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a ADDtnoxs 
By W. T U R T O N, M. D. 

fellow of the liknxah bocietr. 




I. uawmin; j. bookeb; SALontH, craix>ck aud 
I. black; oale and fekneb ; waiter and xsvakds ; 


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itb-eooit, Fl 





Chap. t»g» 

1. Of the second Order of jDSecto 1 

2. OftheLibella, or Dragon-fly 8 

3. Of the Formica Leo, or Lion-ant 7 

' 4. Of the Grasshopper, the Locust, die Cicada, the 

Cricket, and the Mole Cricket IS 

5, Of the Earwig, the Froth Insect, and some others, 

belonging to the second Order of Insects SI 

6. Of the Ephemera S6 


1. Of Caterpillars in general 4'5 

2. Of the Transformation of the Caterpillar into its 

corresponding Butterfly or Moth : 48 

S. Of Butterflies and Moths 67 

4. Ofthe Enemies of the Caterpillar 75 , 

5. Ofthe Silk Worm..,...- 79 


1. Ofthe fourth Order of InsecU 91 

2. Ofthe Bee 92 

3. Ofthe Wasp IIS 

4. Ofthe Ichoeumon-dy IS? 

5. Of the Ant 130 

6. Ofthe Beetle, and its varieties 14S 

7. OftheGnat, andTipulft 159 

R. » «... 16* 

,= L.oo^^lc 


CaAt. Vf 

1. Of Zoophytes u general » 169 

3. OfWomw 172 

3. Of the Star-fiih „ 180 

4. Of the Polypus... ~. „ 18S 

5. OftbeLythophytesandSpoDgu 193 


L, . ,=.L.(Xwlc 



Of the Second Order of Itueas. 

In thti fermer part we gave a concise history of 
ttie moat considerable ioBects thatj without wings^ 
were prodnced in a perfect state ; either from the 
body of the parent alive, like quadrupeds^ or from 
the egg, in the manner of birds. We come now to 
a second order (^ insects, th^t are produced from the 
-egg!, like the former, but not in a perfect slate ;> for 
-when first excluded, they are without wings. Tbw, 
"however, does not hinder the exercise of their animal 
functions; the insect, although not yet come to per- 
fection, walks, leaps, and eats ; nor is it ever de- 
prived of motion, only that it rests a litUe when it 
is about to cast that part of its skin previous to ilft 
Btate of perfection. It is then, seen to assume two 
wtngs;, which, like a budding flower, burst through 
the case that contained them, and the animal be- 
comes a winged insect in its state of highert per- 
fection. To this order we may refer the Libella, or ,_ 

TOI,. TJ B . 

■ ' L ; f,€00g[c 


Dragon-FIy ; the Formica Leo, or Lion-Ant ; the 
Grasshopper ; the Locaet ; the Cricket ; the Wood- 
CMcket ; the Mole-Cricket ; the Flea-Locost ; die 
Flying-Bugj'theTipala; ^e Water-Scocpion; the 
Kotonecta, or Water-Fly ; and iDany others. 


Of the LiheUa, or Dragon-F^. 

Of all the flies which adorn or diversify the &ce 
of Nature^ these are Uie most Tarioas and the ' 
mostheautiful ; they are of afi colours — green, bluie, 
erimeon, scarlet, white : some unite a variety of the 

,. most vivid tintSj and exhibit in one ani^ial more 
different shades than are to foe fonnd in the rainbow. . 
They are c&lled, in i^fferentparta of Uiekingdom, 
by different nttmes ; bat none can be at a km to ' 
know Aem, as they are distingnished from allotber 
flies, by the length of their bodies, by the largeness 
of their eyes, and the beautiful tramsparency of their 

'wings, wfaichare four in number. Theyneseenin 
summer flying withgreat rapidity near every hedge,' 
and by every running brook ; they sometimes settle 
on the leaves of plants, and sometimes keep for 
hours togetheii on the wing. 

Dragon-fiie^ thi)i]gfa there are &tec or four dif- 
ferent kinds, yet agree in the most striking parts of 

. fheir- history, and one account may serve for aS. 
The largest sort are generally found from two to 
tfiree inches long ; their tail is forked ; their body 
divided into eleven rings; their eyes. are lai^, 
homy; and transparent, divided by a number of 

- iatMwcttens ; and their mag/tj that tfways lie flat ' 

,= L.oo^^lc 


when they aite at reat, are of a beantifhl gloMy 
transparency ; Bometimes fining like silver, and 
sometimes glistening; like gold. WiHiin the ntouth 
are to be seen Wo teetb covered trith a beaatifd 
lip : with these the creatures bite fiercely when they 
are taken ; but their bite is perfectly harmless, as I 
have experienced more than once. 
' These insects, beautiful as they are, are produced 
frobi eggs, which are deposited in the water, where 
they remain for eotai time wiUiout seeming life or 
iDotioTf. They are ejected by the female into the 
water in chisters, like a bunch of grapes, where they 
siokto^ebottomby their natural weight, and con- 
tintJe in that state tilt the yonng ones find strength 
enough to break the shell, and to separate from eacb 
oUier. The form in which they first show life is 
that of a worm with six legs, bearing a strong 
resemblance to the dragon-fly in its winged state, 
except that the wings are yet concealed within a 
sheath peculiar to this animal. The rudiments of 
these appear in bunches on the back, within which 
the wings are folded up into each other, while all 
the colours and varieties of painting appear trans- 
parent through the skin. These animak, upon quit- 
ting the egg, still continue in the water, where they 
creep and swim, bat do not move swifitly. They 
have likewise a sharp sight, and immediately sink 
to the bottolB, if any one comes to the places 
wherein they, live, or whenever they perceive the 
least uncommon object. Their food at that time » 
soft mud, and the glutinous earthy suhstances that 
. are found at tbebottem. 

^hen- these animals prepare to change from tl^ir 
reptiletoAeir flying st^, titey then move out of the 



w^ter to a dry place ; as into graes ; to pieces of. 
-wood, stone^-or any thing else they, meet wi^. - 
They therie fir'iTi)yfix. their acute claws; and, for a^ 
short time, continue quite immoTeable, as if medi-' 
tating on the change they are to nndergo. It is 
then observed, that the skin fifst opens on the head 
and back; and out of this opening they exhibit their 
real head and eyes, and at length their six legs ; 
whilst, in the meab time, the hollow and empty 
skin, or slough of their legs, remains firmly fixed in 
its place. After this, the enclosed creature creeps 
forward by degrees ; aiid by this means draws first 
its wings, and then its body out of the skin ; and 
proceeding a little farther, sits at rest for some time^- 
as if immoveable. During this time the .wingSj- 
wbicb were moist and folded, begin by degrees to 
expand themselves, and to' make- smooth and even 
all those plaits which were laid against each otheri 
like a closed fan. The body is likewise insensibly 
extended, until all the limbs have obtained their 
proper size and dimensions. All these surprising 
and difficult operations are accomplished by the 
force of the blood and the circulating humourff. 
The creature cannot at first make use of its new 
wings, and therefore is forced to stay in the same 
place until all iU limbs are dried by the circum- 
ambient air. It soon, ho>vever, begins to enter 
upon a more noble life than it had hitherto led m 
the bottom of the brook ; and from creeping slowly 
ahd living accidentally^ it now wings the air, and 
makes choice from amidst the variety of provisions.* 

.[|*. During thiagnib-stateordieftnima], it preja with the most 
tayage ferocity on all aquatic ingects. It is, likewise, at tbb 
period, furntBhed with an apparatiu at the end of the trady, bj 
which it can auck up and eject watgr wftfa conuderable force.} > 

L, . l;,L.OOglC 


Indeed, nO animal is more Amply fitted for motion, 
mbBistence^ and' enjoyment. As it hauqts and seeks 
alter its food flying in the air. Nature has provided 
itvitb tvro large eyes, which make almost the 
whole head, and which resemble glittering mother- 
of-pearl. It has also four expansive silver-coloured 
wings, with which, as with oars, it can tiirn itself 
with prodigious velocity ; and to assist' these it is 
furnished with a very long body, which, Jikie a 
rodder, directs its motions. As the wings .are long, 
' and the legs short, they seldom walk, but are ever 
seen either resting or flying. For this reason, they 
always choose dry branches of trees or shrubs to 
remain on ; and when they have refreshed them- 
selves a little, they renew their Jligbt. Thus they 
are seen, adorning the summer with a pro&sion of 
beauty, lightly traversing theair in a thousand direc- 
tions, and expanding .the most beautiful colours to 
the sun. ' The garden, the forest, the hedges, and 
the mulets, are animated by their sports ; and there 
ftre few v^o have been brought, up in the country, 
who have^ot employed a part of their childhood iij 
the pursuit. 

. But while these beautiful flies appear to us so idly 
and innocently employed, they are, in fact, the great- 
est tyrants of the insect tribe ; and, like the hawk 
among birds, are only hovering up and down to sc;;ze 
their prey. They are the strongest and the most 
courageous of all winged insects ; nor is thve on^, 
howlarge soever, that they will not attack and de- 
vour. The blue fly, the bee, tlie wasp, and the 
hornet, make their constant prey ; and ^ven the but- 
terfly, that spreads so large a wing, is often caught, 
and treated nithovt mercy. Their appetite .^^emt 

. -^"--'OO^^IC 


to know no bounds ; tbey spend the whole day ia 
the pureuitj and have been seen to devour three 
times their own size in the capture of a single hour. 
They seize their prey flying with their six cla^s, 
and (ear it easily to pieces witti their teethj whii^ 
are capable of inflicting troublesome wounds. 

But the males are upon the wing for another piir- 
pose beside that of food, as they are very salacioui^ 
and seek the females with ^eat ardour. The eaa 
no sooner begins to warm the fidds, than the mak* 
are found assiduously employed each in seeking its ' 
mate ; and no sooner does a female appear, battwo 
or three males are seen pursuing and endeavouring 
to seize her with all their arts and agility. The in- 
strument of generation in the male is placed very 
.different from that of any other insect, being not at 
the end of the (ail as in otbera, but immediately under 
the breast, and consequently, at first view, incapable 
of being united to tJae sexual part of the Semaie; 
which, as in other insects^ lies in the tail. To per- 
form this junction. Nature has provided Hk nule 
with a very peculiar manner of proceading. As 
soon as he perceives the female, and finds himself 
sufficiently near, he seizes upon ^e back of her head 
by surprise, and fastening hia clavrs upon her, tumi 
round his fbrky tail, which he fastens round her iie^ 
and in this manner fixes himself so dosely and 
firmly, that no efforts can remove him. It is in 
vain that she flies firom one branch to another and 
settles upon them, he still keeps fixed, and often 
continues -in this situation for three or four hours 
successively. When he flies, ^e is obliged to fly 
with him ; but he still directs the vray ; and though 
she moves her wings, she seems entirely guided by 

'. L,-. l;,L'.OOglC 


his motiOB. As y^, however, the bminev of nqt 
IKegeatioD is not performed ; for to tbia the female 
matA coBtrtbnte; acuI she at last seems, by the 
continaanQe of her coostraiat, to comply : for, 
turoisg wp the end of her tail to that ^rt of the 
breast of the male in which lies lbe,pejl proper for 
geneiatioD, both instruments meet, and the eggs of 
tbe feiBtle reo^re the necessary fecundation. Ait 
iiour or two after this, she Qies to some neighbour' 
jog poo), where she deposits her eggs, as wap al- 
ranly mentiooed.. There tbey conUnue in a reptile 
fit^e for a year ; and then are changed into a h^u- 
tifyl Ay, resembling the parent. . 

0/ the Tormica Leo, qt Liojb-Ani. 

..AXTHOUGH this animal properly belongs to no ■ 
onler of inse^, yet, as it is changed into a fly very 
wmsAi resembling that described in the preceding 
eh^ter, it may not he impn^er to give its history 
hrae. If we consider the life of this animal in U> 
dWcnmt stages of exiatmce, we ^all find it eqnidLy 
WDoderfhl in ^1 ; bat as it changes to a dragon-fly, 
what we have said tiS that auimel diove need not be 
repeated hne. The Laon-Ant, when ^ becoibes an 
iahahitant of air, in every ro^ect. reeemUes that 
Which has been already described ; its glossy wings, 
' fis vondoQs appetites, i(a peculiar manner of gene- 
fil^, are entirely the same. It is in its reptile 
stat^ that it dilfers from all other insects ; and in that 
fltate it will be amusing to parsue its history. 
The Lipn-Ant, in its reptile state, is of the (ite of 

,= L.oo^^lc 


u oommoD iwootl^louser hnt somewfaat brait&r< ft 
tias a pretty long head and a roufidish body, whicb 
becomes a little narrower towards the taSt. "TIm 
colour ia a dirty grey, speckled^ith bla^k, and -the 
body is composed of seTHvl flat rings, -whif^ dip ' 
one upon auotber. It bas^x feet; four of whidi 
.are fixed to the breast and two to tbe neck. The 
bead is smalt and flat, and before tbere aretwolitUe 
fimooth boms and feelers, which are -bard, about a 
quarter of an iaob Jong, ^d crooked at the ends. 
At the basis of the feelers there are two email bla^ 
lively eyes, by which it can see the smallest ol^ect; 
^8 is easily discovered by its starting' from eveiy 
thing that epproaches. 

To a form so unpi:omi6iag, and so ill provided fo)r 
Abe purposes of rapacity,' this animal unites the most 
ravenous appetites is nature ; but to mark its im- 
becility still stroDger^ as other animals have wings ^ 
. iieet to enable them to advance towards their prey,, 
the lion-ant is unprovided with such assistance frooi 
either. It has legs indeed ; but these .only enable 
it to run backward, so thatit could as soon die as 
anake the smallest progressive motion... Thus, fa- 
mished and rapacious as it ever seems, its prey must 
' jcome to it, or rather into the «nane provided for iti 
lOt the insidious assassin must starve. . . > ^ 

But Nature, that has denied it strength or swift- 
ness, has ^ven it an equivalent in cunning, so that . 
no aaima] &reB more sumptuously, without ever 
sUrring from its retreat. For this purpose, it .cbooserii '' 
^y sandy place, at the foot of a wall, or under some 
shelter, in order to preserve its machinations from 
the rain. The driest and most sandy spot is the ' 
iPQst proper for it ; because a iiea^ry clogged eertlt 

I;. L.09glc 


would defeat ite laboar. When it goes about to dig 
the hole where it tali^ its prey, it begins to bend the 
binder part of itS'bodyj wbich is pointedy and thiis 
works backward ; making, after several attempts^ a 
circttlar furrow, which serves to mark out the size of 
the hole it intends making', as the ancients mariced 
ont the limits of a ci^ with a plough. Within this 
fii^t ffirrow it diga a second ; then a third, and after- 
wards otbere, which are always less than the pre- 
ceding. Then it begins to deepen its hole, sinking 
lower and lower into the sand, which it throws with 
ltd horns, or feelers, towards the edges, as we see 
men throw up sand in a gravel-pit. ' Thus, by repeat- 
ing its labours all round, the sand is thrown up in a 
«irc1e aboQt the edge of the pU, until the whole is 
qaite completed. This hole is always formed in a 
perfect circle ; and the pit itself resembles the inside 
of an inverted funnel. 'VVheu this insect first leaves 
the egg and is newly hatched, the fii^t pit it makes 
is very small ,- but as it grows bigger, it mak^ a 
larger hole; which is desUned like a pit-fall, to ea- 
tnp its prey. It is generally about two inches deep, 
and as much in diameter. 

The woi-k being thus with great labour finished, 
the insidious insect places itself in ambush, hiding ' 
itself in the bottom under the sand in such a manner, 
that its iwo horns eiicircle the bottom of the pit. 
All the ^des of this pit-fall are made of the most 
loose .and crumbling materials; so that scarce any 
insect caw chmb up that has' once got down to the 
botton. Conscious of this, the lion-rait remains in 
patient expectation, ready to pi^fit by that accident 
which. throws some'beedlesB little animal into his den. 
Xf tfaebj by'jnisfortune, an ant, a wood-louse, or 



a smaH caterpiUar walks too near the edge of the 
precipice, the Bahd givee way beneath them, and 
ibey fall to the bottom of the pit, vfhere they mciet 
inevitable destruction. The iail of a single grain 9i 
fland gives the murderer notice at the bottom <rf it# 
cave ; and it never fiuJs .to eally forth to seize upon 
its prey. It happens 4ometimeB, boweyer, diat tk* 
ant or the vroioid-Iouse is too nimbk, and tans vp 
the sides of the pit^&JI before tkefOthei can laeHifi 
ready to seize it. The lion-ant has then aoittber 
contrivance, stHi more vrondeiful thao the former ; 
for, by means of its broad hfsd and feelers, it has ^ 
method of durowing np .a diower itf sand which tall^ 
upon the stroking captive with tremendous weighi^ 
snd once more cnishies it down totfae bottom. Whe« 
the insect is once fallen thus low, no ^forts can re- 
trieTe or release it ; die fion-«nt seizes it with itf 
feelers, whidi are hollow, and darting tbein hoth 
into its body, sucks: oat all the little aiiimal's jviciit 
with the utmost rapacity. 

When the prey is thus reduced to a husk, and 
noUiing but the external form remains, the next care 
of the murderer is to remove the body froM its cell ; 
since the appearance of dead carcases might foFewam 
other insects of the danger of the place. The insect, 
tfaereforej takes up the wasted trunk with its feelera, 
and throws it with wonderful strength, at least six 
inches from the edge of its hole ; and then patiently 
sets about mending the breaches which its fortifrca- 
tionshad received in the last engagement. Nothing 
cau abate its industry, Hs vigilance, its patience, or its 
rapacity; It will work for a week together to make 
its pit-feU ; it will continue upon the watch for more 
than a month,^ patiently expecting the i^iproach of 

,= C(joglc 


its prey ; and if it comes in greater quantities than 
is neeilfuJ, yet still the little Toracious creature vriU 
quit the insect it has newly killed^ and leave it half 
eateo, to kill and attack any other thatbappeos to 
SiA\ within the sphere of its malignity : though so 
voracious, it is sutpriaingly patiept of hunger ; som^ 
of them having been kept io a box with sand for 
«ix inoQlbs and upwards without feeding at all. 

When the lion-ant attains a certain age^ in which 
it is to change into another ^m. It then leaves off 
its usual rapacious habitSj but \Leep& on its industry^ 
}t no longer continues to make pits, but furrows up 
the sand all round in an irregular manner ; testifying 
fiiose workings and violent agitations which most i%- 
„flect8 eshihit previous to their tr^usforfiiation. Thes^ 
animals are produced in autumn, and generally livf 
a year, and perhaps two, b^r^ they assume » 
winged ibrm. C«rteln it is, that they are found # 
the end :of winter <^ all sijsee ; and it would seeq 
that many of the smaller kinds had not yet attained 
sufficient maturity for transfprmation. Be this as it 
may, when the time of change approaches, if the 
insect finds its little cell convenient, it s$)^ noother : 
if it is obliged to remove, ufter. furrowing up tb^ 
sand, it bides itself under it, faorns and all. It tber« 
spins a thread, m the mcuiner of tbe spider; whiich 
being made of a glutinous substancg, and b^ing hu- 
mid from the moisture of its body, sticks to the littje 
particles of sand among which it is spun ; and in 
proportion as it is thus excluded, the insert rolls up 
its web, sand and all, into a ball, of whidi itself is 
tbe ceuUe. This ball is about bsdf an inch in dia- ' 
meter; and within it the insect reside, in an apart-, 
ment sufficiently' spacious for all its motions. The 


outside IS composed of sand and silk ; the inside' is 

lined with silk only, of ai fine^earlcolburj extremely 

. delicate^ aad per^ctly beautiful:- But though th6 
work is so curious within, it exhtbits nothing to ex- 
teival appearance but a loitip of sand; and thus 
escapes the search of birds, thtt might otherwise 
disturb the itihahitant within. ■ ■ ■ 

The insect continues thus shut Up ftir six weeks 
or two months ; and gradually parts with its eyes, its 
feelers, its feet, and its skin ; all which are thriist 
into the comer of the inner apartment like a rag. 
The insect then appears almost in its winged state, 
except that there is a thin «kln. which wraps up the 
wings, and that appears to be nothing else but a 
liquor dried on their outside. Still, however, tbe^ 
tittle. animal is too delicatef and tender to venture 
from its -retreat ; butj continties inclosed for some 
time longer'; at length, when the members of this 
new insect have acquired the necessary consistence 
and vigour, it tears open its lodging, and breaks 
through its wall. For this purpose it has two teeth; 
like those of grasshoppers, with which it . eats 
through, and enlarges the opening, till it gets out. 
Its body, which is turned like a screw, takes up no 
more than the space of a quarter of an inch ; but 
when it is unfolded, it becomes half an inch in 
length ; while its wings, that seemed tooccnpy the 
smallest space, in two minutes time unfold, and be- 
come longer than the body. In short, it becomes a 
large and beautiful fly of the libellula kind, with a 
long slender body, of a brown colour ; a small bead 
with large bright eyes, long slender legs, and four 

. large transparent reticulated wings. The rest of 
, its habits resemble that insect wbosie form it bears ; 


except, that io^tead of droppiiig its eggs, in the, 
water, it deposits them in sand, where they are soon 
batched into. that rapacious insect so Justly admired 
for its method of catchiug its, prey. 


Of the Grasshopper, the Locust, the Oicada, thi 

Cricket, emd the Mole-Cricket. 

JtvELONGING to the second order pf insects, we 
find a tribe of little animals, which, though differing 
in size and colour^ strongly resemble each other in. 
figure, appetites, nature, and transformation. But 
though they alt appear of one family, yet ioait has 
been taught to hold them in different estimation ; for 
whilesome of this tribe amuse him with their chirp- 
ings, and banish solitude from the fields, others, 
come in swarms, eat up every thing that ia green, 
and in a single night convert the most delightful 
l^Ddscape into a dreary waste.. However, if these 
animals be separately considered, the devoariog 
locust is not in the least more mischievous than the 
musical grasshopper; the only difference is, that one, 
species comes for food in a swarm^ the other feeds ** 

That animal which is called the Grasshopperwith 
us, differs greatly from the cicada of antiquity ; for 
as our insect is active enough in hopping through the 
long grass, from whenc,e it has taken its name, the *• 
cicada had not this power, but either walked or flew. 
The little hissing note also of our grasshopper is very ** J , 
different from the song of the cicada, which was • * ,' 
"■ jouder and far^ore musical. Tbemanoer in which 

§ ■; . ' ,,. V 


this note is produced by the two animals is very dlf-' 
ferent ; for the cicada makes it by a kind of buckler^ 
which the male ha& beneath its belly ; the grass- 
hopper by a transparent membrane that covers a 
hole at the base of its wings. There is still a greater 
variety in all these with regard to shape and colour. 
Some are green, some black, some livid, and some 
variegated : bat many of them do not show aU their 
colours till they fly. Some have long legs, some 
short, some with more joints, others with fewer. 
Some sing, others ai-e mute; some are innocent^ 
doing no damage to the husbandman ; while others 
do snch prodigious' mischief, that they are looked 
upon in soitie cbontries as one of the terriUe 
scourges of the incensed Divinity. 

Of this variegated tribe, the litUe grasshopper that 
breeds in such plttity in every meadow, and that 
continues its chirping through the snmmer, is best 
known to us ; and by having its history we sbaU be 
possessed of that of all liie rest. This animal is of 
the colour of green leaves, except a line of brown 
which streaks the back, and two pale lines ander the 
belly and behind the legs. It may be divided into 
the bead, the corslet, and the belly. The head is 
oblong, regarding the eavth, and bearing some re- 
■. semblance to that of a horse. Its month is covered 
by a kind of round bucklerjutting over it, and armed 
with teeth of a brown colour, hooked at the points.' 
Within the moutii is perceivable a large reddish 
tongue, and fixed to the lower jaw. The feelers or 
horns'are vek-y long, tapering off to a point ; and the 
eyes are like two black specks, a little prominent. The 
corslet is elevated, narrow, a^med above and below 
by two serrated spines. The back is armed vrith a 

I;. L.oogic 

sU-ong buckler, (owfaich the muscles of the legB^are 
firmly bouniT, and roand tbese muedes are seen Uie 
vessels by which tbtf animal breaUtes, as iriiite as 
" snow. The last pair of legs are ranch longer and 
stronger (ban the first two pair, fortified by thick 
muscles, and very well formed for leaping. It has 
four wings; the anterior ones fringing from the 
second pair of 1^, Uie postaior from the third pair. ^ 
The binder wings are much finer and more expan- 
sive than the foremost; and are the principal instru- 
mentvctf its flight. The belly is ctmsklerably large^ 
cAmposed of eigbt rings, and tenninated by a foi^ * 
tail> coveredw)thdowD,-likethetaiIofarat. Wbea 
e&Hwned internally, besides the gQHet, we discover 
a small stomach ; and b^ind that a very large one, 
wrinkled and furrowed within, side: lower down 
there is still a third ; so that it is not without reason 
that aO the animals of this order are said to chev^ - ^ 
the cud, BS' they so much reiembleruminant animals 
in theirintemal conformation. 

A short time irft» the grasshopper assumes its 
wings, it liHs the meadow with its note ; which, like 
that among birds, is a call to courtship. The male 
only-of this tribfe is vocal ; and npon examining at 
the base of tbewings, ttnre wifl be f<Hind a little 
hole in its body,' covered y/ith a fine transparent ^ 
membrane. This is thongbt, by Linneus, to be ^ « 
the instrument it employs in singing ; but otiiers ' * 
are of opinion the sound is produced by rubbing its 
hind^ legs against each other : however this be, the • ' 
note of one male is' seldom heard, but it is returned ' " 
by another ; and the two little animals, after many .* 
motual insults of this kind, are seen to meet and 
fight dei^rately. . The female i^ generally the re- . 



ward of victory ; for, after the combat, the m^ 
seizet her with his teeth behind the necfc, and thus 
keeps her for several hours, till the husineas of 
fecundation is performed. They are at that time so 
strongly united, that they can scarcely be separated 
without tearing asunder. Towards the latter end 
o( autumn the female prepares to deposit her bur- 

^ then ; and her body is then se^i gr^tly distended 
with her eggs, which she carries to the number of 
a hundred and fifty. In order to make a proper 
lodgment in the earUi for them. Nature has furnished^ 
her with an instrument at her tail, somewhat re- 
sembling a two-edged sword, which she can sheathe 
and unsheathe at pleasure; with .this she pierces 
the earth as deep as she is,able ; and into the hole 
which her instrument has made she deposits her 
eggs, one after the other. ' 

Having thus provided for the continuation of her 
posterity, the animal herself does not long survive; 
but, as the wint«r approaches, she dries up, seems 
to feel the effects bf age, and dies from a total 
decay. Some, however, assert, that de is killed by 
the cokl ; and others, that she is eaten by worms : 
hut certain it is, that neither the male nor female 
are ever seen to survive the winter. Id the mean 

^ time the eggs which have been deposited continue 
"unaltered, either by the severity of the season, or the 
• ^ retardation of tfae spring. They are of an oval 
figure, white, and of the consistence of horn : their 
. size nearly equals that of a grain of anise : they are 
' enveloped in the body within a covering, branched 

' all over with veins and arteries; and when excluded, 
they crack, on being pressed between the fingers : 

. their substance within is a whitish, viscous, and 

L;,q,-z.= bvGoOg[c 


bvntparent fluid. In this manner tbey remain de- 
posited beneath the surface of the earth, during the 
whole winter; till Oie genial return of spring be- 
gins to vivify and hatch them. The sun, with its 
warmth, beginning to animate all nature, the insect 
eggs feel its benign influence ; and generally, about 
the beginning of May, evety egg produces an insect, 
about the size of a flea. These at first are of a 
whitish colour ; at the end of two or three days they 
turn black ; and soon after they become of a reddish 
browiL. They appear, from the beginning, like 
gjrasshoppers wanting wings ; and hop, among the 
grass, as soon as excluded, with great agility. 

Yet still they are by no means arrived at their 
state of full perfection ; althoagh they bear a strong 
resemblance to the animal in its perfect form. They 
want, or seem to want, the wings, which they arc 
at last seen to assume ; and can only hop among 
the grass without being able to fly. The wings, 
.however, are not wanting, butare concealed within 
itiHr little bunches, that seem to deform the sides 
of the animal: there they lie rolled up in a most 
curious manner ; and occupying a smaller space than 
one could conceive who saw them extended. In- 
deed, all insects, whatever transmutations they seem 
to undergo, are yet brought forth with those very 
limbs, parts, and wings, which tbey afterwards seem - 
to acquire. In the most helpless caterpillar, there 
is still to be seen the rudiments of that beautiful 
plumage which it afterwards expands when a btit- 
-terfly ; and though many new parts seem unfolded 
to the view, the animal acquires none but such as it 
was from the beginning, possessed of. The grass- 
hopper, therefore, though seemingly without wings. 

_ IV, Google 


is in reality, from the first, possessed df those inatm- 
mente, and only waits for sufficient force to break 
the bonds that bold them folded up, and to give 
them their full expansion. 

The grasshopper, that for above twenty days 
from its exclusion has continued without the use of 
its wings, which were folded up to its body, at 
length prepares for its emancipation, and for a life 
of greater liberty and pleasure. To make the pro- 
per dispositions for the approaching change, it ceaseiB 
from its grassy food, and seeks about for a cod- 
venient place, bentoth some thorn or thistle, that 
may protect it from an accidental shower. The 
same laborious writhings and workings, heavings 
and palpitations, which we hare remarked in oTery 
other insect upon an approaching change, are ^- 
hibited in tbis. It' swells up its head and neck; it 
then seems to draw tbem in i^in ; and thus eltfir- 
nately, for some time, it exerts its powers to get 
free. At length, the skin covering the head and 
breast is seen dividing above the neck ; the head is 
seen issuing out first from the bursting skin ; the 
efforts still continuing, the other parts follow suc- 
cessively; so that the l;ttle animal, with its long 
feelers, legs and all, woiks its way from the old 
skin, that remains fixed to the thistle or the thorn. 
It is indeed inconceivable how the insect can thus 
extricate itself from Bft exact a sheatii as that which 
covereth every part of its body. 

Tbfe grasshopper, thus' disengaged from its outer 
skin, appears in its perfect form ; but then so fee- 
ble, and its body so soft and tender, that it may be 
moulded lik^ wax. It is no longer of that obscure 
colour which it exhibited before^ but a grsNiiih 

:i,, Google 


wbife, irfaich becomes more vivid as tiie moisture on 
the surface is dried away. Still, however^ the ani- 
mal contioues to show no signs of life, but appears 
quite spent and fatigued with its labour for more 
.than an hour together. During this time, the body 
Is drying, and the wings unfolding to their greatest 
expansion ; and the curious observer will perceive 
tiiem, fold after fotd^ opening to the sun, till at 1^ 
they become longer than the two binder legs. The 
insect's body also is lengUiened during this operation, 
find it becomes much more beautiful than before. 

These insects are generally vocal in the midst of 
summer; and they are heard at sun-setting much 
louder than during the heats of the day. They are 
fed upon grass ; and, if their belly be pressed, they 
will be seen to return the juices of the plants they 
have last fed upon. Though unwilling to fly, and 
slow in flight, particularly when the weather is moist 
.or cool, they are sometimes seen to fly to consi- 
derable distances. If they are caught by one of the 
hinder legs, they quickly disengage themselves from 
it, and leave the leg behind them. This, howefer, 
does not grow again, as with crabs or spiders ; for 
.as they are animals but of a single year's conti- 
nuance, they have not suflicient time for repairing 
thc^e accidental misfortunes. The loss of their leg 
:aIso prevents them from flying; for, being unable 
to lift themselves in the air, they have not room upon 
the ground for the proper expansion of their jcin^. 
If they be handled roughly, they will hite very 
fiercely ; and when Ujey fly, they make a noise with 
their wings. They generally keep in the plain, 
>vhere the grass is luxuriant, and the ground rich 
,)Uid fertile : .there tjiey deposit their eggs, p^ticu- 

C 2 



larly in those crackg which are formed by the beat 

of the sun. 

Such are the habits and nature of those little' vocal 
insects, that swarm in our meadows, and enliven the 
landscape. The larger kinds only differ front them 
in size, in rapidity of flight, and the powers of in- 
juring mankind, by swarming upon the produclions 
of the earth. The quantity of grass which a few 
grasshoppers that sport in the fields can destroy, is 
trifling ; but when a swarm of locusts, two or three 
miles long, and several yards deep, settle upon a 
field, the consequences are frightful. The annals of 
every country are marked with the devastation which 
such a multitude of insects produces ; and though 
they seldom visit Europe in such dangerous swarms 
as formerty, yet, in some of the southern kingdoms, 
they are still formidable. Those which have at un- 
certain intervals visited Europe, in our memory, are 
supposed to have come from Africa, end the animal 
is called the Great Brown Locust. It was seen in 
several parts of England in the year 1748, and many 
dreadful consequences were apprehended from its 
app^rance. This insect is about three inches long, 
and has two horns or feelers, an inch in length. 
The head and horns are of a brownish colour : it is 
blue about the mouth, as also on the inside of the 
larger legs. The shield that covers the back is 
greenish ■ and the upper side of the body brown, 
spotted with black, and the upder side purple. The 
upper wings are brown, with small dusky spots, 
with one larger at the tips; the under wings are 
more transparent, and of a light brown, tinctured 
with green, but there is a dark cloo^d of spots neat 
the tips. This is that insect that has threatened ui 



M) ofteu with its viaitatioDs; and that is so traly ter- 
rible in the countries where it is bred. There is no 
aoicnal in ibe creation that multiplies ao last ag these, 
if the Bun be warm^ and the soil in which their eggs 
are deposited be dry. Happily for us, the coldness 
of our climate, and the humidity of o|ir sqiI, are no 
way faTOurable to their production ; and as they are 
but the animals of a year, they visit us and perish. 

The Scripture, which was written in a country 
where the locust made a distingpaishad feature in the 
picture of Nature, has given us several very striking 
images of this animal's nuinbers and rapacity. It 
compares an army, where the numbers are almost 
infinite, to a swarm of locusts : it describes them as 
rising out of the earth, where they are produced ; 
as pursuing a settled march to destroy the fruits of 
the earth, and co-operate with divine indignation. 

.When the locusts take the field, as we are assured, 
they have a leader at their head, whose Sight they 
observe, and pay a strict attention to all his motions. 
They appear, at a distance, like a black cloud, 
which, as it approaches, gathers upon the horizon, 
and almost hides the li^t of the day. It often hap- 
pens that the husbandman sees this imminent cala- 
mity pass away without doing him any mischief; 
and the whole swarm proceed onward, to settle 
upon the labours of some less fortunate country. 
But wretched is the district upon, which they settle; 
they ravage the meadow and the pasture ground ; 
strip the trees of their leaves, and the garden of its 
beauty : the visitation of a few minutes destroys the 
expectations , (^ a year ; and a lamine but too fre- 
quently ensues. -_ In their native tropical climates 
they are not »(f dreadful as in the more southern 


gg A rtlSTORY Ot 

parts of Europe. There^ thoa^h the fHaitt «m{ tber 
Ibrest be stripped of their verdure, the power of 
vegetation rs so great, that an iitterrftl of three at 
fonr days repairs the calamity : but our verdure is 
die livery of a season, and we must wait till t^ eft- 
■ning spring repairs the damage. Betides, in their 
long flights to this part of the world, they are 
famished by the tediouaness of their journey, and are 
therefore more voracious wherever they happen to 
settle. But it ts not by what they devour that they 
do BO much damage as by what they destroy. Their 
very bite is thought to contaminate the plant, and 
fo prevent' its vegetation. To use the expression of 
the husbandman, they burn whatever they touch; 
and leave the marks of their devastation for two or 
three years ensuing. But if they be nojtioiis wbikf 
living, they are stilt more so when dead ; for where- 
ever they fall, they infect the air in such a manner, 
that the smell is insupportable. Orosius tells nB> 
that in the year of the world 38(H), there was an 
incredible number of locusts which infected Africa; 
and, after having eaten tip every thing that was 
green, they flew ofl", and were drowned in the 
African sea; where they caused such a stench, 
that the putrefying bodies of hundreds of thousands 
of men could not equal it. 

In the year 169U, a cloud of lociists was seen td 
enter Russia in three ditTerent places; and from 
thenc^ to spread themselves over Poland and Litfaa-^ 
ania, in such astonishing multitudes, that the air was 
darkened, and (he earth covered with their numbers. 
In some places they were seen lying dead, heaped 
upon each other fbur feet deep; in others, they 
eovered the sur&ce like a bhtck ^oth : the trew 


heat beneath (heir iroi^ht ; and the damage wfaicfa 
(be eoaabpy susteioed' exceeded computation, in 
Bnrfairy Uietr Dumbera are formidable, and their 
visits are frequent. In the year 17S4, Doctor Shaw 
woa a witness in tfaat- country (^ their devastations. , 
Tbeiff first appearance was about the latter end of 
March, when the wiod had been southerly for soine 
time : i« Ae beginnin^of April, Ibeir numbers were 
•o vastiy increased, that in the beat of the day they 
Ibrined themselves into larg« swarms, which ap< 
peared like cloudk, aad darkened the sun. In the 
niddle of May they began to disappear, retiring 
into the plains to deposit their eggs. In the next 
month, being June, the young brood began to make 
thetp appearance, forming many compact bodies of 
several hundred yards square ; which afterwards 
marching forward, climbed the trees, walls, and 
koilses, eating every thing that was green in their 
way. The inhabitants, to stop their progress, laid 
trenches all over their fields and gardens, filling 
tiiem with water. Some placed large quantities of 
heath, stabble, and snoh like cumbustibie matter, 
in rows, and set them on fire on the approach of 
the locnsts. But all this was to no purpose ; for 
the trenches were qtti(jcly filled up, and the fires 
pat out by the vast number of swarms that suc- 
ceeded each other. A day or two after one of 
these was in motion ; others, that were just hatched, 
teme to glean after them, gnawing off the young 
branches and the very bark of the trees. Having 
lived near a month in this manner, they arrived at 
their fall growth, and threw off their worm like 
state, by eastijig their skins. To prepar^%hem- 
•elves for thig change^ they ftxed their hinder feel 

I;, Google 


to flotne l],aBh or twi^, or cOTner of a stonej when 
immediately, by an undulating motion used on this 
occasion,- their beads woald first appear, and soon 
after the rest of their bodies. The whole trans- 
formation was performed in seven or eight minutes ' 
time ; after which, they were a little while in a lan- 
guishing condition ; but as soon as the sun and lur 
had hardened their wings, and dried up the moisture 
that remained afler casting oiF their sloughs, they 
returned again to their former greediness, with an 
addition both of strength and agility. But they did 
not continue long in this state before they were 
entirely dispersed, after laying their eggs, directing 
their course northward, and probably perished in the 
sea. It is said that the holes these animals make to 
deposit their eggs, are four feet deep in the ground ; 
the eggs are about fourscore in number, of the siie 
of carraway comfits, and bundled up together in 

It would be endless to recount all the mischiefii 
which these famished insects have at different times 
occasioned ; but what can have induced them to 
take sach distant flights, when they come into Eu- 
rope) is not Bo easy to be accounted for. It seems 
most probable, that by means of a very dry season 
in the heart of Africa, they are propagated in sach 
numbers, that the vegetables of the spot where they 
are produced are not sufficient to sustain them. 
Thus being obliged to find out other countries, they 
traverse the sandy deserts, where they can ^nd no 
sustenance ; still meeting with nothing to allure 
them from their height, they proceed forward across 
the Sfa, and thus come into Europe, where they 
tli^tupoD the fir«t green pastures that occur. 

I;. L.oogic 


In some parts of the worlds the inhabitants turn 
what seems a plague to theor own advantage. Lo- 
cdsts are eaten by the natives in many kingdoms of 
the East ; and are can^t in small nets provided 
for that purpose. They parch them over the firein 
an eartbefn pan ; and when their wings and tegs are 
fallen off, they turn reddish, ef the colour of boiled 
ifarimpB. Dampier has eat them thus pr^ared, 
and thinks them a tolerable dish. The natives Of 
Barbary also eat them fried with salt ; and they are 
aftid'lo taste like cruy-fish. 

There is a lopast in Tonquin, about the bigneu 
of the top of a man's finger, and as long as the first 
joint; ' It breeds in the earth> in low grounds ; aod 
in the months of January and February, which is 
the 'Season for' taking them, they issue from the 
eanh in vast swarms. At first they can hardly 6y, 
so' that they often fall into the rivers in great num- 
bers: however, the natives in these months watch 
the rivers, and take them up in ihultitudea in small 
nets. They either eat them fresh, broiled on the 
coals, or pickle them for keeping. They are cmi- 
sidered as a great delicacy in that part of the world, 
as well by the rich as the poor. In the countries 
where Uieyare eaten, they are regularly brought to 
market, and sold as larks or quails in Europe. They 
must' have been a common food with the Jews, as- 
Moses, in the book of Leviticus, permits them to 
eat four different kinds, of this animal, which he 
takes care to specify. This dish, however, has not 
yet made its way into the kitchens of (he luxurioos 
in Europe ; and though we may admire the delica- 
cies of Uie East, we are as yet happily deprived of 
the powers of imitatioa. 



Of att anuaalsj bowever, of Ai» Mxious tribe, 
the Great West-Indian I^ocmst, indiridm^ljr con- 
sidered, ia the most fonaidable. It is abeat tte 
thicbnesi ef the barrel of ol ^ofwe-qnilU aad Ae 
body is divided into nine or ten joioto, in the wfavie 
abont six or seven iaehcs lon^. It has two smatt 
^«8, standing ont of the bead likr. those of crabs, 
and two feelers like long^ hair. The whole body is 
studded with small excreaceofeSj which are no* 
much bi^ec than the points of pins. The riiape is 
roundish, and the body dimiaaehesin drcanfeveBee 
to the tail, which is forked iato twohorns. Brtween 
time there is a sort of a sheath^ coataininp a saall 
dangerous sting. If aay person htqipens to taneh. 
tfaid insect, he is sure to be stang ; and is imne> 
diat^j taken with a shivering and treinUii^ all 
over the body ; which, however, amy soon be pat a 
stop to, by robbing the phu;e that was al^ted with 
alittk pahn-oil.* 

From the Locoat we descend to the Cricket, which 
IB a very inoffensive and pretty aoimal. Though 
there be a species of this insect that lives entirely 
in the woods and fields, yet that with which we are 
best acquainted is the houBe-cri<^et, whose voice 
is so well known behind a country fire in a winter's 
evening. There is something so unusual in hearing 
a sound while we do not see the animal producing 
it, nor discover the place from whence it comes, 
that among the country people the chirping of the 
cricket is always held ominous ; and whether it de* 

f * Wliat is the animal here mentionecl, as having a dangerous 
Sting, it is not easy to determine: it is certain that every insect 
of the locust tribe is perfectly harmlessij 

:=b, Google 


derti liie fire-side, or pa^s an unexpected vnil. the 
credulous peaaaatry allvaya. find something to be 
afraid <tf. Id general, bowereE, tbe kilHng of k 
cricket is considered as a most unlucky omen ; and 
tbong^k tbeir company is oot much desired, yet no 
methods most be taken to remove them. ' 

The cricket very maeb resembles the grassboppec 
in its shape, ite manner of raminating, its voice, i(a 
leaping, and methods of propagation. It differs in 
its colour, which is uniformly of a rusty brown ; in 
ita food, which is more various ; and in its place of 
residence, which is most usually in the warmest 
chinks behind a country hearth. They are, ia 
some measure, obliged to (be bad masonry employed 
in making peasants houses for their retreats. The 
smallest chink serves to give them shelter ; and 
where they once make their abode they are sore to 
-propagate. They are of a most chilly nature, sel- 
dom leaving the fire~side ; and, if undisturbed, are 
seen to bop from tbeir retreats to cherup at the 
blaze in the chimney. The wood-cricket is the 
most timorous animal in nature; but the chimney- 
cricket, being used to noises, disregards not only 
those, but the appearance of people near it. Whe- 
ther the voice of this animal is formed in the same 
manner with that of the grasshopper, by a fine mem- 
brane at the base of the wings, which is. moved by 
a muscle, and which being coiled up, gives a sound 
like a quail-pipe, is not yet ascertained ; nor do we 
well know the use of this voice, since anatomical 
inspection has not yet been able to discover the 
. smallest organs of hearing. Still, however, we can 
make no doubt of their power of distinguishing 
sounds, though probaUy not in the same manner 


with the more perfect ranks of nature. .Certain it 
is that I have often heard them call, and this call 
vras as regularly answered by another, although 
none but the males are vocal. 

As the cricket lives chiefly in the dark, so its eyes 
seem formed for the gloominess of its abode ; 
and those who would surprise it, have only to light 
a candle unexpectedly ; by which it is dazzled, and 
cannot find the way back to its retreat. It is a very 
voracious little animal, and will eat bread, flower, 
and meat ; but it is particularly fond of sugar. They 
never drink, but keep for months together at the 
back of the chimney, where they could possibly 
have had no moisture. The warmth of their situa- 
tion only serves to increase their mirth and loqus- 
dty. Except in the very coldest weather, they 
never cease their cheruping, but continue that 
little piercing note, which is as pleasing to some as 
it is disagreeable to others. The great Scaligerwas 
particularly delighted with thecherupingof crickets^ 
and kept several of them for his amusement^ en- 
closed in a box, which be placed in a warm situa- 
tion. Others, on the contrary, think there is some- 
thing ominous and melancholy in the sound, and 
use every endeavout to banish this insect from their 
houses. Ledelius tells us of a woman who was 
very much incommoded by crickets, and tried, but 
in vain, every method of banishing them from her 
house. Sbe at last accidentally succeeded ; for 
having one day invited several guests to her house, 
where there was a wedding, in order to increase 
the festivity of the entertainment, she procured 
drums and trumpets to entertain them. The noise 
of these was so much greater than what the little 

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animals were used to^ that they instantly forsook 
their situation, and were never heard in that man- 
sion more. 

But of all the cricket kind, that which is called 
the Mole Cricket is the most extraordinary. This 
animal is the largest of all the insects with which 
we are acquainted in this countryj beings two inches 
and a half in length, and three quarters of an inch 
io breadth. The colour is of a dusky brown ; and 
at the extremity of the tail there are two hairy ex- 
crescences, resembling in some sense the tail of a 
mouse. The body consists of eight scaly joints or 
separate folds, is brown on the upper part, and 
more deeply tinged below. The wings are long, 
narrow, and terminate in a sharp point, each having 
a blackish line running down it : however, when 
they are extended, they appear to be much broader 
than could at Urst sight be supposed. The shield 
of the breast is of a firm texture, of a blackish 
colour, and hairyl The fore-feet, which are this 
animal's principal instruments of burrowing into 
"the eftrth, are strong, webbed, and hairy; it gene- 
rally, however, runs backward ; but it is commonly 
under ground, where it burrows even taster than a 
mole. It is thought also to be amphibious, and 
capable of living under water, as well as under 

Of all insects this is the most detested by gar- 
deners, as it chiefly resides in that ground which 
lies light, and where it finds sufficient plenty under 
the surface. Thus, in a single night's time, it will 
run along a furrow which has been newly sown, 
and rob it of all its contents. Its legs are formed 
in such a manner, that it can penetrate the earth in 


every direction; before, behind, and above it. M 
ni^ht it ventures from its underground babitation, 
and, like the cricket, has its chirping call. When 
the female is fecundated, she makes a cell of clammy 
earth, the inside of which is 1arg« enough to bold 
two hazel nuts ; and in this she lays her eggs. The 
whole nest is about the size of a common ben's 
egg, dosed up on every side, and well defended 
from the smallest breath of air. The eggs generally 
amount to the number of a hundred and iifty, being 
white, and about the size of a carraway comfit. 
They are thus carefully covered, as well to defend 
them from the injuries of the weather, as from the 
attacks of the black beetle ; that being itself an un- 
derground inhabitant, would, but for this precau- 
tion, devour or destroy tbem. To prevent this, the 
female mote-cricket is often posted as a centinel 
near the nest, and when the black invader plunges 
in to seize its prey, the guardian insect seizes him 
behind, and instantly bites him in two. 

Nothing can exceed the care and assiduity which 
these animals exhibit in the preservation of their 
young. Wherever the nest is placed, there seems 
to be a fortification, avenues, and entrenchments, 
drawn round it: there are numberless winding 
ways that lead to it, and a ditch drawn about it, 
vrhich few of its insect enemies are able to pass. But 
their care is not confined to this only; for at the 
approach of winter they carry their nest entirely 
away, and sink it deeper in the ground, so that the 
frost can have no influence in retarding the young 
brood from coming to maturity. As the weather 
grows milder, they raiae their magazine in propor- 
tion; till, at last, thejr as near the «urlaM 



■as they can, to receive the genial inBuence of the 
sun, without wholly exposing it to view : yet, shoald 
the frost unexpectedly return, they sink it again as 

[Among this tribe may be numbered the Great 
Lanlhorn-Fly of Peru ; an insect, without doubt, the 
most splendid and luminous of all that ure yet 
known. The bead. is extended forward, large, and 
hollow : the antennie are seated below the eyes, and 
consist of only two joints : the beak is bent in- 
wards under, the body ; and it is with this it es;- 
traCts the juices from plants. In the head is con- 
tained a phosphorescent light, sufficiently vivid to 
serve the puoposes of a candle in a dark room ; or 
when two or three are put together at the end of a ' 
stick, to light travellers on the road like a lanthorn. 
No sight can be more splendid than the effects pro- 
duced by these'animals, when numbers of them are 
seen in an evening hovering about the tre^. It 
is about the size of the larger kind of locust, and 
the wloge and whole body are beautifu% varie- 


Of the Earang, the Froth Insect, and some oikera 
belonging to the second Order of Insects. 

W E should still keep in memory that ell insects of 
the second order, though not produced quite pec- 
fect from the egg, yet want very little of their per- 
fection, and require but a very small change to 
arrive at tbat state which fits them fi»- flight and 
genenUion. The oatuiiBl functions in these an 


never Buipended : from the instant they leave tfae 
egg, they continue to eat^ to move, to leap, and 
pursue their prey : a slight change ensues ; a skia 
that encloBed a part of their body and limbs, bursts 
behind, like a woman's staye, and gives freedom to 
a set of wings, with which the animal expatiates, 
and flies in pursuit of its mate. 

Of all this class of insects, the Earwig undergoes 
the smallest change. This animal is so common 
that' it scarcely needs a description: its swiftness 
in the reptile state is not less remarkable than its 
indefatigable velocity when upon the wing. That 
it roust be very prolific, appears from its numbers ; 
and that it is very harmless,, every one's experience 
can readily testify. It is provided with sis feet, 
and two feelers : the tail is forked ; and with this 
it often attempts to defend itself against every 
assailant. But its attempts are only the threats of 
impotence ; they draw down the resentment of 
powerful animals, but no way serve to defend , 
it. The deformity of its figure, and its slender 
make, have also subjected it to an imputation, 
which, though entirely founded in prejudice, has 
more than once procured its destruction. It is sup- 
posed, as the name imports, that it often enters 
into the ears of people sleeping ; thus causing mad- 
ness, from the intolerable pain, and soon after 
death itself. Indeed, the French name, which sig- 
nifies the ear-piercer, ui^es the calumny against 
this harmless insect, in very plain terms : yet no- 
thing can be more unjust ; the ear is already filled 
vrith a substance which prevents any insect from 
entering ; and besides, it is welt lined and defended 
with membranes, which would keep out any liltl|e 

c,q,-z.= bvGoogk' 


afti(Ml> even though Uie ear-wax were away.. These 
reproaches, therefore, are entirely ^andless : bot 
it were w^ if tbfeaccu»aM<?n8 which gardeners 
)>ring agl^inst the earwig were as slightly founded , 
There ia nothing mwe certain than that it live^ 
artiong flowera, and destroys tbem. When fruit 
also has been woanded by flies, the, earwig gene- 
rally comes in for a second feast, and sacks those 
jnices which they first began to broach. Stilt, how- 
ever, this insect is not so noxious as it would seem ;: 
and seldom is found' })0t where the mischief, has 
teen origina,lly:bego(i by others. . Like.aU of this 
classj thp earwig is hatdied from an egg. As there 
are Vfirious.kinds of,this animal, so they' i^hi^ose.difT 
ferent place^.to bre^d in : in general, bowcveE.'they 
lay their, eggs under the bark of pbi^te, -or in the 
clefts of trees when beginning to ide^ay. They 
proceed from. the. egg in-that reptile stete in which 
tbey.'are .most commonly seen ; and,- as they grow 
larger,: the wings bound under the ekin. begin 10 
IguFgepn. U is amazing how very* tittle reoai four 
iarge-wipgs take up before, they are protruded ; for 
no person could ever conceive such an;expansion of 
^atura|;di:$pery ;cou1d be rotted up m,8Cf small a 
packet. *. T^e. sheath in which they are enveloped; 
folds and' covers them, s^ neatly, that theanimall 
seems/quite destitute ofrwiogs.;,* and, even when 
they ^re, bufit from their confinement, the. animal> 
hy the "pok?er'of the muscles and joints which it 
has in the middle of its wingSj can closely fold them 
into a- very narrow compass. When the earwig has 
become a winged insect, it fiies in pursuit of lb* 

' Swammcrdam, p. 11^ 

: ._iv,Goog[c 

i* A tiisroftv oip 

femaFe, ceasli^ to teed, and fs wbollj^ em^^Ioyed hi 
ihe bu8ihe«tfy»f propagation. If liveB, in it« witiged 
Hate, but a few daj'g ; and lia^ng taken care for 
the cohtiriiiance of fyoMerity, drieA up^ and dieii, Vi 
All appearance consumptive.* 

To this order of insects Ve fiaay alsiy'rdlFt' thi! 
Cuclcow Spit, 6r Fi^tb Woirm, that is ofteii tcnttA 
hid in that frothy matter Whidi we 6nd dn the sur- 
fece of plants. It hah afi ckMoiig', obtuse bddy'; aHd 
i large head, with small eyea. The external wings, 
for it has foiir, are of a dusky brown colour, marked 
with two white spots: the head is bhdi." Thfe 
Spume in which it h fouAd wallowing, is all of ite 
, own formation, and very much reseftibles frothy 
Spittle. It proceeds from the Vent of the enimial, 
kud bther 'part« of the hody ; and if it be wiped 
kway, a hew quantity will be *Jni(*ly seen iejecte^ 
A-om the Tittle animal's body. Within tHIsspame it 
IS seen in time to ac<]uire four tabertles dn ifa back, 
wherein the wings are enclosed: these bursting, 
from a reptile It becofnes a winged animdl ; and 
thus rendeM perfect, it flies to meet its mate, and 
propagate its kind. 

The Water l^pnla also belongs to this class. It 
has afi oblong slender body, with four feet fixed 
«pon the breast, dnd four fiftlers near the mouth; 
It has four we^k wings, which do not at all seem 
proper for flying, hut leaping only. Bnt what this 
insect chiefly demands our attention for is, the won- 

[* Tlie Inde&tlgable M. de Greer has diicavered that the fH. 
male earwig liti ever her egga, sod fasten her young, as a hen 
dees her chicken^ He obsened, that when they were alarmed, 
they ihrust themeelres under the belly and betweea the 1^ of 
the mother^ and remuned there Trequeotly for an hour together.} 



^M ^tlhttan wlwrewHh it runft ott Ute sitr&tfe of 
the water, so as scarcely to put it in motioD. It is 
aom&imH.Mten in Tiv^ra^ find on tbeir banks, eispe- 
cialljr «id«r shady trees ; ai^d geoerdlly ita at^^m* 
oS difeTeral together. 

. TbB Goitainon ,Wat^-fly also breeds in the sBine 
DMinier with those aboTc irientiOoed. Tfaia aniniiai 
k by aorak calted (he Notonecta; iKca^e it does 
AotiwifD^ in Uie t&mX mannet*, i^ton its belfy^ but 
WL ita back : nor etm wa belt> aditdring tbat fitness 
in this insect for its sitaaJion, as it feeds on the. 
nnder side of plants which grow on the surface of 
the water; and therefore it is thus formed wilb 
its mouth upwards, to tale ib food with greater 
coDTenience and ease. 

We may also add ihe Water-Soorpjon, which is 
ft large insect, being near an inch in leng;th, and 
abdUt^hdiif 9B inch in broidth. Its body is ntvriy 
onh but v«ry flat and diin ; and its tail loKg and 
|H>{pted« Thebetul issmaU; and tbe feelers. ap- 
peal: liJEQ IbgB, jreflerabling the daws o^ a scof- 
pWD> bai V^itt^t sbarp poiots. This insect ia 
generally fpund in ponds ; and ift> of all others, 
Uw tofwt Jyraat)i%al. and rapatioas. It destt-dys^ 
^ke hvfotf amotig sheep, twenty Mm^.M nm&y aa 
\t8 bugger reqiiiitr. Qne,,,^ these> whea put intt^ 
«:b^oB_ bf watefj ib which wfeft thif^ w fortji 
yrwm if ti)e libe)}uDi kind^ eath as la>ge «« itself 
destroyed tbein bU ita a lew rainute«i ^tting c^ 
fteir backs, and pierdng with ita trank througb 
their body. These animals, faowevet-, thoosh so 
fifrntiflahlQ' to othnv) arfe Aev^rthelesB thnnk'elvea 
preiitly.<JVer-nii& with a little kind ttf Iou8t^, ^mit 
the. fisc 9f a ait, which vety ptobably repayl 



the injury whtch the water-scorpion inflicts upon'' 
others. -' : 

- The water-scorpione lire in the water by day;' 
out of which they riee in the dusk of the eveuing' 
into the air, and so flying from place to place/oftea* 
betake themselves, in quest dffood, to odier waters. 
Tlie insect, before' its wings- are grown, remains in' 
the place where it was produced ; but when cpme. 
to its state of perfection, sallies forth in search of 
a companion of the other sex,' in order ^to conUhue' 
Hb noxious posterity. 

Of the Ephemera. 

J. HE last, insect we shall add to this second order^* 
k the Ephemera ; whith, though not strictly belong- 
ing to it, yet seems more properly referred to this 
rank than any other. Indeed, we must not attenit 
to the rigour of method in a history where Nature 
seems to take delight to sport in variety. 
. That there should be a tribe of flies whose dura- 
tion extends bnt to a day, seems at. first surprising ; 
biit th^ wonder will increase, when, we are totd, 
tbat^oroe of this kind seem to be born and to die in 
ihe space of a single bobr. The reptile, however, 
from which they are bred, is by no means so short- 
lived ; but is sometimes seen to live two years, and 
«aany times three years together. - 

All ephemeras, of which there are various kinds, 
iare produced from the egg, in the form of worms ; 
1^019 wb^Dce tbfy change into a.niore perfect form ; 


Uatnely/tbat of aurelit^, which ie a kind of itiiddle 
ttate between a worm and a fly : and from thence , 
they take their last mutation, which ''is into a beau- 
tiful fly, of longer or shorter duration, according to 
its kind. 

The ephemera, in ite fly state, is a f ery beautiful 
winged insect, nnd has a strong simihtude to the 
bntterfly, both from its shape and its wings. It is 
ftboutthe size of a middling butterfly ; but its wings 
differ, in not being covered with the painted dust 
-with which those of butterflies are adorned, and 
rendered opake^ for they are very transparent and 
very thin. These insects have four wings, the up- 
permost of which are much the largest ; when thd 
insect is at rest, it generally lays its wings one over 
Ihe other^ on the back. The body is long, being 
formed of sis rings, that are larger at the origin 
than near the extremity ; and from this a tail pro- 
ceeds, that is longer than all the rest'of the fly, and 
consists sometimes of three threads of an equal 
length, or sometimes of two long and one short. 
To acquire this beautiful form, the insect has been- 
obliged to undergo several transmutations: but its 
glery is Tery short-lived, for the hour of its perfec- 
tion is the hour of its death ; and it seemi scarcely 
introduced to pleasure, when it is obliged to part 
with life.' 

' The reptile Uiat is to become a fly, and that is 
granted so long a term, when compared to its latter 
dnntioh, ia an inhabitant of the water, and bears a 
very strong resemblance to fishes, in many particu- 
lars; having gills by which it breathes at the bot- 
tom^ and also the tapering: form of aquatic- animals. 
SheM^ioaectg' have:!lJtx- «^y flegl,. fixed'Jiin theiii 

L, . h.L.oogIc 


corselet. TTifcir hesul u triaQgvbr : (fee &y/^9 ai;e 
placed forw&rd, an4 may he disting^i^bed by (kdx 
hiT;genesa and coloar. The month is lunii^ed wiA 
teeth ; and the \n^y conusta of six rings, thai ne:^; 
the corselet being largest, but growing less and lesji 
to the end ; the last ring ifi the shortest, fixun >irbich 
the three threads proceed^ whish are as long ^s the 
whole body. Thus we .«ee tlwt the reptile hears a 
very strong resemblance to theJSy; and only requises 
wings, to bo very near its perfection. 

As there are sevenl kinds of ibia animal, their 
anretias &re consequently of dififexent c(^i8 ;. soma 
yfHow, some hroirn^ aind some cr«ani-coloived!: 
Some of these also boEe themselves cells at the bot- 
tom of the water, ^om .which ^hey never stir oii(^ 
ttut fee^ upon ike mad compoung the walk oif their 
habitation, in contented captiyily.; othecs, ou the 
contrary, range about, go from the bottom to the 
$urfa9e> swim between two. w%(ej^ quit tluvt efe? 
nent entirely to feed, upon ptanU by the rivef side^ 
and then cefura to their fovtmrite, elemeBt, fox ti^dy 
and protection. 

The reptile, however, duugh it lives tmiaor ^lee 
years, ofiers but little, in its long diu^ion> Uf e^ 
cite curiosity : it is bi^ at the bottom ol the water* 
and feeds almost whoHy witfaia its naiirow, habitaT 
tion. The most striking iacts command oju Bttenr 
tion during ^bo Aott iotervaJ of Hm. %,^te;. into 
which it, coowds. the most various. V^sactioaa o£ i^ 
Vttle life. It then may be said to be in a buisy to 
hve. as it has but so smay a time to ^xisl. The 
peculiar sign whereby to know thal| tttese reptiles 
will change into ilies. in a, Bhort,tinieir coosiaU ia A 
protubefftnceof.^.winettootbehack. Ahoi^lha£ 


time tfae amooCfa aod depressed form of the upp^ 
f^^ qX tbf body, is c^ianged i^tp q more swpUei^ 
f^d ropoder shape ; so ^|tat the wings are in some 
d^CT^^ visible t^i^oagh the externaJ sheath that coven 
Uiem. 4k%they ^re not natives ofGngl^nd, he wbp 
ijvoald K^ th^n in their greatest abundance, mast 
walkj abjoqt sun-s^tj along the banks of th« Rbiner 
91" th^ Sjeipe, new Farip ; wrhete. Cor aboat three 
4aj8j in t\i^ midst of the summer, be will be asto- 
nished at tfieir numbers, and assiduity. The thickest 
^penC of the fi^kes of snow in winter seems not to 
^ual thf^ ajimber ; the vrhole ^ir seems alive vritb 
the new-born race, and the earth itself is all oref 
cpyer^ with their remains. The aarelias, or reptile 
ii^t^, tli^( are as yet beneath the surface of the 
ymter, v^t oply for the approach of eyeniug ti^ 

V ^tfCin their transfprmatipn. The mpet industrious 
ik^kfi (i(r t^^ir old ganiieats about eight o'clock ; 
apd those wV are the mo^t ta^ily, ar^ transformed 

; before nine.* 

We have already seen, that the operation of change 
in <^^ insects is laborious and painful ; but witl) 
tb^se n<^ing ^eenjs ^^t^j or performpd with 
greater ease. The aurelias are scarcely.lifted above 
the Vir&ce of the i^^ter, thfin their old sheathing 
dsJ^ b.Qrst«; and through the cavity which is thus 

[* Many of tbu tribe are natives of Bricain, aod may be seen 
riibg oat of itreams and stagnatit waters in vast aumbera, during 
Ika sutumn, soon after sun-«et. In their peri^ Mate, tbe wfanle 
ipFeittton of Nature qppeai» to extend pofsrdierthsik.tbepriqiar 
gation of their kind ; sad as in this state they do not feed, the 
mouth has no jaws. The feniale deposits her eggs in the water, 
10 little clusten, quivering over the surface in an almost erect 
poahioD. A siugleinKOt'WiDI^Biz or seven fauodradeggs.]: 

I;. L.oogic 

40" -A HISTORY OF ' 

fermedj'afly issues/whoae wings, at the same in-" 
stant, are unfolded, and at the same time IHl H into 
the air. Millions and millions of aureliaa, rise- in 
this manner to the surfece; and at once become 
flies, and fill every quarter with their flutterings.' 
But all these sports are shortly to have an end ; for 
as the little strangers live but an hour or tvro> the 
whole Swarm soon falls to the ground, and covei-sf 
the earth, like a deep snow, for several hundred 
yards, on every side of the river. Their numbers, 
are then incredible, and every object they touch 
becomes fatal to them ; for they instantly die, if 
they hit against even each other. 
■ At this time the males ■ and females are very dif- 
ferently employed. The males, quite inactive and 
apparently without desires, seem only bom to die : 
Tio way like the males of other insects, they neither 
follow the opposite sex, nor bear any enmity f<* 
each other ; after Buttering for an hour or two, they 
drop upon land, without seeming to receive wings 
for scarcely any other purpose but to satisfy an idle 
curiosity. ■ it is otherwise with the females ; that ere 
scarcely risen from the surface of the water, and 
liave dried their wiiigs, but they hasten to drdp their 
eggs back again. If they happen also to flutter 
upon land, they deposit their burthen in the place 
where they drop. But then it may be demanded, 
yt'bere and in what manner are these eggs fecun- 
dated, as no copul^ion whatever appears between 
ihe seses, in their transitory visite in air ? Swammer- 
dam is of opinion, that they are impregnated in the 
manner of fish-spawn, by the male, after being . 
ejected by the female : but, beside that (his doc- 
^r^ne is exploded even from the history of. fifhsfit it 

L, . h.L.oogIc 


is .v:«itarav'*ttnLt tbe.males haVe,not time for UiU 
opara(ton> agtfae eggg drop to the boUom .the instant 
they are laid on the waters ' of opioioD 
that they copulate ; but tb^ ther&ct bears a proper* 
tion in sbortnesB to tlie amall duration of their lives; 
and consequently mtiBt be sd soon performed, as to 
be scarcely visible. This, bowerer, is at best for- 
cing' a theory ; and, it is probable, that as there are 
many insects known to bre^d without any impreg- 
nation from the ma}ej as vre. Hawe already seen in 
muscles and the oysters, and shall hereafter see in 
the gnat^ and a species of the beetle, so the ephe- 
mera may be of this number. Be this as it may, the 
females are in such haste to deposit their eggs, that 
multitudes of Uiem fall to the ground; but the 
greatest part are laid in the water. As they flutter 
upon the surface, two clusters are seen issuing from 
the extremity of their body, each containing about 
. three hundred and fifty eggs, which make seven 
hundred in all. Thus, of all insects, this appears 
to be the most prolific ; and it would seem that there 
was a necessity for such a supply, as, in its reptile 
state, it is the favourite food of every kind of fresh- 
water fish. It is in vain that these little animals 
form galleries at the bottom of the river, from whence 
they, seldom remove; many kinds of fish break in 
upon their retreats, and thin their numbers. For 
this reason fishermen are careful to provide them- 
selves with these insects, as the most grateful bait ; 
and thus turn the 6sh's rapacity to its own de- 

But though the usual date of those flies is two or 
three hours at farthest, there are some kinds that 
Jive several days ; and one kind in particular, after 

49 A HISTOfiT. && 

^ktia; the Vfoier, bu. anodier case «r- (^ fa g«t 
xidoS. Thwoaxeo&Bu aeen.ia the fields anidwood^j 
di^aB,t feorathewatec; but tfafiyaiie none freqaeiUfy 
foapd in its Ticioity. They ar« ciften fiwind stieft- 
iog upon' walk and trees; and frequeatiy with the 
head dowmvardf, wiAwit chafiguigf pibee, or having 
aayjiensiUe motion. Theyare then waiting for the. 
moment when ttiey shall be dijves^ of tb^ laat 
iDcopimodious gfamreot, which ftoroetimes does not 
happcB for two or tbree days together. 



I N S E C T 'a 

L, zt,, Google 




^ ^ CHAP. .1. ■; . „.,^. _,, .\ 

Of caterpillars in gensral: . 

*F we takte acawbry view of insects in general^ 
Catet^illars alone, and the batterfliw and mothft 
they gWe birth to, will makea third' part of Hhe 
number. Whiereiw we move, wherever -we" turn, 
tiiese insects, in one shape tvahother, present them- 
rielVes'to OOf view. Some, in every state, offer the 
tnbst ^(ertaining spectacle; ethers areibeaiitifal 
bnlyin theirwtnged form. Mtmy' persons, dTwhidx 
oaraber I am one, have an invincible aversion to 
caterpillars, and worms /of every species: there' it 
something diea^eeabie in. their ^worafrJiag hio>- 
.tioB,' for: which the -variety of their colonrilig .oan 
inever conpensate/i But others feel no'. repugnance 
^'observing, and'bveir handling thein with the moat 
Q^tenti ve appttootion. 

■ ThePe' is ;m>Uiing in the bntterSy state, Uo beau- 
'ttfnVbr Bplendid as these insects. They serve,' not 
less^'^iffii' the-birds themselves, to binish solitude 
f(Di»'>otir walks; and tofiIl\ip owidle interval^ with 
the tnost pleasing speculatiorrsi The butterfly 
■mak&B tine of ^c principal oraaments of orieiital 
poetry ; but, in those countrieB, the insect, is larger 
and more beaotifal than with us. 

' TUe beauties of the fly may therefore very well 
-excite our curiosity to examine the reptile. But we 
-ftre. ptill more strongly attached to this tribe, from 
the usefulness of one the number. The silk- 
worm is, perhaps, Uie most serviceable of all other 
aifimalB; since,: from its labours, and the manu- 

= e.(xy;;lc 


fectore aUeoding it, near a third part of the world 

are clotbed, adgroed, a:nd supported. 

Caterpillars may be easily distinguished frou 
worms or maggots, by the number of their feet; 
and by their producing botterfiies or moths. 
^ben U)c isuik aUs tip Teget«liQD> and vivifies the 
TArions tgifl of iitwcti, the calerpHlw are the first 
that are leeit, tipcHi dhnost evo-y vegetable aatl 
trec^ ^tiog. its Ifeaves,. and preparing f6r a i^te of 
greater perfection. Tbey have feet both befoire aod 
behind; which not only eoable tfaeii^ to move for- 
Wtiird by a sort of steps made by their fore and hinder 
pwrts, but ^M to dimb up vegetlibies> and to etretcb 
tkemadvesovt &oiD ^e bong^A and etalksi to reacfa 
their food at a distancet AU of thii class faaVe from 
eight feet, at the ieait, to feizteen ^ And this may 
serve to distingiii^ ifaem from the Tt'brtn tribe, thU 
never have so niaay. The Aoimftl into which tbey 
&re coavekrted, is always a bniterfl^ or a lAodi ; and 
these are always distioguished frdm Other flies, by 
havidg their win^ covered ov^r with a painted dtist, 
which iftves tbetn soch varioiu beailty. The wiiligB 
of fliea aire, trtrnflpamrti as We sete in the eomai^ 
fle^-fly ; while those of btietks bre. haH; like bom ; 
ittm sach (he wing of a bntterfly diay be easily 
^iiBtiirgui^hed,- and woi^ would obsicdre tbeir dif- 

From hence it app^rs, that citeiptlfatrs, wtiethor 
in the reptile state, or advanced to their last itate 
'vf perfection into butterflies, tnay easi^ be di^tio- 
^iafaed from all other insects ; being animdls pedb- 
liarly formed, attd also of a pectiiar nattii^. The 
transit) ntatiohs tiiey undei^ atA also jiian Danjerow 
tlMD tho86 of any insect hitherto nrentiened ; wad. 


in consequence, they bare been placed in Hie third 
order of changes by Swammerdam, who has thrown 
tfach lights apon this part of natural history. In the 
i^ond oniter of '^ftnges, meniioned befiare, wi sk^ 
the grasshopper anU the earw^, wfaeit excluded 
from the eggt assnme a form very like that which 
9iej were aft^r to preserve ; and seemed arrived &t 
a fitete of perfecUMi, irt all reifpiects, except In not 
having >^ings; Tvhiiih did not bitd forth antfl they 
irere come to maturity. But the iiti^cts of this 
ffifrtl order, that we are ^ow abont to describe, go 
through a miich gr^a^r variety of transformations : 
ftr, Trfibii they are excluded fro"m the egg, they 
i^ume ihe fdhn of a sball caterpillar, vrtiich feeds 
atid grows largier every day, ofleh (fi&nging i& 
iikih, but still preserving its fbrm. VVheh the ani- 
ibal has conye fib a certain magnitude ih thf^ state, 
it discoiitiniies eating", makes itself a covering or 
hUA, ih tfhich it i-emams vrrapped lip, seemingly 
vrtthout iife or motion ; ^nd After having for some 
tihie (Continued in Vbii Mate, it: once more hnt^ its 
cbhBnement, and comes Ibftli a ^>eaatifnl brftterfly. 
Thus We see this aniftiftl ^liit hit no 1es& thbii Ihtek 
different appeiirances, 'from U first ex- 
clnded fr6m the egg. It ^pfie^ a' ci^WhOg cflter- 
pillar; fhen kn insehliblie atjifdift,' as it !s Gair<M> 
without life or motion ; and lastly, a bnfterfly, 
vaHOusIy painted, accordiif^ to Its dtffeir^nt kind. 
Ifaving thus di^ngdi^hed this class of insects f^m 
tdl others, we vrjlt first suirvey th'eir hisfoty iA 
general; and then enter (HiitlcQkrly into the 
manners knd natuYe of a few (Hf them, which mbst 
deserve our cnrioi^ty and attention. 



CHAP. n. 

Cftke 7^an8fainruBlion:ef the' Caterpillar hdaiit 
corre^onding SmtlBrfy:i>rMo^. ■■■ ■ t 

■Vy HEN wintex has dtwpted the trees, (^.. their 
leav^, nature then seema tq/have 1(^ hev .ipsects. 
Ttiere are thousands of diffeve^t iLlnds. wUh and 
without wiogs ;. which, though 'Swarming^ at othei 
Reasons, then entirely disappear, , Our fields are re- 
peopled, when the leaves hegin to hud, hy.tlie ger 
joial influence of spring; aiul.C^terpilIarB,ofTarioii| 
sorts, ace seen feeding upon ^e promise of theyear, 
even before the leavea are c<Miipletely-.Ufi£61ded. 
/Those caterpillars, which we iheq see, may 9«rye to 
^ire OS a view of the.geperal ^n^s.which nature 
efnploya-to preserve such a- number of insects 
-during that season-when. they longer-iiad 
subsistence. Itis.known, by. united experience, U)^ 
jftU these animals are batched from the eggs of Jsut- 
terflies ; and those vrho observe, them more closely, 
will find the fly .very ireful in depositing its. eggs 
ID those places where they are likely to be hatched 
wiUi -the greatest safety and success. During win- 
ter, therefore, the greatest number of caterpillars 
are in an egg state ; and in this lifeless situation* 
brave all the rigours and the humidity of the cli- 
iBBte ; and though often exposed to all its changes, 
stilt preserve the latent pridciple of life, which" if 
more fully exerted at the approach of spring. That 
SBDse power that pushes forth the budding leaf, and 
the opening flower^ impels the insfcf,, into anir 
mation : and Nature at once seems to furnish the 



gaest and the banquet. When tlie ioaect basTound 
force to break its shell, it always finda its favourite 
■limeDt provided in abandance before it. 
- BQt-aH caterpillars are not sent off from the e^ 
in the beg;iiHHDg of ^riog ; for many of them have 
subsisted during the winter in their aurelia state : 
in which, as we have briefly observed above, the'aili-. 
mal is seemingly deprived of life and motion. In 
this state of insensibility, many of these insects con-' 
tinue during the rigours of winter; some enclosed- 
in a kind of ^etl, which they have spun for them-' 
selves at the end of autumn ; some concealed under 
the bark of trees ; others in the chinks of old walls ;. 
9nd.many bnried under ground. From all theses a^ 
variety of butterfiies are seen to issue, in ithe begin- 
ning of spring; and adorn the earliest part of the' 
year with their painted fiutterings. - - ' 

Some caterpiUacs do not make any change what^- 
soever at the approach of winter;' but continue tO' 
liver in their reptile state, through all the seventy of 
the season. They choose themselves some iretreat, 
where they may remain undisturbed for some months. 
ti^ether ; and there they remain, quite motionless, 
and as insensible as if they were actually dead. 
Their constitution is such, that food, at that time, 
would be uselsess : and the cold jH-evehts their 
making those dissipations which reiqiure restoration. 
In general, caterpillars, of this kind are found in' 
great numbers together, enclosed in one commtm 
web, that covers them all, and serves to protect them ' 
from the injuries of the.air. 

Lastly, there are some of the caterpillar kind> ' 
vho^ butterflies live all Uie winter; and who, 
having fluttered about for some part of the latter' 

I;. L.oogic 


ebd of antumn, seek for some retreat durii^ fRs 
ifinter, in order to ansvver the ends of prOfrag&tion, 
at the approach of tpfin^. These tire ofteh fodntf 
lifelesi and motionless ib the hollow of trees, or the 
dcfts of limber ; but, by bcti)|* approached to th« 
fire, they recover life and activity, and seem to 
aatieipate the desires of the spring. 

' In genera], however, whether the anHtml liea 
subsisted in an egg state, during the winter ; or 
Tthether as a butterfly, b^ed from an aureJia, irt the 
beginning t^Kpring ; or a butterfly that has sabsisted 
daring the Wmta, and Iay> eggs as soon as the leaves' 
of plants are shot forward; the whole swarm dF 
oaterpilkirs are rn motion to duire the banqaet that 
Nature has provided. There is sc«reefy a f^nt 
that iMts not its own pccotiar insects; anct some are^ 
bnown to support several of diffHent kinds. Of 
tiMse, many are batched from the egg, at the fbot 
of the tree, and climb up to it» leaver for snb- 
^ence : the eggs of others have been gifted' by Xbe 
paeeat butterfly to the leaves ; and they aro tio 
sooner excfoded from the shell, but they find dtem- 
selves in the mi^t of plenty. 

. When the caterpillar first barsts^^M the egg, 
it is small and fecbk ; its appetites are in pre^KH*- 
tien to ita size^ and' it seems to make no great 
ONuimiptien : bat as it increases in magnitude, it 
improves in its appetites; so that, in its adirit 
oaterptUar state, it is the most ravenous of all ani- 
iM^ whatsoever. A single caterpillar will eat 
double its own weight of leaves rn ii day, and yet- 
sfieoB no way-disordered by tke meal. — Whatwodid 
nnakind' do; if their oxen of their boiBes wtfe i» 
vffltteioade . 

.= [jvGoog[c 


■ Tbese TOtaciow kabkt, Wilb its Alow ttaVfMttg 
motion, but still mare a etin^iig like that of n^Cles,- 
whtch fdlom Bpcrti bandling the gfffirteet AurbYte^ of 
them, nlake these Inseetfl not the ffittH egr&tiiMS 
objects of iMttism curiosity. Utiiti^et, fliere! frrei 
nian^ ptftloscfpltei^ wh6 baVe spem ftAta iti (hdr 
conteiDjaktioii ; and who faave not 6Sfy attcrided t!o> 
tbeir hdbtts tild M»«m#9, b&t i»Tn«lely eistatiiKi^ 
their sCrdctarttfiid ifltevtial cottfoFM«K)dft. 

The hotly of the c(tte»pill«r, vtheH dtlMoMiealty 
(Kn)»id«red, is &)\iM- c<ttiipd#ed of riti^, #hose ti^** 
eamfefeaoi id pfeUy Heit ahtMii.* or ov^. Tbf^y^ 
on getiemll;f twelve M number, dnd af^ ajf hieMJ 
fetdMOeouft ; %f #hieK ^^^ttpithitrA may be disiiti-' 
guished frortV 6t6er iH»e6l9 tsttal nearly feMm*^ 
We tbeifr in fonti. T^^ hettd of tb^ caterpillar is 
cohffflcted to the ftusf rio^ &y the neck; titaf ii^ 
gsftSeraHy so short and contfactetf, fliaf it is Scarcely 
visible. All tiM Gov^iAg' of .die beiid in cttterfrillai's' 
seflMA to consist of ft sbetl ; aftd they bate nerttiti^ 
uftpop nor under jaWj foi tbty are both placed rather 
veFti«^y, and eaeh jdw armed vtUb a large thick 
tooth, Tthicb ia singly equal to ntifnUei^. With 
these the afitftists detour their food iti fltrtbamfr^rfrg 
^faantMie»; and wHh these, sente of ^ kind defefid 
tlieiAaelves against then* ettetnies. Thou;gIi tb^ 
rifooth be k«pt 8but> the teeth are al#ays aneoter- 
ed; and ttb^ tittf iBsect- k in health, they hW 
seldom without employment. Whatever the clfteif- 
pmm* devours, these feefb serve to ihop if mto atn&U 
^eees, and render the parts of the leaf fit fbr sW- 
lowing, i/tiny kincb, whtte they are yet young, eat 
only Uie ittcetfletfit piir* of the leftf, imrf leave afl' 
tfee fibres Jirtoufebetf; others;, RowevW, atta* OW; 



whole leaf, and eat it clean away. One may he 
amused, for a little time, in observing the avidity 
viUh which they are seen to feed ; some are seen 
eating the whole day ; others have their houis of 
repast ; some choose the night, and others the day: 
When the caterpillar attacks a leaf, it places its body 
in such a manner that the edge of. the leaf sht^ 
fell between its feet^ which steady, .while 
the teeth are employed in cutting it : these. fall upoa 
the leaf, somewhat in the manner of a pair of gar- 
dener's shears ; and every morsel is swallowed as 
400n as cut. Some caterpillars feed upon leaves so. 
very narrow, that they are not broader than their 
mouths ; in this case the animal is seen to devour it 
from the point, as we would eat a radish. 

As there are various kinds oi caterpillars, the 
number of their feet are various; some having 
eight, and some sixteen. Of these feet the six 
foremost are covered with a sort of shining gristle ; 
and are therefore called the shelly legs. The hind- 
most feet, whatever be their number, are soft and 
flexible, and are called membrauaceous. Cater- 
pillars also, \f)th regard to their external figure, are 
eiUier smooth, or hairy. The skin of the first kind 
is soft to the touch, or hard, like shagreen ; the skin 
of the latter is hairy, and as it were thorny ; and 
generally, if handled, stings like nettles. Some of 
them even cause this stinging pain, if but approached 
too nearly. 

Caterpillars, in general, have six small bkck spots 
placed on the circumference of the fore ring, and a 
little to the side of the head. Three of these are 
- larger than the rest, and are convex and trans- 
parent : these Reaumur takes to be the eyes of the 



caterpillar ■ however, most of these reptiles have 
-very little occasion for sight,' and seem only to be 
■directed by their feeling. 

But the parts of the caterpillar's body which most 
justly demand our attention, are the stigmata, ai 
* -they are called ; or those holes on the sides of its 
body, through which the animal is supposed to 
breathe. All along this insect's body, on each side. 
these holes are easily discoverable. They are eigh- 
teen in number, nine on a side, rather nearer the 
belly than the back ; a hole for every ring of which 
the animal's body is composed, except the second, 
the third, and the last. These oval openings may 
be considered as so many mouths, through which 
the insect breathes ; but with this diGTerence, Aif 
as we have but one pair of lungs, the catt^^lAtr 
tias no less than eighteen. It requires no great 
anatomical dexterity to discover these lungs in the 
larger kind of caterpillars : they appear, at first view, 
to he hollow cartilaginous tubes, and of the colour of 
iriolher-of-pearl. These tubes are often seen to unite 
with each other ; some are perceived to open into 
the intestines ; and some go to different parts of the 
surface of the body. That these vessels serve to 
convey the air, appears evidently, from the famous 
experiment of Malpighi; who, by stopping up the 
mouths of the stigmata with oil, quickly suffocated 
the animal, which was seen to die convulsed the 
instant after. In order to ascertain his theory, he 
rubbed oil upon other parts of the insect's body, 
leaving the stigmata free; and this seemed to hav^ 
no effect upon the animal's health, but it continue^ 
to 'move and ea't,. as usual: he rubbed oil on the' 
itigmata'of one side, and the animal underwent a 

,= L.(Xm;Ic 


partial <onv«kioa, bat Tec^vereil eotm afler. Howv- 
^er, it ought to be obserred, that air is not so 
necessary to theae as to the nobler ranks of auimd^ 
aioce caterpillars wiH live in aa exhau^ed receiver 
for several days together ; and though they Jtmm 
4ead at the bottom, yet^ wh«t| taken out^ ret^over, ' 
and resume their former vivacity. 

If the caterpillar be cat opan longitudinally alon|^ 
the bAcltj its intestines will be perceived running;' 
dUectly in a straight lip? fFom the mouth to tb^ 
ftnns. They resemble a number of small bagv open- 
ing into each other ; and streHgtbeDfid on both pidea 
^y a fleshy cord, by whirfa they are united. Tbese 
insects fire, upon many occa^ons, B«en to cast fortli 
Itie internal coat of tbeir intestines witb tbeir foo4, 
in the changes, which tb^y so frequently undexgo, 
]pot thp intestine* take np but a ^mall part ef th« 
animal's body, if compared to the fatty substance in 
tvhii^b they are involv^. Tbis snbatancie change* 
iHs colour when the insect's metamorpbosis begin* 
tp approach ; and from white it is dually seen to 
fKcome y^ow. If to t^ese parts, we %^d th« 
caterpillar's implements for spinning (for all cat«r< 
pillars spin at one time or another), we shall have a 
rude sketch of this animal's oMjforaiation : howevw, 
we shall reserve the description of those part^, till 
we come to the history of the silk-normj wher? tl)Q 
planner in which these insect^ spin tbeir w^bs^ will 
most properly find a place. 

The life of a c^terpiUar seems one continued suc- 
cession of changes ; and it is seen to throw off one 
skin only to assun^c another ; which ^^^ i» dive«ted 
in its turn : and Ihas for eight or ten tira^s suc- 
cewively. We roust not^ bpvf^v^h conEpynd Uiw 



chsnginff «f the skin witb ibs gnat nu^oibrptMnif 
nrbich k is afterwards to uadergok The thnmiog 
off ODC skin, and aHUming anotber, seems,- in com- 
fariaoa, bot a siight toleration amoDg these animab; 
AiB ia hut the woik of a day ; the oliier is the gneat 
adftentiire of their, lives. Indeed, this faoalty cf 
changing the skin is not peculiar to ctterpilhrs 
only, bat is oonuDOn to all the insect kind ; and evea 
to some animals that claim a higher rank ia Datura 
We have alrea^ seen the lohster and the crab ou&- 
growing their first shc^, and then bunting fron 
iheir confineneat, in order to anume a covering 
iBore roomy end convenient. It is probaUe thtt- 
the louse, the flea, and the spidw, change their 
coT«riDg from the same necessity ; and growing td9 
large for the crost in v/hitb they have been for 
aomc time enclosed, burst it for another. This 
period is probably that of their growth ; for as soon 
as their new skin is hardened round them, the ani- 
mal's growth is necessarily circumscribed, vrhile it 
remains within it. With reject to caterpillars, 
lOeny of thent change their skins fiv« or six times 
ia a season ; and this covering, when east off, oflea 
^eeios BO complete, that many rai^t mistake tb« 
empty skin for the real insect. Among the hair^ 
caterpillars, for instance, the cast skin is covered 
with hair ; the f<pet, as well gristly as mraibraneou^ 
remain fixed to it ; even the parts which nothing 
but a microscope can discover, are visible in it ; iv 
short, all the pftrts oi the head ; not only the skull^ 
but the teeth. 

In proportion as the tiinc approaches in wbid^ 
the caterpillar is to cast its old skin, its colourf 
become more feeble, the skin seems to wither and 


grow dty, and in tome measnre retetnbies a loaf, 
-wfaen it IB no long«r snpplied with nwisture fron 
the stock. At that time, the insect begins to.^Ml 
itMlf under a necessity of chan^ng ; and it is not 
effected without violent labour, and perhaps, pain. 
A day or two before the critical hoor approacties, 
the insect ceas«i to eat, loses its. nsBalaclirity, and 
seems to r^t immoTeable. It seeks «ome place to 
remain in security ; and, no longer timorous, seems 
regardless even of die touch. It is now and then 
seen to bend itself and elevate its back ; again it 
Stretches to its utmost extent : it sometimes lifts up 
the head; and-tb«B lets it fa)] again; it sometimes 
waves it three or frar times fnun side to side, and 
then remains in quiet. At length, «ome of the rings 
of its body, particularly the first and second, are 
seen to swell considerably, the old skin distends and 
bursts, till, hy repeated swellings and contractions 
in every ring, the animal disengages itself, and creeps 
from its inconvenient covering. 

How laborious soever this operation may be, it is 
performed in thespaceof aminute; and the animal, 
having thrown off its old skin, seems to enjoy new 
Tigour, as well as acquired colouring and beauty. 
Sometimes 'it happens that it lakes a new appear- 
ance, and colours very different from the old. Those 
that are hairy, still preserve their covering ; although 
their ancient skin seems not to have lost a single 
hair : every hair appears to have been drawn, like 
a sword from the scabbard. However, the feet is, 
that a new crop Of hair grows between the old skin 
and the new, and probably helps to throw off the 
external covering.' ' 

.IV, Google 


' The oaterpiHar haTing in this uaonw continuMl 
-fi>r sevflntl days feeding, and at intervals cegtirig 
"te dcin, begins at last to pr^areforits change iotip 
ttn aorelia. It is meet probable that, from lbe-be< 
ginning, alt the parts of the butterfly lay bid in Uiii 
insect, in its reptile state ; but it required time to 
king them to perfection ; and a large quantity .of 
food, to enable the animal to undergo all tbe 
changes requisite for throwing off these skins, which 
seemed to clog the butterfly form. However, when 
the caterpillar has fed sufficiently, and the parts of 
4ie future butterfly have formed themselves beneath 
its skin, it is then time for it to make its first great 
and principal change into an aurelia, or a chrysalis, 
as some have chosen to call it ; during which, as 
^as observed, it seems to remain for several days, 
or even months, without life or motion. 
- Preparatory to this important change, the cater- 
pillar most,.usDally quits the plant, or the tree on 
which it fed ; or at least attaches itself to the stalk 
or the stem, more gladly than tbe leaves. It for- 
sakes its food, and prepares, by fiasting, to undergo 
its transmutation. In this period, all the food it - 
has taken is thoroughly digested ; and it often voids 
even tbe internal membrane which lined its in- 
testines. Some of this tribe, at this p»iod also, are 
seen entirely to change colour ; and the vivacity of 
the tints in all aeem faded. Those of them which 
are capable of spinning themselves a web, set about 
Ibis operation ; those which have already spun, await 
the cbange in the best manner they are able. The 
web or cocts, with which some cover theouelve^, 
> hides the aurelia contained within from the view ; 
hut in others, where it is more transparent, the 

= L.oo^^lc 


cvUrfiihT, when it bu done «piBitiag, itjiibea into it 
Um daw» oi the two feet under the tail, and :aftefv 
wards forces in the tail itcelf, by eontractiug thos^ 
dawi, aad violently ttrikiog the feet one against 
the other. If, however. Uiey ba taken from tbeif 
webat UuBtime, theyappwr in a<tateofgreat laor 
guor; and, iscapable of walking, reaain on that 
ipot where they are pbced. In this condition they 
renuiin one or two days, preparing to change into an 
Burelia ; somewhat in Uie manner they made prepar 
rationi for dianging their skin. They then appear 
with their bodtM beot into a bow, which they noty 
and tlien are aeeo to straiten : they make no use of 
their legs ; but if they attempt to change place, do 
it by tfae.coBtOTiions of their body. In proportion 
aa their d«nge into an aorelia approecfaes, . their 
body becomes more and more bent : while their exr 
tensions and convubive contractions become more 
frequent. The binder end of the body is the part 
which the enimid first disengages from its tfater- 
ptllarekin; that part (^ the skin remains emp4y,whilo 
tl>e body is drawn up cootractedly towards the bead< 
In the same manner they diB^gage thttoasdves from 
the two succeeding rings ; so that (he animal is 
tiien lodged entuvly in the fore part <^ its cstcapjHav 
' covering : that half which is abandoned, remain* 
flaccid and empty j wbile the fore part, on the con- 
trary, is swollen and distended. The animal, having 
thus quitted the hinder part of its diin to drire 
itself up into the fore part, still continues to benva 
and work as before ; so that tbe skuU is soon seen 
to burst into three pieces, and a longitudinal open* 
ing is made in tiie Avee first ling* of the bodyi, 
through which tbe insect tbrnsta forth its naked 


hoSy, Wttb ttrohg; cffwls. Thus, st last, it entJrdy 
gets free from i(t cato^tHar tkin, md for erw fW- 
«)kn it» moBt odious reptile lorm. 

Tbe caterpHltr, tfaas «lrtpped of iti «kin for ^ 
tost time^ is now become an aurelia ; in which Uue 
pwto of the fotsre butterfly are ell Tisiblt ; but in 
so $ok a state, that the smallest touch eaa discom^ 
pose them. The eoimal is now beconte beJpleM and 
tHotiooleBfl ; but only waits for Ihr aswRtance of the 
^if to ^ry up the moisture on its aur&ce, and Hipply 
it with a crust capable of re«iatin^ external injuriea. 
Jmmediately after being stripped of its caterpillar 
skin, it is of a green colovr> especially in those parts 
which are distended by an extraordinary afflux ef 
animal moisture ; hot ifi ten or tivelv« hours afier 
being thus exposed, its parta harden, the air forow 
ks external oevering into a finn erait, and io about 
fonr-and'twenty hoora. the aurdta may be handled 
without endangenig the Itttle animal that is thna 
Jeft in so defeqceless a situation. Such i» the history 
of the little pod eir cone ^at is found so common 
by e¥ery path-way, stidfia^ to nettles, and somo- 
tinies ahtnin^ like polished goM. From the bean- 
^ifui and resplendent colour, with which it is thus 
fometimes adorned, some authors have caBad it a 
Chrypalia, impiying a creature rsade of ^old. 

Such are the ffforti by which these little anim^ 
prepare for a state of perfection ; hat their care is 
still greater to provide themselveB a secure retreat, 
dnring this season of their imbeciliiy, It would 
seem like erecting (bemselvrs a monuroant, where 
they were to rest secure, until Nature bad called 
th0m into a aew and mMe iraproved existence. For 
Ibis pnrpoae, iwrne «pw IbeiaBelves a vqn* w w«bk 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 

so ' A WlS^OifeV OF 

in wMSfe' tHey'He 9fe(ir6 tllFifieyhfive ai-rfv^a ait 
mMurtty: otiters, tliat 'cannot spin s6"copious a 
OOTraittj, suspend themseWes by the tail, in some re- 
treat where they are not likely to meet disturbances, 
^me mix sand with their gammy and moist webs, 
and thas make themselves a secure incrustation; 
while others, before their change, bury themselves 
in Uie ground, and thus avoid the numerous dangers 
that might attend them. One would imagine ^a( 
they were conscions of the precise time of their con- 
tinuance in their aurelia state; since their little 
sepulchres, with respect to the solidity of the build- 
ing, are proportioned to such duration. Those that 
are to lie in that state of existence but a few days^ 
make choice of some tender leaf, which they render 
fltill more pliant by diffusing a kind bf glue upon it ; 
tiie leaf thus gradually curls up, and withering as it 
enfolds, the insect wraps itself within, as in a mantle, 
till the genial warmth of the sun enables it to strug- 
gle for new life, and burst from its confinement. 
Others, whose time of transformation is also near at 
hand, fasten their taife to a tree^ or to the first 
worm-hole they meet, in a beam, and wait in tbat 
defenceless situation. Such caterpillars, on the 
other hand, as are seen to lie several months in their 
aurelia state, act with much greater circumspection. 
Most of tbem mix their web with sand, and thus 
make themselves a strong covering : others build in 
wood, which serves them in the nature of a coffin. 
Sudi as have made the leaves of willows their 
lavonrite food, break the tender twigs of them first 
into smalt pieces, then pound them as it were to 
powder; and, by means of their glutinous silk, 
make a kind of paste, in which they wrap them-> 

L, . h.L.oogIc 


flelTCf ap. Many are the fonos which these ani- 
BiaJs assume in this helpless state ; uid it often hap- 
pens, that the most deforraed butterflies issue fnua 
the most beautifal aurelias. 

. In general, however,, ihe auielia tabes the rode 
outline of the parts of the animal which is cootaiaed 
withia it ; but as to the various colours which it- it 
seen to assume, they are rather the effect of acci- 
dent ; for the same species of insect does not at ail 
times asfHinie, the same hue, when it becomeB xa 
aurelia. In some, the beautiful gold colour is at one 
time found ; in oUiers, it is wanting. This brilUaof 
hue, which does not fell short of the be^tt gilding, 
is fonned in tbe same manner,, in vrhich we sea 
leather obtain a gold ccdour> though none of that 
metal ever.enters into the tincture. It is only fcvmed 
by a beautiful brown varnish, laid upon a wirite 
ground ; and the white thus gleaming through the 
transparency of the brown, gives a charming goldta 
yellow. These two colours are found, one over the 
other, in tbe aurelia of the little animal we are de- 
scribing; and the whole appears gilded, without 
any real gilding. 

The aureliai thus fonned, and left to time to ex- 
pand into a butterfly, in some measure resembki 
an animal in an egg, that is to vrait for external 
warmth to batch it into life and vigour. • As the 
qmuitity of moisture that is enclosed within the 
covering of the aurelia, continues to keep its body 
in the most tender state, so it is requisite' that this 
humidity should be dried away, before the little 
butterfly can burst its prison. Many have been 
the expeiimeuts to prove that nature may in this 
respect be assisted by art; and that the life of the 
insect may be retarded or quickened, without doing 

eg • A HISTORY Of 

U the :Mirillett injury. Foi! lht»' pwrpMe, it is only 
iCj^itiaibe to cmtioug Ika itisect ia its attrelhi stdte, 
1r;y.|):reTeoUns.UieevelpiorBtion6f its humidity; wbieh 
vrill consequently add soine dajra, nay weeks, to its 
Hfe : on'the other baad, by eraporatili^ite moisturej 
)n a Warm situation, ttte anttnal asrames ita winged 
sfele befove ita osuil tine, and goes through Uie 
c^es assigned iCi existence. To prove tbia, Mr. 
Keaamur enclotcd tbe auretia in a gtasa tnbt ; and 
fe«ad the evaporrtod wafer, whicb exh^ed froia 
the body oi the insect, cc^ct^d in drojis at the 
bottom of the tabe : be coTejed Uie atvelia.witb 
Tarnish ; aad this makiag the dvaf«ra(ioii more dffi- 
vait and slow, tbe butterfly was two montfaa loDge* 
dnA its itaiasal term, in comnig out of Itl case: b» 
tavni, on the dflier hand, thai by ia^'nlg the aniRpaft 
in a warm room, be baatened the discloBure of the' 
haMtetfly ; tend by keeping it in an iee-honse itt tho 
aane nanner, he delayed A. Warmth acted, in thitf 
oue, ia a douUe capacity ; inTigOTating the animal,, 
and evaporating tbe moiatare. 

The aureha, tho^b it bears a tfifiereat ^external 
appearance, nevertheleas contains witbin it all the 
parta of the btitterfly in perfect formation ; and lay. 
ing each in a very or^ly roanfreir, though irt tJie 
AmcttMt compau. Ttiese, however, are so &8t and* 
lender^ that it is impossible to visit withort diseow- 
posing them. When either by warmth, or increas-- 
ing vigour, the parts have acquired the necessary 
fioree and scdithtyj the butterfiy then tteka to dia^- 
embamas itself of those bands whicb kept it se 
long in confinement. Some insects contiaue nnd«r 
tfae fOTm of an aurelia not above ten days ; some 
twenty : bodm seveiat moalto; and even fin- a year 


■ "^fhelnrttcfiHy, how^et,- does not cdnlini]*i**)lon^ 
ihider the fot-m of en ftaifelia; as one woulJ W a^ 
to JniBgine. Iti gerieral, tliose cfiterpiUars thttt jwfr-' 
a^ themselves with cones, coatinue wkhin thtitn 
hot a few cteys after the ctme ia completely finr^e4. 
^me, howeter, remain buried in this artiBcfal eoteC- 
iBg for e^t or nin* months, without faking the 
sMsffest sustenaniie daring the whole time: and 
lj(b*gh in thi caterpillar state no animajs were so 
VoraeiOba, when tAut transfctfmed, they appear a 
Airticle ^abstinence. In aH, sooner or lattr. Aire 
tilitterfly hat&t^ from He prison ; not only that natural 
pHsoA which is fytmei hy the skin of the aurefe; 
btit alto from that a:rtifid^l oae ofnlk, or any other 
tiahs^trte fn whhih ft has enclosed i^elf 
'Tile eBbrta whkh th^ butterfly makes to get fVee 
Wtyes its fliii<eUa state, are by no means so 'ticdfenf 
&B Ihtmti whkb the iitsect held in changing tiom the 
(Sterpllliap into the atfrefn. The quantify of mois-' 
tupfr flWrOttmWng the bntterfly is by no laeAns sO' 
gireaf as that attending its fbrmer change; and the 
sb^l of the Bitrelia is so dry, that it may Be cracfcecl 
beiween the fingers. 

- II the animat be shut up within a cone, the bot- 
tierfly alwayfl gets rid of the natural internal skin of 
the aarelra, before it eats its way through the ex- 
tievna) corering which its own mdnstry has farmed 
found i«. In order to observe the manner in which 
is. thus gefci rid of the aurerra covering, we must mt 
«p9n the cone, and then we shaft feve an opporto- 
nity of (fisGovering the insect's efibrts to emancipate 
itt^ from its natural shell. When this operation 
betas', there seems to be a violent agitation in the 
hfftno.iipB'eontainetfwitbtfi th^ litfle animal's body. 


lb fluids seem driveR^ by a hasty ferraeDtatim, 
trough all the vesaele ; while it labours violently 
with its ]egB, and makes several other violent atnig- 
gles to get free, As.alt these motions concur wi(h> 
the growth of the insect's wiogs and body, it is iro- 
possible that the brittle skin which covers it should, 
longer resist : it at length gives way, by bursting 
into four distinct and regular pieces. The skin of 
the head and legs first separates; then the skin at 
the back flies open, and dividing into two regular 
portions, disengages the hack and wings : then there 
likewise happens another rupture in that portion 
which covered the rings of the back of the aurelia. 
After tbiSj the butterfly, as if liitigaed with its strug- 
gles, remains very quiet for some time, with its 
wiogs pointed downwards, and its legs fixed in the 
skin which it had just thrown off. At first ught 
the animal, just set free, and permitted the fature 
use of its wings, seems to want them entirely : they 
take up such little room, that one would wonder 
where they were hidden. But soon after, they ex- 
pand so rapidly, that the eye can scarcely attend 
their unfolding. From reaching scarcely half the 
Unglh of the body, they acquire, in a most wonder- 
fiU manner, their full extent and bigness, so as to be 
each five times larger than they were before. Nor 
is it the wings alone that are thus increased : ell 
tiieir spots and paintings, before so minute as to be 
scarcely discernible, are proportionahly extended ; 
so that, what a few minutes before seemed only a 
number of confused, unmeaning points, now be- 
come distinct and most beautiful ornaments. Nor 
are Uie wings, when they are Uius expanded, un- 
folded ia the mwiBer in which earwigs and gran- 


hoppen iBBplEiy Cbeiin, vHuunfini U^ea)3£t a'b^'s 
fiM-: on jAeu)oatiftry,.ltx)K of batixtSita wu:imMf 
gjTBw 'taHmc natund Iszb in ibk nei^ ■faort- spMfr. 
■'^e wiag, at tiie instavi it is freed fakfi its fate ooa- 
linemeiit, u eonsf dumbly thicker tliui aftenvwdt; 
. M^at it spxeada ia a11 ill .^iBiensiom, growing 
thinner aa it IjecDiaas hrOMlcff . If one of the wing* 
bt ptucked from the anwiial Just net fat,t, it may be 
epread'by the ^Dgcm; and it wilt soon heconw as 
broad as the other, which has be^n left befaiiul. Ab 
the wti^s estend' tb^DMlves sd sudddnly, Ituey have 
not ytt ted tine to d^y ; and aceordiogjljr afnptal: 
•like pieees of wdt paper, £eft, f rid' fydl oi wr^nkJe^. 
Im about half ao MibtH-, they are penfectly dry, ttwir 
wrxakleB entiiiely .dirappear, and Ahe littjle aaucttal 
aasiuaes all its splefidoux. Titm tfananulattoo besog 
fiuifi perfectly finished, the batterfty discbargea tbrcs 
DT four dro^ of a Uood-ccdoursd' liquid, wbich aue 
tfiB ia»l:>einaina<of iteeapeFfluotn tdoisture;* Thpw 
aardie? wbicfa are eodosed within a, find 4tejt 
exit auHie difficult, aa tbey have sttll another ^tinw 
to break tbroti^h: tius, howey^^ t^ey peHbrm iri'.ii 
Abort tine ; fot tbe butteaiAy, Heed fiiom iti ouf eilia 
skin, butts with its head' violently agaioat tiie ^a£s 

• [These red drops, which several of the Butterfly Tribe dis- 
charge immediately upon their traasformation, have been re- 
corded by ancient writers, as showers of blood, portending some 
convulsion of nature, or natidual calamity. In the year 1608, 
the inhabitants of the town of Aix were in the utmost conster- 
nation, in consequence of a discharge of this kind, which fell in 
Ae suburbs, and for some miles round. But the philosopher 
Pieresc soon quieted their alarms, by showing them that the' 
whole of this wonder originated in a flight of harmless buttei(* 
flies, that had jott taken wing from their chrysalis slale.J 
TOt. TI. T ' ■^*- 



of its aitiGcial prison ; and probably with its tyt^, 
tbat are rough and like a file, it rubs the lidternBi 
fur&ee away ; till it is at last' seen barsting its way 
into open light ; and, in less than a quarter of an 
hour, the animal acquires its fnll perfection. 

Thus, to me the words ci Swammerdam^ we see 
a little insignificant creature distinguished^ in its 
last birth, with qualifications and ornaments, which 
man, daring his stay upon earth, can never erea 
hope to acquire. The butterfly, to enjoy life, needs 
no other food but the dews of heaven ; and the 
honeyed juices which are di^iUed from every flower. 
The pagean^ of princes cannot equal the orna- 
ments with whidi it is invested^ nor the rich 
colouring that embellishes its wings. The skies 
are the butterfly's proper habitation, and the air its 
element : whilst man comes into the world naked, 
and often roves abont without habitation or shelter; 
exposed, on one hand, to the heat of the sun ; and, 
on the other, to the ^mps and exhalations of the 
earth; both alike enemies of his happiness and 
enstence. — A strong proof that, while this little 
animal is raised to its greatest height, we are as yet> 
in this world, only candidates for perfection I 

: IV, Google 


CHAP. m. 

Of SuUerJlies and MitAa. 

J.T has been already shown that all Buttei^iea are- 
bred from caterpillars; and we have exhibited the 
vartoiis circumstances of that surprising change. It 
has been remarked, that butterflies may be easily 
distinguished from flies of every other kind, by their 
wings ; for, in others, they are either transparent, 
like gaiize, as we see in the common flesh-fly ; or 
they are hard and crusted, as we see in the wings of 
the beetle. But in the butterfly, the wings are soft, 
opak>, and painted over with a beautiful dust, that 
comes off with handling. 

The number of these beautiful animals is very 
great ; and though Linneus has reckoned up above 
seven hundred and sixty different kinds, the cata- 
logue is still very incomplete. Every collector of 
butterflies can show undescribed species: and snch 
as are fond of minute discovery, can here produce 
animals that have been examined only by himself. 
In general, however, diose of the warm climates 
are larger and more beautiful than such as are bred 
at home ; and we can easily admit the beauty of the 
butterfly, since we are thus freed frotn the damage 
of the caterpillar. It has been the amusement of 
some to collect these animals from different parts 
of the world ; or to breed them from caterpillars at 

C,q,-Z.= bvGOOg[C 


home. Theae they arrange in systematic order ; or 
dispose so as to make striking and agreeable pic- 
tures : and all must grant, that this specioas idle- 
'ness is far preferable to that unhappy state which 
is-prodaced by a total want of employment. ' 

The wings of butterfiiesj as was observed, fully 
distinguish, them from flies of every other kind. They 
are four in number ; and though two of them be 
cut off, the aniitisl can fly with the two dthers re- 
maining. They are, in their own substance, trans- 
parent ; but owe their opacity to the beautiful dust 
with which they are covered ,- and which has been 
likened, by some naturalists, to the feathers of birds ; 
by others, to the scales of fishes ; as their imagina- 
tions were disposed to catch the resemblance. In 
lact, if we regard the wing of a botterily with a good 
microscope, we shall perceive it studded over with 
a variety of little grains of different dimensions and 
forms, generally supported upon a fofdi-stalk^ re- 
gularly laid upon the whole sorface. Nothing can 
exceed the beautiful and regular arrangement of 
these little substances ; which thus serve to paint the 
butterfly'^s wing, like the tiles of a house. Those of 
one rank are a little covered by those that follow : 
they are of many figures : on one part of the wing 
may be seen a succession of oval studs ; on another 
, part, a cluster of studs, each in the form of a heart : 
in one ^ace they resemble a hand open^ and in 
another they are long or triangular ; while all are 
interspersed with taller stnds, that grow between the 
rest, like mnshroons upon a stalk. The wing itsdf 
is composed of several thick nerves, which render 
the construction vary stpong; though light; and 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 


tltongii it be covered orer trifli thousands of tfacu 
d^tes or BtadR, yet its wei^t is very little increaaed 
hy ihe number. The aDinml is with ease ^naUed to 
itapport itsdf a bng irhile in air, alAon^ Its fligfat 
be not very graceful. When it desigM to fly to a 
AonsidnftUe distance, it aacenda and dsaeeods after- 
nately ; goir^ sometinws to the right, sometimdi 
to the left, without any apparent reason. Upon 
closer examinatioo, however, it will be found that 
it flioB thus irroguktrly in pursuit of its mate ; and 
as dogs bait and quarter the ground iti porauit of 
Iheir game, so these insects traverse the air, in puii- 
mit of their mates, whom they can discover at more 
tba* a fiHle's distance. 

- If we prosecute our dcstription of Uie bolterflj, 
ibe animal may be divided into three parts; the 
head, the coralet^ and the body. 

- Thi body is the binder part of the butterfly, and 
ia eomposed of rings, which are geQerally concealed 
nbder long hair, with which that part of the animd 
i$ clothed. The corslet is more sohd than the re«C 
pf the body, because the fore wings, and the legs, 
are fised theceia. The legs are six in number, 
fdtboQgh foar only are made use of ^ flie annual; 
the two fore legs being often so much oBuceided 
in thft long hair of the body, that it is sometimes 
dlfiOcult to disonrer ihem. If we ^mine diasc 
parts internally, we shall find the same set of refr* 
ads In the butterfly ihat we observed in the pater* 
piUar, but with, this great diffeF«nce,-^that as the 
bleDd, or hnmouEB, in the caterpillar, circulated 
from the Ufl to tiic head, they are foand, in A» 
bK(ber0y, tm take a jdirejut contniy coime, and to 

L;,q,-z.= bvGoogle 


xirculate from the head to the tail ; so that tht 
caterpillar may be coniidered as the embryo animalj 
in which, as we h^ve formerly seen, the-circulation 
is carried on differently from what it is in animals 
■when excladed. 

But leavigg the other parts of the butterfly, let ub 
lorn our attention particahrly to the head'. The 
eyes of butterflies have not all the same fot-m ; for, 
in some they are large, in others small; in some 
theyarethe larger portion of a sphere, in others 
they are but a small part of it, and just appearing 
from the head. In all of them, bo'wever, the out- 
."ward coat has a lustre, in which may be discovered 
the various colours of the rainbow. When examined 
a little closely, it will be found to have the appear- 
ance of a multiplying-glass ; having a great number 
of sides, or facets, in (he mannM*' of a brilliant cut 
idiamoiid. In this patticular, the eye of the butter- 
fly, 'and of most other insects, entirely correspond ; 
and Lenwenhoek pretends, there are above six 
thousand facets on the cornea of a flea. These ani- 
mals, therefore, see not only with great clearness, ' 
but view every diject multiplied in a surprising 
nianner. Paget adapted the cornea of a fly in such 
a position, as to see objects throu^ it by the means 
of a microscope ; and nothing could exceed the 
strangeness of its representations : a soldier, who 
was seen through it, appeared like an army of pig- 
mies ; for while it multiplied, it also diminiBhed the 
object: the erch.of a bridge exhibited a spectacle 
more magnificent than human skill could perform • 
the flame of a candle seemed a beautiful illnmi- 
dbUod. It still;, however, remains a douht^ wbe- 



tiler die insect sees objects siD|^y, as with- on^ 
eye ,- or, whether every &cet is itself a con)[^t« 
eye, ezhibitiog its own object distinct from all 
the rest. 

Bqtterflies, u well as most other flying insects^ 
have two instruments, like horns, on their heads, 
which are commonly called feelers. They diier 
from the horns oS greater animals, in being move- 
able at their base ; and in having a great number 
of j<HntB, by which means the insect is enabled to 
turn them in every direction. Those of buttei^tea ■ 
are placed at the top of the head, pretty near the 
external edge of each eye. What the nse of these 
instruments may be, which are thu& formed wjth so 
much art, and by a Woriiman who does nothing 
without reason, is as yet unknown to man. They 
may serve to guard the eye ; they may be of use to 
.clean it ; or they may be the organ of some sense 
which we are ignorant of: but this is only explai*- 
ing one difficulty by another.. 

We are not so ignorant of the nses of the. trunk; 
which few insects of the buUerfly kind are without. 
This instrument is placed exacUy between the ^es ; 
and when the animal is not employed in seeking its 
nourishment, it is rolled up, like a curL A batten- 
fly, when it is feeding, flies round some flower, and 
jetties upon it. • The trunk is then -uncurled, and 
thrust out either wholly or in part ; and is employed 
in searching the flower to its very bottom, let it be 
«ver BO deep. This search being repeated seven or 
eight times, the butterfly then passes to another; 
«nd oootinnes to hover over those agreeable to itn 
laste, like a bird over its prey. IIub trunk coj»ii(p 



«f tvrb eqiml boHotrtobM^ BKety.jwned.^ e«4^ 

•Iber, like ttie.pvpes of an ofgM. 

