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Full text of "A Handbook of the Swahili Language, as Spoken at Zanzibar"

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Gift of 



Joseph atufSeCma 
^reenSerg 




STANFORD UNiVERSm' LIBRARIES 






e 



61n^^^ 






icspii 11 sissa 



*. • ' 



A HANDBOOK 



OF THZ 



SWAHILI LANGUAGE, 



AS SPOKEN AT 



ZANZIBAR. 



EDITED FOR THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION TO 

CENTRAL AFRICA^ 

BY 

The late EDWARD STEERE, LL.D., 

MISSIONARY BISHOP FOR CBNTRAX. AFRICA. 



THIRD EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED Br 

A C MADAN, M.A, 

SENIOR STUOBNT AND VORMBRLY TUTOR OF CK. CU. OXFORIIL 



LONDON: 
SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, CHARING CROSS, W.C. 

BRIGHTON : 135, north street. 

1890. 



^PBEFACE TO THE FIBST EDITION. 



-•o»- 



There is probably no African language so widely known 
as the Swahili. It is understood along the coasts of 
Madagascar and Arabia, it is spoken by the Seedees in 
India, and is the trade language of a very large part of 
Central or Intertropical Africa. Zanzibar traders pene- 
trate sometimes even to the western side of the conti- 
nent, and they are in the constant habit of traversing 
more than half of it with their supplies of Indian and 
European goods. Throughout this immense district 
any one really familiar with the Swahili language will 
generally be able to find some one who can understand 
him, and serve as an interpreter. 

This consideration makes it a point of the greatest 
importance to our Central African Mission that Swahili 
should be thoroughly examined and well learnt. For 
if the members of the Mission can go forth from Zan- 
zibar, or, still better, can leave England already well 
acquainted with this language, and provided with 
books and translations adapted to their wants, they 
will carry with them a key that can unlock the secrets 
of an immense variety of strange dialects, whose veiy 
names are as yet unknown to us. For they will not 

*■:.■ a 2 



iv FSEFACE. 

only be able at once to communicate witb new tribes, 
but in mastering this really simple and far from 
difficult language they wiU have learnt how to set 
about learning and writing all others of the same class, 
since they agree with Swahili in all the chief respects 
in which it differs from our European tongues. 

The work, then, which is here begun is not to be 
regarded as though its ntility were confined to the 
islands and the narrow strip of coast of which this 
language is the yernacuhu:, but much rather as the. 
broad foundation on which our labours in the far inte- 
rior must for many years be built up. As there is no 
way by which those inner lands are so ordinarily or can 
be so easily reached as from Zanzibar and the coast 
dependent on it, so neither is there any way by which 
we can make ourselves so readily intelligible, or by 
which the Gospel can be preached so soon or so well as 
by means of the language of Zanzibar and its dependien- 
cies, to which this work is intended as an introduction 
— ^a language which, through its Arabic relations, has 
a hold on revealed religion, and even 'on European 
thought, while, through its negro structure, it is 
exactly fitted to serve as an interpreter of that re- 
ligion and those thoughts to men who have not yet 
even heard of their existence. 

When Bishop Tozer arrived in Zanzibar at the end of 
August 1864, the only guides we had to the language 
were the grammar and vocabulary of Dr. Krapf , and his 
translation of part of the Book of Common Prayer. 
During Bishop Tozer's visit to Mombas in November, 
he made a copy of a revised vocabulary belonging to 



TREFACE. ▼ 

ihe Eev. J. Eebmann. However, although one cannot 
estimate too highly the diligence and linguistic ability 
displayed by Dr. Krapf and the patient sagacity of Mr. 
Bebmann, we soon found that, owing partly to the fact 
of their collections having been made in the dialect of 
Mombas, and stiU more to the confused and inexact 
style of spelling adopted unfortunately by both, their 
works were of scarcely any use to a mere beginner. 

I soon after procured cojpies of the manuscript voca- 
bularies collected by Mr. Witt and Mr. Schultz, then 
representing the &rm of O'Swald and Co. in Zanzibar, 
and with such help as I could procure from any quarter, 
I began in July 1865 to print the first pages of my col- 
lections for a "Handbook of Swahili as Spoken in 
Zanzibar." When I had proceeded as far as page 33, I 
made the acquaintance of Hamis wa Tani and of his 
son Mohammed, both of them well acquainted with 
English and French, and of pure Swahili extraction. 
To the disinterested kindness of Mohammed, who, 
while confined to h^ house by sickness, allowed me to 
spend every Saturday morning in questioning him 
about his language, I owe all that is best in my know- 
ledge of African tongues. With his help and revision I 
completed ihe list of substantives, and found my way 
through the intricacies of the adjectives and pronouns. 
Of how much importance an accurate guide in these 
matters would be may be seen from the " Table of 
Concords," first printed in Zanzibar, in a form sug- 
gested by Bishop Tozer, and now reprinted as part 
of this volume. 

Mohammed's sickness increasing about the time that' 



vi PREFACE. 

I had begun to print tlie conjugation of liie verb, I wa& 
unable to continue my visits, and completed the " Col- 
lections " from Dr. Krapf, with the help of the voca- 
bulary collected by the late Baron von der Deckon 
and Dr. Kersten, and of that collected by the Eev. 
Thomas "Wakefield of the United Methodist Free 
Churches' Mission, both of which I was kindly allowed 
to copy.. 

After Mohammed's partial recovery I continued my 
visits to him, and went through the verbs, making first 
a list of useful English verbs from a dictionary, and 
entering all the words contained in the collections of 
which X had copies. I thus checked and supplemented 
what others had already done, and obtained a tolerably 
complete insight into that branch of the vocabulary. 
Before I could get much beyond this, Mohammed was 
so far recovered as to be able to sail for Bombay. I 
have always much pleasure in acknowledging how 
much I owe to him. 

Meanwhile I had begun my collection .of short tales 
in SwahiH, the first of which were printed in Zanzibar 
with an interlinear version, imder the title of " Speci- 
mens of Swahili," in March 1866, and reprinted in 
an early number of " Mission Life." I also began to 
use my Swahili to a practical purpose by making the 
collections for a handbook of the Shambala language, 
the first draft of which was completed in May 1866. 
These collections were made with a view to the mission 
since commenced in that country by the Eev. C. A. 
Alington; they were revised by the help of another 
teacher, and printed in Zanzibar in the year 1867. 



PREFACE, vti 

Finding the Swahili tales most valuable as well to 
myself as to those who were studying with me, I pro- 
ceeded to print a further collection, with the title 
" Hadiihi za Kiunguja" in Swahili only. For the tales 
then printed I was mainly indebted to Hamis wa Kayi, 
a very intelligent young Swahili, who always compre- 
hended better what a foreigner wanted to know, and 
explained more clearly what was difficult, than any one 
else I met with while in Zanzibar. 

At the same period I had begun and carried on from 
time to time the investigation of the Yao or Aohowa 
language, one peculiarly interesting to us, as that of 
nearly all the released slaves under Bishop Mackenzie's 
charge, and as having now supplanted the Mang'anja 
in the country where our Mission was originally settled. 
From this study I first gained a definite notion of the 
wonderful effect the letter n has in African languages, 
and so came to understand the origin of several appa- 
rent irregularities in Swahili. 

I had begun even before Mohammed bin ELhamis left 
Zanzibar to make some essays in translation, the best of 
which are embodied in a pamphlet printed in 2ianzibar, 
with the title " Translations in Swahili : ** it was com- 
pleted in January 1867. 

I was then getting help from many quarters, and on 
explaining to some of our native friends our wish to 
make a complete translation of the Bible into their 
language, one of them. Sheikh 'Abd al *Aziz, kindly 
volunteered to translate for me the Arabic Psalter into 
the best and purest Swahili. I found, before long, that 
not only did his numerous avocations prevent any rapid 



?iii FBEFAVE. 

progress, bnt that Ms language was too learned to suit 
exactly our purpose in making the version ; it did not 
therefore proceed further than the Sixteenth Psalm. I 
printed l^ese as at once a memorial of his kindness 
and a specimen of what one of the most learned men 
in Zanzibar considers the most classical form of his 
language* 

I cannot but mention at the same time the name of 
Sheikh Mohammed bin Ali, a man of the greatest 
research, to whose kindness I was indebted for a copy, 
made by his own hand, of some very famous SwahiU 
poetry, with an interlinear Arabic version; he also 
revised for me a paraphrase of it in modem language, 
for which I was chiefly indebted (as for much other 
help) to Hassan bin Yusuf, whose interest in our doc- 
trines and teachings has always been most marked. 
The verses and translation are both printed m the 
" Swahili Tales." 

At the end of 1867 I printed a translation of Bishop 
Forbes' little primary catechism, chosen as being the 
shortest and clearest I could And to begin upon. 
Though very imperfect, I am glad to think that it 
has been found of use. 

When I had completed the Yao collections, I went on 
to the Nyamwezi language, as being that of the largest 
and most central tribe with which there is constant and 
tolerably safe communication. 

In November 1867 I lost, by the sadly sudden deaths 
of the Rev. G. E. Drayton and his wife, most useful 
helpers, who were beginning to be able to give me sub- 
stantial assistance. Their places were, however, well 



. PREFACE. ix 

supplied by the Eev. W. and Mrs. Lea, who arrived 
opportunely just before the time of our bereavement. 
I was then engaged in preparing the translations of 
St. Matthew's Gospel and of the Psalms, as well as in 
beginning to put in order the materials for the present 
work. To Mr. Lea I was indebted, amongst other, 
things, for the first version of Ihe 119th Psalm, and to 
Mrs. Lea for the arrangement of the Swahili-English 
Yocabulary. The last thing I printed in Zanzibar was 
a translation of the Easter ^and Advent Hymns, and of 
Adeste Fideles, which I had the pleasure of hearing 
the girls of the Mission Orphanage dng most sweetly 
to the old tunes just before I left. 

I ought also to mention that, having been often under 
great obligations to the French Eomanist Mission, I 
had the pleasure of printing for them a Catechism in 
Frenoh and Swahili, which was indirectly valuable to 
me as showing how the great truths we have in 
common were r^idered by a perfectly independent 
student of the language. I know not how sufficiently 
to regret that the excellent compiler, P^re Etienne 
Baur, should have been content to use the jargon (for 
it is nothing better) commonly employed by Indians 
and Europeans, and should have adopted an ortho- 
graphy adapted only to a French pronunciation. 

Only three weeks before leaving i had the advan- 
tage of consulting two large manuscript dictionaries 
compiled by Dr. Krapf, and brought to Zanzibar by 
the Eev. B. L. Pennell. I was able to examine about 
half the Swahili-English volume, with the assistance 
of Hands wa Kayi, enough to enrich materially m^ 



X FREFACE. 

previous collections^ and to show how far even now ^ 
I fall short of my first predecessor in the work of 
examining and elucidating the languages of Eastern 
Afriea. There remains for some future time or other 
hand the examination of the rest of Dr. Ejrapf's 
dictionary, as weU aa the coUation of what will no 
doubt deserve to be the standard SwahiLi lexicon, on 
which the Bev. John Bebmann has been for nearly a 
quarter of a century labouring unweariedly. Even 
then there will remain many dialectic variations, and 
many old and poetical words and inflections, so that 
for many years one who loves such studies might find 
employment in this one language. 

Since my arrival in England, at the end of November . 
1868, 1 have been able to superintend the printiug of 
the Gospel of St. Matthew in Swahili, liberally under- 
taken by the Bible Society, <rf translations of the 
Church Catechism and of their Scriptural Beading 
Lessons out of the Old Testament, kindly undertaken 
by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 
For the Central African Mission I have carried through 
the press this work and the collection of Swahili 
Stories with an English version, published by Messrs* 
Bell and Sons, of which those previously printed at 
Zanzibar form a small part, and besides these a number 
of small pamphlets, including translations of the Books 
of Buth and Jonah, and some slight specimens of the 
Gindo, Zaramo, and Ngazidja languages. There remain 
the Psalms, which the Bible Society has promised to 
print for us, and the collections in the Yao and Nyam- 
wezi languages, all which I should like to get through 



FREFACK xr 

the press -in the course of this year. I wish there were 
a chance of the Kev. John Eebmann's Swahili version 
of St. Luke's Gospel, of which I have seen a large part, 
being printed <«,t the ssune time. 

This handbook ia arranged on the principle of sup- 
plying with each poirtion of it such rules as are re- 
quired for the practical use of that portion. In the 
first part, after some introductory observations. Sub- 
stantives, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs have each 
a separate section, containing first the rules which 
govern their inflectioa and employment, and then aa 
alphabetical list of the Swahili equivalents of our 
English words belonging to each part of speech. For 
the mere finding of words one general alphabet would 
perhaps have been more convenient ; but as the object 
of this work is not merely to tell what the Swahili 
words are, but also how to emptoy them correctly, it 
seems better so to group them as to bring the rules of 
grammar and the words which they control into a» 
elose a connectioii with one another as possible. The 
Editor has done what most readers would have had to 
do — sort out first the word and then the grammatical 
rules which must be observed in using it. The minor 
parts of speech are indexed together to avoid a multi- 
plicity of alphabets, except the Interjections, which 
cannot be said to have exact eqtdvalents in any other 
language. The part ends with a section on thfe forma- 
tion of words, which may be of use where the other 
alphabets fail to give a satisfactory rendering, and 
may also be useful as a guide in turning Swahili into 
* English, in the case of the many words which igno- 



xu PREFACE. 

ranee or Bome oversiglit in preparing tlie seeond part 
may have caused to be omitted. The rales and hints 
prefixed to the second part are intended to enable any- 
one who sees or hears a Swahili word to ascertain the 
material part of it, so as to be able to use the dictionary 
which follows. It is evident that there must be great 
difBculties at first in either using or arranging an 
alphabetical list of words which may begin with, in 
some cases, nine or ten different letters, according to 
the grammatical position they hold in each case. 
However, the difficulty is greater in appearance than 
in practice. 

The Appendices contain some curious or useful 
matter which could not well find a place in the body 
of the work. The first contains a specimen of a curious 
kind of enigmatical way of writing >and speaking called 
Kinyume. The second ^ves a specimen of the forms 
used in letter-writing, both in prose and verse. The 
third is part of a Swahili tale, with all the prefixes 
separated and the grammatical forms explained, in- 
tended as a guide and introduction to the art of 
reading, and through that of writing the language. 
The fourth Appendix consists of a small collection of 
phrases, some of them such as are wanted in ordinary 
conversation, some of them useful in illustrating the 
idiom or peculiar constructions used by natives. This 
collection might have been very much increased had 
it not been carefully confined to phrases actually met 
with in conversation with persons reputed to speak 
correctly. 



FBEFACK ' xiii 

The name of the language — Swahili — i& beyond all 
doubt a modified form of the Arabic Sawdhil, the plural 
of Sahilj a coast. The natives themselves jestingly 
derive it from Sawa hila, which a Zanzibar interpreter 
would explain bs " All same cheat." 

TAtUe Stee^ng, May 1870. 



( XT ) 



ADVERTISEMENT TO SECOND EDITION. 



-•o*- 



The First Edition having 'been at the last sold out 
with unexpected rapidity, I have not been able to add 
so much as I shoxdd have wished to this. The chief 
novelty is the omission of what I called the second 
class of Substantives, which proved to be only the most 
common instance of the general rule, that Substantives 
of any and every form denoting animate beings are 
constructed with Adjectives and Pronouns in the forms 
proper to the first class. Some words have been added 
to the Vocabularies and a few mistakes corrected. 

During the last four years the work of translation 
and collection has been going steadily forward, Swahili 
preaching has been going on, and some Elementary 
School-books printed in Zanzibar for our vernacular 
schools. The great work of evangelizing Africa seems 
to grow in magnitude the more one understands what 
is required for it ; but our hopes still grow with the 
growth of our knowledge. 

Edwabd St£ER& 

XoncTon, January 1875. 



( xvii ) 



ADVEETISEMENT TO THIRD EDITION. 



This Edition may be taken to represent substantially 
the final form which the Handbook assumed in the 
hands of its compiler, the late Bishop Steere. No 
estimate can be attempted here of his services to 
philology in general, and the student of African 
languages in particular, still less of their bearing on 
the spread of Christianity in Central Africa. What- 
ever the relative purity of the dialects of Mombasa and 
Zanzibar, and however great the debt Bishop Steere 
undoubtedly owed to his distinguished predecessor in 
their study. Dr. Krapf, the broad fact remains that 
Bishop Steere took the language as he found it spoken 
in the capital city of the East Coast, reduced its rules 
to so lucid and popidar a form as not only to make it 
accessible, but easy to all students, and finally made a 
great advance towards stereotyping its forms and ex- 
tending its use by embodying it in copious writings 
and translations. 

Some of the last hours of his life were apparently 
spent in preparing this Handbook for a new edition. 
Those who were familiar with the many cares and 
anxieties then pressing on him, will not be surprised 
that there were signs of haste and pressure m l;iA& 

b 



xviii PBEFAOK 

revision. With Part I., however, he seems to have 
been satisfied. The corrections of the text were few 
and unimportant, and though the Lists of Words might 
have been largely added to, he seems to have preferred 
leaving them as they were, in view of the strictly 
practical purpose of the whole book. 

With Part II. (the Swahili-English Vocabulary, &c.) 
the case is rather different. With the aid of various 
members of the Mission, the Bishop had made some- 
what large collections in order to expand and complete 
it. Probably from the pressure of work before alluded 
to, he had only prepared a selection of them for this 
Edition. It has been thought better, however, to in- 
corporate all the words found in his notes and added 
with his approval. But it must be remembered that 
the Bishop never regarded Part II. as ranking as a 
Dictionary, even in embryo, but rather as a tolerably 
full list of words to serve as a useful companion, to 
Part I. Even with this reservation, there remain 
many traces of imperfection in arrangement, spelling, 
and interpretation of words, which would doubtless 
have been. removed if he had been allowed time to pass 
the whole list under revision finally. 

This final revision no one is in a position adequately 
to supply. Minor corrections and additions have been 
cautiously and sparingly made. One Appendix (No. V.), 
likely to subserve the practical aim of the whole, has 
been added, with the Yen. Archdeacon Hodgson's ap- 
proval. There still remain among the Bishop's notes 
some miscellaneous specimens of Swahili verses, pro- 
verbs, riddles, &c., which might have formed another. 



PREFACK xix 

It is thought best, however, to reserve them, and leave 
the whole book, as far as possible, as the Bishop left it. 
Subsequent editors may find something to add. They 
probably will not find much to alter. 

A. 0. M. 

P.S. — ^Dr. Krapf s great Dictionary of the Swahili 
Language, in its printed form, was in the Bishop's 
hands too short a time to allow of his making any use 
of it for this Edition of the Handbook. 

Zanzihar, ChristnKM, 18S2. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART I. 



• •• •■• ••• ••• 



••• •• • 



lotrodnction 

The Alphabet 

Sabstantiyes : — 

Qrammatical rules 
List of Substantives 

Adjectives : — 

Qiammatical rules 
Irregular Adjectives 
Comparison of Adjectives 

Numerals 

List of Adjectives ... 

Pronouns : — 

Personal Pronouns 
Possessive Pronouns 
Beflective Pronouns 
Demonstrative Pronouns ... 
Belative Pronouns 
Interrogatives, &c. 

Verbs:— 

Ck)njugation 
Irregular Verbs 
Auxiliary Verbs 
Derivative Verbs 
List of Verbs 



I • • • • • 



PAOB 

• •• • •• ••• -L 

• • • • • • o 



••• ••• ••• t'f 

... 24 



• • • • • t 



• •• ••• ••• ••• 



• • • • • • 



« • • ••• 



• •• ••• ••• ••• 



■ • • • • • 



• • • • • • 



• •• ••• ••• ••• 



• • • • • • 



• •• ••• •«• ••• 



• •• ••• ••• ••• 



83 

80 
87 
89 
1)4 

102 
109 
... 112 
... 113 
... 117 
... 122 



• •• ••• ••• 4** ••• 



• ■• ••• «•• ••• •■• 



• • • • • • 



• • • • • • 



• • ft %•• 



125 
149 
155 
157 



Kxn 



TABLK OF f:0!<iTEiiTb. 



F<>rm»tiQu <if W<«cUj 



/i< 



'1* 



f'AGE 

212 
221 
226 
234 
235 



I'AliT il. 



>#> ' >*• 



f«» #>• (•* ••• 



... 239 
... 245 



I. H^iueiu^jiii* uf KuyiiDiH ... 425 

U. Hji)ticii))£UH of Hwahili (Jorrcspondeiico 427 

flf. i^art of fi Hwahill Tulo, with tho Prefixes marked 

liUd (iKpIuiiiml 431 

IV- Ifaijfwl uud Jilloiuutlc IMuurtox v... 443 

V, Uu Huufcty, WuigUtH uud muu»urcd iu Zunzibur m>'^5 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



PAET I. 

The Swahili language is spoken by the mixed race 
of Arabs and Negroes who inhabit the Eastern Coast 
of Africa, especially in that part which lies between 
Lamoo and the neighbouring towns on the north, and 
Cape Delgado on the south. 

It is classified by Dr. Bleek as one of the Zangian 
genus of the middle branch of the Bantu languages. 
That is to say, it belongs to one of the subdivisions of 
that great family of Negro languages, which carries on 
the work of grammatical inflexion by means of changes 
at the beginning of the word, similar to that whereby 
in Kafir, umuntu^ a man, becomes in the plural ahantu^ 
people. All these languages divide their nouns into a 
number of classes, which are distinguished by theii 
first syllable, and bring their adjectives, pronouns, and 
verbs into relation with substantives by the use o! 
corresponding changes in their first syllables. None 
of these classes denote sex in any way. Dr. Bleek, in 
his comparative grammar of South African languages, 
enumerates eighteen prefixes which are found in one 
or other of the languages of this family ; but it must 

B 

1 



2 8WAEILI HANDBOOK 

be remembered that he reckons by tbe form of the 
prefix only, so that the singular and plural forms of 
most words count as two, while the same form will 
sometimes answer to two or more forms in the other 
number. Dr. Bleek's arrangement is the most conve- 
nient for his purpose, which is the comparison of the 
formatives used in diflferent languages ; but I have not 
followed it in this work, because I think that for practical 
purposes such a classification should be used as will 
enable the learner who sees or hears the noun in the 
singular at once to put it into the pluraL Prefixes 
may be counted up separately ; but in practice we have 
to do with nouns, not with prefixes, and a noun cannot 
be put into a diflferent class when it becomes plural 
or singular without great risk of confusion. Thus in 
Fredoux' Sechuana grammar, 4 and 6 are the plurals 
of 3, 10 and 6 are the plurals of 11, and 6 alone is the 
plural of 5 and 14. Can this be a jlear arrangement ? 

I have very little doubt that Dr. Bleek is right in 
regarding these classes as substantially the same with 
the genders in most of the European languages, which 
are even now only sex-denoting to a very limited 
extent. There is a distinction in Swahili as to words 
which denote living heingsj called by Dr. Krapf, not 
very happily, a masculine gender, though it has no 
relation to aex, but to life only. 

It is very puzzling to a beginner, accustomed to 
languages which change at the end, to find the be- 
ginnings of words so very uncertain. Thus he hears 
that ngema means good ; but when he begins to apply 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

his knowledge he finds that natives use for the English 
word good, not only ngema, btit mwema, wema, mema, 
njema, jema, pema, chema, vyema, and kwema. Again, 
yangu means my, but he will hear also, wangu, zangu, 
changu, vyangu, langu, pangu, kwangu, and mtoangu. It is 
necessary therefore to get at the very first a firm hold 
of the fact that in Swahili it is the end, and not the be- 
ginning of a word, which is its substantial and unchang- 
ing part. The beginning of the word when taken to 
pieces denotes its number, time, and agreements. 

The " Table of Concords " prefixed to the section on 
Adjectives, shows at one view the variables of the 
language ; and when that has been mastered, the diffi- 
culties for an English student will be over. The 
Tarioufl forms will be explained, and the nicer distinc- 
tions mentioned in the grammatical parts of the book. 
In the preliminary observations prefixed to the second 
part will be found an account of all the changes which 
may occur at the end of a word, changes which in 
practice are very soon mastered, relating as they chiefly 
do to a few points in the conjugation of the verb. 

There is a broken kind of Swahili in use among 
foreigners, Indian as well as European, which serves 
for very many purposes, though it is of course utterly 
useless when one has to speak with exactness, or on 
subjects not immediately connected with the ordinary 
affairs of life and commerce. Its rules may be briefly 
laid down as follows : — If you are in doubt about how 
to make a plural, prefix ma, or use nyingi, %,e. many. 
In conjugating the verb, always put the subject 

B 2 



4 8WAHJLI HANDBOOK. 

before and the object after it, for the present tense 
prefix na-^ for the past wo-, for the future ta-. For no 
or not^ use hakuna. It is wonderful how intelligible 
you can make yourself by these few rules ; but it is 
just as wonderful what absurd broken stuff can be 
made to do duty for English. 

Let any one, however, who really wishes to speak 
the language get the Table of Concords well into his 
head, by any means he finds best for the purpose, and 
he will have no need to resort to broken and incorrect 
ways of talking. 

Swahili, like all languages of the same family, is 
very rich in Verbs, and poor in Adjectives and Prepo- 
sitions. There is nothing corresponding to the English 
Article, the word when standing alone implying the 
indefinite article, while the definite article can in many 
cases be expressed by the use and arrangement of the 
Pronouns, but still must often be left unexpressed. 
Though the Verb is etymologically the most important 
part of speech, it is the Substantive which determines 
the form of all the variable syllables. The Substan- 
tive will therefore be first considered, and next the 
Adjective, which very closely resembles it. The Pro- 
nouns will come next, as it is by their help that the 
Verb is conjugated, then the Verb itself, and after that 
the minor parts of speech, Adverbs, Prepositions, Con- 
junctions, and, last of all, the Interjections. A sketch 
of the grammar of each part of speech, which aims at 
being sufficient for ordinary and practical purposes, is 
first given, and after that a list of words belonging to 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

that part of speech, thus forming a combined grammar 
and English-Swahili dictionary. The second part con- 
sists of a Swahili-English vocabulary, and so completes 
the work. 

The Swahili language has been hitherto but litcle* 
written by those who speak it, and they know and use 
only the purely Arabic alphabet. There are copies of 
religious and secular verses, and possibly other works, 
composed in the old or poetical dialect, which is not 
now, and I believe never was, thoroughly understood 
by the mass of the people. The modem dialect is used 
in letters; but they have always a string of Arabic 
compliments at the beginning, and Arabic words and 
phrases freely interspersed throughout. 

Any one who tries to read a letter or a poem written 
in Arabic characters, will at once see why it is impos- 
sible to adopt them as the standard Swahili alphabet. 
It is absolutely necessary to have a good idea of what 
you are to read before you can read at all. The reason 
is that Swahili has five vowels, Arabic only three, and 
of Swahili consonants the Arabic supplies no means of 
writing ch, g, jp, or t?, nor can consecutive consonants be 
written without shocking Arabic notions of propriety. 
Thus the Swahili are driven to write the ha for p and 
for 7nb as well as for h ; the ghain for ^, ng, and ng\ as 
well as for gh ; the fa for v and mt?, as well as for f ; 
the ya for ny as well as for y ; the aMn for ch as well as 
for ah ; and to omit altogether the n before d, y, y, and z. 
Initial vowels and consecutive vowels are only to be 
expressed by hemzas or ^ains. Is. the first piece of 



6 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

written Swahili I ever possessed (the Story of the Ox 
and the Ass) the words n^ombe and j^vmda were written 
q}mhe and hvida. It will be easily seen how imperfect 
and ambiguous a means of writing Swahili the Arabic 
character must be. An instance occurred while I was 
in Zanzibar of a letter written from Kilwa with the 
account of a fight, in which it was said that one of 
the principal men, aineknfa^ had died, or amemka^ had 
got away, and which it was no one could certainly 
iell ; the last two consonants were fa and qaf with 
three dots over them. If two of the dots belonged 
to the first letter, the man was dead ; if two belonged 
to the next letter, he was alive : but the dots were 
so equally placed that no one could tell how to divide 
them. If the Arabic had possessed a v, there could 
have been no mistake. It would no doubt be possible 
to express Swahili sounds by using letters with addi- 
tional dots and affixing arbitrary sounds to the letters 
of prolongation, as is done in Persian and Hindi, but 
the result would puzzle a genuine Swahili and could 
never be quite satisfactory in any respect. 

There seems to be no difficulty in writing Swahili 
in Roman characters, there being no sound which does 
not so nearly occur in some European language that 
the proper way of writing it can readily be fixed upon, 
and illustrated by an example. When this is the case 
there is no need to look for anything further. I think 
those who try to settle the alphabets of new languages 
are too apt to forget how essential simplicity is to a 
really good alphabet. If the Eoman alphabet can be 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

made to distinguish all the sounds used in that lan- 
guage, it does all for it that it does for any. To at- 
tempt to distinguish the sounds used in that language, 
from the sounds used in another, or to mark all the 
varieties of tone which occur in speaking, is always 
useless and embarrassing, and not one man in a thou- 
sand has sufficient accuracy of ear to do it properly. 
It is practically easier to learn to attach a new 
sound to a known letter, than to learn a new sound 
and a new letter too, especially when the new letter 
has to be printed and written, and the learner is en- 
tangled in a maze of italics and letters with a point 
below and a point above, or a line through them, or 
some Greek letter which has not the sound one gives it 
in Greek, or some new invention which will fit well 
neither into printing nor writing, and looks at its ease 
neither as a capital nor a small letter. It generally 
happens that the sounds of a language, though not 
identical with those of another, correspond with them 
sufficiently to make the corresponding letters appro- 
priate symbols. Thus an English and a French t are 
not identical; but which nation would or ought to 
submit always to put a dot somewhere about its t to 
show that it is not the t which it never will want to 
use, and never did, and could not pronounce, if it met 
with it ? Or, to take a stronger instance, ought Ger- 
mans, Englishmen, and Spaniards always to cross the 
tails of their y's, or print them in italics, or deform their 
books with new symbols, merely because they do not 
pronounce their /s as Frenchmen do theirs? 



8 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



THE ALPHABET. 

The Vowels are to be pronounced as in Italian, the 
Consonants as in English. 

A = a in father. 

B = 6 in hare. 

Ch= chin, cherry, Italian c before i or e. 

D s= (2 in (2o. J) occurs very frequently in the Mombas dialect 

where j is used in that of Zanzibar. 
E = at in chair, 
F = fin fine, German v, 
Q = g ia gate, never soft as in genius, 
H = ^ in hat, 
I = 66 in feet, 
J =s j in. joy. Sometimes more like dy or di in cordial, French 

di, German dj, Italian gi. 
K = A; in kalendar, 

L = 2 in long, L and r are generally treated as the same letter. 
M = m in man. 
N = n in no. 

O = in hoy, more like au than the common English o, 
P = |) in paint. 
B = r in raise. An English, not a Scotch, Irish, German, or 

French r. See L. 
S = a in sun, German ss. It is never pronounced like a 2 or 

the English s in arise. 8 and sh are commonly used for 

one another indiscriminately. 
T = t in ten. T frequently occurs in the dialect of Mombas 

wheire §h is used in that of Zanzibar. 



THE ALPHABET. 9 

IT = 00 in tool, 

V = t? in very, German w, 

W = to in tm'n. French oia. It is merely a u pronounced oa a 
consonant. 

Y = 1^ in yonde/r, Germany. It is merely an i pronounced as a 

consonant. Y is frequently used in the Lamoo dialect 
where/ occurs in that of Zanzibar. 
Z = s in zany, German s, Z frequently occurs in the dialect of 
Lamoo where v is used in that of Zanzibar. 

There are several sounds intrcMiiiced from the Arabic 
which do not occur in purely African words. 

Gh = the Arabic ghain ; it is a guttural ^, resembling 
the Dutch g. It may be obtained by pro- 
nouncing a g (as nearly as it can be done) 
with the mouth wide open. Most Europeans 
imagine, the first time they hear it, that 
there is an r sound after the g, but this is a 
mistake. 

Kh = the Arabic Icha ; it is a very rough form of the 
German c^, the Spanish j, or the Scotch ch in 
loch. It resembles the sound made in trying 
to raise something in the throat. It may 
always be replaced in Swahili by a simple ^, 
but never by a h, 

Th = the four Arabic letters tha^ thai, thod, and thah. 
The first of these is the English th in think, 
the second that in they. The third and fourth 
are thicker varieties of the second sound. In 
Swahili they may all be replaced by a z. No 
attempt is ever made to distinguish the last 
three letters; but as the first is generally 



10 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

marked in pronunciation, it is in the first 
part of this handbook marked by printing 
the th in italics wherever it is to be pro- 
nounced as in the English word think. The 
sound of the English th in (hat occurs in 
some Swahili as a dialectic variation for z. 
In vulgar Swahili z is not merely put for 
the Arabic th, but th is also put for the 
Arabic z, as wathiri for waziri, a vizir. 

There are several compound consonantal sounds 
which require notice. 

Ch, a very common sound, representing what is 
sometimes a t and sometimes ki — in other 
dialects. C is not required for any other 
sound, as it can be always represented by k 
when hard, and by 8 when soft. It would 
probably be an improvement always to write 
the ch sound by a simple e. 

Gn, see ng'. 

Kw represents the sound of qu in queer. 

M frequently stands for mu, in which cases it is pro- 
nounced with a half-suppressed « sound 
before it, and is even capable of bearing the 
accent of the word, as in mtu, a person, where 
the stress of voice is on the m, which has a 
dull nasal semivowel sound, not quite urn. 
Where m occurs before any consonant except 
h or Wj it must hare this semivowel sound. 



TEE ALPHABET. 11 

My standing for mu, has generally its semi- 
vowel sound before «. Before a or 6 it 
becomes wiir, and before o it frequently loses 
the tt altogether, and is pronounced as a 
simple m. 

N has frequently a nasal semivowel sound, a half- 
suppressed t being suggested by it. N has 
always this semivowel sound where it is 
immediately followed by cA, /, h, t», n, or «. 

Ky has the sound of the Spanish w, the French and 
Italian gn^ the Portuguese nh, and the English 
ni in comjpanion, only a little thicker and 
more nasal. 

Ng' is a peculiar African sound, much resembling 
the -ng which occurs at the end of many 
English words. If we could divide longing 
thus, lo-nging, without at all altering the 
pronunciation, it would come very near 
the African sound, which is never a final, 
because all Swahili syllables must end in a 
vowel. Some prefer to write this sound gn-, 
as it resembles the sound given by Germans 
and others to those letters when they occur 
as initial letters in Greek. This sound must 
be distinguished from the common sound of 
ng-, in which the g distinctly passes on to 
the following vowel, as in the English word 
engage; in wgr'- both sounds are heard, but 
neither passes on to the vowel. 

Sh is the Arabic shin, the English ah, the French cA» 



12 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

the German sck, Sh and 8 are commonly 
treated as identical. 

P, T, K, and possibly some other letters, have occa- 
sionally an explosive or aspirated sound, 
such as an Irishman will often give them. 
This explosive sound makes no change in 
the letter, but is an addition to it, probably 
always marking a suppressed n. Thus upepo 
is a mnd, with both jp's smooth as in English ; 
but the plural, which should regularly be 
np^, is jp'epo, with a strong explosive sound 
attached to the first letter. This explosive 
sound may be marked by an apostrophe ; it 
is, however, very seldom necessary to the 
sense of a word, and is noticeably smoothed 
down or omitted by the more refined and 
Arabized Swahili. 

There are other niceties of pronunciation which a 
fine ear may distinguish; but as they are 
by no means essential, and are seldom noticed 
by the natives themselves, it is not worth 
while here to examine them particularly. 

As a rule, the vowels are all pronounced distinctly, 
and do not form diphthongs. When, however, a for- 
mative particle ending in -a is placed before a word 
beginning with e- or t-, the two letters coalesce into a 
long e sound. It is not, however, even in such a case 
as this, always incorrect to pronounce the two vowels 
distinctly, though it is not usually done. The instances 



TEE ALPEABET. 13 

of and rules for this union of sound will be found 
where the several prefixes which give occasion to it 
are dealt with. 

When two vowels come together at the end of a 
word, they are often to the ear one syllable, and have 
the sound of a diphthong ; they are really, however, 
two syllables of which the former bears the accent. 
This is at once apparent in the Merima dialect, in 
which an 2 is put between the vowels. Thus Icufaa^ to 
be of use, which sounds as if written hufd, is in the 
Merima dialect hufala. The shifting of the accent 
sometimes shows that the vowels are really separate. 
Thus a common fruit tree is called mzambarau, in which 
word the last two vowels apparently unite into a 
sound like that in the English word how ; but when -ni 
is added, making Mzambaraunij at the zamhardu tree — 
the name of one of the quarters of Zanzibar — the u is 
quite separated from the a, and the last two syllables 
are pronounced like the English -oony. 

It may be assumed in all cases in which two vowels 
come together that an I has been omitted between 
them, and will appear in some modification of the word 
or in its derivatives. 

The shifting of the accent above referred to takes 
place in obedience to the universal rule in Swahili, 
that the main accent of the word is always put upon 
the last syllable but one, a rule which often changes 
the sound of a word so materially as to baffle a beginner 
in his endeavour to seize and retain it. The syllable 
-nt is the chief disturber of accents ; and words which 



14 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

end in it may be always suspected of being plural 
imperatives if they are verbs, or of being in what is 
known as the locative case if they are nouns. There 
are only a very few words which end in -»» in their 
simple forms. 

The formation or division of syllables is so closely 
connected with the powers of the letters, that this ^yill 
be a proper place to mention it. The rule is that all 
Swahili syllables end in a vowel, and that the vowel 
must be preceded only by a single consonant, or by 
one preceded by n or i», or followed by to or y. 

There are a few half-assimilated Arabic words in 
which double consonants occur ; but there is a strong 
tendency in all such cases to drop one of the consonants 
and attach the other to the vowel which follows them. 

W can be placed after all the other consonants, 
simple and compound, except perhaps F 
and V. 

Y can follow F, N, and V. 

These two letters are used in the formation of Verbs, 
-W' being the sign of the passive, and -y- being used to 
give a transitive meaning. In several cases -fy- stands 
for 'py- ; -py- occurs in one word only, ^mpya, new. 

N can be placed before D, G, J, Y, and Z. 

M can be placed before B, and perhaps Ch and V. 

M in these instances represents an n- used as a sub- 
stantival and adjectival prefix. Used in this way, n 
before h becomes m ; before I or r it changes the Z or r 
into d, making ^d- instead of nl- or wr-; before w it 
changes into m, and the w becomes h, making m6- 



THE ALPHABET. 15 

instead of nw-. It is curioiis that w can be made to 
follow » without any change, but that n cannot be put 
before t^. Before A;, p, and t, the n is dropped, and 
they become h\ p\ and <' ; before the other letters cA, 
/, A, w, n, and «, it is merely dropped. 

The resulting syllables are not always easy of pro- 
nunciation to a European, as, for instance, nywa in hu- 
nywa, to drink, nor is it very easy to pronounce ngu oi 
nda ; but to a native such sounds present no difficulty, 
whilst he can scarcely pronounce such a word as hlack. 

Instances of the division of syllables will be found 
in the specimen of Kinyume, which forms Appendix I. 
Kinyume is made by taking the last syllable from the 
end of a word and putting it at the beginning, so that 
each instance is a specimen of the native idea as to 
what letters belong to the final syllable. Some Swahili 
are very ready at understanding and speaking this 
enigmatical dialect. 

At the head of each letter in the second part will 
be found some observations on its use and pronun- 
ciation. 



16 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 

Swahili nouns have two numbers, singular and plural, 
isrhich are distinguished by their initial letters. Upon 
the forms of the Substantives depend the forms of all 
Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs governing or governed 
by them. It is, therefore, necessary to divide them 
into so many classes as there are different forms either 
of Substantives or of dependent words, in order to be 
able to lay down rules for the correct formation of 
sentences. For this purpose Swahili Substantives may 
be conveniently divided into eight classes. 

I. Those beginning with Jf-, 'JIf-, Jlftt-, or Mw-, in 
the singular, and which denote living beings. They 
make their plural by changing Jf- &c. into War. 

Mtu, a man ; watu, people. 

The singular prefix represents in all its forms the 
syllable Mvr, which is itself very rarely heard. Before 
a consonant it is almost always pronounced as a semi- 
vowel m, with the u sound before rather than after it. 
Before a and e the u becomes a consonant, and the 
prefix appears as mto-. Before o and u the u is very 



SUBSTANTIVES. 17 

frequently dropped, and the m alone is heard. The 

prefix is treated as a distinct syllable when followed 

by a consonant, but very rarely so when followed by 

a vowel. 

Mchavoi^ ft Trizard ; wachawi, wizards. 

Mjwi, a lizard ; wajuai, lizards. 

Mwana, a son ; wciana, sons. 

Mwogct, or mogct, a coward ; waoga^ cowards. 

Muumishi, or mumishi, a cupper ; waumUhty cuppers. 

When the plural prefix wa- is placed before a word 
beginning with a-, the two a's run together, and are 
seldom distinguishable by the ear alone. When tro- is 
placed before a word beginning with e- or t-, the -a 

flows into the other vowel and produces a long e sound. 

« 

Mtffenzi, a companion ; wenzi, companions. 
Mmvij a thief; toevi, thieves. 

II. Substantives beginning with M-, ^M-, Jtft*-, or 
Mw', which do not denote living or animate beings. 
They make their plural by changing M- &g, into Mi-. 

Mti, a tree ; miti, tiees. 

The same observations apply to the singular prefix 
in this class as in Class I. 

Mfupa, a bone ; mifupa, bones. 
Mwanzo, a beginning ; mianzOy beginnings. 
Mwenibe, a mango tree ; miembe, mango trees. 
Mvnba, a thorn ; miiba, or miba, thorns. 
Moto, a fire ; mioto, fires. 

The names of trees belong to this class. 

III. Those which do not change to form the plural. 

Nyumba, a house ; nyumha, houses. 



18 8WAEILI HASDBOOK. 



The simple deaciiptkn of nemxm ai dik dass is that 
they begin with m, foBurwed hy aome other cooscmMnt, 
It is piobal4e that Si- is the ground iofntt ai the prefix 
of this dasB, since it always appeals as i^ before a 
ToweL The sjngwlar powezs and antipathjes of the 
letter u- veiy mndi affect the distinctnesB of this class 
of noons. As ■ mnst be dropped before tk,f^k,k,p^M^ 
or i, noons beginning with those letters ma j belong to 
this dass;* and as s becomes m before fr, r, and ir, 
noons beginning with mharmg may belong to it. There 
is a farther oos^plication in Swahili, arising firom the 
fact that foreign words, except only foreign names of 
persons and offices, whatever their first letters, are 
correctly placed in this dass. The popnlar instinct^ 
however, refuses this rule, and in the vulgar dialect 
classes foreign words according to their initial letters, 
regarding the first syllable as a mere prefix, and treat- 
ing it accordingly (see also p. 20). In some cases words 
are handled in this way even in polite Swahili ; thus the 
Arabic EUabu^ a book, is very often made plural by 
treating the 2:^ as a prefix, and saying VitdbvL, for books. 

Kamba, a rope ; kamba, ropes. 
Mbeguj a seed ; vibegvL, seeds. 
NtfumbOj a hoiue ; nyumba, houses. 
Meza, a table ; meza, tables. 
Bunduki, a gun ; hunduki, gonsL 
Ndizi, a banana ; ndizi, bananas. 
Njia, a road ; njia, roads. 



♦ There is nothing to show whether noons beginning ¥rith these 
letters belong to this class or to the fifth ; but it is always safest in 
cases of doubt to treat them as belonging to this class, unless some 
Mpecial largeness is intended to be intimated concerning them. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 19 

rV. Those which begin with Ki- before a consonant 
or Ch- before a vowel. They form their plural by 
changing Ki- into Vi- and Ch- into Yy-, 

Kitu, a thing ; vitu, things. 
ChombOy a vessel ; vyanibo, vessels. 

Substantives are made diminutives by being brought 
into this class. 

Mlima, a mountain ; KUimcL, a hill. 
Bweta, a box ; kibtoeta, a little box. 

If the word stripped of all prefixes is a monosyllable, 
/i- must first be prefixed. 

MH, a tree ; kiJUi, a shrub. 

MmkOf a spoon ; kijikoj a little spoon. 

Words beginning with Ki- may be turned into 
diminutives by inserting -ji- after the prefix. 

Kitwct, a head ; kijitwa, a little head. 

Kiboko, a hippopotamus ; kijibokoj a little hippopotamus. 

In regard to animals, the use of the diminutive has 
a depreciating effect. 

Mbuzi, a goat ; Mbuzi, a poor little goat. 

V. Those which make their plural by prefixing ma-. 
Kasha, a chest ; mdka^ha, chests. 

Nouns are generally brought into this class by re- 
jecting all prefix in the singular. If, however, the 
word itself begins with a vowel, j- is prefixed ; if it be 
a monosyllable, ji- is prefixed. Thej- oiji- is regularly 

2 



20 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

omitted in the plural, but may be retained to avoid 
ambiguity, where tbe regular word would have re- 
sembled one formed from another root. 

JamhOy an affair ; Tnamho, affairs. 

Jicho, an eye ; macho, eyes. 

Jombo, A large vessel ; majombo, large vessels. 

If the word btgin with t- or e-, the -a of the plural 
prefix coalesces with it and forms a long -e-; this 
distinguishes dissyllables with j- prefixed from mono- 
syUables withyi- prefixed. 

JinOf a tooth ; meno (not mano), teeth. 

Foreign names of persons and offices belong to this 

class. 

Wazirif a vizir ; maioaziriy vizirs. 

In the vulgar dialect of Zanzibar all foreign words 
which have a first syllable that cannot be treated as a 
prefix, are made to belong to this class, and ma- is 
prefixed to form the plural (see p. 18). 

Anything which is to be marked as peculiarly large 
or important is so described by bringing the word into 

this class. 

MJuko, a bag ; fuJco, a very large bag. 
MtUy a man ; jitu, a very large man. 
Nyumba, a house ; jumha, a large house. 

If a word is already in 'this class, it may be described 
as larger by prefixing yi-. 

Matangat sails ; majitanga, great sails. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 21 

Maji, water, Mafuta, oil, and other nouns in that 
form are treated as plurals of this class. 

VI. Those which begin with U- m the singular. 
They make their plural by changing U" into Ny- before 
a vowel, or N- before a consonant. 

Uirnbo, a song; nyiniboj songs. 

UdevUf a hair of the beard ; ndevu, hairs of the beard. 

This class is not a large one ; but the formation of 
its plural is full of apparent irregularities produced by 
the letter n. 

1. All nouns of this class, which are in the singular 
dissyllables only, retain the m- in the plural, and are 
treated as beginning with a vowel. 

Ufaf a crack ; nyufa, cracks. 
Uso, a- face ; nyitsoy faces. 

2. Words in which the U- is followed by d, g, j, or z, 
take N- in place of U-. 

3. Words in which the U- is followed by I or r, take 
N-, but change the Z or r into d. 

Ulimij a tongue ; ndimiy tongues. 

4. Words in which the U- is followed by 5, v, or Wy 

take n-, but change it into m-, and their first letter is 

always h. 

UbaUf a plank ; mhau, planks. 

UunngUf a heaven ; mhingu^ the heavens. 

5. Words in which the U- is followed, by A;, p, or <, 



22 8WAHILI HANDBOOK, 

drop the CT-, and give an explosive sound to the first 

letter. 

Upepe, a wind ; p^epe, winds. 

6. Words in which the U- is followed by ch, /, h, n, 
or «, merely drop the U-, 

UfunguOf a key ; funguo, keys. 

Nouns of this class are so few im Swahili that it is 
scarcely worth while to notice these distinctions ; they 
are, however, important as explaining what would 
otherwise seem anomalies, and represent influences 
which have a much larger field in other African 
languages. 

Abstract nouns generally belong to this class. 

VII. The one word Mdhali, place or places, which 
requires special forms in aU adjectives and pronouns. 

VIII. The Infinitives of Verbs used as Substantives. 
All Infinitives may be so used, and answer to the 
English Verbal Substantives in -ing. 

Kufoy to die = dying. 
Kwiba, to steal = stealing. 

All Substantives of both numbers may be put into 
what may be called the locative case by adding -nu 
This case has three great varieties of meaning, which 
are marked by differences in all dependent pronouns. 

1. In, within, to or from within. 

'2. At, by, near. 

8. To, firom, at (of places far off). 



SUBSTANTIVES. 23 

Nyumbani mwangu, in my house. 
Nyumhani pangu, near my house. 
Nyumbani hwangu, to my house. 

Mtoni, by the river. 

Njiani, on the road. 

Vyomboni, in the vesseU. 

Kitwani, on the head. 

Mbingunit in heaven. 

Kuangukani, in falling. 

The poBsessive case is expressed by the use of the 
Preposition -a, which see. The objective or accusative 
is the same as the subjective or nominative. 

In the following list of Substantives the plural form 
is given in all cases in which, if commonly used, it is 
not the same as the singular. 



24 



8WAEJLI HANDBOOK. 



LIST OF SUBSTANTIVES 

The letters in parentheses denote the several dialects : (A.) Eiamu, that of 
Lamoo; (M.) Kimyita,that of Mombas; (Mer.) Eimerima, that of the main> 
land opposite Zanzibar ; (N.) Kingozi, the poetical dialect ; (Ar.) Arabic. 



A whcU-is-it, a ihing the name of 
which you do not know or can- 
not recaU, dude, pi. madude. 

Such-a-one^ a person whose name is 
not known or is immaterial, 
fullanl. 

A. 

AhasemenU unenyekeo. 
Abhorrence, machukio. 
AhUUy, nwezo. 
Abridgment, muhtasari. 
Abscess, tumbasi, nasur. 
Abundance, wingl, uogi (M.), mari- 

thawa. 
Abyssinian, Habeshia, pi, Muha- 

beshia. 
Acceptance, ukiibalL 
Accident, tukio, pi. matukio. 
Accounts, hesabu. 

Account book, daftari. 
Accusation, matuvumu. 
Accusation (before a judge), mshta- 

ka, pi. mishtaka. 
Ache, maumivu, uchungu. 
Action, kitendo, pi. vitendo, unali. 



iition {in arithmetie)y jum 



ua. 



Address (of a letter), anwani. 
Adornment, kipambo, pi. vipambo, 

pambo, pi, mapambo. 
Adultery, zani, uzini, uzinzL 
Advantage (profit), fayida. 
Adversity, mateso, shidda. 
Advice, shauri, pi. mashauri. 
Adze, sboka la bapa, sezo. 
Affair, jambo. 

Affairs, mambo, shughuli, uli- 
mwengu. 
Affection^ mapenzi, mapendo. 

Mutual affection, mapendana 
Affliction, teso, pi. mateso. 
Age, umri. 

Old age, uzee. 

Extreme old age, ukongwe. 

Equal in age, hirimu moja. 

Former a^es, zamani za kale. 
Agent, wakili, pi, mawakili. 
Agreem,ent, maagano, makatibu, 

mwafaka, mapatano, sharti. 
Aim, shabaha. 
Air, bawa, hewa, upepo. 

For change ef air, kubadili hawa. 
Almond, lozi, pi. malozi. 
AlTns, sadaka. 



8UB8TANTIVH8. 



25 



Aloes, snbiri, shibiri. 

Aloes wood, nudi. 

Altar, mathbah, mathabahu. 

Alum, shabbu. 

Ambergris, ambari. 

Amtdet, talasimu, pL matalasimu. 

Amusement, mazumgumzo, mao- 

ngezi. 
Ancestors, babu, wazee. 
Anchor, nanga, baura. 
Ancle (see Anklets), kiwlko eha 

mgnn, ito la guu (A.).. 
Angel, malaika. 
Anger, hasira, ghathabu. 
Angle, pembe. 
Angoxa, Ngoje. 
Animal, nyama. 

Tlie young of a domestic animal, 
ndama. 

A young she-animal that has not 
yet home, mi&mh&, pi, mitamba. 

Native animals. See under their 
several names : — 

Buku, a very large hind of ra^ 

Toi, a hind of wild goat, 

Buga (?). 

Ndezi (?). 

Njiri (?). 
Anklets {see Ancle), mtali, pi. mitali, 

faranga, ph mafurungu. 
Answer, majibu, jawabu. 
Antelopes. See Gazelle. 

Bara, Heledbagus arundinaceue. 

Dondoro, Dyker^s antelope, 

Koru, water buck. 

Knguni, haartebeest 

Mpofa, pi. Wapofu, eland. 

Nyumbo, wUdeheest, 

Parahara. 

Kulungiu 
Antimony, wanja wa manga. 
2bit8,chimgu,tui}^u (M,),8iaimtzi (?), , 



Siafu, a large iroum hind. 

Maji a moto, a yeUow kind which 
lives in treesk 

White ants, mchwa. 

Ants in their flying sta^ kumbi^ 
kiimbi. 

Anthill, kisngnlu, pi, yisugulu. 
Anus, mkunda, fupa. 
Anvil, foawe. 
Ape, nyani. 

ApoeUe, m.tiime,.pl. mitume. 
Appearance, umbo, pi. maumbOi 
Arab, Mwarabu. pi. Waarabu. 
Arab from Sheher, Mshihiri, pi, 

WashibirL 
Arab from the Persian Gulf, Mshe- 
mali, pi. Wasbjemali, Tende 
halua. 
Arabia, Arabuni, Manga. 
Arable, Kiarabu. 
Arbitrator, mpatanishi. 
Arch, tao, pi, matao. 
Areca nut, popoo. See Betel, 
Arithmetic, hesabu. 

Addition, jumla. 

Subtraction, baki. 

Multiplication, thamba. 

Division, mkasama. 

Proportion, or division of profits. 
Arm, mkono, pi, mikono. [uirari. 

Under the arm, kwapani 
Armpit, kwapa, pi. makwapa. 

Perspiration of the armpit, 
kikwapa. 
Arrangements, madaraka. 
Arrival, kifiko, kikomo. 
Arrogance, ghururi. 
Arrow, mshale, pi. mishale, cliembe, 

pi. vyembe (N.). 
Arrovjroot, nwanga, kanji. 
Artery^ vein or nerv^ vx^Vd^^ "jil. 
mkhipa. 



26 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Artifice^ kitunbi, ph vitimbi. 
Ascriptums of praise, tasbiih. 
Ashes, jifu, pi, majifa, ivu, pL 

maivu (M.). 
Ass, pimda. 
AssafcBtida, mviije. 
Assembly, jamaa, jumaa, makutano, 

makusanyiko. 
Place of assembly, makusanyiko. 
Asthma, pmnu. 

Astonishmient, mataajabtt, msangao. 
Astrologer, mnajimu, pi. wanajimu. 
Astronomy, falaki, falak. 
Attachment, wambiso. 
Atustion, mnada, pi. minada. 
Auctioneer, dalali. 
Aunt, shangazi, pi. mashangazi. 
Authority, nguvu, mamlaka, hu- 

kumiL 
Avarice, choyo, bakhili, tamaa 
Awl, uma, pi. nyuma. 
Awning, chandalua. 
Axe, shoka, pL mashoka. 

B. 

Baby, mtoto mchanga, kitoto 

kichanga, mcdaika. 
Baxik, mauDgo, mgongo. 
Back of the head and neck, ki- 

shoga 
Baclcboney vM wa maungo. 
Badness, ubaya, uovu. 
Ba^, mfuko, pi. mifuko, fuko, pL. 
mafuko, kifuko, pi. vifiiko. 
Mkoba, pi. mikoba, o scrip. 
KibogoBhi, pi. vibogoshi, a small 

bag made of skin. 
Matting bags. 
Kikapu or Ghikapu, pi. vikapu. 
Kapu, pi. makapu, very large. 
Kanda, pi. makanda, long and 
narrow, broadest at l^e bottom. 



Junia, used for riee, Ac, gunia. 
Eagmuii, used for dates, sugar, 

&c. 
Eifombo, pi. vifombo, very large, 
used for cloves. 
Baggage, vyombo. 
BaU, lazima. 

Bait, chambo, pi. vyambo. 
Baking place for pottery, <feo., joko. 
Balances, mizani. 
Baldness, upaa. 
A shaved phice on the head, kipaa, 
pi. vipaa. 
Ball, tiife. 
Indiorrubber baU, mpira, pi, 

mipira. 
Any small round thing, donge, pi. 
madonge. 
BaXtast, fanimi. 
Bamboo, 'mwanzi, pL miwanzi. 
Bananas, ndizi. 
Banana tree, mgomba, pi. mi- 

gomba. 
Burichlets of fruit, tana, pi. 

matana. 
Tfee fruit stalk, mkungo, pi. mi- 
kungu. 
Band (stripe), utepe, pi. tepe. 
Bajid (of soldiers, &c.), kikosi, pL 

vikosi. 
Bandage, utambaa, pi. tambaa. 
Bangles. See Anklets, 
Bank (of earth, sand, dtc), fungu, 
pL mafungu. 
Bank of a river, kando. 
The opposite bank, ng^ambo. 
Baobab. See Calabash. 
Barber, kinyozi, pi. vinyozi. 
Bargain, mwafaka, maafikano. 
Bargaining, ubazazi. 
Bark of a tree, gome (hard), ganda 
(soft). 



BUBSTANTIVES. 



27 



BarUy^ shairi (Ar.). 

Barque (a «&tp), merikebu ya mili- 

ngote miwili na nuss. 
Barrel, pipa, pi. mapipa. 
Banh, bakuli, pi, mabakuli. 
A smaU basing kibaba. 
A broM basin, tasa, pL matasa. 
See BowL 
Basket See Bag. 
Ghikapn, pi, vikapn. 
Pakacha, pi, mapakaoha, made 
of cocoa-nut leaves plaited to- 
gether, 
Dohani, a very tall narrow basket 
made of slips of wood supple- 
mented by cocoa-nut leaves, 
Tiinga, a round open basket. 
Ungo, pi. maiingo, or uteo, pi. 
teo (M.), a round flat ba,sket 
used for sifting, 
Kiteo, pi. viteo, a very smaU one. 
Kunguto, pi, makunguto, a 

basket used as a colander. 
Jaxa&nda., pi, majamanda, a round 
basket of thick work, with a 
raised lid, 
Bai, popo. 

Baichelor, msijana (T), 
Bath, birika, ch£ikoge8k 
Bath room, choo, pL vyoo. See 

Privy, 
Public baths, hamamL 
BatUe, mapigano. 
Battlements, menomeno. 
Bay, ghubba. 
Beojch, pwani, mpwa (M.)* 
Beads, iishanga, ph shangsk 

Kondavi, pi, makondavi, a large 

kind worn by women, 
(rosary), tasbiih. 
Beak, mdomo wa ndege. 
A parrots beak, mbanga 



Beam, mti, pZ. miti, boriti, mhimili, 

pi. mihimili. 
Beans, kuunde. 
Ghooko, a very smaU green kind, 
Fiwe, grow on a cUmMng plant 

with a white flower, 
Baazi, grow on a btuh something 
like a laburnum. 
Beard, ndevu, madevn. 

One hair of the beard, udevu. 
The imperial, the tuft of hair on 
the lower lip, kinwa mchuzi, 
kionda mtuzi (M.). 
Beast, nyama. 
Beauty, uzuri. 

A beauty, kizuri, pi, vizuri, haiba. 
Bed (for planting sweet potatoes), 

tuta, pi, matuta. 
Bedding, matandiko. 
Bedstead, Mtanda, pi, vitanda. 
The legs, tendegu, pi, matendegn. 
The side pieces, mfumbati, pi, 

mifumbati. 
The end pieces, kitakizo, pi. yita- 

kizo. 
The head, mchago. 
Ths spoAse underneath, mvungu 
kitanda. 
Bee, nyuki. 
Beehive (a hollow piece of wood), 

mzinga, pi. mizinga. 
Beggar, mwombaji, pi, waombajL 
Begging, maomvi. 
Beginning, mwanzo, pi, mianzo. 
Start in speaking or doing, fell, 
pi, mafeli. 
Behaviour, mwenendo. 

Good behaviour, kutenda yema. 
Ill behaviour, kutenda vibaya. 
Bell, kengele. 
Njuga, a small beU worn as an 
ornament, a dog beO.. 



28 



BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Bellowing^ Hynmi, vumi. 
BeUowSt mifao, mivukuto. 
BeUy, matombo. 
Bendi pmdo. 

Tfee arm stiffened in or hentform, 
kigosho cha mkono. 
Bembatoohahay, Mjanga. 
Betel leaf, tambuu. It is chewed 
with areca nut, lime, and to- 
hacco folded up in it, and gives 
its name to the whole. 
Beverage, kinywajii^jjZ. vinywaji. 
BJiang, bangi>. 

Biceps muscle, tafu ya mkono. 
Bier, jeneza, jenaiza. 
Bifurcation, pandas 
Bile, nyongo. 
Biliousness, safara (Ar.), marungu 

(M.). 
Bin. See Beah 
(account), hesabu, baraa; 
BiU of sale, ankra. 
{chopper), mundu, pi, miundu; 
upamba, pi. pamba. 
Bird, ndege, nyuni (M.). 

Young of birds, kiuda, pi. ma- 

kinda. 
Birds of the air, ndege za anga. 
Bird of ill omen, korofi, mkorofi. 
Native birds, 
Pugi, a very smaU kind of dove. 
Korongo, crane. 
Mbango, a bird with a hooked 

beak. 
Ninga, a green dove. 
Zawaridi, a Java sparrow. 
Mbayuwayu, a swallow. 
Bundi, an owl. 

Luanga — pungu — tendawala (?). 
Birth, uzazi, uvyazi, kizazi, kivyazi. 
Biscuit, biskwiti. 
A very thin hind, kaki. 



Bishop, askafa (Ar.). 

A chess bishop, khami. 
Bit (a horse* s), lijamu. 
Bitterness, uchungn, nkalL 
Blabber of secrets, payo,.jjL mapayo. 
Blacksmith, mfoa chuma, pi. wafua 
chuma, mkunzi (Mer.), pi. 
wahunzi. 
Blackwood, sesemi. 
Bladder, kibofa, pi. vibofu. 
Blade, kengea. 
Blade of grass, uchipuka, pi, cbi- 
puka. 
Blame, matnvumm 
Blanket, buskuti. 
Blemish, ila, kipungnot 
Blessing, baraka, mbaraka, pi. mi- 

baraka^ 
Blindness, upofu Qoss of sighfy 

chongo Qoss of one eye). 
Blinders (used for camels when 
grinding in mills), jamanda (of 
basket work)^ kidoto (of cloth). 
Blister, lengelenge, pi, malenge- 
lenge. 
A vesicular eruption of Hhe skin. 
Block. See Pulley. [uwati. 

A block to dry skuU caps upon, 
faroma. 
Blood, damn. 

Blood-vessel, mshipa, pi. mishipo. 
Blotch, waa, pi. mawaa. 
Blowing and belloicing noise (often 

made with a drum), yuim. 
Blue vitriol, mnitutu. 
Board, ubau, pi, mbau. 

Piece of board, kibau, pi. vibau. 
Boat, mashua. 
Body, mwili, pL miili. 

The human trunk, kiwiliwili. 

A dead body, mayitl. 

The body of soldiers, dkc, jamiL 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



29 



Boil, jipii, pL majipn. 

Bomb, kombora. 

Bombay, Mombee. 

Bone, mfupa, pi. mifupa, fapa, ph 

mafupa (vtry large). 
Book, chuo, pi. vyuo, kitabu, pi. 
yitabu. 
A sacred book, msaliafu, pL misa- 

hafa. 
An account book, daftan. 
Booty, mateka, nyara. 
Border (boundary), mpaka, pi. ml- 
paka. 
An edging woven on to a piece of 
cloth, taraza. 
Bother, uthia, huja. 
Bottle, chupa, pi. machupa, tupa 
(M.), pi. matupa. 
A long-necked bottle for sprinkling 

scents, mrashi, pi. mirashi 
AUtHs bottle, a phial, kitupa, j}Z. 
vitupa. 
Bottom, chioi. 
Bough, Mtawi, pi. vitawi. 
Boundary, mpaka, pi. mipaka. 
Bow, upindi, pi. pindi, uta, pi. 

•mata, or cyuta. 
Bowl (wooden), fua. See Basin, 
Bowsprit, mlingote wa maji. 
Box, bweta, pi. mabweta, ndusi, 
kisanduku, pi. visanduku. 
Small, kibweta, pi. vibweta. 
Large, kasha, pL makasha, san- 

duku. 
Small metal box, kijaluba, pi. 

vijaluba. 
Small, long-shaped metal box, often 
used to keep betel in, kijamanda, 
pi. yijamanda. 
Small paper box, kibumba, pi, 
vibtimba. 
Boy, kijana^^L vijanA, 



Bracelet, kekee (flat). 

Kikuku, pi. vikuku (round). 

Kingaja, pi, vingaja (of beads). 

'Ba,ua.g}ii(omamented wiOi points). 

Timbi. 
Braid, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Brains, bongo, mabongo. 
Bran, cbachu, makapi. 

Husks of rice, kumvL 
Branch, tawi, pi. matawi, utanzu, 

pi. tanzu. 
Brand (apiece of wood partly bumt\ 

kinga, pL vinga. 
Brass, shaba, nuhds (Ar.). 
Brass wire, mazoka (?). 
Bravery, ushujaa, ut/iabitL 
Brawler, mgomvi, pi. wagomvi 
Bread (loaf or cake), mkate. 
Breadth, upana. 
Break. See Crack, Notch. 
Breakfast, chakula cba subui, 
kifungua kanwa, cha'msha 
kanwa. 
Breaking wind (upvjard), kiungulia, 
pi. viungulia. 

(downward), jamhsk, pi. majamba, 
mashuzi. 
Breast, kifua, kidari, mtimsk 

Breasts, maziwa, sing. ziwa. 
Breath, pumzi, nafusi, roho. 
Bribe, rushwa. 
Bride, bibi harusi. 
Bridegroom, bwana harusi. 
Bridle, hatamu (halter, reins, <ke,), 

lijamu (bit). 
Brink, ukingo, mzingo. 
Brook, kijito, pi. vijito. 
Broom, ufagio, pi, fagio. 
Brother, ndugu, ndugu mume, 
kaka (Kihadimu). 

Foster brother, ndugu kuuyoiv^Qw 

Brother'in'lavOy eliemog^ 



30 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Hu8band^8 brother, mwamua. 
Wife's hroiher, wifi. 
Brow, kikomo cha uso, kipaji. 
Bruise, vilio la damu, alama ya 

pigo. 
Brush (see Broom), burushi. 
Brushwood, koko, makoko. 
Bubble, povTi, pi. mapovu. 
Bucket, ndoo. 
BucJder, ngao. 
Buffalo, nyati. 
Bug, kunguni. 
Building, jengo, pi. majengo. 
Building materials, majengo. 
Firm and good building, mtomo. 
Bull, fahali,j>2. mafabali, ng'ombe 

mume or ndume. 
Bullet, poopoo, risasi ya bunduki. 
Bullock, maksai. 

Bunch, tawi, pi. matawi, kitawi, pi. 
vitawi, kichala, pi. vichala. 
The bunch is said to be of the 
tree and not of the fruit. 
Tawi la mtende, a bunch of dates. 
Kichala cha mzabibu, a bunch of 
grapes. See Bananas. 
Bundle, peto, pi. mapeto, mzlgo, pi. 
mizigo. 
In a cloth, biado, forushi, ki- 

furushi. 
Of straw, mwenge, pi. mienge. 
Of sticks, titi, pi. matitL 
Buoy, chilezo, pi. vilezo, mlezo, pi. 

milezo. 
Burden, mzigo, pi. mizigo. 
Burial-place, mazishi, maziko. 
Burier (i.e. a special friend), mzishi, 

pi. wazishi. 
Bush, kijiti, pi. vijiti. 

Bushes, koko, pi. makoko. 
Business, shughuli, kazi. 
Urgent business, am£ira. 



A complicaied business, visa 

vingi. 
Sis business, amri yake. 
I have no btisiness, dec, sina amri, 
&c. 
Butter, siagi. 

Clarified butter (ghee), samlL 
Btdtermilk, mtindi. 
Butterfly, kipepeo, pi. vipepeo. 
Buttocks, tako, pi. matako. 
Button, Mfungo, pi. vifungo. 
Button loop, Mtanzi, pi. vitanzi 
Button by which the wooden clogs 
are held on, msuruake, pi. mi- 
Buruake. 
Buyer, mnunuzi, pi. wanunuzi. 

0. 

Cabin (side), kipenu. 

Cable, amara. 

Caffre corn, mtama. 

Cage, kizimbi, pi. vizimbi, tundu, 

pi. matundu. 
Cake, mkate, pi. mikate. 
Cake of mtama meal, mkate wa 

mofu. 
Cake of tobacco, mkate wa tu- 

mbako. 
Bummida, pi. mabumunda, a sort 

of dumpling or soft cake. 
Kitumbua, pi. vitumbua, a cake 

made lilce a fritter. 
Ladu, a round ball made of 

semsem seed, spice, and sugar. 
Kinyunya, pi. vinyunya, a little 
cake made to try the quality of 
the flour. 
Calabash, buyu, pi. mabuyu. 
Inner part of the calabash fruit, 

ubuyu. 
Calabash used to draw water, 
kibuyu, vibuyiL 



BUB8TANTIVE8. 



31 



Calabash tree or baobab, mbuyu, 
pi. mibuyu. 

A ptrnipMn shell used to hold 
liquids, dundu, pi. madundu. 
Calamity,msijaaihvL, msiba,pL misiba. 
Calico, See Cloih. 

Fine, bafta. 
Calf, ndama, ndama wa ng'ombe. 
CaU (calling), mwito, pL miito. 

(a cry), ukelele, nkemi 

Kikorombwe, a signal cry. 
Calm, shwali. 
Calumba root, kaomwa. 
Camel, ngamia. 
CaTnelopard, twiga. 
Camphor, karafiimayiti, kafuri. 
Candle, tawafa, meshmaa. 
Candlestick, kinara, pi, yinara. 
Cannabis Indica, bangi. 
Cannon, mzinga, pi. mizinga. 
Canoe, galawa (with outriggers^, 
mtumbwi, pi, mitumbwi (toith- 
out outriggers), hori, pi, mahoii 
(toith raised head and stem). 
Canter, mghad (of a horse), 

Thelth (of an ass). 
Cap, kofia. 

A cap block, faroma. 

A gun-cap, fataki. 
Capacity, kadri. 
Cape (headland), rasi. 
Captain, nakhotha, naoza, kapitani. 
Caravan, msafara, pi. misafara. 

Caravan porter, mpagazi, pi. wa- 
pagazi. 
Carcase, mzoga, pi. mizoga. 
Cards (playing), karata. 
Cardam,oms, iliki. 
Care, tunza, pi. matunza. 

(^caution), hathari. 
Cargo, shehena. 
Carpenter, sermala, pi, mtaermala. 



Carpet, zulia. 
Carriage, gari, pi, magari 
A gun carriage, gurudumo la 

mzinga. 
Cartridge, kiass cha bonduki 
Carving, nakah, nakishL 
Case or paper box, kibamba, pi. 

vibumba. 
Cashew nut, korosho,|)Z. makorosho 
Immaiure nut, dunge. 
Cashew apple, bibo, pi. mabibo, 

kanju (M.), pi. makanju. 
Cashew nut tree, mbibo, pi. mibibo, 

mkanju (M.), pi. mikanju. 
Cask, pipa, pi. mapipa. 
Casket, kijamanda, pi. yijamanda. 
Cassava, muhogo. 
Apiece of the dried root, kopa, pi. 

makopa. 
CasHe, gereza, ngome. 

A chess castle, fil (Ar. elephant). 
Castor oil, mafuta ya mbarika, 

mafuta ya nyonyo (?), mafuta 

ya mbono (?). 
Castor oil plant, mbarika, pi. mi- 

barika, mbono (?), pi. mibono. 
Cat, paka. 
Catamite, haniti, hawa, hawara, 

shoga (A.). 
CatUe, ng'ombe, nyama. 

Cattle fold, zizi, pi, mazizi. 
Caudle made on the occasion of a 

birth, of rice, sugar, and spice, 

and given to visitors, fuka. 
Caulking, khalfati. 
Cause, sababu, kisa, asili, maana. 
Cautery and the marks of it, pisho, 
Caution, hathari. [pL mapisho. 
Cave, paango, pi. mapaango. 
Censer, a small vessel to burn incense 

in, chetezo, pi. vyetezo, mkebe^ 

pi. mikebe. 



32 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Centipede, taandu. 
Certainty^ yakini, Mte. 
Chaff, kapi, pi. makapi 
{of rice), kumvi. 

(bran and crushed grains), wishwek 
Chain, mkufu, pL mikufu, mnyo- 
Toro, pi. minyororo, Bile&ile, 
Door chain, riza. 
Chair, kiti, pi. vitL 
Chalk, chaki. 

Chameleon, kinyonga, pi. vinyonga. 
Chance, nasibu. Qumbwi (?). 

Chandelier, thurea. 
Change or changing, geuzi, pi. 

mageuzi. 
Chapter, sura, bab. 
Character, sifa. 
Characters, henifn. 
Charcoal, makaa ya tnitL 
Charm (talisman), talasimu, pi. ma- 

talasimu. 
Chatter, upiizi. 
Chatterer, mpuzi, pi, wapuzi. 
Chea^, ayari, mjanja, pi. wajanja. 

A great cheat, patiala. 
Cheeh (the part over the cheek-hone)^ 
kitefate, pi. vitefute. 
(The part over the teeth), chafu, 
pi. machafa, tayu (A.), pi. 
Cheese, jibini. [matavu. 

Cheis^ sataranji. 
Chest {of men), kifua, pi. vifua. 
(of animals or men), kidaii. 
(a large box), kasba, pi. makasha, 
fianduku. 
Chicken, faranga, pi. mafaranga, 

kifarauga, pi. yifaraoga. 
Chief, mfalme, pi. wafalme, jumbe) 

pL majumbe, munyL 
CJhi^tainshipf ujumbe. 
Child, mtoto, pi. watoto, kitoto, pi, 
vitoto, mwana, pL waana. 



A child which cuts its upper teeth 
first, and is therefore considered 

unlucky, kigego, pL vigego. 
Childhood, utoto. 
Chimney, dohaan. 
Chin, kidevu, pL videvu, kievu 

(A.), pi. vievu. 
Omavfient hanging from the veil 

below the Mn, jebu, pL ma- 

jebu. 
Chisel, patasi, chembeu. 
Juba, a mortice chisel, 
XJma, a small chiseL 
Choice, hiari, hiyari, ikbtiari, na- 

thari. 
Your choice, upendavyo (as you 

like). 
(Jholera, tauni, wabba, kipindu- 

pinda. 
Church, kanisa, pi. makaoisa. 
Cinders, makaa. 
Cinnabar, zangefaii. 
Cinnamon, mdalasini. 
Cipher (figure of nought), sifuru, 

zifuri. 
Circle of a man** affairs, &c., uli- 

mwengu wake. 
Circuvfidsion, tohara, kumbi 

(Mer.) (?). 
Circumference, kivimba, mzingo. 
Circumstances, mambo. 

A circumstance, jainbo. 
Cistern, birika. 

Citron, balungi, pi. mabalungi. 
Civet, zabadi. 
Civet cat, fungo, ngawa (a larga 

animal than the fongo). 
Civilization, iingwana. 
Civilized people, wangwana. 
Clamp for Imrning lime, tanun. 
Clap of thunder, radi. 
Claret, divai. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



33 



CloBsfor study, darasa. 
Claw,, nkuoha, pi, kucha. 

(of a crah\ gando, pi. magando. 
Clay (?), ndongo. 
Clearness, weupe. 
Clerk, karani. 
Clergyman, padre or padiri, pi, ma- 

padiri, khatibu. 
Cleverness, hekiina. 
Climate, tabia. 
Clock, aa&. 

What o'clock is it f Saa ngapi ? 
According to the native reckon- 
ing, noon and midnight are at 
ihe sixth hour, saa a sita; six 
o'clock is saa a ^^nashara. 
Clod, pumba, pi, mapumba. 
Cloth {wooUen'), joho. 
{Cotton), nguo. 

(American sheeting), amerikano. 
(Blue calico), kaniki. 
Cloth of gold, zari. 
A loin cloth of about tioo yards, 

shuka, dotL 
A loin doth with a coloured border, 

kikoi, pi, vikoi. 
A turban doth, kitambi, pi. vi- 

tambi 
A wo7nan*s doth, kisuto, pi. yi- 

suto. 
A doth twisted into a kind of rope 
used as a girdle, and to make 
the turbans worn by the Hindis, 
ukumbuu, pi, kumbuu. 
(Jlothes, nguo, miguo, mavazi, mavao. 
Cloud, wiugn, pi. mawingn. 
Main cloud, ghubari,j!>2. maghu- 

bari. 
Broken scattered clouds, mavn- 
ndevunde. 
(Jloves, garofau, karof uu. 
Fruit-stalks, 'kikGDjo,pl. yikonyo. 



(Jlub, TungiL 

Coals, makaa. 

Coast, pwani. 

Coat, joho (a long open coat of 

broaddoth worn by the Arabs). 
(Job of Indian com, gunzi, pi. ma- 

gunzi. 
Cock, jogoo j)Z. majogoo, jogoi, jimbi. 
A young coekerd, not yet able to 

crow, pora. 
A cock's comb, npanga. 
A cock's wattles, ndefu. 
Cockles, kombe za pwani (?). 
Cockroach, mende, makalalao (INIa- 

lagazy). 
Cocoa-nut, nazi. 

Cocoa-nut tree, mnazi, pi. minazi. 
Seart of the growing shoot, used as 

salad, &c., kichilema, shaha. 
Cloth-like envelope of young leaves^ 

kilifu. 
Leaf, kuti, pi. makuti. 
Midrib of leaf, uchukuti, pi. 

chukuti. 
Leaflets, ukuti, pi. kuti. 
Leaf plaited for making fences, 

makuti ya kumba. 
Half leaf plaited together, makuti 

ya pande. 
Leaflets made up' for thatching, 

makuti ya viungo. 
Fart of a^leaf plaited into a 
basket, pakacha, pi. raapakacha. 
Woody flower sheath, karara. 
Bunch of nuts, tawi la mnazi. 
Flower and first forming of nuts, 

upunga, pi. punga. 
Small nuts, kidaka, pi, vidaka. 
Half -grown nut, Mtale, pi. vitale. 
Full-grown nut before the nutty 
part is formed^ dafu, pi. 
madafu. In this stage the %heU 



34 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



18 perfectly full of the milk or 

juice (maji), and the nvis are 

often gathered for drinking. 
Half -ripe nut, when the nutty part 

is formed and the mUk begins to 

'vcahUe in the shell, koroma, pi, 

makoroma. 
Ripe nut, Dazi. 
A nut which has grown fttU of a 

white spongy substance without 

any hollow or milk, joya, pi. 

majoya. 
A nut which has dried in the shell 

so as to rattle in it without 

being spoilt, mbata. 
The fibrous case of the nut, cocoa- 
nut fibre, makumbi. 
Cocoa-nutfihre thoroughly cleaned, 

usomba. 
A stick stuck in the ground to rip 

off the fibre, kifuo, pi, vifuo. 
The shell, kifuii, pi, vifuu, ki- 

fufu (M.). 
Instrument for scraping the fresh 

nut for cooking, mbuzi ya ku- 

kunia nazi. 
Oily juice squeezed out of the 

scraped cocoa-nut, tui. 
A small bag to squeeze out the tui 

in, kifiimbu, pi, vifombu. 
The scraped nut after the tui has 

been pressed out, chicha. 
Copra,the nut dried and ready to be 

pressed in the oil mill, nazi kavu. 
Cocoa-nut oil, mafuta ya nazi. 
Coffee, kahawa, (plant) mbuni. 
Coffee berries, buni. 
Coffee pot, mdila, pi, midila. 
Coin (a coin), sarafu. See Dollar, 

Rupee, &c. 
Colander (in basket work), kunguto, 

pi. makunguto. 



Cold, baridl. 
Baridi and upepo are often ueed 
to mean wind or cold ind^er- 
ently. 
Cold in the head, mafua. 
I have a cold in the hettd^ Aweaa 
kamasL 
Collur-bone, mtulinga,|)Z. mitnlinga. 
Colour, raugi. 
Colours are generally desoribed by 
reference to some known sub- 
stance : rangi ya kahawa, eqffee 
colour, brown ; raugi ya majani, 
leaf colour, green; rangi ya 
makuti, colour of the dry eooo€t- 
nut leaves, grey. 
Comb, kitaua, pi. vitana, shanan, 
pi, mashanuu (a large toooden 
comb), 
A cock*s comb, upanga. 
Comfort, faraja. 
Comforter, infariji, pi. wafariji. 
Coming (arrival), kifiko, pi, vifiko. 
{Mode of coming), majiiio. 
Coming down or out from, inBhoko, 
pi, misbuko. 
Command, amri. 

Commander, iemsudein, pi, majema- 
dari, mkuu wa asikarL 
Second in commund, akida. 
Commission, agizo, pi, maagizo. 
Comoro Islands, Mnsiwa. 
Great Comoro, Ngazidja. 
Comoro men, Wangazidja. 
Johanna, Anzwani. 
Mayotte, Maotwe. 
MohUla, Moalli. 
Companion, mwenzi, pi. wenzi. 
Company, jamaa. 
Compass (mariner's), dira. 
Completeness, uzima, ukamilifn, 
utimilifu. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



35 



Compliments^ salaamtL 
Composition (of a word), raidbytieo. 
Composition for a murder, money 

paid to save one*s life, dia. 
Concealment^ maficho. 
Conclusian, mwisho, hatima. 
Concubine, suria, pi. masuria. 

Bom of a concubine, snriyama. 
Condition (state), hal|, jawabu. 
(A thing necessarily implied)^ 

kannni. 
Confidence, matnmaini. 
Confidential servant, msiri, j3{.wa8iri. 
Conscience, thamiri, moyo. 
Conspiracy, mapatano, mwafaka. 
Constipation, kufunga choo. 
ConsUtuition, tabia. 
Contentment, iirathi 
Continent, merima. 
Continuance, maisha. 
Contract, maagano, eharti. 
(Jonversation, mazumgnmzo, mao- 

ngezi, Tisemi. 
Convert, mwongofu, pi. waongofu. 
Cook, mpuhi, pi. wapishi. 
Coohed grain, especially rice, wall. 
(Poking pot (metal), Bufuria, pi. 

masufuria, kisufaria, pi. visu- 

faria. 
{earthen), njangn, chongu, pi. 

vyungu. mknngu, pi. mikungu. 
(a pot to cook meat in toith fat, to 

braze meat in), kaango, pi. ma- 

kaango, nkaango, kikaango, pi. 

yikaango. 
A pot lid, mkanga wa kufunikia. 
Three stones to set a pot on over 

the fire, mafiga, sing, figa, 

mafya, sing, jifya. 
Cross pieces put in to keep the 

meal from touching the "bottom of 

the pot and burning, nyalio. 



Coolie, hamali, pi. mahamali 
Copal, sandarusi. 
Copper, shaba, sufuria. 
Coral (red), marijani ya fethaluka 
(marijani alone does not always 
mean the true red coral). 
Fresh coral for building, cut from 
bdow high-water mark, matu 
mbawi. 
Cord, ugwe, ukambaa (M.), pi. 

kambaa, kigwe, pL vigwe. 
Cork, kizibo, pi. vizibo. 
Com, nafaka (formerly used as 
money). 
Mnbindi, Indian com. 
Mtama, millet (the most common 

grain). 
Mwere, very tmaU grains growing 
in an upright head something 
like the flower of the bulru4sh. 
Wimbi. 
Eliinanga. 
Comer, pembe. 
Comer of a cloth, tamvua, nta- 
mvua. 
Corpse, mzoga, pi. mizoga, mayiti. 
Corpulence, unene. 
Corruption, howl, kioza. 
Cosmetics. 
Dalia, a yellow composition, 
Yasi, a yellow powder from India. 
Liwa, a fragrant wood front 

Madagascar. 
Kipaji. 
Cotton, pamba. 
Couch, kitanda, pi. vitanda. 
Cough, kikohozi. 
Council, baraza, diwani. 
Councillor, diwani, pi. madiwani. 
Counsel, sbaiiri. 
Countenance, uso, pi. nyuso. 
Country, inchi, nli (M..y T>ie i\amt% 



36 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



of countries are made from the 
name of the people by means of 
the prefix U-. 
Uuyika, the country of the Wa* 
. nyika. 

Ugala, the country of the Wagala. 
UzuDgu, the country of the Wa- 

zuQgu, Europe, 
In the country^ mashamba. 
A country dialect^ lugha ya ki- 
mashamba. 
Courage, u^hujaa, ufAabit, moyo. 
Course (of a ship), mljira. 
Courtesy, jamala, adabu. 
Courtyard (enclosure)^ ua, piL nyna, 
uanda or uanja. 
Court within a house, behewa^ati. 
Cousin, mjukuu, pi. wajukuu. 
Covenant, maagano, sharti. 
Cover (a lid), kifuiiiko. 
A dish cover made of straw and 
often profusely ornamented^ 
kawa« 
A hook cover, jalada. 
Covetousness, tamaa, bakhilL 
Cow, ng'ombe mke, pi, ng'ombe 

wake. 
Cotoard, mwoga, piL waoga. 
Cowardice, uoga. 
Cowry, kauri, ket& 
Crab. k>ia. 

Crack, ufa, pi. nyufa. 
Cramp, kiharusi. 

A cramp, gango, pi, magango. 
Crayfish, kamba. 
Cream, siagL 
Creed, imani. 
Creek, hori. 

Crest, shuDgi (used also for a way 
of dressing the hair in two large 
masses). 
Crew, baharia. 



Crime, taksiri. 

Crocodile, mamba, mbolu (?). 

Crook, kota. 

Crookedness, kombo. 

A crooked thing, kikombo. 
Gross, msalaba, j^ misalaba. 
Cross roads, njia panda. 
Crossing place, kivnko, pH, yivuko. 
Crow, kuDgoru. 

Crowbar, mtaimbo, pi, mitaimbo. 
Crowd, kundi, pi, makundi, ma- 
kutano, matang^amano, umaatL 
Crown, taji. 

Crown of (he head, npaa, ntosL 
Crumbs, vidogo, sing, kidogo. 
Crutch for oars, kilete, pi. vilete. 
Cry, kilio, pi. vilio, ukelele, pL 
kelele, ukemL 

(for help), yowe. 

(of joy), hoihoi, kigelegele. 
Cucumber, tango, pi, matango. 
Cubit (from ifie tip of the middle 
finger to the point of (he elbow), 
thiraa, mkono, pi, mikono. 

(from the point of (he elbow to (he 
knuckles when (he fist is dosed), 
thiraa konde. 
Cultivation, kilimo. 
Cultivator, mkulima, pi, wakulima. 
Cunning, cherevu, werevu. 
Gup, kikombe, pi. vikombe. 
Cupboard, saoduku. 
Cupper, mumishi, pL waumishi 
Cupping horn, chuku. 
Curiosity (rarity), kioja, pi. vioja, 

hedaya, tunu. 
Curlew, sululu, kipila. 
Current, nikondo wa majL 
Curry, mchnzi, mtuzi (M.). 

A smaU seed used in making U, 
bizari. 

An acid thing put into it, kinngo. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



37 



Curse, laana, pi. malaana. 
Curtainy pazia, pL mapazia. 
Curve, kizingo. 
Cushwn, mto, pi. mito. 
A large cushion, takia, pL ma- 

takia. 
Custard apple, topetope, mstofole, 

konokono, matomoko. 
Custom, desturi, mathehebii, ada. 
Gutiom-house, fortha. 
Customt^ duties, ashur. 
Cut, a short cut, njia ya kukata. 
Cutting {breaking off), kato, pi. 

makato. 
CutUe-fish, pweza. 
Arms of the cutUe-fish, nmyiriri, 

pL minyiriri. 
CutunUer of a dhow, hanamiL 
Cypher. See Cipher. 
Cymbals, matoazi, sing. toazL 

D. 

Dagger, jambia (the curved dagger 
generoMy toom), 

Damascus, Sham. 

Dance, mchezo, pi. michezo. 
Names of dances, gnngu, msapata, 
hanzua, kitanga cha pepo, 
soma. 

Dandy, malidadi. 
MtoDgozi, pi. watongoz], a man 
who druses himself up to attract 
women. 

Danger, hatari, khofa, kicho. 

Darkness, Mza, giza {these are only 
two ways of pronouncing the 
same loord, hut the first is some- 
times treated as though the ki- 
were a prefix and it belonged to 
the fourth class, while the second 
is taken as belonging to the fifth ; 
U i$ probably, however^ most 



correct to refer them both to the 

fourth). 
Dark saying, fumbo, pi. mafumbo, 

maneno ya fuitiba. 
Darling, kipendi, pi. vipendL 
Da£es, tende. 

Date-tree, mtende, pi. mitende. 
Daughter, binti, mtoto mke, mwaua, 

kijana. 
Dau,ghter-in-law, mkwe, pi. w&- 

kwe. 
Dawn, alfajiri, kucha. 
Day (of twenty-four hours, reckoned 

from sunset to sunset), siku. 
(time of daylight), mchana, mtana 

(M.). 
All day, mchana kutwa. 
Day labourer, kibama, pi. vibarua 

(so called from the ticket given 

to workpeople, which they give 

up again when paid). 
Daylight, mchana, mtana (M.). 
Dazzle, kiwi. 
Deal (wood), sunobari. 
Death, kufa (dying), mauti, ufu, 

mafu. 
Debt, deni. 
Deceit, hila, madanganya, udanga- 

nifu, hadaa, uwongo. 
Deck, sitaha, dari. 
Deep water, kilindi, pi. vilindi. 

Great depths. Undo, pi. malindo. 
Defect, upungufu, ila, kombo, ki- 

punguo, pi. vipungno. 
Deficiency, kipunguo, upungufu. 
Defilement, ujusi. 
Deliverance, wokovu. 
Demxind in marriage, poso, pi. 

mapoBO. 
Dependant, mfuasi, pi. wafuasi. 
Depth, kwenda, chini,uketo. 
Derision^ mzaha» thWitibksb. 



38 



SWAHILl HANDBOOK. 



Design, kusudi, pZ. maknsudi, nia. 
Descent, mahuko, pi. inishuko. 
Desert, wuiigwo, jongwa, jiL ma- 

jang\*'a. 
Desolation, ukiwa. 
Destruction, kuliaribika, kupotea. 
Destrtictiveness, uharibivu, upotevu. 
Detachment {of soldiers, Ac), kikosi, 

pi. vlkodi. 
Device, liila, shaurl, pit. maskauri. 
Devil, shetuni, pi. Diashetaiii. 
Devotee, mtaowa, pL wataow& 
Dew, umande. 

DliMo {native craft), cUombo, pi. 
vyombo; when very iargie, jombo, 
pi. majombo. 

Kinds of ditoios : — 

Dau, ^ madau, a smaU open 
vessel sharp ai the stem,vnih a square 
matting saiL They belong to the 
originaZ inhabitants of Zanzibar, 
and are chiefly employed in bringing 
firewood to the toicn. 

]\ltepe, pi. mitepe, a large open 
vessel sharp at the stern, with a large 
square mailing sail; the prow is 
made to resemble a camel's head, and 
is ornamented with painting and 
little streamers. The planks are 
sewn together. There is always a 
white pennon at (lie masthead. Tliese 
vessels belong chiefly to Lamoo, and 
the country near it. 

Betela, the common dhow of Zan- 
zibar : it has a square stem, with a 
low poop and a head mu^h like those 
of European boats. 

Bagala, ph mabdgala, large dJiows 
with very high square stems and tall 
poops, and long projecting prows. 
Tfte Indian dhows are mostly of this 
class; tliey have very often a small 



second mast rising from U^e poop 
(mlingote wa kalmi). 

Ghangi, they reseiMe the Bi- 
galas except in not being so hi^ in 
the poop or so long in the prow. 

Batili, a low vessel with a long 
projecting prow, a sJiarp sterti, and 
high rudder-head. They have often 
a flying poop and a second masL 
They belong to the piratieal Arabs 
from the Persian Chdf. 

Bedeni, a dhow with a sharp stem 
and high rudder'head, and a per" 
pendicular cutwater; there is often a 
piece of board atta,ched to tt, making 
a hind of head ; when this is absent 
the vessel is a/n Aweds. Bedens 
may easily be distinguished among 
other dhows by their masts being 
upright ; in aU other dhows the masts 
incline forward. They belong to the 
coast of Arabia, especially that on the 
Indian Ocean, 

Dhow sail, duumi. 

Prow, gubctL 

Poop, shetri. 

Quarter galleries, makanadili. 

Joists of deck, dammetL 

Chunamfor bottom, deliem. 

Place for stowing things likdy to 
be soon wanted, feulL 
Dialect, maneno, lugha. 

Dialects and languages are usually 
expressed by prefldng ki- to the 
name of the place or people. 

Kiungnja {for Maneno ya Kiu- 
nguja), the dialect of Zanzibar 
(Unguja). 

Kioivita, the dialect of Momban 
(Mvita,). 

Eiamu, the dialect of Lamoo 
(Amu). 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



89 



Eignnya, the dialect of Sim, &e. 
Kiarabu, Arabic. 
Kigala, the GaUa language. 
Eimashamba, a country dialect. 
Eishenzi, the talk of some uncivil' 

ized nation, 
Kiungwana, a civilized language. 
KizuDgu, (he languages sjpoken hy 
Ewropeane. 
Diamond, almasi. 
Diarrhasa, tnmbo la knenenda. 
Diet, maaknli. 
Difference, tofautd, sivimoja. 
Difficulty, shidda, ugumu, mashaka. 
Dinner (tnid^day), chakula cha 

mchana. 
Direction (bidding), fundisho, pi. 
mafundisho, agizo, pi. maagizo. 
Dirt, f aka. 

Disease, marathi, nweli, ugonjwa. 
Disfigurement, lemaa. 
Disgrace, tabu, ari, fetheha^ 
Disgust, machiikio. 
Dish, sahani, kombe, pi. makombe, 
mkunga wa kulia, buugu, 
kitunga, pi. vitunga (the first 
is the usual word for European 
dishes). 
An earthen dish to hake cakes on, 
wava. 
Disorder (confusion), fdjo. See 

Disease. 
Display, wonyesho. 
Disposal, amri. 

To put at his disposal, kumwamrla. 
Dispute, masbiudano, tofauti. 
Disquiet, fathaa. 
Dissipation, asherati, wasberati, 

usbeiatL 
Distortion (hy disease), lemaa. 
Distress, sbidda, tholli, uthia, msiba, 
masbaka* 



District of a toum, mta, pi. mita. 
For the districts of Zanzibar see 
Part IL, p. 330. 
Disturhance (riot), fitina. 

(trouble), kero. 
Ditch, haudaki, sbimo, pi. masbimo. 
Divine service, ibada ya Muungu. 
Division (arithmetical), mkasama. 
Divorce, talaka. 
Dock for ships, gudi. 
Doctrine, elimu,alm, matbhab. 
Document, kbati. 
Dog, mbwa. 

Very large, jibwa, pi. majibwa* 
Bize, a wild hunting dog. 
Mbwa wa koko, the houseless dogs 
outside Zanzibar. 
Doll, mtoto wa bandia. . 
Dollar, leale, rea. 
Spanish Pillar dollar, reale ya 

mizinga. 
Black dollars, reale ya Sbam. 
American 20'dollar piece, reale ya 

tbababu. 
French silver S-fra/ne piece, reale 

ya ki&ansa. 
For the parts of a doUar see in the 
section on Adjectives under 
Numerals— fra^ions, p. 93. 
Dome, zege. 

Dominion, mamlaka, bukumu. 
Donkey, punda. 
Donkey from the maiidand, kio- 
ngwe, pi. viongwe. 
Door, m\Ango, pi. milango (vulgarly^ 
mwango, pi. miango). 
Leaf of door, ubau, pi, mbau. 
Centre piece, mfaa. 
Door-keeper, mgoja miango. 
Door chain, riza. 

Doorframe, top and bottom pieces, 
klzingiti, pi. \\z\xig|i\i. 



40 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Side pieeeSj mwimo, miimo. 
Outer heading, upapi. 
Dotage, mapiswa. 
DoM, sliaka, pi. masbaka, tasbwi- 

shi, waswas. 
Dove, hua. See Pigeon & Birds. 
Dowry, paid by the huuiband to the 

loife's friends, mahari. 
Dragon-fly, kering'ende. 
Dragon*s blood, maziwa (or macho), 

ya watu wawili. 
Dream, ndoto. 
Dregs, chembe. 
Dress, nguo, mavazi, mavao, uvao. 

Slaves and very poor men wear 
generally an nguo only, that is, a 
loin doth of white or blue calico. 
Women wear a kisrato, or long doth 
of blue, or printed, or coloured calico 
wrapped tightly round the body 
immediately urider the arms, and on 
the head an ukaya, a piece of blue 
calico with tuoo long ends ; U has a 
string passing under the chin, to which 
a silver ornament, jebu, is attached. 
WeU-dressed men wear a loin cloth 
with a coloured border, kikoi, a long 
shirt-like garment in white calico, 
kanzu, a shawl^ amazu, twisted 
round the waist, a waistcoat, kisibao, 
and a long loose coat, jobo. On their 
heads tfiey wear a red or white skull- 
cap^ kofia, &rtd tvjisted round it a 
turban, kilemba. TTieir feet are 
slipped into sandals, viatu. 

Women wear trousers, soruali, a 
kanzu of coloured materials and a 
kofia (cap) adorned with gold and 
spangles, or more commonly a silk 
handkerchief, dusamali, folded and 
fastened on the head so as to hide the 
hair. They also wear sometimes a 



kisibao (embroidered waisteoai)^ and 
nearly always a mask, barakoa 
When they go otU they throw over all 
a large square of black siUc, lebwani. 
On their feet tliey carry wooden dogs 
hdd by a button (msuruake) grasped 
between the toes. 
Dressing of calico, dondo. 
Drill, keke. The iron is called 

kekee ; the wood it is fixed in, 

msukano ; the handle in which it 

turns, JLVTi ; and the bow, uta. 
Drink, kinwa (or kiny wa), pi. yinwa, 

kinwaji, ph vinwaji. 
Drinker, mnywa, pL wanywa 
Dripping (fat cooked oul of meat\ 

uto wa nyama. 
Drop, tone, j»2. matone, kitone, pL 

vitone. 
Droppings (dung)^ mayi. 
Dropsy, istiska. 

Drowsimss, leppe, leppe za uzingizi. 
Drum, ngoma. 
Cbapuo, a small drum. 
Kumbwaya, a drum upon feet. 
Msondo, a very tall drum^ bealen 

on special occasions. 
The skin of a drum, or anything 

stretched like it very tightly ^ ki- 

wambo, pi. viwambo. 
Drunkard, mlevi, pi. walevi. 
Duck, bata, pi. mabata. 
Duryan, finessi la kizungu. 
Dust, vumbi, pi. (much dust) ma- 

yumbi. 
Dust and sand on a road, tifiiti^ 
Duties. See Oustoms. 
Duties of one*s position, kiwango, 

pi. viwango. 
Dwarf, kibeti, pi. vibeti. 
Dwelling, makao, makazi, makani, 
Dye, langL [masikaui. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



41 



Mkasiri, a tree who»e hark i$ used 
to dye JUMng-neU and lines 
Hack, 

Ungamo, a yeUow dye used to dye 
maUing. 
Dysentery^ tumbo la kuhara damu. 

E. 

Eagerness (excessive haste), pupa. 
Eagle (?) koho, firkomba, tai, pu- 
ngn, kipanga (aU these words 
seem to denote some large bird of 
prey). 
Ear, sikio, pil. masikio. 

Hole pierced in the lower lobe of 

the ear, ndewe. 
Ear ornaments, a large round 
ornament in the loioer lobe, 
jassi, pi, majassi. 
Ornaments in the upper part of 
the ear, if dangling, kipoli, pi. 
vlpTili; if shaped like a stud, 
kipini, pL Tipini. 
Ear-ring, pete ya masikio. 
Ear of com, suke, ph masnke. 
See Bumih, Cob. 
Earnest money, arabuni, stakabathi. 
Earth, inchi, udongo. 

The earth, inchi, ulimwengu, 
Ease, raha. [dunia. 

After pain, faraja. 
Ecut wind, matlaa. 
Eaves, mchilizi, pi. michilizi. 
Eavesdropper, dukizi (or duzi), pi, 

madukizL 
Efxmy, mpingo. 
Echo, mwangwL 
Edge (of a precipice), ukingo. 
(Of a piece of cloth), pindo, pi, 
mapindo. 
Edging woven into a piece of doth, 
tuaza. 



Effort, juhudi, bidii. 

Effusion {of blood), vilio (la damn), 

pL mavilio. 
Egg, yayi, pi. mayayi. 
White of egg, ute wa yayi. 
Tolk of an egg, kiini cha yayi. 
EggsheU, ganda la yayL 
Empty eggshell, kaka.. 
Egypt, Misri, Masri, Massara. 
Elbow, kisigino, pi. visigino, kiyi, 

pi, vivi. 
Elder, mzee, pi. wazee, sheki, pi. 

masheki. 
Elegance, janiala. 
Elephant, tembo, ndovu. 
Elephantiasis (leprosy), jetbama. 

{Barbadoes leg), teende. 
Embarrassment, matata, uthia, ma- 

sbaka. 
Embroidery, almaria. 
(stitching), darizi. 
(piping), kigwe, pi, vigwe. 
Embroilment, matata. 
Emetic, tapisbo, j^L matapisho, dawa 

la kutapika. 
Employment, kazi, utumwa. 
Emulation, bidii. 
Encampment (of a caravan), kitiio, 

pi. vituo. 
Enclosure, iianja, ua, pi, nyua. 
Enclosure made by a fence of 
cocoornut leaves, ua wa ma- 
kuti. 
Enclosure made by a fence of 

mtama stalks, ua wa mabua. 
Enclosure with a stone fence, 
kitalu, pi. vitalu. 
End, mwisho. pi. miisbo (finishing), 
hatima, kikomo, pi, vikomo 
(leaving off), 
of a journey y kifiko, pi. vifiko, 
of a piece of clotK, "aA^\^\xwu 



42 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



End or comers of a turban doth, Ac, 

tamvua, kishungi, ^l. visbungi. 
Enemy, adui, pi. adui or raaaciui. 
Engagement, shnghuli, ntumwti. 
Enigma, kitendawili, pL vitenda- 

wilL 
Enmity, wadni, adawa, khnauma. 
Entrails, matiimbo. 
Entrance, kningia, pakuingilia, 

mlango. 
Envy, hasidi, kijicho, kijito (M.). 
Epilepsy, kifafa. 
Equal {in age), hirimu, marikak 
Equivalent, badala^ 
Error, kosa, makosa. 
Eructation, kiiingulia, pZ. viungiilia. 
Escape, wokoYU» kuokoka. 

(other course), buddi. 
Esteem, mapendo, maafikano. 
Estimate, maafikano. 
Eternity, milele. 
Eunuch, tawashi, maksai. 
Euphorbia, mtnpa, pL mitnpa. 
Europe, Ulaya, Wilaya, Uzuno^. 
European (or any one wearing a 

European dress), Mzungu, pi. 

Wazungu. 
Eve, Hawa. 
Evening, jioni. 
Event (startling), shani. 
Evil, uovu. 

Exaltation, ntuknfu, athama. 
Example, nifaiio, pi. mifauo. 
Excrement, mavi. 
Expense, gharama. 
Extinguisher, mzima (a person), pi. 

wazima, kizima (a thing), pi. 

yizima. 
Eye, jicho, piL macho, jito (M.), pi. 

mate. 
IjOss of an eye, chongo. 
Eyebrow, nyushi, nshi (A.). 



Eyekuih or Eyelid, kope. 
A stye in the eyej obochea. 

F. 

Fahle, ngano. 
Face, 1180, pt njuao. 
Fasces, mavi 
Faggot, tita, pL matita. 
Faith, imam. 
Fall, maaognko. 
Falsehood, nwongo. 
Familiarity, mazoezo. 
Family, jamaa, ndug^. 
Famine, njaa, ndaa (M.). 
Fan, upepeo pi. pepeo, pepeo. pi. 
mapepeo, kipepeo, pL vipepeo. 
Fare, nanli. 
Fast, fuDga. 

Fasting month, RamathanL 
Fat. shahamu, mafuta. 

A piece cf fat, kipande kilicho- 
nona. 

Fat cooked out of meat, nto wa 
nyama. 
Fate, ajali. 
Father, baba. 

In speaking of on^s own father it 
is polite to caU him bwana. 

Stepfather, baba wa kambo. 

Father-in-law, mkwe. pi. wakwe. 
Fathom, pima, pi. mapima. 
Fatigue, utufu, ulegevn. 
Fatting, kinono, pi. vinono. 
FauU, hatiya, kosa, pi. makosa. 
Favour, upendeleo. 

A favour, fathili. 
Favourite, kipendi, pi. vipendi, 

mpenzi, pi. wapenzi. 
Fear, khofu, uoga, kitisho, pi. 

vitisho, kiolio, pi. viclio. 
Feast, karamu. 

Fea^t day, siku kuo. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



43 



FeaXkopy nnyoa, pZ. njoa, nyoa {w 
nyoya), 'pL manyoya. 
A %oing feoUher, abawa,|)2. mbawa. 
Feeder^ mlishi, pi. walishi. 
Fellow-servant, mjoli, pi, wajoli. 
Fence, ua, pi, nyiia. 

Stone fence, kitali],|>Z. yitalcb 
Fenugreek, watu. 
Ferry, kivuko, p\, yiynko. 
Fettere, pingu. 
Fever, homa. 
SvoeUing of the glands of the groin 

followed hy fever, mtoki. 
Dengue femer, kidinga popo. 
Field, koonde, pi makoonde, mgih 

nda (Yao). 
Field labourer, mkulima^^ waku- 

lima. 
Fierceness, ukaU. 
Fig, tini. 

Fig-tree, mtini, pi. mitini. 
Fight, mapigano. 

Figure of speech, mfano wa maneno; 
Filagree work, temsi 
File, tnpa. 

Fillet, ntepe, pi. tepe. 
FiUh, uchayn, janaba. 
Fin, pezi, pL mapezi. 
Fine for a murder, dia. 
Fineness, nzuri. 

Finger, kidole, pi. vidole, kidole cha 
mkono, chanda (M.),pil. yyanda. 
Fire, moto, pi. mioto. 
Piece» of wood to get fire hy twist- 
ing, upekecho. 
Firewood, kuni, one piece, iikuni. 
A half-burnt piece of firewood, 

kinga^^ yinga. 
The act of pushing the toood further 
into the fire, or an instrument for 
doing M>^ohocheo,kitoteo (M.)> 
Fireplace, jiko> pL meko,. meko, | 



pi. mieko, hence kitchen, jikoni, 
mekoni. 
Three stones to set a pot over the 
fire upon, jifya, pi. luafya, figa, 
pi. mafiga. Jifya is the word 
most used in the town, figa that 
used in the country. 
Firefly, kimnrimuri, pi. Timnrimnri, 

kimetimeti, pL vimetimeti. 
Firmament, anga (?). 
Firmness, usimeme, u^biti, (in 

buHdingy mtomo. 
Fish, samaki. 
Dagaa, very smaU, small fry. 
Njombo, barred with Uacik and 

yellow. 
Taa, a very large flat fish. 
Pono, a fish said to be nearly 

always asleep. 
Other hinds, Chafi, Changn, 
Chewa, Kungu, Mchumbulura, 
Mkizo, Mwewe, Mzia, Nguni, 
Nguva, Panzi, Pungu. Tlie 
varieties of fish are exceedingly 
numerous. 
Chinnsi, a hind of fish or evil 
spirit never seen, but which is 
supposed to seize men and held 
them undev water until they are 
drowned. 
Fish-trap, d^ma^ lema, cma. 
Fish poison from a species of 
Euphorbia, utupa. 
Fisherman, mvuvi, pL wavuvi. 
Fist, konde, pi. makoDd>e. 
Fits, kifafa. 
Flag, bandma. 
Flat (of a sword, Ac.), bapa. 
Flatterer, msifu, pi. wasifu, msifu- 
mno. 
Self-flatterer, mwajisifuni. 
Flattery, koBifo. 



44 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Flavour^ lutkthfl, tnmu. 

T%ax, katani, kitanL 

JFYea, kiroboto, pj. viioboto. 

Fleshy nyama. 

Fleshiness, mnofn. 

Flint gun, bunduki ya gumegume. 

Flood, gharika. 

Floor, chini. 

Chunammed floor, sakafu. 
Upper floor or roof, dari. 
Flovoer, ua, pL maua. 
Flue, Yumbi, pL {mucK) mavumbi. 

A flue, dohaan. 
Flute^ filimbi, ph mafilimbL 
Fly, inzi, pL mainzi. 
Foam, povu. 

Fog, nmande, kungu, shemali. 
Fold {of cloth), upindo. 

CattU'fold, zizi, pL mazizi. 
Foliage, majani. 

FoUoioer, mfuasi, pi. wafuasi, cho- 
kora, ph raachokora (a hanger- 
on). 
FoUy, upumbafu. 
Fondness, mahaba. 
Food, chakula, makuli (Ar.), kaDde 
(Mer.). 
Food saved from an evening meal 
to he eaten in the morning, wall 
wa mwikuTi, bariyo (A.). 
Bokoboko, a dish made of wheat 

and meat. 
Bumbwi, rice flour pourided up 

with cocoornuf, 
Pilao, an Indian piUaw, 
Birinzi. 
Fool, mpiimbafu, pi. wapumbafu. 
Foot, mguu, pi. miguu, guu, pi. 
magun, mjiguu, pi. mijiguu 
{large), kijiguu, ph vijiguu 
. (small). 
Footprint, uayo, pi. nyayo. 



Footing — to make him pay his foot' 

ing, kumshika hakali. 
Forbidden thing, haramu, maraftiku. 
Force, nguvu. 
Ford, kivuko, pi. vivuko. 
Forehead, paji la uso. 

Brow, kikomo cha uso. 
Foreigner, mgeni, pL wageni, mja 

na maji, pL waja na maji {from 

over seas). 
Forelock, panja. 
Foreskin, govi mbo. 
Forest, mwitu, msitu. 
Fork, kiuma, pi. viiima. 
Forking of a road, tree, dtc, panda. 
Form (outward shape), umbo, pi. 

maumbo. 
Fort, gereza, ngome, hosuni. 
Fortune, bahati, nasibu. 
Fortune'teller(by m.eans of diagrams), 

mpiga ramli, pi. waplga ramli. 
Foster brother or sister, ndugu 

kunyonya. 
Foundation, msingi or msinji, piL 

misingi. 
Fowls, k'uku. 
Fox, mbweha. 

Fraud, hadaa, madanganya. 
Freedom (from, slavery) burn, (per^ 

mission) ruksa, ruhusa. 
Freight, nauli. 
Friday, Jumaa. 
Friend, rafiki,j72. rafiki or marafiki, 

sahibu, pi. as'habu, shoga 

(amongst women, and in Zanzi" 

bar only. See Oatamite). 
Fright, khofu, woga. 

(a start), kituko. 
Fringe, matamvaa. 
Frog, chula, pi. vyula. 
Fruit, tunda, pi, matunda, zao, pL 

mazaa 



BUBSTANJ'l VE8: 



45 



Biingtr, pi, mabmiga, about the 
tize of a medlar^ with a thick 
rfisset skin, 
Mazu, a kind of hancma. 
Zambarau, like a large damson. 
Ghokochoko, a red prickly skin, 
a large kernel, and white pulp. 
Kunazi, something like a sloe. 
Kitoria, pL yitoria. — ^Koma, pi. 
makoma. — Fun, pi. mafau. 
— Mtofaa. 
Fruit which drops prematurely, 

pooza, pi. mapooza. 
Fruit-stalk, (of cloves') kikonyo, 
pi. vikonyo, {of bananas) mku- 
ngn, pi miknngu. 
Frying-pan, (metal) tawa, pi. 
matawa, (earthen) kaango, pi. 
makaango. 
Fugitive, mkimbizi, pL wakimbizi. 
Fume, azma, fukizo. 
Fun, mchezo, mzaba. 
Funeral, kuzikaui. 
Furnace (for melting metaZ), kalibu. 
Furniture, pambo la nyuiuba, 
vyombo. 

G. 
Gain, fayida. 
Gait, mwendo. 
Galago, komba. 
GaJbanum, ubanL 
GuU, saf ura. 

GdHa, Mgala, pi. Wagala. 
Game, ( produce of hunting) mawi- 
ndo, (amusement) mchezo, ma- 
chezo. 
"Beuo, played on a hoard with thirty- 
two holes in it. 
Maliyandimu, a game in which 
one holds down his head, some 
other knocks it, and he guesses 
who struck him. 



Tiabn, played by throwing up 
sticks, Ac, and watching their 
faH 
Dama, played on a hoard like 

chess. 
Tasa, a game of touch. 
Tmge,a game consisting in follow- 
ing the movements of a leader. 

Garden, bustani, shamba. 

Gate, mlango, pi. mllango. 
Gate of Paradise, kilango cha 
jaha. 

GazeUe, paa. 

General^ jemadari, pi. majemadari. 

Generation, kizazi, pi. yizazi. 

Generosity, ukarimu. 

GeniuSt Jini, pi. Majini. 

Gentleman,mugwaji&, |)Z. wangwana. 

Gentleness, upole. 

Georgian woman, Jorjiya. 

Gettings, pato, pi. mapato. 

Ghee, samli. 

Ghost, kivuli, pi. vivnli. 

Ghoul^ zimwi, pi. mazimwi. 

Giddiness, masua, mbesua, kiza- 
nguzungu. 

(xift, zawudi (a keepsake), tunn (a 
choice thing), bashishi (Jiargess), 
ada (customary gift), kilemba 
(gift on the completion of a work 
or to the bride* 8 father) f wapo. 

Ginger, tangaWizi. 

Giraffe, twiga. 

Girder, mhimili, pi. mihimili. 

Girdle, mshipi, pi. mishipi, masombo 
(of cloth), maazamu (a shawl), 
kibobwe, pi. vibobwe (o piece 
of doth tied round the body 
during hard work). 

Girl, kijana, pi. vijana. 
Slave girl, kijakazi, pi, yijakazi. 

Girth, kivimba. 



46 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Gizzard, firigisi. 
Gladness, furaha. 
Glance, nathiri. 
Glare, anga. 
Glass, kioo. 

Jjoohing-glass, kioo, pi. vioa 

Drinking -ghiss, bilauri. 
Glitter, kimeta. 
Glory, sifa, fakhari, utukufu. 
Gltie (or gum), embwe. 
Glutton, mlafi, pL walafi. 
Goat, mbiizi. 

A strong he-goat, bebera (Ar.). 
GoAtetween, kijumbe,pZ. vijumbe. 
GOD, MUUNGU, pL miungu. 
Goitre, tezi. 
Gold, thahabu. 
Goldsmith, mfua thahabu, pi, wafua 

thahubu. 
Good luck, ghanima, jaba. 
Goodness, wema. 

Goods, mall (possessions'), yyombo 

(utensils), bithaa (merchandise). 

Goose, bata la Bukini, piL mabata 

ya Bukini. 
Gonorrhoea, kisunono. 
Gourd. See Pumpkin. 
Gout^ jongo. 

(Governor, wall, liwali, pL maliwali. 
Government, serkali, daulati. 

An official, mtu wa sericali. 
Chrain. See Com. 

Cleaned grain, mchele. 

Cooked grain, wali. 

Chrains of com, ponje, chembe. 
Grandchild, mjukuu, pi. wajukuu. 

Great-grandchild, kijukuu, ph 
vijukuu, kltukuu, pi. vitukuu, 
kilembwe, pi. vilembwe. 

(jhreat'great-grandchild,'k\mTi^Ti9k. 
pL viningina. 
Grandfather, babo. 



Cfrandmother, bibi. 

Crreat-grandmother, mzaa bibL 
Grammar, sdruf. 
Grapes, zabibu. 
Chraiitvde, shukrani. 
Chrass, nyasi, majani, nyika. 

gra^s etU for fodder, ukoka. 
Grasshopper, panzi, pL mapanzL 
(jhrave, kaburi, pL makaburi. 
In the grave, after death, ahera, 
kuzimu. 
Greatness, ukubwa, uknn, utnknfa. 
Chreediness, choyo, roho, tamaa. 
Crrey hairs, mvi. 
Ghridiron, uma wa kuokea nyama, 

pi. nyuma za kuokea nyaina. 
Chrief, sikitiko, kasarani, msiba, 
huzuni, hamu, simanzL 
(for a loss), majonzi. 
Chime (on a pot), mabizL 
Grit (small stones), cliangarawL 
Groom, mchunga, pi. wachunga, 

mtunga (M.), pi, watunga. 
Growid, chilli, inchi. 
Ground nuts, mjugu nyasa, (a liard 

round kind) mjugu mawe. 
Chrudging person, hiana. 
(xruel, uji. 

(hmrd, mlinzi, pi. walinzL 
(hmva, mpera, pi. mapera. 

Guava-tree, mpera, pi. mipera. 
Guest, mgeni, pi. wageiiL 
Guide, rubani, kiongozi,|>2. Yion.gozi, 

mkuu genzi. 
Guitar, kinanda, pL viaanda 
Chiineafowl, kanga. 

(a crested kind), korora 
Gum (hirdlime, (fee), ulimbo. 
Crum {of the teeth), ufizi, pi. fizi. 
Gum Arabic, haba, sumugh. 
Gum Amini or Copal, sandarusi. 
Gun, bunduki. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



47 



Flint ^un,biindxiki ya gumegume. 

Gun4)arrel, kasiba. 

Nipple, kifa, pi, vifa* 

Gun-fiapy fataki. 

Gun-lock, mtambo, pi. mitambo. 

(cannon), mzinga, pi. mizinga. 

Giin-carricLge^ gurudumo la 



mzinga. 



Crunpowder, baruti. 
Gvi, tumbo, jp2. matumba 

H. The guUural Arabic h, ha ngoe. 
The softer Arabic h, he mdawari. 
Habits, mazoezo, mathehebu. 
Haemorrhoids, bawasir. 
Haft, mpini, pt, mipini, kipini, pi. 

vipinL 
Hair, nyele {or nwele), sing, unyele. 
(pf the heard\ ndevu, sing, udevu. 
(of the body, especially of the 

pubes), mavuzi, sing, yozl 
(of (he eyebrow), nyuahi, sing. 

onynshi. 
(of the eyelash), kope, sing, nkope. 
(of the hand and arm), malaika, 

sing, laika. 
(of an animal), siDga. 
Straight hair, nyele za singa. 
Woolly hair, nyele za kipillpili. 
Half, nusu. 
A half orange, cocoa-nut, d:c. .kizio, 
pi. vizio. 
Halyards, henza. 

Ropes passing through the pulley 
of the halyards, jarari. 
Hammer, nyundo. 
Hand (or arm and hand), mkono, 
pL mikono. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga olia 
mkono, pi. vitanga vya mikono. 
Front of the hand, kofi, pi. makofi. 



Inside of (he fingers, kikofi, pi. 
vikofi. 
Handful {that will lie on the handX 
ukufi, pi. kufi. 
(that which vnU lie on the two 

hands), chopa, pi. machopa. 
(that can be grasped in the hand), 
koDzi, pi. makonzl 
Handkerchief, leso. 

Poclcet handkerchief, leso ya ku- 
futia kamasi. 
Handle (like a knife-handle), mpini, 
pi. mipini, kipini, pi. vipini. 
(prcjeciing like that of a sauce- 
pan), kono, mkono, pi. mxkono. 
(J)owed like that of a bucket), 
utambo, pi. tambo. 
Handwriting, khati, mwandiko. 
Hanger-on, chokora, ph machokora. 
Happiness, furaha, fiirahani, raha. 
Harbour, bandari, bundari. 
Hardness, ugnmu. 
Hare. See Babbit, 
Harm, mathara. 
Harnesst matandiko. 
Harp, kinnbi, pL vinubi. 
Harpoon, ohusa, pi. vyusa. 
Harvest, mavuno. 
Haste, haraka, hima. 
Hat, chapea 

Hatchet, kishoka, pi. vishoka, kitoka 
(M.), pi. vitoka, upamba, pi. 
pamba. 
Hatred, macbnkio, buothu. 
Hawk, mwewe. 
Hawker, dalali. 

Head, kitwa (or kichwa), pL 
vitwa. 
A little head, kijitwa, pi. vijitwa. 
Head of a ship, omo. 
Head winds, pepo za omo. 
Head doth worn 6t| \!}omeTi)\xk&^^ 



48 



SWABILI HANDBOOK. 



(of blue ealico), dusamall (0/ 
silk). 
Headship^ ujumbe. 
Healing ihingSy mapoza. 
Healthy uziiua, afia, hali {stated 
Heap, fungu, pL mafungu, 
chnngu. 
of stones, boma, pi. maboma. 
of wood and sticks, biwi, pi. 

mabiwi, kichaka, pi. yichaka. 
of earth, kisngulu, pi, visngulu. 
(a raised bed), tuta, pi. matuta. 
Heart, moyo, pi. mioyo, or nyoyo, 

mtiiua, pi. mitima. 
Heat, moto, hari (sweat), harara 

(prickly heat). 
Heaven, mbingu, sing, nwingu, 

samawati (Ar.). 
Heaviness (weight), uzito. 

(sorrow), hamu. - 
Hedge, ua, pi. nyna. 
Hedge made in the sea for taking 
fish, uzio, pi. nyuzio. 
Hed, kifundo (or kisigiiio) cha 

mgua. 
Heifer, lutamba^ pi. mitamba. 
Heir, miithi, pi. wari^^L 
Help, msaada. 
Hem, upindo. 

Hemp. See Cannabis Indica. 
Hempen rope, kamba ulayiti. 
Hen, k'uku. 
Laying hen, koo, pi. makoo. 
Hen, fuU groton, but that has not 
yet laid, t embe. 
Henna, hina. 

Herd, kundi, pi. makundi. 
Herdsman, mchunga, pi. wacbunga, 

mtanga (M.), pi. watunga. 
Hero, shnjaa, pi. mashujaa, fabali, 
pi. mafahali. 
Teroism, ushigaa. 



Hesitation, msangao. 
(in speaking), knbabaika. 

Hickup, kwikwe. 

Hidden thing, fumbo, pi. mafumba 

Hide, ngozi. 

HiU, kilima, pi. vilima. 
A rocky hUl, jabali, pi. maja- 
ball. 

HiU, kipini, pi. vipini. 

Hindrance, kiznizo, kiznio, kizuizi. 
It is said that Dr. Krapf, being 
on one occasion delayed from 
day to day, in obedience to 
superior orders, said to those 
who delayed him: — Kesho oa 
keslio ni madanganya, ao ni 
niakatazanya. ^ To-morrow 
and to-morrow is deceiving or 
forbidding ;** to which they re- 
plied: — Si madanganya wala 
si makatazanya, ni mazuiza- 
nya. ** It is not deceiving, and 
it is not forbidding, it is delay' 
ing.*' 

Hinge, patta, bawaba. 

Hip, nyonga (?), tokono (A.). 

Hippopotamus, kiboko, pi. yiboko, 
tomondo. 

Hire, taja, ijara, ujira. 

History, hadithi. 

Hoarseness, kiipwewa na saull. 

Hoe, jembe (or gembe), pi, ma- 
jembe. 

Hoeing-up time, mapalilo. 

Held (of a ship), ngama. 

Hole, tundu, pi. matundu. 
(through anything), kipenyo, pi, 

vipenyo. 
(dibbled for seeds or plants), ko- 

rongo, pi. makorongo. 
Hole to give light and air, mwa- 
ngaza, pi. miangaza. 



SUB8TANT1VEB 



49 



Sole in the lower lobe oj the ear, 
ndewe. 
Holiness, ntakatifa, matakatiftu 
HoUow (of a tree), mTimgxL 
HoUoumess, uyiinmga. 
Home, kwanga, kwako, kwake, 
kwetu, kwenu, kwao, according 
to the person whose home it is. 
1 have some ai home, iko kwango. 
Honey, asali y a nynkL 
Honour, heBhima, ukarimu, ntu- 

knfo. 
Hoof, ukwato, pi, kwato, kwata. 
Hook {fish'hooh), doana. 
(used to steady work with), 
kolabo. 
Hope, matmnainL 
Hordeolum, oliokea. 
Horn, pembe, pi, pembe or ma- 
pembe. 
An antelopes horn used as a 
trumpet, baragamu. See 
Musical Instruments, 
Horse, farasi, fras. 
Host (army or mvUitude), jeahi, pi, 
majeehi 
Host (entertainer), mwenyeji, pi. 
wenyeji 
Hostility, wadni, adawa. 
Hour, saa. 
House, nynmba. 
(large), jumba, pi. majumba. 
{small), kiJTimba, pi. vijumba. 
Household of slaves, kijoU. 
Hum, mavamL 
Eumility, unenyekea 
Hump (of an ox), nnndo. 

{of a humpback), kigongo. 
Hunger, njaa, ndaa (M.). 
Handred, mia. 

Tioo hundred, uui&ea. 
HuiUer, mwinda, pi. wawinda. 



Hurry, haraka. 

Husband, mume, pi: wanme. 

Husk, ganda, pL maganda. 

Husk and bran of rice, kumvi. 

Husk of the cocoa-nut, makumbi. 
Hutj kibanda^ pL vibanda. 
Hyssna, fisi, pisL 

Spotted hyxna, kingubwa. 
Hydrocele, Dushipa, pumbo, kito- 

nga(?) 
Hypocrite^ mnafiki, pi, wanafiki. 



Ibo, Wibo. 

Idiot, hayawani 

Idleness, uyItu. 

Idolater, kafiri. pi. makafiri. 

Ignorance, ujinga. 

Ima^e, sanamu. 

Imperial. See Beard. 

ImpreecUion, apizo, pi. maapizo. 

Imprisonment, kifango. 

Incense, buhuri, ubani, uynmba, 

uudL See Censer, 
Income, pato. 
Independence, npweke. 
Indian (heathen), Banyani, pi. Ma- 

banyani. 
Indian {MahommedanX Mubindi, 

pi. Wahiadi 
Indian rubber, mpira. 
Indian com, muhindi. See Maize. 
Infection, kuambukiza. 
Infidel, kafiri, pi. xnakafirL 
Infirmity, uthaifu. 
Information, babari. 
Ingenuity, uyuzi, nmabeli 
Inheritance, UTithi. 
Inheritor, miithi, pi. xrKiithL 
Ink, wino. 

Inkstand, kidau cba wino. 
Inlaid worh^ nixmixu 



\ 



50 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Innovation, mzuzi, pi. mizuzi. 
Innovatory mzuslii, pi. wazushi 
Insect, mdudu, pi. wadudu. 

Paange, gadfly. 

Manyiga, hornet 

Dudu vule, a boring hornet. 

Buuzi, pi. mabunzi, a stinging 

fly- 

Vunja jiingo, a mantis. 
Borosboa, a long-shaped hlach 

insect found in dust-heaps. 
Insolence (self-sufficiency), kinaya. 
Instruction, mafundisho. 
Instruments (nautical), vipande Tya 

kupimia. 
Insult, tukano, pi. matukano. 
Intellect, akili {generally treated as 

a plural noun of Class III.). 
Intention, nia, kasidL 
Interpretation, tafsiri. 
Interpreter, mkalimani, pi. wakali- 

mani, posoro. 
Intestines, matumbo. 

Small intestines, cbango. 
Interruption, kizuizo, pi. vizuizo. 
Intoxicating thing, kileo, pi. vileo. 
Intoxication, kileo, kulewa. 
Intri^r, kizusbi, pi. yizusbi, fisadi 

(one who enters a house without 

lawful purpose). 
Invalid, mgonjwa, pi. wagonjwa. 
Iron, cbuma. 

A piece of iron, cbuma, pi. vyuma. 
Iron bar, mtaimbo, pi. mitaimbo. 
Island, kisiwa, pi. yisiwa. 
Itch, upele, pele. 
Itching, mnyeo. 
Ivory, pembe. 
a large tusk, buri. 



J. 



Jackal, mbwa wa mwitu. 



Ja^ikfruii, fined, pi. roafinesi. 

Jaxikfruit tret, mfinesi, pi. mi- 
finesi. 
Jar {for carrying iD(Uer\ intungi, 
pi. mitungi. 

Jar (large), kasikL 
Jasmine, jasminL 
Jaw, taya. 
Jealousy, uwivu. 

Jealous anger, gbeiii. 

To weep for jealousy, kulia ngoa. 
Jewel, jobari. 
Jin, jini, pi. majinL 
Johanna, Anzwani. 
Joint, kiungo, pi. viungo. 

(in a cane), fundo, pi. mafundo. 

(piece between tioo Joints in a 
cane), pingllL 
Joist, boritL 
Joke, ubisbu 
Journey, safari, mwendo. 

Two days* journey, mwendo wa 
siku mbili. 
Joy, furaba. 

Judge, katbi, pi. makatbi, mwa- 
muzi, pi. waamuzi, mwamua, 
pi. waamua. 
Judgment, buknmn, maamuri. 
Jug, kopo, pi. makopo. 
Juice, maji. 
Justice, bakL 

K. 

Kiel, mknka, ntako (Mer.). 
Kernel, kisa, pi. visa. 
Kettle, kanderinya. 
Key, ufunguo, pi. fungua 
Kick, teke, pi. mateke. 
Kidney, nso, figo (M.). 
Kind, namna, ginsi, aina. 
Kind, sort or style is expressed by 
ki. prefixed to (he place, thing^ 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



61 



cr people. Kihindi, fke Indian 
tort, Kizunga, the European 
sort. 
Tiatu yya Kihindi, shoes Uke 

those worn by the Indians. 
Viazi yya Kizungu, sioeet potatoes 
ofiheEuropean sort,te. potatoes. 
Havazi ya kifaume, robes of the 
kingly sort, royal robes. 
Kindness, wema. 
Eoery kindness^ killa jambo la 

wema. 
A kindness, fatbili. 
Kindred, ndagu, jamaa. 

XJtani, the belonging to a kindred 

r<Me, 
Htani, pi. watani, a person of a 
kindred race. 
King, mfalme, pi. wafalme, malki, 
maliM. 
Chess king, shah. 
Kingdom, ufalme, ufaloine, ufaume, 

Tnilki, miilki 
Kinsman, ndugn, jamaa. See 

Kindred. 
Kiss, busu. 

Kitchen, jikoni, mekoni 
Kite (bird), mwewe. 

(toy), tiara. 
Knee, gote, pi. magote, ondo, pi. 

maondo (A.). 
Knife, kisu, pi. visa. 
(large), jlsu, pi. majisu. 
Kotama, a curved knife used in 

getting palm wine. 
Shembea, a kind of curved knife. 
Knight (chess), frasi. 
Knot, fundo, pi. mafundo. 
Knowingness, njuvi, njnzi, werevu. 
Knowledge, maarifa, elimu, bekima. 
Koran, korani, furakanu, msabafu. 
It is divided into thirty juzuu, 



which together make a khitima 
nzima. 



Labour, kazL 
Labour pains, ntungu. 

Lac (100,000), lakki 

Ladder, ngazi. 

Ladle made out of a eocoa-nu<, kata, 
pi. makata (deep, used to dip 
up water with); upawa, pi. 
pawa (shaUow, used for gravy, 
curry, &c.). 

Lady, bibi, mwana mke wa kin- 
ngwana. 
Lady of the house, mwana. 
Ladylove, mchumba. 

Lake, ziwa la maji, pi. maziwa. 

Lamoo, Amu. 

Lamp, taa. 
Lampstand, a piece of wood with 
two flat pieces projecting at 
right angles on which the lamp 
is placed, mwango, pi. miango. 
Lampwick, utambi, pi. tambi. 

Land, incbl, nti (M.). 

Landing-place, diko, pi. madiko, 
liko, pi. maliko. 

Language, lugha, maneno. The 
language of a place or nation 
is expressed by the use of the 
prefix ki-. Maneno ya Kin- 
nguja or Kiungnja,<^e language 
of Zanzibar. Kinyamwezi, Uie 
language of the Nyamwezi 
tribe. See Dialect. 
Filthy and insulting language, 
matukano. 

Languor, ntepeteya. 

Lantern, fanusi, kandili, pi. ma- 
kaudili. 

Lappet, kishtnig^, pi. Ni^xxw^. 

Y.1 



52 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Largess, takarima, bashishi. 

Lathe, keezo. 

Laugh, cheko, pL maoheko, kicUeko, 

pi. vioheko. 
Law, sheria, htiknmiL 
Lead, risasi, rusasL 

(Jor sounding), bildL 
Leader, klongozi, pi. yiongozi. 
Leaf {of a tree), jani, pi, majanL 
(of a cocoa-nut tree), kuti, pi. 

makuti. 
Leaf (of a hook), ukurasa, pi. 
kurasa. 
Lean^o, kipenu, piL Tipenu. 
Learning, elimu. 
A man of learning, mwana wa 
ckuoni. 
Leather, ngozi, ngoyL 
Leave, niksa, ruhnsa. 

To tahe leave, kuaga. 
Leaven, chachu, hamira. 
Lee side, Bpande wa chini. 
Leech, mruba, pL miruba, mdudu 

afyonzaye damn. 
Lefthandedness, shoto. 
Leg (or foot), mguu, pi. miguu. 
(of a native bedstead), tendegu, 

pi. matendegn. 
Loss of the use of the legs, kitewe» 
kiwete. 
Leg ring. See AnhleL 
Legend, badithi. 
L«umre (private time), fiaragba, 

makini. 
Lemon, limao, pi. malimao. 
Xen^, urefii. 
Leo^rd, chai, tui (M.). 
Leprosy, ukoma, balanga, jetbamu, 

matana. 
Letter, waraka, pL nyaraka, barua, 
kbati. 
Letter (of the alphabet), herufu. 



I Lever, myukato, plL mifukuto. 
Liair, mwongo, piL wawonga 
Liberality, ukarimu. 
Licentiousness, waaheratL 
Licorice, bus. 
Lid, kifiiniko>j>t. yiftiniko, kibia,p(. 

Tibia, mkuDgu wa kafanikia. 
Lie, wongo, uwango. 
Life, uzima (heaUh\ maiaha (ooii- 

tinuance), robo (soul). 
Light, nam, weupe, mwanga^ pL 

mianga, anga, pL maanga 

(glare). 
Lighthole, m?raDgaza, jpL mia* 

ngaza. 
Lights (of an animal), yavnyaTiL 
Lightning, nmeme. 
Like (similar thing), ki&oi, pL 

vifanL 
Likeness, mfano, pi. mifano, kifieuio 

pi. vifano, sanamu, sura. 
Lime, chokaa. 
Lime (fruit), dimn. 
Sweet lime, dimn tamu. 
Limit, mpaka, pL mipaka (houn* 

dary), Mnga (block), npoo 

(what cannot be surpassed). 
Line, mstari, pL mistari (drawn), 

safu (row), ngwe (cord), shairi 

(line of verse). 
Linen, kitani. 
Lining of a kaozu round the throat, 

kaba. 
Lion, slmba. 
Lip, mdomo, mlomo, or mwomo, pi. 

midomo, milomo, or miomo. 
Lip-ring, ndonya. 
Liquid, maji, kiowevu. 
Lisp, kitembe. 
Litter (carried by four men), 

macbera. 
Little pieces, vidogo, sing, kidogo. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



53 



JAver^ ini, pL maini 

Lizard^ mjuai, pL wajusL 
Large vmter lizard^ kenge. 
Kind» of Uzard$, mgoraguni, pL 
wagnragnm — gOTong'ondwa — 
kiuma mbnzi^mjumbakaka — 
mjisikafiri. 

Loady mzigo, pL mizigo. 

Xoa/, mkate, pL mikate. 

Zoofi, maaziiQO, karatha. 

Loekj kitasa, pL vitasa Q>ox lock% 
komeo or gomeo (a iiative 
wooden loch), knfuli, piL maku- 
full {padloek). 

Locust, mzige, pi. wazige, nzige. 

i<V» gogo» P^ magogo. 

(nautical), batli 
Loin cloth, nguo, doti, kikoi, pi, 

yikoi (with a striped border). 
Loins, kiuno, piL yiimo. 
Longing, uchu, tamaa, hawa. 
Look, nathari. 

Loohing^lass, kioo, pi. vioo. 
XiOop, kitanzi, pi. vitanzi. 

Loops to haul up a hoot by, 
kishwara. 
Loss, basara. 
Lots, kura. 
Louse, chawa, tawa. 
Love, shauko, mapenzi, habba, 

mahabn, pendo, mapendo. 
Luck, bahati, nasibu. 

Messenger of iU luck, korofi. 
Lukewarmness, nvngavugo. 
Lumbrici, chango. 
Lump, fungo, piL mafiingo, fomba, 
pi, maftimba. 
Lump {as in ^our), kidonge, pi. 
TidoQge, Ytimbti, pi, mayombu. 
Lunyp (of meat), cbinyango. 
Lunacy, kiohaa, soda. 
Lunatic, mwenji IdchatL 



Lungs, paft^ pnmn, yaTuyayxi (of 

anamnuU), 
Lu8t,ha,wtL, 

M. 

Mace (spice), basbasL* 

Machine, samani, mtambo, pL mi- 

tambo. 
Madagascar, Buki, Bukini. 
Madness, wazimo, mahoka (country 

dialect). 
Magadoxa, Mknobyo. 
Magic, uchawi (black magic), 

uganga (white magic). 
Maggot (funza). 
Magnesia (sulphate of), cbumvi ya 

haliili 
Maiden, mwana mwali 
Maize (plant), muhindi. 
haZf-grovm, matindi. 
(corn), mahindi. 
(com cob), gunzi, pi. magonzi 
(young cob), ngara. 
(part^ied com), mbisi. 
Majesty, enzi, ezi. 
Malice, tiovn. 

Man (person), mtn, pi. wata. 
(male), mwanamume, pL waa* 

naume. 
(human being), mwana Adamn, 

bin Adamn (Ar.). 
A very large man, jitn, pi. majitn. 
A young man whose beard is 
beginning to appear, mTulana, 
pi. wavulana. 
Man of the world, mtn rawerevu. 
Mango, embe, embe (M.), pi» ma- 
embe. Embe za dodo, large 
mangoes. 
Mango-tree, mwembe,|>2. miembe. 
Mangouste, mohiro^ pL wachira 
Mangrove^ mkdko, j^X. mVkoYo. 



