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Full text of "The American museum, or Universal magazine : containing essays on agriculture, commerce, manufactures, politics, morals and manners: sketches of national characters, natural and civil history, and biography: law information, public papers, intelligence: moral tales, ancient and modern poetry"





N THE CUSTODY Or THE 

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY. 




THE 



AMERICAN MUSEUM, 



o R 



REPOSITORY 



OF ANCIENT AND MODERN 



FUGITIVE PIECES, &c. 



PROSE AND POETICAL. 



For JANUARY, 1788. 



•••0"<®.<®..S><S><^<S><S>-(>- 

** With fnueetcji Jk'w'rs et/rich^df 

From various gardens cull'd luith care." 

*' Collegia revirefcuntj* ^ 

..^)...^<SkS><^<^<S><S>-<>" 



•.<>^-.S><®><^<S>^<S><S><^<S>-o- 

VOL. III. NUMB. L 



P H I LA D E L P H I A: 
PRINTED BY MATHEW CAREY. 



M.DCC.LXXXVIir. 



( iii ) 



SUBSCRIBERS* NAMES. 



ConneSUcut, 

Hon. William S. Johnfon, efq. prefi- 
dent of Columbia college, and de- 
legate to the late continental con- 
vention, 

Mr. Ifaac Beers, Newhaven. 

Major John Davenport, jun. Stam- 
ford. 

H. Wetmore, efq. Newhaven. 

Colonel David Humphreys, Hart- 
ford. 

Mark Leavenworth, efq. Newhaven, 

Ebenezer Devotion, Efq. Windhani. 

H. Beardfley, efq. Newhaven. 

Brigadier-general Huntington, Nor- 
wich. 

David Dagget, efq. Newhaven, 

Majpichujdts. 

Hon. Rufus King, efq. delegate to 

the late continental convention. 
Mr. Stephen Bruce. 
Rev. Jeremy Belknap. 
Mr, James Greenleaf. 
Mr. Ifaiah Thomas, Worcefter, 

lierw York, 

Roger Alden, efq. deputy fecretary 

to congrefs. 
Dr. Charles Arding. 
Mr. Peter Anfpach. 
John Arthur, efq. counfellor at law, 

Benjamin Blagge, efq. alderman. 

Dr. Samuel Bard. 

Mr. Abraham Brinckerhoff. 

Mr. Nicholas Brevoort. 

Mr. F. Bibbv. 

Mr. Thomas Browne. 

John Broome, efq. 

Mr. Abraham Brevoort, 



Cornelius J. Bogart, efq. 

Meffrs. William Backhoufe & co» 

MefTrs. John and Peter Boos. 

Mr. William Bailie. 

Egbert Benfon, efq. attojuey-generaU 

Mr. Walter Buchanan. 

John Bard, M. D. 

Mr. William Bowne. 

Gerard Bancker, efq. treafurer. 

George Bond, efq. counfellor at law. 

Mr. William Buckle. 

James Burnfide, efq. 

William Bcdlow, efq. poftmafter, 

Mr. Brien Blake Barker, 

Col. Sebaftian Bauman, 

Rev. Abraham Beach, 

Mr. Henry Brafher. 

MefT. George Barnewall and co. 

John Blagge, efq. 

John Burral, efq. 

Mr. Anthony L. Bleecker. 

Col. Aaron Burr, counfellor at law. 

Col. Barber, Poughkeepfie. 

Samuel Bradhurft, M. D. 

Evert Bancker, efq. member of the 

affembly. 
Rev. John Baflet, minifter of the 

Dutch church, Albany. 
Mr. Robert Bowne, one of the di- 

redors of the bank. 
Stephen N. Bayard, efq. 
Mr. John Barnes. 

Leonard M. Cutting, efq. counfellor 

at law. 
Rev. Jedidiah Chapman, 
John Cruger, efq. 
William Cock, efq. 
Matthew Cooper, efq. 
William Conftable, efq. one of the 

direftors of the bank. 
Dr. James Cogfwell. 
Dr. John Cochran, 
Dr. Ebenezer Crofby, 



IV 



Sub/crihers' names. 



Mr. Oliver Cromwell. 

Mr. Benjamin Crookfhank. 

Mr. Robert Carter. 

Captain George Codwife. 

Meff, Archibald and David Currie. 

Henry Cruger, cfq. 

JoImi Cozine, efq. 

Mr. James Carter. 

MeiTfs. Brothers Coflar &■ co. 

Ealthazer De Haert, efq. counfellor 

at law. 
"Mr. William De Pevfter. 
Mr. James W. De Peyiler. 
Mr. Cornelius Davis. 
Mr. Francis Durand. 
Mr. Thomas Durie. 
Edward Dunfcombe, efq. counfellor 

at law. 
Mr. George Draper. 
Mr! George Douglafs. 
Mr. Samuel Delaplane. 
Mr. lohn Ddafield. 
Mr. 'Gilcrift Dickinfon. 
Colonel William Duer, fecretary to 

the board of treafury. 
Gerardus Duychinck, jun. efq. 

Mr. Peter El ting. 
William Edgar, efq. 
Mr. Thomas Ellifcn. 

Le Sieur de la Foreft, his moft chrif- 
tian majefty's vice conful. 

Mr. Jacob Fofter. 

Mfflrs. Samuel Franklin and co. 

Mr, David Fonda, Albany. 

John Foxcraft, efq. agent for his 
Britannic majetly's packets. 

Sampfon Fleming, efq. 

Mr. James Farquhar. 

His excellency Don Diego de Gar- 
doqui, plenipotentiary cncargado 
des negocias of his catholic ma- 
jeily to the united Itates of Ame- 
rica. 

Mr James Gray. 

Mr Hugh Gaine. 

Mr. John Glover. 

MeflTrs. Mofes Gomez and fon. 

MeflVs. Gardiner and Wilfon. 



Mr. Benjamin Gatficld. 
Mr. David Gelfton. 
Mr. Edward Goold. 
Ifaac Gouvcrncur, efq. 
Rev. John Gano. 
Mr. Anthony Grifiiths. 
Mr. James Giles. 

Ebenezer Hazard, efq. poftmafter 
general. 

Hon. John Slofs Hobart, efq. judge 
of the fupreme court. 

Hon. Alexander Hamilton, efq. 
member of afl'embly, and dclejjate 
to the late continental convention. 

Abijah Hammond, cfq. 

Mr James Hays. 

Martin Hoffman, efq. 

Philip L. Hoffman, efq. 

Nathaniel Hazard, efq. 

Richard Harifon, efq. 

James Miles Hughes, efq. counfellor 
at law. 

Mr. William Hill. 

Mr. Jofeph Hailet. 

Mr. Robert Hunter, 

Mr. J. Hartman. 

W'illiam Heyer, efq. one of the war- 
dens of the port of New York. 

Mr. William Hammond. 

Thomas Hicks, efq. ftudent at law. 

His excellency John Jay, efq. fecre- 
tary to the united ftates for the 
department of foreign affairs. 

Mr. James Johnilon. 

Mr. John Johnflion. 

Mr. John Jauncey. 

Dr. Thomas Jones. 

Samuel Jones, jun. efq. 

Mr. William James, 

Hon. general Henry Knox, fecietary 

at war to the united fiates, 
Mr. Samuel Kempton. 
John Keefe, efq. counfellor at law. 
Mr. Benjamin Kiflrim. 
Melfrs. Kerr and Blackburtie. 

Brockholft Livingflon, efq. counfel- 
lor at law. 
Rev. J. H. Livingfion. 



Siil>fcyibc 

W. S. Livingfloii, efq. 

Edward Livingfton, efq. 

General John Lamb, coUevlor of the 

port of New York. 
Mr. Chriilopher Lewis Lentc. 
Gary Ludlow, efq. 
Robert Lewis, efq. 
Rev. William Linn. 
Morgan Lewis, efq. couiifellor at 

law. 
Mr. Francis Lewis. 
Dominick Lynch, efq. 
Mr. Thomas Laurence. 
Rev. Peter Louw. 
Jonathan Laurence, efq. one of the 

wardens of the port of New York. 
|ohn Laurence, efq. 
Mr. Willam Laight. 
Meffrs. Le Roy and Bayard. 

Mr. Philip Mark. 

Rev. Benjamin Moore. 

John M'Keflbn, efq. regiiler of the 

court of chancery. 
Mr. William Mooney. 
Mr. Thomas Marilon. 
Mr. William Maxwell. 
Mr. James Montaudevert. 
Mr. Lot Merkcl. 
Mr. Daniel M'Cormick. 
Alexander M'Comb, efq. 
Dr. Charles M' Knight. 

Jofeph Nourfe, efq. regifter of the 

board of treafury. 
Mr. Thomas Nixon. 
N. North, efq. 

Samuel Ofgood, efq. commiflioner 

to the board of treafury. 
Pvcv. John O'Connel, chaplain to 

the Spanifii rninilter. 
Mr. Lewis Ogden. 
Thomas O'Hara, efq. 

Pvight rev. Samuel Provooft, D. D. 
biiliop of the proteftant epiicopal 
church in the ttate of New York. 

Mr. Daniel Phoenix. 

John Pintard, efq., interpreter of the 
French langur'ge. 



William Popham, efq. cour.fdlor at 

law. 
Thomas Pollock, efq. 
Meffrs. Pearfali and &nbree. 

Mr. William Rogers. 

F. Roorbach, efq. 

If lac Roofevelt, efq. prefidcnt of the 

direftors of the bank. 
Henry Rt^mfon, efq. fccretar}^ to his 

his excellency John Jay, efq. 
Rev. Dr. John Rodgers, ch.iplain to 

congrefs. - 

Mr, Jacob Reed. 
Mr. Mofes logors. 
Mr. Cornelius- Ray. 
Mr. Thomas Roche. 
Mr. James Ricker. 
Mr. William Robertfon. 
Johrt Rarnage, efq. 
John Readc, efq. Dutchefs co. 
John Rutherford, efq. 

Hon. Melanflon Smith, efq. dele* 

gate in congrefs. 
Jofeph Stretch, efq. 
Mr. John Shaw. 
Capt. John Stagg, jnn. 
Mr. Jacob Seaman, jun. 
Mr. Hugh Smith. 
Doj'le Sweeny, efq, 
Mr. George Snowden. 
Thomas Smith, icn. efq. 
Mr. Hay Stevenfon. 
Mr. Andrew Stockhofeti. 
Mr. Alexander Stuart. 
Mr. Jofiah Shippcy. 
Thomas Stougliton, efq. 
William Seton, efq. cafliicr of (lit 

bank. 
Thonvas Smith, iun. ef|. 
Thomas Sickels, efq. niem]?cr of af- 

femblv, Walioomfack. 
Mcflrs. Storm and Sicke!?. 
Mr. John Stoutenbergh, 
Mr. Henry Seaman. 
Mr. Edmond Seaman. 
Jacob Sharpc, efq. clerk cf the 

county of King's. 

Robert Troup, efq. 



Stulfcnheri n.imcs. 



Honcurable Charles Thomfon, ef j. 

fc'cretaiy to congrefs. 
Mr. fohn Taylor. 
Dr. Malachi Treat. 
Dr. James Tillary. 
Mr. Ileriry Ten Brook. 
Mr. Solomon TownfenJ. 
Mr. Thomas Tom. 

i 
Steph. \^?A\ P.enfiella r, cfq. Albany. 
Dr. Henry M. Van Sollngen. 
Mr. Andrew Van Tuyl. 
Richard Varick, efq. 
Gillian Verplanck, efq. 
Mr. Abraham Varick. 
Mr. Viner Van Zandt. 
Daniel C. Verplanck. efq. 

Mr. William Uftick. 
Robert Underwoodj efq. 

Ccl. Marinus Willet, high IherifF. 

Koah WeUter, jun. efq. 

Proiper Wetmore, efq. 

Dr. Francis Vv'ainwright, 

Gerard Walton, efq. 

?vir. Fvichard Ward. 

Wx. D. VValdron. ' 

Jo!))i Wilkes, efq. counfellor at law. 

Mr. fobn Watis. 

Mr. NN'llliam Walton. 

Mr. E. Waldron. 

Mr. Jofeph Wright. 

Mr. joreph "Winter. 

I\'!r. James Walker. 

Mx. Tames Watfon. 

Vv'iliiam Wilcocks, efq. ■ 

Mr. William Wilfon. 

Mr. George Walker. 

Richard Yates, efq. 

mr.v Jerfy, 

JKcv. J. F. Armftrong. 

]ohn Anderfon, efq. Amwcll, Hun- 
terdon county. 

Thomas Anderfon, efq. counfellor 
at law, Newton, Suffex co. 



Hon. David Brearley, efq. chief juf- 
tice of the fupreme court. 

Jofeph Bioomfield, efq. attorney ge- 
neral. 

Mr. Ifaac Barnes. 

Mr. Thomas Bullraan, Pennington* 

Cliofophic focitty, NafTau Hail, 

Princeton college. 
Jofnua Corflion, efq. fherifF of Hun- 
terdon county. 
Colonel John N. Cummings, New- 
Mr. AleJiander Chambers. 
Mr. James Craft, Burlington. 

Aharon Dunham, efq. auditor of ac- 
counts. 

Hon. Philemon Dickinfon, efq. 

Dr. fohn Dc Normandie, Burlington, 

Mr. Barnt Dekl)-n. 

Mr. George Davis. 

Mr. John Davan, Elizabeth-town. 

Franklin Daverpcrt. efq member of 
the afitmbly, Woodberry. 

Dr. Daniel De Benneville, Moore's 
town. 

Dr. Ebcnezer Elmer, Cohanfe. 

Hon. Jonathan Elmer, efq-. delegate 
in congrefs. 

James Ewing, efq. judge of Hunter- 
don CO. 

Mr. Michael Forreft. 

Rev. William Frazer, Amwell, Hun- 
terdon CO, 

John Fell, efq. Pctersficld. 

Moort I'^iirman, efq. judge of H^un- 
terdon county. 

John Jacob Fafh, efq. judge of Mor- 
ris county. 

Frederick Frclinghuyfen, efq, mafter 
in chancery, Somerfct co. 

Patrick Ferrall, eftj. continental 
commifTioner. 

Mr, Jo?! Gibbs, Mansfield. 
Mr. Peter Gordon. 



Dr. Nicholas Belleville. 



Mr. Ifrael Heddcn, Newark. 



Subfcrihers* names. 



John Hollinniead, efq. SheruT of 

Earlington. 
"William Churchill HouPton, efq. 

regifter of the coar of chancey. 
Colonel Okey Hoagland, Burlington. 
Captain Bernard Hanlon, 
Dr. John Hammell, Burlington. 
Abraham Hunt, efq. 
Mr. Aaron Howell. 
Wiliam K. Hugg, efq. Woodberry. 

John Lambert, efq. Hunterdon co. 
Mr. Thomas Lowxy, Amwell, Hun- 
terdon CO. 

Mr. Jofeph Milnor. 

John Neilfon, efq. New Brunfvvick. 

Mr. Stacy Potts. 
Mr. John Potts. 
Mr. William Parret, Salem. 

Bowes Reed, efq. fecretary of the 
ftate, and mayor of Burlington. 

Mr. Randal Rickey. 

Mr. Morris Robefon. 

Jonathan Rhea, efq. Freehold, Mon- 
mouth county. 

Hon. Ifaac Smith, efq. fecond juftice 
of the fupreme court. 

John Singer, efq. poftmafter. 

Richard Stockton, efq. counfellor at 
law, Princeton. 

Samuel Wetham Stockton, efq. exa- 
miner of the court of chancery. 

Thomas Sinnickfon, efq. 

Richard S. Smith, efq. Moore's town. 

John Smith, efq, Moore's-town. 

Abraham Steiner, efq. Hope. ' 

Mr. William Tjndall. 

Robert Taylor, efq. Lebanon, Hun- 
terdon county. 

Mark Thomfon, efq. changewater, 
Sudex CO* 



Pennfylvania, 



Rev. John Andrews, D. D. princi- 
pal of the proteftant epifcopal aca- 
demy in the city of Philadelphia.* 

Captain John Angus. 

Mr. Jofeph Alien, jun. 

Mr. Jofeph Anthony. 

Mr. Thomas Allibone. 

Mr. William Adcock. 

Mr. Peter Afton, 

Mr. Chamlefs Alien. 

Mr. James Armllrong. 

Mr. John Antliony. 

Mr, John Afhmead. 

Mr. James Abercrombie. 

Charles Biddle, efq. fecretary of ths 
fupreme executive council. 

Hon. William Bingham, efq. dele- 
gate in congrefs. * 

Phineas Bond, efq. his Britifh ma- 
jerty's confiil for the ftates of No\tf- 
Vork, New Jcrfey, Pennfylvania, 
Virginia and Maryland. 

William Bradford, efq. attorney ge- 
neral * 

Edward. Burd, efq. prothonotary of 
the fupreme court * 

Hugh Boyle, efq. 

Mr. Jofeph Ball. 

Dr. Benfell, Germantowii. 

Mr. Peter Brown. 

Mr. Hillary Baker. 

Mr. James Bayard. 

Mr. Alexander Boland. 

Mr. John Brown. 

Mr. James Barr. 

Mr. Clement Biddle *. 

Mr. Daniel Boinod. 

Mr. Thomas Britton. 

Dr. Reading Beattie, Buck's county. 

Mr. James Bringhuril. 

John Boyd, efq. Northumberland. 

Ar. Jofhua Byron. 

Mr. Thomas Betagh. 

Mr. William Bell. 

Mr. Thomas Bartow. 

Major Elias Boys, 

Meffrs. Brown and Shortall, 

Mr, Stephen Beafly, 



isuhj'crihcrs^ varus. 



Mr. Caleb Buglafs. 

Captain William Bell. 

Mr. Peter Borger. 

MelTrs. Charles and P. Bunting. 

Mr. Chrillopher Baker. 

Mr. Philip Bcehm. 

Mr. Jofeph Elewer. 

M;-. Vvilliam Brown. 

MefTrc. Bertier and co. 

Mr. Gerald Byrne. 

Hon. George Clymer, efq. member 
of the general airemLly, and dele- 
gate to the late continental con- 
vention. * 

Daniel Clymer, efq. member of the 
general afiembl)'. 

Rev. Nicholas Collin, D. D. naftor 
of the Svvedifli congregation in 
tlie city of Philadelphia. 

William Coates, efq. lieutenant of 
the militia of the county of Phi- 
ladelphia. 

Captain Collins. 

Mr. Charles Cift. 

Mr. James Campbell. 

Mr. Jofeph Carfcn. 

MciIVs. Andrew Clow and co. 

Mr. Charles Cooper. 

Mr. John Connelly. 

Mr. Zaccheus Collins. 

Mr. David C. Claypoolc. 

Mr. Edward Carrell. 

Mr. Theophllus Cofiart. 

Mr. Thomas Cuthbert. 

Captain Nicholas Cochran. 

Mr. William Coxe, fen. efq. Sun- 
bury. 

Mr. William Coxe, junior. 

Tench Coxe, efq. 

John D. Coxe, efq. counfellor at law, 

Mr. John Clarke. 

Mr. John Cuftiing. 
Dr. William Currie. 

Mr. Andrew Caldv^xll. 

Mr. Andrew Carfon. 

Mr. James Calbraith. 

Mr. Adam Cafey. 
Gerardus Clarkfcn, M. D. * 
Colonel Jofeph Cowperthwait, fhe- 
lifF of the city of Philadelphia. 



Abraham Chovct, M. D. 

Peter Le Barbier Dupleffis, cf<j. 

fuorn interpreter. 
Captain Stephen Decatur. 
Mr. Jofeph Dugan. 
A. J. Dallas, efq. 
Mr. Andrew Do/. 
Mr. George Duff.eld, jun, 
Mr. Robert Dunkin. 
Mr. John Donnaldfon. 
Mr. William Drinker. 
IVlr. John Davis. 
Monfieur Etiennc Dutilh. 
Rev. James Davidfon, A. M. pro- 

feilbr of langu.iges in the univer- 

fity. * 
Mr. John Dnnlap*, two copies. 
Sharp Delany, efq. colleftor of cuf- 

toms for the port of Philadelphia.* 
Mr. John Duffield. 
Mr. Andrew Donglafs. 
Mr. Jofeph Donnaldfon, jun. 
Major Patrick Duffey. 
Mr. Michael Dennifon. 

Rev. John Ewing, D. D. provoft: 
of the uni\ erfity of Pennfylvania, 
and vicc-prefident of the Ameri- 
can philofophical fociety. 

Mr. George Eddy. 

Captain Silas Engles. 

Hon. Thomas Fitzfimons, efq. 
member of the general aflembly, 
and delegate to the late continen- 
tal convention. 

Mr. Jofeph Few. 

Mr. Ifaac Franks. 

Mr. Cafper Fritz. 

Samuel William Fifiier, efq. 

Miers Fiflier, efq. 

MefTrs. Fiflier and Roberts. 

Mr. Thomas Forrett. 

Mr. Richard Folwell. 

George Fox, efq. * 

Alexander Fowler, efq. Fort Pitt. 

Meffrs. Flahavan and Wilcox. 

Mr. Benjamin Fuller. 

Captain Thomas Fort. 

Mr. James Flanagan, 



Subfcrihers* names. 



Samuel M. Fox, efq. 



Monfieur Albert Gallatin, Fayette 
county. 

John GrafF, efq- deputy collector of 
cuftoms for the port of Philadel- 
phia, 

Monf. Ghoveare. 

Samuel Gibbs, efq. Newtown,Bucks 
coanry. 

Mr. James Gallagher. 

Mr. George Gray, jun. 

Mr. Peter W. Gallaudet. 

Captain James Gamble, Chefnut- 
level, Lancafter county. 

Mr. Grcincr. 

Mr. John Garden. 

Mr. John Germon. 

Francis Gurney, efq. one of the 
wardens of the port of Philadel- 
phia. 

Mr. William Gray. 

Rev. Afhbel Green. 

Mr. William Galkill. 

Hon. Francis Hopkinfon, efq. judge 

of admiralty. 
William Hamilton, efq. 
Hon. Henry Hill, efq. member of 

the fupreme executive council. 
Mr. Hezekiah Howell, Charles town- 

fhip, Chefter county. 
Mr. James Hunter. 
Michael Hillegas, efq. treafurer to 

the united ftates in congrefs aifem- 

bled.* 
Mr. John Heffernan. 
General Edward Hand, Lancafter. 
Jofeph Hubly, efq. counfellor at law, 

Lancafter. 
Colonel Samuel Hodgdon. 
Rev. Jofeph Hutchins, Lancafter. 
Major Benjamin Hodgdon. 
Mr. Thomas Harper. 
Mr. Jofiah Hewes. 
Levi HoUingfworth, efq. * 
Mr. Richard G. Harris. 
Mr. Hugh D. Haven, Montgomery 

county. 
Mr. Conrad Hanfe. 



Mr. Ifaac Hazlehurft. 

Dr. James Hutchinfon, fecretary to 

the American philofophical foci- 

ety, &c. (fcc. 
Mr. John Hubly. 
Mr. Jofeph Harrold. 
Adam Hubly, efq. member of the 

general aflembly, Lancaller. 
Mr. Hugh Henry. 
Commodore Hazlewood. 
Jacob Hiltzheimer, efq. member of 

the general aiTembly. 
Mr. John Nicholas Hagenau. 
Charles Heatly, efq. counfellor at 

law. 
Afsheton Humphreys, efq. 
Mr. Samuel Harvey. 
Mr. Frederic Heimberger, 
Mr. William Honeyman, 
Mr. Philip Hagncr. 
Mr. Robert Hare. 

Hon. Jared Ingerfoll, efq. counfel- 
lor at law, and delegate to the 
late continental convention. 

General James Irvine. 

John Irwin, efq. Fort Pitt. 

Major William Jackfon, fecretary to 
the late continental convention. 

Mr. Leonard Jacoby. 

Mr. James Jenkin. 

Mr. Jofeph James.* 

Mr. Ifaac Jones, 

Mr. David Jones. 

Capt. James Jofiah. 

Colonel Francis Johnfton, receiver 
general of the land office. 

Mr. Jeffe Jones, Hibernia, Chefter 
county. 

Rev. Daniel Jones, Dickinfon col- 
lege, Carlille. 

Captain Roger K^an. 
Mr. Andrew Kennedy, 
Mr. William Kidd. 
Dr. John Kelly. 
Mr. John Kelly. 
Mr. Francis Knox. 
Thomas Kennedy, efq. member of 
the general ffembly. 



Vol. III. No. I. 



£ 



Suh/t:r}bers* names. 



Mr. Caleb Lownes. 

Mordecai Lewis, Efq. * one of the 

Direaors of the Bank of North 

America. 
Mr. Thomas Leiper. 
Mr. John Laurence. 
AaroH Levi, efq. Northumberland. 
Mr. Philip Lauer. 
Monfieur Lombart. 
Mr. Lacaze. 
Mr. George Latimer. 
Mr. Hugh Lennox. 
Mr. James Lockwood. 
Mr. George Ludlam. 
Mr. Lardner. 
Mr. Thomas Lea. 
Vv iiliam Lewis, efq. counfellor at 

Law. 
Mr. Benjamin Lockyer. 
Mr. Tofeph Leblanc. 
Mr. Thomas Herman LeufFer. 
Mr. John Lewis. 
Mr. Nathaniel Lewis. 
Lewis LeCouteulx, efq. Briftol. 
Mr. William Lewis. 
Colonel Laird, York county. 
Captain John Long, Chefnut Level, 

Lancaller county. 

Hon. Thomas Mifflin, efq. fpcaker 
of the general affembly, and de- 
legate to the late continental 
convention. * 

Hon. Robert Morris, efq. late fnper- 
intendant of the finances of the 
united ftates of America. 

Hon. Gouverneur Morris, efq. dele- 
gate to the late continental con- 
vention. 

Thomas Mawhorter, efq. member ot 
the general affembly. 

Hon. Samuel Meredith, efq. delegate 
in congrefs. 

Rev. Robert Molyneux, M. A. paf- 
tor of the Roman Catholic con- 
gregation, in the city of Phila- 
delphia * 

Rev. Samuel Magaw, D. D. one ot 
the vice provofts of the univerfity 
of Pennfylvania. * 



The fieur Barbe de Marbois.his moft 
chriftian majefty's vice-conful, of 
the city of Philadelphia. * 

Mr. Henry Manly. 

J. F. Mifflin, efq. 

Dr. Charles Moore, member of the 
general affembly. 

Mr. Andrew M'Minn, Newtown, 
Bucks county. 

Colonel Jofeph Marfh. 

Mr. John M' El wee. 

Mr. Jofeph Muffi. 

Mr Solomon M'Nair. 

Blair M'Clenachan, efq. German- 
town. 

Mr. Psobert M'Clenachan. 

Mr. John Merens. 

Mr. johnMaffey. 

Mr. Samuel Maffey. 

Mr. Magnus Miller. 

Mr. John M'Cree. 

Archibald M'Call, efq. 

Mr. James Muir. 

John Mifflin, efq. 

Cadwallader Morris, efq. 

Mr. Charles M'Kiernan. 

Mifs Deborah Morris. 

Captain Martin. 

Mr. Chriftopher Marlhal, fen. * 

Mr. John Melbeck. 

Mr. Benjamin Morgan. 

Jonathan Mifflin, efq. 

Mr. Matthew M'Connel. 

Mr. Jofeph J. Miller. 

Dr. John Morris.* 

Mr. William Martin. 

Mr. George Meade. 

Mr. John Milnor. 

Mr. Randolph Marlow. 

Mr. Samuel Merian. 

Mr. James Matthews. 

Mr. John Mortimer. 

William Moore, efq. 

Meffrs.William & John Montgomery. 

James MilHgan, efq. comptroller 
to the board of treafury. , 

John Mifflin, efq. 

Mr. John Minnick. 

Mr. John M'Allifter. 
Mr. Thomas Mickle. 



Suh/crilers* names. 



Hon. Samuel Miles, efq. one of the 
judges of the court of errors and 
appeals. 

Mr. Thomas Meredith, Vincent 
townlhip, Chefter county. 

John Nicholfon, efq. comptroller 

general. 
Meff. NottnagIe,?.1ontmollin, & Co. 
William Nichols, efq. 
Mr. Jofcph North. 
Mr. John Nixon. 

Michael Morgan O'Brian, efq. 
Mr. Robert Owen. 
Mr. George Ordc. 

Hon. John Penn, efq. one of the 
late proprietaries of Pennfylwania. 

Timothy Pickering, efq. prothono- 
tary of Luzerne county. 

Charles Wilfon Peale, efq. * 

Oliver Pollock, efq. late conful for 
the United States of America, at 
New Orleans and the Havannah. 

Rev. Jofeph Pilmore. 

Capt. William Price. 

Mr. William Prichard. 

Charles Pettit, efq. 

Mr, Nathaniel Prentifs. 

Mr. James Poupard. 

Mr. David Pinkerton. 

Mr. John Pringle. 

Meflrs Pragers, Liebaert and co. 

Mr. David Potts. 

Mr. Ifrael Pleafants. 

Mr. Benjamin Pennington. 

Mr. Thomas Paul. 

Mr Jeremiah Paul. 

Mr. Charles Palelke. 

Mr. Henry W. Fhyfick. 

Mr. Derick Peterfon. 

Samuel Powell, efq.* 

Benjamin Rufti, M. D. profeflbr of 

chemiilry in the univer ity. * 
Rev. Charles Reichel, Nazareth. 
Mr. William Ru{h,jun. 
Colonel Benjamin Randolph, 
Mr. Daniel Richards. 
John Rofs, efq. 



Hon. Jacob Rufh, efq. one of the 
judges of the fupreme court. 

Mr. James Rofs, profeflbr of the 
Greek and Latin languages, Dick- 
infon college, Carlifle. 

Mr. Robert Rolfton. 

Mr. Hugh Rofs, Fort Pitt. 

Mr. William Richarforu 

Mr. Richard Rundle. 

Mefl"rs. Reed and Forde. 

Mr, Thomas Reynolds. 

Mr. George Rutter. 

Mr. Jofeph Rogers. 

Hon. Edward Sh!ppen,efq. chief juf- 
tice of the court of common pleas, 
for the city and county of Phila- 
delphia- 
William Shippen, M, D. profeflbr of 
furgery and anatomy, in the uni- 
verfity. * 

Jonathan Bayard Smith, efq. protho- 
notary of the city and county of 
Philadelphia. * 

George Schlofler, efq. one of the 
trullees of the loan office. 

Mr. Paul Siemin. 

Mr, Peter Scravendyke. 

Mr. Jofeph Snswden. 

Mr, John Service. 

Mr. Emanuel Singer. 

Dr. Andrew Spence. 

MeflTrs. Stewart and Nefljitt. 

Mr. Benjamin Shaw. 

Mr. Frederick Schweickard. 

Mr. Thomas Shields, 

Mr, Nathan Sellers. 

Mr. Abraham Singer. 

Mr. James Smith. 

Mr. Hugh Sweeny. 

Mr. William G. Smith. 

William Semple, efq. 

Mr. Stevenfon. 

Edward Styles, efq. 

Henry Stuber, A. M. 

William More Smith, efq. Morris- 
town, Montgomery co. 

Mr. Jofeph Strawbridge. 

Mr. Frederick Sheets, Merrion, Phi- 
ladelphia county. 

Abraham Shoemaker, efq. 



Suh/cribers' names. 



Mr. rhilip Stein. 
Mr. Philip Conrad Sommerkamp. 
Thomas Smith, efq. continental loan- 
officer. * 
Mr. Jofeph Shoemaker. 
Mr. Daniel Smith. 
Simon Schneider, efq. Northumberl. 
Meflrs Woodrop and Jofeph Sims. 
John Swanwick, efq. 
Mr. S. J. Smith. 
Mr. Robert Smock. 
Mr. Robert Smith. 
Mr. John Strawbridge. 
Mr. ShafFer. 

Meffrs. Svveetman and Rudolph. 
Mr. Samuel Scotten. 
Mr. Daniel Sutter. 

Major George Tudor. 

Mr. Robert Taggart. 

Meffrs. Taggart and M'Laughlin. 

Meffrs. John Tittermary and Sons. 

Mr. Bartholomew Terraffon. 

Mr. Henry Toland. 

Pvlr. Benjamin Thaw. 

Major George Turner. 

Mr. Jofeph Turner. 

Samuel Turbet, efq. Lancafter. 

Mr. James Trenchard. 

Monfieur Daniel Thuun. 

Richard Thomas, efq. Chefter co. 

Mr. Here Browfe Trift. 

Samuel Vaughan,jun. efq. 

Mr. Daniel Vardon. 

Captain Ifaac Van Home, Bucks co. 

Mr. B. Van Pradelles. 

Mr . Ambrofe Vaffc. 

Mr. John Van Reed. 

Right rev. William White, D. D. 

bifhopofthe proteftant epifcopal 

church, of the commonwealth of 

Pennfylvania. * 
Hon. Thomas Willing, efq. prefi- 

dent of the bank of North Ame- 

rica.* 
Meffrs. Francis and John Weft. 
Kearney Wharton , efq. 
Jrmes Wilfon, efq. cou.ifellor at law. 
Mr. Anthony Weifs. 



Mr. Benjamin Workman, teacher of 

mathematics in the univerfity of 

Pennfylvania.* 
Robert Wharton, efq. 
Charles Wharton, efq. 
Mr, John Wood. 
Mr. John V/oods. 
Bryan Wilkinfon, ef<j. 
Mr. Bartholomew Wiftar. 
Captain Francis White. 
Mr. James Withy. 
Mr. Seth Willis. 
Mr. David Ware. 
Mr. Wetherell. 
Mr. Robert Wilfon. 
Mr. John Wilfon. 
Mr. Nathaniel WakeIy,Carlifle. 
Colonel William Will, member of 

the general affembly. 
Richard Willing, efq. member of 

the general affembly. 
Mr. Hezekiah Williams. 
George Wallace, efq,. Fort Pitt. 
Mr. Robert Wain. 
Pelatiah Webfter, efq. 
Mr. Jacob Wayne. 
Mr. John Weftcott. 

Samuel Young, efq. ftudent at 

law. 
Samuel Young, efq. 

Mr. Adam Zantzinger. 

Mr. Paul Zantzinger, Lancafter. 

N. B. The names, to which this 
mark * is annexed, are of members 
of the American philofophical fo- 
ciety. 

Delanvare. 

Hon. John Dickinfon, efq. delegate 

to the late continental convention. 
Hon, Richard Baffet, efq. delegate 

to the late convention. 
Hon. Jacob Broome, delegate to the 

late convention. 
Colonel Henry Neil, member of the 

legillative council, Lewes, 
Colonel David Hall, Lewes. 
James Black, efq. Newark. 



Suh/crihi 



'ers nameu 



xiu 



Jofeph Miller, efq. counfellor at 
law, Lewes. 

John W. Battfon, efq. counfellor at 
law, Lewes. 

Rev^. Matthew Wilfon, D. D. Lew- 
es. 

Colonel Nehemiah Tilton, Dover. 

John Hyatt, efq. Newcaitle co. 

Dr. William Adams, Dover. 

Mr. John Ferris, Wilmington. 

Mr. Abel Glafsford, Newcafcle co. 

Mr. John Holmes, Cape May, 

Rev. William M'Kee, Frederica. 

Mr. Cyrus Newnile, Brandyvvine. 

Captain Jofeph Poole, Wilmington. 

Captain Daniel Rodney, Lewes. 

Dr. James Sykes, Dover. 

Mr. John Moore. 

Mr. James Lea, Wilmington. 

James Gibbons, efq. Wilmington. 

Marjland. 

Rev. Patrick Alllfon, D. D. 
Dr. Andrew Aitken. 

Mr. Andrew Buchanan. 

Mr. James Buchanan. 

John Beale Bordley, efq. Talbot 

court-houfe. 
Mr. Gill>ert Bigger. 
Mr. Jofnua Blakeley. 
Mr. Paul Bentaleu. 
Samuel Blanchard, efq. 
Dr. Boyd. 



Mr. Robert 

town. 
Mr. Q^ Chriftian, 

houfe. 
Hans Creevey, efq. 
Mr. Nicholas Coleman. 



Cockerton, Chefter 
Talbot court- 



Robert Goldfborough,efq.Talbotco. 
Robert Gilmore, efq. 
Mr. Peter Garts. 
Philip Graybell, efq. 
Mr. William Goddard. 

William Hay ward, efq. Talbot court 
houfe. 

William Hammond, efq. 

Zebulon Hoilingfworth, efq. coun- 
fellor at law. 

Mr. John Hammond, 

Mr. Edward Halfey. 

Captain William Howell. 

Mr. Thomas Jones, Fredericktown. 

John Kean, efq. Queen Anne's co. 
George P. Kccports, efq. 

Pereg Lethrbury, efq. Chefter town. 
Mr. Benjamin Laming. 

James M* Henry, efq. L. L. D. 

Samuel Magill, efq. Charles-town- 
Hiip, Cecil county. 

Dr. Ennals Martin, Talbot court- 
houfe. 

Mr. Daniel M'Curtin, Chefter town. 

Mr. James Rouere Morris, Snovvhill. 

Mr. Thomas M'Kimm. 

James M'Culloh, efq. 

Mr. Henry Miller. 

Dr. John Neil, SnowhilL 
William Neilfon, efq. Cecil Crofs- 
roads. 

Ifaac Perkins, efq, Kent co. 

Mr. Mark Pringle. 
Mr. Thom.as Peters. 
William Pattcrfon, efq. 



Henry Dickinfon, efq. Caroline co. ?/' •Ji;^" ^-^j"^- 

Mr. Walter Roe. 

Andrew Skinner Ennals, efu. ^^^"^^^^ Nicholas Rogers. 

^ Mr. Jofeph Rice, 

Mr, Jofeph Foreman, Cheftertown. 'Thomas RufTel, efq. 

Mr. William Fulton, junior. „- . , „ 

•^ Major J. Swan. 

Samuel Smith, efq. 

Thorowgood Smith, efq. 



Mr. Samuel Green, Annapolis, 



XIV 



Subfcrihi 



crs name:. 



Mr. John Spear. 
Mr. Tliomas Uflier. 
Stephen Willon, efq. 
General Otho H. Williams. 

Firginin, 

His Excellency GENERAL 
WASHINGTON, E S Q^ 
L. L D. late general and com- 
mander in chief of the armies of 
the united itates of America, mar- 
flral of France, &c. kz. &c. 

His excellency Edmond Randolph, 
efq. governor, and delegate to the 
late continental convention. 

Hon. James Madifon, eiq. delegate 
to ditto, and to ccr^grefs. 

Hon. James M'Clurg, delegate to do. 

John Beckley, efq. clsdc to the 
houfe of delegates, and delegate to 
faid convention. 

John Hopkins, efq. continental trea- 
furer, Richmond. 

Jofeph Holmes, efq Winchefter. 

Mr. John Wharton, Accomack. 

Captain Mafon, Alexandria. 

W'l'iiam Horoourne,efq. Alexandria. 

Mclfrs. Cochran and Mitchell, Col- 
chefter. 

Isurth Carolina. 

Hon. Alexander Martin, late go- 
vernor, and delegate to the late 
convention. 

Hon. Richard Dobbs Spraight, efq. 
delegate to the late convention. 

Hon. William R. Davie, efq. dele- 
o-ate to the late convention. 

Colonel Robert Burton, member of 
the executive council. 

Mcffrs. Hodge and Blanchard, Nenv- 
bern. 

Sonth Carolina^ 

Hon. brigadier general Charles Cotef- 
worth Pinckney, delegate to the 
late continental convention. 

David Ramfay, efq. member of the 
houfe of reprefentatives. 

Hon. Charles Pinckney, efq. dele- 
gate to the late continental con- 
vention. 



Geoffrni, 
Hon. William Few, efq. delegate t» 

the late continental convention. 
Mr. Ifaac Briggs. 

Kentucke. 

Daniel Broadhead, efq. 
Mr. Thomas January. 

EUROPE. 

Djihlin. 
Mr. Hugh Holmes. 
Mr. Anthony Franklin, . 
Mr. John Rice. 
Mr. John Carey. 
Rev. James Carey. 
Thomas Bell, efq. 

London. 
Dr. Thomas Pole. 
Jeremiah Farrel, efq. L.L. D. 

Faris. 

Hon. Thomas JefFerfon, efq. minif- 
tcr plenipotentiary from the united 
ftates to the court of France. 
Monfieur Mallet du Par L'aife. 

Milan. 
Count Caftiglioni. 

Amfierdam. 
M. de la Byrde. 

THE ISLANDS. 

Nenu Prtyvidence. 
Meffrs. Peter Dean and co. 
Mr. John Wells. 
Jeremiah Tinker, efq. 
Mndeira. 
John Marfden Pintard, efq. com- 
mercial agent for the united ftates. 
Tortola. 
Captain Walter Sheen. 
"■frinidad. 
Mr. Mofes Young. 

St. Croix. 
Mr. Severin Erichfon. 

*^* In the foregoing Uji, thofe gen- 
tlemen, 'whofc places of reft dene e are not 
mentioned, li've in the capitals of the 
refpeiiivejiates. 



3P R E F A C E. 



TH E commencement of the third vohime of this work, afForJs 
the printer a favourable opportunity, which he embraces with 
muchfatisfaftion, of returning his grateful acknowledgments to his nu- 
merous and refpeiftable patrons, for the increafed encouragement it has 
met with during the publication of the lail volume. He draws from 
thence a flattering inference that his earneft endeavours to plcafe, have 
not been unfuccefsful. 

At the inftance of a number of fubfcribers, who fuggefied that a reca- 
pitulation of the moft important events of each month would render the 
Mufeum much more fatisfadory and ufeful, he added to the laft \ olume 
a chronicle for the fix months pf its publication. He has alfo given in 
the prefent number a copious detail of fubfequent intelligence — which 
mode he means to purfue regularly henceforward. This, with the po- 
litical and mifcellaneous pieces contained in the work, will render it in 
fome meafure a hiftory, or regifter of the times. Thofe, who by fitna- 
tion or circumftances are precluded from an opportunity of iufpt-fting 
the newfpapers, will find this alteration attended with particular advan- 
tages ; as they will be thereby enabled to take in at one view the tranf- 
aftions of each month: and it is too obvions to need commer.t, that 
monthly intelligencers compenfatc by authenticity, for what they want of 
novelty — as their editors may cull the grain of tmth, from the chnff oi 
rumour, hearfajs, and lies, which inevitably occupy a large portion of 
all newfpapers. ^ 

No collection has yet been made of the letters of commanders — the ac- 
counts of battles, .ic. — in a word, of the mul'.iiarious authentic ftate pa- 
pers, publilhed during the late war. Thefe are fcattered in perilhable 
newfpapers, or, by a few gentlemen of tafte and public fpirit, colleded in 
their libraries, and, from the nature of things, muft yearly diniinini, thro* 
the various accidents to which fuch detached, unprotected pieces are 
ever liable. Pofterity will lament the inattention of their ancellors on 
fo important a point — and the hiftory of the moft important revolutioa 
that ever took place, will probably in miany places be in\'olved in ob- 
fcurity, for want of papers at prefent little prized or regarded. For the 
prevention of this confequence, at leaft in part, the American Mufeum 
appears to be arepofitory well calculated. It was therefoie the printer's in- 
tention to appropriate a reafonable portion of each number, beginning 
with the prefent, for the prefervation of the kind of writings abo\'e fpe- 
cified, proceeding in chronological order ; but on examination of his 
materials, he finds they are not adequate to the plan — and is therefore 
under the neceffity of deferring this meafure, until he can procure fome 
further fupplies, which, he hopes, will be in a itw months, as feveral 
gentlemen, polTeffed of cxtenfive colleftions of pamphlets, newspapers, 
and M. S, S. have kindly promifed him their affiilance. 



XVI 



PREFACE. 



In no part of the plan has he found the path fo thorny and difficult as 
with refpedt to publications on that grand fubjed, the new conftitution ; 
the difcuflion of which has been attended with fuch heat and animo- 
fity as are to be regretted, lliree modes of conduft fucceflively fuggefted 
themfelves, to each of which appeared forcible objeftions. The firft was, 
fo exclude all effays on both fides. This would have been pufillanimous, 
and debarred the work of one of its greatefl: advantages. The next was, 
to infert no pieces but fuch as, in his opinion, were on the right fide of 
the queftion, i. e. in favour of the conftitution. This would have exten- 
ded the difcretionary power, whu:h the true and genuine liberty of the 
prefs, vefts in a printer, to too great a degree, and, if juftifiable in one 
cafe, would be equally fo in all, which would generate a moft intolerable 
abufe — by making the printers defpots — not legal rulers of the prefs. 

The laftmode, which is the one he has followed, was, to infert valuable 
pieces on each lide, giving precedence to official, authenticated papers. 
This, he expeded, would offend thofe zealots of both parties, who regard 
a difference in fentiment as an inexpiable crime. Nor has he been de- 
ceived. Such people have loudly complained*. But while he receives 
the approbation of the candid and the moderate, whom alone he is ambiti- 
ous to pleafe, he fhall reft fatisfied under the cenfures of the intemperate, 
the intriguing, and the violent. 

He concludes with affuring his refpefted encouragers, that he no lon- 
ger hopes for a continuance of their favours, than they fhall find him en- 
deavouring to merit them, by all the care and attention in his power to 
beftow. 



* However fingular it may appear, it is not the lefs true, that he lofl a 
few fubfcribers for having inferred the addrefs of the minority of the 
ftate convention — and loft others, for inferring none but official pieces 
againft the conftitution, while he inferred anonymous ones in favour of 
it ! — But the fable of the miller, his fon, and his afs, has early taught 
him not to attempt, much lefs to expeft, to pleafe every reader. 



msmsss^ 



THE 



AMERICAN MUSEUM, 



For JANUARY 1788. 



-<>-^<S><^^<S>'^'^S>^-^>- 



j^fi oratlffi, in commemoration of the in- 
d'-pendtfice of the united fates of 
l^onh America, dJiverca July 4, 
J 7 8 J, at the reformed cal-vi/iiji 
churth in Philadvlj>hia, by fames 
Campbell, (fj. '-fo 'which if pY^ fix- 
ed an introduitorj prayer, by the re'v. 
William Rogers, A. M. Publijhed 
at the reqtief of the Pcnnfylvania fo- 
ciety uf the Cincinnati, 

IntroduSiory prayer. 

SUPREMELY great and infi- 
nitely glorious Lord our God ! 
from everlaiting to everlaiting thou 
art the fame ! unchangeable in thy 
nature, in thy word, and in all thy 
works ! cloathed wiih light as with a 
garment, and u ith majelty as with a 
robe ! who makeft the clouds thy 
chariot, and walked upon the wings 
of the wind ! poileffed of every ado- 
rable attribute and divine perfedion. 
We, thy unworthy but dependent 
children, affembled on this joyful oc- 
cafion, humbly defire to approach the 
throne of thy grace, in and through 
the merit of thy coequal fon, our 
ever bleficd Savjour! for his fake, be 
pieafed to pardon our manifold fins, 
and to blot out all our tranfgreffions !. 
juftify our perfons through Immanu- 
el's righteoufnefs, and fanftify our 
natures by the powerful influences of 
thy moiT; holy fpirit 1 may we whcUy 
Vol. IlL No. L 



be devoted to thy fervice, and Ii\'e 
uniformly to thy praife ! 

With united hearts, and uplifted 
voices, we render unfeigned thanks 
to thy name, O thou fo\ creign Ruler 
of all worlds, for thufe nuinberlcfs 
mercies wherewith we have been and 
continue to be vifited ! we adore thee 
for thy creating power, preferving 
goodnefs, and redeeming love ! fuftcr 
us never to forget any of thy favours, 
as we are altogether undefer\ing, 
even of the leaft ! particularly, O 
God I arc the inhabitants of thefe 
flates, on this day, under the ftrong- 
eil obligations to blefs thy name, for 
that liberty, civil and religious, 
wliich they fo fully enjoy ! we would 
join the general body, and afcribe 
praife and thankfgiving to thy ado- 
ralile Majefty, for this aufpicious an- 
nivcrfary, a day long to be rcm.em- 
bercd by us and future generations I 
a day, whereon this extenfive conti- 
nent was, by the t piefentaiives of a 
numerous and oppreffed people, de- 
clared free and independent! — Ilea- 
ven approved the declaration, our 
arms were crowned with fuccefs, 
fweet peace hath vihted our borders, 
the fokiier once more became the ci- 
tizen ; retiring, without regiet, from 
ftations of command, our military 
officers returned with chearfulnefs to 
the feveral duties of domeflic and 
tranquil life ! our ears are no more 



1 8 



IntroduEtory prayer. 



pierced with the confufed noife of 
war, our eyes are no longer pained 
with the horrid fpedlacle of garments 
roird in blood. While we thus 
thankfully acknowledge tli}' reiterat- 
ed favours in our politic:il hemi- 
fphcre, we beg leave alfo to mention 
thv providential fmiles in crowning 
the year with thy goodnefs, and 
eaufing thy paths to drop fatnefs ; 
" Cur paftures are cloathed with 
flocks, our fields are covered over 
with corn and with wheat, our huf- 
bandmen Ihout for joy, yea they alfo 

That we mriV continue to eni.oy 
thel'e important blefcngs ; be plealed, 
O Lord, to vifit all the nations of 
the earth, and incline their hearts to 
peace and love ; (hower down upon 
them th}' heavenly grace ; may they 
know thee as the King of kings and 
Lord of lords! in an elpecia) manner, 
do thou vifit our land, gracioufly re- 
gard our country, protedt and defend 
our infant, but hitherto highly-fa- 
voured empire, blefs our congrefs, 
fmile upon each particular ftate of 
the union ; may thofe v\ ho are in au- 
thority rule in thy fear, prove a ter- 
ror to evil doers and a praife to them 
who do well ! as this is a period, O 
Lord ! big with events, impenetrable 
by any human f^rutiny, we fervently 
recommend to thy fatherly notice 
that auguft body, affembled in this 
city, who compofe our federal con- 
vention ; will it pleafe thee, O thou 
eternal 1 am ! to favour them from 
dav to day with thy immediate pre- 
fence ; be thou their wifdom and 
their (length ! enable them to devife 
fuch meafurcs as m.ay prove happily 
inilrumental for healinp; all divifions 
and promoting the good of th? great 
whole ; incline tl^e hearts of all the 
pp.ople to receive with pleafure, com- 
uini^d vvith a determination to carry 
into execution, whatever thefc thy 
ieivants may wifely recominend ; 
that the united ftates of America may 
furnifh the world with one example 



of a free and permanent governnierff, 
which (hall be the refult of huinan 
and mutual del'.hcration, and which 
fhall not, like all other governments, 
whether ancient or modern, fpring 
out of mere chance, or lie eftablifhed 
by force. May ws trir^mph in the 
chearing profpecl of being completely 
delivered from anarchy, and conti- 
nue, under the influence of republi- 
can virtue, to partake of all the b!ef- 
fings of cultivated and civilized foci- 
ety ! in tend-er merer biefs this corn- 
mcinweal.h, the preiident, vice preft-' 
dent, and fupreme executive council,, 
our legillative body, and the refpex- 
tive judicial departments ! 

Finally, v/e commend to thy pa- 
ternal regard, all orders of men, all 
Seminaries of ufeful learning, the mi- 
niliers of thy gofpel of every denomi- 
nation, the church of Chrift, and all 
for whom we ought to pray. With 
hcart-fclt gratitude we anticipate the 
glorious era, when inftead of the 
thorn fnall come up the fir tree, in- 
ftead of the briar (hall come up the 
myrtle tree, and wifdom and know- 
ledge {hall be the liability of the 
times, both in church and ftate. 

Prepare us, O Lord, moft holy ! 
for every difpenfation of thy righte- 
ous providence, for life, for death, 
for judgment, and the joys of para- 
dife — Humbly intreating thv graci- 
ous afiiilance, in fuitahly difcharg- 
ing ail thofe duties enjoined us by 
thy word, and enforced by thy au- 
thority, we clofe this, our folemn 
addrefs, by facing, as our Lord and 
Saviour Jefus Chrift has taught us — 

Our Father, who art in heaven ; 
hallowed be thy name. Thy king- 
dom come. Thy will be done on 
earth as it is in heaven. Give us 
tliis day our daily bread. And for- 
give us onr trefj^aftes, as we forgive 
tfiem who tivfpafs againft us. And 
lead us not into temptation ; but de- 
livci us from evil. For thine is the 
kingdom, and the power, and the 
glory, for ever and ever. Amen. 



An oration on the amii'verfary of independence. 



»9 



DEDICATION. 

?o the honoiiraUe Thomas M'Kean, 
efq. doHor of laivsy and chief jujiictr 
%f ' the fate of Fennjjl'vania, 

Sir, 

AS a publication of the follow- 
ing flieels is requefted by a fo- 
cietyj, whole wifh bears with ine the 
weight of a command, permit mc 
to beg that your name may accompa- 
ny it. I am the more induced to 
make this re]iieft, as the diftinguifh- 
ed fl'.are you have had in our nation- 
al councils, the prefidency your im- 
portant office gives you over almoll 
every bleflmg which freedom and in- 
dependence can bellow ; and } our un- 
remitted exertions, official and per- 
fonal, in eftabliPning that great 
event, tocommemorate which was the 
defign of this performance, all join 
to dcfignate you the moft proper 
perfon to whom I can look for pa- 
tronage. Unaccuftomed to write, 
and never having fpoken publicly be- 
fore, it was neither my objet^t or ex- 
peftation to rife to applaufe ; my 
hopes were negative; and to efcape 
cenfurc is my utmoft wilh. With 
fentiments of the higheft refpeft, 
I have the honour to be, fjr, 
your obedient humble fervant, 
JAMES CAMPBELL, 

An oration, 13 c, 

IT is fo much a rule of modern de- 
clamation to make the exordium 
to confift of perfonal apology, that 
any departure from it might, 1 fear, 
be deemed a violation of that refpedl 
which is held to be due from a 
fpeaker to an audience ; and indeed 
if there ever was propriety in the rule 
itfelf, or jullice in the popular con- 
ftruftlon of its omiiTion, 1 feel it to 
be at this very moment, when I ha\'e 
fo much occalion to intreat, and you 
fo much room to extend your indul- 
gence, and when not to exprefs. 



would be in fome degree not to feci 
that deference v/hich the prefence of 
fuch an aflembly can never fail to in- 
fpire. 

Senfible, then, as I am, of the dif- 
ficulty of the taflc which your partia- 
lity has commanded me to perform, 
and coiifcious of my inequality to 
difcharge it as I ought, I am left 
without .an alternative but to make 
choice of a fubjeft, which from the 
relation it bears to the purpofes of 
your ini'titution as well as the occa- 
fion we are now convened tocomme- 
morate, will in forne degree infure 
to me that candour ana auention 
which, were I to reft on any abltiad- 
ed efforts of my own, mull necelfarily 
be withheld. 

This fubjetl, gentlemen, you will 
£t once anticipate, in refleftingon the 
advantages which have refulted to 
mankind from the independence uf 
America. A fummary recital of 
thofe advantages will conllitute the 
principal olijeft of my prefent enqui- 
ry anddifcuHion. 

Our petitions and remonftrances 
having been rcjefted, and infult be- 
ing added to injury, it became at 
once elTontial to our fafety and free- 
dom to burll the bonds of dependence 
and lliake off the yoke of foreign le- 
gillation. It was this bold but 
neceli'ary meafure which gave us rank 
among nations. It was this that 
emancipated us from milir»'ry law, 
and refcued us from all the horrors of 
flavery. Had not this aft and the 
events which jt drew alter it, taken 
place, h'>w very different at prefent 
would have been our fituation. Iii 
place of contemplating the maj^fty 
of a free people, convened in awi'jjl 
fimplicity to confult their fafety and 
promote their happinefs, we IhouJd 
have beheld the pomp and extrava- 
gance of royal governors tram.pling 
upon the f^icred rights of the pc op!e, 
and treating them in all their ads of 
power as if tlity were created oily to 
nainiftcr to their pride or ambiiion. 



20 



An orntiott on the anni^erfary of iniefeiidenci. 



The property of oar merchants would 
ha\'e been heki by a precarious tenure 
-=— our country would no longe." have 
been cultivated by the proprietors 
and fovereigns of the foil — a farmer 
and a flave would hnve been fynoni- 
inous terms. If then, fuch would 
have been our fituarion in a ftate of 
fiibjugation to Great Britain, how 
much have we gained by a fepara- 
tion from her ! Welcome then the 
glorious anniverfary of American in- 
dependence — for ever welcome be 
the return of that day which made us 
citizens of a republic, and gave us a 
rank in the fcale of being — high — ■ 
above the fubjefts of a monarchy. 
To comprehend the dignity of a re- 
publican, turn to the page of hiflory, 
and contemplate the diiierent charac- 
ters of the freeinen of Greece and 
Rome, and the ilaves of the Egyp- 
tian and Perfian empires — ^or com- 
pare the fpeeches of a Gicero and a 
Cato with the fervile addreffes of the 
paralites who furrounded the thrones 
of the Roman emperors. But why 
fl\ould we travel back to antiquity 
fur examples of the dignity of con- 
dud and fentiment infpired by a re- 
publican form of government ?-~we 
have beheld the cifisens of the united 
Hates raifcdby their perfonal intereit 
in the government of their country 
to a pitch of glory which has excited 
the admiration of half the globe. It 
was the fpirit of republican liberty 
that animated the patriot in the cabi- 
net, and fupporled the American fol- 
dicr under all his fufFerings in the 
Sfld, during a long and arduous 
var. It is the fame patriotic fpirit 
which has convened the members of 
our federal convention, at the ex- 
prnce of private eafe and fortune, to 
fupply the defeCls of our confedera- 
tion — to prop the tottering fabric of 
our union, and to lay the founda- 
tions of national fafety and happi- 
nefs — Illuilrious fenate, to you your 
country looks with anxious expefla- 
tion — on yoar dccifions (he rells— 



convinced that men who cut the 
cords of foreign legiflation are com- 
petent to framing a fyuem of go- 
vernment which will embrace all in- 
terefts, call forth our rcfources, and 
eltablifh our credit : — But in every 
plan for improvement or reforma- 
tion, may an attachment to the 
principles of our pref^nt government 
be the charaderlftic of an Aineric:m, 
and may every propofition to add 
kingly power to our federal fyftein 
be regarded as treafon to the liberties 
of our country. 

Anotlier advantage derii'ed from 
our independence confiits in the ex- 
panfion it has given the human mind, 
and the new fields it has opened for 
enquiry, efpecially on the interefting 
fubjc(5is of government. While only 
a third part of legiflation was in our 
hands, it is not a fubje6t of wonder 
that we were deficient in many of its 
principles ; but fince all the powers 
of governrhent have devolved upon 
us, how many proofs of knowledge 
have been given in this fcience — wit- 
nefs the wifdom and energy of many 
of our conititutions, and witnefs the 
literary produflions of thofe iiluftri- 
ous ci\ilians, JefFerfon and Adams, 
whofc works are not only calculated 
to inrtruft their countrymen, but to 
enlighten Europe and poiterity in the 
great fcience of focial and political 
happinefs ; — nor have our ftudies and 
enquiries fince the declaration of in- 
dependence been confined to govern- 
ment : fcience has flouri(hed in all 
its branches — the American hiftorian 
records the events of our revolution 
with claffical elegance, and her poets 
celebrate in all the harmony of vcrfe 
the glorious achievements of her 
fons. 

By a feparation from Britain we 
have increafed our rcfources for 
knowledge : — Witnefs the numerous 
colleges, academies and literary fo- 
cicties that have been eftablifhed 
fince the peace throughout the union. 
Thefe inftitutions, fo fruitful of 



An oration on the anni<verfary of indcponienetm 



public and private happinefs, liave 
aiifen entirtly from a convi/iion 
that knowledge is effenriai to the 
prerer\ ation of a republican form of 
gOiernmenf. 

Our feparation from Great Britain 
has extended the empire of humanity : 
no longer (hall the wretched African 
be torn from liis peaceful habitation, 
to fertilize with his tears the foil of 
a people profeffing themfelves advo- 
cates for univerfal freedom — the 
time is not far diflant when our filter 
ftates, in imitation of our example, 
fhall change their vaffals into fub- 
jefts. 

Our national Independence has 
opened the avenues of commerce 
with every part of the world, and 
thereby not only leffened the price of 
our imports, but added to the value 
of our produds. Nor is this the 
only advantage we have derived from 
the extenfion of our trade : It was 
not lefs the policy than the intereft 
of Britain to inftil into our minds 
national prejudices, and to teach us 
to regard all mank'nd, except Eng- 
liflimen, as our enemies ; but happily 
this prejudice is removed, and wenow 
view the whole human race asmembers 
of one great and extenfive family, 
however much they may be diltin- 
guidied from us by thecircumftances 
of diftance, colour, or religion. The 
Frenchman and the American (till 
lately confidered hereditary enemies) 
now embrace each other as children 
of the fame father — the European 
catholic and the American proteilant 
review with equal horror the ti.nci 
when their anceitors embrued their 
hands in each others blood, and now 
join to cancel the remembrance of 
them in mutual ads of charity and 
benevolence. ■ Nor has this inter- 
eourfe been rellrided to Europe: the 
inhabitants of China, Bengal, and the 
united Itates, have met together on 
thefands of India ; and bythe influ- 
ence of commerce, have added the 



lies of intereil to the obligations of 
univerfal l)enevolence. 

Another, and a principal advan- 
tage of our independence, refuiis 
fro;n the material change it has 
wrought on tlie opinions, condud, 
and government of the European na- 
tions. It was by contemplatmg our 
ind pendence that France has become 
the land of free enquiry and general 
toleration. Germany, from the fame 
caufe, has (haken off an immeiile 
load of religious prejudice and bi- 
gotry. Spain has caught our fpirit 
of enterprife and innovation ; and 
e\en Britain herfelf has been taught, 
by our fuccef.ful itruggle, to relax in 
her fyllem of general fubjugation ; 
hence Ireland enjoys what \t had 
long demanded in vain — an exercifc 
of her natural rights to commerce, 
liberty, and independence. Propiti- 
ous era ! happy event ! which has 
foftened the rigours of tyranny, anj 
taught even kings to revere the great 
laws of juUice and equity. 

Thus have I endeavoured to point 
out fome of the principal benefits of 
American independence : but me^ 
thinks, I am afked, why do we hear 
of fuch univerfal difcontents throuo-h- 
out the continent ? why does th* 
farmer languifli beneath the weight 
of taxes, and the merchant complain 
of the decay of trade ? why arc the 
bands of our federal government fo 
wer.k, and our credit and charader 
the fport of foreign nations ? tliefc 
things, however trur, do not militate 
with any propofition I have ad- 
vanced. Where is the nation that 
ever beca-Tie fuddenly wife, great and 
refpedable ? hiftory an Avers, none. 
Greece boafted her Amphydion, her 
Solon, and Lyturgus, and ytt we 
^nC\ her approaches to order lefs ra- 
pid than ours. Rome had a Romu- 
lus, to frame her conftitution ; 
and j-et. while fhe conquered tho 
world, there fubfilled within her walls 
a civil vrar. The fedltions of the 



An oraimt on the anntnjer/aty of i7iiependence. 



Gracclii were more fanguinary, and 
not lefs i'hre?>tening, th?in any we 
have teir. View Caefar lirft defend- 
ing, and then endeavouring to fub- 
>t'rt the ccntlitution of his country. 
Er.ult that the leader of" our legions 
Iiad nobler objcsi^s in view than a 
fceprre or a diadem. Though Rullia 
is now a great and happy nation, 
though £he holds in one hand the 
fcojrge of the Twk, and the ba- 
3nnce of Europe in the other, yet 
the banks of the Neifler and the 
Larga will witnefs that her road to 
empire and order has been liow and 
d'.liicuit. Holland did not, untiJ 
after forty years ftruggle, attain to 
independence ; and frequent dif- 
orders fince, h^ve taught her that na- 
tional liability is of rio\y growth. 
And how often has the Briiidi throne 
Ctook to its centre, before flie arrived 
at her prefent ijtuation 1 Her hillo- 
ry is chequered from the conquell; by 
Cajfar, to the prefent day. One 
kingodled, another beheaded ; now 
£ republic, and then a monarchy ; 
this reign drained of men and trea- 
fure by an ambitious prince, fmitten 
v/ith a rage for foreign conqueft ; 
the next ftrcaming with the blood of 
her fons, probed in every vein, by 
{he dagger of domeftic faction ; the 
fields of Haftings and of Bofworth 
by on the road to her prefent order. 
Rebellion has more than once llalked 
at large through the land ; their go- 
Ternment has been infulted by a 
Monmouth, and trampled on b}' a 
Cromwell. Ai^d (hall we, who have 
butjull become a nation, exped to 
meet with nothing but tranquilit)' 
and order ? To ellablifh a new form 
©f government, X.o eradicate ancient 
prejudices, to remote the effeiTis of 
a war, began with the fanftions of 
authority, and condudled chiefly by 
vohintary afibciation, and to unite 
opinions and habits with new fitua- 
tions, muft be the work of time. 
Our conftitutions were made upon 



the fpur of the cccafion, with a bays- 
net at our brealls, and in the infan- 
cy of our knowledge of government 
and its principles ; it is not, there- 
fore, matter of furprife that they are 
not more pcrfe<S:, or more generally 
accommodated to the temper of our 
citizens. I'hediiireiTes, of which we 
complain, are wholly artificial ; an 
aiiti -republican pafllon for foreign 
luxuries hasexhauiled our country of 
its gold and fdver ; a rage for paper 
moner has checked credit, locked up 
the rem.ains of our fpecie, fubltitutcd 
{peculation for labour, a&d taught us 
to prey upon one another. The feed 
of independence, like many other 
feeds, may, for a while, difappear ; 
but it vvill yet fpring and flourifh 
with ffrength and beauty : like the 
venerable oik, it may probably re- 
quire centuries to grow, in order to 
be centuries in flourifhing, and cen- 
turies in decaying. How fallen 
would be the charatkr we have ac- 
quired in the eftablifhment of our li- 
berties, if vve difcover inability to 
form a fuitable government to pre- 
ferve them ? Is the fciencc of govern- 
ment fo difficult, that we have not 
men among us, capable of unfolding 
its myiteries, and binding our ll:ates 
together by mutual intereltsand olili- 
gations ? or is knowledge in legifla- 
tion confined to kings and minifters ? 
There vv'as a time whea thefe quefti- 
ons would have kindled rage and re- 
fentment in every American bofom. 

Let us for a moment compare the 
prefent fituation of America with 
■. iiat it was in 1775' : (he was then 
^vithout force, v.'ithout union, with- 
out an ally, and Great Britain was 
her enemy ; and yet, under all thefe 
difadvantages, ll\e rofe to glory and 
independence. At prefent, ihe is at 
peace with the whole world ; France, 
the moit powerful nation in Europe, 
is her faithful ally ; ihe is in pofief- 
fion of eleven years experience in 
government ; fhc is united in her 



An Station on the amii'verfary of independence. 



ol)jefts ; has, almoft, no army to 
maintiln, no enemy to oppofe ; who 
then, but a willing inndel, can 
doubt her future greatnefs f Bu-t our 
prefent fituation is ftiU more ftrong- 
ly cent raited by the gloom of 1779 
— dithaded in our councils, our mo- 
ney haltening to extindion, our ar- 
my on the eve of dilTolution, and a 
powerful enemy in the bowels of our 
country ; yet we furmountcd tlicfe 
difficulties, and triumphed in the 
peace of 17B3. There are clouds 
andftorms in the political as well as 
the natural hemifphere ; to weak and 
timid minds only are they big with 
terror ; the true jwlitician views 
them as the means of purifying the 
political atmofpherc, and promoting 
the growth and ftability of govern- 
ment. Thefe, gentlemen of the fo- 
ciety, are, I am fure, your fenii- 
ments. It was to perpetuate the re- 
membrance of e\ents immediately 
connected with the day, of which 
this is the anniverfary, that we 
united ; it is to tranfmit to polterity 
the principles of that day we conti- 
nue oar affociation ; and although 
we have fheathed our fvvords, ai^.d 
gone back to the purfuits of private 
life, it remains for us to remember, 
that the fame exertions may be ne- 
eeffarv to defend andpreferve, which 
■were fo fuccefsfuUy employed in elta- 
blifhing our independence and peace ; 
and that as foldiers of a republic, our 
work is incomplete, while national 
dangers exift on aay quarter. In 
caftmg my eye back upon die fcenes 
of danger and diftrefs out of which 
ourfociety grew, lam infcnfibly hd to 
pay a tribute of refpeft to the memo- 
ry of fuch as fealed their attachment 
to the liberties of our country with 
their lives. Though, fcattered from 
the plains of Abraham to the fands 
ef Georgia, no monument be raifed 
to point their reliquesto the pafling 
flranger, yet laurels fhall bloom a- 
round their graves, and while grati- 
tude or jullic2 (hall rule the remem- 



brance of human aflion, the brilli- 
ant llory of their fame will retain its 
luflre, and pafs to poilerity in the fill! 
fplendor of glory. 

To detail their feveral iriCrits, 
would exhauft eulogium, and far 
tranfcends my powers of panegyric- 
It win not, l"K)wever, be deemed a 
trefpafs on your indulgence, faould I 
offer the tribute of acknowledgment 
to an individual, whofe worth will 
for ever endear his memory to our 
country. This is not the partijl 
praife of profeHional prcdiledioa ; 
it is a fentiment to which, I am jier- 
fuaded, my audience will grant a 
grateful alTent, when informed that 
it refers to that diftinguiHied citizen 
and foldier, general Greene. 

Great In the beneficent sfts of 
peace, he was the hope of his coun- 
try, and unfurpafTed in the aftive 
operations of war, he has been juftly 
flyled, " her fword, and the keen 
avenger of her v/rongs." With a 
mind to counfel, and an arm to exe- 
cute the greateft purpofes of public 
determination, he united a heart, ho- 
neft in all its intentions, and finn-ly 
prepared to fuftaiii the radeil revsrfc: 
©f fortune. 

When difciplined valour had de- 
feated our troop?, and defolatioa 
marched in the train of war — when 
the fword had thinned our brokea 
ranks, and difmay diifrafted the civil 
authority — when conqueft and con- 
fidence were oppofed to defeat and 
def"')ondencv — in this dark crifis of 
fouthern difafter, was he called on to 
Item the torrent of victory, and avert 
the horrors of impending fuhjuga- 
tion. 

With prompt obedience to t!;e or- 
ders of his illuftrious chief, he haffens 
to execute the duties of his appoint- 
ment, and at the head of an enfeebled, 
though gallant army, he difphys a 
condufl confummate in all its ob- 
jefts ; fupported by acotjrage ardent 
as the fword he drew, renio\ ing alarm 
and rsiloring confiisnc?, he grafts' an- 



»4 



Aft oration on the dnni'verfary of independence. 



rmboMened militia on the ftump of 
tl at war -rt'aded corps, whofe brave- 
ry, under every prefTure of adverfc 
foitune, had firmly upheld the ftand- 
»rd of freedom ; with thefe, he ad- 
Tanc-^d to meet an enemy elate with 
conqiieft, and affured of fuccefs. 

Difcipline having re fumed its fta- 
tion in our ranks, t!ve altonifiied Bri- 
ton is taught to refped the foe he fo 
Iar;"lv defpifed, and his predatory 
bands, reltrained to operoti)ns of 
colledive force, no longer defolate 
our guarded fields. 

7 lie exiled inhabitants return to 
their deferred dwellings, and fepa- 
rated kindred again epjoy the blifstul 
fciety of dom':l>ic peace. The 
anximis father revifits liis diftrefll'd 
family, and, permitted in quiet to 
mike provifion for their fupport, he 
returns with zeal and ardour to the 
fervice of his country ; private hap- 
pinefs is improved into general wel- 
fare ; the huibandman, aflured of 
the advantages which muft refultfrom 
the guidance of fuch a leader, min- 
gles with alacrity in the ranks of 
war, and braves with ardour, every 
danger of the field ; vigilance in- 
creafes to cnterprize, and refillancc is 
roufed to retaliation ; invafion is 
changed in its con rfe, and ruflies 
with impetuous recoil in art oppofite 
direction ; detachments captured, 
and garrifons reduced, announce its 
rapid approach, and urge retreat to 
the Briton, as the laft refuge from its 
fury; impreffed with the convi(ftion 
of Eutaw, he fceks (belter within 
his entrenchments, nor longer dares 
an oppofition in the field. Alike 
attentive to the duties of citizenfhip, 
as ardent in the a-.-complifhrnent of 
his military purfuirs, the gallant 
Greene devotes his talents and his 
leifure to the reftoration of tranqui- 
lity, and the maintenance of civil 
privilege ; his conquering troops in- 
dulge not in excefs, nor riot in the 
pealant's toil ; C(mtented to fhare 
-ivith their chief in the fcanty allow- 



ance of. the camp, viflory brings n» 
other benefit to them than the refledi- 
on, that they had done their duty. 
Such, my fellow citizens, was the 
hero, whofe aftions will be admired 
while patriotifm and military worth 
preferve their rank in human ellima- 
tion, and whofe fervices entitle him 
to the eternal gratitude of America. 
If fuch was the chief, aj->poinred to 
conduft the momentous duties of 
that dangerousdepari'nept,how much 
to he admired is that wifaom, whofe 
early penetration dire«fled to the 
choice, and whofe friendlhip main- 
tained, throu2,h every change of for- 
tune, an unfaaken affeftion and 
efteem ! The j)refence of that great 
charafter forbids encomium, and the 
remembrance of his merit is too 
deeply engraven ever to be effaced. 

Placing, then, a proper value on 
the bleffings which the efforts of fuch 
illudrious citizens have procured, our 
counfellors have not planned thehap- 
pinefs of their country without ef- 
feft, nor have the mart} rs of free- 
dom bled in vain. No, my fellov? 
citizens, from their alhes, enriched 
by their blood, the tree of liberty 
(hall yet grow and flourifh among 
us. Methinks I already fee a ftately 
fabric of a free and vigorous govern- 
ment rifing out of the vvifdom of the 
federal convention. I oehold order 
and contentment pervading every part 
of the united itates ; our foreils fall- 
ing before the hand of labour ; our 
fields doubling their increafe, from 
the efffefts of well-direftcd induftryi 
our villages enlivened by ufetul ma- 
nufadures, and our citizens thriving 
under foreign and domeftic com- 
merce. I behold millions of free- 
men, covering the fhores of our ri- 
vers and lakes with all the arts and 
enjoyments of civilized life, and oa 
the anniverfary of this day, 1887, 
(houting fordi the praifes of the he- 
roes and patriots, who, in !7"6, 
fecured and extended to them all 
their happinefs. 



Addrefs, delivered in theyoufig ladies^ academy, at Philadelphia. 



An addrefs deli'vered in the young ladies' 
acadctny, at Philadelphia, on Febru- 
ary Sth, ijSj, at the cloje of a pub- 
lic examinatio?!. By the re^. Sa- 
muel Maganv, D. D. redor of 
St. Paul's church, and uice-pro-vfl (f 
the uni-verfiiy of Pennfyl-vania. — 
Publifhed by defire of the 'vifitors of 
faid academy. 

HAVING ftepped in on this 
agreeable occafion, may I be 
permitted to yield, for a iz^ mo- 
ments, to the impiilfe which I feci 
upon my mind ? It is the impulfe of 
complacency, combined with adefire 
to follow you, honoured citizens, in 
bearing the teftimony due to this 
rifing inflitution. 

Education is unqueflionably, a 
matter of very great importance in 
human fociety. It is the ground- 
work on which the temple of happi- 
nefi may rife — well proportioned, 
beautiful, and lafting. 

A judicious and liberal care, how- 
ever, is requifite, with regard to the 
objefts of education ; the time of 
life moft proper for it ; and the man- 
ner in which it ought to be con- 
dufted. 

I beg leave to hazard a few 
thoughts, which have, chiefly, a re- 
lation to the firft particular. 

Here, we have, generally, been 
deficient, and too confined. It is 
eafy to difcern, in what refpefi. — 
Schools and academies there are, in- 
tended for training up boys, and 
young gentlemen, infundry branches 
of ufeful learning : but female in- 
ftruflion hath been left, as it were, 
to chance ; or conduced very little 
farther than through the loweil 
forms. As if of trivial moment, 
no great deal hath been faid about it ; 
and ftill lefs accompliflied. Seldom 
hath it called forth more than fome 
fcattered vague remarks, and inef- 
fedive, fpiritlefs endeavours. 

It merits more attention than this. 
\o\. III. No. I. 



An infpired writer, exprefling the 
felicity of having well inihuded 
fons, by the beautiful metaphor of 
" plants grown up in their youth ;" 
connefts therewith, the elegance and 
grace of " our daughters, poliftied 
after the fimilitudc of a palace." 

That female minds are capable of 
great improvement, will certainly be 
allowed. The benefit and fatisfadion 
that muft arife from fuch improve- 
ment, are obvious to all. There is 
but little rcafoning then neceffary to 
fhew, that this amiable part of our 
charge had belt receive tuition in fe- 
mlnaries appropriated to themfelves. 
In thefe, their innocence and delica- 
cy can more eafily beprotefted ; their 
converfation, manners, and addrefs 
more perfedly attended to ; and each 
congenial circumftance made to ope- 
rate in leading them to excellence. 

I am aware of the objections that 
have been made againll public fcmi- 
naries for young ladies. V^anity and 
vice, it is faid, are apt to be intro- 
duced by fome, where there is a great 
number, and the contagion fooa 
fpreads. Private tuition, it is al- 
leged, is the moll proper for pupils 
of this fex. 

It is poffible there may be inftance? 
to countenance this objedion : yet it 
holds not true, indifcriminately. 
Indeed, when daughters are fent 
from home, to board — the tender 
guidance of a fenfible mother being 
in a manner fufpendcd, and the fa- 
ther's guardianfhip quite ceafing for 
a time — there is fome room for ap- 
prehending danger, notwithftanding 
all the caution that can be exercifed. 
But the feminaries which we have in 
our view, are lefs expofed to hazards 
of this fort. The young perfons, 
upon our plan, are not to be thrown 
at a diftance from the paternal eye, 
nor feparated from a mother's fweet 
attentions. We deem both eirential, 
where they Can be enjoyed : and nei- 
ther are fuperfeded in the leaft. I 
fuppole alfo thefe ferainarics to be 
D 



26 Addrefs, delivered in the young ladies* academy, at Philadelphia, 



well conftituted, and managed with 
prudence and ability. 

As to private tuition, I allow it 
all the reafonable praife its advocates 
couM delire. But, contulcring cir- 
cumftances in general — and that the 
literary inftruftion of females mull 
be condufled almoft in the fame way 
with that of boys ; the private me- 
thod will be often found impraftica- 
ble, and very feldom competent, of 
itfelf, to the end propofed. 

In few places — almoft in none, till 
lately — hath there been any refpeda- 
ble inftitution for the exprefs purpofe 
of educating young ladies. There 
hath not been one, holding forth a 
fyftem that can be thoroughly ap- 
proved ; or carrying into praftice 
ideas v,-hich comport with the digni- 
ty of the objeft. There might be 
many fuch : and they would, in eve- 
ry poflible view, defervc the atten- 
tion and encouragement of all who 
wifli well to the profperity of their 
country ; — we may fay, to the felici- 
ty of the world. 

Our objeft here is not excefiive re- 
finementj or deep erudition ; but 
fuch culture, in the firft inftance, as 
no woman, whatever her condition 
and expeftations are, can conveni- 
ently be without. And then, fuch 
farther progrefs as the tafte and for- 
tunes of fome may require. 

It is by no means neceiTary that 
every woman (hould have a clafTical 
education, even with refped to her 
own tongue ; nor that any fhould 
proceed in one literary branch, or 
another, farther than what prudence 
and ceconomy recommend. But, 
unqueftionably, all, of every defcrip- 
tion, fhould learn to read correctly. 
All fhould be taught to write tolera- 
bly well. All fhould be inftrudled to 
manage common numbers, and to 
keep plain accounts. All fhould be 
formed to the habits of obedience, 
and a placid graceful attention to 
whatever duty they may be concern- 
ed in. 



Now, in the inftitutions which I 
wifh may be patronized, thefe eflen- 
tial parts at leail:, of female educa- 
tion, will become more generally 
underilood, than they were formerly. 
Almoft every one may rife to a de- 
gree of confidcration herein, that 
people had fcarcely any conception of 
before. 

In fuch inftitutions, more elFe6lu- 
ally than any where elfe, may be ac- 
quired an accurate acquaintance with 
the vernacular language — its ele- 
ments, orthography, idioms, and 
conftruftion : the refult of which 
will be, a copioufnefs — dignity — - 
force — and beauty, in writing, as 
well as in converfation, which moft 
women are certainly as capable of, 
as the men ; but, for want of oppor- 
tunity, fo few of cither fex attain. 

Befides reading with propriety and 
grace, that charming accoraplifh- 
ment — how generally would they 
write a beautiful, eafy hand, and 
gain facility in arithmetic ! — How 
common would it be, to underftand 
the ufe of the globes — the moft pleaf- 
ing and neccliary parts of geography 
and hiftory ; — drawing — mufic — 
pfalmody : — while many, whofe 
genius, and fituation in life, might 
render it advifeable, would, at a pro- 
per feafon, make advances in the 
belles lettres ; and others reach, with 
fuccefs, after the garland of philofo- 
phy. 

— And all along, let the fair pu- 
pil's range in the field of learning, 
be either more, or lefs extenfive — fhe 
will be taught, above all things, to 
have this truth in conftant view, 
that the knowledge of her Creator is 
wifdom pre-eminent ; and the orna- 
ments of a meek and quiet fpirit, are 
the firft-rate accomplilhraents under 
heaven. 

Now, any expoflulations that 
might be ufed on account of paft 
omifnons — or the reafonings that 
might be adduced by onefpeaking on 
this fubjeft, arc fuperfeded, I truft. 



Addrefsy delivered in the yitnig ladies* academy, at Philadelphia, 27 

And now, young ladies ! as far 
as you have proceeded, you have ac- 
quitted yourielves well. The fmile 
of general approbation is yours : and 
the particular, well-earned, fweet re- 
gards of thofe with whom you are, 
each, more intimately conaeded, arc 
yours. 

We think we have indubitable 
proofs, in the fpecimcns you have 
already given, of your abilities, and 
your delight in learning. A union 
like this promifes msch future ex- 
cellence. You will confider duly 
your prefent advantages, and keep in 
conftant vievv what is expeded of 
you. 

To rife to eminence, requires con- 
tinued, as well as early, diligence. 

While you frequent this feraina- 
ry, let it be with a chearful elevated 
endeavour to gain as much improve- 
ment as poifible : and let your end 
in acquiring knowledge, be, that 
}-ou may be eminently good, and 
eminently ufeful. 

\'ou will be amiably refpedful to 
your inftrudors : peculiarly decent 
and friendly to one another ; pcr- 
fedly inoftcnfive, courteous, and 
obliging to all. The law of kind- 
nefs muit dwell upon your tongues. 
Good will, and peace, and humble- 
nefs of mind, niult every where at- 
tend you. 

Thus growing in wifdom, as you 
grow in ilature, and pofleffing thofc 
qualities which concentrate in worth 
and lovelinefs, you will become 
(what I look upon to be but very 
little lower than the angelsj fcnfible, 
virtuous, fweet-tempered women. 

But, highly elleemed daughters ! 
there is a coniideraticn which I have, 
all along, fuppofed to accompany 
your improvements, and to fhed a- 
round them glory, without which, 
indeed, they would all be unprofit- 
able ; I n-.ean, that in the light ?nd 
love of God alone, your nature 
can be happy. 

I barely fubjoln a thought in rela- 



in Philadelphia, by the adual efta- 
blifhment of an academy, fuch as 
meets our ideas, and accords v/ith our 
wifhes — an academy, "which, from 
its having the countenance of fo ma- 
ny refpedable charaders — I readily 
fuppofe, will enlarge its fyftcm yet 
farther, and fpread extenfively its 
goodly influences. 

Here then I hold ; fenfible that it 
is unneceflary in this place, to dwell 
longer on the confideration firtt inti- 
mated : or even to touch, a moment, 
on the other two particulars, " the 
time of life moft proper for educati- 
on ;" and " the manner of condud- 
jng it ;" circumftances, which the 
good fenfe of the parents, whofe 
daughters feekinftrudion early within 
theie walls — the Ikill of the princi- 
pal, and the attention of the vifitors, 
aniplv provide for, and infure in the 
manner that every well-informed 
mind would defire. 

All that I have to do on thefe to- 
pics, is, with cordiality, to congra- 
tulate the refpedable parents and 
guardians of thefe amiable young 
perfons ; and you, worthy fir*, un- 
der whofe fpecialcare they are placed, 
and every one who affifts you in this 
excellent work, particularly the gen- 
tleman + to whom this city is greatly 
indebted, for his inftrudions in that 
delightful art, which heightens fo 
much the beauty of focial worfhip. 

Sirs I may the proficiency of this 
your happy charge, in learning, and 
in " whatfoevcr things are lovely," 
amply fulfil your wilhes, and reward 
your pains ! 
** Delightful tajk ! to rear the tender 

thought, 
To teach the fair idea hon.v to Jhoot ; 
To breathe th' enli'Jning Jpirit, and to 

The geti'rous purpofe in the gh-i-vvjg 
breaji." 

NOTES. 

* Mr. Bro'vcn. 
+ Mr. Adgate, 



28 



Neiv method of plactKZ a meridian mark. 



tlon to this ; it may give a better 
feafoning to the fentiments pre- 
ceding. 

That light and love muft come to 
yon, and to us all, thro' the Son of 
God. He is the great mailer, whole 
fchool you muft efpecially ateiid. 
In the midlt of all your ftudies, and 
in all your ways, be learning of him. 
He gives you redemption. He recon- 
ciles you to his Father. He teaches 
you to be pure, unblameable, and 
perfeft. He will open a heaven of 
ierenity within you ; reftoring all the 
honours of innocence, and the rights 
of immortality. 

..*...<s><s>^-<'- 

Neix) method of placing a meridian mark^ 
in a letter to the reu. dr. E^iving, pro- 
'uoji of the uninjerfity of Pennjyl'va' 
Kia, Bj Danjid Kittenhoufe , efj. 

Dear fir, 

SOME time ago I mentioned to 
you a new invention I had for 
fixing a meridian mark for my obfer- 
vatory. This I have fince executed, 
and as it aafwers perfedly well, I 
lliall give you a particular defcrip- 
tion of it. 

When my obfervatory was firft e- 
reded, I placed a meridian mark to 
the northward, at the diftance of 
about 1 200 feet, my view to the 
fouth being too much confined by 
adjacent buildings, and that to the 
noi th was not diitant enough to have 
the mark free from a feniible paral- 
lax. But laft fummcr a new brick 
houfe was built diredly north of the 
obfervatory, and much too nigh for 
(slillant vifion with the tranfit inftru- 
ment. Now, though a fixed mark is 
not abfolutely neceffary where you 
have a good tranfit inftrument, the 
pofition of which may be examined 
and accurately corre(^ed, if neceflary, 
every fair day, by the paflage of the 



pole ftar a^ove and below the pole, it 
IS neverthelefs very convenient, faves 
much trouble, and may fometimes 
prevent miftakes. We have an in- 
ftance in the obfervations of the aftro- 
nomer royal at Greenwich. His 
mark being taken down at repairing 
the building to which it was fecured, 
the tranfit inftrument was accidental- 
ly thrown out pf its true pofition, 
and the obfervations with it were 
continued for a confiderable time be- 
fore the error was deteded. My me- 
ridian mark being thus rendered ufc- 
lefs, I contrived feveral other methods 
of fupplying its place, all of which 
were, on fufficient deliberation, rer 
jeded for the following. 

I fattened the objeft glafs of a 
thirty-fix feet telefcope, firmly, to 
the wall which fupports the tranfit 
inftrument, oppofite to and as near 
as convenient to the objedl glafs of 
the tranfit, when brought to a hori- 
zontal fituation. In the focus of the 
thirty-fix feet objeft glafs, 1 fcrewed 
faft a piece of brafs to a block of 
marble, fupported by a brick pillar 
built on a good foundation, for this 
purpofe, in my garden. On this 
piece of brafs are feveral black con- 
centric circles ; the reft of the plate 
isfilvered. The diverging rays of 
light which proceed from every point 
in thefe circles, after paifing through 
the thirty-fix feet glafs, become pa- 
rallel, and entering the tranfit inftru- 
ment, an image of the plate and its 
circles is formed in the fame place 
where the images of ftars or the raoft 
diftant objefts are formed. The cir- 
cles are, therefore, diftindly feen 
through the tranfit, and being placed 
in the fame meridian with the centre 
of the thirty-fix feet glafs, the in- 
nermoft circle, about the fize of a 
brevier o, ferves for a meridian mark, 
to the centre whereof the crofs hair 
of the tranfit, may be nicely adjufted. 

This mark is in fe\eral refpeds 
preferable to one placed in the com- 
mon way. It is entirely free from 



Ohfer-vathm on the aurora horealis. 



?9 



parallax, which the other cannot be, 
unlefs placed at a very great diftance, 
when glaflss of great magnifying 
powers are ufed. It is not fenfibly 
afreded by the undulation of the air, 
which very often renders it impofllble 
to fet the tranfit accurately to a dif- 
tant mark. And it can be illumi- 
nated at night without difficulty, 
Ihould the fufpicion of any accident 
to the tranfit make it neceflary. But 
it has likewife one difadvantage. — 
Should the pillar, in fettling, carry 
the mark a little to the eaft or well:, 
the error will be greater in proporti- 
on to its nearnefs. 

I am, dear fir, your humble fervant^ 

DAVID RITTENHOUSE, 

P. S. The great improvement of 
objefl glaffes, by Dolland, has ena- 
bled us to apply eye glaffes of fo fliurt 
a focus, that it is difficult to find any 
fubftance proper for the crofs hairs of 
fixed inftruments. For fome years 
pall, I have ufed a fingle filament of 
filk, v/ithout knowing that the fame 
was made ufe of by the European 
aftronomers, as I have lately found it 
is by mr. Herfchell. But this fub- 
ftance, though far better than wires 
or hairs of any kind, is ftill much 
too coarfe for fome obfervations. A 
fingle filament of filk will totally 
obfcure a fmall ftar, and that for fc- 
veral fecondsof time, if the ftar be 
near the pole. I have lately with no 
fmail difficulty, placed the thread of 
a fpider in fome of my inftruments ; 
it has a beautiful effeft ; it is not one 
tenth of the fize of the thread of the 
filk-worm, and is rounder and more 
evenly of a thicknefs. I have hither- 
to found no inconvenience from the 
ufe of it, and believe it will be Lift- 
ing, it being more than four months 
fince I firft put it in my tranfit tele- 
fcope, and it continues fully extend- 
ed, and free from knots or particles 
of duft. 



ExtraR of a letter from th; rev Jeremy 
Belknap, containing ohjer-vations on 
the aurora horealis. 

Dover, fN. H.J March 31,1783, 

DID you ever, in obferving the 
aurora borealis, perceive a 
found ? I own, I once looked on 
the idea as frivolous and chimerical, 
having heard it at firft from perfons 
whofc credulity, I fuppofed, exceed- 
ed their judgment ; but, from hear- 
ing it repeatedly, and from fome 
others whom I thought judicious and 
curious, I began to entertain an opi- 
nion in favour of it. I was ftrengthen- 
ed in this opinion about two years 
ago, by llftcning with attention to 
the flalhing of a luminous arch, which 
appeared in a cairn frofty night, when 
I thought I heard a faint ruftling 
noife, like the brufhing of filk, Lalt 
Saturday evening I had full auricular 
demonll ration of the reality of this 
phenomenon. About ten o'clock 
the hemirplicre v/as all in a glow ; 
the vapours afcended from all points, 
and met in a central one in the ze- 
nith. All the difference between the 
fouth and north part of the heavens, 
was, that the vapour did not begin to 
afcend fo near the horizon in the 
fouth as in the north. There had 
been a fmall fhower, with a few 
thunder claps, and a bright rainbow 
in the afternoon ; and there was a 
gentle weftern breeze in the evening, 
vvhich came in flaws, with intervals 
of two or three minutes. In thefe 
intervals I could plainly perceive the 
ruftling noife, which was eafily dif- 
tinguiftiable from the found of the 
wind, and could not be heard till the 
flaw had fubfided. The flafliing of 
the vapour was extremely quick ; 
whether accelerated by the wind 
I cannot fay ; but from that quarter 
where the greateft quantity of the 
vapour feemed to be in motion, the 
found was plaineft ; and this, during 
my obfervation, was the eaftcrn. 



30 



Later from J. Madifon, efo, to D. Rittenhoufe, e/q. 



The fcene lafted about half an hour, 
though the whole night was as light 
as when the moon is in the quarters. 

Letter from f. Madifon, efq. to D. 
Rittenhvuf, efq. conlai/iiuo- experi- 
7ne7!ts and ohfruaf ions upr,i lubat are 
commonly calltdihefiJiieetfprings, in 
Firzi'iia. 

o 

THESE waters rife on the 
north fide of a large moun- 
tain, at the foot of it, called the 
fweet fpring- mountain, in the coun- 
ty of i3otetourt. The fouth fide 
is covered with ftones of an ocrous 
appearance. In many places iron 
ore may be found ; but on the 
north, the mountain is fertile, co- 
vered with a rich mould, atleaft near 
the fpring. The remarkable effica- 
cy of thefe waters, in many difor- 
ders, efpecially, it is faid, in con- 
fumptive complaints, firll induced 
me to attempt their analyfis. Such 
experiments as I had time and op- 
portunity to make, I fiiall faithful- 
ly relate, and leave it to others, 
better qualified than myfelf, to 
iudg-e of their merits. 

Experiment i. Having plunged 
a very fenfible mercurial thermome- 
ter in the fpring, it flood at 73". 
The temperature of air was about 
69. 

2. A good hydrometer funk one 
twentieth of an inch deeper in com- 
mon mountain water, than in the 
fpring. 

3. Nut galls mixed with the wa- 
ter in a wine-glafs, ilruck a palifli 
brown, which (hewed that there 
was little or no iron in it. 

4. Violets mixed with the water 
in a wine-glafs, turned it, in a fhort 
lime, of a reddifli colour. This 
was a proof that the waters contain- 
ed fome kind of acid. 



5. Having made a folution of 
filver in the nitrous acid, and mix- 
ed a little of it with the water, it 
immediately became milk)'-, and a 
white pulvurent precipitate enfued. 
This experiment fhewed by the 
whitenefs of the precipitate, that 
the waters contained nothing ful- 
phureous, and by the pulvurency 
of the precipitate, that the acid 
contained in the waters was vitri- 
olic. 

6. A folution of lead in the ni- 
trous acid being mixed with the 
water, it became fomewhat milky, 
and a white precipitate was obferv- 
ed. This experiment alio (hews, 
that the waters contain an acid, 
mcit probably the vitriolic, and alfo 
that they contain calcareous earth. 
Soap is not readily mifcible with 
them. 

7. A folution of faccharum fa- 
turni in the nitrous acid being 
made, and lines marked upon paper 
with it, and placed over the water, 
the lines retained their former co- 
lour. This experiment alfo (hews 
that the water contains nothing 
fulphureous. 

8. Having poured a little of the 
fpirit of fait into the water, after 
fome time a coloured precipitate 
was obferved ; but as the waters did 
not ftrike a green or blue colour, it 
(hewed that there was no copper in 
them. 

9. A folution of vitriol of cop- 
per mixed with the water, produced 
a thick, green, curdly appearance, 
but did not become bluer. This 
experiment fhewed that there was 
no vol. alkali contained in them. 

10. The vitriolic acid mixed 
with the water, fuddenly effervefced, 
and produced a heat which ralfed 
the thermometer from 75 to 83, by 
applying the bulb to the outfide of 
the glafs. 

I'l. As the fpring is continually 



Oft mujlcal pretenders. 



3» 



difcliarging large bubbles of air, 
which rifing from the bottom break 
upon the furface of the water, I 
was defirous of making fome expe- 
riments upon the air, in order to 
determine whether the acidity of 
the water might not be owing to 
it ; and alfo to determine the na- 
ture of the air, whether fixed or 
not. Having, therefore, caught a 
quantity of the air in a decanter, I 
communicated a part of it to an 
equal bulk of pure mountain water, 
and after agitating them for fome 
time, gave it to leveral to tafte ; 
who agreed that it had the talte of 
the fpring water. Upon a fecond 
trial, this experiment did not fuc- 
cced. 1 had not an opportunity 
of trying the nature of the air by 
meanu of chalk-water, and was prc- 
ventpd from profecuting any further 
' enquiries into the nature of thefe 
celebrated waters, by a fudden a- 
larm, to which the frontiers were 
then continually expofed. 

Thefe waters have been falfely 
cdled fweet ; for their talle is evi- 
dently aciduli -'s. The experiments 
alfo fliew that they contain an acid. 
Their tafte refembles exaftly that 
of waters artificially impregnated 
with fixed air, extricated from 
chalk, by means of the vitriolic 
acid, and I conceive muft be near- 
ly the fame with the true Pyrmont 
water. They have little or no 
fmcll, do not form any incruftation, 
nor do they leave a depofit upon 
ftandingmany hours. Upoi^bath- 
ing in the morning, the ikin hf)s a 
foapy kind of feel. This was not 
obferved in the evening. 

Thereis, near this fpring, another, 
a very ftrong chalybeate. 

I am, with great regard, yours, 

'J.MADISON. 



On nmfical pretenden. 



To the editor. 
Timotheus, nviih his brcaihlvg fiute or 

Joiinding lyre. 
Could Jiuell the foul to rage, or kindle 

/oft defire. 

Sir, 

IV/ A S led the other day by h 
friend to a concert of mufic, in 
cxpciflation of being enraptured, as he 
was pleafed to call it, by the perfor- 
mance of many excellent mafters. I 
am indeed a lover of mufic, but un- 
happily no connoilTeur; I imagined I 
fhould be entertained with fome of 
the vv'orks of Corelli, Handel, Ge- 
miniani, or the like ; but alas, fir, 
after a good old overture which I 
thought tolerably well performed, 
when my expedations were raifed 
very high, up ftarts Signor Sombo- 
dini (a nam.e Italianized, which I do 
not remember) to play a folo on the 
violoncello, which ufed to be knov,n 
by the name of a bafs-fiddle not half 
a century ago : he had indeed one 
part of Timotheus's Ikill ; — he did 
not a little enrage many bef:«3cs me, 
by producing fome of his own com- 
pofition, which, after Handel's, v^^as 
nearly fimilar to a low farce after a 
fine tragedy ; his performance, which 
a fat gentlewoman, who fat next to 
me, told me, I ftould call his cxeeu- 
tion, was -^ery good ; but I never 
knew, till fome of the connoiffeurs 
informed me, that mufic was only in- 
tended for vile fcrapers to make minc- 
ed meat of — to Ihcw — what ? why 
truly, their execution: — I had almoft 
faid, would they were all executed, 
connoiffeurs and all. In the name of 
wonder, have we not folos of Corel- 
li, Gemlniani, and many other great 
mafters, that every fidler mult be 
perking his own wretched compofi- 
tions in our face ? A gentleman was 
obferving, that on all bafs inftru- 
ments the movements ought to be 
ilow and folsmn, and that they ne- 



32 Gonjernor Trumbull's addrefs to the ajfcmbly of thejlate of ConneHUut, 



ver were intended for jigs, &c. to 
%vhich a perfonage of a very formal 
afpeft made anfuer, in a kind of 
German Engliili, " Sir, you know 
very little abjut the matter; that 
might be the cafe in Corclli's time, 
but now we have learned better 
things : in Ins time it was thought 
wonderful if a performer on the vio- 
lin could reach E in alt (I think that 
was theexpreiHon) but now we make 
nothiag of going clofe up to the 
bridge. ' I did not doubt but the 
perfon mufl: be a very great perform- 
er, who knew io much better than 
Corelli, and being told that he was 
immediately to give a fpecixnen, I 
was all expectation ; when behold 
mynheer mounted the roilrum, or 
what elfe ) ou pleafe to call it, and 
indeed he did get up to the bridge, 
as he had promifed ; but (would you 
believe it?i he could not find the way 
down again, till during a great ap- 
pkufe, raifed by fome of his admi- 
rers, he wifely threw himfclf down 
head- long ; and upon my word I 
wilhed he had broke his neck — I 
mean mufically, not mifohievouily — 
for he only intended to fhew his own 
execution. 

I always underftood, till lately, 
that inufic, I mean compofition, was 
a very difficult a.fair ; but was great- 
ly furprifed to find, that every fpark 
that has juft learned the gamut on 
the fiddle or German flute, compofes 
his own folos, trios, &:c. &:c. with 
the greatell facility ; and I do not 
doubt can get up to the bridge much 
better than Corelli ever could, and 
come down again, like mynheer, in a 
mafterly manner. 

I am, fir, 
yours, &c. 
TIMOTHY PHRAM. 

Ihiladel^hia, Mny 6, 1787. 



An addrefs of his excellency goui rnor 
Trumbull t to the general ajfemblj and 
the freemen of the fiat e of ConneSli- 
cut, ivith the refolution of the legifla' 
tare, in confequence thereof 

To the honmrable the council and houfe 
of repnfentai'fves, in general court 
affemblcdy Odober 1783. 

Gentlemen^ 

A Few days will bring mc to the 
anniverfary of my birth ; fe- 
venty three years of my life will 
then be completed ; and next May, 
fifty one years will have paflcd, fince 
I wiis firlt honoured with the confi- 
dence of the people in a public cha- 
rafter. During this period, in diffe- 
rent capacities, it has been my lot 
to be called to public fervice, almoft 
without interruption. Fourteen years 
I have had the honour to fill the 
chief feat of government. With 
what carefiilnefs, with what zeal and 
attention to your welfare, I have 
difcharged the duties of my feveral 
ftations, fome few of you, of equal 
age with myfelf, can witnefs for me 
from the beginning. During the 
lall period, none of you are ignorant 
of the manner in which my public 
life has been occupied ! — the watch- 
ful cares and folicitudes of an eight 
years dillrelTing and unufual war, 
have alfo fallen to my fhare, and 
have employed many anxious mo- 
ments of my lateft time ; which have 
been chearfully devoted to the wel- 
fare of my country. Happy am I 
t© find, that all thefe cares, anxieties, 
and folicitudes are amply compenfat- 
ed by the noble profpeft which now 
opens to my fellow citizens, of a 
happy eftablifliment (if we arc but 
wife to improve the precious oppor- 
tunity) in peace, tranquility, and 
national independence. With fin- 
cere and lively gratitude to Almigh- 
ty God, our great proteftor and de- 
live/er, an4 with mofl hearty con- 



Go'vsrmr Triimkiirs addr?fs to the ajfemblj of the fate of CGnne^iciit. 53 



grstulatlcns to all our citizens, I fe- 
licitate you, gentlemen, the other 
freemen, and all the good people of 
the fliite, in rhis glorious profpeft. 

ImprL'iTcd with thefe fcntiments of 
praticude and felicitation — reviewing 
the long courfe of years, in which, 
through various events, I have had 
the pleafure to ferve the ftate — con- 
templating, v.'ith plealing wonder 
and facisfaftion, at the clofe of 
an arduous contclt, the noble and en- 
larged fcenes, which now prefent 
thcml^'lves to my country's view — 
and rellefting, at the fame time, on 
my advanced ftage of life — a life, 
worn out almoft in the conllant du- 
ties of ofTice, I think it my duty to 
retire from the bufy concerns of pub- 
lic affairs : that at the evening of my 
days, I may fwecten their decline, 
by devoting mvfclfwith Ic-fs avoca- 
tion, and more attention, to the du- 
ties of religion, the fervice of my 
God, and preparation for a future 
nnd happier ftate of exillcnce — in 
which pleaung em.ployment, I (hall 
not ccafe to remember my country, 
and to make it my ardent prayer, 
that heaven will not fail to blefs her 
with its choicell fa\ ours. 

At this aufpicious m.oment, there- 
fore, of my _ country's happinef-i — 
when file has jull reached the goal of 
Jicr wiuies, and obtained the objedl:, 
for which ilie has fo long contended, 
and fo nobly llruggled, I have to 
requett the favour from you, gentle- 
men, and through you, from all the 
freemen of the liate, that after May 
nest, I may be excufed from any 
further fervice in puolic life, and 
that, from this time, I may be !io 
longer connuered as an object of your 
fuffragcs for any public employment 
in tlie ftate. -The reafonablenefs of 
my requeft, I am pcrfuadcd, will be 
q'.iellioned by no one. The length 
of tim.c I have devoted to their fer- 
vice, with my declining ftate of vi- 
gour and aciivity, will, Ipleafemv- 
felf, form for me, a fufEcient and 

Vol. III. No. I, 



unfailing excufe with my fellow ci- 
tizens. 

At this parting addrefs, you will 
fuifer me, gentlemen, to thank you, 
and all the worthy members of pre- 
ceding afferablies, with v.'hom I 
have had the honour to aft, for ail 
that afllil-ance, council, aid, and fup- 
port, which 1 have ever experienced 
during my adaiiniftration in govern- 
ment ; and in the warmth of grati- 
tude, to alTure you, that, till my lateit 
moments, ail your kindnefs to me 
ihall be remembered : — and that my 
conftant prayer fnall be employed 
with heaven, to invoke tha divine 
guidance and dircflion in yourfuti;:e 
councils and government. 

Age and experience dictate to me 
— and the zeal with which I have 
been knoy.n to firve tiic public 
through a long couifc of j'ears, will, 
I trult, recomm.end to the attention 
of the people, fome few thoughts 
which I ihali offer to their confidera- 
tion on this occanon, as my laft ad- 
vifory legacy. 

I would in the lirft place, in treat 
my countrymen, as they value tl'.eir 
own internal welfare and the good (f 
poilerity, that they maintain invio- 
late, by a ftrid adherence to its ori- 
ginal principles, the happy conftitu- 
tion under which we hav.e ^o long 
fubfifted as a corporation ) that for 
the purpofes of naciorial happinefs 
and glory, they will fupport and 
ftrengthen the federal union by every 
coniiituti'jnal nieans in their power. 
The exiftence of a congrefs, vefied 
with powers competent to t!ie great 
national purpofes for which that bo- 
dy was inilituted, is efTential to our 
national fecurity, eftablifliment and 
independence. Whether congrefs is 
already vefted with fuch powers, is a 
quefiion, vv'orthy, in my opinion, of 
the m.oft ferious, candid and difpaf- 
f onate confideration of this legiila- 
t'lre, and thofe of all the other confe- 
derated ftates. For my' own part, I 
do not hfiutate to pronounce, that in 
E 



34 Governor Trumbull's addrefi to the ajfemhly efthejlate of ConneQicut^ 

my opinion, that body is not poffeiT- 
ed of thofe powers which are fully 
adequate to the purpofes of our ge- 
neral fovereignty ; nor competent to 
that energy and exertion of govern- 
ment, which are abrolutcl)' necelTary 
to the management and direction of 
the general weal ; or the fulfilment 
of our own expeftations. This de- 
fe(ft in our federal conftitution, I 
have already lamented as the caufe of 
many inconveniencics which we 
have experienced ; and unlcfs wifely 
remedied, will, I forefee, be pro- 
duftive of evils, difaftrous, if not fa- 
tal, to our future union and confede- 
ration. In my idea, a congrefs in- 
vefted with full and fufficient autho- 
rities, is as abfolutelyneceffary for the 
great purpofes of our confederated 
union, as your legiflature is for the 
fupport of internal order, regulation 
and government, in the ftate. Both 
bodies fliould be entrufted with pow- 
ers fully fufficient to anfwer the de- 
fign of their feveral inftitutions. 
Incir powers fhould be diltind ; 
they fhould be clearly defined, afcer- 
tained and underftood. They (hould 
be carefully adhered to ; they Ihould 
be watched over with a wakeful and 
diftingui(hing attention of the peo- 
ple. But this watchfulnefs is far dif- 
ferent from that excefs of jealonfy, 
which, from a millaken fear of abufe, 
withholds the neceffary powers, and 
denies the means which are efftntial 
to the end expeded. _ Juft as ridi- 
culous is this latter difpofition, as 
would be the practice of a farmer, 
who Ihould deprive his labouring 
man of the tools necefiary for his bu- 
fmefs, left he fhould hurt himfelf, or 
injure his employer, and yet expefts 
his work to be accomplifhcd. This 
kind of cxceffive jealoufy is, in my 
view, too prevalent at this day ; and 
will, I fear, if not abated, prove a 
principal means of pre\enting the en- 
joyment of our national indepen- 
dence and glory, in that extent and 
perfeftion, which the afpei^ of our 



aiFairs (were we to be wife) fo pleaf- 
ingly promifes to us. My country- 
men ! fufFer me to alk, who are ob- 
jeds of this jealoufy ? who, my fel- 
low citizens, are the men we have to 
fear ? not Grangers, who have no 
connexion with our welfare ? — no ! 
— they are the men of our owrr 
choice, from among ourfelves; — a 
choice (if we are faithful to our- 
felves) didated by the moft perfeft 
freedom of eledion ; and that elec- 
tion repeated as often as you can 
wifh, or is confiftent with the 
good of the people. They are 
our brethren — ading for them- 
felves as well as for us — and 
fharers with us in all the general bur- 
dens and benefits. They are men, 
who from intereft, afFcdion and eve- 
ry fecial tie, have the fame attach- 
ment to our conftitution and govern- 
ment as ourfelves : — why, therefore, 
fliould we fear them, with this un- 
reafonable jealoufy ? — In our prefent 
temper of mind, are we not rather to 
fear ourfelves ? to fear the proprie- 
ty of our owneledions ? or rather to 
fear, that from this excefs of jealoufy 
and miftruft, each one, cautious of 
his neighbour's love of power, and 
fearing left if he be trufted, he would 
mifufe it, we (hall lofe all confi- 
dence and government, and every 
thing tend to anarchy and confufion ? 
from whofe horrid womb, fhould we 
plunge into it, will fpring a govern- 
ment, that may juftly make us all to 
tremble. 

I would alfo beg, that, for the fup- 
port of national faith and honour, as 
well as domef1;ic tranquility, they 
would pay the (Iricleft attention t* 
all the facrcd rules of juftice and 
equity, by a faithful obfervance and 
fulfilment of all public as well as 
private engagements. Public expen- 
ces are unavoidable ; — and thofe of 
the late vvar, although they fall fhort 
of what might have been expeded, 
when compared with the magnitude 
cf the objed for which we have con- 



Govcrnsr TrumhuIFs addrefs to the ajfemhly oftheftaie ofConneSiicut. 35 



tended, the length of the conteft, 
with our unprepared fituation and 
peculiarity of circumltances, yet 
ceuld not fail to be great ; — ^but 
great as they may appear to be, 
when, for the defence of our invalu- 
able rights and liberties, the fupport 
of our government, and our national 
exiftence, they have been incurred 
and allowed by thofe to whom, by 
your own choice, you have delegated 
the power, and afllgned the duty, of 
watching over the common weal, and 
guarding your interefts, their public 
engagements are as binding on the 
people, as your own private con- 
trafts ; and are to be difchargcd with 
the fame good faith and pundua- 
lity. 

I moll earneftly r^queft my fellow 
citizens, that they revere and prac- 
tice virtue in all its lovely forms : — 
this being the fureft and beft efta- 
blifhment of national as well as pri- 
vate felicity and profperity. That, 
difmiffing as well all local and confin- 
ed prejudices, as unreafonable and 
cxceffive jealoufies and fufpicions, 
they Itudy peace and harmony with 
each other, and with the feveral parts 
of the confederated republic — That 
they pay an orderly and refpedful re- 
gard to the laws and regulations of 
government ; and that, making a 
judicious ufe of that freedom and 
frequency of election, which is the 
great fecurity and palladium of 
their rights, they will place confi- 
dence in their public officers, and 
fubmit their public concerns, with 
chearfulnefs and readinef?, to the de- 
♦ifions and determinations of con- 
grcfs and their own legiflature ; 
vs^hofe coUefted and united wifdom, 
the people will find to be a much 
more fure dependance, than the un- 
certain voice of popular clamour, 
which, moit frequently, is excited and 
blown about by the artful and de- 
figning part of the comm.unity, to 
effedl particular, and, often times, fi- 
niftcr purpofts. At fuch times, the 



fteady good fenfe of the virtuous 
public, wifely exercifed in a judici- 
ous choice of their reprefentatives, 
and a punftual obfervance of their 
collected counfels, is the fureft guide 
to national intcreft, happinefs and fe- 
curity. 

Finally, my fellow citizens ! I ex- 
hort you to love one another ; let 
each one ftudy the good of his neigh- 
bour and of the community, as his 
own : — hate ftrifes, contentions, jea- 
loufies, envy, avarice and every evil 
work, and ground yourfelves in this 
faithful and fure axiom, that virtue 
exalteth a nation, but that fin and 
evil workings arc the deftruftion of 
a people, 

I commend you, gentlemen, and 
the good people of the ftate, with 
earnellnefs and ardour, to the blef- 
fi ng and prote<?tion, the counfel and 
direction of the great counfellor and 
dircftor ; whofe wifdom and power 
is fufficient to eftablifh you as a great 
and happy people : — and wifiiing 
you the favour of this divine bene- 
diftion, in my public charafter — I 
bid you a long — a happ}^ adieu. 
I am, gentlemen, 

your moft obedient 
humble fervanf, 
JONATHAN TRUMBULL. 

A true copy, examined by 
GEORGE WYLLYS, fecretary. 

At a general aflembly of the governor 
and company of the ftate of Con- 
necticut, in America, held at New- 
haven, on the fecond Thurfday of 
Oaober, A. D. 1783. 

WHEREAS his excellency Jo^ 
nathan Trumbull, efquire, 
governor and commander in chief in 
and over the ftate of Connedicut, 
has fignified in an addrefs to the ge- 
neral aiTembly, to be communicated 
to their conuituents, his defire that 
he might not, confiderino; his ad- 
Tanccd age, be confidered by the 



Ohfervalhni on a cumet. 



freemen of this {late, as an objeit of 
their choice, at the next general 
ele<aion,as the governor h:is declared 
his wi(h to retire, after the expiration 
of his prcfent appointment, from the 
cares and bufinefb of government, 

Refoived by this affembly, that 
they coniider it as their duty in be- 
half of their conlHtuents, to exprefs, 
in terms of the mod fmcere grati- 
tade, tjaeir higheft refpcct for his ex- 
cellency governor Trumbull, for the 
great and eminent fcrvices which he 
has rendered this ftate during his 
loi)!'- and profperous adminlrtration : 
nioa- efpeclaily for that difplay of 
wif loiii, jalic*.-, fortitude, and mag- 
n-ini-nity, joined with the moil un- 
remitting attention and pcrfeverance 
which he has manifeited during the 
late fuccefsful, though diilreiiing, 
war, which mud place the chief ma- 
r<-iitrate of this ftarc in the rank of 
thofe great and worthy patriots, who 
have eminently diftinguithed them- 
felvei as (he defenders of the rights 
of mankind. 

And that this aflfembly confider it 
as a moft gracious difpenfation of di- 
vine pro\idence, that a life of fo 
much ufefulnrfs has been prolonged 
to fuch an advanced age, with an un- 
impaired vigour and activity of 
mind. 

But if the freemen of this ftnte 
Jhall think proper to comply with his 
excell^ncv's requeft, it will be the 
win-i of this aiTembly, that his fuccef- 
for in office may poiTcfs thofe eminent 
public and private virti'.es, which 
give fo muchluftre to the charafler of 
him who has, in the moll honourable 
manner, fo long prefidcd over this 
flate. , ^ 

It is further refoived, that the fe- 
cr<.iary prefent to governor Trum- 
bull, 'an authenticated copy of this 
ail, as a tellimonial of the refpeft 
and eileemof the legifiature of this 
ftate. And the fecretary is further 
direftcd, that as foon as he Hiad be 
furnilhed with fuch copy, he caufc 



the fame to bep;;inted, together with 

this ad. 

A true copy, examined by 

GEORGE WYLLYS, fec'ry. 



Ohfr'vations on a comet lately diJcOf 
'vend ; co/nmnfika/ed to the Ameri- 
can phihjiphkal Jjcietj — j'y Da^M 
Riitenh'jnjc, 'Ji- 

N the 2ift of January lafl, 
_ John Lukens, efq. informed 
me that he had uifcovertd a comet, 
the preceding evening ; and, on the 
evening of the fame day, affifted / 
by mr. Lukens andmr. Prior, 1 ob- 
fei ved the apparent place of the co- 
met to be in the 15th degree of 
Pifces, with 16" 6' fcuth latitude. 
By fubfequent obfervations, I found 
its motion to be north eallcrly, with 
refpeft to the ecliptic, and that its 
neareft approach to us had preceded 
our iirfl obfervation It paffed the 
eclipticon the 31ft, in the 25' of 
Pifces, and February the 17th it 
was in Pifces 29* with 13' 10' 
north latitude. This was the lall 
time I faw it, clouds and moonlight 
having unce prevented. 

The liv;ht of this c',met was fo 
very faint" thrt it was impofGble to 
ohferve it with accuracy, at leall 
without better inftruments than I 
am poffefTcd of, efpecially as the co- 
met was always involved in day- 
light, moonlight, or the thick at- 
mufphere of the horizon. No pains 
or attention however were wanting, 
and from the bed obfervation I 
couid make, 1 find it pafied its pe-~ 
rihelion about the 20th of January, 
its diltance from the fun being about 
-— of the fun's didance from us. 
The place of its afcending node 13 
in the 2^th degree of Taurus, and 
the inclination of its orbit 53'. 
Its motion is retrograde, that is, 



Accozint of a pje ri'gro gi;I, and midai'.o hoy. 



contrary to tlie order of the figns. 
I have itill hopes of feeing it in the 
morniag, though its dillancc is now 
fo very great that ;t can icarcely 
be vifible to the naked eye. 
March, 17S4. 

Some account of a motly coloured, orpye 
negro girl and nvdutio b'yy, exhibited 
bcfre the American philfjphical p- 
ciely, in the month of May, 1784, 
fir their examiiiatini : by dr. John 
Myrgau : frjm the hiji'vy given of 
them by their oivner,??tonf. le !\dlji.<, 
di'HiJj of the king of trance, at Gua- 
deloupe in the IFcJi Indies, as fol- 

ADELAIDE, the little girl 
now before the fociety, is aged 
two years and a little more than one 
month, is of a clear black colour, 
verging to brown, except that (lie 
has a white fpot bearing feme re- 
femblance to an aigrette ; the point 
of which is at the root of the nofe, 
and it rifes into the hair, above tite 
forehead, of which it occupies abos'e 
an inch in width, from the margin 
to the fontenellc. In this part the 
colour of the hair Is white, and It 
is curly liiie the hair of negroes in 
general, and thicker in that part 
than on any other part of its head. 
In the middle of its forehead and 
on the aigrette, is a large black 
fpot ; on the external lide next to 
the temples, about one half of each 
eye-lid, both upper and under, is 
black, and the rcnaining half next 
to the nofe, is white. 

The eyes are Wack and lively ; a 
little to the left and towards the 
middle of the chin a white fpot be- 
gins, which is long In proportion to 
its breadth, but or lefs magnitude 
than that of the forehead : it itretches 
wnder the chin to the upper part of 
the threat. The neck, the' u]:'per 



37 

and under part of the chell, the 
fhoulders, the back, loins, and but- 
tocks to the j'jnclion with the thighs, 
and the pudendum, are of the colouc 
of her face, but the loins and the 
thicker part of the buttocks are of a 
deeper black. 

The arms from the upper and 
middle part are white, and inter- 
fperfed with black fpots. There are 
fome fmailer and more numerous a- 
bout her knees than elfewhere. 

Upon the large black fpots there 
are alfo many fmaller and blacker, 
which are very glaring. Many of 
thtie fpots divide into four, live, 
and fix rays, refembling a liar, which 
are not obferved but by a clofe in- 
fpection, and then they are very vi- 
fible. In feveral parts, thofe fpots, 
being of different (hades, give an ex- 
act pidure of lunar eclipfcs, as thej 
arc commonly reprefented in thi 
b )oks of ailronomy. The hands, 
the middle part of the fore arms, the 
interior and middle parts of the legs 
and feet are black, which have a 
pretty (triking referablance to gloves 
and to buikins. 

The white that prevails over the 
breall, and over the belly, arms, and 
thighs, has a lively appearance. The 
Ikin is ioit., fmooth, and lleek. 

Adelaide has tine features ; we meet 
with few negroes of fo beautiful a 
form. In her temper fhe is chearful, 
gay, and fportful, and as tall as chil- 
dren of her age generally are, and 
hath evidently a very delicate tera- 
perainent, yet enjoys pretty good 
health ; neither hath ftie eyes, nor 
ears, nor ■i.KY particularity in hec 
features, or external conformation, 
like vvhat may be ken at the lirll in- 
fpeclion in thofe who are called wliite 
negroes, whofe flcin 1.-5 altogether of 
» a dead v/liite colou r, and whofe svoolly 
white hair and features referable thofe 
ot their negro parents. 

From this detail we may remark, 
that the alteration of the natural 
colour of Adelaide, takes place over 



38 



Atcount of a pye negro girl, and mulatto Irf, 



the fame parts of the body, for the 
moft part, as over the body of Maria 
Sabina, of whom nionf. Buffon gives 
an account ; and confidering it as a 
well authenticated fad, from all the 
information that has been received of 
Adelaide, that fhe had a negro father 
and negro mother, we are led to be- 
lieve that the Engliih account under 
the portrait of Maria Sabina is exaft, 
and not alTerted merely for the fake 
oicov-ering the honour of the mother, 
and of the fociety in which fhe was 
a llax'C. 

The pyed mulatto boy is named 
Jean Pierre. He is a month younger 
than Adelaide ; but from his figure, 
which is robuft, he appears to be fix 
months older. He, as well as Ade- 
laide, both belong to monf. le Val- 
lois. He was born at Grandterre, 
Guadaloups,of a negro wench named 
Carolina, and of a white man, an 
European, whofe name I did not 
learn. 

