 

Orient Flate, and Tooth Powders 
Honorable Menti<HU 

BOSSWARirS ORIENT PLATE POWDER. 

YfjT CUauMFing and PoSishiog Go!d and SilTer, aod 
EW;tr«> ^Jt<»t V\sa^ S?^^ Bntami]* MeUl, and BkM^ Tin 
ihiAi i'tfr«ir%f Mirrors, kc,, Ac. 

Wi\v«ir utA Pbs«d goJd^ polished whh this Powder 
wjJJ n#>t UoTiinh, l/ot will reCam th^r prisdiie lustre. 

Tb#^ Proprietor fe>e]s gnuit confidimoe in reoommending 
h'tn Orient Plat^ Pr/wder as an article well worthy the 
sitUmium of e^-ery IV/tix^-keeper, Mess Caterers, Ac, Ac. 
It oontains Wf merearj, or other injorioos ingredient, and 
in <|tjit/; harmlf^K sboald it btr accident be taken internally. 
It« ri^iily iricreaiiing sale speaks most sadsfactorily of its 
merits, and its cheapness recommends it above fdl others. 
It lias only once to be tried to ensure its general adoption. 
To he bad of all respectable Grocen and Italian Warebooses. 
In U/xes 4d,, 8d,, Is, 4d, d^ 28, Sd« 

B088WARD'8 ORIENT TOOTH POWDER. 

The mo«t valuable discovery ever made. It thoroagbly 
clttsmmm the Teeth, leaving them Pearly White, greatly 
Improven the Enamel, and strengthens the Gums. It is 
iiot <m\y perfectly harmless, but is beneficial to health. 

AgimU Wholesale aod Retail, W. KINGSTON, 

(yhemiMt and iJruggist, 24^3 Strada Bea!e, Palace 

Square, and J. E. MORTIMER, 18, Molo Marina, 

near the Custom House. 



XLV, 



M. A. ARRIGO, 

37, STRAGA TESOR'ERIA, 

VALLETTA-MALTA. 



Importer of and Dealer in all sorts of Optical, Naut- 
ical, Mathematical, Physical, Geometral, and Land Surveying 
Instruments etc. Navigation Charts, Hardware, & Cutlery, 
also an extensive stock of Photographs- Views, copies of 
artistical works. Costumes, Stereoscopic slides Albums, for 
same elegantly and richly bound always on hand. Stereos- 
copes of all sorts etc. A most extensive stock of spectacles, 
eye glasses, pincenez, eye preservers, etc. and all articles 
connected with the optical line promptly served. 
At the most reasonable prices, imported from the most 
credited London and Paris houses. 



VINCENZO DI ANGELO BUGEJA 

Metal, timber, paint, &• hardwai\e 

MERCHANT. 

SOLE AGENT 

FOR 'MUNTZ'S METAL COMPANY' 

STRADA MER(JANTI, Nos. 77, 168, & 169 
STR. CRISTOFORO, Nos. 147, 148d., & 177*. 



XhVJ. 



ENGLISH UNDERTAKER 

Mr. MARTIN conducts Funerals 
in the Best Style; Hearse with Plumes, Coffins, 

Hat-Bands, Scarves, Gloves, Carriages, &c. 
Apply in Valletta^ at No. 126 Strada Stretta, 

[back op main guard.] 

^Ijfi^^ Monuments^ Tomb-Stones, and Tablets < 

every description 
at very moderate prices. 



J. A. MOORE & CO. 

BAZAAR, 

705 & 50, STRADA SAN GIOVANNI 
VALLETTA -MALTA. 

Drapers, Silk Mercers and Hosiers. Table Lin- 
ens, Sheeting, Calicos, Huckabacks, an Assort- 
ment of Excellent English Cutlery, and the 
best Electro Plated Goods. 

WINE & SPIRIT MERCHANTS. 

Price Lists gratie on application. Agents for 
the Orient Plate and Tooth Powders. 



XLVII. 

mmm im mm 

BY 

W. REID. 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN ALL ITS BRANCHES. 

Studio Open from 8. a. m. 

A Fine Collection of Views of Malta, 
H, M. Ships &c. on View. 

S. SCHEMBRI, 

PICTURE FRAME MANUFACTURER 

AND 

DEALER IN PICTURES. 

38, Strada Tesor eria, 

(Under the Arcades), 

Prints and • Drawings Mounted, Glazed, and 
Framed. Photographs of Every description. 
Materials for Oil and Water Color Painting. 

Pianos for Sale and Hire. 



XLvnr. 

BY APPOilTIEirT TO H. R. H. THE PRIICE OF WALES. 

MICHAEL BORG 

LACE MERCHANT & JEWELLER 

Choice and extensive assortments of Modern 

and Antique Lace, Coral, Lava, Roman Cameos, 

Mosaic, Gold & Silver Filiagree Articles. 

269, 81'RADA RE ALB, 

Valletta - Malta, 

MICHAEL BORG 

DIRECT IMPORTER 
OF 

HAVANA AND MANILLA CIGARS: 

AMERICAN, ENGLISH, & TURKISH TOBACCOS: 

MANUFACTURER OF CIGAHETTES 

EXPORTER TO THE EAST 

OFFICERS'. MESS SUPPLIER 

{Wholefale and E-rport onli/J 

263, 208, 8TRA0A REALE, ft 16, 8TRA0A ZAOCARIA, 

VALLETTA-MALTA. 

N. B. Affention i» respectfully solicited tf> tJi^. 
ijhriMian Nmne, there being other Firm* hearing the 
same Surname with which I have no connection. 

MICHAEL BORG.