54 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Manner^ ginsL 

An elegant \nannery madaha. 
Manners^ desturi, mathehebu. 

Good manners^ adabu, tasfida. 
Mantis^ vunja jungo. 
Manure, samadL 
ManuteripU mwandiko, pi, mia- 

ndiko. 
Mark, alama. 
Marks made hy dragging anything 

along, mkokoto, pi, mikokoto. 
Tribal mark, nemba. See Spot, 
Blotch, 
Market, Bcko,pl. masoko. 
Marriage, ndoa, mikaba. 
(the ceremony), barusL 
{intermarriage), kuoana. 
Marrow, bongo. 
Martyr, shabidi, pi, masbabidi. 
Mask, barakoa. 
Mason, mwasbi, pi. waasbL 

Mason^t trowel, mwiko, pi, miiko. 
Mass, the mass of, jamii ya. 
Mast, mlingotc, pi, milingote, 
xngoto, pi, migote. 
SmaU mizen-mast, mlingote wa 
kalmi or galmL 
Master {of a hotue^ or of slaves), 
bwana. 
Master {of a school), mwalimu, pi. 

waalimu. 
Master*s son, bwana mdogo. 
Master workman, fundi. 
One*s own master, 'mweza mwe- 
nyewe. 
Mat (coarse matting), jamvi, pL 
majamvi. 
Sleeping mat, mkeka, pi. mikeka. 
Sleeping mat made like a hag with 

one side open, f umba. 
Oval prayer mat, musala, pt mi- 
salo. 



Bound mat on which food is laid 

out, kitanga, piL vitanga. 
Strips of palm leaf for pkuHng 

fine mats, myaa, pL miyaa. 
Strips of palm leaf for plaiting 
coarse mats, mwaa, pL miwaa. 
Narrow strips ready to he §ew» 
together to make ooaree maJtSj 
BbupatUy pL masbupatn. 
Strips for making fiine viatM^ 

tikirifpZ. kin. 
The thick edge of itripe of 

matting, ng'ong^o. 
Busati, a sort of matting hroughl 
from Muscat, 
Matchmaker, kijumbe, pL yijumbe. 
Matches, viberitL 
Matter (pus), usaha. 
A matter, jambo, jawabiL 
What is the matter i Eunanini? 
What is the matter with youl 
Una ninL 
Mattress, godoro, pi, magodorow 
Mayotte, Maotwe. 
Meal (food), cbakula. 
First meal after a fast, fatari. 
Meal (flour), unga. 
Meaning, maana. 
Meanness, unyongew 
Means, njia. 
Measles, oburuwa. 
Measure, kadri, kiasi, cheo, kipiino. 
A measure, kipimo, pL vipimo. 
Measuring rod, line, Ae,, ohenezo, 

pL vyenezo. 

See Cubit, Fathom, Span, WeighL 

The weights are used as measures 

for such a capacity as would 

contain that weight of millet 

Meal, nyama. [ (mtama). 

SmaU pieces cooked on a skewer^ 

msbakiki, pL misbakiki. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



55 



Pieces cooked on ttoo paraUel 

gticksj subaoa. 
Meaiiness, mnofa. 
Meddler^ pingamizi. 
MedicUor {pea^e-maker), mselebisba, 

J9Z. waselehisha, msuluhisba, 

pL wasuluhisha, xnpatanishi, 

pi. wapatanishL 
Medicine^ dawa, pL dawa or mada wa. 
(medical knowledge^ utabibu, 

ugaaga. 
Medicine man^ mganga, pL wa- 

ganga. 
MeeknesSf upole. 
Melancholy, bnznni, hamo. 
Memorandum (written), khatL 
Memorial, kumbukumbu, uku- 

mbusbo. 
Memory, ukumbnka, ufabamu. 
Menstruation, betb. 
Mention, kumbukumbu. 
Merchandise, bitbaa. 
Merchant, mfanyi biashara, ph wa- 

fanyi biashara, tajiri, pi. ma- 

tajiri (a rich m^n), iSLthhhi, 

bazazi Qiuckster), 
Mercury, zebakb. 
Mercy, rebema, bunima. 
Merit, ajara. 
Merka, Marika. 
Message, maneno, babari. 
ISessenger, mjumbe, pi. wajumbc, 

mtume, pi. watume, tume. 
Metal, moAim. 
Middle, kati 

Middle of a piece of doth, mjL 
Midge, usnbi. 
Midnight, nsikxi saa a sita, kati ya 

UBikn, nsiku wa manane. 
Midwife, mzalisba, pi. wazalisba. 
MUdew, kawa. 
MiUc, maziwa. 



Chirdled mitk, maziwa mabiviL 
Buttermilk, mtindi. 
Mill, diuu, pi. viniu 
Steam mill, kinu cba mosbL 
Oil mill, kinu cba knsbindikia. 
Hand mill, mawe ya kusagia 
{this last only is used for grind- 
ing com. Kinu is properly a 
wooden mortar, and the common 
oil mills consist of a lever turned 
in a mortar by camels), 
MiUipede, jongoo. 
Millet, mtama. 
fully formed hut unripe, mtama 

tete. 
MiUet stalks, mabua, sing. bua. 
kinds of millet, kibaknli, kipaje. 
Mind, moyo (heart), akili (wits\ 
Mine, madini [nia (intention). 

Mint (Jierh), nana, fidina (?). 
Minute, dakika. 

Miracle, mwujiza,jpZ. miujiza, ajabu. 
Miscarriage, kubaribu mimba. 
Mischief, matbara, ubarabu* 
Miser, bakbili, cboya 
Misery, sbidda, thullL 
Misfortune, msiba, pi. misiba, taabu. 
Missile, kimwondo, pi. zimwondo 
{used to mean shooting stars, 
because said to he cast at the 
Jins hy the angels). 
Missionary, mpeekwa, pt wa- 

peekwa. 
Mist, kunga, umande, sbemali 
Mistake, kosa, makosa. 
Mistress (of slaves), bibL 
{of the house), mwana. It is 
reckoned good manners in 
Zanzibar to speak of one*s own 
mother as mwana. 
Mistress (kept ujoman), kinyumba. 
Mistress {sweelheart)^ mcbnmba. 



56 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Mizen-mast, mlingote wa kalmi or 

galmi. 
Mockery, usimanga. 
Moderation, kadri, kiosL 
Modesty, haya. 
Mohilla, Moalli. 
Mole, fuko (?). 
Mombas, Mvita. 
Monday, Juma a tattL 
Money, fetba. 
Monfid, Mafya. 
Monkey, kima. 

Tumbili, a small light'Coloured 

monkey, 
Ngedere, a small hlack monkey. 
Mbega, pL wabega, a hlack 
mmkey with long white hair on 
the shoulders. 
Monsoon {northerly winds), musimi. 
Month, mwezi, pi. miezi. 

TJie months of the Arab year are 
determined by (he sight of the 
moon, or by the lapse of thirty 
full days. The months practi- 
cally begin from the end of the 
fasting month, and are called 
Mfunguo wa mosi, — wa pili, — 
wa tatu, — wa'nne, — wa tano, — 
wa Bita, — wa saba, — ^wa nane, 
— ^wa kenda, Eajabu, Shaabani, 
Ramathani. See Time. 
A month of less than thirty da^ys, 

mwezi mpungnfa. 
A month of thirty full days, mwe- 
zi mwangamu. 
Monthly pay, mshaara. 
Moon, mwezi. 
MooMindness, kiwi. 
Moonlight, bala mwezi. 
Morning, subui, assubm, nssubui. 

Morning air, mnande* 
Moroeco, Magharihi. 



Morsel, kidogo, pi Tidogo. 
Mortar for pounding and tXeaning 
grain, Ac, kinu, piL yinn. 
Mortar for throwing theiU^ ko* 

mbora. 
Builder's mortar, chokaa. 
Platters used as mortar hoards, 
chano, pi. yyano. 
Mosque, mesMti, mofikiti, meejid. 
Mosquito, imbu. 
Moth, Doondo. 

Mother, mama. It i$ polite in Za/i^ 
zibar to speak of one^s own 
mother as mwana. 
Step-mother, mama wa kambo. 
Mother-in-law, mkwe, piL wakwe. 
Mould, kalibu. 

(mouldir^ess), ukmign, kawa^ 
Mound (of earth), kisngalu, pi vi- 
sogulii. 
Mound {of stones), boma, pL ma- 
boma. 
Mountain, mlima, pi. milima. 
Mourning (grief), msiba. 
To make a formal mourning^ 

kukaa matanga. 
To finish a formal mourmng^ 

kuondoa matanga. 
To live very privately during 
mourning for a hw^nd, ku- 
kalia eda. 
The feast with which a m/ouming 
concludes, hitimu. 
Moustache, muomo, pi. miomo. 
Mouth, kinwa, pi. yinwa, kanwa, pi 

makanwa. 
Mucus {from the nose), kamasi. 

(from the vagina), utoko. 
Mud, tope ; much mud, matope. 

Muddiness in water, vumbL 
Mule, nymnbu, bdghala. [mba. 

Multiplication (arithmetical), ^hi' 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



57 



MuUbUude^ makntano^ kandi, jA, 
makundi, jeahi, pi, majeshi, 
ninaati 
Mwnmff mumyani. 
Mungooie, moMro, pL wadiiro. 
I Murderer, mnuwaji, jrf. wauwaji. 
JtfiMele, tafd. 

Mushroom^ Moga, pL yioga. 
JfuMc, ngoma. 

Mtuicdl Instruments. See Drum, 
Barag^iniTi, a spiral tvntetopes 

horn used cls a trumpet 
Kayamba, a sort of rattle, 
Kinanda, pL vinanda, a stringed 
instrument^ used of European 
instruments generaUy. 
Kinnbi, a harp. 
Matoazi, sing, toazi, eymhals. 
Mbui, a buffaloes horn played by 

heating. 
Paanda, a trumpet, 
Upato, a plate of copper sounded 

hy beaiing. 
Yugo, a large horn sounded by 

beating. 
Zeze, a three-stringed lute. 
Zomari, a sort of clarionet, 
Muskf mesiki, meskL 
Mussel (jiheUfish), kijogoo, pi Tijo- 

goo, kome, piL makome. 
JIftMtord, kharadali 
Myri(kd, kikwi, piL vikwi or zikwi. 
\ Myrrhf manemane. 

N. 
Natl (finger), nkueba, pi kucha. 
(iron), mBOidaii, pL misomari. 
Name^ jina, pt majina. 

Whai is your name f Jina lako 
nani? 
Namesake, aomo, pi masomo. 
Nape of the neck, vkoB^ kikofii 



Napkin^ kitambaa, pL Titambaa. 
Table napkin, kitambaa oba 
meza. 
Narcotic, Mleo, pi vileo. 
Nation, taifa, pi niataifa. 
Native, mzalia, pi wazalia, kizao, 

pi yizao, kiyyao, pH vivyao. 
Nature^ asili, tabia. 
Nautical instruments, yipande vya 

kupimia. 
Navel, kitovu, pi vitovu. 
Necessaries (espeeiaUy as supplied 
by God^s providenee), riziki, 
ziriki (M.). 
(useful things), vifaa. 
Necessity, farathi, lazima, nkwasefu. 
Neck, shingo, pi mashinga See 

Ba^k, Nape. 
Need, iihtaji, kntaka, matakwa. 
Needle, fliDdano. 
Neighbour, jirani. 
Neighbourhood, upande wa^ ki- 

yambo (?). 
Nest, tnnda, pi matnndn. 

(a laying place), Mota, pi yiota. 
Net, mshipi, pi mishipi. 
used to take gazelles, &c, wavu, 

pi nyavii, ohavu, pi vyavu. 
Stake net, hedge made in the sea, 

iizlo, pH nyuzio. 
Round casting net, kimia, pL 

yimia. 
Seine made of European cordage, 

jarifa (or jarife), pi majarifa. 
Seine made of cocoa-nut fibre, 

juya, pi majuya. 
Fish trap made of basket work, 
dema. 
Nettle, kiwavi, pi yiwavi (used also 
News, habari. [of sechnettles). 

Night, usiku. 
I AU nighty uaVkci kofiYiSu 



58 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Four whole nigJUs, aiku nne tisika 

kucha. 
Four days arid nights^ oka nne 
mchana na usiku. 
Nightmare^ jinamisi 
Nipple, chnchu ya ziwa, till, 
bubn (A.). 
of a gun, kifa, pt yiio. 
Nobody, si mtu. 

There is nobody, bapana (or 
bakuna) mtu. 
Noise, BantL 
of voices, kelele, pi, makelele, 

uthia. 
See Bellow, Roar, Hum, Cry, 
NoTisense, npuzi, pno. 
Noon, atbuuri, jua kitwani. 
Noose, tanzi, pi. matanzL 
North, kibula, kaskazini. 

Northerly voinds, kaskazL 
Nose, pua, yl. pua or mapua. 
Nose ornament shaped like a stud, 

kipini, pL vipinL 
Nose ring, azama. 
Nostril, tondu ya pna, 'mwanzi wa 

pua (?). 
Notch, a place tohere a triangular 

piece is broken out, pengo. 
Note^ boma, kbati. 
Number, beflabu, kiwango. 
Nurse, yaya (dry nurse), 'mlezi, pi. 
"wslezi (of a child), mugnzi, pi. 
wanguzi (of a sick person). 
Nutf kokwa, piL makokwa. See 

Ground, Cashew, dte, 
Smtmegf knngumanga. 

O. 

\u&A,pl makBBifk 
JUnpOf pL nyapo, kiapo, pi. 
po^yamini. 



Objections, makindano, makatan. 
Occupation, sbngbolL 
(Esophagus, umio. 
Offering, sadaka (gift), thabihv 

(sacrifice), kafara (a saerifiee to 

avert calamity ; U is buried or 

thrown away). 
Officer, akida, mkuu wa aedkari. 
OJUciousness, futbnli, iifiithiill« 
Offspring, mzao, pL wazao. [njnvL 
OH, mafuta. 
Castor-oil, mafuta ya mbarika* 
Semsem-oil, mafuta ya uta. 
Ointm£nt, marbamu. 
Old age, uzee, ukongwe (extreme). 
Old person, mzee, pL wazee, ki- 

koDgwe, piL vikongwe (ese- 

tremely old). 
Omelette, kiwanda, kimanda. 
Omen, falL 
Omnipresence, eneo la Muonga (the 

spread of God). 
Onion, kitunguu, pi. yituDguu. 
Open place, kiwanja» pL viwanja, 

wangwa, wanda. 
piece of waste ground in a town, 

uga. 
Opinion, wasia. 
Opium, afyuDL 
Opportunity, nafasi. 
Ophthalmia, well wa macbo. 
Orange, cbungwa, pi. macbungwa, 

cbungwa la kizungu, danzi la 

kizimgu. 
Bitter or wild oranges, danzi, pi, 

madanzL 
Matidarin oranges, kangaja. 
(a larger sort), cbenza, obenza za 

kidjjemL 
Order. See Command, 
(regularity, or a regular order\ 

taratibu. 



BUBSTANTIVEa. 



69 



Ordeal, kiapo, pL viapa 
Origin, asili, ohimbuko^ mwanzo. 
Omamemi, pambo, pL mapambo, 
Mpambo, pL Tipambo. 
Dalia, a yeCUno eoemetie, 
Kdonya, lip-ring toom by the 

Nyana women, 
8an^ a mndU gold plate toom 

on the forehead. 
Shangwi, an ornament worn 

"between the shoulders, 
Uiembo, Uack lines painted upon 

the face, 
Uznri, eoemetie applications, 
Yidani, edUars of gold or stiver. 
See Anklets, Bracelets, Ear, Nose, 
Orp^km, yatima. 
Os eoccygis, kiftindagii. 
Ostrich, hmn. 
Otto of roses, hal w^uradL 
Outlet, pskaioke^ 
Outrigger (of canoes^ matengo. 
Outskirts of a town, kiunga. 
Oven, tanuu, tannru. 
Over-looker, mBimaTnizi, pi, wasi- 
mamiziy mwangaUzi, pi, waa- 
ugalizi. 
Owl, bnndl. 
Owner, mwesnyewe. 
Oz, ng^ombe or gnombe, maksaL 
Oyster, oheza, kome (?), pL ma- 
kome, kambe za pwani. 

P. 

Pace, mwendo. 

Package, packet, or parcel, Tobota» 

gora (of doOi), peto, pi, ma- 

peto« 
BmaU packet, kipeto, pi, yipeto. 
Pad of grass, Ac, used to carry a 

load on Oie Aeod upon,generdtty 

twisted into a ring, katob 



Pad used as a saddle for donkeys, 
khorj. 
Paddle, kafi, pL makafl. 
Padlock, kufoli. 
Pail, ndoo. 

Pain, maumiYii, uchungn, kauma. 
Paint, rangL 

Pair, jozi, jura, jenzi, jauzL 
Palace, jamba. 
Palanquin, machera. 
Palate, kaaka, kaa la kinwa. 
Palisading, zizi, kizizi. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga cba 
mkono, pi, yitanga yya mikono. 
A San-maker's palm, dofxa, pi. 
mado&a. 
Palm-tree. See CJoooa-nut, Date, 
Leaf-stem of a palm-tree, npongoe, 

pi. poDgoe. 
Mkoche, has an edible fruiL 
Mlala, hyphame, branching palm, 
M^uma, borassus palm, 
Palm-oU tree, mchikichi, pi. michi- 
kichL 
its fruit, chikicbi, pi. machikichi. 
the small nuts contained in the 
fruit, kichikichiy pL YiohiMchi. 
Palm-wine, tembo. 
Spirit made from palm-wine, 

zarambo. 
Palm-wine syrup, asali ya tembo. 
Palmar abscess, kaka. 
Palpitation of the heart, kiherebere 

cba moyo. 
Panniers, sboi, shogi. 
Pap, ubabwa. 
Papaw, papayi, pi. mapapayL 

Papaw-tree, mpapayi, ^ mipa- 
Paper, karatasi. [payi. 

Parable, metbili, metbali, mfano, 

pi. mifano. 
Paradise^ pepooL 



60 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Oate of paradisSf kilango cha 

jaha. 
Paralysis, kipooza, tiwo (?). 
ParalytiOy mwenyl kupooza. 
Parched maize, mbisi. 
Pardon, arathi, musama, masameho, 

hisa. 
Parent, mzaa, pi. wazaa, mzazi, pL 

wazazi, mzoe, pi. wazee. 
Part, fongu, ph mafungu, sehemu, 

upande, pi, pande, kisma. 
Partner, msharifaB, pi. washarika. 
Partnership, usharika. 
Partridge, kwale (?). 
Kering'ende, the red-legged par- 

tridge. 
Party (faction), aria. 
Pass, or passport, cheti, pi. vyetL 
Passage (by), pito, pi. kipito. 
(through), kipenyo, pi. vipenyo. 
A very narrow passage, kicho* 

choro, pi. vichochoro. 
Patch (in cloth), kiraka, pi. viraka. 

(in planking), hasho. 
Pa4h, njia, pito, pi. mapito. 
Patience, saburi, snbiri, nvnmilivu, 

ntulinu 
Pattern, namna. 

(to work from) kielezo,jpL vielezo. 
Pauper, kibapara, pi. ylbapara (an 

insuUing epithet). 
Pavm (chess), kitunda, pi. yitunda. 
Pay, ijara, njia, faritha, mshahara 

(monthly). 
Pea, dengu {they are not grown in 

Zanzibar, hut are brought dry 

from India). 
A smdU pea-like bean, ohooko, 

chiroko. 
Peace, arnani, salamu. 
Peaee-^maher, mpataniahi, msele- 

hisha, msnluhisba. 



Peacock, tausi. 

Peak, kilele, pL yildei 

Pearl, lulu. 

Pebble (very amaU), mbwe. 

(or small pieoe of rione), kokobs 
pL makokota 
Peel, ganda, pi. maganda. 
Peg, chango, piL vyanga 
Pelvis, tokont 
Pen, kalamu. 

Beed pen, kalamii ya 'mwanzL 
Penis, mbo. 
People, watu. 

People of this world, walimwengn. 

Other people's, -a watu. 

People like us, kina easL 

Abdallah^s people, kina Abdallab. 
Pepper, piHpili manga. 

Bed pepper, pilipili hoho. 
Percussion cap, fettakL 
Perfection, ukamilifu, utimiliyii. 
Perfumes, maniikato. 
Period {or point of time), kipindi, 

pi. vipindi. 
Perjury, aziir, znli. 
Permission, ruksa, rnlrnsa. 
Persia, Ajjemi 

Persian <hilf, Bahari il 'alt 
Person, mtu. 

A grovm person, mtu mzima. See 
Old, &c. 
Perspiration, ban, jasho. 
Pestilence, tauni, wabba. 
Pestle, mchi (or mti), pL micbi, 

mtwango, pi. mitwango. 
Phantom, kivuli, pi. yiviili. 
Phlegm, belghamu. 
Phthisis, nkohozi. 

Physic, dawa, pi. dawa or madawa. 
Physician, tabibu, mtebibn, pL 
watabibu, mganga. pL wa« 
ganga. 



8VB8TANTIVE8. 



61 



Fice^ pesa, pL pesa or mapesa. 

FiMe, achari. 

Picbwre^ taswira, sura, sanamii. 

Pieee, kipande, pi, yipande. 
Pteae of Mddagaaoar gr<u$ doth, 

ramba, pL maramba. 
Piece let inhy way of patch (in 
planking), hasho. See Firewood. 

Pig, ngnmwe, ngunwe. 
Jixo, a wild hog. 

Pigeon, njiwa, ndiwa (M.). 
Tame pigeon, njiwa manga. 
Wild pigeon, njiwa wa mwitn. 

PHe of stidks, dte.,for burning, biwi, 
pi. mabiwi. 

Piles (hssmorrhoids), bawasir. 

Pilgrimage, haj. 

PiU, kidonge, pL yidonge. 

PiUar, ngnzo. 

PiUow, mio, pi. mito. 

Wooden head rest, msamilo, pi. 
misamilo. 

Pilot, rabonL 

Pimple, kipele, pi. yipele, npele, pi. 
pele (farge), kiwe,|>Z. viwe (a 
tmaUkind), 

Pinoer8, koleo. 

Pine-apple, nanasi, pi. mananasL 

Pinna (ehettrfish), kaya,|}Z. makaya, 
panga, pi. mapanga. 

Pipe (water), nelli. 
(darionet), zomari. 
(toba^xo), Mko, pi. viko. TJie 
native pipe consists of a howl 
(bora), a stem (digali) leading 
from the howl into a small vessd 
of water, which last is properly 
the kiko ; the stemfro^n the kiko 
to the mouth is the Bhilamn. 
The bubbling of the water when 
it is being smdked is the malio 
yakiko. 



Piping, kigwe,|>2. vigwe. 
Pirate, haramla. 
Pistol, bastola. 
Pit, shimo, pi. mashimo. 
Pitch or Tar, lami 
Pity, hurnma. 
Place, mabali, pahalL 
PUiee may often be expressed by 

the prefix pa-. 
Panyamayu, a quiet place. 
Pakutokea, a place to go out at, 
Panginepo, dsewhere, 
or by the use of penyi. 
Penyi mti« the place where the 

tree is, or was. 
An open place^ kiwanja, pi. 

yiwanja. 
A clear sparse in a to¥m, uga. 
A place where offerings are made 
to propitiate spirits supposed to 
haunt it, mzimu, pi, miximu. 
Plague, tanni 
Plain, uwanda. 
Plan, shauri, pi, mashauri. 
Plane, randa. 
Plank, nban, pi. mbaa. 
Planking, mbau. 

A plank laid over the body before 

the earth is filled in, kiunza, pi. 

Plant, mbegu, mbeyu. [viunza. 

A young plant, mohe, pi. miche, 

chipukizi, pi. yipukizi 
Upnpn, cowitch. 
Mbaruti, a thistle-like plant toith 

a yellow flower, 
Nyinyoro, a bulbous plant throw- 
ing up a head of red flowers. 
Yungiyungi, the blue water-lily, 
Afu, the wild jasmine, 
Kirukia, a parasite on fruit trees. 
Mpnogati, a kind of cactus. 
Plantains, ndlzi 



62 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Plantation, sliamba, pi. mashamba. 
Plate, kisabani, pi. visabanL 

A plate of metal, bamba, pL xna- 
bamba. 
Platter of wood, cbano, pi. vyana 
Pleasure, anasa, furaba. 

Pleasing things, mapendczi. 
Pledge, rabani, amani, kabatbL 
Pleiades, kilimia. 
Plenty, wingi, ungi (M.), mari- 

tbawa. 
Plumb-line (a stone hung by a strip 

of banana leaf), timazi. 
Plug, nguruzi, zibo, pi. mazibo. 
Plummet, cbubwi. 
Pocket, mfuko, pi. mifuko. 

PocJcet-handkerchief, leso. 
Poem, masbairi, uteiizi (religious). 
Poet, mtunga masbairi, pi watuDga 

masbairi. 
Poetry , masbairi. 

One line of poetry, sbairL 
Point, ncba. 
Poison, suma, ucbungtu 

Fish poison, utupa. 
Pole, mti, pi. miti. 

for carrying burdens on, mpiko, 
pi. mipiko. 

for propelling a canoe, npondo^pZ. 
pondo. 
Politeness, adabu. 
Pomegranate, kamamanga. 
Pomehe, furungu, pi mafurungu. 
Pond, ziwa, pi. maziwa. 
Pool, ziwa, pi. maziwa. 

Pool left by the retiring tide, 
kidimbwi, pi, vidimbwi. 
Poop, shetri. 
Poor free man, maskini ya Muu- 

ngn. 
Porcupine, nungu, 
PoreSf nweleo, matokeo ya hari. 



Porpoise, pomboo. 

Porridge, ngali, nji, fokai basida. 

Porter, See Doorkeeper, 
(carrier), bamali, pi. mahamalL 
(in a caravan), mpagazi, pi. wa* 
pagazi 

Port Dumford, Burikao. 

Position in the world, oheo, kiwa- 



iigo. 



Possessions, mali, milM. 
Possessor, mwenyewe. 
Possessor of, &o,, mwenyi, &o., pi, 
wenyi, &c. 
Post, mti, pi mitL 
Bearing post, mbimili, pL mihi- 
mili. 
Posterity, wazao. 
Pot. See Cooking-pot, Censer, 

A lobster-pot, dema. 
Potash (nitrate of), sbura. 
Potatoes, viazi vya kizungu. 
Sweet potatoes, Tiazi, sing, kiazi. 
Raised beds for planting yiazi, 
tuta, 2?^ matuta. 
Potsherd (broken piece of pottery or 
glass), kigai, pi vigai, gai, pi 
magai (a large piece), kige* 
renyenza, pi vigerenyenza (a 
very small piece, a spiUnter). 
Potter, mfinangi, pi wafinangi, mfi- 
nyanzi, wafinyanzi. 
A place to bake potter's work, joko. 
Poultry, k'uku. 
Poverty, umasiMnL 
Powder, unga. 

Gunpowder, bamtL 
Power, uwezo, nguyn, mamlaka, enzi. 
Practice, mtaala, mazoezo. 
Praise, sifa, bamdL 
Prattle, vijineno. 
Prayer (worship), ibada. 
(entreaty), kuomba. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



63 



(fhe prescribed forms), sala. The 
regular MoJiammedan times of 
prayer are, Magaribi, directly 
after sunset; Esba, an hour cr 
two later; Alfajiri, before sun- 
rise ; Athuuri, at noon ; Alasiri, 
about half-way between noon 
and sunset 

Preacher, mwenyi kukhutubu, or 
kuayithi. 

Freest, mafundisbo. 

Pregnancy, mimba. 

Present (see Gift), zawadi. 

Customary present^ ada, kilemba. 
Ckuiomary presents at a wedding ; 
to the bride's father, mahari, 
kilemba ; to the brides mother, 
mkaja, nbeleko ; to the bride* s 
kungu, kiosba miguu, kifunua 
mlango; to the bride herself, 
}dp& mkono. 

Press or Pressure, sbinikizo. 

Prey, mawindo. 

Price, kima, ^J^amani. 

PricMy heat, yipele vya babara. 
A medicament for it, liwa. 

Pride, kibarL 

Priest, kahini, pL makabini (used 
in the sense of soothsayer), 
(Christian), kasisi, padre or pa- 
diri, jpZ. mapadiri. 

Prison, kifungo, gereza. 

Privacy, faragba. 

Privy, cboo. 

Proceeds, pato, pi. mapato. 

Produce (fruit, seed, dc), zao, pi. 
mazao. 

Profit, fayida, ghanima. 

Progeny, mzao, pi, wazao. 

Progress, kiendeleo. 

Prohibition, makatazo. 

Promise, abadi, wahadi. 



Promissory note, awala. 
Pronun'iiation, mata'mko. 
Prop, mbimili, pL miiiimili, mate- 
gemeo. 
A prop to heep a vessel upright 
when left by the tide, gadL 
Property, mali, milki. 
Prophet, nabii, mtume, pi. mitiima 
Prosecution, mstaki, pi. mistaki 
Proselyte, mwongofu, pi. waongofu. 
Prostitute, kababa, pi. makababa. 
Protection, bami, Iiamaya. 

Under British protection, fi ha- 
mayat al Ingrez (Ar.). 
Proverb, mfano wa maneno. 
Provision, madaraka. 
Provisions, vyakula. 
Provocation, ekerabL 
Prow, gubeti. 
of a small vessel, kikono, pL 

vikono. 
(head), omo. 
Prudence, busara, fikira. 
Pulley, kapi, pi. makapi, gofia. 
Pulpit, mimbara. 
Pump, bomba. 
Pumpkin, boga, pi. maboga. 
plant, mboga, pi. miboga. 
sheU used to carry liquids in 

dundu, pi. madundu. 
Mumunye, pi. mamumuiiye, 

sort of vegetable marrow. 
Tango, pi. matango, eaten raw 

like cucumber. 
Kitoma, pi. yitoma, a sma 

round sort. 
Tikiti, pi. matikiti, a round k 'nd 
of water-melon. 
Punch, keke. 

Purchaser, mnunuzi, pi. wanunuzi. 
Purgative, dawa la kubara. 
Purity, masafi, utakatlfo. 



64 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Purpose, knsndi, pL xnaknsudi, 

kasidi, nia. 
Purse, kifnko cha kntilia fetha. 
Push in the cheek, mdukuo. 
Putridity, kioza. 
Putty, chaki. 
Python, ohatu. 

Q. 

Quail, tombo, tomboroko. 
Quality, tabia, ginsi, jifd, aina. 
Quantity, kiasi, kadiri, cheo 

(measurement). 
Quarrel, mateto, tofauti, nazar, 

ugomvi 
Quarrelsomeness, ngomvi. 
Quarter, robo. 

Three-quarters of a dollar, kassa 
robo. 

Quarter of a toum, mta, pi. mita. 
Queen, malkia. 

(chess), kishi. 
Question, maulizo, swali 
Quieting thing, kitulizo^pZ. yitulizo. 
Quietness, utulivu, makini, kimya. 
Quiver, podo. 

B. 

Babbit, sungura, kisungura, pi. 
yisungura, kitnngule, pi. vitu- 
ngale, kititL 
Baee, mashindano. 
Bafter, boriti (for a stone roof), 
kombamoyo, pi. makomba- 
moyo (for a thatched roof), 
pao, ph map£U) (very thin). 
Bag, kitambaa, pi. vitambaa, 

utambaa, pi. tambaa. 
Bain, myua. 
Bain eloud, ghubari, ph maghu- 
Bainy season, masika. [bari. 

Lesser rains, mvua ya mwaka. 



Bainbow, npindi wa mvua, IdsOA 

cha myua, (M.). 
Bammerfor heating roofs, Mpwide^ 

pL yipande. 
Bampart, boma, sera. 
Bank, daraja, obea 
Bansom, kombozi, piL makomboasi, 

ukomboo, ukombosi, fidi% 

ufidiwa, ukombolewa. 
Barity, Vvluvl, hedaya. 
Bash (small pimples), yipele. 
Bal, panya. 

a very large hind, bnko. 
Bations, posho. 
Bavmess (of meat, &e.\ ubichL 

(dulness), njinga. 
Bazor, wembe. 

Beason, maaua, sababu, hnja, akili. 
Beasoning, huja. 
BebeUion, maasi 
Becess, kidaka, pi. vidaka, kishit- 

baka, pi. yishubaka (a pigeon* 

hole). 
Wall at the ba>ck of a recess, raC 
Becommendation, maagizo. 
Bectitude, adili 

Bed coral, marijani ya fetbalnka. 
Red Sea, Babari ya Sham. 
Bedeemer, mkombozi, pi, wako- 

mbozi. 
Beed, unyasi, jp2. nyasi, *mwanzi, |)l. 

miwanzi. 
Reference, marogeo. 
Refuge, makimbilio. 
Regret, majutio. 
Regularity, kaida. 
Reign, ezi, enzi. 
Rein, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
R^oicing, faraha, shangwi. 
Relations (relatives), akraba, ndagn, 

jamaa. 
A near relative, karibo. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



65 



Eelaxation (loosening), ulege?ii. 

BeHgioUj dini, dua. 

Belish (something to he eaten with 

rice or porridge'), kitoweo. 
Bemainder, msazo, masazo, mabakla. 
Remedy, dawa, mapoza. [baki. 

Reminder, TLkumbusho. 
Remission (of sins), maghofira, ma- 

ondoleo. 
Remnant, mabakia. 
Rent, ijara. 

Repentance, toba, majuto. 
Representative, wakili. 
Reproaches, matayo. 
Reprobate, baa, pi, mabaa. 
Reptile (?). 
KeDge, a monitor (7), a very large 

slender lizard, 
P'ili, a large snake. 
Ghatn, a python. 
See Snake, Orocodtle, dec. 
Request, haja, matakwa.. 
Residue. See Remainder. 
A little left in ajar, &c., kishinda. 
pL vishinda. 
Resin, nlimbo. 

Respiration, kutanafosi, kushuslia 
Rett, raha, pnmziko. [pumzi. 

Resting-place, pumzikio, kituo, pi, 

zituo or yituo. 
ResUessness, fathaa. 
Resurrection, ufufuo, nfufulio, ki- 
yama (the general resurrection). 
Resuscitation, (a/stivehj) kufafua, 
kohmsha, (neuter) kufufuka, 
kuhtdka. 
Retainer, mfaasi, pi, wafuasi. 
Retaliation kasasi, kisasi. 
Return, maregeo, xnarejeo kuja 

zaOf &o. 
Revenge majilipa. 
Reverence, nnenyekeo. 



Reviling, mashntumn, mashutumio, 
matayo. 
Revivat, See Resuscitation, 
Reward, ijara, ujira, majazo, thsk^ 
wabu (especially from God), 
Reward for finding a lost thing, 
kiokosi, pi. viokosi. 
Rheumatism, baridiyabis, uweli wa 

viungo. 
Rhinoceros, Mfarn, pi, yifarn, pea. 
Rib, ubanu, pi, mbayu, kiwavu 

chana (A.). 
Rice, growing, or yet in the husk, 
mpunga. 
cleaned from the husk, mchele. 
cooked, wall. 
watery, and imperfectly cooked 

masbendea. 
cooked so that the grains are 
dry and separate, pukute ya 
wali. 
scorched in the cooking ukoko, 

ntandu (A.). 
left from overnight to be eaten in 
the morning, wali wa mwikuu. 
Kinds of rice, sena, bungala, 
Bbindaoo, garofau, kapwai, ki- 
fuDgo, made?u, mwanga, sifara, 
uchukwi. 
Riches, mali, utajM, nkwasi. 
Rich man, tajiri, pi. matajiri, mwe- 
nyi mali, mkwasi, pi. wakwasi. 
Ridicule, mzaba, tbihaka. 
Right, haki, wajib, adill. 
Righteousness, baki. 
Rind, ganda, pi, maganda. 
Rind of a lemon, &c., after the 
inside lias been squeezed or 
extracted, kaka. 
Bing^ pete, pi, pete or mapete. 
Rings on the scabbard of a sword, 
&o, ukoa, pi, koa. 



66 



SWAEILI EANDBOOK 



Bing where ike Hade enters the 

haft, noleo, pi. mauoleo. 
Ear-ring, pete ya masikio. 
Ring-worm, choa. 
Ripple, yiwimbi. 
Risk, in trading, jiiku. 
River, mU), pi, mito. 
Road, njia. 

Roar, ngurnmo, vumi 
Robber, mnyang'anyi, pL wanya- 
ng'anyi, hai-amia. 
People who wander aboiU at night, 
robbing and committing violenee^ 
mrungura, mpakacha. 
Rock, mwaniba, pi. miamba. 
A small rock, kijamba, pt vi- 

jamba. 
in the sea, kipwa, pL yipwa. 
BoUing of a ship, mramma. 
Roof, dari, sakafa (stone roof or 
floor), paa, pi. mapaa (thatched 
roof). The (hatched roofs con- 
sist generally of a fnmt and 
hack slope, kipaa cha mbele and 
kipaa oha nyama, and hips for 
the ends, which are carried up 
under and within the main 
slopes; these hips are called 
yisusi, sing, kisusi. 
A lean-to, kipenu, pi, vipenn. 
The roof over a watching-place in 
the fields, dungu, ph madungu. 
Rook (chessy, fil. 
Room (sparse), nafasi. 

(apartment), chumba, pi, vynmba. 
Ukumbi, haU or porch ; itis toithin 
a sione house, bat outside an 
earthen one, 
S^ule or Bebiila, parlour, recep- 
tion room, 
Orfa, drofa, or ghdrofa, an upper 
room. 



Gbala, a dark room on the grounds 

floor, a store-room, * 
Root, shina, pi. mashina. 
RfoUets, mizizi, mizi (M.). 
Rope, kamba, ngole (Mer.). 

Hempen rope, kamba, idayiti 
Rosary (Mohammedan heads), 1a0- 

biih. 
Rose, waradi, waridL 
Otto of roses, hal wAnulL 
Rose-water, marashi mafwaridi. 
Rose apple, darabi, pi, madambi. 
Roundness, mviringo. 
Row (line), safu. 
Row (noise), uthia» kero. 
Royalty, kifaume, iifaumeu 
Riibbish (from old buHdingsyf fusi, 

kifusi. 
(small articles), takatalca. 
Rudder, shikio, sakani, mBukani, pi, 

mlsukaTii, ti8ukani,;p{. snkaDi 
Ruddle, used by carpenters to mark 

out their work, ngeo. 
Rudeness, safihi 
Ruin or Ruins, maangiika 
Runaway (from a master, home, ^y, 

mtoro, pt watoro. 
(from a fight, Ac), mkimbizi, pL 

wakimbizi. 
Rupee, Tupia. 
Rupia or any similar shin di9&a$9, 

bnba. 
Rust, kutu. 
Rustling, miakaso. 

S. 

Sabre, kitara, pL vitara. 

8a>crifice, sadaka (an offering), fldia 
(giving up), thabihn {saerifie* 
ing), mathabuha (the vietim), 
kafara (an 'aniTnal or Ihing 
offered but not eaten)* 



SUBBTANTWEa. 



67 



SadcBe, kiti oha firauri, maiandiko, 
seruji (an Arab 9addUi)t khorj 
(the pad luedfor a dotihey). 
SadnesB (see Grief), rammii. 
Safely, salamii, saUuna. 
Saffron, zafaram. 
SaU, tanga, pL matangiw 

Dhouhsail, duumi* 

Stt£MM,}diah. 
Sailor, baharuw 
SairA, walU. 
Sake, ajili, hiija» maana. 

For my eake, imipeiidaTyo (a» you 
love me). 
Sale (auction), mnada. 
Salesman, dalalL 
SaHfM, msie. 
SaU, chnmTi, mnnyo (A.)> 
SaUpehre, shuia. 
SahUe (fired), mizinga ya salamii. 

(saiutation), salamu. 
Scdffotion, wokovu, Biiudi, njema. 
Salver, sinia, pi. masinia. 
SaneUon, ithini. 
Sand, mchanga, mtanga (M.). 
Sandals, yiatu, sing, kiatn, viatu 
yyangosd. 

strap of a sandal, gidanu 
Sandalwood, liwa (?). 
iSaii4%, QsubL 
Sap, maji. 

SaUtrday, Jnma a moeL 
Saucepan, suf aria. 
/Saviour, mwokozi, pL waokozi. 
Savour, luththa, tamu. 
Scab, kigaga, pi, vigaga. 
Scabbard, ala, pi. nyala. 

The metal rings on a 9eahbard, 
nkoa, pL koa. 
Scaffold (for building), jukwari. 
Scales (of a fish), magamba, mamba 
CM.). 



Scales (balmneee), misanL 

Sccde pans, ^itanga vya mizani 
Scar, kovu, pL makoTU. 
Scarf (often vfom round the waist), 

deuli 
Scent, harnfti, manuka, nnkato, pi. 
manukato, meaki, BMoashi (a 
scent for sprinkling). 
Tibu, a kind of soent. 
See Bose, Ambergris, Aloes wood. 
School, ohnoni. 
Scissors, makasi. 
Scoop See Ladle. 
Score (20), koija. 
Scorn, tharao, thibaka. 
Scorpion, nge. 
Scraps left after eating, makombo, 

sing, kombo. 
Scrape (slide), para. 
Scratch, mtai, pi. mitai. 
Scream, kiowe, pi. Tiowe (cry for 
help), kigelegele, pi. Tigelegele 
(a trilling scream raieed a$ a 
cry of Joy). 
Screw, parafujo. 
Scrip, mkoba, pL mikoba. 
Scrofulous and gangrenous soreSt 

mti. 
Scrotum, pnmbo, mapumbu. 
Scull, kitwa, pL yitwa, fdvu or 

bupiiru la kitwa. 
Scum, povu, mapOYTL 
Sea, bahari. 
A sea, mawimbi, wimbi. 
A seaman, mwana maji 
One from beyond seas, mja Da 

maji. 
Seaweed, mwani. 
Seal, muhuri 
Seam, mshono, pi. nishono, band 

(tacked), upindo (a hem). 
Season, irakati. 



68 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



The principal seasons in Zanzibar 
are: — Musimi, the time of the 
northerly winds (kazkazi), that 
iSf December^ January, and 
February, For March, April, 
arid May, the rainy season, 
masika; after that, the cold 
time, kipupwe ; then, about the 
end of August, demani, or 
mwaka. The southerly winds 
(kusi) begin to drop in October, 
and in the intervals between 
them and the northerly winds 
come the times of easterly and 
westerly winds, malelezi or tanga 
mbili. 

Seasoning. See Belish. 

Seat, kikao, makazi. 

The stone or earth seat near a 
door, baraza, kibaraza. 

Secrecy, siri, faragha. 

Secrets, mambo ya siri. 

Secretary, mwandishiyjpZ. waandishi, 
khatibu, karaoi. 
Secretary of State, waziri, ph 
mawaziri. 

Sect, mathbdb, mathehebu. 

Sediment, masbapo. 

Seed, mbegn, mbeyu. 

Seedling, xnobe, pi. miohe. 

Self, moyo, nafsi, nafusL 

Sdf-content, kinaya. 

S&nen, shabawa, manni 

Semsem, nfuta. 
Semsem oil, mafuta ya uta. 
What is left after the oU has been 
pressed out, shudu. 

Senna, sanamaki. 

Sense, akili. 

Sentinel, mngoja, pi. wangoja. 

Servant, xntumishi, pL watumishi, 
mtumwa, pi. lyalumwa, noker. 



One who serves at table, mwa- 

ndikaji, pL waandikajL 

In a shamba there are generally 

three chief servants, 1. lisi- 

mamizi, generally a free man. 

2. Nokoa, the chief slave. 8. 

Kadamu, the second hecul slave. 

Service, utumwa, hudumu, Mdima. 

Setting-out, things set out or the pkuse 

for them, maandiko. 
Shaddock, fiirungu, pi. mafaranga. 
Shade, uvuli, ynliy myuli, mvili, 

kivuli, kitua. 
Shadow, kivTili, pi. vivtdi. 
Shame (jdisgra/se^ aibu. 
(jnodesty), haya. 
(a thing causing eonfusion), ari, 

fetheba, hezaya. 
having no shame, mjanja, pi. 
wajanja. 
Shape, kiasi, ka]ibii,namna. 
Share, fungu, pi. mafungu, Bemehn, 

kisma. 
Sharing, usbarika. 
SJiarh, papa. 
Sharpness, ukali 
Shaving (of wood), usafi. 
SJiawl, sbali. 

worn round the waist, mahazamu. 
Sheaf, or bundle of cut rice, mganda, 

pi. miganda. 
Sheath, uo, pi. maiio, ala, pi nyala. 
Sheave (of a pulley), roda, koradani. 
SJied, banda, pi mabanda, kibanda, 

pi. vibanda. 
Sheep, kondoo. 
Sheet, sbiika. 
of a sail, demani. 
of a book, gombcs pi. magombo. 
of paper, ukurasa, pi. kurasa. 
Shelf, kibau, pi. vibau. 
in a recess, rufiif. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



(59 



Stiso, pi. masoso, a hind of hang- 
ing sheilf. 
ShtU (sea 8hell8)fihelLe,pl. mashelle. 
(Jiwik), ganda, pL maganda. 
Qnnpty aheU), fayn, ph mafavu, 
bapnm, pi, mabupnru, kaka. 
Shepherd, mlishi, pi. wali&hi, mchu- 

nga, pL waohunga. 
Sherd, See Potsherd, 
Shield, ngao. 

Shin^ mmmdi wa gau (A.). 
Ship, merikebn, marikabu, jahasi. 
Man-of-war, manowari, merikebu 

ya miziDga. 
Merchant ship, merikequ ya taja, 
Steam ship, merikebu ya dohaaD> 

merikebu ya moshi. 
Ship belonging to the government, 

merikebu ya serkali. 
FvXl-rigged ship, merikebu ya 

milingote mitatu. 
Barque, merikebu y^ milingote 

miwili na nuss. 
Native craft, chombo, pi. vyombo. 
Shirt, kanzu. 
Shivering, kitapo, kutetema, ku- 

tetemeka. 
Shoal (bank), fungu, pi. mafuDgu. 
Shock, shindo. 

Shoe, kiatu cha kizungu or cha 

kihindi, pi. yiatu yya kizungu. 

Shoemaker, mshoni yiatu, pi. wa- 

shoni yiatu. 
Shoot, cbipukizi, ucbipuka, pi. 
cbipuka. 
A pointed shoot like that contain- 
ing a spike of flower, kilele, pi. 
yilele. 
Shop, duka, pi. maduka. 

Shops with warerooms, bokhari. 
Shot (smaU), marisaa. 
Shot-belt, heiL 



Shoulder, bega, pi, mabega, fuzi, pi 
mafuzi (A.). 
Shoulder-blade, kombe la mkono. 
Shout, ukelele, pL kelele, kelele, pi 

makelele. 
Shower, manyunyo. 
Showing, wonyesho. 
Shrewdness, wereyu. 
Shroud, s£ianda. 
Shrub, kijiti, pi. yijiti. 
See Thorn. 

•Mwango, pi miwango (?). 
Sick person, mgonjwa, pZ. magonjwa, 

mweH, pi waweli. 
Sickness, ugonjwa, uweli, marathi. 
Side, upande, pi pande. 
Side of the body, mbayu, mata- 

mbayu. 
The other side of a river, &t., 
ng^ambo. 
Siege, mazingiwa. 
Siene, kiyamba. 
Siftings of rice after- pounding, 

wlshwa. 
Sighing, kuugua. 
Sign, dalili. 
Signal, ishara. 
Ukonyezo, pi konyezo, a sign 

made by raising the eyebrows. 
Kikorombwe, a kind of signal cry. 
Silence, nyamayu, kimya 
Silk, hariri. 
Silliness, mapiswa, puo. 

Silly talk, upuzi. 
Silver, fetha. 
Silversmith, mfua fetha, pi wafua 

fetha. 
Simpleton, mjinga,pZ. wajinga. 
Svn, thambi, pi. thambi or ma- 

thambi, makosa, taksiri. 
Singleness, upweke. 
I -Sip, fonda (?). 



70 



aWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Hir! Bwan*! 

SUter, umbn, pL mftombii, ndngn, 
nduga mice. 
A$ a term of endearmml, dada. 
Fatier-suter, ndngn knnyonya. 
8i9Ur-in4avfj ahemegi 
Sitter, mkask,pL wakaa. 
Sitting, Idkao, pL Tikao, kiti^, pL 

Titako. 
Sixe, nkaQ, ukabwa, kiasi, kadizi, 

cheo. 
8keleUm,m%og8k(J) 
SkU/fU workmtmj mstadi, pL wa- 

stadL 
Skilled or madeT-wcrhman, fundi 
Skin, ngozL 
Sky, uwingo. 
Stackneu, nlegeyn. 
Slander, maflingizio, fitioa (towing 

of discord). 
Slaughter-hmte, matindo. 
Slave, mtumwa, pi. watumwa, mn- 
hadimn^pl. wahadimn, mtwana, 
pi. watwana. 
A slave hoy, kitwana, pi. yitwana. 
A slave girl, kijakazi, pL vijakazi. 
A slave woman, mjakazi, pi. wa- 

jakazi 
A coneMne slave, suria, pi. ma- 

A slave bom in the house or 

country, mzalia, pit. wazalia. 
A runaufay tlave, mtoro, pi. wa- 

toro. 
A fettow slave, mjoli, pi. wajoli. 
A household of slaves, kijoll, pi. 

vijoll. 
Piece of land allotted to a slave 
for his otjsn use, koonde, pi. 
makoonde. 
Slavery, utumwa. 
Sleep, tizingizi, zlngizi. 



Things to sleep upon, malasi. 
^Zeeve, mkooo, jriL nukoDO. 
Sling, kombeo, pL makombea 
Slip of a tree, Ae^ mehe, pL miehe. 

A slip uihith has put foHh havee, 
mche nlioohanua. 

One tehieh has made a IMW aJboof, 
mche ulioohipuka. 
Slipperiness, utelezL 
Sloth, uvivn. 
Slovenliness, fnjofdja 
SmaUnees, udogo. 
SmaU-pox, ndni 
SmeU, harofo, maniika, axma. 
Smith (worker in metal), mfoa, pi, 

wafna. See Bku^csmith, Ae. 
Smoke, moshi, pi. miosM. 
Snail, koa, pi. makoa, konokono. 
Snake, nyoka, joka, pL majoka 
(large). 

Chata, python. 

Fiii, col/ra (?). 
Snare, shabuka. 
Sneezing, chafya. 
Snoring, kukoroma. 
Snuff, tumbako ya kanuka, or 

kmmsa. 
Snuff-box, tabakelo. 
Soap, Babuiii. 
Soda, magadi. 
Solder, lihamu. 
Soldier, asikari. 

Sole (of the foot), uayo, pi, nyao. 
Solitude, iipekee, ukiwa. 
Somauli Coast, Banada. 
Somebody, mtu. 

Some one else's, -a mwenyewe. 

(Jhild of somebody, i.e., of respect' 
able parents, mtoto wa watu,- 
mwana wa watu. 
Somersault, kitwangomba. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



71 



Son, mwana, pi. waana, kijana, 
mtoto mmne. 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohammed's 

ton. 
Bin AbdaUah (Ar.), AhdaUah*8 

son, 
Hamisi wa Tani, Hamisi the son 

of Tani {Othman)* 
Son-in4aw, mkwe, pL wakwe. 
JBong, nimbo, pi. nyimbo. 
Sootf kaa moahi, makaa ya moshi. 
Soothing ihtng, kitulizo, pi. vituUzo. 
SooOhsayeTf kahini, pL makahini. 
Sore, donda, ph madonda, kidonda, 
pi. vidonda, jeraha. 
Sores in the kg, nyongimyuDgu, 
mti. 
Sorrow, kasarani, huzuni, sikitiko, 
matukio. 
Sorrow for a loss, majonzi . 
Sorrow for something done, ma- 

jutia 
Recessive sorrow, jitimaL ' ' 
Sort (kind), gum, namna, aina. 
The sort is often expressed by 
the prefix Id-. Kizimgu, tlie 
European sort, ki£ftimie, the 
kingly sort 
Soul, roho. 
Sound, santL 
Soundness, nzima. 
Source, asili, chimbnko. 
South, knsini, sahelL 
Southerly toind, knsi. 
Sovereign, mwenyi ezi, mwenyi 
inohi, mwenyi mji 
(coin), lobo IngrezL 
Sovereignty, ezi, enzL 
Space, "DAiB^ 
(of time), miida. 
(open space), uwanda, nga. 
Spade, jeiube la kizimga. 



Span, futuri, shibiri, Bhibri. 

Spangles, puluki. 

Spark, chechi, pi. macheohi 

Sparkle, kimeta. 

Speaker, mneni, pL waneni, msemi, 
pL wasemi, msemaji, pi. wa- 
semaji. 

Speaking, knsema, kunema. 
A dark obscure way of speaking, 

kilinge cba maneno. 
An enigmatical way of speaking, 
in which the last syllable is 
taken from the end, and made 
to begin the word, kinyume, 
kinyuma. (See Appendix I.) 

Spear, fiuuo, pi. mafumo (flat- 
Uaded) mkuke, pi. mikuke, 
(three-edged) BageA,pl. masagai. 

Spectacles, miwani 

Speech (speaking), kunena. 
{(^ration), mataguso, mUtimbe. 

Spider, buibui. 

Spinal column, uti wa matmgo. 

Spirits, mvinyo. 
Evil spirit, pepo. 
Kinds of spirits, jini, pi. majini, 
milboi, mahoka, dungumaro, 
kitamiri, kiziiu, Mzuka, koikoi, 
mwana maiia, &o. 

Spit,\nnsk, pi. nyuma. 

Spittle, mate. 

Spoil, mateka. 

Spleen, wengo. 

Splint, gango, pi. magango, bauzi, 
pi. OAbanzi. 

Splinter (of toood), kibanzi, pi. 
yibanzi. 
(of glass or earthenware), kige- 
renyenza, pi. vigerenyenza. 

Spoon, mwiko, pi. miiko, kijiko, pi. 
yijiko [a tea-spoon), mkamshe, 
pi. mikamahd (a v)oodeTv %]^tvi^« 



72 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Sport, mchezo. mzaha. 

Spot, wna, pi, mawaa, kipaku, pi. 

vipaku. 
Spout (^from a roof\ kopo la 

nyumba, marizabu. 
Sprain, kuteuka. 
Spread, eneo. 

Spreading a meal, maandiko. 
Spring, mtambo, pi. mitainbo. 

of water, cliemchem, jicho la maji. 
Sprinkle, manyunyo. 
Sprinkler (for scents), mrashi, pi. 

mirashL 
Spur of a cock, kipi, kipia, pi. vipia. 
'Spy, mpelelezi, pi. wapelelezi, 

mtumbuizi (A.). 
Square, mrabba. 
Squint, makengeza. 
Stable, banda la frasi, faja la frasi. 
Staff, gongo, pi. magougo, mkongo- 

jo, pL mikongojo. 
Stagnation, vilio, pi. mavilio. 
Stain, waa, pi. mawaa. 
Stairs, daraja, ngazi. 
Upstairs, juu, darinL 
Down-stairs, cbini. 
Stalks, of mtama, bua, pi. mabua. 
of a kind of miUet chewed like 

sugar-cane, kota, pL makota. 
of cloves, d:c., Mkonyo, pL vikonyo. 
StaU keeper, mohuruzi, pi. wa- 

churuzi 
Stammering, kigugmnizi. 
Stamp, xnuhnri, chapa. 
Staple, pete, pi. mapete, tumbuu. 
^ar, nyota. 

Falling stars, nyota zikishuka. 
Shooting stars, kimwondo, pi. 
vimwcndo. 
Starch, kanji, dondo. 
Start {fright), kLtuko. 
{beginning), fell, pi. mafeli. 



Startling thing, mzxmgivu pL mi- 

ZUDglL 

A thing to frighten people, Mnya- 
go, pi, ylnyago. 
Staie, hali 
Statue, sanamo. 
Stealing, kwiba. 
Steam, mvuke. 

A steamship, merikebu ya moshi. 
Steel, feleji, pua. 
Steelyard, mizani. 
Steersman, mshiki 8hik](0. 
Stem of a tree, shina, pi, mashina. 

of mtama, bua, pi. mabua. 
Step {stepping), batua. 

{of stone, &c.), daraja. 
Step-father, baba wa kambo. 

Step-moiher, mama wa kambo. 
Steward, msimamizi, pi. wammami zi. 
Stick, fimbo, ufito, ph fito (thin), 
bakora (a walking-jstick with a 
handle bent at right angles). 
A short heavy stick, kibarango, 
pi. Tibarango, mpweke, pL mi- 
pweke. 
A staff, gongo, pi magongo, 
mkongojo, pi. mikongojo (an 
old man* 8 staff). 
Stillness, kimya. 

Stirrup, kikuku cha kupandia frasi. 
Stocks (for the feet), mkatale. 
Stomach, tumbo. 
Pit of the stomach, chembe clia 
moyo (A.). 
Stone, jiwe, pt mawe or majiwe. 
A stone house, nyumba ya mawe. 
Small stones or pieces of stone, 

kokoto, pi. makokoto. 
Very small stones, not larger than 

an egg, mbwe. 
Very srnaU grit, oliangarawL 
Fresh coral, matumbawL 



BUB8TANTIVE8. 



73 



PreeiouB stones^ kiio, pi, vito, 
johari. 

StoneB of fruit, kokwa, ph ma- 
kokwa. 
Stooping^ kiinamizL 
Stop (end), kikomo, Mnga. 

(stopping}, kizuizo, kizuizi, kizuio. 
Stoppage in the nose or wind-pipe, 
mafaa. 

(stagnation), Tilio, piL mavilio. 
Stopper, zibo, pi, mazibo, kizibo, pi. 

vizibo. 
Store (put hy), akiba. 

Store-room, ghala. 
Storm, fbdraba, tufaoTi. 
Story, hadithi, habarL See Tcde, 
Stoutness, anene. 
Strainer, kanguto, pL makmigiito 

(of fHuket-iDorlc), 
Straits (distress), shidda. 

(narrow seas), kilango oba bahari. 
Strands of a cord, meno, ncha. 
Stranger, mgeni, pi, wageni 
Strap, ukanda. 
Stratagem, hUsk. 
Stream, mto, ph mito, kijito, pi. 

▼yito. 
Strength, ngayu. 
String, ngwe, nzi, katani 

String of beads, kigwe, pi. yigwe. 
String-course, usM. 
Strip, See Mat, 
Stripe (line), uzi, pi, nyuzi, mfuo, 

pt mifao, utepe, ph tepe. 
Study, mtaala. 
Stumikle, kwao, pi. xnakwao. 
Stufiibling-bloek, kwao, pi. makwao. 
Stump, Bhina, pi. mashina. 
Stupor, kumkwa na akili 
Stye in (he eye, chokea. 
Style (of writing), dibaji, a good 
style* 



Subject, rayia. 

Substance, asill 

Subtlety, bnsara, wereyn. 

Subtraction (arithmeticdC), bakl 

Suburbs, kiiiiiga. 

Sugar, sukari. 

Sugar-cane, mua, pi. miwa. 

Suit of clothes, kisna. 

Sulphate of copper, mratuto. 
of magnesia, chumyi ya haluli. 

Sulphur, kiberitL 

Stdtanship, usnltanL 

Sum, jmnla. 

Summary, muhtasarL 

Summit, kilele, pi. vilele (used of 
any sharp-pointed top or peak, 
of the centre shoot of a cocoa- 
nut tree as well as of the peak 
of a mountatJi). 

Sun, jua, pi. majua. 

The coming out of the sun after 
rain, klanga. 

Sunday, Juma a pilL 

Sundries, takataka. 

Sunset, magharibi, mangaribL 

Supercargo, karauL 

Superciliousness, kitongotongo. 

Superintendent, mwaDgalizi, pi. wa- 
aDgalizi, msimamizi, pt wasi- 
mamizL 

Supper, chakula cha jioni. 

Suppuration, kutunga. 

Surety, mthamini, th&miii, thamana, 
lazima. 

Surf, mawimbi 

SwaUow (bird), barawai, mbili- 
wili (?), mbayuwayu (A.). 

Sweat, bari, jasho, viikuto. 

Sweetheart, mcbumba. 

Sweet lime, dimu tamo. 

Sweetness, tamu. 

Sweet potatoes, mii, sing. '^i&aX. 



74 



BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Swindler^ thaliron. 
Swing, pembi a. 
Swine, ngnmwe, ng^nwe. 
Switch, uiito, pL fito. 
Sword, iipanga, pi, panga. 
curved 8word, kitara, pL vitara. 
etraight two-edged eword wiUwvi 

any guard, ui»aDga wa felejL 
with a tmaU oron hiU, upanga 

wa imaiiL 
Syphilis, sekeneko, kijaraha cha 

mboni, tego (a virulent kind 

supposed to he the renUi of a 

charm). 
Syria, Sham. 
Syrup, aeali 

T. 

Table, meza. 

Tahle-doth, ngao ya meza. 

Table - napkin, kitambaa oha 
meza. 
Tack of a sail, goshi 
Tacking {sewing), band! 
Tail, mkia, pL mikia. 
Tailor, mshoni, pi, washoni. 
Taking away, maondolea 
Tale, hadithi, kisa, ngana 
Tal&^bearer^ mzuzL 
Talipes^ kapinda na rngao. 
Talk, usemi, 

SiUy talk, npuzL 
TaUeer^ msemaji, pi waiemaji 
Tanuirind, ukwaju. 

Tamarind tree, mkwaju, ph mi- 
Tangle, matata. [kwaju. 
Tap, bUida. 
Tape, ntepe, pIL tepe. 
Tor, lami. 
'^«»ter on (he teeth, nkoga. 

<» tamo, tamu, lathtba, nyonda, 
idi,maoiiji 



Tader, mwnnja, pL waonja, miro- 

nda (M.), pi waonda, kionja, 

pi Tiouja, kionda ^H-), pL 

Tionda. 
Tea, cliayi, oha. 
Teacher, mwalimo, pi waaliimi, 

mkafanzi, pi wakuftinxL 
Teaching, mafandisho, eUmo. 
Teak, msaji 

Teapot, bull, pH. mabali 
Tear, chozi, pH. maohosi, tod (M.)i 

pi. matozi. 
Teazing, thihaka. 
Tediousness, ucliovQ. 
Telescope, durabini. 
Temper, tabia. 

Temperance, tawasgaf, kadiri. 
Temple, hekala (a great thing, the 

temple at Jerusalem), baoija 

(a huUding, the temple at 

Mecca), 
Temptation, mnjaribn, nyonda. 
Ten, knmi, pi. makumi. 

a decade, mwongo, pi mionga 
Tent, khcma, hema. 
Testicles, mapumbu, tamboa. 
Testimony, iLshahidi. . 
Thanks, sbukuni, ushuknm, flalanra, 

ahsanta, marababa. 
Hiatch, makuti (of cocoa-nut leaves). 
Thin sticks used to tie the maknti 

to, upaii, pi. pan 
See CoeocMiitt, 
Theft, uizi. 
Thicket, kichaka, pi, ?ichaka, koko, 

pi. makoko. 
Thickness, unene. 
Thief, mwivi, pi, wevi, mwibaji, pi 

webajL 
Thieving, kwiba, uizi, wibaji. 
Thigh, upcga, pi, paja, paja, pi ma- 

paja. 



BUSaTANTIVEa. 



76 



ThiiMB^ sabaiuk 
SaUmdkei^B palm^ do&a, pL ma- 
dofra. 
Thing, kitu, pi. yitn (a thing of the 
aenaes), neno, jambo, mambo 
(ihinga of ihe intellect;). 
I heme done nothing, sikufanya 

neaao. 
I tee nothing, doQi Idto. 
A hind thing, jambo la wema. 
Strange things, mambo mageni 
Third (a Mrd part), thelui^u 
Thirst, kin. 

Thorn, mwiba, pi. miiba or miba. 
Mchongoma, pL michongoma, a 

thorny ehrub need for hedges, 
Hkwamba, pi. mlkwamba, a 
thorny shrt^ 
Thought, wazo, pL mawazo, fikara, 

thamiri, nia. 
Thousand, elfa, pi. elfu or alafii. 
a thousand or myriad, kikwi, pi. 

zikwiorvikwi 
« hundred thousand, lakkL 
Threcul, uzi, pi. nynzi, katani. 
ThrefU, wogofya, tisho. 
Throat, koo, plL makoo. 
Thumb, kidole cha gomba. 
Thunder, radi (near), ngonimo 

(distant). 
Thursday, AlhamisL 
Ticket, kLbarna, pH. vibama. 
Tickling or tingUng, mnyeo, kinye- 

nyefo. 
Tichs, papasi (fn houses), kupe (on 

cattle). 
Tide, maji kujaa na kapwa. 
Spring tides, bamyna. 
Neap tides, maji mafd. 
TiJUer, kana, gana. 

2VZfer ropes, mijiari, eing. n^jiari. 
Timber, mlti, mibao. 



Time, wakati, wakti, migira. 
{sufficient), nafasi. 
[hour), saa. 
{Jteisure), faragha. 
{first, &c.\ mara. 
(fixed term), mohnlla. 
Times (age), zamanL 
Space of time, muda. 
Period of time, kipindi 
A short time, kitambo. 
Times, in multiplication, fi. 
Siz times eight, sita fi the- 
manya. 

Divisions of Timb. 

There are two years in use in 
Zanzibar ; that which is most com- 
monly heard of is the Arab year of 
twelve lunar months. It cannot be 
more than about 355 days long, and 
has therefore no correspondence to 
the seasons The months are de- 
termined by the sight of the new 
moon, or by the expiration of thirty 
days since the beginning of the 
previous month. It happens some- 
times that some of the coast towns 
will begin their months a day before 
or after what was taken as its Qrst 
day in Zanzibar. A gun is usually 
fired firom one of the ships when 
the month begins. Practically the 
Bamathan is treated as the first 
month, and the rest are reckoned 
from it; the word by which they 
are denoted seems to mean not 
fasting^ as though the Bamathan 
being the month ol fasting, the rest 
were the first, second, third, &c., 
of not fasting, until the months of 
Bajah and Shaaban, which have 
both a special leUglowa c\u^i^\.^x 



76 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



The following are tho names of the 
Arah months, with their Bwahili 
equivalents : 



SWAHILI. 

Mfanguo a 'nne. 
Mfunguo a tano. 
Mfunguo a sita. 
Mfunguo a saba. 
MfuDguo a nane. 
Mfunguo a kenda. 
Bajabu. 
Shaabanl. 
Kamathanl. 
Mfunguo a moei. 
Mfunguo a pili. 
Mfunguo a tatu. 



Moharraxn. 

Safr. 

Kabia al aowal. 

Babia al akhr. 

Jemad al aowal. 

Jemad al akhr. 

Bajab. 

Shaaban. 

Kamathan. 

Shaowal. 

Th'U ka'ada. 

Th'il hi^ah. 



The two great Mohammedan 
feasts are held on the first of 
ShcuAJoaly when every one gives pre- 
sents, and on the tenth of TKil 
hajjah, when every one is supposed 
to slaughter some animal and fea&t 
the poor. 

The other year in use among the 
Swahili is the Nautical and Agri- 
cultural year ; it is roughly a solar 
year, having 365 days. It is 
reoikoned to begin from the 8tku a 
mwaJea (answering to the Persian 
Nairuz), which now occurs towards 
the end of August. The last day 
of the old year is called Kigunzi, 
and the days are reckoned by 
decades, called miongo, sing, ttmoo- 
ngo. Thus — Mwongo wa mia con- 
sists of the days between 90 And 
100. Mwongo wanyapii asks which 
decade it is. The Siku a mwaha is 
kept as a great day, and formerly 
had a number of special observances 
connected with it In the night or 



early in the morning every one lued 
to bathe in the sea ; the women aie 
particularly careful to do bo. They 
afterwards fill a large pot with 
grain and pulse, and cook them. 
About noon they serve out to all 
friends who come ; all the fires are 
extinguished with water and Ughted 
again by rubbing wood. Formerly 
no inquiry was made as to any one 
killed or hurt on this day, and it is 
still the custom to go armed and 
to be on the guard against private 
enemies. It used to be a favourite 
amusement to throw any Indians 
that could be caught into the sea, 
and otherwise ill-nse them, until 
the British Government interfered 
for their protection. The year is 
called after the day of the week on 
which it began ; thus, in 1865 it 
began on Thursday and was 
Mwaka Alhamisi; in 1866 on 
Friday, and was Mwaka Juma, and 
so on. 

The seasons will be found briefly 
mentioned under that word. 

The week has been reconstructed 
on the Arab week, retaining only 
the Arab names of two days, Alha- 
mist and Juma (Thursday and 
Friday), which answer to our Satur- 
day and Sunday for Mohammedan 
religious purposes, and are the days 
which slaves in the country are 
generally allowed for their own 
recreation or profit. Juma is so 
named from the assembly held on 
that day for public worship; the 
Arab names of the rest are merely 
those used by English Quakers, 
first, second, third, &c. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



77 



Eholzbr. 


ABAHa 


SWAHILI. 


Sunday. 


Al^Qiad. 


Jama a plU. 


Monday. 


Ath tAeneen. 


Juma a tato. 


Taeeday. 


Ath theluth. 


Juma a 'nne. 


Wednesday. 


Ar robua*. 


Juma a tano. 


Thareday. 


Al khamJB. 


AlhamiBi. 


Friday. 


Juma'. 


Jmna. 


Saturday. 


Aasabt 


Jama a mosL 



The day begins at sunset ; to-night 
therefore in the mouth of a Swahili 
means what an Englishman would 
call last night. As the days are of 
a very nearly imiform length there 
is little practical incorrectness in 
taking sonset as six o'clock in the 
evening and reckoning the night 
first and then the day from it, hour 
by hour. Thus, seven, eight, and 
nine are the first, second, and third 
of the night (saa a hwanza^ a piliy 
a UUu ya'tuiku). Midnight is the 
sixth hour, saa a Hta. Five in the 
morning is the eleventh hour of the 
night, gaa a edJuuihara. Nine 
o'clock in the morning is the third 
hour of the day, saa a tatu. Twelve 
at noon is the sixth hour, saa a sita, 
and four and five the tenth and 
eleventh hours, saa a Jcumi, saa a 
edhashara. Sunset is determined 
by observation, and a gun is fired, 
and tha Sultan's flag hauled down 
to mark it. During the Bamathan a 
gun is fired at half-past two in the 
morning to warn every one of the 
approach of morniDg, that they may 
get their cooking and eating over 
before dawn. This gun-fire is called 
daakuu. 

There is another way of marking 
the time by reference chiefly to the 
hours of prayer (see Prayer); the 
following are the chief points 



Magaribi, sunseL 

Msbuko wa magaribi (ecnning out 

from sunset prayers), about 

half -past six, 
Esha or Isha, from hUf-past six 

to eight, 
Mshuko wa esha, about half-an- 

hour later, 
Nuss ya usiku, midnighL 
Karibu na alfajiri, between three 

and four in the morning, 
Alfajiri mkuiL rising of the mom- 

ing star, about four, 
Alfajiri mdogo, daum. 
Assubui, the morning, i.e., after 

sunrise, 
Mchana, the day from assubui to 

jioni. 
Mafungulia ng*ombe (letting out 

of cattle), about 8 a.m. 
Mafungulia ng'ombe makuu, is 

earlier, mafungulia ng'ombe 

madogo, is later than eight 

o*clock, 
Jua kitwani, noon, 
Athuuri or Azuuri, nooTi, and 

thence tiU three o^dock, 
Awali athuuri, between twelve and 

one, 
Alasiri, about half-past three, or 

from three to five, 
Alasiri kasiri, alxmt five, or thence 

to half-pasL 
Jioui, evening, from dbouJt five ot 

half -past tiU sunset. 



Tin, bati 

Tiv ncha, nta (IVI.), 
TitJies, zaka. 
Tobacco, tumbako. 
To-day, leo. 



78 



BWABILI HANDBOOK. 



Toe^ kidole, ph vidole, kidole oha 

mguu. 
Token, dalili, bunibani 
Tomb, kabuii, pi, makaburi. 
To-morrow, kesha 

the day after, kesbo kutwa. 

the day after thai, mtondo. 

after that, mtoDdo goa 
ToTigs, koleo, pL makoleo. 
Tongtte, ulimi, pH ndimi 

A piece of doth, due., to lie under 
an opening, lisani 
Tool, samanl 

Carpenter* 8 tool for marking lines, 
mahati. 
Tooth, jiQO, pi. mena 

cuspids, ohonge. 

Dirt on the teeth, ukoga. 

Se has lost a front tooth, ana 
penga 

Tooth stick or brush, xnsuaki, pi 
misuakL 
Top, juu. 

{the toy), pia. 
Torpor, utepetefu. 
Tortoise, koho. 
Total, jumla. 

Towel, kitambaa cba kafntia uao, &c. 
Tower, mnara, pL minora. 
Toion, mji, pL mijL 
Trace, dalili 
Tra^k, nyajo. 
Trade, biashara. 
Trader, mfanyi biashara. 
Traitor, khainL 
Trap, mtego, pi. mitego. 

(with a spring), mtambo, pL mi- 
tambo. 
Traveller, msafiii, pi. wasafiri 
Tray, sinia, pi. maslQia. 
Trea4:le, asali ya mua. 
Treasure, hasdna, kanzi, khazana. 



Treatment, mwamale* 
Tree, mti, pi. miti. 

Mkadi, Pandanus. 

Mtomondo, Barringtonia. 

Mtondoo,C^2qp%Utti» ino]^yUum^ 
Trench, handaM. 

T}rench for laying in foundational 
msinji, msingi 
Trial, majaribo. 
Tribe, kabila, taifa, pL mataifa. 

(taifa is larger than kabila). 

Of whai tribe are you f Mtu gani 
wee? 
Trick, Mia, cherevxi, madanganya. 
Trot, mashindo (of a horse), matiti 

(of an ass). 
Trouble, taabu, utbia. 
Trousers, sorualL 

Trowel (mason*s), mwiko, pi. miiko. 
Trumpet, paanda. 

Trwnk, shina, pi, mashina, jiti, pU 
majiti. 

(cut down), gogo, pi. magogo. 

(the huT^an trunk), Mwiliwili. 
Truth, kweli 

A truth tetter, msemi kweli. 
Trying, maonji, majaribu. 
Tub, pipa, pi. mapipa. 
Tuesday, Juma a nne. 
Turhan, kilemba,|>2. vilomba. 

A twhan cloth, utambi, pL tambL 

ends of turban doth, utamyua, pL 
tamvna, kishungL 
Turkey, bata la mzinga, pL mabata 

yamzinga. 
Turmeric, manjano. 
Turn, zamu, ph mazamiL 

By turns, kwa zamu. 
Turner, mkereza, pL wakereza. 
Turnery, zikerezwazo. 
Turtle, kasa. 

Hawkshead turtle, from which 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



79 



tmioiiesheO, ia obtained^ ngV 

mba, gDambfti 
Turtle dove, hna^ 
Ttmn, pacha. 
Tvn$ty pindi, pL mapindi. 
Type ifor printing j, chapa, pi, ma- 

chapa. 

U, 
Udder, kiwele. 
Ulcera, donda ndugn. 
Umbrella, mwavuli, pi. miaTTiU. 
Native umbreUa, dapo, pH mAr 

dapo. 
UneleaimesM, janaba, nohavii. 
Unde, mjomba, pi. wajomba, baba 

mdogo (mother's brother), amu 

if other' 8 brother}. 
Undergrowth, magngn. 
Understanding, akili (pi). 
Undenoood, makoko. 
Unity, nmqja. 
Universe, ulimwengiL 
Uproar, fajo,kelele, makelele, ntbia, 

kero. 
Urine, mkojo. 
Use, kutumia, knfaa. 

(habit), mazoezo. 
Useful things, vifaa. 
Usurer, mlariba, pi. walariba. 
]7«tiry, iriba. 
UtensUs, yyombo. 
Uterus, mji. 
Uvula, kimio. 

V. 

Vagabond, hana kwao (homeless). 

Vagina, kiima. 

Vdiley, boonde, pi, boonde or ma- 

boonde. 
Vahie, kima, ^^raani, kadiri, kiasi, 

upataji) nthani. 



What is it wwth ? Ohapataje ? 
Vapour, mvuke, fukizo. 

Vapour hath^ mvuke. 
Vault, or vaulted place, kuba, kubba. 
Vegetables, mboga. 

Dcdoki, pi. madodoki, a long 
many-angled seed pod. 

Fijili or iigili, a large white 
radish. 

Jimbi, pi, xnajimbi, a root very 
much like a hya>cinth root. 
Vegetable marrow, mumunye, pL 

mammuunye. 
Veil, utaji, shela. 
Vengeance, kasasi. 
Verses, madbairi. 

Utenzi, religious verses, 

Utumbuizo, verses sung at a dance. 
Vesicular eruption on the skin, 

uwati. 
Vial, kitupa, pi. vitupa. 
Vice, uovu, uiisadi, uiiski 

(the tool), jiiiwa, pi, majiUwa, 
iriwa. 
Vicegerent, kalma, ph makaimn, 

nayibii, kalife. 
Victim, matbabuha. 
Victuals, vyakula. 
Vigil, kesba, pi. makesba. 
Village, mji, pi miji, kijiji, pi. vyiji. 
Vine, mzabibu, pi. mizabibn. 
Vinegar, aiki. 
Violence, jeuli, ngnvu. 

Kwa nguvu, by violence. 

Ana jeuri, he aiia/cks people wan' 
tonly. 
Virgin, bikiri, kizinda. 
Viscera, matumbo. 
Vizir, waziri, pi. mawaziii. 
Vizirship, uwaziii. 
Voice, sauti. 
Vow, nathiri, naziri 



80 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Voyage, safarL 
Vulture, tai. 

W. 

Wedges, ujira. 
monthly, msbahara. 
sailors*, halasa. 
Wailing, maombolezo. 
Waistcoat, kisibau, pi. visibau. 
sleeved, oba mkono. 
sleeveless, kisiobo mkono or cba 
vikapa. 
Walk, mwendo. 
A walk, matcmbezi. 
to go for a walk, kwenda tembea. 
Wall, ukuta, pi. kuta, kikuta, pi. 
vlkuta, kitalu, pi. vitalu {of an 
enclosure), kiyambaza (mud 
and stud). 
Wad-plate, mbati, mwamba, pt. mi- 

amba. 
Walnut, jozi. 
Wandering about, mznnguko, pi, 

miznnguko. 
Want, ubtaji, npungufa, kipunguo. 

(poverty), sbidda, umaBikini. 
War, vita, kondo (Mer.). 
Wareroom, ghala. 
Warehouse and shop, bokbari, 
bobari. 
Warmth moto, nbarara. 

Lukewarmness, uvuguvugu. 
Wart, chunjua. 
Washerman, dobi. 
Waste, upotevn, nbaribivn. 
Waster, mpotevn, pi, wapotevu, 

mnbaribivu, j9Z. wabaribiyn. 
Watch, saa. 
(vigil), kesba, pt makesba. 
(time or place of watching), ki- 

ugojo, pi. vingojo. 
(watching-plaee), linda 



Water, maji. 
Fresh waier, maji matamo, majl 

yapepo. 
Water-closet, choo, cbiro. 
Water cooler (earthen hottle\ 
guduwia, gudulia, kuzi (a 
larger kind with handles and 
spout). 
Water jar, mttrngi, pi. mitungL 
Water melon, battikh. See 

Pumpkin. 
Water skin, kiriba. 
Wave, wimbi, ph mawimbi. 
Way, njia. 

the shortest way, njia ya kukata. 
Weakness, ntbaifo. 
Weaith, mail mengi, ntajiri, nkwasi. 
Weapon, selaba, mata (weapons, t.e., 

bows and arrows). 
Weather, wakatL 
Weather side, npande gosbini, 
npande wa jun. 
Weaver, mfuma, pL wafuma. 
Wedding, barusi. 
Wedge, kabari. 
Wednesday, Juma a tano. 
Weeds, magugu. 
Kinds of weeds, kitawi, mdagoy 
gugu mwitu, mbaruti. 
Week, jmnaa. 

Weight (see Measure), utbani. 
How much does it weigh ? Yapata 

kassi gani utbani wake ? 
Native Weights : 
Wakia, the weight of a stiver 

doUar^ about one ounce. 
Kattel, sixteen wakia, about one 

pound, 
Eibaba, pi, yibaba, one rattel and 

a half, 
Mani, wo rattel and threo^ 
quarters. 



SUBSTANTWEa. 



81 



VuAA^fomr yibaba, or tix rattel. 
Frasila, (hiriy-five rattel, or twelve 

mani. 
Farm ya mti, seventy-two rattel, 

or twelve pishi. 
ITeS, kiBima, pL yisima. 
Weeping, kilio. 
We^ maghribL 

West windy umande. 
Wet, rataba, maji. 
Whale, nyamgumi, ngumL 
Wheat, ngano. 
Wheel, gorudumii, pL magnni- 

dnmn. 
Wheeled oarriage, gari, pL ma- 

garL 
Whetstone, kinoo, pL vinoo. 
Whip, mjeledi, pL mljeledi 
A plaited thong carried hy over- 

lookers and schoolmasters, ka- 

mbaa, kikoto (M.). 
Whirlvoind, kisusuli, pepo za cha- 

mchela. 
Whistling, msonyo, minnsL 
White ants, mcbwa. 
White of egg, nte wa yayL 
Whiteness, weupe. 
Whitening, chaki. 
WhiUow, mdudo. 
Wick of a lamp, ntambi, pi, 

tambi. : 
of a candle, kope, pi. makope. 
Widow, mjani, mjaaiii, mke aliofl- 

wa na mtimewe. 
Width, npana. 
Wife, mke, pi, wake, mtuinke, pL 

watnwake, mwanamke, pL wa- 

anaake. 
WHdemess, bara, nyika, imyika. 
Wild people, wasbenzi. 
WHd animals, nyama za mwitu, 

nyama mbwayi, nyama wakali. 



Will (mind), moyo, nia, kusudi. 

{testament)^ wasio. 
Wind, upepo, much wind, pepo. 
See Cold, Whirlunnd, Storm, East 

West 
Northerly Winds, which blow from 

December to March, kaskazi. 
Southerly winds, which blow from 

April to November, kusi. 
Head winds, pepo za omo (also 

stem winds). 
Wind on the beam, matanga kati. 
Winding, kizin^o, pi. vizingo. 

of a stream, maghuba. 
Windlass, duara. [dirisha. 

Window, dirisha, pi, dlrisba or ma- 
Wine, mvinyo (strong wine), divai 
Wing, bawa, pi. mabawa. [(daret). 
A uoing feather, ubawa, pi mbawa. 
Wink, kupepesa. 
Wire, masango, uzi wa madini. 
Wire-drawer^s plate, cbamburo. 
Wisdom, h^ima, busara, akili. 
Wit, ujuvi (?). 

WUch, mcbawi, pi. wachawL 
Witchcraft, uchawi 
One who uses witchcraft against 
another, wanga. 
Witness, shahidi, pi. masbabidi. 

(testimony), usbahidi. 
Wits, akili. 

Wizard, mcbawi, pi. waebawi 
Woe, msiba. See Grief. 
Woman, mwanamke, pi. waanaake 
or waanawake. 
A young vjoman, kijana, ;?{. vijana. 
A young woman who Jms not yet 
left Jierfathet's house, one whose 
breasts are not yet flattened, 
mwanamwalL 
A slave woman, mjakazi, pi. wa- 
See Person, Old, Slave, [jtikazi. 



82 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Wovnlbj tumbo, matumbo, mjL 
Wonder^ ajabn. 
% Wondergy mataajabu. 
Wood^ mti. See Firewood^ Timber, 
A woody msitu wa miti. 
A piece of wood, kijiti, pi. yijitl. 
Kinds of wood. 
Finessi, the wood of the Jaek-fruit 

tree ; it has a yellow colour. 
Mohe, a reddish wood much used 

in Zanzibar. 
Mkumavi, a red toood. 
Msaji, teah. 
Mtobwe, the toood of which the 

best bakora are made. 
Sesemi, Indian hladk toood. 
Simbati, a kind of toood brouglit 

from near Cape Delgado. 
Sunobari, deal. 
Wooden clogs, viatu vya mti. 
The button which is grasped by 
the toes, msuruaki, j^. misu- 
raaki 
Woollen cloth, joho (broaddoth). 
Thick toooUen fabrics, blanketing, 
bushuti. 
Word, neno, pi. maneno. 
Bad words, matukano. 
Work, kazi. 

Wwkman, mtenda kazi. 
(skilled), fundi. 

(skilful, a good hand)i mstadi, pL 
wastadi. 
Workshop, kiwanda, pi. viwanda, 

kiwanja,jpZ. viwaiija. 
Worlds nllmwengn, dunia. 
People of this world, walixnwengn. 
Worldly affairs, maliinwengn. 
Worm, nangonango, ohaDgo, 

miiio(?). 
Worth, kima. Bee Vahte. 
Wound, jeraha, dondai pL madonda. 



kionda, pi, yionda, kidonda, pL 

vidonda. 
Wraih, ghathabo. 
Wriggle, pindi, pi. mapindL 
Wrist, kiwiko cha mkono, kilimbilL 
Writer, mwandishi, pi. waandishi, 

akatabao, pi. wakatabao (teriter 

of a letier). 
Writings, jnaandiko, maandisbi. 
Writing-desk, dawati. 
Wrong, thulumu, flivyo. 

y. 

Yam, kiazi kikuu, pi. viazi vikun. 

A kind of yam like a hyacinth 
root, jimbi, pi. majimbi. 
Yard (of a ship), foramali. 

(an enclosure), uanda, iianja, ua, 
Yaum, miayo. [pL nyua. 

Year (see Time), mwaka, pi, miaka. 

La^t year, mwaka jana. 

The year before last, mwaka juzi. 
Yesterday, jaoa. 

TJie day before yesterday, juzi. 
Yolk of an egg, kiini cba yayi. 
Young of birds, kinda, pi. makinda. 

See Chicken, &c. 
Youth, ujana, udogo. 

A youth, kijana, pi. vijaua. 

Z. 

Zanzibar, Unguja. 

The language or dialect of Zanzi- 
bar, Kiunguja. In Zanzibar, 
Kiswahili is understood to mean 
diiefly the language used on the 
coast north of Monibas, 
The original inJicibitants of Zanzi' 
bar, Muhadimu,p2. Wabadimu. 
Their wUan is the Muujd 
Zeal (effort), jubudi. [mkuiL 

(jealousy), uwivu. 
Zs&ro, ptinda miliat 



( 83 ) 



ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives always follow the Substantives they 

agree with. 

Miu mwema, a good man. 

EegxQar Swahili Adjectives are made to agree with 
the Substantives they qualify by prefixing to them the 
initial syllables proper to the class of their Substan- 
tives, in the singular or plural, as the case may be. 
The minor rules laid down in regard to the prefixes of 
Substantives are applicable to Adjectives and their 
prefixes. The following instances will illustrate the 
ordinary application of these rules : 

Class I. M-tti 'f»-&aya, a bad man. 

Wortu toa-haya, bad men. 
M'tu mto-eupei a white man. 
Wct-tu w-ewpe, white men. 

Substantives of whatever class denoting living beings 

may have their Adjectives in the forms proper to the 

first class. 

Mbuzi rn'Mbwch a large goat. 

Mhuzi wa-hubwa ^IskTge goats 
Mbuzi mw-ekundu, a red goat. 
Mbuzi u)-ekundUf red goats. 



84 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

Waziri mwemct, a good vizir. 

Mawaziri wema, good yizira. 
Kijana mwema, a good youth. 

Vijana toema, good youths. 

Glass II. M-ti m-zuri, a fine tree. 

Mi-ti mi-zuri, fine trees. 
M-ti mtp-emoy a good tree. 

Mi4i mi-emay or m-emay good trees. 

Class III. Ny^umba n-zuri, a fine house. 

Ny-umba n-zuri, fine houses. 
Ny-mnha ny-eupe^ a white house. 
Ny-uniba ny-eupe^ white houses. 

Class IV. Ki-tu hi-refu, a long thing. 

Vi-tu vi-refu, long things. 
Ki-tu ch-epesif a light thing. 
Vi-tu vy-epesiy light things. 

Class Y. Kasha zito, a heavy chest. 

Ma-kasha ma-zito, heavy chests. 
KoAha j-ekundu, a red chest. 

Ma-koAha m-ekundu, red chests. 

Class VI. U-imho m-zuri, a beautiful song. 

Ny-imbo n-zuri, beautiful songs. 
U-bau m-refu, a long plank. 
M-hau n-de/Uy long planks. 

Class YII. MahaXi pa-pana^ a broad place, or broad places. 

Mahali p-eusi^ a black place, or black places. 

Class VIII. Ku-fa ku-zuri, a fine death. 

Ku-fa kw-emot a good death. 

It will be seen at once from the above examples how 
to make the Adjective agree with its Substantive in 
ordinary cases. The following rules must be remem- 
bered in order to avoid mistakes : — 

1. Adjectives beginning with a vowel require pre- 
fixes which end in a consonant, wherever possible, as 
in the above instan<3es, mweupe, mwekundu, mwema^ 
chepesiy Jcwema. 



ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 



85 



2. Adjectives beginning with a vowel must have j- 
prefbced when they are made to agree with nouns like 
tccuiha^ as in the instance given above of haaha jekunduy 
a red chest. Monosyllabic adjectives prefix /i, as in 
hashajipya, a new chest. 

3. Prefixes ending in -a, when they are put before 
adjectives beginning with c-, merge the a into the 
first letter of the adjective, as in the instances, toeupe, 
toehtmduj mekunduy peusi. This suppression of the a is 
more noticeable in Adjectives than in Substantives, 
and occurs even in the few Adjectives which begin 
with 'O- ; -a before i- coalesces with it and forms e. 



WeuH = wa-euai. 
Fema = pa-ema. 
Wengi= wa-ingi. 



Meupe = ma-eupe. 
Mororo = ma-ororo. 



4. Adjectives beginning with a consonant are subject 
to the same rules when n is to be prefixed as Substan- 
tives of the third class and plurals of the sixth. The 

rules are given at length under Class VI. of Substan- 

• 

tives. The following instances will show their appli- 
cation to Adjectives : 



n prefixed. 



Nyurnba ( ndogo, little 
Mhau \ ngem, strange 
Nyimbo ( nzurit fine 

ndefut long — r becomes d, 

mbomi, rotten — n becomes m, 

mbUif two— ^10 becomes mb, 

kubwciy great 

nenej thick 

pana, broad 

tamu, sweet 

ehache, few 

fupi, short 



fi suppressed. 



86 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

Besides the many apparent irregularities in these 
n formations, there are two or three really irregular 
forms. These are ngema or njema (not nyema)j good, 
and *mpya (not pya)^ new. 

Adjectives beginning with a vowel are, like the cor- 
responding Substantives, regularly formed by prefixing 
ny-, as in the instance given, nyeupe, from -eupe, white.. 

Instances are given in the list of Adjectives where 
there is likely to be any practical difficulty in knowing 
what form to use. 

-Ote, all, and -enyiy or -tnyt, having or with, are not 
treated as Adjectives, but as Pronouns. Instances 
illustrating their changes will be found under each. 
On the other hand -ngapi, how many ? is treated as an 
Adjective. 

Irregular Adjectives. 

Although Swahili is rich in Adjectives when com- 
pared with other African languages of the same family, 
it is very poor in comparison with English. The place 
of the English Adjective is supplied — 

1. By Arabic words which are used as Adjectives 
but do not vary. 

Rahisi, cheap. Laini, smooth. 

2. By a verb expressing generally in the present 
imperfect to became, and in the present perfect to he, 
possessed of the quality denoted. 

Fimbo imenyokot the stick is straight. 

Fimbo iliyonyohaj a straight stick. 
Fiwho tmepotoka, the stick is crooked. 

Firnbo iliyopotokaj a crooked stick. 
Mtungi urnqftuif the jar is fiilL 

Mtungi vltf^aoy a fall jdr. 



ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 87 

3. By a Substantive connected with the thing quali- 
fied by the particle -a, of; 

Mtu wa chcyOy a greedy person. 

Mtu vm akUi, a man of understanding, a wise man. 

If it is wished to predicate the quality of any person 
or thing, the verb huwa na^ to have, must be used. 

Ana choyOt he is greedy. 
Kina talca, it is dirty. 

4. By the use of the word -enyi or -inyi, which may 
be translated by having or toith. 

Mtu mwenyi afia, a healthy person. 
Kitu chenyi mviringo, a round thing. 
Kamba zenyi nguvu, strong ropes. 
Embe yenyi maji, a juicy mango. 

When -enyi is followed by a Verb in the Infinitive, 
it answers to our participle in -ing, 

Mwenyi kupenda, loving. 

5. By the use of Adjectival Substantives which 
change only to form the plural. 

Kipofu, blind, or a blind person, pi. Vipofu^ blind, or blind people 

Where in English a special stress is laid upon the 
Adjective, in Swahili the relative is inserted. 

Jitoe kubwaf a large stone. 

Jiwe lililo kubwa, a large stone, literally, a stone that is large. 
Mtu wa hahi, a just man. 

Mtu aJdye wa haki, Ajuat man. 

The Comparison op Adjectives. 

There are not, properly speaking, any degrees of 
comparison in Swahili. 



88 SWAEILI HANDBQOK. 

The CoMPARATTVE degree as it exists in English is 
represented in several ways. 

1. By the use of kulikoj where there is, the idea being 
that when the two things are brought together one of 
them is marked by the possession of the quality men- 
tioned, whence it follows that it must possess it in a 
more eminent degree than the other. 

8aa hit njema Jculiko iUy this watch is good (or t?i€ best) where 

that is, 2.6., this watch is better than that. 
Tamu huliho asali, sweeter than honey. 

2. By the use of zayidi ya, more than, or of j^nde, a 
little more. 

Unguja mji mhubwa zayidi ya Mvita, Zanzibar is a large town 
more than Mombas, ».e., Zanzibar is a larger town than 
Mombas. 

Kitu kirefu pundcy something a little longer. 

3. By the use of kwpita, to pass or surpass. 

Salimu ampita Ahdallahy Salim is better than Abdallah. 
Ndiyo tamu yapita asalif it is sweet, it passes honey, i.e., it is 
sweeter than honey. 

4. Comparison of one time with another may be ex- 
pressed by the use of the Verbs huzidi, to increase, 
kuj^ngua, to diminish. 

Mti umezidi kuzaa, the tree has borne more fruit than it did 
previously. 

The Superlative may be denoted by the use of the 
Adjective in its simple form, in an absolute sense. 

Manarum mema ya wapii Where are the best pines? 

Ndiyo memat these are the best. 

Ni yupi alio mvoema ? Who is the best of them ? 

When this form is used of two only, it is more 



ADJE0TIVE8 AND NUMERALS. 



89 



correctly Englished by the Comparative than by the 
SuperlatiTe. So conversely where the Comparative 
forms are so used as to apply to many or all, they 
must be translated by Superlatives. 

8aa hit njema kullko zote, this watch is the best of all. 

Alt awapUa wote. All surpasses them all, or, is the best of all. 



Numerals. 

There are two sets of numerals in use in Zanzibar ; 
one is properly Swahili, the other Arabic, but in a 
Swahiliized form. 

The numbers from one to ten are as follows : 



English. 
One 
Two 
Three 
Four 
Five 
Six 
Seyen 
Eight 
Nine 
Ten 



Swahili. 
Mosi 
Pili 
Tatu 
'Nne 
Tano 
Sita 
Saba 
Nane 
Kenda 
Kumi 



Arabic. 
Wahid 
Theneen 
TheUttha 
*Ar6ba 
Hamti 
Sita 
Saba 

Themanya 
Tiata or Tissia 
'Ashara 



It will be seen that for six and seven there are only 
the Arabic names. The other Arabic numbers under 
ten are not very commonly used, but for numbers above 
ten the Arabic are more used than the purer Swahili. 



ENGLISn. 

Eleven 

Twelve 

Thirteen 

Fourteen 

Fifteen 

Sixteen 

Seventeeii 



SWAHILL 

Kumi na moja 
Kumi na mbili 
Kumi na tatu 
Kwni na *nne 
Kumi na tano 
Kumi na aita 
Kwni na aaha 



Arabic. 
Edatihara 
Thencw^ara 
The/athatos/mra 
Arobatashara 
Samstathara 
Sitashara 
Sabatcuihara 



90 



BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



EyoLiflH. 


SWAHTLL 


ARABia 


Eighteen 


Kumi na nane 


Themanyatcukara 


Nineteen 


Kumi na kenda 


Tissatadtara 


Twenty 


Makumi maioili 


Asharini op Khrin 


Tiiirty 


Jiakumi matatu 


Thdathini 


Forty 


Makumi manne 


Arc^ini 


Fifty 


Makumi matano 


RamHni 


Sixty 


Makumi sita 


Settini 


Seventy 


Makumi saha 


Sabunni 


Eighty 


Makumi manane 


Themanini 


Ninety 


Makumi kenda 


Tissaini 



The intermediate numbers are expressed in the pure 
Swahili by adding na moja^ na mhilij &c. Thus forty- 
one is makumi manne na moja ; forty-five is mahami manne 
na tano, and so on. In the Arabic, the smaller number 
precedes the larger. Twenty-one is wdhid u ishrin, forty- 
five is hhdmai u arohain. The mode of counting most 
usual in Zanzibar is to employ the Arabic names for 
the larger numbers, but to follow the Swahili order, 
thus — 



Twenty-one 

Twenty-two 

Twenty-three 

Tweniy-four 

Twenty-five 

Twenty-six 

Twenty -seven 

Twenty-eight 

Twenty-nine 

Thirty-one 



AsTiarini na moja 
Aitharini na mhili 
Asharini na taJtu 
Asharini na *nne 
Asharini na tano 
Asharini na sita 
Asharini na saha 
Asharini na nane 
Asharini na kenda 
TbeZathini na moja 
&c. &c. 



There is no negro word in use for a hundred ; the 
Arabic mia is universally employed, and for several 
hundreds the numeral follows it, as mia tatu^ three 
hundred. If the Arabic numerals are used they pre- 
cede the word mia, thelatha mia = three hundred. The 



ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 91 

Arabic dual miteen is very commonly used to express 
two hundred. 

There is a Swahili word for a thousand, Tcikwi^ but it 
is very rarely used except in poetry. The common 
word is the Arabic elfu. This is used in the same way 
as mia ; thus, elfu tatu is three thousand, elfu tano, five 
thousand, &c. The Arabic dual elfeen, two thousand, 
is more common than elfu tnbili. If the Arabic nu- 
merals are employed the small number comes first, the 
plural form aldf is employed, .and the final of the small 
number is heard, thus theldthat aldf is three thousand, 
Tchdmset Mf five thousand, and so on. 

Ldkhi is used for ten thousand, and the word milyon 
is known, but is rarely employed, and perhaps never 
with exactitude. 

Fungate occurs for seven, as denoting the days spent by 
the bridegroom in his bride's company after marriage. 

Mwongo, plur. miongo, occurs for a fen or a decade, in 
reckoning the nautical year. 

Both these words occur in cognate African languages 
as cardinal numbers. 

When used in enumerating actual things, and not 
in mere arithmetical computation, six of the Swahili 
numbers are treated as regular Adjectives, the other 
four remaining unchanged. The following table will 
show the forms proper to each class of Substantives. 



Mtu 


Mti 


Ntumba 


KiTU 


1. mmoja 


mmoja 


moja 


kimoja 


Watu 


Mtti 


Ntumba 


VlTU 


2. wawili 


mi will 


mbili 


viwili 


8. wafatu 


mitatu 


tatu 


Yitatu 



92 



SWAHILI HAHmBOOK. 



Watu 



Min 



Ntumba 



Vrru 



4. wanne 


mimie 


'nne 


vmne 


5. watano 


mitano 


tano 


vitano 


6. sita 


sita 


sita 


sita 


7. saba 


saba 


saba 


saba 


8. wanane 


minane 


nane 


yinane 


9. kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


10 kumi 


kumi 


kumi 


kumi 


Kasha 


UlMBO 


Mahali 


KUFA 


1. moja 


romoja 


pamoja 


kumoja 


Makasha 


Nyimbo 


Mahali 


EVFA 


2. mawili 


nibili 


pawili 


kuwili 


3. matatu 


tatu 


patatu 


kutatu 


4. maTine 


*nne 


panne 


knnne 


5. matano 


tano 


patano 


kutano 


6. sita 


sita 


sita 


sita 


7. saba 


saba 


saba 


saba 


8. manane 


nane 


panane 


kunane 


9. kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


10. kumi 


kumi 


kumi 


kumi 



The number always follows the Substantive. 

One man, mtu mmqja. 

If an adjective is employed, the numeral follows the 
adjective, thus exactly reversing the English order. 

Two good men, toaiu wema wawili. 

The Ordinal numbers are expressed by the use of the 
%ariable particle -a. (See Prepositions.) 

The third man, mtu wa tatu. 
The fourth house, nyumba ya *nne. 
The fifth chair, hiti cha taru). 



The Ordinal numbers are : 

First, -a mosij or more com- 
monly -a kwanza. 
Second, -apUi, 



Third, -a tatu. 
Fourth, -a *rme. 
Fifth, -a tano. 



ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 93 

Sixth, -a nta. Tenth, -a kumi. 

Seventh, -a sabcu &o, &c 

Eighth, -a nane^ . Last, -a mwuho. 
Ninth, -a kendo. 

Once, twice, &c., are denoted by the use of marram or 

mara^ a time. 

Once, mara moja. 

The first time, mara ya kwanza. 
Twice, mara mhili. 

The second time, mara ya pilL 
How many times ? Mara ngapi i 

Often, mara nyingi. 

Fractions may be expressed by the use offungu, a 

part, as 

Fungu la Hhelathini, a thirtieth. 

The only fractions in common use are the parts of a 
dollar, which are thus expressed in forms borrowed 

from the Arabic : 

One-sixteenth — Nu8$ ya themuni. 

One-eighth — Themuni, or Themm, or Ze*mn%, 

Three-sixteenths — ^Themuni na ntMs ya ihemunL 

One-fifth — Zerenge, 

One-qnarter — Bdbo. 

Five-sixteenths — Robo na nuss ya themunu 

Three-eighths — Bdbo na themuni. 

Seven-sixteenths — Bobo na themuni na nuss ya themuni. 

One-half— ^u«8. 

Nine-sixteenths — Nuss na nuss ya themuni. 

Five-eighths — Nuss na themuni. 

Eleven-sixteenths — Nuss na themuni na nuss ya themuni. 

Three-quarters — Kassa robo [i.e., a dollar less by a quarter], 

Thirteen-sixteentliS" XoMa robo na nuss ya themuni. 

Seven-eighths — Kassa themuni. 

Fifteen-sixteenths — Kassa nuss ya themuni. 

Numbers treated as Substantives make their plurals 
by prefixing ma- : 

Jtfa^mi matriZi, two tens, i.e., twenty. 
Mamoja pia, all ones, i.e., all the same. 



94 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 

Those words to which no hyphen is prefixed do not take any yariable syllable. 



A quality for which one cannot find 
a wordf a sort of a, -nyangd- 
lika. 

Kitu kinydngdlika gani? What 
$ort of a kind of thing is this ? 

A. 

Ahle, having ahility for, or power 
over, mweza. 

Abortive (fruity &c.), -pooza. 

Active, -tendaji. 

Adjacent 
Mpaka mmoja, having a common 

boundary, 
Kutangamana, to adjoin. 

Alike, sawasawa, -moja. 

Alivefhekji, 

AU, -ote, or -ot'e, varying as a pos- 
sessive pronoun and not as an 
adjective. 
Class i. wot©. 

„ n. dng. mote, pi. yote. 



»> 


in. 


>» 


yote, „ zote. 


»> 


IV. 


»» 


(rhote, „ vyote. 


f> 


V. 


>» 


lote, „ yote. 


ft 


TI. 


»» 


wote, „ zote. 


n 


VII. 


♦» 


pote. 


» 


vm. 


» 


kwote. 



-ote has special forms after the 
particles of time and place* 
po pote, whensoever. 
ko kote, whiGiersoever. 
mo mote, whereinsoever. 
Also after the first and second 
persons plural. 
sisi Bote, we aJL 
ninyi nyote, you all, 
Sote has the meaning of together. 

tu sote, we are together. 
Wote has the meaning of both. 
sisi wote, both of us. 

2. Pia, the whole, all of it or 
them, 

3. Jamii. 

Jamli wa asikari, all the soldiers. 
Almighty, mweza vyote. 
Alternate, moja bado wa moja. 
Ancient, -a kale, -a zamani, -a 

kwanza. 
Angular. 
Eiiwa na pembepembe, to have 
comers. 
Antique, -a kikale, of the eld style. 
Artful, -a vitimbi. 
Aioake, macho. 
Se is awake, yu macho. 



LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



95 



B. 

Bad, -baya, making mbaya' voitli 
nouns Uke nyuinba or nyimbo.' 
•ovn or -boi^n, making mboyu 
with nowM like nymnba or 
nyimbo. ^rr^ exprL, raCher 
corruptness than mere badness. 
Utterly had, baa, pi. mabaa. 
Good for very litUe, thaifa. 
Bare, -tapu, making tapu with nouns 
Uke nymnba or nyimbo. 
Bareheaded, kitwa kiwazi. 
Barren, of land, kame. 
of animcds, tasa. 
of persons, si mzazi. 
BeaiMffd, -znri. 
Bent, of persons, kibiongo, pL vibi- 

ongo. 
Best, bora (pre-eminent). 
Bitter, -chnn^ ( -tnngu (M.)), 
making nchnngu with nouns 
like nyumba, nyimbo, or kasha. 
Pawa acbungn, bitter medicine. 
Tunda nohnngo, hitter fruit. 
Black, -eusi. Sometimes forms occur 
as if from -usi, stich as wausi 
/or WGUsi, mausi /or mens!, and 
vinsi for vyeusi or veusi. It 
makes nyeusi toith nouns like 
nymnba or nyimbo, and jeusi 
with nouns like kasha. 
Blind, kipofo, pi. yipofo. 
Blue, samawi (sky ixlour). 

Maji a bahaii (sea-toater colour). 
Blunt, -yiyn (see Idle). 

Kisu bakipati, the knife is blunt. 
Bold, -jasiri, shnjaa, ph maslmjaa. 
Breeding (of animals), koo. 

Koo la mbnzi, a breeding goat. 
Broad, -pana, making pana toith 
nouns like nymnba or nyimbo. 



a 

Careless, -zembe. 
Castrated, maksau 
Certain, yakini. 

A certain man, mtu mmoja. 
Cheap, rakhisi, rahisi. 
Checkered, marakaraka. 
Chief bora, -knn. See Great. 
Choice, -teule, aali. 
A choice thing, bedaja, tunu, 

hikaya. 
Civilized, -ngwana, -a kiungwana 

(of the civilized sort). 
Clear, safi, fasibi, -enpe (see White). 
Clear, kweu, mbayani, thahiri 

(manifest), -wazi (see Open). 

-eupe (see White). 
Clever, hodari, mahiri, -a akilL 
Clumsy, -zito (see Heavy). 
Coloured, -enyi rangi. 

Of one uniform colour, -takatifo. 
Comic, -chekeshaji, -testeshi. 
Common, vivi hivi, zizi hizi, &c., 

yee kwa yee, &c. (see Pronouns), 
A common thing, jazi. 
Complete, kamili, -kamilifu, -timi* 

livn. 
Confident, -tmnainL 
Confidential, -aii. 
Consecrated, wakf. 
Cool, wovisi. 
Correct, sahihi, fasibi. 
Countrified, -a kimashamba. 
Covetous, bakhili, -enyi choyo, -enyi 

tamaa. 
Crafty, -a hila, -erevu. 
Crazy, mafun. 
Credible, mntaabir, -tabari. 
Crooked, kombokombo, mshitharL 
Cross, -kali (see Fierce). 

Cross roads, njia panda. 
Owming^ -erevn, -a hila. 



96 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



D. 
Damp, kimaji. 
Daring^ -jasiri. 
Darkt -a giza (of darkness), -ensi 

(see Blaok), 
Dead, -fu. 

One whose mother is dead, Mtu 

aliofiwa na mamaye. 
Deaf, Mziwi, pi, viziwi. 
Dear, ghali. 
Deceased, marehemu. 
Deformed, kilema, pi, vilema. 
Destrtictive, -harabn, -haribivu. 
Devout, -taowa. 
Different -ingine (see Other), mba- 

limbali, ihtilafa. 
DifficiiU, -gumu (see Hard), -z'to 

(«ee Heavy), 
Disfigured hy disease, •«nyi lemaa. 
Disobedient, aasi. 
Distinct, mbalimball. 
Double, maradufu. 
Dressed-up, -pambi. 
Drunken, -levi. 
Dry, -kavu« making kava with nouns 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
yabis. 
Dull, -vivu. See Idle, 
Dumb, bubii, pi, mabubu. 

E. 

Easy, -epesi. See Light, 

Elder or Eldest, -kubwa. See Great, 

Eloquent, -semaji, -semi 

Empty, -tuptL See Bare, 

Equal, sawa, sawasawa. 

Eternal, -a milele. 

European, Ulayiti, -a Eizunga. 

Even (level), eawasawa. 

(not odd), kamili. 
Mvery, killa or kulla. It always 
precedes its substantive. 



Killa mta, every man, 

Eilla niendapo, whenever I go, 
or, every time I go. 
Evident, thahiri, -wazL See Open. 
Extravagant, mubatharifu. 



F. 

Fat, -nono. 
Faithful, araini 
Feeble, thaifu. 
Female, -ke. 

On the female side, knkeni. 
F&U3, haba, -chacbe, making chache 

with nouns like nyumba or 

nyimbo. 
Fierce, -kali, making kali with nouns 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Filthy, -chavu. 
Final, tama. 
Fine, -zuri. 
Firm, imara (of things), fAabit (of 

persons). 
Fixed (certain), maalum. 
Flat, sawasawa, panapana. 
Foolish, -pumbafu. 
Foreign, -geni. 
Forgetful, -sahau. 
Forgiving, -sameha 
Former, -a kwauza. 
Fortunate, heri, -enyi babati, -a 

beri. 
J'Vee, burn, -ngwana. 
Fresh, -bicbi. See Raw. 
Fresh water, maji matamu, maji a 

pepo. 
FuU, kujaa, to become fuU. 
Full to the brink, fara, farafara. 
FuU of words, mwingi wa ma- 

neno. 
Full grown, -peyn. 
Future, mkabiL 



LIST OP ADJECTIVES. 



97 



G. 

Gen&row, karimu, -paji 

Gentle, -anana. 

Glorious, -tukufu, -enyi fakhari. 

Gluttonous, -lafi. 

Good, -ema, making Djema or ngema 
vjiih nouns like iiyumba or ny- 
imbo, and jema with nouns like 
kasha. 
The idea of goodness may he ex- 
pressed hy the suffix -to. 
Manuka, smells. 

Mannkato, good smells. 
Knweka, to put. 

Kuwekato, to put properly. 

Greedy, -enyi roho, -enyi tamaa, 
-enyi choyo. 

Great, bora, -kuu and -kubwa or 
-kuba, making kuu and kubwa 
toith nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo. Kuu is usedprefercibly 
of moral or figurative greatness. 
Kubwa, of physical size. 
Great, when applied to anything 
not material, is usually rendered 
hy-iagL 

Green, chamkiwiti, rang! ya majam. 
{Fresh, or unripe), -bichi See 
Baw. 

H. 

Handsome, -zuri. 

Handy, -a mkono. 
A handbook, chuo cha mkono. 

Happy, -a heri, furahani. 

Hard, -gumu. 

Having, with, being with, or who or 
which has or have, -enyi or 
-inyi. It varies like a possessive 
pronoun, as in the following 
examples : — 
Class I. Mtu mwenyi (or mwi- 
nyi) mali, a rich man. 



Watu wenyi mali, rich people. 
Class IL Mti mwenyi (or mwi- 
nyi) kuzaa, a tree in bearing. 

Miti yenyi (or yinyi) kuzaa, 
trees in bearing. 

III. Nyumba yenyi (or yinyi) 
dirisha, a house with windows. 

Nyumba zenyi (or zinyi) 
dirisha, houses with windows. 

IV. Kikapu chenyi (or kinyi) 
nguvu, a strong basket, 

Vikapu vinyi nguvu, strong 
baskets. 

V. Neno lenyi kweli, a true word, 

Mabakuli yenyi mayayi, 
basins with eggs in them. 
YL. Upindi wenyi nguvu, a 
strong bow. 

Findi zenyi nguvu, strong 

bows. 

yil. Mahali penyi mtende, the 

place where the date-tree stands 

Healthy (of persons), -enyi afia,-zima 

{of pkLces, (fee), -a afia. 
Heavy, -zito. 
High, -refu. See Long, -kubwa 

See Great. 
Hollow, -a uvurungu, -wazi. See 
Open. 
A hollow stone, jiwe la uvu- 
rungu. 
It sounds hoUow, panalia wazi. 
The hollow oj- open space in or 
under anything, mvuugu. 
Holy, -takatitu. 
Hot, -a moto. 

J am hot, nina hari. 
Hot-tempered, hararii. 
Human, -a mwana Adamu, -a bina- 

damu, -a mtu. 
Humble, -nenyekevu. 
Humpbacked, -enyi kigongo. 



da 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Ignor<mi {like a simpleton), -jinga. 

lU-cmened, -korofi. 

lU-tempered, -kali See Fierce, 

Immature, -changa. 

Infirm, tbaifu. 

Ingenious, -jnzL 

Inquisitive, -peknzi, -jasnsi, -pele- 

lezL 
Insignifieant (mean), -nyonge. 

(unimportant), khafi^ 
Insipid, -dufu. 

J. 

Jealous, -wivu. 

Juicy, -enyi majL 

Just, sawa, -a haki, -enyi hakL 

K. 
Kind, -ema. See Good, 

(doing kindnesses), -fathlli. 
Knovoing, -erevu, -juzi. 

L. 

Languid, -tepetevn, -chovu. 
■^«r^c,.-kubwa or -kuba. See Great 

(weU-grown), -kuza. 
Lawful, halali. 

Lawful to you, halili yako. 
Laying (of birds), koo, pi. makoo. 

Koo la k*Tiku a laying hen. 
Lazy. See Idle. 
Lee, -a damalini, -a cbini. 
Left (hand, dtc), -a kushoto, -a kuke. 
Level, sawa, sawasawa. 
Liberal, karlmu, -paji. 
^dght (not dark), -eupe. See White. 

(not heavy), -epesi, making nyepesi 
with nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo, and jepesi loith nour^ 
like kasba. 

(unimportant), kbafifu. 



Lined (of doihes), bitana. 

Lade, -dogo, katiti (A.), -chache 
(few). 
Little water, maji maohache. 
(Maji and other similar nouns 
being treated as plurals, and 
therefore requiring few and not 
BmaU as their adjective.) 
Eadogo, piL vidogo, is wed as a 
substantive for a little or a little 
piece of anything. 

Living, hayi, -zima. 

Long, -refa, making ndefa with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Long-suffering, -vnmilivu. 

Lukewarm^ -enyi uvngaYngu. 

M. 

Mad, -enyi wazimu, -enyi mahoka 

(Country dialect). 
Male, -nme, making mume or ndume 
(as from -lume) with nouns of 
the second class. 
On the male side, kunmeni 
Manifest, thabiri, waziwazi, mba- 

yani, -wazL See Open. 
Manly, -ume. See Male. 
Bebera (a strong Tie-goat). 
Fabali (a buO). 
Many, -ingi or -ngi, making nyingi 
toiih nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo, and jingi with nouns 
like kasba. 
E^tbdwakatha. 
Malemal (on the mothei^s side), -a 
knkeni. 
(motherly), -a mama. 
Mean, -nyonge. 
Merry, -cbekeshaji. 
Middling, kadiri. 
Mischievous, -harabu, -tunda. 
Moderate, kadiri 



LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



99 



Much, -ingi (Me Many), tele. 
MurderouSf Mawaji, ndoli 

N. 

Naked, -tnpn, uoihi See Bare. 

Narrow, -embamba, making ny emba- 
mba vnih wtuns lake nyumba or 
nyimbo, and jembamba with 
noiifis ZtZw kasha. 

Neceuary (imavoidaide), lasim, fa- 
lathi 
(indiepeneabUe), kanuni 

New, -pya» fnaJUng 'mpya wiUi nount 
Wee nyumba or nyimbo, jipya 
with ruMme like kaaha, and 
pipya with nouns of place. 

Noble, bora, -krra. See QreaL 

Notable, mashuhiir, maahur. 

Nice, -ema (/see Good), -tamu. See 
SweeL 

NippingCjpreesing closely and Ughtly), 
•kasEO. 

O. 

Obedient, tayi, -tii. 

Oblig<Uory, &ratM. 

OhOinatef -kaidi, -shindani, -shi- 
paviu 

Odd (not even), -witira. 

OjpciouSf -fathiili, •juvi. 

Old (of things), -kukuu, making 
ki^u with nouns Uke nyumba 
or nyimba Kukuu implies 
being worn (m& Where mere 
antiquity is to be expressed see 
Ancient, 
(of persons), -zee. 
Extremely old, -kongwe. 
Bow old is he f TJmri wake 
apataje? 

One-eyed, -enyi chongo. 



Only, -a pekee, peke yake, &o. 
Open, -wazi 
Other, -iugine or -ngine. 
Glass I. ligine or mwiBgine. 

waugine. 
n. Mwingine or mgine. 

mingine. 
m. Nyingine (sirig. and pi ). 
lY. Kingine or cbingine. 

vingine. 
V. Jingine. 

mangine or mengine. 
YL Mwingine or mgine. 

nyingine. 
VJJL. Pangine or pingine. 
(The) other, -a pili. 
Other peoples, -a watu. 
Another person's, -a mwenyewe. 
(not the same) is expressed by 

adding the relaiive particle (see 

p. 117). 
panginepo, elsewhere, other places, 

P. 

Paternal (on the father^s side), -a 
kuumeni. 

(fatherly), -a baba. 
Patient, -stahlmlli, -vamilivu. 
Perfect, kamili, -kamilifu, -timilifu. 
Perverse, -potoe, -tundu. 
Plain (evident), thahiri, -wazi. 
Pleasant, -tamu (see Sweet), -a ku- 

pendeza. 
Plenty, tele. 
Polite, -a adabu. 
Poor, masikini, fokara, fakiri. 

wretchedly poor, thalili. 

utterly destitute, hohe hahe. 
Printed, -a chapa. 
Profane, -najisl. 
Pure, safi, fasihi, -takatifa. 



J 00 



BWAMILI HANDBOOK. 



Quarrelsome^ -gomvi. 
Quick, -pesi. 

Quiet, -tulivu («<iH), -nyamavn 
(eiZent). 

B. 

Jlare, nadira, -a tuna. 
Raw, -bichi, making mbichl with 
nouns Wee Dynmba or nyimbo. 
Bichi is used for raw, unripe, 
underdone, fresh, or any state 
which wiU or might change by 
keeping or cooking, 
{inexperienced), '}ingBk, This word 
is specially applied to newly 
arrived slaves, 
Jicady, tayaii. 

(quick), -poai, mahiri. 
Jli^hellious, aasi. 

Hedf -ekundu, making nyekundu 
with nouns lUce nyumba or 
nyimbo, and jekundu with 
nouns like kasha. 
Regular, -a kaida, taratibu. 
Bafu za kaida, regular rows, 
Mtu taratibu, a person of regular 
habits, 
RemarkdbUe, mashuhur, masbur. 
Hich, -enyi mali, -kwasi, tajiri, pi. 

matajifk. 
\iight (hand, Ac,), -a kulia, -a 

kuume, -a kuvuli. 
K>^ -bivu, making mbivu with 
mm»$ Uke nyuniba or nyimbo. 
I3&va is used as the contradictory 
Vbitfhi See Raw, 
^kt»*%. wii or -boviu See Bad. 
'i>wt»'^ \«i|MattM, to U rough and 



Safe, salama. 
Same, moja, pt mamoja. 
Sanguine, -tmnainL 
Satisfied or content, rathi 

Self -satisfied, -Mnayi. 
Savage, -kali (see Fierce), mbwaL 

Very savage, ndolL 
Second, -a pilL 

A second in command, akida. 
Secret, -a siri, ndani kwa ndani 
Separate, mbali 
Severe, -zito. See Heavy, 
Shallow, [maji] haba, [maji] ma- 
Sharp, -kali. See Fierce, [chache. 
Short, -fupi, making fapi with nouns 

like nyumba or nyimba 
Shrewd, -erevu, -enyi bnsara. 
Sick, -gonjwa, -welL 
Silent, -nyamavu. 
A silent man, mtu wa kimya- 
kimya. 
Slim, -embamba. See Narrow, 
Slender, -embamba. See Narrow, 
Sleek, -nene. See Stout, 
Slow, -vivu. See Idle, 
Smooth, lalni. 

Soaked (with rain^ Ac), chepechepe. 
Soft, -ororo, making nyororo with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo, 
andyotorowith nouns like kasha, 
-anana, laini. 
the soft, teketeke. 
Solid, yabisi. 

Some, baathi ya, akali ya. 
Some — others — , wangine— wa- 
ngine — . 
Sound (healthy, living, entire), -zima. 
Sour, -kali. See Fierce. 
Spotted, madoadoa, marakaraka. 
Square, mrabba. 
Steadfast, thehit 



LIST OF ADJEOTIVEa. 



101 



Steep, -a knsimama. 

8UU, -onana, -talivu (gvteO, -nya- 

mavxi (siZanQ, -zizima (very 

8tiU water, (fire). 
Stout (plump, thicic), -nene. 
Strange (foreign^ surprising'), -geni. 
(startling), mzTmgu, ph mizungu. 
Strong, hodari, -enyi iign?n, -mne. 
Sweet, -tamu, making tamu with 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 



T. 

TaU, -refu. See Long. 

A very taU man, -tamba 
Thick, -nene. 
Thick syrup, asali nzito. See 

Heavy. 
Thievish, kijivi, pL vijivi, mwibaji, 

pi. webaji. 
Thin, -embamba (see ^TarrotoVepesi 

See Light. 
Tiresome, -chovn. 
True, -a kweli, haMka yako, &c. (it 

is true of you, 6cc), yakini 

(certainly), 
TruidnMrthy, amini 
Truthful, -a kweli, -neni kweli 



Uncivilized^ -a kishenzi. 

UncuUivated, -giigu. 

Underdone (haZf -cooked), -hiahi. See 

Baw, 
Unhealthy, -well 
Unlawful, haramii. 
Unripe, -bichi. See Baw, 
Usual, -zoea. 

We are used to him, tuna mazoea 

naye. 



V. 

Vain, ana maknn, he is vain. 
Valuable, -a t^amani 
Vigilant, maoho. See Awake, 

W. 

Wasteful, -potevu. 
Watery, ohelema. 
Weak, thaifo. 
WeaUhy. See Bich, 
Weary, -ohovu. 
Weaiher, -agoshini, -a juu, 
WeiL See Healthy. 
Well done (cooked), -biviL See 

Bipe, 
Wet, majimaji, rdtaba. 
White, -enpe, making nyeupe toith 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo, 

and jeupe toith nouns like 

kasha. 
Very white is expressed hy putting 

a strong accent on the last 

syUahle, and sometimes raising 

the voice on it into a sort of 

falsetto. 
Whole, -zima. See Sound. 

pia, pia yote, zote, &c. 
Wide, -pana. See Broad. 
Wild (of plants), -gugu. 

(of animals), -a mwitu. 
Willing, -epesi, -pesi 
Worn out, -kukuu (of things), 4:o- 

ngwe (of persons). See Old, 

Y. 

Yellow, rangi ya manjano. 

Toung (immaiure), -changa, making 

mchanga vjith nouns like 

nyomba or nyimbo. 
Tounger, youngest, -dogo. 



102 . 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



PEONOUNS. 



Personal Pbonoitns. 

The full forms of the Personal Pronouns are — 

I, Mimi, We, SiH or SujUwi. 

Thou, Wewe, You, Nytnyi or Nwinyu 

He or she, Teye, They, Woo, 

The second and third persons singular are often con- 
tracted into Wee and Tee» The second person singular 
is always used where one person only is to be denoted. 

There are no special forms for it and theff when 
referring to inanimate things. If any special emphasis 
makes it necessary, the Demonstrative Pronouns 
agreeing with the nouns referred to must be used. 
Similarly, for Tie or sTie and they, the Demonstrative 
Pronouns proper to the first class may be used, when 
any special emphasis is to be expressed. 

The objective cases, me, thee, him, her, us, them, are 
expressed by the same forms as those given above for 
the subjective case, J, thou, &q. 

The possessive case, of me, of thee, of him, (fee., is 



PRONOUNS. 103 

generally expressed by the Possessive Pronotms (which 
see, p. 109); there is thus no distinction between of me 
and mine^ of thee and (hine^ &q. 

Hdbari gangu^ my news, or news of me. 

The Possessive Pronotms proper to animate beings 
may be used of inanimate things also ; -ahe, its, and 
'Oo, their, being used for of it and of them, in reference 
to all nouns of whatever class they may be. 

The possessive case may be regarded as an instance 
of the Personal Pronouns in a special form subjoined to 
the variable preposition -a, of. 

The Preposition na, with or and, is commonly joined 
with short forms of the Personal Pronoun to express 
and or with me, and or with you, &o. &c. 

Nami, and or witii me. Nasi or Nasvn, and or with ns 

Nawe, and or with yon. Nanjfi or Nantoi, and or with yon. 

Naye, and or with him or her. Nao, and or with them. 

N(w, Nayo, Nacho, Nalo, Napo, Nao, Nayo, Naeo, Navyo, Napo, 
Nako, and or with it and or with them. 

The above forms maybe used for either the objective 
or subjective cases after and. Nami = and I or and me, 
Nawe = and thou or and thee, &o. &o. 

It will be seen that in referring to animate beings 
the latter half of the full form of the Personal Rronoun 
is sufi&xed to the na-, and in referring to inanimate 
things the syllable suffixed is that which denotes the 
relative (see Eelative Pronouns, p. 117), a syllable 
which occurs also as the final syllable of those Demon- 
strative Pronouns which refer to a thing mentioned 
before. 

Other Prepositions, that is to say, Jcwa and hatika, are 



104 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

constructed with the full form of the Personal Pronoun 
referring to animate beings, and with the Demonstra- 
tive Pronouns, where necessary, referring to inanimate 
things. This rule distinguishes the preposition kwa, 
for, by, &c., from the form of the variable -a required 
by substantives of the eighth class and sometimes by the 
case in -ni. 

Kwa mimi, for me. Kwangu, of me or my, to my [house]. 

The prefixes used in conjugating the verb to mark 
the subject and object may be regarded as shortened 
forms of the Personal Pronouns. The objective and 
subjective cases are denoted by slightly different fotms. 

It will be most convenient to take the prefixes de- 
noting animate beings first, as they alone can be used 
in the first and second person. The following are the 
subjective or nominative forms : — 

I. Ni' or N', We, Tu- or Tw-. 

Thou, Z7- or W-, You, Mu-, *M-, or Mw-. 

He or she, A- (or Tu-), They, Wa-, 

The rule for applying these prefixes is that the forms 
ending with a vowel are used when they are to be im- 
mediately followed by a consonant, and those ending 
in a consonant are used before a vowel. In the third 
person,* both singular and plural, the vowel remains 
unchanged before o or tt, it coalesces with e and i 
into an e, and merges into an a, so as to be no longer 
distinguishable. Thus, where the verb or tense prefix 
begins with a, the third person singular is apparently 
without prefix and the third person plural is marked 
only by a «?-. Examples of and further observations on 
these prefixes will be found under Verbs, as playing an 



FB0N0UN3. 105 

important part in their conjugation. The form yu- is 
but seldom used for the' third person singular, and 
very rarely with any but monosyllabic verbs. 

The syllables which stand for the objective or accu- 
sative case of the Personal Pronouns denoting animate 
beings, when they are connected with Yerbs, are — 

Me, -ni' or -«-. Ub, -<m- or -tW', 

Thee, -fett- or -&ic-. You, -loa-. 

Him or her, -m- or -muh. Them, -tea-. 

The same rules as above apjkly to the use of forms 
ending in a consonant before a vowel, and forms ending 
in a vowel before a consonant. 

As the forms proper to the first class of Nouns denote 
animate beings, there remain seven classes denoting 
inanimate things, each of which has its appropriate 
subjective and objective pronominal forms when con- 
joined with a verb. The subjective pronominal prefixes 
are — 



r.Af 


» II. 


sing. 


U- 


orW- 


plur. 


I- or Y-. 


if 


in. 




I- 


„ Y- 


99 


Zi- „ Z-. 


n 


IV. 




Ki- 


„ Ch- 


» 


Vi- „ Vy.. 


w 


V. 




Li- 


,,L. 


» 


Ya-. 


» 


VI. 




u- 


„ w- 


»» 


Zi- „ Z-. 


n 


VIT. 




Pa- 


„P- 


}> 


Pa- „ p.. 


» 


VTTT. 




Ku- 


„ Kw- 


»» 


Ku- „ Kw-. 



Here also the forms ending in a vowel are used 
before a consonant, and the forms ending in a conso- 
nant are used before a vowel. Examples of their use 
will be found in the sections on the conjugation of the 
Verb. 

There^ used as the subject of a verb, is expressed by 
hir- or j9a- employed as personal prefixes. Kvh is the 
more indefinite of the two. One^ they, or people used 



106 BWAHUI HANDBOOK. 

to denote what is GUBtomaiy, are expressed by the 
prefix hvr. 

The objective forms in reference to inanimate objects 
are very similar to the snbjectives. 



Class IL 


ting. 


-u- 


plur. 


-i-. 


„ UT. 


tt 


• 

-1- 


»> 


-zi-. 


,• IV. 


9i 


-ki- 


>» 


•vK 


„ V. 


9t 


-li- 


M 


-ya-. 


„ VL 


W 


-u- 


99 


-zi-. 


» vn. 


»» 


-pa- 


>» 


-pa-, 


„ VIII. 


» 


-kn- 


it 


-ku- 



In these forms also tt becomes tr, and i y, before vowels. 

The following examples will illustrate the use of the 
objective syllables : they are parted off from the rest of 
the word by hyphens. Instances are given of both 
vowel and consonantal^ verbs. 

Class I. A-ni'penda, he loves me. 

A-n-amhiOf he telJs me. 
A-ku-penda, he loves you. 

A-kw-ambia, he tells yoa. 
Na-m-penda, I love him. 

Na-mw-ambia, I tell him. 
A'tU'pendaf he loves us. 

A'tw-ambia, he tells us. 
A'wa-penda, he loves you. 

A-wa-amhia, he tells you. 
il-tca-jpewdfa, he loves them. 

A-wa-arnbia, he tells them. 
M II. A-u-penda, he likes it (mti, a tree). 

A'-'u-ona, he sees it. 
A-^-penda, he likes them (wt^*, trees). 

A-y-onOf he sees them. 
ff III. A'i-penda, he likes it (nyumha, a house). 

A-y-ona, he sees it. 
A'Zi-penda^ he likes them (nyumba, houses). 

A'Zi-ona, he sees them. 



FB0N0UN3. 107 

GLAflS IV. A'Tn-pendOt he likes it (hilu, a thing). 
A-kp-ofMif he sees it. 
A-vp-penda, he likes them (vitu, things). 
A-ffi-fma, he sees them. 
19 y. A-U-pendctf he likes it (koAa, a chest). 
A-li-onct, he sees it 
A-^3-pend<iy he likes them (makashaf chests). 
A-ya-ona, he sees th^oa. 
yy YI. A'U'pendaf he likes it (u£7n5o, a song). 
A-w-ona, he sees it (ttbau, a plank). 
il-iet-;pen<2a, he likes them {nyimbOj songs). 
A-^i-ona^ he sees them (m&ats, planks). 
„ Vn. ii^jKi-pefMla, he likes it or them (place or places). 

A-pcHma, he sees it or them. 
„ VJJLL A'hthpendti, he likes it (ftt(7i&a, stealing). 
A'htHmOf he sees it. 

In all cases the Pronominal Syllable representing the 

subject is tbe first prefix, and therefore the first syllable 

of the word ; and the syllable representing the object 

is the last of the prefixes and immediately precedes the 

verb. 

A4akapO'JcfiHmaf when he shall see you. 
Wa-lipoki-m-penda, when they loyed him. 
A-ki-kw-ita, if he calls you. 

It is quite allowable for the sake of emphasis to use 
the fall forms of the Personal Pronouns as well as the 
subjective and objective syllables. 

Mimi ndkupenda wewe^ I love you. 
Weioe vmnipenda mimi, you love me. 

When so used, however, a very strong emphasis is 
put upon the persons loving and loved, and unless such 
an emfdiasis is intended the full forms ought not to be 
used. The above phrases might be better translated 
by — ^For myself I love you the best; and, It is you 
who love me. 



108 8WAHILI HANDBOOK 

In poetical Swahili an objectiYe suffix is used as well 
as the objective prefi.x. The syllables used as a suffix 
are the same as those given before with na (see p. 103). 
The suffixes are not used in the dialect of Zanzibar. 

U'^i-hifathi-mi, do thon preserve me. (Both the '■ni- and the 

-mt represent the object of the verb.) 
AhorZv^ngiuihcHso, and he threw them down. (Both the -zi- and 

the-zo represent the object of the yerb.) 
Nor^wcHimbiarnif I tell yon. 

The use of the objective prefix implies a reference to 
some ascertained object : it is therefore properly used 
wherever in English the object would be expressed by 
a Pronoun. Where in English the object would not be 
expressed by a Pronoun, the objective prefix has the 
effect of a definite article, and its omission that of 'an 
indefinite article. 

Natdka kununtta nytmba (no objective prefix being need), I want 

to bny a house. 
Natdka kuinunua nyuniba (the objective prefix -i- being used), 

I want to buy the house. 
Naona mtu, I see somebody. 
Namwona mtu, I see the man. 

Where a Demonstrative Pronoun is used with the 
objfect, the objective prefix must always be used. 

Natdka kuinunua nyumba Mi, I want to bny this house. 
Namwona mtu yule, I see that man yonder. 

The objective prefix is used where anything about 
the person or thing is about to be stated. 

Na-m-jua aliko [I know of him where he is], I know where he is. 
Ndli-m-thania amekufa [1 thought of him, he had died], I thought 

he was dead. 
Aka-m-kata kitwa [and he out of him the head], and he out off 

his head. 



PRONOUNS. 109 



Possessive Pronouns. 

The Possessive Pronotms are always placed after the 
Substantive denoting the thing possessed, and vary 
according to its Class and Number. 

The unvarying parts of the Possessive Pronouns are : 

My, -angu. Our, -etu. 

Thy, '•ako. Your, -enu. 

His, her, or its, -ake. Their, -ao. 

The same forms are used for its and their, of what- 
ever class the thing possessing may be. 

In many dialects of Swahili the form of the third 
person singular is -akwe, and in some that of the second 
is -akwo. 

The above forms may be used as enclitics, and fre- 
quently are so with some common words, such as haha, 
father, mama, mother, mwana, child, mwenzi, companion, 
&c. When the final letter of the substantive is -a, -e, 
or -t, it merges into the first letter of the possessive 

suffix. 

MwanavigUt my child. 

Mwenzangu, my companion* 
MwandkOt thy child. 

MtoenzdkOy thy companion. 
Mwanake, his or her child. 

Mwenzake, his or her companion. 
Mwanetu^ our child. 

Mwenzetu, our companion. 
MwanenUf your child. 

Mwenzenu, your companion* 
Mwanao, their child. 

MtoenzaOy their companion. 



Class I. sing, w- 


plur. 


W-. 


CLi 


»» "• »» w- 


» 


y-- 


»» 


„ ni. „ y- 


»> 


Z-. 


>» 


„ IV. „ ch- 


)> 


yy-. 


»> 



110 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

The initial letters proper to each class of Substan- 
tives are : 

Class V. sing. 1- plur, y-. 

VI. „ w- „ at-. 

VII. „ p- „ p.. 

Vm. „ kw- „ kw-. 

Besides these forms proper to the several classes, 
Substantives in the locative case in -m require special 
forms of the Possessive Pronouns according to the 
meaning of the case. These forms are the same for 
all Substantives, of whatever class or number they 
may be. 

1 . When the case denotes being tmt}ii% or to, or from 
within, the Possessive Pronouns must begin with muh, 

2. Where the case denotes mere nearness, and can be 
translated at, by, or wear, the Possessive Pronouns must 
begin with jp-. 

3. For all other meanings the Possessive Pronouns 
must begin with kw-. 

The following instances will show how all these rules 

are applied : — 

Class I. Mtu wangu, my man. 

Watu wako, thy men. 
Mbuzi wake, his or her goal 

Mhuzi wetu, our goats. 
Waziri wake, his vizir. 
Mawaziri wake, his vizirs. 
„ n. Mil wenu, yonr tree. 

Miti yao, their trees. 
„ III. Nyumba yangu, my house. 
Nyumbo zaJco, thy houses. 
„ rV. Kiti choke, his chair. 

Viti vyetu, our chairs. 
„ V. Ka^ha lenu, your chest. 

MaJeaska yaOf their chesti. 



FBONOUNS. Ill 

Class VI. Uimho wangu, my song. 
Nyimbo zdko, thy songs. 
ff y 11. MahaU pak^y his, her, or its place or places. 
91 Till. Kufa kwetu, our dying. 

1. Nyumbani mtoenu, in your house or houses. 

2. Nyumbani p<iOy near their house or houses. 
8. Nyumbani hwangUf to my house. 

All the PoBsessive Prononns will be found in the 
Table of Concords (p. 82), arranged under the classes 
to which they are appropriate. The Personal Pronouns 
may be added to give emphasis. 

Kisu changu mimi, my own knife. 
Vyangu mimi^ they are mdne. 

The Possessive Pronoun is used for the preposition 
-a, of, where it is intended to mark particularly the 
person whose the thing is. 

KiH c^ gultani, the saltan's ohair, or a sultan's chair. 

Kiti choke aultani^ the sultan's own chair, or this sullan's chair. 