A certificate which monf. Ic Val- 
lois has with him, legally authenti- 
cated by monf. Blin, lieutenant 
judge, given from under the hand 
of monf. das Effart, king's phyfician, 
and monf. Cumin, king's furgeon, 
at Grandterre, Guadaloupe, attefts, 
that Adelaide was born at Gros IQet, 
in St. Lucia ; that Bridget, her mo- 
ther, is a negro of the Ibo nation, and 
now reckoned to be about twenty five 
years old, and that her father, whofe 
name is Raphael, is a negro of the 
Mina nation. In this certificate it is 
further declared, that the father ©f 
Jean Pierre has white fpots (that is, of 
a deeper white than his natural ikin) 
of the fame fhape, and in the fame 
parts of the body as the fon, and that 
the mother and one of the brothers 
of this boy's European father have 
like white fpots, and in the fame parts 
of the body. 

However it may be in refpeft to 
thofeobfervations concerning the fup- 
pofed refemblance of the white fpots 
they may bear about them, to thofe 



which mark Jean Pierre, it fuflices to 
take notice here, that his body is en- 
tirely of the colour of a mulatto, ex- 
cept that he has from nature a white 
aigrette in his forehead like that of 
Adelaide. The hair in that part is 
white mixed with black, which is 
not fo in Adelaide. The ftomach, 
and the legs from two inches above 
the ancles to the middle of the calf of 
the legs, are entirely of a beautiful 
lively white ; there is alfo a white 
fpot in the upper part of the penis. 
Over the white parts of the legs there 
is a light white down, longer and 
thicker than children commonly have 
at this age. 

Such is the natural hiftory of thofe 
two extraordinary children ; but 
whatcaufes have produced thofe fur- 
prifing phenomena and alteration of 
the natural colour of their ikin, are 
left for others to inveftigate and ex- 
plain. 

Monf. le Vallois relates that the 
n^other of Adelaide, whilft pregnant 
with her, was delighted in 1) ing out 
ail night in the open air, and con- 
templating the ftars and planets, and 
that the great grandmother of Jean 
Pierre (a white lady) during the 
time of her being with child of her 
daughter, his grandmother, by the fa- 
ther's fide, was frightened on having 
fome milk fpilled upon her. Whe- 
ther this will account for her daughter 
and grandchildren being marked in 
the manner related, and for the fpots 
obferved on the mulatto boy defcend- 
ing to him — or whether the ftrong 
impreffion made upon the mother of 
Adelaide, by the nirjhtly view of the 
liars and planetary fyftem, may be 
confidered as the caufe of the very 
extraordinary appearances in that 
girl, every one will determine for 
themfelves ; there being many who 
difpute children's being ever marked 
by the fears, longings, or imprefiions 
made by mothers on the bodies of 
their children, at a certain time of 
pregnane}' ; for which they endeavour 



tetter from the hen^ Benjamin Lincoln, to the hon. general Warren, 



to account in different ways ; whilft 
others, who have known a variety of 
children born with different marks on 
them (which have fallen under their 
particular notice) are equally confi- 
dent of thofe marks proceeding from 
the caufes alleged. 

Letterfr3?n th'- hon. Benjamin Lincoln, 
ejq. F. A. A. to the honourable Jama 
iVarren, efq. F. A. A. relating to the 
ingrafting of fruit trees, and the 
groivth if 'Vegetables, 

Hingham, Nw. 3, 1780. 

My dear Jir, 

I TAKE this early opportunity, 
agreeable to my promife, to en- 
clofe you the fentiments of my friend 
on grafting, the growth of plants, 
trees, &c. Thefe were given on a 
converfation which arofe on my men- 
tioning, that I had obfeived, for a 
number of years, an apple tree in my 
©rchard, the natural fruit of which 
was early, hfaving been grafted with 
a winter cyon, producing fruit very 
like in appearance to the fruit pro- 
duced by the tree whence the cyon 
was taken, but deftitute of thofe 
qualities inherent in that fruit, and 
neceffary to its keeping through the 
winter. This led me to call in quef- 
tion the propriety of grafting winter 
fruit on afummer llock, ?.nd toenquire 
whether the ftock through which, I 
fuppofed, the food paffed to the cyon, 
and by which it was fitted properly to 
nourifh the helplefs and newly adopt- 
ed branch, would not rather alfimu- 
late that, than that the cyon could, 
thus fed, retain all the qualities of its 
parent Hock. 

I am fcnfible, that there are objec- 
tions to this new fyftem ; and, per- 
haps, difficulties may be raifed to it, 
which cannot be obviated. But, as 
this may arife either fro.Ti the errone- 



oufnefs of the doftrine itfelf, or 
from the want of knowledge in th« 
principles of vegetation, 1 think it 
fhould not be adopted or rejeified 
without the fulleft enquiry ; and 
efpecially, fince a knowledge of the 
laws of vegetation is one of the moft 
interefting matters which can be the 
fubjecl of difcuffion : for on vegeta- 
tion depends our being ; and in the 
fame proportion as we obtain a 
knowledge thereof, and pradice on 
that knowledge, in that proportion is 
our well-being promoted. That cul- 
tivation promotes vegetation, I think 
none will deny : for furely the earth, 
fpontaneoufly, gives us but a bare 
fubfiftence. The reafons affigned, 
why the earth did not more early 
bear fruit, were, becaufe there was 
no rain on the earth, and becaufe 
there was no man to till the ground. 
The neceflity of which feems to have 
produced one of the firft decrees 
from heaven to man, even while he 
was in Eden, furrounded with all the 
bleifings thereof, that he (hould drefs 
the garden. Whether tilling and 
drefiing the earth fo prepares its parts 
that they becorae proper food for the 
plant, and thereby promote vegeta- 
tion — whether by tilling and dreif- 
ing, the land is fitted properly to re- 
ceive the rays of the fun, and to 
receive and retain a fuitable quantity 
of water, with which food for the 
plant is fuppofed, by fome, to fall — • 
or whether, by tilling and drcfiing, 
the land does really partake of more 
particles neceffary to vegetation, and 
fo attrafts like particles floating in 
the air, as fimilar bodies attract each 
other, and fo light on, and feed the 
plant in their fall, or do reft on the 
earth, are abforbed by the roots, 
and thence conveyed through the 
whole plant, are queftions which can, 
I think, be determined with greater 
certainty when the principles of • :- 
getation are fully afcertained. 

Pleafs to favour me with the refult 
ef your enquiries on thefe matters. 



^O Oh/c'rvalmis on the gro-vjiff of trees don-Vfinxards dfter the jlrji year. 



and it will much oblige him who has 
the honour to be, &'c. 

B. LINCOLN. 

Hon. gen. Warren. 

Ohft^-vations on the gro%v!h of trees 
donunnxiards afltr the jirji yrai: 

THE idea has univerfally o'ntaici- 
ed, that trees grow from the 
root upwards. But perhaps it may- 
appear probable, from the following 
confiderations, that trees, from the 
firll: year, grow from the top down- 
wards. 

The growth of the annual plnnts 
{eenis to be the mere expanding of the 
parts contained in the feed, or bulb, 
which is a more perfeft or full grown 
feed, dilrering but little from vvhat is 
commonly called feed. Of this, the 
bulb of a tulip is, the beft example, 
as the parts are viiible without the 
help of glafles. Upon removing the 
fever.il coats of the bulb, each of 
which are the fupport of a leaf, in 
the centre of it, a large flower, near 
half an inch in length, will be found, 
and, in thicknefs, as large as a rye- 
ftraw ; in which thepetais, ftile, fila- 
ments, and buttons are fully formed, 
and perfeft in every refpefi: but fize 
and colour. The lower leaf of the 
plant, which, within the bulb, 
covers all the reft, fwells and ex- 
pands firft : then the next above 
fwells and expands ; and fo on until 
the whole are expanded : after 
which, the flalk arifes, the flower 
fwells and opens, and its beautiful 
colours are feparated and exhibited 
to the 6ye. In this growth, the bulb 
is entirely wafted, except only the 
fine Ikin that covered each fquamina, 
which remains much thinner than 
white paper. In the centre of the 
bulb, below the leaves, and ad- 
hering to the ftalk, may be feen a 
very fmall bulb, much lefs th3n the 
feeds of the plant. This bulb is, 
however, increafed with the growth 
©f the leavfp, until it becomes of the 



fize of the parent : and when the 
ftalk, the leaves, and the fibrous roots 
decay and dry up, this new bulb re- 
mains, in the place of the old one, 
capable of a like growth the next 
year. 

The firft year's growth of a tree, 
like that of plants, is the mere ex- 
paniion of the parts contained with- 
in the feed, fo far as thofe parts are 
fitted for grov/th ; and being ex- 
panded, the wood formed has no 
further growth, in any direftion, but 
remains of the fame fize until it de- 
cays. Each leaf, which grows on 
tlie firft 3'ear's (aoot, as well as thofe 
of fuccceding years, has annexed to 
it, immediately above its Item, an 
embryo bud, which is nourifned 
and htted to grow the following 
year, and to become a branch of the 
future tree. The leaf having per- 
formed its maternal duty, falls to the 
ground, and manures the tree from 
whence it /sll. 

The wood of thefe fapllngs of a 
year, is uniformly of one texture ; but 
the wood of the next year is feparated 
from it by a circular line, which re- 
mains as long as the wood lafts. Every 
fucceeding year is diftinguilbcd in 
the fame manner ; fo that by cutting 
the tree on one fide, from the cir- 
cumference to the centre, and count-' 
ing thofe circles, you may afcertain 
its age. And one of the main quef- 
tions, arifjng in the confideration of 
this fubjeft, is, how are thefe annual 
additional circles of wood formed ? 
Are they formed by tlie filling and 
expanding of libres, which, too fmali 
for the obfervation of our fenfes, lie 
betv/een the bark and tlie tree ? or 
are they new fibres fnooting either 
from, below or from above ? It ap- 
pears, by examining the wounds of 
trees, that the wood being once fepa- 
rated, never heals up and grows to- 
gether. The new wood grows over, 
and covers the wound ; but the 
feparated vcftels never unite again : 
therefore, if the edge of a knife be 



Ohfervaiions on the groiL'th of trees donunn-vards after the firjl year. 4r 



p rifled tranfverfely through the bark 
half round a faphng, and thofe fup- 
pofed extreme fine vefTels were cut 
OfF, that fide of the tree ought to 
ceafe growing, and the buds above 
it pcrifli. But the faft is other- 
wife : for, cover the wound fo as 
the air may be prevented from car- 
rying off the moifture, which, when 
uncovered, flows from the wound, 
the buds above will grow nearly as 
well as if the wound was not made. 
To fuppofc that new vefl"els, formed 
at the root, afcend, and feeking the 
buds, by pafling round the incifion, 
immediately find them, is too ludi- 
crous an objedion to be ferioufly no- 
ticed. L^ us, then, conhdcr the 
buds which are formed in the bofom 
of ever}^ leaf. 

One of thofe buds, rended from 
its patent plant, and inferred in the 
bark of another tree of the fame ge- 
nus, will grow as well as if it had 
been continued where nature placed 
it, and become a complete tree. 
Here, at leall, there is a certainty, 
that there are no fibres calculated to 
fupport it, yet it will grow 5 and the 
whole tree, above the infertion in 
the {tock, thus fpringing from a fof- 
tcr-bud, is exaftly of the fame na- 
ture in all refpefts, and produces tiie 
fame fruit as the tree from which the 
bud was taken. This is the won- 
derful circumflance, which, though 
often attempted, has never been 
clearly accounted for. We fli all pro- 
ceed to enquire, then, how buds, in- 
fertcd in foreign ftocks, attain their 
growth. 

When a bud is brought into con- 
tact with the ftock, and the bark 
of the fl;ock pafled round and upon 
the bark laid in v/ith the bud, the 
fap very quickly forms a gum, 
which glues them together, and flops 
the mouths of thofe veflels which had 
been torn by fcparating the bark and 
bud from the parent tree. Whoever 
examines the faft, mufl: be convin- 
ced, that the bud, thus laid in, ne- 

Vol. III. No. I. 



ver has any further adherence to the 
fl:ock ; but remains, during the life 
of it, liable to be feparated from it 
by diflfolving that gum ; and, from 
this circumftance, t'ne fize and fhape 
of the wood, or bark, laid in with 
the bud, may be plainly difco\'ered 
many years after its infertion. Here 
the communica'tion between the fl:ock 
and the bud is deftroyed : for, if tlic 
fap penetrated this gum, it would 
diflTolve it, and the bud would fail 
oiF; and there can certainly no fibres 
be fent from t!'.e root to feed a bud, 
which nature had not placed there. 
Nothing but experiment could in- 
duce a belief, that a bud, thus fitu- 
ated, would grow, become a tree, 
bloflbm, ?.nd bear fruit. Let us fee 
how buds grow in the fituation af- 
figned them by nature. 

The largenefs of the bud, and tl;e 
freedom with which it flioots, ren- 
ders the peach-tree a proper fubjeft 
of this enquiry. Early in thefpring, 
when the bud firfl begins to fweil, 
we fiiall find one or more fibres 
(hooting from it downward. Thefe 
fibres are fo large, below the bud, as 
apparently to fwell the bark, and, on 
removing the bark, the fibres may be 
plainly feen by the naked eye. Who- 
ever carefully examines this faft, 
will fcarcely doubt that this is reallv 
the manner in which buds begin to 
grow. Inoculations having the fame 
power of fending out fibres from 
themfelves as buds, in their natural 
fituations, need no nourifhment from 
theftock on which they are fixed ; but 
it becomes the queflion, from whence 
is their nourifliment derived ? 

A curious yellow carnation, pre- 
fented to a gentleman at Lancalter, 
in the year 1778, being tranfplanted 
very early in the fpring, and the 
weather proving cold, he was oblig- 
ed to take it into the houfe, and 
keep it in a room where fire wr^skepr. 
Notwithftanding his utmcfl: care \r\: 
keeping the earth well watered, t]>e 
plant declined, the leaves became 
F 



42 



Notes on farming. 



foFt, and refted on tlie ear'th, and the 
plant fhewed ever}' fymptom of ap- 
proaching death. In this ftate, hav- 
ing bended twigs over the pot, he 
wet a thick tow-cloth, and threw 
over the plant, which formed a moift 
Htmofphere round it. In a few 
hours the leaves became ered, and 
elaitic, and within three days the 
whole plant aflumed th,e afpeft of 
perfect health. The roots had a fup- 
ply of mcillure, but it did not grow : 
the leaves were fupplied, and the 
plant inftantly flouriilied. 
(^Fo be coHtitmed). 



Notes 072 farming, by the hm. C. T. 

THE fuccefs of farming depends 
principally on the colk-dti ag 
manure, on a proper change of crops, 
and on good tillage, or plough- 
ing the ground properly, and keep- 
ing it clean,- on the choice and 
management of ftock, and on the 
care of the orchard and its produce. 
On thefe feveral articles, I fliall make 
fome notes, which are chiefly colleft- 
ed from mr. Young's farmer's tour 
through England, publifhed in 1771. 

I. Means for coUtcting manure, aud 
management of a farm-yard. 

Let the farm-yard be niade tole- 
rably large ; around it let there be 
flieds to Ibelter the cattle. The yard 
fliould be level, or rather hollow in 
the middle, that the oo/.e may not 
run off. Into this yard throw all 
vour draw, which is not ufed for 
bedding. But as this will not be 
fufficient, it will be well to mow 
ftubble, which is cut high, and cart 
it into the yard. All the rubbifn 
and weeds in the lanes, <ic. which 
fhculd be cut while green and before 
thev go to feed, fhould likewife be 
carted in. But above all, rake toge- 
ther the leaves in the woods, which 
may be loaded into carts with large 
halketj, and carry them into the 
yard. Thcfc being fprcad over the 



yard, will, by the cattle treading ort, 
them, and receiving their dung and 
urine all winter, be converted into 
as rich a manure as any in the 
world. 

When cattle are houfed, they 
(liould be bedded every night with 
ftraw or leaves up to their bellic?. 
This contributes to their health, and 
increafcs the dung. Let their ftalls 
be cleaned out once a week ; the heat 
of their bodies lying on the litter 
for that time, will begin and pro- 
mote a fermentation, by which it 
will be reduced to good manure. By 
this mean, for every horfe or cow 
kept in the flable during the winter, 
you may make at lead fifteen or fix- 
teen large loads of dung. This dung^ 
fhould, in tlie fpring, be carted out 
to a ftercorary, which fhould be pre- 
pared in the following manner. Firfl 
fpread a h'.yer of earth (the cleanf- 
ing of ditches, or earth fcraped up 
from the furface of the ground will 
anfwer for this) : then throw on a 
thick layer of dung, and then a 
layer of earth, and fo alternately a 
layer of dung and earth, but fo that 
the quantity of earth fliall not exceed 
one half the quantity of dung. By 
this means you will have twenty- 
three or twenty-four large loads of 
good manure for ever}' beaft, and 
this laid on in the fall will be a good 
drefling for an acre of land. 

In making the flercorary, the carts 
fhould not drive on the heap, as thi» 
would prcfs it too much, and prevent 
the fermentation, which is necelTary 
to render it good compoft. The 
loads may be fliot down by the heap, 
and thrown on with fhovels, &c. 

Great carefliould be taken to pre- 
ferve the urine and ooze from the 
yard and ftercorary. For this pur- 
pofe, fome careful farmers fink wells, 
tlie bottoms and fides of which are 
well cla}ed. To thefe the ooze is 
conducted, and when they are full, 
fome pump it up and throw it back 
upon the heap ; others cart it out and 



fprinkle it over die grafs. This laft 
is faid to be an excellent praftice. 

There is another praftice which 
turns to great account, as well for 
increasing the quantity of manure, 
as for feeding horfcs and cattle in 
the cheapeft niiiniier. Let a field of 
•red clever be fowed r\ear the farm- 
yard ; in the fecond year alter it is 
fown, it will be fit for cutting by the 
fecond week in Ma)'. Let your 
horfes and cattle be tiien kept in the 
yard, and clover cut and given to 
them in the liable, or in racks. It 
has been found by experience, that 
feven acres of clover will feed twen- 
ty horfes, fcven cows, live calves, 
and as many pigs, tor feven teen 
weeks. Suppofe the rate of keep- 
ing to l>e as follows ; - 
20 horfes, 17 weeks, at 

23. 6 J. per week, X* 4- 100 
7 cows, 17 weeks, at 

2s. 6d. ditto, 14 17 6 

J calves and 5 pigs, at 

IS. 6d. ditto, 6 76 



The amount will be, £.6$ 15 o 
which is gl. 23. id. per acre. Be- 
fides this, the quantity of dung is 
immsnfe where there is litter at com- 
mand ; and this is always the cafe 
where leaves can be gathered from 
the woods; for cattle fed on green, 
food, make much more urine in th" 
fummer. It has been eftimated, that 
four or five hundred loads of good 
dung may be made in the time men- 
tioned, from the above horfes and 
cattle. This, mixed with earth as 
before direfttd, v/ill produce upwards 
of fix hundred loads of manure, 
which would be a pretty good dreff- 
ing for thirty acres of land. 

It is to bg obferved, that a careful 
farmer fuffers noUiingto go to wa'te ; 
and therefore all the urine and offals 
from the houfe, and all the ordure 
from the neceffary, are carried and 
tlirown upon the ftercorary or farm- 
yard. 

la preparing a place for the fter- 



Nu/es on farming. 4 j 

corary, it may not be amifs firft to 
dig out the earth about two or three 
feet deep. In that cafe the bottom 
fliould be well rammed and clayed, to 
prevent the ooze from finking into 
the earth. The earth that is dugout, 
if of a loomy quality, or fandy mix- 
ed with loom, will ferve to mix with 
the dung ; fo that the labour of dig- 
ging the pit will not be loll. 

In order to iciix the earth and dung 
well together, the ftercorary lliould 
be turned at leail once in the fum- 
mer. For this purpofe, a fmall fpace 
fliould be left at one end ; then, bc?- 
ginning at that end, throw an equal 
fpace oi the compoil from top to bot- 
tom into that empty fpace, and {o 
proceed till the whole is well turned 
and mixed. The ftercorary (hould 
be kept moift, but not too wet, for 
though a moderate degree of m.oillurc 
promotes fermentation and putrefac- 
tion, yet too great a degree will pre- 
vent them. As our fummer fun is 
very warm, and exhalas too much 
of the moiftore, it will be well to 
cover the ftercorary with hurdles of 
leafy branches, or a thatched cover 
may be made over it. 

2. The change and courfc ofcv.ps. 

It is a common opinion and prac- 
tice of this country, that land Ihouid 
} ield a crop once in three years : this 
furely is bad farming, and what no- 
thing but the great quantity of land 
could warrant. In England, and 
throughout Europe, and indeed in 
ail the old fettled countries, where 
land is fcarce and rents high, it is 
abfolutely neccllary that a crop of 
fijme fort be raifed from the ground 
evrry year. And experience has 
evinced thc-t land will bear this, and 
tliat the goodnefs of the crop depends 
upon culture and manure, and a pro- 
per change of feeds. For though 
good land is of great importance, yet 
t'he fKiJl and induftry of the farmer, 
will, in a great degree, compenfate 
for the want of goodnefs in the {o\\ 
in its natural ftate : and it is found. 



44- 



Notes en farming. 



thst bv proper management, lands 
which are narurally poor, Iiave been 
brought to yield crops nearly as great 
a» rich lands, and much greater than 
rich lands ill managed. The man, 
therefore, to whofe lot it has fallen 
to polTefs lands naturally poor, iliould 
not be dlfcouraged, but rather iHmu- 
lated to exert his ^ibilities, and ^atw 
his fici'i in meliorating nature. 

A fucceflion of the fame fort of 
crops will fpeedily exhauft the beft 
lawd. For this reafon the fkilful 
farmer changes his crops almoit every 
year. The fucceflion molt approved, 
and which is pradifcd to great ad- 
vantage in Norfolk, one of the belt 
farming counties in England, is, 

1 Turnips, 

2 Barley, with cloverfeed, 

3 Clo\er, 

4 Wheat. 

Then turnip.'^, &c.in fuccefilon again. 
Some have had the third and fourth 
year clover, and the fifth wheat. 

Another courfe, which they find 
extremely beneficial, is, 

1 Turnips, 

2 Barley, 

3 Clover, two years, 

4 Buckwheat, 

5 Wheat ; then turnips, &-c. again. 
They plough four or five times for 

turnips, beginning in the fall. After 
the ploughing they leave t!ie ground 
unharrowed to receive the benefit of 
the winter frcfts. " They plough it 
again in the fpring, and having firll 
laid on the manure, tlicn they plough 
and harrovy' it again in May, and 
give it the lail ploughing and harrow- 
ing in June, when the feed is fown. 
Some pat on their manure juft be- 
fore the lalt ploughing. With refpeil 
to this, experience will be the bell 
dire(!tor. The turnips fiiould be 
fown in rows, or the feed drilled in 
with a drill plough. The turnips, 
while growing, fiiould be hoed twice. 
Of ploughed between the rows as is 
common for potatoes, and kept clear 
of v\ectls. 



The crop is fed off by cattle and 
fheep. Some feed them off as they 
grow, confining the cattle and fiicep 
by hurdles to an acre ; when th%t is 
eaten up, removing the hurdles and 
taking in auotlier acre, til! the whole 
is fed orf. Others purfue the fol- 
lowing method. They firit feed one 
piece, fuppofc an acre, by running a 
row of hurdles acrofs the field ; then, 
before they move the Ivurdles, they 
draw another acre, and cart lliem for 
the cattle to the acre eating off, and 
fo on throughout the field, alwa}s 
carting die crop from the land where 
it grows, to the part lall cleared. If 
the produce is large, and cattle are 
turned in, they fpoil as much as they 
cat ; but when turnips are laid clear 
above the foil, and the earth partly 
iliaken off, they eat tliem up clean. 

For barley, they commonly plough 
three times, but fomc four times; 
twice in the fall, leaving the laft 
plouirhins: unharrov.cd to receive the 
bencf.i of the winter frofls .: the other 
ploughing or ploughings they give 
in the winter or fpring. With us, 
as our winters are generally fcvere, 
three, or .cvtn two ploughings, will 
do ; one or tv/o in the fall, and one 
in the fpring. They fow four bufhels 
of feed to the acre, and get from/ 
thirty-tvvo to forty bufhels in return. - 
This feems a large quantity of feed ; 
however, experience will fhcw, whe- 
ther the quantit)- commonly fown in 
this country, wliich is ufually not 
more than two bufhels, or that fown 
in Norfolk, io bcfl. And for this 
purpofe, it will be well to try differ- 
ent quantities on the fame field, and 
note the -difference, and then follow 
that which anfwers bell. 

After the barley is fown and har- 
rowed, they then fow the clover feed, 
eight (»r ten pounds of feed to the 
acre, and then roll the ground with 
a large wooden roller, which prelles 
in the feeds and breaks the clods. In 
this country, fomp defer fowing the 
clever till t.he barley is off. The laud 



Method of making pot-ajh. 



4? 



is then ploughed and well harrowed, 
and fovvii with clover feed, eight or 
ten pounds to the acre, and then 
rolled. Some recommend the fow- 
ing buckwheat, before the Lift har- 
roy/ing, and then to fow and roll in 
the clover feed. The buckwheat, 
ihcy obferve, flielters the young clo- 
ver from the fun, and keeps down 
weeds and other grafs. But in this 
cafe the buckwheat fhould be fown 
very thin. The mowing or cutting 
it in the fall, will not injure theclo- 
Ter. Both wayo may be tried. 

.•*-<^>^g><S>"«— 

Mclh-jd of making put-ajh as praBifed in 
Hungarj, and Poland. 

N Hungary and Poland, the ma- 
nufadure of pot-aflics is carried 
on in the woods. The buildings ne- 
ceflary are only wooden iheds, {light- 
ly built up, and contrived fo as to be 
taken to pieces, and carried from one 
fureft to another. 

The nioft proper wood is the oak, 
bearing acorns, of which they pick 
the belt trees, one of which will ren- 
der five kettles, or about twelve and 
a half bufhels of pot afhes, the quan- 
tity requifite for making lOo wt. 
They find a very great ditference in 
the nature of the wood in different 
forefts, that of Tjagadoru and Ca- 
niila yielding double the quantity 
of iixivious fait that can be had 
out of the wood of the forefts 
near Epires, under the Carpathian 
mountains. Too much attention 
cannot be had to the choice of pron-:r 
wood, thou;;h to fame people its 
importance may not appear at firft 
view. 

When the wood is felled, and cut 
into billets, it is burnt in a large 
hearth, under fliade, to prevent the 
rain from fpoilliig the afhes, which 
mull be kept dry, three, four, or fix 



months, before they are lixiviated ; 
for experience fliews, that they pro- 
duce more falts, when kept a cer- 
tain time, than when immediately 
ufed. Care muft be taken to keep 
Ithem free from dirt. 

To lixiviate, or draw the falts out 
pf the allies, they ufc a number of 
.calks, not unlike French hoglheads, 
according to the extent and largencfs 
of their v/orks. The calks are about 
two feet ten inches high : they have 
a double bottom, the uppermoft of 
which is placed ten inches above the 
lowermoft ; it is perforated with 
holes, and the lowermoft has one 
hole for the lie to drop gently 
through into a trough : the fpace be- 
tween the two bottoms is filled with 
ftraw ; twelve or fixteen of thcfe 
calks being ranged in a row upon a 
trough, are filled with afhes, and by 
means of a canal or gutter laid ujion 
the calks with a hole correfponding 
to each gf them, water is conveyed 
into them from a pump : this water 
palfrng through the allies, carries 
their falts along with it ; as long a» 
it is of a brownifli or reddifh colour 
they let it run through ; but when 
no longer difcoloured, they flop. 
The lie thus procured not being 
ftrong enough by paffing through the 
afhes once, muft be poured upon afe- 
cond or third cafli, 'till it is ib flrong 
that an egg will fwira in it ; howe- 
ver it mult l)e obfervcd, that there is 
a danger in making it too flrong. 

When the lie is thus procured, 
they proceed to evaporate tjie watry 
particles from it by ebullition ; this 
they call making blackpot-afnes. For 
this ptupofc they ufe iron pans, much 
like thofe ufed in making fait : tliey 
are about four feet diameter above, 
and near three feet deep ; between a 
pair of them they have a brafs boiler, 
fomewhat fmaller than the iron pots ; 
they are fixed in mafonry like a fugar 
baker's row of pans with a fire-place 
below them, aiid an open chimney 



4^o 



Method of making pot-ajljcs. 



to c;irry ofF the fteam. They ufe, 
according to the largenefs of the 
■works, three, fix, nine, or twelve 
pans and boilers, in a work. Siip- 
pofe tlvn^work onlv tuo iron pots 
and :i brafs boiler, they begin by fil- 
ling one pan and the boiler with lie, 
and then making fire : in proportion 
as tlie lie evaporates and diminiflies 
in tlie iron pan, it is fuppiied from 
the brafs boiler, which is fuppiied 
with cold lie. When the firu pot is 
boiled ten cr eleven hours, they fill 
the ftcond, and fupply it continually 
/fom the boiler in t!ie fime manner 
as the lirli was : the firil pan is itill 
fuppiied with boiling He from the 
boiler 'till the phlegm is entirely 
evaporated: they then Hop putting 
lie to it : but, continuing the fire, 
the mafs becomes thick and hard, 
and is what is called black pot-alhes. 
When it is cold, it is cut into pieces 
and taken out, aiid frePn lie is put 
into tlie pan, and the operation con- 
tinued as mentioned above. Wke:i 
tise firft pan is evaporated, the fecond 
is only half evaporated ; fo the v/crh 
is never difcontinued during a week, 
in which time two men, relieving 
one another, make about fe\'«nteen 
hundred weight. 

The procefs of calcining the black 
I'-ot-aihes, rendering them of a fine 
whitilh blue colour, and able to ftand 
the v/eather without running into a' 
liquid, is performed in an oblong 
kind of a furnace, in the midit of 
which there is a hearth fbmewhat 
raifed with a border of bricks to pre- 
vent the pot-afhes from falling into 
tJte fire durin.g calcination. 1 he fire 
is made on each fide of the hearth : 
there is a door to the hearth, through 
which the black pot-aflies are put in- 
to the furnace, and a door on each 
fide of it to put in wood to the fire : 
the furnace is arched over, and there 
are three holes in the front part, to 
sivevent to the fmoke and vapours. 



The proportion is as follows ; The 
length of the furnace fifteen feet ; 
the breadth twelveandahalf feet, in- 
cluding the hearth and fire places ; 
viz. the hearth eight and a half feet ; 
the tvp^o fire places four feet ; the 
height of the arch, from the hearth, 
three feet, ail within the vvalls. 
When a fufHcient quantity of black 
pot-a(hes are ready, thev begin to 
calcine, and make it a rule never to 
let the furnace cool, till they have 
finifhed the whole. The black pot- 
aihes arc broke into lumps the fize of 
a man's nil, and fpread upon the 
henrth, after which the iron door is 
fiiut, and a geiille fire is made, and 
care taken to hinder the afhes from 
running and vitrifying, which a 
firong heat would occaiion. When 
they grow red hot, they are ftirred 
with an iron rake that they may cal- 
cine equally : when they begin to 
whiten, the flames bec^cmc bright, 
and the lire is increafed to the great- 
eft degree. "VVhen they want to 
know if tliey are enough calcined, 
they take a lump out, and if is white 
in the infide, they are done. The 
door of the hearth is always kept 
flint, except when they are flirring 
the pot-afhes : and in order to ob- 
ferve (he progrefs of the calcination, 
they have a fmall hole in the iron 
door of the hearth to look in at. 
When the calcination is finilhed, 
they rake out the pot-aflies upon a 
pavement before the furnace : they 
are packed up in calks of fifteen to 
feventeen hundred weight. When 
the furnace has cooled a little, they 
pat in more pot-a'hes to calcine, and 
by relieving the workmen, continue 
calcining "till all the black pot-afhes 
are done. Four men and a boy, con- 
ftantly employed, make about forty 
to forty-two tons of calcined pot- 
ailies in a year, all the operations 
included, if the work is carried on, 
and rightly underftood. 



ThoTfghts on the auiure of hemp. 



4r 



'thought! ON the culture cf hcrnp. — 
Fiibhjhtd by ord:r of the Bofjn 
committee fr promoting agri:uli nrc. 

IN the remote part of the Ruman 
empire, the farmer doth afford his 
hemp at fo cheap a rate, as to allow 
of a tranfponation of many hundred 
miles by land, to Riga, Peterf- 
biirgh. Archangel, and other ports, 
and from thence, (sftcr duties and 
other charges paid] fome hundrt'd 
leagues to the fouthern parts of 
Europe ; and with an addition of 
charge, from thence, of not lefs than 
I GOO leagues, to America. This 
being dulv confidered by th.e Ameri- 
can farmers, who are generally upon 
a much better foil, and in a much hap- 
pier climate, v,'illbe a means of con- 
vincing thorn, that notwithltanding 
the fuppofed dilference in the price 
of labour, they may produce hemp 
with profit, fince it may be tranfport- 
cd to market with a light charge, 
free of duty, and vendible for caih, 
at more than feven times the price it 
coft at the place of its growth in 
Ruflia. Should it be faid, the Rufiian 
farmer gets but li;fle for his labour, 
yet it is to be prcfumed the Ameri- 
can mull grow rich by his; and it 
isexpefted with good reafon, that a 
few years experience will convince 
him thereof. 

The molt proper time for fowing 
the feed cannot be fixed, as not only 
the climate, but even thefituation of 
the land, wherein it is to be fowed, 
is to be confidered — whetlier it be 
high and warm land, or more low, 
and ey.pofed to wet, if fowed too ear- 
ly : fome hemp-growers in Maffachu- 
fetts have, for the moft part, fowed 
about the lame time they planted 
their Indian com ; others are of opi- 
nion, that as early in the fpring, as 
the ground can be got ready, is 
moft advifeable ; and this will be 
much earlier in fome of the dates 
than in otiiers. Hemp is of quick 



growth, and may feafonably srrirs 
at maturit)', though not {owz^ till 
the middle of May. But however 
the farmer may judge as to the fea- 
fon, let him be very cautious as ta 
the goodnefs of the feed : an impofi- 
tion muft render fruitlefs the labour 
of the year. He is therefore to chufe 
fuch {ttdi (of the lad year's growth 
only) as appears fiefh, firm, ani 
bright, to be proved by rubbing it 
between his hands ; if it fuller this 
without breaking, and is made much 
brighter, it may be called good ; but 
if it be bro'vcn and made dufty by 
rubbing, it m'Jil be judged unfit for 
the farmer's ute. (3f good fred, the 
quantity to ht nfcd is according tJ 
the method iifed in fo«-ing it. In 
the drill hulbandry method (which 
the experience of fome foreign coun- 
tries, a i<:\w years fince practifed up- 
on in Great Britain, and of la re i« 
America, has proved to be the bcS: 
for raifing of hemp, and therefore 
defervcsthe attention of every farm- 
er) one bufnei and an half of lecd to 
an acre is fufficient : in the com- 
mon hufbandry, not hfs than three 
bufhels are ufually fowed ; and fome- 
times more, according to the ricii- 
nefb or poverty of the foil. In fow- 
ing, great care and judgment rnould 
be ufed, that it be not fowed too 
thick nor too tliin ; by the one, the 
crop will be hurt by its lodging ; by 
the other, the bunn or ilravy will in- 
creafe, and the hearlc or coat be too 
thin. 

The preparation of the foil in the 
drill way of fowing hemp-feed is the 
fame as in the common way. Ths 
feed muft be planted in double rows, 
with ten or twelve inches partitions, 
and withini:erv^Is,for toe hoe-plough, 
from three to four feet broad, as the 
foil m.ay be more or lefs rich ; the 
richer the foil, the narrower may be 
the intervals. The feed muH be 
planted and covered very fhallow, 
and is not fafe in eeneral, if covered 
deeper taan aoout hait an sncn, vn- 



Mode of breaking Jletrs.— ^Method of makingjieet. 



4S 

lefs in very light foils, in which it 
may grow at one inch depth. This 
is recommended as the method of 
cultivating hemp to the greateft ad- 
vantage, for it fupplics the plants 
with frefli nouriiliment during their 
growth, and the filling the ftalks, and 
the goodnefs of the coat depends 
much upon fuch fupplies, which it 
cannot have in the common way. A 
plant raifed in this method is often 
worth four plants raifed in the other. 
If hemp produced in the common 
way will yield the farmer fuch a pro (it 
as he is fatislied with, in the drill 
plough method, he may exped to 
erow rich. 



Mode of breaking filters to the draft in a 
fc^M days. 

LET the farmer carefully yoke 
his Iteers in a clofe yard or ita- 
blc, and not m.ove them till they get 
faSiciently accuftomed to the yoke, 
fo that thev will eat their food, when 
yoked ; which will be in the courfe 
of a day. Let them again be yoked 
the fjcond day, and a pair of gentle 
horfea or oxen be fallcned before 
them, in which ftation let them 
(land, until they become familiar 
with faid horfes or oxen, which will 
generally be effeded in one day, ex- 
cepting the fteers (hould be uncom- 
monly wild, which will occafion a 
fecond day's pradice, after the fame 
manner ; and the next day, the fteers 
may be yok^, the horfes or oxen 
put before them as ufual, and let 
them be fattened to a wagon or any 
other carriage ; they fearing the car- 
riage behind them, and being accuf- 
tomed to the old oxen before, they 
will proceed forward without being 
whipped or bruifed. By the above 
procefs the farmer will li.evcr fail of 
fuccefs in having good working ox- 
en. 

A FARMER. 
Novemher lo, 1 7 3 7 . 



Method of making feel. 



Q' 



' TEEL may be made by fufion or 
O cementation ; for the latter way, 
choofe the beft forged iron, or that 
which is moft malleable, and impreg- 
nate it with a large portion of inflam- 
mable matter. Fir ft forge your iron 
into fmall bars ; then take one part of 
powdered charcoal, and half a part 
of wood aflies, and mix them toge- 
ther ; or take two parts of charcoal, 
moderately powdered, one part of 
bones, horns, hair, or Ikins of ani- 
mals, burnt in a clofe kettle to black- 
nefs, powder them with half as m.uch 
wood aft\es in weight, and mix them 
together ; then let a cylindrical veffel 
be conftrufted with fire brick, like a 
very large crucible, and place the 
bars of iron therein, in a perpendicu- 
lar pofition ; firft having ftrewed the 
bottom over with the cementing ma- 
terials an inch thick ; then let the 
bars be placed an inch apart, and an 
inch from the fides of the crucible ; 
fill u[> the interftices with the ce- 
menting mixture, two inches abo-.e 
the ends of the bars of iron ; tluMi 
cover the crucible with a lid that 
will ftand fire, and lute it on with 
clay and fand ; then kindle un a 
fmart fire, and keep the crucible red 
hot for eight or ten hours. This 
will convert the iron into fteel. 

To temper the fteel, give it a red 
hot heat, then plunge it fuddenly in- 
to clean cold water. This changes 
the quality of the fteel in an inftaut, 
from being a verv dudile and foit, 
into a hard and ftiff fubftance, fo 
that the file will n-;:: cut it. Th(* 
hotter the fteel, and the colder the 
water into which the fteel is plunged, 
the harder the fteel will be. The 
f^ime fteel that has juft been temper- 
ed, may be untempered by heating it," 
and letting it cool moderately. 

Various mixtures are ufed for tem- 
pering fteel, fuch as fuet, oil, urine, 
water impregnated with foot, wiUi 
fal ammoniac, ;iQd other fait;. 



A recipe for an infol'vent debtor. 



49 



Steel may be turned into iron by 
sementing it with calcareous earths, 
and quick-lime. 

A recipe for an infolvent debtor. 

THE man who wifhes to obtain 
this honourable redemption 
from the troablefome obligations of 
law and confcience, in conformity to 
the ruling fpirit of the day, would 
do well in the firil inllance, to take 
fafe counfel on the fubjeft. It is not 
neceffary, I prefume, to go to gen- 
tlemen learned in the law. He had 
better go to fome of his experienced 
neighbours — they can teach him bet- 
ter than fcience can, the complicated 
liruggles of grace and nature, which 
colour the hiitory of the builnefs, and 
efpecially the feveral procelfcs which 
are rcquifite in the working of 
this political falvation. He mull 
then call about to fee how he can 
moil fafely difpofe of his lands and 
chatties. His family are the fittell, 
and the moll natural objefts of his 
gifts. He can befides have more 
confidence in them than in llrangers, 
that after the tranfaftions are over, 
they will return what he has given 
them — a fmall and perhaps the molt 
miferable remnant of his eftate, I 
would advife him to referve for his 
creditors. It will at leaft fave ap- 
pearances ; and appearances (even 
thofe which are pretty thin too) are 
all that are required by the falhioiia- 
ble habits of the times. He muft 
then contraft large debts to his fami- 
ly, revive old continental tranfac- 
tions, and give generous bonds for 
the payment of the immenfe fums 
which his fons and daughters or pa- 
rents and kinfmen had lent him in 
the days of his profperity. If un- 
luckily he has no fuch connexions, he 
muft then hunt up neighbours and 
ftrangers on whom he can bellow 
bis obligations ; I would advife him 
Vol. III. No. I. 



to be vety careful that his new con- 
trads exceed three fourths of all his 
former, and for fear that his memo- 
ry may not ferve him with accuracy, 
he had better err on the fafe fide, and 
extsnd his new contrails beyond all 
poffible bounds of miftake. It is a 
good maxim to do bufinefs tho- 
roughly, when we undertake it, and 
though fome patriots are for dying 
in the laft ditch, it is certainly better 
not to perilh at all. The moft ma- 
terial point remains, and that is the 
fwearing part of the bufinefs. It 
ought therefore to be the great objsdfl 
and ftudy of the infolvent. He mull 
keep his confcience in perfeft fubor- 
dination, or he will afl'uredly fall. 
He fliould read the compofitions of 
the jefuits, he fnould court the in- 
toxication and pleafure, he fliould 
fummoa up the magnanimity of a 
finner, and by fuch wholefome 
ways and means, endeavour to ftifle 
and fubdue the latlgafp and llruggles 
of mortal fenfation. 

The fwearing part of the comedy 
I trull will therefore be found on ex- 
periment to be the eafieft of the 
whole. If a man gives all his pro- 
perty away, he then can fafely fwear 
he has none ; and that his inventory is 
juft. If he gives a well drawn bond 
to another, that man can as fafely fwear 
that he has owing to him a bona fide 
debt. It is owing according to the 
forms of the law, and the bond, it is 
clear, was bona fide given for the pur- 
pofe it was intended ; he may further 
confider that even an oath is nothing 
in our days, but the form of law, 
whatever it might have been in the 
days of ourfuperftitious anceftors, or 
whatever it might have been in the 
days of the old pagan Romans, who 
were weak enough to cultivate a re- 
verence for an oath, as the fureft 
j)ledge of civil obedience and of mi- 
litary difcipHne. 

Tlie legillatures of our wifer days 
have multiplied oaths till they have 
deftroyed their efficacy, and have ic 



60 



Letter OH fntiniage. 



faft only required a certain fet of 
words to be uttered before a certain 
magiftrate, in order to make A-alid a 
certain fpecies of bargains. Thefe 
bargains we all know are intended to 
keep property in families, and pre- 
vent the rude intcrpofition of credi- 
tors. If then the infolvent and his 
new aflbciates comply with that 
form, they anfwer the law, and in- 
deed their confciences t«o, for St. 
Paul inculcates obedience to the 
civil powers as the primary duty of 
the fubjeft. 

The infolvent is now by this time 
jipe for his difcharge, and to that 
end he mull be careful to notify the 
public through the channel of the 
nev/fpaper, of the time and place of 
his difcharge. He then attends and 
receives from the venerable hand of 
juftice, the pardon of his pad follies, 
deliverance from the hands of _ his 
enemies, and an open entrance into 
the bright profpefts of peace and 
happinefs, in the enjoyment of that 
properly which he is to receive ihort- 
ly from the unexampled generofity of 
his friends. If thefe dircdions are 
carefully attended to, and a little 
more time and experience added to 
the falutary praftice, we may fhortly 
expeft to fee every man able to con- 
duft this bufinefs forhimfelf; and, 
whenever he finds it convenient, to 
rid himfelf at once of all his debts 
as well as all the other obligations of 
law and gofpel. 

From the American Magazine. 

Letter on marriage. 

To the editor. 

FIVE years have elapfed, fince 
I was enrolled in the lift of 
nvarried men ; and although very 
fortunate in my connexion, and ex- 
tremely happy, yet I flatter myfelf 



I have reflexion enough to attend 
to all the inconvenicncies, as well 
as the pleafures of the married life. 
I am confident therefore that the fol- 
lowing remarks do not proceed from 
the impulfe of a blind paffion, but 
from a difpaffionate view of fafts. 

I fhall but repeat a hackneyed 
obfervation, when I fay that luxury" 
tends to difcourage early marriages; 
but the application of this remark to 
our own country, may be ufeful to 
the young of both fexes. 

It has been the misfortune of the 
united ftates, that a paffion for ex- 
penfive living has increafed fafter 
than the means of fupporting it. 
The people of any country fhould 
live in fuch a ftyle, that they can 
in the ordinary courfe of bufinefs, 
fupport themfelves in this ftyle, and 
make a clear favinj of profits. If 
men in general, cannot, with ordi- 
nary application and oeconomy, 
maintain themfelves and families 
in the cuftomary ftyle of living, 
and make clear profit, either the 
balance of trade mull be much a- 
gainft that country, or the manners 
of its inhabitants too expenfive. 
Perhaps both are true of thefe ftates. 
That the balance of trade is againft 
us, is certain ; and if our bufinefs will 
not fupport the cuftomary expences 
of living, and leave a profit, our 
manners Ihould be reduced within 
narrower limits. The bufinefs of 
every country ftiould regulate the 
manners of its inhabitants : The 
praftice of borrowing the manners of 
other nations, is as abfurd as to 
tranfplant ^the orange tree into Ca- 
nada. 

That we are too rapid in our ad- 
vances to refinement in living, is 
unqueftionably true. We labour 
hard to imitate the falbions of the 
richeft commercial nation in Europe, 
while our bufinefs is clogged with 
more embarraflinents, than the trade 
of any free nation on earth. Our 
pride obliges us to load ourfelves witk 



t>ire8ions to conduit a neiuf paper difpule. 



51 



%a thoafand expenfivc and unneceffary 
articles, which ferve as badges of 
fplendid poverty. 

Although I regret that this is the 
prevailing tatte or my countrymen, I 
kment ftill more the unhappy efFefts 
of it in multiplying the number of 
bachelors and maids ; yet I cannot 
juftify all the fears of my male 
friends, who are deterred from en- 
gaging in matrimony by the difficul- 
' ty of gaining a genteel fubfiftence. 
The expence of a family is conlide- 
rable ; but fo is the expence of a fm- 
gle life ; and notwithftanding there 
are many ladies, who would nelp to 
fquander away the hard-earned pro- 
fits of induftry, yet there are many, 
too, who would aflift in preferving 
them, and in accumulating an eftite. 

It is a juft remark, that it is more 
difficult to keep money than to earn 
it : and whatever be the caufe, few 
bachelors ever acquire the art of 
keeping, or oeconomifmg the profits 
of their labour ; and hence the vul- 
gar remark that bachelors feldom 
get rich. A fingle man, afide of 
heavy expences and contingencies, 
muft neceffarily pay a thoufand fraall 
fums in the courfe of a year, which 
would be faved in a family, A wo- 
man of any underftanding will al- 
ways contraft her expences, within 
her hufband's income, provided fhe 
knows what that income is. I have 
no doubt many men •deceive their 
wives in this article, and when they 
fall in arrears, lay all the blame to 
their extravagance. Such a conduft 
is equally mean and criminal. 

For my own part, I once indulg- 
ed the fame apprehenfions of the 
expenfivenefs of a married life, and 
doubted my abilities to fupport it. 
But in the fafcination of love, I ven- 
tured to try the experiment, and 
have yet no caufe to repent of my 
rafhncfs. Either I earn more money 
by a more diligent attention to bu- 
finefs, or I fpend lefs in ufelefs 
amufements. or my partner is a bet- 



ter oEConomift, than I was when a ba- 
chelor. Whatever may be the rea- 
fon, I find fubfiftence as cafy as be- 
fore; and I flatter myfelf have added 
to thefum of focial felicity. 

The merit of the American ladies 
is univerfally acknowll^dgcd — ani 
all objcdlions to matrimony, arifing 
from an apprehenfionof the expence, 
will be removed as foon as a man is 
heartily in love. I recommend to all 
}"oijng men to be indultrious, and to 
all of 25 years of age, to run the 
hazard of being as happy, as your 
humble fervant, 

PHILANDER. 

Av-zv Vori, December 17, 1787. 

D'treilions to conduSl a ne%vfpaper dij- 
pute, according to the mcjt approved 
method no'Vi in pradice. 

Article I. 

SUPPLY yourfcff with all politi- 
cal, polemical, controverfial,and 
hypercritical authors, and arrange 
them before you. 

II. If you quote any of thcfe au- 
thors, be fure to omit the fign of 
quotation. It will then carry all the 
marks of originality, 

III. If you infert the fign of quo- 
tation, at the bottom of the paflage 
quoted, write in Italics : — according 
to the biji of Try recolle£lim ; — and 
as your recolleiSlion cannot be fuppof- 
ed infallible, you may, with a good 
face, (by changing an affirmative 
into a negative term, and vice verfa) 
pervert the fenfe of the author in fa- 
vour of your argument. Thus, truth 
becomes a lie by prefixing the little 
negative tin, and in a thoufand other 
wa)'s, as may eafily be learned by 
looking into the commentaries, and 
mifcellaneous produftions of the 
great cif-atlantic Elackftone. 

IV. Authors generally writa in a 
train, and one argument fupportsan- 



5^ 



Dircdhm to coudufi a ncirf paper difpute. 



other like the links of a chain : 
now, in quotation, you may eafily 
turn any author to year ufe, if you 
are careful to take out a link without 
the one which fupports it, and here 
too, never trouble yourfelf with 
fmall words, for I will warrant you, 
no one will give himfelf the pain to 
follow you to the paffage quoted, 

V. If your piece is of a public na- 
ture, intereiHnp- to each fex, and e- 
very denomination, place at the top 
a long frontifpiece in Latin ; but 
be fure not to tranflate it, for as it 
flands, thpre are many hidden truths 
in it. 

VI. Surcharge your piece well 
with the names of Coke, Sydney, 
Locke, Hale, and Blackftone ; talk 
of Lycurgus, Solon, and Draco, as 
though you had been their contemp®- 
raries : let all your comparifons, fi- 
milies and allegories be i^ublime, and 
on an extenfive fcale. Comparifons 
from the planetary and philofophi- 
cal v/orld, when applied to common 
life, have a molt happy elucidation ; 
they not only difcover your learning, 
but are beft fuited to vulgar capaci- 
ty ; for thofe who cannot underftand, 
will adore the incomprehenfibility of 
your genius. 

VII. If you find yourfelf grow- 
ing obfcure, thruft in a laconic fen- 
tence from the dailies ; nothing elu- 
cidates like it. At the conclufion, 
do not difgrace your piece with a 
fignature in any modern language ; 
let it reft on a Grecian or Roman 
pillar ; an ArilHdes, Epaminondas, 
Lycurgus, Solon, Hortenfius, Sempro- 
nius, or Brutus. 

VIII. If your difpute is of a pri- 
vate or perfonal nature, throw no 
daggers in the dark ; it is Indianifh. 
The innocent and unconcerned, by 
ihcfe means, may fall a viftim to your 
envenomed arrows. Make no prof- 
fers of private fettleinent ; this be- 
longs to your antagonill ; but bring 
him to a public tribunal. Here the 
merit of your difpute will depend on 



the authority of your evidence, whei^ 
the dead are fometimes called forth 
to aflert : but there are certain laws 
eftabliflied to conduit a private dif- 
pute. 

IX. Arrange your books as dired- 
ed in article firft. Now, as )'ou are 
not to quote a whole paragraph, but 
a fentence here and tliere, let them 
be diffufive authors, all treatifes on 
the pallions, and above all, the newf- 
papers ; here you will find an inex- 
hauftlble fund for flander and defa- 
mation, which you know is to per- 
vade your whole piece. 

X. Mingle in your ink three 
quarters gall : this being analogous 
to your mind, muft adl in concert 
with it, and prove a moft potent 
ally. 

XI. Read over one of the pieces 
of your antagonill, no matter which, 
for you are not to anfwcr any, but 
to rail, defame, and vilify. Befides, 
were you to try to trace his argu- 
ments, yourpalfions might cool, and 
fo lofe the whole life and fupport of 
your piece. 

XII. Above, in capitals, place 
your antagonilt's name ; at the be- 
ginning of avery fentence, turn your 
eye upon it ; this will fuggeft proper 
ideas, and rancour will flow through 
the whole. 

XIII. After you have finllhed your 
piece, and found it the didates of 
paifion, flander, and revenge, you 
will feel pleafing emotions, and then 
you may venture to write your intro- 
duction. In this affert, that the lies 
and mifreprefentations of your an- 
tagonift, have moved you to be im- 
partial, and perhaps rigidly fevere. 
If you have ever difcovered any marks 
of benevolence, generofity, or public 
fpirit, do not forget to mention 
them ; they will prepare your readers 
to fwallow the whole gorge, and keep 
it down till they have read your an- 
tagonill. 

Odober 8, 1787. 



5ome acconnt of the opojfam, l^s. 



"V Some acceutit of the op-fffum, 

THE human mind, pleafed with 
contemplating the various ope- 
rations and phenomena of nature 
that perpetually furround us, is often 
at a lofs on which to fix its attention. 
The animal world opens an iuimenfe 
avenue to real information and fps- 
culative enquiry, not only with rtf- 
pefit to the ftrufture and ceconomy 
that generally prevails, but the di- 
verfity we obferve in particular fpe- 
cies. 

Nothing has more efpecially en- 
gaged the attention of the learned, 
than the peculiarities of the op^ffum. 
The anatomy of this animal is not 
only generally unknown in a country 
of which it is a native, but very chi- 
merical ideas have been formed, ref- 
pefting the adhefion of the foetus in 
a very early ftate to the mamm*. 
Many, from fuperficial infpedtion, 
have been induced to believe the ufual 
generative organs in this fpecies are 
either deficient, or, what is more ab- 
furd, entirely unneceffary : but from 
diffeftion we find that nature has been 
uncommonly provident in this in- 
ftance. There are a double fet of 
ovaria, two uteri and ^agin^s : and 
the appearance that deceives, is, that 
the time of geftation in this animal is 
not fufficiently long to exclude the 
young in as perfeiit a ftate as many 
others, fo that a provifion is made 
for their future increment, and great- 
er ftate ofperfeftion after thcirexclu- 
fion, by an adhefion to the mammre : 
nor is this the only fecurity they 
have ; when they are large enough 
to leave their firft habitation, t!iey 
are defended from danger by a falfe 
facie, fupported by a bone wifely 
contrived to facilitate the different 
motions necefiary for the reception 
and exit of the j'oung. 

Peterjhurgh, DiC. 13, 17^7* 



53 

Extra fi of a letter from Cadxvallader 
Colde?!, efi. to dr. Fothergill, con- 
cerning the throat dif.empcr. 

CoIdenham,(N. York,) Ocl.l, 17^3. 

6'7>. 

BEFORE I proceed in giving 
an account of the throat dif- 
temper, it is proper to tell you, that 
I ha\'e not had opportunities for ob. 
ferving all the appearances which it 
has made. I have feen it only in 
my own family, and in a few neigh- 
bours in the country, to whom I 
fometimes give advice, when they 
cannot obtain aftiftance otherwife : 
having entirely laid afide the praftice 
of phyfic upwards of twenty years. 
What I chiefly learned was from the 
late dr. Douglafs.of Boilon, a gen- 
tleman of great flcill in medicine, and 
an accurate ohferver, having corre- 
fponded with him, while this dif- 
temper was frequent in the part of 
tlic country where I live. 

The firft appearance of the throat 
diftemper was at Kingfton, an inland 
town of New England, about tli^ 
year 1735 ; and as thi^ town has no 
foreign trade, it may be concluded 
that the difeafe was not imported. 

It fpread from thence, and moved 
gradually weftward, fo that it did 
not reach Hudfon's river till near 
two years afterwards. It continued 
fome time on tlie eaft fide of Hud- 
fon's river, before it paftl-d to the 
weft, and appeared firft in thofsi 
places to which the people of Nev^r 
England chiefly reforted for trade, 
and in the places through which they 
travelled. 

It continued to move wefterly, till, 
I believe, it has at laft fpread over 
all the Britifh colonies on the con- 
tinent. 

Though what I have mentioned 
feems evidently to (hew, that this 
difeafe was propagated by infeftion, 
yet it did not fpread in the fame man- 
ner contagious diftempers ufualiy do : 
forciuldrea and young people wera 



Letter oh the throat'iijiemper 



64 

only fubjecl to it, with a few ex- 
ceptions oi fome above twenty or 
thirty, and a very few old people, 
who died of it. Neither did it 
fprcad equally to all places, that were 
equally expofed to the infection. 
I'hc poorer fort of people were more 
liable to iia>.e this difeafe than thofe 
who lived well, with all the conve- 
nienciesof life. It has been more 
fatal in the country than in great 
towns. People of a fcorbutic habit 
were moft fubjedt to it, and they who 
fed on pork, or lived on wet and lo\v 
grounds. In fome places, only a few 
perfons or families were feized, 
while, in others, all efcaped. In 
fome families, it pafled like a plague 
through all their children ; in others, 
only one or two were feized with it. 
Some were feized with it at fuch a 
tliflance from the infe^led, that it 
could not be conceived in what man- 
ner they could receive the difeafe by 
infeftion. Some families had the 
difeafe mildly, while others, in the 
fame place, and at the fame time, 
had a moil violent fort. 

Ever fince it came into the part of 
the country where I live (now about 
fourteen years) it frequently breaks 
out in different families and places, 
without any previous obfervable 
caufe ; but does not fpread as it did 
at firft. Sometimes a itw only have 
it in a confiderable neighbourhood. 
It feems as if fome feeds, or leven, or 
fecret caufe remains.wherever it goes : 
for I hear of the like obfervations in 
other parts of the country. Several 
have been obferved to have had it 
more than once. 

The feeds of this diftemper fecm 
to be hatching, in the humours of the 
body, before any )iarticular fymp- 
toms of it appear ; for children have 
been obferved to languifh, for fome 
time, before the difeafe manifefted 
itfelf ; and a corrofive humour bred 
in their ilTues, or in other fores, when 
they had any, and any conftitutional 
ails were fometimes revived. When 



the diftemper becomes obvious, it has 
the common fymptoms attending a 
fever, except that a naufea, orvomit- 
ing are fcldom obferved to accoinpa- 
ny it. It is attended with a m.oilt 
putrid heat, the Ikin being feldom 
parched. The pulfe is ufually low, 
but frequent and irregular : the 
countenance dejected, with lownefs 
of fpirits : no confiderable thirlt ; 
the tongue much furred, and ths 
furring fometimes extends all over 
the tonfils, as far as the eye can reach. 
At other times, in the milder kind, 
the tonfiis appear only fwelled, with 
white fpecks of about a quarter of 
an inch, or half an inch diameter, 
which are thrown off, from time to 
time, in tough cream coloured 
floughs. When thefe come off, the 
tonfils appear deeply pitted and cor^ 
roded, and the floughs are foon again 
renewed. Sometimes all the parts 
near the gullet or throat, are much 
fwelled, both inwardly and outwardr 
ly, fo as to endanger a fuffocation, 
and frequently mortify : but moft 
generally the fwelling inwardly is 
not fo much as to make fwallowing 
difficult. Sometimes thefe fwellings 
impofthumate. 

In different years, and different 
perfons, the fymptoms are various. 
In fome fcafons it has been accompa- 
nied with miliary eruptions all over 
the fkin : and, at fuch times, the 
fymptoms about the throat have been 
mild, and the difeafe generally with- 
out danger, if not ill treated. Some 
have had fores like thofe on the ton- 
fils, with a corrofive humour behind ' 
their ears, on the private and other, . 
parts of the body, fometimes without j 
any ulceration in the throat. *l 

The laft complaint commonly Is of 
an oppreffion or ftraitnefs in the upper 
part of the cheft, with difficulty of 
breathing, and a deep hollow hoarfe 
cough, ending in a livid ftrangled- 
like countenance, which is foon fol- 
lowed by death. 

This difeafe is not often aMendei 



Letter on the thrsat-dipemper. 



tvlth that lofs of ftrength that is 
ufual in other fevers ; fo that many 
haverK)t been confined to their beds, 
but have walked about the room till 
within an hour or two of" their death : 
and it has often appeared no way 
dangerous to the attendants, till the 
fick were in the lalt agonies ; though 
the patients themfelves are generally 
deje(5ted and apprehenfive, which by 
others is too often attributed only to 
a Iswnefs of fpirits. Some died on 
the fourth or fifth day ; others on 
the fourteenth or fifteenth ; fome 
even later ; and fometimes the cor- 
ruption or putrefiftion of the hu- 
mours is fo great before any remark- 
able fyraptoms appear, that nature is 
not able to raife a fever for its ex- 
pulfion. In this cafe, the fick die 
fuddenly by a general mortification, 
without a fenfible Itruggle. 

It v/as not difcovered, by any 
anatomical infpedion that was made, 
that any of the bowels were peculiar- 
ly affefted ; only the lungs appeared 
as in peripneumonic cafes ; but a 
general corruptien and ftench of the 
hamours wers very perceptible. 

When the fores, after the Houghs 
cafl off, appear of a fiery red, there 
is great danger ; but when they are 
covered with a black crufl, it is a 
fatal omen ; as alfo when hemorrhages 
follow on any flight fcratch. 

When this difeafe firft appeared, it 
was treated with the ufual evacuati- 
ons in a common angina, and izvf 
efcaped. In many families, who had 
a great many children, all died ; no 
plague was more deftrudive. Ge- 
nerally when the fick fell into the 
hands of phyficians not acquainted 
with the peculiar malignity of tlie 
difeafe, they mifcarried. 

However bleeding, or bliftering, 
or lenient purgatives, may, on fome 
occafions, be of ufein the beginning 
of the difeafe, all fenfible evacuations 
of every kind, after the difeafe has 
continued fome time, are deftrud^ive. 
Th« confcqucncej of them are, a ge- 



55 

ncral tendency in the humours of the 
body to unfurmountable mortificati- 
ons ; fo far, that the orifice made by 
the lancet in bleeding, and the ad- 
jacent parts mortify. So likewifa 
the places where hlilters were applied 
mortify ; and the ichor, which iuues 
from them, corrodes all the parts on 
which itdiftills, and produces morti- 
fications. Mortifications follow on 
flight fcratches. So general an acri- 
mony has been produced in the hu- 
mours after evacuations, that a 
bloody ichor has continued to iffuc 
from tiie b'jdy, after death, till the 
corpfe was buried. 

Cold air is always found to be pre- 
judicial in the thro.it-dilkmper, eitlier 
by pTOtrafting it, or throwing it on 
the lungs, or on fome other part ne- 
celTary for life. It has been frequent- 
ly obferved, that if perfons, feeming- 
ly recovered and freed from nil the 
manifell: fymptoivis of the difeafe, 
went into the cool air, before the 
putrid heat or ferment was quite ex- 
haufted, they had relapfes. AH 
kinds of flefh-meat and fifh were 
prejudicial ; and fpirituous liquors 
in any quantity, increafcd t!ie mali<r- 
nity itrongly, though, from a mode- 
rate ufe of them, fome thought thev 
found benefit, efpecially if they were 
at the fame time kept from the cool 
air. 

As the humours in this difeafe had 
a manifell tendency to mortifications, 
and the Peruvian bark, about this 
time, had become famous in their 
cure, it was tried by feveral, but 
without fuccefs. 

The only fuccefsful method of cure 
was firfl: difcovered by dr. Douglafs 
of Bolton, in the year 1736, and 
publifhed by him ; though, in the 
country places, very little minded 
afterwards. It was by confining the 
fick to bed, in a moderate warmth, 
fo as to keep up conftantly a free 
perfpiration, by gentle diaphoretics, 
given from time to time, with warm 
teas, ^age tea wa5 moft coaiajonly 



55 



Letter on the throat-difiempef. 



ufed. This regimen was to be con- 
tinued, not only till all the fymptoms 
difappcared, but for fome time at'ter- 
wards, guarding carefully againlt 
cold, and ufing the diaphoretics 
night and morning. This method I 
found fuccefsful, not only in my own 
family, but with many of my neigh- 
bours. I only ufed the fer[->entaria 
as a diaphoretic, and perhaps it may 
be the beft, as it is found to be a 
powerful antifeptic. If the difeafe 
was taken in the beginning, and this 
method purfued, feldom any of the 
terrible fymptoms ajipeaiv^d, and the 
difcafe went through its courfe mild- 
ly. The ufc of the ferpentaria was 
found beneficial, even after the ap- 
pearance oi the bad fj'mptoms, and 
recovered them beyond our hopes. 
But care mull be taken not to give it 
fo as to caufe any fweating, for 
fwcating was found to be as piejudi- 
tial as any other fcnfibic c\ acuation. 

Dr. Douglafs, by letter, informed 
me that he found well dulcified mer- 
cury of ufe in the tliroat-diltemper, 
tfptcially when joined with camphire. 
He thought that it fiipplied the place 
of the miliary eruption, which was 
found fo falutary in this difeafe. 

Though topical remedies fignify 
very little, where the general method 
ef cure by perfpiration, is negled- 
ed ; yet they are never omitted, be- 
caufe there is no fatisfying the pati- 
ents or their relations, without them. 
All grcafy or unftuous applications 
weremanifeftly injurious. 

The common gargle was a decoc- 
tion of fumach berries and ferpenta- 
ria, with a little allum difiblved in 
it. It was thought proper to gargle 
"before they fwallowed any thing. 

The fores on the tonfils were fre- 
<]uently touched with the compound 
tindurc of aloes mixed with honey. 

And when the throat was fwellcd 
much, and in danger of mortifica- 
tion, fomentations were made with 
the decoftion of the common bitter 
and aromatic herbs, in v.hich fal 



ammoniac, or, borax, or in vi'an t of 
them, common fait, was dilTolvcd, 
and fharp vinegar added- Flannel 
cloths, dipped m tliis, and wrung 
out almoft dry, were applied to the 
fvvellings. 

A girl of about ten years of age, 
in my neighbourhood, at the time 
that the throat-diitemper was frequent 
in the country, had fores on her pri- 
vate parts, like thofc on the tonfils in 
others, but no fy mptom of the dif- 
order appeared in her throat : the 
ichor, which iiTucd from them at 
times, dried up, and then (he was 
feized with violent pains in her bel- 
ly, which had continued for fome 
time, and which fhe complained of, 
when my advice was defired. I or- 
dered her to be confined to her bed, 
and to take a large dofe of the fer- 
pcntaria, which foon gave her eafe, 
and by continuing the common dia- 
phoretic regimen, ftie perfedtly reco- 
vered. 

It would be impertinent in me to 
attempt any kind of reafoning with 
you on the nature of this difeafe ; but 
as I have entertained an opinion of 
the fundamental diflinftion of the fe- 
veral fpecies of fevers, I gladly em- 
brace this opportunity of fubmitting 
it to your judgment and correftions, 
in hopes that you will favour me 
with your opinion thereon. I dif- 
tinguidi the humours of the body in- 
to three different ftages or claffes. 
Firft, that which circulates only with- 
in the larger ramifications of the 
veins and arteries, and which is pro- 
perly called blood. Secondly, that 
which moves llowly in fmaller rami- 
fications than thofe in which the red 
globular parts can pafs, and from 
which the fenfible fecretions are 
made, ""i hirdly, and laftly, that hu- 
mour which moves and is contained 
in flill finer ramifications, and which 
is fometimes diftinguidied by the 
name of lymph. This lail I take to 
be the principal inftrument in tlie 
vital and vegetable fuudions of an 



Thoughts art the tiervoui fever. 



57 



animal. I fuppofe that the animal 
food or nouriihment undergoes three 
different concoftions or digellions, 
i\fter it has entered the coiirfe of the 
circulation, in thefe dirferent ramin- 
cations ; in all which, the humours 
move llowly : That by a fault in any 
©ne or more of thefe digellions, dii- 
eafes of different kinds are prod uced, 
vvliich mny be properly ditti.iguilhed 
and ranked, according to the ditfe- 
rent flages in which thefe humours 
circulate, and where the digeilion is 
faulty. 

I think thi^t the feat of in.lamma- 
tory fevers is in the firlt ftagi". That 
when the feat of the fever is in the 
fecond ftage, it may appear under 
very different fymptoms, as different 
fecretions are more peculiarly at- 
fei-\,d by it : and lallly, that the fe- 
\er8, commonly called nervous, have 
their feat in the third fiage. 

From this diltindion it follows, 
that the morbid matter in the firft; 
clafs may be moft effectually carried 
OiTby venefedion : in the fecond by 
one or more of the fenfible fecreii 
ons : and in the laft, by infenfibie 
pcrfpiration only. 

I conceive that the lymph, which 
moves feparately in the finell and lait 
ramifications of the velfel-;, has the 
feweft fenfible qualities of any of the 
humours of the body; and though, 
in it's natural ftate, the molt benign 
and mild, like the whice of an egg ; 
yet is fubjeft to the greateft alterati- 
ons, and to become the moll offcniive. 
As the white of an egg, by putrefac- 
tion, becomes fo naufeous, rhat the 
leaft drop of it taken into the ftomach, 
or by any means mixed with the hu- 
mours, throws the animal into the 
greateft diforder. 

I need not mention to you, that 
feldom any one humour can be viti- 
ated without affofting tlie others ; 
and that frequently the fault in the 
laft concoflion is owing to fome de- 
feat in the preceding : and from 
thefe a fkilful phvfician will vary his 

Vol. 111. No. I. 



method of cure in {everal circum- 
ftances. But when the Ivmph is vi- 
tiated by infeflion, all the other di- 
gellions may be in order, and natural^ 
till they b,»comc afterwards vitiated 
by the faulty lymph mixed with 
them. 7'his dii1in<ftion mnil de- 
ferve the peculiar regard of the phy- 
fjcian. 

I think that all thofe diforders 
which are commonly called nervcu«, 
whether acute or chronical, really 
proceedfrom fomefault in tiie Ivmph ; 
and that the diirinction of lax; and 
rig:d fibres, is owing to an excefs or 
defe(fl of this humour, or to fome 
other fault in it. 

Thefe hints, I am perfuadfd, are 
fufficient for you to form a judgment 
of my opinion in theclaifing of dif- 
eafes, how far it is really fo'unded in 
nature, and how far it may be of 
life in the cure of difeafes. You 
will oblige me exceedingly, by letting 
me know your opinion freelv. If 
you think me in an error, I ftiall in- 
fill on your telling me fo, from vour 
known candour and humanity, left I 
fnould lead otliers into the like mif- 
take. 

I hope the following obfervation 
will not be difagreeable to you, as it 
relates to nervous fevers. In the year 
174.6, when I was at Albany, on the 
affairs of government, while prepa- 
rations were making for the expe- 
dition, as we thought, then, in- 
tended againft Canada, a nervous fe- 
ver was epidemical, of which many 
died ; whether from the malignity of 
the difeafe, or ignorance of the prac- 
titioners, I cannot fay : for in no 
diflempcrs are more errors committed 
than in nervous. I obferved the dif- 
eafe in only one perfon, a lady. It 
had the appearance of an intermit- 
tent, or rather remitte:t, with a 
frequent low pulfo, except in the 
paroxyfms, when it was high ; a de- 
jedion of fpijits, great icilltpfiiefs, 
an entire pro{lr:;tion of apjittite, 
clammy fweate of a rancid pntrefccnt 
H 



5« 



Thouphts on tuoculatioft. 



fmcll. The phyfician who attended 
her, had treated it as an intermit- 
tent without fiiccefs. She was brought 
very low, and had an averfion to all 
kind of medicines. I advifed her 
to drink a glafs of old Madeira wine 
every four or five hours. She very 
fenlibly recovered, by the continued 
ufe of the wine, and fooner than 
eould have been expefted. A poor 
man, the fame phyfician's patient, 
hearing of this lady's recovery, fent 
to beg a bottle of wine. It was 
given him, but not without the phy- 
lician's confent, who permitted it, 
thinking the cafe defperate. He 
did, however, recover, by this means. 
He drank a gallon in a few days j 
and ufed it more freely than was al- 
lowed. Several others, in like man- 
ner, received benefit by wine. I can- 
not fay of what ufe Madeira might 
have been in the beginning of the 
difeafe, bccaufe the cafes which came 
to my knowledge of its benefit, were 
after the difeafe had continued long, 
and the fick were brought low. It 
was obfervable, however, that though 
many people were feized with this 
diftemper, no one Madeira drinker 
had it. One gentleman, who, for fe- 
veral days, apprehended he had got the 
diftemper, (as at firft they complain 
only of a general laflltude, and of 
being neither well nor fick), told us, 
who took our glafTcs every evening, 
and kept well, that he was refolved 
to go with us that night. He drank 
very freely, and, from that time, he 
had no more fymptoms. You know, 
that Hippocrates advifes the ufe of 
wine in fome fevers ; but I queftion 
if he ever prefcribeda bottle of llrong 
wine, fuch as Madeira wine is, for a 
dofe. 

I fhall mention one thing more, as 
not quite foreign to the fubjeft I 
write on. It has been commonly be- 
lieved, that inoculation of the fmall 
pox v/as an invention of the Circaf- 
lians, to preferve the beauty of their 
women. But from what follows, it 



fcems probable, that the praftlce if 
much older, and that it came from 
Africa originally, with the diftemper 
itfelf. I have lately learned from 
ray negroes, that it is a common 
prafticc in their country, fo that fel- 
dom any old people have the difeafe. 
They generally inoculate all their 
young, as foon as the infeftion comet 
into the neighbourhood. They tell 
me, that in thereginrien under it, they 
only abftain from all flelh-meat, and 
drink plentifully of water acidulated 
with the juice of limes, which grow 
large and plentifully in their country. 
Thisj perhap?;, may be worth obfer- 
vation, in hot feafons. It will be 
objefted, how comes this not to have 
been fooner difcovcred, fince fo many 
negroes have been for near one hun- 
dred years paft all over the coloitics. 
But it is not to be wondered at, fince 
we feldom converfe with our negroes, 
efpecially with thofc who are not 
born among us ; and though I learn- 
ed this but lately, when the fmall pox 
was among us laft fpring, by fome 
difcourfe being accidentally over- 
heard among the negroes themfelves, 
I have had the fame negroes abo\'C 
twenty years about my houfe, with- 
out knowing it before this time. I 
examined them feparately, and am 
perfuaded, that, as they live at a great 
diftance from the town, they had ne- 
ver heard of inoculation among us *, 
and yet they defcribed the method of 
inoculation the fame as ours, viz. by 
making a fmall cut in the arm, and 
applying a little cotton dipped in th« 
variolous pus. 



* Turning over accidentally, a 
little pamphlet, printed at Bofton, in 
1722, fince I wrote what is above, I 
find, that fome negroes in Bofton 
had at that time aft'erted, that ino- 
culation of the fmall pox was com- 
mon in their country. 

If what I have wrote, in any man- 



Letter p-om dr. yadfan, to ir. Stiles. 



5f 



«cr anfurrs your expeflations, I hope 
you will favour me with your fcnti- 
ments thereon, which will greatly 
oblige, fir, your moll obedient hum- 
ble lervant, 

CADWALLADER GOLDEN. 

Letter from dr. Halljackfonto dr. Ezra 
Stiles, »n the e^cacy of the Digitalis 
Purpurea in dropjies, iSfc. 

Ptrtfmouth, (N.H.) April lO, l-jt-]. 

Sir. 

IN the year 1785, that juftly cele- 
brated botanift, dr. William Wi- 
thering, phyfician to the general hof- 
pital in Birmingham, Great Britain, 
publillied a treacife on the Digitalis 
Purpurea, (Fox-glove) and its medi- 
cal ufes, with praftical remarks on 
dropfies and other difcafes. This 
valuable treatife came into my hands 
the fame year ; it contains more than 
an hundred and fifty cafes of drop- 
fies, many of them of the worft and 
moft complicated kind, cured or re- 
lieved by this efficacious plant. I laft 
year received from London, a fmall 
quantity of the dried leaves, and 
fome of the fame in powder. From 
repeated trials here, I am fully per- 
fuaded, that neither dr. Withering, 
nor his numerous correfpondents, 
have exaggerated its falutary etteds ; 
it is, perhaps, the moil powerful 
diun'tic in n:\ture, and poffefles a re- 
markable quality of abating the ac- 
tion of the heart, and retarding the 
circulation of the blood. 

By the laft (hip from London, and 
laft poll from Boilon, I was honoured 
with a very polite, obliging, and in- 
terefting letter from dr. Withering, 
and favoured alfo with a quantity of 
feeds of the Fox-glove by him. He 
writes, '* I fend more than you will 
have occafion for, in hopes that you 
will diftribute them into the other 
ftates." 



It is with much pleafure that I 
comply with the doftor's humane 
wifh, in enclofing you a fmall quan- 
tity of them, being fully pcrfuaded 
you will find equal Tatisfadlion in the 
cultivation of fo ufeful and ornamen- 
tal a vegetable ; it bears a beautiful 
purple bell-flower, worthy a place in 
any garden. 

I take the liberty of tranfcribing 
two other paffages in the doftor's let- 
ter, which, I think, may, with pro- 
priety, accompany the feed. " I am 
more and more convinced, that the 
Digitalis, under a judicious manage- 
ment, is one of the mildeft and fafeft 
medicines we have, and one of the 
moft efficacious. I believe it is not 
neceifary to create a naufca, or any 
other difturbancc in the fyftem. I 
never ufe more than 1 fcruple fol.fnc. 
~\h. of infufion, and in fubftance 
rarely more than 3 grains in twenty- 
four hours." — " Digitalis has cured 
two other cafes of infanity in this 
neighbourhood, and three cafes of 
hemopt.s : the latter were of a kind 
attended with a quick bounding 
pulfe, and I direfted the medicine, 
from the quality I knew it pofTeffes 
of abating the adion of the heart." 

I would juft mention, that it is a 
biennial plant, and I conclude it will 
take fome little care to prefcrve the 
roots from the feverity of the frofts 
in this cold climate, though it flou- 
rifhes fpontaneoufly in the fields of 
England. 

My good intention muft be my 
apology in the liberty I have taken 
in troubling a gentleman of your 
charaffer with fo lengthy a letter, al- 
together profeflional. I wifh to pro- 
mulgate fo valuable an acquifition 
in medicine, and am fo unfortunate 
as not to be acquainted with any geii- 
tlemaa of the faculty in your ftate. 

I am, fir. Sec. 

HALL JACKSON. 

The rev. Ezra Stiles, prefident 
©f Yale college. 



6o 



An hjiimahlt dijfd-vtni for the luman calculi. 



from the European magazine ^ for Aw 



■g"J 



'?, I7« 



f^o- 



All inefi.'nable diffilver.t for the hwnan 
colculi. 

MR, Benjamin Colburne, of 
Jbth, is a gendeaian fo uni- 
verlaily knowa and citeemed, that 
•were it not for the informarion of 
mankind thron^aoat Eurv>pc, it 
wu.ild he ncedl^fs to fay, that he is 
a man of ample fortune, of the ut- 
molt ca-do'.ir, and poiiefll'S unbound- 
ed philanthropy : that being bred 
to ph'.fic (from the pradice of w'nicii 
he has many years iince retired) he 
has Cinployed his leiuire hoars in 
chem'cal experiments, and with fuch 
fucctfj, that he has proved, beyond a 
tiouht, on himfeif, and on feveral of 
his frieiids, that rhefoiution of fixed 
alkaline fait, faturated with fixa'ile 
air, vvill prevent the formation of 
calculi in the human bladder; nay, 
that calculi being iteeped in that fo- 
lutio 1, will daily lofe of their origi- 
nal weight, and be difpofed to crum- 
ble a.iddilfolve. The late ingenious 
dr. Do' 'on, in his" commentary on 
fixed air,"' had conceived that much 
benefit in many diforders, and par- 
ticularly the gravel, might be receiv- 
ed from the ufe of medicatcvl waters. 
But it appears that mr. Colburne is 
the fi:ll man who has experienced, in 
his own perfcn, the fuccefs of his 
own difcovery ; andha.ir.g fo done, 
he generoufly communicated it to 
his friends and neighbours, who have 
been ejualty rciievcd, and who were 
eq'ially willing to have ih^ir names 
and cafes pubiiil^ed ; which not only 
p'oves the efficacy of the m'-'iicine 
on a fingie patient, or conft.itution, 
but that it is fuch as adts on the 
urine of all human beings. Mr. 
Ccll);irne't. own cafe, ther reverend 
doctor Cooper, the honr.urabie and 
reverend G. hiamiiton, of Taplow, 
of mr. Ainllie, and of a fimple rr;an 
of 65, who would not permit his 



name to be publiihed fyet equally! 
benefitted) has t>scn publiihed by dr.- 
Falconer, but publiihed a* an appan- 
dix to dr. Dobfon's " commentary 
on fixed air." I have, therefore, 
thought it an aft of humanity to 
give the poor, as well as the rich, 
the means of relief, by fending you 
a Iketch of this valuable difcoveryj 
and it will then be in every nian'j 
po.ver, either to prepare t'le foUilion 
himfdf, or to purchafe it at a very 
moderate price : and they may l>e fiire 
tliat this is fent to you with ilie 
fame good deiign thar it was com- 
municated by tiie difcoverer, whofe 
memory, i have reafon to believr, 
will be rercred t>y many nations. 
Mr. Colburne informs us, that from 
fevcral very accurate experiments on 
the human calculi Itccped in alkaHne 
falts, they were reduced in weighty 
and difpofed to dilTolvc : this led 
him to try wh;:>: erltft it would pro- 
duce, by the internal uie, on the 
urine of thofc who fuffer from the 
gravel or Itonc, and was agreeai)ljr 
furprifed to find that his own (for he 
was a fufFerer himfeh) from being 
turbid, and difpofed to precipitation, 
became clear and of a natural colour. 
But the alkaline falts proving difa- 
greeable and naufeating, he conceiv- 
ed jhat fom.e more agreeable mode 
might be contrived to anfvver thi 
fame good purpofes. Fixed air feemed 
to mr. Colburne the belt means of fuc- 
cefs, and experience foon confirmed 
his hopes. The alkaline folurion is 
thus prepared. 

Put two ounces, troy-wcight, of 
dry fait of tartar into an open earth- 
en veffel, and pour upon it two 
quarts of the foftefc water to be had, 
and iiir them well together. I-.ct 
the foiution ftand for 24. hours, 
when ths clear parr muft be poured 
off with cai-e, to avoid any of the re- 
fiduum, and p'::t into the middle part 
of one of the glafs machines for im- 
pregnating water with fixable air, 
and expcfcd to a llrcam of that fla- 



Letter to g:x-crncr Ran^.olf>h, 



ISc. 



6$ 



':^ ; after the water has been 24 
hours in this fituation, it will be tit 
tor uic, and fiiould be bottled oif ; 
well-cork; the bottles, and fet them 
up oa their corks, bottom upwards ; 
and with fach care it will keep feve- 
ral weeks. Eight ounces may be 
taken three times in 24 hours with- 
out any inconvenience: biK it may 
be beft to begin with a faialler quan- 
tity. 

It is necdlefs to enumerate the 
cafes of the other refpectable gentle- 
nien, whofe names are mentioned 
above ; it is fufficient to fay, that 
mr. Colburne, by an almnit conftant 
life of this medicine, enjovs better 
health and better fpirits, though con- 
fidcrably turned of 60, than he had 
experier.ced for eo years before, and 
never has any fymptoms of gravel or 
ftone, but when he happens to ne- 
glect (as is fomctimes the cafe, when 
trom home) his iiccuitomcd fulution. 
It appears, alfo, that the oiher gen- 
tlemen whofe names are mentioned, 
»nd a lady of Bath alfo, who from de- 
licacy, not folly, has likewife with- 
held her name, have all experienced 
the wonderful effeds of this very im- 
portant difcovery. Had this m<?di- 
cine been difcovered by a pra>5tiiing 
and profeffional man, there is not a 
doubt but it would have made his 
fortune : or, indeed, had mr. Col- 
burne fecretly communicated it to 
fome medical friend (and no doubt 
he has many) it mufl:, in that cafe, 
have enriched an isdividual. But 
he has generouflv given it for the 
good of all mankind, fnewing therti 
how to ufe it ; and therefore 1 defire 
it to be extended in your ufeful and 
entertaining publication. 

To his excellency Edmund R&nJolph, eja. 

December 2, 1787. 
Zir, 

IT has been reported in various 
parts of the ftate, that the reafonB 



which goverrt'd you ia your tiifapj. 
proI>aiiou ci the 'propofed federal 
conitituif on, no longer exiit; and ma- 
ny Ci'i the people of this common- 
Vvfaith have willied to know what 
oujeciions could induce you to re- 
fute )-our fignnture to a nieafui-e 
fo flattering to many principal cha- 
racters in America, and which is 
fo generally fuppofcd to contaia 
tiie ieeus oi prof[x;rity and happineli 
to the united Hates. 

We are faiisficd, fir, that the time 
is palfed, when }ou rniglit with pro- 
priety have been requclLcd to commu- 
nicate your fcntiioenrs to the general 
airembly on this fubjcd ; but as you 
have l).-:en pleafed to favour us with 
j-our obfcrvaticns in private, and we 
conceive they would not only a;Ford 
f2:isf:;flion to the public, but alio b« 
ufeful by the information and in- 
Itru'ition they will convey, we hope, 
you can have no cbjcfdon to enable 
us to make them public, through the 
medium of the prcfs. We have the 
honour to i>e, with refpeftfui eftcem, 
fir, your molt obedient fcrvants, 
Ivl. Smii'j, 
[fchn H. Brig^f, 
CharL s M. H hriijlon^ 
Mann Page, j tin. 

To M. Smith, Ckarhs M. rhrnfioM^ 
JJjii H. Briggs, and Mann tage^ 
jun. efinires. 

Decent- cr lO, 1787. 
Gc/itle/nett, 

YOUR favour of the fecond in- 
ftant, requeuing permiihon to publifli 
my letter on the new conftitution, 
gives me an opportunity of making 
Known my fenfim.entK, which, per- 
haps, I ought not to decline. It has 
been written ever fince its dnte, and 
was intended for the general affciti- 
bly. But I have hitherto been re- 
ftrjined from fending it to them, by 
motives of delicacy ariiing from tw3 
queftions depending before tliat bodv^ 
the one refoeding the conftitution* 



6t 



Letter from go'vernor Randolph, 



die other my felf. At this day, too, 
1 feel an unwillingncfs to bring it 
before the legiilature, left, in the di- 
verfity of opinion, I fhould c>:cite 
a coutetl unfavourable to that h.if- 
rnony with which I truft the great 
fubjed will be difcufled. I therefore 
fubmitthe publication of the letter to 
your pleafurc. 

I beg leave, however, to remind 
you, that I have only mentioned my 
objcftions to the conftitution in ge- 
neral terms, thinking it improper, 
and too voluminous, to explain them 
at full length. But it is my purpofc 
togo at large into the conftitution, 
when a tit occafion fhall prefcnt it- 
felf. 

I am, gentlemen, &:c. 

EDMUND RANDOLPH. 

A letter of his excellency Edmund Ran- 
dalph,efq, on the federal conjlitutkn. 

Richmond, Ocioher \0y 1787. 
Sir, 

THE conftitution, which I in- 
clofed to the general aiTembly, 
in a late official letter, appears with- 
out my fignature. This circum- 
ftance, although trivial in its ovvn 
nature, has been rendered rather im- 
portant to myfelf at leaft, by being 
mifunderftood by fome, and mifre- 
prefented by others — As I difdain to 
conceal the rcafons for with-holding 
my fubfcription, I have always been, 
fiill am, and ever fhall be, ready to 
proclaim them to the world. To 
the legiilature, therefore, by whom I 
was deputed to the federal conven- 
tion, 1 beg leave now to addrefs 
them ; affefting no indifference to 
the public opinion, but refolved not 
to court it by an unmanly facrince 
©f my own judgment. 

As this explanation will involve a 
fcmmary, but general review of our 
federal fituation, you will pardon 
me, I truft, although I ftioald tranf- 
grefs the ufual bounds of a letter. 



Before my departure for the con- 
vention, I believed that the confede- 
ration was not {o eminently defec- 
tive, as it had been fuppofed ; but 
after I entered into a free commu- 
nication with thofe, who were belt 
informed of the condition and intereil 
of each ftate — after I had compared 
the intciiigence derived from them, 
with the properties which ought to 
chara«5lcrize the government of our 
union, I became perfuaded, that the 
confederation was deftitute of every 
energy, which a conftitution of the 
united ftates ought to poffefs. 

For the objects propofed by its in- 
ftitution were, that it ftiould be a 
Ihield againft foreign hoftility, and a 
firm refort againft domeftic commo- 
tion ; that it (hould cherifti trade, 
and promote the profpcrity of the 
ftates under its care. 

But thefe are not among the attri- 
butes of our prefent union. Severe 
experience, under the prefthre of war 
— a ruinous weaknefs, manifeftcd 
fince the return of peace — and the 
contemplation of thofe dangers, 
which darken the future profped — 
have condemned the hope of gran- 
deur and of fafety under the aufpi- 
ces of the confederation. 

In the exigencies of war, indeed, 
the hiftory of its effedts is Ihort ; the 
final ratification having been delayed 
until the beginning of the year 1781. 
But howfoever (hort, this period ii 
diftingulllaedby melancholy teftimo- 
nics of its inability to maintain iii 
harmony the focial intercourfe of the 
ftates ; to defend congrefs againft en- 
croachments on their rights ; and to 
obtain, byrequifitions, fuppliesto the 
federal treafury or recruits to the fe- 
deral armies. I ftiall not attempt an 
enumeration of the particular inftan- 
ces : but leave to your own remem- 
brance^ and the records of congrefs, 
the fupport of thefe aflTertions. 

In the feafon of peace, too, not 
many years hare elapfed : and yet 
•ach of them has produced fatal ex- 



Letter from governor Randolph, 



H 



amples of delinquency, and fome- 
times of pointed oppofition to fede- 
ral duties. To die various remon- 
11 ranees of congrcfs, I appeal for a 
gloomy, but unexaggeratcd narrative 
ef the injuries, which our faith, ho- 
nour, and happinefs have fuilained 
by the failures of the ftates. 

But thefc evils are paft : and fome 
may be led, by an honed zeal, to 
conclude, that they cannot be repeat- 
ed. Yes, lir, they will be repeated, 
as long as the confederation exills, 
and will bring with them other mif- 
chiefs, fpringing from the fame 
fource, which cannot be yet forcfcen 
in their full array of terror. 

If we examine the conftitutions, 
and laws of the feveral ftates, it is 
immediately difcovered, that the law 
of nations is unprovided with fanc- 
tions in many cafes, which deeply 
aifeft public dignity and public juf- 
tice. The letter, however, of the 
confederation, does not permit con- 
grefs to remedy thefe defefts : and 
fuch an authority, although evident- 
ly deducible from its fpirit, cannot, 
without a violation of the fecond ar- 
ticle, be aiTumed. Is it not a poli- 
tical phenomenon, that the head of 
the confederacy fhould be doomed to 
be plunged into war, from its 
wretched impotency to check offen- 
ces againft this law — and fentenced 
to witnefs, in unavailing anguifh, 
the infraftion of their engagements 
to foreign fovereigns ? 

And yet this is not the only grie- 
vous point of weaknefs. After a war 
fhall be inevitable, the requifitions 
of congrefs, for quotas of men or 
money, will again prove unproduc- 
tive and fallacious. Two caufes will 
always confpire to this baneful con- 
fequence. 

Firft. No government can be lia- 
ble, which hangs on human inclina- 
tion alone, unbiaiTed by the fear of 
coercion. And fecondly, from the 
connexion between ftates bound to 
proportionate contributions — -jea- 



loufiss and fufpicions naturally ariic, 
which at leaft chill the ardour, if they 
do not excite the murmurs of the 
whole. I do not forget, indeed, that 
by one fudden impulfe, our part of 
the American continent has been 
throvvn into a military pofture, and 
thst in the earlier annals of the war, 
our armies marched to the field on 
the mere recommendations of con- 
grefs. But ought wc to argue from 
a conteft thus iignalizcd by the mag- 
nitude of its ftake, that as often as a 
flame fnall be hereafter kindled, the 
fame enthufiafm will fill our legions 
— or renew them, as they may be 
thinned by loffes ? 

If not, where fhall we find protec- 
tion ? Impreffions, like thofe, which 
prevent a compliance with the requi- 
fitions of regular forces, will deprive 
the American republic of the fervices 
of a militia. But let us fuppofe, that 
they are attainable, and acknow- 
ledge, as I always fhall, that they arc 
the natural fupport of a free go- 
vernment. When it is remembered, 
that in their abfence agriculture muft 
languilli — that they are not habituated 
to military expofures, and the rigour 
of military dilcipline — and that the 
neceflity of holding in readinefs fuc- 
cellive detachments, carries the ex- 
pence far beyond thatofenliftments — 
this refourcc ought to be adopted 
with caution. 

As flrongly too I am perfuaded, 
that requifitions for money will not 
be more cordially received. For he- 
fides the diilruil:, which would pre- 
vail with refpeft to them alfo — be- 
fides the opinion, entertained by each 
of its own liberality and uafatisfied 
demands againft the united ftates, 
there is another confideration not lef» 
worthy of attention. The firft rule 
for determining each quota, was the 
value of all land granted or furvey- 
ed, and of the buildings and improve- 
ments thereon. It is no longer 
doubted, that an equitable, uniform 
maJs of eftimating that valae, i* 



H 



Letter from governor liandA^h, 



imprafticabla ; and therefore twelve 
ftates have fubftituted the number of 
inhabitants under certain limitations, 
as the ftandard, according to which 
n-.oneyi.s to be furnilhcd. But under 
the fabfiiting articles of the union, 
the adent of the thirteenth Ibte is 
neceffary, and has not yet been given. 
This does of itfsif Iclfen the hope oi 
procuring a revenue for federal ufcs; 
and the mifcarriage of the impoit ai- 
moft rivets our defpondency. 

Amidlt thefe difappointments, it 
would afford fome confolation, if, 
when rebellion (hall threaten any 
ftate, an ultimate afylum cojld be 
found under the wing of congrefs. 
Eut it is at Icaftcqui vocal , whether tliey 
can intrude forces into a ftate, rent 
afunder by civil difcord, even with 
the pureft fjjicitude for our federal 
welfare, and on the mod urgent in- 
treaties of the Itate itfelf. Nay, the 
very allowance of this power, would 
be pageantry alone, from the want of 
money and men. 

To thefe defects of congremonal 
power, the hiilory of man has fub- 
joined others, not lefs alarming. I 
earneftly pray, that the recollcdion 
of common fuiFerip.gs, which termi- 
nated in common glory, may check 
the fallies of violence, and perpetu- 
ate mutual frienddiip between the 
ftates. But I cannot prefumc, that 
we arc fuperior to thofe unfocial paf- 
f;ons, which under like circumllan- 
ces have infefted more ancient na- 
tions. I cannot prefumc, that 
through all tinic, in the daily mix- 
ture of American citizens widi each 
other, in the conflids for commer- 
cial advantages, in the di '"con tents, 
which the neighbourhood of territo- 
ry has been feen to engender in otiicr 
quarters of the globe, and in the ef- 
forts of faftion and intrigue — 
tlurteen diftinft communities un- 
der no effidive fup^rintcnding con- 
troul (as the united ftarcs con- 
fcffcdly now are, notwithftanding 
tlje bold terms of tiie confederatiunj 



will avoid a hatred to each other deep 
and deadlv. 

In the profccution of this enquiry 
we fliall lind the general profperity 
to decline under a fyilem x\\u unnerv-* 
ed. Nafooner is the merchant pre-, 
pared for foreign ports with the trea- 
fi-ires, which this new world kindly 
olfers to his acceptance, than it \i 
announced to him, that they arc fhut 
againft American (hipping, or open- 
ed under opprefTive regulations. He 
urges congrefs to a counter-pclicy, 
and is anfwered only by condolence 
on the general misfortune. He is 
immediately ftruck with the convic- 
tion, that until exclufion fhall be op- 
pofcd to exclufion, and rellriiHon to 
reikidion, the American flag will be 
digraced. For who can conceive, 
tliat thirteen legiflatures, viewing 
commerce under different reJations, 
and fancying themfelves difcharged 
from every obligation to concede the 
fmalleft ot their com nerciai advan-; 
tages for the g^od of the whoie> 
will be wrought in a concert of ac- 
tion in defiance of every prejudice ? 
Nor is tins all :— let th; great im- 
provements be recounted, which have 
enriched and ijlultrated Europe — let 
it be noted, how few thofc are, which 
will be abfjkitely denied to the 
united ftates, comprehending v.'ithin 
their boundaries the choiceit blef- 
fings of climate, foil, and navigable 
waters ; then let the moft fanguine 
patriot banith, it he can, the martify<i 
r.iyr belief, rh:it all thefe muft fleep, 
until they fhall be roufed by the vi- 
gour of a national government. 

I have not exemplified the prece- 
ding remarks by minute details ; be- 
caufe they are evidcndy fortihed by 
truth, and the confcioufnefs of uni- 
ted America. I Ihall therefore no. 
longer deplore tlic unfitiefs of the 
con federation to fecure our pence ; 
but proceed, with a truly unalFcdod 
diftruft of my own opinions, ti» ex- 
amine what order of powers the go»' 
vcrnment of the united ftates ougiit 



Letter from governor Randolph. 



^^ 



X.0 enjoy ? how they ought f.o be de- 
fended againil encroachmeni.s ? whe- 
ther they can be interwoven in the 
confederation without an alteration 
'of its very effence ? or muft be lodg- 
ed in new hands ? fhewing at the 
fame time the convuHions, which 
feem to await us from a diifolution 
of the union or partial confedera- 
cies. 

To mark the kind and de;gree of 
authority, which ought to be confi- 
ded to the government of the united 
dates is no more than to revfirfe the 
defcription, which I have already 
given, of the defefts of the confede- 
ration. 

From thence it will follow, that 
the operations of peace and war will 
be clogged without regular advances 
of money, and that tliefc v/ill be flow 
indeed, if dependent on fupplication 
alone. For what better name do re- 
quifitions deferve, which may be 
evaded or oppofed, without the fear 
of coercion ! But although coercion 
is an indifpenfible ingredient, it 
ought not to be direftcd againil a 
ftate, as a ftate, it being impofhble to 
attempt it except by blockading the 
trade of the delinquent, or carrying 
war into its bowels. Even if thefe 
violent fchemes were eligible, in 
other refpeds, both of them might 
perhaps be defeated by the fcantinefs 
of the public cheiV ; would be tardy 
in their complete effeft, as the ex- 
pence of the land and naval equip- 
ments muft firft be reimburfed ; and 
might drive the profcribed ftate into 
the defperate refolve of inviting fo- 
reign alliances. Againft each of 
them lie feparate unconquerable ob- 
jeftions. A blockade is not equally 
applicable to all the ftates, they being 
differently circumftanced in com- 
merce and in ports ; nay an excom- 
munication from the privileges of 
the union would be in vain, becaufe 
every regulation or prohibition may 
be eafily eluded under the rights of 
American citizenlhip, or of foreign 

Vol. III. No. I. 



nations. But how {hall we fpeak of the 
intrufion of troops ? (hall we arm ci- 
tizens againft citizens, and habitu- 
ate them to fhed kindred blood > 
Ihall we rifque the inflifting of 
wounds, which will generate a ran- 
cour never to be fubdued ? would 
there be no room to fear, that an ar- 
my, accuftomed to fight, for the ef- 
tablilhment of authority, would fa- 
lute an emperor of their own ? Let 
us not bring thefe things into jeopar- 
dy. Let us rather fubftitute the fame 
procefs.by which individuals are com- 
pelled to contribute to the govern- 
ment of their own ftates. Inftead of 
making rcquifitions to the legifla- 
tures, it would appear more proper, 
that taxes ftiould be impofed by the 
federal head, under due modifications 
and guards ; that the coUeftor ftiould 
demand from the citizens their ref- 
peftive quotas, and be fupported 
as in the colledion of ordinary 
taxes. 

It follows, too, that, as the gene- 
ral government will be refponfible to 
foreign nations, it ought to be able 
to annul any offenfive meafure, or 
inforce any public right. Perhaps 
among the topics on which they may 
be aggrieved or complain, the com- 
mercial intercourfe, and the manner, 
in which contradls are difcharged, 
may conftitute the principal articles 
of clamour. 

It follows, too, that the general 
government ought to be the fupreme 
arbiter for adjufting every conten- 
tion among the ftates. In all their 
connedions, therefore, with each 
other, and particularly in commerce, 
which will probably create the great- 
eft difcord, it ought to hold the 
reins. 

It follows, too, that, the general 
government ought to proteft each 
ftate againft domeftic as well as exter- 
nal violence. 

And laftly, it follows, that 
through the general government 
alone can we ever affume the rank, 
I 



66 



Letter frsm g::i:ernur Raitdolph. 



to which we are entitled by our re- 
fources and fituation. 

Should the people of America fur- 
render thefc powers, they can be pa- 
ramount to the conftitutions and or- 
dinary afts of legiflation, only by be- 
ing delegated by them. I do not 
pretend to afnrm, but I venture to 
believe, that if the confederation had 
been folemnly queftioned in oppofi- 
tion to our cor.llitution, or even to 
one of our laws, pollerior to it, it 
muft have given way. For never did it 
obtain with us a higher ratilication, 
than a refolution of aflcmbly in the 
daily form. 

This will be one fecurity againft 
encroachment. But another, not 
lefs effedual, is, to exclude the indi- 
vidual ftates from any agency in the 
national government, as far hs it 
may be fafe, and their interpciition 
may not be abfolutely neceflary. 

But now, fir, permit me to de- 
clare, than in my humble judgment, 
the powers, by which alone the blef- 
iings of a general government can be 
accomplifhed, cannot be interwoven 
in the confederation without a 
change of its very effencc ; or, in 
other words, that the confederation 
muft be thrown alide. This is almott 
demonrtrable from the inefficacy of 
requifitions, and from the neceffity 
of converting them into ads of au- 
thority. My fuffrage, as a citizen, 
is alfo for additional powers. But 
to whom fhall we commit thefe afts 
of authority, thefe adJitional pow- 
ers ? To congrefs ? When I formerly 
lamented the defeats in the juiifdic- 
tion of congrefs, i had no view to 
indicate any ether opinion, than that 
the federal head ought not to l)e fo 
circumfcribed. For free as I am at 
all times to profefs my reverence for 
that body, and the individuals who 
compofe it, 1 am yet equally free to 
make known my averfion to repofe 
fuch a trull in a tribunal fo conititu- 
ted. My objeftions are not the vifi- 
ons of theory, but the refult of my 



own obfervation in America, and of 
the experience of others abroad, i. 
The legiflative and executive are 
concentered in the fame perfons. 
This, where real power exilts, muft 
eventuate in tyranny. 2. The re- 
prefentation of the ftates bears no 
proportion to their iiijportance. This 
is an iinreafonable fubjedion of the 
will of the majority to that of the mi- 
nority. 3. The mode of election, and 
the liability to be recalled, may too 
often render the delegates rather par- 
tizans of their own ftates, than re- 
prefenta:ivcsof the union. 4. Cabal 
and intrigue muft confeqaently gain 
an afcendency in a courfe of years. 
5. A fing'.e houfe of legiflation will 
fometimes be precipitate, perhaps 
pafiionate. 6. As long as {z\^vi 
ftates are required for the fmalleft, 
and nine for the greatcft votes, may 
not foreign influence at fome future 
day infinuate itfelf, fo as to inter- 
rupt every adtive exertion .^ 7. To 
crown the v/hole, it is fcarcely with- 
in the verge of pofTibiiity that fo nu- 
merous an aflembly fl^.ould acquire 
that fecrecy, difpatch and vigour, 
which are the teft or excellence in tlie 
executive department. 

My inference from thefe fafts and 
principles is, that the new powers mull 
be dcpofited in x new body, growing 
out of a confolidation of the union 
as far as the circumftances of the 
ftates will allow. Perhaps, however, 
fome may meditate its diftblution, 
and others partial confederacies. 

The firft is an idea awful indeed 
and irreconcileable with a very early, 
and hitherto uniform convidion, that 
without union we muft be undone. 
For before the voice of war was 
heard, the puue of the then colonies, 
was tried and found to beat in uni- 
fon. The unremitted labour of our 
enemies was to divide, and the policy 
of every congrefs to bind us toge- 
ther. But in no example was this 
truth more clearly difplayed, than in 
the prudence with which indepen- 



Letter from gs'vernor- Randolph, 



67 



dence was unfolded to the figlit, and 
in the forbearance to declare it, until 
America ahnod unanimouily called 
for it. ' After we had thus launched 
into troubles, never before explored, 
and In the hour of heavy dillrefs, the 
remembrance of our focial ilrength 
not only forbade defpair, but drey 
from congrefs the moll illuftrious re- 
petition of their fettled purpofe to de- 
fpife all terms fhort of independence. 

Behold, then, how fuccefsful and 
glorious we have been, while we 
acted in fraternal concord. But let 
us difcard the illufion, that by this 
fuccefs and this glory the creft of 
danger has irrecoverably fallen. Our 
governments are yet too youthful to 
have acquired liability from habit. 
Our very quiet depends upon the du- 
ration of the union. Am^ng tlie up- 
right and intelligent, few can read 
without emotion th; future fate ot 
the ftatcs, if fevered from each other. 
Then fhall we learn the full weight 
of foreign intrigue — then (hall we 
hear of partitions of our country. If 
z prince, inflamed by theluil ofcon- 
queil, fiiould ufe one flate, as the in- 
ftrument of cnflaving others — if eve- 
ry date is to be wearied by perpetual 
alarms, and compelled to maintain 
large military ellablifhments — if all 
queflions are to be decided by an ap- 
peal to arms, where a difference of 
opinion cannot be removed by nego- 
tiation — in a word, if all the direful 
misfortunes which haunt the peace of 
rival nations, are to triumph over the 
land — for what have we contended ? 
Why have we exhaufted our wealth ? 
Why have we bafely betrayed the he- 
roic martyrs of the feceral caufe ? 

But dreadful as the total dilTolu- 
tion of the union is to my mind, I 
entertain ho lefs horror at the 
thought of partial confederacies. I 
have not the lead ground for fuppo- 
fmg that an overture of this kind 
would be lillened to by a fmgle ftate ; 
and the prefumption is, that the po- 
litics of the greater part of the Hates 



flow from the warmcfl attachment to 
an union of the whole. If however 
a lelTer confederacy fhould be obtain- 
ed by Virginia, let me conjure my 
countrymen well to weigh the proba- 
ble confequences, betore they at- 
tempt to form it. 

On fuch an event, the ilrength of 
the union would be divided into two 
or perhaps three parts. Has it fo in- 
creafed fince the war as to be divifi- 
ble — and yet remain futHcient for 
our happinefs ? 

The utmoft limit of any partial 
confederacy which Virginia could 
expeifl to form, would comprehend 
only the three fouthern Hates and her 
neareft northern neighbour. But 
they, like ourfelves, are diminifhed 
in their real force, by the mixture of 
an unhappy fpecics of population. 

Again may 1 allc, whether tiie 
opulence of the united ftates has been 
augmented fince the war ? This is 
anlwered in the negative by a load of 
debt, and the declenlion of trade. 

At all times muil a fouthern con- 
federacy fupport fhips of war and 
foldiery. As foqn would a navy 
move from the foreft, and an army 
{firing from the earth, as fuch a con- 
federacy, indebted, impoverifhed in 
its commerce, and delhtute of men, 
could, for fome years at le^ft, pro- 
vide an ample defence for itfeif. 

Let it not be forgotten, that na- 
tions, which can enforce their rights, 
have large claims againfl the united 
ftites, and that the creditor may in- 
fill on payment from any one of 
them. Which of them would pro- 
bably be the vidlm ? The molt pro- 
duftive and the mod expofed. \^'hen 
vexed by reprifals, or war, the fou- 
thern ilates will fue for alliances on 
this continent, or beyond fea. If for 
the former, the neceflity of an union 
of the whole is decided. If for the 
latter, America will, I fear, re-^rt the 
fcenes of confufion and bloodfhed, 
exhibited am-ongft mod of taofc^ 
nations, wliioh have, too late, re- 



6$ 



Letter from governor Randal j^Jj. 



pented the folly of relying on auxili- 
aries. 

Two or more confederacies cannot 
but be competitors for power. 1 he 
ancient friendlhip between the citi- 
zens of America being thus cut off, 
bitternefs and hoftility will fucceed in 
its place. In order to prepare againft 
furrounding danger, we fhall be com- 
pelled to veil, fomewhere or other, 
power approaching near to a milita- 
ry government. 

The annals of the world have a- 
bounded fo much with inftances of a 
divided people being a prey to fo- 
reign influence, that I fliall not re- 
ftrain my apprehenfions of it, fhould 
our union be torn afunder. The op- 
portunity of infmuating it will be 
multiplied in proportion to the parts, 
into which we may be broken. 

In fhort, fir, I am fatigued with 
fummoning up to my imagination, 
the miferies which will harrafs the 
united ftates, if torn from each other, 
and which will not end, until they 
are fuperfeded by frefh mifchiefs un- 
der the yoke of a tyrant. 

I come, therefore, to the lafl and 
perhaps only refuge in our difficulties, 
a confolidation of the union, as far 
as circumftances will permit. To 
fulfil this defirable objeft, the con- 
ftitution was framed by the federal 
convention. A quorum of eleven flates 
and the only member from a twelfth, 
have fubfcribed it ; mr. Mafon of 
Virginia, mr. Gerry of Maffachufetts, 
and myfelf, having refufed to fub- 
fcribe. 

Why I refufed, would, I hope, be 
folved to the fatisfadion of thofe 
who know me, by faying that a fenfe 
of duty commanded me thus to aft. 
It commanded me, fir, for believe me, 
that no event of mv life ever occu- 
pied more of my rcfleftion. To fub- 
fcribe feemed to offer no inconfidera- 
ble gratification, fincc it would have 
prefented me to the world as a fellow- 
labourer with the learned and zeal- 
ous ftatefmen of America. But it was 



far more inl:erefting to my feelings, 
that I was albout to differ from three 
of mj' colleagues ; one of whom is, 
to the honour of the country, which 
he has faved , embofomed in their af- 
feftions, and can receive no praife 
from the higheft luftre of language : 
the other two of whom have been 
long enrolled among the wifeft and 
befl lovers of the commonwealth, 
and the unfhaken and intimate friend- 
lhip of all whom I have ever prized, 
and ftill do prize, as among the hap- 
pieft: of all my acquifitions. I was 
no ftranger to the reigning partiali- 
ty for the members who compofed the 
convention ; and had not the fmalleft 
doubt, that from this caufe, and from 
the ardour for a reform of govern- 
ment, the firft applaufes, at leaft, 
would be loud, and profufe. I fuf- 
pedcd, too, that there was fomething 
in the human breafl:, which for a 
time would be apt to conftruc a tem- 
peratenefs in politics into an enmity 
to the union. Nay I plainly fore- 
faw, that in the diflentions of parties, 
a middle line would probably be in- 
terpreted into a want of enterprize 
and decifion. But thefe confidera- 
tions, how feducing foever, were fee- 
ble opponents to the fuggeflions of 
my confcicnce. I was fcnt to exer- 
cife my judgment, and to exercife it 
was my fixed determination ; being 
inftrufted by even an imperfeft ac- 
quaintance with mankind, that felf- 
approbation is the only true reward, 
which a political career can beftow, 
and that popularity would have been 
but another name for perfidy, if to 
fecure it, I had given up the freedom 
of thinking for myfelf. 

It would have been a peculiar plea- 
fure to me, to have afcertained, be- 
fore I left Virginia, the temper and 
genius of my fellow citizens, con- 
fidered relatively to a govern- 
ment, fo fubftantially differing from 
the confederation, as that which is 
now fubmitted. But this was for 
many obvious reafons impoflible ; and 



Letter frsm governor Randolph. 



69 



I was thereby deprived of what I 
thought the neceflary guides. 

I faw, however, that the confede- 
ration was tottering from its own 
weaknefs, and that the fitting of the 
convention was a fignal of its total in- 
fufficiency. I was therefore ready to 
aflent to a fcheme of government, 
which was propofed, and which went 
beyond the limits of the confedera- 
tion, believing, that without being 
too extenfive,it would have preferred 
our tranquility, until that temper 
and that genius (hould be collefted. 

But when the plan which is now 
before the general aflembly, was on 
its pafTage through the convention, 
I moved, that the flate conventions 
Ihould be at liberty to amend, and 
that a fecond general convention 
Ihould be holden to difcufs the a- 
mendments, whicli fhould be fuggelt- 
ed by them. This motion was in 
fome meafure julUfied by the manner 
in which the confederation was for- 
warded originally by congrefs to 
the ftate legiflatures, in many of 
which amendments were propofed, 
and thofe amendments were after- 
wards examined in congrefs. Such 
a motion was doubly expedient here, 
as the delegation of fo much more 
power was fought for. But it was 
negatived. I then exprefied my un- 
willingnefs to fign. My reafons 
were the following : 

1. It is faid in the refolutions, 
which accompany the conftitution, 
that it is to be fubmitted to a conven- 
tion of delegates, chofen in each 
ftate by the people thereof, for their 
aflent and ratification. The mean- 
ing of thefe terms is allowed univer- 
fally to be, that the convention mull 
either adopt the conftitution in the 
whole, or rejeft it in the whole, and 
is pofitively forbidden to amend. If 
therefore I had figncd, I fhould have 
felt myfelf bound to be filent as to 
amendments, and to endeavour to 
fupport the conftitution without the 
correftion of a letter. With this 



confequence before my eyes, and 
with a determination to attempt an 
amendment, I was taught by a re- 
gard for confiftency not to fign. 

2. My opinion always was, and 
ftill is, that every citizen of Ameri- 
ca, let the crifis be what it mav, 
ought to have a full opportunity to 
propofe through his reprefentatives 
any amendment, which in his appre- 
henfion tends to the public welfare— 
By figning I fhould have contradi«t\- 
ed this fentiment. 

3. A conftitution ought to have 
the hearts of the people on its fide. 
But if at a future day it fhould be 
burdenfome, after having been 
adopted in the whole, and they 
fhould infinuate, that it was in fome 
meafure forced upon them, by being 
confined to the fingle alternative of 
taking or rejeding it altogether, 
under my impreffions and with my 
opinions I Ihould not be able to juf- 
tify myfelf had I figned. 

4. I was always fatisfied, as I have 
now experienced, that this great fub- 
P&. would Lie placed in new lighr$ 
and attitudes by the criticifra of the 
world, and that no man can alTurc 
himfelf, how a conftitution will work 
for a cotirfe of years, until at leaft 
he (hall have h?ard the obfervations 
of tlie people at large. I alfo fear 
more from inaccuracies in a conftitu- 
tion than from grofs errors in any o- 
ther compofition ; bccaufe our dearcft: 
interefts are to be regulated by it, and 
power, if loofely given, efpecially 
where it will be interpreted with 
great latitude, may bring forrow in 
its execution. Had I figned with 
thefe ideas, I fhould have virtually 
fhut my ears againft the information 
which I ardently defired. 

5. I was afraid, that if the confti- 
tution was to be fubmitted to th.> 
people, to be wholly adopted or 
wholly rejcifled by them, they^would 
not only rcjed, but bid a laning 
farewel to the union. This formi- 
dable event I wiQied to avert, hf 



Letter from gyvcrnor Randd^h. 



keeping myfelf free to propofe 
amendments, and thus, if pofTible, 
to remove the obilaclss to an eiFedu- 
a! government. But it will be alked, 
whether all thefe arguments were 
not well weighed in convention. 
'iTiey were, fir, and with great can- 
dour. Nay, when I called to mind 
the refpec^ability of thofe with 
whom I was afTociatcd, I almolt loll 
confidence in thefe principles. On 
other occafions I (hould chearfuUy 
have yielded to a majority ; on this 
the fate of thouTands, yet unborn, 
enjoined me not to yield, until I was 
convinced. 

Again may I be aflccd, why the 
mode pointed out in the conflitution 
for its amendment, may not be a fuf- 
ficient fecurity again!! its imp;rK?c- 
tions, without now arrelting it in its 
progrefs ? — My anfwers are, i. 
That it is better to aiaend, while we 
have the conflituticn in our power, 
while the paOions of defigning men 
are not yet enlilled, and while a bare 
majority of the ftates may amend, 
than to wait for the uncertain alTent 
of three fourths of the ftates. 2. 
That a bad feature in government be- 
comes more and more fixed every 
day. 3. That frequent changes of 
a conftitution, even if practicable, 
ought not to be wifhed, but avoided 
as much as poffible. And 4, that in 
the prefent cafe it may be ijueilion- 
able, whether, after the particular 
advantages of its operation lliall be 
difcerned, three-fourths of the Hates 
can be induced to amend. 

I confefs that it is no eafy taik, 
to devife a fcheme which ihall be fuit- 
able to the views of all. Many ex- 
pedients have occurred to me, but 
none of them appear lefs exceptiona- 
ble than thi?, that if our convention 
fhould choofe to amend, another fe- 
deral conventi.^n be recommended ; 
that in that federal convention the 
amendments propofed by this or any 
other ftate, be difcuffed ; and if in- 
ex)rporated in the conilitutioa or re- 



jcfted, or if a proper number of the 
other ftates fliould be unwilling to 
accede to a fecond convention, the 
conftitution be again laid before the 
fame ftate conventions, which (hall 
again aifemble on the fummons of 
the executives and it (hall be either 
wholly adopted, or wholly rejefted 
without a further power of amend- 
ment. I count fuch a delay as no- 
thing, in comparifon with fo grand 
an objed ; efpecially too as the pri- 
vilege c^i amending muft terminate 
after the ufe of it once. 

I faould now conclude this letter, 
which is already too long, were it 
n-'t incumbent on me from having 
contended for amendments, to fet 
forth the particulars, which I con- 
ceive to require corredion. I under- 
take this with reluftance ; becaufe it 
is remote from m)' inentions to catch 
the prejudices or prepoflellions of any 
man. But as I mean only to rnani- 
feft-, that I have not been adaated b/ 
caprice, and now to explain every 
objection at full length would be an 
immenfe labour, I fhall content my- 
felf with enuinerating certain heads, 
in which the conftitution is moft re- 
pugnant to my wifties. 

The two firll points arc the equa- 
lity of fuffrage in the fenate, and the 
ful3mifiion of commerce to a mere 
majority in the legiflature, with no 
other check than the revifion of the 
prcfidcnt. I conjc<flure that neither of 
thefe things can be corrected ; and 
p»articularly the former ; without 
which we miift have rifen perhaps ia 
diforder. 

But I arn fanguine in hoping, that 
in every other juftly obnoxious 
claufe, Virginia will be feconded by 
H majority of the ftates. I hope that 
fhe will be feconded, i. In caufing 
all ambiguities of expreflion to be 
precifely explained : 2. In rendering 
the prefident ineligible after a given 
number of years ; 5. In taking from 
him either the power of nominating 
to the judiciary offices, or of filling 



Refolutians of inhahitants of the county ofChonjoan, ISc, 



"Up vacancies which therein may hap- 
pen during the recefs of the for.atc,by 
granting commiirions which ih.all ex- 
pire at the end cf their next felfion: 4. 
in taking from him the power of par- 
doning for treaibn, at iealt before 
conviction : 5. In drawing a line be- 
tween the powers of coagrefs and 
individual Rates 5 and in deuning the 
former. To as to leave no clalhing of 
jurifdiftions, nor dangerous dilputes : 
and to prevent the one from being 
fwallowed up by the other, under the 
cover of general words and implica- 
tion : 6. in abridging the power of 
the fenate to maicc treaties the fupreme 
laws of the land : 7. in providing a tri- 
bunal initead of the fenate for the im- 
peachment of fcnators : 8. in incapa- 
citating the congrefs to determine 
their own falaries: and g. in limiting 
and detining the judicial power. 

The proper remedy muil be con- 
figned to the v.ifdom of the conven- 
tion ; and the final ftep which Vir- 
ginia fhall purfue, if her overtures 
are difcarded, muu alio reft with 
them. 

But as I aiFed neither myftery nor 
fubtilty in politics, 1 heiitate not to 
fay, that the nijft fervent prayer of 
my foul is the eftabliiliment of a 
firm, energetic government ; that the 
moil: inveterate curfe whi^h can befal 
us, is a diffblution of the union ; and 
that the prefent moinent, if fuffered 
to pafs away unemployed, can never 
be recalled. Thefe were m.y opini- 
ons, while I acfed as a delegate ; 
they fway me, while I fpeak as a 
private citizen. 1 fhall therefore 
cling to the union, as the rock of 
our falvation, and urge Virginia to 
fini'ih the falurary work which fhe 
has begun. And if after our bell ef- 
forts for amendments, tliey cannot be 
obtained, I fcruple not to declare, 
(notwithrtanding the advantage 
which fuch a declaration may give to 
the enemies of my propofal) that I 
will, as an individual citizen, accept 
the conilitution ; beca-jfe I will reo-u- 



late myfelf by the fpirit of Ame- 
rica. 

Ycu will excufe me, fir, for hav- 
ing been thus tedious. My feelings 
and duty demanded this expofition : 
for through no other channel could I 
refcue my omiiTion to fign from m.if- 
reprefentation, and in no moreeifec- 
tual way could I exhibit to the gene- 
ral afTembly an unreferved hiitory of 
my conduct. 

I have the honour, fir, to be, witli 
great refped, 

your molt obedient ferrant, 
EDMUND RANDOLPH. 
Thehon. the fpeaker of the 

houfe 'jf delegates. 