Suok IB tbfi figure and coafenaiitisfL of Unese beaor 
tiful insects, that cheer our walks, and give Ufi -the 
eiriiBit itrtiEri&tiodSofsDnnKr. Birtit is oot.byday , 
akme Aad tbey are seen fluttering tntotonljr fiorti 
Stiiter ib Jlower, as the greatcBt onnber of tbfcm 
-flyby mgiit, audexpand tlief nott Ekeaattfnl eolowrtng 
St UK»e hoars wh^ tbo'e is a» upeaAa^or. Tkifi tribe 
«f insctctf faa* iherefbre been.diTided iAto IKatAiil 
wad NoetBrnid FL'es ; OTj nore properly sp«!tking, 
iHo Bottei^ies and Moths : tbe one only flying by 
day, tbe (Mher mbst usually on titevrnis iB the nrgkt. 
'Tbey nisy bo mmhf dtstiBgnished from each other, 
by. their herns of fcelers : thofie of thd bwtt^y being 
.dabbedy or kiMbbet^ af tbe end ; those of the jnetb, 
iAptsiig fiber and finer to a pdiet. To excess it 
tocfemitaUy— ^the feders of battcrfiiei Eo-e cbvctei ; 
4K»eof niothi-aTe fttifbrtrt. 

The butterflies, as wdl avtbe modn, emfloytiie 
.9faifft:lifii aaiigned tbem^'^BTapety bf eojoyniCnts. 
Tbcdr whole time h %ptmt dtUer irt^qiiest of fiibd, 
ffbkfa every &wkei ofiei%,- or iil .pwsifit oi the 
fim^^is^, wboid approadi: they can often peroeiveat 
«bfic^ ikro hliieff diabtnqe. l^eir tagaeily in this 
'^tictikiit i» not less utonisbing than true; hot IH^ 
Hcdiat setiiie theyai^ fhdc cdpable of .distingiBibiBg 
eacih other at Aicft'dipttAiceSi isbAt'eskytdcodeerri}. 
It baiiAoMie hf the fii^ht, since sucfc omalL lAjecis 
fas thf!y ari must be atterty ioi perceptible at.faaif 
tise distance at wMch they p«»iceive >aoh i^te': it 
can scarcely be by tflb tettae of sfanlling, ftinoei^te 
iaitaai has no organs fbr tb&t pnrpoae. : Wh^wr 

L;,q,z:=b, Google 


be.fteir powers o£ pwcepUoDj certain i£ ia, that the 
TMit, afiber tiaving fluttered, a» if caFcdefiBljr* about 
-fer', some tioiej » seen to take wingj and go for- 
ward. Bometiaies for two nuJes tog'etber, in a 
-dlrett llnie to vrhere tbe fsms^ is perched on ^ 

The general rule anmig insects isy that the feMule 
H la^er than the male; and tbs obtains partica- 
kriy in the tribe I am describing. The body oi the 
xaate ia sBieller and slenderer ; that of tiie iemale 
mote thick and ova]. Previous to the junction ttf 
tfaese animals, they are seen n^rtibg in the air, puf- 
■ suing and SyiDgfroo) each other, and preparing, by 
ft iBOck combat, ^ the more important baaiuess oif 
their liTefl. If ikxif be Jirturbed while tini^, the 
iemate flies <^wiU) the male on her back, who seems 
«Dtiinely passive tipen the occasicm. 

Bat die females of eaaily tnotbs and butterflies 
ttem to h&Te. assumed tbeir airy form for txo other 
-reasoD hot to. fecundate l^ir e|^ and lay them. 
They are not seen, fluttering about in qaest of fo«Jd, 
' Of a mate : aU that paMes, daring their short lives, 
iif ajunction with the male c^ abont half an hoalr,- 
kfUv which they deposit their eggs, and die, with- 
•ofll takiitg ahy nourishment, or seek^ &ny. It 
■maif bc«bserv6d. however, that in all the females «f 
ffctift bribti, they ue tcApregtiated by the male by one 
■mfmtafie, dad lay their egg« by. ano^h«r. 

fhtB Ag^.of female buttei^ies are disposed in ti)e 
JMfy ¥k« a bed t>f (jwplets ; whidi, when excladedi, 
are usually oval, and of a whitish colour : 80m(t> 
Jhonever, afe ^alte tOMd; a»l <)tfiers flatted like a 
knaop^ Tfte; «<«Mrwc ^r «M1 ol th« eg& ^H^ 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 


wAvl, M Ain and tramparent ; and in pro{HMtion as 
tiie caterpillar grovra within the egg, the coloon 
change, and are distributed differently. The bat- 
terSy Beema very well instructed by nature in its 
dioice of the plant or the leaf where it shall de- 
posit its burthen. Each egg contains but one cater- 
pilhr ; and it is requisite that this little animal, whea 
exdnded, should be near its peculiar provision. 
ThebutterBy, Uierefore, is careful to place her brood 
only upoh those plants that tkSord good nourishment 
to its p(Hterity. Though the little winged animal 
has beeu fed itself upon dew, or the honey of flowers, 
yet it makes choice for its young of a very different^ 
provision, and lays its eggs on the most unsavoury 
plants ; the ragweed, the cabbage, or the nettle. 
Thos every butterfly chooses not the plant most 
gratefnl to it in its winged state, but such as it has 
fed upon in its reptile form. 

All the eggs of butterflies are attached to the 
leaves of the favourite plant, by a sort of size or 
glue; where they continue, unobserved, unless 
carefully sought after. The eggs are sometimes 
placed round the tender shoots of plants, in the 
form of bracelets, consisting of above two hundred 
in each, and generally surrounding the shoot, like 
a ring upon a 6nger. Some butterflies secure their 
eg^ from the injuries 'of air, by covering them with 
bair, plucked from their own bodies, as birds some- 
times are seen to make their ne^ ; so that their 
eggs are thus kept vrarm, and also entirely con- 
cealed. • 

All the tribe of female mtrths lay their e^ a 
short time after th^ leave the aorelia ; but there aia 


etauy butterfliet tbat flutter about theifbde tam- 
mer, and do not think of laying, till the winter be- 
^ns to warn tfaem of their approaching end : some 
even continue the whtde winter in the hollows €f 
trees, and do not provide for posterity until die be- 
ginning of April, when they leave their retreats, 
deposit their eggs, and die. Their eggs soon bc^n 
to feel the genial influence of the season : the little 
animals burst from them in their caterpillar Mate/ to 
become aurelias, and butterflies in their turn, and 
^09 to continue the round of nature. 


0/ the Enemies of the Caterpillar. 

JN ATURE, though it has rendered some animals 
surprisingly fnittfililj yet ever takes care to prevent 
their too great increase. One set of creatures is 
generally opposed to another : and those are chiefly 
the most prolific that are, from their imbecility, in- 
capable of making any effectual defence. The cater- 
pillar has, perhaps, of all other animals, the greatest-, 
number of enemies ; and seems only to exist by its 
sutprising fecundity. Some animals devour them 
by hundreds ; others, more minute, yet more dan- 
gerous, mangle them in various ways : so that, how 
great soever their numbers may be, their destroyers 
are in equal proportion. Indeed, if vre consider ttie 
mischiefe these reptiles are capable of occasioning, 
ftnd tfie various damagies we sustain from their in- 
MtiaUe rapaei^, it is happy for the other ranks of 
jnlure^ ,th^ there wre thbasafids of fiahea^ bird^ and 


even ioseots, that Uve efaiefly i^n eai»Tf&i»nj aad 

make the« their meet fiEtvotiri^ ri^ist 

When we dbacribed (be ]i1tle .birds that Hve in 
our gstfdenSj a«d pear out hou«ea, as desbuctiTC 
ii«igUI»N)ir8, aufficient atteotion was net paid to the 
eervioM'^biCh tbey are frequently fotjnd to render 
us. It hs« been proved, that a single epzurrow aad 
its ffl^; that iwve yotwg ones, destroy abore thre* 
tboosttitd caterpillars ita a week,; not to mentioii 
Kveral bnUerflieSj in 9hkh naoibeirliebs caterpillar* 
are destroyed in embryo. It ia ki pursuit of these 
reptiles that we are favoured with the visits of many 
of our most beautiful songsters, that amuse us during 
their continuance, and leave us when the caterpillars 

The maxim which h'ds often been urged against 
man, that he, of all other animals, is the only crea- 
ture that is an enemy to hia own kind, and that the 
buroan species only ^re found to destroy each other^ 
bas been adopted by persons who never considered 
the history of insect^.; Some of the caterpillar kind 
in particular, tfasA seem fitted only to live upon 
leaves and plants, will, however, ^at eac^ other ; 
and the strongest will devour the weak, in pre- 
ference to their vegetable food. That wbidi livea 
up(m the oak, is found to seize any of its compa- 
nions, which it conveniently can, by the first rings, 
^d infiict a deadly wouqd : it then firsts in tran- 
quillity on its prey, and leaves nothing of the aniwa] 
but tbe husk. 

But it is not from each other they have raoBt to 
fear, as in gen^r^il they^ are inoffimsiTe ; find mUy 
vS this tribe are foqstf to ti«e in a kind at AMi^y. 
Many kind of fliQe Wy tbeir ^ga, ^tiber tip«« or 

tridiin their bodies,' and as tbcee tarn into vrorms, 
die caterpillar n seen to -noarish a set of Intestine 
enemies within its body, that niqst shortly foe its de- 
struction : Nature having tatngfat flieSj as we^l as alt 
other animals, the surest methods of perpetuating' 
tiieir kind. " Tovrards the end of August/' says 
Reanmar, " I perceived a litde tiy, of a beautiful 
*' gold'cotoutj bu«fy employed in ibe body of % 
'*' large caterpiHar, of that kind- which feeds upon 
" cabbage. I gently separated that part <tf the leaf 
" on which these insects wcfe placed^ froin the rest 
" of the plant, and placed it where I might observe 
" them more at my ease. The fly, wholly taken up 
" by the business in v^ch it was employed, walked 
f' along tiie caterj^ar's body, now and flien re- 
'■' 'inaining fixed %o a paAicuIar spot. Upon this 
*' occasion, I perceived it every now and then dart 
*' a riing, which It carried at the end of its tail, into 
" the caterpillar's body, and then drew it out again, 
" to repeat the same operation in another place. It 
" was not difficult for me to conjecture the business 
. " w)hi<^ engaged this animal so earnestly ; its whole 
" aim waB to d^osit ks e^gs in the caterpifiar's 
";bo(ty; which wtts to serve as a proper retreat for 
" biringimg them to pierfecljon. The reptile thus 
** radely treated, seemed to bear all very patiently, 
" Only moving a litHe' when stung too deeply ; 
" which, however, Ibe fly seemed entirely to disre- 
*' gard: I took particular care to feed this caterpitiar ; 
" which seemed to me to^!onttnHe as voraeioas and 
" vigorous as any of the rest of its -"kind. In about 
" ten or twelve dayS; it changed into an aurelia, 
*' which teemed |^aa% .to -decline, and died: 

C,q,-Z.= bvGOOg[C 


" Dpoo exatnining its internal parts, the animal tntf 
" entirely devoured by worms ; which, howevery 
" did not come to perfection, as it'ts probable they 
" had not enough to sustain them within." 

What the French philosopher perceived upon this 
occasion, is every day to be seen in several of the 
larger kinds of caterpillars, whose bodies serve as a ' 
nest to various flies, that very carefully deposit their 
eggs within them. The large cabbage caterpillar 
is so subject to its injaries, that, at certain seasons, 
it is much easier to find them with than without 

' them. The- ichneumon fly, as it is called, ' parti- 
cularly infests these reptiles, and prevents their 
fecundity. This fly' is of all otiiers the most for- 
middle to insects <^ various kinds. The spider, 
that destroys the ant, the motb, and the butterfly, 
yetoften fialls a prey to. the ichneumon ; who pur- 
sues the robber to his retreat, and, despising his 
nets, tears him in pieces, in the very labyrinth he 
has made. This insect, as redoubtable as the little 
quadruped that destroys the crocodile, has received 
the same name ; and from its destruction of the cater- 
pillar tribe, is probably more serviceable to mankind; 
The insect, I say, makes Uie body of the caterpiUar 
the place for depositing its eggs, to the number of 
ten, fifteen, or twenty. As they are laid in those 

' parts which are not mortal, the reptile still continues 
to live, and to feed, showing no signs of being 
incommoded by its new guests. The caterpillar 
changes its skin ; and sometimes undergoes the great 
change into an aurelia ; but still the fatal intruders 
work within, and secretly devour its internal sub- 
stance : soon after tbey are seen bursting tbroagh 

C,q,-Z.= bvGOOglt' 


its Bkin^ and moving away, in order to spin them- 
selves a covering, previous to their own little trans- 
formation. It is, indeed, astonishing sometimes to 
see the nnmber of worpis, and .those pretty large, 
that thus issae from the body of a single caterpillar; - 
and eat their way Uirough its skin : but it is more 
extraordinary still, that they should remain within 
the body, devouring its entrails, without destroying 
its life. The truth is, they seem instructed by na- 
ture not to devour its vital parts ; for they are found 
to feed only upon that &tty substance which com- 
poses the largest part of the caterpillar's body: 
When this surprising appearance was first observed, 
it was supposed that the animal thus gave birth to 
a number of flies, different from its^elf ; and that the 
same caterpillar sometimes bred an ichneumon, and 
sometimes a butterfly : but it was not till after more 
careful inspection, it was discovered, that the ich- 
neumon tribe were not the caterpillar's ofibpring, 
but its raorderers. 


Of the Silkworm. 

XlAVING mentioned, in ibe last chapter, the 
damages inflicted by.thc caterpillar tribe, we now 
come to an animal of this kind, that alone compen- 
sates for all the mischief occasioned by the rest. 
This litde creature, which only works for itself, has 
been made of the utmost service to man; and 



foraiibes bim widi a coreviBg moK beMki^ ihaxt 
any other aaioial can rapply. We may deelaim, ia- 
deed, -BgaiiiBt the loxuriti af the times, wben silk it 
.80 generally worn ; but were snch garmenls to &ilj 
irhat other arls couM «u(4>Iy their dcHcieiK^ i 

Though uUt vuaBciea%bi)miglit in small^uan- 
Utifis to Rome, yet it was so scarce as to be sold for 
its vrdfijtit in goU ; aad we« considered as such a 
luzLuious lefiaemrait in dress, nos infaoKJut 
ftir a man to appear in babits oi which silk fonned 
but half the compo»tio)i. It ivas most prdaaUy . 
brought .among them irom the remotest parts of the 
JSast ; since it v/aa, at the time of which. I am spea^' 
ing, scaccely known ereo in Pania. 

Nothing can be mcae reaiote from the tratifa,lhaa 
the nianner in which their histonams describe tbe 
mninal by which «Uk is produced. Pausanias ta- 
forms usj that silk came from tbe country of tbe 
Seres, a peofde ,of AsifUic 8cytbia ; in which place 
an insect, as large as tbe beetle, bat in every otter 
respect resembling a spider, was bred up for that 
purpose. They take great care, as he assures ui, to 
feed and defend it from the weather ; as well during 
the summer's heat, as the rigours of winter. This 
insect, he observes, makes its web with its feet, of 
which it has eight in .number. It is fed, for the 
space of four years, upon a kind of paste prepared 
fcff it ; and &t jtbe beginning .ft! tbe iif0, it 19 auy- 
plied with the leaves of the ipwep willow, ot wbiob 
it is particularly foi)d. It then feeds till it burst* 
with &t ; after which they lake out iUibawels, wbicb 
ajre spun ipto the beautiful iaaii#&Qftwr$ w tcaecs 
and costly. 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

th'e silkworm. h 

- 1%e rtal hiitoryi of this eninal was mknown 
among the Romans till the: times of JnitiniBD ; and 
it is BUpposed, that siHcworms were not brought into 
Gar(^»e till the beginning of the twdfth centaiy*;^ 
when Rc^«- of Skity brought workmen in this ida- 
anfhcture from Asia Minora alter his return from 
his expedition to the Holy Laud, and settled thera m 
SicHy and Cabbria: From tiiese'die other kuigdoins 
Of'Europe'learned-this manu^ture; andit is now 
one of the luott hicrative carried on among t^ft 
•oqthem provinjces of Europe. 

The silkmorm ie. now vek^ well known to be ft 
lai^ caterpillar, of a nhitish coloor, widirtwdw 
feet, and produdng a butterfly of the trtoth hind. 
The '.cope which it spins, is formed 'finr. covering 
it while it continues in tbeanrelia state ; and several 
of -these, properly wound off, and united together; 
form those strong and beautiful threads/ which 
arer woven into jift. The feeding these worms, 
the gath^ng, the winding, the -twisting, and the 
weaving .their sift, ' is one of the piinupal manu- 
fitdares' of Europe ; :and, as our luxuries increase,; 
seems every day. to become more and more necet- 
laiyto human happiness. 

There are twof meUiods of breeding silkwonns; 
for:tbey;may be.left to grow, and remain atliberty 
upon the trees where they are hatched ; (w.tiiey m^ 
be kept in a place: bulk for that purpose,. aad fed 
every day witli fresh leaves. The >first mcUiod is Ghina, Tbnquin, and other hot countries; 
the.other is used in those places' where (he animaj 
has. been artificially propagbted, and still continue! 
a stranger. In the warm climates, the silkworm 
proceeds from an egg, which has been glued by the 

TOL. TJ. o 

L, . h.L.oogIc 


psrent . aotii iit>on proper psilfl #f.tfa* nalbffry- 
tne, BDd which KnMinB ia tbRt.aitiwUsft 4«riBg ^« 
wiatcr. The HMDoer in which they wf: .«ita»ted 
and fixed t» the tree, kce^ them aiuiefltedby the 
nSucawe-of tiieweftUinr; to thAltfaoie fireef» whifh 
are lernie cnoagh to kill the tret, hwrc 49 ^viAer 
to iajure tiie «i4kffonn. 

' The ineect never piwecrie frwn the «g|* till Na- 
ture has pravi^d it a wfficieBt lupply ; andiilllhe 
baddin^ havn are farniabcd. in aaiicitpt «b«ii- 
dance, for iu Bupport. When Aft leartf are puk 
Jbrtbj Ae worm seeaia to fed die gmial aamvans, 
and haraeing iimn their little eg^, tnml apoKlbe 
leaves, where they fted wiUi a maat wmftwasttp* 
pedte. T(MB kfaey faeoeme faarger hy Atgma ; ami 
after W)tte mnsths feeding;, Aejr Jai^, u|idii erwy 
leaf/ muiH hundlei, or.coiut af -silk, wMch^fpetr 
lilte M mawy ^Iden apples, ^int»l on a i&e gveaa 
gwnwid. Such ia the method of bicBdiDg Atm ia 
Ae EttBt ; and ftithout doubt it is bert (at Ob 
worms, and least troBfalefome fat As foeilier of 
tbefift. Bat k is othermae in onr oelder fiampCM 
dinialet; the Accent chaogeB of the wneather, aad 
the heavy dews of our eveni«|p, render lhefcee{vii; 
tben at) night exposed srfDJeet to so aoM^. iaoour 
Teniences, as te admit laf no ronedy. Iti^lnH; 
that fay the asmtanoe of nets, tfa^ n^ be preserved 
from title insaits of binds ; but the aevere «dd wea^ 
ther, whidi oftca aucxieeds the first heats d 
aainincr, as well ss the rain and high winds, will 
deatn^' Ihem ril : and, therefore, to breed tbcm m 
Gnrope, they must be duritered aad pimtectoi imn 
every etternal injary. 

: IV, Google 


. For ibM {Hirpose, ft<ro9» b <^w> vrij^ fi s^^ 
aspect; endtb*wDdair»«iw«) w^lglf^, ««nAt 
to admU the Icaal air : tto nvlk are wcJ) boi^ «{id 
the planks of the i«Ar fsstfeditig |Clo3«. $0 a^ ^ 
aiknit neither birda a»r loiee, iQor fisftn so -mucb hs 
«n imect. In tiie raddle dinresb^ild hef9yir,]>i)lai;B 
eret^eil, or fonr wootlen y^tf, 8#.p)iqaeil ^ ,t9 forp 
« pretty birge iqasre. Butwrna tbew we difiewttt 
•tor'tefl made with coirfr kiurdles ; anti uader e^b 
Iwiljle fliere sbould; be ■ floor, w(tb fin ppn^ 
border all round. These hurdles and floers w^f^ 
img apM pollies^ WW Ao he ^Sftfyl W ^ken 
dovn'at pfeuare. 

Wbcn the worpoa ane lulohcd, ppme itqad^rT^iAl- 
JMRiy.leiveBdure provided, a^ filaced in ^he cloth cr 
paper Aiax in wfaidi the egiga were JhhI, ftstl yi^i<^ 
are Wge enQogh to ^ldd^B great nutnber. WJti0a 
jOi^faave acquu»d aotae streagtb, lUtey mmt kp ^ 
4^uled on heds of mulberry -lira vH, i«ithe dfffecf^ 
atorids of4be iquare ia the juMleof (Jto nwa, rt^^od 
which a person may Freely pasa on every Aide. T^itjf 
«ill fix tkenuelves ite ttie JeaTe*, .and afteirwaiid» to 
illie stidu of the hardtoi, whm Abe leaves ««6 df»- 
snpnred. They liaHe ihen ia thread, byiwhtcb ith^ 
can suspend tbenMelaesan oocnioTi, to preRentftny 
dioek by a iall ; hutfibis is by no means to b^.conr 
4idered a* 4he -sift nrinch tiwy sfiip i^temtrd*, ij^ 
eadi idMuidMice. Oave aiuM be tafcan ^t fraib 
teavet ibe broaght «fei^ aonung, wJuoh .rauBt he 
atrewed vecy ffently and equally oveai thrm ; upw 
wbifA ibt lilkwornis will' fonake the renaindAr «f 
4be okl 4eaVM, wbiob laart be carefully taken «way„ 
end eury Ibing- kept very oleas; £N'<notfain^Jbnito 
Aese iMeets io tniuih as peiaturo aiid-«u;teaDlineKu 

I;. L.oogic 


^br diiB reason tb«ir leaves otiut be gatibered vheit 
the woatber is dry, and kept in a ^ place/ i£it iw 
necessaij to iay ift a itinre. Am theie auionls. hare 
bnt a- short tiiae> to-lire, they make lue. of entry 
moment, tmi' almtnt coiiti»»aHy «re eating, ex- 
cept at those intervals when tbey chwige their skins. 
If malberry leaves be ^ifficdt to. beobtaiaed, the 
leaves of lettuce or btrfyeak wiU. sustain Hum: but 
tbey do not thnye so weD upon their new dial; ^nd 
their silk will nnther be so copious, nor of,80igofMl 
a quality. ■ ■ , 

Though the jodicious choice, and carefiil man^l^ 
ntent of their diet, isabsalutdy neccflaaryi yet.tfao^ 
is another precaution of equal iniportancej.wbich,is 
to give them air, and open their chambn-wiadoRvs, 
at Bdtilr times as tbe sunshines waraiest. :Tbe piece 
aldiiv iniiBt> be kept as deanas possible; notonfyibe 
Mveral floors that are laid to receive their .ordure, 
tmt the whole general. Tfaeae^injp 
-vrell observed, contribttte greatly to their healtk 
and increasci -. - . . . : ;, , .,i 

-■ • The worm, atthe time it bursts the thtW, is ei< 
ti^mely small, and of a bhc^ colour.; .luit theJifiad 
is of a more shining Uadt than Ui« rest f^ the body.;>-;after, turn wtvtkb, or. of 
an ash-coloured grey.: n After the. dtln begins to 
grew too rigid,. 9r Ihe a&imal is stmted within. it, 
the insett tiirews, andappeare. clothed a-oeiXq* 
it then' beooBMs. larger and. much whiter, tbou^it 
has a: greenish-cast;!, after some days, which xn 
more or less, accordiog to the difierent be^t of the 
dimate, or lQ^the.(pt]ity «f],.itileaKesfAff 
eating, and aearos: io dsep fer PVP -^iptpsdief,: 
iheiLitfaegiwjtik'ltitxftQdfittf )tw|f io^,v^«d^t]pa(^ 



tiotas, tiR, the skin feHncAtiKseeond'tioie, and w 
thrown asidebylfae abimaFs ftiet. Alltiieu cbaog«a 
mv.made in three weeks or a mcMith'B < time ; after 
yrhich ft beg^As to feed onm^more, still ia its cater- 
piHar form, bat a good deal differing, from itself 
before its change. In a. few days time it seems to 
deep' again ; and, when it awake% itagatn changes 
its clotbiiig, and continues feedmg as .before. When 
it has thas taken a sufficiency of food, and its parts 
are di^oied -for- BMuming the aarella form, the 
animal forsakes, for tbe last time, alt food and sor 
xiety, and preparesitsdf a retreat to defend itfroq 
external uyuriesj whfle it it seemingly deprived of 
life and motifHl. ., . ,. , ., 

Tlua retreat is no othtr (ban its oene, or ball of 
silk, which Nature has 'taa^it H to eompoae with 
great art ; and within wbtch it barias itsdf, till it 
assanies its winged forn. This cone or ball is spun 
bom two little loDgisb kinds of bi^ that lie above 
^e intestines, and are filled with a gummy Said, of 
4 marigold' cdpor. This ia the substance of which 
the threads are fwmed ; aad the little animal is fbr- 
nished with a suiprising apparatus for spininng it 
to ^e degree of ioeness which its occasions may 
require. This instmmeDt in- some measure reseoir 
hies a vrire-draw»'s - faadiine; in which g<Qld or 
silver threads are drawn to any degree of minuter 
ness; and throngb this the animal draws its thread 
with great assiduity. As every thread proceeds 
from two gam-bags, it ia probable that each sup- 
plies its own ; whidi, however, areunited, as they 
proceed from the animal's body. If we examine 
U)e thread with .a microscope, - it wiU be found ^at 
it is flatted on one side, and grooved along its 



length : flvth bfeiice tie i^y iflfer, th&t it it doQUed 
jnat ttpon leaving the body ; and thfit the ttro tbreadi 
iitick to each other by that gammy qnaltty of which 
they are possessed. Pftvious to iiplnning Ha we'b, 
the silkworm seetc^ out AoiUe c0nT«nient plactt to 
ferect >t6 cell, without Any obsttucttbti. When it hHft 
found a leaf, or a chink fltt^ to its pilrpcise, il be-^ 
gins to writhe its head iti ever^ directloh^ atid 
^stena its thread on every side (o the sides of iti 
retreat. Though all Its RM essbys seem perfe<ffly 
confused, yet they are not altogether withoat dt!^ 
iign ; there appears, ihdetd, no ofder ot ctiilttU 
tance iti the disposal <of its firbt threads ; they kte 
by no means laid artfully over each other, hat ttrt 
thrown oUt &t i^ndoih, to servt as an eitertial sh^ter 
against rain ; for Nature having ^tipointed th6 ehi- 
tnal to work upi)h trees in the Open ait-, itb habits re- 
ihflin, though it i^ brought dp in A Wartti ttpirtft>«nf. 
Malpighi t>retendy to have obseei^ed six diflTei^tit 
- layers in a single cone of silk : but What ma} easily 
be observed ift, that it Is composed extetiialty <Af a 
kind of rough cotton-like substanefe; which ia c&Hed 
floss; within, the thread is tnore distinct and eVen; 
and next the body of the autvlia^ the apartment 
seems lined with a sbbsfatnM of the hardttesft- of 
paper, but of a much stronger ftotiSislence. It rtrast 
liOt be supposed, that th« thread Svhich goes to 
compose the cone is rolled rband, as we #oI! a 
bottom ; on the contrary, it lies u|toft it in a Very 
irregular mangier, and winds off now from oiie side 
of the cone, and theft from the other. This wTioie 
thread, if measured, will be foihid about three h«h- 
dred yards totig ; and so riry Btte, that eight »*■ ttil 
xif them are genbriillj' rifllM' ttff into ohe-by the 

fHE SltKWoRM. 19 

ttiiiiafteturers. 'Fhecone, when completed,. fe m 
fma like b pigMb's egg, and more po)nt«a U on* 
wid ttuin tfae other; ttt Iht ttaHller end, dw^Md «f 
fli« aiiKli& i« geaettAy found; and tbii )b ClMr pMtfi 
' titftt fte insect, when converted iato a motb> jb gtf* 
nerally teen to bant timtogh. 

It U genenltf a fortnight ot three weeks fcefi^ 
the aurelia ia changed into a nnyth ; but no Eooiier 
fa the whigei) insect Conrpletdy formed, than, batM^ 
devested itself of Hs auteha akin, it prepares to buint 
titrongh Hs cone, or ouiWard prison : fbr this ptir^ 
pose it extends its bedtf toward the >oint of ^ , 
onte, butts with Its eyes^ which are nmghj again^ 
the lining of its cell, vreara it away, and at last 
pasfaea forward, throaj^ a passage which is small 
at first, bat which enlarges as the animal increases 
its efibrts for emancipation ; while the tattered 
remnants of its aurelia skin lie in confusion within 
the cone, like a handle of dirty linen. 

The animal, when thas set free from its double 
confioonent, appears exhausted with fotigue, and 
aeenis produced fcur no other purpose baf to trans- 
mit a future brood. It neither flies nor eats; the 
male only seeking the female, whose eggs he im- 
pregnates ; and their union continues for four days, 
without interruption. The male die^ immediately 
after separation from his mate ; and she survives him 
only tilt she has kid her eggs, which are not hatched 
into worms till the ensuing spring. 

However, there are few of thes^ animals suffered 

to come to a state of maturity ; for as their bursting 

through the cone destroys the silk, the manufoc- 

turers take care to kill the aurelia, by exposing it to 

, the sun, before the moth comes to perfection. This 

done, tbey take Qff the flosSj and throw the cone* 
into .warm water, stirring them till the first thread 
.ofiis^B .tb^m a clue for winding all oGf. They gene- 
.rally take eight of the silken threads together ; ttie 
cones are .still kept under water, till a proper quan- 
tity of the silk is wound off: however, they do not 
jtake an ; fw Uie latter parts grow weak, and are of 
a Jud colour. As to the paper-like substance which 
remainsj wme stain it with a variety of colours, to 
make artificial flowers ; others let it lie in the water, 
Ijll the glutinous matter which cements it is all 
dissolved: it is then carded like wool, spun with 
a wheel, and converted ipto^ilk stnS of an inferioir 

bv Google 





CttAP. I. 

Of the FoKTth Order of Ifis^cta. 

In the foregoing part we treated of caterpiUan 
changing into butterflies; in the present will be 
given the history of grubs changing into their cor- 
responding winged animals. These^ like the for- 
mer, undergo their transformation, and appear aa 
gruba or ma^ots, as aureliss, and at last as winged 
insects. Like the former, they are bred from eggs; 
they feed in their reptile sUte ; they continne mo- 
tionless and lifeless, ai aorelias ; and fly and pro- 
pagate, when furnished with wings. But they differ 
in many respects : the grub or ma^ot ffaata tht 
number of feet which the caterpillar is seen to have j 
the anrelia is dot so totally wrapped up, but that itc 
feet and its wings appear. The perfect animal, 
when eihancipated, also has its wings eiUter cased, 
or tmnsparent like ganze ; not coloured with that 
beaatifblly painted dust Which adertis the wings of 
the butterfly. 

In this class of insectSj therpfore^ tre may ptec« 
a various tribe, that are first laid as egg6, then are 
excluded as Vnaggots br grubi, then change into 
anrdies, with their legs and wings notwmpped ^p^ 
but appearing; and lastly, asBuminft; Witigit, lA 
which fiUte they propagate their kind. Some of 
these ha Tc finr transparent witiga^ asbee^; some 
have two membranoui cases to their 1^itig6> lil 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 


beetles ; and some have but two wings, which are 
traneparentj as ants. Here, therefore, we will place 
the Bee, the Wasp, the Humble Bee, the Ichneu- 
mpn Fly, the Gnat, the Tipula or Longlegs, the 
Beetle, the May-Biig, the Glow-Worm, and Uie 
Ant. The transformations which all these undergo, 
are pretty nearly similar ; and though very different 
animals in form, are yet prodnced nearly in the 
samie manner. 

CHAP. n. 

Of the Bee. 

J. O give a complete history of this insect in a few 
pages,, which some have exhausted volumes in de- 
scm)ing, and.whose nature and properties still con- 
tinue in dispute, is impossible. - It will be suflicient 
to give a general idea of the animal's operations ; 
which, though they have: been studied for more than 
two thousand years, are still but incompletely known. 
The account given us- by Reaumur is sufficiently 
minute ; and, if true, sufficiently wonderful : but I 
find many of the fitcts which he relates doubted by 
those who are most conversant, with bees ; and 
some of them actually declared not to have a j'eal 
existence in nature. 

It is unhappy, therefore, for those whose method 
demands a history of bees, that they are unfur- 
nished with those materials which have induced so 
many observers to contradict so great a naturalist. 
His life was spent in the contemplation; and it 
requires an equal share of attention, to prove Uie 

error of bis discoveries. Without entering, there- 
fore, into the dispute/ I will take him far my guide ; 
and just mentioD, as I go alongj those particulais 
in which succeeding ohserTers have begun to thiiik 
him erroneous. Which of the two are right, time 
only ean discover ; for my pert, I have only heard 
one side, for as yet nOne have been so bold as 
Openly to oppose Reaumur's deligbtfalresearches. 

There are three different kinds of bees is every 
.hive. First, the labouring bees, which m^e up 
the far greatest number, and are tbotigbt to be 
■neither male or femaJe, :but mei'ely boi'n for the 
purposes of labour, and continuing the breed, by 
supplying the young with provision, while yet iii 
their helpless state. The secotid sort are thedrones; 
they are -of a dariier colour, longer, and more thick 
by one third than the former : they are supposied to 
be the males; and there is not above a hundred- of 
them in a hive of seven or' eight thousand bees. The 
third sort is much larger than either of the former, 
and still fewer in number : some assert, that there 
is not above one in every swarm ; but this later Ob- 
servers affirm not to be true, theite being sometimes 
five or six in the same hive. These are called queen- 
bees, and are said to lay all the eggs from which 
the whole swarm is hatched in a season: 
. In examining the structure of the common work- 
ing bee, the first remarkable part that offers is the 
tjmnk, which^ serves to extract the hoftey from 
flowers. It is not formed, like that of other flies, in 
the manner of a tube, by which the flujd. is to be 
sucked up ; but like a besom, to sweep, or a tongue^ 
to lick it away. The animal is furnished also witb 
teeUi, which serve it in jpi^king yrax. This suV 



ftance it p;Blbered 4Tom flowefif like hcney ; it con- 
fiiite of that duit or &rina which contributes to the 
fiacundfttion of plants, and Is moulded into wax by 
the little utimsl, at tneiire. Every bee, when it 
leBTCB the hire to collect ihis preciouH store, cnlers 
into the cap of the flower, particntariy aach as seem 
chaK^d with the greatest quantiliesof this yellow 
fiuiaa. As the animal's body is cov^ned ever wi^ 
hair, k rdh itself within the flower, and soon he- 
. comes quite covered with the dust, which it soon 
efler Ixnthes off with its two hind legs, and kneads 
into two little balls. In the thigh? of the hind legs 
them are two cavities, edged with hair ; and into 
these, as into a ba^et, the animal etid^ its pellets. 
liiuB employed, the bee flies from iower to flowei*, 
incre»ing its store, and adding %b Hs stock of wax ; 
untilChe baH upon each thigh becomes as big m a 
^ratn of pepper; by this time, having got a suffi- 
cient load, it returns, making the best of its way to 
Ibe hive. 

1^ belly of the bee is divided' into six rings, 
which sometimes shorten tfae body, by dipping one 
orer the other. It contains within it, t>eside the in-, the honey-treg, the venom-bag, and the 
eting. The honey-bag is as tntneparent as crystal, 
containing the honey that the bee has brushed from 
■ttie flowers ; of which the greater part is carrieil to 
the hive, and poared into the cells of the honey- 
eomib ; while the remainder serves for the bee's own 
ftourishment : for daring summer it never touches 
what has been laid np for winter. The ating, which 
•CT«es to defend this little animal from its enemies, fs 
composed of three pai^ ; the i^eeth. And two darts, 
which are extreme^ ^niSX and pencAnKlng. Soft 

I;. L.oogic 

THE BSE. 96 

the 4»rta ^Q e^yer^I «biaJ| .{mJalB « Iwrbs, likA 
(boae of « iifb'&KM^,. wh«c|^ i^nd^gs tbp sting ni^e 
pMnfal, aiMt TB^e9 the (Ivrts »pkle in tt» ir^nnd. 
Stilt hWev^r, t-hi^ itebeammt w^U be yerjf ^ht, 
4m2 cot |be t^e fK)iio(i tfie irovB^- Th« BbevUt^ 
wh«^ ^ A stiarp point, fn^kei tfae^fint iiQprmQn j 
wl4«h is foUfmwi l»y ito^ i)f tM ^»Ft8> w4 thf d 4w 

times Btidw a» foat w» tlte W!»wi4> that ttK aIlj[B^l is 
obtig^ to kKtt^H \)obm^; isf whifib tlm ima ««•« 
»fter didf, wid' tli9 v^apd is coBS*4enibly inflavoed. 
It taigfit «t jSivt «ppMtr iMt for ttflu)kiiid, if ^ bee 
wan iriAoHt its. ^tmg ; bat «ipon re^^UcictJopj it 
iKill fae found IkMt the litik 4iu^»{ w^uld then ^v« 
too many rivals in Bfaanag; »ts Jeli^nm. ,A luiDdmd 
bthftf'. lisiy mmfitoj fond f)f ^»ey, ftftd hfttipg la- 
l^nr, vnwkl intrw^ uf>w tlK swe«ta of th^ faiy^ ; 
sni Ihe tfiea9iH:« woH^d W curipd off^ fiar wa^t «f 
amefl gwrdi«A» to pnotcet it. 

Frora «x«toining tbe bee singly, we dow ooam 
t» <cDi»ider it 4a aecietyj as ah ftninwl oot mly m^ 
ject to laws, b^.^ctire, vigilantj laborious, fmd dia- 
iatcxested. AU its {trovieioDB .are ]sid up fiu* Abe 
oenminity; «fid all its wts in building a cell, de- 
i^^d fttr the bene&t of posterity. The BubfltMic« 
with vriiidi bee^ bttJJd ^m ceUt is wax ; wbicb ii 
^Ejuooed itnto .GODTenwot apartmeuts for tbemselves 
aad Jiwir young. When they begin to work in their 
hives, thty divide theroselves into four couipaaiaq : 
one of whixji roves in the fields ia aearcb of nsr 
tariak ; another employs itself in laying oat tbe bot- 
tom and partitioss of their ceSi» ; a third is employed 
in maluBg the iuaide smaotfa from the oomedrs u»} 
mghui ; aad (&e Saa^ comj^ajty hnag food for ^ 

I;, L.oogic 


rest, or relieve those who return with Hieir respec- 
tive burthens. Bat they are not kept- constant to 
one employment; they often change the tasks as-r 
signed Uiem; those that have been at woifc, being 
permitted to go abroad ; and those that ^ve been 
in the fields already, take tbeir places. They seem 
even to have signs by which they understand each 
otiier; for when any of them wants food, it bends 
down its trunk to the bee from whom it is expected,' 
which then opens its boney-bag, and lets some drops 
fall into the other's mouthy which is at that time 
opened to receive it. Their diligence and labour is 
so great, that, in a day's time^ they are able to make 
cells, that Ue npon each other, numerous enough to 
contain three thousand bees. 

If we examine th^r cdls, tiiey wiH be found 
formed in tiie exacteet proportiwi. It was said by 
Pappus, an ancient geometrician, that, of aH other 
figures hexagons were the most convenient-; for; 
when placed touching each other, the most conve- 
nient room would be given, and the smallest loss. 
The cells of the bees are perfect hexagons :. these,, 
in every honeycomb, are double, opening on eitbec 
aide, and closed at Uie bottom. The bottoms are 
composed of little triangular panes, which when 
united togeUier terminate in a point, and lie exactly 
upon the extremities of other panes of the same shape, 
in opposite cells. These lodgings have ^aces, like 
streets between them, large enough to give the bees 
a free passage in and out ; and. yet narrow enough 
to preaerve the necessary heat. Tbe-mouth of every 
cell is defended byt-~a border, which makes the door a 
little less than the inside of the cell, which serves to 
strengthen the wht^e. These cells serve for differ- 

l;. L.oo^lc 

THE BEE. 97 

ent.purposes: for laying up their young; for their 
Vfot, which in wiater becoiqes a .part of their food ,- 
and fojc their hoDey, which makes their prtDcipal 

It is jrell known, tiitt the habitation of bees ought 
to be very close; .and what their hives want, from 
Ihe negUgence or unskilfubieEe of man, these ani- 
mals supply by their own industry : so that it is their 
principal care, when first hived, to ^p up all .the 
crannies. For this purpose they make use of a re- 
sinous gum. which la mOTe tenacious than wax, and 
differs greatly from it. This the ancienta called 
Propolis : it will grow consid«rabIy hard in June ; 
' though it will in s^me measure soften by heat ; and 
is ofLen found different in coosistencc, colour, and 
amell. It has generally an agreeaUe aiomatic odour 
when it is warmed ; and by some it is considered as 
a most grateful perfume. Whfen the bees begin to 
work with i^, it is soft, but it acquires a firmer con- 
sistence every day ; till at length it as»imes a brown 
colour, and becomes much harder than wax. The 
bees carry it on their hinder l^s; and some think ' 
it is met with on the birch, the willow, and poplar. 
However it is procured, it is certain that they plaster 
the inside of their hives with this composition. 
- If examined through a glass hive, from the hurry 
the whole swarm iajn, the whole at first appears like ' 
anarchy and confusion : hut the spectator soon finds 
every animal diligently employed, and following one 
pursuit, with a settled purpose. Their teeth are the 
instruments by which they model and fashion their 
various buihlings, and give them such symmetry 
and perfection. They begin at the top of the hive; 
and several of tfaem work at a time at (he c^, 

VOL. TI. It 

L, _ l;.G00g[c 


which have two faces. U they are stinted with 
regard to time, they give the new cells bat h^ 
the depth which tbey ought to have ; leaviDg them 
imperfect, till tbey have sketched out the number c^ 
(xlls necMsary for the present occasioa. The con- 
ftruction of their combs costs them a great deal of 
labour : they are made by insensible additions ; and 
not cast at once in a mould, as some are apt to 
imagine. There seems no end of their shaping, 
finiabing, and turning them neatly up. The cells 
for their young are most carefully formed ; those 
designed for lodging the drones are larger than the 
rest ; and that for the qneen-bee, the largest of all. 
The pells in which the young brood are lodged serve 
at different times for containing honey ; and this 
proceeds from an obvious cause : every worm, be- 
fore it is transformed into an aorelia, hangs its old 
' Am on the parlitiofis of its cell ; and thus, while it 
atrengtbeni the wall, diminishes the capacity of its 
late apartment. The sameceE, in a single summer, 
is often tenanted by three or four worms in sac- 
cession ,' and the next season, by three or four more. 
Each worm takes particular care to fortify the pan- 
nets of its cell, by hanging up its spoils there : thus 
the partitions, being lined six or eig^t deep, become 
at last too narrow fpr a new brood, and are con- 
Tierted into store-houses for honey. 

Those cells where nothing but honey is deposited, 
are much deeper than the rest. When the harvest 
of honey is so plentiful that they have not sufficient 
room for it, they eilher lengthen their combs, or 
build more; which are much longer than the former. 
Sometimes tbey work at three combs at a time; 
tor, when there are three work*bouses, more beea 

uiqiz.db, Google 

. xaay be Uius employed^ without embarrassing each 

But honey, as vras before observed, is not the only 
food upon ffhich these animals subsist. The meal 
of (lowers, of which their wax ia formed^ is one of 
their mcrat favourite repasts. This ia a diet which 
they live upon during the aammer; and of whidi 
they tay up a large winter provision. The wax of 
which their combs are made, is no more than this 
meal digested, and wrought into a paste. When 
the flowers upon which bees generally feed are not 
fully blown, and this meal or dust is not offered in 
sufficient quantities, the bees- pinch the tops of the 
stamina in which it is contained, with their teeth ; 
and thus anticipate the progress of vegetation. In 
April and May the bees are busy, from morning to 
evening, in gathering this meal ; but when the 
weather becomes too hot in the midst of summer, 
they work only in the morning. 

The bee is furnished with a stomach for its wax, 
M well as its honey. In the former of the two, their 
powder is altered, digested, and concocted into real 
wax ; and is thus ejected by the same passage by 
which it was swallowed. Every comb, newly made, 

.is white : but it becomes yellow as it grows old, and 
almost black when kept too long in the hive. Be- 
side the wax thus digested, there is a large portion 
of the powder kneaded up for food in every hive, 
and kept In separate cells, for winter provision. 
This is called, by the country people. Bee-bread j 
and contributes to the health and strength of the 
animal during winter. Those who rear bees, may 
rob them of their honey, and feed them, during the 
winter, with treacle ; but no proper substitute has 



. jiel been found for the bee-bread ; and widioiHi i^ 
the animals become consumptive and die. 

As for the honey, it is extracted from that part of 
the flower called the neclarium. From the moutb 
this delicious fluid passes into the gullet; and then 
into the first stomach, or boney-bag, which, when 
filled, appears like an oblong bladder. Children, 
that live in country places, are well acquainted with 
this bladder ; and destroy many bees to come at 
their store of honey. When a bee has suEBciently 
filled its first stomach, it returns back to the hive, 
where it disgorges the honey into one of the cells. 
It often happens that the bee delivers its store to 
some other, at the mouth of the hive, and flies off 
for a fresh supply. Some honeycombs are always 
left open for common use; but many others are 
stopped up, till there is a necessity of opening 
them. Each of these is covered carefully witfi wax, 
80 close, that the covers seem to be made at the very 
instant the fluid is deposited within them. 

Having thus given a cursory description of the 
insect, individually considered, and of the habita- 
tion it forms, we next come to its social habits and 
institutions; and, in considering this little animal 
attentively, after the necessary precautions for the^ 
immediate preservation of the community, its second 
care is turned to the continuance of posterity. How 
numerous soever the multitude of bees may appear 
in one swarm, yet they all ov/e their original to a 
single parent, which is called the queen-bee. It is 
indeed surprising that a single insect shall, in one 
snmmer, give birth to above twenty thousand young; 
but, upon opening her body, the wonder will cease, 
ss the number of pggs appearing, at one timej 

THE BEE. 101 

tunonnts to five thousand. This animal, Yvhoee ex-' 
ietence is of such importance to her subjects, may 
easily be distinguished from the rest, by her size, 
and the shape of her body. On her safety depends 
Uie whole welfere of the commonwealth ; and the 
attentions paid her by all the rest of the swarm, c?i- 
dently show the dependance her Bubjecis have upon 
her security. If this inEect be carefully observed, 

. she will be seen at times attended with a numerous 
retinue, marching from cell to cell, plsnging the 
extremity of her body into many of them, and leav- 

: ing a small egg in each. 

The bees which generally compose her train are 
thought to be males, which serve to impregnate her 
by turns. These are larger and blacker than the 
common bees ; without stings, and without industry. 
They seem formed only to transmit a posterity ; and 
to attend the queen, whenever she thinks proper to 
issue from the secret retreats of the hive, ivbere she 
most usually resides. Upon the union of these two 
kinds depends all expectations of a future progeny ; 
for the working bees are of no sex, and only labour 
for ttnoUier offspring: yet such is their attention 
to their queen, that if she happens to die, they 

• will leave off working, and take no farther cere of 
posterity. If, however, another queen is in this 
riate of universal despair presented them, they im- 
mediately acknowledge her for sovereign, and once 
more diligently apply to their labour. It must be 
observed, however, that all this fertility of the queen- 
bee, and the great attentions paid to her by the rest, 
are controverted by more recent observers. They 
assert, that the common bees are parents themselves; 
that they deposit their eggs in the cells which they 

I;. L.oogic 


hare pleated ; ^at the ferof^ are impregnated 
by the males, and faring forth a progeny^ wbiob is 
wholly Iheit* own. 

However, to go on witb their tiistory, aa delivered 
BB by Mr. Reaumur — When the queea-bee has 
deposited the number of eggs necessary in the cefisj 
Uie working bees undertake tbe care of the riiiiig 
posterity. Tliey are seen to leave off their bsubI 
employments, to construct proper receptedes for 
eggs, or to complete those that are alresdy formed. 
They purposely build little cells, extremely stjid^ 
for the young, in which they employ a great deal of 
wax : Ibose designed for lodging the males, as was 
already observed, ere larger than the rest ; and thoos 
for the qneen-beies Ihe largeM of all. Tfaere it 
UBuatly bat one egg deposited in evo^ cell ; bat 
when the fecundity of ttie queen is such, that if 
exceeds the number of cells already prepared, there 
ere sometimes (hree-or four eggs crowded togetba 
in the same aparlment. But this is an inoonve* 
nience that the working bees will by no nteaaa 
suBer. They seem sensible that two young eties^ 
stuBed up in the same cell, when they grow lasgM'^ 
will but embarrass, and at last destroy each other ; 
they therefore take care to leave a oeH to ev«'y 
egg ; and remove or destroy the rest. 

The single egg that is left remaining is fixed ta 
tbe bottom of the cell, and touches it but in a single 
, point. A day or two after it is deposited, the worm 
is extluded from the shell of the egg, having the 
appearance of a maggot roHed up in a ring, and 
lying softly on a bed of whitish -coloared jelly ; upoa 
whichatso the tittle animal begins (o feed. In tb« 
mean time, the inslaiR it appears, the frorlmig bcM 


attend it vith tbe most anKioos and parental t e B ^ c r- 
ness; tiiey farnieh it every hoar wiUi a mppty of 
tbis wbitish Enibstance^ on wbkh H feeds and Iks; 
and watch liie cell with Bnrenitting care. Tbej are 
nnraes tiiat have a g^%ater alfectioa for the ofsprini; 
of others, than many parents have for llieir own 
children. I^ey are constant in visiti^ each cf^, 
and seeing that nothing is wanting ; preparing the 
white miKture, which is nothing hot a composition 
of honey and wax, in their own bowels, witii which 
Ifaey feed them. Thus attended^ and ptentifnily 
fed, tiie worm, in less than six days time, cdmei 
to its fuU growtii, and no longer acc^ts 'the food 
offered it. When the bees perceive that it has no 
farther occasion for feeding, tbey perform the last 
offices irf tenderness, and shnt the little animal up 
in its cell ; walling up the mouth of its apartment 
with wax: where they leave the worm to itsetf; 
having secured it from every external injary. 

l^e worm is no sooner left inclosed, but, &om a 
fltate of inaction, it begins to labour, -extending and 
shortening its body ; and by this means lining the 
waHs -ef its apartment with a silken tapestry, vrhich 
it spins in 4be manner of caterpillars, befwe fhey 
undergo their last Hransformation. When their cefl 
is thus prepared, the animal is soon after "trans- 
formed into an anrelia; but differing from that of 
the common caterpillar, as it exhibits not only the 
1^, bat (he wings of tiie fature bee^ in its present 
state of inactivity. Thus, in about twenty or one- 
mod-twenty d^s after the egg was bid, the bee is 
completely formed, and flttedto undergo the fatigneft 
«f its state. When all its parts have actjutred their 
pn^ier 4tre«fth and ccHisisfeence, the young aniBii 

i=. t^.ooglc 


opens its prisoa, by piercing with its teetfi tbfe KraxM 
door that confines it. When just freed from ita cell, 
it is as yet moist^ and incomnioded with the spoils 
of its former situation ; but the officious bees' are 
soon seen to flock round it, and to lick it clean oe 
all sides with their trunks ; while another band, with 
equal assiduity, are observed to feed it with honey : 
others again begin immediately to cleanse the cell 
that has been just left ; to carry the ordures out i^ 
.the hive, and to fit the place for a new inhabitant 
The young bee soon repays their care, by its indus- 
try ; for as soon as ever its external parts become 
dry, it discovers its natural appetites for labour, and 
iodustrioualy begins the task, which it pursues un- 
remittingly through life. , The toil of man is iriuome 
to him, and he earns his subsistence with pain ; but 
this little animal seems happy in its pursuits, and 
-Sods delight in all its employments. 

When just freed from the cell, and properly 
equipped by its fellow-bees for duty, it at once issues 
from the hive, and, instructed only by Nature, goes 
in quest of flowers, chooses only those that yield it a 
supply, rgects such as are bairren of honey, or have 
been already drained by other adventurers ; and 
when loaded, is never at a loss to find its way back 
to the common habitation. After this first sally, it 
begins to gather the mealy powder that lies on every 
^ower, which is afterwards converted into wax; 
and with th|s, the very flrst day, it returns with two 
large balls stuck to its thighs. 

When bees first begin to break their prisons, there 
#re generally above a hundred excluded in one 
■4ay. Thus, in the space of a few weeks, the num? 
beirof the inliabitants in one bivei. of qiod««atefi«^ 

t«E BEE. 105 

4)ecome8 so gnat, that there is no place to contain 
.the new comers; and they are scarcely exchided 
Avm the celt, when they ere obliged, by the old 
bees, to eally forth in qoeet of new habitattODs. In 
either words, the hive be^ns to swarm, and the new 
progeny prepares for exjle. 

While there is room enough in the hive^ the bees 
remain quietly together ; it is necessity alone that 
compels the separation. Sometimes, indeed, the 
young brood, with gracdess obstinacy, refuse to 
depart, and even venture to resist their progenitors. 
The young ones are known by being browner than 
the old, with whiter hair ; the old ones are of a lighter 
colour, with red hair. The two armies are there- 
&>re easily distinguishable, and dreadful battles are 
often «een to ensue. But the victory almost ever 
terminates with strict political justice in favour of 
the veterans, and the rebellious offspring are driven 
•off, n<^ without loss and mutilation. 

In different countries, the swarms make their ap- 
pearance at different times of the year, and there are 
several signs previous to this intended migration. 
The night before, an unusual buzzing is heard in 
the hive ; in the morning, though the weather be 
soft and inviting, they seem not to obey the caU, 
being intent on more important meditations within. 
All labour is discontinued in the hive, every bee is 
' either employed in forcing, or reluctantly yielding a 
submission; at length, after some noise and tumult, 
a queen-bee is chosen, to guard, rather than con- 
dact, the young colony to other habitations, and 
then Uiey are marshaDed without any apparent con* 
daetor^ In less than a minute, they leave Umr 
ii*tiw Bhod^ 9Qd forming a ctoud round their pro^ 


tBCtren, Hbey let off, witliout Beenung to know the 
place of their deitin^imi ; He worid htfore them, 
where to ehoe^e their fdaee of rest. Tbe usiel time 
of swarming, is Smm Ha m the murniog to three 
in die afternoon, vrhen tbe sun dimes bright, aiul 
invites them to seek their fortunes. TJaeiy ftrtttr 
ioTAwbile, in the air, liice fldcesof^QOWjOnd some- 
tines undertt&e m distant journey, but more fre- 
i|aendy are contented wi<ii some neighbonring 
asjpfcim; thejiranch of a tree, a chimn^ top, (xr 
■one other exposed sitaation. It is, indeed, remariE- 
able, that all riiose animals, oi whatever kind, that 
have long been under the pnrtectian of man, eeeA 
to hiBe a part of their natural sagacity, in prwidiog 
for themselves. Tbe rabbit, when domesticated, Au*- 
geits ia dig botes, the ben to buM a -nest, ami the 
bee to seek a shelter, that AtA\ protect it from the 
iDclemencies of winter. In those ooanU'ies, where 
the bees are wild, and unprotected i^ man, they are 
always «mre to buiM their waxen oeHs in the hoRow 
of a tree ; but with us, -they seem improvident ia 
Aeir choice, and the first green bmneh that stops 
their flight. Mems to be thought nfficient for their 
abode through winter. However, it does not a^ 
pear that the queen chooses the place where tbeif 
are to alight, for many -of tbe stragglers, who seem 
to be [leased with a particabr branch, go and set- 
^e upon it; others are seen to snccxed, and at last, 
tiie queen herself, when she finds a sufficient num- 
ber there before her, goes to make it tbe place of 
her head-qnarters. When the queen is settled, Ibe 
rest of (he swarm soon follow ; and, in abo«t a 
■toarter of an hour, tbe whole body seem to be aft 
case. It sometimes is foand, that Ibeie are two or 

THE BEE. Iffl 

three fl[aeeoB to a STrarm, ami the colony is dJTided 
into partKS ; faat it roast nsuaUy happens, diat one 
of these 11 more cDnrnderabte thso the other, aad 
the bees, by degrees, desert the weakest, to take 
flbelter nnder tiit most powerful protector. Thede- 
serted qneea does not long nirvive this defeat; die 
takes refuge under the new monarch, and is soon 
citftroyed by her jealoas rival Till tiiia cruel exe- 
cution is perfbrmed, the bees Qever go oat to Mtcak ; 
and if there abonM be a queen-bee, belonging to the 
new colony, left in the old bine, «he always undcp- 
goes the liite of the former. HoweTW, k must be ' 
observed, that the bees never sacrifice any of their 
qneens, when tbebiveisfallof WEK-and boDey; for 
there h at that time no danger in laaifttainiiig a 
plurality of breeders. 

When the swarm is >thns conducted to a «la«e «f 
rest, and tlie pidicy of government is settled, tbebee^ 
soon resonie tbeir ftarmer labours. Tbe makiog 
cells, storing tbem with honey, impregaa^ng tha 
cpicen, making proper cells for the reception ef 
die rising progeny, and protecting thero from tx- 
tetnal dangler, erapkvy their UBceafflngindc^y. Bat 
soon after, and tomuds the latter end .of amnmer, 
when die celoay is Kaffioieotiy sterad with :iahaln-> 
tMits, a moat cracd policy ensues. The drone beea^ 
which are (as has been said) generally in a hive to 
(he number of a hundred, are marked for.^oghter^ 
These, i^Hch had hitherto led a life of indolence 
and pleasure, whose only employment was in im- 
pregnating tlie (jueen, and rioting upon Ibe lidDODm 
of tiw hive, without aiding in the general toil, ncrw 
riuffie tbefete of mo^ Tolnptnaries, and lalla laiwi^ 
fine to the geacaLraMUtinent «f sodety. 



The working beet^ in a body^ declare war against 
Hiem ; and in two or three days time^ the gronnd 
all round (he hive is covered with their dead bodies. 
Nay, the working beea will even kill such drones, 
as are yet in the worm state, in the cell, and eject 
their bodies from the hive, among the general car-. 

When a hire sends out several swarms in the 
year, the first is always the beat, and the most nu- 
merous. These having the whole summer befcffe 
tiiem, have the more time for making wax and 
honey, end consequently their labours are the most 
valuable to the proprietor. Although the swarm 
diiefly consists of the youngest bees, yet it is often 
found that bees of aU ages compose the multitude 
of emigrants, and it often happens that bees of all 
ages are seen remaining behind. The number of 
them is always more considerable than that of some 
populous cities, for sometimes upwards of forty 
thousand are found in a single hive. So large a 
body -may well be supposed to work with great ex- 
pedition ; and in ftict, in less than twenty-four hours, 
they will make combs above twenty . inches long, 
and seven or eight broad. Sometimes they will half 
fill their hives with wax in less than five days. In 
the first fifteen days, they are always found to make 
more wax than they do afterwards during the rest 
of the year. 

Such are the outlines of the natural history of these 
animals, as usually found in oiir own country. How 
they are treated, so as to produce the greatest quan- 
tity of honey, belongs rather to the rural economist, 
than the natoral historian ; volumes have been writ- 
ten OD the subject, and still more remuns, equally 


TffE BEE. fW 

CDrioos and liew. One Uiiag, however, it may be 
proper to oWrve, that a farm, or a country, may be 
over-stocked with hees, as with any other sort of 
animal ; for a certain number <tf hives always re^ 
quire a certain number of flowers to Eubsist on. 
When the flowers near home are rifled, then arc 
these industrious insects seen taking more extensive 
ran^; but their abilities may be over-taxed ; and 
if they are obliged, in quest of honey, to go too far 
from home, they are ovCT-wearied in the pursuit, 
' tbey are devoured by birds, or beat down by the 
winds and rain. 

From a knowledgeof Uiis, in somei»rts of Prance 
and Piedmont, they have contrived, as I have often 
seen, a kind of Boating bee-house. 

They have on board one barge threescore or a 
hundred bee-hives, well defended from the incle- 
mency of an accidental storm ; and with these, the 
owners sufler themselves to float gently down the 
river. As the bees are continually choosing th«r 
flowery pasture along the banks of the stream, they 
are furnished with sweets before unrifled ; and thus 
a single floating bee-house yields the proprietor a 
considerable income.^ Why a method similar to 
this has never been adopted in England, where w« 
have more gentle rivers, and more flowery banks, 
than in any other part of the world, I know not; 
certainly it might be turned to advantage, and yield 
the possessor a secure, though perhaps a moderate 

Having mentioned the industry of these admirable 
insects, it will be proper to say something of the 
efl*ectB of their labour, of that wax and honey, which 
^re turned by man to sudi various uses. Bees gather 

_ IV, Google 


tiro kinds of vix. one toarac and the other fine. 
Tht coarser sort it bitter, and with this, which is 
called prtpoUs, they stop up all the holes and cre- 
vices of their hives. It is of a more resinous nature 
than the fine wax, and is consequently belter quali- 
fied to resist the moiBtare of the season, and preserve 
the works warm and dry within. The fine wax is 
B» necessary to the animal's preservation as the 
honey itself. With this they make their lodgings, 
with this they cover the cells of their young, and in 
this they lay up their magazines of honey. This is 
made, as has been already observed, frtun the dust of 
flowers, which is carefully kneaded by the little in- 
■ect, then swallowed, and having un^rgone a kind 
of digestion, is formed into' the cells, which answer 
■uch a. variety of purposes. To collect this, the 
animal rolls itself in the flower it would rob, and 
thus takes up the vegetable dust with the hair of its 
body. Then carefully brushing it into a lump, witk 
its fore paws it thrustr the composition into two 
cavities behind the thighs, which are- made hke 
spoons to receive the wax, and the hair that lines 
them serves to keep it from fiilling. 

As of wax, there are also two kinds of honey, the 
white and the yellow. The white is taken without 
' fire from the honey-combs. The yellow is extracted 
by beat, and squeezed through bags, in a press. The 
best honey is new, thick^ and granulated, of a clear 
transparent white colour, of a sofl and aromatic 
smell, and of a sweet lively taste. Honey made in 
mountainous countries is preferable to that of the 
valley. The honey made in the spring, is more 
highly esteemed than that gathered in summer^ 
which last is still more valuable than that of av- 


tans, when tbe flomn bc^ to £ule and lose tbcir 

. Tbe bees ue nearly alike in all parts of the vnwl^ 
yet there are difierences worthy oar notice, in 
GuadakKipe, tbe bee is less hy ooe half than ^ 
EuropeaDj and tnott black and round. The^ have 
no stin^, and make tfaetr eells in hollow trees; 
w herCj if the hole they meet with ia too large, they 
Ibrm a sort of waxen house, of the shape of a pear, 
>nd in this they lod^ and store their honey, and 
lay their eggs. They lay op their honey in waxen 
vessels, of the size of a pigeon's egg, of a black or 
deep violet ct^nr ; and these are so joined together, 
tiiat there is no space left between them. The 
honey never congeals, but is fluid, of the consistence 
of oil, aod the colour of amber. Resembling these, 
tbere are found little black bees, withont a sting, in 
all tbe tropical climates ; and though these countries 
are replete with bees, like our own, yet those form 
tbe most nsefiil and laborious tribe in that part of 
the world. The honey they produce, is neither so 
nnpalalable, nor so Surfeiting as ours ; and the wax 
is so soft, that it is only need Cor medicinal pur- 
poses, it being itever found hard enough to form 
into candles, as in Eon^e. 

Of insects that receive the name of bees, among 
na there are several; which, however, differ very 
widely from that industrious social race we have 
been just describing. TheHumble-Beeis the largest 
of all this tribe, being as large as the first joint 
of one's middle finger. These are seen in every 
field, and perched on ev£ry flower. They build 
their nest in holes in the ground, of dry leaves, 
mixed wUfa wax tatA wool, defended with moas fhrni 



Oe milhw. Each buinble^MK makes a aqian^ 
ceH, abovt the size of a hdibU natmeg, ^trbteh i» 
nnind eod HoHow, containing' the honey in & biig'. 
Sereral of Itieie ceHs are joiaed togetiier, in tacfa-a 
manner, that the whtrie appears like a dnster-ef 
grepea. The feamles. which have the appearance 
of waspa, are very few, and their eggs are laid ia 
«cHi, which the rest soon corer ovor with wax. It 
is naoertaia vrhe^er they have a qoeen or not; but 
there is one mach larger than the rest, without 
.wings, and withoat bair^ and aU over black, -like 
polished ebony. This goes and views alt the woriu> 
from time to time, and enters uito the ceU, as if it 
wanted to see whether every thia^was done righti: 
in the morning, ihe yoang humble-bees aie very 
idle, and seem not at all inclined to Jahotir, till oaa 
of tbe largest, about seven o'clock, thiwts faaif its 
foody from a hole, designed for that purpose, and 
seated on tbe top of tbe nest, beats its wiDgs foe 
twenty minutes successively, buzziug the whole 
time, till die whole colony is put in motion. The 
humble-bees gather honey, as well as the commaa 
bees ; but it is neither so fine nor so good, qof the 
wax so clean,' or so capable of fuHon. 

Beside the bees already mentioned, there are vari- 
ous kinds among Hs, that have much the appearance 
of honey-makns, and yet make only vrax. The 
Wood-Bee is seen in every garden. It is rather 
larger than tbe commoa queen-bee; its body of a 
bluish black, which is smooth and shining. . It be- 
gins to appear at the approach of spring, Mid is seen 
flying near walls exposed, to a sunny aspect. This 
bee makes its nest in some piece of wood, which, it 
contrives toscoopandboUow.fortta:pui:poie. This^ 


. THE SEB. • iJS 

tiowvrcr, is Aevet done in treei tbtt ani «tendin£;^ 
for the wood iti owkcs choice d! is h^f rotten. The 
hiAoM are riot nwde dircftif forward, but turning 
to OM 'side,.iaDd. tiBvingui dpepipg suffi^ent to 
adtniCoAe'smUdle.fibger; frdm wheoce runs the 
iBBcr'apartment, generally tffelve or flfteen ioches 
loag-. The Instruments wed in brafSg these carir 
ties, are thieir tc^i the. cavity i> ;u«u&Uy braochc4 
into three or fonc apartoients ; and in each of thesf 
they lay-thtir eg§a; te the number of teor qr tvyelve, 
each sepanite and digliDCt from the rctrt, ,The «^ 
is involved in a 8ott:of paste, which sc^ve^at^c^ 
for Ham young ariJnal'a'pntBetHfh.iDBicl npiiri^Rient. 
Tbe,§jaawn bees/bo«:£vein feed ap0a4Jii«U ina^fn, 
{nrticnMrly a hNrie, of il reddish ihroiru . coloufj of * 
the me cf a sdiall pin's inad. 

Maaon-Bbes make their edliwi^ aMrtofmort^i^ 
nadfe -of earth, which they, bufU against a wqll th# 
is exposed to die mn. > :The niotlw, which at first 
is soft, siDOBbccqnihsaehard.tis Mone^ ^»k^ in 'ttits 
tiieir eggB are kid: Each nest coalains seven or 
eight ceUs, an e^ ia trery coll/.^alMd regularly 
one over the other. If the nest remains uph^^tJ.Qf 
mats bat little repautli they make dm of them the 
year enaaiag : aad Uius ttiey often . se^ve thre<e or 
fonr years snccessively. From the strength of their 
boases, one would think these .bets in pwfept 
■ecarity, yet hone are more exfioeed.than tbeyi. 
A worm wiUi very atrong teeth, is of^n found 
to hove into their fitde foriificdtions, uid devosr 
their yooog. 

The Oraund-Bee bailds its nest in the eartir, 
wherein they nnke round hcdes, five or six iachjS^ 
deep ; the mcmth being nonowj and only just suffi- 

TOl. VI. I 

L, . l;,L.OOg[c 

^Ml A tttmOttV OF 

which they hboor. Tlief cnvf <oirt sAj/ttar^Mtfaj 
grain by gra\n, to the rnooUi of the bole. wb«re it 
fomu a IHtle hillock, an Alps compared to the 
power of the artist h^ which it ii laiied. Sone- 
tiraes the walks of a garden' are foand undermined 
hy their labours ; some of the holes mnning directly 
downward, otben Horizbntany beoeath the aarface. 
They lay np in Uiese caTitiei prorisions for thur 
^Hg, t^Wdh «MttMe£a'faMe.lhat4ai^]ie^ptiS 
\Mt «f OMW, and i» of »aw<alidi trntmri ■nae.JS'Mi 
'■'■nnti Le«f-«Mtiiig':Bw»:UMfa» tbdriiibt ^idlia^ 
tiieir ^s^'anwagc bila '«f. *lcm«i, nryi.utifi<M% 
^c«d>in h»lM 4a IIm esA, of about'tbe:Mmtfetf 
% tooih'pick caas. ^^^bey onka tbe bM a0 Umnlar 
ii Tbandisb livn, ffid^wMh thaai- UM' tba Inaidiuar 
Ibeir bfd>ilatioils; ' ThiR tspieiM^iBatiUiAicllMviliMal 
hj a leddMi kind laf'pastBy io»awhat aweckonMU 
These bees are ni varioas kinds ; those that InW 
tteb^nestswitb chesiMMMaek aieai fa^ ^ dil5Bea, 
%at Uiose of the row'tiea are smaller thandtfaa 
'tiemnHm bee. > . - i -uiv Huii 

"'The Welt^Bees are bo oJled because tbcy^iidR 
^err nbsts in walia^ of a^kjnd of silky membraneni^ 
Minch tbe^'fillvp Ae vacuKies b^ween dielHnail 
«tone^ which forathe sideaof their habitation. VEMr 
'(^Vtment consisls of several celli, {^aced.ead loetu^ 
iMfA in the shape of a woaian's tfatmUe. Tboagli 
tbe web ^iti»di lines this habitatMo istbtck wmi 
warm, yet it is transparent and of a wbitisfa a>lotiR 
^Tnto^ substance is apposed to' be span from the 
^satmal's body ; the males and females are-of aaiaVj 
iMt'^Httiftnwtr are without a sting. ToL^^ese.-ienaK 


■iuci»iM«ft <liKr«Miii)ia|tM»sMiM<ol<>{Si^§iyif 

'\'""''' .■-^•' •- "" -trao'^s!-' ■;■ ,■ ■r!-.,M3 
S(i/ (f' v. rftiin'.. mj[/. np ,;;-. ;i -.. »■ v f gfii-, .i 

i..-.n.'; i.i... ■■..J-,; V«i*ftr.i<y^l I: >;i, ,, ^.ii »,„,„, 
^.'■; I--' :jn;i ■[■■■■- s^'tji •)[;; "ina'iio' ■*{ f»!a, -:■'!.- .'! 
.•:i'Tiii. •i'.: il'H!.-aaP/jSift(H!MI-»i3aii- ii-sswum:, 
l^i^' 1, . ^iWii':'imq miil';Bi -lao;! ;ii .|'I 7';; -r'.. ■ 1': 

-M^WK>S&;<inil*>fiMtBiiiMiiU m|lke;ii),iigr 
pearance, tlw'jkMiiMtviairltii *i lj|lNliMd« ta ^v 
^tU>igtj>3!li<ulM» MUitlw»«Ri^illl|t>ll«'4»c))|((iier 

finiiMwi iMiiwUstqtilitlltiMtil* ,{IMmni,>«|qi«llir 

fclimaas— r(icly»»iiniWn<c[irtia» ltMlKJnM>iM«l 

. !Fta6 Waffjl v^niy 4n«iaiitn4»,aittiii«iwl. iiwMt 
lRtii'iKjBtiii^^;::to-]M iMger'in flpplvtii^iltoijil^ 
boifc thao the bee, to be marked with.b«ig^?]iellqy 
ardonnn4it> bbd^jnidJo be tbeniwVtnittaiid 
ictmnintabaf aUitbe fl;:kjiid. .Qtcewbiidsorito 
SMHth'tbis aninal iBifaraisheA ^itb a .lttng.lw4)(, 
nelidbedlike a saw^i md with tlie6fi;it:i8-«ll(tU«d.te» 
jCut'Miy sab«taa«e,. oot enuUiog ineatiMfx SMklto 
^URyjit to ite.oest. ■ Wmiw Jin like b^f in fjw^ 
inanitji, and Boaetimefi iem or twelve ttou^toil «Tv 
ioDnd.iababitinff:a iJDgle ncati , ^ .-,' 

Of .all other insects the WMp is tbe.nutet fierce, 
.voradoiw^andaiastdaDgerotuwbeneanged. Tb^ 
■TCtaeeairiievever.fleih ia eitttiDg.up, gargingtbefli- 

:=b,.Goog[c . 

ilt A HISttoHY OF 

teheff with Oief sptfit. tmi then flying to ihtuf nMM 
Vitb their reeking prey. They make ito» alw i« 
e¥ery otber fly. and the spidtr binself dreiuito tbeir 

Every community among bees ia composed of 
females or queens, dr^nesor^maleB, and neutral or 
working bees. Waspa hate sfmilar occupations ; 
the two first are for propagating the species, the 
last for nursing, defending, and supporting the 
rising progeny. Among bees, however, ther^ jp 
tqldam abpve a queen or two in a Iif^e^;>' atainl; 
-wafps tb«i« are abova.two ot Ant hontlr^ 

As soon » tfce snivtmet begins to invigora|e:^^ 
inseet tribe6,'the wasps are the raos^ of the nnmltier]; 
and dillgentiy employed eifber in procotw^ pio^ 
ii«n«t|t>r:thar neist, if alr<»dy ma(de, er M n^ckii^ 
ttne, if- the former t^fcitation be too smaH to reeelind 
the increasing, comnmnity. l^enesC is one «f tiM 
iDOst carious objects iq oalnrQl histt^yy and oontriTed 
almost as artificially as that of the bees themsdVeB^ 
Their priaeipol care is to seek-out a hole- that bqs 
been began li^SQine other animal, a field tnMsb^tC 
tat, ot a {pole, to boild their nests in. They sotnel 
times baild upon the plaki, where they are sure «< 
the dryness of their situation, iMit most romdioaly 
on the 4ide of a bank, to avoid the rain or VMtev 
tbat woald otherwise annoy them. When tbiey-haffe 
chosen a proper place, they go to work with wotide]^ 
tisiduity. Tlieir first labcmr is to etilai^ ahd wtd^A 
tiie bole, taking away the earth and carrying it off 
to some distance. They are perfectly formed foir 
labour, beiog furnished with a trank above tlieir 
mouths, two saws on each side, which play to th4 
ijghtaud left against each other^ eod six stpocg iQHS<« 

THE WASf. ■ 3!T 

Cular )iega to support them. Tbey cot the earth tet^ 
small parcels with their saws, and carry it out wit^ 
their legs or pews. - This is the work of some days j 
.and at length the outline of their hahitation is formed. 
mafcin^ a cavity of about a foot and' a half evierjr 
way. Whil6 some are working in this manneri 
ethers are roving the fielcte to seek ont meter iais for 
tteif bwldtng. To prevent iht earth from felling 
ddwn and crashiAg ttieir rising dty into ruin, tbc]^ 
0)^8 a -soiit joS roof with their gluey substance, to 
iwhich ithey begju .to fix 'the rudiments of their build- 
ing, woritlng from the top downwards, as if tfaey 
were. hanging a bell, which, however, at length they 
close up at'the bottom. The materials with which 
Ihey' build their -nests, are bits of -wood and glue. 
The wood th^ get, where they can, from the 
fails and posts they meet widi in the fields and 
elsewhere. These they -saw and divide into a mul- 
titude of small fibres, of which they take up little 
bundles in their claws, letting ffdl upon them A few ' 
idrops of gluey matter wherewith thetr bodies are 
provided, and by the help of this they knead the 
whole compoekion into a pa^te, which serves them 
in their fiiture building. When they have returned 
Aitii this to the nest; they stick their load of paste 
An 'that part where they make their walls and parti- 
tions ; they tread it dose with their feet, and trowel 
k with their'trunks, still going backwards as they 
woA. Having repeated this operation three or 
four times, the compnaition is at length Hatted out 
until U becomes a fimallleaf of a grey colour, modi 
finerthan paper, &ndof aipretty firm texture. This ' 
^one^-ihe same wasp TOtuhns to the field lo coUect 
asecoad load of paste, repeating tbe'sameaevend' 

every ps/titipn in proportion to tb^.wantB'(dF^n>i^ 

cotpe .guicbly after (6 rt<{fetff''if)^ 'Wm^^o^ifett^^ 
jMiqjf" /nore^eHves upon (he''foi*mer,^tiU'lit 'Itti^ttfe 
after jmiich toil, they haVe flhifiltftflllrt'la^i «i!(f 
which is to 'secure theKi frbni the tumbltti^'tn'tff"Qi« 
Wrtlx. lii'is ^ome'b^iil'^ finfehefi; th^>«SSk%'&JiC^ 
ther entrance t6'th'eir1iabit{tti^h,^eB}giled''(^et'ftfr 
lettii^ m The warmth' b^the'sfln; or'Sr%Scii^fH|'% 
case one door be Invade J' 'by 'phin<lCT*h.''''€fci«Hi 
however ' it . V' ' ^at "by A\ie' 'of thesti HM^ «*«^ 
ept^r, by^itlie otller ttfe*y fetty foiWi toffi^!?tfcj^ e^tfti 
^lio|e beine 80 VrnallHfi^tJtb^jr can pas«'bht'i6lle'rf4 
,4im^f^''^^e walfs^'bein'^ tihris' tfeitijKlaed.'i'aikr'^ 

/y!^oj^Vpmewifirf'bf the elfepe of 
"utth^ir cell8j^wH}f|h flbe^'cbthji^se of tVi eA'ttlis'^ti^- 
jike Bubstence'tbatgoeti^tl) Ihil'fortnation of ihi'«iift- 
. 81^. woriw.,' Their cbm^s di^er fromihos^'df be^, 
^iipt"|e».'in the.corrtpositiptt the posStitiM'^WlWh 
^..theya^e always seen to oBti^n.'l^^hon'^y-'coWAiof 
, t)ie btic iii^edffewayfVift'respett t& thei hive ,•" "ttitat 
.'^bf l^eijvasp isBaf, an^t^e iboWthof every cdl'ti]^i6fas 
'Idoiygvmrai.- ^^liu's is 'their' h'kbitatibn 'cbfitri^fctf, 
j:.p^^, pboye 'i6iy,"support^'d by' seve^ irmi df '(Al- 
^;ian,,ivl|icli'giye'firmnestf ^ die whf^e bttiMfirg, 
J "jwM^ tli^'p^per Btory is flat-robf^d;'!atid irf^mbdth 
^ ^'tbe'{H4v|n»:iU of ^ room; laid with 'sqnareA-'of 
, Tpa|tWe.V TThe'Vasps^carif freely walk irttfion' ilj^ 
.atones Wweea~'t)ie 'pillai^j to do whatever 'tteir 
.,, mnto ri^iiire. TTIie pillars are very hard and ootn- 
^'pu^/b^Tig larger at eacli end than in th^ bir^EBe, 
^^pot much "unEke (he'cbluniilB of a buttdide.''''%U 
" ihe cdls pf the' lieit a»: oiiiy ' Je^hed for Ui^ recep- 


- THS WA£f. \^^ 

?»«Wiflft|Sft-»9'»»«' Iwiiif replete w|tb n«|ber m«^ 

.,..J^li;^.u U^0.fbat of ,% })ee, hexa^opal ; but 

ibey. ftfe. «f two mrti, the one krger,, for the' pt©^ 

4n^n ftffA^ jai/tk an4 female waapa, the othef 

'hivC foe, theiJroceptioB of the working part oF the 

«^MQBinniity. Wben tjbe feoiales. are impreraiated 

l|^,|;he:mal^i they layUitiregKa^ofteialeach cell, 

^4 rUc^ jt in with ^.kJDd,<^ gummy matter to 

,|ir«v«at. il^.^Kioig put. .From this egg proceeds 

,tb4-i0^ctinii«.i^priii. ttate» of wbi|Ch the old ones 

ace.'^tn^fiely sarefal, f^dipg il from time to time 

4iU. it. hvtmineq.J^figej and entirely, iilte op its cell. 

;Qttt l^rvycuip commuqi^y . differs £ram that of t^e 

,>pet ja^ttiiB, i^t^png; the laMer tbe wooing bees 

• t^m. t^e^rental duties jipou tl^ei^iVbereatiMbong 

.^itftwftspi>.the.£cmalf{! ^Qne a.r^ pemiitted to feed 

.t^eir. ywing^.^nd .to purse .l|i^ir, rising progeny. 

^'WrtlMI- .purpose, jthe lejqai^le . w^b with grf^ 

,;|if(*j^we/iiU tb9 vorkiqg Vasps havje brouj^t la 

, th^ provjs^q^.whi^ ^e takes from tbeni/acad 

t,m^ H^P- PHi|C^< 3.^^ i^f^ljep^. wi^l gi^t' "^om- 

^.IitOttine. fcom^e!^ to cell,,9nd fee^d everjr vo^ng 

,jqve with ,hipr atonA.. JtVhen U»e youM wotjou 

j^»Te cone -t^^a peitein size they lef re off ettting^ 

aii4b«gia^i»^8piD,a.very fine filkjftxui^ ttie first 

-end to. ,t^ ^tiin<;e oj^iihe ceH; ^^ turijiiig.'their 

bfi9d^ ^rs^.o;) ooe sij^e^then'^ontlie oilier, they fix 

. (be tJu<M Jtodiffefen^ par^^, and thi]i.^i6y.hiaR^ ft. 

-. wrt pC,a,d9or:,w^chBei;ye8 to close iip ^e ^oiitb 

-«(f.tij)?.c^. ,.Aft^,(bi8jlJi)^Hive4flf>e"^ 

f]^ a^V,,t^e.;pfi^%l,iT1ipd^';0nransfoi-E^^ Ibe 

^urelia by, degrf i^s iKeins, t(> Emancipate itsetTrMm 



aoS^o^si «n^ihistfnstMy«cqwreB:ttte<vcafeM)aili 
shape of ks parent. i .5 

The frcHp tfaus Jarmbdj and pMpamd ibr depttn 
dation, bccviHeea bold, troublcWHBe,«^daDfpcroa» 
insect : t&ere- are no dangeni ■ whidi it wiU not en*< 
eoi^nter'in parniit of its prey.ancl notfimff »cein»^ 
mttateits g^ttony. Tfaoagh it c«b gather no botmy. 
of HsoTvn, no animal .is more fond of Bwrestsi Pop 
thia parpose U will pamie the 4>ee and thehamUe- 
be«j destroy th«mwith its sting, and: then plonder 
them of their hoDe}'-bag, with which it flies tri- 
ifinpfaBntly loaded to. its nest'to re|;ale 'it« yoing*. 
Waupa are ever food of making their nesta^'in tbo 
Beighbourbood of bees, merely to have as opportaf> 
nilj'ofroblHng their liivet, and feas^ig ob tfaesptnlb 
Yet the bees are'ROt fonnd always patien%' sdi? 
missive to their t]rranny,'bDt'fierc«bBtlleBaffe&fHD&i 
times ^een to enwe, in which the bees make up U^ 
condnct aiid numbers what tftey-want-si pomnnal 
prowesa. When there is no hoaey to be Imd, they 
seefc for the best and sweetest frnits, and they m 
never mirieken in Uieir choice. ' From the garden 
they fly. to the city, to the grocCTs shc^s, «Bd 
butchers shauibles.- They will soroetHnes carry tM 
bits- of flesh half as big as themsdvee, with vrhiA. 
tliey f)y to their nest for the tiourishmect (rf* tbeiK 
brood. Those who cannot drive tliemaway, lay to» 
them a piece of ox's liver, which being widiont 
fibres, lhey'prefert6 other flash; and wbeoever th«|r 
are fonnd, all other flies are seen to desert tbeplaof 
immediately. Sucb^ is Ibe dread with nhich thea* 
Ihtle animals impress all the rest Of the insect Utlxn» 
which (Hey soise and devouri wiUiout meiVy, that 
they vanish, at: theirappnmoh. WheieVct diey %> 

THBi WA-SP. m 

M^ dK>'fligl0.or the Mwrn (Key fofn tcafesprt in 
the. air aroond tiiem. In thi< raanner Ae BoMnnr ii 
yamm i ia plmdsrHi^ IkemeighboHrbeody amtntarijig 

and freta tiieb ttrntigthj afj^ity/ and mtUwriioiMte 
■^petite for er^ryi kuid ef proviiiMt -^nte ibey eD 
loi^iJiTed OB tin hee; tfaey would BotAt turarm B{H>a 
dttJiHce of natare, aitd becoiBe the ttt»t nbxknUI 
plagMC. of' miB : .iMit 'pTPw Jtafa lly thetr lives «nf 
meBnwfdtO' their misohwf,aDdttbegr1We iMtniinghi 

While theieannier heats contintie, tjtejr aw bold^ 
vwradoufli and eAtsrpHsiDg'! birt"ai-d)e sun wiUh- 
dvaw^ lit aeema'to'vob then of tbmr coovage and 
activity^- In |Mrtiportian< as the cold incMttBeBj tliey 
MK Been to-beeome'^mortt'doiMfltic; tiiey «ddoni 
loEve'tbtttneet, 'they tnakebut short adrentiHes froA 
bMiHV tb^ifliitter:about in the noon-day beats, and 
woD-efiberTetarii d^ed and feeble. 

Ak .their '«aktni^8' increase; 'new passions soon 
baf^nto^taks' place; the carefor posterity Bo-long;er 
csQtiaueft, anditB the parents.ere no longer' aUe to 
provide' ibeir growing progeny a supply, they fafce 
tbe barbarous resolution of aacrificifig tkem all- to 
lite neceksity of tbe^limes. In this itianner, like a 
garrison upon short allowance, all tbemeksBhsadk 
are destroyed; the yoang worms, whir^ a litUe be- 
fiire diey £ed'wid protected with ecraaoh asaidaitjr, 
are titm Initchered and dragged from ;their eeHs. 
As Uhe'oald increasra^ they nolonger ftod sitf eieat 
warmth in their nests, which grow hateful to Stheai, 
and Aey fly to seek it in the eomen V bouses, aod 
fdaces that rec^ve an ertifieiat he«t; • Aut tlie 
wintisr w Mitt iaa«pp<H<tabl« ; m(L> before ike > a/em 


' Itatt UktiMtniooR MHimii^, tnii i»n)i. of: tk* 
ftliralM twffDffinipimdle ^oeral otduift]F»-. . ' fai KVClQt 
nCMiKlluMfitK^xoneoiir/ tro. ftmilai >iiinrillei'4h« 
«l*ter, and fairiDK tee* iml^e^Mnl b)! tke Hale 
lc;4iwi«ggic mA MlbiMe>of tur totnt tmbliWMB 
VhllPtxMdIinifKgiapiirriiidi » «lc«fk:r«i<t<igellnr 
Mm( ;ni[M, !><Jini$ra<iiiEMati» ^mms^^kidi! Jbe 
iMlu<ll«ikMi{iiteparprel>>illisi Mt'dcAHii W|d «iiDr 
'^y, ^d tMK lAMnaliitefaBd a(iDD-,^pife^Maidto)u»)t0 

tkDse aliiocigiAaril% s«kiaglli»(«ilMM«)illMn»!l>fl» 
niitionh»^dstiw>iD<lnKhtliaiMnl beoi^iHliiff- 

-twoii»>ra)lnataBitii4iDiappeiulKi«e rtltkNft if ilkfRVgifr- 
hlrfitji i^ij^ja>y>ibci|MMlaj;ir«i|iife D»(itMitikBf 
'it» every etll^i^ifMMBlmiad llMK«(inutl0j .'.Tkwip 
stfcm-flfterkcctnMtbRn^rftihlqnb^ $f«n;49iD|^ 
fevfelsj ten(tiiaaMEnd'WMprii*»<}we«f|w«lMfHt^ 
txfMemaa'bteflimtf.atAfUll lllln&MM»,ta»4W 
(iro(t»ted'JieF(spregto5r>;which' ift^idjfilritf^^ifp 
4h» middls'itf 'sriaimdpf 'hoA^irgviAe .fet-tl^eMsf^ies 

^the -lav^- ariA- boBipMdiquatifaaW^tMQii^vbiflb.iliaf 
'been dtsiiribedrabovtt :ii>ii :'!;;,. , , i-.t f,^f,m 
>'< gach'WilK kBUn^qTflM liKitK,*iw||tiiw^>ai 
anowgbecfe^ 'HPa)a«^on9,Ul«l«jiastdta,rllwW)are 
Vftrioal llibea alai IJMitin «pli1«de4) these bytlhtir 
eg|;l in a hc^ ^ ifafe fmspoMt' and thf);pBI)Wtt<fli«« 
l6Bg beforotlK UrthnflitsoSipriilf . iiIa.llMpriaa- 
pal apecietof tbeSolitary Waqa,4h«iMBCtlif«aallcr 

:1teB the workingwatp.Ae:t]iemQcJ«d;k)ril). rTtl^iila- . 

^nUit, fcynMch liiemmlet.K jainMtoitteBbody* » 


t4we illMItr t Uacixr 4NUi in^heisnUaiHll'kiwIa. 
gwrttM natURV figimi lot Itg iinninni>r:«hR«» 
«^l4Jiia(^iBlinitt4liat)^iin oar principal ttgnnlo 

Ah «wlt>ciiriw«i^ njest diUgenll; <Bplaj«il: 1!lK 
«li»to pul'lHMe'sf iM Ufe M«w« 'be in rnnbiniiit 
Mld'''fitti^ «|^'& wtduntMUoai «pBrtin«i tar Ht 
<y<Miii^'^«e,'«Hdi nrlnMUaamnlit tHI Ikejmir 
enMitig*. ^Fer tMi «wl -itia enployed, ividi 09- 
'ireaHed ti>i(i<%, in MiogB hah iiit» the fliMtt 
aurth' MHUeilMb<»ideep, tet not niwh wider tbu 
"tfn^lMatltervdtf o«tthe4|f. Hhiiiiibiite gaOoy 
IMiiii^le • trMeniArtBRili ^nthcd <<» IHe oni- 
-Venlcnt h^f^jit of iti^mnit^ i Avitehnyi cbooset 
-M'gtuWllyi Mil 4a iirofk'in, mni where ithe eirUi is 
^auioiciiatu'l -m aKmeteeir, the Aggia; and hel- 
lawifig iMii'tfklitiaMkt ia aa eatetpirlzi! of no laiaU 
<itlll»ff<*li> Skettag its u f uali ana, this insect is 
MirMthMwIlhtiroleclhi iriadtaiealrongand lira, 
biit bM saadmlly hattf to {tenUnle the sshataaee 
tbiioegM which it is reiolTttd- to aahe its way : m 
larder thevefere to softea thabearth wliich itis ub- 
-ahte OK plelve, il isiiiMiialiedJwiAagiuamjr liqaer 
which it enitl'^eft4beplaee;iaiid which rcisders nt 
more easily sepanble fnwi thenst, andthe whole 
heeesUcg a kind «C s^'^pasi^ia icawred i» tlie 
"nmatk of th*'hahilBtiaK':''^haaniiDal'*.pfsvi«iea 
lor^'liqaor'in tbne'ih^pentiasS k.ftbweter soonea- 
MaHMd ; alfft il'is then'iiaai tdkia^ ^I'Valer eitiMr 
'ft<tNtt;Batlie'Deigtabapthig)fltiwdnarflthe»in)i[l «rder 


- i'tftAt lenj^jHsSer'injatllf'lefl/ a Jiole sontf^iMles 
t'dee^ <iaj«tniu^.at) thetettamrof'iaMiih.'it a hif c 


m A mstOEY t)F 

-a»rtty;t«&d to Ibk -DO otber hostile iR)Jbct"4roifM 
TtHtAye to find its way, from the lesgOl and th<i 
mrrMMMcdl-oritie defile through wbibh it wtouM-M 
bUigMtCfr^an; !tt this tie solitary irtrsp Jdys Ms 
B^,' 4vhithc'9B destined - to cbatinue the aperies ; 
tb^e {few*>AbBUefit ftmBisil-ia Id contrnue ror«b64lr 
jk«nriti«MbS) nntfieiMbd BDd'immnred, and at feret 
flp^vatvhee the niost -helpless insect of the creation^ 
Bat wbea we come to esunine, new wonders offtr 7 
tto' other imect can boast eo coplooaly luxurious «. 
proviaion, or 'im^i-coirfinnecf security. 
' ArsooB » the tuotheo-tw^basdepositedbar-^^ 
•1 the bottom of'tBe hole, ber ne^ care ift.t« foft-' 
hMi it friA a «npp)y of ^rovtsiotis, which rmiy^ 
«tferedt94fafe ybaa^ htflectfis soon as it I^areE^ iSii^ 
*SS- '^IhJrfod' she procures a tAimber't^KtBif 
l^reeo vovms, geDeraJly frooi etgfat to iwdve^ iihi' 
tiHse Kre>to serve'as food for the yoQng i^ne 4ll^ Hjt' 
4tmi^it awakens into life. Whea M* sopp^ft'i'tfl^ 
i;ulBiiy airangod'snd'laidinj the old QCfe tfaeit^- witB - 
fti ■much asuduHy as it before W(»^ed'oatifS'hiEtl^'' 
■ow doses tliemoDth of (be passage^ and tbMka^ 
lag its young oae imnmred in perfect security, tei 
in a copiousaupply of animal food, she dtessatisfied- 
■with hawng provided for ff firtnrc progeny. ' 
■ When the- young oEteleatesttKe^ it is scarcely 
idiiMe, aod is seen inunured emong a number of 
iosectoyinOnitely larger than kaelf, rdnged in proper 
4«der«P0ttiid itj which, httwever, give it nomanitef < 
d appieheomen. Whether the patteht, when akC 
- laid m the insect provision, costiiVed to disable Uiis 
worms from resistance, or whiter they were at firaC ' 
icKapable of any, is notikriown. Certain it is, (hM ~^ 
the youi^ glattoD feasts upon 'the liywgspwtwitfl'-t' 

L, _ l;..L.OOglC 


tnA any edatml; fats gtundlies at;ki>« himil, nod 
^0 dev^[RH« one afl«r the o^et as tb«! oaKs of ap* 
petite incite bim. Tbe Wh-^t the foiuig alnimal ia 
tbeFelWe>iqi9nt ia the - molt luxnyietiB nmiiMr, )tiU 
ttB'Vt^oIe it«^ of worms is e^MUHted,' mhm tbe 
titDoofJt9'»MMformBtion>begtMle«ppwacl»; and 

CfeU'lill-tb« *q,n;<ca]l»4t ^#odi ite^'Ctaikabode tfte en- 

■ . :Thfi'iMi^«ofifi}HWp«>ietei«Uiynittbi«v«iW| ydt 
ti^ar^ioMMMc* itifelf iiwben^oitipatied-totlMte Af 

tM«i«irij^iH«iiit»0a«, bte -lai^i VMWiloit^^'aiid'fe^i- 
maA^i9l^m''itil%-aa^t codioioft-bde ) nfMy-at^ nf 
»gii^ calwr,.4^ed-witti 74dj|>w> -mid 4iHWid Witt 
^. T^rjF dwgemai^ Mlhg<<Th<7 taake iMirciSim 
iit nanluu; oC « kdncyMi^ io which tiie youn^ 
4(U!afi»}]HNtdMd «ad^r«d. Hthay geiteralfy'ban; 
thcar twitt' l)y-tbiieEkI«^ amffiU4 of the Bam^'subi 
flaniie^vilii-tihteoelk. totbelxandi<d-^-t{^esj atid 
the«rre«.«(,.li<HMee. They are feen «nrery whem 
ia great abtttulanoe, deaeeiidio^ like frait, parting 
If^ly paatt> of- which -ihape they are^ aadaaiarge^ 
Qius'9 head. The iaside ie divkied info tbi«6 found 
stoiSeftj filti of cellsj ^ch hexagonal^ like tbosei of A 
^oneyatmh. Inswae of the- Ulaadaj then iniecte 
are 40 very nSmorotiij that their nests are stuck up 
in this manner, scarcely two feet asunder, and the 
iobabilaats are in continual apprehension froni tbeir 
accidentfd resestment. It sometioies happens, that 
no precaations can -prevent their attacju, and the 
pain of their sting is almost insupportable. Those 
vbo bave felt it, tfaiok it noiore terrible than avoQ that 

: IV, Google 


of a koortiictn ; the whole Tuage tw^j and the 
features are 80. disfignredj thatapenoa ii scarcely 
kaowti by bis moat intimate acqaaiatBDce. 

(^The Saad'TTB^ ia found upon warm Mnd-banks, 
and IB distinguiriied from vA^n of its tribe^ by the 
abdotnMi being separated from the tbotaz byakmg 
stalk ;' aOi by ttw shortneM of it« wmgt. 
. ^' I. obtefvied one of them/' says Bfr. Buy, 
" dra^ng a green cateipiUar thrice its owsnw.;: 
ilblaid<;thiBido*o; Hoat themMtbof aJisntifr thit 
itbsd mule in- ihetgnmi i - ^Mta weamimgm Wit 
balLaf earthy with nlfaick it,bBd«rNvM^lkeianfiay 
it intwentdewttiitsd^ •ttdnA>rii(«fiBg»dMtt 
time ^Ketumedj, aadiseisiiig die- nstfrfptlhrr a^at 
drew/ititowiiiridLlMi.> TbeB.Ie»nhgit4MKi^ it 
f$3ma tqtyaadtaking'BMiQ fidk tglfdnte af eMih} 
rotted them oiffil:^:oflfrti«t6! tilt hunwv furngmff 
thedmt in bjs intenrab wMk Ito tee>fwly( i»->lfc» 
iMuuicr of a dogtt^ thus titeniattty i)riliBg<ii flieon 
of earthj and acrapiug indnst, till the hole wu4bllj 
sometimes goiiig^awo, aaitiseeMied td)iii(b4o>prefli 
dairn the caxth ; and ouce ortariceiflyiagtoiato 
tree which grew'noar, perhaps to get tupeptmeid 
^e it down, aml-n»Ju it Arm. The hole -bei*^ 
filled, uMl-eqaalledwitk Jtbe «ir&£e of the'cartlij 
Aat its entfaoce au^mOt lK^iBcoRcSr*d> it toofa tsrtf 
fir leavn'tfaafwcfe near, and fauLtfaem by tbemootU 
oflheden, BKutpvafaablytofliaifclfaefface."} ^ 

: IV, Google 


arJ Lnfl ^tlfowa ^-^Bff .liort y 'ti'.J ;. a'-'iioi?. n w 

-oanaliv eiij,'06 9J(ioi.j"' ■''' ■ i •'■-'. ■vu-i 
.BJffsdbnse wxaw fiO(]0 bdiH^f,! qi'i.ff "in : ■>■■ ■ , 

; Jiirf nwo »ll Sai'iiii "MJI'^p U;: --'.y^'r J -* 7,r; .;'Ji i; • 

lEiVfiimifcbvnktAiiQmiaj ban yinMlMBtsoevtr> 
hbat •i ipu iiwi A itffa U iiiMi ilptftfcmt ahdrtbrt re* 

Ihariinifpriie^MrflHllnirrfVhftJfMap^ u wabave aeeni 
iara^ MU^famncstft ifpi^iaiidTeryi^ifonDidtble to 
th^MMbdi ^{iln«<^3>BbiU(fe icfaoimaian , fly ^of which 

^qiqtoBi Uworcte^i^ pMdaB. it^. hfthitiiHQDs, And 
lifceftiitMrtWMi Jirf AM4eU for ite own: yOuDgj 
iibkl{ A^nttip ^dJifaotioBsljK baiU for a deaset 

8bJ{!|idiigfai.difete'aze'iaaBgr diieienti<kiiidi <rf dui 
M^estt:: jtdivtiiriinM fatiniAdile, mad that ban 
hnmrap'ipiiCtdldfli thc|s£!(xq[Qca lefanepmon; with 
^«r. wiM9% fikd the heS, a iaag^ skader Uadt body« 
plid% tbiee-frrked tail, 'tioaiiiHtiiig. of briides ;. tha 
bra ontennoit-blBdt, andttiexiddifieDHBtMd. .This 
% joMiveiaita .QBme fioem . tbfr ilMc ^piadropedi 
vi^ioh it fipnndioJbsfio dastra(4ii» tcbtbe <aDQo^lB> 
as it bean a atrong similitude in its courage and 

Thoa^ this iastnimeot is, to all i^pearancej 
slender and feeble, yet it is found to be a weapon of 
great force andefficacy. .There is scucely any.sub- 
ataoce which it will not pierce ; and> indeed, it is 

I;, L.oogic 

t» A HI6T0SX OF. . . 

aeldotn BeeQ but employed in peDetratiou. This if 
the weapon of defence ; tbia is emplc^ed io destfoy* 
in^ its prey ; and etiU more, by this the aniflial de- 
posits her eggs wherever sbe thinks fit to lay.thecn. 
As it is an instrument chiefly employed for tbis pur- 
pose, the male is unprovided with sacb a stin^ 
while the female uses it with grc^t force and de^e- 
rity, brandishing it when caogbt, from side to side, 
and very often wounding thoee who tbooght th/BQ/ 
beld her with4b« greatest security. 

AU the flies of this tribe are produced in tba aunt 
manner, and owe their birth to the. destiqwliaa of 
some other inaect, within wJwse Ibody they htm 
been deposited^ and opoa whose. vitals Aef hsvn 
pr^ed, tiU they came to matnri^. There .is^Ba 
insect wbatever, which they wiU not attati> in ecdsf 
to leave thdr &tal present in its body { -tb« catei^ 
pillar, the gnat, end even the spider faiii^lf,-^.f9 
formidable to others, is often .made the.unwiliiiig 
fosterer of this destructive progeny. (i .< . -, 

About the middle of summer, when othu isBBqtf 
ate found in great abundance, the icbneumfu is mrh 
flying busily about, and aceking.propa ol^cts apay^ 
ivhom to deposits its progeny. As there ane various 
kinds of this fly, so tfaey «eem- to have various ap* 
petites. Some are found to place their e^;a withhl 
the aurdiaof some nascent insect, others place them 
within the nest, which the wasp had curiously coo' 
trived for its own young ; and as both are prciduced 
at the same time, the young of the ichneuqpOD not 
<»ily devours the young wasp, hut the whole supply 
of worma, which the parent had careiiiUy collected 
for its provision. But the .greatest number of the 
ichneumon tribe are seen settling upon the back of 

,= L.oo^^lc 


the caterjjillarj and darting, at different intervals^ 
their stingy into its body. At every dart they de- 
posite an egg, while the wounded animal seems 
scarcely sensible of the injury it sustains. In this 
manner they leave from six to a dozen of their eggs 
within the fatty substance of the reptile's body, and 
tben fly off to commit further depredations. In the 
mean time the caterpillar, thus irreparably injured, 
seenis to feed as voraciously as before; does not 
abate' (^ its usual activity ; arid, to all' appearance, 
seemk no way affected by the internal enemies that 
afe preparing its destruction in their darksome 
libode.' But they'sobn burst from their egg state, 
and begin to prey upon the substance of their 
prison. As they grow ferger, they require a greater 
supply, till at last the animal, by whose vitals they 
are supported, is no longer able to sustain them, 
"hut dies ; its whole inside being almost eaten away' 
If often happenSj hoWever, that it survives- their 
worm state, and then they change into a chrysalis, 
^nclofed in the caterpillar's body tilt the time of 
their delivery approaches, when they burst their 
prisons, arid fly away: The caterpillar, however, 
is irreparably destroyed ; it never changes into a 
ehrjFBEifis, hut dies shortly after, from the injuries it 
had sustained. 

Snch is the history of this fly, which, though very 
terriUe to the insect tribe, foils not to be of infinite 
service to mankind. The mtffioiis which it kills in 
a single summer, are inconcieivable; and without 
mck a destroyer the fruits of the earth' would only 
rise to Airriish a banquet for the insect raec, to the 
«Lcltision Of all the nobler ranks of animated nature; 

L;,q,z:=b, Google 


chap; v. 

Of the Ant. 

XHOUGH the number of two-mng«d flioft be 
very great, and tbe naturalists have t^ea, soae- 
pains to describe their characters and vaheties ; yet 
Utere is such a similitude ih their fonns and man- 
nera, that ia a Mtatk. like Uiis, one description moit 
serve for all. We now, therefore, come to a speciecF 
of four-winged insects, that are &moiu fr«m a)taa. 
tiquity, for their sociat and indaetriouK habits,' that 
are marked for their ^irit of subordination, that 
are offered as a pattern of parsimony to the profusi^ 
and of BDreraitLing diligence to the du^ard. 

In the experiments, however, which have bee» 
more recently made, and the observation* wbwdk 
have been taken^ much of their boasted fcagafity^ 
and precaution seems denied them ; the treaaurs 
they lay up, are no longer supposed int^ided iot, 
future provision ; and the choice they makfi in 
their stores, seems no way dictated by vnsdfHa. ' Iti 
is, indeed, somewhat surprising, that almost ev»ry 
writer of antiquity should describe this insect, a* 
labouring in the summer, and feasting upon the 
produce during the winter. Perhaps, in some o| 
the warmer climates, where tbe winter is mild> ,imhI 
of short continuance, this may taka place ; bat ioi 
France and England these animals can hove qo. 
manner of occasion for a supply of winter pcovt- 

THE ANT. 131 

sionB, ra tfaey are actually in a stete of torpidity 
during; that season. 

The ComoKHi Ante of Europe are of two o» ^ree 
^fl^rent kinds ; some red', some black, some with 
Btings, and otheis without. Such, as have stings, 
infiict their wounds in that manner; such as are 
cmprtfrided with these weapons of defence^ have a 
power of gpurting, from their hinder parts^ an acid 
pangvnt liqn«'; which,, if it Kghts upatt thb ^d^ 
ioflanKRhaiBd burns it YAm nettles. 

The' body, of an- ant is divided into the bead^ 
hnoBpf-aad tadly. Ift the head, Ihe eyeS' erre pkeeil,' 
which are entirely blacky ami under their eyes aw 
two fmoHt h«rhs^ or' fericrti, composed' o£ twelve. ' 
joiathj allcDverediwitha tine B^ky hair. The m<ogth< 
ia fur^^nri mtlr two crooked j&w», which prejeot 
aainrards, in eneh^ ef which: are seen inoicursfi, that 
\09k'Viat teeth. Tiie' breast is ooveced with a fine' 
silky tHir,>fiEOfD wlnchpri^oct'sir lugs^ t^are prolly-' 
atDan^and hairy, tbeesitremities of each armed with 
ttro' small claws;, which ^animal usesiiwcUmbing^, 
Tiia;teny:is;BU>reBeddish than' the reet^of uie body, 
which is of a brows cbesnitcohnir, ^iankig-aft ghuB, 
and cevefed-with dxkremely 6ne hair. 

Fraa sack a fcn-midion, thia animal s^ema hotdor, 
and more active, for its size, than aiiy other of the 
ifMcitt tirte,. and fears:ilotto:atlackAcnatUr«, often 
rtkwe teni tines it» own ms^itade-. 
' As soon as tbe.^itter is past, stvt&e fiiEi fiec day 
in< Mptil, the atit>-faili, that) before seemed a deseit, 
now smwim wkhi new UJb, and nynods^ of these 
iueeta. a«e aeue jfisb,- aiwaked fn^ tfaeir annual 
lethargy, and preparing for the pleasures and fetigues 
(^ the season. For the Brst day they never offer tO' 

K 2 

L, . h.L.oogIc 


leave the faille which may be considered as their 
citadel, bot-nin over every part of it^ as if to esa-- 
mine its present sltuationj to observe vrfaat irrjti'Hte 
it has sustained during the rig;oura of winter,* while 
they slept, and to meditate and settle thtj labours tff 
the day ensuing. 

At the first display of their forces, hone bat the 
ivingless tribe appears; while those fumislKd with 
wings remain at the bottom. These are the woi^- 
iBgante, that first appear, and that are always d^- 
litDte of wings; the males and fetnalea, that are 
fiamisfaed wHh four large wings eadi, are more slow 
in making their appearance. 

Thus, like bees, they are divided into malefl, fe- 
males, atid the neutral or the wonting tribe. ' TUete 
are all easily distinguished from each other ; the fe- 
males are much larger than the mtdes ; the working 
ants are the smallest of all. The two former bdsh 
wings; whicb, bowever^theysometimes are divested 
of; the latter never have any, and upon them are 
devolved all the labours Ihat tend to the wkftire of 
the community. The female also may be' dis^D>' 
guished by the colour and structure of her breast, 
which is a little more brown than tbat of tbe' 
common ant, dnd a: little brighter than that of the 

; In eight or ten days aftei* their first appearance, 
the labours of the hiti are in some forwardness ; the 
males and females are seen mixed with the working 
multitude, and pursued or pursuing each' other. 
They seem no way to partake in the commondrud- 
geries of the state ; ^e males pursue the females 

* MeisDufs p«ur terrir it I'HiBtoira 4m Insectea, par Charles 
de Geer. 


THE ANT. , 133 

>vi,tb great assiduity, and ia a manner force th^m to 
compliance. They retnain coupled for some lime, 
while tiie males tbui united suffer tbemsdves to be 
drawn along; by the will of their partners. 

In the mean time, the working; body of the stsle 
take no part in their pleasures ; they ara seen dili- 
gently going from the tmt-hill, io pursiiit of food for 
■tiiemselves and their associates, aad of proper mater 
rials for giving a comfortable retreat to their young, 
or safety to their babttation. Ia the fields of Eng- 
land, ant-hills are formed with but little apparent 
regularity. In tiie more southern provifices of Eu- 
rope, Uiey are constructed with woederful contri- 
vance, and offer a sight highly vmrthy a naturalist's 
curiosity. These are generally formed in the neigh- 
bourhood of some large tree and a stream of water. 
The one is considered by the anima)s, as tbe propec 
place for getting food ; the ot|her for supplying them, 
with moisture, which they cannot well dispense 
with. The shape of the ant-hill is that of a sugar- 
loaf, about three feet high, composed of various sub*. 
stances, leaves, bits of wood, sand, earth, bits, of 
gum, and grains of corn. These are all united into 
a compact body, perforated with galleries down to. 
the bottom, and winding ways within the body of 
the structure. From this retreat to the water, as 
well as to the tree, in different directions, there are 
many paths worn by constant assiduity, and along 
these the busy insects are seen passing and repassing 
continually ; so that from May, or the beginning, <^ 
June, according to the state of the season, they work 
continually, till the bad weather comes on. 

The chief employment of the wMting ants, is in 
BQfltataing not only the idlers at home, but also 

L, . h.L.oogIc 


finding » sufliciency of -fodd for Itrtnwdws. They 
live upon vai'ious proviaionflj as well of the vegetable 
as of the anioMl kind. Small insecte (hey wifl kill 
and devour ; sweets of all kindi they are particohrly 
#3nd of. They sddom, however, think of their com- 
mKnity, till they themeeWea are first satiated. Hav- 
{ing-found B juicy fruit, theyewatlow what they can, 
and then tearing it in piecca, carry home 'their load. 
If tbey meet with an insect aibeve thcirmatohj several 
of them wiU fall upon it at oncej and having tna»- 
gled itj each will carry off a part of the spoil. If 
they meet, io their excursions, any thing that is too 
heavy for one to hear, and yet which they are unaUe 
to divide, several of them will endeavoar to foroe it 
t^ng ; some dragging and oth«v paahjng. If aay 
one of them happens to make a lucky discovety, it 
will immediately give advice to others ; and thai 
at once, the whole repabKe will pnt themselves in 
motion . if in these straggles, one of tliem faappeas 
to be killed, some kind survivor will carry him offto 
a great di^ance, to prevent the obstructions his body 
may give to the general spirit of indaatry. 

But while they are thus employed in supporting 
the state, in teeding abroad, and carrying in pro- 
visions to those that continue at home, tiiey are not 
unmindful M posterity. After a few days of fine 
weather, the female ants begin to lay theiregga, and 
those are as assiduously watched and protected by 
the working ants, who iake upon Aemsdves to 
supply whatever is wanting to Uie nascent animal's 
conv^aieace or necessity. They arecarried, as sood 
as laid, to the safest eiteetion, at (be bottom of th^ 
hill, wb«e njaxfy are carefuHy deCended ftom cold 
atfd mef^iwe. W« are not to «uppwe, tint (faoae 

THE ANT. 155 

iifhite snhstanceB which we so plentifally find in 
erery ant-faHl, are the e^s as iiewly laid. On liie 
' contrary, the ant's egg is bo very small, that, ihongh 
laid upon a black ground; it can scarcely be dis- 
cerned. The little white bodies we sec, are the 
yoang animals in their mag^t state, endued with 
Kfe, long since freed from the egg, and often in- 
volved in a cone, which it has spun round itself, like . 
Uie Bilkworm. The real e^, when laid, if viewed 
through a microscope, appears smooth, polished 
and shining, while the ^ maggot is seen composed 
of twelve rings, and is often larger than the ant 

It is impossible to express the fond attachment 
which the working ants show to their rising pro- 
geny. In cdd weather they take them in their 
months, but without oBering them the smallest 
injury, to the very depths of their haliitation, where 
tbeyare less subject to the severity of the season. 
In a ftne day tbey remove tiiem, with the same caret, 
nearer the surface, where their maturity may be 
anisted by the Warm beams of the sun. If a for- 
midaUe enemy should come to batter down their 
whole habitation, and crush them by thousands in 
file ruin, yet these wonderful insects, still mindfdl 
of their parental duties, make it Ujeir first care to 
•ave their oi&priug. They are seen running wildly 
ftbeut, and different ways, each loaded with a young 
one,' often big^r than the insect liiat supports it. 
" I havekept," says Swammerdam, " aieveral of the 
working ants in my closet, with their young, in a 
glass filled with earth. I took pleasure in observing, 
ibet in proportion as Ihe earth dried on the surface, 
ftey dug deeper end deeper to deposite their eggs ; 

L, . h.L.oogIc 


aadwdKil -I poured .watcr.thereon, itwas'8Brpr»ins 
to see nitb-wfaat care, affection, and 'ditigence they 
jnbonred, to put their brood in aaSoly, in the driest 
j^ace. I have aeen also, that when water has been 
wanting for several days, and when the earth v/b^ 
moistened afitn it a little, they immediately carried 
their young ones to .have a share, who seemed to 
enjoy and suck the moisture." . . 