There is another and short enclitic form for the 
Possessive Pronouns of the second and third persons 
singular, which is much used with some common 
words, such as mume, husband, mke, wife, ndugu, brother 
or sister, &c. They consist of -o for the second person 
and -e for the third, with the appropriate initial letters 
for each class as given above (p. 110). 

Mumewe, her husband. 

Mk&uoo, or mJceo, thy wife. 
Mwenziwe, his companion. 

Jinalo, thy name. 
Shogaye, her Mend. 

It will be seen from the above tables that there is 
absolutely nothing to distinguish the singular and 
plural of Substantives in the form of the third class 



112 8WAEILI HANDBOOK, 

wMch denote animate beings, when joined with Pos- 
sessive Pronouns. It is probably for this reason, and 
to avoid ambignity, that they are frequently treated as 
ordinary Substantives of that class. 

Ndugu yangUf my brother. 

Nduguye or Ndugu yoke, his brother. 
Nduguzo or Ndugu zako, thy brothers. 

Mbuzi zetu, our goats. 

Possessive Pronouns are sometimes used in English 
where Personal Pronouns are used in Swahili. 

Waha-^mrfunga mikono nyuma [and they tied him hands behind], 

and they tied his hands hehind him. 
Ali-n^Ttata hitvoa [he cat him head], he cnt off his head. 

After verbs of coming and going Possessive Pronouns 
beginning with z- (or in other dialects with vy- or th-^ 
are used somewhat as — ^his way, &o., were used in old 
English. 

Amehvoenda take, he has gone away, or he has gone oS» 

Twende zetu, let ns be going. 

Wamehuja zoo, they have come home, or they have come away. 



Eeflective Pronouns. 

The Swahili verb is made reflective by prefixing -ji-, 
as if it were a pronoun in the objective form. 

Norji-penda, I love myself. 

Self may be translated by the Arabic word, nefsi, 
nafsi, or nafusi ; or by the word moyo, a heart, plur. 
mioyo or nyoyo, 

Nafai yangu, or moyo toangu, myselfl 
Nafsi zetUf or nyoyo zetu, ourselves. 



FR0N0UN8. 113 

Itself, themselyes, <fec., may also be expressed by the 
-word -enyetDe with the proper prefix. 

Clasb I. Mtu mtoenyewe, the man himself. 

WcUu toenyewe, the people themselves. 
Mhuzi mwenyewe, the goat itself. 

Mbuzi u>enyeu}e, the goats themselyes. 
Waziri mwenyewe^ the vizir himself. 
Mawaziri wenyewe, the vizirs themselves. 
M II. Mti mwenyewe, the tree itself. 

Mitt yenyeioe, the trees themselves. 
IIL Nyumba yenyewe, the house itself. 

Nywviba zenyeioe, the houses themselves. 
rV. Kitu chenyewe^ the thing itself. 

Viiu vyenyewe^ the things themselves. 
y, Kasha lenyewe, the chest itself. 

Makcuiha yenyewcy the chests themselves. 
YI. Uimbo mwenyewe^ the song itself. 

Nyimbo zenyewcy the songs themselves. 
Vn. Mahali penyewe^ the place itself. 

Mwenyewe may be tised for myself and thyself, as well 
as for himaelf or herself 

Wenyewe may be used for ourselves and yourselves, as 
well as for themselves. 

By myseK, by ourselves, &o., are expressed by pelce 
with the appropriate Possessive Pronoun. 

Peke yangu, by myself, or I only. 
Peke yetu, by ourselves, or we only. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

There are three Demonstrative Pronouns. 1 , denoting 
objects at no great distance. 2, denoting objects pre- 
viously mentioned. 3, denoting objects at a distance. 
They have each forms proper to the several classes of 
Substantives and to the three meanings of the case 
in -m. 



114 



SWAHILI EANDBOOK. 



99 



1. This or that, these or thosey of objects at no great 

distance. 

Class I. Mtu huyu, this man. 

Watu hawa, these pe'^ple. 
Mbuzi huyu, this goat. 

Mbuzi hawa, these goats. 
Waziri huyu, this vizir. 

Mawaziri hawa, these yizLrSn 
II. Mti huu, this tree. 

Miti hit, these trees. 

III. Nyumba hizi, this house. 
Nyvmha hizi, these houses. 

IV. Kitu hiki, this thiug. 
Vitu hivi, these things. 

Y. Kasha hili, this chest. 

Makasha haya, these chests. 
VI. TJimbo huu, this song. 

Nyimbo hizi, these songs. 
VII. Mahali hapa, this place. 
VIII. Kufa huku, this dying. 

1. Nyumbani humo (Jhumu (?) ), here, in the house. 

2. Nyuiribani hapa, here, by the house. 

3. Nyumbani huku, here, to the house. 

It will be observed that the second syllable of each 
of these Demonstratives is the pronominal syllable 
given at p. 105, and that all begin with A-, followed by 
the vowel of the pronominal syllable. 

2. This or that, tJiese or those, referring to something 
mentioned before. Both the other forms can also be 
used in this sense. 



Class 



n 



I. Mtu huyo, that man. 

Watu hao, those people, 
Mbuzi huyo, that goat. 
Mbuzi Jiao, those goats. 
II. Mti huQ, that tree. 

3Iiti hiyo, those trees. 
III. Nyumba hiyo, that house. 

Nyumba hizo, those houses. 



FS0N0UN8. 



115 



» 



91 



>» 



» 



Class IV. Kitu hicho, that thing. 

Vitu hivyOf those things. 
V. Kasha hilOf that chest. 

Mdkasha hayo, those chests. 
VI. TJimbo huo^ that song. 

Nyirnbo hizo, those songs. 
VII. Mdhali Jiapo, that place or those places. 
Vin. Kufa huho, that dying. 

1. Nyurnbani humo, in that house. 

2. Nyvmbani hapo, hy that house. 

3. Nyumbani huko, to that house. 

3. That and fAoae or yonder, referring to things at a 
distance. 

Class L Mhi.yide, yonder man. 

Watu wale, those people. 
Mbuzi yule, that goat. 
Mbuzi wale, those goats. 
II. Mti ule, that tree. 

Miti He, those trees. 
ni. Nyumba He, that house. 

Nyurnba zile, those houses. 
IV. Kitu kile or chile, that thing. 
Vitu vile, those things. 
V. Kasha lile, that chest. 

Mdkasha yale, those chests. 
VI. TJimbo ule, that song. 

Nyirnbo zile, those songs. 
VII. Mdhali pale, that pla.ce or those places. 
VIII. Kufa hule, that dying. 

1. Nyumbani mU, in that house. 

2. Nyumbani pale, by that house. 

3. ^^U77»&ani ^tiZe, to that house. 

. It will be seen tliat these last Pronouns are made 
by adding -le to the second syllable of the first set of 
Demonstratives. Sometimes the whole of the first form 
is retained, making hupde, Jiawale, Tmule, Mile, hizile, 
hikile, Mvile, Jiilile, hay ale, hajpale, huhde, 

1^ 



116 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

An increase of distance is denoted by a stress on the 

final syllable. 

"Mtu yfiUf that man yonder. 
Yulee, that one further off. 
Yuleeej that one still farther. 

The more stress is laid on the final syllable, and the 
more the voice rises into a falsetto, so much the greater 
is the distance denoted. 

When the substantive is mentioned the demonstra- 
tive always follows it. 

The demonstratives are frequently doubled, and then 
have the meaning oijuat this, that very, &g, 

Palepale, just there. 
Mti uteule, that very tree. 

Maneno ycUeycUe, just those words. 

With the first set of demonstratives the final or true 

pronominal syllable is doubled and prefixed to the usual 

form. 

Papahapa, just here. 

Vivihivi, just these things. 
Zizihizi, those very, &c. 
KukuhuJeUf just to this place. 

These forms are also used to denote that there is 
nothing special about what is mentioned. 

Zizihizi, just these and no more. 

Huyo is often used when people are chasing a man 
or an animaL 

Huyo I Huyo 1 = There he is t There he is ! 

There are other forms which ought probably to be 
regarded as demonstratives, as they have the force of, 
This is it, and. This is not it. 



FBONOUNS. 



117 



Class 



9* 
» 
>i 



ndtsi, it is we. 
ndinyi, it is you. 
nc^io, it is they. 

ndiyo, these are they. 

ndigo, 

ndivyo. 

ndiyo, 

ndizo. 



I. ndimiy it is I. 
ndiwe^ it is thou. 
ndiye, it is he. 

n. ndio, this is it 

IIL ndiyo, 

rV. ndicho, 

V. n(2i^. 

VI. ndio, 

VII. tuZipo. 

Vin. ndt&o. 

ndimo, it is here, or it is there. 

ndipo, 

ndiko. 



The negative is made by substituting si- for ndi, 
Siye, it is not he. Sichoj &c. &c., this is not it 

Both forms may be used interrogatively. 

Ndiyel Is it he? Siyei Is it not he? 

Other demonstratives may be used with these for the 
sake of greater emphasis or clearness. 



Eblative Pronouns. 

The Eelative Pronouns have special forms appropriate 
to the several classes of Substantives and the three 
meanings of the -nt case. 

Class I. Who and Whom, sing, ye or yee, plur, o or wo. 





JLJL. 
III. 


rr f.o^/fV) ovi 


9 yo 


ffVVUI < 


zo. 




IV. 




, cho 




vyo 




V. 




, lo 




yo. 




VI. 




, or wo 




zo. 




VII. 




, po 




po. 




VIII. 




, ko 




ko. 




1. 


Wherein , 


, mo 








2. 


Whereat y 


9 po 








3. 


Whereto t 


, ko. 







118 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

These relatives occur most frequently in their 
simple forms in connection with -o<e, all. 

yee yote^ too wote, whosoever or whomsoever, 
too fjoote, yo yote, to zote, cho cihote, vyo vyote^ lo lote,po pote, what- 
soever. 
mo mote, whereinsoever, inside everything. 
po pote, wheresoever or whensoever. 
ho kotey whithersoever or wheresoever. 

When connected with the substantive verb, to be, 
that verb is represented by the syllable -Zt-. 

Class I. aliye, [he] who is. walio, [they] who are. 

n. ttZio, [it] which Uk Hiyo, [they] which are. 

III. tliyo. zilizo, 

IV. kUicJiO, vilivyo. 
V. lUilo, y&liyo. 

VI. ulio, zilizo, 

VII. pcHipo. pdtlipo, 

VIII. huliko. huliko, 

1. multTno, wherein there is. 

2. pcdipo, where there is. 

3. kidiko, where there is. 

There is a disposition in Zanzibar to make -o the 
general relative. Thus one very often hears alio for 
aliyej lilio for lililo, and ilio for iliyo. 

When joined with the verb the syllable denoting the 
relative follows the sign of the tense if there is one. 

The relative may be joined with the verb to form the 
present, or rather, an indefinite tense, without the use of 
any sign of time whatever. It is made precisely as in 
the examples given above of the use of the relative 
with the verb, to be, only substituting the particular 
verb for the syllable -li-, 

[he] who loves, apendaye. 
[they] who love, wapendao. 



PRONOUNS. 119 

[the toee] which falls, uangukao, 

[trees] which grow, tmeayo. 
[the house] which falls, yangukayo, 

[houses] which fieJl, ziangukazo. 

Where the relative is the object of the verb the same 
form may be used, only introducing the objective prefix 
proper to the substantive referred to, and changing the 
personal prefix. 

[fruit] which I love, nilipenddlo, -Zt- and -lo- being the syllables 
appropriate to tunda^ a fruit, and other nouns of the Firth 
Glass. 

When taken to pieces the word is seen to be, nt-, I, 
'li-, it, -penda-, love, -Zo, which. 

Eelatives are rarely used in Swahili with any tenses 
except the present imperfect (the -na- tense), the past 
perfect (the -U- tense), and a peculiar form of the future 
(the 'taka- tense). The following instances will show 
the way in which the relative is expressed with these 
several tenses both as subject and object. 

Glass I. [the man] who is coming, ana-ye-kuja, 

,f who came, aJi-ye-kuja. 

„ who will come, ataka-ye-kuja. 

„ whom he is striking, ana-ye-mpiga. 

„ whom we loved, tuli-ye-mpenda. 

[the men] who will beat us, wataka-o-tupiga, 

„ whom we will beat, tutaka-o-wapiga, 

[the ox] which is eating, anorye-ktda, 

„ which we shall eat, tutaka-ye-mla. 

„ II. [the tree] which fell, uli-o-anguka. 

„ which he cut down, ali-o-ukaia, 

[the trees] which were visible, ili-yo-onekana, 

„ which we saw, tuli-yo-iona. 

n III [the house] which fell down, ili-yo-angiika, 

„ which I bought, nili'yfhinunucu 



120 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

Class III. [the houses] which fell down, siU-xo-anguka, 
„ which I bought, nUi-zo-zinunua. 

„ IV. [the knife] which cut me, hili-chfMfiikcUa. 
„ which I took, nUi-cho-kituxia. 

„ which I gave you, nili-eha-kupa. 

[the kniyes] which fell down, vilp^fyo-angvka. 
„ which I gave you, nili-vyo^pa, 

y, Y. [the chest] which is unfastened, lili-Uhfungukci. 
„ which I unfastened, nili4o4tfungua, 

[the chests] which were carried, yali-^o-ehuJetdiwa, 
M which they carried, toali-yo-yachukua. 

„ VI. [the song] which pleased me, tUi-o-nipendeza. 
„ which I liked, nUi-o-upendot, 

[the letters, nyardka] which I wrotetntli-ziHsiandika. 
„ which I sent to you, nUi-zo-kupdekeom 

„ which reached me, zili-zo-niwasUia. 

„ VII. [the place] which I live in, ninorpo-pakaa, 
[the places] which I saw, nili-po-paona. 

The particles of place and time, mo, poy hoj are treated 
as relative particles. 

cUimo, where he is (within). 
alipo^ where he is (if near). 
alikOf where he is (far off)- 
anapohwenda, when he is going. 
andkohwenday whither he is going. 
alimolcioenda, wherein he went. 
alipoJcwenda, when he went. 
aJikokwenda, whither he went. 

There is one ambiguity which cannot be avoided 
where both subject and object are of the same class. 
Aliyempiga may mean, who beat him, or, whom he beat ; 
kilichokikata may mean, which cut it, or, which it cut, 
supposing kisu, a knife, to be one substantive, and kitu, 
a thing, to be the other. 

The negative is combined with the relative by the 



PB0N0UN8. 121 

use of -i«-. There is but one negative tense, and it 
embraces all times, past, present, and future. 

asiye^ [he] who is not, who will not be, who was not. 
fmoangvka, [the tree] which falls not, which is not falling, which 

did not fall, or, which will not Ml. 
niaickohupa, [the knife] which I did not giye you, do not give 

you, or, shall not give you. 

Where the relative is used in English with a prepo- 
sition, the relative particle is sometimes joined with the 
verb and also with the preposition ; but more commonly, 
the force of the preposition being contained in that of 
the Swahili verb, no special form is required. See 
Derivative Verbs, p. 157. 

The man whom I went with, mtu nali-o-kwenda naye. 
The man I went to, mtu ncUi-o-mwendea, 
Where I came from, nUi-po-toka, 
Where I am going to, nina-ko-kwenda. 

As the Swahili has no proper word for to have, but 
uses for it kuwa na, to be with, cases of double relatives 
are very frequent where having is mentioned. 

The knife I have, kisu nilicho nacho. 
The houses you have, nyumha ulizo nazo. 
The knife I had, kisu nilichokuwa nacho. 
The houses you had, nywiiba ulizokuwa nazo. 

The relative is used in some cases in which it is not 
employed in English. 

Who went by ? Nani ali-ye-ptta (who is he who passed) i 

He likes this fruit, tunda hili ndilo cdipendaio (this fruit is it 

which he likes). 
The hoy is going, hijana aencUw, 
Whosoever may come, yee yote atakayekuja. 

There is another way of expressing the relative by 



122 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

means of amhaye or ambaye heamha, though not used 
in Zanzibar. When it is employed the final syllable of 
ambaye changes according to the rules given above, 
making anibao, ambazo, ambacho, ambavyOj &g. 

Sometimes an English relative can be expressed by 
the use of mwenyi^ &c,, having. 

The man whoae house it is, mtu mwenyi nyumha. 

Interrogative and other Pronouns. 
There are four Interrogatives which are not variable. 



Nanif Who? 
Linif When? 



Ninif What? 
Ganif What sort? 



Gani always follows the substantive it is connected 

with. 

Mtu gani i What man ? What sort of man ? 
Kitugani? What thing? What sort of thmg ? 

What? is sometimes expressed by the syllable -ni 
suffixed to a verb. 

Atapatani f What will he get ? 

Amefanyani f What has be done ? 

Kunani f What is there ? What is the matter ? 

Kina nini ? What has it ? What is the matter with it ? 

Wainani ? What have they ? What are they at ? 

What o'clock is it ? is rendered by Saa nga^i ? How 
many hours ? 

The interrogative Which? is expressed by -jfn pre- 
ceded by the appropriate syllable, which is the same as 
^hat used as the subjective personal prefix to verbs. 

always follows the noun it refers to. 



FEOmtlNS. 



123 



Class I. Which [man] Yupi'i 



n. 
m. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 



[tree] TJpii 

[house] Ipi f 

[thing] Kipi ? 

[chestp] Lipi ? 

[song] Upi f 

[place] Papif 



Lmen] Wapi ? 

[trees] Ipii 

[houses] Zipif 

[things] Vipi? 

[chests] Yapi ? 

[songs] Zipi f 

[places] Papi ? 



The Interrogative, if followed by a verb, requires a 
relative with it. 

Mtu yupi apendaye hwenda ? Which [or what] man likes to go ? 
Nyumba ipi ikupendezayo f Which house do you like ? 

Nani i who ? is also generally followed by a relative. 
N€mi cdiopo mlangoni f Who is at th6 door ? 

It is, 'however, allowable to say nani yupo mlangoni^ 
which is a literal translation of the English. 
The interrogative Where ? is wapi ? or api ? 

Wenda wapif Where are you going ? 

"When referring to a substantive wapi must always 
be preceded by the syllable which is the proper sub- 
jective personal prefix for that substantive. This prefix 
very probably represents the substantive verb, and may 
often be translated by is it f or are they f 

Glass I. sing. Yu wapi ? plur. Wa wapi ? 





II. 




U wapi? 




I wapi ? 




m. 




I wapi ? 




Zi wapi ? 




IV. 




Ki wapi ? 




Vi wapi ? 




V. 




Li wapi ? 




Ya wapi ? 




VI. 




U wapi ? 




Zi wapi ? 




VII. 




Pa wapi ? 




Pa wapi ? 



A fuller form to represent where is it f or where are 
they ? is made by adding -ho to the personal prefix. 

Yuho wapi ? Where la he ? Zilco wapi ? Where are they ? 



124 BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

The noun referred to follows this interrogative. 
Iwapi merikebuf Where is the ship ? 

JSow ? is expressed by tlie syllable -je suffixed to the 
verb. 

Nitdkipcttaje ? How shall I get it ? 

ChcUifanytoaje ? How was it made ? 

Ulipendaje, ao kupika^ ao Jncliil How do yon like it, cooked or 

raw? 
Asemaje 1 pEow does he talk?] What does he say ? 
Urefu toahe yapatc^e ? How long is it ? 
Umri wake apaiaje ? How old is he ? 
Kwenda chini huoake chapataje [ktsimajf How deep is it [a 

well]? 

The use of haj^ata^ to get, in these phrases must be 
noticed. There is no direct way of attaching the how f 
to the adjective ; they say therefore, " His age, how 
gets he it ? " 

How many ? is expressed by -ngajpi, which is treated 

as an adjective. 

How many people ? Watu wangapi i 
How many goats ? Mhuzi wangapi or ngapi ? 
How many trees ? Miti mingapi ? 
How many houses ? Nyumba ngapi 1 
How many chairs ? Viti vingapi f 
How many chests ? Mahaska mangapi ? 
How many planks ? Mhau ngapi f 
How many places ? Mahali pa/ngapi ? 

How ? is in some cases expressed by the use of other 

phrases. 

How long ago ? Tangu lint ? [since when ?] 

How much? Kadri gani, or Kiassi ganif [what quantity ?] 

How often ? Marra ngapi f [how many times ?] 

The exclamatory What I is rendered by the inter- 
rogative pronoun in -pi, 

Furdha ipi I What joy I 



( 125 ) 



VERBS. 

Regular Swahili verbs always end in -a, as, Jcupenda, 
to love, hujpiga, to beat. 

Verbs derived from tbe Arabic may end in -e, -t, or -m, 
as, husamehe, to pardon, kusafiri, to travel, huharibu, to 
destroy. Verbs in this form do not change the final 
vowel, where verbs in -a regularly do so. 

The simplest form of the verb is used in Swahili, 
as in English, for the second person singular of the 
imperative. 

Penda! Love! Piga! Strike I 

Samehe! Pardon! Safiri! Travel! 

Haribu 1 Destroy ! 

The second person plural imperative is made by 
adding -nt. All the other tenses and moods are made 
by prefixing syllables to the simple form, except that 
verbs in -a change -a into -e in the present subjunctive, 
and into -» in the present negative, and a -w- is inserted 
to mark the passive. 

There is a negative as well as an affirmative con- 
jugation, in which tbe tenses and persons are also dis- 
tinguished by prefixes. 

The various prefixes form in pronunciation ar^ word 



126 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

with the verb, and when taken to pieces denote its 
person, number, tense, mood, subject, and object. 

Amekwamhia = A-Tne-hw-atMa = He-has-you-tell = He has told 

you. 
Wali'poni'penda = Wa-li-po-ni-j^enda = They-did-when-me-love 

= When they loved me. 
Nitakachokupa = Ni-taka-cho-kti-pa = I-shall-which-you-give-to 

= Which I shall give to you. 
Ningalimwona = Ni-ngali-mw-ona = I-should-have-him-se© = I 

should have seen him. 

The syllables used as prefixes have not the same 
meaning standing separately as they have when com- 
bined with the verb in their proper order; for this 
reason, therefore, as well as to show the proper pro- 
nunciation, they with the verb must all be written as 
one word. 

Lists of the several prefixes will be found at the end 
of the preliminary observations to the second part of 
this handbook (p. 237). The personal prefixes will be 
found described under Pronouns (p. 104), and seen 
arranged under their appropriate classes of Substantives 
in the Table of Concords, p. 82. 

Indefinite Tenses. 

1. Customary actions are expressed by prefixing hu- 
to the verb. In this form there is no distinction of 
number, person, or time. 

Hu-enda, one goes, they go, everybody goes, he used to go. 
Hu'penda, one likes, they like, one would like. 

2. The relative may be joined with the verb without 
any sign of time. The personal prefix only is put 
before the verb, and the relettive sign suffixed to it. 



VjBSBS. 

Sing. Class I. Ni-p«ndchfe, [I] who love. 

U-penda-ye, [thou] who lovest. 
A-penda-^e, [he] who loves. 
n. U-anffuka-Oj ^hich falls. 
m. l~angvka-yo, 
IV, Ki-anguka-eho, 
y. Li-angvkcL-lo, 
VI. TJ-angukorOt 
VII. P-angukorpo, where falls. 
Vin. KvHmguka-ho, whither falls. 



127 



Plur. 



L Tu-penda-Oj [we] who love. 
M-penda-Oi [yoii] who love. 
Wa-penda-o, [they] who love. 
n. I-anguka-yo, or, T-anguka-yo, which fall. 
in. Zi-anguka-zo, 
TV, Vy-anguka-vyo, 
V. T-anguka^o, 
VI. Zi-anguka-zo, 



The relative may represent the object of the verb, 
but in that case the objective sign (pp. 105-6) ought to 
be inserted between the personal prefix and the verb. 



Glass 



Sing. 



Plur. 



t) 



>t 



f> 



» 



9) 



»» 



» 



» 



» 



ti 



t> 



»» 



»» >» 



*9 n 



L Ni-m-penda-ye, [he or she] whom I love. 
Ni-ku-penda-ye^ [thou] „ 

Ni-wa-penda-o, [you or they] „ 
n. Ni-u-penda-o [it] which I love. 
in. Ni-i-penda-yo, 
rV. Ni'ki-penda-cho, 
V. Ni-li-pendorlo, 
VI. Ni-u-penda-o, 
Vn. Ni-pa-penda-po, 
Vin. ^t-/ct£^endki-A», 

n. Ni-i-penda-yo, [those] which I love, 
in. Ni-zi-penda-zo, 
IV. Ni-vi-penda-^vyo, 

V. Ni-ya-penda-yo^ 
VI. Ni-zi-penda-zo, 



3. The negative form, expressing Who, or which does 



128 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

not, is made by the personal prefix, tho syllable -«- 
[not] and the relative sign, followed by the verb. 

Sing, Glass I. Ni-n-ye^penda, [I] who love not. 

U-si-ye-penda, [thou] who lovest not. 

A-si-ye-penda, [he or she] who loves not 
„ n. TJ-sirO-angukcij which falls not. 

„ m. I-si-yo-anguka, 

„ rV. Ki-si-c^uhangukaj 

„ V. Li-si-Uhanguka, 

„ VI. U'Si-o-angukOf 

„ YII. Pa-si-pihangukfi, where falls not. 

Ku-si-ho-anguka, whither falls not, 

Mursi-mo-anguha, wherein falls not. 

Plur. „ I. Tu-svo-penda, [we] who love not. 

M-si-o-penda, [you]. 
Wa-H-o-perida, [they]. 
„ II. I-8i-y<Hinguhaf which fall not. 

„ III. Zi'SirZfHingukaj 

„ rV. Virsi-^o-anguTca, 

„ V. Ta-si-yo-angukat 

„ VI. Zi'St-zo-anguka. 

Where the relative is the object of the verb, it is 

expressed as in the afiSrmative tenses, by the form of 

the relative particle and the insertion of the objective 

prefix. 

Ni-Bi-zo-zi-penda, which I do not like. 

This negative tense may be applied with eqnal pro- 
priety to past, present, or future time, amounting in 
effect to a negative of the relation at the time and under 
the circumstances implied in the context. 

The application of the relative to the definite affir- 
mative tenses is explained under Pronouns (p. ll9). 

The difference between — ^which I like — and — I who 
like it — is to be found in the form of the relative 
particle. 



VERBS. 129 

[yyum(a] niU-yo^'penda, [the house] which I liked. 
nili-ye^pencUit I who liked it. 

[JTiftt] ntH-eho-kipendaf [the thing] which I liked. 
nili-ye-kipendc^ I who liked it. 

Definite Tenses. 

The important part of each tense is the tense j^efix» 
It is preceded by the personal sign of the subject, and 
may be followed directly by the verb. If any signs of 
relation are used they are suffixed to the tense prefix, 
and the objective prefix (if any) must always imme- 
diately precede the verb. The tense prefix is the same 
for all persons and both numbers. The personal prefix 
is the same for all tenses, except the slight changes 
dependent upon the question whether the first letter of 
the tense prefix is a vowel or not. 

In order therefore to construct the proper form of 
verb, it is necessary first to ascertain the proper personal 
prefix, next the proper tense prefix, then the particles 
of relation and objective prefix, if they are required, 
and then to finish with the verb. Thus, to say, A house 
has fallen down. A house is nyumba, a word of the third 
class ; the proper personal prefix for a singular noun of 
the third class is -t, the tense prefix for the present 
perfect is -me-, the verb to fall is ku - anguka (the kvr- 
being the sign of the infinitive : we have therefore — 

Nyumba imeanguha = a house has fallen down. 

If we wished to say. Six houses have fallen down ; we 
find that nyumha being of the third class keeps the same 
form in the plural ; sita is six, and must follow its noun ; 
the subjective prefix proper to plural nouns in the third 



130 8WAEILI HANDBOOK, 

class is zi" ; the tense prefix and the verb remain the 
same. 

Nytmba sita zimeanguka, six houses have follen down. 

To take one more complicated example, I saw the 
knife, which you gave him. The personal prefix for 
the first person is ni- or »-, the tense prefix of the past 
perfect is -alt-, to see is Jcu-ona, knife is kisu, a substantive 
of the fourth class. As some particular knife is intended 
we must use the objective prefix, and that for a singular 
substantive of the fourth class is -hi-. As the tense 
prefix begins with a vowel we must use the personal 
prefix which ends in a consonant. We have therefore — 

Nalikiona hisu = I saw the knife. 

* Which you gave him.' The relative referring to a 

singular noun of the fourth class is 'Cho-, It must 

follow the tense prefix, which is -ali-, as before, for the 

past perfect. The sign of tte second person singular 

is M- or w- ; the verb, to give to, is ku-pa. The object 

of the verb is Mm, the objective prefix for nouns of the 

first class is -ww- or -w-. Putting these together we 

have, 

Which you gave him, waUehompa, 

And the whole sentence, 
I saw the knife which you gave him, nalikiona TUtu todlichompa. 

It must not be forgotten that ku- and par may be 
used for there in an impersonal sense. 

Kulikuwa or Falikuwa, there was or there were. 
Kukapiga ^i^- and there struck, d^ 



VEBB8. 



131 



Indicative Tenses. — ^Present. 

There are in the language of Zanzibar two Presents, 
one Indefinite and one Imperfect. 

1. The Indefinite Present answers to our common 
English present, I come, I love, &c. It is made by 
prefixing -a- to the verb. 

N- \ (I love. 



IT-, r-, Ch-, X-, IF-, P-, Kuh 

Mvh 
W- 

r-, z-, vy-, r-, z- 



> €t-penda < 



Thou lovest. 
He or she 

loves. 
It loves. 
We love. 
You love. 
They love. 



2. The Present Imperfect answers to our tense with 
am, I am coming, I am loving, &o. It is made by .pre- 
fixing -no- to the verb. 



Ni- ] 




lam 


U- 




Thou art 


A'f U', I', Ki', Li; U" 




He, she, 


Pa-, Ku- 


' na-penda . 


or it is 


Tu- 




We are 


*M' 




You are 


War, J-, Zi', Ft-, To-, Zi- 




They are 



loving. 



In the first person the m-is often contracted into 'n-, 
and sometimes altogether omitted. This tense used 
after another verb may be translated by an English 
present participle. 

NamiDona, or Nalimujona anahuja, I see him, oTt I saw him 
coming. 

In the dialect of Mombas this -ne^ tense is used of 
past time. In Zanzibar it is the more usual form of 
the present. 

K 2 



132 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Present Perfeot. 

The Present Perfect is made by the prefix -me- : it 
denotes an action complete at the time of speaking, and 
therefore answers j/o the English tense with liave. 



Ni- 

U- 

A- 
U', I-, Ki- 
Li'f Pa-, Ku- 

Tu- 

'M- 

TTo- 
I-. Zt-, Vi- 
Ya- 



me-penda . 



' I have 

Thou hast 

He or she has 

It has 

We have 

You have 
, They have 



► loved. 



In verbs denoting a state or the possession of a 
quality the present has the meaning of to enter npon, 
to acquire, or to become, what the verb denotes. The 
-me- tense must then be translated by to have, or to be, 
&c. (p. 86). 

InajaOy it is getting fdlL 

Imejaa, it is full. 
Inapasuka, it is being torn. 

Imepasuka, it is torn. 
InapotecLy it is becoming lost 

Imepoteaj it is lost. 
Anavaa, he is putting on. 

AmevcM, he has put on, therefore, he wears. 

When the -me- tense occurs in a narrative, it denotes 
an action complete at the time referred to, and must 
generally be translated by Ttad. 

Nikamwona ameufungua mUmgOt and I saw that he had 
un&stened the door. 



The -me • tense mav sometimes be translated as a past 



VEltBS. 



133 



participle, signifying a state arrived at at the time of 
speaking or at the time referred to. 

Tu hayi ao amekufa f Is he alive or dead ? 
ZcUihuwa zimepotea, they were lost. 

In this sense it may be used to form compound tenses, 
somewhat as the past participle is in English. 

In some dialects of Swahili the prefix is pronounced 
-nui-' rather than -me-. See the end of Ajppendix XT. 



Past Perfect. 

The Past Perfect tense is made by the prefix -Z»- or 
-aZi- : it denotes an action complete in past time. It 
must sometimes be translated in English by the tense 
with had, but more commonly it represents the indefinite 
past, which usually ends in -ed* 



I aU- 



) K- 



) loved. 



W- 

w-y r-, c%-, ji- 

Mw- 

r-, Zr, vy, r- J 

A- 
Li'^ Fa-, Ku' 

Tvr 

TTo- 
-I-,Zt-, Vi; Ta-) 

When it is intended to denote the action as a 



'I 

Thou 
He or she 

penda \ It 
We 

You 
^They 



134 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



continuous one, the syllable -l^ may be inserted after 
the tense prefix. 

N-dH-ki-mpendc^ I loved him [not once but oontinnously]. 
W-ali-papendana^ when they loved one another. 
W-ali-po-ki-pendanaf while they loved one another. 



Narrative Past* 

In telling a story it is usual to begin with one Terb 
in the -li- tense, and then to put all that follow in a 
tense made by the prefix -ha-. This tense includes in 
itself the power of the conjunction and. It can never 
properly stand at the beginning of a narrative, but no 
other past tense can properly be used for any verb 
except the first. It may occasionally be used after 
another verb, where the time being indefinite would 
in English be represented by a present. 

Ni- 

U- 

A- 

U; I-, Ki- 

14; Pa-, Ku- ) horpenda I ^^^ i* ) loved. 

M- 
Wa- 
I'.Zi'y Fi-, Yor) 

Nika- is frequently contracted into Ha-* 

Hamwona = Nikamwona = And I saw him. 

The 'ha- of this tense is often pronounced -hi- in rapid 
or careless talking. 





"And I 




And thou 




And he or she 


korpenda ^^^_^^ 




And we 




And you 




And they 



VERBS. 



135 



Future. 
The Future Tense is made by the prefix -tor. 



NU 






U- 




I shall 


A- 




Thou wilt 


U', I-, Ki- 




He or she will 


Id-^Por^Ku- )ia'penda { 


It will 


Tu- 




We shall 


M- 




You will 


War 




They will 


I-, Zi-, Vu, To-. 




• 



) love. 



In the first person the prefix Ni- is often omitted. 
Tapenda = Nitapenda =■ I shall love. 

When particles of relation are introduced the prefix 
'to- is very rarely used ; the tense prefix stands almost 
always as -taka-. 

AtdkayekujOf [he] who will come. 

With particles of relation the difference between the 
present, indefinite, and future times is much more care- 
fully observed in Swahili than in English. 

NUcHapo, when I sleep, i.e., in the case of my sleeping. 

Ninapolala, when I sleep, t.6., at the time when I am sleeping. 

Nitakapolala, when I sleep, t.6., when I shaU be sleeping. 

Mtu aendaye, the man who goes (at any time). 

Mtu anayekwenda, the man who is going (now). 

Mtu atakayekwenda, the man who goes (at some future time). 

Thus, if it is intended to send a man somewhere and 
pay him afterwards for his trouble, where it might be 
said in English — Tell the man who goes that I will 
pay him when he comes back — ^the Swahili verbs must 
all be in the future, Mwamhie ifule atakayekwenda kwamha 



136 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



ataJcaporudi nitamlijpia. Where it is the fact and noi 
the time, person, or thing, that is the important element 
of the idea, it is better not to use the particles of rela- 
tion, but to employ the -M- tense, which see. 

Conditional Tenses. 

There are four tenses which may be called Con- 
ditional. The first, made with -hi-, expresses a state of 
things as supposed to be existing. The second, made 
with -jajpo-, expresses a state of things supposed as 
possible. The other two refer to contingencies ; one of 
them, made with -nge- or -nga-, expresses what would 
now be happening, and the contingency on which it 
would depend regarded as existing; the other, made 
with -ngali-, expresses what would have happened, and 
the contingency on which it would have depended 
regarded as no longer existing. 

Actual Conditional or Participial Tense. 

This tense is made with the prefix -K-, and may be 
translated by the English present participle, or by as, 
if, when, since, though, or any other words by which 
the idea of a state of things can be introduced and con- 
nected with the rest of the sentence. 



Ni' > 






U- 




I 


A- 




Thou 


r-, I-, Ki- 




He or she 


Li-, Pa-, Kw hi-penda 


It 


Tu- 


We 


M- 


You 


Wa- {They 


I- 7A' Vi' Ya 


) 





loving. 



VERBS. 137 

The prefix Niki- iaa,j be contracted into Hi-, 

Hifukuza - Nihtfukuza = As I was driving. 

Viewed as a present participle, the -Jci- tense can be 
used to form compound tenses, especially a past im- 
perfect. 

Alikuwa akiogolea, he was swimming about. 

The following are a few examples of the use of this 
tense : — 

Nitafurdki nihikuonaf [seeing yon I shall rejoice] I shall be 

glad to see yon. 
Akija AbddUdh mwamhia, [Abdallah coming, tell him] Tell 

Abdallah when he comes. 
Nikiwa nacho, [I having it] If I have it — ^when I have it — if 1 

shonld have it — in case of my having it — since I have it. 
Alipotea akizunguka kwa Hku nibili, [He was lost wandering 

for two days] He lo£t his way and wandered about for two 

days. 
Majivuno yakiwa mengi, [Puffings up being many] Much self- 
exaltation. 
Cfpepo ukiwa moto hutanua, [Air being hot] Air expands when 

it becomes heated. 
Akisevna kweli, hasadikitm, [Telling the truth, he is not believed] 

If he should tell the truth, he would not be believed. 

In this instance the use of the -hi- tense and of the 
negative present are both remarkable. It will be seen, 
however, npon examination, that there is no real con- 
tingency in such a sentence as this. It affirms a fact 
in a state of things, not a contingency npon a supposed 
state of things ; it is not his telling the truth which 
prevents his being beHeved. 

A corresponding past tense may be made by the -Z»- 
tense with the relative particle -po-. 

WalipopendOf when they loved, being that they then loved. 



138 



BWAEHI HANDBOOK. 



^japo-penda^ even if ' 



n 

thou 
he or she 
it 
we 
you 
\they 



love. 



PossiBLB Conditional. 

Tills tense is made by the prefix -japo-, and puts a 
case ; it generally implies that the case is an extreme 

or unlikely one. It may be translated by even if. 

Ni- 

U- 

A- 
Z7-, I-, Ki' 
Id-f Pa-, Ku' 

Tu- 

M- 

Wa- 
I-, Zi; Ft-, To- j 

The prefix seems to be formed from haja^ to come» 

and -po, the particle denoting when or where ; so that 

ujapo may be translated, When you come, and so with 

the other persons ; this will give the force of the tense. 

Wajapokupigay when they come to heating you, i.e., even if 
they beat yon. 

Jajpo with the personal signs may be used alone in 
the sense of — even if. 

Ujapo huhionif even if you do not see it. 

Peesent Contingent. 
This tense is formed by the prefix -nge- or -nga-, and 
puts a condition and its results as present. It necessarily 
implies that neither are in existence. 

Ni- 

V- 

A- 
U-, J-, Ki- 
Li-y Fa-, Ka- 

Tu- 

M- 

War 
J-, Zi-, Vi'j Tor 



) nge-penda 



' I should, or if I did 
Thou wouldest, or if thou 

didst 
He, she, or it would, or if 

he, she, or it did 
We should, or if we did 
You would, or if you did 
They would, or if they did J 



• love. 



VEBB8. 



139 



The -n^o- form is used with monosyllabio verbs — 
angatoa — ^thoxigli lie be, or he would be. 

The two branches of the contingency cannot in 
English be represented by the same tense, as they are 
in Swahili. The pair would stand in English, (1) If I 
did— (2) I should, &c. (1) If it were— (2) it wotdd 
be, &c. Or ihey might stand, (1) Though I did — 
(2) yet I should, &c. 

The second branch is sometimes represented in 
English by a past tense ; sometimes both are. 

Kama ungekuwa na aJcUi, moZt ydko ungedumu nayo^ [If you 
"were with wits, your property you would continue with itj 
If you were a man of understanding, your property would 
be (or would have been) yours still. 

Past Contingent. 

This tense is made with the prefix -ngali-. It sup- 
poses something at a past time, and concludes that 
something else would then have happened, also at a 
past time. It represents the English — If this had 
happened, that would have happened. It supposes that 
neither condition nor contingency did ever in fact 
occur. In English a past tense is often used to express 
a present contingency, but the Swahili seem to dis- 
tinguish them more carefully. 

Had I, or I should have 
Hadst thou, or thou 

wouldest haye 
Had he, she, or it, or he, 

she, or it would have 
ngali-penda i Had we, or we should ) loved. 

have 
Had you, or you would 

have 
Had they, or they would 

ha^e ^ 



U- 

A- 
U', I-, Ki- 
Li't Pa-, Ku' 

Tu- 

WOr 

I-, Zir, Vi-, To- J 



140 8WAEILI EAtlDBOOK. 

There is always an accent on the personal prefix fend 

none on the tense prefix, thns Hmgalihuja^ dngaliSna^ <&c. 

Kama ungalikuwapo hapa, ndugu yangu aTtgaHpona^ J£ you 
had been here, my brother would have got well 

The Imperative. 

It has been mentioned above that the simplest form 
of the verb may be used for the Imperative as in 
English. The final letter of verbs in -a is frequently 
changed into e-. The plural is made by adding -nt. 

Penda, or Pende^ love thou. Pendant, or Pendent, love ye. 

Twaa,, or TuHie, take thou. Twa^ni, or Twasni, take ye. 

SifUf praise thou. Bifuni, praise ye. 

Fikiri, consider thou. Fikirini^ consider ye. 

The form ending in -e is the more commonly used in 
Zanzibar. The other persons are supplied by the use 
of the Subjunctive. 

Ka- may be prefixed to the Imperative to connect it 
with a preceding verb. 

Kajificheni, and hide yourselves. 

The Subjunctive. 
The Subjunctive is made by prefixing the personal 
sign, and when the verb ends in -a changing that 
letter into -e. It may be translated into a variety of 
English forms. It may be used as an imperative or 
jussive, and is the only form that can be so used in the 
first and third persons. 

Nipende, let me love. 

When used with an interrogative it may be translated 
— am I to — is he to, &c. 

Nifany^ef What am I to do? 



VERBS. 



141 



It is the proper form to express purpose or object — that 
I may, &c. — ^and must be used in many cases where in 
English the infinitive is employed. 

Mwanibie akusayidie^ tell him to help yon, or speak to him 
that he may help you. 

Where no purpose is implied the infinitive is used as 
in English. 

I want to sleep, nataka huUiUu 

The force of the conjunction and may be expressed 
by inserting -hi- after the personal prefix. And is used 
in English in many cases where the second action is 
more or less the object with which the first is to be 
done, as in — try and find, &c. In such cases -ha- must 
not be used, but only the subjunctive in its simple 
form. 

Ni- 



u- 




1 


A-, 17-, I- 




thoa 


Ki', Li-, Pa- 




he or she 


Ku- )pende, ThB.t \ 


it 


Tu- 




we 


rn' 


s 


you 


Wa-.I-.Zi- 




.they 


Ft-, Yd- 







may love. 



Verbs which end in -t, -e, or -«, keep the same final 
letter in the subjunctive. 



The iNFiNinvB. 
The Infinitive is made in all cases by prefixing -hu, 

Ku'penda, to loYe. ' 
KiHma, to see. 



waeili handbook. 



cvriiicA -tf- btiibie a, d, and t, and often 



.1* 



.'v wnommo, to telL 

jiat^'iOf to tiniah. 
A-0(^ ru bttthOi 

:v« jii^y always be nsed to express the 
.^N- .y [iie verb, 

vtt^/MiuMa, mutu&l loving. 

V . "% V iLliomatio uses of the Infinitive Mood, 

^.^\ai» and may be mentioned here, the 

^ ;o ^'Uier a grammatical, contrivance. 

;. ;xiu of a verb may be preceded by the 

. .c suuo verb, the effect being rather to 

/^. ..,.L i;ive prominence to the idea conveyed 

.«j^L -:o omphasize the mode of an action. 
. ..a.»i*/iH iUJ to dying, yon will die. Dying, 
_.!< **j1 happen to you. Not, you will 

^^ ^\ :iuite form of the verb, and espe- 

;ftH» 'v^^uld be closely followed by another 

.^^.v^ xiu, connected with the former verb 

-^ ,Ki N^plo copula * na,^ the second verb 

. :,» vjjjiitive mood. By this device the 

^j, i ;3k aeries of personal and other 

of successive verbs is neatly 

hUukuzwa" for anayetuhuzwa^ 
igjbrified."— A. C. M.] 



VERBS. 143 

Participles. 

IK 

There are properly no Participles in Swahili. The 

present participle in -ing m&j be represented by the 

-anor- tense of an incomplete action, by the -hi- tense 

of a state of continued action, or by the use of the 

relative. 

The man sitting yonder, mtu dkaaye hule. 

The past participle may be represented by the -me- 
tense of a completed action, or by the relative when 
used adjectivally. 

Nimekiona kisu Mlichopotea, I have found the lost knife. 

The Negative Conjugation. 

All Swahili verbs may be employed with negative 
prefixes to denote the reverse of their affirmative 
meaning. It must be observed that the negative forms 
do not simply deny the affirmative forms but rather 
reverse them. 

Napenda kwenda, I like going. 

Nataka kwenda, I want to go. 
Sipendi kwenda, I dislike going, 
Sitaki kwenda, I want not to go. 

In English I do not want is not so strong e;R I do not 
like, but in Swahili sitdki is stronger than sipendi. 

The negative tenses are formed by negative personal 
prefixes, which, except in the first person singular, are 
made from the affirmati-^ forms by prefixing ha-. 

For the negative combined with the relative, see 
p. 120. 



. ..11^ 11 -a chan£:e that letter 
v>-*:MUi*iu Tinoiiaiiged. 



!■• 



t ] 




1 rhou 




Tlv' v>r she 


love not 


It 


or 


Wt} 


do not love 


You 




1^ They > 





% If 



ivi-o general negative tlian the 

. .,.<. It is nsed for both past and 

. . ic -.'v^jiaiive depends upon some cause 

v,,K\i ^\ I ho time referred to. 

. . lis auvl other tenses often disappears 

Su\^v^*, I vio not fear. 

NiAJAiivK Past. 

v^.iiiNO form referring to past time 
.,,,.0 >\ uho negative prefixes followed 



«% 




I 

Thou 
lie or 


she 


did not love 


. * 


You 
,Thoy 




or 
have not lovr d. 


'••'■ ■■ 











. *.v 5«^t>W negative prefixes may be 
V V mhrfmgo^ tt*^ ^ ^^^ become a liar ? 



VEBB8. 



145 



have not yet loyed. 



The not yet Tense. 

There is a negative tense made by the use of the 
negative prefixes followed by -ja-y which is a sort of 
negative present perfect, denying the action up to the 
time of speaking. 

Si- ^ 

Ha-, Hau-, Bai- Thou 

Haki-, Hall- He or she 
Hapa-, Hdkw ja-penda { I* 

Hatu- We 

Ham' You 

HauHi-, Hat', Hazi- They 
Havi-t Saych- J 

The word hado is often used with this tense where 

it is intended rather to imply that what has not yet 

happened will some day come to pass. 

Hajaja, he is not yet oome, he is not come even now. 
Hajaja hadoj he is not come, at least not yet. 

The -a- of -ja- coalesces with t and e into a long -e- 

sound. 

Sajesha = Hajaisha = He has not yet finished. 

Negative Futuee. 

The negative future is made from the affirmative 
future by merely using negative instead of afi&rmative 
personal prefixes. 



Si- 

Eu- 
Hd-, Hau-f HaU 
Haki', HaU- 
HapOft Haku- 

HcUth 

Ha/mr 
jBatoo-, jBai-, Hasi- 
Hatfi-t Hayor 



torpenda ^ 



I shall not 
Thou wilt not 
He, she, or it 

will not 
We shall not 
Tou will not 
They will not 



love. 



146 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Conditional Tenses. 

The case of not being or not doing is put by a tenue 
formed by the affirmatiYe prefixes followed by sipo- ; 
it may be translated by the present participle with a 
negative, or by as, if, when, though, since, or any other 
word by which the case of not being, having, or doing, 
may be introduced. 
Ni' 



U- 

lA', Par, JBTtt- 
Tu- 

War, I-, Zt; Vi- 
Ta 



sipo-penda i 



I 

Thon 
He or she 
It 
We 

You 
LThey 



not loving. 



This tense may be also used to translate an English 

affirmative preceded by except or unless, 

AHpojfm, unless he knows. 
Asipokuwa Ahddllah, except Abdallah. 

Contingent Tenses. 
The negative contingent tenses, present and past, 
are made from the a£&rmative forms by merely using 
negative instead of affirmative personal prefixes. 

Did I or I should 



Si- 

Hu- 
Ha-, Hau-t Eai- 
Haki-, Hali- 
Wapor, EaJeU' 

HaiU' 

Ham- 
Hawa-, Hai', Ha^i-' 



nge-penda 



Didst thou or Thou 

wouldest 
Did he, she, or it, 

or He, she, or it 

would 
Did we or We 

should 
Did you or you 

woidd 
Did they or They 
. would 



not love. 



VEBBS. 



147 



8i' 

Hu- 
Ha-j Eau-f Hat' 
Edki', HcHi- 
Hapor, Haku- 

Batu- 

JSam- 
HavM-y Bai- 
Bazi', Bavi- 
Baya- 



) not loved. 



Had I or I should 

have 
Hadet thou or Thou 

wouldest have 
Had he, she, or it, 
1 or He, she, or it 

\ ngali'pendax would have 

1 Had we or We should 
have 
Had you or You 

would have 
Had they or They 
would have 

Negative Imperative. 

The negative imperative is made by the use of si 
(not), with the affirmative forms. 



Si penda, love not. 
8i Hfu, praise not. 



Si pendent, love ye not. 
Si sifuni, praise ye not 



The negative subjunctive is more often used in this 
sense than the imperative form. 



Negative Subjunctive. 

The negative subjunctive is made from the affirma- 
tive form by inserting -«t- between the affirmative 
personal prefix and the verb. 



u- 

A-, U-, I- 
£i-, Li-, 

POr.KVr 

Tu- 
War, I-, Zir 

Vir, To- 



I si-pende. That / 



'I may 
thou mayest 
he, she, or 

it may 
we may 
you may 
they may 



not love. 



L 2 



148 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



The -» of -8t- often disappears before a vowel. 
asende, that he may not go. 

The negative subjunctive may be Englisbed in 
several different ways. It may be used as above of a 
purpose not to doy or it may be used of a purpose to do 
which fails. 

Akamtafuta (mmtmme, he looked for him, but did not see him 
oTy without seeing him. 

This form is commonly used for the negative 
imperative. 

NisendSf let me not go. Usende, don't go. 

A form of subjunctive connected with the not yet 
tense is made by the use of -sije- with the affirmative 
prefixes. 



Ni- 

U- 
A-, U-, I- 
Ki-, Li- 
Fa-, Ku-, \ sije-'pendcLj That 

Tu- ' 

M- 
Wor, I-, Zi- 
Vi-, Va- 



I may 

thou mayest 
he, she, or it 

may 
we may 
you may 
they may 



not have already 
loved. 



This tense may often be translated by before. 
Utampata asijelala, jon will oatch him before he goes to sleep. 

-sije with the personal prefixes may be used as a 
complete word followed by the -ha- tense. 

Niiije nikafa, that I may not be already dead, or, that I may not 
die before, &c. 



VERB8. 149 

Negative Infinitive. 

The negative infinitive is made by the use of hatoa 
(to put out), often contracted into hito- and used as a 
prefix. 

Kutoa huyenda^ or KuUypenda, not to love, or not loving, to 
dislike, or disliking. 



The Passive Voice. 

The Passive is made from the Active by merely 
inserting -w- before the final vowel. 

Napenda, I love. Napendiua, I am loved. 

Sipendi, I do not love. Stpendm, I am not loved. 

NimependOy I have loved. Nvmependwa^ I have been loved. 

Kvpendctf to love. Kupendtoa, to be loved. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often use the passive of 
their applied form. See pp. 151, 161. 

The P^ussive is used in a sort of impersonal way to 
denote what is intended to be done. 

Maji yamehwenda leuletwa^ some one has gone to get water. 
Pesa zimehwenda huvunjuja, some one has gone to get pice in 
exchange for silver. 

Auxiliary and Irregular Verbs. 

As the Auxiliary verbs are mostly also irregular, it 
will be best to speak of their irregularities first, and 
afterwards of their use in making compound tenses. 

Monosyllabic verbs and most dissyllabic words be- 
ginning with a vowel, retain the hu- of the infinitive 
in those tenses in which the tense prefix ends in a 



150 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

syllable incapable of bearing the accent. These tense 
prefixes are -na-, -ame-j -aZ*-, -tor, -japo', -nge-j -ngali-, 
and 'Sije-. The other prefixes, -a-, -Jka-, -hi-, -ngcL-^ -Jh*-, 
-ja-y -si-j are capable of bearing the accent, and the hu- 
is not retained when they are used. The personal 
signs, both subjective and objective, can bear the 
accent, the relative signs cannot. 

Thus, from kuja, to come, we have : — 

NajOy I come. Ninakuja, I am coming. 

Nikajay and I came. Nimejcuja, I have come. 

Nikijoy I coming. NaUkuja^ I came. 

8i}% I come not. Nitakuja, I shall come. 

Sikujay I did not come. Nijapokuja^ even if I come. 

Sijaja, I am not yet come. Ningektya, I should come. 

Niiijey let me not come. Ningalikuja, I should have come. 

Nisijekuja, before I come. 

Nije, let me not come. NisipokujOy when I come not. 

Ajaye^ he who comes. AliyekujOy he who came. 
Nijaye, I who come. 

It is shown that this irregularity depends upon the 

power of certain syllables to support the accent by 

the changes which occur when an objective prefix is 

inserted. 

Amekula, he has eaten. 
Ame'irdctf he has eaten him. 

The verb hupa, to give to, is peculiar in always re- 
quiring an objective prefix, and therefore never having 
occasion to be irregidar. 

With dissyllables beginning with a vowel it is gene- 
rally indifferent whether the hu- is retained or not. 

AmekwUha or Ameiska, he has finished. 
Amekwanza or Ameanza, he has begun. 



VERBS. 151 

Many verbs occur with or without a w-, which seems 

to be a relic of the -hk-. 

Kuiva or KuwivOj to ripen. 
Kuaza or Kuioazci, to oonsider. 

The word huja, to come, stands alone in having an 
irregular imperative. 

Njoo, oome. Njooni, oome ye. 

Monosyllabic verbs and some dissyllables make their 
passives in a more or less irregular way. The follow- 
ing is a list of the monosyllabic verbs with their 
passives : — 

Kuchfi, to fear. Kuchiocty to be feared. 

Kula, to eat. KuUuxi, to be eaten. 

Kunyuja, to drink. Kunyvsewa^ to be drunk. 

KupOy to give to. Kupa^oa or Kupewa, to receive. 

£tto%a is used in the dialect of Lamoo for to fear, the 
word used at Zanzibar being huogopa. Kucha means 
at Zanzibar to rise (of the sun), and hichwa (or, in the 
dialect of Mombas, hutwa) means to set. The other 
monosyllabic verbs, hufa, to die, huja, to come, hunya, 
to feJl like rain, huwa, to be, being neuters, do not 
make a passive. 

Two dissyllabic verbs make their passive by merely 

adding -wa to the active form. 

JSTtftio, to kill. Kuuawdi to be killed. 

KufuOj to beat KufuatoOy to be beaten. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often insert an -U in 
making their passive. See under Applied Forms, pp. 
158-169. 

Kuzaa^ to bear. Kuzawa or KuzaHwa, to be bom. 

Kuhomityoa, to ransom. Kukomholewck^ to be ransomed. 

KufunguOf to open. KufunguUuHif to be opened. 



152 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

The origin of this use lies probably in the difGicnlty 
of pronouncing distinctly the regular passive forms. 
Verbs ending in -e make their passive in -ewa. 

Kfuamehe^ to pardon. Kusamehewti, to be pardoned. 

Verbs ending in -i make their passives in -iwa. 

Kukiriy to oonfess. KuhiriuHif to be oonfessed. 

Verbs in -u generally make their passive in -iwa. 

Kuhartbu, to destroy. KuharibitDOy to be destroyed. 

Where the -u is preceded by a vowel the passive is 
made in -vlitoa. 

Kusahau, to forget KusahaulitocL, to be forgotten. 

The verb huwa^ to be, has several peculiarities. The 
Present tense is very seldom used in its regular form. 
For the Present tense m (or, in the negative, si) may 
be used for all persons and both numbers, or the per- 
sonal prefix appropriate to the subject of the verb may 
stand alone. Ni is apparently preferred where being 
is the important part of the idea ; the personal prefix 
is used where the being of that particular thing is 
intended specially to be noticed. Tu (not A) is used 
for he or she is. 

8% hweUt ni hwifu <u, it is not true, it is only flattery. 
Ta tayari, we are ready. 

When joined with a relative the regular form has 
the meaning of who may he. 

Awaye yoUy whoeyer it be. 

Where no stress is intended to be laid on the heing^ 
the verb to be, when joined with a relative pronoun, is 



VEBBS. 153 

represented by the syllable -U-. See Belatives, p. 118. 
lA is used, though but rarely, with the personal signs 
to form a tense with the meaning— continuing to be. 
A narative past is also formed with it in the sense of — 
I have continued to be. 

Nili hcdi ya kuwajuu ydke^ I being on his back. 
NtkcUi nihipotea, and I go on wandering. 

In many cases where the verb toheia used in English 
merely to connect the parts of the sentence it is in 
SwahiH omitted altogether. 

Kwa nini uoeye kutoa kuonekana hizi giku nyingif why piave] 
you [been] invisible, i,e.. Why have you kept out of sight so 
long? 

Tupi mkuu woof who [is] their chief? 

Nyama ya hifaro ngumu mno, rhinoceros meat [is] very tough. 

The Present Perfect has the meaning of has become. 
Manenoye yamekuwa uwongoy his words are become false. 

The Past Perfect must be used to translate was and 

ujere, 

NUipohuwa Sultani, when I was Sultan. 

The English has or have been must be translated by 
a present. 

Nipo hapa tilcu nyingi, I have been here many days. 

The Imperative is used with an i prefixed. 

Itoe, be thou. Iweniy be ye.* 

In the negative present and with relatives si is used 
as ni and -Zi- are in the affirmative tense. The regular 
forms are also used, though but rarely. 

* The subjunctive forms utoe^ mioe are commonly preferred in 
Zanzibar. — ^A. G. M. 



154 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

The verb to he is used in English sometimes to 
denote existence viewed as an ultimate fact, sometimes 
to denote existence in place and time, sometimes to 
denote existence as the possessor of certain qualities, 
or the doer or sufferer of certain acts. In Swahili these 
three uses are distinguifilied by the employment of 
different forms. 

The simple form of the verb is used only to denote 
existence as the possessor of qualities, or the doer or 
sufferer of acts. 

Existence merely in place and time, whether the 
place and time are in English expressed or no, is 
denoted in Swahili by the addition to the verb of -po, 
-mo, or 'Tco, as the case may be. See Eelatives, p. 120. 

He is at my bouse, Yuko kwcmgu. 
He is here, Yupo hapa. 
He is in the house, Yumo nyumhani. 
When he was liere, Alipokuwapo hapa. 
Where are they ? Ziko wapi ? 

Existence viewed as a fact in itself is denoted by the 
addition of na to the verb, being the same form as is 
used for the verb to have. Na is joined to the personal 
prefixes to make the present tense, in aU other tenses 
it is treated as a separate word, and has generally the 
appropriate relative sign suffixed to it. 

Kuna mtUf there is a man. 
Kulihuwa na mtu, there was a man. 
Zinazo, they are. 
Zilikuvoa naao, they were. 

In Swahili there is properly no verb to have. They 
employ for it hutoa na, to be with. 



TEBB8. 155 

JVtna, I have. 
Nalikuwa na^ I had. 
Nitakuwa na, I shall have. 
Niwe no, that I may have. 

Where tlie objective prefix would be used with, an 

ordinary verb, the appropriate relative particle must 

be suffixed to the na as well as to the tense prefix* 

NinazOf I have them. 
Miyekuwa nazo, who had them. 
Alizohuwa nazo, which he had- 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

The Verbs used as Auxiliaries are, kuwa, to be, hutoa, 
to take out, kuja, to oome, kwisha, to come to an end. 

Can is represented by the appropriate tenses of 

kuweza, to be able. Must is expressed by sharti, of 

necessity, or by the negative tenses of kuwa na hvddi^ 

to have an escape from. 

8ina huddi, I must. 

Asiwe na huddi, that he may be obliged. 

After Jcuwa na huddi either the infinitive or subjunc- 
tive may be employed. 

Ofight may be represented by the tenses of kupasa, to 

concern, or, to come to concern. Should is expressed 

in the same way when it implies obligation, and by the 

contingent tenses when it expresses a contingency. 

Imenipasa hwenda^ it concerns me to go, i.e., I ought to go. 
Imenipasa nisende, it ooncems me that I go not, t.e., I ought not 
to go. 

Kujpasa is also used as follows : — 

Satkunipasa mimi, it is no business of mine. 
Imekupasani i What have you to do with it ? 
Amenipcua mtnit, he is a connection of mine. 



156 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

May and might may be represented by Icuweza where 
they imply power, by haJali, lawful, where they imply 
lawfulness, and by the subjimctiye where they imply a 
•purpose. 

The use of huja as an auxiliary has been mentioned 
under the 'japo-, -ja-^ and sije- tenses, pp. 138, 146, 14S. 

Kutoa is used to oonvey a negation in cases where 
the regular negative tenses cannot conveniently be 
used. 

With the infinitive it is frequently contracted into 
'to-, and used as a mere formative. 

Kutoa huja, or Kutohuja, not to come. 
Kutoa kupenda, or Kutopenda, not to loye. 

The meaning of these negative infinitives may be 
given as, putting out coming, barring coming, coming 
not happening. A transitive form may be made by the 
use of hutosha, to make to go out. 

Kutosha kumvouliza, to exclude asking him. 

In many cases kutoa may be translated by, to forbear, 
or, to neglect. 

Ametoa kuja, he has neglected coming, he has not eome. 
Nikitoa kuja, if I forbear from coming, or, so long as I do not 
come. 

The negative tenses do not furnish a true present 
perfect. The past, hikuja, is, he did not come; the 
present, haji, implies rather that he never will, that 
coming is not to be predicated of him at all. The 
difference between nmpdkuja and nilcitoa huja is repre- 
sented in English by that between, if I come not, and, 
while I come not. In all cases the use of toa connects 



VEBB8. 157 

the negatioa with the tense only ; the negative tenses 
imply that the opposite of the verb might be affirmed. 
Ktoisha may often be translated by already. 

AmehwWha huja^ he has already come. 
Nimekwisha kuUif I have done eating. 

It is used to strengthen the present perfect, convey- 
ing the meaning that something is not merely done, 
but fully done and over. 

A somewhat similar effect is produced on the present 
by using hatika hmsha. 

Ni hatika kwisha ktday I am finishing eating, I am just leaving 
off, I have very nearly done. 

Kuwa, to be, is used in Swahili very much as it is in 
English, the -H- and -me- tenses of the principal verb 
being used as present and past participles. 

Nili nikienda^ I continuing to be going. 
Nikali ntkienda, and I am still going. 
Nikiwa nikieTida, I being going, while going. 
Nikiwa nimekwenda, I being gone, having gone. 
Nikiwa nimekunsha kuoenda, having already gone 
Nalikuwa nikienda, I was going. 
Nalikuwa nivnekwenda, I was gone, I had gona 
Nalikuwa nimekwisha kwenda, I had already gone. 
Nitakuvja nikienda, I shall be in the act of going. 
Nit€ikuv)a nimekwenda, I shall be gone. 
Nitakuwa nimekwisha kwenda, I shall have already gone. 
Nitakuvoa nUiokwenda, I shall be who has gone, I shall have 
gone, I shall have gone to or been at. 

Kuwa na, to have, is not used as an auxiliary. 

Derivative Verbs. 

There are four derivative forms which may be con- 
structed out of any Swahili verb, where in English 



158 BWABILI HANDBOOK, 

we must use either another verb or some compound 
expression. 

1. What may be called the applied form is used in 
cases where in EngUsh a prepLion would De exn- 
ployed to connect the verb with its object. By the use 
of this form verbs which have things for their objects 
may be made to apply to persons. 

This form is made by inserting % or e before the final 
-a of the simple verb. I is used when the vowel of the 
preceding syllable is a, i, or it. E ib used when the 
vowel of the preceding syllable is e or o. 

Kufanya, to make. Kufanyia, to make for. 

KuLeta^ to bring. Kuletea, to bring for. 

KusihitikcLj to be sorry. Kusikitikict, to be sorry for, to pity 

KuokOj to bake. Kuohea^^ to bake for. 

Kuanguha, to fall down. Kuangukia^ to faU down to. 

Where the simple verb ends in two vowels the sup- 
pressed I appears in the applied form. 

jETtfzao, to bear. KuzdHa, to bear to. 

Kukwea, to dlmb. Kukweleay to climb for. 

Kusikia, to hear. Kusihilia, to listen to. 

Kuko^niboa^ to redeem. Kukombolea, to redeem for. 

Kununua, to bny. Kununuliaf to bny for. 

The following is a list of the monosyllabic verbs 
with their applied forms : — 

Kuchtty to fear. Kuckelectj to fear for. 

Kufa, to die. Kt^ to die to. 

Kuja, to come. Kujia, to come to. 

Kula, to eat. KtUta, to eat with. 
Kunya, to fall (like rain). Kunyea, to fall upon. 

Kunywa, to drink. Ktmywea, to drink with. 

Kutca, to be. ^ Kutoia, to be to. 

KuzcL, to sell, makes KuHzct, to sell to. 



VEUBS. 159 

Kupa, to give to, having already an applied meaning, 
has no applied form. There is a difficnlty in expressing 
what would have been the meaning of the simple form. 
Kutoa is nsed for to give, in the sense of parting with. 
Such expressions as, which was given yon, mnst be 
rendered by a change of person — uliopewa, which you 
had given to yon, or, which you received. Which he 
gave me, is very commonly rendered niliopewa naye. 

Verbs ending in -4 and -u make their applied forms 
in -ia. 

Kufasiriy to explain. Kufcuiria, to explaiQ to. 

Kuharihu, to destroy. KuharihiOj to destroy for. 

The great paucity of prepositions in Swahili brings 
the applied forms of verbs into constant use. The 
only difficulty in their application lies in the exact 
discrimination of the meaning of the simple word. 
Many Swahili verbs imply in their simple form what 
can only be expressed in English by the use of a pre- 
position. Whenever a really good dictionary shall have 
been compiled it will supply all the necessary informa- 
tion. The applied form may be rendered by inserting 
any preposition which will suit the context. Thus, 
hushuhudia is, to bear witness about, for, or against, as 
the case may be, and kuneneay which means to speak 
about, may have to be translated by, to recommend, or 
to decry, to scold, or to describe. The simple word 
nena has in itself the force of to mention, so that it is 
not necessary to use the applied form as a translation 
of to speak of, where it means no more than to 
mention. 

Sometimes the shape of the word will be a useful 



160 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

reminder to foreignen of its exact meaninp: ; thus, 
IcwpaUa^ which may be roughly translated to Iom^ is in 
the shape of an applied form, and really is one, its 
exact meaning being, to become lost to. I^ therefore, 
we want to say, I have lost my knife, the constraction 
must be altered into, my knife has become lost to me 
{hisu ehangu himenipotea)^ the subject and object having 
to change places. 

Where in English a preposition connected with the 
verb can stand by itself at the end of the sentence, the 
applied form must be used in SwahilL 

A knife to cat with, hint eha kukatia. 

Stones to grind wheat with, mawe ye htuagia ngano, 

A place to come ont at, mahaU pa htUoJeea. 

A bag to put money in, mfuko wa TcutUia feOia, 

In these sentences the use of the possessive particle 
-a for the English to^ denoting a purpose or employ- 
ment, must be observed and remembered. This particle 
turns what follows into a sort of adjective in this, as 
in all other cases in which it is followed by a word 
which is capable of denoting a quality. It is somewhat 
like the English expressions, a man of senae^ a building 
of great solidity, dc. 

When an applied form is followed by mbali it conveys 
the idea that as a consequence of the action denoted by 
the simple verb something is put out of the way, or 
got rid of. 

AfiU, or Afie mbali, that he may die out of our way. 
Tumwulie mbdli, let us kill him and done with it. 
PoteUa mbalit perish out of my way = go and be hanged. 

The passive of the applied form has a meaning which 



VERBS. ICl 

it requires some attention to remember and apply 
rightly, though it is strictly according to the rule that 
the object of the active becomes the subject of the 
passive voice. 

Kuleteaf to bring to. Kuletewa, to have brought to one. 

Kufanyia, to make for. Kufanyiwa, to have made for one. 

It is often difficult in English to express this passive 
without using an altogether different word. What 
suggests itself at first to an English ear, that the 
passive of to bring to would be to he brought to, is wrong, 
and must be carefully avoided. Sometimes a change 
of prepositions will suffice to render the passive cor- 
rectly ; hupa may be translated to present to, and then 
kupewa is not to he presented to, but to he presented with. 

Passives made in -liwa and -lewa are used as the 
passives of both the simple and the applied form. 
Kufunguliwa may be used as the passive of hufungua, 
meaning, to be unfastened, or as the passive of Jcufun- 
gulia, meaning then, to have unfastened for one. It 
can never mean, to be unfastened for. If it is necessary 
to express a passive in that form it must be done by 
changing the construction. 

A cry was made at him, alipigiwa uJcelele [he had made at him 

aery]. 
The door was opened for him, alifunguliioa mlango [he had 

opened for him the door]. 

2. The Causative form is made by changing the final 
-a into 'Sha or -za. 

Kupungua, to grow less. Kupunguza, to make to grow less. 
Kuzidi, to grow greater. Kuzidiaha, to make greater. 



162 SWAEILl HANDBOOK. 

When the final -a is preceded by a consonant the 
^neral rule is to use the applied form as the basis of 
the causative. 

Kupenda^ to like. Kwpendeza, to please. 

Kufanya, to make. Kufanyiza, to cause to make. 

Kttpandat to go up. Kupandisha, to make to go up. 

Verbs which end in the simple form in -ta end in 
the causative form in -sa, 

Kutakata, to be clean. Kutakasct, to make clean. 

Verbs which end in -ha may be turned into causa- 
tives by changing -ha into -sha. 

Kuwdka^ to be on fire. KuwashcL, to set on fire. 

Kulainikaf to be soft. KtHainisha, to make soft. 

Kutoka, to go out. KutoBha^ to make to go out 

Kushukat to go down. Knshusha, to let down. 

The causatives of verbs ending in -e, -i, or -u are 
constructed on the applied form. 

Kukaribuj to come near. KukaribUha^ to make to come near. 

3. The Neuter, or quasi passive form is made by 
changing the final -a into -ha, 

Kufungim, to unfasten. Kufunguka, to be unfastened. 

Kiiokoa, to save. Kuokoka^ to be saved. 

Where the final -a is preceded by a consonant the 
neuter is constructed from the applied form. 

Kuvunja, to break. Kuvunjika, to be broken. 

Kukata, to cut. Kukatika^ to be cut. 



VEBBS, 163 

CansatlYes in -sha may be turned into neuters by 
changing sha into -ha, 

Kustusha, to startla Kustuka, to be startled. 

Verbs in -e, -t, and -u, construct their neuters on the 
applied forms. 

Kusamehe, to forgive. KusamehekOj to be forgiven. 

KufasiHt to explain. Kufasirika^ to be explained. 

Kuharibu, to destroy. Kuharibika, to be destroyed. 

The -ha form is used (like the English passive) to 
denote what is generally done or doable. 

KuUkay to be eaten, or, to be eatable. 

4. Eeciprocal forms are made by changing -a into 
-ana. 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendana, to love one another. 
KupigOj to beat. Kupigana, to beat one another, to fight 

Verbs in -e, -t, and -u construct their reciprocals 
upon the applied forms. 

Kukaribu, to come near. Kukaribiana, to come near to one 

another. 

The reciprocal form of the -ha form may be translated 
by to be to be, &c. 

Kupatikana, to be to be got. 

Kujulikcmay to be to be known, to be knowable 

Kuoekcmiij to be to be seen, to be visible. 

The derived forms are conjugated and treated in 
every way as though they were original words, and 
other derived forms may be made from them to any 
extent that may be required. 



164 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



The applied form of an applied form generally sig- 
nifies to do a thing to or for a person for a purpose. 
Doubling the verb gives an idea of thoroughness. 



Kukaia, to cut. 
Kutafuta, to seek. 
Kuchafukay to be in a mess. 

Kupasuhaj to be torn. 

Kukatika, to be cut 



KukcUaJeatiif to cut up. 
Kutafutatafuta, to seek all about 
KuchafukachafukOj to be all in a 

mess. 
Kupasukapasukaf to be torn to 

shreds. 
EukatikaJcatikii, to be all cut 

about; 



( 165 ) 



LIST OF VERBS. 



As it is necessary to put to before the English Verb to make the Infinitive, 
so it is necessary to prefix ku- to make the Infinitive in Swahili. Before 
Monosyllabic Verbs the hi- bears the accent, and is retained in several of 
the tenses. See p. 149. 



Ahaeey thill. 

AbhoTj chnkia. 

be Able, weza. 

Abolish, batili, tangua, ondosba. 

Abound loiih, jaa. 

Absorb, nwa, pass, nwewa. 

Abstain from, epuka, epubhwa (to 

be kept from). 
Abuse (by words), tnkana. 
Accept^ kuball, takabali, pokea (re- 
oeive), 

be acceptable or accepted, kuba- 
lika. 
Accompany, fiiatana na, andamana. 

(part oi the way), sindikiza, adL 
Accuse, tuhumu, shtakl. 
Accustom, zoeza. 

become a,ccu8tomed, zoea. 
Ache, uma. 

My head aches, kitwa chauma or 
kinaniuma. 
Acknowledge, ungama, kubali, kiri. 
Acquiesce, nyams^ rithia. 
Acquit, acba. 

be acquitted, toka. 



Act, tenda. 

Adapt, fanya. 

Add to, ongeza, zldislia. 

Add up, jumlisha. 
Adjoin, tangamana. 
Adjourn, akirisha. 

stand over, akiri. 
be Adjudged^ fetiwa. 
Adjure, apisba. 
Admire, penda. 

I admire him, ameni'^'^Tideza. 
Admit, ingiza, acba kuiugia. 
Adorn, pamba. 

Adorn oneself, fanya uzuri. 
Adulterate, ghosbi. 
commit AduUery, zini, zinga. 
Advance, endelea mbele. 

Advance money to a trader, ko- 
pesba. 
be Adverse, gomba, teta. 
Advise, pa sbauri. 
Adze, cbonga. 
Affect to be, jifanya, jiona. 
Afflict, tesa. 

be Afraid, ogopa, cba (A.). 
Agitate, sukasoka. 



166 



BWAEILI IIAN.DBOOK. 



Agree (come to an agreement)^ patana, 
afikana, tuliliana, lekezanya, 
tnzanya (A.). 
(be mutually satUfiod^ rathiana. 
(be alike), elekea, lingana. 
AiiOy twaa shabaha. 
Alamij ogofisha, ogofya, tisba. 
be alarmed [kii-]wa na khofii, 
iugiwa na khofu. 
Alienage, fEunkisha. 

be alienated, £u:akana. 
Allege a defect in, umbua. 
Allot amongst many, awaza. 
AUow, acha, pa ruksa, ruhusu. 
Alter, (neut.) badili, badilika, geuka. 

(act.) geuzsk, badili. 
Amaze, ajaabisha. 

be amazed, toshea. 
Amend, fanyiza, tengeneza. 

(of a person reforming), tulia. 
Amuse, zumgumza. 
Anchor, tia nanga. 
Anger, tia hasira, ghathabieha. 
be Angry, Pni-]wa na haara, gha- 

thabika. 
be Angular, [kii-]wa na pembe- 

pembe. 
Announce, hubiri. 
Annoy, sumbua, sumbtisha, taa- 

bisha, hatiki (A.)- 
Annul, tangua, batili, ghaiii. 

be Annulled, tangnka. 
Ansicer, jibu. 

Answer when c filed, itika, itikia. 
Anticipale for, onea. 
be Anxious, tahamki, taabika. 
make Anxious, tabarakisha, taa- 
bisba. 
Apostatize (become an infidel), ku- 

furu. 
Appear, onekana (become mmkle), 
tokea (come o«< to). 



Apply onesdf to, tenda. 

Appoint, nasibu, aini, chagua cf 

teua (select). 
Approach, karibia, jongea. 
Approa/!h one another, karibiana. 
Bring near, jongeza, karibisha. 
Approve, kubali, penda, rathi. 
Argue, jadiliana, shindana (dispute 

together). 
Arise, ondoka. 
Arm, pa selaba. 

Arm oneself, twaa selaba. 
Arrange, panga, andika, pangisba, 

ratlbu, fanya. 
be Arrogant, gbnrika. 
Arrive, fika, wasili. 
arrive at one*8 destinatiMi, koma. 
make to arrive, fikisha, wasilisba. 
reach a person, fikia, wasilia. 
Ascend, paa, kwea, panda. 
Ascertain, bakiki, uyuzi. 
be ascertained, kinika. 
be Ashamed, ona haya, tabayari. 
malee ashamed, tia haya, tabaya- 
risba. 
Ask, uliza^ nza, saili. 
Ask for, taka. 

Malce inquiries on behalf of any- 
one, nlizia, uuzia, sailia. 
Ask how one does, uliza bali. 
Ask in marriage, posa. 
Assemble, (act.) kusanya, kutanisba. 
(neut.) kutana, k^l8anyik£^ kusa- 
nyana. 
Assent, knbali, itikiza, afikana, ra- 

thiana. 
Assert, sema. 
He asserts thai he saw a ship, 

kamma aliona jahasi. 
He asserts that he walked on the 
water, kamma alikwenda mtoni 
kwa mgun. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



167 



Astonish^ ajabiaha, taajalnfiha. 

be astonishedy toshea, shangaa, 
taajabika, toshewa, staajabu. 
Astound, shangaza. 
Atone for J setiri. 

Attoi^y gandamia, gandamiza, am- 
bisa. 

be aUachedy ambatana (of things), 
ambisana (of people). 
Attaek, sbambulia. 

AtUick people wantonly^ [kii-]wa 
na jeuri. 
Attend (toait upon), ngojea, fuata. 

Attend to, sikia, pulika (A.), si- 
kilia. 

not to attend, ghafalika. 

refuse to attend, jipurukusl^a. 
be Audible, sikiliana, sikizana. 
Avail, faa. 
Avoid, epuka. 

get out of the way of, epa. 

be avoidahle, epeka, epukika. 
Avow, knbali. 
Awake (neuL), amka. 

waken (acL), amsha. 

B. 

Backbite, chongeleza. 
Betray, kbinL 
Bake, oka. 

(pottery), tomea, ehomea. 
Bale out water, vnta maji, teka 

maji* 
Banish, fukuza (drive atoay), ondo- 

aha (make to go atoay), bamisha 

or tamisba (M.) or gurisba (A.). 

(to make to remove). 
Bar (a door), pingia. 
Bargain, fonya ubazazi. 
Bark (like a dog), lia. 
Barter, badili, awithi. 



Batter (bruise), cbubnachubua. 
be baiter ed {like an old copper 
pot), cbubukacbubuka. 
Bathe, oga. 

Be, wa. See Irregular Verbs^ p. 152. 
(to stay), kaa. 
be on on/is guard, [kii-]wa im 

batbari. 
be off one's guard, tagbafali. 
Bear (fruit, chUdren, ike,), zaa, 
vyaa. 
(carry), cbukua, blmili. 
(tolerate), vmnilia, stabimili. 
bear with another person, cbuku- 

liana. 
Bear toith me, niwie ratbi. 
bear witness, shubudu. 

abotd, for or against, sbobudia. 
Beat, piga, puta, menya (Kiyao). 
Beat up together, fanda. 
Beat to pieces, ponda. 
Beat a roof or floor, pigilia. 
be well beaten, putika. 
be beaien upon (as a wreck by the 

waves), fdawa. 
See Conquer, Thresh. 
Beckon to, pongia nguo. 

The usual sign to beckon a person 
to come is to wave a doth up 
and down. 
Become (befitting), sulibi. 
Nimektiwa, I am become. 
Simekuwa, am I not become. 
The act of becoming is generally 
expressed by the present tense of 
the verb expressing the being in 
the state or possessing the quality. 
Become afool^ pumbaziko. 
Beg, omba, bembeleza. 
(entreat), silii, nasibi 
I beg of you, taf&tbaL 
Begets zaa. 



168 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK, 



Begin, anza. 
Begin upon, anziliza. 
Begin a work, maliki. 
Behave, tendii. 
Behave well, tenda vema. 
Behave ill. tenda vibaya. 
Behave like an invalid, jigo- 
njweza. 
Belchi ongnlia. 

Belch out, kokomoka. 
Believe, sadiki. 

Believe in, amini. 
Bend, (act.) pinda, (neut.) pindana. 
Bend round, (act.) peta, (neut.) 

petana, petemaua. 
Bend dovm,(act.) iriamisha, (neut.) 
inama. 
Benuwh, faganza. 
Bequeath, wasia, achia. 
Besiege, hnsuru (Ar.). 
Bet, shindania. 
Beware, angalia, [kii-]wa iia ha- 

thari. 
Bewilder, tekea. 

Bewitch, fanyia uchawi, loga (Mer.). 
Bicker, papuriaiia. 
Bid. See Command. 

Make a first hid, risinm. 
Bind, funga. 
Bind hooks, jelidi. 
Bind oneself, fanya sharli. 
Bind round (as when a stick is 
sprung), ganga. 
Bite, uma. 
Blab, paynka. 

Blame, laumu, tia batiyani, nenae 
(scold), patiliza (visit upon)^ 
karipia (call out at). 
Blaze, waka. 
Bleed, toka damn. 
(copiously), cburuzika damn, tuza 
damn (M.). 



Bless, bariki (see Copulate), barikii^ 

jalia. 
Blind, povna. 

become blind, povnka. 
Block, kingamisha, pinga. 
Blossom,io& mana (putforthflowers), 

fnnnka (to open). 
Blow (as the wind), vnma, vnvia. 

(vyith the mouth), pnzia, puliza. 

(a horn, dtc), piga zomari, &c 

(the nose), fnta kamasL 

(beUows), yukuta. 
Blow away, pepemsha. 
Blunder, koea. 
Blunt. 

The knife is hlwUj kisn hakipati, 
kisn ni kivivn (A.). 
Blurt out, kokomoka. 
Blush, geuka (change colour). 

put to the blush, bizika. 
Boast, jiflifu, jigamba, tamba. 
Boil (bubble up), cbe'mka, tntnma. 

cook by boiling, tokosa. 

be cooked by boiling, tokota. 

be well boiled, tokoseka. 

boil over, furika. 
Bore through, zna, pekecba (used 
also of boring with talk). 

with an awl, didimikia. 
Border, pakana. 
be Born, zawa, vyawa, zaliwa, vya- 

liwa, patbiwa. 
Borrow, azimwa, kirithL 
Bother, snmbna, batika (A.). 
Bow, (act.) inamisba, (neut.) inama. 
Box the ears, piga kofi. 
Braise, kaanga. 
Bray (like an ass), Iia 
pound in a mortar, ponda. 

clean com by pounding, twanga. 
Break, vnnja, vnnda (M.), (neut.) 
Yunjika, katika. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



169 



[Brealc] through^ toboa. 

into fragments, setaseta. 

hy hendingj ekna. 
to he tprungy ekuka. 

cff the eobs of Indian corny goboa, 
konyoa. 

doton the branches of a tree, kwa- 
nna, pass, kwanyuka. 

wind, Jamba, ODgulia. 
Breathe, pumua, puzia, tanafosi. 

inspire, paaza, pmnzi. 

expire, shosba pumzi. 

hard, kokota roho, tweta (pant). 

hreaihe oneself (rest), pumzika. 
Breed, zaa, lia (M.). 
he Brilliant, ng'ara. 
Bring, leta. 

to or for, letea. 

Bring np, lea. 

Bring together, pambana. 

Bring near, jongeza. 

Bring to an agreement, patanisba. 

Bring to life again, fufoa, hnisba. 

Bring another I Naijenginel 
Brighten (acL), katua. 

he bright, katuka (pdished),xi^^Qx^ 
(glistening). 
Bruise, ohnbna. 

he bruised, chnbnka. 

(hatter), chubuachubua. 
Brush (dean), sugua. 

Brush off, epua. 
Bubble up, che'mka, tutuma. 
Btid, chnpuza (spring), chanua (put 

forth leaves), mea (grow). 
BuHd, jenga. 

in stone, aka. 
to point by putting in small 
stones, tomea. 

(ships), unda. 
BuUy, onea. 
he a Burden to, lemea. 



Bum, waka (to he on fire), teketea 
(to he consumed), wasba (to set 
on fire), teketeza (to consume), 
choma or chomea (to apply fire 
to), onguza (to produce a feeling 
of burning, to scorch). 

Burrow, fukuafukna. 

Burst, pasuka, tumbuka. 

Burst out, bubujika. 
Burst into tears, bubnjika ma- 
chozi. 

Bury, zika. 

Buy, nonua, zabuni. 
FurchoMfor, nunulia. 
Buy ha^h, komboa. 

Buzz, like a bee, ymua. 

C. 

Cackle, like a hen, tetea. 
CaU, ita, nena, taja (name), amkua 
(invite), lingana (A.)- 
Call out to, pigia ukelele, pigia 

ukemi (Mer.). 
CaU for help, piga yowe. 
Call to prayers, athini. 
become Callous, faganza. 
Cahn, tuliza. 

he very calm, zizima. 
Can (kuweza, to he able). 
Siwezi, I cannot, 
Naweza, I can. 
Canter (of a horse), kwenka kwa 
mghad ; (of a donkey) kwenda 
kwa th^Uh, 
Capitulate, selimu, sellim. 
Care (take care), angalia [kii-]wa 
na hathari. 
take care of, tunza. 
consider, waza, tafakari. 
he careless, pni]wa mzembe. 
I don*t care, haithnru, mamoja 
pia. 



170 



aWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Carry, chukuo. 

for J chnkiilia. 

on a pole over the shoulder, chu- 
kua mpikoui 

on the head or shoulders, pagaa. 

a child on the hack, beba. 
astride on the hip or hack, eleka. 
in front or on the lap, pakata. 

in a bundle or faggot, titika. 

off as spoil, teka. 

as cargo, pakia. 

on freight, takabathi. 
Carve wood, &c., kata nakshi. 

chora (adorn with carving), 

he carved, nakishiwa. 
CaM, tupa. 

upon or at, tupia. 

a glance, tupa nathiri. 

one*s eyes, tupa macho. 

(in a mould), ita. 

off all shame, jipujua. 

cast lots, piga or fauya kura. 
Castrate, hasL 
Caich, daka, nyaka. 

in a trap, nasa, tega. 

Jish, Tua samaki. 

put s(ymething to catch rain-water, 
kinga myua. 

(see one who thinks himself unseen)^ 
fathehi, gundua. 

he in time to meet with, diriki. 
Caulk, kalafatL 
Cave in, pomoka. 
Cease, koma. 

make to cease, komesha. 

talking, nyamaza. 

(of pain), nyamaza. 
Cense, fukiza (uudi, &c.). 
he Certain about, kinika, tasawari. 
Change, (axsL) geusha, geuza, badili, 
badilisha, (rieut,) geuka, badi- 
lika. 



he changeable, badilibadili, ba* 

dilika. 
change one*s mind about, gbairi. 
change (a piece of money), Tuiija. 
Charge (direct), agiza, sisitiza (M.). 
ClujLse, winda, winga. 

away, fukuza. 
Chastise, athibu. 
ChaMer, puza. 

(of the teeth), tetemeka. 
Cheapen, rakhisisha. 
Cheat, danganya, hadaa, ghusubn. 
he cheal&i, danganyika, hadaika. 
Cheer, ondolea, huzuni 
Chew, tafuna. 

Chirrup (as to a hird), fionya. Both 
word and thing are used in 
Zanzibar to exprees ocmtempt. 
Choke (throttle), kaba, sama. 
choke oneself with drink or spitile, 

palia na mate, &c, &c, 
irritate the throat, keieketa. 
Choose, chagua, teua, khitari, penda, 
toa (send), 
as you choose, ikhtiari yako, upe- 
ndavyo. 
Chop, chanja (cut up), chinja or 
(M.) tinda (cul), tema (slash), 
cbonga or tonga (out to a point), 
katakata (chop up smaU). 
Circulate (intelligence), tangaza. 
Circumcise, tahiri. 
Claim, dai. 

Clap the hands, piga makofi. 
(Jlasp in the hand, shikana, kamata. 
in the arms, kumbatia, kumba- 
tiana. 
Claw, papuia. 

Clean, takasa, fanya safi, safisha. 
he clean, takata, safika, takasika. 
clean com hy pounding, twa'i^^^a. 
clean a second time, pwaya. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



171 



{(Jleafii\ he quUe cieour of huaks and 
dirt, pwayika. 

eoUon, chvea, dke., chambua. 

eooocHiuU from ihe husk, foa. 

by scraping J paa. 

cleanse by ceremonial ablutions, 
tohara. 

dean out from within a shell, 
komba. 

clean out a man {get aU his 
money), komba. 

be cleaned out (l)se aU one's 
money), kombekb. 
Cleanse, See Clean, 
Clear, See Clean, 

the shy is e2ear,uwmgu umetakata. 

(make eleetr or plain), eleza, yuza, 
fafanna, fafanulia. 

(be dear), elea, fafanuka, fafanu- 
Ma. 

ground in a forest, fieka mwitu. 
Ckave, (spiUt), pasna, chenga. 

deave to, gandama, ambatana. 
Click, alika, (act.) alisha. 
Climb, panda, kwea. 

a tree, i)araga. 
CUng, ambata. 

together, gniana, ambatana^ fu- 
ngamana, shikamana. 
CUp, kata. 
Close the eyes, Ac, fuinba. 

the fist, fumbata. 

a door, shindika. 

a book, fanika. 
Clothe, yika. 
Coagulate, gandamana. 
Cooix into, shawishi. 
Cock (a gun), panza mtaiubo. 
Coddle, engaenga. 
Ckihabit viiih, iDgiliza. 
Cold, See Cool, 

be very cold, zizima. 



I have a cold in the head, siwezi 
kamasi. 
Collect, knsanya, jamaa, (neut.) ku« 

sanyika, kntana. 
Comby ohana, chaiiia. 
Come, ja, imp. njoo, pi. njooni. 

by, for, to, <feo.,jia. 

to a person on a business, jilia. 

(arrive), fika, wasili. 

out, toka. 

in, ingia. 

upon (meet with), knta. 

near, karibu, karibia, jongea, fi* 
kilia. 

Come near! or Come in! EaribI 

Come no further ! Koma usije I 

close to, wasili, wasilia. 

together. See Assemble. 

to life again, fufaka, hui, huika. 

to an end, isha, koma, tekeza. 

be f idly come (of time), wadia. 

come to light, fonnka, fumboka. 

come to nothing (of plants, fruit, 
Ac), fifia, pooza. 

come apart, katika. 

come out in a rash, tutuka, tutu- 
mka, tutusika. 
Comfort, fariji, tulizia roho (calm 
the soul), ondolea huzuni (tahe 
away grief). 

Phrases used by way of comfort- 
ing .— 

Sliukuru Maungu, tharik God, 
Hemdi Muungu, praise €fod. 
Itoe huzuni, put away sorrow, 
XJslwe na huznni, don*t grieve, 

be comforted, farajika, shukuri 
Munngn, pendezewa, tawakaii 
(trust in God and talee courage), 
he Comfortable, tengenea. 

J cwnnot be comfortable in the 
housCf nyumba hainiweki. 



172 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Command, a'mru, ambia (teXC), 
CoTmnission, agiza. [amrisha. 

Commit, See Adultery. 
Compare, angalia kwamba ni sawa, 
pambanisha (Jbring together), 
pambanua (distinguish), linga- 
nisha (match), fafanisha (make 
like). 
Compel, jubuni, lazimisba. 
Complete, timiza, timiliza, khati- 
misba, maliza (finish), 
complete one*8 education, hitlmu. 
he complete, timia, timilia, isha 
(end). 
Comprehend. See Understand. 
jua (know). 
kutana (take in), 
he comprehended in, ingia. 
Conceal, setiri, ficha. 

he concealed, stirika. 
Concern, pasa. 
Conciliate, patanisha. 
Condemn, laani (damn). 
Amefetiwa knuawa, }ie was ad- 
judged to he killed. 
Imempasa knuawa, he ought to he 

killed. 
Condescend, nenyekea. 
Condole, haiia (join in a formal 

mourning). 
Conduct, peleka, leta, chukua. 
Confess, kiri, ungama, lalama. 
he Confident, tumaini. 

have confidence, staamani. 
Confide in, amini, tnmanla. 
Confound, changanya (mix), batili 
(annul), 
he in Confusion, fathaika (of 
persons), chafuka (of things). 
Confuse, changanisba. 
put into confusion, fatbebi. 
hecome confused, fathaika. 



Congeal, gandamana. 
Congratulate, furabisba, sbangilia. 
Connect, fungamana (tie together), 

ungana, ungamana. 
Conquer, sbinda. 
ConsecraJte, fanya wakf. 
Consent, kub£di, ritbia, penda, ra- 

thiana. 
Consider, fikiri, tafakari, waza. 
Console (see Comfort), tuliza, tulizia 

robo. 
Conspire, wafikana. 
Construct, jenga, jenzi. 
Consult, taka sbauri (ask advice), 

fanya sbauri (ctmsvU together). 
Consume, la, teketeza (by fire), 
he consumed, isba, lika, teketea 

(fmfire). 
Contain, cbiikua (contain as a ha^ 

does rice), 
he contained in, ingia^ [ku-]waino, 

'mna (it is contained in it). 
CJontend with, 8bindauana,bu8iimu. 
Cmdent, ritbika. 

he content, [kii-]wa ratbi, kina3rL 
Continue, dumu, k£u^ sbiuda (stay 

at work, Ac), 
make to continue, dumisba. 
Contra^, punguza (lessen), fupiza 

(shorten), fanya ndogo (maJce 

smaU), kaza (press together). 
Contract, fanya sbarti (make a can- 

tra>ct), fanya nbazazi (make a 

hargain). 
Contradict, kanya wasa. 
Ccmtrol, a^Aabitisba, zuia. 
Converse, zumgumza. 
Convert, geuza, fanya. 
Mwenyiezi Muungu amemwo- 

ngoa, God has turned him from 

his evil way. 
to he converted, ongoka. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



173 



Ckmvinoe^ f^ubutisba, iumainisba. 

become conmnoed, tumaini. 
Coohf pika, andaa. 

cook vnthfat, kaanga. 

cook toifhoutfat, oka. 

cook muhogo cut into small pieces^ 
pwaza. 

1o become cooked enough, iva. 
Cool, (nevi.) poa, poroa, {act.) poza 
(to cool by pouring backward 
and forward), zinnia {cool hot 
water by pouring in cold). 
Copulate, jami, tomba (vulgar). 

for the first time, bariki. 
Copy, nakili, fanya nakl. 

copy from, twaa ya. 
Correct, sahibi, sabibisba, radi. 
Correspond (write to one another), 

andikiana. 
Corrupt^ baribu. 

go bad, oza, baribika. 
Cost, wakifu, simama. 

cost to, wakifia, simamia. 
Cough, koboa. 

Count, besabn, wanga (Mer.), ba- 
Cover, fanika, setiri. [zibu. 

as with a flood, funizika. 

cover, with leaves, put into embers, 
&c.), ynmbika. 

be covered, stirika. 
Covet, tamani. 
Craak, tia ufa. 

as the earth does in dry weather, 
atuka. 

become cracked, ufa. 
Crash, fanya kisbindo. 
Crawly tambaa. 
be Craay, zulu. 
Crease, knnjia. 

be creased, kiinjika. 
Create, umba. 

be created^ bolukiwa. 



Creep, tambaa. 

Crinkle up, finyana. 

be Crooked, potoka, komboka. 

Cross (lie across), pandana. 

(cross a river), vuka, kwenda 
ng'ambo ya pili. 

(cross a room), kwenda upande 
wapilL 

get cross, vuna. 

be cross at having anything to do, 
kimwa. 
Crow, wika. 

Crucify^ sulibi, Bulibisba. 
Cruize, vinjari. 

Crumble, (act.) fikicba, (netd.) fu- 
Crush, seta, ponda. [jika. 

crush and bruise one another, 
pondekana. 

crush up, setaseta. 

crush in, (oAst.) bonyesba, (netrf.) 
bonyeka. 
Cry, lia. 

cry about, lilia. 

cry out at, pigia, ukelele, karipia. 

cry for help, piga yowe. 

cry for mercy, lalama. 
Cultivate, lima. 
Cup, umika. 
Curdle, gandamana. 

curdled milk, maziwa mabivii. 
Cure, ponya, poza, ponyesba. 

make better, fanya asbekali. 

be cured, poa, pona. 

cure fish, d:c., ng*onda. 
Curse, laaDi, tukana. 
Cut, kata. 

cut obliquely, kata banamu. 

cut for, cut out for, katia. 

cut up, cbanja, cbenga, 

cut to shreds, pasnkapasuka. 

be out off from one another, ti- 
ndikiana. 



174 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



D. 

Dab, chacbaga. 
Damage, haribu. 
Damn, laani, laanisba. 
Dance, cbeza. 

dance for joy, randa. 
Dare, t^ubutu, weza, jasirisha. 
Darken, tia giza. 
Dam, tililia. 
Da^h, chupia. 
Davb, paka. 
Daum. 

kuna kwenpe, to be grey dawn, 

pambazuka or pambauka, become 
light. 
Dazzle, choma. 

the eyes are dazzled, macho yame- 
fanya kiwi. 
Deal in (trade in), fanya biashara 
ya,&c. 

Deal cards, gawa karata. 
Decay, haribika, oza. 
Decease, fariki. 
Deceive, danganya, padaa. 

deceive by promises, ongofya. 

be deceived, hadaika. 
Decide, kata maneno. 
Deck out, hamba. 
Declare, thibirisba, ynza. 
Decoy, patia or tw£dia kwa che- 

revu. 
Decrease, pnngna, pnngaza, pn- 

nguka. 
Dedicate, fanya or wekea wakf. 
Defeat, ynnja, kimbiza (piU to 
fligM), 

to be defeated, vnnjika, kimbia. 
Defend, linda. 

guard oneself, kinga. 
Deflower, bikiri, vnnja nngo. 
Defraud, thalimu. 
^\ign^ knbali, nenyekea. 



Delay, (neuiJ) kawla, kawa, fawiti. 

(act,) weka, kawiaha. 
be Delirious, papayuka. 
Deliver, okoa, vua, toa. 

be delivered, ynka, okoka. 
Demand, taka. 

dem>and in marriage, poea. 
Demolish, vunja, haribiu 
Deny, kana, kanisha. 

deny to a person, nyima, hinl 

(refuse), kataa. 

deny aU credence to, katalia. 
Depart, ondoka, toka, enda zangu, 
zako, &c. 

Depart from me! Ondoka mbele 
yangul 

depart from (be alienated from)^ 
farakana. 
Depend upon, [kil-]wa na. 

Kunaye, depending upon Mm, 

fangamana na, be connected with, 

fuata, be a dependant, 

tuDgikwa, hang from. 
Depose, nzulu, nznlia. 
Depreciate (a4St.), khashifu, nmbna. 
Deprive of, twalia. 
Deride, cheka, chekea, kofaru, 

fanyizia mzaha. 
Descend, sbuka. 

Describe, andika, fafannha (&y likens 
ing), pambannlia (by dietin* 
Desert, acha, hujoro. {jguishing. 
Deserve, stahili. 

deserve well of, fatbili. 
Desire, taka, ipa, tamani (Umgfor), 

penda (Jiike), 
Desolate, vunja, haribu. 
Despair, kata tamaa. 
Despise, twezsk, tharau (pass, tha- 

raoliwa), hakirisba. 
Destroy, haribu, vunja. 

be destroyed, hariblka, vunjika. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



175 



Deiain^ kawisha, weka. 

Deter, kataza, zuia. 

Determine, yakinia, 6zimn, kaza. 

determine a matter, kata maneno. 
Devise, fanya Bhauri. 
Die, fa, fakiri, ondoka katika uli- 
mwengn, toweka (A.), tekeza. 
make to die, fisha. 
lose by death, fiwa na. 
Dig, chimba. 

dig oui or a/way, chimbua. 
fokna, cut a smaU hole fit to 
reeeiffe a post. 
Dignify, tnkuza. 

become dignified, or be raised to 
dignity, tnkuka. 
Dilute, tia maji. 
Dim, tia giza. 

Diminish, (neut.) jpvtngim, pnnguka, 

tilifika, (act), punguza, tilifi- 

Dipf chovya. [sha. 

dip and leave in, choveka. 
Direct, agiza {commission), ambia 
(telX), amuru (order), fundisha 
(instruct), vusha (put into the 
right way). 
Disagree, gombana, tetana. 
Disappear^ toweka. 

(as a scar, <£rc.)« fifia. 
Disarrange, chafua. 
Discharge from an obligation, feleti. 
Discover, vumbiia. 
Discriminate, pambanua. 
Disembowel, tumbua, tumbuza. 
Disgrace, aibisha, hizika. 

be disgraced, aibika. 
Disgtst, chukiza. 

be disgusted, cbukiwa. 
'JMsh up, pakna. 

When you wish a meal to be served 
you should say, not pakua, but 
lete chakula. 



Dislocate, tenka. 
Disquiet, fathaisba. 

be disquieted, fathaika. 
Dismiss, likiza, ondoa. 
be dismissed, tolewa. 
Disobey, asL 

Disorder (put things in disorder), 
cbafaa. 
put an army in disorder, fathaisba. 
be in disorder or dishabiUe, cha- 

foka. 
be aU in disorder, chafakaobafaka. 
Dissipate, tampanyatapanya. 
Distinguish, pambanua. 
Distort, popotoa. 

Distress (put in low spirits), kefya- 
kefya. 
be in distress, thii. 
Distribute, gawanya. 
Disturb. 

DonH disturb yourself! Starebe! 
Disunite, farakisba. 
be disunited, epukana, farakiana, 
acbana. 
Dive, zama. 
Divide, tenga, gawa, gawanya, kata, 

bnssu. 
Divorce, aoba, tokana, tangua ndoa. 
Do, fanya, tenda. 

I have done nothing, sikufanya 

neno. 
He has done nothing at aU, bakn- 

fanya lo lote. 
be done or doable, tendeka. 
do (be of use), faa. 

It won't do, baifai. 
do anything slowly and carefully, 

kototeza. 
do wanton violence, busudn, fanya 

jeturi. 
be done (finished), isba. 
be done (cooked), iva. 



176 



SWAHILl HANDBOOK 



Dote, piswa. 
Dotibley rudufya. 

Dotibt, fanya tashwishi, [ku-]wa na 
shaka. 

There is no doubt, hapana sliaka. 
Doze, siozia. 

wake y/p suddenly from a doze, 
zinduka, zindukana. 
Drag, kokota, burura (haul along). 

drag out of oners' hand, chopoa, 
kopoa. 
Drain out, churukiza, churuzika. 
Draw, Yuta. 

Draw water, teka maji. 

Draw together, kunyata. 

Draw near, karibu, karibia, kari- 
biana. 

Draw a line, piga mstari. 

Draw out nails, &c., kongoa. 

Draw breath, tanafusi. 

Draw in the breath, paaza purazi. 

Draw up the earth round growing 
crops, Xialilia. 

Draw the end of the loin doth 
between the legs and tuch it in, 
piga uwinda. 
Dread, ogopa, ogopa muo. 
Dream, ota. 
Dress, vika. 

Dress in, V£u^ jitia. 

Dress up, pamba, jipotoa. 

Dress ship, pamba merlkebti. 

Dress vegetables for the market, 
chambua. 
Drift, chukuliwa. 

Drink, nwa, or ny wa ; pass, nwewa. 
Drip, tona. 
Drive, ongoza (lead, conduct), chu- 

nga (as a shepherd), fukuza 

(drive away), fukuzia (drive away 

from), kimbizia (make to run 

away from). 



Drop (down), (neui.) anguka, (oef.) 
angusha. 
into, (neut) tumbukia, (ocf.) tum- 

bukiza. 
(like leaves in autumn), pukutika. 
(faU in drops), tona. 
drop from, little by litUe, dondoka. 
Drown (act) tosa, (neut,) tota, fa 

maji. 
be Drunken, lewa. 

Dry, (neut.) kauka, nyauka, (a^t.) 
kausha. 
become dry by water leaving it, 

pwa, pwea, pwewa. 
be left high and dry, pweleka. 
put out to dry, anika. 
dry or cure fish, ng'onda. 
Dupe, danganya. 
Dust, fiita vimibi. 
Dwell, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.). 
Dwindle, kimjana, pnnguka, anga- 

mia (go doion in the world). 
Dye, tia raogL 

kutona hina, to lay on henna so 
as to dye the part red, 

E. 

Earn, pata. 

Eaxe, fariji, sterehisha. 
become easy, farajika. 
Ease oneself, kunya. 
Eat, la. 

in, with, for, Ac, lia. 

be eaten or eatable, lika. 

have eaten enough, shiba. 

eat at the expense of each one in 

turn, la kikoa. 
eat whete each contributes some- 
thing to the feast, la kwa ku- 
changa. 
eat all the food away from others, 
ima. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



177 



Ametoima, he has eaten it all up 

before ive came, 
overeai oneself , vimbiwa. 
make a person eat too muchf 

vimbisha. 
eat without hounds, papia. 
eat over voraciotMly, la kwa pupa. 
Ebb, pwa. 
be Eclipsed, patwa. 
Educate, fiiuda, fundisha, alimisha, 

adibu, or tia adabu (teach good 

manners'), lea (bring up). 
Elongate, ongeza urefa. 
Embalm, tia madawa asioze. 
Embark, panda (go on board), ta- 

hassa (go on board with the 

intention of sailing). 
Embrace, pambaja, knmbatia, ku- 

mbatiana. 
Embroil, tia matata. 
Emerge, zuka. 
Employ, tuma (send about\ tumia 

(make use of), tunuka (be 

employed). 
Empty out, mwaga, mwaya. 
Enable, wezesha, jalia. 
Encamp, tua (pvi down loads). 
Encourage, tia moyo, thuh\iiUh&. 
End, (neut,) isha, koma, (a^.) mali- 

za, komesba, khatimisha. 
Endow loith, wekea wakf. 
Endure, ishi (last), vumilia (bear 

with), stahimili. 
Enervate, thoofisha. 
Engage, afikana, twaa, fanya sharti. 
Engender, zaa, vyaa. 
Enjoy, farahi, ona raha, fiirahiwa na. 
Enlarge, ongeza, zidisha. 
Enlist (act.), tia asikari 
he Enough, tosba, toshelea. 
It is enough, bassi. 
have had enough food, sbiba. 



Enquire, nliza (ask), buji (enqu i 

into), hakiki (make sure about)^ 

ulizia (enquire on account of). 
Enrage, gbathabisha. 

be enraged, ghatbabiksk. 
Enrich, pa utajiri. 
Enslave, tia ntumwanL 
Ensnare^ tega. 
Entangle, tia matata. 
Enter, ingia. 
Entice, vuta kwa cherevn, twaa kwa 

werevu. 
Entreat, omba, sibi, nasibi. 
Entrust, wekea amana, amini mtu 

na kitu. 
be equal to (an undertaking, &c.), 

weza. 
Equalize, sawanisba, sawazisba, 

fanya sawasawa, lingani^ba (by 

measurement). 
Erect, simikisba. 
Err, kosa, kwenda bapa na bapa 

(wander). 
Escape, okoka (be delivered), pona 

(to get well), vuka (to get a^oss\ 

kimbia (run away), fiatuka (to 

escape as a spring, lo get free). 
Establish, tengezeka {?). 
Estimate, kadiri, kisL 
Evaporate, nwewa. 
Exalt, inua (lift), tukaza, atbimisba. 
be exalted (great), tukuka, atbi- 

mika. 
Examine, onja (taste), tafiti, fatiissbi, 

sayili (by questions). 
Exceed, pita. 
Excels pita. 
Except, toa, tosba. 
Exchange, badili. 
Excite, tabarraklsba, fitini 

be excited, bangaika. 
Excuse, utburu, eamebe (pardon). 

N 



178 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Exercise, zoea. 

exercise authority over, hukumii. 
Exert oneself, fanya juhudi, jitahidL 
Exhort, onya, Dabiliisha. 
Exorcise by music, &c., pnnga. 
Expand, tanua, kunjua (unfold), 

zidi (increase), funuka or 

knnduka (T[)ecome open). 
Expect, ngoja, ngojea, tumaini. 
Expelt toa, fukriza. 
expel an evil spirit hy music, &e., 

punga pepo. 
Expend upon, he at the expense of, 

gharimia. 
Explain, elezsi, pambanua, fasiri, 

tafsiri, fumbulia, pambanulia 

(explain to), tambulL>ha (make 

to recognise). 
Explode, pasuka (hurst), waka 

(blaze). 
Explore, fatiishi, jasisi, angalia. 
Export, toa. 
Express, thahiri, baini. 

(press out), kamua. 
Extend, (act.) nyoslia, (neut) fika 

(reach to), kunjuka, euea (he 

spread over). 
Exterminate, ng'oa pia yote (root up 

utterly). 
Extinguish, zima, zimia. 

to go out, zimika. 
Extort, pokonya. 
Extol, sifu. 
Extricate from, toa na, namua 

(Mer.). 
Exult, furahL 

F. 

Fade, fa, kauka, flfia (pine away), 
pukutika (vnther and drop), 
thonfika (grow weak and thin). 

Fail, pu.'jguka. 



Faint, zimia roho. 
FaU, anguka. 

fall like rain, nya. 

cause rain to fM, nyesha. 

fall into, tumbukia. 

let fall into, tnmbukiza. 

fall flat on the ground, Jala incliL 

fall in (cave in), pomoka. 

fall short, punguka, tindika (A.). 

fall sick, ugua, 
Falter, shanghaa, sita. 
Fan, pepea. 
Fancy, kumbuka, fikiri. 

fancy oneself, jiona. 
Fast, fnnga. 

break a fast, or eat after a fast, 
futiini. 
Fasten, fanga. 
Fatten (get fat), nona (of animals), 

nenepa (of men). 
Fatigue, chosha, taabisha. 

he fatigued, choka, taabika. 
Favour, pendelea. 

Fear, ogopa, cha (A.), [ku-Jwa na 
khofu. 

he fearless, peketeka. 
Feast, kerimu. 
Feed, lisha. 

cause to be fed, lishisha. 

put morsels into a friends mouth, 
rai. 
Feel, ona (perceive), papasa (touch). 
Feign, jifanya. 
Fell, kata. 
Fence, fanya ua. 
Fend off a boat, tanna mashua. 
Ferment, cbacha. 

Ferry over, vusha, vukiaha, abirislia. 
Fetch, leta. 
Fight, pigana. 

set on to fight, piganlsba, pigaui- 
shana. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



179 



F/7/, jaza. 
jW in [a hole\ fukia. 
hecomi fuU, jaa. Tlte passive is 

used for being filled with some 

extraneous substance, Mtungi 

umejaa maji, the jar is fuU of 

water^ but^ maji yamejawa na 

dudu, ihe water is full of 

insects, 
he half fuO, (by remaining), shi- 

nda, maji yashinda ya mtungi, 

the jar is half full of water, 
fill up, jaliza. 
fiU wUhfood, shibisha. 
ix) be' full, to have had enough, 

shiba. 
Find, ona, zmnbua, yumbua, pata, 

kuta. 
be to bef&und, zmnbukana, pati- 

kana. 
find out in a trick, fathebi, 

gundiia. 
befoimd out, fetheheka. 
find fault tdth, tia hatiyani 
Finish, (a^) maliza, (neut) islia, 

koma. 
finish off, tengeneza, tengeleza. 
finish a journey, koma. 
finish a scholar, hitimisha. 
Fire (set on fire), tia moto, wasla 

moto. 
(apply fire to in any way), choma. 
a gun, &c, piga bunduki, &c. 
Fish, vua samaki. 

fish a spar, &c,, ganga, tia gango. 
Fit, faa (do well), 
Ni kiassi cbangu kama nalika- 

tiwa mimi, it fits as though it 

had been made for me. 
Fix, kaza. 

fix the eyes upon, kodolea. 
Flame, wa^a, toa ndimi za moto. 



Flap, piga 

make a sail flap by going too near 
the wind, pigiza tanga. 
FUish (Ughten), piga mueme. 
Flatten, tandaza. 
Flatter, sifu, sifu mno, jipendekeza 

(ingratiate oneself with). 
Flavour, to get the right flavour 
Flay, chuna, tuna (M.). [kolea^ 

lose the shin, chunika, tunika (M.), 
Flee, kimbia. 

Ite Flexible, pindana, [kii-]wa laini. 
Flicker, sinzia. 
Flinch, jikimja, mka. 
Fling, tupa. 
Float, elea, ogolea. 
Fhg, piga. 

Flood, gliariki8ha,f urika,tawanyika, 
funikiza. 

be flooded, gliariki. 
Flourish, sitawi, fana, fanikiwa. 

malce to flourish, sitawisha. 
Flow, pita (flow by), toka (flow 
out), bubujika (to burst and 
lyubble out). 
Flower, toa maua. 
Flurry, zulisha. 
Flutter, papatika. 
Fly, ruka. 

fly off, puruka. 
Fuld, kunja. 

fold together, kunjana. 

fold in the arms, kumbatia. 
Follow, fuata, andama (M.). 

follow a pattern, oleza. 
become Foolish, pumbazika. 
Forbid, gombeza, kataza. 
Force (see Compel), tia nguvu. la- 
zimisha. 

He was forced to ao, alikwenda 
kwa nguvu. 

Force open, pepetua. 

£( 2 



180 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



ForetelU agua, tabiri, basbiri. 
Hoio has thfs year been predicted 
ofi Mwaka huu umeaguli- 
waje? 
Forfeit, lazimishwa. 

he forfeited by, potea. 
Forge iron, Ac, fua cbiuna, &o, 
weld on a new point or edge, tam- 
buza. 
Forget, sahau. 

be forgotten, sabauliwa. 
Forgive, samehe, acbilia, mwafa. 

Forgive me, niwie rathi. 
Forsake, acha. 

Fortify, tia boma (ptit a rampart), 
Foster, lea, lisha. 

Free {fr<ym slavery), weka or acha 
huru. 
(^fr(ym prison), acha, fangiia. 
be set free {from prison), tokana. 
Freeze, ganda, gandamana. 
Freight, 
pay freight for, takabathisba. 
carry on freight, takabatbi. 
Frighten, ogofya, tia khofu, ogp- 
fisba, khofisba, tisba. 
become frightened, ingiwa na 

khofu. 
startle, stusha, kntusba. 
Front, kabili, lekea. 

put in front of, lekeza. 
Frown, kimja uao, kunja vipaji. 
He has a frowning fa/ie, ubo una- 
kunjamana. 
Frustrate, batili, vunja. 
Fry, kaanga. 
Fulfil, timiza, timiliza. 

fulfil a promise, fikib'za ahadi. 
Furl sails, kunja matauga. 
Furnish a house, pamba nyumba. 



G. 

Gain, pata, pata fayida. 

GaXUtp, piga mbio. 

Gape, piga nyayo, fanua kinwa. 

Garble copal, &c., chagua sanda- 

rusi, &c 
Gather (fruit), chuma 
into a heap, zoa. 
together (act.), kusanya, kutani- 

sha, jamaa, jamiisha. 
together (neuL), kusanyika, kuta- 

nika. 
up into a small space, finyana. 
(meselfupfor an e/ort, jitutumua. 
little by litUe, lumbika. 
up onds courage, piga moyo 
konde. 
Geld, hasi. 
be Genial (jgood-humoured and 

merry), chauga'mka. 
Get, pata. 
get better, pona. 
get a little better, [ktf-]wa ashe- 

kali. 
get drunk, lewa, jilevya. 
get dry, kauka. 
get fire by working one stick 

againfft another, pekecha 
get for, patia. 

get foul of one another, pambana. 
get goods on credit in order to 

trade with them, kopa. 
get into, ingia. 
get into a weU, a scrape, &e., (act.) 

tumbukiza, (neuJt,) tumbukia. 
gel into a passion (netit), ingiwa 

Da ghathabu or hasijra. 
get into a quarrel (a^t.), vnmbilia 

vita. 
get [seeds'] into the ground, vu» 

mbikia. 
get mouldy, fanya nkungu. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



181 



^et out, toka. 

get out of the toay, jitcnga^ 
Out of tJie way I Simiilal 
get out of one* 8 sights tokomea. 
get palm toine, gema. 
get ripe, iva. 

get ^in and waiery, poroa. 
get through, (neut.) penya, (act.) 

penyesha. 
get up, ondoka* 

rise to (a person), ondokea. 
get up or upon, panda. 
get well, pona, poa. 
he Giddy, levyalevya. 
Crild, chovya. 
Give (a thing), toa. 
(to a person), pa, pass, pewa, to 

receive, 
give a complaint to, ambnkiza. 
give a kiste, an inkling, or a little 

specimen, dokeza. 
give ba>ck, rudisha. 
give into the hand, kabithl 
give leave to, pa ruksa or ruhusa, 

rukhusu. 
give light to, tia mwangaza. 
give mutual gifts, pana. 
give presents to, tunza, tunukia. 
give rations to, posha. 
give room or spa>ce, nafisisha. 
give to drink to, nywesha. 
give to eat to, lisha. 
give trouble, taabiBha, fanya inda, 

sumbua. 
give way under one, bonyea. 
Give way (row) ! Vuta ! 
Glance, nathiri, tupa macho or na- 
thari (cast the eyes or a glance). 
Glare at, ng*ari:». 
Gleam, mulika, ng'ara. 
Glide, tiririka, teleza. 
Glisten, zagaa. 



Glitter, metameta, mekameka, mo« 

rimeta, mulika. 
Glorify, tukuza, sifu. 
Ghw, ng'ara. 
€fnaw, guguna. 
Cro, enda, enenda. 
you can go, mksa. 
go after or for, endea. 

{follow), fuata. 
go alongside, pambana. 
go ashore (of a ship), panda. 
he left high and dry, pweleka, 
pwewa na maji. 
go ashore (of a person), shuka. 
go away, enda zangu, zako, zake, 
zetu, zenu, zao, according to 
the person. 
toka ondoka. 
go away from, acha, toka. 
go hack, rudi, regea. 
go hackward, endelea nyuma. 
go had, oza. 
go hefore, tangulia. 
go hefore a Judge, enda kwa 

kathi. 
go hehind, fnata. 
go hy, pita. 

go crooked, patoa, potoka. 
go forward, endelea mbele. 
go free, toka. 
go into, ingia. 
go marketing, enda sokoni. 
go off (like a spring), fiatuka. 
go on (not to stop), fuliza, i'uza, 

fululiza. 
go on {with a work), sbinda. 
go on hoard, panda. 
go on hoard in order to sad, ta- 

hasa. 
go on with hy turns, pokezana. 
go out, toka. 
(like a candle), zimika. 



182 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



He has gone out for the day, 
amekwcnda sLinda. 
go oveTf vuka, 
go pasty pita. 
go quickly down a steep place, 

tele'mka. 
go running^ cnda mbio. 
go io expense about or upon, gha- 

rimia. 
go to meet, laki. 
go to meet with shouting and joy, 

shangilia. 
go to law with, teta. 
go up (neut,), paa. 
(act^ kwea, panda. 
be Good of its kind, fana. 
(rorey piga pembe. 
Cfovern^ tawala, miliki. 
Chrant to, pa, jalia, ruzukiL 
Grapple, kamatana, shikana. 
Gra^, shika, fumbata. 
Grate, paruga, paruza. 
Crroze, paruga, kwaruza. 

graze one another, paruzana. 

become Great (of a person), tukuka. 

become great to or hard for, kulia. 

be Greedy, [kti-]wa na roho or 

choyo, fanya tamsia (be greedy 

for). 

Greet, salimu, salimia, amkua, ba- 

rikia. 
Grieve,^(act.) eikitisha, tia Luznni. 

(neut.) sikltika, ingiwa na huzuni. 
Grin, toa meno. 
Grind, saga. 

grind coarsely, paaza. 
Groan, ngua. 

groan at, zomea. 
Grope, papasa. 

Grow, ota (of plants), kua (to become 
large), mea (of plants, to grow 
or be growdble). 



What is to be grown here f Eili* 
mo cha nini ? 

grow to its full size, pea. 

bee&me full-grown, pevuka, komaa. 

grow up quickly, vuvnmka. 

not to grow (of seeds), fifia. 

grow large enough to bear fruit, 
auka. 

grow fat, nenepa (of persons), 
nona (of animals), 

grow thin and lean, konda. 

grow larger, kua, kithiri. 

grow less, puiigua, tilifika* 

make to grow large, kuza. 
Growl, nguruma. 
Grudge, hinL 

grudge at, husudiu 
Grumble, nung'unika. 
Grunt, guna 
Guarantee payment of a debt, ha- 

a result, tadariki. [will. 

Guard, linda, tunza, bami, ngojetL 

guard oneself against a blowy 
kinga. 
Guess, bahatisbck, kisi, tbani. 
Guide, onyesha njia (show the way\ 

peleka (take}. 
Gulp, gugmniza. 

gulp down, ak'ia. 

H. 

Rait, tua (put down burdens), ti- 
mama (stand), sita (go lame, or 
to stop), chechemea (to put one 
foot only flat on the ground). 

Hammer, gongomea (hammer in), 
fua pa>ss. fuawa (beat as with a 
sledge-hammer). 

Hang, angika (as against a wall), 
tungika (be suspended), tu« 
ndika, aliki. 
(strangle), nyonga, songa. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



183 



Happen^ tnkia. 

Which happened to hivfiy kilicho- 
mpata. 
Harass, siimbua, uthi, nthia, cho- 
koza, sumbusha. 
he harassed, sumbuka, utliika. 
Harm, tburu, hasara. 

No harm ! Haitburu 1 
Harpoon, paga. 
Hasten, (act) harakisba, bimiza. 

(neut.^ fanya bima, baraka. 
Hatch^ ongua, zaliwa, onguliwa (be 
hatched), angna (break the 
shell). 
Hate, cbukia, buotbu, zira (M.). 
Have, [kti-]wa na (see p. 154). 
(jpossess), miliki. 
on hoard, pakia. 
power over, weza. 
in one^s debt, wia. 
To have things done for one, is 
expressed by the 'passive of the 
applied form (see p. 161). 
Hawk ahoftt, tembeza. 
Heal, pozsk, 

he healed, poa, pona, ongoka. 
Heap up, kusanya, fanya fungu. 
Hear, sikia, pulika (A.). 

hear one another, sikilizana, pu- 

likana. 
be to be heard, sikilikana. 
Hearken, sikiliza, pulika. 
Heal {get kof), pata moto. See 

Warm, 
Heave the log, tia batli. 
he Heavy, See Weigh down. 
Help, Bayidia, auni. 
Hem, kunga. 

Hesitate, sbangaa, sita, ingiwa na 
sbaka {get into doubt), 
in speaking, babaika. 
Hide, ficba, settiri, bita (A.). 



You have hid the cap from me, 

nmenificba kofia. 
You have hid my cap, umenifi' 
cbia kofia. 
Hinder, zuia, pinga, fawili. 
Hint, dokeza. 

Hire, ajiri, panga (to rent). 
Hit, piga, pata. 

loith a spear or arrow, fuma. 
Hoard, weka, weka akiba. 
be Hoarse, pwelewa sauti. 

I am hoarse, sauti imenipwea. 
Hoe, lima. 
hoe up, palia. 

cause to be hoed, palililiza. 
Hoist, tweka. 

Hold, sbika, kamata, fumbata 
(grasp), zuia (hold in), zuilia 
(hold off from), 
hold in the month, vuata. 
hold one^s clothes or hands be- 
tween one*s knees, fiata. 
hold a public audience, or council, 

barizi. 
hold up (not to rain), anuka. 
hold in contempt. See Scorn. 
HoUow out, fukua. 
Honour, besbimu, pa besbima, 

jali. 
Hop, rukaruka. 

J[ope, taraja, tumaini (feel con- 
fident), 
I hope, robo yatumai 
Humble, tbili, bakiri. 

be humble, nenyekea. 
Hunger, p£u-]wa na njaa. 
be ravenously hungry, rapa, lapn. 
I am very hungry, njaa inaniu- 
ma. 
Hunt, winda, winga, saka. 
Hurry, baraka, bimiza. 
Hurt, uma, umia, umiza. 



184 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Btuk {Jbidian *->rn), menya, ombna 

(M.). 
(eocoa-nuts), fua. 
(pr sheU), papatua. 



belU or unwell. Illness is expressed 
by the use of the negative present 
of the verb kuweza, tO' he abh, 
Siwezi, / am iU. Hawezi, he is 
iU, &c. Nalikuwa siwtzi, I 
was HI. Alikuwa hawezi, he 
was iU, &c. 
I have been ill for troo months^ 
8iwezi yapata miezi miwilL 

Imitate^ oleza, iga, fuata. 

Immerse^ zamisha, chufya. 

Implore, pembeleza. 

he Impossible, toa kufanyika. 
It is impossible, haiyamkini. 

Imprecaie against, apiza. 

Imprison, tia gerezani, funga. 

Improve, tengeleza, silihvbitawislia. 

loidine, {neut.) inama, (act.) ina- 
misha. 
incline to (like), penda. 

Increase, (act.) ongeza, ziJi.^ha. 
(neut.) ongezeka, zidi, kithiri. 

he Indebted to, wiwa na. 

Indulge in, soeza, jizoeza. 

Infect, ambukiza. 

Inform, arifa, hubiri, pa habari 
In Ittler^writivg arifu is always 
employed, on other occasions 
kupata or kuwa na habari is 
generally used for to be in- 
formed, and ambia (tell) for to 
inform. 

Ingratiate oneself, jipendekeza. 

Inhabit, kaa, keti. 

Inherit, lithL 



Injure, hasira, hasiri, hasiiisha 
he injured, hasirika. 

Innovate, zua. 

he Inquisitive, tafitt 

Inspect, kagua. 

Instruct, fondisha, fonza, elemisLa. 

Insult, shitumo, tukana, ohokoza. 

Intend, knsudia (purpose), azima or 
azimia, or yakinia (reaohe), 
ma, or ania, or nuia (have in 
one's mind). 

Inter, zika. 

Intereede for, ombea. 

Interpret, fafairi, tafsiii. 

Interrupt, zuia, katiza, hanikiza, 
uthia (bother). 

Intoxicate, levya. 
become intoxicated, lewa. 

Intrude, fumania. 

(xoing into another person's house 
for an unlawful purpose (ku- 
fisidi), or without lawful pur- 
pose (ku-fumaniana), bars by 
the law (^ Zanzibar any daim 
on the part of the intruder in 
respect of any assault or injury 
while there. 

Inundate, gharikisha, furika (swell), 
tawanyika (spread). 

Invade, shambulia. 

Invent, ham, zumbua. 

Invite, ita, alika. 
invite to come in, karibisha. 

Irrigate, tia maji, nywesha. 

Irritate, tia hasira, ghathabisha, 
kasirisha, chokoza. 

Itch, — cause to itch, nyea. 
I itch, imeninyea 

J. 

Jam, kwamisha. 
become jammed, k^ama, sakama* 



LIST OF VERBS. 



185 



Jar the teeth, like gn't in food, 

kwaza meno. 
Jerk, kutua. 
Jest, fanya abishi or mzaha, thi-^ 

hakL 
Join, {act.) nnga, {neut.) angana Da. 
Judge, hnkomo, hukumia, amua. 

The original meaning of amoa 

is to separate, and it is used of 

separating tujo persons who have 

been fighting. 
Junibie together different languages 

or dicUects, goteza. 
Jump, mka. 

K. 

Keep, Wbka or cheleza (put away), 
tunza (take care of), linda 
(guard), hifatbi (preserve), shi- 
ka (hold), faga (keep animals), 
weka or kawisba (delay), 

he kept gossiping, puzika. 

he kept tame or in a cage, fugika. 

It cannot he kept, i.e., it will 
either run away or die, bafu- 
giki. 

keep awake, (jieut.) kesba, (act.) 
kesbeza. 

keep from, epusba^ zaib'a. 

keep in order (a person), nidL 

he kept, or capable of being kept, 
in order, rudika. 

^eep on a/, sbinda. 

Keep your distance ! Koma usije ! 
Kick, piga teke. 

KiU, ua, pass, uawa, waga (Mer.), 
fisba (to cause to die). 

km with, dtc, ulia. 

kill for food, cliinja, tinda (M.). 
he Kind, tenda mema. 

do a kindness to, fatbili. 
Kindle^ wasba, tia moto. 



Kiss, bustu 

lift to the lips and kiss, 80geza. 
Knead, kanda. 
Kneel, piga magote. 
Knit the brows, kunja vipaji 
Knock, gonga, gota, piga. 
al a door, or to cry Hodi! if the 
door be open, bisba. 
Know, jua. Kujua is often used in 
the sense of to know of, about, 
how, Ac. 
I know where lie is, namjua aliko 

(I know of him, where he is). 
I know how to speak the language 
of Zanzibar, najua kusema kiu- 
nguja. 
lean dc lilacksmitKs work, najua 

kufua cbuma. 
(to recognize), tambua. 
be knowable, julikana. 
make to know, julisba, jnvisba. 
become knoum, taiigaa. 
know what to do, tanabaliL 



L. 

Lace in the rope or matting <icros8 a 
native bedstead, tanda, wamba. 
Lacerate, papura. 

be lacerated, papurika. 
be Lame, tegea, cbecbomea, tctea, 
kwenda cbopi, tagaa (walk with 
the legs far apart). 
Land, (neut.) sbuka, (act.) slmsl.a. 
Last, isbi. 
Laugh, cheka. 

laugh at, cbekelea. 
Launch, bbua, pa^s. bbuliwa. 
Lay, tia, weka. 

lay a wager, pinga, sbindania. 

lay by, weka akiba. 

lay down, laza. 



186 



SWABILI HANDBOOK. 



lay eggs, atamia, or zaa, or nya 
mayayi 

lay hold of, sliika. 

lay open, funua, weka wazi 

lay out, andika, tandika, toa. 

lay out money, gharimu, gharimia. 

lay the beams of a roof, ikiza. 

lay the table, andika meza. 

lay upon the tahle, weka mezanL 

lay to anyone^s charge, tuhmnu. 

lay upon some one else, kumbidha. 
be Lazy, [kii-]wa mvivn. 

to be cross at having anything to 
do, kimwa. 
Lead, ongoa, ongoza, peloka, fikisha 
{make to arrive). 

lead astray, koseaha. 

lead devotions, somesha. 
Leak, Tuja, fn^mka (to open at the 

seams). 
Jjean upon, tegemea, egemoa. 

lean upon a staff, jigongojea. 

become lean, koiida. 

make lean or thin, kondesha. 
Leap, ruka. 
Learn, jifunza, pata kiijiia. 

learn manners, taadabu. 
Leave, acba, ata (M.), toko. 

leave by death, fia. 

leave to (bequeath), achia. 

leave go of, aoba. 

Leave off! Wacba! Bass! 
Eoma! 

leave off fasting, fungnn. 

leave till fit or ready, limbika. 

leace (cause to remain), saza. 
be left (remain), saa, salia, baki. 

ask leave, taka, ruksa. 

give leave, ruhusu, pa ruksa. 

give leave about, amria. 

take leave of, aga. 
take letive of one another, agana. 



Leaven, chacha. 
LeaJ, azima, kiritliL ■ 
Lengthen, ongeza urefiu 

make long, fanya mrefo. 
Lessen, (act.) punguza, (netU.) pu- 

nguka. 
Let (permit), aoba, pa ruksa, kabali, 
kubalisba. 

let alone, aoba. 

let a house, pangisba nyomba. 

let down, sbusba, ttta. 

let down a bucket, pnliza ndoo. 

let free a spring, fiatua, fiatnsba. 

let go an anchor, pulizii. 

let loose, fungua. 

let on hire, ajiriiha. 

let voaJler, vuja. 
Level, fanya sawasawa, tandaza, 
toDgeneza. 

he level with, lin«:aria no. 

make level with, liaga, linga- 
iiisba. 

level a gun at, lekeza bundnki. 
be Liberal to, kerima. 
Liberate, fangua, pas». fongnliwa. 

from slavery, weka, or aoba bam. 
Lick, ramba. 
Lie (tell lies), sema uwongo 

(to be), kaa, [kil-]wiikow 

lie across, kingama. 
a tree lies axsross the road, mix 
umekingama njiani. 

lie across one another, pandana. 

lie down, jinyosha, jilaza, lata, 
tandawaa. 

lie heavy on, lemea 

lie on ilie face, wama, f uama (1^1.)* 

lie on the side, jiinika. 

lie on the ba^k, lala kwa tani. 

lie in wait for, otea. 
Lift, iniia, tweka. 

lift up the voice, paliza sand. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



187 



Light, washa, tia moto. 

he Ught, angaza. 

sJiow a light, malika. 
lAgliten lightening), piga umeme. 
JAke, penda. 

he an object of liking, tamanika. 
Liken, fafanisha. 
Limit, 

reach its limit, pea. 
lAnger, kawia, kawilia. 
Lisp, [kil-]wa na kitembe. 
Listen, sikiliza, pulikiza. 

listen secretly, dukiza. 

Live, kaa (stay or he), ishi (continue), 

[ku-]wa hayi (be cdive), [kil-] 

wako ulimwenguDi (he in tjiis 

Load, chukuza. f world). 

a person, twika. 

a ship, pakia. 

a gun, somiri, shindilia. 

he laden tuiih, pakia (of a ship), 
chukua (carry). 
Lock, fanga. 

toith a native lock, gomea. 
Loiter, kawilia. 
LoU, tandawaa. 
Long for, tamani. 
Look, tazama. 

look out, or look carefuUy, angalia. 

Look out ! Angalia I Jiponye t 

look out for, tazamia. 

look for, tafuta. 

look after, tunza. 

look over a property, ana. 

look up to see what is going on, 
tahamaka. 
Loose, fuDgna. 

be loose, regea. 
Loosen, regeza. 
Lose (money), pata hasara. 

potea (to he lost to), [nipotea. 

J have lost my knife, kisu kime 



lose by Jiaving taken from one, 
twaliwa. 

lose by death, flwa na. 

lose one*s senses, rukwa na akilL 
Love, penda, ashiikL 

he loved by, kora. 
Lower, shusha, tua. 
LuQ, pembeza, tumbuiza. 
Lurk for, otea. 
Lust after, tamani 

M. 

Magnify, knza, tuknza. 

magnify oneself, jitapa. 
Make, fanya, fanyiza. 
make to do or he. See p. 162. 
make a floor or roof, sakifu. 
make a pen, chonga kalamu. 
make a sign to, ashiria. 
make a unU, wasia. 
make another love one, pendeleza. 
make brilliant, ng'aza. 
make cheap, rakhisislia. 
make clear, tbihiriaha, eleza, wcka 

wazi. 
make confident and hopeful, tu« 

maini-ha. 
make crazy, zulisha. 
make dear, gbalisha. 
make delirious, papayuza. 
make equal, like, &o., sawanlsba, 

sawazisha. 
make for, fanyia. 
make [clothes^ for, katia [nguo], 
make game of, tbihaki, fanyizia 

mzaba. 
make haste, fanya blma, enda 

bima. 
make ill, gonjweza. 
make into a ring, peta. 
make lawful, baliUsba. 



188 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



make light of a matter, jipum- 
kuslia. 

make like, oleza. 

make metal things, fiia, fulia. 

make over talkative, payuza. 

make pastry, andaa, andalia. 

make pea.ce between, suluhisha. 

make plain, thahiri, eleza, thihi- 
risha, weka wazi. 

make pottery, finyaaga* 

make raw, chubua. 

make room for, nafisisha. 

make sorry, Bikitisha. 

make sure, heJiiki. 

make to agree, patanisha. 

make to he at peace, suluhisha. 

make to enter, ingiza. 

make to go up, pandisha, kweza. 

nuike to grow lean, kondesba. 

make to hear or understand, sikiza. 

make to weep, liza^ lizana. 

make unlawful, haiimu, hara- 
misha. 

make up afire, chochea moto. 

make up one*s mind, tanabahi. 

m>ake verses, tunga mashairi. 

make water, kojoa. 

make weak, thoofisha. 

make well, ponya, ponyesba. 

Don't make a noise I Tulia f 
Manage, amili, fanya. 
Mark, tia alama. 

^arry, oa (of the husband), olewa 
(of the wife), oana (of the 
couple), oza (of the parents). 

ask in marriage, posa. 
Master, ghelibu, shinda. 

be master of, weza, tamdlaki. 
Match, lingana 

make to rnatch, linga, linganisha. 

^'^ a match for, weza. 
ta£a, nia, kusudia. 



Measure, pima, twaa cbeo. 

measure together, enenza. 
Mediate between, selehisha. 
Meditate, tafakari, waza. 
Meet, onana, kutana, kutanika, ku» 
sanyika. 

meet vnth, kuta. 

go to meet, laki. 
Melt, (neut.) yeyuka, ayika, (oe^.) 

yeyusba. 
Mend, fanya, fanyiza. 

(sew up), sbonea. 

(dam), tililia. 

(bind up), ganga. 
Menstruate, [kiijwa ua heth. 
Mention, nena, taja. 
Mess. 

be all in a mess, chafukachafuka. 

make a mess of one*s work, boro- 
ngaboroDga. 
Mercy (have or show), rehemo. 
Mildew, fanya kawa. 
Milk, kama. 

Mind, tunza (take care of), angalia 
(take care), kumbuka (bear in 
mind). 

Never mind, haithuru, usitic 
sbuguli. 

I don't mind, mamoja pia. 
Mingle, changanya. 

be mingled, changanyika. 
Miscarry, haiibu mimba. 
Miss, kosa. 