At a meeting of a refpeBahle number of 
inhabitants of the county of Cho'-iXanf 
and the tonxin of Edenton, at the 
court-ho7<fe in Edenton, on the %tb 
day of i^o-vember, 1787, ptrjuant 
tj an advertijetr.snt from their repre-^ 
fcntatives in the general ajjhnbly — 
Thomas Benbiirj, efn. chairman — • 
thefllj'zviug rrflutions njjere utiani- 
moujly agreed to. 

RESOLVED, that in the opinion 
of this meeting, this (tate can 
have no profpeft either of fecurity or 
honour, but by a firm and indilTolu- 
ble' union with the other Hates in the 
confederation. 

That the benefits derived from 
union were moft remarkably and pro- 
videntially difplayed by the gloriouj 
and fuccefsful termination of a war, 
in which we were for a long time 
very unequally engaged, and have 
been no lefs apparent from the (late 
of anarchy, diftrefs and difhonour, 
to which we have been expofed fines 
the peace, for want of a continental 
government of fufficient energy to 
anfwer all the purpofes for which 
our confederation can be of any real 
ufe to us. 

That in our prefent Ctuation, on- 



7z 



Addrefs of the grand jnry of Edenton, 



grefs being without either money, 
credit or refources, (for the volun- 
tary and unanimous concurrence of 
thirteen Hates in any one meafure, 
we are now convinced, is a futile de- 
pendence) it is full time, if we mean 
to be a united people, to eflablilh 
fuch 3 government as can keep us to- 
gether, otherwife that independence, 
which we have obtained fo hardly, 
and prize {o much, will pafs away 
like a fhadow, and we ihall be num- 
bered among the vilionary and un- 
happy of mankind. 

That fuch being our fituation, and 
when we had almo;t defpaired of any 
material and honourable change, we 
view with admiration and giacitude, 
a {)'S!i.tvci foimed by the unaairnous 
conc! »:-enrs of tweb'e flates, which, 
magnanimoufly difuaining petty 
competitions of local and private iu- 
terefts, embraced with patriotic ar- 
dour, the great objsd of an united 
government, calculated, (to ufe their 
own excellent words) to cua')lifh juf- 
tice, infure domelUc tr<:inquility, 
provide for the common defence, 
promote t'.is general welfare, and fe- 
cure the bleiiings of liberty to our- 
felves and our pofterity. 

That amidit other circum'ftances 
which fill our hearts with joy on this 
important occanon, we cannot con- 
fi.f!er with indifference the diftin- 
guilhed part which our immortal ge- 
neral has taken in this great work, 
calculated to complete the happinefs 
of which he laid the foundation ; and 
we conftder it as an aft of provi- 
dence, for which we ought to be 
particularly thankful, that he ex- 
tended to fo late a period the valua- 
ble life of that venerable man, dr. 
Franklin, whofe wifdom, fortitude, 
and perfeverance had fo great a (hare 
in eftablilhing the peace and inde- 
pendence of our country. 

That it is in vain for us to exped 
for any abler alTiftance than that given 
by thofe and other illuftrious charac- 
ters in the late convention, whofe de- 



liberations appear to have been con- 
duced with a degree of temper and 
afliduity fuited to the difficult talk 
they were engaged in : and therefore 
we think every hour of delay, in car- 
rying their propofitions into efFedt, 
is unneceffary for any good purpofe; 
and by continuing the prefent evils 
of imbecility, anarchy, and national 
didionour, may endanger the lofs of 
all thofe bleflings, for the fake of 
which any government can be of the 
lead: ufe, and a free government muft 
be of the greateft. 

Refolved, therefore, that this meet- 
ing do carneftiy delire that their 
members for this town and county, 
do ufe their utmoft efforts to obtain 
a refolution of the general aflembly, 
appointing the choice and meeting of 
reprefentatives of the people, in a 
convention, })urfuant to the recom- 
mendation of the late convention 
held at Philadelphia, in order to de- 
liberate on the new conftitution pro- 
pofed ; and that the time of holding 
the faid convention be appointed on 
as early a day as poffible. 

Refolved, alfo, that this meeting 
entertain a very grateful fenfe of the 
eminent fervices rendered to this 
ftate by its delegates in the late con- 
vention ; and are in particular oblig- 
ed to dr. Williamfon for the able 
and ufeful information he has this 
day given on the fubjcft of the nevr 
conftitution propofed. 

By order of the meeting, 

(figned) 

THOMAS BENBURY, Ch. 



Edetiton, November iz, 1787. 
Addrefs of the grand jury of Edenton. 

WE, the grand jury for thedif- 
trid of Edenton confidering 
the prefent as a very important crifis 
in the affairs of America, and being 



Addrefs of the grand jury ofEdenton, 



7i 



deeply fenfible of the neceflity of a 
firm and lafting union among the 
American ftates, to infure the com- 
mon fafcty and liberty of all, hope 
it will not be deemed prefuming in 
us, that we take this occafion to ex- 
prefs our fentiments on the fubjetl of 
the new conftitution, propofed by 
the late refpeftable convention. We 
believe none can be fo ignorant as 
not to know, and we hope few are fo 
unfeeling as not to regret, the dif- 
ordered and diftra(^ted Rate in which 
the affairs of the union have been for 
a long time paft. No fooner was 
the danger of a common enemy re- 
moved, than the ftates immediately 
detached themfelves from the general 
concerns of the whole, as if our fu- 
ture fate was out of the power of 
fortune. 1 he confequence has been, 
our public debts unpaid, the treaty 
of peace unfulfilled on both fides, our 
commerce at tlie very verge of ruin, 
and all private induftry at a ftand, 
for want of an united vigorous go- 
vernment. Quotas demanded which 
we can never pay, and congrefs pre- 
fer ving merely the fhadow of autho- 
rity, without pofTeffing one fubflan- 
tial property of power. Thefe evils 
didated the neceflity of a change, 
and the fame happy expedient of an 
union of councils, which formed the 
confederation, was adopted to reme- 
dy its defeds. Experience had 
pointed thefe out, and we believe it 
would be difficult to draw together 
' in any country, a body of abler men 
than the perfons appointed on this 
important occafion. They were not 
only able men, but entitled to the 
highefl confidence which can be be- 
ftowcd by any people upon iliuflrious 
and fuccefsful leaders : and the fame 
patriotifm of character which former- 
ly diftinguiflied fo many of them in 
the mofl trying fcenes, was vifible in 
the anxious and deep attention they 
employed on this momentous fubjedt. 
A work coming from fuch men, af- 
ter fuch long deliberation, is enti- 
Vol. III. No. I, 



tied to the outmoft refpeft, efpecially, 
as all the flates affembled were una- 
nimous, a circumftance that ftrongly 
fhews the purity of their intentions, 
their fenfe of the abfolute necefTity 
that a new conftitution fhould be im- 
mediately formed, and that little fub- 
ordinate attentions to local inte- 
refts, ought to give way to the great 
objeft of the general good. There 
is nothing we hold in greater dif- 
dain, nor is there any thing more 
inconfiilent with common prudence, 
as well as the moft ordinary fhare of 
public fpirit, than that we fhould ca- 
vil about trifles when our all is at 
flake ; that v.'e ihould flight the pre- 
fent favourable opportunity, which 
may be the only one we may ever 
enjoy, to eftablifii a free and energe- 
tic government, when we now lie at 
the mercy of the moll: inconfiderable 
enemy, and have an union in no- 
thing but in name. We admire in 
the new conftitution, a proper jea- 
loufy of liberty mixed with a due re- 
gard to the necefTity of a flrong au- 
thoritative government. Such a one 
is as requifite for a confederated, as 
for a fingle government, fnice it 
would not be more ridiculous or fu- 
tile for our own alTembly to depend 
for a fanftion to its laws on an una- 
nimous concurrence of all the coun- 
ties in the ftate, than for congrefs to 
depend for any neceffarj' exertion of 
power on the unanimous concurrence 
of all the ftates in the union. One 
weak, corrupted, or unprincipled 
ftate might in fuch a cafe deftroy the 
whole. This evil, the effeft of 
which we have already felt, is, in our 
opinion, happily remedied by thz 
conftitution propofed, with an ad- 
vantage, in addii'on, of a popular 
reprefentativc of the people at large 
accompanied with ufeful checks to 
guard againft pofnble abufes. It is 
alfc a part of the conftitution that we 
obferxe witli particular pleafure, that 
nine ftates may at any time make al- 
terations, fo that any changes, which 
K 



R;f(jIutions of the inhahilafits of Isavthampton coii^i'y. 



74 

experience may point out, can be made 
without the danger of fuch calamities 
as are incident upon changes of go- 
A'crnment in all other countries, 
where they can be only brought 
about by a civil war. Nor can we 
avoid dwelling with delight upon 
thofe many provifions, calculated to 
make us as much one people as poUi- 
ble, and to imprefs upon the minds 
of all, that ufeful and important 
truth, that our ftrength confifts in 
union, and nothing can hurt us but 
divilion. May this great truth, fo 
important for us, fo formidable to 
our enemies, relt upon the minds of 
all well wiihers to their country, as 
the watch-word of American liberty 
an<l fafety ! The \arJous attempts 
that were made to divide us during 
the war, and the danger of fimilar 
efforts being ufed on the prefent oc- 
cafion to make us diftruft: our beft 
and ableft charafters, ought to put us 
upon our guard that we may not fuf- 
fer ourfelves to be the dupes of an 
infidious policy working for our def- 
truftion. But we truft in God, that 
the fame all- powerful providence, 
which has hitherto fo wonderfully 
^preferved us, will ftill continue to 
protcd us from the machinations of 
all our enemies, internal and exter- 
nal ; and that by a wife ufe of the 
vail advantages in our poffeflion, this 
country may become, as it feemsdef- 
lined to be, an afylum for all the 
opprefled upon the globe. 

Entertaining thefe fentiments, 
which the warmth of our feelings 
bath carried to a greater length ih»a 
we intended, we moil: earneltly wifb 
that the general aflembly may ap- 
point the meeting of a convention on as 
early a day as poffible, that no re- 
proach of unneceffary delay may lie 
on us, when, in all human probabi- 
lity, upon our fpcedy adoptjon or 
rejection of this conftitution it may 
depend, whether we iball be truly a 
nation happy in ourfehrs, and re- 
fpeifted by the reft of mankind, or an 



inconfiderable fcattered people, pc'f- 
petually driving to and fro, m fearch 
of a perfeftion which never can be 
found ; amuiing ourfelves with vifi- 
onary ideas, when we might be en- 
joying real bleflings, and at length 
doomed to feel the curfe cfall hu- 
man difcontent, the confcioufnefs 
that bv rejecting the means provi- 
dence hath put in our pov,er, weh<id 
become both wretched and cohtem.p. 
tible. 

Win. Benmt, foreman y f. Br^xhei, 
C. Clark, y. Rijcoe, 

T. '•Tarl.r, L. Lrivh, 

J. Friz, I, J. Wood, 

A. N'-.rJtreef, R. Gray, 

W. Rightot/, E. M...re, 

F. Toms, J. Perry, 

y. Hor„e, H. mi, 

R. Bryd, E. Co,k, 

j^i a meeting offundry refpeSlahle inha-' 
bitants of the county of Northampto?!^ 
held at Eojim, the loth day of Dc- 
cembtr, 17S7, Alexander Faiterjon, 
tjq. in the chair, 

THE meeting took into confidc- 
ration the report made to the 
jieople of this county by their depu- 
ties to the llate convelition. VV here- 
upon, 

Refolved unanimoufly, firfl;. That 
we highly approve of the conduct of 
our deputies in aflenting to and rati- 
fying the conltitution of the united 
Hates, as propofcd by the late federal 
convention. 

Second, That tlie chairman be re- 
quefted to return our hearty thanks 
to the faid deputies, for their patriot- 
ifm, public fpirit, and faithful dif- 
charge of their duty, as reprcfenta- 
tives of this county. 

Third, That their report, together 
with thefe refolutions, be tranfmitted 
by the chairman to Philadelphia, for 
publication. 

tigned, bv order of the meeting, 
ALEX. PATTERSON, CU, 



R;p'}r! of the deputies nf Korthatnpton eotmfy. 



ly 



Ji.-poi't of the dsputies of 'Northamp- 
ton connfy, in the Inte conuenlion of 
thejliite of Bctmfylvania. 

Friends and felhia citizefts of North- 
ampton county, 

THE reprcfentatives of this coun- 
ty in the late convention of 
this ftate think it their duty, as fer- 
vaius of the public, to lay before 
you, their conltituents, therefultof 
tiicir deliberations upon the new 
conftitution for the united ftates, 
fubmitted to their conruicration by a 
refolve of the legillarure for caifing 
a Ibitc convention. 

The debates at large ws have rea- 
fo;i to expeft will be publiihed, 
wherein thofe, whofe inclination 
may lead them to it, will find a de- 
tail of all the arguments made ufe of 
either for or againlt the adoption of 
the coiiititution. Our intention, 
therefore, is not to enter fully into 
an iiveitigation of the component 
parts of it, but only to inform our 
conitituents that it has beeen care- 
fully examined in all its parts ; that 
every objection that could be offered 
to it has been heard and attended to; 
and that upon mature deliberation, 
two thirds of the whole number of 
(deputies from the city and counties 
jn this Hate have, in the name and 
bv the authority of the people of 
tins ibtte, fully ratified it, upon the 
molt clear convi(ftion, 

I ft. That the ttate of America re- 
quired a concentration and union of 
the powers of government for all ge- 
neral purpofes of the united ttates. 

adlv. That the conitltution pro- 
pofed by the late convention of the 
united itates, held at Philadelphia, 
was the bell form that could be devifed 
and agreed upon. 

3dly. That fuch a conftitution 
will enable the reprcfentatives of the 
different ftates in the union to reftore 
the commerce of all the ftates in ge- 
neral, and this in particular, to its 
former profperity. 



4thly. That bv a diminution of 
taxes upon real eftates, agriculture 
may be encouraged, and the prices of 
lands, which have of late greatly de- 
clined, will be increafed to their for- 
mer value. 

jthly. That by impofing duties 
on foreign luxuries, not only arts 
and manufactures will be encouraged 
in our own country ; but the public 
creditors of this ftate and the united 
Itates will be rendered fecure in their 
demands, without any perceptible 
burden on the people. 

6thly. That all difputes which 
might otherwife arife, concerning 
territorv or jurifdiftion, bctvveen 
neighbouring Hates, will be fettled 
in the ordinary mode of diftributing 
jufticc, without war or bloodlhed. 

7thly, 7^'''''^ ^'""^ fupport of go- 
vernment will be lefs expenfive than 
under the prefent conltitutions of the 
different ftates. 

8thly. That all partial laws of any 
particular ftate for the defeating con- 
tiaits between parties, or rendering 
the compliance therewith on one part 
eafier than was originally intended, 
and fraudulent to the other party, are 
eftedually provided againil, by a 
prohibiti.ors of paper money and ten- 
der laws. And 

gthly. Tbat peace, liberty and 
f.ifcty, the great objects for which 
the late united colonies, now free in- 
dependent Itates, expended fo much 
blood and treafure, cari only be fe- 
cured by fuch an union of intereits as 
this conftitution has provided for. 

In full confidence that our unani- 
mous conviction and concurrence in 
favour of this conftitution will meet 
the entire approbation of our confti- 
tuents, the freemen and citizens of 
this county, we have the honour to 
fubfcribe ourfelves, their devoted fcr- 
vants, 

fohn Arndt, 
E'jJirjK, Dec. 20, Stephen Bnlliof, 

^7^1' f'^fiph H:>rfefieldt 

Dasvid Dejhlert 



^6 



Rcfolutions of the trade/men of the toivn of Bojloit. 



RESOLUTIONS of the tradefmen of 
the tonun of Eojhn, 

BjJijK, January 7, 1788. 

WHEREAS fome perfons, in- 
tending to injure the repu- 
tation of the tradefmen of this town, 
have aiTerted, that they were unfriend- 
Vj and adverfe to the adoption of the 
confritution of the united ftates of 
America, as propofed on the 17th 
September laft, by the convention of 
the united ftates alTembied inPhiladel- 
p'ia.Therelore, to manifeftthe falfe- 
hood of fuch affertions, and to difco- 
ver to the world our fentiments of 
the propofed frame of government. 
Be it RESOLVED, 

1. THAT fuch aflertions are falfe 
and groundlefs ; and it is the fenfe of 
this body, that all thofe, who pro- 
pagate fuch reports, have no other 
view than the injury of our reputa- 
tion, or the attainment of their own 
wicked purpofes, on bafe and falfe 
grounds. 

2. THAT in the judgment of this 
body, the propofed frame of govern- 
ment is wt U calculated to fecure the 
liberties, proteft the property, and 
guard the rights of the citizens of A- 
merica ; and it is our warmeft wifli 
and prayer that the fame fhould be 
adopted bv this commonwealth. 

3. THAT it is our opinion, if 
faid conltitution fhould be adopted 
by the united ftates of America, trade 
and navigation will revive and in- 
creafe, employ and fubfiftence will 
be afforded to many of our townfmcn, 
who are now fuffering for want of 
the ncceflaries of life ; that it will 
promote induftry and morality ; render 
us refpf'ftable as a nation ; and procure 
us all the bleifings to which we are en- 
titled from ihe natural wealth of our 
country, our capacity for improve- 
ment, from our induftry, our freedom 
and independence. 

4. THAT it is the fenfe of this 
body, that if the propofed frame of 
government fhould be rejefted, the 



fmall remains of commerce yet left 
us, will be annihilated, the various 
trades and handicrafts dependent there- 
on, muft decay ; our poor will be in- 
creafed, and many of our worthy and 
feilful mechanics compelled to feelc 
employ and fubfiftence in ftrange 
lands. 

5. THAT, in the late eleftion of 
delegates to reprefent this town in 
convention, it was ourdelign, and [in] 
the opinion of this body, the defign 
of every good man in town, to eleft 
fuch men, and fuch only, as would 
exert their utmoft ability to promote 
the adoption of the propofed frame 
of government in all its parts, with- 
out any conditions, pretended amend- 
ments, or alterations whatever : and 
that fuch, and fuch only, will truly 
reprefent the feelings, wiflies, and 
defires of their conftituents : and if 
any of the delegates of this town 
fliould oppofe the adoption of faid 
frame of government in grofs, or 
under pretence of making amend- 
ments, or alterations of any kind, or 
of annexing conditions to their ac- 
ceptance, fuch delegate or delegates 
will aft contrary to the beft interefts, 
the ftrongeft feelings, and warmeft 
wifhes of the tradefmen of the town 
of Bofton. 

JOHN LUCAS, per order. 



Extras of a letter from his excellency 
general ]VaJkingt07i, to a frieud /« 
Fredericjiurgh. 

" T Thank you for your kind con- 
X. gratulation on my fafe return 
from the convention, and am pleafed 
that the proceedings of it have met 
your approbation. — My decided o- 
pinion of the matter is, that there i« 
no alternative between the adoption 
of it and anarchy. If one ftate 
(however important it may conceive 
itfelf to be) or a minority of them, 
fhould fuppofc that they can dictate 



Antifederal arguments. 



77 



a coiiftitution to the union (unlefs 
they have the power of applying the 
ultima ratio to good efFeiit) they will 
find themfelves deceived. All the 
oppofition to it that I have yet feen, 
is, I mull confefs, addreffed more t'o 
the paffions than to reafon ; and 
clear I am, if another federal con- 
vention is attempted, that the fenti- 
ments of the members will be more 
difcordant, or lefs accommodating 
than the laft. In fine, they will agree 
upon no general plan. General go- 
vernment is now fufpended by a 
thread. I might go further, and fay, 
it is really at an end, and what will 
be the confequence of a fruitlefs at- 
tempt to amend the one which is of- 
fered, before it is tried, or of the 
delay from the attempt, does not in 
my judgment need the gift of pro- 
phecy to predid. 

" I am not a blind admirer (for 
I faw the imperfedions of the 
conltitution I aided in the birth of 
before it was handed to the public) : 
but I am fully perfuaded it is the beft 
that can be obtained at this lime ; 
that it is free from many of the im- 
perfeftions with which it is charged ; 
and that it, or difunion, is before us 
to choofe from. If the firft is our 
eleftion, when the defefts of it are 
experienced, a conftitutional door is 
opened for amendments, and may be 
adopted in a peaceal*le manner, with- 
out tumult or diforder." 

..<>...<S><S><S>-(^- 

Antifederal arguments. 

Argument I. 

IT has been publiihed to the peo- 
ple, that dr. Franklin was oppof- 
ed to the conltitution, and confented 
to fign it merely as a witnefs. 
AiiJ'iver. 
Dodor Franklin, in his fpeech, 
affigning his reafons for agreeing to 
the conftitution, fays, "I hope, there- 
fore, that for our fakes, as a part of 
the people, and for the fake of our 



polterity, we fhall a£l heartily and 
unanimoufly in recommending this 
conftitution, wherever our influence 
may extend." 

II. 

It has been publiihed, that mr. Jay- 
had changed his opin-on, and af- 
firmed the new conftitution to be 
the moft artful trap that had ever 
been laid to catch the liberties of 
mankind. 

A'lfivcr. 

Mr. Jay, in his letter to mr. Vaugh- 
an, of Philadelphia, fays, •* You 
have my autliority to deny the change 
of fentiment it imputes to mc, and to 
d;;clare that, in my opinion, it is ad- 
vifablc for the people of America to 
adopt the conftitution propofed by 
late convention." 

III. 

It is aflerted,that mr. Elfvvorth, of 
Connefticut, withdrew from the con- 
vention. 

Anf^Mer. 

Mr. Elfworth and mr. Sherman, 
in their joint letter, enclofing the 
conftitution to their legiilature, fay, 
" We wifti it may meet the approba- 
tion of the feveral ftates, and be the 
means of fecuring their rights, and 
lengthening out their tranquility." 
IV. 

Mr. Richard Henry Lee, in a let- 
ter to the governor of Virginia, fays, 
" It has hitherto been luppofed a 
fundamental maxim, that in govern- 
ments rightly balanced, the diiferent 
branches of the legiilature Ihoiild be 
unconnected, and that the legiflative 
and executive powers, fliould be fe- 
parate." 

Anfrvjer. 

In the Brittfh conftitution, which 
is thought to be the bcft balanced in 
the world, the legiflative and execu- 
tive powers are not feparate. Mt)n- 
tefquieu, fpeaking on this fubjedt, 
fays, the executive power ought to 
have a fhare in the legiilature, by 
the power of rejefting ; otherwife it 
would foon be ftripped of its prero- 
gative. 



''S 



Letter to the lmoure:llf Richard ILf'rv Lee, efq. 



V. 



Mr. Rlcliard Henry Lee fays, i:i the 
fame publication, " the president is 
for four years duration, and Vir- 
j'inia (for example) has one vote ot" 
thirteen in the choice ot him, and 
this thirteenth vote not of the peo- 
ple, hut deftors, two removes IVoni 
the people." 

A:!fn.ver. 

By the conflitution, tlie prefident 
is to be chofcn by ninety-one eleftors, 
each having one vote : of this number 
Virginia has twelve, fo that, inftead 
of the thirteenth vote in the choice 
of prefident, Virginia (for example) 
Iiasfomew/hat more than an eighth. 

The coniHtution alfo admits of tlie 
people choofing the elcftors, fo that 
the eleftors may be only one remove 
from the i>eople. 

VI. 

It is alfo faid by mr. Pxlchard Henr 
ry Lee, thiit the people of this coun- 
try have thought a bill of rightr^ 
necelTary to regulate the exercife of 
the great power given to their rulers, 
Si appears bv the various bills or de- 
clarations of rights, whereon the go- 
vernments of the greater number of 
the dates are founded. 
Aiif-M r. 

Only five ftates appear, by the 
book of conftitutions, to ha\'e a bill 
of rights, which are the ielfer number 
of Ixates. 

To the hon. Richard Henry Lee, efq. 

Sir, 

YOUR name has been given to 
the people of America, in a 
letter to the governor of Virginia, 
with a number of obfcrvations of the 
utmoil importance to the public hap- 
pinefs. Authorized by this circum- 
ttancc, and the privileges of an Ame- 
rican citizen, I have undertaken to 
addrefs you. Though mv want of 
information and the necelTary talents 
may pre\cnt my doin^ complete juf- 



tice to the particul.ir point which I 
mean to iiivelligare, I pror.iife you 
the refpeft due to your charader, i^nd 
to. die honourable e.nplovmeiiis you 
hav6 held in the fcrvicc of our com- 
mon oo.mtry. Should I fugfjelt to 
you or nny other fellow citizen, fads 
and confiderations fufficient ta re- 
njove this oujeCHon to the federal 
couilitation, my wifhes will be fui- 
filied. At ail events, howe\'er, I 
fhail avail myfelf of the attention 
which your name will infure to my 
addrefb, and will carry it, by that 
advantage, to the minds of our coun- 
trymen. 

The power of enadino' commerci- 
al laws by " a bare majunty" oi the 
congreflional legiflature, appears to 
be a principal objedion in your view 
cfthefubjed; and, if I am right- 
ly informed, it is confidered in the 
fama light by the two honourable 
Virginians, who withheld their names 
froiii the ad of the federal conven- 
tion. Such naiiies, fir, and objections, 
npoii fo grand a point, it is not my 
intention to treat lightly ; yet your 
remarks muft be dilpa.iiOnately can- 
valTcd, without any undue refped to 
the eminent charaders that fuggelt or 
fupport them. 

Li order to afcertain in whatmanr 
per the Icgiilative powers of the u- 
nited itates will be exercifed on the 
commercial fubjed, it will be necef- 
fary to trace the federal legiflature up 
to its feveral fources. You fpeak 
of the fuppofed danger from this 
power of congrefs as an objed of {pe- 
culiar apprehenfion to the five fouth- 
ern Itates, from whence 1 prefume, 
and I hope not unfairly, that you 
concur with me in confidering their 
true interefts as decidedly agricultu- 
ral — and in believing that the federal 
legillature, whether in one branch or 
in the other, fo far as it fhall be con- 
Itituted by them, will be duly atten- 
tive to the landed intereih of America, 
and cautious againft any injurious 
roeafures which may be attempted by 



Later to the honourahle Richard Henry Lee, i-ff. 



79 



the mercantile reprefentatives. Your 
candour will readily grant, that to 
thofc five (uutherq Itatcs, we may add 
Delaware and New-Jerfcy, two Rates 
the molt abfolutely ag>-icultural of 
any in the union by reafon of the ad- 
jacent fituatioas of Philadelphia and 
Isew Yoric. 

Before we proceed to confider the 
True leading imerelt, and views of 
the fix remaining members of our 
confederacy, let us remember, that 
upon your own ilatement, and the 
cv'idence of fa,^ts, it is clearly elia- 
blifhed, that in the fenate of Ameri- 
ca, we Ihall always be certain of a 
majority of two devoted to her land- 
ed interetts, and in the houfe of re- 
prefentatives of a majority of three ; 
for Georgia, the Carolinas, Virgi- 
nia, Maryland, Delaware and jer- 
fey are to fend fourteen votes to the 
fenate, which has twenty-fix mem- 
bers, and thirty-four to the federal 
houfe of reprefentatives, whofe 
whole number is lixty-five. The 
ereftion of Kentucke and Vermont, 
which appears certain, into indepen- 
dent governments, the increahng po- 
pulation of the weltern parts of the 
Atlantic dates, and the ellablifli- 
ment of new tnembers of tlie union 
■on the lands of congrefs, will ali ope- 
rate to lefien tine weight of the fix 
"Itates, in regard to which your ap- 
prehenfion exlfb, and vvill increafe 
that preponderancy which we fee the 
other feven ahcady poiTefs. 

Let us now turn our cool, but 
clofe, attention to thofe fix Ihtes, 
from whofe fuppofeti views and inte- 
retts thele apprchenfions arife. As 
Pennfylvania enjr»ys as great a (hare 
of foreign commerce as any one of 
the niimt>er, and as her trucrituation 
is the moil minutely known to me, I 
v/ill begin there. Ihc city of Fhi- 
Jadelpliia, the centre of our com- 
merce, or rather its oniy uiart, fends 
- five members to our itatc legiliature. 
The diftrift of Southwark has al- 
ways weight euough to nominate one 



member of the county of Philadel- 
phia ; and that part of the northern 
liberties, which joins the city, has 
always the opportunity of nominat- 
ing another county member. Thefe 
form the whole commercial reprefen- 
tation in our affembly, upon the 
moft exaggerated ftatemcnt. Seven 
perfons only in a houfe, which con- 
lilts of fixty-nine members*— a little 
more than one tenth of the body. 
There is not in this commonweah.h, 
nor can there ever be, another fea 
port. Refiding out of Philadelphia, 
and its above appurtenances, there is 
not one merchant. But the tree is 
ever belt known by its fruits. The 
majority of the Pennfylvania mem- 
bers of congrefs, elected by the bal- 
lots of our legillature, are not com- 
mercial men. Of our delegates for 
the lait year, and of our delegates for 
the current year, four out of live in 
each appointment have not the fmall- 
ell intereft in trade. The fifth, in 
each year, we find to be the prior of 
a refpectable niercantile houfe ; but 
though his property in trade muft be 
very confiderable, and his commer- 
cial connexions arc certainly exten- 
five, it is equally certain that his 
landed eftate, and his monies in our 
public funds, are, each, greater in 
amount than his capital in trade. It 
» is alfo a well known faft, that the 
mod influential m,e>chantsof Penn- 
fvivania are very capital land-holder* 
in the various counties of this ilate, 
and of thofe adjacent, from Virginia 
to New York, incluiive. To fuch 
a degree are they connefted with the 
agricultural intereft, that I will ven- 
ture to aff rt in this paper, vvhich is 
to be pubiiihcd u-'.der their eyes; that 
the property employed by them, 
(taken colljdiveiy), in every fpecies 
of commerce, is very far Oiort of the 
vahic of their landed eliatcs. How 
different from thefe are the circum- 
flances of the merchants oi Holland, 
France, or even of Great Britain — ■ 
^'et how wna vailing is the influence 



So 



LitUr to the honourable Richard Henry Lee^ e/j. 



of the reprefentatives of the trading 
and nianufafturing towns in that 
commercial country, when the land- 
ed gentlemen unite againft them ! — 
We know that on thofe occailons, 
when contefts arife in our legiilature 
between the agricultural and com- 
mercial members, tlie latter are ever 
obliged to yield to the irrefiftible 
power of the landed intereft : and 
from the conftruftion of the houfe, 
which is truly ftated in this letter, 
as well as from the unalterable na- 
ture of things in Peiinfylvania, this 
inufi: ever be the cafe. The impor- 
tance of our commerce is well under- 
ftood, but its moft fincere and pow- 
erful friends admit, and even aflert 
the fuperior importance of agricul- 
ture. 

Omitting, at this time, to fay any 
thing of Connefticut, Rhode Ifland, 
and New Hampfliire, as lefs extenfive 
in commerce than New York and 
Maflachufetts, I will venture to af- 
firm, without detailing the fituation 
of the two latter ilatcs, that the com- 
parative weight of their merchants is 
very much the fame, when oppofed to 
their country gentlemen, as has been 
ilated in refpect to Pennfylvania. A 
little more or lefs it muft neceflarily 
be ; but the difference is very greatly 
in favour of their farmers — If a 
doubt can exift in regard to either of^ 
them, it muft be with refpeft to 
Maflachufetts : but that will vaniflh, 
when we remember their great fupe- 
riority over this ftate, in the number 
of free white inhabitants. 

By way of general review of this 
fubjeft, I fliall give you the fubftance, 
and nearly the words, of a late publi- 
cation on " the principles of a com- 
mercial fyftem for the united ftates, " 
addrefied to the federal convention, 
during their late fitting, by a mer- 
chant (not a landholder) of Philadel- 
phia. 

" Juft opinions on our general af- 
fairs, muft neceffarily precede fuch a 
wife fyftem of commercial regulati- 



ons, as will extend our trade as far 
as it can be carried, without affeding 
unfavourably our other weighty in- 
terefts. It may, therefore, be ufeful 
to take a comparative view of the 
tv/o moft important objeds in the 
united ftates — our agriculture and 
commerce. 

" In a country blefled with a fer- 
tile foil, and a climate admitting 
fteady labour, where, the cheapnefs of 
land tempts the European from his 
home, and the manufacturer from his 
trade, we are led, by a few moments 
of reflcdion, to fix on agriculture 
as the great leading intereft. From 
this we fhall find moft of our advan- 
tages refult, fo far as they arife from 
the nature of our affairs,'" and where 
they are not produced by the coeclon 
of laws : the fifheries are the prin- 
cipal exception. 

" In order to make a true efti- 
mate of the magnitude of agricul- 
ture, we muft remember, that it is 
encouraged by few or no duties on 
the importation of rival produce — 
that, with a fmall exception in fa- 
vour of our fiflieries, it furnifhts 
outward cargoes not only for all our 
own fhips, but thofe alfo which fo- 
reign nations fend to our ports, or, 
in other words, that it pays for all 
our importations ; that it fupplies a 
part of the clothing of our people, 
and the food of them and their cat- 
tle ; that what is confumed at home, 
including the materials for manufac- 
tunng, IS four or five times trie va- 
lue of what is exported ; that the 
number of people employed in agri- 
culture, is at leaft nine parts in ten of 
the inhabitants of America ; that there- 
fore the planters and farmers form 
the body of the militia, the bulwark 
of the nation ; that the value of pro- 
perty occupied by agriculture, is ma- 
nifold greater than that of the pro- 
perty employed in any other way ; 
that the fettlemcnt of our wafte lands, 
and fubdividing our improved farms, 
is every year increafing the pre-emi- 



Letter to the honourable Richard Henry Let, e/q. 



8i 



nencc of the agricultural intercft ; 
that the refources we derive from it, 
are at all times certain and indif- 
penfibly receffary ; and lalHy, that 
the rural life promotes health and 
morality by its active nature, and by 
keeping our people from the luxu- 
ries and vices of the towns. In 
fliort, agriculture appears to be the 
fpring of our commerce, and the pa- 
rent of our menu faftu res- 

" The commerce of America, in- 
cluding our exports, imports, (hip- 
ping, manufaftures, and fiflieries, 
may be properly confidered as form- 
ing one intereft. So uninformed and 
miltaken have many of us been, that 
it has been dated as the greateil ob- 
jeft in our affairs, and I fear it is yet 
believed by fome to be the moil im- 
portant intereft of New England. 
But from the beft calculations 1 have 
been abk to make, I cannot raife the 
proportion of property, or the num- 
ber of men employed in manufac- 
tures, filherie?, navigation, and 
trade, to one eighth of the property 
and people occupied by agriculture, 
even in that commercial quarter of 
the union. In making this eftimatc, 
I have deducted fomething from the 
value and population of the large 
towns, for the idle and difiipated, 
for thofe who live upon their in- 
comes, and for fupernumerary do- 
meftic fervants. But the difpropor- 
tion is much greater, taking the uni- 
on at large : for feveral of the ftates 
have little commerce, and no manu- 
factures — others have no commerce, 
and fcarcely manufadure any thing. 
The timber, iron, cordage, and ma- 
ny other articles neceffary for build- 
ing fliips to fiHi or trade — nine parts 
in ten of their cargoes — the fubfif- 
tence of the manufafturers, and 
much of their raw materials — are the 
produce of our lands. In almoft all 
of the countries of Europe, judicious 
writers have confidered commerce as 
the handmaid of agriculture. If 
true tlicrc, v/ith us it muft be unqucf- 

V«l. HI. No. J. 



tionable, for we have few manufac- 
tories to throw into the fcale againft 
the landed intereft. We have in our 
lands full employment for our pre- 
fent inhabitants ; and inftead of 
fending colonies to new difcovered 
iflands, we have adjoining townfhips 
and counties, whofe vacant fields a- 
wait the future increafe of our peo- 
ple. 

" As a comparative view of the 
importance of our various intereits, 
thus terminates in a decided and 
great fuperiority of agriculture over 
all the reft combined — as emigration 
and natural increafe are daily adding 
to the number of cur planters and 
farmers — as the ftates are poftefTed of 
millions of vacant acres, that court 
the cultivator's hand — as the fettlc- 
ment of thefe immenfe trads will 
greatly and fteadily increafe the ob- 
jefts of taxation, the refources, the 
powers of the country — as they will 
prove an inherent treafure, of which 
neither folly nor chance can deprive 
us, we fhould be careful to do no- 
thing that can interrupt this happy 
progrefs of our affnirs. Butftiould we, 
from a mifconception of our true in- 
terefts, or from any other caufe, 
form a fyftcm of commercial regula- 
tions, prejudicial to this great mafs 
of property, to this great body of the 
people, we (hall injure our country 
during the continuance of the error, 
and muft finally adopt a plan which 
will promote that evident, moft im- 
portant, and effential intereft — the 
agriculture of the united ftates." 

Here, fir, let us paufe a moment. 
Let us confider with that candour, 
which I am fure you love, and which 
the interefting nature of the fubjeifl 
requires, the foregoing fafts and ob- 
fervations. Two conclufions, it ap- 
pears to me, will inevitably refult 
from them in a mind as juft and en- 
lightened as yours; ift, that fince 
there is no ftate legiflature in our 
confederacy, wherein the landed gen- 
tlemen will not at all times form a 
L 



82 



Letter to the honourable Richard Henry Lee, ej^t 



great and commanding majority, 
and as there are fome in which a 
commercial interefl is entirely un- 
known, fo there is an unqueltionable 
certainty that much the greater part 
of the federal fenate, whom they are 
to depute, will be always attached to 
the agricultural intereft ; and 2ndly, 
as there is no ftate in the union in 
which the planters or farmers do not 
form an irrefiftable majority of the 
people at large, and as there are fome 
in which a permanent mercantile 
houfe is not to be found, fo there is 
alfo an indubitable certainty, that 
much the greater part of the federal 
reprefentatives will be always devot- 
ed to the landed interefl of the united 
ftates. 

But, fir, let us proceed to your 
next difficulty on this point. You 
aflc, how are you to build Ihips in 
your commonwealth, and from 
whence are you to procure feamen ? 
I will venture to promife you as ma- 
ny Virginia built fliips as yon can 
profitably employ, on as low terms 
as they can be built in Philadelphia 
or New York. There is nothing in 
our commerce more certain ; and the 
merchants of this city know it from 
the experience of real fadls. The 
port of Philadelphia has ever had, 
among the vefTels belonging to it, 
great numbers built in the other 
ftates, the fouthern as well as the 
northern. In regard to feamen, 
Pennfylvania has few natives in that 
line. Certain employment, and a 
little higher wages, will draw them 
to Virginia from New England, the 
Weft Indies, and Europe, as they 
have always drawn them to Philadel- 
phia. 

With refpeft to the fhipping of 
America, I am very doubtful whe- 
ther the merchants of thofe flates, 
that have not large and valuable ex- 
ports, will continue to own vefTels in 
any great numbers. Many will, no 
doubt, be built there ; but when our 
country and our commerce are once 



more brought to order, the mer- 
chants refiding at the great fcenes of* 
export, will find it profitable and con- 
venient to purchafe or build fhlps, 
by which the northern owner will be 
fo far interfered with. l*will ven- 
ture, therefore, to predift, that how- 
ever cheap vefTels may be hereafter in 
New England, there will be many 
built on the waters of the Chefapeak, 
and very many owned by the mer- 
chants refiding on them. Already is 
the matter arrived to fuch a point, 
that few men defire to be the perma- 
nent owners of vefTels in the New 
England ftates. That country has 
been much deceived by looking to 
the example of Holland, to produce 
whofe commercial aggrandizement 
many circumftances confpired, that 
do not exift at this time, and which 
can never take place in America. 
That province was an afylum of re- 
ligious liberty, or at leaft of tolera- 
tion, for the opprefTed people of the 
furrounding nations, a point on 
which all our ftates muft be happy 
and equal, as long as no religious 
teft is neccfTary to a fhare in our fe- 
deral government. Holland was alfo 
an afylum of political liberty, in re- 
gard to which the fouthern ftates 
will be on a footing with the north- 
ern. The Dutch lived amongft fur- 
rounding nations, who, in the early 
days of their republic, paid no re- 
gard to commerce ; whereas every 
ftate in America views it with an 
eager, defiring eye, and purfues it to 
the utmoft of her power. And laftly, 
the Dutch provinces had, by various 
means, amafTed fo large a monied 
capital, and obtained fuch a footing 
in regard to foreign colonies, neccf- 
fary in the European trade, before 
the importance of commerce wasdif- 
covered by their neighbours, that it 
was impofTible to contend with the 
mighty force of the firft, or to de- 
prive them of their ftrong hold of 
the laft. "^fhis you know, fir, was 
the fituation of Holland ; but in th« 



Zctu cafe. 



H 



affairs of the united ftates, foreign 
colonies, fubfervicnt to commerce, 
rauft for a long time remain not 
even a matter of expcftation or de- 
fire : and if ever the time (hall arrive 
when the American confederacy will 
poflTefs fuch dependencies, they muft 
he equally acceffible to the veflels of 
the fouthern ftates, and to thofe of 
the northern. With refped to a 
powerful monied capital, the value 
of their produdions muft, with the 
fame republican habits and manners, 
give our fouthern citizens a decided 
fuperiority over their northern bre- 
thren. 

The fteady and unalterable courfe 
of events- is daily increafing the 
weight of agriculture, and of the 
fouthern ftates. If we caft our eyes 
upon a map of America, we fhall in- 
ftantly perceive, that even the unfct- 
tled parts of Virginia, the Carolinas, 
and Georgia, greatly exceed the 
whole country of New England, 
Emigration to the eaftern ftates ne- 
ver takes place, but from thence it 
conftantly does ; and will keep down 
their numbers ; while, by that very 
circumftance, as well as by eraigra- 
tioR from Europe, will the people of 
the weftern and fouthern country 
increafe and multiply, carrying an- 
nually to a greater degree the ef- 
tabliftied preponderancy of agricul- 
ture, and throwing ftill greater 
weight into the fouthern fcale. 

The apprehenfions you entertain, 
concerning the interference of the 
commercial with the agricultural in- 
terefts of the united ftates, ought not 
■to have been referved. I rejoice at 
your explicit declaration of them, 
becaufe I hope it may lead tliofe, 
whofe particular duty it is, to give 
the fubjefl a thorough inveftigation, 
which I confidently truft will termi- 
nate in the total diflipation of their 
fears. 

I have the honour to be, 
with very great refpeft, &c. 

An AMERICAN. 



Laiu cafe, — Court of common plcasy 
^ Charlefiott. 

Saunders merfus Brifhane. 

ON the z^th of May 1785, cam« 
On in the court of common 
pleas in Charlefton, a fpecial aftioa 
brought at the inftance of mrs. Ann 
Saunders, againft mr. Briibane, ft^e- 
rifFto the board of police held in that 
city in Britilli times. The cafe ap- 
peared to be, that mrs. Saunders 
fold three negroes to a mr. Lahiffa 
for upwards of 500I. This fum be- 
ing reduced (according to the then 
fcale of depreciation] to fomething 
about lool. fterling, a bond was gi- 
ven for the amount. To enforce the 
payment of intereft, the plaintiff wai 
obliged to have recourfe to the board 
of police, in which court ftie obtain- 
ed a judgment againft mr. LahifFe for 
9I. 1 6s. This judgment was given 
to the (herift", by authority of which 
he feized upon a negro of mr. 
LahifFe ; but the plaintiff having no 
other intention in inftituting the 
fuit than to ftay propert}', exprefsly 
enjoined the fhcriff not to proceed to 
fale. This order he did not think 
proper to comply with, and fold a 
valuable negro, for the low price of 
27 guineas. In 1 784, mrs. Saunders, 
being ignorant of the fale, brought 
a fecond adion againft mr. Lahiffe in 
the court of common pleas, when 
LahifFe proved the great injury done 
to him by this fale, and pleaded, that 
altho' the negro had been fold under 
the order of the board of police, at 
a far inferior price to his value, yet 
that he ftiould be allowed to difcount 
his full worth on the bond given to 
mrs. Saunders. Cf this opinion 
were the jury, and eftimated his 
worth at 70). The balance in fa- 
vour of the plaintiff then was five 
pounds, for which fum they gave a 
verdid. In this diftrefling fituation, 
mrs. Saunders had no remedy left but 
the prefcnt adion. Mr, Attorney 



84 



Rep^f. 



General, as counfel for the defendant, 
contended that it was a rule in law, 
that a man who received money for 
another could not be called upon for 
more than what he had received. In 
the prefent cafe, whatever ill confe- 
qucnces had happened to mr. LahilFe, 
mull be fet out of the queftion, or, if 
kept in view, mull be imputed to 
mrs. Saunders, who had brought the 
iirft fuit ; the fheritr had only aftcd 
as her agent, or as the fervant of the 
board of police ; it was exceedingly 
hard that he fiiould now be called 
upon to pay raore than he had re- 
ceived for the negro — this fum of 27 
guineas he was ready to account for. 
With refpeft to the fale taking place 
in contra diftion to the plaintiiT's or- 
ders, the reafon was, that another 
attachment had been iffued agairll 
the fellow — mr. Lahifte had left the 
place, and there were circumftances 
which led to a belief, that the fellow 
would follow his inafter. Mr. Fra- 
{cc, counfel for the plaintiff, faid, 
that the jury were bound by the 
principles ot jullice, of equity, and of 
law, to find a vcrditH for his client — 
fiie had done nothing reprehenfible ; 
and yet, without they intcrpofed in 
her behalf, i'ae nnut fe.-erely fufFer. 
He hoped they wOwild not only give 
a verdid for the full value of what 
Ihe had loft in the fuit againft La- 
hiffe, but alfo allow interefl: up to 
the prcf^'n'; tinie. The court 
thought the adion v/as well laid, and 
that the only point was to afcertain 
the quantum of damages, v/hich lay 
in the breafts of the jury, who gave 
a verdift of thirty pounds in favour 
of the piaintiiF. 

••■<>"<S>.<^<S>-(>- 

Lanv report. — Court of king's be?ich, 
' London y J^if^e 5> ^7^7* 

Hay 'verfus Haldimand. 

'^l"' H I S was an adion oftrefpafs 
JL and falfe imprifonraent, brought 



by the plaintiff, mr. Charles Hay, • 
wine cooper of Quebec, againft fir 
Frederick Haldimand, as go\ernor 
of that province, forarrellinghim on 
fufpicion of high treafon, as a man 
difaffeded to the king's government 
and meafures, during the late difputes 
with America, and conHninig him in 
a loathfome cell, during the fpace cf 
three years and fixteen days. 

Mr. Bearcroft, for the plaintiff, 
proved the warrant of commitment, 
dated April 10, i73o,figned byH. S. 
Crunimey, by order of his excellen- 
cy the governor ; and the term of im- 
prifonment was candidly admitted 
by the other fide. 

Mr. Arthur Murphy, en the fame 
fide with mr. Bearcof t, examined fe- 
veral witneiTos, particularly Hedor 
M'Cawly, who proved that the plain- 
tiff was arretted and fent to the pre- 
voft, the inilitary piifon, 16 feet by 
24, with feven other prifoners, the 
filth and nalHnefs of which was fo 
exceflive, that the plaintiff's health 
was confiderably impaired ; that all 
accefs to him was denied ; only that 
his wife could procure an interview 
by means of difguifmg herfelf in the 
habit of a Canadian woman — it was 
alfo in evidence, that for a confider- 
able length of time the prifoners 
were obliged to perform the necefTi- 
ties of nature in a large tub, which 
flood in one corner of the room. 

Several depofitons alfo were read, 
which proved, that at the fiege of 
Quebec, mr. Hay had refufed to 
take an active part in defending the 
place, and had with many other gen- 
tlemen, on the governor's proclama-" 
tion for that purpofe, retired from 
the city 

The profecutor's cafe being thus 
proved, 

Mr. Erfkine for the defendant, 
made a moft animated fpef;ch. He 
reprefented fir Fredrick Ha^dimand 
as a foreigner employed by his majef- 
tv in a war of much difficulty ; who, 
w ith the exception of a few fovereign 



'Report. 



85 



princes, was the only foreigner who 
ever obtained any title in this coun- 
try ; and who deferved it the more, 
iis the only province now remaining, 
but of our extenfive empire in Ame- 
rica was preferved by the aftivity, 
and meritorious fer vices of this fo- 
reigner, who was the defendant in 
the prefent adicn. — His majeily had 
intruded him, with the fullcii pow- 
ers, not only military but civil, 
which would be a fufiicient j unifica- 
tion cgainlt the procefs now depend- 
ing, n^t Independent of the autho- 
rity with whi'^h he was invefted, 
and the circumllanrcs which led him 
to the proceeding, he hoped the jury 
would in the firit inftance rcfleft on 
what would be the reafoning of eve- 
ry officer in future, when his pcrfon- 
al fecurity was oppofed to that of the 
ftate. It was not to be imagined, 
that every officer was fufficiently a 
lawyer to know what may be the point 
of law in every part of his condud ; 
nor would it be very advifable to 
make it a neceflary conlideration for 
a general, under great exigencies, to 
refleft how the meafures he might 
be inclined to take, would be ap- 
proved of by a jury at Guildhall. 
Waving, however, any defence of 
that kind, he would reft it chief- 
ly on the difcretion and authority 
which his majefty's commiffion af- 
forded the defendant ; and would 
contend, that fir Frederick Haldi- 
mand was not only juftifiable, but 
extremely meritorious, in what he 
had done. 

He then produced general M'Lean, 
as a witnefs, who proved, that on 
the profpecl of Quebec being befieg- 
ed by general Arnold, he, as depu- 
ty governor, had fummoned the in- 
habitants, and had required their af- 
fiftance to defend the place ; that mr. 
Hay, among others, had refufed fo 
to do ; that fome time after this, two 
men were apprehended in the woods, 
one of whom, Kenny, appeared to 
be a fervant to mr. Hay ; that two 



bills for 150I. with a letter of credit 
to a mr. Cruded, were found upon 
Kenny, with a certificate from his 
old mafter, of his fidelity and fer- 
vice, couched in very equivocal and 
ambiguous terms ; ' it he, general 
M'Lean, had tranfmitted ihis intelli- 
gence to general Haldimand, with 
his fufpicions that the certificate in 
queltion was calculated only for the 
purpofe of recommending him to the 
Americans, the better to foment a dif- 
pofition which thei"! fubfilled of join- 
ing the American and French army, 
to reduce Quebec. And a variety of 
other minute circumftai?ces fully pro- 
ved that mr. Hay very much difap- 
proved of the American war ; but Jio 
evidence of ablolutc dilloyalty was 
given againit him. 

Sir H. Clinton confirmed the ac- 
count of the province of Canada be- 
ing threatened with an attack from 
the French and Americans conjunc- 
tively, at the time of this imprifon- 
m-.nt. 

General Robertfon's teftimonjr 
went to the fame import. 

The whole evidence being clofed, 
Mr. Bcarcroft replied to mr. 
Erlkinc, and ftated that the conduft 
of general Haldimand, however in- 
judicious, was by no means to be 
confidered as intentionally wrong. 
He alfo admitted, that he was in- 
verted with a comniifiion of civil as 
well as military authority ; but lie 
at the faine time contended, that 
at the very time this violence was 
committed, the province of Canada 
was in the moil profound peace ; the 
aCl for fufpending the habeas corpus 
act was fully expired, and there was 
no legal ground whatever for com- 
mitting the plaintiiF. Nor was 
there any power to be delegat- 
ed from the conftitutional privi- 
leges of England, which could au- 
thorife fach a commitment as that 
nnder which the plaintiff was con- 
fined, of " beino' in cuftody till fur- 
ther orders." He defied his oppo- 



S6 



Letter on the culture of filk. 



nents to mention any a(5l, which 
could juftity fuch a proceeding, un- 
der any enquiry — and the more fo, 
as there was no legil proof of even 
fufficlent ground for fufpicion of 
mifcondud in mr. Hay. 

Judge Buller, in his charge to the 
jury, iaid it admitted of no difpute, 
but that the defendant was inveited, 
hv his comniiffion, with powers as 
well civil as military, but confidered 
it at the fame time equally evident, 
that in the prefent tranfaftion he aft- 
ed folely in his civil capacity. He 
was equally fenfible, that there was 
no law which could juftify fuch a 
commitment as that which affertedthe 
plaintiff; nor was the defendant, in 
his civil capacity, admitted to re- 
ceive any other fufpicion to juftify a 
commitment, but vyhat was given on 
oath — 3 requlfite, which, in this 
cafe, was wholly difpcnfed with. The 
only queftion, then, for the jury, 
was, whether the ground was laid 
ftrong ; which, after recapitulating 
the various points of evidence, ap- 
peared to him by no means to be the 
cafe. He recommended, notwith- 
ftanding, that the jury might take 
into their confideration, the motives 
on v/hich the general aded, which 
certainly were good ones ; and, 
therefore, without conndering whe- 
ther he had any chance of being re- 
imburfed by the public or not, they 
Ihould pay fome attention to his mo- 
tives, in the damages they might a- 
ward, fhould they give a verdift for 
the plaintiff. 

The jury, after a little confidera- 
tion, gave a verdift of 200I. dama- 
ges, againft the defendant. 



Letter on the culture of jtuz. 
To the editor of the Mufeum, 



I 



Am not a little pleafed, fir, to 
perceive the public attention 



turned towards the increafe of our 
manufactures, and efpecially to learn 
what noble efforts are about to be 
made in Connecticut * for the refur- 
rection and multiplication of filk. 
Your correfpondent very juftly ob- 
ferves that it is a moft capital ob- 
jed. A former governor of Con- 
necticut clothed himfelf and his fa- 
mily in filk, produced at home. 
Georgia reckons it one of her ftaple 
coaimodities, and that the middle 
Itates are fit for it, is abundantly 
proved by the enclofed authentic lill: 
.of cocoons, created merely by the 
exertion of found knk in individuals, 
unaided by any public co-operation, 
which I fend to be recorded in your 
ufefiii repofitory. Other articles 
meriting ferlous regard, are the cul- 
tivation, in large quantities, of the 
myrtle wax Ihrub (myrica cerifera 
foliis lanceolatis fubferratis caule ar- 
borefcente) fo fuitable to the fandy 
grounds of New Jerfey. Bees wax, 
too, might, without much trouble 
or expence, be made a confiderable 
head of exportation, now the me- 
thod is known of taking honey with- 
out killing the bees. Indigo, the 
richeft gem of Carolina, lucceeds 
well in Jerfey and Pennfylvania, and 
even grows fpontaneoully. Cotton 
ripens there fufficiently, and is eafily 
cultivated. Foreign fheep ought to 
be procured to improve the prefent 
breed. The Ancona hemp, or rather 
a tall ftrong flax, is reported as fupe- 
rior to any other fort. Our farmers 
fhould introduce foreign graffes, fuch 
as fainfoin for light fandy lands, lu- 
cerne for rich foils ; and it is high 
time to abandon the unprofitable 
praiftice of fallowing their fields, or 
letting them lie iale for three or 
four years. 

NOTE. 

* See American Mufeum, for 
Oaober, 1787, page 354 — 
355- 



Letter on the cuUnre ofjzlh 



87 



An account of the cocoons (orfilk halls) 
purcbafed at the filature on Fhiladel- 
phia during the fummer of the year 
ll^ll, taken from the original laid 
before the affembly ofNevj ferfej, 
iry the managers y in December, 1 7 7 1 • 

From June Z^th, to July 3^, 1771* 



lb. 

29 
1 1 



8 



1 2 

4 
1 



Of fundry perfons. 
Of ditto. 
Of ditto 

Of John Roberts, Philadel- 
phia county, 2 
Of John Burgefs, Bucks, 
Of Edward Gibbs, Jerfey, 27 
Of Jofeph Lippincott, Jerfey, 6 
Of MoIesPatterfon, Kent on 

Delaware, 40 

Of James Barns, Bucks co. 10 
Of Rachael Perry, do, 24 
Of Grace Bealc, Chefter co. 4 
Of Rhoda Hibbert, Jerfey, 2 
Of Thomas Button, do, 21 
Of William Hall. Philadel. 10 
Of John Bigonie, Philad. co. 52 
Of Mary Parker, Darby, 10 
Of Grace Filh, Jerfey, 44 

Of Ifaac Hornor, do, 1 3 

Of Elizabeth Atkinfon, Jerf. 25 
Of Sarah Bifpham, ditto, 61 
Of Mary Pearfon, Darby, 1 1 
Of Elizabeth Peacock, Jerf. 7 
OfLyndon Brown, Bucks CO. 15 
Of Adam Luz, Philadel. 4 

Of Henry Clemens, Jerfey, 3 6 
Of Abigail Davis, Chefter, 3 3 
Of Mary Pearfon, Daby, 30 12 
Of Jof. Morgan, Penfaukin, 62 ^ 
Of vSarah Fordam, Darby, 6 
Of Mary Branfon, Jerfey, 13 3 
Of Aquilla Jones, ditto, 23 8 
Of Ann Cole, ditto, 35 8 

Of Seneka Lucan, Phil. CO. 39 8 
Of Samuel Davis, Lancafter, 7 8 
Of John Albridge, ditto, 75 10 
Of Hefter Johns, Jerfey, 4 8 



^3 

8 



29 

13 
6 

5- 
I 

7 
4 



Purchafedfrom July^ih, to Jtily \otby 
1771. 

lb. oz. 
Of John Shivers, Jerfey, 10 
Of Mary Wood, Jerfey 29 
Of Ann Cochran, Darby, 25 12 
Of Mary Longftreath,Phi.c. 17 
Of Rebecca Worrel, Philad. 6 
OfMaryLufh, Philadel. 
Of Rachael Hays, Darby, 
Of Mary Ofler, Jerfev, 
Of jas. Millhoufe, Chefter c. 
Of Eliz. Roberts, Philad. c. 
Of Sarah Roberts, ditto. 
Of Ifaac Newton, Jerfey, 
Of Hannah Ferimore, Jerfey, 8 
Of Caleb Johnfon, Lacafter, ^a. 
Of Mary Shoemaker, Phila. 14 
Of Hannah Brown, Jerfey» 
Of Robert Carle, Pennf) iva. 2 
Of Mary Richarfon, ditto, 3 
Of Elizabeth Patton, ditto, 23 
Of Titus Fell, Bucks county, 96 
Of Eliz. Roberts, Philad. co. i 
Of Ann Da/is, Chefter co. 2 
Of Elizabeth Bonfal, ditto. 
Of Mary Davis, ditto. 
Of Sarah Dicks, ditto. 
Of John Etvvine, North- 
ampton county. 
Of Francis Miller,Phila. co, 



7 

2 

47 



12 
8 



10 

4 
6 

'4 

1 2 



8 

4 
10 



13 • 13 



580 



2 From July 11th, to the iSth, 1771. 



Of Catharine Evans, Che- 
fter county. 

Of William Henry, Lan- 
cafter, 

Of Marv Jones, Chefter co. 

Of Prifcilla Fentham, Ma- 
ryland, 

Of Mary Luft, 

Of Frederic Walper, 

Of Jofeph Fifher 

Of Jacob Myers, 

Of Benjamin Leghman, 



lb. 

14 

16 
^9 

27 
5 
4 
2 



817 



H 



Letter on the Culture qfj'tlk. 



From July 1 8, to July 24/^, 1771. 

Ibi oz. 
Of William Henry, Lan- 

cafter, 1 8 

Of fundry perfons, 7 6 

Of Sarah Wilfon, Philadel. 3 8 
OflfaacWhitlock, Lancaf. 4 

Of Sarah Button, Phil. co. 10 9 

Of Jane Davis, Cheller, 28 12 
Of Jacob Worral, do. a 

Of Mary Thorn, Jerfey, 67 13 

Of Anna Wetherill, Jerfey, 4 8 
Of Marmaduke Watfon, 33 

Of Margaret Reiley, Cheft. 11 10 

174 10 

From Jn/y z^ih, io Augujl \fi. 177 1. 

lb, oz. 
Of Jofeph Lipi-ijicott, 

Jerfey, 4 

Of Edward Siddon, 4o. 12 i 

Of John Hoops, Cheiter, 23 10 

Of Ifaac Evans, Jerfey, 2 1 2 

Of Henry Thomas, Chefter, « 6 

47 2 

i'fOOT ^«/?^ 8/^, /5 the }^th I']']!. 

lb. oz. 
Of Nicholas Garrifon, 

Northampton county, 41 8 

Purchafcd from June 25, lb. ez. 

to July 3, 1771. 817 15 

From July 4, 10 July 10, 580 7 

From July II, to 18, 92 10 

From 18 to 24, 174 10 

From 25, to Auguft i, 47 2 

From Auguft 8, to Aug. 15,41 8 



Total, - 



1754 4 



The whole quantity of cocoons 
brought to the filature, was about 
2300 lb. upwards of 1700 lb. were 
bought by the managers, the rcll 
were reeled for the owners. 619 lb. 



of the 1 7 00 lb. were ralfed in Nevi' Jer- 
fey, and the proprietors of them, in 
common with thofe raifed in Pennfyl- 
vania, by way of encouragement, re- 
ceived at leaft one fifth more than 
the real value. Befides this, two 
fifths of all the premiums paid by the 
managers, were to perfons in bitw 
Jerfey. Thefe expences, together 
with furnifhing the filature with pro- 
per utenfils, hiring reelers at very 
high wages, to teach others, and fuch 
accidents and difappointments as are 
incident to all new undertakings, 
have fo diminifhed their capital, that 
the managers found it neceffary to 
petition thf^ aflertibly of Pennfylvania 
in September laft, for their aid antl 
encouragement ; but, as it was near 
the end of the year, that affembly 
could do no more than, 'recommend 
'* it to the particular notice of the 
'* fucceeding affembly as a matter of 
" very great confequence to the in- 
'* terefl of this province." 

The prefent aflembly has not yet 
met to do bufincfs, but the manager* 
cannot doubt of a hearty difpofition 
in the houfe to patronize the cul- 
bjre of filk in Pennfylvania, as that 
is all which can be expedited from 
them^ and the managers' funds being 
too fmaU to grant either bounty or 
premiums another year — therefore, 
thefe fafts ar« refpcftfully fubmitted 
to the confidcration of the legiflaturc 
of New Jerfey, hoping, fo public 
fpirited a defign will meet with fuch 
encouragement in that province, a» 
the trials already made. Item to war- 
rant. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 9, 1771. 
Signed, 

Frauds AUifcJit 

Charles More, 

Benjamin Morgan, 

Eda.vard Penington, 

Ifaac Bertram, 

Robert Slrettet Jovet, 

Samuel Miles, 

Thomas Chff^rd, 

Abel yames 

Cad'wallader Evans. 



The old bachelor. 



89 



Many cocoons were alfo raifed 
and ufed in private families, fo that 
the quantity of raw filk made during 
the year 1771, at the very outfet of 
the undertaking, in the middle 
ftates was probably more than three 
thoufand pounds avoirdupois, and 
this when maniitaftured could not be 
valued at lefs than four thoufand 
pounds fterling. 

Citizens of America, 

Now you are glorioufiy emancipa- 
ted from the political thraldom of 
England, difdain to be held by her 
jn commercial chains. Revive the 
filk manufafture, eftablllh that of 
cotton, extend thofe of iron, copper, 
lead, leather, fur, clay, wood, linen 
and woolen, and in a few years the 
people will be fully employed and 
multiply exceedingly, the country 
will abound in gold and fiiver coin, 
commerce will Ipread far and wide 
over the globe, and agriculture will 
flourifh more than ever in foils and 
climates adapted to every branch of it. 

Perhaps nothing could more efpe- 
cially forward meafures fo defirable, 
than the perfonal example of our 
prime gentlemen and ladies, forcon- 
fumption is tTie beft friend to manu- 
fafture, and the confumption of fo- 
reign luxuries has operated dreadful- 
ly againft us fince the revolution. I 
am informed by a merchant of New 
York that the importation of rum 
alone into that port, during the laft 
year, amounted to upwards of two 
hundred thoufand pounds of their 
currency. 

Will you give me leave to faggeft 
and fubmit to public confideration, 
the form of a voluntary affociation to 
be figned by all federal officers, civil, 
naval and military, at the time of 
taking the oath of ofiice, and to com- 
mence with the new government 
which happily for our native land is 
foon to be perfeded ? Regis ad excm- 
plum tat us componitur or bis. Longtim 
iter eft per frecepta, breve et efficax per 
txtmpla. 

Vol. III. No. I. 



" I, G.W. Prefident of the united 
ftates of North America (or I, B. F. 
vice prefident of the united ftates of 
North Am.erica, mutatis mutandis) do 
hereby pledge my honour that 
whenever I perform the funftions of 
my office I will be drefled principally 
in the manufaftures of the united 
ftates, and I do promife to pay to 
the federal clerk of aflembly one ftl- / 
ver dollar for every day that I ftiall 
be difcovered, during the times a- 
forefaid, to be drefled in a hat, coat, 
waiftcoat, breeches, ftiirt, ftockings, 
or fhoes of foreign manufafture." 

Such forfeitures to be difpofed of 
for the benefit of American mecha- 
nics at the difcretion of the prefident, 
vice prefident, fenators and reprefen- 
tatives in their private capacities. 

If it be objected that fufiicient ma- 
terials for fuch purpofes cannot be 
obtained, I anfwer, that demand not 
only increafes the quantity to any 
amount but never fails to meliorate, 
to diverfify and render cheaper the 
fabrics, as is evinced by the experi- 
ence of every age and country. 



•0"<^<^<S>-<>'" 



The old bachelor. No. IV. 

HAVING in my former num- 
bers, as in the former part of 
my life, made pretty free with my- 
felf, I think it time to tack about 
and be ferious ; however I feem fo dif- 
pofed at prefent, and bachelors from 
their fuppofed oddity, have a right 
to be as various as they pleafe, which 
indeed is one of their happieft privi- 
leges, but as I have been fevere up- 
on myfelf for not marrying, I have 
a fair pretenfion to be as fevere on 
thofc who marry from falfe motives. 
They richly deferve what they fuf- 
fcr J many of them are paid for it, 
and it is right they fnould have their 
bargain. As badly off" as I am, I 
had rather be a iblitary bachelor, 
than a miferable married man. No 
M 



9° 



The old bachelor. 



wife is better than a bad one, and 
the fame of a hufband. As I well 
know what the inconveniences of a 
fingle life are, and can give a Ihrewd 
guefs at the difquietiides of a mifera- 
ble married one, I v.ould cndca' our. 
Dives like, lo warn others how they 
come into either of thefe places of 
torment. V.hile I was pondering 
open this fubj'ift, I accidental;/ hit 
on the following ciiaous differtation 
on unhappy marriages, which 1 
have tranfcribed as a convenient in- 
trodudion to my future thoughts on 
that head. 

RcflcSli:ns on nnhappy marriages, 
Tb'j'.igh it is coufeffcd on all 
hands that the weal or woe of life 
depends on no one cireumftance fo 
critical as matrimony; yet how few 
fcein to l>e influenced by this univer- 
fal acknowledgment, or aft with a 
caution becoming the danger ! 

Thofe that are undone this way, 
are the young, the rafh and amo- 
rous, whofe hearts are ever glowing 
with dcfire, whofe eyes are ever 
roaming after beauty ; thefe doat on 
the lint amiable image that chance 
throv.-s in their \wny, and when the 
flame is once kindled, would rifque 
eternity itfelf to appeafe it. but 
Hill, like their firft parents, they no 
fooner taite the tempting fruit but 
t)»eir eves are opened ; the folly of 
their intemperance becomes vifible ; 
fliame fucceeds firft, and then repen- 
tance ; but forrow for themfelves, 
foon turns to anger with the inno- 
cent caufe of their unhappinefs ; 
Hence fiow bitter reproaches and 
keen invectives, which end in mutu- 
al hatred and contem.pt : Love ab- 
hors clamour and foon flics away, 
and h.ippinefs finds no entraix-e when 
love is gone. Thus for a few hours 
of dalliance, 1 wilbnot call it aff^-c- 
tion, the repufe of all their future 
days are fitcrinccd ; and thofe, who 
but juft before feemed to live only 
for each other, now would almoft 



ceafe to Vivt, that the feparation 
might be eternal. 

But hold, fays the man of phlegm 
and cconom.y, all are not of this 
hafty turn — I allow it — there are 
perfons in the world who are young 
without paflions, and in healtE, 
without appetite : thefe hunt out 
a wife as they go to Smithfield for 
a horfe ; and intermarry fortunes, 
not minds, or even bodies : In this 
cafe t'le bridegroom has no joy but 
in taking poileffion of the portion, 
and the bride dreams of little befidc 
new clothes, vifits and congratula- 
tions. Thus, as their expectations 
of plea fu re are not very great, nei- 
ther is the difappointment very 
grievous ; they juft keep each other 
in countenance, live decently, and 
are as fond the twentieth year of 
matrimony, as the firft. But I 
would not ad\ife any one to call 
this ftate of infipidity happinefs, be- 
caufe it would argue him both igno- 
rant of its nature, and incapable of 
enjoying it. Mere abfence of pain 
will undoubtedly conftitute eafe ; and 
without eafe, there can be no hap- 
pinefs : Eafe, however, is but the 
medium, through which happinefs 
is tafted, and but paffively receives 
what the laft aftlvely beftows : if 
therefore, the rafh who marry in- 
confiderately, perifli in the ftorms 
raifed by their own pafllcns, thefe 
fluraber away their days in a flug- 
gifh calm, and rather dream they 
live, than experience it by a feries of 
aftual feniible enjoyments. 

As matrimonial happinefs, thea, 
is neither the refult of infipidity 
or ill grounded palfion, furely thofe 
who make their court to age, ug- 
linefs, and all that is detcftablc 
both in mind and body, cnnnot hope 
to find it, though qualified with all 
the riches that avarice covets, or 
Plutus could beftow. Matches of 
this kind are downright prcftitution, 
however foftened by the letter of the 
law ; and he or Ibe who receives the 



Anecdote, 



9* 



golden equivalent of youth and beau- 
ty fo wretchedly beftowed, can never 
enjoy what they {o dearly purcha- 
fed : The fhocking incumbrance 
would render the fumptuous banquet 
taftelefs, and the magnificent bed 
loathfome ; refl would difdain the 
one, and appetite licken at the 
other ; uneafinefs wait upon both ; 
even gratitude itfelf would ahnoll 
ceafo to be obliging, and good man- 
ners grow fuch a burden, that the 
beft bred cr bcft natured people 
breathing, would be ofte.i tempted 
to throw it down. 

Ba: fay we would not wonder 
that thofe who either marry gold 
without love, cr love without gold, 
iliould be mifcrable ; I can't for- 
bear being aftoniihed, if fuch, whofo 
fortunes are alHuent, whofe delircs 
were mutual, who equally languifli- 
ed for the happy moment before it 
came, and feemed for a vvhile to be 
equally tranfported when it had 
:talcen place : If even thcfe Ihould, 
in the end, prove as unhappy as 
either of the ethers. And yet, how 
often is this the melancholy circum- 
ftance ? As extacy abates, coolnefi 
fucceeds, which often makes way 
for indiiFerence, and that for ne- 
gled : Sure of each other by the 
nuptial band, they no longer take 
any pains to be mutually agreeable ; 
carelefs if they difpleafe, and yet 
angry if reproached ; with fo little 
relilh for each other's company, that 
any body's elfe is more welcome, 
and mere entertaining. Their uni- 
on thus broke, they purfue feparate 
plcafures ; never meet but to wran- 
gle, or part, but to find comfort in 
other fociety. After this the defcent 
is eafy to utter averfion, which hav- 
ing wearied itfcif out with heart- 
burnings, clamours, and aifronts, 
fubfides into a pcrfed infenfibility ; 
when frefh objeds of love Hep into 
their relief on either iide, and mu- 
tual infidelity makes way for mu- 
tual complaifance, that each may be 
the better able to deceive the other. 



I fhall conclude with the fenti- 
ments of an American favage on 
this fubjeft, who being advifed by 
one of our countrymen to marry 
according to the ceremonies of tiie 
church, as being th'j ordinance of 
an infinitely wife and good God ; 
briikly replied, " That either the 
chrilHan's God was not fo good and 
wife as he was reprefented, or h.^ 
never meddled with the marriages 
of his people ; fince not one in a 
hundred of them, had any thing to 
do either with happinefs or com- 
mon fenfe. Hence, continued he, 
as foon as ever you nacet, vou long 
to part, and not having this relief 
vn your power, by way of revenge, 
double each other's miicry : Where- 
as in ours, which have no other ce- 
remony than mutual affcdion, and 
lall no longer than they bcftow mu- 
tual pleafures, wc make it our bufi- 
nefs to oblige the heart we are 
afraid to lofe ; and being at liberty 
to feparate, feldom or never feel the 
inclination. B'/t if any lliould b(^ 
found fo wretched among us, as to 
hare where the only commerce ougl t 
to be love, we inltantly diffolve the 
band : God made us ail in pairs ; 
each has his mate fomcwhere or 
other ; and it is our duty to find 
each other out, fince no creature waa 
ever intended to be miferable." 

Anecdot.^. 

AT the opening of one of th.; 
courts of law in Malfachufetts, 
lately, a clergyman was fent for to 
addrefs the deity — a gentleman pre- 
fentobferved, that although this was 
ever the laudable praciice, at the fu- 
preme judicial court, /y6.y;' courts had 
never, in his memory, opened with' 
prayer. A failor, who heard the laft 
remark, obferved to his mefs-mate, 
" If fo. Jack, I believe as how the 
fhip is really in difterf?;, fince they 
pipe all hands, and now call the par- 
fon to his quarters." 



( 92 ) 



SELECTPOETRY. 



A Poem, addrejed to the People of 
Virginia, on Netv-Year's day, 
1788. 

FAIR Virginia, ever dear, 
See arriv'd th' important year ! 
While the annual fong I pay. 
Truth infpires the patriot lay : 
Wake ! — too long thy fons have 

dream'd — 
Where's the lifter ftate, that beam'd 
Fairer in the dawn of fame. 
Glowing with a purer flame ? 
Shall the ancient wreaths you gain'd. 
By thy latter deeds be ftain'd ? 
Shall not fed'ral condud crown 
All thy afts of old renown ? 
U/iion into ruin hurl'd. 
Shall a tyrant grafp a world ? 
Or (hall fep'rate unions grow, 
Endlefs fource of war and woe ! 
Or, if anarhy cnfue, 
Who hath more to lofe than you ? 

Shall we bafely fell the boon, 
Bought with fo much blood, fo foon? 
Oh ! the mufe a tale could tell, 
How our heroes fought and tell — 
Muft our empires fhort-liv'd reign 
Prove they fought and bled in vain ? 

Eleft Virginians, fum the coft ! 
Shall the price of blood be loft ? 
Loft the bleffings ye poflefs, 
Freedom and the pow'r to blefs^ ? 
Your's are planted plains and tarins. 
Villas fair in rural charms ; 
Lovely girls and prattling boys. 
All the blifs of home-born joys ; 
When the foothing voice invites 
Guefts to hofpitable rights. — 
Your's th' illimitable wafte, 
Flow'ry meads and valleys vaft ; 
Your's ftupendous cliffs that rife, 
Bofom'd high in fleecy (kies ; 
Your's the Alleganean hills. 
Spouting forth in num'rous rills. 
Lift ye, how, frpm many a Ihore, 



Diftant fons of ocean roar ? 
Rivers broad to you belong. 
Yet to run in deathlefs fong — 
Fair Ohio gently roves, 
Through the fwcet Acafian groves : 
Rappahannock (founding name) 
And Fluvanna flow to fame ; 
Pohawtan fuberbly rolls ; 
Great Potomack, void of (hoals ; 
Miflifllppi's waves will gain, 
Spite of fraud, for you, the main ; 
Harvefts, by your fields fupplicd. 
Then may float on ev'ry tide. 

Go, thou mijcrcanty from whofc 
tongue 
Accents of disunion rung ; 
At the ihrine ol jAf, in lies. 
Every bleffi?.g facrifice ! 
Bid the kindling beacons far. 
Light the realms to civil war; 
Bid the drum's obftrep'rous found. 
Rumbling run along the ground ; 
Bid the trumpet fing to arms. 
Swell the cannon's dread alarms ; 
Wake the clang of fteel again ; 
Purple every flood and plain ; 
Make the fickning harveft die. 
Burning cities fcorch the (ky : 
Heav'n for this, (hall on thy head 
Chofen bolts of vengeance fhed ! 

Round our forefts, on our coaft. 
We have nobler names to boaft — 
Liberal fouls, by none furpaft. 
Names with time itfelf to laft. 
Hail Virginia'% patriot fons. 
Griffin, Blair, M'Clurg and Jones ! 
Join the Pages firm and juft : 
Ste'uwdia.nhiuX to his truft ; 
Maddifon, above the reft. 
Pouring from his narrow cheft. 
More than Greek or Roman fenfe, 
Boundlefs tides of eloquence : 
Withe, who drank the fource of truth, 
Skill'd in lore of laws from youth ; 
Thrujion's mind, of ample reach ; 
Innis, fraught with povv'rfulfpeech, 



Monitory epijile addnjfed to a young lady, 



93 



Too reluftant to engage ! 
Pendleton, with locks of age. 
Mild his eye of wifdom beams, 
Xent from other worlds he feems, 
Heav'n refume not fuch a loan , 
Ere we make his choice our own ! 
Erft the Lees, a glorious band. 
For their country made a ftand. 
Wife and brave, unapt to yield. 
In the council or the field ; 
Why afunder are they torn ? 
Why his * lofs muft millions mourn. 
Who, to glad th' aftonifh'd earth. 
Spoke an empire into birth ? 
While the awful hour demands, 
Ableft heads and pureft hands. 
Him, in vain, we call from far. 
Second fplendor, other ftar. 
Light and glory of the age, 
yeffcrfon, the learned fage ! 
Yet a name adorns our ftate, 
Great as modell, good as great. 
Though unnam'd, illultrious far. 
Pride of peace and strength of 

WAR I 

Though a few, or falfe or blind. 
Strive to taint the public mind ; 

* R. H. Lee made the motion it 
Congrefs for the declaration of indepen- 
dence, July 4, 1776. 



Trufl: the mufe'sheav'n-taughtftrain. 
All the noifc, the labor's vain — 
Numbers 'vaji will own the plan. 
That fecures the rights of man ; 
Gives \\\^ fates their deflin'd place. 
High amidft the human race : 
Our illuftrims hero then, 
(Firft: of fages, beft of men) 
Will the nation's cares allume. 
And again avert its doom. 

Bards ! your wreaths immortal 
twine : 
Brighter days begin to (hine. 
Corne ye freemen ! patriots come ! 
Read with me Columbia's doom — 
Lo ! involv'd in yonder Ikies, 
Fair the year of glory lies. 
Ravilh'd far, in vifion'd trance, 
I behold, with myiHc glance, 
Towns extend on many a bank. 
Late with darkling thickets dank. 
And the gilded fpires arife, 
Gratetul to propitious Ikies — 
Arts, refinements, morals blcft. 
Claim perfedion in the west — 
Peace, with commerce in her train. 
Brings a golden age again — 
While our woven wings unfurl'd 
Sail triumphant round the world. 

Alexandria, yanuary 10, 1788. 



Monitory epifle, addrejjld to a young lady. 

SWEET, lovely girl ! my beft, my dcareft care. 
As Hebe blooming, and as Veniis fair ; 
Thy tender years no artifice can know, 
A heart like thine can fear no latent foe. 
In ev'ry fcene fome fmiling joy will rife 
And gayeil profpefts only glad thine eyes ; 
Delufive dreams as real forms appear. 
And fanguine wifhes filence ev'ry fear. 
And innocence that knows itfelf no guile. 
Will fee a friend in every fpecious fmile. 
Catch fond belief from ev'ry foothing tongue. 
And paint delight forever fair and young. 
But know, my fair, a thoufand fnares fur'round. 
And ev'ry liep you tread is dang'rous ground ; 
From open foes, and lefs from treach'rous friends. 
E'en prudence fcarce her votaries defends ! 



J4 Monitory epjjile addnjfed to a yoiwg It^dv, 

And prudence comes by found advice alone : 

Then learn to make thefe maxims all your own. 

Firft, knowj thy bloom will fade, thofe rofesdic. 

And time obfcure the brilliance of that eye ; 

Thy winning grace willlofe its pow'r to charm. 

Thy fmile to vanquifh, and thy breaft to warm ; 

The reign of beauty, like the blooming flow'r. 

Is but the pride and pageant of an hour ; 

To day its fvveets perfume the ambient air. 

To morrow fees it iTirunk, nor longer fair : 

Such the extent of all external fway ; 

At beft, the glory of a fhort-liv'd day. 

Then let the mind your nobleft care engage ; 

Its beauties laft l)eyond the flight of age : 

The mental charms protrafl each dying grace. 

And renovate the bloom that deck'd the beauteous face. 

Let ev'ry virtue reign within thy breaft. 

That heav'n approves, or makes its owner blefl ; 

To candour, truth and charity divine. 

The modelt, decent, lovely virtues join. 

Let wit well-temper'd meet with ftnfe refin'd. 

And ev'ry thought exprefs the poliili'dmind, 

A mind above the meanncfs of deceit ; 

Of honor pure — in confcious virtue great ; 

In ev'ry change that keeps one lleady aim. 

And feels that joy and virtue are the fame. , 

AndO ! let prudence o'er each thought preiide, 

Dire(5t in public, and in private guide ; 

Teach thee the fnart-s of artifice to fhun. 

And know, not feel hovv' others were undone : 

Teach thee to tell the flatt'rer from the friend. 

And thofe who love from thofe who but pretend. 

Ah ! ne'er let flatt'ry tempt you to believe. 

For man is falfe, and flatters to deceive : 

Adores thofe charms his falfliood would cJifdain, 

And laughs at confidence he drives to gain. 

And if delight your bofom e'er would talle, 

O fhun the vicious, dread the faithlefs breaft ! 

Infeftion breathes where'er they take their way. 

And weeping innocence becomes a prey : 

The ilighteft blafts a female's blifs deftroy. 

And taint the fource of all her fwccteft joy ; 

Kill ev'ry bloflfom, over-run each flow'r. 

And wreft from beauty all its charming pov/'r : 

The dying bud may burft to life again. 

And herbs o'erfpread the fnow-in\ efted plain ; 

Green leaves may clothe the wintry widow'd trees. 

And where froft nipt may fan the weftern breeze 

*' But beauteous woman no redemption knows 
" The wounds of honour time can never clofe ;" 
Her virtue funk, to light can never rife. 
Nor luftre beam from once guilt clouded eyes. 



Monitory eptflle addrejfed to ayoufig laJy* 9 J 

Fix'd be the mind thofe pleafures to purfue. 

That reafon points as permanent and true : 

Think not that blifs can mingle with a throng, 

Whirl'd by a tide of idle forms along : 

Think not that pleafure lives with pomp and ftate. 

Or foothes the bofoms of the rich and great : 

Think not to meet her at the ball, the play. 

Where flirt the frolicfome and haunt the gay : 

Think not fhe flutters on the public walk. 

Or prompts the tongue that pours unmeaning talk. 

Or loves the breath of compliment to feel. 

Or flamps on crowns her eftimable feal : 

True female pleafure, of more modcft kind. 

Springs from the heart, and lives within the mind ; 

From noify mirth and grandeur's rout (he flies. 

And in domeftic duties wholly lies. 

As fades the flow'r that's rear'd with tender care. 

When left expos'd to ftorms and chilling air. 

So fades the fair in reafon's fober eye. 

That braves the crowd, nor heeds the danger nigh ; 

Who giddy roves with folly's motley queen. 

Nor loves the tranfports of a life ferene. 

Be thine the friendfhip of a chofen few. 

To ev'ry virtue uniformly true ; 

Be thine the converfe of fome kindred mind. 

Candid to all, but not to errors blind : 

Prudent to check or warn unguarded youth. 

And guide thy fteps in innocence and truth. 

Thofe who regard, will fulfome language wave. 

And, in the friend fincere, forget the Have : 

Will make, like mc, your happinefs their care. 

Nor wink at fpecks, that render you lefs fair — 

From books, too, draw much profit and delight. 

At early morning, and at lateft night : 

But far, oh far ! from thy chaile eyes remove 

The bloated page that paints licentious love. 

That wakes the paflions, but not mends the heart. 

And only leads to infamy and art ! 

Let Addifon's and Johnfon's moral page. 

And Hawkefworth's pleafing ftile thy hours engage. 

From Milton feel the warm poetic fire. 

Whom all the nymphs of Helicon infpire. 

With Thomfon round the varied feafons rove. 

His chafte ideas ev'ry heart improve. 

Let tuneful Pope inftruft you how to flng, 

To frame the lay, and raife the trembling wing. 

Let deathlefs Shakefpear, nature's fav'rite child. 

Great above meafure, and fublimely wild. 

Of human manners give the pi(fture true. 

For ever changing, and for ever new — 

Such be thy joys — and through this varied life. 

Whether a maid, a mother, or a wife. 



A riddle. 

May fair content for ever fill thy breaft. 
And not an anxious care difturb thy reft : 
May love, the pureft paffion of the flcies. 
Play round thy heart, and fparkle in thine eyes ! 
May all thy worth be virtue's fweet reward. 
And goodncfs only claim thy juft regard ! 
And when this bufy fcene of life is o'er. 
And vain illufions vex the heart no more, 
'Midft brighteft faints, O may I meet my dear. 
And feel that love improv'd 1 cherifh'd here ! 

ALBERTO. 

•■<y-<^<S><^<S><^"'«>'- 

J riddle. 
From the Penttfyl'vama magazine, 

MY parent bred me to the fea ; 
I've been where never man could be. 
Long time 1 rang'd the ocean wide, 
And all the rage of the florms defied : 
Though louring clouds obfcur'd the Iky, 
And foaming billows mounted high ; 
Though winds with utmoft fury blew. 
And thunders roll'd and lightnings flew ; 
Waves, winds, and thunders all in vain 
Oppos'd my pafl'age through the main. 
At length my parent died, and I 
On fhore would needs my fortune try— 
I left the fea — grew fond of fhow, 
Drefs'd neat, and foon became a beau. 
My body's taper, tall, and ilraight, 
I chiefly dwell among the great ; 
Am, like a bridegroom, clad in white. 
And much the ladies I delight ; 
Attend when Chloe goes to reft — 
Chloe is by my prefence bleft : 
Nor ghoft nor gobhn can fhe fear. 
Nor midnight hag, if I am near. 
No more a feaman bold and rough, 
I fhine at balls, am fond offnufF: 
To gay affemblies I repair, 
And make a flaming figure there. 
At laft a burning fever came. 
That quite diffov'd my tender frame : 
I wafted faft, light-headed grew ; 
Of all my friends not one I knew ; 
Great drops of fweat ran down my fide. 
And I, alas ! by inches died. 



( 97 ) 



FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE. 



Amjlerdam, 08oher 4. 

THEnegociatlonsof our city whe- 
ther with the duke of Brunfwick, 
or at the Hague, Iiave terminated in 
an entire fubmillion to the court of 
Pruffia, and to her royal highnefs 
the princcfs of Orange, as appears by 
the following placard : 

" The burgomaflcrs and counfel- 
lors of the city of Amfterdam, find 
themfelves obliged to declare to the 
worthy corps ot burghers, that they 
have always confcientiouny endea- 
voured to aift conformably to the ad- 
vantage of their dear country in ge- 
neral, and that of this city in parti- 
cular, and that ftill, in their prefent 
circumitances, the good oi this city, 
and that of its inhabitants, is dearer 
to them than their own lives, and tlie 
prefervation of their honours, em- 
ployments and their property. 

" The great and imminent danger 
in which they are involved, and the 
little time which with difficulty they 
•had obtained to deliberate, not hav- 
ing permitted them to make fully 
known to the burghers, all that has 
been tranfaCled, to preferve this good 
city from the dreadful mifchiefs that 
feemed to impend, they have been 
obliged to accede to the points which 
the other members of the dates of 
Holland have agreed to ; and to 
charge the deputies of this city to 
yield to every demand, ia cafe they 
cannot aft otherwife — even the dif- 
miffion of the ettablifhed regents — 
rather than rifque greater damages 
to the town and inhabitants, in ad- 
dition to thofe which they have hi- 
therto fufFered; and after all, per- 
haps, after having undergone thefe 
loffes, to be obliged to fubmit to de- 
mands ftill more affliding. They call 
God to witnefs, from whom nothing 
can be concealed, and the oath which 

Vol. III. No. I. 



they took on afluming the magiftra- 
cy, that they have no other view in 
conceding every thing, than the pre- 
vention of the certain and irrepara- 
ble ruin of the city. 

" Since they are conftraincd to 
give up all, they will at leait endea- 
vour, and they hope to be able, to 
preferve the moft perfect tranquility 
and fecurity in this very populous ci- 
ty ; to the effecling of which they 
expeft, with confidence, that the brave 
burghers, who hate exerted them- 
felves with fo much zeal for the pre- 
fervation of the tranquility, will con- 
tinue to exercife the fame efforts, and 
the fame zeal, to maintai;! public 
quiet in the city, and to preferve each 
individual from all manner of vio- 
lence and oppreffion. 

" Done the 3d of Oftobcr, 
By ine, 
H. N. HASSELAER, fec'ry 

OSl/ber 13. A complete revolu- 
tion has taken place in the political 
and civil government of this city. 
The magdtrates, who had been re- 
moved from their clnces by the par- 
ty in oppofition to the Itadtholder, 
were reitorcd to their feats in the 
fenate and city council. On the 
9th inft. the grand officers and 
burghermallers, who had been ex- 
pelled or fecluded by the faction, re- 
fumed the exercife of their feveral 
ftations; and on l|he following day 
the fecluded counfellors were rein- 
ftated in their ofiices; the perfons 
who had been appointed bj'the fac- 
tion to uiperfede them, made a vir- 
tue of neceTity ; thev refigntd with- 
out any firnggle, and gave up em- 
ployments which they could no lon- 
ger hold. 

On Tuefday laft, the burghermaf- 
ters received the following letter 
from his highnefs the duke of Brunf- 
N 



f8 



Foreign Intdligence, 



wick, dated Amftcrdam, the gth 
inftant : 

" In order to fecure the requifi- 
tion of his Pruffian majefty, and the 
honour of his arms, of being aflu red 
of the difarming the auxiliaries and 
free corps that fhall be found in Am- 
fterdam, I demand of the burgher- 
mafters and council of the city, for 
my entire fatisfaftion of the legal 
mode of their being difarmed, that 
the Leyden port, or gate, be deli- 
Ycred to his majefty s troops, that 
(hall appear there to-morrow at 
noon ; and I pledge myfelf no one 
fhall come into the city ; that the 
ftricleft difcipline fhall be obferved, 
and that the troops Ihall ftay no lon- 
ger, after the refolution of the ftate, 
with refpeft to their being difarmed, 
fhall have been put in execution. 
You fee, gentlemen, I afk no more 
than what the ftates require, and 
what other cities, fuch as Dord- 
recht and Rotterdam defired of me. 
C. G. F. D. OF BRUNSWICK." 
In confequencc of the above, on 
Wednefday morning, a deputation 
of two burghermalters, and two 
counfellors, waited on his highnefs, 
who was near the Leyden port, or 
gate, in order to fettle every thing 
relative to the prefent circumflaiices ; 
and in the afternoon 150 of the 
Pruffian troops came into the city, 
took pofTeflion of tliat port, and the 
following capitulation was agreed 
upon : 

ift. That the Pruffian troops fhall 
take pofTeffion of the Leyden gate, 
with one hundred and fifty men and 
two pieces of cannon. 

20. That two fquadrons of light 
horfe fhould be quarteved at Over- 
toom. 

3d. That none of the king's 
troops come into the city without 
permiffion of the magiftrates. 

4th. That the burghermafiers and 
council of the city fhall take the ne- 
cclTary Iteps for fccuring of the flui- 
ccs, at Haarlem and Mulden pofti. 



5th. That the burghcrmafters and 
council fhall give to the duke of 
Brunfwick, a daily account how far 
the refolutions of the city are 
brought forward. 

6th. That monf. Haaren, as corn- 
mi fiioner on behalf of the duke of 
Brunfwick, fhall be inftrufted to 
what extent they have proceeded \\\ 
difarming the people. 

[On the day of the furrender, a 
ikirmifh took place in the city be- 
tween the citizens of the two par- 
tics ; it was occafioned by the fac- 
tion placing wheel-barrows, covered 
with earth, in thofe ftreets through 
which the fladtholder's friends were 
advancing on horfeback. This witli 
fome other infults, caufed a battle to 
enfue, in which fome Jews were kill- 
ed and others wounded. Soon after, 
however, peace was entirely reflor- 
ed ; and on the 11th, the Pruffian* 
took entire pofTelfion of Amfter- 
dam.] 

Hague, Od. 7. We learn from 
Zirickzee in Zealand, that the po- 
pulace, having met in feveral parts, 
have committed the greateft exceffes. 
We have a lifl of 170 houfes 
which they have pillaged ; more 
than 50 have been pulled down to 
the ground ; five perfons have had 
their throats cut. Two hundred fa- 
milies who have cfcaped thefe mu- 
tineers, have retired to Antwerp, 
where the Auflrian government have 
granted them an afylum and protec- | 
tion. 1 

Lc7tdon,08. 5. The D. of Branfwick ' 
having refufed any terms fhort of 
the entire fubmiffion of the city of 
Amflcrdam, was the reafon that the 
advanced guards of the city were at- 
tacked on the morning of die n1 
inftant, by the Pruffian troops ; the ' 
engagement continued for fe\eii 
hours, and the Pruffians were repulf- 
ed in three places, and made their ro- 
tieat, which occafioned fome difor- 
der ; but when the mal came away, 
the duke was going againft Amfter- 



Foreign Intelligence. 



99 



Jam, in full force with all his artil- 
lery, and it is fuppofed is now in 
pofleffion of that city. 

1 he following is a ftatement of a 
fpecial law cafe, which has lately 
occurred, (Forward againft Pittwood) 
wherein the defendant was a com- 
mon carrier, to whom the plaintiff' 
had delivered a parcel of hops, to be 
carried by the defendant's waggon. 
The defendant put them into his 
warehoufe, and during the night a 
fire broke out at an adjoining houfe, 
which communicated to and confum- 
ed the defendant's warehoufe, and 
the plaintiff's goods therein. The 
queftion for the court to determine 
was, " Whether the plaintiff was 
entitled to recover." Lord Manf- 
ficld ftated, that a common carrier is 
in the nature of an infurer ; and that 
he is liable for every thing, except 
the aft of God and the king's ene- 
mies ; that is, even for inevitable 
accidents, with thofe exceptions. 
Judgment was therefore given for 
t'^e plaintiff. 

The produce of the fertile and 
beautiful ifland of Jamaica, has been 
long an objeft of envy with our ene- 
mies. The fort of Port Pvoyal is 
now made very ftrpng. There can- 
not be too much care taken of 
3,500,000 acres of fuch valuable 
ground, which is nearly four times 
as much as all the other Britilh fugar 
illands put together. The cultivat- 
ed land of this charming ifland, the 
lands cleared of woods, and that ap- 
plied to pafturage, confift of 600,000 
acres ; the Savanna, 250,000 ; the 
rocky, roads, river courfes, &c. 
350,000. There remain yet un- 
I cultivated 2,350,000 acres. Only 
about one-fourth of the land fit for 
cultivation is fettled ; if the other 
three were fettled, the annual reve- 
nue derived from thence to this 
country would be very confiderably 
enhanced ; at prefent it is not lefs 
than 700,000. 

Oiiobcr 8. The following is a copy 



of an official note prefented by 

mr. Grenviile to the comte de 

Montn-jorin, on the 4th of Odo- 

ber, 1787. 

"HIS Britannic majefty, con- 
fiding on that friendfhip which 
happily exifts between him and 
his moft chriilian majefty, thinks he 
has a right of afking fome explana- 
tions on the fubjed of thofe arma- 
ments which are now carried on in 
all the harbours of France. A treaty 
of peace between the two crowns, 
fettled on principles which feem to 
infure its permanency, a treaty of 
commerce lately figned and mutually 
executed, a reciprocal fettlement of 
the interefts of the two nations in the 
Eall-Indies, the intimate connexions 
lately entered into by the merchants 
of both nations, all feem to remove 
the idea of any hoftile intention 
againft Great- Britain ; neverthclefs, 
France is arming, and his Britannic 
majefty cannot trace any European 
povyer againft which the moftchriltian 
king can poffibly have any caufc of 
complaint. 

'* The commotions in the united 
Netherlands, it is true, have alarmed 
Europe ; but the king of Great- 
Britain repofes too great a confidence 
in the declarations of his moft chrif- 
tian majefty, to believe that he in- 
tends to fupport a drooping party in 
the province of Holland, againft the 
voice of the majority of thofe united 
provinces, with whom alone he 
has formed an alliance ; he cannot 
therefore fuppofe that the armaments 
of France can poffibly have that ob- 
jeft in view. 

" His Britannic majefty, on the 
other hand, is informed, that the 
moft chriftian king has lately fcnt 
confiderable forces to the Eaft- Indies, 
part of which have ftopped at the 
Cape of Good Hope and Trincomale ; 
neither France nor the united Ne- 
therlands have any enemies in that 
part of the world, and the king of 
Great Britain feeling himfelf i«nteref- 



lOO 



Foyciyn Intelligence. 



ted in thofe meafures more imme- 
diately than any other power, willies 
to be acquainted with the reafons of 
thofe expeditions. 

" His Britannic majefty defires 
nothing fo fincerelv as to maintain 
the harmony which exifts between 
Great Britain and France, and be- 
ing perfuaded that the moil: chrif- 
tian king is filled with the fame fcn- 
timent, doubts not but that he will 
embrace this friendly communica- 
tion, in order to elucidate themifun- 
derftandings which might arife from 
the armaments of France. 
The cornle de Morttmorin s arrfnver, 
" The king, perfuaded that the 
explanations which his Britannic 
majefty wilhes to rcceiA^e, originate 
in his friendly difpofitions, is will- 
ing to explain the motive of his ar- 
mament. The faith repofed in trea- 
ties, formerly held fofacred, has been 
feveral times violated within this cen- 
tury, in a manner fo unprecedented, 
that it is become the duty of every 
power to prepare itfelf for war, even 
in the bcfom of peace, at the 
leaft motion of any of its neighbours. 
All Europe knows that France has 
not exhibited any precedents of thofe 
unjuftifiable violations, and the king, 
too jealous of the dignity of his 
crown, would difdain t.iking fuch an 
advantage over an unprepared neigh- 
bour. His Britannic majetty is not ig- 
norant of the refpedive fituations of 
France and Great Britain, at the be- 
ginning of laft Auguil: in Europe, as 
well as in both Indies, and the King 
having religioufly remained fmce on 
the defcnfive, fufficiently evinces the 
purity of his intentions. His nioft 
chriftjan majefty being determined 
to fulfir his treaty of alliance with 
the united Netherlands, and wifliing 
to prevent any power from taking 
iidvantages of the trouble of thofe 
provinces, to feize on feme parts of 
their poifefilons in Europe,- and in 
both Indies, has thought neceflary to 
be prepared to proted them, as foon 



as the ftates general fliould require 
it. The armaments of Great Britam, 
the negociations of her minifters in 
all the European courts, and her 
well-known fteps to diiTolve the al- 
liance between France and the united 
Netherlands, and to accekrate the 
war between the Ottoman empire and 
I'uiTia, Auftria, and the republic of 
Venice ; fuch are the reafons which 
have obliged the king to increafe his 
means of defence, the extent of which 
has been proportioned to the prepa- 
rations carried on in Great Britain, 
Sheltered now from any danger of 
furprife, he is firmly determined not 
to begin hoftiliiies ; and, prepared 
for war, although fmcerely defirous 
of peace, he waits to lay down his 
arms, that England fhould have a- 
dopted fimilar meafures." 

Od. 20. A letter from Amfter- 
dam, dated Oft. 12, fays, mr. Van 
Berkel, and another burger or two, 
who were moft inimical to the ftadthol- 
der, made their efcape by fea ; and a 
confiderable number of the refraftofy 
of the Amfterdammers were fent by 
the Prufiian general to Cleves. 

This is an era of great importance 
in the French monarchy. The mal- 
verfation of the government has 
brought on a crifisin tlie minds of the 
people. 1 hey fcem ready to take 
fire; and was not the defpotic pow- 
er of the grand monarch fupported 
by a vaft ftandingarmy, it is believed 
that the hiftory of France would re- 
cord a great revolution. 

Nov. 8. Since the- publication of 
the declarations, infurances to the 
Weft-Indies, which were done at ten 
percent, in cafe of war, have fallen 
to four. 

AW, 9. The lofs fuftained by 
the Ruffian fquadron in the Black 
Sea is novy' confirmed, and turns out 
to be infinitely more calamitous than 
was' at firft imagined. Eefides tl':e 
one ft^.ip of the line, of which we 
have had accounts as falling into the 
hands of the Turks, fix other men of 



ime ricau hitcUigence, 



1 01 



war, large, new, and well-equipped 
ftiips pcrifhed in the ftorm. '1 his 
fevere blow has completely difabled 
the Ruffians for a time, from ading 
againtt the Ottoman Porte by ft-a. 

Mr. Nairne, of London, has re- 
ceived a letter from dr. Franklin, 
in America ; which ftates, that the 
cover of his mahogany-box, which 
held artificial magnets, and fitted it 
at London and Paris, was too fmall 
in America. The air of America 
mud therefore be drier than that of 
Europe. 

Two commiffioners on the part of 
the court of France are Txiortly ex- 
peded in England, to obferve that 
the redufiion of our navy has taken 
place agreeably to the ratification. 
Monf. de Bougainville is one of the 
perfons named, and two Britifn naval 
officers are to be fent to the French 
ports in order to obferve a like con- 
dud. 

Letters from Berlin and Hamburgh 
declare war between Sweden and 
Ruffia to be inevitable ; they add, 
that in the interview at Kaminieck, 
it was agreed that Poland fhould 
provide 30,000 troops, in cafe of 
hoftilities with the Porte, and that 
by way of compenfation, the repub- 
lic fhould be put in pofTefTion of 
Moldavia. 

Authentic information was received 
on the 23d ult. from Holland — the 
affairs of that diilrafted republic, are 
not likely to be fo fpeedily reftored 
to tranquility as it was generally 
expeded. When M. de Thuiemeyer, 
the Pruiiian ambaiTador at the Hague, 
firft delivered the memorial that con- 
tained the intimation of that mo- 
narch's intended interference in the 
concerns of the flates, nothing was 
faid or written upon the fubject, as 
to the motives for his condud, be- 
yond the mere widi to obtain repara- 
tion to the princefs of Orange, for 
the infult flie liad received ; fince the 
furrender of Amfterdam, however, a 
different language has been held. 



On a fuggeflion being thrown 
out to the duke of Brunfwick, lince 
the capitulation of that place, that it 
would tend to reftors quiet, if the 
Pruffian army were to retire from the 
city, M. de Thuiemeyer fent a re- 
gular official intimation to the ma- 
giilrates, tiiat it was the determina- 
tion of his maflcr, not to quit Am- 
fi;erdam until every farthing of the 
expence he had incurred in confe- 
quence of his preparations, was fully- 
paid ; at the fame time rating the 
amount of this expenditure upon % 
mofl enormous fcale. 

This has thrown the council of 
Amfterdam into the utmofl: confter- 
nation. They cannot order the pay- 
ment of the money, without regular 
authority from the ftates, and by 
their refufal,are expofcd to the daily 
hazard of the plunder of the foldiery. 
On the declining to ad\'ance the 
fum demanded, M. de Thuiemeyer 
informed them, he fhould publifh a 
manifelro, declaratory of the pur- 
pofes and refolutions of his mafter. 
On the interpofition, however, of the 
princefs of Orange, this violent mea- 
fure was fufpended till the minifters 
of the court of London fnould have 
been confulted. Accordingly a coun- 
cil was held yefterday in the evening, 
and two extraordinary nieffcngers 
were difpatchcd, one to the king of 
Pruffia, at Berlin, and another to fir 
J. Harris, at the Hague. 

American lnteihge77ce, 

Philadclphiay Jajiumy ?.. A letter 
from a gentleman in Savannah, to 
his friend in this city, dared Dec. 8, 
fays, " Since your departure from 
this country, we have been engaged, 
and are now in a war with the Creek 
Lidians. Small parties have penetra- 
ted as low down as the Cononcliee, 
killed our citizens, and done other 
damage. It is my firm belief, that 
it might have been flopped in the 
firfl llage, had the executive of this 



ro2 



Amcr'tcan Infellignjce, 



conntry hrouglit to trial a col. Alex- 
ander, who murdered eight or nine 
Indians on their hunting grounds. 
The legiflature have ordered four re- 
giments to be raifed, of" feven hun- 
dred and fifty men each ; and at the 
expiration of the war, they are to re- 
ceive a certain traft of country, 
within the Indian limits, for their 
fer vices. 

♦' Should the commifiioners of 
North and South Carolina and Geor- 
gia, with the continental agent, meet 
ipeedily, I have hopes that they will 
adjull the difpute, whereby the un- 
fortunate families who have been 
driven from their houfes, may return 
in peace, and enjoy the fruits of their 
labour." 

A letter from Baltimore, dated 
Dec. 28, fays, " Our affembly were 
tried, while fitting, for a duty of ore 
penny per lb. on imported nails, fi- 
milar to your ftate : but though it 
pafled the lower houfe, it was unex- 
pededly rejefted by the fenate, who 
arc warm fcderalifts, and thought it 
wrong to interfere in a matter that 
would fo foon be out of their pro- 
fince." 

In the political fociety lately infti- 
tuted at Richmond, in Virginia, the 
rew federal conflitution was the fub- 
jeft of a public debate. After three 
evenings fpent in difcufiing it, the 
yeas, in favour of it, were one hun- 
dred and twenty-eight ; the yeas 
were only fifteen. The members i<i 
this fociety confift of the principal 
charafters in Virginia. The principal 
fpeaker againft the government, was 
Patrick Henry, efq. The principal 
fpeaker in favour of it, was mr. Ni- 
cholas. It is expefted there will be 
the fame majority in the ftate con- 
vention. 

Ja». in. A letter from Carlifle, 
dated January 4, fays, " I dare fay 
you have heard of the unhappv rum- 
pus which took place here on the 
25th ult. The fpirit of rage and 



difcord is increnfing every hour ; 
fquire Agnew iffued warrants for 
fome of the rioters, but none would 
venture to ferve them ; a boy indeed 
was taken, but the people of the 
town threatening to rife again, and 
the country people declaring they 
would come in and pull down the 
houfes of any who ftiould attempt to 
ilTue or execute any warrants, he wai 
difcharged. 

Before the furrender of Amfier- 
dam, water was fold at an Engliflt 
fhilling a quart. 

Jari. 16. On the ninth inft. the 
convention of the ftate of Connec- 
ticut, ratified the new conftitu- 
tion, by the following inftrument : 

" In the name ot the people of 
" the ftate of Connefticut : — We, 
" the delegates of the people of faid 
" ftate, in general convention af- 
■" fembled, purfuant to an aift of the 
" legifiaturc in Odober laft, have af- 
" fented to and ratified, and by thefe 
" prefents do alTent to, ratify, and 
*' adopt the conftitution reported by 
" the convention of delegates in Phi- 
" ladelphia, on the feventeentli day 
^' of September, 1787, for the united 
•«' ftates of America. 

" Done in convention, this nintk 

" day of January, A. D. !788. 

" In witnefs whereof we have 

*' hereunto fetour hands." 

The votes for the conftitution 

were 128 — againft it, 40. 

Jan. 30. By late intelligence from 
Georgia, we are informed that that 
ftate has ratified the new conftitu- 
tion. 

Portfmou'h. (N. H.) Jan. 2. Ten 
ftateshavecalled conventions — South- 
Carolina we have not heard from — 
New- York as yet could not, and 
Rhode-Iftand — fbame come upon her 
rulers for it — will not. 

Ncivpoyf, (R- 1-) J«»' 10. At a 
town meeting fpecialiy convened at 
Littlecompton, in this ftate, on the 
firft day of January inftant, for the 



American IntelligeJiCe, 



>o8 



purpofe of confidering the new fede- 
ral conltitution, it was voted, that a 
committee be appointed to draw up 
inltruftions for their deputies in ge- 
neral aill'inbly, who reported accord- 
ingly initru(^tions to captain George 
Simmons and Nathaniel Stiles, eit]rs. 
their deputies, of which the following 
is an extraft : 

" That being deeply impreffed 
with a fenfe of the extreme nejd we 
(land in of a well organi/xd and ener- 
getic national government, and view- 
ing the new federal conllitution as a 
plan of government well adapted to 
the preient critical fituation of our 
national affairs, we do therefore en- 
join it on you as our pofitive inltruc- 
tions, that you and each of you do 
ufe your utmoit endeavours at the 
next felhon of the general affembly 
©f this ftate, to have an ad paiTed, re- 
commending it to the foveral towns 
in this ftate, to choofe delegates, as 
foon as may be, for the purpofe of 
adopting or rejeding the new federal 
eonftitution, agreeably to the requi- 
ficion of the honorable the national 
convention ; and thofe our pofitive 
inftru(!:Vions, gentlemen, you muft 
not fail to execute on pain of pro- 
curing our higheit dlfpleafure. 

Submitted by, 
David Hilliard ^ 
Perez Richmond, \ Commitee." 
John Davis, J 

Which report was accepted and 
paffcd as the inilrudions of the town 
of Littlecompton to their deputies 
in the general aflembly. 

Ptterjhuygh, Jan, 3. By an aft of 
the prefent general aflembly, the fol- 
, lowing duties are impofed on import- 
ed articles, payable in certiiicates, to 
take place the firft day of March next. 

I' s. d. 
Rum per gallon, o i o 

Brandy and other diftilled 

fpirits, 010 

Madeira wine per gallon, o 1 b 
Other wines, ditto, 010 

Porter, 009 



SnufF per bottle, o 1 

Manufadured tobacco 

per lb, o I 

Loafandlump fugarper lb. o o 
Coifee per lb. 00 

Pepper, ditto, o o 

Other fpices, o o 

Drelfed leather per lb. o o 

Tann'd ditto per lb. o o 

Bohea tea, 01 

Other teas, o z 

Cordage per cwt. o 4 

Bar iron, per cwt. o 4 

Pots and other callings, o 4 
Nail rods per cwt. o 6 

Wine in quart bottles, and 

others in proportion, per 

dozen, 039 

Malt liiiiiors in quart bottles 

per ditto, o 2 <> 

Cluniots and coaches, 2000 

Other four wheel carriages, 15 00 
'I'wo wheel carriages, lo 00 
Clucks, 500 

Axes per dozen, 080 

Hoei per dozen, 060 

Saddles a piece, o 12 o 

Ladies ilutf or Morocco 

llioes per pair, o 1 

Ladles filk ditto, o 2 

Men's and women's Ihocs, o 1 
Siioe boots per pair, o 6 

Boot legs per pair, o 1 

Playing cards per dozen, 1 10 
Coal per bulhei, o o 

Salt beef per cwt. 1 o 

Ditto pork per cwt. 1 o 

Candles per lb. o o 

Butter per lb. o o 

Soap per lb. 00^ 

On all ready made wearing apparel 
not before enumerated (except r>-!oves 
and ftockings) or metal coat and 
waiftcoat buttons, on all horfc and 
carriage whips and walking canes, 
on all gold and lllver lace, tea per 
cent, ad valorem, and upon all goods, 
wares, and mcchandiz-, whatf;cvcr, 
not above enumerated, except fait, a 
dutv of three percent. 

IVilmwgtjn, fDtl.) Jan. 9, On 

Thurfday laR, at a lueetimr uf ths 



104 



American hitettic'Cfice, 



principal inhabitants of this borough, 
the following refolutions were agreed 
to, and figned : 

That from and after the firft day 
of January, 1788, we will kill no 
lamb, for fale, or our famil}' ufe ; 
nor buy any of the fame, or fuffer 
it to be bought or ufed in our fami- 
lies, until the firll day of January, 
1789. 

That on the firil dnv of January 



next, we will appear in a complete 
drefs of the manufacture of one or 
more of the united Hates, at a ge- 
neral meeting to be held on that day. 
That we will encourage and pro- 
mote, as much as we reafonably can, 
the ufe of American manufaifturcs, 
by giving them the preference to fo- 
reign articles, when there is any rea- 
fonabie proportion between their pri- 
ces and goodnefs. 



CONTENTS. 



Mlfcellanies. 
Oration in commcmoralioji of Ainericnn 

Indepcfidcnce , 1 7 

Addrefs deli-vered by the rev. Samuel 

Maga-zv, 25 

Ne-jJ jncthod nf placi?7g a meridum 

mark, by Dwvid Ritlenhoufe, efq. 28 
Obferfatioris on the aurora borealis — 

by the rev. yere?nj Belhiap, 29 

Ob/er'vations and experiments on the 

Javeet fpri/igs — by James Miidifoa, 

ejqiiire, 30 

Method of maVu/g Jleel, 48 

Letter on marriage, 50 

Antifderal arguments, 77 

Letter to the hon. R. H. Lee, 7 8 

Satire. 
On mr'ftcnl prete?'ders, 23 

Recipe for an injrj-^eut debtor 49 

DireSlions to co7idud a ?ie--wfpapcr quar- 
rel, according to the brji mode /loiv 

in pra£lice, 5 1 

Rural concerns. 
Notes on far mill V — by the hon. C. T. 

rf quire, 4 2 

Method of making potajhes in Hungary 

and Poland, 4 ^ 

thoughts on the culture of hemp, 47 
Mode of breaking Jieers to the draft in 

aft'JJ days, 48 

On the culture off Ik, 86 

Law information. 
Laiv cafe — Court of comjnon pleas, 

Charlefon, 83 

Laiv report — Hry -vs. Haldimr.nd , 84 

State and other public papers. 
Valedictory addrefs of his excellency 

go'vernor Trumbull y 3 - 



Refolutions of the legijlature of Con- 
necticut 3 J 

Letter ta governor Randolph, 6 1 

Letter from ditto, 62 

Rfjlntions of the inhabitants of 
Cho^^van, JX 

Addrfs of the grand jury of E den- 
ton, 72 

R, fives of inhabitants of North- 
ampton county, 74. 

Report of the deputies of North- 
ampton county, 75 

Refjlutions of the tradefmen of 
Bojion, 76 

Ratification of the nevj coJifiittitiaz 
hy the fate of ConneBicut. \ 02 

Oficial notice prefc7ited by mr. Gren- 
ville to the comie de Montmorin, 99 

Aiifjcer to the preceding notice, ibid. 
Natural hilTory. 

Obfer-jations on a comet lately dif- 
co-oered. By David Ritteu- 
horfe, efq. 36 

Acc'junt of a motley - colour e^ or 
pyed^ negro girl, and mulatto 
boy. By dr. Morgan, 27 

Letter relative to the engrafting 
fruit trees and the grovith of 
vegetables. By gen. Lincoln, 39 

Obfervations on the grovJth of 
trees dovonvjards after the firji 
year, 40 

So!ne account of the opoffum, 50 

Medical trads. 

Letter on the fore throat dijiemper, 53 

Letter on the digitalis purpurea, 59 

An inefiimabli dijfolvcnt for htanan 
calculi, , 60 



T H S 



AMERICAN M U S E U I^nI 5 

o R 
flEPOSITORY 

OF A N C I E >; T AND MODERN 

FUGITIVE P I E C E S, &c,' 
PROSE AND POETICAL, 

For FEBRUARY, 1788. 



" With fiouttj} p-jJrs tnrh/i'if, 

*'' from laricTLf gardens cuITd with care.'' . . ^ 



'■^CoUcUla Tcuirefcmty 



V O L, Hi. No. XL 

HE SECOND EElTIONa 



PHILADELPHIA; 
P R 1 N T E D B Y M A T II E W C A R E Y, 

..<>.. ~4»- ..<^.. _«.. ..O" 



THE 

A M E R I C A N M U S E U M, 

For FEBRUARY, 1788. 



An oration, delivered J uly 4, T787, 
before the fuciety of the Ciiiciniinti, 
of the fate of hie-iu York ; in com- 
memoration of the independence of 
America, By the honourable Ro- 
bert Liuingfon, efq. chancellor of 
that fate. 

COULD have wiflied, gentle- 
men, that the taflc, I am now a- 
boiit to perform, had been afligned 
to fome abler fpeaker ; and, in that 
view, I long fincc tenderi-d my apo- 
logy for declining it, and hoped, 'till 
lately, that it had been accepted. 
Difappointcd in this hope, and un- 
willing to treat any mark of your 
favour with negled, I determined 
to obey your commands ; although 
I was fatislied, that, in the execu- 
tion of them, I fhiould not anfwer 
your expedations. T here is a ilile 
of eloquence, adapted to occafions 
of this kind, to which I feel myfelf 
unequal : — a ftile, which requires 
the glowing imagination of younger 
fpeakers, who, coming recently 
from the fchools of rhetoric, know 
how to drefs their fcntimcnts in all 
its flowery ornaments. The turbu- 
lence of the times, fince I firft enter- 
ed upon public life, and the nccefTi- 
ty it impofed upon thofo who en- 
gaged in it, of attending rather 
to things than >vordSj will, I fear. 



render me, if not an ufelefs, at lead 
an unpolifhed fpeaker. 

If the mind dwells with pleafure 
on interefting events — if the foul 
pants to emulate the noble deeds it 
contemplates — if virtue derives new 
force from the fuccefsful ftruggles of 
the virtuous, it is wife to fet apart 
certain feafons, when, freed from 
meaner cares, we commemorate 
events, which have contributed to 
the happinefs of mankind, or afford 
examples worthy their imitation. 
What are we this day called upon to 
commemorate ? — Some fignal v'ido- 
ry, in which the viftor weeps the 
lofs of friends, and humanity 
mourns over the graves of the van- 
quifhed ?— The birth of fome prince, 
whom force, fraud, or accident, has 
entitled to a throne ? — Or even that 
of fome patriot, who has raifed the 
reputation, and defended the rights 
of his country ? — No, gentlemen 1 a 
nobler fubjed than the fplendor of 
vidories, or the birth of princes, 
demands cur attention. We are 
called upon, to commemorate the 
fuccefsful battles 'of freedom, and the 
birth of nations ! 

It may be expedled (and indeed I 
believe it is ufual on fuch occafions) 
that I (hculd tread the fteps we have 
taken, from the dawn of op re/lion, 
to the bright funlliiae of indepea- 



io8 



Ofallonht commemoration of American independence. 



,dc.nce ; diat I (hould celebrate the 
praife of patriots who have been ac- 
tors in the glorious fcene, and mpre 
particularly that I (bould lead you 
to the Ihrinesof thofe vvlio have of- 
fered yp thejr lives in fupport of 
their principles, and fealed with 
their blood your charters of free- 
dom. Had I no other objccT: in 
view, than to amufe you and indulge 
my own feelings, 1 fhould take this 
path. For what tallc more delightful, 
than to contemplate the fuccefsful 
ftruggles of virtue ; to fee it at one 
moment panting under the grafp of 
oppreffion, and riling in the next 
with renewed ftrength ; as if, like 
the giant fon of earth, flie had ac- 
quired vigour from the fall ; to fee 
hope a.nd difappointment, plenty and 
want, defeats and vidorics, follow- 
ing each otlier in rapid fucceflion, 
and contributing, like light and 
fhade, to the embelUrnment of the 
piece ! What more foothing to the 
foft and delicate emotions of huma- 
nity, than to wander v^ith fokled 
arms, and flow and penfive Hep, 
amidll: the graves of departed heroes, 
to indulge the mingled emotions of 
erief jmd admiration : at one mo- 
rnent giving way to private forrow, 
and lamenting the lofs of a friend, a 
relation, a brother ; ia the next, 
glowing with patriot warmth, gaz- 
ing with ardor on their wounds, and 
invoking their fpirits, while we aflc 
of heaven to infpire us with equal 
fortitude I But however pleafing 
this talk., the deftre of being ufeful 
impels me, at this interelHng mo- 
rrient, to f<irego this pleafure--to 
call you from this tender fcene--to 
remind you that you are thf citizens 
of a free ilate— to bid you rejoice 
with Roman pride, that thofe you 
love, have done their dnt}'— to exhort 
you to crown tiie glorious work 
they have begun ; for, alas ! my 
friends, though they have nobly per- 
fora:ied the p.irt aifigned them, the 



work is ftill unBniflied, and mucfi 
remains for us to do. It may riot, 
therefore, be improper, amidft the 
congratulations 1 make you on this 
day — this day, diftinguifhed in the 
annals of fame, for the triumph of 
freedom and the birth of nations, lo 
enquire how far it has been produc- 
tive of the advantages we might rea- 
fonably have exneded, and where 
they have fallen Ihort of our expec- 
tations. 

Tr) inveftigate the caufes that 
have conduced to our difappoint- 
ment, two objefts demand our at- 
tention — our internal and federal go- 
vernments : either, to thofe who are 
difpofed to view only the gloomy 
fide of the pidture, will afford fuffici- 
ent matter for cenfure, and too much 
caufe of uneafinefs. Many defpon- 
ding fpirits, milled by their reflec- 
tions, have ceafed to rejoice in inde- 
pendence, and to doubt 'A^.ether it is 
to be confidered as a blefling. God 
forbid that there fhould be any fuch 
among us. For, whatever may be 
the preffure of our prefent evils, they 
will ceafe to operate, when we re- 
folve to remove them ; the remedy is 
within our reach, and I have fuffici- 
ent confidence in our fortitude, to 
hope that it will be applied. 

Let thofe, however, who know 
not the value of our prefent fituation, 
contrafl: it with the Jtate of fervitude, 
to which we fliould have been rcdur 
ced, had we p.itiently fubmitted to 
the yoke of Britain. She had long 
fince feen our eafe with envy, and 
our Jlrength with jealou-'^/. loaded 
with debt, fhe vvifhed to (hare that 
avBuence, which fhe attributed to her 
proteifiion, rather than to our induf- 
try. Tenacious of her fuppofed fu- 
premacy, fhe could not be iRdiffi-rent 
to thofe increafing numbers which 
threatened its Aibverfion. 

Avarice and timidity concurred in 
framing a fvllem of defjiolifn, 
which, but for our rehllance, would 



Oration in commemoration of American independence. 