When the young maggot is (jome to its follgtowtfa, 
the breast swells insensibly, it -casta, and 
loses all motion.' Ail the members which w«ce 
hidden before, then begin to appear, an aurelia is 
formed, which represents very distinctly all the parla 
of the animal, though they are yet without motion^ 
and as it were wrapped up in .swaddling-'Clothea. 
When,-at length> the little. Insect has pasLedtbrougb 
all its changes, andaequired its pn^er maturity, > it 
bursts this last skin, te assume the- form it is t0 
retain ever after. Yet this is not done by the efforts 
of the little animal alone, for the. old ones very aaii- 
duonsly break open,- witJi their teeth, the covering. 
in which it is enclosed. . Without this .aEsistaiux 
the anrelia would n^ver be able to get free, as M.. 
deGeer often found, who tried the.ex^iment, by- 
leaving the aurelias to themselves. ' The old ones 
not only assist Ihen, but know the very precise time 
for lending their assistance ; for, if produced too 
Bbon, the young one- dies of cold; if retarded too 
long, it is suffocated in its prison. 

Wb«i the female has done laying, and the whole 
brood is thus produced, her labours, as well as that 
of the male, become unneoessaiy ; and her wings, 
which she had bat a short time before so. actively 
employed, drop off. . What becomes of her when. 

THE 'ANT* . 187 

lias diTSsted'of her c^oaneetB is oat vfeHJEiioirii, 
for ebe is.^^ ID the cells for aone wedn after. 
Tiie'ni^eSjOn theothBrbaod, haringnoloD^raay 
' accapattion at hone, nuke v»b of these, ivings wiQi 
,wbich they have been fHrntsbed by natare, end fly 
away, never to return, or to be heard ofmore. It 
is probable Uwy perieh. with the cold, or are devoared 
.by the birds, which are particularly fond of this 
pkty prey. 

In the nMan tiine, the frorking ant§ havings pro- 
bably depoeed their queens, end being desei^ed by 
the moles, that served but: to clog' the community, 
prepare for the severity of the winter, and bury their 
retreats as ds^ in the ^eavth at they cenveniently 
can^ Itis now found that the grains. o£ corn, and 
«tbtr sutMtftnces .with which tb^ fomish their bill; 
are only meant as fences to keep off the rigonra of 
the-TreathcTy not as prorisious to support them during 
Ub continuance. It is found generally to obtain, 
that every insect tlrat. lives a year after it is cone to 
ifs full growth, is obliged to pass four or five months 
wittiout taking any nourishment, and will seem to 
be dead all tte^ time. It would be to no purpose, 
tjierefore, for anis to lay up corn for the winter^ 
since they lie that time without motion, heaped upon' 
each other, and- are so for from eating, that they are 
utterly unable, to stir. Thus vrfaat authors havedig- 
njfied by the. nam^ of a magazine, appears to be no 
more than a cavity, which serves, for a ccnnmon 
retreat when the- weather forces them to return to 
their. lethargic state. ■ ■ ■■ 

Wl^t has been said with. exaggeration of the £u- 
rop<^n ant, is 'however trne, if asaectod o£ th(Me.of 
the tropical cUtoates. They build an ant-hill with 

I;. L.oo^lc 


great contrivance and regularity, tbey lay tip pro- 
visions, and, as tbey probably lire the whole year, 
they submit tbemsdves to regalations entirely un- 
known among the anta of Europe. 

Those of Africa are of Aree kinds, the red, the 
green, and the black ; the latter are above an inch 
long, and in every respect a most formidable insect. 
*nieir Bting prodaees extreme pain, and their depre- 
dations are sometimes extremely destructive. They 
build an ant-hill ef a rery great size, from six to 
tvrelve feet high ; it is made of viscous clay, and 
tapers into a pyramidal form. This habitation is 
constructed with great artifice ; and (he cells are so 
nnmerons and even, that a honeycomb scarce ex- 
ceeds them in number and regularity. 

The inhabitants of tins edifice seem to be under 
a very strict regulation. At the a^ghtest warning 
they will aaHy out upon whatever disturbs them ; 
and if they have time to arrest their enemy, he ja 
sure to find no mercy. Sheep, hens, and even rats 
arc often destroyed by these merciless insects, and 
their flesh devoured to the bone. No anatomist in 
the world can strip a skeleton so completely as they ; 
and no animal, how strong soever, when tbey bare 
once seized upon it, has power to resist them. 

It often happens that these insects quit their 
retreat in a body, and go in quest of adventures. 
" Daring my ^y," says ^mith, " at Cape Corse 
" Castle, a body of these ants came to pay us a visit 
'* in onr fortification. It was about day-break 
" when the advanced guard of this famished crew 
" entered the chapel, vHiere some negro servants 
" were adeep upon the floor. The men wwe 
" qaickly alarmed at the invasion of this unexpected 


. THE ANT. , 139 

" army, and prepared, as vVell as they could, for a 
" defence. WbHe tbe foremost battalion of insetite 
" had already taken possessioRof tbe j^ce, tfie rear^ 
" guard vras more ithaa a quarter of a mite distant. 
" The whole ground seemecl alive, and crawling: 
" with unceasing destmotion. Atiter deliberating a 
" feiv moments upon what was to be done, it was 
" resol\-ed to lay 'a large train of gunpowder along 
" the pad) tbey bad taScen : by this means millionB 
" were blown to pieces, and tbe rear-guard per- 
" ceiving the destraction (^ their leaders, thought 
" proper inxtantly to return, and make back to their 
" originaJhabitaticHi." 

The order which ^ese ant« observe, seems Tei:y 
extraordinary ; whenever they sally forth, fifty or 
sixty larger than the rest are seen to head the Imnd, 
and conduct them to their destined prey. If they 
have a .fixed 'spot where their prey continues ^ 
resort, ttey then form a vauhed gaUery, which iB 
sometimes a quarter of a mile in length ; and yet 
tib«y win hollow it out in the space of ten or twelve 

{The green ants in New South Wales live in trees, 
vfaere they construct nests, by bending dowo the 
bl^e leaves, and glueing the points together, so as 
to form a kind of purse. To effect this, thousands 
unite thdr collected strength to bend the leaf int» 
its proper form ; while othen a^^ply a viscid animai 
matter, to keep the parts ia -contact ^ut together. 

But far exceeding in wisdom and pc4icy tbe Bee, 
tbe Ant, or tbeBeavea-, is the White Ant inhabiting 
thd plains of East htdia, Afirica, and South Ame> 
rica. The animate of this extraordhtary oo«»nu»ity 
eoMist of woriHDg iMcets or laboareis, fighting in-^ 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 


sects 6t soldiers, and the perfect male and femafe 
insect wbicb alone are furnished with wings. Tfiey 
Imild pyramidal structures, ten or twelve feet in 
height, and divided into appropriate ap^ments^ 
magBEtnes for provisions, arched chamberfij and 
galleries of communication. These are so firmly • 
, cemented together, that they will easily bear the 
weight of four or five men to stand upon them ; and 
in the vast plains of Senegal, they appear like tt^e 
bats of the natives. 

The laboorers are hardly half an inch long, have 
six feet, and no eyes. These are the.most nume- 
rous, and to them is appointed the care of building;, 
the structures, procuring and laying up provisions", 
for the males and females, and taking care of the. 

The soldiers are about as large again, with a very", 
large-head, and no eyes. These neverwork, but act 
as saperintendants over the labourers, or as guards 
to defend their habitation from intrusion and yio-. 
lence. If by any accident a breach be made in the 
dwelling, they rush forward and defend the entrance 
with gre^t ferocity ;:8ome of tbem beating with their 
'horny Jaws against any. hard substance, as a signal 
to the other guards, or as encouragement to the 
labourers;, they then retire, and are succeeded by 
tbe labourers, each having a burthen of tempered , 
mortar in his mouth, and who diligently sets about 
to repair whatever injury may have' been sustained. 
One of these guards attends every six or eight hun- 
dred labourers who are building, a wall, taking no 
active part himself, but frequently making tbe noise 
above mentioned, which is constantly answered by 
a loud and distinct hiss from all the labourers, who | 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 


at this signal are observed evidently to redoable tbeir 

The male and female are alUie furnished wiUt 
four long horizontal wings, and after being extri-' 
cated from their confinement in the chrysalis Btate, 
fly abroad in the night ; but soon after sun-rise, the 
' wings become dry and they fall to the ground, where 
they are devoured by birds, or sought after by the, 
inhabitants, who roast and eat them with great avi- 
dity. A few that survive are collected by the 
labourers and. inclosed by pairs in apartments made 
of clay, the aperture of which is nearly closed up so 
that they cannot escape, and where itheyare dili- 
gently attended and fed by the laboura^ whose 
bodies aire small enough to admit an easy entrance,- 
After impregnation, the abdomen of the female 
grows to a prodigious bulk, exceeding tite, rest: of 
h^ body nearly two thousand tim^ : it is then 
vesicular and white with transverse brown spots, 
and an undulate or slightly lobed margin. , In this 
state it contains an immense number of eggs, which . 
are protruded to the amount of eight thousand in 
twenty-four hours. These eggs are instantly takuL 
ttp by the labourers, and conveyed to separate .- 
chambers, where they are hatched, and the young 
attended and provided for till they are able to shift 
fot- themselves, and take their share in the kbouraof 
the community. . . 

With such wonderful dexterity and rapidity do 
these animals destroy food, furniture, books, clothes,- . 
and timber of whatever magnitude, leaving a mere 
suHkce not thicker than writing-paper, that, in a 
few hours a large beam will be eaten to a ab^ll. 

c,q,-z.= bvGoogk' 


. To .thi» trHie beloa^ a Hoall iosectj hmtUy the 
tenth of an inch lon^, and commonly found in old 
wood, decdyed furniture, and neglected bocks and 
iQUseams. It frequently makes a- ticliHtig kind oP 
noisCj not unlike the beaiing of a watch, and ir 
often called the deaAb>watch. But the insect which' 
causes such alarm and palpitatioa to its snpersti^ 
tioue terrified hearei, is a Utilb animal of the beetle' 
kindj found in decay^ tneea and furniture, among 
hay and dried leaves, and In eoilectiona of pfeserved- 
plants. The noise they maberreBembles^tho tichtng 
(^awatcb-, andiis always in seven, nine, or ekvon 
distinct strokes. This noise 'iB nerely the call ot 
one sex tO' t^ ofheii, and ariseB from the' aniimils 
beating on aay havd- substance widi ^e elaeld or 
fore pari of the head. J 

Of the Beetle, and its Varieties. 

Hitherto we ham been treating of insects 
with fouE toanspecrent wings, \re now cone to a 
tribe witb two transparent wiDgs> with cases tint 
cover th«n dose while at rest, but wbtdi allow 
them their proper play when Bying. The principd 
o£ theso ai«the B«atfe,. the May* Bug, and the Can- 
thar». Theie are aU- bred, like the rest of tbeit 
oc^. firat firam eggs, then they become grubs, th«Bi 
a-cbflyaalii in which the parts of tbe fnture fly. are 
distinittlf seeo^ andlastfy tfaeanimal leaves itepfi- 

L;,q,z:=b, Google 

:=b, Google 




sont bBeitklng forA as. a m^g^ sRioa^ Jo^ fall na- 

Of Ihe Beetle there are various ItindB;. bU, how- 
ever, coDCurnngin one common forrqatioa of -lutiimg;. 
Cffses to their wings, which are -the nlore nec^gary 
to those iBsecU, as they often live un^r the sur&ee 
(^ the earth, in holes wbieh they dig oat by ^ek 
own itidiutiy. These cases prwetft the vavioys 
injuries their real wings might sustain, by rub^wg;. 
OE crushing agaiost the sides- of their abode. These, 
thou^ they do not assist fligjbt, yet ketp^the ip|l|efBd 
wings clean and even, and pvoduce a lovd bUBzieg 
noise, wb«i the aniimal rises in the air. 

If we esaniae the formation of all animals of thei 
beetle kind, we shall' fiad, as in sheU-fisb. thai tbeu- 
bones are placed externally, and tbeir rauscles 
within. These muscles are fonoed very much like 
those of quBdruped», and are endued with such sur- 
prising strength, that bulk for bulb, they are a 
thousand times stronger than those of a man. The 
strength of these muscles is of use in digging the 
animal's subtenaoeons abode, where it is Bloat. 
usually hatched, -and to vi^ich it most frequentiy' 
returns, even after it becomes a winged insect^ 
capable of flying. 

Beside the differeaee wJiich reauUa from the shape 
and colour of Uiese animals, the size alsa makes a 
considerable one; some beetles being not iaxgex 
than the head of a pin, while others, such m the 
elephant-beetle, u% as big aa one'S' fist. But die 
greaieet difference among thtm- is, that some are 
pvodut^ ia a month, and in a sin^ seasoa go 
through all the stages of their enstence-, whilejothars 
Uiui near four years to their production ; rod' live 

I;, L.oogic 


BB winged iosect* a year more. To ^ve tbe biatory 
of all these animalsj that are bred pretty much in the 
nme way^ would be insipid and endless; it will 
suffice to sdect one or two from the nuoiber, the 
origin of which may serve as specimens of the reit. 
I will, therefore, offer thehistory of the May<bugto 
the reader's attention ; premising, that most other 
beetles, thoogh not so long -lived, are bred in tbe 
iame manner. 

r The May-bug or Dorr-beetle, as some call it, has, 
like all the rest, a pair of cases to its wings, which 
we of a reddish brown a^our, sprinkled with a 
whitish dust, which easily comes off. In some yean 
Uieir necks are seen covered with- a red plate, and 
in others, with a black ; these, however, are-distinA 
sorts, and their diSereoce is by no meeas accidental. 
The fore leg»are very short, and the better calculated 
for burrowing in the ground, where this insect makes 
its retreat. It is well known fru* its evening baaz 
to children ; but still more formidably intlioduced to 
the acquaintance of husbandmen and gardenersj 
for in some 8ea8<Hi8 it has been found to swarm ta 
nich numbers, as to eat up every vegetable pro- 

The two sexes in the May-bug are easily distin- 
guished from each other, by the Superior length of 
the tusts, at the end of the horns, in the raale. Tbey 
begin to copulate in summer, and at that seaton 
are seen joined together for axonaiderable time. The 
female being impregnated, quickly falh to boring 
a bole into the ground, where to deposite her bur- 
then. This is generally about half a foot de^, and 
in it die places her e^s, which are of an obloi^ 
shape, vritb great r^fulBrity,<Hie by the other. Tfa^ 



lH»«f a*i»r%M y^lMr ecriour, and no w^y wnip|ied 
Op H)'«i««niMM» covet'mg, a& Bent hive imagined. 
IVheii theifiMiiBtt ti tigbtoned' of b«r faortheV lAe- 
iQ^i» icMentte fnttn h«r Itote, lotiveae beftire, epon 
leaves and vegetables, to buzz in the summer evwi> 
ing, Slid 10 tie hid, among the branches of ti«e«, in 
ttie> beat ef (ha diy. 

la i^ot tlweeniODtbB after tbeae eggs have been 
tbuB deposited ia Uie earth, the pcmtained insfici 
iMgiits i« break its ihfllt, and a emalt grub or m»g- 
got oraivb forA, and feeds upon the reote of what- 
etf*rT^i;4t>bl*it happens to be nearest. All sab- 
fltfliioM of tbis kind seem equally griUeM ; yet it is 
pn^M&'the- motber insect has a ohoiee amons; whet 
liiod of vegeteblea she-sball deposit her young. In 
this 'manner tbese vmraeiom creatares coiitiniH^ in 
tte worm state, ftv more Aan three years, devoariiig 
t^ vDOti «ri^ every plant they apiproach, and making 
t|Kir fray ander gronnd, in quest of fbpd, witil great 
tfispateh «i4d ftieility. At length they grow to above 
Hw siifrof a walnvt, being a great t^ick white mag- 
got witb a red. head^ which is seen most frequently 
in-<t<*Mui<ned eertfa, and whidi is so eagerly soaght 
after by birds of every species. When largest, they 
aM faemd «n inch aitd a half long, of a whitish yel- 
hnr eoloaii, witb a bo^ coMitting ol* twelve se^ 
meiits orJMBts, en eaebslde of which there are nine 
bOPaatblng-boles, and t^Fee red feet. The head is 
lnge,-iR pmpovtion to the body^ of a reddi^ co- 
lew^ fcM^ a. piRcepbef<M«, aitd a semi-circalar tip, 
with wliiuh it cats the niots of plants, aad sncks 
««t tboir moistDre. As- this iasectr lives entirely 
wder groond, it has no occasion^ for eyes, and at- 
KOl^tngty it ia.fowtid'to have none ,- boC is furnished 


L, _ h.L.oogIc 


M>ith itvQiee<«n. whioh> ,}ikerithe.ciilt^iofiaJ»tiQ4 
mail, serve tq-fcbcect its. motioiut^ ^S« t^^ ifum 
ofi^ittmimtA; thatUv«s for^y^an in-ttte, wwm^lat* 
uader{prouDd,.«tiUvoFacious, wdevery you cb^egT 
ingite skin. .,,..>. >• not tyi i^eni (tf thefounth ;e«c, tlwt t^ 
extraordieary insect pr^erea toero^rgefipBi.itpsHb^ 
terraaeoup abode, and even Hkia ia iwt effieajied bat 
by 8 tedious preparation. Abojatibe laUsr endof 
autuiDi], . the grub begivs to perceive the appnmcb 
of ita transforinatiotij it then buries itself deepec md 
defter in the rardi, sometimes «is fe«t bwmtb/the 
iur&ce, and tbere forms itself a capaciou* apartmenlj 
the walls of which it rendersveiy ^inooth.Badshtt 
ning, by the excretknis of its body. It^ ^^odeltfwg 
dius formed, itb^ns soon after l4>Bborteti.itaelfj ita 
Kwellj and to b^rsti(B Ia&t«kia, in order taaattm* 
(be form of a .chrysalis. This, in tbft beguinJnB» 
appears of a yellowish colour, which beightAQs. by 
degrees, till at last it is seen neofiy red, It? exterioK 
form plainly discovers all the vestiges. f4 Hk ifutUKft 
winged insect,, all the fore . parts. beipg .diftuictl^ 
seen ; while behind, the animal seems as ^.winp^wtl 
in swaddling-clothes, ,> ■ ...\ 

The young May-bug coatinnes in Utis. 9(Bte fyr. 
about three months longer, and it is not till the bch 
ginning of January that the aurelia divers itself qf 
all its impediments, and becomes a winged iosectj 
completely formed. Yet still the animal ia far from 
attaining Ua natural strength, liea]th, and ap|KUte.i 
It undergoes a kind of infant imbecility ; and,'Ualik0, 
most other insects, that the instant they become 
Aies are arrived at their state of full perfectioitj th^t 
May-bug continues feeble and .^ifckly, jlls. cfiMiiCy 


The beetle. Iir 

j^'tnafelf '>t^!^ler than in the' perfect e^tdMl ;'&n 
pans are softy «hd its voracions nature ' seetiM for a 
White ttp havfr'etttiwiy fortaken it. As thef aniftiHl 
ift'^^eryoft^'foUBd in this state, it is Btfppoeed, by 
those unacquainted with its real history, that the 
feW dn^, df^thefbi'me!* seftsoti, ha*e buried thim- 
-selvM fdv the> winter, in order to revisit ttie sdn the 
«tiAaitig summer. Bat the fact is, Uie old one neVer 
aurVi¥eB't^'8eabon> but dies, like all the other 
winged tribe of insects, from the sevwity of ci^dia 
ivhiter:' '■■■■■.■ 

>' Aboairtbe IflttM* end of May, these insects, after 
iMvin^ (ft«d<foup years tind«' ground, burst from 
+h^e«fth; when the fh*t miM evening invites them 
MSVSM:' 'Tbeyare at that time seen rising fi-otn their 
k)>n^intpris6nment, from living only upon roots, and 
hnWbing'only the moisture of the earth, to visit the 
HrtWneas-of the Slimmer air, to choose the sweetest 
itr^etable»'for their banquet, and to drink the devr 
of'thc^ evening. Whwever an attentive observer 
^n walks abroad, he will see them bursting up 
before' him -iW his pathway, like ghosts on a theatre. 
He will see every part of the earth, that had its sur- 
face beatf n into hardness, perforated by their egres- 
sion. When the season is fevoarable for them, they 
are seen by myriads buzzing along, hitting against 
every object that intercepts their flight. The mid" 
■ day son, however, seems too powerful for their 
cKWistitutions ; they then Inrk under tbe leaves and 
bratrchea of some shady tree ; but the willow seems 
particulaHy their most favourite food ; there they 
lurk Til clusters, and seldom quit the tree till they 
have devoured all its verdure. In those seasons 
Which are favoureMe to their propagation^ 



seen in aa evening as thijck ^.flakes of Bofiw, and 
hittjiis againxt ev^<7 object with a sprtofcapricJQUS 
blindness. Their duratioQ, bo.wever, is but sho^, 
a$ they neyer survive th^ sef^qn. They begin to 
join shprlly after they have been let loose from their 
-pri&on, and when the feiiiale is imprognated, she 
cautieusiy bore« a hole in tbe gronad, with an in- 
atfUment. fitted for that pufpoee. which she i« fur- 
niahed with at the tail^ and then deposits her <^gs, 
graierally to the number of threescore. If the season 
and the soil be adapted to their propagation^ these 
soon mulUply as already described, and go throu^ 
the noxious stages of their eonteraptible esistenoe. 
This insect, however, in its worm state, though pre- 
juc^cial to man, makes one of the chief repasts of 
the feathered tribe, and is generally the first nourish- 
ment with which they supply their young. Rooks 
Bod hogs are particularly fond of these worms, and 
devour them in great numbers. The inhabitants of 
the county of Norfolk, some time sioce, went into 
the practice of destroying their rookeries, but in 
proportion as they destroyed one plague^ they were 
pestered with a greater ; and these insects multiplied 
in such an amazing abundance, as to destroy not 
only the verdure of the fields, but even the roots of 
vegetables, not yet shot forth. One form ia parti- 
cular vras so injured by them in tiieyear 1751, that 
^e occupier, was not able to pay bis rent ; and the 
landlord was not only content to lose his income for 
that year, but also gave money for the support of- 
the former and his family- lo Ireland they suffered 
so much by these insects, that they came to a reso- 
lution of setting fire to a wood, of some miles ia 
f xtentj to prevent thpir muchie.vous propagation. . 

IV, Google 

THE BEETtlf. U9 

' Of iaH the beetle kind this rs the most numerous, ' 
'■iLiid Ihfeteftire desertes the ch'ief attiintion of history. 
^The tinifierous varieties of other kinds might repay 
'the cnriosity of the dih'geht observer; but we must 
'Iffi Content in general to observe, that in the great 
outlines of the history, they resemble those of whidi 
we have just been ^ving 'a description ; like tbeni, 
aB other beetled are bred from the e^, which is de- 
posited in the ground, or sometimes, though seldom, 
in the barkd of trees, they change into a worm ; they 
subsist in that state by living upon the roots of 
vegetables, or the succulent parts of the bark roanU 
^em. They generally five a year at least before 
ibey change into an anrelia ; in that state they are 
not totirely motionless, nor entirely swaddled up 

It wonH be tedious and endless io give a descrip- 
-tTon of all, aind yet it would be an unpardonable 
omissibh not to mention the particularities of some 
beetles, which are singular rather irom their size, 
their manners, or their formation. That beetle 
which the Americans ialT the Tumble-dung, parti- 
"cularly demands our attention ; it is all over, of a 
dusky black, rounded than tbosft animals are gene- 
rally found to be, and so strong, though not much 
larger than the common black beetle, that if one df 
them be put Und^r a brass candlestick, it will causb 
it to move backwards' and forwards, as if it were % 
an invisible hand^ to the admiration of those who are 
not accustomed to the sight: but this strength is 
given it for much more useful purposes than those 
of exciting human curiosity, for tfiere is no creature 
more laborious, either iu seeking subsistence, or in 
providing a proper retreat fQt its youug. They arc 

ISO A HlftTOTl^t' OF 

end(nr«d- mih 'Agtoity to discover MlniiilMoe'^fty 
tlidrexeeII<HtiinelKng-,wbicbdii«ctitbein Hiff^^ 
to eicremente jmt felleii from -nan or Itaw^ 'ttb 
which theyinstaody drop, and foil nnanifiiOQdy to 
work in fortninp ronnd balls or pdleta Ibereof, in Hbb 
middle of which they ley an egg;. These pellets^ in 
September, Ibey conrey three feet deep in the eartii, 
where they lie till the approach of spring, when the 
egg* are hatched, the nests bursts and the insects 
find their way Mit of tbe earth. They assist each 
other with indefatigable indnstry, in rolling UiMe 
^obubir pellets to the place where they are to he 
buried. This they are to perform with thelail fore- 
most, by raising up Uieir hinder part, and shovii^ 
Along the ball with their hind feet. They are alwanw 
accompanied by other beetles of a larger size, srtd 
of a more elegant rtracture and colour. The brea^ 
«f this is covered with a shield of a crimscvi coloa*, 
and sbining-like metal ; tbebeadisoftbelikecoldui', 
mixed with green, and on tbe crown of U)e*hettd 
stands a shining black hora, bended backwards. 
These are called tbe kings «f the beetles, bnt for 
wtMit reason is uncertain, since they partake of tbe 
same dirty drudgery with the rest.* 

The Elephant-Beetle is the largest of this kiad 
}iitberto known, and is found in South America, 
•parttcolarly Guiana and Surinam, as well as aboat 
the liver Oroonoko. It is of a black colour, and 

[* The crepitating Beetle bae a very gingular method of de- 
fending ittelf, and ennoj>ing its enemie*. Wlienever it is touched 
itmakef a repvtt, not unlike thediccha^eof a tnuiket in minls- 
^re.; .and thii diichaigeis 8Ccon{>aoied with abloe vapour bigUy 
j^cijinpnioua and pungent-! This vapour ia contained iuabladdar, 
seated near tbe end of the abdomen. It is found couceale^ amapy 
itoiies, and morei Itself bya kind of juinp.]. 


AfteiffJNielMdfM covered witb a very hnrd shcU, fnU 
iUt'M*M mr^aM'.nitougM that o£ a amaUcnb. Its 
tlneitb, from 1^ ibindet) put to tbe e^isa, , is almost 
^Vt^AMbcSjrfuid from. the .sam«T part to the end of 
stbe)(pn9boMi9>i.iK..tniBk»'foar. inches. aad ^roe 
iquartent JVim tran$vearie diamctter of- the body w 
.twaiadbesiapdia quacfaei:'>i aadithebnadth o£'eaeh 
-«fytrMx orosM f<u t|w;wfige, IB ui: ioeliv sdul ^bree- 
^tttiw. > .TbciAiitennc^ or, fe^rsiaiie quite horny.; 
ff«rMteieb.i'^ftaan the preheficift^iiv.lsuDk is raoreable 
^tto iiWit^aial»ithe>b«Bd« ftodaeuui the 
^plaoe vfif^ekTB., I T^0ibQm»are,«ig^t-tentb8 of. an 
tiiwbilongvBitdtemiRato mp«inU . ' The piwbdsois 
:i8;8nfUi^ jind«,quaHeD' 1od|;', and-^ros upwaide, 
ffaahipgi a jon^dked. lind, termiaating^ \a two facutis, 
tMcho£:ffbb)his oear aqaarterof aninehlongj-bat 
4b!R|t<a«0 tiot peifor^d at ti>e end like the proboaeis 
-ffi0&er'mmtiii« Abcmt foDrHtcnths of aa.inch above 
, tbelb^a^' nr tfa&t side^DCxt'thei bio«ly,.ia a piumiaflnoe, 
riv.4iwH born, w^dt if the rest. o£ the trunk weie 
4vra,y>wwld cause thia.pbrt to resemble the horn of 
fa- rluaoceros, Tbere it indeed a beetle so called, bit 
Ibeii th« J)pni. or tronk baa do fork at tbe eiHl, 
though the lower hwn resembles this. The feet aie 
\a]L foiiAied at the end, but not like lobsters: daws. ■ 
> , To. ^i» class yre may also refer the Glow-mwm, 
lAbatlittlB aniqial which makes such a distinguished 
.'^ tbe descriptions of our poele. No tiro 
insects can differ more than the male and female of 
.this species from each other. The male is in every 
respect a beetle, having cases to its wiogs, and rising . 
.in the air at pleanire; tbe female, on the contrary, 
has none, bat is entirely a creeping insect, and k 
'icMigied to wait t)ie spproachea of her capricious 

VA A ,HISTOIl¥ or 

eompMiOn- The body <^ ike £kmI* b«t cferdfe 
joiotsi nitb a shield brefMt-plat«>. tbe tbape «i vrhkii 
m oval ; the head, k placed over thUj and .isi rerg 
BniBU> and the three last joints of her. body «Ki«f ft 
yellowish celMir ; but what diatingnifhes it fnafi aU 
other animah, at Imat to ^ia part of the iMrtM, is 
the sboiing Itgbtwbioh it emits 1)y nighty aiidwlvMi 
is supposed by some phikmophers, to be an einirtitf- 
tton which she sQads forth to aUtrre ^ae male t»'lMr 
company. Most travellers who have goncj Ibntf^ 
san^ ceuittries must wefi renember ihti ftttlb 
shinuig sparks with which th« ditchers ute stft#M 
o» each aide of th« road. If Itfdted by cWrMi4y tto 
aippreech-moiie nearly, he #i)l' AtNl ttfe l^t Mtft 
forth by the gtow-worn ;. if he 8boaldke«)V Utti MMt 
wnipial fior some tine> Ha lig^l^ ooMiba^s lo f^^Mr 
paler, aad at ^AppeHi«teta%eKti««t/ TtWMWil- 
D^ in which this light is ptrtNhfcCd \m hk%(ff» tdth 
Itinned inexplicable; it ii probable thlA Kufc'MiMtf 
IB BoppKed with some electrics! pofref^, sd Alft Ify 
rubbing the joints of.ita body aga^sC- ds6l» iOW, It 
thus s«f^ii» a stream of light wMeb, if it aOWM tMi 
mde, as we ate told, 8eiive» k» teiry usefiil parpnaiti. 
. ;Tbe Cantharis is of the beeCte kiudi, fr&cn ^Ht^k^ 
come cantbarides, welt known- in the Aopv hf ttfe 
HaMfl of Spanish 6ies, and ft»r tb«ir ase in bliGliere. 
They have feelers like briAtlea, flexIMe t^wii totk 
witigs, a breast pretty ptam, and fh6 AidKs iSt rife 
bdly wiiaklcd. CimdiBridfe» dftfet> from each €(iS6t 
^their aiieej shape, and colour, Uiose itted' ki rifc 
elH>p8 (df» dtpthe same. The lairgeM itt UteM 0Wfe 
are. about an. inch long, and a»idach in etvtfiifl^ 
(ference, hut others are ntrt Above lhi<ee qMiyfertrdf 
«n inch-. Seme ai« of.a- pp)« aMre tiOMrj- olfatlh 

I . I;, Google 


•«r piKKg6\it, md others ag&iA htnk a rifliflfil^ 6f 
liore goW, and azare colours: biit they are all *er^ 
briffiant, and cAtremel^ beautrful. These ihsticts, 
as is well koowDi are iff the greatest benefit to man- 
Kind, mahing a part in many mediciu^ conducive 
to hiimaii preservation. They fere chiefty natives of 
Spain, Itaty^ and Portugal; but they t[r« to be met 
with uho ahottt P&riS in the SOrtiifi&f tim^, upon the 
1ea:veB of the ash, the poplar, tfnd the rose trees, and 
also amcwg Vrheat, atid in meddows. It la 'iery 
certffrn -that ^Ase insects arfe ftfnd of ash-leaves, in- 
Bomucfa that they will sOitielimes strip one of these 
trees tjaitt haH. Sovai affirm, thftt tb^e flies de- 
light in sweftf-smelling herfis, ahd {t is very cerlaifa), 
ibat they are fond of faoney-Snckles, lihic, ai^d vrild- 
dMfiy shi-abU ; bdt sohie that htfVe sought after thedi 
declate} they never coflld find ttiem oii elder-trees, 
mrt-trees, and among ^heat. We are toM fliat (he 
contrtry peojflfe eipeft the itetnifri of these insecfc 
*Very' seven yiars. It is i^Hiy certairt, that snch b 
number of fbes^ insects have been' seen together ih 
the air, tfltlL Aey appeared like swarms of bees ; and 
that fhey Have so disagrceabfe a smell, that it m'^y 
be perceived a great fvay off, especially about' Sun- 
set, thoi^b Aey are nof seen ttt that time, 'f bis bad 
Mrelf a fl |;mde for those who mak^ it theTr business 
to eatch tliem. Wh%n tMsy a^e choght, they dry 
them, afler wMeh thfey are so fighl, that fffty *ffl 
Uttrfflyiveigh a dracfim. ThoBe thttt gather ftieni, tie 
ih^tn in ft ba|g, or a pieCe' of J!b^n clotb that hats 
been vreH WoW, arid llien' ftiey kill them vriih the 
Vapoots of Hot vinegar, rfl^r which they dfy tfiert ih 
tKe sun, antf keep th^m hf hOxb^. Theseflies, (htili 
dAAi, being; chytilldilff analyst], yteld a ^eai,dt!til 

I;. L.oogic 

,apd <artl). Cantbarjdes are penetratii:^, Cfurffsj^v^ 
andj.ap pjifid to the skin^, raise blisters, Hrpta i^lf^i^^ 
prpceedq 9. ^f at deal of serosity. . They are mad^ use 
of both i[)wardly anil outwardly. However iM^ sQiq^ 
w^iat strange that the efiepta of ttu^e flies sbonld fall 
principally ppon the. urinacy pa^g^ ; for tbougt 
some authors have endeavtwred to account for thit^ 
we. are still in the dark, for ^\\ Ibey have said 9fPWffiffi 
to no more, than that they affect these parts \^ ^ 
manner which may be very learnedly described, b^t 
very obscurely comprehended. 

An insect of great, though perhaps not equal oxf 
In medicine, is that which is known by.tbe name 0^ 
theKermes; it is produced in .the.excre3ce|ice ^ 
an oak, called the berry-bearing ile^, ^ndappoarssit 
first wrapt up in a membranaceous, bladder, of tljf 
size o^ a pea, smooth and shining, of a brownisji 
red colour, and covert with a very fine asb-colourefl 
powder. This bag teems with a number of r^dia^ 
eggs or insects, which beiog rubbed with the fing^^ 
pour out a crimson liquor. It is only met witfi. iiji 
>varm countries in the months of May and June. Ii^ 
the month of April this insect becomes of th^ ^^ 
and shape of a pea, and ila eggs some time aft^f 
burst from tbevfombj and soon turning worms, m^ 
about the branches and leaves of the tree. Thgy 
are of two sexes, and the females have been hithotp 
described ; but the males are very distinct from thp 
former, and are a sort of small flies like gnats, witjt 
sixfeetj ofvrbich the four forward are short, and tbp 
two backward long, divided into four joiats, ajul 
armed with three crooked nails. There are t^p 
feelers on the head a line aod a half li^ng, tyliifitiarp 


TOdrtriBle', slreakfed, dhcT artlcdlMed; Tfife taili ^t 
'the back' part of the body, is half a line long) and 
forked. The whole body is covered with two trans- 
parent wings.fand they leap about iii the manner of 
'fleas. The harvest of the kermes id greater or less 
in proportion to the severity of the winter ; and the 
■wromcn gather them before sun-rising, tearing them 
itff with their nails, for fear there should be any loss 
Aromfhe hatching of theinsectB. They sprinkle 
them with vinegar, and lay them in the sun to dry, 
where they acquire a red colour. 

An insect, periiaps, still more useful than either 
t>f' the former, is the Cochineal, which has been 
'variously described by authors ; some have supposed 
4t a vegetable excrescence from the tree upon which 
it is found ; some have described it as a louse, some 
as a bug, and some as a beetle. As they appear 
in our shops when brought from America, tbey are 
of an irregular shape, convex on one side, and a little 
concave on the other ; but are marked on both with 
transverse streaks or wrinkles/ They are of a scarlet 
colour within, and without of a blackish red, and 
sometimes of a white, reddish, or asb-colour, which 
are accounted the best, and are brought to us from 
Mexico. The cochineal insect is of an oval formj 
of the size of a small pea, with six feet, and a snout 
or trnnk. It brings forth its young alive, and is 
nourished by sucking thejuice of the plant. Its body 
consists of several rings, and when it is once fixed 
on the plant, it continues immoveable, being sub- 
ject to no chaiige. Some pretend there are two 
softs, the one domestic, which is best, and the other 
wild, that is of a vivid colour ; however, they appear 
to be the same only with Gm ' difference, that the 

" L, . h.L.oogIc 

Ifi6 , A HISTORY or 

wild feeds npon UncUHir&ted treb/Mllhbtit any 
assistance, vrhere&B the domestic is capeftiJIy/ at a 
jitated se&Bonj temoved' to cuIlivRtM trees, vi^ere it 
feeds upon' a pnrer jbice. Those ,who take carie- of 
these insects, place them on' the prickly pcar-plant 
in a certain order, &nd are very industrioUB in de- 
lending them from other insects ,' for if any other 
iiod cone amotig them, they take care to brdsh 
4hem off nith foxes tails. Towards the end o( tiie 
yeftr, when the rains and cold weather are coming 
on, which are fatal to these insects, they take off the 
lesmpr braoches covered- with codiinenl, thnt have 
sot attained their otno^ d^ree of perfection; ami 
Iceep them in their hemeiftiH wihter is past. Then 
leafes are T«'y thick and juicy, and suppily thait 
with nifficlent nouHahinentj while they remain' with- 
in ddors. When the ntilder weaUier return^, and 
^esfr oDimala are abotft td exchide flieir ydung'; tlut 
(fatives make them nests, Hke those 6f birds, -bitt 
teSBi of t^ee-moBs, or w^ hay, or the dbwn tifcocoa- 
tioti, j^acing twelfe in 6*ery nest. These they fix 
Ion thfe thot-M of the prickly pter-plant, and in tfareie 
<6r toxa days tribe they hiid^fortii their young, wfaidi 
ieave Uteir nests rb a few days, and creep opon ^e 
branches of the plant, till Ihey find a proper place 60 
TCst in^ and tak^ in th^ir notrishment, and unti! the 
females are fecnndated fiy the males ; whidi, ds in 
the fotiner tribe; diller viery vjidely, from the females 
beiiig whiged inserts, whereas the others only creep, 
flhrt are at' moirf stationary. When Aey are impreg- 
tiatedj they predate a nevr oflspring, so (Mt the 
propagator has a- new harvest thric^ a year. When 
the Mtivd' Anrerivahs haVe gathered the codiifeWt, 
tXnty pttt them, into hd^ TO the ground, where ihef 

L, . h.L.LKV^IC 


kMJ ttwqi.with boUiqg ^»i(«r. and aflerw&tpdp ^ 
iivtm iatheauo, or. in an ovtn, or lay fhem upon 
bot plates. Ftota the various, methods of kUUog 
ibem, arise the difleqent colours vrhich they ap^ 
pear in when brought to us. While they axe liT>BS> 
they seem to be spriokled over with a white powdery 
whiob they lose as sooa as the boiling water i» ptwred 
upon thetn. Those that aredried upon bot pfattec 
are the blackest. ,What we eall-the cot^inaal ai« 
only the iamales, foE the males are a eoit of 6jy as 
Already observed in the kermes. ' They are us«d 
both for dying and medieinCj and are said to ha.T« 
much the same rirtueas the kermes, .though they 
are liow seldom used alone,-but are mixedwith other 
tbinga for the sake of the colour. 

I' shall end ihii account of the beetle tribe with 
tiie history Cif as animal which cannot propeiily be 
ranked under this species, and yet which cannot be 
more methodically ranged under any other. This it 
the insect that forms end resides in the gall-nut, the 
spoils of which are converted to such useful purposes. 
The Gall Insects are bred in a sort of bodies ad- 
hering to a kind of oak in Asia, which differ with 
re^rd to their colour,- ^ize, roughness, smoothness 
and shape, and which we call galla. They are not 
friitt, as some have iinagined, bat pretematarai 
tumours, owing to the wounds given ' to the budsj 
kaves, and twigs of the tree, by a kind of insects 
that lay their eggs within them. This animal itf 
famished with an implement, by which the female' 
penetrates into the bark of the tree, or into that 
spot which just begins to bad, and there sheds a 
drop of corrosive flaid into the cavity. Having thus 
formed a receptacle for her eg^, she deposits them 

im ' * A History OP ■ 

bod'b«mg ttius wdunded; tbe . circulation of tM 
iHriiitfre juice ii* interrupted,' anduthe fermentatkiii 
tbereofj with the poisbn injected by the fly, bomk 
the parts'adjftcent, and tbcnwhcrs the natural colour 
of the ^lant. The .j«i« or sapi Corned back- from 
itB natural course, extraiv&eafSM ftndfloWs roand the 
egg; after which- it svrelli and dtbttes bythe assist'' 
ance of some bubbles of air, which get admtsnon 
tfarsugfa' the pores of the bdrk, and which rati in 
tht VMsels with the sap. TKe external coat of' ths 
excrescence is dried by the air, and grows into a- 
fi^re which bears some resemblance to the bow of 
an arch, or the roundness of a kernel. This little 
ball receives its nutriroent, growth, and vegetation, 
as the other parts of the tree, by slow .degrees, and 
is what we call the gall-nut. The worm that is 
hatched under this spacious vault, finds in the sub- 
jtance of the ball, which is as yet very tender, .» 
sabtistsnce suitable to its nature ; gnaws land digests 
it till the time comes for its tranaforioation to » 
nymph, and from tiwt stale of eaistonce ehangvi 
into a fly. ' After this the insect, perceiviug it«rif 
duly provided with all things requisite, disengagn 
itsdf BOon from its confinement, and takes its flight 
int»the<^en air. Tfaecas^faowerer.'is not«imilaf 
with respect to the gall-nnt that grows in mtumu. 
The cold weather frequently conies on before the 
worm is transformed into a fly, or beforethe fly can 
pierce through its inclosore. The nut fisHs with the 
leaves, and although you may imagine that the fly 
which lies within is lost, yet in reality- it is not so; 
on the contrary, its being covered up so dose is (be 
means of- it8p;re!8ervattoB. Thus it spends the winter 

I;. L.oogic 


ioiia nvw^feoiiptj wbeie wei;; ea$ck andomnni^of 
tiktt not i» well stopped u{»,; .ami "lies iburted aa i^ 
vere ba^w « heBpioCileaves^ vriiioh pr-eaerses H iroat 
the<i(^unes«ftb6 «etther. Tbia apartment, how- 
erer, tb<;nigh.BO comintKlioiM>a xetreflt in the winter, 
is a perfect priaoa in, the . spring. . > The fly, roQsed 
out of its lethargy hy the first heats, breakd its way' 
Utrougb> and) tBtigiea where it pleaata. A very small 
i^iectare is suGEcieiit, since at thisiiiRie thesis bat 
a idimtHutivO' creature, ^c^i^j ^he ringlets Miieccof 
itsbo^y is composed, dilate, and become, pliant in 
tbe passage.' 

0/ the Gnat and Tipula. 

X HBRE are tiro inseets which entirely resen^le - 
each other io ttoir-form, and- yet widely difler in 
their habits, QMnnersi and prqpogatioa. 'l^hoaeiirha' 
have seen the Tipula, or Ltm^p-legs, and the larger 
kind of Gnat, haferaost prttbablytai^kentbci one 
for tfae other; they have ofien accasedihet^ala, a' 
bamless insect, of depr^tionsitnade by.libegnat, . 
and the ionoceat. have suffowl fortheigiHlty.)iindeed 
the differences irt.tbeir formare Bovery:iiutiiilej timt 
it ■ often reqnirea the assistaace of .a saicroicope to 
diatingni^ the one Urom the. other: they am botti ■ 
mounted on long legs, botli . furnished uitfa two 
wings and a slender hoiy; tlMrhciBda'aceilaMgBj 
and they s^erato be.hump'bafked:,- the. ifbief and 
only.dif^renDe, U)ere£Dre,i)8> Ahat tte^tipulaiViaDtSia 

I;. L.oogic 


trunk, while the gnat fau a large one, wfatdi it oftm 
exerts to very miBcbievous pui^oses. The lipula is 
a b&rmleBSj peaceful inaectj that offers iiijary to no- 
thing ; the gnat is sanguinary and predaceoss, ever 
seeking out for a place in which to bury its trunks 
and pumping up the blood from the animal in large 

The gnat proceeds from a little worm, which is 
usually seen at the bottom of standing waters. Tbe 
■muDer in which the insect lays its e^^ it parti- 
cularly curious ; after having laid tbe proper number 
on the surface of the wafer, it surrounds them with ' 
a kind of unctuous matter, which prevents them from 
sinking; but at the same time fastens them with a 
thread to the bottom, to prevent their floating away, 
at the mercy of, every breeze, from a. place the 
warmth of which is proper for their production, to 
any other, where the water may be too cold, or the 
animal's eneVnies too numerous. Thus the insect^ 
Ht tttoir egg state, resemble a buoy, whidi ts fixod 
by an anchor. As they come to maturity they mvk 
peeper, and at hstj when they leave the egg as 
warms, they creep at the bottom. Tbey now makts 
themsdves lodgments of cement, which they festra 
to some solid body at the vwy bottun of the water, 
traless, by accident, they meet with a piece of ohallt, 
which being of a soft and pliant natnre, gives them 
an opportunity of sinking a retreat for themselves, 
where nothing but the claws of a ciay-fish can pos- 
sihly molest tiiem. The worm aAcrwards cfo^n^es 
its form. It appears with a large head, and a tait 
invested with hair, and moistened with an oleagiBOss 
liquor, which she makes use of as a c<^, to sustain 
ker head- in the air, and her tail in the water, and to 


•MMil{>«rt Imt fiwmone plMe t»aDotlier. When tke 
•<^1 'frilb vAicb her tail ii montened be^ns to graw 
'.drr/ the (Nscfadrgei out of her^moalh BD-unetuaiw 
'hvoHNir^ w^ieh abe sheds all ovot bet tail, by vittse 
.irtiereof ibe if- emUed to transport henelf , where 
:dw plcBMfl, witiboat being either wet or. any ways 
incommoded by the water. The gnat in her second 
state ii, ppopesly speaking, in her fonn of a nymph^ 
-which it an inbtodaction or entrance into a new life. 
ilnibe fimt plac^ abe divests herself of her B«£Qnd 
Am; in tiie next she resigns her eyes, her anteoniii, 
^ad her tail ; in short, she actually seeitn to expire. 
iHowfMT, front the spoils of the amphibious aaimal, 
■alittlewiogcxUasect cots. the air, whose every, part 
is active to tbe last degree, and whose whole s^e- 
tnre is tbe just object of oar admiration. Its little 
head is adorned with a {dume of feathers, and. its 
•whole body invested with scales and hair, to secmre 
it* frtm any wet or dust. She makes trial of the 
Activity of her wings, by rubbing them eitberagainst 
her body, or her broad side-bags, which keep her hi 
-an eqnilibriam. The furbelow, or little bWer of 
'fine fesUiers, which graces her wings, is very curi- 
-OBs, and strikes the eye in tbe most agreeaUe man- 
ner. There is nothing, however, of greater im- 
portance to the goat tiun her trunk, and that weak 
impleaiept may justly be dramed one of future's 
masfer-pitces. It is so very small, that the extrenuty 
of it can scarody be discemad through the best mi- 
croscope Oiai can be procured. That part which is 
at first obvious- to the eye, is notfaiog but a long scaly 
sheath under . tbe QuoaL At near the distance of 
jlvo-thtrds of it there is an aporture, through which 
tiie insfct.darts oatjEour stin^, and afienrardi »• 

VOL. TI. n 



tracts thfem. Ooe (tf wiiicb, iumev^ [shux^.^m^ 
mctive it may be^ is no more than the Ca^ iA whipb 
tbe otber three lie concealed, aod tu^ in. a Io«^ 
groove. The sides of these stings at^ sharpened 
bke two-edged swords; they are libewibe barti^, 
and bare a vast number of cutting tsetb towatds tiie 
pointj wbicb tarns np like a bodt, ddd Sa ine be- 
yond expression. Wben all these- dai^ are' stu^ 
into tbe flesh <^ animals, sometmies one after 
another, iind sometimes all at Once, the . blood 'a«tt 
Jlumonrs of tbe adjacent parts mutt unavoidably bt 
extravasated ; upon which a tumour most ebbse. 
gently ensne, the litde orifice whtfeof is ctoaed np 
by the compression of tbe oi^emal air. When tbe 
{^at, by the point of her cose, which she makte use 
of as a tongue, has tasted any ftuit, flesh, or Jake, 
tiiat she has found out ; if it be a fluid, she audcs A 
vp, without playing her darts into it ; but in cAse 
abe finds the least obstniction by any flesh wb«tecer, 
die exerts her strength, and pierces through it, if 
pbscnbly de can. After this sbfe draws back bar 
UingB idto their eheath, which she applies to tbe 
woond in order to extibct, as tbrough a reed, tiA 
jnices which she finds indosed. This is the imple- 
inent with which tbe gnatperfbnas her work in the 
iummCr, for during the winter Ae has no manner of 
dccasron for it. Then she ceases to eat, and spends 
an that tedious season either in qoairies or in carerHS, 
which she abandons at tbe return of summer, and 
flies abodt in search after some commodious fon), 
or standing water, where she may produce her pro- 
geny, Which would be soon washed aWAy and los^ 
by tbe too rapid motion of any runtiinj^ stream. The 
Uula brood are ftometioies so nTUneToa8> that Ae very 



water » tinged according to the colour of the spe- 
ciesj B8 grecD, if they be green, and of a sanguine 
line, if they be red. 

These are circutDstances sufficiently extraordinary 
in the Fife of this little anitnal ; but it offers some- 
tiling still more curious in the method of Hi propa- 
gation. However similar insects of the gnat kind 
ere in (heir appearance, yet they differ widely frbm 
each oCher in Ae numner in which they are brougll(t 
Jrirth, for somearb oviparous, and are produced from 
eggs ; some are vivipttrons, and come forth in their 
ihost perfect form ; son^ are males, and unite wiUi 
tbfe feiiiale;' tome are females, reqniringihe impreg- 
nation of tlie male ; some are trf neither sex^ yet sCiU 
produce yonng, without any copulation whatsoever. 
TMs is one of the strangest discoveries in al| natural 
history ! A gnat separated from the rest of its kind, 
and inclosed id a gjass' vessel, with air sufficient to 
keep It alive, shall produce y'oang, which abo, when 
separated from each other^ shall be ttie parents of a 
numerous progeny. Thus, down for fi-ve or «iX 
fenerations, do these extraordinary animals propa- 
gate without the me of copulation, withoot any 
congress between the male and i^male, but in th^ 
manner of vegetables, the young bursting.from the 
body of their parents, without anyiprevious impreg>- 
nation. At the sixth generation, however, their 
propagation stops, the gnat no longer produces its 
like, from itself alone, but it requires the access of 
the male to give it another succession of fecundity. 

The gnat of Europe gives but little uneasiness ; it 
is sometimes heard to hum about our beds at night, 
and k£ep8 off Uie approaches of sleep by the appre- 
hension it causes; but it. is very different in the-iU- 

l;. L.oogic 


peopled reg'ioiis of America, where the waters stag- 
nate, and the climate is warm, and where' they are 
produced in multitudes beyond expression. The 
whole air is there filled with clouds of those "fomished 
insects ; and they are found of all sizes, from six 
inches long, to a minateness that even requires the 
microscope to have a distinct perception of Ihetn. 
The warmth of the mid-day sun is too poweHiil 
for their constitutions ; but when the erening ap- 
proaches, neither art nof flight can shield tte 
wretched inhabitants from their attacks; though 
millions are destroyed, still millions more succeed, 
and produce unceasing torment. The native In- 
dians, who anoint (heir bodies with oil, and who 
have from their infancy, been used to their d^re- 
dations, find them much less inconvenient than (hose 
who are newly arrived from Europe ; they sleep in 
their cottages covered all over with thousands of 
the gnat kind upon their bodies, and yet do not 
seem to have their slumbers interrupted by their cruel 
devourers. If a candle happens to be lighted in 
one of those places, a dond of insects at once light 
upon the flame, and extinguish it ; they are there- 
fore obliged to keep their candles in glass Ian- 
thorns — a miserable expedient to prevent an on* 
ceasing calamity * 


Of the Gadfly. 

J. HE Gad-fly, or Breeze^ is an insect well known 
to husbandmen, from its annoyance in the summer 



to cattle. These troublesome sDimals deposit their 
«^;b either under the skin on some part of the body, 
or pitkce them where they can be conveniently licked 
otf, and so conveyed into the stomach, or snuffed up 
(he nostrils. The Ibcc of this singular tribe is 
broad and flat, and has some resemblance to the Ape 
kind: and at the tail they are furnished with a 
curious sort of gimlet, composed of four tubes which 
draw out like the joints of an opera-glass, the last 
anned with three hooks, and it is with this iostru- 
ment they pierce the hides of horned cattle. The 
principal of these are the Ox Gad-fly, the Horse 
Oad-fly, the Sheep Gad-fly, and the Reindeer Gad- 
fly already described. 

The Ox Gad-fly deposits its eggs under the skin 
on ihe back of cattle, where the grub feeds on the 
matter issuing from the wound. By the pain it in- 
flicts, an extreme terror and agitation is produced, 
and the object of the attack runs bellowing about, 
with its tail erect, and in a tremulous kind of mo- 
tion, which agitation is soon communicated to the 
whole herd, who race about the fields, and betake 
themselves to some pool of water for security 
against their mischievous enemy. The tumour pro- 
duced by the grub, during its state of growth, is 
sometimes an inch high. Here remaining its de- 
etined time, it afterwards escapes from the sac, and 
felling on ihe ground becomes a chrysalis. 

The Horse Gad-fly deposits its eggs on the hair of 
the horse, or on the lips, and always on those parts 
which are most liable to be licked by the tongue : 
these are conveyed into the stomach, when the grubs, 
known by the name of Bots, adhere to the coats of 
the stomach and intestines by means of small hooks. 


and feed on the chyle ^ere produced. When full 
grown, they gradually pass through the intestineB 
with the foodj and are discharged with the dang. 

The Sheep Gad-fly lays its eggs on the inner 
margin of the nostrils of sheepj from whence it is 
conveyed into the frontal sinuses, and when full- 
grown discharged from the nostrils again. The 
moment one of these flies touches the nose of a 
sheep, it is observed to shake its head violently and 
stamp on the ground with its fore-feet, running 
about, and holding its nose to the earth, or burying 
it in sand or dust. 

In South America, an insect of this kind deposits 
its eggs under the skin on the belhes of the natives, 
occasioning a troublesome tumour. The grub, if it 
be disturbed, will eat deeper and deeper, producing 
a bad ulcer, which without much care and attention 
will often become fatal. J 

:i,, Google 




C,q,-Z.= bvGOOglt' 




Of Zoophytes in general. 

rV E are now come to tiie last link in the chain of 
animated nature, to a class of beings so confined in 
their powers, and so defective in their formation, 
that some historians have been at a losa whether to 
consider them as a superior rank of vegetables, or 
the humblest order of the animated tribe. In order 
therefore to give them a denomination agreeable to 
their existence, they have been called Zoophytes, a 
name implying vegetable nature endued with animal 
life ; and, indeed, in some the marks of the animal 
are so few, that it is difficult to give their place in 
Qature with precision, or to tell whether it is a ' 
plant or an insect that is the object of our coQ" 

Should it be asked what it is that constitutes the 
difference between animal and vegetable life, what 
H is that lays the line that separates those two great 
kingdoms from each other, it would be difficult, per- 
haps we should find it impossible, to return an 
answer. The power of motion cannot form this 
distinction, since some vegetables are possessed of 
motion, and many animals are totally without it. 
The sensitive plant has obviously a greater varie^ 
of motions than the oyster or the phdas. The ani- 
mal that fills the acorn-shell is immovable, and can 
only^ close its lid to defend itself from external in- 
'yay, while the flower, which goes by the name of 

L, . l;,L.OOg|-C 

170 A HISTORY Oir 

the fly-trap, seems to close upon the flies that light 
upon it, and that attempt to rifle it of its honey. 
The animal in this instance seems to have scarcely a 
power of self-defence ; the veg'etable not only guards 
Ha possessions, but seizes upon the robber that 
wonld venture to invade them. In like manner, 
the methods of propagation give no superiority to 
the lower rank of animals. On the contrary, vege- 
tables are freqnently produced more conformably to 
the higher ranks <^ the creation ; and though some 
plants are produced by cuttings from others, yet the 
general manner of propagation is from seeds, laid in 
the womb of the ecirth, where they are hatched into 
the similitude of the parent plant or flower. But 
a most numerous tribe of animals have lately been 
diacoTered, which are propagated by cuttingSj end 
tills in BO extraordinary a manner, that,- though the 
original insect be divided into a thousand parts, each, 
however small, shall be formed into an animal, 
entirely resembling that which was at first divided ; 
in this respect, therefore, certain races of animals 
teeni to fell beneath vegetables, by their more im- 
perfect propagation. 

What, therefore, is the distinction between them ? 
ttt are the orders so intimately blended as that it is 
'impossible to marii the bonndaries of each ? To me 
ft would seem, that all animals are possessed of one 
power, of which vegetables are totally deficient ; I 
mean either the actual ability, or an awkward 
ilttetript at self-'p reservation. However vegetables 
may seem possessed of this important qutdity, yet it 
h wftb them but a mechanical impulse, resembling 
the mtsHig xtnv end of the lever, when ydo d^teaa 
tile other:' the sensitive plant contmcts andha^gtHc 



leaves, indeed, when touched, but this motion no 
way contributes to its safety ; the fiy-trap flowfir 
acts entirely in the same manner; and thoug;h it 
seems to seize the little animal that comes to-annt^ 
it, yet, in reality, only closes mechanically upon it, 
and this incloeure neither contributes to its preser- 
vation nor its defence. But it is very different with 
insects, even of the lowest order ; the earth-worm 
not only contracts, but hides itself in the earth, and 
escapes with some share of swiftness from its pnr- 
suers. The polypus hides its horns ; the slar-fi^ 
contracts its arms, upon the appearance even of 
distant dangers ; they not only hunt for their food^ 
but provide for their safety, and however imper- 
fectly they may be formed, yet still they are in 
reality placed many degrees above the highest vege- 
table of the earth, and arc possessed of many animal 
functions, as well as those that are more ebborately 

But though these be superior to plants, they are 
far beneath their animated fellows of existeoce.- In 
the class of zoophytes, we may place all those ani- 
mals, which may be propagated by cuttings, or in 
other words, which, if divided into two or more 
parts, each part in time becomes a separate. and 
perfect animal ; the head shoots forth a tail, and op 
the contrary, the tail produces a head ; some of 
these will bear dividing but into two parts, such is 
the earth-worm ; some may be divided into more 
than two, and of this kind are many of the stacrfisl} ; 
others still may be cut into a thousand partsi, e/ffi^ 
becoming a perfect animal; tiiey may beturof^ 
inside out, like the finger of a glovQ, ttwy may..^ 
^pylded into, al] maoqer of sbapw, yet MUl-.tJWHr 


TiTBcibiM principle r^nnioa, sdll eveiy eirigle part 
becomes perfect ia its kind, and. after a few dayf 
existeocej exhibits all the arts and industry of its 
contemptible parent < We shall, therefore, divide 
20ophyteB according; to their several degrees of per- 
fection, namely, into Worms, Star-fish, and Polypi ; 
contenting ourselves with a short review of those 
nauseous and despicable creatures, that excite our 
curiosity chiefly by their imperfections ; it must not 
be concealed, however, that much has of late been 
written on this part of natural history. A new mode 
of animal production, could not &il of exciting not 
only the curiosity, but the astonishment of every phi- 
losopher : many found their favourite systems totally 
overthrown by the dTBt^very ; and it was not without 
a wordy struggle, that they gave up what bad for- 
gierly been their pleasure and their pride. At last, 
however, conviction became loo strong for argu- 
ment, and a question, which owed its general spread 
rather to its novelty, than to its importance, was 
given up in favour of the new discovery. 


Of Worms. • 

J, HE first in the class of zoophytes, are animals (^ 
the Worm kind, which being entirely destitute <^ 
foet, trail themselves along upon the ground, and 
find tbemsdvtt a retreat under Uie earth, or in the 
inter. As ^lese, like serpents, have a creeping 

I;. L.oogic 

THE WORM. 173 

motion, so botb, in general, go under tbe common 
appellation of reptilea ; a losthsome, noxioos, malig- 
nant tribe, to wtiicb man by nature, as well as by 
religion, bas tbe strongest antipathy. But though 
worms, as well as serpents, are mostly without feet, 
and have been doomed to creep along tbe earth 
on their bellies, yet their motions are very different. 
Tbe serpent, as has been said before, having a back- 
bone which it is incapable of contracting, bends its 
body into Uie form of a bow, and then shoots forward 
from the tail ; but it is very different with the womij 
which has a power of contracting or lengthening 
itself at will. There is a spiral muscle, that runs 
round its whole body, from tbe bead to the tail, 
somewhat resentbllng a wire wound round a walk- 
ing-cane, which, when slipped off, and one end ex- 
tended and held fast, will bring tbe other nearer to 
it; in this manner tbe earth-worm, having shot dat, 
or extended its body, takes hold by the slime of the 
fore part of its body, and so contracts and brings 
forward the binder part ; in this manner it movef 
onward, not without great efforts, but the occasions 
for its progressive modon are few. 

As it is designed for living under tbe earth, and 
leading a life of obscurity, so it seems tolerably 
adapted to its situation. Its body is armed widi 
small stiff sharp burrs or prickles, which it can erect 
or depress at pleasure ; under the skin there lies a 
slimy juice, to be ejected as occasion requires, atce^ 
tain perforations, between the rings oftbe'mfiselel, 
to lubricate its body, and facilitate iHia paisa^ i^o 
theearth. Like most other insects, it hath breafiiifli^ 
hcAea along the back, adjoining each ifjhg ; bM it la 
nithoDt bones, without eyes, without «M^, and;^^ 


periy without feet. ' It has a raoutli, and also an 
sliAieDtary canaU which tuna along to the very point 
of the tail-. Id softie worms, however, particularly 
such as arefoimd in the bodies of animals, this canal 
Opens towards the middle of the belly, at some dis- 
tance from the tail. The intestines of the eatrtii- 
ttorm are always founft filled with a very fine earth, 
wliich seems <o he the only nourishmetit these ehi- 
ittals are capable of receiving. 

The a:nim'al is entirely wrthont brain, but lieai: 
the head is placed the heart, which is seen to beat 
with a very distinct mMton, and round it ai^ flte 
spermatic vessels, fOTmin^ a number of little glo- 
bules, containii^g a milky fliiid, which haVe an 
opening into the belly, not iar from the h^ad : they 
are also oftett found > to contain a number of eggs, 
ithtch are laid in the earUi, and ar6 batdied ia 
twelve or fourteen days into life, by the genial 
warmth of their situation ; like snails, all these ani- 
mals unite it) themselves both sexes at once, the 
reptile that impregnates, being impregnated in turn ; 
few ttiat walk but, but must have observed them 
with their heads laid against each other, and sd 
ktroDgly attached that they suffer themselves to be 
trod upon. 

When the eggs are laid in the earUi, which, in 
tabout fourteen days, as has been said, are batched 
iHta maturity, the young ones come forth very small, 
bat perfectly fbrmed, and Buffer no change during 
^ir existence : how long their life continues is not 
well known, but it certainly holds for more than two 
or three seasons. During the winter, they bury 
tbemselves deeper in the earth, and seem, in some 
mtAsore, to share the general torpidity of the insect 

L;,q,-z.= bvGoOglt' 

THE WORM. 175 

U^e. Int^t'mg, tbey teviTewHfa.Uierdi(i^i»ttin^ 
and on those occasions, a noist ot dewy eraoing 
brings them forth from their rettteats/for t^.nni^- 
rersal purpose of contioniog Ihbir kindi. .They, 
chiefly live in a light, rich, and ffartSe- soU, moisteofj, 
by dewB or accidental showen, bot avoid thosA 
places where the water is aptxto lie On the surface 
of the earth, or vHiere the clay is too stiff for tfacar 
easy progression under ground. 

Helpless as they are .formed, yet they seem very 
vigthBt initToidiDg those animals ibat cbieiy mt^ 
them tbeilr prey ,- m particular, die Bude^ vibo feeds 
rotirely upon them beneath the suk-fooe, abd who 
seldom vestures, ^m the dimfiess d£its> sight, into 
the open air ; hitn tbey avoid, by dartii^ up from 
the. earth, the iastant they feel the grouadmove: 
and lishetmeu, who are Weil acquainted with tkis^ 
take them in what numbers they choose, by jtimn^ 
the earth where they expect to find them. They 
are also driven frotn tbeir retreats under grtiund^ by 
pouring bitter or acrid water thereon, such as that 
irater in winch green walnnts have been steep«d> 
or a ley made of pot-ashes. ' ■ 

Sncb is the genual outline ofihe bislMy of theve 
reptiles, v^ch, as it should seem, degrades tbem no 
^ay beneath the rank of other animals of the imect 
creation ; but noVr we come to a part of tbeir hi^ 
tory, vhidi proves the imperfection «f their organs^ 
fretn Uie easiness with which these Mttle machines 
may be dttmaged and repaired again. It is vfdi 
known in mecbeuics, that the finest and most emu' 
plicated instniments ere the most easily pat out of 
cwderj and ^e most difficultly set rigld{ the samit 
idso obtains in tbe animal machine. Ma,D, ^enmt 

c,q,-z.= bvGooglt; 


oomplictied VMofaHie-of ell leAen, whesc nerves 
^rt mora MiRients, and pmrcrB «f' MitJon more 
Tarioatj is move easMydestmyed : he^is teen' to' Ae 
«ider wcnadfl-wfaidLia qoadniperf or a Urd could 
cftnlysnrrive; and arwedMcend gradually to Ue 
lower faaks, the ndor the CMdpoatioi), ^e more 
diftadt itii to disortanga it. Borne ^niioBlg Kie 
withoat their limbsj and ofteir are scan to vepradac6 
them ; some are seen to livewiADnt their brain f«r 
many wed^s (<^ether t caterpiHara CMitinae to in - 
creaK and grow large, though all their noUnriorgans 
are eatJrely deitroyed withia ; some anim^ continae 
to eztat, though cut in two, dieir nobler parts pn. 
•erviogl^j v4iile the oAers perish that werer^at 
away ; bat the earUi-worm, and all the zoapliyle 
tribe, cooUaBe to live in separate parts, and oneni- 
mal, by the means of cutting, is divided into ti«6^ 
distinct existences, sometimes into a thoasand: 

There is no pbsnomenon in all natural bistoi^ 
more astoniriiiog than thiBj that man, at pieasnra, 
should have a kind of creative power, and ont-af 
one life make two, each completely fsmed, wA 
«U its apparatiu and fiinetionB, each with its pet- 
ceptions, and powers of motion and selfrpresev- 
. vation, each as complete in all respects as that from 
which it derived its existence, and eqaaily enjoying 
the hamble gratifications of its nature. 

When Des Cartes fiiat started the opinion, that 
Iwates were machines, the discovery of this sur* 
priiiog propagation was anknown, which mig^, ia 
Mme measure, have streng^ened hia&ncifot theory. 
What is lifie, in brutes, be might have said, or where 
does it reside f In some we find it so diiiased, that 
every part seema to maintain a vivacieni principle. 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

THE WORM. 177 

and the tarae animal appears phMtesied of a Qitm- 
sand dutinct irrational souls at the same lime. But 
let as not, lie would say^ give so noble a name to 
soch contemptible powers, bat rank the TtTifying 
principle in these with the sap that rises in vegeta- 
bles, or the moisture that contracts a cord, or the 
heat that puts water into motion ! Nothiofi;, in fact, 
deserves Uie name of soul, bat that which reasons, 
that which understands, and by knowing God, re- 
ceives the mark of its currency, and is minted with 
the im{n%8sion of its great Creator. 

Such might have been the speculations of tbKi 
l^iloaopher: however, to leave theory, it will be 
-sufficient. to say that vre owe the first discovery (tf 
;this pow&c of reproduction in animals to Mr. Trem- 
bley, who fiirst observed it in the polypus ; and after 
Jiim, Spalanzani and others found it taking place in 
the earth-worm, tbe.sea-worm, and several other ill- 
formed animals of a like kind, which were suscep- 
tible of this new mode of propagation. This last 
philosopher has tned several experiments upon the 
earth-worm, many of which succeeded according to 
his expectation; every earth-worm, however, did 
not retain the vivacioas principle' with the same 
Dbstioacy ; some, when cut in two, were entirely 
destroyed ; others survived only in the nobler part; 
and while the head was living the tail entirely 
perished, and a new one was seen to burgeon from 
the extremity. Butwbatwas most surprising of all, 
in some, particularly in the small red-headed earthy 
worm, both extremities survived the operation ; thf 
bead produced a tail, with the anus, the intestines, the 
annular muscle, and the prickly beards ; the tail 
part, on the other hand, was seen to shoot forth the 


L, _ I; LiOOgIC 


nobler org^ana, aad in less tfaan the apace of tbree 
months sent forth a head, a heart, with aU the appa- 
ratus and iHtrnmeBta of generation. This part, as 
may easily be aaf^osed, waa produotd maA more 
-alowly tban the fbrracr, a new bead taking abore 
diree or foarmontha for ita tompletion, a new tail 
bein^ shot forth in leaa Aan aa many weeks. Tboa 
two anffliala, by dissection, were made out of one, 
each with their aeparate eppetitea, each endaed 
with life aTHl motion, and aeemiagly aa perfect 
aa that single animd fromwhence they denied tbor 

What was performed upon the eerth^worm, waa 
fooiid to obtain ako in many of the vermicalar spe- 
cies. The sea-worm, the white water-worm, and 
many of those little worms with fieekra, found at the 
'bottom of dirty ditches ; in all theee the noUer or- 
gans are of snch little use, that if t^en away, the 
animal doea not seem to ieel the want of tbem ; it 
lives in all its parts, and in every part, and by a 
strange paradox in nature, the moat oaeless and 
contemptiMe life ia of all otbera the moat difficult 
to destroy. 

[Allied to these in tbeir vermicular shape, are 
several other kinds of vrmna, commonly known by 
the name of thread-worms. Tlie common hair- 
worm is found in fresh waters or in a wet clayey 
soil, through which it peiforatea. In size and ap- ■ 
pearance it so exactly resembles the hair of a hone's 
tail, that among the uninformed classes of people, 
the opinion still prevails of its beinf^ a hair animated 
by having been dropped into the water. When 
touched, it twists itself into a variety of knot-like 
contortions, for which reason it has been called the 


THE WORM. 179 

GordiaB. It is of equal uze throughout, and its bite 
is supposed to produce b whitlow. 

The Guinea-norm is shaped something like this, 
except that the mouth is dibted and has a roundish 
concave Up. It enters the naked arms and legs of 
the inhabitants of th« East and West Indies, sinking 
deep into the muscles, and frequently occasioniiig 
inflammation and ferer. The only means by which 
jt can be extracted, is to tie a piece of thread round 
its head and gradually: drawing it away, taking tlie 
greatest care Aat the aniroat do aot break ; for if 
this happens, the part left behind will grow widi 
redoubled vignar, and prodace tormenting and often 
-fetal consequences. 

The Fury is a still more dangerous worm', and has 
on each side a single row of closely pressed reflected 
prickles, ft is found in Finland and the nortbera 
parts of Sweden, in marsby pkccs, wbere it crawls 
op the stems of sedge-grass and low shrubs ; and 
being wafted by the wind, darts into the naked 
parts of SBch as may happen to be near it. It buried 
itself suddenly into the flesh, producing in a short 
time, gangrene, inflammation, and swooning; and 
if it be not extracted in two days, death is the ine- 
vitable consequence. The celebrated natnralirt. Sir 
Charles Linnrf, was so- severely bitten by one of 
these dreadful animals, that for some time it was 
doubtful whether he would live or die. j 




Of the Star Fish. 

JLHE oeittorder of zoophytes is that of Uie Slar-fisb, 
a nun)erouBtrihe> shapelesauid deformed, .a^eumiqff 
At dififereQt timea different appearances. The sfune 
apiinal tb^t now appears round like a ball, showily 
after flattens as thin as a pktte. All of this kipd are 
formed of a semi-traasparei)t g^tinoui Biijjstancej 
covered with a thin membrane^ and, to ao ioE^n- 
tive i^ectator, often appear like a tump of inauipate 
jelly. Boating at random upon,the sutfiBLCie of the sea, 
or thrown by chance on shore at the departure of 
the tide. But upon a more minute inapectioo, ,tl^j 
will be found possessed of life and motion; they 
win be found to shoot forth their arms in ev^ 
direction, in order to seize upon such inGects aiiajre 
near, end to devour them with great rapacity- 
Worms, the spawn of 6sh, and even muscles them- 
lelves, with their hard resisting ahetl, have be^n 
found in the stomachs of these voracious aniqials ; 
and what is very extraordinary, though the subBtance 
of their ovni bodies be almost as soft as vrater, yet 
they are no way injured by swallowing these shells, 
which are almost of a stony hardness. They increase 
in size as aU other animals do. In summer, when 
the water of the sea is Vvarmed by the beat of the 
iUD, they float upon the surface, and in the dark 
they send forth a kind of ahining light resembling 


THESTAfl-FISH. jfe'l 

tiiat of phosphorus. Some have given these animals 
the name of sea-nettles, because Ihey burn the hands 
of those that touch them, as nettles are found to do. 
They are often seen fnstened to the rocks, and to 
the largest sea-shells, as if to derive their nourish- 
ment from them. If they be taken aod put into 
spirit of wine, they will continue for many years 
entire; but if they be left to the influence of the ajr, 
tiieyare, in lesEfthan fonr-and-tvrenty hours, melted 
down into limpid and offensive water. 

In all of this species, none are found to possess % 
vent for their excremeftts, but the same pas8ag;e by 
which they devour their food, serves fot the ejection 
of their' fseces.- These animals, as was said, lalra . 
such a variety of figures, that it is impossible to de- 
scribe them under one determinate shape ; but in 
general, their bodies resemble a truncated cone, 
whose base is applied to the rock to which they are 
found usually attached. Though generally trans- 
parent, yet they are found of different colours, some 
inclining to green, some to red, some to white, and 
some to brown. In some, their colours appear dif- 
fbsed over the whole surfiice; in some, diey are 
oftfen streaked, and in others often spotted. They 
are possest of a very slow progressive motion, and 
in fine weather, they are continually seen, stretching 
out and fishing for their prey. Many of them are 
possest of a number of long slender iitaments, in 
which they entangle any small animals they happen 
to approach, and thus draw them into their enor- 
mous stomachs, which fill the whole cavity of their 
bodies. The harder shells continue for some weeks 
undigested, but at length, they undergo a kind of 
Biaceratioa in the stomach, and become a part' of 


the substance of the animal iUelf. The isdigestibli 
parts arc returned by the same aperture by which 
they were Bwallowed, and then the star-flah begins 
to ^sh for more. These also may be cut in pieces, 
and every part will survive the operation ; each be^ 
coming a perfect animal, endued with its natsral 
rapacity. Of this tribe, the number is varioue, .and 
the description of each would be tedious aad unin- 
Btructing : the manners and nature of all are nearly 
as described; but I will just make mention of one 
creature, which, though not properly belonging to 
this class, yet is so nearly related, that the passing 
it in silence would be an unpardonable omission. 

Of all other animals, the Cuttle-fish, though in 
some reacts superior to this tribe, possesses qua- 
lities the most extraordinary. It is about two feet 
long,- covered with a very thin shin, and its flesh 
composed of a gelatinous substance, which however 
withm side is strengthened by a strong bone, of 
which such great use is made by the goldsmith. It 
is possessed of eight arms, which it extends, and 
which are probatlly of Service to it in fishing for its 
prey ; while in life', it is capable of lengthening or 
contracting these at pleasure ; but when dead, they 
contract and lose their rigidity. They feed upon 
small fish, which they sei^e with their arms ; and 
they are bred from eggs, which are laid upon the 
weeds along the sea-shore. 

The cuttle-fish is found along many of the coasts 
of Europe, but are not easily caught, from a con- 
trivance with which they are furnished by nature ; 
this is a black substance, of the colour of ink, vrbicb 
is contained in a bladder generally on the left side 
of the belly, and which is ejected in the manner of 


The Cuttle Fish. 
iThe Sen Sl«r, 
s.The Sea Nettle. 


: IV, Google 


«Q eserceoeDt from tbe ands. Wboiever therefore 
Uiis fish is punued, and when it finds a difficulty of 
escaping^ it Bpui4s forth a grrat quantity of thi< 
black liquor,- by which the waters are totally darken- 
ed ; and then it escapee, by lying close at tbe bot- 
tom. In diis mfumer the creature finds its safety, 
and men find ample cause for admiration, from the 
^eat variety of stratagems with which creatures are 
endued for their peculiar preservatifm. 


Of the Fob/pui. 

X HOSE animals n^iich we have described in ibe 
last diapter, are variously denominated. Tb^ have 
been called the Star-fish, Sea-oettles, and Sea-polypi. 
This last name has been pecoliarty ascribed to them 
by the ancients, becaose of the nnnber of feelers or 
feet of which they are all possest, and with which 
they have a slow progresBive motion ; but the mo- 
dems have given the name of Polypos to a reptile 
that lives in fresh water, 1^ no meaiM ao large «- 
observable. These are found at tbe bottom of wet 
ditches, or attached to Ae under surface of the 
broad-leafed phints that grow and swim on the 
waters. Thejiame difference holds between these 
and the sea-water polypus, as between all tbe prQ- 
dsetions of the sea, and of tbe land and tbe ocean. 
The marine vegetables and auinals grow to a raon- 
•IroDs me. The eel, the pike, or the bream of 

_ IV, Cookie 


freah mten, it'batMBiftI; but mtiwMftrNfacygnn* 
to an enormous magoitude. Theberbt of 1^ fidd 
are at laost but a fiew feet higb; (iwse t^ thtt- tea 
often shoot forth a stalk of a hundred. It ia so 
IjetwecD the polypi «f both dements. . Those ofthe 
sea are found from two feet in l^igth to three or 
four^ and Pliny has even described «ae^ - the arms 
of whidi were no leas than thirty-feet tong. Those 
in fresh waters^ however^ are conptfativdy mU 
nute; at their utmost size, sekkm above tbree 
parts of an inch long, and when gathorad. up into 
their usoal form, not above a &ird eveo of tluws 

It was upon these minute animabt^.that the pon£P 
of dissection was first txied in inukt(tlying their 'numr' 
bers. They had been long consider^ as little wor- 
thy the attention of obaenreiFB, and were oMwigued 
to that neglect in which thousands of rtuoute spades 
of insects remain to this veiy day. It is tme,iai[eed^ 
that Reaumur observed, classed, and .naased'itheni. 
By omteniplating their motions, he was eoaU^ 
distinctly to pronounce.on their bsingof the animal, 
and not of the vegetable kingdom; and he called 
■Ibem polypi,- from their greet resemblance to. these 
la^er ones that were found in the ocean. .StiUv 
however, their properties were ne^ected, and thcw 
history .unknown. 

Mr. Trembley vras the perscm to whom we owe 
the first discovery of the amazing properties, and 
powers of this little vivacious creature ; he divided 
1^ class of animals into four different kinds ; into 
those -inclining to grew, those of a hrowoish cas^ 
those of flesh-colour, and ^ose whidi he csjUIs the 
P(dyp9 dePftiUkdhe. Tbe^iSa^ncosof ^cwtureia 

.IV, Google 


thoe, utfla»«f ot4<Hir] webbArvbtleendtaj^; bnt 
til&mMbeV'ofilllwirfldbBiBdng, of seizins' fheirprey; 
and of thbtr prs^gatioti, is pretty nearly die rame 
in all. I , 

Whoenr'fa&s looked witti «are'into1he bottom of 
a wet ditcby ithencbe water is stagnant; and the sun 
has been powerfa), imny remember to have seen 
many little transpdrent lamps' of jelly, abont the size 
^a pea^ and Sotted on one side; soeh'elso as bare 
examined ibt tiftder sideof tbe broad-leafed weeds 
tiiat gfow on the surfece «f ttie wtiter, must have 
<dMerved them studded wfA a number of these ]ittle 
jelly-like substances, which were probably then dis- 
Kgarded^ because their nature and history was un- 
known. ' These Iktte substances, however^ were no 
etliCTibaii livingpolypi gathered up into a quiescent 
atat^ Mkd seemingly inanienie, because either un- 
disturbedj or not excited by die calk i^ appetite 
t*atclkni. When they -are seen exerting tfaemselres, 
' tbey pot on a very different appearance from that 
when tirest; to conceive a just idea of thelrfigure, 
we may suppose the finger of a glove cut off at the 
bottom; we may suppose also several threads or 
bwns planted round the edge Kke a fringe. The 
bollow of this finger will give us an idea of the 
stomach of the animal, the threads issuing forth from 
the edges may be considered as the arms orfeelerSj 
with whidi it hunts for its prey. The animal, at its 
greatest extent, is seldom seen above an inch and 
a half long ; is much shorter when it is con- 
tracted and at rest : it ia furnished neither wiUl 
muscles nor rings, and its manner of lengtiiening or 
contracting itself more resembles that of the snail, 
than wtffmsj or any oth^r insect. The polypna con- 

l;. L.oogic 


tracts ifidf mOre or lew, ia praportkra &s it ii 
toHcbfldj or as the water ia agitated in which thej 
are seen. Wannth animates tbem, and cold be- 
numbs them ; but it requires a degree of cold ap- 
proadiing congelaUon before they are reduced to 
P^ect inactivity ; those of «n mch have generally 
their arms double^ ofiten tbrice as long as tbeir bo- 
dies. The arrosj where the animal ia not diaturbed, 
and the season not nniavourable, are thrown about 
in various directions, in order to seize and entangle 
its little prey ; sometimes three or four of the anni 
are thus employed, white the rest are contracted 
like the horns of a snail, within the animal's body. 
It seems capable of giving what length it pleases 
to these arms; it contracU and extends them. at 
pleasure, and stretches them only in proportion t* 
the remoteness of the ol^ect it would seize. 

These animals have a progressive motion, wbidi 
is performed by that power they have (tf lengthening 
end contracting themselves at pleasure ; they go 
from one part of the bottom to another ; they mouat 
along the margin of the water, and climb op tbe 
side of aquatic plants. They often are seen to come 
to 'the surface of the water, where they suspend 
themselves by ttieir lower end. As they advance 
but very slowly, they employ a great deal of time in 
every action, and bind themselves very stnngly (o 
whatever body they chance to move upon as they 
proceed ; their adhesion is voluntary, and is pro* 
bal]dy performed in the)nanner of a cnpping-glui 
applied to the body. 

All aninuils of this kind have a remarkaUe atticfa- 
ment to torn tovrards the light, and tbis natnraUy 
might induce an inquirer to look for their eye* ; bat 


hovever oBrefally this search has bton punned, tiid 
bowerer excellent' the mieroscope with which eierf 
part was examined, yet nothing of the appearance 
of this organ was found over the whote body ; and 
it is most probafaje that, tike several other insecU 
which bunt their prey by their feeling', these crea* 
tures are nnfiirnished with edTanteges which woald 
be totally useless far their support. 

In the centre of the arms, as was said before, the 
mouth is placed, which the animal can open and 
shut at pleasure, and this serves at once as a pasaa^ 
for food, and an opening for it afterdigiwti<»i. The 
inward part of the animal's body seems to be one 
j^eat' stomach, which Is open at both ends ; bot th6 
purpoaes which the opening at the bottom serves 
are hitherto unknown, but certainly not for exchid^ 
ing their excrements, for those are ejected at the 
aperture by which they are taken in. If the sarfoce 
of the body of this little creatare be examined with 
a microscope, it will be fotind studded with a num- 
ber of warts, as also the arms, especially when they 
are contracted ; and thpse tnberclas, as we shall pre- 
/ sently see, answer a very important purpose. 
^ If" we examine their way of living, we shall find 
these insects chiefly subsisting upon others, much 
less than themselves ; particularly a kind of mille- 
pedes that live in the water, and a very small red 
worm, which they seize with great avidity. In short, 
no ihsect whatsoever, less than themselves, seems to 
come amiss to them : their arms, as was observed 
above, serve them as a net would a fisherman, or 
perhaps, more exactly speaking, as a lime-twig does 
a fowler. Wherever their prey is perceived, which 
the animal effects by its feeling, it is safGcient t6 

I;. L.oogic 


toacfa ffae object it woold seiseiipdilj and itia-fu- 
iMied wilbonl a ' power of escaping.' T^e instinA 
«ne of tins ioBert's long arnu ii laid upon a mille- 
pede, the little insect sticks witlicrttt a possibility of 
xetreatin^. The greater the distance at which it it 
ioDcfaed, the greateristiie ease^th which icHe poly- 
pus brings the pfey to its mouth. If the little ob- 
ject be near, thongh irretrievahly caught, it is not 
without great difficult; that it can be brought to the 
mouth and -swaUowed. When the polypus is nn- 
snpidied with preyj it testifies its hunger by open- 
ing its month ; the aperture, however, is so smatt 
that it cannot be eamly perceived ; but when, with 
any of its ioeg anus, it has seized upon its prey, it 
then opens the month distinctly enongfa, and tills 
openi^ is always in proportion to tiie size of the 
animal which it would swallow ; the lips dilate in- 
Miifiihty by small degrees, and adjust themselves 
precisely to the figure of their prey. Mr. Trembley, 
who look a pleasure in feeding this usdess brood, 
fonnd that tiiey could devour aliments of every 
kind, fish and fle^ as well as insects; but he owns 
they did not thrive so well upon beef and veal, as 
upon the little worms of their own providing. Yfhm 
he gave one of these femiidied reptiles any sulntanc^ 
which was improper to serve (or aliment, at first it 
seized the prey with avidity, but, after keeping it 
some time entangled near the month, let it drop 
again with distinguishing nicety. 

When several polypi happen to fell upon the same 
worm, they dispute tbeir common prey with each 
otiier. Two of them are often seen seizing the 
same woim at difiierCnt ends, and dragging it at op- 
posite directions witii great force. It often ba'ppent 

TflE POI;YPUfi. -Jfiig 

tiiat nJiilf! 0ne i» Bwalfawnig its vespecltiTatend, 4be 
<dherJs aJw emjjojed in the same manner, ftndtJiiK 
they coDtinne BwaJIowing each bis part, uatUtbeir 
mouUu meet tc^etfaer ; they then rest, eadi fiar atmfi 
.jtinie ia this -situation, till the. worm, breaks between 
tiiem, and each goes o£f with b\i share ; but it oSten 
hf^ipeas, tbatfi seemingly more dangprous eorab^ 
ensuesj when Uie mouths of both are thas-^med 
upon one common preji together: the. largest polypus 
then gapesand.swallows. his.aatagonist; bid wIhM; 
is very wonderful, the nnimal tbua swiUloned Beeme 
(to .be ratter a gainer by -the misfortune. After it 
has lain io the conqueror's body for aiaimt an haiir, 
it issues unbjirt, and often in.paeaoifiif»i of the^prey 
.whi(^ bad been the original' cause t>( contantien: 
botvr bappy would it be lor uaen, if they bad as little 
to fear from each other ! . . ' 

, These reptiks continue eating the whole year, 
exjcept when the cold approaches toxoBgelatiaa; 
and then, like most others. of the. insect ^Use,' tbey 
leel the general torpw of naturej an<l all their focul- 
ilea are for two or three months ^^u^iended ; but if 
they abstain atone time, they ere equally voracioes 
at ajiother,^and like snakes, ants, and other animals 
Ihat are torpid io winter, the m^ of one day sufiEices 
them for several months together. In general, how- 
ever, they devour more largely in proportion to their 
size, and theiir growth is quick exajctly as diey ace 
fed; such as are best supplied, soonest aoqaire 
their largest ^ize, but they diminish ahw io their 
growth with the same facility, if their food be taken 
away. . ■» 

Such are the mor^obvious prppertiea of these liUiin 
^nipials^ buttheimotf won4«i(ful stiU renwfii)}^^ 

f, Google 


tbeir msnner of propagation, or rather multiplka- 
tioB, b>8 for some yemn been the BBtoHuhtnent of 
all die-4earned of Eurt^e. They are produced in as 
great a variety of manners as every »pecie8 of vege- 
table. Some polypi are propagated from eggs, as 
plants are from their seed ; some are produced by 
bada issoiitg from tbeir bodi«B, as plaats are pro- 
duced by inoculation, white all iray be muUipiied 
by cuttings, and thii to a degree o( minuteneaB that 
exceeds even philoiopbical perseverance. 

With respect to such of this kind as are hatched 
from the egg, little that is curious can be added^ ai 
it is a method of propagation so common to all the 
tnbes of insect nature ; but vrith regard to such as are 
produced like bade from their parent stem, or like 
cuttings from an original ro6t, their history requireaa 
more detailed explanation. If a polypus be carefu% 
obfferved in summer, vrhen these animals are chiefly 
active, and oicH'e particularly prepared for propaga- 
tion, it vrill be found to burgeon forth from difi^nt 
parts of its body several tubercles or little knobs, 
which grow larger and larger every day ; after two 
or three daj^ inspection, what at first appeared bat 
a small excrescence takes the figure of a small ani- 
mal, entirely resembling Its parent, fiirnisbed with 
feelers, a month, and all the apparatus for seizing 
and digesting its prey. This little creature £very 
day becomes larger, like the parent, to which 4t 
continues attached ; it spreads its arms to seize upon 
vrhatever insect is proper for aliment, and devours 
it for its own particular beneBt ; thus it is pcwsessed 
of two sources of nourishment, that which it receives 
fVom the parent by the tail, and that which it re- 
ceives from its own industry by the mouth. The 



food wiuch these aaimals receive, often tinctaees :the 
nhole body ; and upon tim occasioD tfae parent is 
often seen communicating a pari of its own floids to 
that oi iU progeny th^ grows upon it ; while, on 
Ibe contrary, it never receives any tincture from 
ahy Bubttance that it caught and Bwallowed by iti 
young. If tfae parent swallowB a red worm, which 
gives a tincture to all its fluids, the young one par- 
takes of the par^iUd colour ; but if the latter shouM 
leize upon the same prey, the parent polypus is no 
way benefited by the capture, but all the advantage 
remains with the young one. 

Bnt we are not to suppose that the parent is 
capable of producing only one at a time, several 
young ones are thus seen at once, of different siaes, 
growing from its body, some just budding forUi, 
others" acquiring their perfect form, and others 
come to sufficient maturity, and just ready to drop 
from the original stem to which they had been at- 
tached for several days. But what is more extraorr 
dinary still, those young ones themselves that con- 
tinue attached to their parent, are seen to bui^^n, 
and propagate their own young ones aUo, each 
holding the same dependence upon its respective 
parent, and possessed of the same advantages, that 
have been already described in the first connexion. 
Thus we see a gurprising chain of existence con^- 
tinued, and numbers of animals naturally produced 
without any union of the sexes, or other pre.viouS 
disposition oi nature. 

This seems to be the most natural way by which 
these insects are multiplied ; Iheir production froaj 
the egg being not so common ; and though some 

c,q,-z.= bvGoogk' 


of tbiB kind are fouad with a little Madder sttached 
to tfaeir bodies^ which is supposed to be filled with 
e^B, which afterwards come to maturity, yet the 
artificial method of propagating these animals, is 
iBQch more ezpeditioui, and equally certain : it ii 
iadifferent whether one of them be cut into ten, 
or ten hundred parts, each foectHnes as perfect an 
aqimal as that which was originally divided ; but 
it must be observed, that the smaller the part 
which is thus separated from the rest, the longer 
it will be in coming to maturity, or in assuming its 
perfect form. It would be endless to recount the 
many experiments that have been tried upon this 
philosophical prodigy ; the animial has been twisted 
and turned into all manner of shapes - it has been 
turned inside out, it has been cut in every divi- 
sion, yet still it continued to move; its parts adapt- 
ed themselves agun to each other, and in a short 
time it. became as voracious and industrious as 
, before. 

Besides these kinds mentioned by Mr. Trembley, 
there are various others which have been lately 
discovered by the vigilance of succeeding observera, 
and some of these so strongly resemble a flowering 
vegetable in their forms, that they have been mis- 
taken by many naturalists for such. Mr. Hughes, 
the author of the Natural History of Barbadoes, has 
described a species of this animal, but has mistaken 
its nature, and called it a sensitive flowering plant; 
he observed it to take refuge in the holes of rocks, 
and when undisturbed, to spread forth a number 
of ramifications, each terminated by a flowery petal 
which shrunk at the approach of the hand, and 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

IV, Google 

The Coral-plants. 

C,q,-Z.= bvGOOg[C ^ 


wMdAWlAlA the ImIv finmi Mfhetttic Dwfbre H I«d 

»tti«tarMi an animal »f-th« j(^ypi» kitid, trlMeh 
l« not otily to be tfUbhA iti BarbMhMs, bat aU6 Ott 
Inatiy pvm «)f tll£ toast tif Cortiwfllh and along tte 
Aborts df th« COntiftent. 


■' Of I^thophytK* «nd Spongta, 

It is ve^y probable that the animals we «e, and 
ahj acquainted witH, bear no manner of projiottfon 
is those that afe coftccftled ffom tia. Althougb 
fcve^y leaf and t egetable sWaf ms witH anim&fe npon 
knd, yjet at sea th€y are still more abundant ; fot* 
the ^reateit part of ^at wouM ^em vfegetaUffs 
growing Ihef'e, tire in f^ct nothing but the arfifieial 
tbrriiatioh Of insects, palaces which they havfe bdifc 
for tbeir own habitation. 

Tf we examine the bottom of the sea along sbitit 
shofes, and particiiferly at the mt^nlhs of sertrti 
riverSj iVe ^all find it has the appearance of a forest 
of trees under water, miUlons of plants growing 1ft 
•various directiohB, with theit branches entangled in 
each other, and sometimffl standing sO thick as to 
obstruct navigation. T^he shores of the Petiiian 
Gulpb, the wbdie extent of Ihfe Red S^a, atid the 
western CdaMs iX America, are so choalittd up in 

VOL. VI. o 



matiy places with these cori^itfe amhatancea, tbUl 
tbowgb ship* force a passage throu^ them, boats 
and swimmers find it impossible to make their 
way. ' These aquatic groves are formed of diff«'ent 
■nbstances, and assume-varioas appearances. The 
coral plants, as they are called, ' sometimes shoot 
out like trees without leaves in winter ,- they often 
spread out a broad surftice like a fm, and not un- 
commonly a large bundling head^ like a foggot; 
sometimes they are found to resemble a plant with 
leaves and flowers ; and often the antlers of a stag, 
with great exactness end regularity. In other parts 
of the sea are seen sponges of various magnitude, 
and extraordinary appearances, assuming a varic^ 
of fantastic forms, like large mushroons, mitrei^ 
fonts, and flower-pots. To an attentive spectator 
these various productions seem entirely of the vege- 
table kind ; they seem to have their leaves and 
their flowers^ and have been experimentally known 
to shoot out branches in the compass of a year. 
Philosophers, therefore, till of late, thought therar 
selves pretty secure in ascribing these productions 
to the vegetable kingdom ; and Count Marsigli, 
who has written very laboriously and learnedly 
upon the subject of corals and sponges, has not 
hesitated to declare his opinion, that they were 
plants-of the aquatic kind, furnished with Bowers 
and seeds, and endued with a vegetation entirely re- 
semhUng that which is found upon land. This 
opinion^ however, some time after, began to be 
shaken by Rumphius and Jusaieu, and at last by 
the ingenious Mr. Ellis, who, by a more sagadons 
and diligent inquiry ioto. nature, put it past doubt, 


that corals, tmd ^pon^es were eotirely the works of 
ajtimalSj : and that like the hQney-comh, which wa% 
formed by the bee, the coral was the work of aa 
infiaite number of reptiles of the polypus kind^ whose^ 
united labours were thus capable of filling whole 
tracts of the ocean with those embarrassing tokens 
of their industry. 

If io our researches after the nature of these planis^ 
we should be induced to break off a branch of the 
coraline. substance, and observe it carefully, we 
shall perceive its whole surface, which is very 
rugged and irregular, covered with a mucous 
fluid, and almost in every part studded with little 
jelly-like drops, which, when closely examined, will 
be found to be no other than reptiles of the poly- 
pus kind. .These have their motions, their arms,, 
their appetites, exactly resembling those described 
in the last chapter ; but they soon expire when 
taken out of the sea, and our curiosity is at once 
stopped in its career, by the animals ceasing to 
give any jntirks of llieir industry ; recourse therefore' 
has been had to other expedients, in order to de- 
termine the nature of the inhabitant, as well as the 

If- a coraline plant be strictly oWerred, while 
still growing in the sea, and the animals upon its 
surface be not disturbed, either by the aghation 
of the waters, or the touch of the observer, the 
little polypi will then be seen in infinite numbers, 
each isGuing from its cell, and in some kinds, the 
head covered with a little shell resembling an um- 
brella, the arms spread abroad, in order to seize its 
^y, while the hinder part.adll remains attached 


196 A rildfoRf OF 

t6 its habitation, froin Tfrhehce it Odw mlviJlf re- 
riiotei. By this tline it is pttceited Ihht the nam- 
}iit of iiihabiUrita is infinitely grealef than was at 
ili^t suspected ; that they arc all UMldotrtisly em- 
ijioy^ in the same jtti^itHB, and Uiat they isftae 
from their respective cells, and retit* i«to tliem at 
pleasure. Stili, however, there are no ptooft that 
thQsc large branches whifcB (hey inhabit ii^iritirely 
tlie constlTicUon of such feeble and mimite ttni- 
itiaU. Bilt chemistry ivill be found to lehd b. dtte 
t6 eklrlfcate us frorti our doubts in this particular.. 
Likre the shells which arfe fortned by iliftils, rilds- 
cies, and clysters, these coraline substances effervesce 
i^itii adds, and msty therefore well be suppoatd to 
pdttdke of i^e same ahlmal nature. But Mir. £Uts 
Went stili fafttier, and examined their operations, 
jUfit as they were heginhing. Observing an oyster- 
lied which had been for some time neglected, he 
iJiere perceived the first rudiments of a coraline 
plantation, and tufts of Various kinds shooting from 
different parts of this favourable soil, ft was upon 
these he tried his principal experiment. He took 
out the oysters which were thus furnished with co- 
ralines, and placed them in a large wooden vessel^ 
covering them with sea-water. In aboot an hour 
he perceived the animals, which before had been 
<;Ontracted by handling, and had shown no signs of 
life, expanding themselves in ev^y direction, and 
■ appearing employed in their own natural manner. 
Perceiving them therefore in this st^te, hia next aim 
was to preserve then) thus expanded, so a,s to be 
perpianentobjects OJFcurioaity. Por this porjwwe he 
poured, by. slow degrees, an equal qaautity of bmU 



ing nvter intp tjae ypift;] of f ea-fV9ter in whjcb they 
were inmer^ed. He tben separated each polypiu 
witli pincers ftom ^ sheH^ and plunged eac^ B^p^t' 
rately intp wiail crystal vases, filled with spirit yf 
irioe miveil with water. By this means the aninqt^ 
was preeejTved entire, withofit having tiine tp t^qa^ 
tract itwifj and be thila percef ved a variety of kindfj 
dncst eqval to that variety of prodijptions wjfich 
these little animals are seen to form. He has been 
thus able to perceive and describe fifity different 
kiflchj ea^h ef which is seen to posiesi its own pe- 
culiar mode of constraction, and to form a coraline 
titat none of die rest can imitate, [t is true, indeed; 
thai on every cpntline substance tt^eie are a numb^ 
of pdypi found, no way reaembUng those which ar^ 
ihe eiteto» of Uie building ; these may be ceiled a 
vagaboB4 race lof reptiles, tfa^ are only intr^^^^p 
upcHi the laboiu^ of othefs, and tl^at take posseuion 
of habitalioDB, which they have neither art nflr pow^ 
to build for themselves. But, in general, the same 
difference that subsists between the honcy^oipb of 
the bee, and the p^per-like celts of the w^^g/ pub- 
mats between the different habitati<ftis of the coral- 
making polypi. 

Wilii regard to the various forms of U)ese sub- 
ftaaces, they have obtained different names, froh) tfi^ 
nature of the animal th^t produped thefn, or the 
likenegt they bear to some well-kpowi) o))Ject, p^f:^ 
aa coralineSj iaQgi-madrepores, sponges, astrpites, 
aiid keratopbytes. Thpugb these differ extreipely 
in their outward appearancet, yet they are pll form- 
ed in tite same nwnner, by reptiles of variptw ]iirt^ 
and oatare. Wh«Q eia^^ioed cficfiflealiy, U)ey ^1 



discover tfae marfce of animal formation ; the corab/ 
as was said, dissolve in acids, the sponges burn wit^ 
an odour strongly resembling that of burnt horn. 
We are left somewhat at a ioss with regard to tbe 
precise manner in which this multitade of ' celb, 
which at last assume the appearance of a plant or 
flowerj are formed. If we may be led in this sub- 
ject by analogy, it is most probable, that the sub- 
stance of coral is produced in the same manner that 
the shell of the snail grows round it ; these little 
reptiles are each possessed of a slimy matter, vrhkh 
covers its body, and this hardening, as in the snail, 
-becomes an habitation exactly fitted to the body rf 
the animal that is to reside in it ; several of these 
habitations being joined together, form at length a 
considerable mass, and as most animals are produc- 
tive in proportion to their minuteness, so these mul- 
tiplying in a surprising degree, at length form those 
extensive forests thai cover the bottom of the deep. 

Thus all nature seems replete with life ; almost 
every plant on land has its surface covered with 
millions of these minute creatures, of whose exist- 
ence we are certain, but of whose uses we are en- 
tirely ignorant ; while numbers of what seem plants 
at sea are not only the receptacles of insects, but 
also entirely of insect formation. This might have 
led some late philosophers into an opinion, that all 
nature was animated; that every, even the most 
inert mass of matter, was endued with life and sen- 
sation, but wanted organs to make those sensations 
perceptible to the observer : those opinions, taken 
up at random, are difficultly maintained, and as dif- 
Scoltty refuted ; like combatants that meet in Ihe 


dark, each party may deal a thouaand blovra without 
ever reaching the adrenary. Those perhaps are 
wiser who view nature as she ofiers ; who, without , 
searching too deeply into the recesses in which she 
ultimately hides, are contented to take her as she 
presents herself, and storing their minds with effects, 
rather than frith causes, iostrad of the embarrass- 
ment of systems, about which few agree, are coo' 
tented with the history of appearances, concerning 
which all mankind have but one opinion. 


L,-. l;,L.OOglC 

c„„= .^Google 


X^e Botnatt charader denotes the vclumef the 4'^abic 
avmier t^ page. 

ABDOMINAL Pith, liinr ilateription, t. ISa 

AbHemioui Ufr, iu great benefit, ii. 63. 

Aht^i»encg, tAt^eoA^ observed long after Ae Reftrnnation — 
quera j^uabeth'e injunctions upon this head— a heai^eDly is- 
StlMiM, ftv» hs benefit and advantage to sockty, ii. 7. 
—— lUmarlcable inatance of it in the eloth, iii. 405. ' 

AcantluMten^i, the pridtiy-finned flah, i. 190. " * 

JElian, bu aeen an elephant write latin, iii. 339. 

JEtna, a Taleano in Sicily — remarkable eruption in 1597, i. Vl. 

AttHifO; an io^mment t» produce artifici^ wind— its deicnp- 
lioti, and tnanaer of generating vialeni bk«ts, i. S79> 

Afntm, ita tataiy rteroiG, i. 800— deatrov Yillwes and armies, 
303 — aeveral animala with four stomachi in Eurme, bave but 
twin AfHea, ii. ISS. 

Ag€, the nwuntaina of Scotland, Wales, Auyerftne, and Switaer- 
iahd, (Wmiah more inalancea of eld age, than the ^^na of 
fl«4(aMd, Flondefs, Germany, or Ppland, ii. Q*. , 

4^^, «n aoioial found in great abundance in South* America, 
and by some called the rabbit of that continent; it rescm- 
bWitae lablMt, yet ia different frpm ours, ^nd pf ouliar to the 
■ N«wWorW— its description— iti ordinary food— it has the 
hair and voracioijaness of a hog — eats preedily, and hides the 
lemaibder — buivows in bijlow treps— 4to manner of fteding 
JM wallting_^ht and hearing— ita fleab, how (^owea— bow 
mintfd nog foreed out of ita hgle— it turns in its oira .de- 
-nnae upan the btiBtera -^ Its bite, aad cry— how lame^ — 
Bta*a two young «t caidi Iftter ; brecda at least tjripe » year ; 
mgtm itB y*tthg gbwt like ft cat, and ioiign tlieis n a 


tree; whbn ^f aoon become able ta provide for tbemselves, 

iit. J5£ to i£B. 
Agrioala, hu leen hatt made of mole duiu, moat betutiful, til 

Ai, a Bame of die.^(ii— ita descripdoD, iii. 403. 
Aiguea-wutrUs, town in France, a port in the tune of St. Imw*; 

aaw temoTcd aiore than four milca from the aea, i. 230. 
Air, the only activ* agent in earthquakes, i. 89->AmoDton's 

caleulMion ofa moderate degree of heat iitfficieat to give the 

aif amazing pow«rs of expansion, 89— account of the piofer- 

Air-pump, the experiment of a carp placed under it, v. 15, 16— 
fiui cwi live but a few minntet wimout air, 16. 

Air-Uadder, in fishes, described, t. 16. 

AUxUrott, a bird of the gull Itind — its description by Edward) 
—is an inhabitant of the tropical climates* and other renons, 
as fiu' as the Straits of Magellan in the South Seas — is the 
most fierce and formidable of the aquatic tribe — it chiefly 
pursues the fiying-fish, forced from the sea by the dolphins 
— Wicquefort's account of this bird— it seems to haye a peco- 
liar afiectioD for tbe penguin, Bod a pteaiure in its socie^— 
its nett, iv. 36a 

Aibourat, a &mauB volcano near Mount Taurus, i. 84. 

Alder, hares will oot feed oa the bark of iti iii. 131. 

Algazel, the seventh vaciety of g«zellea with M- Buffiw. ii. 

Aldrtmandui, places the bats amoqg birds, iii. 226- 

Aiexander't soldiers agitated by curiosity apd apprebmuoB at 
the tides in the river lodus, i. 315. 

jUi^atoriWtbo CJayntan, a kind of crooodil*, v. 294%. . . 

A^, dreadful chasms found in them, i. 52— Pfme'a deaajjidan 
of a trt^vdlei straioing iq> the Alps, 120— the nigbest pouitiof 
them not ^ova sixteen hundred toises above ue surface of 
the sea, 128. 

Amazon, the greatest river in the world, has its soivce amoiw tbe 
Andes, i. 119 — its course from its origin in tlie lake of Xou- 
ricocah to its discharge into the Western Ocean, is more than 
twelve hundred leagues— its discharge is through a chimnel of 
a huntlred and fifty miles broad, mei receiving ab4v.e sixtjr 
.considerable river% 181. 

Amia-grite, long considered as a substance found floating on the 
. eea, but since discovered to belong to tbe cachalot,, v. £3.— 
See Cachalot. 

4n^rote, St. his credulity coaceraiog t^ halcyon, iv. 1t33> 

America, exceeds in the siu of its raplilfiat Iwt isiiri^erin hi 
qaadrupeds, ii. 16d>.— The hUck rots prigioaUy Ama 

. Europe, itave piogagated greatly in Ameiicoi and are. now 
the most noxious animals these, iU. 17% -.-The AmericaD 
mockJiiTdi, oesnmM the tone of av«ry aaintal in. thQ wood, 


' fibril the wolf to Iba rsmw-hi ioicxiptita and bolMU, ir. 

254. — Cateaby asserts the wolf ns the only dog used by 

the Araencani, before, they .had the Europeans, amoog them, 

, iji.42— the t^ir is the largest animal of America— o^ion ' 

that all quadrupeds in South America are of a ditierrat afe- 

■ ciea ftora thoee cesensbliog them in the Old World — aod 
< Buch as pecuJiariy bdong to that New Coatinent are with- 

lOnt the BBarks of the quadraped perfeetioa, ii. 164. — Ocaorip- 
tion of 1^ natives. of that countij, 84^ — The sangM there 
' BU|^«ifl tnonkies to be men, but obstioaiely dumb, to avoid 
-■ being compelled to labour, iii. 311 — the vampyre, coasidcred 
OS a great' peat of South America; and an obctraction to 
. the peopling of man^ parta of that continent, 2SS— the manu- 
. fiicture of atuffi, of tbe wool of the pacos, a v6ry coasider- 
I able branch of commerce in South America, 38^— no rab- 
bits naturally in America — but there are animals in tome 

■ measure resembling the rabbits of Europe, 133.— —That 
- part of the American continent which lies under the tine is 
' eotA and pleasant, ii. 88 — «auae of the tawny colour of the 

North American Indians — they punt their skins with red 
' - oohrot and anout them with the fat of bears, 90— the original 

cause of their fiat beads, 92.— American wood-duck detcnbed, 

Ama, or Bomto, description of this fish, t. 129. 
■Atnmodvtet, or the Lanee, a fish, it* description, v. 1S7> < 
Ammodytei, a kind of viper — it darts with amazing swiAness, t, 

Amonton obsarves, a moderate dq^ree of heat may give the air 

amazing powers of expansion, i. 89. 
Amour, a 'river of Eastern Taitary, i. 176— Jt receives ab^t 

fortjr lesser riven, 183. 
Amphibious quadrupeds have motion in the lower ^e4id alone, 
• i. 41 1— general description of that claM,iii. 235. 
Atttpkisbeerui, or the double-headed serpent, v. 376. 
Aitarehieai, the wolf-fish, its description, v. 126. 
'Anchovy has no bladder, v. 18. 
AftdSuna, genets of that province the best, ii. 184. 
A'tdea, atnasiag chasms or fissures in them— 4oma of these are 
' a Boile wide, and others, running under ground, resemble a 

province, i. 5'A — the highest mountains of the world, 84 — 

excellent description of them by Ulloa, 1S3 — tbe Andes are 

by measure three thousand one nundred and thirty-six toises, 

or fathoms, above the surface of the sea, 127 — at the top 

no difficulty of brealhiog perceived, 129^— Manner of mules 

goihg down tha preoipicea, ii. 208. 
AnfmvmAfir, an instroment to measure the velocity of the 

windr-^es no certain iuEDrmation of the force of a sMrm, 

An^orn. The goat of Aag<"<H4 numbefr of aniiqaLi ^ut An- 

L, . h'.L.ooglc 

tad open wntiblM 
ifiMifpi, «b4 iriiy — 


mm, albittig Mr ftr t m fa. .ifce cMriet outic of teoh faiir. 
Si. flS4Mrlk« DU of Angora, S90. 

,A»tMi«,k Mrd4f tiie craw land, af Branl, tfewribcd-tllie cock 
ami the Imb wro«4 tagxiier-- Mitea on* difp, th« Mb* «tayi 
by it, and diM alw, ir. 808. 