(to go near to unthout touching), 
ambaa* 

(not to go direct to), epea. 

to be missed (not found), kosekaiia. 
Mislead, poteza, kosesha. 
Mistake, kosa. 
Mix, changanya. 

mix up by knocking and beating^ 
buruga, funda. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



189 



HSock, iga, fhihaki, komaza, kufaru. 
he Moderate, [kii-]wa kadiri. 
Molest, sumbua, chokoza, liasiri-ha. 
Mould (caxt in a mould), ita, fanya 
kwa kaliba. 
grow mouldy, fanya iikungu. 
"Moulder, fujika, fnrijika, haribika. 
{go into lump9 like spoilt flour), 
fanya madonge. 
Mount, panda, kwea. 
Mourn {in a formal manner), kaa 
matanga. 
join in a formal mourning, 
hana. 
Move, {neut.) jongea, {act) jongeza. 
Move into the sTiade, jongea 

mvulini. 
{as a carpet does when a m>ouse is 

under it), forukuta. 
{shake), tuknsa, tikisa, snkasnka. 
{change place of dwelling), hama, 

tama (M.), gnra (A.). 
cause to remove, hamisha, tamisha, 
gnrisha. 
Multiply, {a^t.) zidlsha, ongeza, 

{neut.) zidi, ongezeka. 
Murder, ua, pass. nawa. 
Murmur, nung'unika. 
Must, lazimu, sharti, hana buddi. 

Seep. 155. 
Mutilate, kata. 

N. 

Name, taja, nena, ita, pa jina {give 

a name to). 
Need, taka, ibtaji, ibtajia. 
Neglect, gbafilika {not to attend to), 

achilia {leave undone). 
Nibble, tafuna. 
Nod, sinzia {doze),BBhinA kwa twaka 

{as a signal). 
Notice, ona, angc^ia, natbiri. 



notice a defect, toa kombo. 

take no notice, taghafali. 
Nourish, lisha. 
Nurse {a child), lea, lisha. 

(a sick person), nguza. 

O. 

Obey, tii, fuata, sikia, tumikia. 
Object to, Mndana, shindana, nidi- 
ana. 
Oblige {compel), lazlmisha, juburu, 
juzia. 
be obligatory upon, lazimu. 
hold under an obligation to do, 

&c., juzu. 
(by kindness),iQ,ihTM, tendea zema. 
Observe, angalia. 
Obstruct, kataza, pinga. 
Obtain, pata. 

Occupy {keep enjaged), fawiti. 
Offend, chukiza, tia ghairi, tia 
haslra. 
he easily offended, [ku-]wa na 

chuM. 
not to he offended, ku-wa rathi. 
don't he offended with me, niwie 

rathi, kunrathi. 
I am not at all offended, rathi 
Sana. 
Offer to, tolea, jongeleza {bring near 
to), 
offer for sale by auction, tembeza. 
make a first hid, risdmu. 
Omit, acha. 
Ooze, tiririka. 

ooze out, vujia, tokeza, tokea. 
Open {a£t.) funua {uncover), fungaa 
{unfasten), panua {make wide), 
fumbua {unclose the eyes, &c.), 
sindua {set open a door), pope- 
tua {force open), 
{neut.) [kii-]wa wazi {to lie clear). 



100 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



fonvks nr IcmdiikA (to 
like a p>wfry, punika {htieome \ 
-vci/Uy^ foognkA {jiM^ yti «*- 1 
fademedy. I 

fthindania, ingia kad. 
(e f/ppofiU, lekt:*, kabOi, el^cea, 

ekkeaoa, kalMlia. 
iwl cfppoHUj kkeafty kaln]idi% 
elekirza. 
Oppre$$^ onea, VanttA, tlieHmiL 
Orcier, amani, amrisba, ambia, 
agiza {wmmittion), 
arrange in order ^ panga, tonga. 
pA into good order, fimyiza, 
tengeneza, gaoga. 
Otight See p. 155. 

ibtajia, taka, paaa. 
Overbear, by laud talking, &e,, pa- 

mbaDya, pambanyiza. 
Overburden, lemea. 
f/e Overeatt, tanda [wingu]. 
Overeat <meself, vimbika, vimbiwa. 
Overfeed, vimbiaba. 
Overflfyw, miminika, tawanyika, 

ghariki, furika. 
Oversee, simamia, angalia. 
Overturn, pindaa. 

be overturned, pinduka. 
Overtake, pata. 
Overwhelm, gbarikUba, 
Owe, wiwa. 
I owe Mm, aniwia. 
to Jiave in one*$ debt, wia. 
Own, miliki (possess), kirl (confess), 
UDgama (aeknowledge). 



P. 

Paeh up, ftinga. 

Paddhi, vuta kwa kafl or kapi. 

^o^ uma, umia. 



Paai^twvta. 



Pore, amboa. 
Pardom, 



afiiy ^bo§im,^bo- 



t€ flKy nipe 
Ask mMhud pmrdom amd ao tai» a 
huifareweU, takana buniani. 
Parry, bekoa.. 
Part €mtj gawa, gawan j«» 
Pan, pita, puha. 
widke to pan, pitiaha^ 
jNUt going in &ppotite direetioiu^ 

piflhaiUL 
paM through, penya. 
pam over (a river), yiika* 

(a fault), adiilia. 
pa$8 eiose to without touching^ 

ambaa, 
be passable, endeka. 
Pasture, chnnga, lisha. 
Patch (thatch, dx,), cbomelea. 
be Patient, ynmilin, subiri. 
Paw [the ground^ purapara. 
Pay, lipa. 
pay to, lipid. 
cause to be paid, liplsea. 
pay freight for, takabathisha. 
Peck, dona, doadoa. 
Peel, ambna, puna. 
Peep, chungulia, tungulia (M). 
Pelt, tnpia. 
Penetrate, penya. 
Perceive, ona, sikia, fabamn. 
Perfect, kamilisha. 
be perfect, kamilika. See Com- 
plete, 
Perforate, zua, zua tundu. 
Perform a promise, fikiliza ahadi. 
ablutions, tobara. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



191 



devotions, sali. 
a vow, ondca nathiri. 
Perish, fa, potea, potelea, haribika. 
Perjure oneself, apa uwongo, ehu- 

hudia zuli or aztCr. 
Permit, ruhusu, pa ruksa, acha. 
Perpetuate, dumisha. 
Perplex, tia matata, changanyisha. 
become perplexed, ingia matata, 
tanganyika. 
Persecute, fakaza, tbulmnn. 
Persevere, dumu, dumia, dawamu. 
Perspire, taka haii. 
Persuade, shawishi, kinaisba, pa 

sbanrL 
Pick {as with a knife point), 
chokora. 
(gather), cboma. 
etalks, (kc, from ehves, Ac, cba- 

mbua. 
pick out {select), el.agua, teua. 
pick up, okota. 
pick up lit by bit, dondoa, lum- 

bika. 
pick holes in one another's cha- 
racter, papuriana. 
Pickle, fanya acbari 
Pierce, zua, penyesha, penya. 
Pile up [plates, dtcJ], andikaiiya. 
Pinch, finya. 

be pinched up, finyana. 
Pine away, fifia. 

Pity, bunimia, sikitikia, rebemu. 
Place, weka. 
an arrow on the string, a knife in 

the belt, (tc, pacLika. 
Tltere is no place for me in the 
house, nyumba haiaiweki. 
Plait, «nka, sokota. 
Plane, plga randa. 
Plant, panda. 
Plastir, kandika. 



prepare a icaJJfor the white plaster 
by smoothing it and tapping in 
small stones, tomea. 

put on a planter, bandika. 
Play, cbeza, laabu. 

play the fool, peketeka. 

play upon an instrumentj piga 
zomari, &o. 
Please, pendeza, forabisba. 

(like), penda. 
as you please, upendavyo^ 

Please ! Tafathali I 

be pleaded, pendezowa. 

make pleasing, pendekeza. 
Pledge, weka rabani 
Pluck, cbuma {gather), nyakua 
{snatch), nyonyoa {pick off 
feathers). 

pluck up a courage, piga moyo 
Plv^ up, ziba. [konde. 

Plunder, teka, twaa nyara. 
Point, cbonga ; fanya 'ncba. 

point out, onyet^ba, ainisba. 
Poison, pa sumo. 
Poke, cboma. 
Polish, katoa. 

Ponder, fikiri, waza, tafokail 
Possess, miliki, [kil-]wa na. 

{of an evil spirit), pagaa. 

be possessed by an evil spirit, 
pagawa na pepo. 
be Possible, [kil-]wa yamkini, weze- 

kana, fanyika, tendeka. 
Postpone, akirisba. 
make Pottery, finyanga 
Pound, ponda, fonda. 

clean com by pounding, twanga. 
Pour, mimina. 

pour away, mwaga, mwaya. 
have Power over, weza. 
Practise, jizoeza, taala. 

practise witchcraft, fanya uobawL 



192 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



I'raise, tifu, hemldi. 

praise oneself , jisifu, jigamba. 
Prate, puza. 

Pray, omba, sail (perform the fixed 
devotions), abadu (worship). 

pray for, taka (a^k for), ombea 
(intercede for). 
Preach, kliutubu, ayithi. 
Precede, tangulia. 
he Precipitous, chongoka. 
Pi edict, agua, bnshiri, tabiri. 
Prefer, pcnda, khitari, stahiba. 
Ite Pregnant, chukua mimba, heonili. 
Prepare, weka tayari. 

food, andaa, andalia. 
Present to, tunikia, pa. 

make presents to, pukusa, pa 
bashishi, tunza. 
Preserve, hifathi, afu. 

he preserved, hifathika, 
Press, kaza, shindilia, siaikiza. 

press out, kamua. 

press upon, kandamiza. 

press heavily upon, lemea. 

press with the teeth, vuata. 

make an impression (as with the 
fingers), bonyesha. 

press and crush food for invalids 
or children, vinyavinya. 

press against one another, like 
sheep in a flock, Bonganaso- 
ngana. 
Pretend to he, jifanya. 
Prevent, zuia, kataza. 
Prick, choma. 
Pride oneself, jisifu. 
Print, piga chapa. 
Prize up, tekua. 
Proceed, enenda, fuliza. 
Proclaim, tangaza, hubiri, nadi, 
Procure for, patia. [eleza. 

he procKrahle, patikana. 



Profess, ungama. 

Profit, pata fayida, fayidi, clmma. 

tnma (M.). 
Prognosticate, bashiri. 

hy the stars, piga falakL 
Prohibit, kataza, gombeza. 
Project, tokeza, tuMza. 
Prolong, ongeza nrefa, ioiliza, en- 

deleza. 
Promise, abidl, too abadi. 

give a promise to, pa ahadu 
Pronounce, ta'mka. 
Prop up, tegemeza, i^hikiza. 
he propped, tegemea. 
prop up a vessel to prevent its 
falling over when left hy the 
tide, gada. 
Propose, nena, toa shauri. 
Prosecute, shtaki. 
Prosper, fanikiwa, eitawi, kibali, 

jaliwa. 
Prostrate oneself, sujudu. 
before, to, <tc., sujudia. 
Protect, hami, linda, hifathi, kinga 

(ward off). 
Prove, t^ubutisha. 

he proved, t^ubuta. 
Provide, weka akiba. 
Provoke, kirihi, kirihiaha, tia liasirsy 

ghathabi;?ha. 
Prune, chenga, feka. 
Pry, dadisi, fatilshi. 
Puff, puliza. 
be puffed up, tuna, ftira, jetca, 
jivnna. 
Pull, vuta. 
pull out, ng'oa. 
he pulled out., ng'oka. 
Moyo unaning'oka, my heart has 
jumped into my throat, used of 
a person much startled, 
pull otd feathers, nyonyoa. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



193 



puU oui of (me*B liand, cbopoa. 
TpvXl up {roGts]^ ng'oa. 
Tump, piga bomba. 
Punish, athibu, athibisba, tcsa 
(afflict), sambusha (give annoy- 
ance to), patiliza (visit upon). 
Purify, takasa, safisha. 
hy ceremonial ablutions, tohara. 
he purified, safika, takasika. 
Purpose, kusudia, ania. 
Pursue, faata (foUow), winda 
(chase), fakuza (drive away), 
i^Suisk (seek for). 
Push, snkiima. 
push against kmnba. 
push aMde, piga kikumbo, 
p%uh off upon, kumbisha. 
Put, tia, weka. 
put across [a river"], vnsha. 
ptU a pot on the fire, teleka. 
put an end to, komesha, ghairi. 
put atoay, weka. 
put down, tua. 
putforih leaves, chanua. 
put in a line, panga. 
put in order, tonga. 
put in under anything, yumbika. 
put into, tia. 

Tia motoni, put it in the fire, 
Tia moto, set it on fire, 
put into the right vjay, vusha. 
put off, akirisha. 
ptU off upon another, sukumiza. 
put an [dodhes'], vaa. 
put on his guard, tahathirisha. 
put on a turhan hy winding the 
do^ round €he head, piga 
kilemba. 
put out, toa. 

put out \_fire^, zima, zimia. 
put out of Joint, shtusha, shtua. 
put ready for use, sogezea. 



put ropes to a native hedstead 
tanda wamba. 

put to (shut), shindika. 

put to flight, kimbiza. 

put to rights, tengeneza, tongeleza 

put to straits, thiiki 

put through, penye&ha. 
Putrify, oza. 
Puzzle, tatanisha. 

he puzzled, tatana, tatazana. 

Q. 

Quake, tetemeka, tetema. 
Quarrel, gombana, nenana, nazi- 
yana. 

wiQi, teta, gomba. 
Quarry [stoTie'], chimba, vnnja. 
Quell, tuliza. 
Quench, zima. 
Quicken, himiza (^make quicker), 

he quick enough (he in time), 
diriki. 
Quiet, tuliza. 

hecome quiet, tulia, nyamaza, 
tulika. 
Quit, acha, toka. 
Quiver, tetema. 

B. 

Race, shindania. 
Rain, nya. 
It rains, mviia inakunya, mvna 

yanya (M.). 
cause it to rain, nyesha. 
leave off raining, anuka. 
Raise, inua (lift)^ paaza (make to 
rise), tweka, kweza, pandisha, 
imisha. 
raise the eyebrows hy way of sign, 
konyeza. 

O 



194 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK, 



raise the eyebrows hy way of eon" 
tempt, kuuia. 
Bange together, pangana. 
Ransom^ komboa, fidi (of the price), 

fidia (of the person). 
Bap with the krmokles, piga konzi. 
he made Raw, chubuka. 
Reach. See Stretch, 

(arrive at), fika, wasili, pata. 

rea^sh a person, fikia, wasilia. 

cause to reach, fikisha, wasilisha. 

put within his reach, [mw-]eneza. 

reach its limit, pea. 
Read, soma, fyoma (M.). 

teach to read, somesha. 
ReM,p, vuna. 

(break off the heads cf Indian 
com), goboa. 
Rear [a child], lea. 
Reason, tefua. 
Rebel, asi, khalifa, taghi. 
Rebuke, nenea, laumn, lawana. 
Rebut, dakuliza. 
Receive, pokea, pewa, twaa. 

(accept), kubali, takabali. 

receive for soine one else, pokelea. 

receive a stranger, karibisha. 
Reckon, besabu, wanga. 
Recite, karirisha. 
Reclifie, jinyosha, tandawaa, pa- 

mzika. 
Recognize, tambua, tambalia, fafa- 
nua. 

be recognizable, t&mbalikana. 
Recollect, kumbuka, fahama. 
Recommend, nenea, agiza, arifa, 

peleka. 
Reconcile, patai^isha, selehiaha. 
Redeem, komboa, fidia. 
Reduce, pangnza. 
Reef a sail, piingaza tanga. 
Refer to, regea. 



Reflect (think), kumbuka, waza, 

fikiri. 
Reform, silihi, fiilihisha, sahilii, 

sahihisha. 
Refresh, bumdisha, sterehisha^ ta- 

bnradn. 
Refuse, katsiza, kataa, iza. 

refuse to, nyima, hini. 

refuse to believe, katalia. 
Refute, batlli. 
Regret, juta, sikitika. 
Rehearse, karirisha. 
Reign, miliki, tawala. 
Reject, kataa, kania. 
Rejoice, (neut) farahi, furahiwa. 

rejoice in, farahia. 

malce to rejoice, farahisha. 

shout and triumph, shangilia. 
Relate, hadithia, nena, toa, pa. 
Relax, rcgeza. 

be relaxed, regea. 
Release, acha, likiza. 

from an obligation, feleti. 
Relish, ona tama, ona luththa. 
Rtly upon, fangamana, jetea. 
Remain (stay), kaa, kaa kitako, 
keti (M.). 

be left, S6ia, salia, baki. 

remain awake, kesha. 

remain quiet, starehe. 

to remain as he wishes, kumkalia 
tamu. 
Rem^y, poza. 
Remember, kombuka, fahamu. 

remerriber against, patiliza. 
Remind, kumbusha, fahamisha. 
Remit [sins^t ghofiri. 

remit to, ghofiria, ondolea. 
Remove, ondoa, tenga, ondolea. 

from an office, uzula. 
Rend, raraa, pasua. 

be rent fn^ pieces, pasukapasuka. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



195 



Renounce, acha, kacA. 

Bent, panga (hireX pangisba (let). 

Repair, fanyiza, fanya. 

Repay, lipiza. 

Repent, tubu. 

repent of, tubia. 
Reply, jibu (give an answer), itika 

(answer when caUed). 
Repay, regeza, lipa. 
Reproach, shutumu, kamia, taya. 
Request, tak&. 
Rescue, toa kimako hatari, toa 

nmaiuo baiari, okoa. 
Resemble, fanana na. 

make to res&mble^ fananisha. 
Resent, fanya gbatbabu, ingiwa na 

gbatbabu. 
Resign, jiuzulu, jitoa katika. 
Resist, kbalifu. 
Resolve, yakinia, dzimu. 
Rest (nevL) pumzika, tulia, starebe. 

(a^t.) pmnzislia. 

He never rests, bana zituo. 

I cannot rest in the house, n3nimba 
beuniweki. 
Hestore, nidisba, rejeza. 
Restrain, zuia. 
Resuscitate, fafua, buisha. 
Retaliate, twaa kasasi, lipia sawa, 

jilipiza. 
Retire (go Inick), endelea nyuma. 
Return, (neut) nidi, regea. 

(a^t) rudisba, regesba. 
Reveal, fnnua. 

Revenge, nabma, lipia maovu, toa 
kasasi. 

revenge OTHeself, jilipiza (or lipia) 
ka^iad. 
Reifererlce, nenyekea. 
R^erse, pindua. 
Revile, sbntnmu. 
Revive, (neat) fufuka, hnl, buika. 



Revive, as a plant in water, obupuza. 

(act.) fafua, huisba. 
Revolt (disgust), kinaisba. 

revolt at, kinai. 
Reward, jazi, jazilia, lipia, fathili 
Ride upon, panda. 
Ridicule, fanyizia mzaba, tbihaki. 
Ring a heU, piga kengele. 
Rip, pasua. 
Ripen, iva. 
Rise (ascend), paa. 

(get up), ondoka. 

(stand up), simama, innka. 

(rise to, or out of respect for), 
ondokea. 

(come to the top of the water), 
zuka. 

(of the sun), [ku-]cba. 
Roar, lia, nguruma, fanya kisbindo 

(make a crash). 
Roast, oka. 
Rob, ihia, (steal from)j nyang'anya. 

(take by force), poka. 
Rock, pembeza. 
Roll, (act.) fingiiislia. 

(neut) fingirika. 

(of a river, time, Ac), pita. 
Root out, ng^oa. 
Rot, oza. 

be Rough, parnga, paruza. 
be Round, viringa. 

(spherical), viringana. 
Rouse from sleep, amsha. 
Row, Yuta makasia. 

be in rows, pangana. 

put irt a row, panga. 
Rub, sugua. 

tl^ skin off, cbubua, tuna. 

rub to pieces, fikicba. 

rvb in ointment, &c., paka. 
Ruin, angamisba, poteza, yona 
Jsorofisha. 

2 



196 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



he ruinedy angamia, tilifu, filibika 
(be sold up). 
Bulsy tawala. 

rule a line^ paga mstari. 
Ruminate, teuka. 
Jtun, piga mb-o, rukhuthtu 
run a risk, hatirisha. 
run againsty fulia. 
run away, kimbia. 
make to run away, kimbiza. 
run away from a mastery home, 

dtCf toroka. 
run aslwre, panda, tekeza. 
run down, like water, or like a 
person doton a steep place, te- 
lem'ka. 
run down with bloody churuzika 

damu. 
run hard, kaza mbia 
run over, furika. 
run with a shuffling noise like a 

rat, gugurusha. 
r»/« (in sewing), piga bandi. 
Hush along, enda kassi. 
Uust (neut), ingia kutu. 
Bustle, piga mtakaso. 

S. 
Salute, salimu, sulimn, amkua, 
amkia, salimia. 
fire a salute, piga mizinga ya 
Balamu. 
Salve, baudika. 
Sanction, toa IthinL 
Satisfy, rithiba. 

be satisfied or content, [ktf-]wa 

rathi. 
Botisfy with food, shibisha. 
he satisfied, shiba. 
he never satisfied, nyeta. 
be self-satisfied, kinai. 
he enough, toslia. 



he of use to, faa. 
satisfy lust, timia ngoa. 
Save, okoa, ponya, ynsha. 
be saved, okoka, pona, vuka. 
(put away), weka. 
Saw, kata kwa msameno, kereza. 
Say, sema. 

say to, ambia. 
Scald, onguza, ungaza. 

be scalded, ungua. 
Scare, fukuza, tia khofn. 
scare birds from com, &c,, linda 
ndege. 
Scatter, tawanya, tapanya (M.), 
farakisha. 
be scattered, tawanyika. 
scatter about, tawanyatawanya, 
tapanyatapanya (M.)* 
Scent (put scent to), singa. 

smell out, nukiza. 
ScolSi, fanyizia ukali, nenea, laumn, 

karipia. 
Scoop up, wangua. 
Scorch, unguza, ongnza. 

he scorched, ungua, ungnlia. 
Scorn, tharau, tweza, pek^teka. 
Scour, sugua. 
Scrape, kuna. 
scrape along, kwarnza. 
scrape for, with; (fee, kunia. 
scrape into a coarse meal, paaza. 
scrape off, puna. 
scrape off bark, dirt, scales, &c. 

to clean by scraping, paa. 
scrape on the ground, para. 
scrape out, komba. 
scrape up, kwangua. 
Scratch, kuna, kunyua. 
(make a scratch), piga mtai 
scratch deeply, papura. 
scratch like a hen, pekua. 
Scream^ piga kio\ife, piga yowe. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



197 



Scrub, BUgua. 

Search for, tafuta, tefua. 

search aU aJxmtf tufuiatafuta. 
Seal, tia muhuri. 
Sedttce vxymen, tongoza. 
See, ona. 
he seen, or visible, onekaua. 
see any one off, safirisha. 
Seek, taka. 
seek advice, taka sliaurL 
seek out, huji. 
seek for, tafata, zengen. 
seek out for, look out for, tafutia. 
Seem. 
It seems to me, naiona. 
seem sweet to, kora. 
Seize, kamata, guia, shika. 
seize for debt, filisi. 
go quieUy and secretly up to amj- 
thing in order to se^e it sud- 
denly, nyemelea. 
Select, chagiia, teua. 
SeU, uza. The u- of this word is 
very unimportant, it is generally 
merged in the -u of ku-, the 
sign of the infinitive, which is 
retained in most of the tenses, 
sell to, liza. 

he ordinarily sold, uzanya. 
Send, peleka, leta. 
to a person, pelekea, let ea. 
cause to reach a person, wasi- 

lisha. 
send away, ondosha, toa. 
serid hoAik, rudisha, rejeza. 
send upon some business, tuma. 
Separate, tenga, weka mbali. 
(leave one another^, achana, ataua 

(M.), tokana. 
(alienate), farakisha. 
become alienated, farakauei, ta- 
ngukana. 



separate people who are fighting, 

amua. 
(distinguish), pambanua. 
be cut off from one another, like 

friends separated by great dis- 
tances, tindlkiaiia. 
be Serene, [kii-]wa saff, tulika, 

kunduka. 
Moyo wake umekunduka, his 

heart is at pea/ie. 
Serve, tumikia, hudumia. 
be a servant, tumlka. 
serve for, faa kwa. 
Set, weka. 
(plant), panda. 
(of the sun), chwa, twa (M.). 
The sun is not yet set, jua, hali- 

jachwa. 
set a dog on one, tomesha mbwa. 
set a trap, tega. 
set aside, tangua, ondoa. 
set fire to, tia moto, washa, koka 

choma. 
set in order, panga, tunga. 
set on to fight, piganisha, pigani- 

shana. 
set open [a door"], sindua. 
set out on a Journey, safiri, shika 

njia. 
set the teeth on edge, tia ganzi la 

meno. 
set up (put upwards), panza. 
(make to stand), simikisha. 
set wide apart, panulia. 
Settle^ (neut.) tuana. 
setUe an affair, kata maaeno. 
settle down, talia. 
settle in one*s mind, yakinia. 
Sew, shona. 
sew through a mattress to confine 

the stuffing, tona godoro. 
Shade, tia uvuli. 



198 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



SKahCi (act.) tikisa. 

(neut.) tikitika. 

shake off, cpua, kupua. 

aJiake out, kung'uta, kmniinta 
(Mer.). 
hecorne Shallow, punguka. 
Shame, tia hnya, taliayarisha. 

l)e put to shame, fetheheka, aibika. 
Sharnjioo, kanda. 
ShajH', umba. 
Share, gawauya. 

part out in shares, gawa, husBU. 

Iw j)artn(irs in, shariki, sharikiana. 
SItarjHin on a stone, noa. 
Simvv., nyoa. 

shive nmnd the head, leaving hair 
on the croion otily, kata denge. 

sjiava (Ul save one long tujt, kata 
Hhvd, ))uku1ika. [kinjunjuri. 

Sf it'll, ])apatua. 

sht^ll hvanf, <(;o., pna baazi, &c. 

shv.ll niUs, &0., by heating, banja, 
iiHiuyii. 
Hhvlttrr, tia kivuli. 
Shift a burden from one to another, 
pokozanya. 

shift over a sail to the other side, 
kiBi tanga. 
Shine, ng'ara, zagaa, mckumeka. 
Shiver (neut), tapatapn, tctoma, 

tot(>mekn, tapa. 
Shoot [ioith a gun'], piga [kwa 
buiuhiki]. 

(as a plant), chupuka, chupuza. 
Shorten, fupizn. 

be short and sinall, knndaa. 

faU short, punguka, tindika (A.). 
Shout, piga kelele. 
Shove out of the way, piga kikumbo. 
Show, onyesha, onya. 

shmo a light, mulika. 

show one*8 teeth, toa mena 



become Shrewd and hnowingt etK' 
make Shrewd, erevuBha. [vnki^ 
Shriek, piga kiyowe. 
Shrink (become smaller), pnng^oa. 
(from something), jikunja. 
shrink up, jikunyata, fingana. 
Shrivel (rieut), nyauka, finyana, 

kunjana. 
Shrug the shouMers, inua mabega. 
Shudder, tetemeka. 
Shun, epuka. 
Shuffle along, gugurusha. 

shuffle cards, tanganya karata. 
Shut (put to), shindika. 
(fasten), fanga. 
(dose), fumba. 
shut against, fuDgisha. 
be Sick or ill, ugua, [kil-]wa mweli, 
[ktC-]wa hawezi, &c See III 
and Vomit 
He feels sick or sea-sick, moyo 
wamcbafuka, moyo umemwelea 
(M.), ana ng'onga (A.). 
Sift, cbunga (by shaking), peta or 
pepeta (Jby tossing), pepua 
(separate large and small, whole 
and broken grains). Sifting is 
always done by tossing and 
shaking in a round flat basket 
Sigh, ugua, kokota roho (draw 

breath with an effort). 
Silence, nyamazisba. 
become silent, nyamaza. 
contirtue silent, nyamaa. 
be Silly, piswa. 
Sin, fanya thambi, kosa. 
Sing, imba, tumbuiza (luU). 
Sink (act), zamisba, tosa (droum), 
didimisha (into a solid suit- 
stance), 
(neul.), zama, tota (drovrrC), didi- 
mia (sink into a solid svl>«Umce), 



LIST OF VERBS. 



199 



8ip^ nywa funda (f to take in by 

gulps). 
Bit, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.)* 
Take a seat, kaa kitako. 
9it like a hen^ atamia. 
Skin, chana, tuna (M.). 
Slander, siogizia, fitiui, amba, tha- 

mu. 
Slap, piga kofi. 
Slash, tema. 

Slaughter, chinja (to kUl by cutting 
(he throat), tinda (M.). It is 
not lawful to eat any meat (hut 
has not been so killed. 
Sleep, lala. 

Sleep well 1 Lala unoDO ! 
doze, sinzia. 

I am sleepy, ninao uzingizL 
be slept upon, lalika. 
Slide, teleza. 
Sling, tupa kwa kombeo. 
Slip, teleza. 
It is slippery, pana utelezi. 
slip down a steep placet poromoka, 

telem'ka. 
slip away grain by grain like 

sand or corn, dondoka. 
dip off, or out of one*s hand, &c., 
chopoka, ponyoka. 
Slit, pasud. 
Slope, inama. 
be Sluggish, pumbaa. 
Smart, waka. 

make to smarts nyonyota. 
Smear on, paka. 

SmeU (emit a smell), nnka, nusa. 
1 smeU ambergris, inaninuka 
ambari (arnbergris Tnakes a 
smell to me). 
Do you not smell itf Huisikii 
ikinuka ? (Do you not perceive 
it making a smell f ) 



Smell at, nukiza. 

Smile, tabassam, oheka, kuQJa 

midomo. 
Smoke, toka moshi. 

STnoke tobacco, vuta tumbako. 

smoke (meat, <kc.), piga mvuke. 
Smoothe, lainisha. 
Smoulder, vivia. 
Smuggle, iba usbunu 
Snap, alika (neuL), alisha (a^). 
Snare, tega. 
Snarl, toa meno. 
Snatch, Dyakua, pokonya. 
Sneeze, chafya, shamua, enda or 

piga chatya. 
Snore, koroma, piga misouo (make 

a whisUing sound). 
Snort, piga pua. 
Snuh, kemea. 
Soak, woweka. 
Sob, ingia na shake la kulia. 
Sober, levusha. 

become sober, levuka. 
Soften, lainisha. 
Solve, wathaisha, weka wazi 

eleza. 
Soothe, tuliza, pembeza, tumbuiza. 
be Sorry, sikiiika, kiisirika (be 
vexed), juta (regret). 

I am sorry for it, sioni vema. 
Sound, pima majL 

It sounds hollow, panalia wazi. 
Sow seeds, panda, yaa (A.). 

sow discord, fitini. 
Sparkle, merimeta, mekameka, me- 

metiika (A.). 
Speak, nena, sema (say), tamka 
(pronounce), ambia (say to). 

speak about, at, for, or against, 
nenea. 

speak against, amba. 

apeak distinctly, pambaBoa. 



200 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Speak out ! Sema sana ! 

make a speech, tagusa, Imnba. 

speak Arabic, sema Kiarabu. 

speak a jumble of different lan- 
guages or dialects, goteza. 

not to speak, nyamaa. 
Spell, endeleza. 
Spend, tumiii, kharij. 

spend upon or about, haiijia, glia- 
rimia. 

spend time, ongea. 
Spin, mwaga, mimina. 

he spiU, miminika. 
Spin, sokota. 
Spit, tema mate. 
Splash, (act.) rushia. 

(neut.) rukia, tawanya. 
Splice [a rope']^ unga. 

[a spar], ganga. 
Split, (act) pasua. 

splU up, (neut.) pasukapasuka. 

split down (Jyranches), (act.) 
kwanua. 

he split down, as when any one has 
heen trying to climb up hy them, 
kwanuka. 
Spoil, haribu, vunja. 

(newt.), haribika, oza. 
Sp(yrt with, laabu. 
Spout out, ruka. 

The whale spouts, nyamgumi 
anatoa moshi. 
Sprain, shtusha mshipa, tetika. 

he sprained, shtuka mshipa. 
Spread, (neut.) enea, farishi. 

(act.) eneza. [ka. 

he opened and spread over, kunju- 

spread a cloth or a hed, tandika. 

spread out, tanda. 

spread [news'], tangaza. 

(hecome known), tangaa. 
Sprinkle^ nyanyiza. 



Sprout, mea, oliupuka, tokeza (sfuno 
itsdf\ chanua (put forth 
leaves). 
Spy out, peleleza. 
Squabble, bishana, gombana. 
Squander, foja, tapanyaiapanya. 
Squeak, lia. 
Squeeze, kamna. 

(grasp), fumbata. 

squeeze together (act.), songa. 

(ne^t.) Bongaua. 

squeeze oneself into a hedge or 
against a wall to let others pass^ 
jibanza. 
Squint, [kii-]wa na makengeza. 
Stab, choma. 
Stagger, pepa. 

he staggeredf'ioetLeeLf shangaa. 

(astonish), shangaza. 
Stain, tia waa, tia madoadoa (spot). 
Stalk [an animal], nyemelea. 
Stammer, p£il-]\ia na kigagumizL * 
Stamp, piga chapa. 
Stand, aimama, kaa. 

up or stm, simama (of persons). 

make to stand, simamisha, simiki- 
sha. 

stand aghast, ghumiwa. 

stand hy, simamia. 

stand in the way of, kindana. 

stand over, akiri. 

stand staring, shangaa. 
Stare at, kodolea. 
Start (be startled), shtuka, gutaka. 

(set out), ondoka, safirL 

start out of Vie way, kwepa. 
Startle, shiua, stosha, kutusha. 
Starve, {neut.) fa kwa njaa. 

(a4st.) fisha kwa Djaa. 
Stay, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.). 

His stayed aU day, alishinda 
kutwa. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



201 



{wait\ ngoja, subiri. 
(loiter), kawia, kawilia. 
(remain over long), hajirika. 
(stop) (act.), zuia. 
he Steady, tungamana, tulio. 
Steal, iba, jepa (A.). 

steal from, ibia. 
Steep, choveka, owamisba. 

he steeped, owama. 
Steer, shika shikio. 
Steer northwards, bbika majira ya 

jaa. 
[a tes8eC\, andika. 
Step over, kiuka, kia. 
Slick, (7i6tt^.) shika, gandama, a- 
mbata. 
(o/ct.) ambatiza, ganda. 
ttick together, ambatana, ganda- 

mana, guiana (Mer.)- 
stick fast, kwama, sakuma. 
itick into \ihe emhers to he roasted], 

vumbika. 
tUck out, (neut.) tokezo. 
(act) benua. 
Stifle, znia pumuzi. 
StiU, tuliza, nyamazisha. 

he very stiU, zizima. 
StimuUxle, tabarrakisha. 
Sting, uma. 

Stink, nuka, nuka vibaya. 
Stir, boruga, vuruga, kologa. 
stir up arid knock about, tibua. 
stir up, turn over, and press 

together, soDga. 

stir up (fire, strife, &c.), chocbe- 

Sfoopf inama. [lezea. 

Stop, (act.) zuia (hold in), komesha 

(make to cease), kiugamisha 

(hlock). 

(ne^it.) simama (stand), koma 

(leave off). 
8top and stagnate, vilia. 



stop short of its purpose or per^ 

fection, via. 
slop up, ziba. 
Store up, weka akiba. 
Stow, pakiza. 
Straddle (walk with the legs far 

apart), tagaa. 
Straighten, nyosha. 

he straight, nyoka. 
Strangle, nyonga, songa. 
Strain (a liquid), cbuja, tuja (M.). 
See Sprain, popotoa. 
(make a violent effort), kakamuka. 
Stray, potea, zunguka. 
Strengthen, tia nguvu. 
Stretch, nyosha. 
stretch up to rea>ck anything, chu- 

chumia. 
stretch ane^slegs, kunjua miguu. 
stretch the threads for weaving, 

tenda nguo. 
stretch across an opening (act.), 
tanda, wamba. 
Strew, mwagia, nyunyiza. 
Strike, piga. 
strike on the ground, piga na nchi. 
strike the foot against anything, 

kwaa. 
strike with the hoof, piga kwata. 
strike out (in writing), futa. 
strike a sore place, tonesha. 
String (heads, iStc), tanga. 
Strip off, ambua, pua, menya, 
babua. 
(branches, leaves, &e.), pagua. 
Strive with, shindana na, teta, hu- 
snmu. 
(make an effort), fanya bidii or 

juhudi. 
strive for hreoitk, tweta. 
Stroke, papasa. 
Stroll cJxmt, zungakazu]|^g«ka. 



K. 



202 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



he Strong and weOrhnib^ pirikana, 

kakawana. 
Struggle^ fanya juhudi. 
Study, taali 

meet in a dassfor study ^ dorusi. 
StwMe, jikwaa. 

make to stumble, kwaza. 
Stun, 
be stunned, potea na akili, rakwa 
na akili. 
Stunt, viza. 

be stunted, vieu 
Stutter, [ktl-]wa na Mgugumizi, 

babaika. 
Subdue, tiisha, shinda. 
Submit to, tii, faata. 
Succeed (foUow), ja mahali pake. 
Sv>ch a one succeeded hvm, baada 

yake alikuja na fullani. 
(^prosper), faniMwa, kibali. 
succeed in doing, pata kufanya. 
Suck, nyonya, amwa (M.), fyonda, 
fyoDza. 
suck up, nwa. 
suck out, sonda. 

I have sucked him dry (got all the 
information, &g., I can out of 
him), nimemzaa. 
Suckle, nyonyesha, amwisha (M.). 
Sue for (at law), dai. ^ 
Suffer, teswa, taabika, umwa. 
what he suffered, mambo yalio- 

mpata. 
suffer loss, pata hasara. 
Suffice, tosha, tosheleza, kifti. 
Suggest, n^iha. 

Suit, faa (he of use to), lingana 
(maich), wafiki (he suitable to). 
Sum up, jumlisha. 
Superintend, simamia, angalia. 
Supply, dwini, niznkn (used e«- 
peMBf of God), 



supply a trader with goods on 
credit, kopesha. 
Support, tegemeza, himili, chnkoa. 
he supports his parents, awachu- 
kua wazee wake. 
Suppose, thani (think), iliama (think 

of), kisi (guess). 
Suppurate, toa uzaha. 
become Surety, tiiamini 
Surpass, pita. 

Surprize, toshea, taajabisha. 
be surprized, taajabu, tosbewa. 
(come upon suddenly), fumania, 
gundua. 
Surrender, sellim. 
Surround, zunguka, tandama (?), 

duru. 
Survey, aua. 

Survive, [kii-]wa hayi baada ya. 
Suspect, thania, tuhumii, ingiashaka. 
Swagger, tamba, wayawaya. 
Swallow, meza. 
Sway, punga. 
sway about, like a drunken man, 

lewalewa, umbaumba. 
sway ba4ikwards and forwards, 

tangatanga. 
sway like a tree loaded with fruit, 

wayawaya. 
sway about in the wind, ynmba. 
Swear, apa. 
swear at, apiza. 
make to swear, afya, apisha. 
Sweat, toka ban, fanya jasho. 
Sweep, fagia, pea (M.). 
sweep together, zoa. 
sweep away all there is, knmha. 
Swell, fura, yimba, tuna, vuna. 
rise into little swellings, tutnka, 
tutumka, tutusika. 
Swim (of a man), ogolea. 
(float), elea. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



203 



moyo nnaelea (M.), I feel dw" 

turhed in my inside, 
(make to float), eleza. 
Swindle, punja. 

Suoing. See Sway (neutJ), ning'inia. 
(act,), ning'iniza, bembeeha. 
sujing the arms, which is reckoned 

an elegance in a woman^s ca/r- 

rijoge, punga mikono. 
swing round the head in dancing, 

linga. 

T. 

Tack (in sewing), piga bandi. 

(in sailing), pindua kwa goBhini. 
Take, twaa. 
(receive), pokea, pewa. 
(to a person), pelekea. 
(to a place), peleka, chukua, fikiza. 
take a portion from the dish in 

eating, mega, ambua. 
take a piece in chess, la. 
take a walk, tembea, enda tembea. 
take across, yoa, vukisha, yuBha. 
take as spoU, teka. 
take away, ondosha, toa. 
take away from a person, twalia. 
take away from, or off from, epua, 

okoa. 
take away the desire of anything 

more, kinaisha. 
take byforcct nyang'anya. 
take care, angalia. 
take care of, tunza. 
take civet from the ngawa, zabidi. 
take courage, tawakali, piga moyo 

konde. 
take down, angua. 
take leave of, aga, agana na. 
take off (clothes), vua. 

(the fire), ipua. 
take one's due, jilipizc. 



take one^s revenge, jilipiza kisasi 

take out, opoa, ondosha, toa. 

take out of a trap, namna (Mer.). 

take out of the sun or rain, anua. 

take out of the pot, pakua. 

take suddenly and violently, poka. 

take the responsibility, tadarikL 

take to pieces, kongoa. 

take up, tweka. 

take up a little at a Hme^ ohota, 

dokoa. 
take upon oneself the obligations 

of another, hawili. 
Talk, nena, sema, jizumgumza. 
talk about, to, of, at, for, or against, 

nenea. 
talk against one another, nenana. 
talk a person, over into doing or 

telling something, nyenya. 
talk and murmur in one*s sleep, 

weweseka. 
talk English, &c., sema Kiingrezi, 

&c, 
talk nonsense, puza, pnzika. 
talk scandal about, amba, izara. 
Udk through the nose, semea pnani, 

pm-]wa na king'ong'o. 
Tangle, tia matata, tatanisha. 
be tangled, tatana, tatazana. 
Tap, gota, gonga, chapa. 
Tarry, kawa, kaa. 
Taste, onda, oiija, thaka, limbuka 

(taste a new crop, &c,, for the 

first time). 
Tax, fanya nshnru (?). 
Tca^k, fundisha, fauza, fimda, ele- 

misha (instruct), jwry a, juvibha 

or julisha (make to know). 
Tear, rarua, baboa, papua, papnra. 
be torn, raruka, babuka, papuka. 
tear down [branches, Ac], kwa- 

nua. 



204 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



he torn down and broken, kwa- 

nyuka. 
Teaze, chokoza, kefyakefya. 
Telly ambia. 
tell a tale, heulithi, badithia, nena 

or toa hadithi. 
tell tales ahout, chongeleza. 
Tempt, jaribu (try), shawishi (per- 

suade). 
Tend to, lekea. 
Tend (sheep, <feo.)» chunga, tunga 

(M.), lisha. 
Terrify, ogofya, tisha, khofisba. 
Testify, shuhudu, shuhudia, sema 

usbuhuda. 
Tether, funga. 
Thank, ambia asanti, shukuru (very 

seldom used except of God), 
Thank you, assdnt, marababa 

(this last is th^ proper answer 

to a slaveys salutalion). 
Thatch, vimba, ezeka. 
Think (consider), aza, fikiri, tafa- 

kari, kmnbuka. 
(suppose), thani, tbania. 
think oneself, jiona. 
think oneself a man, jipevua. 
think of, tia maanani, kumbuka 

(remember), nia, ania, or nuia 

(have in one^s mind). 
Thirst, ona kiu (feel thirst), [ktC-] 

wa na kiu (have thirst). 
Threaten, ogofya, ogofisha, khofisha, 

kamia (?). 
Thresh, piga, pnra (beat out corn), 

fikicha kwa miguu (tread out), 

fikicba kwa mikono (nib out). 
Thrill, tetema. 
Thrive, sitawi, fanikiwa (of persons 

only) 
Throb, puma. 
Throttle, kaba. 



Throw, tupa. 

throw a rider, rnsha. 

throw a stone, Ac, vurumisha. 

throw about,' tawanya, tapanya 
(M.), chafua, tefua (M.). 

throw at, tupia. 

throw away, tupa. 

throw down, angusha. 

throw overboard, tosa. 

throw up, or off, rusha. 

throw a burden off the shoulder, 
&c., bwaga. 
Thunder, p£ii-]wa na ng^rumo (dis- 
tant), piga radi (near). 
Thwart, balifu. 

Tickle in the rVys, tekenya, sbtua. 
Tie, funga. 

tie a knot, piga fundo. 

tie up into a bundle or faggot, 
tita. 
Tighten, (act.) kaza, tia kassi, (neut.) 

kazana, kazika. 
Tingle, ona kiuyenyefu. 
Tip off the head, shoulder, Ac, 

bwaga. 
be Tipsy, lewa, jilevya. 

make tipsy, levya. 
Tire, chosba, taajazi. 

become tired, cboka. 

be tiresome, refuse to be pleased. 
Toast, oka. [deka. 

be Together. 

We are Together, tu sote. 
Tolerate, stabimili, ynmilia. 
Torment, atbibu, uthi, atbibisba. 
Toss, rusha. 

Totter, tetemeka (tremble), pepe- 
suka (be shaken), kongoja 
(totter in one's walk). 
Touch, gusa. 

touch gently, papasa. 

touch up, tengeneza. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



205 



Tout for custom, &e,, eapa. 
ToWy fungasa. 
Track, fuata nyayo. 
Trade, fanya biashara. 

trade in a smaU way, "keep a stall, 
ohuraza. 
Train up, adibii, lea. 
Trample, finyanga, kanyaga. 
Transcribe, nakili. 
Transform, geuza, badili 
be Transparent, ng*aia. 
Transgress, taghi, halifu. 
Translate, tafsiri, fasiri, geuza. 
Trap, tega. 
Travail (of a woman), sbikwa na 

utungu. 
Travel, safiri. 
Tread, kanyaga, vioga (M.), finya- 

nga (trample). 
Treat, tendea. 

he treais me badly, hunitendea 
vibaya. 

he treats meweU, hunitendea zema. 
Trem&Ze, tetema, tetemeka, tapatapa. 
Trickle, tiririka. 
Trim, tengeneza. 

trim vegetables, d;o., for sale, cha- 

trim (sail), rausi. [mbua. 

Triumph, shinda, fanya shangwi. 
Trot, enda mashindo (of a horse), 

enda matiti (of an ass). 
Trouble, taabisha, sumbna. 

be troubled, taabika, sumbuka, 
shughulika. 

be troubled in mind, fathaika. 
Trust in, amini, jetea, tnmania. 

entrust to, aminisha, weka, amini. 

(ha/oe confidence), tumaini. 

trust in God and take courage, 
tawakali. 
Try, jaribu, onja (taste). 

try hard, jiitahidi, fanya bidii. 



Tuck into the girdle, Ac, fatika. 
Tumble, angnka, pomoka. 

tumbukia (fall into). 
Turn or turn into, (act.) genza, geua. 
(neut.) turn, turn into, turn itself, 

geuka. 
turn over, or the other way, 
pindua (act.), pinduka (neut.). 
turn round something else, zu- 
nguka (neu>t.), znngusha (act). 
He turned round, aligeuka. 
TJie river turns, mto unazunguka. 
TJie ship turned, merikebu ilipi* 
nduka. 
turn (prevent its going on in the 

same direction), pinga. 
turn aside (neut.\ potoa, potoka. 
turn bottom upwards, fudikiza. 
turn in a lathe, kereza. 
turn out well for, fanikia. 
Tweak, nynkua. 

Twist, (act.) nyonga, songa, popotoa. 
(neut.) potoka. 
[a rope"] sokota, suka, pakasa 



(Mer.). 



U. 



Unclose, fmnbna. 

he Uncomfortable, taabika, snmbuka, 

toa kuona raha. 
Uncover, funna. 
Unfasten, fungua. 
Understand, sikia, jua, fafanua, 

tambua (recognize). 
I understand, yameniulea, yame- 

nitnlilia. 
make to understand, sikiza. 
to be mutually intelligible, make 

one another understand, siki- 

zana. 
Undertake, thamaini, jilazimisha 

tadariki 



206 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Undervalue^ rakhisiaha. 
Undo (unfasten), fangua. 

untie a knot, fundua. 

(ruin), poteza. 
Undress, vua nguo. 
Unfold, kunjua. 
Unite, unga, ungana. 
Unpick or Unrip, fumua. 

become unseum, fumuka. 
Unroof, ondoa sakafu (take off a 
stone roof), ezua paa, or zu- 
mbua paa (A.), (talce off thatch), 
Unsew, fumua. 

come unsevm, fumuka. 
Unthatch, ezua, zumbua (A.) 
Untie, fungua. 

a knot, fundua. 
Upbraid, nenea, tuhumu, taya. 
UpseU piudua. 
Urge, sukuma, kaza. 
Urinate, kojoa. 
Use (inake use of), tumia. 

To have been used for somethinQ.j 
kulikuwa na kitu. 

be of use, faa. 

be of use to one another, faana. 

use bad language to^ tukana. 

use words well and correctly, 
sarifu. 
Use (o/CGustom), zoeza. 

become used to, zoea. 
Utter, ta'mka. 

V. 

Value, tia kima (put a price upon), 
penda (like), 
be valuable, faa, faa eana, [kii-] 
wa na manfaa. 
Vanish, toweka, toa kuonekana, 
potea, tokomea (get out of one's 
sight), ^ 

Qo and hide yourse^l Tokomea ! 



Venture, hatirisha, ^ubutn. 
Vex, kasirisha. 

be vexed, kasirika, chukiwa. 
be Visible, onekana. 
Visit, enda kuangalia, kutazama, 
(yr kuzuru, jia (come to\ endea 
(go to), 

be visited, jiwa. 

visit upon, patiliza. 
Vomit, tapika, kokomoka (bMi ouJt), 

make to vomit, tapisha. 
Void, tangua, batili. 

be made void, tanguka. 
Vow, weka nathiri (make a vow), 
perform a vow, ondoa natbiri. 

W. 

Wail, omboleza. 

Wait, or wait for, ngoja, saburi, 
subiri. 

Wait a bit, ngoja kwanza. 

wait upon, ngojea. 
Wake, (neut.) a'mka. 

(act.) a'msba. 

remain awake, kesha, angaza. 

be awake, [kii-Jwa macho. 

wake up suddenly wiOh a start, 
zinduka, zindukana. 
Wale, alia. 
Walk, enda, enda kwa miguu. 

(of a horse or a>ss), enda delki. 

vjalk about, tembelea. 

take a walk, tembea. 

walk up and doum, enda masia. 

walk lame, ohechea, enda chopi. 
Wander, zunguka, potea. 

in mind, papayuka. 
Want (need), taka, ihtajia, ihtaji. 

(toish to have), taka, ipa. 

be wanting, ihtajiwa, pungnka. 
Ward off, Jdnga (receive on some' 
thing), bekua (knock off again) 



LIST OF VERBS. 



207 



Warm up, kanga moto, pasha moto. 
Warn, onya, ambia, nasi, hatha- 

risha (^put on one^s guard). 
Warp, benuka (as wood does in 
Wash, osha. [drying), 

wash clothes, faa; by dabtdng 

gently only, chaohaga. 
oneself, nawa. 

wash one^s hands, nawa mikono. 
Waste, (act) tilifu, tiMsha, fuja, 
thii, hsuibu, tawanya, tapanya 
(M.). 
(neut) pungna, tilifika. 
Watch, (cust.) vizia, ngojea, angalia. 
keep toatches, ngojea kwa zamu. 
foalch over, linda. 
(not to sleep), kesha, angazu. 
Water, tia maji, ny wesha majL 

Tnake water, kojoa. 
Wavcy (act.) punga. 

(neut,) tangatanga. 
Waver, shangaa. 
Waylay, otea. 
Weaken, thoofisha, toa nguvn. 

become weak, tboofika. 
be Weaned, aoha ziwa (leave the 

breast), shlsbwa. 
Wear, — (he past tenses of kuvaa, 
to put on, are used to express 
\oearing. 
He wears, amevaa. 
He wove, alivaa. 
Wear away, (neui^ lika, pungua, 
pnnguka. 
(ajd^ la, pungnza. 
Wear out, (neut) chakaa (by age or 
use). 
He wore out my patience, alinonde- 
lea saburi. 
Wear ship, pindua kwa damalini. 
Weary, chosha. 
become ujeary, cboka. 



Weave, fnma. 
tenda nguo, to stretch the Uireads 

ready for weaving, 
tarizi, weave a border on to a piece 
of cloth. This is the only kind 
of weaving done in Zanzibar. 
Weed (hoe up weeds), bo^ug8^ pali- 
Weep, lia. [lia. 

weep together, lizana. 
hurst into tears, bubujika machozi. 
Weigh, plma. 

weigh down, lemea, topeza. 
Weld on a piece of steel or iron, 

tambnza. 
Wet, tia maji, chofya majinl (dip in 

water). 
Whet, noa. 
Whisper, nong'ona, noog'onezana, 



nongoma. 



Whistle, piga mbinda, mixinzi, mi- 
sono, or miao. Most, if not aU, 
of these refer to an involuntary 
whistling sound ; to whistle 
voluntarily is regarded in Zan- 
zihar cts profane. 

Widen, panua (act), pannka (pass.). 

Will, te^A, penda. 
If God wHl, inshallah, Muungu 
akinijalia (if God gives me the 
power). 

Win, pata. 

Wind (neut), zongazonga, zungu- 
kazungnka. 
wind Uliread, kunja uzi. 

Wink, kopesa, pepesa, pesa. 
Kukonyesha, to raise the eyebrows ; 
this is a sign used as winking 
is in England. 

Wipe, futa, paugusa. 
ibipe the nose, futa kamasL 

Wish, taka, penda. 

Wither, nyauka, fa, fifi/u 



208 



SWABILI HANDBOOK. 



Withhold from, nyima, hini. 
Witness, oiia (see). 

bear icitness, shuhndo. 

vntness about, for or against, ebu- 
Iiudia. 
Wonder, taajabn, staajabn. 
Work, fanya kazi, tenda kazi. 

work in metal, f ua. 

{ferment), chacba. 
Worry, sumbiia, sumbnsba. 
Worship, abudu, abudia. 
be Worth, pata kima (get a price). 

What is it worth ? Cbapataje ? 
Wound, iimiza. 

be wounded, jeruhL 

wound hy striking or piercing un- 
aujares, vuaza. 



Wrap, kimja. 
Wreck, yunja. 

be wrecked, Tnnja, Ynnjika. 

go on sJiore, panda. 

be on shore, pweleka. 
Wrestle, pigana kwa mbaviL 
Wriggle, nyonganyoDga. 
Wring, sonjoa, kamna, popotoft 
Wrinkle, nyeuka. 

become wrinkled, knnjana. 
Writhe (like a wounded snake)^ 
Write, andika. [fingirika 

Wrong, tbulumu. 

Y. 

Yavm, enda, or piga miayo, fimua 
kinwa. 



( 209 ) 



ADTERBS, 
PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS. 



■•^^ 



Adverbs. 
Adverbs in Swahili follow the words they qualify. 
8ema sana, speak out. Njema sana, very good. 

Adjectives may be used as Adverbs by prefixing w- 

or vy-. 

Kunuka vtbaya^ to smell badly. 

Verbs in the Infinitive and Substantives generally 
may be made to serve as Adverbs by the use of the 
Preposition kwa. 

Kwa uwongo, falsely. Kwa kujua, knowingly. 

Many English Adverbs may be translated by sana 
(very), which intensifies the action or quality expressed 
by the word to which it is subjoined, 

Vuta sana 1 Full hard I 
Shika sana I Hold tight I 
Enda sana I Go fast 1 

Prepositions. 

There are in Swahili very few Prepositions. Indeed 
there are scarcely more than four, na, ya^ Jcwa, and Jcatika. 



210 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



KatiJca has the same force as the case in -ni, it denotes 
locality in nearly every form in which locality can 
require to be expressed. Kwa denotes instrumentality 
and object. Na is and or with, coid hy of the agent after 
u passive Yerb ; in this last sense ni is used at Mombas 
and in other dialects. Ya, or rather -a with a variable 
initial letter, denotes possession ; it is treated as a pofr* 
sessive pronoun, coid changes its first letter according 
to the class of the noun which precedes it, that is of the 
person or thing possessed ; it can very nearly always 
be translated by of. Its forms appropriate to each class 
of substantives are : — 



Cr.ASS I. 


dng. wa. 


plar. tea. 


Cla 


,, II. 


„ wa. 


» ya. 


»» 


„ in. 


>* ya, 


„ za. 


>» 


„ IV. 


„ cJm, 


„ vya. 


f* 



Class V. ting, la, plnr. ya. 

VI. „ wa, „ za. 

VII. „ pa, „ pa. 



vm. 



»» 



ktcetf „ hua. 



See p. 209 in original. 

Many of our Prepositions are expressed by a Noun or 
Adverb followed by -a. Many others are expressed by 
Verbs in their simple or applied forms (p. 159). Some 
can scarcely be expressed at all. The Preposition from 
seems to be almost wholly wanting in Swahili. It is 
sometimes implied in the Yerb, as in kutoka, to come or 
go from, or to come or go out of, but generally it is 
marked only by katika or the ceise in -ni, which denote 
merely the locality in which the action commenced. 
From, of time, may be translated by tangu, or by toka, 
or tokea, which do not seem to be used of space or deri- 
vation, but to be best translated by since or beginning 
from. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 211 

Until to, CL8 far as, of time and space, are frequently 
translated by "hatta, and (less elegantly) by impaha, 
followed by a substantive. 

Conjunctions. 

Conjunctions are often dispensed with by the use of 
the tenses with -ha-. And, hut, or any other mere con- 
nective in a narrative, is unnecessary where the -A;a- 
tense is employed, as in all ordinary cases it must be. 
The Imperative and Subjunctive may also have -Tea' 
prefixed with the force of the Conjunction and. 

Katupa ! And throw it away. 

JSnenda 6oh>ni kcdeta ndizi I Oo to the market and fetch some 

bananas. 
Uone, ukamdihi, that you may see and believe. 

If and other Conjunctions introducing a state are 
generally expressed by using the -hi- tense of the Verb 
(see Verbs, p. 136). 

In order that is generally expressed only by putting 
the Verb which expresses the purpose into the sub- 
junctive. 



V*^ 



212 



aWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



LIST OF ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, AOT) 

CONJUNCTIONS. 



A. 

About, (near) karibu na, kama. 
(in the neighbourhood of), upande 
wa. 
Above, (adv.) juu. 
(prep.) juu ya. 
Abundantly, tele, sana. 
After, (adv.) nyuma, baada. 
(prep.) nyuma ya, baada ya. 
Nyuma is more correctly used of 

place, and baada, of time. 
After this, akiisha (he finishing), 
akaisba (and he finished). 
Afterwards, nyumaye, baada yake, 
baadaye, tena, kiisha, halafu, 
pindi. 
Again, mara ya pili, tena. 
Against, juu ya. Against is com- 
monly expressed by the use of 
the applied form of the verb. 

Ago. 
long ago, zamani za kale, zamani, 

kwanza. 
^010 long ago ? Tangu lini ? 
ten days ago, leo siku kumi, kwa 

oiku kumi, tangu siku kumi 



Alike, sawasawa, ginsi moja, ma- 

moja. 
Almost, karibu na. 
Alone, peke yake, &c. (by himself, 

&c.), tu (ordy). Tu always 

follows the word or phrase 

qualified by it. 
Along, kandokando ya. 

along with, pamoja na. 
Alongside, mbavuni. 
Ahud^ kwa sauti kubwa. 
Already, mbele (before), sasa (now). 
He is already gone away, ame- 

kwisha kwenda zake (p. 155). 
Also, na, tena. Na always precedes 

what it is connected with. 
Although, kwamba, ikiwa. 
Altogether, pia yote, kabisa. 
Always, sikuzote, dayima, abadan, 

kipindi, milele (for ever). 
Amidst, katikati yau 
Among, katika. 

among themselves, wao kwa wao. 
Anciently, zamani za kale, kwanza. 
And, na. 
And hCf and i, d:e. See p, 103. 



ALVMRB8, PREPOSITIONS, <fec. 



21V 



And 18 very often expressed by the 
use of the -ka- tense. See p. 134 
andp, 141. 

And followed hy a negative must 
he translated hy wala. 

And sOy and then, &c., bassi. 
Any is expressed hy using the word 
absolutely. 

Anywhere, po pote. 

1 don't see anything, sioni kitii. 

Anything whatever jl^u chochote. 
Apart, mbali. 

Around, pande zote, mzingo wa. 
As (wh£n, or if), -po-, -ki-. Seep. 136. 

(^as if), kama, kana, kwamba. 

(like), -vyo, -vyo-, added to or 
inserted in the verb. 

As you please, upendavyo. 

As it was formerly, yalivyokuwa 
kwanza. 

As followed hy as is generally 
omitted. 

As big as a house, kubwa kama 
nyiimba. 

As it stands, shelabela. 
Ashore, pwani. 

go ashore, panda (of a ship), shu- 
ka (of a person), 

he ashore (of a ship), pwelewa. 
Aside, kando. 

At, kwa, katika ; case in -ni, followed 
hy pronouns in p-, when it de- 
notes nearness only, hut hy pro- 
nouns in kw- when U is inde^ 
terminfsie. 

At first, awali, kwanza. 

At Tiomet kwangu, kwako, kwake, 
kwetn, kwenu, kwao, nyumbani. 

JBe is not at home, hako. Hayuko 
is commonly used hy slaves in 
Zanzibar, but is wholly incorrect. 

At last, mwisho, hatima, hatta. 



At length, hatta, hatima. 
At night, usiku. 
At once, mara, mara moja. 
At the top, juu. 
At the bottom, chini 
Away, 
go away, enda zangu, zako, &c., 

a^ccording to the person going, 
come away, ja zake, &c. 
He is away, hako. 

B. 

Ba>ck, nyuma. 

He went back, alirudi nyuma. 
upon the hack, kwa tani, chali. 
Backwards, kingaligali (M.). 
Because, kwa sababii. 

because of, kwa sababu ya, kwa 
ajili ya, kwani (for). 
Before, (adv.) mbele, kwanza. 
(prep.) mbele ya or za, kabla ya. 
Kabla is used preferably of time, 
mbele of pla.ce. 
To go before, tangulia. 
Before he goes to sleep, asijelala. 
Before I die, kabla sijafa. 
Behind, (adv.) nyuma. 

(prep.) nyuma ya. 
Below, (adv.) chini. 
(prep.) chini ya. 
Beside, kando la, kandokando ya, 

zayidi ya (more than). 
Besides, tena, zayidi; na (also), pre" 

ceding the thing mentioned. 
Better, afathali, heri or kheiri. 
You had better go, afathali uene- 

nde, u heri uenende. 
Afathali is preferably, heri means 
it would be a good thing. 
Between, katikati ya, beina. 
Beyond, (adv.) kwa kuko. 
(prep.) zayidiya, juu ya. 



214 



BWAEILI EANDBOOK. 



"beyond (of plcuse), upande wa 
pili wa. 

Both — and — , na — ^na, 

Both of them, wote wawili» zote 
mbili, &c., &c. 

Butj lakini, wallakini (andhowever), 
illakini (except however), ilia, 
ball. Jh many cases but may 
he best translated by the use of 
the -ka- tense of the verb. 

By (after a passive verb), na, ni 
(M.). 
(of an instrument), kwa. 
(near) katika), case in -ni followed 
by pronouns in p-. 



Certainly, yakini, hakika, hapana 
shaka. 
You certainly, &c„ Hakika yako, 
&c. 
ChokefuU, tobtob. 
Constantly, abadan, dayima. 
Crookedly, kombokombo^misbithari. 

D. 

Daily, killa siku, siku kwa siku. 
Directly, See Now, 
Distinctly, kiada, 
Down, chini. 
During, wakati wa. 

During his journey, aUpokuwa 
akisafiri, akiwa akisaiirL 

£. 

Early, mapema. 

Easily, upesi. 

Either — or — , ao — ao— , ama — 

ama — . 
Elsewhere^ panginepo. 
Entirely y pia, kabisa, yota, pia yote. 
Ere, kabla ya, mb«la ' 



Even, batta. 

Eoen if, -japo. See p, 188. 
Ever, sikuzote, dayima, kipindL 

for tfver, milele. 
Everywhere, mahali poie. 
Exactly, bsdisi, khasea, bawaba. 
Exceedingly, 'moo subjoined to tht 

word qualified, saua. 
Except, ilia, ela (M.)* Stscept may 

often be expressed by the use 

of the tense wUh -aipo. See 

p. 146. 
except by, biUa. 
Excessively, 'mno subjoined to the 

word qualified, obapa> ohapara. 

F. 

Far or far off, mbalL 
First, kwanza, mbele. 

to go first, kutangulia. 
Fluently, kama maji. 
For, (conj.) kwani. 

(prep.) kwa. For is generally 
expressed by the use of the ap- 
plied form of (he verb, 

(in the place of), mahali pa. 

for the space of, muda wa. 

for the sake of, kwa ajili ya. 

for my sake, imipendavyo (as you 
love me). 
Formerly, kwanza, ^amani. 
Forth, *nje. 

to go forth, kutoka. 
Forward, mbele. 

go forward, endelea mbela 
Forwards (upon the fojce), fulifuli, 
fudifudi, kwa kiifahamia (M.). 
Frequently, mara nyingi. 
From, katika, case in -ni. 

from among, mionguni mwa. 

from Ume to time, mara kwa mara. 

igkyoe), tangu, toka, tokea. 



ADVERB 8, PREPOSITIONS, Ac. 



215 



/ had it from (of) the Sheikh^ 
nalipokea ya Sheikh. 
Further^ tena. 
Further on, mbele. 

G. 

CttnOy, polepole, taratibu, tahafifa. 

Oltidly, furaha. 

OraHs, burre, attia, bilashL 

a 

Hard, kaasi. 

to fffork hard, kutenda kazi sana. 

to run hard, kaza mbio. 
Hastily, hima, kwa baraka. 
Here, hapa, huko. 

He is here, yupo. 

J am here, mimi hapa. 

Here and there, hapa na hapa. 
Hereafter, baadaye. 
Hither, hatta hapa, hapa. 

Hither and thither, kuku na 
huko. 
Hitherto, hatta leo, hatta sasa. 
Howf -je tfibjoined to the verb. 
Seep. 123. 

kamaipi? Ewaje? 

How isitf Ginsi gani ? 

How often ? Mara ngapi ? 

How much ? Kassi gani ? Eadri 
gani? 
How, ginai with -vyo- joined loith 
the verb ; ginsi is often omitted. 

How he was, &c,, gimd alivyo- 
knwa, &o. 
However, lokiui. 



Tf^ kana, kwamba, kama; -M- or 
-po- interted in the verb. See 
pp. 136, 146. 



Immediately, mara, mara moja. 

now immediately, sasa hivi. 
In, katika, ca*e in -ni followed by 
pronouns in m-. 
in the shoulder, ya bega. 
in front, pambelo, mbele. 
[J] in going, nlkienda, nikiwa 

nikienda. 
in good time, at its proper time, 

tahafifu. 
in heaps, chungu chungu. 
in order that, illi. See p. 141. 
in place of, mahali pa. 
in the middle, katinakati, kati, 

katikati. 
in the middle of, kati ya, katikati 
in the morning, assubui. [ya. 

Indeed, kusema kwelL 

great indeed, kubwa Bana. 
Inside, ndani. 
inside of, ndani ya, case in -ni 

followed by pronouns in m-. 
He is inside, yumo ndani. 
Into, katika, com in -ni followed by 
pronouns in m-. 

J. 

Just, see p. 116, halisl. 
That is just it, ndiyo yalio. 

L, 

Lastly, kwa mwisho, mwisho. 

ai last, hatima, mwisho. 
Late, kasiri 
L§8s, duDi. 

to become less, kupungua. 

Less by, kassa. 
Like, kama, metbili, hesabu ya. 

People like us, kina aisi. 
Little, kidogo. 

a little more, pnnde. 

a little longer, -refu punde. 



216 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



M. 

Merely, tu, bassi. Bot% words follow 
the word or phrase they qualify. 
Moderately, kadiri. 
More, zayidi. 
more than, zayidi ya. 
a little more, punde. 
Moreover, tena, na. 
Mtich more, or much less, sembuse, 
seuze. 

N. 

Near (adv.^, karibu. 

Near to, karibu na, karibu ya. 

Nearly^ karibu na or ya, kadri ya. 

Necessarily, of necessity, kanuni la- 
zim, ukwasefu. 

Neither — nor — , wala— wala~. 

Never, kabisa (with a negative pre- 
ceding), kamwi (M.); 

Next, -a pili yake, kiisha. 
next to, -a pili ya. 

No, ahaa, hahda, la, Biyo, hakuna, 
hapana, hamna. These last 
three words mean, there is not, 
or there is none. 
No, by no means, hasha. 

Nor, wala. 

Not, si. See Negative Tenses of Verbs, 
p. 143. 

Not only — , but also — ; si — bassi, 
— ^lakini tena ; si — in, ilia — . 

Not yet, bado, asitasa, haitassa, &c. 
(M.). TJiese words are used ta 
denote incompleteness, whatever 
the subject referred to may be. 
Not yet may generally be ex- 
pressed by Gie negative tense 
with -ja- {seep. 145), after which 
tense bado is generally added. 

Noio, sasa, leo (to-day), wakati huu 
{at this time), zamani hizi (t'li 



these times), zamani zeta (in our 
tim£8), siku hizi (in these days). 
Now directly, sasa hiyi. 

O. 

Obliquely, hanamu. 
Of, -a, mth a first letter varying 
according to the class of the 
preceding word, that is of the 
thing possessed, 
I. Mtu wa All, Ali^s man. 
Watu wa Ali, AlCs people. 
Mbuzi wa Ali, AWs goal. 
Mbuzi wa Ali, Ali^s goals. 
II. Mnazi wa Ali, Alfs cocoa- 
nut tree. 
Minazi ya Ali, AWs cocoa- 
nut trees. 
niT Nyumba ya Ali, ATCs house. 
Nyumba za Ali, AKs 
houses. 
IV. Easu cha Ali, Ali^s knife. 

Visu vya All, AWs knives, 
y. Kasha la Ali, AU*s chest. 
Makasha ya Ali, Alfs 
chests. 
VL Uimbo wa Ali, AWs song. 

Nyimbo za Ali, AlCs songs. 
vn. Mahali pa Ali, Ali^spUice. 
Yiii. Kufa kwa Ali, AlCs dying. 

1. Nyumbani mwa Ali,tn Alfs 

house. 

2. Kyumbani pa Ali, by AWs 

house. 
S. Nyumbani kwa Ali, to Alts 
house. 
Ya is sometimes pronounced a. 

saa a sita, twelve o'clock. 

Where it is intended to mark specially 

the individuality of the possessor 

the possessive pronoun may be 

itsedinsteadofthepreposition -a. 



ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, Ac. 



217 



Kiti ohake Sultani, means the 
chair in which no one hut the 
Sultan siUf or the SuUan'B own 
chair. 
Of is included in some words which 
are therefore not followed hy -a. 
Kina Abdallah, AhdaUah'speoplef 

or people like Abdallah. 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohammed^s 

son. 
Binti Mohammed, Mohammed^s 

daughter. 
In some common phrases -a is 
omitted apparently for shortness 
only. 
Often, mara nyingi. 
On, juu ^a, the ca>se in -ni. 
Put it on the table, weka mezani 
Put it on the top of the table, weka 

juu ya meza. 
on both sides, pande mhili. 
on every side, kotekote. 
on foot, kwa miguu. 
on one side, onesidedly, pogo. 
on purpose, maknsudi. 
on the part of, miongoni mwa. 
Once, mara moja. 
at once, mara moja, mara. 
onee only, mara moja tu. 
Only, peke yake, &c. (by itself, 
alone), tu, hassi, both following 
ihe word or phrase qualified. 
Orderly, taratibu. 
Out, nje. 
out and out, tama. 
Speak out, sema sana* 
Outside, nje, kwa nje. 

'outside of, nje ya. 
Outwardly, kwa nje. 
Over, juu ya {of place), zayidi ya 
(of quantify). Oyer in the sense 
of excess may be expressed by 



kupita, to pass ; and in the sense 
of finished, by kuisha, to come 
to an end. 
The baiUe is over, mapigano ya- 
mekwisha. 

P. 

Patiently, stahimilL 

Perhaps, labuda, hwenda, kwenda, 
kwa nasibu, inshallah. 

Perpetually, dayima, dbadan. 

Possibly, labuda, yamkini (it is pos- 
sible), kwa yamkmi (by possi- 
bility). 

Presently, halafu. 

Properly, vema, halisi, bawaba. 
-to, used as an enclitic subjoined 

to verbs and substantives. 
Amejiwekato, he has placed him- 
self properly. 

Q. 

Quickly, hima, himahima, kwa ha- 

i-aka, upesi, mbio (running). 
Quietly, taratibu, polepole. 
Quite, kabisa, pia halisi. 

R. 

Rather, zayidi (more), afathali (pre- 
ferably). 
mttch rather, sembuse, seuze. 

S. 

Secretly, kwa siri, ndani kwa ndani. 
Side by side, kandokando. 
Silently, kimyakimya. 
Since, tangu, toka, tokea. 
Slowly, polepole, taratfbu, kiada. 
So, when followed by as is generally 
omitted, when standing alone ii 



218 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



may le expressed by ginsi, and 
-vyo inserted in the fferb. 
He is not so taU as you are, si 

mrefu kama wewe. 
I did not know he teas so taU, si- 

kumjua ginsi alivyo mrefu. 
So far as, hatta. 
Sometimes, mara, mara kwa mara. 
Sometimes he laughs, sometimes he 
cries, mara hucheka, mara hulia. 
Soon, BSLSBk hivi (immediately), upesi 
(gulddy), bado kidogo (yet a 
little), karibu (near). 
Still, tena, hatta leo. 
Strongly, kwa nguvu. 
Suddenly, ghafala, mara moja, thd- 
ruba moja. 

T. 

Tfiat (how that), kwamba, ya kwa- 

mba. 
(in order that), illi. See p. 141. 
Then, is often expressed by the use of 

the -ka- terise, or by the verbs 

kwisha, to finish, or, kwenda, 

to go, 
Akiisha akatoka, having finished 

this, he w&fd out = then he went 

out, 
Akaenda akamkamata, and he 

went and seized him = then he 

seized him. 
(after this), baadaye, baada yake, 

nyumaye, nyuma yake. 
{then it was), ndipo. 
(in those days), zamani zile, eiku 

zile. 
(at that time), wakati ule. 
There, pale, huko, kule. Pale 

points to what is nearest, kule 

to what is farthest off. 
Thmt^ore, kwa sababu hii. 



Though, kwamba; the -Jd* tenses 
p, 136, when the ease is put as 
an existing one ; the -oge- tense, 
p. 138, where the case i$ put as 
not existing. 

Though he is, akiwa. 

Though he be, angawa. 

(even if), -japo, p, 138. 
Thus (in this way), bm, Mvyo. 

just thus, vivi hivi, vivyo hivyo. 

(in the same vay), vivyo. 
Till, hatta, mpaka wa. 
To (as the sign of the ir^nitive), 
ka- ; the u becomes w before a, e, 
or i, and is often omitted before 
o and u. 

Kwisha ;k ku^i^ba, to finish, 

Kwenda = ku-«nda, to go, 

Koga = kU'Oga, to bathe. 

To before a verb where it expresses 
the purpose or the object aimed 
at, is expressed by the use of the 
subjunctive, 

I stood up to look, nalisimama 
nione. 

Tell him to help you, mwambia 
akusapdie. 

I want him to go, namtaka aende. 

/ want to go, nataka kwenda. 
(In such eases as this the verb 
in the infinitive is used as a 
substantive.) 
■ {unto) is generally contained in 
the verb, kupa = to give to {not 
to give). If not contained in 
the meaning of the original verb, 
it may be expressed by the use of 
the applied form. In the few 
cases in which to cannot be 
brought into the meaning of the 
verb, it must be rendered by 
kwa. 



ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, &c. 



219 



(08 far 08% hatta. 
(to the house of), kwa. 
Togdher, pamoja, wote. 

When joined unthpereone togethei 
u expressed by forms of -ote, 
all 

twende sotei let us go together. 
mwende nyote, go together, 
wende wote, let them go together. 
both together^ wote, wote wawili. 
Topsy-turvy, kitwakitwa, vitwax - 

twa. 
TotaUy, kabisa, pia. 
Truly f kweli, ht^ka, yakini, inna. 
Twice over, kuwili. 

V. 

Unawares, gh&fala. 

Under, chini ya. 

Until, hatta. 

Up, juu. 

Upon, juu ya, case in -ni. See On. 

Upwards, juu. 

Utterly, kabifia, pia yote, tikltiki. 

V. 

Vainly, burre. 

Very, sana. Sana always follows 

the word qualified hy it. 
Vigorously, kwa nguvu, sana. 
VioUnUy, kwa nguvu, kassi. 

W. 

Well, vema, sana, -to. See Properly. 
Whati See p. 122. 

What do you want ? Wafaka nini ? 

Whai tree is it ? Mti gani huu ? 

What man ? Mtu yupi ? 
What = that which. See Relatives, 

p, 117. 
Wh&nH Lini? 

Whe/n (if, as soon as, &c.), the -ki 
tense, p. 136. 



(at the time when), -po, treated o» 

a relative particle and joined 

with the verb, p, 119. 
(during the time), wakati wa. 
when it rains, wakati wa mvua. 
When the harvest comes, wakati 

wa kuvuna, [wa]yunapo. 
(even if), -japo, p. 138, 
Whenever, wakati wote, killa -pa 

Whenever I go, killa nendapo. 
Where ? Wapi, api, p. 123. 
Where are you going f Wenda 

wapi? 
Wlitrt, ^jy>, kp, mo, treated cw relative 

particles and joined with fJie 

verb, Fo implies nearness, and 

mo the being inside, 
1 don't know where he is, simjui 

alipo. 
J don't know where J am going, 

sijui ninapokwenda. 
1 donH know where I came fromj 

sijui ninakotoka. 
Where the tree is (or was), penyi 

mti. 
Wherever, po pote, ko kote, mo mote. 
Wherever I go, killa neudako. 
Wherever I enter, killa ningiamo. 
Wherever I am, killa nilipo. 
Wherefore, kwa sababu hii or hiyo. 
Whether — or — , ao — ao — , 
Whether it be, licha. 
(if), kwamba. 
While, maaddm, maazdl. 
While, is generally expressed by 

the use of -ki- prefixed to the 

verb, p. 136. 
While it is yet early, kungali na 

mapema bade. 
Whyf Mbona? Kwani? Kwa 

nini? Ya nini? Kwa sababu 

gani ? Ginsi w Gissi gaui ? 



220 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



With, na, pamoja na. 
(as an instrument), kwa. 
(cantainingf having), -enyi See 
p. 97. 
Within, ndani 
Without, nje. 

Withoui (prep,), pasipo (where there 
is not). 
Without is generally expressed by 
the -sipo- tense (p. 146). It 
may he represented hy a simple 
negative. 
He is without shame, hana baya 

= he has no shame. 
Without, followed in English hy 
the participial or verbal in -ing, 
may he rendered hy the negative 
subjunctive of the verb. 
Without seeing him, asimwona 
Without there being, pasiwe. 
Wonderfully, ajib, ajabu. 



Y. 

Yearly y mwaka kwa mwaka. 
YeSy aee, e4e, na'am, vema, Djema, 
yakini, ndio, kwe]L 

Ewaa or Ee wallab are often used 
hy slaves or inferiors to express 
a willing assent. 

Inshallah is used as a promise to 
do something. 

Lebeka or Labeka, contracted 
into leb^, ebbe or even he, is 
used by inferiors as an answer 
when called. Superiors or 
equals generally use naam, the 
Arabic yes. 

Ndiyo yalio, that is just it 
Yonder, kule, kalee, p, 115, 11(>. 



Z. 



Zigzag, upogoupogo. 



( 221 ) 



INTEBJECnONS. 

There are in Swahili, as in all langaages, some 
scarcely articulate Interjections, and many of the natives, 
especially of the lower class, nse a great deal of action, 
often joined with half-articnlate exclamatory sounds, 
to illustrate and enforce their meaning. The following 
are the most usual Interjections, and those which can 
best be written. The words used for Tes and No are 
given in the preceding list, pp. 216 and 220. 

The ordinary salutations are in practice a sort of 
Interjections, not being very easily explained under 
any other head. 

A slave addressing a superior says Sihamoo or Ntuika" 
mooj for nashika miguu, I embrace your feet. The 
superior replies Marahaha, thank you, or welome, the 
word being originally an Arabic form of congratulation 
and well-wishing. 

Equals very commonly say when they meet Jambo or 
Tawho^ to which the reply is Jambo or Jawho sana. There 
is a playful or very affectionate way of continuing the 
dialogue thus — Jambo. Jambo. Jambo sana. Jambo sana. 
Sana sana, Sana aana. Kama lulu (like pearls). Kama 



222 8WAH1LI HANDBOOK. 

marijani (like coral), d:c,\ Ac, The more correct expre^ 
sions are— flw jambo f Are you well ? and the answer. 
Si jamboj I am well. It is difficult to explain these 
phrases intelligibly. Hu jambo f is literally. Are you 
not a matter or aflfair? or still more strictly. Are you 
not a word ? The meaning is very nearly that of the 
English, Is nothing the matter with you ? Sometimes 
Ha jamho is used to express. He is well, or Ha jambo 
Mdogo, He is not very ill, or He is a little better. One 
may ask, U hali gani ? What state are you in ? i.e.. How 
are you ? to which a proper reply is, Njema, hemd il lUahi^ 
Good, praise be to God. The Arabic Sabalkheirj Good 
morning, and Maaalkheir, Good afternoon, are often 
heard. The more elegant forms are Suhahh AUdh btlh- 
heir and Mosaic Alldh bilkheir. It is not usual to inquire 
about the health of a wife or of the women of a house- 
hold, unless among very intimate friends, or for some 
special reason. When necessary, one should say, Hu" 
Janibo nyumbanif or U hali gani nyumbanif How are 
you in the house, i.e.. How are your household, or 
those in your house ? It is proper, if you are asked 
how you are, always to answer, well, for the sake of 
the omen ; and similarly if you are asked Haba/ti gani f 
What news ? to answer Njema, good, and then after^ 
wards to give a true account of the matter. 

In Swahili Interjections a final h is often distinctly 
heatd. It requires much practice to enable a European 
to make this sound properly. 



( 223 ) 



LIST OF INTEEJECTIONS. 



Ak! An esolamation of mingled 
grief and surprize. The final 
h must be distinctly sounded. 

4h8dfa at (udnti, thank you. Ah- 
sdiU is an Arabio word mean- 
ing, Tou have done well. It is 
sometimes used profusely by 
way of mere compliment. 

AnUna, Amen, used at the end of 
a prayer. 

AH! Look yon I I tfayl It is 
used generally as a means of 
calling attention to what has 
been said, or is abortt to be said. 
It is a sort of vocal note of 
admiration. 

B. 

Bassil or B<ml That will do! 
EnoCigh ! Stop I No more I 

0. 

Chub I An exclamation of impa- 
tience and contempt; the ch 
is the Boimd most heard, tiie 
vowel being very short and in- 
sigiiifiQant. 



E. 

Ee! 01 The interjection of in- 
vocation. 

Ewe ! plva. Enyi I You there I A 
rather contemptuous way of 
demanding attention. It is 
used for Hi I I say I and any 
exclamation merely meant to 
attract notice. It must not be 
nsed to a superior and rarely 
only to an equal. It is custo- 
mary to call to them Bwana I 
ie., Master! The answers 
will be found in the previous 
list, p. 220, under the word 
Yes. 

H. 

Haya! An exclamation borrowed 
from the Arabic; it means, 
give your attention to this, go 
on with it. It is used where 
we say, Gome along! Look 
sharp! Be quick! Gk) on! 
If it has been proposed to do 
anything, Haya I means, liet 
us set about it. Haya! is 
commonly used by a master or 



224 



8WAHILI EANBBOOK. 



overlooker to hasten men about 
their work. 

Hima ! Quick I Be quick I Intake 
haste I Often doubled, Hima 
himal 

Hddi! with a great stress on the 
o. It is not right to enter any 
house or room (not your own) 
without first crying Hddi / and 
waiting for some one to come, 
or at least to answer, Kdrtb, 
Come in I 

J. 

Jel or Ye! Hullo I What now I 
Well! What is it? 

K 

Kartb I i.e., come near I It is used 
to invite people into a house, 
to join a party, or to sit down 
and put themselves at their 
ease. Kdrtb! may generally 
be translated, Gome and sit 
with us ! and a common answer 
is, Nimekaa kitako, I am set 
down. 

Kiftde! An exclamation of con- 
tempt. 

Kuaheri! Good-bye! Farewell! 
Sometimes a plural is made, 
Kuaheriniy though it seems to 
be an incorrect form. 

Sometimes a special friend 
adds, Ya huoncmOy as much as 
to eay, May we soon meet again. 

Kumbel What! What then! An 
expression of surprize, espe- 
cially used when things turn 
out not to be as they were 
represented to bei, 



Laitil Oh that! Would that! 
An exclamation of regret, a 
wish that things had been 
otherwise. 

Looo ! An exclamation of surprize ; 
the is more dwelt upon in 
proportion to the amount of 
surprize. 

M. 

Marahaha! Thank you I It is 
well ! used by way of acknow- 
ledging a gift or a compliment. 

Miye ! Me ! 1 1 I am the one ! 

Mwenyewe I Ton did it yourself I 

O. 

Olel An exclamation foreboding 
evil. Woe ! Ole wenu ! Woe 
uutoyou! Ole wangu9 Woe 
is me! 

8. 

8aa! You! I say! It is put 
after a word to give emphasis 
to it. Njoo saa ! Come on, do ! 

Salaam! Peace! Hail! It is 
used as a salutation by the 
Indians. The regular Arabic 
Salaam aleikum! Peace be 
with you ! and the answer, Wa 
aleik salaam! And with you 
peace! is not very commonly 
heard. Salaam is often used 
in the sense of compliments : 
Salaam Bibi! With the mis- 
tress* compliments, — said in 
presenting anything. 

SimiOa! Out of the way! Ori- 
ginally, as it is said, BismiUah, 
In the name of God. It is now 



LIBT OF INTERJEOTIONa. 



225 



the common cry by which people 
are warned of something com- 
ing. SimiUa pundal Make 
way for a donkey I SimiUa 
tibau! Take care of the plank I 
Two servants frequently go 
before a great man to clear the 
way for him, and call out to 
any one in the road, SimiUa! 
SimiUa! 

A plural SimiUeni! is some- 
times made as though it were 
the imperative of a verb. The 
more correct phrase for Get out 
of the way I is Jitenge ! 
Btarehe! Don't disturb yourself! 
When a new-oomer enters, the 
rest rise to do him honour, 
which he tries to prevent by 
saying, Star eke ! StareAeJ It 



is properly used to deprecate 
any trouble or disturbance on 
the speaker's account 

T. 

Tendeni ! Go on I Let us go ? 
Probably the imperative of ^- 
tenda, to do or to be employed 
about 

Tutu! Don't touch I Used to a 
child meddling with what he 
had better leave alone. 

V. 

Vernal Very well! So be it! 
That wHl do ! 

W. 

Weye! You! You are the onel 
It's you I 



226 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



FOEMATION OP WOEDS. 

The formation and introduction of new words go on 
so freely in Swahili, that no guide to the language 
would be complete without a section on the subject. 

Foreign words are adopted in a shape as nearly like 
their own as the rules in regard to Swahili syllables will 
allow. At first indeed a word may be used in its crude^ 
original shape, but it soon has vowels introduced into^ 
and subjoined to it, so as to bring it into a regular form. 
Arabic words seldom present great difficulties when 
once the gutturals have been toned down. Thus Jchdhar 
(news) softens into hahdriy wakt (time) becomes first 
wdkti and then wahdtiy hahr or gahr (a grave) is softened 
and expanded into hahurL It is seldom that an Arabic 
word presents so much difficulty as did these three. 
Portuguese has furnished some words, as kasha (caxa), a 
large box ; meza, a table ; mmnyo (vinho), wine. French 
gives a few, as hweta (boite) a box; divai (du vin) 
claret. An instance of English adaptation occurs in 
manowarij which is the current designation of an English 
man-of-war. 



FOBMATION OF WOBDS 227 

Verbs. 

Some rules have been given at the end of the section 
on Verbs for the formation of several derived forms 
(p. 157). Verbs in the causative and neuter forms may 
be made from other parts of speech, especially from 
foreign Adjectives, by changing their final syllable 
into -iaha or -e«Aa, -ilea or -eka, as though they had been 
originally Verbs. 

GhaU, dear. Kughalisha, to make dear. 
Laini, smooth. Ktdainisha, to make smooth. 

KulainikOj to be made smooth. 

Beside those formations which are in daily use> it ij9 
a great help to the understanding of the language to 
bear in mind the traces of formations not now ordinarily 
employed. In regard to Verbs it is a constant rule that 
those ending in -ua reverse the meaning of similar verbs 
-ending in -a only. 

Kufunga, to fasten. Kufunguaf to unfasten. 

Xufuka, to fill in a hole. Kufukua, to clear out a hole. 

Several verbs show traces of a rule, which prevails in 
some other African languages, that the change of -a into 
-ya gives the Verb a causative meaning. 

Kupona, to get well. Kuponyay to cure. 
Kuogopa, to fear. Kuogofya^ to frighten. 

There are many questions about the form of Verbs 
which need much more investigation. What is the rule 
by which some causatives are made in -sha and some in 
Hra f Has i^e -sha termination the effect of to make to 
he, and -za that of to make todof What is the explana- 
tion of the apparently neuter form of some active Verbs, 



228 8WAHILI HANDBOOK, 

BTicli as hafunika^ to cover? WHat is the effect of the 
terminations -ma and -to, as in hiungama and Teufumibata f 
What dialect did they originate in? What are the 
rules for the termination -anya^ which seems to he 
common in the most northerly Swahili ? 

It has been shown in the section on verbs how some 
tenses are formed by the use of an auxiliary, and some 
by a tense prefix which has no independent meaning. 
An example of the transition between the two is sup- 
plied by the three forms of the negative infinitive : 1. 
hitoa hujpenda ; 2. hutoa jpenda; 3. hutopenda. In the 
first form both words have a substantial independence ; 
in the second the principal verb, penda, is already 
drawn out of its proper form, and depends for ita 
meaning upon the first verb, toa, as upon a prefix ; in 
the third it has swallowed up the final of the first verb 
and appropriated its prefix hi-. The form of the future 
prefix which is used with relatives points to taha as the 
original form, and the verb JcutaJca is so like our own 
word to will that one can hardly be wrong in supposing 
that in both cases the change from a verb expressing 
volition to a mere sign of tense expressing futurity has 
proceeded in a similar manner. Now, if the tense pre- 
fixes were ever independent words, the principal verb 
must have been in the infinitive ; and, if so, the presence 
of the hir- before monosyllabic verbs, wherever the accent 
requires it, is fully explained ; it was dropped wherever 
it served no purpose, and retained where it wa« con- 
venient to retain it. The original independence of the 
tense prefix and of the principal verb would also go to 
account for the way in which the objective prefix clings 



FORMATION OF WORDS. 229 

to the principal verb; it would then have originally 
followed the hi-, and so been severed by it from all the 
other prefixes. The only cases in which the natives 
separate the prefixes from the verbs in writing seem to 
be where a particle of relation is joined with the -na-, 
"li-, and -takc^ prefixes, and in the past conditional or 
'■ngaM' tense. It is curious to have in such a word as 
ataJcayekiija the same letters exactly used to form a 
tense prefix and to express an independent verb. Ata- 
kaye kuja means, who desires to come, atakayekuja, who 
will come, in the sense of a simple future. 

Adjectives. 

Adjectives are made from Verbs in correct Swahili by 

substituting -vu or -fu for the final -a. Where the final 

is preceded by a consonant the Adjective is made from 

the applied form. 

Kunyamaa, to remain silent. ^nyamavu, silent. 
Kuharibu, to destroy. -haribifu, destructive. 

Verbs that end in -ka change this into -vu in making 
the Adjective. 

Kuchoika, to become tired, -chovu, tired. 

These forms do not now appear to be freely made or 
used in the common dialect of Zanzibar. A somewhat 
similar meaning may be expressed by the use of the 
variable Preposition -a followed by the Infinitive of the 

Verb. 

Substantives. 

Substantives may be freely made by prefixing to the 
simple form of the Verb the initial letters proper to the 
first, or to the fourth class, according to whether it is 



230 BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

a living being or a thing whicli does what the Verb 
expresses. It must be observed, that this form is so 
purely verbal that it takes an object after it just as a 
Verb would. 

Mfawya biashara, a trade maker, ^6., a merchant. 
Vifaa, things which are of service, neoessaries. 
Kifungua nUango, the door opener. 

The final letter is sometimes changed into -«, and the 
word ceases to govern an object. 

Msemi, a speaker. 

Where the final -a is preceded by a -6- it becomes -i;-. 

KwibOy to steal. MwivL, a thief. 

KugombOy to quarrel. Mgomvi, a quarrelsome person. 

Where the above rules would produce a common 
word with another meaning, the hu of the Infinitive is 
retained. 

KulimOy to eultivate. MkuUma, a cultivator. 

Mlima, a mountain. 

There are a few traces of a formation of verbals by 
changing the Idst letter into -e, as in -tevle, chosen, from 
kuteu[l]af to choose. 

The habitual doer of an action may be denoted by 
adding -ji to the simple form of the Verb and prefixing 
the initial letters proper to the first Class. 

Kuombay to beg. Mwombaji, a beggar, 

Kuiba, to steal. Mvnbaji, an habitual thief. 

Another way of denoting a person who does what the 
Verb expresses is formed by changing the final letter 
into -«/, 'Shi, or -zi, and employing the usual prefixes. 



FORMATION OF WOMB 8. 231 

When the Y erb ends in -lea the "lea beoomes sM ; where 
the Verb ends in -ta the -ta beoomes -m. 

Kwikoa^ to save. Mwdkozi, a sayioxn*. 

KnnunuOi to buy. Mnunuzi, a purchaBer. 

Kualect, to bnild (in fitone). MwasM, a mason. 

KufwOa^ to follow. Mfwuit a follower. 

The result of the action denoted by the Verb may be 
expressed by changing the £nal -a mto -o and using 
some appropriate prefix. 

Kuzaa, to bear. JlfoKoo, fruit, produce. 

KiUenday to do. KUendo^ an action. 

Kvoenda, to go. Mtoende, a journey, or going. 

Of the Substantival prefixes those of the fourth (Ki-) 
dlass are most often used. 

The same forms especially in the fifth Class are used 
to express the place where an action is generally done. 

Kudka, to bake. JoikOf a baking place. 

Kuku8anytk<i, to be assembled. MdkwanyikOj a gathering place, 

or an assembly. 

Words of similar meaning are also made by the termi- 
nations 'Zi 'shi, -si. See above. 

MavaOf or Mavazi, dress, garments. 
Kizao, or Kizaziy birth, a generatioB. 
Pendo, or Penzi, love. 

Where the Verb and Substantive are both borrowed 
from the Arabic, it is useful to remember that the Sub- 
stantive has generally a where some other vowel occurs 
in the Verb. 

Kuahudu, to worship. Ibada, worship. 

Kueafiri, to travel. Safari^ a journey. 



232 BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

Sometiines both the Arabic and the Swahili fonns 
occur. 

KujibvL, to answer. Jaicaim and wo/ Ati» an aasweat 

Yerbe joined with relatives, or with the particles of 
place or time, may be treated as Substantives. 

Wenddko ioie^ whitheraoeTer thoa goeek 
KUla nendapoj eTerj time I go. 
Zikerezwazo, tmneiy, tinned goods. 

SnbBtantives of place may be made from Adjectives 
by putting them into the form required by Mahaiu 
place (Class VIL). 

Panyamavuj a quiet place. 

The place where something is may be expressed by 

penyi, 

Fenyi mtendey where the date tree is» or wa& 

The place for doing anything may be expressed by 
pa followed by the Infinitive of the Verb* 

Pakutokea, a place to go out at, an ontlet. 

Abstract Substantives are ordinarily formed by means 
of the prefix U- or W-. 

Karimuj generous. Ukarimu, generosity. 

-eupcy white. Weupe, whiteness. 

Mwtzi^ a thief. Uizi, thievishness. 

Muuaji, a murder. Uuaji^ murders. 

Waziri^ a vizier. Uwaziri, viziership. 

An instance in which both Arabic and Swahili forms 
are used occurs in the word for enmity. 

Adui, an enemy. Wadui or Adawa, enmity. 

Nations, their country and language, are regularly 



FORMATION OF WORDS. 233 

expressed by the prefixes of the first, sixth, and fourth 
Classes. 

Mgala, a Oalla. UgdUif Galla land. Kigala, the Oalla 

language. 
Mzungu, a European. Uzungu^ the native country of the 

Europeans^ Kizungu, the language which Europeans 

speak. 

It ia to be observed that the U- form would also 
express the heing a Galla, European, (&c., and that the 
Ki- form denotes the sort or kind of anything, not of 
language only. It is seldom used absolutely except of 
the language, but when preceded by -a (of) its true 
meaning becomes evident. 

Mavao ya Kizungu, European dress. 
Viazi vya Kizungu^ potatoes. 

The Ki- form may be made from other substantives. 

Mavao ya Tcifaume^ royal robes (form mfaume, a king, and 
ufaume, kingdom or kingship). 

The formation of Adverbs and Prepositions has been 
described in the section on the smaller parts of speech. 



( 234 ) 






3 



hi 

QQ 

& 

o 
p: 



8 









o 



& 



«s 
S 
S 

o 

► 

1 

B 

6 



o 
Q 

a 
'^ 

O 

C 

I 



o 



X 









AS PI 






A 



I § I ^ 5. S. ^ S. 5i I § s. 

S^ S^ N^ S^ S^ S^ N^ N^ ^n/ N^ >^ V^ 



.S 



-3^ 






A 



An 



. .. J, ^ . ^ ^ -' i i i ^ 

>- W M O 



s<sg;i^5? \ ^^i 



I •* 






. i p i 5; 









i.^ 






5? h; ? s: ^s: 






M *4 ^ 

•^ S3 1-^ 



NJ ^ ^ ^ 

^ > ti 



( 235 } 



Table of the Preposition -a (of) 
in four Languages. 

SwAHiLX. Shambala. Ntamwbzi. Yaoi 



L 


Sing, 


Wa 


Ywa 


Wa 


Jwa 




Plur. 


Wa 


Wa 


Wa 


Wa 


IL 


Sing, 


Wa 


Wa 


Gwa 


Wa 




Plur. 


Ya 


Ya 


Ya 


Ja 


lU. 


Sing, 


Ya 


Ya 


Ya 


Ja 




Plur. 


Za 


Za 


Za 


Sya 


IV. 


Sing, 


Cha 


Kya 


Cha 


Cha 




Plur, 


Vya 


Vya 


Fya 


Ya 


V. 


Sing^ 


T<a 


Ja 


Lya 


Lya 




Plur. 


Ya 


Ya 


Ga 


Ga 


TI. 


Sing; 


Wa 


Lwa 


Lwa 


Lwa 




Plwr, 


Za 


Za 


Za 


Sya 


vn. 




Pa 


Ha 




Pa 


VIM. 




Kwa 


Kwa 


Kwa 


Kwa 


(IX.) 


Sing, 




Ka 


Ka 


Ka 




Plur. 




Vya(?) 


Twa 


Twa 



£KI> OF PABXI. 



HANDBOOK OF THE SWAHILI LANGUAGE 

AS SPOKEN AT ZANZIBAR. 



Part II. 
SWAHILI-ENGLISH VOCABULAKY. 



C 239 ) 



PEELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 



• C* 



In using the following Vocabulary it is necessary to remember that 
Swahili words change very much at the beginning and not often at 
the end. 

In searching for the meaning of a word, which is not to be found 
exactly as written, it is well to examine first the final syllable, so as to 
correct, or remove, any termination or enclitic which may be attached 
to it. These are as follow : — 

1. The passive of the verb is made by changing -a into -wa. Verbs 
ending in two consecutive vowels frequently use as their passive the 
passive of the applied form which ends in -liwa or -letoa. 

Kupenda, to love. KupendwOf to be loved. 

Kufungua, to unfasten. Kufunguliwat to be unfastened. 

Kuzaa, to bear. Kuzaliwat to be bom. 

Kukamboa, to buy back. Kukombolewa, to be bought back. 

2. Verbs ending in -a change the -a into -e in the subjunctive and 
imperative, and into -i in the negative present. 

Pende, love thou. 
4penc?e, that he may love. 
Hapendi, he does not love. 

The change of the final vowel distinguishes hapendi, he does not 
love, from hapenda, a contracted form of nikapenda, and I loved. 

3. The plural of the imperative is made by adding -ni to the 
singular. 

Pendant or Pendent, love ye, 
Sifuni, praise ye. 
Fikirini, consider ye. 



240 PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS, 

4. SubstantiTes forpa the locative case by adding -ni. 

Nyumhani mwangUf inside my house. 

Nyumbani kwangUf to or at my house. 

Nyumhani panguy by or near my house. All from Nyumha> 

5. -n» may stand for nini f What ? 

Watdkani f What do you want ? 

6. Jei How? is subjoined to the verb expressing the action in* 
quired about. 

Asemaje i How does he speak ? i.e., What does he say ? 

7. mnOy exceedingly, always follows the word it qualifies, and may 
be treated as an enclitic. 

8. 'to, which, however, rarely occurs in the dialect of Zanzibar, 
denoies goodness and fitness. 

Kuwekay to place. KuwehafOf to place properly. 
Manuka, smells. Manukato, scents. 

9. The relative signs and the particles denoting time and place are 
subjoined to the verb when there is no tense prefix, otherwise they 
follow the tense prefix. 

Tulala-po, when we sleep. 
Tuna-po-lalay while we are sleeping. 

The particles denoting time and place are, 

'po, when or where. 
'ko, whither or whence. 
-mOj wherein. 

These preceded only by the personal prefix imply the substantive 
verb to he, 

YupOy he is there, not far off. 

ZipOf &c., &c., they are there, not far oflF, &c., &c. 
Yuko, he is there, far off. 

Ziko, dec, &c., they are there, far off, &c., &c. 
Yumo, he is there inside. 

ZimOj &c., &c., they are there inside, &c., &c. 

The relative signs are, -cho, -lo, -o, -po, 'Vyo, -wo, -ye, -yo, -zo. 
These syllables with na prefixed have the meaning of and, or wit\ 
ttm, heVf it, or them. 



Preliminary observations. 241 

10. llie possessiye prononns may be used in enclitic forms. 

Thy, or your, may be expressed by subjoining, according to the 
class of the substantive, -eho, -lo, -o, -p^ -vyo^ -too, -2^0, or -20. 

Eta, hers, or its, may be expressed by subjoining -che, -e, -h, -pe, 
vye, -we, -ye, or -ze. 

Other enclitic forms of the possessive pronouns are,-— 

-nc/u, or 'angu, my. -etu, our. 

'ho,' or -ako; thy. -cnu, your. 

-ke, or -o^e, his, &c. -oo, their. 

The final letter of the substantive generally merges into the initial 
of the pronoun. 

Mioanangu, my child. Mwanetu, our child. 

Mwanako, thy child. Mwa7i.enu, your child. 

Mwandke, his child. Mioanao, their child. 

11. New verbs may always be formed when wanted by changing the 
final vowel into -ia or -ea, -lia or -lea, to make the applied form ; into 
'Za or '8ha, -iza or -eza, -isha or -esha, to make a eausatiP^e form ; into 
-ana, to make a reciprocal form ; and into -ha, -ika, or -eka, to make a 
neuter or quasi-passive form. 

12. In old and poetical Swahili the object of the verb is suffixed as 
well as prefixed, as in U-ni-hifathi-mi, Do thou preserve me ; where 
both the m and the mi denote the object of the verb. 

The syllables thus used are -cho, -lo, -ni, -nyi, -o, -po, -«i, -vyo, -wet 
•too, -ye, -yo, -zo. 

Having cleared the word of all adventitious terminations it wii 
probably be found at once ; if not, look for the first syllable, and so 
on, taking syllable by syllable until the word, its number, person, and 
tense, will all have been explained. It must, however, be borne in 
mind that nouns in u- or w- generally drop the initial letter in the 
plural and frequently substitute for it n- or ny-. 

Verbs and adjectives are here indexed under the first letter of the 
simplest form, or of that to which the prefixes are joined. 

Kupenda will be found as Penda kur, to loye. 
Mdbaya will be found as -baya, bad. 

Words which may be used as adjectives or as substantives, but from 
their nature can hardly be applied to any but animate beings, will be 
found under m- or mto-, as they can very rarely in the singular take 
any other prefix. 



242 PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 

Subetaiitives are indexed by the prefix with whioh they are generally 
used. It must be remembered, however, that the use of particular 
prefixes may be nearly always varied to suit any particular ehade of 
meaning, so that if the word is not to be found under one, it may 
happen that its meaning cai) be found under some other. 

Where no plural is mentioned, it is to be understood that the plural, 
if used at all, is in the same form as the singular. 

The following table of prefixes may be found useful. The use of 
each will be explained in the Vocabulary. 

Substantival pbepixes. 



Ch- 


Ki- 


Ma- 


Mw- 


U- 


W- 


J- 


Ku- 


•Mi- 


N- 


Vi- 


Wa- 


Ji- 


M- 


Mu- 


Ny- 


Vy- 




Adjectival 


PREFIXES. 










Ch- 


Ku- 


'M- 


Mu- 


Ny. 


Vi- 


J- . 


Kw- 


Ma- 


Mw- 


p. 


Vy- 


Ki- 


M- 


Mi- 


N- 


Pa- 


Wa- 


Pbonominal 


PREFIXES. 










Ch- 


Ku- 


Li- 


Mw- 


Vi- 


X- 


I- 


Kw- 


M- 


Pa- 


w- 


Z- 


Ki- 


L- 


Mu- 


U- 


Wa- 


Zi- 



Verbal prefixes. 

1. Personal or subjective prefixes, which take precedence of all 
others. 



A- 


♦Ki- 


*Mw- Si- *Vy. Yu- 


•Ch- 


*Ku- 


N- *Tu. *W- ♦Z- 


Ha- 


♦L- 


Ni- ♦Tw- ♦Wa- ♦Zi- 


Hu- 


♦Li- 


♦Pa- *U- ♦¥- 


♦I- 


♦M- 


♦p. ♦Vi- •Ya- 


2. Tense 


prefixes which 


L precede all except the signs of person. 


-a- 


-japo- 


-ku- -na- -si- -ta- 


-ali- 


-ka- 


-li- -ngali- -sije- -taka- 


-ja- 


-ki- 


-me- -nge- -sipo- 



* These may all "bt preceded bj J7a, to form negative tenses in the indicative mood, 
and personal prefixes followed by -<t- make negative subjunctives. 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 243 

3. Particles of place, time, and relation, "which follow the tense 
prefix, or, if there is no tense prefix, are subjoined to the verb. 



-cho 


-mo 


-wo 


-ko 


-0 


-ye 


-kwo 


-po 


-yo 


-lo 


-vyo 


-zo 


4. Objective prefixes, which always 


immediately precede the verb. 


• 

-1- 


-mw- 


-u- 


-ki- 


-n- 


-vi- 


-ku- 


-ni- 


-wa- 


-li- 


-pa- 


-ya- 


-m- 


-tu- 


-zi- 



A suppressed Z or r always exists between two consecutive vowels. 
It is often heard in the Merima dialect, and frequently appears where 
otherwise three or more vowels would follow one another. However, 
the more classical the Swahili, the less tolerant it is in any case of an 
I between vowels, or even as an initial letter. 

Tceee = helde, ete = lets. 

The following letters are interchanged ; 

I and r, a and shf and vulgarly ki and cMf and th and z, 

Zanzibar ch = t (M.). 

„ e = a (M.). 

„ h = kh (Ar.). 

„ j = d (M.), y (A.) (N.). 

„ t = ch (Ozi.). 

„ V = z (A.). 

„ z = V (Mer.), th (Patta and Ozi.), j (vulgar). 

The letters enclosed in parentheses denote the various dialects. 

(M.) = Mombas (kimvita). (Mer.) = Southern Coast dialect 

(kimerima). 
(A.) = Lamoo (kiamu). (Ar.) = Arabic. 

(N.) = Poetical Swahili (kingozi). 



SWAHILI-ENaLISH VOCABULARY. 



■•*•- 



The sound of a in Swahili re- 
sembles that of a in the English 
word "father." It is, perhaps, — 
except when doubled — somewhat 
sharper and lighter. 

When the final a of any prefix — 
except the negative prefix ha — ^is 
brought by composition to precede 
immediately either e or i, it coalesces 
with them and produces the sound 
of a long e, 

AJca-enda is prono.nnced dkenda, 

Akawa-ita is pronounced akatoeta, 

A and u have a tendency to 
coalesce into an o sound. 

Arabic substantives incorporated 
into Swahili have often been made 
by changing -i- in the verb into -o- 
in the substantive. 

Kubarizi, to hold a public 
audience. BarazOf a public 
audience. 

Kusafiri, to traveL Safari^ a 
journey. 

A occurs in some dialects where e 
is used in Zanzibar. See E, 



A-KG 

A = ^o, of. 

-a with a varying initial letter, 

of. -a is used in such phrases 

as the following for in: Unitie 

wa mcuiho, put it in my eyes. 

Ahamc^ioma ya kitovUf and he 

stabbed him in the naveL 

A; the sign of the third person 

singular prefixed to verbs when 

governed by substantives which 

denote animate oeiugs — he, she^ 

or it 

Where the tense prefix begins with 

a, one of the a's disappears. 
The following are instances of the 

way in which this a occurs. 
A-penda (for a-a-pendd), he loves. 
A-na-penda, he is loving, 
A-m-pendat he has loved. 
A'li'penda (for a-ali-penda), he 

loved. 
A-ka-pendaf and he loved. 
A-ta-penda, he will love. 
A-ki-penda, he being in the con- 
dition of loving. 
A-nge-pe/ndOiy h^ '^oraX^Vvi^. 



246 



A-NG 



AHI 



A-ngali'penda, he would haye 

loved. 
A-japo-pendat even if he loves. 
A'Sipo-penda, he not loving. 
A-pende, let him, or that he may 

love. 
A-si-pende, let him not, or that 
he may not love, or without his 
loving, 
•a-, the sign of the present in- 
definite; it follows the prefix 
denoting the person of the 
subject or npminative, and 
precedes that denoting the 
object or accusative. 
N-a-m-penda, I love him (I do 
him love). 
Acdi, choice, good. 
Aagif disobedient, rebellions. 
Ahadan, or abadij always, constantly. 
AMti ku-f to pass over, go across (a 
Abiria, passengers. [river, &c.). 

Ahirisha ku-, to put across, to ferry 

over. 
Ahudia ku-^ to give worship to. 
Ahudisha ku-, to cause to worship. 
Ahudu ku; to worship. 
Acha ku', to leave, leave alone, let 

be, let go, allow, acquit, divorce. 
Achana ku-, to leave one another, to, 

separate. 
Acliari, pickle, a relish made of 

lemon-juice and red pepper. 
Achia ku; to leave to or for, to be- 
queath to. 
Achilla ku; to pass oyer what a 
person has done, to forgive, to 
neglect. 
Ada^ a custom, especially a customary 

gift. 
AdabUj good manners, politeness. 
Kutia adahu, to make polite, to 
teaoh good manners. 



Adamu, Adam. 

Mufana AdamUy or Bin Adamu, a 
human being, a man. 
Adawa, enmity. 
Adi ku', to accompany a person part 

of his way. 
Adibu ku-, to educate, to. teaoh 

manners. 
Adilif right, right conduct. 
Adili ku; to learn to behave rightly. 
Adilisha ^u-, to teach to behave 

rightly. 
Adui, plur. Adui or maadui\ an 
Aee, Yes. [enemy. 

A/ttj plur. maafaj an enemy. 
Afaihali, rather, better of the two, 

best, preferably. 
Afia, health, good health. 
Afikana hu; to come to an agree- 
ment, agree. 
Afiuni, opium. 
-4/tt, wild jeismine. 
A/u ku-f to save, to deliver, to par- 
don, to preserve. Also, to get 
Afya. See Afia, health. [well. 

Afya ku; to make to swear. 
Aga ku-j to take leave of, to agree 

with. 
Agana ku-, to take leave of one 

another, to make an agreement. 
Agga ku-, to be lost, to perish. 
Agiza ku-, to commission, direct, 

give in charge, appoint to. 
Agizo, plur. maagizo, oommissioiv 

charge. 
Agua ku-, to predict. 
Agulia ku; to predict of. 
Ahaal No! 
Ahadi (vulgarlywa^<Kft), a promise, 

promises. 
Ahadiana ku-, to promise mutually, 

agree. 
Ahili, fEunily, relations. 



AHE 



AL 



247 



Ahera^ in the grave.ander the earth, 
after death, at the end of the 
world. [Ar. akhr, the other.] 

Ahidi hU'f to promise. 

Ahsdntf or Ahsanti, or Atanti, 
thanks 1 thank you I 

Aibika ku-^ to be disgraced, to be 
put to shame. 

Aibisha ku-^ to disgrace, to put to 
shame. 

Aibti, a disgrace, a reproach. 

Aina, kind. 

Aini ku-<f to appoint. 

Ainisha ku-, to show, point out. 

Aitiwalo, pronounced Etiwalo, what 
he is wanted (or called) for, a- 
itiwa-h. 

Ajdbisha ku-, to astonish, amaz& 

Ajabuj a wonderful thing, wonder- 
fully. 

AJalif fate, death. 
Kusalimika ajali, to be altogether 
come to an end (to be saluted 
by its fate). 

Ajara, merit. 

Ajibt or'Ajab! Wonderful 1 Won- 
derfully. 

Ajilit or djilit sake, cause. 
Kwa ajili ya, because of, for the 
sake of. 

Ajiri ku'j to hire. 

AjirisTia ku-t to cause to hire, to let 
on hire. 

*Ajjemi, Persian. 

Aka ku-^ to build in stone, to do 
mason's work. 

Akcdif some few, some. 
Akali ya watu, ya vitu, &c., some 
few men, things, &c. 

-aket or -akwe, his, her, or its, of 
him, &c. 
-ake yeye, his own. 

Akendtty for Akaenday and he went 



Akhera = Ahera, 
Akhtilaf, to quarrel. 

Atafanya akhtilaf y she will acold. 
Akia ku; to build for. 
Ak^ia ku-y to swallow, gulp down. 
Akiba, store, a thing laid by. 
Kuweka akiba, to lay up, to put 
by. 
Akida^ an ofiScer, a second in com- 
mand. 
Akida wa asikarif an army officer. 
Akidi ku-y to suffice. 
Akiisha or Akishay then, he having 

finished this business. 
Akikay a funeral feast for a child. 
AkUiy intelligence, wits, under- 
standing (generally treated as a 
plural noun). 
Akinay you — ^addressed to young or 
inferior persons. Akina hwana 
young sirs. Akina hibif my 
young ladies. 
AkiH ku-y to stand over, to remain 

behind. 
Akirisha kvr, to adjourn, put ofif, 

make to stand over. 
aJcoy thy, your, of thee. 
-ako wewe, your own. 
Akraha, relations. 
Akraha ya kuumeniy paternal 

relations. 
Akraha ya kukeni, maternal 
relations. 
Aly the Arabic article the. It is 
retained in many words derived 
from the Arabic, as Alf ajiri for 
Al Fajr, the dawn. Sometimes 
its form is varied, as Liwali for 
Al Walif the governor. 
In Arabic phrases the definite 
article prefixed to the second of 
two nouns is the sign of the 
possessive case, as Ra%i<i.i al 



248 



ALA 



Ingr^, a subject of the English, 
i.e.t a British subject. 
Ala, plur. maala or nyalaf asheath, 

a scabbard. 
'Aldkaj a tusk of iyory, 
Alafu, thousands. 
Alama, a mark, marks. 
Alasiri, one of the Mohammedan 
hours of prayer, about half-past 

3 P.M., afternoon. 
Alburueyidi (Ar.), of the aons of 

princes. 

Alf = ElfUy a thousand. 

Alfajiri, the dawn, the earliest Mo- 
hammedan hour of prayer, about 

4 A.M. A stress on the second 
syllable denotes very early dawn. 

Alfia, 

Kofia alfiaf a chiefs cap. 
AViamisi, Thursday. 
'Oli' or 'U', the sign of that past 
tense which denotes an action 
complete in past time. 
"U or 'li' sometimes stands for 
the verb to fee, as in a-li-ye, he 
who is, or merely, who. A-l% 
he is, or, he being. Nika-li, 
and I am. 
Alia ku-fio make a mark by striking, 

to wale. 
Alifuy Alif, the first Arabic letter, 

the alphabet. 
Aliha ku-, to invite, to call, to call 
invited guests to a wedding, to 
inform, to split, to click, to give 
a crack, to snap. 
Alikwa ku-^ to go through a certain 
course of medicine, consisting 
chiefly of various fumigations and 
a very strict regimen. 
Aliki ku-, to hang. 
Aliko, where he is, or was. 
AUmisha hu-, to instruct 



AHB 

AUomo, wherein he is, or was. 
Alisa, a dancing place, a house of 

amusement. 
Alisha ku-, to cause to snap. 

Ktuklisha nUambo wa bunduki^ io 
click the lock of a gun. 
AUah (Ar.), God, more reverently, 

AUah ta*ala, God the most high. 
Allah AUah, without delay or pre- 
tence. 
AUah hilkheir, may God make ii 

good. A common answer to the 

usual morning and aftomoon 

salutations. 
Almaria, embroidery. 
Almasi, a diamond. 
Ama — ama, either — or. 

Ama siyo f Isn't it so ? 
AmaJiy an act, a thing dona 
Amali, a kind of amulet. 
Amama (Ar.), a turban ? 
Amana, a pledge, a thing entrusted, 

a deposit, a present sent by anothei ' 

person. 
Amardf peace. 
Amara, urgent business. 
Amara (ya nanga), a cable. 
Amba ku-, to speak against, to talk 

scandal, to speak, to say. 
Amba. See Ambaye, 
Anibaa ku-, to go near to without 

touching, not to reach, to leave 
Ambari, ambergris. [unhurt. 

Ambata ku-, to attach, to stick. 
Ambatana ku-, to cleave together, 

to be mutually attached. 
Ambatiza ku-, to make to stick. 
Ambaye or Ambaye kwamba, who. 
The final syllable is variable, 
making ambazo, ambayo, &c., 
which. 
Ambaza ku-, to cause to pass near 
1 without touching. 



AMB 



AND 



249 



Aitibia Jcu-, to tell, to say to. 

Pass. Kuanibiwa, to be told, to 
haye said to one. 
AmMka ku-, to put (or be put ?) 

firmly together. 
Ambilika ku-, to be spoken to. 
Ambisana ku-, to be cemented to- 
gether, to stick together. 
Arnbisha ku-, to make to hold to- 
gether. 
Awibua ku; to peel, to husk, to take 

a morsel in eating. 
Arnbukiza ku-y to give a complaint 

to, infect. 
AmdeUian, a silky kind of stuff. 
Amerikano, American sheeting, best 
cotton cloth used in trading in 
the interior. 

Njia, &o., ya AmenkanOf the best 
Amili ku; to manage. [way, &c. 
Amina, Amen. 
Amini ku-, to believe in, trust. 

Ktuimini miu na kitu, to trust a 
man with something, to entrust 
something to some one. 
Amini, or Aminifu, trustworthy, 

faithful. 
Aminisha ku-, to entrust to, have 

perfect confidence in. 
Amiri, plur. maamiri, tat emir, an 
Amka ku-, to awake. [ofScer. 

Amkia ku-, to salute. 
Amkua ku-, to invite, summon (?). 
Amrawi, a dipping line, made fast 

to the foremost yard-arm. 
Amri, order, command. 

Amri ya Muungu, a matter in 

God's hands. 
. Sina amri, &c., I have no busi- 
ness, &c. 
Amria ku-, to put a thing at one's 

disposal, to give leave concerning 

something. 



I Amrisha ku-, to cause to be- ordered, 

order. 
Amru ku-, to order, command. 
Am ska ku-, to waken, cause to 

awake, rouse. 
Amu, Lamoo. 

Kiamu, the dialect of Lamoo, of 
the Lamoo kind. 
Amu, father's brother. 
Amua ku-, to judge, to separate two 
people who are fighting. 

Ta8Bi\e,Kuamuliwa, to be judged. 
Amuka ku- = Amka ku-, 
Amuru ku- = Amru ku-, 
AmusJia ku- = Amsha ku-. 
Amwa ku-, to suck (M.). 
Amwisha ku-, to suckle (M ). 
Ana, he has. 
Anakotoka, whence he is coming, 

where he comes from. 
-anana, gentle, soft. 

Upepo mwanana, a soft breeze. 

Mnji manana, clear, quiet water. 
Anapokwenda, whither he is going. 
Anapolala, while he is sleeping. 
Ana^a, pleasure. 
Andaa ku-, to prepare for cooking, 

to make pastry, &c. 
Andalia ku-, to prepare for, to make 

made dishes for. 
Andama ku-, to follow (M.). 

Mwezi umeandama, the month is 
up — the new moon has begun. 
AvdamarM ku-, to accompany (M.). 
Andika ku-, to put in order, to lay 

out, to describe, to write, to steer 

a vessel. 
Andikanya ku-, to put things one 

upon another, as plates in a pile. 
Andikia ku-, to write, to lay out, 

&c., for or on account of. 
Andikiwa ku-, to be written, laid 

out, &o., iOT. 



250 



AND 



ASH 



Andikiana ku', to write to one 

another, to correspond. 
AnfUf knowing, ingenious. 
Angaj a great light, the firmament. 

Ndege za anga, birds of the air. 
Aiiga ku'^ to jump or dance about 

liko a wizard. 
Angaika ku-f to be in a great bustle. 
Angalia ku-j to look attentiyely, 

regard, take notice, obserye, be 

careful, beware of. 
Angama ku-, to be caught in falling 

(as by the boughs of a tree). 
Angamia kvr, to be ruined, to £bJ1, 
come to poverty. 

utaangamia mwituniy you will be 
lost in the jungle. 
Angamisha ku-^ to ruin. 
A'ngaza ku-, to be light, to be bright, 
to remain awake, to keep watch. 

Kutia mwangaza, to give light to. 
Angia ku-y to bewitch by dancing 

and jumping about. 
Angika ku-, to hang up, to hang 

against a wall. 
-^ngu, my, of me. 

•angu mmi, my own. 
Angua ku-, to take down, to hatch 
Anguka ku-, to fall down. [eggs. 
Angukia ku-, to fall down to, or 

befora 
Angusha ku-, to make to fall down, 

throw down. 
Ania ku-, to purpose, think of doing. 
Anika ku-^ to spread out to dry. 
Ankra, a bill of sale. 
Anim kU', to take out of the sun or 

rain. 
Anuka kit-, to leave off raining. 
Anwani, the address of a letter. 
dnza ku-y to begin. 

The kU' is frequently retained, as 
AUkwanza for Alianza, 



AnzUiza ku-, to make a beginning. 
AnzuHini, Johanna. 
Aot or. 

Ao — €U), either— or. 
-ao, their, of them. 
Apa ku-, to swear. 
Apendalo, what he likei. 
Apii where? 

The a sometimes is bo ran into 

the final a of the preceding 

word as to be scarcely separable 

from it. 

Apia ku-, to swear to, or about 

Apisha ku-, to make to swear, to 

adjure. 
Apiza ku-, to swear at, to imprecate 

against, to wish bad luck to. 
Apizo, plur. maapizo, an imprecation. 
Arabuni, Arabia, in Arabia. 
Arahuni, earnest money. 
Arathi, pardon. 
Arha'a, four. 
^Ari, a thing to make one blush a 

disgraceful thing. 
Aria, following, party, faction. 
AricM, lower 1 let out the rope 1 
Arifu, knowing, ingenious. 
Arifu kur, to inform. 
Arohaini, forty. 
Ardbatashara, fourteen. 
Aaa ku-, to forbid. 
Asali, syrup. 

AsaJi ya nyuM, honey. 

Asali ya mua, the boiled juice of 
the sugar-cane, treacle. 

Asali ya tembo, fresh palm wine 
boiled into a syrup. 
'Ashara, ten. 
Asharini, twenty. 

Aehekali, better in health during 
sickness. 

Kuwa ashekaJi, to improve. 

Kufanya ashekali, to make better 



ASH 



AZM 



251 



Asheratij dissipation, a dissipated 

person. 
AsJiiiki hu'f to love, to love ex- 
ceedingly. 
Ashiria ^u-, to make a sign to. 
AikHr^ customs duties. 
Am &tt-, to neglect one's duty to, to 
rebel, to be disobedient. 
Kwui tnkewef to quarrel with his 
wife, and not do his duty by 
her. 
Ankari, plur. ankari, or waasikari, 
a soldier. 
Kutia asikari, to enlist. 
AsUtf origin, nature, source. 
Amha ku-, to cause to loaye, to 

cause to cease. 
Asitasciy not yet. 
Assubui, in the morning. 
Asuaa, that which assuages bitter- 
ness or pain, takes away an un- 
pleasant taste. Also Azuza. 
Ata, Atana, Alia, AiUia^ (M.) = 

Acha, Achana^ &c. 
Atamia ku; to sit on eggs, to hatch 

eggs. 
Atamisha ftu-, to put under a sitting 
Atguly average. [hen. 

Aihabatisha ku-, to control. 
AtJiama, highness. 

Mwenyi atJiatna, the Most High. 
Athari = Haihari, 
Athibu ku', to chastise, to punish. 
Athibieha ku-, to punish. 
Athima = AHhama. 
Athimika ku-, to be exalted. 
Athini ku-, to call to public prayers. 
Athuuri, noon, one of the Moham- 
medan hours of prayer. 
AH 1 look you 1 I say 1 
Atihu, a fragrant herb used in the 

composition of kikuba, 
Attia, gratuitously, for nothing. 



Atuka ku-, to crack as the earth 

does in very dry weather. 
Aua ku-, to make a survey of, to go 

over and look at. 
Auka ku-, to grow large enough to 

bear fruit. 
Aunt ku; to help. 
Avya ku; to produce, to spend, to 

give away. 
Atoa fell-, to go out or away (Mer.). 
Awala, a promissory note. 
Aujoli or Aowali, first, almost^ 

nearly. 
Awaza ku-, to dispose, to allot to 

each his share. 
Awesia, a kind of dhow like a hedeni 
(which see), without any prow or 
head, with merely a perpendicular 
cutwater. 
Awini ku-, to help, to supply. 
Amthi ku-, to barter. 
Ayari, a cheat. 
Ayari,Q, pulley, the stay of a dhow's 

mast. 
Ayasi, a sort of grass. 

Ayasi ya shdba, brass wire. 
Ayika ku-, to dissolve, to melt. 
AyiOii ku-, to preach. 
Aza ku- = Waza ku-, to ponder, 

think. 
Azama, a nose ring. 
Azifoa, a chaxm used to bring back 
a runaway slave and to drive 
away evil spirits. 
Azima ku-, to lend. 

Azimwa ku-, to borrow. 
Azimia ku-, to make an azima 

against. 
Azimia ku-, to resolve. 
Azimu ku'i to resolve (generally 

pronounced dzimu), 
Azizi, a rarity, a curiosity. 
Azma, scent, fume. 



252 



AZU 



BAJ 



Azur, perjury. 
Azuza. See Anuci, 



B. 



B has the same sound as Id 
English. 

N changes into m before h, as 
mbaya for n-baya, bad. 
mhwa for n-bwaf a dog or dogs. 

Nw also becomes mb. 
mbinguforn-wingu^ the heavens. 
Ba, a shortened form of btoafui, 
^oo, evil 
Baa, plor. maJbaa, a worthless 

person, an utter reprobate. 
Battda, afterwards. 

Bcuida ya, after (used preferably 
of time). 

BaadayBf or haada yoke, after it, 
then, afterwards. 
Baathiy some. 

Baathi ya watu, some persons. 
Baazi, a sort of pea growing on a 

small tree somewhat resembling 

laburnum. 
Bab (Ar.), a gate, chapter. 

Bab Ulaya^ goods for the Euro- 
pean market. 

Bab KacMf goods for the Cutch 
trade. 
Bab U amana, something entrusted* 

lent to one. 
Baba, father. 

Baba mdogo, mother's brother. 

Baba wa kambo, stepfather. 

Baba wa waana, 1 ^^ ^^j 

Baba wa watoto, 3 
Babaika ku-, to hesitate in speaking, 

to stutter, to talk in one's sleep. 
Babata ku-^ to pat, to tap, to flatten 

out. 
BabUf grandfather, ancestors. 



Bdbua hu-t to strip ofiT. 

Babuka ftu-, to tear, to become torn. 

Badala or ^oiialt, a thing given in 

exchange for something else, an 

equivalent. 
Badani, See Kanta. 
Badili hu-, to change, exchange, 

alter, become changed. 
BadUika ku-, to be changed, to be 

changeable. 
BadOf not yet, used generally to 
express that the matter in ques- 
tion is as yet incomplete. 

Bado kidogo, soon. 
Bafe, a kind of snake. 
Ba/ta, a sort of fine calico. 
Bagaia or Bdgalc^ a buggalo, a 

large kind of dhow square in the 

stem, with a high poop and a 

very long prow. Most of the 

Indian trading dhows are of this 

build ; they have generally a 

small mizen-mast. 
Bdghala, a mule. 
Ba^ua ku", to separate. 
Baguka ku-^ to be separate. 
Bagukana ku-, to be in hostility, to 

be on two sides. 
Bahari, sea. 

Bahari {Tali, the Persian Gulf. 

Bahari ya Shamy the Red Sea. 
Baharia, a sailor, Bailors, the crew. 
Bahasha, a square bag or pocket 

with a three-cornered flap to tie 

over the opening, frequently 

used to keep books in. 
BahatioT Bakhtif luck, good fortune. 

Bakhti miUf that depends on the 
Bahatisha ku-, to guess. [person. 
Baini, &o. See Bayinij &c. 

Baini ya, between. 
Bajia, small cakes of ground beans 

and pepper. 



BAJ 



BAO 



253 



Bajuni = Mgunyou 

Bakakuy to dispute, to argue. 

BahhUif a miser, covetous, miserly. 

Bdkhti, See Bahati. 

Baki, the remainder, what is left. 

Bdki (in arithmetic), subtraction. 

Baki kti-, to remain, to be over, to 
be left. 

Bakoraf a walking stick with the 
top bent at right angles to the 
stem. The best are made of a 
white, straight-grained wood 
(mtobwe), which will bend nearly 
double like a piece of lead without 
breaking or returning. 

Bakshay a packet, of clothes, &o. 

Bakuli, plur. mabakuli, a basin. 

Bakwia ku-, to snatch out of the hand. 

Balaay sorrow. 

Balamwezi, moonlight, moonshine. 

Balanga, leprosy. 

Balasif a large kind of water jar. 

Bali, but. 

Balighij a boy who is a virgin, a youth. 

Balungi, plur. mabalungi, a citron. 

Bamha, plur. mahamha, a plate, a 
flat thin piece. 

BambOf an instrument like a cheese- 
taster thrust into a bag to draw 
out some of its contents for ex- 
amination. 
Mahambo, large mats for beating 
out mtama upon. 

Barnvna, spring-tides. 

Bana ku-, to squeeze, press as in a 
vice. 

Banada, the Somauli coast. 

Banajiri or Banagiri, a kind of 
bracelet ornamented with points 
or blunt spikes, much worn in 
Zanzibar. 

Banda, plur. mei&a7k2a, a large shed. 
Banda la/rasi, a stable. 



Bandari, a harbour. 

Bandera^ a flag, red stuff the colour 

of the Arab flag. 
Bandiy a seam. 

Kupiga bandi (in sewing), to 
tack, to run, to baste. 
Bandia, 

Mtoto uoa handiay a doll. 
Bandika ku-, to put on a plaster or 

any medicament. 
Bandua ku-, to strip off, to peel off. 
Banduka ku-, to peel off, to come 

out of its shell, to be peeled. 
Bangi, bhang, Indian hemp. 
Banika ku-, to roast on a spit over 

the Are. 
Baniya, a temple, a building, 

especially that at Mecca. 
Banja ku-, to crack nuts, &c., io 
break off the shell or husk by 
beating. 
Banyani, plur. mdbanyani, used in 
Zanzibar as a general name for 
the heathen Indians who come 
as traders from Gutch. 
Banza. 
Kujibanza, to squeeze oneself 
against a wall or into a hedge 
to allow some one else to pass. 
Banzi, plur. mabanzi, a small thin 

piece of wood, a splint. 
Bao, the tiller of a small craft (A.). 
Bao, a game in card-playing. 
Mabao sita = Mvumo, 
Kutia bao, to mark, in card-play- 
ing. 
Bao or Bao la komwe, a board with 
thirty-two small holes, each 
about the size of a teacup, for 
playing a very favourite game 
also called bao^ with komwe, or 
with pebbles. The holes ai^ 



254 



BAP 



BAT 



in the ground, and any small 
things used to play with. 
Kucheza hao, to play at the above 
game. 
Bapa, the flat of a sword, &e. 
Kupiga hapa, to strike with the 
fiat of a sword. 
BarQy a species of antelope (Helgo- 

bag^ arundinaceus). 
Bara or Barra, wild country, coat-t. 
The Arabic name, Z^njibarr, is 
compounded of this word and 
Zenj or Zanj\ a negro : hence the 
Zanguebar and Zanzibar of our 
maps mean only the negro 
coast The Swahili name for 
Zanzibar is invariably Unguja. 
Barr Faris^ the piece of Persian 

coast belonging to Oman. 
Barr Swdhily the Swahili coast. 
Bardbaj proper, just, exactly. 
Barahara, a broad open road. 
BarafUf ice. 

Baragumoj a spiral horn used as a 
musical instrument ; it is blown 
through a hole at the small end. 
Barai, an after brace carried on the 
lee side to steady the yard of a 
dhow. 
BaraJca, a blessing. Also common 

as a proper name. 
BarakoUf a mask reaching down to 
the mouth, universally worn by 
the women of Oman and Zan- 
zibar of the upper class. 
Barasi, a disease. 
Barathuli, an idiot, dupe, simpleton. 

Also hardzuli. 
Barawaiy a swallow. 
Baraza^ a stone seat or bench table, 
either outside the house or in 
the hall, or both, where the 
master sits in public and receives 



his friends ; hence the durbar, or 

public audience held by the 

saltan, and the council then held. 
Baridij cold, wind. 

Maji ya haridi, fresh water. 
BaridiyabiSj rheumatism. 
Bariki Au-, to bless. 

N.B. — Young people are said in 
Zanzibar to barikij when they 
first have conneotion with the 
opposite sex. Girls are thought 
old enough between nine and 
ten. 
Barikia ku', to give a blessing to, 

to greet 
Bariyo (A.), what is left ftom. the 

evening meal to be eat^i in the 

morning. 
Barizi ku-, to sit in harcuM, to hold 

a public reception. 
Barra, See Bara, 
Barua or Bdrua, a summons from a 

judge, a bill, a letter. 
Baruti, gunpowder. 
BarzvXiy a fool. 
Basbasi, mace, the inner husk of 

the nutmeg. 
Bashire kheri ! may it be lucky 1 
Bashiri ku; to prognosticate, to 

foretell by signs. 
Bashishi or BakhehUihif a gift, a 

largess. 
BoMri ku-i to foresee. 
Bass or Bassi, enough, it will do. 

When it begins a sentence it 

means — well, and so, and then. 

When it follows a word or phrase 

it means — just this and no more. 
Bastola, a pistol. 
Bata, plur. mabatay a duck. 

Bata la hukini, a goose. 

Bata la mzinga,^ a turkey. 
BcAela^ the common dhow of Zan- 



BAT 



BIA 



255 



zibar ; it haB a aqTiare stem and 
an ordinary boat-like head. 

Baii, tin, block tin* 

Batil. See Betili. 

BaUli hrt-^ to annnl, \o abdisb, to 
reduce to nothing. 

BcMi^ the log (nautical). 

BatohcUOf plur. ma-, yarions colours 
and marks on an animal. 

Bau, a i?izard's fortune-telling 
board. 
Kupiga hau^ to divine. 

Baura, a European anchor. 

Bavunif alongside, at the side. 

Bawa, plur. mdbatjoa, the wing of a 
bird. Also, the scales of a fish. 

Bawahe, a hinge. 

Bawahu, ahouse-porter, door-keeper. 

BawoBir, hemorrhoids. 

-hayOf bad. It makes mbaya with 
nouns like nyumba. 

Bayini ku-, to recognize, to know. 

Bayinika hvr, to be notorious, to be 
well known. 

Bayinisha ku-, to distinguish be- 
tween, separate distinctly. 

Bazazi, a trader, esx)ecially a cheat- 
ing, oyer-sharp trader, a huck- 
ster. 

jBe&a ku; to carry (a child) on the 
back in a cloth. 

Bebertty a he-goat given toooyering, 
strong, manly. 

Bedari, the fixed lower pulley for 
hoisting a dhow sail and yard, 
bitts to which and through which 
thej tVaW are passed and secured. 

Bedeni, a kind of dhow with a per- 
pendicular cutwater, or merely a 
piece of board by way of prow, a 
sharp stem, and high rudder head. 
The mast of a hedeni is per- 
pendicular; in other dhows it 



bends forward. They come from 
the Arab coast. 

Bee, a bargain, a trade, transaction. 

Beek, for Lebeka. 

Bega, plur. mahega, the shoulder. 

Behetoa, the inner court in a stone 
house. All large houses in Zanzi- 
bar are built round an inner 
court 

Beina, between. 

Beina yako nini f what do you know 
about it? Compare Bayini, 

Bekua ku'^ to parry, to knock off a 
blow. 

Belghamu, phlegm. 

Bembe, food and confectionery 
cooked by a woman for her lover, 
and sent to him during the 
Bamathan, 

Bembeleza ku-, to beg. 

Bembesha ku-, to swing. 

Bembeza ku- \ to beg, to caress, to 

Bembeleza ku- ) pat. 

Benua ku-, to put forward, to stick 
out. 
Kubenua kidari, to walk with the 
chest thrown forward. 

Benuha ku-, to warp. 
Kubenuka kiko kwa kiko, to warp 
and twist this way and that. 

Besa, vulgar Arabic for peso. Bes- 
teen = Pesa mbUi, 

Besera, canopy of a bedstead. 

Beida = Batela, 

Beti, a pouch for shot or cartridges. 

Beti (Ar.), a house, a line in verses. 

Betili or Batil, a dhow with a very 
long prow, and a sharp stern 
with a high rudder head. They 
generally belong to the Bhemali, 
or Persian Qulf Arabs. 

Beyana, legible, clear. 