109 



fiave reduced us to the vileft fubjeCli- 
von. Having refifted, accommodati- 
on was vaisi; pretences would not 
have been wanting to ruin (hole that 
had been aftive in oppulition. Bif- 
putes among ourfelves would liave 
been encouraged ; and advantages, 
derived from our difunion, would 
have enabled her ultimately to ob- 
tain her obje^S. No alternative was 
left, but independence, or abje«ft 
fubmiflion. We have chofen as be- 
came a wife and generous people. 
Let (laves or covvai-ds difapprove ttve 
choice. 

Our conftitutions are formed toen- 
fure the happinefs of a virtuouo na- 
tion. They guard againft the tu- 
mult and confufion of wnwieldy 
popular aflemblies, while they yield 
to every citizen his due (hare of pow- 
er. They preferve the adminiftra- 
tion of juftice pure and unbta(red, by 
the independence of the judges. — 
Thev prevent abufes in the execution 
of the laws, by committing the care 
of enforcing them to magillrates who 
have no (liare in making, nor voice 
in expounding them. In thefe cir- 
cum(iances, they excel the boalted 
models of Greece, or Rome, and 
thofe of all other nations, in hav- 
ing precifely marked out the power 
of the government, and the riglits 
of the people. With us the law is 
written: no party can juftify their 
errors under former abu("es or doubt- 
ful precedentc. With thcfe confti- 
tutions, I (hall be aflied, how it has 
•happened that the evils hinted at con- 
tinue to exift ? I ("hall endeavour to 
anfwer this enquiry, lince my obje(5i 
in treating of this fubjed is to im- 
prefs upon you the obligations we 
are under as citizens, as men whofe 
paftfcrvices entitle us to foms weight 
in the cominunrty, zealouily to u- 
nite in promoting a conltitutional 
reform of e'v-ery abufe, that alFc;;ls 
ihe government. 

Our conftiuuior.s being purely de- 



mocratic, the people are fovereign 
andabfolute. The faults of ablblute 
governments are to be charged to the 
lovereign :— in ours they mud be 
traced back to the people. 

If our executive has fufficient t- 
nergy, if the judicial is competent to 
the adminiftration of jultice, it our 
legidative is fo formed, that no law- 
can pafs without due deliberation, all 
the ends of governmentare anfwcred, 
fo far as they depend upon the con- 
(litution. If ftiil it talis ihort ofex- 
pciStation, the evils rnuft be foug!]tia 
the adminiftration : and (ince every 
|>erfoa concerned in that, is either 
mediately or immediately chofen by 
the people, they may change it at 
pleaiiire. What can be deviled more 
perfeft than that conititution, which 
puts in the power of thofe, who ex- 
perience the eSbds of a mal-admini- 
Itrjtion, to prevent their continu- 
ance; net by mad, tumultuous and 
irregular acl:s, as in the ancient repub- 
lics, but by fuch as are cool, delibcr 
rate and conftitutional ? If they (liH 
exift-, they muft be charged to the ne- 
gligence of the people, who after vi- 
olent agitation, have funk into fuch 
a (late of torpor and indiffere.ice, 
with refpeft to government, as to be 
carelefs, into what hands they iruil 
their deareft rights. VVhen wechufe 
an agent to manage our private aftairs, 
an executor to diitribute our eftate, 
we are felicitous about the integrity 
and abilities of thofe we entruft : wc 
confult our friends : we make the 
choice after due deliberatioa — Is it 
not aftonilhing, that when we are to 
eled men, whofe power extends to 
our liberty, our property, and ouf 
lives, we (hould be fo totally in- 
different, that not one in ten of us 
tenders his vote ? — Can it be thought 
that a;i enlightened people believe 
the fcicnce of government level to 
the meaneft capacity P That experi- 
ence, application, and education are 
unije-eilary to thple who are to frame 



Jro 



Oration in commemoration of American independence. 



laws for the governmentof the ftate? 
And yet, are inftanccs wanting, in 
■which thcfe have been prolcribed, 
•and their place fiipplied by thofc in- 
lidioirs arts, which have rendered 
them fufp'.'fled ? Are paii ferviccs the 
pjtiTport to fiitiire honours P Or have 
you yourfelves, gentlemen, efcapcd 
the general obloquy ? Are you not 
calumniated by thoie you deem un- 
worthy of your fociety ? z^re you 
not even (hunncd by forne who Ihouad 
wear with pride and pleafure this 
(iad<.>,e of termer fervices? 

You have learned in the fchool x)f 
adverfity, to appreciate charadters. 
You are not formed, whoever may 
dircLt, to promote meafures you dif- 
approve. Men, ufed to command 
and to obey, are fenfihle of the va- 
lue of government, and will notcon- 
fent to its debafement. Your fer- 
■vices entitle you to the refpeft and 
favor of a grateful people. Envy, 
and the ambition of the unworthy, 
concur to rob you of the rank you 
merit. 

To thefecaufes, we owe the cloud 
that obfcures our internal govern- 
ments. But let us not defpair; the 
fun of fcience is beginning to rife ; 
and, as new light breaks in upon the 
minds of our fellow citizens, that 
cloud will be difpeiied. 

Having obferved that our internal 
conftitutionsare adequate to the pur- 
pofes for which they were formed ; 
and that the inconveniencies we have 
fome time felt under them, were im- 
putable to caufes which it was in cur 
}H.nver to remove: I might perhaps 
ndd, that the continuance of thofe 
evils, was a proof of the happinefs 
thefe governments impart ; fince, had 
they not been more than balanced 
by advantages, they would have pref- 
fed with fuch weight, as to have com- 
pelled the people to apply the reme- 
dy' the conftitiiiion affords. — But, 
wh.on I turn my eyes to the other 
■great objed otf a patriot's attention^ — 



our federal government, I confels to 
you, my friends, I fickenatthefight. 
Nothing prefents itfeif to my view, 
but a nervelefs council, united by 
imaginary ties, brooding over ideal 
decrees, which caprice, or fancy, is 
at pkafure to anoul, or ei^iecute! I 
fee trade languifh — public credit ex- 
pire — and that glory, which is not 
lefs neceifary to the profperity of a 
nation, than reputation to indivi- 
duals, a vidim to opprobrium and 
difgrace. Here, my friends, you are 
particularly interefted : for, I believe, 
I fhould do little juftice to the mo- 
tives that induced you to brave the 
dangers and hardfhips of a ten years, 
war, if i fuppofed you had nothing 
more in viev/, than humble peace, 
and ignominious obfcurity. Brave 
fouls are influenced by nobler mo- , 
tives J and I perfuade myfelf, that 
the rank and glory of the nation you 
have eftabiilhcd, were among the 
ftrongeft that nerved your arms, and 
invigorated your hearts. Let us not 
then, my friends, lofe fight of this 
fplendid o!)jeft ; having purfued it 
through fields of blood, let us not re- 
linquilh the chafe when nothing is 
neceiTary to its attainment, but union, 
firmnefs, and temperate deliberation. 
In times of extreme danger, who- 
ever has the courage to feize the 
helm, m.ay command the fliip : each 
mariner diftruiling his own fkill, is 
re;idy to repofe upon that of others. 
Congrefs, not attending to this re- 
fieftion, were milled by the implicit 
refped, that during the war was paid 
to tlieir recommendations; and with- 
out looking forward to timps when 
thicirctnidlances which made the bafis 
of ihicr authority, fhould no longer 
exifl, tiiey formed a confliiturion on- 
ly adapted to fuch circumilances. 
Vv'e.ik in Itfelf, a variety of c.iufes 
havs- confpired to render it weaker. 
Some Hates have totally neglcded 
their reprefentation in congrefs; while 
fon:o others ha\ e been inattentive. 



Oration tu commem-i^athn of American independence. 



II r 



in their choice of delegates, to thofe 
qualities, which are eirential to the 
fiipport of its reputation : obje(fis of 
fome moment, wlicre authority is 
founded on opinion only. Tothefe, 
I am forrs', gentlemen, to add a 
<hird, which operates wit4i peculiar 
force in fome itates — the love of 
power, of which tiie leall worthy are 
always the moft tenacious* To deal 
out a portion of it tocongrefs, v/ould 
be to fliarc that, wliich fome, among 
thofe. who are elected by popular fa- 
vour, already find too little for their 
own ambition. To prcferve it, raters 
of free ftates praftife a IcfTon they 
have received from eaftern tyrants : 
and as thefe, toprefijrve the fucct-ifion, 
put out the eyes of all, that may ap- 
proach the feat of power: fo thofe 
Itrive toi blind the people, whofs dif- 
cernment, they fear, may expel them 
from' it. 

I will not wear your patience and 
my own, by contending with thofe 
chimeras they have railed, to friglit 
the people from remedying the only 
real defeifl of this government ; nor 
will I dwell upon that wretched fyf- 
tem of policy, which has funk the in- 
tereft and reputation of fuch iiates in 
the great council of America, and 
drawn upon them the hatred and con- 
tempt of their neighbours. Who 
will deny that the moft ferious evils 
daily flow from the debility of our 
federal conftitution ? Who but owns, 
that we are at this moment colonies, 
for every purpofe but that of internal 
taxation, to the nation from which 
we vainly hoped our fword had freed 
us ? Who but fees, with indignation, 
Britifh minifters daily dictating laws 
forthe deftruftion of our commerce ? 
Who but laments the ruin of that 
brave, hardy and generous race of 
men, who are neceflary for its fup- 
port? Who but feels, that we are 
degraded from the rank we ought to 
holdamong the nations of the earth — 
Defpifed by fome, mal-treated by 



others, and unable to defend ouneivcs 
againft the cruel depredations of the 
molt contemptible pirates ? At lijis 
moment — yes, great God, atthisnio. 
ment, fome among thofe, perhaps^ 
who have laboured for tlie eftabliai- 
ment ot our freedom, Are groaniiig 
in Barbarian bondage. Hands, thdt 
mzy have vvielded the fword in our 
defence, are loaded with chain?. 
Toilfome talks, gloomy prifons, 
whips and tortures, are the portion 
of mm, who have tri>irnphcd w:t!i 
U3, and exulted in the idea ofgnin;^ 
being to nations, and freedom to i:n- 
numhered generations! 

Thcfe, firs, — thefe are a few of tho 
ma.'iy evils tiuit rcfalt from the w.iat 
of a federal government. Our inter- 
nal conllitutions may make us happy 
at home, but notliing fiiort of a fede- 
ral one can render us fafe or refpec- 
lable abroad. Let us not, however, 
in our eagcrnefs to attain the one, 
forget topreferve the other inviolate j 
for better is diilrefs abroad, than ty- 
ranny and anarchy at home. A pre- 
cious depofit is given into our keep- 
ing : we hold in our hands the fate 
of future generations. Wlii'e wc 
acknowledge that no government 
can exift, without confidence in the 
governing power, let us alfo remem- 
ber, that none can remain free, 
where that confidence is incautiouf- 
]y bellowed. 

How, gentlemen, Hiall I apolo- 
gize for having obtruded this ftrions 
addrefs upon the gaieties of this ha-p- 
py day ?-^I told you, and told you 
truly, that I was ill qualified to play 
the holiday orator : and I might 
have added, that the joy of this day 
is ever attended, in my mind, with 
a thoufand mingled emotions. Re- 
flexion on the part, brings to memo- 
ry a variety of tender and interefting 
events ; while hope and fear, anxiety 
and pleafure, alternately poiTefs me, 
when I endeavour to pierce the veil 
of futurity. But never, never before. 



jik 



Ornthv in commemomtim of American hidepenclence. 



have they prefled upon me with the 
weight they do at prcfent. I feel 
that ioaie cha'ftge is necejrary : and 
yet .1 dread, lell the demon of yt\- 
loufy Ihoidd prevent fuch change : or 
the reltlefs fpirit of innovation, IhouJd 
carry us beyond what is neceffary. 1 
look round for aid ; — J fee in you a 
band of patriots — the fupporcers of 
your country's rights : I feel myfelf 
indebted to you for the freedom we 
enjoy : I know, that your emotions 
cannot be ditFercnt from my own ; 
and I ftrive, by giving you the fame 
views on thefe important fubj'efls. to 
unite your efi'orts in the comnion 
caufe. Let us, then, preferve pure 
and perfet'l.thofc principles ofi'riend- 
lliip for each other, of love for oar 
country, of refpeft for the union, 
which fuppcried us in our paft diffi'- 
culties. Let us rejeft the trammels 
«^f party ; and as far as our efforts 
iVili go, call every man to the port, 
his virtues and:ibi]ities entitle him to 
occupy. Let us watch with vigilant 
attention over the conduct of thofe 
in power ; but let us not, with cow- 
ard caution, refirain their efforts to 
he ufeful : and let us implore that 
omnipotent being who gave us 
ftrength and wifdorrt in the hour of 
danger, to direft our great council to 
that happy mern, which may afford 
us refpc(51 and fcCuritV abroad, and 
peace, liberty, and profperity at home. 

jfifter the oratxr: ivat promunced, coloKtl 
Mfivgan Lenxis addrcjjld the ^wwly 
adinitltd members, as f-ilhius : 

Gt)Jtlcme?Ji 

PREVIOUS to your reception into 
this fociety, permit us to call to 
your remembrance the circumflances 
which gave birth to your inilitution, 
and the principal objeAs which its 
foimders had in view : the reflc(ftion 
'.vill not fail to add to the tranfports 
•which each patriotic bofom mult feci 
on this uurpiciousday. 



At the clofe of that war, whic^ 
emancipated the inhabitants of tliis 
vaft continent, and confirmed a revo- 
lution greater than any the world had 
ever b:;en prefented with, a gaiiant 
band of patriots, who, ibr eight years, 
had lived together in habits of the 
itridelt friendlhip — together borne 
the numerous hardihips incident to 
the foldicr'slife — together braved the 
various dangers of the field --together 
fought, bled, and conquered, faw 
themfelves on the eve of feparation,- 
and could not bear the thought that it 
Ihould be forever. —A general anxi- 
ety took place, which was heightened 
by the refleftion that new plans of 
life, new connexions, were to be 
formed, by men who had devoted 
themfelves to theii" country, fpent 
rheir fortunes in her fervice, and were 
about to return to the peaceful walks' 
of private life; —many of them per- 
fedlly delliiute, and all without the" 
well earned wages of their toils. 
The families too of many a departed- 
brother, whom the adverfe fortunes 
of the field had fnatched untimely 
from them, claimed their aliKlaiice— - 
under thele impreffions this inflitution 
was formed, fdeudfhip the motive,' 
and the great objeft cjiarity ; cl^rifti- 
ed however, by this fentiinent, that,' 
in order to preferve that fieedora we 
had fowght for, it became eflential la' 
maintain that union which had ac- 
quired it. Envy, notwithilanding, 
hath fomtimes afcribed to us imj)ro- 
jier views ; and a too quick apj)relien- 
fion of danger, prompted by lively 
imaginations, hath freqirently f«g- 
gefttni the poffibility, that a fet ef 
men who had fought the battles of 
their country, and obtained her an- 
honourable and advantageous peace, 
were, at the inftant cf i-efigning tlieir 
arms and retiring from the field, me- 
ditating combinations dangerous ta 
thrat liberty which they themfefves' 
liad fccured. 

Jfor \ indication from fuch jmifit* 



CokjeBares conceYning *vJmd and <water-fpouts, U'd, 



prefentations we appeal to fafts, our 
own hearts bearing honeft teftimony 
to the reftitude of our intentions. 

Our affuming th- nameof an illuf- 
trious Roman, whofe virtues we wifh 
to emulate, and our having purfued, 
as far as poffible, his noble example, 
muft convince the candid of thelince- 
rity of our profeffions, when we de- 
clare, that our defigns are pure and 
difinterefted. Nor have we a wi(h 
to confine the eledion of our members 
to the military line alone; the choice 
of this day affords a proof to the 
world, that diftinguifhed merit, whe- 
ther it has fhone confpicuous in the 
cabinet or field, hath an equal claim 
to the honours of our fociety. 

Accept, gentlemen, our warmed 
congratulations on the joyful occafion 
of our prefent meeting : — may each 
return of thishappy day revive in our 
minds the memory of pafl: achieve- 
ments — may it enliven our former 
friendfhips — may it animate our fu- 
ture exertions in the caufe of our 
country— and may itinfpire our nati- 
onal councils with wifdom and patri- 
otifm, that our pofterity, to the lateft 
period of time, may have reafon to 
refped it as the greateft bleiling which 
heaven ever poured in mercy on them. 



Conje^uries concerning 'zmnd and nua- 
ter-fpouts, tornados and hurricanes. 
Communicated by dr. John Perkins, 
of Bojlon, to John Morgan, M. D. 
of Philadelphia, profejfjr of the the^ 
ory and pr.tdice of phjjic ; and F. R. 
S. London, ^c. 

WITH refpeft to water- fpouts, 
what I am about to confider 
is, whether water afcends or defcends 
in thefe bodies ? Aqueftiun which, it 
is reafonable to think, fhould be de- 
termined by fads, and the nature of 
things; and concerning which, if v/e 
wifh to attain to any certainty, we 
muft be careful not to be milled by 
Vol. III. No. II. 



fuch appearances and imaginations, 
as have hitherto commanded the ge- 
neral belief. 

Agreeable to this method of en- 
quiry, I (hall in the firft place pro- 
duce the obfervations of three or 
four perfons, in whom I can confide 
for firaplicity and honefty of inten- 
tion. 

The firll is that of capt. Milling, 
formerly of Bofton, who informed me 
that in a voyage from our Weft India 
iflands, in the month of Auguft, in 
a warm day, juft at evening, a fpout 
fell clofe by the vefTel, and, in two or 
three fecondsof time, came acrofsthe 
ftern , where he then was. A flood of 
water, as heexprciTed it, poured upon 
him and almoft beat him down ; {o 
that he was obliged to lay hold of 
what was neareft to him, to prevent 
being wafhed overboard, which in his 
fright he was apprehenfive of. But 
the fpout immediately pafTed off with 
a roaring noife into the fea. I alked 
him if he tafted the water ? Tafte it, 
faid he ! I could not help tafting it, 
it ran into my moutli, nofe, eyes, 
and ears. Was it then frefh or fait ? 
As frefh, faid he, as ever I tafted 
fpring water in my life. 

The next account I had, was from 
captain John Wakefield, alfo of 
Bofton, which was, that being juft 
within the ftraits of Gibraltar, a 
fpout fell clofe by his fliip, with a 
great roaring, which he heard as he 
was fitting in the cabin the men 
upon deck immediately crying out 
for him to come up, which he in- 
ftantly did, and faw it travelling a- 
way before the fhip, fo near that he 
plainly faw the water dcfcend. His 
men allured him that it did fo from 
the beginning. He told me the wind 
uas very fmall, during the operation 
of it. 

Capt^.in John Howland, of fame 
town, told me, that in pafling the 
calm latitudes, a fpout fell fo near, 
that he evidently faw the water dc- 
B 



Conjicinret concerning luind and nuater fpouls y Wf , 



114 

fcend, very contrary to his former 0- 
pinion^ concerning thefe bodies, 

Mr. Samuel Spring, of the fame 
town, told me that in a voyage from 
India, in parting the llraits Malac- 
ca, a fpout fell by eftimation about 
fifty yards from their fhip ; the ap- 
pearance of which was that of a co- 
Jiimn of water; or rather a ftream of 
ahnoli: contiguous drops from the 
cloud down into the fea, making a 
great froth in the place like water 
tHliing among rocks, as he expreffed 
it. He laid it was extremely plain 
tiiat tlie water defcended. One of 
the fiiip's crew was with him when 
he gave me this account, and con- 
fiimed it. 

Many other accounts I have had, 
from thofe who have feen fpouts, 
but fa indeterminate as iict to be 
worth much notice ; I therefore con- 
tent myfelf with the above, which 
fpeak for themfelves. 

In the next place, I fhall make a 
icw remarks on mr. Stuart's figures 
of fpouts, which he took in the Me- 
diterranean, as they are to be leen in 
thephilofophicaltranfactions of Lon- 
don, l.e Motte's abridgement; parti- 
cularly on the pointing to the place 
of fpatteriiig in the water, and the 
great roar that attends the operation 
of a large fpout; the bulh about the 
foot or bafe of a great fpout ; the 
break or partition in the trunk of it 
at the top of the bufh : and the pil- 
lar-like appearance within the bufh. 

Firi^, I fliall endeavour to give 
fome idea of the nature and caufe of 
the pointing, by the external and ap- 
parent means that nature ufes in the 
produiltion of a fpout ; for as to the 
intimate operations of nature, our fa- 
tuities cannot reach them. Two or 
three obfcrvations, I fuppofe, willrea- 
diiv be ffranted.aiui flujrten my work. 

One is, that ihofe i-lacfs, where the 
lower region of air is drawn away on 
(>ii.,- or bdtli hdeSjeirlK^r by tht heat 
v,l ucii'!'.bou.4!r.i' coniincnis, cr in 



the calm latitudes, from which it 
pafles away into, and for the fupply 
of the equatorial expanfe, are likely 
to be the places moltliable to fpouts. 

In the next place, I expefi: it will 
be granted, that the air is much cold- 
er in the upper regions, and of con- 
feqiiencefpecifically heavier, than that 
near the furface, by which, when 
there are little or no diifering motions 
of the air (i.e. winds] in or about the 
region of the clouds, particular fpots 
of air and vapour in the cloud, may 
be difpofed to defcend, and, when 
fo, will take very aptly a particular 
channel downwards. Thefe things 
beinggranted, what is of a like kind 
will readily be fo difpofed too, as, 
when the atmofphere is full of va- 
pours, condenfing into clouds, this 
condenfation may be quicker in one 
place than in another, which, by the 
acquired cold, will become more 
weighty, and prefs moft in a particu- 
lar point. Thus it may defcend 
through the more rarefied and yield- 
ing fubjacent region, the firfl drops 
piercing and making a channel, may 
lacilitate the defcent of the vapour, 
till it puts on what Stuart calls a 
fword-like appearance. The agita- 
tion, caufed by defcending, will acce- 
lerate condenfation, which, together 
with the drops parting through the 
vapour, in this channel, may, at every 
flop in the paffage, be wafl:ing the 
vapour, by taking it up into leflTer 
mafles of water, till it ends in a 
point, which it will in this cafe na- 
turally do,,becaufe the fwiftelt mo- 
tion down is in the centre of the 
pointing body. 

Such a fpout may increafe, foas to 
form mafles of water, the fubftancs 
of the cloud, all obfliacles removed, 
paffing down in greater abundance, 
and Itiil more fwiftly condenfing ; 
or it may prefently ceafe, when it has 
but jull appeared, or, inllead of this, 
make, as it were, feveral attempts 
for co.Tiplcting a fpout,, the vapour 



CcnjeSiures concertting luifid and <%Joater /pouts , ISc. 



ir 



teat advancing and retiring alternate- 
ly, but which finally fail, without 
producing efFeft. Thus it has done, 
as it feems, when the cloud has not 
had fufficient fupplies for it to fuc- 
cecd in a complete and opaque fpout. 
Such are the appearances of mr. 
Stuart's figures, &c. The obliquity 
of the pointing is owing to tbecourfe 
of the air, as the bend is to two diffe- 
rent ones at different heights. 

The next thing propofed to becon- 
fidered was the great roar th?.t at- 
tends a complete fpout while itiafts: 
and it is the fame as that in catarafts 
or falls of water from great eminen- 
ces. This kind of roar could not 
exift in any way of afcent, being ve- 
ry different from that of a whirlwind, 
which is no other than that of any 
other ftrong wind. 

Mr. Stuart's figures of the great 
fpouts are drawn with the appearance 
of a bufh round their bafes : the 
cafe is fuch, that great falls of waters 
muft make a proportionable fpray ; 
fo that the appearance is natural, and 
indeed a neceffary confequence. It 
rifes up from the foot of the fpout 
and falls back in a parabolic manner 
into the fea. As was faid of the 
roarjuftnowjfoit may be faid of this, 
that it could not have exifted in any 
conceivable way of afcent ; while on 
the contrary it was perfectly agreeable 
to nature on the principle of defcent. 
It continues the whole time of a large 
fpout, increafing and diminifhing as 
that does. 

The appearance of a break or par- 
tition in the trunk of the fpout, at 
the top of the bufli, is a very curious 
; phenomenon : it is not real but ap- 
I parent, and could not have happened 
i without the bufh ; it being caufed 
by a refradion of rays from the drops 
that conftitute the top of the bulTi ; 
whence a divergency and fo much 
lofs of vifion. 

In great fpouts there is alfo a pil- 
lar-like appearance, being a part of 



the trunk within the bufii and by an- 
other refra<fticn, through the fide of 
the bufli, by which it appears much 
bigger than it is, and limited in alti- 
tude by the break. The three laft arc 
agreeable to the laws of optics; and 
all the five particulars being attend- 
ants on the greater or the fmaller 
fpouts, are to me undeniable evi- 
dences of the univerfal defcent of 
waters in thefe bodies. I pafs from 
mr. Stuart's figures to that of mr. 
Maine, which is not lefs curious. 

Mr. Maine, in the fame philofo- 
phical tranfaclions, has given us 
the figure of a fpout that fell at - 
7Y>pfham, near Exeter. He has de- 
pided it in the aft of ftriking a boat 
as it paffed a creek : from the bot- 
tom of which he has drawn a rebound 
of the whole body of the fpout pro- 
jeftcd from it to a large diftance; e- 
vidently proving the defcent: and 
which, while he is arguing for the 
afcent, it would have much become 
him to have accounted for, and to 
have fhewn how it agreed with the 
doctrine of afcent. The fpout pro- 
ceeding, paffed on to the land, and 
brake off the limbs of a tree, beat off 
the thatch of a houfe, and did perhaps 
various other damage ; but we hear 
nothing of its carrying up any of the 
light fubftances, and dropping them 
at great dirtances, far from any envi- 
rons of the place, which it would 
moft certainly have done, had there 
been a whirlwind, or any fupernal 
fuftion employed in the operation. 

The fupernal fuflion which fomc 
have mentioned. I fuppofe I may pafs 
over without more than the bare 
mention of it : but whirlwinds we 
know there are frequently, and fome 
of confiderable ftiength ; fo that it 
being the general opinion that fpouts 
are formed by them, it may not be 
amifs to examine a little what force 
they may reafonably be allowed to 
have, and the limits of it. 

Their genuine caufe, fuppofing 



II( 



ConjeBurei concerning nuind end fwater-fpoutSt ^r , 



i]\tm to be natural produftions.is no 
other than the afeent of the heated 
?nd confequently higher air. at the 
furface, into, or through the colder 
and confequently heavier regions of 
the atmofphere above : and in propor- 
tion to t'ie different degrees of heat 
in one of thefe, and cold in the other, 
may the ftrength of thefe be, but no 
more. 

Dr. Arburthnot, in his treatife on 
the air, tells us, that the rarefication 
of the air in the hotteft day in fum- 
mer, renders it but one tenth lighter 
than that of the coldeil in winter, or 
in words to this purpofe, if I remem- 
ber right, for 1 have not his book by 
me. Suppofmg then the upper re- 
gion the fame at all times, as the 
lower one in winter, when a whirl- 
wind happens, it cannot have any 
orcater force than the weight of one 
tenth of the atmofphere, and confi- 
dering the refiftance of its rifing 
which it muft encounter, and the 
friaion bv the way, not fo much; 
bv which the ftrength may not be 
equal to three feet of water. It is 
undoubtedly nine parts in ten too 
weak to make a vacuum, and having 
a column of water two miles high to 
fupport, befides the additional necef- 
fitv of ftill more force to drive '\^ 
fwiftly up, would require an atmo- 
fphere two thoufand times more 
weighty than ours, to raife water to 
the clouds. 

Mr. vStuart Hiys he fa\y the water 
afcend in the heart of a fpout ; which 
feem to have been an unlucky ex- 
preffion. The bodies of large fpouts 
are too grofs and opaque for any one 
to fee to the centre of them ; and no 
one has ever pretended to have feen 
water afcend in the fmall ones. His 
imagination therefore muft have been 
too ftrong for any one to confide in, 
fo far as he was prejudiced; and at 
leaft one of hi? views was to prove 
the afeent ; which, had he underftood 
nature in a tolerable degree, he would 
ii3ve renoupced. 



That there is a gyrating appear- 
ance in the great fpouts, feems to 
have been m?.tter of obfervation ; nor 
isthereany improbability in the thing. 
As air pafling up in whirlwinds, fo 
water, or air, paffiog down may gy- 
rate ; and no doubt it does. The 
cafe is, that fome have imagined the 
gyration to have been upwards : but 
the appearance of gyration up or down 
may eafily deceive, as any one may 
be convinced by cbferving the fwift 
turning of artificial fcrews, in which 
the direfticn will appear as the per- 
fon is difpofed to fancy it. 

We are told the Chinefe Tailors* 
anfwer to the queftion what are yoa 
afraid of in fpouts ? is, that they may 
break in their decks, Which (hews 
they take them to bedefcents: and 
their knowl dge is from obfervation 
and experience. 

I conclude with one (hort remark, 
viz. That to believe water afcendsin 
thefe bodies, to the region of the 
clouds, is virtually to admit of real 
and effential miracle, without fuffi- 
cient proof: and contrary to every 
idea we can form, of a divinely wife 
intention. 

Tornados and hurricanes I take to 
be of the fame general nature, altho* 
diifering in fome circumftances and 
appearances. 

By the term tornado, or wind- 
fpout, I mean a violent wind which 
has been obferved in thefe northern 
colonies a few times fince they were 
difcovered and fettled by our people. 
But perhaps no part of the terraqueous 
globe is entirely free from fomething 
of the like kind, as the atmofphere 
is every where liable to fimilar com- 
motions. 

The Spanifh term of tornado, 
feems to have been chiefly ufed for a 
violent ftorm at fea, of larger extent 
than what I am about to explain, 
which is of a more contrafted nature, 
and confined to a narrow fphcre of 
jaftion ; fo that it requires a particular 



Conjt'Sitires eoncermug *wind (mi nvater-fpouU , tffc. 



i r 



and fignificant name, fuch as wind- 
fpout, till a more fuitable one is found 
for it. 

Defcription of one. It begins of 
a fudden ; more or lefs of clouds 
having been drawn together, a fpout 
of wind coming from it ttrikes the 
ground in a round fpot of a few rods 
or perches diameter, with a prone 
dirertion, in the courfe of the wind 
of the day, and proceeds thus half a 
mile or a mile. 1 he pronenefs of 
it? defcent makes it rebound from 
the earth, throwing fuch things as are 
moveable, before it, but fome fide- 
ways from it. A vapour, mift or 
rain defcends with it, by which the 
path of it IS marked and wet. 
' I (hall produce the inftance of that 
at Leicefter, a town about fifty miles 
from Bofton, a few years fince which 
being more violent thjin ufual, may 
give fome ide;i of the thing. 

It happened in the month of July, 
on a hot day, about four o'clock, P. 
M. a few clouds having gathered 
weftward and coming over head, a 
fudden motion of their running to- 
gether in a point being obferved, 
immediately a fpout of wind firuck 
the ground at the weftern end of a 
houfe, and inflantly carried it away, 
with a negro fellow in it, who was af- 
terwards found dead in the path of it. 
Two men and a woman, by the 
breach of the floor, fell into the cel- 
lar ; one man was driven forcibly 
up into the chimnej'-corner. Thefe 
were preferved, though much bruifed ; 
they were wet with a vapour or mift, 
as were the remains of the floor and 
the whole path of the fpout. 

~ This wind raifed boards, timbers, 
&c. and carried them before it. A 
joift was found on one end driven 
near three feet into the ground. I 
imagine the fpout took it in its e- 
levated ftate and drove it forcibly 
down. By what I can learn of its 
procedure, it continued but three or 
four feconds of time in a place, prill- 



ing along with the celerity of a mid- 
dling wind, conftantly declining in 
ftrength till it ceafed. 

1 here feems to have been fucti a 
guft as this at cape Cod about forty 
years ago, of which I received an ac- 
count from two men who lived In the 
neighbouihcod of the place. It came 
on of a fudden, and was fo violent 
that it threw down a young woman 
who happened to be in the way of it ; 
fhe was forced to lay hold on the 
bufhes which happened to be within 
her reach, toprevcnt her beingcarried 
away by it. It pafTcd a pond of wa- 
ter, and the people wondered it did 
not fuck up the water, as they con- 
ceived it to be a water-fpout ; hut it 
did not. The young woman was 
however wet with the vapour that 
accompanied it. 

Of hurrkavts^ particuhrlj th:fe of thf 
Wtji India IJlands. 

To account fatisfaciorily for thcfo 
convulfions of our atmofphere, re- 
quires a greater number and more 
circumftantial obfcrvations than wr 
are at prefent furnifhed witii ; folh;vt 
all that can at prefent be faidof tWir 
origin and caufes, muft be very con- 
jedurai. However, fince an attempt 
to explain them may give occafion 
to further and more exas^ obferva- 
tions, I fliall proceed to ofter my pre- 
fent thoughts concerning them. 

I believe thofe of the Well-India 
iflands to be owing to fome occafion- 
al obftru(5tion in the ufual and natu- 
ral procedure of the equatorial trade. 
This I conjefture from the more than 
ufual preceding calms. In the natu- 
ral courfe of this trade, the air rifes 
up in the line, and paiTes off towards 
the poles, and, in the more contrafled 
degrees of the greater latitudes, 
proves the courfe of their weflern 
trades : So that could this afcent be 
prevented through the whole circle 
of that zone, there would be no more 



iiS 



Conjeiiures tonctrnmg ivind and ijuater /pouts, ^sTr. 



wefterly winds in thefe latitudes than 
any others. 

Over-violent rains and cold natu- 
rally tend to check the afcent of air 
out of this circle, rather making it 
defcend. And as there are annual 
r»ins in the equator over againft thofe 
ifranJs, and in fome years more than 
others, it is eafy to conceive fuch an 
e?.c6i, and the confequences. Great 
cloads and over-much vapour generate 
cold and weight, while at the fame 
lime the rains are beating dou-n tlte 
air; and as thefe prevent the rifing of 
the air out of the line, fo they hinder 
itr. ufual progrcfs to it from the tro- 
pics on both fides. Thus calms mufi: 
lake place ; by which the natives ufed 
to prediiTt approaching hurricanes, 
v'ithout underftanding the reafon of 
tlie thing;. 

Much of calms in the inter-tronical 
climates caufe rarefications, and af- 
cents of air into the upper regions, 
inflead of its being carried to the 
Jixie to be difpofed of in the grand 
' circulation of the atmofphere ; this 
will be the cafe moreefpecially among 
the ifiands which increafetheheat of 
the atmofphere. Then by thefe af- 
cents there wiil be accumulations of 
air above, which, becoming cold in 
the higher regions, will acquire a 
<nep.ter fpecific weight, and be dif- 
pofed to dcfcend on the firft giving 
way of the more rarefied and yielding 
fubjacent region ; and this will be 
the cafe v\ hen there happens not to 
be fufHcient motions of air in the 
middle region to keep fmooth and 
even the ftrata of the more and the 
iefs rarefied regions; and fo prevent 
particular portions and places from 
bending downwards; and it is this 
alone that does prevent it. By a 
failure in this, a defcent once begun, 
the confequences cannot be prevented. 
The heavy quantity above will con- 
tinue todefccnd till all the upper cold 
regions are exonerated to many hun- 
dreds of miles round ; and all their 



contents fhifted into the place of the 
rarefied and lighter air below. 

Such are my ideas of the caufes 
and operations of a hurricane in thofe 
climates. 1 have only to add here, 
that the rains in thefe violent ftorms 
are, as I think, a ftrong confirmation 
of the doftrine of defcent; as they 
are in that kind of hurricane called 
by failors the ox's eye, on the coaft 
of Guinea ; and the like happens un- 
der various names in different parts 
of our globe. Even the wind in our 
thunder- giiPcs is from defcent; the 
air in the cloud being rendered denfe 
and weighty, defceuds, and flows 
in the direction of the wind of the 
time, and with the more violence, by 
the warm air at the furface giving 
way to it. Thefe are fometimes 
ftrong, but feldom attended with 
danger or damage. 

Vv/hat objeflions may be raifcd a- 
gainlt thefe opinions, fliall be candidly 
attended to ; in the mean time, there 
is one objedlion that mull be obvia- 
ted, the argument being fomevvhat 
intercfted in it. It is as follows. 

Having exprefi'ed my opinion that 
hurricanes and tornados or wind 
fpouts have the fame general nature, 
while we fee a great difparity Intheir 
magnitude and procedure; fome ex- 
planation feems nccefl'ary to prevent 
miftakes ; I think a little confidera- 
tion of the place, climate, and cir- 
cuinftances, may removethe difficulty. 

1 he earth is an oblate fpheroid, 
its diameter many miles greater at the 
equator than at the poles, caufed by 
its diurnal centrifugal force. If this 
then has fo great an effe<fl on terra- 
queous matter, it cannot have Iefs on 
our air, but if any difference, rather 
more : efpecially if we confider, that 
the atmofphere makes a larger diame- 
ter, and yet revolves in the fame time, 
fo that its centrifugal force mutt be 
proportionably greater. The diurnal 
motion of the earth tends to throw a 
vaft furplus of air on the equator, by 



ConjeBims co7icerning nuind and luaier-fpouts, ^c. 



iu. 



which there is probably more air be- 
tween the tropics than on the reft oi 
the globe. But this is a matter ot 
conjefture, not to be perceived by any 
fort of preffuie, any more than by the 
barometer, for reafons, obvious to 
thofe converfant in the nature and 
eiFed of the fe vera! principles. How- 
ever, it might not be amifs to obferve 
whether there be any difference in the 
height of the mercury before any of 
thefe ftorms. But to return. 

Although the air in the inter-tro- 
sical latitudes, is in general lighter 
han in the remote ones, yet when the 
jpper air has obtained a paflage down- 
vard, it being vaft in quantit}-, and 
)ccupying great fpace, it will belong 
n accelerating and paffing dow-n. 
The paffage is long, fo that it will 
;;iin a great deal of the force we find 
t has, by the length of defcent. Nei- 
her will the middle region be dif- 
"fed to (hut up without a briik wind 
:! it, before the whole, even to remote 
egions, is dif.harged through the 
irge hiatus, asbefore mentioned, and 
ow repeated, to account for tlie du- 
uion and extent of thefe otlierwife 
onderful winds, withfuch unrelent- 
ig violence. 

Far different is the cafe of the high 
ititude tornados in their circum- 
ances and their manner, although a- 
reeing in their general nature. The 
rntrifugal force here has extremely 
!t!e effcd, unlefs to caft the atmo- 
here towards the equator, inltead of 
liing orincieafmg its quantity over 
;y given place on either fide. Be- 
Ics, there istheattraftion of the fun, 
oon, and all the other planets for 
er within the tropics attrafling the 
mofphere that way ; and leffening 
^. height of the high latitude atmn- 
>;re, which, therefore, may be fup- 
U'd not a fourth fu high from the 
■ tace as that. 

"mce then the atmofphere is vaftly 

' :ii height, and alfo much !efs in 

:'•■, than toward tlu- lin?, tlie 



defcents muft naturally be very diiFe- 
rent. Here are no accumulations 
aloit. T he quantity ready for a dif- 
charge downward is vaftly lefs, and 
the paiTage narrow and contracted ; 
and by the almoll conftant motions 
of air, were there more fupplles, it 
would foon ibut up. Beildes, there 
is little aptnefs to flow from furround- 
ing regions, by reafon of the fraall- 
nelscf their depth, &c. And yet 
fo great is the fpecitic weight of what 
defcends, that the firft alTault has been 
known to equal the greateft Wolenoc 
of the proper hurricanes in their moil 
powerful moments. 

From the Pemi/jhania Magazitu. 
CoNsoLATioM for the Old Ba- 
chelor. 

Mr. Aitken, 

YOUR Old Bachelor having in a 
very pidurefque and pathetic 
manner fet forth the miferies of his 
fiilitary fituation, fevercly reproach- 
ing himfelf for not having married 
in his younger days; J v^ouid fain al- 
leviate his dillrefs, by fliewing, that it 
is poiuble, in the nature of thin^js, 
that he might have been as unhappy, 
even in the defirable matrimonial 
ftate. 

I am a tradefman in this city, and, 
by unremitted induftry, am enabled, 
from the profits of my bufincfs, to 
maintain a wife and one daughter, 
nov/ fix years old, very comfortably, 
and to lay up a little at the year's 
end, againd a rainy dav. 

My good wife had longtei/ed me, 
to take her to New York, in order 
to vifit mrs. Snip, the lady of a 
wealthy taylor in tb.at city, and her 
couhn ; from whom fhe had receiv- 
ed many prefiing invitations. This 
jaunt had been the daily fubjed of 
difcuffion at breakfaft, dinner, and 
furper, for above a moijth before the 



I20 



Confolaiion for the old bachelor. 



lime fixed upon for putting it into 
execution. As our daughter Jenny 
conld by no means be left at home, 
many and great were the prepara- 
tions to equip mifs and her mother, 
too, for this important journey ; and 
yet, as my wife alTured me, there 
was nothing provided, but what was 
abfoIuteJy neceffary, and which we 
could not poffibly do without — my 
purfe fweat ?t every pore — at length 
the long expected day arrived, pre- 
ceded by a very rcftlefs night ; for as 
my v/ife could not fieep for think- 
ing on the approaching jaunt, neither 
would fne fuffer me to rcpofe in 
quiet — if I happened, through wea- 
rinefs, to fall into a (lumber, (he 
foou roufed me again by fome un- 
realonabie queftion or remark; fre- 
quently aiking me whether I was 
fnre the apprentice had greafed the 
chair wheels, and feen that the har- 
m-fs was clean and in good order; 
often obfcrving, how iurprifed her 
coufin Snip would be to fee us, and 
as often wondering how poor dear 
mifs jenny would bear the fatigues 
of ihe journey. Thus paflTed the 
night away in delightful difcourfe — 
if that can properly be called a dif- 
courfe, wherein mv wife faid all that 
was faid ; my replies never amount- 
ing to more than the monofyl- 
lables )es or no, uttered between 
fleeping and waking. 

No fooner was it fair day-light, 
but up ftarted my notable wife, and 
foon roufed the whole family. The 
little trunk was ftuffcd with baggage 
even to burlting, and tied behind 
tlie chair, and tlie chair box more- 
over crammed with trumpery — mifs 
]eniiv was drefied, and breakfall eat 
in hafie. The old negro wencli was 
cnUcd in, and thechaige of the houfe 
delivered to her care — the two ap- 
prentices and the hired maid received 
nianv wholefome inllruftionr* and 
cautions for their conciU(!rt during our 
abknce — all which thcv mofl libe- 



rally promifed to obferve. I waited 
with in(inite patience the fettlement 
of thefe preliminaries. At length, 
however, we fet off, and turning the 
firft corner, loft (ight of our habita- 
tion, with great regret on my part, 
and no lefs joy on the part of my 
wife and mifs Jenny. When we got 
to Poole's bridge, there happened to 
be a great concourfe of waggons, 
carts, &c. fo that we could not pafs 
for fome time : mifs Jenny was fright- 
ened — my wife very uneafy and im- 
patient — wondered 1 did not call out 
to thofe impudent carters, to make 
way for us,obferving •' that Ihadnol 
the fpirit of a loufe — that I let c\txy 
body impofe upon me." Having ai 
lad got through this difficulty, w( 
proceeded on our way without ob 
ftrurtion — my wife in good humoui 
again — mifs Jenny in high fpirits. 
At Kenfington frefh troubles arofe, 
Blefs me, mifs Jenny, fays my wife, 
where is the little band box ? — " ] 
don't know, mamma — thelaft time I 
fa wit was on the table in your room.' 
What's to be done ! the band-box ij 
left behind — it contains mifs Jenny*! 
new wire cap — there is no po(fibiIitj 
of doing without it — as well no New 
York, as no wire cap — there is nc 
alternative, we muft e'en go back fo: 
it. Teized and mortilied as I was, 
my good wife undertook to adminif- 
ter confolation, by obferving, " thai 
it was my place to fee that every 
thing was put in the chair that oughl 
to be — that there was no dependence 
upon me for any thing — that unleO 
(he looked after every thing herfelf, 
(he was fure to (ind fomething ne- 
glected — and that (he faw plainly, 1 
undertook this journey with ani 
ill will, merely bccaufe fhe had 
fet her heart upon it." Silent [ 
tience waS my onlv remedy — An 
hour and a half reftored to us thisvE' 
luable requifite, the wire cap, and 
brought us back to the place where 
the lofs of it was firft difcovered. 



CotiJolatioH for the old haehelar. 



121 



After namBerlefs difficulties and 
unparalleled dangers occafioned by 
fturaps, ruts, and tremendous bridges, 
we at length reached Shammeny ferry. 
But how to crofs it, was the difficulty 
— my wife proteftcd, that neither (he 
nor Jenny Ihould go over in the boat 
with the horfe. 1 alTured her in the 
ftrongeft terms, there was not the kail 
danger — that the horfe was as quiet 
as a dog ; as well he might be, af- 
ter tugging fucli a load. But the 
moft forcible argument was, that fhe 
muft go that way , or not at all, as 
there was no other boat to be had. 
Thus perfuaded, (lie ventured in — 
The flies were troublefome ; the 
norfe kicked— my wife was in panics — 
mifs Jenny in tears. Ditto at Tren- 
ton ferry. As we ftarted very ear- 
ly, and the days were long, we reach- 
id Trenton by two o'clock. Here 
.re d^ned — my wife found fault with 
everything; ate a very hearty din- 
ler — declaring, all the time, there 
vas nothing fit to eat. Mifs Jenny 
:rying out with the tooth-ach — her 
mother making fad lamentations — 
ill my fault, becaufe I did not make 
the glazier replace the broken pane of 

glafs in her chamber window 

N. B. I had fent twice for him, and 
he promifed to come ; but he was 
not fo good as his word. After 
iinner, proceeded on our journey. 
Vly wife in good humour. Mifs 
Jenny's tooth-ach much better. Va- 
rious chat. I acknowledge every 
:hing my wife fays, for fear of dif- 
;ompofing her. vVe arrive in good 
time at Princeton. My wife and 
iaughter admire the college — refrefli 
:)urfelves with coffee — go to bed ear- 
y, in order to be up by times for 
lext day's expedition. ' 

We embarked once more in tolera- 
ble good humour, and proceeded hap- 
sily on, till we came to Rocky Hill. 
Here my wife's fears and terrors re- 
:urned with great force. J. drove as 
rarefuUy as poffible ; but coiuiniy to 

VOL-. Ill, No. If. 



a pl.ice where one of the wheels mull 
unavoidably go over the end of a 
fmallrock, my wife, in a great panic, 
feized hold of one of the reins, which 
happening to be the wrong one, (lie 
pulled the horfe fo as to force the 
wlieel much higher up the rock than 
it would otherwife have gone — and 
overfet the chair. ' We were all 
tumbled hickledy pickledy into the 
dirt. Mifs Jenny's face all bloody 
— the woods echo with her cries; 
my wife in a fainting fit — and 1 ia 
great mifery, fccretly and devoutly 

wifhing coulin Snip at the d •. 

Matters bf^in to mend. My wife 
recovers — Mifs Jenny has only re- 
ceived a fmall fcratch in her cheek. 
— The horfe flands quite iiiil, and 
none^' the harnefs is broke. — Mat- 
ters grew worfe again — The twine, 
which tied the band box, had broke 
in the fall ; and the aforefaid wire- 
cap was found foaking in a nafty 
mud-puddle. Great lamentation o- 
ver the wire cap — all my fault, be- 
caufe I did not tie it better. No re- 
medy — no wire caps to be bought at 
Rocky Hill. At night, my wife dif- 
covered a fmall bruife upon her hip 
— was apprehenfive it might mortify 
— did not know but the bone was 
broke or fplintered — many inftances 
of mortifications arifing from fmall 
injuries. After pafling, unhurt, thro* 
the imminent dangers of PalTayecfe 
and Hackenfack rivers, and the yet 
more dreadful horrors of Powles 
Hook ferry, we arrived, on the third 
day, at coiifin Snip's, in the city of 
New York. 

Here we tarried a tedious week. 
My wife fpent me a great deal of 
money in pur«hafing a hundred 
ufelefs articles, which we could not 
pofTibly do without ; andevery night, 
when we went to bed, fatigued 
me with encomiums on her coufin 
Snip, leading to a hiftory of the 
grandeur of her family, and conclud- 
ing with reproaches thrown at me 



122 



Olfervathus on the gro^jjih of trees donfmivaras. 



for not treating her with as much 
homage and ref[)eft as I ought. 
On the feventh day, however, my 
wife and coufin Snip had a very warm 
debate, refpeding the comparative 
elegancies and advantages of the ci- 
ties of New York and Philadelphia. 
The difpute ran very high, and ma- 
ny aggravating words palled be- 
tween the two advocates. The next 
morning, my wife declared that my 
bufinefs abfolutely required my at- 
tendance at home, and that it was 
not poffible for us to Hay any longer. 
After much ceremonious complai- 
fance, in which my wife was by no 
means exceeded, we left the famous 
city of New York, and I with great 
fatisfad^ion looked forward to the 
wifliful period of our fafc arrival in 
Water-ftreet. But this blefiing was 
not fo eafily to be purchafed. Left I 
fhould feem tedious, however, 1 fhall 
not recount the adventures of our re- 
turn — how we were caught in a thun- 
der guft — how our horfe tired, by 
which we were benighted above three 
miles from our ftage — how my wife's 
panics returned — how mifs Jenny 
howled— and how very miferable I 
became. Sufficient be it to fay, that 
after many diftrefling difafters, after 
much vexation and trouble, wc at 
length arrived at our own door. 

No fooner had wc entered the houfe, 
but we were informed that one of 
our apprentices had gone off with the 
hired maid, no body knew where — 
the old negro wench had got drunk — 
fallen into the fire — and burned out 
one of her eyes, — and my wife's bert 
china bowl was broken to pieces. 
My wife's ufual ingenuity contriv- 
ed to throw the blame of all thefe 
misfortunes upon me. As this was 
a confolation to which I had been 
Jong accuftomed, in all untoward 
cafes, I had recourfe to my ufual re- 
medy, to wit, filence and patience. 
And after fmcereiy praying, that 
I might never kz coufin Snip again, 



I fat down induftrlouflytomy trade; 
endeavouring to retrieve my mani- 
fold loffcs. 

This is only a miniature pifture in 
the decorations of the married ftate, 
which I hold up to the view of your 
old bachelor in hopes it may tend to 
abate his choler, and reconcile him 
in fomc degree to a fingle life. 

If this opiate fhould not be fuffici- 
eiit to give him fome eafe and com- 
fort, I may, perhaps, hereafter admi- 
nifler a ftronger dofc : or rather, to 
refume my former metaphor, fhiall 
fend him a picture of the married 
ftate more at length, and taken from 
the life. 
i'hitadiljihia, June 1775. A. B. 



Ohferiatiuns en the grcwth ef treti 
dciv/iivards ; condudedfrom page 42, 

THE firft appearance of vegeta. 
tion among trees here, is the 
flowing of the fap in the fugar ma 
pie. 'J his begi'ns with the frofty 
mornings, in the month of Febru- 
ary. ""1 hefe hoar frofts never appear 
but when the air is moift; and it \% 
invariably certain, that the fap ceafcs 
to flow, when the wind is at north- 
weft, and the air dry, be the ftate oJ 
the earth, as to moiftureor froft, as ii 
may. Yiom hence it appears, thai 
the fap is extracted from the air, even 
before the leaf is expanded, and not 
from the earth, as is generally fup« 
pofed. 

The next appearance of vegetw 
tion, is the fwellijig of the bud, ir 
the fcarlet maple ; and in this, as ir 
all other trees, it is to my purpofc 
to obferve, that the uppermoft bud' 
always fwell firft, and its beautifu 
bloflbms are fcen earlieft to unfok 
on the topmoft boughs. This can 
not depend on a fap, derived Iron 
the root; for, in that cafe, th« 
lowrrmoft Ihould ha\c unfcldcd firft 



Obfer^ations eti the gtvwth ef trees don-mnuards. 



The hufbandmcn of New Jcrfey, 
upon thofe lands which do not pro- 
duce oak- timber fufHcient for fenc- 
ing, iTiave the bark from the pine 
trees in the latter part of the winter ; 
and, in the fpring, the turpentine 
running down over that part of the 
tree which has been barked, fills the 
pores, and preferving it againit the 
water, renders the pine a very dura- 
ble pofl; for fencing. The turpen- 
tine, as I conceive, being collefted 
from the air, defcends from the 
top of the tree. This praftice, late- 
ly introduced, defer ves attention, 
not only as an argument in this 
queftion, but as an important leflbn 
of inftruftion to thofe who live on 
pine lands. 

The experiments made on fruit 
trees, by extending their branches 
into grcen-houfes, while the roots 
remain in the ground, need xiot be 
repeated. They are better known 
than underftood ; and can only be 
accounted for, by fuppofing that 
their nourifliment is derived from 
the air. Of this the following ex- 
periment nmy be a proof. 

A branch of the maple being fepa- 
rated from the tree, and the lower 
end fealed, pliiced in any part 
of the tree, will bloom as foon 
as any of the adjoining branches, not 
feparated from the tree, will do. The 
buds of trees, deriving their nourifh- 
ment from the air, fend down their 
^fibres between the bark of the tree 
and the former year's growth of 
wood, and lay an additional wood 
over the former growth. It is upon 
this principle alone, that the growth 
of inoculations can be accounted 
for; and it is clear and plain, that 
every bud has its own pith, perfes^t- 
ly difiinift from the tree it is at- 
tached to, and has alfo in itfelf every 
other part of a tree. 

From a due confideration of whnt 
lias been faid, it will appear, tiiat 
lhegrowtho<f annual plants is tlie 



expanding of the parts contained 
within their feeds as bulbs, and a 
produftion of other feeds and bulbs, 
perfectly diftinft and unconnedted 
with the former ; but that the growth 
of trees, after the firftyear, is the ex- 
panding of buds, adhering to the 
former growth, and the tilting of 
other buds for future growth, attacli- 
ed to the tree, as well as forming 
of feeds, as annual plants do. 

APPLICATION. 

THE foregoing remarks were in* 
troduced into this work, with a 
view to apply the doftrine of the 
growth of trees and vegetables by 
accretion or an acceflion of particles 
to the buds and leaves, to a valuable 
agricultural purpofe. 

I could produce other proofs of 
the truth of the doffrine ; but the 
foregoing are fufScient. I take it to 
be a faft that trees and vegetables re- 
ceive raoft of their nutriment by the 
extreme parts of their branches ; and 
hence we learn the reafon, whv land 
brcomes rich much fooner, when cer- 
tain vegetables grow upon it, than 
when it is fufFered to lie barren. 

The common pradlice among our 
farmers is to wearouta piece of land, 
and if they cannot manure it, let \x. 
lie vacant, till it acquires fome fer- 
tilitv, merely by the fpontaneous 
growth of weeds, or by other means, 
as rain, fnow and froll. This is a 
great walle and lofs to the farmer, 
who wants to improve all his [and. 
The praflice mult proceed from great 
ignorance of the laws of vegetation, 
and marks the low flate of agricul- 
ture in this country. It is diret'tlv 
the rever(e of a proper method of 
managing land. 

Land fhould always be covered 
with vegetables of fome kind ; but 
the crops fhouid be. frequently chang. 
ed. Some kinds of grain impoverith 
land much fooner than others. Cor« 
require* rich land, and always irs- 



124 

jairs its fertility. Rye will grew 
on poor land inany years, and with- 
out a great diminution of the crop. 
This and other circumRances ren- 
der it quell ionable, whether the ma- 
nure or faline particles of land ever 
enter and compofe a part of the ve- 
getables ; and whether the only pur- 
po(c of manure is not fo give a cer- 
tain cement or a confillency to the 
earth, neceifary to retain and fup- 
port the roots. Thus^ fand, which 
is too loofe itfelf to fupport any plants, 
may, by being mixed with clay, be- 
come a good foil ; and a pure clay 
ii generally too hard and firm to ad- 
mit the growth of plants ; it fhould 
therefore be mixed with fand or light 
earth. Marine fait is the beft of 
manure; hence, the fertility of 
Rhode Ifland and other parts of the 
ica Ihore, is preferved by fpreading 
the field with fea weed. But I 
am told that marine fait, after pro- 
tlucing great crops for a few years, 
■waites and impoveriiTies the foil, fo 
thar it will produce nothing. It 
therefore becomes neceflary to negletl 
this fpecies of manure, after 6 or 7 
years ufiug it, on the fame field, and 
give the land a coat of liable ma- 
nure, or fulfer it to acquire ftrength 
by the plants, grafs, or weeds of a 
fponcaneous growth. This is a proof 
that the vegetable manure is more 
agreeable to nature than the marine. 
I believe that by a proper rotation 
of crops, any foil, tolerably firm and 
good, may be kept in what the 
furmcTs call good heart, without the 
applicarior of manure. When the 
ftrength of land is, in fome meafure, 
cxhaufted. by crops of corn, wheat, 
flax, oat-, &c. which ihould fucceed 
each otl C", in the order that experi- 
ence proves to be beft, let it be laid 
tiovvn with clover, which will pro- 
<!uce a good crop for hay, or good 
f'ed,ancT, at the fame time, enrich 
the laud. Whether the grafs colleds 
nitrous particles from the air, which 



Letters concerning chimnies. 



are communicated through the ftalks 
and roots to the earth, 1 pretend not 
to determine — Certain it is, that if 
plants grow by an accretion of par- 
ticles of water to the leaves and buds, 
which is the prefent hypothefis, then 
vegetation collects fome properly 
from the atmofphere, which, defcend- 
ing to the earth in the living blades, 
or by putrefadion, fertilizes the 
land. Leave the barren earth to it- 
felf, and but few weeds will fpring 
up the firft year to make this collec- 
tion — A crt)p of clover will imme- 
diately anfwer the purpofe — it will 
laftbut two or three years ; but af* 
fords good mowing and pafture, and 
leaves the earth enriched. 1 urnips 
are alfo found to enrich land. 

I would urge another method. 
When a field is impoverifhed, l.:t it 
be ploughed fix inches deeper than 
ufual. The foil below the ufual depth 
of ploughing, whatever belts colour, 
whether black or red, pofleffes a pro- 
perty which will produce good crops. 
Let the land be ufed thus for a few 
)'ears, and the barren foil, which is 
turned from the furtace, beneath 
the ufual depth of ploughing, will ac- 
quire the fame property. Thus by 
changing the furface of ihe field, 
the richnefsis preferved. Thefe me- 
thods of keeping vegetation on land, 
and fometimes changing the furtace 
by deep ploughing, will be of infinite 
ufe to farmers who have not marl, 
plaifter of Paris, or plenty of other 
manure. Noah Wtbjier, 

Letter concerning chimnies — contain* 
ing fcfiie directions to pret'enl toelk\ 
Jromfmoking. — Addre£'ed to'his eX-^ 
tilUncy Benjamin Franklin, bj dr*\ 
Rujion. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 12, 1786, 
SIR, 

HE fubjefl of fmoky chim- 
nies, on which I had the ho- 
nour of converfing with you at your 



Letter cimtming chimnies. 



125 



own houfe laft evening, is of fo 
much importance to every individu- 
al, as well as to every private family, 
that too muchlight cannot be thrown 
uj'on it. 

J fmoky houfe and a fcoldirtg ivife. 
Are tivo of the grentefi ills in life. 

. ' And however difficult it may be to 
remedy one of thofe ills, yet anyad- 
Tances we may be able to make to- 
wards removing the inconveniencies 
arifmg from the other, cannot fail to 
be favourably received by the pub- 
lic. As they are Ihortly to be fa- 
voured with yourfentiments on that 
fubject, polfibly the following ob- 
fervations , which were in faiTt occa- 
fioned by neceffity, and are the refult 
of my own experience, may not be 
altogether undeferving of notice. 

When I left London, and went to 
live in Devonfliire, in the latter end 
of the year 1777, it happened to be 
my lot to dwell in an old manfion 
which had been recently modernifed, 
and had undergone a thorough re- 
pair. But, as in moft of the old 
houfes in England, the chimnies, 
which were perhaps originally built 
for the purpofe of burning wood, 
though they had been contrafted in 
front, lirce coal fires came into ge- 
neral ufe, to the modern fue, yet 
they were itill, above, out of ilght, 
extravagantly large. This metliod 
ot building chimnies, may, perhaps, 
have anfvvered well enough, while it 
was the cultom to fit with the doors 
and windows open : but when the 
curtoms and manners of the people 
began to be more poliflied and reiin- 
ed — when building and architefture 
were improved — and thev began to 
conceive the idea of making their 
chambers clofe, warm, and com- 
fortable, thcfe chimneys were found 
to fmoke abominably, for want of 
a fufficient fupply of air. 71iis was 
exaftly the cafe with the houfe in 
^hich I firlt lived, near Exeter; and I 



was under the ncceflitv of trying e- 
very expedient I could think of, to 
make it habitable. 

The hril thing I tried, was that 
method of contracting tiie chimnies 
by means of eartlien pots, much in 
ufe in England, which are made on 
purpofe, and which are put upon the 
tops of them; but this method by 
no means anfwered. I then thought 
of contrafling them below; but as the 
method ofcontradingthem in front to 
tl^e fizeof a fmallcoal firegrate, has an 
unfightly appearance, as it makes a 
difagreeable blowing like a furnace, 
and as it is the occaiion of confum- 
ing a great deal of unneceiTary fuel, 
the heat of which is immediately hur- 
ried up the chimney; 1 rejeded this 
method, and determined to contract 
them above, a little out of light. 
For this purpofe, I throw an arcli a- 
crofs, and alfo drew them in at the 
fides. This had fome efFed, but as 
this contraction was made rather lud- 
denly, and the fmoke, by ifriking 
againft the corners tiiat were thereby 
occafioned, was apt to recoil, by 
which means, fome part of it was 
thrown out into the room; I detcr- 
'mined to make the contra<ftion more 
gradually, and tlicrel^re run it up 
at the back, where the depth of the 
chimney would admit of it, and alio ' 
{helving or doping in a conical kind 
of diredion at the fidc-s, as high ai 
a man, itanding upright, could con- 
veniently reach, and by this means, 
brought the cavity within the fpace 
of about twelve by fourteen or fix- 
teen inches, which i found fufficient- 
ly large to admit a boy to go up an4 
down to fweep the chimnies. This 
method I found to fucceed perfectly 
well, as to curing the chimnies of 
fmoking. and it had this good efTed 
of m:iking the rooms conliderably 
warmer; and as this experimejit fuc- 
ceeded fo well, fincc the only ufe of 
a chimney is to convey away the 
fuioke, 1 determined to carry it flill 



26 



Letter concerning chhnnlis. 



farther, in order to afcertain with 
precifion, how much fpace is al>fo- 
jutely neceflary for that purpofe, be- 
caufe all the reft that is fliut up, muft 
be fo much gained in warmth. Ac- 
cordingly, 1 laid a piece of flate a- 
crofs the remaining aperture, remov- 
able at pleafure, fo as to contrai^^ the 
fpace above two thirds, leaving about 
three inches bv twelve remaining o- 
pen ; but this fpace, except when the 
fi re burnt remarkably clear,wasfcarce- 
ly fufficientto carry away the fmoke. 
1 tlierefore enlarged it to half the 
("pace, that is, to about fix by ieven 
or eight inches, which I found fully 
fufficient to carry away the fmoke 
from the larged fires- 

When I removed into the Bedford 
Circus in Exeter, though the hoiife 
was modern, and almoil perfedly 
new, yet the chimnies were large ; 
in confequence of which almoft every 
room of it fmoked. My predecefibr, 
^vho was the firft inhabitant, had been 
St great expenfe in patent ftoves, &-c. 
but without efFe«fi; but by adopting 
the method I have defcrib?d, 1 not 
only cured every chimney of fnioking, 
but myhoufe was remarked for being 
one of the warmed and moil com- 
fortable to Jjve in, of any in that 
large and opulent city. 

The houfe I now live in, in Phi- 
ladelphia, I am told, has always had 
r!ie charader of being both cold and 
fmoky ; andl was convinced, as foon 
as I faw the rooms, and examined the 
chimnies, that it defervcd that cha- 
raftcr; for, though the rooms were 
clofe, the chimnies were large : and 
we {hall ever find, that if our chim- 
nies are large, our rooms will be 
cold, even though they (hould be to- 
lerably clofe and tight; becaufe the 
conftant rufhing in of the cold air, 
at the cracks and crevices, and alfo 
at every opening of the door, will be 
fufficient to chill the air, as faft as 
it is heated, or to force the heated 
?ir up the chimney; but by contrad- 



ing the bhimnies, I have cured it of 
both thel'e defects. There was one 
remarkable circumftance attending 
the contraction of the chimney in the 
fiont parlour, which deferves to be 
attended to ; which was, that before 
I applied the caft iron plate, which 
I made ufe of inftead of flate, to 
diminifh the fpace requifite for a 
chimney fweeper's boy to go up and 
dovv'n, the fudtion or draught of air 
was fo great, that it was with diffi- 
culty 1 could fhut the door of the 
room, infcmuch that I at firft thought 
it was owing to a tightncfs of the 
hinges, which I imagined muft be 
remedied, but upon applying the 
iron plate, by which the fpace was 
diminithed one half, the door fhut 
to wiih the greatcft eafc. This ex- 
traordinary preflureof the air upon 
the door of the room, or fuftion of 
the chimney, I take to be owing in 
fome raeafure to the unufual height 
of the houfe. 

Upon the whole, therefore, this 
fa6l feems clearly afcertained^ viz. 
That the flue or fize of the chim- 
ney, ought always to be proportion- 
ed to the tightnefs and clofenefs of 
the room: fome air is 'Undoubtedly 
necefiary to be admitted into the 
room, in order to carry up Mie fmoke, 
otherwife, as you juftiy ohferved, we 
mightas well expeft fmoke to arife 
out of an exhaufted receiver ; but if 
the flue is very large, and the room 
is tight, either the fmoke will not 
afcend, for want of a fufficient fup- 
ply of air to fill this large chimney, 
in confequence of which your room 
will be in a conftant fmother, occa- 
fioned by the fmoke — or elfe you 
muft be under the rreceffity of ad- 
mitting a greater quantity of air 
into vour room, in order to afford 
this fupply of air ; the confequence of 
which win be, that the air of your 
room will be fo frequently and fo 
conftantiy changed, that the warm 
fi\x, as fali as it is heated, will be 



Sl^-'olefj' petition agaiTiJi jla<very. 



J27 



hurried away, with the fmoke, up 
the chimney, while its place is iup- 
plied with cold air, and of courle 
your room will beconftaiitly ciKi. 

One great advantage attending 
this method of curing Imoky ehini- 
ni«s, is, that in the firll place, it 
makes no aukvvard or unlightly ap- 
pearance, nothing being to he feen 
but whatis ufual to chininies in com- 
mon ; and in the fecond place, that 
it is attended with very little ex- 
penfe, a {^w bricks and mortar, with 
a pla:e or covering to the aperture, 
and a little labour, being all tliat is 
rcquiiite. But in tiiis new country, 
where crops of houfes may be ex- 
pected to rife almoll as cjuick as fields 
of corn, when the principles upon 
which chimnles ought to be con- 
ftruded, are thoroughly underllood, 
it is to be hoped, that not only this 
expenfe, fmall as it is, but that all 
the other inconveniencies ;we have 
been fpeaking of, will be avoided, 
by conltrudiiig the flues of the chiin- 
nies iufficiently fmall. 

From your humble fcrvant, 
THOMAS RUS TON. 



"The petiiian of the people called quakers, 
of Nenx) Engla/id — To the general 
ajfemblj ofthejiate of Rhode- Ijland: 

Refpedfully fhe^\ieth, 

THE religious fociety of the peo- 
ple called quakers, in New Kng- 
gland, met together in their annual 
afferably on Rhode-llland, for the 
purpofe of promoting the caufe of 
religion, of piety, jultice, and good 
order^- 

That being deeply affecled with a 
fenfe of the uneafmefs and diiTa- 
tisfadion of the prefent time, and 
the calamity and diftrcis which 
threaten the inhabitants of thiscoun- 
try-, without- amendment and refor- 
mation : and being imprelfcd with 



a belief, that mach now lies at the 
door of the civil authority, we are 
engaged, from a fenfe of religious du- 
ty, as well as of that allegiance wc 
owe and acknowledge to the govern- 
ment uiuler which we live, to ad- 
diefs you on this occafion. 

We truft it will not be judged im- 
proper, that we take this opportuni- 
ty to lay before you our concern, 
and to recoinmend to your ferious 
confideration, a repeal or amendment 
of fuch ads of affembly as are obvi- 
oufly inconfiftent with that attention 
to the prefervationof juUice, integri- 
ty and uprightnefs, among the people, 
without which we can have no rea- 
fonable hope or confidence to a(k for 
the bleffings of peace and profperity. 
Remembering that it is " righteouf- 
nefs exalteth a nation,"' and that civil 
autliority, being ordained by God 
*' a terror to evil doers, a^id praife to 
them that do well," is accountable 
to him for every act which is found 
to have a contrary operation upontlie 
people. 

Among other things, which have 
affeded us with pain, that unrighte- 
ous and inhuman trade to Africa for 
flaves, and the cruel bondage con- 
fequent thereon, having long lefled 
upon our minds with concern — we 
are efpecially engaged, at this time, 
to revive 10 your confideration, the 
cafe of that opprefled people, whom, 
from their fuuation, being incapaci- 
tated to plead their own caufe, we 
have apprehended ourfelves called 
upon by the father and proteftor of 
the whole family of mankind, in a 
fenfe of religious duty, to endeavour 
to alFift and relieve. 

There are many inftances on re- 
cord of the Angular chaltifements. 
which the fuprcme judge and ruler of 
the univerfe has appointed to nations 
who have notoricufly deviated from 
the principles of jullice and mercy; 
we conceive it would be highly be- 
coming you, as legiHatcri and fii- 



128 



Defer iplict! cf the <v:hite moutiiams in Nenv Hampjhirf, 



thers of the people, as well as greatly 
copducire to your true peace and 
real honour, as individuals, ferioufly 
to confider how repugnant this traf- 
fic is to both ; and, by a timely ex- 
ertion of that authority entrurted to 
you, contribute your endeavours to 
prevent the fufferings of multitudes 
of that injured people, and avert 
from our land the judgments of him 
who has declared himl'elf the avenger 
of the opprcficd. 

Being perfiiaded we adi'refs men 
generally convinced that this branch 
of commerce, and the treatment of 
the unliappy lubjcds of it, are con- 
trary to the golden rule of doing as we 
would be donebv; we intreat you 
ferioully to confider, whether divine 
approbation can be expelled, upon 
the exerctfe of civil authority, whilft 
individuals are permitted to profe- 
cutc this commerce in an oppreilion 
of their fellow- men, without reftraint 
or difapprobalion. 

Under the influence of thefc confi- 
deration.s. and fuchot]\ers as the fub- 
jeft mud naturally fuggcft, if weigh- 
tily entered into, we are encouraged 
to hope, that this application, in 
behalf of that afflidfed and oppreffed 
part of our fellow-men, will meet 
your approbation. We therefore 
requeft, that you will take this cafe 
under ferious confidcration, and 
caufe fuch a law to be enafted, as 
you in wifdom judge the moft effec- 
tual to prevent that cruel and unjuft 
trade, and finallv toabolifli that bar- 
barous cullom of holding mankind 
as Haves. 

Signed, in and ou behalf of our /aid 
meetings by 

to the meeting tkisjeau 



Dcfcription of the lohite mouniahn in 
Neiv Hanipjhire. By the re'v. Je- 
remy Belknap, 

THE white mountains, in the 
northern part of New Hamp- 
shire, have, from the earlieft fettle- 
ment of the country, attrafted the 
attention of all forts of perfons. 
They are, undoubtedly, the higheft 
lands in New England, and are dif- 
covcjed in clear weather by veffels 
coming on the eaftern coaft, before 
any other land ; but, by reafon of 
their bright appearance, are frequent- 
ly miftaken for clouds. They are 
feen on (hore, at the diftance of fixty 
or eighty miles, on the fouth and 
fouth-eafl fides,and are faid to be plain- 
ly vifible in the neighbourhood of 
Quebec, The Indians had a fuperftiti- 
ous veneration for them, as the habita- 
tion of in vifible beings ; and for this 
reafon never ventured to afcend rfheir 
fummits, and always endeavoured to 
difcourage every perfon who at- 
tempted it. From them, and the 
captives whom they formerly led to 
Canada, through the pafs of thefc 
mountains, many fiftions have been 
propagated through the country, 
which have in time fwelled to mar- 
vellous and incredible ftories ; parti- 
cularly, it has been reported that 
carbuncles have been feen at immenfe 
heights, and inacceffible fpots, which 
gave a luftre in the night. 

Thofe who have attempted to give 
an account of thefe mountains, have 
afcribed their brightnefs to (hining 
rocks or white mofs ; and the higheft 
fummit has been reprefcnted as inac- 
ceffible, by reafon of the extremei 
cold, which threatens to freeze the 
traveller in the midft of fummer.. 
They have alfo differed fo widely 
from each other, and their account* 
have bee» embellilhed with fo many 
marvellous circumltances, and, on' 
the whole, have been fo unfatisfaflo- 
ry, that 1 have long wiflied for an 



bffcriptton cf the wkiit n$untatns in New }Ia?npJhire, 



329 



♦ppnrhinity to vifit thefe moun- 
tains in cdiiipany with fame gen- 
!]fm<'ii *'f a phitofophicai turn, 
furnilhed with proper iniiniments 
and materials for a full explora- 
tion of the phenomena that might 
occur. This ftleafure I have in 
part enjoyed tlie prefent fummer 5 
and, though the roughnefs of the 
way, which prevented the nfe of 
convenient carriages^ proved fa- 
tal to fome of our infiruments, and 
the almoll continual cloudihcfs of 
the weatherj while we Were in that 
region, hindered us from making 
fome obfervationSj which we in- 
tended — yet, till a better account 
can be obtained, I flatter myfelf 
ihat what follows will prove more 
fatisfaftory than any which has yet 
been publifhed or reported. 

The white mountains are the 
nigheft part of a ridge which ex- 
:ends norih-eaft and fonth-weft to 
an unknown length. The area of 
their bafe is an irregular figure, 
fomewhat refembling an li'oceles tri- 
iingle, whofe longcft extremity is 
towards the fouth, and whole whole 
circuit cannot be Icfs than hfty 
miles. The number of fummits 
within this area, cannot be atcer- 
tained at prefent, the country round 
hem being a thick witdcfncfs. On 
he north-weft fide, feven fuiTimits 
ire in plain view : and this is tha 
grcateft number that can be ,feer> 
jt once from any flation that is 
learcd of woods. Of thefe, four 
»t leall are bald. 'Ihe highefl of 
hem is on the eaflern' fide of the 
:lufler, on which fide we afccnd- 
;d, having firft grtincd the height 
:>( land between the waters of Sa- 
le and Amanfcogin rivers, to which 
here is a gradual afcent for twelve 
niles from the pflaius of Pigwack- 
t. At this height of land, there" 
s a meadow, which was formerly 
I beaver-pond, with a dam at each 
;iid. The water ilFues outofamoun- 
ain on its eallern fide, in ilie form 
Vol, liL No^ll, 



of fprings^ and meandering through 
the channels of the meadow, ap- 
pears llagnant in the middle ; bur^ 
dividing us courfe^ at the foutfl 
end or the meadow, it runs into Ellis 
river, a branch of Saco ; and at the 
north end, into Peabody river, a 
branch of Amarifcogin. Ffom this 
meadow, there is an uninterrupted 
alcent, on a ridge between two 
deep giiliies, to the higheit fum- 
init. 

The fides of the mountains are 
covered with fpruce trees ; the 
furface is compofetl of loofe rocks 
covered with very long green mofs, 
which reaches from rock to rock, 
and is in many places fo thick and 
dlrong as to fupport a man's weight* 
This imnlenfe bed of mofs fpiead 
over the furface of thefe moiin-i 
tains^ ferves as a fpunge to retain 
the moillure brought by the clotidt 
and vapours, which are continually 
riling and gathering found the 
mountains ; the thick growth of 
fpruce prevents the inn's rays from 
penetrating to exhale it J fo that 
there is a confUnt fujiply of wa- 
ter to the' mrmberlefs fprings with, 
which this region abounds and an 
unceafing circulatum of fluid, the 
procefs of which is highly entertain- 
ing to the fpettator ; for no fooner 
has a fhower defcended from the 
clouds, but the vapour rifes from the 
leaves of the forelt in innumerable 
little columns, which, having gain- 
ed a: certain height m the atmo- 
fphere, colleft and converge toward* 
the mountain?, where they either 
fall again in fnowers, or are imbib- 
ed by the mofs, and depofited Irt 
the crevices of the rocks, feeking 
their way to the hard Uratum or 
pun which is impenetrable, and 
which guides them till they find 
vent in fpnngs. The fame liquid 
tribute is daily exhaled from the 
rivers, ponds, and low grounds, 
and attratied to the momnains, 
which, by thefe mc^ins, arc always 
U 



t3o 



tiffcriptien of the white mountains in S^ew Hanpjhire, 



i'eplcnifhed with water in every 
part. 

The rocks, of which thefc moun- 
tains are compofed, are in foine 
parts Hate, in others flint, but to- 
wards the top^ a dark grey Hone, 
which, when broken, Ihews fpecks 
of ilinglafs. On the bald parts of 
the mountains the ftoncs are co- 
vered with a Ihort grey mofs, and, 
nt the very fummit, the mofs is of 
a yellowlfli colour, and adheres firm- 
ly tt) the rock> 

Eight of our company afcendcd 
the higheft mountain on the twen- 
ty-fourth of July, and were fix 
hours and hfty-one minutes in gam- 
ing the fummit, deducing one hour 
and thirty-eight minutes for the 
neceflary Hops. The fpruce and 
firs, as you afcend, grow {liorter, 
till they degenerate to flirilbs and 
bufliex ; then you meet with low 
vines bearing a red and a blue berry, 
and lalHy a fort of grafs called win- 
ter grafs, mixed with the mols. 

Having afcended the fteepefl pre- 
cipice, you come to what is cal- 
led the plain, where the afcent be- 
comes gentle and eafy. This plain 
is compofed of rocks, covered with 
winter grafs and mofs, and looks 
like the furface of a dry pallure 
or common. In fome openings 
between the rocks^ you meet with 
water, in others dry gravel. The 
flain is an irregular figure, its area 
uncertain ; bat from its eaflern 
edge to the foot of the fugar-loaf, 
is upwards of a mile 5 on tlie wcllern 
fide it extends farther. The fugar- 
loaf is a pyramidal heap of loofe 
grey rocks, not lefs than three 
hundred feet in perpendicular height, 
but the afcent is not fo difficult, as 
the precipice below the plain. From 
this filniinit in clear weather is a 
noble view, extending to the ocean 
on the fouth-eaO ; to the high lands 
on the weft and north-wclt, which 
ieparacc the waters of Coiinctti- 



cut river from thofe of lake Chnrtl* 
plain and St. Laurence ; on the 
iouth it extends to Winipifeogce 
lake, and the highlands louthwaid 
of Pemigcwaflct river. 

It happened unfortunately for our 
company, that a thick cloud cover- 
ed the mountain almoft the whole 
time that they were on it, fo that 
fome of the inllruments, which with 
much labour they had tamed np§ 
were ufelefs. In the barometer 
the mercury ranged at e2,6 inches^ 
in forty-four degrees of heat by 
farenheit's thernionieter. It was 
out intention to have placed one 
of each of thefe inllruments at the 
foot of the mountain, at the lame 
time that others were carried to 
the top ; but they were unhappily 
broken in the courfe of our jour- 
ney, and the barometer which was 
carried to the fummit, had fuHered 
fo much agitation that an allovy-t 
ancc was ncccflary to be made in 
ci<lculaiing the height of the moun- 
tain, which our ingenious compa- 
nion, the revi inr* Cutler, of Ipf- 
withj eftunaies in round numbers at- 
five thoufand five hundred feet above 
the meadow, the meadow being 
three thoufand five hundred feet 
above the level ox the fea, and ihi» 
feems to be as low an cftimaiion 
as can be admitted. VV'e intend* 
ed to have made a geometrical men- 
furation of the altitude, but in one 
place where we attempted it, we 
could not obtain a bafe of fuffici- 
ent length, and in another, where 
this inconveiticnce was removed, we 
were prevented b) ths almon con-* 
tinual obfcurationi of the moun- 
tains by clouds. 

On every fide of thefe moun-* 
tains are many long winding gul- 
lies, beginning at the precipice 
below the plain, and dcepeningi 
in the defcent : they are from one 
hundred to one th()ufaijd feet deep^ 
jmd perhaps more. In winter^ tlwi 



Defcription ef the tj/tite mountatus in Nt'v Hampjkire, 



fnow driving with the north-wed 
winds over the tops of the moun- 
tains, is lodged in thcfe gullies, 
and forms ^ cumpatl body which 
is not eafily dilfolved by the ver- 
nal fun. It is obfervcd to be lon- 
ger on the fouth, thi\n on the north- 
weft fides; which is the cafe with 
moft other hills in this part of the 
country. In one thoufand feven hun- 
dred and feventy-foiir, lome men who 
were at work on a road under the 
eallern fide of the mountain, af- 
cendcd to the fummit on the 6th of 
June, and upon the fviuth hde found 3 
body of fnow 13 feet deep, and fo hard 
a,s to bear them. I'he man from whom 
I had this accauiit, and who had 
the direction of the work, afcend- 
ed the mountain on the 19th of 
June, with fomc of the fame par- 
ty, and in the fame fpot the fnow 
was hve feet deep. On the 23d 
of July this year, wc were alTured 
by perlons who live within plain 
view uf the mountains, on the fouth 
fide, at the dillance of fixteen miles, 
that the fnow had not been gone 
more than ten days. W^ were al- 
fo credibly informed that two men, 
who attempted to afceiid the moun- 
tain the firll week of September, lall 
year, found the bald top fo co- 
vered with fnow and ice, then 
newly made, that they could not 
gain, the fummit ; but this does 
not happen every year fo foon, 
for the mountain has been afcended 
fo laie as tlie firlt week in Oc- 
tober, when no fnow was upon 
it ; and fometimes the firft fnows 
that come, diflblve before the win- 
ter fets in ; but generally the moun- 
tains begin to be covered with 
fnow and ice, either in the latter 
part of September, or the begin- 
ning of October, and it never 
wholly leaves them till July, Dur- 
ing this period of nine or ten 
months, they exhibit more or lefs 
of that bright appearance, from 
which they are denominate^ while, 



m 

In the fpring, when the fnow is 
partly dilFoKed, they appear of 
a pale blue, ftreaked with white ; 
and after it is wholly g( ns, at 
the diftance of forty or fixty milej 
they are altogether of a pale blue, 
inclining to the colour of the fky ; 
while viewed at the diflancc of 
only ten ml es, they are of the grey 
colour of the rock, inchning Vi 
brown. Thefe changes are ob- 
ferved by people who live with- 
in conftant view of them : and 
from thefe fafts and obfcrvations 
it m.ay juftly be concluded, that 
the whitencfs of them is to be afcrib- 
ed wholly to the faow and ice, 
and not to any other white fub- 
ftance, for in realuy thers is none. 
There are indeed in the fummcr 
months forae ftreaks which appear 
brighter than other parts, but thcle, 
when Viewed through a telcfcope, 
I have plainly difccrned to bs 
the enligluenea edges or fides of 
the long deep gullies, and the 
dark parts the Ihad.d fides of 
them ;, zjX'X in the courle of a day, 
thele fpois may be feen to va- 
ry according, to the ppfition. oi 
tlip fun. 

It may not be amifs to query 
h.crc, if fo, great a quantify of inow 
is accumulated and remains on thefe 
mountaiiB, m.ay it not be fuppofed 
1:0 add a kecnncfs to the winds which 
blow over them ? And how many 
more mountains may there be t(>» 
ward the north and weft, whofe 
hoary fumiiuts contain the like or 
greater bodies of fnow and sec, 
fome of which, at the »"emoi,eft 
regions, may remain undiifolyed 
through the year ? May we not 
then afcribe the piercing cold of 
our north-weft winds to the in- 
finite ranges of frozen mountain'^, 
rather than to the lakes and fo* 
refts? 

Thefe immenfe heights which I 
have been defcribing, being copi- 
oufly repicuiihed with water, t*,-' 



13» 



A new It dure upon^tyei. 



caf- 



hibit a variety of beautiful 
fade<, fome of which fall in a 
jicrptiidicular fheet or fpout ; o- 
ther^ are winding and naiTt)W ; 
others I'pead on the level furface 
of fome wide rock, and then gulh 
in cataratts over its edge. A ro- 
mantic imagination may find full 
gratification amidlt thcfe nigged 
fcene";, if its ardour be not check- 
ed by the fatigue of the approach. 
Three of the largefl: rivers in Nev/ 
England receive a great part of 
their waters from this region. A- 
monoofuck and Ifrael rivers, two 
principal branches of Conneflicut, 
fall from the wellern fide of the 
mountains ; Peabody river and an- 
other branch of Amarifcogin from 
the north-eaftern fide ; and almoft the 
whole of Saco defcends from the 
fouthern fide. The declivities be- 
ing very lleep, caufe this latter 
river to rife very fuddenly in a time 
of rain, and as fuddenly to fubfide. 
On the wefiern part of thefe 
rnounfains is a pafs which in the nar- 
roweft place meafurcs but twenty two 
feet between two perpendicular rocks, 
Jlere a road is' conftrufting with 
great labour and expenfe, which is 
the (liortefl route to (he upper Co- 
liofs or Connecticut river, and to 
that part of Canada which borders on 
the river St. Francis. At the height 
of this narrow pafs, the yiyer Saco 
takes its rife, A brook defcends 
frpm the mountain, and meanders 
4hrough a meadow which was former- 
ly a beaver-pond, and is furrounded 
by lleep, and, on one fide, perpendi- 
cular rocks — a flrikingly piHurefque 
fcene ! the rivulet glides along the 
v/efiern fide of the defile, (the eallern 
being formed into a road) and tribu- 
tary ilreams augment its waters, one 
of which is called the Flume, from 
the near refemblance it bears to the 
flume of a mill. The pafs between 
the mountains widens as you defcend ; 
but for eight or ten miles they are fo 
pear as only to leave room for the ri- 



ver and its intervals. In the courrt 
ofthis deicent you fee at imincnfe 
heights, and in ipois perfectly iiiac- 
ceilible, fcveral rocks, fomeof awhit- 
ilh and fome of a reddifii hue, whofe 
faces are polifhed by the continual trick-, 
ling of water over ihem. Theie, when 
incrufled with ice, being open to the 
fouth and weft, are capable, in the 
night, of reflettiug the moon and 
ftar-beams to the wondering travel- 
ler, buried in the dark valley be- 
low ; and thefe are fufficient by 
the help of imagination, to give rife 
to the fidion of carbuncles. 

We found no Hones of any 
higher quality than flint * ; no lime- 
Hone, though wc tried the mod 
likely \vith aqua fortis. It is faid 
there is a part of the mountain 
■yvhere the magnetic needle refufe* 
to traverfe ; this may contain rock 
ore, but our guide could not find 
the place, It is alfo faid that ^ 
mineral, fiippofed to be lead ore, 
has been dilcovered on the eaf^ 
tern fide. One of the fprings which 
we met with in our alccnt or» 
that fide, afforded a thick frothy 
i'cum and a faponaceous tafie, AH 
fearches for lubterranean treafurej 
in thefe mountains, have as yet 
proved fruiilefs. The mod certairi 
riches which they yield, are the 
frefliets which bring down the foil 
to the intervals below, and fornT; 
a fine mould, producing corn, grain 
and herbage in the moft luxuriant 
plenty. 
• September, J 784, 

A new leHure upon eyes, 

HERE, ladies and gentlemen^, 
are a pair of eyes which be.j 
long to a brifk widow ; their lanf 

NOTE. 

* Some fpecimens of rock-crynai 
have been found lately by other per*, 
fons, but we did not hear of it ti^^ 
after our return. 



taH 



Le/lure upon eyes. 



«3S 



pi*fC 15 not eommon — they dartre 
when there is hope ; they Jquint 
V'hen il is deTpair. A young gen- 
tleman who fought her Innles, re- 
ceived his aniwer from thele eyes, 
for they frowntd upon hmi — howe- 
ver it was iaid a judgment paiFed 
upon them, for they foon loft their 
clearnelx, and were obhged to have 
the alhltance of fpectacUi ; row 
they can frown upon no one, their 
light has been changed into dark- 
iiel's — and it is high time that they 
pe doled for ever. 

Here are two black eyes, which are 
the property of a very young lady— - 
true I eyes they have been — yet they 
always appear ^jentle ; they arc elo- 
iquent m love, but moft eloquent in 
forrow. Whenever a fad atfetting 
tale is told, I have [ttn them jlied a 
tear of real fympaihy ; which, though 
it dimmed their lullre, added much to 
their value. 

Here are a maiden's coaxing eyes'. 
thefe pretty tall-tales always give the 
tongue the lye ; for whenever their 
fair miftrefs fays, ^^ Ah go away V 
thefe little things always cry out 
*' flay !" Pray admire them, ladies 
and gentlemen ; they are very fmall, 
■vv'hich makes them appear very to- 

Oh Lord ! here are an old maid's 
pair of grey eyes: they don't know 
whether to laugh or cry — always 
peeping where they (bould not. 
1 hefe are the eyes which fee and do 
not perceive- — they are fo very prone 
to miftakes, and always difccrn a 
fault in another, though they can 
never difcover one in themfelves : it 
is very remarkable, that thefe iarge 
eyes never clofe ; in bed they are al- 
v.ay'^ faring — God knows for what 
' — out of bed always prying here 
and there and every where ; fome- 
times they wink, when poor Nancy 
puts a thing out of its place, and are 
always looking over the afiairs of 
others — though they never overlovk 
jheir faults. 



Thefe are Hue eyes, v/hlch belong 
loan heircls ; they were weil enoii^ii 
formerly, and anfwercd their pur- 
pole oi Jic'i/ig ; but now they are al- 
tered (iinte. V^anity has been their 
ruin ! they know not which way to 
turn— they look at every one with 
difdain, and frown upon all wht> 
Hand before them. 

Thefe eyes they call the die- 
away ; as they are couftantly com- 
plaining the leail touch in the world 
oftends them ; I never faw them gay 
in my life — but once, and that was 
becaufe a looking- glafs was in their 
way. 

Here is one eye, which, having 
by an accident loll it's partner, was 
under the necefTity of keeping com- 
nany with a glals one ; but nature 
being olfendcd with the iinpofiiion, 
feeing that her moll delicate piece 
of work was imitated and abufcd, 
{he very juftly decreed that the 
mock eye Ihould never be able to 
clofe. 

Here are a pair of wicked eyes^ 
which do great execution ; they are 
always fare in their mark, and ge- 
nerally aim at young fparks ; they 
look for game in the day time, ani 
take their reft at night ; they Ipcak 
with ogling, and their language may 
be thus tranOated : — 

/{glance, or fde look, the firong- 
eft cxprelhon fur love ; it is literal- 
ly, conRruing it — / prefer you be- 
fore all the company. 

A leer or fy look — in anfwer to 
the common queftion — Will you have 
■me ? A young ladv would bluih, 
were fhe obliged to fay yes or no in 
plain terms ; but by the Iters, ihe at 
once contefiTes, 1 will, without an/ 
otfencs to delicacy. 

A langiiifing look implies a 
ftrong deiire to attain whatever the 
eye is fixed on. 

Thefe, ladies and gentlemen, are 
their mod ufual pkrafcs ; from 
thence Ave may difcover ti^c fignifica- 
tions of others. 



tS4 



Itffure on nofet. 



Here are two evei — I don't know 
what to tail tht-m ; they are )"o hazy 
and dijagreeabte, that I brhcve the 
Jew j> th« play was thinking upon 
them, when he made his objection to 
one coloiH" : 

*' Her eyes may be faith any colour 
i>ut green," 

With your leave v;e fliall pafs 
over them. 

7ie more we're delighted^ the lefs 
they arejeen, 

A new Itclure on ncfcs. 
Ladies and gentlemen^ 

NOSES are the mod necefTary 
inllruments that human nature 
has fupphed us with. By the nofe 
we. can dilcern the Iwcet and foul ; 
by the no(e we can always jmclL a 
rat ; and let me tell you, ladies and 
gentlemen, there arc io many rats 
in this world, that it is a very fortu- 
nate thing to have a naje about us. 
Yet I remember, when I was takm.^ 
a walk a few days ago, I fliould 
have been very liappy had I left my 
nofe at home till my return, fi>r it 
told me ' a dull naufeous tale,' that a 
jewer was juR opened, and ci)nie- 
quently there was a great Itench. But 
to proceed. 

Here, ladies and Rentlpmen, is a 
needle nofe ; look at it— how Iharp 
it IS at the end — on this accouiu it 
takes its name from a needle. It is 
very odd, ladies and gentlemen, but 
the milliefs of this nofe is a damn'd 
fcold. I was once acquainted with 
a needle-nofed family, and ihcy did 
notliinfr (at lead in my prefence) but 
quarrel with one another — To tell 
you the truth, I did nothin;^ (when 
in their prefence) but laugh at their 
iiily altercations. 

i^his is a verv lontr nofe^ indeed, 
and of great difadvanla;;? to the ovs'n- 
cr. The maflcr and miftrefs never 
jj'j to drink but this unmannerly ihin^ 



pops into the vefTel before them, ai 
much as to fay to mouth, ' follow 
your nofe.' There is a gentleman I 
knovj', whofe nofe anfwers this def- 
cription, owing, I believe, to the ma- 
ny tunes it has been pull'd — and we 
never yet took a pot cf porter together 
but his long voje faw the bottom of 
it. 

This is the/ery ;z^which fir John 
Falllaff was fuch an enemy to — ' a 
fellow might light a torch with it,* 
I never go near one of them, for 
fear I may be burned. It is worthy 
of conhderation how all this_/?rf gets 
into this nofe ; but the matter is foon 
rcfolved when we recolleft that vonr 
Jhryvofed gentry are very fond of 
drams. Spirits ara fire in them- 
felves, which fire always flies up 
into the head, and comes out at the 
nofe. 

You may laugh at me, ladies and 
gentlemen ; but here are a bundle of 
nofes together. This is very rare, 
but it has been and is; and 1 have ■i^ 
curious Itory to tell you in refpect to 
the maiier of thefe nofes. One day 
he met a long rioj'e, which was in his 
rvay, and the bundle of nofes was in 
thf other's way. To De lure, they 
both ilared at each other, for nei- 
ther ever faw the like : but the maf- 
ter of the long nofe clapping his hand 
upon it, and moving it to one fide, 
exclaimed, ' There, fir, you may pafs 
on now ; you are the greater man, 
and have the majority.' 

This, ladies and gentlemen, is gn 
aquiline noje, of no little repute 
among the Romans : they eflecmed 
it a nofeoffenfe and beauty, and ve» 
ry often called it the Roman nofe. 
Pray examine it, ladiei, and let the 
gentlemen whom you dcfire ft)r 
partners, be mailers of thefe nofes. 
Indeed, I can't fay that I would re- 
commend them to wives ; there is 
fomethmg too mafculine in (hem, 
which belongs only to the other fex, 
M-'hat IS a beauty with men is very 
often the contrary with women. 



jt memoir on the dift illation of ptrjimom. 



But here is a nofe for ladles— a 
["weet pretty nofe indeed ! — and ihc 
vnows 11^ that has it. Behold, how 
rlegaiiily framed ! exaft in fiiapp, and 
xautifui in form I The yoiing la- 
ly to whom this nofe belongs, is af- 
Fjble, and of an eafy temper ; 1 ne- 
rer knew her to turn it up in all iny 

.ifCi 

No, thatlsthe cuftom of thin coc^ d- 
up no/'e — a vile, difagrecable thin^t^ ! 
—My friend Darby has defcribed the 
perverfenefs and obflinacy of hi^ 
Kathleen by fmging, ' The little gip- 
fey coc/iV hernofc' It is certainiy 
he greateft fign of pride and felf-luf- 
1 iciency that I know. I remark the 
:ock'd up nofe is very fond of nofs. 
'■ Arrah, will you kifs me, my fwect 
Ally Crokcr ?'— ' No, no.'—' Ar- 
ab, will you marry me, fweet Ally 
Croker ?' — ' No, ne, no, no, no, 
lo.' It is not to be wondered at, then, 
hat all thefe cock'd up uofes are ge- 
nerally Old maids. 

Upon my word, here is a nofe^ — a 
broad nofe — that you may drive a 
:oach and fix horfes through. Thcfe 
perlons who have fiich prodi^^iuus 
handles, are reckoned very nulchie- 
vons and fpiteful ; for to J'^ell the 
nojiriis is afurc fign of malice. All 
you, ladies and gentlemen, who own 
■\\q{& exorbitant nofn, pray be care- 
ful, every morning and evening, to 
rub them down, and in a little time 
you may bring them into fome rea- 
fonablc fliape. 

Ihis is z.pvg nofe — a mere nothing, 
I may fay. You fee that nature in- 
tended there (hould be a nofe, and left 
t vacancy for it , but perhaps had not 
ieiiure to complete it: indeed, there's 
i fubflantial reafon given lor thele 
no-tiojes; the owners have been fo ve- 
ry otien infolent and abuhre. that 
when thevhad them in their full height 
of perfection, they got ikem broke ; 
and, as my friend Paddy very fully 
exprelTes it, ' O' my conlcience, 
gained a lofs V 
This is a nofe which is cfteemed by 



J 35 

many— -but I think there'? tf^» murk, 
and (hall fay very little about it— • 
as for thefe other nojes, we ma/ 
eReein them only as ftgns, to tell 
the travellers, here are my heads—^ 
that is all, for I am fure there is 
nothing in thenii I would ob- 
ferve. that fome people never had 
a nofe — but as this is a leEiure upon 
vofis, I mull not give you room to 
fay that there was a blunder in my 
title. 

.,«*.. ^^<^ <^ ••<>- 

A memoir on the dijlillation ofperfi* 
mons, by mr, Ifaac Bartram, 

THE American philofophical fri* 
ciety having propofed at one 
of their meetings m November laff^ 
ihat a trial Ihould be made for 
drawing a fpirit from the ferment- 
ed juice; of the perfimon, I was 
appointed to make the experi* 
mciu. 

'ihe feafon being then fo far ad- 
vanced, 1 apprehended it was too late 3 
but being uiU urged by the focieiy to 
make thceffay,- 1 purchafcd about 
half a bufiiel of the fruit in the month 
of December, which was fo mucli 
damaged by the froll and rain, that 
1 almull defpaired of fuccefs ; the 
proper time for gathering it being in 
the month of October* 

1 however proceeded in the follow* 
ing manner^ 

I caufed the peri'tmons to be well 
rfiaflied, and put them in a five gallon 
keg, to which I added two gallons 
of water, and about two penny worth 
of yeaft, in order to promote a fer» 
mentation. This being completed, 
I committed the whole to the llillj 
and drawed therefrom near half a. 
gallon of proof fpirit, of an agree- 
able flavour. 

From the fuccefs of this experi- 
ment. I think it may be concluded, 
that the perfimon may be rendered 
very beneficial to thofe who have 
many of them growing on their plan- 



jgS 



A merfioir on the dijlitl&iion «f perjimtn%i 



tation<;, aricl that they are worthy of 
the public attfiitiorij a< many ad- 
vant;iges may be reaped from the 
cultivaliuii of the trees- fome of 
which I fhall him at in the courfe of 
this paper. 

lo thoie who would undertake to 
colled large quantities of this fruit 
for diftilLition, I wouJd rccoimnenJ 
the following proccfs. 

Let a numhcF of empty hogfiieads. 
in proportion to the quantity of 
fruit, be provided ; take out one of 
the heads of each, and in the other 
let a bote be bored^ at about four 
inches from the chimb, into which 
fix a plug, which may be occafionally 
taken out from the lower end, ivhen 
the calks are Hxed upon truHels, at a 
fmall diHance from the ground. Irr 
thefe calks, over the holes, lay a 
rumber of fmall Uicks, covered with 
flraw, about two or three inches 
thick, to prevent the pulp from 
choaking them. 

Your hogflieads bein^e; thus pre- 
pared, fill one of them half full with" 
perfimons, which have been wefl 
malhed ; add water until it arife 
ivithin one third of the top ; then 
cover the cafk with the head that had 
been taken out, and let it Hand about 
rine days ; by this time the pulpy 
or feculent part of the fruit will be 
Separated by the att of fermentation : 
you are then to draw off the liquor, 
by the hole in the bottom of the 
hogfhead, and put it in a fight cafk, 
clofely bunged up, to prevent a fe-- 
cond fermentation, whereby your 
liquor would become acid, and be 
rendered unfit for the llill. 

Having thus extracted the more 
vinous parts frona the firft bogfiiead, 
let as much water be added as before, 
ivhich muit be well ftirrcd, and 
mixed with the pulp, thereby to pro- 
cure the whole ftrength of the fruit, 

A fecond hogfhead is then to be 
charged half full of fruit, well malhed 
as the (irO, and inllcad of pure water, 
iiJi It two third* full with the fecoud 



extraB of the firfl hogdiead, leavlrij 
it to ferment, as before directed. 
This fermeiitaiion being perfettcd^ 
draw oil (he licruor, and let it be bung- 
ed lip dole. The third hogOiead is to 
be treated as the fecond, and in a like 
TTiaiiner cvecy fucceeding cafk. Af- 
ter you have in this manner convert- 
ed all vour fruit into a fermented li- 
quor, let it be kept at leail one inontb 
befvue it is dif^illed, if it can be pre- 
fcrved without danger of its becoming 
foiir ; for I have obferved that vinous 
fpirits, drawn fromnev/ fermented li- 
quors are not e(piat in flavour to thofe 
which have been inehoratedby age. 

'I'h'e perfimon tree is of a quick 
growth, aud yields great quantities of 
fruit in a few years after it is planted., 
The wood is hard, has a fine cloftf 
grair>, and may be applied to many 
mechanical purpi>fes V it bufns welt^ 
and its sfhes contain a very large pro- 
portion of falts. 

Thefe trees grow fpontaneoufly 
near all our tide water rivers, and 
fdccecd in almoft any kind of loiL 
They thrtve beft when planted in an 
open place. I would therefore re- 
commend, that they ihould be fixed 
at about ten feet apart, round the 
fields, by which means they would be 
no incumbrance, but contribtrte to 
the fiipport of the fences, as they 
would ierve for liVepofls. 'l"he leaves: 
foon rot, and beco'ine good manure, 
irvfomiieh that it is remarkable that 
grafs grows better under thefe trees^ 
than any other. 

Every farmer who has fifty acres- 
of land, might plant three hundred 
trees round his fields ; which being 
dilpofed as before direHed, would bff 
a' great addition to th'e beauty of his 
farm. 

Let lis fitppofethat each full'grown 
tree will produce two bulhels of fruit 
upon an average (lome I have feen 
bear thrice that quantity.) From a 
farm then of fifty acres, fix hundred' 
biilhels of fruit might be gathered J 
a-ad as, from the foregoing cxpefi- 



Ohfefjaliom on the raijing nnd drejjirtg nf hemp. 



nent, a bufhel is found to yield a 
ijallon of vvholefome and very agree - 
ible fpirit, every farmer having 
hat number of trees, might make 
ix hundred gallons bf liquor, as 
^ood as rum. 

The expenfes, attending the pro- 
:efs, we will fuppofe to amount to 
jne half of the value of the liquor 
A'hendiftilled, which, admittingit to 
:>e worth but twofliillings per gallon, 
,vill leave a profit of thirty pounds 
3er annum ; a fum equal to the inte- 
reftofafarm, that would cod five 
Hundred pounds. 

Were we to extend this calcuia- 
:ion to what every fifty acres of cul- 
tivated land in this province only, 
would produce, we fhould find that 
we might foon become independent 
of the VVeft Indies, for the expenfive 
article of rum, and thereby yearly 
fave many thoufand pounds to this 
colony. 

A valuable gum exudes from this 
tree ; for the colleding of which, 
the fociety eftablifhed in London for 
promoting arts and manufadures, 
offered a premium of twenty pounds 
fterling for the greateft quantity, 
not lefs than fifty pounds weight, 
that Ihould be collei^ed from theper- 
limon tree, in any of the Brltifh co- 
lonies in America, and imported from 
thence into the port of London, be- 
tween the firft of April, 1762, and 
the firft of April, 1763. And for 
the next greateft quantity, not lefs 
than tvv'enty-five pounds weight, a 
premium of ten pounds fterling. 

1 have alfo been informed, that 
an excellent beer is made of perft- 
mons, in fome of the fouthern pro- 
•vinces. 

Hence it will appear, that the cul- 
tivation of the perfimontree isanob- 
jeft worthy the attention of our farm- 
ers, as it promifes great profit to 
themfelves, and a ftill greater advan- 
tage to the community in general. 
Philadelphia, 1 7 7 1 . 

Vol. 111. No. U. 



137 

Ohfa-^ations on the rnijing avd dr'JJii.-v 
of hemp; coTrimnni-ated to the Amc' 
rican philufopkical fociety, ly Ed-' 
ivard Ant'd, rfq. 

EMP is one of the moft pro- 
fitable produftions the earth 
furnilhes in norrhcrn climates; as it 
employs a great number of poor peo- 
jiie in a verv advp.ntageous manner, 
if its manufadiire bs carried on pro- 
}>erly: it may alfo furnilh a ready- 
remittance to Great Biitain, and 
become a reciprocal advantage to 
both ; and therefore it becomes 
worthy of the ferious attention of 
the different legiflaturcs of the north- 
ern colonies, of every trading man, 
and of every man, who truly loves 
his country. 

But as the people of America do 
not appear, from their prcfent ma- 
nagement, to be acquainted with the 
bell and moft jiroiitable method of 
cultivating and managing this valu- 
able plant, I beg leave to inform them 
of fome things that may be of advan- 
tage to them. 

Whoever would raife hemp pro- 
perly, and to advantage, ihould fee 
afide two pieces of ground, of fuch 
dimenfions each, as he lliall be a!)Ie 
to cultivate every year, and fow the 
one whilft he is manuring and prepar- 
ing the other, for the focceeding 
year's crop ; the higher and drier 
the ground, the better, provided it 
be well dunged, and made flrong and 
mellow; the ground fiiould >:ot be 
too Hoping, left the good foil hz 
walhed away with hard rains ; if it 
droops toward the fouth, fo that it 
may have the full influence of the 
fun, it will be an advantage ; low, 
rich, warm, dry grounds will alfo 
produce good hemp : but wet lane, 
though never fo rich, will by no 
means do. The ground being pre- 
pared and made very mellow, i now 
come to that part which nuift be par- 
ticularly and exactly atieaded ta, 
£ 



/- / 



138 



Ohfcrvatijiis on the raijiug and drcjji//g cfhimp. 



fincc the fucccfs of the crop greatly 
depends upon it. Some time in May, 
the ground being moift, and in a \e- 
geiHting ibve, hut by no means wet, 
it mult be well ploughed, the fur- 
rows (lofe and even — the foil lying 
light 'A(\i\ mellow — it muft be fowed 
ver)'^ even with two bufhels of feed 
upon one acre ; a man with an iron- 
tooth-harrow I'oUowsthe fower, and 
harrows in the feed, with two horfes 
without any balks; for the Icfs the 
ground be trampled, the better ; if 
harrowing oiic way be not fufficient 
to co\ er tht; feed though it would 
be bed if that could be done, it niuft 
be crofs harrowed. "^J he ground be- 
ing inoill, as I faid before, but by no 
means wet, fo as to clod, which wculd 
ruin the crop, the feed will all ftart 
and come up together, which is a 
fure fign of a good crop, and no- 
thing after that, but too much wet, 
will hurt it ; for hemp thus come 
up, bids defiance to weeds and grafs 
of every kind; its growth is fo 
quick, and it fo efFeftuaily Ihadesthe 
ground, that nothing below can rife 
cr ihcw its head, and it fo preferves 
all the moillure below, that the 
hotter and drier the weather, the 
failer it grows. Whereas, if the feed 
be fown when the ground is dry, the 
feed that lies decpelt, wh:re the moif- 
t'jrc is, will come up firft, and thefe 
will fhadc and ftarve thofcthat come 
after, by which means the firft comers 
will be too large, and the laft will be 
much too fmall, fo that the crop will 
be greatly dam?.ged every way — fo 
much depends upon this one circum- 
ftance, of fowl ng the feed when the 
ground is moift and fit to receive it. 
The crop, r^lus rightly managed, will 
Hand as thick as very good wheat, 
and be from four to fix feet high, 
according to the ftrength of the 
;:_round ; and the Hems will not be 
thicker thin a good wheat ftraw ; by 
this mtau', the hemp will be the finer, 
it will >ickl the greater quantity, 



and it may be plucked from the i 
ground like fi;ix, which will be a \ 
very great faving: but if it be fowed 
thin, that is, one bufnel to an acre, 
which is the common praftice, it 
grows large, the hemp is harlli and 
coarfe, and then it muft be cut with 
hooks, which occafions great wafte, 
for four or five inches juft above 
grc'jnd is left, by way offtubble, 
which contains the beft and heaviefb 
part of the hemp. 

When the hemp has got its growth, 
and is fit to be plucked, which you 
will knew by the under leaves of the 
carle, or the hemp, turning yellow, 
and falling off, the fooner it is pull- 
ed, the better,- it muft then be bound 
up with ftraw bands, in fingle band 
fneaves, rather finall than large, and 
each ilieaf muft be bound in t.vo 
places ; and the fooner it i» carried 
to the water to rot, the better : water- 
rotted hemp, if it be rightly manag- 
ed, is every way better than that 
which is rotted on the ground : there 
is lefs wafte in it, when it comes to 
be dreffed ; it looks brighter and 
fairer to the eye ; it is efteemed to be 
ftronger and more durable ; and al- 
ways fetches a better price ; befides 
it is much fooner done, and is 
rotted more even and alike, and with 
greater certainty and exadtnefs ; ma- 
ny people in America are acquainted 
with the method of rotting hemp in 
water ; but, as many more are not yet 
acquainted with it, I (hall, for their 
information, fet down the method 
of doing it. Hemp may be rotted 
in ftagnated or ftanding water, fuch 
as ponds, pools, orbroad dcepditches, 
and in fuch water it is generally four 
or five days and nights a rotting, 
and fometimes longer, according to 
the heat or coolncl's of the weather; 
it may alfo be rotted in running wa- 
ter, as in a brook or river; and in fuch 
water, three or fourdaysandnightsarc 
fuflicient, according to the weather; 
to know whether the hemp be rotted 



Obfer-vati:72s on the raifing and dnjfs'ig of hemp. 



enough in either cafe, take a mid- 
dling liandful, out of the middle 
row, and try with both your liands 
to faap it afunder; if it breaks eafy 
it is rotten enough ; but if it yet ap- 
pears pretty ftrong, it is not, and 
niuA lie longer, till it breaks with 
eafe; and then it muft be taken out, 
and dried as foou as poffiblc ; in 
handling the flieaves, take hold of 
the bands, and fet them up an end 
againrt a fence, if one be near ; or 
lay them down upon the grafs, for 
the water to drain ofF, and then un- 
bind them carefully, open and fpread 
them to dry thoroughly ; then bind 
them up again, And houfe then* in a 
dry tight place : the reafon of hand- 
ling the hemp in this careful manner, 
is, that when it is well rotted, 
whillt it is wet, the lint comes off 
with the leaft touch ; therefore, if it 
be handled roughly, or if, while it 
is wet, it be thrown into a cart and 
carried to a diftance to be unbound 
and dried, it would be greatlv hurt, 
and the owner would receive great 
damage by it ; but when it is dry, it is 
handled with fafety. 

If tlie hemp be rotted in a brook 
or running water, the (heaves muft 
be laid acrofs the ftream, for if they 
be laid down lengthways with the 
ftream, the current of the water will 
wafti away the lint, and ruin the 
hemp : it muft be laid down, heads 
and points, two, four, or fix thick, 
according to the depth of the water, 
and the quantity of hemp; if the 
bottom of the river be fund, gravel, 
or mud, three good ftrong ftakes 
muft be driven down at each end, 
above and below, and three long 
ftrong poles muft be laid on the hemp, 
and fartened well to the ftakes, in 
fuch manner as to force down the 
hemp under water, where it remains 
till it be rotted enougli : though, if 
a muddy ftream could be avoided, it 
would be beft, becaufe it is apt to 
foul and ftain the hemn. If the 



»35 

bottom of the ftream be rt^cky or 
ftony, fo that ftakes cannot be drove 
down to fecure the heii.p under wa- 
ter, and from floating away, thvn a 
rough wall muft be made at the lower 
enCi of the hemp, and along the fide, 
to keep it in, and ftrcng poles or 
rails muft be laid upon the top of 
the hemp, and prettv heavy ftcnes up- 
on them, fo as to fink the hemp under 
water, where it muft lie till it hz 
rotted enough. 

What hemp is intended for feed, 
fhould be fowcd on a piece of 
ground by itfelf, which muft be made 
very lich and ftrong ; it muft be 
fowed in ridges, fix feet vviile, and 
the feed muft be of the largeft and 
beft: fort, and fown very thin, at ihc 
rate of a peck upon an acre, or ra- 
ther fix quarts : for the thinner it is 
fown, the more it branches, and the 
more feed it bears ; it ftiouki be fown 
fome time the middle of April, and 
then the feed will not be ripe, till 
fome time after the other hemp is 
done with. If you have no conve- 
nient place to fow your feed hemp 
by itfelf, then fow a border of fijc 
feet wide along the north and v.'cft 
fides ot your hen;p field ; the reafon 
of fowing your feed hemp in fuch 
narrow ridges or borders, is, that, 
when the carle, or he hemp, is ripe, 
and has filed its farina on the fimblc, 
or female hemp, by ul-.ich the feed 
is impregnated, and the leaves of 
the carle hem.p fall off, and the ftem 
grows yellov.', you may eafily ftep in 
along the fides, and pull up the carle 
hemp, without hurting the female, 
which now begins to brancli out, 
and looks of a deep green colour and 
very flourilliing : and when the feedj 
begin to ripen, which is known by 
their falling out of their fockets, 
you mav, all along both fides, bend 
down the plants, and fl;ake out the 
feed upon a clothlaid on the ground, 
for as they ripen, thev ftatter, upon 
being fliaken by a luud wind, or 



OlfcrvaiioKS on the raijlng and drcjjtng of henrp. 



ctherv.'ife ; then it miift be watched, 
and the fowls and yeliow birds kept 
from it, for they are immoderately 
fond of the feed; as the firlt ripe 
feeds are the fuilcft and belt:, they 
are worthy of fome pains to fave 
them ; and the beH way to do that, 
is, to bend down the plants all along, 
on each fide of the border or ridge, 
as is faid above, and Ihake them 
over a cloth fpread on the ground to 
receive the feed; if one fide of the 
plant be rooted out of the ground by 
ioicMg it dovvn to fhake out the 
feed, diere will be no damage, for 
the feed that remains, will ripen not- 
wivhilanding ; and the plant muft 
thus t)e (haken every two or three 
days, till all the feed be ripe and thus 
faved ; and this is much better than 
pulling up the plants by the roots, 
and ihaking them on a barn floor, 
and then fetting ihem up againft a 
fence or the fide of a barn, for the 
{ctHi to ripen, and fliaking them 
morning and evening on the barn 
<!oor ; for by this method, which is 
the common practice, one third of 
the feed, at leaft, never comes to ma- 
turity. 

It is well known to every farmer, 
that in the three bread colonies at 
Ivait, the fpring and fummer feafons 
are cf late years become very dry, io 
that a crop of flax is become very 
precarious, fcarcely one year in fe- 
ven producing a good one : this is a 
coal!.ant complaint in the mouth of 
ever^^' hufbandman : now hemp 
does not require half the rain that 
flax does; this is a circumliance 
that is well worth tlie notice and at- 
tention of every farmer; and there- 
fore by his rai'fing hemp in the man- 
ner before direded, and by prepar- 
iig it in the belt manner, for fpin- 
nini^ and weaving into good cloth, 
he ^-an with greater certainty fupply 
all the neceflary ufes of his family; 
sad hv felling the overplus, he can 
j-.a.chufe fuch things as his wife and 



daughters may thiivk convenient, on 
extraordinary occafions. This, how- 
ever, need not hinder them from raif- 
ing fome flax every year. But I 
think it is more for his intercfl: to fix 
his chief dependence upon his crop 
of hemp, as that is more fure, andL 
every way more profitable, the gene- 
ral run of feafons confidered. And 
let him not be difgufted and think 
that I am about to perfuade him, 
his wife, and daughters, to wear oz- 
nabrigs, for I can afl'ure him, that I 
have feen dowlas made of hemp, 
worth five and fix {hillings the yard, 
which no farmer need be afhamed 
to wear. "^^. 

I fliall now endeavour to inflruft 
the honeft hufl)andman in a few eafy 
rules for preparing his hemp, which 
he has raifed and managed in the 
manner before direfted. 

Know, then, that thebeft; prepara- 
tion of hemp, for the manufafturing 
of cloth, is to render it as fott and 
as fine as pofiible, without leflTening 
its ftrength, and the eafiefl: and cheap- 
eft way of doing that, is certainly 
the beft. This is to be found oilt 
by a variety of trials and experi- 
ments : but till a better way be 
dlfcovered, which I hope will not 
be long firft, and with which I fliould 
be greatly pleafed — take the follow, 
ing method, which is the bell I have 
yet been able to difcover. 

Ifyouhavea large wide kettle, 
that will take in your hemp at full 
length, it will be the better; but if 
your kettle be fmall, then you muft 
double your hemp, but without 
twilling, only the fmall ends of eve- 
ry hand mufl: be twilled a little, to 
keep them whole and from tangling; 
then firft of all lay fome fmooth 
fticks down in the bottom of the ket- 
tle, fo al> to He acrofs one another, 
three or four layers, according to 
the bignefs and deepnefs of your ket- 
tle ; this is to keep the hemp from 
touching the liquor y then pour 



Defcription of the grotto at Snvntara. 



fome lye of middling ftrength, half 
as ftrong as what you make foap of, 
gently into the kettle, fo much as 
not to rife up to the top of the 
flicks, the)' being kept down to the 
bottom; then lay in the hemp, each 
layer croffing the other, fo that the 
fteam may rife up through the whole 
body of the hemp ; which done, co- 
ver your kettle as clofe as you can, 
and hang it over a very gentle fire, 
and keep it funmering or Hewing, 
but not boiling, fo as to raife a good 
fteam for fix or eight hours ; then 
take it off, and let it it?.nd covered, 
till it be cool enough to handle ; 
then take out the hemp, and wring 
it very carefully as dry as you well 
can, and hang it up out of the way 
of the wind, either in your garret or 
in your barn, {hutting the doors, 
and there let it remain, turning it 
now and then till it be pcrfeilly 
dry; then pack it up in fome clofe 
dry place, till you want to ufeit; 
but you will do well to vifit it now 
and then, leaft any part of it 
might be damp and rot. You 
mull know, that wind and air 
weaken and rot hemp, flax, and 
thread, very much. 'I hen at your 
leifure, twift up fome of the hands, 
as n)any as you intend for prefsnt 
ufe, as hard as you can, and with 
a fmart, round, fmooth hand-beetle, 
on a fmcoth ftone, beat and pound 
each hand by itfelf, all over very 
well, turning it round from fide to 
fide, till every pr^rt be verv well 
bruifed: you thtn uniwift it, and 
hatchel it, fwft through a coarfe, 
and then through a fine hatchel : and 
remember, that hatcheling muft be 
perlormed in the fame manner, as a 
man would comb a iine head of hair, 
be begins at the ends belc>w. and as 
thofc untangle, he rifes higher, till 
at lali !;;e reaches up to the crown 
■of the head. The firft tew makes 
good rcpes for the ufe of the plan- 
tation ; the fccond tow will make ve- 



ry good oznabrigs, or coarfe fhcet- 
ing ; and the hemp itlelf will make 
excellent linen. Tiie fame method 
of lleaming foftens flax very much. 

Thilsddphia, 1 771. 

Defcripthn of the grotto at Sivatara.— 
hi a litter from the re-j. Peter Mil- 
ter, of Ephrala, to William Bar- 
to?!, efq, 

AS the courfe of my letter now 
tends this way, I mull rea^nd 
you, if everyoi; fhould publifha na- 
tural hiftory of Fcni.fylvania, not to 
confign to oblivion that very curious 
petrifying cavern, of which, led you 
fhould not have feen it already, I 
fhall give fome defcription. 

It is fituate on the eaft fide of 
Swatara, clofe to the river. Its en- 
trance is very fpacious, and there i< 
fomcwhat of a dcfccnt towards the 
other extremit}-; infomuch that I 
fuppofe the furfacc of the river is 
ratht-r higher than i!;e bottom of the 
C3\e. 'I he upper part is like an 
arcr.ed roof,of Iclid lime-ftone rock, 
perliaps twenty feet thick. On en- 
tering, are found many apartments, 
{ow.c of them very high, like the 
choir of a church. There 's, as it 
weie^ a continual rain within the 
cave, for the water diops inccfTantly 
trom the roof upon the floor ; by 
which, and the water petriningas 
it falls, pillars are gradually form-jd 
to fupport the roof. I faw this cave 
about thirty years ago, and obferved 
libout ten fuch pillars, each fix indi- 
es in diameter and fix feet high : all 
fo ranged, that the place inclofed by 
thera refembled a fanftuary in a Ro- 
man church: and lean affure you, 
thr.t no royal throne ever exhibited 
more grandeur, than the delightful 
profpcct of this lufus ?iaiur^. Satis- 
lied with the view of thi', we difco- 
vered the refemblances of levera! 
mon'imcnts^ incorporated into the 



0,7 content nifnt. 



walls, as if the bodies of departed 
heroes were there depoiited Oar 
guide then conducted us to a place, 
where, he faid, hung the hell ; this 
is a piece of ftone iffiiing out of the 
roof, which, when i^iuck, 'founds 
like a bell. 