^WM(b MA Ike &nt nak uaMitllM nfiaite)]! dUeacnt firoduc- 
tMH Ibi Hfdi flflm — an ntdwvAd wtttr poiMrp of matioB 
md d«6woe, WM ih«M flavd t« sac cpot-^gaotecd btinga, 
prefl4»d vilh aome dalniM ibr ibeir ami aamntv—endaed 
vith lift aad vym r aoia, l»f oatorei tiolaiitri aan Aeir 
MHDitiM and •ActNMwwkiaaata^ luppotwd ap«n« ' 

— llMM in a dry Muny ctitnato aieuag and vl^ - - 

Tigetahtaa ampropriated t« Iha difllKMt apfi 
•f damMio InikU, canied from mtldar oonatiiM iato Mnlien] 
ciiautef, (juieUy de^nnMe aad groir -laM-^ dw iBtemal 
MTta of South Aineriaa aad Africa gratr M « pradigiatw im, 
and why! — tMt so « tbe sold fVoian miona ot toe NatA» 
the moit pwfect races hare the ieait aiimlMde U iba vagffta- 
bU produwtioD* on which thty are ultiwsiely ftdr-tha IManer 

. Iba aaiBMl, the mone local — usanw diffaraat kAiU h veil 
a* appearances, and why — iDme peautuir t« (mry part of the 
vepMable ayitetB — (here an tiiat liw -upea atfaar atunaali — 
diu wiiely bo constituted to diminish the number of aaimalB, 
and increase t^ot of TegetHbles— 4he generiJ MOpe of bai^B 
indiutrj— of the vast variety, vefy ibw tenfewfate to umii ' ■ 
in a eatal^oe of more than tweUlf tbautRnd lattll aiUDialB, 
scarcely a hundred ere Hiiy way uieftal to man— axpe- 
pedfeccjl of man's living upon animals es'well as vlsgatiUes, i. 
34fi to ^56 — little more knewn than that the greatest ttoodter 
require the cennirrence of a male and feniaJe to rep««duce 
their kind — and these, distinctly and Invariably, feuad' tQ beget 
creatures of their own apeciea, SS6 — such part;! aa the ttii- 
nal has double, or without which it can live, are t^ latest m 
produciiaB, 873-^De Graaf has attended the progress and i&- 
creasG of various anirnds in the wemb, and intnutriy aoasktd 
the changes they undergo, 379— that whichi in pr(^»<(rti«ni to 
its bqlk, takes the longest time ftir production, tlte uoetewn- 
pletf when finished — t^all othera, man (he slovresi in OMoing 
mte life— the most formidable are the Iea«t fruitful, and why 
^tbose which bring ftftiii many, engender beAtre tb^ hare ar- 
tired fl half their natural size — approach more to perfestion, 
whose generation nearly reaemHes that of man, SB8 — men 
and apes only have eye-lashes upon the epper and lower )idi 
—all others want them on the lower ltd, 410— that which hat 
UQCt desires, appears capable of the greatest variety of happi- 
"""■—••■"'6 of the forest remain wittfoatfood sevei^ week*— 

aB eddure the want of sleep and hunger witfi less injnfj to 
health th^n pan — nat^ire contracts the stomachs of- ^amlvo- 
ronsMiuiulBofthefbreat to suit then to their pmcariaui jny 

L, _ ,=.L.(Xwlc 

ef f[VW|$— t>M tlw i m Mi W fffbttiLiiirt nW mart aRjnUt of mo. 
UlHfhl Hfe ^MIMit fodd, tt limtMw fatnUitd tttth hsnds 

«ijfM(ii)irl{«»'long«¥ttMhi tWUltIk, WM4iAtaiK>tfbitt»«eo mU 
ISals in d ItalB of itfttbio «nd d«M«ikio ttaMMen* i» Mosidtfr- 
afile tllat -Wi Bugptr iHltlWi-it m yi ii miftik JMmi ti u tt nf t>— M , 
]46<-#the)r tbelb thtcdloihft iiatdrfrof tWr O l rt i i - j a JtHwir 
legs » *r«ll Sti^d to thmr reefnednuMmtCw MjMvwilM*— 
th)Hc trb* <dieir th« cud have ftuir HMtctaA^eeranftlMtitvith 
nghjiTi! fbilr MtMtlBcbs, tnte but lire ioAfinttw-FtiOMrnnbmii 
nniHaii, ^Kcfept-ttoMg^ iMket a Tolitftiij-aUMk'bM'trtth 
BuperiitHty— tiie MBMadi getttrnSAf prspMtioocdti) thcmtttte 
oF tiib food, «V tbe «HM friA which it )« obtainM-3th« hw of 

- th« ihteMiaes-prwdrtimiMt to the hauM of i ths flwd-tftir of 
the wild aert seek their prty in tbfe dB7>finM— uv pMpwnilm 
es edch cd^WotiM aninal mm» tmngtb, it wevblt the «- 
fl«t«lt^ of patiieAMi Bcridailyt an<l cumiagi^-soin* MtHds 
careiitHjr avoid their coeuiitt by j»l"cfcg cantinatrio i*»h the 
il^rQladi df- ddbgeis and Inmwhow to> pttnMi' attebaa hive 

-. lii^teted thefr fnitt, or bent imtbiMHW af tbeicbtammcaitMy 
— the wild aort nrtijeet to ftnrl)tM«tMi% and w-tbaaarage 
BtflUi botitiade for a^ the a ' * ' 

^— is otheTwiie when tdbdued' : 

ofman — the tame kind bears 

in the wood*) animals feedings only u{)oit gnus, randerad car- 
nh'orDUB — t*t> iBstances, 160 — Anica avar remarkaUa ibr Ae 
fleicenew of ita animals— the atnallMt nultiplj' tbe faaetti~- 
tho'laifeit aert bring few at»tjflw~M>dDai generatstill they 
be pMr tbekful) grewdi— thoeef*hiehbi:iDgniBiiy,r{^frDdw:e 
before theyarriTe at-h^f their nMura) siBB^-with aH aahMli, 
the time of their pregnancy ia proportioned to theip siae— bast 
method of ctasaing animala adopted by ^-vy, KMn, BriMnl, 
and Liniueua, 136— the author'a ffiethtxiitf clflariBg.tlMin,18D 
—the carnivoroua seek their tvdA in ghromy aoHtiah. miiiey 

'lare aharper than the rtiminalilig kiitd, and wiiy->^UDih>atfB^ 
animala mott hartnteaa, and mdat eaaiiy tamed^-^eDendly go 
in hecdt,. for their motHBt aeourity-^lra entlntly umd vege- 
t^lea— tiiA ndeanest of them unite is each etber'a Mfenoat— 
carnivoroua animals have amall stomacha and aboit ianatiMe 
— twninattfig aniotE^ natuAlty more ind«leat Mai leM ntfill 
than the carnivoroua kinda, and why~their bonela codal4ored 
aa an el^oratorj, with proper vearas in if— bBtUre cidavgch 
the capacity of their inteatines to take in a greater aajpplyok 
9nd fnraishes them with four atomacha-^iihe ^met sf tlMM 
ftuf Momacha— (he inteatiRCs of caraivoroua wuiaaiB ace'ihia 
and lean ; but ibttae of the ruminatitig«>rt attobg^ flaakji'ahd 
well covered with fat — of all othera, man gpcnda- thptaaW tiaic 
in eating — of all rumbistr ^e o* Und deiorva (he &H^' 
nak, u. 217 — nitfandiala give vaHAut. Wunea to.' ihb Mm^ 


vaty diileriitg in aecideeta^ circunMUoeci — of all, exaept ann, 
tfaecoff iBOit «xteDHTely^propagate(l-—greataBbvari«tT among 
>C0Ws, none mvre Jiunble and pliant of lUapMitioa— 4be Urge 
k«itt«if the tom^ zone vo-yEDmic^tbc water-— the number, of 
• tba cow kindj by imtuTHlistB exteodad to«ightof ten aorta, rft- 
«)ace«l to two — all the nmuiiaiit ioteraally miKh alike, 236-- 
thaw that take refuge under the [H'oteotioa of -man, is a fev 
' gflBoratioBe, become iadi^eal and hUplaea— the sheep, in a do- 
■aefltie state, the moit defenc^ese and iooflensive, 2S{^of all 
ur the ««i4d, the gaacUe has the ouMt beautiful eye, 278t- 
' Scarcely one animal, except the carnivoroiis, that does not 
produce cooceetiooB in' the et«maoh, iateatines, IcidnieE, blad- 
' oeri or- in t^e heart, 282 — by a general rule, every animal 
Itvcaaboul'seren orei^t timeii the number of jiears it coa- 
r (Biuce to gronr, S04 — of all natives of .this cliipate,, none have 
^ auBh a beautiful eye aathe slag, 305— no tvro.more neiujy 
' allied than the slag and the fulow-deer jyet form distinct 
' Ikmiliei, and never engender together, 320 — those living upon 
Acah hunt by nature, iii. 6 — ail under the influence of man 
sra subject to great veriatiime, 8 — those of the jiortii, in wio- 
- ter, are more hairy than those ot the milder climates, and 
what the cause. 76— of the. arctic cliuuitei, have their winter 
and summer garmenta, except as far nortli aa Greenland, 78r- 
of the weasel kind, tbe martin the moat pleasing, 68r-feediDg 
entirely upon vegetables, are inoSensive and timorous, 117 
—remarkable for speed, except the horse, have die hind feet 
longer than the fore, 1 19 — none receives the male when preg- 
nant, except the hare, 120 — sH are tamed more difficultly 
in proportion tn their cowardice, 174<~-in all countries, civi* 
lised and improved, the lower ranks of annals repressed and 
degraded, 249. 
Antelope, Hs description, ii^>276: 
Anttert, their distinct names, ti. 312. 
^n^para*,'it« grotto most remarkable, L ^. 
^nltpathy, many have it to some animals, whose presence tb^ 

instantly smell, ii. 48. Dog* and wolves tu different in 

thoiT' dispositions, that no animals can have a more perfect 
antipathy, iii. 33— tbe same aubsists between the jackkll and 
the dog, Sa 
Antiquity, most naturally looked up to with reverential wondar, 

ii. 111. 
AnU, the natural history of, vi. ISO. 
Ant-lion, the, vi. 7- 

Anl^ater, or Ant-bear, deecription and habits->tbeir art to catch 
the ants — manner of defence against its enemies — kills the 
invader, and remaine fastened upon him with- vindictive das* 
peration, iii. 397- 
Antiooh, buried. by an earthquake, i. 93. ■ . 

^drto, die great artwy, i. SSO, 




1^ hy Ntttie the BraBlini rabbit — iu detcFijitioii, iii. Ifift 
r, ^haw eyoAmhex upon tbe upper and Jtmer lids, i. 410 — 
tba omIv aoiout paue«ed of hands sad arme, 42&--in Mue 
«f tbe ICBtd the resenablance to man lo striking, that ana- 
tomiitt are puasled to find in what part of the huoMn body 
■nan's aupertavttjr onrtaut*— enjoy many advacttgeB'in con- 
inoD with men, above the lower tribes of naturet 147— the . 
foremost of the bind is the ouraDg>ouUDg, or wi]d..iiMD of 
the woeds^desciiption of this aninwl by Dr. TysoD— compa- 
rative view of this creature with man— anotber descriptioa of 
it by.M. Bufibn-^wo youn^ ones, but a year old, discoTered 
an astonisbiDg power of imitation— a kind called bBris,<pn>- 
perly butrncted when young, serve as useful domestics— Le 
Conite's account of an ape in the Straits of Molucca — the 
loag^rtned ape aa- extraordinarj and remarkable creslurfr— 
its deaciiplioD — a native of the East Indies, and fouad along 
the coasts of Coromandel— fling themselves from one rope to 
'mother, at thirty, forty, and fitty feet distaaDe— instancy of 
■maeing iHmUei>es»—tn a state of nature ibe^ run upoMlll- 
iburs— certain proofs of it — riigbl survey of^the ape kmd, 
iii. S7T— 'in the aavies of Solomon, among the articles im- 
ported from the East, are apm apd peacocks, iv. 133. 

jlpiciut, Doted for having taught ] mankind to suffocate fish, in 
Carthaginian pickle, t. 25 — his receipt for makins; luice 
ier the ostrich, iv. 45 ' — his manner of dressing a oare in 
true Roman taste, iii. 127> 

Apodal, the name of a-fish without ventral fins, v. 130. 

Appendices in the ioteitines of birds, i*. 12. 

Appetite, nature, b^ supplyuig a variety, has multiplied life in 
ner productions, |v. 60. 

Arabia, its sandy tempests described, L 300.— Men .nad ani- 
mals buried in the sands of Arabia, preserved from otHmp- 
tion, for several ages, as if actually embalmed, ii. ]19.»tlie 
ass oric^nally a native of Arabia, 206. See Hortts, CameL 

Arckimedet, ducovered the method of determining the putity (dT 
gold, by weighing it in water, i. 159. 

Archipelago, very good horses in its islands, ii. 187— tbe wild ass 
found in those islands, particularly Cerigo, ii,200. 

Ardebil, the pastures in those plains excellent for rearing horses, 
ii. 188. 

Arequlpa, a celebrated burniog ntountaiu in Peru, i. 84. 

Argentine, description of this fish, v, 128. 

Argonaut, or Paper-nautilut, described, v. 229- 

Anon, by his harp, gathered .the dolphma to the ship's side, ji. 

AritMlt^t opinion about tbe ibnnation of the incipient animal, 
i. 357— «nd mules bein^ sometimes prolific, 199. 

Arhtto, an Italian Franciscan friar — for bis sleeping tranogFes- 
sions taken before tbe inquiaitioo, and lilw to be condemned 
for them, ii. 16. 

L, _ h.L.oo'gIc 


ArmaiiMa, or TataK, ^mvttHf^ refenM W dittribrof fawetB 6r 
ttaUa, ij. \«^~sa inhsbttant of SBtnh.AiBWic«<-« taknalin 
creature, furniriied with a pCcalitr corning fbr Hi Menot— 
MUoiced witfamit dkofer, add IkUe to perMctiUob* — is of 
difocnt lisiea ; in b1^ htmever, tUe anittMl la piitlaDy feo- 
vnred irith b coat of mai), h itriking c u r i w i w is Mttitll ldi> 
tor^-^M Ae satoe method of protecdag ilsen at the hotec- 
bag or pangriin— when attacked, rslli Tttelf up in io duUt, 
like e mH, asd contiAties «o «ill tbe ddngA ii erer-^tbe In- 
diem ttks it in this form, laj it cImc to the in, Dnd oMge 
h to Qnfold— 4hts aahnal nuerlj unkn*ira bafin* tlw du- 
Mverj «f America— doea tniacKIef itt goAuM-^yttmt the 
ceAA of ouf climate tritfaout inconTenicnoe-Mfae Mole toes 
net burrow swifter then the annadilU— burtdM deepttr 'Ot the 

' earth — expedients used to force tlietn out— nmnner of tlAbe 
then ali?e, lainetirjie* in snares by the tidee iX riven, tod 
low moist places, which thej frequent-^never found A onj 
distance from their retreats — near a preoiffct, escBfm bf 
•rfling itself up, and ttiniblitig down fnm roch to nude, 
without danger or inconrenieitce— its ftwd-^soart^j Mljr duE 
do not root the ground like a hog-^ hitAl of f¥iendAip 
between them and the nAtle-tnake ; thfaf irC <V«qH«illj> Aitsd 
in the same fa^e — they «(1 reaemble etich oUier, m ^oA«d 

- with a shell, yet differ ifi size, and ifi the diTtnoti Vi tkelr 
rii«ll— the TSrious kind^- the pig-headed Dott, tbe wcstel- 
headed, the kabassou, and the encoubert «W the largest, iii. 
218, 40. 

Ante, the river, a considerabt« piece of ground gaurad at the 
BMth ofit, i. 299. 

Ara, Dumhers of birds of paradise seen tberc, Iv^SOi. 

AvtetMi, tutor to the Emperor Arcadius, liffid a hundred and 
twenty years, ii. 8. 

Artti &ult that has infected moGt of our dictHMiaries aiM eOHpi- 
iMisns of nstural history, ii, 144. 

Ana, aim of the Asiatics to possess many VoUien, smd to furfilfh 
a seraglio, their only ambition, i. 400— lustre of jewels and 
B^eudour of briJliatit colours eag«rly Bought ^Wt by, aH eOlidi- 
tioos of men, +21. - 

Am Minw, description of its inhabitantl, itv S£. 

Atiittic, the olive- coloured, claims the hereditary resMblonce 
to our common parent— an ergument to pntve ti* contrary, 

Aap, a kind of s^rpeat, v. 369. 

AiphaUum, an injection of peiroleUM and M a(>|iUCBtloB of 
asphaltum suffice to make a mummy, ii. 126. 

Att tnd boree, though nearly alike in ibrm, are Mtik'et k)B^ 
different id nature— with only One bf each kind, boOi races 
*otrid be ffttfnguiahed-^ic the Btne (tf «atai« emUety dUtnih 
—wild aetin greater abunduce thia Ac #i)d h«At^«M ass 


I N d E 3L 

tnd the »bra s <KfleTent ipecie^-countriei where ttie wild 
au is found — aome run bd svili, tew couriers can over- 
take tbem—cauKbt with traps — taken chie6y for their flesh 
and skins, wbicn make that leather called shagreen — ent«r* 
tBrnment of wild -asses in Persia seen by Olearius — the de- 
itCKy of its flesh a prpvprb there — Galen deems it unwhole- 
some — asses originally imported into America by the SpB*- 
niardB, liave nin wild, and multiplied to sitch numbers as 
to be a nuisance-^ chase of them in the kingdom of Quito-^ 
have all the swifbnets of horses — declivities and precipicci do 
not retard their career — after the first load, tneir ceieritj 
leaves them, their dangerous ferocity lost, and they contract 
the stupid look and dullness peculiar to the asinine species- 
will not permit a horse to live among them— always feed to- 
getber— and a horse strajring where thev graxe, they fall upon, 
and bite and kick him till he be deaa— their preference of 
the plantain to any other T^etable — they drink as soberly 
as they eat, and never dip the nose into the stream — fear 
to wet their feet, and turn out to avoid the dirty parts of 
a road — show no ardour but for the fem^e, and often die 
after covering^4cent an owner at a distance, and distinguish 
him in a crowd — with eyes covered, they will not stir a step 
— when laid down, one eye covered with the grass, and tha 
other hidden with a stone, or olbel contisuous body, they 
wilt not stir, or attempt to rise, to get ^e ftam iiripedi- 
tnents -^several brought up to perform, and exhibited at a 
show— suffered to dwindle every generation, and particulaHy 
in England — bulk for bulk, an ass stronger than a horte^ 
and surer footed-J-also less apt to sUrt u»n the horse- 
more healthy than tha horse— Persians cleave their nostrils 
to give more rootti for breathing— Spaniards alone know the 
value of the ass— llie Spanish jack-ass above fifteen bands 
high— the ass originallv a native of Arabia— waim climMei 
produce the lai^st ana best— entirely lost among us during 
the reign' of queen Elizabeth — Holingshed pretends bur land 
yields no asses, yet they were common in England before 
that time — in Sweden they are b sort of rarity— by the last 
history of Norway, they had not reached that country— ia 
Guinea they arc larger and more beautilul than the hone* 
of that country— in Persia are two kinds — some sold for 
forty or fifty pounds — no animal covered with hair less subject 
to vermin— Irves till twenty or twenty -five-- sleeps lesa thaa 
the horse, and never lies down, unless mnch tired— riie^asa 
crosses fire and water to protAt her young— the gimerro, 
bred between the ass and the bull— the size and strength of 
our asses improved by importation of Spanish jack-asses, ii. 

197, Ac Destroyed by the South American bat, c«lle4 

vampyre, iii. S35. 
4t*afixtula, savas* lUOioM delichted with the naell, iL 48< 
TOL. VI. P ' 

I; Google 


j^uniheiU, lake, wh«ra the river St. Lawrence t«ltes ita riw 

Aitroitet, mnoiiff coral «ub«tances, vi. 197. 

jitaiantitt an island submotsad. ww aa Urge as Aaia S^nor 
and Syria— the friuM of the earth, oSeied wUbW)t culttvatigo, 

Akanatus, iD&tance of ha atreogth, L 436. 

Alheliton, prohibited the ex^rtatlon of taares and stalligaSn ex- 
cept aa presents, ii. 194> 

4lfteniant bad their oo«k-matQhH, iv. 126. See QfuU^ghting, 
iv. 163. 

AtitritK, daaciiptiou of thia fiah, t. 128. 

4l>natphere, mijit dtsordeni iocident to mankind, aajn. Bacon, 
arise from chuBea of the atmpqpl^re, v, 19. 

AilrwtioH defined^tbe aun poueawd of tbe (i;ei((esli share* 
i. 3. 

jhik, a bird breil in tbe island of $t, Kilda, ii. 389. 

Avqeelta,, oi scqc^er, a bud of the oraoe kind, found in Italy— 
now am] then seen in England-Description, «ad eKt^aQidi- 
nary atiB|W of ita bill, ir, S^. 

4uTelia, QQS of tbf af^amocaa of thq <;^t[)plar. ii., 4)7, ic. 

: — %iDg it i;i a warm rooin., ?Jr. B,^unur basteoeil tbe di*- 

. closure of the butte^, and b;y keeiuog it i^ an ice- 
bouse retarded it— ibaugb it bean a oifiereM onpearaace, 

. it contwns nil the parts of tjiie butterfly, in ped'ect fin- 

, BMUJQBi Kfmm ipaects co^tique under that foini not sbqve 

'. ten days, some twei^tjr, soiw, seveial pKwtba, Atbera for a 
f ear toget^ec, 6£-r^ow the butlcrflv geta rid qf Uiat cover< 
iDgi 63— auT«m of tbe bee difierevt; iraiia tliat qf tbe opmnopn 
^aterpiUar, vi. lO^. 

A»T(«at or tbe Satniri, the smajlest. and loost beautiful of tbe 
sapajou inpakies..~its description^.^ totj teodiqr,, ,dfilicafe, 
sjid held in higb pcioe, iii. 316. 

Aworxi Borealit, or oqrtbera ligh(„ slreans nUb pefldUfV ^tfTe> 
and a variety gf coloijrs. aqqnd the pole-r-iM appe^wwe 
abooet constant in. wiDtei;-<-and> ^hea, the sun deraita for 
balf a, year, this meteor auppliea ita beams* affqrdijijg light Gh' 
all the purposes of evatem^, i. 331. 

^uver£n«, in France, anfmjmog munuux ^ug up,attbtt{d«4e, 
ii. 1^. 

Am, ft kind of baauti&U atw-^its descriptioo, iL 318. 

^zar«^ serpents, adders, SAdtnakea. «effitf)0)tt.tbSfe;i«lwl«bj 
Sir ftebeit Hawkins in. 1^90, i..20Q> 


Babotlni Mrvey of the baboon Icmd, iii. S76 — fierce, nmlidaiUi 
tgnofantf and untrbctablc— its description — impelled hj a 
hatred for ihe males of thb hnman species, and a desire for 
wonen—^he eheralin forbin relates, ibat in Sianr, whole 
troops will BBlly forth, plunder, the housei of proWsions, and 
eodesvour tO' force the women — manner of robbingan orchard 
or vinayard at. the Cape of Oood' HopC'^tlie femido brings ' 
fwth one at a time, carries it in her arms, clinging to her 
. breagt^-at &e Ct^ of Good Hope the young of these ani- 

mals are taught to guard houses, and perform ^e doty with 
pimetuatitv-->tte]r'seem insett^te of the mischief they do— 
ababoon described % M. BdSbn — theirfotkk— ore net found 

to breed in our climate — are not carnivorous— their liver, like 
that of a dog, divided into six lobes—the largest of the kmd 
it Ibe raandrfl— its- description— displeased it weeps like a 
thild— is ia native of the Gold Coast v— that called wstideroW 
chiefly ceea in the woods of Ceylon and Malebar— its 
descnplion; — the maimon of Baflbn, by Edwards called tha 
pig^il. die last oflhe sort, its dcscriptio&--a native ' of' Sunui- 
tra, 293, See. 

Babi/, the name of a dwarf, whose complete history it very ac- 
curately related by M. DaubAMon, ii. 104'. 

Bttfyroaetta, the Indian hog, its description — travdlerg cal( it 
the bog of Boraeo^--^in' what manner it escapes tbe'pursners — 
has enormous tusks of iine ivory, less dangerous thiui th0 
wild boar — the tusks have points directed to the eyesj and 
sometimes grow into them— these animals, in a body, are 
seen with Me wild bOars, with which they are not known 
to engender— are easily tamed — hare a way of reposing dif- 
ferent from other animals of the larger kind, by hitching 
one of their upper tusks on the branch of a tree, and saN 
ferihgi theif whole boiFf to swin^ down at eaae — th^ are 
fienee and terrible when oClended; ebA peaceable and hartn- 
. loss when unmolested— their fledi Kpod to beeaten, but said 
to putrefy in a short time— they chiefly live upon vegetables 
imd the leaves of trees — are found^ in the -island of Borneo, 
and' in other parte <^ Asia and Africa, ii. 375, &c. 

Alteon finely remarks thb investigatibn of final causes i« a barren 
study, t. 15 — his hints tor a regular history of the winds, 

280.. Observes most of the disorders incident to mankind 

arise from the changes and' alterations of the atmosphere—' 

his observatMns upon fishes, v. 19; Asserts that^toada 

are 'found' lorip^ in dw bosom of rocks, or cased wkhin the 
body of an o^4reei witbont the smallest accefarwi any side, 
eitberibp nouifshment or air, v. 28(Xi 

Bttitgtr, a solitary stupid animalUfnma.*: wfadi^ihcfclnd 

remuiu in ufe^ at the bottom— the fox takea poanmon of 
the bole quitled by the badger, or forces it from the retreat 
by wiles — surpriBed by the di^ at a dutaoce from its hole, 
it fighta vrith desperate reBolutioD— all that has life is its 
food— it sleeps the greatest part of the time, and, tboush 
not Toracious, keeps fit, particukrijr in winter — it keeps ue 
hole very dear— Uie female makes a bed of hay for ber 
young— «rinn forth in summer, thr^ or foiv youi^ — 
bow sha feeds Ihem — the young are eanly tamed — the okl 
are sarage and incorrigible-^are fond of fire, and often bam 
themselves dangerously — are subject to the mange, and have 
a gland under the tall, which scents atroagly— 4tt flesh rank 
and ill tasted, iii. 391, ftc. A 

Bait, the best for all kind of fiih is fresh haTing-— the larger 
sort will take ft living small fish upon the hocdi sooner than 
any other bait, v. 83. 
Baimce, to determme the specific gravity of metals, L 159. 
Balearic-crane, its desci^tion — the real crane of Plinv — comes 
from the coast of Africa and the Cape de Verd islsnda — 'Hs 
habits-4ias been described by the name of sea-peacock— 
foreign birds of the crane kind described, the jabiru, the 
jabiru>guacu, the anhima, and the buffixm bird, iv. 303, &c. 
BaU qfj^e of d>e bigness of a boudi-^U efiects, i. 325. 
BtiUic, the Danes in possesmon of it, L 195. 
Bonoiia, tbe dephuit eats this ^ant to the roou, liL 358. 
Budtt of a river, after inunditKUu, appear above water, whea 

dl the adjacent valley is overflown, and why, i. 169. 
Sari, an Anbiau faorse bred in Barbary, ii. 183. 
Bariary-hat, its description, iv. 148. 
Barblt, « flat fish, its growth, v. 149. 
Sarb$ (tf tbe whale, or whale-bone, v. 35. 
Barttocfe, imaginary, a sbell-fish, v. 250. 
BoToeh, in the kiiudom of Cambaya, flocks of peacocks leea in 

the fielda near that city, iv. 1S6. 
jBaroNiefer, serviceable in measuring the heights of mountwns, i. 
128— measures tfa» weight of the air— hi what manner, 252— 
changes in the air without sensible alteration in tbe barometer, 
253>-whea it maiks a peculiar li^tness in the air, no wonder 
that it foretells • storm, and why, 291. 
Barretiere, a fkmous you^, considered as a prodigy of leaniing 
at tbe ue of fourteen, sl^t regularly twelve bours in the 
twenty-rour, ii. IS. 
Bat&itk, a kind of lizard, v. $25. 

Sat, as trig as a rabbit, i. 350— by some reckoned among 
' birds, ii. 149— doubtful among naturalists whether beast or 
bird — now aniversally uke place among quadrupeds— Flin/i 
Cieaaer, and Aldrovandus placed it among birds— scarcdy la 
any particular resemblea the bird, except the power of sas- 
taifui^ itself te tbe air— dncri^'on ot tbe coaunon tort i& 



England-wU' iDtestineB and skeleton, m some meuure, r^ 
■emble those of mankind — make* its first appearaiice eflrij 
in suramer, and foegim iu flight in the eveDing— is seen to 
■kirn along the sur^ce of waters— feeds upon gnatS) moths, 
and Docturnal insects of every kind, which it pursues open- 
mouthed — its flight laborious, irregular, and, if interrupta^^ 
not readily followed' by a second el eration— usually taken^ 
when striking against an object it falls to the ground — even 
in the summer, it sleeps the greatest part of the time— its 
retreat — continues in a'torpid state during vinter — is usually 
hsiMiDg by its hooked claws to the roofs of caves, unoflected 
by ^1 changes of weatbtr— is destroved particularly by the 
owl— the bat couples and brings forth' in summer from two 
to fire young at a time — the feimle has tiro nipples forward 
' on the breast, as in tbe human kind, and this a motive for 
Linnteus to give it the title of a primas, to r^k it in the 
same order with mankind— tbe female makes do nest for 
her young — when she begins to grow hungty, and finds a Dtt 
ceasity of stirring abro«l, she takes her little ones, and 
sticks tbem by Uieir hooks against the sides of her apart- 
ment, and there they immove&bly cling, and patiently wait 
her return — less similitade to tha race of birds than of qua- 
drupeds — great labour in flyine soon Rttigues, and tires it 
ki less thaa an hour— rits petty tbefts upon the fat of bacon 
^long-eared bat — horse-sboe bat — rhinoceros bat— a larger 
race of bats in the East and West Indies truly formidable^ 
a dangerous enemy — -when united in flocks they become 
draadful — tbey are eaten — the negroes of the African coasts 
will not eat tfaemi though starving — on. tbe Afncan coast 
they fly in such numbers as to obscure the setting sun— the 
rousette, or great bat of Madagascar, is found along tha 
coasts of Africa and Malabar, where it is often seen about 
the size of a large hen — destroys tlie ripe fruits, and some- 
times settles upon anfnals, and man himself— destroys fowls 
and domestic animals, unless preserved with the utmost care, 
and oflen fastens upon the mhabitaols, attacks them in the 
face, and makes terrible wounds— tbe ancients have taken 
their idea of harpies from these fierce and voracious creatures, 
- ^equally deformed, greedy, uncleanly, and cruel— the bat, 
' . called tbe American vampyre — its description br Ulloa — 
purport of his account confirmed by various travellers, wbo 
all agree that it has a faculty of drawing blood from persons ^ 
sleepmg, and destroying them before they awake— a strong- 
difficulty remains how they make tbe wound— Ulloa and 
Buflbn's opimons, suppose the animal endowed with a strone 

Eower of suction ; and that, without inflicting any wound, 
y continuing, to draw, it enlarges the pores of tbe skin, so 
that the bloM at length passes — they are one of tV givat 


'pf«ti (J Sostb-AmeDos, iii. 2tS ^jSui^ m Aa ^»1« jle. 

■erted-b; the vood^pecker, iv. 194. 
fiafA, pemou coipiog out of b intrm bath several -ouncea 

heavier than they wiuit in — warm hath of aea-wBtcr a kted 

oi relf.ef to qianiters i^pon a ftilure of iteih water at tea, L 

^o dt^, wid ofaatag-vheaheiuriu his head agaii»t<tbehouiidi, 

ffeagie. See Hottnd, iii, IS, 14. 
Be»A, how that of anim^ ii nraduoed, L 4%. 
0eam, hy buoten meant that part wfaiefa bouv jbe antlert, 

ii. 311. 
^(inur thorn (^ the«un Bhining upon the fit«, pot it out, and 
- wliy— 4artpg dined/ updn lu, without the jnedium ef the 
• ail, would burn lu vpM ■oatx, or blind as vitfa eiulgttice, 

SfiardSr AmenGtas take great paini to pluok tfaeira up Jl^ -the 
. roQta,.A>6 uodar port, and all but the whiifaeM, theMfoie 
I »HppQ»ed to hand no hair ^owiag «d 4bBt part^— JUinoMOi 
. liiniBelf ba« jbUea into tlut mistake— 4i^ent cUstomt of 

men, lio. the nanneriaf wearing their beacdd, i. 420. 
Sears, in coU frozen regioiiH of die M<mh not stealer ^tran is 
wilder coaotrjes, i. S50 — the North AmerieaB ifidlau 

.AOoint their skinB with &t of beari, ii. 90. Tbe bean 

_ now and jtheo make di^>vedatioM upon the rdb^eer, S56— 
. ip Gjeniland do not change colour, iii. '78— 4be black of 
Apterica doea not reject animal food, as believed — places 
. wJiere the/ are found->-relTeat of Ae brom hear — « vul- 
^a Wtot, that during winter, the bromm bearliveiby Euck- 
' ing its pave i it seems rather to BidMitt then dpon the exube- 
.jrance of iU former Qesh— the male and fem^ do not inhabit 
the aame den, and seldom are seen together, but upon the 
acceasei of genial desire—care of the female for her young 
' — i^he bear, when tamed, seems .gentle and plaoid^ yet etitl 
to be 4ietruBted, and maaaged with caution, ixiojt oAea 
treacherous and resentfUl without a cause— is capable «f a 
d«^ee of instruction— ivhen cume to maturity, can nerer be 
temed-p-methoda of taking tiieai— their paws and hanw a 
great delicacy—rthe white, placed in the cotdwt «limR#s, 
grows Ui^er tii^n in the temperate cones, and roBaalns master 
lof tbe icy mountains in Spitsbergen and GreealaMd— unable 
.to retreat, when attacked with Bre-arms, they make a fierce 
and long reEiBtanc&— they live opon fish aod serfa, ibeir fleib 
is too strong for Ivod—Ure often seen on iM-floats, several 
leagues at sea, though bad swinnners— the while sometimes 
jumps into « ^zreenlander's boat, aad if it dees not overset 
it, sits down calmly, and, like i pftSBenget-, '.sidihrs itsetf to 
. be Fosed sioog— hunger makea it gwin after ^sh— often a 


the latter genenJIj' prow victorioiu. jH. 365, -&c. 

Statu M nUdlt fierce and chiel in all countries'.Where mefi ara 
nott barttavotrt. ti. 16S'.' '" 

0eatft i^vhaix, in thrreigin oC William iLufiH, atid HeDry tiie 
Fint, it #ftB latf Mminiil'ttt'deMtoy one of the human species 
than s betit (rf idiace^^-s^red cdlficel thrown doini, atid 
turned w wBsie, to raake T(K>m-fbt- btfatis of chrite; ii. 909. - 

Btattt ofpregtK\Aaaism\it each Mhef^tbey diielljr Geek gfter 
the deer or the tfoat-^thliir mual methbd o^^unting, \\. l£j. 

£Mwr, known tobuUd^fkf an architect, Bird rule like a cititen^ 
ii. leO— Its fbre part! taite'tike fleah,'ntd the hhider like the 
fisb it fe«di on, VtS—r-h r«tiiainittg ratfaument of biMital 
■oc>eti>-^it« quuitin, taken from ita fdloWBi and kept' in 
Bolitude or dijmestic tamene^g — resists onI)r when drived to 
extremity, and Aghta vhen fts speed cobiiAt AvdU— the only 
quadruped that ha a fiat btoad tall, entered i^iUi sAsles, and 

' aerriogatknidder ^ direct it«iii(ltion>lbtbe-WlitiiN^the«ol* 
quadruped with metAbranes between the toe« t/d the bind ftet, 
«id tusat on Ae fore feet — the only animal in its fore parts 
entirely resembling a quBdru|)ed, and in Its hinder' parts ap- 
proaches the nature of fishes, havmg a scaly tBiI—itj descrip- 
tion—has but one vent fbr the etniwioft of excrements and 
tiring— they assemble about the months of Jutte and July- 
make a society, to continue the greatest part of the year— form 
a companj' of abbve two hundr»l — fix their abode by the side 
of a take or river— cut with their teeth a tree thicker than a 
man's bodT-*-amszing wort and mansion hooses-^gouTey their 
roaterials by water — mix clay and dry srasa tocher, work it 
into a nfortar, and with their tails platster thnr work wHhia 
and without — thdr walls perpendicular, and two feet thick — 
their piers founcore or an itundred feet long, and ten or twelve 
feet thick at the fosse — Aeir dikes ten and twelve fiiet 
thick at the foundaUon,'— their apartments round or oral, oaA 
divided into three stories, one above the other— -visited too 
bflen by men, thev work only in the night-time, or abaodoa 
the place, and seek a safer situation— ^ur hundred reside in 
one mansion -honse, divided into a number of apartments bav- 
•ing commtmicatlan with each other — theirwoAs lo the northern 
parts finished in August or September— In sammer they are 
epicures— their povisions for the winter season— they drive 
piles into the MTth, to fenceond fortify their habitation agalast 
the wind and water— ^cut dtfwtl branches from three to ten ffeet 
in lenath — ^tfie hfgest are Conveyed to the mageajnes by a 
whole body— Hie tamllest bv' bne only— each taking a drfibreot 
way, and flavipg n mtflc asiignedhim, that no one should in- 
terrnpt aaortm in his work — wood-yardi larger of smaller, in 
|nopOrt!on to the ntitnbar in fkmSy— manner of catching tfacm 
m snares, or by nrprixe-i-they swloi with Qieir monar on 
their tails, and their BtakM benrccn tfamr teeth— their works 

Jamtgtd br JbEM of irater, or &M of b aat w un, iuUntiy 

tepaiiti, ill. 244, Ac. 

Jfeaidy, every coantry baa peculiar idea* of beauty— extra ordi- 
aary Uttet for beauty— every Qatiop, how bsrtMroua toever, 
)ta» peculiar aHf of he^ht^iUDi beaiitv^^everat of these aita, 
f. 404^ modem ladv'a fape formea exactly like tbe Veana 
of Medicii, or thf Sleeping Vettal, would icucely be Ctjn- 
aidered a» a beauty, except by (be loven of antjq^aiiy — Ie» 
in the object tbsii iq the eye of flie b^boldar— auperwr beauty 
of our aoceiton not WsQy comparable, ii, 1I2> 

Seou^o, a t^ird of tbp sparrow kmiL iv. 247. 

ped ct». river, an incr^oap of water there increaaes - iu npid'tyi 
exqept iq cu^ of inundatioDi and why— -uich bed lefidty for 
•ome bp^a by a Tiolent storif) blowing directly agtiust the 

. stream, i. 173. 

Beit, the earth every where m bedi over beda, and each of them 
nainttiniog exacl^ the aama thickneaa, LSI. 

ffetf a ruminating iniect, or aeemingly ao-4u stomach ia cooH 
poaed of muacuUr fibre*, ii. 221.1 n Operaliwii atudied for 
two thousand yeaiB are atill incompletely kikownr-^Keaumur'a 
account sufficiently wonderful— many of the bets held dubious 
by those conversant with the st^ject — some declared not to 
have existence in nature-i-tbree different . kinds of bees^^ 

. common working bees neither male nor female — queen bees 
lay all the eggs that are hatched in a season— structure of the 
working bee, particularly of its trunk, which extracts the 
hooey from flowerB-*-maoner of building their cells— in one 
day, they make cells upon each other euough to cootain three 
thousana bees— description of those cells— the combs made 
by insensible degrees, not at once, as some imagine— the cells 
for the young and for the drones — that for the queen-bee the 
largest, of all— those for honey are deeper than the rest — that 
not the only food upon which they subsist — manner of antici* 
pating the progress of vegetation — the bee has a stomach 
u>r wax as well as honey — bee-bread— treacle for food of b«es 
in winter, — what part of the flower has the honey— .«ting of the 
bee — any wanting food, bends down its tru^k to the^m 
whom it is expected, whiph then opens its honey-bj<g, . and 
lets some dropt foil into the other's mouth— namerpuB.asth^ 

. multitude of bees appear in a swann, they all owe ihtir origin 
to one pareo^t, oaUed the gueerg-bee^opeqkig the body of 
a queen, the egg/t at one tim^ fu|ind to amount >P five thousand 
^he queen easily dis^Dguiahed froiOj the i£i>,l-v|i;re^ t^rtiltty 
of the qiieep, abd.the^real 9t'eiiti()nS; p^ to^ner, contro- 
vert ed by recent observers— fh^.le^ve a c^, t«^yory>egft 
and destroy the rest— greai t:arft^^4^'^^^°n/**' fheiyOttiitr' 
in about twenty dava mer.^he eW^as kid^U^l^ wav-cooir 
pletely formed. ,Bnd fitted j:^. upde^- f 9|! fjttigueJLof..ittJ4«t* 

. rTtb«.,ceUbcfD^pre|^d,'thgafi4nuJ j$pQ triBA^^ 


. ftn anratiR, diftrtnt from thtt of tlia common cMerrHUo^— 
when the)' begia to break thtir pritotu, above a hundred ars 
excluded in one day— dreadful batUea oflea euue between the 
youag brood aad tlieir progeoitora— signs previous to their 

. migrations— after the migratioo, the queen being settled, tba 
. swann follows, and in a quarter of an nour the whole body is 
se— sometinfes sacrifice their queen ; but never when tba 

hive is full of wax and honey— the wwJcing tort kill tlie drones 
in the worm state, in the cell, and eject iheir'bodies from tha 
hive among the general carnage— upwards of forty thousand 
bees found in a smglehive— inutuucei of expedition in workbg 
—in the first tifieen days, the; make more wax than during 
the rest of the year— a hive sending out several swarms in the 
year, the first always the best and most nuiseroua— a kind of 
floating bee-house used in France, vi. 92. 

Bet* in other ceuntries — in Guadaloupe are less by half than in 

. Europti, and have no sting-^sometimes there are two or three 
queens to a swarm ; then the weaker deserted for the mora 
. powerful protector— the deserted queen does'not survive the 
defeat, is destroyed by the jealous rival ; and till this be done, 
the bees ni^er go out to work— at Guadaloupe their cells are 
in hollow trees, sometimes with a sort of waxen house, shaped 
like a, pear, in which they lodge their hqney. and h^ their 
e^gs — tlieir honey nevn congeals, is fluid as oil, and has the 
colour of amber — in the tropical climates are black bees with- 
out a stiag — their wax is soft, aad only used for medicinal 
purposes, not being hard enough for candles, as in Europe^ 
whether the humble-bees have a queen or not, there is one 
much larger thun the rest, without wmgs, without hair, all over 
black, like polished ebony— this views all the works, from 
lime' to time^their habits— thehoeey gathered by the humble* 
bees neither so fine, so good, nor the wax so clear, or so 

. capable of fusion, as those of the common bees, vi. Ill, &c 
.Leafi-ulting Beti make their nest, andlay tbeir eggs, among bits 

, of leaves, w'x. 114. 

Walt Beit, so called because they make their nests in walls^ 
the male and female are of a size — the former without a sting, 
Tt. 11*,. 

W»t>d-bet, vi. 1 Ij— Afacon- Jee, 1 1 3 — Grourid-bee build tbeir nests 
in the eaith— the patience and assiduity of their labour, 113. 

BttiUt, a futninaiing insect, or uems to rominaie, ii. 221.— —< 
tbeii genend cbancteristics, vi. 14S— (heir kinds distinguished 
ftom <ead> other— description of the dorr-beetle, or the 
May-k«g— hdw the: two sexes in the May-bug are distin- 
. gushed ■I'oai each other— seasbh of their coupling— the female 
-braeii a hole into the grircirid^ where io deposit her burthen ; 
and when lightfrHe^ of it baceh^s from th^ hole to live as be- 
fk^thei^egg^deCbriptton 6f,flie insect, uid its man'ber of 
MTtat fbA fr<Mf itMt— leotitiauto' in fb&t state for more than 


I 'N 1> E X. 
three yc&n, ^ampn^ entj' yea ia^tSti, aai UMag unfler 
tbe groand. iritbovt 670^-91 inmt nennR' it 'aBsmmn the farm 
ofs chfTtalfs— trme when itbecornn witaged, ,and compIeWlf 
fwmed— the old one nerer survives the ■season— and dies M>m 
theaeveritj^fcoMin winter— -its habiB and food, when cnn- 
pietelj forrned— number of dieir eggs-^roolfi and ho^ parti- 
cularly fond rf UttUt, and devour utetn in igreat numbers- 
instances of great devastatioiiH m^de by the May-bog^— 
description a«d habits dF that beetle wbicU tlie Americans call 
die TumUe-dung — the insect called the Kivg of the Beet)ea 
—de sc ription (tf* tbe elepfaant-beede, the Ittivest of this kind 
hidierto Known, US, Sec ■ 

Bell, the greet drring-bell imptored by doctor Halley— be eoald 
write or read in it when tbe sea yras d^r, and especially wUea 
tbe sun shone, i..24I. 

Belt, when the stag cries, he is sbid to bell, ii. 311. 

Bdlt, their vibrations not heard under Ae ret»aYer of sa air- 
pump, ). '277. 

Berries, the I.^)landers drinfc water in which juniper-berriei 
hav^ been infused, ii. 74. 

Semziler, or tbe sai, a monkey of the new continent, iii. 

.Sezoar, its description, ii. 280— Getman bezoar, ii. 274b 

Bezoofgtxa,' the orietital bezoar, ii. SSO-^^^ow-besoar, and 
monlffiy-beEoar — bog-bezoar, ii. 282. 

Biltkin^, a name given by fagotshieD to the excrement of As 
fox, lii. i7. 

Binh, hares are particularly fond of h, iii 131. 

Btrd'Calchers, sport by counterfeiting tbe ciy of the owl, iv. II3 
— net* fi)r, and mecliod of taking small birds, 2S8. 

Birds, all produced from the egg, i. 365 — their lower eye-lid 
alone has motion, 411 — have tne neck longer than any other 
lund of anhnals— -those which hare short claws, hai« also 
short necka— those that have long daws have ths neck in pro' 

portion, 423 have a power of disgorging food to feed tneir 

young — raminating birds, ii. 290— many kinds which the dog 
will not touch, iii, 28 — banters often infimned by the bircU 
i^the place of retreat of the fox, 50 — a flock of small birds 
often alarms erery thicket, and dtrects tb^' hunter to the 

tnartb, 90 surpass fishes and insects xi ttructure of body, 

and in sagacity— their anatomy imd confoi^alion-Tcoffl* 
pared ■ to a ship unking way thmngh watt;r— -are fomtsbed 
with a gland bdiind, containing a proper -quantity of oil— 
to what purpose— description of their feathers, i«. 2, ftc^ 
the pectoral muscles of quadrupeds trifling tothoseof biirds 
— choose to rise against the wind, and why — all, «xcept the 
nocturnal, hare the head smaller, and less in proportion to 
the body, than quadropcd^— tbeir sight exceeds most other 
animalt, and excds in strengtii ana piecinon— hare M Ac- 


I N D E X( 

' ternal ear Mandine -ent from the hood— the f^hen enMm- 
passhglhe eor-lioieB Bupply the ^rfeni (tf the emenm eat — 
tbe extreme delicaoj of (heir sense of hearing, is easily proved 
jiy tbeir feadtneM in learning trmes, er repeating wenlB, 
md tiie exacineee of tbeif pfontmciertioii— their -derrcacy in 
the tense of smeljiag— ^aslance of it in •ddclis— ihe tail guides 
theJr flight like e -rudder, Mid aestststhem either tn'theBscCDt 
er descent — wonderAil iatemal «»iifbrniation— <he «iad>pfpe 
often nwlVR rnnny ^trnvolHtioBs -vichin the bodj -of the 'brrtl, . 
and is theacalkdtlie I^rinth—d''wbatase these conrdtilieDS 
■ere, ns naturalist hasbeei) 'able te flccoarit~^bis -diflerence 
'ObtaJDg in birds to sH «ppeaTaDce <A the same speties— 
vlwnee aorae derive that loud and'Tsrious madufation in 

' thetrvarblings, is'iMrt easily acecHntedfiMr-^blrds haveidqch 
loiid» voices, Ui re«]>ect to ibeir'biillt, than airimal«"er ether 
kinds — all bate prt^ieriy hiA ooe . sWmetA, biit flilterent 
Id different kinds— tlw organs of i^enion in a nnufQer 
reversed m birds — why they <piA s^ sand, graved, and tither 
hard aubMenoes — a»st have two appenffdes Ar'bHnd ^ts — 
iD'qaadnipedaeti«fiys'tbuBd'«iog)e>-oTltrirdawairt a btadderfor 
usbe — Ifeeir arine'difeEB ftom thalt ef ether animals— •^btts 
of the «nnuri BDDidting which birds -tn^fer— :-tfaeir nmultttig 
lime aitifioially aoederated, and how— 4ie manner invrhlcE 
nature peffoim -the operation of mooUing — their JnouMng 
«eason — many lire wiA^delity togetherfsra length ef time — 
Wb«D one 'dies, the Mher shares the same 'fate soon after — 
-the male of wild )>irde as happy in the yoavg brood as Ihe 
female— «o(bing <e«ceeds their patieaee while hatchins— 
Addison's ebserr&tions to this purpose — great care and in- 
<duBtry io providing mibsisteoee for their young— they fted 
each ef dfce young in turn, a»d why— perceiving their nests 
vr young to bave b«e« handled, they abandon the place by 
night, and provide a more secure, tnough less commodious 
retreats— tile yoong taeght the art ef providiiig for their sub- 
sistence — those 'hatched and sent out earliest in die season 
the most «tr(mg and vigorous, 7, 6tc^— they ende^vmir to 
produBe early io the spring, M>d irhy— effiirts for a progeny 
wbea their nests are robbed— such as would have Wd but 
two Of l^ee eggs, # Jheir eggs Ire stolen will lay tCTi or 
tweWe — the greatatt number Femain in the 'distmctg wlterc 
they have been bred ; and are excited to mtgraiien 9tAy by 
fevi, cHmate, or hinger— eaHse of the aimiiel emigrxuons 
of birds — times df migrations — in what order performed— 
B^ow Hhe weather rftther tbati the country, and go on as - 
they perceive the atmospltere more suitable to tttei; wanto 
and dispositions — m eH countries, longer Kved than quadrUr 
peds &f ietsects of the same dknaie— surprising age of swans 

- and geese — plumage and voice of bwds in 4i^<vnt zones- 
all less than quB^i^Mds—llve greatest of one dtm nn^rass 
the gfoMMt -of the othw fai nu^iitude— causes of -the great 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 


variety in tbe middle order of birds— the ostrich ia the grou- 
fst of b^^ — the bummuig-bird the smal)e«t — wild birdi 
generally of the aame me^nitude and shape — inferior to 
quadruped! in docility— dim rence between }and-birds and 
water-nmb, 23, &G.-~deacription of birdi of the rapa- 
cious kind — Ae pie kind — the poultry kind — the Eparraw 
kind— the duck lund — the crane kind, 33 — the nauseoui 
bird, or dodo, 58 — powers of laod-birds of the rapacioua 
kind to olMoin tbeir food — sight of such as prey hy day sur- 
pTisingly quick—4ucfa as rav^e by night have their sight 
fitted to see in darknen with precision — inhabit the most 
lonely places and desert mountains — appearing in cultivated 
plains, or the waibling groves, is for depretlation— every 
order of camiTOrous birds seek for those of the site approach- 
ing tbeir owd— the carnivorous kinds only breed annually, 
and are less fruitful than others— breed but few at -a time — 
where supplies of food are difficult, the old soon drive the 
brood iirnn the neat to shift for Ibeouelves, and often de- 
stroy tb«n in a fiiry, caused by hunger — almost all birds 
xt prey miaociafe k i d ie male and female when necessary to 
etai other live tegetber; but they most usually prowl atone 
— birds witb crookied beaka and talons are solitary — all males 
of prey are leaa, and weaker ttum females — the females are 
of a gNMcc aize, more beautiful and lovely for shape and 
. colours, stronger, more fierce, and generous, thaji tbe mdes 
—it laay be necessary to be thus %aperior, to provide for 
herself and her young— these birds are lean and meagre— 
their flesh is stringy and ill-tasted, soon corrupting, and 
flavoured of that animal upon which ther subsist — B^- 
niua asserts, many people like the flesh or the vulture and 
falcon, and dress them for eating ; and that the osprey, whei^ 
young, is excellent food— five kmde of land-bird, of a rapa- 
cious nature— whence their distinctive mark, 60, Ac — bird 
of heaven, name ^'ven by tbe ancimts to the eagle, 67 — the 
tnost formidable birds of prey respect the butcher-bird, 108 
-~the dtgeetion of such as live upon mice, lizards, or the 
hke food, not very perfect, 110— bther Kircher set the 
voices of birds to music, 111— domesttc birds of the pouU 
tiy kind, maintained in our yards, are of foreign extraction, 
119— the wild^ species cooped or caged, pine sway, grow 
gloomy, and some reflise all sustenance— the poultry kind alone 
grow fat, 121 — climate, food, and captivity, three very power- 
ful agents in the ajjerations, iu the babits, and the ve^ fbnn 
of birds— of all birds tbe cock the oldest companion of man- 
^fid, and the first reclaimed from the forest, 123 — abo tbe 
Persian bird of Aristophanes, 124 — description of the tanjisi 
nr the bird of Numidia, 144 — the busUrd the largest land- 
bird, native of Britain, 149— none secures its young better 
from external injury than the loucao, 19&— God's bird, tbe 
Jjifd pf paradise, 202— parakveta the tnost beautiful in 

I N D E X. 

pluini^tei and the mrat talkative birds in nature, 321— tlis 
pi^oD, for [ti size, baa the largest crop, 226 — small birds 
mark out a territory to tbemndTes, whicli they permit none of 
their own specieB to remain in — at some season of the year, 
all small birds migrate from one countn to another, or 
from more inland provinces towards the shore — months of 
their migrations—- Autumn the pribcipal season for catching 
these wanderers — the nets and the method of catching them 
-^^lur-birds— singing amoi^ birds universally the prerogative 
of the mole— finml oirds fight till one yield^ his life with the 
victory— ~two male birds strive in song, till the loudest 
silences the other; duriog the contention, the female sita 
an attentive silent auditor, &Ad oflen rewards the loudest 
songiterwith her company during the season— the male, while 
his mate is hatching, sits upon some neighbouring tree, ta 
watch and to sing— the iiests of small birds warmer than of 
the larger — small birds having finished their nests, nothing 
exceeds the cntiQiDg they employ to conceal it — worms and 
insects the first food of all birds of the sparrow kind 
—how birds of the sparrow kind bring forth and batch 
their young— manner of life during the rigours of winter 
—the male of small birds not finding a mate of his 
own species, fiies to one of another, like him, leil out 
in pairing— a mixed spedea between a goldfinch and a 
canary bird, between a linnet and a lark, these breed fre- 
quently together^ and produce, not like the mules among 
quadrupeds, a race incapable <£ breeding again, hut one a> 
n-uitful as their parents— various buds of uie sparrow kind 
—many plants propagated from the depositions of birds- 
many of those kinds which are of passage in England, 
permanent in other countries ; and some, with us constant 
residents, in other kingdoms have the nature of birds of pas- 
sage — instances of it, 237, &c. — the heron commits the great- 
est devastation in f^h waters, SIO — the flamingo has the 
largest toDgue, 326 — birds of various sorts and sizes mora 
than the stars in a serene night, seen in the rock of the Bass, 
in the Urth of Forth, S69 — none make a more indi&rent 
figure upon land, or a more beautiful in the water, than 
the swan, 399— of all birds known, it is the longest in the 
shell, 107 — an incontestable proof that birds have their 
manners, rather from nature than education, 409. 

Bucayneeri, were in posseuion of the whale-fishery, of) the , 
coasts of Greenland, in the beginning of th^ fourteettth 
century, V. 42^their method pf taking tbe whale, i3i •- 

Bison and fJrua, names of deacendsnta of one coiauon', stock 
— error of the naturalists upon this point—the «ow and 
bison are animals of the saine kind— description of the bison 
—it is supposed by Klein and Buffon no wore than another 
naqie for the bonasus^the breed found in ^1 the sotith«rn 
parts of world — that breed mpre «xpet|| aod doiHle: tban 

L, . l;.L.OOg[c 


aarp—maay b«nd their Lneea ta tftbs.EHirdais up or set then 
down— the respect for them in India degenerated into ado- 
ratioa— it is nimble of foot.— Uettecmed by tbe Hottantoti 
— assists them tn attending their floeks, and guarding th«m 
sgainst invaders— is taught to combat the enemies of tbe 
uiatioO) and every uimj of tbe Hottentots is fiiinished with 
. a' herd of tbenif— thev procare the Hottentett an easy 
, victoiv before they sttike a blow— live> in the- same catAage 
with Its master, and when it dies, a. Tiew one ia choseb to 
. succeed it by> a council of tbe o!d' men of tbe village, aod 
is. theo joined with a veteran of its own kiul, IVmn wboni it 
learns, becomes social and diligent, and is taken for Jife 
into friendsbip-and protection — the bisons ai<e found todiier 
ftaia each otlier in several parts of ths' nerid— some have 
, horns, some ore without — they aie equity tractable and 
. gentle when tamed — and a^e lurnitbed wiA a fiDei luetroM, 
soft hair, more beautiful thim that of our own breed-^ 
their hump of difiersnt sizes, weighing from forty to KAy 
pounds, more er less— cuts and tastes samewbat like a 
dressed udder— the bisons' of Malabe#, Abyssinia, Mada- 
gBscsr, Acabiai Africa, ami America — in the courseof a fow 
flenfEationa, the hnmp wears away — its deseriptio»—tfae 
&ison and the com breeil among each other-^the grunting or 
SHiefian cow; and the little African cow or zebu, ore diferent 
racea-of the bisoa; ii. 22S, &c 
Bitchr a [oegnaot bitch, so placed I^ M. Buffen, that her 

puppies were- brought! forUi in wwm water, i. S86. 
^tLehes,: ana forgotten in •» oouatry -bouse,, lived forty days 
without Any otfa^ noorisbmeot than tbe wool of a quilt she 
had. torn to pieces, iii. 3S. 
Silt*T%,oT miitt-druDi, tba solemnity oS its evening-cidl caimot 
be described b^ words^^tbey are calls ta courtship, or of 
.connubial' felicity— ^t.,^fera from the heron obieSy in 
. celour-— its wind-^pe fitted i(a the sotuid— opmions con- 
, cerniflg the causa of its bo oipinga— never utters its call in 
docnsstic captivity—its residence-— a retired timorous animal— 
iCa foodi nest, and egg^-Aa three &sy», leads its little ones 
,to thein food— diSereaiDeB betmeea the bittern uid the bereii 
■4— its hollow boom considered^ b^ the vulgar as tbe presage 
.. of somflssd event— instance of iW-ile fle^ greatly esteemed 
among the luxurious — it seldom rises- but w^ien- almost tead 
t^ion — at tha>]atteE end of autumn, in the evening, its wontAd 
indolence forsakes it— is then seen rising in a spiral ascent, 
till quite lost irnm the view, making a singular noise-, di^ 
fesent froav its former beomings — names given to this birA 
by the Greeks and Latitis, iv. S16. 
itiw/ctr shells, v. 209 — all tbe kinds hermaphrodtte, yet reomre 
noassisttuiae towards. impregnation, 233r-{lftrticafau4y in t&ese 
sbalt,fiah the pearls are fiiutvi, £43. . 


JSiadlmd, af.tbe^iurQV'kinlitT..fl(&-*MQiatimM.S£eB^iiKr 

wliite — jts eggs and neat^SSI. 
Black-cap, bird «£ the epairav-Iunidk Lv. 219—puied by mdw 

for ltd ■iouog, and u- also ciUiadl the Mock liU^tjiiRale, 
■ 262. 
B^ach, asnjefltural. q)iDiii» QuU ibe bladu are a mc« of 

people bred from.cuie s&an accideotatly black — the clinute a 

cause obvifliu «nd sufficient to produce blacIiaeBs— luMbuig 
, satisfactory, discovered upon the i&iua produciog it io human 

caii\ple^QDi~eptniDa of Sir Thtwaas Biovd upoa the subject, 

»,87 — whence oiig^U^ their flat nowB, 32--UacIc^parcDt8 

have procreated two white aegrbei, ^i 
Bladder, birds hue j^o. bladder fot luine, iv. 13. See Fuhes, 

V. 16,,4c 
BleHnius, or Blfmtift descciptioa of this Gsb, t. 21, 18S. 
B^nd, Bucb. a»'live in. countries geoei»IIy coiered isitb anoir 

becoDK blind) ii.,30. rXbe raoleaot biuad, iii. 19Q; 

Blind-worm, its deACtiptiott, ». 376. , 

Blond, arterial bUiod imnecUately mixM with air in the lungft 

is of a Sue flond' scstlet colQur-T-thitl:, of the veios retnrong 

to the hewt i» q£ a blackish, crimagn^ hoe— mheiutQ this dif- 

. f^e»t^ of colour proeeeda not. well understood, 

. ^e blood i:i«:ulate& thiqugh ^e. bones, as tbcough awry 
;;atliet, pa«, of tlie boity-rMr. Belcher the Saal wSo disco- 

, vered, it^bis e^g^riment to thii pwjiose), iL &7 Blood of 

the feio-deer preserved in small casks for sauce with the 
. i)ieriQW'iQ,.qtrinA, ii. 35dv.->.^ThA. heat of the.Uoodin inaa 
^ffid other aoii)<?s abeut tjiirty deuses abova fiw^elation 
— in the niarmout, aod other animalB which sleeif the winter, 
it is:not above t£aUqgne«t i^l52< i 

Blood-houud, described, lii. 14. 

Biw-Urd, degcrlbedr-^la re;Bidlencerviiraf£)jC!caughtr->ita dodr. 
licy-^peakq ^ul wji^tlefi ati thee woid of c a iy ni i BxJ — n wa ne r 
of taking it, iT._2^^ . i ...,.,■.. 

C/iie-wi^deBjc^bed, ii. 390.' , 

fi/iuitn^, whence it proeeeds.i.^dT' .. 

Boar, wild, varies not his colour as hogs of the domeaiUe kind 
-^descuption-rKbe plows tbefitoiuuilikn a furrow^ — his tusks 
seen aliuost a foot laag-»thav diKer nam thoaaof the ele- 
phant in that they never f^Urffiihea the, boars, cone to a 
.fba& of piatuti^ 'th^...dnBad-.P0. .jingle creature — theii 
position when attalcked — the manner of hunting theia — when 
Killed, the testicles cut off to, prevent iheir tamting the 
flesb-i-was Gormeily a niuiye. of. our couAtry— ^Wiiliaia the 
Conqueror . puoished with the: lo^ of their ey.esiauph: as killed 

. it in his foreetsAa^ present the. widhiieediaie3aiD«t,ii, 358, 
&c.— the Canary boar descrijtedprthe tualw heing: broken 
laiaxt Lhe apiiQaL abates its, ^erceocssi and veoery,,, and 
Many the same efi^ct as ca8b'atiDnis:pcodiu£d*il7Sn-£)es Jtot 

L, . h.L.oogIc 


ty the qtproacfa of the Hon — eombit oT a lion and- « will 
boar, in ■ meulow near Al^ipn; 402. 

Ihiai, Dame of the mamiaiit in Poland, iii. 155. 

Sodie*, whj acMne light bodies nrun, and ponderoua bodies siDk, 
i. 158— the deeper a body linki, the ereater the resistance 
of the depreMed fluid beneath — hnw then, afler it it got A 
certain way, does it sink at sll, 160— animal bodies left to 

Eutrefj, produce air copiously, 379. Symmetry of Ae 
uman body— the body of a well-^aped man ooght to be 
■quare, 406— human body often found to difier from itself 
in- size — instance of it — tbe cause— difers also IVom itself ia 
we^t— instancet of it, 428- those parts fnmbhed with tbe 
greatest quantity of nerves, are first in fbrniation, ii. W — 
the tone of a sonorous body made to depend upon the 
number of iu Tibradons, and not the force, is taking an e^ct 
for a cauae, 34— sidferii^ is bat to a certain de|tree— torture 
becoming excessive, destroys itself; and the nund ceases to 
pereuTe, when the bodr can no lonver endure, 68. ' 

Boerhaave observed to hn pupils lilUe ridges of bHls hi Hol- 
land, as mountains of no small consideration, i. 115 — says, 
if wt filter and distil water a thouiasd times, it will depose 
a aedtment, 141— cenndered heat ao jtrejodJcad to health, 

tiiat he wti never aeen to go near e me, 269. His con.- 

jecturer of the eatiae of hoii^, ii, fi.. .Said, npon pwoas^ 
to leadli the aru of cniel^ is equivdent to committii^ lheui« 
iv. 127. 

Soiguacu, die largest of the serpent kind in. Sooth America — 
somethnes fi^y feet in length, L 350. — t-Descriptioii of tbis 
creature, v. S79. 

Bonatiu, supposed by KMn and Bufibn aoodier name fortbe 
hiscn, ii. 232. 

Bona, in the embryo, soft almost as the imncles and flesh — 
bard as tbe bones seem, tbe blood boMs its cnnent through 
ifaem, as through other parts of the body— 4n old nge more 
•oh'd, also man brittle, «od lAn, ii. 57. ftc^— FosniliS 
bones found on the banka of the Ohio, in Peru, and &azd, 
iii. 356. 

SoMtet-Mttou, M. Bufibn's name of a monkey, so[^ioaed > a 

- variety of that called Malbroek, m. 313. 

Bonito, description of this fish, v. 1S9> 

Boobi/, name given by our ae em e n to Mids of the penguin trUw, 
iv. 387. . . ^ 

BoraruHoHi, dncriptioB of them. ii. 7S< 

hvriit/ienet, or Nieper, a river, its course and source, i. 175. 

Borneo, island in the East Indies, whoe the b^yrouesaa, or 
Indian hc^, is principally fhond— hog «f Borneo, the name 
given by travellers to tbe babyroucsaa, ii. 876> 

Borneo, the natives hont the ourai^-outai^in the Hune awmnr 
as the el^hant or the lion, iii. 288. ' . -' 

: IV, Google 

I. N B E 3(. 

■ iB b^Mfcoww, (the ThiBtiw) wm iMfint^pTopriatsdtby gr^t- 
iig \o took as i>ere in pqciMnioa gf its diow the right of 
fishing in it, i. 195. 
Bottom of tb* Bdb io eonc pirts aot fouad, and wfa;— tbat 
of the Red Sea, a foreai of Hibiaariiie yiaan — that of the 
«bA Btkt Anflrioa atymA 'with veg^t^lea-i-it map of the 
bottsnuf th« Boi iMtweea Alnca andAvaerica, byM. Buacbe, 
i. 23*. Ac. 
Bowrif of the ruoaioftting ADimaJs considered ai an ej^boratory 

irith ^mbIs Id it, ii. S16. 
Sojffina, of Ceylon, a kind of serpent, v. S77. 
-Stain aui vpaA marrow the fiFst leen ia the embiyo, ii. 30. 
—— Earth-worm entirely without it, vi. 174— GOii\e enipiBls 
\rn wttfaofit Ihair brtia fiat weelw, 176. 
Sramiii)tg,)m6.9£ibe9f»tTaw Icifid. iv. 217, 2M. 
AatMHM of lAifia, hmm • pwwer ^ wpelling equal to inolt crea- 
tures — they smell the water they driak, Ibough to us quite 
itndBnnui, ii. 46fWi«rb eTQcled bospiulf for the matotenance 
of fiULindi of TcnmimSl— afa* for Budi monkies as are 
iKkarfiubled.iii.'StS. . 
SrasU, black clothes worn there soon turn of an iroo-coloar^ 
kept in the shop, poNerr* tbor prober hue* i. 259—: — di^k 
deKTibed, it. 412. 
Bread, twelve oubcM qC it. and Bothing but watar, the common 
allowance for four-and'twenly hours, among the primitive 
Christians of the '^Mti ii. 9^that oftheLaplw^deracompoMd 
bf-bone* of Mtsi, p»w)4ed and niKed with the inside tender 
bark of tte fiiittttcee, f 4. 
Bream, d«ori^iaA «f ihe Manbream, v, 124. 
B nntt to «ante tegv thas in moD — milk found ia bn^at^ of 
ami aawdlHOf »«atett. i. 434i — blaclc womao's hreaats, ailer 
ImriBgoB* Obtldt bsi)g.dowo b*hi» the u^el-4t.)C customary 
among them to suckle the child Mt Mwir buha, throwiiv the 
-breist mrer the shouMar, ii. Hih 
SimdA of the lion ia ncy affiwili**, ji..401frn(*Mi[|er of hrvathing 

in fishea, v. 10. 

J&1T1V, coMtant Areeoe pnduoOd bf the unletting </ inoivii, i. ^ 

■>-frdBi «e« JMi tf s — gwrtM rily tfll t|iet<ret ai^ i«w»y> >and 

tMallf fauabed at .fin^«|w«. ita csaeiogt ihf lpod4FF«w 

4agi«i, dntaaaaes iill twdvb at nigllt, «ad »su<4eed«d in the 

- RKwaing ixf the tsni hoi<i«i ' nause <of tb^e t<*« broesfs— 

MowtinHs tb^ ma aid iaod breoata come at all hours— 

the land and ten bsscei an JbB oowti of Malabar and at 


ffnoK, or nd-Av, a> aseettfaat Imaaya oattie w.ths svqHDer, 

vi. 164^ '' : 

ibtNM, bis nethodjrf* olaiMg Kntmala, ii. lil. 
firMla^ aaitiwa If at M>offitnao*Mli4ut fapd>'i><l^- 

; L.ooglc 

f N D B 3E. 

Br&MU, tbe aoclent, considered the litre u to tmctean « 
uid r^gloiudy abitsiDed ftom it, iil. 126— tbe cock «1bc- 
biddea wod •monc them, iv. 124. 

ffocfaf. the homitf tbe stag AiBfimyeartfiSlI. 

£roa(, the stag of tbe third year, ii'. 9t I. 

.;Sronr» (Sir Tbomu) hoped one d«r to prodKce.duMraabjr tbe 
noBw method ai trees, i. 365— hu o|mibor upon the canse of 
blMcknew in human compIexioM, ii. 89. 

Brm (Le) ginng • punter direction! abont Ibe p a wrom , 
placei the principal expresnon of the bee in the e}v-browiy 
I. 4'10. 

Bruik, the name givoi by hoDtnun to the tail of tbe foK, 

Bnitet, in tiioae cooirtriei where men are most barbaroot and 
ttupid, bmtet are moat active and aagadout, '& 311. 

BhooU ( Mr. ) baa MTcn a in^ of die bottom of the aea betvoan 
AfKcaaod AmericB, L2«l. 

Btiiaha, an animal partakinK of the mixed natnrea of the 
cow, tbe gaat, aid ibe deer^-Ju deacHj^Hdn—haa ofton 
been called the Baibary cow, from wfaicb it dlftar widely, 
H. S84,&c. 

BafioAu, properiya gazelle of Afiica, IL S40. 

Bubalut, of the ancienta, suppoied of the cow kbid by BsCn, 
placed among the lower claw of rundDant qoadrupeda, u. 

Biedmmt, one or two of them viriparoua, V. 23S. 

Anal, enable of jm^ngatiiY at the age of one year— one buck 
aufllcient for a Bandied and fifky gMta— becomee old before 
fail aereBth year, ii. 263 — ^himtiBg the bud: and dte atag 
perfenned m the aame Bsumer in England, 310— nmnber m 
Banei invented l^ hnntera for thh animal— doee Bat-ebange 
bn l^er, Itlte the stag — manner of huting hin ia nradi tne 
aame aa that of at^4iuBtiqg, 32S. 

JSuoKfootrprodnoei with the ewe an anbnal that; in two or Am 
generationc, retunu to the abeep, refining no maifc of ki 
aodent prtwenitor, iL 247. 

Bi^^dot « the Tarietiea of the cow land, but two are reaHy 
dulinct, the cow and the buUo— they bear an ant^Mttby to 
eadi other— 4bey do not breed among aadi odier, and no 
animala are more diidnct and like each odier leaa — ate in 
abuDdance In Guinea and lffiial»r-^ is • great awfanmer— 
deeertption of it — the veal of tbe young ia not better eating 
dnn tbe beef of tbe dd— ibey aenati*es of the wnnpei 
climatei— yet are bred In aereral parta of Europe, puticniarly 
in ludy— ute fiemale produces oneat atitne — contmuea pi^g^ 
nant wr tweire montba — ia afiwf of fire-^eatber made of its 
hide ii well known for tbickneaa, softDeaa,' and intpe 
H^— gtuded by a ring tfanut tbrou^ lla n 


f^Smf^ aet «>?aM at of thacffw— two bjiJ&lM) jokad draw 
'.„ mora than four itroag borsea— ita flesb tiara a^d blackish, 
'd&agreeoble to taite and Bmell — this animal wild in many 
parts of lodiai fnd dangeroua— manner of hunting them— 
when tuned, no animal mare patient or humble — inferior in 
<,'«iz#0Dlf to the, elephant, the thinocero^^ or hippopotamoA— 
the camelopard, or camel, if Ulter, i\Qither ao long, nor so 
corpulent — is fond of the water, and, crosses the largest livera 
., withOjUt di%:ulty— has an aversion^ (o red colours that resem- 
ble flame— in Uioae Goui)trie» wfie^ they are in plenty no 
person dresses in scarlet— they make most use of their feet in 
- combat, and nxber tread thiur ^emiea to death than gore 
■ ■ them, ii. 238, &c. 

.Mt^oa, f M.) hia theory of tlie,eai;tb, and a detail of it — qiiei- 
tions tnat might be aaked this mgstiiigenious pliilosopher con- 
.. -cerning his theory of the earth, !. ^ — he has brought toge- 
ther a multitude of facts relative' tn the. history of the earth, 
^ - ,S6— bia ly^tan, about (ha rudiments of animals, SS9 — objec- 
,^ . tiona^^md it, 360— thinks that women never become bald, 
•', . -iU-T-iua deaciiption of the first sensations 9f a man just 
' * Ibrougbt into existence, polntbg out the steps by which he 

■mved at reality, ii, 52. , , . . 

,,JSgjpfp*4tn/, name our sailors pre the Kumidian crane — its pe- 

,j culiar gestures and contortions— the French call it Demoiselle 

—it is a very scarce bird^the ancients have described a buf- 

' foen-bird, but not meant the Numidian crane, iv. 307, &c. 

jJSi^t the Mav-bug. See Beetles. 

^ugs, their habits — described— are oflen found coupling tail to 
. uil — manner of degtroyiqg them— they destroy fieas, and 
. devour each other, v.. 422. 
.Suliotitf b^ is BO at the root^ i. 112. 
Sail, the gim^ro, aagerted to be between the ass and the bull, 
.; MnU-dqgtdeMaSttAtiu. 17. 

. JpitU-ifinch, bird of the sparrow kind, iv. 247 — may be taught to 
whistle a regular tune, 270. 
■BuU-Head, descriptitmof this fish, v. 125. 
, SuiUf the wild, in Spain, mean, despicable aoimals-^ave 
nothing of that sternness of a>pect remarkable in our hulls, 
.- , iL 233. 

__B(4f«-«^e, name given by sailors to a terrible hurricane — 
described, i. 29^.. 
JBu^'ng, bifd of the sparrow kind, iv, 247. 

farart^his theory of the earth— a detail of th^t wdrk, i. 17, 18. 
lisiar^, the largest land-bird that is a native of Britain — inha- 
., .bits the open and extensive plainr— is much larger than the 
. ,,,, turkey, the raalgjjenerally weigning from twenty-five to twenty- 
9,1. a^v^ p.ounds-^^ description— its food— places where fre- 
' ijuently seen in flocks oi fifty or more— they biive always 


eentlnela pfaced at proper emlneDces, erer an tRe vrbtcb, to 
wiira the flock of 'the appearance of dahger-^are ofteb run 
down by greyhouDds — in what manneF — Reldom wandersbttre 
twenty or thirty mileg from home— the males have a pouch, 
holding near seven quarts of vrater — they change their mates 
St the season of incubation, about the latter etid of sumiAer 
.— sq>arat« in pairs, if there be a sufGciency oF females tat the 
males ; otherwise the mdes fight until one of them ^h— ia 
France, some of those victims of gallantry Aiund dead in the 
fields — their nests— they lay two eggs, dmott the size of a 
goose-egg — hatch for about five weeks — the young run about 
as soon as out of the shell— they assemble in Socks in October, 
and keep together till April — their food' in winter— in parts 
of Switzerland they Sre found frozen in the fields in Severe 
veather^when taken to a warm place, tbey again recover- 
usually live fifteen years, and are incapable of bemg propa- 
gated in a domestic state, iv. 149. 

Butcher-bird, its description, with its habits — leads a lifb of con- 
tinual combat — intrepidity of this little creature, in going to 
war with the pie, the crow, and the kestril, all above four 
times bigger than itself — it fights upon thedefensive, and often 
comes to the attack with advantage, particularly when the 
, tnale and female unite to protect their ^oung, and to drive 
ftvay the more powerfiil birds of tapitie- — in what manner titey 
aally forth against them — sometimes the combat ends with the 
destruction of the assulant, and also of ^e defender'-4he 
most redoubtable birds of prey respect them, and they Sy m 
their company without fearmg their power, or avoiding tneir 
resentment — Braall birds are its usual food : and when it hu 
killed the bird or insect, as asserted by the best authority, it 
fixes them upon some neighbouring thorn, and when thtia 
spitted, pulls them to pieces with its bill— the smaller red 
butcher-bird migrates — the places where they are to be found 
—.-their nests, and the number of their ^gs — the female feeds 
her yOung with caterpilters and other insects, but soon after 
accustoms them to flesh, procured by the male with great 
industry.— their nature very different from other birds of prey 
in their parental care : for, instead of driving out their young 
from the nest to shift for themselves, they keep them wi£ 
care, and even when adult do not forsake them— the whole 
brood thus live in a family together — each family afterwards 
live apart, and hunt in conoert— upon the returning season vS 
courtship, this union is at an end, the family parts for evel', 
each to establish a little household of its own— the manner of 
flying is alwavs up and down, seldom direct or sideways-^ 
diSbrent kinds of tnis bird, iv. lOS. 

Butter, the fat of the manati serves in ell cases instead of bnttw, 
iii. 270. 

Butterfly, some kinds actually live upon nothing, ii, 3— ■ oae of 

I;. L.oogic 

tht prinaipsl oraaiaeats of oriontal mMtry—^n thoM «atn- 
tri^St ^* uuect ia Urger and mare oeautjful than with us, 
fi. 45— ^f«ily dJMJilguishfld friun flie« of every other kind by 
their «ii^-T-numb« and baautiful coloun of ita wings — but- 
lerfliW flap duOffv^r ibi^t roaiee at mpra than a mite diitanov 
— deicripUon of the head. corBetet, and body— the eves have 
not «U the same fonn ; but the outwaid coat has a lustre, i« 
which may be discovered aU the colauTS of the i-ainbow— whea 
examined closely, it has the app^rsnce of a tnuldplyiog'gbsa 
— the use of their .horaa at leeleni as yet unkDOwn — use df 
their trunks— difference between buUemies and inotfa»— they 
oAea perceive the appreach of the female at above two miiee 
distance ; by what sense ia not easy to conceive — it ha^ no 
organs for smelling — the female is laraer than the mBle^— if 
disturbed while united] the female flies off with the male on her 
back, entirely passive upon the occasion— after junction, they 

4^a»it tbeif eggs ana die-r-all females of diis trilw 
impregnated bythe male by one aperture, and Isy their eej 
by eAOkh^— «vety butterfly chooses for her brood, instead < 

Uq plant most grateful in itq winged state, that i^ has fed upoy 
in ita reptile form — how they keep their eggs warm, and also 
entirely eoace a led '■ many do not lay till the winter warna 
then of tbek approaching end— soma continue the whole 
«iM0 ip h(^ow8 of trees, and do not provide for poeteritf 
until the beginning of April, then leave ueir retreats, deppsit 
their figgs, and die, vi, 67. 

JOmaard) % ^uggish inactive bird, often renWns perched whole 
days upon the same bough— lives taore upon frogs, mice, end 
inaeots than upon birda, mfire troublesome to seize>— ita atBoner 
of living in summer— so little capable of iustri^iot^ that it if 
a proverl> to call one obstinately ignorant, a busnrd-^he 
lidney-buward, the (uoor-buszard, and tha hen-harrier, are of 
this stupid tribe, and. di&r chie% in their sice, iv. 99. 

ifytvMi (GowBOdtm} our last voyagvr that baa seea Uiegigantic 

. ■«c«4tfntwluad.u.l()0. 


CeMei, the sane auiqial as the Capibara, iL 573. 

CuiMot, « fish, said to purgoe a shoal of herrings, and to 
swallowtbousrad«atagi^p,v. 13— it has generally gone under 
the nttDse of the apennaceti whale, till Mr. Pennant made the 
distinction, borrowing its name from the Frenclw-^escription 
—the throat of this animal very for midable-r with ease it could 

. ewallow an ox— It can at one g«Ip send a aho«l of Ssbes down 
Its enormous gullet— it teniSea the dolphins and porpoise* so 
lauch, ps oiten t? drive tbem on Bhore->it contaip* \m(> pre- 
ciflui dmgi, spwfwweti an4 aqubecgri*— the pil of this w> ■• 

-, INDEX..... .,. ,, . 

pol-Mh, and hwdenJUg U te the auttnw rf w p fa -M Pdkrj rB 
- Aowtindeof It— itwwlB'of <itibti^r(in«t'fataBdiK«tt:fidK* 

of Ihii kibd, bntdtieSr fn t)H»^«iaMt Mtd AMi^Mtt A, ««. 
CagM, or the «dd, b 'dw-lsrgMlMtikey of ^ wtgmn kmA>*4ta 

OMcriptioa, iti.S16. ' 

CajttM, ft mountun near it wu roltt by an earthquake, f. ISl. 
" ' ' * ' produce UMW '" 

Cimw, in what nanner they produce UMeoMorsi 
ditdcnt M a time, iv. 180. 

Cmt, (Dr.1 lived in the time of Qoeca EUaabeib, wrote-tbe 
Natanl Hiitorj of Doga, and dMdea die «li^ nae into 
Ane Ufldi, the gcoeroos, the fana-kiad» and tbvioMgrel, 

a. !9. ■ 

Gdao, the boned Indian raren, it. IflS^ 

CttkiHatioH, M animal nibitanGea, wbe* ealdned, are tike atme, 
». 488. 

C^ name men to the yonogof (beUodi-M'tlN Eenal*^ tbe 
Utg, U. SOT. 

Calf, or hind-catf t the auf called ao the firat y«ar, & 9kU . 

Ctalkra, the 'green monkey of St. Jago ofiheaiieiwtt-coDdbCDat 
— its description, ili. 91S. 

CaUgonytmu, the draconet— deecnption of tfM'fiA, t. I4IL '^ 

CtJmt attended witfi aeloges of nin— why,- and wfaeiw, L WF. t 

Come/, a mminating saima), jL 230 l a iw d'aBd ir awt i da rj , 
not two dirtiHct kmds, onlr a varielT of the ariue^ wAMt Ms 
aobmited lime {mmemoria] — thp only w«wMo difawiirn be- 
tween thoR- two nceai'theyprodacc nilli tmA alTnri iwd th« 

' tmxed'breedfatwHideredtbBtaAi^-of Aetw«li«*dlMBed«Ty 
I iAa« 4ke oiiul and 

is far tiie moBt numeroiu — ootnttriei i 

~ -tliie'diinatei towards tiie North*— Atrflia th»aioal nd^d to 
^-Utt BSpfnrt and preductien' of tMo ani— I— lAo cwBd the 
' 'tnoat-tMBperate of all en imalu i l can oonluiHe to Mwd 
' -tenxri day»whhoat dtteUoff, andii oAsn ajxiar-seaaa dRji 
^^__ -itafeetf ■ ■ - - --• 

And utt^y unfit Bar mniat vt >narihry y'ni i li '""nj* wn 
efiirtB tried to propagate die-ca4ad in Spnan—dwy ha** been 
tniuported into AnwricB, but hnm Balt^)lMd:«n'netlbe^- 
thev might perhapa produce in these oaontrics, hat wmM m 
a few years deoenerate ; tkrar strsMb mi- tbdr patience 
would feraake nwm; and, instead -tf aniidHi^ become a 
fcardwn to th«r keepen— naea to wfaidi thja nioudis put 
among the Arabians— itreddestiaB—it feu « fiM alomtth, as 
areserroir, to hold a greater qaaati^of water -tlwnilninie- 
ffiai^ wanted-^when Be oattei ftidritself pteased with thint, 
it throws up a quantity of this water, by a iJiiijilii iiiiiilinrtinn 
of the miudes, into die dither :«timai ib«.i;j t iafrilea^^<»faen 
straitened Tor water, hav^ often kiUed tbetr camels fbc what 
diey expected to find within them-^conntries where ccHumerce 


% tKtiW m by nwiw tf cnneb--4nding jonmlei in 
■'■ I tfc ei r fcoct— purwo dteir mjr when tEe suidei oia ut^rl^ 
- am^*-itM. MtienM nkd docilitv irben . loaded— Id what 
■laaec thft ftmde taceiTM the mue— (»e male left to vait on 
•an Aaoale^ Ibe real cvtiatod— thej lire from fort;. to&Sty 
. jaw aiiaij part of thu juimal convaitad to aome lueful 

■ pmooae — ita vecy excreineiita are not onelau — their buitheti, 
ui. 871, Ac 

Copuieon, its diioeanraui and J|>pelite8 — ha> a. power oT driving 
die air it breathea o>rer every pait,of the body— changes of iu 
' orioar— it ii an amr that it aaaumes the goloar of the object 
k ^iprothaa deacription. of it by I.e Bruyn— it often movea 

.. «iie eye wbea tbs mer is at real sometmcg one eye weBu 
to look directly forward, while the other looks backward; 

I and one . looks upwSfd, while the other regards the eartht 
▼. SIS. 

^SaawiijMtrd described— dimensioiis of a young one— inhabits the 
Jiaa m id Afiioa— no annual, from its di^Mitiou, on its forma- 
Ciont less fiucd for a state of natural hotdUty — it lives entirely 

- vpoA ia|t>ihilih Si imiiwii to the aadents, but rardy aeeif ia 
' B m ey — often seen tame at Grand Cairo m Egypt — Foni^y 

exhibued at one time ten upon the theatre, iii. 3G7> 
'CamUa made of the hair of uinals about Angora, ii. 265, 
• Ca na da , above tliirty.thouBand martini skins anno&lly imported 

■ .'A«ailhatcswi^jato£nglaDd,tii91. 

.'CmoU for (te .-idrealatiaa of i>l«od Uw ong^ the bones-^aie of 
I dtfmnt cap«aities,.diiriM the difinrant stm* ef life, ii. 58 — 

- canal rf ciw—iink'alieu mrough which thaUaod drculates ia 
' .tbefiatWiwitlMutgoiiq-thronghdieliwcSffoaDd^peniaseaie 

"Camy-iir^- taught to pwk i» the Istlecs ef the alfjtabat at the 

vara ef uwaaaanj, to ^m any person's aavie in company) 

■ rr. SI— hgr the Bane, origmally from th& Casaiy Islands- 

eome to qb from Germany* where they are bred in Qwnbera 

- ~«t what pniodbid«eht into £tiMOO IS not koownrrabout » 

' ceotnry i^ Ibey mare aoU at -nrj high prices, and kept only 

flv the amminiial of the g re at m ita native idlands it is of a 

M dusky gray«ofaiiir,and*aaiftx«itfromth9ae'Seanin Euri^f 

' '■ as to rain a daidit about iu apecies— rules ud iattsuetiona 

h in Oenuinyifaod the oid owe must he wp^ied with, 
«1mb the ye—g tinea are exdade d ■a o preljfio aye these birds 
BomethBes^ that die &male will, be jeady b^-ha^h a jecood 
bmd,-lMfo>e die fintiadile to ouit the #est— this bird kept 
u annpa^ with die linnet srgMdfincb.paii^ and jirpduces 
« nixcik bread»aMitHketheeaBvy-bird, sad' r«ea«bling it 
Id its •ong^ 985. &Ci : v , . ^. 

'CoMffiy-JwrdMcriMfU.'SM' .'. ^r . .. . > ,. 

... 1. ^ ... v.... ., , , ^ ^.. .■-.,. 

l:,.;,-z .Iv.GOOgIC 

e^wsermu brearif vomA hj tit* fiicUBg< of Ai nfoAi v Ae 
land-tout.*. 281. 

CimM quiddy exdaguiibcd in a» g«h*iHl»d ncNnr, aocl wiij, 
i. 276. 

C»ttM»M fiBed wiA wbWT, M>d loft t»ftecwi buMt, i. l£l. - 

Cii)i/AarM, well knowa in lh« ifaaM by ihn nnrm nf finmiih fljfi. 
and roc tbeir nsc in Uitten— «mr dwuripfiwi, witfa tlta ^- 
fetcDCM from each oth«r— the countries where^ and tma on 
vhich they an aeen— it it refiorted, that the eonntry people 
expect the return of tbate ioKCH every mvcb yaaai their 
baa noell is a guide to thoae who catch tbein— they aaieU so 
ditagreeable, bb to be perceived at a great diataace, emciaUy 
about aun- set, though not seenatlbat tunc— aberytelaaiaiu 
of Tolatile caustic salt— their qB^itiea—the eActs & " 

ci pally upoi 
killed, Ti. 1 

y upon the urinary passagea — in what maaner they are 
, Ti. 152. 
Ca<pe de Verde islfuds— a south wind prevails in them during^&e 
month of July, 1. 286. 

Cape qf Good tSospe, a nortb-west wild blow* there ddrtngi Ae 

month of September, L 286 custamaiy to hont ^ ^e- 

phant for its teetb— in iriiat manoar—aecoaat of an nAs^y 
huntsman, T. S55.' 

Capibara, or cabiai, an animal reeembllng' a hog of about two 
yean old-^ts description — some wautatliUs hsno^lad it the 
water-hog, and why — a native af8*ulh AtiwricB,«idchitfly 
ftequeuting the borJers of kkes and rivcn-'like thn attar r 
seizes the fiah upon which it preyi) with its 'hooft and teeth 
— iives also upon fruits, corn, aiM BiMar.eatns ila ery re- 
sembles the braying of an ass, Bot« UHB the gruntiu of a 
. bog — its only place of safety is the watar, inta which it praBgas 
wben pursue^ and keeps so long at the bottom, that the 
hunter can hare no bones of taking it there— ^^en young is 

' easily tamed — its flesh nas a fishy taste, but its bead is aaid - 
to be excellent, li. 37S. 

Capon of Pharsob supposed the true ibis — is a devourer itt ser- 
pents, find fellows the camvans that go to Meeca, to feed 
upon the offal of the animals killed on the jouvBrnr, iv. SOS. 

Capons tkugfat to clutchafre^ brood of ehickansthniBghoat the 
year, ir. ISO. 

Caracal, or the sya^sh, a natire of the East Indiea, naemhles 
the lynx m size, li. 4S0. 

Caraguata, a plant in the West ladles, which aliogs i 
tree it happens to be near— it keeps away that nm 
designed to feed the trunk, and at last -entiKly dattn^ its 
supporter, i. 349. 

Carapo, the gymnotus, description ctf this iah, t. ]S6< 

CsmtM, a volcano in South America, i, 84', 

Caraoan, a single lion of the dnert ,aA»o aHaQha on «tit» 
caravan, iL S95^-— tho assemblage ^led a saravan some- 

tiArt caOlwIed of awiban hmtrmMg *• ton'digBHmd, iS. 

Cata^ou, DMBe pftn b^ the NAttb AnttiolaB to tb« ^irttoit— 
it! ralDBeT of killing ib« reia>deer, ii. 356. 

CarHmu, name the Amerieen* giVe tfae gluttcm, ii. 356. 

fimvMTOM saimab Mefc tbeir food in gloom; Mlttude-'-tbey 
are Auyer thm the tumiBating animnlt, and trby — their 
■totaachi smHlli sod their inteatiae* iboT^— their intestlDes 
this, and leaa, ii. jU^o-^— except the dog, aene trill make a 
viduDUry attack, bat with the odds on ^eir side— is pro- 
portioB ai eadt wanta strength, it use* the asgiAtance- of 
patience, assidaity, and eunnrng— all animals of thn kind 
purtue in a pMk, and eacourage each other by their naattiBl 
criea-.Hipport a Btate ^ famine for several weeks together, 
—milk in those aninulB is more sparing than in others, iL 

Cormtwotu bieda seek far such as are of ttiesiac most approacb^ 
ing their own. See Anrifr, iv. 61.l^ 

CoKp, aa e^KKiDAt ' made widi tbia firii in a large vase of 
water, under en air-pump, ^. 15 — one found by fiufibn not 
lees than a huiidmliTeare (dd_this disceverjr cet^rmed b^ 
other aiithoni 30-vContinuea in the egg not abore three 
weeks, 23 — Mr. Tull famous for his mventieo. of spaying 
«a^ tk give it a <line flavoury 26— its deioriptloa, 129—^ 
hMttwd of falteoiag it m A damp eellar— 'it hits been known 

■ Ihario H«« fiibs.fitrtnigkt, grwp excee^g^ &t, and to 
get a superior flavour, 133. 

Ciirrsntit-p<geeni.iisedt^cBr«y letlerSt i*. 39$. 

CarritmtrMD, reaei^ba the rawo in its af petltea* it) Wymg, and 

- Avuerof MagfogUpiieTming; tv. 173. 

CttTthageita, in America^the heat of the climate afltots the 
speech ef iu inhidritants, which is soft and slow, and their 
wa>d« geoeeally brek«i»-mere than three parts of oor anny 
destroyed by the i;linutte, in our wnsu&cesaful attdck Upon it, 

Caifd^e, Ibe thyroid cartUege, i. 424 — u-QaKUagek in youth 
elastic, and pliant in age, become at laH Iial4 and bony ; and 
why, ii. S». 

Carith^inous fishea, theur ^general confensatioB— 4Upposed they 
grow larger every day tiU they die— tbeir jAlemat structtire— 
are poas^aed of a two-fold power of breathing'-apertiires by 
which they brsadie — the cartUogbotis shark. Or ray, live 
eome hours after they ere taken— fishes Of this tribe can 
remun under water, without taking breath ; and can venture 
tbeir heads above the deep, and continue for boura out of 
their native element — little difierence between the viviparous 
and (he oviparoH kinds, U this class i^ fiahes^Svti (Uvisiont 
af Ihccartilagbiouafiab, v. 03. 


I N D E 3£. 

Cauimm/t *■ had Ant bron^t Into Europe b; the. Datdt from 

Java, in the Eait Indies, wbero onl^ hu fonD^— 4ts iMUro- 
tioD— the pert wfaidt moat dbtiDgunfaei tM>' ainitad if ue 
bead, which inipirei ume degree of terror— Ha ial^ailul 
parta deicribed— it baa the head of a warrior, dfe eje of ■ 
lien, die defence of a porcu|>ine, and dte awiftneaa «r a 
coaner— it not fierce in ita natiird cfaaraetei^-how it deAnda 
itaelf— extraordniarf nuMner of eoiag— the Dutch aaterrtfaat 
It can devour glut, hDn, and stonea, and ercQ Uve and 
bundDS coa]i,' without the •malleat fbar, or the leiat njvrj 
—the Mrgeat of its eega is tifleen inches roond one wti^, ana 
twdre the otber>— puces where this aninal ia found— it haa 
not multiplied in way coonderaUe degree, as a king of - Jktb 
made a present of one to the Cijitttn of a DatA ship, aa 
B raritr, iv. jL 
Cat4Kombi of E^jpt, ii. 121. 

diamottntain, luinta for the bare or the* rablrit, iL 1 5*"" t H e 
ocelot of M. BaSm— iu descriptioo, 434— i« one of the 
fiercest, and, for its siae, one of the most deMrttbtire anfaiala 

in the worid, WS.' ' 

Catatita,A city utterly oTCrlhromby «ieaithqtiAei'L94;' 
* Cataphrodut, or ludMeMU, is oat of the lajgest UBdk'' Of i the 
armadillo, iiL S25. - ' '-; 

Cataract of the eye; Mr. Cheaeldell baring eoocbed a fW^ of 
thirteen, who to that tone bad been blind, and at'once bsva^ 
restored him to sight, curioddy mailed the prt^}ffa » Of hn 
inind upon the occasioo, Ii. 35. - ' 

Cataract! of the Rhine, and of tbe'Nie~die CMArftct of the 
rt*er Telino, in Italy, is abore « bnndred'tfBd fifty- fieeC 
perpendicular— one near Gotteobnrgh in Swedeft— 4Mber ca- 
taracts, i. 186. ....,- 
CaterpUlart, tbdr di&vncea from aH otlttr insects—aS-^tiMae 
animals are hatched Iroai the eggs of ' bttttetfBes'^'dtuii^ 
winter the greatest number of caterpiBars are to an egg 
state — iu the anrelia state, they are seemingly dejMtnid of 
life and modoa— aome do not tndce any change at'fltt ap- 
proadi of winter, but chooee thenuelr^ some retrea^'^ and 
there remain quite motionless, and as insensible as lif ac- 
tual^ dead— caterpillars of this kind are found in great 
numbers tosether, enclosed in one common web Aatcoreia 
them all— there are some of the kind whose butterfltet live 
all the winter, and where — a single caterpaiar eats dOuUe 
its own wei^t of leaves in a day, and seems no My ^sor- 
dered by the meal— the bodv ot the cMeiptDar anRtomi- 
cally considered — aricUty witn which thw feed->-i!ilunber of 
. their Btu^nsta, or those holes dtroi^ whidi the anlnal ta 
supposed to breathe— it has eufateen IaBgs>-4lie eipMneDt 
of Malphigi ' to aacertain their uift n -ali cuerpiHui ^in at 


. one time or tfrmthnr - mnn j of them change tbe!r BkiniUve 
■oc ax time* in a w aon-rand in what, manoer— change into 
tut aureUa— their retreats in that state, vl. 46.— there are 
thouwnd^ of fishes, bwdt, and insects, that live chiefly upon 
- catsrpillan— a single spsrrow and its mate, that have fOfng 
ones, destroy above tliree thousand caterpillars, in a week 
— come ef the kind £tted only to live upon leaves and 
plants, will eat each other in [preference to their vegetable 
food— the bodies of the larger kinds serve as a nest to yarioiia 
flies, that very- carefully d^)6ait their eggs in them— number 
of worms remain within the body of the caterpillar, devour- 
.' ing its entrails, without destroying its life— the ichneumoa 
tribe is not the caterpilUr'a offipnng, as supposed, but' ita 
murderers, 7S, ' ' , 

Cat-^h, its description, r. 121. 

CUf, the wild,-luut for the squirrel or ^e mouse, ii. 15 4 ■ 
tba wholo.tribeseek their food alone, aad never unite fit 
mutual 4eiflace,- nor for .mutual support— 4nd, except at 
ceKain seasans, are enemies to each other— all of the cat 
kind devour notfaing hat flesb, and starve upon any other 
^ovision:— their greatest force lies in the claws — the cat 
■oca with young fifty-six days, and seldom brings ffurth above 
,- .«*e or six at a tinw— the maie often devours the kittens— 
. .-;.bifare they are a vefu old they ,are fit to engender- the 
, : ' female seus the maJevilii cries ; nor is their copuladon per- 
formed' without great pain, and why— cats bunt the serpent 
-y'<^ th»itls ofCyprm-rajoyammal weaker than themselves, 
is t» ihem an inoucritninate ol^ect of destruction— the mouse 
. . H their fawosrite game, and they patiently watch a whole 
day, until the mouse appear*— a liagrant mark by which the ' 
cat discovers its natural malignity>— their eyes see better in 
darkness than light, and why — if -the inhabitant quits tba 
if — ""- --' ■'" ' "■ ' " ' " " 



house, the cat stUl remains — is excessively fond of some 

Iilaats, such as valerian, marum, and cat-mint— particularly 
oves fish — its sleep is very light— its bair^ends forth shining 
sparks, if rubbed in the dork— the wild breed with the 
tame- ■ description of the wild cat?— inhabits the most moun- 
tainoDS and woody parts, lives mostly In trees, and tbeds 
only by n i gh t — the cat was much higher in esteem among 
our ancestors than it is at present— laws of Howel con- 
oerasng-tha priaa of cats— . ca t s were not naturally bred in 
our Ibrests— of all quadruped* the wild cat is, perhaps, that 
whose intestines are prc^ortion^ly the smfdlest and the 
"diortesti and why— common to the new continent, as well 
M the idd.— ike Uus^cat— the Hon cat, or more properly, the 
cot ef Angora— the cats in Syria and Persia, remarkable for 
their kng. soft Yiait; «. 3?s^*-b11 the cat kind are kq>t off 
by the fires which the inhabitants light to preserve, their 
Jierds and flocks— and they bunt rather by the sij^t thi^i 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 

I ND E% 

the ■ittdl'^it liBppAiiis tlwt tlie lioa puradM the jacfcaU or the 
wild dog, while they arc hunting upgn th« Kent, fwd merely 
. £)r tbemaetvea i the lion i* tbtn an imvelooaM intrad«r upon 
the fruit! of their toil— frotti theno*, probably hw oriaeD the 
atory (tf the Iioq'b proiideo-ftbe litm dsvoiua^a gnM 4Mi at 
a tine^ and ganwally fiUa hlmsslf for two or three di^a, to 
come— in the deaerta and foreiu, Itia moat ulual prey are 
the gazelles and the monkiest S99— the race of. cau oezivus 
in propwtion to their power to do miaduefi— inhabit the 
moit ttvrid latitudes of India, Afiica, and America, and 
have never baen able to multiplv beyond the toirid aoM — 
they aeldom attack man, diougii proroked»of all anJmala 
these are die naost auUm, and, to a pcov^b, uotaaaeaUe^ 
431 — different classes of the kind, from "the lios to the eat, 
437 — tlie wild cat and the martin seldom meet withgnt a 
combat~^t is not a match for Uie maitic, iii 88— the cat 
of Pharaoh injudicioualy called the ichneumaoi 9i— *caUi of 
ComtaBtioopIfti a name of the genaet, and why, 103. 

CailU, we have the bait bread of homed cattle in Kurope— 
the large homless breed in soina paria of Eki^Undt or^pnallj 
from Poland, ii. 9S&— the Dutch bnug great i^iaalitiea of 
lean oattle from Denmark, to SttUft ou their own rich 
grounds— <that of the Ukraine beCDuea fat» and is cessidOTed 
the largest breed of all £uropewiii Switserland these animsls 
grow to a large siso-xiot so in frsnoe, 2S3i-«iKe in Bar- 
bary, Ethiopia, Persia, and Tartary, il33*»l£Hther..[DOuthed 

cattle, 254 liable to he destroyed by the Seuth Aineriean 

bat, vampyre, iii, £35. 
^ Cavertu, the amising oSTern of Elden^ole in Derbyshire— 4be 
dreadful cavera in the country of the Arrian ladinns, called 
the Gulph of Piuto, detcribed by jGliaii— icavem of Maes* 
tricht— Its defoription>-nb part of the world has a greater 
nomber of artifiaal oaTerns than Spain— in oeneral daurff' 
by every race of meaner animals, except the bat—the cavvns 
called Oakley-bole, the Devil'srhole, and Peopatk-holet ia 
England— the cavern of Antiparos, and iu discovny, i. 53 
—how natural caverns formed— two hundred feet as much 
AS the lowest of them is found to sink, 6S-^one u Africa, 
near ¥et, continually sends forth either smak» or flames, S*. 

OsMar, the inhabitwu of Norvay prepare from ^n found io 
Use body of tiit porpobe, a savoury Uquor, which makee a 
dvlicate Muce, and is ea6d when catsn with bread, t. 58— it 
is made with the roe oftfae atui^oo— more in request in other 
Countrtes of Europe dian with no— and is a considefable 
merchandize among the Turits, Greeks, and VenaliBSS ■ 
matmer of making it, 10$. 

CaMM, the investi^tioB^af fiaal causes a barran study; ana, 
t&e a virgin dedicated to the deity, brings Ibrth nothingii-l^ 

Cs^nww, a lort of crocodile, t. 9St. 

L, . h.L.LKV^IC 


Cai/ttpeUit, A kittd.oFopoMtim — its deacriptimi, bL 937. 

Cea, in idiUKl wa^ed 8*iit *idi several tliousasd inba&itutts, 

Cn)^e,,a mount of recent appearance, i. 137^ 

GMxnd; aome animsli carelwly avoid their enetnlei, Tiy piecing 
MUtries to warn of'dangcr, and know how to puni&b such as 
neglect tbeir post, br are unmindful of the confmen safety, 
ij. i^S-^— when the tnarmots ventare abt-oad, one is placed 
as B sentry, upobS'lcAy rock, iii. 151-^— the buBtards have 

~ cAntfndj i^aced upon preset eminences, where, always on 
the watch, they warn the flock of the amallest appearance 

~ of danger, iv. 150 the flsmingo does tiie same, 3S5. 

Centipes, thii tcolopendra, *. 4S7. 

CtTRfrucuf, a kind of csrtilaginms fish, ▼. 110. 

Cephtu, name given by the anclebis to the moidcey now called 

Cepoia, the description of this fish, v. 123. 

Certuta, or lionted Viper, described, ^.371. 

CettKeotuf^a, the Wfaale And its VtffietJei resettible quadrupeds 

' fa their iHtemal Mructnre, and in Bone of tbeir appetites 
and afieCtioni— 'they are conetruned every two or three 
mitfates to coMe np to the surAce to take bresth, as vttH as 

, to spput out throuiih their nostril (for th^ have but one) 
that water «ftieh they sudced in wsile gaping for their prey 
— ^e Senses of these Biiimals superior to those of other fishes, 
and it it most tik^ that all animus bt th« Und can hear — 
they never produce sdrave one young, or two M the most ; 
and Ais the feroale suckles in the manner of quadmpeds, her 
breasts being placed, as in the human kind, uiove the novel 
— MlistioctWe marks of tbis tribe, v. 26. 

Chaffinch, a bird of the sparrow kind, iv. 2*7, 249— time of 
emigration of the hen, 24. 

XHhamois, a species of antelope, iL 968— described, 209. 

Churin XII, when diot at the siege of Fredertcshbll, wSs seen 
to clap his band on the hilt of bis sword, ii. 68. 

Ckarybdis, a gulpb-^Nicola Peace jumped into it, continued 
for Aree quarters of an hour b«ow, and at last appealred 
holding a golden cup iti one hand, and indung his way 
among the waves with the nAer— description tX this gulnh, 

Chute, men of every te^ (md naUon have made that rf Hhe 
st^ a f^Tsurite pursuit— in our country it was ever esteemed 
a principal divension of the great, H. SOS — these sports re- 
served by sovereigns for particular amusement, and when— 
in the reigns of William Rufus and Henry the First, it was 
less criminal to destroy a human being than a beast of dhase 
—sacred edifices thrown down for room for beasts of cbSsb— 
dtase of the stag as -perfomved in England— terms uted by 
buntera in that chase — the same in Sictly.-'and b China, 

I;. L.oogic 

I N QtQ:% 

in it, 30 * of all varieties, that of the ostricli the mbn 

iAoiiov, ia Hbo the moat sateruioiDK-*deaa;iptxra of it, 
■Jr. 45. '...,: -.^ 

C&M«ffcnn«»i)g in the A^^Mr-aod slill |iii9re..|i| ^ Aade»-r 

cauBMtbUpivdiica ckau(war.£uiu«a,,L53. , « . ; 

Ckatpdon, or the ctU^k, its deacription^ r. 121, ^ , 
CAoJiertfr, a hiri, native ^rf* Gerfnac y ■ ai detcriptioo. it- IStn - 
Ckeete, the inhabitants of Canada D«e no other than the t^ 
of the hind, or the female QitimaXag, il S^Q^Oiv of Li^ 
land little and well-tasted^^iever breed jQu^h 323. 
CheojM, )he <Meat hmmumi .of the humav £gu]r« ia his monti- 

ment, in the Grat pyramid of ]%;pti ii- ill- 

CheatUen, after ctnicbing: s b^ of thirteen for a cataiaet, 

blind &om bis in&B<r)!. and at onoe restoring him., to sightt 

curiously muked the pn)p«H of his mind upon t))e occaaiODi 

ii. 25. , .. 

Ckevrotm, or little GimM-dtier, (iiB least of all cloven-footed 

, quadnneds,. and ,p«rhm« itbf noit besutifijl— is most d^ 

: ciate(7 shap^l--it8> dest^ttiOD— natiTfl of India, Guinea, sod 

.. the warn duiiatM b«t»ran.l|M tr6^ics.r-tiie niale ia, Gulfiea 

. bw horns i but the /ema]« k without Bii^ir^h^ (^uefiy 

abound u Java a»d Cftyloiif ij. 286, &c , 

Chidten^ aa amazing hirtwy of it .in th« .^g, bf Malph^i. lud 

Haller, i. S65 in what manner wx or seven thoiiBand.>re 

Bfoduoed U « time at Grand Cairo—capons dutch a fiiesh 
prond of dijckeos thnx^hoiu tha jf ear, iv. 130. 
Chigtte, ft spedes of flea uftatiag uie bhaUt^nts of Aiporjca, 


Child, history of the child in the womb, . i. 3?i t-> children of 

. negroes able to walk at two jnontha old; at least to move 

from one place to another— aicin of children pew^ brpui^bt 

forth, is always ted, and nhv'— the size of a new-boiD m- 

:■ fiuit about twenty incbea, and. its weiaht twelve pounds— is 

cold countries continue to be sucklea for four or five years 

. togetber-^.diild's growth less ev^y year, till the time of 

puberty, when it seems to start up of a sitdden— ^ some 

fiouDtries speak sooner than in others, and why— <JindreD of 

the Itelians fpeak sooner than those of the Germans— various 

metliods pointed out to improve the intelleeU of children, 

S88— aa Uie child increases in age, the inferior parts [u-opti- 

tionably lengthen, 428 — inherit the accidental deformities <£ 

their parents— instances of it, ii. 91— white childreD -fre- 

, quently produced from black parsnts; but never black 

. cbildreo from, two whites, 93 — man; inst^cea of the ijiild 

in the womb being marked by the strong afiections fif the 

. mother — how performed is not known— hard to concefre tftat 

the child, in Uie womb, should take the print of the isUier's 

. £»QtiV9>»^ ... 

f, Google 

CUhnSbriBd, « ' reinidriuifen 'HKnttttduD ifi Soath Amerfeat >• 

1«6. ■"■■ ■'-■'■ 

Chinese, have neither flM« nor sbarpa in their miuic, &. SS— 

deicirptipn of that people^ 78. 
Gorman, in Peiilsj DDines preTionsly embalmed and tMrltd in 
' the Miidi of th^j ebnutry, preserved from C(»Yaptioa -for a 

thowuHljrearr, ir. I2t. 
Chottgk, description of die Cornish chough, it. 178. 

ChTjrtet, tei Ubai nmk aear Lentnos, i. 1 13. 

.Cm»imHu, de«eribed;it 85. 

Grev, an enchantren, anoed l)er ion irith a spear beaded witb 

the 10016 of the- tris^D, t. 85. 
drailaiiim of the bfood tiirough the bases, first Bccidentally 
' discovered by Mr. Belcber— experiment made by him for 
this poipose— •canah for circolatiDn Of ^le blood throaeh the 
bmies, of difife]«nt cuacuties in the various stages of life, 
--circulation tbraurii all parts of the body, ii. 57. 
'Cmt, the BMpies .obtiiiifMsfaed into two kinds : M. Baiba 
CWB ' one me crvet, tbe <ttli«' the sfbet — distqiction betireea 
' the two lunds— the dvet thirty inches long— both dvet and 
' zibet "-coOsideKd as varieties' of the same animal, as fanner 
I natutalista have done— die civet resembles the weaael kind, 
la what — differs from them, in what— ihe opening of tlie 
pouch, or bag, the receptacle of die civet — manner of lalcing 
the civet flom the pOadi^^hhoogh a native of the wannest 
climates, this antmal Itvsa in temperate, and even cold 
cbnntries — kinds of food it Ukes i>ett«drioks rarely, yet 
makes urine ^rften; and, upon such, occasions, the male is 
not dlstiogmdied fiwn the female— ninnben of these animals 
bred in Holland, and the perfume of Amsterdam reckoned 
the purest of any— the quantity greater jiroportionably to the 
quality and abundance' of the food — this perfume so strong, 
tnat it comnduntcales to all parts of the animal's bod]>— to 
its .i\ir and ikio — manner of choosing the perfume— the 
places of considerdile traffick in it^tke animal irritated, its 
scent becomes greats; and tormented, its sweat is still 
stronger, and serves to adiiherate or increase what otherwise 
obtained from it^ivet a more grateful perfume than musk — 
sold in Holland for fifty shillings an ounce — its cyea ahine 
in the night— sees better in the dark than by day — breeds Very 
ftst in cnraates where beat conduces to propagation — thought 
a wild fierce animal, never thoroughly familiar — lives by 
prev, Urds, and animals it can overcome — its claws feeUe 
and indexible— this perfume quite discontioned in prescrip- 
tions, iii. 1(M, &c. 
Climettt, or collar bones, what animals hare them — M. Bi^m 
" says, none but monkies— this is an over^ght, i. 424. 
Gimatti, calamitiea in thoie where aii i* condeneed by cold, it 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 

1 11 D £ Z. 

S6d caiue obviouB, ud «]fficl«M to pMduce Uadmaii tf 

negroes — coroplexionE of different countries darken in propor- 
tion to the heat af the region, ii. 87—— next to hunuui il- 
fluence, the climate has the stroogeat efccts upon the nature 
tmd form of qoadrupede, 161. 

Ckret'lrea, cut down bj the Dutch at TernMs to rske thcptice 
of the Epice~BOon had reaaon to r^>ent of tiMur Svarice, 
i. 268. 

Clouds, the fore-runnerB of a terrible hurriouie, celled by gallon 
the bull's-eye, i. 297— dashing sgaioBt eftch othw, praducti 
electrical fire— water evaporateo, and rJalag Ibrna clMid»— 
dieorj upon it— that of Dr. Haoiiltoa— 4he authct^i theorj 
of evaporation, 312 — at once pour down tbeir contoiti, and 

ftroduce a deluge — reflecting back images of thinga 'on mOi, 
ike mirrors, 824. 

Gupta, or herring, its descriptian, v. 128. 

Coaiti, a monkey of the new continent, described) ili. S14t 

Coalimondi, eAreme lengft of its snout — its detcriptioii^^erj 
subject to eat its own tai^ite hubits, ii). $96. 

Cobitu, the loach, detcriptfoa of this fim, w, IS9. 

Cobra di Ci^etlo, a kind of serpmt, t. 370. 

CocMnenl, description of this insect as in our«hOM brou^ tern 
America— difiiirence between the doneatic ana itHd ooiMotil 
— precatttions used by those who ttike care of theM iMocIt— 
-^e propagator has a new tiarvest thrfce a ;wr-~ vari«w me- 
thods of killing them produce different colMrs ab bceiwkt to 
us— our cochineal is only d>e fttnalE^ — used bolb &r t^'ng 
andmedicne, vi. 155. 

Cock, of aU birda the cock the eldett oempaMlon of nan, 
and first reclaimed from the fore*t— -medes of cock from 
Japan, covered over with hair instead of feathers — Uie western 
world had the cock from Persia — Arifltopbaaes's cock the Per- 
sian bird— itwasoneofthefettiiddenfiiodaaBieng tbeandent 
Britons — Persia, that first Introdueed k to us, no loogei 
knows it ia iU natural form—counttles where itiswUd — pecu- 
liarities, in a wild condition — anoth« peoutfavity in those ot 
the Indian woods, their bones, irtien tMileil, an black as 
ebony— the Athenians had cock-matebes <H we— 4M animal of 

freaKr countee, when opposed to Ul «wn speoiei — in Chins, 
ndia, the Phnippme Islands, and o«r the East, codE-Sghting 
the sport and amusemNtt of kings and pttnces " c ocks JA Chiaa 
as bold, or bolder, than onrs— and of more strength with le« 
weight — its great courage proceeds from feeing the most wlt- 
Gtous of aH birds— a single cock sufllcea for a doseti heos ; and 
is the only animal whose spirits are not abated by indrig«>ce 
— sopo grows old ; .and in three or four years becomes oofit 
for purposes of impregnation — how long codu lire, Mt \o 
themaelres, not well aseertained — AMrevandus makM their 
age te be ten years— are injured, » Lia«rai aawrtsi by war- 

I;. L.oogic 

- iMMlrir. lM^-^-4be Uack cbififlyfound in hntLy nuun- 
. 'i(«ia4«4^iii|r fijFests, IJg— •cock 4if the mood, 155. 

CmI, froifi tfa« bania of Nevfottidlaad, pursues the vJiiling, 
whjoh flies befitre it to the southara ahooes *£ Span, v. 13— 
op^wn a >a<Be bmmb, u Lewanboeck aseectq, wove nine -tniU 

- «4fi^tta, ICT-^heiy in NewiayadlBad, 1S7. 