Bia, 



256 



BIA 



BOM 



Kula &ta, to gnbscribe to a meal 
in common, to go shares in- a 
meal. 

Biashara, trade, conmierce. 
Kufanya hiashara, to trade. 
Mfanyi biasharctf a trader, a mer- 
chant. 

Bibi, grandmother. li is used as a 
title answering to my lady, and 
for the mistress of slaves. 

Bifeo, plnr. mahiboy a cashew apple. 

'hichi, fresh, green, unripe, raw, 
under-done. It makes mhichi 
with nouns like myumba, 

Bidii, effort to surpass, emulation. 

Bihira, a virgin. 

Bikiri leu-, to deflower. 

BHashii gratis, for nothing. 

BUauri, a drilling glass. 

BiJdi, the lead (nautical). 

Bilisi = Mis, the devU. 

BiUxL, except by. 

BUula, a tap. 

Bimci, insurance. 

Birna ku-, to insure against acci- 
dents. 

Binadamu, a human being (a son 
of Adam). 

Bindo, the loin-cloth held up to 
receive or carry things, a bundle 
in a cloth. 
Kukinga bindo, to hold up the 
loin-cloth to receive things. 

Bingwa, shrewd, knowing. 

Binth daughter. Women in Zan- 
zibar are generally mentioned by 
their father*s name only, as, Binti 
Mohammed, Mohammed's daugh- 
ter. 

Binka,i>luT. mabirtka,a large vessel 
for holding water, a cistern-. 

Birinzi, a dish composed of meat, 
rice, pepper, &c. 



Bisha hu, to knock or ory Hodi I at 
a door to attract the attention of 

the people within. It is held 

very wrong to go beyond the 

entrance hall of a house unlesf 

invited in. 
Bisha ku', to work in sailing. Also, 

to make boards. 
Bishana ku-, to squabble, to quaneL 
Bishara, a sign, a good sign. 
Bisho, tacking, working to the wind- 
ward. 

Upepo wa bisho, a foul wind. 
Bisif parched Indian com. 
Bitana, lined^double, used ofolothea 

wherever there are two tfaickv 

nesses. 
Biihaa, goods, merchandise. 
-bivu or -wiru, ripe, well done. It 
makes mbivu with nouns like 
nyumba. 
Bitoi, plur. mabiwi, heaps of garden 

rubbish, leaves, wood, &o. 
Bizari, a small seed used in making 

curry. 
Size, a wild hunting dog. 
Bizima, a buckle. 

'bofu or -ovu, rotten, bad, malicious. 
Boga, plur. m^boga, a pumpkin. 

Boga is used as a general word 
for edible vegetables. 
Bogi = Pombe, 
Bogoa ku-, to strip off leaves, to tear 

apart, to chop away wood in 

making a point ? 
Bohari or Bokhari, a storehouse, a 

house with a shop and warerooms. 
Boko, a buffalo (?). 
Bokoboko, a kind of food made of 

wheat, meat, &o. 
Bokwa, jack fruit [Tumbatu]. 
Boma, plur. maboma, a heap of 
I stones^ a rampart. 



BOM 



BUN 



257 



Bomha, a pump. 

Bomboromoka, plur. ma-. See Boro- 
mokfL 

Bomoa ku-j to make a hole'thiough, 
'to break down. 

B<ym6ka hu-, to have a hole broken 
through it, to be broken down. 

B<mgOf plur. mdbonge, brains, mar- 
row. 

Bonih, a bridge, a pier. From the 
French pont. 

Bonyea kit-, to give way, to crush 
in. 

BonyesTia ku-^ to press so as to sink 
-in, to make an impression with 
the fingers. 

Bonyeza ku-, to examine by feeling 
and pressing. See Tomasa, 

BoondCf a valley, a hollow place. 

Bora, great, very great, noble, best, 
most. 

Borif the bowl of a native pipe. 

Boriti, a rafter, thick poles cut in 
the mangrove swamps and laid 
.flat to support the stone roofs. 

Borohoa, a dish made of pounded 
pulse with flavourings. 

Boromoka ku-, to fall down a preci- 
pice. 

Boromokaf plur. ma-, precipices, pre- 
cipitous places. Also hoTnboro- 
moka, plur. mo-. 

Borongaboronga ku-iio make a mess 
of one*B work. 

Boroshoa, a long-shaped black in- 
sect found in dunghills. 

Boruga ku-, to stir, tocut up weeds. 

•hovu or "Ovu, rotten, bad. 

Bozay a narcotic made by mixing 

bhang with flour and honey. 
Bozibozij idle, dull. 
Brdmini, an agent (working for two 
per oeni. commisBicm.) 



Bua, plur. mabua, the stem of millet. 
Buba, rupia, applied to various skin 

diseases. 
Bvhu, (A.), a teat. 
BubUf plur. mahubUy dumb. 
Bubujika ku-, to bubble out, burst 
forth. 

Kububujika machozi,to burst into 
tears. 
Buhur (M.), dumb. 
Buddi, escape, other course. 

Sina buddif I have no escape, ie., 
I must. 
Buetaj a box. Also bweta, (From 

the French, boUe,) 
Buga, a hare (?). 
Bughuthu ku-, to hate. 
Buhuri, incense. 
Buibuij a spider. 
Buki or Bukini, Madagascar. 
Buki, a kidney. 
Bukuy a very large ^nd of rat. 
BuU, plur. mabulif a teapot. 
Bwmbuazi, perplexity, idiotcy. 

Kupigwa na bumbuazi, to become 

confused and abashed, so as not 

to be able to go on with one's 

business. 

Bumbwiy rice flour pounded up with 

scraped cocoa-nut. 
Bumia, sterupost. 
BumundafpluT. mabumundOf a sort 

of soft cake or dumpling. 
Bundi, a native bird, an owl. Owls 

are thought very unlucky. 
Bunduki, a gun, a musket. 
Bungala, a kind of rice. 
Bungo, plur. mabungoj a kind of 

fruit something like a medlar. 
BungUf plur. mabunguy a dish. 
Bungu la kupozea uji, a saucer to 

cool gruel in. 
Bunif raw ooffee^ oof&^VMsm^R^* 



258 



BUN 



Bum, an ostrich. 

Bunt, (Ar.), sons, the sons of. 

Bum ku-f to begin, to be the first to . 

do a thing, to invent. i 

Bunju, a poisonous fish. ' 

Bunzif plur. tnabunzi, a stinging . 

fly. 
Buothu ku-, to hate. 
BupurUf plur. mahupurUf an empty 
shelL 

Bupuru la kitwa, a skulL 
Burangenif of two colours, neither 

black nor white ; also painted of 

different colours, as a dhow with 

a white stripe. 
Buratangi, a whirring kite. 
Burdu. 

MarcLshi ya Burdu, eau-de- 
Cologne. 
Burt, large-sized tusks of ivory. 
Buriani, a final farewell, asking 
a general forgiveness. 

KtUakana huriani, to ask mutual 
pardon and so take a last fare- 
well. 
Burikao, Port Durnford. 
Burre, for nothing, gratis, in vain, 

for no good. 
Burtida, a book of the prayers used 

over a dying person. 
Burudika ku-, to be refreshed. 
Burudisha hu-, to cool, to refresh. 
Buruga ku-, to mix up, to knock 

together. 
Buruhaniy token, evidence. 
Buruji, battlements. 
Burura ku-, to drag, to haul along. 
Busara, prudence, subtlety, astute- 
ness. 
Busati, a kind of matting made at 

Muscat. 
BushasMj a thin sort of stufil 
BushUf tow, a gun-wad. 



Bushuti, woollen staff, blanket, 

Bustani, a garden. 

Busu, a kiss. 

Bu8u ku-, to kiss. 

Buu, plur. mahuu, maggots in meat 

(M.). 
Buyu, plur. mdbuyu,^ calabash, the 
fruit of the baobab tree, used 
to draw water with. 
Buzi, plur. mabmif a very laige 

goat 
Bwaga ku-, to throw down what 
one has been carrying; to tip 
off one*s head, &c; to zest by 
throwing down one's burden. 
Kubwaga nazij to throw down 
cocoa-nuts. 
Btcana, master of slaves, master of 
the house, lord, sir, used politely 
inspeaking of one's own father. 
Bwana mdogo, master's Bon, 
Bwanda = Choanda, 
Bwara, 
Reale ya btoaro, c dollar WMler 
full weight, a 5-frano piece. 
Bweta, See Bueta, 

C. 

C is required only in writing the 
sound of the English oh or of the 
Italian c before i and e. 

In the dialect of Zanzibar ch 
frequently stands for the t of more 
northern Swahili, as — 

Chupa, a bottle (Zanzibar) = 
Tupa (Mombas). 

Kucheka, to laugh (Zanz.) = 
Kuteka (Momb.). 

Chi, in the vulgar dialect, and 
amongst the slaves in Zanzibar, 
stands for ki in the more correct 
language. Several of the tribes in 



OHA 



259 



the interior follow the same rule as 
the Italian in always pronouncing 
the same root letter ch before t and 
6, and k before a and o. 

Thus slaves commonly say, Chitu 
chidogo, a little thing, for Kitu Id- 
dogo. 

As a rule, in all Swahili where 
the preformative ki has to be pre- 
fixed to an adjective or pronoun or 
tense prefix beginning with a vowel, 
it becomes chy thus — 

Kisu cAan^tt, my knife, not Kisu 
kiangu, 

Kisu chakata, the knife cuts, not 
Kisu kiakata. 

Kitu chema cho chote^ every good 
thing whatsoever, not Kitu 
kiema kio kiote. 

Where ch represents ki, as the 
initial sound of a sub&tantive, the 
plural is made by changing ch into 
vy, 

Chomho, a. veaael, Fyomfto, vessels. 

But where ch stands for t, the 
plural is made by prefixing ma, 

Machupa, bottles. 

Mdchungwa, oranges. 

The Arabs confound in their 
pronunciation ch with shy though 
the sounds are in Swahili perfectly 
distincfc. 

It would perhaps be an improve- 
ment to write all cTt's which repre- 
sent ki by a simple e, which has 
been used for this sound in Sechuana, 
and to write all ch*B which repre- 
sent t by ty, which has been used 
for this sound in writing Zulu. But 
both are here represented by eh, 
because at least in the infancy of 
our studies it is puzzling to have 
two signs for one sound, and neither 



way of writing might be quite satis- 
factory in all cases. 

There is little doubt that the 
northern t becomes ch by the addi- 
tion of a 2^ sound, as the same sort 
of change takes place with d, which 
becomes dy or j, and sometimes 
with n, making it ny or the Spanish 
n. The same sort of change in 
English vulgarizes nature into 
nachur, and Indian into Injun, 

Ch- = ki', which see. 
Ch', a prefix required by sub- 
stantives beginning with ki' or 
eh- representing ki-, in all pro- 
nouns and adjectives beginning 
with a vowel, and in tenses of 
the verb where the tense prefix 
begins with a vowel. 
Cha, of. 
Many quasi-substantives may be 
made by prefixing cha to a 
verb, kitu being understood, as 
chakula (a thing), of eating, 
food. 
Cha or Chayi, tea. 
Cha kU; to fear [A.] (the ku- bears 
the accent, and is retained in the 
usual tenses). 
Cha kit-, to dawn, to rise [of the sun] 
the ku- bears the accent, and 
is retained in the usual tenses. 
Kumekucha, the dawn (it has 

dawned). 
Kunakucha, the dawning. 
Usiku kucha, all night till dawn, 
all night long. See Chwa. 
Chaanzu, the beginning of a piece 

of ukiri, 
Chacha ku-f to ferment, leaven, 

work. 
Chachaga hh^ to wa&h cloiVi^A Vr| 



260 



-OHA 



OHA 



dabbing them gently on a stone 

or board, not to beat them so hard 

as is implied in the more common 

word hufua, 
'Chache, few, little, not many or 

much. It makes chache with 

nouns like myumba, 
ChacMa ku-, to come with a press, 

to come much at once, to burst 

upon one. 
Chachu, bran, leaven, ferment. 
Chafi, a kind of fish. 
Chafi. 

Chafi cha mguu^ calf of the leg = 
tafu. 
Chafu, plur. machafu, the cheek, 

especially that part which is over 

the teeth. 
Chafua ku-t to put in disorder, 

disarrange. 
Chafuka ku-, to be in disorder, in 
dishabille. 

Moyo umechafuka, (I) feel sick. 
Chafukachafuka ku-, to be all in a 

mess, to be all tumbled about 

and m confusion. 
Chafuo, a poisonous horse-fly. 
Chafya ku-, or kupiga cTiafya, or 

kwenda chafya, to sneeze. 
Chagaa = Tagaa. 
Cha^o, land crabs. 
Chago, the place where the head is 

laid (on a kitanda, etc.). 
Chagua, ku-, to pick out, select, 

garble. 
Chai, or Chayi, tea. 
Chakaa ku-, to become worn out, 

to become good for nothing 

through age or use. 
Choke, or chakwe, his, her, its. See 

•ake, 
Chaki, chalk, whitening, putty. 
Chako, thy. See -ako. 



Chakogea = IKUu'] eha ku-^fffea^ a 
thing to bathe in, a bath. 

Chaktila, something to eat, food, a 
meal. 
Ghakida cha Btibui, breakfast 
Chakula cha moharM, dinner. 
Chakula chajioni, supper, which 

is the chief meal of the day. 
Plur. vyaJctUa, victuals. 

Chale, a out or gash made for orna- 
ment. 

Chali, backward, on his back. 

Chama, a club, guild, band of 
people. 
Waana chama, members of it 

Chamba cha jicho, a white film over 
the eye. 

Chamba, plmr. vyarnbo, a bait 

Chambua ku-, to dress, clean, pick 
over, as to pluck off the outer 
leaves of vegetables when sending 
tliem to market, to pick the 
sticks and dirt out of cotton, to 
pick cloves off their stalks, 

Chamhulia ku-, to clean up, to dress 

up work or things. 
Chamburo, a plate for wire drawing. 
Chamchela, 

Pepo za chamchela, a whirlwind, 
Chd'msha kanwa (something to 

wake the mouth), something 

eaten first thing in the morning. 
Chana = Tana, 
Chana ku-, to comb. 
Chanda, plur. vyanda (M.), a finger, 

a toe. 
Chandalua, an awning, a mosquito 

net. 
changa, young, immature. 
Changa ku-, to sift away chaff and 
husks. 

Ktda kwa kuchanga^ a feast 



OHA 



OHK 



261 



where each contributes some^ 
thmg to the eDtertainment. 
Changa'mka ku-, to be genial, to be 

hearty and pleasant. 
Ckangamusha hu-y to cheer up. 
iJhanganya ku-, to mix. 
Changanyika ku-, to be mixed. 
Ckanganyisha ku-, to perplex. 
Changarawiy girt,little white stones 

like those in coarse sand. 
ChangOt plnr. mjo/nge, a peg to hang 

things upon. 
CJiango, small intestines, round 

worms. 
ChangUy a kind of fish. 
ChangUf a tribal meirk (?). 
Changu, my. See -angu, 
Chani = Tanif on the back, back- 
ward. 
Chania ku-, to comb for, &o, 
Chanikiwitif green. 
Chanja Aw-, to cut up [firewood, &c.]. 
Chanjiwa ku-, ndui, to be cut for 

small-pox, to be vaccinated. 
Chano, plur. vyano, a large wooden 

platter, a mortar-board. 
Chanua ku-, to put forth leaves. 
Chao, their. See -ao. 
Chapa, plur. machapa, a stamp, 
-a chapa, printed. Pype, 

Kupiga chapa, to print. 
Chapa ku-, to beat, to stamp. 
Chapachapa, wet througb, all 
dripping. 
Chapeo, a hat. From the French 

chapeau (?). 
Chappa or Chappara, excessively. 
Chapuo, a sort of small drum. 
Chatu, a python, a crocodile (?). 
Chavu, plur. vyavu, a net. 
-chavu, filthy, unwashed. 
Chawa, a louse. 
Chayi, tea. 



Chaza, an oyster. 

Chazo, a sucker fish. 

Cheche, a small box (such as a 

lucifer-box). 
C%ecJ^e,abrownmangou8te. Also = 

cheohi, 
Cheche, a spark. 
Chechea ku-, to walk lame. 
Chechele, an absent person, one who 

goes far beyond where he In- 

tended^stopthroughinattentlon. 
CJiechemea ku-, to be lame. Also, 

to reach up, stretch up to. 
Chechi, plur. machechi, a apark. 
Chegua ku-, to choose. 
Cheka ku-, -to laugh, to laugh at. 
Chekelea ku-, to laugh at, because ot 
Cheko, plur. nuicheko, a laugh, a 

loud laugh. 
Cheka ku-, to fear for, about, &a 
Chelema, watery. 

Chelewa ku, to be overtaken by 
something through thought- 
lessness, to wake up and find 
it broad daylight, to be struck 
foolish, to be dumbfounded. 
Also, to be too late. 

Sikukawia wala sikuchelewa, 1 

did not delay, and I was not late. 

Cheleza ku-, to keep, to put on one 

side, to put off. 
Chelezea ku-, to keep or put aside 
Chelezo = Chilezo, £for. 

Chemhe, a grain, grains. 
Chemhe,])luT, vyembe (N.), an arrow, 

the head of an arrow or a harpoon. 
Chemhe cha moyo (A.), the pit of 

the stomach. 
Chembeu, a chisel. 
Chemchem, a spring of water. 
Che'mka ku-, to boil, to bubble up. 
ChenezQ, plur. vyenezoj a measuring 

rod, line, &o. 



262 



CHE 



OHl 



Chenga Jcu-y to cleave, to cut wood, 

to prune. 
Chenge chenge, small broken bits. 
Chenja = CTienza, 
Chenu, your. See -enu, 
Chenyi, having, with. See -enyi. 
Chenzar a large kind of mandarin 
orange. 

Chenza za Majjemi, Persian, ».«., 
good chenzas. 
CheOy plur. vyeOf measurement* 

measure, length, breadth, &o., 

position in the world, station. 
Cbepeehepe, wet, soaked with rain, 

wetted. 
Chepuka "ku- = Chipuha, 
Cherawif a well-known mangroTe 

swamp in the island of Zanzibar. 
Chereej a grindstone. 
CherevUf cunning, subtlety. 
Cherkhanay machine. 

Cherkhana cha kushona, a sewing 
Cheruwa, measles. [machine. 

ChetezOf plur. vyetezoy a censer, a 

pot to fume incense in. 
Chetit plur. vyetij a pass, a passport. 
CTtetUf our. See -etu, 
Chewa, a kind of fish. 
Cheza ku-, to play, to dance. 

Kucheza gwaridij to be drilled 
in European fashion. 

Kucheza komari, to play for 
Clieza, a kind of oyster. [money. 
Cheza ku-j to play with. 

Kuchezea unyago^ to deflower a 
virgin (?). 
Chi = Ki: 
Chicha, the scraped cocoa* but after 

the oil has been squeezed out. 

It is sometimes used to rub on 

the hands to clean them of grime, 

but is generally thrown away as 

lefoM. 



Chichiriy a bribe. 

Chikapo = Kikapu, a basket. 

Chikichi, plur. machikichiy the findt 
of the palm-oil tree. 
Kichikichi, plur. vichiktchi^ the 
small nuts contained in the 
fruit of the palm-oil tree. 

Chilezoy plur. vHezo, a buoy. 

Chimha ku-^ to dig (M. timiba), 

Chimbia ku-, to dig for (M. timbid). 

Chimhia ku- = Kimbia ku-, to run 
away. 

Chimbua ku-, to dig out or away. 

ChimbukOf origin, first beg^inning. 
source. 

Chinii down, bottom, below. 
Yuko chinif he is down stairs. 
Chini yay under, below. 

Chinja ku-, to cut, to slaughter 
animals by cutting the throat, 
which is the only manner allowed 
by the Mohammedan law, hence 
generally to kill for food (M. 
kutinda). 

Chinki, a small yellow bird kept in 
cages. 

Chinusi, a kind of water sprite, 
which is said to seize men when 
swimming, and hold them un- 
der water till they are dead, (?) 
cramp. 

Chinyango^ a lump of meai 

Chipuka, &c. = Chupuka^ &c. 

Chipukizi, a shoot, a young plant. 
See Tepukuzi. 
Chipukizi ndio mti, children will 
be men in time. 

Chiriki, a small yellow bird often 
kept in cages. 

Chiro, chironi = Choo, ehooni, 

Chiroko = Chooko, a kind of pulse. 

Chiti = Cheti, a note of hand, a rote 
of any kind. 



CHa 



OHO 



263 



Cho, -cHoy -eho-t which. 
Che chote, whatsoever, 

Choa, ringr^orm. 

Gwoha hu-, to poke oat from, out 
of a hole. 

Chochea ku-, to make up a fire, to 
turn up a lamp. 

Chochelezea hu-, to stir up and in- 
crease discord, to add fuel to the 
fire. 

Chofya hu-. See Chovya. 

Choka ku'y to become tired. 
Niinechoka, I am tired. 

Chokaa, lime. 

Chokea, a stye in the eye, hordeolum. 

Chokoa ku; to clear out, to free 
from dirt, enlarge a small hole. 

ChokdchokOy a kind of fruit with a 
red prickly rind, white pulp, and 
a large kernel. 

Cholcora ku-y to pick (with a knife, 
&o.). 

Chokoray plur. machokora^ a hanger- 
on, a follower, a dependaut. 

Chokoza ku; to teaze, to irritate. 

Chole, a place on the island of Zan- 
zibar famous for cocoa-nuts ; also, 
the chief town of Monfia. 

Choma ku-, to stab, to stick, to 
prick, to dazzle. Vulgarly in 
Zanzibar — to use fire to in any 
way, to bum, to roast, to parch, 
to fire, to apply cautery, to bake 
pottery. 

ChomhOy plur. vyombo, a yessel, a 
pot, a dhow. 
Vyombo is used for household 
utensils, things used in a 
house, goods. 

ChoTnea ku-. See Choma A:w-. 

Chomeha ku-^ to be stuck into, to be 
set on fire. 

Chomelea kii-, to take out a bad 



piece of cloth, thatch, &o., and 

put in a.new one. 
Chomoza ku-, to be hot. 
Chonga ku-, to cut, to adze, to hollow 
out, to cut to a point. 

Kuchonga kalamuy to make a pen. 
Change, canine teeth, cuspids. 
Chongta ku-, to cut for, or with. 
Chongea ku-, to do a mischief to, to 

get (a person) into trouble, to 

inform against 
Chongeleza ku-, to earry tales, to 

backbite. 
Chongo, loss of an eye. 

Kuwa na chongo, to have lost an 
eye. 

Mwenyi chongo, a one-eyed person. 
Chongoka ku-, to be precipitous. 
Choo, plur. vyoo, a privy, the bath- 
room, which always contains one. 
Chooko, a small kind of pea, very 

much resembling the seeds of 

the everlasting pea of English 

gardens. 
Chopa, plur. machopa, such a quan- 
tity as can be carried in the two 

hands. 
Chopi. 

Kwenda chopi, to walk lame in 
such a manner as that the lame 
side is raised at every step. 
Chopoa ku-f to drag out of one's 

hand. 
Chopoka ku-, to slip out of the hand. 
Chora ku-, to carve, to adorn with 

carving, to draw on a walL 
Chorochoro, scratches, marks* 
Choropoka ku-, to slip out of one's 

hand. 
Choveka ku-, to put into water, to 

steep. 
Chovya ku-f to dip, to gild. 
Chosha ku'f to tire, to make tired. 



264 



€H0 



OHU 



Chosi = Kisoze. 

Chota ku-y to make np tw little at a 

Chote, all. See -ote. [time. 

iJhovUy weary, tired. 

Choyo, greediness, avarice. 

Mwenyi choyo, a miser. 
Chozi, plor. machozi, a iear, a tear- 
drop. • 
Chub! shtl nonsense! 
Chubua ku-y to take the skin off, to 

bruise. 
Chvbuachuhua ku-^ to bruise about, 

to batter. 
Chvhuka IfU; to be raw, to be 

bruised. 
Chubwi, a plummet. 
Chuchu ya ziwa, a teat. 
Chuchumia ku-, to stretch up to 

reach something. 
Chui, a leopard, leopards. 
Chuja ku-f to strain. 
Chujuka ku', to have the colour 

washed out. 
Chvkiy the being easily disgusted 
or offended. 

Ana chvJci huyu, he is easily put 
out. 
Chukia ku-, to be disgusted at, to 

abhor, to hate, not to bear. 
Chukiwa ku-f to be offended. 
Chukiza ku-, to disgust, to offend. 
Chukizisha ku-, to make to offend. 
Chuku, a cupping horn. 
Chukua ku-, to carry, to carry 
off, to bear, to support, to sus- 
tain. 

Kuchukua mimha, to be pregnant. 
Chukulia ku-, to carry for a person. 

Pass, kuchukuliway to be carried 
for, to have carried for one, to 
be borne, to drift. 
Chukuliana ku-, to bear with one 

Miother. 



ChvJcuza hu*, to make, to oany, to 

load. 
Chula or Churck, plur. vyuUk, a frog. 
Chuma, plur. vyuma, iron, a piece 

of iron. 
Chuma ku^ to pluck, to gather, to 

make profit 
Chumbti, plur. vyumba, a room. 
Chumvi, salt. 

Chumvi ya haluti^ sulphate of 
Chuna ku, to flay. [magnesia. 

Chunga ku-, to pasture, to tend 

animals. 
Chunga ku-, to sift. 
Chungu, plur. vyungu, an earthen 

cooking pot. 
Chungu, anto. 
Chungu, a heap. 

Chungu chungu, in heaps. 
-chungu, bitter (uchungu, the 

quality of bitterness). 
Chungulia ku-, to peep. 
Gkungwa, plur. machungvsa, an 
orange. 

Chungwa la Mzungu, a sweet 

orange. 

Chunika ku-, to lose the skin, to be 

Chunjua, a wart. [flayed. 

Chunuka ku-, to love exceedingly, to 

long for. 
Chunuzi = ChinuH, 
Chunyu, an incrustation of salt, as 

upon a person after bathing in 

salt water. 
Chuo, plur. vyuo, a book. 

Chuoni, school. 

Mwana wa chuoni, a scholar, 
learned man. 
Chupa, plur. machupa, a bottle. 
Chupia ku; to dash. 
Chupuka ku' or Chipuka ku', to 

sprout, become sprouted, to shoot, 

io spring. 



CHU 



DAM 



265 



Qiupuza ku't or Chipuza hu-^ to 
sprout, to throw out sprouts, to 
shoot, to spring. 
Churvkiza ku-, to drain out. 
Chururika ku- = ChuruzUca ku; 
Churuway measles. 
Churuza ku-, to keep a stall, to 

trade in a small way. 
Churuzika ku-, to run down with. 
Kuchuruzika damu, to bleed 
freely. 
Chussa, plur. vyutsat a harpoon. 
Chuuza = Churuza. 
Chwa hd-y tor set (of the sun). The 
hd- bears the accent and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Mchana kuchwa, or kutvoat aH 
day till sunset, all day long. 



p. 

D has the same sound as in 
English. It occurs as an inltal 
letter chiefly in- words derived from 
the Arabic. 

Lot r and t become d after an 
n. BefUj long, makes kamba ndefu, 
a long rope, not nrefu. 

Kanitafutia, and seek out for me, 
when pronounced quickly becomes 
Kandaftia, 

D in the dialect of Mombas be- 
comes j or dy in that of Zanzibar. 

Ndool Come (Momb.). Njool 
(Zanz.) 

Bee C and J. 

Doha, a small tin box. Also, a fool. 

Dacha ku, to drop. 

Dadaj sister, a term of endearment 

among women. 
D n ku-, to pry into thiiigs, to 



ask impertinent and unnecessary 
questions. 

Bafina, a hidden treasure. 

Daftari, an account book. 

Dafu, ^ur. ffla^-afu, a cocoa-nut 
fully grown before it begins to 
ripen, in which state it supplies a 
very favourite drink. When the 
shell has begun to harden and 
the nutty part to thicken, it ceases 
to be a Dafu and becomes a 
Koroma. 

Dagad, a kind of very small flsh 
like«?hitebait. 

Daggla, a short coat. 

Dai ku-, to claim, to sue for at 
law. 

Daka ku-, to catch, to get hold of. 

Dakika, a minute, minutes. 

Daku, the midnight meal during 
the Ramathan. A gun is fired 
from one of the ships at Zanzibar 
about 2 A.M., to give notice thai 
the time for eating is drawing to 
a close. The name is said to be 
derived from the saying : — 

** Lent upeH, kesho kuna ndaa kuu." 
** Eat quickly, to-mocro w there will be 
great hunger." 

Dakuliza ku-, to contradict, to deny 

formally, to rebut. 
Dalali, a salesman, a hawker,, an 

auctioneer. 
Dalia, a yellow composition much 

used as a cosmetic : it is said ta 

give softness and a sweet smell 

to the skin. 
Dalili, a sign, a token. 

Hatta dalUi, anytliing at all, even 
a trace. 
Dama, a game played on a board 

like chesB. 
Damani = DemanC 



266 



DAM 



BBU 



Dam% blood. 

Danga Itu-, to take up carefully, as 
they take up a little water left 
at the bottom of a dipping place 
to avoid making it muddy. 

DanganVca hu-, to be cheated. 

BanganiMa ku-, to put to confusion. 

Danganisha leu-, to confuse. 

Danganya Jcu-, to cheat, to humbug, 
to impose upon. 

Danzi, plur. madanzi, a bitter, 
scarcely eatable sort of orange. 
The Danzi is reputed to be the 
original orange of Zanzibar. The 
name is sometimes applied to 
all kinds of oranges, and sweet 
oranges are called madanzi ya 
Kizungu, European (Portuguese) 
oranges. 

Dao, See Dau. 

Dapo, plur. madapo, a native 
umbrella. 

Darahiy plur. - madarahi, a rose 
apple. 

Daraja, a step, a degree, a rank, a 
staircase, a bridge, a league. 

2>araMt,a class for reading, a regular 

meeting for learning. 
Dart, a roof, an upper floor. 

Darini, up-stairs, or, on the roof. 
Darizij embroidery, quilting. See 

also Kanzu. 
Darumeti, part of a dhow, inner 

planking. 
Dasilif a detergent powder made 
of the dried and powdered leaves 
of the mkunazi, 
Dasturi, See DestuH, 
Dau, plur. madau, a native boat 
sharp at both ends, with a square 
mat sail. They are the vessels 
of the original inhabitants of 
Zanzibar, and chiefly bring fire- 



wood to the town fiom the sooth 
end of the island. 
Davlati, the government. 
Dawa, plur. dawa or madawa, a 
medicine. 
Dawa ya kuTiara, a purgative. 
Dawa ya kutapika, an emetic. 
Dawamu ku-, to persevere. 
Dawati, a writing desk. 
Bayima, always, perpetually. 
Bayimara = Dayima, 
Bebe, tin can. See Baha. 
Beheni, lime and fat for ehunam- 
ming the bottoms of native craft. 
Beheni kit-, to chunam the bottom 

of a dhow. 
Beka ku-, to refuse to be pleased, 

to be perverse, to be teazing. 
Belki, a donkey's walk. 
Kwenda delkt, to walk (of a 
donkey). 
Bema, a kind of fish-trap. 
Bemanij the sheet of a sail. 
Bemani, the season of gentle 
southerly winds, beginning about 
the end of August. It is applied 
less correctly to the whole season 
of southerly winds from April to 
the end of October. 
Bendaro, a sort of dance. 
Benge, 
Kukata denge, to shave the hair 
except on the crown of the head. 
Dengftt, peas, split peas. They are 
not grown in Zanzibar, but are 
brought dry from India. 
Beni, debt, a debt, debts. 
Beraye (?), armour. 
Besturiy a sort of bowsprit, to carry 

forward the tack of a dhow-sail. 
Besturi, custom, customs. 
BeuU, a silk scarf worn round the 
waist 



DE V 



DUA 



267 



Devaif claret, light wine. 

Dia, composition for a man's life, 
fine paid by a murderer. 

Dibajiy elegance of composition, a 
good style. 

Didimia ku-, to sink. 

Didimikia Jcu-y to bore with an awl, 
&c. 

IHdimisha hu-, to sink, to cause to 
sink. 

Digalij part of a native pipe, being 
the stem which leads from the 
bowl into a vessel of water 
through which the smoke is 
drawn. 

Diko, i>lnr.madikOf a landing-place. 

DimUy a lime. 
Dimu tamUt a sweet lime. 

XH'ni, religion, worship. 

J)ira, the mariner's compass. 

Diriki ku-, to succeed in one's pur- 
pose by being quick, to be quick 
enough to catch a person, to be 
in time. 

Birisha^ plur. madiHshat a window. 

Diioani, plur. madiwanij a council- 
lor, a title of honour among the 
coast people. 

Doana, a hook. 

Dohi, a washerman. 

Doda ku'f to drop. 

Dodo. See Embe. 

Dodokij plur. madodoki, a long 
slender fruit eaten as a vege- 
table. 

Dodoa ku-y to take up a little at a 
time. 

Dofra, plur. madofra, a sailmaker's 
palm. 

'dogoj little, small, young, younger. 

Dohaan, Dokhaan, or Dohani, a 
chimney. 
Marikebu ya dohaanf a steamship. 



Hence Dohaniy or Dokhanij a sort 
of tall basket in which fruit 
is brought on men's heads to 
market. The foundation is 
made of sticks about two feet 
long, loosely tied together, 
which are supplemented with 
plaited cocoa-nut leaves, until 
the whole becomes perhaps six 
feet high and fifteen to twenty 
inches in diameter. These 
dohani are often decked with 
flowers and green leaves. 
Dokaa ku-, to nibble. 
Dokeza ku-, to give a little part of 

anything, to give a hint. 
Dokra, a cent 
Domo. 
Kupiga domo, to tell a person in 
confidence. 
Dona ku; to peck. 
Donda^ plur. madonda, large sores. 
Donda ndtigu, malignant ulcers. 
DondOf pi. madondo, a tiger cowry. 
Used to smooth down seams with. 
Doncio, starch, the dressing of calico. 
Dondoa ku-, to pick up small frag- 
ments, to pick up rice, &c., to 
pick up bit by bit. 
Dondoka few-, to drop from little by 
little. 
Mbegu zimenidondoka, the seeds 
dropped from my hand one by 
one. 
Dondoro, Dyker's antelope. 
Donea ku-, to flutter like a bird. 
Donge, plur. madonge, a small round 

thing, a ball. 
Donoa ku-, to peck, to sting. 
Doti, a loin-cloth, a piece of cloth a 

little less than two yards long. 
Doya ku', to go as a spy. 
Dua, worship, theolo^. 



268 



DUA 



Duara, a windlass, anything ronnd. 

Dudct plur. madudej a what-is-it ? 

a thing of which you don't know 

or have forgotten- the name. 
Duduj plur. madudUf an insect, 

insects. 
Duduvuhj a kind of hornet which 

bores in wood. 
-du/u, insipid, tasteless. 
Duka, plur. maduka, a shop. 
Dukiza ku-t to listen secretly. 
Dukizi, plur. madukizif an eaves- 
dropper, a tale-bearer. 
Dumhuza, a plant having big yellow 

flowers with dark centres. 
Dumia ifeu-, to persevere. 
Dumisha ku-y to make to continue. 
Dumu, a jar (?). 

Dumu ku', to continue, to persevere. 
Dun, a fine. 
Dundu, plur. madunduy a large 

pumpkin shell used to hold 

liquids. 
Dunge, the green skin of the ca- 
shew nut, an immature cashew 

nut. 
Dunguj plur. madunguy the roof 

over the little stages for watching 

com, &c. 
Dumgumaro^ a kind of spirit, also< 

the drum, &c., proper for expelling 
Duni, below, less. [him. 

Dunia, the world, this world. 
Durahinif a telescope, an eyeglass. 
Kupiga durdbini, to use a glass, 

telescope. 
Duru ku; to surround. 
Durusi ku; to meet in a regular 

class for study. 
Dusamali, a striped silk scarf or 

handkerchief worn upon the head 

by women. 
Duumif a dhow sail. 



B 

Diuii, plur. maduzij one who de- 
lights to find out and proclaim 
secrets and private matters^ 



E. 

E has a sound between tiiose of a 
in gate and of ai in chair. 

In the dialect of Zanzibar it is 
often substituted for the a of more 
northern Swahili, especially as re- 
presenting the AiAhio feVha, 

Merikebu, a ship, is in the 
Mombas dialect Marikabu, and in 
the Arabic Markah. 

The sound of e often arises from 
the fusion of the final a of a prefix 
with an e or i which follows it, as — 

Akenda for A-ka-enda, and he 
went. 

Akaweta for A-ka-wo^ita, and he 
called them. 

Some of the cases in which e in 
the Zanzibar dialect stands for a in 
northern Swahili may be explained 
by the substitution at Zanzibar of 
in for a mere *n, as in the word for 
" land " or country," which is *rdi 
at Mombas, with so mere an *n that 
the vowel of the preceding word may 
be run into it, as in the saying — 

** Mvunddntit mwandnti** 
**A country can be ruined only by its own 
children." 

Whereas in Zanzibar, besides the 
usual change of t into cA, the first 
syllable has generally a distinct t 
sound, and may be better written 
iru*M. 

Thus at Mombas the root of the 
adjective " many ** seems to be ngi, 
making the substantive "plenty," or 
" a large quantity," ungft, and with 



EBB 



END 



269 



the proper prefix "many people," 
wa-ngi. But in Zanzibar " plenty " 
is w-ingt, and "many people" wengit 
as if wa-ingi. 

Ebbe, for Leheka. 

Ebu! Eehol well then! come then! 

Eda. 

Ku Italia eda, to remain in ex- 
treme privacy and quiet for five 
months, as is usual by way of 
mourning for a husband. 
Edashara, eleven. 
Eel O! 
Ee Waa ! or Ee Wallah I the common 

answer of slaves and inferiors 

when called to do something, a 

strong assent. 
Eema (M.) = Berfui, a kind of fish- 

trap. 
Egemea ku-, to lean. 
Ehee I Yes ! 
Ekerahij a provocation, an irritating 

word or thing. 
Ekita ku-, to break by bending. 
Ekuka ku-, to be sprung, to be 

broken. 
-ekundu, red. It makes jekundu 

with nouns like kasha, and 

nyekundu with nouns like ny- 
Ela (M.), except. [umha. 

Elafu, thousands. 
Elea ku-, to fioat, to become clear. 

Moyo wamwelea, he feels sick (M.) 

Yamekuelea^ Do you under- 
stand ? Have they (my words) 
become clear to you ? 
Eleka ku-, to carry a child astride 

on the hip or back. 
Elekea ku-, to be right, to agree, to 

be opposite to. 
Elekeana ku-, to be opposite to one 

another. 



Elemisha ku-, to teach, instruct. 
Eleza ku-, to make to float, to swim 
a boat, to make clear, to explain. 
Elfeen or Elfain^ two thousand. 
Elfu, a thousand. 
Elimisha ku-, w instruct, to make 

learned. 
Elimu, or Himu-, learning, doctrine. 
-ema, good, kind. It makes jema 
with nouns like kasha, and njema 
or ngema with nouns like nyumiba. 
-emhamha, narrow, thin, slim. It 
mft.'kes jemhamha with nouns like 
^a«^,and nyembamba with nouns 
like nyumba. 
Embe, a mango. In Mombas the 
plural is Ma£mbe, in Zanzibar it 
is Embe. 
Emhe dodo, or Enibe za dodo, a 
very large kind of mango, so 
named from a plantation in 
Pemba, where they first grew. 
Embe kinoo, a small kind of 
mango which is very sweet 
Embwe, glue, gum. 

Embwe la ubuyu, a kind of paste 
made from the fruit of the 
calabash tree. 
Enda kw-, to go. The kw- is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Kwenda is often used merely to 
carry on the narration without 
any distinct meaning of going. 
Sometimes it is employed as 
an auxiliary, nearly as we say 
in English, he is going to do 
it. Sometimes it expresses 
an action merely, as Kwenda 
chafya, to sneeze. Kwenda and 
Kupiga used in this way can- 
not be exactly translated. 
Kwenda kwa mguu, to walk. 
Kwenda tembea, to go fox & NR^bN^e.. 



270 



END 



ESH 



Kwenda mghad, &c., to go oanter- 

iDg, &o, 
Kwenda zangii, zako, zake^ &c., in 
other dialects, vyaiigu^ vyake^ 
&c., and thanguy tliaJce, &Cm to 
go away, to go, to go one's way, 
to depart. 
Imekwenda twaliwar, they have 
gone to fetch it. 
Endea kw-, to go for, to, or after. 
Endeka kw-, to be passable, to be 
capable of being gone upon, to 
be gone upon. 
Endelea kw-, to go either forward 
or backward. 
Kwendelea whele, to advance. 
Kwendelea nyumOf to retire. 
Endeleza ku-, to spell, to prolong. 
Enea kthy to spread, to become 

known. 
Enenda ku-, to go, mostly in the 
sense of to go on, to proceed, to 
go forward. 
Enenza kit-, to measure together, to 

try which exceeds the other. 
EneOy the spread, the extent covered. 
Eneo la Muungu, God's omni- 
presence. 
Eneza ku-, to spread, to cause to 
spread, to cause to reach. 
Muungu amemweneza kiUa mtu 
riziki zake, God has put within 
the reach of every man what 
is necessary for him. 
Enga kur, to split mahogo for 

cooking. 
Engaenga ku-, to coddle, to tend 

over carefully. 
Engtm ku-, to skim. 
-enu, your, of you. 

-enu ninyi, your own. 
Enyi or Enyie, You there! You 
there, I say 1 



-enyi, having, possesBing, with. Tt 

makes mwenyi, wenyif yenyi, 

zenyi, lenyi, chenyi, vyenyi, and 

penyi, which see. 
Enza kt^, to ask news of a person. 
Enzi, or Ezi, sovereignty, dominion, 
majesty. 

Mvoenyi ezi, the sovereign, he who 
is supreme. See Ezi, 
Epa ku; to endeavour to avoid (a 

stone, stroke, &c.) 
Epea ku-, not to go direct to, to 

miss a mark, not to shoot straight 

(of a gun). 
Epeka ku-, to be avoidable, to be 

what can be got out of the way of. 
-epesiy light, not heavy, easy, quick, 

willing. It makes jepesi with 

nouns like kasha, and nyepesi 

with nouns like nyumha. 
Epua ku-, to brush or shake off, to 

take away. 
Epuka ku-, to be kept from, to avoidj 

to abstain from. 
Epukana ku-, to be disunited. 
Epukika ku-, to be evitable. 

Haiepukiki, it is inevitable. 
Epusha ku-, to make to avoid, to 
keep from. 

Epushwa ku", to be kept from, to 
be forbidden something. 
-erevu, subtle, shrewd, cunning. 
Erevuka ku-, to become shrewd, to 

get to know the ways of the 

world, to grow sharp. 
Erevusha ku-, to make sharp and 

knowing. 
Eria ku-, to ease off, let down. See 

Ariaa. 
Esha, the latest Mohammedan hour 

of prayer, which may be said to 

be from half-past 6 to about 

8 P.M. 



ESS 



FAH 



271 



Esse (?), a screw. 
-etu^ our, of us. 

-etu sMiy our own. 
EiML Jcu; to sprinkle with wtitor 

after praying by way of charm 

against a disease. 
eupe, white, clear, clean, light- 
coloured. It makes jeupe with 

nouns like kasha, and nyeupe with 

nouns like nyumba, 
•eupee, very white. 
-eusU black, dark-coloured. It 

makes jettsi with nouns like 

Jcasha, and nyetm with nouns like 

nyumba. 
Ewaa = Ee Wa£L. 
Ewe! You there ! Hi ! I say, you 1 

plur. EnyL 
Eza ku-f to measure. 
Ezeka Jcu-t to thatch, to coyer with 

thatch. 
Ezi = Enziy sovereignty. 

Mwenyi ezi Muungu, or Mwenye' 
zimnguy Almighty God, God 
the Lord, representing in Swa- 
hili the Allah taala, God the 
Most High, of the Arabic. 
Ezua hu-j to uncover. 

Kuezua paa, to strip a roof. 



P. 

F has the same sdund as in 
English. 

Fand V are confounded by the 
Arabs, though in Swahili perfectly 
distinct, thus : — 

Ku-faa means — to be profitable to. 

Ku-vaa means — to put on. 

There is, however, in some cases 
a little indistinctness, as in the 
common termination i/tt or et;^; the 



right letter is probably in all cases 
a V. 

The Arabs in talking Swahili 
turn|)*s into/'s, and a&jfunda for 
punda, a donkey; and conversely, 
some slaves from inland tribes turn 
fa into j}'s. P, however, does some- 
times become / before a y sound, 
as kuogopa, to fear, kuogofya, to 
frighten. 

There is a curious fy sound used 
in some dialects of Swahili, which 
is rarely heard in Zanzibar. 

Fa kit; to die, perish, cease, fade 
away. The ku- bears the ac- 
cent, and is retained in the usual 
tenses. 

FoM ku-, to be of use to, to avail, 

to be worth something. 
Haifai, it is of no use, it won't do. 

Faana ku-, to be of use to one aa- 
other, to help one another. 

Fafanisha ku-, to liken. 

Fafanua ku-, to recognize, to under- 
stand. 

Fafanuka ku-, to become clear. 

Fafanvkia ku-, to be clear to. 

Fafanfdia ku-, to make clear to. 

Fa^ganzi ku-, to become callous. 
Mguu wangu umenifa^anzi, my 
foot is asleep. 

Fa^ia ku-, to sweep. 

Fahali, plur. mafahali, a bull, used 
of men in the sense of manly, 

Fahamia, [strong. 

Kwa kufahamiaQS..), on the face, 
forward. 

Fahamisha ku-, to make to under- 
stand, to remind. 

Fahamu ku-, to understand, to re- 
member. 

Fahari = Fakliari, ^<an. 



272 



PAJ 



FAT 



Ku/anya faJiarij to live beyond 
one's means and station. 
Faja lafrasi, a stable. 
Fakefa, generous,a generous person. 
FaJchari, glory. 
FaJciri, poor, a poor person. 
Fala few-, (Mer.) = Faa ku-, 
FalaJci, orfdlak, astronomy. 

Kupiga falakiy to prognosticate 
by the stars. 
Fall, an omen, omens. 
Fana ku-, to be very good of its 

kind, to become like (?). 
Fanana ku-y to become like, to 

resemble. 
Fananisha ku-, to make to resemble. 
Fanikia ku-, to turn out well for. 

Kufanikiwa, to prosper. 
Fanusi, a lantern. 
Fanya ku-, to make, to do, to adapt, 
to mend. 
Kujifanya, to make one's self, to 

pretend to be. 
Kufanya kura, to cast lots. 
Kufanya ahauri, to take counsel. 
Fanyia ku-, to do or make for or to. 
Nikufanyiejef What am I to do 
with you ? 
Fanyika ku-, to be made or done, 

makable or doable. 
Fanyiza ku-, to amend, to mend. 
Fanyizika ku-, to be very good, to 

be well done. 
Fara or Farafara, brimful, full to 

the brink. 
Faragha, privacy, secrecy, leisure. 
Faraja, comfort, ease after pain. 
Farajika ku-, to be comforted, to 

be eased. 
Farakana ku-, to be alienated. 
Farakiana ku-, to be alienated in 

regard to one another. 
Farakisha ku-, to alienate. 



Farangai pi. mafaranga, a chicken, 

a young fowl. 
Farasi or Frost, a horse, in Arabic 

a mare. 
Fariji ku-, to comfort, to console. 
Fariki ku-, to become separated, to 

decease. 
Fdrine, a kind of rioe and milk 

gruel. 
Faruhi ku-, to spread. 
Faritha, pay. 

Faroma, a block to put caps on 
after washing them, to prevent 
their shrinking. 
Farrathi, necessity, obligation, obli- 
gatory. 
Farrathi, a place one habitually 
goes to. 
The th of this word is the Eng- 
lish th in that, the th of the 
preceding word is a little 
thicker. 
Farumi, ballast. 
Fashifashi, nonsense. 
Fashini, the sternpost of a dhow. 
Fasihi, correct, clean, pure. 
Fasili, spreading. 

Huna dsili, wala fdsili, you have 
neither root nor branches, i.e., 
neither good birth nor great 
connections. 
Fasiri ku-, to explain, to interpret. 
Fasiria ku-, to explain to, to inter- 
pret to. 
Fataki, a percussion cap, a gun cap. 
Fathaa, restlessness, disquiet. 
Fathaika ku-, to be troubled, dis- 
quieted, thrown into confusion. 
FaihaU=Afathali, preferably. 
Fatliali = Fathili. 

Fathehi ku-, to put to confusion, 
to find out a person in a trick, 
Ac, 



FAT 



FIK 



273 



Fathili, a favour, a kindness, kind- 
nesses. 
Fathili ku-, to do a kindness, to 

deserve well. 
Fatiha, a Mohammedan form of 

prayer. 
Fatiishi hu-, to pry, to be over 

curious. 
Faiduku^f to get past, to get through, 

to weather. 
Famti ku-, to delay, to occupy, to 

hinder. ^ 

FayidOy profit, gain, advantage, 

interest. 
Fayidi ku-^ to get profit. 
Fayiti ku-, to delay. 
Fayitika ku-, to be delayed. 
Fazaa, trouble, confusion, anxiety. 
Feka ku- = Fieka ku-, to clear 

forest lands. 
Felefele, an inferior kind of millet. 
FeUji or FeUgi, a choice kind of 
steel. 
Upanga wa feleji, a long straight 
two-edged sword, used by the 
Arabs. 
Feleti ku-, to discharge, to release 

from an obligation, to release. 
Feliy plur. mafeliy a beginning of 

speaking or doing. 
Fereji, a channel, a drain. 
Ferusaji = Forsadi, 
Fetha, silver, money. 
Fethaluka, Marijani ya fetJialuka, 

the true red coral. 
Fetheha, a disgraceful thing, a 

shame. 
Fetheheka ku-, to be found out in a 
disgraceful thing, to be put to 
shame. 
Fetiwa kvr, to be condemned or 

adjudged to [a punishment]. 
Fetwa kvr, to give judgment on 



a question of Mohammedan 
law. 
Fevli, the place in a dhow where 
they stow things which may be 
wanted quicjdy. 
Fi, by. 

Sdbafi saha, seven times seven. 
Fia ku; to leave behind, to die to. 
Pass. Kufiwa na, to lose by 
death. 
Fiata ku-, to hold one's hands or 
one's clothes between one's legs. 
FicUika ku-, to be kept back, to be 

delayed. 
Fiatua ku-, to allow a spring to 

escape, to let off. 
Fiatuka ku-, to escape (as a spring) 
Ficha ku-, to hide. 
Kunificha kofia-, to hide a cap 

from me. 
Kunifichia kofia, to hide my cap. 
Fidi ku; to ransom (of the price 

paid). 
Fidia, a ransom, a sacrifice (giving 

up). 
Fidia ku-, to ransom (of the person 

paying). 
Fidina, mint (?). 
Fieka kvr, to clear. 

Kufieka mwitu, to clear ground 
in a forest. 
Fifia kur, to disappear, to cease to 
be visible (as a scar or a mark ; 
it does not imply motion), to 
pine away, (of seeds) not to 
come up. 
Figa, plur. mafiga, the three stones 
used to set a pot over the fire 
upon. See Jifya. 
Figao, a movable fireplace. 
Figili, a kind of large white radish. 
Figo, kidney (M.). 
Fika kvr, to arrive, to reach.^ to coma. 



274 



FIK 



FOB 



Fikardy thought. 
Fikia ku-, to reach a person. 
Fikicha ku-, to crmnble, to rub to 
pieces, to rub bard, to thresh 
com. (Used also obscenely). 
Fikilia ku-, to come to a person on 
business of his, to arrive and 
return without delay. 
Ftkiliza ku-, to cause to arrive for. 
Kufikiliza ahadii to fulfil a pro- 
mise. 
FiMsha kti-, to make to arrive, to 

lead, to take. 
Fikira, thought, consideration. 
Fikiri ku-, to consider, to ponder. 
FU, a chess castle or rook (in 

Arabic, an elephant). 
FUa ku- = Fia ku-. 
AJUe mhdli, that he may die out 
of the way. 
FUimbi, a flute. 
FUiai ku-, to take away a man's 

property, to seize for debt. 
Filisika ku-, to come to want, to 
have been sold up, to have run 
through all one's money. 
Fimho, a stick. 
Finessi, plur. mafinessi, a jack fruit. 

Finessi la kizungu, a duryan. 
Fingirika ku-, to roll along, to be 
rolled, to writhe like a wounded 
snake. 
Fingirisha ku-, to roll, to make to 
Finya ku-, to pinch. [roll. 

Finyana ku; to be pinched to- 
gether, to be gathered up small. 
Finyanga ku-, to do potter's work, 
to make pots, to tread and 
trample. 
Fionya kvr, to chirp, to make a 
chirruping noise with the mouth, 
to do so by way of showing con- 
tempt. 



Fira ku-, to commit sodomy. 
Firana ku-, to commit sodomy to- 
gether. 
Firigisi, the gizzard. 
Firinghi = Firigisi. 
Firkomba, an eagle (?). 
Firuzi, a turquoise. 
Fisadi, one who enters other peo- 
ple's houses for a wrongful pur- 
FisTia ku-, to cause to die. [pose. 
Fisi, a hysBua. 

Fisidi ku-, to en^r other people's 

houses for a wrongful purpose, 

to commit an offence in another 

man's house. 

FithuU = Futhuli, officious, over 

talkative. 
Fitina, slander, sowing of discord, 

a disturbance. 
Fitini ku-, to slander, to sow dis- 
cord. 
Fitiri, alms and presents given at 

the end of the Ramathan. 
Fito (plur. of ufiio), lung slender 

sticks. 
Fiwa kur, to be died to, to lose by 
death. 
Mwanamke aliofiwa na mumewe, 
a widow. 
Fiwe, a sort of bean growing on a 
climbing plant with a white 
Fo/o/u. [flower. 

Kufafofofu, to die outright 
Fola, a gift expected from those 
who first touch a new-bom baby, 
pa3ring your footing. 
Foramalit a ship's yard. 
Formash. 

Dawati ya formcLsk, a workbox. 
Forsadi, a small kind of edible 

fruit, mulberries. 
Fortha, a custom-house. 
Fortliani, at the custom-house. 



FBA 



PUM 



275 



FroBi Frcui, or Fariuiy a korse, a 
mare. 

Frasi, a chess knight. 

'fUf dead. 
Maji mafu, neap tides. 

Fua, a wooden bowl. 

Fua ku-i to beat (?), to wash clothes, 
to clear the husk from cocoa- 
nuts, to work in metal, to make 
things in metal. 
KuftM ehuma, to be a blacksmith. 
Kufuafethd, to be a silyersmith. 
KuftM tkdhabuj to be a goldsmith. 
Kufua kiiUf &c., to forge a knife, 
&c 

Fuama ku-, to lie on the face 
(Momb.). 

Fuata ku; to follow, to imitate, to 
obey. 

Fuatana ku-, to accompany, to go 
with. 

Fuatariisha kur, to make to accom- 
pany. 

Fimwa ku', to lie on the side and 
be beaten by the waves, as when 
a vessel goes ashore broadside on. 
Pass, of fua (?). 

Fuawe^ an anvil. 

Fucha = Futa. 

Fudifudi, on the fece (of falling or 
lying). 

Fudikiza ku-, to turn bottom up- 
wards, to turn cards backs upper- 
most. 

Fufua ku-, to cause to revive, to 
resuscitate. 

Fufuka ku-, to revive, to come to 
life again. 

Fufuiiza ku-, to cause to come to 
life again for some one. 

Fufumonye, in the kitchen (Pemba). 

Fuga %tt-, to keep animals either 
tame or in captivity. 



Fugika ku-, to be capable of being 
kept, to be capable of domesti- 
cation, not to die in captivity. 

Fuja ku-, to waste, to squander, to 
leak. See Vujcu 

Fujika ku-, to moulder, waste away. 

Fujo, disorder, uproar. 

Fujofujo, slovenliness, laziness. 

Fuk(i, a kind of thin porridge. 

Fuku ku-, to fill in a small hole. 

Fuka moshi ku-, to throw out smoke, 
to fume. See Vuke, 

Fukara, very poor. 

Fukia ku; to fill up a small hole. 

Fukiza ku-, to cense, to put the 
fuming incense-pot under a per- 
son's beard and into his clothes, 
by way of doing him honour. 

Fvkizo, vapour, fumes. 

Fuko (?), a mole. 

Fuko, plur. mafvko, a large bag. 

Fvkua ku-, to dig a small narrow 
hole, such as those to receive the 
posts of houses; to dig into a 
grave so as to get at the body ; to 
dig out, to dig up. 

Fvkuafukua ku-, to burrow. 

Fiikuta kU', to blow with bellows. 

Fukuza ku; to drive away, to chttse. 

Fukuzana ku-, to chase one another. 

Fitkuzia kur, to drive away from. 

Fulia ku-, to work in metal for, to 
make things in metal for. 

Fulifidi, on the face, forwards. 

Fuliza ku-, to go on, not to stop ; 
also, to blow upon, to kindle. 

Fullani, such a one, such and such 
men or things. 

Fululiza ku-, not to stop or delay 
to go on fast. 

Fuma ku', to weave. 

Fuma ku-, to hit with a spear, to 
shoot with aTiQ\«^. 



276 



FUM 



FUN 



Fumania ku; to oome suddenly 
upon, to surprise, intrude. 

Fumaniana ku-, to intrude into 
people's bouses without reason- 
able cause. Those who do so 
have no remedy if they are beaten 
or wounded. 

Fumatitiy an owl (?). 

Fumba ku-, to close, to shut (used 
of the eyes, the mouth, the 
hand, &c.). 
Maneno ya fumba, a dark saying. 
Makuti ya fumbay cocoa-nut 
leaves plaited for making en- 
closures. 

Fumba^ a lump. 

Funiba, a kind of sleeping mat, 
which is doubled and sewn to- 
gether at the ends, so as to make 
a large shallow bag. The sleeper 
gets inside, and draws the loose 
edge under him, so as to be com- 
pletely shut in. 

Funtbata ku-, to close the fist, to grasp. 

Funibatika ku-, to be grasped. 

Fumbia ku-y to talk darkly. 

Fumbo, plur. mafumbo, a dark say- 
ing, a hidden thing. 

Fumbua ku-, to unclose, to open the 
eyes, &c. 

Fumbuka ku-, to come to light. 

Fumhulia ku-, to lay open to, to 
explain. 

Fumiy a kind of fish. 

Fu*mka ku-y to become unsewn, to 
open at the seams, to leak (of a 
boat). 

Fumo, plur. mafumo, a flat-bladed 
speeir. 

Fumo, a chief (Kingozi and Nyassa). 

Fumua ku-, to unrip, to unpick. 
Kufumua moto, to draw out the 
piecBB of wood from a fire. 1 



Fumuka hu- = Fu^nika hu-. 

Funda, a large mouthful making 
the cheeks swell out, a sip (?), 
a draw at a pipe. 
Kupiga funda, to take large 
mouthfuls one by one. 

FuTida kti-, to beat up, to mix by 
beating, to pound. 

Funda ku-, to teach. 

Fundi, a skilled workman, a master 
workman, a teacher of any handi- 
craft. 

Fundinha ku-, to teach, to instruct. 
Kujifunduha, to learn. 

Fundisho, plur. ma/undis^, instruc- 
tion, direction, teaching. 

Fundo, plur. mafundo, a knot. 
Kupiga fungo, to tie a knot. 

Fundua ku-, to untie. 

Funga, a civet cat. 

Funga ku-, to fasten, to tie, to bind, 
to imprison, to fast. 
Kufunga choo, to become consti- 
pated. 

Fungamana ku-, to cling together, 
to connect, to tie together, to rely 
upon. 

Fungana ku-, to bind, to stick 
together. 

Fungana ku-, to tow. 

Fungate, a period of seven days 
after the completion of the wed- 
ding, during which the bride's 
father sends food to the bride- 
groom and his friends. 

Fungisha ku , to shut against. 

Fungo, a civet cat. 

Fungu, plur. mafungu, a bank, a 
shoal, a heap, a part, a week. 

Fungua. See Mfunguo. 

Fungus ku-, to unfasten, to opr n, 
to let loose, to leave off fast- 
ing. 



FUN 



FYU 



277 



Fungtika leu-, to become unfastened, 

to be unfastenable. 
Funguliwa hu-, to have unfastened 

for one, to be unfastened. 
Fungiw (plur. of TJfunguo), keys. 
Funguza hu-, to present with food 

during the Ramathan. 
Funika hu-^ to cover (as with a lid), 

to close a book. 
Funikika ku-, to become covered. 
Funikiza kvr, to cover (as with a 

flood). 
Funoy a kind of animal. 
Funua ku-, to lay open, to uncover, 
to open a book, to unpick sew- 
ing, to show cards. 

Kufunua macho, to open one*s 
eyes. 
Funuka ku-, to become opened, to 

open like a flower, &o. 
Funza, a maggot. 
Funza ku, to teach. 

Kujifunza, to learn. 
Fupa, plur. mafu]^, a large bone, 

the anus (?). 
'fupi, short. It makes fupi with 

noims like nyumba. 
Fwpiza ku-, to shorten. 
Fura ku-, to swell, to be puffed up 

from the effects of a blow only. 
FuraJia, gladness, joy, pleasure, 

gladly. 
Furahani, with gladness, liappiness. 
Furahi ku-, to rejoice, to be glad. 
Furahia ku-, to rejoice in. 
Furahisha ku-, to make glad. 
Furahiwa ku-, to be made glad, to 

be rejoiced. 
Furijika ku-, to moulder away. 
Furika ku-, to run over, to boil 

over, to inundate. 
Furukuta ku-, to move, as of some- 
thing moving under a carpet. 



Furumi, ballast. 

Furungu, plur. mafurunguf a large 

citron, a shaddock, a kind of 

anklet. 
Furushi, a bundle tied up in a 

cloth. 
Fvsfua or Fussus, precious stones. 
Ftisi, rubbish. 
Futa ku-, to wipe. 

Kufvia kamctsi, to blow the nose. 
Futa ku-, to draw a sword (=i;ttto?). 
Futari, the first food taken after a 

fast. 
Futi, plur. mafuti, the knee (A.) 
Futhuli, ofiSciousness. 
Futika ku-, to tuck into the girdle 

or loin-cloth. 
Futua ku-, to open out a bundle, 

take out what was tucked in. 
Futuka ku-, to get cross or angry. 
Futukia ku-, to get cross with. 
Futuri, a span. 
Futuru ku-, to eat at the end of a 

fast, to break a fast. 
Fuu, plur. mafuu, a small black 

fruit. 
Fuvu, plur. mafuvu, an empty shell. 

Fuvu la kitwa, a skull. 
Fuza ku-, to go on, not to stop. 
Fuzi, plur. mafuzi, a shoulder 

(A.). 
Fwata ku- = Fuata ku-. 
Fyoa ku-, to answer abusively. 
Fyolea ku-, to answer a person with 

abuse and bad language. 
Fyonda ku- or Fyonja ku-, to suck 

out. 
Fyonya ku-, to chirrup. See 

Fionya. 
Fyonza ku-, to suck. 
Fyoma ku-, to read (M.). 
Fyuka ku-, to go off, to dro^> to 

escape \\ke ©i «^tVBL^» 



278 



GAA 



GAB 



G. 

O is always to be pronounced 
hard, as in "gate." Much con- 
fusion arises from the way in which 
the Arabic letters jim and kaaf or 
qaf are pronounced by different 
Arabs. Jim is properly an English 
j, and is so used by the Swahili, 
and qaf is properly a guttural h, 
but most Arabs in Zanzibar pro- 
nounce either jim or qaf as a hard 
g. This must be remembered in 
writing or looking for many Swahili 
words. 

The Arabic Ghain is retained in 
many Swahili words borrowed from 
the Arabic, and a similar sound 
occurs in African languages also. 
It is here written gh. Most Euro* 
peans think it has something of an 
r sound, but this is a mistake ; it is 
a hard gratiug g, made wholly in the 
throat. It resembles the Dutch g, 
and the German g approaches it. 
See JV. 

Ga>agaa ku-^ to turn over restlessly, 

to roll like a donkey. 
Gabri. See Kahuri. 
Gadii a wooden prop to keep a 

vessel from falling over when 

left by the tide. 
Gadimu hu-, to put gadi. 
Gaga^ plur. magaga, rubbish, dirt. 
Gaij plur. magai, a large piece of 

potsherd. 
Galme. See Kalme, the small mizen 

mast of a dhow. 
Galawat a canoe, a small canoe 

with outriggers. Galawas are 



hollowed out of the trunk of a 
tree, and have two long poles 
tied across, to the end of which 
pieces of wood pointed at both 
ends are attached, which serve 
to prevent the canoe upsetting. 
These outriggers are called 
matengo. See Mtumbwi. 

Gramba. See Jigamba. 

Ganaj the tiller, the rudder handle. 

Ganda, plur. ma^ancUif husk, rind, 
shell, hard bark. 
Ganda la tatu, the three of cards. 

Ganda kvr, to stick, to freeze. 

Gandama ku-f to cleave, to stick. 

Crandamana ku-, to cleave to- 
gether, to coagulate, to curdle, to 
freeze. 

Gandamia ku-, to stick to, to cleave 
to. 

Gando, plur. magando, the claw of 
a crab. 

Ganga ku-, to bind round, as when 
a stick is sprung to bind it 
round with string, to splice, to 
mend, to cure. 

Ganget a soft white limestone. 

GangOf plur. magango, a cramp, a 
splint, something which holds 
other things together in their 
right plstce. 

Ganil What? What sort of? 
Ihe name of the thing queried 
about always precedes the word 
gani. 

Ganzi. 
Imekufa ganziy it has lost all 

feeling. See Faganzi, 
Kutia ganzi la meno, to set the 
teeth on edge. 

Gari, plur. magari, a carriage, a 
wheeled vehicle. 

6raro/utt, cloves. Also, a kind of rice. 



GAU 



GHU 



279 



Gauza, Gauka^ etc. See Geuza, 

GeukOf etc. 
Gavja hu, to divide, to part out. 

Kugawa karatot to deal cards. 
Gawanya ku-, to divide^ to share. 
Gaya ku-^ to change one's mind, 

to vacillate. 
Gayamiy a post with a cleat at the 

side of the poop, to fasten the 

sheet of a dhow sail to. 
Gayogayo, a flat fish, (?) a sole. 
Gema ku-, to get palm wine. They 

cut the immature flowering shoot 

and hang something under to 

catch what flows from the wound, 

which is the tembo^ or palm wine. 

The cutting is renewed from 

time to time to keep up the 

flow. 
Genibe, plur. magemhe, a hoe. See 

Jemhe. 
-genij foreign, strange. 
Genzi. 

Mkuu genzi, one who knows the 
roads well, a guide. 
Gereza, a fort, a prison. 
Geua ku', to turn, to change (Mer.)- 
Geuka ku-, to become changed, to 

turn, to change. 
Geuza ku- or Geusha ku- (?), to 

cause to change, to turn, to 

change. 
Geuzi, plur. mageuziy a change, 

changes. 
GTidfala, suddenly. 
Ghafalika ku-, to be imprudent, not 

to attend to, to neglect. 
Ghdfula = ghdfala. 
Ghairi ku-, to annul, change one's 
mind as to, put an end to. 

Kutia ghairi, to offend, to irri- 
tate. 
Ghala, a wareroom, a store place, 



especially the rooms on the 
ground-floor of Zanzibar houses, 
which have generally no win- 
dows, but merely a few small 
round holes (miangaza) near 
the ceiling. 

Ghali, dear. 

Ghalime. See GalmerKahne 

Ghalisha ku-, to make dear. 

Ghangi, a kind of dhow resembling 
a bagala, except that it has not 
so long a prow. 

Ghanima, good luck, profit. 

GJiarama, expense, payment to a 
native chief by a caravan. 

Gharika, a flood, the flood. 

Ghariki ku-, to be flooded, to be 
covered with water. 

Gharikisha ku-, to flood, to over- 
whelm. 

Gharimia ku-, to go to expense 
about, to be at the expense of. 

Ghasi, a measure of about a yard. 

Ghasi^ rebellion. 

GJutsi ku-, to bother, worry. 

Ghasia, bother, coming and going, 
want of privacy. 

Ghathabika ku-, to be enraged, to 
be angry. 

Ghathahiska ku , to enrage, to make 
angry. 

Ghathahu, anger. 

Ghelihu ku-, to master. 

Gheiri, jealousy, jealous anger. 

Ghiana, an aggravating person. 

Ghofira, plur. maghofira, pardon. 

Ghofiri ku-9 to forgive sins ; used of 
God only. 

Ghofiria ku-, to forgive a person. 

Ghdrofa, an upper room. 

Ghoshi ku-, to adulterate. 
Ghuba (?}, a sheltered place, a 
screen. 



280 



GHU 



GUM 



Ghubarif plur. maghtibarif a rain 

cloud. 
Ghubha, a bay. 
Ghumiwa kti-j to be startled, to 

stand aghast. 
Ghurika ku-, to be arrogant. 
Ghururi, arrogance. 
Ghushi ku- = Ghoshi ku-, to adul- 
terate. 
Ghusubu ku; to cheat, to swindle. 
Gidam, the strap of a sandal, 

passing between the toes. 
Crinsi, sort, kind. 

Ginsi ilivyokuwa njema^ &c., it 
was so good, &o. 

Gind gani ? or Gissi gani f 
Whv? How is it? 
Giza or Kiza, darkness. 
Gnamha or Ng*amba, a hawk's-head 

turtle. 
Gnomhe or Ng'omhe, an ox, cattle. 
Goa. See Goo. 
Goboa ku-f to break off the cobs of 

Indian corn. 
Crodoro, plur. magodorOj a mattress. 
Gofia, a pulley. 
GogOy plur. magogo, a log of timber, 

the trunk of a tree when felled. 
Gomha ku-, to be adverse to, to 

oppose, to quarrel with. 
Gonibana fcw-,to squabble, to quarrel. 
Gomheza ku-, to forbid. 
Gomho, plur. magomhOy a sheet of a 

book. 
Gome, plur. magomef bark of a tree. 
Gomea ku-, to fasten with a native 

lock. 
Gameo, a native lock. 
Gonga ku-, to knock. 
Gonjweza ku-, to make ill. 

Kujigonjweza, to make oneself 
out an invalid, to behave like a 
BJok man. 



Gongo, plur. magongo, a large 

stick. 
Gongqjea ku-. 

Kujigongojea, to prop oneself with 
a staff, to drag oneself along by 
the help of a stick. 
Gongomea ku-, to hammer in. 
Goo. See Mtondo goo» 
Gora, a piece of cloth, a package of 

cloth. See Jura, 
Gorong*ondwaf a kind of lizard. 
GosM, the tack of a sail. 

Upande wa goshiniy the weather 
side. 

Kupi.ndv>a kwa goshini, to tack. 
Gota ku-, to tap, to knock. 
Gote, plur. magote, the knee. 

Kupiga magote, to kneel. 
Goteza ku-, to jumble together 

different dialects or languages. 
Govi mbo, uncircumcised. 
Gttbeti, prow of a dhow. 
Gubiti, barley-sugar (?). 
Gvdi, a dock for ships. 
Gudulia or Guduwia, a water-cooler, 

a porous water-bottle. 
CrWgfM, plur. magugu, undergrowth, 
weeds. 

Gtigu mwitu, a weed resembling 
corn. 
-gugu, wild, uncultivated. 
Gugumiza ku-, to gulp, to swallow 

with a gulping sound. 
Guguna ku-, to gnaw. 
Guguru^ha ku-, to run with a 

shuffling noise like a rat, to drag 

along with a scraping noise. 
Guia ku-, to seize (Mer.). 
Guiana ku-, to cling together. 
Gulegule, a dolphin. 
Gumba. 

Kidole cha gumba, the thumb. 
Gumegume, 



-GUM 



HA- 



281 



Bunduki ya gumegume, a flint gun . 

-gumuj hard, difiScult. 

Guna kurt to grunt, to make a dis- 
satisfied noise. 

Gundua hiL-y to see one who thinks 
himself unseen, to discover un- 
awares, to catch. 

Gunga few-, (1) to warn against 
doing something, (2) to refuse 
temptation. 

Gungu^ a kind of dance. 

Gungu la kufundaf danced by a 

single couple. 
Gungu la hukwaay danced by two 
couples. 

Guniat a kind of matting bag. 

Gunzif plur. magunzi, a cob of 
Indian com. 

Gura ku-, to change one's place of 
residence (A.). 

Gurisha ku-, to make to remove, to 
banish (A.). 

Cruru, 
Sukari guru, half-made sugar. 

GurudumOf plur. ma^urudumOt a 
wheel. 
Gurudumo la mzinga^ a gun- 
carriage. 

GurugurUj a large kind of burrow- 
ing lizard. 

Gusa few-, to touch. 

Gutuka ku', to start, to be startled. 

GuUf plur. muguu, leg (A.). 

Gwa ku-f to fall [Tumbatu], 

Gwandttf a very short kanzu. 

Gwia ku- = Guia ku-. 

Gwiana ku- = Guiana ku-. 



H. 

H has the same sound as in the 
English word *' hate." 
There are in Arabic tw< 



^*s, one wholly made in the throat, 
the other somewhat lighter than the 
English h. In Swahili there is only 
one h sound, which is used for both. 

The Arabic kh is pronounced as 
a simple h in all words which »ire 
thoroughly incorporated into Swa- 
hili. The kU is used by Arabs and 
in words imperfectly assindlntcd. 
Some people regard it as u mark of 
good education to give tho proper 
Arabic sounds to all words of Arabic 
origin. 

In Arabic a syllable often ends 
with /t, which is then strongly pro- 
nounced ; but in Swahili the h is 
generally transposed so as to pre- 
cede the vowel. 

KuiK'timu, to finish one's educa- 
tion = Kuhitimu. 

H-f sign of the negative in the 
second and third persons sin- 
gular. 

H-upendi, thou lovest not. 

H-apendi, he lovest not. 
Ha-, sign of the third person sin- 
gular negative when referring 
to animate beings, and of the 
negative when prefixed to 
the aflSrmative prefixes in the 
plural, and in tbe third person 
singular when not referring to 
animate beings. 

Ha-tupendij we love not. 

Ra-mpendi, you love not. 

Ha-wapendi, they love not 

Ha-ifai, it is of no use. 

The final a of this ha- never 
coalesces with the following 
letter. 
Ha-, a contraction for nika^ 

Hamwomiy fwvd 1 «w« Vvwv 



282 



HAB 



HAL 



The third poraon singular present 
negative is distingnished by 
the final t . 
Hamwoni, he docs not see him. 
Saba, little, few, shallow. 
Hahabi^ my lord. 

JJabarif news, information, message, 
story. 
Hahari zangu zilizonipataj an ac- 
count of what had happened to 
me. 
Hahushia, plur. mdhabushia, an 
Abyssinian. Many Galla women 
are called Abyssinians, and the 
name is sometimes used for a con- 
cubine of whatever race. 
Hadaay deceit, cheating. 
Hadaa ku-f to cheat. 
Eadaika hur^ to be cheated, to be 

taken in. 
Hadidiy the semicircular ornament 
to which Arab women attach the 
plaits of their hair. 
Hadimu, a servant, slave. See Mu- 

hadimu. 
Hadithi, a tale, a story, especially 
one bearing upon Mohammedan 
tradition^ 
Hadithia ku-, to relate to. 
HafifUf light, inbignificant. 
Hafithika kt^ = Hifathika ifctt-, to 

be preserved. 
Hahithawahetha (Ar.), these and 

these. 
Haibaf a beauty, not beauty gene- 
rally, but one good point. 
Eai-i sign of third person singular 
negative agreeing with nouns 
which do not change to form 
the plural. 
Sign of the third person plural 
negative agreeing with nouns 
iu mi; 



Hat = Hayi, alive. 
Haina, it is not, there is not. 
Haitasta, not yet. 

Haithuru, it does not harm, it is of 
no consequence, never mind, it 
would be as well. 
Hajj the pilgrimage to Meoca. 
Haja, a request. 
JSana haja^ he is good for no pur- 
pose, he has no occasion. 
Hajiri ku-, to go to live elsewhere. 
Hajirika ^u-. to remain overloug, 

delay. 
Hakali. 
Kumshika hakali, to require a 
stranger who goes upon work- 
men's work to pay for his in- 
trusion, to make him pay his 
footing. 
Haki'j sign of the third person 
singular negative, agreeing with 
nouns in ki- or ch-, 
Hakiy justice, right, righteousness. 
Hakika, true, certain, certainly. 
Bakika yako, it is true of thee, 
thou certainly. 
Hakiki ku-, to make sure, to ascer- 
tain, to prove. 
Hakiri ku-^ to humble. 
Hakirisha ku-, to despise. 
Hako, he is not there. 
Haku; sign of the third person 

negative indefinite. 
Hakw, sign of the third person 
singular of the negative past, 
referring to animate beings. 
This form is distinguished from 
the preceding by the final letter 
of the verb, which is -t in the 
indefinite and -a in the past tense. 
Hakuna, there is not, it exists not, 

no. 
Hal wdradi, otto of roses. 



HAL 



HAP 



283 



HaJaf hWnihib, perjury. 
Halafu, afterwards, presently. 
Halalif lawfoL 
Halctsa, sailors* wages. 
Hali^ state, coDdition, health. 
U halt gani ? How are you ? 
Wa hali gani ? How are they? 
Amekuwa hali ya kwanza, he is 
reduced to his former condition, 
he is as he used to be. 
It is also used as a kind of con- 
junction, being, if it be, when 
it is, supposing, so it was. 
ITali for Ahali, family, connections. 
Hali', sign of the third person 
singular negative, agreeing with 
nouns which make their plural in 
ma-, 
Halilisha hu-t to make lawful. 
Ealili yako^ at your disposal. 
Halisi or Hdlisiy exactly, without 

defect or variation. 
Ealua, a sweetmeat made of ghee, 
honey, eggs, arrowroot (?), and 
spice. 
Haluli, 

Chumvi ya haltUi, sulphate of 
magnesia. 
Ha^m-, sign of the second person 

plural negative. 
Htima ku', to change houses, to 

move. 
Hamali, plur. vMikamali, a porter, 

a coolie. 
Hamami, a public bath. There are 

now public baths in Zanzibar. 
Hamaya, protection. 

Fi hamayat al Ingrez^ under 
British protection. 
Hamdi, praise. 
Hamiy protection. 
Hami ku-, to protect. 
Hamili ku-, to be pregnant. 



Hamira, leaven, made by mixing 

flour and water and leaving it to 

turn sour. 

namisha ku-, to cause to remove, to 

cause to change one's place of 

residence, to banish. 
Sa^mnat there is not inside, no! 
Hamo, he is not inside. 
Hamn, flve. 
Hamsini, flfty. 
Hainstashara, fifteen. 
Hamu, grief, heaviness. 
Hamimmbif Don't you sing? 
Hana, he has not. 
Hana kit-, to mourn with, to join 

in a formal mourning. 
Hana kwao, he has no home, a 

vagabond. 
Hanamu, obliquely. 
Hanamu, the cutwater of a dhow. 
Handaki, a dry ditch, a trench. 
Hangaika ku-, to be excited. 
Hangoe, the guttural Arabic h, the 

Ma. See Mdaioari. 
Hanikiza ku-, to interrupt people, 

to talk so loud and long as to 

prevent other people from doing 

anything. 
Hanisi, a man sexually impotent. 
Haniti, a catamite, a sodomite. 
Ranzua, a kind of dance. 
Hao, or Hawo, these or those before 

mentioned, referring to animate 

beings. 
Hapor, sign of the third person 

negative, agreeing with mahali, 

place or places. 
Hapa, here, this place, in this place. 
Hapana, there is not, no ! 

Hapana refers rather to a par- 
ticular place, Hdkuna is gene- 
ral. 
Hapo, here, this or that tl\s!A. 



284 



HAB 



HAT 



Tangu hapo, ODce upon a time. 

Hapo kale, in old times. 

Tokea hapo, ever so long. 

Toka hapo I get away I get out of 
this! 
Hara ku-, to be purged. 

Harialia ku-, to act as a drastic 
purgative. 
Haraka, baste. 
Haraka ku-, to make haste. 
Harakisha ku-, to hasten. 
IJaramia, a pirate, a robber. 
Haramu, imlawful, prohibited. 
Harara, prickly heat, heat, hot 

temper. 
Harara, quick-tempered. 
Hararii, hot-tempered. 
Hari, heat, perspiration. 

Kutoka harij to perspire. 
Harihika ku-, to be destroyed, to 

spoil. 
Harihu ku-, to destroy, to spoil. 

Kuharibu mimha, to miscarry. 
Harijia ku-, to spend money, to lay 

out money, to provide (a feast), 

&c. 
Ilarimisha ku-, to make or declare 

unlawful. 
Harimu ku- = Harimisha ku-, 
Earioe, a cry raised on seeing a 

dhow come in bight (M.). 
Hariri, silk. 
Harufu, Harufi, or Herufu, a letter 

of the alphabet, letters, cha- 
racters. 
Harufu, a scent, a smell of any kind. 
Harusi, a wedding; vulgarly, tl.e 
bride. 

JBwana harusi, the bridegroom. 

Bihi harusi, the bride. 
Hasai = Maksai, castrated. 
Hasara, loss. 

Kupata hasara, to lose. 



HoBara'kur, to spoil a thing so that 

its value is gone. 
Hasha, not at all, not by any means, 

a very strong negative. 
Hasho, a patch in planking, a piece 

let in. 
Hast ku- or Khasi ku-, to geld, to 

castrate. 
Hasihu ku-, to count. 
Hasida, a kind of porridge. 
Hasidi, envy. 
Haaira, anger. 

Kuwa na hasira, to be angry. 

Kutia hasira, to make angry. 
Hasira ku-, to injure. 
Hasiri ku-, to vex, to do harm 

to. 
Hasirika ku-, to be injured, to be 

grieved. 
Hasirisha ku-, to injure. 
Hassa, exactly. 
Hata. See Hatta. 
Hatamu, a bridle. 
Hatari, danger, fear. 
Hathari, caution, care. 

Kuwa na hathari, to beware, to 
be on one's guard. 

Kufanya hathari, to become care- 
ful, to become anxious. 
Hdtif, an angel. 
Haiiki ku-, to bother, to annoy 

(A.). 
Hatima= Khaiima, end, conclusion, 

at last. 
Hatirisha fett-, to venture, to run 

the risk. 
Hatiya = Khatiya, fault. 

Kutia hatiyani, to find fault with. 

Mwenyi hatiya nami, who has 
done me wrong. 
Hatta, until, so far as, to, at length, 
when a certain time bad ar- 
rived. It is used to introduce 



HAT 



HEB 



285 



the time when somethiiig fresh 
happened. 

Hatta 8%ku mqjat one day. 

Satta assuhui, in the morning, 
but in the morning. 

Hatta haada ya mwezi kwpita, and 
when a month had passed. 
Hattia, for nothing. 
Hattiya = Hatiya, 
EatU'y sign of the first person plural 

negative. 
Eatua, a step, steps. 
Eau-y sign of the third person 

singular negative agreeing with 

nouns in m- or mw-, not denoting 

animate beings, or with those in u-. 
Eavi-f sign of the third person 

plural negative agreeing with 

plural nouns in m- or vy^. 
Eawa-y sign of the third person 

plural negative. 
Hawa^y Eve. 
Eawa, these, referring to animate 

beings. 
Eawa or Eewa^ air. 
.Ea/voa or Eawat, longing, lust, 
loving. 

Usifanye hawa nafsif don't be 
partial, don't show favour. 
Eawa or Eawara, a catamite, a 

paramour. 
Eawala, transfer of a debt, bill of 

exchange. 
Eawezif he is ill. See Weza ku-. 
Eavjt, he is not. 
Eawili Jcu-, to take upon oneself 

what was due from another, to 

guarantee a debt, &o. 
Eayor, sign of the third person 

plural negative agreeing with 

plural nouns in 771a-. 
Eaya, these, referring to a plural 

substantive in ma-. 



Eayoy shame, modesty. 
Sana hay a, he is shameless. 
Kuona haya, to feel ashamed, to 

be bashful. 
Kutia haya, to abash, to make 
ashamed. 
Eayal Work away I Be quick! 

Come along I 
Eayale, those, those things. 
Eayamkiniy it is impossible. 

Eayavjani, a man without his 
proper senses, an idiot. 

Eayi, plur. wahayi (?), alive. 

Eayo, these or those before men- 
tioned, referring to plural sub- 
stantives in ma-. 

Eayuko, vulgarly used in Zanzibar 
for hako, he is not there. 

Eazi; sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
nouns which do not change to 
form the plural, or with those 
which begin in the singular with 
t*-. 

Eazibu ku- = Eesahu ku-. 

Eazina, a treasure. 

EazitoMa, not yet. 

Eedaya, a choice thing, a tale. 

Eejazi, the Eejaz in Arabia. 

Eekalu, the temple at Jerusalem, a 
great or famous thing. 

EekimOf wisdom, cleverness. 

Eekimiza ku-, to make a man under- 
stand, to put him in possession of 
knowledge. 

Eemidi ku-f or Eamidi ku-^ to praise. 

Eenza, halyards. 

Eenzaranif cane-work. 

Eeri = Kheiri, happy, fortunate, it 
is well. 
Ni Jierit I had better, it will be 

well for me. 
Kim herif good-bye. 



286 



HEB 



HIY 



Mtu wa heri, a fartunate 'man. 
Heriaf a cry raised on first seeing a 

dhow coming. Compare Hariowe. 
Herimu = Martha. 
Hero, a wooden platter. 
Herufu or Sarufu, a letter of the 

alphabet. 
HesahUf accounts, an account. 
Hesahu hu', to count, to reckon. 
Heshima^ honour. 
Heshimu ku-, to honour. 
Heth, menstruation, menses. 

Kuwa na heth, to menstruate. 
Hetima, [ancestors. 

Kusoma hetima, to pray for one's 
Hewa or Sawa^ air. 
Hezaya, a shame, a thing causing 

confusion. 
Hi; for Niki', See -Jfet-. 
Hiana^ a grudging person, one who 

withholds things. Compare 

Ghiana. 
Hiari, choice. 

Hiba, property left after death. 
Hidima, service. 
Hifathi hu-, to preserve, to keep. 
Hifathika ku-, to be preserved. 
Hifukuza = Nikifukuza, 
Hit, this, referring to singular 

nouns which do not change to 

form the plural ; these, referring 

to plural nouns in mi; 
HiHe, that, those. 
Hikaya = Hedaya, a wonderful 

thing. 
Miki, this, referring to singular 

nouns in ki- or ch-, 
Hikile, that, yonder. 
Hilay a device, a stratagem, a deceit. 

Mtu wa hila, a crafty man. 
Hili, this, referring to singular 

nouns which make their plural 

in ma-. 



Siloy this or that before mentioned, 
referring to singular nouns which 
make their plural in ma-. 

Hima, haste, hastily, quickly. 

Himahima ! be quick ! 

Eimili ku-, to bear, to support. 

Bimiza hu-, to hasten. 

Hina, henna, a very favourite red 
dye, used by women to dye the 
palms of their hands and the soles 
of their feet, often used to dye 
white donkeys, &c., a pale red 
brown. 

Hini ku-, to refuse to give, to with- 
hold. 

Hirizi, a written charm worn on the 
side. 

Hirimu, an equal in age. 
Hirimu rnqja, of the same age 

Eisa, pardon. 
Nipe hiaa yangu, pardon me. 

Hitari ku-, to prefer, choose. See 
Ikhtiari* 

Hitima, the feast which concludes 
a formal mourning. 

Eitimu ku-, to finish one's learning, 
to leave off school, to know one's 
trade. 

Eitimisha ku-, to finish a scholar, to 
bring to the end of his learning of 
whatever kind. 

Eivi, thus, these, referring to plural 
nouns in vp- or vy-. 

Eivile, those. 

Eivyo, after which manner, these 
mentioned before, referring to 
plural nouns in vi- or vy-. 

Eiyari, choice. 

Eiyo, this mentioned before, re- 
ferring to singular nouns which 
do not change to form the plural ; 
these mentioned before, referring 
to plural nouns in mi- or in ma-. 



HIZ 



HUJ 



287 



Hizif these, referring to plural 
nouns which do not change to 
form the plural, or which begin 
in the singular with u- or w-. 

Siku Mzi, some days ago, some 
days hence, now. 
Hizi ku-f to treat with contumely, to 

groan at, to cry out against. 
HiziU^ those. 

Uizika ku', to be put to the blush. 
Hb6e / now go on, be oflT. 

Ktoenda feo6e, to go wherever it 
may be. 
Hohu, grandchild. 
Hodari, strong. 
Eodil a cry made by way of 

inquiry whether any one is within. 

No one ought to enter a house 

until he has received an answer. 
Hogera ku-, to perform a particular 

washing customary after cir- 
cumcision. 
Hogo, plur. mahogo, a very large 

root of cassava. 
Rohe hdhe, a phrase used to denote 

extreme poverty and destitution. 
HoTio, 

Pilipili Tidho, red pepper. 

Mkate vxi hoho, a cake made with 
fresh palm-oil. 
JJq/a = Huja. 
Homa, fever. 
H(mgo, a present demanded by a 

local chief for liberty to pass 

through his country. 
Hongua, a Comoro dance. 
Horarij clever (?). 
Hon, or Khorij a creek, a small arm 

of the sea. 
Sort, plur. Tndhorif a kind of canoe 

with a raised head and stem. 
Hu'f a quasi-personal prefix de- 
noting a customary action. It 



applies to all persons and both 
numbers. 
Hunijtbu, it is in the habit of 

answering me. 
Huendaj he, &c., commonly goes. 
Hvsema, they say. 
Htir = hrU', the negative prefix of 
the second person singular. 
This form is distinguished from 
the preceding by the termina- 
tion of the verb. 
Huenda, people go. 
Huendiy you do not go. 
Hua, a dove. They are said to cry, 
Mama akafa^ Baha akafa^ nime- 
salia mimi, tu^ tu, tu, tu, tu, My 
mother is dead, my father is 
dead, I am left alone — lone— lone 
— lone. Another cry of the same 
class of birds is explained as, 
Kuku mfupa mtupu, mimi nyama 
tele tele tele, A fowl is bare 
bones. I am meat plenty, plenty, 
plenty. 
Huhha, love, affection. 
Hubiri, to announce, to give news. 
Hvdumia ku-, to serve. 
Hvdumu, service. 
Hui ku-f to revive, to come to life 

again. 
Huika ku-, to be brought to life 

again, to live again. 
HuUha ku-t to revive, bring to life 

again, resuscitate. 
Huja or hqja, sake, account, con- 
cernment, reasoning. 
Kina huja nyingi, it is full of 

bother, it is troublesome. 
Hakina huja, it is all clear, it is 
plain sailing. 
Hujambo ? Are you well ? 
Euji ku-, to inquire into, seek out. 
Hujuru ftt*-, to dfi^^T^i. 



288 



HUK 



Htdcoj there, at a distance. 

Huko na hiikot hither and thither. 
Hukuj here, there, near. 

Hvku na hukUf this way and 
that 
Hvkumu, judgment, authority, law. 
Hukumu ku-, to act as judge, to 

have supreme authority over. 
Hukumia hti-, to judge, to exercise 

authority upon. 
Hidukitoa Ant, to be created, to be 

a creature. 
HumuTna, plur. ma-, a man who 

knows no religion. 
Bundi, a draft, a bill of exchange. 
Huo, this or that before mentioned, 

referring to singular nouns in 

u- or VJ-, or which make their 

plural in mi-, 
Huru, free, not a slave. 

Kutoeka or Kuacha huru, to set 
firee from slavery. 
Hum, plur. mahuru, a freed man. 

Mahuru wa Balyozi, or Baruzi, 
slaves freed by the British 
consulate. 
Huru, diamonds in cards. 
"HuruTna, pity. 
Hurumia hu-f to pity, to have pity 

upon. 
Hu88u kii-, to divide into shares, to 

put each one's share separate. 
Husudu hu-, to do wanton violence, 

to grudge at, to envy. 
Husumu ku-9 to strive, to contend 

with. 
Husv/ni, a fort. 
Musuru hur, to besiege. 
Huthuria ku-, to be present. 
Huu, this, referring to nouns in 

the singular which make their 

plural in mi-, or to singular nouns 

beginning with tt- ca lo-. 



jETmils, that 

Hwfo, this or that before mentioned, 

referring to an animate being. 

In chasing a man oet aniTm^l^ any 

one who sees him cries oat, 

Huyo! huyo ! huyo ! Here he is ! 

Huyu, this, this person, this one, 
refemng to an animate being. 

Huyule, that 

Huzunij grief, heaviness. ^ 

Htoendo, perhaps. 



I is pronounced like ee in feeL 

I before a vowel generally be* 
comes y. It is in many oases im- 
material whether t or y be written, 
but where the accent would other- 
wise fall upon it, its consonantal 
character becomes obvious. 

An unaccented t is often inter- 
changed with a short u sound. 
Thus the word for lead may be pro- 
nounced either risasi or rtuasL 

N has generally an i sound im- 
plied in it It is sometimes ex- 
pressed following the n, as in the 
prefix ni. The final i of ni- disap- 
pears in rapid pronunciation, and in 
the first person of the future, as n 
cannot coalesce with t, both letters 
are often omitted. When n is fol- 
lowed by a vowel, or by <2, g, j, 
or z, the t sound is lost When n 
is followed by other consonants it 
either disappears altogether or the 
f sound is more or less distinctly 
prefixed, so as to make the n a syl- 
lable by itself. The t sound is more 
distinct in the dialect of Zanzibar 
than in more northern Swahili. 
' Where t follows the final a of a 



IMI 



289 



prefix (except the negative prefix 
kd) it coalesces with a into the 
sound of a long e. 

i, is or was, governed by a singular 
noun of the class which does 
not change to form the plural; 
are or were, governed by a 
plural noun in mi-, 

I-y or before a vowel, y-,the personal 
prefix used with verbs whose 
subject is a singular noun of 
the class which does not change 
to form the plural, or a plural 
in mi-, it or they. 

-i-, the prefix representing the ob- 
ject of the verb when it is a 
singular noun of the class which 
does not change to form the 
plural, or a plural noun in mi-, 

-i-f the reflective prefix in King'ozi 
(and in Nyamwezi), self. 

Iha lew- (the "kw- is frequently re- 
tained in the usual tenses), to 
steal, to take surreptitiously. 

Ibadaj worship. 

Ihia kw-f to rob, to steal from. 

Idadi. 
Hayana idadi, there is no count- 
ing them. 

Idili = Adilif right conduct. 

Idili ku-i to learn right conduct 

Idilisha ku-, to teach right con- 
duct 

Iftahiy bringer of luck. 

Iga kU'i to mock, to imitate (M. 
igiza). 

Ih: See Hi: 

Ihtdhidi ku-, to strive. 

IhHaji ku-, to be wanting. 

IKtajia A«*-, to want, to be wanting to. 

IhHilafu, different. Also a fault, 
difference. 



IhHimu ku-, to finish learning, to 

complete one's education. 
Ijara, pay, hire, rent. 
Ijaza, a reward. 
Ijaza ku-, to grant permission for 

worship. 
Ikhtiari, choice. 
Ikhtiari ku-, to wish. 
Ikiza ku-, to lay the beams of a 
roof. 

Kuku ya kuikiza, a fowl cooked 
with eggs. 
Iko, there is, it is there. 
Ha, a defect, a blemish. 
He, that yonder, referring to a 

singular noun of the class which 

does not change to form its 

plural; those yonder, referring 

to a plural noun in mi-. 
Hi = lUi. 
Hiki, cardamoms. 
Hioko, which is, or was there. 
Iliopandana, the composition of a 

word. 
Ilizi, a small round thing held 

to be a great charm against 

lions. 
lUa, except, unless, but. 
lUakini, but. 
lUi, in order that. 
Hmu, learning. 
Ima — ima, either — or. 
Ima ku-, to stand up (King'ozi and 
Yaoi), 

Njia ya kwima, a straight road. 
Ima kvr, to eat up food provided 
for other people. 

Ametuima, he has eaten our share 
as well as his own. 
Imani, faith. 
Imara, firm. 
Imba kw-, to sing. 
Jm&tt, mosquito, mo8quitoQ& 



290 



IMI 



ITA 



Imisha ku-, to set up, to make to 

stand. 
Tmma. 

Wa imma, to a certainty. 
Inaf it has, they have. 
Inama ku-y to bow, to stoop, to bend 

down, to slope, 
Inamisha Jcu-, to make to bend 

down, to bow. 
Inang'arat it is bright. See ng*aa. 
Jnchi, land, country, earth. 
Inda. 

Kufanya inda, to give trouble. 
Inga ku-j to scare away birds. 
'ingi, many, mucL It m£kkes jingi 

with nouns like kasha, and 

nyingi with nouns like nyuniba. 
Ingia kur, to enter, to go or come 

into. 
higilia ku-, to go or come into, for, 

or to. 
Ingiliza ku-, to cohabit with. 
ingine, other, different. It makes 
mgine or mioingine with nouns 
like mtu and mti ; jingine with 
nouns like kasha ; ngine or nyi- 
ngine with nouns like nyumha; 
and pingine or pangine with 
nouns of place. 

Wangine — wangine,Qome — others. 
Ingiza ku-, to make or allow to enter. 
Ini, plur. maini, the liver. 
Inika ku-, to hang down, to lay upon 

its side. See Jiinika. 
Inna, truly. 
Inshallah, if Qod will, perhaps. It 

is used as a general promise to do 

as one is asked to do. 
Inta = Nta. 

Inua ku-, to lift, to lift up. 
Inuka ku-, to be lifted, to become 

raised. 
Inya, mother (A.). 



-inyi — -enyi, having, with. It makes 
mwinyi, wenyi, yinyi, zinyi, linyi^ 
kinyi, vinyi, and penyi, 
Imi, plur. mainzi, a fly. 
Ipa ku', to want, desire to have. 
Euipa roho mbde, to long for 
everything one sees, to have 
unrestrained desires. 
Ipi, 

Kupiga ipi, to slap (N.). 
Ipif what? 

Kama ipi ? how ? 
Ipua kw-, to take off the fire. 
Iriba, usury. 
Iriwa, a vice (the tool). 
Isha kw, to finish, to come to an 
end. The kw- is retained in 
the usual tenses, but sometimes 
the %D is dropped, as amekisha 
for amektcisha, he has done. 
Kwisha is commonly used as an 
auxiliary : thus, Amekwisha 
kuja, he has come already. 
Alipokwisha kuja, when he 
had come. 
Akaisha, or Akesha, after that, 
when he had done this. 
Ishara, a sign, signal. 
Ishi ku-, to last, to endure, to live. 
Isimu or Ismu, name, especially the 
name of God. 
Ma ismak (Ar.)? What is your 
name? 
Istara, a curtain. 
Istiska, dropsy. 

Ita kw-, to call, to call to, to name, 
to invite. The kw- is fre- 
quently retained. 
Kwitwa, to be called, is sometimes 
constructed as if it were ku- 
toitwa, 
Ita ku-, to cast in a mould. 
Italassi, satin. 



ITH 



JAA 



291 



lihini, sanction. 

Kutoa iihini, to sanction. 
Jthneen, two. 

Jtia ku', to call for some purpose. 
Itikn hu-, to answer when called. 
Itikia ku-y to reply to, to answer a 

person when called to. 
Jtikiza ku-^ to assent to. 
Ito la guu (A.)> the ankle. 
Iva kvr or Wiva ku-, to become ripe, 

to become completely cooked, to 

get done. The ku- is frequently 

retained. 
Jim, plur. maivUy ash, ashes (M.). 
J loapi f where is it ? 
Iza ku', to refuse. 
Izara ku-f to tell scandal about, to 

make things public about a 

person improperly. 

J. 

/. The correct pronunciation of 
this letter, and especially that of 
tbe Mombas dialect, is a very pecu- 
liar one. The most prominent sound 
is that of y, but it is preceded by 
another resembling d. The French 
di is perhaps the nearest European 
representative. The Swahili write 
it by the Arabic Jimf which is ex- 
actly an English J. 

In the more northern dialects and 
in the old poetical Swahili the j is 
represented by a pure y, 

Moya = mqjaf one. 

Mayi = maji, water. 

A ^ in the dialect of Mombas 
very commonly becomes a J in that 
of Zanzibar. 

Ndia (M.), a road, Njia (Zanz.). 

Kutinda (M.), to slaughter ; Ku- 
ehinja (Zanz.). 

Many words which are properly 



spelt with a e are vulgarly pro- 
nounced with a J in Zanzibar, as, 

Kanjfi, for kanzu, 

Ckenja, iot chenza. 

This is only carrying to excess the 
rule that a 2 in the neighbouring 
mainland languages becomes a j 
in Swahili. 

The Arabs and some Swahili 
confuse j with g. Thus the late 
ruler of Zanzibar was often spoken 
of as Bwana Magidi^ his proper title 
being Seyid Mdjid. 

J', a prefix applied to substantives 
and adjectives in the singular of 
the class which make their plural 
in ma-f when they begin with a 
vowel. Seeji-, 
«7a, like. 

Ja kii- (the hiA- carries the accent 
and is retained in the usual 
tenses), to come. The impera- 
tive is irregular, Njoo^ come. 
Njooni, come ye. 
Ja is used to form several tenses. 

1. With 'po- added, meaning even 
if; wa^apo-kupiga, even if they 
beat you, 

2. With negative prefixes mean- 
ing not yet; ha-ja-ja^ he is not 
yet come. 

3. With negative prefix and sub- 
junctive form. Asi-je-lala, be- 
fore he goes to sleep, or that he 
may not have already gone to 
sleep. 

«7aa ku-, to become full, to fill, to 

abound with. 
Maji yanajaa^ the tide is coming 

in. 
Mtungi um^aa maji, the jar is 

full of water. 
3ee Janoalcu-* 



292 



JAA 



JAS 



Jaa. 

Shika mdjira yajaei, steer north- 
wards. 
Jaa, a dust heap. 
Jabali, plur. majabaliy a rocky hill. 

Also see Kanza. 
/o&an, absolute ruler, a title of God. 
Jadiliana ku-f to argue with. 
Jdhay good luck, unexpected good 
fortune. 

Kilango cha jaha, the gate of 
Paradise. 
Jahazij a vessel, a ship. 
Jahili ku; to dare, not to fear. 
Jalada, the cover of a bound book. 
Jcdi ku', to give honour to. 
Jalia ku'y to bless, to enable, to 
grant to. 

Muungu akinijalia, God willing. 
Jaliwa ku', to be enabled, to have 

power, &c., given one. 
Jaliza kU', to fill up, used of vessels 

which have already something in 

them. 
Jamaa, family, assembly, gathering, 

society, company. 
Jamaa ku-y to collect together, 

gather. 
Jamaat (Hind.), a council of elders. 
Jamala, courtesy, good manners, 

elegance. 
JaTnandat plur. majamandoy a solid 

kind of round basket with a lid. 
Jamhaf breaking of wind down- 
wards. 
Jamba ku-, to break wind down- 
wards. 
Jamhia, plur. maJamMa, a curved 

dagger always worn by Muscat 

Arabs. 
Jamho, plur. mambo (from Xctcafn&a,) 
a word (?), a matter, a circum- 
stance, a thing, an a&ir. 



Akanitenda kiUa jambo la toema, 
and he showed me all poesible 
kindness. 
Jambo for si jarnbo, hu jambo, ha 
jambo, &c., I am well, are you 
well ? he is well, &c., &c. 

Jambo Sana, I am very well, are 
you very well ? &c. 
Jami ku', to copulate, to have con- 
nection with. 
Jamil, many, a good collection, the 

mass, the company of, the body of. 
Jamiisha ku-, to gather. 
Jamvi, plur. majamvi, a coarse kind 

of matting used to cover floors. 
JarMf yesterday. 

Mtoakajana, last year. 
Janna, paradise. 
Janaba, filth, uncleanness. 
Janga, punishment. 
Jangwa, plur. majangwa, a large 

desert. 
Jani, plur. majani^ a leaf. Majani 

is commonly used for any grass 

or herbage. 
Janvia = Jambia, 
'japo; sign of a tense signifying 
even if. 

TIjapoJika, even if you arrive. 
Jarari, the ropes passing through 

the pulley attached to a dhow's 

halyards. 
Jaribu ku-, to try. 
Jarifa, plur. majarifa, a seine or 

drag-net made of European cord- 
age. See Juya, 
JashOt sweat 

Kufanya jasho, to sweat. 
Jasirisha ku-, to dare. 
JoMsi ku-, to explore. 
Jasmini or Jasmin, jasmine. The 

flowers are sold in the streets of 

Zanzibar for their soent 



JAS 



JIB 



293 



Jassi, plur. majassi, the ornament 
in the lobe of the ear. It is 
generally a silver plate about an 
inoh and a half across. 

Jaiharij take care I 

Jatoaj a coarse kind of Indian 
earthenware. 
Kikombe cha Jawa^ a cnp of coarse 
Indian ware. 

Jawa hury to be filled with, to be 
full of: used of something 
which onght not, or could not 
be expected to be there. 
Maji yamejawa ditdu, the water 
is full of insects ; but mtungi 
umejaa maji, the jar is full of 
water. 

Jatodbuj an answer, a condition, a 
matter. 

Jatoahir (Ar.), jewels. 

Jaza hi-y to fill. 

Jaziy a common thing, a thing which 
is abundant. 

Jazi ku', to supply, to maintain. 

Jazilia ku-, to reward. 

/e/ Hullo! WeUI What now! 
-;e ? how ? 

JeJm, an ornament worn by women, 
hanging under the dliin. 

Jekundu, red. See -ekundu, 

Jelidi ku-9 to bind books. 

Jema, good. See -ema. 

Jemadariy plur. majemadarty a com- 
manding officer, a general. 

Jembambay narrow, thin. See 
'embamba, 

Jembe, plur. majembe, a hoe. 
Jembe la kizungu, a spade. 

Jenatza or Jeneza, a bier. 

Jenga ku-, to construct, to build. 

Jengea kti-, to build for, or on ac- 
count of. 

JengOy plur. majengo, a building. 



Majengo, building materials. 

Jenzi kf^j to construct. 

Jepa ku- (A.), to steal. 

Jepesi, light, not heavy. See -epesi. 

Jerdha, a wound. 

Jeribu ku- = Jaribu hu-, to try. 

Jeriihi ku-y to be wounded. 

Jeshi, plur. majeshi, a host, a great 
company. 

Jetea ku-, to be puffed up, to be 
over proud, to rely upon, to 
trust in. 

Jethamu, a leprosy in which the 
fingers and toes drop ofi^ ele- 
phantiasis (P). 

Jeuli or Jeuri, violence. 
Anajetdi, he attacks people wan- 
tonly. 

Jeupe, white. See -eupe, 

Jeusi, black. See eusi, 

Ji; a syllable prefixed to substan- 
tives which make their plural 
in ma-, if they would otherwise 
be of one syllable only. This 
syllable is sometimes inserted 
after a prefix to give the idea 
of largeness, or to prevent con- 
fusion with some other word. Be- 
fore a vowel it becomes j- only. 

-ji-, an infix giving a reflective 
meaning to the verb. 
Kupenda, to love. 
Kujipenda, to love oneself. 

Kuponya, to save. 
Jiponye, save yourself^ look out I 

Jia ku-, to come for^ by, to. 
Njia uliyqjia, the road you came 
by. 

Jibini, cheese. 

Jibiioa ku, to receive an answer, be 
answered. 

Jibu ku', to answer, to give an 
answer. 



294 



JIB 



JON 



Jihwa, plur.mo/i&tooyan exceedingly 

large dog. 
Jieho, plur. machOf the eye. 

Jicho la maji, a spring of water. 
Jifu, plur. majifu, ashes. 
Jifycii plur. mafya, one of three 

stones to support a pot over the 

fire. Mafya is the usnal word 

in the town, mafiga is commonly 

used in the country. 
Jigamba ku-, to boast, to praise one- 
self. 
Jiinika ku>; to lie on the side. 
Jiko, plur. meko, a fireplace, one of 
the stones to rest a pot on (?). 

Jikoniy in the kitchen, among the 
ashes. 
Jilia ku; to come to a person on 

some business. 
JUiwa, plur. majilivja, a vice (the 

tool). 
JimMf a cock. 
Jimhi, Allocasia edulis. Both 

leaves and root are eaten : (a sort 

of Arum). 
JimhOf plur. majimho, a place, a part 

of the country (Old Swahili). 
Jirribo. 

Kiwsha najirribOy to wash a new- 
bom child with water and 
medicine. 
Jina, plur. majina, a name. 
Jina lako nanif what is your 

name? 
Jina la kupangwa, a nickname. 
Jinamisi, nightmare. 
Jingi, much. See 'ingi. 
JinginCy other. See -ingine, 
Jinij plur. majiniy jina, spirits, genii. 
Jino, plur. meno, a tooth, a twist or 
strand of rope, or tobacco, &o. 

Kamba ya meno matatUf a cord of 
three strands. 



Jioni, evening. 

JipUf plur. majipu, a boiL 

Jipotoa kthf to dress oneself up 
excessively. 

Jipya, new. See -pya, 

Jirani, a neighbour, neighbours. 

Jisiy quality. 

Ji8Uj plur. maJisUf a very large 
knife. 

Jitenga Xeu-, to get out of the way. 

Jiti, plur. majitit a tree trunk. 

Jitimai, excessive sorrow. 

JitOf plur. mato = Jieho, the eye (M.). 

JitUf plur. maiu or majitUf a great 
large man, a savage. 

Jituza ku; to make oneself mean or 
low. See Tuza, 

Jivariy purchase (of a dhow hal- 
yards). 

Jiviy a wild hog. 

Jivu = Jifu, 

Jiwa ku-t to be visited, 

JitDBf plur. mawe, a stone, a piece 
of stone. Plur. mxijiwe, of very 
large pieces of stone. 
Jiioe la ma7i^a,a piece of freestone. 
Nyumba ya mawe, a stone house. 

Jodari, a kind of fish. 

Jogoi = Jogoo. 

Jogoo, plur. m^jogoo, a cock. 

Johari, a jewel. 

Joho, woollen cloth, a long loose 
coat worn by the Arabs. 

Joka, plur. majoka, a very large 
snake. 

Joko, a place to bake pots in. 

Jokum, charge, responsibility. 

JombOf plur. majombo, an exceed- 
ingly large vesseL 

Jongea ku-, to approach, come near 
to, move. 
Jongea mwlini, move into the 
shade. 



JON 



JUZ 



295 



Jongeleza ku-, to bring near to, to 

offer. 
Jongeza kwy to bring near, move 

towards, move. 
Jongo, gout. 

Jongoey a large kind of fish. 
JongoOf a millepede. 
Jorjiya, a Georgian, the most valued 

and whitest of female slaves. 
JororOy soft. See -ororo, 
Joshj a voyage, a cruize. 

= Cfoshi, Luff! 
Jotqjoto. 

Kupata jotojoto, to grow warm. 
JoyOf plur. majoyay a cocoa-nut 

which is filled with a white 

sx)ong7 substance instead of the 

usual nut and juice. They are 

prized for eating. 
Jozi, Jeozi, or Jauzi, a pair, a pack 

of cards. 
Jozi, a walnut. 
Jtta, plur. majua^ the sun. 

Jua Mtwanii noon. 
Jua ku-, to know how, to under- 
stand, to know about, to know. 

Namjua aliko, I know where he is. 

Najua kiungujaf I understand the 
language of Zanzibar. 

Najua kufua chuma^ I know how 
to work in iron. 
Juba, a mortice chisel. 
Jvhwru ku-y to compel. 
Jugfo, ground nuts. 
Juhudi, an effort, efforts. 

Kufanya juhudiy to exert oneself. 
Juju, plur. majujuy a fool. 
Juku, risk, a word used by traders. 
Jukwariy a scaffold, scaffolding. 
Julia ku-, to know about, see to. 
Jvlisha ku-y to make to know. 
Juma, Friday, a week. 

Juma a masiy Saturday. 



Juma a pUi, Sunday. 

Juma a tatu, Monday. 

Juma a 'nnsy Tuesday. 

c/uma a tanoy Wednesday. 
Juma, small brass nails used for 

ornamentation. 
Jumaa, an assembly. 
Jumba, plur. majumhay a large house. 
Jumhe, plur. majumbey a chief, a 

head-man, a prince, a sultan. 
Jumlay the sum, the total, addition 

(in arithmetic). 
Jumlisha ku-y to add up, sum up, 

put together. 
Juniay a kind of matting bag. See 

Crunia. 
Juray a pair; a length of calico, 

about thirty-five yards. 
Jusi. 

ffaijusiy it is unfitting. 
Jut Kdsam (Hind.), perjury. 
Juia ku-y to be sorry for, to regret. 
JuUy up, the top, on the top. 

Yuko juUy he is up-stairs. 

Juu yay upon, above, over, on the 
top of, against. 
Juvisha kfjh, to make to know, to 

teach. 
Juvya ku'y to make to know. 
Juya, plur. majuya, a seine or drag- 
net made of cocoa-nut fibre rope. 
Juzay obligation, kindness. 
Juza ku-y to make to know. ' 
Juziy the day before yesterday. 

Mwakajuziy the year before last. 

Juzijuziy a few days ago. 
Juzia ku-y to compel, to have power 

to compel. 
JuzUy necessity. 

Jambo lajuzu, a necessary thing. 
Juzu ku-y to oblige, to hold bound, 

to have under an obligation to do 

something* 



296 jrz 



/%rm. & «e:.i):ii :f ce KcaaL JSaammmmii^ sad he wd io 

TltTr A^r iz. ill iHTTr. W-?vh ITS hiZD. 

m 

:f:n-. trr.zzec re: <ircik.rk3cLT. All SCa^ u cAen eonbaeted ioto fto^ 
(be •''idtt ^ct&Isc ak iLU£uu £u <»-w to ss, to dwell, to Btoy, ti 
xamx. £iv«» tt? be. to stond, to leBMin, 

j 6? ec^GLztiie. to Hre in, or at 
: £%AU kitihx. to Bt dovn, to le- 
Euzzi qnietiT. 
K is -TTrrzzzfxd %s is. EzzIisL. K^a, plixr. — ^-^. m pieee of char- 
Tic -Vrfcbs JiAv^f «»: i'*. ■"■*. lie ccaL 

h-/ :7 I :-'. ii l-.iilf '.:rc.:^r z'r *r. ^« Jlxiau. «•!&. ehuoaal, anben. 
Er.^Iii*:: c: a~i :-^. file c^V c? ITjj ms MMfta or JCi&oa ya MOtiki; 
M.*^. niidc w'„.-I1t i- file jLt."*:* szi sect 

fajjd 7. Tlenr i< &c:iri:c« A>:eiitz. K-za rnkzickA. small mad aalw 

the tb.r:as i:<r:»«:: ;he rnejicdi-^ viih one large daw. 

rowel &-'i the -^.i/. Terr :.Ari t? Kaj 2d kimwju the palate, 

exriair.. but e;<»ST enoTZfh. cc^ uli- K'Uia isr JT-iafeM. the palate, 

tdie. Alir. -"^h :Jie c:mcct rionu::- K^jm-^ km-* w firy, » bcaae^ to eook 

ciati::: cf thtso two t-'s is an ele- wi-.hfat. 

gar.i>f, ii is not neotseary nor veir £\ij%.>.\ pier, ahil-jdii^ an earthen 

<»mmo:'.lT obe^rved in s{K&ki=g p?t to cook meat in. 

SwBhili. Karn Im-. to choke, to throttle. 

Ki is yerr commonlr piv-^nocnced Knr<n la kanrm^ a a?rt of lining roond 

cki in Zanzibar, espeoiallj by slaTce the neck and a short way down 

of the Xyassa and Yao tribes the fin>nt of a iaani» pnt in to 

Kh^ the Arabic hha^ oorais only sncDc:then it. 

in words borroweii from the Arabic, Kahari. a wedge, 

and subsides iato a simple A so soon Kahi^'U^ narrow, 

as the word is thoroughly natn- Kahila* a tribe, a snbdinsion less 

ralized. than taifcu 

m 

Khahari or Hahariy news. Kahili lew, to be before, to be op- 

Kheiri or Heri^ well, good, for- ! posite. 
innate. | Kabilitha irv-, to put oppoeite, to set 

I before. 
Ka-^ "ha-, a syllable prefixed to or ' KabttOj utterly, altogether, quite, 
inserted in the imperatire and Kahiihi A-u-, to g^Te into the hand, 
subjunctive of verbs, with the Kalia, before, antecedently, 
force of the conjunction *^ and." Kabla ya, before (especially of 

-ha-, the sign of a past tense, used time). 

in carrying on a narration ; it : Kabuli, acceptance. 

includes the force of the oon- ,' Kabuli, pillaw. 

junction " and." j Kaburi, plur. moAa&tfrt (pronoonced 



HAD 



EAL 



297 



by many Arabs Gahri), a grave, 
a tomb. 

Kadamu, a servant, the lowest of 
the three chief men usually set 
over the slaves on a plantation. 
On the Zambezi the man who 
stands at the head of the canoe 
to look out for shoals is called 
Kadamo. 

Kadiri or Kadri, measure, modera- 
tion, capacity, middling, mode- 
rate, about, nearly, moderately. 
Kadri gani f how much ? 

Kadiri ya, as, whilst. 

Kadiri ktir, to estimate. 

Kadri = Kadiri, 

Kafara, an oflfering to avert evil, a 
sacrifice of an animal or thing to 
be afterwards buried or thrown 
away, a charm made of bread, 
sugar-cane, &c., thrown down in 
a cross-way. Any one who takes 
it is supposed to carry away the 
disease, misfortune, &o. 

Kafiy plur. makafiy a paddle. 

Kafiri, plur. mahafiri^ an infidel, an 
idolater, one who is not a Moham- 
medan. 

Kafuriy camphor. 

Kaga ku-, to put up a charm to 
protect something. 

Kago, plur. ma^o, a charm -to pro- 
tect what it is fastened to. 

KagiM ku-j to go over and inspect. 

Kahaha, plur. makahaba, a prosti- 
tute. 

Kdhawa, coffee. 

Kahini, plur. makdhini, a priest, a 
soothsayer. 

Kai k\A-y to fall down to, embrace 
the knees. 

Kaida, regularity. 
Ya kmda, regular. 



'kaidi, obstinate, 

Kaimu, plur. makaimu, a vice- 
gerent, a representative. 
Kaka, a lemon after It has been 

squeezed, the rind of a lemon, 

the shell of an egg, &c. 
Kaka^ a brother {KihadimUf see 

Muhadimu). 
Kaka, a disease with swelling of 

the hand and opening into sores. 
Kakakakaj very many. 
Kakamia, hard of heart. 
Kakamia ku, to be longsuffering, 

slow to be affected. 
Kakamuka kvr^ to make an effort, 

to strain (as at stool, or in 

travail). 
Kakawana ku-j to be strong, capable 

of great exertion, well-knit and 

firm in all the muscles. 
Kakiy a very thin kind of biscuit or 

cake. 
Kalafati ku-y to caulk. 
Kalamika ku-, to prevaricate in 

giving evidence (?), to cry from 

pain caused by medicine (?). 
KaUCmka kvr, to be sharp, to have 

one's eyes open. 
KaUCmkia kxtr, to outdo, to be too 

sharp for. 
Kalamuj a pen. The pens for 
writing Arabic are made of 
reed, and the nibs lure cut 
obliquely. 

Kalamu ya mwanzi, a reed pen. 
Kalamuzi, cunning, crafty. 
Kalasia, little brass pots. 
Kale, old time, formerly. 

-a kale, old, of old time. 

Zamani za kale, old times. 

Hapo kale, once upon a time. 
Kalfati or Kalafati, caulking. 
'kali, sour, sharp, keon^ «&^^^is 



298 



E AL 



KAN 



cross, severe, fierce. It makes 
kali with nouns like nyumba, 
Jua lidli, a hot sun. 

Kalia Jcu-t to remain for. 
Ku^mkalia tamu, to remain as he 
would wish. 

Kalibu, a mould, a furnace. 

Kamaj Kamma, Kana^ or Kwamha, 
as, as if, like, if, supposing. 

Kama ku-, to milk, to squeeze. 

Kamamanga, a pomegranate. 

Eamali, a game played by chucking 
pice into a hole. If only one 
goes in they say " Mdliza" and 
the player throws a flat stone on 
the one that is out. 

Kamasif mucus from the nose. 
Kufuta kamasif to blow the nose. 
Siwezi kamasi, I have a cold in 
my head. 

Kamata ku-y to lay hold of, take, 
seize, clasp. 

Kamatana ku-, to grapple, to seize 
one another. 

Kamatii balls of wheat-flour lea- 
vened with tembo. 

Kamha^ a crayfiah. 

Kamba, rope. 
Kamba ulayiti, European or 
hempen rope. 

Kanibaaf plur. of ukamba^y cord, 
string (M.). 
Kambaa, a plaited thong or whip 
kept by schoolmasters and 
overlookers in Zanzibar. 

Kamhaliy plur. makamhcdij a oat- 
fish living in fresh water. 

Kamharau, a forebrace carried to 
the weather side to steady the 
yard of a dhow. 

Kambi, plur. makambi, a circular 
encampment, a place whore a 
caravan has hutted itself in. 



Kambo. 

Baha wa kambo, stepfather. 

Mama wa kambo, stepmother. 
KamCf quite dried up, utterly 

barren. 
Kami, a bulbous plant with large 

head of red flowers. 
Kamia ku", to reproach. 

Kujikamia, to reproach oneself. 
Kamilii perfect, complete. 
'kamilifu, perfect, wanting nothing. 
Kamilika ku-, to be perfect. 
Kamilisha ku-, to make perfect. 
Kamua ku-, to press, to press 

out. 
Kamusi, an Arabic lexicon. 
Kamwe (M.), not at all, never. 
Kamwi = Kamwe. 
Kana, a tiller. 
Kana, if, as. See Kama. 
Kana ku-, to deny. 
Kanda, plur. makanda, a long nar- 
row matting bag, broader at the 

bottom than at the mouth. 
Kanda ku-, to knead dough, to 

knead the limbs, to shampoo. 
Kandamiza ku-, to press upon. 
Kande, food (Mer.). 
Kanderinya, a kettle. 
Kandika ku-, to plaster. 
Kandili, plur. makandili, a lantern. 
Kando, side, aside. 

Kando ya or Kandokando ya, 
beside, along by the side. 
Kanga, a guinea fowl. 
Kanga, a dry stem after the cocoa- 
nuts have been taken ofif. 
Kanga ku-. 

Kukanga moto, to warm. 
Kangaja, a small mandarin orange. 
Kania ku-, to deny a person. 
Kaniki, dark blue calico. 
Kanisa, plur. makanisa, a church. 



KAN 



EAR 



299 



Kanisha ku-, to deny, to make to 

deny. 
Kanji, starch, arrowroot. 
Kanjuy plur. makanju, a cashew 

apple (M.). 
Kanju, vulgarly used for Kanzu, 
Kanunty a thing implied, a neces- 
sary condition, of necessity. 
Kanwa, plur. maTcanway the mouth. 
Kanya ku-, to contradict. 
Kanyaga ^i^*, to tread, to tread 

upon, trample on. 
Kanyassa ku-, to scold. 
Kami, a treasure. 
Kanzu, a long shirt-like garment 
worn both by men and women 
in Zanzibar. Men's kanztta 
are white or of a brown yellow 
colour, with ornamental work 
in red and white silk round 
the neck and down the breast ; 
they reach to the heels. Wo- 
men's kanzu8 are generally 
shorter, and are made of every 
variety of stuff, frequently of 
satin or brocade, but are always 
bound with red. 
Parts of a Kanzu (men's) : 
Tao la kanzu, bottom hem. 
Magongo nene, seams. 
Badani, front and back pieces. 

Also Kimo. 
Tdharizi, side pieces. 
Sijafu, pieces turned in at the 
wrists, to receive the darizi. 
Vikwapa, gores. 
Limni, flap under the opening 

in front. 
Jdbali, red line across the back. 
MhaXbori, lining at the back of 

the darizi in front. 
Kadba, lining of the neck and 
shoulders. 



Shada, tassel at the neck. 
Kitanzi, loop opposite the tassel 

in front. 
Kazi ya ahingo, the elaborately 
worked border round the 
neck, including — 
Tiki, red sewing over of the 

edge of the neck. 
Mrera, lines of red round 

the neck. 
Viboko, small zigzag orna- 
ment in the middle of the 
neck-border. 
Vinara, small spots forming 
the outer edge of the 
border. 
Darizi, lines of silk worked 
round the wrists and down 
the front. 
Mjuzi (Ar. shararaji), orna- 
ment at the bottom of the 
strip of embroidery in front. 
Mkia wa mjuzi, line of silk 
running up the front from the 
mjuzi, 
Vipaji, or viguu, four little 
projections on the sides of 
the mjazi. 
Kanzu ya ziki, worked with white 
cotton roimd the neck instead of 
red silk. 
Kaoleni, one whose words are not 
to be trusted, a double-tongued 
man. 
Kaomwa,' calumba root. 
Kapi, plur. makapi, a pulley. 
Kapi, plur. makapi, bran, husks. 
Kapiana ku- (mikono), to shake 

hands. 
Kapu, plur. makapu, a large basket 

or matting bag. 
Kapwai, a kind of rice. 
Karajaii kw = KalafaJbL 



300 



EAR 



KAT 



Karafu mayiti, camphor. 
Karama, a special gift of God, an 

answer to a holy man's prayer, 

an honour. 
Karamu, a feast. 
Karani, a secretary, a clerk, a 

supercargo. 
Karanij tucks. 
Kararay the woody flower-sheath of 

the cocoa-nut tree. 
Karata, playing-cards. 
Karatha, a loan of money. 
Karataaiy paper. 

Kariby near, come near, come in. 
Karibia ku-, to approach, to draw 

near to. 
Kartbiana Tcu-y to be near to one 

another. 
Karibishaj to make to come near, to 

invite in. 
Karibu, near, a near relative. 

Karibu na or ya, near to, near. 
Karimu, liberal, generous. 
Karipia hu-, to cry out at, scold. 
Karirisha ku-, to recite. 
Kasa, a turtle. 
Kasarani, sorrow, grief. 
Kasasi, retaliation, revenge, ven- 
geance. 
Kdsha, plur. makasTiaf a chest, a 

large box. 
Kashifu kvr, to depreciate. 
Kashmir, the ace of spades. 
KaMa, plur. makasia, an oar. 

Kuvuta makoMa, to row. 
Ktmba, a gun barrel. 
Kasidif intention, purpose. 
Kasifa, inquisitiveness. 
Kasifu kttr, to be inquisitive. 
Kasiki, a large earthen jar for ghee. 
Kasimde, the juice of grated cocoa- 
nut before water is put to it. 

Tut la kaaimele. See Tui, 



Tut la kupopoloa, the same after 
mixing with water, and strain- 
ing again. 
Kasiri, towards the end, late. 
Kasirika ku-y to become vexed. 
Kasirisha ku-, to vex. 
Kasiri ku-, to hurt, vex. 
Kaekazi, the northerly wind which 
blows from December till 
March. 
Koikazini, in a northerly direc- 
tion. 
Kasoro, less by. 
Kaasa, less by. 
Kassa rdbo, three-quarters of a 
dollar. 
Kassi. See Kiassi, 
Kcui, hard, with violence. 
Kwenda kassi, to rush along. 
Kutia kassi, to tighten. 
Kasumha, a preparation of opium. 
Kataa ku-, to refuse. 
Kata, plur. makata, a ladle made of 
a cocoa-nut, only about a third of 
the shell being removed. A kcUa 
holds from a quarter to half a pint. 
Kata, a ring of grass or leaves put 
on the head under a water-pot or 
other burden. 
Kata ku-, to cut, clip, divide. 
Kujikata, to cut oneself. 
Kukata hananu, to cut obliquely. 
Kukata maneno, to settle an affair, 

to decide. 
Kukata nakshi, to ornament with 

carving, to carve. 
Kukata tamaa, to despair. 
Njia ya kukata, a short cut, the 
nearest way. 
Kdtaha ku-, to write. 
Katakata ku-, to chop up. 
Katalia ku-, to deny all credence, 
to refuse to be convinced. 



KAT 



KAZ 



301 



Katanif flax, thread, string, cotton- 
thread. 
Kafaza Jcu-, to prohibit, to deter. 
Kafhdlika, in like manner. 
Kathdvodkatha, many, many more. 
Watu hathdwakatha, such and 
such people. 
Kathij plur. makathi, a judge, a 

cadi. 
Katiy inside, middle, the court 

within a house. 
Katia ku-, to cut for. 
Kukatiwa, to have cut, or out out 

for one. 
Ni kiasi changu kama natikcUiwa 
mimi, it fits as though I had 
been measured for it. 
Katika, among, at, from, in, about. 
Katika implies nearness at least 
at the beginning of the action ; 
it has very nearly the same 
meaning as the case in -ni. 
Katika safa/ri mley during that 
journey. 
Katika ku-, to come apart, to be cut, 

to break, to be decided. 
Katikati, in the midst. 

Katikati ya, &c., in the midst of, 
between. 
Katiliy a murderous, bloodthirsty 

person, an infidel. 
Katinakati, in the middle. 
KatUi (A.), little. 
Katiza ku-, to put a stop to, to 

break off, to interrupt. 
Kato, plur. makato, a cutting, a 

breaking off. 
KatUy a kind of gum chewed with 

betel. 
Katua ku-j to polish, to brighten. 
Kaiuka ku-, to be polished, to be 

bright. 
Kauka ku-, to get dry, to dry. 



Sauti imekaukay I am hoarse. 
Kauli, a word. 
Kauri, a cowry. 

Kausha ku-, to make dry, to dry. 
'kavu, dry. It makes kavu with 

nouns like nyumba. 
Kawa, a conicaF dish-cover" of 
plaited straw, often ornamented 
with spangles, &c. 
Kawa, mildew, spots of mould. 
Kufanya kawa, to get mildewed 
or mouldy. 
Kawa ku-, to be delayed, to tarry, 

to be a long while. 
Kawadi (a term of reproach), a bad 

man. 
Kawaida, necessity, custom. 
Kavje, a pebble, a small stone (M.). 
Kawia ku-, to delay. 
Kawilia ku-, to loiter about a busi- 
ness. 
Kawishxi ku-, to keep, to delay, to 

cause to stay. 
Kaya, plur. makaya^ a pinna, a kind 

of shell-fish. 
Kayamha, a sieve, a sort of rattle. 
Kaza ku', to fix, to tighten, (of 
clothes) to fit tightly, to go 
hard at anything. 
Kukaza ktoimba, to sing louder. 
Kukaza mhiOy to run hard. 
Kazana ku-, to fix one another, to 
tighten together, to hold together 
tightly, to be robust. 
Kazi, work, labour, employment, 
business. 
Ndio kazi yoke, that is what he 

always does. 
Kazi mbi si mtezo mwema? Is 
not poor work (as good as) good 
play (mbi for n-toi) ? 
Kazika ku-, to become tight^ tA 
become ^TL^e^. 



302 



-KAZ 



KHE 



'l-nzo^ nipping, pressing tight. 

-he, ftrma'.e, f M.inine, the weaker. 

K^-e = Ethle (X.). 

Keezo, a lathe, a machine for tam- 
ing. 

Kefule! an exclamation of con- 
tempt 

Ke/yahffya hu-, to teaze, to put in 
low spirits. 

KelCj a drill. The carpenters in 
Zanzibar always use drills, which 
are much better suited to the 
native woods than gimlets are. 
The iron is called hekee, the wood 
in which it is fixed msukano, the 
handle in which it turns Jtrti, 
and the bow by which it is turned 
Vta. 

Kt^hee, a kind of silver bracelet 

Kelele, plur. maktUle, noise, uproar, 
shouting. 

Kem (Ar.), How much? How many? 

Kemea hu-, to rebuke, to snub, to 
scold. 

Kenda = Kwenda and Kaenda, 

Kenda^ nine. 

Ya Jcenda, ninth. 

Kendapi i for kwenda teapt, going 
where, i.e., where are you going ? 

KengCy a large water-lizard with 
slender body and long limbs and 
talL 

Kengea, the blade of a sword, knife, 
&c. 

Kengele, a belL 
Kupiga kengeUy to ring a bell. 

Kera hu-, to worry, to nag at 

Kerani = Karani. 

Kereheta kuy to irritate the throat, 
to choke. 

Kereza ku-, to saw, to turn, to cut 
a tree half through, and lay it 
down, so as to make a fence. 



Kerimu Xw-, to feast, to be liberal to. 
• K» ring'ende, a dragon-fly, the led- 
legged partridge. 

KerOf trouble, disturbanee, uptotir, 

Ke4!hcL, a watch, a vigiL 

Kedta ku-, to watch, to lemun 
awake, not to sleep. 

Keskeza ku-, to make, to watch, to 
keep awake. 
I Kesho, to-monow. 

Kesfio kuiwa or kuchwOt the day 
after to-morrow. 

Kete, a cowry. 

Keti ku', to sit down, stay, liye(M.). 

Kliabari, news, information. 

KhadacL, fraud. 

Kftajifu, light, unimportaot. 

Kkainiy a traitor. 

KhaJds, the end, there is no more. 

Klidlifu km- or Halifu ku-, to resist, 
oppose, rebel against 

Khalisi ku-, to deliver. 

Khami, a chess bishop. 

Khamsly five. 

Khamsin if fifty. 

Khamstaghara, fifteen. 

Kharadalij muetard. 

KhdriJ ku-y to spend. 

Khashifu hi- = Kashi/u &tf-. 

Khatari, danger. 

Khati, a note, letter, document, 
memorandum, writing, hand- 
writing. 

KhatibUf plur. makliatibu, a secre- 
tary, a preacher. 

Khatimay end, completion. 

Khatimitha ku-, to bring to an end, 
complete. 

KhcUiya, fault. See Hatiya. 

KhazancLy a treasure. 

Khema, a tent. 

Kheiri = Heri, well, fortunate, 
happy, good. 



EHI 



EIA 



303 



Mtu wa Tcheiri, a happy man. 
Kwa Hhei/riy for good. 
Ni kheiri, I had better. 
Khini ku-, to betray. 
Khitari ktiry to choose. 
Khitima nzima, a complete copy of 

the Koran. See Juzuu, 
Khoflsha Jcu; to frighten. 
Khofuy fear, danger. 
Kuwa na hhofu, ^ to become 
Kuingiwa na khofuy \ afraid. 
Kutia hhofuj to frighten. 
Khorj, a pad used as a saddle for 

donkeys. 
Khoshi (?), paint, colour. 
Khvbiri ku-y to inf(»m, give news. 
£htt8umUf enmity. 
Khutvhu ktt-j to preach. 
Khuzurungi or Huthurungi, a stuff 
of a brown yellow colour, of which 
the best men's kanzus are made. 
Ki-j a prefix forming a diminutive. 
It becomes ch- before a vowel, 
and in the plural it becomesvi- 
and vy-f or in other dialects zi- 
or thi', 
Ki' as a prefix also means (es- 
pecially if prefixed to proper 
names), such a sort ; and when 
used alone, words of such a 
sort, t.e, such a language. 
Mavazi ya kifaume, royal robes. 
Viazi vya kizungu, European 

potatoes. 
Kiardbu, Arabic. 
Kiyao, the Yao language. 
Ki- or ch; the adjectival and pro- 
nominal prefix proper to words 
agreeing with substantives of the 
above forms. 
Ki' or eh-, the personal prefix of 
verbs having substantives of the 
above form as their subject. 



'ki; the objective prefix of verbs 
having substantives of the above 
form as their object. 
ki; the sign of that tense which 
expresses a state of things, 
being that, which may be trans- 
lated by the help of the words, 
if, supposing, when, while, or 
be treated as a present parti- 
ciple in -ing, 
Niki- may be contracted into hi-. 
Alikuwa akiogolea, he was bath- 
ing. 
Akija, if he comes, or when he 

comes. 
The syllable -hi- is inserted in 
the past perfect tense to de- 
note a continuing action or 
state. 
Walipo-ki-pendana, when or while 
they loved one another. 
Kia, plur. via,, a piece of wood, a 

kind of latch, a bar. 
Kia ku; to step over. 
Kiada, slowly, distinctly. 
Kialio, plur. vialio, cross pieces 
put in a cooking pot to prevent 
the meat touching the bottom 
and burning. 
Kianga, the coming out of the sun 

after rain. 
Kiapo, plur. viapo, an ordeal, an 

oath. 
Kiarahu, Arabic. 

Ya kiarahu, Arabian. 
Kiasi = Kiassi. 
Kiass (^ hunduki, a cartrid^re. 
Kiassi, measure, moderation. 
Kiassi gani f or Kassi gani ? How 
much? 
Kiatu, plur. matu, a shoe, a sandal. 
Viatu vya mti, a sort of tal' 
wooden clog woxia. \a.^<^\tfs"o» 



304 



KIA 



KIC 



and especially by women. They 
are lieKl on by grasping a sort 
of button {mtumaki) between 
the crresit and aeooud toe. 
Kiazi^ plnr. ri'ari. a sweet potato. 

Kiazi A-iTrifu, plur. rtari rikuu, a 
Tarn. 

Kiazi «ena, with white skin. 

Kiazi hindorOy witli red skin. 
Kilia halulif a knot of mahuii to 

light a }ipe with. 
Kibaba, a measure, about a pint 

basin fidl, a pint basin, about a 

pound and a half. 
Kibahuli. a kind of into ma. 
Kibali hu-, to prosper. 
Kibanda^ plur. ribandaj a hut. a 

hovel, a shed. 
Kibanzi, plur. ri7»ayizi, a splinter, a 

very small piece of wood. 
Kihao, plur. rib-ro, a shelf, a small 

piece of plank. In Tumbatu a 

chair is called Jubao. 
Kibapara, a pauper, a destitute 

person (an insulting epithet). 
KibaranffOy a short heavy stick. 
Kibaraza, plur. vibaraza^ a small 

stone seat. 
Kibama, plur. vibarua, a note, a 

ticket. Kibarua is now used 

in Zanzibar to denote a person 

hired by the day, from the 

custom of giving such persons a 

ticket, to be delivered up when 

they are paid. 
Kiberiti, sulphur. 

Viberitij matches. 
Kibeti, a dwarf. 