Some of the ftalaclites are of a 
colour like fugar-candy, and others 
refemble loaf-fugnr j but it is a pity 
that their beauty is now almoit de- 
ftroyed by the country people. '\\\z 
water, as it falls, runs down the de- 
clivity; and it is both v/holefomeaiid 
pleafant to drink, when it has dii- 
eharged its petrifying matter. It 
is remarkable that we found feveral 
holes at the bottom cf the cave, going 
down perpendicularly, perhaps into 
the abyfs, which rcnJ^rs it danger- 
ous to be without a light. At the 
end of the cave, there is aprcttv run, 
which take.-; its courfe through p.irt 
of it, and then lofes itfelf among the 
rocks; here is alfo its exit, by 
an aperture which is very narrow. 
Through this the vapours continual- 
ly pafs outwards, with a ftrong cur- 
rent of air; and, at ni'-ht, th-fe va- 
pours afccndino:, refemble a crreat fur- 

T-l • - 

nace. Part ol thefe vapsurs ani 
fogs appear, on afcending, to be 
condenfed at the head of this great 
alembic, and the more volatile parts 
to be carried olT, through the apcr. 
ture conimunicating with the exteri- 
or air before mentioned, by the force 
of the air in its pailage. 

I beg pardon for having trou- 
bled you with fuch a long derail. 
It appears ilrange to nie that r.cnc of 
our philofophers have hitherto pub- 
lilhed a true account of this remark- 
able grotto. 



.■•<>- ^5><S 



I 



On contentment. 
Mr. Editor, 
F all the philofophers in the world, 
and all the moral writers from 



Socrates to Knox — if all were to af- 
femble together in one place, and 
fix upon one certain rule of happi- 
nefs, I do firmly believe, contentment 
would be their choice. And yet 
contentment is not eafily acquired ; 
fo far from it, that moll men (hun 
it as their greatett enemy. Fate, as 
it is called, is very little to blame ; 
for when a man has, to all appear- 
ance, as much wealth as he can need, 
an agreeable family, refpedable con- 
nexions, gooJ trade, &c. yet he is 
not happy ; and perhaps no men fo 
much complain of their circumftances 
as thofe very men whofecircumltauces 
are, in all human appreheiifion, the 
very beft. 

Tom Murmur began with three 
hundred a year ; he was advifed to 
go to the country, take a farm (to 
which employment he had been in 
part bred) marry a farmer's daughter 
with a little money, a great deal of 
l^^ve, and a good coniHtution, and 
be very happy. Tom did fo, and 
his farm fucceeded: his barns were 
filled with plenty ; there were cows 
and calves, and fwine and pigs, and 
hens, ducks, geefe, and turkies, a- 
bout the farm ; and a chopping bov, 
at the year's end, became heir appa- 
rent to the animal and vegetable pro- 
duiliionsof this farm. But all would 
not do — A fat citizen, who in forty 
years time had amafied half a plum, 
retired from bufinefs, and took a 
houfe near Tom's tarm. Tom and 
he became acquainted. 7'om found 
that mr. Traffic had not a fingle 
idea in his head, and that, with all 
his wealth, he was a mighty fliallow 
fellow, one of thole, whom, as 
FahlaiFfavs, you may carve out of 
a turnip. Tom confidered, that if 
this l)lockhead, who knew fcarcelv 
his mother tongue, could, in forty 
years, amafs half a plum, he him- 
felf, with his education, could in 
twenty years eafily acquire the fourth 
part cf apli-.m, and then it would be 



lnJirH8i:m for fine la.iies. 



Hi 



time enowgh to think of burying 
on::s felf in the countr}'. 

Full of this ia.%1, "rem one night 
went to bed, and had fiich pleahng 
dreams of wealth , that he determined 
to quit his prefent fiaiation, fell his 
farm, and carry his money to the 
city, the only place where money 
creates money. To fell his farm 
was eafy ; but to fell it to advantage 
was impcSble; for Tom, in the 
honefty of his heart, told every botiy 
that he mu'd fell it I Having, however, 
achieved this feat, he fet out for the 
city, wife, child, and all, and got in- 
to trade. The tint year his proJits 
were confiderable, but he could fave 
nothing; he was as far from the 
plum as ever ; if he gained a 
hundred pounds this year, more 
than the laft, he had juft as many 
more occafions for it as he had the 
laft year, for his family was upon 
the increafe — Yet Tom had no ri^ht 
to complain. He fi'cceeded in bu;i- 
nefs far beyond what he had a right 
to exped — Yet he was not fatisfied — 
No fooner had he fifty or a hundred 
pounds ready for the bank, than 
Tome urgency of bufinefs demanded 
It ; although he made ten, fifteen, 
ind twenty per cent, in trade, yet 
le would have been far more happy 
:o have money in the bank, and re- 
vive only three, four, or five, per 
:ent. — For thinks he, " while I am 
.bus fpending every penny upon 
:rade, what becomes of the/". 25,000 
vhich I was to retire with ? At this 
•ate I lliall never be able to retire 
It all. I am now a Have to a counter, 
he flave of every proud madam, 
Tiifs, or fir, that choofes to come to 
ny (hop." 

Trade, however, ftill fiourilhed 
mh him. He was pronounced by 
11 his neghbours to be a very Inckv- 
nan, who, info few years, had raifed 
lis capital from hundreds to thou- 
ands ; and he found it ncceffarv to 
nlarge his (hop, build a counting- 



houfe, warehoufes, Sec. Sec. and had 
the reputation, and that juftly, of 
being a man in a very capital line of 
bufmeis. His probity was' unquef- 
tionable. — His wife and family were 
amiable and beloved by every body. 
He faw company, and treated them 
with liberality; but wiih all this, 
while every body fet down Tom as a 
ver}- h?pp\" man, he was, in reality, 
the mifcrabieft dog alive, and all ow- 
ing to the refolution he had fet out 
with, which was to gain 25,000!. In 
twenty years, and then retire from 
bufinefs — As for contentment, it had 
been fo long a f. ranger to him, that 
it was not natural to fuppofe it would 
ever return. — Tom lived refpeded, 
and v.-as rich, bat milled his favourite 
object — he lived unhappy — and died 
wi h fiifcontent. And when the 
caufe of his unhappinefs was known, 
fome pitied, but the greater part 
laughed a: him ; one old gentlemani 
only gave au advice on thisoccafion, 
w:th which I (hall conclude this 
letter. " No man ought to take a 
hobby horfe, who does not know- 
how to ride." 

I am, fir, 
Your's, 

OBSERVATOR. 






InJiriiBbris for fine ladies. 

LET a young lady, who is look- 
ing for a hufband, be very 
careful not to promife or deny any 
fuitor — it is vaHly delightful to keep 
a company of admirers, fawning, 
flattering, fwearing, kneeling, and 
fo forth — a bhifh is requifite now 
and then to prevent any falfe infi- 
nuations of thofe envious maidens 
who may call you a coquette; and 
dear fir may be faid once or twice in 
the day, to remove the difgufting 
title of a prude. 

See no one in the mornings — fix 
hours stter } ou rife are little ensugli 



H4 

in all confcieKce to pay proper re- 
fpecfl to thelooking-glafs. To adjiift 
every little article of drefs, to do — 
undo — and re-do this and that, re- 
<]ulres lime and attendance. 

If ever you fee a prettier and more 
fafhioiiable cap upon a friend than 
your own, be remarkably officious^ 
and abufe its maker, iind a thoufand 
faults with it, and beg of the young 
lady to ivear it no more., as it fnakes 
en ab/ulute fright — meaning of your 
own. 

When invited to a card party you 
miift dfclare yonrfclf a very bad 
player; for which reafon you may 
take f>me liberties — fhould they be 
very crofs to you during the even- 
ing, a ffeft a laugh now and then; 
and when you catch a ?iaj}j imrd 
forciiig its way through your lips 
at the fight of a wrong card, you 
muft fwaliow it in an inltant with a 
hem. 

If kind nature has beftowed its 
enchanting gift of a voice, and that 
you can iing prettily, you may af- 
iiime fame airs — let the company 
prefs till they are almoft weary, and 
whenever it is affirmed by any per- 
fon that you can fmg, you may infift 
upon it that vou catmot — this is a 
great proof of good rr.anners. 

If nature has denied you that 
harmonious gift, never give the 
company the trouble of afking t^jjice. 

Have you a fifter ? If flie be 
younger than you, let her not dare 
to contradift or thwart your plea- 
fiire. AlTurrie all ths airs andconfe- 
qiience of one tvho knonus the ivorld 
better: let her not fupplant you in 
your wilhes : but enjoy all the rights 
of your birth. 

is (he an elder filler ? then you 
mult put your charms in array : give 
funfhine to your eye^ fmiles to your 
f?ce ; and whenever you hear an ar- 
dent lover panting at your fiber's 
feet, breathing his love, and calling 
her ih^ fairrf. , bjfurc }ou give him 



InJirttBiojis for flue ladies. 



the lie ixjith your eyes ; and fcize tlie 
earheft opportunity of nuiflAng him a. 
better ivif'e. 

Are your teeth white ? fhew them 
upon all and no occafions : laugh at 
every fpeech, whether a joke or not ; 
7\nAiw£3.j pon homztr, you cant help 
it. 

Are your teeth black ? then never, 
never laugh. If fome rude unex- 
P'rded fiory fhould provoke you, 
fcrew up your mouth as much aspof- 
iible; practice the niminiprimini oi 
, and apply to your handker- 
chief: if all fhould fail^ it will ap- 
pear good breeding. 

Are you to fee your lover ? never 
lake notice of him. Speak to every 
gcntieman but him. Bring Fom- 
pey wit!) you ; be flroking the poor 
pretty thing. Should your fwain 
advance;, you nay defire him not to 
teizeyon ; for *' // is iiajily cruel to 
give pain. " 

To go to church every Sunday, 
morning and evening, is very 
necefTary : to old ladies and gentle- 
men it conveys good ideas ; they 
will naturally fuppofeyou are pray- 
ing for your fins, and thofe of your 
neighbours, when at the fame time 
you may cail a coaxing eye to the 
finefl beau you can fee ; who, if he 
pofTefTcs any gallantry, will take the 
hint. 

There are proper times to fmile 
and figh : when convinced that yout 
lover is fecure, the fnile of triumph 
is feafonable ; but if you are in dan- 
ger of lofing him, whether througli 
his own caprice, or the .fuperiority 
of a rival's charms, the languijhin^ 
figh may bring him back again 
Some are very prone to the fmilc 61 
e7i-vy, or the forced grin ^ upon thefc 
occafions ; but tliis I by no mean: 
approve of; it more difgufts the lev 
er, and delights the rival. Certainl) 
a coaxing eye, accompanied with 
figh of love and tendernefs, wil 
have greater influence : — if the in 



InJiruBions for Jine gentlemen. 



145 



conftant's heart is not adamant, he 
will moll aiTurediy be induced to re- 
turn to his former paffion ; but if it 
ftill remains obdurate, then intro- 
duce the fmiles of ivdiff.retice and 
cont'-tnpt, and fay, " lince lie is falie, I 
am much better without him." 

Be fure to abufe the drefs of every 
friend, Y>s' declaring fuch a one's cap 
to be a fright ; fuch a one's gown ill 
made; fuch a one's handkerchief in a 
v/rong place; you will appear to 
poflcfs grear. friend/hip, though, per- 
haps, tliere is another caufe for thefe 
fiyings. 

It is Tieceffary that you get by 
heart a few lines of poetry, out of 
Pope or Dryden, to introduce upon 
any fubjecl — no matter how foreign 
from the meaning — it will convince 
the company that you have read 
thefe fine bards. 

As patches are the moft becoming 
tilings in the world, you muit ftudy 
the places where they are likely to 
artrad notice, fome hours, at your 
toilet: if one fide of your face 
(hould pojTefs any natural beauty, 
more than the other, 1 would advife 
you to put a patch extraordinary up- 
on that fide, in order to (hew two 
things at once : (hould any ill natur- 
ed pimple appear, you mull undoubt- 
edly cover it, no matter where it is 
— that patch is doubly necefiTary, and 
miijl be there. 

-<►•• ^B><^ <S> •••<V" 

liifiruRions for fine gentlemen. 

WHENEVER you go to the 
cofFee-houfe, monopolize all 
the newfpapers ; and whatever paper 
is" wanted moft, be fure to keep that 
the longeft. 

Whenever you fail in conver- 
fation to amufs the company, begin 
to laugh mod immoderately ; there- 
by you will command the attention 
©f all the fpeftators. 

Vol, IIL No. II. 



If any gentleman tells a remark- 
ably good llory, never laugh, but 
immediately anfwer it with another, 
and then laugh as much as you 
pleafe. 

Wherever you go, be determined 
to find fault with every thing ; there- 
by you prove yourfelf a man of con- 
fequence. 

Let your fpeeches be always pre- 
ceded by {omt pretty oaths. Simile* 
are very requifite to heighten conver- 
fation ; no matter how unlike the 
fubjeft thev may be : but IhouKlyau 
be artray for one, to enforce your ar- 
guments, think of your majier, and 
you can never want. Certainly the 
black gentleman is the moil conveni- 
ent ; and as he is the fiear,'Ji to our 
mouths — logice — he muft be the 
n.^areft to our themes : no matter 
what, he refembles every thing, 
Shi's handjome as the devil — ugly as 
the divil — hard as the dr-vil — -fft as 
the df-jit — hot as the de-.il — cold as the 
d.'vii — de'vilij'o good-humoured — devil- 
ijh crofs. 

Do you wilh to be in love ? 
vifit your miftrefs when you have 
dratik freely of your bottle. 5^/- 
rits ^wit fpiri-.s ; and a man can ne- 
ver tnlk of his heart, unlefs fome- 
thing />«/^ it into his head: then prac- 
tife a dying fpeech ; thump vour 
bread ; flourifli your handkerchief; 
and prefent a pillol. If flie is not 
moved with this, I fhall give you 
leave to (hoot yourfelf. 

Whenever you are in company 
with ladies, endeavour to (hew your 
fenfe and learning. Seledl as man/ 
hard nuords as poliible, and quote 
paffages out of Horace and Homer. 
Praife the former as a fine Grecian, 
and the latter for excelling in Latin. 
If you meet with a lady who knows 
more than yourfelf, be always of her 
opinion, and exclaim, " Gad's curfe, 
you have taken them -vords out of my 
msuth." 

To carry a fnufF-box is highly ef- 



146 



CkaraBer of an old maid. 



fential ; but then you muft learn to 
take a pinch ivith an air ; at the 
fame time, cock up the little finger, 
to (hew you have a ring. When the 
converfation begins to be very 
warm, and the arguments very pow- 
erful, a pinch of fnufFis an excel- 
lent excufe for not /peaking ; becaufe, 
if they infift upon your reafons, 
you can very eafily fet up a mock 
iwecze : and by the time that is fi- 
nifhed — *' Damn it, yoii forgot 'Vjhat 
you luere goi//g to fay , 

It (hews a great genius to tell a 
good lie, now and then, with a very 
ferious face ; which, if you pleafe, 
you may confirm as truth, by pa-wn- 
ir.g your honour', for then, though 
ever fo much doubted, it muft be 
fwallowed : indeed, it requires very 
great fagacity to bounce — and greater, 
to bou7ue out, and unfay what you 
iiave faid, whenever a difcovery is 
made : the beft method of doing 
this, is, by prefacing the (lory with 
they fay ; for then, they, whoever 
they are, are the liars, and not you ; 
but if it is a lie, which muft be told 
upon very good authority, mention 
a gentleman's name who never was 
in being, and alk, if they know him ? 
and, as tliey do not, declare he is a man 
of the ftrlAeft truth, the moft unex- 
ceptionable charadler, and that it was 
from him you heard fo and fo ; 
which, therefore you are convinced 
is truth : (hould, however, your ftory 
be contradided, and abfolutely decla- 
red to be falfe, then you may fay, 

that your friend, mr. , (the 

name of the non-exifting gentleman) 

had it from mr.- , (a well 

known name) who, you are very 
forry to find, is a damned liar. 



X^haraHer ef<tn old maid. 



A 



N old maid is one of the moft 
cranky, ill-n.itured, maggot- 



ty, peevidi, conceited, difagreeable, 
hypocritical, fretful, noify, gibing, 
cajiting, cenforious, out-ofthe-way, 
never-to-be-pleafed good-for-no- 
thing crearu res — God help her poor 
nieces !-Htaven deliver alhh; unhap- 
py young ladies, who are under her 
care ! — how leftured ! — ^how torment- 
ed ! — how watched! — As (he never 
knew what is the happinefs — the 
pleafure of matrimony — ftie endea- 
vours to prevent fuch, as are wil- 
ling to learn — fne preaches againft all 
men and things — (he pretends to be 
very religious, and vifus the church- 
es, in order to mark what fgns— 
what tokens of lo've may be going on. 
During the fermon, (he alTumes all 
the decorum of a prudent, attentive 
lady — but fiiould there be marriages 
or chrifeuings to follow, (he trots 
away, unwilling to be witnefs of 
what (he knows nothing about — (he 
afFefts to be very charitable — but 
alas! — (he has not time to hear the 
petitions of any poor unfortunate 
wretcTi, being always in a violent 
hurry to prepare dinner, for — her 
dogs and cats, monkies and par- 
rots. She never reads plays, maga- 
zines, or novels, except when (he i» 

alone then (he indulges hcrfelf 

with Congreve, Behn, or Cent- 
livre; but if (he hears an unexpeft- 
ed foot, (he throws them afide, and 
feizes a bible, prayer-book, or 
whatever godly book (he has at 
hand for the occafion. Indeed her 
library is very curious — (he puts her 
fermons over her joiirnals — her 
hymns over her fongs: fo that oi>« 
would imagine it was the fwhole duty 
duty cf man to cover Emma, Cecilia, 
and other pretty, die-away creatures. 
Of all things upon earUi, (he fays, 
ihe hates a man, becaufe every man 
hates her— (he cannot abide the 
fafhions, and is eternally abufing 
her niece's drefs. In fhort, an old 
maid enters the world, to take up 
room, not to nuke room for others 



Character of a pedantit/cliool mafier. 



—if (he lives to that age, which ren- 
ders her uMmarriagfahie^her life is, 
in the opinion of all her joung ac- 
quaintances — too long — being of a 
tough, inflexible nature, that no- 
thing can break her heart : indeed, 
an old maid's heart is, of all hearts, 
the mod deteftable — it contains nei- 
ther fympathy, feeling, or any one 
thing appertaining to the /ex/iir paf. 
fiom — it is fo full oifelf, that it can 
make no room for another ; an old 
maid, therefore, can bear no other 
company, except fuch as herfelf — 
or, now and then, an old bachelor — 
•* for old bachelors," cry the old 
maids, " can do no harm — they are 
inofFenfive creatures, and know the 
world." Then, in the name of God, 
let them go together, 

CharaHer of a pedantic fchool-mafter. 

HE may be truly called an arbi- 
trary monarch, for he has do- 
minions, and numerous fubjecls, 
who tremble at his frowns. 

The former confift of extenfive 
trafts of land, encompaffed by ftrong 
walls, and called, in his language, 
fchool boundaries. 

His palace is a large hallj formed 
into a variety of divifions, and de- 
nominated x[\cjchifil room. 

Heie he keeps his court : the fe- 
rula is his llaff of authority ; the 
rod, the inftrijntent of juftice; and 
Jie is himfelf both judge and execu- 
tioner. 

Like other monarchs, he tyran- 
nizes, and paffcs fentence at plea- 
fure; his will is a law, and unme- 
rited punifhments are inflided, be- 
caufe he will have it fo. 

He is never wrong in his opinion ; 
jnd whatever he fa) s, muft pafs for 
an infallibility, and bear an equal 
Iway with Arijlotle's ipfe dixit. 

He foars np higher than thej^n- 



H7 

tax, or a fcrap of Latin, got by heart 
out of Ovid or Virgil ; and in .mak- 
ing long harangues in praifc of 
thofe hopfful youths he perfed^ed for 
the unverfity, heaiwayslugs them in, 
without regarding the applica'iun, 
that his pupils may marvel at his 
learning. He frequently mutters 
them in his flecp, and makes love 
to his chambermaid, according to 
the llrift rules of Ovid. 

He always prefides over his fuh- 
jedts, in propria pirfo7ta, and he ob- 
ferves rigour even at meal times ; for 
he tires their patience with a lorg 
grace, till the dinner is cold ; and 
chides them, while eating, for not 
talking Latin to each other. 

He is as happy, at the thoug^hts 
of holidays and vacations, as the 
youngeft child ; became he then is 
at liberty to make love. He afte(fb 
to gallant his miftrefs; but flie is 
foon difgufted with his ridiculous 
pedantry ; however, he is not euiily 
anfwered ; " for arepulfe" he fays, 
" only adds fuel to the flame, fhe has 
kindled in his bread ;" therefore wiih 
redoubled ardour, he becomes an 
arrant Don fixate, attacking her 
in all the extravagance of romance, 
till the poor lady, thinking his brain 
turned, repels with equal vio!en:e 
his approaches, telling him that 
he is fitter for bedlam than a fchool 
room. 

If he has any of xhtfairfex under 
his tuition, they are fure to be his 
favourites, and the grcatell profici- 
ents ; his boys then become a parcel 
of blockheads, and he tells pretty 
mifs, (he has more fenfe than twenty 
of them. He introduces love into 
her lejfons, and flourithes amorom 
exprejjiom in her copy book ; but 
advancing to further liberties, he 
is detected and punilhed by the fa- 
ther or brother, as ignominioufly as 
any of his pupils ever felt birch from 
himfelf. 

Like the czar, he is defpifed out 



14S 



Thoughts on confidence, &c. 



of his ow^ t'OTuiriions, and regarded 
as an old map of foine barren ijland. 



Cofifi.lence, in a man, pro'ved /« belong 
clone io a fool, and in a 'woman, to 
a fdle dejoie. 

CONFIDENCE is the antipode 
to modefty. 
In men, it is generally occafioned 
by a want of knowledge of the 
world. 

In women, by flattery — their God 
adored. 

Confidence is legible in the coun- 
tenance. It ftampi a fiippofed value 
tspon the wearer, and gives lullre 
and dignity to the afped. 

It has its apparent advantages; 
but thefe ever prove inevitable ruin. 

A man of confidence preifes upon 
every appearance of advantage, and 
thinks nothing above his merit. 

The greatnefs of the attempt — the 
rank of his ri\als — or the frequency 
<if mifcarriage — will not difcourage 
him. 

He rallies on a defeat, and grows 
defperate by an abfolute denial. 
"When his force is weak, he prevails 
by impudence, and when ftrong, by 
plaufibility ; thus either ftorming or 
perfuading his obje(ft out of both 
reafon and inclination. 

He is profufc in promifes ; but is 
never complimented on a perfor- 
mance; but thefe arc times, when 
mortals are more thankful for the 
former, than really gratified by the 
latter. 

Mankind arc more fmitten by ap- 
pearances than realities. 

A good houfe, handfome equi- 
page, and fine clothes, like a com- 
mon travelling name, prevent en- 
quiries. 

Impertinences are miftaken for 
wit ; and impofiibilities, from fuch 
heroes, appear credible. 



But, courteous reader, let me not 
imprefs you with an idea, that fuch 
condud is current coin ,• when the 
confident mnn happens to mingle 
with thofe of true fcnfe, his ipfigni- 
ficance falls upon himfelf, and the 
flighteft rebuke overthrows his chi- 
meras. 

His face, long unaccuftomed to 
blufh, conveys the ghaftly counte- 
ninceof a bedlamite, and he defcends 
into his real character — that of i. 

"f,oi.r _ 

1 bus is a confident man proved 
the jcft of wife men, and the idol of 
the ignorant. 

Let us now pourtray a confident 
woman : for the vice is fo entirely 
mifplaced in the fair fex, that it ad- 
mits; of no argumei.t. 

Confidence is, in them, the mother 
ofimpudence. 

"!iliefe generating, impudence be- 
gets immcdefty ; and their offspring, 
J trull, is only to be found among 
that unfortunate clafs of the fex, 
'ydsped^' filles dejoie," 

"•(>••• ^^<S> •••»" 

On the importance of a good charaBer^ 
confidcred only 'with rejped to inie- 
rejL 

AS the minds of men are infinitely 
various, and as they are there- 
fore influenced in the choice of a mode 
of conduft by different inducements, 
the moralift mufl omit no motive, 
however fubordinate in its nature, 
while it appears likely to lead fome 
among mankind to a laudable, or 
even a blamelefs behaviour. A re- 
gard to eafe, to intereft, and to fuc- 
cfffjin the purfuits of wealth and am- 
bition, may induce many to purfuean 
honi'ft and honourable cor.duft, who 
would not have been influenced by 
purer motives : but, after they have 
once perceived the intrinfic excel- 
lence and beauty of fuch a conduft, 



Importance of a good charaEier: 



H9 



they will probably perfevf re in it for 
its own fake, and upon higher con- 
fidcrations. 

To thofe who are to make their 
own way either to weaifh or ho- 
nours, a good character is ufualiy 
no lei's neceiTary than addrefs and 
abilities. Though human nature is 
degenerate, and corrupts itfelf ftill 
more by its own invciiiions; yet it 
ufualiy retains an efteem for excel- 
Jencc. But even if we arearri*. ed at 
f !. h an extreme degree of depravity 
as to have loft our native reverence 
for virtue ; yet a regard to our own 
intereit and fafety, which we feldom 
lofe, will lead us to apply, in all 
important tranfaftions, to men vvhofe 
integrity is unimpeachable. When 
we chufe an aifutant, a partner, a 
fervant, our firli; enquiry is concern- 
ing his charaiftcr. When we have 
occaiion for a counfciler or attorney, 
a phyfician or apothecary, whatever 
we may be ourfehes, we always 
choofe to truil our property ami p-r- 
fons to men of cnarader. V/hen 
we fix on the tradcfmen who are to 
fupply us with ncccllaries, wc are 
not determined by the fign ot the 
lamb, or the wolf, or the fox ; nor 
by a ihop fitted up in the molt ele- 
gant taiie, but by the faireft repu- 
tation. Look into a newfpaper, and 
you will fee how important the 
characters of the employed appear to 
the employers, from the highell to 
the lowcil rank. After the adver- 
tifement has eunumerated the qual- 
ities required in the perfon wanted, 
there conitantly follows, that none 
need apply who cannot bring an unde- 
niable charafter. Offer yourfelf as a 
candidate for any office whatever, 
be promoted to honour and emolu- 
ment, or in any refpetfi attrad the 
attention of mankind upon yourfelf, 
and if you are vulnerable in your 
character, you will be deeply wound- 
til. This IS a general teltimony in 



favour of honefty, •which no writ- 
ings and no prac"tices can refute. 

Young men, therefore, whofe 
charafters are yet unfixed, and who, 
confequently, may render them jufl 
fuch as they wifh, ought to pay 
great attention to the firit ftcps which 
they take on entrance into life. 
They are ufualiy carelefs and inat- 
tentive to this objcfl. They purfuc 
their own plans with ardour, and ne- 
glect the opinions which others en- 
tertain of them. By fon-.e thotight- 
lefs aftion or exprefHon, they fuitcr 
a raark to be impreffed upon tliem, 
which fcarrely any fubfcquent merit 
can entirely eiafe. Every man will 
find fbme pcrfons, who, if they are 
nut enemies, view him with an en- 
vious or a jealous eye ; and who will 
glaoly revive any tale to which truth 
has given the flighteil fonndafton. 

Indeed all men are fo much inclin- 
ed to fiattcr their own pride, by de- 
traftinp; from the reputation of 
others, tliat fuppcfing we were abfc 
to maintair. an immaculate conduft, 
it would ftiii be difficult to preferve 
an immaculate charatfter. But yet 
it is wifdom not to furnifl'i this de- 
trading fpirit with real fuhjeft? 
for the exorcife of its activity. 
V\ hile calumny is fupported only hy 
imagination, or by malice, we 
may foinetimes remove, by contra- 
d'cting it; but whenever folly or 
vice have fupplied fads, we can fel- 
dom do more tlian aggravate the 
evii, by giving it an apparent atten- 
tion. 1 he malignity of fome a- 
mong the various difpofitions of 
Tvhich mankind are compofed, is oft- 
en highly gratified at the view of inju- 
red fenlibility. 

In this turbulent and confufed 
fcene, where oar words and adions 
are often mifunderftood. and oftener 
mifreprcfented, it is indeed difficult 
even for innocence and integritv to 
avoid reproach, abufc, contempt and 



FoUy of enquiring what is faid of Ui in our abfeTice. 



150 

hatred. Theie not only hurt otir in- 
tereft nnd impede our advancement 
in life»but forely affiift the feelings 
of a fender and deltcate mind. It is 
then ibe part of wifdom firft todo eve- 
ry thing in our power to prefcrve an 
"jnreproachable chara(fier, and then to 
Jet our bappinefs depend chiefly on 
the approlration of our own confci- 
cnces, and on the advancement of 
oar intercft in a world where liars 
ihall not be believed, and where flan- 
oerers fhall receive countenance from 
none but him who, in Greek, is 
tailed, by way of eminence, diabo- 
Itis, OF tl>e calumniator. 

On the folly of being anxicujij cnrkns 
t9 enquire ivhat is faid of us in our 
ohpnce. 

THE beft dirpoHtions haveufually 
thenioft fennbility. They have 
aKb that delicate regard for thrir re- 
putation, which renders them forely 
afFlifted by the fecret attacks of ca- 
lumny and detrat'rlion. It is not an 
onreafonable and excefiive felf-love, 
hut a regard to that, without which 
a feeling mind cannot be happy, 
vvhich renders many of us attentive 
to every word, that is whifpered of 
ns in our abience. 

From whatever motive it arifes, 
an anxious curiofity to know the re- 
ports concerning ourfelves, is an in- 
fallible caiife of mifery. No virtue, 
T£t prudence, no caution, no genero- 
iirv, can prefcrve us from mifrepre- 
ientation. Our condud mult be 
Tnifunderilood by weak intellefts, 
Slid bv thofe who fee only a part of 
ir, and haililv form a judgment of 
the whole. Every man of eminence 
i as thofe who hate, who envy, and 
«H'j6i to de''p;re him. Theie will 
j'cic his aftjcns wirh a jaundiced eye, 
..R-1 will repref^nt rl\em to others ir* 
t-'ie' colours in which thcmreU'CS be- 



hold them. Many, from careleflhefs. 
wantonnefs, or frojnadefire to enter- 
tain their company, are inclined to 
fport with refpectablc characters, and 
love to difplay their ingenuity by 
the invcntiun of a fcandalous tale. 
Nothing renders a man more agree- 
able in many companies than his 
polTefiing a fund of religious anec- 
dotes. 

It is certain, then, that from weak- 
nefs, wantonnefs, or malevolence, a 
man, whofe merit renders him a to- 
pic of converfation, will be mifre- 
prefented. He who folicitoufly en- 
quires what is faid of him, will cer- 
tainly hear fomcthing which will 
render him uneafy. His uneafincfs 
will be incrcafed, when he finds the 
poifoncd arrow is (hot in the dark ; 
fo that no abilities can repel the blow, 
and no innocence (hield from the 
affailant. Open attacks can be open- 
ly oppofed ; but the obfcure infinua- 
tion proceeds without the poffibility 
of refiliance, like the worm, which 
penetrates the (hip that has with- 
ftood the cannon. It is better, there- 
fore, not to be too anxious to dif- 
cover attacks, which, when, difco- 
vered, add to our torment, but can- 
not be fuccefsfully refilled. 

Indeed, we are apt to feel upon 
thefe occafions more acutely than 
v/e ought. We are told by a menial 
fervant, 1 r any other of our fpics, 
that a perfoij, whom weefteemed our 
friend, has fpoken fllghtingly of us, 
made a joke upon us, or cart a fevers 
reflexion. Immediately on hearing 
the information, our blood boils 
within us. The indignity, we ima- 
gine, calls for our warmeft rcfent- 
nient. Our friend is difcarded, or 
Tifpected, as a treacherous wretcl-., un- 
worthy of our love and confidence. 
'J his hady ebullition of refentment 
is, I am ready to allow, very na- 
tural, and fo are many other difor- 
dcrs of the paffions. But, if we 
\.'ere to ftudy the cafe, and acquire - 



Folly pf enquiring what isfaidofus in our abftntt. 



»5i 



a Tight idea of the ways of men in 
fociety, we Ihould 6nd, that, in fuch 
inftances, our refentments may not 
only be too violent, but caufelefs; 
for we Ihould recolleft that the hu- 
man mind, without abfolutcly relin- 
quifhing its principles, is often in- 
clined, from the incidental influence 
of temper, of levity, of frolic, of 
intemperance, of precipitation, to 
fpeak inconfiftently v.ith them, and 
in a manner which the general lenor 
of our conduftuni'ormly contradicts. 
Weftiould alfo recollect, that, bcfides 
this temporary variabienefs of tiie 
mind, the totigue is unruly, and, 
when the fpirits, or the pafliors ?.re 
high, utters almoll fpontaneoufly 
what the mind, which ought to hold 
the bridle, would willingly keep in. 
If we reflect upon thefe things, and 
upon what has fallen under our ex- 
perience, we may perhaps difcover, 
that even real and worthy friends 
may fpeak unkindly of us, without 
any defign to hurt us, or to violate 
the bonds of friendihip. It is il'.e 

I infirmity of human nature which 
caufes unintentional lapfes in the du- 
ties of friendihip, as well as in all 
other duties. By too eagerly liften- 
ing to cafual cenfure, whifpered 
in a carslefs manner, we increafe 
the evil, and caufe a rupture wiiere 
none was intended. 

A man, who is conftantly folicit- 
ous to hear the reports which are 
raifedof him, of his family, and of 
his conduft, depends, in a great 
meifure, for happinefs, upon his 
fervants ; upon thofe, whole ideas 
ire narrow, and whofe hearts tv^o 
')ften ungrateful; who overhear a 
•art of a converfation, and fupply the 
eft, when they repeat it, by inven- 
ion; who love to entertain the vi!i- 
"brs and acquaintance with the pri- 
vate affairs of the houfe in which 
hey live, and who are apt to blacken 
he charaflers of their fupporters and 
roteftors, in revenge for a repri- 



mand, or from the natural malignity 
of a bad heart. 1 he tongue, faid 
Juvenal, is the worft parr of a bad 
fcrvant. But the mafter of a familv, 
who is always endeavouring to col- 
led what is uttered by his hun>bl« 
friends, as fervants have been called, 
will find himfelf fubjeft to perpetual 
mortification. And it is a circum- 
Ibnce which renders his folicitude 
peculiarly unvvife, that after all the 
idle florits wljch their garrulity or 
rc'fcntinent may lead them to propa- 
gate, tht y may be as good fer/ants 
■ii any others he might engage iti 
tlicir rof^m, or as human nature, ia 
its uncultivated flate, is found in ge- 
n:;ral to afford. When their fooiifti 
words are uttered, they vanifh into 
air; and the fervants return to their 
duties, and probably will fcrvc their 
miiters as ufefuUy and as falthfuilv, 
ai if nothing had been faid in their 
angry or unthinking moments : — fo 
little meaning and weight is the.e 
in the vvords of the v/eak and the 
pafilor.ate, and fo inconfillent is it with 
wifdom to hften to that tale, which, 
whiieit finks into the mind of him 
who hears that he is the fubjtft of it, 
paflTes over the minds of others, as 
the Ihadow over the earth ; or, fup. 
pofmg it to be noticed, remembered, 
and even capable of doing him an 
injury, he can only make it mere 
raifchievous by paying attention to 
ic, and by giving it an i.T.portancc 
not its own. 

It Will conduce, in a peculiar 
manner, to_ the peace of all perfons 
who fuperintend large families, cr 
large numbers of ainitants, or of fub- 
ordinate clalTes — fuch as the gover- 
nors of fchools and colleges, the ee- 
nerals of armies, the employers of 
manufacturers, a.nd rnanv others in 
fmiations fomcuhat fimiiar— if they 
can habituate themfeJves to difregard 
thoft calumnies, wliich vviil certainly 
be jioured upon them, though thty 
lliouli not merit ill treatincnr. 



FoUy of enquiring what is /aid of us in our ahfencc. 



15a 

Their hearts will indeed often be 
wrung v\uli grief, ii they are fenfi- 
ble ot every ill-natured whilper 
which maKcs its way, like the worm 
in the earth, and may at lart corrode 
the worthielt bofom, it the breait- 
plate ot" rcafon be not previoufly ap- 
plied. Whoever has many individu- 
a'.s under his dirediun, is expofed to 
the mahce of them all; and, as ciif- 
pofuions and tempers are often dia- 
metrically cppofjte, he can Icarccly 
fail CO ofiendas many ashecanpleale: 
for the very condudl which pleafes 
or«j fet, will give ofFencs to the 
other. Friends, as vvell as enemies, 
are liable to ill-humour and caprice; 
and every malignant remarlc is as 
naturally levelled at the fuperinten- 
dan: as the mufquetatthe target. A 
man, who has many perfons under 
him, mud not only not go in fearch 
of the darts which are thrown at 
him, but, even when he cannot 
avoid feeing them, muH let them 
walle their force unregarded. If he 
does not adopt this condud, his life 
will be a perpetual toaiient, and may 
poffibly terminate in that which is 
frequently the death of good men, a 
broken heart. 

Perhaps we might be lefs iiftlined 
to enquire what isfaidofus in our 
abfence, and lefs aiieifled with it 
when difcovcred, if we confidered 
how freely we ourfelves are apt to 
fueak even of thofe we love. We 
ceafure and we ridicule others, in 
the gaiety and thoughtleffncfs ot 
coQveriation : and what we have faid, 
makes fo little iniprelTion upon our- 
f Jves, that we forget it ; and, in the 
next hour, probably fpeak with ho- 
nour ox the lame perfons, and then, 
and on all occafions, would be rea- 
dy to ferve fhem. Beware of the 
man fays Horace, who defends not 
his abfent friend, when he is blamed 
bv others, and who blames him hini- 
felf. But futh is our nature, thit, 
in a fit of levity, a man will fpifuk 



ofanotlier, and hear him fpoken of, 
in fuch terms, as, in his ferious mo- 
ments, he would refent. Let 
any man afk himfelf, whether he 
has not often faid fuch things of 
others, without meaning to injure 
them, or ever thinking ferioufly of 
what he was faying, as, if he were 
to hear that they were faid of him- 
felf, in anr manner whatever, he 
would warmly retaliate ? Let hitn 
then endeavour to fee things in 
the fame light, when he finds he has 
been carelefsly cenfured, in which 
he faw them when he carekfsly cen- 
fured others. In-ked, it mu.T: be al- 
lowed, that a man of fenfibility and 
honour cannot take too much pains 
to vindicate his charafter from any 
open and direct calumny; but the 
fame fpirit, which leads him to that 
manly conduct, will induce him to 
leave the dirty dealers in fcandal 
to themfelves, and to their mean "oc- 
cupations. 

Though a delicate regard for cha- 
raifler is virtuous and rational, yet it 
is really true, that we alt eftimate 
our OA'n value among others much 
hi(;her thin it is eftimated by them. 
What is f.iid of us feldom finks fo 
deeph' in their minds, as, from avam 
idea of our own importance, we are 
apt to imagine. Wc are occafionally 
talked of, it may be, in <he courfe 
oF common converfation, and ferve 
for topics, together with the weather, 
the wind, and the news; but he who 
thinks that he is the conftant objedl 
of his neighbours' accurate and clofe 
infpeftion, is ignorant of human 
nature. Man's chief objecft of at- 
tention is himfelf; and though, tO' 
fill an idle hour, he may talk of 
ochers, it is carelefsly and indifferent- 
ly ; and, whether he fpeaks in praifc 
or difpraife, he often means neither 
to ferve nor injure. From fuppofing 
ourfelves of more confcquence with 
others than we are, we fufpeft, rhati 
they are converfing about us, whcoi 



' Ox the pleafures of reflexion. 



J53 



; they really think not of us: and, 
when they are known by us to have 
> ipoken unkindly or contemptuoully, 
: we immediately confider thcin as de- 
I dared enemies. Our fufpicions are 
awakened when led to entertain bad 
opinions of mankind, and our good- 
humour is foured for ever. '* But 
*' good-humour," fays an elegant 
writer, " is a fait which gives a fea- 
" foning to the feaft of life ; and 
♦* which, if it be wanting, ren- 
*' ders the feaft incomplete. Ma- 
*' ny caufes contribute to impair 
*• this amiable quality ; but nothing, 
'* perhaps, more than bad opinions 
" of mankind." To avoid bad 
opinions of mankind, much of their 
ill deeds, and ill fayiugs, muft be 
attributed to thoughtleffnefs, and not 
to malignity only ; we muft not al- 
ways be on the watch to hear what 
is faid againft us in an unguarded 
hour ; we muft be humble, and con- 
fider, whether we do not treat 
others juft as we complain of being 
treated by them; and, while we com- 
plain of mankind, whether ourfelves, 
and the difpofitions which we enter- 
tain, do not furnilh fome of the moft 
juft caufes of the complaint. Upon the 
whole, let it be our firft objeft to do 
our duty, and not to be very anxious 
about atiy cenfare, but that of confci- 
ence. 

Let the weak and the ill-natured 
enjoy the poor pleafure of whifper- 
ing calumny and detraflioa: and let 
the man of fenfe and fpirit difplay 
the wifdom and dignity of difregar- 
ding them. The dog bays the 
moon, but the moon ftill fhines on 
in all its beautiful ferenity and luf- 
tre, and moves in its orbit with un- 
difturbed regularity. 

The fcriptures, among all their 
other recommendations, abound with 
paflages which finely pourtray the 
human heart. £ will cite one paf- 
fage, which is very appofite to the 
fuDjeft of this paper : " Take no 
Vol. III. No. II. 



" heed to all words that are fpoken, 
•* left thou hear thy fervant curfe 
" thee. For oftentimes, alfo, thine 
" own heart knoweth, that thou 
" thyfelf like wife haft curfed o- 
" thers." 



On the pleafures of rcfldxion, 

THAT the enjoyments of the 
underilanding exceed the plea- 
fures of fenfe, is a truth, confefTed 
by all who arc capable of exerting 
the faculties of thinking in their full 
vigour. But by thcfe pleafures are 
generally underftood fublime contem- 
plations on fubjetts of fcience and 
abftrufe difquifition — contemplations 
which can only be the refult of un- 
common powers, and extraordinary 
efforts. 

But there are intelledual pleafures 
of another kind ; to the enjoyment 
of which neither great abilities nor 
learning are required. Thefe are no 
other than the pleafures of reflexion, 
which are open to the illiterate me- 
chanic, as wel: as the fage phi- 
lofopher, and conftitutc fome of 
the fweeteft faiisfaftions of human 
life. 

There are few who have not felt 
pleafing fenfations arifmg from a re- 
trofpedive view of the firft period of 
their lives. To recolleft the puerile 
amufements, the petty anxieties, and 
the eager purfuits of childhood, is a 
tafk in which all delight. It is com- 
mon to obferve, that on no fubjeft 
do men dwell with fuch pleafure, as on 
the boyifli tricks and v/anton pranks 
which they praftifed at fchool. The 
hoary head looks back with a fmile 
of complacency, mixed with regret, 
on the feafon when health glowed on 
the cheek — when lively fpirits warm- 
ed the heart — and when toil ftrung 
the nerves with vigour. 

Cicero has remarked, that events 



Ethclgcr, H Saxon ^oent. 



the mod difagieeable, during their 
immediate influence, give an exqui- 
}:te fatisfaftion when their confe- 
quences have ceafcd : and iEneas fo- 
laces his companions, under the 
hardfhips they endured, with the 
confideri^ition that the remembrance 
of their fufterings would, one day, 
give them fatisiaftion. That thefe 
fentiments arejull, is well known to 
thofe who have enjoyed the conver- 
fiition of the foldier. Battles, Ikir- 
miflies, and fieges, at which per- 
haps he trembled during the aaion, 
turnifh him with topics of convcrfa* 
lion, and fources of pleafure, for the 
remainder of his life. 

Reflexion is the propereft employ- 
ment, and the fweeteft fatisfadion, 
in a rational old age. Deftitute of 
the ftrength and vigour neceflTary for 
bodily exertions, and furnifhed with 
obfervations by experience, the old 
man finds his' greatef^t pleafure to 
confift in wandering in imaginatioa 
over pafl: fcenes of delight— in 
recounting the adventures of his 
youth, the viciflitudcs of human 
life, and the public events to which 
he is proud of having been an eye- 
witnefs. Of fo exalted a nature 
are thefe enjoyments that the theo- 
logifts have not hefitated to aflert, 
that to recoiled a vi^ell-fpent life, is 
to anticipate the blifs of a future ex- 
iHence. 

The profeffors of phllofophy, who 
will be acknowledged to have under- 
ftood the nature of true and fubftan- 
tlal pleafure better than the bufy, the 
gay, and the diflipated, have ever 
Ihewn a predileftion for privacy and 
iblitude. No other caufe have they 
affigned for their conduft m forfa- 
king focicty, than that the noife and 
hurry of the world are incompatible 
with the exertion of calm reafon, 
and difpaflionate reflexion. The 
apophthegm of that ancient who 
faid, " he was never lefs alone, than 
'* when by hiaafclf/' is not to b* 



confidered merely as an epigrammatic 
turn. In vain was it to purfue philo- 
fophy in the Suburra : fhe was only 
to be courted, with fuccefs, in the 
fequeftercd Ihadc of rural retire- 
ment. 

Were the powers of reflexion cul- 
tivated by habit, mankind would at 
all times be able to derive a pleafure 
from their own brealls, as rational 
as it is exalted. To the attainment 
of this happinefs, a ftrift adherence 
to the rules of virtue is neceffary: 
for let it be remembered, that none 
can feel the pleafures of reflexion, 
who do not enjoy the peace of Inno- 
cence. 

Ethelgar, a Saxon ^oem 

By the ill-fated Chatterioi:. 

^IS not for thee O man ! to 
murmur at the will of the Al- 
mighty. When the thunders roar, the 
lightnings Ihine on the rifing waves, 
and the black clouds fit on the brovy 
of the lofty hill — who then protecls 
the flying deer, fwift as the fable cloud, 
tofl. by the wliiltling winds, leaping 
over the rolling floods, to gain the 
hoary wood ; whilft the lightnings 
Ihine on his cheft, and the wind rides 
over his horns ? When the wolf roars 
— terrible as the voice of the Severn 
— moving majefticas the nodding fo- 
refts on the brow of Michel-ftow — < 
who then commands the fheep to fol- 
low the fwain, as the beams of light 
attend upon the morning? — Know, 
O man ! that God fufFers not the 
leaft member of his work to perilh, 
without anfwering the purpofe of 
it's creation. The evils of life, 
with fome, are bleffings : and the 
plant of death healeth the wound of 
the fword. Doth the fea of troubk 
and affliftion overwhelm thy foul ? 
look unto the Lord ; thou flialt ftand 
firm io the days cf temptation, ai 



Ethelgar, & Saxsn poem. 



the lofty hill of Tlinwulf : in. vain 
rhall the waves beat againft thee : 
thy rock (hall ftand. 

Comely as the white rocks — 
bright as the ftar of the evening — 
tall as the oak upon the brow of the 
mountain — foft as the (howers of 
dew, that fall upon the flowers of 
the field, Ethelgar arofe, the glory 
af *Exanceaflre; noble were his an- 
ceftors, as the palace of the great 
Kenric. His foul with the lark, 
;very morning afccnded the Ikies 
and fported in the clouds. When, 
[tealing down the fteep mountain 
wrapt in a fhower of fpangling 
dew, evening came creeping to the 
alain, clofing the flowers of the day, 
ihaking her pearly fi^owers upon the 
'uftling trees — thea was his voice 
heard in the grove as the voice of 
the nightingale upon the hawthorn 
fpray. He fang the works of 
the Lord ; the hollow rocks join- 
ed in his devotions : the ftars dan- 
ced to his fong; and the rolling 
years, in various mantles dreft, con- 
feft him man. He fiiw Egwina 
of the vale. His foul was afto' 
niflied, as the Britons who fled be- 
fore the fvvord of Kenric. She was 
tall as the towering elm — ftately 
as a black cloud burfting into thun- 
der — fair as the wrought bowels of 
the earth — gentle and fweet as the 
morning breeze — beauteous as the 
fun — blufliing like the vines of the 
weft — her foul as fair as the azure 
curtain of heaven. She faw Ethel- 
gar: her foft foul melted as the fly- 
ing fnow before the fun. The 
Ihrine of St. Cuthbert united them. 
The minutes fled on the golden 
wings of blifs. Nine horned moons 
had decked the fky, when ^Igar faw 
the light. He was like a young plant 
upon the mountain's fide, or the fun 
ihidden in a cloud.He felt the ftrength 

NOTE. 

* Exeter. 



of his fire ; and fwift as the light- 
nings of heaven, purfued the wild 
boar of the wood. The morn 
awoke the fun; who, fl^epping from 
the mountain's brow, Ihook his rud- 
dy locks upon the fliining dew : 
-^Igar arofe from fleep : he fcized 
his fword and fpear, and iifued to 
the chace. As waters fwiftly falling 
down a craggy rock, fo raged 
young .ffilgar through the wood ; 
the wild boar bit his fpear, and the 
fox died at his feet. From the 
thicket a v/olf arofe, his eyes flam- 
ing like two ftars. He roared like 
the voice of the tempeft : hunger 
made him furious : and he flew like a 
falling meteor to the war. Like a 
thunderbolt tearing the black reck, 
yEigar darted his fpear through his 
heart. The wolf raged like the 
voice of many waters, and feizing 
iElgar by tlie throat, he fought the 
regions of the bleflcd. The wolf 
died upon his body. Ethelgar and 
Egwica wept. They v/cpt like the 
rains of the fpring. Sorrow fat upon 
them as the black clouds upon the 
mountains of death : but the power 
of God fettled their hearts. 

The golden fun arofe :-) the high- 
eft of his power; the apple perfum- 
ed tke gale : and the juicy grape de- 
lighted the eye. Ethelgar and Eg- 
wina bent their way to the moun- 
tain's fide, like two ftars that move 
through the ficy. 1 he flowers grew 
beneath their feet; the trees fpead 
out their leaves; the fun played up- 
on the rolling brook ; the winds 
gently palTcd along; dark, pitchy 
clouds veiled the face of the fun : the 
wind roared like the nolfe of a battle; 
the fwift hail defcendcd to the 
ground ; the lightnings broke from 
the fable clouds, and gilded the 
dark-brown corners of the Iky ; the 
thunder fliook the lofty mountains; 
the tall tov/ers nodded to their foun- 
dations ; the bending oaks divided 
the whiftling wind; the broke.*? 



:s6 Letter from the hon. Robert Yates andthe hon. John Lanfing, efquires. 



flowers fled in confufion round the 
mountain's fide, Ethelgar and Eg- 
wina fought the facred (hade: the 
bleak winds roared over their heiids, 
and the waters ran over their feet. 
Swift from the dark cloud the light- 
ning came; the Ikies blufhed at the 
fight. Egwina ftood on the brow of 
the lofty hill, like an oak in the 
fpring;the lightnings danced about 
her garments, and the blading flame 
blackened her face : the fnades of 
death fwam before her eyes : and flie 
fell breathlefs down the black fleep 
rock: the fea received her body; 
and (he rolled down with the roaring 
water. 

Ethelgar flood terrible as the 
mountain of Meindip: the waves of 
defpair harrowed up his foul, as the 
roaring Severn ploughs the fable 
fand. Wild as the evening wolf, his 
eyes flione like the red vapours in 
the valley of the dead. Horror fat 
upon his brow; like a bright ftar 
fliooting through the flcy, he plung- 
ed from the lofty brow of the hill, 
like a tall oak breaking from the 
roaring wind. Saint Cuthbert ap- 
peared in the air; the black clouds 
fled from the flcy ; the fun gilded the 
fpangling meadows : the lofty pine 
fliood ftill ; the violets of the vale 
gently moved to the foft voice of 
the wind ; the fun flione on the bub- 
bling brook The faint, arrayed in 
R;lory, caught the falling mortal; as 
the foft dew of the morning hangs 
upon the lofty elm, he bore him to 
the fandy beach, whiKl the fea roar- 
ed beneath his feet. Ethelgar open- 
ed his eyes, like the grey orbs of the 
tnorning, folding up the black man- 
tles of the night — *' Know, O man !" 
faid the member of the blefled, " to 
fubmit to the will of God ; he is 
terrible as the face of the earth, 
when the waters funk to their habi- 
tations ; gentle as the facred cover- 
ing of the oak ; fecret as the bottom 
of the great deep; juft as the rays of 



the morning. Learn that thou art a 
man, nor repine at the flroke of the 
Almighty, for God is as juft as he is 
great." The holy vifion difappeared 
as the atoms ily before the fun. 
Ethelgnr arofe, and bent his way to 
the college of Kenewalcin ; there he 
flourifhes as a hoary oak in the wood 
of Arden. 

Letter from the hon. Robert Yates and 
the hon. John Lanfing, efquires, to 
his excellency George Clinton, efq» 
go'verntr oftheftate of Nenv York, 
containing their reafons for not fub' 
fcribing to the federal conjiitutton. 

SIR, 

WE do ourfelves the honour to 
advife your excellency, that 
in purfuance of concurrent refolu- 
fions of the honourable fenate and 
aflembly, we have, together with 
mr. Hamilton, attended the conven- 
tion, appointed for revifing the ar- 
ticles of confederation, and reporting 
amendments to the fame. 

It is with the fincereft concern we 
obferve, that, in the profecution of 
the important objefts ofourmiflion, 
we have been reduced to the difa- 
greeable alternative, of either exceed- 
ing the powers delegated to us, and 
giving our afient to meafures which 
we conceive deftruftive to the politi- 
cal happinefs of the citizens of the 
united ftates — or oppofing our opi- 
nion to that body of refpeftable 
men, to whom thofe citizens had 
given the moft unequivocal proofs of 
confidence. Thus circumftanced, 
under thefe impreifions, to have hefi- 
tated, would have been to be culpa- 
ble : we, therefore, gave the princi- 
ples of the conftitution. which has 
received the fanftion of a majority 
of the convention, our decided and 
unreferved diflent: but we muft can- 
didly confefs, that we ftiould have 



'Letter from the hon. Robert Yates and the hon. ''John Lanfmg^ efquires. 1 57 



been eq^jally oppofed to any fyftem, 
however modified, which had in ob- 
jed the confolidation of the united 
Itates into one government. 

We beg leave, briefly, to ftate 
fome cogent reafons, which, among 
others, influenced us to decide againft 
a confolidation of the flates. Thefe 
are reducible to two heads. 

ift. The limited and well-defin- 
ed powers under which we adled, and 
which could not, on any poffible 
conftruftion, embrace an idea of fuch 
magnitude, as to aflent to a general 
conftitution, in fubverfion of that 
of the ftate. 

2d. A convidion of the imprafli- 
cability of eftablifliing a general go- 
vernment, pervading every part of 
the united ftates and extending 
effential benefits to all. 

Our powers were explicit, and 
confined to the fole and exprefs pur- 
pofe of revifing the articles of con- 
federation, and reporting fuch altera- 
tions and provifions therein, as 
fhould render the federal conftitu- 
tion adequate to the exigencies of go- 
vernment, and the prefervation of 
the union. 

From thefe exprefllons, we were 
led to believe, that a fyftem of confo- 
lidated government could not, in 
the remoteft degree, have been in 
contemplation of the legiflature of 
this ftate : for fo important a truft, 
as the adopting meafures which 
tended to deprive the ftate govern- 
ment of its moft eflential rights of 
fovereignty, and to place it in a 
dependent fituation, could not have 
been confided by implication : 
and the circumftance, that the ads 
of the convention were to receive a 
ftate approbation, in the laft refort, 
forcibly corroborated the opinion, 
that our powers could not involve 
the fubverfion of a conftitution, 
which, being immediately derived 
from the people, could only be a- 
Jpoliftied by their exprefs confent^ 



and not by a legiflature, poflefilng 
authority vefted in them for its pre- 
fervation. Nor could we fuppofe, 
that, if it had been the intention of 
the legiflature, to abrogate the exift- 
ing confederation, they would, in 
fuch pointed terms, have direfted 
the attention of their delegates to the 
revifion and amendment of it, in 
total exclufion of every other idea. 

Eeafoning in this manner, we 
were of opinion, that the leading 
feature of every amendment, ought 
to be the prefervation of the indivi- 
dual ftates, in the'r uncontrouled 
conftitutional rights; and that in re- 
ferving thefe, a mode might have 
been devifed, of granting to the con 
federacy, the monies arifing from a 
general fyftem of revenue — the 
power of regulating commerce, and 
enforcing the obfervance of foreign 
treaties, and other neceflTary matters 
of lefs moment. 

Exclufive of our objections, origi- 
nating from the want of power, we 
entertained an opinion, that a gene- 
ral government, however guarded 
by declarations of rights or caution- 
ary provifions, muft unavoidably, in 
a fliort time, be produfliveof the de- 
ftruftion of the civil liberty of Aicii 
citizens as could be efFe<Jtually co- 
erced by it : by reafon of the exlf n- 
five territory of the united ftates, 
the difperfed fitnation of their inhabi- 
tants, and the infuperable difficulty 
of controuling or counteracting the 
views of a fet of men (however un- 
conftitutional and opprcflive their afts 
might be) poffeffed of all the powers 
of government : and who, from their 
remotenefs from their conftituents, 
and neceflTary permanency of office, 
could not be fuppofed to be uniform- 
ly ai.'^uated by an attention to their 
welfare and happinefs : that however 
•w'lk and energetic the principles of 
the general government might be. 
the extremities of the united ftates 
could not be kept in due fubmiftlou 



X5» 



dddrefs to the minority of the coni'ention cf Pennjyi-vania. 



and obedience to its laws, at the 
diftancc of many hundred miles from 
the feat of government ; that if the 
general legifiature were compofed of 
lb numerous a body of men, as to 
reprefent the interefts of all the in- 
habitants of the united dates, in the 
ufual and trueideasof reprefentaticn, 
the expenfc of fupporting it would 
become intolerably burdenfome ; and 
that, if a few only were veiled with 
a power of legillation, the interefts 
of a great majority of the in- 
habitants of the united ftates muftne- 
eeffarily be unknown; or, if known, 
even in the firft ftages of the opera- 
tions of the new gonervment, unat- 
tended to. 

Thefe reafons were, in our opi- 
nion, conclufive againrt any fyfrera 
of confolidated government: to that 
recommended by the convention, we 
fuppofe moft of them very forcibly 

Jt is not our intention to purlue 
this fubjeft farther, than merely to 
explain our condufi in the difcharge 
of the truft which the honourable 
the legifiature repofed in us. Inte- 
refted, however, as we are, in com- 
mon with our fellow citizens, in the 
rcfult, we cannot forbear to declare, 
that we have the ftrongeft apprehen- 
iions, that a government fo organiz- 
ed, as that recommended by the 
convention, cannot r>fFord the fecu- 
rity to equal and permanent liberty, 
which we wiflied to make an invari- 
able objeft of our purfuit. 

We were not prefent at the com- 
pletion of the newcon(litution:but 
before we left the convention, its 
principles were fo well eftablilhed, 
as to convince us, that no alteration 
was to be expefted, to conform it to 
our ideas of expedieucy and fafety. 
A perfuafion, that our further atten- 
dance would be fruitlefs and una- 
vailing, rendered us lefs felicitous to 
return. 

We have thus explained our mo- 



tives for oppofing tlie adoption of 
the national conihtution, which we 
conceived it our duty to communi- 
cate to your excellency, to be fub- 
mitted to the confideration of th? 
honourable legifiature. 

We have the honour to be,, 
with the greateft refpeft, 
your excellency's 
moft obedient, and 
very humble fervants, 
ROBERT YATES, 
JOHN LANSING, jun. 
His excellency governor Clinton. 

AJdrefs to the minority of the eott'octl' 
tion of Pent/Jyl-vania, 

N U M BER I 

Gentlemen, 
HE great queftion, which at 

this time engages the attention 

of the united ftates, calls for the 
faireft and moft difpaffionate difcuf- 
fion. Miftakes, in taking up the 
fubjefl, muft lead to erroneous con- 
clufions: and men of pure intentions, 
both among yourfelves, and the peo- 
ple at large, Ihould mifconceptions 
have arifen, may continue avctfe to 
the fyftem, after it has received the 
fiat of all the conventions. Well- 
intended attempts to throw light up- 
on the intere'iling fubjeft, cannot, 
therefore, be unpleafing to you. — 
Without further introduftion, then, 
I will proceed to a point of confider- 
able importance, in itfelf and in its 
confequences, on which I conceive 
your opinions have been erroneoufly 
formed, and on which I earneftly 
hope we fhall finally concur. 

The confolidation of the united 
ftates into one government, by the Q- 
peration of the propofed conftitution, 
(in contradiftinftion from a confe- 
deracy) appears to you to be the con- 
fequence of the fyftem, and the in- 
tention of its framers : this is the 
point of difference which I mean to 
treat of: and for the prefent I Ihal^ 



Addrefs to theminoriiyoftbe com}entionofPenarjl<-jamd, 



159 



confine my obfervations to it alone. 
Were the parts of the federal go- 
vernment which you have particular- 
ized, as much of the nature of con- 
folidation as you feem to fuppofe, 
that would certainly be its real nature 
and defign, and the ftate fovereign- 
ties would indeed be finally annihi- 
lated. The appearances, which have 
mifled you, I ihall remark on in the 
courfe of thefe papers: and I Ihall en- 
deavour to exhibit clear and perma- 
nent marks and lines of feparatcfove- 
reignty, which muft ever diftinguifh 
and circumfcribe each of the feveral 
lates, and prevent their annihilation 
3y the federal government, or any 
of its operations. 

When the people of America dif- 
blved their connexion with the 
•rown of Britain, they found them- 
elves feparated from all the world, 
)ut a few powerlefs colonies, the 
■rincipal of v/hich they expeded to 
nduce into their meafures. The 
rown having been merely a centre 
■f union, the aft of independence dif- 
olved the political ties whichhadfor- 
lerly exifled among the ftates : and 
; was attended with no abfolute con- 
ideracy. But many circumftances 
onfpired to render fome new form 
f connexion defirable and neceflary, 
^e wifhed not to continue diftin(5t 
odies of people, but to form a re- 
icftable nation. The remains of 
ur ancient governments kept us in 
le form of thirteen political bodies : 
id, from a variety of juft and pru- 
:nt confiderations, we determined 
1 enter into an indlffoluble and per- 
itual union. Though a confedera- 
of fovereign ftates was the mode 
connexion which was wifely de- 
ed, and adually adopted, yet in 
at feeble and inadequate bond of 
ion, to which we affented, articles, 
ongly partaking of the nature of 
nfolidation, are obfervable. We fee, 
r example, that the free inhabitants 
each ftate were rendered, to all in- 



tents and purpofes, free citizens of all 
the reft. Perfons fleeing from juftice 
in one ftate, were to be dslivered up 
by any other, in which they might 
take refuge, (contrary to the laws 
prevailing among diftinft fovereign- 
ties,) whereby the jurifdiftion of one 
ftate prevadcd the territories of all 
the reft, to the effedual length of tri- 
al, condemnation, and punilhment. 
The right, to judge of the fums to be 
expended for the ufe of the nation,lies, 
even under the old confederation, 
folely with congrefs: and, after the 
demand, is fixed by them, and for- 
mally made, the ftates are bound, as 
far as they can be bound byanycom- 
paft, to pay their refpeftive quotas 
into the federal treafury, by which 
the power of the purfe is . given to 
them : nor can the ftates conftitution-' 
ally refufe to comply. It is very 
certain, that there is not, in the 
prefent federal government, vigour 
enough to carry this actually-delega- 
ted power into execution : yet, if con- 
grefs had pofleflbd energy fufficient 
to have done it, there is no doubt 
but they would have been juftifiable 
in the meafure. The feafon of in- 
vafion, however, would have been ve- 
ry unfavourable for internal con- 
tefts. 

We fhall find, that the right, toraife 
armies and build navies, isalfo vefted 
in congreTs by the prefent confedera- 
tion : and they are to be the forjudg- 
es of the occafion, andof the force re- 
quired. The ftate, therefore, that re- 
fufes to fulfil the requifitions of con- 
grefs on either of thefe articles, 
ads unconftitutionally. It appears, 
then, that it was thought neceflary at 
the time of forming the old federal 
conftitution, that congrefs fliould 
have what are termed " the powers of 
the purfe and the fword." That con- 
ftitution contained a delegation of 
them, becaufe the framers ofit faw that 
thofe powers were neceflary to the per- 
petuity and efficiency of the anion. 



t6o 



Addrefs to the minority of the connjention ofPennfylvania. 



to obtain the defirable ends of if. It 
is certainly very true, that the means 
provided to enable congrefs to apply 
ihofe powers, which the coniiitution 
vefted in them, were fo liable lo op- 
pofition, interruption, and delay, that 
the claules containing them became 
a mere dead letter. This, however, 
was not expe<5xed or defired by any 
of the ftates at the time : and their 
fubfequent defaults are infringements 
of the letter and fpirit of the confe- 
deration. On thefe circumftances I 
intreat your moft difpaffionate and 
candid confideration. 1 beg leave to 
remark, however, that as in the pre- 
fent conftitution they are only ap- 
pearances of confolidation, done away 
by other fafts and circumftances; fo 
alfo are the fafts and obfervations in 
your addrcfs merely appearances of a 
confolidation, which I hope to de- 
monftrate does not exift. The mat- 
ter will be better underftood by pro- 
ceeding to thofe points which fhew, 
that, as under the old, fo under the 
new federal conftitution, the thirteen 
united ftates were not intended to be, 
and really are not,confolidated in fuch 
manner as to abforb or deftroy the fo- 
vcreigntics of the feveral ftates. In or- 
der to aperfeft underftanding of each 
other, it may be proper to obferve 
here, that by your term confolidation, 
I underftand you mean the final an- 
nihilation of feparate ftate government 
or fovereignty.by the nature and ope- 
rations of the propofed conftitution. 

Among the proofs you adduce of 
fuch confolidation being the intention 
of the late convention, is the expref- 
lion, " We the people." Though 
this is a mere form of words, it will 
be well to fee what expreflions are to 
be found in the conftitution in op- 
pofition to this, and indicative of the 
intentions of the convention, before 
we confider thofe things, which, as 
I conceive, fecure the ftates from a 
poffibility of lofing their refpeftive 
ibvereignties. 



Firft, then, tho' the conventionr 
propofe that it (hould be the aft of 
the people, yet it is to be done in 
their capacities as citizens of the fe- 
veral members of our confederacy— 
who are declared to be the people 
of" the united ftates" — to which idea 
the exprcffion is ftriftly confined, and 
the general term of America, which 
is conftantly ufed in fpcaking of u* 
as a nation, is carefully omitted. A 
pointed view was evidently had toC 
our exifting union. But we muft fee 
at once, that the great reafon of " the 
people" being mentioned, was, that 
alterations of feveral conftitutions 
were to be efFeded, which the con- 
vention well knew could be done by 
no authority but that of " the jieo- 
ple," either determining themfelves 
in their feveral ftates, or delegating 
adequate powers to their ftate con- 
ventions. Had the federal conven- 
tion meant to exclude the idea of 
'' union," that is,of feveral and fepa- 
rate fovereignties joining in a confe- 
deracy, they would have faid, we the 
people of America : for union necef- 
farily involves the idea of competent 
ftates, which complete confolidation 
excludes. But the feveralty of the 
ftates is frequently recognized in the 
moft diftind manner, in the courfe of 
the conftitution. The reprefentatives 
are to be inhabitants of the ftate 
they reprefent : each ftate is to have a 
reprefentative : the militia officers are 
to be appointed by the feveral ftates 
and many other inftances will be 
found in reading the conftitution 
Thefe, however, are all mere expreC 
fions : and I fhould not have intrO' 
duced them, but to overbalance the 
words you have mentioned by a fu 
perior weight of the fame kind. Lei 
us, then, proceed to evidences againfl 
confolidation, of more force than t)u 
mere form of words. 

It will be found on a careful ex 
amination, that many things, whicl 
are indifpenfibly ncceffary to the ex 






Form of the ratification of the federal conjiitution hy MaJJachufeiis. 



\Si 



if nice and good order of fociety, 
cannot be pertornied by the federal 
g(ivcrnment, but will require the a- 
gency and powers of the ftate legifla- 
tures or foverciguties, with their va- 
rious appurtenances and appendages. 

lil. Congiels^ under all the powers 
of the propofcd conftitution, can 
neither train the militia, nor appoint 
the oflicers thereof. 

2d]y. Thev cannot fix the qualifi- 
cations of ekdors of reprefentatives, 
or of the electors of the eleftors of 
the prefidentor vice-prefident. 

3dly. In cafe of vacancy in the 
fenate, or the hcufe of reprefentatives, 
ihcv cannot iffue a writ for a neW'C- 
leClion, not take any of the meafures 
neceffary to obtain one. 

4thly. They cannot appoint a 
judge, coniiitute a court, or in any 
other way interfere in determining 
offences againft the criminal law of 
the ihites; nqr can they, in any way, 
interfere in the determinations of ci- 
Tii caiifes between citizens of the 
■fame liate, which will be innumera- 
ble and highly important. 

^rhly. 'thev cannot eled a prefi- 
dent, vice-prelident, a fenator, or a 
federal reprefentative, without all of 
which their own government mult re- 
main fufpended, and univcrfal anar- 
chy mult enfue. 

6thlv. They cannot determirie the 
place of choofmg fenators, becaufe 
that would be derogatorv to the fo- 
vereignty of the ftate legiflatures, who 
are to elect them. 

,. 7thiy. They cannot enad laws for 
the infpefllon of the produce of the 
country, a Hiatter of the utmoft im- 
portance to the commerce of the fe- 
veral 'bites, and the honour of the 
whole. 

8thly. They cannot appoint or 
commiflion. any ftate ofiicer, legifla- 
tive, executive, or judicial. 

gthly. 1 hey cannot interfere with 
the opening of rivers and canals ; the 
nisking or regulation of roads, ex- 

Vol. IlL No. II. 



cept poft roads ; building bridges ; 
ereding ferries; the eftabiilhment of 
ftate feminaries of learning ; libra- 
ries ; literary, religious, trading, or 
manufaf^uring focieties ; erecting or 
regulating the police of cities, towns 
or boroughs; creating new ftate offi- 
ces ; building light houfes, public 
wharves, county jails, markets, or 
other public buildings; making fale of 
ftate lands, and other ftate property ; 
receiving or appropriating the in- 
comes of ftate buildings and property ; 
executing the ftate laws ; altering 
thr criminal law ; nor can they do 
any other matter or thing appertain- 
ing to the internal aft'airs of any 
ftate, whether legiflative, executive, 
or judicial, civil or ecclefiaftical. 

lothly. They cannot interfere 
with, alter, or amend the conftitution 
of any ftate, which, it is admitted, 
now is, and, from time to time, 
will be more or lefs neceffary in mod 
of them. 

The proper inveftlgation of this 
fubje(fl will require more of your 
time than I can take the liberty of 
engaging at prefent. I fiiall there- 
fore leave what I have now written 
to your honeft and cool reflexion. 
A Freeman. 
(Number II. in our next.) 

Form of the ratification of the federal 
conjiitution by the fate of Maffachu- 
fetts. 

Commonavealth of MaJfachufettSi 
In con'uention of the delegates of the 
people of the comynowwcalth of Maf- 
fachufetls, Febrttarj 6, 1788. 

THE convention having impar- 
tially difcufTed, and fully con- 
fidered, the conftitution of the unit- 
ed ftates of America, reported ta 
congrefs by the convention of dele- 
gates from the united ftates of Ame- 
rica, and fubmitted to us, by a refo- 
H 



162 Foni! of the nUiJicatkii of the federal co7!jii!ntion hy Majpichufctts. 



Iiition of the general court of the 
faid commonwealth, palTcd the 2 5^th 
d;<y of GAuLX^r lalt pali — and ac- 
knowledging with grateful Iiearts the 
•goi>dnefsof thefujircme Ruler of the 
iiniverfe, in afFording the people ot 
the united ftates, in the courfe of his 
providence, an opportunity, delibe- 
rately and peaceably, without fraud 
or furprife, of entering into an ex- 
plicit and folemn compatt with each 
other, bv aflenting to and ratifying 
a new cohlliuition, in order to form 
» more perfedl union, eitablifh juf- 
tice.infiiredomertic tranquility, pro- 
vide for the common defence, pro- 
mote the general welfare, and fecure 
the bleflings of liberty to themfelves 
and their polterity — do, in the name 
and in behalf of the people of the 
commonwealth of Mallachufetts, af- 
fent to and ratify the faid con- 
ftitution of the united ftates of Ame- 
rica. 

And as it is the opinion of this 
convention, that certain amend- 
ments and alterations in the faid 
conRitution, would remove the 
fears, and quiet the a-pprehenfions of 
-^lany of the good people of this 
commonwealth, and more effeftually 
guard againft an undue adminiftra- 
tioii of die federal government, the 
convention do therefore recommend, 
that the following alterations and 
provifions be introduced into the 
faid conllitution : 

•ril. That it be explicitly declared, 
that all powers, not exprefsly dele- 
gated by the aforefald conftltntion, 
are referved to the feveral ftates, to 
be by them exercifed. 

2d. That there fhall be one repre- 
fentative to every thirty thoufand 
perfons, according to the ccnlus 
mentioned in the conftitution, until 
the whole number of the reprefenta- 
tives amount to 200. 

3d. That congrcfsdo not exercile 
the powers vclted in them by the 4th 
ic€\. of I ft art. bur in cafes, when a 



ftate negIe»Rs or refufes to make the 
regulations therein mentioned, 01" 
ihall make regulations fubverfive of 
the rights of the people, to a free and 
equal reprefentation in congrefs, 
agreeablv to the eonlHtation. 

c\t\\. That congrefs do not lay di- 
reft taxes, but when the monies arif- 
ing from the inipoft and excife are 
im''nfficient for the public exigencies ; 
nor then, until congrefs (hall have 
firft made a requifition upon the 
ftates^ to aflefs, levy, and pay their 
refpcdivc proportions of fuch requi- 
fition, agreeably to the cenfus fixeJ 
in the faid conftitution, in fuch 
manner as the legiflarnres of the ftates 
fhall think beft — and in fuch cafe, 
if any ftate ilial! negleft or refufe to 
pav its proportion, purfuant to fuch 
rc;iuifition, then congrefs may aftefs 
and levy fuch ftate's proportion, to- 
gether with intereft thereon, at the 
rate of fix per cent, per annum, 
from the time of payment, prefcribed 
in fuch requifnion. 

5-th. That congrefs ereft no com- 
pany of merchants, with exclufive 
advantages of commerce. 

6th. That no perfon fliall be tried 
for any crime, by which he may 
incur an infamous punilliment, or 
lofs of life, until he be firft indifted 
by a grand jury, except in fuch cafes 
asmayarifein the government and 
regulation of the land and naval for- 
ce3> 

7th. The fupreme judicial federal 
court Ihall have no jnirifdidion of 
caufes, between citizens of different 
ftates, unlefs the matter in difputc, 
whether it concerns the reality or 
perfonality, be of the value of 
tliree thoufand dollars, at the leaft ; 
nor ftiall the federal judicial powers 
extend to any adtioMs between citi- 
zens of diiierent ftates, where the 
matter in difpute, whcth.er it con- 
cerns, the realitv or perfonality, is 
not of the value of fifteen hundreds 
dollars, at the Icaft. 



Account of the proC(£ion in Bflon. 



163 



8th. Tn civil a'5iions between ci- 
tizens of difFereiit (tares, every ilTue 
f fad, a-^ifipg in adions at com- 
■non law, fhall lie tried by a jury, 
f the parties, or either of them, re- 
luelt it. 

9th. Congrcfb fliall, at no time, 
:onient, thar any perfon, holding an 
)fficc of tro^l or profit, under the 
mitcd Ibtes, ihall accept of a title 
if nobility, 01 any other title or of- 
ce, from any king, prince, or fo- 
cign '.tate. 

And the convention do, in the name 
nd in behalf of the people oi this 
-jminon'Aca'th, enjoin it upon their 
iprefentatives in congrcfs,at all times, 
ntil the alterations and j rovilions 
fbrefaid, have been confidered, a- 
retably to the fifth article of the 
id conftitiition, to exert all their in- 
iience, and ufe all reafonable and le- 
\\ methods, to obtain a ratification 
f the faid alterations and provifions 
>. fuch manner as is provided in the 
id article. 

And that the united ftates in con- 
■efs aflembled may have due notice 
"the affent and ratification of the 
id conftitution by this convention 
-It is 

Refolved, That the aflent and ra- 
ication aforefaid, be engroiTed on 
irchment, together with the recom- 
endation and injund;ion aforefaid, 
d with this refolution ; and that 
s excellency John Hancock, efq. 
efident, and the hon. Will- am 
jfhing, efq. vice-prefident of this 
nvention, tranfmit the fame, coun- 
figned by the fecretary of the con- 
ntion, under their hands and feals, 
the united ftates in congrefs 
embled. 

JOHN Wh^COCYi, preftdent. 
Wm. GUSHING, V. P. 

(CrjUtitcrJtgncd) 
orge Richards MiwA, fecretary. 



Accomit of the prscejjian Vt Bnflo?!, in 
folemniz.atioti of the ratification of 
fede ral confiitidion, 

Bojlaty Fchrttarj 9, 17 8.9. 

H E committee of tradefmcn 
met on Thurfday ; and, by 
pubiic advertifements, requelled tlie 
attendance of the mechanics and ar- 
tizens of every defcription in town, 
at Faneuil-hall at nine o'clock, ) ef- 
terday, in order to form, and pro- 
ceed in grand proceffion therefrom, 
to teftity their approbation of the 
ratijicaticn of the federal conftitu- 
tion, by the coavention of this com- 
monwealth, the 6th inft. and deput- 
ed their chairman co requeft their 
brethren, the huft^andmen of the ad- 
jacent towns, to join them ; who, 
though the notice was very fliort, 
accordingly aj)peared in town at 9 
o'clock, when the feveral trades be- 
ing met, at 1 1 o'clock, the whole, 
in grand proceftion, moved from 
the hall, and the following was the 
order of the proceffion. 

Sixteen forefters, with axes, and 
brufh fcythes. 

Mufic. 

A PLOUGH, 

drawn by two horfes, and two yokes 

of oxen, with a perfon holding 

it, and others clearing away 

the obftruiMion>s. 

(The fotis of freedom 'venerate the 

phtigh.) 
Three fowers, with balkets, ftrewing 

grain, and fmoaking their pipes. 
A brufti-harrow, drawn by a horfe. 
A large roller, drawn by a horfe and 
pair of oxen. 
Four reapers, with fickles, &c. 
Four mowers, with fcythes, follow- 
ed by 18 haymakers, with 
rakes, 6tC. 
Eight hufl)andnien, with hoes, 
fpades, and other farming 
utcnfils. 



1^4 



Account of the proccjjion in BoJIott, 



A cart, drawn by a yoke of oxen, 

with flax-dreflers at work, and 

in their working drt-fles. 

A yoke of fat cattle, with killers, 

properly equipped. 
A cart loaded with beef, followed 
by eight mafter butchers, in 
clean frocks. 
\frhe aio've nuere from Koxhury.'\ 
BLACKSMITHS, 
preceded by nnr. Baker, 
to the number of -j^, carrying 
implements of their craft — de- 
corated with ribands, &c. 
SHIPWRIGHTS, 
preceded by deacon Sharp, 
to the number of 43, with tools de- 
corated, &c. 
ROPE-MAKERS, 
preceded by mr. William M'Neill, 
to the number of 75 — ^their w"aifls 
encircled with hemp — with a cable 
fled, drawn by workmen, decora- 
ted with colours, and attended with 
Martial Mific. 

MAST-MAKERS, 
preceded by mr. S. Harris, 
to the number of 59, with tools 
decorated. Sec. 
SAIL-MAKERS, 
preceded by deacon Barrett, 
to the number of 30, with their 
tools. 
SHIP-JOINERS, 
preceded by mr. T. Uran, 
to the number of 34, with their 
tools decorated. 
BLOCK- MAKERS, 
preceded by mr. J. Balfh, 
to the number of 30, with tools, &;c. 
MATHEMATICAL INSTRU- 
MENT-MAKERS, 
to the number of 6, with inftru- 
ments, kc. 
COOPERS, 
preceded by mr. Avers, 
to the number of 23, with tools 
decorated, &c. 
BOAT-BUILDERS, 
preceded by mr. T. Hitch born, 
to the number of 20, with tools, &c. 



PAINTERS, 

to the number of 20, with palleti, 

&c. decora ted J ' 

CARVERS, 

preceded by mr. SkilHngs, 

with tools, &c. decorated, to the 

number of ra. 

RIGGERS, 

to the number of i 8, with tools, &c, 

GLAZIERS b^ PLUMBERS, 
preceded by capt. Norton RraiLsford. 
to the number of 16, with dia- 
monds, &c. 
BAKERS, 
headed by mr. J. White, 
to the number of 40, with their 
tools &c. 
TANNERS y CURRIERS, 
preceded by m". S. Bafs, 
to the number of 28, with tools, &c 
SHOEMAKERS 
preceded by rnr. S. Bangs, 
to the number of 50, with laits, &c 
decorated. 
TAYLORS, 
to the number of 56, with thei 
tools, meafures, &c. 
HAITERS, 
preceded by major Seward, 
to the number of 26, with thei 
bows, furs, cvc. 
TALLOW-CHANDLERS, 
to the number of 8, with a minia 
ture prefs, moulds, &c. 
Mr. Voie, on horfeback. 
The fhip 
FEDERAL CONS i'lTUTION, 

on runners, drawn by 13 horfes 
John Fofter Williams, efquire,com 
mande 
Lieut«. ^ ^ ivir. C ai 

Weeks & 
Adams 
Mr. La 
Noine, maf. 



Mr. E. 8 
gniirncy, 

^, purfer; 

^j^ nan red oy 
13 feamen, 

With full colours fl\ ine — follovve 

by captains of vefit-i.s, 85 ftanien, ' 

drcfled in ribands, and about 

I 50 of the pr'mcipal 

fneichantsin town. 




Thefpeech of a.flatidtng member. 



»6? 



SHIP-BUILDERS. 
to the number of 20, vvith a work- 
yard, drawn by 13 horfes, in which 
were 7 or 8 veffels, on the 
llocks. with men at work. 

CARPENTERS, 

preceded by mr. Crafts, 

to the nuinber of 136, with tools of 

every Tort, decorated. 

'MASONS, 

preceded by major Bell, 

to the number of 70, with trowels, 

&c. as at work. 
C AnfNE'r & COACH-MAKERS, 
W HE tiL WRIGHTS, kc. 
to the number of 30, with the 
infignia of their crafts. 
PRfNTERS, 
preceded by mr. B. Edes, 
to the number of 15, with a frame, 
&CC. drawn on a fled, and com- 
pofitors at work. 
SADDLERS, 
to the number of 1 2, with tools de- 
corated, kc. 
GOLDSMITHS, 
to the number of 14, with ham- 
mers, kc. 
LEATHER-DRESSERS, 
preceded by major W. Dawes, on 
horfeback, (dreffed in Ikiub) 
to the number of 20, with Ikins, 
and working tools. 
CARD-MAKERS, 
to the number of 12, with wire, &c. 

The 

COMMITTEE ofTRADESMEN, 

in a fleigh, drawn by four horfes. 

The 

REPUBLICAN VOLUNTEERS, 

commanded by captain Gray, 

doled the procelTion. 
In this order, the whole proceeded 
by the houfes of the feveral gentle- 
■ men who reprefented this town in 
jconvention, and teftified their appro- 
bation of their condudl by three huz- 
zas from the whole line, and faUites 
from the fliip', and the voUmteercom- 
pany. AHniir four o'clock, the pro- 
•efiion arrived .it the hall, \T.hcre re- 



frefliment was liberally provided, of 
which, as many as ccukl find admit- 
tance, partook ; but though the hall 
will hold fifteen hundred men, not 
above one-third of the proceflioa 
could get in ; however, we were hap- 
py that our country friends were ac- 
commodated to their willies. 

At two o'clock, wl>en the procef- 
fion paflfed by the flate-houfe, cap- 
tain johnfon'b company of artillery 
honoured them with a falute of thir- 
teen guns. 

••■«>•• ^s>^^<s> •••< »•• 

Ati a& of n(fen:bl\' hii-vi»g pajftl in 

April, IJ^Z, diffdh/g (ill the lr,t'( 

in the ftretts of Philad-lphia, to he 

cut dctvn and removed, gn-ve occa- 

f'fi to the fllcnjuing publication. — 

The laiv tvas never executed, and 

foTfi afternjjards repealed. 

Speech of a f audit: g member. By the 

hot/. I'rancis iLpkinfon, efj. 
To the Printers of the Pennfjlvcmia- 
Qjifzctle, 
Gentlemen, 

LOOKING over a file of papers, 
which lay on my table, 1 found 
a very extraordinary fpeech deliver- 
ed by a very extraordinary perfon- 
age inthe houfe of Aflembly in April 
lail — which 1 had taken down 'i\\ 
Hiorl hand — but not irom the mouih 
of the fp. aker. 1 much wonder th..t 
this oration, with the furprinng cii- 
cumilanccs that attended it, hath not 
been noticed in any of the public 
prints. 1 hope you will think tht^ 
following account of that tranfadlion, 
not unworthy a place in your paper. 
On the J 2th of April lall, ths 
houfe took into confideratlon, and 
was debating by paragraphs, a bill 
entitled, " an ad for regulating party 
wallb and partition fences in the city 
of Philadelphia" — when, to the a- 
ninzement of all prefent, the bufincfs 
was interrupted by a voice perfettl}" 
articulate, proceeding from the capi- 
tal of one of the columns which fup- 
port the cicling of the room. Thi; 



1 66 



Thcfpccch of a Jlandhig mcmher. 



voice clm'med a rigV.t to be heard on 
the fubjeft of tlie bill then betf-re the 
hoiife. After the firft furjirife, at 
fuch nn unufiial prodigy, had a little 
fubfided, the right of a column to in- 
terfere in the butlncfs of the houfei 
was confidercd and objriflcd to \ and 
it was urged, that no inftance had 
ever occurred, wheie a njo'jodtu mem- 
ber — a block-head — had piefumed to 
fpeak in that a{remi)ly ; that this co- 
lumn could by no conrtrudiion of 
law, be admitted as the reprefentative 
of any part or diUrift of Pennr\ba- 
xua ; having never been balloted for, 
elected, or returned by any officer of 
government, as a member of usTem- 
b!y ; that the houfe, when fully met, 
neccffarily ccnfiftcd of a certain 
numl^er of members, and 710 more ; 
and that this number is full and com- 
plete bv the returns from the feveral 
counties, as appears by the records of 
the houfe. 1 herefore, if thiscolumn 
should be allowed a voice, there muft 
be a fupcrnumerary member fome- 
where — which v.oukl Ite an abfolute 
violation of the conflitution ; and 
laltly, that it was contrary to the or- 
der of nature, that an inanimate log 
ihnuld f refume to interfere in the 
affairs of m/w///?/ beings ; providence 
having been pleafed to diftinguifh fo 
obviouily between mrn and things. 

"^Vo all this the column frmly re- 
plied, that he was properly fpeak- 
ing, njlandii/g member of that houfe ; 
having been duly fixed in his ilation 
by thofe who had the power and right 
to place him there : that he was the 
true repiefentaiive of a numerous 
race, defcended in adircd line from 
the aborigines of this country — thofe 
venerable anceftors, who gave the 
.name of Venn'^-fyhania to this itate, 
and vvhofe pnfterity now inhabit eve- 
jy county in it : that he was not on- 
ly a member of the houfe, but one of 
its principal fupporters — inafmuch, 
they could n^vi^r t?:ake a h'lifc without 
him: that he had faithiuliy alteuucd 



the public bufinefs ; having never 
been fined as an abfcntce ; and that 
thofe very members, who now op- 
pofed him, had confided in his wif- 
dom and integrity, by conftantly ap. 
pealing to him in every contcll:, about 
the rules and internal economy of the 
houfe* ; and laftly, tliat as the bill 
under confideration, fb nearly con- 
cerned his fellow-creatu''es, and as he 
found himfelf miraculouily endowed 
with fpeech, for the occaiioo, he was 
determined to make ufe of his pre- 
fent power, in behilf of thofe who 
could not fpeak for themfelves. 

After much debate, it was refolved 
that the houfe would hear what this 
importunate pofl had to fay, refpetl- 
ing the bill before them ; but peremp- 
torily refufed to allow him a vote on 
this or any oUier bufinefs in that af- 
fembly. 

The columnar orator, having ob- 
tained leave, addreiTed the houfe in 
the following words : 

" I am happy, O fellow-citizens ! 
thit fpeech hath been given me on 
this important o?cafion — and that I 
have your permiiiion to exercife a 
power, thus miracuioufly obtained, 
in the caufe of truth and jufhice. 

" \Jiand here, this day, an upright 
advocate for injured innocence — - 
what fury— -what madnefs — oh, de- 
luded fenators ! hath induced you to 
projiofe the extirpation of thofe to 
whom you are indebted, for fo many 
of the elegancies, comforts, and blef- 
fmgs of life ? If the voice of juflioe 
is not to be regarded within thefe 
walls, let at leait your own interefts 
influence your conduift on this occa- 
fion ; for I hope to fliew that your 
fafety and happinefs are much more 
deeply concerned in the bufinefs you 
are upon, than you are at preient 
aware of. 

NOTE. 
* The rules of the houfe are framfd 
and hrpig up agninji sne of the cAumns, 



The speech jf n fiatiding msmhev. 



i6i 



*' By the 12th feftion of the. biil 
flow before you, it is propofed to 
cut down and remove all the trees 
ftanding in any of theltreets, l/ines, 
or allevs of this city. What ! do we 
then hold our lives on fui'h iinccrtHin 
tenure ? fhall the refpcdable and in- 
off:;nfive inhabitants of tliis city, 
Hand or fall, according to the caprice 
of a few igBorant petitioners ? and 
will tiiis houfe, without reiiiorfe — 
without even the form of trial — give 
its fanftion to an ei id, which hath 
not had a parallel, fmce the fangni- 
narydays of Herodof Jewry ? I hope 
to convince this honourablehoufe, that 
trees, ^s well as men, are capable of 
enjoyingthe rights of citizenihip, and 
therefore ought to be proteded in 
thofe rights; that having committed 
no offence, this arbitr;iry edirt can- 
not conlUtutionally pafsagainft them ; 
and that your own welfare and that 
af yot:r conftituents, is warmly con- 
:erned in their prefervation and cul- 
ture. 

" The fuperiority, which man hath 
afllim'^djOver what he cr.lls the irra- 
tional and inanimate parts of the cre- 
ation, is a fu}")eriority only founded 
in his own pride and ignorance of our 
nature and faculties. The fame di- 
vine hand that formed you, formed 
OS alfo. The fame elements that 
nonrilh you, nourifli ns. Like you, 
we are compofed of bones, blood- 
velfcls, fibres — and, for anght you 
know, mufcles and nerves; witnefs 
the whole clafs of fenfirive plants ; 
wherein voluntary motion is made 
fenfible, even to your grofs vifion. 
Like you we die and return to the 
earth from which we fprang; and 
then the wifeft amongft you, canijot 
diftinguifh between the daft of an 
Im and tliat of an emperor. Bnt I go 
much farther, and alfert, from your 
own aftthorities, that we fleep, and 
wake — that we are male and fcm.ale — 
that we are married and given in mar- 
fiafjf.and that we propngate our fpe- 



cies to fuller effeifl, and in a manner 
fomeu'hat fimilar to what you do 
yourfelves. In fupport of thefe af- 
fertioi-is, I could cite many refpefta- 
ble authorities from the ancients, — 
and, amongft -the moderns, Gre'w, 
Mil!ii;gto?i, Raj ,Ca/:tcrnrins , Mor!and, 
Gccffroj, Vaillant, and, above all^ 
yOKr favourite Linmeus, 

" Wherein, then, uorh the vaft dif- 
ference between 7nan and the vegeta- 
ble kingdom coniift ? Oh ! cries yon- 
der loquacious \oxA ot the creation, \ve 
can cotrJcrfr — we can renfen ; oh ! cries 
yonder njiltjs and fiigi't'y member, 
we can move from place to place at 
plcafure. To the latter I anfwer, fo 
can an afs, an cW, an eel, and ta 
much beiccr advantage than he can, 
with all his Lcomolt-ve faculties. — 
1 he former requires a more fcrious 
reply : 

" We can converfe — we can rea~ 
fori.'" Re it fo. Man, arbitrary 
man, hath afSxed certain ideas to cer- 
tain founds : if thcfe noifes or founds 
are adapted to his miferablc appre- 
henfion, they are called, language, 
rcafu?!, mujir, and what not. But if 
the man (hould not be wife enough 
to underfland the meaningof thenoife 
he hears, he hefitates not to pronounce 
lX,jntg'j7!, ?jOf/Jt!iJej uithitcliigible Jh'ff. 
Thus, for inftance, a fnan ftands up 
and makes a long noife, which is call- 
ed , phih/ophy ,dtuiiiity Jaiv, Sec. ; an afs 
lifts up his head, and makes a much 
greater noifc ; and it is called bn'jing. 
Yet to his own fpecies, the afs is an 
intelligent creature, and his language 
is well underftood by them. If, then, 
man can thus millake the mattei: 
with refpefl to brutes, although he 
fees that nature hath given them tlie 
organs of fpeech, and daily hears 
them exercife thofe organs for the 
purpofes intended, mav he not alfo- 
be miftakenwith refpcd to th.e lan- 
guage of plants — a language too 
refined to make any imprcii^on upon 
his siofs and callous itaffi ? Uhat 



i6S 



'thefpecch of afiandhig vie?nhc'i\ 



fuch a language doth aftualiy cxift, 
might be fufHciently proved from the 
authority of holy writ : wherein we 
arc repeatedly told, that the vallies 
rejoice and ling, and the cedars of Le- 
banon praife tiie Lord. But I fhall 
content myfelf with reading to your 
jhonours, a palVage to this purpofe, 
from that ingenious author, Cyrnno de 
'Bergerac — ^voyage to the moon, 'p. gx. 

" 1 his fancy of eating by 

" himfelf made me carious to know 
*' the reafon cf it. I was anfwcred, 
** that he chofj not to tafte either the 
*' odor of meats or iierbs, iinlefs diey 
•* had died fpontaneouily : becaufe 
** he imagined them beings capable 
•* ofgricf." " Lam not much furprif- 
*• ed," replied I, •' that fome orders of 
** people liere abftain from flefh and 
•♦ things that have fenfitive life : yet 
•• it feems to me ridiculous to fear 
•' hurting a cabbage in the cutting." 
*« For my part," replied the demon, 
*» I muft own there appears to me 
•• good rcafons for fuch an opinion ; 
** for is not a cabbage a being exiit- 
•' ing in nature, as you are ? have 



" lenting man who deftroys it."— 
And again, page 9 j — " Who has giv- 
'' en us the knowledge of certain be- 
" ings fuperior to us, to v.'hom we 
" are neither related nor proportion- 
" ed J and whofe exigence we find 
" it as difficult to conceive, as the 
" manner in which a cabbage can 
" addrels itfelf to its own fpecies* 
"Tounderltand which c-.mmunica- 
'• tion, out fcnfes are too weak. 
" Remember, if you can, amongit 
" all the fpecies of .inimals. one more 
" proud than the cabbage — who, 
" while you deftroy him, is above 
♦* complaining — yet, though he dif- 
*' dains to murmur, he thinks, never- 
•' thelefs, the more. If he wants 
*' fuch organs as you are mafter of, 
" formed for wailings and tears, 
" yet hehas oiliers wherewith toim 
" plore heaven to revenge the injury.il( 
" done him, and expefts it will no 
'' be withheld. It is not unlikelyk^ 
" but you may afk, how I know the 
*' cabbage has thefe fine thoughts ? 
" hut, inform me iirft, can you prove 
" it has not i* or tliat, at the clofe o< 



" you not both her equally for your " the night, the RufTia cabbage does 



" mother ? and fhe is more imme- 
*' diately fo to the vegetal than the 
" rational production. The gene- 
*« ration of the latter fhe hath left to 
" the whim of a parent; a rigour 
•* (he doth not extend to the former; 
" inafmuch, as ^zobliges one to pro- 
•« duce another. And whilft one 
•« man is fcarccly able to get more 
'« than a fcorc of his fpecies at bell, 
" a head of cabbage fhall produce 
«♦ four or five hundred of its own 
•' fort. Should we fay, that nature 



not fay to the favoy — goodfavoy, 
♦* your molt humble fervant." 

Butftiil, fays man, we have ration- 
ality and rifibility, to diftinguifli uj 
from the rel!: of the creation : that is, 
when nature gave one man the pow 
er to reafon, flie gave another the pow 
er to laugh at him. For cur parts, 
we are<:ontented to be direfted by 
the laws of nature — which fully en 
able us to anfwer the end of oor cre- 
ation. We pretend not to be wifef 
than the hand that made us, and 



** hath a greater elteem for a man therefore we are guilty of no follies 
" than fhe has for a cabbage, it or excefles. We employ none of 00*1 



•« would be only with a view to make 
*' us laugh : for nature is incapable 
" ofpafiion, andean never love nor 
•« hate. If fhe was fufceptible of 
*' love, fhe certainly would have a 
•• greater tcndernefs for the inof- 
*' fenfive cabbage, than for the unre- 



powers in devifing means for the 
more fpeedy and effciftua! deftruCiioi) 
of our fpecies. We do all the good 
we can, and, when we can do no 
more, we retire from our prefeijf 
form of exiitence, to make room i^ 
our fucceflbrs. 






Thefpetch ofajlanding member. 



1&9 



This rationality, on which you fo 
Tiuch value yourfelves, is, in my opi- 
nion, a ftriking mark of imbecility 
jnd difgrace — a punifhment inflic- 
;ed on your race, doiibtlefs, for fome 
heinous offence, heretofore commif- 
fd. The intelligent beings of the 
"piritual world never reafon ; they 
ee truth intuitively; they know the 
vhole chain of caufes and effefts; 
hey fee that in a triangle, ihe great- 
;lt angle muft be fubtended by the 
ongeft fide, without any reafoning 
ipon the problem. And in terref- 
rial nnture, there is no creature but 
nan that is obliged to reafon. They 
ill perform their refpeftive funftions 
A'ith precifion and certainty, under 
he influence of a law that cannot err; 
vhilft your reafon is ever involving 
'ou in abfurdities and difhculties ; is 
;ver deducing falfe conchifions from 
alfe premifes, and the wiferyou think 
►'ourfelves, the more mifchief you 
generally do. What is reafon one 
day, is not reafon another. About 
thirty years ago, you reafoned upon 
the difeafe called the fmall-pox, and 
'houfands in every city and country, 
fell facrifices to your rational fyftem : 
but you have now difcovered that 
j'our fyftem is no longer rational, and 
have adopted a quite different mode 
of practice. Accident difcovered 
your error, and faCl and nature con- 
lradi(f^ed the learned reafonings of 
many a lengthy treatife on the fub- 
jeft ; and^ this has been the cafe in 
every art and fcience : the folid rea- 
fonings and fuppofed difcoveries of 
one age, have been deemed fallacious 
and dcfpifed by another. 

Befides this, your reafon teaches 
you, to fquare all nature by your 
ideas of truth, and you know not 
what truth is : for inllance, you cat, 
and drink, and walk, and. you fi;y, I 
have life; but yonder willow can do 
none of thefe — therefore it is inani- 
mate. Deluded man ! can your. weak 
intelledbdifcover all the nice grada- 
VoJ. III. No. II. 



tionsoflife — from the flone to the 
mofs that grows upon it — from the 
mofs to the fenfitive plant — from the 
fenfitive plant to the polypus — from 
the polypus to the oyfter — from the 
oyfter to the ape — from the ape to 
the man — from the man to the an- 
gel ! — from the angt-l to an infinite 
feries of beings, whom you know- 
nothing of ? do you not fee that aU 
the exhibitions in nature, are fo rn^ny 
different modifications and manifef- 
tations of one original effence or 
principle ? is not the gravity which 
retains Jupiter in his orbit, the fame 
gravity which operates on a grain 
in the fcales of a Jew ? The intel- 
ligent beings above you, amufe them- 
felves with the ridiculous blunders 
your rationality is continually mak- 
ing. They defpife the wretch who 
ftretches every faculty of his mind, to 
amafsahoard of wealth, which he has 
not the fpirit to enjoy, they pity the 
inevitablefate of the voluptuous, and 
the vain toils of ambition — but thev 
laugh inceffantly at the folly of him 
who ranfacks the earth to gather 
flicks and ftones, fhelis and bones, 
and after fpending years in arrang- 
ing them to his mind, makes a raree- 
fhow of his collection, and ftruts a 
philofopher, full of felf-importance 
and vain conceit. 

If follies, abfurdities, and miflakes 
were the only efte»fts of your reafon, 
they might be patiently borne with ; 
bat when you exercife it to over- 
reach, ruin and deflroy each other — 
when you exert its powers to conceal 
or embarrafs truth — toeftablifli falf- 
hood — to lead the blind out of his 
way, and the lame into a ditch — to 
render yourfelves more ingenioufiy 
wicked, and more effectually mif- 
chievous — thofe divine intelligences 
look down with horror and difguft 
on you and your boafted reafon— 
they turn alide from the hateful ob- 
y&., and view withplcafure, thefiate- 
ly cak and widc-fprstading b<;ath— 



Thi fpcich ofafiandi/tg member. 



the water-loving willow, and the 
fruitful vine — even all the vegetable 
creation, which, from the pine that 
wave^ on the mountain's top, to the 
herb that drinks the dew of the val- 
lev, till vvithexad propriety their re- 
f[)eft'i\'e rtntions ; and are invariably 
governed by the laws of nature, 
which are the laws of truth and 
wifdoni. 

After all.your reafon is but inilindl 
broke loofe — or rather, inltind is 
rearon confined within proper limits, 
and di reded to the proper objects. 
Do not, then, prefume upon a fa- 
culty, which, on the whole, will be 
foun(.{ to have been the curfe of your 
fpecies. To prove this you need 
Only look into hiftory, for the fadts 
and charaifters of former times— or 
to look .round you, for thofe of the 
prefent. 

1 might now, may it pleafe your 
honours, point out many circum- 
ftances, wherein nature hath moftevi- 
dentlvand advantageouily diltinguifh- 
ed the vegetal part of her works 
from man, by giving them a real 
andfubftantialfuperiority. But, left I 
(hould wander too far in fo large a 
field, and encroach on your patience, 
I fiiall confine myfelf to one inflance 
only. When a man dies — when he 
can no longer perform the funitions 
of lifi---his body in a kw hours be- 
comes a ufeiefs, loathfome mafs of 
corruption, which his neareft friends 
hurry away, and put out of fight 
for ever. It is not fo with us— -wit- 
nefs my appearance here this day. 
It is now feveral years lincc an end 
was put to my vegetal life, by 
the fatal axe. My fkin was dripped 
off, and my limbs lopped away ; yet 
you fee my body is ilill of ufe ; I 
iland here, firm, found, and hearty ; 
and. barring an accident from all- 
confuining (ire, I fliall attend the 
future debates of this houfc, when 
all thofe, whom I have now the 
honour to a IJrefs, fhili be no more. 



Having, 1 hope, fully convinced 
your honburs, that trees as well as 
men are capable of citizenfhip, I 
(hall now proceed to confider the 
crimes and offences with which the 
trees in this city have been charg- 
ed, and which the 12th fe*5tion of the 
bill before the houfe is intended to 
punifh. 

The preamble of this fedlion fets 
forth, " whereas trees growing in 
the public ftreeets, lanes and alleys of 
the faid city of Philadelphia, do ob- 
firu<ft the profpeft and paffages thro' 
the fame, and alfo diiturb and difor- 
der the water courfes and foot-ways, 
by the extending and increafe of the 
roots thereof, and muft tend tofprcad 
fires when any break out in the faid 
city: be it therefore enafted. Sec." 

Your honours have an old faying 
called a proverb, which naturally 
occurs on tliis iccafion— " it iseafy 
to find a flick to beat a dog"— -that 
is, a man is never at a lofs for a rea- 
fon for puniihing thofe who are in 
his power, and whom he wifhes to op- 
prefs. But thefe trees, it feems, ob- 
itruft the view :--of what ? of msny 
wretched buildings, and fome dirty 
alleys. For I deny that any one ele- 
gant flreet or building is more ob- 
Itruded by trees than is neceiTary 
for the comfort of the inhabitants, 
and to give beauty to the profped. 
Men of talte have always thought 
that a due mixtureof trees and build- 
ings— .the beauties of art and na- 
ture united-elegant architedture dif- 
covered through luxuriant foliage, 
compofe an exhibition truly delight- 
ful and fublime. But it feems your 
honours think otherwife: this claufe, 
therefore, Ihould run thus:" where- 
as a moderate proportion of trees is 
a great ornament to a city : and 
whereas we have no talte whatever! 
for elegance and ornament : Be It I 
therefore enafed," &c. 

As to thofe trees obf^ruding thei 
pafTage, this I mull abfolutely deny. 



Thefpeech ofajlandirg mefnher. 



1 hey have modeftly pofted them- 
felves as clofe to the gutters and 
v/ater-courfes as they can, leaving 
both foot- way and cart- way freS and 
open. If, however, any ftraggler 
Ihotild be found To ohliruding the 
paflage, let him siie tlie death — I 
have nothing to fay in his behalf. 
But it is alledoed, that they, the 
aforcfaid trees, dillurb and diforder 
the watcr-courfes and foot- ways by 
the extenHoa of iheir roots. Jf fo, 
cut off the offeiiding roots : but do 
not deiifoy the wliole tree. When 
jii;lice exceeds her limits, ihe forfeits 
her name. This evil is of modern 
difcovery : and, if inftances fhould 
be demandtd to fupport the charge, 
they mull be care fully looked for : I 
aver that the fadt is not generally 
true. Laftly: trees communicate fire. 
Now, a tree hath no greater enemy 
in nature than fire — cut him into 
inch pieces — grind him into faw- 
duft— he will Itillexili: as wood, for 
many, many years. Fire, alone, can 
fuddenly feparate its component 
parts, and deitrov its name. VVhilll 
it hath life, it obliinately refills this 
all-confuining foe — no art can make 
a green tree burn — no. nor a green 
log — as many a curling cock can 
tell. 

Befides the charges laid in the bill, 
two others have been fuggefted 
againft llrefe poor trees, viz. that 
thev obftrucl the operation of the 
engines, in cafe of fire ; and that 
they are not well afFcfted to the pre- 
fent government, becaufe they re- 
mained in the citv, when the enemy 
took pofleffion of it. As to the firft, 
little need be faid. When the cafe 
occurs, let the obftacle be removed : 
an axe is always to be had; and the 
operation may eafily and fpeedilybe 
performed. But to depopulate a 
whole city for the pofuble offence of 
a few individuals, is certainly nei- 
ther law nor reafon. As to the fe- 
.cond, it will not, I apprehend, be 



contended, at this day, that the 
leaving the city, or noj, on the ap- 
proach of the enemy, makes the trye 
line of diilincbon between whig and 
tory. It muil be confeuTed, that 
we remained when others fled. — 
Weftood onr ground, and we fnf- 
fered in our country's caufe. Turn, 
worthy fenators, turn your eyes to 
yonder fields — look towards the 
banks of Schuylkill — v.hcre aie 
now thofe verdant groves, that uiei 
to grace ilie profpctf^ and enrich the 
fcene ? \\ here are now thofe venera- 
ble oaks, that o'er the evening 
w;i!k of fober citizen, of mufing 
bard, of fporiive yc'iiths, and amo- 
rous nytnplis and fwains, were wont 
tofpread tlieir all-rufr^fhing fhade ? 
Alas! ncuglit new remains, but lifc- 
Icfs flumps, that moulder in thefum-. 
mer's hert, and winter's froR — the 
hiibitaiicns fir of poifonous fungi, 
toads, and ever-gnawing worms — 
H'ntc iHa. luchryn'a •' Th.efe are thy 
feats, O Howe ! — Excufe, great firs, 
this weaknefs of a paft — or rather, 
join your fympathifing tears with 
mine. The lofs is yours — a lofs, the 
importance of which you have not, 
parhaps, duly confidcrcd, and which 
I (hall now endeavour to prcfcnt to 
your view. 

Having endeavoured to {hew the 
rank my fellow trees hold in the 
fcale of beings, tlieir capacities of 
pleafure and pain — having alfo ob- 
viated the charges brought againl^ 
them — and touched upon their fuf- 
ferings in the great political revolu- 
tion of this countrv — I come now to 
the laft argument I intended for 
their defence : I mean the great nfe 
and importance they are of to man- 
kind : and here I fiiall be very con- 
cife, avoiding to mention thofe nu- 
merous circumftnnces, in which trees 
obvioufly eontrihute to the pleafure, 
convenience, and profit of men — 
cor.fining n^.yfcif unlv to one lerious 
confideiaiioM ; i mean, how far the 



The/peech of ajianding member. 



172 

healths and lives of the citizens of 
Philddtlphia are concerned in the 
bufinefs you have now in hand. A 
few liours will be fufficient to exe- 
cute this fatal law : but it will take 
years to repair the damage, when 
you flTall have difcovered your error. 
ConTKlcr, therefore, O rafh and ca- 
pricious mortals! what you are about 
to do, whilA confideration may be 
of any ufe. Caution is never too 
late: repentance may be. Know 
that thofe trees, whom you are about 
to extirpate, are your heft — your 
fafei!: phvficinns. The health of your 
citizf-ns dopr^ncis upon their growth : 
and you are now to decide not only 
upon the exiftence of a few trees, but 
on the lives of hundreds of your 
fellow creatures : 1 fay, thefe trees 
are your beft — your fafell phyfi- 
cians. They havepuh!irned no books : 
therefore they have no fytlems to fiip- 
port. Their practice is ever uniform, 
difiated by nature, and eftablifhed 
by fuccefs : and therefore they make 
no vvhimfical experiments on their 
patients — experiments uncertain in 
every thing butmifery and death : in 
a word, they have no occafion to 
kill one hundred, in order to learn 
how tr> cure one. 

In the autumn, they modeftly drop 
their foliage, to admit the comfort- 
able rays of the fun to your dwel- 
lings — their leaves being then of no 
farther ufe to you. But no fooner 
does the fpving advance, than they 
arm thenifelves in your defence ; 
they fee the enemy approach — innu- 
merable little deaths, in various fub- 
tile forms. Thefe are, by the fer- 
menting heats of fummer, generated 
in every pool, gutter, and common 
fewer, and in all the murkv filth ot 
your citv. No fooner have ihe poi- 
fon-^us atoms acquired fufficient ma- 
lignity, but they leave their native 
cells, and float in air. One of ttiefe, 
inhaled, iiif.-(fls the blood — and foon 
a hufband, fon, or father falls. To 



prevent this, the friendly tree fprea^s 

its broad and numerous foliage 

Every leaf is extended to intercept 
and abforb the floating mifchief ; 
and thus receiving and digefting the 
noxious particles, they purify the 
ambient air. This important philo- 
fophy was firfl: difcovered by dr. 
Prieltly, improved by Ingenhaufen, 
and will be profecuted by Fontana, 
to the great enlargement of ufeful 
knowledge. The enemy had ftudied 
Priellly, when they cut the trees 
from yonder plain — hoping thereby 
to leave the atmofphere poifoned for 
your deftruftion. Is it not obvious, 
that difeafes moft prevail when ve- 
getation ceafes ? About the middle 
of Auguil, molt leaves have acquired 
their urmofl: growth : they are fatu- 
rated with noxious effluvia : they 
can no longer perform their friendly 
office : and therefore, from that time 
to the firfl- frofl: of the feafon, which 
eifedually concludes the generation 
of thofe pernicious airs, ficknefs 
and deaths are moil frequent. This 
ufe of the vegetable tril'e feems to 
be a modern difcovcr^ — unlefs we 
may fuppofe it to have been known 
to the Indians of America, becaafe a 
leaf pafl:ed on the breaft, i?, amongft 
them, the infignium of a phyfician. 
And will yon then, oh guardians 
of the people ! will \ ou by a fatal 
decree, baniOi from amongft you, 
thofe falutary citizens, to whom you 
are fo much indebted for the bleflTmgs 
of health, without which e\ery other 
bleffing lofes its value ? And 
what advantage do you propofe to 
yourfeb'es by fuch a meafure ? your 
flrectsand alleys, indeed, will not be 
obltruclcd by trees—but they may be 
obflrufted by lengthened funerals and I 
mournful proceilionj. I fhall not I 
prolong the fubjefl. If your ho- 
nours will but balance the imaginary 
good with the real danger that muft: 
attend Tich a meafure, I am confi- 
dent that your zeal fur the pubU<j 



Laivs of the Philadelphia fodety for promoting agriculture. 



fafety, w*ill induce you to re.iiove — 
nor the tress from the ftrects of the 
:itv — but the 1 2th faction from the 
bill before you. 

I ha>/e bjt one thing more to add, 
and that is, that by the fifccenth fec- 
tion of yoarconditulion, you are en- 
ioined not to pafs any law, except on 
Tocafions of fudden neceffitv, until 
the next fefiion after the fame bath 
jeen propofed and publiflied for con- 
1 deration. No fuch necefTity appears 
in the prefent cafe : the roots and 
Kanches of thefe devoted trees will 
iDt increafe to fuch a ruinous and 
'normous fize between this and the 
lext fefiion of affembly, as to render 
immediate amputation neceflary. 

I would be far from fuppciing this 
honourable houfe, capable of malice 
Dr partiality — but mull nbferve, that 
this bill hath been hurried through 
the forms of legiflation with unufual 
fpeed. You have fpont much pre- 
cious time in conlidering whether A. 
or B. fhouki fit for a certain time in 
a certain chair: but do not helitate 
to doom to death, a number of qui- 
:t, harmlefs, and beneilcent citizens, 
\v!thoiit rcmorfe — without enquiry — 
without the common forms of juf- 
tice. — 

Here the orator ccafed, and was 
dumb. The houfe was more fur- 
prifed at the m.vnner, than attentive 
to the matter of this curious fpeech. 
The queflion was put» and the claufe 
paffed without a diffenting voice— 
notwithftanding the importunate elo- 
quence of this philofophic ooft. 

SILVESTER. 

Auguft, 1782. 

La<ws rf ths Philadelphia fociety fo '• f ro- 
moting agriivlture ; as re'vijed and 
tuailed by the fnid fociety on the 
tenth day nf January, 178^'. 

I. T^HE fociety fliall be ftilc' the 
X Phihidelphia fociety for pro- 
laoting agriculture. 



»73 

II. The fociety's attention fhall 
be confined to agriculture and rural 
aftairs : efpeciaby for proraotino- a 
greater increafe of the produci'^of 
la;id within the American ftates. 

III. The fociety fhall have a pre- 
fiucnt, a vice-preiidsnt, a treafurer, 
and a fecretary ; and an alfiftant fe- 
cretar}-, when the increafe of bufi- 
nefs fhall require it ; all of whom 
rn:ill be annually eleited, by the 
ti'.-.kets of a majority of the members 
prefent at the itatsd me-ting of the 
fociety in January; the perfons fo 
elertcd to continue in office one 
year, and until others fhall be cho- 
fen in their Ittrad. And in cafi of 
any vacancy, by death, refignation, 
or otherwife, the (lime may be (up- 
plied by a new eleftion, to be made 
at any Itated meeting of tlic fociety; 
the perfoathusnevy-Iy eledcd tofervc 
the remainder of the year. 

IV.^ At all meetings of the foci- 
ety, the prelident ihall exercife t'cm 
ufual duties of that office : all mo- 
tions Ihail be addreiled to hiin : and 
en all queftions he fhall colled and 
declare the votes. He fhall alfohave 
power to call fpecial meetings of the 
fociety, by notice publifhed in at 
leaft two of the city newfpapers. In 
his abfence, the fame duties fhall be 
performed by the vice-prelidemr. 
And if it happen, at '^.tiv meeting of 
the fociety, that both the prefidcnt 
and vice-prefidcnt be abfent, the 
members prefent {being a quorum to 
conftitute a regular meeting for the 
bufinefs to be tran faded) may choofe 
a vice prefidcnt for that meeting. 

V. The treafurer fhall keep th^ 
account^ methodically Itated in the 
books of the fociety, and, when call- 
ed upon, produce them for infpedion- 
At the lalt meeting of every year, 
and alfo whenever his ofiice cn6.f^, 
he !ha!l produce a fair and regularly 
ftated account of ail receipts, pay- 
ments, and expenditures, and dtliver 
it, together with thofe books, a id 



fj^. Laivs of the Philadelphia fociety for promoting agriculture. 



all other property of the fociety in 
ftis hands, to his lucceiTor in office, 
or to the orders of the fociety. 

VI. The fecretary and his affiffant 
fhail have in charge all the books 
and papers of the fociety, and keep 
the fame in exatft order. They Ihall 
alfo regifter all letters which fl^iall be 
written by the committee of corre- 
fyondence, or by themfelves by order 
of the committee. 

VI {. At the annual meeting of 
the loclety in January, fliall be cho- 
fen a committee of correfpondence, 
to confift: of five members, any three 
of whom to be a quorinn, for the 
piirpofe of corrcfponding with any 
other fociety, or perfons, touching 
the objects which this fociety has in 
view. The fame members fiiallalfo 
be a committee of accounts, to re- 
ceive and adjult all claims againtt the 
fociety, for its contingent expenfes, 
and give orders on the treafurer for 
payment. 

VIII. The ftated meetings of the 
fociety (hall be on the fiirft: Tuefday 
of every month. 

IX. The members of the fociety 
fhall be diilinguifhed into refiding 
members, or members, and honorary 
members. The twenty three per- 
fons named when the fociety was firll 
propofed to be inftituted, and whofe 
nam^s are entered in the minutes of 
the eleventh of February, 1785, are 
members, according to the eighth ar- 
ticle of the firft laws of the fociety, 
enadedonthe 15th of March, 1785. 
All members afterwards added to 
the fociety, were, and fhall conti- 
nue to be, of perfons refiding with- 
in a convenient diftance to attend the 
irt^etings of the fociety at Philadel- 
phia : and thefe are defigncd to be 
fijch only as, at the time of election, 
refide within ten miles of the faid 
eitv, on either fide of the Delaware. 
All merttbers of agricultural focieties 
in other ftates and countries, with 
whom wc fhall correfpond, and all 



perfons of this flate and of othci 
ilates and countries who fhall be 
elefied b}' us for the purpofe, fliall 
be honorary members ; and are here- 
by invited to affill at our meetings 
whenever they come to Philadelphia, 
Strangers who have a propenfity to 
agriculture, and defire to be prefent 
as auditors, may be introduced by a 
reiident member. 

X. New members and honorarjj 
members fhall be eleded by the uft^ 
of balls of two diltercnt colours ; th^ 
one to be affirmative, the other ne- 
galive to the queftion. And the fe- 
cretary fliall iffue notice to each per- 
fon of his being clc(fted, to the fol- 
lowing purport — On the 

day of 17 • A. E. ol 

was elefted [a membe: 
or honorary member] of the Phila- 
delphia fociety for promoting agri- 
culture ; the fociety inviting his af- 
fiftance. 

C, D. fecretary. 

XI. All eledions and appointment; 
fhall be between eight and nine 
o'clock in the evenmg» at one ol 
t!;e ftated meetings of the fociety. 
And no perfon fhall be clefted 
member orhonorary member, uniefs 
at the next preceding meeting he 
fhall have been openly propofed, and 
fuch nomination duly entered on the 
minutes of the fociety. The nomi- 
nation and eleiflion to be in the ab- 
fence of the candidate. 

XII. The fociety fliall annually 
propofe prizes, upon interefting fub- 
jedts, relative to a(!ri:ual experiments 
and improvements, and for the beft 
pieces written on propofed fubjecfls. 
Ai-id in order moft effeflually to dif- 
feminate the knowledge of ufeful dif- 
coveries and improvements in huf- 
bandry, the fociety will, from time 
to time, publifli colledions of me< 
moirs and obfervations, feleded 
from fuch communications as fhall 
be made to them. To promote 
thclc views, the fiicnds of agricul 



Officers of the Philadelphia fociely for promoting apiculture* 



Mre are invited to aiTift the fociety 
vith information of experiments and 
ncidents in hufbandry, 

Xlfl, All claims of prizes fhall 
je fent in writing; and when read, 
:hti {cx-iety lliall determine which of 
;he claims, relative to each prize, 
liail be feleded for their definite 
iudgment, on a future comparifon. 
This judgment is to be given at the 
(hted meeting on the firit Tuefday in 
February, if it happen, in any cafe, 
;hat there be no competition for a 
prize, but only a fingle claim, the 
"()ciety will confidcr luch claim ; and 
if the claims or claim, be fupported 
infwerably to the views and juft ex- 
peftations of the fociety, the prize 
propofed fiiali be decreed. Premi- 
ums and prizes are equally due to 
perfons refidingin any of the united 
ilares, according to the merit of their 
refpcfiive exhibitions. 

XIV. For the purpofe of defray- 
ing the neceflary expences of the 
fociety, for premiums and prizes, 
books on agriculture, improved in- 
ftruHBents of hufbandry, and other 
important objeds, and contingencies, 
every member fhall annually pay to 
the treafurer a contribution of four 
dollars. This contribution fhall be 
confidered as due and payable at or 
bef jre the lail day of December in 
•every year. And at the firft meet- 
ing in January, the treafurer fhall 
lay before the fociety a lill of the 
members, fpecifying who have and 
who have not paid their contribu- 
tions : and any meail-cr whofe con- 
tribution fhall be found to be more 
than one year in arrear, after the 
fame fhall have become due and pay- 
able as aforefaid, provided payment 
thereof has been perfonally demand- 
ed of him by the treafurer, or col- 
leOor, authorifed by him for the pur- 
pofe, fuch member fhall be confi- 
tlered as withdrawing from the foci- 
ety, and be no longer deemed a 



175: 

member of it ; and the fame fhall be 
entered in the minutes. 