CnEit svCflwivQi p »«w s w wt badiaa fnim conuatJtu), u. 11:9 — tome 
' fiihn nndwd «a Mr^ id, by ooU, to uoeuiern i ifcrt, ast* be 

. ifliacifn npin itK^itinrii (if ifi. ffhrrr ihrj rnnriniiriinr'mnithi 
j^gethw:, wit^aM life ecjenfadMii luisoqers «f ooii^lMioD, 
watting « p^nnn raq rtg ce^tase tMifi to life indlUNftf , t. 
CaUmr-beuu, what 40101^1 hwre tfaem, i. 424. 
Colour, none refreshes the sight so well as green, i.Jfi n wFthe 
««t, nt>t^nBB74binB^ntH|giBi^ b^ £^ llwdjibi««t 

■ reflections «f9aj« -of ^t^, fi4fi<^-«f .the Umd » tbe ACtpriea 
er Mtfw, S^ft-MtfeneiU orfawB i^f tlie «^,. MS-nbair tak:ta 
its -ctdflvr fraw juhCM Aair»^ ibnou^ tW Aid— ^at«r tha 
■a^ cc t icaMributAi «* iam «i)' #daa sf tbe djstaniie at whifih it 
•ppC^H, ii 38 — of *UtbM«<l^ wbaoh .flBankiiiid is dhvKs^ed, 
■«w^ auut JwaWtful <to ktw «)[e, laad n«st #dKM>feitgeaNB,iS6.» 
4h<ag ■ ohangw the Airkaaa tba Afiiatic, or Ska Afinarican 
undergo, in their colour ar^jiutaeoi^stal defermitieif wliich 
Hfl^t^IdwbatilF h« iMMKwd, $4 — netlwg «KiKada the daUcaSe 
ngvlKt^isf iMt af Jthe-zabw, 2UX 
Contett, their number much gceater itwB thtf of 'the jlwMBn 

- ■faejr-Mdl im n r fci tt 1 c'^ y B riaape -bos nat suftaient^ «aa6)^ntd 
ifccrtBUhaf tb* i»M#gatwa dwpt their rebvmqg ptuods, 

CoMptexioKt extremttf of cold not less productive of ^ tawny 
than that of beatT-tiat ea^MoMuaiMJivv Ae.BWt^lifteiis 

, . ,«iK Md dinan, aad 4md(aMitha tuHma -wmfi/aiaa-i^jtva 
not th« only oapae tff tdn rinw igg it, ii. aS. 

concretions v^ not formed— experience has found but few 
igamfey Ae ' ri h nw y <f -ihaae caBOi W i i B na, igftwi gnane j&ial 
.. itaifaajBMiaal-lhatihBHaibeai.ji.J^. 

.^aw^oau, jmmMJww.inuMal-rfithe flint JlvhI— its -dMuiption, 

;.tbnAit,jnaiaiMB,ii»<iJ<gtWidagw»aMio t^w«l«,.aUy(t<e^ua. 
lUlKa «w iwte it forraOaUe .te4^ faflthwed kiii4. !tatlwut8, 
a Aiiaaalf! 'A mgfaMab Aat «ris*a tbe xitm ex- 
mdiRK toAnrnt, iurmVtmo,. mi^^^fMm»B— 
ri m a wa -^fto^MBAefcody of tiBay i'tiHW>f-<heM 
iMe IB ^dA*Dw litwitbiyida strt Ufadaii fmnKmimiKlif— 
Ammm^Amm-Mtfrn^'Ox ]^>i(ap%rFW ;Iftdi«iWi Mi eve 


H eaglet would a hare or a rabbit ; and that tbdr sight is 

JtWTcing, and their air terrible ; that they aeldom frequent the 
bre«ti, as the/ require a lar^e (pace for the diepla; of their 
wingt— they come down to the Bea-ihor« at certain aeasoni, 
wbra their prey fails upon land; they then feed upon dfead 
fi>h, and luch nutritioui lubctancea a» ere thrown upon the 
shore— their counteaance not bo terrible ai old writera hsve 
represented— those who have seen this Bnimal, ssy the body 
it as lai^e u that of a sheep— many ioHtances of its carry- 
ing awav children — circumstanttal account of this bird by 
F. Feuillee, the oa\y traveller who has accurately described it- 
countries where it IS found— in the deserts of Pachnnac, where 
it is chieflyi men seldom venture to travel — its fieah as di»< 
agreeable as carrion, iv. 77- 
Conepate, an animal resembling the ekink in all things except 

size, iii. 98. 
Cougar of America, resembles the tiger in natural feroelty> 

though fitr inferior in its dimensions, iii. 39S. 
CoKtiatiim, the heat oS blood in man, and other aniraafa, ia 
about thir^ degrees above congelation ; but in the maniurt 
and other animaU which seem to sleep die winter, the h^ of 
the blood is not above ten degrees above congelation, iii. 15S1 
Coot, description of that bird— residence uid nest — sometimes 
swims down the current till it reaches the sea— dangers 
encountered in this voyage, iv. S42. 
Coqwdiin, the Brasilian squirrel, so called by BuSbn, iii, 138. 
Corai, the common red, never met with in Itte f<wii world, L 41. 
Coraiterjtent, described, v. 370. 

Coral-flanti, their various appearances— opinion of Count M«r« 

awli upon corals — Mr. Ellis proves them the work of reptiles 

of the pdypui kind — principal experiment to this purpose, vi. 


Cor<Ui»et, calledyiin^' madreporei, vi. 197. 

Cordtfie, the tocuy and the Iquguacu fill up the chasm betweai 

the crocodile and the A&tcan iguana, v, S16. 
Cprin, name of the third variety of gazelles, by M. Bufibo, iu 

Curvtorant, its description sod food— remarkably voracious, vith 
a sudden digestion— its form dtsagree^le — its voice hoa»e'and 
croaking— dl its qualities obscene — no wonder Milton makes 
Satan personate this bird— objection against this passage of 
Milton's Paradise Lost vindicated— iGshes in fresh waters, and 
in the depths of the oceau — builds in ctiK of rocks, and in 
trees— preys in the day-time, and by night— once used in E^- 
land for fishing, and in what manner — how educated in Ctnna, 
for the puqioses of Gshing — the best fisher of all birds— «onie- 
times has caught the fish by the tail— the fins prevent in being 
awallowed in that position — how it manage :the fish in this 
nse, iv. 96«— remarked for the quicknos of lU sight, 371* 


Gnuaro lived a handred yean, with a cooatitutioii nuorslly 
feeble, ii. 63. 

•Coroma/uiel, amaEing size of oyitera along tbat coait, v. 240. 

Corrira, or the Runner, a bird of the crane kind— its descrip- 
tion, IT. 329. 

Corruption, excessive cold preserreB bodies from it— and a great 
degree of drjness produced by heat — earth, if drying and 
aitriogent, produces the same efiect— bodies never corrupt at 
Spitsbergen, though buried for thirty years — men and animals 
buried in the sanoJi of Arabia preserved from corruption for 
ages, as if actually embalmed — bodies buried tu the mo- 
naslery of the Cordeliers at Thoulouse, preserved from cor- 

- ruption — bodies previously embalmed, buried in the sands of 
CboBoraD, in i^rsia, preserved from corruptiou for a thou- 
sand years, ii. 1X9 — amazing preserratioii from it in a miunmy 
lately dug up in France, 125. 

Cort/pkaaa, the raiotvfish, its deicriplion, v. 123. 

Cotofoxi, volcano in South America, described by Ulloa, i. St 
—more than three geographical miles above the surface of tlie 
sea, 126. 
' Cotton-tree, tfae seed intoxicates ptirrots, as wine does man, jr. 

Cottiu, the bull-head — description of this Ssh, v. 125. 

Couando, much less than the porcupine — its description, iii. SI I. 

Cotigar, tfae red tiger, by M. Buffon — extremely common in ' 
South America— in what manner the Indians encounter it, 
ii. 430. 

Cotdtemeh, remarkable bird of the Penguin kind. See Puffin, 

Cvait allured by. music, ii. S9— of nuninant animals, the 
cow kind deserves the first rank— meanest peasants in Ger- 
tnanyv Pidand, and Switserland, kill one cow at least for thdr 
own table—salted and hung up, is preserved as a delicacy the 
year round— cows want the upper fore-teeth— in no part of 
£urope cows grow so large, yield more milk, or more readily 
fatten, than in England— make no particular distinction ia 
their herbage, indiscriminately devouring the proper quantity 
^t gives bade more than it takes from tfae sCul-— toe aee of the 
cow known by the teeth and homa^^tbe number of its teeth 
.^—have eight cutting'teeth in the lower jaw — manner of renew- 
ing them— 4he horns more surely determine this animal's jige, 
and how— while tbia animal lives, the horns lengthen — wants 
in udder what it has in neck— the larger the dewlap, the 
smaller tfae quantity of its milk— the kind to be found in every 
part of tfae world — large in proportion to the richness of the 
pasture — Africa remarkable for the largest and smallest cattle 
of this kind ; as also India, Fcdand, and Switzerland — among 

~ the Eluth Tartars, the cow is so laree that a tall man only 
(!aa reacb tiK lip il itaihOulder — ofw quadrupedi, the cow 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 


. noM liiUe to akeratioo ft-om iu [jRittir»->-die breed of tft» 

I«Je of Man, and most part« of Scotland, much leu tllMi b 
Eoptand ; bIho ditlerentlj atnped— the bi'eed itsprorcd by 
Jbreigrv mixture, adapted to luftply the imperfections of our 
Owp^Kuch ai purely British, far inferior in size to thMe of the 
continent, 322 — the cow, the nnii, and the bisan, anhnsk 
of the same kind — ckfcrence ineize not (0 mraiki^e aa tfaoce 
In it! form, hair, and horni — manj conaidered tt * diflersnt 
kind, and namcR fc'ven them ai a distinct qpecieai whm in 
reality all the ume— «nl} two varietiei of the kind rarflj dis- 
tioct, the cow and the buffalo— they bear an antipathy to each 
ether — Karcely a part nf the world nhere the cow kind ia not 
ftnind — tariety of the horns— Uiaae in Iceland arc without 
feorn^— the WtfMry cow, or irim-^of alt antmata, the «oir 
moit ex terttively propagated — an inhabitant bf the frosenfitlda 
of Iceland, anil the burning deurla of Lyhia-^otbcr toan^ 
preaiTte tlieir nature or their fonn with infieiiblfe perseveraDOD 
—the cftWB suit themselves to the appetites and conTeaJeOMa 
of mankind— no animal hat a greater variety of Itioib, aone 
more humble and pliant — the cow and bison breedamOng each 
othtr— the cow does not breed wich th^ ba&fo— no uAtaOa 
more distinct, or have stronger antipathies to each othlff n 
the cnw goes nine months with young — the grUntJog, or Sft^ 
rtan cow, and the liitte African, or eeba, are dilerent racea 
•fthe biaon— animals of the cow kind, by naturelistl exteoded 
tn eight or ten sorts, neduced to tw(^-an animal of the cow 
kind, by no naturattsE described — the descriptioa of it, 2SB— 
the Greeks coiGpared the eyes of a heautifid iromati to tboae 
of a cu<v, 27^~-it eats two hundred and aeventy-iU pbnU* 
and rejects two handred and eighteen, 362. 

Catb-bezotir, a factitioat sort, ii. 282. 

Vrab, surpriaing manner in which the ■tOiAics tfraw Ciaba from 
the water, iii. SOB — found ia fresh tod bait watet, and wpoo 
Iand^e«criptinr>— its intettinea have many MnWutioa^— 
hnd-craba of varfotn krnds— some healthful and noBrtriiitag — 
Uh«rs poisonous or malignant to a gr«at degiee-^Jiiaacs Men 
found, V. 170. 

Crai jvioM) of the Caribbee hlaads, dtwribedi-their fcod — 

' their niptiers the fVincipal instmment for Kwing and catting 

their food— catch such hold that the Umb is lost m 

%he grasp— thus it gets off, leaving its cia# tatened tipo« tl 
«nemy— the daw performs its datjr, and kee^ a wiiDubo ftst* 
ened upon the finger, while the tnA unkat «ff— It kaes li» 
' jt^reat matter by b leg or an ami ; as they grow t^am, Uie ani* 
ma) becomes pei^ct as before— fatting and amazing asardk 
from the mountains to the sea-diore, to deposit the nawn, 
frnm which, soon after, mill!oRB«f little crabs 4re seen nowly 
IraveRtng up the moonta ins— wait the bsacflt «f iea-water for 
ibeir dehf £«}-^u^ tbeir * dli -kan xoMt ttttvmmcba 


four white Btonis, which gradually decrease U the ^11 
JiactieiM, and, when c«me to perfectitHi are not to be found — 
M»on and inaaner in which Ihoy are caqght— 4n Jamaica the^ 
mn in great plenty, and coniidered ^ one of the greatest deh- 
sBcies — many of this kiod &und noisonout, t. 171 — acddier- 
crab seen every year descendiiig from the mouotjuaa to the 
eea-sh(»e to deposit its tpawn, and to provide itself with a nai^ 
shell — cODtest faetweev them for spme weU-Jooldag fayourite 
shell, for which they are rivals — strike with their daws — Iwat 
eaoh other till the weakest is ^diged to yield, ^d give )ip 
Ike objaot of dispute— when taken s^tdi forth a feeUe cry, 
•BdeaTOuriog to aeize tba enemy with its nippers — not much 
••teened fbr its flesh, 177. 

GnuK, bred faBuliarly in our nurshes formerly —not now, and 
why, if. fij — geoeral chaiactrrtsUcs ^nd lubiu of birds of 
the crane kind- their food and {tesh, S87— detcrqitian of the 
erme — Gesner aayi, its feathers, in his time, were set ia 
s«ld, and worn as omamenti ia capa— description of tiiis bird 
'ftoni vicieM writen, who have mixed imagination with tustorr 
— wfaenoe have arisen the fshlei of supporting their Jiged 
fMMDts, and fighting with pigmies— (he crane a social bird, 
and seldom seen alone^usuu roetiiod of %>i>k or sittiae, ia 

. flocks of fifty or sixty tog«th«iw.while part teed, the rest keep 
(uard-r^tibMSta tiioauy up^n veget^bla^— are knawn in cvfry 
country of Europe, except our own — are birds of nassagr 
Masons ef their' migrations, during which tbey do mcreSble 

in great estimation here, for the delicacy of their fleih— there 
WM a penalty upon destroying their egos — Plutarch says, 
cranes were biindedi kept m coc^ and fattened fbr die 
tables of the great in Home — at present the^ are considered 
all' flver Europe as wretcbed eatmg — qualities of its flash— 
their note the loudest of all other birds ; and oflen iieacd in 
the clouds, when the bird Itself is unseen— amasiag heights Ut 
which they ascend when they fly— though unseen themselves 
tb^bave distinct vision of eveir object below — extraordinary 
length wd Gontonionof its windpipe— use made of their.clan- 

r>uB sound— tbey rise bat beavitj, are shy birds, and seldom 
the fowler fffmroach them — thpir depredations usually 
fa the darkest nights, when they enter a field of com, and 
MWBsple it down, as if crossed over by a regiment of niei^«- 
com their fitvourite food; scarae any other comes amiss to 
Ihem^-Redi's ttiperiments to this puroose— -a. little &laDB 
pursues, ud often disables it— netnoa used on ^ueh omm- 
•ioBs by thme fend of JuiwUng — baibaious custom of bree^itV 
1^ Cfwea to be thus%sited— aHOr tamed— Aibsrtus Maonut 
■ays. it has a partioulw aOwtioB for man— the female distin< 
fiuAed fT(»n np male t^ ast' balng bald behind— nevar 1^ 
•bore'two e^ at a li ne — Ji W ywg ais ■oap£t.tal gy { jud 


unfledged, they run with such Bwifinesfi tliat a man cmiint 
easily overtake them — AldrovanduB assures us one was kept 
tame for above i'ony yeara-^the vulgar bear the crane a com- 

- pafsionate regard — prejudices in its favour — lieinous offence 
' lo aoDie countries to kili a crane, 291 — distinctions between 

the crane and the Btork, 299. 

Crane, tbe Balearic, from the coast of Atrica, and the Cape de 
Verd Islands— its description — habits — has been described by 
the name of Sea Peacock — real Balearic Crane of Pliny — &>• 

' reigo birds of the crone kind described ; the jabiru, the jabiiu- 

' guacu, the anhima — the buffbon bird, or Nunidian craoe, 

' described, iv. 303 — place where the crane kind seem to have 
formed their general rendezvous, S2I — the flamingo tbe most 
ramarkahle of all the kind, the tallest, bulkiest, and most 
beautiful — described, S22 — small birds of the crane kind, 331. 

Cricetut, the German Rat, by M. Buffon called the haaister>— 
its description — is the greatest pest in the countries where 
found, and every method made use of to destroy it — its bole 
a curious object for contemplation ; shows a skill superior to 
tbe rest of the rat kind— description of it — their storehouses 
—contain two bushels of good grain in each apartment — tneani 
offinding out their retreats —produce young twice or thrice 
a year, and bring five or six at a time — their devastations 
produce a famine— they destroy each other— their fur very 
valu^le, iii. 181. 

Cricket difierence from the grasshopper — their voice — f«o^— 

never drink — sound of drums and trumpets make them forsake 
their situation, vi. 26. 

Cricket (mole) described'— thought to be amphibious— tbe num- 
ber of their e^gs^most detested by gardeners— its devasta- 
tions — precButtoDs of the female against the black beetle- 
their care and assiduity in the preservation of their youi^, 

Croekei, in the head of a sUg, ii. 312. 

Crocodile, extraordinary combat hetwecQ this animal and the 
tiger, ii. ISl— the ichneumon discovers and destroys its eggs— 

- Idlls its young, and sometimes entering tbe mouth of the 
crocodile, when sleeping on the shore, effectually destroys it, 
iii. 95 — the eggs it lays in the sand at a tiioe ofien amount 

. to three or four hundred, 97— the places where found, toge- 
ther with their dimensions~r description — several examples of 

■ taking a man out of a capoe from his companions, notwith- 
■tanding all opposition and assistance— terrible even upon Uud 
— its depredations — combats between the crocodile and the 
tiger— in what manner it seizes its prey— how a negro 
TWtures to attack this animal in its own element — manner oC 

- taking it in Siam— (^en managed like a hoi^e ; a curb put 

- into its mouth and the rider directs it as he likes— manner of 

■ tvkiogitalongtherivenaf Airica'^-poals.ofwaterwltecebred, 

I'-N D E X. 

%M we breed carp in our ponds — in Egypt, and other long- 

. peopled couDtriei, this animal solitary and fearrul — in the 

'. river San Doiaingo, they are most inofFensive ; children play 

with them, and ride about on their backs ; beat them with- 

- «>ut receiving the smallest injury — probable opinion, its 

musky substuice amassed in glands under the legs and arms 

^its flesh — the eggs to the savages most delicate morsels^ 

. all Iweed near fresh waters — precautions in laying their eggs 

. — the female having introduced her young to tneir natural 

. clement, she and the male become their most formidable 

enemies — the open-hellied crocodile thought viviparoua — 

has 8 false belly like the opossum, foe the young to creep 

out and in, as danger or necessity requires — their age — 

. produced to fight at the amphitheatre at Rome, v. S93, 

Croppert, a kind of pigeons, iv. 2S1 . 
Crou-biil, a bird of the sparrow-kiDd, iv. 347, 249. 
Crott'^fox, on animal between the dog and fox, iiL 6S> See 
. halu. 

Crown, in the head of a stae. ii. 312. 
. Croat fetch and carry nitn the docility of a spaniel, iv. 171 
. ^— the carrvm-cravi resembles the raven in appetites, laying, 
. and manner of brin^g up its young — the Rot/tton-cram, 

Cmttaceout fishes, v. 161. 

Ctt6, the fox is so called during the fint year, iji. 47— bora 
blind, like those of the dog, 49. 

Cuckoo, fiibles invented of this bird, now sufficiently refuted-— 

^ where it resides in winter, or how provides for its supply 
during that season, still undiscovered — this bird somewnat 

, less than a pigeon, shaped like a magpie, and of a greyiili 
colour— is distinguishea from all others by its rouqd promi* 
sent nostrils — discovers itself in our country early m the 
spring, by its well-known call ^ its note heard earlier or 
later, as the season is more or less forward, and the weather 
inviting — irom the cheerful voice of this bird, the farmer 
instructed in the real advancement of the year-^liiBtory and 
nature of this bird still in great obscurity — its call an invi- 
tation to courtship, used oruy by the male, genenlly perched 
upon a dead tree, or bare bougn, repeating hi's song, which 
he loses when the genial season is over— ^s note pleasant, 
though uniform — the female nukes no nest— repairs to the 
aestofsome other bird, generally the water-wagtau, or hedge- 
aparrow, and, ^fter devouring theeggs of the owner, lays 
hers in their place — usually lays but one — this the littla 
foolish bird hatches with great assiduity, and, when excluded, 
fondly thinks the great ill-looking dhangeling her own — to 
supply this voracious creature, the credmoua nurse tmls with 
unwearied labour, not sensible she ia feediag op an eneny 

I;. L.OOglf 


to her nee — ths BtmnKh of this bird w enornoos, ud 
reaches from the breasf-bone to the vent — its fbod-^tatu- 
rallf weak and fearful — tbe smaller tHrda forra a train of 
pcmuers; ibe wry-neck, in particular,' the most actif« In lUe 
chase — supposed, in winter, to lie bid in hollow trees, or 
Id pass into wanner climates — ator^ of n cwAoo found nra 
willow log, in wioter— probable opinion coneeming itareifi- 
detce in winter — Brinon makes not less than tweBtj^i^t 
sorts of thia bird ; and talks of one of Brasil, as maung a 
faorrible noise in tbe forests, h. 205 — Doctor Jeauer's *dati- 
rable accoant of, SOS. 

Ctickao-ipUf or Frath-morTii, fts description, Yi. 34r. 

CugBvcu-ajutra, name in BfBSJ! for tbe nwbacic, ii. 933^ 

Curlne, a smaD bird of the crane kmd— its dhnensioBs~pfoce> 
where found— manner of procuring its food— -its habit»— hs 
neat, and number of egg^— a bird of pasa^?, ir. 3S2. 

Curretiii of rirers well explained by tne Kalians— to be dHRr- 
eotly eatimated— anle current — back corrent— sonetnnea tin 
current at bottom swifter than at top, and nhen-'^oubla 
current, i. 168 — found to run in tS d}rections»niflnner W 
which mariners judge of the setting and rapi£t; of th^ cnr» 
rent — currents are generalty fou^ most violent under the 
eqaattir — a passage with the' currcttt gone in two dejrs, with 
difficulty performed in six weeks against it— currents do not 
extend above twenty leagues from the coast— the enrrents bC 
Sumatra extremely rapid, ran from south to north-^so' 
Strong currents between Madagascar and the Cape ai Good 
Hope; but the most remarkable are those cimtintntUy flowing 
into the Mediterranean sea — current runs oneway attop,aaa 
the ebb another way at bottom, S17. 

Current of air, driven throagh a contnteted space, grows mors 
violent and irresistible, i. 293. 

Cusco, (GarcUasso,) de la Vega, asserts, the air is so dry and'so 
cold there, that flesh dries like wood, without corraptioK, 
ii. 119. 

Cutlle^fsh, hs descriptfon — contrivance with wbiab it is 
fiirtiish&l by nature, when under a difficulty of escaping, 
ti. 182. 9 

Ci/hoiaft a lofty mountain Bwalloired by m earAqn^e, !. 


Cytoe^aUu, tbe Magot of Buflbn, the last of the we kbid 
— its deacrip);^'— b a natire of Africa uid the £ut, i. 

Oj/pHnut, Or Ae CBTp, T.'lS^ 


Jtam, in the nqnaoua kinds, Inds li«f yean^fiirth for months 
t(^ether ; it is not no yrilb those of the hare knad, iii, 120. 

Bamfier, the cdebrated navigator, has added more to natur^ 
history than half the jihilodopbers before him — the firvt who 
informed ui of the distinctionB between ouch turtles u are 
malignant and aadh as are wholesome— san one at Jamaica 
that measured six feet broad, v. 19S— his curious obterra- 

tioDB OD the winds in warm climates, i, S69 -c^MerveB the 

ftunmgot, wIkii seen in the day, always appear dranra up 
in a long close Kne of two or three huadred together, and 
present, at Ae distants of hidf a mile, the exact repmen- 
CatiDD of a long brick waB — they i^ways appoint one of the 
number as a mteh, Iv. 995— says their flesh is will taktd, 

Baitma, of Tarioos BRtoreB m mines— ^tbe falmtBatiiig aait, i ti, 

JDmeer, ados' of the mongrel kind, iii. 15. 

Dane, die tsUeit dee bred in Enj^d, iii. 17. 

Daniih'di^, descencfed from the mastiff, iiL 13. 

Dara, its inhabitants use ostrrcbes as horses^ i<r^ 47. 

Darien, en istbrous-^ias a pBrticular bog, called warn— da- 
scribed by Wafer, ii. 378. 

Darkness, surprising how far the eye accoramadates itself to it^ 
remark^te instance of It in a gentleman, a ma^ot under 
Gharies the First, ii. 51. 

Deafmen often found to see the force of (hose reasonmgB which 
they could not hear, understanding every word as it was 
spoken, i. 414^-one bom deaf nnut fteceasarily be duad)>— 
instances of hro young men, whn, bora deaf, were restored to 
bearing— a person bom deaf, by thne and paiiu, tai^t to 
write, read, speak, and, by the motion of the tips, to under- 
stand what is said— mstances of it, ii. 43. . 

tkiffness, one of the most eonnnon disorders in eld aga— way to 
know this defect, either internal or oKteRid, ti. 41. 

DmA, a young tarn bora deaf and dnrn^, knew nothing of 
death, and never thought of ft tEU t^ age ef tweaty-mir, 
when he began to apeak of a sadden, ii. 4S — • spectre- wUch 
'fWghti us«t a distance, bOt disappears wfwDwe eome to ap-. 
proadi it— an c er t ttl nty of the ngns of death,'<5r* 

mer, aonusHy shedding homs, and their penMBeme Ja the 
' sheep, dnnrs a distinct line between -their kinds, a. 9I9— the 
little OainoaJeer, the least ef A doreB-foMed qoaAu- 
mdi, and most beBMiflil — its de t eriptfcw, CSS— «ll of the 
dieer kind want the gall bladder, 296-Hi detnr M^Mance 

I.N D EX. 

like velvet upon the skin cnvering the skull of a de«T, whea 
the old horn U fallen off, 298— their horns grow differently 
from those of sheep or cows — they are furrowed along the 
sidei, and why, 299 — the bran deer or the brown deer, 
called by the ancienti tragelaphus, found in the foreste of 
Germany, 316 — the new contuient of America' produce* 
animals of the deer kind, in sufficient plenty, 319. 
Dmt (fidJow) no animals more nearly allied than the stag and 
fallow-deer, yet tbey never herd nor engender together, nor 
form a mixed breed — each form distinct families, and retain 
an unalterable aTersion— the fallow-deer rarely wild in the 
forests ; are in general bred in parks, and their flesh is pre- 
ferred to that of any other animal— a herd of them divides 
into two parties, and engage each other with great ardour 
and obstinacy — both desirous of gaining a favourite spot of 
the pwk for pasture, and of driving the vanquished into the 
more disagreeable parti— manner of their combats — are 

, Msily lanied — and browze closer than the stag — they seek 
the female at the second year — their strength, cunning, and 

, courage Infleirior to those of the stag — we hove in England 
two varieti^ of the fallow-deer ; one brought from Bepga), 
the other &om Norway— flesh of the French &llow-deer, 
has not the fotneSB nor the flavour of that fed upon English 

Core— Spanifhl and Virginian fallow-deer— deer without 
IS, their detciiptioa, ii. 320, &c. 

Dear (rein) the most extraordinary, end most useful — native 
of the icy regions of the North — it answers the purposes of 
a horse— attempts made to accustom it to a more southern 
climate ; in a few months it declines and dies — answers the 
purposes of a cow in giving milk; and of the sheep in 
furnishing warm clothing to the people of Lapland and 

. Greenland— description of the rein-deer — its rutting tJme, 
and that of shedding its horns— difference between this deer 
and the stag — it is not known to the natives of Siberian- 
Americana call it caribou— herdsmen of Lapland known 

. to posfess a thousand rein-deer in a single herd—- it Eubsista 
upon moss— and makes the riches of the peinde of Lu)« 
land— ^nats and gad-flies very formidable to this deer in 
Lapland — female brings forth in May— its milk thinner than 
that of th^ cow ; sweeter and more nourishing, ii. MO—it 
of two kinds in Luland— it draws sledges— can go aboot 
thirty miles without halting, and without dangerous effort— 
generally caatrated by the Li^ilanders— one male left to nx 
Kmsles— b^;in to breed when two years old— go with young 
eight months, and bring two at a time — fondness of the dam 
remarkable — live but fifteen or sixteen years- — manner in 
which the Laplanders, kill them— scarce any part of tbia 

■ animal not converted to peculiar uses— the Laplanders find 

' their DecewitiA »i^)plied from the rein-deer alone— in vhat 


' maimer— diteasea of this animal — the blood of the reincdeer 
preserved in gmall casks for sauce vilh the marroir in 
spriog — the horns converted into glue — the sinews make the 
strongest seviog-tli read— the tongue a great delicacy — the 
iotestines, washed like our tripe, in high esteem among the 
Laplanders — bears make depredations imon tlie rein-deer- 
glutton its most dangerous tuid successful persecutor— only 

. method of escape from this creature, 350 — in what manner 
the rein-deer is killed by it, 357 — the wolf never attacks a 
rein-deer that is haltered in Lapland, and why, iii. 41. 

Jfefitrmity, children oflen inherit even the accidental defor- 
mities of their parents— instances of it— accidental defor- 
mities become natural by assiduity continued and increased, 
through successive generations, ii. 91— all those changes the 

'- African, the Asiatic, or the American undergo, in their 
colour, are accidental deformities, probably to be removed, 

IkmouelU, rame given by the French to the Nunudian bird, 
iv. 307. 

Gepatta, a large serpent, native of Mexico, v. S80. 

Desman, one of the three distinctions of the musk ra^— anttiTe 
of Lapland, iii. 179. 

Devil (sea) or fishing-frog described, v. 106. 

Dew, compensates the want of showers in Egypt, i. 295. 

Dmdap, of two zebras, seen by the author, the skin hung 

. loose below the jaw upon the neck, in a kind of dewh^t, 

' ii. 216 — the cow wants in udder what it has in neck, and 
the larger the dewlap the smaller tbe quantity of its milk, 

ZHabUrel, a mountain in France suddenly fallen down— its ruins 
covered aa extent of a league square, i. 131. 

l>ictionariet of Arts and Sciences, a fault that has infected most 
of them, ii. 115. 

Diet, of a tbin sparing kind, remarlcable among quadrupeds, aa 
well OS the human species, to produce hair, tii. 77. 

Di^etter, an instrument — meat and bones put into iti diMolied 
into a Jellr in six or eight minutes, i. 255. 

Digeitioa, these organs m birds are in a manner reversed, iv. 

11 not perfect in birds that live upon mice, lizards, or 

such like food, 1 10— performed by some unknown principle 

, in the stomadi, acting in a manner different from all kiodi 
of aniGcial maceiation— this animal power lodged in the maw 

. ofGsbes,v. 11. 

DUortUrt, infectious, propagated by the effluvia from diaeased 
bodies, i. 270— most of those incident to mankiad, lays 
Bacon, arise from the changes of the atmosphere, v.' 19— 
fishes have their disorilers, 154. 

Diver (the great. northern], a bird of tbemiUcr tribe of the 

paaeuin kind — tbe grey ipeckled direr, tbe tcarlet-thnmtcd 
diver, IT. 589. 

Divert known to detcend from twenty to thirtv fatfaora — of «U 
thou wbo haV« brought ioformation from the bottom of tbe 
deep, Nicola Pesce the mott celsbrated — account of his per- 
fitmancee by Eirchu, i. 242 — ume known to continue three 
quMters of an hour under water without breatiiing — they 
usually die coiMumptlTe— nanoer of fishing For pearb, v. S45. 

D.ido, ita deicriplion — among birds, ai the ilotn amtmg qaa- 
dmpedi, an uoretiitiog animal, equally incapable of flight or 
defence— native of the Isle of France— the Dutch 6nt 4ie« 
covered and called it the nauMOua bird— travellers deem ita 
flesh good and wholeaonne— it is easily taken — three or fbiir 
dodoB enough to dine a hundred men— whether the dodo be 
the mne bird with that described under the name of tbe bird 
«f Nazareth remains uncertain, iv. 57. 

Doe, the female of the deer kind, ii. 323. 

Dogt, always running with their noaes to the ground, toppoaed 

of old the first that felt infection, i. 263 no other aamul 

of the carnivorous kind will n»ke a voluntary attaick, bat 
iriA the odds on their aide, ii. 153— the Araluan bocaes 
out-run them, I76~~in the dog kind the chief power Ilea 
in tbe under jaw, ii. S81— in Syria, remarkable for the fiua 
glossy length and softness of their hair, 391 — in trtmicid 
dinMtes lose the delicacy of dieir scent, and why— the lion, 
tiger, panther, and ounce, all natural enemies to the dog-, 
4Si—aog kind not so solitary as those of tlie cat, lit. 2— - 
their proper prey are animals unfitted for climbing — they 
can live for some time upon fruits and vegetables, 3 — de- 
•cfiption of the dog— knows a beggar by his clothes, by bia 
voice, or Lis sestuies, and forbids his approach, t — the dog 
most susceptible of chance in its form, 7 — all dogs are af 
one kind — which the original of all — which the savage Aog— 
whence atuii a variety of descendanta is no easy natter ta 
determino'^tbe sbepherd's die pritoitive aoiatal of his kind 
— these wild in America and Congo, as those of Siberia* 
Lapland, Iceland, of the Cape of Good Hope, of Madagas- 
<M, Calicut, and Malabar, resemble the shepherd's dog-* 
those la Guinea, at the second or third generation, forget 
to bark — dogs of Albany, of Greece, of Denmark, and of 
Ireland, larger and stronger than any otber-^hepherd'a deg, 
Cnm^Kirted into temperate climates, and among people en- 
tirely civilized, from influence of climate and food alone, 
beeome a madn, a mastiff, or a honni^-Turiuh ^g-— great 
Damth dcg~great Irish Wolf dog—the tittle Danuh Sf— 
Aeir varietjT now in England much greater than in the twae 
of queen Elizabeth— Dr. Caius divides the whole race inta 
tbne.kSHdf— 4be gcaeroiBt tbe ijon kind i tbe moagrd, % 

IK D E Xi 

-Ae—^tbree Btei^erd's di^ reclEoned a mMeh tar a bear, 
and four for a lion— three of theia aveiCKiaa a liea ia tlie 
time of King James the Fintv— the famous poet, Xiord Sttrreft 
the first vho taught dogs to set — the pa^ A>g—tbe ^aglish 
iuUA^-~tiK Hon dog-~otmniily ftavi Malta^ta dt^orifKioD 
—the Malossian dogt of the aadeuts, acconling to M. 
Buffi>n — Epirotic dogi, mentioned by PHny — Ittdian dtigs, 
mentioned Dy ^lian— hia description of a combat between a 
dog and a lion— the bi^*eat o( the kind— the niMer kiai of 
dogs, of which such beautiful aocieot deacriptioas, oo^r 
utterly unknown, 13-~puppiei eyes not open till tep «r ttrelve 
days old— dog's teeUi adtouat to fortv -two— this animal ca- 
p^le of re-producii^ at fbe age df twelve metith*~>'goCB nine 
week* with yoangt aad lires moat twelve yeWfi— oUier pai- 
. ticulars cMicerniag dogs— oiany kinds of birde the de^^ will 
. bet touch-^.d<^ and vblturtw living; wild abaut Gnttid Cairo 
ID Egypt, continue together in an amicable manner, aad are 
]»io#u to bring up their young in the safde nefit— dog* ban 
hunger for a long time — a hitch, forgotten in a oeuntry- 
' boas6, lived forty JMya *itlibut any »tb^ BbsteiiaDce than tbe 
treol of a 4uilt she bid tara ia piec^, 26— Ihe wJkl, Itunt 
in packs — unknown, such as he was before tbe pcotect-ioB of 
man — some, from a domestic state, baye tamed savBge^ and 
' partaken of the dispoMtiort of thie wol^ aad attack the aunt 
Ibrtnidable afyhnals of tbe foiwsft-^re easily timed, and 
qwekly becDine familiar and silbn6«Hvet 6— expetMaeati to 
prbra tbe wolf and tbe fox iwt af the aama salurb with the 
deg, but af a spedes ptirfectl^ distiabt— ocdmala in this 
country bred between a dca and « lbx« 94 — a dag tet at 
Hbeitjr, in bti savage fury flew Upan. -every atainM^ fowls, 
4og«, and men, S^tlw dog and waJf to much alike inter- 
nally, that anatoinists can scarce perceive the difierenca — a 
young dog shudders at flie sight « a #ol£— da^ and wolvU 
80 different in their dit^ibaitraiu, that »b IUubwIb bare a 
nope perfGX% antbfltliy, S3— by jnttkict) ^rithoot ftduoatia«, 
dogs take care of docks and Berds — shotr no Bppe^ te enjoy 
■ thetr vfctary when tbe wttf it killed, bat leave him wbece 
lie ftUi, 3S— 'Cateaby ataCrtt tbe *vi£ wal the ea^ dagVted 
by I&e AmencMb before die 'BOnnvamf cAote anong ^m, 
and that they have since procreAtea V^ietber t tiais prAing 
the dog and tbe wolf Of ttie alAie IMeie*, *2 i d t Hr nwttt- 
«He aritiMttUy iMwatn the dag and the jackaU— (bey aerer 
#att vrittioal m engaHtnait, £9— ftnisbed dogt moie baiu 
than those whose IomI nai been more plentiful, 78 — aH l^noi 
purtue the hare by iiitibet, aad folbfr it «tiore e^wiiy than 
other animals, 119— few 4ors -Aide te «*co»Mer abe atUr, 
Sll-^MbjbiMrpotely traiaed for ditcoMriog tht tetretit of -die 
otter, 212. 

I N D E X. 

f s dog-butcber appears, oil the dogs of (he pTsce 
Br* in full ciy after him — along the coasta of Guinea, their 
fleth is esteemed a delicacy by the negroee ; they give a cow 
fbr « dog, iii. 23. 

Belphifi, caught in the Red Sea known by a ring to be tbe 

HUne taken before in the Mediterraaean, i- 219 allured 

by music, ii. S8 not easy to aasign a cause why the 

flDci«]ta have invented so many fables on the subject — their 
boundiugi in the vrater have taught mariners (o prepare for a 
atorm — old painters and sculptors have drawn them wrong ; 
the poets have adopted the error— Pliny has asserted they 
instantly die when taken out of the water ; Rondelet assures 
us be has seen a dolphin carried alive from Montpellier to 
Lyon»— their motions the gambols of pleasure, or the agita- 
tions of terror, not well known— in fairer weather they herd 
together, and pursue shoals of various fisb with impetuosity, 
V. S+. 

DohhiH is also the name of the ophidium, or the gilt-head, 
T. 122. 

Ihrado, a fish of the spinous kind, the most voracious — its 
descriptioD— the flying-fish is chiefly sought by it — >wariare 
carried on between them, v. 1^. 

Doree, description of this fish, v. 125. 

Oormmue, tbe mercury of tbe thermometer plunged into the 
body of the living dormouse, never rose beyond its pitch in 
air, and sometimes sunk above a degree, iii. 153 — the greater 
sort M. Buffon cells the loir : the middle size he calls tbe 
Urel ; and the lesa he denominates the mujoin^tR— their de- 
scriptions— ^gree in being stupificd like the marmot during 
winter— their neiti and provisiona~they bring forth three 
or four young at a time but once a year, in tbe spring, 

JDorr-iMffe, or Afaj-^w, V). 141. See Bwtle. 

JMtrel, a small bird «the crane kind, iv. 3S2. 

Dotiet, the ring-dove, iv. 231— the tUTtU-4ove, 22S-^the ttoek- 
dove, 224. See Pigeon. 

Ihite, a monkey of the ancient continent, bo called in Cochin- 
china, where it is a native— its description^forms part of the 
chain bv which the monkies of one continent are linked with 
those of the other, iii. 314. 

DractMiotam, a fiying ball of fire, i. 325. 

Drag, qame given by tbe huntsmen to tbe tail of the fox, iiu 47. 

I}n^0Ht, the whole race dwindled down to the flying lizard, v. 

Dragon-Jh/, or the libelia, described, vi. 2. 

Dr^onet, a description t^this fish, v. 123. 

DriS of Purclias, an ape of the ourang-outang kind, iii. 377. 

Dromtdaru, a sort of cnnel, tii. S71. 

Hhnet, toe Mcoad Mrt irf* beo, n^'poted Vi be ibe males^ 



their cells— the working bees kilt the dronei In the worn ttate, 
in the cell, aod eject them from tbe hiTe, amoag the general 
carnage, vi. 93, &c. 

DrgHtts, a gnat degree of it produced by heat, preserves fttim 
GotTuption, ii. 119. 

JTuci, trhen ducks are caught, the men keep a piece of turf b«ra- 
ing near their mouths, and breathe upon it, lest the fowl smell- 
ing them, should escape, iv. 9— Flutarch assures us, Catokept 
his bmity in health, feeding them -with duck, whenever ^ey 
threatened to be out of or£r, 398— its eggs often laid under 
a hen — seems a heedless, inattentive mother— of the tame 
duck, ten different (sorts ; and of tbe wild, Brisson reckons 
above twenty— the most obvious distinction between the wild 
and tame ducks— difference between wild ducks among each 
ether— sea and pond ducks— names of the most common birds 
of die duck kind— among ourselves, and of the most noted of 
the foreign tribe.:-the)r habits, nests, and number of eggs- 
are, in general, birds <^ passage— their flesh— the ducks flying 
in the air, often lured down from their heights by the nud 
voice of the mallard from below— what part of the lake they 
generally choO(e>-whAt can emj^oy them all day not eaqr to 
guess— manner of making and managing a decoy to take them 
-^-tbe American wood>duck— general seastm for catdiing 
them in decoys, from the end of October till February— 
takinf^ them earlier prohibited hf an Act of Geoi^ tbe Sec<md, 
imposing a penalty of five sliiQiogs for every bird destroyed 
at any other season -i 'amazing quantity of ducks Mnt to aopply 
tbe martlets of London — manner of taking them fre^iently 
practised in Chma, 409, Ac 

DmUu, a sm^ bhd of the crane kind, iv. 832. 

Duarf, in England, as late «a the times of King James the First 
tbe Goart was furnished with one ; and he was called Little 
J^ery— Peter at Rnssia celebrated a muriage of dwarft, ii. 
100— they seem to have &culties resembling Uiose of children 
— history of a dwarf tccurately related by M. Daubenton, 

E(^U-ii»d, the Sap of an eagle's wmg ki^own to 1^ a man dead 
in an instant, iv^ 7— it flies at the bustard or the pheasaat, 61 
—distinctive marks from the other kinds of camiTomas birds, 
64, 72— the golden' eagle is the largest and noMest of all those 
Uids dengned by the name of eagle — its descriptio[H-^»>n- 
. aidered anums hiiids as the lioA amon^ quadrupeds — 
stnmg similituac to eadi other g ^a t pabence, and much 
art, required to tame an eagle— uoog^' taken young, and 
Imu^ht under by long assiauity,' yMit is a duigerooi do- 
neabc, tnd ^ea tunu iu Cnet agaiD«HU'*iiiter*«»iMtiiiM* 

= L.lXM^IC 

i,ND E X 

It for iti feeder; U is then lervieeidilfe, miid 
vin prariile for hU pleasurea and iuppar^~fliei the biB;he*t of 
ill birida, anil from thence hu by the aiKieati been o^ed the 
bird of lMaveD~~it has alio the <)iuckeit e^; but its WDie sf 
■melltng u far ioferior to that of the vulture— lit nev^ pursues 
b«t in ngbt — ^findi difficulty in naiag mhta dowa-^caEriw 
nMWf geew, cranet, luu«a, lambs, and kids, and ofte« deatooya 
iHTiia and calvet, to driok tbeir blood, and tsriiei « part of 
llieir ieah to its retreat — tnfaata, when left uoatteaded, have 
bMB deitroyed by tbe*e rapacjoitt deaturet — the eagle is 
peodiarly Cwmidfdile when briogiBgw its youBg--a po«r Hian 
got a conGartable lubuBtcnce for m bmilv, duruig a minrr 
of fkmiae, out of ■■ oagle'i aopt, by rrining Ibe e«gleU of 
food— wglw klDed a peamtt wte Md jotibtA their ■eats — 
tlwtB it a Iwr in Ae Orkney iilanda, Irbich entitlM any pcnon 
ikit kStt an oa^ to « ben out of every house id tu panstt 
in wliiah the plunderer is IciUed— the a«t of Ae ei^jfe ia 
iMiiall^ bmU in the mnat inaooeuible dJB* of the rock-~de- 
•diption of one fimnd in the FeaJc of Derbyihire — It hatcbeo 
iu eggi for thirty da^^— very rare to fiad three earieti in the 
eanie neat ; and it u aaaerted, that the Joother VSa the moat 
fttthi or ttie moat voracioas— it ie Itclieved Ih^ live above 
• faandwd yem, and that Aty die, Mot of old ase, bnt £rom 
the berirn turning nwacd upon the under jaw, and preventing 
tbcir takbig airy food— ao eagle endured hunger for twmty- 
one days, wUnout any anttenance vrJiateveiv-^tliey are £rst 
nkite, tben tadinii^ to ydlow, and at latt I^fat-brcnm— «ge, 
boDger, oMivily, and diseaaes, make then nrhiter — thoK kept 
lame are fed with every kind <0f dedi, iredk or ootmpling; 
and upon a defictemcy of Hm, to-ead, or any other pvovuBcn, 
wU tafce it ia dangvoua apprnadang dieni, if not qaite 
lane; and tbey eonietiBBes send forth a Wad anciag, la- 
MenOble erf, wbitdi aeadns ihem atitl raaic iMfaaSHble^ 
tbtw driafc bot.Khbm, and tperiupi, mbe* at Vbattf, aet at all 
t-^Oebalde^ Mnfaabkant af Ncndi £ar<Aina— fareeda in 
tbot country ^1 the year round— manner in which tha egf^ 
are hatdied — characteristic! and habitudes of this anioial— its 
nen is lai^ enough to fill the body of a carti and commonlr 
fill! of bones half eaten, and putrid flesh, the Mench of wiuat 
itiMokriMe, i>.e£, Ac. 

■ftan'bw <biu. ar toor icgga, of a hi siae daa Jbmtm af -a-lient 
Of « <w6iae eUiptioal fenn-^Utiaative narkB «f 4ie,faUbi 
■Mfe, af tto IWBKiiAa a^/e, nf <thc ^oUieiflfe, af il«»MtBe^gie, 
«r iHie -fmugk^fitOtd mgle, i«f she wMte-mOtd leagk, 'Of the 
«rf*, af (be diJwit «^ -^ 3te jA aaadv. aif Aa a^M^. tff! the 
J«B»JBMaac,«ribejAraMJ-Cttfc,MraheOaM>WiiO'M^tf tha 
— ' J^fiicm tu^ of Ae w^iof jWUmry, «.'»■ 

u i i rb fettur----- - -^— 

I N D E *. 

ErinHpal inarkB of the passioDs — Bmalleet ears in men Ealil td 
e most beautiful— the largest the beat for heailag — some 
tarttge natioot bore their ears, and draw that part down, till 
the tip of the ears rests upon the shoulder, i. 4 IB— undulations, 
which strike the ear, supposed but one continued sound, by 
their quick successions, though in reality they make many, ii. 
34— persons hear difiereutly with one ear from the other — ' 

' these have what musicians call a bad ear ; and, as hearing 
false, also sing false — such persons also deceived . as to the 
side whence the sound comes, 42— from what cause the small 
ears of the Tartars and Chinese, 92—thoBe of the hare move* 

. able, and capable of direction to every quarter, iii. 118 — are 
remarkably good, 122 — birds have not the external ear stand' 
ing out from the head — probably the feathers encompassing 
ear-holes, supply the defect of the exterior ear, iv. 8, 

Earth, its globe a million of times less than the sun, i, 2— 
placed at a happy middle distance from the centre, in our 
■olar system— less distant from the sun than Saturn, Ji^iter, 
and Mars, and less parched up than Venus and Mercury, 
situated too near the violence of its power — >the earth, like a 
chariot- wheel, has a compound motion — its rotundity proved 

, —is rather flatted at the poles, and its form resembles that 

' of a turnip, 6 — considered as one scene of extensive desola- 
tion, 16— supposed by Bufibn a glohe of glass — by Whiston, 
a sphere of heated iron — by Kircher, one dreadful volcano— 
by Burnet a great rodss of water — composed of difierent 
layers or beds, lying horizontally, one over the other, like 
the leaves of a book, 46 — by Hutlon supposed to have 
existed from eternity, and that there is no trace of beginning 
or end, i. 30— by Whitehurst, to have originated from a 
fluid state, snd gradually become solid, 34. 

Earth (garden] or mould-earth, a kind of mother, never found 
an enemy to man, i. 46' black earth formed by decayed 
leaves and branches iu Burgundy, 49 — drying and astringent 

earth preserves bodies from corruption, ii, IIP all such 

earths as ferment wiih vinegar, are a composition of shells, 
decayed, and crumbled down to one uniform mass, v. 210. 

Earthquakes, frequent through the whole region where a vol- 
cano is situated, i. 76 — various kinds of tnem distinguished 
by philoitophers, and by M. Buffun — air the only active 
operator in them — several opinions upon the cause of them — 
activity of internal heat alone sufficient to account fur every 
appearance attending earthquakes — twelve cities in Asia 
Minor swalloiTed up m one night— extraordinary earthquake 
related by Pliny — account of that in the year ISftt, extend-- 
ing- to a ciTt:umrerence of two thousand six hundred leagues 
—minute description of that in Jamaica in 1692 — account 
of the dreadfal shock in Calabria in IGfl 8— concomitant cir* 
cumstaoces attendiDg earthquakes, 88. 

I'N D E X. 

Emrlh-tDorm, ot AraeriGB, often a yard in length, and thick a> a 
valkiDff cane, L S50 — iti descriplioD, vi. 172- 

Marvng, lis habits— reproacbes groundlest about tbii snitna) — its 
food— general characteriitics of the kind— lirei in ita winged 
■Ute a fen dayi — dies to all appearance ooniumpltve, vi. 

Eeheneit, the sucking Gih — iu description, t. 12T. 

Xdtini, at urchins, a multivatve ihelKfiib, v. dU. See 

Echo, no art can m^e an echo, ii. 41. 

£el described, v. 136. 

Effivvia from diseased bo£es propagate disorders called inf^ 
tiouB, i. 370. 

Egg, ail birds, most fishes, and many of the insect tribes, 
brought forth from eggs, i. 3^5 — •rarmtb of die sun, or of 
B stove, efficacious in bringing the aoimal in the egg to perf^ 
tion—its description — history of the chicken in the egg, to its 
complete formation, 366 — the ichneumon discover* and 
destroys the eggs of the crocodile — the crocodile lays in the 
sand at a time three or four hundred, iii, 99 — such birds as 
iindiiturbed lay but two or three eggs ; when thur eggs are 
■tolen, lay ten or twelve — a common hen, moderately fed, 
lays above a hundred, frnm the beginning of spring to die 
latter end of autumn, W. 23 — some of the oitrich weigh 
above fifteen pounds, 43 — inhabitants of Norway prepare 
from the eggs of the porpoise a kind of caviar, or deh'cate 
sauce, and good when eaten with tvead, v. 58— manner in 
which the eggs of fishes are impregnated wholly unknown, 14>7 
—doubts whether fish come from the egg completely formed, 
145— those of the turtle hatched by the son, 197. 

Eggi (seaj name given in our cabinets to « multivatre shell- 

m,\t, called echini, or urchins, by natnralitts those tS 

the sea-urchin a great delicacy, t. 84S. 

Eg^, has south winds, so hot during summer that resfHra- 
tion is almost slowted by them — they are charged with such 
quantitiefi of sand, t^at they darken the air, as with a cloud 
— it rains very seldom in that country, but the want of 
showers is compensated by the C(q>iousaeM of their dews, i 

295 a mummy, not long since dug up in FVaooe, shows 

the art of embalming more completely understood in the 
western world, than in Egypt itself, ii. 125— the ichneumon 
used in this kingdom for the same purposes that cats are ia 
Europe, iii. 94. 

Egyptians carried the art of embalmning to the highest perfection 

—copious detail of it, ii, 119 paid divine honours to the 

ibis — MaiDet's observations concemmg this bird, iv, S02. 

Eider-^uck, iv. 411 — remarkable fiir the warmth of its nest, 4IS 
—furnishes the valuable luxury called Eider-dowD, 430. 

ElastUUy of the air, i. 248, 251. 


Elej^'^t, not afraid (ingiy to make opposidoB to the ]ion» ii. 
402 — not IsM roHiarlu^le for its siae thao its docility — all 
faistorians concur in giving it the character of the most sega- 
cioui animal next to mac— its height from seven to fifleen teet 
~-impMsifaJic to give an idea of this aDJioars figure by descrip< 
tioD ; assisted by Uie art of the engraver, it will but confusedly 
rqireaeat the ori^al — general observations about its coafor- 
m^on — of all quadrupeds Uie elephant the strongest, and 
largest; yet neither fierce nor formidable — in its native 
deterti seldom idone, beZae a aocial friradJy creatur^-the 
oldest conduct* the band ; the nexi in seniority briogs iip the 
rear— order maintained in dangerous marches — never so iar 
asunder as to be iocap^le vf reciprocal assistance — their 
invasimg ijie more disagreeabler there being no means of 
repelling them, since an attempt to mdest a drove would 
certainly be fiital — manner of ^ing against him who ofers 
the insult •-do no personal mjury when sufiered to feed 
uninterrupted — molested by man, they seek all occasions to be 
xevenged-- where they like best to live in their natural state — 
cannot live far from water ; and always disturb it before they 
drink — ofleo fill their trunk with water, to cool it, or by 
way of play to spurt it out like a fountain — equally dis- 
tressed by the extremes of heat and cold — swim from the 
continent into islands some leagues distant ~ frequently 
migrate from one country to another, and why — their food of 
the vegstiAJe kind, loathing all sort of animal diet — one 
finding a spot of good pasture invites the rest to partake of 
it— precautions by Negroes and Indians against them — they 
o&eo braak through their fence, destroy the harvest, overturn 
th^r habitatioDs, and then retreat in order, as they made 
the irruption — looks with attention and friendship at its 
iuaner-~its ears wipe its eyes, and cover them agaiost the 
dust and flies — it likes music, learos to beat time, move in 
meaaoee, and join its voice to the sound of the drum and 
trumpet — is pWased with the odours that delight man— the 
orange flower particulBrly grateful to its taate and smell — ■ 
fHcks up flowers and is pleased with the scent — seeks the 
■MMt odoriferous plants for food — prefers the cocoa, the 
baiHtna, tiw paim, and the sago tree to all others— «al^ plants. 
to the roots — their sense of touching most delicate— descrip- 
tion of it* traok— scrrmg all the purposes of a band — 
breadiec, drinks, and smdls tbroiwh the truak— takes a pin 
from liie ground, untiee knots of a rope, unlocks a door, 

and writes with a pen, iii. 832 an ob^ct too large for 

die trunk to gntsp, is sucked up by its breath, lifted and 
austained — the trunk its organ of smelling, of touching, of 
auction, of oroament, siul defeuce — its necK so riiort tluit it 
must turn aboat to discover what is behind it — bow the 
haatera «scaps its feataameot — a description of its left — 

r N D E X. 

«hile young it bends the legs ; but when old, or sick)}', 
it wants human assistance, and chooses to sleep standing — a 
description of its feet, and of its tusks — these, with age, 
become so heavy that it is obliged to rest them in boles in 
the walla of its stall — they aie two>-their amazing size — they 
proceed trom the upper jaw, not from the froaUl booes, 
and are not horns as some have supposed— nor ever shed ia 
a domestic state— £lian saw an elephant write Latio charac- 
ters on a board, his keeper only showing him the figure of 
each letter — extraordinary manner of eating — is not a rumi- 
natine animal — its stomach and intestines resemble those 
of a horse — opinion that the young elephant sucks with its 
trunk, not with its mouth, referred to future discoTerers— the 
skin not covered with hair, a few bristles in the scars and 
Wrinkles of the body, aod thinly scattered over the skin ; the 
hide resembles the bark of an old tree, more than the tkia 
of an animal— ~is subject to that disorder known by the name 
of elephantiasis, or Arabian leprosy— in what manner the 
Indians endeavour to prevent it — the flies torment tbii 
animal incessantly — what arts it tries to keep tliem off — in a 
state of nature, it rarely quits the river, and often staads 
in water up to the belly— from time immemorial employed 
for the purposes of labour, of war, to increase the grandeur 
of eastern princes, or to extend their dominions, 339 — is a 
native of Africa and Asia— still retains its natural liberty in 
Africa — during the splendour of the Carthaginian empire, 
they were used in the wars — no elephants found on this side 
Mount Atlas — places where they are in great numbers — the 
greatest elephants found in Asia — their price increases in 
proportion to their size — the largest kept for princes — 
their colour — that appropriated for the monarch's own 
riding, kept in a palace, attended by nobles, and almost 
adored by the people — opinions concerning the white ele- 
phant—the eastern princes maintain as many ele[^nls as 
they are able, and place great confidence on their assist- 
ance in an engagement — they never breed in a state of ser- 
vitude, and the generative powers fail when it comes under 
the dominion of man^luration of pregnancy in the female 
still a secret — what Aristotle and others say concerning this 
and their young is doubtfiil — method of taking tbem wild in 
the woods — Negroes of Africa, who hunt this animal for its 
flesh, take It in pit-falls — its attachment to the peison that 
attends it — it comprehends several of the signs made to it, 
distinguishes the tone of command from that of anger or 
approbation, and acts accordingly — executing orders with 

Erudence, eagerly, yet without precipitidioD — is taught to 
neel down, to receive its rider, usually mounted upon its neck 
-caresses those it knows, salutes such as it is ordered to dis- 
tinguish, and helps to take up its load— 4akes a pleavire iB*th« 


finerj of iti trappingi— draws charioti, cannon, or Bhtpping, 
with strength and perseverance ; and satisfaction, provided it 
be not corrected without a cause, and that its master be 
pleased with its exertions — in what manner the conductor 
guides it — frequently takea such an affection to its keeper, 
as to obey no other — has been known to die of grief for 
killing its conductor in a fit of madness— surprising instance 
of moderation in ils fury — a word sufficient to put it into 
motion, SSi*— a century or two ago, the Indian generals placed 
great dependence upon the number and tlie expertness of 
their elephants— of late the^ are little used, except for draw- 
ing cannon, and transporting provision — still they are used 
in war in Siain, in Cocbin-Chlna, in Tonquin, and Pegu— 
in what manner armed and led to battle— effects of its fury 
ID the field — those placed upon its back Id a square tower, 
combat as from an eminence, and fling down their weapons 
with double force — nothing more dreadful, or more irresist- 
ible, than such moving machines, to men unacquainted with 
the modern arts of war — Romans quickly learned the art of 
evening their ranks to admit the elephant, and separating it 
from aseistance, compelled its conductors to calm the ani- 
mal's fury, and to submit — sometimes, instead of obeying, 
turned upon those it was employed to assist— one elephant 
is known to consume as much as forty men in a day— they 
are now chiefly employed in carrying or drawing burthens, 
throughout the peninsula of India— it can, with ease, draw 
more than six horses can remove — it carries upon its back 
three or four thousand weight ; and upon its tusks it can 
support near a thousand— when pushed, it moves as sniflly 
as a horse at full gallop — it travels fifty or sixty miles a day ; 
and, hard pressed, almost double that number — heard 
trotting on at a great distance — its track is deeply impressed 
on the ground, and from fifleen to eighteen inches in diame- 
ter — used in India as executioners, and with what dexterity 
they perform the borrid task — sometimes they impale the cri- 
minal on their enormous tusks — two surprising instances how 
sensible it is of neglect — the keeper despising its endeavours 
in laoncbing a ship, the animal redoubled its eSbrta, frac- 
tured ils skull, and died upon the spot— 'revenge one of them 
took upon a tailor who pricked its trunk with a needle at 
Delhi — is mindful of benefits— instance of it — st the Cape of 
Good^Hope they are hunted for the sake of their teeth — in 
what nan ner— .account of an unhappy huntsman — teeth of 
the elephant found in a fossil state— two great grin ding' teetb, 
and part of the tusk of an elephant, discovered at the depth 
of forty-two yards, in a lead mine in Flintshire, 351— tuska 
of the elephant that come from Africa seldom exceed prp 
)uindKd and fifty pounds,^. 

L;,q,z:=b, Google 


BftTAatttiaiii, or the Arabisn leprocy, a diieaM to *hich rasn snd 
the elephant are equally subject — in what manner the Indians 
endeavour to prevent it, iii. M48. 

Etlit, hii prindpal experiment upon coraliDe lubslances, vi. 193. 

Eli, iU size equal to that of the elephant — ii an animal rather 
of the buck than the stag kind— knomt in Anterica by ihe 
name of moose deer— is sometimeB taken in the German and 
RuHisn foreitB ; but extremely common jn North America 
—its horns fortuitously dug up in many i»rti of Ireland, 
measuring ten feet nine inches from tip lo tip~a small one 
the size of a horse, and Ihe horns little larger tban those of 
B common stag — Jocdin and Dudley describe this animal 
about eleven feet high ; others extend their accounts to twelve 
and fourteen feet — never disturbs any other Mima), wbea 
BQpplied itself— a female of this kind liitmii at Pari* in Ihe 
year 1742 — its description— they gave it thirty p«tMds of 
bread every day, besides hay; and it drank dght Ducket* of 
water, ii. 3S9. 

Elk, (American) of two kmds, the grey and the btsck ; de- 
scribed— th^ prefer cold ctnmtries, feeding upon grass in 
summer, and the bark of trees in winter— time and manner of 
hunting them— its flesh very welt tastei), and very nouririiing 
—its hide strong, and so thick as to twm A muiket-bail; 
yet is soft and phable— this animal troubled with the epilepsy 
— is but very indifferently and confusedly deserfted by 
travellers — their various descriptions, ii. SS6—~ia what mamier 
killed by the glutton, iii. III. 

Eii^s, or Sea-strpenf, its description, t. 198. 

Eli^, an island, the country round it was once a meet deKgbtfol 
spot— producing grapes that afforded excrileni wl*e — the sea 
breaking in, overwhelmed the whole country, i. S3^ 

Embalming, the Egyptians carried this art to perfection— co- 
pious detail of this art as practised among tftem— hi Genesis, 
Joseph seeing his father expiir, ordered his f^jsicianB 
to embalm the body — various methods nf embatming— -the 
art still among the Guaoches, ancienf inAafeitants of the 
island of Teneriffe, when the Spamsrds conquered it— par- 
ticulars of their method of embalming— the Peravims ako 
understood this art, according to Fattwr Acoeta, ii. 121 — a 
mummy lately dug up in France, shews the art more com- 
pletely understock in the ivesieni Huta the Eastern world, 

Embri/o, its first rudiments— in a month an inch tMyg-^tbe male 
devHopes sooner than the ftmale— progress and increase of 
it, i. S75— in the human the under jaw much advanc«d before 
the upper, 414— braiti and spinal marrow first seen begua, iL 
20— the bones as soft as the flesh, 57. 

Emigration, causes of emigrations of birds, ir. 2i—ia what man- 
ner performed, 26. 

£mtn M nhdbilaot of the new vontinent, called aiaa the 
Amct'ican oatrich— deacription and plocM vben found — 
run* so *«tft); the dop lose the pursuit — one aurroiinded 
bj huDteri, the dc^ avoided its rage — peculiar in haioking 
ita young— (he young at first fiuninarly follow eay p«fson — 
•i thej grow old6r, beosmc cunning and diatrusiful — dieii 
flesh good to be eaten— tbcy lire entirely upon grass, iv. 

£«cou6ert of Buibn, the tatou of Rajr, a abelly quadr<ip«d, iii. 

Etviatid claims dominion over the seas cnoompamng Great 
Britain and Ireland— losing its superiority upon the ocean, its 
aafety becranes precarious, i. 895> 

Entry, a term in the chase of the stag, ii. SIS. 

£pA«nt(ri), various.kinds of thia insect— its desoription — c(^ui« 
of tbeir aurelias— their transmutations— placss where found 
ib abundance — short duration — their impregnation, vi, 9ti. 

E^ubtoTt deseription of the regions under it, i. 10. 

£nkittt, its description-- alike in figure to the weasel, its Air the 
most valuable of any-^the time in which it i* called the 
ttoat— manner of moulting its liair--one ate honey, and died 
■bortly at^er— proof af a oistincl spacies from the pcle'Oat or 
the martini-one of these, fed with eggs and flesh, let them 
putrefy before they touched either— in Siberia, taken in traps 
t>ait«d with flesh i and in Norway, shot with blunt arrnws, 
or taken in traps'— sometimte found white in Great Britain, 
and IS then oalled white weasel— its fiir among us of no value, 
iii. 76, &c.— preys updn the laming, 186. 

£me, kind of eagle— its distinctive markb, iv. 7fl. 

Miculapiaii serpent of Italy, a domestic creature, v. ST7. 

Mtox, or the pike, description of this fish, v. 18S> 

Etfitimatu Indians described, ii. 73, 

Ew^iratian, cold dhnlnishing the force of tneostruums, pro- 
motes evaporation— -theory for the formation of the clouds 
—prevented by mbiat weather— dry froat assists evaporation, 
i. SIS. 

EuTVptam resemble our comraen parent more than any of the 
rest of his diildren— argument frtaieh saffiees to prove it, ii. 

Euttachian tube, a passage from the ear into the mmitb— its 
me, 11.41. 

Exhalatumi, rotneral', raised by subterranean heat, i. 915 — whea 
copious every where fatal, i. 304. 

Etocettu, the flying fith, its deecHption, *. 139. 

Extnuuatu, at fossil shells, found ia the bowels of tbe earth, v. 

Ei/es, opened by the infant the moment of ita birth, i. 5S6— 
particularly m them the passions are paitlted — different 
colours of the eye, wbence they ariae, 407 — eyes of oxen are 

I;. L.oogic 


^rovn; ihoM of idwep of a water colour ; of goati are grey ; 
and thoM of moat wliite animaU are red— distance between 
the eyet teas in man than in an^r other animal, 409 — in 
what circumBtanceB women with child are s^d to be all 
month and eyes — the lower eye-lids, in women with child* 
drawn downwards, 428 — of all parts the animal has double, 
the eyes produced soonest — privations of feeling and sight 
would roisrepreEeot the Eituation and number of all things 
around us — two contribute to distinct and extensive fision-- 
both eyes see round the object, and give it that heightened 
relief which no painting does attain to — in either is there a 
point which has no vision, the defect Is corrected by having 
the organ double — easy experiment to be convinced of it — 
objects at a distance are rarely equal in both eyes — the best 
eyei see objects tar^t — infants, having their eyes less, must 
see objects smaller m proportion — when we look at an object 
extremely brilliant, vision becomes indistinct, and why — how 
iar the eye can accommodate itself to darkness — remarkable 
instance of it in a major under King Charles I. ii. 19— 
whence have arisen the small eyes of the Tartars and Chinese, 
02 — eastern poets compare the eyes of their mistresses to 
those of the gazelle — the Greeks resemble the eyes of a 
beautiful woman to those of a cow, ii. 276— ^of all animals, 
natives of this climate, none have an eye so beautiful as 
the stag, 305 — that of the wolf opens slantingly upwards, 
in the same direction with the nose, iii. 31 — of the fox, 

eBced obliquely, like those of the wolf, 44— those of the 
ire placed backwards, to see behind it as it runs, and these 
are never wholly closed, iii. 118— peculiar advantages of 
smallness of the eye in the mole, 192~description of the 
eyes of birds Of the owl kind~-in the eyes of all animals, a 
complete provision to shut out too much light, or to admit a 
sufficiency, by contraction and dilatation of tbe pupil, tv. 106 
-^— those of the great Greenland , whale not larger than 

those of an ox, v. 35 of the snail on the points of its 

lorsest horns, 214 peculiarities in the eye of the . ca- 

meleon, S21^«ycs of the butterfly have not all the same 
form — the outward coat has a lustre displaying the various 
colours of the rainbow — examined a little clos^y, it will be 
found to have the appearance of a multiplying-glats, vi. 70. 

Eye-lashes, men and apes only have ihem upon the upper and 
lower lids— alt other uiimaJs want them on the lower lid, i. 

Eye-lids, in birds and aniphibious quadrupeds, the lowo- 
eye^lid alone has motion — nshes and .insects have no eve-Iidi, 
i. 410, ' ^ 

: IV, Google 

Falcon-gentle, a kind of hawk— it ptirsnes the gazelles, ii. 388 
I ■■ .many people admire ita flesh, and dress it for eating, 
aays Belomua, iv. 6S— method of training up this bird— 
falconry, much disused among uB, was a principal amuse- 
irent of our ancestors — the felcon-gentle and the peregrine 
much leu than the gyr'i'alcon, which exceeds all others in 
largeness — description of the gyrfalcon— a courageous and 
fierce bird, not fearing the eagle — ^it chiefly flies at the stork, 
the heron, and the crane — is chiefly found in the northern 
regions, but loses neither strength nor courage when brought 
into the milder climates— the falcon-gentle moults in March, 
and Booner — the peregrine does not moult till August — the 
common falcon is of such spirit, that, like a conqueror 
in a country, he keeps all in awe and subjection to bii 
prowess — young &1cods, though depreased by captivity, will, 
when* brought out, fly at barnacles and wild geese — the 
falcon's pursuit of the beroo, kite, or woodlark, the most 
delightful sport— names of the falcons in use here, and in 
other countries — among the Welch, the king's falconer the 
fourth officer of the state ; was forbid to take more than three 
draughts of beer from his horn, lest he should neglect his 
duty, iv, 89, &e. 

Falconeri catch the kite for the purposes of training the falcon, 
aad how, iv. US. • 

Fallopitti, the two tubular vessels discovered by him, L S.?8> 

Famine supported by carnivorous animals fur several week* 
together, IT. 1S7. 

Fat of the shammoy, its medicinal virtue— fbt of aninials found 
efficacious in some disorders, ii. 375 of the manatt, ex- 
posed to tlie sun, has a fine smell and taste, and exceeda 
the fat of any sea-animal — the heat of the sun will not spoil 
it, nor make it rancid — several Other qualities of this fat, iii. 

Father-laiher, description of this fish, v. 124^. 

Fawn, name of the buck and the doe the first year, ii. 323. 

Feathers of birds described, iv. 3 of the ostrich aknoit 

as B(A as down, 38— difierent uses made of goose- feathers, 

Feather'bedf utterly unkown in countries bordering on the 
Levant, and all Asia — ancients did not use feather-bed^— 
Pliny speaks of bolsters of feathers for their heads— feathera 
make s consider^le article at commerce— di&rent qualltitfe 



~-beit method of ^firing them — old feathers more valoable 
thsD new, iv. 408. 
Fecunditif of the rabbit greater than of the hare, iii. 127' 
Feeling, deprived of feeling, our eyes would misrepresent iht 
Gituation and the number of till things around os, ii. 21 — blind 
men haveithia sense finer than others, and why — the grossest 
and most, useful of the senses — no total deprivation of it bat 
with life — those parts mo«t Sxefcised in it aoquire the greatest 
accuracy — the fingers, by habit, greater in Uie art than others, 
not from their having more nerves, 50~4ishes having no organs 
for feeling, must be the most stupid of all animau — feeling, 
the guardian, the judge, and the examiner of all the senses, u 
never found to deceive, 51 • 
Ferret, not found at present here but in the domestio state-^its 
description— -a native of the torrid zone— naturally such an 
enemy of the rabbit, that a young ferret, although uDac' 

auainted with the kind, will fiercely attack and bit« even s 
ead one— use of ferrets in warrens to enter the holes iduz- 
zled, and drive the rabbits into the nets at the mouth— to 
bring the ferret Irom his hole, straw and other substances 
burnt at the mouth — the female less than the male, whom she 
seeks with great ardour, and often dies without being admitted 
— they sleep continually, and the instant they awake seem 
Mger fbr food — are usually fed with bread and milk — breed 
twice a year— some devour tbeir young as soon as brought 
forth, and then becx)ms fit for the male again— the litter 
usually from five te six young \ and these consist of more 
females than maleB->-its scent fcetid — has BttBcked and killed 
children in the cradle — is easily irritated, and then smells more 
oflhnsively— its bite difficult of cur^^has ei^ht grindiitg teeth 
— to the ferret kind may be added an aniinal called by M. 
Buflbn the vansire, iii. 80, Sea. — originally from Africa, 132. 

Fibres, muscular, compose the stomaiSis of inseclSi ii. 2^X. 

Fieldjhre, bird of the sparrow kbd, iv. 246, 24<9. 

FtgUre, little known exactly of the proportion of the human 
. figure — different opinions concerning it, i. 427 — whence pro- 
ceed the variations in tba human %urfl, ii. 9if— the ^dest 
measure of the human figure in the monument irf Cheops> in 
the first pyramid of Egypt, 111, 

Finder, a dog of the generous kind, iiu 13. 

Fins, different purposes they answer in fisbes) v. S. 

Fin-jiih, v. 38— its foodj 89. 

Fingers, by hahit^ and not from a greater aumber of nervM, 
become euactcr in the art of feeling than any Other part, even 
where sensation is more delicate and fine, ii. 50. 

Fire, perpetual, in the kingdem of Persia, i. 74— ftdvMitages 
arising from the sublflfraneail fires, 104 — put oat ^ Ike sun 
shining u^on it, and why, £76— great gli>be of fire aeen at 
Booonia, in Italyi net lese than « nule Iwg, and half a mile 



brosd, S27-^ghted to prawrve faerdi Bud flock* from auioMla 
ofthecttt kind, ii. 399. 

Fire-_^re, PJiDi, ^lian, and Oppiao, supply the weapon of this 
fish with a Tepom affactiog even the ioBDUiUts creatioa— 
mwao* to doubt of it, t. 84. 

JFithei, petrified, found in tl>e mouDtaiiii of CaatravBti, i. 40 — 
fiah in abundaoca found in a neTr-fOroied ieland— thoce who 
eat of them died ahortl; af\er, 105— caoiiot live in water 
wheoca the air is exbmiited, 261— ^howofs of fiihea raised in 
the air by tempests, 333— most of them produced from the 
egg, 366— have no eye-lids at all, 41i— nor any neck, 429-^ 
tuiviiig BO organs for feeling, mult be stupid, ii, 51— the ocean 
is the great receptacle c^' fishes— opinion that all fish are 
naturallj of the suit element, aud have mounted up into ftesh 
water by accidental migration— soaic swim ap rivers to de- 
posit their spawn : of which the size is enormous, and the 
■boate endless — all lieep to the sea, and would expire in fresh 
water-— their pursuits, migratioft, societies, aotipubiea, plea- 
sures, times of gestation, tmd manner of bringing forth, are 
all liiilden in the turbulent element that protects them— the 
chief instruments in the motion of a fish are the fins— in some 
they are more numerous than in others — it is not always the 
fish with the greatest number of fins that have the swiftest 

- motion— how the fios astHSt the fish in ruing or sinkiog, in 
taming or leaping out of the water— all this explained bj the 
experiment of a carp pat into a large ressel— all fishes covered 
with a Blimv, glatinous matter, that defends their bodies tVom 
the immediate contact of the surrounding fluid— tbcy fall 
behind terrestrial animals in their sensations.— their sense of 
toncliing and smeillng— their sense of tasting— besrlng is found 
still more imperfect, if found at all — Mr. Gouan's experiment 
to this purpose— from it is learned iliey are as deaf as mule — 
their sense of seel i^^— the ir brain— their rafacity insatiaU^— 
when out of tile water, and almost expiring, they greedily 
awallow the bait by which tbcy are allured to destruction— 
the maw placed next the ffiouth ; and ibough possessed of no 
Mn»ble heat, is endued whh a ftmliy of diction, contrary 
to' the system that the Iwat of the stomach is alone sufficient 
for digUlieB--theugh fm" ever prowling, oan sufier want of 
food very long— insunces of it, T. 1, Ac— life of a fish but one 
scene of hostibly, violenc«, and evasioa— the causes of annual 
nigrations — all stand in need of air for support— those of the 
vtmle kind come to the surface Of the sea every two or three 
MMmtes, to breathe fresh air— experiment of a carp in a lai^ 
vase of water, plaoed under an si r<pump —general method of 
nplmniBg resfnratioD in fishes, the doscription and uses of 
lb«r air-bladder — full play of the ^ills prevested, or the bony 
coven kept from moving, the aaimal would fall into oonvul- 
tt fiahea haw no air-bladder ' i c m lira but 

I;. L.oogic 


m few minutes without air — Bacon's obienationi upOD their 
growth and age- — two methods for detenniaing the age crf'fiehe% 
more ingenioui than certaio — a carp found to be a hundred 
jeara old — the discovery confinned Dy authora^longevity of 
these animals, nothing compared to their fecundity — some 
multiply by million*— some bring forth their young alive, and 
some produce eggH — the fonner rather the least fruitful — the 
viviparous blenny brings forth two or three hundred at a time, 
all alive and playing together round the parent, 12 — the Seah 
flf fishes— question to the learned concerning the desh of 
fishes, 25— -cetaceous fishes, 36 — cartilaginous fishes, 6S— 
■pinouB fishes, 117 — Mr, Gouan's system of spinous fishes, 
lit)— all fish of the same kind have the same number of bones 
— Ae small, lean, and with many fins, the most bony— vulgar 
expression, that fishes at some seasoni are more bony than 
at others, scarce deserves contradiction— none imbibe the aea- 
■altness with their food, or in respiration— whence then do 
tome fishes live there, and quickly expire in fresh wat«r — 
Kxae fisb, as the eel, descend the fresh-water stream to brbg 
forth their young in the sea— in what season — long voyages 
undertaken by some tribes that constantly reside in the oceui, 
and may be called fish of passage— stated returns and regular 

progress of these fish of passage the most eztraordinaiy c 
cumstances in the history of nature — names of several mi- 
grating fishes — of all such, the herring and pilchard take the 

most adventurous voyages— places where found in ahundance, 
182 — amaiing propagation along our coasts and rivers, not 
proportionate to the quantities among the islands of the Indiaa 
Ocean— places where the spawn is deposited — doubts whether 
most fisb coaie ircHn the egg completely formed — growth of 
fishes— -bstance in the growu of the mackarel — all live upon 
each other in some state of their existence— of those in the 
ocean, of the spinous kinds, the dorado the most voratdoui 
— fiying fishes chiefiy sought by the dorado — their war&rfr— 
opinion that all fish are natives of the sea, founded upon 
then- superior fecundity of breeding twenty to one — certamlv 
fresh-water fishes abate of their courage and rapacity— greedi- 
ness of the sea-fish to devour the bait prodigious, compared 
with the manner it is taken in fresh-water — some fishes ren- 
dered so torpid in the northern rivers as to be frozen up in 
the masses of ice, and continue there several months, seem- 
ingly without life or sensation, waiting the approach of a wanner 
sun to restore them to life and liberty— each spedes of fidi 
infested with worms of dtfierent kbds— most vivacious animals 
— often live upon substances poisonous to the more perfect 
classes of animated nature — numbers of fishes making piMsoa- 
ous wounds, scarcely to be doubted — some fishes being poison- 
,ous is notorious, the cause inscrutable^ the Philosopbical 
Transactions give an account of poisoaous qu«litiea.of ou, at 

f, Google 


' Keir Prbvideiice— sll kindt, at different times, alike dangersus; 

. the some species this day serving as nourishment, the next 
found fatal — speculations and conjectures to whicti these 
poisoaouB qualities have given rise, 144, &c. 

FUe-Jish, most wonderful of the shelly tribe, v. 250. See Pht^as. 

yUkery of pearls, several — chiefly carried on in the Persian 
Gulph — the people destined for the pearl fisheries — they die 
consumptive — in what manner thev fish for pearl;, v. 244. 

Fiihingrfmg, from its deformity called wa-e^i^— -conceit that 
this fish uses its two long beards, or fiJaments, for fishing— 
Rondelet says, that the bowels taken out, the body appears 
transparent ; and, with a lighted candle in it, has a formidable 
appearance — fishermen have a great regard for this ugly fisb, 
■a an enemy to the dog fish — when taken they set it at liberty, 
V. 106. 

Fiuurei, perpendicuiar, found in every field, and every quarry 
— their causes, i. 5i. 

fUtularia, description of this fish, v. 128. 

Flame will bum under water — none found continuing to burn 
without air, L 276. 

Flamingo, the most remarkable of the crane kind ; the tallest, 
bulkiest, and most l>eautiful'-4tB description — chiefly found 
in America— once known on all the coasts of Europe — in de- 
serted regions the flamingos live in a state of society, and 
under a better policy than others of the feathered creation- 
delicacy of its flesh — when the first Europeans in America 

. killed one, the rest regarded the fall in fixed astonishment ; thus 
the fowler levelled the flock, before any began to escape — it it 
now one of the scarcest and shyest birds in the world— place* 
it chiefly inhabits — always appoint one as a watch, who gives 
notice of danger with a voice as shrill as a trumpet — Negroes 
f(Hid of their company, and think their society a gift from 
heaven, and protection from evils — those killed hidden in the 
long grass, to prevent ill treatment irom the blacks discover- 
ing the murder of their sacred birds — are frequently taken 
with nets— refuse all nourishment, when taken ; pine and die, 
if left to themselves in captivity — its tongue is the most cele- 
brated delicacy ; a dish of them, eaye Labat, is a feast for an 
Emperor ; a Roman Emperor had fifteen hundred flamingos' 
tongues servac} up in a dish — their tongue larger than that of 
any other bird — its flesh— they move in rank like cranes — ap- 

Siear in flight of a bright red as a burning coal — manner of 
ceding very singular — savages of Canada call it tococa, and 
Hhy-~>tiaie of breeding, and their nests — number of their eggs 
-—colour when young— then become familiar in five or six 
days, eat out of the hand, and drink eea-water ; but generally 
pine away, wanting their natural supplies, and die in a short 
time— savages make ornaments of their plumes ; and t)ie ikia 
sometimes serves the Europeans to make muffi, iv. 322. 

I; COOgIt' 


Rm ou Anw B chab a hundred tioMs tiMmer tlian- itadfi nod 
eat ten times iti owa siw »f provision In one Aay, *. 996— tu< 
de«cripdon, ^ll — arboreBoent water Aea, or fnouocului, de- 
Bcribed, 4^ — LauwaDboeck has ' dheovered d»9v« aiK tltfu- 
sond facets oo the coTnea nf a flea, vi. 70. 

Fkmings, poBsessed die art of cloth-workiag is a auperior degres 
— were invited to lattle liare, ii. 2fl8. 

Pteth, dries at Coico like wood, without cotrupting, !i. 11!^— 
the Persians etteem that of the wild ass so highly that iti de- 
licacy is a proverb among them, 20(^^of the fallow deer pre- 
ferred to any ether, S21— of the roe-buck, between one and 
two years old, allowed the greatest driicacy known, 338— of 
the tiger is good for food ; aome hold it st^erjor to mutton, 
4S2 — of dogs, BtM in sbambtes all over Oiina ; and the me- 
groes of the coast of Guinea esteem it a delicacy, ai likewise 
thet of taads, lizards, sod tigen, iii. 3S — that of the wolf 
very indifferent; no creature Icn own to eat It hut the wolf 
himself, 43— of the eqauah, toleraUe food, lOS— that oftha 

glutton not fit to be eaten, 115 of the bare, religioualy 

abstained from by Jews, ancient Britons, aod Makonetans, 
1S6— of the paca, considered n great delicacy, 159— of tke 
tendrae, thought by the Indians a great d^ieacy, 208 — of the 
pan^oUn, considered a very great ddicacy by Ae Begroea of 
Africa, 21^-of the arnadiHs, oi tatoa, said to be detieate 
eating, 283 — of the seal, formerly found place at the taUea of 
the great, %5— of the monkey, liked fay the negroes, 905 — 
of the ostrich, prescribed tti Seripture, unfit to be eaten, iv. 
40 — of the emu, or the American estnch, good to be eaten, 
51— of tlie dodo, good and wfiofesome eatii^, 58 — oT the 
raltore, faleon, and osprey, when rottng, excellent food, ac- 
ctffding to Belonins — that of caraiTorous birds stringy and ill 
tasted, soon corrupted, and tinctured with that anm^ food 
upon which they snbsist, 63— of the bird condor, as dis^ree- 
able as carrion, 74— of the peflcaek, keeps longer urtputrafied 
tban of any other animal, 194— of the pheasant, conside<^ 
88 the greatest dainty — of ihc quail, a very great driieacy, 163 
'—that of the partridge, so valued by the French, accordmg 
to WiHughby, that no feast cooW be complete without it, 157 
>— of the toucan, tender and nouriabing, 190 — of young hertws, 
in particular estimation in France, 314— of the bittern, greatly 
esteemed among the luxurious, 319 — of the pnffin, fonnerly 
by the church flowed on lenten days, S93— of fishes, yieJds 
little nourishment, v. 25 — of the young porpoise, said to be 
as treH tasted as veal, 58 — of the shark, is liardly digestible 
by any bat negroes, who are food of it to distractKiB, 75— 
of tbe turtle, is become a branch of commerce, 194— that of 
some crabs is poisonous, 177 — of tbe great Mediterranean 
turtle sometimes poisonous, 190, 

Pliei tonaent the dephant unceasingly— arts the felephant trie* 

I;. L.oogit; 


to keep them off, iii. 249 Angom-Ay, or A« Hbflls, vi. 9^ 

Gomnsn water-fiy, Bwini en it* back, S5— the Goraea bo 
adapted by Puget, as to see ot^oti tlwongli it with ■ nicro- 
■Gope — Btrangenesi of tti repreKntuio(M-_doca the 6y wee 
objieot* RiBglf , u with one e^e ; or ia eveiy t»cet b coKiplete 
eye, exhibiting its object distinct from tbe rest, TO the 
Spaoith-flj, VI. 152. See Cantharida. 
Flini-ihirei in a lead-mine therei two great grindiDe teeth, and 

Sirt of the tusk ef an elephant, diwovered, at um depth of 
rty-two ywds, ill. S56. 
J^iMindar, known to produce, in one teaMa, above one million of 

ftuidt, aicendiDg In reaada emptied of air— rinng in eapillMj 

tabes, and bow this comes to pau, i. 161. 
Fhmi^, description of this fish, vi. 284. 
Jlkr oflhe sea,). 209— ooc equid in tbe Strait of MagsHan, 21& 
''"'ycaUhtr, bird of the sparrow kind, iv. 349. 
ifing'^tk, it* deaeription, t. 139. 
-—- -rfuirrd deserfbed, iii. ] 44. 

I, name of a flower, cloiinv upon tbe flies that Iwfat upon 

¥<xIm», tbe canal of enamunicatioa diroii^ which die blood 
circulates in the fcetus, without going through the lungs, has 
been fbnnd open in tone bodies tint haTolwen dtsseoted, r. 


TongK^ng, natiree 4^ China give a fiutastic description of this 

inu^inary bird, ,ir. 147. 
FotOeitelle, a celebrated writer, of a weak and delicate habit of 

body ; the remarkable equality of bis temper lengthened out 

bis lift to aboTC a hundred — Doti>ing could vex as make him 

uneasy, li. S3. 
Tood, man om live witfaeot it fttr seven days-— a Scotdinaan, for 

(he space of six weeks, took no food at all, ii. 9. 
Foramen-ovaU, op«iing in the heart of the fcatus, i. 38&^— in 

the seal's heart never closes, iii. 358. 
JFornt of hares made in places where the colour of the grass 

most reeemMet that of tbeir (kin ; is open to the soum is 

winter, and to the north in summer, iik 122— «hey deep w 

repose in them by day, 131. 
Formiea-lto, the HoU'Unt, described — its hiAits— retreat — can- 

trivances fbr catching other insect^^when attaining a certain 

age changes its fbrm — descnpiion, when become a large and 

beautiful fly of the libellula kind, vi. 7. 
FouU, teeth of e>ephai)ts often found in that sute — bone» found 

in Peru and Brazil, iii. 326 — shells in the bowels ef the eaKh, 

not found in the ocean, v. 211. 
Fimine, animal of the weasel kind, iii. 88. 

Foteti, large, do not rise easilv. and why, iv. 6 — fisw waterJewls 
' known (o breed in En^and, a^d why, 2 5 . those of re44a)i 

I;. L.oo^lc 


plumige flie tncieiits beU iDTiluable ; the white as unfit fer 
domettic purposes, and fit as prey to rapacious bird^— Am- 
tatte thinks tliem len frahfu) than the former, 125— general 
characteriBtics of water-fowls— their food — the gull kind — 
the peneuia kind — the goose, kind, 349— -water- fowls properly 
of no clunate, 394. 

foxa hunt in packs, iii. 6 — their cubs boro blind, like those of 
the dog— the fox lives about twelve or fourteen year^-re- 
markable instance of pareotal a&otioD of a she-fox — <all ani- 
mals make war upon the fox — ^even the birds — refuses to en- 
gender with the dog — brings forth fewer than the dog, aad but 
once a year — the female goes with young six weeks, and ael- 

' dom stirs out while pregnant — various colours of them^tbree 
varieties of this aointal in Great Britain ; greyhound-fox, mas- 
tiff fox, and cur-fox— round the pole they are all colours — 
JBckall taken for the fox — skio of the black fox most esteemed, 
m single skin gelling for forty or fifty crowns, 44, &c — in 
Greenland do not change colour at all, 78 — taken youug, are 
gentle only while cubs ; growing older, discover ibeir natural 
appetites of rapine and cruelty, 7 — nothing eatable comes 
amiss to them, rats, mice, serpents, toads, and lisards ; insects, 
crabs, shrimps, and shell fish ; carrots, wax, and honey ; even 
the hedge-hog, 47 — chose of the fox — thur -o&nsive smell 
onen the cause of their deaUi — way they Gnd to subsist — name 
given by huntsmen to a fox of the second year^-old fox the 
name for the third year, 47 — many animals in this country 
bred between a dog and a fox — experiments prove neither the 
wolf nor the fox of the same nature with the dog, each a 
species perfectly distinct, 2^— exactly resembles the vtAf and 
' toe dog internally, 44 — description — eyes obliquely situated, 

like the wolf, 44 often takes possession of the hole quitted 

by the badger, or forces it from its retreat by art, 391. 

Fox, (crost) name of the isatis, when turning white, iii. 62. ■ 

Fox-4aUed monlceif, of the sagoin kind, iii. 316. 

Fray, said when stags rub off the peel of their boms against 
trees, ii. 312. 

Frog, designedly introduced into Irdand before the Norway tat 
—the rat put a stop to their increase, and the frog is alniost 
extinct in that kingdom, iii. 169 — differences between it and 
the toad in figure and conformation, v. 2£7 — the frog the best 
swimmer of all four-footed animals— its description — how the 
female brings forth eggs— various changes in the eggs, after 
impr^oation by the male— the animal in its perfect state, 
-from feeding upon ve^tables, becomes carnivorous, lives udhi 
worms and insects, and seeks for food upon land — tsyriads 
seen on duch occasions, have been fancied to be generated in 
the clouds, and showered down on earth— their habitudes and 
food — difference of sexes not perceivable until tlieir fourth 
year — <]o not beg^n to propagate till that period — live about 

I;. L.oogic 


twelve yem—» Genwm surgeon kept one eight" yetn in a 
glass covered with a net; fed it often, hut sparingly — 
instances oftenaciousness of life^— the ma]eonlycroakB~-large 
WBter-frog's note as loud as the bellowing 'of a bull, and heard 
St three miles distance— times of their croakiug~na weather- 
glass so true in foretelling changes — adhere to the backs, of 
fishes— story of Walton to this purpose— dry weather hurtful 
to frogs, V. 25S. See FishtTtg-frog. 

Protttmoke, fogs near the pole from balos, or luminous circles, 
i. SSI. 

Frot/i-worm, its description, vi. 34. 

Fur, the colder the country the la^er and wanner the fur- 
instances of it, ii. 161— of the white fox not esteemed, md 
why, iii, 5I-^e isatis of no value, unless killed in winter, 
. 62--tbe «tnine the most valuable of any, 76— no easy mattec 
to account for warmth of fiits of northern quadrupeds, or 
how they come to have such abundant covering— partlculan 
OD this subject, 77 — white weasel, found in Great Britain, 
of no value- ermine, in every country changes by time, 
80— of the pole-cat, in less estimation than some of iofeiior 
fcinds^ 86— of the yellow-breasted martin, more valuable and 
beautiful than the white, 89 — different colours of the sable, 
93— <^ the genette, valuable, 104— of the civet, impr^pated 
with the perfume, 107 — of, the glutton, has the roost beautiful 
lustre, and is preferred to alt, except the. Siberian sable, 
115 — of the hare, forms a considerable article in the hat 

manufacture, 125 of the cricetus, or Genuan rat, very 

valuable, 184 — inside down .of the vulture's wing makes a 
warm and comfortable kind Qf fur, iv. 83. 

Fury, a stnsll worm in Finland, which enters into the flesh, and 
occasions dangerous inflammations) vi. 179. 

Gad-jiti described, vi. 164. 

Gadut, the cod-fish, its description, v. 127- 

Gail of the shammois held useful to strengthen the sight, ii, 274 
—the deer kind have nonci 296> 

G<Ul-7iidt, description of the insect forming and residing in them, 
and its transformations, vi. 157. 

Gaiie^Jith, its description — its legs adhesive — common in 
America, perpetually floatiog — no efforts made to hurt can 
make it siak— never perceived to move on shore, so strongly 
adhering to whatever aubstances applied— the smallest quan. 
tity of dimy substance from its legs bums the skin like hot 
oil — the shore covered with them a fore-runner of a stonn, 
v. H2. 

I;. L.oogic 


CdHgti, B riVer tisHea. sbwiidtjr l^ a hmidrad thtntMnd pQgTita 
fl£o pay ibkh derotiODa to tt a» to Gttd, i. 17&-^n iti couii 
recerna tireoty riveft, 183. 

tSanntt, the Stdind ^o(M», its dacriptltm— robflsta apoit flA — 
piMn ^QundiDg with tfiera— manner bF preBerriog then tttid 
their egn. In the island tif St. KMa^-tWvntt-thtw thotUlltad 
ttf thh nod (^ yonng \^/eA consumed annually tbere^-a bird 
9f pasBage-^ts migratiotu— never comes neof the ''"' 
wh^e >«», it BiMiouttcA the arrivtil of h^rinn ~- 

the cormorant in quickneu of aight— method of tatm^ its 
pr^T— manner of taking them at lea— nmnber of their eggA 
•^-^Dft yoilBg codnt^ a great iaiatj, ftnd iold Very dcArt m 

Garler-Jhh, the hpf dopus,. its diescription, v. tS8. 

Gatierotttut, or tha Sticsklebacki desciibtithi df tlA 6A, r. 

Oate-hmmi htmts l^ the i;ye, iii. 2S. 

Gaxdtts^ neither ^oet nor deer — ptirtake of both natureS'-thBy 
fbrm a d!Uinct khid — their deBcription — of bH animab it hu 
die ino6t beautiful eye — eastern poAs compare the ey«e of 
their misttewes to those of the razE^e — Bufibn makes but 
twelve Tarietie^^their names ma descrfpfidns, it. S?6— 
comparing them tecedter, we Qnd but alight dhltinetitmk— 
are mbabitants of tne •fnamt^ df)nales"tio anlmalft, bat of 
the winged k>nd, can overtake them— 'Are pursued by- fUbOBs; 
and this hunting is a principal atnusem^ hmong ^ great 
in the East— ano honted with the ounce— amitfldr #ay of 
taking theni-~keep in solitarjr and ioaccesnhte pbces, SS7 

. —the bubfilus, more properly bne of Africa, S4iO^-4lle most 
vsoal prey for the lion in deserts andfbiMts— the pf^t>f dw 
panther, 400 — piinaed by the jack^ riiikea towards bMSes 
and towns, iii. 58. 

Gekko, a kind of salamander, v. 311. 

GeneratioH, most complete where fewest animala are produced, 

Genetle, its odour more &int than civet— deacrr^t^ of Ail 
animal — r.eBembles the mardti; more ewil^tMWd — ^B^obIih 
bat been ^em at Ctmstantuilple tame as cuts— ghnds open 
di^rently fl-om others of its kmd— ctiled die Cat of CoBatan> 
tinopTe— never fbund In momttainSj or dry t>hices<— its far 
valuable— species not much diffused'— conntneB wbctfe It ii 
founds— the most beautiful, cleanly, and imliistrious Mnoal 
— keeps a hoihe ftee from mice and nts by iu ^meH, iiL 
102, &c. 

Georgians, their description, ii. 85. 

Gerendti, a serpent to which dte native* of ChUcut, and AOae of 
the Mosambiqne coast, pay divine honour*, v. 378i 

Ganer minutely describes a variety of mice^rape, iit 17£^— 
jpiacei bats aniong birda, S96. 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 

Oitrnl, io E n g l— J, w lite M King Juost I. tbe oottrt htA one; 
u. 101. 

Oiimtt, prebibility of the race aArmed, ixneibilibr of their 
•entsnoe denied-^Grew's opinion— Ferdinand Magellan, r 
Porti^pieae, first diacorered a race of auch pec^te, towarda 
the eztrenie court of South America— ameat to the exist- 
ence of chit gjgantJG race of mankind — trarellen confirm it 
•^eCD here; £««e (^ same defects of understanding as dwarfii 
— are iKary, pU^matic, stupid, and inclined to sadness, ii. 

QiUomt the lo^g'Wined ape. its description, iii. S9I. 

eHk, tfasir ft«e piay prevented, the animal fafis into craivulsions, 
and Het, r. 16. 

Oii^hMd, oalled d<^^nn by nilors— its description, t. 122. 

QlmdM, fiimith the itMid sabstttnce in animals of the weasel kind, 
iii. 7S — of tbe senette, i^n di^rentlv from others, I03« 
nactuoDl ia inioi, to preserre their feathers, if. 3— satiTary in 
tte giAet «nd crop ot birds, 12. 

GUtters, little impressioos so colled in tbe heads of Hags, ii. 

Oiote^fire riiiAg from tbe side of the motrntain !^chinca— a 
gratt me a^n M Bononia, in ludy, in the year 1676— passed 
WMCwtrd at a rate of a hundred and sixty miles in a minute 
— .coidd M>t be toss than a mQe long, and hdf a mfle broad, i. 


GMie tf gituii, filled w!di water, assumea successively all the 
coloars of tbe raiobov, i. S29. 

Ohueetter, it* corporation had an old custom annually to pr£sent 
tbe king wrtb a lamprtrv pye, v. 97- 

CMws-tsorm, male and female of this species dlfier entirelv 
fttHD each other— bov aid in what manner light sent fortn 
by Ac glow-worm ia produced, hitherto inexplicable — tfae 
l^t continues to grow paler, and at last is tMaHy extinct, if 
rae wonta be kept for some time, vi. 151. 

Glue, ibade of the boma of die rein-deer, ii. SSi-^Mt. Jackson 
ttmot out a netbod of making glne to answer the purposes of 
isinglass, v. 104. 

Giatttm, tite most dangerous and most successful persecutor of 
tbe rein-deer — its «iRnner of killing that deer, ii. 3S6 — be- 
laags'to Ae weasel kind— there is no precipe description of it; 
•ome resembling it to a badger, some to a fox, others to a 
byana — one brought alire from Siberia was three feet long, 
and about a foot and a half high— so called from its vora- 
cious appetite — countries where found — called carcajou in 
North America — general desctiption— Ray and others doubt 
of its existence — takes its prey by surprise, and in what 
manner — darts down from branclies of trees upon the elk; or 
Hhe rein-deer, sticks its claws between their shoulders, and 
Yemaine there firm, eating tbeir necks, and digging to tb« 
T 2 

u _ ..L.opgic 


great blood-veweU that lie in that part— amazing quintitjr 

one of these animals can eat at a time ; that seen bjr Mr. 
Klein, wilbout exercise or air, taken from iu native cbraater 
and enjoying but indifferent health, eat thirteen pounda of 
flesh ever^ day, and wa> not satisfied — it continues eating 
and sleeping, till its prey, bones and all, be devoured— 
prefers putrid flesh to ttiat newly killed-— it is bo slow, that any 
quadruped can escape it, except the beaver — pursues it upon 
land ; but the beaver taking water, the gliittnn has no chan(5e 
to succeed — called the vulture of the quadrupeds.— in what 
manner it makes up by stratagem the defects of nature — the 
female goes with vouDg four months, and brings forth two 
or three— the male and female equally resolute in defence 
of their young-^is difficult to he skinned—does not fear 
man— is a solitary aoimat, and never in company but with 
its female — couples in the middle of winter — the flesh not 
fit to be eaten — the fur has jhe most beautiful luatref 
and preferred to all, except the Siberian fox, or the a^le, 
iii. 109, Ac. 

Gniif<, proceed from a little worm, usually seen at the bottom of 
standing waters — curious manner in which the eggs are laid 
—in their egg state it resembles a buoy, fixed by an anchors- 
different states of the insect— in its last transformation, 
divested of a second skin ; in the next it resigns its eyes, its 
antennte, and its tail, and seems to expire — from the.spoilg 
of the amphibious animal appears a little winged insect, whose 
stmcture is an object of admiration— description of this 
insect, and of its trunk, justly deemed one of nature's master- 
pieces^iuiplement with which the goat performs its work in 
summer — places where it spends tiie winter — the little brood 
BO numerous, that the water is tinged with the colour of 
the species— some gnats oriparouS) others viviparous, and 
come forth in a perfect form; some are males, and unite 
with the female; some are females, requiring the male; 
others are of neither sex, and produce young without copu- 
lation — at the sixth generation their propagation stops, the 
gnat no longer reproduces its likeness, hut requires the male 
to renew its fecundity — produced in multitudes beymid ex- 
pression in America ; and found of all sizes, from six inches 
long, to a minuteness beyond the perception of the cunmon 
eye — native Indians, anointed with otl, sle^ in cottages 
covered with thousands of goats, and have not their alumbeis 
interrupted by these cruel devourers, vi. 159. 

Goof, its eyes are grey, i. 409— from Europe imported into 
South America soon degenerates — as it grows less, it be- 
comes more prolific — imported to the African coast, it seems 

to improve, li. 165 goat and sheep propagate together; 

and may be considered as of one family — the . buck-goat pnn 
duces with the ewe an animal, in two or thtee gmeratiOM 


' returning to the sheep, and retainiog no marks of iti . anoietit . 
pn^enitor, 246— more fitted for alife of savage liberty thao 
the sheep — is not easily confineil to its flock, but chooses its, 
own pasture, and loves to stray from the rest— delights in 
climbing precipices — is capricious and vagrant — is not terri- 
fied 'at storms, or incommaded by rain— immoderste cold 
afects It, and produces a vertigo, to which this animal is 
sabject — proof of its being naturally the friend of man, and 
that it seldom resumes its forest nildness, when once reduced 
into the state of servitude— in some places they bear twiceN 
a year — in warmer climstes generally bring forth three, four, 
and five, at once— milk of goats medicinal ; not apt to 
curdle in the stomach — flesh of the goat, properly prepared, 
ranked by some not inferior to venison — is never so good and 
BO sweet, in our climate, as mutton — no man can attend 
above fifty goats at a lime — flesh of the goat found to im- 
prove between the tropics— remarkable varieties in this kind 
— that of Katolia, by M. BuSbn called goat of Angora — its 
description — the Au^rian goot, of Gesner — chiefly kept about 
Aleppo — Utile goat «f America, the size of a kid ; lias hair as 
long as the ordinary breed — Juda goat, not larger than a 
hare^-common in Guinea, Angola, and the coast of Africa 
—Jthtegoat, at the Cape of Good Hope— its description, 260 
—boundaries between the goat and deer kind difficult to fix 
^-Bexoar goat, the pasan, found in the mountains of Egypt, 
&c iSf>~ African vntd goat of Grioimius, fo.urth anomalous 
«f the tdnd^its description, 286— goats eat four hundred 
and forty-nine plants, and reject a hundred and twenty-six, 
S62 — in Syria, remarkable for their fine glossy, long, soft 
hair. 391. 

Goat-sucher, a nocturnal swallow— description and habits, ly. 
276. ' 

<jolHui, the gudgeon, description of this fish, v. 123. 

GodwH, its dimensions. It. 392— a bird of passage, 336- 

Gold, never contracts rust, and why— except m places where 
much salt is used, i. 259. 

Golden-eue, bird of the duck kind, iv. 411. 

GoU^mcn, bird of the sparrow kind,.iv. 247 — learns a song trom 
the nightingale, 270. 

Goose, marks of the goose liind— food — abstained from by the 
ancients, as indigestible, iv. 395 — one known to live a hundred . 
years, 404 — marks of the Mme and wild sort — ^Id supposed 
to breed in the northern pans of Europe — flight regularly 
arranged, 405. 

Goose, (Brent) most harmless, but for their young pursue dogs 
and men— use of its feathers in beds unknown in countries of 
the Levant and Asia — feathers a considerable article of com- 
it qaalHiet of tbem— the best method of curitw 


tittm, (Solaad) deicfibed, iv. S68. See Gatma. 

Goouandtr, a ronod-bSIad irater-fowl, iu deicriptioa<— faedi 

npon fisb, iv. S95. 
Gordim, or Hair-worm, dascribed, vi, 178. 
Qoua^ure-tjnder, accgunt of, t. 410l 

i&oM-J&aint, of thp baMr race of hawkt, iv. 91 — taught to fi; tt 
—little obujned from ito effi)rto, T" 

Oman, bis ■ysten of fiihea deserres applaiue for more than iti 
taoreltyT-^ow followed in ammging uie ipinoue dm of fitbea, 
T. 119. 

GroMptu, fierce and deiperate in defence of ita youn^— remark- 
able instance, v. 39 — description uid habile, 54. 

GraiAopper, diSerences between ours and the cicada of the 
ancteniB— great varieties of this animal in shape and cokrar 
-T-description of the little gnusfaopper that breeds ptentifhlly 
in meadows, and contiDoes chirping through the buhudot— 
the male of this tribe only vocal— Sioir their fecundatton is 
performed— the male or £emale never survive the winter— 
their eggs— from £rst appearing, possessed of trings— how it 
gets rid of the outer skin— their food—places where tbej de- 
posit their eggs, vi. 13. 

Gra'oe, the greBtest care recommencled not to commit those 
dearest to us to the grave, before real signs of certain death 
be ascertained, it. 70. 

Oreatak, river in Yorkshire running under ground, and risiog 
again, 1 188. 

Greoe, description of this bird— residence, and habits \ perpetu- 
ally diving, and very difficult to be shot— never seen en ttutd— > 
chiefly sought for the skin of its breast, and why— In breeding- 
time their breasts are bare, iv. 344, 

Greenfinch, bird of the spsrrow'kind, iv. 247. 

QreetUand, Kranlz's account of the formalioo of ic'e-mountaiiis 
in that country, i. 205 — aurora horeaUi, its mpearance almost 
constant in winter — the inhabitants not entirely ibrsaken io the 
midst of their tedious night ; this aurora affording them I^t 
for the pui'poBes of existence, 331 — they live most^ Upon seals 
•—their number daily diminishing, and why, iti. 267. 

Creevlandert, described, ii. 72 — cuEtomary among ihem to turn 
Europeans into ridicule— a quiet, or a modest stranger, tfaejr 
deetn almost as well bred as a Greenlander, 74. 

Green-thank, a kind of crane, iv. 332. 

Greyhound if\nA, iti. lS~Greyhound-Jbx, 51. 

Grot-beai, bird of the sparrow kind, iv. 247. 

Grotto of Antiparot, in the Archipelago, the most rsmartable 
subterianeous cavern now known— descriptiooj i. 56. 

Grotto del Cane, near Naples, situation and description— mttloiiB 
effects, i. 72. 

Crott'4 tf tlM obM lew V*iy y Wi till, the tine a 

wf>«n it Btarti up of » sodden, iv. S32— growth of the wnd 
ip children correipoii4i vith that of the body, and why, i. 892 
' pie cessea at fbuiteen, or fifieen ; in 

o 9r three and ttoeot;, 406 — of &eke8, 
---, 1.48. 

Gtuatacoett% kind,of oamel io America, iii. 382. 

Qtund'Mi, ABcimt inhfttiitanti of the island of Tenerife— art of 
vnbMhniDK ■^H preaened among thetn when the Spaaiardi 
conquered the island, ii. 117. 

ChKutM, Brosillan giiariba, or marine, the largest of the aionkey 
kind in America, described, iii. 314. 

Gudeton, description of that fish, t. 123. 

Gniba, animal resembling the gflzelie — its description,^ S85. -. 

Cuiilemot, bird of the smaller tribe of the penguin lundi it. 

Chann-iut, larger and more beautiful tban the hone, ii. 207. 

Gimait4en, described, iv. 147. 

Gumea-horte, remarkdUe sports trith it qmsng the gtaodeea of 
that country, ii. 190^ 

QtHtttofig, by BrissoB placed amoag the rabbit kiDd-^iHit|Te qf 
Ae wtwmer cllinetea — rendered domestic, end noir became 
oonimon erevy wbwe-— its description — in tome plaees a prin- 
cipal favourite; often displacing the lap-dog — manner of hrine 
. , utopng u»-im«et belplees and mofiensive, scerce possessed tf 
imy ceurago tboir animosity exerted aeainst each odur; 
onca %htiM rtstlBBtdy, and the stronger dettroys the voaler 
—no noturafinstinct ; the female sees hex yoMi^g doMroyed, 
without attempting to protect theai.r-sufiei themsslvee to be 
deroured by oatB— fed aooa recent vegetable* they seldom 
dri n k ■ soBietimBS knaw clothea, paper, or otheF thing* of thp 
kind— drink by lapping — confined in a room seldom crose 
ibe floor, but le^ along the wall— never mof e a-W^t to* 
gether— chiefly seek the most intricate retreats, and veqbire 
out only when all interruption is r«noved, like the rabbits 
io cold weather more active— a very cleanly animal— their 
place must be regularly cleaned, and a new bed of hay 
provided for them once a week — the young lolling into the 
dirt, or other ways discomposed, the female takes an averaioa 
tq than, and narer penmits them to visit her raorc--.Ji»f •n- 
flajwtmt, mi that or the male, consists in smoothiag tbeir 
ekins, disposing their hsir, and improyinz its gloss; and: tfike 
this office by turns — do ^e ume to tneir yi^niw, fuid b<<9 
thcnt shea refractorjF— reared irithout arhSciar heap— np 
L '-|tJiaBifri^n fifg iQ ffiDter, if once permitted ip ^P- 
" —nanoer ef sleeping — the male ud the fet^t 
I «ao|hisr by turns — generally oapsj>le of pom^Liog 
M aa. ireclto oklrrtinw of tbffr ge»tatif}[lr-^the fen]«lA bripga 
fcrtlr fim*- tifris to Sh at » tiow ; not viMlwt pa in , pa rities 


ler young abmit tirelre or SReea daya ; and niSira tbe Toung 
«f othen, tbougb older, to drain her, to the dUadTkntag« of 
her owD — produced witb eyea open, and to twelve houn 
equal to the dum in agility — capable of feeding upon reeMa- 
bles from tbe beRinniDg — their disputes for tbe warmest place, 
or most agreeable food— manner of fightiog— flesh indifferent 
food— difficultly tamed — aufier no ^iproaches but of tbe peraon 
who breeds them^-maaner of eating — driok sddom, and make 
water often— grunt like a young pig— appear to chew tbe cud, 
iii. 161, Ac 

Gtdnea-theep, hare a kind of dewlap under tbe chin — breed 
with other sheep, therefore not animals of another kind, ii. 

Gidnea-Korm, described, vi. 179. 

■Cull, places where found in plenty — their food, W. 372. ' 

Gtiils, various ways of imposing upon each other — contests In 
breeding— residence, with their oesta and eggs— 4heir flesb-^ 
method of taldug them in the Feroe idaoda — anciently ft law 
in Norway concemiog those who died in taking them, iv. 

■Gun, wind-gun, instrument determining the elasticity of the 
air — a ball from it pierces a thick board, i. 254— great guns, 
in climates near tbe equator, with every precautioo, after 
some years, become useless, and why, 258. 

Cunpomkr, readily firea with a spark, not with tbe flame, i. 71. 
^wiil not go off io an exhausted receiver— a train of gun- 

Kowder laid, one part in open air, the other part in vacuo, the 
itter will remain untouched, 276. 
Gurnard, description of this fish, v. 124. 
Gymnotus, the carapo, deactiption of this fish, v. 126. 
K^lfalcoti, exceeda all others'in largeneaa of size— its descrip- 
tion, iv. 91. 
■Ggrle, name given by buntera to the roe-buck, the second year^ 

ffaddock, a periodical shoal appeared on the Yorkabire coasts, 
on December 10, 1766, and exactly on the same day in the 
following year, v. 138. 

Hamorrkois, a kind of aerpent, v. 369. 