Kuku hibeti, a bantam. 
Kihiay plur. vihia, an earthen pot-lid. 
Kifjiongo, plur. vihiongoy a person. 

bent by age or infirmity. 
Kibobtce, plur. vibobtoef a piece of 



doth tied zoimd the loins during 

hard work. 
Kihofm^ plnr. vibofu, a bladder. 
KRiogothi, plur. rtbogotki^ a small 

skin bag. 
Kiboka, plnr. vtboko, a hippo- 

potamna. See alao Karunt. 
Kibua, a small fish. 
KibMeiOj plnr. rOmeia, a box. 
Kibula, the keblaj the point to 

which men tnm when they piay. 

Among the Mohammedans the 

kibula is the direction in which 

Mecca lies, which is in Zaniihar 

nearly north. Hence Irt&iiZa is 

sometimes nsed to mesa the 

north. 
Kibula ku-, to point towards, to be 

opposite to. 
Kibumba^ plur. tibnmhcij a small 

paper box or case of anythin^^ 
Kiburi, pride. 
Kiburipembe, a native bird. 
K'chaa. lunacy. 

Mtcenyi kichaa, a lunatic 
Kichaka^ plur. Hchaka, a thicket, a 

heap of wood or sticks. 
Kiehalaj plur. riehala^ a bunch. 

Kichala cha mzabibu, a bunch of 
grapes. 
KiehekOf plur. rrc^&o, a laugh, a 

giggle. 
Kichikichi, plur. richikiehi, the 

small nuts contained in the fruit 

of the palm-oil tree. 
KichilenuL, plur. vichilema, the 

heart of the growing part of 

the cocoa-nut tree, which is 

eaten as a salad, and in various 

wavs. 

m 

Kicho, plur. riVAo, fear, a fear. 
Kichocheo, the act of pushing wood 
further into the fire, an instru- 



KIO 



KIF 



305 



ment for doing it, exciting words 

to stir Tip a quarrel. 
KichochorOf plur. vichocTioro, a very 

narrow passage, such as is gene- 
rally left between the houses in 

Zanzibar. 
Kichwa, plur. vichwa, for Kitwa, the 

head. 
Kiddka^ plur. viddkaf a recess in 

the wall. 
Kidaka, plur. vidaka, a cocoa-nut 

when just formed. 
Kidaka tonge, the uvula. 
Kidanga, a very small ffuit, before 

it gets any taste. 
Kidari, the chest : kidari is used of 

both men and animals, kifua of 

men only. 
Kidau, plur. vidau, a small vessel. 

Kidau cha vrino, an inkstand. 
KidevUf plur. mdevu^ the chin. 
Kidimbvoiy plur. vidimbm, a pool 

left on the beach by the falling 

tide. 
Kidinga popo, the dengue fever. 
Kidogo, plur. vidogOy a little, a very 

little, a little piece, a morsel, a 

crumb. 
Kidoko. 

Kupiga kidoko, to click with the 
tongue. 
Kidde, plur. vidole, a finger, a -toe. 

Kiddle cha gumba, the thumb. 
Kidonda, plur. vidonda, a sore, a 

small sore, a wound. 
Kidonge, plur. vidongsy a very small 

round thing, a lump in flour, a pill. 
KidotOf plur. vidoto, a small piece of 

cloth tied over a camel's eyes 

while turning an oil press. 
KielezOj plur. mtUzo, a pattern, 

something to make something 

else clear. 



Kievu (A,) = Kidevu» 

Kiendelezo, progress. 

Kifa, plur. tifa, the nipple of a gun. 

Ki/a uuDongOf the sensitive plant. 

Kifa/a, epilepsy, fits. 

Kifa/a, plur. vifafa, sparks and 

crackling of damp firewood. 
Kifani, plur. vifani, the like, a 

similar thing. 
Kifano, plur. vifano, a likeness. 
Kifaranga, plur. vifaranga, a 

chick, a very small chicken. 
Kifaru, plur. vifaru, a rhinoceros, 

a small rhinoceros. 
Kifaume, royalty, a royal sort. 

Ya kifaumej royal. 
Kifiko, plur. vifiko, arrival, point of 

arrival, end of journey. 
Kifu ku'y to suffice. 
Kifu ndugu, the os coccygis, the 

bone which the Mohammedans 

say never decays. 
Kifwi, plur. w/tta, the chest, the 

bosom. 
Kifufu, plur. vifufu, the shell of the 

cocoa-nut (M.). 
Kifuko, plur. vifuko^ a little bag, a 
pocket, a purse. 

Kifuko cha kiUilia fetha., a purse. 
Kifumbu^ plur. vi/umhu, a small 

round basket or bag for squeezing 

scraped cocoa-nut in to get out 

the tut. 
Kifurnbo, plur. vtfumbo, a very largo 

kind of matting bag. 
Kifundo cha mguu, the ankle. 
Kifundo cha mkono, the wrist. 
KifungOf plur. vffungo, anything 

which fastens, a button, prison, 

imprisonment, a kind of rice. 
Ki/ungtia, an unfastener, an opener. 

Kifungua kantoa, early food, 
breakfast. 



306 



KIF 



KIJ 



bj the bri'iegxoom to the kmmgm 
of the bride before ihe aJk^wv 
him to enter the bnde** 
on the oocMion of hu 
Tuit to her. 
KifunOta, plor. n/vJuXxk, a lid, a 

oorer. 
Kifmo, plor. n/HO, a stick stuck in 
the groand to rip the husk off 
ooooa-nats with. 
Kifurushi, somethiDg tied up in the 

comer of a cloth. 
Ki/un, mbfaish, robbiih from old 

bnildinga. 
•Kt/utf, plor. vi/tiu, a oocoarnnt 

shelL 
Kigagoj plor. tigiuyL, a acab. 
Xigaij plor. rt^ai, a piece of broken 

pottery or glass, a potsherd. 
Kiganda eha pUi, the two of cards. 
Kig€U)gao, the Pemba name for a 
chameleon, meaning <diangeable« 
Kigego = Kijego. 

Kigerenyenza, plor. vigerenyenz<i, a 
very small piece of broken pottery 
or glass, a splinter. 
Kigdegde, plor. vigelegele, a shrill 
trilling scream much used as a 
rign of joy, especiaUy on the 
oocaskm of a birth. 
Kigogo, a little block of wood. 
Kigogo cha hushoneoy a small 
oblong piece of wood used by 
shoemakers. 
Kigongo, the hump of a humpbacked 
person. 
Mwenyi kigongo, a humpback. 
Kigono, plur. vigono (Yao), a sleep- 
ing place. 
Kigotho, a bend. 
Kigosho cha mkono, an arm that 
cannot be straightened. 




Kijmmmif plor. 
■Mtting bag of the kiad ia lAieh 
daies are tarowgkft to Ymmnhmw 

Kigumzif the day befiove the SOm a 



Kigwe^ jSba, tigmej a plaited eord, 
reins, a string of beads^ a piping 
on the edze of a dreM^ 



Elkertkere (dUi aoyoX tnpidatiao, 

palpitation (of the heart). 
Kikimdi^ the Indian aatt, an ladiaa 
language^ 

Ta kSkiadiy Indian. 
Kikoro, sonow ai a hai^ iofjtki, 

homesickneflB. 
Ktini, kemd, the heart of wood. 

Kiimi dim yayt, the yolk oC an 
egg. 
Kiinimaekot a eonjuvor. 
KiUha or KithOj afterwarda, next, 

this being ended. 
Kijakazij plor. vijakazi^ a dave g^L 
Kijamandoj plor. xijamamda, a 

small long-diaped box commonly 

used to carry betel and aieoa- 

nut in. 
Kijanaj plur. vijana^ a yonihy a 

young man, a oom|dinientRry 

epithet, a boy or girl, a son or 

daughter. 
Kijaluboj plur. vijalvbaf a small 

metal box. 
Kijambay plur. vijafkba, a small look. 
KijarahOj plur. vijaraheij a small 
wound. 

Kijaraha dia hoowiy sores on the 
penis, syphilis. 
Kijegoy plur. tdjego, a child which 

cuts its upper teeth first. They 

am reckoned unlucky, and among 



KIJ 



EIE 



307 



the wilder tribes are often killed. 

Applied by way of abuse to bad 

children. 
Kijiboko, plur. vijtboko, a little 

hippopotamus. 
Kijicho, envy, an envious glance. 
KijiguUj plur. vijiguu, a little leg. 
KijikOf plur. vijiko, a small spoon, 

a spoon. 
Kijiti, plur. vijitiy a little tree, a 

bush, a shrub, a small pole, a 

piece of wood. 
Kijito^ plur. vijito, a small stream, 

a brook. 
Kijito (M.) = Eijieho. 
Kijitwa or KijichiDay plur. vijitway 

a little head. 
Kijiviy thievish. 
Kijogoo, plur. vijogoo, a mussel, a 

kind of shell-fish. 
Kijoli, the slaves belonging to one 

master. 
Kijomba, Swahili (M.). 
Kijongo = Kigongo, a humpback. 
Kijukuuy plur. vijukuUj a great- 
grandchild. 
Kijurnbej plur. vijumbe, a go- 
between, a match-maker. 
Kijumba, plur. vijumba^ a little 

house, a hovel. 
Kikaango, plur. vikaango, a small 

earthen pot for cooking with oil 

or fat. 
Kikakaj over-haste. 
Kikale, old style, the antique. 

Ya kikale, of the ancient kind, 
antique, of old times. 
Kikcut, plur. vikao, a seat, sitting, 

dwelliDg-place. 
Kikapu, plur. vikapu, a basket, a 

matting bag. 
Kikarambaf a very old person (dis- 
respectful). 



Ktkisa ku-j to understand half of 
what is said. 
Haiti hit yanikikisa, I know some 
of the words, but not all. 

Kiko, plur. viko, a tobacco pipe, a 
pipe. The native pipes consist 
of a vessel half full of water with 
two stems, one leading to the 
bowl and one to the mouthpiece : 
the water vessel is properly the 
kiko. Bee hori, digaH, mdUo, and 
shilamu, 

Kikoa, plur. vikoa. 
Kula kikoa, to eat at the expense 
of each one in turn. 

Ktkofiy the inside of the fingers. 

Kikohozif a cough. 

Kikoit plur. vikoi, a white loin- 
cloth with coloured stripes near 
the border. 

Kikombe, plur. vikombe, a cup. 

Kikomho, a little crooked thing. 

Kikomo, plur. vikoTno, end, end of 
journey, arrival. 
Kikomo cha uso, the brow, es- 
pecially if prominent. 

Kikondoo, See Kondoo. 

Kikongwe, plur. vikongwe, an ex- 
tremely old person, a feeble old 
woman. { 

KikonOy plur. mkono, the prow of a 

small native vessel. 
, Kikonyoy plur. vikonyo, flower and 
firuit stalks, the stalks of cloves. 

Kikorombwe, a cry made into the 
hand by way of signal, a call. 

Kikosi or I7A»«i, the nape of the neck. 

KikotOf plur. vikoto (M.), a plaited 
thong or whip carried by an 
overlooker and used in schools. 

Kikoztf plur. vikozi, a detachment, 
a band, company, division. 

Kikuba, plur. v»/;u&a>a Gonall \t^&V^^•. 



308 



KIK 



KXM 



of aromatic leaves, &o., worn in 
the dress by women. It is com- 
posed of rehaniy sprinkled with 
dcUia, and tied up with a strip of 
the nikadi, 

Kikukuy plur. vihuku, a bracelet, an 
arm ring. 
Kikuku dha kupandia frasiy a 
stirrup. 

Kikunazi (?), labia (obscene). 

Kikumbo. 
Kupiga kikumho, to push aside, 
to shove out of the way. 

Kikuta, plur. mkuta, a small stone 
wall. 

Kiktoapa, the perspiration from the 
armpit. See also Kanzu. 

Kikwi, plur. vikwi, a thousand, ten 
thousand. 

Ktlango, a narrow entrance. 
Kilango cha hahari, straits. 
Kilango cha jahay the gate of 
Paradise. 

Kile, that, yonder. 

Kileji, a round flat wheaten cake. 

KUeU, plur. vUeUy a peak, a sum- 
mit, a pointed top, a pointed 
shoot in a tree or plant. 

KUema, plur. vilema, a deformed 
person. 
Si vema kucheka kU&ma, it is 
wrong to laugh at one who is 
deformed. 

Kilemhay plur. vilemha, a turban, a 
customary present at the comple- 
tion of a job and on many other 
occasioDS. 

KileTnbwe, a great-grandson. 

KiUo, plur. vileo, iutoxication, an 
intoxicating thing. 

KHeUy plur. viletey metal rowlocks, 
crutches. 

\ilevu = Kidevu. 



KUi/u, plur. viH/u, the cloth-like 

envelope of the young oocoa-nut 

leaves. 
Kilimoy plur. vHima, a hill, a rising 

ground, a mound of eax th. 
KUirnbiliy the wrist. 
Kilimia, the Pleiades (?). 
XtZi'mo, cultivation, the crop planted. 

KUimo cha nini? what is tlie 
crop to be ? 
Kilindiy plur. vilindi, the deeps, 

deep water. 
Ktlinga pcpo (?), rheumatism. 
Kilinge cha maneno, cha uganga, 

speaking in a dark manner not 

generally understood. 
KUiOj plur. vilioy a cry, weeping. 
Kiliza ku-y to chink money. 
Killa or KuUay every. 

Killa nendapOy wherever I go, or, 
every time I go. 
Kiluthuy velvet. 
Kimay a monkey. 
Kima, price, measure. 
Kimajiy damp. 
Kimanday an omelette. 
Kimanduy the piece of wood put on 

behind the sill and lintel of a 

door to receive the pivots on 

which it turns. 
Kimanga, a small kind of grain. 
Kimangay of the Arab sort. See 

Manga. 
Kimango. 

Chui kimangoy a full-grown leo- 
pard. 

Kimashamhay belonging to the 
country, a country dialect. 

Ya kimashamhay countrified. 
KimhaumhaUy a chameleon. 
Kimbia ku-, to run away, to flee. 
Kimbiza ku-y to make to run away, 

to put to flight. 



KIM 



KIN 



309 



Kinibizia hu-t to make to run away 

from. 
Kimerima. See Merima. 
Kimeta, a sparkling, a glitter. 
Kimetimeti, plur. vimetimeti, a fire- 

fly. 

Kimia, plur. vimia, a circular cast- 
ing-net. 

KimiOf the uviria, an enlarged 
uvula. 

XimOy it is or was inside. 

Kimoja, one. See Mqja, 

Kimporoto, nonsense. 

Kimurimurif plur. vimurimuri, a 
fire-fly. 

Kimvungay a hurricane. 

Kimwa ku-, to be tired, disgusted, 
to be cross at having anything to 
do. 

^AmwondOf plur. vimwondo, a mis- 
sile, a shooting star, because they 
are said to be thrown by the 
angels at the Jins. 

Kimya, silence, perfect stillness. 
Mtu wa Mmyakimya, a still man. 

Kina. 

Kina sisi, people like us. 
Makasha haya ya Mna AhdallaJiy 
these chests belong to Abdal- 
lah's people. 

Kina, plur. vina, a verse, the final 
syllable of the lines, which is the 
same throughout the poem. 

Kinai ku-, to be content without, 
to withhold oneself from desiring, 
to be self-satisfied, to revolt at, 
to nauseate. 

Kinaisha ku-, to revolt, to make 
unable to eat any more, to take 
away the desire of. 

Kinamizi or Kiinamizi, stooping to 
one's work. 

Kinanda, plur. vinanda, a stringed 



instrument, applied to nearly all 
European instruments. 

Kinara, plur. mnara, a little tower, 
a candlestick. See also Kanzu. 

Kinaya, self-content, insolence. 

Kinayi &«- =2 Kinai ku; 

Kinda, plur. makinda, a very young 
bird, the young of birds. 

Kindana ku-, to object to, to stand 
in the way of. 

Kinena, the abdomen. 

Kinga, plur. vinga, a brand, a half- 
burnt piece of firewood. 

KingOf a stop, a limit put to tt 
thing. 

Kinga ku-, to put something to catch 
something, to guard oneself, to 
ward a blow. 
Kukinga mvua, to put something 
to catch the rainwater. 

Kingaja, plur. vingajaf a bracelet of 
beads. 

Ktngalingalit on the back (of falling 
or lying). 

Kingama ku-, to lie across. 
Mti umekingama njiani, a tree 
lies across the road. 

Kingamisha ku-, to block, to stop, 
to spoil. 

Kinge, too little. 

ChakuJa kinge, too little food. 

Kingojo, a watch, time or place of 
watching. 

Kingozi, the old language of Me- 
linda, the poetical dialect, diffi- 
cult and ill-understood language. 

Kingtibwa, the spotted LysBua. 

Kinika ku-, to be certain or -ascer- 
tained about a person. 

Kinjunjuri. 

Kukata kinjunjuri, to shave all 
the hair except one long tuft. 

Kinono, plur. idnono,^ & CMt>^Sk.^. . 



310 



KIS 



KIP 



Kim&i, plor. rimoo, a mL g toto De. ( 

EwAe kinoo, a small jellow kind . 
of maDgo. I 

Kin^L, plnr. riuu. a wooden mortar 
for {Xfnndin? and for cleaning 
eom, an oil-mill, a milL | 

Kinu cka hwhindihla, a mill for 

pressing oiL 
Kinu eha moihu a gteam milL 

Kinuhi, plnr. rinubi^ a harpw 
Ta KintOn, Nubiao. 

Kinwa = Kinytea, 

Kinwa, plnr. rt'nira, a mouth. 

Kinvea mchuzi, the imperial, the 
place where the imperial grows. 

Kinyaa, filth, dnng. 

Kiwfoga, plor. rinyago, a thing to 
frighten people, snch as a mock 
ghost, Ac., &C. 

Kinyegere, a small animal, a sknnk. 

Kinyemi, pleasant, good. 

Kinyenye/u, a tickling, a tingling. 

KinyezC See Kinyaa, 

Kinyi, having. Bee -inyL 

Kiny&nga, plnr. tinyonga, a chame- 
leon. 

Kinyozi, plnr. pinyazi, a barber, a 
shaver. 

Kinyuma = Kinyume* 

Kinyume, afterwards. 

Kinyume, going back, shifting, 
alteration, an enigmatic way of 
speaking, in which the last syl- 
lable is pnt first See Appendix I. 

Kifvynmbdj a kept mistreiss. 

Kinyunyc^ plnr. vinyunya, a kind 
of cake, a little cake made to try 
the quality of the fionr. 

Kingtoay plnr. vinywa, a drink, a 
beverage. 

Kinywajiy plnr. mnywaji, a bare- 
rage, a usual beverage. 



Khua i«-, to eontndkt, doBj. 
Kioga. plnr. rio^o. a iiiiiiiliniiM 
Kiokotij piia. riohm^ a leaMil fbr 

finding a lost thing aad igJMiiiiig 

it to the owner. 
KiojOj plnr. noja^ a cuzioBitj. 
.KtoiMfa, a tnrtpr. 

Kiomda wUuii, the imperial, the 
place where the imperial grows 
(M.). 
Kiongocij phir. rum^od!, a leader, a 

guide, a caravan guide. 
Kiongux, plur. viomgwe^ a doBkejr 

from the mainland; theyanie- 

pnted veiy hard to manageu 
Kioo, plur. rum, glass, a glaH, a 

looking-glass, a piece of glaai^ — 

a fish-hook (M.). 
Kiopooj a pole or other instmiBent 

to get things out of a weD, fte., 

with. 
Kioiska mignuj a present made by 

the bridegroom to the hmmgm of 

the bride on the occasion of bis 

first visit 
Kiota, plur. Hotay a hen*s nest^ a 

laying place, a bird's nest 
Kfoto = KiottL 
Kiowe. 

Kupiga hiouje^ te Boroaoi, eiy for 
help. 
Kiowetniy a liquid. 
Kioztty putridity. 
Kipa mkonoy a present made by the 

bridegroom to the bride when he 

first sees her faca 
KipdOy plur. vipaa, a thatched roof, 
the long sides of a roof. 

KipcM eha mbele, the fhmt slope 
of the roof. 

Kipaa eha nyumtiy the back b1<^ 
of the roof. 
Kipajcy a kind of mtoma. 



KIP 



KIR 



311 



Kipajt, a kind of cosmetic. See 

also Kanzu, 
KipakUf plur. vipahut a spot or 

mark of a dififereut colour. 
KipambOy adornment. 
KipandCf plur. vipande, a- piece, an 
instrument, a ouall rammer for 
beating roofs. 

Vipande vya hupimia, nautical 
instruments. 

Kipande kilichonona, a piece of 
fat. 
Eipanga^ a large biid of prey, a 

horse-flj. 
Kipangozif a sluggish incurable 

sore on a horse or ass. 
Kipara, plur. vijpara, a shaved place 

on the head. 
Kipde, plur. vipele, a pimple. 
Kipendiy a darling, a favourite. 
Kipenu^ plur. vipenu^ a lean-to, the 

side cabins of a ship. 
Kipenyo, a small place where some- 
thing passes through. 
Kipepeo, plur. vipepeo, a fan for 

blowing the fire, a butterflj. 
Kipeto, plur. vipeto, a packet. 
Kipi or Kipia, a cock's spur. 
Kipigi, a rainbow (?X 
KipUa, a curlew. 
KipiHpili. 

Nyele za kipiliptli, wooll j hair. 
Kipindiy a time, a period of time, an 
hour. 

Kipindi chote, at every period. 

Kipindi cha aththuuri, the hour 
of noon. 
Kipinda, 

Kufa hipindaj to die a natural 
death, as cattle, &c. 
Kipindupindu, cholera. 
Kipingvja, plur. vipingwa^ a bar. 
Kipini, plur. vipiTit, a hilt, a haft^ 



a handle of the same kind as a 
knife handle, a stud-shaped orna- 
ment worn by women in the nose, 
and sometimes in the ears also. 

Kipimo, plur. vipimo, a measure. 

Kipofu, plur. vipofu, a blind per- 
son. 

KipolepoUy a butterfly. 

Kipooza, paralysis. 

Kipukvba, dropped early, cast firait, 
etc. 

Kipukute, Kipukuse = Kipukvba, 
Ndizi kipttktUe, little bananas. 

Kipulif plur. vipuli, a dangling 
ornament worn by women in the 
ear; they are often little silver 
crescents, five or six round the 
outer circumference of each ear. 

Kipunguo, plur. vipunguo^ defect, 
deficiency. 

Kipupwe, the eold season (June and 
July). 

Kipwa, plur. vipuoa^ rocks in the sea. 

Kiraka, plur. viraka, a patch. 

Kiri ku-y to confess, accept, acknow- 
ledge, assert. 

Kiriba, plur. mrSba, a waternaidn^. 

Kirihi kit', to provoke. 

Kirikika ku-, to be provoked, to be 
offended. 

Kirthisha ku-, to make offended, to 
aggravate. 

Kirimba, a cage for wild animals, 
a meat-safe. 

Kirimu kw, to feast. 

Kirithi hu-, to borrow, specially to 
borrow money. 

Kirohoto, plur. virohoto, a flea. The 
Hathramaut soldiers are nick- 
named VirohotOf and their song 
as they march is parodied by, 
Kirdboto, KirdbotOf Ua motto, tia 
moto. 



812 



KIS 



£IS 



Kirukanjiay a kind of mouse found 

in Zanzibar. 
Kirukia, a kind of parasite growing 

on fruit trees. 
Kiruu, blind rage. 
Kisa, plur. visa, a cause, a reason, 
a short tale. 
Visa vingi, many affairs, a com- 
plicated business. 
Misa cha koko^ kernel of a stone. 
Kisaga, a measure equal to two 

Kibabas, 
Kisahanif plur. viadhanif a plate, a 

small dibh. 
Kieanduku, plur. visanduku, a small 

chest, a box. 
Kisarani, a greedy fellow, a miser. 
Kisasi, revenge, retaliation. 
KUhada, a tailless kite. 
Kishaka, plur. vishaka, a thicket. 
Kisheda, a bunch of grapes, a paper 

flutteiing in the air like a kite. 
Kishenziy of the wild people. 

Lugha ya kuhenzi, a ianguage of 
the interior. 
Kishif a chess-queen. 
Kiahigino = Kisigino, 
Kishinday a small residue left in a 
plcuse or inside something, as 
in a water-jar less ihan iialf 
full. 
Vishinda vingapi umetiai How 
many portions (of grain) have 
you put (in the mortar, to be 
cleaned) ? 
Kishindo, noise, shock. 
KuhogOy the back of the head and 
neck. 
Akupaye kishogo si mwenziOf one 
who turns his back upon you 
is not your friend. 
JCishwara, a loop of rope -to haul by 
•'^ dragging a vessel into or out 



o{ the water, a loop in the side of 

a dhow to pass an oar through 

for rowing. 
Kisi ku-f to guess. 
Kukisi tanga, to shift 0¥er a saM 

to the opposite side. 
Kisiy Keep her away ! 
KisibaOf plur. visibae, a waistcoat 
wilh or without sleeves; they 
are very commonly worn in 
Zanzibar. 

Kisibao cha mikono, a deeved 
waistcoat. 

Kisibao cha vikapa or vikioapa, a 
sleeveless waistcoat. 
Kisibu (?), a nickname. 
Kisigino or KishiginOy the elbow. 

Kisigino cha mguu, the heel. 
Kisikiy plur. visiki, a log. Used in 

slang language for a prostitute. 
Kisiki cha rnvna, a rainbow (M.). 
Kisimay plur. visimay a well. 
Kisimi (obscene), the clitoris. 
Kisitiriy a screen, screen-wall, 

parapet. 
Kisiwa, plur. visiwa, an island. 
Kisiyangu [Tumbatu] = KizingiH. 
Kisiwiso, 

Kisiwiso cha choo chauma, consti- 
pation. 
Kishokay plur. vishokay a hatchet, a 

small axe. 
Kishubakay plur. vishubakay a small 

recess, a pigeon-hole. 
Kishungiy plur. vishungiy the ends of 

the turban cloth, lappets. 
Kisma, a part. 
Kisomhoy a paste made of beans, 

mahogOy &c. 
Kisongo, plur. visongoy a piece of 

wood to twist cord or rope with. 
KisozCy a very small bird with back 

blue, and breast yellow. 



KIS 



KIT 



313 



Kisuy plur. visUf a knife. 
Kisua, a suit of clothes. 
Kisugidu, plur. viaugulu, a mound 

of earth, an ant-hill. 
fisungura, plur. visungura, a little 

rabbit or hare (?). 
Kisunono, gonorrhoea. 

Kisunono cha damu, with passing 
blood. 

Kisunono cha uzahaj with passing 
matter. 

Kisunono cha mkqjOy with constant 
micturition. 
Kisustdi, a whirlwind (?) a boy*s 

kite (?). 
Kisiisi, plur. vinui, the hip of a 

roof. The main roof starts from 

the long front and back walls, 

and is called the paa f^ small 

roofs start from the end walls, 

and are carried to the ridge under 

and within the paa: these are 

the visusi, 
KmUo = Kisutu. 
KisutUf plur. visutUf a large piece 

of printed calico^ often forming 

a woman's whole dress, a cover- 

Ud. 
Kiswa = Kisa. « 

Kitabu, plur. vitahu, a book. 
Kitagaiifay a small matting bag for 

halua, &c. 
Kitakizo, plur. vitahizo, the head 

and foot-pieces of a bedstead. 
Kitako, sitting. 

Kukaa kitdkoy to sit down, to re- 
main in one locality. 
Kitale^ plur. vitdey & cocoa-nut just 

beginning to grow. 
KiUUi, sailcloth. 
Kitalu, a stone fence, a walL 
Kitambaa, plur. vitambaa, a small 
piece of cloth a rag. 



Kitambaa cha kufutia mkonOf a 

towel. 
Kitambaa c^ameza, a table napkin. 
Kitambi cha kileniba, a piece of stuff 

for making a turban. 
KitambOf a short time. 
Kitamiri, a kind of evil spirit. 
Kitanay plur. vitana, a small comb. 
Kitanda, plur. vitanda, a bedstead, 

a couch. 
Kitanga, plur. vitanga, a round mat 
used to lay out food upon. 
Kitanga cha mkono, the palm of 

the hand. 
Kitanga cha mzanij a scale pan. 
Kitanga cha pepo, the name of a 
dance. 
Kitani, flax, linen, string. 
Kitanzif plur. titanzi, a loop, a 

button-loop. 
Kitaoioa, the kind proper for a 
devotee. 
Amevaa nguo za kitaowa^ he is 
dressed like a devotee. 
Kitapo^ plur. vitapo, a shivering, a 

shiver. 
Kitara^ plur. vitara, a curved swordv 
Kitaray an open shed in a village, 
where people sit to talk and trans- 
act business. 
KitatUy a box lock, a lock. 
Kitatangif a cheat. Also a very 
bright-coloured sea-fish with 
spines, a sea-porcupine. 
Kitawi, a kind of weed. 
Kitam, plur. vitawi, a branch, a 

bough, a bunch. 
Kite^ feeling sure, certainty, faith.- 
fully (?), affection. 
Kana kite haye, he has no affec- 
tion. 
Kupiga kite, to cry or groan ftom 
inward pain. 



314 



KIT 



SIT 



Kiteflefuj sobbing before or after 
crying. 

Kitefute, the obeek, the part of the 
face over the cheek-bone. 

Kiteku, a tosser. 

Kitembej a lisp. 

Kitemhwi, a thread of flax or flue 
grass. 

Kitendawilit plur. vitendawiLi, an 
enigma. The propounder says 
Kitendawili; the rest answer 
Tega; he then propounds his 
enigma. 

KitendOf plur. vitendoy an action. 

KUengenya, a small bird spotted 
with white, yellow, and red. 

Kiteo, plur. viteo, a small sifting 
basket. 

KitesOy a vase. 

KitewBy loss of the use of the legs. 

Kitkiri htir, to grow large, in- 
crease. 
TJmehithiri Tcuzaa, it has borne 
more than before. 

Kiti, plur. mti, a chair, a seat. 
Kiti cha frash a saddle. 

Kitimbi, plur. vitimbi, an artifice, 
an artful trick. 

KiUnda mimba, the last child a 
woman will bear; 

Kitindi, See Vitindi, 

KiUfTiOt plur. vitUhOf fear, a terrify- 
ing thing. 

Kititi, plur. vititi, a hare, a rabbit, 
a little thing (M.). 

Kititiy to the full, entirely, alto- 
gether, all at once. 

Kititi cha hahari, the depths of the 
sea. 

Kititia, a child's windmill. 

Kitiwanga^ chicken-pox. The 
natives say an epidemic of hiti- 
*jj^nga, always precedes one of 



small-pox. Also titiwanga, and 

perhaps tete ya Tcwanga. 
Kito^ plur. vito, a precious stone. 
KitoJca (M.) = Kishohx, 
KitomOf plur. vitoma, a small roand 

pumpkin. 
Kitoma, orchitis. 
Kitone, plur. vitone, a drop. 
Kitonga, hydrocele (?). 
Kitongojiy a village. 
Kitongotongo. 

Kutezama kitongotongOf to glance 
at contemptuously with half- 
shut eyes. 
Kitoria, a kind of edible fhdt. 
Kitoteo (M.) = Kichocheo, 
Kitoto, plur. vitotot a little child. 
Kitovu, plur. vitovUi the navel. 
KitoweOy plur. vitoweo^ a relish, a 

something to be eaten with the 

Tice or other vegetable food, Biich 

as meat, fish, curry, &c. 
KitUy plur. vitu, a thing, especially 
a tangible thing. 

8i hitu, nothing, worthless. 
Kitua, plur. vitua, the shade of a 

tree, &o. 
Kituko, startledness, fright. 
Kitukuu, plur. vitukuu, a great 

gp'andchild. 
KitulizOy plur. vitulizo, a soothing, 

quieting thing. 
Kitumhuay plur. vitumhua, a sort of 

cake or fritter made in Zanzibar. 
Kitunda, plur. vitunda, a chess 

pawn. 
Kitundmy a water-jar [Tumbatu]. 
Kitunga, plur. vitunga, a small 

round basket. 
Kitungu (?) a small round earthen 

dish. 
Kitunguh, plur. vitungule, a hare o* 

rabbit (?). 



KIT 



KIW 



315 



Kitunguu, plor. vitunguUf an onion. 

Kilunguu somu, garlic. 

Kitungwaj a small bird like a 

sparrow. 
KUuo, plur. vUuo, an encampment, 
a resting-place, a putting down. 

Hana kituo, he is always gadding 
about. 
EUupay plur. vitupa, a little bottle, 

a yiaL 
Kitutia, 

Bahari ya hittttta, a boiling sea, 
deep and rough. 
Kitwa, plur. vUwa^ the head. 
KUvxingombay a somersault. 
KittDoMtioa, topsy-turvy. 
KittoanOj plur. vUwana, a slave boy. 
Kin, thirst. 

KuuHi na kiu, to be thirsty. 

Kuona kiuj to feel thirst. 
Kiua, plur. viua, an eyelet hole. 
Kiuka TcfA-, to step over. 
Kiuhia = Kirukia, 
KixmM, plur. viuma, a fork. 
Kiuma mbuzif a small dark-coloured 

lizard. 
Kiunibe, plur. vtum5e, a creature, 

created thing. 
Kiumhizi, a peculiar way of beating 

the drum; the people sing the 

while, Sheitani ndoo tupigane 

firnbo, 
Kiunga, plur. viunga, a suburb, the 
outskirts of a town. 

Kiungani, near the town, in the 
suburbs. 
KiungOy plur. viungo, a joint, — an 

acid thing put into the mchuzi. 
Kiungujaj the language of Zanzibar. 
Kiungwana, the free or gentlemanly 
sort 

Ya kiungwana, civilized, cour- 
teous, becoming a free man. 



Mtoanamke wa Tciungwana, a lady. 

-Kiungulia, plur. viungulia, an eruc- 
tation, a breaking of wind. 

Kiuno, plur. viuno, the loins. 

Kiunza, plur. viunza, the plank laid 
over the body before the grave 
is filled in. (Coffins are never 
used.) 

Kiuwaji, murderous, deadly. 

Kivi, the elbow. 

Kivirnba, plur. viviinba, the girth of 
a tree, the circumference. 

Kivimbif a small swelling. 

Kivuko, plur. vivuko, a ford, a ferry, 
a crossing-place. 

Kivvli, plur. vivtdi, a shadow, a 
shade, a ghost. 

Kivumhazi, a strong-smelling herb 
said to scare mosquitoes: wash- 
ing in water in which it has been 
steeped is said to be a preventive 
of bad dreams. 

Kivumbo, lonely (?). 

Kivumi, plur. vivumi, a roaring, 
bellowing sound. 

Kivyao = Kizao. 

Kivyazif birth. 

Kiwamhaza, plur. viwamhaza, a 
mud and siud wall. 

Kiwambo, something strained 
tightly over a frame, like the 
skin of a drum, a weaving frame. 

Kiwaida, plur. viwanda, a work- 
shop, a yard, a plot of land. 

Kiwango, plur. viwango, a number, 
position in the world, duties be- 
longing to one's position, a man's, 
place. 

Kiwanja = Kiwanda, 

Kiwaoj a great feast [Tumbatu]. 

Kiwavi, plur. vivfavi, a nettle, a sea- 
nettle. 

Kitoavu chana (A.), ribs. 



S16 



KIW 



KOH 



Kiwey pliir. viwe. ^ 

Kiwe cha uso, a small kind of 
pimple on the face. 
Kiwele, an udder. 
Kivoembey a pocket-knife. 
Kiweo (M.), thigh, lap. 
Kiwete, loss of the use of the legs. 
Kivn, moon-blindness, a dazzle. 

Kufanya hivjiy to dazzle. 
Kiici, plur. viwi, a small stick, a 

piece of wood, a bar. 
Kiioiko. 

Kiwiko cha mkono, the wrist. 

Kiwiko cha mguu, the ankle. 
KiwUiwiUy the human trunk, the 

body without the limbs. 
Kiyama, the resurrection. 
Ktyanibaza, a bulkhead, partition. 

Also = Kiwambaza. 
KiyamhOf neighbourhood, a village. 
Kiza or Gtza, darkness. 

Kutia kiza, to darken, to dim. 
Kizao, plur. viza^o, a native, one 

bom in the place. 
Kizazi, plur. vizazi, a generation. 
Kizee, diminutive of mzee, gene- 
rally used of an old woman. 
KizibOy plur. vizibo, a stopper, a 

cork. 
Kizio, plur. vizio, half of an orange, 

cocoa-nut, &c. 
Kizimhi, plur. vizimbi, a cage. 
Kizinda, a virgin. 
Kizinja, plur. vizinga, a large log 

half burnt. 
Kizinjiti, threshold, the top and 

bottom pieces of a door or window 

frame, bar of a river. 
Kizingo, turnings, curves of a river, 

&c., (?) a burial ground. 
Kizingo, sharp shore sand used for 

building. 
Kizivjij plur. vtzivji, deaC 



Kizuio = Kizuizi. 

Kizuiziy plur. vizuizi, a stop, a thing 

which hinders or stays. 
Kizuizo, plur. vizuizo, a hindrance. 
Kizuka, plur. mzuka, a kind of evil 

spirit, a woman who is staying 

in perfect secrecy and quiet 

during the mourning for her 

husband. See Eda, 
Kizungu, a European language. 

Ya kizunguy European. 
Kizunguzungu, giddiness. 
Kizuri, beauty, a beauty. 
Kizushi, an intruder. 
Kizuu, plur. vizuu, a kind of evil 

spirit, which kills people at the 

order of its master. 
Ko, -koy -ko, where, whither, whence. 

Ko kote, whithersoever. 
Koa, plur. makoa, a snail'. 
Koa (plur. of Ukoa), the silver rings 

on the scabbard of a sword, &c., 

plates of metal. 
Kche, a tortoise. 
Koche, plur. makoche, the fruit of a 

kind of palm. 
Kodi, rent. 
Kodolea ku-, to fix the eyes upon, 

to stare. 
Kofij plur. makofi, the flat of the 
hand. 

Kupiga kofi, to strike with open 
hand, to box the ears. 

Kupiga makofi, to clap the hands. 
Kqfia, a cap. 
Kdfila, a caravan. ' 
Kofua, emaciated. 
Koga = Kuoga, 
Kohani, a small red fish like a 

mullet. 
Koho, a large bird of prey. 
Kohoa, ku-, to cough. 
Kohozi, expectorated matter. 



KOI 



KON 



317 



Koikoi, plar. makoikoi, a sort of 

evil spirit. 
Koja, a gold ornament for the 

neck. 
Kojoa hu', to make water. 
Koka = Kuoka. 
Koka ku-, to set on fire. 
Koko, plnr. makokoj kernels, nuts, 

stones of frait. 
Koko, plnr. mdkoko, brashwood, 
thickets, bushes. 

Mbwa kokoy a homeless dog that 
lives in the thickets and eats 
carrion. 
Kokomoka ku-, to vomit, to belch 

out, blurt out. 
Kokota Xctt-, to drag. 

Kukokota roho, to breathe hard. 
Kokoteza ku-, to do anything slowly 

and carefully. 
KokotOf plur. makokoto, a small 

stone, a small piece of stone. 
Kokwa, plur. makokioa, nuts, stones 

of fruit. 
Kolekole, a kind of fish. 
KoUa kvr, to become well flavoured, 

to get the right quantity of a 

condiment. 
KoleOf plur. makoleOy tongs. 
Kologa ku-, to stir. 
Konui, plur. nuikoma, a kind of fruit. 
Kama kii-, to cease, to leave oft, to 
end a journey, to arrive at a 
destination. 

Koma fuije 1 Gome no further I 
Komaa ku-, to be full grown. 
Komaza ku-, to mock, to make game 

of. 
Koniba^ a galago. 

Komba kit', to scrape out, to clean 
out. 

Dafu la hukomba, a cocoa-nut in 
which the nutty part is but just 



forming, which is then reckoned 
a delicacy. 

Kukomba mtu, to get all his money, 
to clean him out. 
KomhamoyOj plur. makomhamoyoj 

one of the rafters of a thatched 

roof. 
Konibe, plur. makombe, a large dish. 

Kombe la mkono(A.), the shoulder- 
blade. 

Kombe za ptoani, oysters (?), 
cockles (?), sea-shells. 
Kombeka ku-, to be cleaned out, to 

have had all one's money got from 

one. 
Kombeo, a sling. 
Konibo, plur. makombo, scraps, 

pieces left after eating. 
K'ombo, a defect, crookedness. 

Kvioa Womho, to notice a defect. 
Komboa ku-, to ransom, to buy back. 
Komboka ku-, to be crooked. 
Kombokombo, crooked. 
Kombora, a bomb, a mortar. 
Kombozi, a ransom. 
Kamey plur. makome, a pearl 

oyster (?), a mussel (?), a shell. 
Komea ku-, to fasten with a native 

lock (komeo). 
Komeo, a kind of wooden lock. 
Komesha few-, to make to cease, to 

put a stop to. 
Kamwe, plur. makomwe, the seeds of 

a large climbing plant abundantly 

furnished with recurved thorns ; 

they are used to play the game of 

boo with. 
Konda ku-, to grow thin and lean. 
Kondavi, large beads worn by 

women, as a belt round the loins. 
Konde, a fist. 

Kupiga moyo konde, to take her 
to reaoLve &nxiVs. 



318 



KON 



KOB 



Kondesha hu-, to make to g^w lean. 
KondOy war (Merima). 
KondoOt a sheep [Lindi]. 
Kmdoo, sheep. 

Yfiafa hikondooy he dies like a 
sheep, silently (which is high 
praise). 
Konga kn-, to grow old and feeble. 
Kongoa ku-, to draw out nails, &c., 

to take to pieces. 
Kongoea^ Mombas. 
Kongqja ku-f to walk with difficulty, 

to totter. 
Kongolewa ku-^ to be taken to pieces. 
Kongomero, throat. 
Kongoni = Kunguni, 
Kong^ota, a sort of woodpecker, 

black and yellow. 
Kongioa, a slave-stick. 
Kongioe. 

Kutoa kongtoe, to lead off the solo 
part of a song, in which others 
join in the chorus. 

"kongwe^ over-old, worn out with 
age. 
K(ynOy a projecting handle, like that 

of a saucepan. 
Konokono, a snail. 
Konyesha kur = Konyeza ku: 
Konyeza ku-, to make a sig^ by 

raising the eyebrows. 
Konzi, what can be grasped in the 
hand, a fist full. 

Kupiga konzif to lap with the 
laiuckles. 
KoOy plur. makoOf a breeding animal 
or bird. 

Koo la kiikuy a laying hen. 

Koo la mhuzij a breeding goat. 
Koo, plur. makoo, throat. 
Koonde, plur. makoondey cultivated 

land, fields, the piece ot a.8hamha 

Allotted to a slave for his own use. 



Konyoa ku-, to break off the oobs of 

Indian corn. 
Kopa^ hearts, in cards. 
Kopa, plur. makopa^ a piece of dried 

muhogoj which has been steeped 

and cooked. 
Kopa ku-j to get goods on eredit for 

the purpose of trading with, to 

cheat, to swindle. 
Eopey plur. of Dkope, the eyelashes. 
Kope, plur. mdkope, the wiok of a 

candle. 
Kopesa ku-, to wink. 
Kopesha ku-y to supply a trader with 

goods on credit, to give on tnut. 

to lend. 
Kopoj plur. mcAopo, a large metal 

vessel, a spout. 
Kopoa kw-y to drag oat of one's 

hand, = Chopoa ku-, 
Kora ku-y to seem sweet to^ to be 

loved by. 
Koradaniy a sheave of a pulley. 
Korija, a pucker in sewing. Also, a 
Korja, a score. [soore. 

Koroana ku-, to steep in water. 
Korofiy a bird of ill (unen, a 

messenger of bad luck. 
Korofisha hur-^ to ruin a man. 
K(yroga ku-, to stir, to stir up. 
£bfwi)a,plur. mdkoroma, a oocoa>nut 

in its last stage but one, when the 

nut is formed but has not yet its 

full flavour. It has ceased to be 

a dafu and is not yet a nazi. 
Koroma ku-, to snore. 
Korongo, a crane. 
Korongo, plur. makorongo, a hole 

dibbled for seed. 
K<yroro, a crested guinea-fowl. 
Koroshoy plur. makorosho, cashew 

nuts. 
Koru, the waterbuck. 



KOS 



-KUB 



319 



Kosa hu-y to err, mistake, miss, go 

wrong, do wrong, blunder. 
Kosekana ku-, to be missed, not to 

be there. 
Kosesha ku-, to lead astray. 
Kosudia ku-, to purpose, to intend, 
= Kusudia. 
Kota, plur. makota, the stalks of a 

kind of millet which are chewed 
Kota, a crook. [like sugar-Ksane. 
Kota ku-, 

Kukota moto, to warm oneself. 
Kotama, a curved knife used in 

getting palm wine. 
Kote, all. See -ote, 
Kotekote, on every side. 
Koto, 

Kupiga koto (M.), to strike with 
the knuckles. 
Kovo, plur. makovo, scar. 
Ku- or Kuh, 

1. The indefinite verbal prefix 
answering to tf^ere in English. 
Ku-likuwa, there was. 
Ku-katanda, and there spread. 

2. The sig^ of the infinitive. 
Ku-piga, to strike. 
Kuj-enda, to go. 

The infinitive may be used as a 
substantive answering to the 
English form in -ing. 

Kufa, dying, the act of death. 

Kwenda, going. 

The ku- of the infinitive is re- 
tained by monosyllabic verbs, 
and by some others in all 
tenses in which the tense 
prefix ends in an unaccented 
syllable. 

3. The prefix proper to adjectives, 
pronouns, and verbs agreeing 
with infinitives used as sub- 
stantives. 



Kufa kwetu kwema kutampendeza, 
our good deaths will please him. 

4. The prefix proper to pronouns 
agreeing with substantives in 
the locative case (-ni), where 
neither the being or going 
inside, nor mere nearness, is 
meant. 

Enenda nywmbani kwangu, go to 
my house. 

Ziko kwetu, there are in our pos- 
session, at our place. 

5. In a few words a prefix signi- 
fying locality, commonly so used 
in other African languages, but 
generally represented in Swa- 
hili by the case in -ni. 

Kuzimu, among the dead, in the 
-ku-. [grave. 

1. The sign of the negative past 
always preceded by some nega- 
tive personal prefix. 

Sikujua, I did not know. 
Hazikufaa, they were of no use. 

2. The objective prefix denoting 
the second person singular. 

Nakupenda, I love thee, or you. 
Alikupa, he gave thee, or you. 
Sikukyjua^ I did not know you. 

3. The objective prefix referring 
to infinitives of verbs, or to 
Tiuku, there. 

Kua ku-, to grow, to become large. 
-kuba or -kubwa, great, large. 
Kubali ku, to accept, assent to, 

acknowledge, approve. 
Kuhalika ku-, to be accepted, to be 

capable of acceptance. 
Kuhalisha ku-, to make to accept. 
Kuhba, a vaulted place. 
-kuhwa, large, great, elder, chief. 

It makes kubwa with nouns like 

nyumha. 



320 



KUO 



Kuchoy or Kumeikucha, the dawn. 

Usiku kiicha, all night. 
Kuchua ku-. 
Kamha imejikuchuay the rope has 
worn away, chafed, stranded. 
Kuftdif a padlock. 
Kufuru ku', to become an infidel, 

to apostatize. 
Kufuru ku-1 to mock, to deride. 
KuguniyUiG hartebeestCboselaphus). 
Kuke. See -ke, 
Mkono wa kuke, the left hand. 
Kukenit on the female side. 
Kuko, yonder, to yonder. 

Kwa ktikoy beyond, on yon side. 
ICuku, a hen, a fowl, fowls, poultry. 
Kuku na huku, backwards and for- 
wards. 
'kukuUy old, worn out. It makes 

kukuu with nouns like nyumba. 
KulabUt a hook to steady work with. 
Kule^ there, far off, yonder. 
iCtt/ee, yonder, very far off. As tlie 
distance indicated increases the 
S is more dwelt on, the voice 
raised to a higher and higher 
falsetto. 
Kulekuie, there, just there. 
KvUa ku-, to become great for, to 

become hard to. 
KulikOj where there is or was. 
Kulikonif Where there is what 

= why ? (M.). 
KulikOf is used in the ordinary way 
of expressing the comparative. 
Mwema kuliko liuyuy good where 
this man is, and therefore 
better than he. Because if a 
quality becomes evident in any- 
thing by putting some other 
thing beside it, ihe first must 
possess the quality in a higher 
degree than the other. 



KUH 

KuUa, often pronounced ^nZZa, every, 
each one. 

KuJulUj nothing at all. 
Nikapatakululu = Sikup<Uaneno. 

Kululu, tiger cowries, Oyprasa tigrls. 

Kulunguy a sort of antelope. 

Kuma, the vagina. 

Kuniba ku-, to push against, to take 
and sweep off the whole of any- 
thing, e,g. to clear water out of a 
box, to bale a boat. 

Kumbatia ku-, to embrace, to clasp. 

Kumbatiana ku-, to embrace (of two 
persons). 

Kiimffef What? An expression of 
surprise used especially when 
something turns out otherwise 
than was expected, commonly 
joined with a negative verb. 

Kumhi (Mer.), circumcision. 
Anaingia kumhinif he is being 
circumcised. 

Knnihij plur. makumhi, cocoa-nut 
fibre, the husk of the cocoa-nut 
and the fibrous mass out of which 
the leaves grow. Also, at Mgao, 
gum copal. 

Kutnhikumbi, ants in their flying 
stage. 

Kumbisha ku-, to push off upon, to 
lay upon some one else. 

Kunribuka ku-, to think of, to remem- 
ber, to ponder over, to recollect. 

Kumbukumbu, a memorial, a men- 
tion. 

Kumbura, an explosive shell. 

Kumbusha ku-, to remind. 

Kumhwaya, a kind of drum stand* 
ing on feet. 

Kumekucha, there is dawn, th< 
dawn. 

Kumi, plur. makumi, ten. 

Kumoja, on one side. 



KUM 



KUN 



321 



Kumpuni, plur. makumpuni, a per- 
son who has obtained full know- 
ledge of his trade. 
Kumunta A;u-(Mer.), to shake out 

or off. 
Kumunto, a sieve of basket-work. 
Kumutika ku-, to desire (?). 
Kumvif husks and bran of rice. 
Kuna, there is, 
Kunaye, depending upon him. 
Kunani f What is the matter ? 
Kuna kwamhaje f What do you 
say? [Tumbatu]. 
Kuna kU', to scratch. 
Kunakucha, there is dawning, the 

dawning. 
Kunaziy a small edible fruit. 
Kunda ku- (M.) = Kunja ku-. 
Kunda, plur. makunda, a green 

vegetable like spinach. 
Kundaa ku-y to be short and small 

of statnre. 
Kundamana ku- = Kunjamana ku-. 
Kunde, beans, haricot beans. 
Kundi, plur. makundif a crowd, a 

herd, many together. 
Kundua ku-y to please (?). 
-kundufu, giving pleasure. 
Nyumha ni kundufu, the house 

is commodious. 
Muungu ni mkundufuy God is the 
giver of all good things. 
Kunduka ku-^ to grow larger, to 
open. 
Moyo umekundukaf he is gratified 
(N.). 
Kunga ku-, to hem. 
Kungat cleverness, clever. 
Kazi haifai ilia kwa kunga, it 
wants to be done cleverly. 
Kungali. 
Kungali na mapema hado, while 
it is yet early. 



Kungu, mist, fog. 
Kungu manga, a nutmeg. 
Kungunif a bug. 

Kunguru, a crow, a bird a little 
larger than a rook, black, with 
a white patch on the shoulders 
and round the neck : it feeds on 
carrion. 
Kung*uta ku-, to shake o£^ to shake 

out. 
Kung*uto, plur. makung'uto, a sort 
of basket used as a sieve or 
strainer. 
Kuni, firewood. The singular, 
ukuni, means one piece of fire- 
wood. 
Kunia ku-, to scrape or scratch 

with, or for. 
Kunia ku-, to raise the eyebrows in 

contempt. 
Kuniita, telling me to come. 
Kunja ku-, to fold, to wrap up, to 
furl. 
Kukunja uzi, to wind thread. 
Kujikunja, to flinch, to shrink. 
Kukunja vso or Kukunja vipaji, 
^ to frown, to knit the brows. 
Kunjana ku-, to fold together, to 

dwindle, to wrinkle. 
Kunjamana ku-. 

Uso unakunjamana, his face is 
sad, sour, and frowning. 
Kunjia ku-, to fold for, to wrap up 

for, to crease. 
Kunjika ku-, to become folded or 

doubled up, to be creased. 
Kunjua ku-, to unfold. 
Kukunjua miguu, to stretch one's 
legs. 
Kunjuka ku-, to become unfolded, 

to spread over. 
Kunjtdiwa ku-, to be open an.d\»L- 



322 



KUN 



KWA 



Kunrathiy don't be offended, excuse 
me, pardon me. 

Kunu alamUf be it known. 

Kunya ku-, to ease oneself. See 
Nya. 

Kunyata ku-^ to draw together. 
Kttjihunyata, to draw oneself to- 
gether, to Bhrink. 

Kunyua ku- or Kunyula ku-, to 
touch secretly (with a scratching 
motion) by way of signal or of 
calling attention privately, to 
make a scratch on the skin. 

Knpaa. See Makupaa. 

KupCy a tick, a cattle tick. 

Kupua ku-y to shake something off 
one's dress, out of one*s hand, 
&c. 

Kura, the lot. 
Kupiga kura^ to cast lots. 

Kuru, a sphere, a ball. 

Kuruhia ku-, to come near to. 
Nalikuruhiaf &c., had a good 
mind to, &c. 

Kurumbizif a small yellow bird, 
very inquisitive : they say if he 
sees a man and woman talking 
together, he cries, ** Mtu anasema 
na mume." 

Kusa ku, to make to grow. 

Kusanya ku-, to collect, gather, as- 
semble. 

Kusanyana ku-, to gather together. 

Kusanyika ku-, to be gathered, to 
assemble. 

Kushoto, on the left. 
Mkono wa kushoto, the left hand. 

Kusi, the southerly winds which 
blow from May till October. 
Kusini, in the direction of the 
Kusi, southerly. 

Xu6udi, plur. makusudi, purpose, 
design. 



Kuaudia ku-, to purpose, to iatend. 

Kuta, plur. of VkutcL, walls. 

Kuta ku-, to meet with, to see, to 

find, to come upon. 
Kutana ku-, to come together, to 

meet, to assemble. 
Kutanika ku-, to become BBsembled. 
Kutanisha ku-, to bring together, to 

assemble. 
Kutu, rust. 
Kutuka ku-, to be startled, to be 

suddenly frightened. 
Kutusha ku-, to startle, to alarm 

suddenly. 
-kuu, great, chief, noble. Kuu refers 
more to figurative, kubwa to 
physical greatness. It makes 
kuu with nouns like nyumba. 

Ana makuu, he is vain. 
Kuume. See 'ume. 

Mkono wa kuume, the right hand. 

Kuumeni, on the male side. 
Kuvuli. 

Mkono wa kuvuli, the right hand. 
Kuwa, to bo, to become (?). See 

Wa. 
Kuwadt, also Kawadi, a procuress 

(Mtu anayewatongoaha watu). 
Kuwili, twice over, in two ways. 
-kuza, large, full grown. 
Kvaa ku-, to make bigger. 
Kuza, to sell. See Uza. 
Kuzi, an earthen water bottle larger 

than a guduwia, with a handle 

or handles and a narrow neck. 
Kuzikani, a funeral. 
Kuzimu, in the grave, under the 

earth. 
Kw-. See Ku-. 
Kwa, with, as an Instrument, 

through, to a person, to or at 

the place where any one lives; 

for, on account oL 



KWA 



KWEh 



323 



Kwa *ngi (?), generally. 

Kway of, after verbs in the infini- 
tive used as nouns, and after the 
case in -ni, 

Kwaa ^tf-, to strike the foot, to 
stumble. 

Kwajei how? 

Kioake, to him, with him, to or at 
his or her house; his, her, or 
its, after a yerb in the infiaitive 
used as a substantive, or the 
case in -ni. 

KwakOf to thee or with tiiee, to or 
at thy place, your, thy, of thee 
or you, after verbs in the infini- 
tive used as a noun, and after the 
case in -ni, 

KwaUy a partridge (?). 

Kwama ku-, to become jammed, to 
stick. 

Kwamha, saying (?), if, as if, though, 
Ya htoamba, that [that. 

Kwamisha ku-, to jam, to make to 
stick in a narrow place. 

Kwamiia kii-, to imjam, to free, to 
clear. 

Kwanguy to or at my house, to or 
with me, my, of me, after the 
infinitives of verbs used as sub- 
stantives, and after the case in 
-ni, 

Kwangua ku-, to scrape up, to eorape 
one's shoos, &c. 

Kwani for, because, wherefore, for 
why. 

Kwanua kv-, to split down, to tear 
down, to break. 

Kwanyuka ku-, to be split down 
like the boughs and branches of 
a tree, which some one has been 
trying to climb by them. 

Kwanza, beginning, at first, for- 
merly. 



Ta kwanzay first, the first. 

Ngoja kioanzaj wait a bit. 
KujctOf plur. makwao, a stumble, a 

stumbling-block. 
KwaOi to or with them, at or to 

their place ; their, of them, after 

verbs in the infinitive used as 

nouns, and after the case in -ni, 
Kwapa^ plur. mdkwapa, the arm- 
pit. 

Kwapani, under the armpit. The 
people of the African coast 
wear their swords by a strap 
over the left shoulder only ; the 
sword hangs under the armpit, 
and is said to be kwapani. 
Kwaruza ku-, to scrape along, to slip 

with a scrape. 
Kwattty or KvhjUo, a hoof. 

Kupiga kvmUXy to strike the hoof, 
to strike with the hoof. 
KwatUj a horseshoe (?). 
KwayOy a stumbling-block. 
Kwaza ku-, to make to stumble. 

Kukwaza meno, to jar the teeth 
like grit in food. 
Kwea ku-9 to ascend, go up, climb. 
Kvoeli, true, the truth. 

Ya kwdi, true. 
Kwelu = Kweu. 

Kwema, good, well, it is well there. 
Kweme, the seed of a gourd, very 

rich in oil. 
Kwenda, to go. See Enda, going. 
Kwendttf perhaps. 
Kvjenuj with you, to or at your 

place, your, of you, after verbs in 

the infinitive used as nouns or 

after the case in -ni. 
Kwenyi, till, since, up to the time of, 

from the time of. 
Kwepa ku; to start out of the way. 
Kuoeta &«-« to raia^ 



324 



KWE 



LAD 



Kwetu, to or with us, to or at our 

place, our, of us, after a verb in 

the iuflnitive used as a noun, and 

after the case in -ni. 
Kweuy clear. 
Kvjeupe, white. See •ettpe. 

Kuna kweupej grey dawn. 
Kweza ku-, to make to go up, to drag 

up a boat out of the water. 
Kweza ku-, to bid up an article at 
an auction. 

Kukwezwa, to have things made 
dear to one by others bidding 
them up. 
Kwiba. See Iha ku-, stealing, to 

steal. 
KtinbaTMy robbing one another. 
Kwikwey hiccup. 

Kwikwe ya kulia, sobs. 
Kwisha, See Jsha kvr, ending, to 

end. 
jfiiiro, which. 

L. 

L is pronounced as in English. 

L is not diistinguiiihed from r 
in African languages of the same 
family as Swahili. The distinction 
becomes important in Swahili on 
accouut of the Arabic words which 
have been incorporated into it. 
Thus— 

Mahali, means a place, but 
Mahari a dowry. 

Waredi means a rose, but Waledi 
a youth. Slaves, however, fre- 
quently confound even these. 

When r can be used for I, it has a 
light smooth sound, as in English. 

There is a latent I sound between 
every two consecutive vowels in 
Swahili and at the beginning of 



some verbs, which appears in their 
derivatives and in other African 
languages : thus the oommon pas- 
sive of kufungua is kufungfdiuM. 

So far is this disposition to drop 
an I carried, that even ktdeta, to 
bring, is in old Swahili eta. It is 
characteristic of the Merima dialect 
to retain these Ts. 

L and u are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged. 

Mlangot a door, is vulgarly pro- 
nounced Mwango. 

UfcUme, a kingdom, may be 
written Ufaume, 

In these cases, however, both 
forms are probably contractions 
from Mtdango and Ufalume, 

L becomes d after n, and is some- 
times confounded with d in inexact 
pronunciation. 

Ndume = Nlume or Nume^ male. 

L- or It', the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and verbs governed by 
words in the singular, of the 
class which make their plural 
in ma-. 

La, no. 

La kit-, to eat, to consume, to wear 
away, to take a piece in chess, &c. 
Tlie ku-, bears the accent and is 
retained in the usual tenses. The 
passive of kula is kuUwa. 

Laahu ku-, to play, to sport with. 

Laana, plur. malaanay a curse. 

Laani ku-, to curse, to damn. 

La^nisha ku-, to bring a curise upon. 

Labeka = Leheka, 

Lahuda, perhaps. 

Ladu, sweet cakes composed of trea- 
cle, pepper, and flour or semsem 
seed, made up into balls. 



LAG 



LET 



325 



Lagliaif a rascal. Also Ragai, 
Laika, plur. malaikaf one of the 

hairs of the hand or arm. 
Laini, smooth, soft. 
Lainisha ku-, to make smooth or 

soft. 
Laitil Would thatl Oh that I 

expressing regret at something 

past. 
Lake or Lakwe, his, hers, its. See 
Laki ku-, to go to meet. [-ake, 

Lakini, but, however. 
Lakki, a hundred thousand, a lao. 
LakOf thy. See ako. 
Lata ku-^ to sleep, to lie down. 

Nyumba imelaJa inchif the house 
is fallen flat on the ground. 
Lalama ku-, to confess, to cry for 

mercy; used of extorted confes- 
sions. 
Lalamika ku-, to he made to cry 

out, to be quite beaten, to shout, 

to scream. 
Lalika ku-j to be slept upon. 
LcUika ku- = Alika ku-f to inform, 

announce to. 
Lami, pitch or tar. 
Lana kU', to eat one another. 
Landa ku't to be equal with. 
Langu, my. See -angu. 
LaOt their. See -ao. 
Laomu ku-, to blame. Also Lau- 

Lapa ku; or Bapa ku-, to be ra- 
venously hungry. 

Launij sort, species, form. 

Laitmu ku-, to blame. 

Lawa ku-, to come from (Mer.). 

Lawana ku-, to blame, to scold. 

Laza ku-, to lay down, to lay at its 
length. 
Kujilaza, to lie down. 

Ldzim, of necessity. 



Lazima, surety, bail, necessity. 
Lazimiaha ku-, to compel. 
Lazimu ku-, to be obligatory upon. 
-le, his, hers, or its. 
Lea ku-, to bring up. 

Ameletjoa vema, he is well bred. 
Lebeka, the humble manner of re- 
plying when called, often short- 
ened into Ehhe, or even Bee* 
Legea ku-, &c., &o. See Begea ku-, 

&c., &o. 
Lekea ku-, to be opposite to, to tend 

to. 
Lekeza ku-, to put opposite to. 

Kulekeza hunduki, to level a gun 
at. 
Lekezana ku-, to agree, come to an 

agreement. 
Lelam, by auction. 
Lelimama, a dance to the music 

made by beating buffalo horns. 
Lema or Dema, a kind of fish-trap. 
Lemaa, disfigurement. 

Mwenyi lemaa, disfigured by dis- 
ease. 
Lefmhvka ku-, to be weak, limp. 
Lemea ku-, to oppress, to lie heavy 

upon, to overburden. 
Lengelenge, plur. malengelenge, a 

blister. 
Lenu, your. See'-enu. 
Lenyi. See -enyi. 

Bakuli lenyi mayayi, a basin with 
eggs in it. 
Leo, to-day. 
Leppe, drowsiness, dozes, snatches 

of sleep. 
Leso, a handkerchief. 

Leso ya kufutia kamasi, a pocket- 
handkerchief. 
Leta ku-, to cause to arrive at the 

place where the speaker is, to 

bring, to seud^ ifs i^^s^. 



326 



LET 



LIN 



Letea Jett-, to bring or send to or for 
a person. 
KuUtewaf to have brought or sent 
to one. 
LeiUy our. See -etu, 
Levuka ku-j to get sober. 
Levya ku-, to intoxicate. 
KujUevyaj to make oneself in- 
toxicated, to get drunk. 
LevycUevya fcu-, to be giddy. 
Lewa ku; to become drunk. 
Levxdewa ku-^ to swing or sway 

about like a drunken man. 
Lij it is. 

Li- or Z-, the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and verbs governed by a 
singular noun of the class which 
makes its plural in mor, 
-li'f 1. The objective prefix repre- 
senting a singular noun of tbe 
class which makes its plural in 
ma-, governed by the verb to 
which it is prefixed. 

2. -li-f or 'dli; the sign of that 
past tense which denotes an 
action complete in past time. 

3. -li- sometimes represents the 
substantive verb, as in aliyey he 
who is ; nikali, and I am ; alt, 
he is, or he being. 

Lia ku-i to breed (M.). 
Lia ku-f to eat for, &c, 

Chumba cha ktdia, a room to eat 

in. 
Mkono wa kuliay right hand, being 
the only one ever used to eat 
with. 
Lia ku-, to cry, to weep, to cry out; 
applied to the cries of animals 
generally. Also, to give a 
sound. 
Kulia ngoa, to weep for jealousy. 
Inalia wajsi, it sounds hollow. 



Ltbcuit clothes. 

Licha^ whether it be, though. 

LihamUy solder. 

Lihani, a cloth of a parUoular 

Lijamuj a horse's bit. [pattern. 

Lika ku; to be eaten, to become 

worn away, to be eatable. 
Likita ku-, to dismiss, to give leave 

to go, to release. 
lAkOf plur. mcUikOj a landing-place. 
LUia ku-, to weep for, to cry about. 
Lima kti-, to cultivate, to hoe. 
Lima, the feast made by the bride- 
groom on the first day of the 

wedding. 
Lima^j plur. malimao, a lemon. 
Limaiia hu-, to delay, to loiter (A.). 
Limhika ku-, to leave till it is fit, to 

wait for fruit till it is ripe, or for 

water till it is collected in the 

dipping hole, to put aside till it 

is fit. 
Limbuka ku-, to taste the first of a 

new crop. 
Liiritmsha ku-, to bring to be tasted. 
Limiza kti-, to make to hoe, &c 
LtTialokuja, which is coming. 
Linda ku-, to guard, to watch, to 
keep. 

Kuiinda ndege^ to scare birds from 
corn, &c. 
Lindi, plur. malindif a pit, a deep 

place. 
Lindo, a watching place. 
Linga ku-, to swing the head round 

in dancing. 
Linga ku-, to make to match, or to 

be level. 
Lingana ku-, to match, to be level 

with or like one another. 
Lingana ku-, to call, to invite (A.), 
Linganisha ku-, to make to match, 

to compare together. 



LIN 



M 



327 



Lini i When f 

Linyi = Lenyi. 

Lipa liU'y to pay (a debt). 

JAjpia ku; to pay (a person). 

Lipiza ku-f to cause to be paid. 
Kujilipiza, to take one*8 due, to 

repay oneself. 
Kujilipiza kasasi, to avenge one- 
self, to take one's revenge. 

Lisani, a piece of cloth piit in 
behind an opening, a flap to 
obviate the e£fect of gaping at the 
fastening, a tongue. See Kanzu. 

Lisha kti-, to feed. 

Lishisha ku-, to cause to be fed, to 
cause people to give one food. 

Liwa kvTf to be eaten, to be worn 
away, to be consumed. 

Liway a fragrant wood from Mada- 
gascar, which is ground up and 
used as a cosmetic, and as an 
application to cure prickly heat; 
Madagascar sandal wood. 

Liwaliy plur. maliwali, for Al Wali, 

Liza ka-y to sell to. [a governor. 

Liza ku', to make to weep. 

Lizana Z;u-, to make one another 
weep, to cry together. 

'lot thy, your. 

Lo, 'lo-f or 'lOf which, representing 
a singular noun of the class 
which makes its plural in ma, 
Lo Zofe, whatsoever. 
Hakufanya lo hte, he has done 
nothing at all (neno under- 
stood). 

Loa ku-, to get wet with rain, &o. 

Loga ku-y to bewitch, to practise 
magic (Mer.; 

Lo or Loo I Hullo ! An exclamation 
of surprise; the number of 0*8 
increases in proportion to the 
amount of surprise. 



LoUy all. See -ote, 

Lo lot^y whatsoever. 
Loziy an almond. 
Luangay a kind of bird. 
Luba, a leech. 
Lugha, language. 
LulUy a pearl. 

Lumha ku-y to make a speech. 
Lmribika ku-y to gather little by 

little, to pick up small pieces one 

by one. 
Lumbtoiy a chameleon (?). 
Luththay flavour, savour. 
Luvay sandal wood (?). 



M. 

M is pronounced as in English. 

M before 6 generally represents 
an n. Mb stands sometimes for 
n&, as nyumba mhaya, for nyurriba 
n-baya ; sometimes it represents nw 
or nvy as mbingu for n-tmrigu. 

M is frequently either followed 
by w or «, or else has a sort of semi- 
vowel power, as if preceded by a 
half-suppressed u. 

The natives of Zanzibar very 
rarely say mu ; they change it into 
urn or rather *r». Even Mwenyiezi 
MuungUy Almighty God, becomes 
*Mnyezimngu. 

It is important to write 'm, and 
not m only, where it represents mu 
i{ a.bot w follow, because otherwise 
the m might be supposed to coalesce 
with them. If any otlier consonants 
follow, it is immaterial, for m must 
then always stand for mu, and be 
capable of being pronounced as a 
separate syllable. 

Any verb may be turned into a 
substantive by ptQfliit^% 'm ^t \c^>n 



328 



M- 



HAA 



to mean one who does, &c., followed 
Immediately by the object of the 
yerb or the thing done. The last 
letter is sometimes changed into t 
and if ji is added to the substantive 
it gets the sense of one who habit- 
ually does what the verb signifies. 

if-, 'til, Witt-, or mto; sign of the 
second person plural prefixed to 
verbs. 

M-t 'm, mtt, or mw-^ the singular 
prefix of those nouns which 
make their plural in wO', if they 
denote animate beings, or in mt-, 
if they do not. 

3f-, 'm-, mu; or tnw?-, the prefix 
proper for adjectives agreeing 
with a singular substantive de- 
noting an animate being, or with 
any substantive beginning with 
Witt-, *m-. mw-j or «-. 

-m-, -'m-, or -witc-, the objective 
prefix referring to a sinofular 
substantive denoting an animate 
being. 

3f-, Witt-, or mW', the prefix proper to 
pronouns governed by the case in 
-nt, when it denotes within or in- 
side of. 

Ma-, the sign of the plural prefixed 

to substantives (and to adjec- 
tives agreeing with them) 
which have either no prefix 
in the singular or begin with j- 
orji-. 
All words intended to denote 
something specially great of 
its kind make their plural in 

7WO-. 

Foreign words denoting a person, 
or an ofiice, make their plural 
in ma-. In the vulgar dialect 



of Zanzibar nearly all foreign 
words are made plural by pre- 
fixing mO'. 
Many plural nouns in ma- must be 
translated as though they were 
singulars, the true singular 
being used only to denote some 
one exceptionally large or im- 
portant instance. 
When followed by an t or 0, the a 
of ma coalesces with it and 
forms a long e sound. 
-ma-. See -me-, 
Maaddm, while, during the time, 

when. 
Maadin = Madini. 
Maadin ya hinywa, what rises 
into the mouth without inter- 
nal cause, water-brash. 
MaafikanOf bargain, estimate, es- 
teem. 
MaaganOf contract, agreement, 

covenant. 
Maagizo^ commission, direction, re- 
commendation. 
Madkuli^ diet. food. 
Maaliim, fixed, recognizable = hilt- 

ehotamhulikana, 
Maana, meaning, reason, cause, 
sake. 
Kutia maanani, to remember, 
think about. 
Maandasi, biscuits, cakes, &c., also 

pastry, preserves. 
3foandi/co, writing, place for putting 
out food, the act of spreadinp^ a 
meal, a description, things writ- 
ten. 
Maandishif things which are writ- 
ten, put out, set in order, &c. 
MaangukOj ruin, fall, ruins. 
Maa*mzi, judgment. 
Maarifa, knowledge. 



MAA 



MAH 



329 



Maartlfi understood, I understand. 
Maasi, rebellion. 
Maazcdj while. 
Maazimo, a loan. 
Mahaya, bad. See haya, 
Mahdkia^ the remnant, what is or 

was left. 
Mdbichiy raw. See -bichi. 
Mabitoi, heaps, piles of sticks and 

rubbish. See Biwi-. 
MahovUy rotten. See -ovu, 
Machache, few. See -chache. 
Mcichela, a litter, a palanquin. 
MachezOf a game, games. 
Macho (sing, jicho), eyes. 

Yu machoj he is awake. 

Macho ya watu wawili, or Maziwa 
ya watu wavrilif dragon's blood. 

Macho ya jua, the sun-rising* 
east. 
MachukiOf hatred, abomination, dis- 
gust. 
Machwa ya jua, the sun-setting, 

west. 
Madahaf a graceful manner. 
Madanganyat deception, trick. 
3f a(2araA;a, arrangements, provision. 
Madefu, beard. 
Madevu, a kind of rice. 
Madi/u, the fibrous envelope of the 

cocoa-nut leaves. 
Madiniy metal, a mine. 
Madoadottf spotted. 
Madogovi, a kind of drumming, &o. , 

used in exorcisms. 
Maficho, concealment. 
MafUf death, dead things. 

Maji mafu, neap tides. 
Mafua, a chest complaint causing 

a cough, a cold in the head, a 

stoppage in the nose. 
MafundishOf instruction, precept, 

direction. 



Ma/undo, cross-beams in a dhow, to 
steady the mast, &c. 

Mafunguliay unfastening. 
Mafungulia n^ombe, about 8 a.m. 

Mafupi, short. See -fupi, 

Ma/ushOf steam from a pot of ma- 
janif used as a vapour-bath in 
fever, &c. 

Mafuta, oil, fat. 
Mafuta ya uta^ semsem oil. 
Mafuta ya mbarikay castor oil. 

MafuUf crazy, cracked. 

Mafyay Monfia. 

Mafya (sing, jifya), the three stones 
used to put a pot over the fire 
upon. 

Magadij rough soda. 

Ma^amhay scales of a fish. 

Ma^anda, peel, husks. 

Magarasa, 8, 9, and 10 in cards 
(not used in playing). 

Mageuziy changes. 

Maghqfiraf remission of sips. 

Maghrebbif or Magaribi, or Ma- 
ngari&i, sunset, the sunset prayers 
of the Mohammedans, the west, 
Morocco. 

Maghrib ayuk, N.W. 

Maghrib ahrab, S.W. 

Maghvha, the winding of a stream. 

Mago, See Ka^o. 

Magongonene, See Kanzu, 

Magugu, weeds, undergrowth. 

Ma^undalo, an instrument of tor- 
ture, in which the victim is sus- 
pended, and weights being at- 
tached to him, he is jerked up 
and down. Used for extracting 
evidence. 

Mahaba^ love, fondness. 

MahaXa or Mdhaliy place, places. 
Mahali pa, in place of, instead of. 
Mahali pote^ everywhere* 



330 



MAH 



MAE 



Mdhana (Ar.), excessiye worry. 
Maharazi, a shoemaker's awl. 
Mahariy dowry paid by the husband 

to the wife's relations. 
Mahati, a carpenter's tool used for 

marking lines to a measure. 
Mahazamu, a shawl worn round the 

waist. 
Mahindi, Indian com, maize. 
Mahiriy clever, quick. 
Mdhokai devil, evil spirits, madness. 
Maisha, life, continuance. 

Maisha na milele^ now and for 
ever. 
Maiti =. Mayiti, a dead body, a 

corpse. 
Majdhahay dock for ships. 
Majana (?), honeycomb. 
Majani, grass. The singular, jani, 
means a leaf. 

Bangi ya majani, green. 

Majani ya pwaniy grass wort, 
samphire (?). 
Majaribu or Majerihu, trial, tempta- 
tion. 
Majazo, reward. 
Majengo, building materials. 
Majeribu = Majarihu. 
Majeruhiy wounded. 
Maji, water, liquid, juice, sap. 

Maji majiy wet. 

Kama maji, fluently. 

Maji kujaa na kupwa, the tides. 

Maji ya pepo, Maji ya haridi, 
Maji matamUy fresh water. 

Maji mafuy neap-tides 

Maji a bahari, blue, sea-water 
colour. 

Maji a moto, hot water, a large 
yellow kind of ant which makes 
its nest in trees. 
MajibUy an answer. 
MajiXiOy coming, or mode of coming. 



Majilipay revenge. 

Majiray time. 

Mdjiray course of a ship. 

Majonsiy grief for a loss. 

Majoriy an elder. 

Majuniy a cake made of opium, fto., 

very intoxicating. 
MajutiOy regret, sorrow for some- 
thing done. 
MajutOy regret, repentance. 
Makaay coal, coals, embers. - 

MakoAi ya miti, charcoaL 
Makalalaoy cockroaches ; applied in 

derision to the Malagazy colony 

in Zanzibar. 
Makaliy fierce. See 'kali. 
MakanadUiy places in the stern of 

native craft, the quarter galleries 

of a dhow. 
Makani, dwelling, dwelling-place. 
Makao, dwelling, dwelling-place. 
Makasiy scissors. 

MakatazOy prohibition, objections. 
Makatibuy agreement. 
MakavUy dry. See -kavu. 
Makaziy dwelling. 
Makengezay squinting, a squint. 
Makiy thickness. 

Nguo ya makiy stout cloth. 
MakimhiliOy refuge, place to run to. 
MakindanOy objections. 
Makiniy leisure, quietness. 
Makiriy a thumb-cleat in the side of 

a dhow. 
Makosay fault, faults, mistakes, sins. 
Mdkoza (obscene) testicles. 
Maksaiy a bullock, castrated. 
Makubwa or Makuu, great. See 

'kubwa and -%iiu. 
MakukuUy old. See 'kukuu, 
Makuliy diet. 

Maktdyay food [Tumbatu]. 
Makumbiy cocoa-nut fibre. 



MAE 



MAN 



331 



Mahumhi ya popoo, areoa-nut 

huBk. 
Makumbi ya wmmhay cocoa-fibre 
cleaned for mattresses, &o. 

Mdkumi, tens. 
Makumi mauoili, twenty. 

Makupaa, the sheaves at the mast- 
iiead of a dhow, through which 
the henza leads. 

Makusanyikoy place of assembly, 
assembly, 

Maku6ikdi\ purpose, design, on pur- 
pose, designedly. 

MakutanOy assemblage. 

Makuti, leaves of the cocoa-nut tree. 
Makuti ya viungOf leaflets made 

up for thatching. 
Makuti ya kumba, leaves plaited 

for fences. 
Makuti ya pande, half leaves 
plaited for fences or roofs. 

Makwa^ the notching and shaping 
at the end of a pole to receive 
the wall-plate of a house. 

Malaika (plur. of Laika), the hair 
on the hands and arms. 

Malaikttj an angel, angels. A baby 
is often called malaika. 

Malaki or Malki, a king. 

Malalo, sleeping-place. 

Malazi, things to lie upon. 

Malazie ^ Maraihie, 

MaleUj orchilla weed. 

Malelezi, changes of the monsoon, 
time of the easterly and westerly 
winds. 

MalengOf a singer. 

Mali, goods, property, riches. Pro- 
perly a singular noun making 
no change for the plural, but 
treated sometimes as a plural in 
ma-, 

Malidadi, a dandy. 



Mdliki ku'y to begin a buUding, a 
boat, or a house. 

Malimo, master, navigator. In the 
canoes on the Zambezi the steers- 
man is called maUmo. 

Maiimwengu, business, af&irs, mat- 
ters of this life. 

Malindi, Melinda. 

Malio ya kiko, the bubbling sound 
of the water when a native pipe is 
being smoked. 

Maliza ku', to complete, to finish. 

Malki or Maiaki, a king. 

Malkia, a queen. 

Mama, mother. 
Mama wa kavniboy stepmother. 

Mawha, a crocodile. 

Mamha, the scsdes of a fish (M.). 

ManfibOf circumstances, a£fairs, 
things (plur. of Jambo). 

Mamiye (Mer.), his mother. 

Mamlaka, power, authority*, domi- 
nion. 

Mamcja, ones, same. 
Mamoja pia, it is all one, I don't 
care. 

Mana = Mwana, 

Manamize, a name for a hermit 
crab. 

Manane, 

Daiku wa manane, the dead of 
night. 

Manda, a loaf. 

Mandasi, a pudding. See Mcuin- 
dasi, 

Manemane, myrrh. 

Maneno, language, message, busi- 
ness, matters, things (plur. of 
Neno). 
Maneno ya fumha, dark sayings. 
Maneno ya Kiunguja, &o., the 
language of Zanzibar, &o. 

Manga, Arabia. 



332 



MAN 



MAB 



Mangarihij BunEet. See Maghrebhi, 

Mangiy many. See -n^t. 

Mangiri or Mankiriy a croBs-piece 

at the bows of a dhow for fastening 

the tack of the sail. 
Mango, a round hard black stone 

used to grind with. 
Mang'ung*umi secretly, in fearful 

expectution. 
Mani (obscene), semen. 
Mani, a weight, about three rattel. 
ManjanOf turmeric. 

Eangi a manjano, yellow. 
Mankiri. See Mangiri. 
Manoleo(Bmg. noleo), the ring where 

the blade of a knife issues from 

the handle. 
Manuka, smell, scent. 
ManukatOf scent, good smells. 
Manyang*amba, flour balls in a 

sweet sauce. 
Manyiga, a hornet. 
Manyoya, feathers of a bird, hair of 

a goat. 
Manyunyo, a shower, a sprinkle. 
Maomboleza, loud wailing. 
Maomviy begging. 
Ma4md% taste. 

Maondoleo, removing, taking away, 
itfaongrezt, conversation, amusement. 
MaongOf the back. 
Maonjif tasting, trying. 
Maoteo, growth from old mtama 

stools. 
Maotwe, Mayotte. 
Mapalilo, hoeing-up time, hoeing 

between the crops. 
Mapana, broad. See -pana. 
MapatanOf agreement, conspiracy. 
Mapemttf early. 
Miipendano, mutual affection. 
Mapendezi, pleasing things, the 

being pleased. 



Mapendo, affection, esteem. 

Mapenzij liking, affection, pleasure, 
love, things which are loved. 

Mapepetoj a preparation of imma- 
ture rice. 

MapiganOj a fight, a battle. 

Mapiswa, silliness, dotage. 

Mapoza, remedy, healing things. 

Mapooza, things which do not serve 
their purpose, fruit which drops 
prematurely. 

Maptduluj the wilderness. 

Mapumbu, testicles, the scrotum. 

Mara, a time, sometimes, at once. 
Mara mqja, once, at once. 
Mara mbili, twice. 
Mara ya pili, the second time. 
Mara nyingi, often. 
Mara kwa mara, from time to 

time. 
Mara ngapif how many times, 
how often ? 

Maradufu, double. 

Marahaha, thanks, very well, wel- 
come. 

Marakaraka, chequered, spotty. 

Marasharasha, a sprinkle, sprink- 
ling. 

Marashi, scents. 

Mara^hi mawaridi or ya mzomari, 
rose-water. 

Marathi, disease, sickness. 

Marathie, sociable. 
Siiia kihuriy marathie mimi, I am 
not above fraternizing. 

Marefu, long. Sec -re/w. 

Maregeo, return, reference. 

Marehemu, that has obtained mercy, 
deceased. 

Marejeo, return. 

Marfua, a desk, book-rest. 

Marhaha = Marahaha. 

Marhamu, ointment. 



MAB 



MAT 



333 



Marigeli, a large pot. 

Marijanified coral, imitation coral, 
gum copal. 
Marijani ya fethcUuka, the true 
red coral. 

Marikat a person of the same age. 

Marikay Merka, a town on the So- 
maull coast. 

Marikabu = Marikebu = Merikebu, 
a ship. 

Marindiy the little flap of beads 
worn by a string round the Idlos 
by native women. 

Mariscui, shot, small shot. 

Marithawa, abundance, plenty of 
space, material, &o. 

Marizabu, a spout. 

Marra = Mara, time, times. 

Maru/ukUf a forbidden thing, pro- 
hibited. 
Kupiga marufukuy to give public 
notice against 

Marungu (M.), biliousness. 

MasaJuibay the companions of Mo- 
hammed. 

Masafi, purity. 

Masatbu, calamity. 

Masakasa (Yao), an encampment. 

Masakini, or Maskinif or Metikini, 
poor, A poor person. 

Masalkheirif good afternoon. 

MasamehOf pardon. 

MasangOj wire. 

MoMnufly a kerchief used for throw- 
ing over the shoulders, &c. 

MasazOf what is left, remainder. 

MasJiairif verses, poetry. 
Shairiy one line of verse. 

Mashaka, doubts, difficulty. 

Mashambaf the country. Plural of 
Shambaf a plantation. 

MashapOy sediment. 

Masharikiy the east, easterly. 



Mctshendeay rice which is watery 

and imperfectly cooked. 
MashindanOy a race. 
Mdshindo, 

Kwenda Jewa mashindOy to trot. 
Mashtakay accusation. 
Mashuay a boat, boats, a launch. 
Mcushitr or Mctshuhurf remarkable, 

notable. 
McuhtUumiOy reproaches, revilings. 
Mashutumuy reviling. 
Mashuziy breaking wind. 

FathUi ya punda ni mcuihuxi = 
You cannot make a silk purse 
out of a sow's ear. 
Masia. 

Kwenda mctstOy to walk up and 
down. 
Mdsika, the rainy season, 1.6., March, 

April, and May. 
Masikaniy a dwelling. 
Masikini = Masakini, 
Masingizio, slander. 
Masiwa, the Comoro Islands and 

Madagascar. 
Masiziy grime, soot, &c., on the 

bottom of cooking pots. 
Maskini = Masakini. 
MasombOy a girdle of cloth. 
Mdsri = Misriy Egypt. 
Masnify provisions. 
MoMta, giddiness. 

Nina masuay I am giddy. 
MasiikuOy a whot-stone. 
MasuiOy reproaches. 
Matay bows and arrows, weapons. 
Mata^jabUt wonders, astonishment. 
MatakatifUy holiness* 
MatakOy the seat. 
Matakwoy request, want, desire. 
Matambavuy the side, a man's side. 
Mata*mkOy pronunciation. 



334 



HAT 






Halamna, fringe. 
Malandiko, bedding, 

Malanga, large mats, laUi. 

KiJiaa malanga, to keepa formal i 

nwnrniag, geuenlly for from 

flre to teo days. { 

Kuondoa matanya, to pat an eod ' 

to the monraing. | 

ifata nga Isa It, wind abeam. 

Matar>gaiaaiui,a,eKmd. i 

Matata, atiiDgle,en«nibioilinonl. 

Kvtia malala, to tangle. 
Xalayo, reproaches, leviliDgt. 



Maloaii, OTinlnla. 
XaliAeo, grang-ont plaesa. 
Ihtckeo ya hari, poKI of tl 

JOalomoko, a ongtard qiple. 

Miilakiijio, filthy aud iasnlting e 



little. 
Mategemeo, ptopE, ■ prop, npport, 

'Maleha :!poi], booty, prlaon^x. 
l^alembea, a walb. 
MaUngo, the Outriggers of a canoe. 
iSaiem, afflictione, adreiBity. 
MaUto, qufttrel. 
MaOutbaku = Sfalhhah. 
Mathabuha, a Tictim, a iacrificc. 
MaUiahabi or Malhbdb, sect, per^aa- 

Malkara, miecbier, harm. 

aiathbah, an altar. 

MatheJiebu, manjiors,hablts,en8lomB, 

= Xnlhaltabi (?). 
Nalilo, lift from the after part of a 

jaid to the mMt-hcad of a dhow. 
Malindi, half-grown Iiidian corn. 
JUafindo, a, slanghter-houBe, a place 

for kill log beasts. 
MalUi. 

Kvienda Jcaa matiti, to trot. 
3;«,J?«a, the east -Bind. 

I^aUaa aijuk, N.E. 

Xathta akrab, 8.E. 
itatlai = MaUaa. 
M(ito, eyee (M.). 



I KntfuaUna. 

I MaluMo, sccidi'Dtg, thfaiga which 
happen. 

"dance, hc^pe. 



M'ititiiAa\rl, friah cornl. Cut t 
Ijil'jw "hiiih-wuiler mark! it la 
nsed for n>of« and where lighbMM 
is an objecL 

NabaiAo, tlie entrails. 

Malupu, bare. See -tftpu. 

.lf(r!!ij-uma,stiffi.-ntrdpcit on S door, 
the knees in a dhow, rib* of a 

.UoirMu, bad and abneire langnage. 
jVnturuTnu, accusiition, blame. 
3f(iu<i<plur. of Ki), flowers. 
Maaiito, qneslions, qaestioning. 

Maiia^o, the back, the baokbooe. 

Maulliara,-nna!b\a. 

Mauii, death. 

Mavao, dreea, dressing. 

Hatazi, dress, clothes. Floral of 

Vati. 
Maci, dung, droppings, exctemeot. 

Mavi ija cAuimi, Jroaa. 
Navilio. Sea Fi'iio. 
iiavidio, clothes cast off and given 



■v,-Iio is 
lUiug he h 






MAV 



MBI 



335 



Mavundevunde, broken, scattered 

clouds. 
Mavumi, hum af voices. 
Mavuno, harvest, reaping. 

Mavuno ya nyvki^ honeycomb. 
Mavuzi (plur. of Vuzi), the hair of 

the pubes. 
Mawazif clear. See loazi. 
Mawe (plur. of Jiwe\ stones, stone. 

Ya mawe, of stone. 

Mawe ya husa^af a hand-mill. 

Mawe, a vulgar ejaculation, rub- 
bish I 
Mawili, both. 
Mavyimhi (plur. of WimM), surf, a 

sea. 
Mawindo, game, produce of hunt- 
ing. 
Mayayi. See Tayi, 
Mayiti, a dead body. 
Mayugwa, a green vegetable cooked 

like spinach. 
Mazojo, fruit, produce. 
Maziho, burial-place. 
Maxinga ombo, sleight of hand 

(Comoro). 

Maaingiwa, a siege. 
Mazingombwe, magic, witchcraft. 

Mazishi, burial clothes, furniture, 
&c. 

Maziwa, milk, (plur. of Ziwa) 
breasts, lakes. 
Maziwa mdbivu, curdled milk. 
Maziioa ya watu wawili, dragon's 
blood. 

Mazoea, custom. 

Mazoezo, habits, customs, practice. 

MazoJca, evil spirits. 

Mazu, a kind of banana. 

MazumgWmzOf amusement, conver- 
sation. 

Mhali, far off, separate. 
Mhali Tribali, distinct, different. 



PoteUa mbdli! Qo and be hanged I 
Turmovlie Tnbali, let us kill him 

out of the way. 
When used with the applied 
forms of verbs, it means that 
the person or thing is by that 
means got rid of, or put out of 
the way. 

Mhango, a bird with a parrot-like 
beak, a person with projecting 
teeth. 

Mbano, a circumcising Instrument. 

Mbau (plur. of Ubau), planks. 

*Mbau, plur. mibaUf planking, tim- 
bers. 

'Mbaruti, plur. mibaruti, a weed 
with yellow flowers and thistle- 
like leaves powdered with white. 

Mbasua, giddiness. 

Mbata, a cocoa-nut which has dried 
in the shell so as to rattle, with- 
out being spoilt. 

Mbati, wall-plate. 

Mbavu, ribs, side. 
Mbavuni, alongside. 

Mbawa, wing feathers. See Vbawa. 

Mbayani, clear, manifest. 

Mbayuwayu, a swallow (A.). 

Mbega, a kind of monkey, black, 
with long white hair on the 

Mbegu, seed, seeds. [shoulders. 

*Mbeja. 
*MbeJa wa Jcani, young man of 
strength. 

Mbele, before, in front, further on. 

Mbele ya, before, in front of. 
Kuendelea mbele, to go forward. 
Mbeleni, in the front. This word 
is used in Zanzibar with an 
obscene sense. 

Mbeyu = Mbegu, seed. 

Mbilo, plur. mibibo, a cashew-nut 
tree. 



336 



MBI 



MOH 



Jir&teH fresh. Bee-hiehi. 
Mbigtli, small thorDs, briers. 
MhUi, two. See -vjili, 

Mbili mhHiy two by two. 
MbUivjilif the wrist (?). 
Mhingu, plur. of Uvoingu^ the skies, 

the heavens, heaven. 
Mhio, running, fast. 

Kupiga mhio, to run, to gallop. 
Mbioniba, mother*8 sister, aunt. 
Mhirambi zdkOj be comforted. A 

Swahili greeting to one who has 

just lost a relative. 
Mbisit parched Indian com. 
Mbiu, a proclamation, public notice. 
MMvUj ripe. See -Mvu and -wivu. 
Mhizi. 

Kupiga nibizi, to dive. 
Mhoga, vegetables, greens. 

Mboga mnanaa, a kind of mint. 
'Mhoga, plur. mtboga, a pumpkin 

plant. 
MboleOf manure. 
Mbonaf Why? for what reason? 

Used especially with negatives. 
Mboni ya jicho, the apple of the 
Mhono, castor-oil plant (?). [eye. 
MhoOf the penis. 
MbotOj a climbing plant yielding a 

superior kind of oil. 
Mhovuy bad, rotten, corrupt See 

-ovu and 'hovu, 
Mbu = ImbUy a mosquito. 
Jf6m', a buffalo's horn, which is 

beaten as a musical instrument. 
Mbuja, a swell, dandy, gracefully, 

Kusema mbuja, to say elegantly. 
MhtdUf a crocodile (?). 
Mhungu, a hurricane (Kishenzi). 
Mhuniy an ostrich. 
Mhuyu, plur. mihuyu, a baobab 
tree, a calabash tree. They are 
generally looked upon as haunted. 



Mhwii^ a goat, goats. 

Mhuzi ya hukunia fuui, an iron 
to scrape coooa-nnt for cooking 
with. 
MhuHi, a dog, dogs. 

Mbioa wa mwUu, a jackal, 
jackals. 
Mhtoayi, wild, fierce. 
Mbtoe, little pebbles, little white 

stones larger than ehangarawL 
Mbvoehoy a fox. 
Mhweu^ eructation, belching. 
Mchaj one who fears. 

Mcha Mttun^u, a God-fearing man. 
Mchafu, filthy. 

Mchago, the pillow end of the bed. 
MchaJcacho, footsteps (?). 
Mchana or Mtana, daylight, day- 
time, day. 
Mchanga or Mtanga, sand. 
Mchaici, plur. toacJunoi, a wizard. 
Mrhayij lemon grass. 
McJie, plur. Michoy a plant, a slip, a 

seedling. 
Mc?ie, a kind of wood much used in 

Zanzibar. 
Mcheheshaji, plur. wachekeshaji, a 

merry body, one who is always 

laughing. 

Mchde, cleaned grain, especially 

rice. 
Mchdemay watery. 
Mcheshiy a merry fellow, a laugher. 
Mckezo, plur. michezo^ a game. 

Mchezo wake huyu, it is this man's 
turn to play. 
Mchiy plur. mtchi, or Mti, plur. miti, 

the pestle used to pound or to 

clean com with. Also a screw 

of paper to put groceries in (?). 
Mchicha, plur. michicJia, a common 

spinach-like plant used as a 

vegetable. 



MOH 



MEE 



337 



Mchikichi, plur. michikiehi, the 
palm-oil tree. 

Mchilizii plur, michUizi, the eaves. 

MchirOy plur. wctehiro, a mangouste. 

MchochorOt passage, an opening be- 
tween. 

Mchofu = Mehovu. 

Mchongoma, plur. michongoma, a 
thorny shrub with white flowers 
and a small black edible fruit. 

MchorochorOf a rapid writer. 

Mehovu, plur. wachovu, weary, lan- 
guid, easily tired, tiring, tire- 
some. 

Mchumbciy a sweetheart, one who 
seeks or is sought by another 
in marriage. 
Mke mchumba, widow (?). 

Mehumbuluru, a kind of fish. 

Mchunga (or Mtwngd), plur. wa- 
chungay a herdman, a groom, one 
who has the care of animals. 

Mchwngaji, a herdsman, shepherd. 

Mchuruzh plur. Wachuruzi, one who 
keeps a stall, a trader in a very 
small way. 

Mchuzi, oTMtuzij curry, gravy, soup. 

Mchtoa, white ants. 

Mda or Muda, a space of time, the 
space, &o. 

Mda, plur. mida (?), a piece of plank 
propped up to support a frame- 
work, &c. = 'munda. 

Mdago, a kind of weed. 

Mdalcmniy cinnamon. 

Mdarahani, an Indian stuff. 

Mdaioari. 
He mdawarif the softer Arabic h, 
the he, 

Mdeli = Mdila, 

MdUa, plur. midUa, a coffee-pot. 

MdomOf plur. midomo, the lip. 
Mdomo wa ndege, a bird's beak. 



Mdudu, plur. toadudu, an insect. 
Mdudu, a whitlow. 
Mdukuo, a push in the cheek. 
Mdumu, a mug. 

Me-, see Mar, Many words are pro- 
nounced with ma- at Mombas, 
and with me- at Zanzibar. 
-me-t the sign of the tense which 
denotes an action complete at 
the moment of speaking, an- 
swering to the English tense 
with hate. Sometimes it is 
used to denote an action com- 
plete at the time referred to, 
and must then be translated by 
had. 
This tense may often be used 
as a translation of the past 
participle. 
Yu hayit ao ameleufai Is he 

alive or dead ? 

Most Swahili verbs denoting a 

state liove in their present 

tense tijis meaning of entering 

that state or becoming, and in 

the -me- tense the meaning of 

having entered or being in it. 

In some cases the -me- tense is 

best rendered by another verb. 

Anavaa, he is putting on, amevaa, 

he wears. 
In some dialects the me is pro- 
nounced ma, 
Mea ku; to grow, to be growable. 
MedUn, tortoiseshell. 
Mega hu-, to break a piece, or gather 
up a lump and put it in one's 
mouth, to feed oneself out of the 
common dish with one's hand, as 
is usual in Zanzibar. 
Mekameka ku-, to glitter, to shine. 
Meko (plur. of Jiko), a fireplace. 



338 



MEM 



MFU 



Memetuka hu- (A.), to sparkle. 
Mende, a cockroach, cockroacbeB. 

Also a slang term for a rupee. 
Mengi or Mangi, many. See -ngi, 
Meno (plur. of Jino), teeth. 
Menomeno, battlements. 
Menya ku-, to shell, to husk, to 
Menya ku-, to beat (Kiyao). [peel. 
Merikebu, a ship, ships. 
Merikebu ya serikalit a ship be- 
longing to the government. 
Merikebu ya mizinga or manowariy 

a man-of-war. 
Merikebu ya taja,e^ merchant ship. 
Merikebu ya mUingote mitaiu, a 

full-rigged ship. 
Merikebu ya mUingote miwili na 

nu88u, a barque. 
Merikebu ya dohaan or ya mosTiiy 
a steamship. 
Nerima, the mainland of Africa, 
especially the coast south of 
Zanzibar. 
Wamerima, people who live on 

the coast south of Zanzibar. 
Kimerima, the dialect of Swahili 
spoken on the coast south of 
Zanzibar. 
Merimeta ku-j to glitter, to shine. 
Meshmaa, a candle, candles. 
Mtsiki or Meski, musk, scent. 
Meskiti = Moskitij a mosque. 
Metametay to shine, to glitter. 
Methili or Methali, like, a parable. 
Meza, a table. 
Meza ku; to swallow. 
Mezawwereh. 

Wardka mezawwereh, forgery. 
Mfaa, centre piece of a door. 
Mfalme, plur. wafalme, a king. 
MfanOf plur. mifano, a likeness. 
Mfano wa maneno, a proverb, a 
parable. 



Mfanyi biashara, plur. wafanyt, a 

man who does business, a trader, 

a merchant. 

Mfariji, plur. wafariji, a comforter. 

Mfathilij plur. vjafaiMUf one who 

does kindnesses. 
Mfeleji, a water channeL 
Mfilieika, a bankrupt. 
Mfinangit plur. wafinangi, a potter. 
Mfine$8ty plur. mifinesn, a jack fruit 

tree. 
Mfu, plur. wafuj a dead person. 
Mfua, plur. wafua, a smith, a 
worker in metal. 
Mfua ehwriMLi a blacksmith. 
Mfua fetha, &c., a silversmith, ftc. 
Mfuasi, plur. wafuaei, a follower, a 

retainer, a hanger-on. 
Mfuko, plur. mifukOf a bag, a 

pocket. 
Mfuma, plur. toa/uma, a weaver. 
Mfumbati, plur. mt/umba^ the side- 
pieces of a bedstead. 
Mfunguo, a name applied to nine of 
the Arab months. 
Mfunguo wa mosif is the Arab 

Shaowal. 
Mfunguo wa pili, is the Arab 

JVa Kaada. 
Mfunguo wa taiu, is the Arab 

TNil Hajj, 
Mfunguo wa 'nne, is the Arab 

Moharram. 
Mfunguo wa tano, is the Arab 

Safr. 
Mfunguo wa sitay is the Arab 

Rabia al aowal. 
Mfunguo wa sabaf is the Arab 

Rabia al akhr. 
Mfunguo wa nane, is the Arab 

Jemad al <iowal, 
Mfunguo wa kenda, is the Arab 
Jemad al akhr. 



MFU 



MIE 



339 



Mfunguo wa is often bo pro- 
nonnced as to sound like 
Fungua. 
The other three months, Bajahi 
Shaabcmy and Bamathanf keep 
their Arabic names. 
M/uo, plur. mifuoj a stripe. 

Karatasi ya mifuOy ruled paper. 
Mfupa^ plur. mi/tfpa, a bone. 
MfutOf winning five games out of 

six at cards. 
Mfyozit an abusive person. 
Mgala, plur. wagaUit a Ckilla. 
Mganda, plur. migandaf a sheaf or 

bundle of rice. 
Mganga, plur. waganga, a medicine 
man, a doctor, a dealer in white 
magic. 
Mgao, a place near Gape Delgado. 
MgavjOy a deal in card-playing. 
Mgeni, plur. wageHi, a guest, a 

foreigner. 
Mghad, a horse's canter. 

Kwenda mghad, to canter. 
Mgine = MtotTigine, another, other. 
MgogorOy an obstacle in a road, a 
stumbling-block. In slang, a 
nuisance, crush, worry. 
Mgoja or Mngqja, plur. vfagqfa, one 
who waits, a sentinel. 
Mgqja tnlango, a door-keeper, a 
porter. 
Mgomba^ plur. migoniboy a banax^a 

tree. 
Mgombuje, bnirs-mouth shell, Cassis 

rubra. 
Mgomvi, plur. wagomvij a quarrel- 
some person, a brawler. 
Mgondttj a slave's clout. 
Mgongo, plur. migongOf the back, 
the backbone. 
Nyumba ya mgongo^ a penthouse 
roof. • 



Mgonjwa or Mgonjuct^ plur. wagon- 
jioa, a sick person, an invalid. 

Mgoie = Wingote^ a mast. 

Mgunda^ cultivated land. 

Mgunya^ plur. Wagunyay a native of 
the country between Siwe and 
the Juba. 

MgurtigurUf plur. wagurugurUj a 
large kind of burrowing lizard. 

MguUf plur. miguu, the leg from the 
^ee downward, the foot. 

- Kwenda ktoa miguUy to walk. 

Mh; See Muh, 

MhaXbori. See Kanxu, 

MhimUii plur. mihilimiy a girder, a 
beam, a bearing post, a prop. 

Mhuluy a large tree lizard. 

Mhunzi, plur. wahunzi^ a black- 
smith. 

Mi-y plural prefix of substantives, 
and of adjectives agreeing with 
them, which begin in the singular 
with m-f or *to-, wu-, or mw-, and 
do not denote animate beings. 

-mi, an objective suffix denoting 
the first person singular. This 
suffix is poetical, not used in 
Zanzibar. 

Mia, a hundred. 
Miteen, two hundred. 

Mialamu, the ends of a piece of 
cloth. 

Miashiri, pieces lying fore and aft 
to receive the stepping of the 

Miayo, yawning, a yawn. [mast. 

Miba or MOba, thorns. 

Mibau, timbers. 

Mifuo, bellows. 

Mikaha, marriage. 

Mikambe, 
Kupiga mikambe, in bathing, to 
duck down and throw over one 
leg, striking th<a ^«1^ -^oSSsvSSu 



340 



MIL 



MJU 



Miloj a custom. 
Miiamb€L 

Kwenda fntZam&o, to go ronnd by 
a new road to avoid war or 
some other obetaole, to strike 
out a new way. 
Milele, eternity. 

Ta mtZele, etemaL 
MHhoiy jins, which having been 

merely singed, not killed by the 

missiles of the angels, lurk in 

by-plaoes to deceive and harm 

people. 
MaOei = MiVei. 
Miliki ku; to reign, to possess^ 
MUki^ kingdom, possession, pro- 
perty. 
Milumhet a speech, an over-long 

speech. 
Mimbat pregnancy. 

Kuwa na miikba or Kuchukua 
mimba, to be pregnant 

Kuharibu mtmbo, to miscarry. 
Minibara, the pulpit in a mosque. 
Mimi, I, me. 

Mimina ku-, to pour, to pour over. 
Miminika ku-, to be poured over, to 

be spilt, to overflow. 
Mingi, many. See -ingi, 
Mingine, others. See -ingine* 
Mini (Ar.), right. 

Mini wa ehemalif right and left. 
Minyonoaj a kind of flowering 

acacia. 
Miongoni tnti^a, in respect of, as to, 

on the part of, from among. 
Mirdbat muscles. See Mraba. 
MiriacMf shot. 
MUihitliari, crooked. 
MiskOf Russia. 
Misrii Egypt 
Miteen, two hundred. 
MiwMi, a whistling. 



Miit^ black. Bee-muL 

Miwa (plur. of JftuiX snguMMiies. 

JfnooZf, midribs of a palm-leall 

Miwami, spectacles. 

Miyaa^ leaves for making matsL 

Miytj me, it is L 

Mizani, balances, steelyaid, scales. 

Jfm, roots (M.). 

Mizizi, roots, rootlets. 

3fjfa na majij one who has oome 
over the sea, a foreigner. Also, 
a slave. 

MJdkeui, plur. wajdkawi^ a woman 
slava 

Mjanga^ Bembatooka bay in Mada- 
gascar. 

MjangaOf melancholy, silent sorrow. 

Mjanja, plur. wajanja^ a cheat, a 
shameless person. 

Mjanij a widow. 

MJcuiri, plur. wajariri^ a bold ven- 
turesome man. 

MJassusi, inquisitive. 

Mjeledit a whip. 

Mjemba, a plough (?). 

MJiy plur. mij% a town, a city, a 
village, the middle part of a piece 
of cloth. 

Mjij the uterus. 

Mjiari, plur. mijiar% tiller ropes. 

MjigwA, plur. mijigwif large long 
legs. 

MjingQi plur. wajinga^ a raw new 
comer, a simpleton; applied es- 
pecially to newly arrived slaves, 
ignorant, inexperienced. 

Mjisikajiri, a kind of lizard. 

Mjoliy plur. wajoli, a fellow-servant. 

Mjomba^ plur. wajomba^ uncle. 

Mjugu, 
Mjugu nyassaf ground-nuts. 
Mjugu matoe, a hard kind of 

I ground-nuti 



MJU 



MKO 



341 



MjukuUy plnr. wajukuu^ a cousin, a 
grandchild. 

Mjuwhat plur. wajumbo^ an uncle. 

Mjumbdkdkay a kind of lizard. 

Mjumbef plur. wajumbef a mes- 
senger. 

Mjume^ a weapon-smith. 

Mjumu, studded Yrith brass. 

Mjusi, plur. toajusif a lizard. 
MJusi toa Jcanzu, See 'Kanzu, 
MjtMi kafltif a rough kind of 

small lizard. 
MJtisi salama, a smooth kind of 
small lizard. 

MJuvi, plur. wajuvif a chattering, 
officious person. 

Mjuziy plur. toajuzif a person of in- 
formation, one who knows. 

Mkaa, plur. toaJccui, one who sits. 
Mkaa jikonif Mr. Bit-in-^the- 

kitchen. 
Mkaa, an astringent wood used 
in medicine. 

Mkabalaj opposite. 

Mkcibil, future. 

Mkadi, plur. mtkadi, the pandanus 
tree; its flowers are valued for 
their smell. 

Mkaidi, obstinate, wilful. See 
'kaidi, 

Mkaja, a cloth worn by women, 
given as a present at the time of 
a wedding. 

Mkali, fierce. See -kali, 

Mkamilifu, perfect. 

Mkamshe, plur. mikanuihe, a kind of 
wooden spoon. 

Mkandaa, plur. mikandaa, a kind 
of mangrove tree full of a red 
dye much used for roof beams. 

Mkanju, plur. mikanjUf a cashew 
tree (M.). 

Mkaragazo, a strong tobacco. Also, I 



manfully, again and again 

(slang). 
Mkarakala, a medicinal shrub. 
Mkasama (in arithmetic), division. 
MkasaH, a handsome tree, whose 

wood is useless. Hence the 

proverb, 

Uzuri toa mkascuif 
l/kijpata, maji, baiL 

Mkasiri, a tree whose bark is used 

to dye fishing-nets black. 
Mkataba, a written agreement. 
Mkatale, the stocks. 
Mkaie, plur. mikaie, a cake, a loaf. 

Mikate ya mofu, cakes of mtama 
meaL 

MikaJte ya kusongOf ya kumimtnaj 
&c., cakes of batter, &c. 

Mkate wa ttmbakOf a cake of 
tobacco. 
MkazOy nipping, pressing tight. 
Mke, plur. wake, a wife, a female. 

Mke aUofiioa na mumeuje,Q, widow. 
Mkebe, a pot to burn incense in, a 

drinking pot. 
Mkeka, plur. mikeka, a fine kind of 

mat used to sleep upon. 
Mkeo = Mkewo. 

Mkereza, plur. wakerezaf a turner. 
Mkewe, his wife. 
Mkewo, your wife. 
Mkia, plur. mikia, a tail. 
Mkimbizi, plur. toaJcimbizi, one who 

runs away. 
MkindUf plur. mikindu, a kind of 

palm whose leaves are used to 

make fine mats. 

Mkizi, a kind of fish. 

Mkoha, plur. mikdba, a scrip, a 

small bag. 
Mkoche, plur. mikoche, a kind of 

branching palm with an edible 

fruit 



342 



IIKO 



LI 



Mkojo, urine. 

MkokOf plur. mikoko, a mangroTe 

tree. 
Mholioto, plur. ntkckoio, the mark 

made by a tliiiig being dragged 

along. 
Wuyma, i>lur. miJcoma, a large tree 

bearing an edible fruit 
Mkomhozi, plur. vxikanibozi, a 

redeemer. 
Mhorulo, 

Mkondo wa majiy a current. 
Mhongojo, plur. mikongcjo, an old 

muu's staff for him to lean upon 

as he walkB. 
Mkonoj plur. mikonot the arm, es- 
peciuUy from the elbow to the 
fingers ; the hand, a sleeve, a 
projecting handle like that of a 
saucepan, a measure of nearly 
half a yard, a cubit 

Ya mJeonOy handy. 

Chuo cha mkono, a handbook. 
Mkorofiy ill-omened. 
Mkubwa, great, the eldest See 

-kvhwa. 
MJi'uchyo, Magadoza. 
Mku/Uf plur. miku/u, a chain, es- 
pecially of a light ornamental 

kind. 
Mkufujiziy plur. icakufunzi, a 

tonclior. 
Mkuke, plur. mikiiJcef a spear with 

a sharp point and triangular 

blade. 
Mkuku, the keel of a ship. 
Mkule, a gar-fish. 

Mkulima, ])lur. wakulima, a culti- 
vator, a field labourer. 
MkuUmaniy plur. wakulimani, an 

interpreter. 
Mkuhf plur. wwTcmZo, a pottle-shaped 

matting bag to strain tui through. 



iflniiiuiv^ a kind of nd wood maflli 

used in Zanzibar. 
BIkmM (MgaaX gum-copal trae. 

Mkunga (jiy, midwif 9, 

MkungUf plnr. wtOnmgm^ the fruit 

stalk of the banana. 
Mkungut plur. wulmmgu, a Jdnd of 
earthen poL 

Mkungu wa Jn^wikia^ a pot lid. 

MkungU «m India, a diah. 
MJniUf plur. wakmh a great mail, a 
chief. 

Mkuu wa aMUtari^ a oommanding 
officer. 

Mkuu wa genzi^ a goida. 
Mkuza, large, full grown. 
Mkwamlba^ a kind of tiuany shrab. 
Mkx€a»i^ plur. vodkwui, a wealthy 

person, rich. 
Mkvje, plur. vxikwe^ a father or 

mother-in-law, a son or daughter- 
in-law. 
Mkweme, a climbing plant bearing 

a gourd with round flat seeda 

rich in oil. 
Mkwezif a climber, one who goes 

up. 
Mlafi, plur. walafi, a glutton. 
MMay plur. mUala, hyphssne, a 

branching palm. 
Mlamba, a dark-coloured bird that 

eats insects, and drives away 

other birds, even the crows. 
MlangOy plur. milango, a door, a 

gate. 
Mlanza, a pole for carrying things. 
Mlariba, plur. walaHbOf usurer. 
MU, there within. 
Mlevif plur. walevi, a drunkard. 
Mlezif plur. waleziy a nurse, one 

who rears children. 
Mlezo, plur. milezOf a buoy. 
Mlima, plur. mUima, a mountain. 



ML I 



MOB 



S43 



Mlingotey plirr. milingotef a mast. 

MHngote wa Tcalmi or galmi, the 
email mizen-mast carried by 
large dhows. 
Mlingote wa maji, the bowsprit. 
Mlinzi, plur. walinzi, a guard. 
Mlishi, plur. walishi, a feeder, a 

shepherd. 
MlishOf the month Shaaban. 
Mlizamu, a waterspout on a house. 
MloUt the comb of a cock. 
MlomOf plur. mUomOj a lip. Also, 

Mmqja, one, a certain man. See 
-7no/a. 

'ilfwa, there is within. 

Mnada, plur. mina(2a, a sale, an 
auction. 

Mnadi, an auctioneer, huckster. 

Mnadi ku-, to sell by auction. 

MnafiM, plur. waruijiki, a hypocrite. 

Mnaja, a prophet going to ask a 
thing of God. 

MnajimUt plur. wanajimu^ an as- 
trologer. 

Mnajiei, plur. womajiH^ a profane 
person, blasphemer. 

Mnara, plur. tntTuira, a tower, a 
minaret, a beacon. 

Mnazi, plur. minazi, a cocoa-nut 
tree. 

Mnena, one who speaks. 
Mnena hvjeli, one who speaks the 
truth. 

J(f7»«7i6, stout. See -nene. 

Mneni, plur. waneni, a speaker, an 
eloquent person. 

Mngazidja, plur. TTangra^ieZ/o, a 
native of Great Comoro. 

Mngtoana, plur. wangwana,A gentle- 
man, a free and civilized person. 

Mnio (?). 

Mm, exceedingly, excessively. Mno 



always follows the word qualified 
by it. 

Mnofu, meatiness, fleshiness. 

Mnono, fat. See -nono, 

Mnunuzif plur. wanimuzi, a buyer, 
a purchaser, a customer. 

Mnyamavu, plur. wanyamavu, a 
silent person, still, quiet. 

Mnyang*anyif plur. wanyang*anyit a 
robber, one who steals with vio- 
lence. 

MneyOy a tickling, itching, a creep- 
ing sensation. 

MnyirtH, plur. minyiriri, the arms 
of the cuttle-fish. 

Mnyongej plur. wanyonge, an insig- 
nificant, mean person. 

MnyororOf-plvLT. minyororo, ormnyoo, 
plur. minyoo, a chain. 

Mnywa, plur. wanywa, a drinker, 
one who drinks. 

Mo, -mo, or -mo-, the particle de- 
noting place inside something 
Mumo liumo, there inside, [else. 

Moalli, Mohilla. 

Mofa, small round cakes of mtama 
meal. 

Mdhulla, a fixed time, a term. Also 
MuhuUa. 

Mqja, plur. mamoja, one, same. 
Mamoja pia, it is all one. 

•mojat one. 
Mqja mqja, one by one. 

Moja haada wa mqja, alternately. 

Mtu mmqja, a certain man. 

Jlfo/a wapo, any one. 

Mola, Lord. Used of God. 

Moma^ a kind of poisonous snake. 

Movnbee, Bombay. 

Moris, Mauritius. 
Kutoka MorU, to score twenty- 
nine or more in a game at 
cards. 



344 



MOB 



MBA 



Ktoenda MoHs, to mark lesB than 
twenty-nine in a game at cards. 
Mororo, soft. See -ororo. 
Moahi, plur. mioshi, smoka. 
Mosij one (in oounting). 

Ya moei, first. 
Moskitiy a mosque, the ace of spades. 
Mote, all. See -ote. 
MotOf plur. mioto, fire, a fire, heat. 

Ya rnpto, hot 

Kupata motOy to get hot 
Moyo, plur. mioyo or nyoyo^ heart, 
mind, will, self. 

Ya moyo, willingly, heartily. 
Mpagazi, plur. toapagazi, a caravan 

porter. 
Mpajit plur. toapajit a giver, a 

liberal person. 
Mpaka, plur. mipaTca, a boundary, 

MpaJca mmqja, adjacent [limit. 
Mpaka, until, as far as. 

Tutacheka mpaka hulia, we shall 
laugh till we cry. 
Mpamhi, plur. vHipamhi, a person 

dressed up with ornaments. 
Mpanzi, a sower. 
Mpapayi, plur. mipapayi^ a papaw 

tree. 
JIfparamuzt, plur. miparamuzi, a 

sort of tree said to be unclimb- 

able. 
Mpatanishi, plur. wapatantshi, a 

peacemaker, one who brings about 

an agreement. 
Mpaio, interlaced work, lattice. 
Mpeehioat plur. wapeekwa, a person 

sent, a missionary, = Mpetehioa. 
Mpekuzi, plur. wapehuzij one who 

scratches like a hen, an inquisi- 
tive person. 
MpeUHezi, plur. wapeleUzi, a spy. 
'^penziy plur. wapenzi^ a person 

who is loved, a favourite. 



Mpmu, plur. mipera, a guAva tree. 

*Mpia, new. See ^pyo. 

Mpiga ramZ^ plnr. isap^groy a for- 
tune-teller, one who prognoeti- 
oates by diagrams. Formerly 
they did so by throwing aand, 
whence the name. 

MpikOy plur. mipikOf a pole to carry 
burdens on. 
Kuchukua mpAofiijto oarry on 
a pole over the shoulder. 

MpingOf ebony. 

Mpini, plur. mtjnnt, a haft, a 
handle. 

Mpira, india-rubber, an india-rub- 
ber ball. 

Mpishi^ plur. wapUhi, a oook. 

Mpofu, plur. wapofu, the eland. 

Mpotevu, plur. wapotevu, a wasteful 
person. 

Mpotoe, plur. wapotoe, perverse, 
wilful, good-for-nothing. 

Mpumhafu, plur. loapumbafu, a fool. 

Mpunga, rice, either growing or 
while yet in the husk. 

Mpungaii, plur. mipungatiy a kind 
of cactus. 

Mpuzi, plur. wapuzij a silly chat- 
terer. 

MpuHiy the sea-beach (M.). 

Mpwekey plur. mipweke, a shor 
thick stick, a bludgeon. 

Mpya, new. See -pyo. 

Mrahay plur. mirdba^ muscles. 
JlfiftA toa miraha minnef a very 
strong man. 

Mrahba, square. 

Mradi, preferably (?), 

Mramma, the rolling of a ship. 

Mrashi, plur. mircuhi, a long-necked 
bottle, often of silver, used to 
sprinkle scent from; a woman's 
name. 



MBE 



MSH 



345 



Mremo, plur. waremOf a Portuguese. 

Also Mrenu, 
Mrendha, the thorn-apple plant. 
MrenUy plur. TTorent*, a Portuguese. 
Mrithif plur. viaritht, an heir, an 

inheritor. 
Mrubay plur. mtrub<t, a leech. 
Mrunguraj people who rob and com- 

mifc violence at night. 
Mrututu, sulphate of copper, blue- 
Msaada, help. [stone. 

Msafara, plur. misafara, a caravan. 
Maafiri, plur. wasafiri, a traveller, 

one on a journey. 
Msahafu, plur. misahafUf a koran, 
a sacred book. 

Msahafu wa Sheitani, a butterfly. 
MmhaUf plur. wasdhaii, one who 

forgets, a forgetful person. 
Msaji, teak. 
Media, See Jlfu^a^. 
MscUaba^ a cross. 
MscUUi, a betrayer of secrets. 
Jlfsame^, plur. wasamehe, forgiving. 
MsangaOf astonishment. 
Msapaia, a kind of dance. 
MeasOf sandpaper, a shrub with 

leaves like sandpaper. 
Msayara, kind, gentle. 
MeazOy remainder. 
Mselehishctt plur. waselehishay a 

peacemaker. 
Msemaji, plur. wasemaji, a talker, 

an eloquent person. 
Msemiy plur. toasemi, a talker, a 

speaker. 
Mseto, a sort of food, a mixture of 

mtama and chooJto. 
Msewef plur. misewe, a sort of 

Castanet tied to the leg. 
Mshabahot similar. 
Mshaharaf'pXui. mtsAa^ara, monthly 

pay, wages. 



Mshakikiy small pieces of meat 
cooked on a skewer. 

MshcUe or Mshare, plur. mishale, an 
arrow. 

Msharikct, plur. vjcuhanka, a 
partner. 

Mshayi = Mchayi. 

Msheheri or Mshehirij plur. Washe- 
heri, a native of Sheher in 
Arabia, many of whom are settled 
in Zanzibar. The butchers and 
coarse mat makers are almost all 
Sheher men. 

Mshikij one who holds. 
Mshiki ehikio, the steersman. 

Mshindani, plur. vmshindaniy ob- 
stinate, resisting. 

Mshindio, woof. 

Mshindo (obscene), coitus. 

Mshipa, plur. mishipay a blood- 
vessel, a nerve, any disease affect- 
ing these, hydrocele. 

MshipavUy plur. waahipavu^ obsti- 
nate. 

Mshipty plur. mishipit a net, a girdle. 

Mskoni, plur. washoni, a tailor, a 
sempster. 
Mshoni viatuy a shoemaker. 

MshonOy plur. misTumo, a seam. 

Jlfs^tofta, plur. mWhtakOy an accusa- 
tion, a charge before a judge. 

Mshtdkif a prosecutor. 

Ifs^ttZfo, coming down, coming away 
from performing one's devo- 
tions. 
Mshuko tffa magartbi, about a 
quarter of an hour after sunset 
Mshuko wa aiasiri JcaHrif about 

5 P.M. 

Mshuko tffa esTia, about an hour 
after sunset, or from 7 till 
8 p.m. 
Mshumaa = Meshmaa. 



346 



MSI 



MTA 



Miiboj plar. mitiba, a eakmity, a 
grief, mourning. 

Mnfuj a flatterer. 

M$i/u*mnOt plur. ttasi/u'mno, an 
excessive praiser, a flatterer. 

M$ijana, a bachelor (?). 

Mtimamizij plur. iconmamizi, an 
OTerlooker, a steward, the head 
man over a plantation, who is 
nearly always a free man, often 
an Arab. 

Msinji, plur. muinji, foundations, 
trench for laying fonndations. 

Msinzi, plur. misinziy a sort of man- 
grove tree. 

Msio, a piece of stcHie to rob liwa 
on. 

Msio, a fated thing, what will de- 
stroy or affect a person. See 
Mzio, 

Mnri, plur. tcasiri, a confidential 
person, one trusted with secrets. 

Meitani [Pemba] = Barazani, 

Msitu, a forest. 
Msitu tea mitij a thick wood. 

Msomarit plur. muomari, a nail, an 
iron nail. See Marashi. 

Msondo, a very tall dmm, beaten on 
special occasions. 

Maonyo, a whistling. 

Mstadij plur. wastadi, a skilful 
workman, a good hand. 

dldahamili or Matahimili, plur. wa- 
stahimUiy a piatient, enduring, 
long-suffering person. 

Mstdkij plur. toastakt, a prosecutor* 

Mstamu, a shoe; a piece of wood 
fixed to the keel, with a hole to 
receive the heel of the mast. 

Mstari, plur. mUtari^ a line, a line 
ruled. 
Kupiga mstariy to draw a line. 

MufofeUf a custard apple. 



Jfiwain, plur. miamaki, atooihittek; 
a little stick of the soaitefoii 
tree^ used aa a tooth-bniBh. It 
is prepared by chewing the end 
imtil it beoomea a mere bmieh of 
fibres. 
Ifau/S, plor. mui^ a tree bearing a 
pod of Bf^ ootton, Eriodendioa 
anfractuoeom. 
Mtukaitif plur. mmtkam, a rudder. 
JIfinfilraiio. See Keke, 
MtultihiwOy a peacemaker. 
Jfinunort = Maomaru 
MaumenOy plur. muumtfiio, a saw. 
Msumlnda, the name of Liongo't 

sword. 
MBundbariy fir tree, deal 
ilfaiirtiaibt, plur. miwruaki^ the 
wooden button which is grasped 
between the toes to bold on the 
wooden clogs commonly worn by 
women and in the house. 
3[iuzo, the handle of a millstone. 
Msweni = Msiienif cholera. 
Mta or Mtaa, plur. mtto, a district, 
a quarter of a town. 
The mita of Zanzibar, starting 
from the western point and 
going round the outside first, 
and then into the middle, 
are : Shangani, Baghani, Grere- 
zani, Forthani, Mita ya pwani, 
Kiponda, Mbuyuni, Malindi, 
Funguni, Jungiani, Kokoni, 
Mkunazini, Kibokoni, Kidu- 
tani, Mzambarauni, Eijuka- 
kuni, Yuga, Mnazimoja, Mji 
mpya, Mtakuja, Jumea, Soke la 
Mahogo, Kajifieheui, Mfuuni, 
Migomboni, Tiuyani, Sham, 
Hurumzi, Kutani, Mwavi. All 
these are on the peninsula, 
which joins the mainland only 



MTA 



MTO 



347 



at Mnazi moja. FuDguni is 
on the point where the creek 
enters, which almost suriounds 
the town. Crossing the creek 
by the bridge, there are the 
following mita : — Ng'ambo, 
Mchangani, Gnlioni, Kwa 
Buki, Yikokotoni, Kisimani 
kwa kema, Mchinjani, Mwem- 
be mjugu, Eikwajuni, Mkadini, 
and then Mnazi moja again. 
Mtaala = MtcUa. 
Mtabari^ oredible. 

Mtai, a scratch, a slight superficial 
cut. 
Kupiga mtai, to scratch. 
Mtaimboy plur. mitaimbo, an iron 

bar, a crowbar. 
Mtajiri, plur. wcUajirij a merchant, 
a rich man. More correctly 
Tajiri, 
Mtakaao, the rustling of new or 
clean clothes. 
Kupiga mtahaaOy to rustle. 
Mtala = Mtaalat practice, study. 
Mtali, plur. mitali, bangles,, anklets. 
Mtama, millet, Gaffre corn. 

Mtama mtindi, half-grown stalks 

of mtama. 
Mtama tete, fully formed but not 
yet ripe. 
Mtamba, plur. mttom^o, a young she- 
animal which has not yet borne. 
MtambOt plur. mitamboy a spring, a 

trap with a spring, a machine. 
Mtanashaii, a swell, dandy. 
Mtandif a loom. 
Mtando, the warp in weaving. 
Mtan?\ plur. watani, one who belongs 

to a kindred tribe or race. 
MtaowOy plur. toataowaf a devout 

person, 
MtaramUf shrewd, wise. 



Mtatago, a tree or beam thrown 
across a stream. 

MtegOj plur. mitego, a trap. 

Mtendajiy plur. vxUendajiy an active 
person. 

Mtende, plur. mitendef a date paluL 

Mtepe, plur. mitepe, a kind of dhow 
or native craft belonging chiefly 
to Lamoo and the coast near it. 
MUepe are sharp at the bows 
and stem, vrith a head shaped 
to imitate a camePs head, orna- 
mented with painting and tassels 
and little streamers. They carry 
one large square mat sail, and 
have always a white streamer or 
pennant at the mast-head : their 
planking is sewn together, and 
they are built broad and shallow. 

Mtesi, an adversary, a quarrelsome 
litigious person. 

Mtesteshij comic. 

MteuUf plur. wateule, chosen, select. 

Mthaminif a surety. 

MthtUimu, a cheat, a thief. 

Mti, plur. miti, a tree, pole, wood. 
Mti kati, a tall post set in the 
ground between a prisoner's 
legs, so that when his feet are 
fettered together he can only 
move in a circle round the post. 

Mtishamha, a charm of any kind. 

Mtif scrofulous and gangrenous 
sores. 

Mtibat a darling, a term of endear- 
ment 

Mtii, plur. watiit obedient 

Mtima, heart, chest (old Swabili 
and Eiyao). 

Mtindiy buttermilk. 

MtindOj size, form, shape, pattern. 

Mtiniy plur. mitiiUy a fig tree. 

MtOy plur. mitOy a river, a stream. 



348 



MTO 



MUA 



Mio wa Jcono, a biancliing fiier, a 
delta. 
Mlo, plur. mtto, a pillow, a cushion. 
MtobtDe^ a kind of wood of whioli 

the best hakoras are made. 
Mtofcta, plur. mitofaa, au apple- 
like fruit. 
3ffoAt\ a swelling of the glands at 
the bend of the thigh followed 
by fever. 
MtomOj firmness, good building. 
MtamondojyIuT. mitomondOythe Bar- 
ringtonia ; its fruit is exported to 
India. 
Mtondoj the day after the day after 
to-morrow. 
Mtondo goo, the day after that. 
MtondoOf plur. mitindoOy Callo- 
phyllum inophyllum ; oil is made 
Arom its seeds. 
Mtongozif plur. watongozi, a man 
who dresses himself up to allure 
women. 
Mtoro, plur. watoro, a runaway. 
Mtoto, plur. tcatotOt a child. Used 
also generally of anytliing 
small of its kind, when men- 
tioned in connection with 
something larger to which it is 
attached ; e.g. young shoots, 
small boats, &c. 
Mtoto wa watu, a child of some- 
body, having relations, a woman 
of respectable family as dis- 
tinguished from one of slave 
parentage, a woman therefore 
who has somewhere to go if she 
leaves her husband, or he her. 
Mtoto wa mezOf a drawer of a 
table. 
Mtovu, without manners, shameless. 
MtUt plur. watu, a person, a man, 
somebody, anybody. 



Hakuna mte, there is nobody. 
Mtu ganif of what tribe? 
Miu wa aerkaUf a man in govern- 
ment employ. 

Mttding€i, plnr. miiuUnfftt, the col- 
lar bone. 

Mtulifm^ plnr. vxUulivu, a quiet 
man. 

Mtumaini, plnr. watnimainif san- 
guine, confident 

Mtuniba, plnr. mitumiba, a bale of 
cloth made np for a carayaa. 

Mtumbuizi, plur. toatwnbuizi^ a spy, 
an inquisitive person (A.). 

Mtumbujif plur. mUumhtoi, a canoe 
hollowed out from the tnmk of 
a tree, distinguished from a 
galawa by having no outriggers, 
and being generally of larger 
size. 

Mtume, plur. mitume, an apostle, a 
prophet. Applied especially to 
Mohammed as a translation of 
his title. Apostle of Gtod. 

Mtumke, plur. watuwdke, a woman, 
a wife. 

Mtumishi, plur. watumishij a ser- 
vant 

Mtumvja, plur. watumwa, a slave, a 
servant. 

MtundUf mischievous, perverse, 
troublesome. 

Mtungi, plur. mitungif a water-jar. 

MtupOj plur. mitupctf euphorbia. 

Mtupu, bare. See 'tupu. 

MtutUy plur. mitutu (Ar.), a mul- 
berry tree. 

Mtuzi, curry, gravy (M.). Also 
Mchuzi. 

MtwangOj plur. mittoangOf a pestle 
for poimding and cleaning corn. 

Mu-. See M". 

Muoj plur. miwaj a sugar-cane. 



MUB 



HUS 



349 



MuhatharifUf extravagant. 
Muda or Mda, a space of time, term. 
Muda wa, the space of. 

Mudu ku; 
Kujimuduyio gain a little strength 
after illness. 
MuhadimUf plvLT. wahadimUf a ser« 
vant, one of the original inhabi- 
tants of Zanzibar. These waJta- 
dimu pay two dollars a year for 
each household to the Munyi 
mJtuUy of which 8eyed Majid now 
(1870) takes one; they also work 
for him. They all live in vil- 
lages in the country, and speak a 
language of which there are at 
least two dialects, materially 
different from the Swahili of the 
town. 

Muharabu, plur. toaJiardbu, mis- 
chievous, destructive. 

MuharibivUj plur. waharihivu, a de- 
structive person, one who ruins 
himself, destroys his own chances. 

Muhdrumat a kind of silk handker- 
chief, worn instead of a turban. 

Muhindiy plur. Wahindi^ a native 
of India, esprcially an Indian 
Mussulman, of whom there are 
two chief sects settled in Zanzi- 
bar, the Ehojas and Bohras. 

Muhindiy plur. mihindiy the Indian 
com plant. Also Mahindi, 

Muhogo, cassava, manioc. 

Muhtasari, an abridgment, a sum- 
mary. 

MuhuUa, time, a fixed period. 

Muhuri, a seal. 

Mujizoy plur. miujiza, a wonderful 
thing, a miracle. Also Mvmjiza. 

Mult or Mulia, clever, knowing. 

Mulika ku', to show a light, to 
gleam. 



Mulkij a kingdom. 
Mumey male. See -ume, 
Mumimiy Azrael, the angel of death. 
Mumunye, plur. mamumunyey a kind 
of gourd resembling a vegetable 
marrow. It often grows of such 
a shape that its hard rind, when 
ripe, can be used for bottles, 
ladles, and spoons. 

Mumyanif a mummy. Mummy is 
still esteemed as a medicament. 

Mundoy plur. miundciy a piece of 
plank to serve as cap to a post. 
See also Mda. 

Munduy plur. miundUy a bill, a 
small hatchet. 

Munyiy a chief, a sheykh. The 
Munyi mkuu is esteemed the true 
Sultan of the Swahili, at least in 
the island of Zanzibar and the 
parts adjacent. He is descended 
from an ancient Persian familv. 
the heiress of which married, 
some generations since, an Arab 
from Yemen. The title is now 
(1874) in abeyance. His chief 
residence is at Dunga, near the 
centre of the island. 

Muomoy plur. miomOy the moustache, 
the lip. 

MuscUa, plur. miscday an oval mat 
used to perform the Mohammedan 
devotions upon. 

Mmamay pardon. 

Musimiy the northerly winds, which 
blow in December, January, and 
February. The musimi is some- 
times reckoned to extend till 
June. 

Musimo = Mtmrni. 

Mustarehey enjoyment. 

Mustarifuy with a competency, 
neither rich nor poor. 



350 



MUT 



liWA 



Mutaahir, credible. 

Mutiat obc<lience. 

Muuaji\ plur. wauajif a murderer, 

a slayer. 
Muuguzi^ plur. wavguzi, a nurse, 

one who nurses sick people. 

Muumifhi, plur. toaumwAt, aonpper. 

Muundi wa mguu (A.)) the shin. 

MuungUf God, plur. miungu. The 

Swahili rarely use Muungu or 

*Mungu alone. They almost 

always say Mwenyiezi *Mungu. 

Maskini ya Muungu, a poor free 
person. 
MuzimOf a place where offerings are 

made to some spirit supposed to 

haunt there. Baobab trees are 

generally supposed to be haunted 
Mvi, grey hairs. [by spirits, 

Mciliy the shade of a tree. 
Mvinje, Cassiorinus. 
Mvinyo, strong wine, spirits, wine. 
MviringOj round, roundness. 
Mcitay MombflS. 
MtfivUf idle. See -vivu. 
Mcua, rain, rains. 

Mvua ya mwdka, the rain which 
falls about August 
Mvujey assafoetida. 
Mvvkke, vapour, steam. 
MvukutOy plur. mivukutOf a lever. 
Mwlana, plur. wamtlana, a young 

man whose beard is just begin- 
ning to grow. 
Mvtdey the lesser rains, about 

October or November. 
MvulinL in the shade. 
Mvumtif plur. mivuma, the borassus 

palm. 
MffumilivUf plur. tcavumtlivu, 

patient, long-suffering. 

Vtitno, a rubber, six games won by 

nie side (in cards). 



Mvunda, or Mvumja, plnr. wmmnda^ 
a breaker, a destzoyer, one who 
ruins. 
Mvungut the hollow of a tree, a 
hollow tree. 
Mvungu wa JcitandOf the space 
under a bedstead. 
Mvuvij plur. foavuvi, a fiahiiwHM^ 
Mw'. See Jf-. 
Mwaj of. 

Muaay plur. miiDaa, strips of the 
leaf of a tree called mkoma (?), 
used to make coarse mats and 
baskets. 
Mwafa 7cu-f to forgive. 
Mioafdkay a conspiracy, an agree- 
ment, a bargain. 
Mwaga ku-, to pour away, to empty 

out, to spill. 
Mwagia ^, to pour upon, to empty 

out for. 
Mwajuifuniy a self flatterer. 
Mtodkay plur. miakay a year. The 
year commonly used in Zanzi- 
bar is the Arab year of twelve 
lunar mouths. There is also 
the Persian year of 365 days, 
beginning with the Nairuz, 
called in Swahili the 8iku a 
mvcdka. From this day the year 
is reckoned in decades, each 
decade being called a mvsongo. 
The year is called &om the day 
of the week on which it com- 
mences : Mtoaka juma, Mwdka 
alhamisiy &c. 
Mwakajana^ last year. 
Mwakajuzij the year before last. 
Mwdka kwa mtoaka, yearly. 
Mioakey his, hers, its. See -ake, 
MvuakOf thy. See -ako. 
Mwali, See Mwana muxili, 
MvHjUi, plur. mitoali, a sort of palm 



MWA 



HWE 



351 



i9iih very long and strong leaf 
stalks, which are used for doors, 
ladders, and otiier purposes. 