XV. New rules, or alterations to 
be made in old rules, fhall be pro- 
pofed, and the propofal entered in 
the minutes, at the next preceding 
regular meeting ; and may then be 
made by no lefs than two- thirds of 
the members prefent, who Ihail not 
be fewer than thirteen, including the 
prefident or vice-prefident. 

XVI. A quorum for ordinary bu- 
nefs fhall coiifiit of at lealt five mem- 
bers, including the prefident or vice- 
prefident. 

XVII. When any part of the fo- 
ciety 's funds is to be difpofed of 
(excepting for ordinary contingent 
expences) the fame fliall be done at a 
ftated ovfpecial meeting, after a no- 
tification of fuch intended appropri- 
ation has been publiihcd in two of 
the city newfpapers, at lealt one 
week before fuch meeting fhall be 
heldj when thirteen members, inclu- 
ding the prefident or vice-prefident, 
fhall be neceffary toconflitute a qao- 
rum. 

XVIII. Still farther to advance 
the objeds of this inftitution, the 
fociety will promote the efcablifh- 
mcnt of other fimilar focieties in 
tliefe flates. 

XIX. On the firft meeting of the 
fociety in January, in every year, 
there fhail be a revifion of the then 
fubfifting rules ; and the fame fliall 
Hand confirmed, fo far as two-thirds 
of the members prefent, being at 
leafl thirteen, including the prefident 
or vice-prefident, do not revoke or 
alter them. 

The flhrvoing are the offircrs of the 
focietj for the prefe?ii year : 

PRESIDENT, 

Samuel Powell, efqiure. 

VICE-PRESIDENT, 

John Bcale Bordjey, efquire. 



lyS Premiums propofcd hy the Vh'tladtlphia fockty for promoting agriculture. 



TREASURER. 

Tench Francis, efquire, 

SECRETARY, 

Doaor Samuel P. Griffins. 

C O M M 1 I T E E OF CORRESPON- 
DENCE, 

Samuel Pouell, efquire ; 
George Clymer, efqiiire ; 
Tench Francis, efquire ; 
Robert Flare, efquire ; 
John F. MifEin, efquire. 

Prennnws propofed hy the Philadelphia 
fodcfy for promotvig agriculture. 

J. ITOR the beft experiment made 
X. of a courfe of crops, cither 
large or fniall, on r.or lefs than four 
acres. agieeablc to the principles of the 
fen^fifu mode of farming— a piece 
of plate of the value of two hundred 
dollars, iufciibed with the name and 
the occafion : and, for the experi- 
ment made of 2 courfe of crops nsxt 
in merit — a piece of plate, liicewife 
infcribed, of the value of one hun- 
dred dollars. Certificates to be pro- 
duced by the 20th of December, 
1790. 
' 2. The importance of complete 
farm or fold-yards, forfheltering and 
folding cattle — and of a preferable 
method of conducting the fame, for 
procuring great quantities ot com- 
poft or mixed dung and m.^nure, 
within the huibandman's own farm, 
Induces the fociety to give, for the 
beft defign of fuch a yard and method 
of conducting it, fuitable to tliis cli- 
mate and circumilances of common 
farmers — a gold medal : — and, for 
rhe itt'ond lidi. a filver medal. The 
>^iKi\^'\ to be p.rsiented to the fociety 
by the 20th of Decembernex:. 

5. Foi (Jicbelt method of coun- 
ferncting ihe injurious effetils of 
froll", in heaving or fpev/ing up 
ground, :ind expoiing roots of wheat 



to the drying winds of the fpring, 
founded in experience, a gold me- 
dal : and, for the fecond beft, a fil- 
ver medsl. The account to be pre- 
fented to the fociety by the 20th of 
December next. 

z*^. For the beft method of raifing 
hogs, from the pig, in pens or fties, 
froin experience, their fonietimea 
running in a lot or field not totally 
excluded, if preferred ; a gold me- 
dal : and, for the fecond beft, a fil- 
ver medal. To be produced by the 
20th of December next. 

5. For the beft method of recover- 
ing worn-out fields to a more hearty 
ftate, widiin the power of common 
farmers, without dear or far-fetched 
manures ; but, by judicious culture, 
and the application of materials com- 
mon to the generality of farmers ; 
founded in experience ; a gold me- 
dal : and, for the fecond beft, a fil- 
ver medal. To be produced by the 
20th of December, 1788. 

6. For the beft experiment, foil 
and other circumftances confidered, 
in trench-ploughing, not lefs than ten 
inches deep, and account of the ef- 
ferts thereof, already made, or to be 
made, on not lefs than one acre ; a 
gold medal : and, for the fecond 
beft, a filver medal. To be produ- 
ced by the 20th of December, 175^9. 

7. For the greateft quantity and 
variety of good manure, colleded ii 
one year, and beft managed, Iron 
materials common to moft farms ;, 
regard to be had to the proportior 
and goodnefs of fuch manure, anfi 
the quantity and goodnefs ot the 
arable and grafs-lands cf the whole 
farm on which it is obtained, a gold 
medal : and, for the fecond beft, a 
filver medal. To be claim.ed by the 
£oth of December, j ySg. 

8. For the beil information, the 
refult of adlual experience, for pre 
venting damage to crops by infeclsi 
cfpcciaUy- the HciTian fiy, tlie wheat 



I 



Premiums propofed hy the Philadelphia agricultural fociety. 



fly, or fly-weevil, the pea bug, and 
the corn chinch-biig or fly ; a gold 
medal; a filver medal for the fecoiid 
bed. To be produced by the 2o[h of 
December, 1788. 

9. For the bell comparative expe- 
penmeiits on the cuhure of wheal, by 
fowing It in the common broadcail 
way, by drilling it, and by feiting 
the gram, with a machine, eqmdil- 
tant; the quantities of feed, and pro- 
duce, proportioned to the ground, 
being noticed ; a gold medal : for 
the fecond bcft, a filvcr medal. The 
account to be produced by the 10th 
of January, 1789. 

10. For an account of a vegeta- 
ble food that may be eahly procured 
and preferved, and that bell increaf- 
es milk in cows and ewes, in March 
r\A April, founded on experiment; 
a gold medal: for the fecond bell, a 
fiiver medal. To be produced by 
the 10th of January, 1789. 

11. For the grcatell quantity of 
ground, well fenced, in locuft trees 
or poles of the fort ufed for pods 
and trunnels, growing in 1789, from 
feed fown af:er this time, not lefs 
than one acre, nor fewer than ijoo 
per acre, a gold medal : for the fe- 
cond, a filver medal. To be claimed 
in December, 1789. 

12. The fociety believing that ve- 
ry important advantages would be de- 
rived from the general ufe of oxen, 
inilead of horfes, in hulbandry and 
other fervices ; and being deiirous of 
facilitating iheir introduction into all 
j;hefe ftates ; perfuaded alfo, that the 
comparative value of oxen and covv's 
muft very much depend on the qua- 
lities of their (ires and dnms ; and 
tjiat by a careful attention to the fub- 
jeft, an improved breed may be ob- 
tained : they propofe a gold medal 
for the bell elTay, the reluli of ex- 
perience, on the breeding, feeding, 
and management of cattle, for the 
•purpofe of rendering them moll pro- 
jhtable for the dairy, and fur beef, 

Vol, III. No,' IT. 



and mod docile and ufcful for the 
draught : and, for the next bell, a fil- 
ver m -dal. To be produced by the 
firfl of January, 1789. 

M, B. Among other things, the 
effay fliould notice ihediftereiit breeds 
of cattle, and their comparative qiia- 
liiies ; as their fizes, ftrengih. fa- 
nliiy in fattening, quantuy of milk, 
&c. 

13. It is a generally received opi- 
nion, that horfes in a team travel 
much faHer than oxen : yet fome Eu- 
ropean writers on hulbaiidry mention 
many inflances, in which it appear- 
ed, not only that oxen would plough 
ts much ground as an equal number 
of horfes ; but alfo travel as fall with 
a loaded carnage ; particularly when, 
inilead of yokes and bows, they were 
geared in horfe harnefs, with fuch 
variations as were necelTary to a- 
dapt it to their different fhape. To 
afcertam the powers of oxen in 
thefe particulars, and the expenfe of 
maintaining them, the fociety deem 
matters of v,ery great moment ; and. 
are therefore induced to olFer a gold 
medal for the bell let of experiments, 
underiaken with that view ; and for 
the next bell, a filver inedal. In re- 
lating thefe experiments, it wil! be 
proper to delcribe the age and (ize 
of the oxen, their plight, the kinds 
and quant tiesof their food, the occa- 
fions, manner, atid expenfe of (hoe- 
ing them ; in travelling, the kinds 
of carriages nfed, and weight of their 
loads, the feafons of the year, and 
the length and (juality of the roads: 
and, in ploughing, the fize and fa- 
fiiion of ihe plough, the quality of 
the foil, the depth o£ the furrow^, 
and the quantities plouglied ; and, 
111 every opeiaiion, the tune expend- 
ed, and number and fort of hands 
employed in performing it ; with a- 
ny other circumOances which may 
more fully elucidate the fubjett. 
"^1 hefe experiments will enable the ef- 
fayiirt to determine what will be the 
K 



178 Pr^emiums proppjed by the Philadelphia agricultural fociety. 



bed form and conftruftion of yokes 
and bows, and what of ox-harnefs, 
to enable oxen, with the bert carriage 
of their bodies and heads, the moft 
eafe, and quickeft ftep, to draw the 
heaviell loads, a defcription of each 
of which gears, explained on me- 
chanical principles, mud be fubjoin- 
ed to the account of the experiments : 
;o be produced by the firft day of 
January, 1789. 

14. For the befl; method, within 
the power of common farmers, of 
recovering old gullied fields to a 
hearty ffaic, and fuch uniformity, or 
evennels of furface, as will again ren- 
der them fit for tillage ; or where the 
gullies are fo deep and numerous as 
to render fuch recovery impraffica- 
ble, for the befl method of improving 
them, by planting trees or otherwife, 
fo as to yield the improver a reafon- 
able profit for his expenfes therein, 
founded on experiment ; a gold rue- 
da! ; and for the next beft, a filver 
medal : to be produced by the firfl 
of January, 1790. 

\j. For the greatelf quantity, not 
lefs than five hundred pounds weight, 
of cheefe, made on one farm in any 
of thefe {fates, equal in dnnefs, rich- 
ncfs, and flavourj to the Chelhire 
cheefe ufually imported from Eng- 
land, and which fhall be produced to 
the fociety by the firR day of Janua- 
ry? 17895 3 gold medal ; and for the 
next greatefl quantity, not lefs than 
two hundred and fifty pounds weight, 
of like quality, a filver medal. Be- 
fides which, the fociety engage to pay 
for the cheefe fo produced, at the 
rate of ten per cent, more than the 
then current wholefale price at Phi- 
ladelphia, of Chelhire cheefe, of the 
fame quality. 

16. For the beff method, deduced 
from experience, of railing the Ame- 
rican white-thorn from the feed for 
hedges, and the greatefl number of 
plants raifed in a fpace not lefs than 
half an acre, a gold medal ; for the 



fecond befl, a filver medal. To be 
produced by the firfl of December, 
1790. 

17. The fociety believing that the 
culture of hemp on fome of the low 
rich lands in the neighbourhood of 
this city, may be attempted with ad- 
vantage, do hereby offer a gold me- 
dal for the greateft quantity of hemp 
raifed within ten miles of the city of 
Philadelphia. The quantity not to be 
lefs than four acres : for the fecond 
greatell quantity, a filver medal. — 
The claim to be made by the firll of 
December, 1788. 

*^* The claim of every candidate 
for a premium, is to be accompanied' 
with, and fupported by, certificates 
of refpertable perfons, of competent*, 
knowledge of the fubjecf. And it isi 
required that the matters, for whichi 
premiums are offered, be deliver-* 
ed in without names, or any intima 
tion to whom they belong ; that* 
each particular thing be marked iir 
what manner the claimant thinks fit ;, 
fuch claimant fending with it, a pa- 
per fealed Up, having on the outfide' 
a correfponding mark, and on the in- 
fide the claimant's name and addrefs. 

Refpcftmg ex.periments on the 
produtts of land, circumfiances of 
the previous and fubfequent flate of 
the ground, particular culture given, 
general Hate of the weather, &c. will 
be proper to be in the account exhi- 
bited. Indeed, in all experiments 
and reporis of faffs, it will be well 
to particularize the circumflances at- 
tending them. It is recomniended 
that reafoning be not mixed with the 
fafts : after Rating the latter, the 
former may be added, and will be ac 
ceptable. 

Although the fociety referve to 
themfelvcs the power of giving, in 
every cafe, either one or the other of 
the prizes (or premiums) as the per 
formance ihall be adjudged to de- 
fervc, or of with-holding both, 



Repart of the boardof managers^ (Be, 



179 



here be no merit — yet the candidates 
nav be affured, that the fociety will 
iUvays judge liberally of their leveral 
;la4ms. 

S. p. GRIFFITTS, 
Sec'ry. 
Philadelphia, Feb. 5, 1788. 

9ttpcrt of the managers cf the Penn- 

Jylvania fociety Jor the evcourage- 

ment of manvjaiiures and the uje- 

ful arts : addrejftd to their cunjlitu- 

ents, January iS, 1788. 

Gentlemen, 

WE entered on the performance 
of the duties you afhgned 
to us, under a flrong conviction of 
their importance to the public welfare, 
and with a proportionate zeal to dif- 
charge them with effect. The (hort 
duration of our appointment, the 
novelty of the undertaking, and the 
extenfive and complicated nature of 
the neceffary enquiries, have pre- 
vented our making a progrefs corref- 
pondent to our wiflies ; but we flat- 
ter ourfelves we have opened a path for 
our fucceffors, and that with the infor- 
mation we fhall tranfmit them, they 
will be enabled to fulfil effcttually the 
views of the fociey. 

Our firlt attention was paid to 
thofe articles, which, at the fame 
time that they are fuited to the re- 
fources of this country, and are cal- 
'led for by itsnecellities, have been hi- 
therto overlooked or negle£led : we 
have pointed out a variety of ihefe 
to public notice, and have endeavour- 
^ ed by fuch honorary premiums as are 
fuited to the funds of the fociety, to 
lead thofe perfons who may be able 
to purfue fuch objetls, to fet a laud- 
able example 10 their fellow citi- 
zens. 

We have fince made a general re- 
view of the arts and nianufartiires 
elldblilhed here. In the courfe of 



this enquiry, we have found that 
fome important articles are rifing to 
great perfeiiion, and have precluded 
the neceffity of importing them from 
foreign countries : many, we are for- 
ry to fay, are in a declining ftate, 
andfome of thefe, without aififlance 
and fupport, mull inevitably be lolt 
to this country. We have, never- 
thelefs, the flrongefl reafon to be- 
lieve, that when, by the eftablifli- 
ment of a general government, the 
clandcfline importation of foreign ar- 
ticles fliall be prevented, and that pre- 
ference given throughout the unucd 
flates 10 the manufatiures of Ameri- 
ca, which the common intereft de- 
mands, our eflabliflied manufactures 
will refume their former vigour, and 
others be found 10 flounlh which 
have hitherto been little known a- 
mong us. 

Having had reafon to believe that 
the interpofition of foreigners will be 
exerted to prevent the growth of our 
manufatiures — we thought it our duty 
to join the manufacturing committee, 
in an application to government to 
counteract luch injurious deiigns. 

On the whole we are able to af- 
fureyou, that it is probable much 
benefit will refult to the public, from 
this inftitution, if it is duly fupport- 
ed ; It will ferve to collect an ufe- 
ful fund of information, for the fer- 
vice of the public, and of individu- 
als ; to dirtmguilh thofe manufac- 
tures, which may be undertaken with 
fuccefs ; to fuggeft means for their 
improvement and extenfion ; and to 
become a centre of union to the ma- 
nufacturing interell in general. Un- 
der the impreflTion of thele opinions, 
we recommend it to public patron- 
age and fupport, ' as intimately con- 
nected with the future welfare of this 
country. 

Signed by order of the board, 

SAMUEL POWEL, v. pref. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 18, 1788. 
Aued. CEO. FO.X, Sec'ry, 



iSo A view of the principles^&c. ef the funding /yJleTtiefPennfylvania, 



A view of the principles^ operation^ 
and probable /"ffeth of the funding 
fyjlem of Pe'nnfylvania — together 
with fonie obftrvations on thccffetls 
of a finking fund — tending tojhew^ 
that this fate, by a proper applica- 
tion ofherprefentrejources, m&y re- 
deem the whoLecapital of her funded 
debt ill a few years. 

" Public credit is public wealth." 

IT will be found, on a comparifon 
oftheftate and circumftances of 
fociety and civil government, in 
former times, with their prefent fi- 
tuation and condition, that princi- 
ples and maxims have become efTen- 
tially necelfary in well-regulated 
mudern governments, which were 
but little known, or little regarded, 
till within the lait two or three hun- 
dred years. Governments, in former 
times, were fo organized, and fo 
conduced, as to be little dependent on 
revenue (yllems. Difburfements from 
the public treafury were confined to 
a few objeils, md its fupplies drawn 
from the plunder of enemies, or ir- 
regular exactions from the people, 
■which wer^ generally partial and op- 
predive. S'^nce the dilTufion of know- 
ledge, by the art of printing, the 
exterifion of commerce and naviga- 
tion have opened new lources of 
public revenues, as well as of pri- 
vate wealth. The rights of ;nan- 
kind have been better underllood. 
Islew ideas and new principles have 
pervaded the fyliems of government ; 
iind partial and oppreffive exaciions 
of property and perfonal fcrvicos 
have given vvay to lefs inconvenient 
and more equitable modes of liqui- 
dating the public burdens ; whereby 
contributions are better proportioned 
to the means of the refpective mem- 
bers of the comniunuy. Hence the 
arrangement and adminillration of 
the public finances have become lo im- 
portant a branch of the bufuiels of 



government, in all civilized coun- 
tries, as to demand the moll feriom 
attention and fyftematic manage- 
ment. 

The more free and liberal the go- 
vernment is, in other refpects, the 
more clofely ought this branch to be 
attended to, in the formation and 
obfervance of fyftem in the coUettion 
and difpofal of the public revenues; 
becaufe, in free governments, public 
credit is notonly necelTary in a high- 
er degree, but more d-pendent on a 
flritt adherence to fyllem in matters 
of finance, than in thofe that are 
more defpotic. Experience has fiiewn 
that thole nations which have the 
greateft degree of public credit, 
are the moft powerful aud the 
rnoft refpedable in proportion to 
their advantages in other refpefts. 
They can on any emergency obtain 
loans of money, on eafy terms, to 
any amount they may have occafion 
for ; and thus, by anticipation, bring 
into immediate ufe the revenues of 
fuiure years ; while nations, lefs care- 
ful to ellablifli and preferve their 
public credit, are more circumfcnbed 
in their refourccs, being obliged oa 
emergencies to raife money on terms 
of great difadvantage, or to be con- 
fined in their difburfements to little, if 
any thing, more than the concurrent 
produce of their revenues. And fuch 
fupplies are always, when moll want- 
ed, either lefs produttive or morebur- 
denlome than at other times. 

Public credit is therefore public 
wealth. It is not only the furefl, but, 
prudently managed, the leaft burden- 
iome refource a government can rely 
on. It is the refource by which Great 
Britain hath been raifed to her pre- 
fent allon I filing degree of wealth and 
power ; and by which our American 
revolution was effected, though we 
have (nice fullered it in a great degree 
to depart from us. 

It is an important enquiry, in our 
prefent fituation, how we Ihall repof- 



A view of the principles^ &c. of tht funding fyjlem of Pennfylvania. lEi 



fefs ourfelves of this ineftimable trea- 
iure. Difficiiliies may afFail us in 
the attempt ; h|)t thefe difficulties can- 
not arife from the want of proper 
means. If we fufter them to give us 
any great obilruttion, it mufl be in 
the modes of arranging and exercif- 
ing thofe means which providence 
hath bountifully beftowed upon us. 
The late fuperintendant of hnancc, 
in his addrefs to the public, prefixed 
to the (latement of (he accounts of 
his adminiftration, makes the fol- 
lowing juft and pertinent obiervati- 
pns. " No treafon either has opera- 
*' ted, or can operate, fo great in- 
*' jury to America, as mult follow 
*' from a lufs of reputation. The 
*' payment of debts may indeed be 
*' expenfive, but it is infinitely more 
*' expenfive to wiih-hold ihe payment. 
*' The former is an expenie of mo- 
" ney, when money may be com- 
*' manded to defray it ; feut the lat- 
*' ter involves the dcllruttion of that 
" fource from whence money can be 
*' derived when all other fources fa'l. 
** That fource, abundant, nay al- 
*' moll inexhauilible, is public cre- 
*' dit. Ihe country in which it may 
*' with greateft eafe be ellablUhed 
" and prcferved, is Anverica. And 
*' America is the country which 
*' flands mofi in need of it, whether 
*' we confider her moral or political 
*" fituaiion ; and whether we advert 
*' to her hufbandry, commerce or 
'*' manufadures. An hundred fchemes 
*' are aftemped for the introduction 
*' of a paper currency, which, if it 
** could be efiecled, would only pro- 
duce a little temporary relief to a 
*' few, and muR involve the moft 
*' extenfive mifchitfs to all ; while 
*' the plain remedy for the evils com- 
'' plained of, is at hand, though ne- 
*' glehed. A due piovifion for the 
' public debts would at once convert 
■ thofe debts into a real meduim of 
■*' commerce. The poffeffors of cer- 
?' tificates, would then bcconic the 



" poffe (Tors of money. And of conrfc 
" there would be no want of it a- 
" moug thole who, having property, 
" wilh to borrow : provided that the 
" laws and adminiftration are fucli 
•' as to compel the punctual payment 
*' of debts. This fubjed would lead 
" loo far for the prefent purpofe. 
" But it mud be obierved that we 
'' are jult emerging from a long and 
" expenfive war — a war more ex- 
" penfive than it ought to have been^ 
" becaufe the needy can never ceco- 
" nomize, and becaule no degree of 
" talents can compenfate the want of 
" experience." 

If revenues were^eflabliflied in 
America, adequate to the payment of 
the annual intereft of the national 
debt, and ihefe revenues fo appropri- 
ated and applied, as to make fuch 
payment reguldr and certain, public 
credit would revive and llourifh in 
full vigour. A finking fund might 
eaiily be raifed without additional 
burderis on the people, which in a 
few years would redeem the whole. 
capital. And if, in the mean lime, 
an approach of war or other emer- 
gency Ihould require frefli provifion, 
temporary revenues, equal to the an- 
nual intereli ot ihe fum required, 
would command the money whene- 
ver it (liould be wanted. This has 
been amply demonfirated by an ex- 
periment wiihm our knowledge. — 
Great Britain has afforded us an ex- 
ample, by which we may derive the 
benefits, without incurring the evils 
of a funding lyliem. Shortly after 
the revoluiion which j^iaced the 
prince of Orange on the throne, the 
circumftances of Great Britain, in 
matters of finance, were little, if any 
better, than ours are at prefent. — 
Their debts were heavy, their credit 
low, and their revenues could not 
keep pace with current demands, ex- 
cluiive of difcharging former debts. 
'1 he Jacobites or oppofers of the revo- 
lution were fo numerous as to give 



iZz A view of the principles, &c. of the funding fyjlem »f Pennfylvania, 



great obftruftion to the wheels of go- 
vernment, and were watching oppor- 
tunities to dertroy it ; while the whigs 
or revolutiontfts, being the principal 
public creditors, were too much ex- 
iiaulied to furnifli the necefiary fup- 
plies for mamtaining the ground 
they had acquired. In this fuuation, 
their funding fyftem was deviled. 
They appropriated part of their reve- 
nue for the payment of intereli, with 
ibme addition for a finking fund for 
the diicharge of the capital, and con- 
irafl:«d new loans for fuch part of 
Lheir current fupplies, as the exigen- 
cies of the times required. But they 
were particularly careful to effabliOi 
and appropriate revenues adequate to 
the payment of the intereil of every 
loan they obtained, and generally 
fuch as afforded fome furpKis to 
iJrengthen and increafe the finking 
fund. By thefe means, though they 
at firfl paid fo high an interelt as eight 
per cent, they not only extricated 
themfelves from the diihailties which 
then befet them, but gamed llrength 
to refift the fuccelfive attempts which 
were afterwards made to replace on 
the throne, the tyrant race they had 
expelled. 

It has been objefted to the funding 
fyftem of Great Britain, that it has 
been the means of involving the na- 
tion in a molJ enormous debt, which 
probably would not otherwife have 
ever rifen to the tenth part of the pre- 
fent amount. But it fliould be re- 
membered that this confequence hath 
not llowed from the lyflem itielf, but 
from an abufe of it. If its hrft prin- 
ciples had been juflly adhered to by 
a faithful application of the finking 
fund, the whole capital might have 
been honourably redeemed in a few 
years of peace. But a well-funded 
national debt was conhdered as a 
bond of union, which added ft rength 
v?ik! liability to the governaiciu.— 
They were therefore the lefs in halle 
t.« diicharge the principal, though they 



paid the interefl with punftuallty. 
Had they kept it within moderate 
bounds, It might have been equally 
ufeful in this refpett, and lefs incon- 
venient in others. But changes of 
men produced changes in the mea- 
fiires of adminiilration. Minifters, 
who had the meannefs to court po- 
pularity at the expenfe of the true 
interells of the nation, feized for cur- 
rent occafions the revenues provided 
for the finking fund, under pretence 
of faving the people from taxes. — 
They '' alfumed apparent merit from 
real negligence, by feeding on the 
providence of their predeceflors," 
and thereby unjuftly accumulated the 
burden which they fucceihvely rol- 
led upon poUerity. It is, however, 
an irrefragable argument in favour of 
the fyftem, that it has enabled the na- 
tion to contratt fo deep a debt by the 
voluntary content of her creditors, 
and with undiminifhed credit. With- 
out fuch a fyftem, the nation would 
probably have funk into decay under 
the debts flie had incurred, and the 
prelTure of other circumftances : with 
it ftie has increafed her credit and 
her means of payment, in proportion 
to the increafe of her debt. The 
intereft flie pays is chiefly to her own 
citizens, which quickens the circula- 
tion of money, promotes agriculture 
and manufa6^ures, and has extended 
her commerce and naval power to a 
degree beyond example. 

\To be concluded in our next.'^ 



B O N - M O T. 

AT a mufical country m«eting, 
a vocal performer (who was 
rather fliabbily drefted about his uu' 
der garments,) being complimented 
on the power of his voice — vainly 
threw up his head, and replied,— 
'' O Lord, fir, I can make any thing 
cf it." Can you indeed ? faid a wit 
in the company — why then I'd ad- 
VI ie you ia make yeurfel/ a pair of 
brecclies oj itt 



DtreBions on the reading of htjlory. 



tSj 



To the editor of the American Mufeum, 

The following is a copy of a letter^ 
written lately by a gentleman of my 
acquaintance to a friend of his^ who 
had requefledfome direBions on the 
reading of hifiory. If you think it 
worthy of a place in your vfeful 
mifcellany, be p leafed to infer t it^ 
which will oblige 

Your humble ferv ant, 

Kent county, Maryland^ S, E. 

i^th Feb. 1788. 

'j-Q j#**»* R*****#^ efqulre. 

THAT the human mind is hke 
a garden, which, unlefs it be 
cuhivated and made to yield flowers, 
will foon be over-run with weeds, is 
no new thought. Innumerable proofs 
might be adduced, to evince, that all 
created nature, fpiritual as well as 
corporeal, is fupported by a prmciple 
of atHvity. We look not for health 
in one who is confined to a dungeon, 
nor for virtuous exertion in the re- 
laxed mind of an eaflern defpot. If, 
from the book of nature, we turn our 
eye to the book of revelation, we be- 
hold him, who was the perfect model 
of the human character, continually 
going about doing good. And if 
the idea be juft, as both reafon and 
infpiration teach, that we are but 
llewards, and not abfolute lord«, of 
whatever worldly goods or mental ta- 
lents we may poflTefs, it is afTiiredly 
our duty to improve them to the ut- 
mofl of our power ; that by employ- 
ing them for the promotion of virtue 
and happinefs among men, we may 
anfwer the views of him who entrult- 
ed them to us. 

To prepare the human mind for 
virtuous adion, to clear it from the 
rBbbifli of natural corruption, and to 
remove thofe impediments which, in 
its rude ftate, obllruct its beauty and 
ufefulnefs, labour and diligent cul- 
ture are necelfiry. By culture, how- 



ever, the underftanding and heart, 
though they nuift ftill be human, and 
confequently imperfeft, may be great- 
ly advanced above that degree in th-: 
fcale of excellence, in which nature 
has placed them. How much clear- 
nefs and ftrength may our intelleclual 
powers acquire, by a courfe of mathe- 
matical inveftigation ! What eleva- 
tion may the ramd of man derive, 
from the perufal of the book of na- 
ture and the iplendid records of the 
government of providence ! What 
juftnefs of thinking may we acquire 
from the ftudy of logic and aphilo- 
fophical enquiry into the powers of 
the human mind ! and what vigour 
may be added to every good princi- 
ple, by contemplating, in a courfe of 
ethics, thofe engaging pictures of vir- 
tue, which experience fometimes, and 
imagination always, can furnifh ! 

But I had almoft forgotten that 
the intention of this paper was to 
give fouie hints upon the reading of 
hillory. This is a fpecies of ftudy 
which will juftly claim the atientiou 
of thofe, who, having no profeinoii 
in view, wifli to blend plealure with 
improvement. 

If it be true, that experience is the 
mother of wifdom, hiilory muft be 
an improving teacher. In her fchool, 
we may learn that wifdom, wh'ch 
others have purchafed in life at a dear 
rate. Under her direttion, we mav 
reap fruits, without partaking in the 
labour. Hiftory has been called a 
mirror ; the reafon cif which, I con- 
ceive, is, that building on the immu- 
tability of the laws of nature, and rea- 
foning from analogy, we are enabled, 
from the part, to conjecture concern- 
ing the future — as, from appearance? 
in a looking-glafs, wc infer the re- 
ality. 

True hiftory, therefore, mull ever 
be improving : romances would be 
equally fo, were they faitlifuUv co- 
pied from nature ; but as thut can 
fa.id of very few of them, they art- iui 



184 



Dirc&ions en reading hijiory. 



be regarded in refpefl of true narra- 
tive, as the v/andenngs of the ignis 
J'atuus compared to the ileady courfe 
of the heavenly luaiinanes. 

Hiltory may be divided into three 
kind';, natural, facred, and civil. 

Of the firll, the province is exter- 
nal nature, animate, vegetable, and 
unorganized. Linnoeus, liuffon, and 
Goldfmith, are the moll faithful de- 
lineators. The {hort path from the 
field of nature, to that of religion, 
has been opened and beautified by 
Ray, Derham, and the preachers at 
Boyle's leclures. 

Sacred hiftory treats of the pro- 
grefs of religion. As we believe the 
few i 111 and Chriftian fy Items to be the 
only true ones which ever exilled, 
we will not, if our aim be improve- 
ment and pleafure, pry into the la- 
mentable fcenes of delufion and er- 
ror. On this fubjeft, then, a layman 
will find all he would wilh to know 
in the facred pages of infpiration, Jo- 
fephus's antiquities and hiftory, and 
MoOieim's compendium. _ 

Civil hiflory has for its obje£l the 
tranfattions and revolutions of em- 
pires, kingdoms, and nations, A 
complete and uninterrupted hiflory 
from the origin of the world is not 
to be had, nor would it be of any 
great ufe. The feveral fliining pe- 
riods, in the annals of mankind, 
have been inveftigated by Thucydi- 
des, Livf, Hume, and Rnbertlou ; 
and fuch writers, like the fplendid ar- 
biter of the day, elicit the pure ore 
from the richer parts of this exteii- 
five mine, and diffufe a light through 
the fiirrounding regions. What is 
called the univerfal ancient and mo- 
dern hiflory, is, I conceive, a compi- 
lation like the dicHonary of arts and 
fciences ; and who would drink in 
the polluted dream, who can have 
recoi\rfe to the founiain ? The firll- 
rate hillorians, then, whofe luminous 
pages alone, are entitled to aitention 
from the votary of polue learning, 



arc generally known. Rollin's an* 
cient hillory, Goldfmith 's Greek and 
his Roman hiftory, Fergufon's Red- 
man hidory, Robertfon's hiflory of 
Charles V. his hiHory of Scotland, 
and h llory of America (laft edition) 
and Hume's hiftory of England, claim 
ftiperior notice. Gibboii is rcfpec- 
table as a hiftorian, and may be read 
with profit, by one whofe religious 
principles are eftablifhed, A general 
chronological view of the more im- 
portant events and eras fince the crea- 
tion, is proper; and fome account 
of the later periods of the hiftory of 
Europe and America, and of the to- 
pography of thofe countries' is necef- 
fary to prepare one for polite con- 
verfation. 

Memoirs, voyages, and travels, 
form another fpccies of hiftory.— 
Thefe are entertaining and highly in- 
ftrurtive ; as they reprefent nature an 
a lower fcale, and more adapted tQ 
experience. Sully's memoirs, Bry- 
done'sand Moore's travels, and An- 
fon's and Cook's voyages, are mafter- 
pieces in this way. 

The knowledge of the human cha-_ 
rafter, and of the mental powers, ac 
tions and various fortune of particular 
men, being ft ill more clofely conne£l 
cd with experience, is, in the highefl 
degree, ufeful in the conduft of life 
and in this view, Plutarch's lives may 
be elleemed one of the moft entertain- 
ing and moft inftructive books in the 
world. The paintings of Homer, 
Shakefpeare, ar;d Miltun, afford, like- 
wife, excellent leffons in the hiftorj 
of moral nature. 

Thefe auihors, in copying, tru^ 
reprefent the blemiflies with the beat}' 
ties. The book of infpiration, only, 
accounts for thefe imperfections, ue- 
fcribes their progrefs and tendencjr 
and propofes the remedies ; and fo' 
this reafon, it is entitled to the fiijl 
place among the hiftories of the h^ 
man mind, as well as of religion. 

December 17, 1787, 



[■8s] 

SELECT POETRY, 

The/ea-faring bachehr. — By mr. Philip Freneau* 

SO long harrafs'd by winds and fcas, 
'Tis time, a:t length, to takeyo-ureafe. 
And feek a bride : for few can find 
The fea a miftrefs ta their mind. 

In all your rounds 'tis wond'rous ftrarfge 
No fair one tempts you to a change : 
Madnefs it is, you muft agree. 
To lodge alone till forty three. 

Old Plato own'd, no bleffing here 

Could equal love — if but fincere : 

And writings, penn'd by heav'n, have fhcvrn 

That man can ne'er be bleft alone. 

O'er life's meridian have you paft; 
The night of death advances faft ! 
No props you plant for your decline. 
No partner foothes thefe cares of thine. 

If Neptcme's felf, who rul'd the main. 
Kept fea- nymphs there to eafe his pain ; 
Yourfelf, who Ikim that empire o'er. 
May furcly have one nymph on fhore. 

Myi tilla fair, in yonder grove. 

Has fo much beauty, fo much love — 
That on her lip, the meaneft fly 
Is happier far than you or I. 



^hefeajons moralized. — By the fame. 



1 I 



HEY who to warmer regions run 
May blefs the favour of the fun 
But feek in vain what charms us here, 
•Life's pidure varying with the year. 

Spring and her wanton train advance. 
Like youth, to lead the feftive dance : 
All, all her fccnes are mirth and playj 
And blufhing bloffoms own her fway. 

The fummer next (thofe bloffoms blown) 
Brings on the fruits that fpring had fown : 
VoLlII. No, IL I, 



igg 'Tht Brandyw'ine. 

Thus men advance, impell'd by time. 
And nature triumphs in her prime. 
Then autumn crowrs the beauteous year. 
The groves a fickhT afpeft wear ; 
. And mournful (he (the lot of all) 
Matures her fruirs to make them fall. 
Clad in the veftments of a tomb, 
Cid age is only winter's gloom- 
Winter, alas ! fliall fpring reftore. 
But youth returns to man no more. 

Ihe Brandyivine. 
'E fprightly dr}-ads of this pleafnig Ihadc''? 
_ And all ye fillers of the facred nine ! 
My infant mufe invokes your powerful aid. 
To fing the beauties of the Brandywine. 

Ye lovely naiades of this cryftal ftream. 

Who, fcltive, fport upon its limpid tide— < 

And thou, Apollo, deiga to grace my theme; 

Give ear, and o'er each line and vcrfc prelide. 

Ye fylvan gods, and genii of the woods. 

Which flcirt its fteep and rocky banks along, 

And all ye nymphs, who bathe in lucid floods, 
Afiilt and raife infofteft notes my fong. 

Ye wanton loves, who Hit around in air. 

Pellucid fays, thro' whom the fun-beams (hine. 

Attentive liften to my arde.it pray'r. 

And aid me to defcribe the Brandywine. 

At firft it oozes from its diftant fource, 

The god there gently pours it from his urns : 

It bends among the cragged rocks its courfe; 
And lowly round in wild meanders turns. 

No naiad yet to him her tribute pays ; 

For many a mile alone it humbly roams : 
At length a thoufand rills its waters raife. 

And o'er each Itecp impetuoufly if Toanis. 

Nor lelfifh does it pafs unnotic'dby; 
. Thro' wide canals it glides ferene and ftill. 
Tlic ftream, conduced from its courfe, on high, 
•■ Is taught to turn full many an ufefulmill. 

NOTF, 

* The place here particularly alluded lo, is a point of w«ods a little beloir 
B randy wine bridge. 



*rbe grey mare the hetttr horfe, i|.% 

Tho' no proud villas on its banks are found. 
Yet nature, drefs'd in gay attire, is there ; 
The hollow caves and deep'ning woods refound 
With fongs of birds, wbich fill the burdcn'd air. 

The blooming fair of Wilmington are fecn, 
Oft times, reclining in its verdant gro r's: 
Whilft am'rous fwains befids them on t% green. 
In tender tales, difclofe their ardent loves. 

Here ruddy Health, with rofy cheeks, is found: 
She left the croud, and fought the calm retreat. 
Here Knowledge too, with bays eternal crown *d. 
Beneath the green wood (had6 has fix'd her feat. 

Here Peace and Contemplation love to ftray : 
The ftudent here may turn the myftic page; 
In folemn filence mufe throughout the day. 
And learn in youth che wifdom of an age. 

Pope, couM I but imitate thy lays. 

And make my numbers glow with fire like thine, 

1 would tranfmit, to future times, its praife, 
And make immortal, lovely Brandywinc, 

the GREY MARE the BETTER liKSkSE. 

IN days of yore, I've fomewhetc read, 
A country fquire from ci^^es bred, 
Liv'd quite remoie from, ^oife and ftrife, 
And all he wanted y;is a wife. 
He to a lafs did foon impsrt 
The ardent, cvlflies of his heart ; 
The ir^den now the flame returns, 
Aftd each wiih equal ardour burns 
Her father, too, gave his confent, 
And to the church they llraitway went 
When all was joy and merriment. 
The honey moon was fcarcely paft. 
When ma'am began to (hew her tafte 
For routs and riot, noife and ftrife. 
Which made fpoufe weary of his life. 
He to her father ftraitway went. 
And told him all his difcontent. 

The old man liften'd, paus'd a while; 
And thus he anfwer'd with a finile : 
" Son, if the world you did l)ut know, 
You'd think i( wrong to argue fo ; 



•I 



^(grey tnurt the better horft, 

Look where you will, in ev'ry flagc 
Of this degen'raie, wicked age, 
Whether in high or lower hfe, 
Each man is goveru'd by his wife. 

If you believe not what I fay, 
We'll prove it by the following way: 
Five hories in my liable Hand, 
As good as any in the land ; 
Five hundred eggs, to bear them part, 
I'll likew'.le put into a cart ; 
With thele the country you fhall trace. 
And walk about each town and place; 
SiiiQly enquire at ev'ry houfe, 
Who IS il governs, man or fpoufe? 
At ev'ry houfe where 'tis confeft. 
The man is mafter — leave a bead: 
But where the wife is miilrefs — fee 
To leave an egg ; and if it be, 
The hundred eggs are fooner fpent, 
To take my daughter I'm content. 

The fon departs — firft houfe in fight 
He rifited in merry plight : 
But there 'he found, 'twas all uproar, 
*' You lubber, go and ope the door." 
He left an egg, and then proceeded, 
t" retting he had fo ill fucceeded. 
With this ill luck he travell'd o'er 
Some twenty towns, I think, or more; 

Now where a ftately manfion flood, 
plithei our carter quickly rode — 
And foon alighting at ihe gate; 
Enquired for the mailer llrait. 
The gentleman was yet in bed. 
But to the lady he was led. 
When feated, he without much force 
Of compliments began difcourfe : 
*'To afk a queftion'. all I want, 
And beg that you will deign to grant 
A faithful anfwer; — 'tis to know 
Whether your hufband rules orno ?" 

An anfwer foon the lady had, 
Whxh made our 'fquire's heart full glad; 
*' "W hy, fir, I 'm not aftiam'd to fay 
My hufband always I obey." 

The hufband came and being feated. 
The bufinefs wa'Nagain repeated ; 
And after compliments were paid. 
Confirm 'd each word his wife had faid: 



Oar hero, without faying more, 

Took both his friends unto the door; 

And begg'd they'd take, without much words, 

The belt horfe which his team affords. 

A black one ftruck the hufband's fancy. 

But then it did not pleafe his Nancy: 

She urg'd with energetic force, 

*' The grey rnare was the better hcrfe." 

Tbchafband many reafons gave. 

Why he the black horfe wi(b'd to have : 

But nought would do; iiaam had her way. 

And in a paflion did fhe fay : 

" You (hall have tha<^" — *^ Well," faid the man, 
" You'll pleafe yourfelf, do all I can; 
Since 't muftbe fo/"— " Stop," fays the 'fquirc, 
** Inftead of that, I muft defire. 
You'll take an egg; and I of courfe 
Mult travel homeward with my horfe; 
For nov/ I fee, throughout their lives, 
All men are govern'd by their wives.** 



E'vil company, 

THE garden breath'd a fweet perfume. 
And all w£s beauty, all was bloom: 
Th' orient fun unclouded flione. 
And Flora's^ gayeft robes were on : 
Health was convey'd on ev'ry breeze. 
The richeft bloffoms cloth'd the trees. 
Hope fprung to thinic, that autumn's ftore 
Would crown whate'er appear'd before : 
When fudden rofe a killing eaftern blaft. 
And io ! the golden p.ofpeft all at once was paft. 

See you that yonth, whofe happier days 
Infpir'deach gen lous mind with praife— 
Whom careful Culture's prudent hand 
Had taught his pafTions to command—. 
Whofe manners fpoke a gentle heart. 
Beyond the reach of modern art ? 
Where'er in thofe blfft years he came. 
He ftill excited friendfhip's flame; 
Each caadid eye beheld him with delight, 
When Folly's noxious air produc'd a fatal blight. 



[ I90 ] 
Tht dying Indian, or the lajl nuordi »f Shalum, 
By mr. Philip Freneau. 

ON yonder lake I fpread the fail no more ! 
Vigour, and youth, and adtivc days are paftj 
Relenllels demons urge me to that (hore. 

On whofe black forefts all the dead arecaft. 
Ye foleran train, prepare the fnn'ral fong; 
For I muft go to fhades below. 
Where all is llrange.and all is new- 
Companion to the airy throng. 
What folitary ftreams. 
In dull and dreary dreams. 
All melancholy, muft I rove along ? 

To what ftrange lands muft Shalom take hii way I 

Groves of the dead, departed mortals trace. 
No deer along thefe gloomy forefts ftray. 

No huntfmen there take pleafure in the chace : 
But all are empty, unfubftantial fhades. 
That ramble through thofe vifionary glades : 

Nofpongy fruits from verdant trees depend. 
But fickly orchards there 
Do fruit as fickly bear : 
And apples aconfumptive vifage (hew, 
And wither'd hangs the hurtle-berry blue. 

Ah me ! what mifchiefs on the dead attend. 

Wand'ring a ft ranger to the (hores below. 

Where ihall I brook or real fountain find ? 
Lazy and fad, deluding waters flow- 
Such is the pifture in my boding mind ! 
Fine tales, indeed, they tell 

Of (hades and purling rills. 
Where our dead fathers dwell. 
Beyond the weftern hills : 
But when did ghoft return, his ftate to (hew— • 
Or who can promife, half the tale is true ? 

I, too, muft be a fleeting ghoft — no more — 

None — none but (hadows to thofe manfions go : 
I leave my woods — I leave the Huron fliore — 
For emptier groves below ! 

Ye charming folitudes. 

Ye tall, afcending woods. 
Ye glaffy lakes, and prattling ftreams, 

\V hofe afped rtill v^-as fweet. 

Whether the fun did greet, 
Or the pale nioonembrac'd you with her beams— 



*fhe dying Indian. x^i 

Adieu to all ! 
To all thai charm 'd me where I ft ray 'd, 
The winding ftream, the dark fcqueftcr'd fliade; 

Adieu all triumphs here ! 
Adieu the mountain's lofty fwell, 
Adieu, ihou little verdant hill. 
And feas, and ftars, and fkies — farewel. 

For feme remoter fphere ! 

Perplex'd with doubts, and tortur'd with dcfpair. 

Why fo dejected at this hopelefs fleep ? 
Nature at lall thefe ruins may repair, 

When death's long dream is o'er, and (he forgets to weep. 
Some real world once more may be affign'd. 
Some new-born manfion for th* immortal mind ! 
Farewel, fweet lake 1 farewel, furrounding woods ! 

To other groves througU midnight g4ooms I llray. 
Beyond the mountains, and beyoad the floods. 

Beyond the Huron bay. 
Prepare the hollow tomb, and place me low, 

My trufty bow and arrows by my fide, 
The cheerful bottle, and the ven'fon ftore ; 
For long the journey is, that I mull go, 

Without a partner, and without a guide 

He fpoke : and bid th' attending mourners weep : 
Then clos'd his eyes — and funk to endlefs^fteep. 



TofcandaL 

ENLIV'NER ofthe vacant hour. 
When Senfe and Candour lofe their pow'r. 
Dear Scandal, Envy's darling child. 
Of callous heart, yet afpe£lmild. 
But for thy aid how taflelefs all 
We meek-ones converfation call ? 
Falefely by man thou'rt faid to be 
Prefident o'er our harmlefs tea ; 
That fav'rite port you now refign, 
To reign triumphant o'er his wine. 
Sick'ning as fweetj the draught would be. 
But for the scid mix'd by thee ; 
That (harp infufion adds a zeft 
Tocv'ry taleandev'ryjeft. DELIA, 



( ^92 ) 
An anfnuer to the riddle tnthelafi MuJeUvi* 

From the Pcnvjyl'vama Magazine. 

FATIGU'D, I fat by fire fide : 
The wafhman " paji elcn/'n"^ had cri'd. 
I cali'd for Betty ; yawn'd, and faid : 
** I'm fleepy — light me up to bed." 
Suppofe me at the toilet plac'd, 
With cap unpin'd, and ftays unlac'd; 
While ^f/{>', to prevent the fpieen, [ 

Tlegales me with the magazine. 
** See here's a riddle, ma'am — no doubt 
*♦ But you or I can find it ©ut." 
She read it o"er and o'er again, 
I gucfs'd — Ihe guefs'd — but all in vain. 
And after mighty toil and trav'l, ■ 
Could not the myftery unrav'l — 
" Why, Betty, fure I'm very dull." 
** La ! ma'am, I've almoft crack'd my fcuU— ; 
" What can it mean ? — it is — poh — fiddle, 
'* No, 'tis not that — confound the riddle! 
" Yes, now I have it, pall a doubt — 
♦• Madam, I've found the fecret out — 
♦' Here 'tis — the very thing 1 handle — • 
'* 'Tis this fame fpermaceti candle." 

Philadelphia. E U D O C I A. 

To a man of lively, but unequal fpirits in converjatiox, 

FLARING light fatigues and hurts the eye : 

In lifelefs Ihade we nothing candefcry. 

Avoid extremes: an univerfal rule! 
Though rarely undcrftood by any fool. 
Inceffant laughers weary me: hat then, 
1 tire alike ot dull and gloomy men. 
Your gloomy men, who frown at harmlefs glee. 
Were never made, my friend, for you or me. 
Yet ftill, 'twere better to be fomclimes dull. 
Than of fmart things to Icem for ever full. 
A clever fellow [ — He, who courts that name. 
Of folid fenfe will fcarce infiire the fame. 
Good-humdur, eafe, and jutt remark between* 
I'.iconverfationform the happy mean. 



I i03 J 

FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE. 



St. Pc'ferjiurg, Oaober 30. 

ON Sunday laft a meffenger arrived 
here from prince fotcmkin, 
with the news of a viftory obtained 
over the Turks, at an attack which 
they made upon Kinburn, on the night 
of the 1 1 th inftant, by a detachment 
of 5000 men, who landed near that 
fortrefs from Otfchakow : and altho' 
the garrifon was inferior in number, 
upwards of 4000 Turks were killed or 
wounded, and the remainder with dif- 
ficulty efcaped to their boats. The 
number of flain and wounded on the 
fide of the Ruffians did not exceed 400, 
but feveral of?.cers loft their lives on 
this occafion, and gen. Suqwarow and 
Reck, who had the principal command, 
were dangeroufly wounded* 

Upon the arrival of this agreeable 
intelligence, te Deumwasfung in all 
the churches of this capital, and the 
cannons were fired from the fortrefs. 

Amjierdamy No'vember 16, 

We are employed here in accom- 
plifhing the reform of our former con- 
iHtution. A placard has been pub- 
lilhed, containing the difmiffion of 
thofe officers who were chofen by the 
burghers ; among them is colonel Ifaac 
Van Gendover, 40 captains, 38 lieu- 
tenants, and 33 enfigns. They are 
ftilcd, *' thofe who were illcgaUy ap- 
pointed to be officers, fince February 
the 2ift, 1787." 

Hague, Noucmber 21. 

The following are fome of the par- 
ticulars of the news received from Bois 
fc Due. That place had been hither- 
to preferved from pillage, while other 
towns exhibited many fcenes of plun- 
der and outrage. But a new garrifon 
having entered, the military, as they 
had done at other places, were guilty 
of great exceffes, an example the mob 
foon began to follow. The riots be- 

Vol. lU. No. U, M 



gan on the 5th inftant, by breaking the 
windows of feveral houfes — the plun- 
der foon became general — many citi- 
zens, merchants as well as others, were 
robbed of all their gold, filver, move- 
ables, merchandize, drcfs, plate, &c. 
This horrid outrage lafted for three 
days fucceffivel)^ The fame riots took 
place in forne towns of Zealand, partly 
occalioned by the military, a:nd partly 
by the populace. Zuriczee is almoit 
entirely ruined. 

Dec. I g. Their high might ineffes 
have unanimoufly refolved to enter 
into an alliance of the defenfive kind 
with the courts of Berlin and London* 

Vienna, November 10. 

Preparations for war are in rig re- 
fpeft difcontinued ; and it is believed^ 
that our fovcreign will immediately 
fet out for Hungary. 

By the emperor's orders, all the 
women and children are removed from 
Semlin ; and fromnumberlefs circum- 
ftances, we are convinced that his im- 
perial majefty is inflexibly determined 
vigoroufly to profecute the war a- 
gainft the Turks. 

Dublin, OBober W* 

The idea of building docks on the 
weftern and fouthcrn coafts of this 
kingdom, is faid to be a meafure of 
the Eritifti minifter. We fincerely 
hope, that the report of an intention 
to profecute it to effefi:, may be found- 
ed in fad. It would be of ellcntial 
fervice to the general interefts of the 
empire ; but in war, particularly. 
Great- Britain would experience the 
utility of fuch an undertaking. There 
are many parts where there is a dej^ith 
of water fufficient for the largdl lhip» 
in the navy. 

Bi, James's, Novejnher Z. 

His majefty, in council, was this; 
daypleafed to declare George, inar<< 



194 

quis of Euckingham, Hestenant-ge- 
neral and general governor of his raa- 
jelly's kingdom of Ireland. 

LonduTiy Novembir y. 

Mr. Pitt fent aJetter this forenoon 
to mr. Newland, director of the bank, 
to acquaint him, that all preparations 
for war between France and England, 
were immediately to ceafe on both 
fides. 

The ftatc of Utrecht has publifk- 
cd an order, requiring all the armed 
focieties and volunteers of the pro- 
vince, to lay down their arms, cock- 
ades and colours, within twenty-five 
da)'s. 'Ihofe who refufe, to be pu- 
niihed. 

. A letter from Paris, dated October 
2^, fa}s, '• Advices from Conftanti- 
nop]"-, dated September 22, inform us 
thr'.r the Ottoman court has ai prefent 
30,000 men near Oczakcv--, but we 
do not think much of tliis numerous 
army ; and at the departure of the 
Courier, we did net hear they had as 
y.et attempted any thing. 1 he French 
minjltry hope, in the courfe of the 
winter, to elFed; a reconciliation be- 
tween the Porte and Ruflla. 

" F"rance, at this moment, poffeflcs 
6r,ooo failors ; in 1778 fte had 
87,54.7. She has in the ports of Breft, 
I'Orient, Rochefort, and Toulon, one 
Ihip of 1 ( 8 guns, live of 1 10, fix of 
80, twenty-three of 74, two of 64, 
one of 60, and one of 50; and if we 
add to thofe, one of 118 guns, and 
one of 74 on the frocks, they will 
form in the whole 41 (hips of the line." 

No-ucmhcr 17. The largelt fnip 
that ever was built for the fervice of 
the Eait India company, was launch- 
ed on Saturday at Blackwall. This 
Ihip is buik on the bottom of the 
Ceres, and is of the va(l burden- of 
i 1 6 1 tons, bound to Madeira and 
China, and is to proceed under the 
command of captain Price. 

AW.' 30. 1 he French King has 
fciU out orders to ikthune, to form 



Foreign l7itelligaicc. 



a particular legion of the Dutch pa- 
triots, who have retired from Hol- 
land — and who are to be taken into 
the immediate pay of France. 

^ The new French council of war have 
given it as their oppinion, that the ar- 
my of France ought to be kept full 
and complete to the number 100,000 
men ; in confequence of which, the ne- 
cefiary orders -have been iffued for 
completing that number. 

The proteftant Swifs cantons have 
agreed to enter into the Germanic 
league. 

One good effect arifes to the French 
from their prefent embarrafiTments. 
The government are turning their eyes 
towards reformation in every depart- 
ment. Mr. Guibert, who was made 
fecreary to the newly inRituted coun- 
cil of war, has given in a plan to the 
archbifhop of Thouloufe, by which a 
faving will be made of 34 millions in 
the army, which he neverthelefs pro- 
pofes to increafe to the number of 
280,000 men, at the fame time that 
he augments the pay of the foldier. 

The tobacco-trade has puzzled the 
miniftry not a litle, efpecially with 
the inftance of fir Robert Walpole, 
who endeavoured to bring that arti- 
cle under excife, but was not able to 
accomplifli it ; nor has it ever been 
attempted fince that time, which is 
now 54 years ago. 

A>-'. 23. The court of France are 
ferioufly become mediator between the 
Ottoman Porte and Ruflia, and have 
invited our court to join them. 

An exprefs arrived on Wedncfdajr 
morning from Vienna, with the newsi 
that the emperor had given orders for 
the im.raediatc march of his troopsi 
againfl: the Turks. No formal decla- 
ration of war had yet taken place, but. 
it was hourly expected. 

AVt'. 24. The emprefs of Rufiiai 
makes the prefent war with the Turksi 
wholly a land one, on account of thei 
very extravagant expences that attend 
her keeping a na\ al eihblilhment oiii 



'lg}l 



Inieli 



,gc 



19; 



foot at fo great a diftance from any of 
her own ports. If her arms {hould, 
however, receive a check in the Cri- 
mea, of any importance, a diverlion 
muft of neceffity be m.ade on the ether 
fide, which will oblige her to fend a 
fquadron, and that a powerful one, 
into the Mediterranean. 

Nciz-. z-j. On Thurfday, informa- 
tion was received by the minifter, that 
the French had iffued orders for dif- 
arming, and that feveral of their (hips 
were difmantled. In confequencc of 
this^exprelTes were fent on Friday laft, 
to Portlmouth and the ether ports, to 
difarm, which will begin to be dene 
immediately. 

No'v, ?g. Thelaft letters from Vir- 
ginia brought over great remittances 
to the merchants here, and likewife 
orders for as much goods as will load 
ten Ihips, which are to be got ready 
immediate^ly, in order that the fhips 
may fail before Chriilmas. 
ExtraSl of a letter f mm Ver/ailles, da- 
ted ho" -ember 23. 
" It having been determined in 
council, on Sunday night, that the 
king fhould meet his parliament the 
next day, his majefty fct out from 
Verfaales, at eight o'clock on Mon- 
day, and arrived at the palais in Fa- 
ns about nine, when the peers, pre- 
fidents of parliament, and counfellors 
of ftate, attended to receive him. His 
majefty carried with him two cdids 
to be regiftered ; the one for a new 
loan, the other for the re-eftablifh- 
ment of proteftants in all their anci- 
ent civil rights. 

" Permiflion having been announ- 
ced to the affembly, that e\ery member 
fhould deliver his fentiments vvith- 
tut reftraint, a debate enfued, warm- 
ly fupported in its favour, and againft 
it, which laftcdtill fix o'clock in the 
evening; when his niajefty, obferving 
the general opinion was regiftering 
the edict, tired with the debate, and 
preffed by hunger, he rofe and. X)rdered 
it to be regiftered. The daks of Or- 



leans arofe, and protefted againft the 
proceedings of that day. Flis majefty, 
artonifhed, repeated his orders, and 
left the aifembly, and arrived about 
feven o'clock at \'^erfailles to break- 
faft. 

♦' Tuefday, the duke of Orleans 
was exiled to his featatVille Cottarel, 
and the abbe Sabatier ard another 
member of parliament fent to prifon ; 
the firftto Mont St. Michael in Nor- 
mandy, the feccnd to Hamp, in Pi- 
cardie. 

" On Wednefday, the parliament 
waited on his majefty at Verfailles, to 
acquaint him that the rcfolution en- 
tered on their books on Monday, was 
expunged." 

AW 30. On the 22d inilant, the 
king of France baniftied anotherprince 
of the blood (befides the duke of Or- 
leans ;) but it is not certainlv known 
who he is. Some advices fa}-, it is 
the prince de Eourbon, and otlicrs fay, 
it is the prince de Conde : His majefty 
has alfo banilhed fix of the prefidents. 
'lliefe violent nieafureshave raifed fuch 
a ferment, and fu^h a fpirit in the 
parliament of Paris, that they have 
abfolutely refufed torefurr.e their func- 
tions, until the banifncd members are 
reftored. The contention between the 
parliament and the king is now at 
ilTue. 

Dec. 6. Faft Saturday's gazette 
revokes the late proclamation, requin- 
ing the immediate return ot half-pay 
officers engaged in foreign f:rvice-^ 
and extends their continuance abroad 
to their former leave of .bfencc, grant- 
ed before the late appearance cf hofti- 
lities between France and this country. 
The ftave trade, fo long a difgrace 
to every civilized people concerned 
in it, is likely to become a fubjed of 
parliamentary inveftigation ; and we 
hope, from the enlightened characters 
who have taken the matter up, that 
the conclufion of it will be fuch, 
(eitli^r by a total ftop being put to it, 
or, if that ftiould be found impolitic. 



19^ 



Foreign IntclUgaue, 



by an efFeflual remedy of its prefent 
inhuman practices) as mull reflect ho- 
nour to the nation, and to the party 
who may bring it forward. 

A letter from Paris, dated Nov. eg, 
fays, " a deputation from parliament 
waited on his majefty, on Tucfday 
laft, with a frefh petition in behalf of 
the duke of Orleans and mefiieurs Sa- 
batier and Fretot. The king's an- 
fwer was as laconic as the firlt. In 
regard to the duke he had nothing to 
add ; and for the two counfellors, one 
was gone to the place of his deftination 
( Fretot to Orleans) and the other might 
be conveyed to a more healthy and not 
fo diftant a place as Fort St. Michael, 
on account of his dangerous fituation ; 
I'abbe Sabatier is extremely ill." 

Dec. 15. A letter from Paris, da- 
ted December 9, fays, *' the parlia- 
ment of Paris met on Friday, to deli- 
berate on his majefty's did, for the 
eftablifliment of proteftants in this 
kingdom : after fitting until near fix 
o'clock in the evening, the affair was 
referred to a committee, who are to 
make their report on the good or bad 
efFefts which may arife from this edict. 
Some further reprefentations were a- 
greed to be made to the king, on the 
exile of the duke of Orleans, and the 
imprifonmentof the two members of 
parliament." 

Dec. 1 6. The king of France has 
ordered 200,00© livrcs to be iffued for 
the relief of the Dutch patriots, who 
have been obliged to fly their country. 

Dec. 2f. The treaty of alliance 
between* England, Holland and Pruf- 
fia is in great forwardnefs ; on which 
fubjcft, fir James Harris has lately 
held frequent conferences with the 
ftates-general ; and from his abilities, 
there is little doubt but to the honour 
and advantage of this countr\'. 

A letter from Rome, dated Dec. 
K,i fays, " the barbarian pirates have 
commenced a very ferious attack on 
the trade and commerce of the eccle- 
fiaftical ftate \ the fbvereign pontiff, at 



the defire of foitie of the principal 
merchants, has ordered to fit out four 
more ifrigates. La Caferta of 26, 11 
Roma of 24, La Prudcnte of 24, and 
La Sybille of 20 guns, to proteft the 
coaft and the trade, which thefe inva- 
ders feem bent on deftroyiHg, if pof- 
fible. The corfairs of Tunis and Al- 
giers have already done much mifchief, 
which it has become highly neceffary 
to prevent in future." 

Dr. Inglis, now bifiiop of Canada, 
hath aftually put in his claim for the 
200I. left by the benevolent Martin 
Benfon, to the firll: bifhop that fhould 
be fent to and fetded in North A- 
merica. 

Mr. Haftings's trial at the bar 0) 
the houfe of lords, will certainly com- 
mence early in the month of February 
next. 

Varis^ December 16. 

All the French merchants and ma- 
nufa<ilurers bitterly complain of the 
fatal efftfts of the commercial treat} 
with England, whereby our trade i; 
totally rained, while that of Britain i; 
in a flourifliing condition. It is im- 
poffible that peace can be of a long 
continuance from an infinity ofrea- 
fons. Befides this difaftrous treatj 
for France, the troubles in Hollanc 
appear likely to produce the moft fe- 
rious confcquence?. 

<•> •^■;j- •»;•> *''if- -i^';* ■»;.■> ••J»- 
AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE,' 



Augujla, January 5. 

WE have the pleafure to announqe 
to the public, that on Wednef- 
day laft the convention of this ftate 
uaanimoufly ratified the federal confti' 
tution in the words following, viz. 
State of Georgia. — In convention. 
Wednejday, Jamtary 2, 1788. ; 
WE, the delegates of the people ol 
the ft:ite of Georgia, in conventior 
met, have taken into our ferious con^ 






American Intdligence* 



»^7 



fideratioB tlie federal conftltuticn, a- 
greed upon and propofed by the depu- 
ties of the united ftates in general con- 
vention, held in the city of Philadel- 
phia, on the feventeenth day of Sep- 
tember, in the year of our Lord one 
thoufand fe\ en hundred and eighty fe- 
ven, have aflented to, ratified, and 
adopted, and by thefe prefents do, in 
virtue of the powers and authority to 
us given by the people of the faid ftate, 
for that purpofe, for and in behalf of 
ourfelves and conftituents, fully and 
entirely affent to, ratify, and adopt 
the faid conllltution, which is hereun- 
to annexed, under the great feal of tlie 
faid ftate. 

DONE in convention, at Angufla, 
in the faid ftate, on the fecond 
day of January, in the year of 
our Lord one thoufand fcven hun- 
dred and eighty-eight, and of the 
independence of the united ftates 
the twelfth. 

Charlejion, fS. C.J "Jaiuinry i6. 

TLxtra£i from the minutes of the horf 
offenate, January 14, I'jSfi. 

Refolved unanlmoufly. That the 
thanks of this houfe be given to the 
delegates of this ftate, in the conven- 
tion holden laft year, in the city of 
Philadelphia, for their great attention 
to, and faithful difcharge of, the du- 
ties of their appointment. 

Laft Frida)', in the houfe of repre- 
fentatives, mr. Rutledge, as chairman 
of a committee appointed to conftder 
the governor's raeffage, reported, that 
they had deliberated upon the new fe- 
deral conftitution, and were unani- 
moufly of opinion to recommend that 
the houfe fliould come to a refolution 
for calling a convention of the jicople, 
to confider the fame. 

Jan. 17. Yefterday, the houfe of re- 
prefentatives, in a committee of the 
whole, debated on the federal confti- 
tution till four o'clock. Mr. Loundes 
ikftood alone in difapprobaticn of it. 



Bojlon, Jaimary 24. 

On Friday laft, the convention vo- 
ted, that the following queftion be put 
to the honourable E. Gerry, efq, viz. 
•' wh}', in the laft requifition of con- 
grefs, the portion required of this ftate, 
was thirteen times as much as ol Geor- 
gia, and yet we have but eight repre- 
sentatives in the general government, 
and Georgia has three ?" and requefted 
him to put his anfw er in writing. 

The next day, the honourable mr. 
Gerry anfwered the above queftion, as 
follows, viz. 

Saturday morning, 19th Jaw. 

Sir, 

" I have no documents in Bcfton, 
and am uncertain whether 1 have any 
at home, to afTift me in anfwering the 
queftion, " why, in the laft requifiti- 
on of congrefs,' the portion required of 
this ftate, was thirteen times as much 
as of Georgia, and yet we have but 
eight reprefentatives in the general go- 
vernment, and Georgia has three V 
but if my memory fer\es me, the rea- 
fon affigned, by the committee who 
made the appointment, for giving fuch 
a number to Georgia, was, that that 
ftate had of late greatly increafed her 
numbers by migration — and if not 
then, would foon be entitled to the 
proportion affigned her. I think it 
was alfo faid the apportionment was 
made, not by any fixed principle, but 
by a compromife. Thefe reafons not 
being fatlsfaftory, a motion was made, 
on the part of Maffachufetts, for in- 
creafinp-her number of reprefentatives, 
but it did not take effect. 

1 have the honour to be, &c. 

E. GERRY. 
Hon. mr. Cufiiing, 

vice-prelident of the convention, 

PiUfhurgh, February 2. 

By a gentlcm.an who arrived here on 
Wednefday, from Sanduiky, we are 
informed, that the Indians are deter- 
mined to oppofe thefettlement-of the 



198 



Amencan Iutelli«:ftice. 



Philadelphia, Ffhrr/ary j. 



country weft of tlie Oliio. This gcn- 
tleiTian further informs us, that their 

attendance on the treat}' to be held The kgifiature of North-Carclini 

next fpring, will, in a great nieafure, at their late fcffion, have refolved una. 

depend on the perfons font to them: ninioufly, " that the citizens of tlia 

as, without the greateft attention being ftate and the united ftates, have a f\A 

paid to them, tlieir principal cliiefs and indifputabic claim to the navigi 

will not attend. tion of the river Milliffippi, as well b] 

/"f^. g. The meflengers appointed to the clear and exprefs rtipulations d 

•invite the different tribes of Indians to treaties, as by the great law of nature.' 

the treaty that is to be held in May 'J hey alfo refob ed, at the fame time 

r.ext, will fct out in a few days for *' that the delegates cf that ftate be in 



flrtided to move in congrefs for a ful 
and explicit declaration, that the righ 
which the united itates, and each o 
them, have to the navigation of th- 
MifiifTippi, is abfolute and inalienable 
in order that the appr.:henlions am 
fears of their fellow citizens en tha 
fubject, might be cntlreiy remov' 

A letter from New-Orleans,, datci 
November 7, i'jZ'j, favn, " I ha\ 
often mentioned tl;e lapid increafe 
this country, and the happy govern 
mcnt we enioy. Jrlardly a packet ar 
rives from bpain but what brings fom^ 
frcfh encouragement. Fine lands ari 
gracioufiy granted to new fettlers, aric 



that purpcfe. 

IVilmifigicK, Fcbruarj 6. 

At a meeting of j unices, at Clowe's 
tavern, in the counts' of Suffex, on the 
id.inft. ;;fter bufmefs wils over, a riot 
arofe between the parties called whigs 
and tories, which continued for fome 
time with great violence, with fills and 
cudgels. We are forry to hear that 
fuch occurrences are exceedingly fre- 
quent in that county. 

Ntixi-Tork. 

Feb. 7. By the latefl advices from 

. the Bay of Honduras, we learn that their produce is tak^ n by government 

the fettlements have been vifited by a paying a handfome price in hard dol 

dreadful mortality ; v\ hich, fmce the lars. ' 

late hurricane, has carried off upwards " A report is now confidently talk 

of fifty white people, and a much ed of, which, from the generous fert 

greater number of negroes. timents of a certain public character 

On the 6th ult. two men, named who reprefents us in New- York, peo 

Rogers and Queeling, and a lad named pie in general believe. 
Bennet, were killed and fcalped by a " You, however, who ftill enter 

party of 13 or 14. Indians, in Midway tain ftrange prejudices of us, will hard 

fettlement, about 12 miles on the o- ly give credit to it, but I ^'enture t( 

ther fide of Great Ogechee ferry, affure you, that a toleration ol al 

Georgia; the horfes on which the two perfuafions will foon take place witt 

men rode, were alfo (hot dead, and us, and that nothing but induftry an(| 

two negro boys are milling, fuppofed good behaviour will be expected bj 

to be tarried off by the favages. our liberal king. 

It has been judged, that the weather " We well know the regard paid it 

on Tuefdav \vas as feverc as the cold Madrid to the opinion of the charai 

day about fourteen years fince; in the ter alluded to, and we flatter ourlelvc! 

courfeof forty-eight hours the North- that he will fix upon fuch meafure 

river froze fo hard that a number of with the united itat; s, as will make 

perfons yefterday walked almoft over the two countries happy through 

epoa tiic ice. valuable commercial connexion, whi 



Marriages, — Deaths, 



Ul undou'')tedly make both refpeda- 
flle to all others." 

I' eh. 1 6. A letter from a gentleman 
n Bofton, elated Februarv 8, fays, 
' I have the picafure to inform you, 
hat our convention this day ratified 
he conltitution, by a majority of 187 
gainft 16". The minority are mo- 
crate ; and fay they will with alacri- 
y^ fupport the government." 

Feb. \y TuefJay the jth Inft. in 
"(lis city, the thermometer fell to 6 
egrees below o, that is, 38 degrees 
elow the freezing point. This is a 
egree of cold feldom met with fo far 
3 the fouthward as Philadelphia. Per- 
aps a more fudden change was never 
nown in this or any other country ; 
Dr the day before it ftood at 6 degrees 
bove freezing. Hence it mufl: have 
dien 42 degrees in the fpace of 17 
ours — an extraordinary phenomenon 
ideed ! 

Feb. ig. A letter from London, 
ated Dec. 19, fays, " I have this 
ay received a letter from the conful 
t Algiers, fent me from the fecretary 
f ilate, informing that Zaccheus Cof- 
n, who was taken in his paflage from 
)unkirk to Philadelphia, by an Al- 
erine cruifer, died at Algiers, the 2d 
f lad month, of a decay of his luno-s. 
t appears, by the account received, 
tiat he was taken as good care of, as 
ould be expeded in that country, 
'erhaps fome information of this 
ught to be made public, as the con- 
ul has been improperly treated in fome 
f your papers, when I have good 
cafon to conclude, he has been kind 
b fuch Americans as have had the mif- 
ortune to fall into their hands." 

Feb. XI. A motion was lately made 
nd feconded in the houfe of repre- 
;ntatives of South-Carolina, that leave 
e given to bring in a bill to autho- 
JM the importation of Uc^roes. On 



199 

the queftion being put to agire to tha 
fame, it pailed in the negative. 

MARRIAGES. 

MARYLAND : 

In Baltimore, John Coulter, efquirc, 
to mifs Polly M'Cafkcy. 

RHODE-ISLAND ! 

At Providence, mr. John Francis, 
late of Philadelphia, to mifs Abbey 
Brown. 

NEW-YORK CITY : 

Mr. John Wood, to mifs Betfcy 
Simmons. 

DEATHS. 

E NGLAND : 

The right reverend father in God, 
Richard Lowth, lord bifhop of Lon- 
don. 

VIRGINIA : 

At Cheftcrfield, mrs. Tucker, con- 
fort of St. George Tucker, efquire. 
In Prince-Edward county, mr. Peter 
Johnllon. Near VVilliamfburg, mrs. 
Sufanna Shields, confort of major 
James Shields. In Richmond, hon. 
Boiling Starke, efquire. 

MASSACHUSETTS : 

In Bofton, Benjamin Lincoln, cfq, 
fon of general Lincoln. Dr. Adam--, 
fon of the hon. Samuel Adams, efquire. 

NEW-YORK CITY t 

Mrs. Saidler, confort of mr. James- 
Saidler. 

MARYLAND : 

In Baltimore, mr. James Hayas. 

PENNSYLVANIA : 

In Philadelphia, mr. Edward Few, 
of Southwark. In Reading, mrs. 
Rebecca Broadhead, confort of gene- 
ral Broadhcaci. 



CONTENTS. 



Rur^l concerns. 
Memoir on the dillillation of 

perfimons, 135 

Obfervations on the raiiing and 
. drelling of hemp : communi- 
cated to the American philofo- 
phical focicty, by Edmund 
Antill, 137 

Laws of the Pennfylvania fociety 

for promoting agriculture, 173 

Premiums propofed by faid fo- 
ciety, 176 

Moral ejpiys. 
On contentment, 142 

On confidence, 148 

On the importance of a good cha- 
ra(f ler confidered only with re- 
fpeft to intereft, ibid 

On the folly of being anxioufly 
curious to enquire what is faid 
of us in our abfence, 1 50 

On the pleafures of refieftion, j (^i 

CharaBers. 
Charafter of an old maid, 146 

— of a pedantic fchool- 

mafter, 1 4.7 

Humour, 
Confolation for the old bachelor, 119 
Lefture upon eyes, 152 

Ledlure upon nofes, 134 

Inllrudions for fine ladies, 1 43 

Inltrutflions for fine gentlemen, 145 
Speech of zjiandii/g member, by 
the hon. Francis Hopkinfon, 
efquire, 165 

Natural hijlory. 
Defcriptlorf of the white moun- 
tains of New-Hamplliirc, 128 
Defcription of the grotto at Swa- 
tara, by the rev. Peter Miller, 141 
MifcAlntnes. 
Letter concerning chimnies ; con- 
taining fome di regions to pre- 
vent them from fmoking, by 
dr. Rufton, 124 
Petition of the people called Qua- 
kers, of New-England, 127 



Ethelgar, a Saxon poem. 

Account of the order of procef- 
fion in Boilon, in folemnizati- 
on of the ratification of the 
new conftitution. 

Report of the managers of the 
Pennfylvania focicty for the 
encouragement of nianufaftures, i7g> 

Diredions on the reading of hif- 
tory, 

PJitks. 

Oration on the anniverfary of 
American independence. By 
the hon. chancellor Livingfton, 

Letter from the hon. Robert 
Yates, and John Lanfing, ef- 
quires, to his excellency gov. 
Clinton, dating their reafons 
for not fubfcribing to the new 
conftitution, 

Addrcfs to the minority of the 
convention of Pennfylvania, 

Form of the ratification of the 
federal conftitution by the ftate 
of Maflachufetts, 

Form of ditto by Georgia, 

A view of the principles, opera- 
tion, and probable eifefts of 
the funding fyftem of Pean- 
lylvania. 

Natural philo/ophy. 

Conjeftures concerning wind and 
water-fpouts, tornadoes, and 
hurricanes, by dr. John Per- 
kins, of Bofton, 

Obfervations on the growth of 
trees downwards. 

Poetry, 

The fea-faring bachelor. 

The feafons moralized. 

The Brandywine, 

The grey mare the better horfe. 

Evil company. 

The dying Indian, 

Anfwer to a riddle. 

To a man of lively, but unequal 
fpirits in converfation. 



'5* 



65. 



j8>i 



107 



156 

15* 

197 

i8g 

113 

122 
I 

ibiS 
186 

191 



THE 

AMERICAN MUSEUM 

O R 

REPOSITORY 

OF ANCIENT AND MODERN 

FUGITIVE P I E C E S, &c, 
PROSE AND POETICAL. ♦ 

For MARCH, 1788. 



" IVith fwicttjl jloiuTS enrkh'd, 

" From various gar dim cuiTd with care.'' 



. . ^'■Coitifla ra'irefitir.t." 



V O L. HI. No. III. 

THE SECOND EDITION, 



PHILADELPHIA: 
PRINTED BY M A T H E Vi' CAREY. 

.-<>•• •••<>■• "1 V" ..•<>..■•<>•■ 
1.'. .a CC . L X X X4-X « 



■ ■■ w nam iemseemam 



THE 

AMERICAN MUSEUM, 

For MARCH, 1788. 



Oojirvations upon an hypothijis far 
Joining the phenomena ef light : nuitb 
incidental ob/er-vaiions^ tending to 
fiieau the heterogeneoufne/s of light, 
and of the ele£iric fluid, by their 
intermixture, or union, luith each 
other. Communicated to the Arke^ican 
academy of arts and fciences, . by 
Jame! Bonudoin, efq. prejident of 
faid academy , at^d late governor of the 
Jlate of Majfachufetts. 

IN reviewing fomc letters I, had 
written to a philofophical ffiead, 
dr. Franklin, were occurred, ,on 
the fubjeft of one of them, fome 
obfervations, which appeared to rae 
new. They are principally contain- 
ed in the two laft of three memoirs, 
which I (hall lay before the academy : 
to wliofe judgment it will be fub- 
mitted, whether they have ai)y thing 
Ijefide their novelty to recommend 
them. 

As they were occafioned by con- 
fidering dr. Franklin's queries con- 
perning light, the ftriftures on thofe 
queries, as being introdudlory to 
the obfervations, will make a part 
of thefe memoirs. 

The firft memoir will accordingly 
contain a few ftriftures, or curfory 
remarks, on his hypothefis for folv- 
ing the phenomena of light : with 
incidental obfervations concerning 
the heterogeneoufnefs of light, and 
the eleftric fluid. 



It is offered in full confidence, that 
our celebrated countryman, whofc 
happy genius has contributed fo 
largely to the advancement of philo- 
fophic knowledge, will be pleafcd 
with any attempt for that purpofe, 
whether fuccefsful or not, eve.i 
though it (hould be upon principles, 
that may not perfeftly harmonize 
with fome of bis own. 

Thedoftor, diffatisfied with the 
received dodrine concerning light, 
olRrs feveral objeflions to it, in the 
form of queries ; and, '" the fame 
form, propofes an hypothefis of his 
own : both of which will be con- 
fidered. 

With refpedi to the hypothefis, it 
is aflced — * " May not all the phe- 
nomena of light, be more conveni- 
ently folved, by fuppofing univerfal 
fpace filled with a fubtle elaftic fluid, 
which, when at reft, is not vifible, 
but whofe vibrations aflFed that fine 
fenfe in the eye, as thofe of air do the 
groffer organs of the ear ? We do 
not, in the cafe of found, imagine 
that any fonorous particles are thrown 
off from a bell, for inftance, and fly 
in ftrait lines to the ear : why muft 
we believe that luminous particles 

NOTE. 

• See letters and papers on philo- 
fophical fubjefts, page 265. edit, 
1769. 



;o4 Obfcrvations vpon an hylJOtlufisforfolving tin phtnomena of light. 



leave the fun, and proceed to the eye ? 
Some diamonds, if rubbed, (hine in 
the dark without lofing any part of 
their niatter, I can make an elec- 
trical fpark as big as the fliime of a 
candle, much brio^hter, and therefore 
viiiblc furtlier ; yet this is without 
fuel : and I am perfuaded no part of 
the electric fluid Hies off in fuch cafe 
todiftant placesjbut all goes dircdly, 
and is to be found in the place to 
which 1 delline it. May not difie- 
rent degrees of the vibration of the 
above-mentioned univerfal medium, 
occafion the appearances of different 
colours ? I think the eledric fluid 
is ahvays the fame ; yet 1 find that 
•weaker and ftronger fparks differ in 
apparent colour : fome while, blue, 
purple, red; — the fhongeft v.hite ; 
Vverik ones, red." 

ieveral objeclions here prcfent 
themfelves. Some of them arifing 
from the hypothefis itfelf ; and otheis 
Irom the compaiifon of light with 
found. 

In refpetft of the former, if uni- 
vedal fpace be filled with a fubcle 
elaftic fiuid, (in as to exclude any 
vacuum) that fluid mufl always be 
at reft, and therefore, by the hypo- 
thefis, alwa\s inviiible ; and confe- 
qucntly there v/cuid always be uni- 
verfal darknefs. Or if any part of 
the fluid could be put in motion, the 
v.'hole of it muil: be in motion : for 
nor one particle of it could move, 
without moving, in the dircdion of 
its rn')ti')n, the adjoining one, and 
this the next ; and fo on, ad irfi^i- 
inm. lu this cafe, the Icail motion, 
wherever it might commence, mult 
produce univerfal motion ; and con- 
fequently, univerfal light; between 
which and univerfal darknefs, there 
could he no medium. 

But if the meaning of the expref- 
fion be, what it was probably in- 
tet^ded to W, that univerfal fpace, 
jnllead of being filled, doth greatly 
abound, with an elailic fluid, then 



would not every thiag, which dif- 
turbed that fluid, caufe a luminous 
appearance ? Would not the inhabi- 
tants of the fea and air, in all theit 
motions, befpangie both ; and thereby 
exhibit the various colours according 
to the different degrees of vibration, 
which thofe motions might occafion 
in the elaftic fluid ? As to ourfelves, 
would not a n-diance attend us where- 
ver we went ? What occafion ihould 
we have of candle-light, when a 
quick vibration of the hind, or of 
machines made lor that purpofe, 
would difpel the night ? Or rather, 
might we not fuppofe there would 
be no night at all ? for the afiion of 
the fun (if the fun fhould be necef- 
fary) would be c immunicated to us, 
notwithflanding the interpofition of 
the earth. -And would not the effect 
of that adlion, even at noon, when 
molt direfl, be only to enlighten us, 
unattended with heat, fo eflentially 
neceflary to enliven and invigorate 
the animal and vegetable world ?- 
Would not the elailic fluid, inflead 
of exhibitiVig a round luminous 
body, which we call the fun, be itfelf 
;i continued univerfal blaze of light ? 
And would not this, in the prefent 
conftitution of things, obftruiftvifion, 
and totally alter the fcience of optics ? 
The objeftions, implied in the 
foregoing querif's, feem deducible 
from the hvpothefis. There are 
feveral, which appear to arife from 
the comparifon of light with found, 
lit. As found (or a vibrating, or 
undulating motion in the air, v^ich 
I confider here as fynonimout) is 
propagated from the fonorous body 
in all directions — and furrounds, and 
iy propagated beyond or behind any 
obftacle in its way ; fo light, if it 
was a vibration, or undulation, of 
the elaftic fluid, would furround; 
and be propagated behind an obllaele, 
like found ; but this does not agree 
with the faCt. ediy. As found or th$i 
vibrating motion in the air, origina- 



Cbfervations ttpcn an hypothcfisfcrfolvijig the phcnomtna ofli;^ht. 205 



ling in a houfe, or any other enclo- 
sure, would, from a hole in one of 
the fides of it, be propagated txtcr- 
lally, ill circles, of which the hole 
ivould be the centre: fo light, if it 
tvas a vibration, or occafioned by a 
fibration, of the elaftic fluid, af- 
:er pafling through a hoje, would 
je propagated in circles, of which 
he hole would be the centre. But 
his does not correfpond to the fafi : 
or light, in palling through any 
iniform medium, always pafles in 
ight lines. 
Befidc thefe, an obje<Sion fimilar 

one of thoie, which have been ad- 
anced againft the common h)po- 
hefis, and which may be feen in the 
ireper place, may be alleged againll 
his; for the conftant vibration, with 
vhich the elaftic fluid m-uit be agi- 
ated, v;ould communicate to fmall 
)odies, and even to large ones fuf- 
>endcd in that fluid, a conllant tre- 
nulous, vibratory motion. In fuch 

1 cafe, it would be difficult to ex- 
imine the texture and vifible quali- 
ies of thofc fmall bodies, as one nc- 
:eflary mean of examination, a great 
leal of light, would increafe the 
ibratjon ; and thereby reader the 
xaniinadon not only difiicult, but 
mprafticable. It is apprehended, 
low ever, that no fuch motion, or 
mbarraflmerit, in the making of 
bch examinations, has ever been ob- 
erved. 

What is mentioned about tkc elec- 
rical fpark, that it is bright, and 
ifible at a diftance, and this vvith- 
Hit fuel— and that no part of the 
:leftrical fluid flies off, lu fuch cafe, 
diftant places, but all goes direCl- 
y, and is to be found in the place, 
which it is dellined, appears to 
avour the hypothefis ; as the impli- 
:d inference K-eras to be, that the 
'ifibility of the eledric fpark arifes 
rom th.e vibration it produces in the 
iniverfal elaflic fluid. But if the 
Ofcgoing queries furnilla fufficient 



reafon for doubting the exlRence of 
fuch a fluid, or for doubting uich an 
effect from it, fuppofing its exiftence, 
will they not furnilh equal reafoo foe 
doubting the hypothefis t 

The vifibility of the cleftric fpark 
may be accounted for, upon the prin- 
ciples of the received doftrine con- 
cerning light, without fuppofing any 
diminution of the pure eletflric fluid 
in the fpark : no part of which, it 
is f;iid, flies oft in the cafe nicati- 
oned. 

]t feems not improbable, that the 
ele<5tric fluid is heterogeneous as well 
as light. 

The licterogeneoufnefs of light is 
inferred from its colours, which are 
laid to vary proportionably, as the 
fize of the particles doth vary : the 
variation becoming confpicuous by 
a prifin, and by other means, which 
cUifs the particles according to their 
refptdive magpatudes, or degrees of 
rei tangibility and rcflexibility. 

Betide this, another reafon vmy 
b^ fuggcfled, from which the hetero- 
geneoufnefs ot light may be deduced ; 
namely, becaufe it exhibits efil-dts 
fimilar to fome of thofe of eledricity. 
For example, a globe or pane of 
glafs warmed in the fun, or before a 
lire, will fucceflively attraft and repel 
fmall cork balls, down, and fuch 
like bodies infuiated, and properly 
circumftanced ; and will Qiew other 
figns of eledricity communicated to 
tkc glafs by the fun or fire. 

So, in regard to elediiclty, itji 
heterogeneouuiefs may be colleclcd 
from its producing etFefts refembling 
fome of thofe of iight or fire ; which 
are here confidered a§ equivalent 
terms. 

Eledrifity and fire differ in mary 
rcfj<ei5ls, and in fome they agree ; 
jis hath been fliewn in dr. Franklin's 
letters on eledricity. So far as they 
agree in their tfffefts, their nature 
may be prefumed to be alike ; or 
rather, from that agreement and 



toG 



Ohfervations on light. 



fitnilitudc of effects, I think it may 
be inferred, that they are mixed with, 
jmd generally do accompany each 
other: and that each produces its 
CRvn effc(5l at the time of their joint 
operation. TheefFeftsofeleftricity, 
lirailar to thofe of fire, being pro- 
duced by the fire mixed witli it ; and 
the effeds of fire, refembling thofe 
of eleftricity being produced by the 
electricity mixed with that : the 
compound taking its name from the 
predominant principle. 

Thus, fire inflames bodies, and 
throws its particles or light at a dif- 
tance. Hence the explofion of gun- 
powder, and the luminous appear- 
ance, occafioned by the ele«Jlkric 
fpark : the fire mixed with it pro- 
dacing thofe efFcfts. 

Thu^^alfo, eledricity att rafts and 
repels certain fmall bodies alternate- 
ly, under given circuniftances. 
Hence, the alternate attraftion and 
Tepulnon of glafs, and fome other 
things, heated by fire : the eleftrici- 
ty mixed with the communicated fire 
producing thofe effeds. 

In this way, I would infer the he- 
terogeneoufnefs of light and eleftri- 
city, and their mixture with each 
other; and in this way, account for 
the fimilitude and ditFerence of their 
cfeds ; and for the luminous appear- 
ance or vifibility of theelsftric (park 
in particular, without diminilhing 
the pureeleftric fluid contained in it : 
all of which, in the cafe referred to, 
is faid to go direftly, and is to be 
found in the place, to which it was 
deftined. 

On the fame principles, the (hin- 
ing of diamonds in the dark, when 
rubbed, and thereby eledrified, may 
be accounted for, without fuppofing 
they lofe any part of their matter. 

In regard to the different colours 
of the eledric fpark, which are more 
or lefsftrong according to the ftrcngth 
of the fpark, they correfpond to the 
different colours of light or fire, 



which arc more or lefs vivid accord 
ing to the denfity or intcnfenefs o 
that element. This famenefs of ef 
feft (hews a famenefs of caufe, o 
that the light or fire mixed with th 
eleftric fpark produces thofe colours 
whofe ftrength or vividtiefs being ac 
cording to the bignefs of the fpark 
or to lis quantity of eleftric fluid 
makes it probable, than in propor 
tion to the quantity, there is mof 
or lefs light or fire contained in tha 
fluid. 

Thofe different appearances feer 
to be a further inftance or proof o 
the heterogeneoufnefs of the eledlri 
fluid ; and, taken in connexio 
with other appearances above- mer 
tioned, fhew the intermixture, an 
the confequent heterogeneoufnefs, c 
the two elements. 

The next thing to be confidered, i: 
the objedion to the received doftrir, 
concerning light. But this vyill t 
the fubjeft of another memoir. 



Ohferuatiam on light, and the luajit 
matter in the fun and fixed Jiars , occi 
jioned by the conftant ejflux of iigi 
fro?n them : ivith a conjedur 
propofcd by nuay of query, andfti^ 
gefiing a mean, by nuhich their J 
'veralfyfiems might be preferred fro 
the diforder and final ruin^ to ivh'i 
they feem liable by that <wafie 
matter, and by the lain of graviti 
tion. Communicated to the America 
academy of arts and fcienas, A 
James Boivdoin, efq. prefident of fa 
academy, and late governor of t, 
fate of kajachufetfs. 

HAVING inaprecedinp memo 
laid before the academy tl 
obfervations that occurred on tl 
fubjea of dr. Franklin's hypothei 
relative to light, I (hall now confid 
iiis objeftions to the received dodrii 
concerning it. 

The objeaions will appear by ll 



Ob/ervations on light. 



stsjr 



allowing paragraph taken from one 
f his letters on philofophical fub- 

" I nvuft own, fays the doftor*, 
am much in the dark about light. 
am not fatisiied with the doftrine, 
iiat fuppofes particles of matter call- 
d light, continually driven off from 
ic fun's furface, with a fwiftnefs 
D prodigious ! Muft not the fmal- 
;it particle conceivable, have, with 

]jch a motion, a force exceeding 
hat of a twenty-four pounder, dif- 
harged from a cannon ? Muft not 
he fun diminifn exceedingly by 
ach a wafte of matter, and the pla- 
nts, inftead of drawing nearer to 
im, as fome have feared, recede to 
;reater diftances through the leflen- 
d attraction? Yet thefe particles, 
I'ith this amazing motion, will 
lot drive before them, or remove, 
he leaft and lighteft duft they meet 
vith : and the fun, for aught we 
;now, continues of his ancient 
iimenfions ; and his attendants 
nove in their ancient orbits." 

The doftor's diffatisfadion with 
^e received doArine, is founded 
)n two objeftions implied in his 
queries, and which may be ex- 
preffed in the following propofiti- 
ons. 

I ft. That fuppofing the dodrine 
true, the fmalleft particle of light 
muft be driven to us with prodigi- 
ous force, a force exceeding thai of 
a twenty-four pounder, difcharged 
from a cannon. But this is contra- 
ry to faft. 

2dly. That the fun muft be exceed- 
ingly diniinifhed by fuch a wafte of 
matter; and the planets, in confe- 
queiice of it, muft recede to greater 
diftances from him. But, for aught 
we know, both the fun and the 

NOTE. 

* See letters and papers on phi- 
Jcfopliical fuhjeds, page 264. edit, 
1769. 



planets, continue in their ancient 
ftate. 

From thefe propofitions it is im- 
plicitly inferred, that the do^ine is 
not well founded. 

Among the obfervations on the 
fecond propolition, an h)'pothefis will 
be propofed, by way of query, fug- 
gerting a mean, whereby the ma- 
terial fyftem, coUcftively takea, 
might be | referved from the difor- 
der and ruin, to which they feein 
liable from caufes hinted at in tliat 
propofition. 

In regard to the objedioij contain- 
ed in the firft propofition, it adopts 
the idea, that light, like any other 
body in motion, will ftrike with a 
force proportioned to the degree o£ 
its motion : which degree of motion, 
or the celerity, multipli^ed by the 
quantity of matter in the body, will, 
in the refult, exprefs its force or mo- 
mentum. 

If, then, we can fuppofe the quan- 
tity of matter in a particle of light 
to be, not indeed abfolutely, but 
comparatively, o, its momentum 
will alfo be comparatively o ; and 
it can have, in that cafe, no vifible 
effect on the fmalleft partick of duft, 
to remove it. 

Let us now confickr what reafon 
there is for fuch a fuppofition. la. 
order to that, I beg leave to intro- 
duce here, a paragraph, from on of 
my letters to dr. Franklin, printed 
with his letters and papers on philo- 
fophical fubjefls. It runs tlius*, 
" The flame of a candle, it is faid, 
may be feen four miles round. The 
light, difFufed through this circle of 
eight miles diameter, was contained, 
before it left the candle, within a 
circle of half an inch diameter. If 
the denfity of light, in thefe circum- 
ftances, be as thofe circles to each 
other, that is, as the fquares of their 



Letters, &-C. p. 27^. 



SoS 



Cbfervatiom on light. 



diameters (or, winch is equivaJent, if 
the denfity decreafcj as the fqnare of 
the diftance or femi-diameter incrca- 
fes, the candle-light, when come to 
the eye, will be i, 027,709, ;,37, 600 
times rarer than when it lirlt quit- 
ted the half-inch circle. Now the 
aperture of the eye, through which 
the light paiTes, does not ex- 
ceed one tenth of an inch diame- 
ter, and the portion of the lefs 
circle, which correfponds to this 
fmall portion of the greater circle, 
mull be proportionably, that is, 
1,027,709,337,600 times lefs than 
one-tenth of an inch : and yet this 
infinitely fmall point (if you will 
allow the cxpreffion) affords light 
enougii to make it vifible : or ra- 
ther alFords light fufiicient to af- 
feft the fight at that diilance." 

If the calculation, referred to in 
that paragraph, be jull — and we 
(hould fuppofe a fmgle panicle of 
light, though incomparal^ly fmaller, 
to be in bigncfs equal to that pr)int — 
I would aik whether the quantity 
of matter in fuch a particle would 
not be fmall in a greater degree 
than its velocity, equal to that of 
the fun's light, would be great ? If 
fo, a particle of light in motion, 
agreeably to the foregoing fuppo- 
fition, may be here eftimated o, and 
its momentun^ not fufficient to re- 
move the lighteft dull; much lefs 
to do as much execution as a twen- 
ty-four pounder, difcharged from a 
cannon. 

It is impoflible to calculate the 
momentum, where the requifite data 
cannot be had : but fuppofing the 
candle-flame equal in bulk to a fphere 
of half an inch diameter, and to weigh 
as much as an equal bulk of air, viz. 
about one thirtieth part of a grain ; 
though in faft its gravity is incom- 
putably lefs than that of air: then 
the fqiiare aforefaid will exprefs the 
proportion, in which the denfity of 
the candle-light is diminifhed at the 



verge of the greater circle : and the 
fame proportion of one thirtieth oil 
a grain will exprefs the weight bl! 
that light at the verge, viz. one 
30,83i,28o,i28,ocoth part of a 
grain ; which we will confider sts 
the weight of a fingle particle ol 
the fun's light. If the velocity ol 
light be at the rate of 80,000 000 
miles in fix minutes, then its velo- 
city will be 22::, 222 miles, equal to 
14,079,985,920 inches, in a ftcond. 
7his number of inches, divided by 
30,831,280,128,000. the fuppofed 
particles in a grain, will (hew the de- 
gree of motion required in a body 
weighing one grain, to give it a mo- 
mentum, equaf to that of a particle 
of light, upon the hypothefis aflum- 
ed : which motion will be 456 mil- 
lionth parts of an inch in a ferond, 
equal to one inch in 2190 feconds, 
or thirty fix miiiutes and .nn half; 
and is much flower than the hour- 
hand of a common clock ; which, 
with its greater degree of motion, 
and much greater quantity of mat- 
ter, does not give to the fmalleft 
bodies, placed in its way, any vilible 
mt>tion. 

Precifion in this calculation is not 
aimed at, and the nature of the fnb- 
jcft does not admit of it : but it is 
apprehended it will appear fuffici- 
ently evident from it, that light, e- 
ven if its velocity were much great- 
er than it is, and its gravity equal to 
that of air, to which, with great- 
difadvantage to the argument, it has 
been, in that refpefl, compared, can- 
not drive before it the lighteft duft, 
or, indeed, give it any fenfible mo- 
tion at all. 

To the fame purpofe it may be fur- 
ther obferved, that light reflefted to- 
the eve through a microfcope and 
prifm, would, it is apprehended, ex- 
hibit the fame variety of colours, as 
light coming directly from the fun. 
In which cafe, the ray fo viewed, 
(like the candle-ray, which has been 



Ohjewatiom on ffght. 



confidered as a fingle particle only) 
muft be compofed of a multitude of 
particles ; and be a proof, that the 
particles of light are inconceivably 
fmaller than the calculation fuppofes. 
This degree of fmallnefs, however, 
reprefents them to be of great mag- 
nitude, compared with their real 
{ize : for, when we confider, that the 
fun's light is diffufed through the 
whole folar fyftem, and much be- 
yond it — and that a part of it, in 
that attenuated ftate, is reflefted to 
us from the planets, in which reflec- 
tion it undergoes, by its divergence, 
a further, and an extreme, attenua- 
tion — and efpecially, when we confi- 
der the immenfe fphere, throughout 
which the light of the fixed ftars is 
vifible, particularly thofe of them, 
whofe diftance is fo vaft, that, at 
oppofite points of the earth's orbit, 
they have no fenfible parallax — the 
divifibility of light, and the propor- 
tionable tenuity of its particles, con- 
found the imagination ; and render 
human calculation inadequate to ex- 
prefs the precife degree of them, or 
the inconfiderablenefs of the momen- 
tum of thofe particles. 

This inadequatencfs is particularly 
applicable to the foregoing calcula- 
tion : which was purpofely made on 
the difadvantageous principles afl'um- 
cd in it, to (hew, that even on fuch 
principles, the momentum of light 
could produce no vifible motion in 
thefmalleft bodies, that fall under 
our notice. But had the calculation 
been founded on the ftate of the fun's 
light, reflefted from one of the pla- 
nets, for inftance, the Georgium 
Sidus, lately difcovered by mr. 
Herfchell, the refult would have 
been widely different ; and we fhould, 
in that cafe, have had a jufter idea of 
the momentum. The light refleded 
to the earth from that planet, whofe 
mean diftance from the fun is faid to 
be 2,000,000,000 miles, is fo ex- 
tremely attenuated, that the momen- 

Vol, III. No. III. 



209 

turn of a particle of it, transferred 
to a body, weighing a millionth part 
of a grain, would communicate to 
it fo fmall a degree of motion, that 
it would require millions of ages 
for that body to move the diminu- 
tive part of an inch mentioned in that 
calculation. 

If thefe obfervations be juft, it is 
apprehended they fliew, with fome 
degree of evidence, that a particle 
of light, notvvithftanding its prodi- 
gious velocity, cannot, by its impulfe, 
remove other bodies, ordifplaceeven 
the fineft microfcopic duft ; and that 
the doftrine objefted to, may be 
true, notwithftanding the firft of the 
two objedions, which have been 
made to it. 

Thefecond propofition, contain- 
ing the other objedion, is, that in 
cafe there are particles of matter, 
called light, continually driven off 
from the fun's furface, the fun muft 
be exceedingly diminifhed by fuch a 
wafte of matter; and the planets, 
in confequence of it, muft recede to 
greater diftances from him, through 
the lefTened attraflion. 

Here I beg leave to obferve, that 
if the material fyftem, in its prefent 
form, was not intended by its Crea- 
tor to be perpetual, then the wafte 
of the fun's matter, and the confe- 
qucnt diforder in the fyftem, arifing 
from the altered ftate of its gravi- 
tation, will only be a proof of that 
intention: and not operate againft 
the truth of the doftrine. 

That fyftem, like every other, de- 
rived from the fame original, doubt- 
lefs has within itfelf the means of 
continuing in its prefent form, un- 
til the great and wife purpofes of its 
author fhall be brought into effeft, 
and completely anfwered. 

With rcfpeft to the folar fyftem, 
fo far as its continuance depends on 
the fun, it feems calculated, not- 
withftanding the fuppofed wafte of 
the fun's matter, to laft for many 
B 



Ohjervathm on light. 



ages ; for the fun, by reafon of its 
prodigious bulk, and the divifibility 
of its matter, muft, from its own 
internal fources, furnilb light to_ the 
fyftem, through a long trad of time, 
without being fenfibly diminifhed. 
If thofe eccentric bodies, called co- 
mets, which have been thought in- 
tended to recruit the fun's wafte of 
matter, do in faft anfwer that pur- 
pofe, provifion is then made for the 
prefervation of the fyftem, at leaft 
until thofe bodies fhall have all fuc- 
ceffively fallen into the fun, and been 
expended. When that fhall happen, 
if there be provided no further means 
of recruit, the fyftem will begin to 
decay, and- finally be reduced to a 
chaotic ftate : from which, like our 
earth, it may be reftored in fome 
»ew form, to anfwer the further pur- 
pofesof the Creator. I mention our 
earth, as in the Mofaic account of 
it, its original is defcribed in fuch a 
manner, as to give us the idea of its 
having been an old planet, by fome 
means^or other reduced to a chaos ; 
from which it was renovated, and 
made fuitable for the purpofes, to 
which it has been applied. 

There is nothing unreafonable, or 
improbable, in that idea: and if 
the earth was fo renovated, it may 
be inferred from analogy, that in 
cafe the prefent fyftem (hould go to 
decay, a new one, and perhaps a 
fuperior one, would arife from its 
ruins. 

Thefe obfervations are founded 
on the idea of the wafte of the fun's 
matter, and its final diflblution, 
■with that of the fyftem depending 
upon it : whether gradually occafi- 
oned by that wafte of matter, or 
more rapidly brought on by the ge- 
neral law of gravitation. In this 
view of things, the objeftion does 
not militate with the doflrine. 

But perhaps it may be thought 
more philofophical, and that it would 
better comport with our ideas of the 



wifdom of the Creator, to fuppofe, 
that when he created the fyftem, he 
intended it ftiould be a permanent 
one; and at the fame time furnilhcd 
it with the means of its own prefer- 
vation. In which cafe, may it not 
be further fuppofed, particularly with 
regard to the efflux of light from the 
fun, by which its matter is conceived 
to be wafted, that he provided means 
whereby the effluent particles, after 
anfwering the purpofe of their efflux, 
fliould be returned to the fun, to an» 
fwer again, in a conftant fucceflion, 
the fame purpofe ? 

I do not know, whether the hy- 
pothefis, fuggefted in the following 
queries, and relative to that fubjeft, 
be admiflible, or not. It is hovrever 
offered for confidcration. 

It was primarily and fpecially in- 
tended to fuggeft a mean for prevent- 
ing the ruin, to which the material 
fyftem feems liable, from the general 
principle of gravitation : but the 
fame mean may poflibly be applied 
to reftorc to the fun, in a regular fuc- 
celTion, its effluent light; and there- 
by obviate the evil effefts that might 
otherwife follow from the efflux. 

Is it not conceivable, that round 
the folar fyftem, and the feveral fyf- 
tems, which compofe the vifible hea- 
vens , there might have been formed 
a hollow fphere, or orb, made of 
matter, fui generis, or of matter like 
that of the planets, and furrounding 
the whole ; having its inner or con- 
cave furface at a proper diftance 
therefrom ; beyond which furface 
light could not pafs, and between 
which, and the particles of light, 
there Ihould be a mutual repulfion ? 
And might not the fun, or fource ol 
light, of each fyftem, have been ft 
placed, in refpedl of each other, ar 
the concave furface of the furround 
ing orb, that there fhould be, by d^ 
red and repeatedly indireft reflexl- 
ons, an interchange of rays betweei 
them, in fuch a manner, as that H 



Ohfei-vations on lights 



an 



each there fhould be reftored the 
quantity it had emitted ; and there- 
by the wafte of its matter he pre- 
vented : and this at the fame time 
it difpenfed its light to its particular 
fyftem ? 

This ufe of fuch an orb is here 
meant to be confidered as a feconda- 
ry or incidental one ; to which it 
might be applied : but the principal 
or primary ufe of it, as a counterba- 
lance to the gravitating principle of 
the fyftems contained within it, will 
be feen in its proper place. 

There is a remarkable phenome- 
non in the folar fyftem, to which 
the ideal one, juft mentioned, bears 
fome refemblance, and by which it 
was fuggefted : I mean the ring or 
arch, which furrounds the planet Sa- 
turn. We are told by aftronomers 
:hat its width, and alfo its diftance 
From Saturn, is about 25,000 miles 
— forming around that planet a 
beautiful arch, which may be de- 
figned, among other purpofes, to 
increafe its light and heat by refleft- 
ing upon it, like a concave mirror, 
the fun's rays: of which, by reafon 
of its great diftance from the fun, it 
would not otherwife have had afuffi- 
cient quantity. 

If Saturn were a luminous body, 
iper fe, and the arch, (made of fuita- 
ble matter, and properly conftrufted, 
for the purpofc) entirely environed 
it, the whole quantity of light emit* 
ted from it, would be refleftcd 
back ; and no wafte of its matter 
arife from that emiffion. The fame 
kind of hollow fphere or orb, fur- 
rounding, for inftance, the folar 
fyftem, would anfwer the fame pur- 
pofe. Its fun being in the centre 
of the orb, would have all its light 
reverberated back to it : except the 
comparatively fmall quantity inter- 
cepted by the planets : a great part 
of which quantity would, by direft, 
■and indireft reflexions, be returned 
to the fun J and a quantity equal to 



the remainder, by means of volca- 
noes, and other internal fires in the 
planets, might be thrown off from 
them, and conveyed to the fun ; 
whereby the equilibrium of the 
whole might be preferved. 

Such an orb for a fingle fyftem 
appears fimpic and plain ; and fuch 
an one for the whole choir of fyf- 
tems, though feemingly more com- 
plicated, might yet appear equally 
fuitable for the purpofe, when its 
ftrufture, and the laws and princi- 
ples which governed it, and alfo the 
fituation of the feveral fyftems rela- 
tive ro it, and to each other, fhould 
become known. 

Its ftupendous extenfion would 
be no objeftion to the fuppofition of 
its reality : for if the convenience 
and pleafure of the inhabitants of 
Saturn were a fufficient reafon for 
furnifhing that planet with its maf- 
fy ring, the prefervation of fuch a 
choir of fyftems, with the aftonifh- 
ing multitudes of their inhabitants, 
would juftify and fufficiently fup- 
port the fuppofition of fuch an orb: 
efpecially, when it is confidered, 
that befides anfwering the grand 
purpofe of preferving thofe fyftems, 
it might, perhaps, like Saturn's 
ring, be provided on both fides of 
it, with ample means of making it 
a fuitable place for habitation — 
the habitation of myriads of mil- 
lions of animate beings, equal or 
fuperior to thofe, which people our 
planetary fyftem. 

Beyond that orb, at proper dif- 
tances, it is conceivable, there might 
be other concentric orbs, equally 
fuitable for habitation, and alike in- 
habited : inclading within them in- 
numerable fyftems of planets, refem- 
bling the folar fyftem, and like that 
animated, and adorning the infinite 
expanfe. 

To this hypothefis, objeftions may 
be made, and fuch as might prove it 
to be, like many a one which has 



212 



Objervaltons on light. 



preceded it, a mere philofophical 
reverie. But before it be ranked in 
that clafs, I would afk, whether, if 
there be no fiich orb, nor any thing 
to anfwer a like purpofe, the law of 
gravitation, that univerfal law, on 
which the philofophy of the immor- 
tal Newton is founded — by which, 
with fuch admirable fagacity, he 
has explained the phenomena of 
material nature — and on which he 
makes its prefervation depend, will 
not finally bring on its diffolution ? 
Or rather, whether the operation of 
that law would not long ago have 
brought it on ? 

The fun of our planatery fyftem, 
and the funs (called fixed ftars) 
of other fyftems, and therefore 
the fyftems themfelves, do proba- 
bly, according to aftronomical ob- 
fervations, poffefs the fame relative 
place ; or arc, in refpeft of each 
other, fixed. But how are the ex- 
terior fyftems (fuppofing the whole 
not boundlefs) prevented from ap- 
proaching towards the common cen- 
tre of gravity : from which, if they 
have no revolution round it, (which 
the like obfervations make probable) 
they cannot be kept by a projeftile 
or centrifugal force ? Muft they 
not conftantly by that law be drawn, 
with an accelerating motion, to- 
wards that centre ; and finally, with 
the whole choir of fyftems, direfted 
by that law, arrive at it with fuccef- 
five tremendous crafties, until the 
deftruftion of the whole would be 
completed ? and could any thing, 
but the interpofition of the power 
which created them, prevent it* ? 

NOTE. 

* Mr.Whiftonobferves, " It is by 
no means impoffible, that all the bo- 
tlies in the univerfe (hould approach 
to one another, and at laft unite in 
the common centre of gravity of the 
«ntire fyilera: nay from tJie uiu- 



If fuch a cataftrophc would be the 
efFcd of that law, would it not de- 
monftrate the wifdom and forefight 
of the Creator, to fuppofe, he pro- 
vided the means of counterafling 
that efFed, at the fame time he or- 
dained the law ? And among the 
poffible means of doing it, is it not 
conceivable, that a hollow fphere, or 
orb, analogous to that above defcrib- 
ed, might be one ? 

It has been fuggefted in what way 
fuch an orb might prevent the gra- 
dual wafte and decay of the material 
fyftem. Let us now fee, whether 
it might not be applied to prevent 
the fwifter and more dreadful cataf- 
trophc, to which the law of gravi- 
tation, in certain circumftances, 
feems capable of fubjefting that fyf- 
tem. 

The defcribed orb, like every 
other body, would poflefs the gravi- 
tating principle, in proportion to 
its quantity of matter : which, in 
diiFerent parts of the orb, might be 
more or lefs denfe, as the efFeft, in- 
tended to be produced, might re- 
quire. Where a ftrong attraftive 
power might be neceflary, the den- 
fity would be greater ; and fo, njice 
verfd: and to affift or co-operate 
with it, a magnetic power might be 
fuperaddcd. 

Thus conftituted, and furnifhed 
with thofe, and other needful qua- 
lities, and furroundlng the whole 
vifible choir of fyftems, might not 
the orb, by the principle of gravi- 
tation, either alone or affifted, keepi 
thofe fyftems, next to it, from be- 
ing drawn towards the centrei 
of gravity by their own, and the 



verfality of the law of gravitation, 
and the finitenefs of the world, in 
length of time, except a miraculoM 
power interpofe and prevent it, it 
muft really happen." Difcourfe, 
introduftory to his theory, p. 38. 



Ohfervatiojis on the exiflence of an all furrouniing orh* 



nutual aftion of the interior fyf- 
ems ? And might not thofe feveral 
yftems be fo placed, and the den- 
Ities of the bodies refpedively be- 
onging to them, with the denfities 
)f the furrounding orb, and confe- 
juently their mutual gravitating 
jovver, be fo regulated, and adjufted, 
IS to keep them all at the diftance 
iffigaed them ; and forever prevent 
heir approximating, either to the 
entre of the general fyftem, or to 
ts furrounding orb : all of them to- 
gether thus conftituting an undecay- 
ng permanent whole ? 

it has been obferved by philofo- 
ihers, *' that a body placed any 
vhere, within a hollow fphere, 
vhich is homogeneous, and every 
vhere of the ^me thicknefs, will 
lave no gravity, wherefoever it be 
ilaced: the oppofite gravities al- 
vays precifely deftroying each o- 
her*." But that observation can- 
lot be applied to the hollow fphere 
flr orb, above defcribed ; for by the 
iefcription, it is not homogeneous. 
Nor need it be of equal thicknefs : 
ivhich, however, is a circumftance 
jf no confideration, if equal thick- 
acfs, with different degrees, of den- 
(ity in different parts, would anfwer 
;he purpofe. 

The phenomena of nature, upon 
the fuppofition of fuch an orb, would 
probably be the fame, catcris paribus, 
as now take place. Whether that 
fuppofition befupported by pheno- 
mena, and what other foundation 
there is for it, will be the fubjeft of 
a future memoir. 

NOTE, 

* Chambers's Cyclopaedia, under 
the word; gravity. 



215 

Ob/ervations tending to prove, hj phe- 
nomena and fcripuire, the exijtence 
of an orb, luhich furrounds the 
•whole niijible material Jjjiem ; and 
nuhich may be neccjjarj to preferve 
it from the ruin, to ivhich, nxjithout 

fuch a counterbalance, it feems liO' 
ble by that univerfal principle in 
matter, gravitation. Communicated 
to the American academy of arts and 

fcienees, by fames Bo'wdoin, ef^, 
prcfident of the /aid academy, and 
late governor of the fate of Majfa- 
chujetts, 

AT the conclufion of a memoir, 
entitled, " Obfervations on 
light," &c. which I have had the ho- 
nour to lay before the academy, it 
was intimated, that there are phe- 
nomena in nature, and other evidence, 
tending to prove the exiftence of an 
orb, that furrounds the whole vifible 
material Aftem. 

The evidence is — phenomena and 
fcripture. 

The phenomena are, — the lumi- 
nous girdle in the blue expanfe, cal- 
led the Milky Way — other lumi- 
nous appearances in it — and the ex- 
panfe itfelf. 

In regard to the luminous girdle, 
or Milky Way. — This phenomenon 
has been fuppofed to refult from the 
combined luftre of infinite multi- 
tudes of ftars, too dift^ant to be dif- 
tinftly vifible. But although it be 
obferved through telefcopes, that 
there is a great number of ftars in 
the Milky Way, on which circum- 
ftance the fuppofition is founded, 
they appear as ftars fet in it, diftin- 
guifhable from it, and not contribu- 
ting to form the phenomenon. 

The fuppofition not only difagrees 
with the appearance, but is incon- 
liftent with every philofophical idea 
concerning thofe ftars. They are re- 
prefented to be funs : each having 
its fyftem of planets revolving round 



*I4 Obfervatiom on the exijienct of an all-furraundiiig orb. 



it; and cortfequently requiring a 
fpace proportioned to their number, 
and the extent of their fyftems: 
which fpace, for fuch multitudes of 
them as the fuppofition implies, muft 
be beyond conception immenfe : and 
through which they muft therefore 
be difperfed at fuch diftances, that 
comparatively few of them could be 
vifible by us ; and that the_ whole 
together would not blend their light 
to caufe that phenomenon. 

On the contrary, the phenomenon 
ftrikes us, as it may be fuppofedfuch 
a luminous girdle would ftrike, if 
its light were reflefted from the con- 
cave furface of a far-diftant orb : to 
which, on the hypothefis affumed, it 
had been propelled from the nume- 
rous fyftems which the orb enfolds. 

The fame idea is fuggefted by the 
different degrees of its light, from 
a fmall light to a faint one, fcarcely 
difcernible; by the frequent inter- 
ruptions of it; and by the large 
chafm, which, for a confiderabie 
fpace makes the girdle appear dou- 
ble and very irregular. 

Thefe appearances may be occafi- 
oned by the fituation of the earth, in 
refpeft tothofe parts of the orb, from 
which certain cones of light (prefent- 
ly to be explained) are reflefted; and 
by that particular conftruftion, and 
configuration of thofe parts; by 
means of which thofe cones are bro- 
ken and irregularly reflected to the 
earth: whofe different fituations in 
its orbit, by reafon of its great dif- 
tance from the orb, would occafion 
no fenfible difference iu the appear- 
ance. , , . 
With refpeft to the other lumi- 
nous appearances in the concave ex- 
panfe, I beg leave here to introduce 
feveral obfervations upon that fub- 
jeft, from two authors, who have 
diftinguiftied themfelyes in the aftro- 
nomical branch of fcience. 
One of then), dr. Smith, in his 



fyftem of optics, * obferves that Hu. 
genius, in the year i6j6, looking by 
chance through a large telefcope, al 
three fmall ftars very clofc to one 
another, in the middle of Orion'i 
fword, faw feveral more as ufuaL 
But the three little ftars very near 
one another, ( marked & by Bayer] 
together with four more, fhone oui 
as it were through a whitifh clouc 
much brighter than the ambient fky 
which being very black, caufcd tha' 
lucid part to appear like an aper- 
ture, which gave a profpeft into 5 
brighter region. He viewed it man) 
times ; and found it continued in th( 
very fame place, and of the famj 
fhape as the figure here reprefents: 




and called it, portentum, cut certejimi 
le aliud tiufquam apud reliquas fixa\ 
potnit animad'vertere." 

He alfo obferves, that*' in thi 
philofophical tranfaftions, f there ij 
an account of a later difcovery oj 
five more fuch lucid fpots, thoup 
lefs confiderabie than this of H 
genius ; the middle of which , wfl 
are there told, is at prefent in n • 

NOTES. 

* P. 447—8 

+ No. 347, Jones's Abr. vol, « 
p. 224, 



Olfervations on the exigence of an all-furrounding orb, z 1 5 



f 00' with fouth latitude 28** 45' 
id that It fends forth a radiant beam 
to the fouth-eaft, as another in 
le girdle of Andromeda feems to 
) into the north-eaft. It is alfo 
ere remarked, that though thefe 
ots are in appearance but fmall, 
id mod of them but a few minutes 
diameter ; yet, fmce they are a» 
ong the fixed ftars, as having no 
inual parallax, they cannot fail to 
cupy fpaces immenfely great ; and, 
;rhaps, not Icfs than our whole fo- 
r fyftem : in all which fpaces, it 
ould feem, that there is a perpetu- 
uninterrupted day." 
The other author, mr. Fergufon, 
caking of the Milky-Way, fays*. 
There is a remarkable tradl round 
e heavens, called the Milky-Way, 
Dm its peculiar whitenefs, which 
as formerly thought to be owing to 
vaft number of very fmall ilars 
erein : but the telefcope fhews it 
be quite otherwife; and therefore 
! whitenefs muft be owing to fome 
her caufe. This traft appears fin- 
e in fome parts, in others double. 
" There are feveral little whitifli 
ots in the heavens, which appear 
agnified, and more luminous, 
hen feen through telefcopes ; yet 
ithout any ftars in them." Five 
' which fpotb he particularly men- 
ons. 

He next obferves, that " cloudy 
irs are fo called from their mifty 
3pearance. They look like dim 
ars to the naked eye : but through 
telefcope, they appear broad illu- 
linated parts of the Iky ; in fome of 
hich is one ftar, in others more, 
ut the moft remarkable of all the 
oudy ftars, is that in the middle 
f Orion's fword, where feven 
ars (of which three are very clofe 
)gether) feera to ftiine through a 



NOTE. 



th. 



Aftronomy, p. 339 — 40. Edit. 



cloud very lucid near the middle, 
but faint and ill-defined about the 
edges. It looks like a gap in the 
fky, through which one may fee, 
as it were, part of a much brighter 
region." 

Thefe quotations, without making 
any comment upon them, fhew, that 
the Milky -Way is not owing to the 
ftars contained in it ; that the tele- 
fcope fhews it to be quite otherwife ; 
and that it muft be owing to fome 
other caufe : that, in refpeft to the 
lucid fpots, in fome of them there 
are no ftars; in others but itw; and 
that one of them exhibits a remark- 
able appearance of an aperture, or 
gap, that gave a profpeft into a 
brighter region : that the fpaces they 
occupy, tliough fmall in appearance, 
are, perhaps, not lefs than our whole 
folar fyftem ; and that in them it 
ftiould feem there is perpetual unin> 
terrupted day. 

From thefe phenomena it feems 
not improbable, that the Milky- 
Way, and thofe Uicids fpots, are 
parts of a concave body or orb, of 
the fame nature with fome of the 
other heavenly bodies; and, whofe 
light tranfmitted to us, exhibits 
thofe phenomena, according to the 
laws and circumftances, which regu- 
late it. 

There is another, and ftill more 
remarkable phenomenon, that fug- 
gefts the idea of fuch an orb; I mean 
the blue concave expanfe, which fur- 
rounds, and appears to limit vifible 
nature ; and which is the laft to be 
confidered. 

It is thus explained by fir Ifaac 
Newton; who obferves, that all the 
•' vapours, when they begin to con- 
denfe and coalefce into natural par- 
ticles, become firft of fuch a big- ■ 
nefs as to refleft the azure rays, ere 
they can conftitute clouds of any 
other colour. This, therefore, be- 
ing the firft colour they begin to 
refleft, muft be that of the fineH 



2l6 



Obfervations on the extjience of an aH-furrounding orh. 



and moft tranfparent flcies : in which 
the vapours are not arrived to a 
groflnefs fufficient to reiled other 
colours." 

By this explanation, it appears, 
that the caufe of this phenomenon 
exifts within the earth's atmofphere. 
If it really doth exift within it, 
the phenomenon, from the affign- 
cd caufe of it, feems to be no- 
thing more than a blue tranfparent 
cloud, more or lefs extenfive, in 
proportion as the atmofphere may 
happen to be lefs or more charged 
with other clouds. 