Hail, Cartesians say, is a frozen cloud, half melted and frosoi 
again in its descent — the most injurioua meteor known in ou 
dimate — hail-stones fourteen inchea round— struck out an 
eye of a young man, and killed him on the epot— a dicadfiil 
shower, recorded by Mezeray, fell in 1510; the hail-atooea 
were of a bluish colour^ and some weighed • hundred 


ponndi— the fidiei trere great tuferera in that general calamity, 
I. 318. 
Hair of the Roman ladies praised for the redness of its shade, i. 
403— found most difierent in different climates— marks the 
country and the disposition of the man — ^by the ancienti held 
R sort of excrement, produced like the nuls— according to 
modems, every hair tires, receives nutriment, fills, and dis- 
tends, like oth^r parts of the body— takes colour from the 
juices flowing through it — ^^each, vieved with a microscope, 
consists of five or six lesser, wrapped up in one common cover- 
ing, and sends forth branches at the joints— suitable to the size 
or shape of the pore through which it issues — bulbous at 
the root, and its end resembles a brash — length and strength 
of hair a mark of a good constitution — Americans and the 
Asiatics have it thick, black, strait, and shining— inhabi- 
tants of the torrid climates of Africa, have it black, short, 
mid woolly — the people of Scandinavia have it red, long, and 

colour and nature of his hair — curled hair among us a 
beauty — the Greeks have taken one of their national distinc- 
tions from the length and straitness of the hair— Americans 
take the greatest pains in cutting their hair — variety la 
customs and manner of cutting hair, ill — trade of the inha- 
bitants of Angora with the ban- of animals of their country — 
camblet and other stu& made of it, iu 265 — hair of the cat 
rubbed in the dark sends forth shining sparks, 387 — Syria 

- and Persia noted for long soft hair to the animals bred in 
them, 390 — each hair of the lynx is of three different 
colours, 48&— of the black fox, so disposed as impossible to 
tell which way the grain lies, iii. 51— coats of hair seem to 
thicken at the approach of winter — among quadrupeds aa . 
among men, thin spare diet produces hair, 77— on the soles 
of the feet, and on the insides of the mouths of hares, iiL 

Hair-worm supposed to produce a whitlow by its bite, vi. 173. 

■Halci/on, rapacious water-fowl, iv. 423. See King^her. 

Haiku, {Of') observes spring-water is collected from the air 
itself, i. 142 — his opinion concerning the origin of rivers, 163, 

- 166— says it may be taken for a general rule, that the lai^est 
and highest mountains supply the greatest and most extensive 
rivers, '174 — his method of finding out the age of the world 
by the saltnesa of the sea, 197— improved the diving-bell, 
he could write or read in it at the bottom of the sea, when 
the water was clear, especially when the sun shone— ob- 
aerved one thing very remarkable, that the water, which from 
above is usually seen of a green colour, when looked at from 
below, appeared of a very different one, castiag a reduesa 


I N D B X. 

npoD lib hands, Ilkethat of damuk-roie*, fi^l— bk ibmtj t* 
explain the invariable motion of the irindi, 28S. 

Kaiot, ofieaei teea in countrie* Be«r ths poles than any o^W 
part of the earth, i. S31. 

fAmfHtfj (the yellow) a bird of the apatrow kind, it. 247- 

Hamaer, tha ctioetus, Qr G«imaa rat of Buffiith iii. 181. 

Hand, aufiicient to vindicate the decmoioa of man ov«r other 
aDimals, a poor Mtertien^— a man, without bands or legit con< 
verts his atuBopB to most eonvenient purposes, and p^Ebmu 
astooUbiag ieats of dexteHty, iii. S38. 

Harbour of a stag, ia coreit or thicket, ii. SU, 312. 

Hart, a gregarious animal, nhere it has ao eneroies but bsBsti 
of the forest, ii. 217— the swiibeet asimal for the time it cou' 
tiniHS to run— animals of the hare kind inoKnuvc and timo> 
rous— placed by Fymus among those that chew the cud— 
whether or not, certainly the lips continually move, sleefang 
or waking— if not thinn^ by constant. depredatiooa, would 
orer-Tun ibe earth— of these the hare the latest and nost 
timorous— Jias large prominrat tjw, placed backwardti to 
me behind as it nina— tbea« never otooed) it sle^ nitb 
thsm (QHift— the ears moveable, and capAble of direcUoa to 
•ym quarter--niasdes of ita body atE«Dg, and witboot ^— 
bindM leet Uwgw tban tbe fore, on twcoiiDt tt speed— fote- 
oqted by doga, ctix, veimU, mi bUda of pvey— ia a Bt«t« of 
W8«i>4erioff lory onrly— fetndea go with yowy thirty dn^ 
and twiog forth three or four at a tims— bas yvung of uf- 
iercnt a^es in her womb tc^ther— the young owi^l &rth 
with their eyes op«)~ihe £m luekles them twenty dwy* — 
food they are fond o^sleep or repoae in their fonn by Aay, 
and live only by nigbl~4he rutt^ season b^ins in February 
—the male pursues and discovers tbe faniale by the aagavitf 
- of its nose^tfae slightest breeae, or filUiiw of a leaf, dwo^ 
their revels; they instaotly fly off, eaeh tauncasepanKe way 
—are more tMily taken tlian (be £a% ; » mutui slower aoioial 
than they, and why — always choose to run up hill, aod why— 
bave the sola of the foot furnished with tutiv, and seem tbe 
only animals with hair on the ipside of the moutb— live sew 
or eight years, and come to perfectioB in one year fea sa l w 
liva loDgof- M. Bufibn makes a doubt of It^-seldom bc«rd 
to ery, except wlieQ seised o» W4«i«dedr— ib^ ery nearly .Jike 
the squalling of a child — are easily lamed-r-lliQugh neve* so 
young, regain their native freedtm al the fint opf ortwuty — 
bave a good ear, and been taught to beat the druas, dance to 
neasure, and go through rauqal esuBiso-nnake Iheinrfva 
a form where the colour of tbe gmit rfiiwMiia dul of ikiir 
akiB, open to tbe south in wJnter, and to ibe noitk ia Mpn- 
mer— sore hunted, will start a froih hue, aad squet ia >u 
form-^soiM entei holM Uk* tbt ntMtt bf kinteri itmed 


- gofc^ *" TCHlt—M it tim, UMdb hnrnn, tai its loal is 
■troDmr>-^ouiig ham tmd kewrwr thm ri\i nult n^ei 
dtmblu^ of gnatu cooipMi than ths feKwlo.i.^mdBd by 
huDten into moaiiUio and meMled hares— 4»ode of expvssrioQ, 
' tha mora v(Hi kuot, iha note haiss jwa shidl have,' and why 
—what animalB pcrsaaiita ibe hara— id enaoiies n Tarioiu, 
^t it saldoa laachaa die atmtt term Ikaiied by nature— la 
caontriM near the Notth Pale, tbay bacoma wmte, and are 
oftan hi graat tvoaps «f four of five bundred— (heir ilunssold 
tot lew tnaa sereH ■hittingt a faandnd — the fur Icnoirn to form 
a GODsideraUe article ia tbe hat manufiicliire— found alio 
•niiraly blaok, in much test quantity than the fermer— soffle 
have twei) saea with bonu, but rarel^^— tbtne in hot oaontriea 
Bmalter than oura— thoK in the Mffaneie ttie beet In Eurapa 
— acaroe a oonntry where b«I found, fVom the torrid w>na to 
the Dolar circle — natives of Guinea hilt numbers at a tl|»e ; 
in wtiat manner— 4he Jews, sncieot Britons, and Mahometani, 
all ooniidered it as an unolaan animal, and ralifpeusly abstained 
from it — hare and rabbit distinct kinds — rcflisa to mix with 
each other— an insianofr— laws made fbr tba pveaervatioR of 
lbem,iii. 116, &c 

ft'tf'HK, Of Great Hudson>s-Bay owl, th« largest ef the noo- 
turaal tribe, iv. lOB. 

Maftt^, a hmd of dog, ill. 14, IT. 

fherpteM, ^at aneient idee taken from the rousatte, or the great 
bat of Madaaaacar, ill. 29S. 

Harrier, bound, end b«ag)e, all of the same kind, lii. IS— « dog 
of the generous kind, 13— used for hunting, 14. 

Har«, nana oftbe slag, the Ml ]<ear,ii. 811. 

HarMont and musk, the only medioioes of repatation of several 
procurable from quodrupede, ii. 375. 

Haro^, bis opinion about the fonnaijoa of the inolpient animal 
—altercations i^nst his system) i. 356. 

Hatctnag, nothing exceeds the patience of birds bating— Mr. 
Addison's observations to this pwpose, Iv. 31 — the emu very 
peculiar in the hatclung of its young, £(>— tbe crocodile's eggs 
hatched in the sand, v. 305. 

Hat^nch, a bird <^ihe sparroir kind, Iv. 8M. 

Houk kind— hawk destroys mioe, ill. 174— ^lercelvea • lark 
at a distance which neither men nor dogs could spy, iv. 8— 
distinctive marks flmn other cvnivorous tMrdSi 64 ^ in old 
paintings, the criterion of n<Aility ; no person i^ rank stltred 
cut tritfaf>ut his hawk on his hand — HartM, afterwards kjng 

of England, goiog on an important embasay into Konnandy, 
is drawn, in an M bH-ieKet, embarkine with a hawk on his 
fist, and a doR under his arm— in these days, it was sufflcieDt 
fcr noblemen^ sons to wind Aa bom and carry the hawk 
^thii diversion in such Ingh este e m among the gneat all 
r Europe, that FrederiGk, enaperor of Germany, wrote a 


brntiw iqwn luwkiiig — this amosemeiit juw nuch ^ven »ver 
in this kiogdam, &Dd ithy—ia the reign of James I. Sir Tbomaa 
MonwD gave a thousand pomids for a cast of hawks— in the 
reign of Edward III. it was made felony to steal a hawk — to 
take its eggs was punished by toiprisoDiiient for a year and a 
day, with a fioe at the kiag's pleasure— in the reign of Eliza^ 
beih, the imprisonment reduced to three months, the offender 
to lie in prison till he got security for fais good behaviour 
during seven years — in earlier times, the art of guoniiig was 
but little used, u>d the hawk was then valuable for its affi>rding 
diversion, and procurtoff. delicacies for the table, not otber- 
wise to be obtained^.diBtinctiTe marks of , the tribe c:allfld 
the long-winged hawks— their names and descriptions— have 
attachment to their feeder, and docility the baser race are 
Strangers to— names of hawks of the baser race— those of the 
generous breed remarkable for courage, swiftness, and docility 
in obeying the cammands and the signs of their master— 
accotvat oTthe manner of training a hawk— falconers had a Ian* 
guage peculiar, in which they conversed and wrote, iv. 89, &C. 

Hauk, (sparrowi pursues the thrush and the .linnet, iv, 61— 
said to be the Doldest and best of all others for the chase, 101. 

Hawk, (gosa) and sparrow-hawk unfit for truning— taujgbt lofly 
at game, but little obtained from them, iv. 101. 

Head (of man) externally and internally difierentfrom that of 
all other animals, the monkey kind excepted, L 423 — whence 
originally the flat heads of the American Indians, ii. 92— of 
quadrupeds, different from each other, but aduited to thur 
several ways of living, and how, 156— 4n all birds, except 
nocturnal, the head smaller, and less proportiooed to the 
body, than in quadrupeds, iv. 7— .of the great Groealaud 
wh^e, makes a third of its bulk, v. 34. 

Hearing, extreme delicacy of Uus sense in birds, iv. 6— that 
sense in whales, v. 35. . 

Heane, name of the female of the stag, the second year, ii. 311. 

Heat, Boerhaave considered it so pcejudicial to health, that he 
never went near a fire, i. 269. 

Hecia, the bellowioga of that volcano bdieved by the inhabitants 
of Iceland to be the cries of the damned, i. 76. 

Hedge-hog, the most harmless of animals — its description — usual 
appearance upon the approach of danger— to disgust its enemy 
from puiBuit, sheds its urine, the smell. of whi^ is sufficient 
to send him off— sleeps by day, and ventures out by night— 

E laces where found — its food — does not suck cattle— are not 
urtful ia gardens or orchards — the spines so disposed that 
BO fruit will stick upon them;— appears serviceable in riddiog 
the fields of insects and worms — M. Bufion accuses it of tricks, 
of which, froDQ its form and habits, one would not be led to 
suspect it — he kept males and females together, but they never 
coupled— time of their coiqplicg— «le^ during winter, but do 


not lay up provisions for that teasoa— at no time eat much, and 
remain long Without food — hlood cold, and their flesh nut good 
for food — their tking converted to no use except to muzile 
calves from sucking, iii. 197 — destroyed and devoured by the 
fox — in what manner, 216. 

Hedge-hog of the sea, a cartil^moua fish of the sea-orb kind, 
v. 110. 

Hedffs-iparrt/ai, a slender-billed bird, iv. 247. 

Height, Maximin, the emperor, above nine feet in stature^ 

HeUoga/ialus, Tmtei for having the braios of six hundred ostriches 
dressed in one dish, iv. 45. 

HeUebore, the black sort, its pernicious qualities, i. 270. 

Hemitphere, half illuminated by northern lights, i. 323. 

Hemlock, eat hy the. horse without injury, it. 171. 

Hemute, name hunters give the roe-buck the third year, ii. S30. 

Hen, in the Museum at Brussels, a creature covered with 
feathers and hair, said to l7e bred between a rabbit and a hen, 

. ill 127. 

Hen of the common sort — moderately fed, lays above a hundred 
eggs from spring to autumn, iv. 23 — afler three years, 
become eBete and barreo — clutches one brood of chiclcens in 
a season — instances of two very rare— number of eggs of a 
domestic hen in the year above two hundred, being well fed, 
supplied with water, and at liberty — trodden by the cock or 
not, she continues to lay— ^gs of this kind never by hatching 
produce living animal^-her nest made without care — cluckiog 
season artiScially protracted, and entirely removed, in what 
manner— left to herself would seldom lay above twenty eggs^ 
without attempting to hatch them— as she lays, her eggs being 
removed, she continues to increase the number — hi the wild 
state seldoms lays above fifteen eggs— particularities of incu- 
bation — affection and pride after producing chickens — every 
invading animal she boldiv attacks, the horse, the hog, or the 
m fist iS— -marching before ner little troop, by a variety of notes, 
calls her train to their food, or warns them of danger — 
instance- of the brood running for security into a Etedge, while 
the hen stood boldly forth, and &ced a fox that came for 
plunder —■ artificial method of hatching chickens in stoves, 
practised at Grand Cairo, or in a laboratory with graduated 
heat, efiected with woollen hens, by M. Reaumur--by these 
contrivances, from a hen naturally producing twelve chickens 
in ^e year, are obtained arti^ially above two hundred, 
iv. 127— common hen supplies the place of the hen-pheasant, 
when refusing to hatch her eggs, and perlbrms the task with 
perseverance and success, 145. 

Hen, (Guinea) or Barbary-hen, described, iv. 147. 

Hat, (water) described— residence and food — nests and hibits, 
iv. S42. 


— om berMi, mlj* WilliuMjt will deR 
«np in faair « jtati-'mm stUtnde, wsitiiig for ftw — tbtd in 
cold aod slorniy seuoiw— tnanner of fishioB — Wi~ '" ' 
reoeipt for Uddag Iiink-^«b wtt tii n wer >i locki « 

— Wina^iby'i 

Utredmnm ovcHrbeliMd i» tint enaptiM rf Venvin, in •Utb 
. ^i^ tbfc Mtunditt wu «o0bcaied— ha niiiu lately disoonred 

- at Kxif feet lielDW tfae aor&ee, and forty below tae bottom of 

. the m, i. 7& 

Hemu^roditei, Buch are all uiimala of the UMil kind, t. 224-— 

, the bn^e tnbe w' ■> to* — th^ require no asHstasce ftom 
each other towards impregnation, 232. 

HeTMetUal-ieaiing ft gkw wn tt l , Ae raetmngof it,i. 142. 

Htnm, tbe great heren, in ftnner tinee, bred fianiliarly in oar 
marahes— not now, and why, n. 24— -anatomical diatiDCtiDn 
in wbidi faanHU difibr from aflier binb— of thia t^M Briann 
baa enomerated forty-Beven aorta— «XGe8aively deatinotive and 
TorftcioUB->-«ver hm lean amt carrio* bodie»>-de«cription d* 
die coDwnn ber«^-dna at tbe ajfrMcb of the ipareow^hawk 
— ^ommiu tbe greateat devattationa in froh waters— « Ut 

. ever so targK he wil atribe at* tfi*urii umMe to ««rry it aw^ 
— '"■" " -, will dflWtoy t&em thouand 
— foadin 
firii ; but making wsts, they kwe eKfa otber** aociaty fcsh 
of tbe young Mne^ed in Frattce— method «aed to obtain dMD 
— 'the yoDag otine esdoded, die oU iaccaaMfy proride Ibnn 
with an aaUBibg vpmAtitii at fiib->^bnianice ot k -^bj Mr. 
K«yrier'« aeiciiaatt tim bird may exceed ^xty yea^i itait 
itutAaiee of one b^m^in Hotland, with & silwr plate to one 
Iw, Asd an iM B TiyiiaDt. that it iiad been atnick by the tfiaoBor 
of CologBe'a bbwfca thBl||n-Ave ;pMn befbre^^^i^ coDtnM a 
cooRilnpttve dispoiftion, $)9, Ac. 

ffgnm-Aankn^,. ■ fimnrile diveiMata rnteng our anMsCiK— bad 
tarn eaacAed ft>r tte' preaemtion of tbe spe(a»—4ie who 
destroyed thair eirati-ww liaMe to a-pmdty af twoi^ skilliBgs 
for each (HSiiaee, n. SlU 

Hertvra cobfinba Ae exilteaee of gtenU> ii. 109. 

HMrhg, hit deacriptiott, r. 128-^'^^ migrattag fish, tim and die 
pttcmrd tidie the most adveBtuKxn wyagea — ^aoes whe^e die 
nerringt »e in p'edteK abnndaace— numemui dnendsi net in 
ibeiw mig H rt oB Bi- in Chesapeak Bity, the shMh to great a* 
ucorcr tbe shores, and becMne a noisaiioe— 4ntbody upon 
dur cMitt b^^ to appear off tfae Shettand iriee in Aiilijl ; 
fbreranners ctf Uie grand AtsiA descending in June, ana an- 
nounced by the ^net, gull, drc^-^heniMii take two Ibou- 
aand harrd» at a single draucbt— plaots of £urope where her- 
ring are punctual in their TUttaiiiHi»'-'idoubu in every part of 
tbeir migration— firat gnat bank flir henings was uong ifae 
Norway shore — before 1584, tbe nnmberof mips Aon varioua 
parts of Europe, reaoiting thither, exceeded some thousands 
—quantity of harriags then asaanMod there, ves aach, that 
a spear stuck in the water, aa Olaus Magnus asserts, would 

. iv.'GoogIc 

IN O t X. 

And Oh end— soon nher that pentPtl tb^ deflerieil thb' Nor- 
va; ahoreg, and took up along the German omsts^oo cKiue 
Osngned for this seemin^l^ capricioiK desGrlioB— their grett«at 

' oelonte* Ddir in (he Britii h Channel, and upon the Irish sharet 
— aherri))geuflned-to imdttply, iMn^rted and tindi«a>shed, 
for twenty jents, woidd show ■ progeny greater in bulk thad 
ten such globes at tbM ve live tif«n, 138. 

Hexagom, tne tnoit ctMtentenit figam in bHttdirig->eellfl of beet 
■re perfectly hfexBgoni, n. 9& 

Hide, of the elk, oflM known totura:* mosket-JftaU, ii. S39. 

thara, idand ih tbe Heditemnen, formed by lubtcrranttoat 
ex^doiions, i. lOi^ 

Hmd, dr feaele of tlie Msg^, his no boni»— 4ime of gntation, 
and naual seaeoa ofWinging fbrth'^tndeB her young in t^MCure 
tbidwts— obliged to ase aH erts to conceal tbon frooi the 
stag, the most dAiga-om o>f her parsuon— bow she defenda 
her yovog, ii. 90S<-^bc fiemale sMg. sa called the tbiM yebr, 
91l_ninner of kaownig tbe track of a bind, 31S»»infa^i- 
tabts of Canada ban tutodier mtik'bBt thbt of the bind; and 
no other Antm but that Rmte of ft, 320— 'tJie burner's nttna 
fiir the roe-buck, the fint jKear, 336. 

SHjipotampm, the »ea'^orte, n% detcriplion, v. 109b 

^^ipacralmt, bis opinion riiout the ftnaatisD of the incipidat 
ammait^i. 9£7> 

Hijtpopstamuy not a&aid iik^^ to mpose tbe lion^ it. 402 — ^- 
■ta oineDsiniV'-.pbnxe wliere it miaes— its food-— «mns with 
ttinoh force, and reftiaini at tbe bottom for thirty or for^ 
Mtmitm— Jt eommiU dreadful havook among the plantlalioii^- 
nediod tbe Afticana use to ftigbtea it back to its eletneot — 
moibBBive in lis dEapoeicioas'— narer attacks mariDers in their 
iMats^ unlefa inadvertently etmck against, or otbennse 

' diatirtbed, tbm it would send them at oitce to the bottoM— 

, ihltaaoei of hi^reat strength— -nerer goes beyond tbe mouth 
of tresh-water riverg— attacked on shore, and incapaUe of 
vengeance upon a %)ng enemy, returns to Aie riVer, and 
plunges in head foremost— the Rogn>es apprised <tf its forcci 
do not engage it — cOntinDes ancoRtrolibd master of the river; 
all othera Oy its approach, of become an eaty prey— 'moves 
■lowly iMxm land^-seldom goes from ttie river side, unlest 
prrated by necessities of bui^er^ or of bringing fortfa its 
yaung-^iVei upon fish and vegetables-— natives of Africa say 
it often devoun cbildrrai, and other creatures suiprised upon 
lood^-tiie young are excellent eating— tbe female seldom 
prciduoes above one St a tane ; bearing tbe slightest noise she 
dashes into the stream, and the young one fallows her with 

- equal alacrity — Dr. Pococke baa seen tfaeir ^esH mid on tbe 
Gambles like beef; tbeir breast tliougbt as delicate eating as 
Teal — this creature, once -plenty at tbe niouth of the Nile, now 

iFliol])r nnkoown in Lover Egypt, and no where found but 
above the cataracts, iii. 362. 

Hiitorian, (Natural) bis proper buainesi, i. S going too 

much into speculation wrong, and why, 15 — tnethod his prin- 
cipal help, ii. 130— faults of systematic writers, 132. 

History, (Natural] of all other sciences, has the least danger of 
obscurity, and why, ii. 139^-— best set forth, as Mr. Locke 
has obs^ed, bv drawings of animals taken from life, 144. 

Hobby, bird of tne generous breed of bawka, for smaller game, 
darmg Urks, and stooping at quails, iv. 92. 

H<^t, aninials of this kind resemble those of the horse as wdl 
as the cow kind, and in what — this kind partakes of the 
rapacious and the peaceful kinds — oifehd no aoinial of tha 
' forest — remarkable that none of this kind ever shed their teeth 
_any animal dying in the forest, or so wounded as to make no 
resistance, is the prey of the hog, who refuses no animal food, 
however putrid— in a state of wildness, most delicate in the 
choice of its vegetables ; rejects a greater number than any 
other— they eat but seventy-two plants and reject one hun- 
dred and seventy — indelicacy of this animal more in our appre- 
hensions than in its nature, and why— in orchards of peach- 
trees, in North America, reject the fruit that has lain a few 
hours on the ground, and watch hours for a fresh wind-fall 
—have had mice burrowing in their hacks, whjie fattening in 
the sty, without seeming to perceive'it — scent the bounds at 
a distance — by nature stupid, inactive, and drowsy; has pas- 
sions more active only when excited by venery, or when the 
wind blows with vehemence — foresees the approach of bad 
weather — much agitated on hearing any of its kind in distress 
—have often gaUiered round a dog that teazed tbem, and 
killed him upon the spot— their various diseases— generally 
live, when permitted, to eighteen or twenty years ; the females 
produce to the age of fifteen— in the wild state less prolific, 
S. 357, &c. 

Hog, (Guinea) and that about Upsal, described, ii. S66. 

Hog, (water.) See CnpibaTa, ii. 373. 

Hog ofBoTueo. See Babyrouena, ii. S75. 

Hoe of the isthmus of Darien, described by Wafer, ii. 378. ' 

Holland, a conquest fr(»n the sea, and rescued from its bosom 
— the sur&ce of its earth below the level of the bottom of 
the sea ; upon approaching the coast, it is looked down upon 
from the sea, as into a valley; is every day rising higher, and 
by what means — those parts, which lonnerly admitted large 
men of war, are now too shallow to receive ships of moderate 
burthen, i. 230. 

Honey,, from what part of the flower it is extracted, »i. IWV— 
two kinds of it — which to be preferred, 110 — that gathered 
by the humble bees not so fine nor so good as that of the 
common bees, 112— gathered by the black bees in the tropi- 

C,q,-Z.= bvGOOglt' 

«al di4iwteB, ocuber lo unpalMable nw ao aui&iiiike ai oun— 
produced by the beei at Guadaloupe, oever congeals, remains 

' fiuidiof the coDRUtenceofoil, with the colour of amber. 111. 

Honei/comh, oaioe of the seconi] stomat^ of rominatiag animals, 
ii. 219. 

Hone^'guidv, a l^iiid of cuckoo, iv. 21 1. 

ffajteg-vietuH, feeds on honey, to which it is conducted by the 
htmw-giwde. iii. 1 1& 

Haodeat^mrrti, isi Java, deacHbed by Mr. Pennant, iii. 146. 

tioqf of the Fawan marea so hard that shoeing ie unnecessary, 
ii. 18S. 

Hooper, name of the wild siran, on account of Ihe harshness of 
iu voice, iv. 401. 

Horizon, seems wrapt in a muddy cloudi upon the approach of 
wioter, under the Jine, i. 324. * 

Ham, in wind it. and to carry the hawk fair, formerly sufficient 
accomplishoaeRtfi for noblemen's sons, iv. 39. 

Honted-^per described, v- S71. 

Horns, in what nunner those of animals are produced, i. 4/2S-— 
grow difiereialy in deer from those of sheep or cows~-deer'a 
horns furrowed along the sides, and why — in every i-espect 
resembling a vegetable substance, grafted up«n the head of the 

- st^— beauty and siee of those of a stag, mark their strength 
. and theit vigour— tbe time of shedding tbenv— severe winters 
tetard sllcddiag the boras in stags— goierally increase in 
thicltnesa aod height from the second year to the eighth — par- 
take of tha nature of the soil— ^tlieir horns shed, they seek tbe 
plaiua part of the counbry, remote from those animals they 
aT« tbea amble to oppose: and walk with their heads stoop- 
ing dowD) lo prevent striking against tbe branches of trees 
ii. 297— «f a stag, called his head— their naeies according to 
different ages of the stag, 311— .the author saw one often feet 
iiioe iocfaei &om one tip to the o^er, 334^ — of the elk, applied 
to th« same pai^ioses «e hartshorn, 339—of the rein-deer, 
coBTCited into glue, SS^^of the rhinoceros, sometimes from 
tlvee t« tbr«e ieet and a half long, composed of the most 
solid substance, sod pointed to inflict most fatal wounds, 
iii. S6S—^ Otrii, nothing more than two or three feaEhers, 
that stand up oa each side of the head, over the ear, iv. 108. 

Hane^ characteristic marks given by lioncus — eats hemlock 
<mthom ktjury. ii. nt^-aear as the ape spproaches maq in 
iatemal ooafonnation, so the horse is the most remote— wild 
JiOFses hetd together, aod iiaed in droves of five or six hundred 
^-one among thw number always stands as centinel, 173— 
allured by music, 39— ^ot readily attacked by the lion— the 
combats between them in Italy, 15* — one fond of oysters, 
160— {rom «hat country tbe IJorse came originally uncertain 
-^aocordiii^ to the ancients wild horses once in Europe — the 
colder clitMtcs do not agree with th»a, 171 — how wild horses 
VOL. Vf . U 

L;,q,z:=b, Google 

- Utetaiight'-t^tltVberVf, tk^ never becdmAft^dBgaln-'the 
" buccaneer* agreeably surpVJted lo Bee their: faUhf\it hones 

|)reseatthemte)tessKfti'i with their usual aMidnttyt and receive 
' the rete, 175-^-wila borBee fitiding a tame horW to ataociite 
with rtiem, gather round him, aod oblige him to seelt safety 
by flight— this aniroe) in its etate of nature in the old, not 
■' the new world-wcountries where wHd hittwaare found— the 
natives of Angola, or Cafraria, catch a horse only to eat him 
--Arabian mild horset, the most beautiful breed, flie moat ge* 
. Aerous, swift, and persevering, 176 — the negroes show terror 
and surprise, when first they see a horse — no Arabian, how- 
ever poor,' but has his horse— tame Arabian horses, some 
valued at a thousand ducats — diSerent classes among the 
Arabians — fhey know the race of-a horse by his appearance— > 
Arabians preserve Ihe pedigree of their horses wiih care, for 
several ages, ITS— conntrie« into which the race of their 
horses has spread itself, 18!J— treat their horses gently — bold 
a discoutae with them— written attestations given to peraoM 
who buy Arabian horses, 322 — they stand stock Mill in the 
midst of their 'career, the rider happening to foil— keep (llem 
saddled at their tents, from morning to night, to Drevent Sur- 
prise — when the Arabians begin to break their boraes— how 
the Arabians dress and feed their horses — first began the ma- 
nagement of horses in the time of Sheque Isnael« u. S3&^be 
rapidity of the flight of Arabian horses is such, t^t the d«gs 
give up the pursuit, 180 — upon computation, tfae speed of toe 
English horses is one-iburtl) greater, carrying a rider, (han 
that of the awil^t barb without one, 183— lArioidian race 
much d^enerated — the TingitanianS and BgypUam have the 
fame of rearing the finest horses for size and beatity— horses 
ofBarbRry — en Italian peculiar sport, in which horses of this 
breed run against each other— Spanish genette described, 184 
— those of Andalusia pass for the best, and preferred as war 
horses to those of every other country— 'Italian hones have a 
peculiar aptitude to prance—the horses of Ituiia weak aod 
washy — fed with pease, sugar, and butter— one hrougbt to 
England not much larger than a common mastiff— climates 
excessively hot seem un&vourahle to horses ■^remarkable 
sports on horseback — the horses of the Gold Coast and 
Guinea extremely little, but very manageable — of China, weak, 
little, ill-shaped, and cowardly — those of Cores bo timorous, 
as not to be s^viceable in war — Tartar horses very service- 
able in war ; they were properly the conquerors of China- 
march two or three days without -vtopping — continue five or 
six without eating more than a handful of grass at every eight 
hours ; and rem«in without drinking foUr-aud-twenty bouts — 
lose all their strength when brought into China or the Indie*; 
thrive pretty well in-Peraia and Turkej',189 — ancient opinions 

- on 4he nature wd qodilics of the Iiorsci of lliesealy, Actwia, 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

, Ethtt^'B, Ai^nii. Afnoa. luiy, vti ,p«i^cwbilj, of Aptfia, 

flfSicilj', CapiMdocia,. Syria, AroMeia, Ue<i)a, Pcniai of Str- 

. diaia tod CMric*,.of Spain, WaUaclii*, TrftBaylf«aiB|.ofDen- 

- aauk, Scap^navia, FlaDdent «f the QaulisK -Itoraes, of Mie 
■ , GxnMB, Swiis, HAiDgamn, and latiiy, of th« Iiidi«» hanet, 
■■ 191 — DmuA horqea of audi aMellent siae, aod itrong tqake, 
' that ihej are preferred to aU oUiera for dnuieJil, IBS—Et^lUh 
. hnset exc«l the .Arabiaa ut niie sod 9wi%n«u ; are mora 

duraUe. than tbe baib, and moie bardj' than the Periian — one 
ioBtance of their great rapidity, in tbe adminble Childera, 

. frequentty koown to move above eif^tjr-tno fe«t wwl ahalf 
in a Mowdi 19^-Roger de Sdftgme, tbe first recorded to 
have attempted mepdiQg our native broed, 194-— number of 
hbraw w lAHtdoB, in^ time of King. St^>ben, uid to have 

. wounled to tweaty thousand— in the timea of qitgea Eliza-, 
betb, the kingdom could not supply two thotuand borua to 
flum the earidry— Powidaod, in Wales, for many ages famoni 

, £>r a flwii^ and gfineroua race oi haaseM, wd w»y, .lOSI— the 
' horae and the a*a diBer not so much in furtn,,.aB the cow wd 

- tbe iHMa, yet the formeiL are distinct amtmdsi and . the tatter 
-. .anuRala of the Hihe kind, 229 — eat two^bimdred and eixty- 
... Inro. BlMts, aad reject two hundred and twelve, ^362— are 

Jcilled'by wild aueiiii. 203— deUroyed by ibe AsoericaD bat, 

caHed vampyie, in South America, iii. 235< 
H^tCi (S«a) deacriybed, t. 109. 
MoifMt erected in India, for the mainteognce of ell kioda of 

▼eraaio, ii- SI— for monkiet, iii. 313. 
Hattealot*, ootitrip lions in .the chase, us travellera report, i. 433 

— «iake much and very ^traordinary use of the bison, ii.234. 
Hound, harrier, and beagle, sll of the same kiod~-ffrey->na'iRi 
, bound, transported to. tbe North, becomes a great DaoNh dog; 

and this, sent into tbe Soudi, becomes a greyhound of difiereut 
' Bvaes; toA theaarae transported into Iceland, tbe Ukraine, 

Tartary, Epirus, and Albania, becomes the great wolf-dog, 

known bv the ooioe of the Iritk we^-dog — tkeMmd-haund, a 

dog of tne generous kind — and likewise tlio g^zt-hsund, and 
. the ^9^oMH(^tbe blood-houad a dog of Brealusc, and in 

high esteem among our ancestors— ;iu eaipoy— the gaze- 
. hotind bunted, UM our grey-bound, by iji« pye, not t^ the 
. aoept, iiL 1%. 

Gruf^Mtid&x, tbe IqrgatI, tallest, and boldest of tbe kind, iiij 
Jiimier, a new inland formed at the moutb of this river.— it is 

aboittAiae miles in circumference, and worth to tbe proiwietor 

Bb»ut eifhtbundred poi^ndt ayear.J. 111. . 
Snnmin^^rd, is tbe Bmallest of birds, and seem b nearly allied 

to.tbeimect, iv-. 30 — belonftSi te the manow kind, 247— the . 

amallest «£ tbeoi ^o^t the sia^ of^a hazel-nut-^iu de- 

. Kfipti(qi«-flK larger, huifinwag-bird la near half ai 1ms ^ tba 

V 2 

L;,q,z:=b, Google 

'CtiWcnon wrw> ' ii its descrititton-~ar« seea fiiAtering about ifae 

- flowVrii wWtoiA «Ter Ughtng vpOD theOH-^'Hlr Wings to soch 
nqud ino4MD, it jg itopwiiMe to diaoen their col«ura, except 
hv tbeir glittariDg— bat ealy cMittatiDg ttaeif honey aa wM) a 
fc ii» ■ ih c irneat* and tbe mii^iier «f . cgge — tbeir tli»6 of imn- 
helion*<Hnitnioe of their iKiVltf-**cmiatnea «hei« found — 
in the l.e^a^d Jataads they «QiUiinie in X torpid ^tate during 
tiie severity of winter — Labat assertB, that besides tlie faun- 

' tttng M«e pir«du«d by tfaelr wings, ttwy bave a pletting 
tnelaDeboly netitdy in Uieir voiAea, snrall aW prapoitioaed to 
tkflir orgaos— ^tbe IndianB tnake vxe of this ptet^ bird's 
plumage-^ita wh»t manner the children take thei»— wben 
taken, they are inrtantly killed, and hung up in the chinntey 
to di^ ; Kme iry tliem ia atoves— at ppeaent the bipcl j« taken 
aather for Selling as a co^ioaity t« Europeans, than an orna- 
•nient ft>r ibemsSves, 277, &c 

fhffl^of^biMn of (liferent sizes, weighing from forty to fifty 
Mmsda, ■txnetiortis Jem— cuia and tasies like ft ch-eeaad «diler, 

' li. SSd-— in a few ge&eretioDS it wears away, 337. 

Hinder, every amnial enlBreB the wants of eleqp and feonger 
wini leas injury to health than man— hiMiger kiUs noBM^Boaer 

' than watcbrahiesa — more dreadful in Ha approaches than eon- 
linMBce— drea^ul efecta of hunger, related to the author by 
the captain of a ship, vim was one of ><x that endured it b 
its extremities — different opinions coaeeraiBg the tsuse aS 
hanger — few hStesces of men dying, eXApt at «ea, of ■aima- 
lute hunger — those men whose e*ery^ay may be «onaidrred 
as a happy escape ftom famine, at ladt ^ie of a disorder 
caused by hunger — the number of sudi as die in London of 
hunger supposed not less than two thousand in a year — 
method of filiating hunger among the American Indiaas, ii. 
1*— sBBtsmcM of amanng patience in hunger, "JS. 

fTunier», the Eng^sh considered as the 'ii(A>)ef)t ami the most 
uSG&t horses In the WOTld, it. 194^ — tenns used by hunters ia 
pursuing the stag — names invented by then far the stag, 911 
—tot t*e faliow3eer, S23. 

WtmHttg, the aatnral right of faunting raade Toyal, aad wfata, 
ii. 3OT— -tfie tteg and the book performed in tlie same raanaer 
in (England, and how, 310— ancient maBnereftHmting the stag 
— the manner in Sicily, and in China, 316 — the wolf, iii. 9^— 
waives -used in hunting, 49— hunting of the fax, 47 — hunting 
the sable chieSy the lot of the exiles in Siberia, 93— the 
fmrar^-outang, Or wild man, in Borneo — a favourite amusemcM 
flfthe King, S85-^of the elephant at the Cape of G«ad Hope, 
355— manner of huating the ostrich by the ArabitTis, and by 
the Struthbphagi, iv. +S — manner «f hunting the turiwy, 198. 

JJuitting-ievpard, described by Mr. Pennant, ii. 4'86. 

HuTricane, the ttoud preceding a hHrricane, called tiyaailers, 
bull'i eye, ddsaribed— houae^ node of timber, be»d ts ^ 



UtMt of the faurricaoG like oden, and xecawr Ibeir reetkwde 
— JiarriowMe offeiuive ta tlte mow <^ tmeltiiig— maggots 
brougttf with tbem — coinnKai ia all tropiottl dtnatei ; on the 
cuasCi of Guinea, frequ^tly three «r four in a daji-oth«r 
■easooa upon those oowta, at Louiga and ibe oppoeke coast 
of Africa^-the hurticww cabled ttornftdo, iU dreailful etiboti, i. 

Htao, lh« tsioglwa fish, «aughl >o flt^M 9<isntitie« in the 
Danube, rrom October to January — fiutv^es tbe coranodity 
called ieinglass — often above four huodretl poupils weigbt<-r 
its deab suted is better twted, and tuns red like laLwao^.v. 

Ugana, no words give an ideft adequate to this noiaial's Ggtm, 
deformity, and fierceness — more saiiage end untameaUe tfaait 
fray quadruped— its descr^tion ^defends itaelf against (he 
lioq, is a nua«h for the panther, and attiscks the ounce, wUch 
it seldom faiis to coo^uei^— an obEoene and soUtary awmd^ 
its first howl Bomettmes miataiken for the voice of a wan 
moanii^i-rita luter like tbs vioieDt efiorta of retching — 
vbcBoe it fint took its name — native t^ the torrid none, 
raiidea in the caverns of mouataine, the clefts of rocks, or dens 
it baa fbnoed under earlh— taken ever so yoong, it never can 
be Uiped-<-»omtiia)eB attacks man, and curries off cattle— 
Ita e^ei shine by night ; and it is asserted that it seea better 
by night Iban by day-HScm^ up graves, and devours dead 
badies, bow putrid stKv«F«-«bsurdities oi the aneients about 
this animal, iii. 62, &c. 

■JaUru, staijahira amd jaiira'^ttacv, birds of the crane kiitdi 
natives of Braiil^-theh' deacriptions, iv. 306. 

Jackaltt, hunt in a pack, and eaDOursge eadi other by mulual 
Ci'iea.— what has given rise to the report of its being the lioo's 
provider, iL 153 — travellers have mistaken the jackall for the 
fox, iii. 51 — oue of the commonest wild animals in the East ; 
yet soarce any less known in Europe ; or less dfstmotly d4.' 
•oribed by natural historians— its description— its cry a lamen- 
lati<Hi resenibling that of bumao distress— 'is more noisy in its 
pursuits than the dog, more voracious than tlie. ivolf-rnever 
goes alone, but alwnys in a pack of forty or fitly together'— 
seems little afraid of man ; pursues ils game to the down, 
without apprebmsloo.m' enters insolently into she^p-foldfi, 
wds, osd ttables, and finding nothing elaa, devours leatJier 
barncGMa, boota, and shoesfr-soratobes up nevtmiuie grases, 
snd dtaraura Ae corpse, boir puuid aeBvermUiB cotpM) bow 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

,, ^ .INDEX. 

' -'^iMip^Ailava WniiWi and keefw in tha tAr oT cwsmu 
'Tl'r-^eiiiMt :|^trid wrtxtajnoo it ^eedily devonn— hid» in 
:' ■'haln lij>:4agr^Mid myean abroad at nignt<ialW-{iuiitsb; tli« 
. jMnt-^-imtioncileabtB^ watipathy betmca it aod the dos— no 
i 'WOuder-it be Tonu]imi>( ana- wby— -is as stupid ai jmpu&nt — 
■■ naatiD CB a( tt— JndiaopeBMiatB-o&vn cfaaM it as we do foxes, 
. 56..«& 

Jaclfdaw, its description, iv. 17S— rings found in the qest of a 
. taaieJMk-daw, 171. 
■JaitiineM, k kind of ^eons, iv. SSI. 

Jmultit, the swiftest Mvpenti its moBDer of- ptogmaioa by coQ- 
. , ing, V. 369. 

Jaguar, or tlw |nRtber of Americat ii- 42fi. 

- Ji)pai««M, deacnption of that people, iL 7'8- 

•/inu) ^he ttppsr, thouglu by maay quite immove^le ; that it 

.mnes-io man an easy ecperimeDt will eriDGe— has ite ptaper 

ANsdes bcbiod the head for thus raising and debresaing it— 

Under jaw in the embryo much advaoced before me upper ; in 

jJie adult it hanga more backward— and in ■ Chinese face it 

falls still taore backward than with ua; Uie difference is 

thought half an inch, the moath being ahot natur^j— a 

professor at Edieburgh woi lubjeet to have his Jaw oialo- 

cated — the ander jaw has often an involuntary quivenng 

motion ; and often a state of languor produces anomer, l^t 

of yawning, a very " ' ' ' " ■- " --- 

ridiettloua instance ( 
practised upon the &nioui A 
Jay, one of the most beautiful of the Britinh birds — its dcscrip- 
tion — feeds upon fruits, kills small birds, and is extceoiely 
docile, ir. 186-»-laya its eggs in the holes deserted by tb? 
woodpecker, 194>. 
Ibex, a native of the Alps, the Pyrenees, and tbe mountwu of 

Greece — its description, ii. 268. 
J^, the Eg^flians paid divine honours to this bird— different 
.' opiniflDB concenting tbe tuicient and modem ibis^-Maillet's 
<nHervations to this purpose— the true Ibis thoug^it « bird of 
' ' the vuhure kind, called by sone the capon of l^araoh^iv. 
SOS— tbe true ibis found to be the Balearic crane, SOS— -de- 
crihed, 303. 
Ice, very 'elastk, i. 1.52— doaU of it difiitsed into plams of 
' above two hundred leagues in length—and mountains of 
- ft'' rising, amidst them— flat ice, and mountain ice— their 
■4bv»ation*— mouDtaias of it presen^ng the reaeinblanca of a 
. glory; 803. 

■/(Mmimoii, by same injadicioudy denominated the cat of Fha- 

^ - vraoh,«ne of the boldest and most useful auimala of tbe weasel 

kind — used in Egypt for the same purposes as cats in Europe 

'■• ■' A-'ifeseiiptkn.^.discoTers and deitniya tbe, eggs i^ the 4ro- 

' codile— serpents iu most natural food-^rows fast and die* 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 


«Km— easilr Blranglea a cat stronger and larger than iueif— 
cbtintr}^ mfere found*4ttacln evi^y-Mfg' Mag it iavble 
to overcame, and ften not the (tntie ot-itke''4o^,- n«t the 
daws 6P the vultore— 4akiHthe'wat<»r' l&e 8A^''etKr,>a«l will 
con^ue tmder mtfeh 'longo-— h«t abia to aoppon thrt^ur 
nf oar miVtera— one -fnam tfae iiland of CeyloHi^ctinbed 

- up the walb and tbs treat wkh vevf graat ?n»e— 4hU 
aoimal ooe of those formerly norsbipped hy the EgyptiaoB, 

- iu. 94, Ac. - .■■■■-,; 

Ichneumon (dy)) its weapons of defence— fliet of tiut tribe owe 

their binh to the deitructioa of- isise other insect, within 
whose bedj they liatfe been deposited,, and upon wbose vitahi 
they have (Keyed, till they came to maturity— of idl others 
■the most formidable to inwctS C^various kiiid»~it makes the 
body of the caterpillar the phioe for depoaiiiBg its eggs— 
the tribe is not the caterpillar's o%)rin^, as iras st^pwed, 
hot its murderers — description— wheoce its namei— feen not 
the wasp, and plunders its habitattoos— various appeoue of 
the various kiods of this fly— 4he millioas of iase«tt this &j 
kills in a summer inconceinible, vi, 127. 

Jehneumon, a root the Indians believs an antidote for the bite f£ 
" the asp or the v^r, iii. 95. 

Jeaii-f6-Ble*c, a kind of aigle — its distinctive marks, n. 73. 
-Jerboa, a sit^olar qua^up^, described, iii. 4QK. 

Jerusalem, tFe kingdom of, with most of the ^tiu of Syria, 
destroyed by an earth)|uake, i. ^. - 

.JeHer,'iD England, as late as the times of King Jaasce L the 
court was ^misbed witb a jester, ii. JOt. 

Ignit^aluta, or vianderingjlre, i. 335. 

Iguana, description of tins animal— its fle^ the greatest delicacy 
of Africa M>d America-i-iu food-r-in what maoBer it is tajteo, 

Jiboya, the Great, of Brazil, the dimensions of jhis sencitf, r. 

lies, the berry-bearing ilex. See ^icrme*, vL 154- 

InagiMitum, by d«y» as welt as by night, always employed, i^. 17 
^very remarkable instances of its power in women, Mi. 

Impaling, in some courts of the more barbarous princes of India 
they employ the el^haot to impale the criminals en its enor- 
mous tusks, iii. 253. 

ImpregnatioTi, the hare, though already impreg^ed, admits the 
male, and receives a second impregnation, iii. 190— in what 
manner the sea and garden snails impr^nate each other re- 
spectively, V. 215 — the bivalve sbell-fisb require no asaiataoce 
from each other towards impregnauon, 232— frog* impreg- 
nated without any afiparent iiutrumenta of generation, aa 
object of inquiry ; cootinoes io great obscurity— eapeiiaieiiti 
made to this purpose, 260. 

Ineat, ftttbsr Ac«sta, and Garcilasso de la Vega, hare (mb tha 


I et u t. \. 

bo£es of Setenl inoai perfectly prenrred fniai corru{Mion, 
ii. 118. 
Iniih, (East) ia the warm countries of India, the women are 
marriHgeabie at nine or ten, and die men at tiVelve or thir- 
teenj i. 399— descriptitm of the island* thit lie acattered in 
the Indian ocean — over all India, children arrne aooner at 
■matority, than in Europe— 4hcy (rftea niarHf, and consam- 
.. 'Inate, die husband at ten years old, and tbe «ife at eight, 
«nd frequently have children at that age — Indians have fong 

- '-been remarkable for cowardice and eSeniinacy~they may be 

considered as a feeble race of sensualists— their dress, ii. SO 
—the horses of India are weak and wariiy, 189— lions are 

- found to diAiinish in their numbers in this country, S93— the 
Indians eagerly pursue the porcupine, in order to make 

-' embroidery of its quills, and to eat its flesh, iti. 209— they eat 

^ bats in the East Indies, 2S\. See Eiephant. 

India, (West) whence originally come tbe flat heads of the 

t American Indians, ii. 92. 

Jn</uj, river, its course, i. 177— its water, and thatof the Thames, 
the most light and wholeeome in tbe world, lis— the tidt at 
the mouth of this river the greatest known, 215. 

Infants, just bom, may be said to conte from one dement to 
another, and why— open their eyes the instant of their birth 
—more capable of sustaining hunger, and more patient of 
cold than grown persons, and why-infants have milk in their 
own breasts — their life very precarioust till tb« age of three 
or four— instances of it— the compat«tive progress of the un- 
derstandine greater in infants than in children of three or four 
years old, i. 385. 

Insects, in the intemBl parts of South America, and Ahics, they 

~ grow t» a prodigious siee, and why— those of the minute kind 
in the northern climates not half so large as in the temperate 
zone — the oce&n has its insects — their feet are ^ced upon 
their backs, and almost all without eyes- in some countries 
almost dericen the air, and a candle cannot be lighted with- 
out ll:Kir instantly flying upon it, and putting out the flwne, 
i. 349 — many may be supplied by being cut in pieces, ii. 363— 
many of the tribes brought forth from the egg, 36.5 — ha»e no 
eye-lids whatsoever, 411— the Indians are fearfhl of miing 

■ the meanest, ii. 81— afford so great a variety as to elude tlte 
' search of the most inquisitive pursuer, iv. 2-~thoae with 
the greatest number of legs move the slowest, t. 249 — the 
general definition of insects — the difiereiit classes— general . 
characteristics of insects without wings, v. 386— of those that 
hfetc Wings, vi. J — «ome continue under the fi>rm of an aurelia 
»M ten days ; some twenty, some several months, and even 
for a year, 62— general rute, that the female is larger than 
tbe male, 73— every insect that lives a year after ita full 

' gVawtb, is obliged to post four or five months without nogri^- 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

i N 1) ii :(. 

nwnt, mi wilt seesi to bftdsod all that tone, 13T — tie* 
scriplioo oS that which forms and reside* in the gall-nut, 

Inttin^ of aoifDala in choosing the proper times of cApulstioo, ii. 
168 — the Guinea-pig has not that natural instinct so comEpon 
to ^iDOst every otn«r creature, ii). lOS. 
Inteitinea, in all aninalB the niae. of the intestines proporti(Hie4 
to tbe nature' of the food, iL 15& — intestiaes of ruminating 
animals enlarged by nature, to talce in a creater supply— 
those of the camivorous kind are shsrt — iJso thin and lean, 
but of the ruminating are Strang, flashy, and covered with 
fat, 218 — af shaep found to be thirty times tbe length of the 
body — those of ite wild oat not above three times the length 
«f its body, 9tt9— of the rein-deer, tra^d like our tripe, 
ID high esteem among the Laplanders, 954r-'of the bst, in 
some measure resemble those of man, iti. 226— those of the 
raanati longer, in proportion, than llioie of any other creature, 
the horse excepted, 'i70~the tribe of *ood-peckcrs want that 
ifltestiae called the c«ecutn, iv. 191 — the lamprey seems to 
have but one, v. 96— those of the crab hare many convolutions, 

Inundations generally greater towards the aciurce of rivers than 
farther down, and why, i. 17S — lome distribule health and 
pkoty— -otbers cause disea««8, famine, and death, 16S--every 
inundation of the lea attended with some correspondent dere- 
liction of another shore— one of the most consideraMe in his- 
toiTi is that which happened in the reign of Henry I.— an in* 
undation in the territory of Dort destroyed a hundred thou- 
sand pertons— and yet a greater number round the Dullart^- 
remarkable inondations in Friezland and Zealand, in which 
more than three hundred villages were overwhelmed —their 
remains continue visible at the oottom of the water in a clear 
day — some in which tbe sea has overflowed the couQtry, 
and afterwards retired, 231— inundation of the Thames at 
DagenhaiDi in Essex, 236 — instantly produced by land spouts, 
338. ■ I 

JtHm-dory, Quio noted for a sauce for this fish, v. 25. 

Ireland not infested with wolves, iii. 40— trogs designedly intro- 
duced into that kingdom some years before the Norway rat~- 
that rat put a stop to their increase, and the frog is once more 
almost extinct in that kingdom, 169— the mole utterly a 
stranger there, 190. 

Iron extracted from all the substances upon earth, i. 64. 

liatii, an animal very common in all northern countries border- 
ing \^tn the icy sea, and seldom fiHlod ii> waria climatss.-^ 
description— burrows like the fox, and, when with youngs the 
female retires to her kemw), in the sama manner as tbo fint— 
itfe kennel vary narrow, and axtreiiMly deep, faaa many out- 
lets— maoaer of coupling, time of gestation, and number 

c,q,z.<ib, Google 

* '■^ Y '*: '»- 

«f young, all uatUar, to KhU-i«.fpundin.|hef(HC—Wuigsfi>rUi 
at tbesad of JU^, or the >b«^ning of June— cooaidered m 
betwem the dog aod the.foji — ctum^ its ccdour, uid ii at 
one tJQi^, brown, at uiQtJieT vhite^time in which it ii called 
.the.crtK^;/6x,,ia.61,Ae- -„. 

Jtinglau, Berviceable in medicine, and maay vtM -wianper of 
jnaking rit— priocipaUv furaithed fram Kuiaia, where gnat 
i}uaiit^ie£ are prepared Gurprisixiglf xsheap—iiT. Jaduon found 
out a methcKl of making a glue that answo^ the purpoaet of 
iainc]»8|B, v. 99, 104. 

lilatidi, new-forroed, in two ways — tfairteea ifJanda to the Miedi- 
terraneon appeu'lng at onoe ewergiag from the water-F.<»ie 
new-formed w the year 1720 near that of Tercere — formed 
at the mouthg of many riven, and how ; a beautiful and large 
one formed at the mouth of the river Naoquin in China, 
not le» than aixty milet loog, and ^out twenty broad, i. 
10^ — appear, at jhrst, infinitely greater than they naturally 
are, S32 — seem to travel to the shore, and represent 
curioui figures, ships with nils, streamen, flags, and 
antique elevated castles, and at length vanish into nothing. 

Juda-eoat oommon in Guinea, Angola, and all alqng the coasts 
of Africa, not much larger than a hare, iL 266- 

Jugukr fish, name given to that fish which has the ventral fins 
placed more forward than the pectoral, v. 130. 

.Juniper, its shade said to be faUl, bv the ancients, L 2?0-^e 
Laplanders drink water, in whica these berries have been 
infused, ii. 74. 

JwT]/, the tusks of the babrroueasa are a very fine ivory, smoother 
and whiter than that of the elephant, but not so hard or ser- 
viceable, ii. 37? — that of the morse more esteemed than that 
of the elephant, being whiter and harder, iil 267-!— almost 
all our ivory comes from Africa, where the greatest part ii 
found in the forests — the tusks of the manunoth converted 
to the purposes of ivorv, 355 — teeth of the narwhal far sur- 
pass ivory in aU its qualities, v. 47. 

Jt^-berriet, shower of them raised by tempests in one couotr7, 
aod faDing in another, i. 333. . 

Kabouit, or Cat^hractua, one of the largest kinds of the arrna- 

dUla, iii. 125. 
Kaaucittia, deaeiipti(» of tta nativai, ii. 72. 
Xongnroot * lingular quadruped of New Holland, described, iii* 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 


Keratophites, ftmong Uie coraline ftatp, vt. 197. 

Kemtes, an insect oigreafuK in medicine and dying — its descn'pi- 
tioa — the differences nf the male ftom the fem&Ie — the harvest 
of tile kermeg greater or less in proportion to the severity of 
the winter— women nther them before sun-risiag, teariog 
them off witti their nuls, vi. 154. 

Ktttrit, a bird of the gentrous breed of hawltg, iv. 92. 

Keoel, name of a second .vaHety of gazelles, made by M. BuSbn, 
ii.279. ■ *'■■ • 

Kilkr, a cetaceoiu animal of surprising strength, which attacks 

■ 4he whale, v. 41. * 

Kin^ of animals not actually distinguished by boms, colour, 
position of the edrs, or fineness i^faair, il. 267— difficult to fix 
precise boundacies betfveen the goat kind, and the deer, S75.— 
' the gazelles form a distinct kinci, 376. 

Kine, m Iceland are without horns, ii: 232. 

Kiag-JUher, a remarkable bird — its description — places it fre- 
quents, and hoir it takes its prey — the plumage a beautiful 
.variety of brilliant colours— histances of credulity with respect 
to this bird-^its n^t, or rather hole, very different from that 
described by the ancients — feeds upon fish in that hole — fcetid 
from the remains of fish — ^tbe King-fisher is found with from 
£*e to nine eggs, which the female continues to hatch — 
though disturbed and robbed, she retuma and lays again — 
Reaumur's account of tliis— season for ezdudinK the brood 
—the male, faithful beyond the turtle, brings the female largo 
provisions offish, and keeps her plump and fat— he used to 
twitter before, now enters tne nest quietly and privately — the 
youug hatched in twenty days— differ In tneir size and beauty, 
iv. 4^1. 

.K^irc/jer has set the voices of some birds to music, ir. III. 

Kite, from the greatest height darts down on tte prey With 
unerring aim, iv. 8 — one of the baser race of hawks, 91 -^dis- 
tinguished by its forky tail, and alow floating motion— 4eems 
ever upon the wing, and to make no effort in flying-~lives 
upon Bcddental carnage, every bird in the air being able to * 
make its retreat from it— small birds wounded, or straying 
chickens, it seizes with rapacity, 98 — used for training 
falcons, and how lured with the great horned owl, when caught 
for that purpose, 113. 

Klein, his metnod of clsswne animals, ii. 136. 

Knobber, name of the stag tne second year, ii. 311. 

Knt4, small bird of the crane kind, iv. 332 — a bird of passage, 

Koh, the same of the sixth variety of gaieDes by M. Baffim, ii. 

' Koba, the name of the fifUi variety of gazelles by Vl\ Bufl^, 
ii.280. ' " .^.i^:,- . ^-. 

L,-.' l;,L.OO^IC 

Kraken, all that has been mM of (his great fiih seems fictidou^ 
yet there i> a pouibilit^ of iu existeoce, v. 33. 

M^hrut, (the wregM,) description ofthb G«h, v. 123. 

X.abt/rinlh, of Caodia, a subterraacan wooder, supposed ibe voric 
Of Ml, i. '55. 

Z<<t2^rintA, convolutions in thewind'pipe aod lungs of some IhkU, 
iv. 10. 

hanta, the camel of the new world— coud tries where found — 
their flesh an excellent food— their hair, or rather wool, spun 
into beautiful clothing — carry their burthens over precipices 
and craggy rocks, wliere men can scarcely accompany them 
—description ar^d age — manner of coupling— its food-- 

. exceeds the camel in temperance— requires little water, being 
supplied vith quantities of salira, the only offensive weopoa 
it nas to testify its resentment — the Indians sayi where this 
■aliva ftlls, it win, from its aciimonious nUure, burn the 
skin, or cause dangerous eruptions — colour and wool — habits 
and marks of ability in the state of nature— seems the largest 
of the camel kind in America — the natives bunt the wild 
lama for its fleece~~a smaller, weaker sort of the cwneJ.lund, 
called also guanaco and paco — the manufacture of stufi, 
carpets, end quilts, rasde of the wool of the paoo, forms a 
consTderable branch of commerce in South America, and might 
useiully bo extended to Europe, iii. 379, &c. . 

Lambs, how to be produced all the year round, ii. 169— the tbii^ 
an ewe brings forth supposed to be the best, 255. 

iMiaprey, a fish every way resembling the lamprey, was possessed 
of the numbing quality of the torpedo — people wiU not ven- 
ture to touch those of Ireland— a species very difEerent from 
ours served up as a delicacy among the modern Romans — 
doubtful whether it be the murena of the ancioit*, which oar 
lamprey is not — ours differently estimated, according to the 
season — those c^ the river Severn the most delicate of dl 
fish — description of the fishi — estraordinaay power of adhering 
to stones— instance of it — Mitralto, in giving the anatcKny 
of this fish, makes no mention of the lungs, for which it 
has absolute necesMty to breathe in the air — its time of leav- 
ing the sea annually, in order to spawn, is the beginning %i 
spring — after a few months, it returns to the sea — peculiar 
preparation for spawning — the young from eggs— the female 
remains at the place where produced — they are excluded till 
they come forth — has her family playing about her, and cob- 
ducts them in triumph to the ocean — its food — some contiaoe 
in freeb water till they die — b single brood the extent of the 

L;,q,z:=b, Google 

1, ly u S'.Ai 
feitule'g fertility, two jenrb bsiflg the limit pf faer existence— 
■ btat Beaton ftr tlieai in the monUis of March, April, aad May 
— are usuBlly taken in nets wiih satmeo ; some times, in bailKls 
at the faottoin of the river>~0ld cueLom ibf the city of Glou- 
cester annually to present the King with a lamprey-pie — a 
■emtor of Rorae uMd to throw into bis pcwdi sucb of his 
elaves as dispteased hitn, to feed the lampreys, v.-9S. 

Landa, Hew, produced from the sea, and in what wanner, i^ 

X^amier, bird of the generous breed of hawks, now litUe Jpiown^ 
in Europe, iv. 92. 

Lanthom^i/, eaailk a stroog phoeporetcent light in the dark, 
TI. 13. 

Lap-deg, described, iii. 16. 

Laplanders, one of the firat dittinct race of mei) round (he polar 
regians— descriptions of their persons and manners — ^ha»e in 
vrery fiamily a drum for consulting the de«il — Gustavus Adol- 

. phua attempted in rain to form a regiment of Laplkiders — use 
skaita to run and slide; and how — all are bunters— ofier their 
wives and daughters to strangers, ii. 72. 

Xopuijng, a small bird of the crane kind, iv. S52— its arts to 
End off men and dogs from their nesta, S39. 

JCMtb, bird of the sparrow kind, iv. 246 — the sky, the wood, or 

. the t^-lark, diitiaguiBlnbie from other little birds, by length 
of heel and hi^ song— nest, number ^ eggs, and habits, 26t 
— those that remsin with us the year thvougbout, are hi^ of 
pasMge in ^eden, 25a 

Zrfiri, (tea) acaall bird of the crane kand, iv. 332— breeds in thia 
eooirtry, SB6. 

./jin»a, mstter discharged by the erOptiBaa of vakaooeB,L87. 

I^mighter, in what manner produced, i 416. 

Laaitct, descripttea of this Bsh, v. 127. 

iMfCr, tiae inpreasian on the place where the stag Imb lain, iL 

liaytr* of the earth regularly disponed, but not of tlie same kmd 
to every place— eBumentlioa of layers of earth in a uetl dug 
at AnMerdam, 'and of another i^g at Marley — a layer, as far 
«B it etcteoda, always mantwos the same thickness — proceeding 
to -considerable depths, every layer is thicker — are sometioies 
very extensive, msA otlra ^ouod to spread over a space of 
>ene leagnea in circamferevce, i. 47 — remarkable layers ol 
earth round the city of Modena, 23+. 

Leather, cdled shaBomoy, made of the skin of that animal, 
aod ^ao from ttose of the tame goat, the sheen, and the deer, 
ii. 27i. 

Leaves, two of a fig-tree, by experiment, imbibed firom the earth ' 
two ounces of water infire hours and a half, i- 164. 

Leeoh, difietvnt kinds— its deicriptioD— takes a large quantity of 
fipod— fans DO anus or passage to eject it from the body wncn 

C,q,-Z.= bvGOOglt' 

AgMt«d— ia wtwtit diftn ftum the W«t of A» i«ptfleiUA«^ 
th« leech uied in medieitw— a girl of nine Jiean titd'kniUi>y 
leechet —b ctt way of applying teechw, *■ 489. 

Leg*, a mac without legs or handa perfonned anonishiag faita^of 
dexterity, iii. S2% 

Ltmng, a bold animal of tbe rat kiad^ -id(liv» of 6caadtn8na<7- 
ofteD poun down in nyriads from the northern Tnorauiu, 
' and, Iwa pestileDce, deetroya^ the prodactioDa of ^te evth 
— Laploeden helieve th^ drop froks-llie clouds— their de- 
Bcription — they more in a aqutre, forward by night, and tying 
atill by day — whiiher their modona ar« tnneo nothing -cas 
Mop them ; a fire, n deep wdl, a torrentf does not turn then 
out of their direction— they nevsr retreat^ioierrupted by a 
boat across a river, they go over it— atopped bya stack of bay 
or com, they gnaw dieV waj> teougfa ; and'MtnMted by a 
house they cannot get through, continue before it tiU^lhey die 
' lotbing jtrepared for bunn ai ' ' - 

ing jtrepared for b 
house to destroy prorisions — pnsiing threogh a neadow, 
destroy it in a short (irot, and- learc it with the appesranceDf 
being burnt up, and Krewed ovor with juhe*— ^maniawru- 
dentjy attaebing on^ oFtbem, tbe animd'AiTiauely fliea at faini, 
barking somewhat like a puppyi (atttnt, and -■ does not canly 

3uit its botCt — th^ leader ^rc«d'4i9t of ihe^line, after a, long 
efience, and separated fWM'dJiV*Mt,«et8 up a plaintive cry, 
not of anger, and hangs itself eO' the fbrk of a tree— ibey 
destroy md dcTour each other— after incredible devastUieBS, 
they separate into armies, opposeti with deadly hatred, and 
move along the coasts of the'larger lakca and t>rers-«>U>e Lap- 
landers form progaostic» from the menner of didr mnm^ 
n>ent — what prognostics — the ATisioni ooniniae Ibrir engage- 
menu and aoimosity until one party be overcome ; tbao tncy 
disappear, and, it is supposed, that, having nothing to subsist 
on, itfey devour each other— their carcases somelunea isrfect 
the air for miles around, and produce malignant disordst^— 
they seem also to infect die tuants, tbe cattle often dying in 
the places where they passed — the male larger and more 
beautifully spotted than the female — are extt«oieIy prolific 
^ureeding does not hinder thnr martJi, some caRjing one 
young in their mouth, and another on their back— are 
greatly preyed upon by tbe ermine, and even by the rein-deer 
^ogs and cats detest their flesh, but tbe Laplsndera estaem 
it*good eating, and devour it greedilyt iii> 185. 
Leoparil, the American is neither so fierce nor so valiant as titat 
of Africa and Asia, ii. 16S — the large, and tha leopard or 

[lanther of Senegal— di&rences between those animals, 4S^— 
eopard wi]l not fly at the approach of the lion, 4i02. 
Lepagodatter, description <^tnis fish, v. 1^27- 
l-tprtity, in what manner ^e Indiani endeavoiv to prevent the 


AaiIila<>tffroet)''ar(he-^p)mi>tiaei*i :a.-^i>#e ta ifJiieh atari 
sAd'tbe eteplMua are c^uollf subject, iii. SiS. 

LevwenhofcL; bis opinion Bmrat. the rjidimwta df ftaiaHdai i. 

Leymtiur, a dog of ilie generous kind, iii. IS| 15. - 

JLtMia, tit» dragoB'fl/— gmerdl cb^mcterHttcB — «^s— tood of 
theyaung— bOMtliey prapaMlftc^ai^efromthe reptile W the 
'flying state — r deac«(ptioa(«-ttie^«tn)nge«t and most courage^in 
of all winged iusects— tb« btuioes* et iaipregn»ti9n, how per- 

- fi»med,Tr. 2. 

/iio^r th* ^reatwt of the xerpmit kind, T. S36. 

Idehen^an^iferituu, thv food of the reio-deer, a moss in Lapland 
nf tvo luods ; ' the white in tt>« fieldsy and tbe black on the 
trees, iL 8W, S*8. 

Lidme\, moe o^ tb« elermtb ^naisAy qf gaisUes, by M. Bufibn, 
ii. 284. 

L^e, formerly suppoted producibI« only by oviparous and vm- 
peinut generation ; but latter di«COve[ie» induce KUioyi to 
doubt wbffther.aaimal' life may not be produced nerely from 
fatretactioB,t.S6S^tliebeffiilntf^<^ our lives, as well aa the 
end* is mfriied wi^ anguiri), S^— thai of infants very pre- 
caiioas, till thfi aafi 9f three or ^ur— insttmcea of it, 391— 
tlia dnraticK) of life in getmBl newly the Hme to. most coun- 
triea, ii. 64— the meet us^ese and contesptible «f all others, 

. Ihe most difficult to destroy, vi.']78. 

kuht, the hand exptwed to broad' day-ligbt for Bome time, then 

'immediately snatched Mstaadark roam, will still be Inminoui, 
( and TsiBwnso fo bdbk tiiiie,4nd why— dangerous to the sight 
to look steadily upon bright and luminous objects, and why— 
Buch penwaa as read or write for any c<»itinutt[H:e, should 
'Cbooie a moderUo light, >i. 30. 

liMt sent foith "by the glow-worm, how produced hitherto 
inexpliad]te, vi. 152— sent forth by the star-fish, resembles 
- that of pho^boruB, 18IK / 

■Id^nmg M an electrical flasb produced b^ tlie oppoiitioB of 
two cTouda, i. 31'9 — flashing without noisO) illuminates the 
' sky alt around in \be torrid «one( 333 — of the torrid sroae, is not 
BO fatal or so dangerous as witb us, otherwise those regions 
would be uninhabitable, 325. 
lightg, nortiiem-IJghtB illuminate half the hemisphere, i. 323. 
iimfr* of the inhabitants near the poles are sometimes frozen and 
drop off, i. 331— some aninials Ijve without, and ofien are seen 
to reproduce tliem, vi. 176. 

•Liaie, manner of makiag it in Persia, i. lit. 

Line, upon the approach of the winter months under the Line, 

the whole horizon seems wrapt in a muddy cloud, !. 324-— in 

America, all that part of the continent which Uea under tbe 

Line is cool And pleasant,, ii, 8&—in.> general, at we^proach 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 



tin line, «e find the inbabiunu of uch ootmUjr gMw 

broirner, until the colour deepens into perfect bUckncM, 86- 

Idnnata, die celebrated naturshtt, tuppiwei man a native of the 
tropical climates, and only a Mjournei' more to tfae nprtfa — 
areumeot to prove the contrarj, ii. 93 — hi* method of dsasiog 
■umab, 137 — make* the fetwile of the bai a printati to rank 
it in the tame order with m^ iii. 229. 

iMMtt, a bird of the eparrow kiod, iv. 217— taught to whietle a 
long and regular tuoct 269. 

lion, to compare the strength of the lion with that of man, it 
should be considered that the claws of this animal five a false 
idua of iti power, i»cribiog to ita force what i* the eSect of 
its arm*, i. 431 — leap« twenty feet at a spring, ii. IS6 — does 
not willingly attack the horse, and only when cen^telled by 
the keeoeU hunger — cDmbate betweea a lion and a boTta a 
Italy — the lion stunned, and leH sprawling, tlie horse escapes ; 

. but the lion sooceediog, sticks to his pr«y, awl te^ the borse 
io pieces instantly, 154— produced undec the borni^ atia of 
Africa, is the most terrible and tnost itodaiuted creatnre, S9S 
•-description of this noble animal, 397<— he df^eneraiea when 
removed^from tb« torrid zone, 392— a lin^e lion of die deaert 
often attacks an antlie cararan, S9&— he crsuchts on hia bdly, 
and continues so with patient ezpeotatioii, luUil hU prcj o«mes 
within a proper distance, WQ-' V I m female has no tnaoe, S99 
—his roaring is so loud, that when heard in the oigbt, and 
(e-ecboed by the mountains, it resembles distaiU thunder, 401 
—attends to the call of the jackall, Ui. 58— in comtnes 
tolembly iftbsbiled, the lion is cowardly, wd often scared by 
the cries of women and childrei^ ii. S82. 

JJoiu, those of Mount Atlas ha*e not the sireogtb or ferockj of 
those of Bildulgerid or Zaara — species of this animal dtniinish' 
iag daQy— Mr. Shaw observes, the Bomans carried fifty liiws 
■s masy lions from Lybia in one year, for their aufhitheatees, 
as are in the whole country at this timr i thr same remark 
wad* with regard to Turkey, Persia, and the Indies ; where 
tbe. liens diminish in tlieir number daily — those inhabiting the 
peopled countries of Morocco or India, scared away with a 
shout — the keepers play with him, plague, and chastise him 
without a cause, he bears it with composure; but bia anger 
once excited, the consequences are terrible— «n initance fron 
Labat— numberless accounts assure his anger noble, his con- 
rage magnanimous, and his natural fNocity seldom eseited 
against his benefactors — he has spared the lives of those 
thrown to be devoured by him, affiirded them part of his sob- 
sisteace, and sometimes abstains from food himself to Gupport 
them -.-necessity alone makes him cruel— .the manner of bant* 
ing them by Hottentots and othere — reported that he aufitains 
hira^r a long time, but thirst he catiuot siq>part — Gone be- 

f M D EX. 

Hevs Km fa a continusl fever — he drinlu aa o(l«n » he finds 
wM«r, snd laps it — he requlrei about fifWa pauods of raw 
flesh in a dty — he rather hunt* for a Aresh spoil, itiaa returns 
to that he hftd before — hi« breath is ofieosirei and his ufine 
iiwupportabla — horses for banting theta of that sort called 
oharosei; all others fiy at the sight of him, ii. 3dS— the lioa 
prefer! the flesli of camels to otfaer food — is also £ond of ffaat 
of young elephants — when old, fiodiog men and quadrupeds 
together, he atUcks the latter, and never meddles with men, 
unless provoked — manner of copulation, time of gestation, 
number bntiight forth, and time taken to come to perfection, 
all known— a lion in the Tower of London above seventy years 
— the lioness, feaiing her retreat discovered, hides her tracks, 
by running back, or brushing them out with her tail— be- 
comes tembla with yomig ones to provide for — Jions, incitod 
by desire, fight bloody battles ti" oce becomes victorioua 
over the rest — the size of the lion between three and four feet ; 
the female in all dimeoaibns about one'third less— there are 
properly no lions in America; the^utmi has received the nams 
of the AmeriMn' lioH, bttt, wheo compared, m a very contemp- 
tible animal. ¥)*. 

Lion-ant, described, vL ?. 

Liim-cat, or Angora-oai, a beautiful animal, a native of Syria or 
Persia, ii. S9a 

Lion-Hog, described, iii. 13. 

Lion, (sea) described in Anson's Voyages, regarded as the largest 
of the seal family, iii. 265. 

Lipidofnu, (he gatter-iish, ita deKr»ption, v. I2S. 

Ltps, those of the hare and the iifuirrd continually move, whe* 
ther sleeping or waking, iU. 118. 

Lithopkytei, and coralline substances, vi. 193. 

lAtter$, in all animala, intefmediate litters most fruitAil ; fif^t 
and last generally produce fewest and weakest of th^ kind, 
iL 167. 

Liver of a shark affiirds three or four quarts of oil, v. 75- 

LizardM, along the coasts ^ Guinea their flesh esteemed a deli- 
cacy, iii. ^^-diSer from every other class of Hnimals, and 
frmn each other— whence the greatest distinction — general 
characteristics, v. 286 — the water kind changes its skiti every 
fourth or fifth day — sprinkled with salt, the whole body emits 
a viscous liquor, end the heard dies in three minutes, in greet 
, agonies— the whole of tbe kiod sustain the want of food jn a 
surprising manner, 314, 315. 

Lizard, (Ck^ddtUmJ of Aldro«andus, described, v. 323. 

Lizard, (Flying) of Java, bcconnt of it by Geo til, v. S23. 

Loach, tbe description of t^ fish, v. 129. 

Lobtter, vet'y voracioM) though without warmth in its body, or 
red blood in its veins — whatever it se^Ees upon, and has Rfe, ■ 
perishes, however twQ defended — Uiey devour each otber, 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 

ind. In fome neuurei est themselTes ; cfaanglsg tbeir Aelt 
and itomach erery year, the old Btomach is the fint monet 
to ^Int the new— at fint aistit, tbe head rosy be niutaken fat 
tile tail — Hi descripdon— tne fcwd of the young, the tnoultjne 
■eason — hov they chaDge their rtiells— ti^ny die under this 
operation — speedy erovtli of the ncwriien; and of itself after 
the change — the clawH of nnequal magnitude, and why — at 

, certain Reasons they never meet without an en^gemeat-^ 
wonden this extraordinsry creature oflera to imaginatran — are 
endowed with a vital principle, that furnishes out such limbs 
as hart been cut away— varieties of this animal with diSerences 
in the clawi, little in the habits or conformation — the shell 
black when taken, but turns red by boiling — common way of 
t^log tbe lobster, v. 163. 

Locust, the great brown locust seen in several parts of England 
in 1746 ; m some soutbeni kingdoms they are still formidBble 
•—description of this Insect — in what manner they take the 
field— their devastations — are still more nosious when dead- 
instance of it— account of their devastations in Russia, Poland, 
Lttbuasiat and Barbary— transformations— eaten by, the na- 
tives in many Idngdoms of the East ; and caught in small nets 
for that pnrpose — their taste— are considered as a great deli- 
cacy in ToDqoin, by tbe rich and the poor— must have been 
a common food with the Jews— description of Ae great IVett 
Indian locust, the most formidable, vi. 20. 

Zoir, the greater dormouse, so called by M. BuSbn, iii. 1 77* 

tiongeviltf, persons remark^le for it, IL 6S. 

Lon, the longest of all animals, in proportion to it* Bi£e^le> 
scriptim — a native of tbe island of Ceylon, in. S19. 

Loricaria, description of this fish, v. 128. 

Lories, » kind ofparrot, iv. 215. 

Louse, its description — whether diatingnished by the parts of 
generation into males and females, not yet discovered — the 
toosy disease frequent among the ancients, v. 413. 

louse, (Wood) tbe description — of great use in medicine, v.^SS. 

Lstmsnow appearance of tne wav^ in the night, the cause, i. 207. 

Lump^h, Its description — flung into a pail of water, will stidc 
aocloae to the bottom, that on taking the fish by tbe tail, the 
pail and several gaUona of watn may be lUted— 4heir ftesb, 
V. 107. 

Lut^s, animals before birtb make no use of Ibeir lungs, iii. 258. 
.-caterpillars have eighteen luiigs, and live several days in tbe 
exhausted recover ofthe air-pump, vi. 5S. 
• Z^fbiot its inhabitants use ostriches as horses— also at Joar— 
instance of it at tbe factory of Fodore, iv. IT. 

I^hmja, a serpent of Surinam, tbirty-^ix feet Innv, v. S36. 

i^oM, distinguished from the ounce, and descrnwd— fint strik- 

~ ins distinction between it and thoM ofthe pantber-kud is tlte 
tau—eich bair of this animal is trf* t)u«e difierent coloan — 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

I NI> E & 

fboot the lize of tbe ounee-^^cbieflj met with In cold northent 
COUQtries — those of the new contioeDt are imaller than in 
Europe — formerly called iuput cemarius, but for what reaeoa 
hard to guess — m its nature it exactly resembles the cat, it 
bi^er, and near two feet long, is also bolder and fiercer — it 
more delicate tbaa the cat — re&erables the wolf in nothing, 
except its cry— several reports of the lynx, propagated by 
ignorance or imposture, ii. 429. 

MacagHo, a kindftf mqnkey described by M. BuSod, iii. 312* 
Macav, the large kind of parrot, the size of a Raven, iv. 215> 
Machinet, the invention of many has reiujered human streagUi 

lesa valuable, i. iS7. • 
Jdackarel, produces five hundred thousand fggs in one season, 

V. 21— described, 123. 
MoiJneM produced by ifantof sleep, ii. II— cured by music, and 

also caused by it, 38. ' . 
MaeUtraom, Dutch name for a whirlpool, one upon the coast of 

Norway, considered as most dreadful aud aestructive — the 

body of water forming this whirlpool, extended in a circle of 

above thirteen miles, i. 223. 
Magellan, ^Ferdinand) a Portuguese of noble extraction, first 

discovered the gigantic race of mankind, in 1520, towards 

the extremity of South America— 'account of this discovery — 

be was slain upon one of the Molucca islands, ii. 107. 
Magot of BaSon, the CynoCephalut, the last of the ape kind— its 

Ascription, iii. 2!)2. 
Ma^iie thievish ; rings found in the nest of a tame magpie, iv. 

iTl-^sbiEs and food — when satis Bed for the present, it l«y) 

up the .remainder for another tiiue—plBccB where it builds, 

and nests, described — number of eggs— in its domestic state, 

preserves its natural character strictly -^ foolish custom oi 

cutting its toDgue to teach it to speak, puts the animal to 

pain, and baullcs the intention, 183. 
itamon, the last of the baboons, Edwards calls it the pigtail — 

its description— native of Sumatra, does not well endure the 

rigours of our climate, iii. 299. 
Maire, (James Le) a traveller who confirms the existence of 

giants in America, ii. 109. 
Maki, their description — many dlETerent kinds of tbese animaltf, 

iii. 317, Ac. 
Idatacopterigii, the barbarous Greek name given to the soft-finned 

fish; the prickly-Gnned sort termed AcanHu^Oerigii, v. 120. 
iiaibroidt, a monkey of the ancient continent — its description — . 

the Bramins have hospitals fur such as are sick, qr disabled, 

iii. 313. 

X 2 

I;. L.oogic 

I M U £. A. 

■MtMraMhe, ground lA besutilfal tlieory of Mdnttrmb pro^hc- 
tioiu upon a ftmoiu instfmce delated by him ; ttoA Bome 
theory from which he dedooH the effect of imaginatlob upiHi 
the ftetus, ii. 96. 

Mailard, t kind of dack. n, 411. 

s fhmoiu experiment npon the ttigmata of c^r- 

fatpighi, his 
pillars, yi. 5'. 

Mammouth, its tuiki, which are uted »% ivory, and scppoied to 
belong to the elephant, often wei^ four hundred pounds, iii. 

Afait, endures a greater variety of climates than the loner orders 
of animals are able to do, and why, i. 264 — differences in his 
species len than in animals, and rather taken ftota the tinctare 
of the skin than variety of figure — there are not in the Worid 
above «ix distinct vanetiea in the race of men~fint race in 
the polar regions, deep brown, short, oddly shaped, aavage 
—second, the Tartar race, olive coloured, middle sized, ug^, 
robust— third, the southern Asiatics, dark ative, stender tbaped, 
■trait black hair, feeble — fourth, the negroes of Amea, 
black, amootb skin, woolly hair, well shaped — fifth, d» Ame- 
ricans, copper colour, strait black hair, small eyes, sl^bt 
limbed, not stmng^sixth, the Europeans and bordering db- 
tions, white of diHerent tints, fine hair, large limbed, vigo- 
rous, ii. 71— njay be called the animal of every climate, i. 
S52 — white men resemble our common parent more thaa the 
rest of bis children— a native of the tropical ch'mates, And 
only a sojourner more to the north, according (o LinascoB^ 
arguments sufficient to prove the contrary, ii. 9S— as than 
has a superiority of powers over other animals, so is he jn^ 
portioDsbly inferior to th^m tn his necessities — nature has 
made him subject to more wants and infirmities than other 
creatures: but all these wants seem given to multiply the 
number of his enjoyments — and in vbat manner, S-^first sbn- 
. sations of a man newly brought into existence, and the steps 
by which he arrives at reality pointed out by M. BuSbn, 5S— 
the only animal that supports himself perfectly erect— man'* 
feet also different from those of other animals, the apes Dot 
excepted — the nails less in man than in any animal — said to be 
tall when from five feet eight inches to six ftet high, i. im- 
probability that men have been, in all ages, much of the sBme 
size they are lU present — many corroborating proofs of this, 
>i. .112 — generally live to ninety or a hundred years, if not 
cut off by diseases — how men lived so much longer in eariler 
times thao at present, 64— proportiooably stronger for bis 
aisee than any other animal — to compare the strength of a lion 
with tbot of man, it must be considered the claws of the ani- 
mal give a false idea of its power ; and ascribe to its Ibrce ttie 
efiects of its anns— another manner of comparing the strepKtb 
of man with that of ananala, ia by the weighta wbidi eimr 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

I N D E X. 

i ' i«adn Mfoj'— Dr. DMignKan gpaa fc a of ■ man able to mIk two 

. raltt^dtana pounds, hy dinributbg the wetghu in such tnaimer 

. -tfeat every part of bii body bo{0 lli share, i. 4>S1— -exercised 

^'■o vn^iD^, outstrips hnrseB; a stout walker, in a joumej, 

f ^roUtsdewtiahorse — thoseeroployedasmeEsenKers at Ispahan, 

io Feraia, runners ^y profbttion, go thirlv-six leaguea iu fonr- 

; te«n hours, 43S— every animal andures the want of sleep and 

tiunger with less injury to heatlh thab man— he caanot, uniu- 

, inrmi, lise four days without eating, drinking, and sleeping, 

11. 2— one said to live without food for seven days— requires 

.'. vle«T>,foR dodbte motives, the refrediqent:' of the mental aa 

well a« the bodily frame, 9 — a young man deaf and dumb 

' froas hia tairtb, Icnew nothing of death, and never thought of 

. it tilt the age of twentyifour, when he beg«n to speak all of a 

sodden, 44 — in those couttlrlos where 'm«n are most barba- 

' vous and stupid, there brufes are most aclive and sagactqus, 

, iii. ftll— ona without l»nds or legs, by practice, used hia 

stumps for the most convenient purposes, and performed 

' ksianiahing foats of dexterity, 8S9— mAn ika iirider wounds 

, whicb a quadruped or a bird eoutd easily survive, vi. 1?6. 

Manatij may indiscriminately be the last of beasts, or the firat 

- of fiahea— its description— the female has hrea^ts placed for- 

«r^rd, like those of womcQ — the tongue so short, some have 

' pvelBoded it has nnue-^never entirely leaves the water, raly 

; stdvaDcee the head out ^ thb stresm, to Kdch the grass on the 

riversides — Itfted^oBtirely on vegetables — plattec where foniid 

- <^— grpae among turtlea and other crustaceoua flshee, giving or 

' fe&ring no distuTbance— Unmolested, they keep tdgether in 

, large catnpanies, and uirrOund their youne^^brfng forA in 

. autumn j and supposed to go with young eighteen months — 

themanali has no voice nor cry — its intestines are longer in 

' proportion than those of any other creature, the horse ex- 

«eipted-'-the fot which liefe under the skin, eitposed to the son, 

hu a fine smelt and taste, and exceeds the fat of any sea 

animal — the heat of the sun does not make it rancid ; it tastes 

' Hke the oil of sweet almonds, and serves every way inatead of 

butter; any qaantity may be taken inwardly, having no other 

cfiect than to keep the body open — the fat of the ttdl, boiled, 

Bdore delicate than the former — the lean takes a long time m 

boiling, and eats like beef, the ht of the vo^ng ^^'^ fottc, 

and the lean like veal. ill. 266, 267. ,j.„ 

JtfMCiMM^m, its shade fctal, i. 270— no m" «* *» %tv^ '«**' 

**•***• ^'^ \™i-V»^^ 

Mo«M th« iMgeat of the baboon kin^ ^ Xrt»«^^'!^X*i°***^'' 
displeased weeps like a child— is a Uav^"\\* *, i)o* vo-v«' 

iii.298. "VC^ 0^. «»^'»«^ 

ifowsisy, a monkey of die ancient k^ *Q /^ 

in. 313. ^^V VvV 

Mairit, 01 tntctm, dweriMi, lii. «l^ 


MioMtifiuhaw, (be woollai nuaafsctore not esnied on here liS 
Mv«ral agn after tbeep were pvapaeated in EnglaDd~«n- 
Availiog effbrta of our Kings to introduce and preaene it^ 
tha IFleaiBgi powewe*! the art in a lupmor degree — the bh 

, hibitantt or the Netheriandi iflitprored m in this art, and 
when — the wooUen muiu&eture luppoied for loroe time 
decajing amongat ui— received every encouragement fiom 

Queen £li>at>eth, a. 253 of staU of the wool of the 

pacoa, a conaideaUa brancli of coanmtrce in South America, 

iSarauitu, Ibdr compodtion— -experimeot by way of ftoot^ L 

Mam, their expoctation prohibited by a law In Arabia, ii. 181 
— Ituda in Peraia of ten thousand mite naret, with hooft so 
bard that riioeiDg is unnecessary, 183 — a law in Encland, 
prohibiting the exprntation of aMreaand stidlions; and one 
similar to diii obtained so early as the tinea ot Atbelstan, 

Marikina, a monl^ of the si^cHn kind, wMi a mMe round tbo 
nedc, and a bunch of hare at the end of the tail, Ulie a Iwra, 
iii.SJ6. . 

idanmtte, only diHers in site from the opoBstnn, being less; 
instead of the bag to reoeiTe the young, las oidy two iMigilu- 

-, dinal folds, within trhich (be prenuiture yoong cotUurae to 

. suck— when first produced not abon the eiee of a bean; 
but slick to the teat antil they arrive at maturity, iii. S87. 

MarmoiU, or Marwotte, a native cf the Alps— its descriptioD— 

, ii easily iamed, readily taught to dance, wield a stick, and 
obey the voice of its master — it hes ta antipathy to the dog, 

. — ftfength and agility— tudiorous skying that the Savoj^rds, 
the only chimney-sweepers of Paris, have" learned their sit 

. from the marmotle they cmry about for show— is apt to gnaw 
the furniture— Hri her afieetions of this anhnal— its food— ii 
cleanly, but has ft disagreeable scent— .-sleeps during winter— 
form of its Iiole resembles the letter Y— manner of making 
it — they live together, and work in common to make their 
habitations snug and convenient — when they venture abroad, 
one is placed as a centinel upon alofly rock—M, Buffim txjt 
it does not sleep during winter, is rather in a torpor, s 
Btngnation of all Acuities— its heat not more thikn ten degrees 
above congelation— the flesh said to have a wild taste, and 
to cause vomiting — countries where it is fbuod-i-iDbabitaob 
of the Alps do not till winter open its hole— producen bat 
once a year, and brings forth three or four at a time— tfaey 
grow fast, and their lives' are not above nine or ten yeara, m. 

Marron, (spinal,} .and the brain, the first seen as began ia 
the embryo, ii. 20, 

Martin, its description, tbe most bemitful «t all Br itiib b«aaU «i 

rfume^-the yellow-bmuted mair- 
3* than the white-breEu^ed sort — M. 
Bttfibn MippoHt them a dlitinct *pecie«, that distlDcUon un- 
■ HKCMUv — of oil the weawl-kbd ths most pleasing, iii. 87 
— rawmble* the ernuns and polet^t, and like them ii fond of 
iMoey, 79— seldom meets the wild cat without a combat- 
wild cat not * match for the martin— kept tame bj Gesaer 
and M. Buffiia— often slept for two days, and then was two 
01 three dan without sleeping — the yellow-breoated more 
common in France than England — m their retreat the female 
brings forth her young, three or four at a thne — and they 
come with the eyes closed — how she compensatea for her 
deficiency of nilt— thii animal oiore common in North Ame- 
rica than in Europe— fotmd in all northern p&rta of the wprldt 

- from Siberia to China and Canada— in every cauntry hunted 
£ir their lurt, very valuablct and chiefly so when taken ia 
the beginning of winter — one part of iu skin mott esteemed- 
twelve thousand of these sking annually imported into England 
from Hudson's bay, and thirty thousand from Canada— small 
birds alans the spot wbere the dam keeps her young, and 
direct the hunter in his pursuit, SS, &c. — its nest generally the 
tenement of the squirrel, taking possession, and killing the 
owner— the white-breasted keeps near houses and villages; 
the yellow keeps in woods, leads a savage life, 141 — seizes also 
the flying-squirrel, 146- 

Martin, a bird of the swallow-tribe, iv. 270. 

Mamm, cats excessively fond of this plant, ii. 336. 

Mai^, one of the three descendants of the shepherd's dt^— 
chiefly a native of England ; when transported into Den- 
nurlc becomes the litUe Danish dog, iii. 11 — the Dutch 

iUtt^^fitx, second variety of foxes, less than the greyhound-fox, 
andstronger than the cur-fox, iii. £1. 

Maturity/, attained to by slow steps, announces a slow march to 
old age— as true in other animals as ia men and vegetd}lea, 
ii. 62— sooner arrived at in India than In Europe, r " ' 

Maw, in fishes poBsesses the power of digesting, v. 1 1 . 

Maxmin, (the Emperor) aprodigyofstrength — several 

of it— by birth a Thracian ; from being a simple herdsman 

he rose by the gradations of office, until he ceme to bo 
Emperor of Rome, was above nine feet in height, and the best- 
pcoportioned man in the empire — was killed by his own sol- 
aiera while sleeping, i, 436. 
Afay-iu^, or Z>orr-6eeiA;, described, vi. 144. SeeBeeilt.- 
MaAamtm, which regulates the number of bur years, admits Dp 
change in its laws, and can be a&cted only by long fostiog, or 
great excess, ii. 64. 
MedttMro^ tbe brau hdniet dug up there fitt a comnuNi tata, vat 


' U B&ovcd to b$m been left thers it tha vfCfihraw of 
Aidnibal, ii. 112. 

Mediterranean tea, always TeG«i*ing and nevar dudurging 
' water, is ao irsy fuller than b^ore — in what manBer toine 
account fgr this, i. £19— wBter-spouts seen id it- 
of them by Tournefort, 354— ■olutioos offared for thia p 
menon by M. BuSbn aod Dr. Stewart, 986 — thia sea one of 
the smootbeat and most gentle in the world, 222., 

Medxsa, name given by Linnsus to a aauU tasect, thoogfat the 

' simple food of the gr«ot Greenland whale— 'WalfisdKMia, the 
name given ta it by the Icelanders, v. 39, 112. 

Membrane, the nictitating membrane in birds— veils tbe eye at 

' pleasure, whilst the eye-lid caoliBBGs opea, iv. 7- 

Menstruumt that body which is moK- fluid and penetrating, is 
likely to be the oMostruum of one leas so— Marriotte'a ex- 
periment shows that water will act as a menstruum upon aii^— 

' cold diminishes th& force of iDeastruuaw, and oflea prcHnoles 
evaporation, i. SH. 

Merlin, the smallest of the hawk or falcon kind, scarce larger 
than a thrush, displays a degree of courage rendering him 
formidable to birds far above his liae-^-killi a partridge or a 
tjuail at a single pounca from above, iv. 9^ 

Metals, tbe richest, in theif native state, less glittering and 

' splendid than useless marcasites, i. 64^tbo8e tradea that deal 
in their preparations, always unwholesome, 269 — all pieces 
swallowed by animals lose part of ^eic weight, and ofiea tbe 
extremities of their figure, iv. 41. 

Meteori, between the tropics, and near the poles, assuow 
dreadful and various appearances, i. 32S — in those coun- 
tries where the sun exerts the greatest force in raising 
vapourE, there are the greatest quantity of roeteon, S24 

• — one of a very uocommon kind' seen by Ulloa, at Quito* 

Method, the principal help- in natural history ; without it little 
progress made in thia science, ii. 130 — the most applauded of 
classiog animals, 134— the aulhor's method of dusing them, 
139— that of describing all things hy words alone, a fault that 

' has infected most of our dictionaries, and bodies of arts aod 

' sciences— Mr. Locke has observed, that tbe drawii^ of an 
animal, taken from life, is the best method of advancing in* 
lural history, 144. 

Mew, said of ^taga when they cast their heads, ii. 312. . 

Mico, the least and most beautiful monbey of the sagwn kind- 
its description by M. La Condamine, iii. S16. 

Microscope, increases tbe magnitude of an object, and that of its 
motion also, i. S6I — the pupil and humoiira of the eye of tbe 
mole discovered by it, iii. 191. 

M^almg (Fiebea), the beiriBg tnd tbe pildard take tlw Maat 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

ITU D E X. ' 

BdrenbmHiB ^age*— stated retnint, ud r^lar progrcn <rf 
tfa« migtatuig 6Aot, on» of the "Kxt extnordii^i; drcum- 
■toncei in the history of nature, V. 136. 

Uligtmlion, flautea of naigmioat of birdo-*-in what manner thc^ 

: pnf^rm tbesa— at mat tknca— 4«lher follow weather than 

. <coujat>yi and go.' on ■• ther porc«tTe the atmosphere more 

nitaUB to ikev wants and nispoHl ions— migration of soma 

swallows, and retreat of others into old wfdls, to avoid the 

- ngoor rfwiairt, wrap this sabject in great obscurity, iv. S4— 

' al' baea i^iparal signs prenous to it, vi. L05. 

MSk, iafaMs have it in their own breasts, i. S91— srnnetimea 
fbuod in the breasts of men, as wcdl as in those of wonien, 

. 49t— -in camiTOPODs aniai«lsr mote aparing than in others, ii. 
168— of goats, medicinal, and not apt to curdle npoo the 

. aMaach, as that of thaoows, 26Si— of the rcin<jdeer, tbinna* 

■ th|M that of tbo cow, but sweeter, and more nourishing, 347 
.— boilad ttp wjtb wnod-sorrel, by the Laphinders, kept in 
casks under ground, to he eaten in winter, S58— injected 
■imto a Tew, krils inth more cevtaincy than the venom of a 
▼itar, V. a»7. 

Mittiftdn nnilliptied being cut in fweces, i. 96S> 

MUo, an instance of his strength, i. 436. 

MStoK makes Satan personate the cormorant, s most nauseoua 

' bird— objaetiots agatiiat bin on this account — his vindication, 

Mi*er»it mere inactiTe and insensible bodies, i. 348. 

Uiaert fint beconia paralytic,- then die consumptive, for the 
trifling reward of seven pence a day, i. 68 — peculiar contriv- 
ance to supply light for their operations — make use only of 
wooden instruments in dig^ng, and take out the nails from 
tbeir shoes, before tbey enter (Jie mine, 70> 

itfMiat, that at Cotteburg in Hungary, three thousand feet deep, 
i. 46 — a coal-mine in the North of England, said to be eleven 
hundred yards deep, 64 — air different in Ihem, proportionably 
as the maga«nes of fire lay nearer the centre—other causes 
of this ^i&renoe — Msndip lead.mines in Somersetshire— 
tbeir descr^t ion— mines of coa) generally less noxious than 
those of tin ; tin than those of copper ; ' but none are so dread- 
fully destructive as those of quicksilver— deplorable infirmi- 
ties of workmen in the mines near the village of Idra, 65— 
■oetallic, often dettn^ all vcgaUtton by their volatile corro- 
sive fiim o a -salt mines natunuly cold— natives of countries 
abounding in mines, loo often experience the noxious effects 
of tbeir vicini^, 96d— in a tead-mine in Flintshire were found 
two grinding-teetb, and part of the tusk of an ei^hant, at 
for^-Wo yarda depth, iii. M6. 

MiMgnUoni, amoag ibe sixth variety of the human species, 
daseribad, ii. 85. 

Mint, cats exceMweljr ftad ^ifat «at«te, ii. 8M* 

L, . l;,L>OO^IC 

Mirt-^tatt th« btttan, described, iv. S1& See Bitterm. 
Mitletoe, a plant thought pri^agated by weds voided by birdf, 
ir. 248. 

Mveral parts of the body, in the regieoe round the poln* SSI. 

Mmme, a r»er m America— enormoui akrielou lately diwoVaied 
near it, iu. S56. 

Mod-bird, descriptioti of the American mot^-btrd— itt fadiita— 
an OMume the tone of ever^ aniinal in the ireod, from the 
volf to the ravra — no bird m the forest it ha* Dot at tiroes. 
deceived by minuckiog its call, It. 254. 

MaektuM, neteon and other pheDomena in the nortlHra 
reg^Oflfl, u SS4. 

Moeoeo, fint of the niBki*kiad, which ia the laat of the laoatitt 
— itg description— a natiTe of Mfdacasca^— ita qualitiea, iiL 
SIS — eala its own tail, end leenw to &el no pain- -1001^ Other 
monkiei do the same, 997. 

Mould, black, or gardeB-earth, the first layer on the soriace of 
the globe — is formed from animal and regetable bodies deciyed 
— soil fertile, in proportion to the quantity that putrefied mouU 
bears to the grafelly mixture, i. 47> 

Mole, DO quadruped fatter, none with a more aleelc, gloa^ akin 
—an utter stranger in Ireland— formed to live under the earth 
—its description— the ancients, and some modems, of opiniOOi 
that the mole was blind ; but Derham, by a microscnp^ di^ 
covered all the parts c^ the eye known m ether an u nala— fc 
mole let looae in the midst of a field, like a ghost on s 
theatre, instantly sinka into the earth ; and an active laboartf, 
with a spade, pursues it in vain — peculiar adrantage of the 
smtdlness of its syes— when once buried in the earth, it seldom 
stirs ouU-it chooses the looser, soiler grounds chiefly preys 
upon worms and insects— is most active, and casts up most 
earth immediately before rain, and in winter before a thaw 
—in diy weather, it seldom forma tiillocks^readily evades 
the pursuit of animals stronger and swifter than ilaelC— its 

greatest calamity ia an innodation — in some placea considered 
y the fanner as bis greatest pest — coiqiles towards spring, 
and the young found about the beginniw of Hav— ^eneral^ 
four or five at a time— description «tf the mole>Iiill, in which 
the female has brought forth oer young— is scarc^ found, 
except in cultivatedcountries— the varieties are but few— that 
of Vuginia is black, niized witfa a de^ pnrple-~that ei Poland 
is white — Agricola says he saw hats made of nole-skiDa, the 
finest Bod moat beauuful imaginably iiL 189. 
Mauitiag, annually sufiered by birds — its ^EIbcIb — artificially ac- 
celerated, and bo«r-r-the manner in which nature perfonnatha 
operation, iv. 14^— tbe season commonly obUua fiva* IbB 
cad of susaDMr to tbenudd^«rautuiiiit| 16> 

I;. L.oogic 

,1 NDE X. 

Uonti, the C^woFtlie uicieDte, i raonkej' (^the UcieDt con* 
dnent— iu description, lii. SIS. 

MongooK, of the maki kind, the iMt of the monkiet^iti deicrip- 
tioD— ii a natiTC of HadagMcar, iii. 91S. 

Monkey, ihvf M>iiietiinei fall a prey to ibe lioa in dewrts and 
fnteits, ii. 400— one general deacription wilt not Mrre for all 
the aninali of the monkey Idml, iii. S77— La Condamtne 
aiMrti it would take up a Tolume to deicribe the diffigreacee of 
nookin found aloof the river-of Aniazoai ; and we are sure 
that every one of these ii di^rent from tbo§e on the African 
eoai^ - aa riatxmOe description of each muit be uaelesi and 
tireMtnw. their numbers being very great, and tbeir difovncea 
very trifling— those of two cantou nefer found to mix— of 
•11 kinds less than the baboon, hare less power of doing mis-- 
chief, and their ferocity diminiibes with their si» e do nothing 
dasirod without beaiii^; tbeir faars once wmored, tbey are 
Ibe most insolcat, headstrong uiiiD^ m nature— m their 
BKlire wDods, are the pelts of other amm^ and the masters 
of the fiirett where tbey reri de t he tiger or the lion will not 
Teature to dispute dominion witii oreaMres, who, from the 
tops of trees, with impunity carry on an oftnsiva war, and 
by tbeir ag^ty aseape ail pnnuit— «irds have not less to fiur 
firam tbeir continual deprcdatitms ; snch bang their petulant 
delight In miacliief, that tbey ffing the eggs against the ^ound, 
wfeM wantitv appetite to derour them— one only antmal in 
the fonatventurea to oppose tfaam, that is the serpent — larger 
snakes <Aen wind np the trees where they reside, and hap- 
penii^ to surprise them sleeping, swallow them whole, before 
tbey can maLe defence— they generally inhabit the tops of 
trees,aad the snakes ding, to the branches nearer the bottom; 
in this manner they are near each otiier, like enemies in 
the wme field of battle— some supposed tbeir vicinity rather 
argued mutual friendship, 299, &c.— father Labat has seen 
them playing their gambols upon those branches on which the 

' \BDakea were reposing, and jumping over them without re- 
ceiving any injury- tbey provoke the uake, as the sparrows 
twitter atacat— irtien attacked, tiiey show p«fe(A skill in 
defending and assistiDg each otb»— they regularly begin hos- 
tililies against those who enter their woods— tbey take most 
deaperate leaps, and seldom come to the ground — one being 
wounded, the rest come round, put their fingers into the 
wound, as desirous of sounding its depth — the blood flowmg 
in any quantity, some atop it, while others get leaves, chew, 

- and thrust them into the opening— are often killed in num- 
b«n before tbey make a retreat, with the same premnitation 
M they at first came on— in this retreat the young are aingiag 
to the back of the female, who jumps away, seemingly un- 

iwnbanmed by the bunbm—Muw way of taking them aUve— 


1 n jj c JL. 

the mbnkay, nol kfllad outrigktt Aoet not All ; hot, cUuging t» 
tome braach, contiDues, whan dead, tta l«st grasp, and re- 
inaiii* wfcore ihot, vnlil it diopt bv putrefiKUoa — iKimiecl aoA 
KTved up at Degro-feaati, to like a child, an Europaaa is 
Aockad at the aighl— the nagraea seeing EuropMoa buy joung 
and tama oaankiea, with eqml care broughl rate to iha ftelan 

e greatly diM)p«nted a 
' camprehend advantagi 
iHunuB, who eeoM in eoinpwica to lay watte 

—atgtoM caaaot compreheitd advantaget ariting from edocat- 

fieldt of corD or rioe, or plantaliona of tugar-eaaet — thej 
eany off «hal ttiey are able, and destroy ten tinea nors— 
raanneT of tbeir plundering— are under a kind of ditctpline, 
•xerciaed among tbenwehes— 4WCoimt to this purpoae by 
MMgrare— one species, by M. Bufbn, called tbe ouarine, 
remaikaUs fiir l(Hulneat and distiqetncss of voice—use to 
wltioli th^ convert it~tre generally t<^tlMr in companies, 
niarcb in exact ocder, and obey the voice of tome tAieftain, 
laaaarkable for hia sue and gravity— chief ibod of the trib^ 
extraordinary aaanner of managing an oyster, SOS, Sec — 
manner of diravii^ erabs from the waler— no snare, however 
nicely baited, takes a monkey of the West-Indian islmds— 
female brings forth one, and sametimet two, at a time— rarely 
breed when brought into £urop^-tbe male and jbroidfi never 
tired of fondling tbeir young, and instruct it witii no little aa< 
siddty-^vften severely correct it, if ttubbom, or disinclined 
to prwt by their exampl»--:-asaniier of carrying their young 
■ in tbe woods— dexterity in patnng from one tree lo enotber, 
by forming a kind of chain, locking tail in tail, or hmd in 
hand — one anaused itself for hours imposing nprni tbe grflvi^ 
of a cat, and idaying itspranka among rabbita — feithnil ser- 
vices which father Carii received from tbe monkist in Ang(da, 
where he went to convert the savage natives lo Christianity— 
aavi^es of Africa and America eumiotB monkiet te be Bien ; 
idle, slodiful, rational beings, capable of speech and conver- 
sation, but olistinately dumb, ftar fear of Ming compelled to 
labour— monkies of Africa most expert and entertaioin^— 
show a greater degree of cunning and activity— three marki 
by which monkies of tbe new continent are diitinguisbed from 
those of the old — M. Buffim makes but nine species of 
monkies belonging to the ancient continent, and eleven to the 
aew— their names, with their descriptions— the red Affiean, 
the patoM, second tort of the ancient continent— the wAtle 
now or mouHoc, of the ancient continent, most beautiful ; its 
description— the iTfen of St. Jaffo, also called o^atrix, tsof 
the ancient continent — its datcnption— some of the kind eat 
their own tail, and seen to feel no pain— -the Bramina bare 

hospitals for tboae that hH>pen to be'tiok, or 

monktea of tbe new, cmtiDant with mutculw biding t 


' are ctdletl nipsJoUSt fi^ thote with ftbble uselen nlh, at<e 
oAled sagoiiw— thejfei:-*ttfi™f monkey— -rftoAiw, ihe last rf the 
kfnd— tiKtr descriptiofij iii. SOB. 

Monkey-besoar, a fJiotltfons concrete, ii. 282. See Betoan 

WaitMvlas, the iirboretoettt trateF'-flea — its deMription — are of a 
Uood-Ted colcur ; and mmetlmeB in such mattitudeg on stand- 
ing waten, as to make ihein appear ^1 eVer red, whence the 
water has been -thought turned into bloAd— its branching arms, 
and thfe tuotion made ti^Ai them'in the water, deserve great 
attenliAn, v. 437. 

lUonKMts, BO called from a fhoious pilot of tfiat nftme, who first 
med them in navjgtnitth #ith success— in the ocean between 
AfHca and India, HtoM t^ the east winde begin in January, 
and end at the commencement of June ; in August, or Sep- 
tember, the conttftry takes place; and the west winds blow 
for three or four months, i. 287 — monsoons prerafl, at difcrent 
MBsbits, throughout the Indies, 308. 

Monstrous productions, father Malebranche's ingenious theory of 
—•^markable instance related by him, ii. 96, 

JHooK-deer, name in- America for the rik — its description, ii>SS6- 

Momtyrua, description of this fish, v. 129. 

Moron, a kind of salamander, tiiought venoniotis, t. 31!. 

Morse, an (tnimal of thfe seal kind, might be ranked ambng 
fishes, ii. 149 — gener^y frequents the same ptnces where 
seals reside— dfSerent from the rest in a very particular forma- 
tion of the teeth — resembles a seal, encept thai it is much 
larger.— are rarely found, but in the frozen regions neOr the . 
FoK — formerly more numerous than at present — the Green- 
landers destroyed them more before those seas were visited by 
European ships upon the whale fishery, than now—its teeth 
generally from two to three feet long — the ivory more esteemed 
wan that of the elephant— the fishers have formerly kflled 
three or four hundred morses at once ; their bones are still 
King in prodigioos quantities along those shores they chiefly 
fi^quented, iii. 266. 

Moschitoes, excessive tnmients caused by theb— houses forsaken 
OB their account, i. 123. 

Most, the only support of the rein-deer in Lapland— of two sorts, 
whitG and black, ii. 345. 

Mother-of'pearl, taken fVom the pearl oyster, v. 343. 

Mo^, di&rence from butterflies, vi. 72— al! the tribe of female 
moths lay their eggs soon aAer they leave the aurelia, 75. 

Motion, keeps the water of the sea Sweet, i. 201 —destroys num- 
bers of viler creaturra, 20^— constant motion of the waters of 
tb^sea westward, 216— principal difierences between serpen- 
tine and vermicular motion, v. 342 — some vegetables possessed 
of motion, vi. 169 — and many animals totally without it— in 
what manner animals of the worm kind move, 172. 

H«(^Ion, the sheep in a savage state- its description, ii. 258. 

■McwOttiMi, ruing from pUtsea aoce lereli i. 16'-givA diraetion 
to the counes of the air, S80 — how fonned, and ibr what de- 
■igned— upon our globe, conudered at aaglM ef taaXi lioes in 
the drcnmlereiice of a drclei 116— countries moat mouDtoin- 
ow, are moit barren and uninluibitable. 122— toeae valliea are 
. fertilised by earth waabed down from great hei^ta, 187— ths 
more extennve the mountain, the greater the river, 119— top» 
of the highest mountains bare and pointed, and why, ISO- 
tops of tand-mouDtains appear barren and rocky; of aea- 
mouotaini, Terdant and fruitful, 241— the higheat in Africa, 
those called ^the moon, giving source to the Niger and Nila 
in Africa, the greatest and higbeat under the line, 119 — some 
rise three miles perpendicular above the bottom of the ocean, 
122 — highest in Asia ; mount Caucasus makea near ap- 
proaches to the Andes, in South America, 128. 

Motite, the most feeble and most timid of all quadrupeds, ex- 
cept the Guinea-pig — never rendered quite familiar: though 
fbd in a cage, retains its apprehensions— iio animal has more 
enemies, and few so incapable of resistance^ — the owl, cat, 
make, hawk, weasel, and ra(, destroy them by millionsrr-brings 
forth at all seasons, and several times in the year ; its usual 
iramtwr from six to ten— these in a fortnight strong enough to 
sbifl for themselves— places where chie£^ found — Arutotle, 
having put a mouse with young into a vessel of corn, some 
time after found a hundred and twenty sprung Irom that ori- 
ginal — its life lasts two or tluee ye8r»— toe species found in 
all parts of the ancient continent, and tias been exported to 
the new — Gesner minutely d^cnbes the variety of nuMSe- 
t raps- long-tailed field-mouse — short-tailed field-mouse— baa 
a Store agaiost winter, a bushel at a time— a description of 
the shrew-mouse, iii. ^3, &c. 

Motutoc or WhUenote, monkey of the ancient csntioeot ; % 
beautiful little aoimal- its description, iii. 313. 

Xueoiu-Hguor, giving the joints an easy and ready ptay, u. 59. 

Mtmi, the mullet, description of this fish, v. 125. 

JUiHe, reputed barren, though Aristotle says it is sometime* pn^ 
lific, ii. 199-~engendered between a horse and A shse^us, or a 
jaok-ass and mare— iohabitants of mountainous couDtrtes can- 
not do without them — how they go down the precipices of tlie 
Alps and Andes— a fine mule in Spain worth fitly or sixty 
guineas — common mule veiy healthy— lives thirty yeaia ana 
more, 207. 

Mnlliu or SurmaUt, description of this fish, v. 124. 

fitiJtivahe (shells,) third division of shells by Aristotle, t. SD^- 
two principal kinds of multivalve ahell-fisii, movii^ and St^ 
Itonary, 247- 

JlfLmmy, fonnerly a considerable article in medicine— Paneus 
wrote a treatise on the inefficacy of mummy in phyuc— coon- 
terfetted by the Jews, and bow*— the method of aedting for 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 


■Mnamlet— Amnd in the roiidB of AnUs, In Egypt, ia iroodea 
coffitH, or in clotht corered with bitumen, ii. ISl^^enaarkable 
mummy dug up at Aurergne, in France, 125— «n injection 
of petreoleum inwardly, and a layer of aiphaltum without, 
■uffice to make a mumm^, 128. 
lUunena, the eel, its degcnptiau, v. 126. 
Mvrena of Uie ancients, v. 94. 
Museardin, name of the lesser dor.Riouse, by M; Buffim, iil. 