MwalimUf plur. wacdimu, a teacher. 

MwamcUe, treatment, mode of treat- 
ing. 

Mwamha, plur. ndanriba, a rock. 

Mwawba, plur. mianibay the wall 
plate in a mud and stud house. 

Mwamiui^ plur. waamua, a judge. 

MwamiMy husband's brother. 

Mwamuzi, plur. waamuzi, a judge. 

Mwana, the mistress of the house, 
a matron. It is polite in Zanzi- 
bar to speak of one's own mother 
as mwana. 

Mtoana, plur. toaana, a son, a child. 
MioanangUf my child. 
Mioanao, your child. 
Mwanatoe, his or her child. 
Mioanetu, our child. 

Mwana Adamuy a child of Adam, 
i.e,j a human being. 

Mtoaria majij a seaman. 

Mioana maua, a sprite represented 
as a white woman with an ugly 
black husband. 

Mwana mke, plur. vjoana wake or 
waanaakcy a woman. 

Mwana mke toa kiungvjana, a lady. 

Mwana mume, plur. tmzana waume 
or toaanaume, a man. 
MvHma mvjaH, a young woman 
whose breasts are not yet flat- 
tened, one who has not yet left 
her father's house. 

Mioanamizi, a soldier crab. 

Mwandikajif plur. loacmdikaji, a 
waiter, a table servant. 

Mwandiko, plur. miandikoy a manu- 
script, handwriting. 

Mwandishi, plur. waandishi, a 
writer, a clerk, a secretary. 



MwangOy plur. miangaf .light, a 
light, a kind of rice. 

Mwangaliziy plur. waangalizi, an 
overseer, one who overlooks or 
looks to. 

Mwangaza, plxn, miangazaf a light 
hole, the small round holes which 
are often left near the ceilings 
of rooms in Zanzibar. 

MwangOy plur. miangOj a lamp-stand, 
a piece of wood about eighteen 
inches long, from near the bottom 
of which two small pieces project 
at right angles, to hold the com- 
mon clay lamp of the country.* 
The mwango is generally hung 
against a wall. 

Mwango = Mlango. 

*Mwango, plur. mi-wango, a kind of 

Mwangu, my. See -angu, [shrub. 

Mwangvji, echo. 

Mvoaniy seaweed. 

'Mwanzit plur. mivjanzi, a bamboo. 
Miwamzi ya pua, the nostrils (?). 

MwanzOy plur. mianzoy beginning. 

MwojOy a worry, bother. 

Mwapuza, a simpleton. 

Mwashit plur. waashiy a mason. 

Mwathiniy one who calls to prayer 
at the mosque, a muezzin. Also 
MtLelhthin, 

Mwavuli, plur. miavuli, an um- 
brella. 

Mwawaai, the Disposer, a title of 
God. 

Mwaya ku- = Mwojga ku-^ to pour 
away. 

*Mweli, plur. waweli, a sick person. 

Mwema, good. See -ema, 

Mwembambaj thin. See -embambcu 

Mwemhe, plur. miembe, a mango tree. 

MwendanguUy a great and irre- 



352 



MWE 



MWI 



Mwendo, going, gait, journey. 
Miccnendo, going on, behaviour. 
Mioengey plur. mienge, a bundle of 

straw, &e., used to carry a light. 
Mwenyeji, plur. wenyeji^ a lioet, a 
person who has a home in the 
place. 
Mwenyeice, plur. wenyewBy the owner, 
self, myself, thyself, himself, 
&o. 
l^Ihau za mwenyetoef some one 
else's planks. 
Mvcenyif having, possessing. See 
-enyi. 
Mwenyi ezi Muungu, Almighty 

God. 
Micenyi chongo, a one-eyed per- 
son. 
Mwenyi inchif the lord of the 

country. 
Mwenyi Mrhaa, a lunatic. 
Micenyi huhuiiibu, a preacher. 
Mwenyi liupooza, a paralytic. 
Mwenyi maliy a rich man. 
Mwenzanguy plur. wenzangu, my 

companion. 
Mwenzif pliur. icenziy a companion. 
MwerCt a kind of corn or seed like 
linseed, growing on a close spike 
like a bulrush flower. 
MwerevUf plur. werevuj a shrewd 

person, a man of the world. 
Mwewe, a hawk, a kite, a kind of 

fish. 
Mweya ku-, to steal. 
*Mweza, plur. waweza, able, having 
power over. 
Mtoeza mwenyewe^ one's own 
master. 
Mwezi^ the moon. 

Mwezit plur. mieziy a month. The 
months in Zanzibar begin on 
the day on which the moon is 



first seen, unless thd old month 
has already had thirty days ; if 
00, the day which would haye 
been the 81st, is the 1st of the 
new month. 
Mweti mpungufuy a month of less 

than thirty days. 
Mwezi mwandamu or mwemgamu, 

a month of thhrty full days. 
Muoezi ngapi f what is the day of 

the month ? 
Mwezi wa rita, the 6th day of the 
month. 
Mwiba, plur. trUiba, a thorn. 
Micibaji, plur. w^bajij an habitual 

thief, a thievish person. 
Micigo, a sort of large dove with red 
bill, wliite neck, and black body. 
It cries Kooo I Then one answers, 
'^Mwigo!" KoooI-^'*^NiagfaieI ** 
Kooo ! — " Kwema nendaho f " 
Kooo /—then one may go on. If it 
answers not, it is a bad omen. 
Mwiico, plur. mitkoj a spoon, a 
mason's trowel. Also a measure, 
direction, prohibition, especial- 
ly of a medical practitioner. 
Kwhil'a micihOj to live by rule, to 
live abstemiously. 
Mwili, plur. miilif the body. 
MwimOj plur. miimOj side piece of 

a door frame. 
*3Twinda, |Jur. wawinda, a hunter. 
Mwingajinit a common plant whose 
leaves are said, when rubbed in, 
to cure the aching of the limbs in 
fever ; a decoction of the roots is 
said to be useful in dysentery. 
Mwingi, much, full. 
Mwingi wa maneno, full of 
words. 
Mwinyi = Mwenyi^ having, with. 
See -enyu 



MWI 



MZO 



353 



MwishOf pluT. miishOf end, conclu- 
sion. 

Mtoithi (Patta) = Mwivu 

MwitOj calling, summons. 

Mwituy forest. 
Ya mwituy wild. 
Mbuja wa mwiiu^ jeickals. 
Mwivi, plur. toevi, a thief. 

*MmvUj plur. voawiim^ a jealous 
person. 

Mwizi (A.) = Mwivi, 

Mwogay plur. vjooga, one who fears, 
a coward. 

Miookosif plur. toaokosit one who 
picks up anything. 

Miookozij plur. waohozij one who 
saves, a saviour. 

Mioombaji, plur. uoaomhaji, a beg- 
gar. 

Mtoomhezi, plur. waorhbezit an inter- 
cessor. 

Mwomo = Jtfclomo. 

MvxmgOy plur. miongo^ a decade of 
ten days, used in reckoning the 
nautical or Swahili year, from 
the 8%ku a mwaha, 
Mwongo mvjangajpi, in what de- 
cade is it ? 

*Mioongo, plur. watoongo, a liar, a 
false person. 
Simekuwa 'mvjongo f am I not a 
Uar? 

Mwongofu, plur. toaongofu, a con- 
vert, a proselyte. 

Mwujizat plur. miujiza, a miracle. 

MzaOf plur. wazaa, a parent. 

Mzaahitdt a great-grandmother. 

3fza&i&ti, plur. mizahibut a vine. 

ilfza^a, sport, ridicule, derision. 
Kumfanyizia mzaha^ to deride 
him. 

Mzalia, plur. wazcUia, a native, a 
slave bom in the country. 



Mzalishay plur. wazalishOf a mid- 
wife. 
Mzaramu, a pool of water. 
Mzazi, plur. wazaziy a parent, fruitful. 

iSt mzazi, barren. 
3fz6e, plur. loazee, an old person, an 

elder. 
Mzembe, plur. toazembe, a careless 

person. 
Mzige, a locust 
Mzigo, plur. mizigo, a burden, a 

load. 
Mzima^ an extinguisher, one who 

puts out. 
Jlfzima, plur. wazima^ a living or 
healthy person. 

Jlffu mzima, a grown person. 
Mzimu, See Zimwi, Muzimo, 

Kuzimu, 
Mzinga, plur. mizinga, a hollow 
cylinder, a hollowed piece of 
wood used as a beehive, a can- 
non. 

Beale ya mzinga^ a pillar dollar. 
Mzingi or Mzinjij plur. mizingi, 

foundations, trench for laying in 

the foundation. Also Msinji. 
MzingiU mwambijiy a puzzle, a 

labyrinth. 
MzingOy the circumference, brink. 

Mzingo wa, around. 
MziOf that which would be deleterious 

to any one ; each person is said to 

have his special mzio — of one it is 

cuttle-fish, of another, red fish, 

and so on. Also Msio. 
Mzishi, plur. wazishi, a burier, one 

who will see to one's funeral, a 

special friend. 
MzOf sixty pishi. 
Mzofafa, on tiptoe. 
Mzoga, plur. mizogay a dead body, a 
carcase. 



354 



MZO 



N 



Mzomari, See Marcuhi = Zomari. 

Mzungu, plur. mizungut a strange 
and startling thing. 

MtungUf plur. Wazungu, a Enro- 
pean, one who wears European 
clothes. 

Mzungu toa pUif queen in cards. 

Mzungu tea tatu, knave in cards. 

Mzungu wa 'nne, king in carils. 

Mzunguhoy plur. mizungukOj a wan- 
dering about. 

Mzushi, a heretic, an innovator. 

Mzuzij plur. wazuzi, a tale-bearer, 
one who reports maliciously or 
untruly the word of others. 

Mzuzu, plur. wazuzUf a simpleton. 

MztoeOf used to. 



2<. 

N is pronounced as in English. 

An 1 sound is generally connected 
with an initial n. It sometimes 
precedes more or less distinctly, 
and may be written in or *n, making 
the n a distinct syllable. Some- 
times the n flows into the following 
letter, so that the t sound is alto- 
gether lost. Very often it follows 
it as in the common syllable ni or 
ny. It is characteristic of the Zan- 
zibar dialect to make the initial i 
sound distinct. Thus inchi, a coun- 
try, is at Mombas *nti. 

Ni is often contracted into *n or 
n, and where n would be dropped 
ni sometimes is so, as in the first 
person of the future tense, nitapenda 
or *ntapenda or tapenda. 

V cannot be placed before 6, chy 
h Pi r, 8, tj V, or w. 
"fore 6, to, and perhaps v, it be- 
omes m, and to changes into h. 



Beftyre k, p, and perbape i; it Is 
dropped, and the oonaoiUHit 
gets an explosive Bound. 

Before Z, r, and perhaps if the n 
remains, but the other oooao- 
nant becomes a d. 

Before €h, J^ m, n, and «^ H is 
merely dropped. 

N can stand before d, g^ J, p, 
and z, 

^before Jc is in two oases at least 
contracted into h, 

Hapenda = Nikapenda, 

Eipenda = Nikipmda. 

There is a sound in Swahili which 
is treated as a simple consonant, 
which does not occur in European 
languages as an initial sound. It 
is very nearly the same with the 
final ng in English, in such words 
as loving, going, &c. The sounds of 
n and g seem both audible, but so 
blended that neither of them can be 
carried on to the following vowel; 
It is here written ng\ to distinguish 
it from the common sound ng, in 
which the g passes on to the follow- 
ing vowel. There is some little 
difference in the way in which dif- 
ferent persons pronounce it ; it has 
sometimes more of a gn sound, and 
might be so written it it be under- 
stood that the two letters are so 
fused together that neither can be 
heard as if it stood alone. It has 
been sometimes written ^, which is 
either a mistake or very misleading. 
That the sound really is ng, may be 
proved by the fact that such words 
as begin with it are treated as words 
beginning with n, and that when 
other prefixes are applied they are 



K- 



N- 



355 



treated ad if the root began with g. 
It is not, however, a very common 
sound in Swahili. 

There is another sonnd com- 
pounded of n and. i, which is very 
fairly represented by the Spanish ^, 
or by ni in such English words as 
companion, &c. It is pronounced 
perhaps in Swahili with a slightly 
broader and more nasal sound. It 
is here written ny, to distinguish it 
from the common syllable ni, in 
which the •' has a vowel sound. 

The ny sound in the dialect of 
Zanzibar sometimes represents an n 
in more northern Swahili, as in 

Kttnwa at kdnywa^ to drink. 

The change fromi ry io ny has in 
many verbs the effect of giving a 
causative meaning, as in kupona, to 
get welly huponya, to make well, to 
save. 

N'^ or ni-, the sign of the first per- 
son singular of verbs, I. 

-n-, or -ni; the objective prefix 
proper to denote the first person, 
me. 

N- (see ny-)» 

1. A prefix frequently occurring 
in substantives which do not 
change to form the plural. If 
followed by d, gf, j\ or «, it is 
pronounced with them and does 
not form a distinct syllable. 
Before other consonants it forms 
a distinct syllable, and may be 
written 'n- or sometimes in-, 

2. The plural prefix of substan- 
tives which begin in the singular 
with «-, followed by a conso- 
nant The tt is dropped and n 
prefixed before d, g, J, and z. 



Before b, and perhaps v, the n 
changes into m, before w ihenio 
become mb. Before I or r the 
ni or nr become nd. Before k, 
j9, and t, the n is dropped and 
the other consonant gets an ex- 
plosive or aspirated sound, and 
may be written k% |/, and f ; 
before cih, /, m, n, and «, the n is 
merely dropped. Where, how- 
ever, dropping the u- would 
leave the word a monosyllable, 
the tf- is retained, and ny pre- 
fixed. 
N- (see ny-). The prefix proper to 
adjectives agreeing with sub- 
stantiveaof the class which docs 
not change to form its plural 
of whichever number, or with 
plural substantives which make 
their singular in u-. Where the 
simple form of the adjective 
begins with a vowel, ny- is pre- 
fixed, except -ema, good, which 
makes njema or ngema. The 
changes before a consonant are 
the same as those given just 
above for the plural nouns in «-. 
Nyumba mbaya, not nbaya, 

chcLchef not nckache. 

ndogo. 

fupi, not nfupu 

ngevmu 

njema, 

kubwOf not nktihuja, 

mcja, not nmoja, 

nanCy not nnane, 

pana, not npana. 

^rnpyd, not npya or pya. 

ndefuj not nrefu, 

tatUj not ntatu. 

mhiliy not nwUi or npUi. 

nfturi. 



>» 



n 



n 



» 



>» 



» 



w 



f» 



>» 



9) 



II 



356 



NA 



RAK 



Na, anr], alao, with ; by, of the agent 
of a paiwive, and with, of the 
sliarcr in the action of a reci- 
procal verb. 
Na when joined with a pronoun 
commonly forms one word with 
it. 
Nami, and I, or with me. 
Navje, and thou, or with thee. 
NaOf nayo, nacho, nalOf and or 

with thorn, it, &c., &o., &c. 

Na joined with the verb kuioa, to 

bo, or with the personal prefix 

only, constitutes the verb to 

liave. The object is frequently 

joined with the na, — ana, or 

anazo, anaclio, &c., &c., ho has. 

Alioho nacJu)^ which he has. 

Alv'iliokuwa nachOf which ho had. 

Aiahaclwkuwa imchOf which he 

will have. 
Atahuwa nacho, he will have it. 
The verb kuwa na is used some- 
times in the sense of being, as 
Talihuwa na mtu, there was a 
man. 
Jlakuna, there is not. 
Kuna, there is. 
Zinazo, thc^y are. 
-na-f the sign of the present tense 
of a continuing action. 
Anakwenda, he is going. 
Anasema, he is saying. 
This tense has sometimes the 

effect of a present participle. 
Akamwona anakuja, and he saw 

him coming. 
N.I J. — At Mombas the -na- tense 
is used as a past tense. At 
Zanzibar it is the most usual 
present. 
Ka or *Nna = Nina, I have. 
JVrttt'ii or Sa^am, yes. 



Nabihiiha Iw-, to ezbort 
Nabii, a prophet. 

Nadi kUf to proclaim, to malEe n 
bid fur a thing, to bbU bj ftuotiiiii. 
BeeMnadL 
Nddira, rare. 

Nafakoj com, com used na money. 
Mtama, or millet, was formerly 
used in Zanzibar as small 
change: it was superseded by 
the introduction of pice firom 
India about the year 1845. 
Na/asi, space, room, time, oppor- 
tunity. 
NafisUha ku-, to give space, to make 

space. 
Na/si or Nafusi, self, soul, breath. 
Nafuu, profitable. 
Nahau, spelling, grammar. 
Nahma ku, to revenge. 
Naliotha ya maji, water-tank. 
Nat, a sort of anvil fixed in a forked 

piece of wood. 
Najisi = Nejjis, profane. 
Ndkliotha or Nahoza, captain of a 

vessel, master mariner. 
Nakili ku-, to copy, to transcribe. 
Nakiahi, Naksh, or Nakshi, carving. 
Kukata naksh, to carve, to orna- 
ment with carving. 
Nakishiwa ku, to be carved or in-- 

laid. 
Nakl, a copy. 
Nako, and it was there. 
Ndkudi, cash, ready money. 
Nama ku- = Inama ku-, to bend 

down, to bow the head. 
Nami, and I, or with me. 
Na^mna or Namuna, sort, pattern. 
Namua ku- (Mer.), to take out of a 

trap, to extricate. 
Nana or Nd'ana, mini 
Nana, mistress (N.). 



NAN 



NDI 



357 



Nanazi, plur. mananazif a pine- 
Nane, eight. [apple. 

'Uaney eight. 

Ya nane, eighth. 
Nanga^ an anchor. 

Kutia nangat to anchor. 
NangonangOy a worm (?). 
Nanil Who? 

Nanigwanzula, a kind of lizard, 
^ao, and they or witli them, and it 

or with it. 
Naoza = NaJchofkaj a <}aptaiB. 
NapOy and there, and here. 
Nasa ku-y to catch in a trap. 
Nasi ku-y to warn. 
NasibUy luck, fortune. 

Kwa Tuisihuy by chance, perhaps. 
Ndsibu kuy to appoint. 
Nastha ktt-y to suggest. 
Nasihi ku-y to entreat, to beseech. 
NastcLhiha, I see it better, prefer. 
Nasury an abscess. 
Nata ku'y to be adhesive, to stick. 
Nathariy choice. 
Nathiriy a look, a glance, a vow. 

Kuweka nathiriy to vow. 

Kuondoa nathiH, to perform a 
vow. 
Nathiri ku-y to glance. 
Natoay a blemish (?). 
Nauliy freight. 
Nawa ku-y to wash oneself. 

Kunawa mikonoy to wash one's 
hands. 
NazdVy quarrel. 
Naziy a cocoa-nut, a fully ripe nut. 

Nazi kavuy copra, cocoa-nuts dried 
fit for pressing. 
Naziri = Nathiri. 
Naziyana ku-y to quarrel. 
'NchOy the point, the end, tip, a 

strand in cordage. 
Nchi. Sec Inchi. 



Ndaa (M.), hunger, = Njaa, 
Ndamay a calf, the young of a 

domestic animal. 
Ndaniy within, inside. 

Ndani yay inside of. 

Kwa ndaniy inner, secret. 

Ndani kwa ndaniy secretly. 
Ndarobo, 

Kusema cha ndarobOy to speak a 
secret language. 
Ndefu = Ndeouy the beard. Sing. 

udevuy one hair of the beard. 
Ndefuy long. See -refu, 
Ndege, a bird, birds, an omen. To 

see a woman with a load is lucky, 

and would be called ndege njema. 

To see a man by himself carrying 

nothing is unlucky, and is ndege 

mbaya, 
Ndere, 

TJnga wa nderCy a magic poison. 
Ndewcy a hole pierced in the lobe of 

the ear. 
Ndeziy a kind of animal. 
Ndi-y a prefix used with the short 
form of the pronoun to express, 
it is this, this is the one, I am 
he, you are he, &c. 

I, Ndimi, 

Thou, Ndiwe, 

He or she, Ndiye, 

It, NdiOy ndiyOj ndicho, ndiloy 
ndipOy ndikoy ndimo. 

We, Ndisi. 

You, Ndinyi. 

They, NdiOy ndiyOy ndivyOy ndizo. 

Ndiyo yalioy that is just it, that 
is how matters stood. 
Ndia (M.) = Njia, 
Ndimiy tongues. See Ulimu 
NdiOy yes. 

Ndiwa (M.) or Njiwa^ a pigeon. 
Ndizi^ bananaA^ \\d.\i\».YQ&« 



358 



NDI 



NG'A 



Ndizi Bkngdla, a thick sweet 
kind of banana. 

Ndizi mjengaf a long kind' of 
banana used in cooking. 

Ndizi msusat a large ridged kind- 
of bananai 
Ndooi, marriage. 
Ndbnyay a lip-ring, worn by the 

Nyassa. 
Ndoo and Ndooni (M.) = Njoo and 

Njooni, come. 
Ndoo, a pail, a bucket. 
NdbtOi a dreami . 
Nidvtiy an ell?phant. 
NdugUf a brother or sister, a cousin, 
a relation. 

Ndiigu "kunyonycb, a foster brother, 
NdUiy small-pox. [&c. 

Ndulif savage, given to slaying, a 

man wholly without patience. 
Ndume, male, from -lunte or -ume. 
Ndusif a box. 
Nebii = Nabiiy a prophet 
Neema, grace, favour, 
Neemesha ha-, to enrich. 
Nefsi = Nafd = NafuHj self. 
Negesha ku-, to charge with, to at- 
tribute falsely to. 

Akamnegesha mwivi, and ke 
called him a thief. 
NejjiSf or N^isi, or Najisiy profane, 

blasphemous. 
NeUi, a pipe, a water-pipe. 
NembOf tribal marks. 
Nena ku-, to speak, to name, to 

mention. 
Nenana ku-, to talk against one 

another, to quarrel. 
'tiene, thick, stout, fat, whole, com- 
plete, plump, sleek. 
Nenea ku-, to talk to, of, at, for, or 

against, to blame, to soold, to re- 
commend. 



Nenepa ku-, to grow fat, cied ei- 

pecially of persons. 
NenOn plur. maneno, a word, a thing. 

Sikufanya nenOj I have done no- 
thing. 
Nenyekea hthj to be humble, te oon- 

descend. 
-nenyekevuy humble, oondefloending. 
Nepa kU'j to sag, to dip in the 

middle as a long rope doeo. 
Neupe or Nyeupe^ white. See •eitpe. 
Neim or Nyeun, black. See ^eutL 
-ngor or -nge-, the prefix of the 
present conditional tenaa 

fU-nge-kwody I shoald.be. 
NgadUy land crabs. 
-ngawa, though. 

Ng'aa ku- = Ng'ara Aw-, to ahine. 
-ngali-j the prefix of the past con- 
ditional. 

ni-ngalirkataoy I should have re- 
fused. 
Ngama, the hold of a ship^ 
Ng^amha, a liawkshead turtle, from 

which tortoiscshell is procured. 
Ng*ambOy the other side of a liver 

or creek. 
Ngamia or Ngamiya^ a oameL 
Ng*anda^ a handful. 
Ngano, a tale, a fablei 
NganOy wheat. 

Amekula nganoy he has been dis- 
graced ; that is, having been 
as if in paradise, he has now 
to cat the food of ordinary 
mortals. 
NgaOi a shield or buckler ; they are 

circular and very small. 
Ngaray the young cob of Indian 

oom. 
Ng'ara ku-, or Ng*ahiy or Ng^aa, to 

shine, to glitter, to be transparent, 

to be clear. 



NGA 



NGir 



359- 



Ngariba, a oiroumcisor. 

iTgariza fcw-, to fix the eyes, to glare. 

Jmening*ariza maoho, he glared 
at me. 
Ngawa, a civet cat (?). 

The ngawct^ is a larger animal 
than the/»n^o. 
Ng'aza ku-, to make to Bhine, or to 

be brilliant. 
Ngazif a ladder. 
Ngaeidjaf Great ComorOi 
*A'(7C, a scorpion. 

-nge-f sign of the conditional pre- 
sent, wonld. 

Tdngedumuy they would stilt con- 
tinue. 
Ngedere, a small black monkey. 
Ngema, good. See 'ema. 
Ngeu, ruddle used by carpenters to 

mark out their work. 
-ngi or -ingi, many, much. 
Ngiliza. See Ingiliza* 
-nginet other, different 

Wangine — wangine, some — other. 
Ng'oa Zcu-, to pull up, to root up, to 

pull out. 
Ngoat lust. 

Kulia ngoa^ to weep for jealousy. 

Kutimia ngoet^ yaJcice, to satisfy 
his desires^ 
Ng*ofUf the roe of a fish. 
Ngoja ku-y to WAit, to wait for: 
NgcjCj Angoxa. 

Ngqjea ku-, to wait upon, to watch^ 
Ng*oka few-, to be rooted up. 

Moyo unaning*okaf I was startled 
out of my wits. 
NgoUf rope. 

Ngoma, a drum, a musical perform- 
ance generally. 
Ng*ombe or Grnombey an ox, a cow, a 
bull, cattle. 

N^ombe ndume, a bull. 



Ngomet a fort. 

Ng*onda ku-^ to cure or dry fish, &c. 

Ng^onga. 

Ana ng*onga (A.), he is inclined 
to vomit. 
Ng*(mg*ej the strips- of leaf or fibre 

used for sewing matting, and for 

tying. 
Ng*ong*o, the thick edge of a strip 

of matting. 
Ngono, the share of her husband's 

company which is due to each 

wife. 
Ngovi = Ngozi, blnm 
Ngozii skin, hide, leather. 
NguchirOy a mangouste. Also, a 

sort of bird = Mchiro. 
Ngumi or Nyamgumi, a whale. 
Ngumii 

Kupiga ngumi^ to strike with the 
fist. 
Ngumui hard. See -gumu, 
NgtiOj calico, cotton cloth, clothes* 

Nguo ya meza, a table-cloth. 

Ngw) ya maki, stout cloth. 

Kutenda rtguo^ to stretch the 
threads for weaving. 
Nguriy a shoemaker's tool shaped 

like a skittle. 
Ngttru,& kind of fish; 
Nguruma ku-, to roar, to thunder. 
Ngurumo, a roar, distant rolling 

thunder. 
Nguruvu, a kind of jackal with a 

bushy tail. 
Nguruwe or Nguuioe, a pig, swine. 
NgiMttzi, a plug. 
Nguue = Nguruwe, a pig. 
Nguue, red paint. 
Nguva^ a kind of fish. 
Nguvuy strength, power, authority. 

£wa nguvu, by or with strength, 
by foroe, Bttwi^^ ^t»5iK^:^ . 



360 



NGU 



KJI 



NguzOy a pillar, pillars. 

'ugwana, free, civilized. 

Ngtoe, See Ugwe. 

Ngwe, an allotment or space for cul- 
tivation. 

Ngvoena, a crocodile, a seal. 

NgvnrOf a large kind of ant. 

Nif I am, was, is. 
Ni is used to express is or was, for 
all persons and both numbers. 

Ni (M.), by, with the agent of a 
passive verb. 

Ni f *N-, or N-j I, the sign of the 
first person singular. Before the 
'ta- of the future it sometimes 
disappears. 

-n«- or -W-, the objective prefix de- 
noting the first person singular. 

-nt, added to substantives, forms a 
sort of locative case, signifying 
in, at, into, to, from, from out 
of, near, by. 

1. When followed by pronouns, 
&c., beginning with *m or ww, 
this case implies within, inside 
o^ or the coming or going to 
or from the inside of the thing 
named. 

2. When followed by pronouns, 
&c., beginning with p, it signi- 
fies nearness to, or situation at, 
by, before, near. 

3. When followed by pronouns, 
&c., in kw, it denotes going or 
coming to or from, or at, from, 
and in, in a vague sense, or of 
things far off. 

-wi, added to verbs in the impera- 
tive forms the second person 
plural. It is sometimes suffixed 
to common phrases, as kuaheriniy 
good-bye, and twendezetuniy let us 
go, and is explained as a short 



form for enyi^ or nyie^ you! you 

there I 
'nij enclitic form for nini, what ? 
-f»», enclitic for nyt as an objective 
suffix (N.). 

Naioaamhianif I tell you. 
Nia^ mind, intention, what one has 

in one's mind. 
Nia kut to have in one's nund, to 

think to do. 
Nikaaoy which I inhabit. 
Nikali, and I am or was. 

Nikali nikienda, and I am going. 
Nil, blue (for washing). 
Nikwata, the little wall lizard. 
Nili, I being. 

NUi hali ya kuwa^juu yake^ I 
being on his back. 
Nina, I have. 
Nina, mother (N.). 
Ninga, a kind of green bird some- 
thing like a dove, a woman's 

name. 
NingHnia ku-, to swing. 
NingHniza ku-, to set swinging. 
Ninif Whuti 

Kwa nini, or Ya ninif why ? what 
for? 
Ninyi, ye, you. 

Ninyi nyote, all of you, all to- 
gether. 
Nipe, give me. See Pa Jcu-, 
Nira, yoke. 
Nisha, starch (?). 
Njaa, hunger, famine. 
^Nje, outside, forth. 

^Nje ya, outside of, 

Kwa ^nje, outwardly, on the out- 
side. 
Njema, good, very well. See -ema. 
Njia or Ndia, a way, a path, a road, 
means. 

Njia panda, cross roads. 



KJI 



KY- 



361 



NJiri, a kind of animal. 

Njiwa, a pigeon, pigeons. 
Njiwa mangay tame pigeons. 
Njiwa ya mwitu, a wild pigeon. 

NjomhOj a fish barred with black and 
yellow. 

Njoo, come. 

Njooni, come ye. 

Njozif an apparition, vision. 

Njuga^ a dog-bell, a small bell 
worn as an ornament. 

Njugu, ground nuts. 
Njugu nyassa, soft ground-nuts. 
Njiigu mawe, hard ground-nuts. 

Njumu, inlaid with silver, inlaying 
work. See Mjumu, 

Njuwa = Njuga. 

Nnaokaay where I am living, which 
I am inhabiting. 

-'n»e, four. 

Ya *nne, fourth. 

Noa ktty to whet, to sharpen on a 
stone. 

Noker, a servant. 

Ndkoa, the second head man at a 
plantation, generally a slave. 

Noleo, plur. manoleo, the metal ring 
round the haft where a knife is 
set into its handle. 

Nona &M-, to get fat, applied espe- 
cially to animals. 

Nong*ona Jcu-, to whisper, to mur- 
mur. 

Nong*oneza hu-, to whisper to. 

Nong*(mezana ku-j to whisper to- 
gether. 

-nana, fat. 

Nonoa ku- (?). 

Noondo, or Nondo, a moth. 

Nshi (A.), eyebrow. 

Nso, the kidneys. 

'Nta, wax, bees*-wax. 

*Mi = Inchif land, country, earth. 



Niiele or Nwele = Nyele^ hair. 
Nuia ku-f to have in one's mind, to 

intend. 
Nuka ku-f to give out a smell, to 
stink. 
Tumbako ya kunuka, snuff. 
NukatOt plur. manukato, a good 

smell, a scent. 
Nukiza ku-^ to smell out like a dog. 
Nukta, a point, a vowel point. 
Nuna ku-t to sulk. 
Nundu, a hump, a bullock's hump. 
NungUf a porcupine. 
Nungu [Pemba], a cocoa-nut. 
Nung*unika ku-, to murmur, to 

grumble. 
Nunua ku-, to buy. 
Nunulia ku-y to buy for. 
Nunuliwa ku-, to have bought 
for one. 
Nura ku; to say the words of an 

oath. 
NurUj light. 
Nusa ku'y to smell. 

Tumbako ya kunusa^ snuff. 
Nu88, or Nusu, or Nussu, half. 
Nusttru ktt-f to help. 
Nwa kU' or Nywa ku-, to drink, to 

absorb. 
Nweleo, plur. manweleOy pores of 

the skin. 
Nwewa ku-, to be absorbed, ta be 

drunk. 
Ny-, a common prefix to substan- 
tives which do not change to 
form the plural, where the root 
begins with a vowel. 
Substantives in u- or w- followed 
by a vowel make their plural 
by substituting ny- for the -u. 
Dissyllables in u- make their 
plural by merely prefixing ny-. 
Ny-f the prefix proper to a.dve«.t.vv'»k^ 



362 



"NT A 



TIYB 



agreeing with substanliTeB of 
either number of the class 
wliich do not change to form 
their plural, or with the plural 
of substantives in u-, when the 
root of the adjective begins 
with a vowel, except -etna, 
good, which makes njema or 
ngema» 
Nya hit; to fall (of rain) ; the ku- 
bears the accent, and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Mvua inakunya, the rain is fall- 
ing (Zanzibar). 
Mvua yanyay rainfalls (M.). 
Nyaa, nails of the fingers (N.). 
Nyaka ku-, to catch. 
Nyakua ku-, to snatch. 
NyaloL, sheaths. See Ala, 
NyaliOf cross pieces put in the 
bottom of a pot to prevent the 
meat touching the bottom and 
burning. 
Nyama, flesh, meat, an animal, 
animals, beasts, cattlo. 
Nyama mhwayi, savage beasts. 
Nyamaa ku-, to continue silent, not 

to speak, to acquiesce. 
-nyamamL, silent 

Nyamaza ku-f to become silent, to 
leave off talking, to cease (of 
pain). 
Nyamgumij a whale. 
Nyanana^ gentle. See -anana, 
-nyangdlikaf a sort of a. 

Kitu kinyangdlika, a sort of a 

thing. 
Mnyangdlika ganii What sort 
of a man is it ? 
Nyang'ariya ku-, to rob, to take by 

force. 
Nyangarij large (spider) shells. 
Nyanij an ape, apes. 



Nyanya, a small red firoit nged as a 
vegetable, &c. 

Nyanya ya kizungt^^ a 8ort of 
small tomato. 
Nyanyaaa ku-^ to profane, oontenm. 
Nyara, booty. 
NycLsif grass, reeds. 
Nyatif a buffalo, buffaloes. 
Nyatia ku-, to creep up to, to stalk 

(an animal, &o.). 
Nyauka ku-, to dry up, to wither, 

to shrivel. 
NyatoSf his mother (M.). 
NyayOy plur. of uayo, 
Nyea ku-t to cause to itoh, to itch. 

Imeninyeaf I itch. 
Nyefua ku-, to devour like a beast 

of prey. 
Nyegi, 

Kuwa na nyegi, to be in heal 
Nyekunduj red. See 'Ckundu. 
Nyde, or Nuele, or Nwele, the hair, 
sing, unyelej one hair. 

Nyele za kipilipiUj woolly hair. 

Nyde za Hnga^ straiglit hair. 
Nyemhamha, thin. See -emibamba, 
Nyemelea ku-j to go quietly and 

secretly up to a thing in order 

to seize it. 
Nyemif a great dance. 
Nyenya ku-j to talk a person into 

telling something. 
Nyenyekea ku-, to be humble. 
Nyenza, rollers, anything to -make 

things move. 
Nyepesi, light. See 'cpesi. 
Nyesha ku-y to cause to fall. 

Kunyesha mvua, to cause it to 
rain. 
Nyeta ku-, to be teasing, ill-condi- 
tioned, never satisfied. 
Nyeupe, white. See -eupe, 
Nyeusi, blaok. See -eusi. 



-NYE 



TSfYW 



€63 



"Tiyevu, damp. 

Nyie or Enyie, you there, I say; 

used in calling people at a dis- 
tance. 
Nyikay wilderness, cut grass (A.). 
T^yima ^u-, to refuse to, to withhold 

from, not to give to. 
Nyiminyimif into little bits. 
Nyingiy many, much. See -ingi. 
Nyingine, other, another. See 

-ngine. 
Nying'inia hu-, to sway, swing. 

Also Ning^inia. 
Nyinyi, you. 
Nyinyoroy a bulbous plant which 

throws up a large head of red 

dowers. 
Nyoa, plur. manyoa, a feather, = 

Nyoya. 
Nyoa ku', to shave, 
^yot (?), a locust 
Nyoka, a snake, a serpent, snakes. 
Nyoha %u-, to be straight, to be 

stretched out. 
Nyonda^ temptation, triaL 
Nyondot a moth. Also Noondo, 
Nyonga, the hip. 

Nyonga ya sarara (A.), the loins. 
Nyonga A^-, to twidt, to strangle. 
Nyonganyonga hu-, to go from side 

to side, to wriggle. 
•nyonge, mean, insignificant, vile. 
NyongOy bile. 
Nyong'onyeya hu-, to be weary, 

languid, to get slack and power- 
less. 
Nyonya %»-, to suck. 
Nyonyeaha kw, to suckle. 
Nyonyo* 

Mafuta ya nyonyo, castor oil (2). 
Nyonyoa hu-, to pluck a bird, to 

pull out feathers. 
Nyonyoha = Nyonyoa, 



Nyonyota 1cu-t to make to smart. 
NyororOf soft. See -ororo. 
Nyosha hu-y to stretch, to straighten, 
to extend. 

Kujinyosha, to lie down, to take 
a nap. 
Nyota, a star, stars, point of the 

compass. 
Nyot€j all, agreeing with ninyi, you. 

See -ote. 
Nyoya, plur. manyoya^ feather. 
Nyoyo, hearts. See Mayo, 
Nyua, plur. of tta, a courtyard, en- 
closure. 
Nyuhi, a bee, bees. 

Asali ya nyuki, honey. 
Nyukua hu-, to tweak, to pinch 

sharply. 
Nyuma, at the back, afterwards. 

Nyuma ya, behind, after. 

Nyumaye, after it, afterwards. 

Kurudi nywma, to go back. 
Nywmba, a house, houses. 
Nyumho, the wildebeest, catobl^pas 

gorgon. 
NyumhUj a mule, mules.* 
Nyundo, a hammer, hammers. 
Nyunty a bird, birds (M.). 
Nyungo, plur. of Ungo, 
Nyungu, a cooking pot. 
Nyungunyunguj sores in the leg, 

said to be caused by the biting of 

worms bearing the same name. 
Nyunyiza hu-, to sprinkle, to 

sprinkle upon. 
Nyunytmtka hu-, to murmur (?). 
Nyushi, the eyebrow. 
Nywa hit' or Nwa hit-, to drink, 

suck up, absorb. The hu- bears 

the accent and is retained in the 

usual tenses. 
Nywea hu-, to get very thin, to 

vaste away. 



364 



N Y W 



ONE 



Nywesha ftu-, to give to drink. 
Nzii plur. manzi, a fly. Also Inti. 
Nzige, a locust. 
Nzigunzigu, a butterfly. 
Nzima, sound. See -ztmo. 
NzitOy heavy. See -zito, 
Nzuri, fine. See -zuri. 



O. 

is pronounced a little more like 
aiD than is usual in English. 

U before o sometimes becomes a 
to, but very often disappears, as: 
Koga for kuoga, to bathe. This 
word and some others in o are 
sometimes incorrectly conjugated 
as if beginning in ho. 



-0 or -0-, sign of the relative, re- 
ferring to substantives in the 
singular which make their plural 
in mi'f or to singular substantives 
in «-. 

-0, the short form of wao, they or 
them. 

Oa ku't to marry, used of the bride- 
groom. Passive, kuolewa. 

Oana hu-j to intermarry, to marry 
one another. 

Oawa hu-y to become married (of 
the man). 

Oaza hu-f to marry. 

Oga hu-f to bathe, frequently pro- 
nounced koga. 

Ogofisha ku-y to frighten, make 
afmid, to menace, to threaten. 

Ogofya kw, to frighten. 

Ogoha ku-, to swim, to swim about. 

Ogopa ku-y to fear, to be afraid. 

Oka ku'y to bake, to cook by fire 
only. 

Okoa ku-y to save, to take away. 



Okoka ku-, to become savedy to 
Okota ku', to pick up. [escape. 
Olcj woe. 

Ole ufanguy toenu, &c., woe nnto 
me, unto you, &c. 
Oleuoa ku-, to marry or to be mar- 
ried, used of the bride. 
Oleza ku-y to make like, to follow a 

pattern. 
Ornha kw, to pray to, to beg ot^ to 

beseech. 
Ombea ku-, to intercede for, to beg 

on behalf of, to pray for. 
Omboleza ku-, to waiL 
Omo, the head of a ship. 

Pepo za omOy head winds (?). 
Ona ku-y to see, to perceive, to feeL 

Kuona kiuy to feel thirst. 

Kujiona, to think oneself to 
affect to be. 

Naona, I think so* 
Onana ku-y to meet. 
Onda ku- (M.) = Onja ku-, to taste, 

to try. 
OndOf plur. maondo (A.), the knee. 
Ondoa ku-, to take away. 
Ondoka ku-y to go away, to get up, 
to arise. 

Ondoka mbele yanguy depart from 
me. 

Kuondoka kaWca ulimwengu huu, 
to depart out of this world. 
Ondokea kti-, to rise to^ or out of 

respect to. 
Ondokelea ku-, to arise and depart 

from. 
OndoUa ku-, to remove, to take 
away from. 

Kuondolea huzuni, to cheer. 
Ondosha ku-y to make to go away, 

take away, abolish. 
Onea ku-^ to see for to anticipate 

for, to bully, to oppress. 



ONE 



PA 



365 



Onehana Jeth, to become Tisible, to 

appear, to be to be seen. 
Ongea ku-, to spend time, to waste 

time in talking. 
Ongeza hu-, to make greater, add to. 

Kuongena urefuy to lengthen. 
Ongezeka Tcu-y to increase. 
Ongoa leu-^ to oonvert, to lead 

aright. 
Ongofya Aw-, to deceive by promises. 
Ongoha hu-, to be converted, to be 

led aright, to be healed. 
Ongohewa ku-j to prosper. 
Ongonga ku-, to feel nansea. 
Ongoza hi-, to drive, to lead. 
Ongua ku-, to hatch. 
OngvUwa ku-, to be hatched. 
Onguza Afti-, to scorch, to scald. 
Onja ku-f to taste, try, examine. 
Onya ku-, to warn, to make to see. 
Onyesha kw, to show. 
Opoa ku-, to take ont, to fish up. 
Opolea ku-, to fish np with, for, by, 

Orfa, or Orofct, or Ghorofot an npper 

room, 
-ororo, soft, smooth. It makes /ororo, 

with nonns like kashct, and 

nyororo with noons like nyurnba. 
Osha ku-, to wash. 
Oiiheka ku-, to have been washed. 
Osia, learning of old times. 
Ota ku-, to dream (kutota^ Mer.). 
Ota kth, to grow. 

-oto or o^e, all, every one, the 
whole. It varies like the pos- 
sessive pronouns. 

Menhebu zote, all the ships. 

Merikdm yote, the whole ship. 

Twende sate, let us go together. 

Twende wote, let us both go. 

Lo lote, eho chote, &c., whatsoever* 
Oka ku-, to lie in wait for* 



-ovu or -havu, rotten, bad, corrupt, 
wicked. It makes nibovu with 
nouns like nyumha, 

Ovyo, trash, any sort of thing. 

Otoama ku-, to be steeped. 

OtoamisTia kw, to steep. 

Oza ku-j to rot, to spoil, go bad. 
AlaOf to many (of the parents). 



P. 

P is prononnced as in English. 

P, at the beginning of a word, has 
frequently an aspirated or rather 
an explosive sound, such as Irish- 
men sometimes give it. This is 
very marked in the name of the 
island of Pemba or P'emba. JP*epo, 
the plural of upepo, wind, has a 
very strong explosive sound given 
to the first p, but in upepo both p*B 
are smooth, like an ordinary Eng- 
lish p. It is probable that this 
explosive sound represents a sup- 
pressed n. 

P followed by a y sound some- 
times becomes/: kuogopa, to fear, 
kuogofya, to frighten; kuapa, to 
swear, kuafya, to make to swear. 

Pa- or P-, the prefix proper to ad- 
jectives, pronouns, and verbs 
of both numbers governed by 
mahali, place or places. 

The prefix proper to pronouns 
following the case in -ni, when 
it denotes nearness, at, by, near. 

The prefix pa- is often applied to 
a verb in the sense of the 
English there, 

Palina or paltkuwa no, there was. 
Hapana, there is noL 



366 



PA 



PAK 



It is not quite so indefinite as hih. 
Pa kit', to present with, to give to. 

The Jeu bean the accent; kupa 

cannot be uaed witliout a peraon 

as its object, and tlie objeotiye 

prefix bears the accent Ali- 

htipa, he gave jou; oZfoipa, he 

gave him. The pawdve is ktjh 

pawa or kupetoa, and moans, to 

have given to one, to receive. 
PcMf a gazelle, a small kind of 

antelope. 
PaOf plur. mapaa, a thatched roof. 

Nyumha ya mapaa marmet a roof 
of four slopes. 
PcM hu-t to ascend, to go up. 
Paa hu-, to scrape. 

Kupaa BamaMf to scrape the 
scales off a fish. 

Kupaa iandaruHf to clean gum 
copal. 

Kupaa motOy to take fire and 
carry it on a potsherd, ^n. 
PaandOj a trumpet. 
Paange^ a horsefly, a gadfly. 
Paango, plur. mapojango, a cave, 

a den. 
Paaza hw, to make to rise. 

Kupaaza pumzi, to draw in the 
breath. 
Paaza ku-, to grind coarsely, not to 

make fine meal. 
Paoha, a twin. 

Kuzaliwa pa^eha, to be bom twins. 

Paeha ya nje, a child of which 
its mother was pregnant while 
suckling a previous child. 
Padhika ku-^ to put an arrow on 

the string, to stick a knife in 

one's girdle, &a 
Padiri or PadrCy plur. mapadiriy 

a padr^, a priest, a clergyman. 
Pafu, lungs. 



Paga Xr«-, to ttrike hard, to haipoon 

a whaleu 
Pogoa Jku-% to cazrj on the dioiikl«nb 
to possess (of an evil 9jgiiit)» 

Awtepoffowa na |MfM» hie is pos- 
sessed of an evil spirit 
Pagazakfh^to make to bear, ai^Blied 

to an evil spirit causing a man to 

fall sick. 
Pagua kvhf to take ofl^ atrip off (as 

boughs and leaves^ 
PahaU, in the plaocb at the plaee. 
Pajdy plur. mapcya, the thigh. 
Paje^ red mtama [Pemba]. 
Paji la two, the fosehead. 
Paka, a cat, cats. 
Paka kti^; to rob in« to ameer od. 
Pakaa hvh = Paka Xnk 
Pdkaoha, plur. majpalpodba, a basket 

made by plaiting together part 

of a cocoa-nut leafl 
Pakacha^ plur. mapakat^ people 

who prowl about at iu£^ to do 

mischief. 
Pakana ^n*-, to border npoiu 
Pakanya^ rue. 

Pakcua kit- (Mer.), to twist rope. 
Pakata ku-, to hold a child on the 

lap or in front 
Pake, his, hers, or its, after makaU, 

or the case in -m' signifying 

nearness. See -<i^. 
Pakia ku-t to load a ship, to be 

loaded with, to carry as cargo, 

to have on board. 
Pakicha ku-. 

Kupakicha migun,io cross the legs 
in sitting; reckoned improper 
in Zanzibar. 
Pakilia ku-, to embark for, to put 

on board for. 
Pakita Xm-, to stow on board ship, 



PAK 



PAN 



367 



Pake, thy, your, after mahaliy or 
the case in -ni denoting nearness. 
See 'oko, 
Pakim ku-, to take out of the pot, 

to dish, to lade out. 
Pakuna ku, to scratch. 
PakutokeOy a place to go out at, an 

outlet. 
Pale, there, that place, of things 

not very far off. 
PalepdU, just there, at thai very 

spot 
Pdlia ku-t to hoe. 
Kupalia motOy to pick up for, and 

take live embers to a person. 
Kupaliwa na mate or maji, to 
choke with spittle or with 
what one is drinking, so as to 
send it into (»io's nose, ears, 
&c. 
Palikuwa no, there was or there 

were. 
PcUiHa hu'f to hoe up, to draw the 
earth up round growing crops, to 
hoe between crops. 
Paliliza ku-, to cause to be hoed. 
Paliza ku-f to lift up the voice. 
Palu, plur. mapcdUf little cakes of 

sugar, bhang, and opium. 
Pamhay cotton. 

Paniba ku-, to adorn, to deck out, 
furnish. 
Kupamba mer€eebUf to dress a 

ship. 
Ku^mpamba mayiH to put cotton 
in ears, mouth, &c of a dead 
person before burying him. 
Pambaja ku-, to embrace. 
Pcmbana ku-, to meet in a narrow 
place where two cannot go 
abreast; applied to ships it 
means, to go alongside, to get 
foul of one another. 



PambanisTM ku'j to bring together, 

to compare. 
Pambanua ku-, to distinguish, to 

separate, to discriminate. 
Pamha/nuHa ku-, to describe by 

distinguishiog. 
Pambanya ku-, or Pambanyiza ku-, 

to overbear by loud talking, fto. 
Pambauka or Pamhazuka ku-, to 

become light in the morning. 
Pamhazua ku-, to speak plainly. 
Pamhele, in front. 

Parnbo, plur. mapambo, adornment, 
dressing. 

Pambo la n^um^o, house furniture. 
Pamoja, in one place, together. 

Pamoja na, together with, with. 
Pana, there is or are, was or were. 
-pana, broad, wide. It makes pana 

with nouns like nyuinha, 
Pana ku-, to make mutual gifts. 
Panapana, flat, level, even. 
Panapo, where there is, are, was or 

were. 
Panchayat, five head men (Hind.), 

governing council. 
Panda (M.) = Panja, 
Panda, a bifurcation, as where a 
road divides into two, where 
two streams join, where the 
bough of a tree forks. 

Njia panda, cross roads, or where 
three ways meet; there is a 
superstitious custom of empty* 
ing rubbish and dirt at such 
places. 
Panda ku-, to mount, to get up, 

ascend, ride, to go on board, to 

go ashore (of a ship). 
Panda ku-, to set aside. 
Panda ku-, to plant, to sow. 
Pcmdana ku-f to lie across one 

another. 



868 



PAN 



PA6 



Pande mbUif on both sides. See 

Upande. 
Pandisha ku-y to make to go up, to 

hoist, to raise. 
Panga ku-, to rent, to hire a house. 
Panga ku-, to put in a line, to set 

in order. 
Panga, plur. of upanga. 
Pangana ku-, to be in rows. 
PanginCf another place, other places. 
See -ngine. 

Panginepo, elsewhere. 
Pangisha ku-, to let a house to. 
Pangtsha ku-, to make people sit in 

rows or in order. 
Pangu, my. See ^angu, 
Pangusa ku-, to wipe. 
Panja, the forelock. 

Mapanja, the receding of the 
hair on each side of the fore- 
lock. 
Panua ku-, to widen, to make 

broad. 
Panulia ku-, to widen for, to set 

wide apart. 
Panuka ku-, to become broad, to 

widen. 
Panya, a rat, rats. 
Panyamavu, a quiet place, a calm 

spot See -nyamavu. 
Paza ku-, to set up, to raise. 

Kupanza mtambo wa bunduki, to 
cock a gun. 
Panzi, a grasshopper, a kind of 

fish. 
Panzi ya nazi, brown rind of the 

cocoa-nut kernel. 
Pao, their. See ao, 
Pao, clubs (in cards). 
P*apa, a shark. 
Papa hapa, just here. 
Papa ku-, to transude, to allow 

transudation. 



Papasa kft-, to tonoh geaflj* to 

stroke, to feel, to grope. 
Papon, ticks, especiallj those found 

in native huts. 
Papatika ku-, to flatter like a bizd. 
Papatua ku-, to shell, to huak. 
Papayi, plur. mapapayi^ papawi^ a 

common kind of fruit. 
Papayuka Aw-, to be delizioasy to 

wander. 
Papayuza ku-, to make delirioaa. 
Papia ku-, to eat all one can get^ to 

eat without bounds. 
Papua ku; to tear. 
Papura ku-, to olaw» to aonitch 

deeply. 
PapuH, thin oakes flaYovzed with 

asafoetida. 
Papurika ku; to be lacerated. 
Papuriana ku-, to pick holes in one 

another's reputation. 
Para, a scraping, sliding. 
Para, plur. maparOf cakes of sem- 

sem. 
Parafujo, a screw. 
Paraga ku-, to climb a tree. 
Pardhara, a large kind of antelope. 
Parapara ku-, to paw the ground 

like a horse. 
Paruga ku-, to be rough and grat- 
ing. 
Paruza ku-, to grate, to graze, to be 

harsh and rough, to strike a 

match. 
Paruzana ku-, to graze (as of two 

boats, &c.). 
Pasa ku-, or Pasha ku-, to come to 
concern, to become a duty. 

Imekupasaje ? What have you 
to do with it ? 

Imenipasa, I ought. 
Pasha ku-, to lend money to, to 
give privately or beforehand. 



PAS 



PEL 



369 



Kupcuha moto^ to warm op, to 
set before the fire. 
PasU a clothes-iron. 

Kupiga past, to iron. 
PasipOf -without, where there is not. 
Fusiwe, without there being. 
Pastia hu-, to cleave, to split, to 

rend. 
Pasuka Jeth, to become rent, to 

burst, to crack, to be split. 
Paaukapasuka ku-t to be split up, 

rent to pieces. 
Pata, a drawn game at cards -where 

each side marks sixty. 
Pata ku'j to get, to reach, to suffer, 
to find an opportunity, to suc- 
ceed in doing, to happen to. 

Kupata is often used -with other 
verbs where we use may or 
might : 
Apate kuja, that he may come. 

Kisu chapatct, the knife is sharp. 

Kisu hdkipati, the knife is blunt. 

KUichompatcbj what happened to 
him. 

Chapataje f What is it worth? 

Kupaia hasara, to lose. 
Pata huy to make a lattice, as by 

weaving sticks or canework. 
Patana hu-, to agree, to come to an 

agreement. 
Pafanisha l6U-,io bring to an agree- 
ment. 
Patasi, a chisel. 
Pathiwa hii; to be bom. 
Patif a coloured kind of stuff. 
PcUia hu'f to get for. 
Paiialaf a great cheat, a thorough 

rognie. 
Patikana ku-, to be procurable, to 

be got. 
Pattliza hu; to visit upon, to re- 
member against. 



PaiOf plur. mapato, what is got, 

gettings, income, proceeds. 
Patta, a hinge. 
Patwa ku'f to be eclipsed. 
Properly, to be got, referring to 
the superstition that a huge 
finake has seized the moon or 
sun. 
Pau (plur. of JJpau), the purlins 
of a roof, the small sticks tied 
horizontally to fasten the thatch 
to. Also, rafters (?). 
Payo, plur. mapayo, one who can- 
not keep a secret. 
Payuka ku-^ to blab, to talk without 

thinking. 
Payuza ku-, to make over-talkative. 
Tembo limempayuzay the palm 
-wine has made his tongue go. 
Pazia, plur. mapajsia, a curtain. 
Pea^ a rhinoceros. 
Pea kti-t to sweep (M.). 
Pea ku-, to grow to full size, to get 
its growth, to become such that 
there is nothing more to do, to 
reach its limit. 
Pekecha ku-y to bore a hole, to get 
fire by twirling a stick, to trouble 
people by tales and tale-bearing. 
Peketeka ku-, to scorn, to have no 

fear about one. 
Pekee, onliness. 

Wa pekee, only. 
Peke yanguy Ac, by myself, I alone. 
Peke is never used in Zanzibar 
without a possessive pronoun 
folio-wing it, and signifies that 
the person or thing is alone, or 
that it is the only one. 
PekeyetUf by ourselves, or we 
alone. 
Pekua ku'i to scratch like a hen. 
Pele, plur. ofupeU^A^DASN*^ 



870 



PBL 



PUT 



Pdeka %ti-, to cause to anriye at a 

place distant from the person 

speaking, to send, to take, to con- 
duct. 
FeUHua Jtu-, to send, take, or conduct 

to a person. 
Pddeza Icu-^ to spy out, to look 

curiously into. 
P'embe, horn, comer, ivory. 

Pembe ya nyoha, a small white 
horn, esteemed to he a great 
medicine. 

Kuwa na pemhe p&mbef to have 
corners, to he angular, to he all 
comers. 

Pembeni, in the comer. 

Pemibe za mwaka, the four seasons, 
points of the world. 
Pdffi&ea, a swing. 
Penibeleza ^, to heseech. 
Pembeza Itu-^ to rock, to lull* 
Penda Jcu-, to like, to love, to wish, 

to approve, to choose, to prefer. 
Pendekeza hu-, to make pleasing. 

Kujipendekezat to ingratiate one- 
self with, to flatter. 
Pendelea hu-j to favour. 
PendeleOf plur. mapendeleOf a favour. 
Pendeleza kth, to make another love 

one. 
Pendeza ku-f to please, to become 

pleasing. 
Pendezewa ku-j to be pleased, to he 

glad. 
Pendo, love. 

Pendo la mdlit the love of riches. 
Pengi, many places. See -ingu 
PengOj a notch, a place where a 
triangular hit is broken out. 

Ana pejigot he has lost a front 
tooth. 
Penu, your. See -enu. 
Penya ku-, to penetrate. 



Penyeiha Im-, to pieiroe, to pat 

through, to cause to penetiate. 
Penyt, having (of plaoeX whero Is 
or was. 

Penyi mievMfo, where the date tree 
Pepa ku-, to stagger. [wes. 

Pepea ku-, to fan. 
PepeOf plur. mapepeot ft &nt & mew 

propeller. 
Peperuka ku^, to be blown away. 
Peperusha ku-^ to blow away^ 
Pepesa ku-, to wink. 
Pepesuka Am-, to totter, 
Pepeta ku-, to sift, to toss in a flat 

basket, so as to separate the ohaff 

and the grain. 
Pepetua 2n^, to force open. 
Pepo, a spirit, a sprite, an evil 
spirit 

Pepo mbaya, an evil spirit. 

Peponit paradise, in paradise. 

Pepo (plur. of upepo), much wind. 

Pepo za ekamchelOf a whirlfdnd; 

Maji ya pepo, fresh water. 
PeptM kik-, to sift apart the whole 

from the broken grains. 
Pera, plur. mapera, a guava. 
Pesck, plur. pesa or mape»a, pice, the 

Anglo-Indian quarter anna, the 

only small coin in Zanzibar: 

sometimes a dollar is worth 140, 

sometimes only 112. 
Pesa ku' (M.) = Pepesa kw, 
Peta ku-, to bend round, to make 

into a ring. 
Peta ku- = Pepeta ku'. 
Petana kth, to bend round, to be 

bent in a circle. 
Pete, plur. j7e^ or mapete, a ring. 

Pete ya masikio, an earring. 
Petemana ku-, to be bent round. 
Peto, plur. mapeto, a bundle, a thing 

carried, a large matting bag. 



PET 



PIG 



371 



Petu, our. See -etu, 
'pevu, fall grown. 
Peoua ku-, to make Ml grown. 
KnjipevuOf to think oneself a 
' man. 
Pewka hu', to become full grown, 

to reach its full siae. 
Pewa Icu-f to get &om some one, to 

be presented with, to receive. 
Pezi, plur. mapezi, a fin. 
'pi subjoined to the personal sign 
nu^es the interrogatiye which ? 
Bee Apt, 
Nitawezapi 1 How can I P 
'pia or -pya, new. 
Pta, all, the whole, entirely. 

Pia yote, completely, utterly. 
Pia, a top, a humming-top. 
Piga Tcthf to strike, to beat, to flap. 
Kupiga na indhi, to strike on the 

ground. 
Kupiga is used of many actions in 
which the idea of striking does 
not always seem to be implied. 
Kupiga homba, to pump. 

1^ hundi^ haeUiaj &c., to 
fire a gun, a pistol, &o. 
M ehapa, to print. 
^ falaJeiy to prognosticate 

by the stars. 
„ /undo, to tie a knot. 
f, JceUle, to shout 
„ hengde, to ring a bell. 
i» hiUmbay to wind a cloth 
round the head so as to 
make a turban. 
ff Jeioioe, to scream. 

hofif to box the ears, to 

slap. 
hwra, to cast lots. 
maJcofly to clap the hands. 
magate, to kneeL 
nibinda, to whistle. 



n 



99 



•9 



>» 



n 



Kupiga mbio, to run, to gallop. 
mbiei, to dive. 
miaOy misono, or miuntif 
to make a whistling 
noise. 
M milcambey in bathing, to 
duck under water and 
fling over one leg. 
Kupiga mizinga ya §alaamu, to 
fire a salute. 
mstoHt to rule a line. 
mtakcuo, to rustle like 

new clothes, 
mimfte, to smoke meat, 
nyiayoj to gape. [&c 
pasi, to iron. 
pembe, to gore. 
pigoy to strike a blow. 
puat to snort. 
ramlif to prognosticate 

by diagrams. 
randa, to plane. 
<e^ to kick. 
umemet to lighten, to 

flash. 
uwindoy to draw the ends 
of the loin cloth be- 
tween the legs and 
tuck them in. 
„ yowe^ to cry for help. 
« Komarij hinandaf &o., to 
play upon the flageo- 
let, guitar, &0. 
Pigaiia hth, to fight. 

Kupigana Jewa mbavUf to wrestle. 
Piganisba ftw-, to make to fight, to 

set on. 
Piganishana ku-^ to set on to fight 

together. 
Pigilia ku-, to beat as the stone 
roofs are beaten. Small wooden 
rammers are used, and a great 
number of people are engaged for 



M 



>» 



n 



372 



PIG 



POP 



about three days, with miuio and 

soDgs ; the object of this beating 

is to prevent the roof cracking as 

it dries, and to oonsolidate it 

while moist 
Figiza hur, to make to beat. 

Kupigiza tanga^ to go so close to 
the wind that the sail flaps. 
TigOy plur. mapigo, a blow. 
Pika ku', to cook. 
Pikia ku-y to cook for. 

Kupikiwa, to have cooked for one. 
PUao, pillaw, an Indian dish. 
P'ili, a large kind of snake. 
Pibif two (in counting). 

Ya piliy the second. 

Ya pUi yake, the next. 

Yule wa pili, the other. 

Mara ya pili, a second time, again. 
Philipili hohOf red pepper. 
Pilipili manga, common pepper. 
Pima^ plur. mapima, a fathom. 
Pima ku-y to measure, to weigh. 

Kupim>a tno//, to sound. 
'Pinda ku-y to bend. 

Kupinda na mguu, talipes. 
Pindana hu-, to bend together. 
Pindiy plur. mapindi, a twisting, a 

wriggle, cramp. 
Pindi, if, when (?), although. 
Pindo, plur. maptndo, the longer 

edge of a cloth, selvedge. 
Pindua kti-y to turn over, to upset. 

Kupindua kwa damalinif to wear 
ship. 

Kupindua kwa goshiniy to tack. 
Pinduka ku-y to be turned over, to 

be upset. 
Pinga ku-, to hinder, to block the 
way, to lay a wager. 

Kupinga chomho kwa shikio, to 
turn a dhow on one side by 
means of the rudder. 



Pingamiti^ a meddler, one who in." 
terferes to spoil a bargain, or to 
give trouble. 

Pingia hut-y to fSsurteii a door, fte., by 

means of a bar. 
PingUi. 

PingUi ya mtu^ the ^deoe of a 
8ugar>iOane which lies between 
two knots. 
Pingoy plur. mapingo, a bar. 
Pinguy fetters, oonsisting generally 

of two rings and a bar. 
Piniy plur. mapiniy a haft, a hilt. 
PipOy plur. mapipa, a barrel, tub, 

cask, pipe. 
Pipyoy new. See -pya, 
Pirikana iku-, to be strong and well 

knit. 
Pisha %u-, to make to pass, espe- 
cially without intending to do so, 

let pass, make way for. 
Pishana ku-y to pass while going 

opposite ways. 
Pishiy a weight of about 6 lbs. = 4 

vibaha, 
PishOf cautery, marks of cantery. 
Pisiy parched maize. 
Pisi = Fisi. 

Piswa ku-y to become silly, to dote. 
Pita ku, to pass, surpass, excel, 
Pitisha ku-y to make to pass, to 

pass. 
Poy -poy or -jpo-, a particle signifying 
where, or when, while, as, if. 

Po potcy everywhere, wherever. 
Poa ku-y to become cool, to become 
PodOy a quiver. [well. 

PofUy plur. mapofu, scum, bubble, 

froth. 
Pofua ku-y to spoil the eyes, to make 

blind. 
Pofuka ku-y to have the eyes spoilt, 

to become blind. 



POG 



POT 



373 



PogOj on one side. 
Ktoenda pogo, to go onesidedly, 
not straight. 
Pointa, the wrist-stitching of a 

coat. 
Poka ku-t to take suddenly and 
violently, to rob. 
Kupohwa, to be robbed. 
Pokea ku-f to receive, to take from 

some one else. 
Pokelea ku-, to receive for or on 

account of another. 
Pokezana ku-, to go on with by 

turns. 
Pokezanya ku-, to shift a burden or 
work from one to another as each 
gets tired. 
Pokonya kur^ to snatch away, to 

extort. 
PoUf a little, slightly. 

Amengua pole, he is not very well. 
Polepote, gently, moderately,quietly. 
Pombe, native beer. 
PoniboOt a porpoise. 
Pomoka ku-, to fall in, to cave in. 

See Bomoka, 
Pomosha ku-, to cause to fall in. 
Pona kU', to get well, to become 

safe. 
Ponda ku-9 to pound, to beat up, to 

crush. 
Pondeka ku-, to be crushed. 
Pandekana kvr, to crush and bruise 
one another, as mtama stalks do 
after much rain and wind. 
P(mOi a kind of fish said to be 
nearly always asleep. 
Ana usingizi kama pono, he is 
never awake, 
Ponoa ku-f to strip off. 
P&nya kth, to make well, to cure, 
to save. 
Jiponye ! liook out I 



Ponyesha Jiu-, to cause to be made 

well, to cure. 
Ponyoka ku-, to slip off, slip out of 

one's hands. 
Ponza ku-, to put in danger. 
Poopoo, a bullet, a musket ball. 
Pooza, plur. mapooza, a thing which 

never comes to perfection. 
Pooza ku-, to become useless, to 
wither and drop. 
Mwenyi kupooza, a paralytic. 
Poozesha ku-f to paralyze. 
Popo, a bat. 

Popoo, the areca nut, commonly 
chewed with betel-leaf, lime, and 
tobacco. 
Popotoa ku-, to wring, twist, strain, 

distort. 
Popotoka ku-, to be distorted. 
Pora, a young cockerel not yet old 

enough to crow. 
Poroa ku; to cool, to get thin or 
. watery. 
Poromoka ku-, to slip down a steep 

place. Also Boromoka, 
Posa ku-, to ask in marriage. 
PosTia ku-, to give rations to. 
Posho, rations. 
Po8o, a demand in marriage. 
Posoro, an interpreter, a middle- 
man. 
Pole, all, of time or place. See 

-ote. 
Potea ku-, to become lost, to get lost, 
to perish, to become lost to. 
Kisu kimenipotea, I have lost my 
knife. 
Potelea ku-, to perish. 

Potelea rnbali, go and be hanged. 
Poteza ku-, to cause to be lost, to 

cause to perish. 
Potoa ku-, to go crooked, to turn 
aside. See Jtpofoa. 



374 



-POT 



PVS 



-potoe, obstinate, good for nothing. 

Fotoka ku't to become crooked, to 
be turned and twisted. 

Povu, scum, skimmingB) bubble, 
froth. 

Povuka ku' = Pofuka hi-j to be- 
come blind. 

Poza hu-f to cure, to cool by lading 
up and pouring back again. 

Pua^ the nose, the apex of an arch. 
Mtoanzi wa ptui, the division 
between the nostrils, the nos- 
tril. 

Pua, steel. 

Pua hu', to shell beans, peas, &o. 

Pugi, a very small kind of dove. 

Pujua ku-, 
KuJipujiM, to cast off all shame. 

Pukusa ku'y to rub the grains off a 
cob of Indian com, to make to 
fall off, to shake fruit from a tree, 
to throw coins among a crowd, 
&c 

Puktde. 
Ptikute ya wali^ rice so cooked 
that the grains are dry and 
separate. 

Pukutika ku-, to shed, to drop like 
leaves in autumn. 

PuLika ku-f to hear, to attend to 
(A.). 

Pultkana ku-, to hear one another. 

Puliza ku-, to puff or blow with the 
mouth. Also, to let go an anchor, 
to let down a bucket into a well. 

Pidiki, a spangle, spangles. 

Pululu, plur. mapululu, wilderness, 
waste country. 

Puluni or Pululunit in the wilder- 
ness. 

Puma ku-, to throb. 

Pumha, plur. mapumha, a clod, a 
lump. 



Puwibaa hu^, to be duggiih about. 
Pumhazika hu^ to become a fboL 
Pumho or pumbu, the wzotani. 
Mapumbu, or hoko Ma punnbm, or 
mayayi ya pumbo, teatiolea. 
Pumu, an asthma, the longa* 
Pumua ku-, to breathe. 
Pumuzi, breath. 
Kupaaza pumwd^ to draw in tibe 

breath, to inspire. 
Kwihuska pwmuzi^io bieathe out, 
to expire. 
Pumti = PwMuL 
Pumzika ku-, to rest, to breath one- 
self. 
Pumzikio, plur. mapftmtMoi, »xeat- 

ing-place. 
Puna ku', to peel, scrape, Bozape oAl 
Punda, a donkey, donkeys. 

Punda milia, a zebra. 
Punde, a little more. 

Mrefu punde, a little longer. 

Punga (sing. UpungaX the flowes 

and very first stage of the ooooa- 

nut. 

Punga ku-, to swing, to sway, to 

wave. Swaying the arms in 

walking is thought to give 

elegance to a woman's carriage. 

Kupunga pepo, to expel an evil 

spirit by music,, dancing, Aao. 
Kukunga upepo, to be fieinned bj 
the wind, to beat the air. 
Pungia ku-, to wave to, to beckon 
to. 
Kupungia nguo, to wave a doth 
up and down by way of beckon- 
ing to some one to come. 
P'ungu, a kind of fish,^ a large bird 

of prey. 
Pungua ku-, to diminish, waste, 

wear away. 
Punguani, a defect (M.)^ 



PIJN^ 



BAH 



37& 



Punguka ht^-t to become smaller, to 

fall short. 
Pnnguza ku-, to diminish, to make 
less, to lessen. 

Kupvaigtiea tanga^ to reef a sail. 
Funja Jcu-j to swindle, to sell a 

little for the price of a large 

quantity. 
Punjey grains of com. 
Puo, nonsense. 
Pupar eagerness, excessive rapidity. 

Ktda hwa pupa, to eat so vora- 
cionsly that one's companions 
get little or none. 
Puputika ku-, to fall in a shower. 
Pura kti-f to beat out com* 
Puruka ku-, to fly off. 
Purukuaha ku-, 

Kujipurukusha, to refuse to 
attend to, to make light of a 
Puta ku-y to beat [matter. 

Putika ku-f to be well beaten. 
Putugaiiy a fowl [Pemba]. 
Puwo, nonsense. 
Puza ku-y to talk nonsense, to 

chatter. 
Puzia kvr, to breathe, to blow with 

the mouth. 
Puzika ku'f to talk nonsense, to be 

detained gossiping. 
Pwa ktj^, to ebb, to become dry. 
Pwaga kvr = Kupwaya, 
Pwai ku-9 to be loose, to waggle 

about. See Ptoaya. 
Pwan% the shore, on the beach, 

near the shore. 
Pvoaya ku-, to give a final cleaning 

to rice by repounding it. 
Pwaya kvr, to be loose (of clothes). 
Pwayika ku- to be quite clear of 

husks, dirt, and dust. 
Pwaza ku-9 to cook muhogo out up 

into nu^ pieces. 



Pwea ku', to be dry. 

Sauti imenipwectj I am hoarse. 
Pwekeet only, alone (A.). 
Pweleka ku-, to be dried up, to be 

left high and dry. 
Pfjoewa kt^f to become or be left 
dry. 

Kupwewa na sauiiy to become 
hoarse. 
Pweza, a cuttle-fish. 
-pyct, new, fresh. It makes^'mpya 

with nouns like nyumba^; j^pyth 

with nouns like kasha ; and|?tpya». 

with nouns of place. 



B. 

B is pronounced as in English. 

The Arabic R is much stronger 
and more grating than the English^ 
more so perhaps than even the 
Scotch and Irish r. In Arabic words 
it is correct to give the r this strong 
sound, but in Swahili mouths it 
is generally smoothed down to- 
wards that indeterminate African 
sound which is frequently written 
as an Z. The Swahili, however, 
often prefer to write and pronounce 
it as a smooth. English r. (See L.) 

Radi, a crack of thunder, crashing 
thunder, thunder near at hand. 

Radu = Radi, 

Raff, the wall at the back of a re- 
cess. 

Rafikiy plur. rafiki or marafikiy a. 
friend. 

Raka, peace, joy, ea8e,.pleasaro. 

Rahani, a pledge, a m(aigage» 

^oftrn = RaJchisi, 

Rahman, a chart, a map» 



376 



BAI 



BIB 



Bai leu-, to put moraeU of food into 
a pencil's month m a mark of 
honour or affection. 

Bajabu, the seventh month of the 
Arab year. It is esteemed a 
sacred month beoanse Moham- 
med's journey to Jerusalem is 
said to have taken place on the 
27th of it 

Jtakhuiy or Jtahiti, cheap. 

Bdkhintha Icu^ to make cheap, to 
undervalue. 

BaMtidta kii-, to put together, to 
set up and put in order. 

Bakibyueo, the composition of a 
word. 

Ramathanij the month of fasting. 

BanUxi, plur. maramhcL, a piece of 
Madagascar grass olotlu 

BandHi ku; to lick. 

Batnha^ a chisel-shaped knife used 
by shoemakers. 

BanUiy sand (Ar.). 

Kupiga ranUi, to divine by dia- 
grams. 

Bammu, sadness. 

Bandti, a plane. 
Kupiga randa, to plane. 

Banda Au-, to dance for joy. 

Bangi, colour, paint. 

Barua hu-, to rend, to tear. 

Ba8 U mali, chief possession. 

Bashia ku-^ to sprinkle. 

Basiy head, cape. 

Bdtabay wet 

Bdtely or raili, a weight of about a 
pound. 

Bathi, satisfied, content, gracious, 
approving, approval, blessing. 
Kuwa rathi, to be satisfied, to be 

content with. 
NitBte rathi, forgive me, exonse 
me. 



JEimraflU; d(m*t be olEgmaea, 
Baikiana Jw-, to consent, tuMOtiL 
BatQm Jm-, to ananga. 
BaOi = Bdtel 
Bauti iw-, to trim a aaU. 
BajfiOf a subject, subjectoL 

Bayiat al Ingra^ British nilgefsCiL 
Be or Beij the ace in caida. 
Bea or BeaU, a dollar. 

BedU ya (hdkalm, an Ameiiean 
gold 20-dQllar piece. 

Beale Franaa or ya K^ramta^ a 
French 5-&anc piece. 

BeaLe ya ShamasFeQia fs Bkam, 
Uack dollars, 
-re/tt, long. It makes mdefu with 

nouns like nyvmba. 
Begea kn- =■ Bejea ku^ 
Begea ku- or Legea ku^ to be loose, 

slack, relaxed, feeble. 
Begesha ku- or Begeza ku-^ to looeen, 

to relax. 
Behani = Bahani. 

Kuvoeka rehani, to pawn. 
Behema, mercy. 

Behemu kit-, to have mercy npea. 
Bet = Be, 

Bejea ku-, to go back, return, refer. 
Bejeza ku-, to make to go back, to 

repay. 
Bekahisha ku-, to put on the top oL 
Bekebu ku-, to ride. 
•remOt Portuguese. 
Bihani, a scented herb, sweet basil. 
„ ya kipata, with notched 

leaves. 
„ ya kiajjemi, with long 
straight leaves. 
Binga Tcu- = Kulinga, to sway to 

the tune of a song (only the chief 

men may do this). 
Bisasi, lead. Also LisaM. 

Bisasi ya hunduki, a bullet. 



BIS 



6 



377 



Bisimu hu-, to make a first bid 

when anything is offered for sale. 
Jtithi ku-f to inherit (-th- as in thing). 
Bithia ku- (-th- as in this), to be 

contented with, to acqniesce in. 
Bithika ku-, to satisfy, to content. 
Bizay a door chain. 
Biziki, necessaries, all that a man 

has need of. 
Bdbo, a quarter, a quarter of a 
dollar. 

Bdbo IngrezOf an English sove- 
reign. 
Bobota, a packet or parcel of goods. 
Boda, sheave of a pulley. 
Bofya. 

Kwpiga rofya^ to fillip. 
BdhOy soul, spirit, breath, life. 
JRoAo, greediness, the throat. 
Buhani, a pilot, a guide. 
Budi ku-i to return, to go back, to 

correct, to keep in order. 
Budiana kvr^ to object to. 
Budika ku-, to be made to return, to 

be kept in order, to be capable of 

being kept in order. 
Buduha kvhy to make to return, to 

give back, to send back. 
Budufya ku-, to double. 
Bufuf, the shelf in a recess. 
Euhusa = Buksa, leave. 
Buhusa ku- = Bukhtuu %u-, to give 
Buka hu-, to fly, to leap. [leave. 
Bukaruka ku-, to hop. 
BuJcia ku-, to fly or leap with, &c. 
Buksoj or Buhum, or Bukhusa, leave, 
permission, liberty. 

Kupa ruksa, to give leave, to set 
at liberty, to dismiss. 

Biiksa, you can go. 
Btikhu8U feu- or Buhusu ku-, to give 

leave, to permit, to allow, to dis- 



Bukhuthu ku-, to run. 

Bukwa ku-, 
Kurukwa na akili, to lose one's 
senses, to be stunned. 

Bungu, a club, a mace. 

Bupia, a rupee. 

Bupta =i Bohota, a bale. 

Busasi = Bisasi, lead. 

Busha ku-, to make to fly, to throw 
up or ofE^ to throw a rider, to 
splash about. 

Bvshia ku-, to throw upon, to splash. 

BusTiioay a bribe. 

Buttiba, dampness. 

Butubika ku-, to be damp. 

Butvbisha ku-, to make damp. 

Buwam, a pattern from which any- 
thing is to be made. 

Buzuku ku-, to supply with needful 
things, especially of God provid- 
ing for His creatures. 



S. 

8 is pronounced as in several, or 
like the 88 in German. 

8h is pronounced as in English, 
or like sch in German. 

8 and sh are distinct in Arabic 
and are generally distinguished in 
good Swahili. There are, however, 
many words in which they are used 
indifferently, and in common talk 
the 8h seems to be rather the more 
common. Many natives seem un- 
conscious of any difference between 
them. 

8 is used for the Arabic tha by 
persons who cannot pronounce (h. 

In the Pemba dialect eh is often 
used for ch. 
I Mcuhunqfjoa s ISfuSMKMspsfk. 



378 



8AA. 



«AK 



iSoo, hour, cloclc, watch. 

Saa ngapif what o'clock if it? 
According to Arah reckoning 
the day begins at saniet. Mid- 
night is umUcu ioa ya rita ; four 
AJf. ma a humi; six a-X. 9aa 
a thentuikara ; noon, taa a aiU. 
Saal Yonl laayl Tonnowl 

NJoo aaa I Come along, do 1 
Saa ku-, to remain over, to be left 
Saala, plnr. fiuuoaZa, a question. 
Saanda, a shroud, a winding-sheet. 
Saba, or SalMOj seven. 

Ya sabOi seventh. 
Sabaa, a stay (in a dhow)L 
Sababu, causes reason. 

Kwa aababu ya» beGanse of, be- 
cause. 
Sabaimi, seventy, = SabwinL 
SabaUuihartLt seventeen. 
Sabuni, soap. 
Sabuni ^u-, to bid, to be in treaty, 

to buy. 
Saburi, patience. 
Saburi ku-, to wait. 
Sdbwinif seventy. 
Sadalea, an offering, an alms, an act 

of charity, anything done for the 

love of G^od. 
Sadiki hi-, to believe. 
Safari, a journey, a voyage, used for 
•* time "or "turn." 

SafaH Mi, this time. 
Sqff, serene. 
Saft, pure, dean. 
Safl ku', to dean. 
Safldi ku-, to dear up, to make 

smooth and neat. 
Saflhi, rudeness 
Saflka kat-f to be purified. 
Saflna (Ar.), a vessel. 
Saflri ku- to travel, to set out on a 

journey, sail, start 




SaJlriMha hm^ to ttrnkb to tond^to 

see any one ofll 
Safitka &»-, to make pan or 
Ai/a, arow, lowi^ a lineu 

Safu wa kaidm, vegilar 
Safura, bilionsneM, gall, 

plaint in whidi people 

eating earth. 
Saga kw, to grind. 

Kutagwa na goH^ to be ram 
by a cart 
Sagai, a spear, a javeUm 
Sagia ku-, to grind with er ftr. 

Mawe ya htuagia, nril laUm ei ^ a 
mill, a handmill. Two kxiaa 
stones are often used, the vpper 
one is called aiiPBiig^ end the 
lower mama, 
Sahani, a dish. 

Sahari, checked stuff fbr tmlMma. 
Sahau ku- or Sahao Xw-, tofbrget^ to 

make a mistake. 
Sahauliwa Xn»-, to be for gotten. 
Sahib, til. 
Sahibn, a friend. 
SaMi, 

Kvtia sdhUi, to sign. 
Sahihi, correct, right 
Sahihi kw, to be correct^ to be 

right. 
Sahihisha kur, to correct. 
Saili Xeii-, to ask, to question. 
SaiHa ku-, to ask on behalf of. 
Saka ku-f to hunt 
SaJcafu, a ckunammed floor, a floor 

or roof of stone, covered with 

a mixture of lime and sand, and 

beaten for about three days with 

small wooden rammers. 
Sakama ku-, to become janmied, to 
Sakani, a rudder. [stick fiast 

Saki ku-, to come close to, to touch, 

to come home. 



« A K 



:SEL 



S79 



Sahifu ku-f to make a tSmnammed 
floor or roof. 

iSaZa, prayer, the prescribed Moham- 
medan form of deYotion includ- 
ing the proper gestures. 

Salaama = Salama, 

Salaam, or Salaamu, or Salamuy 
compliments, safety, peace. 
Kupiga mizinga ya aalamUf to 
fire a salute. 

Salahisha hu-, or Selehisha, or Bidu- 
hisha, to make to be at peace. 

SalaJa, the meat near the backbone, 
the imderout of meat. 

SalamOt safe, safety. 

Soli ktht to use the regular Moham- 
medan devotions, to say one's 
prayers. 

Salia ku', to be left, to remain. 

SalimM Jbtt-, to salute. 

SaUmia ku-, to salute, to send oom- 
plim^ts to. 

SaUti hu't to betray secrets. 

SaltidOf a sweetmeat made of safiron, 
sugar, and starch. 

Sama kti-j to choke, to be choked. 

Samadi, manure. 

Samalcij a fish, fish. 

Samaniy tools, instruments, ma- 
chine. 

Samawati, the heavens. 

Samatm, blue, sky ocdour. 

Sambuaa, a little pasty. 

Samehe ku-j to forgive, to pass over. 

Samiri ku-t to load a gun. 

Sa'mli, ghee, clarified butter. 

Sana, yeTjy much. It is used to 
intensify any action. 
8ema sana, speak loud. 
VfUa MmOf pull hard. 

Sananuiki, senna. 

Sanamu, an image, a likeness, a 
statue, a picture, an idol. 



Sandale, sandal wood. 
Sandartm, gum copal, gum amini. 
Sanduku, a chest, a box. 
Saniki ku-, to make excuse. 
8apa ku-, to tout for customers. 
Sarafu, a small coin. 
Sarifa or Sarfy exchange, rate of 
exchange. 
Sarifa gani ya ndji tesai What 
is the current rate of exchange ? 
Sarifu ku-, to use words well and 

correctly. 
Sdrufy grammar. 

Sarufu, a small gold plate with a 
devout inscription, worn on the 
forehead as an on^ment. 
Saio^ now. 

Sasa hwiy directly, at once. 
Sataranji, chess. 
Sauti, voice, sound, noise. 
Sawa, equal, right, just. 
Kitu kuichokuka sawa naye^ some- 
thing unworthy of him. 
Sawanisha ku-, to make alike, 

equal, even, &c 
Sawasawa, like, alike, even, all the 

same, level, smooth, equal. 
Sawawa, peas (Yao.). 
Sawazisha ku"^ to make equal or 

alike. 
-sayara, gentle, quiet, long-suffering. 
Sayidia ku-, to help. 
Sayili ku- = Saili ku-, 
Saza ku-, to leave over, to make 

to remain. 
Sazia ku-, to leave for. 
Sebahu = SaJbabu, cause, reason. 
Sebtda or Sebule, reception room, 

parlour. 
Sefluti, a poultice. 
Sehemu, part, share, dividend. 
Sekeneko, syphilis. 
Selaha, a weapon. 



380 



BEL 



8HA 



Kupa ielaha, to arm. 
8elehi$fui ku- = Suluhuha, to make 

to be at peace, to mediate be- 

tweexL 
Selimu ku- or SUUm hu-, to capita- 
late. 
8ema kt^-, to say, to talk, to speak. 

Sema Mina, speak out. 
Semadari, a bedstead, specially of 

the Indian pattern. 
Semhusey much less. 
Semea ku-, to say about 

KuterMa puani, to talk through 
the nose. 
Semeji = ShemegL 
SenOy a kind of rice. 
Sengenya ku-. to make secret signs of 

contempt about some one who is 
Senturiy a musical box. [present. 
SercL, a rampart. 

Serkali or Serikali^ the court, the 
government. 

Miu tM tierikali, a man in go- 
yerament employ. 
SermciUif a carpenter. 
Seruji^ an Arab saddle. 
Sesemiy blackwood. 
Seta ku-y to crush. 
Sttascia ku-^ to crush up, to break 

into fragments. 
Seti, the seven in cards. 
Setirika^ &0. See Stirika, &a 
Settini, sixty. 
SeUiri, an iron (?). 
Settiri ku-, or Setiri, or Sitiri, to 

cover, to conceal, to hide, to atoue 

for. 
Seuze, much less, much more. Also 

Semhust. 
Seyedia, lordly, belonging to the 

Seyod. 
Seyidina (Ar.), our lord,' your ma- 

jobty. 



iSsso, an adze. 

£^iaabaniy the eighth moiifth of Obm 

Arab year. 
Shaba, copper, braaa. 
ShabahOfainL 

Kutwaa shabaka, to taka aim. 
Sh4jbaha, like. 

Nyama $habaka mbiMy an animal 
like a dog: 
SiaJbbu, alum. 
iS^odii^ a snare. 
Shadda, a tasseL See Kouamm 
Shah, a chess king. 
Shaha, the heart of the ooooa-mifc 

tree. 
Shahada, the Mohammedan lymfta 

sion of faith. Also Uahakadtu 
SJiahamu, fat. 
Shahawa (obscene), semen. 
ShaJiidi, plur. nuuhahidi, a witnesii 

a martyr. 
Shaibu (Ar.), an old person. 

Shaibu lajuzi, exceedingly old. 
Shairi, a line of poetry. 

plur. mashairi, verses, a poem. 
Sheika, a bush. 

Shako, plur. mashaka, a doubt 
Shake, 

Kuingia na %hake ya kulia, to sob. 
Shalt, a shawl. 
SJiam, Syria, Damascus. 

Fetha ya Sham, German dollars. 
Shamba, plur. tncuihamba, a planta- 
tion, a farm, a piece of land in 

the country. 
Shambtdia ku-, to attack. 
Shamua ku-, to sneeze. Also 8hw 

mtuh 
Shanga, a town near Melinda, long 
Shanga, [since ruined. 

Mtoana shanga, a northerly wind, 
not so strong or persistent as 
the regular ka$kazi. 



SHA 



SHI 



881 



Shangaa hu- or Sangaa Tcu-, to be 

astonished, to stand and stare, to 

stop short. 
Shangaza hihf to astound, to as- 
tonish. 
ShangazttplTa.masJiangazi, a,n annt. 
Shangilia ku-y to make rejoicings 

for, to go to meet with music and 

shouting, to be glad about. 
Shangwiy triumph, shouting and 

joy, an ornament of gold worn by 

women between the shoulders. 
81iani,A startling, unexpected event. 
Shanuuj plur. mashanuu, a comb, a 

large coarse wooden comb. 
SharhUf a moustache. 
Shari, evil, the opposite of Heri. 
Sharia = Sheria. 
Sharihi htt-^ to share, to be partners 

in. 
Sharikia Jtu-, to share with, to be in 

partnership with. 
Shankiana hu-, to be partners, to 

share together. 
Sharti, or Sharvii, or ShwrvUy or 
8hut% a contract, of obligation, 
of necessity, must. Also, the 
downhaul of a dhow-sail, a 
truss. 

Kufanya shartif to bind oneself. 
SkatorumOf shawl for the waist. 
Shaukoy love, exceeding fondness, 

strong desire, will. 
Shawr% plur. mashauri, advice, 
counsel, plan. 

Kufanya shauri, to consult to- 
gether. 

Kupa ahaurif to advise. 
Shatoi = Tawi. 
Shawiahi hu-, to persuade, to coax 

over. 
Shayiriy barley. 
Shehena, cargo. 



Sheitani, Satan, the devil, a devil, 
excessively clever. 

8hda^ a black veil. 

Sheldbela, as it stands, in a lot, with 
all defects. 

Shelde ku-, to run a seam. 

Shelley plur. mashelle, a shell. 

SJiema (Ar.), bees-wax. 

Shemdli (Ar.), the left, the north 
(because to the left of a person 
looking east) ; the Persian Gulf, 
Arabs (because to the north of 
Muscat) ; mist (because it comes 
on in the Persian Gulf with a 
northerly wind). 

Shernbea, a kind of curved knife. 

Shemegit a brother or sister-in- 
law. 

Sfiena (Ar.), orchilla weed. 

Sherioj law. 

8her<Zj glue. 

Shetaniy plur. mashetani = Skeitani. 

Shetri, the poop of a dhow. 

Shiba ku; to have had enoughr to 
eat, to be full, to be satisfied. 

ShiMH or Shibriy a span. 

Shibisha ku-, to fill with food, to 
satisfy with food. 

Shidda, diflSculty, distress. 

Shika ku-, to lay hold of, to hold 
fast, to keep, to determine. 
Kushika njia, to take one's way, 

to set out. 
Shika lako, mind your own busi- 
ness. 
Shika ras tTe, steer for that point. 

Shikamana ku-, to cleave together. 

Shikana ku-, to clasp, to grapple, to 
stick together. 

Shikio, a rudder, a thing to lay hold 
of. See Sikio, 

Shikiza ku-, to prop up. 

ShiUmUy the fit«iii Y'b^vcL^ \ft ^^^ 



382 



SHI 



SHU 



mouthpieoe In a native pipe. 

See Kiko, 
Shimo, plur. mcuihimo, a pity an ez- 

eavation, a large hole. 
Shina^ plur. mdshinaj a stump, a 

trunk, a main root. 
Shinda hu-, to overcome, to conquer, 
to stay, to continue at. 

Maji ya^inda, it is half full of 
water. 

Amekwenda skindaj he is gone 
out for the day. 

Akashinda hazi, and he went on 
at his work. 
Shindana JcUf to dispute, strive 

with, race. 
Shindania ku-^ to bet, to oppose, to 

object to. 
ShindauOf pint, mashindanot a race. 

See Sindano, 
Shindika ku-^ or Sindika^ to shut, to 
put to, to press in a mill. 

Ktuihindika ma/uta ya naxi, to 
grind cocoa-nuts into oil. 
Shindikia ku-y to show any one out, 

to escort a person on his way. 

See Sindikiza. 
Shindilia ku- to press, to load a gun. 
Shindo, a shock. 
Shingari, a consort, a dhow sailing 

in company with another. 
Shingari ku-j to sail in company (of 

dhows). 
Shingo, plur. mashingo, the neck. 
Shinikizo or Sinikizo, a press. 
Shirazif Shiraz, ft-om Shiraz. Per- 
sian work is generally called 

shirazi. 
Shishwa ku-f to be weaned. 
Shitumu ku-f to insult. See Shu- 

tumu. 
Shogaj a friend ; used only by wo- 

mbn in speaking of or to one an- 



other. In Zantibur thej nxelj 

employ any other word. At 

Lamoo shoga means a oatsmlte. 
Shogij panniers, a large matting bag 

with the opening aoion the 

middle, so as to form two bags 

when laid across a dankefn baek. 
8hoi = Shogi, 
Shoka, plur. fRotJbdba, an axe. 

Shoka 2a bopo, an adse. 

Shdka la tiss, an axe (Mer.^ 

Shoka la pwOf an adae (Mer.). 
Shola, an eaf ofoom, a head of 
8hona hih, to seW. CS>mb. 

Shonea kth, to mend for, to sow lor, 

with, &c. 
Shonuka hvh^ to beoome unsown. . 
Shote. 

Ewmda tihotBi to go witk a roah. 
Shoto, 

Wa kushoio, left. 

Ana ehotoy he is left-handed. 
Shfaki ku-f to prosecute^ to charge, 

to accuse. 
Shtua ku; to startle, to tidkla Bee 

Stiuiha. 
Shtuka ku-, to be startled, to start 
Skua ku-f to launch. Fftos. kuthu- 

Utoa. 
Shvbay the elders of a town. 
Shubdkaj plnr. mashibahaf a leoess 

in a wall. 
ShudUy what is left when the oQ has 

been ground out of Miiuem seed. 
Shughidi, business, affairs^ ooonpa- 

tion, engagement. 
Shughulika ku-f to be oooapled, to 

be worried. 
Shughulisha ^u-, to oeoop j, to dis- 
trict attention, to intermpt 
Shuhuda^ testimony. 
Shuhudia ku-, to bear witness aboat, 

for, or against. 



SHU 



-SIP 



383 



Shuhudu hu-y to bear witness. 

ShuhtUi, 
Shuhuti ya hutoUa chanty a small 
piece of wood used by shoe- 
makers in cntting strips of 
coloured leather. 

Shujaa, plur. mashujcMj a hero, a 
brave man. 

Shuka, a sheet 

Shvka hu-y to descend, go down, 
oome down, be let down, to land 
from a ship. 

ShukCj the flower of Indian com. 

Shukrani, gratitude. 

Shuku ku-, to suspect. 

ShukurUf thanks. 

Shukuru ku-, to thank. This word 
is very rarely used in Zanzibar, 
except in relation to God; and 
kfuhukwru Muungu means almost 
always, to take comfort, to leave 
off mourning, or to become re- 
signed. 

ShtUiwa ku-y to be launched. 

Shumua ku-, to sneeze. 

Shumvij salt [Pemba]. See Chumvi. 

Shunga ku-y to drive away, to scare. 

Shungiy a crest, long hair (?). 
Shungi mbiliy a way of dressing 
the hair in two masses. 

Shupatuy plur. mashupatuy a narrow 
strip of matting. The broader are 
sewn together to make floor mats, 
the narrower are interlaced to 
make the native couch or bed- 
stead. 

ShupazOy spades (in cards). 

ShurOy saltpetre. 

ShuruH = Shartiy of necessity. 

Skurutiza ku-y to compel, to force. 
Aluihurutizioa ndaniy he was 
pushed in. 

Shusha ku-y to let down, to make to 



descend, to land goods from a 
ship. 
Kushusha pu*fnziy to breathe out, 
an expiration. 
ShuH or Shuuti = Shartiy of neces- 
ShtUumiioa ku-y to be reviled, [sity. 
ShtUumu ku-y to revile. 
ShufoU or Shioari, a csdm. 
Si, not 
8i vema, not welL 
8i uza, sell not 
Si, is or are not 
Mimi si sidtani, I am not a sultan ; 

or, Am I not a sultan ? 
Si yeye, it is not he or him. 
Si'y the opposite of ndi-y expressing. 
This is not it Is not this it ? 
Simiy Sisisiy 

Sitocy Sinyiy 

Stye, SiOy sivyo, tiyo, 

Sio, siyOy Hlo, Sizo, simo. 
SichOy Hpo, sikoy 
8i-y sign of the first person negative. 
Sikubaliy I do not consent 
Sikukvbaliy 1 did not consent. 
Sitakubali, 1 shall not consent 
In the present tense the final 
letter of verbs in -a becomes -t . 
Sioniy I do not see. 
-«i- inserted between the personal 
prefix and the verb, is the sign 
Of the negative imperative or 
subjunctive, the final letter of 
verbs in -a becoming an -e. 
Nisione, that I may not see, let 
me not see, or without my 
seeing, 
-m-, sign of the negative in ex- 
pressing relation. 
AnOy he who is or was not, or 
who will not be. Also Atiye. 
' Hpo-y sign of the tense expressing 
notbei<ng. 



ns-i 



SI A 



Aripoona, h« Dot »ini\ntf. If he ' 
iloct nnt ten, tliouf^li ho iIocb 
not Bco, witliout bin teeing. 
when >i(: tce» not. 
^'ia to-, to give a wnlPtii-c. to pro- 
nnnniM as with BOthnrity, to de- 
nlare. 
Fin/a. a large rtddish brnwD ant. 
that Iravcl* in gn-at nam tiers 
anil bit'rii flem-lj. 
Slagi, cream, butter. 
•film til-, to get, to lucrGi^. fiee 

'^i/a, praise, cliaractcl, ctiaractci- 

mfarn, a kind nt rice 

A'l/u tu-, to praim. I'mb. frunfli™. 

Knjiri/u, to magnify onoscl/, to 
boast. 

Kwi/ft'mno, to overpraise, to 
flatter. 
Si/vk (n term of reproach), a me-i- 

lilesome foul. 
Bi/wTU, a cypher, a flgnrc nf noaght. 
SigUia tu-, tntach (in necdltwork). 
Sihi feu-, to entreat. 
Sija/ii, the cuff, the hem. Ece 

S'yamto, lemweJl. The invariable | 

answer to ftu jambol how are 

you? 

8i jamho pande, I am a liltia 

better. 

Sikamo or ftlomoo, for Ntuhika 

mgiai, (he aalntalion of a alave 



fiikia ht-, to bear, to obey, to undei- 

SSdlia fen-., to listen to, to attend to. 
Sikiliana hu^ to be heard, to be 

audibly 
fiaaita ku-, to lUfen, to liaten to. 



SilcHiuuia Icu', to bar one ■aiiftn 
SOiio or Skikio, plni. ■■«■!> ife 

Siltilika feu-, to be mctj. 

Siltiiikia feu-, to be Mnj Ifar, to ^itr. 

fiikiliko, plur. auMOaOok VRVv; 

(■rJcf. 
fiikiluha feu-, to make aonj'. 
SVcaa feu-, to make to h—r, Madcr- 

•Uod, Ac 
:5A^ana feu-, to be mntokllj imttl- 

ligiblc. to make oneanotliprhr^ 

A'iftu, a day of twtntj-foor bov^ 

fioni EUD.4' t to sunset, dsra. 

£i7,'u J>-uu. ft grt-Qt dB7, ft fcMt. 
Tlie two great fcaat* an the 
threo daji at the end of the 
Bamalhan, when erery ooe 
Nj^il.i J pr< rcrilii.and tbree din 
after the tenth of Thaiutjj'ta 
il/titigiw tea tafu, when ereiT 
cne oiitjht to slaugbtn aome 
animal, and fi>a5t the poor, 

Eilm a mtcaka <B©e Micomgo, 
K!'ju,rJ). l\,<iy<ilrm, abont th« 
23rd of August, the beginning 
of the Swaliili nud nauli^nl 
year. The old onstom ia ti>r 
every one, but eapecially ike 
women, to baihe in tbo sea 
In Ibe night or momiDE : then 
they -cook a great taesa of graia 
an.l pnlse. -whitli ia eaten about 
noon by all nbo like to come. 
The Area are all eitingnished 
and lighted n^ain Ijy rubbing 
two pieces of wood together. 
K'Tiiitrlv 1111 iaquiij was mudo 
as to any murder or Tioleoco 
oommitted oa this day, and old 
qnarrela need regularly to be 
fought oat upon it 

8iku lotr, always. 



SIL 



S IT 



385 



Silihi ku-, to improve, to reform. 

Silihisha ku-, to make to improve, 
to reform. 

Silimu kvry to become a Moham- 
medan. 

Simama ku-^ to stand up, to come 
to a stand, to stop, to be erect, 
to stand in, to cost 

Simamia hu-, to stand by, to over- 
look workmen, to cost to. 

Simamisha ku-j to make to stand. 

Simanga ku-, to crow over, boast 
against. 

Simanzi, grief, heaviness. 

Simbaj a lion, lions. 

Sirnba uranga, a well-known man- 
grove swamp at the mouth of 
the Lufiji. 

Simhali, a kind of wood brought 
from near Cape Delgado. 

SimCt a short straight sword used 
on the mainland. 

Simika ku-y to be erect, to be set 
up, to stand (often used in an 
obscene sense). 

Simikia ku-. 
Kusimikia mlangOy to set up and 
build in a door. 

Siniikisha ku-, to set up. 

Similla, Similley SimUeniy probably 

for Bismillah, the common cry 

in Zanzibar, meaning, make 

way, out of the way. 

Similla punda, make way for a 

donkey. 
SimiUa ubau, make way for a 
plank. 

Simo, I am not in it, am not con- 
cerned, have nothing to do with 
it. 

Simo, 
Simo Mi H njema, this event is 
not good. 



Imeingia simo mpya, something 
new has turned up. 
Simu, the electric telegraph. 
Sindano, a needle (or shindano). 
Sindano, a kind of rice. 
Sindi, a long-tailed weasel. 
Sindikia ku-, to crush. 
Sindikiza ku-, to accompany part of 

the way. 
Sindua ku-, to open, to set open. 
Singa, hair of an animal. 

Nyele za singa, straight hair, 
European hair. 
Singa ku-, to scent, to put scent. 
Singizia ku-, to slander, to spread 

false reports about. 
Sini, China. 
Sini, no matter. 
Sinia, plur. masinia, a circular tray 

used to carry and set out food 

upon, generally of copper tinned. 
Sinikiza ku-, to press. 
Sinzia ku-, to doze, to nod, to flicker. 
-sipo-, sign of the tense signifying 

the case of the thing mentioned 

not being. 
8iri, secrecy. 

Mambo ya siri, secret affairs, 
secrets. 

Kwa siri, secretly. 
Sisi, we, us. Sometimes pronounced 
swiswi, suisui, or sistoi, 

Sisi sole, all of us. 

Sisi wote, both of us. 
Sisimia ku-, to sigh (?). 
Sisimizi, ants (?). 
Sisi*'iza ku- (M.), to charge strictly, 

to charge to keep secret. 
80x1, six. 

Ya sita, sixth. 
8Ha ku-, to halt, to go lame (A.), to 

hide. 
SitahOy the di^k. 



386 



SIT 



8TA 



Sita^Aara, sixteen. 
Sitatri im-. to floarielL 

A'yofiM ipV iwKtitattij whicli dftiiee 
is going best? 
Sitattiiha &«-, to make to fionriih. 
Sitiy irhutle (of » steamer or 
Sitii, my ladr, Isdj. [engine). 

Sfttinoy our ladr. Applied bj the 
Arabs to St. 3Iarr. 
Sirinuya, different. 
Sittfo, it is not thus. See Si-. 
Siteuj an ivoTT horn only used on 

great occaeions. 
Siweziy I am not well. See Weza hu-. 
Siyo, that is not it, no. Se« Si-. 
Siyu or Siuj Siwi, the chief town 

of the district near Lamoo, the 

chief seat of old Swahili learning. 
SodtL, lunacy. 
SodOt a woman's napkin. 
&)/(?, wool. 

Su^t Svgiy Soiy = Shogi. 
Sogea ku-j to approach affectionately, 

to oome near ta 
Sogeza Jcu-, to lift to the lips and 

kiss, to bring near to. 
Sogezea ku-, to put ready for, to 

bring for use. 
Soko, plor. mcmko^ a market, a 
bazaar. 

Kicenda tohoni, to go marketing. 
Sokota Icur^ to twist, to plait, to spin. 
Soma ku'j to read, to perform de- 
votions. 
Sonuif plur. moMoma^ a kind of dance. 
Nf/mUUi ku-f Ui work oneself along 

mi ono*H hands and seat without 

using the legs. 
SfjvfusHha ku'f to teach to read, to 

lead devotions. 
SomOf plur. masamOf something read, 

used as a title of friendship, a 

namesake. 



fioMU ftii-y to iiMk ont 
Somdo, swelled (?) gbndiL 
Somga &»-, to strans^ to 

to stir together. 
Son^anason^iia Iw-, to pres a^niiiit 

one another like abeep in a flock 
SomgM Iw-, to posh thnragli, to 

shoulder yoor way Hmmgii a 
Somjoa im-^ to wring. [enwd. 

Sonffa ku- = Kufffomifii, 



Sommeka km-, to be hurt or aehe, «» 

as to writhe with pain. 
Sommaika Im-, to make to wiitiie 

with pain. 
&ifa,all: agreeing withsisi, W6 or 
us. aee-oU, 
I Tu $oU, we are together. 
I Twnkde mxU, let us go together. 
- Soza ku't to beadi a boat or ipenel. 
I Stafi or Safi, pure, clean. 
Staajabu ku-, to wonder much, to be 

greatly astonished. 
Siaamami kur, to have confidaiice, 
to rest trustfully. 
I SUihabu ku-, to be pleased, to prefer* 
Stahamili or Stahimiliy patiently. 
Stahi ku-, to honour, to have respect 

for. 
Stdhiba Xn»- (?), to prefer. See 

Stahahu, 
Stdhiki ku', to resemble^ to be of 

one sort with. 
Stahili kwj to deserve, to be worthy 
of, to be proper, to be right and 
fitting. 

Astahili, serves him right. 
Siahimili ku-, to bear, to endure, 

tolerate. 
Stakdbathif earnest, fastening penny. 
StarhbuUy Constantinople. 
Starehe ku-, to sit still, to be at rest, 
to remain quiet. 



STE 



BUM 



887 



Stareke I Don't distuib yourself 1 
don't get up I 
Sterehisha Aju-, to give rest to, to 

refresh. Also StarehUha. 
Stirika ku-y to be covered, to be oon- 

cealed. 
StiMha ku-f to startlo, to sprain, to 

put out of joint 
Svhana, small pieces of meat roasted 

on two parallel sticks. 
Subana, a thimble. 
Subiri, patience. 
Subiri, aloes. 
Subiri ku-, to wait. 
8uhu ku', to cast in a mould. 
Stibu kur ot 8ibu ku-, to happen to. 
Suhui, morning. 
SubulkTieiri, good morning. 
Suhuri^ patience. 
Suhutu ku' = Thuhutu ku^, 
Suduku ku-f to ascertain, to know 

the truth. 
Suff, wool. 

Suffix a devotee, a hermit. 
Suffuf, a great variety or number. 
Svji, woollen. 
Sufuria, copper. 

Sufuria, plur. su/uria or mamfuria, 
a metal pot. 

Sufurta ya chtwtay an iron pot. 
Sugu, a mark, a callous place. Also, 

obstinate, insensate. 
Sugua kU; to rub, to scrub, to 

brush, to scour. 
Suheli, south. 

8uiy an irrepressible, unconquer- 
able man. 
Sujudia kthy to prostrate oneself to, 

to adore. 
Sujudu ku; to prostrate oneself, to 

bow down. 
8uka kth, to plait, to clean. 
Sukarif sugar. 



Sukari guru, half-made sugar. 

Sukasuka ku, to shake, to agitate. 

Stike, plur. mcuuke (or ahuke), an 
ear of com, a head of mtama, &e, 

Sukua hU', to slacken, to loose. 

Stikuma ku-, to push, to urge. 

SuJcumiy a steersman, quarter- 
master. 

Sukumiza Xni-, to put upon another 
person, to say it is his business, 
to throw off from oneself, to push 
away in anger, to throw (a thing) 
at a person who wants it. Also, 
to avert (by sacrifice, &c.). 

Sukutua ku-, to rinse out the mouth, 
to wash one's mouth. 

Stdibi ku-, to crucify. 

SulibWha ku-, to crucify. 

Stdihi ku-, to become, to be fitting 
for. 

Sulika ku-, to turn about, become 
giddy. 

Sulimu ku-, to salute. 

SuUcmi, plur. mamltam, a sultan, 
a chief man. Sultam at Zanzi- 
bar does not mean a king ; it is 
used of the head men of a vil- 
lage. 

SuUdn Rum, the Saltan of Turkey. 

Suliibika ku-, to be strong. 

Sulubu, strength, firmness. 

SuluhisJia ku-, to bring to accord, 
to make peace between. 

Suluhu, concord. 

Sululu, a curlew. 

Swmha ku-, to sway away, to twist 
and turn oneself. 

Sumhua ku-, to worry, to annoy, to 
give trouble. 

Sumhuana ku-, to worry one an- 
other. 

Swnbuka ku-, to be put to trouble, 
to be YisxttBA^ \a\)& vKcitrj^A^ 



388 



BUM 



SumbuUa Xfu-, to speak sharply to. 
Sumbusha ku-, to vex, harass, 

trouble, worry, annoy. 
Sumu, poison. 
Sumughj gum-arabio. 
Sungura, a rabbit (?), a hare (?). 
Sunni, advisable, recommended, a 

tradition, what is advisable or 

reoommendcd, but not compul- 

Sunaibarij deal wood. [sory. 

Sunza hu-, to search for anything 

with a lighled brand at night. 
8upaa hU't to be very hard or dry. 
Supana = Supaa. 
Surck, a likeness, a resemblance, a 

chapter of the Koran. 
Suria, plur. nuMurto, a concubine, 

a female slave. 
Suriyama, born of a concubine. 
SururUf an insect that lives in 

cocoa-nut trees. 
Surwalif trousers. See SoruaZi, 
8u8y liquorice. 
Su8o, a kind of hanging shelf, a 

hammock. 
Susupaa = Supaa. 
SiUa hu-y to reproach, to charge a 

man with slander, to slander, to 

seek out a man and ask whether 

he has said such and such things. 
8u*udif or Suudi r^ema, salvation, 

felicity. 
Suza ku-f to stir up. Also, to 

rinse. 
Suzia ku-9 to turn with (?). 
8wafi = 8afi. 
8u!alif a question. 



T. 

T is pronounced as in English. 
There are two fa in Arabic, one 
much thicker than the English tj 



but only very oazefnl tpeaken dis- 
tinguish them in SwahilL 

T at the beginning of * word has 
sometimes an exploave xmndy m in 
raJko, dirt It is probable that this 
represents a suppressed ii. 

There is a slight differenoe in 
sound between the f 8 of tatu, three, 
and totio, five, the formor being the 
smoother, but natives do not seem 
conscious of the difference. 

T in northern Swahili frequently 
becomes ch in the dialect of Zanzi- 
bar. 

KtUekOy to laugh (H.) lauskAa 
(Zanz.). ButilniteXMi, to plunder, 
or to draw water, does not 
change. 

Kutinda, to slaughter (M.) Am- 
cJiinJa (Zanz.). 

There is no sound similar to that 
of the English th in the original 
language of Zanzibar. It oocure in 
some dialects of Swahili in place of 
V or e. There are however in 
Arabic four (7**8. 1. Tha, pro- 
nounced like the English th in 
thing. 2. Thalf pronounced like 
the English th in this. 3 and 4. 
Tliad and Tha* or Dthau, which 
are scarcely distinguished by the 
Arabs themselves, and have a very 
thick variety of the thai sound. 
Practically the two English Wb are 
quite sufficient, and the ear soon 
catches the right method of employ- 
ing them. 

The Indians and many Africans 
pronounce all these as z. Some 
Swahili confuse the various th*B with 
z, and employ the thai sound for 
words properly wiitten with a x, as 
wathiri for icaziri, a vizir. 



-TA- 



TAG 



389 



•tu', the sign of the future tense. ■ 
When the relative or the par- 
ticles denoting time and place 
are inserted in the future, the 
prefix regularly becomes -taka-. 
It is possible however to retain 
'ta- to express a more definite 
sense. 
Atakuja, he will come. 
Atakayekujaj who will come. 
Atakapokujay when he shall 

come. 
Atdpokuja, when he come, 
or, if he shall come. 
In the first person singular the 
nt-, which is the sign of the 
person, is often dropped. 
Takuja = Nitakuja, 1 shall 
come. 
Ta- at the beginning of Arabic 
verbs is the mark of the fourth 
or fifth conjugations or derived 
forms. 
Taa, a lamp, especially the small 
open earthen lamps made in Zan- 
zibar. 
Taa^ a large kind of fiat fish. 
Tattf beneath one's feet. 
TacMka ku-^ to be troubled. 
Taahtsha ku-, to trouble, to annoy. 
Taahu, trouble. 

Taadabu ku-y to learn manners. 
TaajaJtmha ku'y to make to wonder, 

to astonish. 
Taajabu ku-, to wonder, to be as- 
tonished. See Staajcibu, 
Taajazi ku-^ to tire* 
Ta*ali ku-, to study. 
TaandUy a centipede. 
Taataa ku-, to throw oneself about. 
Tdbcikti, lining. 
TabakelOf a snuff-box. 
Taba"^ «r nigtol j(Ar.), 



Tahdasam %tf-, to smile. 
Tahia, constitution, temper, temper- 
ament, climate. 
Tdbibia ku-y to doctor. 
TahibUf a physician. 
Tdbiki ku-, to line, to close to or 
upon, to cling to as a fast friend. 
Tabikiza, to make to cling. 
Tdbiri ku-, to foretell, to prophesy. 
Taburudu ku-, to refresh. 
Tadariki ku-, to accept the respon- 
sibility of, to guarantee the result 
of. 
Tadi, violence, hurry. 
Kwenda kwa tadi, to rush, to go 
tumultuously. 
Tadi ku-, to fight with. 
Tafakari ku-y to consider, ponder, 

think. 
Tafdthal or Tafathali, please, I beg 

of you. 
Taftti kU', to seek out matters 

secretly, to be over-inquisitive. 
Tafsiri ku-, to explain, to interpret. 
Tafsiri, interpretation. 
Ta/siria ku-, to explain to, to inter- 
pret to. 
Tafu (M.) = Chafu, cheek. 
Tafu, gastrocnemic muscles. 

Tafu ya mkono, the biceps muscle. 
Tafuna ku-, to chew, to nibble. 
Ta/uta ku-, to look for, seek, search 

for. 
Tafutatafuta ku-, to search all 

about. 
Tafutia kU' or Taftia, to seek out 

for some one, to look for. 
Tagaa ku-, to straddle, to walk 

with one's legs far apart. 
Tage, plu*. matage, boW legs, crook- 
edness. 
Taghafali ku^, to be off one's guards 
to iot^Qi^ \o \a5Kft Ti^iNaafc* 



390 



TAG 



TAH 



Taghaiari ku-y to be changed. 
Tcufhi %«-, to rebel. 
Taguaj branches, main branches. 
Tahajifu, gently, in good time, 
light, thin. 

Nguo tahaflfu, thin calico. 
Tahamaka Hsu-, to look up to lee 

what is going on. 
Tdharaki Jcu-, to be tronbled, to 

be thrown into confoaion. 
Tdharakisha ku-, to pnt into a state 

of anxiety, to excite, stimulata 
Taharizi, See Kanzu. 
Taharuhi kii-, to be troubled, to be 

anxious, to be thrown into oon- 

fusion. Also, Taharaki. 
Tdhasta ku-y to go on board a ship 

with a view to sailing. 
Tahathari ku-y to beware, to be on 

one's guard. 
Tahalharisha ku-y to warn. 
Tahayari ku-y to become ashamed. 
Tahayarisha ku-, to shame, to make 

ashamed. 
Tahidi ku-, 

KvjitaMdi, to exert oneself, to 
try hard. 
TaMri ku-y to circumcise. 
TahsUay farewell, leave-taking. 
Taiy a large bird of prey, a vulture. 
Taiftty plur. mataifoy a tribe, a 

nation. 
Tajay hire. 
Taja ku-y to name. 
Tajiy a crown. 
Tajiriy plur. mattyiri, a merchant, 

a rich man, a capitalist, a prin- 
'taka-. See -to-. [oipal. 

Takay dirt. 
Takatak€iy rubbish, sundries, small 

articles. 
Taka ku-, to want, to wish for, to 
ask for. 



Kmidka tkauri^ to leek adTioe. 
TakdbaU ku-, to Moepi; used of 

God's hearing grayer. 
Takabathi ku-y to oaary on tnAght 
TdkahatkUka ftift-, to pay teight 

for. 
Takdddam hu-y to bt in advaiioe of, 

to get before. 
TakcUika ku-y to bt yetj £unt or 

tired. 
Tiikarimuy gift, largess. 
Takcua ku-y to dean, to make clean 

and clear. 
Takasika ktb-, to beoome cleansed. 
Takata ku-y to beoome dean and 
dear. 

Uwingu wnetakata^ the aky is 
clear. 
'takati/u, holy, cleansed. 
Takhari ku-y to stay. 
Taki = Chicha, 
Takia, plur. matakioy a large 

cushion. 
Takoy plur. maiakOy the bnttock. 
Tak%iriy a crime. 
Takura ku-y to scratch, to dig with 

claws or fingers. 
Talakay divorce. 
Taldseim or Tdlasimu, plur. matala- 

simuy a talisman, a charm, a 

figure divided into squares and 

marked with magio words and 

symbols. 
Tali ku- or Ta'ali ku-, to study. 
Talik = Tarik, 
Taliza ku-y to smooth off, to smooth 

up, plaster, &c. 
Tama, out and out, final. 
Tama ku- (M.) = Mama ku-y to re- 
move. 
Tama ku-, to sit, crouch (Tao.). 
Tama, 
Kushika tajna, to lean the head 



TAM 



TAN 



391 



on the hand, reckoned unlucky 
in Zanzibar. 

Tamaaf longing, avarice, greedi- 
ness. 
Kukata tamaa, to despair. 

Tamdlaki hu-, to be master of. 
KujitamdUihi mwenyewe, to be 
one's own master. 

Tamani ku-, to long for, to lust 
after. 

Tamaniha Tcu-, to be liked, to be an 
object of liking. 

Tamha few-, to swagger. 

Tambaa ku-, to creep, to crawl. 

Tambi, vermicelli. 

TamhOt a tall man. 

Tamboa, testicles. 

Tamhua ku-, to recognize. 

Tambfdia ku-, to understand. 

Tambultkana fct*-, to be recogniz- 
able. 

TambulUha ku-, to make to recog- 
nize, to explain. 

Tainbuiu betel leaf chewed with 
areca nut, lime and tobacco. 

Tambuza ^cu-, to put a new point or 
edge, to weld on fresh iron or 
steel. 

Tamisha kii- (M.) = HamWha ku-, 

Td'mka ku-, to pronounce. 

TamUf sweetness, flavour, taste. 

-tamu, sweet, pleasant. It makes 
tamu with nouns like nyumba, 

TamvJca ku- = Ta*fnka ku-. 

Tamvua, ends or comers of turban 
doth, &c. 

Tana ku-^ to divide, to slit, to comb, 
to part. 

Tanatana ^u-, to divide up into 
little bits. 

Tana, a bunchlet of bananas, fto. 
Bananas and plantains grow 
spirally in a large bunch, not con- 



tinuously, but in little groups: 

each group is a tana, 
Tanahahi ku-, to make up one's 

mind, to know what to do. 
Tanafud ku-, to draw breath. 
Tanda ku-, to spread, to be spread 
out, to be overcast, to put ropes 
to a native bedstead. 

Kujitanda, to stretch oneself 
across. 
Tandama ku- (?), to surround. 
Tartdawaa ku-, to recline, to loll at 

one's ease. 
Tandaza ku-, to make flat. 
Tandika ku-, to spread, to lay out, 

to saddle. 
Tandu, long slashes made on their 

faces by Makuas and others. 
Tandua ku-, to unsaddle, to take off 

harness. 
Tanga, plur. matanga' oi majitanga^ 
a sail. The sails of mit&pe and 
madau are made of matting. 

Tanga mbtli, the seasons of 
changeable winds. 

Matanga kati, wind abeeim. 

Kvkaa matanga, to sit at home 
in sign of mourning, to mourn. 
Tangos ku-, to come to be known. 
Tangamana ku-, to adjoin. 
Tangamvka ku-, to be cheerful. 
Tangamueha ku-, to cheer up. 
Tanganya, &o. (M.) = Changanya, 

&c., to mix, to shuffle cards. 
Tangatanga ku-, to go backwards 

and forwards, to wave. 
Tangatmzi, ginger. 
Tangaza ku-, to spread news, to cir- 
culate intelligence. 
Tange, the trees and rubbish cleared 

off a new plantation. 
TangUha ku-, to make evident. 
Tango, i^Voix. maitvn^o^ ^ wsi^ ^^^ 



.-592 



TAN 



TAS 



gourd eaten raw, resembling in 

taste a cucumber. 
TangUj since, fronL 

Tangu linif Since when? How 
long ago ? 
Tangua ku-, to annul, to abolish, to 
separate, untwist, unplait, with- 
draw a promise, &c. 

Kutangua ndoa^ to annul a mar- 
riage, to divorce. 
Tanguka /eu-, to be annulled. 
Tanguhana ku', to separate. 
Tangulia ku', to precede, to go be- 
fore, to go first. 

Nimetangulia kukuambiaf I told 
you beforehand. 
Tangalifu. advanced. 
Tanif Othman. 
Tani. 

Kwa tani, backward, on his back. 
Tano or Tanu, five. 

Ya tano, fifth. 
"tanOf five. 
Tantanbelwa, a great bother, a 

worry. 
Tanua ku^ to expand, to spread out, 

to fend off a boat. 
Tanuka ku-, to lie on one's back and 

spread oneself out, to sprawl. 
Tanuru or Tanuu, a clamp for burn- 
ing lime, an oven. 
Tanzif plur. nuitanziy a noose. 
Tanzia, news of a death. 
Too, plur. mataOy an arch, an 

arched opening, a bay. 
Tapa ku-f to shiver. 

Kujitapaj to magnify oneself, to 
make a great man of oneself. 
Tapatapa ku'j to jump about like a 

fish when taken out of the water, 

to shiver, to tremble. 
Tapanya ku-, to scatter, to throw 

about. 



Tapanyatapanya ku-^ to dissipate. 

to waste. 
Tapika ku-, to vomit. 
Tapisha ku-, to make to Yomit. 
Tapitho, plur. nuUapUihOy an emetic. 
Tapo, plur. matapOy a detachment, 

a division, a part of an army 

larger than kikozi. 
Tmrabey side piece of a window, 

door of planks. 
Tara/Uj on the part of. 

Tarafu yoke, on his part 
Taraja k\k-y to hope. 
Tarathia fcu-, to persuade in a 

friendly way. 
Taratibii, carefully, gently, orderly. 
Taratibu, orderliness, an order or 

form. 
Taraza, an edging, a narrow silken 

border usually woven on to tur- 
ban and loin-cloths in Zanzibar. 
Tarazake, business on a small scale. 
Tarazaki kur, to trade in a small 

way. 
Tariky a date, year, fto., the clew- 
line or bunt-line of a dhow-saiL 

Kitabu cka tarik, a chronicle. 
Tarimho = MtainibOf an iron bar. 
Tarizi ku-, to weave on an edg^g. 
Tartibu = Taratibu. 
Tasa, a brass basin. 
TVua, a game of touch. 
Tasa, a barren animal. 
Tasaioari ku-, to do with certainty, 
to be fully able. 

Hatasawariy it is certain that he 
does not do it. 
Ta^hi, Mohammedan beads. 
Ta^fida, good manners. 
Tashtinshi, doubt 
Tanhilij quickness, quickly. 
Taslimu, ready cash. 
Tassa = Tasa. 



TAT 



TEK 



398 



Tata, See Matata. 

Kwenda tatatatay to toddle. 
Tataga ku-, to go above or over, to 

cross a stream on a tree. 
Tatana hu-y to be in a tangle, to be 

puzzled. 
Tatanisha hu-, to tangle, to puzzle. 
Tatanya hu-, to unravel, disen- 
tangle, solve a riddle. 
Tatazana hu-f to be tangled. 
Taihbiriy a merchant. 
Tatia ku-y to \vind, to tangle, to 

complicate. 
Tatiza ku-, to wind. 
-tatUj three. 

Ya tatUf third. 
Tatua ku; to tear. 
Tatttka ku-, to be torn. 
Taumka kut" = Ta*mka ku-, 
Taunif plague, cholera. 
Tausiy peacock. 
Tavu (A.), the cheek. 
Tawa, plur. matawa, a frying-pan. 
Tawa, plur. tawa, a louse. 
Tavoa ku-t to live secluded (Yao.), to 

tie. 
Tawafa, a candle, candles. 
Tawakali /^u-, to trust in God and 

take courage. 
Tawakdioakatha, many. 
Tawala kit-, to govern, to rule. 
Tatoanya ku-, to scatter. 
Tawanyika ku-, to become scattered. 
Tawashiy a eunuch. 
Tawasaufy temperance. 
Tawaza kw-, to make to rule. 
Tawaza ku-, to wash the feet, to 

perform the ablutions. 
Tauoif plur. matawi^ a branch, a 

bough, a bunch, an ear of millet. 
Taya, jaw, jawbone. 
Taya ku-, to reproach. 
Tayarif ready. 



Tayif obedient 

TayOj plur. matayOy a reproach, re- 
viling. 
Tazama ku-, to look. 
Tazamia ku-, to look out for. 
Taztoi, forgery. 
Teende la mguu, Barbadoes leg, 

elephantiasis (?). 
Tefua ku; to reason, to search, to 

throw about. 
Tega ku-, to set a trap or snare, to 

snare. See Kitendamli. 
Tegea ku-, to be lame. 
Tegemea ku-, to lean upon, to be 

propped up. 
Tegemeza ku-, to support. 
Tego, a virulent kind of syphilis 

supposed to be the effect of a 

charm. 
Tegu, plur. mategu, a tape-worm. 
Tegua ku-, to take a pot off the fire, 

to remove a spell. 
Teka ku- (M.) = Ckeka ku-, 
Teka ku-, to plunder, to take as 
spoil, to draw water. 

Kuteka *mji, to plunder a town. 

Kuteka ng'omhe, to carry off an ox. 

Kuteka maji, to draw water from 
a well. 
Teke, plur. mateke, a kick. 

Kupiga teke, to kick. 
Tekelea ku-, to prove true, to come to. 
TekeUza ku-, to perform a promise, 

restore a pledge. 
Tekenya ku-, to tickle in the ribs. 
Teketea ku-, to be consumed, to be 

burnt away. 
Teketeke, the soft, something soft. 
Teketeza ku-, to consume, to cause 

to be burnt down. 
Tekewa ku-, to become bewildered. 
Tekeza ku-, to run ashore, to come 

to an end, to d\&. 



394 



TEK 



TBT 



Tekna hu'^ to priie up, to toOi to 

throw up out of a noie. 
Tele, plenty, abundantly, abandant. 
Tele, gold lace or bznid. 
Telea hu-, to oome down, descend, 

land from. 
TeWca ku-y to put a pot on the fire. 
Tdemua htt-, to pull down, to cause 

to slip down. 
Telemuka ku- or TeUrnka ku-, to 

go down a steep place, to go 

quickly down in spite of one's 

self, to slither down. 
Telemuko, the bed of a river. 
Teleza ku-, to slip. 
Tema ku-y to slash as with a sword. 
Tema ku-, 

Kutema mate, to spit. 
Tembe, a hen full grown but which 

has not yet laid. 
Temhea ku-, to walk about, to take 
a walk. 

Moyo wangu umetemhea, my 
thoughts are wandering. 
Tenibelea ku-, to walk about. 
Tenibeza ku-, to offer for sale by 

auction, to liawk about. 

TemhOf palm wine, wina 

Tembo, an elephant. 

Te*mka = Ta'mka, 

Temsi, filigree work. 

Tena, afterwards, again, further. 

Tenda ku-, to do, to apply oneself to, 

to act. 

Kutenda zema or vema, to behave 
well. 

Tenda kani, a pole across a dhow to 

fasten the sheet to. 

Tendawala, a kind of bird. 

Tende, a date, dates. 

Tenda Jialwa or halua, Arabs 

from the Persian Gulf, who 

steal slaves by tempting them , 



into their houaei with datw 
andBweetitnfll 
Tmdea JSm-, to do to^ to behave to^ 

to treat. 
Tende^lUf plor. matemdegu, fhe kgi 

of a bedstead. 
Tendeka ku-, to be done, to be 

doable. 
Tenga, a Bun-fisli. 
Tenga ku-, to separate, to remove. 

KujUengcLj to get oat of the way. 
Tengea ku-, to be readj and ia 
order. 

Duka limetengea, the shop is all 
ready and open. 
Tengeka ku-, to be pat on one side. 
Tengelea and Tengdeza = Tengeneta 

and Tengenea, 
Tengenea ku-, to be comfortable, to 

be as it should be. 
Tengeneza ku-, to finish off, to pul 

to rights, to touch up. 
Tengezeka ku-, to be established, 

made right. 
Tengua ku-, to put aside. 
Tepukua kum, to cut away young 

shoots. 
Tepukuzi, plur. Maiepukuzi, shoots 

from the root of a tree. 
Terema ku-, to be at ease. 
Tesa ku-, to afflict. 

KtUeswa, to suffer, to be afflicted. 
Teso, plur. mateso, afflictions, adver- 
sities. 
Teta ku-, to oppose, to strive against, 

to be adverse to, to go to law 

with, to mention disparagingly. 
Tetea ku-, to cackle like a hen. 
Tetea ku- (M.) = Chechea ku-, to 

walk lame. 
Tete ya kwanga, rubeola. 
Tetema ku-, to tremble, to quiver. 
Tetemea = Chechemea, 



TET 



THU 



395 



Tetemeka hu-, to tremble, to shake, 
to shiyer, to quake (as the earth), 
to chatter (of the teeth). 
Teterif a small kind of dove. 
Teteza hu-, to rattle. Also, to lead 

a sick person by the hand. 
Tetta hu; to choose, select, pick 

out = Chiigua leu-. 
Teuka ku-^ to dislocate, to sprain. 
'teuUf choice, chosen. 
Tezama and Tezamia = Tazama and 

Tazamia. 
Text, a fibrous tumour, goitre. 
Thabihu, an offering, a sacrifice. 
Thdbitj plur. mathdbit, firm, brave, 
Thdhabuy gold. [steadfast. 

Thahirij evident, plain. 
Thdhiri ku-, to make plain, to 

express. 
ThaifUf weak, infirm, bad. 
Thalatha, three. Also Thelatha, &c. 
ThalaihatashcMrci, thirteen. 
Tkalathiniy thirty. 
Thalimu, a fraudulent person, a 

swindler. 
Thalimu ku-, to wrong, to defraud. 
Thalilif very low, very poor. 
Thamana (th in this), a surety. 
Thamani (th in thing), a price. 

Ta ihamardf of price, valuable. 
Thambif sin. 
ThdmiUf surety. 
Thamini ku, to become surety. 
Thamiri, conscience, thought. 
Thani ku-, to think, to suppose. 
Thania ku-, to think of a person, to 

suppose him, to suspect. 
TharaUf scorn. 
Tharau ku-, to scorn. 
Thdruha, (Ar. a stroke), a storm, 
(in arithmetic) multiplication. 
Thdrvha mqja^ at one stroke, 
suddenly. 



Thathu, a kind of jay brought down 

from IJnyanyembe. 
Thaioahfij a reward ; especially re- 
wards from God. 
Thdatha, &o. See ThdUMa, &o. 
Thelimu ku-^ to oppress. 
Thelth, a donkey's canter. 
Theluth, a third. 
Themaninif eighty. 
Themaninif a linen fabric. 
Themantcuharaf eighteen. 
Themanya, eight. 
Themuni, an eighth. 
Thenasharaf twelve. 
Theneen^ two. 

Thihakay ridicule, derision. 
Thihaki A;tt-,.to ridicule, to make 

game of. 
Thihirisha ku-, to make clear, to 

declare. 
Thii ku-y to be in distress. 
Thiiki ku-, to be put to straits. 
Thili ku-, to abase. 
Thiraa, a measure of about half a 
yard, from the point of the 
elbow to the tips of the fingers. 
Thiraa kande, from the point of 
the elbow to the knuckles of 
the clenched fist. 
Thoqfika ku-, to be made weak, to 

become weak. 
Thoofisha ku', to weaken, to make 

weak. 
ThoumUy garlic 

Thtibutisha ku-, to give courage to, 
to make certain, to convince, to 
prove. 
Thubutu hu-, to dare, to have 
courage for, to be i»'oved. 
Sithubutu, I dare not. 
Thuku ku-, to taste. 
Thukuru ku-, to invoke. 
ThvUi, distress, mLaoKy. 



396 



THU 



TIT 



Thulumu, wrong. 

Thulumu hu-f to do wrong, to per- 
secute. 
TItulurUf a kind of sandpiper. 
Ttiuluth, & t\i\id, AlaoThtluth, 
Thumu ku; to slander. 
Tliurea^ a chandelier. 
77mru Zru-, to harm. 

HaithurUy no harm, it does not 
matter. 
Tia liU't to put, to put into. 

Kutia nanga, to anchor. 

Kutia chuoni, to put to school. 
Tiara, a boy's kite. 
Tiba, a term of endearment. 
Tibil-a ku-, to be cured. 
Tibu ku-j to cure. 
Tibu, a kind of scent. 
Tibua ku-f to stir up and knock 

about. 
Tifua ku-, to cause to rise like dust 

or a mist. 
Tifuka ku-, to rise in a cloud. 
Tit fett-, to obey. 
Tiisha ku-, to make to obey, to 

subdue. 
Tika ku-, or ttrnlca, to put a burden 

on a man's head for him. 
Tiki, just like, exactly as. 
Tikia ku'y to reply. Sec Itikia. 
Tikisa ku-, to shake. 
Tikiti, plur. matikiti, a sort of water 

melon. 
Tikitika ku-, to be shaken. 
Tikitiki, utterly and entirely, to the 

last mite. Also, (M.) into little 

bits. 
Tikiza ku-, to have patience with. 
Tilia ku-, to put to, for, &c. 
Tilifika ku-, to waste, to grow less. 
Tilifisha ku-, to diminish, to make 

to dwindle away. 
Tilifu ku-, to ruin, to waste. 



TOaia Xw-, lo dam. 

TiffMuiy a 8tone hong by a line^ufled 

as a plnmmet by maaons. 
Timbiy bracelets 
Tiwhfua In»-, to begin to ahow itael^ 

like the sun in rising. 
Timia Aw-, to be oomplete. 
Timilia Acu-, to become complete. 
-timilif tt, complete, perlect. 
Timiliza hu-, to make complete. 
Timiza ku-, to complete, to make 

perfect 
Time, a woman's name. 
Timvi, an ill-omened child. 
Tinda ku- (M.) = Chinja hn-, to 

cut, to cut the throat, to slaughter. 
Tindika ku- (A.), to fall short 
Tindikta ku-, to cease to. 

Imenitindikia, I am oat of it» I 
have no more. 
Tindikiana ku-, to be separated, to 

be severed, as friends or relations 

at a distance from one another. 
Tinge,B. game consisting in imitating 

all the motions of a leader. 
Tint, a fig, figs. 
Tini (M.) = Chini, down. 
Tipitipi, a brown bird, a mocking 

bird. 
Tipua ku-, to scoop out, to dig out, 

to dip out. 
Tiririka ku-, to glide, to trickle. 
TtVa = Tissia, nine. 
Tisaini, ninety. 
Tisatashara, nineteen. 
Tisha ku-, to frighten, alarm, make 

afraid. 
Tissia, nine. 

Tita ku; to tie up together. 
Tita, plur. maiita, a faggot, a bundle 

of firewood. 
Titi, the nipple. 
Tiiia ku-, to shake, to sink in. 



TIT 



TOM 



397 



Also (?) of the sea, when deep 
and rough, to boiL 
Titika hu-, to carry a bundle of 

sticks, &c. 
Titima hu-, to roar and roll like 

thunder. 
Titiwanga, chicken-pox. See Kiti- 

wanga. 
Tiwo (?), paralysis. 
4o^ a suffix, denoting goodness or 
propriety, rarely used in Zan- 
zibar. 
Kuweha, to put ; 

Kuioekato, lo put properly. 
Manuka, smells ; 
Manukata, scents. 
Toa ku-, to put out, to take away, 
give, expel, to deliver, to except, 
to choose out. 
Kutoa memo, to grin, to show the 
teeth, to snarl. 
Toazij plur. matoazi, cymbals. 
Tohaf repentance. 
Tohoa kit-, to break through, to 

break a hole in a wall. 
Tobwe, a simpleton, ignoramus. 
Tofa^ plur. matofa^i, a fruit shaped 
like a codling with rosy-coloured 
streaks, = To7nond(h See Mto- 
mondo. 
Tofali, plur, matofalij a bri(^. 
Tofauti, difference, dispute. 
Nimemgia tofauti kwa kuwa wee 
umeniibia fetha yangu, I have 
a quarrel with you for stealing 

my money. 
Tofu>a ku-f to hurt or put out an 

eye. 
Tofuka ku', to have an eye hurt or 

put out 
Toga kit-, to pierce the ears. 
Togvoa, unfermented beer. 
Tohara, oircumcisioik 



Tohara ku-, to purify by ablutions, 

to perform the Mohammedan 

ablutions. 
Tot, a kind of wild goat. 
Toja hur, to slash, cut gashes, as a 

means of bleeding, &c. 
Tojo, a cut made for ornament, &c. 
Toka or Tokea, from, since. 
Toka ku-y to go or come out or away 
from, to be acquitted, to go 
free. 

Kutoka damu, to bleed. 

Kutoka hari, to sweat. 
Tokana ku-, to go forth from one 

another, to divorce, to be set free. 
Tokea, from, since. See Toka. 
Tokea hapo, in old time, from old 

time. 
Tokea ku-, to come out to, or from, 

to appear. 
Tokeza ku-, to ooze out, to project. 
Tokomea few-, to get out of one's 
Tokoniy the pelvis. [sight. 