If this were the caufe, would 
not the heavenly bodies, in a clear 
fky, partake of the colour of that 
cloud, and appear blue, or be ting- 
ed with it, by means of their 
light paffing through the blue cloud ? 
And would not this appearance in- 
dicate, that the blue rays of their 
light were tranfmitted, and the 
other coloured rays, for the moft 
part, refleded, from the atmo- 
fphere ? Would not that tranfmif- 
fion of the blue rays occafion all 
bodies around us to appear blue, 
fo long as the atmofphere, conti- 
nuing clear, fhould exhibit the blue 
cloud* ? And would not the colours 
of thofe bodies vary, as other co- 
loured clouds lliould fucceed and 
predominate. 

Would not this refleiftion of the 
other coloured rays occafion not 
only a decreafe of light, but, with 
refped to the fun, a great diminu- 
tion of its heat ? If the feveral dif- 
ferent coloured rays do each, in re- 
fpeft to heat, produce an equal efFed ; 
and all but the blue rays are refleded, 
fhould we not in a clear day, be de- 
prived of fix-fevenths, or a proporti- 
onable part, of the fun's heat, which 
the feven forts of rays, had they 

NOTE. 

* Chambers's Clyclopsdia, under 
the word bluenefs. 



been all tranfmitted, would have af 
forded ? 

Such appearance^ and efFeds migh 
have been expeded, if the affignc( 
caufe produced the phenomenon 
for the fun's light and other liglit 
and alfo bodies in general, whatevc 
be their colour, being viewed thrc 
a medium of any original coloui 
will appear of that colour, or ftrong 
ly tinged with it. Butjtisappre 
bended, that no fuch appearance 
and efFeds have ever been obferved 
and, therefore, that there is reafo 
to doubt the reality of the caufe a 
figned : the infufficiency o.f whic 
may further appear in the courfe ( 
thefe obfervations. 

But how is the exiftence of tl 
orb deduced from the phenomenon 
• — in the fame manner as the exii 
ence of the other heavenly bodie 
and the exiftence of the bodies 
round us are deduced : namely, fro 
the uniformity and permanency 
their vifible qualities, or phenomen 

In regard to bodies around 
whenever by fight we have been ir 
preflfed with certain ideas of colou 
form, and magnitude, correfpon 
ing to bodies near us, and at an a 
proachable diftance, we have foun 
by conftant and uniform experiem 
derived alfo from, and confirmed 1 
every other fenfe and means of i 
formation, that fuch bodies do re; 
ly exift : and having thus from exp 
rience gained the knowledge, th 
certain phenomena do infallibly 
dicate the exiftence of thofe bodii 
the phenomena themfelves do th 
alone become the undifputed eviden 
of that exiftence. 

Nature is fimple and uniform 
its operations. From the fame cai 
follow like efFeds ; and thefe im 
cate the fame caufe. Bodies of e\ 
ry kind, through the medium 
light, produce their refpcdive pi 
nomena, and thefe demonftrate I 
reality of thofe bodies. 



OhJcTVations on the exiflenct of an all-furroundivg orh. 



From thefe principles, we infer 
the reality of ihofe terreftrial bodies, 
wl-iich, by reafon of their fituatiou 
iuv.l diltance, can only he the objects 
of fight; and from the fame prin- • 
riples we aifo infer the reality of 
' 'e heavenly bodies, the pianets 

id fixed ftars. If ihislaft inference 
I i; juil, is it not equally juft to infer 
from the fame principles, the reality 
ofthe blue circumambient expanfe ? 
that is, that it is a real concave body, 
encompalTm/J all vifible nature : 
v.hich is the exadl defcriplion of 
the concave furf^ice of the orb a- 
bovementioned. 

There is one .-ippearance of the 
blue expapfe, uiiich may be thought 
to militate with the foregoing ac- 
count cf ir. 

In a clear dar, it appears of a 
brighter blue than in the night, oc- 
cafioned by the fun's light, rtfleft- 
ed to us by the earth's atmofphere. 
From which ciixuinilance, it might 
be fuppofed, tiiat the caufe of the 
phenomenon doth exift within tlie 
uimofphere, and is the atmofphere 
itfelf, or its vapour. It is appre- 
hended, however, that this would 
be a miitaken fuppofition ; and that 
the appearance may be explained on 
principles, vvhich will not only in- 
validate the fuppofition, but further 
fnew the infufliciency of the caufe, 
to which the phenomenon has been 
afcrlbed. 

For that pnrpofe it may be obfer- 
ved, that the atmofphere being invi- 
lible, mnft be v.'ithout colour; and 
has, perhaps for that reafon, no 
great>s.f difpofition to tranfmit or 
reflefl to us the blue rays of light, 
whether of the fun or ftars, than 
thofe of the other colours : and, 
therefore, if the phenomenon be 
produced by means of the blue rays 
of thofe luminaries ('.vhich I Ihall 
attempt to explain} the atmofphere 
cannot be the caufe of that pro- 
dnftion. 

Vol. III. Nc. III. 



With refpeift to the vapours in tl-e 
atmofphere, which, in a particular 
ftate, are faid to occafion th.c pheno- 
♦ menon, they bein'^- of different de- 
grees ol groflhefs or dennty, muft 
arrange themfelves accordiiig to that 
denfity, or their fpecific grzvity. If 
then any of the ranges coniirred of 
vapour, in a proper Hate to tranfmit 
or refieft to the eve the blue rays 
only, the z^tdi of it would be def- 
troyed, or changed, by the grofier 
vapour in the lower range. Or if 
it fhould fo happen (v.hich feems 
very improbabiej that the whole 
body of vapour fhould ccnfift of 
particles of the due fize, and in the 
proper ftate to refled the blue rays, 
it could not long continue in that 
ftate, by reafon of the changeable 
nature of the vapour, and the nu- 
merous caufes, that are conftantly 
operating to produce a change in ir. 
Lilt ri.e phenomenon is uniform and 
permanent; and therefore muft be 
tlic effect ot an uniform and perma- 
nent caufe. 

If tl'.ofe obfervatior.s liave any 
foundation, r.cither the atmofphere 
norits vapour, a'HUed by, or alfiiting, 
the diredt ligh:t of the fun and ftars, 
can be the cau^e cf the phenomenon. 

The stmofjrhere, however, or its 
finer and tniufparerit vapour, con- 
tributes to the brighter hue of tlie 
phcnonenon by day : which may 
be thus explained : 

1 he fun's light in its mixed ftate, 
refieftcd by the atmofphere, cr by 
the tranfparent vapour floating in it, 
enters the eve at the fame time with 
the blue light of the expr.nfc; and' 
both together delineate on the retina 
an image, formed by their united 
rays, each producing its clfccl. The 
light from the expanfe exhibiting 
the blue image ; the light from thft 
fun iiluminacing or brightening the 
image; and both together impieding 
tht! idea of that phenomenon, ab it is 
difpijyed in a ckai da;'. 



?i8 



Ohjtrvations on the extjlence of an all-far rounding orb. 



If it fhauld be aflied, from whence 
the concave expanfe derives \^% Hglit, 
the anfwer is^ — from the numberlefs 
planetary or folar fyflenis, which it 
includes : and parricularly from thofe 
in tlie nsighhourhood of it, which 
direfily aalwer the pnrpofe of en- 
lightening and, in otlicr refpefts, 
accommodating its inhabitants. 

This light, tranfmitted to the ex- 
panfe through its atmofphere, is rc- 
llcaed back direftly and indiredly 
to the fyitcxs from which it iflaed, 
to be again, in a diTC fucceffon, re- 
mitted to, and rcHecied from, the 
expanfe. By fuch a reciprocation, 
and niutualinterchange of light with 
each other, and among themfelves, 
the feveral parts may be fupplied 
with the quantity they had refpec- 
tively emitted; and the equilibrium 
of the whole maintained : whereby 
the evils, that might oihcrwife en- 
fue from the r/afte, or undue diftri- 
bution of its matter, and the confe- 
quent alteration of its gravitation, 
might be prevented. 

To diiferent fyftems, according 
to their f:tuat;ons, the expanfe m:^y 
exliiint verv different phenomena. 
Although to our fyllem, or to us 
on this planet, it exhibits the blue 
concave of an all-furrounding orb; 
which, in the milky way, and in 
fome other parts of it, fliines with 
a brighter light, it mav to other fyf- 
tems lippcar of other colours; and 
exhibit to fome of them in fucceffion, 
according to their fituations, the fe- 
veral primitive colours, in the or- 
der, in which the rays of thofe co- 
^lonrs arc fcparated and cLnifed. 

Of one of thefe exhibitions, that 
of the i)lue colour, vvc have ocular 
demonftration. But why fhould the 
expanfe appear to «s blue, rather 
than green, or any other primitive 
colour ? If that appearance can be 
explained by the refrangibility of 
light, or by the feparation of it into 
its feveral colours, as perhaps it can, 



the other appearances of the expanfe 
to other fyltems, naturally, if not 
neceffarily, follow. 

Experiments prove, that light is 
ccrrapounded of differently-coloured 
rays ; and thatafterit has paft through 
difFerentmcdiums, properly difpofed, 
the rays are refradtcd, or fcparated 
and claffed, according to their dif- 
ferent refrangihility; and thew thofe 
colours in the order juft mentioned: 
that the three moft refrangible of 
them, the bhic, the indigo, and the 
violet, \yhich pijfi'efs ons half of 
the fpacc fpread over by the whok, 
are fo nearly allied in colour, that 
the laft when confiderably fpread, are 
fcarcely t© be dllHnguilhcd from the 
neighbouring blue : for which rea- 
fon, thofe three clafles appear as one, 
at a great dillance from the. refract- 
ing medium : and the blue, thus cir- 
cumftanced, antl uniting thofe claffes, 
may therefore be faid to pofTefs a 
fpace equal to the fpace occupied by 
all the reft. That from any fegment 
of a hollow fphere, fuch, for in- 
(tance, as a concave mirror, whofc 
arc does not exceed fifteen or eigh- 
teen * degrees ; the cylinder of rays 
falling upon it, parallel to its axis, 
will, if there be no refraction, l>e 
rcflefted to a focus round that axis : 
the focus being nearly equidiflant 
from the pole of the fegment, and 
the centre of its fphere: and that 
thofe rays, if previoufly refradttd, 
and claffed into their feveral colours, 
will, in their divergence from the 
focal point, (hew thofe colours in a 
rcverfed order : the refradion, how- 
ever, occafioning an alteration in 
the pofition of the focus, and t!i« 
diverging cone. 

To apply fomc of thefe obfcrva- 
tions, it may be fuppofed that the 



NoTE, 



'I 



* Gravefando's Natural Philofo-' 
phy. Book III. ch. xv. prop. 81 Ji 



Ohjtrvations on the exijlence cf an all-Jurronndinfr orb. 



interior fide of the expanfe has, i?i 
genera], an uivifarm furface, which 
may he conceived as compofcd of a 
multi'tude of ferments, each of them 
not exceeding a given arch : that it 
is furniiiied with an atmofphere, pof- 
/eiling, in feme peculiar mode, the 
powercfrefrafling light, of dilkibii- 
ting its rays into their iefpe-<ftive 
dalles, and t-ranfmittin? tliem to the 
e;-.panfe : which alfo may be con- 
ceived as alTifting, by its refieding 
P'jwer, in i!;eir ciaffification : that 
the tranfmitted rays wciild, in their 
claHt'd fiate, Le. leEcfled from it in 
all diredlioiis ; and that fuch cf tliein 
{hy fnr tlie gxcateft + part of the 
whole] as Ihoald come to the atmof- 



f That thefe parallel ra}s (paral- 
lel, I mean, to any and every con- 
ceivable diameter-line of the expanfe) 
miift ccnftirute the greateft quantity 
or proportion of the refleded light, 
will beunanifeft from thefe confitiera- 
tions : that they come to every feg- 
ment or part of the expnfe from, the 
oppofite part of it, and from the fyf- 
tems fitiiated betv/een fuch oppofite 
prts : that the diftance of any two 
oppofite parts from each other, equal 
to the diameter of the expanfe, is 
the greatcft that can take place with- 
in it: that rhere muft, therefore, be, 
in the fpace between them, n great- 
er number of fyftems fupplying the 
expanfe wkh light, than there can be 
in any extra -central dircdion ; and 
tliat this may be affirmed of every 
^wo oppofite parts or fegments ia 
tile whole, furface of the expanfe. 
The effeft of the atmofphere, in re- 
gard to the refradion, is not here 
aoticed. Thefe rays, like the fun's 
lays at the earth, are confidered as 
parallel, by reafon of the great dif- 
tance of the radiant bodies, and the 
confequent extreme miniitenefs of 
the angle of divergencs at fuch a 
4ift;ince, 



219 

phere in parallel lines or in cylin- 
ders, whofe axes Vvcre diameter-lines 
of the expanfe, and whofe bafcs 
were equal to ihofe fegments, would 
pafs through the atmofphere to the 
correfponding fegments of the ex- 
panfe, and be refieded from them ; 
and afterwards, in the fame clafied 
ftate, unite in a fccus, from whidt 
they v/ould diverge, and exhibit their 
feverr.l -colours. 

To give fomc idea, though an 
imperfed one, of fhat focus, the 
reflexion and convergence may \yt 
conceived as made (foaiewhat in the 
manner above reprefented) fiom the 
fegments ccmpofing the whole fur- 
face of tlie expanfe : that each feg- 
ment would rc'fled a cone of rays, 
terminating in a focus ; and that the 
united foci of thofe cones, which 
mull be confidered as coming tVom 
all quarters of the expanfe, would 
coaftitiite its genei-al focus. - 

In fonie fuch difpofiticn, and (late 
of thi-iig;., as here reprefented, it ij 
conceivable, that the fyiiem-liglu^ 
tranfmitted to the expanfe through 
its atmofphere, might be rcfleded 
from thole fegments ; and for the 
moll part converge in cont;s towards 
a general focus ; where, by means 
o-f the refradion and feparation, it 
had undergone in that tranfmiffioii 
and reflexion, it would be, in each 
cone, arranged or claffed, according 
to the different rtfrangibility and 
reflexibility of its rays. After the 
rays had pall the boundary of their 
focus, they would interfcd each 
other, and form new and reverfed 
cones, or conic figures, in which 
each fort of the coloured rays, as,' 
before the interfedion, would gene- 
rally be together ; and in that aiibci- 
ated ilate, continually diverge, in 
proportion to their dillancc from the 
line of interfedion. 

But perhaps the v/holeof this ef- 
fed, the claifification of the rays, 
may be caiifed by the relieding 



fiao 



Obfervations on the cxijlena of an all furi'ounding orb. 



power of the expanfe : which, in 
that cafe, would receive the rays in 
the fame mixed ftate, as thcdire<ftfo- 
lar light comes to the earth : with 
refpett to which, we know, that it 
frequently undergoes a claffification 
by rellexion, as well as by refrac- 
tion. 

In either cafe, as the three mofl: 
refrangible and reflexible claffes, at 
a proper diftance from the focus, 
are not to bediftinguifned from each 
other, but all appear blue ; and as 
the blue, at that diftance and be- 
yond it, doth therefore polfefs fo 
large a portion of the interior fpace 
of the expanfe* it is conceivable, that 
many fy Items may be fo placed, as 
to be on all fides in the direction of 
the rays of that colour ; and to which 
the whole expanfe would, for that 
reafon, appear blue. 

With refpefik to the earth, it is 
probably fofituated, as to be in all 
parts of its orbit, principally within 
the limits of fuch claffes, as are com- 
pofed of the blue rays ; and partly 
within the verge of claiTe-i, whofe 
rays, by reafon of their impeififi 
feparation, being in a mixed (late, 
exhibit a brighter light. The pre- 
dominant colour, therefore,* of the 
expanfe, as it refpe^fls the earth, is 
Iriue ; with inte^fpcrhons of a brighter 
light, fuch as the Milky Way, and 
other lucid parts of the expanfe : 
whofe irregular appearance, in the 
Milky '\Vay, may be owing (as hath 
been already fuggeded,) to the parti- 
cular conftruftion and configuration 
of its part:j : the brightnefs of which 
feems to intimate fome peculiarity 
in their conilitution, and in the cir- 
cumitances attending them — nature 
thus exhibiting, on a broad fcale, 
phenomena, v.'hich our little ex^'cri- 
ments can exhibit oniv in mini- 
ature; and of which thofe experi- 
nents fometimes lead to a happy ex- 
planation. 

Whether the fo.rf "oin^ be fuch an 



explanation, or wholly chimericali , 
in reference to the colour of the ex- 
panfe, does not affeft the expanfe it- 
felf : whofe exiilence, confidered as 
an all-furrouncdng orb, may be real, 
although the afTigned caufe of its co- 
lour be denionftrably without foun- 
dation. 

From the feveral phenomena a- 
bove-mentioned, unlefs the evidence, 
fuppofed toarifefrom them,be futile, 
or inadmiiTible, there is reafon to 
conclude, that an all-furrounding orb 
doth really exift ; and that the blue 
expanfe is that orb. 

It is an obfervation of fir Ifaac 
Newton, " that the main bufinefs 
of natural philofophy, is to argue 
from phenomena, without feigning 
hypothefes ; and to deduce caufes 
from e;F:c1s, till we come to the very 
firft caufe, which certainly isnot me- 
chanical ; and not only to unfold 
the mechanifm of the world, but 
chiefly (among others that are men- 
tioned) to refolve thefe, and fuch 
like quellions, viz. Whence is it, 
that the fun and planets gravitate 
towards one another, without denfe 
matter between them ? and what hin- 
d'jrs the fixed f.arsfrom falling upon 
one another ?"* 

Agreeably to the foregoing obfer- 
vation, the author of this memoir 
having adduced certain phenomena — ■ 
(he hopes not impertinently) — has, 
endeavoured, not only to argue frorB 
them, and to deduce the caufe from 
the efFeds, but to refolve that great 
queftion, concerning the fixed ftars 
and the heavenly bodies in general,, 
namely, What hinders them from 
falling upon one another, and there- 
by involving the whole in ruin i'— j 
Whether his endeavours have beea» 
fuccefsfully applied, thofe who arei 
((^n'-erf^nt in fuhjedts of this nature,, 
are btil qualified to judge. 

) 

NOTE. 

* Cptic?, p. 344. 4th edit. 8vo# 



Oijcyvations en thz cxijli.uce cf an all Jurrcunduig orb. 



221 



'n regard to the fubj<!fi: in hand, 
re feems to be a happy coinci- 
icc between phenomena and fcrip- 
e; and, therefore, in further evi- 
ice of fuch an orb, and in evi- 
ice of feveral other orbs fimlbr, 
1 concentric to it, we may recur 

fcripture ; feveral pnffages o{ 
ich appear applicable to that pur- 
fe. 

(t feldom hapj^ens, that natural 
ilofcphy is made to borrow as1if- 
ce from thence : but though fcrip- 
e may not be intended to inflrucl 
in the philofo[)hy of matetial na- 
e, it may ncveriKe!eli> give, 2nd 
intended to give, foine hints of 
conHitution, or gv-neral fyllem. 
As the palfages referred to, do not 

d any laboured comnK-nts, a very 
/ obfervations will fufnce to cx- 
in and apply them. 
A remarkauleonc', and which mny 
vc, in fome mtafuie, to elucidate 
; rert, is this palTage, " It is God 
U builiieth his ftories in the hca- 
lis."* In the Fi.glifh tranflation, 
lich agrees with the French, with 
; Latin cf Calkllio, and of Tie- 
illius and Junius, the marglr;al 
iding, referring to ftories, is 
leres and afcenfions. The former 
planatory of ftories : the latter, 
other word for the Hebrew ; and 
lich anfwers to the Greek of the 
ptuaginf. All which, both fcpa- 
tely and together, give the idea of 
fucceJiion of concentric fpheres, 
bending one' above another, lil-ie 
eiftories of a magnificent building : 
id, agreeably to that idea, though 
\ very different principles, perhaps 
X)feof the Ptolemean f)ilem, the 
xtthas been explained, t 

Notes. 

' * Amos, ch. ix. 6. 
+ Qui ardificat in ca'lo (in fu- 
"cmis ccelit) afcenfiones fuss — 
UEEfas fuas — gradus fuos : i. e. of- 

X- 



This comirnclion, which appears 
to be a natural one, gives a meaning 
to the text — a meaning iliullrativeof 
the omnipotence of the architcft : 
and, at the fame time that it elucidates 
fonie other texts relative to the fub- 
jc(ft, it is pcrfeftiy defcriptive of the 
concentric fpheres, or orbs, above 
iDcntioned. 

The fame idea is intiinated in the 
Pnort account, given of the creation, 
by Mcfes.who feems to refer to two 
firmaments. — The firft he mention?, 
is limited to the earth and its atrr.o- 
fphcre ; and the other is that in whicti 
the fixed liars do appear. 

it is this latter, that is here to 
be confidcred: concerning which, 
'• God faid, let there be lights in 
the firmament cf heaven;"' and con- 
cerning which, it is declared, that 
" God fet tliole lights in the firma- 
ment.'"'!: 



bes copleRcs, qui funt velut gradus, 
unDS lupra akerura. 

Poli fvnopfis in loc. 

X Gen. ch. i. v, 14. 17. 

Mr. Vv'hifion, whofe explanation 
of the Mofaic account of the crea- 
tion, is natural, and in general feeras 
to be jull, malce no diftintftion of 
firmaments ; which, however, he 
might have made, without injuring 
his theory; and which his own rules 
of interpretation would have jufli- 
fied. 

""Jhe upper firmament, or the blue 
expanfe, in vvhich the heavenly bo- 
dies were "' fet," he might have in- 
cluded, together with them, in the 
work of the fourth day, or year, 
as it was rendered vifible at the fame 
time, by means of the earth's at- 
mofphere, in that year, becoming 
tranfparent : which atmofphere, ac- 
cording to his theory, is the [other] 
firmament, or expanfe. He fuppo- 
fcs, the earth had no rDtation about 



ds w 



Chfervatiom on tht txiftaite of an alljurrcur.ding crb. 



The radix of the Hebrew word, 
tfanflated firmament, is apphed to 
God's fpreading out the f.cy, to 
the firmarr.rnt, or fpacious cx- 
tcnfior!, which is fpread abroad be- 
tu'een the earth r.nd the clomis : as 
alfo to that other firmament, or fpaci- 
ous cxtenfion, which is above the 
rio'jds, where the hertvenly bodies 
are placed.* 

The original word + means not 
only firmament, but cxpanf^», or 
fpacioi-.s cxtenfion. In the E-iglifli 
tranflation, r;nd alfo in the Greek 
r»F the SeptiMgint, it conveys the 
idea of fomerhing firm and folid. 
Some other tranflations adopt the 
other acceptation of it. Tt frcms to 
include both; and, ip-that caff\ means 
fomethiiig fulid a'nd fpatioufly ex- 
tended. 

1 his explication of the term, con- 
r.cfted with the appearance c:\ this 
firmament, or expanfe, gives us the 
intimation of a folid and fpaciouflv 
extended orb, or fphere : and anfwers 
to one of the ftories, which God 
built in the heavens. 

" The heavens X declare the glory 
of God : and the firmament fiiew^th 
Ivis handy-v/ork." — Here is a clear 
divciniftior. between the iieavcns and 
the firmament. By the former, are 
imeant the heavenly bodies ; and l^y 
the latter, the firmament, orexpanfe, 
in v/hich they appear. 



its axis, until the deluge; and, there- 
fore, thatits annual revolution rout d 
the fun, would occafion the antedi- 
luvian day to be exaftly commen- 
furate with the year. 

* Taylor's Hebrew concordance, 
root 1826. 

f The author of this memoir, be- 
ing unacquainted v/ith Hebrew, 
fpeaks of its meaning, from infor- 
instion only. 

t Pfalm xix. 1. Calum hoc ftel- 
liferum. Poli Syn. 



The fame obfervations may be ap 
plied to this, as have been applied t 
the foregoing paffage. 

Another, and more defcriptivec 
fuch an orb. is the following one 
*' hafi thou i].) read out the (ky, whic 
is flronjT, and as a molten looking 
glafs ?"' Ij or, as a mirror made ( 
polifhed metal. The foremention 
French and Latin verfions, and tl 
Greek of the Septuagint, do, in th 
pafl;ige,all concur with the Er.giifn,i 
rcprefcnting the fky, as ftrong, firn 
and fjlid. The Septuagint, cfpecialb 
exprefles this idea with peculiar forcf 
33 doth alfo the Hebrew orip-inal 
which, m tais jMace, compares tl 
flcy to a fjieciil'jm, or mirror, " mac 
of poiilhed metal. "'J 

" "i'he elegant fimile of the mirr( 
cannot be underllood, without reco 
le(?iing, that the mirrors of tl 
ancients were made of metal higl 
ly poiilhed.''^ 

This defcription iliews the fky 1 
be not only firm a^id folid, but n 
markably adapted to lefleil light 



II Job xxxvii, 18. An expandil 
cum eo (cum adjuvando) a:thcr 
vel ccelos, vel firmamentum ? H( 
Gr^ci vocant flereoma, quod fi 
mum fit, et fuafe velut virtute cont 
neat, nulla re nixum. /Ethera, V' 
coelos— ^ — qui folididjmi — qui fill 
fortes: item, ficut fpeculum, fufiii 
five concreturo. — Coeios, quibus fi 
mitas tribuitur, Prov. viii. 28. uni 
poetEeccelum vocaruntchalkeonour 
non. *' Specula fu fa" intelligeexa:: 
velchalybe. Vox "fortes" foliditt 
teni denota.t-'Coelum— folidiffiraun 
ut fimul cohajreat. Poli Syn. 

5 Fufum, firmum, validum, \l 
ftar fufi et confiftentis metalli. Taj 
lor's Hebrew concordance, root'78'S 
26. 

S Scott's Book of Jpb, pa| 
354- 



Obfirvationt on the exijlence of an all furrounding orb. 



223 



d fo far intimates the caufe, why- 
is vifihle. The (ky here, as the 
ijianieiu in a forocr claufe, cor- 
I'ponds to one ot the ftories, which 
od built in the heavens. 
There are other paflages, which 
:ntion the fpreading out, and 
etching out, of the heavens j and 
is as declarative of the difcretion, 

vinderilanding, the wifdom and 
wer of God. But if it be a mere 
pcarance, arifing from the atmof- 
ere-\apours, in a particular Hate, 
lefting to usthe blue rays of light ; 
if it be a mere circiimftance atten- 
nt on, or refiilting from, the at- 
)fphere ; and doth not indicate 
: realexifteiiceof whatisdeclared to 
thus fpread or ftretched out, it 
then in a comparative view, bat 
inferior inftance of wifdom and 
wer: by uo means fuchan inOance 
them as to CJititle it to be men- 
ned in the climax, in which it is 
ind — much Icfs to be the head or 
ncipal member of it. 
The following, which is onq of 
jfe pafiages, a::d in the fenfe of 
tich the aforenamed verfions con- 
r with the Englifn, will fliew 

climax — " Ke hath made the 
■th by his power : he hath efia- 
. filed the world by his wifdom ; 
d hath {tretch(d out the heavens 
his underftanding."* — The cartl), 
:ludingit$ atmofphere — the world, 
heavenly bodies coUedivcl)- — the 
stched-out lieavcns, or blue ex- 
nfe. This remarkable climax, 
lending in dignity and impor- 
KC, (hews, that the laft and prin- 
oal member of it, the expanfe, 
not only diftinft from the earth, 
d thevvhole fyilem of the hcavenly 
cHcs, but that it furpafles them in 
celiencc ; and that it is the capital, 
long the works of the vifiblc crea- 



NOTE. 



f 



Jer. ch. I . ver. 15. 



tion. The defcription of it, and its 
rank in the climax, indicate, that lE 
is the fame firmament or expanfe, 
above defcribed ; that the fame 
obfervations are applicable to it j 
and therefore, that this, and the pa- 
rallel palVages rdluded to, may be 
adduced in further evidence of its 
exiftcnce ; and, confequcntly, of the 
exigence of an all-uirrounding orb. 

The fame idea is held for:h in a 
part of the addreG of Wifdom in 
Frov. viii. 27 — 29 : llie fenfe ot 
w hich may be expreiied in the fol- 
lovving tranflation : which diffciis 
from the common Englilh tranlla- 
tion, no further than the appichcn- 
ded fenfe of the text makes necef- 
fary. A few explanatory notes are 
interfperfedby way of illuilration. 

V/ifdom fpeaking, f^iys, — veifo 
27, '* When God prepared the hea- 
vens [the whole fyftem of vifible pic- 
ture] 1 was prefent. When (with 
refpe<^^ to the heaven) he fct an orb 
around the fupcrficies of the depth 
[die immcnfe fpace included witiiin 
the orb: in reference to which, that 
fpace may be juftly called the depth]: 
V. 28. When he gave foHditv and 
Itrcngth to (that orb) the fey above; 
and when he ePialdifried its fountains 
of waters [its interior and exterior 
atmofpliercs] : v. 29. When (with 
refpect to the terraqueous globe) he 
gave to the fca his decree, that its 
waters (hould not pafs their bounds : 
and when he appointed the founda- 
tions of the earth, then 1 was by 
him." 

if this tranflation and illuftration, 
be jull:, the text, which only gives 
the great out-Iincs, or capital parts 
of ci-eation, ftrcngly iniprefies th? 
idea, that there is an orb furround- 
ing all viTible nature; that it is fcrong 
and folid ; and that it is furnifned 
with ^n interior and exterior atmof- 
phere ; all which is further defcrip- 
tivc of one of the ftcries, that God 
built in the h.eavens. 



t2.1 



Obfervation: on the exifcence of an a!.' farrounding orb. 



In fiipport of the trani'Lition nnd 
illultration here given, I had col- 
kified, in a marginal note, a nuir.'ier 
of authorities from Pool's fynopfis : 
but it being fomewhat long, and 
thofe who are quaiilied to judge in 
the matter, being able to recur to 
the fynopfis, it is omitted. 

Befide thofe authorities, and in 
further fjpport of the tranflation, 
iTiaj' be adduced th^ 148th pfalm : 
where are enumerated, in a regular 
fnccelTion, the heavenly bodies, which 
compofe the material fyllem : — the 
f'ln, moon, liars, heavens, and wa- 
ters above the heavens. 

The diftlnft notice there taken of 
thofe bodies, and the arrangement 
of them according to nature, malce 
itprobaljle, thatby the heavens (in 
that paiTage as in fomc others) are 
intended the orbs, that have been 
*lefcribed. And, in regard to the 
waters above the heavens, they do 
plainly intimate, that ihofe orbs are 
each, like the earth, environed by 
an atmofphere repleniihed with 
waters, to anfvver the fime pur- 
pofes with the atmof^heric waters 
of the earth. — Of that paffage, there 
will prefcntly be occafion to take 
forne farther notice. 

Iffome happy genius, well ver.'ed 
in Hebrew, and the philofophy of 
nature, would arrange in due order 
and faithfully tranllate, thofe parts of 
fcriptare, that in any refped refer to 
the conititution and economy of na- 
ture, and this with a view of recon- 
ciling them to nature, we fliould 
probably find, that fcriprnre philofo- 
phy and natural philofophy would 
mutually illuftrate each other. Such 
a tranflation and iiluilration v/ouid 
be a real acquifition to fcir'nce ; and 
might lead to difcoverics, ot which 
at prefent we can form no id-^a. 

OnequotatioM more, amidlr a fur- 
ther number that might be oilered, 
will rlofc the evidence. 

" The heaven, and the heaven of 
hsavens, and the earth alfo, are the 



Lord's." " Thou haft made heav 
t'le h:.iven oFhjavens, with all th 
hoihs:the earth, and the feas, 
all th^ng^ in them." " Praife hi 
ye fun and moon, ye liars, ye heav 
of heavens, and ye waters above 
hea;eas."* 

There are other palTages of 1 
import : but thefe containing all 
varieties of exprefiion I have obfer 
concerning the material heavens, 
fyftem of nature, may be thou 
fufficient. 

That the material heavens are \ 
intended, there can be no room 
doubt, as they are mentioned 
connexion with the earth — v/iih tl 
h">fts — with the earth and feas, 
the things contained in them — v 
the fun, moon, and ftars — and w 
the v.-aters above the heavens. T 
are evidently confidered here asfo 
ing, in conjunction with rhofe o 
bodies, one valt fylrem ; whofe 
veral conllltuent parts are, in the 
claufe of the quoted text, ran 
in the order, in which it is nat 
to fpcak of them ; and in wh 
reckoning from the centre of 
folar fyftem, they do in rea 
exill. 

Here is a plain difcrimination 
twc^en the heaven ; the heaven 
heavens ; and the heavens of heave 
which mail: imply fome effential 
ference between them. To fupj 
the contrary is to confound langu; 
and involve it in uncertainty 
would be to fuppofe thofe expre/I 
void of meaning ; and would 
treating Icriprure with the indecei 
to which no other book, appea 
to be diflated merely by com: 
fenfe, would be entitled. T 
expreiTions, then, n'^ceffarily in 
fome efTcntia! difference in the ob 
ofthem:aud what that diJer 



clvi 



Dcut. X. 14. Nsh. i:c. 6» 



II- 



\ 



\ 



Ohfervations on the txijlence of an orb. 



i«5 



■J 



Sj the quotation from Amos points 
)ut. The gradation, refpefting 
he heavens, is remarkable; and, 
vithoiit recurring to any thing elfe, 
fuggefts the idea of Tories in them, 
)r beyond the orb, as above explain- 
d. The feries too, in which they 
ire mentioned — -the fun, moon, 
lars, heavens, and waters above the 
icavens — and the place they hold in 
he feries, fuggeft the fame idea, 
vhich is ftrengthened and confirmed 
)y the exprefs declaration, that in 
aft there were fuch (lories buHt by 
he Almighty :or, as it is otherwife 
xprefled, that "he made them with 
11 their hofts." 

The laft member of the feries, is 
le waters above the heavens. Thefe 
/aters, if we argue from analogy, 
icm to indicate and to bedefcripiive 
f atmofpheres, that furround thofe 
rbs, amply provided, like our at- 
Qofphere, with waters, and other 
lements, proper for the fupport of 
nimal and vegetable life; and for 
ither important purpofes. 

The number of thofe ftories, or 
oncentric orbs, feems indefinite. 
The gradation clearly denotes a plu- 
ality of them ; each having its 
oft — its funs, and planets, or fyftems. 
The ample fpaces between them, 
like the fpace infolded by the orb, 
o which we more immediately be- 
ong) are beautified by thofe glorious 
jodies, which, within each of the 
)rbs, conftitute fyftems innumerable, 
"erving the like noble purpofes, which 
mrfolar fyftem is calculated to ferve, 
ind doth ferve. 

The foregoing paffages of fcrip- 
ure,thusinterpreted,appearto agree, 
n their refult, with the phenomena 
ibove mentioned; and, like them, 
be naturally, and without force, 
ipplicable to the purpofe, for which 
hey were produced. Such agree- 
ment, it is apprehended, fhews the 
iropricty and fitnefs of the interpre- 
ation : as, on the other hand, a 
lifagreement with phenomena would 
Vol. III. No. III. 



prove the unfitnefs or falfity of any 
interpretation ; and manifeft it to be 
totally inadmiffible. 

When fcripture and phenomena 
thus agree, they mutuaiiy elucidate 
each other ,■ and in that cafe, what 
is deducible from the one, is con- 
firmed by the other. As, therefore, 
thofe paflages agree with the pheno- 
mena, they both together corrobo- 
rate the evidence, whch each afford- 
ed feparatcly , of the exiftence of an 
interior orb. 

With refpeft to the exterior orbs, 
the evidence for them mufl: reft on 
fcripture. There can be no pheno- 
mena, from which to deduce their 
reality; unlefs the aperture, or gap 
abovementioned, with what it dif- 
clofes, be admitted as fuch. 

The phenomena, exhibited thro* 
the aperture, are indeed remark- 
able ; and may indicate an exterior 
orb, or the bright region between 
that and the oib, which more im- 
mediately furrounds us : in which 
bright region, as well as in fome 
other of the lucid fpaces in the ex- 
panfe, there feeriis to be an uninter- 
rupted and perpetual dav. 

If, in faft, there be fuch an aper- 
ture, the fame appearances with I'hofe 
from which it was deduced, may in- 
dicate other apertures in the other 
lucid fpaces, and in the Milky 
Way: to the afcertaining of which, 
the obfervations of the ingenious mr. 
Herfchell, with his large magnifiers, 
fhould he think proper to apply them 
to that purpofe, might happily 
conduce. 

Among the purpofes, for which 
thofe apertures were intended, if 
they really exift, this may be one — 
to give the intra-orbic and tranf-or- 
bic fyftems fome intimation ofeach o- 
ther, and of their mutual relation ; and 
to afford them a glimpfe of the 
grantl, complicated fyftem, of which 
they are parts. 

The immenfity of thofe orbs, doth 
not invalidate their exiftence ; on the 
D 



izS 



theory nf ihundt rjiorms , 



contrary, immeufity is fo congenial 
to our ideas of the Creator, and his 
works, that it affords, as applied to 
ti'ioTe orlis, an internal prefumptive 
prodf of their reality. 

On the fuppofition of their exif- 
tence, what an affemblage of glori- 
ous bodies do they exhibit — peopled 
by an unlimited variety of beings — 
and arranged in a gradation beauti- 
ful and altonilhing I Trace the gra- 
dation, from the fmaller to the larger 
planets, circling around their fun, 
iinu with him forming a magnificent 
fyftem! Trace it from that fy Hem, 
through fuccelTive fyftems, to their 
furrouuding orb ! Trace it from orb 
to orb, and through their feveral 
hofis of fyilems, up to the fuperior 
orb, and its ambient atmofphere! 
Trace it in every pofTible diredion, 
from the common centre to the ut- 
moll verge of that atmofphere, and 
the moil wonderful phenomena, in a 
rapture-infpiring fucceflion, ftrike the 
mental eye! — imprefling the idea of 
a complete whole, felf-balanced, and 
held in union by univerfal gravitati- 
on! — exhibiting a fuperlatively 
grand fyftem of fyftems, embofomed 
in the infinite, all- comprehending 
effence of the Creator! 

Grand and magnificent as this fyf- 
tem is, there may be another, incom- 
parably more (o, compofed of my- 
riads of fuch fyftems, governed by 
the fame laws, and, with it, furround- 
cd by an immenfe orb, to counter- 
balance the gravitation of the inclu- 
ded fyiiems. 

That other fvflem -may be a part 
of a ftiil more fplendid one, formed 
on the fame plan ; and this latter 
may enter into the compofition of 
other fyftems, beyond comparifon 
fuperior to it ; each fuccecding fyf- 
tem, in a regular progrelTion, rifing 
in dignity and fplendor. And thus 
we mav go on, enlarging our idea 
of thofe {}''^'^'T^^5 indefinitely. 

Vi'hut is there, to check that idea. 



when we confidcr the inftuity of' 
fpace, in connexion with the infinite 
wifdom, power, and benevolence of 
the author of nature — and, at the 
fame time, refied, that infinite fpace 
is the proper and only adequate thea- 
tre, for the difpiay of thofe perfefti- 
ons, and of fuch a charafter? 

This hypothefis, by introducing 
folid orbs, may polfibly, on a fu- 
perficial view of it, be thought a re* 
vival of the ancient or Ptolemiean 
fyftem, and to grow out of it. But 
on the contrary, it will be found, 
upon examination, totally inconfift- 
entwithit; and to be, in reality, 
the offspring of the new philofophy; 
derived from the grand principle of 
that philofophy — univerfal gravita- 
ti'jn. 

Upon the whole — the hypothefis, 
fo far as it relates to the exiftence oi 
the interior orb, immediately fur- 
rounding the vifible heavens, the au- 
thor of it apprehends to be a proba* 
ble deduftion from the principles o{ 
gravitation ; and to be deducible 
alfo from phenomena, and fcripturc 
He offers it for confideration, with 
the hope, that, if it (hould appeal 
not wholly groundlefs, it may be 
productive of a happier illuftration. 

A theory of lightn'wg, and than- 
derjiorrns, by Atidreiu Oliver efq^ 
of Salem in the Jiale of Maj/achu 

fetts. 

IT has been generally, and, confi-^. 
dering the phenomena themfelvesJ 
very naturally, fuppofed, that the 
eledric charges, which are exhibited 
in repeated flaihcs of lightning duw 
ing a thunder ftorm, are previoufi 
ly accumulated in the vapours whiclr 
conftitute tha cloud ; and that thefa 
vapours, when by any means they ItC'I 
come either over-charged with elec4 
trie matter, or are deprived of the' 



Theory of thunder Jlorms, 



natural qaantitics of it*, difcharge 
their furplufage to, or receive the 
nccefiary fupniies from, either the 
earth or the neighbouring clouds, ia 
fuccefiive exploiions, till an equili- 
brium is reftored between them. But 
I fhall endeavour, in the following 
pages, to prove, that thefe charges 
relide, not in the cloud, or vapours of 
which it confifts, but in the air 
which fultains them — and that, pre- 
vious to the formation of the cloud, 
or even the afcent of the vapours of 
which it is formed. But in order to 
convey my ideas, upon this fubjetl:!, 
with perfpicuity, I find it necelfary 
to introduce them with a quotati- 
on from dr. Franklin's letters on e- 
ledricity, in which the doftor com- 
pares water, whedier in its natural 
ilate, or rarefied into vapours, to a 
fponge ; and the eledric fluid, in 
connexion with it, to water applied 
to the fponge. 

'• When a fponge, fays he, is foinc- 
*' what condenfed, by being fqueez- 
" ed between the fingers, it will not 
" receive and retain fo much water, 
" as when it is ia its more loofe and 
•' open Hate, If more fqucezed and 
" condenfed, fomeof the water will 
" come out of its inner parts, and 
" flow on the furface. If the prcf- ■ 
*• fure of the fingers be entirely re- 
" moved, the fponge will not only 
" refume what was lately forced out, 
♦* but attraft an additional quantity. 
'* As the fponge, in its rarer Itate, 
*• will naturally attrad and abforb 
" more water — and, in its denfer 
'• ftate, will naturally attraftand ab- 
*• forb lefs water — we may call the 
*' quantity it abforbs in either iUte, 
" its natural quantity, the ftate be- 
" ing confidered." 

NOTE. 

* A body is faid to be eleftrical- 
\y charged, whenever it has either 
more or lefs than its natural quanti- 
ty of electric matter. 



Tile dodtor then fuppofes " that 
*' what the fponge is to water,therari)c 
*' is water to the electric fluid ; — 
" that, when a portion of water is 
" in its common ^icnk ftate, it can 
" hold no more clearic fluid, than it 
" has ; if any be added, it fpreads 
•' upon the furface." He adds, 
" when the fame portion of water is 
*• rarefied into vapour, and forms a 
" cloud, it is then capable of receiv- 
" ing and abforbing a much greater 
" quantity, as there is room for each 
" particle to have an eleftric atm*")- 
" fphere. Thys water, in its rarefied 
" ftate, or in the form of a cloud, 
" will be in a negative ftate of elec- 
"tricity; it will have lefs than its 
" natural quantity, that is, lefs than 
" it is naturally capable of attraft- 
" ing and abforbing in that ftate*.'* 
The foregoing paffages I have co- 
pied •verbatim from that celebrated e- 
ledrician ; as I purpofe, in the courfe 
of this cftay, to avail myfelf of his 
idea of the fponge, in order to illuf- 
trate a different theory of thunder 
clouds, which I now beg leave, 
(though with diffidence of my own 
judgment, and with all due defer- 
ence to that of (o great a man) to 
fubftitute in the room of the forego- 
ing ; which, I muft confefs , at firft 
fight, carries great appearance ofpro- 
bybility withit, and is highly cor- 
roborated by the curious and beau- 
tiful experiment thedoftor made with 
the filver can, bra's chain, and lock 
of cottonf. 

But in reaJitig doftor Prieftlcy's 
hiftory of electricity, forae thoughts 
of Signor Beccaria occurred, which 
fatisned me, that this hypothefis, 
however ingenious and plaufible, 
was infufiicient for the purpofe of 
accounting for the rife and pheno- 



* Franklin's letters, page iig. 



+ Pa;>e 12 1. 



f28 



Theory of thunder Jiormt. 



meua of thunder ftorms ; the frequent 
extent, and violence of which, feem 
to require a more general caufe, than 
tltat hinted above, to fupply them 
with fufficient quantities of eledric 
matter. 

" Confidering the vaft quantity of 
" eicc'tric fire, that appears in the 
*• moft fimple thunder Itorms, " fays 
•' doctor PrieftkyI'," Signor Beccaria 
♦' thinks itinipoflible.that any cloud, 
•• or number of clouds, fhould ever 
" Contain it all, fo as either to dif- 
" charge or receive it. Befides, du- 
♦♦ ring the progrefs and increafe of the 
•' ftorn, thougli the lightning fre- 
" qucntly ftricck to the earth, the 
*' fame clouds were the next moment 
" ready to make a ftill greater dif- 
•* charge, and his apparatus continu- 
" ed to be as much afFeded as ever. 
«* The clouds mutt confequently have 
" received, at one place, the mo- 
*• mcnt that a difcharge was made 
" from them in another. 

Signer Beccaria accounts for this 
vaft exhibition of eledric fire from a 
thunder cloud, by fuppofing, that 
fome parts of the earth may become 
more highly charged with the elec- 
tric fluid than others, and that great 
quantities of it do fometimes rufh 
out of particular parts, and rife 
through the air, into the higher regi- 
ons of the atmofphere ; other parts 
of the earth becoming cafually defti- 
tnte of their natural quantity of the 
iluid at the fame time, and ready to 
receive it : that a chain of clouds 
nearly contiguous, or a fingle cloud, 
extent' itig from one of thefe regi- 
ons to another, in an oppofite ftate, 
might fervc as a conduifor or con- 
duftors, to rellorethe eleftric equili- 
brium between them, which would 
equally caufe thunder and lightning 

Note. 

i Pricftley's hiftory of eleftricity, 
page 525. 



in both regions, and throughout th« 
intermediate clouds*. Here do^oi 
Prieftley juftly obfcrves, that " the< 
" greatelt difficulty, attending this; 
" theory of the origin of thundei 
" ftorms, relates to the collection and 
" infulation of electric matter, withim 
" the body of the earth." With re- 
gard to the colleftion, the dodlor ob- 
fcrves, that his author" has nothing; 
♦' particular to fay :" nor indeed, 
without a previous infulation of thofe 
parts of the earth, which may be con- 
cerned in the produdion of the pheno- 
mena, can any fuch collcftion take 
place. Now if we confider, that, in 
order to have two regions of the earth 
thus infulated,and of fufficient dimen- 
fions, one to fupply, and the other to 
receive the quantities of eleftric fire, 
difcharged during one thunder llorm 
of any extent and continuance, the 
parts infulated muft not be fuperfici 
al regions, but muft reach to a con 
fiderable depth; we muft fup- 
pofe, with dodor Prieftley, ** thatthe 
" eleif^ric matter, which forms and 
*« animates the thunder cloud, iffuea 
" from places far below the fur- 
" face of the earth, and that it bu- 
. " ries itfelf there+." But, with de- 
ference to the judgment of that un- 
wearied friend to fcience, I appre- 
hend, that fuch an infulation is hard- 
ly confiftent with that diftribution 
of conduiHors, efpecially of water, 
which provident nature has made 
through all parts of our globe ; the 
higheft mountains being furniflied 
with internal fprings and fountains, 
and watered externally by rivulets, 
which derive their origin from con- 
denfing mifts or melting fnows upon 
their fummits: while the furface oi 
the earth in general, not excepting 
the moft fandy deferts, afi"urds fup- 
plies of wat'er, to thofe who will be 



* ibid. 
+ Prieftley, page 335. 



Theory of thunder fiorms. 



129 



the pains of trigging for it. If 
-n the vapours, which conllitute 
^< cloud, are, of themfelves, inca- 
ilile of furniftiing fuch quantities 
' eleftric matter as are uecefl'ary for 
& repeated difcharges in a fevere 
.under florm, as Signor Beccaria 
links they are, and as feems to me 
dubitable; and if the.inrulations of 
rgc portions of the fuiface or ex- 
rior parts of the earth, which are 
ifolutely neceflary to fupport Bec- 
iria's hypothclis, cannot take place ; 
,nd, how they can in our terra- 
jeous mafs, is difficult to conceive, 
)nfiliently with the hitherto difco-" 
;red properties of the eleftric fluid.) 
e muft fcek for fome other fub- 
ance in nature, which may he capa- 
!e of aflbrding thofe reiterated fup- 
lies of that powerful element, which 
■e ufiially exhibited in a thunder 
orm. This, I prefume, we fliall 
nd in the ttmofphere over our 
eads ; not in the vapours which 
oat therein, but in the air itfelf 
'hich fullains them. 

Air is by cleftricians juftly clafled 
'Ith elcfliic fubftances, as it poffefles 
he fame general properties, in com- 
non with others of that denomina- 
ion, particular inilances of which 
nay occur in the following pages ; 
vhercin 1 fhall endeavour to prove. 

I, That the eledric capacity of 
lir is Icfiened by condenfation. 

II. Tliat this capacity is increafed 
)y heat. 

Premifing, that by air I here mean 
:hat fluid in its common compreiT- 
dilate, with us, near the <inface of 
the earth ; and by its eledric capa- 
ity, that iiate of it, which difpofes 
it, under any circumllances whatever, 
to attra(fi, abforb and retain," 
what do(ftor Franklin calls its na- 
tural quantity, or the quantity which 
is natural to it in that llate. 

I. I Ihall endeavour to prove, that 
theeledric capacity of air is ieffcncd 
by condenfation. 



That a change of denfity in air 
produces alfo a change in its eled:ric 
capacity (as above defined,) follows 
from fome experinients ot monfieur 
de Faye and doctor Prieftley, the 
former of whom found, upon repeat- 
ed trials, that no eleftricity could be 
excited by the fridtion of a glafs tube, 
in which the air was condenfed*. 
The dodor, repeating the experi- 
ments with fome variation, found, 
that, when one additional atmofphere 
was forced into the tube, tiie eleftri- 
city, excited by rubbingit, was fcarce- 
ly difcerniblc. Now, though the 
elfcct was a fufpenfion of the oper- 
ation of the excited tube without, 
the caufe was evidently the condenf- 
ed flate of the air within; which 
may be accounted for, if we confider, 
that, alihough it is certain, from ma- 
ny experiments, thatglafs i;.abfo!ute- 
ly impermeable to the ele'lric fluid, 
infomuch that it cannot force its way- 
through a pane of glafs, or the fides 
of a phial, without breaking the 
glafs, (as was the cafe in thofe fpon- 
taneous difcharges of feveral of the 
jars in the eledrical battery mention- 
ed by dodor Pricftleyt) yet it is as 
certain, that this impermeability of 
the glafs to the fluid itfelf, is no ob- 
ftrudlion to the operation of that re- 
pellent power, upon which the vili- 
ble efrl-^ls of this element feem prin- 
cipally to depend ; which power un- 
deniably aits from one fide of the 
glafs, through the very fubftance of 
it, upon the f:^me fluid on the other 
fide, provided there be any other fub- 
ftance on that fide, capable of re- 
ceiving it, when thus repelled. 

This is the cafe in the Leyden ex- 
periment, in every form, in which it 
can be made ; the charge given to 
one fide of the glafs, repelling and 
throwing off an equal quantity of the 

NTOES. 

* Fage 50. + Page 4^9. 



130 



Theory of ihunderjiorms. 



eleftric fluid from the opnofite fur- 
face, through the non-electric coat- 
ing, in contad with it ; nor can any 
charge be given to either fide, with- 
out a proportional difcharge from tiie 
other. In like manner, when an 
uncoated tube is excited by friftion, 
a quantity of the fluid, equal to that 
which is excited and condenfed upon 
the outer furface, is thrown out from 
the inner, provided there is any fub- 
ftance within, in a capacity to re- 
ceive and abforb i^ without which 
no excitation can take place, " A 
" glafs tube, out of which the air is 
*' exhaufted, difcovers no figns of e- 
" ledricity outwards*;" there being 
no fubftance within capable of re- 
ceiving and abforbing the fluid from 
the inner furface, which, though re- 
pelled from it inwards during the 
operation, yet returns to it again in- 
llantly, upon a ceflation of the zi.\\.- 
on of the rubber without. But upon 
a readmiflion of air, the excitation is 
cafy, and is attended with the ufual 
cfFerts. Air, then, which is the on- 
ly fubftance admitted (excepting per- 
haps a few ftraggling vapours which 
float in it) receives and abforbs a 
fufiicient quantity of the elecflric fluid 
from the inner fuifacc, to permit an 
excitation of the tube, which contains 
it. But as we have feen, that air, 
when condenfed within, prevents the 
vifiblc efl"efts of an excitation, equal- 
ly with a total vacuity, we may a- 
dopt the idea of doftor Franklin, 
mutatis jniitandisy and conclude, that 
•' what the fponge is to water, 
the fame is air to the eleftric fluid :" 
at leaft that this capacity of air is 
lefl'ened by condenfation, in a man- 
ner, not indeed perfectly fimilar, but, 
fomewhat analogous to that, in which 
the capacity of a fponge, to receive 

NOTI. 

* Pricftley's hiftory of eleflricity, 
page 550. 



and retain water, it lefTcned by co 
preflion. Agreeably to which ii-!( 
the condenfed air within the tul 
having its eleftric capacity fill« 
and even crouded, with the eled' 
matter, will receive none from t 
inner furface, which, on the conti 
ry, is thereby prevented from bei 
forcedout of it; without which, no 
can be forced into, or condenfed u 
on the outer furface, fo as to ex] 
bit any fgns of eleftricity ; as c 
fcrved be lore. 

U. I (hall endeavour to prove, tl 
the elcdtric capacity of air is encre; 
ed by heat. 

T hib alfo appears probable, at lea 
from the above-cited experimei 
of doctor Priefiley ; for, after t 
air, in his tube, had had this capaci 
fo far diminiflied bycondenfation, 
not to permit an excitation withoi 
that capacity, together with the co 
fcquent excitability of the tube, w 
rellorcd, by the action of heat upi 
the included air, " Repeating n 
attempts (fays he) to excite the tu 
above mentioned, I found, that, i 
ter very ha;d rubbing, it began 
aft a little, and that its virtue i 
creafed with the labour. Thin! 
ing it might be the warmth whi( 
produced this effeft, I held the tu! 
to the fire, and found, that, whc 
it was pretty hot, it would adt a 
raoft as well, as when it contain* 
no more than its ufual quantity 
air*." 

In page 553, doctor Priefiley tel 
us, that fome of his electrical friem 
were of opinion, '• that the reafot 
vvliy a tube, with condenfed air in i 
cannot be excited, is, that the den 
air within prevents the electric fl* 
id from being forced out of tl 
infide of the tube, without whic 
none can be forced into the ou 



Paee 



^•> 






Theory of thundtrjhrms. 



fide; and that heating the tube 
akes the air within lels cleftrical ;" 
at is, (as I conceive their mean- 
g) puts it in a capacity, to receive 
id abforb more ot the electric fluid, 
an it could otherwife do in that 
■ndenfed ftate. The doftor indeed 
ks, by way of objedion to the 
regoing folution, — •' How, upon 
this principle, can a folid ttick of 
glafs be excited ?' To which I 
ould anfwer, that po/fibly, when a 
lid Itick. of glafs is excited, as much 
the eleftric fluid may be drawn 
itofonefideof it, as is thrown 
ito or condenfed upon the other : if 
>, although it may (hew equal figns 
f eletlricity on both fides, yet one 
de will be in a pofitivc, the other 
1 a negative (late ; when it will e:t- 
itly refemble the curious (tone, cal- 
d the Tourmalin, bv fome laph c- 
clncus, which, dodor Priellley fays,* 
has always, at the fame time, a 
pofitive and a negative eleflricity ; 
one of its fides being in one ftate, 
' and the other in the oppofite ;" 

I/hich does not depend upon the ex- 
ernal form " of the (tone." But 
he truth of this folution mult be de- 
ermined by future experiments. 

That the eledric (late of the air 
s liable to be affeifted by heat, is 
urther evident, from a courfe of ex- 
periments, which were made by the 
ibbe Mazeas, with an apparatus, that 
*'as conltrudted folely with a view 
3f determining the elei^ricity of the 
itmofphere, anno 1753+. With 
this apparatus, the abb6 obferved, 
that, from the 1 7th of June, when he 
began his experiments, the electrici- 
ty of the air was fenfibly felt every 
day, from fun rife till feven or eight 
o'clock in the evening, when the 
«*eatherwas dry; but that, in the 
dlrieft nights of that furamei he could 



»Page 299. + Page 342, 



i3« 

difcover no figns of elcftricity in the 
air, nor till the morning, when the 
fun began to appear above tiie hori- 
zon; and that " they vanilhed agaia 
" in the evening, about half an hour 
" after fun-fet;" and further " that 
'* the ftrongelt common ekdricitv 
" of the atmofphere, during the 
*• fummer, was perceived in the 
♦• month of July, on a very dry day, 
•• the heavens being very clear, and 
*' the fun extremely hot." 

Now, as this eleftricity of the air 
was fenfible only during day-light, no 
electricity being difcoverable there- 
in, even in the dried nights, and as 
the air exhibited the Itrongelt figns 
of eledricity, when the fun ihone ex- 
tremely hot ; is not the conclufion 
unavoidable, that heat fomehow af- 
fects the eledric capacity of air, ei- 
ther enlarging it, and thereby difpo- 
(ing the air to attract, receive and ab- 
forb greater quantities of eledtric 
matter, than it is capable of abforb-. 
ing in its natural Itate ; or fuperadd- 
ing, to its natural quantity, more tha.n 
it can abforb, and thereby difpofmg 
it to throw off the redundancy upon 
any objeifls, which may be in afitiia- 
tion to receive it ? One or the other 
feems necc(rarily to follow : but the 
former is moft agreeable to doftor 
Prieftley's experiment of the conden- 
fed air, in the tube above mentioned ; 
andis perfeftly confonant with the ob- 
fervations of doctor Franklin, mr. 
Kinnerfley, and others, that thunder 
clouds are generally in the negative 
(tateof eledtricity*. But more upon 
this head hereafter. I would however 

NOTE. 

•Epitome of Phil. Tranf. Gent. 
Mag. Sept. 1773, page 447- Mr. 
Henley thinks, that cold eledrifies the 
atmofphere pofitively ; and thence 
conjedures, that heat eleftrifies it ne- 
gatively. His ccnclufions are found- 
ed upon a courfe cf experiments. 



Theory oflhuuJerJiortnt, 



132 

cbferve here, that many, and perhaps 
all other, eletflric fiibftances, even the 
moft.firm and folid, as well as air, 
are liable to have their eledric capa- 
cities thus diverfilied by heat, more 
particularly the Tourmalin above 
mentioned. Bat as, in treating of the 
properties of this rtone.dodor Prieil- 
ley has thought it deferving of a dif- 
tinftfediion in hiseledric hiftory, to 
that I (hall refer the reader, for a par- 
ticular account of them f ; wherein he 
will find a difcovery, made by melfrs. 
Canton and Wilfon, that thefe pro- 
perties are not peculiar to the Tour- 
malin, but that many gems have a 
natural difpofition to afford the fame 
appearances: whence we may con- 
clude, as above, by analogy, that all 
eleflric fubltances are more or lefs 
alFefted in like manner, by the fame 
caufe. But, to return to the fubjec^t: 
If, from the foregoing confidera- 
tions, the reader Ihould be fatisiied, 
that the electric capacity of air, in 
Its condenfed ftate,in the lower regi- 
ons of the atmofphere, is liable to 
be diminifhed by a further condenfa- 
tion, and that, cceUiis parittw^, it h 
incrcafed by heat, and'vice -vet/a ; the 
folution of the phenomena of thun- 
der and lightning, to his fatisfaftion, 
upon eleflrical principles, will per- 
haps be no difficult talk 

For, let us conceive a region of 
the atmofphere, extending over a 
large tra<5t of country, to be rarefied 
and heated, during a hot fummer's 
day, not only by the paiTage of the 
fun's direft rays through it, and by 
the reflexion of thofe rays from the 
furface of the earth into but it ; chief- 
ly by tiie communication of the heat 
acquired by that furface : the elec- 
tric capacity of that region of air 
would be incrcafed, both on account 
of the heat it undergoes, and of the ra- 
rcfatfiion confequent upon that heat: 
ii will then have lefs than its natural 

+ Page 297 



quantity, or the quantity It 15 nat 
turallv difpofedto receive and abfo 
in that (late ; it will confequent 
be, in the language of eledriciar 
negatively eleftrifed, or in a cravii 
ftate, requiring and forcing fuppli 
from all fubftances capable ol affoi dii 
them, provided it be itfelf in a co 
dition to receive them. But how 
ver craving, it cannot receive the 
fupplies from the neighbouring re^ 
ons of the atmofphere, while the 
regions fcverally remain in the it? 
of pure air, (even fuppofing the latt 
to poff;fs more than their natui 
quantities, and thereby as much'd 
pofed to impart, as the former is 
receive them,) without the interve 
tion of non-eledric conduftors ;a; 
that, owing to the impermeability 
air, as fuch, to the clei^ric flui 
This I (liall endeavour, i. To illi 
trate by experiments made with gla 
2. To prove by experiments ma 
upon air itfelf. 

1. If a pane of glafs be coated < 
both fides, by the application 
plates of tin to them, the glafs m 
be charged in the fame manner, as t 
Leyden phial : when, after the i 
moval of the plates, (no difchar 
having previoufly taken place,) bo 
fides of the glafs will rema 
charged, one pofitively, the otb 
negatively,- the former having mc 
than its natural quantity, the latl 
being proportionably deficient, ai 
in a craving ilate. Thefe ftates bo 
furfaces will obftinately mairvtain i 
a long time : nor do I know of ai 
method of reftoring the elefti 
equilibrium between them, but, < 
ther to immerfe the pane in water 
fome other non-cle(5tric fluid, whi 
will do it inftantly, and filently ; 
to re-apply the metalline coatings 
both fides, as they were placed 
firft, with a good conductor intr 
duced between them, which will 
fwer the fame purpofe, and be 
tended with an explofion, or fmz 



Theory of thunder Jiorms, 






"l 



park and Tnap ; or laftly, to place it 
.1 a fituaiioii where it may be expof- 
d to air replete with moill vapours, 
/here, after fome time, the vapours 
/iJI, by condenfing upon each fide, 
urnifh it with a moifture equivalent 
a Pon-e!edric coating, while the 
apours, which remain in the fur- 
ounding air, vAU, by continually 
iipinging upon, and receding from 
he two furfaces, at length reltore 
oth to their natural ftate. 

It is ev idcnt, from the foregoing 

xpt-riment, firft, that the charges 

efide in the glafs itfelf, as they re- 

aain after the coatings are removed. 

■econdly, that the oppofite fides 

ave a very ftrorg propenfity, one 

D give, the other to receive the fluid, 

nd thereby to reftore the eleftric 

quilibriutn between themfelves ; 

/hich is done with violence, as ob- 

erved above, when they are put in 

condition of doing it by the re-ap- 

)lication of the metalline coatings, 

vich a conduflor between them; and 

ailiy, that notwithHanding the vi- 

lent propenfity, in the fide of the 

jlafs, to reliore themfelves and each 

)ther to their natural eledric ftates, 

md the fmail diftance between them, 

:hey can never efFeft it, without the 

ntervention of non-eledric conduc- 

:ors. 

2. I fhall now fliew, by other ex- 
periments, that diiferent regions or 
llrata of air may become charged, 
both pofitively and negatively, in 
the fame manner as the fides of the 
pane of glafs were in the foregoing ; 
and that the efreds of fuch charges 
are precifelv the fame. 

Meffrs. Wilkie and ,Epinus at Ber- 
lin, having the hint naturally fug- 
gefied to them, by a previous courfe 
of experiments, endeavoured to give 
the eiedrical fliock by means of air, 
in the fame manner, in which it may 
be given by glafs ; " in which, after 
" making feveral attempts," fays dr. 
Vol. III. No. III. 



Prieftley*,*''theyatlengthfucceeded, 
" byfufpending large boards of wood* 
" covered with tin, with the flat fides 
" towards one another, and at fomc 
" inches afunder. For they found 
" that upon eleflrifying one of the 
" boards pofitively, the other was 
" always negative. But the difco- 
•• very v.-as made complete and in- 
" difputable, by a perfon's touching 
" one of the plates with one hand, 
" and bringi-ng his "other hand 
" to the other plate ; for he then re- 
•' ceived a fliock through his body, 
" exadtly like that of the Leydeii 
" experiment. With this plate of 
" air, as we may call it, they made a 
" variety of experiments. The two 
" metal plates, being in oppofita 
*' fiates, ftrongly attratfled one ano- 
" ther, and would have rufhed toge- 
" tlier if they had not been kept a- 
" funder bv the firings. Sometime* 
" tile eledricity of both would be 
** difcharged by a fl:rong fpark be- 
" tween them, as when a pane of 
" glafs burlb, with too great a 
" charge. A finger, put betweea 
" them, promoted the difcharge, and 
*• felt the fliock. If an eminence 
" was mads on either of the plates, 
" the felf-difcharge would always be 
** made through it ; and a pointed 
" body, fixed upon either of them, 
'* prevented their being charged at 
<' all." 

'To the foregoing relation of the . 
experiments them felvc'?, I fliall fub- 
join the conclufions drawn from 
them, by the curious eleiflricians who 
made them, in the words of doctor 
Priefl:ley, viz. " The ftate of thefe two 
'♦plates, they'', Wilkie and Mpi- 
nus, " excellently obferve, juftly re- 
" prefents the fiate of the clouds and 
*• the earth" (and perhaps of difFe- 

NOTE. 



E 



Page 243. 



234 



Theory of thunder jiorms. 



rent clouds, at vario\is heights, one 
over another) " during a thunder 
" llorm ; tlie clouds being always in 
" one Itate, and the eartli in the op- 
" pofue ; while the bod)' of air be- 
*' tween thein, anfwers the fame pur- 
" pofe, as the fmall plate of air be- 
" tween the boards, or the plate of 
** glafs between the two metal coat- 
*' ings, in the Leyden experiment. 
*' The phenomenon of lightning is 
" the builliijg of the plate of air by 
*' a fpontaneous difcharge, which is 
*' always made through eminences ; 
•* and the bodies, through which the 
" difcliarge is made, are violently 
" fhocked." 

As in the formerexpcrimcnt, made 
with the pane of glafs, the charges 
both pofitive and negative, refide in 
the glafs itfelf, and not in the coat- 
ings, thofe remaining, after thefe are 
removed ; fo in the latter, which is 
completely analogous to it, the charg- 
es are accumulated, and refide in the 
airfituated between the boards, and 
not in their tin linings, which ferve 
only as conduftors, to diilribute the 
fluid equally over, or to convey it 
equally from, the whole furface of 
air which is limited by, and in con- 
tact with them, on cither fide ; where- 
by the whole of each furface may be 
equally charged, at the fame time, or 
difcharged by the fame explofion. 

If two or more regions of the at- 
mofphere, when free from vapours, 
become thus diiterently eledrical in 
their ftateand capacities, which, that 
they may, from the heat and confe- 
quent rarefaction in a fummer's day, 
we have already fccn, and perhaps 
from a variety of other caufcs to us 
unknown — and if, from the contrary 
currcntsof air, which frequently take 
place, at different heights, they fiiould 
perchance become licuated one over 
or adjacent to another, like llrata of 
minerals within the bowels of tiie 
earth — \vhat the metalline coating is 



to the pane of glafs, or the tinned 
boards to the plate of air, in the laft 
experiment, the fame would clouds, 
formed and floating therein, be to 
thefe regions of air; the eleftric e- 
quiiibrium between which might be 
reftored through their intervention, 
either by fpontaneous difchargeg 
through the pure air between them, 
in fevere flafnes of lightning, or 
through the falling drops of rain, 
which in their fucceflive defcent, form 
a chain of natural conduflors between 
one region of the air and another, 
and betwixt each of them and the 
earth ; the paffage of the eleftric fluid 
through which, would alfo be attend- 
ed with lightning and thunder, bul 
not fo fevere as when the difcharge 
is made through the pure air ; the 
mort fatal lightning ufually preced- 
ing the fall of the rain. 

It is not uncommon, during thi 
riie and progrefs of a thunder ftorm 
to fee difFeient fets of clouds, at vari 
ous heights in the atmofphere, mov 
ing proraifcuoufly in all diredions 
as though they were impelled hiihe 
and thither by contending winds 
when probably the whole phenome 
non arifes from the different eledri 
cal ftates of the regions of the air, ii 
which they float ; as they approac 
one or other of which, they are at 
tra(fled or repelled, and move accord 
ingly, communicating, receiving 
or tranfmiting the eledric fluid, I 
or from them refpcftively, as the; 
may be either deficient of their natui 
ral quantity, orpoflcfs a redundant 
of this fluid. And as in the experJ 
ment of meflrs. Wilkie and .£pini| 
mentioned above, the two tin platf 
with the boards they covered, woi 
have ruflied together, had they i 
l)een kept afunder by the ftrings, 
thefe clouds, floating freely in a 
and beirg at liberty to aft uf 
every iirpulfe, gradually coalei 
reftoiing the ekfliic equilibrium., 






theory of thunder Jior mi. 



he neighbouVlng atmofphere by re- 
peated difcharges, as thev unite*; till 
t length they form one denle mals 
f humid vapours, which precipitat- 

Ing in a heavy lliower ot raifl, re- 
Vcfh the thiilty foil, leaving the at- 
noipliere above in a homogenous 
:le(fi:ricitate, calm and ferene. 

Hov/ thefe clouds are generated, 
ibrmed, and adapted to thofe 
jrand purpofes in the economy of 
lature, is next to be confidered : 
n profecution of which enquiry, I 
^all fubniit the following obferva- 
ions to the candour of the reader. 

Whatever the immediate caufe of 
;vaporation may be, it is certain 
hat the fuperficial moiihire of all 
jodies is perpetually exhaling In 
/apours, which afcend into the 
ligher regions of the atmofphere, 
Afhere they gather and are formed 
nto clouds, and at length re-con- 
denfe, defcending in dew, mift, or 
rain upon the furface of the earth, 
from whence they fprang. 

Thefe vapours are either detached 
in ftreams from the humid ground, 
by the influence of the fun, or 
thrown off by the perfpirations of 
thofe infinite multitudes of animals 
jmd plants, which cover the face of 
the earth +, or fupplied by evapora- 
tion, from thr; ocean, or other grand 
coUedions of water. 

Ignorant as wc are of the nature of 
thefe operations, and of the manner 
in which they are performed, it is 
natural to fuppofe, that the vapours 

NOTES. 

* It is certain, that, in moft thunder 
florms, the flafhes of lightning are 
chiefly difcharged from cloud to 
cloud ; very fe\v, and frequently none 
at all taking place between the cloud 
and the earth. 

4. See Hales's vegetable ftatics, 
and Chambers's Cyclopedia, under 
the word, perfpiration. 



themfelves afcend in the fame elec- 
tric fate, whether pofitive, neutral 
or negative, with the fubltances 
from which they arife. Accordingly, 
fignior Beccaria, in making fome 
of his experiments, obferved, that 
" rteani, rifing from an ele(fbiued 
" eolipile, diffufes itfelf with the fame 
" uniformity, with which thunder 
" clouds fpread themfelves and fwell 
*' into arches, extending itfelf to- 
" wards any conducing fubftance|." 
This Itream then was electrified, as 
well as the eolipile, from whence it 
proceeded. The fea muft neceffari- 
ly be fuppofed, in common v.ith the 
whole terraqueous mafs, to contain 
juft its natural quantity of the elec- 
tric fluid, and no more : we may 
therefore conclude, that both the va- 
pours which aiife immediately from 
it, and the air which fuftains them, 
and from its fituation enjoys a more 
equal temperature, than that over 
the land, are in the fame electrical 
ftate with the fea itfelf, containing 
neither more nor lefs than their na- 
tural quantity, 

Confidering the vaft extent of the 
ocean, and the comparatively fmall 
degree of moifture of which the 
dry land is fufceptible, we may 
conclude, that a very fmall propor- 
tion of the clouds, which are formed 
in the atmofphere are exhaled from 
the latter, and that the ocean is the 
grand fourcefrom whence they prin- 
cipally derive their origin. Our 
fenfes accordingly convince us that 
the fea air is always replete with 
moift vapours, even when its natural 
tranfparency is not in the leaft inter- 
rupted by them. Hence in a hot 
fummer's day, when the wind fud- 
denly fhifts from weft to ealt, we 
immediately perceive a chill from 
the fea-brecze ; and fometimes long 
betore the thermometer indicates a 



Priellley's hi [lory, page 327. 



^Theory of thunder Jlorms, 



change in the temperature of tlie 
atmofphere. Thefe vapours, when 
they firil arife from the fea, are 
generally fo nearly of the (iimc den- 
fity with the fiirroundliig and conti- 
guous air, that the rays of light, in 
paffing through them, undergo no 
fenfible change in their rcfradion ; 
they are therefore at firit generally 
invifibie ; but when the weather is 
extremely cold, and the air, of confe- 
quence, uncommonly denle, they are 
always vifible, and appear like a 
fleam arifing from boiling water*. 
Not rhat vapours afccnd moil copi- 
oufly in the coldeft feafons, which 
feems contrary both to reafon and 
experience ; but that the different 
denfities of the air, next the furface 
of the water, and of the vapours 
which afcend in it, render the latter 
vifible, by the irregular refraftions 
of the rays of light in paffing through 
vhem. For the fame reafon, our 
bre ith is vifible in the winter, but not 
in warm weather. 

Let us now fuppofe the atmof- 
phere, on a fummer's marning, to 
be all around in a homogenous 
|l:ate, as indicated by a cloudlefs Iky 
and a dead calm. As the fun rifes 
on the eallern coalls of America, 
and warms and rarefies the atmof- 
phere ealhvard, the rarefied air na- 
turally afcends, and a current of air 
as naturally flows thither from the 
oppofite quarter, which is but juil 
emerging from the cool fliades of 
night, to fupply its place : the 
confequence of which is a light wef- 
terly breeze. As the fun afcends 
higher, the air over the laud becomes 
heated and rarefied, both by the paf- 
fage of the fun's d'tefl: and reflected 
rays through it, and by the reverbe- 
ration of the heat, acquired from 

NOTE. 

* This Is always the appearance 
in a clear, flill morrting, when the 
mercury in t'arei-.heit's ihermonieicf 
\(, at o. or below it. 



them by the furfacc of the earth J 
till at length that whole region oi 
the atmofphere has its eleftrical ca« 
pacity enlarged, thereby becoming 
negatively elcftrifcd, or in a crav- 
ing ilate, as obferved before. On 
the contrary, the fun's rays, which 
fall upon the furface of the fea, 
efpecially when rufficd by wind, 
chiefly enter that tranfparent medium, 
in which they are refracted and irrc 
coverably abforbed ; very kw, com. 
paratively, being reflcded ; whence* 
very little heat can be revcrberatec 
from that element to warm the in- 
cumbent air, v.hich is fenfiblyaiTedec 
only by the pafTage of the fun'sdiref 
rays through it, unlcfs the wealhei 
be calm and the furface very fmootht 
Befides, it is colder at fca than aihore 
in tlie fnmmer feafon, when, am 
when only thunder fhowers are fre 

NOTE. 

+ In a perfed calm, the furface o 

the fea ads like a mirror upon tht 

fun's rays, ftrongly reverberating 

them back into the atmofphere, whei 

the heat is as fenfible upon water a< 

upon the dry land. But wheneve 

that furface becomes agitated ant 

broken by the force of wind adinjj 

upon it, thofe rays, by perpetuallj 

impinging upon an infinite varietj 

of new formed, fluduating furfaces 

undergo innumerable refradions, ii 

all diredions, whereby they are ab 

forbed ?.nd loft within tiie fluid mafs 

in fome proportion to the violeno 

of the agitation. Accordingly, whei 

the weatlier is ferene and calm, ^ht 

furface, like alooking-glafs, rcfled 

the phenomena of the Iky over head 

upon the firfl fpriiiging up of i 

breeze, it changes to a light blue 

which deepens to a fine fky-blue^ 

the wind rifes, to a deeper fea-grdej 

in a briik gale, and to a fullen black 

nefs in a ftorm, excepting whe 

tlie waves areinterfperfid with whi 

heads of foam, which, by contra 

only render the i^.eae more gloornyi 



yd 

m 



Theory of thunder ft-^rms. 



2.37 



jueiit, and indeed warmer in winter, 
"or the following rcafon, viz. as the 
ea is every moment changing its 
urface, neither heat nor cold can 
ifFett it fo foon as they do the fur- 
ace of the earth, which continues 
he fame. 

The air over the land, when 
ihoroughly heated and rarefied, na- 
iurally afcends into the higher regi- 
ons, while the dcnfer air from the 
"ea, neccifarily flows ir., and takes its 
.-lace. Hence, probably, the cafterly 
winds v/hich ufually faring up nrar 
the middle of the day, after a fultry 
morning. 

This body of warm a'.r afcends 
till it arrives at that region of the 
atmofphcre in which thunder clouds 
are formed ; while the vapours, which 
are wafted to the continent by the 
eaftern current, biiing attrafted by 
this now fuperior air, which demands 
a fupply of the eltftric fluid, con- 
tinually afcend, till they arrive at it, 
leaving the denier air, with v.hirh 
they were firft connefted, behind. 
As thcfe vapours move freely thro'jgh 
pnd mix with air, theyeafily infinuate 
themfelves between the particles ot 
that fluid, and unite with it, where- 
by every particle of sir, which, from 
the caufesaforefaid, is becoirje in any 
degree dellitute of the quantity ot 
clee'tric matter which is natural to it, 
in its prefent flate, may and will 
attract and attach to irfelf one or 
more particles of this vapour, and 
thereby furnifli itfelf wliha non-elec- 
tric coating, a;Ki thus become quali- 
fied to receive from any neighbour- 
ing objedl fuch a fupply of the elec- 
tric fluid, as its flate may demand, 

1 bus. provided, this body of air, 
together with the vapours which arc 
nv'reorlefs attaciied to every particle 
cf it, will conftitute a denfe cloud; 
and as the air itlelf was before (by 
f'jppofition) in a' craving or negative 
ftate of electricity — and as the va- 
pours are prcfumed to have arifen 
ironi the ocea.i in their natural or 



neutral ftate, the whole body cf a 
cloud formed by them, will flill be in 
a negative ftate, and thereby coniti- 
tute a complete thunder cloud; which^ 
when formed, if uniform in den fit v 
and contexture, fhould it be attracted 
within the Itriking dhlance from any 
objeft ftanding upon the earth, would 
have its eJcftric equilibrium rcftorcd 
at once by a flaili of lightning darting 
from the earth : or, Ihould it pafs 
near another cloud in a. different ftate, 
the flafli wca'd reftore an equilibrium 
betvve -n the two clouds. 

That a body ot air, either in a 
pofitive or negative ftate of elcftii- 
city, while pure, fhould be incapa- 
ble cf communicating its furplufage 
of the cleLtric element to, or receiv- 
ing fcpplics from the neighbouring 
regions, though in a contrary ftate — 
and that the tarns air, when replete 
with v.'atry vapcurs, may be rcftor- 
ed to an equilibrium throughout its 
who'e extent, by an inftantaneous 
difcharge — may yet require fome fur- 
ther evidence, before it be admitted. 

But, as the particles both of air 
and vapour, are fevcrally too minute 
to fail under our notice, I fhall en- 
deavour to illuftratc by analogy, 
what~cannot be diredtly demonfl rated 
by e'^periment. In order to this, I 
{hall firft give a general dcfcription 
of, and then fubjoin fome obfervati- 
ons upon doctor Frieftley's elediical 
battery. 

This battery confifted of fiKty-four 
cylindrical glafs jars, tixed in a fq'iare 
box ; the jars were coated within 
and without with tin foil, and the 
floor of the box was covered with 
the fame, wherebv the- cutfldes cf 
all the jars formed but one continued 
electrical furface. In like manner, 
by ineans of fmall brafs bars extend- 
ing over the m.ouths of the jars in 
their feveral ranges, and by wires, 
which connefted the feveral bars, to- 
gether with others which defcended 
from them, communicating with the 
inner coating of eachjar, thejrinteri- 



258 



Theory of ihtmdcr Jlarmi, 



orfurfaces were fo connei^ed, as to 
farm, in rhe fame fenfe, but one 
fiirface. Thus conRriided, the whole 
battery is capable of bt^iiig equally 
charged in every part at the fame 
lime, and of being difcharged 
throughout, by the fame explofion. 

Here 1 would obierve, that if, 
inftead of the metalline coatings, the 
prs were filled v.'itli water to the 
fame height with them, and were 
immerfed in the fame order in a 
fquare vefiel of water, to an equal 
liepth, the b^rs and wire renaming 
as before, the fucccfs of rdl the ex- 
periments made with thorn, would be 
the fame as above. L>rt then a bat- 
tery be conftruvf^ed and charged in 
ibis form; after which, Ici ilie bars 
and wires afcnefaid be removed, and 
the xvater, contained in the jars, be 
decanted off by glafs fyphons, and 
let the water br drawn oflfVom the 
Yefiel in which they (land. It is 
e^'ident, from the cKperiment of the 
charged pane oi glafs, already menti- 
oned, and other experiments, recited 
in doftor Franklin's letters, that 
thefe jars will remain feverally 
charged, as they were jointly before. 
They may now, when dry, be taken 
oat, and handled at pleafurc, with 
fafety ; nor can they be eafily rellor- 
etl to their natural ftates, but eidier 
by immerfmg them fingly under wa- 
ter, or by replacing the whole appa- 
ratus, and tilling both the jars, and 
the box which contains them, with 
water as at firft, and introducing a 
mctallifie conduftor between the wa- 
ter without the jars, and any one of 
the wires which conned their infides ; 
"then the whole will be inftaatly dif- 
eharged with an explofion*. 



To apply thefe obfcrvations to thi 
prefent fubjeft, we may regard ever 
particle of a body of puret^ but in 
cidentally eleflrified air, in the fam^ 
light with one of the jars in the bat 
tery aforcfaid, which, after havinj 
been charged, is deprived of its ad 
ventitious coatings : each particle 
like one of thofe jirs, will retail 
the ftate it may happen to be in,f( 
long as it remains deftitute of a con 
dueling appendage. But when, am 
by what means foever, a fufficienc; 
of mold vapours (liall become inter 
fperfcd amongft thefe particles of air 
to furnilh them feverally with non 
eleftric coatings, and by the near 
nefs or contiguity of thefe vapour 
to form a communication from on» 
to another, throughout the whole 
they will then be m the fame con 
neiilcd ftate with the jars in the bat 
tery, when complete in every part 
and charged; and like thofe jars, b 
the particles ever fo numerous, the) 
will be in a capacity of jointly re 
ceiving or communicating the elec- 
tric fire. And as, by the additior 
of jars in the conftruftion of th( 
battery, the explofion at the dif 
charge may be increafed indefinite!) 
— fo will the violence of vhe explofior 
from a thundercloud, be increafed ir 
proportion to its extent, and to the 
multitude of aerial particles, togethei 
with their appendant vapours, ol 
which it confifts, and which are fc 
conne«ned, as to be capable of unit- 
ing in the fame difcharge. But as a 
thunder cloud is not ufually formed 
at once, but by degrees, fmaliei 
clouds generally forming themfelves 
in feparate parties before they join 
the main body — and as the eledrical 



NOTE. 



NOTE. 



* Thefe experiments I never faw + Ptire as to the purpofes of elew 

particularly made, but the conclufi- tricity, or free from conducing va- 

ons ncceffarily follow from fomc pours; nerliaps pure elementary ail 

which I have feen, as well as from ii not to be found inour 4tmofphercl 
thofe pointed out above. 



Theory df thunder fiormu 



«3^ 



:i'es of thefe clouds may be very 
ifcrent from each other, from the 
irFerent eleftrical ftates of thofe 
,irts of the atmofpherc in which they 
Tihcr — the general equilibrium of 
ic acmofphereover a country, cannot 
e reftored by a fingle difcharge, but 
iccellive flallies will dart from cloud 
3 cloud, and between thefe and the 
arth, till at length the whole coIleA- 
d mafs of vapour is fpent and dif- 
Dlved in rain. 

Here a common obfervation natu- 
ally occurs, viz. that frequently, af- 
;r^ a flafh of lightning, a fuddcn 
iiower defcends in large drop-. 
The mutual attraftion between the 
apours and the air, when in this 
ledrical ftate, is fufficient to fuilain 
be former, notwithftanding that they 
re by this attraftion greatly con- 
lenfed, being as it were forced into 

physical contaft, both with the 
)articles of air, and with each other*. 

NOTE. 

* A gentleman of my acqualnt- 
mce, who is both intelligent and 
:urious, informed me fome years 
mce, that he was once upon the top 
jf a mountain in Spain, upon which 
1 thunder cloud gathered ; that as 
foon as the cloud became infulated 
from the mountain, it difcharged a 
violent tempeft of thunder and light- 
ning upon the plains !>elow ; that he 
never was fo thoroughly foakcd in 
the moll violent fhower, as when in 
the body of this cloud, though with- 
out a drop of rain, feeling as if he 
had been immerfed in a river. This 
idea is further juftified by the folid 
■appearance of the clouds, that rife in 
the well, on a hot fummer's day, 
compared with thofe which float in 
the atmofphere at other feafons ; 
iwhich (liews a manifeil difference in 
their denfity and contexture. And 
iwhen we obferve attentively the fe- 
iTeral parts of a thunder cloudy the 



But as foon as the air Is reftored to 
its natural eledlric date by a fialh of 
lightning, this attradlion ceafes, and 
the vapours precipitate by their owa 
fpecitic gravity in a heavy fhower. 
Long and extenfive calms, in cer- 
tain latitudes and feafons, take placa 
upon the ocean, during the continu- 
ance of which, the heat is fcarcely to- 
lerablet. Where thefe take place, die 
air v/ill naturally undergo the faiue 
changes, in itsdeufity and eleftric ca- 
pacity, as the air over the land doebin 
the fummerfeafon, and, when fuffici- 
ently heated and rarefied, will, in like 
manner, afcend, its place being fup- 
p'icd by the denfer air from all quar- 
ters without the limits of the calm. 
This heated and confequently (grant- 
ing the principles of the prefrnt tlie- 
ory) eleftrical air, when raifed to a 
certain height in the atmofpliere, 
may become as well adapted to the 
formation of a thundercloud, from 
the vapours which are perpetually 
exhaling from the fea, as the air 
over the land under the like circuni- 
ftances. Wherefore, in fome lati- 

NOTES, 

diftind^nefs of their borders and their 
fwelling furbeloes — how ftrongly 
they refled the rays of the Am, there- 
by exhibiting the moft vivid lights 
and deeg contrafting fhades — and on 
the other hand obferve the beautiful 
effects of their rcfra<^ive power, in 
the intenfc golden Ikirts which adorn 
the rifmg cloud, with a fetting fun 
behind it — we muft necclTarily con- 
clude, that, although the vapours, of 
which fuch clouds conlift, arecollcft- 
ed and condenfed in higher regions 
of the atmofphere, than are thofe 
which ufually form clouds at other 
feafons, yet their denfity and fpecific 
gravity is much greater ; and they 
derive their fupport from the eledtric 
principle. 

f bee note, page 236, 



240 



1'heoiy cf thunder Jlorms, 



tudes In all ^tdi^owi, nnJ perhaps in 
all latitudes in different fiafuns of 
the year, thunder ftorms ma)' as well 
happen at fea, even at remote dif- 
tauccs from land, as adiore. 

I now proceed to confider an cb- 
jedion, winch may be raifed a^ainit 
the foregoir.g theory, which 1 fhall 
£ril tlate in its full force, and then 
endeavour to give a fatisfadory an- 
fw( r to it. 

Objection. If the elcdrificaticn of 
that body of air, in which a thunder 
cloud is formed, depends upon the 
heat it has previoully acquired, 
whence is it that thunder ftorms are 
frequently attended with fhowers of 
hail, which hail is fomctimes fo large 
as to indicate its defcent from 
the coldeft regions of the atmuf- 
phere ? 

Anfwer. Sir Ifaac Newton aflerts, 
from expariments of his own, that 
" the denfi\y of the airin'the atmof- 
" phere of the earth is as the weight 
" of the whole incumbent air." 
Confcquently, the air gradually de- 
creafes in denfity from the furface of 
the earth to the top of the atmof- 
phere. The body of air which is 
fuppofed in this theory to be quali- 
fied by the aftion of heat upon it, to 
become a proper fnhjlratum for the 
formation and fupport of a thunder 
cloud, is thereby expanded and rare- 
fied, and tlience becomes fpecifically 
higher than it was before : it there- 
fore afccnds till it arrives at that 
heio-ht in the atmofphere, at which 
theairis naturally, from its fituation, 
of the fune rarety with itfelf ; and 
there it refls in equilibrio. This 
region is extremely cold at all fea- 
fons, as appears froni the teftimonics 
of travellers who have vifited the tops 
of very higii mountains, even under 
the line.' The greater the heat, which 
this body of air requires below, the 
greater degree of rarefadion It un- 
dergoes, and the higher, of confe- 
quence, it afcends in the atmofphere. 



where the cold Is proportionably mc 
fevere, than is ufual near the furface 
the earth. But though it u as the hi 
which it acquired below, that firlt i 
refied and expanded it, it will by 1 
means be proportionably re-condc; 
fed by the cold which it meets with i 
its afcent; fur as the heat, which 0( 
cafioned its rarefadion, decreafes u[ 
on that account, the prciTure of tl 
incumbent atmofphere upon it, di 
creafes as it rifes, whereby its denfii 
may, upon the whole, remain near! 
the fame; if fo, may wc not fuppo 
its cledrical ftate alfo, prcvio 
to the formation of the cloud, 1 
continue nearly the fame ? for fhou' 
this warm air afcend all together : 
In a body, without intermixing wil 
the denfer furrounding air throng 
which it rifes, as a bubble of a 
does in any other fluid, and ; 
this air probably would in a call 
feafon, the denfer parts of the a 
mofphere eafily giving way to it, ti 
it arrives at that region, the denfii 
of which is equal to its own, whei 
it would'* be at reft : fhould this, 
fay, be the cafe, it would not, ere 
in th.at cold region, cool {o fu( 
denly as to undergo any immcdia 
change in Its eleflrical ftate, froi 
the natural coldnefs of the region 
neither would it be from condcnfat 
on, its denfity remaining nearly tl 
fame, as obferved above. 

But when the cloud Is formei 
or rather when a number of clouc 
are forming in the neighbourhoc 
of each other, and joining the 
forces preparatory to the tempeft, 
general confufion takes place in tl 
atmofphere; various and even coi 
trary currents of air flowing promi' 
cuoufly hither and thilher, as is ev kill 
dent from the vifible irregular m( 
tions of detached parts of the cloud 
In this general efibrt of nature, t 
rcftore an equilibrium, fome of the 
aerial currents will probably intrd 
duce air, which having been til] no 



Theory of thunder Jlorms, 



212 



*t a diftance from the fcene of Tjftion, 
Iras Ai&red no maierial change in its 
natural eleftric rtate* ; and is, on the 
contrary, fraught^with uil flie coid 
which is natural to the region oftiic 
atmofphere from whence it came. In 
falling throiighjthis adventino'.is cur- 
rent of air, the drops of rain, pre- 
cipitating from the body of clouds 
above, are congealed into ice, and 
def;end in hail, which, as it falls, col- 
lefts other fnowv or icy particles 
round it ; a hail-llone, when it comes 
to the ground, refembling denfe fnow 
v/ith a nucleus or kernel of folid ice 
in the iniddle. 

That the air, v/hich this hail-flone 
falls through, is colder than the regi- 
on from whence ;t delcends, mav be 
thus proved, viz. If the freezing 
took place, where, and as foon as, the 
vapours were firft fer at libertv by a 
flafh of lightning, it would be im- 
poffible for them ever to unite into 
drops, but they muft defcend in thu li- 
neft cryitals, an aflemblage of which 
•couftitutes a flake of fnow ; the r\\\- 
ct?us, or proper hail-ftone, mult then 
have been lirft a fluid drop, and af- 
terwards congealed in its fall through 
a colder region than that in which it 
was formed. 

It may be further objected, that 
a thunder cloud, in the ealtern parts 
of America, always makes is firll 
appearance in the weft, over the land, 
its progrefs being tovvards the fea ; 
which feems to contradict the fuppo- 
fition in the theory, that the vapours, 

NOTE. 

* This fuppofition will be jnftified 
byconfidering, thatfoch is frequently 
the (late of the atmofphere, that the 
thunder clouds, which are formed in 
it, are but of fmall extent : notwiih- 
iland which, the change in the 
ftflte of the air, occafioncd bv them, 
is perceived to the diftance of many 
leagues ro'.ind. 

Vol. 111. No. III. 



oif which it confifts, are chiefly fup- 
plied from the fea. 

To which I anfwer, i. That a 
thundercloud is witiius very rarely — 
indeed fcarcely ever — -formed in the 
weft, without a fea-breeze fpringing 
up previoufly from the eaft. 2. 1 hat 
the fea air, as obferved before, ai- 
waysabounds with vapours ,although, 
from the caufes already alhgncd, 
they are ufually, at their firft rifir-g, 
invifible. 3. That the firft appear- 
ance of a cloud will always bev>-here' 
the vapours are firft collefted into a 
bodv and condenfed, and thereby 
rendered vifible, which, in a thunder 
cloud, will be in the weft, notwirh- 
ftanding the vapours, of which it 
confifts, may chiefty have arifen from 
the fea. 4. That when a thunder 
cloud is once formed, it will be in a 
ftate of attraftion with the earth in 
general, and mo'e efpecially fo with 
all fubftarces which are natural con- 
duftors of the eledric fiuid, fuch as 
the water contained in rivers, bays, 
arms of the fea, &c. and by thcfe 
the courfe of a thunder clmid a 
known to be very fenfibly affected. 

But the ocean is the grand objeft 
towards which its courfe will be 
direfted ; accordingly, the progrefs of 
the clouds is from tire wefteni hori- 
zon, eaftward, be the weather below 
what it may, not excepting the moft 
violent eafterly ftorms, which are 
fometimes, though but rarely, ac- 
companied with thunder and ligTit- 
ning. 

To the foregoing obfervations I 
would add, 5. That when an exten- 
five thunder cloud is forming in the 
atmofphere, by means of the mutual 
attraction of the condenfing vapours, 
and the body of eletlrifed air, which 
fuftains and condenfes them, the in- 
creafing denfity of the whole com- 
pound mafs of air and vapour will, 
by degrees, occafion its re-defcent 
towards the earth, from the law of 
gravity : it will alfo be attradied by, 
F 



242 Addrefi to iht minority ofllic tonvention of Ptnnjylvania. 



and move to'varcis tlie cccnn, upon 
the princil lesof'CicCtricitv ; tiic cloud 
viU then defccnd obliquely, in a di- 
:iponal between tlie diredions of 
rhefe tsci powers ; and both, continu- 
ally aftintr upon it, will jointly ac- 
celerate its motion. Such a cioud, 
if den ie ?.nd large, ^vould ci.d in a 
perfed tornado, either upon the br,d 
or \vr.ter, r.s thuridi;r Ihovveis fre- 
quently do ; fmaller cloeds being al- 
fo ufuaJly acconfpanieu with gufis 
or flurries of wind. 

I fhall here a.!.i ons nbfervatlon 
more, wbicii i have frequently inacx, 
rnd which may tend to confirm the 
foregoing- theory, viz. I hat, a^ the 
general courfe of the caflern coaft of 
North America, is from north- eaft to 
fouih weft ; tiie courfe of a thunder 
cloud is ukially from the north- weft, 
with the wind at foi^ch-tail:, perpen- 
dicular to the direction of ilie coafl, 
and contrary to each other. 

Inland feas and great laket;, fuch 
as are thofe in North America, may 
anfwer the fame piirpofcs, in the in- 
terior parts of the country, as tlie 
ccean does near the limitt- of the 
continent, both by affording the 
neccffary fupplies of vapours for the 
formation of the clouds, and by 
their attractive influence upon thofe 
clouds, when formed, 

I now conclude with a few hints, 
\s.'hich I fnall throv/ into the form of 
(juerics. 

■^i. Whatever the primary canfe of 
cv^-jporation niay be, does not the 
formation of vapours into difiind 
cloud.; depend upon theeledrical fiate 
of the atmofphere ? 

2. Were the atmofphere al",vn}s 
uniformly eledtricr.l, could xvc have 
any rain* ? in that cafe, if evapcra- 



* Signer Beccaria concludes from 
experiments, that gentle rains ure the 
eae<fts of a moderate, as thunder (hou-- 
crs arc of a more plentiful, eJcctricitv. 



tion be performed indepcndci5-t Cti, 
eletftricity, fhould we not be enve-i 
Jopcd in everlalung logs ? ,. 

3. Mr. Canton fuppofes that " the 
" aurora iorcalis may be the flafliin" 
" of ele.^ric lire from p )ricive towaras 
" negative clouds, tiiroughout the 
" upper part of the atmofphere." 
But as the air is ufualiy chargv^d 
more or iefs with vaj>ours, even 
wh-in pcrf::ctly pellucid — and as the 
rnoll remarkable aurjiae frequently 
appear w ithout a cloud in the i^.emi- 
fphere, may not this plwnonienon lie 
ri'.ther occaftoned by the '* flallang 
of ckiJiric fiie," from one region or 
body of air to ancttier. in a c.ilferent 
itate of eljttricity, through the inter- 
vening vapours i' 

4. May not the reafon of its nfiul 
appearance in the north, and of its 
flalhing fouthward, be, that, in every 
northern hnitude, the air to the 
fouthward is, at all feafons of th; 
}ear, cacUris paribus, more afFedled 
by the heat ot the fun than tiie air 
nurdiward of the fame latitude p and 
does not this occafion in eledrical 
current to flow from north to fouth, 
as often as the above-mentioned cir- 
cunifiances concur, though with fomc 
interruption from the irregular dif- 
p(iiit!on of the cond'jfting va;)ours ? 
and Miay not this occafion ihofc 
gleams and ftrcams with which this 
phenomenon is ufcally -attended ? 

..<y. <»-,^S£;<^>..<)... 

Adiir./s to thf >ni::yiiiy of the con'vetitioH 

of Pr/irlH-vaJtia, 

(Coittiinisd p"im fage id.) 

N u M E K R II. 
Gentlemen^ 

THE principal ohjeft of my laft 
paper was to point out a variey 
ty of initcitices, in which the agenc- 
and powers of the date government- 
are abfoliitely nt^cefiary to the exift- 
cnce of civil Society, and to the ex- 
ecution of the federal conflituiion it'« 
lOS, I the;ein particularii;cd certain 



Add'cfsto the minority of the ccn-^tntion of Pivnfylvania. 24J 



importanv matters nerefHyv to he 
done hom tiinc to time, wliich can- 
not be attempted or performed by die 
general government. Here, llien, 
vv^e tinci, not only ihat the ftate pow- 
ers 'aI II oot he annihilated, but that 
they are fo requiiite to our fyitem, 
that tliey cannot be difpenfed ivlth. 
Havi;-!<> IciMi vrhat congrefi can- 
not do, ier us now proceed to exa- 
mine what chaltarcgoverninentsmult 
or in;iy do. 

F;rir, tlien, frich flate can appoint 
every officer of its Ki'Nn militia, and 
can train the fame, by which it u'iil 
he fore oi' a powerful military fiip- 
p->rt, attached to, and even partofit- 
(ilf, v\ herein no citizen cf any otlier 
Kate cm he a private centir.ei, much 
It-iJ have iiiHuence or command, 

2 ily. Every regulation relating to 
religion, or the property of religi- 
ous bodies, niiilt be rn^ide by the 
fhtte go.ernntents, fince no po.vers. 
aJocting thofe points, arc containcJ 
ia tlie conlfiturion. 

3' ily. The liar-' 'egiilatin-^s una 
conlitutions niufi d-Jterrnino the 
q'.'-iiincations of tiie elf.fi:>ri for h.oth 
br.a.nch,.;s of tl-e federal government; 
and here lot us remember t<i adhere 
iirmlv, within (-ur rcfpective com- 
rfioaweakh.s, to genuine republicna 
principles. VVifdom, on thii point, 
uliich lies entirely in our hands, will 
pervade the whele fvHem, and will 
beanever filling antidote to ariito- 
crav^v, obligarchy, and nuinarchy. 

4thly, Regulating the law of de- 
fcents, and forbidding the entail of 
landed erxates, are extlafively in the 
power of the ftatii legiilatures. A 
perfeft equality, at leail among rhe 
males, and poiTiUly among the fe- 
males, fnouid be e'dabliOied, not on- 
ly ii\ the itrid line of defcent, hue 
in the nioft re.note collateral brandi- 
es. If a man omits to make a will, 
the public (hould diftribute his pro- 
perty equally among tho'e who have 
eqaal prcu-iniions, and who arc able 



to render equal fervices to the com- 
munny. I.y theie means, poverty 
andoxtreme riches wouid be avoided, 
and a republican fjnrit would be giv- 
en to oar laws, not only without a 
violation cf private rights, but con- 
liilently with the principles of juftice 
and found policy. Thi, power, 
with that meiitionfd under the laft 
he;id, it exeicifcd vviih wifdom and 
virtue, will ptelerve the f.cedoin 
of il-e ilatcs beyond any other 
means. 

5thly, The elefiions of the ptrf:- 
denr, vice-prefident, fenator^, snd re- 
prei'entaiii-es, are excluiivcly in the 
handi cf the tlates,even as r>» fijlin* 
vacancies. 1 he fmallefc interference 
of congrefs is not permitted, eiihcr 
in prefcribing the qualificaiiooj d 
electors, or in ccterminiug what per- 
fons may or ma/ not be ek<fted, 
Theclaufe, which enables the feder- 
al legjj] it'.ire to make regulations on 
this h.cad, permits them only to fay 
at v. hat rime in the two jears, the 
hou<e of reprereutativrs ihall be cho- 
[•iw \ at what lime in the lix years, the 
fenste Hia!! be ehofen ; zn\ at what 
time in the four years, the prefident 
fiiall be eicif:fd ; but thefe efedionf, 
by other pro\ ii:ons in the ccnftit"(i . 
on, muil take place every two, four 
and fix ) ears, as is declared in the 
feveral cafes vcfpeiftively. 

6th!y. The P.atcs will elec^, ap- 
point, arid ccmmiffion all their own 
officers, without any pctTible inter- 
ference of tlie federal governmer.r. 
7thly. The ftates can altei- and a- 
mend their feveral confatutions. pro- 
vided they do not make thcin .-.rif*- 
tociatical, oligarchic, or monarchi- 
cal — for the federal conftitution re- 
firains them from any alterations 
that are not rcrdly republican. 1 hat 
is, the f:)vcreignty of the people is 
never to be diminifhed or deftroyed. 
Sihly. The ftates !;ave the power 
to errifi corporations for literary, 
religious, commercial, or other pur- 



244' Aidrefsto the minority of tk< convention ofFenvfylvania, 



pofes, which the federal gox-ernment 
caitnor prevent. 

9th!y. Every ftate can always give 
its dillent to federal bills, as each 
has a vote in thefeaate and houfe of 
reprcfentatives, fccured by the confti- 
tution. Hence it appears, that the 
Hate governments are not only in- 
tt?nded to remain in force within 
their refpeftive jurifdiftions, but 
they are always to be known to, and 
have their voices, as ttates, in, the fe- 
deral councils. 

lothly. The ftates are not only to 
cleift all their own officers, but they 
have a check, by their delegates to 
the fenate, on the appointment of all 
federal officers. 

I ithly. The ftates are to hold fe- 
parate territorial rights, and the do- 
meftic jurifdiflion thereof, exclufive- 
ly of any interference of the federal 
government. 

izthly. The ftates will regulate 
and adminifter the criminal law, in- 
dependently of congrefs, fo far as it 
regards mala inje, or real crimes; 
fuch as murder, robbery, &c. They 
will a!fo have a certain and large 
part of the jurifdidion, with refpt-ii 
to mala prJoihhat or matters which 
are forbidden, from political confi- 
derations, though not in themfelves 
iiiimoral; fuch as unllcenfed public 
houfes, nuifances, and many other 
things of the like nature. 

i3rhly. The ftates are to deter- 
mine all the innumerable difp'.ires 
about property, lying within their 
refpeftive territories, between their 
own citizens, fuch as titles and boun- 
daries of lands, debts by afl'umption, 
note, bond, or account, mercantile 
contrafts, &c. none of which can 
ever be cognizable by any depart- 
ment of the federal government. 

i4thly. The feveral ftates can 
create corporations, civil and religi- 
ous; prohibit or impofe duties on 
the importation of ilaves into their 
own ports J eftabliOi feminaries of 



learning; ereft boroughs, cities, and 
counties; eftablifli and promote ma- 
nufatlures ; open roads ; clear rivers; 
cut canals ; regulate defcents and 
marriages ; licenfe taverns ; alter 
the criminal law; conftitute ne=-v 
courts and offices ; eftablilh fer- 
ries; ered public buildings; fell, 
leafe, and appropriate the proceeds 
and rents of their lands, and of every 
other fpecies of ftate property ; efta- 
blilh poor-houfes, hofpitals, and 
houfes of employment; regulate the 
police, and many other things, of the 
utmoft importance to the happinefs 
of their refpeftive citizens. In fnort, 
befides the particulars enumerated, 
every thing of a domeftic nature mult 
or can be done by them. 

In addition to this enumeration of 
the powers and duties of the ftate 
governments, we Ihall find many o- 
ther inftanccs under the conftitution, 
which require or imply the cxiilence 
oi" continuance of the fovereignty 
and feveralty of the ftates. The 
following are fome of them : — 

-All procefs againft criminals, and 
many other law proceedings will be 
brought by, and run in the name of, 
that commonwealth, in which the 
offence or event ihall have taken 
place. 

The fenate will be reprcfentatives 
of the feveral ftate fovereigntics. 

Every ftate mull fend its own ci- 
tizens to the fenate and to the houfe 
of reprcfentatives. No man can go 
thither, but from the ftate, of which 
he is a complete citizen, and to- 
which, if they choofe, he fiiall be 
fworn to be faithful. 

No ftate ftiall, on any pretence, be 
without an equal voice in the ftnare, 
and a vote in the houfe ofrepreftn- 
tatives. 

Any ftate mav repel invafions, or 
commence a war under emergent cir- 
cumftances, without waiting for the 
confent of congrefs. 

1 he ele(ftors of the prefidcnt and 



i vicrv of the principles, &c. of the funding fyjlem »f Pennfylvaiiia. 145 



^ .'-prefident muft not nominate 
J !» than one perfon of the Itate to 
\ ilI'. they rcfpedively belong : fo 
eful is the federal conftitution to 
ierve the rights of the Hates, 
[n cafe of an equality of votes in 
eleftlon of the prefident or vice- 
lidenr, a calling voice is given to 
ftaies, from a due attention to 
ir fovereigntv, in appointing the 
;nfihle head of the federal govern- 
nt. 

The prefident of the united ftatcs 
y require written communications 
in jne goveriiTs of the ilares. 
Proviiion is made for adjuiting 
iMences between two ftatcs — or 
fliite and the cirizens of another, 
w liatcs :nay be admitted into the 
')». As all the territory of each 
e is already in the union, it is 
ir thst any diilrift is expefted to 
id on different ground, when ereft- 
iiito a Itate, from what it did 
en itcompofed a number of coun- 
5, or a part of an already exiliing 
mber of the confederacy. 
Two itatcs may not become on'", 
:hout the confont of congrefs ; 
ich proves clearly that the con- 
itiun held the Severalty of the 
tes nccefiary. This is diredly op- 
fitc to your idea, that confolidati- 
was intended. Each itate and 
federal juiHciary are to give faith 
d credit to the records and pro- 
:dings of every other ftate. 
The iiates have, in the federal con- 
;ution, a guarantee of feparate re- 
blican forms of government. 
Two thirds of the Hates in the pro- 
fed confederacy can call a conven- 
•n; not two thirds of the people. 
Three fourths of thofe flates can 
er the conftitution ; not three 
arths of the people. 
From this examination of the pro- 
fed conftitution for the united 
tes, I truft it will appear, that, 
ough there are fome parts of it, 
lich, taken ftparately, look a lit- 



tle like confolidation, yet there are 
very many others, of a nature v/liicli 
proves, that no fuch thing was in- 
tended, and that it cannot ever take 
place. 

It is but fince the middle of the 
prefent century, that the principles 
and praftice of • free governments 
have been well underftood ; political 
fcience having been much ilowcr in 
its progrcfs than any other branch. 
Perhaps this has been canfed by the 
greater degree of pAilicn, to which, 
from its nature, this department of 
knowledge is faojecltd. T he prin- 
ciples, on \vhicl\ tree fovtreignties 
ought to confederate, is quite a new 
queilion, and a new cafe. It is dif- 
ficult, therefore, to take it up at once 
iii thepropfrt'-vav. Oneeircumftance 
has exceedingly cbfciired the fubjed, 
and hid the truth from the eyes of 
many cf us. Moft of tlie ftates being 
in the poUlfTion of free governments, 
fome have looked for the fame forms 
in a confederating inftrument, which 
they ha\ e juiily efteemed in their fe- 
verat fecial compads. Recommend- 
ing this diUi'-.dion as neceffary to be 
taken home to your minds, when you 
examine the great fubjed before ycj, 
1 ihall ceafe for the prefent to tref- 
pafs on your time. 

A Freeman. 

A •vifiv of the principles, operation, 
and probable effeds of the funding 
fyf'em of Pen?tjyl<vania — together 
'withfome obfervaiions on the effeSis of 
a finhng fund — tending to fhenu, 
that this fate, by a proper application, 
of her prefent rifources, may redeem 
the nvhole capital of her fnnded debt 
iu a fe<w years. 

" Public credit is public luealth." 

(Continued from page iSz.J 

jUR means are not lefs, in pro- 
portion to our debt, than thofe^ 
of Great Britain were at the lime al- 



iiS A vifur cf l/te privCTpfi.f, Cc. c} tie funding fyjltm of Pcnnfylvania. 



■tu<kd to. and O'lr advant.iges in the 
uib cii' tlieiii may be, in rnnny lefpeds, 
gnv*tcr ; when our federal goveni- 
iTicvit ftia!} be [.Toperly orgaaiifd, 
which it is the with and rlie hope oi 
every patriot may fi:)eedily h.-ippcn, 
theie means and theii* advantages 
may be put in proper operation by 
the united (tales. In the mean 
tiine, a curfory review and examina- 
tion of the principles, operation, and 
jirefent fitu^ition of the funding fyf- 
tcm eftabliflied in Pennfylvania, 
may convey information, not lefs 
pleafing than ufeful, to many of the 
citizens, and may pofiibiy fuggeft 
hints which may be improved to 
public advantage. 

The citizens of Pennfylvania had 
become, during the war, larger cre- 
ditors of the united Hates, than the 
citizens of any other f^ate, efpecially 
in that part of the public debt which 
was contrafted by loans. The cef- 
tation of the payment of interell in 
bills of exchange, according to the 
original contract, on which a conli- 
derable part of thefe loans was 
made, was therefore more deeply af- 
feding and alarming to them than to 
others. 1 hey addreiled congrcfs by 
remonfaance and petition, ilating in 
pathetic terms the wretchednefs of 
the fituation to which they were re- 
duced, and imploring relief; but 
the paramount neceflities, created by 
the prefTure of the war, occafioned a 
temporary fufpenfion of the opera- 
tions of juftice to individuals, and left 
ihem without hope of fpeedy relief 
&om that quarter. They then ap- 
plied to the legiflature of the ftate, 
fiiggefting the reafonablenefs and pro- 
priety of liquidating, on the whole, a 
burden which every one with eafc 
coi}ld bear a proportionate part of, 
though oppreffive to the individuals 
on whom it partially refted. On 
this application, the lejiflature were 
pleafed to make proviuon for the 
pjyment of one year's intereft, as a 
tCiDporary relief; and afterwards to 



make further provifion for the p,i 
ment of liie intereft annually, un 
congrefs Ihould be enabled to ma 
perina \ r.t provifion for difchargi; 
or funding the wlioie of ilie pub! 
debts contrac^icd during the war. 

By an aci paffed the \fy\\ 
Match, 17B5, the legiflature, in ( 
der to make provifion for the pa 
ment of this intereft, as well as ct 
tain other payments therein men 
oned, appropriated certain reveni 
to form a fund, viz. 

1. 7'he produce of 
the duties on goods 
imported from and 
after the ill of No- 
vember, 1784, efti- 
mated at the annual 
fum of j{^7^,ooo o 

II. The produce 
of an annual tax, put 
in operation by vir- 
tue of this aifl, being 
the annual quota re- 
quired of this ftate, 
in aid of the duties 
on goods in.ported, 
for the })urpore of 
paying the annual 
interefi: of the nati- 
onal debt, according 
to the recommenda- 
tion of congrefs, of 
the iSth of April, 
17S3, and agreed to 
by the alfembiy of 
this ftate, by their aft 
of Sept. 23, 1783, 76,945 17 

III. /. loo.oco 
of the bills of credit 
to be emitted. 

IV. .All the ar- 
rearages ot taxes dTte 
on ads paiTed fince 
the i\\ of Janua- 
ry, I73z ; which ar- .|- 
rearagcs were fup- ^^ 
pofed to be about ^ 
^, 400,000. 



/i fictc (if <l.e principles, ^t.cf ihf fi.vdivgfypamrf Pe-nnfylvcnia. 247 



this fund, the following 
i payments were cliaigcj 
.;; f^une ad ; 

I. To the conti- 
ntal loan- officer, 
? eiliinated quota 

tins ftate of the 
anal interelt of 
' aggregate debt of 
united ftates ; 
the purpole of 
zing-, firll, the in- 
tft and arrears of 
ered on fuch conti- 
ital ccrtiikntes as 
: tKe-.ein dcfcribed ; 
d fecoiuily, fuch o- 
:r iutcrdl as the 
ited fcaces fhould 

■ift, - - _ ;C-i 23.932 o o 

II. The annual in- 
ert of the ftate 
bt, which, it was 
^pofed, would re- 

,ire, - - 15,000 o o 

III. To the late 
opiietarics annual- 

for ;|- years (one 
;ar's inllahr.ent 

iving bren otlicr- 
ife provided for,) 65,000 o o 

iV. For finking 
ic above-mentioned 
ills of credit, to 
Dnnmence in the 
ear 17 &6, annually, 20,000 o o 



/". 183,932 o o 



It was ruppofed that the billsofcre- 
it and the arrearag-is of taxes would 
nable the fund to fnpport thcleannvi- 
1 payments till the proprierary debt 
.lould be difcharged and the bills of 
red t redeoined, after which the fund 
■'culd be dilburdened of 4c,oool. 
■er annum. 

Thefe rr:venues were fo calciLited, 
n confornury with the fyilcm re- 
ommen<lcd by copgrcfs, on flic 1 8th 
'f April 1-/^3", as to enable tli^; ilate 



to be in conilanircadinefstoconform 
to that fyftcnt on her part, whenever 
it fitould be acceded to by the other ' 
llates. And proviiion was made in 
the aft, for conforming to the regula- 
tions of congrefs, whenK^vcr ihey 
(hould b-; enabled to make adequate 
and permanent provifion for paying 
or funding the whole debt. 

Thus flo-xl the ftate-fyflem of 
funding, till the requifition of cen- 
grefs, of September, 1 7S5, made fcne 
alterations neccflary, in order to a- 
void intci'lering with continental 
regulations. 

By an a^, pafTed in March, 1 786^ 
for complying with the reqinliti-n) of 
September 1785, fo much of the 
funding ad, as direded the payment 
of 123,932!. annually to tho conti- 
nental loan-ofucer, was repealed. 

And by another ad, paf^'d in the 
frnx month, the holders of fucli con- 
tinental certificates', as were entitled 
to draw intereft out of the flate fund, 
were authorized to deliver them to 
the comptroller gen.eral, as loans to 
the fiate, and the-e'ipon to receive 
ftate certificp.tCB, of equal liquidated 
value, which would be entitled to 
draw intereft hnif-yeaily at the ftate 
trearurv: by which mean., the credi- 
tors would receive their inkreft with 
as much punduality as before, and 
the ftate negeciate and pay its quota 
of the indents ilTucd by the united 
ftates, withcutputting them into cir- 
culation. Ihefe alterations, howe- 
vt;r, broupjit an additional charge on 
the fund for th.at }ear, though diey 
fomewhat reduced the annual charge 
upon it afterwards : for, in order 
to comply with the requifitipn of 
September, 1785, it was requifue, 
betides difcounts for intereft alrea- 
dy paid by the ftate, to advance 
] 25,31 8 dollars to the united ftates, 
in rpecie, which fum was charged 
upon and paid out of this fund. 

This was the fituation of the fund- 



i\% A viezo c/the principL'i, &c. of I'.-e fuvdingfyjian nf Pdunjylvama, 



in* fjlTem, afrer the alterations made 
by the a'-a pafed in March, 1786 ; 
and except the addition of fome cer- 
tilkatcs, admhted by a latterattinto 
the new loan, v.hich wore not ad- 
inifi^ble under the ol-iginal a*.'^, it 
has nrsdergone no legiiiative altera- 
tion fmce. Let us iiow take a view 
of its operation and prefent condi- 
tion. But in order to do this, it mult 
be difcntangled from all ether mat- 
ters, and an account ftated of the 
tranfaftions under it, feparate and 
dilHnd from the other burmcfs of 
the treafury. It is much to be re- 
gretted, that the accounts of the 
iranf;<(5tions under this fyftem, have 
)!Ot been kept, and annually Hated 
to the public, in this manner ; and 
it is to be hoped that in future they 
will be i"o ordered. In tlie mean 
time, the following cftimatcs may 
fer\'e to fliew how the fj'ftem has 
operated hitherto, and affbid a pret- 
ty jirll view of its prefent htiiaiion 
and circumitances, though they may 
not be perfectly accu rate. No notice 
15 tnkeh, in any of thcfe eflimates, of 
the fupport of go->ernment, tlie re- 
demption of depreciation certificates, 
tbrmcr cmiilions of bills of credit, 
and fome other ftare engagements : 
becaufe other funds are appropriated 
to thofe piirpofes, which either a e or 
ought to he made adequate to them. 

An account of the actual receipts 
and payments, under the funding 
t\licm of Pennfylvania, from 
March, 17S5, to tlie tirll of No- 
vember, 17S7, as ncarlv as the 
fame can l>fe coHeitcd from the 
ftatements of the comptrolicr ge- 
ne rai* 

RECEIPTS. 

Bills of credit put 
into the treafury to 
be emitted as cafh, ;(^. 100,000 o o 

Impoft duties for 
three }ears» from the 



lit. of Nov. T7'54 to 

the ift of No/. 1787, 

• — fay, - - 190,000 

Taxfs, and arrears 
of ta).cs, ca!!?(5^ed 
from March, 173,5, 
to D;^cember, r-S6, 14'', 500 

Ditto, from rhence 
tothe 111 Nov. 1737, 1 4 4.. 6^7 c 



PAYMENTS. 

One year's intereft 
paid in 1 78 j, through 
the hands of the con- 
tinental loan-officer, 
248,446. 84 dollars, 
equal to - ;C-93«'67 12; 

Paid to the nnit- 
ed dates, to complete 
the fpecie payment di- 
rected by the z'^ of 
March it86, 125,- 
318 dollars, - 46,995 5 

Two years' inter- 
reft p.iid by the flate- 
trea hirer on new loan 
certificates, 228,103 15 

Four years' inter- 
ell: paid on the origi- 
nal f>uo debt, 40,469 5 

Bills of credit 
cancelled, - 40,c3oo o 

^.448,735 18 



Balance in flock. /. 114,431 i 

Whitever the true balance may 
it is n^t fuppcfi-d that the who*' 
artiiall-/ in the treafury. Twenty 
thirty thoufand pounds of the du! 
may be yet oatftanding; but wii 
ever this amount may he, it v 
come in hereafter. The rcfid 
however, (excepting fuch fart 
payments as may have been fii 
made, purfuant to the fyftem) is 
ther in the treafury, or has been b 



Avien/j ofthepr'viciplfs, 15 c. of the funding ffcm of Pennfyhanh. 249. 



EJiimate of the recrihi^ and pay 
meats under the funding f}f:>'i 
fur the enjuing year, that is, from 
the \Jl rf No-L'i-mber 1787, /a the iji 
of ^Q-uembcr 1788. 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance brought 
foru'ard from lall: 
year. - _ -/. 114,431 

Impoft duties will 



60,003 
76,9+)' 



£. ?,oi,y;6 19 3 



owed from tliis fund, and applied to 
ither xiki. Whatever has been fo 
)orro\v'ed, is to be replaced out of 
;tner funds. — '28,4i-i9 dollars of 
his money appears, by the comp- 
roller-gencral's ftatement, to have 
leen paid to the united itates, fince 
ompleting the payment, direfted by 
he above mentioned aft, of March 
786, and therefore is ryDt chargeable 
n this fund. 

It will be ohferved, that, in the probably produc 
bove account, no charge is made of Annual tax, 
ny payment to the late proprieta- Arrears of tajies 

ies. They have received none out (there now remain 
fthis fund; the firll inltahnent, £. 324,000 after a 
.'hich was otherwife provided for, deduiiion of £.'^0,- 
eing not vet all paid. The proba- 000 for exonerati- 
le rirafon is, that they have declined ens,) fuppofe a col- 
iking farther payments on account leftion this year, of 50,000 
f the prefent ilate of the bills of 
redit ; and they have a right to let 
leir demand He on intereft, until 
lev ihall be oitered payment in fpe- 
ie. But it may alfo be obfervedj 
hat the furplus of the fund is more 
han equal to the payment of the 
hrec inftalments, which became due 
the late proprietaries, at and be- 
orc Septeni'-er, 1787, after doing 
nre than theordinary performanceoi 
IS ether fiinditions ; for, in lefsthan 
wo years and a half,from itsellablilli- 
nent, it hath paid three years' inte- 
cll, on that part of tlte debt, called 
be new loan, and four years' intereft 
)n rlie original ftate debt, befides*- 
idvancing the extra fum charged 
ipon it, for the united ftates, and 
inking forty thoufand pounds of the 
jills of credit. 