XttMcle, the *bell-fiih, its deacripti0D~-Jta oi^ns of generation 
are what most deserve to excite nor curiosity-^'it endeavours 
to become stationary, and to attach itself to any fixed object 
it happens to be near — ita enemies— it is suraxned that those 
threads, which are usually called the beard of the muscle, are 
the natural growth of the animal's body, and by no means 
produced at pleasure, as Reaumur supposes— its instrument of 
motion, hy which it contrives to reach the object it wants to 
bind itself to — it* food— some of this kind have been found 
a foot long— the native* of Palermo sometimes make gloves 
and stockings of its beards — the places where found—it re- 
quires a year for the peopling a muscle-bed, v. S32> 
MmtcUt, to judge 'of the strength of animals by the thickness of 
their muscles inconclusive, i. 437— 'the pectoral muscles of 
quadrupeds trifling, in comparison to those of birds— in qua- 
drupeds, as in man, the muscles moving the thighs and hinder 
parts are strongest, while those of the arms are feeble— in birds 
tbe contrary obtains, iv. 6— those of the shark preserve their 
motion after being separated from the body, t. 73- 
Mutamfduck or the JMusk-dttck, so called from its musky smell, 

iv. 4i2. 
MuHc, said by the ancients to have been invented from the blows 
of d^rent hammers on an anvil— from the remains of an- 
cient music, collected by Meibomius, one might suppose no- 
thing powerful in what is lost — in all countries where music 
is m its infancy, the half tones «re rejected — many barbarous 
Dadona have their instruments of music ; and the proportion 
between their notes is the sameas in ours— all countries pleased 
with music; and where they have not skill to produce har- 
mony, tbey substitute noise — its effects, the ancients give u* 
Buutf strange instances of them upon men and animals — and 
the modems likewise— madnes* cured by it — retnukable in- 
stance in Henry IV. of Demnaik— it is now well known that 
the stories of the bite of the tarantula, and its cure by music, 
are all deceptions— instance of it— fishes are allured by music 
— hones and cows Ukewiae, ii- S5 — the elephant appears de- 
lighted with music, iiL 337 — &ther Kircher has set the voices 
tf some birds to mnuc, iv. 111. 
Mtakt among the nnmeroo* medicines procurable from quadru- 
peds, none, except the uiiuk and hsrtahom, have preserYcd a 

L, ' h.L.oogIc 

: iaMg it bM a hogt aw *n,H -gati <r« fc(fr- ^n* wiitBri:so 
■jmtkf tibe--i«t)nw«b af nktmvl hitl wfa — m Aat'WtiMii bmn 
ttontuto— Hhasbaen wriou^'deMribe^ oMlik'InmwnverT 
imperfiwtl^— the descriptio* givM^^ 6ttw*'lfoftMrWteWgb 
requat as a petfatna ' ' h tw for Borc ihtnaoenMiT Bees In- 
fwrted ftom the BMt— fa a dwk^ nMM iMMluee, «he 
coagalMed blood— « «<•» *>f '>* yar ftu ft w a vtiole mwhiU- 
iu oddur cantinuea nt Aaya, trkfaoat diminuthxi, atidno 
— hai awg C knsmt haa k aifabger «t imbre j^itiirtim'fc AnritL. 
in larger quantity it contimMs for yean ; and acsarca mated in 
freight, aMai)^ it hn 'filM the atmoifilletc'ta a great^ifl- 

- Mnot vM) h* parti ->^t>w Itaga af nttric Aon tbmai avppmed 
to baling t» aone Mkt aaimei, or ttken A«m book pflrt of 
tfae saiDe, filled with ite Mood aad Moogd of fflK^-perlimw to 

• inpr^katie-tbe real " it «enes from China, Tonqim, Bengal, 
and ot^en from MuBcovy — that of Thibet reckoned the -teat, 

- oMl of Moaeovy Ae wortt, ii. 8Wi *e. 

Ah«<t-o^ on HCcoant eP, ii, {9S. 

Muii-rM, t^ee dntioctions of it, iif. 17fr-ft » railed -itadtard 

bythe sirttew of Catiaiia, ISO, 
MMtymiell, ane« nM makethie dmracWristicnariraofMylfiAd 

■ ofiaiMinali, ii.«44. 

J6timb» or Movffimt i^eofinblcs srHra,'ib^i!rieripH<m,n.958. 
MyoHUt, a fitaad, thtn riifnTorering' thO olrote bpp^ fbre^art 

M tii»4M>dy, ha eKct oii #oRien wlUi'tihikl; i. 4I9&. - 

.. K . ; 

^Dcfa, liow fin-med in man, i. 449-^hose of so»oe of *e Jelnied 
men in Chhra longer than tfteit fin^era— Mvagea that let ^em 
grow )o«g, me thm 'm flaying ai i ii nal M, 4S7> 

f/uftehat, the »ea^fticom-^fta deScHotiM— «mrs Gbncerbtilg 
4ke teeth itf this sRffliat^-the tiMat ii Btni l e H i and peMdM in- 
habitRnt of the ooean-~die Oneolanden cell k tin imiun- 
Ber of the Abate, and whv'-'lte fbo6«^ » grc^ioui nrimal 
-^n centny ago Iti teeth Mmthmtd the greatRt Arity in the 
world— were beiiered to britng to a trj diflu f w it aaimal — 
fbr tome time nfter 1irl> mrwlial was known, the decek was 
Continoed— 4hef far trnpam trot^ fn its Qualities, t. 46. 

NatuHan-gont, a remarkable wrietj' iti the goAt-kiod, ii. €64. 

AiitKre laST* of lifcin tJft kwer ordon of CTMtiOB, i. 98S— she 
hai, khitlly *fd our *eai^ from each otiieh, lo keep us Jn 
gmd hilttiour with our f^loW-creatoreii' 41S— 1m8 Vrobght 
nifiD into life with more wants knd iflfinokieB Oatt the reet of 
'bor creafuTct, Ii. 1-^n a coone of ages shapes bet^elT Xo 
conMnriM.ahd^ A«Rti« bcraCUmy dd&ndty.'-iaKatM^ tf 



. i^U— ^M coomcUil tbettouacbs of MH^aof ibiifaMM, 

' . ■uitable to their precariou* way of livii^t S— baa )eA no part 
of her fabrick deMitute of inh^Httnta, n. 1 — wd by niK^y< 
isg a Tsriety of appetites, bu aHiItjplied Ufe jp her produce 
tiong, 59— -what might have led aome late philaso{)lwr* into 
the opinion tbat alt nature wai aDuMtetl, yi- 19$.- 

Xaidiiiu, a aett-anail, mOat frequeotly aeea swuamiBg— [ita ab^ 
very thin, aod easily pierced, v. 227— ita daacription— it is 
certain that it tooietimea ^uits its abdl, aod returni to it 
again— peculiarity for whicb it baa been woat diatiD^uiahed, 

Namtetk (bbd), wbether tbe dodo or not, ia oncettaio, ir. 5$. 

Nadc, fiahea have nose— Urda, in geseMli b«ve it looger tfun 
any other kind of i"^'""1'i i. 1^— in (romeo it ia j^ojpor- 
tion^ly longer tlian in men, 428. 

yecUaium, tbe pwt of a flower from whicb tbe hon^- ia ex- 
tracted, tL 100. 

Jiegraes of tbe l«e«ard blandi, by tbe amell aloqe, diatia«iiidi 

. the foot-(tcpa d « Frencbnao troin tboae of a o^roe, □. 46 
■ —several of tfa«m have white beards, lud black hair— ^le- 
aoribed— dieir feature not deformed by art, 82— tbe women's 
breasts, after bearing one child, hang down below the nsrel, 
and arc thrown over tbe ^loulder to anckle tbe child at tboir 
backs, 8£— the jet blaok claim tbe booour of hereditary re> 
seipblaDce of onr «oBUDon parent— an ai^umeut sufficient to 
prove tbe contrary— 4wo white negroes, the iiane of bla<^,pa- 
r^tB, 93^of tbe African coasta regard tfao bat with bairor, 
and will not eat it, though ready to starve, iii. 392 — happy to 

. see numbers of monkies destroyed, because they dread l^eir 
devastMMns, and love their flesh — cannot con^rdiend ad-, 
vantages mising to Europeans from educating or keepingmon- 
kiea— «ed having seen young wid.tanie moci^iea bought, have 
o%red rats for sale to our foctors, and been areaUy disap- 
pointed at finding no purchaser, 30&— iliatracte^y food of the 
oesb ofthesharl^ V. 75— their mwiiter of killiog it, 7S. 

Negroland, or Nigritia~-its inhld>itants are. tbe darkest of all 
blacks, ii. 89. 

Nerves, wherever they go, or jend their branches in number, 
these parts are aoweat begnn, and most completer finished, 
ii.20. . 

.Nett, of every species of birds has a peculiar architecture— 
where eggs are numerous the nest must ba warm, iv. 18^ 
difierent places which birds choose for their nests, 19— de- 
scription of tbe nest of an eagle found in the Peak of Derby- 
shire, 69— of the bald eagle, large enough to fill tbe body of 
a cart, ?2 — banging nests in Brasili 195— made in sucli a 
manner at to have no opening but at tbe bottom, ld6-^the 
Cbineae get those of the swallows from the rocks, and sell 
them in great numbers'in the East Indiai, where they areies- 

voL. VI. y 

L, . h.L.oogIc 

toiiMJ CTMt deliMcieB, md eat dissdvod n cht^en or Jtni- 
lon broth, 273 — that of the wasp one of tKe rtiost curiam 
oMecU-i^wrtiiral hutory— its description, ii. 116. 
tiett/et (of ths-Bea), name gi¥eii by lome to the gur-ish, 

Nmfbiindtand-dog, desoribed, iii. 17. 

Ntne Prnvii^ee, 'Ob« sf the Bahama itland»~-tbe PhilaMpbical 
TraOAdiions-give accflunts of poitonoui qualities in tbe fisfa 
fbw»d«ff the ea»t«ftbis island — ail kmda at diSei^ent times 

' 4BBg«rou»; ant daj serriDg tttr nourist^Baent, and the next 
proving fataJ, v, 155. 

KeKtbn, {Sit luaa) ObMrv^aU birds, beflstg, fishes, bsects, 
bNC, and'v^ei^lM, with tliair parti* ^<><^ from^ater.; and, 

' 'bj yuftefiietMni retam ts watai^ a^Bi i.l39— dtsctwered the 
true cause of the theory ef the tides, 310 t— with peculiar 
«agacity disoovnect the «aU>e of the remartmble tides at 
' Tonquin, 215. 

^MM&» Pesea, a celebrated dWe''— hts peribrmainMe felated liy 
Eiroher — he often Bnani ever from Sicily into CaiilbHa, tar- 
rying fetters from Ac Iriiig— frequently koowJl to spend five 
days in the midst of the waves, without anj ot^erprervlaiooa 

- than the fish he caught there, and ata raw-, h 343> ^ 

ifightiiigalfi a bird k the eperrow-kind, i*.: £46^— descriptiim 
of its melody by Ptiny, 26^— ill resideitei) — for we^ts- toge- 
ther, undiBturbSd, it sits upon the same tree-^its nmt, and 
eggs — it« song in oaBtiritT not so attariog — Gresner says it ii 
possessed of a faculty or talking— 8t4ry pclaled by him in 
{nrOofof thi$ esserlion— its faod, and in what ra^tifter they 
niwt be kept— mannei of catching the nightifigale.'^d'ftia- 
nagin^ tfiem when caught— the black-cap, oalkd by eooie the 
mock-nightldgalei 25?j - . ' ^ ■ . , 

NUe, its course— its source* SBOertuijed by misNOBaries—fiakes 
its rise in the kingdom of Goant«-«cches many leaser riien 
—Pliny mistaken in laying that it received niKie-Utte cftose 
of its annual overflowings — time of their iucreSse abd'derraase 
' more ioetmsidQrable new than in the tiB)& <^ tbia anciants, 
i. 178— IVb. Bruce's accouat of its source and ' progress, 

■Vtiise, the miad [H^isposed to j<^, noise ftiltnat Ikt increase 
into rapture— and those nations which have not skill enoogb 
to produce harmony, reatMly sabetitnte noiae— tteud md udo- 
pected, dnturbs the whole friuRe, and why, il. 37- 

-JVoie, that of the Grecian Venus such as would appear at preaent 
an actual deiormtty, i. 403— the form of the noae, and its 
advanced position, peculiar to the human visage— ataong the 

. tribes of savage men, tbe nose is vary flat>->-a Tartar seen in 
fiurope with Httte more than two Italea tbraugb whrcb to 
breathe, 4IS— whence prigiQaUy may have eoim the flitnotw 
•CHn hiarfcft ii..&8. 

.1,, Google 

Jfo^hik, M9«, add ft gf^Mt defll ttf thelriild Md Hulute tSt of 

tlie countenance, i. 413. 
Jfote erf the sloth, accoiding to IEin;her, an Mcending mid d^ 

scendmghexaciiord, uttered only I^ ntght, iiii 40S. 
Notonecfa, the common water-fly — swims on its back, to feed on 

the under-eide ofplanta grotring iii water, vi. S5. 
Unmidian-bird, or Guinea*enj described, iv. 1*8. 
Numidiatt-crane, its peculiar gestures and contortions, it, SOS. 
Nux-vomka, ground and Mixed with meal, the most certain nol- 

son, and least dangerous, to bill rats, !H. 172— £rtal to most 

animals, except man, iv. ISl, 
Ugl-ghaix, an animal between the cOur and the deer, native of 

India— its description— disjiostti on Bnd manners of one brought 

over to this country— its manner of ligliting<— «t aB out 

settlements in India they are con^dered as rarities,* iji. 

O^eeis, we see them in an inverted pesHron, ti; 90— nM the 
feeling only, but the colour and brightness of objects, con- 
tribute to form an idea'of the distance ri which ihrjrappear-^ 
the power of seeing objects at a distance rarely equal in both 

■ eyes-H-in nea)--Bi^i^ ptersotiSf the' b«st eye sees every object 
the largest, ii. 28. 

Ot^fi occupies CoHsiderabiy moreof the globe tha« dlelanE^ 
l.-rSOi— its ditPerent nMnes — bIV the rivers in the world - fiffvr- 
ing intA'it, would, upon a rtide c4mputdtion, take eigfit hiin- 
dred years to fill it toils present hei^t, 191— savagiscon- 

■ nderit as an mgry deity, and pay it llie hoittage of subtws- 
' - ^n, 194''-wh£n <Er<gland Ibses it soperiority there, its aSely 

Mgtns to be' pretArious, jgff^lhe fcays, gutphs, cuneHtft, ind 
^bHowB of It mucH beK^ komvii and examined ^n the 
province* and kSngdtMns of thie earrth, and why — opMiiotis^dn- 
certnng i(fl saltness, and that of Boyle particularly, ILS-^ 
winds nefer change between the tropica in the Atlantic and 

'' BiMopic Oceans, 881 — each has its insects— aad its vegAa* 
ble«, 850. 

Ocelot, or cBt-s-inountMn,'rtB descriptiOn^~of the panther-kind— 
cMie of the fiercest, and, for its size, one Of the most deXrnc- 
' ti** tmimblh in the world — its anc«aKing appetite rather for 
the Mood than the flesh of their preyJ-it generally- i* on' the 
tops of trees, like oU* wild eats, it. 434- 

Ocetajtttsctm, a kihd of pigeon, one of the most s[dmdid tsnanU 
of the Itfeirican ftn-e»t8,>, IK' 

Odours, difiusedby the air as the 6uid they swim in, i.-0TT. ' 

OAif, Mraral enormoui tkeletona, five w ^dx feci-tencMb the 
T 2 

L, . h.L.oogIc 

nirilu3e> jun ,tjis bf^it of t^ riyec, lu^j iaeottteiiM. 

.PU, train-oil th« dripk of ilie Laplandera, ti. 71~the oil of tlie 
''"h cschelot u yttj euily. cffOTerU^ into ^temaceti, r. 52-- 

Ibe porpoiK yields a laise quantity pf it, JS—tke Ii*er of tliB 

■haiV uForila three or louc ijuwta oi oil, 75 — hy the ^- 

, plication of ullad'oil, the vip«r's bite ii e&ctuaUy cmetl. 

, '.361- 

'Oiitie (colour), ibe Asiatic of tWt coloiu claims thehononi ftf 
jiereditary reaemblance to our commoa paceDt>->aii ar^umod 
Sufficient to prove the cootrary, ii. &i. 

.Oliver fWdliam) the first irho discovered that the application of 
sallao-oil curail iheviper'sbitseS'ecti.iaUy, v. 361.. 

0nager,ot the wild as^, is .ia still. greater obuqcbuice-tbaa the 

, wiIJ horse, ii. 191). . _ 

Ondatra^ one of the three distinctions of the music-rat— a native 
of Canada — creeps into boles whue others seemingly less can- 
not follow— the female has two distinct apertures, one foi 
urine, the other for propsgfition — this aninial in some mem • 
sure resembles the beaver— its manner of life during winter, 
in houses covered under a depth of eight ox ten Ceet of snow 
' — eavsges of Canada cannot abide its scentt call it stinkard^ 
its ikin.very valuable, iiL 17d> 

Oaxa, or ounce, of the pantbcr-kind, ii. 427— the onc^ of Lio- 

' DfEUS, iZS. . . 

Qphidium^ the gtlt-head, by saSois called the dolphin, its de- 
scription, V. 222. 
Oj^ouum,aa animal in North and South America, of the size, of 
a small cat, and of the monkey-lund — its description— the 
young when fiut produced are very small, ao^ ioimediately 
«n quitting the reisl womb, they creep into the &lse one, but 
the time oT continuance is unceitaiD< — Ullqa has found. five 
young hidden in the belly of the dam. alive and clinging ta 
. the teal, three days after ifae was dead— rchiefly subsists upon 
. birds, and hides among the leaves of trees, to seize them hv 
. ..surprise— canned run with any swiflness, but climbs trees ir^ 

Sreat ease and expedition — it often hangs by the tail, and.^ 
ours together, with the head downwar^, keeps watching foe 

.... its prey— by means of its tail, flings itself iruin one tree to 
anothcri hunts insects, and escapes its pursuers— eats veg^- 
bles as well as .animal substances — is «s>tily tamed, but a dis- 
agreeable domestic from its stupidity, figure, and scen)^ which, 

._'th6ugh fragrant in small quantities^ is uogrsteful when cojuoos 

- — duriflg its gest^tidji, the bag in which £he young are.cyn- 
cealed may be opened and examined without in convenience; 

./the young may be counted and handled ;. they, keep 
"the teat, and ding as firm as i;f they made a^paibjpf t^ body 
•f the mother, iii. 522, &0. \ 


(Vi, {(esdriptioa of the sca-bfl), also edlf^ itA i«-psfciiplti«— 
ia Bbtolutel^poisonoui, if eaten, T. 110. . . - 

Ore of tin is heavier than [hat of other metals^tbe basest ^rei 
in general the most beautiful to the eye, i. 64. 

Organt of itfgesfion, fo a tnanaer, reversed in birds, 1$. It. 

Ortolan, B bird of the sparrow-kind, iv. 247. 

Otprey, Its flesh is admired b; many, and when yoUng, an ex- 
cellent food, according to Belonius, tr. 61— it chieflj lifei 
upon Alb, 71 — its distinctive marks, 73. 

OiiradoTi, a fish of the cBTtilaginoUS kind, Is poisonous, v. ilQ. 

Ostrich, manner in which the Arabians hunt them, IL 177, and 

' iv. 45— «n Arabian horse of the first speed scarcely oatruna 
them, ii. 177 — the greatest of birds, makes near approaches to 
the quadraped class, 8— its flesh proscribed in Scripture as 
unfit to be eaten— its desciiption — appears as tall as a man on 
horseback — ^brought into England above seven feet hiah — 
surprisine conformation of its internal parts — a native only of 
the torrid regions of Africa — not knovn to breed elsewhere 
' than where first produced — places they inhabit — the Arabians ' 
say it never drinks — will devour leather, glass, hair, iron, 

. stones, or any thing givei^-'in native deserts lead an inofien- 
■ive social life. Theveiiot affirms the male keeps to (ha 

■ female with connubial fidelity — thought much inclined to 
renery — sonie of their eggs weigh fifteen pounds, iv. S7— season 
for laying d^nds on . tne climate where the animal is bred— 
' these birds very prolific, and lay from forty to fifty eggs af 

. one clutch— nooe has a stronger afiection for her young, no;- . 
watches her eggs with greater assiduity, sit on them, likA 
Other birds, male and female by turns— bsiduous in supplying 

' the young with grass, and careful to defend them, encoon- 

. tering every danger boldly — way of taking them among the 
ancients— the plumes used In their helmets — the ladies of the 
East use them as ornaments in their dress — plumes used in 
Europe to decorate oar hearses and hats — feathers plucked 
firom the animal while alive more valued than those taken 
when dead— some savage nations of Africa hunt them for their 
flesh— HeIio{[abalua had the brains of six hundred dressed in 
one dish — a single egg sufficient entertainment for eight meo~ 
eggs veil tasted, and extremely nourishing — Apicius givea 
a receipt of sauce for the ostrich— of att chaces, that of ths 
ostrich, thourii most laborious, the most entertaining— use 
they mak6 of iu skin — method of hunting of the Strutlio- 
^gi-Hts blood nixed ifith the fat a great dainty with ih» 
Arabians — inhabitants of Dara and Lybia breed flocks of 
tbem — tataed with Ititle trouble— prized fbr more than fa- 
thers in tb^ domestic state— often ridden upon and used as 
liorses— Kfoore assures he saw a man at Joar Iratcjling upon 
M ostrich ; and Adanson asserts be had two young bs^ricbes, 

. tlw strongest of which raa swifter than the best Eoj^iab racer, 

L, . h.L.oogIc 

will) iWop^toes OS till biick — ofBDaDinialsiinag'viBgs widf 
]^ ID niODing, theie by far the swifteM—^artS of it codtct- 

; t^e to medicinal pumoses — eggs, wont of dl to be eaten 
Bccordios to Galen— 'tne American ostrich, 43, tm. 

Olter cf Roiet, a modem perfaine, valued for ito ngetaUe 
fragrance, iii. 108. 

Ot^eT^ the link between land and water, animals, resenMn ter- 
restrial in niake, and aquatic in living— ■winu'ftater tban it 
runs — is brown, and like ao overgrown weasel— ll^ descrip- 
tion — voracious animal, found near lalces — nut Rwd of fishing 
in ruQDing water, and why — when in rivers, dw^s awimi 
against the stream, to meet rather than pursne the fi^ it 
preys upon ^— in lakes, destroys more tlan it devdun, and 
spoils a pond in a few nights— tears to pieces the nets of the 
fishers — two different methods of fishing practised by it — in- 
fects the edges of lakes with the dead fish it leaves— of^ 
distressed for provisions ia winter, when lakes are frozen, and 
then obliged to live upon grass, weeds, and hark ctf trees — ita 
retreat the hollow of a bank made by the water— ^there it 
forms a gallery several yards along the vrater — how it evades 

' the fowler — time of coupling — description of its habitation — > 
way of trainipg it up to hunt 6eh, and, at the word of Com- 
mand, drive uiem up to the corner of a pond, seize the 
largest, and bring it in its mouth to its master — to tal^ an old 
otter alive not easy— few dogs dare to encounter it — marks of 
its residence— bites with great fierceness, and never lets go ita 
hold— brings forth its young under hollow banks, upon beds 
of rushes, flogs, or weeds — manner of taking theyotuig alive 
— howfcd when taken — continues long without f(k>d — couples 
about Midsummer in Europe, ' and brings forth at nine weeks 
end, three or four at a time — some dogs trained 'tip to to- 
Gover its retreat— otters iriet with in most parts of the world—* 
in Korth America and CaroUna found wMte, inclining to 
yellow— description of the Brasiiian otter, ifi. 287- 

(^oaria, two glandular bodies near the womb, resembling the 
cluster of small eggs found in fowls, i. 358. 

Ovarine species of monkies so called by M. BuS<»), remarkable 
for the laiidoesa of their voice, and the use to which they 
apply it, iu. 307. 

Oviparous animals, distinguished from the viviparous, the two 
classes for generation ; all other modes held imaginary and 
erroneous, i. 362. ■ ' ' 

Ourang-'qutartg, the wild man of the wood, an animal nearly 
approaching the human race, is the foremost of the ape-kind^ 
.tnJB nBfne given to various nnimAls walking upright ; but of 
diiferent liountriea, proportions and powers -^the troglodyte of 
' Bontiua, the drill of Purchas, and the pigmy of TysOn have 
^ . received this general name— its description in a cortparative 
VIewwit&'man— gigaotic races of it descrilWd by tc«^«i 

X — — 

L, . h.L.oogIc 

' jtru^. flirBfi<ftM e, T- Tiim y are tallet tban.iQOOi active. i$n>dg, 
.lat^idt Dutioiogt latcivigufc aad cruel — coiinlries where 
..kwi—rin Botma ihs quality course hitn » we do the stag* 
Md tliH hunting IB a favourUe afnuKiaent of (he kkog— runs 
:. with great odamy— its description— Battel calls hira pongo; 
aswues m that ia all he resembles man, but is largef to a 

S;igMitiG «tAte*ra oaiive of the trapical climate — he lives upon 
trsiu, and is not caroivoHius?— goes in agmpanies ;. aod tfais 
UMfi meeting OBeot' the huHaan specie* without succour, sbow 
bixB no m«Ecy— thej jointly attacli the elephant, beat him 
vtth clubs, and f<arce him to leave that part of the foreat they 
claim as their owrj-r-tis so strong, that tea men are not a match 
for it— none, of the Liiid takeq but rery young— one of tb«m 
^ying, . tb^ rest cover tbe.bodyniih leaves and braacheB'-~a 
n^ro.boy taken by one of these, and carried into the woods, 

, cftotUfued'tUere a ivhole year without any in/tuy— they often 
•If^aiit die female negroes going iat'o tl>e woods, and keep 
them AgatmF iheJr wills for their company, feeding them plen- 
ttfuUy (^ thetime-^a traveller assvres ut, thsC he knevr a 
woman of Loange that lived among them for three years^- 
thay bwild riieds, sod use clubs for their defence—- sometimes 
Walk uprighti- and sumetimes upon all fours when phnncosti- 
ciiiy dMpaeBd-~though it resembles man in form, and imi- 
tatm tua Bdions, it is inferior in sagacity even to the elephant 
or, the beavBr — two of Lhe^ creatures brought to Europe, dis- 
covered an astonishing power of imitation, sate at table like 

. men, ate of every thmg withouf distiaction, made use of 
knife, fork, and spoon, drank wine and other liquors— the 
male of these two creatures being sea-sick, was twice bled in 
the armj and afterwards, when out of orde¥, he showed his 
am as desirous of relief by bleecGng — another was surpris- 
tngly wdX behaved, drank wine moderately, and gladly left 
it &t milk or other sweet liquors — it had a defluxion upon 
the breast, which, increasing, caused its death in the space of 
ana year from its arrival, iii. 277, &c. 

Ouaet, or onza, lemarkable for heiog easily tamed, and em- 

: phiyfed all orer- the East for the purposes of hunling, ii. 289 — 
diaiingairiied &om tlie panther, the onca of Llnnsna, 4<28 — 
d<^ iiet pursue by tlie smell like the dog Und— manner of 
hunting with it, 48S-r-the byseoft attaoka it, and ■elSom finis 
to conquer, iii. 65. 

f>iii^ description of the common horned-owl— the screech-owl, 
and its ^tinctive marks, iv.ft4 — common mark by which alt 
birds of this kind are distinguished from others— general cha- 
amSte^tlcB of birds of the owl-ldnd— ibougfa damled by a 
. bri^a dayrlight, th^ do not see best in darkest nights, as 
iin^wedr-~8eMDas in which they see best— nights of oioon- 
l^bKAa. tiveif of tbeir»A:oessfu1 plunder — the night, 
■J.Afliwg" dteijed- by dy, notLaUk^'in every ^i^cicg of thia 

...lilli'u'JtiWiin" ii" *if li-hilt. (IT hlfil atrl.-iitfli^tlin-hitiiiii 

lo muaic, hm gtveD.aUttbe<ot]a■f)f^thB^atrl iMrtBjnrhiektBdEft 

' do in that dutrew— aTersioo of small binU-lo tlie-<l*iMt4ioy 
:'^y'iafur»«Bdlonie*itiin'in therdajF-tinte^uk-owl^pfiMn 
: day lelkvivbolt giibvaiiv«t(i^iioar''-aiBllWrd>«nae- 

ttmes huDt the ontuntil evoMg, i^a racOM^g- s^tft, iie 
' aalcaa. tbcfitraBOtt psf doir for tlMir>ipDit; imd'ik>e»iu>t 

■Iwaya leave man an ui)Oo]ic[a»edspaaati]t>-->«^iHtjafibBd- 
r<Mtc£en>b]r eounterfeitingthecrrof •faeowl->«t<«4nt«HD» 

ner the great homed-owl u used by falconen tohnthekbe, 
t vibes wanted £pr traitdng the falook— places trh«e the gnat 

horned-owl breed»— its nest, and naniDer o£ eggfc-itlm-Jbwer 
-.oiritakei by force rthaneEt'df tnmn nfhwi Nrdir mimhirr-iTf 

.cggi— the other owli build Mar ibc place where ihayF«ldAy 

prey — a single owl more seniceditfi.thMisixeat^ ixriUii^ 
'.abantof nico— an army of lUice dereured at'l]idlontid»4»y. 

:• niualier of itrange painted •wIi't-bi* thy ef man, curamely 
' untractidtlei and ^ffiCult to tame— Ite whUe-'Owl h>.a^vi|ty 
' rafwes' alt noatishment^ nod dies «f bungeB—«:c<uint ef-M. 
: BnfioD to thispurpose. It. 106,' Ac. '.^ 

Oit,m the fertile plains of India it grows to aeiie four, tiaiesas 
. laf^ as the same kind brad to the Alps, il 91l-«ie in' Eag- 
. land sixteen, bandi faighi its groiirtfa- depends nt the ridtntaa 

0;Bfrr«y a horse known to be Jbadxtf oysters, ii..ltiOv<4wpna(K 
isnaDoer in which. raonkies mwtoge an oyster, iii. BOSubitM- 

ved. shell -fisb, are self-nnptagnaied— the parthmbn inwUdl 

they diflbr from the muscle — growiag even amidst bi<ancbes'l>f 

the forestv-have no other seeming food than the<affliDC.c£aa*^ . 
vwatar— they are dep}sited in beds where the tida'cames in, at 
>£8khester,.and other places o£ the kingd<wi--'<Acse'8dd toibe 

better tested -•amazing swe of oysteis (^ng theicasstoCCoiw- 
. niaodelt*. £37— ^e pearl ^ttcr has a large wliiush ifaeU, ^ 
iiiaen^e*at:nfwhiDh<is the wtf^MT'-of-peacl, 24& - . i / 

Pstnti •lcspnp«riy .«dlad' Anariean rabbity aa animal^offitatth 
AiHamm-i4ia ery, «id matiner irf-eatiag'— •» noat Uktf^ha 
M*ulir TMidtfibtaia H«eial pai«icalan~<iu deamMtiM'-* 
afcees*ae».gmaraUyilMtid-^^e«heM»tder«d ti^mvfr 



idn^, ^einidii^^itulf w the ta^etmadtftOfttmrn^-b 
I «o«b)rb dhltfiy 

iT«)j hi 

Aic, i.«t 
1 ibaev 

? wen, BUa «ridsm i«Biaiw to »*t«)j himag^iMm'-' ' - 
. llro)riiHg'|nniUsn^'bwngtb>acMtaredkitiBbiaialay« 
i^<j|ia-Ma,-tlieiriii4rn««<er change in ir ' 
#teM, m-^aime' cattol - in 'S«ttlh . 
■ nl4MUe. iii. 882. 

. c«lMT-in«UdidM]>Bavwt«okk)«.'8e9. 
AiM,>notliiu> bn KOMted experieno* 
■ em fae'MiMwdiMUu atUMCt it* W> 

' givs to ibe abject, iL «S. ' 
AwMM (^BT-tbtt «<ect ef mgeiv And olmoit ever As ettralBtt 

: «£A'^l*«i^le«i,i.«7> ' - ■-'■' 

Btim-tnu, iu jpiMdnatk by tbe 'i0[iMtle,'M-the gtaWiiM-'^ 

. Madafww, at. SSj-^tte el^ant ea» 4he . shMtl, tonVi, 
- AM^ibiwidm to tlM uump, S88. ....-, 

Ptm^aUn, sukwly tbe mu)]' Usard, ia a native of tlio'tarfid 

' obmatc* oT tbe Mtcirat eOftdDeat-'af all aaiiMhi- tW bwt 

' praiDcte4 from sKienul iojnr;— its dflKsi«ieD<*-Bti thv -*^i> 
'. preacfa 4if ^m «BeBrf, ii -roAa 'itMlf'iq> msdioi''' — '' — 

— the tiger, panther, and hymaa, make veiii stiomiaa lolbtice 
■' tUa-euiBnli lAea il ralh ilMlf np like tka lwde»4ag— iteflaalii- 
ia eoniilsMd by the M^roaa of Aflica aa a great Aehaey^^ 

it im B* teeth— Iwn onm^ opon iniecW iherB ia not a 
more harmlaw, inofenaive creature, than thia, < - • 

g is hanting for ita prejw^^lilefly lia^ ia tl» 
pert of the fbreeta— .iu toagoe^ when extmdad, ii riiot oat 
. about a qvarter af a )wd iwyoodtlM tip <rf the noa on oomi- 
- Ifiaa wince feood, iii. 21*. 
. P amtier, il.-natMrallr fatmta tiie iheep wid the mat, ii. IMk^ 
the £>nenKieC.of the miMfaieveiia apotled mi, by laay 
oMmaliMs. aHMakeaCor the t^—tbe.pandier «t H»«egil 
-Mfee latj^.pauthar— dtfeisDce b M w e e p tfaaK taPo-'-tbat' at 
■ AnMeioe,:or Jegoar, eanpared wkk the two fliniier, 4Sft*- 
■ometimea ampl^wd in liaMliagj ilbii iiiiilli. or kn i t* a— 
■ta pre^— it lometimea attacka iu employer, 438— attends U 
the call of tbe jackati, iu. £8. 
Pan-y a peaaant, lived to an bundred-Bod-forty-foar, without 

bdng abatemioue, ii. 63; 
BamAKtiitdi Jew Jwelnttve deeatmei altd piuded^be lMnie4"'' 
'ttMUtlii*N.^.iaB&Ha)abitaM efthe. UelueM iataadef^mi- 
■seeaeirqioito ooaeentiagr Aia bitdi-aad what baa given eiaete 

■seeaeirqioito ooaeentiagr Aia bitdi-aM what baa given «»»{« 

Om^ -tim naiaeaavegaa af.lbaa«,ialindi AafMA%«M «ff.'llB 

- iimt. h afci w Aa y -boigHitrt ■udict.MAmhjHi^o.fcaidft'M 


Uiq bjr4 of Famiiie— 4keu 4i>U»ction ftfiBi .oilbar bir^s— tlie 
deselection of this btfd — found ia groat ni^Bbort w the island 
otAnt, wliere Uie iuhabitanu caU i( Cod'ftMrd—tlivein laiige 

' iBoiekib fiwl at nigJit perch upon Uie tame tree— «KOUed by 
•ODW the iwAUoffi of TemMe, irod, like them, buve their 
SE^ed tjpKS of leturi^-their king dittiiiguish«d..ftoiB.tbe rest 
by tl^ lustre of li is plumage, aad tb« iwpaet Wid vetiaration 

. pwd to bim^killK^ ihe ki|}g is the best ehuKe of getting the 
flock— «hief mark to koow the king is hy the eads of the fea- 

. then in the tail, h^viag »fee like those o£ the peacpck— s 
numbeT of these birds takvo, the method is t»giit thetn, cut 
off tbdr legs, dry the ioteiMl tpoiatuce H'th a hot-inin, «nil 
fill tha cavity wuh saJt and apice*. thea Bell them to the 
Europeaiu for a mere trifle — bjMr thu birdbBBeda, W what the 
BjiatMy pf il» young, rtmwt* for discovery— ^for be»uty, il 
exceeds all others of the pic kind, iv. 199. 

fyfaiati, ft kind of fMrntt of a lesser use, iv. 215— wf thSL 
kind in Brasil, Labat assures ua, tbey are Hie most betutiful 

. > in pinnate and the roeafctaUcative birds ia nUiost ^1. See 

Paratite-fJafUs, not able to support thenuelTss, geow. and fix 

iipsn BonM neighboutiag Iree^ h 349. 

Farrolf the middle or second size of the kind« described— the 

eaiH n>ith which thi« bird is uught tospenk, nod the atmdier 

of words it is capable of sptahing, An aurprinng — a grsve 

wriw affirmt,. that one of these was taught to repeat a whole 

•Ntoet from Petr^ch — the author has sees one tau^t to 

pranouDoe the ninth commandment articulfriely-i-accauDt of 

a parrot beloi^ing lo King Henry VII. which fell into the 

Thanes, «rywg, A ioat, tntt^y pound Jbr * boat—lAanKoa 

iImIms ^s vBiietieB amount to forty-seven; Hrisaon extends 

^ bis OBtal^giH ta nioety'fiie ; and the author thinks them sum- 

' beDleas-rr&atertion, that the natives of Brasil by an change 

the colour of a parrot's plumage — peculiarities ahserved in 

their (ton&rmation— oommon enough in Eunqie ; wiU not, 

- ^aveter, bread here— lose spirits aad appetite duiing the 

rigour of whiter — isstancea of sagadtyaM docility, patticu* 

. Julji of [be great parrot, called aicurauft— tbeiE habits-rtbeir 

nests, and the number of e^s— .usual metfaod of tskiDg the 

. young — alvayB speak beelt when not aoclvlamed to bar^ 

t .irild Dides< — what fruit oc grain these bisds fe^ upon tlieir 

flesh partakes of the flavour and taste— ^ostimces ofit»w aoc d 

. at the cottoBrUee intasaoaicei tbera,, as »io« does ^an-Hwine 

renders them more talkative and aauiang— ioiFraiKWWy 

«|>«rt^ but nothing to those oC fitMil(.«Uah Chwaa aqware 

ntesteeHibleand iWDnmB— aatffoa of Biasd ahoM Aem^iHth 

heavy arrows, headed wtib ootton, whtdh kaodcdwratfae 

:buisl witbcnil.>k)UMg:i|..^thsBe)of .kh« pnalnet. tnb* aw deli- 

«tte eating— of. tbJE i^aA. u; Biaul,, Labat asiiuea ih^ «• 

L;,q,-z.= bvGoOg[c 

tim-UdH b0fta»iftil in fiange,. aM A/b m 

BS>le— are restlem, and «ver on the wing — tl 

ontcrj IrbfA tbeir Conpanionfl fall--are v«: 

the onaMt of Guinea — more thaa a hoodre 

' «9jaBted on ^e coast of Africa— the white 

■— countriea wher* fouetU-one, north of Ih 

H<^>e, tat^ it« mnie fi^ni the multitude 

wood»— 4' hundred Ipiods now koawsf npt oi 

rally breeds in couatrieg that acknowledged I 

• r-tfee 'gteta psrakeet, with s red aeek, we 

' kind braw^it ayt» Europe, and the only o 

SDcicntii fros Alcxandar the Great to ] 

peculiar to tke pEorotJaad-— «ae well kepi 

SUi-<uid-tweDty years, iv, SIS. 

Panhtft Bioki, uai bircli, h»rM er^ particu 

PMHridget, in Bn^lAnd, ■% ftivourite delica<^ at 
rieli,'WlMM£ deure of keeping them to thei 
gratifiad ariih lawe for their preeervation, oe 
with the general spirit of English kgislacioo 
- are Iws ktbda, tlie grey and the red : the grt 
•nd abraya keeps on tkegT»«ad;.therod] 

- fwrtdtte <v<n tKeesr— the partridge ia Gsuad 
luiddiBitie — in Greeida[4) where itia bra 
baoMannehite ioaiihte*— chowerBarakonde 

' nrifter <tf foot, aild leaide in the Iti^best HK 
tllvoMa agree in, oh dujraptar, bemg iminc 

- to veaet-yr often to aa utHMtura) d^r«»— 
iha hen to ber ^ncot, Mid bteakp her egg** * 
tppsinted— the young having kept ia^clu 
ontk tociety in ^vtng, whan tbey Wgi^ 10 
'conbats eaeue— tbeir qupnefs odherwiw i 
poultry, bet theic eunniag aad iwlincts -ore 
ibe female uges to draw awaiy any feEajdab 

iiroachei b^ neet-^he coviei from ten M> fi 
qttedt they tlie fron fiffi^a- to aevcMeftn 
taUag tbem ia'ane^'wilb asetling-dog the 
limM 8eciU»4-)^ey aaaaevflr 4»ttin>a as aw 
i». 157. 

PuMont, tnoit oC'tbe ferioua wuit fl^iwtariae 
tioD and deprestiaa td tbe ane-brom, i. 41 
puaioAs DM ■oAy- add* mi tbe bappioefg 
inreaerTu tbatewigr, of Iha &tfB,.eo. 

Ifuuur^ tbeie of G«enk Biitaln nweUeDtly a 
pedanCibecoiclutd) a 034. 

Patas, by some called the ro4 Afriran dwi^P' 

ffmaek, awne- of A« fitw MWMtih: vf nmu 

* 2ia 

j4uwiii'fume-(if'tH«-«^tii T<arietj> Of gSKftUes; by M. Bttffoi^ 
■ ii.'a». 

Aofvot, a flajiDf among ibg siiciMU, mbeftutifblBMb the pea- 

' Docfc ntKng bMrdi, to Is tha tiger among quadnipedR, ii. 409— 

' vatietita «f tUi bird — aoaie orbite, othera ersstecl — that of 
TUbet the mnt beautiful of tbe fathered creatron — oar 
filst were broogbt ftmii'the But IndieB ; and' tbey are UiU 

' fbond in flocka in a wild'MNteiD'theUllRMlBof Javaand Ctj- 
Imit-tbo ooiDmon pet^e nr Itaiy say It bas the Blumage oC 

' ADmgri, tba'TOTCaof adtfnl, analM-^ts of atineF— in tfae 
iKjt of Solmnon, we find bis nanes imported -fh>m the ^ut 
■pea awl p eMack*— ^Uao vriatee, they wok brought into 
Greece from sotoe barbarous couotry ; and that a male and 
iinnalawere vafawd at thirty poundsof oar money-^t ia said, 

-'-aJaov that wbeD Alexander <ms in India, be saw them-flyla^ 
wild OB Am banks of die river -Hyarotis, and wu ao atm^ 

' wia fhetr beauty.-that-hs laid k' fine bM pouitbineiit on aD 
whoaboDld kHi or^itarb tbew-'^he Qn«ks were so tnath 
taken witb the beauty of this biM, wheii Snt brought taomg 
tbem, ibb it wasishowia •ttir noney; and many came to 
AAens trow LacednnfoQ and'Thttm^-to eee'i1'-«nce es' 
teCBed HdctioacTBtthetsbleeof the t4ch and great— At£< 
didsHiirco ataiMk ebwged by Pliny wi^ being the ftnt wfto 
fatted np' the pelteeckfotr the fta«t» of Ae luinriwift— Horten- 

-litH, the ecator, vsaihe ArsrwhoeerTSd'tbenn up'at «H «iter< 
tantnenfat Koine; and ttiey>are talked of as Sie first' of 

' TJahde— in' die tioiM of PranOis I. ft Was a custoni to serve up 
peacocks to the tables ctf the gt«Bt;'net to be exA^, btA seen ; 
m -what manner tbey sened theni-^ Ikflh^ said to keep 
longer unputr^eJ thab atiy other — bas a predllKtWD fot-bsr- 
■leys but, as a proud end fiddabird, there is scarce any ft»od- 
it will at alt tinif!» )fte~ft strips the tops of bonses of til^ or 
thatdi, lays waste the lahowrs of the gardener, rocttsup the' 
choicctt seeds, ■ a«d nim forourite flewers in the bud-^'s s^ 
more ariaoiaus than uie ' nook — requwes 9ve fbmales at teiHt 
toattendbimt mdi'thennniber not st^cient, will run nptii 
:aai tread tfae9tttiiT|> hetH*'Uie pe^en, as much as^Mssible, 

' btdesberneatfi'ain bin, riiai IwAiay netdliturb bttsittnig 
«— she seUQai Ins above five or six «m in' tbtsdimatfe— Atis- 
4oUe dcBoftes her laying fiffdve-^^t%a(a wberr ttey breed 
natanaSy, they are very Butuerous— this bird lirea about 
itwoity years ; and nM till the third ye^ has that beautifid 
variantcd-'phinia^ of itatrit^n tbti kiBgdom o( CaabafA, 
aayt Tavcmer, aaar tiia city-of Bftrtlch, wb<^ flocks of ihem 
are in thr fialds~^escriptioR of theli' habttBi>ideco;f made iM 

- -af^tD eatth'dieiai tbeHs! v. -1 38, Ae. 

Ptmtek, (saa)' a name given, md by whkA hM been dMcrlbe^ 

' ttoBiri»aA(>«iw«/f)^'BbineieKftHaDc&iiidiapoadoo>Mt 

Petrlt BnanimalitqlMtaDte oMM)net«idMdtaKink4tii»turaft»A 
tlie air — found in all bivalved shelii, the ioiiSe of iriucli ^e- 
twwbletlut sututanoe oalled naolhar'of-pcaii-^tthei'ouaatio* 
pf p^rlfl ft diieus or aa-ACoddntiiii tb» 8ii)Daal,.iK>iiot kmnm 

. — comtnon apinioa upaD,tliif>aabieet-'tha pUrl'farsd ftemvno 

, disorder ia Ui» animHl- pearUayiterk. from whubitfasmotlier- 
^f'pearl it taken— «ere«l peb»<fiBtenfls— tbe<^icf>«f them 
in the Peniian Cinlpb, and uie Biwt AluaUc vF-pArfa brought 
from thence-'difMievt alx«« Ag/am, and DcdDarft-iJwhuice 

..their. di^reatcoloun-piocaed-'vpearis cwmrted-byttan'Uid 

'. d«nip>iiitaadtt]k)rpowd«-r<wrelcbedpeo[d«dettinedtajiBh 
. for pe9Fl»— usually die wnMinifdvfl^-ui whtt aiaaaer thejr 
fisli for thejB, T. 242. 

Peark,ia itagHSfepBrtBriaiDgfroiB dte outtttf the beam, u. 813. 

JPeean/, or tajacu, an animal, a native of AmerioB^-at'.flfit view 

.; ie»eiiiblii)K A Mnall ho^— dts deKription— rhaa up«n tbeheek 
« Idtap me the navel la other anioitb— it eoaiuta a£ riaadi 
.producing. a liquor of anoSeuuw *iDe)l-J»hen<JiHlsa, the 
faitt of generation, and the glands on Ike bflf^tlnait be takn 

, jnstaotly away, otherwise in htdf aa boui the flesh becoMSs 
unfit to be eaten-'-ibaugh like the heg, in maaj reqieclBt is 
n^erUudesi a distina ra«e, And will net mix or (wadutc 
ao iDtermediate race-— ia ^uiiy tamed— goes in hcrdsof 
tivo ar three hundred, and unitOi like hm, in each othto's 
defence— delig^u not in awriies «r mud* Tike oar hogs-HMi 
- unceuiite enemy to the lifsrd, tbts toad, and ' the torfeak IemAs 
, —also feeds upon toads andae^wnta— anv |)lHaderar seinig 
. their jronng, is surrounded, end t^ten kilM, li. SS7. 

PftHgrtt, .tbi A rabiaDS preserve tttatof their bcst^horaes wUi 
great care, and for several generations badt, ii. 17& ' ' 

Petagii, the Latin name fur those sbelb fished up frooi the dca|» 
_4honcutoD the shore are the littoralet, v, 21(b 

P^kctm, a native of Africa and AmeriOB ; once knoim aaiGa- 
ropei particularly in Russia— fab^ous anoawits [WMMgated'of 
it— the descriptuHi of it, particularly of Its bill, andtbe gMot 
pouch onderneatb) us woDdatfld— Tertre affinna the'paudi 
will hide flesh anoush to serve sixty hungry mm fior>-a neal 
— thispouoh, ptaced at the top ef.theg5iet,emisM « » 
the crop in other birds — the dascriptieit vi the bM from b- 
-' tLaliBt- ••■-■■■ • - • •• - -. 

thet Labat-T'indoleot babiu in prapacbg foi 
defending their youiWT-their^uUony acarody ttfibedliaiai^ 
th«r fle«iiwic)4 and lastea worse tlwa itsmpl k ■ wc iwMh 
by the Americans-of ttteir poud>«a— isnet eMittlyinraasMfi 
«f instruction in a dmwstie i rt a to in at anoss « i^-^Aldtar 
wndus nteatioos one believed to be fi(iy ;Mcs^, 
Penguin, union between this bird andtM^MlHBi 
kmty in thak haildlRf bwethoi. iv.-S€2 — a ' 
$^t-the wiws of tba tribe unfit; for. IM{Hi*': 
suU more awkwardly adapted for miking— «M ni]an>«iil 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 

tliem ane-feet— fh«7 iiw co Oik bottbtii, if nriu li^twtdl 
two watera— th«y ntwer visit Itmd btn trim OdUing :» bAed 
—(heir colouf— are' ctnered more 'warmly wfth ftAttrers than 
other biF^-idesctijrtiwi 6f th« M^ellanic pen^In— tliej- 
unite in them tbs qoalitiea of men, fotrts, and ^sfaet^-iii- 
nandet of its ghittonous appetite— Weir food and fteiA^— are a 
MrdafMciMy^^eamn oFjaplHg, andmnin«r Af tnaktng tbdr 
nntt— some of this tribe adWD^ourwamen tbeb6<A)3>— our 
ncti first CAltiiltg among ifaem, were hot distruafed- or 
ftToided; they itood to be ahot »t in S6ck>i, t^l eteiy 
one was deatroyed— the femjlea let ihern take iheit' egg* »Jth- 
iMit any fe^nance— the penguin' lays Dot one e^. in fre- 
quented shores— burrows like a rabbit— ^r^e Or four take 
poeieasioD of one bnle, and hatch— one is placed as e centfaiel 
to warn of approaching danger, 382. 

Pminmla (aTIndla), on one side theeoasuat«^ear half ibe year 
harassed by violent hovricanes, and noKbeTn teftipeats, i. 3S7 
— the people there employ the eJephant chteflyin carvyji^or 
drawing (Wrthens, Ifi; S5*, 

Peltpark-lint^, in <rIoueettersbire, twenty-five tbtbonr Mrpetidi- 
cutar depth— 4ts description, from captain Sturm ey,i'. ^> 

Fepper, the Indians prefer that de*our*d And VOMed raiOOD- 
cocted by fhe toucan, before the pepper fresh gafh^Mrf ffion 
the tree, hr. 188. 

Aireff, a pWckly-Snaed thoracfC'fish — itfr<le*criptionrV. IS-K ' 

Perfumes, some phydciatts tWnk atl perfutnes unwhutesonw* — 
Wir deKght in perfumes seems made by habit— iriHny bodies at 
a distance give an agreeabie perfume, aitd nearer bate s iBbet 
ungratefnl odour, ii. +8— no perfume baa a sfroneer otirtwe 
permanent Baiell than musk, 292— the fi<%nt of trie nnRtfb a 
tnost pleasing; perflime, iii. 87— sotne of the weaae) kiad have 
a smell appfoodiitig tt> perfame,S9-^tbarof tb^ Atnk Ortlte 
dvet is nothing to tbe odour of the stinkbiids, S^^inwbat 
manner taken from the pbuch-^iBOre grKfeflil perfUme^dian 
■nusk- that or Amsterdam the purest of ahv-t^ia ot/nhnMii- 
CBted to all parts of the aiSimars uody t the ftir iTti[tregHafed, 
sod the skin also- a person shut Uj) With dBe- of the skmifin 
a dose too'vn, cannot suptton the sc«nt-^tMs p^rfltfiie s(dd in 
Holland for about fifteen sh^inge an ounCO'-^ithas'no ana- 
logy with tlie Creature's appetite tat girieration— 4 proof of it 
■-^has its vicissitudes af fk^hion.ltke-dreSs; 107- 

Ptma, the horses of that country tba most bbMt{f\U and most 
valoable of all Hi the East, fi. 18*^there hrt stfa* of ten 
thousand wlihe mares together, witti the hoof Sb hard that 
■homing is unnecessary, 183 — the flesHof the wild ass so much 
liked that its delicacy is a prnverb there, 801 — two kinds of 
asses there, and some of them worth forty or fifty pounds, 
SD7 — a noted country fiw giving long soft haiT lo the aoimal» 
imi in it, 996— lion* fotind to dhuttiih 'at mdiIwf in ttus 


eoanttf, S93*<-tHe bird of Feraia is the common cock of 
Aratophanw, iv. IS^. . . 

Periian Gtdphf a very dangerous wind prevaik, bj the nsthrei 
called the aanieyel:— it suddenly kiHii those it mvoWes in iti 
passage, and frequently assumes a visible form, dartipg in a 

r bluiih vapour along tbe Burface of the country ■^— tlie poets 
of Persia and Arabia have described it aa under the conduct ' 

- «f Vengeaiice, nho governa its terrors, and raisra or depresses 
it, 6a She thinks proper, i. 296 — the chief pCarl fishery car- 
tied on thete, ». 24^— that gulp)i choaked up in many places 
' #ith coralline Substances, vi. 193- 

-Pertpiratiim, an experiment from which the learned may infer 
upon nhat foundation the doctrine of iSanctorian perspiradoa 
is built, i. 430. 

Peruvians, fatber Acosta, and GarcilasBo de la Vega, make no 
doubt but that they understood the art of preserving their 
dead for a long space of time, ii. 118. 

■Petrel, or gull, described, iv. 372. 

■Petreoleum, an injection of this bituminous oil inwardly, and 
an application of asphaltum without, suffice to t^^ka ■ 
muMmy, ii. 128. 

Peltichttp*, a bird of the sparrow kind, iv. 247. 

Phaianger, akind oroppoBsum~its description — has been cafled 
the I'at of Slirinam, tif. 327. 

Phitlc^in, an animal lesB than the pangdin — the extent of its 
tail above twice the lengUi of its body— countries nhere it is 
to be found, iii. 218. 

P/ieatants, at first propagated among us, brought into. Europe 
from tjfe banks of the Phasis, a river of Colchis, in Asia 
Minor, ft^ence they etil! retain their name — Crtesus, king of 
Lydia, seated on hia throne, adorned with the barbarbus 
pomp of eastern splendour, asked Solon whether he ever be- 
Wd any thii^ so fine ? Siolon replied, that having seen the 
beautiful pluinage of the pheasant, no other finery could 
Bstonish bimr— dcBcripCton of this beautiful bird — its fiesh the 
greatest dainty — animals of the domestic kind once reclaimed, 
still continue domestic, and persevere in the habits and appe- 
. tites of wSling slavery; but the pheasant, taken from its na- 
tive warm retreats, still continue; his attachment to native 
freedom ; and, wild among us, is an envied ^rnament of our 
parks and forests, wliere be feeds upon acorns and berries— 
in the woods the hen. pheasant lays from elditeen to twenty 
eggs in a season ; but id a dotnestic state seldom above fln—- 
wben wild, she hatches and leads up her brood with patience, 
vigQancC) and courage; biit when tame she never sits well; 
and a common hen becomes her substitute; and as for 
leading her young to their food, she is, utterly ignorant nbera 
it is fbunid— and &e young would starve if left solely to )ieT 
■BanagemeaU-it ii bettor loA at large in the woods than le- 

l:,.;,-z .Iv.GOOgIC 

tuti to it! prutive captivi^— iti 
•aAdent to uock the foreat, and : 

1 its fteah agqwre* a bi^tr 
tmroar from tta unlimited freedom — it* babiu, irb«D fiww 
BO birdi are ttiot mor« eutly— whwi pfajniciaoi ol M >p«lw 
of whokaomroeM of Thuds, the couopariaao ley with the 
ttA of the pheaasnt— theae birds takes yoong into fcee^fo 
become U familiai si cbickeos ; sod when deugoed for breeo- 
ing, the; sre pnt together in s yard, &rv bras to a coc^— 
their nest in its natural state — the female refiiaiag to hatch 
the eg^s, a comnKW ben supplies her place» and pfr/onne dK 
task with perseverance and luccew — tne joung oifficulc to be 

. reared— with what food the young must be su^tUed—particii- 
larities concerning the rearing of the y onag (KMa*-tfae ""H^wl 
of Loneolius to increase the breed and make it more Ttdn- 
abie^uie pheasant will at last be brought to couple with m 
common hen— tnaav varieties Of pheasants ; of ail otbera, the 
goldett'pkeiuant of China the most beautiful, iv. Hi, Sec. 

Phoiadtt, the file-6sh, places where these animals are found— 
their power of penetrating — the pillars of the temple of S^ 
rapis at Puteoli were penetrated by ihefu—tbey pterca tit« 
hardest ^odies with tlieir tongue — their motion slow beyvad 
conception— bsve no odier food but the sea-wsit^r-~aie mv 
counted a great delicacy, r. 250. 

Pit, in the class of the pie kind, few, exc^ the p'^ego, arf of 
«se to man ; yet, to each other, no daaa <^ bi^ jo i^s- 
nious, active, and well-fitted for society — they live in p«rs, 
and their sttacbments are confined to each other — they 
huild nesU io trees or bushes ; the male shares in the labour of 
building, and relieves bis mate in the duties of ineubotioa; 
and the youne, once excluded, both are equally active iamak- 
faig them ample provisioo— general laws prevail, and a repfib- 
licao form oC government is established among tbem-^-^iiey 
watch for the general safety of every bird of the grove— .they 
' are remarkable for instinct and capacity for instructioa— io- 
■tances of it— fetching and carrying untaught, all this Isibe 
are but too fond of — their passion for shining Miings, and aucb 
toys as some of us put a value upon — rings found in the DOt 
of a tame magpie— the few general characters io which tber 
wS agree, iv. 169. 

Pie, (■£■) breeds in this country, and resides in its tauvhy 
parts, iv. 33?: 

Ptgeatu, bred to a fea^ier, means a display of art by thoqe per> 
SQiii who employ tbemselves in rearing pigeons of di£Eereot ^q- 
lours, ii. 99— those that live in a wild state by no meaiu se 
fruitfiil as those in our pigeon-bouses nearer borne— tbe tame 
pigeon, and all its beaulvTuI varieties, owe their origin to one 
i^cies, tbe stock-dove— colours of the pigeon in a stato of 
nature--the dove-bouse pigeon breeds every month's—I tho- 
batching of its eggs — a full ezplaoatioa of de netbod of f«»d< 


' iB^'ttt0ySap^ Rtmi. {be crop—' vaa^ans namea i^ tune pigiota 
"^^ ^attempts indde to render domestic tfie riog-doive, bnt 
'DMnrtO frtftleu— tbe turUe-dove ablrdof pasa^— apairput 
' h i'cage, and one c^og,tha other does not survive — tbepigeoh 
'called iicDtzimtlan (s one of the most splendid tenants ot (&e 
''-MexiotB for^iu— pigeons of this d<ive-houee not so faithful A 
the turtte-clove — tvfti males quarrel for the same mislresE ; And 
*faen the female idmits tbo addrcs^ei of a new gdiftnt. hek. 
'uiS compxnbn bears die contempt with marks of disjileasur^, 
~«bftiiiis from her company, or when he approaches is sure to 
'vhlBtiie her -^ instances of two iaales dinile^d witb th^ifc 
, who have made an exchange, ana lived iii honnODy 
irdfteentf ' " 

irMitfieirn^ cokipBnions^nesir fifteen tboasondptgeonsiiu^ 
' in font- yeaft be pro<iuced Srora a single pair-^tbe atock~4ove 
'sddbm'Vrcedi abore twice a year — have a stronger attachv 
tnent to their young than those who breed so often-^dia 

- pigeoin esKed carrier* used to convey letters; not trained #iA 
B8 much care as formerly, when sent from a beiieged »^ to 
'ttio«e comfng to relieve f t-^in aii hour and a iait, they petfohk 
R jonmey in forty miles — the last public use made of tbena 
'Vu ts let'thcm'on at the place of exocutioh, when the cait 
-iMw'dtnniBtfay from under the malefactor, It. 224<, ftc. 

P^^t exiitenoe of a [Hgmj race of mankiod founAed in errc^ 
'-^cai fiMB» 11.100. 

P&IAA Jt'the lait'of "tfie habeDnE^M.'Btiffite :calls it inaimon-~ 
, ■■trdetaiptloB^-Js a Datire of Sumatra, not well enduring the 
tttMii of otw cHmat^, lit. £99. 

iW^'tltt-detcriptkm ofdiia fisb, r. IS8~- poets have caHed 
<i('tiitftyhiut<6f tbCWBterTpbiUi-^^iutancesof dieir rmscity', 
»^ ■ ■• 

Mekirib, ^e AiKtiitg from tbe Befring— make tlte coast <^ 
^ic^ttwtS IJidr place wresort->^he nftltvts ^om^time* eaclosfe 
« IwfBt several mtles extent wHfi neii called faines— how 
-<Hradnil, aome'yflVB'aao, to kba« where to dxteitd die nets-^ 
^^hef t^« t#elTO ioT fiftem brntdrvd'hanelB of^tbu'ds M & 
*W gl«— iBi i » e 'risofcraa»nire-t-»dvintagfla athis fishery— 
aRHicyp^'^ferpBdMr^exportnd Ins^ntn^amovinted-ld 
tWirfilfythWiieriiipoundrf, V. 143. ■ " ■ 

PtOait, on the BalUc, the shores near that pbne Sirifod iiit6 
4ittlri()ts<fi>r thtf it(^c«n 'fiskary,-itad' dlotud to compamie*' ' 
offitberman, who mt Mine (tf Ihem at thre« bimdred pouAch 
• yter,-*. ska " ••■ ' ,»-.-' ..■■J ... - ■ ' ,■ - 

JVA^'Mwitf tbft'dwMdiitKctitmiirbf fhe mnsk-rabi-it Is a 

JViMtf-tbe-^iA;, nanie gfi-en^e sacking^ or leiHora, snd 

fltBM'ef a-oMkeytbf Ae s^df n'-ktoa— its iQesci^dOA, 

I;. Google 

Pinkt, hartos are partictdarly fond of tfaemj as of puaky and 
birch, iii. 121. 

Pmtada, or tbe Guinea-hen, its description^ di&rent hobws 
giren to this bird — its habits — the e^s are qtecUedy it. 

Pinfail, a kind of duck, has the tvo middle feathers of the tut 
three inches lon^ than the rest, iv. 411. 

P^tal, the Surinam toad, an extraordinanr and hideous crea- 
ture — its description — the young bred and hatched on its bask, 
V. 285. 

Pipe^h, cartilaginous and not thicker than a Biran-quill.^ti 
descnption, v. 108. 

P^i, conducting water, upon what principle tber drprnrt 
why those in London are extremely apt to burst, i. 1S6. 

Pipe-teomii, and other little animals, fix their habitatians to 
(he oysters* sides, and live in security, v. 2S8. 

Pitkekos, name given by the ancients to the ape [W'operly so 
called, iiL S91. 

Pwot, the razor-sheU, its motion and habits — is allured by salt, 
V. 241. 

Plague, not well known whence it has beginning — ia prapagated 
by infection — some countries, even in the midst ai A^ca, 
never infected with it— others generally visited by it once a 
year, as Egypt— not known in Nigritia — Numidia it molests 
not once in a hundred years—plague spread over ^e world 
in 134€, afler two years travelling ^omthe great kingdom of 
Cathay, north of China to Europe— the plague desolated the 
cily of London in 1665 — its contagioas steams produced 
spots on the walls — for this last age it has abated ita violence 
even in those countries where most common, and why — a 
plague affected trees and' stones, i. 270, 272. 

Plaster (of Paris], finely powdered, boils and heaves in gnat 
waves, like water, i. 153. 

Planets, «<Hne of them exceed the earth a thousand tima in 
magnitude — at first supposed to wander in tbe heavens widi- 
out fixed paths— fierform their circuits with great exactness 
and strict re^ulanty — lesser planets attendants upon some of 
the greater, i. 3. 

Platili, and vegetablies, will not ftrow so fast in distilled ai 
undistiUed water, i. 141— ^nutt of some so powerlul as hanDy 
to be endured, 184 — plants, submunne, corals, and other 
vegetables, covering the bottom of the sea, 2S9 — do not 
vegetate in an exhausted recdver, 260— but thus ceasing to 
vegetate, keep longer sweet than when exposed to external 
air, 261— their juices rarefied principally by the ami, to givean 
escape to their imprisoned air, 280 — a certain plant in Odand 
to strongly a£Fected the person who beat it in a moitari and 
the physician present, that dieir bands and faces iwdM to-an 
a size, and continued tumid for some tue ofter^ 270 



'— cotTipared'#ilh Bi)iRialt,iimiKtiid»^awaiHHu)8ted in dif- 
rent dimatei and soili — tbesenaitive, that mores at the taach* 
hoi as much perception a* the freah-water polypus, possessed 
of a still slover ^are of motion, S^T—maay plants pri^ia- 
gated from the deposition of birds, iv. S4<8. 

Platina, or white' gold, tiie most t^stinate of ail substaocM, 
i. 64.. 

Playtipus, a new and singukr quadruped from New HoUaod, 
descnbed by Dr. Shaw, iii. 271. 

Plewonectes, or flat-fish, described, t. 127. 

PHitif, in bis arrangements, different from the present, placed the 
bats amon^ birds, iii. 226. 

Plover, the green and grev, are birds of paisag^the Norfolk 
plover — season of courtship, iv. 332. 

Pochard, & kind of duck, iv. 411. 

Poetry, onr ancestors excelled us in the poetic arts, as they- 
ha^ the first riding of all the striking images of nature^ 
ii. 113. 

Pointer, a kind of dog, iii. 17. 

Poiion, the moat deadly poisons are ofteil of great use in medi- 
tatte, i. 355 — fishes often live and subsist upon such sub- 
nances as are poisoofiiu to the more perCect classes of ani- 
mated nature— that numbers of fishes inflict poisonous wounds, 
in the opinion of many, cannot be doubted-»-the many specu- 
lations and conjectures to which this poisonous^uality in some 
fishes has given rise, v. 155 — some crabs found poisonous, 
177 — the seat where the poison in venomous serpents, v. 352 
•—the serpent poison may be taken inwardly without any seo- 
'sible effects, or any prejudice to the constitution — ao ia- 
Btance of it— if milk be injected int» a vein, it will kill with 
more certain destruction than even the poison of the viper, 
v. 357. See Firejtare. 

Polar regions, descnption of them, i. 8 — and of the inhabitants 
round them, ii. 72. 

Pok-oOt, a distinct species from the ermine, iii. 79 — resembles 
' the ferret so much, that some have thought them Hie same 
attimal i^— there are many distinctions between them — wsr- 
reners assert the pole-cat will mix with the ferret— M. Buffim 
deniea it — description of the pole-cat— very destructive to 
young game— the rabbit Us favourite prey ; and one pole-cat 
destroys a whole warren by a wound hardly perceptible— 
genwally reside in woods or thick brakes, making boles two 
yards doep nnder ground— in winter, they rob the hen-roost 
and the dairy— -particularly desttucttve among pigeons— ^md 
feast upon their brains— fond also of honey— female brings 
forth in summer five or six. young at a time, and supplies the 
want of milk with the blood ofsuwanimalsas she can seine— 
the for is m less ettimation than of inferior kinds, and why — 
en inhatnuuit of temperate clinat«, being afraid of cola as 
2 2 

L, . h.L.oogIc 

mllai hebt— the MdcuaeaafinAdiaSbivpo toft rwgsfinn 
Polaod to Uily, iii. 8S, ftc— p»l«-cal of AjBfricft Md Vir- 
mla are names for the aqvoth and tbe ikiok — dictuictioM of 
uioao anumla, 98— uwea the flriag aquireelt 146. 

PoUi, trade-winds GtrntiooaUy blow from tlmn tawardt the 
equator, i. 348 — tlie violcr begioniDg round the polea, the. 
aame lauty appeaiaoce produced in the southern donates 
by hfiU is there produced by cold— tho sea smokes like an 
Aven there— licnbis of the inbabitacts of thou regiooa aone- 
times frozeo and drop off, 330— « ve approach the nerib 
pole, tbe aize of tbe natives proporlioaably diRuaishes. grow- 
■Dg less and lest as we advance hi^ei— tiw strength of the 
natives rouad the [Kdar r^iona is not lass awaaing than their 
patience in hunger, ii. 75. 

Polmeimu, description of this fish, v. 125. 

" , Tcey vofaciou^— its descrtption«».iiies its arms as a 

[BMi hia net— is not of the v^stable tribe, bat a nal 
animal — examined with a microscope, several little fpecfcs 
are seen like buds, that pullulate from diSerent parts of the 
bedj, and these soon appear to be young polypi, beginnio^ 
to oast dieir mtle arms about for prey ; the aame food is 
^gasted, and senas tot Dowishment of both— eruy polypus 
has • oalaay spsontiBg from its body ; and these new one, 
e««a while attached to the psrent, become parenta then- 
seheSi with a smaUac colony also budding from them— though 
cat into thouWBJi ^ parts, each stiU letaiw its viruwni 
quality, and shortly becomes a distivct and coiiq>)ele po^ns, 
£t to rnvoduce opoa cnttiBg in pieoaa •* it hunts for ita 
food, wid posseasaa a power of choosing it of retceativg from 
daogat, i. SSS — dinwoiions of tbe se^^ioiypiu. and ^ that 
whiok gKws in fresh waters — the power « dissectioi first 
tried upon these aoimaU to multiply thaix numbeca — r Mr- 
Trembley.has the hoiMHir of the ficst iiscomy of the atoaite 
properties and powers of this animal— this class of aBiwift 
divided into four diiimnt kinds- 1 csa thod rf coacelving »jwt 
idea of thur ^guifr-Hnanner itf Wegthewiw or cootracung 
itself— pEc^rassive notion— no Bppeaiaaee efan <^|an of a^fht 
found over the whole body— inclioed to turn towarda the 
li^ -» their w^ of Uvixg -.- ^sss. serve ihsm as lifloe- 
twiga do a lowler— how it seizes upon its prey— tes(i6«» its 
hunger by oparung iu mouth —• having seised the pnv, 
epens its mouth, in proportion, to the sise of what it wMud 
•wallow, whsther fish, flesh, or inseett- - rten two moutbl 
an joined vpam one common prey, tha laegest swallows his 
antagonist ; but aiter layiag. in the onqsMror'a bo^ for ahaut 
an hour, It isfwcs unhurt, snd often in poaaaaaipn of dw 
y of ooateniian — the &id appFoubing tocengeialww» Aey 
1 ihft general torpor of nature, nod Omir fiwultJea era for 
two or three raopths suapended-^sueb as are bait siMfiid, 
soonest acquire their largest size, but they ■^miniJi also bk 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 


their povA iritfa Dm MRM fiM(Ut7i If tMc food batosicnea 
I m mt pwf git id fnm cggi i toau produoed by buh tuu- 
iii|[ Awa u* body at (iWDtt by irooitlBtien i wfaSa iH may 

* * * Wrw ** Brfaute- 

HMii the ftrent 

i pwf git id fnm cggi 1 tiKiM produoed by buh tuu- 
Ka u* body at (iWDtt by irooitlBtien i wfaSa iH may 
ruuk^ed by cuttmgs to m aBoofa* dwrae «f uridute- 
»— of thoie piAducM br bndi imung mm 

D, ihoiild the parMt swaOoir a nd worm, it girai ■ tltlc- 
! to all in fluidi, nd tfae roung fuxtAtt w ifat paraAtal 
mr { but if thr Utter abould seise uptw Ibi ume ^twf, the 

Item, I 
- ' ture t 


parent is no vay benefited by the capture, &II the ailvtUiitge 
tkot remaitu witfa the yonng -^ several young «f diftMnt 
•izea an gnnring fron it> bodyi lotne just buddiAf fttrth, 
' ethera acquiring perfect form, vid Othen reedy to drof> tr&m 
tiiB oririnal itMn t those yousg, rtiil MtMdied to the pMesI, 
bud ana propagktie alae, each hoidiDg dependence npoa ita 
parent — aroGcial method of propagnii^ them aninMli by 
cntting»— Mr. Hugbae deawibes a ■pecisa of this atiinid, but 
mistitfes ill nature, and cidla it a leniitlra flowering danl, vi, 
188. "^ ,: 

Polt^t-coral, the wot-fc of an infinite aomber of r^tifea of that 
kind, vL 19S— in every coraline aubitance 4re a number of 
polypi, 197. 

Pot^, name g:tren by Battel to fha otining*DUtaBg, ill. ^86, 

POmia affect with drowBineas lliote who walk throu^ fielda 
01 them, or are occupied in preparing the flowen fyt epiulu, 
i. 270. 

PorcetatM, an aitilScifll cotnpoaition of earth and water, udh^dby 

heat, i. 140. 
. Pontine, an enlarged hedge-hog— ila daKription.-^ all thoie 
brought into Europe, not one ever seen to launch ita qtlills, 
thodgh greatly provoked — dteh manner of deRiBCe — 
directs Ita quills pointtcg to the enemy— KtAcn relates, the 
lion then will not venture an attack— •feeds m serpents end 
other r^iUleS'-the porCD[Hiw and snpent ar« said iwver to 
nwet wrthout a mmial engaMment -• bow it d e s tr oys and 
devwratbeBa— .ofCanadaaubetmotivegs li b l e a ii t feea a toeaght 
to dis coButry tm Ae*, Dsually Ad M bread, srilk, and 
' ftuitB t do not refuse neat when of^eA^i^i extivnsriy burt- 
Ail to gatdens-4he Americans, who hunt it, btfeve it lives 
frota twelfe le fifteen vears^-dariug thfl dole of- coui^iog, m 
^» nontii of SenlemMr, the vilaa becomi fiarca and dan- 

ita twelfe IS fifteen vears^-dariug tl 
B nontii of SepiemMr, the vilaa b 
rona, and eflan destroy eadh oiber 

„ a eitan destrme 

of sestation — the female brings forth one «t a thne ) die 
BHcUea it abMitawmth, aad acthutoaaa ittoUvelike her- 
•etf, npew vegetaUei and the bark of trees the female terr 
flen> in the oefence of her young ; at other atawoa, fea>fu^ 
timid, and harmless ^ never attempts to biie 4r any way 
ii^we its pursam— mtnnef of canpiiig, «h«i banted bf a 
dog or a wolf— thd Indkat porsae it to make w disid a my 
wiihiia quills; tad cat itt ifM -»drawMt«ttCH ooMMfsriog 

it remUDiog to be kaown— little known with ^r^ffion, except 
vbat oflers in a state of captiTity— deecriptioti of one kept 
in an iron cage— the porcupine of America diSen mucli from 
that of the ancient contiDent — two kinds, the couandoW and 
the unon— description of both, iii. 204!. , 

PoTcvfiBe of the Sea, described, v. 110. 

Pork, unpalataUe with us in summer, is the fiaeat eatii^ in 
warmer latitudes, and preferable to hog's fleBh in Europe, ii. 

PoTput, or Parpesie, a fish less than a grampus, with the anout 
of a hog — its dencription and habils — a fishery for them along 
tlie western isles of Scotland, in the summer season, when 
they abound on that shore— live to a considerable age, though 
eoine say not above twenty-five or thirty years—^leep with 
the snout above water — possess, proportion ably to their 
bulk, the manners of whales — places where they seek for 
prey — destroy the nets of fishermen on the coasts of Corn- 
wall — manner of killing them in the Thames — yield a large 
quantity of oil — the lean of some, not old, said to be as well 
tasted as veal — caviar pr^ared from the eggs of this fish, v. 

Pbrlt cheaked up with sand by the vehemence of the wind, 

Pouch, or bag, of the civet, differs in its opening from that of 
the rest nf the weasel kind — description of it, iii. 106— of the 
bustard, under the tongue, capable of holding near seven 
quarts of water, iv. 151 — of the pelican, hides as many fish 
as will serve sixty hungry meif for a meal— its description, 

PovUry, general characteristics of tbp poultry kind— they live 
together ; and each conscious of his strength, seldom tries a 
second combat, where he has been once worsted— kept in the 
same district, or fed in the same yard, they learn the arts of 
subordination— the young of the kind, not fed with meat put 
into their moutiis, peck their food — the female intent on 
providing food for her young clutch, and scarce takes any 
nourishment at all — among the habits of this class of birds 
is the peculiarity of dusting themselves.— nearly all domestic 
birds of this kind, maintained in our yards, are of foreign 
extraction — the courtship of this kind is short, and the cvn- 
gress fwtuitous— the male takes no heed of his of&pring— ■ 
though timorous with birds of prey, he is incredibly bold 
among fais own kind ; the sight of a male of his own spedea 
produces a combat— the female takes all the labour ofhatcb- 
ingand bringing up. her young, choosing a place remote from 



fWiRDfy of some women Camtd to continue » moiiA beyond 
& usual time. i. S81— of all aoimals, in point of Ume, is pro- 
portioned to tbek size, iL 167. 

Pramre, perpendicular in riferg, always in exact proportion to 
the depth, i. 168. 

Praif, all ^e malea of these birds are a third leu, and weaker 
tfian the females, iv. 63. See Birds. 

Pricket, name bunten give the buck the second' year, ii. 

. S23. 

PricHy^ned Sthet, their descriptioD, v. 121. 

Pro^gation of gnats, one of the ttrangeit discoveries in natural 
history, tL 163 — b new kind lately discovered in a most 
numerous tribe of animab, propagated by cuttings, 170 — 
different manners of that operation in the polypi, to the 
attonisbment of the learned of Europe, 190. 
- PropoU*, a resinouB gum, wiA which the bees plaster tlie inside 

. ^ m Ibetr hires, vi. 97. 
. Proportioa of the human figure, little known with precision in 
' - regard to it — diSereot camions upon the subject, i. 427. 

Ptarmigan, sort of grouse, chiefly found in heathy mounttuns 

- and piny forests, at a distance irom mankind— size and colour, 
iv. 152. 

Phtkiriaas, the lousy disease, frequent among the ancients— prin- 
. cipal people who died of this disorder — plants and anunala 

- are intested with diseases of this kind — s vegetable louse from 
America over-run all the phyaiC'Sarden at Leydeo^the leaf- 
louse described— the males have four wioga, the females never 
bare any — when they perceive the ant behind theDi,they kick 
back with their hind feet— diree principal and ctHistant ene- 
mite to these insects, v. 417. 

Puffin, or CotUtemeb, marks that distingiush this bird — its reu- 
dence— •migrations — found by hundreds, cast away upon 
shores, lean and perished with famine — lays one egg — tew 

' birds or beasts venture to attack its retreats — in what manner 
it defends itself against the raven— the Manks, puSo is iself 
one of the most terrible invaders— instances of it — places 
which abound with them — in what muiner their young are 
fed — their food — formerly their Hesh was allowed by the 
church on lenten days — they bite extremely bard, and keep 
such hold of what they seize, as not to be easily disengaged— 
their noise when taken very disagreeable, like the efforts of a 
dumb person attempting to sp^k — quantity of oil in their 

: bodies, iv. 389. 

Purre, a small bird of the crebe kind, with a shorter bill, and 
thighs bare of feathers, iv. 332. 

Puteoli, a city swallowed up by an earthquake, had a temple t£ 
Serapis, the pillars of which, while under water, were peoe- 

, trated by the pholas, or file-fish, v. 252. 

Putrtfaction, a ■uppOKd.cauie of aninwl life — late diicomiea 

; iMra iiiiiHMd oooy to dwbt whether uiDial ISb cmbm be 

' produced iMrely irara tJiwiKe, ). Sfi3. 

i^^n^ of Tyson, the Duraog-ouUng, or tlio trild mm of the 

vooda, iiU 377> 
tyramids of Bgypt, one of them entirely built (tf s kind of 6%e- 

•tone, in whiw pefriied eheUi ue found in netf idiunclancei 

2^rt(M, Ihdr compoutioa — sulpbur and iron blended wait 

heated with air or water, will form these, and marcante** 


QuadTvpedt, of all raolES of animated nature, bear the oaarest 
resemblance tp man ; ore less changed by influence of climate 
or food than the lower ranks of nature — some are oi so 
equivocal a nature, it is hard to tell whether they ought to 
be ranked in this class, or degraded to those belpw ttem— 
instances of it, it 14S— the weaker races exert all eftirtB to 

, svoid their invaderB, 157'-4iext to human infiuence, the cU- 
mate seems to have the stron^Bt effects upon their nature 
«ad form, 161— ^oth at the line and the pole, tbe'wildare 
fierce and untameable, 162— <me class of teese entirely 1^ 
to chance, no parent stands forth to protect them, and no in- 
fltruolor leads, or teaches them die arts of subsistence j these 
brin^ forth above two hundred young at a time, 163 — Aate- 
rica inferior to us in theae productioBs— i^Hnioa, that all in 

- South America are a diSeumt species from those moat re- 
sembling them in the eld world — such as peculiarly bdMg 
to the new coatineht, are without any marks of the pofec- 
tion of thdr species, 164 — the large end fonaidable produce 
iwt one vouog at a time ; while the mean and contemptible 
are prolifit>-wisely ordered so by Providence, 165 — those 
tbat ore aipphibious have motitw in the lower eye-lid alone, 
i. 411— 4hose that ruminate are harmless, and easily toned 
'T-they are chi^y the cow* the sheep, and the deer Icind, ii. 

Qft^ga, an animal resembUug the aebror but distinct fi-om it, 

Qtwi^, a bird of p a ss age — description of i^time of its migra- 
tions—opinion, that It only goes from one part of a countiT to 
another— their long joumies doubtful— how caught by a ca^- 
number of their eggs— fight desperately at the season of court- 
ship, and easily taken at that time, iv. 161. 

Qaail^luing, & iavoatita amusement among the Athenians— 
at^tamed Rom the flesh of this bird, supposing it fed upon 
white hellebore.— reared numbers of tbetn for fighting, aod 
b«Uedsuii»<^inoiieyfU wedooacocks,iv. 16£L 


I N D E X. 

e^ebOhirt TcmrtHJile effixtt »f itiitiheniDesneatUM, n- 

. Ined hj Dr. Pop«, i. 68-Hl>«l>eBi^ subttutce fn the wortd. 

cxee^ gold— 4aatfl upon wMci b^ b imrticidiir eiperimebt, 

188 — imnty-ime ponnda and s half e^al in bidk to K haa- 

' drsd fomA weight of gold, 159. 

l}Mtti{aftbei)WmHi»), the IndtBaseEDbroider.irith them their 
belts, baskets, ana eevend other necesaarj pieces of furniture 
H^nqdW whether the qui&s of the porcapice can be sent off 
with « make, iii. S09. 
Qfuto, in Sotith America, coital city oF, one of the most cbann- 
' ing re^ns upon earth— this part higher than an; other coun- 
. try in tb« worlds i. 125. 

Bablntt, have eyes of a red colour, i. 409— rsbhit and hare of 
' distinct kinds— refuse to mix with each other-^Instance of it 
•—few qaadrapeda can overtake the rabbit ia a short run, iii. 
127 — a creature covered with feathers and hair, s^d to be 
bred between a rabbit and a hen — their fecundity greater 
than that of the hare— breed seven times a vear, and bring 
' e^bt young each time— love the sunny fidd, and open pas- 
tiffe— 4he ffem^ sucldes the young about a month — the male 
attends the young, leads them out, and conducts them back 
— have an external retreat at a distance from (he warren, as 
a kind of country-house— female brings forth in a part of 
tile warren separate from tbe male, and digs herself a hole, 
more intricate, at the botton of which je a more ample apart- 
ment^some hair she pulls from her beliy makes a bed for 

- her young— the male, after six weeks, acknoiHedges them 
as hu otupring, smooths their skin, and Ucks their eyes, iii. 
197, &c, 

JtabAkt (tame), in a warren, continue exposed to weather, 

without borrowing — in two or three generations, they find the 

necessity and convenience of an asyluni— various colours of 

rabbits — the mouse-colour kinds ortginally firom an island in 

. the river Humber— still continuing tneir general colour, after 

- a number of successive generations — account of Uieir produce 
timi— surprising obedience and submission of descendants to 
tii«r commtm parent— the descendants quarrelling, his ap- 
pearance restores peace and ord^ — sometimes he punishes 
them as an example to die rest — other instances of superiority 

- of the common parent — the rabbit generally ftitter, and 
' lives Imiger than the hare— its flesh less delicate—nattve of 

the warmer climates — it has been imported into England 
from Spain — in mne of the islands at tbe Mediterranean, 

I;. L.oogic 

they multiplied io uicb BUnben tbftt mOittry aid i»as de- 
manded to deaUoy themT-lave a w«rni climate — Englisb 
counties mut noted foi thein~-del^t ia a tandj loil— the 
tame larger than the wild — indulgea in too great plenty of 
moist food, as the feeders express it, are apt to grow rotten— 
their hair employed in Engird for leveral purpooea— the dua 
of the male preiEerred, iii. 130, &c 
Rabbit (Syrian), remarkable for the length, gloss, aod softnes* 
of its hair, iii. 133 — in some places ctirlea at the end like 
wool, and shed once a year ia large masses ; and snne part 
dragging on the ground, f^pears like another leg or a longer 
tBLl — no rabbits natural m America^ those carried firom 
Europe multiply in the West-India islands abundantly— on 
the continent there are animals resembling the European 
rabbits, 134. 

Rabbit (Brosilian), shaped like the English, but without atul— 
dees not burrow like ours, and is not above twice the size of a 
dormouse— Guinea-pig placed by Brision among animals of 
the rabbit kind, iii. 160. 

Racoon, with some the Jamaica-rat— its description, and habits 
—do more injury in one night in Jamaica, than the labours of 
a month can repair — capable of being instructed in amusing 
tricks ; drinks by hoping, as well as by aucking— its food, iiu 

RainbaiM, circular rainbows in the Alps, i. 121 — and between 
the tropics, and near the poles, 324— ^me of the three rain- 
bows seen by Ulloa, at Quito, was real, the rest only itAea- 
tions thereof—a glass globe, Med with water, will asauQue 
successively all the coloura of the rainbow— upon the iaes of 
very high mountains, circular rainbows are seen, and wny~- 
a lunar rainbow, near the poles, appears of a pale wlute, 
striped with grey — the solar rainbow, in Greeoland, ap- 
pears of a pale white, edged with a stripe of dusky yellow, 
1. S28. 

Rain^oKl, the name given in some parts of the country to the 
wood-pecker, and why, iv. 191. 

Raitu of blood, the excrements of an insect at that time raised 
into the air, i. 333. 

Rams, it is no uncommon thing in the couoUes of Lincoln and 
Warwick, to pve fifly guineas for a ram, li. 25i. 

Ranguer, tlie name of the ninth variety of gazelles, made by M. 
Buffon, ii. 2S3, 

Rare/action of air, produced by the heat of the sun-beams in 
countries under the line, bein^ flat and sandy, low and exten- 
sive, as the deserts of Africa, i. 285. 

Rats, Musk-rat, three distinctions of that species— the ondatra, 
desman, and pSori— 'the ondatra differs from all others, bavhig 
the tail flatt»i and carried edge-ways— in what they resemble 
each other— female of the oaoaVa haa two apertuces, one for 

urine; the sdier £» ftopigUi(m~i&ey cfln. creep into a hole, 
where otben, seemiaglj mu(^ Ian* cannot foUmr, «nd wl^ — 
th^ resemble the beaver in natme and dispoMtios— UaBner 
of hfe--4heir faooses during winter are covered on^ a depth 
of eight or ten feet of mow— the ama^ee of Canada think the 
musk-rat intolerabli' £cettd, but deem its flesh goodea^g, iii. 
n9~great rat, called also rat of Norxoay, though unknown 
in all northern countries — tTriginall; from the LeTOUt, and s 
new comer into this country—first arrival upon the coasts of 
Ireland, with ebipa trading in provisions to Gibraltar— ^ 
ait^le pair enougn for the numerous pri^eny now in&ating 
the British empire — called b; M.-Bufibn the twrmaiot-~\SM 
description— the Norway rat has destroyed the Hack rat m 
common rat, as once called ; and, beiog of an amjAlbioua 
nature, has also destroyed the frogs in Ireland — great mis- 
chief done by the Norway rat— it swims with ease, dives 
with celerity, and soon thins the fish-pond—the feebler ani- 
mals do not escape the rapacity of the Norway rat, exceot 
the mouse — they eat and destroy each other— the lar^ male 
keeps in a hole by itself, and dreaded by its own species, as a 
most fonnidiible enemy — produce from fifteen to thirty at a 
time ; and bring forth three times a year — quadrupeds which - 
have antipathies against the rat — the Hack rat has propagated 
in America in great numbers, introduced from Europe, and 
ig become the most noxious animal there — its description— ■ 
Hack water-rat, not web-footed as supposed fay Ray — - its 
description — its food — is eat, in some countries, on fast- 
ing days — the nux-vomica, ground and mixed with meal, 
the most certain and the least dangerous poison for IdUing 
rats, ill. 167. 

Rat of Surinam. See Phalanger, iii^'^ST. 

Rat of Jamaica, a name by some given to the racoon, iii. 

Rattlesnake, its description, and dimensions — tSecU of its bite 
—the remedies ag^nst it^power of charming its prey into its 
mouth — facts related to this purpose, v. S63— kind of friend' 
■hip between it and the armadilla, or tatou, freqaently found 
in the same hole, iii. 224. 

Bavetu, how distingui^ed from the carriim-crooj and rool— 
manners and appetites — raven found in every region of the 
world — white ravens often shown, and rendered so by art — 

- trained up tor fowling like a hawk; taught to fetch and carry 
like a spaniel — to speak tike a parrot ; and to sing like a man, 
with distinctness, truth, and humour — amusing quaKtiea, 
vices, and defecte~-faod in the wild state — places for buildii^; 
nest —number of eggs — will not permit their young to keep 
in the same district, hut drive them off when sufficiently able 
to jdiift for thesuelvea — tiiree of the Western Islands occupied 
by a pair of ravott each, that drive off all other biidi with 

I;. L.oogic 

giMttitki ami &awHnllf--«lek tMil Afl oyM «r ahw» Rod 

ud (ntt fan ptU it pnfiMnd vmerttlofi — FNsf't tccoime 

- .ti am Icipt in tht tsmple «f CaaMr, mA flew ^dmi Imo tlM^ 
Aaf of • MSdr— Mmw bate lived nmr • himdred j«an«~in 
dearwaMter iktr By la agreat htisht, tn^twa 
den loud aoIm diBwant fron thdr unui ereanng, ir.-lT^ 
diB 1iorm4 indiao nwn, IM. 

R^, (Mr.) Ml rattfaod of danns anfanab, il 131. 

Rag, figUK of the flih of thU uad, and their diArencM— 
anaauig diaieaiiau«roDe tpeared bjr Uictve* at Gumlalmpe 
oendit Ae Norway tHslMp, ibtie are BOnic ab<»'e araue 
- mpposcd to be the largeM inhabiUmti of tlw dem — 
I itt retreat in ttuJi pmt tf the sea ai have a mdc- 
noddy boRoni— the nnall approach tiu shorn— their food- 
til^ generate in March and April, wbeD they swrte near 
die MtrAoa of the water, Kreral nude* piimiine one femah . 
adhere lo fint- in coitim, that die fi*herm«i mqdebtly draw 
npbMh togellier, though only one was hooked— three htoidred 
'^ga taken out of the body of a nj •— In what tnanner Ae 
egg* i^«f into the wetnb from the ovary, or egg-bag—breed- 
ing oeawa in October, and in May are in highest perfection 
— account ofthe method of taldng them, r.Y5— all extteroelv 
d^cato in l^Ir dioice of Iiaita; a fuece of herring or had- 
dock twehe hoan out of ^e sea, and then used aa a hak, 
' titey will Dot touch— best weather fbr takit^ Oiem^method 
lutd by the Itdiaaa in the Mediterranean tatirice tbta SA— 
Aey bait a Ihie of twenty miles long, with ten or twelve 
thoaaoDd hooka— no way ef seising the rotwh lay, but by the 
little flo at the end of the tail, 82. 

Am* ofUgkt moderated, and thdr violence diaaipated by the afr, 
C ST7. - 

Rayt of the wr, darted directly upon the surTace of the water, 
coanpared to BO mny bars of rea>het iron, i. 3I5< 

Amot^A, the cory^uma of the prickly-finned thoracic kind- 
its w»cripti<», V. 189. 

RmrtheU, the jmot, iu motion and h^its— it idlured by salt, 

Rad-brea^t a song-bird, aeemiiiKly mild; daims a diMriet, 
wfoeoce h seldom moves, bat dnvea away every one of the 
aame species wiAont pity, ir. 29— its voice has the delicacy 
af the flute-^loces where found— its nest, and the number 
of eggs, 360. 

Rtdshm/e, a Und of crane, iv. S3S. 

Bed-ttaH, a bird of the sparrowkind, iv. 247. 

Retl-mTtg, or Fidd^fare, bird of passage — its heat and eggs, iv. 

■Rtud, stuck into the ground in Persia, where the earth is impreg- 

Mted wUb in fl ii mm itte n^aaot coqtiitaet to bum lik^ a 

lUne, name given to &• &iaalfl of the RoJ', if. 340. 

HeiiMleer, killed by eight fiaglithtacn upon tha cout of Gieon- 
Ind, for tlieir aaMtBlmcv, ranMioed ifieet eight mmthi, witb' 
■ out u»y —it whatever, i 3B&. For tbe tlMcriptiaa of tjtii 
•Biiml. M* Jtoar.-ii. 34a 

BtHfB*, peinMn am never fully jnjjtale tbat bold relicns vtuch 
both ayea give to the objwt, ii.:29> 

Stmon the ntoiHV::;£ii> it sticiu t« tb« (buk and draiot aniy 
iti moistiire— the mmmu believe it attends the abark to paiiit 
out pmr t and afqwiie him of danger j for tbi* fwuoo it is 
cdled the Skark't j)il«t, v. 7^. 

it^ifvdiicttaflt the fint discovery of the power of repivductim in \ 
minals owing to Mr. Xr9nbley--«xpwiniaBts made to this 
pvipoiq, vi. 177. 

A^mofi grow tQ aprodigioHi me in the uitsroal puts ^ So«th 
Ain«rica and Africa* arid wby> ii. 5 — many of the more 
biinVle kinds aot onlv tionfined to one oanptiy, bat to: a 
l>)apt { nay. even to a Ua f— eptirely wiimiJated to the pUnt 
tb«y feed <h> i, assunw iu colour, and medicinal fx^terbea — 
takfp fr«tn that, tbey iostuitly dia— infiaito nanobKi «^ them 
not >eea in thui part of the worhlt and wby. i. SfiOi 

SetpiraiioH in^iet, gesend method of explainiog it, v. I6t^ 
Mrticularly in tAat of the whale kind, 26. 

AatqctforiM, a rumnatiRg . ambnoli ii- 33(><->nat 8&«M Msgjy to 
i^^«ae tba Um, 4<}2'~jm94 to the depbant the moat poveribl 
of aninuU — gfloaral outline «f it— the elephant ddWl n d by 
it>-4t« hern sopietime« found fron tliree to Hum Sett and a 
half long — this born compoied of the moat aoHd itilhitaBfr, 

. ^ md pointad w) •» to iafiict the meet fiital wa n nda i fab ulow 
reports of this anima]-~description of its tangua by L'Avacat 
-..« .rhinoceros aantfroBiBeogvl to I-oodont not above twa 
years old, cost near a tbouawd pounds for bis ooavwyHce 
and food— hovr it was Ad-^f a gratia ditpoii(loo, pan^ted 
iUelf to be touched and handled by aU viiitaH^ '*1fA|rtiafl m 
nischief but vhep abused, or hw^ry ; no nathod of q^peas- 
io^ its fury then but by giving it something to flM--wfaen 
angry, it jumped Bgaiast the walls of the room witb great 
vielenoe~its aea^jts food-^places where found'-4n tosie 
parts of Aeia those antmaU ate tssoed, and led i«ta the field 
to strike tO'^or iulo the anpiuy, In|t are a« d*ngan>M to ilie' 
^ployere— method of taking them— «aine iouiid in Africa 
witli a double born, one abovo the ot h er— ra a w raniiriaal 
virtues ascribed to th^ hooi when takofi iq pprderi without 
•ay fau n d a lioa, iii. 'iSJ, Ac, 

JUlxr*, all our BToateK find tbair soitfce amosg mouBtaioat i. 
llS^-mako tfwi own beds, and levfl tb« boMan of tfa^ 
i linnngli ri v«ra dig aai widw than« to a gettaw dgg^e 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 


•^tlieir haala appear abon water after inundations, when 
the adjacent valley is overflown, and why — their giniUMities 
and turnings more nuraeroua as they proceedr-a certain sign 
with the iavageR of North America, they are near the sea, 
when they find the riven wiodine and often chasing in- 
direction — rirera rise in the middle, and the convexi^ iain 
proportion to the rapidity of the stream — when tides flow np 
with violence against the natural current, the greatest r^idity 
is then found at the sides of the river, and why — at these times, 
the middle waters sink in s furrow — a little river received into 
a large, without augmenting either width or depth, and why 
instance of it— a river tending to enter another either per- 
pendicularly or in an opposite direction, will be diverted by 
degrees from that directron, and <Aliged to make itself a more 
ftvourable entrance with the stream of the former — the anion 
of two rivers into one makes a swiiter fiow^ -and why— what- 
ever direction the ridge of the mountain has, tbe river take* 
the opposite course, i. 169 — their branches compared to a 
number of roots conveying nourishment to stately treeB~— 
eoually difficult to tell which the original— every great river, 
wnose source lies within the tropics, has its stated mundationa 

' —those of countries least inhabited are very rocky, and broken 
into cataracts, and why, 182 — some lose themselves' in the 

' sands or are swallowed up bv chasms in the earth — at ibe 
poles necessarily small, and why—^the rivers of Euri^ more 
navigable and more manageable than those of Aftica and the 
torrid zone, I B8 — all rivers in the world flowing into the sea 
with a continuance of their present stores, would take up, at 
a'rude computation, eight hundred years to fill it to its pres^it 
height, 191. 

Robin red-breast,- 3. slender-billed birdof the sparrow kind, tiring 
upon insects, ir. 247. 

RoA, great bird, described by Arabian writers, and exa^e- 
tated by fable, supposed to be but a species of the condor, 
betweeii the-eagle and vulture, iv. 80. 

Roe-bvck, the smallest of the deer kind in our climate — is 
description — difiers from the fallow-deer, from the stag, and 
from all the goat kind— faces the stag, end often comes ofF 
victorious— those budcs live in separate families; the sire, 
dam, and young, associate, and admit no stranger into tb^r 
community — never leaves its mate — rutting season continues 
but fifteen days, ft'om the end of October to the middle of 
November— female goes with young five months and a hal^ 
produces two at a time, and three rarely — her tenderness in 
protecting them very extraordinary —names given by hunters 
to the dift'erent kinds and ages of it— time of shedding its horns 
•^its life seldom longer than twelve or fifteen years ; and tame 
not above six or seven— is of a delicate constitution — easily 
tnbdued, but never thoroughly tamed^ls cry neither so load 

I;. L.oogic 


nor so frequeoi BS the sUg*s— hanten eftsUy imitate the eall. 
' of theyoung to the dam, and thus aUqre her to destruction 
-T-lhis -AoiniRl conteoled to slake its tbirit with the dew on 
tbe gran and leaves of trees— prerera tender braoches and 
buds of trees to com and other vegetables— we have but two 
known varieties— the flesh of those between one and two years 
old the fastest delicacy known— 4nm% comlnon in America 
than in Europo— rinhabitants of LouisianA live upon its flesh, 
which tastes like mutton when well &tted — the breed ex- 
tremely numerous, and the ^rieties in proporUoo — found 
dao in Brazil, where called cuguacuapara ; and in China- 
its deicribuen there confound it with the muik-goat, though of 
of B different nature, n. S26. 
' Boiler, a beautiful bird of the pie kind, its description, iv. Ifi7- - 
Bomans cut down all the woodi and forests in Britain, and why, 
i. 237 — in battle,' open tbe!r ranks to admit the elephant, 
and separating it from assiBtance compelled its conductors to 
calm its fury and submit, iii. 352 — tbe vanltv of their boasts 
best shown by tbe parrot kind, in a huntfred qiecies now 
known, not ooe of those birds naturally breeds in any of ths 
countries that acknowledged the Roman power, iv. 223 — a 
Boman Emperor bad fifteen hundred flamingos' tongues served 
up in a single dish at a feast, 326 — a Boman senator used to 
throw into his ponds sucb of his slaves as ofiended him, to 
. feed the lampreys, v. 97~-infanious for a Boman to appear ia 

a dress in which silk entered into the composition, vi. 80. 
Books, of tbe pie kind, aot CAniivoroua-^.pIacea wh^ they build 
th^r nests.— their plan of policyT-youog couples making nests 
too near an old pair, a battle ensues, and the old become vic- 
torious — fatigues of the young in malciDR nests-^the fmufe 
beginning to lay, all hoatilities cease, ma she is su&red to 
hatch her brood without molestation— a foreign rook attempt- 
ing. to ioin society with thein, would have the grove in arms 
against him, and be expelled without mercy-^tlwir chief food 
^foreign rooks, iv. 177. 
Soiti, otlar of roses, a modem delicate peifiime, iii. lOS. 
Rouiette, the great bat of Madagascar, a formidable creatwe, 

described — drinks ^e juice of the palm-tree, iii. 232. 
Hoyrion crow, a bird of passage, described, iv. 177. 
Btiieth, the land-toAd, the only one of the kind that has the 

properly of sucking cancerous breasts, y. 283. 
Bijff, a small bird of the cron^ kind— manner of taking it— their 

BeBh in hiph estimation, iv. 340. 
Ruminant animals, most harmless and easily tamed— generally go 
in herds for mutual security— live entirely upon vegetables-— 
the meanest ef them unite in each other's defence~-are moi^ 
indolent and less artful than the carnivorous kinds, and why 
^4iature has enlarged the capacity of their intestines for a 
greater supply of food, ii. 217^tiie(r bowels cossidered as 

I;. L.oogic 

m lilbemlaiT #Mt vwMla in it— tiwir ii|M(Hni vtmBg, 
imby, snd veil eovered with &t — ftnd Woifbed wkJi 
four >troiw and miucuiar rto m a chi n aam g that wa not (mt~ 
nuh«d wiui fiwr ttomaob* — rumiiMnt ^uadruyd% bfrdg, 
fitlM^ iiiMcti, 218— men kninni ta nmmutei inatwcttw a 
jou^ »an at Brwlri, 231 — tboM of tha-«ow Idad b«ld«lia 
fiat nnk, Si£e--«11 <tf thii dna intMnaUy mudi alike. Si'? — 
have not the upfier hre-teUk, 254— tke itag psr&riM this 
with imre diJEcaltjr tbaa th« cov or ahetp, S05. 

fiuMMT, ibe GOrriiH, bird t£ the cnvK idady iti ' 

Awlj, B variety of Uaae pigcou, pMduced by 
iv. 231. • 

Riut, coppsi ud iroa qtucklr eavered and ctwroded with il^— 
gold Goatrncti no mM, and why, txvafi in tha elabwUriaa 
where salt is BMufa uaed» i. 358. 

Saik, its deicrlption, Aon Mr. Jooelin, the first accurate A-. 
server of this aiumal— aoUes laq> with eaae fraoa tMe •• trw, 
and arc aimd of the aun d iffe rent ooloan «f tMr fl^—hUBt- 
iaf the sd!>la daa^ the lot of aoidiara aod rrmdcTmrri -eri- 
ininal»>*how direeted to shoot tfaenii ilL 91, Ac 
Sain, the tradieptaniSt-doicripliOB ttf thia spuioas-Mii Vd J8&- 
a&ere, bird of the ccBeroat breed of ban^s, the Jagi aie of - « 

bluish colour, and aerve ta diituiguiah it, i*. 98. 
Sagfiree eat by Ae daphaat to the sturap, iii. S86. 
SagoiM, B trSie of aHNJues iriiiob have nebk malcsa. taiK m- 

8m, tfaebewailer,aiDodey of theIlowcootEaeBl,3i.815■ 
'SMA B Stag hard bunted, takina^to die wafer, is Mid to gaiail, 

Saiou, third sort of tb» aapajou, a monkay of iho mew eostiamt, 

Saki, the cagui, the largest monkey of the sagtH* kind — its 

description, iiLS16. 
Salamander, no such animal exittiog ea that described by Ae 
ancienb — the modem salamvidK a lizwd — its eonfomuliop 
and habits— reports concerning their ▼enMfr— ^dlo notioa. of 
its being ioconsumable by fire-4ts iotenal ConforatatloB— 
manner of its brining forth young — all an^hiluouf— aastaJB 
want of food gurprainslj, v. 906. 
Sai-atstaoHiac, made of ue urine of oanels) iii. 37B. 
fie/moN, a aoft-finned abdominal fish, v. 128— tlw yomtg ^"^ 
tinue in the egg fViun the bfyhmipg of DeoenDtt uU the 
bagtaaiaf of .^^il, 2S. 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

the soltneEs of the ocean — saltness found t 
patt of the ocean, ae much ^at the surface a 
'liao foUBd in some lakes — considered as a 
preserving the sea from putrefaction — it is 

- penmen ts— ad rantaget derived from the sal 
.TSrious attempts to make it fresh — its neigh 

Salt, Bay-salt, hrought from the Bay of Bisce 
. aiwie by evaporation in Ihe sun, i. 201 — fis 
any of the saltness of the sea-water, v. IfH— 
■ or rdior«beU, 241 — salt 'sprinkled upon thi 
whole body emits a viscous liquor, and it die 
ift graat a^imies, 315 — volatile caustic sail 

- quantity from the caDtharides fly, vi, ]i53. 
iSoMiVi, the aurora, the smallest and most be 

the sajMJou kind — its description — s vei 
■«d held in high price, iti. 316. 

Samoeid Tartars, description of that people, ii> 

Sand, rolling in waves like a troubled sea, and 
with inevitable deatnjction, i. 10— so fine, 
such violence, as to penetrate into chests, b 
■o closely, 295— tract of a couhtry , lying i 
in Lower Britanny, inhabited before the y 
4daert, being covered with Mod to the h«g 

Smiderlu^t smaU bird of the crane kind, iv. Si 

Sundp^er, e«wI1 bird of the crane kind, iv. 33 

Samd-stamt of Africa described, i. 300. 

aaTHt-^Mtp, account of, vi. 126. 

Smtttorin, aa earthquake ihate in 1707^anc 
i. 105. 

Sapajmt, name given to the monkies of the n 
. nave. muscular holding taJU — five sorts of tt 

Savagti more difficult in point of dress than 
uw^ry European— instance of it, i. 420— | 
of twelve hundred leagues in less than six v 
the women to a life of continual labour — a 
ropean walks backward and forward tbr his. 
the boast of corporal force now resigned 
and why, 437— are highly delighted with tl 
tida, ii. 48 — their customs in every country 
85 — those of AIVii;a the most Iwotal-^they* 
(Im, suppose raookies , to be men, ^i\c. 
beings, capable of speech and cot^^ .eaUO 
dugib, for fear of b^g compelled II*? VrfjW 

,Savours, mechanical maaner of b,?^!* ■*.! 
savours, ii. 49. ^^%vtt«^ 



tile wr^ca. of tiMI fMev, in ^s^MiigulBr-taaii^u^ «. .SS9f 240. 

aetftpatdTat the centifPsdMr « hidraus-wgt)! irom^ ^(Mrib«(,i 

■ ».4S7- . ,■' ■'.-■■ ' 

•qripdoD,- V. 123. 

£i;iMp«F. Sea ^vcMfii^ iv. 32fL - > - , ^ ' y - 

daspriptioD of this (»h, T. 124. 

Saorpioa, four principal jparU dlstbgiiiriMble ia tW uunal—tbe 
. leBenoir nbwe itii poiaon is kept — eSbcrs of iti^tfng- apoa a 
' dog, in ftB exfieriment oMde b^ M. Maupenutt— exjMvi- 
msDt^ laa^B upea othM doge— iDsUncM of its irucibl» na- 
ture and malignity— when driven to txtremityf dcstroyft itarif 
' — iDstanc«,of it — Ae male i mailer than the femata— tbeir 
ohief food— hoir th« comtnsn acerpian projuce* ita f oua^— 
; oeptivitj makes it destro; itcyoang— a BCorpi<m«f America 
produced froai tbe egg, v. 429i - .... 

Scorpion, {water) tea loeeet with vrioga, dsscxibed— ita- bituti, 

Scoter, an European duck, iv, 411. 

Seretch-ovil described, iv. I09i ...... ^ 

Sea, motion keeps itt water Bw«0, i. fitU— op«a io all, nAliaai 
tiii the time of the emperor Justiniani i, 194— senaibljr re- 
tired in many parts of the cont of Frsnoe, 'Eiwl^t^ IW- 
Jaad, Germany, and Pvossia, 239— Norwagiaa^ea^ilH fi 
eeveral iBlaoda from the maia land, and sliO ai'' 
tbe coQtineat, SS2— its colour not from adytfal 
' it, but from the differeot reflectiwm of .tb^i^raaf lig ht ^ K 
proof of it— though its surface be deformed bjtngipWlB, it 
IB iiiuallyoalm tttii temparatebelow— tbeaea'Sninw.calder 
in proportion b« diven descend, M2—BanoLa<]iii»'aD-o<MO 
n^ar the polet, nkea tbe winter begjoa, SSO-^&ofidi iiwbibe 
' aay of the Bea-aaltoeas with food or in re«p i ration— wfa; eoae 
species live only there, and expirewbeo brooghtintoiraah 
WBtcr,v.lS4.. - > 

Sea-brpam, an acoount o^ i. flQ7, t. 1S4. 

Seof^ga, name given to ih* mnllinlTe fiheU*^— «f 4lw wduni, 
Of upchins, which move, T. 218. 

S*a-feiiide6cribed,iH-265.. - 

Sea-netilet, name given by some to the staf'Ssb> vi. 18& 

Sta-tMrier, various melho«b.f«>pas9<lio rendw ii^ftMbfec the 
use of aeaiueH in long voyag^ i- 199 abojiit a fony'tiUi 
part besv'iei' th^n- fr^ WBte«-^| bewria^ -Bad. eonacquently 
i«to<irttl»PrneareTp»*mH-«aqtth»lioflra6«. -gee aattrWrtF. 

Sw-iuofin49ay^bs.multiplie<^by beji^ G«tin.piosBS,i.36$> Ste 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

otDer>~^8 deseiiptKn)— the yariAiei inn timer able-^tK^ bmn 
larwtt of ^ny BDOie]' — iU totigwe dig^e.4<^ «ther ^u^ru--. 

'.|Ma«^Uie foramen ovale In ,in hnrt never cletfnc,^ fiwi^lvi' 
cnntinuhir under water, thtnigh not to Img •» abn-m-ltie- 
«Btv 1*4 babilatkxti )|nd a^y §»h ita fo«d — inakes liltle^fse ^. 
i(B-!cn-^fli!ldoni at-a dfiUnce' fhxn-ilw abore— Ibund'm ^- 
MmiA and Ic^ Seoit and on those Bhorei in flocha.' Iti>kla^ 
(yi tiK rock*, and suckling tbeir youtaf^alanDe^, t&ey ptbn^ 

^ U^ethet into the )»ter — in thunder and torrenU-'tb«/ 
■port aloog the (bote, u delighted with umversal' iniOTder— ^ 

- gre^netA and migrant. cKcect ^eir course to nc^bem «eastfr 
anil Kas- ftetf of ice, t^ewiag time and tracfc-^how snd by 
what paMHgcs they retui^ unknoitn— they go-out fat' add 
reUtm leaU— fetodes ia ear ditnate bring forth inyittter— 
where they resr iheir yoling, iii.'255— hov they auekfett«a 
■^-ttw baa foiir teat« — id fineeo days, she brio^ ihe-young to 
then^atCT, WltHmnnd getfbed'— nohtlereKceedaWtr'-^e 

■ yOdng' .btraw- die motfiet's voice among thehleatitig*<f the 
t^d-r-assiA ea«h other in dan^,: anti are oBecKent ttiher ctill 
•— hunMiatt herd togelber, B«d hav& » variety ef tonec .like 

. dogf and oaia, to- pnrsue prey, or nam of danger— liieKiig 
nW«ral deaivet, (hey fight detpwatelyi wad the victorieui male 
)[4spa sU to himMir— two nev» fkfl npen one, eaoh has- Its 

- antagoaht— n^iMwr )engdi ^f lime in pregnancyi nor Huta- 
' tiQa> of th^e.umnflls' livcsi yet kno»o-~two takeoyouttg, after 

tea yean had the nnHfs of age— e^tpert at cst^ng fi>h~- 
' dcGtreybertingaby tbawandt^— aWia mdeep wMtfft,»ni dive 
with -n^iidfty — attaeked with atoneii th^ bite' at whit;ia 
ttu»«n>,raBd' to the last gaap annoy the enemy— time to buT' 
prne-thnu — ihoW the Eftirt^eana api Greenlaoders deatrey 

- tbettfbt' 'OUT llhnate tbey are wary, andraler m> approo^ 
-•-HWver •leep' witliout Aiovingi ttod addoai more than a si- 

nute-r-taken for ih^ slcin nnd oil— nset of the slflii when 
dreaaed — the fleah forniarly st the taWes-of the grrA^i^iB* 
stBRoeiof it— (he lea-lton^ ie Antoo'» Voyage; the krgM of 
tbeiMlfanulT, 261; 

Secretary-bird, devours serpents, ir. 99- 

SeedM, asmethowht to thrive betb^ for maeera^on intlte att^- 
mnch of birds, herorelbeybe voided en the eround, iv. 3H.' 

j^eMDlMWf Aeir illuiion wheit Oian - b newly brought into 
exiatsaoe, U.B2 — fish fall bebindienesttlal^nimida in'tbmr 
, apustioBB) y. & 

Sisntei, acting' at some distance, proportionsbly more capriUeo^ 
maliH^ eovN^Ratsoai; -and.'CdoNqaeady; more -iap r o v e a hle^ 
it. 45— of all senaea maii it mmrt idferior to that ef'ellMr 
Bninala in thUoFlmcMH^-^aitdUMMu Mil U-oAnd them, 

. '^e— tke gfgAMt, R«a nMltusefial- tf kII, is ikMof Adin(, A>d 
A A 2 

L, _ ,=.L.(Xm;Ic 

SensHht-ptaMt, hntMiBfich pttcept'ioa u the frtah-water pd/' 

put, i.S47. 
Sept, improper name of the Cbalcidisn llsard, the laM '^iaioo 

of that bind —description o£ tbJB animBl, v. S33 — its bite 

- veiy venMn9U£i 570- 

Serpents, tbe mb about the iilande of Aaorea replcDished irith 
dtem for want of motion, i. 200— tbe various hiMiop at the 
cloae of eveDiDg, make a louder aymphoity in ArricatluBbtrda 
ia European groves in a morning, ii. 155— the natural food 
' of the ichneumon, iii. 97— the only aainial in the -forest that 
opposed the inonkey-~Burpriung tbam sleeping, swellows thetn 
whole) before ihey have time for defence— moDkiei inhabit 
the tops of trees, and serpents cling to branches tomrd the 

- bottom ; thus near each other, as enemies in the sfiine fidd 
of battle— this vicinity thought to argue a friendship— moD- 
kies proroke the serpents by jumping over tbem, iii. SOS— 
sea-seipeol, the elops desoribed, v. 126 — hi«tories of antiquity 
exhibit a nation sinking under the ravages of a serpent, v. S^ 
—ReguluB leading bis army along tbe banks- c^ tbe> river 
Bagrada, in Africa, oa enorowui serpent di»pule<l the passage ; 

' i[B skin wn a hundred and twenty feet long-— awrks- dKst^ 
guishiRg them Itoeii the rest of animals— their confomatieB— 
and progressive motion— encounter of a great serpent with a 

' buSalo— entwines and devours the buflalo — long snpest of 
CoDgo— some briag theiryoung alive, some bring forih-eggs 
— some venomous, and eotae inoHengive — aoioiala wbich 
destrov tbem — boasted pretensions of chsRning ■erp«Dt« — 
have docility — Egyptians paid adoration to aserpent; and 
inhabitants of the wesiern coast of Africa retain tbe same 
veneration — all araphibious — their motion in Ewiniininjr— ex- 
cremenls of some kept as a-perfume in liidis'S-the fiscula- 
pian serpent— little sei^ent at the Capeof Good Hope, aad 
north of the river Senegal — (be prince of serpents amMiTe 
of Japan, the greatest favourite of: savages, and has not its 
equal for boauty — Beat-of poison in venqmoiu serpents; in- 
ftruQient by, the wound is^roade— those destitute of 
fangs are harmless — various appearances the venom produce 
— may be taken inwardlj' witbeu't seosible eSeets or-prejadice' 
to the constitution — instance of it — of the for«e of serpents- 
poison, by Ray— no animals bear abstinence solong— -their 
powers of digestion but feeble — their princtpat- food birds,' 
moles, toads, lizards-r-little serpents live for aeveral years in 
glasses, never eat at all, am stain the glasa with excretoflats, 
•v. 325, &c. 