Tokono (A.), the hips. 
Tokora ku-, to pick one's teeth. 
Tokosa ku-, to boil, to cook by 

boiling. 
Tokoseka ku-, to be well boiled, to 

be done. 
Tokota ku', to become boiled, to be 

cooked by boiling. 
Tolea ku; to put out for, ta offer to. 

Kutolewa, to have put out for 
one, or to be put out, to be 
dismissed. 
Toma, orchitis, hydrocele. 
Tomasa ^M-,to poke with the fingers, 

to feel, used of examining a 

living creature, as JBonyesha, of 

inanimate objects. 
Tomba ku-, to Lave sexual connec- 
tion with. 
TomhOy a quail. 



398 



TOM 



Tomea ku- (M.) = ChotMa In-. 
TomM hu-f to point by plastering 

over and putting 8mall Btones in 

to make the work firm. 
Tomesha ku-, to set on (a dog, &o.> 
Tomo, dru68 of iron, &o. 
Tomise = Tomo. 
TomondOy a hippopotamoa. 
Totnando, plur. malomondo = To/aa, 
Tona ku-, to drop. 
Tona ku-, 

Kutona hina, to lay and bind on 
a pLister of henna until the 
part is dyed red. 

Kutona godoro, to sew through a 
mattress here and there to oon- 
fine the stuffing. 
Tondooj a small brown nut con- 
taining oil. 
Tonesha ku-y to strike against, to 

touch a sore place, to make a sore 

run. 
Tone, plur. matone, a drop. 
Toneza ku-, to cause to drop. 
Tonga ku- (M.) = Chcnga ku-, to 

cut. 
Tongea ku- = Chongea, 
Tongonnibay a small bird black 

with white neck ; it makes a 

great noise in flying. 
Tongoza ku-, to seduce. 
Tope, mud, plur. matope, much mud. 
Topea ku-, to sink in mire, to be 

stogged. 
Topetope, a custard apple. 
Topeza ku-, to be too heavy for one. 
Topoa ku-, to take out, to brettk a 

spell, to clear for cultivation. 
Tora, plur. matora, a small spear. 
Torati, the law of Moses, the Pen- 
tateuch. 
Toroka ku, to run away from a 

muster, from home, &a 



TUA 

Tmro^ha Iw^ to abdnefc^ to ludiin it 

ran away. 
Tom ku-^ to caoM to sink^ todiown 

Kutosa macho, to spoil fhe eyei. 
To$a, plv. wuMioMt tiuii just be- 
ginning to ripen, all bat lipe. 
Totha ku-, to suflSoe, to be enos^ 

for, to cause to come cmt. 
To$hea ku-, to be astoniahed, to be 

staggered. 
TosheUta hur^ to snfBoa. 
Tonhewa ku-, to be astonialied. 
Tola ku; to sink. 
Totea kur (M.) = Ckoehsa Im-. 
Toteza macho ku-, to spoil the ajes. 
Totoma ku-, to be lost, to wander. 
Totora^ to pick one's teeth. Also^ 

Tokora. 
Tooya = Chonya, 
Towea ku-, to eat as a relisih or 

kitoweo, 
Toioeka ku-, to yaniah. At Lomoo 

this word is usihI for to cUsw 
Tovoelea ku-, to eat by moothfulsL 
Toweslui ku-, to ruin, to pat out of 

the way. 
Toujeza ku-, to pour gravy, in^ over 

the rice. 
Tozi, plur. matozi (M.), a teez. 
Trufu, trump (in cards). 
Tut only, nothing but ibis, only 

just. The -u of tu is very short ; 

it always follows the word or 

phrase which it qualifies. 
Tu, we are or were. 
Tu or Tw; the sign of the first 

person plural, voe, 
'tu- or -tw; the objective prefix de- 
noting the first person plural, im. 
Tua ku-, to put down, to put down 
loads, to rest, to halt, to encamp, 
to set (of the sun). 

Jua likitua, at sunset 



TUA 



TITM 



399 



Tua TeU; to grind by pvfihing a 

stone backwards and forwards. 
Tuama Icu-^ to settle, to dear itaelfl 
Tuana hu-, to settle. 
Tubia ku-9 to repent et 
Tuhu ku; to repent. 
Tufanuy a storm, a tempest. 
2V/e,aball. 
Tuhumu ku', to accuse of, to lay to 

his charge, to suspect. 
Tui (M.) = Ckui, a leopard. 
Tui, the oily jidce squeezed out of 

^he scraped cocoa-nut. 
Tuiliza ku-, to prolong. 
Tuja ku- (M.) = Chuja ku-, to strain. 
Tvkcbf posts of » verandah or long 

eaves. 
Tukana X;«-, to use bad language 

to, to abuse, to address with in- 
sulting or indecent expressions. 
Tukano, plur. matukanOy bad words, 

insulting or filthy language. 
Tukiakiir^ &c.(M.) = Chukiak%k;&(i, 
Tukia ku-y to happen. 
Tukioy plus, matukioy a thing which 

happens, an aecident. 
Tukiza ku-, to project. 
Tuktta kth, &e. (M.) = Chukua 
-tukufu, glorious, great. Iku-, &c. 
Tukuka ku-, to become exalted, to 

grow great. 
Tfikusa ku-, to move, to shake. 
Tukuta kur, to move about restlessly, 

to shake nervously. 
Tttkutiza ku- (obscene). 
Ttikuza ku-y to exalt, to make great. 
TuUa ku-f to become quiet, to settle 

down, to amend from a riotous 

life. 
Tuiia, don't make a noise. 
Ttdia ku-y to grind with. See Tua. 

Jivoe la kutulia, a stone to grind 
with. 



Tulika ku-f to beserene attd tvanqufl. 
Tulilia Am-, to settle down for or in 
regard to. 

Tamekutulilia f have you under- 
stood me? 

TamenituUUa, I have. 
TuUHana ku-, to oome to an agree- 
ment. 
Tuliza ku-, to calm, to stiU. 
Tidizia ku-, to catm for, 

Kutulizia roho, to calm, to console. 
Tuma ku-, to employ, to- send about 

some business. 
Tuma ku- (M.) = Chmna hu-, to 
Tumaa ku-, to hope. [profit. 

Tumai ku- = Tttmaa, 

Roho yatumai, I hope. 
Tumaini ku-, to be confident, to 

hope. 
Tumadnisha ku-, io make confident, 

to make to hope. 
Tumania ku-, to hope in, confide in. 
Tumba, a long rice*ba^. 
Tumbako, tobacco. 

Kuvuta tumbako, to smoke. 

Tumbako ya kunuka or kunusa^ 
Tumbasi, an abscess. [snufil 

Tumbili, a small kind of light- 
coloured monkey. 
Tumbo, plur. matumho, gut, belly, 
viscera, womb. 

Tumbo la kuenenda, diarrhoea. 

Tumbo la kuharadamu, dysentery. 
Tumbua ku-, ta disembowel, cut 

open, pick a hole in, open (an 

abscess). 
Tumbuiza kih, to soothe, to sing to, 

to sing by turns. 
Tumbuka ku-, to burst, to be bursty 

&o. See Tunibua, 
Tumbukia ku-, to fall into. 

Am^etumbukia, kisimani, he hoA 
got va\fy ^ «ictv^. 



400 



TUM 



TUT 



Tumbukiza hu-, to throw into, to 

cause to fall into, to get a person 

into a Bcrape. 
Tumbulia hu^, 

Kutumhulia mcuiho, to stare at. 
TumbuUj a staple. 
Tumbuza hu-, to disembowel, to 

penetrate, to get through. 
TumCy a messenger. 
Tumia hu-, to employ, to spend, to 

use. 
Tumika hu-, to be employed, to 

serve. 
Tumikia ku-y to be employed by, to 

serve, to obey. 
Tumu, taste, tasting. 
TumUj the month Eamathau. 
Tuna ku; &c. (M.) = Chuna ku, &o. 
Tuna ku-y to swell, to get cross. 
Tunda, plur. matunda^ a fruit. 
Tundama ku-, to gather, to settle at 

the bottom. 
Tundika kwt to hang up, to be 

suspended. 
Tunduy plur. tundu or matundu, a 
hole, a cage, a nest. 

Tundu ya pua^ a nostril. 
Tunduaa Ku-, to stand stockstill in 

wonder at, &c. 
Tunga, a round open basket. 
Tunga ku-f to suppurate. 
Tunga ku-j to put together in order, 

to string beads, to make verses. 
Tungama ku-^ to clot, to congeaL 
Tungamana ku-, to be steady. 
Tungia ku-, to thread a needle. 
Tungua ku-f to let down, to pull 

down, to hook down. 
Tunguka ku-, to be pulled or let 

down. 
Tungika ku-^ to depend upon, to 

hang from. 
Tungu (M.) = Chungu, ants. 



Tungttfa^ a oomnum ireed, a ap&im 

of Bolanom. 
TunguUa Int- (M.) k OhunguUa hh, 

to peep. 
Tunika hu- (IL), to lose fhe akfi^io 

be flayed. 
Tunu, a xarity, a oihoioe gifl| a 

present. 
Tunvka hu^ to lo?e exoeaaivaly, to 

long for. 

Tunukia huj to make a present toi 

Tunza, plur. matufUM^ oare. 

Tunza hu-, to take oare of| to look 
after, to make gifts to« 

Tupa, a file. 

Tupa, plur. matupa 01L\ a bottle. 

Tupa hu-, to throw, to throw away. 
Kutupa nathariy as maehOf to oast 

a glance, to oast the eyes. 
Kutupa mkonOyio break off&ieiid- 
shlp. 

Tupia ku-, to throw at, to pelt with. 

2'upiza ku-, to pass its proper mea- 
sure or time. 

-tupu, bare, empty. It makes tupu 
with nouns like nyumba. See 
Utupu. 

Tupua ku-, to root out, to pull up. 

Turuhani, tare, allowance for pack- 
age, &c., in weighing. 

Turuma, See Maturuma. 

Turupuka ku-, to slip out of one'b 
hand. 

Tushiih, ascriptions of praise, a 
rosary, the beads used by Mo- 
Iiammedans in praying. Sea 
Tasbih. 

Tusha ku-y to lower, to make mean 
or low. 

Tushif plur. matushi, abuse, bad 
language. See Matusu. 

Tusmra, a picture. 

Tuta, plur. matutaf a heap^ of earth,. 



TUT 



tJ 



401 



II raised bed for planting sweet 
potatoes. 
Tutu I Leave it alone 1 Don't touch 1 

Used to little children. 
Tutuha Aft*-, or Tutu*fnka or Tutu- 
sikay to rise in little swellings, to 
come o«t in a rash. 
Tutuma ku-, to make a noise of 

bubbling, to boil up. 
Tutumua ku-, 
Kujitutumuaf to gather oneself 
up for en effor4;. 
Tuza ku; or Tuuza kur^ to weep (of 
a wound). 
Kutnza damn (M.), to run down 
with blood, to bleed exces- 
sively. 
Tuza ku- = Tunza kU'» 
Kujituzaj to make oneself mean 
or low. 
Tuzanya ku-^ to come to an agree- 
ment (A.). 

Twa kuQl.) = Chioa kth. 
Ttocui ku-j to take. 

JBlutwaa nyara, to take as spoH. 
Twalia ku'^ to take from. 
Twaliwa ku-y to be deprived of, to 

have had taken from one. Used 

also in the sense of, to be taken. 
Twana ku- or Tuana ku-, to settle. 
Twana ku- = Twazana, 
Twanga ku-^ to clean com from the 

husk by pounding it in a wooden 

-mortar. 
Twangia ku-t to clean com for, 

with, etc. 
Tioazana ftu-, to resemble in face, 

to be like. 
Tweka ku-, to hoist, io raise, to 

^ke up. 
Tweeha ku-, to go by night to see 

any one. 



Tteeta ku-^ to pant, io strive for 

breath. 
Tvjeza ku-, to despise, to hold in 

contempt. 
Tvngat & giraffe, a eamelopard. 
Twika A:ii-,'to put a load on a man's 

head. Also TVca, 



U. 

17 is pronounced like oo in food. 

TT before a vowel takes a conso- 
nantal sound, and may be writteil 
w. This change is not so marked 
before a u as before the other vowels. 
Sometimes both u's keep their vowel 
sound. TJ before o is frequently 
dropped: 

Meyo = Muoyo, 

The syllable mu- is seldom so 
pronounced in Zanzibar; it becomes 
mw- or *m, or a simple m. 

L and u are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged, as, 

Ufalme or Ufaume, a kingdom. 

Mlango ot MwangOy a door. 

Nouns in «- or w- generally lose 
their u- in A,he plural, most of them 
substituting n- or ny- for it, but 
dissyllable nouns keep the u- and 
prefix ny'. See N, 

The insertion of a -u- before the 
final -a of a verb reverses its mean- 
ing. 

Knfunga, to fasten. 

Kufunguay ix) unfasten. 

There is a suppressed I between 
the u and the a (as always in 
Swahili between two consecutive 
vowels), which appears in the ap- 
plied forms. 

KufunguUa, to unfasten for. 

The paA«i<9^ ^ \Jsi'^ ^^-^^Vswas^ 



402 



VOB 



of vex bs in '•mi la uwd alto m the 
passive of the simple form. 

Ku/ungMliiea^io be nnfaiiteDed, or 
to have unfastened for one. 

Kwia, to kill, is irzegnlar, and 
makes its passive by adding -too, 
huuauHij to be killed. 

U (Ar.), and. 

Uy thou art, it is, of nouns in «•, 
and of those which make their 
plural in mi-. 
U' or w-t the sign of tbe seeond 

person singular. 
U' or 10-, the personal prefix of the 
third person singular denoting a 
Bubatantive in tf-, <» one which 
makes its plural in mi-. 
-tt-, or -to-, the objective |»efiz de- 
noting a substantive in u-, or one 
that makes its plural in mi-. 
17- as a substantive prefix is used 
to form abstract nouns, and also 
to form the names of countriea, 
as, 
Unyika, the Kyika country ; 
Ugala, the Galla country ; 
DzungUf the country of Eu- 
ropeans. 
Ua Teu-f to kilL 

Passive, huimtoaj to be killed. 
Ua, plur. mauaf a flower. 
Uaf plur. nyiM, a yard, an enclosure, 
a fence. 
Ua wa mabua, an enclosure fenced 

with miama stalks. 
Ua tea makuti, an enclosure fenced 
with plaited cocoa-nut leaves. 
Uanda, a court, a yard. 
Uanda = Wanda. 
Uanja = Uanda, 
Uapo, plur. npapo, an oath. 
Uauoa hU'^ to be killed. 



Ua^ ptar. flpay^ ihm nte of fiia 
foot, a footprint 

Vbabwa^ P^ft aoft ftod Ar chil- 
dren. 

Ubaju or Ubmmt, pliy.wi— ^»riik 

Jftetmi^, in or ftt ite aidsb 
Ubani, inoenae^ galhamiaL 
UhmiUi, nnllity. 
Ubau, plur. «&««» a phu^ 
Ubavca, plur. miawo, a wisg ftathuT 
Uhaxazu 
Kufanya fAatuuii^ to make a bar- 
gain. 
Ubdeho, a cloth worn bj woaea^ a 
eostomary pr e s o mfc to- ika bride's 
mother on the oooaaifln of a 
wedding. 
Uhuhi, a joke. 
Uhtufu, the inside of tbo mlabaah 

fruit 
Uchafu or Uckavu, fllthlnowi 
Uchagaa = Utagaa. 
Uchala, a raised stage to pot oon 

&c. upon. 
Uchawi, witehcraft, blaok magie. 
Kufanya iicAatoi, to praetiaa 
witchcraft 
Uchi, nakedness. 
UchipukOf plur. chipukoj a dioot, a 

blade of grass. 
UchocihorOf a passage, opening be- 
tween. 
UcihovUf tediousnesa. 
Uchu, a longing. 
Uchukuti, the leafstalk of the ooooa- 

nut leaf. 
Uchukuzi, carriage, cost of carry- 
ing. 
UchuktJDi, a kind of rice. 
UchunU = Utumi, 
Uchungu, bitterness, pain, poison. 
Uchungu, bitter. See -chungu. 
Dawa uchungu, bitter medioiiiB. 



UDA 



UKA 



408 



UcMa, babbling, telling fieorets. 
UdevUi plur. ndevu, one hair of the 

beard. 
UdogOf smallness, youth. 
Udongo, day, a kind of earth used 

to mix with the lime and sand in 

making mortar. 
Ufa ku-j to become cracked. 
Ufa, plur. nyvf4t, a craok. 

Kutia Ufa, to oradc. 
Ufagio, plur. fa^io, a brush, a Iwroom, 

a bundle of the leaves of a palm 

used to sweep with. 
Vfahamttf memt)ry. 
Ufajiri = Alfajiri, 
Ufalmeor C[/ai*wie,kingdoffl, royalty. 
Ufidiwa, a ransom. 
Ufisadi, vice. 
Ufiski, Tice. 
UfitOt plur. fitOf a thin stick, sticks 

snch as those which are used a« 

laths to tie the iMkkuti thatch to. 
Ufizi^ plur. fizi, the gums. 
Ufu, death, the state of being dead. 
Ufufvlio or Ufufvo, resurrection, 

reyival. 
Uftikara, destitution. 
Ufukvoe, absolute destitutioo. 
Ufmvin, valley, bottom. 
Ufungcb, stone bench^ = Kibaraza, 
Ufungu, relatives. 
Ufunguo, plur. funguo, a key. 
Ufiio, sandy b€och. 
Ufuta, semsenk 
Ufuthuli, ofQciousness. 
Uga, an open space in a town where 

a house has been pulled down, or 

where a dance could be held. 
Ugali, porridge. 

Uganga, white magic, medicine. 
Ughaibii, the little packet of ^etel 
leaf, areca nut, lime, and tobacco 
made up for chewing. 



Ugo, endosm^e, dose. 

Ugomvi, a quarrel, quarrdsomeitess. 

Ugonjwa, sickness, a sickness. 

Ugrani, a general collection of debts. 

Ugua hvr, to fall sick, to groan. 

Ugvmu, hardness, difScuity. 

Uguza ku', to nurse, to take oare of 

Ugwe, string. {a siok person. 

Uharaibut mischief. 

Uharara, warmth. 

UharibivUf destruction, destraotive- 
ness. 

UMagi, want, thing wanting. 

Uhuru, freedom. 

UimbOj-plm. nyimbo,& song, a ballad. 

Uirari (in arithmetic), proportion, 
division of profits. €ee Worari, 

Uizi, theft, thieving. 

Ujahili, boldness. 

Ujalifu, fulness. 

Ujana, youth. 

Ujari, tiller-ropea.' 

Ujenzi, building. 

Uji, grueL 

Ujima, help of neighbours, assist- 
ance in work. 

Ujinga, rawness, dulness, ignorance. 

Ujia, coming. 

Ujira, hire, reward. 

Ujumbe, chiefship, headship. 

UJuvi, knowingness, officiousness, 
pretended knowledge. 

Ujusi, defilement, whatever is re- 
moved by ablutions. 

Uhmngo, plur. Imango, an earthen 
pot for cooking with oil or fat. 

Uhafu, 
Ukafu wa maji^ a bubble on 
water. 

Uhali, fierceness, sharpness. 
Kufanya ukali, to scold. 

Ukambaa, plur. kambaa (M.), cord 
line. 



404 



UKA 



VKV 



Ukamili/u, perfeotnefls, perfeotioD. 
UkandGj a strap. 
27^00, stay, stopping. 
Ukarimu, goDeroBity, liberality. 
Ukatea^ delay. 

TJkayOy a long pieoe of blue calico, 
often ornamented with spangles, 
worn by slaves and poor women 
in Zanzibar over their heads: 
it had two long ends, reaching 
nearly to the ground. 
UkeleUy plur. heleUy a cry, a noise. 
Akapigiwa ukelde^ and a cry was 
made at him. 
TJhemij a call (Mer.). 

Nipigie ukemiy give me a calL 
XTkengele, a sort of knife made in 

Zanzibar. 
UhetOt depth. 

Ukingo, the brink, a screen, an en- 
closure made with cloths. 
Ukiriy plur. kiri, a strip of fine 
matting about an inch broad, out 
of which mikeka are made. 
UkivjOy desolation, solitude where 

people once were. 
XJko or HukOy there. 
Ukoat plur. k^oa, a plate of metal, 
one of the rings on the scabbard 
of a sword, &c. 
Ukoga, the tartar and dirt on the 

teeth. 
Ukohozif phthisis. 
Ukoka, grass cut for fodder. 
Ukoko, the rice on the top of the 
pot, which is often dry and 
scorched through the custom of 
pouring away the water when the 
rice is done and heaping live 
embers on tiie lid of the pot. 
Ukoko (A.), a cough. 
Ukologefuj decay. 
Vkoma, leprosy. 



rifcomte, a wmpery a onrred knifb 
for hollowing oat mortan, fto. 

TJhowholewti^ a ransom. 

Uk&mbozi or Ukomiboo^ a ranaom 

Ukonde (10a tenda\ a (date) •tone. 

Ukongwe^ oldness, extreme old aga 

UkonyezOy plur. honyeto^ a sigii made 
by lifting the eyebrow. 

Ukoo, nastinees, tmoleaimeai (?)l 

Ukoo, ancestry, pedigree^ iiuDily 
origin and oonneotions. 

Ukope, plur. hope, a hair from the 
eyelash. 

Ukosiy the nape of the necACi 

Uknbali, acceptance. 

UkubujcLi greatness, big^ees. 

Ukucha, plur. kucha, a nail, a elaw, 
a hoof. 

Ukuftf plur. hufij a handfdl, what 
will lie upon the hand. 

Ukumbi, an apartment at the en- 
trance, a hall, a porch. The 
ukumhi is within a stone house 
and outside a mud houae. 

Ukumbuka, recollection. 

UkumhuskOf memorial, a reminder. 

Vkumbuu, plur. kumbuu, a girdle 
made of a narrow cloth, a turban 
cloth twisted tightly into a sort 
of rope such as the turbana of 
the Hindis are made of. 
TIkundufUf pleasingness, oommo- 
diousness, liberality. 

UkungUf mould, mouldiness. 

Kufanya ukunguy to get mouldy. 
UkungUf the first light of dawn. 
Ukuni, plur. kurUt ft piece of fire- 

wood. 
TJkurasa, plur. kurasa, a leaf of a 

book, a sheet of paper. 
TJkvtay plur. kuta^ a stone wall. 
Ukuti, plur. kuHy a leaflet of the 
cocoa-nut tree. 



tiKtr 



ttm:k 



405 



Ttkuu, greatness, size. 
Ukwaju, a tamarind. 
rrA:t«a8e/u,necessit7,Iiavingnothing. 
Ukwcuii, wealfh, riches. 
UkwdtOj plnr. kwatOf a hoof. 
XllalOf a tree or trees cut down so 

as to fall across a river and make 

a bridge oyer it. 
Vlajij gluttony. 

ZJlanibiyamhij a very young dafa. 
Ulanisij a foul-mouthed person. 
Ulaya t)r Wilaya, home; applied 

especially to the home -of Euro- 
peans, Europe. 
VJayiti, European, inferior calico. 

Kamha ulayiti, hempen rope. 
Ule, that, yonder. 
Ulediy a dhow boy, a cabin boy. 
UlegevUj relaxation, the state of 

being slack. 
Ulia ku-f to kill for, with, &o. 

Tumidie mbalif let us kill him 
out of the way. 
Ulili, a couch or bedstead {KianZ' 

want), 
UlimbOf birdlime, gum, resin. 
Ulimbwende, dandyism. 
TJlimiy plur. ndimi, the tongue, a 

tenon, the heel of a mast. 
ZFlimwengUj the world, the universe, 
a man^s own world or circle of 
duties and pleasures. 

Kuwako ulimwenguniy to be alive. 
TllingOt a raised «platform "to scare 
Ulioy which is. [birds from. 

JJlitima, the last three cards of the 

pack. 
TJliza ku'y to ask, to inquire of a 
person. 

Kumuliza hali, to ask how he 
-does. 

Siwezi kuulizwa uvoongo^l cannot 
tell a lie* 



TJlizia ku'f to make inquiries on 

behalf of. 
TJUmgOy falsehood. See Uwongo, 
Umat plur. nyuma, a spit, a large 
fork, an awl. 

Umaioa kuokeanyama^ a gridiron. 
Uma ku'j to bite, to sting, to hurt» 

to give pain to, to ache. 
Umciheli, ingenuity. 
Umdlidadii dandyism. 
Umande, dew, morning air, mist, 

the west wind. 
TJmasikiniy poverty. 
Umati, a multitude, people. 
Umati laay Christians. 
Umati Musa, Jews. 
Umati Muhammady Mohammedans. 
Urnba ku-, to create, to shape. 
Umba kU'f to bale out a boat. For 

Kumiba. 
Umhaumba ku-y to sway about like 

a drunken man. 
UnibOy plur. manimhoy form, outward 
likeness, appearance, character, 
species. 

Najiona umbo la kuwa kiziwiy I 
feel getting deaf. 
UmbUy plur. maumbuy a sister. 
Umbua ku-y to allege a defect, to 

depreciate. 
Umbwa, or better Mbuoay a dog. 
'Ume (or -Zttwe), male, strong. It 
makes ndume with nouns like 
nyumba. 

Mkono wa kuumey the right hand. 
Umsmcy lightning. 
Umia ku-y to give pain to. 
Umika ku; to cup. 
UmiOy the oesophagus. 
UmitOy heaviness, feeling heavy. 
Umiza ku-, to hurt. 
Umka ku'y to swell, to rise when 

leavened. 



406 



UMK 



VPA 



Umku (?) kur, to call. 
Umo or Uumo, there iiuido. 
Umoja, oneueta. 
Umri, age. 

Umri ttake apatajef How old 
is he? 
Umua ku; to take honey from the 

hive. 
I7na, you have, thon hast 

Una nwif What is the matter 
with you ? 
Unazozilaka, which you are asking 

for. 
Unda ku-, to build ships or boats. 
UndUy the comb of a cock. 
Unenct stouinest), thickness. 
Unenyekeo^ hnmilityy abasement^ 

reverence. 
Unga, flour, powder. 

Unga wa ndere, a magic poison. 
Unga ku-t to unite, to splice, to join. 
Ungama, a place near Meliuda, 

swallowed up by the sea. 
Ungama ku-, to acknowledge, to 

confess of one's own accord. 
Ungamana kvr, to bring together, 

connect. 
UngamOy a yellow dye used for 

dyeing matting. 
Ungana livr^ to unite, to join together. 
Unge^f the sign of the second person 
sing, conditional. 

UngedumUf you would continue. 

Ungekwjca, you would be. 
Ungi, much, plenty. 
UngOf the hymen (?). 

Kuvunja ungOj to be deflowered, 
to begin to menstruate. 
UngOt plur. maungoj a round flat 

basket used in sifting. 
JJngua A;u-, to be scorched or scalded. 
Uuguja, Zanzibar. 
Ungulia ku-, to scorch or scald. 



Unquxa km-^ to flocnoh or aotldy to 

b«ni. 
TJmgMMwiLt the state of beiii^ a fSree 

and oiviliied man, civilisation. 
-ttn^iMiNa, oiviliied, aa cvppoaed to 
-fftenxt; free^ at oppoaed t» 
AumwcL 

KiungwanOf of a e&riliaed kind. 
UnwiU, or Unwdd^ ot Um^eU, plw. 

ayele, a hair. 
Untfogo. See KiMyaga. 

Kuchexea unyago^ to teaoh vo- 
manhood. 
Unyasi, reed, grass. 
UnyayOf plur. nyayo^iJliB aole of tlM 

fuot, a fbotprinl 
Unyele. See UnueU, 
Unyende, 

Kupiga unyende, to «j wiUi a 
feeble thin voice. 
TJnyikay the Nyika ooantry. 
Unyoa, plur. nyo(i, a feather. 
TJnyofu, straightness, apzightnoM. 
Unyogovu, idleness. 
UnyongBf vileness, meanness. 
Unyungu, 

Kupiga unyungu, to strot about, 
to show oneself off. 
TJnymhiy plur. nyuthi, a haiz foom 

the eyebrow. 
Z7o, plur. mnuo, a sheath. 
TJoga or Woga^ fear. 
Z7oz7tf, rottenness, badness, oorzup- 

tion, malice, evil. 
TJoziy marriage. 
Upaa, baldness. 

Upaa wa kitioa, crown of the 
head, baldness. 
TTpaja^ plur. paja, the thigh. 
Upaji, liberality. 
Upambat plur. pavtiiha, a bill, a small 

hatohet. 
Upana, width, breadth. 



UPA 



WBA 



407 



Upande, plur. pande^ a side, part. 
Wpemde wa Mvita, neac er about 

Mombas. 
Ujpande wa ohiniy^ie under aide, 

the lee eidei 
Wpande wa juu, the iq>per side, 

the weather side. 
Upande wa goekini;, the sidle wh^re 
the tack of the sail is fastened, 
the weather side. 
dpanga, a ooek's comb. 
Upanga, pitir. panga\ a sword. 
Upaatga wafelegifA kmg straight 
two-edged swcard earzied by the 
Arabs. 
Upanga wa tmant, a siaort sword 

with a kind of cross hilt. 
Kuweha upanga, to set up a 
sword on its edge^ 
Upao, plur. pao, one of the smaiH 
sticks used as laths to tie the 
thatch to. 
Upapi, the outer beading of a door 

frame* 
Upataji, value. 

Upato, a round plate of copper 
beaten as a musical instrument. 
Upawa, plur. peuoaif a flat ladle made 
out of a cocoa-nut shell, used 
for serving out curry, gravy, &o. 
An upawa differs from a kcUa in 
being very much flatter and 
shallower: more than two- 
thirds of the shell are cat away 
to make an upaioa ; scarcely a 
quarter is cut off in making a 
Jcata, 
Upehecho, the piece of wood used 

to make fire by rubbing. 
Upekelevti, destruction, harm, quar- 
relling. 
Upele, plur. pele, a large pimple. 
:PtiU, the itch. 



Upemho, cnrved end, hook, a stick 

to hook down fruit with. 
Upendaji, tiie habit of liking. 
UpenddvyOy as you please. 
UpendehOj favour. 
Upenzi, love, affeetion, liking. 
Upeo, plur. peo <M.), a sweeping 

brush. 
Upeo, the extremest point vis6bfo, 

the extreme limit, something 

which cannot be surpassed. 
UpepeOj plur. pepeo, a fan; 
UpepOf plur. pepot a wind, cokt 

See Pepo, The plural is used to 

denote much wind. 
UpeH, quickly, lightly. 
Upia = Upyay newness. 
Upindi, plur. pindi, a bow. 

Upindi wa mvua, the rainbow. 
UpindOy a fold, a hem. 
UpOj a water-dipper for a boat er 

dhow. 
Upofuj blindness. 
JTpogo, a squint. 
Upogoupogo, zigzag; 
UpoiUy gentleness, meeknesSii 
Upondo, plur. pondoy a pole used to 

propel canoes and small vessels. 
Upongoe, plur. pongoe, the leaf stem 

of a palm tree. 
UpootOj paralysis. 
Upote, string, bowstring. 
Upotevui waste, destructiyeness, 

wastefulness. 
UpunibafUj folly. 
Upunga, plur. punga, a flower or 

embryo nut of the cocoa-nut tree. 
Upungu/Uj defect, defectivenesfc 
Upupu, oow-itoh. 

Upuzi, nonsense, chatter, silly talk. 
Upwehe, singleness, independenoe^ 
Upya, newness. 
Urathi, contentment. 



408 



UBB 



UTS 



Ure/tt, length. 

UrembOf omameDi, applied espe- 
cially to the black lines painted 
on their faces by the women of 
Zanzibar by way of ornament. 

Urithif inheritance. 

Urango = Uwongo. 

Uroiha, inyoioe. 

UrUf diamonds (in cards). 

Usafif shavings and chips. 

TJbcJio^ matter, pus. 

Usemiy talk, conversation. 

Uthadi, plur. nytuhadi, verses. 

Ushahidi, or Ushuhuda, testimony. 

UBhamhiliOf haste, suddenly. 

Uahangaj plur. shangOf a bead. 

Usharikaj partnership, sharing. 

Ushaufu, deceit. 

I78^era^t, dissipation. Also^s^att. 

Ushij a string-course. 

Ushujaa^ heroism, great oonrage. 

Vshukura, thanks. 

Uskungu^ a vegetable poison, used 
to poison arrows. 

JjBhupafu, perversity, crookedness. 

UshurUt tax, duty, customs. 

Usia ku-, to leave directions or 
orders, by will, &c. See Wasia. 

Usikizij hearing, attention, under- 
standing. 

Usiku, night. The plur. nku is used 
to denote days of 24 hours. Four 
vsihole nights must be rendered 
nku fine utfiku kucha. Four days 
and nights, siku nne mchana na 
usiku. 

TJeimangay mockery. 

Usimemef firmness. 

Usinga, plur. singaj a (straight, not 
woolly) hair. See Singa, 

Unngizif plur. singizif sleep. See 
Zingizi. 

Uairif delay. 



Uthoa, on the Ugh 

Uto, plnr. nputa, fiioe, oonntenuMa 

Utmbuij for Aaaubui^ in themomiiic^ 

the morning. 
Usu&i, a sandfly, a midge. 
Usufi, silk cotton ftaai tha ans/l 

tree. 
UtuktuUf plnr. mtkami^ a ruddat, 
UtuUam, snltanship. 
Ummba, see MaJaumbL 
Uta, plur. nyuta or maiaf a tov^ 
Uta. [bow and anowi.^ 

Mafuta ya uto, semaem cSL 
UUuLy a ndsed stage to pnft flora, 

&c. on. 
Utabibuy medical BcJepoa, being a 

doctor. 
UtagaOf a branch of airaiii 
Utaji, a veiL 
Utajiri, wealth. 
Utakcuiho, what yon wish. 
Utakatifu, holiness, purity. 
Utako (Mer.), keel of a dhow. 
Utambaa, plur. tambcui, a bandage, 

a rag. 
Utarribi, plur. tamhi, a lamp-widt, a 

piece of stuff for a turban. 
Utanibo {toa sufuria, &c.), a swing- 
ing handle like that of a pail. 
Utamvuat end or comer of atnrban, 

of a cloth, &o. 
Utandu (A.) = Ukoko, 
Utanduf hymen. 
Utaniy a kindred race, the belonging 

to a kindred tribe, familiarity. 
UfanzUj plur. ianzUf a branch. 
Utashiy desire. 
Utaai, tonguetiedness. 
Utawi. 

Kupiga utav>i, to drink grog to- 
gether. 
Ute, 
Ute wa yayi, the white of an egg. 



UTB 



VVTA 



409 



Utelezif slipperiness. 

Utemhe, the chewed refuse of betel 
leaf, &o. 

Utenzif a poem, especially a reli- 
gious poem. 

UteOy plur. tea (M.}» a sifting bas- 
ket. 

Utepe, plur. tepej a tapej a baud, a 
fillet:, a stripe. 

Utepetefu, languor. 

Utesiy strife. 

Uthabitij bravery,, firmness^ 

UthaifUf weakness, infirmity. 

Vthanif weight. 

Uthi hu'f to harass, trouble. 

Uthia, bother, noise, uproar. 

Uthia ku-, to harass. 

Uthibajh cheat, deceit, stratagem. 

Uthika ku-, to be harassed. 

Uthilifut calamity, great trouble. 

Uthuru kvrj to excuse. 

Uti wa maungo, the backbone. 

Utiko^ the xoof-iidge of a thatched 
house-. 

Utiririj a proyokiog trick. 

Uto/u, dull, without amusement. 

Utofu, thinness, weakness^ 

Utoko, mucus from the yagina. 

Uto. 
TJto vja nyama, fat cooked^ out of 
meat, dripping. 

Utonwoj thick white sap. 

Utondvjif small dhows trading: about 
Zanzibar, eoasters. 

Utosif the top of the head, 

Utoto, childhood, 

Utufu, fatigue. 

Utukufu, greatness, exaltation, 
glory. 

UtuUf wretchedness, weakness, un- 
fitness. 

UtulivUf quietness, patience. 



Utumhavu, thickness, swelling, 

rising. 
Uitunhnizo, a soothing thing, verses 

sung during a dance; 
Utume, sending people about. 
XJtumii use,^ usage. 
Utumo, business, place of business. 
Utumway slavery, employment, en- 
gagement. 

Kutia utumwani, to enslave. 
Utungu (M.) = Uchungu, 

Utungu, is used in the dialect of 
Zanzibar only for the pains of 
childbirth, XJtwngu wa uzazi. 
Utupaj a species of euphorbia used 

as a fish poison. 
UtupUf naked (vulgar). 

Mtu utupu, a naked mam 

Mtu mtupu, a mere mant 
Uuaji, murderousness. 
Uudi, aloes wood. 
Uuza ku. See Uza A;tf-. 
Uvi, a door [Tumbatu]; 
Uvivut idleness, sloth. 
Uvuguvugu, lukewannness. 

Maji yanct uvttguvugUf the water 
is lukewarm. 
Uvuli, shade. 

Uvumba, incense, galbanum. 
Uvundo, a smell of corruptioui 
Uvtirujika, tendency to crumble, a 

being spoilt and decayed. 
Uvurungu, hoUowness. 

Jiwe la uvurungu, a hollow stone. 
Uvyaziy birth. 
Uwanda^ a plain. 
Utoanga, arrowroot. 
Uwanga, a sweet dish made of 

wheat, flour, sugar, and ghee. 
XJwanja, a courtyard, an enclosure. 
TJvKLshi, masonry. 
Uwati, a vesicular eruption on the 

skin. 



110 



uwx 



VAIi 



Uwanri, the vizirsbip. 
Uweli, sickness, disease, 

Uweli wa imtngoy rheamatifflM. 
Uwezo, power, ability. 
Uioindck* 
Kupiga uwinda^ to pass tiie ends 
of the loin-cloth between the 
legs and tuck them in, as ia 
done loosely by the Banyans, 
and tightly by men at work. 
Uwingu, plur. rnbiTigu^ heayen, sky. 
The plural is the form, more com- 
monly used. 
Uvfimi, jealoui^. 
UwongOy falsehood. 
MuTienoye yamehuwa uwongo, he 
has becoBie a teller of lies. 
UyaJuapOy if you know them. 
Uyoga, a mushroom. 
Uyuzi, ingenuity. 
Uyuzi hu-j to ascertain. 
TJza hu-y to ask, to ask questions. 
TJza hu- or Za ku-, to selL 
The u in kimza, or rather huza, 
to sell, is very short and insig- 
nificant : it is possibly only a 
partial retention of the hu-, 
which bears the accent and is 
retained entire in the usual 
tenses. The u- in hiiiiza, to 
ask, is much more im])ortant, 
as is shown clearly in the ap- 
plied forms. 
KwdizOf to ask of a person ; 

pres. perf. ameulizcu 
KtUizttf to sell to a person; 
pres. perf. ameliza. 
Uzanya hu-, to be ordinarily sold, 

to be for sale. 
Uzazij birth. 
Uzee, old age. 

Uzenibe, indifference, apathy, slow- 
ness. 



Vzi, plur. nytud, thread, Btrlog, a 

stoipe. 
Uziki, poverty. 
Usshna, health, hdaridneas, eon^lete- 

ness, life. 
Uzingizi. Bee Zin^zi AnS: Uaingiei 
UzinguOf disenchantment, aer from 

the power of the evil eye. 
Uzini or Uzinzi, adultery, fonooa- 

tion. 
Uzio, plur. nyuziOf a hedge made in 

the sea to catch fish. 
Uzulia livrj to depose. 
JJzulu ku-f to depose, to lemore from 
an office. 

KujiwstHuy to resign, to give up a 
place or office, to abdicate. 
TJzwriy beauty, fineness, ornament 

Kufanya uzuri^ to adorn oneself. 
TJzmM, raising from the bottom, as 

in fishing for pearls. 
Uzuzu^ rawness, greenness (of a 

simpleton). 



V. 

Fis pronounced as in English. 

F, /, and h, are sometimes a little 
difficult to distinguish accurat^y in 
the dialect of Zanzibar. This is 
probably owing to the want of a « 
in Arabic 

V and vy change in some dialeets 
into Z'j in others into <^. 

Mwivif a thief, becomes mwiei at 
Lamoo, and mmtJU at Patta. 
Vaa ku-y to put on, to dress in. 

The past tenses are used in the 
sense of, to wear. 

AmevcM, he wears. 

Alivaat he wore. 
Valia &tt-. 



VAO 



VIT 



411 



Wihipi wa huvailia ngtta, a girdle 
to gird up one's clothes with. 

VctOf pliir. mavaoj dress. 

Varanga, interrupting and bother- 
ing talk. 

Vazij plur. mavazi, a dress, a gar- 
ment. 

Vemaj well, very well. 

Vem^ or Vyema, good. See -ema, 

Vi" or Vtf'j the plural prefix of sub- 
stantives (and of adjectives and 
pronouns agreeing with them) 
which make their singular in hi- 
or ch-, 

Vi' or Vy-y sign of the third person 
plural prefixed to verbs governed 
by nouns in vi- or vy-, 

Vi' or Vy- prefixed to adjectives 
often gives them oai adverbial 
sense. 

•m-, the objective prefix represent- 
ing nouns in vi- or vy-. 

Via ku-y to stop short of perfection, 
te b& stunted in ita growth, to 
remaiu only half cooked for want 
of fire, &C.,, &e. 

Viaa ku- = Vyaa hu-, 

Viatu (plural of KicUu), shoes, san- 
dals. 
Viatu vya Kiztingu, European 

shoes. 
Viatu vya ngozi, leather sandals. 
Viatu vya mti, wooden clogs. 

Viazi (plur. of Kiazi)^ sweet poti^ 
toes. 
Viazi vya Kizwngu, potatoes. 
Viazi vikuuy yams. 

Viberiti (plus, of Kiberiti), matches, 
lucifers. 

Vidani, coUars of gold, fte. 

Viembe or Vyembe, arrows. 

Vifaay necessaries, useful things. 

Figtoe, braid, reins. 



Vijineno, little words, prattle. 
Vika hu^ to clothe, te dress. 
ViUy those yonder. 
Vilevile, just those things, like 

things, in like manner. 
Vih'a ku-j to stop and stagnate, as 

the blood does in a bruise. 
VUix), a stagnation, a stoppage. 

MavUio ya damu, Inraises, effnsioil 
of blood. 
Vvmba ku-, to swell, to thatch. 
VimMtiha ku-, to overfeed a person. 
Vimbiwa ku-, to be overstuffed, to 

overeat oneself. 
Vimo, all of one size. 
Vinga vya moto, firebrands, nng. 

Kinga cha moto, 
Vingi, many. See 'dngi, 
Vingine, others. See -ngine* 
Vinjari ku-y to cruise about, to go 

looking out for sometbiBg, to 

watch. 
Vinyavinya ku-, to press and crush 

food for children and nek people. 
VinyL See Mwenyi, 
Vinyu = Mvinyo. 
Vioga hu- (M.), to tread. 
Viombo = Vyontho. 
Viote or Vyote, all. See -ote. 
Vipande vya kupirrday nautical in- 
struments, sextants, &c. 
Vipde (plur. of Kipde), small 
pimples, a rash. 

Vipele vya hararay prickly heat. 
Viringa kth, to become round. 

Imeviringa, it is round. 
Viringana ku-y to become spherical. 
Visha ku-y to give clothes to. 
Vita, war, 
Vitanga vya mizanif scales^ seale- 

pans. 
Vitindi vya ehahOy brass wire. 
Viiwa vitwcL^ topsy-turvy. 



41:2 



viv 



VUK 



Vtvia huh, to Bmoulder. 

Vivi him, common, just there, just 

BO, anyhow. 
-vivu, idle, dnll, slow. 

Kisu ni kivivu, the knife is bluit 

(A.). 
Vivyo, thus, in the way mentioned. 
Vivyohivyo, in like manner. 
Viwimbi (plur. of Kiwimhi), wftYe- 

lets, a ripple. 
Viza ku-y to stunt,^ to prevent its 

attaining perfection, to interrupt, 

to stop or hiuder in work. 
Vizia ku-y to watch, to spoil one's 

work for one,, to hinder one from 

working. 
Vizuri, fine, finely. Bee -zuri. 
Vua ku'f to take ofif clothes. 
Vua ku-y to say^ to deliver, to take 

across. 
Vua ku'f to fish, to catch fish. 
Vuata ku- or Vwata kur, to press with 

the teeth, to hold in the mouth. 
Vuaza ku-, to wound by striking or 

running into unawares, to cut. 
Vugaza ku-, to put to (a door). 
Vugo, a horn played upon by beat- 
Vuja ku-, to leak,, to let water, [ing. 
Vujia ktt-, to ooze out 
Vuka ku-, to cross, to go ever, to 

pass a river, to be saved. 
Vuke, steam, vapour, sweat. 
Vukiska ku-, to take across, to ferry 

over. 
Vukiza ku-, to cause te fume, to 

give ofif vapour. 
Vukuta ku-, to blow bellows. 
VuJcuto, sweat 
VuU, 

J>udu wle, an insect living in 
wood, a carpenter bee (?). 
Vvlif shade. 
Mkono toa kuvuli, the right hand. 



Vfdia htjhf to oatoh fish foj^ or 
with. 

Vuma ku-, to blow as the wind, to 
buzz like a bee. 

Vuma ku-, to lose (in card-playing). 

Vumbi, plur. mavumbif dust, flue^ 
muddlness in water. 

Vunibika ku-, to put in under some- 
thing, to stick into the embers, to 
cover with a heap of leaves, &o» 

Vumhikia ku-, to put seeds or plants 
in the ground before rain, to get 
them into the ground. 

Vumbilia ku-, 
Kuvumhilia vitat to get into a 
quarrel. 

Vumbu, plur. mavumbUf lumps in 
fiour, &c 

Vumbua ku-, to find after a search, 
to discover. 

Vumi, a noise as of blowing or 
bellowing, often made with a 
drum. 

Vumilia ku-, to endure, to tolerate, 
to bear. 

Vumisha ku-, to win (in card-play- 
ing). 

Vuna ku-, to seap» 

Vuna ku-, 
Kujivund, ta swell up, ta b« 
pufifed up. 

Vunda, &c. = Vunja, &o. 

Vunda ku-, to rot. 

-vungu, hollow. 

Vunja ku-, to break, to ruin, to 
spoil, to change a piece of 
money, 
Kuvunja jungo, to have a final 
feast, as before Bamathan. 

Vunja jungo or chungu, a mantis 
(Mantis religiosa), so called from 
the superstition that a person 
touching it will break the next 



VUN 



-\VA- 



413 



piece of crockery or glass ho 

handles. 
Vunjia ku-y to break for, with, &c. 
Vunjika hu-, to become broken. 
Vwruga feu-, to stir. 
Vurujika hu-, to break np into frag- 
ments, crumble. 
Vurumisha ku-, to throw a stone, &c. 
Vusha ku-, to put across, to ferry 

over, to put into the right way. 
Futa fell-, to draw, to pull. - 

Kuvuta maji, to bale out water. 

Kuvuta makasia^ to row. 

Kuvuta tuvnbakoy to smoke to- 
bacco. 
Vuvia ku-f to blow. 
Vuvumka ku-, to grow up quickly. 
Vuzif plur. mavuzif a hair of the 

pubes. Also, (A.) hair in gene- 
ral. 
Vy- = Yir. 
Vyay of. 
Vyaa ku-, to bear children, or fruit. 

Pass, vyaioa or vyaliwa, 
Vyake or Vyakwe, his, her, its. 
VyakOy thy. 
Vyakula 0?to. of Chakula), things 

to eat, victuals, meals, provisions. 
Vyaliwa kvry to be born. 
VyangUy my, of me. See -angu, 
Fyoo, their, of them. See -ao. 
Vyetu, our, of us. See -etu. 
Vyenu, your, of you. See -enu. 
'vyo or -ryo-, as. 

Upe/ndavyOy as you please. 

Unipendavyo, as you love me, for 
my sake. 

Alivyoagiza, as he directed. See 
ginsi. 
Vyo, -vyo, -vyo-, which. See -o. 

Vyo vyote, whatsoever. 
Vytmbo (plur. of Chombo\ vessels, 

household utensils, baggage. 



W. 

W is pronounced as in English. 

W is commonly in Swahili a con- 
sonantal u, and in many words w 
or u may be written indifferently. 
There are other cases, as in the 
passive termination -tra, where the 
sound can only be expressed by an 
English w, 

W' = 17-, which see. 
TT-, the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by substan- 
tives either singular or plural 
which denote animate beings. 
TFa, of. See -a. 
Wa ninif why. 

Eamisi wa Tani, Tani*s Hamisi, 
t.e. Hamisi, the son of TanL 
Wa or Uj the Arabic and. 
Wa I an Arabic exclamation. 
Wa-y the plural prefix of substan- 
tives in m-, 'w-, or mw- which 
denote animate beings. 
Wa-, the plural prefix of adjectives 
and pronouns agreeing with sub- 
stantives which denote animate 
beings. 
TFa-, the prefix marking the third 
person plural of verbs governed 
by nouns denoting animate be- 
ings. 
Where the tense prefix begins 
with an -a- that of the personal 
prefix coalesces with it, so that 
there is no difference between 
the second person singular and 
the third plural. 
-wa- the objective plural prefix 
referring to substantives which 



414 



WA 



WAL 



Wa kit; to be, to become (?) : the 
ku' bears the accent and is re- 
tained in the usual cases. 
The present tense of the substan- 
tive verb is generally repre- 
sented by ni or by the personal 
prefix standing alone. 
The present tense with the rela- 
tive is represented by the syl- 
lable -K-. Aliye, he who is. 
The present perfect amekuioa, &o. 
has the sense of, to have be- 
come. Was IB represented by 
the past perfect tense altkuwoj 
&c. 

' Kuwa na, to have. 
Simekuwa mvxmgo f should I 
not be a liar ? 
Waa ku-, to shine much, like the 

sun or the moon. 
Waa, plur. mat^aa, a spot, a blotch, 

a stain. 
Wahba, cholera. 

Wdboondeif the people living in the 
low country between the sea and 
the Shambala mountains. 
Wadit son of. . 
Wadi Mohammedf Mohammed's 
son. 
Wadi ku-, to complete a term. 
Watu wa " London " wamewadiy 
the (H.M.S.) " London's" com- 
missiori has expired. 
Wadia ku-^ to be fully come, to be 

quite time for anything. 
Wadinasi for Walad ennas, bom 
of people, that is, of decent 
family. 
Wadui, enmity, hostility. 
Wafikana ku-, to conspire together. 
Wajiki ku-f to suit, to be suitable 

to. 
fTa^a hu- (Mer.J, to kill. 



W(igunya, the Swahili living north 

of Siwi. 
Wahadi, plur. wyahadi Q\ for 

Ahadi, a promise. 
Wdhidf one. 
Wai ku-j to be in time. 
Wainua, verily. 
Wdjibf rightness, it ought. 
Wajihi ku-, to visit, to see fiEiee to 

face. 
Wajihiana kth-, to meet face to fB/oe, 

to see one another. 
Waka ku-f to blaze, to burn up, to 

bum. 
Wakati, time, season. 

Wakati huu, now. 
Wake or Wakwe, his, her, or its. 
Wdkf, [See -dke. 

Kufanya wakf, to dedicate, to set 
apart for holy uses. 
Wakia, the weight of a silver dollar, 

about an ounce. 
Wakifu ku-, to cost. 
Wakijia ku-, to cost to. 
Wakili, an agent, a representative. 
Wako, thy. 
Wakti = Wakati, 

Wakti gani nyef at what time 
am I to come ? 
Wdla, nor, and not. 

Wala — loala — y neither — ^nor — ^. 
Where or would be used in 

English after a negative wala is 

used in Swahili. 
Walai or Wallaye, the most com- 
mon Swahili oath. 
Walakini, but, and however. 
Wala^, not even. 
Wale, those yonder. 
Wali, cooked grain, especially rice. 

Wall wa mioikuu, what is left 
from some meal ovemight to be 
eaten in the morning. 



W AL 

Wall, a govemoT. 

Liwdti for AI WaU, the goremar, 

i* more ooummnl; nsed in Ztm- 

Walio. BeeJ^yoIio. 
Walio, they who are. 
WaliimBengu, the people of this 

WqXU, a 8am t. 

Wama K»i-, to Ue on the toco. 

WatOm ftu-, to laee in the lopea 

ipoD tlie frame of a kitanda, to 

Wnp. 
WimilAto, attadhment 
Wana, they have, 

UnmaMi, tliey have not. 
ITanda ftw-, to get ver; fkt and 

Wawda, plojT. (^ondo, a flnger, a 

fioger'B-bteadth. 
JTanjo fcu. (Mer.), to count, to 

IFiinsa, ODS who ages witchcraft 

agaiuatanolher. 
Wanija, artovnoiil. Also Uanga. 
Wanga or Wangaa, a cliff. 
TTana/jie, others, other ptople. 

Wrnigitta — wmgiTu—, too 

Wangu, my. See -angn. 
ITanguo fcu-, to ecoop np, 
Wangioa, a desart, a t>sis waste 

^angioma or IToiingtMno, gen 
liee and civilized men. 

Watga wa manga, antimon j. 
Wano, plnr. mamma, the Biiaft of 

an arrow or harpoon. 
Wao, they! 
Woo, their. See -oo. 
Wapil which people? 
IPapif orajrf* where? 



WAT 



415 



Commonly joined with the per- 

Banal sign of the Doaa. 
Fu tni]»i or Yufto loajii * where ia 

[he]? 
Zj uopf or Ziko v>api t where are 
[they]? 
WapUia ka-, to be ladec with soent, 

LigLly perfiuned. 
Wapo, a gift 
Waradi, or Waredi, or Wartdi, a 

WaroAo, plur. nyaraka, a letter. 

IFbno, a flle-ver ilhow-buililcr, a 
clever man at any busineaa. 

ITtHT, a yard (meaBure). 

Waia, plur, iiijasa, MUiill Bticka to 
fill up between larger onea in a 
wall or roof. 

Wata kv-, to contradict. 

Waeha ku-, to light, to set Are t& 
Kuvxuha molo, to light up a fire. 

\ViiahtiTati, grcnt diBBipatJOD, licen- 
tious neBS. 

Waihenti, wild people, tmciTilized 

Wiiii, rebellion. Also Uaii, 
Wusia, sentonco, will, declared 

opinion. Also Wmia, 
fyatia Aw-, to bequeath, lo make a 

will. 
Waaili ka-, to arriTe, to come ckue 

to, to reach. 
Wanli, receipt, credit side of «c- 

ooQDt, t.e. the left-Land column. 
Wa$Sia ku-, to reach a person, ea- 

pecially of letters. 
Watilieha ka-, to cause to reach. 
Watio, who are not. 
Waiio = Watia and ITDrio. 
Wa$tani, middling, in the middle. 
Wanoiu, doubt 
WalhahiilM ku-, to solve. 
Waam, narrow. 

1. it 



416 



WAT 



-WIL 



WcUia ku; to Bit upon eggs. 

Watu, fenugreek. 

fVatu (plur. of Mtu\ people. 

-a watUf other people's. 
Wavu^ plar. nyamt^ a net to oatch 

gazelles, &c. 
WafjDilif two, two persons. 

Wote wawili, both. 
Waya, an earthen dish to bake 

cakes on. 
Wayawaya ku-, to sway like a bongh 

loaded with fmit, to swagger, to 

be bent down and burdened. 
Wayo, plnr. nyayo, sole of the foot, 

footprint Also Uayo. 

Waza hth-, to think, consider, reflect. 

Wazao, progeny , offspring, posterity. 

•^joazi, open, dear, manifest. It 

makes wazi with nouns like 

nyumha, 

Kitvoa Iciwazij bareheaded. 

Panalia wazij it sounds hollow. 

Waziwazij manifest. 
fVazimu. 

Ana wazimu, he is mad. 
Wazirij plur. mawaziri^ a vizier, a 

secretary of state, a chief officer. 
WazOf plar. maioazo, thoughts. 
-we, his, hers, its, for wake, 
-toe, thee, for weioe, 
Wea ku; to become the property of. 
Weka ku; to place, to lay, to put 
away, to keep, to delay. 

Nyumba hainiweki, I have no rest 
in the house, I cannot remain 
in the house. 
Wekea ku-, to put away for. 

Kuwekea amana, to entrust to. 

Kuwekea wdkf, to dedicate. 
Weko, 

Kutia toekOj to weld. 
Wekua ku-, to break up, to remove. 
WelekOf a cloth worn by women. 



Wdi, sickness. 

Weli wa macho, ophthalmia. 
Welti, saintly, a saint. 
Wema, goodness. 
Wembe, plnr. nyenibe (?), a razor. 
Wenga ku-, to cause to break out 

into sores. 
Wengij many. See -ingi. 
Wengo, the spleen. 
WenUf your. See -enu. 
Wenzangu, my companions = Wa- 

enzi wangu. 
Weremij cunning, shrewdness. 
WeUj a place cleared for planting. 
Weupe, whiteness, clearness, light 
Weupe, white. See --eupe, 
Wevi or Wezi, thieves. See Mwivi, 
WewCf thou, thee. 
Weweseka ku-, to talk and murmur 

in one's sleep. Also WewetekcL 
Weye, you ! it is you. 
Weza ku-, to be able, to be a match 
for, to have power over, to be 
equal to. 

SiwezU I cannot, or, I am sick. 

Nalikuwa siwezi, I was ill. 

Sikuweza, I was not able. 

Ame?MiJDezi, he has fallen sick. 
-weza. See mweza. 
Wezekana ku-, to be possible. 
Wezesha ku-, to enable. 
'wi, bad (old Swahili and Nyam- 
Wia ku', to be to. [wezi). 

Niwie raihi, don't be offended 
with me. 

2. to have in one's debt. 
Kumioa, to be indebted. 
Wibo, Ibo. 

Wifi, husband's sister. 
Wika ku-f to crow like a cock. 
Wilaya = TTlaya, home, Europe 
-toiliy two. It makes mhili with 

nouns like nyumba. 



WIM 



YAK 



417 



Wimbi, pliir. matoimhij a wave. 

Mdwimbi, surf. 
Winibi, a very small kind of grain. 
Winda ku- or Wiiiga Znt-, to chase, 

to hnnt. 
Wingi = Ungi, plenty, a great 

quantity, much. 
Wingu, plur. matoingUf a cloud. 
TTtTio, ink. 
Wishioa, chafl^ the husks of rice, the 

flour sifted off along with the 

husks. 
Witiru, odd, not even. 
Wittoa (= Kvoitwaf), the being 

called. 
Wiva ku- = Iva hth, 
'WivUf jealous. 
»wivu = -&tvtt, ripe. 
WiuHi ku-, to owe, to be indebted 

to. 
Wiza, 

Mayayi mawizaj eggs with 
chickens formed in them, bard 
set. 
TTo, -«?o, -tw)-, which, who, whom. 

Wo vjote, whatsoever, whosoever. 
-KX), thy, = Wako, 
Wogofyat plur. nyogofyHj a threat. 
TTo^fortf, deliverance, salvation. 
Wongo, falsehood. Also Uwongo. 
Wonyesho, showing, display. 
Worarij rateable division, sharing. 

Ar. Worttf to cast pebbles. 
Wosia, injunction, sentence, charge, 

wise saying. Also Wasia, 
Wote, all, both. 

Twende toote, let us both ga 

Wote toamlif both. 
Wovisi, cool, 
Woweka ku-, to soak. 



Y. 

Y is pronounced as in English. 

Y is in Swahili a consonantal t, 
and it is often indifferent whether it 
be written i or y. The use of y 
is however important to distinguish 
such words as fttmia, a cast-net, 
and kimyOf silence. 

The insertion of a ^ sound before 
the final -a of a verb has in many 
cases the effect of giving it a causa- 
tive meaning. See P. 
Kupona, to get welL 
KuponyOy to cure. 
Kuogopa, to fear. 
Kuogofya^ to frighten 

Y-, the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by singular 
substantives of the class which 
does not change to form the 
plural, by plural substantives in 
mi; or by plural substantives in 

Fa, of. See -a. [ma-. 

Ya kitovUf in the naveL 
Ya ktoamha, that. 
Yaninif Why? 

Ya-9 sign of the third person plural 
prefixed to verbs governed by a 
plural substantive in ma-. 

-ya-, objective prefix denoting 
plural nouns in ma-. 

Yaa ku-, to sow seeds. 

YdbiSf or Yabuiy dry, solid. 

Yai = Yayi, 

Yaika kut-, to melt. 

Yake or Yakwe^ his, hers, its. See 
-ake, 

Yakiniy certainly, certainty, it is 
certain. 

Yakinia ku-^ to determine, to set 
one's mind upon. 



418 



YAK 



a^- 



Ydkinisha ku-^ te make oertaiiL 
Ycbko, thy, your. See -aJco. 
Yakowapiy wheie aie they ? 
Ydkutif emerald (?). 
YaUt those yonder. 
Yaliomo, which are withioi 
Yarribo = Jambo^ 
Yamini, an oath, 
Yamkinif possibly, possibility. 

Kwa yarrikinif possibly. 
Yamkini ku- (?), to be possible. 

HaiyamMni, it is- not possible. 
Yamuff deer. 
Yange, See -n^e-. 

Y<tngedumu, they would remain. 
Yangu, my, of me. See -angu. 
Yani — Ya ninif for what? why? 
Yao, their, of them. See -€k>. 
Yost, a yellow powder brought from 

India, and used as a cosmetic 
Yatima, an orphan. 
YavuyavUj lights, lungt. 
Yaya, a nurse, an ayah. 
Yayi, plur. mayayij an egg. 
Yayi ya pumbuj testicles. 
Y9l = Jel Hullol Weill What 

now? 
Ye, -ye, or -ye-, sign of the relative, 
referring to animate beings, 
who, which, whom. 
Ye yote, whosoever. 
Yeekwayee, common-place people. 
-ye, his, hers, or its, = Yake, 
Yee or Yeye, he or she, him or her. 
Yeiy a chDd's good-bye, " ta-ta." 
Yemkini = Yamkini, 
Yenu, your, of you. See -ent*. 
Yenyif having. See -enyi. 
YetUj our, of us. See -etu. 
Yeyuka ku-, to melt, to deliquesce. 
Yeyusha ku-, to cause to melt, to 

melt. 
Yinyi = Yenyi. 



•yo, thy, =s Yako. 
Yo, -yoy -yo-, sign of the relative, 
which. 
Yd yote, whatsoever. 
Yoe = Yowe, 
Yonga ku-, to sway. 
Yote, all. See -ote. 

Kwa yote, altogether, wholly. 
You>e, a cry for help. 

Kupiga yowe, to cry for help. 
Ftf, he or she is. 

Yu; sign of the third person sin- 
gular, referriDg to an animate 
being. It is used chiefly before 
monosyllabic verbs and in the 
Mombas dialect. 
Yuaja, he comes. 
Yuko, yumo, &a, he Is there, 
within, &o. 
Yule, yonder person, that person. 
Yuma ku-, to sway in the wind. 
Yuna, he has. 

Yungiyungi, the blue water-lily. 
Yuza kU'f to declare, to make clear. 



Z. 

Z is pronounced as in zany, the 
German t* Zin some dialects takes 
the place of i> or vy.in that of Zan- 
zibar. 

Z is used by people who cannot 
pronounce th, for the Arabic tkai, 
ihod, and dtJia. See T. 

Z- or zi; the sign of the third person 
plural prefixed to verbs which 
are governed by plural substan- 
tives of the class which does not 
change to form the plural, or of 
that which makes its singular 
in tf-. 

Z-, the profix proper to pronouns 



Z A 



ZID 



419 



governed by plural nouns of the 
class which does not change to 
form the plural, or of that which 
makes its singular in u, 

Za, of. See -a. 

Za k«-, 8ee Uza hu-, to sell. 

Zaa hth, to bear, to breed, to beget, 
to bear fruit. 

ZdbaM, civet 

Zcibibu, plur. mazahibu (?), grapes, 
raisins. 

Zahidi hu-, to take civet from the 
ngawct, 

Zabuni Jcti-, to buy. 

Zahuri, the psalter, a psalmv 

Zafarani or Zafrani, saffron, a wo- 
man's name. 

Zagaa "hvry to shine, to glisten. 

Zaidi or Zayidi, more. 

Zdka, tithes. 

Zdke or Zdkwe, his, hers, its. See 
-dke. 

Zakot thy, your. See -dko, 

Zahvla (A.) = Vyakulaj victuals. 

Zalia ku-, to bear to. 

Zalisha ku-, to beget, cause to bear. 

Zaliwa ku-f to be bom. 

Zama few-, to sink, to dive, 

Zamanif times, long ago. 
Zamani za kale, old times, long 

ago, anciently. 
Zamani za Shanga, when Shanga 

flourished. 
Zamani hizit nowadays, 
Zamani zetu, our times. 

Zamharau, a kind of fruit, in ap- 
pearance not unlike a large dam- 
son. 

ZamisTia A;tc-, to make to sink. 

Zamuj a turn, turns. 
Kwa zamu, by turns. 

Zangefuri, cinnabar. 

ZangUf my, of me. Pee -awf/w. 



Zani, adnltery. 

ZaOf plur. maza^, fruit, produce. 

Zoo, their. See -oo. 

ZarambOy a spirit distilled from palm 
wine. 

Zarif a precious kind of stuff, gold 
thread, gold brocade. 

Zatiti kn-, to set in order, arrange, 
prepare for. 

Zawa ku-, to be bom. 

Zaioadit a present, a keepsake, a 
rarity. 

Zawaridi, a Java sparrow. 

Zayidi, more. 

Zazi (?), afterbirth. 

-ee, his, her, or its, = Zake. 

-zee, old, aged. 

Zehakh, mercury. 

Zege, a dome. 

ZelahiOi a kind of sweetmeat con- 
taining syrup. 

Zengea ku-, to seek for. 

ZenUf your. See •enu, 

Zenyi, See -enyt. 

ZetUf our, of us. See -etu, 

ZezBj a sort of lute with three 
strings. 

Zl' = IB". 

-«t-, the objective prefix denoting a 
plural substantive either <^ that 
class which does not change to 
form the plural or of that which 
makes its singular in u-. 

Ziha ktt-i to fill up a hole in a wall, 
&0., to plug up, to stop. 

Zibana A;«-, to be stopped up, to stop 
itself up. 

Ziho, plur. mazibo, a plug, a stopper. 

Zibua ku; to unstop, to bore 
through. 

Zidi ku-, to increase, to do more 
than before. 
Kuzidi kujua, to know more. 



420 



ZID 



ZUA 



ZiduJia hur^ to make greater, to 
add to. 

ZifuHj a cipher, a figure of nought. 

Zika ku-y to bury, to inter. 

ZikerezwazOj turnery, turned goods. 
See Kereza, 

Ziki, 
Kanzu yd ziki, worked with 
white cotton round the neck 
instead of silk. See Kanzu. 

Zikika ku-, to be impoverished. 

Zikvdy plur. vikwi (N.), a thousand. 

Zile, those yonder. 

'zima, sound, whole, healthy, com- 
plete. 

Zima ku', to extinguish, to put out. 
Kuzima rohOj to faint. 

Zimia ku-, to put out. 

Zimika ku-, to go out, to be extin- 
guished. 
. Zimiliza ku-, to rub out. 

Zimu, See Wazimu, *MzimUf Ku- 
gimUf Zimwi, 

Ztmuaku; to cool hot water by 
adding cold to it. 

Zimwiy plur. mazimwi, an ogre, 
a ghoul, an evil being which 
devours men, &o. 
Nazi ina zimwi, i.e. the cocoa-nut 
has grown without anything 
inside the shell. 

Zina ku-y to commit adultery. See 
Zini. 

Zindika ku-, to hold an opening 
ceremony in, to open for use. 

Zindiko, an opening ceremony. 

Zinduka ku-, to wake up suddenly 
from a doze with a nod and a 
start. 

Zindukana ku-, to wake up sud- 
denly. 

Zinga ku-, to commit adultery (?). 
Z/nr/a 7cu', to roll up. 



Zingiziy sleep, great sleep. Also 
Usingizi, 

Zingizi la ku^mkomesha mzazi, a 
sleep which is supposed to put 
an end to all further child- 
bearing. 
Zingulia ku-, to relieve from the 

evil eye. 
Zini ku-, to commit adultery or for- 
nication. 
Zira ku-, to hate (M.). 
Ziriki (M.) = Biziki. 
-zito, heavy, difficult, severe, sad, 
clumsy, thick. 

Asali nzito, thick syrup. 
Zituo, 

Sana zituo, he never rests. 
Ziwa, plur. maziwa, a lake, a pond, 

the breasts. 
Zizi, plur. mazizi, a cow-yard, a 

cattle-fold, a stable, palisading. 
Zizi hizi, just these, common. 
Zizima ku-, to become very calm, 

very still, or very cold. 
Zizimia ku-, to sink to the bottom. 
Zo, 'Zo, -zo-f sign of the relative, 
which. 

Zo zote, whatsoever. 
-zo, thy, = Zako. 
Zoa ku-, to gather into little heaps, 

to sweep together. 
Zoea ku-, to become accustomed, to 

become used to. 
Zoeza ku-, to accustom to, to make 
used to. 

Eujizoeza, to practise. 
Zomari, a kind of clarionet, a pipe. 
Zomea ku-, to groan at. 
Zongazonga ku; to wind. 
Zote, all. See -ote, 
Zua ku-, to pierce, to bore through, 
to innovate, to invent. 

Nimemzua^ I have mucked him 



ZUI 



zuz 



421 



dry, I have got all the infonna- ] 
tion I can from him. 
Zuia htt-, to hold in, to restrain, to 
hinder. 

Kuzuia pumzi, to stifle. 
ZuUia hih, to hold for, to keep oflf, 

to hold in its place. 
Zulta hti-, to emerge, to rise. 
Ztdi, perjury. 
Zvlia, a carpet. 
ZiHia Icu; to invent to, to make a 

false excuse to, to say falsely that 

one has such and such a message. 
Zulisha ku'f to make crazy, to 

flurry. 
Zulu hi-, to be crazy. 
Zumaridt an emerald. 
Zumhili, consolation. 
ZnmJbua hu-, to find. 

Kuzumbuta paa (A.), to take olT 
thatch. 
Zumbukana hUf to be to be found. 



Zumgu*mza hu-f to amuse, converse 
with. 

Kujizumgu*mza, to converse, to 
amuse oneself. 
Zunguka ku-, to go roimd, to sur- 

round, to wind round, to revolve, 

to wander. 
Zungukazunguha ku-,io stroll about. 
Zungusha ktb-, to make to go round, 

to turn. 
Zuri ku-f to lie, to sWear falsely. 
'zurij fine, beautiful, handsome. 
Zuru kth, to visit. 

Kwenda kuzuru, to go to visit. 

Kuzuru kaburi^ to visit a grave. 
Zurungi = HtUhwrungi, the brown 

material of which kanzus are 

made. 
Zuzua ku; to puzzle a stranger, or 

a greenhorn. 
Zuzuka ku-y to be puzzled or be- 
wildered, not to know what to do. 



APPENDICES. 



( 425 ) 



Appendix I. 



Specimen of Kinyume, as written out by Johari, a native of the 
Bwahill coast a little south of Zanzibar. The Swahili is in the Merima 
dialect. 



Swahili. 


KiNYUMB, 


English. 


Ng^omhe 


Mheng'o 


An ox. 


Mbuzi 


Zimbu 


A goat. 


Punda 


Ndapu 


A donkey. 


Nijamiya 


Tangami 


A cameL 


Nyumha 


Mhanyu 


A house. 


Mkeka 


Kamke 


A sleeping mat. 


Kitanda 


Ndakita 


A bedstead. 


Mlango 


Ngomla 


A door. 


Mijengo 


Ngomije 


Buildings (?). 


Udongo 


Ngoudo 


Red earth. 


Ngazi 


Zinga 


A ladder. 


Daraja 


Jadara 


A staircase. 


Maneno 


Nomane 


Words. 


Ban 


Siha 


That will do. 


Mwanamuke 


Kemwanamu 


A woman. 


Uzingizi 


Ziuzingi 


Sleep. 


Samaki 


KUama 


Fish. 


Kweli 


Likwe 


Truth. 


Nazima 


Manazi 


I lend. 


Sikupi 


Pisiku 


I will not give you. 


Ntakupa 


Pantaku 


I will give you. 


Ntakunyima 


Mantakunyi 


I shall withhold from 


Macho 


Choma 


Eyes. 


Mguru 


Rumgu 


A leg. 


Rungu 


Nguru 


A club. 


Nakuomha 


MbanaMio 


I pray you. 



126 



APPENDIX I. 



SWAHILI. 


KlMYUMB. 


Englibh. 


Njara inaniuma 


Banja mainaniu 


I ache with hunger. 


Vidole 


Levido 


Fingers. 


Shingo 


Ngoshi 


The neck. 


Si ktodi 


Lisikwe 


It is not true. 


Fundi 


Ndifu 


A master workman. 


Sivyo 


Vyosi 


Not thus. 


KarcUasi 


Sikarata 


Paper. 


KaJamu 


Mukala 


A pen. 


Wino 


Nowi 


Ink. 


Pakura 


Rapaku 


Dish up. 


Twende zetu 


Tutwendeze 


Let us be off. 


Senendi 


Ndisene 


I am not going. 


Chakula 


Lachaku 


Food. 


Utdkwenda 


Ndautakwe 


You will go. 


Mchanga 


Ngamcha 


Sand. 


Samawati (Ar.) 


Tisamawa 


Heaven. 


Aruthi (Ar.) 


Thiaru 


Earth. 


Mutu 


Tumu 


Man. 


Mungwana 


Namungwa 


A free man. 


Mtumwa 


Mwamtu 


A slave. 


Sitdki 


Kisita 


I dislike it. 


Meza 


Zame 


A table. 


Bweta 


Tdfym 


A box. 


Sanduku 


Kusandu 


A chest. 


Kitdbu 


Bukita 


A book. 


Meahafu 


Fumsaha 


A Koran. 



C 427 ) 



Appendix IT. 



■0« 



Specimens of Swahili correspondence in prose and verse, containing: 
— 1. Two Swahili letters, the one on giving, the other on receiving a 
small present. The forms of address, &o., are those used in all letters, 
whatever their subject may be. 2. Two specimens of verses sent as 
letters, the first to excuse breaking an appointment, the second sent 
from Pemba by a Mombas man to his friends at home, who upbraided 
him for not returning. This form of writing is a very favourite one. 



Ilia jendb il moh^ rafiki yangu, bwana wangu, bwana mkubwa, 
D. S., salamu sana, ama baada ya salamu, naJikuwa siwezi siku 
nyingi, lakini sasa sijambo kidogo, ama baadahu, nimekuletea kitoweo 
kidogo tafdthali upokee, nao k'uku saba'a, wa salamu, wa katabahu 
rafiki yako H. bin A. 

To the honourable the beloved, my friend, my master, the great sir, 
D. S., many compliments, but after compliments, I was unwell for many 
days, but now I am a little recovered, and after this, I have sent you a 
little kiUyuoeo [i.e. something to be eaten with the rice or grain, which 
forms the bulk of all meals], and I beg your acceptance, they are seven 
fowls and compliments, and he who wrote this is H. son cf A, 



Ilia jen&b, il moh^, 11 akram, in nasih, D. S., il Mwingrezi, insha* 
Allah salaam aleik wa rdhmet Allah wa barakitahu; wa baada, 
nakuarifu hall zangu njema wa thama, nawe kath^lik ya afia, wa 
zayidi amana yako ulioniletea imefika kwangu, ahsanta, Mwenyiezi 
Muungu atakujazi kheiri ukae ukitukumbuka, nasi nyoyo zeta zinaku- 



428 APPENDIX IL 

kumbuka sana, tunapenda uje 'nti ya Ung^ja, wewe na bibi, naye aje 
tumwangalie, naye aje atazame 'ntiya Unguja, nasi kulla siku tuMlala 
tukia'mka tonakuombea Muungu uje 'nti ya Unguja, tuonane kwa 
afia na nguvu, nasi twapenda macho yetu yakuone wewe assubui na 
jioni, na uslpokuja wewe, usitusahau kwa nyaraka allah allah. 
Nisalimie bibi mke wako salamu sana. Nasi tunakutamani, kama 
tungalikuwa ndege tungaliruka tukija tukaonane nawe mara moja 
tukiisha tukarudi. Nyumbani kwangu mke wangu salamu sana. M. 
bin A. akusalimu sana, wa katabahu M. wadi S. 26 mwezi wa mfunguo 
kenda. 

To the honourable, the beloved, the noble, the sincere D. S., the 
Englishman, please God, peace be with you and the mercy of God and 
His blessing ; and afterwards, I inform you that my health is good, and 
may you be the same as to health, and further, your pledge which you 
sent me has reached me, I thank you. Almighty God will satisfy you 
with good that you may contioue to remember us, and as for us, our 
hearts think much of you ; we wish you to come to the land of Zanzibar, 
you and the mistress, and let her come that we may behold her, and 
let her come that she may look upon the land of Zanzibar ; and we 
every day when we sleep and when we wake pray for you to God that 
you come to the land of Zanzibar, that we may meet in health and 
strength, and we, we wish that our eyes should see you morning and 
evening, and if you come not yourself, forget us not by letters, we 
adjure you. Salute for me the mistress your wife with many compli- 
ments. And we are longing for you, and if we had been birds we 
would have come flying to see you once and then return. At home my 
wife sends many compliments. M. son of A. salutes you much, and 
he who wrote this is M. the son of S. 26 of the month Jemad al 
akhr. 



11. 

Kala es sha'iri The Verse says. 

Bisala enda kwa hima Go, message, quickly 

Kwa Edward Istira To Edward Steere, 

Umpe yangu salama Give him health, 

Famwe na kumkhubira, Together with telling him, 

Siwezi yangu jisima I am ill in my body, 

Ningekwenda tesira I would have gone readily 

Kumtazama padira To see the Padre, 

Pamwe na Edward Stira. TogeWiei ^Uk Edward Steere. 



APPENDIX 11. 429 

Pamwe na Edward Stira. Together with Edward Steere. 

nimu ya Injili The doctrine of the Gospel— 

Yaaijua hahara He knows how its news 

Pia yote kufasili. To explain,— all of it. 

Ni muhebhi akhyara He is a choice friend, 

Kwetu sisi afthali. Especially in our house ; 

Edi ni mtu wa kweli. He is a man of truth. 

Babbi, nipe tesira. O Lord, give me prosperity. 



Hatukiati kisiwa kwa uvambume na upembe 

Tukaifuasa hawa kulewalewa na ombe 
Ni mpunga na mazlwa na kulla siku ni ngombe 

Twalalia kwa jivumbe, lipangine kwa ribani. 

We shall not leave the island for tale-bearing and plotting, 
And follow the fancy to be tossed on the sea. 

Here are rice, and milk, and every day an ox ; 

We sleep among perfumes, and strings of sweet basil. 



SwahUi letters aro always written with a string of Arabic compli- 
ments at the beginning, and Arabic words are freely introduced 
throughout. In letter-writing huarifu is used for to inform^ and 
huwasilia (not hufikia) for to redchf as in the phrase your letter has 
reached me — war oka wako vmeniwasilia, Swahili verses are written in 
an obsolete dialect full of Arabic words and foreign words generally, 
called Kingozi. It has not yet been studied by any European. Among 
its more remarkable peculiarities is the use of a present perfect made 
by a change in the termination of the Verb, similar to those in use in 
the Tao and in other languages of the Interior. Thus a poet may 
write mbwene for nimeona, and nikomile for nimekoma. Some speci- 
mens of this dialect will be found in the poetry at the end of the 
" Swahili Tales." 



2 F 



( 431 ) 



Appendix III. 



Paut of a Swahili tale with the prefixes marked and explained. It 
is printed first as in the main it would be written by a native ; next 
the compound forms are marked by hyphens and explained ; and last 
comes an English translation. 



Yule kijana akafuta upanga wake, akanena, mimi nitaingia humo I. 



The tale, of which this is a part, is called the Hadithi ya Waridh II. 
na Ureda, na Jindi, na Sinebar, The portion of it here printed begins 
with a verb in the ha tense, because it is carrying on a narration 
already conmienced. The first words of the story are — Aliondokea mtu 
tajiri. After this first verb in the li tense the rest are formed with ha, 
unless they are constructed with a relative or particle of time or place, 
which cannot be joined with ha but only with li. 

Yule, that; demonstrative (p. 115) referring to a singular sub- 
stantive of the first class, hijana being regarded as the name of a 
person. Kijana, a young man or woman, here a man. A-ha-futa, 
and he drew ; a-, sign of third person sing., appropriate to a noun 
of the first class or to any word denoting a living being; -ha-, 
sign of the narrative past tense; 'futa, draw. U-panga, a sword; 
a sing, substantive of the sixth cla^s. W-ake, his; possessive 
pronoun, third person sing.; vj-, prefix proper to a pronoun agree- 
ing with a sing, substantive of the sixth class. A-kornena, and 
he said ; a- and -fco-, as before ; -nenaf speak or say out. Mimij L Ni- 
ta-ingia, I will go in ; m-, sign of the first person sing. ; -to-, sign of the 
future tense ; -irigia, go into, enter. Humo, in here ; a demonstrative 



The youth drew his sword, and said, ** I will go into this pit, wbatVifix lli* 

lis *! 



432 APPENDIX UI. 

L shimoni, nikafe ao nikapone. Akaingia, akamwona mtoto amefdDg^wa« 
naye mwanamume. Akamwambia, nifungue nikupe khabari ya 
humo shimonL AkamfuDgua, akaona vichwa vingi yya wato. Aka- 



II. proper to the -ni case, when it denotes being, &c., within. ShinuMii, 
into the pit ; sTiimo-j a singular noun of the fifth class ; -ni, sign of 
the locative case. Ni-ka-fet and let me die ; nu, sign of first person 
sing. ; 'Tea- and (p. 141) ; -/e, subjunctive form of fa, die. Ao, or, ^i- 
ha-pone, and let me live ; ni- and -ka-, as before ; -pone, subjunctive 
form of pona, be saved. A'ha-4ngia, and he went in ; third sing., 
narrative past of ingia, go in. A-ha-mto-ona, and saw him ; o-Xmi-, and 
he did; -mtc-j objective prefix proper to a substantive ^f the first class 
(mtoto) ; 'Ona, see. M-toto, child ; sing, substantive of the first class. 
Arme-fungwa,, bound ; a-, sign of third person sing., governed by a 
substantive of the first class (mtoto) ; -me-, sign of the present perfect, 
which is here used as a sort of past participle : 'fungwa, passive of 
funga, bind. Na-ye, and he (p. 103). Mw-ancHn-ume, a male ; mw- 
sing, prefix of a noun of the first class ; m- (for mu-)t prefix agreeing 
with a substantive of the first class; -ume, male; the whole word, 
mwanamume^ is used for a man, or any human being of the male sex. 
A-ka-mw-ambia, and he said to him ; a-ka-, third sing, narrative past ; 
•mw; subjective prefix denoting a person (kijana) ; -aoMa, say to: Ni- 
fungue, unbind me ; ni-, objective prefix, first person ; -/untrue, impera- 
tive sing, of fungua, imbind. Ni-ku-pe, that I may give yon ; ni-, 
subjective prefix first person ; -ku-, objective prefix, second person ; -pe, 
subjunctive of pa, give to. Khdbfri, news ; sing, substantive of the 
third clasSk. Y-a, of; y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of 
the third class (kliahari). Humo, here in ; a demonstrative agreeing 
with the -ni case when denoting within, Shimo-ni, in the pit ; -ni, sign 
of the locative case. A-ka-m-fungua, and he loosed him ; a-, ka-, third 
sing, narrative past ; -w-, objective prefix referring to a substantive of 
the first class (mtoto) ; -fungua, unbind. A-ka-ona, and he saw, third 
sing., narrative past. Vi-chwa, heads or skulls ; vi-, sign of a plural 
substantive of the fourth class ; vichwa is in more elegant Swahili vitwa. 
V-ingi, many ; v- or m-, adjectival plural prefix, marking agreement 
with a plural substantive of the fourth class (vichwa); -ingi or -ngi, 
many. Vy-a, of; vy-, marking the agreement with a plural noun of 



III. I die or live." And he went in and saw a boy, and he'was bound. And 
[the hoy'] said, " Unbind me, that I may tell you about what there is in 
this pit. " And he unbound him, and saw many hmnan skulls. Aud he 



APPENDIX III. 433 

mwuliza, habari gani hii? Akamwambia, mna nyoka humo, kazi I. 
yake kula watu, na mimi angalinila, lakini amenifanya mtoto wake, 
xniaka mingi nimetoka kwetu. Akamwuliza, sasa yuko wapi nyoka ? 



the fourth class (vichwd). Wa-tu, people ; war, plural prefix first class. IL 
A-ha-mvf-vliza, and he asked him ; a-, ha-, third sing, narratiye past ; 
•mw-t objective prefix referring to a person (mtoto) ; -uUzaf ask or ask 
of. Habari or hhaharty news, sing, substantive third class. Gani, 
what sort ? Hit, this ; demonstrative denoting a sing, substantive of 
the third class (habari). A-ha-mw-ambia, and he said to him; this 
word is of constant occurrence, it means that one person told or said to 
-another ; "there -is no mark of sex or means of distiDguishing which 
person of several mentioned before was the speaker, these points must 
be gathered from the context. M-na, there is inside ; m-na is part of 
-the verb Tcuwa na, to be with or to have, used as it often is to denote 
mere being (p. 158) ; it answers to the English there is; there may be 
represented by hu-,pa-, or m- ; the last is used where the place suggested 
is within something, it refers here to shimoni, in the pit. Ny-oka, a 
snake, a sing, substantive in the form of the third class, denoting an 
animate being. Humo, there within, referring to shimoni. Kazi, work 
Gt employment, sing, substantive, third class* Y-ake, his ; y-, prefix 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third class ; -dke, possessive 
pronoun, third person sing. Ku-Ui, to eat; ku-, sign of the infinitive ; 
4a, eat. Wa4u, people; wa-, plural prefix first class. Na, and. 
Mimi, I or me. A-ngali-ni-la, he would have eaten me ; a-, third sing., 
agreeing with the name of an animal (nyoka) ; -ngali-, sign of the 
past conditional tense; -ni-, objective prefix referring to the first 
person ; -la, eat ; the tense prefix -ngali- cannot bear any accent, the 
word is therefore pronounced dngfoZtnfZa. Lakini, hut. A-me-ni-fanya, 
he has made me ; a-, xeferring to nyoka ; -me-, sign of present perfect ; 
ni-, objective prefix, first person; -fanya, make. M-toto, child; to-, 
fiing. prefix, first class. Wake, his; to-, prefix agreeing with sing, 
substantive of the first class (mtoto), Mi-aka, years ; plural substan- 
tive of the second class (sing, mwaka) ; mi-, plural prefix. M-ingi, 
many ; m- or mi-, prefix, denoting agreement with a plural substantive 
of the second class (miaka), Ni-me-toka, I have left ; ni-, first person 
subjective; -me-» present perfect; -toka,, go out of. Ew-etu, home; 



asked, « What is this ? " And he said, *< There is a snake in it, that eats III. 
men, and would have eaten me, but that it took me for its own son. It 
is many years since I left home." And he asked, *' Where is the «Qak<;k 



434 APPENDIX III 

l» Akamwambia, twende, nikakuonye mahala amelala. Akamwambia, 
twende. Walipofika, yule kijana akamkata kichwa kimoja, akatoa cha 
pili, akamkata, liatta vikatimu saba. Wakarndi, wakaenda zao. 



IT. ^v>'9 prefix agreeiDg with a substantive (perhaps nyumbd) in the case 
in -ni ; -etu (our). A-kci-^nvMdizaf and he asked him ; a-, third sing. 
(kijana); -ka-y narrative past; -mw-j third sing, objective (mtoto); 
'Ulizay ask. Sam, now. Yu-ho, he is; yu-, sign of third person 
sing., referring to a substantive of the second class (nyoka); -Aco, 
denoting existence in space (p. 154). Wapi, where ? Ny-okct, snake ; 
sing, substantive. A-ka-mw-anibia^ and he said to him. {See above.) 
Tw-endCi let us go; tw-9 sign of the first person plural; -ende, 
subjunctive of encUi, go. Ni-ka-kthonye, and let me show you ; nt-, 
sign of first person sing. ; 'ka-y and (p. 211); -ku-, objective second 
person sing. ; -onye, subjunctive of onya, show. MahaJoy the place, 
the place where. A-me^lalay he is asleep; a-, third sing, animate 
(nyoka) ; -me-y present perfect ; -lalay lie down to sleep, to go to sleep. 
A-ka-mw-ambia, (See above.) Tvj-ende, let us go; tw-y&nt person 
plur. ; -ende, subjunctive of enda, go. Wa-li-po-fikay when they 
arrived ; toa-y sign of third person plural agreeing with substantives 
denoting persons (kijana and mtoto) ; -li- or -aZt-, sign of the past 
perfect, or of past time generally when joined with a particle of 
relation ; -po-, sign of time when ; -fika, arrive. FuZe, that ; demon- 
strative denoting a person (kijana), Ki-jana^ youth ; sing, substantive 
fourth class, but denoting a person, and therefore joined as here 
with pronouns and verbs in forms proper to the first class. A-ka^ 
m-kata^ he cut him ; a-, third sing, of a person (kijana) ; -A;a-, narra- 
tive past ; -m-y objective prefix, referring to the name of an animal 
(nyoka) (see p. 112); -kata^ cut or cut off. Ki-chwOy head, sing, sub- 
stantive fourth class. Ki-moja, one ; ki-y prefix denoting agreenaent 
with a sing, substantive of the fourth class (kichwa or kitioa); -mojay 
one. A'ka-toay and he put forth ; a-, third sing., referring to] a sub- 
stantive denoting an animal (nyoka) ; -ka-y narrative past ; -tea, put 
forth. Cha piliy a second (p. 92) ; ch-, referring to a sing, substantive 
of the fourth class (kichwa), A-ka-m-katay and he cut him. (See above,) 
Hattay until. Vi-ka-timUy they were complete ; vi-y third plural refer- 



Ill, now ? " He said, ** Let us go and let me show you where it is sleeping." 
He said, " Let us go." When they got there the youth cut off one of its 
beads ; it put forth a second, and be cut it off, until he had out off 
seven. And they returned, and ^ent oil tkeii way. 



APPENDIX III. 435 

Akamwambia sasa twende zetu kwetu, lakiui tukifika kwetu I. 
wenende wewe kwanza kwa baba yangu, ukamwambie kana mtoto 
wako nikikiiletea utanipa nini ? Akikwambia, nitakupa mali yaDga 



ring to nouns of the fonrtb class, here to vkhwa^ heads, plural of kichwa ; II. 
-ka-y narrative past; -timu, be complete. Saha, seven. Wa-horrucU, 
and they returned; wa-, third plural referring to persons (hijmta 
and mtotd) ; -ka-, narrative past ; -rudiy return. Wa-ka-enda z-ao, and 
they went away ; too-, third plural (kijaria and mtoto) ; -kct-, narrative 
past ; -enda, go ; z-cu), their (ways) ; z-, a prefix denoting agreement 
with a plural noun of the third or sixth, or in the dialect of Lamoo 
of the fourth class ; -oo, their. Possibly z<io agrees with njiay ways. 
iSee p. 112.) 

A-ka-mvj-ambiaj and he said to him. SasOf now. Ttu-ende z-etu. 
let us go away ; tw-, sign of first person plural ; -endej subjunctive of 
enda, go ; z-, sign of agreement with a plural noun of the third or the 
sixth class ; -etUy our. (See above,) Kw-etut home ; kw-^ sign of agree- 
ment with the case in -ni-; -etu, our. Lakini, but. Tu-ki-fika^ when 
we arrive ; tu-^ sign of the first person plural ; -%»'-, sign of the partici- 
pial tense (p. 136) ; -fika^ arrive. BSjo-etu^ home. W-enende^ go ; w-, 
sign of the second person singular ; -eviende, subjunctive of enenda, go, 
or go on. Wewe, thou. Kwanza, first ; originally the infinitive of the 
verb anza, begin; kwanza, to begin, beginniDg, and therefore first. 
Kwa, to a person, or to his house. Baba, father. T-angu, my ; y-, 
sign of an agreement with a singular noun of the third class, used here 
colloquially with one denoting a person (haha) ; -angu, my (p. 109). U- 
ka-mw-ambie, and say to him ; u-, sign of the second person singular ; 
-ka-, and ; -mu)', objective sign referring to a noim denoting a person 
(baha) ; -anibie, subjunctive of ambia, tell. Kana^ if. M-toto, child. 
W-ako, thy ; w-, sign of agreement with a singular substantive of the 
first class (mtoto). Ni-ki-ku-letea, if I bring to you ; m-, sign of the 
first person singular; -ki-, sign of the participial tense (p. 136); 
-ku-, objective prefix referring to the second pei'son singular; 'Utea, 
bring jto. U'ta-ni-pa, you will give me ; «-, sign of second person sing. ; 
-ta-, sign of the future tense ; -nt-, objective prefix referring to the 
first person singular; -pa, give to. Nini, what? A-kt-kw-anibia, ii 
he tells you; a-, sign of the third person singular referring to a 



And [the boy] said, " Now let us go to my home ; but when we are HI. 
getting near to it do you go first to my father and say to him, * If I bring 
your son to you, what will you give me ? * If he says to you, * I will give 



436 APPENDIX UL 

L niura kws mum, nnkolMli, mwamMe nalalai kolia jmko idijo uldvaa 
njaoaoi mwaka Ateknpa kofia jft tfaaliabay milmhtlij da akope 



n. peraoD Q)dh(£) ; -Je^-, sign of the partieipuJ tense ; -&w-, objeetiTe ptefix 
lefening to the aeooiid penon aingiilar; -omfrto, aaj to. JVtMD-Jbi-fMi, 
I will giro joo ; m-, sign of the Hzst penon smg. ; -la-, sign of the 
fatme tense; -&»-, objective prefix re fe r rin g to tiie aeoond peiaon 
singnlar; -^NiygiTeto. JfoZt, poBsesBions; treated sooietimes as a noon 
of the third class, sometimes as a ploral noon <tf the fiflfa elass. 
Y-angUf my ; |f-, sign of an agreement with a singnlar noon of the 
third or with a plmal noon of the fifth class. Nuttm^ half. Kwoj 
by. NussUj half. U-nrkubaU, do not accept ; •-, sign of second person 
singnlar; -w-, sign of negative sabjunctiye (p. 147); 4ai6alt, snb- 
jnoctive of kubali, accept. Mw-ambiej tell him; ams-, objective 
prefix referring to a person QxEba); -ambiej imperatiTe of ombia, 
tell ; mto- is known to be the objectiTO third person, and not the 
subjective second ploral, by the form of the word ambia; being an 
applied form it most have thb object expressed. N-n-taka, I want ; it-, 
sign of the first person singnlar ; -a-, sign- of the present tense ; -foJSro, 
want. KoficLj cap ; sing. substan'tiTe of the third class. Y-ako, thy ; 
y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. 
U-li-yo, which yon, or which yon are, or were ; «-, sign of the second 
person sing. : -{»•, nsed for the substantive verb ; -yo, relative sig^ 
referring to a singular substantiTC of the third class (kofid). U-ki- 
vaOf putting on ; u-, sign of the second person singular ; -JU-, sign of 
the participial tense ; -ma, put on. U-jand-ni, in youth ; u-f sign of a 
sing, substantive of the sixth class ; -nt-, sign of the locative case. 
Muhoko, thy; mw-, sign of agreement ¥rith a substantive in the 
locative case with the meaning of in. A-iarkthpOj he will give you ; 
a-j sign of third person sing, of a person ; -to-, sign of the future ; -/ni-, 
objective prefix rererring to the second person sing.; -pa, give to. 
Kofioj cap ; sing, substantive of the third class. F-o, of; y-, sign of 
Agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. Thahabuj 
gold ; substantive of the third class. U-n-huboH, do not accept ; «-, 
sign of the second person sing. ; -si-, sign of the negative subjunctive ; 
'kubali, subjunctive of kubali, accept. Ela, except. A-ku-pe, let him 
give you ; a-, sign of the third person sing., referring to a person ; 



I. you half of all I have,' do not accept that, but say, * I want the cap which 
you used to wear in your youth.' He will give you a cap of gold ; do 
not accept it, unless he give you a cap quite worn out, take that. And 



APPENDIX ITT. 437 

Icofia mbovn kabisa, hiyo pokea. Na mama jangn mwamibie nataka I. 
taa uliyo uMwasha ujanani mwako. Atakupa taa nyingi za thahabu, 
Tisikubali, ela akupe taa mbovumbovu ya ohuma, hiyo pokea. 



-Jfctt-, objective prefix, referring to the second person sing. ; -pe, sub- 11. 
juncfive of pa, give to. Kofia, sing, substantive third class. M-hovu, 
rotten ; tn-, being n- converted into w- by standing before -6 (p. 85), 
sign of an agreement with a sing. sul)stantive of the third class (jkojia), 
Kabisa, utterly. SiyOj this one; demonstrative denoting a thing 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (kofia). Pokea, receive: imperative sing, of pokea, receive. 
No, and. Mama, mother : sing, substantive in the form of the third 
class denoting a person. T-angu, my ; y-, sign of an agreement with 
a «ing. substantive of the third class, here used colloquially. Mw-avribie, 
tell her ; mw-, objective prefix referring to a person ; -amMe, imperative 
sing, of ambia, tell. N-a-taka, I want ; n-, sign of first person sing. ; 
•a-, sign of present tense ; -taka, want Taa, sing, substantive third 
class. TJ-U-yo, which you, which you were or are ; -u, sign of the 
second person sing. : -?t-, used for the substantive verb (p. 151) ; -yo, 
relative particle referring to a sing, substantive of the third class 
(too). U-ki-washa, lighting ; «-, sign of second person sing. ; -ki-, 
sign of the participial tense ; -washa, light. U-jand-ni, in youth ; u», 
sign of a sing, substantive of the sixth class ; -ni, sign of the locative 
case. Mw-ake, thy ; mw-, sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case with the meaning in, A-ta- kii-pa, she will give you ; 
a-, sign of third person sing., referring to a person ; -to-, sign of the 
future tense ; -kw, objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; 
.pa, give to. Taa, lamps ; plural substantive of the third class (shown 
to be plural by the context). Ny-ingi, many ; ny-, sign of agreement 
with a plural substantive of the third class ijxm), Z-a, of^ z-, sign of 
agreement with a plural noun of the third class. Thahabu, gold. 
TJ-si-kvhaU, do not accept ; second person sing, negative subjunctive of 
kubali. Ela, except. A-ku-pe, let her give you; a-, sign of third 
person sing., referring to mama; -Tcu-, objective prefix referring to 
second person sing. ; -pe, subjunctive of pa, give to. Taa, sing, 
substantive third class. M-hovu-m-hovu, all spoilt ; m- (for n- before 
-b), sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (taa) ; 



lay to my mother, * I want the lamp you used to bum in your youth.' m. 
She will give you many lamps of gold ; do not accept them, unless she 
give you an old worn iron lamp, take that.*' 



488 APPENDIX in. 

I. Wakaenda lao batta walipofika kariba ya mji, ynle kijana aka- 
mwambia, mimi 'takaa bapa, na wewe enende mjini kwetu, ukafanye 
sburuti na baba yangu kamma biyo niliokwambia. Akaenenda. 
Alipofika akaona mjini watu bawaneni, wana msiba mkuu, akauliza, 



II. the adjective is doubled to sbow tborongbness. Y-a, of; y-, sign of 
agreement witb a sing, substantive of tbe third class. Ch-uma, iron ; 
a sing, substantive of tbe fourth class ; it is used in the singular of iron 
as a metal, and in both sing, and plur. with the meaning of a piece or 
pieces of iron. Hiyo, this one ; demonstrative referring to something 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (too), Pokea, receive ; imperative sing, of pokea. 

Wa-ka-enda z-ao^ and they went their way. (See above), Hatta, until. 
Worli'po-fikd, when they arrived. {See above), Karibu ya, near to- 
M-jif town ; m-, sign of a sing, substantive of the second class. Yulcy 
that. {See above). Ki-jana, youth. {See above), A-ka-mw-ambiaf said to 
him. {See above), Mimi, I. 'Ta-kaa, will stay; to-, sign of the future, 
the prefix of the first person sing, being elided before it ; the sign of no 
other person can be so elided. Hapa, here. Na, and. Wewe, thou. 
Enende, imperative sing, of enenda, go, go on. M-ji-ni, to the town ; 
tn-, sign of a sing, substantive second class ; -ni, sign of the locative 
case. Kw-etu, our ; Jdo-, sign of an agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case. U-ka-fanye, and make ; u-, sign of second person sing. ; 
'ka-, and ; -fanye, subjunctive of fanya, make. Shuruti, a covenant ; 
sing, substantive third claes. Na, with. Baba, father. Y-angu, 
my. {See above, and p. 112). Kamma, as. HiyOj that ; demonstrative 
referring to something mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, 
substantive of the tbird class {shuruti), Ni-li-o-kw-avnbia, which I 
told you ; ni-, sign of tbe first person sing. ; -li-, sign of the past tense 
which must be used with a relative ; -o- (for yo), relative particle 
referring to shuruti (p. 117) ; -kw-, objective prefix referring to the 
second person sing. Aka-enenda, and be went on, A-li-po-fika, when 
he arrived. A-ka-orha, be saw. M-ji-ni, in the town; m-, sign of a 
sing, substantive of the second class ; -ni, sign of the locative case. 
Wa-tu, people ; wa-, sign of a plural noun of the first class. Hawa^ 
neni, they speak not ; haioa-, sign of the third person plural negative 



III, And they went on till they arrived near the town, when the boy said, 

" I will stay here, and you go on into the town, to our house, and make 

tbe agreement witb my fatlier as I told you." And he went on and 

arrived in the city, where he sa^ the people not talking [but] in great 



APPENDIX HI. 439 

msiba bini ira nini ? Wakamwambia, mtoto wa Saltan! amepote sikii I. 
nyingi Akauliza, nymnba ya BuLtani ni ipi, nipelekeni. Wakampe- 
leka watu. Alipofika akamwuliza baba yake, una nini ? Akamwa- 
mbia, mtoto wangu amepotea. Akamwambia, nUdkuletea olanipa 



agreeing with a plural noun of the first class (watu) ; -neni^ negative II. 
present form of nena^ speak. Wa-na, they have ; third person plur. 
present of kutoa no, to have, governed by watu. M-sibctf grief ; m-y 
sign of a sing, noun of the second class. M-kuUf great; m-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the second class {msiba). 
A-ka-uLizOy and he asked. M-siba, grief. Huu, this ; demonstratlYe 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the second class (msihd), W-a, 
of; w-y sign of agremeent with a sing, substantive of the second class 
(m$ibd), Nini, what? Wa-ka-mio-ambia, and they said to him. 
M'toto, the child. W-a, of; to-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub- 
stantive of the first class (mtoto). SvUaniy the sultan ; a sing, sub- 
stantive of the fifth class, but when viewed as denoting a person 
constructed with adjectives and pronouns as of the first. A-me-poteck, 
is lost; third sing, present perfect of kupotea, to become lost; he has 
become lost, i.e., he is lost. Sihuy days; plural substantive of the 
third class. Ny-ingi, many; ny-, sign of agreement with a plural 
substantive of the third class (siku). A-ka-idiza, and he asked. 
Ny-umba, house; wy-, sign of substantive of the third class. Y-a, of; 
y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class 
{nyuvp^y. Sultanij sultan. Ni, is (p. 152). Lpi, which? »-, sign 
of reference to a sing, substantive of the third class {nyumhd). Ni- 
pelekeni, take me; ni-, objective prefix referring to the first person 
sing. ; pelekeni, plural imperative of peleka, take. Worka-m-peleka, 
and they took him. Wa-tu, people. A-li-po-fika, when he arrived. 
A-ka-mw-uliza, he asked him ; observe here and elsewhere the use of 
the ka tense to carry on the narration, even where there would be no 
connective employed in English. Bdba, father. Y-ake, his. {See 
above). U-na nini, what is the matter with you ? u-na, second person 
sing, of the present tense of kii-wa na, to have ; nini i what ? A-ka- 
mw-ambia, and he said to him. M-toto, child. W-angu, my. A-me- 



mourning, and he asked, '* What is this mourning for ? " They told him, III. 
<* The Sultan's son has been a long time lost.'' He asked, '* Which is the 
Sultan's house? Take me there." And the people took him there. 'Vfrhen 
he reached it he asked the boy's father, ** What troubles you ? " He said, 
«< My son is lost.*' And he said to him, ^ If I bring him to you what will 



440 APPENDIX IlL 

I. nini ? Akamwambia, nitakapa mali yangpi nnssn kwa nnssii. Aka- 
mwambia, marababa. Akaenda akamtwaa, s^ja naye. Alipomwona 
babaye na mamaye, ikawa furaba kabwa mjinL Wakapenda sana 
yule kijana kama mtoto wao. 

Hatta alipotaka kwenda zake, jrale kijana akamwambia, ene^de 
kamwage baba na mama, mwambie akiipe kofia na mama akupe taa. 



II. potetty is lost. (See p. 132.) ii-A^-mte-am&ta, and he said to him. Nirhi' 
hu'letea, if I bring to you. (See above). U-ta-ni-pa, you will give me. 
(See ahove). Nini, what? A-ha-miD'ambia, and he said to him. Np- 
ta-hu-pay I will give you. Mali, goods. (See above), T-angu, my. (See 
above.) Nussu, half. Kioa, by. Nussu, half. A-ka-mw-ambia, and he 
said to him. Marababa, very good. A-ha-^nda, and he went. A-^- 
m-tuoaa, and took him. A-ha-ja, and came. Na-ye^ with him. A-U' 
po-mvo-ona, when he saw him. Baba-ye, his father ; -ye, enclitic form 
of the possessive pronoun proper to the third person; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class, used here with 
one denoting a person (p. 111). Na, and. Mama-ye, his mother ; -ye, 
(See above), I-ka-wa, it was ; i-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub- 
stantive of the third class (furdha). Furaha, joy ; sing, substantive 
third class. Kubwa, great ; agreeing with furaha-; as n-, which would 
be the regular sign of agreement with a sing. substantiTe of the third 
class, cannot stand before k, it is omitted altogether (p. 85). M-ji- 
ni, in the town ; m-, sign of sing, substantive second class ; -nt, sign 
of the locative case. Wa-ka-penda, and they (the father and mother) 
loved. Sana, much. Yule, that. Ki-jana, youth. Kama, like. 
M'toto, child. W-ao, their. 

Hatta, at last. A-li-po-taka, when he wanted. Kw-enda z-ake, to go 
away. (See above and p. 112). Tule, that Ki-jana, youth. A-ka-muj- 
ambia, he said to him. Enende, go ; sing, imperative of enenda, go. 
Ka-mw-age, and ^ke leave of him ; kor, and ; -mw-, objective prefix 
referring to a person ; if mio had been the subjective second plur. the 
ka would have followed it ; m-ka-age = and do ye take leave ; -age, 



III. yo^ ^^^ ™® ^ ** ^® ^^> ** ^ ^^^^ Siv® yo^ ^^^^ o^ *11 ^ have." He said, 
'* I am content." And he went and took the boy and brought him. 
When his father and mother saw him, there was great joy throughout 
-the V>wn. And they loved that youth as though he had been their 
own son. 

When at last he wished to go away, the boy said to him, " Gk> and 
take leave of my father and mother; tell him tc give you the oap.and 



APPENDIX III. 441 

Alotenda, akawaambia, wakampa kofia nyingi, akakataa akamwambia, I. 
nataka hiyo mbovu, wakampa, na mamaye akampa taa. Akawauliza, 
kofia hii luaana yake nlni ? Wakamwambia, mtu akivaa, haonekani 
na mtu. Akavaa asionekane akafarahi sana. Akauliza, taa hii 
maana yake nini? Wakamwambia, ukiwasha hatta hapa watatoka 



imperative sing, of aga^ take leave of. Baha^ father. Na^ and. II. 
MamoL, mother. Mtc-ambie, tell him ; mw-, objective prefix referring 
to a person ; •amhie, imperative sing, of ambiat tell. A-ku-pe^ that he 
may give you. Kofiaf cap. Na, and. Mama, mother. A-ku-pe, that 
she may give you. Taa, lamp. A'ka-enda, and he went. A-ka-wa- 
ambia, and he told them (the father and mother). Wa-ka-m-pa, and 
they gave him. Kofia, caps. Ny-ingi, many. A-ka-kataa, and he 
fefnsed. A-ka-mvj-ambia, and he said to him. N-a-taka^ I want. 
Hiyo, this one. {See ahove.) M-hovu, rotten. {See dbovey Wa-ka-m-pa, 
and they gave him. Na, and. Mama-yef his mother. (See ahave^ 
under hahaye). A-ka-m-pa, she gave him. Taa, lamp. A-ka-wa-uliza, 
and he asked them. Kofia, cap. Hii, this ; demonstrative referring 
to a sing, substantive of the third class (kofia), Maana, meaning, 
purpose; sing, substantive third class. Y-dke, its; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (maxina), Nini, 
what ? Wa-ka-mw-ambia, and they said to him. M-tu^ person, any 
one (p* 16) ; m-, «ign of sing, substantive of first class. A-ki-vaa, if 
he puts om Hja-onekant, he is not to be seen ; ha-, negative prefix of 
the third person sing, referring to a pexson ; onekani, negative pxesent 
form of onekana. Na, by. M-tu, any one (p. 16), A-kc^-vaa^ and he 
put on. A-ei-onekane, that he might not be seen : a-, prefix of third 
person sing, referring to a person (kijana); -si', sign of negative 
subjunctive j -onekane, subjunctive form of onekana. A-ka-furahij and 
he rejoiced. Sana, much. A-ka-uliza, and he asked. jToa, lamp. 
Hii, this. Maana, purpose. Y-ake, its. Nini, what? Wa-ka-mw- 
ambia, and they told him. U-ki-washa, if you light. Hatta, as far as. 
Hapa, here. Wa-ta-toka, they will come out ; wa-, sign of third person 



my mother to give you the lamp." He went and told them, and they III. 
gave him many caps, but he refused and said, *< I want that worn-out 
one ; " and they gave it to him, and the boy's mother gave him the 
lamp. Then he asked, " What is the object of this cap ? " And they told 
him, ** When a man puts it on, no one can see him." He put it on so as 
to become invisible, and was very glad. " And he asked, What is the 
object of this lamp ? " And they told him, ** If you light it as far as this, 



442 APPENDIX UL 

L wata wawili wakntiHe fhahaba Bjnunbaiii mwalBO xuSka kooha, na 
ukiwasha hatta hapa watatoka wata -wawili wakopige kwa Tigo- 
Dgo nsikn kneha. Akanena, maiahaba. Akafmahi aana^ akaenda 
zaka. 

II. plor* referring to a plural substantive of the first class (waiu). Wa-^ 
people. Wa-wUi, two ; too-, sign of agreement with a plor. substantive 
of ihe first class (toaiu). Warku-tilie, that they may put for yon ; too-, 
sign of third person plor. referring to a plor. substantive of the first 
class (tocUu) ; -ku-, objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; 
•4tlie, subjunctive form of tdia, put for. Thakcttm, gold. Ntf-umbd-m, 
in house; ny-, sign of substantive of the third dass; -ni, sign of 
locative case. Mw-akOy thy ; mto-, sign of agreement with a noun in 
the locative case denoting within. Unku, night. Ku-i^ta, dawning or 
sun-rising ; used after usiku, it means all night until the morning 
comes. Na, and. U-ki-wa$ha, i| you light. Sdtta, as far as. Hapa, 
here. Wa^ta-toka, they will come out. Wd-tu, people. Wor^unli, two. 
Wa-ha-pige, that they may beat you ; -pige, subjunctive form of piga. 
Ktoa, with. Vi-gongo, cudgels: vi-, sign of a plural substantive of 
the fourth class ; ki-gongo is a diminutive (p. 19) of gongo, a stafi*. 
Uiiku, night. Ku-cha, till morning. A-ka^^Mna, and he said. 
Marahaba, thank you. A-ka-furahi, and he rejoiced. Sana, much. 
A'korenda z-^ike, and he went away. 



III. two men will come out and bring you gold into your house all night 
long ; but if you light it as far as this, two men will come out and beat 
you with cudgels all night long.*' And he thanked them, and rejoiced 
very much, and went his way. 



( 443 ) 



Appendix IV. 



USEFUL AND IDIOMATIC PHRASES. 

The first fifty-four were collected towards a book of oonversations, 
which was begun with the help of our lamented friend, Mrs. G. E. 
Drayton; the rest, which are arranged in alphabetical order, were 
noted from time to time, either as likely to be useful in conversation, 
or as illustrating some special rule or idiom. 

1. How many fowls have you there ? 

UncLO Vuhu ngapi f 

2. What do you want for them ? 

KictH gani unakuza (At how much do you sell) ? 

3. Have you any eggs ? 

Unayo mayayi f 

4. I will not give more than a pice apiece for the eggs. 

Nitakupa pesa moja tu Tcununua yayi, sitaioa zayidi (I will 
give you one pice only to buy an ^g, I will not give more). 

5. I don*t understand you, say it again. 

8ema mara ya pili, sihusikia, 

6. Let me hear it again. 

Sema mara ya pilij nipate kusikia (Say it a second time, 
that I may get to understand). 

7. Fetch me a basin for the eggs. 

Letee haktili nitie mayayi. 

8. Bring the basin with the eggs in it. 

Letee bakuli lenyi mayayi, 

9. I don't want any to-day, come to-morrow* 

Leo sitakiy njoo kesho, 
10. Are lemons cheap now ? 

Malimao rahiH aasa 1 



444 APPENDIX IV. 

11. I won't buy them, they are too dear. 

Sitaki hununwi^ ni ghali, 

12. What do you want? 

Waiaka nini f 

13. I don't know what you want. 

Sijui uUtdkalo. 

14. Where do you come from ? 

Watoka wapi i 

15. Don't wait ; I will send an answer immediately. 

Enenda zakOy using&Je, majibu yaidkuja 9a»a him (Go your 
way ; do not wait for an answer, it will come immediately). 

16. Is your master at home ? 

Bwana yupo ? 

17. Master is not at home ; he is gone out. 

Bwana hako (or hayuho) nyumhani ; ametoha. 

18. Where are you going ? 

Unakwenda wapi f 

19. I have lost my way. 

Nimepoteaj njia sijui (I am lost ; the way I don't know)^ 

20. Will you guide me to the English mission ? 

Nataka unionyeshe mosketini Jngreza f 

21. Can you understand English ? 

Wewe unajua maneno ya Kiingreza t 

22. I cannot speak Swahili [of Zanzibar]. 

Syui kusema Kiunguja, 

23. Did the water boil ? 

Maji yameche^mka i 

24. Does the water boil? 

Maji yanache^mka f 

25. These plates are not clean. 

Sahani hizi zina takct. 

26. Wipe them carefully. 

Futa vema kwa kiiambaa, 

27. Sweep this room well. 

Fagia vema katika chumba liikL 

28. Dust the furniture. 

Pangusa vumbi katika vyombo. 

29. You have cracked that cup. 

Umekitia ufa kikonribe kile. 
80. Throw it away. 
Katupa, 
31, Fetch me the vinegar, the pepper, and the salt 
Niletee sikit na pilipili, na cKumm. 



/ 



APPENDIX IK 445-* 

> o2. Don't make so much noise. 

Usifanye uthia. 
/ 33. Put a treah wick in my lamp. 

Tia Tcatika taa yangu utamhi. 
^34. Fold up the table-cloth smoothly. 
' Kunja vema hitamhaa cha meza, usikimtnje (Fold well the 

cloth of the table ; spoil it not). 
35. When you have swept the room put on clean clothes, 

Kamma umekwisha hufagia, vaa ngxAO tafi. 
30. Take this to Miss T. 

ChuhtJM, updeke kwa hibi T, 
87. You have put all these books upside down ; turn them. 

Umepindua vyuo hivi vyote, uviweke upande mgine.. 
38. Leave that alone ! 

Acha ! 
89. Gome here, I want to speak to you. 

Njoo hapa, 'nna maneno nitaliwamhia (I have words I will 
say to you). 

40. Get ready to go for a walk. 
Fanya tayari upate kwenda kutemhea, 

41. Are you ready ? 
Umekuwa tayari? 

42. Which way shall you like to go ? 
Njia gani utakao kupita ? 

43. How far is it to your shamba ? 
KadH gani mhdli ya skamba lako hatta kufika (How much 

famess of your shamba till getting there) ? 

44. Not very far ; perhaps an hour's walk. 
Si mbali aana, labuda ikipata saa mqja. 

45. Shall you walk, or ride your donkey, or sail ? 
Utakioenda kwa miguu, ao utapanda punda, ao utakwenda 

kwa mashua 9 

46. We will go round the town and home by the bridge. 
Tutazunguka kattka mj% Jidlafu turudie darajani (Then let 

us return by the bridge). 

47. Bring me some hot water after breakfast. 
NUetee maji ya moto, nikiisha kula. 

48. Half a bucket full. 
N%t88 ya ndoo, 

49. Turn the mattress over every morniDg;. 
Geuza kiUa siku godoro, chinijuu. 

50. Turn it top to bottom. 
Upande huu uweke upande wa pili. 



446 AFPENDIX IV. 

^1. I am very glftd to see yon. 

JJmependa moyo loangu Icukutazama. 
52. What ship is that ? 

Marikehu gani Mi i 
&d. Has she cast aDchor yet ? 

Imetia nanga i 
■54. No, she will come nearer the shore. 

Bado, iiidkt^a kcurtbu ya pwani. 
4)5. A good man does not desert his friends when they fall into 
difficulties. 

Mtu mwema Tiawaachi rafiki zake wakipaiika na thidda. 

56. Are you idle ? 

Ati mvitu i 

57. At what time shall I come ? 

Wakti gani nije ; 

58. Did he stay long ? 

Alikaa tana i 

59. No, he went away directly. 

Hiia, alikwenda zaJce mara. 
(60. Does he drink wine ? 

JSunywa divai f 
<61. He does not. . 

JSanyvji, \ 

62. Does this boat leak ? 

Mashua Mi yavuja ? 

63. Do not draw water from the well, the owner forbids it 

Usiteke maji kisimani, mwenyewe agombeza. 

64. Don*t jerk this rope ; if you do it will break. - 

Kamha Mi usiikutue, ukikutua UakaJbika. 

65. Eat as much as you like. 

KuUl hadri utakavyo. 

66. Find me a large hen. 

Kanitaftia koo la k^uku, ' 

67. Follow this road. 

Fiiata [or andama'] njia Mi, 

68. I want you to follow me. 

Nataka unifuate [or uniandame], 

69. Give it only to me and not to them. 

Nipe mimi tu, usiwape wale. 

70. Go and see if the people have collected. 

Ka^angalia watu toamekutana. 

71. Go and stop that talking. 

Enenda kakomesha maneno haija. 



APPENDIX IV. 447 

^ 72. Stop this outcry. 

Makdde haya yakome (Let these cries cease). 

73. Gk) away, whoever you are. 

Enda zako, hadri vtakaokuwa, 

74. Guard yourself^ I am going to hit you. 

Kinga, takupiga, 

75. Has he a large box ? 

Anahoihaf 

76. He has. 

Analo huha. 

77. Have you a pipe at home ? 

Kiko hwako hiko ? 

78. He built a bridge across the river. 

Alijenga h<m(h haUkati ya mio. 

79. He built a mosque by the river, and endowed it with a shamba 

near ours. 
Alijenga moskiti rufambOf dkatoekea wakf skaniba Jcaribu 
shamba letu, 

80. He described Mombas as it was in early times, as it is now, and 

as it will be a hundred years hence. 
Aliandika Mvita Uivyokuvoa kvoanza, ilivyo sasa, na itaka* 
vyokuwa huta midka mia, 

81. He does not believe me though I saw it 

Hanisadiki ningawa nimeiona, 

82. He had the toothache. 

AUkuwa najino likimwumcL. 
■83. He has been abroad many years. 

Alikuuja safarini miaJca mingi, 

84. He has presence of mind. 

Moyo wake uwapo. 

85. His mind is absent. Hajpo ati, 
■86. He is a troublesome fellow to deal with. 

Ana ta>ahu kuingiana naye, 

87. He is absorbed in his own thoughts ; even if you speak to him he 

takes no notice. 
Yu katUta fikara zaJtwe; ujaponena naye hawepo. 

88. He is here. 

Yupo kapa, 
i59. He is not here. 

Hapo kapa, 
90. He is yonder. 

Yuko kule, 

1 ^'L 



448 APFENDIX IV. 

01. He 10 not there. 

Haho TiuU, 
. 92. He u DOi yet dressed. 

najavaa. 
93. He left us about ten dnjs ago. 

AlUwaeha Jeadri ya (or /.»xma) ttZru Zrumt. 
91. He ought to be beaten. 

AUttaji hupigwa. 
95. He pretends to be satisfied, but do not tmst him. 

Ajifanya huwa rathi, usimicamini. 
9C. He rose np from his chair. 

Miondoha hitini Tivcahe. 

97. He runs as fast as he can. 

Anakteenda mbio kama awezavyo. 

98. He says he will walk on the water ! 

AH aiakwenda mtoni hvca mignut 

99. He that hateth suretyship is sure. 

Mtu.asiyekvhdli Jcuihamini ni haW;a amani. 

100. He that is not against us is with us. 

Mtu agiyekuwa juu yetu, hassi yee pamoja nasi. 

101. He that is Dot with us is against us. 

Atiyekuvca pamoja nasif hassi huyu juu yetu. 

102. He tried to make himself agreeable, and he snccecdoJ. 

Alijipendeheza ndipo dkapendeza. 

103. Ho was changed from a man into a horse. 

Alibadiliwa mtu huwafrasi. 

104. Ho was more energetic than his father. 

Huyu alikuwa akiweza zayidi ya baha yaJce. 

105. His non-appearance is unaccountable. 

Kutowelcana kwake haitambuliJcani. 
lOG. His self-coucoit is no good to him. 

Majivuno yoke hayamfai neno. 

107. How are your household (i.e. your wife, daughters, d:c.) ? 

U hali gani nyumbani kicako. 

108. How far is it across the island ? 

Kupataje mbali wake hapa hatta pwani ya pili ? 

109. A fast walkerwould take fromsunrise to the middle of the afternoon. 

Akiondoka mtu assuhui hatta alasiriy alio Jiodari kicenda^ 
kufika. 

110. How long has ho been ill ? 

Tangu lini hawezi ? 

111. How long ago was his illness? 

I'angu lint alikuKa haioezi ? 



APPENDIX IV. 449 

112. How pleasant ! 

Imependeza. 

113. How glad you must have been to hear that you were to go home. 

Furaha ipi mwdliposikia mwende zenu kwenu, 

114. I am amusing myself with a book. 

Najizumgumza na ohuo, 

115. I am here. Nipo hapa. 
IIG. I am never without pimples. 

Vipele havinitoha kahUa, 
117. I am sleepy. 

Ninao tisingizi. 
lis. I cannot hold in this horse. 

Siwezi kuzuiafrasi huyu» 

119. I cannot see so far as you can. 

Sioni nibalif kama voaonavyo wetoe, 

120. I don't like his way of tying it. 

Sipendi ginsi afungavyo. . 

121. I don't see what you show me. 

Sioni ulionyalo, 

122. I don't see it, though he does. 

Siioni angawa aona. 

123. Take care, though you don't see it. 

Kaangcdiaj ujapo hukionu 

124. I feel myself at home. 

Hujiona niko kwetu, 

125. Make yourself at home. 

Usifanye haya^ hapa kama kicako (Feel no modesty, here is 
like your home). 
12G. I gave him good advice, though he would not take it. 
Nimemwonya Ulahini hakiwnyeka, 

127. I had almost left off expecting you. 

Nalikaribia kukata tamaa ya kukuona, 

128. I had lost my way, and I came out close to your shamba. 

Nalipotea njia nikatokea sharnbani ktoalco, 

129. I have asked him again and again, but he will not tell me. 

Nimemwuliza mara kwa mara lakini JMnambii. 

130. I have gained a hundred dollars. 

Nalipata fayida reaX$ mia, 

131. 1 have made you my mark, if you step over it, look out (a common 

defiance). 
Nimekupigia mfuo wangu kiuka warigah'e. 

132. I know where he is. • 

Namjua mahali alipo. 



450 APPENDIX IV. 

133. I pray God not to visit it upon me. 

Naoniba Mwenyiezi Muungu annipalUvse. 

134. I saw the flash of the gun, but did not hear the repcnrt^ 

Nimeona nwoangOf JakM Hkudkia mziuga ktdta. 

135. t shall go by sea as far as I ean. 

Nitakwenda ktoa haJiari, haUa UakajponifikUha. 

136. I shall go for a walk to stretch my legs. 

Nitaktoenda tenibea hukunjua migwL 

137. I thought myself a king. 

Nalikuwa nikivoaza nimekwwa Sultani. 

138. I will shut the door that he may not go out 

Nitafunga mlango asipctte kupUa, 

139. If he strikes you, hit him again. 

Ahikupiga, naice mpiga tena, 

140. If you had been here he would not have been beateOi. 

Kama ungalikutjoapo hapa, hangalipigvsa, 

141. It depends upon his coming. 

Kuna atakapoktya. 

142. It is bad weather. 

Kumekaa vibaya, 

Eakicendeki. 

Hatokeki. 

143. It is being hawked about by a salesman. 

Kinatembezwa kwa dalali. 

144. It is not there, though you say it is. 

Hdkipo^ ungawa wasema kipo. 

145. It is time for us to go. 

Imekuwa wakati wa mi kwenda zetu. 

146. It is quite time for us to go. 

Imewadia wakati wetu wa kwenda zeiu. 

147. It was a secret, but it oozed out. 

Yalikuwa Jtahari ya siri, ikatokeza^ 

148. Let him go. 

Mwacheni enende. 
140. Moslems are forbidden wine. 

Wa^limu wameepushwa divai 

150. Much self-exaltation ruins a man's position in the world. 

Majivuno yakiwa mengi ya'mvunjia mtu cheo. 

151. Nothing I do pleases him. 

Killa nafanyalo halimpendezi (everything which I do 
pleases him not). 

152. Whatever I do he finds fault with me. 

At'lia nafanyalo hunitia lihatxijani. 



APPENDIX IV. 451 

153. Put the water on the fire. 

Kateleka maji. 

154. Sit down. 

Kaa Tcitaho, 

155. Don't get up. 

Starehe, 

156. The baobabs are now coming into leaf! 

8iku hizi mihuyu inachantM majanL 

157. The fields are flourishing. 

Koonde imesitawu 

158. The music is first-rate. 

Ngoma inafana. 

159. The news has spread. 

Khoibari zimeenea, 

160. Spread the news. 

Zieneza khahari. 

161. The people who went to Bardera are come back. 

Watu toaliohwenda Baradera^ wameht^a zao^ 

162. The room wants darkening. 

Chumba chataka kutiwa giza. 

163. The top of this mountain is inaccessible. 

Juu ya mlima huu Tiaupandihi. 

164. They [the trees] are almost all dead. 

Kama Jcwamha Uiokufa yoie. 

165. They are badly stowed. 

MapaJcizo yao mahaya. 

166. They cut the boat adrift. 

WdkaJcata harnba ya mashim ikachuliuliica na maji. 

167. They like giving and receiving presents. 

JSupendelea hupana vitu. 

168. They shut themselves up in the fort. 

Wakajizuia gerezani, 

169. They told me what he had done. 

Walinambia alivyofanya, 

170. They were fighting, and I passed by and separated them. 

Walikuwa wakipiganay hapita mimi nikawaamtia. 

171. This chest must-be taken care of. 

Kasha hili la kviunzvaa, 

172. This has been worn. 

Nguo Mi imevaliwa, 

173. This tree is not so tall as that. 

Mti huu si mrefu kama ule. 



452 APPENDIX IV. 

17 1. Upon your oath I 

Vtaapa ! 
175. Wash me these clothea. 

I7C. The clothea hare been Miasbed. 
Nguo iimeoeheka. 

177. I h.iTeivaahecl myself. 

Nimenmcika. 

178. Wash me ! Noihe ! 

179. We attaokad them and they fell into confusion. 

Taalivjathambulla, teakafaiaika. 

180. We like his company. 

Kikao ehake ehaaa (his sitting is gooO). 

181. What do joa earn by the month ? 

Upaft^e liiila mwezi 1 

182. What is become of him ? 



isa. What is this news abont Ali ? 

Babari gatii titzUikiazo za Ali 1 

184. What are you talking abont 7 

Maneno gani mnenayo f 
Miildatlia gu-ni^ 
Mnejumi'i 

185. What will you forry me orer for? 

XJlanisiisha kica kiatigani 

186. When 1 have Been Mohammeii, I will give yon ai 

l/i!iiishamiN>aaMohamadi,niiaJaipajairal 

187. "Wherein the knife IbriW yon nithyeaterfay? 

KiJ;o wapi humnaliehohiona nachojanaf 
188 Whero is the paint 

Mahali gani panapouma 1 

189. Wboie isyoTir pain? 

Waitma mapi t 

190. Who is in there? 

JIf no nani 1 

191. You cannot teach him anyhow. 

Kadri u'm/uniavyo hajai. 

192. Wo do not know whether he will not loarn, or wl 

Malajui ya Tttcamia liataki kuji/uaia ai 
huji/unza. 
183, Vou have made this thread too tight 
IMhua watutia hatsi mno. 



APPENDIX IV. 45 J 

194. You ought to love him very much. 

Wastahili kumpenda sana. 

195. Kuamha na husengenya. To talk of a person behind his back, and 

secretly to make contemptuous signs about him when 
present. This phrase is often used as a test of a stranger's 
knowledge of Swahili ; what it describes is counted as a 
special sin. 

196. To ask a man his name. 

Oh ! Bafiki yangu nanibie jina lako (Oh ! my friend, tell 
me your name). Wajua, hwana wee, tumeonana mimi 
nawe,jina lako nimelisahaUf Usfdihal nambie jina lako 
(You know, sir, you and I have met [before], but I have 
forgotten your name, please to tell me your name). 

When you have heard it, say — Inshalldh, sitalisdhau iena 
(Please God, I shall not forget it again). 

197. A polite question and answer at leave-taking. 

Unayo Jiqja iena ? (Have you any further desire ?) 
Haja yangu ya kuiehi wewe sana nafuraha (My desire is 
that you may live long and happily). 



( 455 ) 



Appendix V. 



ON MONEY, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES IN ZANZIBAK. 

t 

The following account is based on scattered notices in the late Bishop 
Steere's collections, and on some tables famished to the Bev. P. L. 
Jones-Bateman by a well-informed servant of the Mission ii> 
Zanzibar. 

1. Money, 

The only copper coin in common nse in Zanzibar is the Anglo- 
Indian quarter-anna, or pice, in Swahili 'peta^ plor. peso or mapesa ; 
but the robopesay or quarter-pice (of which, however, three are equal to 
one pice), is also current. 

The silver coins current are the Anglo-Indian rupee and, less com- 
monly, the Austrian dollar. The eight-anna (half-rupee), four-anna 
(quarter-rupee), and two-anna pieces are also met with. 

The relative values of these coins and their equivalent in English 
money fluctuate considerably. For practical purposes, it is sufficient 
to remember that an English sovereign may be generally exchanged 
for 12 rupees, English bank-notes, cheques, drafts, &o., being subject 
to a small discount ; that an Austrian dollar is reckoned as equal to 2 
rupees and 8 pice, and that a rupee is worth usually from 60 to 64 
pice. It follows that, though accounts are . usually kept in dollars- 
and oents, and 5 dollars reckoned as equal to one pound English, it is 
more exact to consider — 









8. 


d. 






1 dollar 


= 3 


7 


In larger sums, 


1 rupee = 1 
1 pice = 
the scale of legal tender is 
47 dollars = 100 : 
94 „ = 200 


8 

to reckon — 
rupees 


and so on. 


141 


f» 


= 300 


91 



456 APPENDIX V. 

On the mainland, dollars and pice are taken freely on the coast and 
main lines of traffic, and rupees are met with ; but elsewhere, silver 
dollars only, and such objects of barter as calico, brass- wire, beads, &c. 

2. Measures of Length. 

There is no exact standard or relationship of measunis of length. 
Those in common use are merely taken from parts of the human body, 
viz. : — 

Wanda, plur. nyanda, a finger's breadth. 

Shibiri, a span, the distance between the tips of the outstretched 

thumb and little finger. 
Mdnta, a slightly shorter span, from the tip of the thumb to that 

of the fore-finger. 
Tliiraa or Mhono, a cubit, the distance from the finger-tips to the 
elbow joint. Of this again, there are two varieties : — 
Thlraa Tiamili^ or fuU/jubit, as just described, and — 
Thiraa kondsy or fist cubit, from the elbow-joint to tho 
knuckles. 
Wari, or yard, is one half of the — 

Pimay a man's height, or the distance he can stretch with his 
arms, a fathom. A doti is a measure of similar length. 
The uayo, or length of the foot, Arab khatiia, is also used occa- 
sionally, and the English foot, futi, regularly by Indian carpenters and 
in other trades. Approximately, the relations of these measures may 
be tabulated thus : — 

1 wanda = 1 inch. 

8 or 10 nyanda = 1 shibiri kamili = 1 quarter-yard. 

2 shibiri — 1 thirau or mkono = 1 cubit or half-yard. 
2 thiraa = 1 wari = 1 yard 

2 wart = 1 pima =^ 1 fathom. 

Distance is loosely estimated by the average length of an hour's walk- 
ing. Dunga, which lies almost exactly halfway across the island of 
Zanzibar, at a distance of perhaps twelve miles, is described as a walk 
of four hours, saa *nne; and Kokotoni, at the north end of the island, 
distant perhaps twenty miles from Zanzibar, as a walk of at least 
six hours, saa sita. On the mainland, a day's march is a common but 
vague measure of perhaps twenty miles. 

3. Measures of Weight. 

For gold, silver, silk, scent, and other costly articles, the unit is the 

?ra7cw, or u'ei^'ht of an Austrian silver dollar, almost exactly an ounce. 

'I'^nr the iiaine3 of fractional parts o? (vt\\ wmV, ^ci^*'Ha.\id.bQok^" p. 93 ; 



APPENDIX V. 457 

but the weight of a pice is often used as a convenient though inexact 
measure of small quantities. 

For heavy articles, the usual unit is a rdtd, or rattli, equal to IC 
icali'ia, and corresponding to one pound. 
16 wakia = 1 rdtel. 
3 rdtel = 1 mani. 
6 rdtel = 1 pishi. 

6 pishi = 1 frastla, about 35 lbs. avoirdupois, 
10 frasila = 1 mzo. 4 

Hence, 64: frasila or 6f mizo may be regarded as. = 1 ton. 

4. Measures of Capacity. 

No fixed liquid measure is used by the poorer classes. Shopkeepers 
sell their oil, treacle, &c., by tin-ladlefuls (kihombe), or by the bottle 
(chupa)f or by the tin, i.e. the tins in which American oil is imported 
to Zanzibar (tanahiy tinif also debe). 

Com (nafaka) or dry measure is, of bourse, of great importance in a 
country where grain is the staple of food and chief article of commerce. 

The smallest unit is the — 
Kibaha, a measure of perhaps a pint. 
Kibdba cha tele, if the measure is heaped up — the usual pro^ 

ceeding. 
Kibdba cha mfutOj if cut off flat. 
2 mbaha (vya tele) = 1 hisaga. 
2 visaga = 1 pishi, about half a gallon. 

The pishi connects the measures of capacity and weight, and fo» 
some of the common dry commodities, such as chirdko and hundi, the 
pishi may be regarded as equivalent either in capacity to 4 vibaba, or 
in weight to 6 rattli. 

Grain is sold wholesale by the handa, or sack of grass-mattiug,^or (if 
from India) by the gunia, a wide sack. The gunia often weighs about 
168 lbs. The Jcanda varies, both with the kind of grain and the place 
from which it is imported. For instance, while at Kwale, Mgao, and 
Mvita, towns on the Swahili coast, the Jcanda of rice at times contains 
10, 11, or 12 pishi, and the Jcanda of Indian com 10 pishi, at Pangani, 
Tanga, and Mtang'ata the Jcanda of rice will contain 15, IG,. or 17 
pishi, and the Jcanda of Indian corn 13 or 13^ pishi. 

Various other terms are in use for different commodities, e.g. poles 
are sold by the Jcorja, or score ; stone for building by the b(yma, a heap 
which may weigh 4 cwt. to 5 cwt. ; lime by the tanuu (clamp) or JciJcapo; 
calico by the jura, 35 yards ; and various other things by the " mzigo ** 
or load. 



458 



APPENDIX V. 



5. Points of ike Compau, 



North 


Jaa. 


N. by E. 


Faiagadi MatlaL 


N.N.£. 


NaahMatlaL 


N^. by N/ 


Nagr MatlaL 


N.E. 


Luagr MatlaL 


N.E. by E. 


Dayaba MaitlaL 


E.N.E. . 


Semak MatlaL 


E.byN. 


SeriaMatlai. 


East 


MatlaL 


E. by 8. 


8oBa MatlaL 


E.SiEu V 


Tin MatlaL 


8.E. by E. 


Lakadiri Matlai. 


R.E. 


Lakaiaba Matlai. 


8.E. by S. 


Hamareni Matlai. 


S.S.E. « 


8eheU MatlaL 


8.by£. 


Soaoobari Matlai. 


Sonth 


Katnbn. 


S. by W. 


Sonooban MagaribL 


8.8. W. 


8eheli MagaribL 


S.W. by 8. 


Hamareni MagaribL 


S.W. 


Lakarabu MagaribL 


S.W. by W. 


Lakadiri MagaribL 


AV.S.W. 


Tiri MagaribL 


W. by 8. 


Sosa MaganbL 


West 


MagaribL 


W. by N. 


Seria Maganbi. 


W.N.W. 


Semak MagaribL 


N.W.byW.^ 


Dayabu MaganbL 


N.W. 


Luagr MagaribL 


N.W. by N. 


Nagr MagaribL 


N.N.W. 


Nash Magaribi. 


N. by W. 


Faragadi MagaribL 



yMJSTED LY V.J1.LIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, LONDON AND BECCLES. 



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