Serval, a native of Mftlabar, rewstUng tbe paMiiw ib its spots, 
ii.436; ■ - " '^. ,. 

Srt/er, a dog of il« gen<«»Us kiod. iii. \Si Ig. ■ ■ 

Scij:rv, Unii>Hcy of ^ud riv^r the. most deJieMcoC sAjbAt ^' ^- 


IN D-E "x: 

the shark, by great labour, poliahed ioto the subsi'suce called 

, ■'ahaglretiti vj-TS.-' I ■ '" ' ' ~- ■" y-' 

SiajnnkiVi a kind of-g<Ar,'in the inatmlamooftpar^ bf^Gerinafiy, 
&c. — lU deccriptioD— keep in flocks fr«m fmir W a bOndred 
'— thne of' cftupting^-^live tff^ty or thirty' j'eafs-^their flesb 
good to eat ; - the -cUet ten or - twelve- pbunds-^thJB aniolal iias 
.. a-feeble Mealv to call lt» young; in case of danger its bissing 
-noise is heard at a grsatdistance-^by «me!1, diicovers a man 
at half a league — fdede upon the beit herbage, and d<elicate 

■ • parts of plants and aramatic 'herbs — ndm'ired for the beauty 
<>f its eyes— not found in summer, except in caverns of roi;ks, 
amidst fragments of ice, or under shades ofspreading trees— 

' in vioter, it sleeps in the thicker forests', and feeds upon 
shrubs and buda of pine-trees, and scratches up the snow for 
lisrbage — inanner'oi hantiug it — dogs useless in the chace^ 
■kin lof the sbammoy, when tanned, liked for softness and 
warmth; the leather now caHed shammoy, made frfim the 
tame goat, sheep, and deer— medicinal virtues said to reside in 
tbe blood, fat, gall, anil the cimcretlon found4n the stomach, 
And oriled the Oerman &(-«oar, ii. S69. 

Simib, tint) Bid, mi the Green SA«ni(,' varieties of the cAne 
kind— 4hetr dhnenEJons, it. SS3. - 

Shtr/r, description of' the great> white ehaik — the mmilh cnor- 
moCisly wide; enable of swallow ittg a man—greflt aumber 
of teeth, T. 68 — no fish swiois so fas [-~outst rips the swiftest 
■liip4~«Uiged to turn on one side (not on the back] to setae 
the prey — instances of frightful rapacity in this fish— its en- 

MBttyM HMii;'n!irinj negroes are Seized and devoured by them 
-^avet the black men's flesh better than the white — usual 
'oetbod of sailors to take them' — no animal harder to kill; 
whtn cut in pieces, the muscles preserve motion, and vibrate 

' when separated from the body— now killed by the African ne- 
groes— the remora, or suckiog-^h, sticks to it ; for tvhat pur- 
poBe-^forreaemblance to the whale ranked among cetaceous 
fishes — brjnttS forth living young — Rondeletius says the 

• famale of the nine shark lets her brood, when in dan{;er, swim 
down her throatj'and shelter in her belly — in. Mr. Pennant's 
opiolon, the female larger than the male, 69, &c. 

Shtal^kj tha silurus of the pHckly-fiuned abdominal kind->its. 
dmoriptioa, v. 125. 

Sheep, tueir eyes of a waf«r-coh)ur, i. 409— the author saw one 
thttt wGfuld eat flesh, il. 160 — proper care taken of the animal 

§ reduces favourable alterations in the fleeces, 162 — in, the 
•mestic state, stnpid, defenceless, and in offensive- made su 
by human art aloae — its description — those living upon fertile 
pasture, growing fat, beaome feeble— those without horns 
more, duir and heavy— those with longast and finest fleeces 
. moat jiubject to dlMnlera — the goat, resembling them, much 

L, . h.L.oogIc 

■I N U K A.. 

their supeiiiw— tlwy propagate togetlier; as of one Ta nitty— 

- dittinguifiied froin deer; thestt BnoualTj sheddiDg Ae fii^oe, 
. while tde pecmaneoce^ in' the former draws ain eiAetSoe be- 

tweei? their kinda — donot appear to have been bred'n early 
/ timea in Britala—JBocountTypraduces auch sheep taEngland, 
,,' brger fleeces, or better for clonthmg — sheep without litnas 

(he best sort, and why-^in ils noblest stat* in the African de- 
~ sert, {>r the extenHve plaiite of Siberia— ^io the aav^e Btate— 

the woolly she<;p is only ^n Europe, aad ia the tetuperale 

proyinces «f Asia— traa sported into w 
'. the wool mkI fertility, and the fiesh il 

- cold countries, but not a naiuTal inh. 
Icdaatl sheep have four, and toaietinies 
inferior to the common sheep— ^with I 
from twenty to thirty pounds, and sc 

; those catied strrpsicheros, a native of the 
theep described, ir. ^46 — they eat titre 
, seven plants, end reject a liuodred and 
eight teeth in the lower jaw — are she 

.< fercnt periods— some breeds in Englan 
and are sup ifosed old a year w two I 
bring forth one or two at a time, som 
the uiird iamb aupooaed— beo^ t 
^tbe intestines tfiirty times. the length 

■ in Syria and Persia, remarkable" for ( 

softness of hair, 391. Sea MovffloH. 
Sheldraket a variety of the pon'^-dudc, supp^s^ i hBiSn of 
England", iv. 411. - '. • 

,ShttU, (fossile) found in all places near to'aiid'dlst'&tit'fVbni the 
sea, upon the surface of the earth, on'the tops' of rnoliiTlatns, 
or at different depths, dig|^ing fur niarbte^ chalk, or other 
terrestrial matters, so coiiajiact as to preserve these'iiheSs Utoat 
decay,'!. 13 — long considered aS mere productions of the earth, 
never inhabited by Bsh — same, have cot their fellows in the 
. ocean—but all"have the properties of aniwaT, not of mTneral 
nature; their weight the same with those upon shore, answer 
all chemical trials as sea- shells do— and havA the Same eft<m 
in medicinal uses — various kinds found a bundred oiiTes from 
, tlio sea— a continued bed of ojster-shells found on fire or ux 
acres of ground near Headi:^ m Serkshire— shells found petri- 
fied in afi the Alpine rocks, in the Pyrenees—on the hills of 
France, England, and Flanders — a fioor,<H' pavement, of petri* 
tied shells found in Kent— shells always remaining in the deep 
— easier'to beiieve fost^ile shells bred in fresh water, than (9iat the 
sea for a time covered t1>e teps oF high mountains— ^riCed 
ehelTs found in one of the pyramids of E^^t, 1. 36— vdlones 
upon the s^ject of shells contribute lictfe tci (he histonr of 
sheir-^h— -^n'idea of the formation of jse^nshells ^nd'^vaen- 
pltellt— way of accountiag for dSereht eolouriof; In wieBi 


faint idHiut the operatiwi «f nMnt* in c«)onuw ibdl^-Aey 

their beauty— conectiiins of Aelli llb«e weit' 'ti«e--hMl»«ll; 
' ctawrt by Arisiotte i^ ipIiW«wfcetertreift'!»rt'*b»ii*Jii*iid , 
substance! Af wtiicb t}tej> Bre-iieittimiid-^^tfIll|j(«WotlF|lMJt all 
earths, ^ferntentitig ttith ti^^r, tff« cbm^bstd'^WBliellB, . 
crumMed d^Mi tt> aWe niUB— trwt 'rfiel1» ttrt^Y^tu^le— «ea- 
shbHs exceed iSni «r fbB^ sMIi Iti beai>t;;>i^<Tme1HiDg^ Jaod 
ihelU not inferloh lii i>feaiHJ to frcsTl-waWr 'rfitftl^,' v. 991— 
grefll viriety «r fossile Ot- exW»neiAi»'AeHfr-*ffereiltBtil6BB of 
pi<M6mt&»»— isvery Bhdl th€'s^oil t)f inttie^tHirial, nemMter 
' liaWiMFEtd fiMi th6 sea— SiK'mntieTe,ntn''f mem\t»i to Vesta- 

ceoiwani*9li»lia6stbffrona-ctedlbB%,21'I.' ' ' ' '' 
ShHti/^ihi tea, ^oarte tjiie tnn'vlth tnHire a4id Mand.'ltnd'wtiy 

■ — (^idl »ea-«'bene, the liatiillui,'*** tti!ni>«t an*! iMcM A^ly 
.; jiitooea, -T. 327— all'V^alred eltefii furtaith' petiils, th«ir in- 

■ «id*feietaTjleaBdaftirftWKflfhCT*f-'pfeai^Ii'2*S-'^«>b»e'{«fced 
lirfc'itrriMa*jfueih^nint»dft)l»Bfat*an*MaI*i2l5." ■■ ■ 

SiaKt, aninufi, of the schfadfllft or'tatou; One of tlmmO^ strik- 
ing eni'umtiei in D&taral' htsbtry, iii.^SL^-4iirtte-theSaaf on 
;" Biliftatng magnitude, r, t9*. " ' " - 

SS«p*?«'^ ^'''g. ctinwdered M'fl<eprfiriftiVest*)tlc'fi'ott#li«nco 

dl the vatietiea of ibt 6ag aie A<eiiv^;\n.rV. "'■ >■■' ■ 
SAortff, AT iilltbo»ein'(hG,Wo^a, not oiie bo h)?H as IhM Af the 
west of St. K)Ma,Bix1illHtlr«d t^hom fierpendiculBr6bo*ethe 
surface of the sea, ).'S27—66ine'od wnich the ^ea hasinade 
. , tenporarj depredations, 9S2. 

SJiort'heads, name fiivea by sailors to the yout^ Bf the whale, 
..■ whilst rt ae breast, V. 38. * 

,. ^oveller, species of t!he crane kind— its fbod— inhabilMti of the 
Cape of Good Hope respect it as the andlent ^lypllmi did 
;. -.Oiefthirdibili— fb.nertaBaeggie,iVi4». 
^ shoulders, hi^'ia sickly persons— peode dying', are aeen with 
\ " tWr shbuldero drawn uptn aBUrprtiing'mannfir— Jwomenwith 
, .' ' c1iitd''u^aily'seeij Mgb-shouIdetiMl, i. 4£$^in wtnbtfB, oat- 
: : " fowerihtW ilt ffien, *f8. 
.^diMTf, drtiedflil shower of britt'in 1510^ its deberiptioB, r. 
3@2'^(^ stfloes, flsheJ, and ity-1ierrie«, MiMd f»to the air by 
"'tttapertsin eftfe feOuntiy, irf'ftWHg m a dfati i w ^ tte min, to 
" Mtonifli auoltitir, 9SS- 
,^ j^rm^iDOu^; de^^ed; Itr.f 76. " 

"'-'S^ieria, Mofmouk tiMb fodbd M^Mid Ibii fct^dy bmfal ef the 
!;' 'n'retii'in Afew8Ble«wnttJ,ffi.5M; ■ - 
;:S^, tri %hit m&iiner ^MSttced'-^beA i g rtg a riit e Q iiTodiwe 
;^ sobMBg;!: *i«.- ' ■ ^■' 'i ■ . " 
\,'S^M; ei^tM dMX; tsdMUW fotb^liei^efoA tlo tlte^i, Mt more 
■_■ _^ft^U^ for oliiccM iit a dJrtance, an* Wlly,;#."»-Mir birds 

L, . h.L.OOgIc 

MceetUtfaatof otber Miiii«li-^Mn«^frMi|-«nipi^eniepttbIe 
l)a([bt,aeM its prej'i mdduttxM itvilh'UAWiwg aim, iv.S — 
i)t'feird»tbabT>r«f byd^,«MeniBhitigly'quick;iMdtosuchas 
raing* bj n%tit, wfiHed m to itncetn «b|e«tf with preci- - 
iioD,60. ■ ■ ■ 

S^M^dBath, vtcartidtOfoSthtm ought tot make «Tay one 

cauQMW of a protDBlnre'ioMrnMnti ir. Sd. '• ■ ' 
Silk (BsnSfacturM) e;itab)«ihed io Bnrapet-ia-tbe bcpnniag of 
" th»tweUUicenlur;, b^&ogerorSicily, vi.'tML < - 
-£tA*t broogki 10 JomaicB, aod tfaert- «xpMed in (be »ir, rot 

- «(Ulc ibey preselva lhBiriM))aur,but kept fM)n«ir't>etew their 
BtKMth and glow, i> 2£&— «iioiently Mi scarce in -Home u to 

- bSMwl for <hMr weight in getdi O0Mider*d aaate*'lu»iiious 
reSaetnent in dreas, that ii&Bj wfta Bttaduid.toifeBHiignu& 
io whidiitn^debut half thewHiitwaition, 41. 8A' -: - 

5>/A4wnKi<iUreBi histMynnknawn aman^ the Romaoe^vthe 
tteift'Of JaBlioian; auppoted omIt broi^ht lotA-Euhipeai.tbe 
twelfth' eeatdry.-'t WD tbethoda of breediog theni— PaucaMas'a 
ieteiipUoD of this worn— cliangCB of iia-:ekiB'iiiitbfee weeks 
or 'a atoMh^gammy fluid fottming the tbraad»— paeporationB 
nftdv- before spiaoitig thti w«b— the -cone or ball <if tUk 
dastribed— eAortd-tobiint tli«««n«— free&mBcoc&aeaBeot it 
neither fliM nar eats ; the malo^Ceka thefemalst mpragnatea 
Jtsr !■> &o *>ah)Mrrupl»d wion'*^ fouf ^a^r ibea 4i£a open 
upkrattoH, «he BOTviVeatill the-hat Jaid Iter cgK*,' wb«ch are 
' hBtiBbei)'iQQ»4vbraMtbe^en6Sitig'Eprhig~^ew af<t)he>e'aiiii»als 
. suffered to come to a state of maturity, and irbjvi^Cheinost 
serrioeable-of-iitl'aucA-oresturMi^i.'TSt ' ■ ■■ 

Silui-usjthu aheot fiah-oC the piricklyrfintted abdumiiial kiitd, its 
description, V, 125, 

Sinews, -of the reiH-de«r, th« siroogeat kiud of'SewiDg thfead, 
ii.-864*- ■,-■.- - ^. ,....,:. ■- . .:.. - >■■ ■■ 
. SMeie,aarae of'the tail.of theatag, ii. Sll.' 

Statin, ainging-bird' of the eparrow Icim), iv. fi47-«time of its 
migfttlioD, &4>9. ■ . ' 

She of tnea varies oonuderably—the buman body ofleo diSers 
irom itself— the aaioe perMti taller when he rises in the nom- 
ing, than going to bed at sight ; sometimes the difierepce fs 
aainoht thia first percervad in-England by afearuitiog a$- 
car— in what manner — the cauie of it — iften are tall ftona fire 
feat sight iocbes^lo six feet high— middle siaa from five Geetfive 
to five feet eight, i; 4$8- — Maximiii; the euiperor, abo*e nine 
feet in height, 4^— approsching tswarda tbeiKUth.aole,'the 
liatJFee diminish- propertionably, gfowirg-leta and- leta in 
higher latittide*,- >i. 75— cause of -their -differenGe«-«n!«H, on 
the fertile plaios of fodiav^towtt four tlmw 'U ,tai^^aa.t}ie 
lener animal of ibe same kisd bt the 'A)ps,-j91i — af- mu- in afl 
ages, oearljr the saioe ai at prcwiit ^^ DBwyi'Cv^robQtatipg 
|)r9«M^ of this, 11% . ..-;-,-,. 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

.«ndnisM ilLAnnad.of aUAunaU-Aat i)l)e^^dliB,.$ud-r-t)ie:r 

fi>oii--fi»iiied by Datuie t<>'diteb----tliey get up a Use with 

. {Mia, b«t-uttedf uiuMe tailescvod— ^irapiiroio ibebranchea 

■ .toUiegravnd— move with imperceptible slofrneHibftifiiu- by 
tlta.way— 4trip aUeeof its verdure inlen than a foitaicht, 

.«A«itward» devMr tbe bsrk) and ia a diort tixDe.kiU «iiBtaN|lit 
^ovetbetr lapport— every •tep<aken, wnd forth a plaintive 

' ntlwickoly cry, which, ham tame resemblanoe to4lie hwoan 
voice, •xoitea a dUpieafiDg.piiy^ike'^btrdf, bsve biA>one 
v«nt Car ftropagstion, exqreiDent; and unne— tbw coDtiaiie to 
Vat MOM tine af^ their ncUec parts <ac« iraviaded, or taken 
KwAy-^tbeir i^ote, apcprdiog, to Kircber, an aaccndwg.BDd 
. demsdaB twuMhord, ifUeiied asiy by ni^ — tbeic look 
- piteooi, te w/m* smu^l'mvt.; aocMapfuuedwith ff«rk4hat 
dinaade iajuriiif M wifetcbed ftj^eteg— ^OM fiMeoed m in 
ieat to«|wlfl, ^^ff^ded! foraa tire peimt, ramaiwjd forty 
.daya wiAnil meat, . driiilc, cr ■l e ap , te avasng iB/ifMaoe ii 
■ta«og(^ in thefMtiiii. M^, Ac 

iStw, ninao given by «)in<> to fbe Uittd-wona. T. 3T6. 

SmtlUng, the Mute in which man ii moit infetior \a ather 
aniBBb— ^ BOTer ofien^ them— -ttrenger in Bati^on abOuiung 
froaaanim4food,.thaTi in Euranan»— BranmM «f Jailia km 
• power of nndliiwi equal to what is in other OMilHfce~can 
aneU wMar tiuy «inlc, to «■ quite JBodargui. ■ im « Hale of 
natore wtftU, not in ear aitouion— give* oAen fidte intelli- 
gBoce'-Mthea of diferant ceeetriea, «r ilifiireat natives ef 
Ueaam^ difier widely in that sense— inatan cat of it.— ouz- 
torea ef bodies veid ef edoor prodaoe powerful tmdki ./mm- 
tyres ef bodies separatdy disanec^le, give pleassmt anxkatic 
imatti— ■ slight ccdd blunts aU smelling-T-inc^ableaveTuons 
to smells formerly agreeid)!e, retabed from duordnrs— 
smBllett'clwgea inaian make great alterBtionB in this ■ewb^' 
Bntipatbiea to -animalst whose ptesmce is perceived bf tlie 
tnsMl, ii. 46 — ddicacy of smelliog in bvdi instanced in 
daofas, iv. 9. 

Smte, FiridtBg asserts, a person with a stea^ glavering nnile, 
never &iled to prove hiinself a rogue, i. 418. 

£net/, shell of the gardao-Htail, in what tamoet &raicd, 

SiiMlt (sea) a cartilagisous fish, described, v. 108. 

■ StwU, {geidai} is auipriniMily fitted fer the life it is to live— 

wgana of life k possesses in cotflmoH wilJt snimBla ; and what 
peculiar to ilselt— every snail at once male and ierarie ; srd 
wMle itiinpregsatesanotber,iiimpregnBtedintum— GoupUag 
' of these aanaaU — hide their e^s in great omabers tn tbeearth, 
with great solicitude and indoBtry— .the growth rS dieiiH- 
pe^Kss^dof-tbepoverofntcn^ngtheshdl; anc^ cOmetoAilI 
' fcrowtb, tbey canaot nalce a new one— Swamm»dam's expe- 
liownt to this perpoeor-ihtir fooct-«Blt-dettr«rfi th«a;» 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 

fibic naau:.the'biiiitai8.girc^he,'bui^.tfa0.faiirth yrar.'-ii. ^tS. 

Sorei, the buQlers name far the buck the third ymr, iijS^S. 

Souad, coaweged kj air, i« Imt is. vacuo, i- '-l?7 ^-MUBding botliea 
ul' two. kiuOB i unelastic retuiniae a singie soiwd, ftud elastic 
Ke/tdeiing a succession of sauDaa — .uodulatiooi in cltetic 
boJiei, tak«n by the ear «s odc cootiaued gouadi while,' in 
reality, they make many, iL 34-— thoaa whose difiefCitce*' can 
meet cosily be compared, «re most agieeaUe, 36— thoae mu- 
sical most pleasing, nhiciv are moct une:(peet«d,. 37— Jawt of 
the Tedection of sound Dot so well understiMdas thoae of Jight, 
40 — persons of a bad est often decciv«d as to tbe side wiience 
sound comes— trumpets made to increase- toiiad), 4&. 

Spfiantani, his sxperiments conconiing the power of roprtdoo 
tion of animals, Ti. 177. ' 

Sj»i«ifis,.land and water, the o^uaogAf the. beagle, trampocted 
into Spain or U«rba[y,BO.a]ttred, awlsoaitertitathec»— a.4tig 
.of.thegenerous.kiud, iiLl6. ■..■■,. ^ 

SfanitbfiUi, described;, their iu|e \a raedKineraqd as blistflrs. 
See CantharUt-vx. \o% . .-■••■,.. 

Sparrtmii, (hoHs^-«parrow)~-r'Variouslli<'dscf tbespanon kujt— 
^eir food— aoDgsters of this class— tlbeir migration, ir< 3il5— 
ft male and. its mate, that, have young, destroy abme ihree 
thousand caterpillars in a neek, vi. 76. 

Spemmi-kawk, one of the baser race of hawks, w;^!. itw^ght 
to flyatgatne, butJittleobtUDAdfron its e&rU— lately aa^ 
serted, upon recpectable autboiity, the boldest of all for the 
pleaiures of thg chase, 99. 

Sparuf, the sea-bream, its description, V. IS4k 

Spaairt, different seasons for fish to deposit tl>eir spawn^ v. 38. 

•Swmtntn^, .peculiar prsparati^n of the lamprcnr Hn^maniag, 
». 96. 

Spears, tbe horni of the stag the third year, ii.Sll. 

iipfrmaceti, the oil of the cachalot easily converted tBtothatMn- 
orete— dGcacy of ^ermaceti inmediciue very awalL aaadles 
made of it substituted for wax„BDd sold cheaper, t. 5i. 

Spermaceti whale. The Cachalot, described, v. 50. 

^mleri, in^Souxh America and Africa, as large>as.spanmra, i. 
dSC — the spider, for several n>oiUhs together, subeistsupoa a 
single meal, ii. &— chief of ,our native ^ spiders not veootBOui 
—■their description, and habitudes t- the Marttoico spider's 
body as lar^e as a hen's eg^—mauner.of maHing their webs — 
Liitecha* distinguished the^sexos of thisAoimat—^ircouplir^ 
—-their num'berof eggs — their bag to depoait their eggs'—their 

;. parental fare— eBemiae t9>.«a«]fa other— «penme(U naadeby 
Mr.,He^u>mir. totpTD.lheir.JalMHtra to tbeisdvaotage ofmaa 
— gloves made fron their webs— found it impractKaUc-tanar 
.ihen»,»--396. . ...,.,., . . . ; 

Spidert, (.w»tqt,) iphahit th«h*tt9n. j^.neve* wat.iat is 
in a bubble ofair.^iUTOHBdiBf thfli»:«n JiU^tdM, -r. ^< 

D,q,z.<ib, Google 


Spinal marrow onAthi braft; th*'-ffftt-partS 'ieenb^nn^m the 

embryo, \i,'2(N ' ■' ' ■' ' '^ .■ i ■•<■■■ . 
Spimms cites «f fishes alreftdy esiefidrf ft' ftlw hurtdred soVta, 
- T, n7.^G(wiaB*a Byglem and arrangement of the TatittiWsWts 

of ipinoiw fistiea— itherr genei^ ieatfing irriarfcs and diiBferarice 
' from othets — of iHo»e wbitJi live in the ocean, the dohlrfo fhe 

liMwtToraCnwB, Its, 191. -■ ' - • ' ' - ■■ • 

Spirilt (of winej ilame with a candle; not with a spHrk, i.Tt'. 
^6nge», opinion oT Count Mftrelgli abottt tlwTii--tbat of RtaHiph^ 

■ luiB Ju8w«i »et in fa cleorerfr^ht by Mr. EHw, *i. 19S;' " 
Spoonbill, descriptions' tif the Earopeorn Bnd American spoonbill 

— itsinarinepof'life-, Tt-:919. ' ■ 

Spaet*-{o( OBter) at Sea, Common [o the tropicSl seasi and some- 
times in our own— description of one in inffMeditefranean, by 
Toamefort'—iwTufiotis (fflfered'fof 'this phenomenon— broken 
' by gtm« fiHng bars of iron at them, which ftriking them', the 
water falls from them with a drfeBdral miise, and no ftrtHer 
TDi«cbie£-ut)(ose called l;^phons,' gtmietirties seen af land;' dif- 
fer from those at lea described by mariners— descriptHy^of 
Aat obaarved at Hbtfietd inYoHrshire, inl68T— lano-spduts 
■OBietimeB drqi !t) a oAlnmn 6f watir at once upon the earth, 

■ >and pKMhice tn inatidfltion — they appear inthe calmest wea- 

ther at sea— facts stilt wanting to' form a rational theory of 
th«i,i.9M. ■ . - 

Springi, (of wafer), experience alone can determine the\isefal 
or noxioUi qualiltcs of every spring, i. 145 — one mentioned 
by Derham, which he never perceired to be diminiBbeil in 
■Jbe greatest drought, Wheil aH'ponda in the coutitry were dry 
ibr tereral Months, I6T. 

3puwA, Bstmkard of the weasel kind, called a pole-cat of Ame- 
rica— its description— is said lo eat only the brains of poultry 
—its scent strong enough to reach half a rtiile rbund ; neat 
' band, ^Aiost s^iitg — adropofthefcetid'dischargeflitlingfn^o 
■ the eye, might Wind 51 ftir erSr— dogs abate their ardour when 
they meet the fctlid ^scharge, turn, and Teare the sqoash 
master oFthe field, nercr to be led on again — cows anS oxen 
■trondy affetAed by the stench ; and provisions s^loiled by it 
•-iritn fdanters and native Abiericans, kept tame about their 

■ tmuae* ; »eldom emitting Aaagreeable scents, extept when in- 
iiiredor fnght^d-^ltative* eat the flesh, taking care to Clear it 
oTtheofi'enjiwglands, >».Widlc.' ' '' " * *" 

B^umting, Totmy IttMsMtfev df i^dbting commanicsteA by* a fitther 

■tohia oSsprmr, &«. ■■ ' ' 

Bfmrrd, the tsm«Pe-ntreatiy lot^iDMutffbl, ftntf biisKy;'8nd 
" Berts thMa-fbr sevtnf purposes--'pirti(Wlii1y''lttTffit1eaps of 

-«M liMdnrf'yaftlsittiEeb ft-ollR H«e Bc^ Wetf^-^ften Wie animal 

eata, or dresses itself, it sits erect, like the Mte «r'yaWit, 
> 'inlMng tfte'ttf^ Mr fl>i«Lft«t<4h'4tsAM-UiW tihff >ha!s' a«' IM/ny 

yu'MmnmtywiU uiiMi'^ fcrWtti i w Wfe a ' ftf «iiiw*-^tt3 way of 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 


enrjr ^ponKiOf—^vw w^tattt W lelttter, '«r^M unfit fot a 
'duDge of riiu ja i ■ mim ^ toe ma, tl>»tnp»:of t rw w t aib«« feed 
flfl TMBMbbvhaloBf- wtene «ita;|hm[Uk*->lH4ur-JR stoma.— 

•dm»n^largebMMlMit«fc«»tfaOTji»k'Cpff into MoalU-the 
MMtiKdMtM)«dwfl9rar«l, t>iM> ttW yiMMtiba of ha^aaMi- 
ntm,.nlia^ ke. ■ 
5fMrmli-arB.iafaMI«aT^'M die-ipriag, vMyduvning u «m 
llw filth ibw-feyiwg <B .e»cap» friwi the pomit w two or 
iWm latwi i«i w e of. gwtatim — lwep»ia tb« niidrt of tslloc 
tma, aad ihoM Aa iMbituJaa of boh — ibe trM but taadwd 
atiHlMn«~4lM)r.^ttba-DM,and fl^teuoUiH^ne'; Aw 
liawlliaf with ma» oUng' ths tapt-of tho forSBt, untilquke-aBt 
.' vf dw^n a Liptand, TMt nunlMn temmi froia one [Mirt 
. t* anoMir—Haothaf ' of wnwing bioad nvevs, w «xUns^ 
. tofcw..ttbey bkvo k«bar^ pierciBg aois, sad anotber, owre* punJDgofthacBtwbwkplcsied— -tHe LoplaMtersMt 
'"^"7 O M h a oi CTiprion of tba oomman tati, utd(£ tbegivf 
'tMH Mitd — the Satiattf s Siierivn whites CarSina 
Bmniiami UMe gnmtd Carolina, and Nve Sfmn 

rrrtt;^^f/inttffiorel mare comm^ in Aniciic* thoB in 
ope— its fmSf and mamioB, iii. 197, &o- 
<SlO|-, int in iMltaniongqusdnqiedfl-.iu elegant farm deKcibed 
. -—QB- obvioos di Areace betweea the ioteniBl •traciure of the 
stag aad the buU, but to b, nice obserrei— -rwaiaalee aot so 
esulj u tha cow or sheep; reason why— maBnar-oF^Owjbg 
its ag«>— dtffiare in liie and horns fioia a-fallow dear— iaccMae 
in beauty and (tature in proportion la ^odaessof pastttKK*>- 
jayed in seoiuitji-kseldom drinks in wiotai't and less in ^iag 
-^difoeot coloum of sti^s — bow wUcbluUjr be exaniinps an 
aafia^B epproaeh iddi^tad with tba aouod of tbaBhqtbeTd*t 
p^iB — of aniawb natiaea of this diowte, nana hsfe mmJ* a 
bniutifal eye aa tba Mag— beauty and sixa of boroa marie 
straagth and Tigour—time aiwl manner of shadding tfaom" ■ 
sevare cold retards the Bkeddtog — boms tecMSse {D,tbicl[««M 
and height from the second year of age to the dghdt— sbaddiag 
bis bona, faidra btanelf in solitodes wad tbickebi, aod veotanc 
OM Id pasture oniy by night— )piw difibrantly in stags fcoa. 
aheep or cows — hornsieiuid to paslaka of the nature of tbe 
soil — a mtataice (bat horDB.take colour of thasap of thq tno 
^giBDst adiich ibey are rubbed~atag aartrated wban ita<b«aM 
are off, thej nerer grow again ; the aama ffp a ia tigp .perianaad 
when tbayaraon, Uuy never ; fall aC—aaa tettitte «kilg>titd 
up, he loses the bom of the c^poeite sid*— M. BuSbo. tiiinfcs 
the geovOi of- tba bosos satardedl byntMBobitig ihatfaoA ' - 
htwas tesamWad to a vcgaiable substancaj gnAtd ■span' lba 
bead'jDf . iha ati«--4wK <# ftelff^ im|yM«iani.o£«be< tii%<'«r 
desire rf copu ta tiM n ffitota th ria cauf itag liwes- atww* 

daga«if kitimill]r-r-sat(Q aii(lrtigar«Dc]eiedi^:thflaKDe«raB, 
Ow tag* d«itaDe> M» boO, Utc^tiAai. m <ih%Mito 4ji>*>Ae 

«ad fMiau. best. i»W,fattMt; ik a96M.«b&biid(:anfeBrfe, 
aMi' all her- aim to cmfltal htrwaBg fh»r Uin^rnBeDMit 

the ■ut^chace > farourite pursuit— MagB leaiMidD^. wiU ia 

^Eashai, cfi}ed,Mdd«er,fiiuiiAo»tiieinoanbaiib "^ — 

wall and DaTona)ijc»-iuiaMf^<)iuiitiag.-stag^^ a: 

' ^inglmd>.-dtfienB( iiM»«a givea them, aocwdi 
.-^t«nna-imd bj huntara pnniUDg the atkg-^ 
knowisg the back ot'ft'sta^t obA tlvt.of abii 

, biaqMpaar of feediag every moath ; ia «lu» a 
wakut the strmm~the ancieat manner of puTaiBSg h iw r M t ha t 
of hunting him— and io CbinarMFAtag of Gwaioft'— «kad.eallad 

-bf tb»aBeieat9<ni^ei<)pAu»--GeriBaaii«^itii«i)-<fa(n<>'^>***'* 
^'(pi-M . beaftttfal ato^, - tbougbt - a o^ta m£ SardJniavtiiea^b 
peritapa of Africa^ or the £aat ludiM— uli dutaip^tlD-M^tag 
if y at , ia Me»co— a/* Gmada, bcMigbt iatft Um atale of 'd»- 
naatia tomeness, a* oar «heep« goata, and bkfik eattle, 
iSti^arff, name of ^ stag the t«ut^ year, ii. Sll. 
Sfmet bitd olasaed^wiih-dK thPwh; diMbctiDD 
its triba— ita residemtai' iHi eggat-it ia^awly tan^^tocpeak 
—«ita food, i». 853. . - i-. ; 

AsfjScit, . geaand deacriptioti of thv .tntia»«ubetance) xtf 'tbeir 
bodies almost as soft a* water— no itwf ii^rad bjr'BwsUow- 
iiw sl^a ahnoit of a sbony harduewn-flMt upaBtheiaHftoe 
oftbe tea, and in the dark aeud forth a d)iDiag:)igbl4inKD>- 

■ bliogthat of'phoapbarus—cafladwa-MW/sa- iba fmuage-dtt 
:deveu«ng food serves to eject escreineBt»-fta«B^aad ifut 

JntO'ipiritrof.niiiie, ooatinue maay years enlur*.; .but Uftto 
ififluencfi of air, in &ur-and -twenty haurs JBclled dana Jnto^ 
liii^di^niws-vrater— OM in pieces, everj'.partisurmeK'the 
Qf am lioPi beooniag a peiisct aaimalt endued. ;mtfi- its nalunU 
lM»ii«ty,w; 18(K 
Stoning, lime of ni^atioat 
deserted' bj- the 'wood'pecli 
spastov'kiBd, Iniog upoBi'taMCtB, 246. 

Stw* (fixed), siypoiad ly .yhitnaophaM suns manidilipg that 
<AK(fenUma'am47iteB>t''i'£i"'' ' ■ >:■'/..-■■■. 

^ABKS'fAlling}, Bteteanit'cr-mctnomi; TOPiiiB Misediifrdtii -tfae 
eaMb, UndlRi>aiMl"aiq)partad iutkamr, uatiirtfa^ifiUl'tack 

i.'»afr<-Wdi| r f y: Q£liMHlM&;Paebamaib«iireatyiri)ably<he 

ll«i^i^.■lU.-.- - .-„,... XI . J-. i,i.,.j!).w 'u -. . 

I;, L.oogic 

StitJMaei, tlw ^MterMtna of tlM pfiaUjN^atwd dMncio aMt; 
d«Mri|Ptieb af tUt ft*, r. IS5-^liiB' Ml ajppwn n^4n^ti■ 
tiM evsry ■ ■■o U i «r «igUi -yon ia tk»m»r W«llaMl> mbmt 
Spalding t ■ aao eHpbjed by « EtnoM M t^M tkvBs^r 

liog* a wty, ««T>»ng iW m «t a hiltpanny » bu«hri, !♦♦. - 

Stigmata, bain ttWMigli vhioh cW«piUir» brtathe ^ttnmm 
experunent of Mtrfpifibi to vaiify ^ii, «i. .SS. 

JWwHm/t, Dame f(i«Mi by oar Mikn ta «w or4«a misMib^ cfea 
WMwl kind, cfaieAf bmiHl is AiMrieat iii. Sft—and bf the 
■mi^ oF Canada t0 tbo Bmk'nb, iao. .. 

Stat, Mtnika aad ikortMr bilM wum-hM «£ (he ni— atiaJ, 
iv. SS8. 

Stoat, the ■r» i M,-ita diini i^ a n t iii-Tfe 

>S(ommA, natw* hM sMtfMtad the sMhmcU «f lainiah of Uie 
toTMC, uiitoUe t» Aaic |ireaKiouc Mwy af liitiag^ ii. S-^o- 
poMMRad to ite ifbalitytof t^MrimsHafuBil, uc thaciieof 
oblainiag k'—tliMa iha.chaar tba cud bova rniir lifninahi 
yetnwiil of. i h w Iww but A&ka. ' ITff ubiw it' 
ibe fiaor atonacki— ^lomaclM of oroivoroua aniBittk amaB— 
those <^ rumiaatiDg, ilroag and maRular— :af liaMcti. oaw 
poaad of miMcuiar fibraa, SU -^tfaiB oumI Jua a fifth ifntnwh-. 
oa ftraMPVflir of watar. for oaawioaat mw,. iii. S75-'-bifds baw, 
properly, but one Memacb, y»t tbia ia diiareal .io diftatont 
kEDdaiiiv. It— 4hat of the oiishAa awNnnnit, nacIiM fron-tbe'. 
• br ««MbanB4odia.*eiM,aas. See ^«Mni^ 

.4aRc-oAaff«r, alender-biUod bird of the sparrow kind, a, iAfl— 
mjgnilea, 9««. 

Stvnet, stMwer (^ »to>w and otb— tvatUn rantd by ttataaia 
oKBceuMry, cwried ta : asother, fUl aod^nly u ^lowcn of 
rainy i, SS8^--&l]iag fram the atons^iiwe ofiei the axfiloBaa 

Storki true (liSlH«aca beticrees it and tba ctoae — an birds 
of patage— reUiming iMo Earo^ in Msrdi— ^acoa far tbdr 
nefltt— iHUt^er of eggi— ereaniDDtbin haUthisg;' andi^heir 
yoiinf exduded, tb«y are partiot^arly aeUcitous -for their 
■ safwy th eir food ina gF«atnHnaueaicag»aiHl.Mrpaotft--thG 
Dutch attentive to the pretenaliaa e£aa ttark, in their, re- 
pnbiic the bird protected by the lamrand iba.pngndkaa of 
tbe people— coantTiei where fauad— ancHfrtEsyotiuwEiaprd 
iarthia bird carried to a(k>tatiga)_tba aaciat ,ibia,M^«ied' 
tbesmie which st patMaat.;beac* the MdMnaHA). a bmof 
the stork iiind, about the cisaof a curlew^ iT.£S6> 

.S'lorawieretold by tibe bariHDMer, i. ^I—abarMi tfaiir aegMV aU 
iBcali»andieTeT>e-^iaBt(i'tbB. topi.of.ttwhisibwtinatinues 
—oanacaMd by thaaa-wha Jn>abac»ea.ifaaAM«4«Mlh!r>l)e 
.leep.ancw» that cruwn them, 222— ffidi pswerful ^ctfi,.da 

r-««ii« la mt^k i jy fal- ifi^tifatA^ 

OuK, in 1697-^«6CTffitim of it, Sill. 

g Iht aniout ia the •^.tepffftcfMi. «• 'S 


|>illli U lll,Mt 

he •R.tepffftcfMi. «■ 'SfS^ 

« itpcoceedi, ii. 2£. 

diminifbod, sad whjr, t. 171— t^e lyihce swifter .ib^ the 
' ikatlom,.wmi ^hjr iiiii t liMl ii ,.«xwipfl. Mci Mbn- i<tt)fMwJ^s 

rettrd the coune but iaeotieidaniUy, sad Wiy, 1?2. 
<» gi ig t* , jK ^1 ■ iry rf arti— UpgihwiUni «*«ng>h.,b J ptwwwe- 
rmceawl agjlifr.of j M ri awt-— iwtbCTa*it>cy— jffadjgiw.rf >t 
-in H2o, .and .alaa lik jhtb—ahia j BitHi««io» «f .^^^tb-jn 
ia<lBiaa»,i.lbee«yera> »J >tol b ad*<jn<teH6e-i)fT*tii»»WMah 
by tbe bulk cf tbdr inuadoa very.faUacious; tbM«qd ^aw- 
bModawiv beiag ganecaBy. aMM>gwh»»t»»aae. p wr fal. ithm 
«)(•« .•snaiagly-. BMM aatcKktr^Mmommiw.iofva^ !■ 
-atwagtb to awb.~or.viaB iow nkMblb aikoe 4be ''•««l4t9> «f 
'- goa^paardar, ja£ .»em:aaMaeayiami tiw <a^pb«Mwa, off tbe 
power of «Binala to tb« purpmw.iaf ifcfc ' ■ i ba. f WW p Wa t iye 
«'>**g^'«rf » bow««aMin»a».*<**j.)B)K*: be. OiMi <JW»7> bjit 
by what he caa draw, L 4S3— «f tba jirtipbinwn tm*"^ tbe 

ArWnaimM, a ■oft'fiaBed apodal flih, damitttd, *.> ii27. 
-4Bfh«f'UM«tfncfa-'-,dM;nnlhadsfitakm«it,iir<45. -. 
'.^Sit!fiimmi^*tiBu<dMa h mh ,i ilm mt AKgtiniil.9e6-!>i>»>S.Cfm- 
posed of Bilk forbid to be, «■ « tewious 

' AiMf«,.BaMegi«mta.wbale*at Ibeageof tvoMsrax*'^ 
■iAHnv»9N.'ii eirtBag«a>HmfiA,-<rf ai w iiJ M w hi a . a ian -jltfifliea 

■ «eitlfiad.RoBSba««ailfatifishM*.-itadcraTi)HUin-r4»<NMw>of 
<fi(ir«|ei|bia4di wttiata di&iwt.aauwis--«iMk«al]jtiWModa 

tiia u>,jnd.}>ropagBtetia;Tat^HWpn. 
- «iij<yi>g'lfaauairiMinideja£frflrirwid".B»lt nMeTy^baneiwrs to 
:'ati'.eiwnBaa»;uM^ iidaiaat 4«^ nad 4^.sJ|id«.'Hb*nliHgest 
eiught iaOi«M EntaiKyt^Muia IbecEake, .wMtt.f(m«»Btly 
':4'diiitdi»«ig1iiBc^a«r -huodrod mA fifer.p a wi dii. ipl aowi^tbera' 
"ieaHaht'iii»a«£ara. . p a« g % »bMt,ial»ayaip ii eu . i l lu i in food ' 
-^WMoee tiie^^aam^ prsrawt Jilff MiOfsimfarAta «a a^fHRS^raB 
^NtfeMditaKWbarM tbeii#H.«f; h irua^tCt-TUlwd-MK of 
-"caMin^' up d v m w tofwf i wm u tt fljUamtbejabowtifocpiedt into 
tOliUittUr^mi- attBatediiaasaa^unMHof fi»)ianMn,.im4M»ted, 
aaOMi- fa A ltai hMiMh»dja»ttiidBayi M .' ifl ct8.iB.i>^M(ifcai|uglit 
— ilMlitf wtter.lti» anq^tbcMfc'iwi g — tifitwf, jWd «jfiaaiibwe»k» 

-ittJieaiiynnnai ihaa*abif»flriia— Viiy.wMiiaffbtoff of 

■ -ila.tia--t«».iaathoaaKtfto|»i f iii g ,ifa^»«lbW<f'tt)nwdraMiw not 


u _ ..L.oogic 

roe of all kioda of sturgeon— tDanner of making it,y, 9S.. 
lhaH>^:fiik,iite nmon, ttMntotbe ■IwfJE-<H>ln» ajaed.Ofe 

Bkafk^afihfeiiand vk^vv. 7^ 
SMhitg-fiihi ika <ob«nei*, aaoftrfaiwd. thorfuw fitl^lti jetc^- 

tian, T. 1^. ' ■ ■' ..( -1. 

•.-ftS^--- .--, 

iSBg«r,-tiirwUte sMt. lo. tb« tfinqatwl dunatsi, sonKtiinegjiiS of 

Sw^iir, witli'iHw filings, kifeBded b>^tli«rint9 a pattet iritfa 
water, BnM>sfaotftBd|ttodliae«cirflwaeri. 66. .. 

JSm,' DKCK-nmB and other seteon wns ,ia tlie AIp*f ■- l^l^io 
tbe ^Mar rcfpoas; 92ft— trcSeefed upon Apponte , cbuds, 
Mtpdn'-liks-tme or four khI hiim in Uie^mueieat-— -real ^ud 
mtyt nn^f known -b; Bupcrtor brig^n w the rainbow 
a]M>4ifieF0ntmth«wcoiitfne<^ 382— iu watmtli eScacibuf in 
Iningi^ the ai^Bi^ in the c^ to perfectiaa^ 366 — not easy 
to c«Dc«vb hov icwhftcnB wnc nad.^Uaan, uai,:^adtsBt.tbe 
htimuteomplexiMi, ii. 6&. . 

Sun^M, sn auoBHloui caitilagiiiwB.fidiiUJ».8bumy.heai^[ts 
oeKiiution, v. 106. 

Surf {ot the Kt) name Ihenarkicra g^vstbe rwngwave&.tirealc:- 
m^flgainat-theiboTe, i. 227> ■■■..,-' ^ 

Sttrimm rat, the ptialanger, a small mmkey, described, -ifi. S^. 

SttTinam fo«^ the pipal, a liideOHstoadfitl description, v. 2S& 

Surmaht, with M. BuffiHi,' the great rat, a hftfcfi^ xppadous 
creatare* <*e«crib«d, iii.a68. 

fcnRu/rt, the mallas, a ipinauB fitb, ks dwcr^tiont Ti 12i. 

SuaHtm), time of their migrations —dqwcturs of 4ome ^and 
retreat ofuAers into oMvntts, ftoni ttotncleoundea of winter, 
wrap the mimtiaiis of birds in ^reot obscuritjr, it. 28^-ex- 
pcntnent of H, Buion to this puipose, 33— «>irdi of 
passage ; breed in Upper E^ypt and the bland of Javaj, and 
atnw disweer, aso— /feMM' « w // <t ii .. charaWeriatica o^tfce 
awaHmv tntem t h e i r fiiod~have the greatest swftneas .and 
ftgOitT— «t the cad of Sejiteniber they Ae^i same ieriile 
wrelraed ladies, compelled to stay, perish the first cold 
weetheF-^osemifratiDgfirat seen in Africa in the bediming 
of October, haring performed their journey in .seven days — 
— sometimes seen, interrupted by contrary winds, wcreriagin 
their conne at sea, and lighting upon the ships in thw pas- 

X— a doubt whether all swallows thOs m^rate, or some 
r of this species externally alike, md tntemally difitrent, 
be diSerently afiected by the ^^weach of winta : ■aoaeiwtiona 
made to this purpose by Reaumur, Frisch, and KfeiB— indi- 
cate approaching (Aange of weatberw-dieii B ei l s , and t fa w tt 
they bmld or tl» eoatis of China md ConMaandd — Ch^iese 
pluok'tbem firom rocks, and aend giMt nundien into the Em 

EodiBS For §ale— dnttoiu esteem them great delicacies clii* 

' '«olVedHaueketlOTmHttia'blrot6— thettUmberoftkeiicfgH, 
270, &0.. ' ■ ' ; . , 

Soim, ft Matrilr«UMbotecl'«At!^4b1rit thobgfa'aa indiSereftt 
figure upop liind, ja beautiful id the water— ^toubt vbethet the 
tame tdiKi be in aMatdof nature — none fixmA in Europe— 
the wild Rwan, though strongly reaembling it in bolonr and 
foim, jet another bird->4iw'ence« Itetweeft wSA bud tame 
Bkbub— CODSidered a high delicacy among the ancient!— the 
tame .most ulent, the wiltl bM a lona- awl dkagrendrte 
note— from thence called the Hooper — acoounu wfficieBt to 
nimiend an opinion of >t8 nnulcal ahil'tieB— their food, neat 
aqd number of eggs— b blow with the pinion brenlu a nwn's 

' 'T^ br arm— two months hatcbtag, mnta year growiae to 
'pro^rsiie^lon|ett intUflshetlof «nybird--«aidtoliTemree 

' ' hundred yetirs—Jby an Atftof^EdwanrlV. thason of tbeKing 

' was allowed to'keef)aBWfln,andm)otlHi»,.uileMp038eMedof 

' fire marls a yeai^-punishment tat taking their am was, im- 
prisonment ibr a year and a ibty, ioA fine at Dm kn^B-wtfl— 
' ■ [tlttceB whfch afcomtd-irtth tbtmj it. 999. 

Smgrvt. (of a bee-hive), several swartns lN"llW7«ri the first 

-' riiriryfUili'best and most ^taeroos, vi. lOeL 

Stveetmealt, in tropical climates, exposed by day in. the soil, to 
'prevent thirii' putrifytns by the m'ghi au-, i. 959. 

iSm/), a Urd of the swallow kind ; peculiar positioar of the toes, 

Smmi;fldi, the xipfihM, its descrmiioa, r. 122— its teirible ' 
eniwilT\ters with the whale, described, 40. 

Syagvthes, cfniivorous animals, like the jadnd) and wolf; hunt 
in packs,- ^d encomi^ each olfm bj^lHeir ortea, ii. 136^ 
its desertion, 436, 

S^mUd^and proportion of tbtflmmonlMdy,i.466> . 

^^rn^Aefteafieciipn ofvftwning,'Ii4l5.- ' ■ ' 

^crna, a'hi&rlcating liquor in tbfe joints, M called 4>y aoato- 
afists, i. 429. 

l^stem, In what manner the barinony of our |dHetarT system ia 
preserved; }. 3-~very useftd in naOiMl kmny-^-ftows con- 
-ttining them useflil to be consulted, bat unnecetoary lb be 
read— that of Linmetts deaervet- the pvefewnee— &ults o£ 
' systematic writera in nStuTBl history^ ii. 190— whrn hot given 
birthto theTarietyofsystetminBaiaral WUtry/ ISS^ 

: ; j: ■ t^'^ ■"' ■ ' '-■ ■'- 

TtSiKei.HtfieaiiA cUs, ttf tHMt tfte 'diet's colour is ohmpdred, 
'fll,-105. ■ . ■ ■•- -iJ 

Tin^(r,the!arvaof(I(ef*«g;«2«i,- ■ ■ -■]> . 

Tajacu, thepeccaryi an'asimal' dF thehogltindj'p«!alia»'(or a 

• ■ - ■ --■ .V BB« .■::.. .;. ., ' 

lump upon its back, wjtb gW^s diwlifUFf^ t mual^ sub^ 
sunce, li. 367. . , ; 

TeU^poin, aigblh,divi>ion of Dqookiei ofthe aacicQt contioent^ 
itt description, iti. 313. . ■ . ' 

Ta/anc> in nhftt aiimter.fnroduced iii^ikniiipjliU, i.^23. , , 

Jlamai'm, a monk^ of the. second .soft vf tde HgooL lun^— 
Je£C[iptioD, iii. 316. , , , 

'Tajnandua, a-n ffA-hetn, lofger and notBUer, live upon ants — 
their description, iii. 398, •.,,,-, 

Tamis-hird, one of tbe names of the GiuoeaJien, d^rib«d, 
iv. 148. 

Tanrec, oi the )iedge-bqg,kio4t ^'i^i'^nt eaoifgit to .constitute 
another 4>edeE — covered, with prickleB, though mi;^ ^itii 
hair— >JoeB qot defen4 i|^^,t>y, roUine up in a bul-~0nlj 
found in the East Indies'— sleeps several months, and loyea to 
be ^ar water---in the torpid state iu hwr &Ufi off— Ibdian 
consider its flesh a delicacy, iii. 203. 

TapetL See Rab6it (Brasihan), iii. 160. 

Tajtir, the largest anisat^l of Anie^cm, no wi(y c^panble in 
sise to th« cTephaiit of Afciqa, ii. ISi-^onsuieced as the bip- 
popotamua of.^e ^^w CoutineijLlr— its descnptioD—rwi^ft in 
thq water — its food— its flesh thought a delicacf> iiv 393- 

Taraatida, the bite of this aaimal, and its ciue by muuf^ all 
deception — instance of it — native of Apulia iBXtaIf*-< ' 
tion — its bite not attended with daagerous symptomr 
Qf its virulence^ y. 408i • ■ , 

Tarcei, name falconers give the male' bird of prejr-i 4nd why, 

'"^es- I ■ ... . 

Tang^uagua, ruggedness of road from it up to tbe Andeaj not 
easily described, i. 124. 

Tarsier, a.nionkeTi last of tbe da*a of the opioasuta )dn^s—«ts 

description — why so calle^i.'ii. 328. 
■ Tartars, their religion co^sic^, in part in mana^ng their 
whiskers — they wa^ed a bloody war with thsi ^tsiaqs as 
in&dels, not giving tpcir whiskert the orthodox cut, 1. 419— 
the Ostiac, a race tr^vdled dqwa from the Norths and tOi^ 
nally sprui^ from minute savqsei, ii. 76— 3ainoei()i first 
distinct race of men round the pmc, described, 7^ 

Tarlarif, in |[enera), comprehends great part of Asia— deacr^ 
t1oD.ef natiyes^nd mntworsi^ii,??. ■ ■-■ . 

Taste, to determine somewhat upon the nature of tastes, bodies 
to be tasted must be moistened, or dissolved by sslivHt to 
produce a sensation ; the tongue and body to be tasted being 
dry, no taste ensues.— tastes rendered agreeable, by habit— 
relish of tastes stronger in children parsons advanced 
in life— highest epicure has the most depraved taste, ii. 4& 

Tatouov armadilla, a quadruped of the New Continent, covwed 
■with shells, iii. ai8i See 4rmadiUa. _ . 

Tatou-apara, first ' of the ikinda of armadiUa— (be feeond At 

wtot) of Kay, or the enconbeit of M. Bafibn— the .thjrd'j the 

taiiiette— t^eir diversitifes described, lii. 224. ' ' 

Ta^lof^asarbler, rMtS that sews up a leaf into li Vn^ pf con^in 

order to fbrm its aeit, n, 199. ' 

T^, smallest bir4 of the duck )dnd, diitingubhed, it. 41$. 
T^fj, great variety of ihem'in animals — thdr fbftn, and how 

placed, i. 424.. " ' ' 

Teeth or animala rariom — howfornjed in man.i. 423— of tha. 

elephant, shed like horns of deer, or obtained afler deathj not 

yt^ lui own— natives of Africa fin j them in their forests, iii. 

353— of the narwhal Burpasses ivory— ascribed to a different 
" ' " ■ " - ■■ ■ ■ pf-g(.g ■■ ■ ■ 

Liriosity, and the deaire of scarce tJiings, made them 

■ verj* valuable a century aeo, v. 4? — the white shark is said 
to have oae hundred and forty-four teetti, V. 68. " . 

Tegg, what the hunters cUitHc'drre the second year, il. 323. 

Tejugvaat, tockay, and cordifle, all of the IJzaia kind, gradually 
ipK, fflt up the chasm between the crocodile and the African 
Iguana, V. 316. 

Tempests, loudest formed by united Contributrona of minerals, 
vegetablea, and animals. Increasing the streams of air fieetihg 
roond'the'globe, i.Seo^frequent under the tropics, and a 
wpnek b^ond thetn— tempests of sandy deserts raised in one 
countiy, and deposited onanother,294^ia Arabia and Africa 
descrilied, 300. 

'i'endfac, ah animal less than a mole, different from the hedge- 
I)OK) and a different species — descfiption< — grunt like hogs, 
■nd love to be near water— they multiply in numbers — sleep 
■evfral montiis — its flesh a great delicacy with the Indians, iii. 

Temer, a imall kind of hound, iii. 14. 

Tevikgt, a spinous fish, v. 186. ' 

Teitaceotu mibstancea, in variety on the tops of mountaine, and 

^ iotbeheartof marble,!. IS. 

ThaUi, the ptnlosopheT, held all things to be made of water, 

Tkamti-viaterf and that ofthe Indus, most li^t and wholesome, 

i 143. 
Theoriet (at tbeearth], those of the most celebrated authon, 

■ Theory, (of evaporation]), for the formation of clouds, i. 314— 
' other theories upon tnat subject, 313— beautiful theory of 

symjMthy, of father Matbranche, upon monstrous produc- 
tions, 1196. ; 
f^emometet, measures heat and cold by 8 fixed standard— de- 

scriptloD, 1. 149. 
Theuty), a prit^-finqed abdominal fish — description of it, 

T.-126, ■ . , .. 

Thorpcic'^h, that which has the tentr^ fioa directly uikder the 

peetonfl fiw, T. 120. 

L, . h.L.oogIc 

^ ;. . . , . , I N.O EX. . ^ 

Throat (of the great Greenland wh^e) ia so narrow, tbat apy 

' mimia la^to itea abcrnBg cwdAMt«Ot«K»';r.$&— Uu^tlnt 

' of the cachalot can with great eaH«pa]J*w.iiB, .qk^ V-T]-fhnr 

</tfaeaba>fenHtai ■ "■■ 

Thruth, a alender^iilled bi^ of the sparrow kind, i«..246— Ita' 
dutiiiiuiaii fram all *f ' dn lond— Ma tw^ vety fin^'-die 
lornst of the tribe fridi a'qaHiad.voiM>-riu food,.2Sl. . 

Thamb-Jbattd abell-fidi, tpstabBtnUv dcscnbed. t. .230. . 

3'flMM^, UUoa heard it tdling bobeaiii himiw^i^ upon the 
Andes, i. 1^ — its cloud .abnaya mmes agaiaet tbo mfid, £91 

' •— I Boubd ptoduced by^ tbo. <^o«biOD of t^.clJHflU* tttd 
continued by MteboatedeohO) S19--illiui>dar.Gl<iai;i,ti>e air, 
' and kait insecta Doxious t«>mg«ta«iOD» 821. . \ ,.^..., 

ThmrM (eanihige) forma a huiqinpon the 'viiid-fi[i|^ iu jaeo, 
not aeen ia women, i. 434^ - 

Tidet, tbb imst obvious motJOB -of thd »4*<-with Pl^n w^« ia- 
flueikied partly by she- aHii,^ and in.a.ytcatet decree by.the 
moon— 'Kei^r £nt conjsctoreflaUMotMti 4be owwipal caufe 

. of them— the precheni^KiQE rdisooveced ^ JJteiKlOii— 'blgh 
tides happen at the same time on oppoaitQ sidei'af ibe.gkbe* 
where waters are finthcst (nmitlts:tDooa—MU)tar«D4i^iUE.(ides 
— greatest in syzigies, laaatinquodniturciKr^OV straqsett 
in Darrowest plaofls— MeditesmaneaRt-Boltle, and fil4ck,&M, 
no sensible tides, ifaeGulfthaf Veniqe ^^Mpted; and ifhy 
— faigher in the torrid aone, tbaa in the Jfst of tbe oceav— 
greatest at the river Indus, riaag thirt3r.&i»>— Fetnarlia&Jy.high 
on the cQ^t of Malay. >a tha Straits of fiupdo* th? Red 
Sea, the Gulph of St. Laweenosi ttkM^ the coast .of China 
and Js^, at Panama, and jatfaeGnlphof B«n|a^--thoBeat 
Tonquin most renarkable in the world; oim tide, and one 
ebb, in twenty-four-hoais; bwkein-eachiiieitthuo'tLdQ at 
all— in the Straits of MaoeHaa it rises tventy £m^ flows 
six hours, and tba ^^ lastslnit two hours, i. $W8> 

Tiger, leaps twenty feet at a sprhtgi ii> 156—0^00 bigger. than 
ue lion — nothmg tsBMs it-^-pai&itly retenfbles the caty 4C9 
■~the royal tiger— Marries a hufiato over its shoiilder to its 
den, 41&— attacks bbe lionj 402-<rfaii^t.,to dWead herds, 
380— sdd to follow the rbmoceroe for us 8acram«ota,411 — 
■—other t^ea sfc oat it — under Aug^Btu^.a tiger an extraor- 
dinary sight— the species scarcer- opiRian of Varro, that it 
was never taken alive, 417 — the ancieots CooMlieikted it fiv 
beaUfy among quadrupeds, equal to that of the pewock 
among bir^, 109 — sapposedjto taring &r^ fpt^or.jQvesfHitig 
at a titne-^Kpresses his resentoient aa l)ie'|ion>--tha skin 
esteemed in the Eaet,pBrticulari^in:Cbiaa,Jtldrr^b«tt]#o£oae 
tiger and three elepiume at Siam doseribetdt 4d4— ^tot^ar 
between a tigor and a oroooAk, Ml-Hlhe <red,, tiger, M. 
Buna's- '«oogar, 419— coquHoq in Crn^^^, Bpuil, Para- 
guay, and other parts of South America— the' flesh superior 


•to muttmii 4$S-:-itid esteemed by the bcctms m a dain^, 
lfi.»,' ■ ^■- ■ ! ■ 1 ■: : .. J ..■■-■ 

Th^ftta; or -cM'«inMRit«lnv«tlw-. ntelotfdl AL PnffoD— a 
^Mm]tifol«niiwl;>if4a6>- ■'-'': ■i-f' ■'■■ '..•-'• •■ • 

' :, (water) of the second drier of ' vneotoonNH^IrtKin' of 

T4aga, trag-Ieg^ed-gdM, d«BripiiiiDi«f.<lu«-iBteob-4ply.'Aif- 

ieraDeebetw«en'it«id'the'gB«;;n.-W9. ^ 

Titmotue, 8 •lendef'bilted bird of diBJpaitnwkMj iT..»6. 

T'oarffBtem bltger'tban 4tioki,i.l8S(W-^ieiD;aBib )eBt«tiu a 

delhW7 on tte cMM vT'GmMa^nbififU-di&ftnctt betivcen 

-tfie A«^ aftd it, as to feta«'aod ooAfqniiatioD, «. S57~their 

-flMan, appetites, ahd-'n«d^>^aapling— ^ifficid^ia bnaeing 

fottbr-curioua particulim'niBtiBgtir dm mmiA irnfiOTraJ- 

' lowfagatee othra, tbe-aHtntthiatung-, and ike ioaMtyoouted 

up y in — toads DOtvenomoiu— Accoupto-of toacla t^eAin- 

>|^idhL*-« IfljinftM; iielbiK«leaaa«atorai aSti lUTeponoq^-^ 

tonjia Ifl'-iriMW r ; itaWMttfaeno^diffiBah to:be kHM-rlwes 

~ 'fit e«itt«rtM'-M a raefa^ or. MtUp. m- ode, .witbtml acq^a^ 

< aooriAHfMt "Or «irv aDct>TatiA«nd.alm:Mid'-p0cre()t~-sc- 

' coBnta'or-tU»^teadB:«iot<aBaewButoeaats.Midfctf«nna 

carfr'iwrtjjrtarirf Ihfa opB*atiapfc»the:wfcett,-tbB loM-'t*^. 

' aMm haa the pnperty of ■uckiDK—'doubtfid wheillW ihc^ 

die by mtenuu or MOeraal ■ppUcatkm (tf. th» canoerpna 

' matter— varttdea rf- ihe m w m M ' d c aew p iMtniofiatwSuriqani 

--'toad, cdled piMl, *. ST^^-one taken out of iba taellf 9f a 

; -fliudEeatIjDm6pertoer'<,S50k 

TWi.asai^ four ia iU aniuiala of.tba paultrjckiod; ia a 
<:' species «f cock aBM«nt to tive^iv. 134. ' 
-'lWBe;'{or the ntapdeer], aataat ddksacr, ii. SSf-^tUe fla- 
iiHiwa>'8 muefc celebrated aodlaa^ tkm that of »ay. other 
' Mrd, IT. SM—oT ^ gnac GmnlaBd wfaale,> fills several 
' bogabeads wiib bWiber, r.^S. 

Xor«Mo a finmidable (ciapcit, so «8lM bjrAbe Spaniards — its 
deacr^oo and dreadful efiecu, i. S99> 408. 

forpalo, Eu ' deseriptkui— by an uracceiyriaWe. sower, i the, 
instant tomdMd, aran with a Uic^ when iotiaadwtely taken 
out oF the sea, it nuabs dia band moA araj, or whole hpdy 
— the shock Tosaaiblee an electrical stroke ;- sudden, tio^ing. 
and painfbk-iaccMM ^-KemfiB' «f MSHboMB pradiicsd by ' 
it — be believes holding m the breath prOTents the violence ; 

- iinplieit briiaf of aAtacy:*WHkI .1>e pain&Uy. wxlMeiTftd-. 
tm power not exerted upon every eocaiion^toialB^bjF, RfAU> 

.'mat to-tUa pnrpoae — op i rwriwcooQanuag the. ,Qmaa of this 
Btrann eAot— she fish dead, lb» pow«> destroyed, then 

-teadled or. eatMNJih^sooafstitMaeiNwertiot esteitded to 

: ibadajneaasiie-Mleeei readttig tbafiibanaaa at the eadof 
the line, or nin^iog fiabes in the same pond— ridiculous 

. euen of thii BW^Bog c|ndUy ia the hiilvy of Abysiiiiia, by 
' 5 

power resides in two thin ■Mgclci of itc bac fc ■' ■CT cr < t-fahe» 
&WML Brifniifta tte ■hawofToT^ m wWdirf Um— Mt 

quality Moore's aod CondamiDe't acOoHQts' flf tktn, t. 

96i ■."■■'■■■■■ ■ ■■ *■ ■ - ■ - .■ ■ 'r ■■ ^ ■ ■ 
TmVowe, rttnkect amoi^ cnutaceow fishes, thoogfa mf«&m\a 
■e,^«og«Miliq[!l6 SvbA'-^-dHthtgrwilkea'iBto 

twoclaBiM7i»BiaiMUdAdiM/nKl'Ae!Mi)<4ard»— dJArn 
In hMrit»-4hte i o tU nm iott Aba t A fA mf i rtiM dpal diMi 

SoAy tl fittraed in tat o m- ml^ geMnlly fi 
'tvin'wttbmit'lfMHiiAgi ^s AtrfanafllMNiaH' 
-the M»c)d>ai»im*'f«d-«bMr'eh«idktcd--4aMj« Ikcgw IJKt 
jteMoiie — wt^gUJrom ffi^ to'tn huaA»d ^Hmndtf-f-MnliMts 
spe^ of some of amasing sixes— live to e'Abtf and s-Imh- 
'<li«d aad itKatj yean — can hre iHHuMViiam, beady jar 

I tir«TMy ^ 
br^D, proved b}^ esperiibetilB of fiedt*^ 
i*e)]^ npoD' (t-i>heBic ^aMtnlfi hf mea 
cooduit opening into tbA noatb—afahe irhea.iU sitMlleSj n^ 
■riweds tears «h«R dMtreaBd— tprpii Jiiring - is fcfte t^ ihcyipL 
In-aMM ca*e; aAA fawiillllitg lirl | ii[i i ti[iliht j i ■ i n ii m n <f n Imi3 
toRone caught ina canal at AwiteriWMi aaA 6f a tmtoin 
tbe iiolre m ITSft -r. lee. Sod I'mVfeb 

S'oHCM, a bitd (^ the pie Und, has a larger bJB-^tfce vad Jiadnd 
-ditacribeA-^ilB fiwd— pepfitt voided' dticMtoMed t? iha.ta«- 
CBD, preferred to that fresli gaiheradi-<f osiAt'lirea obo Maoe 
—its babitt and ftiodi— hafr biM^ »e»; mdnloiai^ abd sarpanta 
to guard against— sccA^ vut ifs neat.' bId- tbe 'bdmr' of 
some tree, leaves scarce nwm to gv )» mA 4toti tniinAi 
its great beak gunvts tbaf entrdtee-^fllaad «b^ iia warm 
porta of Sauth Aneriefa,' wbem it is valiied fw it» ttaAkt 
and noufishiDg flesh, and the bAuty eFitipVAagu pMsca- 
lariy die breasijtbe skin of which the- Titiliiid At) and ^ue 
to their cheeks for beaaty, ir.JS?. 

TmcIi, those pans of the body eiotC o jci'tartd Ht taaichiog, ac-' 
^ire the greatest degree of iKcuraey-'4hc^ flngo^ hyioag 
habit, not from a greater qnaiitity of nerrek, b aa eaW Matters 
itt the art, H.' 50. ■ ' ■ 

Ttachims, tbe weaver, a prieklT-fianed ingohv fisfa, deBferfted, 
T. 122. 

Ttachipiertu^ Ae sabn, « priieMyMfiBBed ttidradia fifli*-4ia de- 
scription, V. 125. 

:pnieii (of a ■tag},'inaM!it!r of-knowing it, and Hm of a bmd^ U. 
■SIS. ■ ■' ■ ■..-■.■■• 

Tragetapkiu, MAe of a stag «i^ the ancienCa^ftniitd artike 
%)rcsUof Geftainy, aa<itctiBed>by thaiMMs b w midaer y orfta 
' MUWU* ™Mi ) IBJ Sf^-- ''- • ' ': :■ f 

;Vi>;»(fiirI»M>),<iN4by«ieAnliiuii&>llH«MKin>l>. 17'' 

— W»a*«*w>;^WM»*»OKtlieAfc Mf( !l< ig Q»i20iO~Ag«ioe-, 
deM^ibed in vsriety by Geuier, tii. llS. 

Tivwifc; foml f«r tMMtdutlng wJBter. wbflD rohbed oC liMH- Imwt*' 
.vi.9* . , 

Trees, [fouile) in tlA body of solid roc^ sad dovpundwtllV 
emtb upon whtoh the^ a!iK:«.,|;««)r-Hipni»ptwe(-'up»n thii 
nibjeci, i. 43~-tou(itl jin i]twBt«ie» At Ibe MAHt^- of ilkpcwer 
Mom 1& Flandars'-ac tbe dej^b ^ m,y feet, Jt^Sr-laiing: 
MKitji f«etd««p under ground &r.BiW.j agas^ benaa»» awd 
and'tonglr, pTQoh bfvBlternMe ovjerdoiriDK* atid d«iwt«ni> of 
-thB-ioa^-flSfr— usually of rite Wgeet kind» )q ifide luculti- 
TUed wiMsroawe*^ in litQ o^ts pf mde nMur«, S^S— tba bs- 

- MSB M»d<^ln>tM% •»- iqHMptcy M to ba iBiiyi^^y inhabited 
ibf «Mkie«, HmIm*. and bird». of .mott del^M^id .plunuige, 
• iv.' 1-S5 — age Itaowo' by tbe oumber. <^ ikeir circles, ,v. 

■ m., 

Trichuriu, Rpnckly-&iwdafDdd fUbrOf a HVWdrlilfoJiNWt de- 

■.■«ib«d,,v,iitt«.- ■ . 

2Vtg/«< tt)» gurflud, of the epiwous land, dfBcn|)tiaq«f itiis' fiah, 

■ *..!■»*■ . 

TraekKt, ihfl naUs of tliU kiad bnve no iDouth—tlieir Wunkr- 

. ata, MUMtgsQMlar wbattltetigeFj eagle, oa.^iwli ai«iUDODg 

. bcBfta, birdst ar fiib«d, V. S25. 
Tr(^;lWjrf« f of Bantiu3),iii tbetcnrangfoutang, or mid mav of the 

' madsii iii< S77. 
2'nipK|iI ««,• Mpposed by Lmowm tbe itftti** jpob of man, 

"oadibAoetthMncliiiMlMwIf.plafieBaf atjwnauif^ for ibom 

- •vAR' argtmant mHiping U prdv* tJle.Mntfiar;irJi. 93— the 
cliaaMa so Irat^ pCoceai af lioM imt< Ibe delictfayof 

' theit-BceBt eattrelf » and why»4% 4% . - , 

Trttmpeter, a curious birdof bouinAnie*i(^ iVk.IM. . 

Truntpets increase souuds, in ths «aqie iMDD«r aatb* te)eK«pe 
dirta bofto»— ftwBOi* bard af liewiog fiad the mum advan- 
tage in the trumpet made for thia purpoaf* ttiU lb« Aort- 
sij^ited persons d^ f/om glasaai ; warn (b^ iartkeK uiar^d 
tbey ^«u)d beu8«d|>»B«lvkatBg»«nl)-iBftplH««^SC)lititdeBDd 
stilbesa, as tbe multitude of sounds would pfadace tuouill «id 
coafnsiDDt it. 4% 

Trttukt (of snimak}, that of thedaphant d«B«nb«d, iii. S96 — 
' that at tba gtMt aaa)' jvA^iy ^ilMMd aveof N««iN'*n)artcr- 
pieces, vi. 161* 

rviat. (af ^aw)t drawa aafliMW « bat^-sliJl priweTM their 
hollowwidiia. i, 161. ... 

Tujitd iMk, a vaiirty ef tbe kind, flWiT<»«f £iumek iiv. -4U. 

T'aniwe-An^, a atrbog beetle, mnarkaUa for mue and Brioaars, 
»L 149. 

TmMer^ io iba diwini tff Dn* .Cain^'* d«s .of ' lb« fint cOassi 
or gboeraua kiodi Iii. lS*«ippawd the^NMbBtf fldA dasBobed, 



TWtiuuM'iMbt >re univalves, a»d the tint kifld of AiiitoUe'd 

4iriMW, V. 209. 
Turiiit, variMjr of the tune -plgeow, obtained b^ cross breecb, 

iv. 231. 
ZWM(^ (and r^t),caitmnelr delicate in thar choice of baits; 

■ piece of herring or hwliuck, twelve hours out of die sea, 

mtA nicd a* b bait, will not be touched, v. 83. 
TwHetg, (bird af the poultry kind] , iu BBtive country disputed ; 
■ ■rgnmentifiir iheOkl and New Continent —6 rat «eea io France 

in the reiga of Francis I, and in Eogland in that of Heniy 

VU(— ila tendcmett with ut, when young, ai^ uea not for 

mt cUniaie--in the wild ataie, hai^y aod oumeroui in the 
' «no«y foteaU of Canada— alao Uiger aAd more bet^uttful than 
• ■ the donwtic state— the aavwes weave the feath«v into 

- cWakf, aad fashion tbeia iato fans aod umbreDaE— bunting 
Ibe turkey, a priooipiJ divereion with them, its flesh chiefly 
■M MWr t tag their fimilie^-^aimer of hunting, tv. 136. 
'urtaet, a atupid, vain tribe, quarrelling among tbemselres — 
lfc»cock^ antipathy te t«d— tbtirtlea, and die* to sitacfc it— 
manner of increasing their aoimosity for direcsioiv— weak and 

- comrdlr afainst the weakest tifjrpn^T that daie face tlieto-^ 
. (he COCK porsuea what fliea from faim, as lapJogs and A\t- 

dKB, than rotums to his train, di^ays his ^uma^ and 
■truu about— the feaule nildor, Rentier, and partic^My 
fond of anii and caterpiUaii e^s— lays e^hteen or twenty 
eggs l>nKr than a hen— the yoong verr tender at first, mart 
be eardutly attended to — aceonnt of Abbi Ftvdie, of a 
tnrfcey-ben and her brood at the nriit of a Urd of piey^ 
toridaa of NorfUk the iMvat of tbn kJnsdoai, sooe wngb 
tUtAr poMulit in £aet ufBU, m douestic stale, grow to 
w«f^ anty pounds, iv. 188. ":. 

TwrhA d«^, without hair, iii. IS. - 

Ttmt ip it , adogofthemengfet kindiandthehiwGrclaasaf Dr. 

^Caios'sfHviiion, iii. IS. 

U bird of the oraoe kind, iv. 332— likes colder 
_ ._r,or wikleat and moiatest parts in this 90un- 
tiy— ii a bird of paaaage, 886. 

TwUtt ppsparea for hiying, and depoaiu her eggs in the sand, 
where in twenty.«ix days they are hatched by the aun— lay 

■ baiM one huodnd and fifty to two hundred in a season— the 
young Irom the ege, with their shell, seek their fiiod un- 
vtangbt, and, when ueaike of t^ua^s, run by instinct to tike 
sea, ignorant of all danger, v. 18^— propagated on shore only 
— COmea fiMU'saa onparpoaein caupling. season — female is 

. p a wiw 'ond reluotanti the nale is slo^r, but gra^ so &st, 
nothing bioaeni the hold, 195. 

rttrttofartidrofttcwinoree), the shdl pat to many uses; of the 

. Aomlitijitt lha£aeit; orauiats <tf ewht fiat, and five hoUow 
-^ plates— how manuftctured— the fl^, paiticularly of tbe 

I K D E X, 

green 'turtle, prized as' a'aeIrdicv',^'"H «iitffelltnrfe-^in6 
great Mediterranean tlic largest ofall.un^t.aiitl un^afttAeAi 
Its shell is unprofitable for usc-^^-EcVeral WE^s'tif'ctrictiiitg 
turtles, V. 190. *' 

TuHle-dffve, one of the ruraiDating Httts, (if "wl(h alpbif^r of 
disgorging Pood to feed ita young, ii.'2Sl. ' ' 

TuikSf tbose of a boar sametitnes A foot' longj Vi.iSSf-'kX th? 
babvrouessa, a'fine ivory,' siBOothe'f anJ ^Hlitdr ^ban ths 
e^C(3lant'8, but not so ham— of enflrrtiOuB' tfi*t,' 97T— of 

' castrated animals, scared appedr nithoat the 1^— Itt^E^, 
abate his fierceness and venervj producing Atm-jf th^ ss^e 
effect as castration, '379' — ot the maiinrioth, wergh Jbur 
hundred pounds ; those of ike elephant from Afticaf two 

' "hundred aod fifty— some reniarkable lately foUiffl ntftfr thtt Cftao 
and Miume, in America— Dr. HuritePtlliiiks th^ of a latjCer 
animal than the elephant, iEi. 556— of the DarirhaF, Or <i2fr- 
unicorn, a cetaceous fish, irith' teeth fVom-nine to'fiiiirte^D 
" feet long; t. 46. " . ■ , , ■ . , 

Tiww, never, while Infents, so hrge or fctiWi^ it ehHdMtf-ttat 
coihe singly into the world, and »fKy,' [. 383. ■ ' 

Twhons, spouts so called, >ccn at hind, ^^1' \ri several respMits 

, 'from those at sea, i. 337. ' ' ' ' 

'T^son^ (l^r.) his dcscrintibn of an tmraog-OlHteg, bytbe d^e 

".■./,'".,-' ■ •.--■«..*"", ':'■, :', ;. !."...'''v.:" I 

Valerian, ft plant'Sf #hte!i cits are escesmrefyfima, it 888. '■ 

■Vantpyre, a foreign bat, having the reputed facullj'Qf drinring 
blood from persons asleep ; and thus destmying them bt^tn 
ihey awake, iii. 2S3. See Bat. ' ' , 

fnpitttr, of metals in mines not so Aoxioaf is thau of sabMsnels 
with which ores are usually united, such cs •rMtilc, ctnnabar, 
&c.— ftagrance af their smell-^warniings about them, i. 68-.^ 
diseogaged from water, and attenoated, atcendi into the 

. atmosphere, where condensed, and ttc(]t]lring weight M it rd&t, 

■ fklh down in 8 shape suitable to the temperatare-of jtaeleni- 
■■ tiori,316. 

Vari, B kind of mutn, kst of the monkey kisd-^tt ilcMirlptlDn, 

■ iii. 319. , . 
Vault, go to viiu/f,ptM'aK'(ued1]yhiinterB,'i*henihshaTeenlers 

holes like the ri*bit, iii. 123. .,■.,■ 

Vegctaites; vegetable earth — thrbetl offt, in an' Jnlmbinid'eotin' 
try, must be always diminMhing, imd* why, l.'50^pl«u, »lth 
a round bulbous head, which, -«4ien dried btCBtney af wnaz. 
' ing eitatitit); grows near tbe cxtwnity of duc'rej^iM^ on 
mountains, where ceotiniol &0M Kigns, I96»-like fhiMa Bnd 
mjaetal mbstBDces, pndace asm o-ttopious nin>B«r) 9SS«>. 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 

.to^rtj- UBprol«cl«d, and exnond io every aUaikmt, 34«— 
those In a dry and sunnf soil, are strong and vigorotts,' iiat 
Ii);f>iriMtt i wkI tlioee the joipt product qf ibeat and iniAture, 
are luxuriant AOd teodiet— ^iffereiit Idods u>proprUled to d!F- 

, feft»t ^K>eitUee of vuiwds, aoA why^-biKk distribute tho. 
seeos <rf' vegetables ithertt tbey By, 3iQ — vecetables cnef the 

■ bottpmof (naay s'lrls of the:se%,SfiO— but tevr noiious— that, 
life as much promoted b^ hurafls industiy, as imniat fife is 
diminishedi ^5— the aipl^food «( ruaiinatlng aoiniBlB, ^. 317 
awitniill Ifwdiog on veg^tabW most inofiensive and tirooroi^,' 
iii. ] 17— some pqikik4 oC notMHi— what con8titHte» the diT- 
ferewA betfeeo ^nipoal, ynd vegetatile life, difficult, if not 
iiQpQGtibUi t^ vniwer, vL IGS-^iiai poaseaaed of one potrer 

\ nhich ^imaJs hqve, the actatal ahBity, or ankmrd attempt 

' a,t aelfVpreserTatiio*) nO—\ti<Ho c«Ued marine grov to a 
mpq^troua Bize. 183j 

Vegeiaii«»i antifiijuited in it* [»«gKaBb|y bea,vi. 99. 

Velociiif, not aione the actualing force of winds; tn^t idfo tlie 
degree afdensitjr, i. 293. 

Tetvet-diaJc, a variety «f the conuMn duck, » native of tbcf 
European dominion*, tv. ill. 

Vermn, hospitals erected in India for the maiiitepa^ee of alf 
kinds of vermin, ij. 81.— less found with asses, than with otbe^ 
aDimals Doveied wjthhair, i!07- See £rainuu. . 

FectfDiiu, its erDpUon— the most remarkable described By 
Valetta, i. 78 — another account by Bishop Berkley, 60. 

Vibratiom ( of a bell ) , cease to hb heard when under the receiver 
of an air-pump, i. 277— the tone of a soooroiis bochf made tO' 
dqta&d upon tite aunbei of vibrations, not the uroc> it a 
mistake i^ an efiect for a cause, ii. 35. 

yiolet-crab, of the Caribbee islands, most noted fw diape,' 
delicacy of flesb, and singularity of manners, v. 171. 

Vipert most vivacious of reptiles — experimeid on a viper in thf 
receiver of tt^e air-pump by Mr. Boyle, i. 261— kept in boxes 
for six or eight months without any food— its progressive 
motioD, V. 361— the only enimal in Great Britain whose bdte 
is f^ar^d— 4o not devour tbew young— their food — by the 
a{^icati(|Q of salad-oil, the bite «» the vipet effectoally owtcd 
—who first discovered the remedy — efieots of the n'per's bite, 

Vision, its errors— objects represented opiide down, and doable, 
ii. 2UMka point vitluHit «anastioD«-«Dd want of measure tut 
distance, 23, , 

Vifip(U[0'f.Wi^OfiffUtaaaina»ii,the ttro dosses for geneiatioa 
a^d jiTftdUfition— alt othw modes held imaginary and etrb- 
ncQt]s» 1. 362— the blenny, a Eqpinoos fish, bnngs forth two er 
three IwitUiid ypung at » tkae, slive, And p&ying HOund, 

L;,q,z:=b, Google 


Vima, oseoftbe nro'UndB'd'iln'-s!Mti,'SH' tnMOl 'nbto' the 
bize-of a'lAdger, iU.'402. ■ " 

r«ifn*afflSw, 'Oonip4»d¥rfrtJgTCW\)f'ft*u^feMW Srt'WfiiitB, 
tfivn h ctwOrentiiPie Drdwr )re«n (M, {.'Sdfl.' 

tinned (oaoa. tiMiigb ft) 'reofitrmny .'li; 9S. 
XJttkar* (of -ibe-tea), s tttltle ^itb'tWA-iriati-tippfer'Jitr, its 

' deacrt^D, v;'4€. See ^AtratAo/: 
(Am»Ak rilM^, fiitt-dMskm )iy^ AHsHKte,- kr W%gTM,-T. fiB9. 
' Foue ( of birds ) mndi kuder fbi' flietrlhiHt Afid'ft&tnidrfttf Miei 

ktnds— TCina set toidinic by'lMier IC1rtlil9r,-'iv.'ni. 
Fo&nMo, canndered'Bs a csoaoaBf iimaihise'tfEe, -thettbuth 

iMsrtwo tallies in cn-cntafereilce— -o^itiidtii df [)h!lota|Aien 
' and ignonmt' men about it— tiwreol cB Bite i-^ t hree vety re- 
' marlttble In Earape, radwfaicb, MtS — AKMUiMitmnt ftmous 

in Asia — one in the island of Ternate — iii the MolnCM i^lftnds, 

in Japan, in Java, «id Sumatra, in the (!!&[« de Verd hlands, 

the pea'kin l^neriffiB; aho' is AnieiriCa,'94-^niarine ones not 

vtiy frequent,- and why, 109. 
Vomit (blaekj, a mortal' a^wpton of the ffiltecaper called'cha- 

fwtonada«,'in America, i.-^7. 
Urunoteimmt, • nrickb-fiDDed apodal fiah, descriptioa of it, 

Vrchtns, or echini, a mftltiralve Ediell-Mi— manner of exhibiting 
. cbitwUrawdinacyBniBial in every light — its deBcripticm — Bome 

kmdass e«o^t%Bting-to'the>letoter, add fti «gg8 consMered as 

Vritu (ofmioiala) found efficacioua in some ditorders,-!!. 379 — ' 
of tse tibn, -imuppomble.'ldl — of cameis,- an ingrMfent in 
■a) ammoDiac, iii. 37B-— of birds, diffin^ flttm that of other 
anittul>,iv: 13. 

Vrson; or Hudmn, iri'the faedge-tiog Undj at native of Hudson's 
Bay— iu dbMription— )aleep» mutib, ahd fiseds up<m the bark 
of juniper— in .winter snow serves it as dtiilk, and in nimmer 
it laps water like a d(^, iiiL' SI 1 . 

Vrut and Biion, in fact, deacendaoti of one rammcm stock ; and 
natundilta; BssigAtng them diSerent dasses, have separated 
what it really unbed^^-this-wiUlbnH chte6ytilet with in tithu- 
ania-^-desctiption of it-^-geoenlly taken fay plt-^Isi ii. S38r— 
the breed chiefly occupies the cold and temperate zones, 234. 

Vvtturt kind, TiiltUr^ nod doR, about Orsnd C^ro, in Egypt, 
keep togeriiBV in asbdi&Iemendly maniier.Und bHngupibeir 
■ young in the same nest, iii. 28^-lts distitictivetnarks 'iVom 
6thef kinda of eamivordus 'birds— the flietih liked, and drcised 
for eStffigi'&Dconliog to Betonias,tv. '61— of 'Senegal, sd!d to 
carry Off children, probidriy no otiter tfian'the cftndor — 
seldom attacks Ihrfng animnln,- when aupplied wltli dead; 81— 
description of thegdden vulture, 82. 

ffiHiire, (bird-ofprey),aexti[ilRlDktotheeagle, less generous 


. v&b^lflt'iv. ,81-i'W>WHffM-»here-fom< l -- unV - ' 't W !P in^Jjig-' 

, liod^fl^a af them near Graud Cairo, not |wriqitt£ii u^ be 

diMtN9Bd,-afi tijfffdw^u'.til' M>^ ^Uh -and cwrioa tliere-P^n 

co^wn^ M'itb wild ^g*> . ieaj iu}d 4evqip; to^ibitt nitlipiit 

rveUiDgrrW^nd^rful ifiethoj of separating ihfi Be»h from 
[mnm^ and. leaving tbe tkia eDUce-T— sm^ cai7i<^ froju;|far 
. — foBoir ^Oie t^ut ooat liu iildaS ^Icn^, and fiO-vantciQudy 
, fill Ihamidsea^ u tner^y to ivitddle, and ta.want disgiwgJDg 
. befota they fig avay— ate little apprebensiva «f datig^, ^d 
. aUaw ibqoBeliw to be appreadiea-^sD eagle idling in upon 
tbw ne^, l^eqw them sf a dittance till be be^tiatcd — an ox 
retumins home alone, lying down by the way, becomes their 

Ey« and it devoured obve-r-^Ueaifit OKen g^x^og, destroy 
lbs, and feedmuch upon teqteatg, ubbits, harea, and what 
.. ^ gamq they can overpwer— demolish whole btoods of croco- 
' dilw*-li^ two egga at a time, and produce but onca a year— 
makfi BBBU in inacceuible cli£, at^ remoteet placet-^eir 
. flesh leai>,.stmi^,DauaeouirtaBt|i)g,a»dgiQelliiie of csmoA — 
: ih« down of their wiogs mal^ a pretty Liad of ur, commonly 
, told in the AiiiStic marlceti, S3, &c. 
, rW/uTM (king of), deseri[>tion(^thiabu-d>iv,)^7- -^' 

tfaf^ueioMt, whales provender, iateeU Saatia^ io clusters on the 

- Burface of the lea, and called medusa by LiqiwuSi v. 39; 

JVainut-treat, with walnuts on the atemt, leaves, aiid branches, 
in exact preiervatioor found at ttr«ity-six feet dfipih, nuiad 
the city of Modena, in luly, i. S35. 

Jfavderom, a baboui less than the mandril, its descrifiMn — 
chiefly jeei> in the-wooda of Ceylon aodMalabart m. 398. - 

Wappe, doc of the joongrel kiniL in the Uiird divisiiui of Dr. 
Caiufl,iii7l3, 17- 

Warbling (of birds), so loud and vaiiaua in modulation, not 
easily accounted fuftiy. 11. 

tVarine, the Bnuiliau guariba, largest of the monkey kind, found 
in America — its description, iii. 314. 

Wsrree, hog of the isthmus of Darieo. described by Wafer, ii. 

Watja, their description and hebits->th«ir faabilatioa scarcely 
completed, wben the inhabitant dies— have two or three hun- 
dred queens in a hive.— their nest a most curious abject— tlie 

. iodalvaspacather noboney thenuelves, tbougjifondofsweeu 
— fierce battles with tiie beee, who make up by copduQt and 
OUmbenthedeBdeocyof proifca^ — their depre^itioua— where 
found, other flies desert the place — live but one eeason — cannot 
endure winter — befoie new year they wither ^od di^ having 
butchered their youpg— ia every nest, one or two fonales 

iryire^-Aapr^natetl <tl)e 'mceOag tasutt, lh« fcUiiUt in 
,irii^ td meegi, and befSre June pradiiccR ten ttwbefind 
'oMg, jlttiai tutmirM ittti fM %y her &t«ne-^-s(Aiiai7 imp. 

—the pmrbidnB arnrnged and iKtd io, the old oue iSim 
hole ttnddies^^heyoung'learing the egg, aiie- acjlrce^ vlsll^e 
— ftow (beUfe of the yoong ia spent— waipa of Eiiropentio- 

' eent, compared toUune of tropical {^InadtefT-^mcriptitm of 
Ihose^f tlie' Weit Indla,-iuid their habiO — painaolt&eir sting 
Insupportable, more terriUe than of a icorpioi) ; ' the part' 
svrelb, and people are so dls6gured as scarce to be known, 
»i. 115. 

'Water, its parts inflnitdy sitiatl, drivert through the pom of 
gold, penetra^g through all subetancee, exc^t g1a«»~~enterB 
tne composition dfall bodies, regfelable, aniraaT, and fossile— 

" birds, beasts, Gtlies, inaecM, trees nltd vegetaUee, with their 
puts, haie growth from it, and 1^ ptilrefection beoonte mtter 

"" —^rea alt other bodies firmnfees and durttbnity— a pbial her- 
meticallj scaled, kept fifb^ yesi^, deposed no sediment, and 
continued transparent-fathered atteratbunder-clap, in ndtry 
weather, deposits a real salt— spring water collected &ofli 
the air— of river watau, the Indus and the Thamea t^er the 
most light and wholesome — lightness, and not transparency, 
the teit of parity — purest water distilled from snow on tops of 
highest mountains—different kinds adapted to different consti- 

- tati(MW— very transparent— fresh water at sea putrefies twice, 
sometimes thrice, in a voyage — a month at aea, sends up a 
' noisome oAd dangerous vapoor, which takes fn-e from a flame 
-— elementary water not compoutided — is ice kept In fusion — 
dilates in bulk by coId-'^-confinned by experiments — very 
- compre^ble and Mastic — made to resemble air.~~a^ drop of 
water converted into steam, capable of raising twenty ton 
weight— keeps ita surface level and even — a »ngle quart suf- 
ficient to bunt a hogshead, and how, i. 1^, &c.— water of 
the sea heavier and more buoyant than fresh water, 203— ^6f 
the sea, kept sweet by motion, ^fk-converted into rushifig 
sar, and t»a>n into its former state, S79. 

Water'hea described, iv. 94>2. 

Wttter-spautt, bunt from die sea« and join mists iniraediately 
above them, i. 324^— most surprising phenomena, dreadful 
to mariners, and attoniAing to observers of nature, conrmon 
m the tropical aeas, aometimes in our own-'MJeacriplion' of 
those seen b^ Toumefort In the Mediterranean— solutions 
offered for this surprisiog pheDomBDon^ 331^— Dr. Fnuklin's 
■olatlon ofi i. SIO. 
' 'Water-nagt^, slender-billed bird <d tbe sparrow IcTni^, b'vtng 
upon Hiseds, iv. 9W. ■ ' 

Waves, their luminous appeonutce in the night, and tUe cause. 

I;. L.oogic 

Wax, oF two kindR, gatlicrM by cBninion'be8S,"ri. -Idft— tWIirst 
fifteen days the Iwes make ewre. wax than dutiiiftbemt of 
the year, 108— that produced bf Uack twei, intn^lcal cB- 
inates, only used for mediciaal purposes, being 'ttfo sofb for 
candies, at in Europe, 111. 

fVatiet, a mail earoivorous snimal — ntsrks commen to ti)e>1cind 
— ^these difler from the cat kind in the formation and dispo- 
sition of the clavs — differ from the dog kind in a chithii)^ of 
ftirrariier than hair — one of the species i» iike all ibc «8t— 
this the BmallMf of the whole kind — ita desoription — untame- 
sb?e and nntractable— 'hides and tleeps-three ptrrta of the day, 
and sallies forth for the eveoiog, attactcs aninraisraudi 
above its own size — destroys yoimg poultry, and suehs the«gEs 
—80 nimbly runs up high walls, no place is secare firiwt it, iii, 
6S, &c. — catches rats and mice better than cats ; also small 
birda— in cultivated lands it thins the nuiftber of -hurtful 
vermin— never cries but when struck — all the kind' have -gitnds 
near llie anus, secreting a substance fcetid in sonre, -and aper- 
fame in others — this most offensive in summer, end inaeCfer- 
abl^ when irritated — one sort in America is by wiIote cftlled 
the stinkard— conlined to a cage is ever in uneasy agitatMiu— 
must have leave to bide itsqlf — cats only by stealth, and- mil 
notlouch the food until it begins toputrefy — the female makes 
an easy bed for her young, and -generally bviRg;9forth-''oai 
three to five at a time, and with closed eyes-^ccouat of a 
weasel's forming her neat, and' bringing' forth her yotiog, in 
the putrid carcase of a wolf, 72 — the white ermwe found in 
Great Britain is called the white weasel— its fur among ^ of 
no value, 80 — oFthe weasel kind, the martin the mest pleating, 
87 — the boldest and most useful of all is the iehneamoa,>94. 

Wtatker, the moist alone prevents evaporation, i. 316. 

Weathercoch often erroneous in regard to the curretrts of air, i, 

We(ds,Qo3,t\a^ over great tracts of the fea, serve as snst^tance 
lT>r many fish bearing similitude with such vegetables, i. 350. 

Weetter, the trachinus, a prickly-finned- jagidar fish, its descrip- 
tion — the sting given byits back fin ia, poisonous, v. ISZ. 

Weight (of the humao body) often found to diffiw firon itself— 
instances of it — the diference often amounts to a pound, or 
somiGtimes to a pouad and a half— iiot easy lo conceive whence 
this adventitious weight is derived, i.'<lF90'-4he porters orCon- 
etantinople carry burdens of nine hundi^d p^ufids weigitt — a 
man able to Taiee a weight of two thousand pounds— a harK will 
Dot carry upon its back above two or three hundred pouodf— 
whence, this seeming aupetiniity comes, .451. ' 

WiU, '(burning), ^tSrosely, now stopped, hftd a fireijiunp in 
it, which would Jiindle with the flame of acandle, ). 74->«Kne 
continue fill I, affected neither by rains ttordfonghte, iSt- 

Wert, (Sebald) a traveller, confirms the existence of -giants, on 

affMof fiDoth Aaenot^tomtdsdie-itTelglilBofMBg^an, 
ij. 109. 
Whak, tbi largg*t anSaai itnoim } no preciee Matomy of this 
^ yet given-— *e*ai>lifi^Botkiadi,duti(igaubed by exteniBl 
£gure, or ioterDal coDfonnalioD — are gregarious auimaU ; 
Bwce migmtjoni fMtn onie ocean t^ Bnoiher— ^md geoenny 

. neort whftn tber hare the least disturtMuce— great Green- 
land vhale, its description — fr«Mn sixty to seventy feet tong 

- —the bead one tUrd of Its bulk— its hearing is acute^- 
jbreathes air at the snrfaca i^ the water, and cannot re- 
raain undne it like othw fishes— it blom Itradly throurii the 
spaiu.boles, and meet fiercely when wounded — wh^ebone 
difierent from the booei of the body— the fins are from five 

. to e^bt feet long— the throat is narrow, nothing larger tban a 

, Iterriug oan be swallowed— the tail its only weapon of de- 
fence) is twenty-foor feet broad, and strikes hard blows— 

, me seen by Kay, marbled, with the figures 122 distincdy 
marked upon it— ihe flesh palatable to some nations— ^e 

- . female a&u male keep much ttwHhar ; their fidelity exceede 
that of birds — de fist cross breMs — she goea with young nme 
or ten montha, is then fatter than at other times — preducea 
two breasts and teats at pleasure — auddes her young e year. 
Wkd howi-^a rary tender of them — defends them fiercely when 
pursued— dives widi -them, and comes up soon to give Aem 
breath-curing the first year, called short-heads, and then 

. yield fifty barrda of blaU>er — at two years they are stunts, 
and bHUX that.dcuU>fiA^tbe food of this animal, ail insect 
callvd nwduia by Linnxus, and widfischaas by the Icelanders 
—pursues no other fish, and is iaoSeoiive in its dement— > 
tb9 vMe-laiua, of the ahell-Ssh kind, sticks to its body, as 
to ti» Caul boMontf a ship, gets under the fins, and eats 
throttgb the akin into the &I-— the sword-fish affii^hu the 
wtols, aroida the tfroke of its tail, houndi upon its back, 
and cats into it with the toothed ed^es of its bill — the killer, 
II CfltfcWM Stk of .great strength, widi powerful teeth, besets 
the whsJa as dogs do ■ bull, tears it down, and then devours 

. ««Iy l|s tongweiiold manual of taking wbalea — improvements 
l^ioted, V. SI, Ac 

Wiak, ^.Spamoeti) the caokalot, has teetfain the under jaw— 

'-. ia lasa-lWHi Aa maie, «koQt iizty feet hwg, and sixteen high 

. nan nnnin kingur iiiidnr irim and ihr hrmdmnkrrnnr hnlf 
<^ the wbcde— is voraciona and dastmcttve even to dolphins 

■ andifOtpie ia asii ae r e a diitinrtiffnt in Ais tribe — contdn two 

' pMomH dmga, lb* ipetmueii and ambergris; the latter 

. qMstly in older fishes, t. 00. See Cackaht. ■ 

IfAMK'Mr, R thick shaM>Wlled bh<d of tbe ^lerrow'kind, tfaou|^ 
feBHOB, iv. M7<— it migtaiee befere winter, 249. 

WJmi^liat, • alaydafrUned ImkI <tf ibe spMroir-Und. iv. S47— 
birdoCp m pga^iMP. 
VOLVvt C c 

L, _ h.L.oogIc 

Whip-inaket m vsrjr TeaomoBB taqmit «f the £a^ !■ fae feet 
lone, nncl iu bite kills in six houn time, v. 369. 

Whirlpool, lufHiner in which if ij fttnoed, i. dSI— Ummb of ifae 
oce«D pirticularl^ liangeioiu^.SSS— tbecontfal poiBt ahrajc 
loweit, and why, 172. 

fVkirkiitut, the moal ra^ formed by ookect cootributtana of 
ininerBli, vegatablei, and aiwaaU, incraiBiDg the current of 
■ir, i. 280. 

Wkitkers, a man without them formerly considered as unfitfor 
eompimy in Spaio ; aaturc denying, art supjdied the deficiency 
—a Spanish eeneral borrowing amtey tram the Venetians, 
pawned hii wmtkara, and took care to releaae them^-part of 
the rdigioii of the Tartan-coBsista in the naaageaaent of their 
whiskers; and they waged war with tbe PertiaaB, aa infidela, 
whose whiakera had not the orthodox cut.— the kiaga of P^nia, 
irore them matted with gold thread; and the kings of France, 
of the firat races, had tbeni' kaotted asd buttoned with gald, 

WhUtoti, hia reasfHiing concerning the ibaory of tbe eartb>— 
finds water enough in the tail of a comet for theimivenal 
deluge, i. 21. 

White, the natural co1our«f men, aH other tinta proceed fVom 
greater or lesser heat of climcrtecy ii. S7-^nnoiig white racea 
of people, our own oountry bids faireet for preeminence, 

WhUe-anti, an extraordinary community, described, ti. 1S9. 

■White-bait, shoals appear near Greenwich in July, and 
seem the youug of some animal not come (o- perfect fOnn, 
V. 146. 

Whitetttte, the moustoc, monkey of the anciant cMHinenti a 
beautiful little animal— ^its desoription— a native of tbe Gold 
Coast, iii. 3 IS. 

White-throat, a slender billed bird of the sparrew-kind, Hring 
upon insectai it. 247- 

Widgeon, a variety of the Europeait duck, deacribed, botbett 
known by ilswhiitling sound, iv. 411; 

Wild tnan of the woods, tbe rmrang-ontang, foremost of th« ape- 
kind — this name given to various animals walking u^ight, but 
from difiereat countries, and 6f di^^nt praportiana and 
powers— the trt^lodyte of Boatius, the driUof Furchas, yggf^ 
of Tyson, and pongo of Battel, have all ihk general name, iu. 

Wind, a current of air — artiSciat — causea aatigned for the 
variety, activity, continual change, and uncertain duratisa of 
il—in what manner to foretel tne certaiitty of a wind, aa the 

' return of an eclipse—to accouitt for variatkina of irindnpon 
land, not at present expected— recourse to be had to tbs 
ocean, and way — in many parts of the world the winds pay 
Stated Tiaitsw-iti lome place* tbey blow one wi^ by day, aaa 


ansAei-by uig^t; in odent tm ooft-kalf^.^ear tbey goina 
direction contrary to their former coune ; ia Bome placet 
. the wind* nefer change^Uie wind n-hicb. never Tariea ii tbe 
great uuivenal wind, .bloiriDg froBH the;es8t to the westi in 
all extensive oceans, where the laud does not break tbe 
. general current— the other wtndi ace deviatioiUiof ita current 
— maay theories to explain, tbe motion of tbe wti)ds--that,of 
Br. Lyster — theory of Cartesius — Dr. Halley'a more plau- 
iiUe^ I. S7&. 

Windi (trade) Uow from tbe pc^ea towards the equaiorrr-were 
the aurfaoe of the globe sea, the wind* would be constant, 
- and blov in one direclion^^varioua circumstances break its 
current^ kbA drire it back againU its general course, forcing 
. it upon coasts that face the west — want of a true system of 
traae-winda supplied by. an imperfect history of them— 
north wind prevails dunag October, November, Qeceniber, 
and January, in the Atlantic, under the temperate zone- 
north wind reigns during the wiiUer of Nova Zembla, and 
other arctic couotries— south wind prerai la during July in 
the Cape de Verde Islanda^north^weat wind bjows durii^ 
Septem1>er at the Cape of Good Hone— regular winds pro- 
duced by various causes upon land— aociept Greeks first 
obsecved them — in aennal, wherever a alrong current of 
water, there is a wind to. attend it — regular wind produced 
by tbe flux and reflux of the sea— winds called monsoont— 
some peculiar to certain ctfasta— south wind constant upoo 
those of Chili and Peru — other winds particiUar to varioue 
coasts, r. 284. 

Winds (at land) puffby intervals, and wby^— not so at sea— east 
wind more constant than any other, and generally most 
powerful.— wind blowing one way, and clouds moving another, 
torerunners of thunders-cause of this surprising appearance 
remains a secret— from sea, generally moister than those 
over tracts of land— more boisterous in spring and autumn 
than at other'seasons — their force does not depend. upon 
velocity alone, but also i^on deasity— reflected from sides of 
mouatains and towers, often more powerful than. in direct 
prc^esiion^raise sandy deserts in one country, to deposit 
them upon some other— 4oatb winds in summer so hot ia 
Egypt as almost to stq) resmration, and produce epidemic 
disorders, continuing for anv length of time — deadly along (he 
coasts of the Persian Gulpb, and of India — assume a visihls ' 
form, i. S8£). 

JVmd-pipt, in men, has a lump not seen in women, i. i2i 
^-makes conTolutimu witbin a bird, and ia called the la- 
byrinth— this difference obtains in birds seemingly of ^ 
same species, iv. lO—strange io the throat of the cranVt 

Wingi .(of birds) answer four l«g|i of qMutnipflA^r-theii de- 

«, L, . h.L.oogIc 


wbiclt die RiMirhU £dl tbcna d noath mi vjea, i. 425 — 
in barbarous countries the laborious dutiei of life thrown 
upon the wonien, 999. 

Womb, htttorj of tb« child in the mmb, i. J75— of the bare 
divided into two, a>ft double organ, one side of whioh may be 
flfied. while the oriier remain empty, iti. iSO—dstcriptioa of 
the fiilM wOmb of the oppoMum, SS*. 

IVoodchat, a rapacious bird, third kind of the butcher-bird, iv. 

Woodcotk, bird of the crue-kmd, its dimeufons, Iv 399— il a 
bird of panage>— places when it ia to be found, 896. 

Wood-^ck, or cock of tht wood, of tfai grouae kind, places 
whidi this bird iababita— how- dinimraished flrom other birds. 
of the poultry kind— the delicacy ot its flesh — its Ibod and 
habitation-^aiaorotla denrei fint lUt ib ipriDff~-keep8 to the' 
pUce where he first courts, and tfootiimea ttO tbe treei have 
Ihefr leaves, and the forest is in bloom — ita cry, dapping of 
', wfngti aad ridi^lout postures in this season-— daring which 
tbe feoudfls, atteodbg hu oall, are imprtgnated ; KortnaaQ 
use thia time to fire at them, and take many while tfiu tame, 
- tbough at others it is meat tufanrau* and «ratchful~-the fbatala - 
noch less than her mate, and so unlike him in plncuM, 
■Ae might b« ndslaken fat another species— number and sTsa ■ 
of (be egg»--*he haldtes them without the cock; and i^en 
obliged to leave them, in queit of food, so covers them with 
moss or lares, it is difficult to find them-^o li then ex- 
tremely tame and quiet— keeps her nest, thoaffh attetapted 
to be driven away — the young being hatched they run with 
aaility after the modier, though scarcely disengi^ed ftom tha 
shell — their food ant's eggs and wild .mountain berriei-^older, 
they feed upon tops of hether, and cones of pine-trees — are 
hardy — the clutching time over, the young males forsake tbe 
mother ; keep toother till spring, when the Brst genial access 
sets them at variance for ever— -Sght each other like game- 
cocks, and easily fall a prey to the fowler, iv. 155. 

Wood-louse, iU description— has three varieties — where found-- 
how bred — are of use fa medicine, V. 426. 

Woodpecker, of this bird are many kinds, and varieties in eacJi-^ 
general characteriBtic8-~de8cription of the green leood-peckerf 
or nood-tpiie, called the rain^ovd in some parts— feeds upon 
insects, particularly those in hollow or rotting trees.— descrip- 
tlon of its tongue, the instrument for killing and procuring 
food— what that intestine which anatomists rail the ccecum— 
stratagem used by them to catch ants — in what manner they 
make nests, and how delicate in the choice — number of eggt— 
nests in warmer regions of Guinea and 3n,zi\— little kjoo^- 
pecter.caHed by the natives of Br&ti\ guiratemga, Jv. 100. 
bWj, ((a Britain) cut down by the Romans, and for what 
reason, 1. 237. 

L, . ..L.oogk- 

1 JN 1» Iv A. 

Woodward, iat exay towBrds a natural hittory of the eardi, 
detail of it, i. 20. 

Wo<i, tbe SpoDiBh finer than ours ; but ia veigbt not compars- 
ble to that of Lincoln or Warwickihire — lomc Spanieb wool 
required to work up with it, ii. 254> — of the psco*, miMt 
raluable, and formed into ituft, not inferior to silk ; this 
manuiacture a conuderable branch of commerce in South 
A.ii>erica, iii. S82. ' • - 

Womu, within the body of the caterpQIar, devour ita entrails, 
without deatroying its life, n. 79— of different kinds infest 
each spacies of bdi, f. \5^~~tea-vorriu make tbe Bbella of 
' fiibM their food, -w. SI2. 

Worm, (Blind) of the lerpent Idnd, ita description — lies torpid 
all wtnta-, v. $76. 

Worm, [Froth)aniitiect in thatsort ofsubatanceon tbesorface 
d'plBDts— detcription of it, vi. 34. 

WorHiJmd, geaeni deacription of tbe earth-teorm — entirely 
without brain, but with tbe heart near the bead — in wittt 
manner taken — itt egg* — oouriahment — keeps life in separated 
parts, vL 17S; 

Wratte, the labrua of the prickly-finoed thoracic kind — deatT^ 
tion of thia fish, v. 12S. 

Wren, and gtdden-craamedf^oirm, slender-billed birds of the spar- 
row-kind, iv. 247— traUous-ioreR, a wandering bird of the apar- 
TOw-kind, S49— the dnging-btrd admired for the londnesB of 
its note, compared to the sm^aess of its body, 262. 

Wrirddet, whence those of tbe body and face proceed, ii. 

Wry-ntci, or cucioo't attendant, a little bird, active in the diaie 
of the young cuckoo, iv. 206. 

X^ift, or the mordjuh, of the prickly-finned apodal kind, its 
deactiptioo, t. 122. 

yai, or busfay-tiuled-bull of Tibet, described by CapL Turner, 

YeUffm-hamnter, a small-bird of the sparrow-kind, ir. 247- 
Young (people] (ometiiaea cease sroniog at fourteoi or fifkeetti 


Zdra, the moit beantirul but wildest anirrml — a natire of the 
southern part* of Africa — nothing exceedi the delicate regu- 
larity of Its colour — descriptiob— watchful and swift— its 
speed a proverb among Spaniards and Portuguese— stands 
better upon its legs than a horse — in nhat countries found-— 
the Portuguese pretend to have tamed, and sent four from 
Africa to Lisbon, to draw the king's coach — some sent to 
Brastl could not be tamed — Merolla asserts, when tamed, 
they are still as estimable for swiftness as beauty — their noise 
resembles the confused barking of a mastiff dog — in two, the 
author saw the skin below the jaw upon the neck hang loose 
in a kind of dewlap— they are easily fed; some in ^gland 
eat bread, meat, and tobacco— the emperor of Japan made 
a present of sixty thousand crowns value, for one received 
from a governor of Batavia ^ the Great McVgul gave two 
tliousand ducats for another — African ambassadors to the 
Court of Constantinople bring some with them as presents 
for the Grand Seignior, ii. 2D9, Sec. 

Zel>u, the Barbajy-covi, and the grunting or Stb^ian-ccnv, are 
but difierent races of the bigon, ii. 236, 244. ' 

ZeiroTi, name of the fourth variety of gazelles by M. Buftbn, ii, - 

Zenic, a kind of weasel, described by M. Sonnerat, iu. 1 15. 

Zeus, the doree, of the prickly-finned thoracic kind, descriptioa 
ofthatfish, V. 125. 

Ziiei, one of the two ^ecies of the civet, acoording to M. Bufion 
—distinction between them, iii. 104<. 

Zone, (temperate) properly speaking the tlieatre of natural 
history, i. 11. 

Zone, (torrid) in the centre the beat very tolerable, id other 
places the cold painful — temperature and advantages of per- 
petual spring under it, i. I^ — lightning tfiere not fatal or 
dangerous, 325— has the largest quadrupeds— all fond of the 
water, ii. 2'tl. 

Zoophytes, name of vegetable nature endued with animal life, vi. 
16^— first class of zoophytes, 172 — all the tribe conUnue 
to live in separate parts; one animal, by cuttings, divided 
into two die linct existences, sometimes into athousand, 175^ 
second class, 180. 

ZoriUe, a stinkard, of the weasel-kind — resembles the skiok— is 
smaller and more beautifully coloured, iii, 98. 



Tol. tB, Pipe IM, Hut Si, fir\h«it read there. 

319, — sriJ^fara-hiadsdpndfliiu^l^Bdsd. 

- T. a HubkI, :