Tlie following eftimate will (hew, 
hat the annual produce of this fund 
s more than equal to the annual 
:h*rges upon it. 



1 9 



o o 



o o 



The annual pay- 
ments, directed by 
law, are : 

One year's intereft 
on the funded debt, 
including new loan 
and original liate cer- 
tilicates, - 



/.i24,7o6 o o 



One year's inRal- 
ment to the late pro- 
prietaries, - - - - - 

For cancelling bills 
of credit, _ _ - 



25,000 o o 



<iO,000 o o 



Balance to be car- 



169,706 o o 



ried to next year, /". 131,670 ig 3 
Which is /. 17,239 17 6 more 
than the balance brought forward 
from laft year. 



Vol. III. No. III. 



It is to be rememl:)ered, however, 
that three years' inftalments, due to 
the late proprietaries, amounting to 
/. 75,000, befides intereft, rciuaiu 
chargeable on this balance. 

Thus it appears, that the revenues 
appropriated to this fund, com- 



t^o A 1'ien.ij of the pri/jci^Ies^ ^c. of the funding Jyji em of Pcnnfyl'uav'ia, 



pi]ting/",5o,ooo, a year, to be col - 
Icdcd OHt of the arrears of taxes, 
amount to /. 186,945 17 6 per an- 
niKTi; and the annual payments, 
charged upon the fund; amount to 
f. 169, 706, vvhicli affords an annu- 
'a| lurplus of upwards of £. 17,000, 
towards paying the arrearages of in- 
terett, or to be applied to the finking 
fuiid. 

But that part of the revenue, 
vhich arifi's from the arrearages of 
taxes, muft ceafe in a few years, that 
is, when the /". 324,000, now re- 
maining out, fhall have been exhauft* 
ed. Before that happens, however, 
the fund will probably be relieved 
from the payment of f^, 45,000 
per annum, by the final dif- 
charge of tiie propi!et;\ry debt, and 
the extindion of the bills of credit. 
Or, if ai^y part of thefe fhould re- 
main undifcharged, the furplus or 
finking fund will be proportionably 
richer : becaufe the whole fum, re- 
quifite to complete thefe objeds, is 
far fhort of the amount of the taxes 
in arrear, after deducting /. 30,000 
for exonerations of fome of the fron- 
tier inhabitants who were driven from 
their habitations by the favages. 
Let us then fuppofe the arrearages 
cf taxes exhaurted, and the fund ex- 
pnerated from thefe payments of 
£ . 45.000 per annum. The eftimate 
will then Hand thus ; 

The current tax and 

duties produce per 

annum, _ - - /.i36,945 o o 
Annual intereft of 

the funded debt, - 124,706 o o 
Annual furplus for • 

the finking fund, /. 12,239 o o 

It mav be obferved, that, in all the 
foregoing eltimates, the annual inte- 
reft has been computed on the whole 
Smount of the certificates, ifiued and 
expelled to be ilTued, chargeable on 
ihis fund, which remained unre- 



deemed on the I ft of November lafr 
and this is certainly the proper mod 
of cftimating, in order to allow di 
operation and efTeft to a finking func 
But this capital is rated above th 
fum that adually draws intereitfroi 
the treafury, even at the prefent timf 
for, of the original ftate debt, inclu 
ded in the eftimate, certificates to ih 
amount of /.53,ooo, have not y 
been iflued, and a great part of thei 
probably never will be. Of the cei 
tificates, which have been ifTued, the: 
had been redeemed before the ift. ( 
November, 1787, to the amount c 
/. 22,5 54, of the original ftate deb 
and /'•57,705, of the new loai 
And when we ccnfider the continu 
fliow of thefe certificates into tl 
land office, by new fales of land, an 
the payment for old purchafes an 
locations, we may fairly count upc 
a conftant and confiderable increa: 
of the powers of the finking func 
efpecially as the amount, yet remair 
ing out, of the unfunded certificate 
receivable in the land office, is f 
fmall, that thofe which come in here 
after muft be chiefly of the certifi 
cates charged upon the fund. 

It may not be improper to re- 
mark, that an annual furplus of revt 
nues, equal to one per centum, 
any capital, funded at an intereft c 
fix per centum, would of itfelf b 
fufficient to difcharge the whole ca 
pital in a little more than thirt 
years. The furplus, already formed 
if it were not for fome arrears of in 
tereft yet due, would be litde fhoi 
of this amount ; and when we con 
fider the probable increafe of it, b 
the means above mentioned, w-e ma) 
induigea hope, that this funded debt 
enormous as it mav now appear, maj 
be honourably difchr.rged, by thi 
means now in operation, in tb 
courfe of twenty years, or perhap 
in lefs time, if every advantage b 
fairly improved. This calculation 
of the power of a finking fund^ \ 



A •vie'iv of the principles, ^c, of the funding fyfletn of Petinfyl'vaffia. 2 5 1 



(nadeon afuppofition, that the annu- 
al furplus of revenues, with its accu- 
mulating increafe, is to be laid out 
in the purchafe of capital, at full va- 
lue. It is evident, that in this cafe 
fuch purchafes may be made, at leaft 
for fome time to come, on terms 
more advan'pgeous to the public, 
and, of courfe, the debt may be re- 
duced proportionably fafter. And 
bovvever dinionourable it may be to 
a (late or nation, to facrifice the pro- 
perty of its creditors, by negleding 
to make provifion for difcharging its 
ijngageinents, it can refieft no dif- 
honouron a ftate, which fairly funds 
its debts, and punctually pays the in- 
terell, to purchafe the principal at 
market price. 

Eat, in order to efFeft this deli table 
purpofe, a ftrict adherence to fyllem, 
and a facred regard to appropriations, 
ire highly neceffary, as well in the 
executive, as the legillative depart- 
ment. If the legiflatnre would re- 
2u!arly and uniformly affign funds 
(ox every expenditure they authorife 
to be made, and oblige their officers 
fo to form and keep their accounts, 
as to (hew that every difburfement 
wa<; paid out of, and fairlv cliarged 
upon the fund aiTigned for the pur- 
pofe, it would not only produce re- 
gularity and order in the bufmefs of 
the trcHfury, but tend much to pro- 
mote economy in public aliairs. 
They would better underftand the 
ftate of their aiiairs, and more rea- 
dily perceive the probable efFeft of 
their own nieafures, and one aifem- 
bly would be lefs likely to roll upon 
another the burden of providing far 
the payment of debts, which they 
have contraded. Alegiflature. which 
uniformly devifes and eitablifhes the 
nieans of defraying every expenfe it 
authorizes to be incurred, may he fald 
to pay as it goes, and will never want 
credit on fudden and extraordinary 
occafions, which may require engage- . 
ijoents to be made, before the means of 



payment are eftablifhed. But on all 
fuch occalions, it is neceffary to the 
prefervation of public credit, to 
provide for the performance of palt 
engagements, before new ones are 
contrafled. And a legillative ap- 
propriation of a fund or branch of 
revenue, for the payment of a debt, 
or the performance of a contraiftj' 
ought to be as facredly obferved and 
adhered to, as the mortgage of an 
ellate by an individual. 

The writer of thefe obfervations 
hopes he fhall be pardoned for this 
digreflion. It is far from his inten. 
tion to give offence, or to meddle, 
improperly with the bufmefs of 
others; but he conceives it to be, in 
fome meafure, the duty as well as 
the right of every citizen of a com- 
monwealth to contribute his mite 
to the general welfare; and he is not 
without hopes, that the obfervations 
now offered, may be improved to 
public advantage. . 

If this reprefentatlon of the prin- 
ciples, operation, and effcfts of the 
landing fyilem of Pennfylvania, be 
as juft as the writer reallv believes it 
to be, it may tend to remove fome. 
prejudices againft it, which want of 
information may have permitted to 
arife. There is an objection, how- 
ever, which hath been raifed againft 
it, and which mav require more jiar- 
ticular notice : It has been faid, that 
the ftate has alTumed more than its 
proportion of the general debt of the 
united ftates. 

It will be remembered, that at the 
time this fyllem was formed, the 
aggregate debt of the united ftates 
was elfimated at fomething more 
than forty-two millions of dollars;— 
that the quota of Pennfylvania, a«' 
it was computed at that time, and has 
been ever ftnce, was little lefs than 
one feventh part, and amounted, by 
that rule of computation, to fome- 
thing more than 5,745,000 dollars," 
I'be new loan (.including 8o,oco"dbl-' 



252 A fu'iv of the principles, Ifc. ofthefunditrgfyf.cm of Fenufxlvama. 



lars which may yet come in) amoun- 
ted, on the lit November 1787, to 
^,148,994 dollars ; part ot which 
having l^cen redeemed, the ba'auce 
then remaining, on which the il;i(e 
pays intereiV, was 4,997 ,779 dollars 
and 58 ninetieths ; — a fum conlidcr- 
ablv below thctftimated quotaoiihis 
ftare, of the whole debt, and but 
very little more, than fuch quota cf 
the doineltic part of it, according 
to the ellimate, pnbliihed by congrefs 
in 1783. Thai it has in any degree 
exceeded our proportion of the do- 
meltic part of the debt, has been 
owing to theciti/.ensof Pennfylvania 
being original creditors in a greater 
proportion than others ; for none, but 
certificates originally iffued to citi- 
zens of Pennfylvania, or paid to 
them from the public, for fupplies, 
were authorifed to be admitted into 
the loan ; and if by poflibility a it"^ 
have ujiavoidably crept in.which were 
not fairl^Y entitled, they have proba- 
bly been but very few, and can bear 
but a fmall proportion to thofe which 
were excluded, by having been alie- 
nated from the original holders, be- 
fore the a(ft took place. In a bull- 
nefs of To great magnitude, and in- 
volved m circumftances not eafy to 
be inveftigated, it was hardly to be 
expeftcd, that general rules could be 
f<->rm"d, lefs liable toexceptions,ihan 
thofe by which ihe admifHons to this 
loan have been governed. If the 
ftate had, by thefe rules, affumed 
fomethino- more than her proportion 
cf the whol'^, it would have been 
but an equitable liquidation of a bur- 
den, which ought to be borne by the 
ftate, rather than by individuals of 
her citizens. And if the (late may 
ultimatelv derive benefit, as well as 
honour, from the meafures by which 
fne has obtained thefe, and other con- 
tinental certificates, by being enabled 
to perform her federal duties with 
the more cafe and facility, thefe mea- 
sures may be conficercd as ads 



of good polic\', as veil as of ju{ 
tice. In order to ihcvv, that thi 
may probably be the cafe, it may b 
proper to ttkc a view of the fituatioi 
in which the ibite will be placed, whc; 
the impoit revenues fjiall be transfer 
red to the united flates. 

(ireat expectations are formed 
the order, regularity, and punttuali 
ty, which will take place on th 
adoption of the new plan of govern 
mcnt. Let us fur pole thefe pleafmj 
expe<!:tations realized. 1 he ftatc wil 
then relinquifii her fcparate claim t 
the impoft duties,, now ellimatcd a 
j/^. 60, 000 per annum, but (lie ma- 
keep pollcflion (A all her other branch 
es of revenue, it' flie can meet and dif 
charge at the ihrefliold her quota o 
the demands of the united ftates. 'i"ht 
impoft fyilem will probably yield t( 
the federal tieafury, revenues fufHci 
ent to fund the foreign debt, fuppor 
the civil government, and otlier tfla- 
blifhments, and do fometliing confi 
derable towards paying the interefl 
of the domeftic debt. Our quota ol 
what may be farther requilite, may 
be fomewhere between one and two 
hundred thoufand dollars. Befide: 
the certificates obtained by the new 
loan, the ftate has acquired by othei 
means, certiiicatcs to the amount ol 
nrarone million of dollars ; fo thatftie 
is poffjfled of continental certificates 
which entitle her to demand intereft 
from the united ftatcs to the amount 
of 371,782 dollars per annum. — 
The greater part of thefe belong to 
the funding fydem : whether the reft 
b<e added to it or not, the ftate may 
join them in her claims upon the uni- 
on ; and the following eiiimate may 
fhew the benefit to be derived from 
having th-s in her power, and that 
the funding r)ilcm may continue un- 
injured. 

Annual intereft ' 

due from the unbred 
ftates 37 1,782 dui^ ' ' 



A lUiiv of the pmicipLs, Uc. of the funding fjflem of F evnjyliianta . 2^z 



ars, equal to f. 139,418 5 o 
Annual rax, - - 7^,945 17 6 
Anearaj;es of tax- 

■-> /,. 324,000. Let us 

uppofe they prodjce 

ii.iually, till the pro- 

tiietary debt fhall be 

lircliarged, and the 

lills of credit re- 

lecmed, - - 45', 000 o o 



/. 261,364. 2 6 

Charged thereon. 

Annual inteieil of 
lie funded debt, - 124,706 o o 

Annual payment 
the late proprie- 
aries, 25,000 o o 

Annual redempti- 
n of bills of credit, 20,000 o o 

Annua! referve for 
finkin'^ fund, - 20,000 o o 



/. 189,706 o o 
Surplus, out of 
vhich the requiii- 
ions of the iinired 
latcs for the pay- 
Tientof intereft, may 
)e difchargcd, - £-7^, ^5^ 2 6 
Thus it appears, that the {late of 
'ennfylvania hath obtained a fitua- 
ion, in matters of finance, more eli- 
gible, circumftances coniidered, than 
;ould reaf'inably have been expeded, 
jnd probably much better than many 
af her citizens at this moment nppre- 
lend. Her difburfements, under the 
"undi ng fvilem, do not impoverifn, 
3ut rather enrich the ftate. They 
ire diilributed among her own citi- 
eens, and, by enlivening the circula- 
ion of money, they promote induf- 
ry, and facilitate the colleflion of 
axes and duties. The internal tax, 
vl\ich fcarcely exceeds eight lliillings 
n every hundred pounds, on a mode- 
ate valuation ofeilates, is light, when 
ompared with the objed. What 
patriot will murmur at the payment 



of fuch a tax, when he confiders that 
it is to fupport a fyltern, which bids 
fair, in a few years, to revive and ef- 
tabliPn the public credit of the llaic, 
difcharge her proportion of the pul»- 
lic debt, anddo juiliccto hcrvirtuaus 
citizens, whofe vnd in the common 
caufe of their country, induced them 
to advance their property for tlv* puh- 
lie fervice, in times of diiTiculty and 
dillrefs — iu times when many who 
are now at cafe, would have thouglit 
it a happy compromife, if they could 
have purchafed, witli a moiety of 
their property, the peace, liberty, 
and fafety which no'.v court tlieir 
culture and enjoyment ? 

Let us attend to the language of 
congrefs, in their addrei's to the fever- 
al Itates accompanying the recom- 
mendation of the iSih of April 1785, 
whereb)' they de iianded this tax for 
twenty-five years, to the prccife a- 
mount, and for the very purpofe, to 
which it is now appropriated, with 
this circumllantialdii?ereiice only, in 
the mode of application, that what is 
raifed in the ftate, is now paid to her 
own citizens; whereas if it had gone 
firfl into the general treafury, a 
fmall proportion only might have 
come back to our citizens; the reft: 
would proi)Hijly have been thought 
neceflary to fupply the deiieiencies 
of other Itates. 

" The plan, thus commnnicated 
" and explained by congrefs, muft 
*' now receive its fate from their 
" conltituents. All the objcftscom- 
*' prifed in it, are conceived to be of 
" great importance to the liappincfs 
" of this confederated republic ; are 
** neceffary to render tlie fruirs of the 
" revolution a full reward for tlie 
" blood, the toils, the cares, and the 
" calamities which have pnrchafed 
" it. But the objcrft, of u'hicli the 
" neceilitv will be peculiarly felt, and 
" which it is peculiarly the duty of 
" congrefs to inculcate, is the provi- 
" fion recommended for th* national 



s^.^ A 'vk^v of //-> principles ^c, of the fufi ding Jyfism of PfNttfjlvaria, 



*' debt. Akliough this debt is greater 
•* than could have been wifhod, it is 
** ftill Jefs, on the whole, than could 
**• have been expcitt'd; and v.-hen re- 
*' ferred to the'caufe in which it has 
** been incurred, ?.nd compared with 
•' the burden,wliichvvarsof" ambition 
" and of vain glory have entailed on 
" other nations, ought to lie borne, 
*' not only vvirh chterfuhiefs.but v/ith 
** pride. But the magnitude of the 
'• debt makes no part of the cjucdion. 
" It is fofficient, that the debt has 
•' been fairly contrafted, and that 
** juftice and good faith demand that 
•* itfliould be 1 ullydifcharged. Con- 
" grefs had no option, but between 
-*• difTerent modes of difcharging ir. 
*' The fame option is the only one 
*' that can exift with the dates. The 
*' mode wJiich has, after long and 
" elaborate difcuffion, been preferred, 
*' is, we are perfuaded, the lead ob- 
*' jcifiionable of any that could have 
** been equal to the purpofe. Under 
*' this perfuafion, we call upon the 
"juilice and pi iglited faith cf the 
*' feveral ftates, to give it its proper 
*' effect, to reflefi; on theconfequences 
*' of rejeding it, and to remember 
*' that ccngrefs will not be anfwera- 
** blc for them. 

" If other motives, than that of 
*• juftice, could be requifite on this 
" occafion, no nation could ever feel 
" ftronger : for to whom are llie 
*' debts to be paid ? 

" To an ally in the firfl: place, 
*' who to the exertion of his arms in 
*' fupport of our caufe, has added 
" the fuccours of his treafure ; who, 
" to his important loans, has added 
*' liberal donations; and whofe loans 
*• themfclves carry the impreffions of 
'* his magnanimity and friendfnip. 

" To individuals in a foreign 
" country, in the next place, who 
" were the fuft: to give fo precious a 
*' token of their confidence in our 
" j^jilite, and of tlieir friondfliip for 



1: 



*' our caufe, and who are membe: 
" of a rejHiblic which was fecond i 
*' efpoufingour rank among nation 

" Another clafs of creditors is th 
" diltinguiHied and patriotic bar 
" of fellow citizens, whofe bloc 
" and wliofc bravery have defendt 
" t!ie liberties of their country ; \v\ 
*' have patiently borne, among oth 
•* diflreiles, tlie privation of the 
•* fcipends, while the dillrelTes < 
•' their country difabled it from b 
" flowing them ; and who, eve 
" now, aflc for no more than fcrch 
" portion of their dues as will en: 
♦' ble them to retire from the field « 
" vidlory and glory into the bofo 
" of peace and private citizenfhi 
*' and for fuch efteftual fccurity fi 
" the reildue of their claims as the 
" country is now .'.nqueftionably . 
" blc to provide. 

" The remaining clafs of cred 
" tors is compofed partly of fuch ( 
" our fellow citizens as original 
" lent to the public the ufe cf the 
*' funds, or have fmce manifefle 
'' moft confidence in their countr; 
'* by receiving transfers from the Ici 
" ders, and partly of thofe who 
" property has been either advance 
" or aiTumed for the public fervic« 
" To difcriminate the merits of thei 
" feveral defcriptions cf creditor; 
" would be a talk equally unneceili 
" ry and invidious. If' the voice c 
" humanity plead more loudly in fn 
" vour of fome than of others_, th 
" voice of policy, no Icfs than c 
"juftice, pleads in favour of alj 
'' A wife nation will never permi 
" thofe who relieve the want? o 
'^ their country, or who rely moft o: 
" its faith, itsfirmnefs and refources 
" when either of them is diftrufted 
*' to fufler by the event." 



THE writer of the foregoing 
pamphlet has found, on farthe 
inveiligation, that fome erroi; 
were committed in ilat^ng, the 



A^clcw ofthepr'mctpfes, ^c. of the funding fy ft cm of Pennfylvania. 2JJ 



ount of actual receipts and pay- 
lents under the Cundirig fyilem iVom 
/Ijrch 1785, to the firit oi" Novcm- 
ler 17B7, owisg chicay to the iai- 
irfetl ftate of the documents froin 
'hich he drew his information at the 
me of writing. As truth vvas the 
bj.'ft of his enquiry, and fair and 
andid information to his fellow citi- 
ens, his intention in pnblilliing the 
;fult, limilar motives induce him 
ow to oifer the following correc- 
.ons and ohfervations. 

The produce of the duties pn 
oods imported from the ift of No- 
emher ijBj., jo the ifl: of Novem- 
ler 1787, was eftimated in the ac- 
ount alluded to, at £.\CjO,ooo. 
"his eftimate was formed on the belt 
iformation he could obtain at the 
ime, and was intended to be dated 
ither bdowthan above the true Turn, 
lut the accounts relative to thefe 
uties, had not then been fo ftated 
s to fhew the net produce of the 
luties appropriated to this fyftem, 
ftcr dedutT;ing drawbacks, office 
xpenfes, and fuch duties as have 
leen created by fubfequent acls of 
he legiflature, and which yet remain 
mappropriated. This laft article, 
imounting to near/". 40,000, occa- 
ions a much larger deduction dian 
vas apprehended, and of courfc leaves 
efs of the aggregate amoijnt for the 
"unding fyltem than was fuppofed. 
3ut on the other hand, it appears by 
» report of the comptroller general, 
ately exhibited to the committee of 
vays and means, that the other reva- 
lues appropriated to the fyftem, have 
Produced more money to thetreafury 
vithin the time mentioned, and that 
he payments charge:ible thereon, 
lave been lefs than are fl-ated in the 
"aid account. So that on the whole, 
he balance in favour of the fyilem 
)n the I ft of November 1787, as a 
5rovifion towards 'making the pay- 
ments charged luion ir, will not be 
lei^tlian the balance ita.ted in the faid 



pamphlet, [fee page 148] notwith- 
ihanding this great deficieiicy in the 
amount of toe appropriated duties. 
In another rcfpe.di, however, this 
deficiency will have an injurious, 
though not a fatal efFeft on the ope- 
rations of the fyftem. Idie annual 
produce of the appropriated duties for 
the current and future years has been 
eilimated zx £ . 60 coo. The year 
1786 produced lefs than /, 40^000. 
1 he year 1787 fomething more than 
/. 42.000. bo that although it is 
again riling, it may fall fifteen or 
i . 20, ceo fhort of the eftimate. In 
fuch cafe the arrearages of interell 
due to the public creditors, may not 
be fo fpcedily paid, nor the finking 
fund fo. briikiy operative as might 
be e.xperttd. if this fouice of revenue 
were more produiTlive. But if the 
taxes are collected widi decent punc- 
tiiulity, or even as well as they have 
been coHcifted hitherto., the appropri- 
ated revenues may ftill keep pace with 
the current payments charged upon 
them ; and the redutJition of the capi- 
tal of the debt by receijjts in the 
land-ofiicC; will foon create a finking 
fund, that, if faithfully managed, 
may difcharge the whole debt in 
twenty years, or probably in Icfs 
time. 

In the comptroller general's late 
report, in which he ftates, but 
/. 109^75.6 17 10 to have been aftu- 
ally received for duties appropriated 
to the funding fyftem within the three 
years from the 1 it _pf November 1784, 
to the lit of November 1787, he 
fhews that the receipts on account of 
that fyftem have neverthelefs exceed- 
ed the payments /". 61,162 2 9. 
Of the appropriated duties v\hicii 
arofe within tliat time, about 
/. 2 -,000 had not been adually re- 
ceived on the lit of November, 
and are therefore left cut of the 
comptroller general's accotint ; but 
as thcv arof' within the time, and 
have been fince received^ or laortly 



.sG 



will be, they ought to be nddcJ to 
the eftimate. There is alfo charged 
to the accoimt of this fyllem 86,- 
6,3^ dollars, of the payments made 
to the united flates, i^eyond \vliat 
the Icglilatiire have directed to be 
charged. If tiief'e two funis he add- 
Ci\ to the balance ftated by tl:e comp- 
troller general in favour of the fyf- 
teiuon the ift of November lall, it 
will fl-icw that this fund had a ba- 
lance in ilocic on that day, of about 
/". 1 1 8,000, all of which had been 
aClually received in the treafury, ex- 
cept the £. 25,000 then due for du- 
tie-i, the greater part of which has 
been fince received. Out of this 
balance, however, three iniblmtnts 
due to the late proprietaries, a- 
mountingto^.75,000, together with 
iomc iuterel!:, remain to be paid. 



Speech of an Indian. 

UPON the returnof Cornplanter, 
au Indian chief, to his nation, 
in the year 1786, he praifedtlie blcf- 
lings of civil government, and pro- 
pnfed to his countrymen to exchange 
their favage mode of life, for the 
pleafures of civil fociety, and offered 
a plan of government for that pur- 
pofe. Whereupon Caiafluita, ano- 
the chief, arofe, and audreifed his 
countrymen in the following fpeech, 
which may be confidered as an anfwer 
to all that has been, or fhall be writ- 
ten againfl the prcpofed conRitution 
of the united ftates. 
Brothers, 

Before it is forbidden by law to 
fpeak every thing we think, and do 
what we picafe, I (hall take the liber- 
ty of bearing a tcftimony againit the 
government that has been propofed 
to us. 

I ihall begin by informing you, 
that it will deprive us of many of 
our dearell natural rights. It will 



Speech rif n?j Indian. 



prevent our fifhing or hunting upon 
the grounds of our neighbours. It 
will take away from us the power of 
revenge (fo fvveet to an Indiap.) and 
transfer it to certain pcrfons tailed 
judges and magillrates. It will pre- 
vent our taking as many wives as we 
choofe, and changing them as often 
as we pleafe. It will compel us ta 
hoe our own corn, and cook our own 
viftuals, both of which are employ, 
nients fuited only for women. It will 
rellraii-i us from drinking and fmoak- 
ing, bv impofing heavy duties upon 
rum aud tobacco, and thereby de* 
priv'e us of two of the highell plea- 
fures of life. It will puniili certain 
afts whiv.h We deem elTcntial to liber- 
ty, and a fnateriul portion of oui 
deareft rights, with imprifonment, 
whipping, and death. Our yoimc 
men ihall no niiore train themfelve; 
for the deiightful purfuits of war, 
by occafional irruptions upon the 
American hufbandmen, A formal 
declaration of war, agreeable to th« 
cuftoms of civilized nations, will 
be necelTary to fandifyevery murder 
if we fubmit to the reflraints thai 
will be impofed upon us by civi 
government. No more wiil dexte- 
rity or fecrcfy in ftealing, entitle oul 
warriors to praife in peace, or pre- 
eminence in war. Ihe pride of oui 
nation, like the oak that yields to 
the north vvind, will then mingle 
with the dead and noify leaves undei 
our feet. Thofe hands which nevei 
felt a ligature of any kind, fliall theil 
be bound in chains. Your backi 
{hall fwell with ilripes, inflifted by 
the hands of mercilefs executioners : 
and even Caiafhuta himfelf, who now 
addrelTcs you, and who has fo often 
led YOU to glory in war, and after 
wards placed you in fafcty under th< 
tree of peace, fhall perhaps be th( 
firrt victim to a law that fhall placa 
him upon a level with a dog, by d^' 
priving him of life, not by fii*j 
not by a bullet, not by an arrow. 



On the crihnre and advantages of the fear city roft. 



257 



It by the ignominious punilhment 
the halter and the gallows. Thcfe 
irv locks will then kifs, for the lafl 
le, the paffing breeze. Caia(huta's 
i^cs f!iall then in vain weep at the 
t of his aagry judges, in hopes 
obtaining his pardon : and his fons 
ill be threatened with his fate, for 
)iy Avearingthey will revenge this 
th. And for what fnall this neck 
made like the crane's ? For what 
11 his body feed the bii'ds of the 
? Why only for taking a horfe 
: of a neighbo'.ir's field, to ride on 
Diirtown, orfor committing what 
white men call treafon, that is 
wfiiig the execution of a law of 

Hate, which was contrary to his 
?reft or inclinations. 
Ncr, brothers, is this all. We 
ft fubmit to yield a certain por- 
1 of the proJits of onr labour for 

fiipport of this government, 
e nionev, exaded from us for this 
•pofe, will be called taxes. If we 
ufe to pay them, our horfes, or 
tie, or farming utenfils, will be 
^ed by an officer, appointed for that 
rpofe, and fold for the amount of 
:m. If they bring more than is 
z from ns, the refuiue will be kept 
the officer, who fells them. The 
mbcr and fabrics of the officers 
government will be beyond calcu- 
ion. Nineteen men will be taken 
im their ploughs, and employed 
:ryday in the year, in an executive 
uncil, in reading news-papers, 
d giving away profitable offices. 
en the fecretary of this body, whofe 
ly bufinefs will be to light the fire of 
counfellois, fhall receive, for this 
•vice, 7 50I. a year. Thus you fee, 
others, the dargers and opprcffions 
which you will expofe yourfelves, 
adapting the moil: fimple form of 
n\ government, that can be offered 
you. It will deftroy our heaven- 
•rn equality of rank and property. 
will furnilh the means of advance- 
:nt to men who are noted for 
Vol. III. No. III. 



" wifdom and virtue," and thereby 
favour their becoming the lords and 
makers of their lefs wife and induf- 
' trious neighbours. Brothers, our fitu- 
ation is not fo bad as has been repre- 
fented to yon, by fome fpecious and 
declamatory orators, in their fpeeches 
at a late council fire. Our cabins 
are ftill proof againft the fiiov/ ftorm. 
Our granaries are iHll filled with 
corn ; and if we have not venifcn 
enough for all the families of our 
nation, the kettles of your head 
men have aever been empty. The 
fun fhines bright through yonder 
cloud. The great fpirit is propiti- 
ous. We embrace once more the 
liberty, the independence, and the 
bleffings of the favage life. Away 
with all your forms of civil govern-' 
ment. Thoy have all of them, ia 
their turns, enilaved the nations, that 
have adopted them. Even the fim- 
pleft democracies have been the rich-' 
eft favannas of flavery. Savages a- 
lone have prcferved their liberties. 
Who ever heard of an Indian tvrant 
or flave ? fliew me the one, or the 
other, and this tomahawk fhall im- 
mediately flake its thirlt in his 
blood. 

ExtraSi fro?n a memoir of the abhe 
de Commerel, on ike culture, ufcy 
and advantages ofthefcarciiy root. 

THE fcarcity root is but lately 
introduced into France. In 
Germany, where they arc much in 
the ufe of it, they give it the name 
of dick ruben, great rape, arul, i^ 
fome places, dick wurzel, the great 
root, and mangel wurzel, fcarcity 
root ; becaufe it thrives, and furnifiies 
an excellent food for man and beail, 
when other nutriment is fcarce and 
dear. This root cannot be clafied 
either with the turnip or carrot ; 
and though, both in appearance and" 



258 



On the culture andaivantagaofthefcarcity raott 



by its feed, it referables the beet, yet 
it greatly excels that root, and feems 
to form a fpecies of itfelf. Its cul- 
ture is fo e.'ify, its ufes fo many, and 
it fiipplies fo well the place of other 
forage, that it deferves particular at- 
tention, and claims the preference to 
all other roots, ufed for the food of 
catdc. It fucceeds in all fort? of 
ground, but beft in moift light land. 

This precio\'is root isnot afFcfted 
by the viciflitudes of the feafons, nor 
has it any deftruftive enemy. The 
vine-fretter which ravages every 
other plant, does not touch it. It is 
not fubjeft to mildew, nor does the 
^reateft drought flop its vegetation. 
It does not impoverifli the foil, where 
it grows, but rather improves and 
renders it fit for wheat, or any other 
grain, one choofes to fow in it, be- 
fore winter. 

In ordtr to promote the culture of 
this precious root and infure fuccefs, 
I will point out the time and manner 
of fowing the feed ; of tranfplanting 
and cultivating the plants ; and of 
gathering the leaves, which are pro- 
duced in conflant fuccefiion, and in 
great abundance, and are excellent 
food for cattle. I will then give 
direftions for gathering, curing, and 
preferving the roots, and point out 
the time for replanting tliem, in 
order t<» procure feed. I will alfo 
point out the manner of preparing 
the roots, for feeding and fattening 
large cattle, and raifmg calves ; and 
then fay fomething of the general 
advantages to be deri\'ed from it. 

I. TZ'if tifte and manner nf foijoing 
the feed of the fcnrcity root. 
The feed may be fown at any time, 
from the laft of February to the mid- 
dle of April, when the feafon will 
permit the ground to be prepared. 
It may be fown either broad-caft, or 
in rows at five inches apart ; and 
fhould be covered, at leail an inch 
deep, with good earth, ft fhould be 
fown thin, becaufe it is large, and 



becaufc thereby it is eafier weeded 
and becaufe by that means the plai 
becomes thrifty and vigorous.'- Tl 
feed is commonly fown in a gardei 
or in a piece of good land, well pn 
pared for the purpofe. 
il. 1 he preparation of the ground, f 
tranjplantwg the roots. 
As foon as the feed is fown, 
becomes neceffary to prepare a piet 
of ground, where the roots m? 
be tranfplanted. Jt is with the 
roots as with all other plants. TI 
more tht ground is dunged, ar 
the better it. is prepared, the fin' 
and larger will the roots grow, ar 
the incrcafe of the leaves will be mo. 
abundant. In an indifferent foil, tl 
roots will not weigh more than fo' 
or five pounds, and the leaves cannt 
be gathered more than four or fi' 
times. But in a good foil, they wi 
weigh nine or ten pounds, and tl 
leaves may be gathered eight or nir 
times. In light, fandy, rich foi 
they grow very large ; and fom>e 1 
them will weigh from fourteen 1 
fixteen pounds.* 

NOTE. 

, * Although the time for fowir 
the feed is from tlie latter end \ 
February to the middle of April, y 
it may be well to fow fome feed evei 
month, even to June ; fo as to ha^ 
always plants fit to be tranfplante 
to any vacant places either in tl 
garden or in the fields, "In 1784, tl 
flies" fays the abbe, " having foi 
times fuccefFivelydeftroyed the turni) 
I had fown, I fubftituted in theirplai 
the fcarcity roots. This was in tl 
month of Augufh Neverthelefs, 
gathered the leaves three times ; an, 
the roots weighed from three to fdi 
pounds. On hemp and flax grourti 
after the hemp and flax is pullfec 
fcarcity roots may be planted, an 
they fucceed very well. And th 
fecond crop, though of a diiFerer 
nature, will be worth as much as til 
firft. 



Ok the culture and advantages of the fcarcity root. 



II, The time and Tnanner of tranf- 
plafitmg the /canity root. 

About the beginning of May, the 
round being well turned up, either 
ith the fpade or with deep plough- 
ig, and being well drelTed and le- 
illed, either with a rake or a har- 
)w, it will then be time to exa- 
line this nurfery. If the roots be 
om five to fix inches long, and a- 
Dut the thickncfs of a goofe quill, 
ley fhould be pulled up. None of 
le fibres ftiould be trimmed off, but 
le top of the leaves may be cut, as 

commonly done with endive, 
hen, with a dibble, holes are 
ade in the ground, from four and 

half, to five inches deep. The 
>les (hould be in ftrait lines, crof- 
ig each other, at right angles, in 
le form of checkers, at eighteen 
iches diftance, one from another. 

I each of ihefe holes, a root is 
anted, fo as to leave about half an 
ich of the root above the ground, 
'his is a very eafy, but a very effen- 
al precaution, without which the 
)0t will not thrive. In twenty- 
)ur hours, the plants take root. 
.ny perfon, with a little praftice, 
lay readily plant from eighteen hun- 
red, to two thoufand in a day. 

V. The firft gathering of the leaves ^ 

and culture of' the roots. 

About the end of June, or the 

eginning of July, when the outer 

;aves are about a foot long, they 

re firft gathered, breaking them off 

II round, clofe to the root ; for this 
nrpofe, the thumb is pufhed down 
n the infide, to the root of the leaf. 
'are muft be taken, not to leave any 
umps of the leaves, nor fhould any 
saves be gathered, but fuch as are 
ent towards the earth, the heart 
iaves being always preferved with 
reat care. Frefh leaves will imme- 
iatcly fprout, and grow more vigo- 
oufly, Asfoonas this crop of leaves 
i gathered, the ground (hould be 
oed, and the furface of the ground 



newly ftirred, drawn from the roots, 
fo that every root may he one inch 
and an half, or two inches out of 
ground ; fo that they will appear, as if 
planted in a bafin, of eighteen inches 
diameter. In light grounds, it will be 
fufRcient to cut down the weeds, and 
draw up the earth from the roots. 
After this operation, which is eflen- 
tially neceffary, nothing more is re« 
quifite, but to gather in the leaves 
and the roots. This is the time, 
when the roots begin to extend and 
grow, in an allonifhing manner. 
V. The produt't of the leaves. 

In good land, the leaves may be 
gathered every twelve or fifteen days. 
The abbe fays, he has more than 
once found, that in twenty-four 
hours the leaves grew from twen- 
ty to thirty lines, that is, from 
two, to two and a half inches long, 
and eighteen lines, or one inch and 
a half broad ; fo that, at the fe- 
cond gathering, they were from twen- 
ty eight t» thirty inches long, and 
from twenty to twenty-two inches 
broad. This, he obferves, will ap- 
pear incredible, until experience dc- 
monltrates the truth of it. 

VI. Their ufe for cattle. 

Oxen, cows, and ftieep, eat them 
greedily, thrive exceedingly, and 
foon fatten on them. They are giv- 
en to them whole, as they come 
from the field. Dunghill fowls eat 
them, when cut into fmall pieces, 
and mixed with bran. Even horfes 
can foon be brought to eat them, 
and may be kept upon them the 
whole fu'^mer. But then it will bs 
necefTary to chop them in pieces, 
with the inftrument hereafter mentis 
oned, for chopping the roots, and 
to mix them with chaff or cut llraw. 
Hogs eat them alfo, greedily. 

It is to be obferved, that milch- 
cows, which one would wilb t > keep 
fo, may, without inconvenience, be 
fed entirely with thefe leaves, fro;n 
eight to fifteen days fucceffively. Da- 



26o 



On tht culture and advantages of tht jcarciiy root. 



ring the firft days, the quantity of 
milk is encreafed, and the cream is 
excellent : but if they be kept en- 
tirely upon this forage, tbey fooii 
fatten aftonifhingly, and their milk 
gradually decreafes. In order^ there- 
fore, to keep the cows to their milk, 
it will be necefiary to mix grafs with 
"the leaves, in the proportion of one 
part of grafs to two or three of leaves : 
or they may be fed with grafs once 
a day, or, every three days, fed or>e 
whole day on grafs. By this mean, 
the cows will be k^pt in fine order, 
and their milk will be excellent. 
When there is any apprarance of rain, 
or bad weather, a fufticient quanti- 
ty of leaves fliould be gathered, to 
Jafl two or three days; but the heaps 
fhould be frequently turned, to pre- 
vent their heating. In plantin"; a 
quantity of roots, proportioned to 
the number of cattle to be fed or fat- 
tened, one is f«rc of being fupplied 
with a fufiicient quantity of leaves, 
be the weather what it may, even 
though there fhould be a fevere and 
long drought. The abbe obferves, 
that he attempted to dry the leaves, 
and to ufe them for dry fodder, but 
did not find itanfwer. 
VJI. The ufe of the halves for mcv. 
The leaves furnilTi a wholefome 
and an agreeable nutriment for men ; 
they are eaten like beets, but they 
have not the earthy taile of the beet, 
but rather that of the artichoke. 
They mav be drefkd different ways. 
When drelTed like fpuiage, many 
give them the preference. The roots 
may be boiled and eaten in the win- 
ter. The leaves, produced by the 
roots in a cellar, furnifh alfo a de- 
licate fallad in the winter. 

VIII. The gathtrhi^^ of the roof. 
The firft coming of hard frofl de- 
termines the moment for gathering 
in the roots. Fine weather fhould 
be improved for this precious harvelt, 
even at the rifque of beginning fome 
days fooner, than might otherwife be 



neceffary. It is of importance 
the prefervaticn of the root, thai 
be ftored vvithoiit moifture. 1 
day being hxed on, the roots flioi 
be pulled in the morning, and left 
the ground, that the fun and air m 
dry them. Children follow the pi 
lers, and cut oiT the leaves clofe 
the root. This may be done wh: 
they are in the ground, the evenii 
or fome days before the pulling, 
the evening, the roots are gathen 
into heaps. If they are well aire 
they are then put under cover in 
cellar, or other dry place, out oft! 
reach of the frolh If there be i 
danger of rain, they may be left c 
the ground all nighr, and carried ne 
day to the magazine or place i 
df pofit. When the weather will a( 
mit of their being left in the' a 
two or three days, it is of great ai 
vantage in prcferving them. The 
fliould be handled gently in loadin 
and unloading them; for as the 
have a very thin fkin, they are eali! 
bruifed, and then they do not kee 
fo well. 

IX. The choic?of roots to be refers 

ed for Jced, 
The time of gathering is the tim 
for felcfling roots proper for feec 
The only root,s proper for this, ai 
thofe of a nViddling fize, ever 
fmooth. the outfide of a rofecolout 
and infide white or marbled with rei 
and v/hite. Thefe are the marks t' 
dengnate thofe which ought to be fe 
apart for this purpofe. Thofe whicl 
are all white or all red, are eithe 
degenerated or real beets, the f^-ct 
of which has got mixed with tha 
of the fcarcity. The roots, defignec 
for feed, muft be kept by themfclve 
in a dry place entirely out of th< 
reach of moifture, or frof^. 

X. The liine and manner of replanting 

the roots to bear fed. 

In the beginning of April, th( 

roots, defigned for feed, fhould b« 

planted deep in the ground, at the 



On the culture and ad-vnuUtges r^f the f canity root* 



261 



lidance of three feet one from the o- 
her. As their tops ftioot up to the 
leight cf five or iix feet, it is necef- 
ary to give them fupporters. There 
hould be poles fiuck in the ground 

fool and a half deep, and ftanding 
bout feven feet above ground. 1 hey 
tioiild be interlaced with rods or 
(O'jghb to form a kind of efpalier ; 
nd to tliis Gfpalier_, the tops fhould 
le falTened^ as they grow, that the 
/ind may not break them, 
vl. The gathering of the fed, and 
manner of prrfernjihg it. 

The feed commonly ripens about 
he end of 0«ftober. It flioiild be 
athered immediately, at the coming 
f the iiril white frcil. The tops are 
hen to be cut off, and, if the weather 
,'ill permit, may be hung up to dry, 
gainll a wall or fence. If the vvca- 
lierisbad, they fliould be tied in 
andfuls, and hung up under cover, ' 
a any airy place, until they be quite 
ry. The feed is then beat off, and 
)iu into bags, and fo kept, like other 
;arden feeds. 

Every root will produce from ten 
twelve ounces of feed. 
?C1I. The tvay to pr client the roots 
from degenerating. 

The feed of the fcarcity root de- 
generates, like all other feeds, unlefs 
:are is taken, to change the ground 
;verv year, or, at leall, every two 
-ears; that is to fay, by fowing on 
hong land, what was raifed en light 
andy land ; and on a light foil, 
vhat was raifed on heavy ftrong 
Tound. So that farmers, who occu- 
jy different forts of foil, may mu- 
uallv oblige each other, by exchang- 
ing their feed. The feed will keep 
?ood for three or four years. 
Klir. Ho'zv to preftrve the roots, 
from November to the end of fune. 

If the crop be large, and cannot 
dl be houfed, then, forae days before 
gathering, trenches fhould be made 
m the fame field, or in fome other 
?lace, not liable to be covered with 



water in the winter. After leaving 
the trenches open eight or 'ten days, 
to dry, cover the bottom and fides 
with itraw, and upon that, lay the 
roots, handling them gently, and 
taking care that they be well cleared 
of earth. Th "n co verthem with Itraw, 
and upon that, lay the earth, taken 
out of the trench, three feet thick, 
beating down the earth, and forming 
it into a htap, highelt in the mid- 
dle, that tlie water may eafily runoff. 
Xn*^. ''I he dime) fins of the trenches. 

The dimenfions of the trenches 
fiiould be proportioned to the eleva- 
tion or declivity of the ground. 'I hey 
may be from two to four feet deep. 
Their length will depend on the 
quantity of roots to be buried. Their 
width is commonly 3^^- feet. As thefe 
roots will keep w^ithout fpoiling, to 
the end of June, it will be well to 
m:ike a number of trenches, viz. one 
for the confumption of every month, 
beginning with March, the time 
when the winter provifion, kept in 
the cellar, is comm.only out. The 
rcafon for making feveral trenches 
is, becaufe the roots, if cxpofed to 
th.e air, after they have been for a 
long time kept from it, are apt to 
fpoil. This inconvenience may be 
prevented by multiplying the num- 
ber of trenches. 

XV, The nerej/iy and manner of 
making air-holes. 

Eiery trench lliould have an air- 
hole, by which the fermentation 
from the roots may exhale. Without 
this precaution, the roots, kept un- 
der ground, will fpoil and rot. The 
manner of making air-holes is this ; 
before any thing is put into the 
trench, fix, in the middle of it, a pole 
fix or feven feet long, and two inches 
diameter, or between fix and feven 
inches round ; then lay your roots in 
the trench, forming them into a ridge, 
highell: about the pole. When the 
trench is full, and the roots raifed in 
the middle, half a foot above the 



262 



On the culture and advantages of the fcarcity tod. 



level of the earth, then twift a hay 
rope, of an inch thicknefs, about the 
pole, taking care not to draw it too 
light : then throw on your earth, and 
beat it down as mentioned before. 
When the trench is thus covered, and 
made into the form of a giave, then 
, draw out the pole. The hay will 
remain in the hole, and through this 
the exhalations occafioned by the fer- 
mentation of the roots, will readily 
efcape. After fome days, the hole 
may be covered with a hollow tile, 
and when hard froft conies on, it 
Ihould be covered with a flat ftone. 

XVI. H'j'U) to prepare the roots for 

feeding btajis. 
To induce bealls of all kinds to 
cat thefe roots, they fhould be wafhed 
clean, and then cut in pieces. The 
inftrument, ufed for cutting them, is 
made of a plate oS. iron, a foot long, 
and two inche broad, formed in the 
figure oi an S. In the middle there 
is a focket about fix inches long, in 
tvhich is fitted a wooden handle, about 
3y feet long. With this inftrument, 
the roots are eafily cut in a trough 
kept for the purpofe. A man can, in 
an hour, chop as many as will ferve 
12 oxen a whole day. Before the 
rootsare thrown into the trough, they 
ftiould be fplit, and cut in quarters. 
It is of advantage to cut the roots VC" 
ry fmall ; cattle thereby receive more 
benefit from them. 

XVII. For feeding horned cattle. 
Prepared in the manner above di- 

refted, the roots may be given, with- 
out any mixture, to horned cattle and 
fbeep, efpecially if they are for fat- 
tening. But if it be necefiary to ufe 
economy in the confumption of the 
roots.then aquarter,or more, of chop- 
ped hav, or cut ftraw, may be mixed 
v.'ith them. It will be well to do this 
for the three or four firft weeks for 
a lean beaft, which is pvit up for fat- 
tening ; clover, fain-foin, luzerne, 
&c. are the beft for this purpofe. 



The Dutch cutting-boxes will rcnde 
this work light and eafy. 

XVIII. For horfes. 
Horfes may be kept the whol 

winter on thefe roots, by mixini 
them half and half with cut ftraw o 
hay. Fed in this manner, they wil 
be fat, vigorous, and fleek. Bu 
when put to continual hard labour 
they Ihould have at times fomt 
grain. 

Hogs will alfo eat the roots, mixe< 
with thi wafh commonly given them 
They fatten on them as well, if no 
better than on potatoes. 

XIX. The daily alionuaftce for differ- 

ent beajis. 

The quantity of roots, given tc 
different beafts, will depend on the 
quantity of dry forage given therr 
in addition ; for they fhould every 
day have a little dry forage, before 
they are watered. The quantity 
muft be proportioned to the iize and 
largenefs of the beaft. It fhould 
alfo bs proportioned according to 
what the beaft is deligned for. 
Thofe, which arc for keeping, 
fhould have lefs than thofe put up 
for fattening. As tlie fize of the 
roots is greater or fmaller, according 
to the goodnefs of the foil where they 
grew, the quantity cannot be deter- 
mined by the number. Weight 
would be more certain, but every 
one has not conveniences for weigh* 
ing.^ 

The abbe then proceeds to fay, 
that, from 16,000 roots planted in 
May, 1785, on two arpents of land, 
Heidelberg meafure, which is about 
an Englifh acre, he fed feven cows 
and three calves, conftantly, with the 
leaves, from the beginning of July to 
the fifteenth of November; and with' 
the roots from the 20th of November 
to the fu miner following. The cows 
were fed twice a day, at each feed- 
ing, with 16 or r8 pounds of roots, 
mixed with one quarter as much cut i 



On the culture and ad'vantages of the /canity root. 



263 



:raw or hay. Their milk was as 
;ood and as plentiful, as in fummer, 
nd they were kept in excellent con- 
ition. 

XX. Hmv to fatten been^es. 

I put up (fays the abbe) four very 

•an oxen to fatten. They were fed 

wiceaday.each with twenty pounds 

f roots, mixed with five pounds of cut 

ay, of the firft or fecond crop. In 

bout a month, by theadviceof a itn- 

ble farmer, I withdrew the hay, and 

abflituted five pounds of roots in- 

eadof it. They were fed two months 

'ith roots only, and then were fuffi- 

iently fat to be fold. They always 

at their food greedily, becaufe it is 

;nder. I found it beft to feed both 

xen and cows, two or three times a 

ay ; as they fatten the fafter for 

, and as nothing is wafted or loft, 

hich is not the cafe, when they have 

all at once. From this it is eafy 

) calculate, how many roots are ne- 

sflary to keep a cow, or fatten an 

X. It commonly requires four 

nonths to fatten an ox, on other 

ood ; but with thefe roots, or with 

he leaves, it will fatten in three. 

iXI. The quatitity that maj he raifed 

from an acre. 

An Englifh acre contains 160 

lerches, each perch i6| feet fquare, 

nd each foot 1 2 inches fquare : it 

nay be divided into 18,600 fquares, 

f 1 8 inches diameter. However, 

naking abatement, letusfuppofe 16, 

»r even 1 5 thoufand, if the land be 

Yen of an indifferent quality ; it is 

afy to conceive what an immenfe 

juantity of wholefome nutriment 

nay be raifed off an acre, and much 

nore, if the foil be fuitable, and a 

ittle manure added. 

XXII. Advantages of this culture, 

"Befides the advantage? already 

mentioned, the fcarcity root has this 

n its favour, that it is a fure crop, 

lotfubjcd to the uncertainties of the 

eafons. Itfupplies plenty of food for 

lorfes and cattle, which are houfed ; 



and therefore provides a plentiful 
fupply of dung, Vv-hich is indifpenfa- 
bly neceffary in agriculture : it will 
keep down the price of ether forage, 
and enable the farmer to increafe his 
ftock, and thereby increafe the pro- 
fits of a farxn. 

XXIII. H'j^w to raife calves , vjeaned 
at t'lvelve days old. 
The fcarcity of forage often oblig- 
ing farmers to kill their caives, it is 
important for them to be informed, 
that, bv the ufe of this root, they may 
wean their calves at ten or twelve 
days old, and, with a little care and 
trouble, rear them in the folio win* 
manner. 

When the calves are three days ol.f, 
they {hould be prefented every day 
with a little milk, luke-warm, in a 
wooden vcfiel ; no iftattcr whethet 
they drink it at firft or not; it is fuf- 
ficicnt if they wet their lips \w\\h it. 
In eight or ten days, they will corhe 
to drink it ; they ftiould then be wean- 
ed : but the whole milk of the dam 
(hould be given to each calf, morn- 
ing and evening, for three or foui* 
days : at noon, inftead of milk, they 
(hould be prefented with luke-warm 
water fprinkled with a little flour. 
When they are twelve days old, they 
(hould not any more have pure milk 
night and morning, but only luke- 
warm water, mixed with bran and a 
little milk. This fliould be continued 
for four or five days, proceeding as 
follows ; On the fourth day, prsfent 
to each calf, from time toti-me.a lit- 
tle bran ; when it begifcs to lick it, 
then put before it a handful of bran, 
and continue this for twelve days, 
by v/hich time it will learn to ear. 
The food fhould be put in a proper 
place; which iViould be cleaned well, 
every time frefh food is put in. Af- 
ter thefe twelve days, give them 
three timss every day, fcarcity 
leaves, chopped and mixed, witli 
one- third bran, and twice a day 
whitened water to drink. If it be 



264 



On the uje of oxen hi hujhnnclr)\ 



winter, the roots will fupply the place 
of leaves. When the calf is four or 
five weeks old, the bran may be with- 
drawn and cut hay or ftrau' fiibfti- 
tuted in its ftead, mixed with an e- 
qnal quantity of roots or leaves. 
Whatever the calf leaves, (hould be 
removed, and it (hould always be fer- 
ved with frt-fh nroveiider, to prevent 
difguft. In this manner, the abbe 
fays,hehas found by experience, that 
calves may be very well raifed. 



Mr. Carey. 
Enclofcd I fend you an extra^ from 
the tour of Arthur Young, efq. in 
Ireland — The teftimony of this 
gentleman, an eye witnefs of tlie 
faft related, muft place it be- 
yond the poffibility of a doubt, or 
fuppofition of millake or error. 
If the publication fhculd induce 
any of our country gentlemen to 
try the experiment, I fhall be more 
than paid for the trouble I have 
taken in communicating it to 
you. A. B. 

On the 7jfe cf oxen in hujbat/drj, 

LORD Shannon, upon going in- 
to tillage, found that the ex- 
penfe of horfes was fo great, that 
they eat out all the profits of tlie 
farm, which made him determine to 
life bullocks : he did it in the com- 
mon method of yokes and bows ; 
but they performed fo indiiFerently, 
and with fuch manifeft uncafimis, 
that he imported the French method 
of drawing by the horns: and in or- 
der to do this efFeduaily, he wrote 
to a perfon at Bourdeaux, to hire 
him a man who was praftifed in that 
method. Upon the correfpondent 
being applied to, he reprefented dif- 
ficulties attending it, the man who 
was fpoken to, having been in Ger- 
nany for the fame purpofe. Upon 
which, lord Shannon, gave direc- 



tions, that every thing (l^oiild be 
bought and font over, which the la- 
bourer wilhcd to bring with him. 
Accordingly a bullock of the beft>! 
fort, that h:id been worked three: 
years, was purchafed ; alfo a hay- 
cart, a plough, h;irrows, and all the^'' 
tackle for harncfiing them by the' 
horns, which, with the man, were 
fentover. His faiary was to be four 
hundred livres per annum, with 
board, &c. The bullock coft two 
hundred and eighteen livres; tackle 
for tuo bullocks, thirty-fix ; two' 
carts, three hundred aqd fourteen j 
a plough and harrov/, one hundred 
and twenty-lhiee ; Which, with 
other expenfes, came to forty- five 
pounds feventeen fl\illings — and 
freight, fixteen pounds ten {hillings. 
Upon the whole, ihe experiment coif, 
from firll to laft, to bring it tho- 
roughly to bear, about one hundred 
pounds. His lordfhip is perfuaded, 
that the firft year of his introducing^ 
it at large on his farm, iaved him the 
whole. He has purfucd the method 
ever fince, and with thegreatetl fuc- 
cefs. He finds the bullocks fo per- 
fisfily at their cafe, that it is a plear 
fure to fee them. For firil breaking 
uplays, and for crofs-ploughing, he 
iifes four, but in alifucccedingearths/ 
only two — not more for the firft 
ploughing of ftubbles. I faw fix 
ploughs doing this in a whoatflubble, 
and they did it five or fix inches deep 
with great eafe. Upon firlt intro-» 
ducing it, there was a combinatioptj 
among all his men againft the pracv 
tice ; but lord Shannon was deter- 
mined to carry his point in this mat- 
ter. He followed a courfe that had 
al! imaginable fuccefs — One lively^ 
fenfihie boy took to the oxen, and 
worked them readily. HislordlhiR 
at once advanced this boy to eigh 
pence a day : this did thebulincfsj 
others followed the example, anai 
fincc that, he has had numbers, who; 
could manage them, and plough as^ 



Account of the planet Herfchet, 



265 



ell as the Frenchman. They plough 
1 acre * a day with eafe, and carry 
;ry great loads of corn, hay, 
iais, kc. Four bullocks, in the 
rench cart, brought twelve barrels 
f coals, ihip nieafurc, each five cwt. 
r three tons : but the tackle of the 
)re couple breaking, the other two 
rew the load above a mile to a forge. 
Vo of them drew 35 cwt. of flag 
one three miles, with eafe : but lord 
haiinon does not, in common, work 
leni in this manner : three tons 
i thinks a proper load for four 
jllocks. Upon the bailiff's men- 
oning loads drawn by thofe ox- 
1, I expreffed many doubts — his 
irdlbip immediately ordered the 
rench harveft cart to be loaded, half 
mile from the ricks — it was done — 
D,200 (heaves of wheat were laid up- 
1 it, and two oxen drew it without 
IHculty. We then weighed forty 
.eaves, the weight '251 lb. at which 
ite, the io,2oo came to ^^^1^ lb. or 
love three tons, which is a vaft 
eight for two oxen to draw. I 
T\ very much in doubt whether 
yoke they would have ftirred 
le cart fo loaded. The ufe of yokes 
out of the queftion. The only 
imparifon now wanting is with 
Dllars. 

^ Jhort account of the planet Hirfchel. 
By Benjamin Weft, efq. F. A. A. 

rlME, ever pregnant with won- 
ders to be unfolded, has at length 
rought to our knowledge another 
lanet of our fyftem, which has been 
aacealed from the eyes of mortals, 
ftv Cnce the creation. Great are 
Je works of the Deity! his myfteries 
3W infcrutable ! even by the moft 



* 1 I acre, Englifh or American 
leafure. 
Vol. IIT. No. III. 



ftrlft attention of the human fli- 
gacity. The mind of man never 
fatia'ed with knowledge, will un- 
dou!)tedly go progrelfively on — ftill 
makmg more new and marvellous 
difcoveries in the works of na- 
ture. 

As much has been faid, tind Utile 
written, by the American philofo- 
phers, on the fiibjett of this newly 
difcoveredilar, 1 thought it a tribute 
due to rny fellow-citizens, to give 
them this fliort acrount of it ; and 
that it was firii difcovered to lie a 
planet, by mr. H>:rfchel, after whom 
the planet is named. The Britidi 
aftronomcrs, contrarv to all the o- 
ther altronomers in Earope, have na- 
med it the Georgium Sidus, after the 
king of Great Britain ; but, let the 
Americans, in agreement with the 
French and German philofophers, 
hereafter dilbnguifh this planet by 
the name of the Herfchel. 

1 know of nothing which led mr. 
Herfch; I to dired his optic tube at 
this liar, more th?m mere accident. 
From the bell; accounts, which I can 
get, it was fome peculiarity in its 
colc>ur, different from the reH, that 
caufed hira to give more than ordi- 
nary attention to it; + and, from 
repeated ubfervations, he found the 
ftar made fenfible changes of place 
from time to time; was thence led 

NOTE. 

+ Oftober 2d, 1782, mr. Her- 
fchel mentions fome part of his appa- 
ratus, wherein he endeavoured to imi- 
tate the colourof the itar ; fays, he 
was ftruck with the different colour 
of its light ; which brought to his 
mind certain ftars in Andromeda, 
Bojtis, Hercules, Cygni, and other 
coloured ftars. The planet unexpect- 
edly appeared bluilTi. October 2 2d, 
the planet was perfeftly defir.ed with 
a power of 227 ; had a fine liea.^y 
light, of the colour of Jupiter, or 
approaching to the light of the moon. 



266 



Acct'ant of tlu planet Herfchel. 



to conclude it was a planet of our 
fyllem. It is but rcafonable to fup- 
pofe this difcovcry was immediacciy 
coniiminicatsd to all theaitronomers, 
and philofophers, in Europe ; and 
the fir'l:, wliom I found altcmpting 
any calculations ofit.sn\otlon,wa!j mr. 
De la Lande, who, in a letter to the 
authors of the Journal des Scavans, 
printed in Paris, writes thus : 
" Gentlemen, 
** In your journal for February, 
1782, you have given the elements 
of the circular orbit v.-hi( h I had cal- 
culated for the new planet, which has 
been dif-overed by mr. Herlchcl : 
that calculation vvas found to err 4-, 
about the beginning of the prefent 
year ; and the errors were fuch as 
fhewed that the planet had accelera- 
ted its motion. About that time, 
M. de la Place, by an analytical me- 
thod of his own invention, caiculated 
the elements of its eliptic orbit. He 
makes the greater femi-axe 19,0818 
femi-diamcters of the earth's orbit; 
the half excentricity >93i5 : the 
place of the aphelion, on the 2 ill 
of Dec. 1781, to be it " , 23° 22' 
^%" ; true anomaly of the planet, at 
i8h. 5m. 40 fee. mean time, at Paris,- 
90° 20'. Tc^", and its mean ano- 
maly, 102*52' 7". _ 

" Mr. Bode, having remarked, in 
the cphemeris of Berlin, for 1784, 
that the ftar, number 964, of iVIayer's 
catalo(;ue, could not well be any 
thing tlfc than the planet Herfchel, as 
that ftar cannot now be found in 
the place where Mayer obferved it ; 
pains have been taken to examine 
the manufcripts of that celebrated 
ailronomcr, which are preferved at 
Gottingen ; and the date of the ob- 
fervation, on which the pofition of 
that liar vvas grounded, is September 
25th, 1756, at loh, 2!m. 21 fee. 
mean time at Paris ; and gives ifs 
longitude, at that time i 1 " , 16", 
37', 43", and its latitude 4S', 43'' 

iouth." 



This obfervation made by mr. 
Mayer, nearly twenty-rive years prior 
to that of mr. Herfchel, and found,i 
as it were, by a kind of accident, 
not to have been expe<^ted or hoped; 
for, appears to agree fo well with the 
computation made from the elements' 
of M.de la Place, before recited, that 
we may look on the orbit of t'lis 
new planet as already inveftigatcd to 
a great degree of exadlnefs. 

]\lr. Mayer made this obfervation 
when the planet wa.' exceedingly near 
its aphelion; a circumftance which 
greatly enhanced its value, as that 
important point of its orbit was there- 
by calculated with the greater facili- 
ty. The place of the node, for the 
year 1781, is found with great ex- 
adnefs, to be Gemini 12°, 47', and 
the inclination of the orbit to the 
planeof ecliptic, 46', 1 3" ; the great- 
ell central equation 5°, 27', ij", 
when the correfponding mean ano- 
maly is 3 "", 3°, 24', 31'''. From 
the elements here laid down, the pla- 
net's place may be calculated, for 
any point of lime, with great facility 
and exaflnef^. 

From this theory of M. de la Place, 
I have computed the period of tiie 
planet to be eighty-three j^ears, and 
almoll thirty-three days; aad from a 
known theorem, firll difcovered by 
Kepler and afterwards demonftrated 
by the illuftrious NEVv^TON, I find 
its mean diilance from the fun to by 
19,041 of fuch parts as the mean dif- 
tance of the earth is unity. M. de la 
Place, as 1 have before related, com- 
puted it at 19,0818, and M. de la 
Lande, at 18,913 ; but as mine fallS' 
between them both, it gives me rea- 
fon to hope it is not far from the 
truth. If we -ake the mean diftancc 
of the earth fiom the fun, as it has 
been Hated from the two obferva- 
tlons on the tranfit of Venus, viz. 
in 1761 and 1769, and multiply it 
by 19,041, it gives, very neatly, 
1 805 millions of miles for the mean 



Tht old bachelor. 



157 



iHce of the Herfchel. I have by 
\c, a number of obfervations on tlie 
iuuneter of this planer, made by nir. 
rleribhel, with his improved micro- 
neter, and fiom eight of thofe which 
)eft agree among tiiemfelves, I find 
he mean apparent diameter of thii 
)!anct to fiibtend an angle of 4^,06 ; 
.nd, were the earth to be viewed at 
he fame dillance, it would fubtend 
m angle of no more than ,908 of a 
econd ; then, if 4^,06 be divided b)' 
9cS, it will give 4^,4713 for the 
ujinbcr of titnes the diameter of the 
lianet exceeds that of the earth ; 
nd rhis, at once, gives for thedia- 
nct ir of the Herfchel, 355 1 1 miles 
learly ; and (hould its folidity be 
omputed, it will amount to no lefs 
han 25,409,870,186,568 cubic 
niles. And furthermore, if we 
ompare its magnitude with our own 
ilanet, it will be found to be near- 
y as 90,68s to one, or as 1 17,169 
.0 1292. 

From the PennJ^lvania Magazine. 

The old Bachelor.— No. V. 

Cotiiiriwdfrom page g i . 

Letter to the married man. 

Dear Sir, 

I Have read the detail of your nu- 
merous misfortunes ; but as I 
judge you liave ftepped out of your 
real charader, and given me, in maf- 
querade, the hiitory of fome dif- 
aflrous neighbour, I lliall take the 
liberty of conveying, through you, 
not a fword, fir — I am no dueliift — 
but my beft advice to him. 

I conjedure that your hero is a 
knight of the ancient and honoura- 
ble order of the thimble ; one of 
thofe party-coloured citizens — In 
whom the merchant and the me- 
chanic are unmeaningly confound- 
ed, arifing, fome fay, from their wil- 
fully miftaking queen Elizabeth's 
command for a compliment, who. 



in reprimanding their want of or- 
der in a lord mayor's prorelSoh, vo- 
ciferouHy called out, march on, tay- 
lors ; which they curiooflv convert- 
ed to the appellation of merchant 
taylors. 

Now, fir, I have no patience 
with this man, bccaufe he has fo 
much, fie appears to me. In plain 
terms, to be a hen-pecked hulhand, 
and hens never triumph over any o- 
ther than a dunghill cock; the want 
of dignity in the one, begets infult 
in the other. If he examines him- 
felf, he will find that what he calls 
patience, is fear ; his humility, du- 
plicity. Why, fir, it was as much 
as his head was worth, with all 
its ornaments, not to go back for the 
band box. It was not to procure 
peace, but to prevent puniihment, 
that he obeyed. Litrle minds have 
little fears, and tremble at every 
thing- He timoroufly fubmits, be- 
caufe he does not know how to 
command. Women will naturally 
afpirc to fupremacy, when the pro- 
per head of a family does not fill 
out the charader : yet they are 
tempted more by the vacancy, than 
by any original defire to difpute pre- 
cedency. A governing woman is 
never truly happy, nor a fubmit- 
ting hulband perfeftly reconciled. 
While he keeps right, {he will not 
go wrong ; neither can fhe pollbfs 
his place, unlcfs he go out of it. 
And it infallibly happens, that when 
a woman a<its the man, the man afts 
the fool. 

This, fir, is my opinion of your 
knight of the woful countenance. 
Were I young, and had a wife, you 
ftiould fee other doings. I am un- 
der much fear fjar his fafety, fincc 
the publication of your memoirs 
of him. I doubij he'll hear of other 
things than wire caps, and pe:haps 
feel fomething weightier than argu- 
ments. Poor man ! 

(To be continued.) 



s68 



Addrefs lo the congrefs of the t/iirteenjlates. 



Addrejs to the congrefs of the thirlee?i 
fates. 

LETTER I. 

T AM forry, gentlemen, that your 
-»- unbounded ambition, unbridled 
extravagance, and confounded im- 
pudence, oblige me thus publicly to 
animadvert upon your condud. Do 
you expert, then, by threats of co- 
ercion to terrify us into the em- 
brace of defpotifm? Be allured, 
they will avail you as little as the 
arts, fraud, and fophiilry heretofore 
made ufeof. The plan lliould have 
Ixrcn reverfed ; f r by the latter, 
your weaknefs has been expofed, and 
contempt is nov/ the attendant of 
the former, bhall the independent 
ftate of New York be made a dupe 
to your body ? Warmed with the 
love of liberty, fenfible of our im- 
portance and ftrength, and informed 
oi the arts of defigning defpots, we 
are neither to he terrified nor deceiv- 
ed. Central in fituation, extenfive in 
domain, iirong in number, impor- 
tant in commerce, fruitful in agri- 
culture, invincib.e in war, and in- 
exhauPiible in refonrces, we dare all 
the terrors of your refentment, and 
the combinsiion of your powers. 
View the refiiliefs floods of our Mo- 
hawk, with the rolling waves of our 
Hudfon, and behold a picture of our 
irnpbrtancc and ftrength ; recoiled the 
lliorcs wafhed by thefe waters, and 
the hardy tribes that dwell upon their 
ftrcams. Obferve the forts at Weft- 
Point — the key of America. 

Do you imagine we will for ever 
he fporting away local advantages, 
the gifts of nature, m.crely to gratify 
your ambition ? have you not tacitly 
confentcd to the independence of our 
rebellious comities in rhe north, and 
have not we acqaiefced, to [ileafe you ? 
and do you imagine we will now be- 
tray the intereft-^ of our infatuated mer- 
chants, by yielding theimpoll ? 'Tis 
notour duty to fuifcr our children to 



embrace the wifhed-for deflrudion^ 
or to liftcn to their petitions, w^^enii 
we know their intereft better than they* 
do themfelves. Why are not yout" 
high mightineffes difpofed to meet' 
the jealuufies of our people ? Are 
you not their fervants, and created by* 
them? and fhall the creature be a- 
bove the creator ? Why would not 
the impoft, granted till the fitting of 
the next legiflaiure, anfwer your 
purpofe P a committee of revifioa 
would then be appointed, whofhould 
examine your accounts of expendi- 
ture, and, taking atteftations from a 
proper number of your body, as 
vouchers of your good behaviour, 
would then ealily obtain a grant of 
an extenfion of the import, provided 
there was no fufpicion of collufion. 
Hortages fhould be given us by the 
non importing ftates, as an additional 
fecurity; not that we fear the fuc- 
cefs of your ambitious aims, for we 
know our itrength ; — but to prevent 
our carrying flaiighter and devaltati- 
on into thoie itates, which, deceived 
by your chicane, mav be difpofed to 
execute your commands. You fay 
it is more reafonable that one ftate 
fiiould meet the defires and intereft 
of the united ftates, than that ) ou 
fliould meet the groundlefs jealoufy 
of one : but this is nothing to the 
purpofe. You hold up to view the 
refentment of France, Holland, &c. 
&c. 'Tis a mere bagatelle : Great 
Britain will as readily become out 
faithful ally againft her natural ene- 
mies, as ever France did ; and thi 
firft ill confequences of a rupture 
will be felt by the merchants, which 
will be the juft punifhme t for the 
efpoufal of their prefent meafurcs. It 
is faid the public creditors will be ag 
great a thorn in our fide, as were the 
tories in the late revolution. We 
have two means of obviating thisob- 
jedion to a rupture. In the firft places 
we will allure the domeftic creditof 
to exchange your continental for our 



Addrefs to the congrefs of the thirteenf.ales. 



269 



Ice fecurities; he will confequently 
} then interefted to ftand with us. 
, 'd fecondly, in place of all fuch 
: aa" not caught by this bait, we 
■> II adopt the toiies, bv our alliance 
' th Great Britain. Thus you fee, 
j uiemen, we are prepared tor you 
: all points : perhaps you may hear 
>m me again. 

A >wn-impoJi man. 
New York, April 6, 1786. 
N. B. Don't pretend to let any 
your emilfaries reafon with me, 
:aure I know they are cunning 
3ugh before hand, and fiiall ftop 
1 ears. 



LETTER II. 

Expefted your arts of infinu- 
ation were more to be feared 
\w the undifguiicd efforts of your 
dent power : the event juftifies the 
rfuafion. My laft week's addrefs 
s been treated with filentconten pt, 
cept by your einilTaries abroad ; 
TIC of whom, fenfible of the julHce 
its fentiments, are unable to con- 
al their rage and indignation ; o- 
ers, better inilructed by you, af- 
fl to laugh and call it a burlefque ; 
it we hope to convince the world, 
' the Iteadinefs of our principles, 
at we are not the jefling fools you 
ink us; and to convince your high 
ightineiTts, I fliall de-m the few 
illowing obf^rvations fuSicient. 
ift. You fav tiie impoft is now 
e general wifn of the bcft informed 
tizens of thefe ll^atos. Although 
)uhave found means to induce the 
r greater part of the refpcrtable, 
,ough infatuated inhabitants of this 
ty, to fign the petition in your 
vour, lying at the coffee-houfe and 
fewhere; yet your artifices being 
tefted (tho' our legifiature may fa- 
»uritwith a bearing) it will be treat- 
as it merits. Impertinent petiti- 
is are not always to be attended to. 



whether they originate from the 
dupes of moralitv or policy; for 
this reafon it is of little confequence 
to you, that you have loft, by your 
pride in its ftyle, the names of the 
greater body of thequakers, (I men- 
tion it only as an inltance how the 
wicked frequently betray their own 
caufe :) the quakers are as foolifniy 
tenacious as any people, of what 
you call national honour, but what 
they choofe to call public honefty : 
they will tell you *' "^Iliat righteouf- 
" nefs exalteth a nation, and that 
" perfidy and injultice are the lliarae 
" of a people," and a deal of fuch 
buckram ihifF. 

2d. You fay that a government 
cannot fubfift without a head; we 
acknowledge it, but fee not the ne- 
ceflity of placing it fo high, in re- 
fpeft to th* other mem.bers, as you 
wifn. We will illuflrate our idea 
by a fimilitude, drawn from the fea, 
the great element you pretend (with 
how much fincerity I will not under- 
take to fay) to have principally in 
view. The fea turtle — is not his 
body a perfeft piece of machinery ? 
and yet he hides his head under his 
fhell; let the Ihell refemble the ftata 
ot New York; we will cover vou 
from every approaching danger ; we 
are able to refift the preffure of na- 
tional misfortune, and boarup aeainft 
every impending deftruftion. You 
will allow the fi.nilitude to be juft, 
as far as it refpeds the prefent clum- 
fmefs of government. But pra/ 
why need you wilh to be more per- 
feft than the works of nature? 
Aftivity and energy — alas, the moft 
diabolical ideas are couched under 
thofe terms — for who is more aftivc 
and energetic than the devil ? 

3d. You fay that although con- 
grefs cannot and do not demand the 
impoft of the ftate of New Yof-k, 
as a matter of right, ftill (he will 
be anfwerabie to juftice and huma- 
nity for the confequenccs of her ob- 



2}'0 



Advantages of nemfpapers. 



ftinacy. As the public debt muft be 
paid — as national credit mult beei^a- 
bliftied — as neither can be eiFedltd 
but by a fixed, certain, and produc- 
tive fund — as luch a fund cannot be 
provided but by an equal, ger^eral, 
and permanent revenue — as no one 
has or can point to a mode of revenue, 
fo eafy, fo equitable, and fo unex- 
ceptionable as the import — as the 
wifdom of the continent, reprefentcd 
in congrci's, has for five years deemed 
it the only efficient mode — the mea- 
fure appears important and necef- 
fary. In anfwer, 1 fay, the major 
is falfe, the minor impertinent, and 
the conciufion ridiculous. Thedcbt 
need not be paid ; national creJit 
is a proud fancy ; funds are the 
means to betray our liberties ; a re- 
venue impoverilbes the people ; ar.d 
the wifdom of congrefs is the ambi- 
tion of defpols. 

4th. Your emi{r:i"ries abroad fay 
we are counteiafting our own in- 
tereft ; that the day is aifureuiy ap- 
proaching, when pa) ment wiil be 
demanded of the 1 oreign debt ; the 
means not being furnifned to con- 
^■refs, coercive meafures wiil be pur- 
iiied by foreign powers. France, juf- 
tified by our bale ingratitude, will 
kvy upon our ihippinj^s perhaps v^ith 
a prediiedtion to this iiate; our com- 
merce will be, perhaps, totally ob- 
flrudtcd ; our merchants ruined; our 
farmers incumbered with (he worth- 
lefs produce of their iadnilry; our 
creditors roufed to do themfelves 
jultice; ouraftairs thrown into con- 
fuTion, and the blood of our citizens 
Ihed ! Pogh, pogh, it's all non- 
fenfe; we arc no more afraid of the 
king of France tlian we are of you : 
and as for the Hollanders, many of 
us can talk Dutch to them ! 

5th. "Your emiffaries abroad like- 
wiie fay, that all the arguments made 
ufe of by us, to juftify the partial 
appropriation of duties to our own 
and fule ufe, apply witli greater force 



in favour of this city; that we 

.'in importing iiate, cliit-fiy by me 

of this city; that nature has gi 

this city this advantage, and 1 

the rtate ought not to dtprive tl 

of their natural rights, nor ou 

they tamely to yield them ; that 

city is not more conneded with 

ftate, or concerned in its intereft 

welfare, than this ftate is, or ou 

to be, in the intereft and welfan 

thefe united ftates, and that w 

the impending cloud is ready to b 

deftrudion upon their heads, t 

would be juftified by every princ 

of retaliation, policy, jjl'cice, and 

ture, to declare their rights and tl 

attachment to federal meafures, 

feek independence from ufurpati 

and to claim protection from the 

deral head: upon my wx)rd, t! 

are great fwelling words ; but, . 

the bafelefs fabric of a vifion, le 

not a wreck beliind. To conck 

and as I fhall not attempt to ^ 

you any further informaaon in 

ture, I would advife you, gen 

men, to reconfidc.r the matter; p 

what end can this reftlefs fpirit of 

mination anfwer to you, as ind 

duals ? burely you do not foi 

that you are foon to return ; 

mingle with the mals of citize 

your very exiftence dept-nds d; 

upon our pleafure, nay our capr 

and fhen furelyyou muft experic 

equally with us all the ill confequ 

ces of your ill meafures. "Bew 

then of the imp-oft, furly oil, 

blackeft imp that ever vvingcd a p 

fage from hell to punifli and per^ 

a nation. 

A non-impnji mam 
Nei.v Tori, April 13, 1 7S4. 



Ad'va/itagfs of ncnujpapers, 

THE world was never blel 
with any mode of commv 
eating knowledge among the hi 
of mankind, equal to that of nei 



Advantages ef ntwfpaptrs. 



571 



•crs. No publications are put fo 
pently into tiie hands of fo many 
pic. No book or pamphlet con- 
is fuch a variety, cfi-ecially of 

hiilorical, political, and moral 
d. Thefc are fent weekly, and 
horter intervals, into the habita- 
is of more than three quarters of 
fubjeds of every truly free peo- 
. And men muft be either very 
wd, or cxceffively vain and con- 
ted of their attainments, to per- 
de themfelves they can gain no 
ful entertainment by giving thefe 
ides of information a candid 
ding once a week. Some there 

profeiTcdly of this clafs ; but, 
he whole truth could be com.e at, 
/ould appear that a criminal fel- 
nefs, a dread at parting with nine 
ten (hillings a year, is the real 
ife of their complaint. 
I faid there is no mode of com- 
nicating knowledge equal to this : 
epeat it, notvvithftandingfome will 
• the practice of preaching weekly 
Sundays and other public occafi- 
s, is better adapted to inftrudl man- 
nc5 than the mode I am applaud- 
y. Preaching is a good inllitu- 
•n : and, like every thing elfe that 
juires the aid of time and experi- 
oe to bring it to maturity, is ad- 
ncing rapidly towards pcrfeflion. 
is probable the time will come, 
len this will be equal, in foroe re- 
efts, fo the other : it will always 
a beaer polifn for the manners 
d tempers of the people, than the 
ading of newfpapers; but it will 

feme time yet before the inftruc- 
3n received from this fource, in 
luntry towns in particular, will be 

ufeful, as to politics, hiftory, 
lilofophv, and morality, as what 
ay be had by a due attention to 
wfpapers. 

The alTembiing together, once a 
eek, of all kinds — black, white, and 
»pper-coloured — of all ranks — offi- 
'JS and privates — of all degrees- 



rich, poor, and beggars— of all oc- 
cupations, from the rirlt minilter of 
ftacc to the fcavenger in the ftreet — 
I fay, fuch an aiTembly, where each 
one is endeavouring to pleafe, cir- 
cumvent, or deceive fomebody elfe— 
where every one wears a face and 
garment he has not had on fmce 
the laft Sunday, though a very cu- 
rious fubjeft for philofophy, is very 
beneficial to fociety. 

The benefit refulting from Sundays 
is not fo much in the article of 
knowledge and general fcience, as in 
refinement of manners and behaviour, 
in tafte and civility. Hence it be- 
comes a matter of ufeful enquiry, 
whether Sunday?, as they have been 
for many years obfcrved, or balls and 
alTemblies, are produi'livc of moft 
good to fociety ; or rather, as the 
Jormcr are more frequent than the 
latter, the comparifon ought not to 
turn upon the quantity of good ac- 
tually produced, fo much as upon 
the natural tendency of thefe affem- 
blies refpedively to work the good 
of man, by improving manners, be- 
haviour, tafte, and refinement, 

" A newfpaper !" fays a young mer- 
chant — I ought to have faid a huck- 
fter — " I take the paper, but do not 
look into it from one month to ano- 
ther. I cannot fpend my time in 
reading newfpapers." He had rather 
rub his (hoes and buckles, and keep 
them bright, than rub the ruft of 
ignorance from his mind. But he 
ought to know that men of ability, 
in his line of bulinefs, acquire ufe- 
ful information in their profefiion» 
as well as other branches of know- 
ledge, by attending to thefe publica- 
tions. And it may be doubted whe- 
ther tyranny can rear his iron fcep- 
tre over a people, where a free prefs 
is enjoyed, and a frequent circulati- 
on of newfpapers takes place among 
all orders and ranks of fociety. But 
more of this in another delirium. 
CRAZY JONATHAN. 



iJS. 



Anecdotes. 



ANECDOTES. 



AT the commencement of the 
late revolution, when the 
French nation appeared inclined to 
take part in the conteft in favour 
of America, fir Jcfcph Yorke, the 
ambaflador from England to the 
LJnited Netherlands, meeting the 
French ambaffador at the Hague, 
cenfured his court for interfering in 
the difpute, and taking fo ungener- 
ous a part, " You have been guilty 
of a difnonourable afl, faid he, 
that is unpardonable — no lefs than 
that of debauching our daughter." 
*' I am foiry, replied the French 
ambalTador, that your eKcellency 
ftiould put fuch a feverc conftrudilion 
upon the matter. She made the firft 
advances, and abfolutely threw her- 
felfinto our arms; but, rather than 
forfeityour friendfhip, if matrimony 
will make any atonement, wc are 
ready to atS honourably, and marry 
her." 

..<v_ «>^<s> ■■<>••• 

NOT long f.nce, a perfon vifited 
the city of New York, un- 
der the ftyle of nobilitv. For feveral 
months his manner of living accor- 
ded with his alfumed character. His 
lodgings, his attendants and his 
equipage, correfponded only with 
rank and opulence. Fafhion received 
from him its laws, and taife appeal- 
ed to him as its genuine Itandard. 
Balls, aflcmblies, and entertainments, 
welcomed him as their principal or- 
nament ; while fenators and ambafla- 
dors were pleafed to be enrolled as 
his companions. In this career of 
glory, he addrefled a young lady, 
highly refi>eiftable for her charader 
and connexions: but, at the very 
eve of marriage, by the frcdi appear- 
ance of the ink, which he had ufed 
in forging certain deeds, defigned as 
proof of great family properly, and 
by a difpute with a perfon about the 
price of the parchment on vvliich 



one of them was written, he 
difco' ered to be a mifcrable vaj 
bond, whom infamy would ht 
blufhed to acknowledge as her < 
fpring. 

WHEN George Whitefi. 
firft came to Charlefton, 
South Carolina, the rev, Alexani 
Garden was epifcopal miniiler 
that place. Not Iil<ing White del 
principles, he took occalion to pre^ 
a fermon againil him from the f 
lowing text, — " Behold, thofe tl 
have turned the world upfide dow 
are come hither alfo." In the aft 
noon of the fame day, Whitefie 
in his turn, retorted upon his i 
tagonift to a very crouded audien 
and widi all the wit and fatire 
which he was fo remarkable, fn 
thefe words of St. Paul, " Alexam 
the copperfmith hath done me mu 
evil; the Lord reward him accordi 
to his works." Soon after, Gardi 
not to be outdone, took occalion 
declaim with fome heat, againlVi 
light and trilling tunes ufed 
Whitefield's church, as being i 
theatrical and gay for holy worlli 
and fuch as had been long approp 
ated to profane fongs and ai 
•' Very true, doctor/' faid Whitefi. 
in his next lefture : " but pray, 1 
can you alfign any good reafon w 
the devil fliould always be in poll 
fion of the beft tunes ?', 

-^>-^5>^^- •■<>■•• 
BON MOT. 

SOME officers of the Britiih an 
who had ferved during the An 
rican war, walking in Hyde-Pai 
dreffed in dieir regimentals, me 
man deformed by a haunch on 
back, when one of themjocula 
clapping his hand thereon, exclai 
ed, " VVhat have you got here, 
friend!" To which the other, w 
a countenance expreffiveof his fe: 
of the infult, replied, " Bunker's) 
— damn your red coat." 



[ 273] 

POETRY. 

A elegy, on lieutettani Be Han* , 'volunteer aide-de-camp 
to general Wayne. By colonel Humphreys, 

WHEN autumn all humid and drear. 
With darknefsand ftorms in his train. 
Announcing the death of the year, 

Defpoil'd of its verdure the plain : 
WTien horror congenial prevail'd. 

Where graves are with fearfulnefs trod, 
De Hart by his filler was wail'd — 
His filler thus figh'd o'er his fod : 

" Near Hudfon, a fort, on thefe banks, 

" Its flag of defiance unfurl'd : 
" He led to the ftorm the firfi: ranks ; 

" On them iron tempefts were hurl'd : 
" Tranfpierc'd was his breaft with a ball — 

" His breart a red fountain fupply'd, 
" Which, gufhing in waves flill and fmall, 

** Diftain'd his white bofom and fide. 

" His vifage was ghaftly in death ; 

" His hair, that fo lavifhly curl'd, 
" I faw, as he lay on the heath, 

" In blood, and with dew-drops impearl'd. 
" How dumb is the tongue, that could fpeak 

" Whate'er could engage and delight ! 
" How faded the rofe on his cheek ! 

** Thofe eyes how envelop'd in night .' 

" Thofe eyes, that illumin'd each foul, 

•* All darken'd to us are now grown : 
" In far other orbits they roll, 

'• Like ftars to new fyftems when gone. 
" My brother, the pride of the plain, 

" In vain did the graces adorn : 
" His blolfom unfolded in vain. 

To die like the bloflom of morn. 

" Oh war, thou haft wafted our clime, 

" And tortur'd my bofom with fighs : 
" My brother, who fell ere his prime, % 
, •' For ever is torn from my eyes. 

NOTE, 

rhhyoT-iKg avarncrtvas killed in the attack on the block-houje near Ftrt'Lce, 1 7 So, 
Vol. III. No. III. V^ 



274 ^^ ^'^''■* 

" To me how diftrafting the ftorm, 
" That blafted the youth in his bloom ! 

*' Alas, was fo finifh'd a form 
" Defign'd for fo early a tomb ? 

** How bright were the profpeds that fhone ! 

♦' Their ruin 'tis mine to deplore — 
" Health, beauty and youth were his own, 

•* Health, beauty and youth are no more. 
*' No bleflings of nature and art, 

" Nor mufic that charm'd in the fong, 
*' Nor virtues that glow'd in the heart, 

♦' Dear youth, could thy moments prolong ! 

•' Thrice fix times the fpring had renew'd 

" Its youth and its charms for the boy; 
*' With rapture all nature he vicw'd : 

" For nature he knew to enjoy. 
" But chiefly his country could charm, 

" He felt — 'twas a generous heat — 
** VVith drums and the trumpet's alarm, 

•* His pulfes in confonance beat. 

" Ye heroes, to whom he was dear, 

" Come weep o'er this forrowful urn, 
" Come eafe the full heart with a tear — 

" My hero will never return : 
•• He died in the dawn of applaufe, 

" His country demanded his breath ; 
*' Go, heroes, defend the fame cau!"e ; 

" Avenge, with your country, his death." 

So fang on the top of the rocks. 

The virgin in fcrrow more fair : 
In tears her blue eyes ; and her locks 

Of auburn fiew ioofe on the air. 
I hcnrd, as I paft down the ftream ; 

l^he guards of the foe were in view :-r- 
To entf rprife fir' by the theme, 

I bade the Iweet mourner adieu. 



4^ ode — to Laura. — By the fame, 

OH, lovely Laura, may a youth, 
Iiifpir'd by beauty, urg'd by truth, 
Difclofe the heart's alarms. 
The fire, in raptiir'd breafts that glows, 
Th' impaihon'dpang, on love that grows^ 
And daie to fing thy charms ? 



Afong. ^15 



Enough with war my lay has rung ; 
A fofter tlieme awakes my tongue — • 

'Tis beauty's force divine. 
Can I refift that air, that grace. 
That harmony of form and face ? 

For ev'ry charm is thine. — 

Of health, of youth th' expanding flulh. 
Of virgin fear the flying blulh. 

With crimfon ftain thy cheek : 
The bee fuch neflar never fips. 
As yield the rofe-buds of thy lips. 

When fweetly thou doft fpealc. 

'Tis thine the heavieft heart to cheer, 
Thofe accents, drank with eager ear. 

So mufically roll. 
Where fwells the breaft, the fnowwhite Ikin 
Scarce hides the fecret thoughts within ; 

Nor needs difguife that foul. 

With thee, of cloudlefs days I dream ; 
Thy eyes, in morning fplendors beam 

So exquifitely fair — 
What tafte ! as o'er thy back and bre?.ft. 
In light-brown ringlv.ts neatly dreft 

Devolves a length of hair. 

Unblam'd, oh, let me gaze and gaze. 
While love-fick fancy fondly ftrays. 

And feafts on m any a kifs ; — 
For us let tides of rapture roll. 
And may we mingle foul with foul. 

In ecftacies of bli fs ! 

.-<>•• <^ <s><^ ••■»•• 

Afong — trattjlated from the French. — Bj the fame, 

IT rains, it rains, my fair. 
Come drive your white Iheep fall ; 
To Ihelter quick repair, 

Hafte, fhepherdefs, make hade. 

I hear — the water pours. 

With palt'ring,on the vines : 
?ee here ! fee here ! it lours — 

See there, the lightning (luues. 



:75 ^fong. 

The thunder doll thou hear ? 

Loud roars the rufliing ftorm : 
Take (while we run, my dear) 

Protefiion from my arm. 

I fee our cot; ah hold ! 

Mamma and filter Nance, 
To open our Iheep-fold, 

Moft cheerily advance. 

God blefs my mother dear. 

My fiftcr Nancy too ! 
I bring my fwcet-heart here. 

To deep to night with you. 

Go dry yourfelf, my friend. 
And make yourfelf at home — 

Sifter, on her attend : 

Come in, fweet lambkins, come — 

Mamma, let's take good care 
Of all her pretty fheep ; 

Her little lamb we'll fpare 
More ftraw, whereon to deep. 

'Tis done — now let us hafie 
To her ; — you here, my fair ! 

Undreft oh what a waift ! 
My mother, look you there. 

Let's fup ; come take this place ; 
You ihall be next to me : 

This pine-knot's cheerful blaze 
Shall fhine direft on thee. 

Come tafte tins cream fo fweet. 
This fyllabub fo warm ; 

Alas ! you do not eat : 

You feel ev'n yet the ftorm. 

'Twns wrong — I prefs'd too much 
Your fteps, when on die way *• 

But here, fee here your couch — 
There lleep, till dawn of day 

With gold the mountain tips : — • 
Good niglit, good night, my dove, 

Now let me on vonrlipN, 
Imprint or;C kifsof love. 



An epitaph on Alexander Scamnel, 277 



Mamma and I will cotnej 

When morn begins to fnine. 
To fee my fweet-heart home. 

And aik her hand for mine. 

'••<>- ^& ^© .^5»^S> -tt^' 

An epitaph ivritteti the day nfter the capitulation cf hri 
Cornuoallis y at York-to-jcn, in Virginia, By the fame, 

ALEXANDER S C A M M E L, 

Adjutant general of the American armies, 

and 

Colonel of the f.rfl: regiment of New HampHiirc, 

while 

he commanded 

a chofcn corps of light inHintrj', 

at the 

fuccefsful fiege of York-town, in Virginia, 

was, 

in the gallant performance of his duty, as field-officer of the dav, 

unfortunately captured, 

and 

afterwards infidioufly wounded — 

of which wound he expired at Williamrourg, 0(fl. i7Si. 



WHAT, tho' no angel glanc'd afidc the ballj 
Nor allied armspour'd \engeance for his fall; 
Brave Scammel's fiime, to diftant regions knov/n. 
Shall laft beyond this monumental ftor.e. 
Which conqu'ring armies (from their toils rcturn'd) 
Rear'd to his glory, while hisfatethey mourn'd. 

Anacreontic, 
An impromptu , for the pocket-book of a ycvng IrJy, luho cx' 
pe£led to embarh joon fr Europf, and ifho exprejftd a 
luijh to be p^fffffed of fame manajcript •verfa t'.'rittcn iy 
colunel Humphreys. 

MAY you, fraught with ev'ry grace, 
All the charms of mind and face. 
Ripen fair in wifdom'sbeam ; 
Thine the blifs that poets dream ; 
Happier Hill thy profpeds Hiinc ; 
And each .wilh fulfill'd be thine \ 



278 The genius of America, 

Riclies make them wings and fly ; 
Enw blafts the buds of joy; 
Deadly pangs may youth invade. 
When the rofy cheek muft fade ; 
Only virtue can impart 1 

Our defence — it foothcs the heart, /- 
Death difarms, or blunts his dart. J 

The genius of America. Afong. By the fame. 
Tune, the vMtry god, Uc. 

WHERE fpirits dwell and (liad'wy forms. 
On Andci' cliffs, mid blackening itorms. 
With livid lightaings curl'd — 
The awful genius of our clime 
In thunder rais'd his voice fublime. 
And hulh'd the lift'nina; world. 

" In lonely waves and waftes of earth, 
•' A mighty empire claims its birth, 

" And hcav'n afferts the claim. 
" The-faih,, that hang in yon dim Iky, 
*• Proclnim the promis'd era nigh, 

" Which wakes a world to fame. 

*" Hail, ye firfc bounding barks that roam, 
" Blue, rolling billows, topp'd wiih foam, 

" Which keel ne'er plough'd before ! 
" Here funs perform their ufelefs round, 
" Here rove the naked tribes embrown'd, 

" Who feed on living gore. 

** To midnight orgies — off'ring dire ! — 
" The human facrince on fire, 

" A heav'nly light fucceeds — 
" But, lo ! what horrors intervene, 
" The toils fevere, the carnag'd fcene, 

" And more than mortal deeds ! 

*' Ye fathers, fproad your fame afar, 
•' 'Tis yours to Ihll the founds of war, 

" And bid the Haughtcr ceafe : 
•* The peopling hamlets wide extend, 
" The harvefts fpring, the fpires afcend, , 

" Mid grateful fongs of peace. 

" Shall fleed to fteed, and man to man, 
" Wiih difcord thund'rino; ia the van. 



The monkey, who Jliaved himfelf and his friends, ^/q 

*' Again deftroy the blifs ? — 
" Enough my my ft ic words reveal, 
" The reft the fhades of night conceal 

" In fate's profound abyfs." 

The monkey, njuho Jhaved him/elf and his friends. 

A fable. Addrfjjed to the hon. . 

By the fame. 

A Man who own'd a barber's fnop 
At York, and (hav'd full many a fop, 
A monkey kept for their amufement ; 
He made no other kind of ufc on't — 
This monkey took great obforvation. 
Was wonderful at imitation. 
And all he faw the barber do, 
He mimick'd ftrait, and did it too. 

It chanc'd, in (hop the dog and cat. 
While frifeur din'd, demurely fat ; 
Jacko found nought to play the knave in ; 
So thought he'd try his hand at (having. 
Around the fhop in hafte he rufties. 
And gets the razors, foap and brufties ; 
Now pufs he lix'd (no mufcle mils ftirs) 
And lathcr'd well her beard and whifkers. 
Then gave a gaili, as he began — 
The cat cried, waugh ! and offfhe ran. 

Next towfer's beard he tried his flcill in, 
Tho' towfer feeni'd fomewhat unwilling : 
As badly here again fuccceding, 
The dog runs howling round and bleeding. 

Nor yet was tir'd our roguilh elf : 
He'd feen the barber (have hi;nfelf; 
So by the glafs, upon the tab!.:;, 
He rubs with foap his vifage fable ; 
Then with left-hand holds fmooth his jaw ;— 
The razor, in his dexter paw. 
Around he flourillies and flafties. 
Till all his face is feam'd with galhes. 
His cheeks difpatch'd — his vifage thin 
He cock'd, to ftiave beneath his chin ; 
Drew razor fwift as he could pull it. 
And cut, from ear to ear, his gullet. 

MORAL, 

Who cannot write, yet handle pens. 
Are apt to hurt themfclves and friends, 
Tho' others ufe them well, yet fools 
Should never meddle with edge-tools. 



s?a Tht banki of Kentucke. 

The banks o/Keniucke. Tuf:c, banks of the Dee. 

THE Tpriag was advancing, and birds were beginning 
To fiiig on the boughs o'er each pur'ingjjrook ; 
On the early green herbage at leifure reclining, 

I was careleisly viewing the banks of Kentucke. 
■■ Hail, ftranger to fong ! hail, deep channell'd river! 
Thy prominent cliiFs fliall be famous for ever ; 
Thy higli-fwelling floods lienceforward Ihall never 
Obicurely roll down thro' the banks of Kentucke. 

Difgufted with idle, romantic pretenfions. 

The populouscityl lonely forfook ; 
Delighting in nature, with fond apprehenfions, 

I eagerly came to the banks of Kentucke. 
O, never did art fo much beauty difcover. 
To reward the long fearch of its moll raptur'd lover. 
As nature's luxuriant fancy fpreads over 

The gay fertile foil, on the banks of Kentucke. 

Here genius fliall rove witli an endlefs defire, 

lrn])rovements to m.ake without learning or book ; 

While viitue and truth fliall forever confpire. 

To blefs thofe that dwell on the banks of Kentucke. 

Here, far from tyrannical power removed. 

The fpirit of freedom (liall happ'ly be proved ; 

The patriot fhall by his country be loved. 

And live without guile on the banks of Kentucke. 

Here bigotrv never fhall raife its foul banner — 

The bafis of joy through all ages it fliook ; 
'1 he young and the agedj in more happy manner. 

Than thofe, fliall improve on the hanks of Kentucke. 
In honell induftry their time ftill employing, 
With heart-cheering mirth all their meetings enjoying. 
With the biefilngs of friendfhip, and love never cloying. 
All ranks (hall unite on the banks of Kentucke. 

Rich plenty, and health, with his vifage all glowing. 
Invite and allure us with prpmifing look ; 

Never more to regret other rivers long flowing, 

Norfuch as glide down thro' the banks of Kentucke. 

Pale flckncfs doth pafs thro' the land as a ftranger, 
I Ko dreadful diftemper herefriglitens the ranger. 

As he palTes thro' cane-brakes and waters, no danger 
Expeding to nr.eet on the banks of Kentucke. 



Intelligence, 



FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE. 

PF. TERSBURG, Ocl. 30. 

THE emprefs has ordered a levy 
to be ii;ade, of one man in eve- 
ry Imndred, of all h?r fubjcfts, 
through the fevern! provinces. This 
will produce at kail 100,000 re- 
cruits, who nill he fcnt to replace 
the veterans, that iiiav b« dcftroyed 
in aftion, or othcrv.ife, througliout 
the army. 

¥ran^fo'-t, N01: 13. It is cr.Iculat- 
ed, that from 1776, to 17S6, t!'.e 
number of eniigr.uits, from the Pa- 
latinate of the Pvhire, amounts to 
gcoo, notwithilanding which the 
population has increaf^d 21,099 
fouls, the number of people being at 
this moment 404,0s 5 perfons. 

Edinburgh, Nov. 26. Cn Satur- 
day iaft came on, at the hall of the 
royal medical fociety, the annual 
ele(ftion of pre'idents, when the fol- 
lowing gentkmen werechoftn : 

James C. M^clairen, of London. 

Theobald yi'Ccnna, A. M. Coun- 
ty Tipperary. 

John Fleming, M. A. Weftmeath. 

Benjamin Smith Barton, A. M. 
Philadelphia. 

LondcTi, December 4. 

An overture for a triple alliance 
between the houfe of Bourbon, and 
the courts of Pcterfturgh and Vi- 
enna, had been put in a train of ne- 
gociation by the court of France, 
and the final accompliihment ot it 
had b«en urged by that relllefs peo- 
ple, with all the indullry a.vd zeal 
that ambition, intereft, and a na- 
tural love of mifchief could infpire. 

A coraphte ftop has been put to the 
ambitious projefl, by the prudence 
and judicious policy of Rnilia. 

The Ruffian clergy l"vave offered 
the emprefs 100, coo roubks, to- 
wards carrying on thewar agsintt tiic 
Turks. 

The following may be depended 
on, as an accurate ftatement of the 
importation into Kingfton, faoiaica, 
^ Vol. III. Nc. III. 



2'6l 

tf'- 



from the united Rates of America, 
from December 31. 17*^6, to March 
18, 1787. 
Staves, heading, ard fnin- 



gles ~ 
Lumber 
Boards 


2 
feet 


4 5?, ceo 
4iO,ooo 
72,!J4 


Ditto 


feet 


346,000 


Spars , 




ICO 


Oars 




120 


Mafts 




7 


Pieces of timber 




3-12 


Hoops 




30 J 


.Plank 
Bread and flour 


feet 
cafics 




Ditto, barrels 




1 ' 


Meal, d'Uy 
Cbrn, hogffjMds 




250 


Ditto, barrels 




^7^3 


Peas, barrels 




43 


Rice, tierces 




441 


Ditto, cafks 




1,252 



On the itth. u!t. their high inighti- 
neflcs declared null and void xht act 
ofconfederatioh,;Ignfdat AmU'i^rdain 
by feventy-five regents, tlie 8ih ,of 
Augufl lall ; and refdved to defend, 
with their live* and fortunes, the 
eftablifhrnent of the iladthulder. 

Dec, 21. In confequencc of a 
council held on Weuncfd.-iy, at the 
Cockpit, it was determined immedi- 
ately to commence a new coii-.a^e of 
copper; and, in order to put a total 
ftop to counterfeit half-pence and 
farthings, which are now fo great a 
burden to the pui::!ic, it w^is refolved, 
thr.t in the new arrar.gement, one 
pound of copper fhouia be made in- 
to twenty four half pence, inllead of 
eight and forty, which i;as been the 
prac'tice hitherto, and the farthin^^s 
in the fame prcporiion of fizc and 
weight. 

Thefe refolutions will be pat into 
execution in the courfe of a few 
weeks: and an order of council will 
probably be ilTued almoll immedi- 
ately to ftop the circulation of coun- 
terfeit copper. 
L 



28i 



Intclliirence. 



DOMESTIC IN TELLTGENCE. that this force is not checked by 

Z,/.;-7-5'.'7,v(Kentucke) ^iV^T'. 12. We cooling the cyiirv.ier, the un£voidv 

have received infotination that a few ble conrcqnsnce of an in)sftion of 

days.^.ago, the Indians kilh'd three cold v/atc^r, but that an sllsrnatecon- 

ir.en on the road from Kcntucke to denfttion, in the cylinder on each 

Cumberland, and that a great body fide of thepillon, is eifcfted by meani 

of Ind;an'5 have fincebeen feen near the of metallic pipes funoundcd by cold 

Sinking Spring, fuppofed to be at water, fo that there is always a vacu- 

leait two hundred in number, and ap- iini on one fide of the pifton, when th< 

pcared to be making towards the fteam is aifting on the other; and thai 

Wabafli. the fteaai, when condenfed, becom 

Njrivkh, Jaft. 24. Within the ing warm watjr, is forced into thi 

coinpafs of twelve miles from the boiler again by a fmall pump. 
Ihite-hcufe in tins town, no lefs than Ba'ti-mrf, Feb. 29. The legifl.a 

eight bridges have been dcflroyed by ture of the iLare of North Carolin 

the flood, cccafioned hy thellorm of have called a convention, for the pu: 

the i6;h iniiant. pofe of " difcuh'Ing the momentou 

Cbar'ij?.yn, (j. C.) Jiir-i. ly We fubjedlof the federal conititution, 

ar.^ inform..'d by good authority, that to meet on the feventeenth day c 

mr. Sqiiibb lias difcovered a new fpe- July next. 

cies of Oryza, or rice, indigenous to Upringfidd, March 5. We he: 

this ftate. The plant ripens its feed from Ludlow, that about five or 11 

in June, and appears to be perennial, weeks ago, a dog belonging to m 

JiK. ^i. Major Butler ftated yef- David Fuller of that place, ran ma( 

tcrua)' to the houfeof reprefentatives, and bit a number of cattle ; fever 

that he had juil received a letter from of which, about three weeks afte 

Georgia, from a member of the le- wards, were feized with violent mai 



nefs, and have fince died. Mr. Fu 
ler himfelf was alfo bitten by V 
dog, about the fame time, on h 
hand, infuch a manner as to mal 
the blood come very freely ; but\ 
are happy to hear, that it has not. 



giilaaire at Augufta, mentioning 
that they had k'M feveral difpatches 
to congrefs, earncflly requeuing af- 
iiilance againil: the Indians, but re- 
ceived for anfwer, that there was not 
a fuiHoient number of members to 

coaiiirute a ccngrefs, and therefore yet, produced any bad efFeft 
no relief could be fcnt, and that Llizabcih-ta^wn, March 5. A coi 

Georgia could not raife anv men ; pany of men, in the ftate of Ne 
which had given additional fpirits to York, have, in violation of the co 
the Indians, who vvere preparing fur ftitu'.ion, and to evade the exifti 
war in greater force than before. laws, taken a leafe from the Mohav 

Feb. 2<S. A new mode of applying Indians, for nine hundred and ninet 
fteam to machinery has been difco- nine years, of 12,000,000 acres 
vered by mcflVs. Ifaac Eriggs and land, at the annual rent of 12^ 
William Longftreet, both of Georgia ; 
and fangiiine exj^eifiatioas are formed 
of its utility. We have been fa- 
voured with the following defcrip- 
tion, v-iz. ^^hcire^lgine is fo con- 
ftru<^ed, that the rteam operates, alter- 
nately, at each end of an horizontal 
cylinder, on a pifton, which it caufes 
tovibrateboth ways with equalforce; 



The matter has been canvaflTed I 
fore the legillature,who have deem 
the procedure illegal, and the lefli 
not entitled to any emolument, 
cruing from it. They confide^ 
to all intents and purpoies,apurchalf 
which their laws forbid. 

CarlijU, March 5. A narrat 
of fai'tb, refpciflin^ the maimi-T 



Intcll/ocnce. 



aS3 



which the prifoners were liberated 
from their tonfiiiement in the jail 
oi Cumberland county, on Saturday 
the lit of March, inftant : 

It is prcfumed the public are al- 
ready in fuil poiTefiion of the caiiie 
which gave rife to the foiiowing 
tranfaifiions, viz. theoppofition made 
by fome of the inhabitants ^'f the 
borou^^h of Carlifle, to the rejoicing 
intended to be celebrated by tlie fe- 
derahlh, on the 26th and 27th of 
December laft. It is alreaily known, 
that a number of depoiitions were 
taken in the office of John Agnew, 
efq. with an intention to criminate 
the feveral perfons who were aftire 
in oppofing faid rejoicing, on which 
depoficions, or other information, 
hid before the honourable tlie fu- 
preme jultices of the (rate of Penn- 
fylvania.a warrant was ilfued, cliarg- 
ing the faid oppofers with divers un- 
lawful ai!:ls, &IC. and commanding 
the flieriif of this county to appre- 
hend twenty perfons therein named, 
and take them before fome of the 
juftices of the fuprerne court, or any 
of the juftices of Cumberland coun- 
ty, to anfwer to the premifes, and 
be dealt with according to law. 
Sometime after, the fhciiff receiv- 
ed the warrant, and called upon 
the defendants, and informed them 
fuch warrant was in his hands — 
each perfon v/illingly agreed to ap- 
pear at any time he inight think 
proper, before any niagiilrare of 
this county: he thought proper to 
appoint Monday tlie 25th of Febru- 
ary laft, for them to appear before 
John Agnew, efq. which they readi- 
ly complied with. The warrant be- 
ing read, which exhibited the charge 
of a r.ot againit the defendants, 
they demanded that they fnould 
be confronted with the wirneiTes, 
and offered, if pennittcd, to pro- 
duce fufiicient evidence to exculpate 
themfelves from the charge alleged 
againlt them, which was refulej, 



as the magiftrate was of opinion, 
that it was not in his power to fu- 
perfcde a warrant iffued by the fu- 
prerne juRices. In the interim, h 
country magillrate arrii'ed, who had 
been previouily fent for by J<:hn 
Agnew, efq. After a lliort conful- 
tation they came forth, and the coun- 
try juilice told the defendants that 
in his opinion the warrant admitted 
of a hearing, but added, that he was 
determined not to act in the mat- 
ter, and advifed the defendants to 
accept of a propofal made by inr. 
Agnew, which v/as, to remain in 
the cultody of tlie fiieriff, until the 
25th of i>/!3rch next, at which tiioc 
mr. Agnew hoped to have inflruc- 
tioir. from the fuprerne julHces. Se- 
ven of the defendants abfolutciy re- 
je>ficd the propofaj, imlefs ihcy 'A"cre 
allured of an iavcllignticn oi the 
premifes at the time above menti- 
oned, which was likewife rctufcd. 
Bail was then demanded b}' the juf- 
tice; the defendants anfwered they 
were confcious that ih.ey were guilty 
of no crime againft the lai\s of their 
country ; and as they were 'profccut- 
ed to gratify party- fpiie, they were 
determined not to enter bail on the 
occafion, but would otheiwife wil- 
lingly comply with the orders of 
his worlliip J upon which mr, Ag- 
new wrote and figned their com- 
mitment, and gave it to the Iheriif, 
who cnndu(f^ed the prifoners to th;: 
county jail. lirimediately the coun- 
try took the alarm, on hearing that 
a number of perfons were confined 
in prifon for oppofing a incafure 
that was intended to give f^nftion 
to the propofed federal conllitution. 
The people, who compofed the dit- 
fcrent companies of militia in this 
county, thought proper to co'lid, 
and appointed to meet in Carlifie, 
on batnrday laft, to enquire why 
thofc perfons were committed, and 
at the (ame time determined to 
zd, ;;grec.-i'''ly to the cppotuion oficf- 



98.i 



Inteili/revee. 



(d them by the rejoicing party. 
According!, about fim-rifc the bell 
began to ring, and the men urider 
anns made, their appearance from 
diirerent quarters, who previoufiy 
had app(Mnted one perfon from eaeh 
company to reprefent them in a com- 
mittee, for the purpofe of confult- 
ing on fuch meafurea as might be moft 
expedient on the occtviion. Previ- 
cus to their meeting, five perfons 
^vith delegated power froiri the peo- 
ple of Dauphin county, had met a 
ivjnilier of federalills, and had pro- 
Ijofed terras of accommodation. In 
one honr the federaliits promifed to 
j:^iv'e them an anfwer; at which time 
they accordingly met, together with 
the committee appointed bv the dii- 
ferenr compar>:es, who immediately 
;i£rf:,-(' upon terms of acconimoda- 
t'/m, and mutually conPinted to 
Iranfmit a peliticn to couricil, fign- 
ed by a number of refpeftabie per- 
fons on both fides of the queftion ; 
they then agreed th^Jt tlie fherift 
fliOuld fign the following difciiarge. 
Beit known, tiiat I Charles Lee- 
per, cfq. ftierilF oi Cnraberland coun- 
ty, do hereby difcharge frfuu their 
imprif.-^nment in the jriilof thiscojn- 
t/ of Cumberland, the following 
p:rforj«, vi?.. James Wallace, Wil- 
li;un Petfikin, Thomas Dickfon, 
Samuel Greer, l-artholomew Vvhite, 
lof^'ph White, joieph Young, and: 
Jof-'oh Steel. 

CHARLES LEEFER, IherifF. 
After the above agreement was 
ratified, the militia were marched 
'jnder their rcfpcftivc officers from 
the public fquare to the jail, where 
tl".e ihscriff condufieci the prifoners 
to file iireet: having read the above 
dil<?harge, rhev were reilored to their 
former liberty with loud huzzas and 
a feu de joye from right to left t'f 
the companies, who then mnrciicd 
otit of town in good order, without 
injuring any perfon or property, 
except by firing two balls tluougU 
a tavern- keepc;'^ liga. 



NtrM-Yorh, March lo. Elilha 
Thomas, of New- Durham, in New 
Kampfaire, whom, not long fince, 
we mentioned to have murdered a 
captain Drown, made his efcape, 
but foon after was apprehended, and 
committed to the jail in Dover. 
Thomas left at home his wife and 
fix children. Some days after, his 
wife, taking with her, her youngeil 
child in her arms to one of the neigh- 
bours, fet out for Dover, to fee her 
huiband. In the night, the other 
five being in bed, the eldeft of them 
was awaked from his fleep by the 
falling of a board from the wall on 
the bed, which, with the houfe, he 
faw was in a flame. Springing in- 
ftantly from the bed, he in vain at- 
tempted to fave from the flames bis 
four brothers and fillers, who, with 
the houfe, in a fhort time were re- 
duced to alhes, himfclf only efcaping 
to tell the news. 

The reprcfentatives of the quak- 
ers in New England, have petition- 
ed the afiembly of Rhode Ifland, 
againft the aft for making paper mo- 
iiey a tender, and likewife againft 
that for making notes and accounts 
void, if not fettled in two years. 
The affembly have received the pe- 
tition, and referred it to the next 
fciTion, rruering copies of it, in the 
mean time, to be publiHied and dif- 
tributed. 

" The ftate convention of New 
Hamplhire has adjourned from Exe- 
ter to Concord, about one hundred 
miles in.'and, there to meet on thp; 
thirtl vVcclnel'day in June next. Pre- 
vious to this adjournment, for eight 
d-jvs, very warm debates wore l:ad 
upon the propriety of adopting thp 
■conftitution. 

I'y the accounts received lafl even^i 
ing, we find, that the adjournmenJ 
of the convention of New Hamp-! 
Ihin- was carried by 56 — agairll 511 
BfjJi-jJi, March 10. A gcntJeruan 
in this town has received a I."t|ei 
from Charles Logic, eiq. his Bri^ 



IntelUgenee. 



ic. iTiajeily's conful at Algiers, 

I.Nov.^, 17^7. of which the 

wing is the fubftance : afrer 

ig an Pccount of his being o- 

:d to confine himfelf to his own 

s al)Ove a year, on account of 

i)lague, he obfervcs, that not- 

ftaading the diltrefled fuuation 

jnhappy American captives are 

r)y being obliged to mix and 

< in common uith the natives, 

'horn upwards q^ three hundred 

/died of a day, yet only three 

dF twenty-two have bteen taken 

)y that diilempcr — he mentions 

death of capt. Coffin, a brother 

;aptain Siiabtal Coffin, after a 

eiing illncfs, on. the 2d of No- 

iber, and that he had affi-)rded 

. every jiiiiftance in his power — 

/e|I as to the captains of iliips, 

to the American people in ge- 

il there; and this, he favs, not 

ely from the common motives 

humanity, but from gratitude, 

bearing in mind the many civili. 

she met with in Bofton, from a 

:at number of its refpetiable in- 

)itants, upwards of twenty years 

j 3. Mr. Logie iikewife fays, that 

J; caufe of humanity would be 

;atly promoted, by a fubfcription 

r t'.e relief of the untortunate A- 

.'ric;in fufferers, now in fervitude 

ere. 

Friday a refolve pafied the ho- 
)urablehoufe of reprefehtatives (but 
)t by a very full vote, the majori- 
being but about eleven) for par- 
3inng and reiloring to t!ie prh ileges 
[ a freeman, the famous capt. Luke 
)ay, who lor foine time paft has 
sen confined in jail in this town. 
Mu-.-ch 1 3. 'Iho legiflature of 
lis Itate has repealed the law olfe'r- 
\% a reward for the apprehending 
)anicl Shays, &c. 

A peiition has been prefented to 
't; general 'court by Shays and Par- 
ins, praying a pardon, which, it 
s faid, will be er;-inted. 



Philadelphia. 

March 3. This day, purfuant to 
his fenience John White, alias John 
Tracey, was executed on the com- 
mons, for piracy and murder. 

M.irch 6. The quarter feflions of 
the county of Philadelphia began on 
laft Monday in this city. Only three 
bills for larceny, or any other infa- 
mous crime, were found hy the grand 
jury ; and the property ilolen in thofe 
three cafes amounted to no more 
tlian fixty-two Ihillings. 

The affembly of Rhode Ifland 
have palled an ao: ai^poiiiting the 
4th of March, ir.iL for the people 
of that ftate to convene in town 
meetings, and there to confider and 
determine upon the expediency of 
adopting the propofed conftitution. 

March 10. The committee ap- 
pointed by the general afTembiv, to 
coriiider the petitions prefented in fa- 
vour of tlie diPcrefied Africans, pray- 
ing a prohibition of the fiave-trade, 
arid iin extcnfion of the aft for the 
gradual abolition of flavery, made 
a long and liberal report upon the 
fubjesit, and it is referred to the fame 
to biing in a bill, to prevent tlic 
mifchiets complained of, and to a- 
mend thee:diting law. 

The committee appointed on that 
part of the meffage from council, 
rcfpecting the palfing a declaratorv 
ait, upon the fubject of the treaty 
with Great Britain, made report 
of a refolution, that the executive 
council be informed, that the houfe 
cannot find any aft now in force, 
which is repugnant to that treaty, or 
any article tliereof, or that tends to 
rel^rain, limit, or in any manner im- 
pede, retard or counteraft the opera- 
tion and execution thereof, or to ex- 
plain the fame. 

M.irch 19. The hon. George 
Har.aly, efq. is appointed governor 
of the Uate of Georgia, in the room 
oi gencr;;! Jackfon, who has religned. 

An Aiigufta paper of the 16th ult. 



t^6 



Inttlligence, 



hy$, " We hear from Green county, 
that on Saturday the 2d iiillant the 
irniians killed captain Autry near 
Richland creek. " 

Miirch zo. The manufadturing fb- 
ciety ot this city have at length ob- 
tjined two complete machines tor 
( aiding and fpinning cotton, one of 
which cards forty pounds of cotton 
|-e.r day, and the other fpins fifty 
threads at a time. We feel infinite 
jleafure in communicating this 
agreeable intelligence to the public, 
and we have no doubt, that by appli- 
cation to the fociety, private pcrlbns 
or companies will be informed how 
they mav be fupplied with them. As 
tbay are of tlie greateft confcquence 
to this country, we beg leave to fug- 
geft the propriety of gentlemen in 
every town in the Itatc joining to 
procure one of each. Five lads of 
llfteen years of age, and a girl of 
twelve, may tend tour ipinning and 
one carding machines, which will 
card and fpin i2,ooulb of cotton 
per annum. 

It is e.Trneftly hoped that the fou- 
thcrn ilates will pay the moit imme- 
diate and the nioit unrciuitted atten- 
tion to the cultivation of cotton, to 
which their foil, their climate, and 
their population, are all adapted. 
Without cotton, the newly acquired 
machines will be of no value ; with 
abundance of that raw material, they 
may perform wonders. 

March 24. By a letter from 
Georgia, we are informed " that 
gen. Clark lately fell in with a con- 
iiderable body of Indians, who were 
ckfeated after a fliort conflid. A 
body of three hundred of them at- 
tacked a fort on the Occonees, and 
were repulfed with confidcrable lofs. 
They are well armed, and have late- 
ly received a great fupply of milita- 
ry articles from Penfacola." 

Late accounts from Pitt (burgh men- 
tion, that on Monday the 11th of 
February lalt, the fuperintendant of 



Indian affairs difpatched meflen 
to invite the chiefs of all the In 
tribes within the northern diftrl(j 
a general treaty, in the fpring, t 
held by hini and the governor of 
welterii tenitory in conjunftion 
order of congrefs, in order, if \ 
ble, to fctile all un'-aiinefs exi 
between the united Hates, and th( 
dian nations, and to eftablifh a 
ing peace ; much is expetfled fron 
abilities and accommodating difj 
tion of thofe gentlemen, whofe 
rafters, both public and private, 
well known. The fupeiintendan 
off the fame day to New Yorl 
make the necelfary arrangements. 
It is recommended to tire I^ 
holders of Pcnnfylvania, efpeci 
thofe who own unimproved la 
heavily timbered, to confider 
method of making pot-afh praft 
by the farmers of Ruflia and S 
de.i, as related in Poftlethwa 
didionary, and the Encyclopa 
Britannica. They will find a met 
of clearing their lands of tini 
profitable to themfelves, and v 
beneficial to the commerce of 
flate. It is believed, that a f 
greater than our import, might 
made by attention to this artii 
The people of New York have V 
enjoyed the benefits arifing from 
and as it ferves for a remittance 
Europe, great Aims are kept in 
flate, which would otherwile be 
ported. 

The committee appointed by 
general affembly on the i4.th of S« 
tember, to vifit the Pennfylvai 
hofpital, reported. 

That they have performed tl 
fervice, and had the pleafure to fii 
the houfe in perfecft good order, a;t 
the patients accommodated, with 
appearance of decency and comfo 
highly commendable. 

From the information reccr 
of the attending managers, and t 
obfervation of the committee, thi 



Intelligence, 



bS7 



nk it their duty to report, that 
managers and perfons employed 
the inititiitioii appear to have 
at merit in the execution of this 
iritable fervice. 
traci of a Idler from Neiv York, 

March 26. 

* Capt. Prince, from Cayenne 

1 St. Euftatia, at his departure, 

: at the former port the brig 

ilhington, capt. Gardener, be- 

ging to Rhode Ifland, and the 

p Blaci: Prince, capt. Newman, 

onging to Philadelphia, both vef- 

5 from Africa with ilaves." 

March 2Q. This day the gener- 

aflembly of this ftate adjourned, 

meet on the 2d Tuefday in Sep- 

iber next. Previoufly to their 

lournmcnt, the houfe ordered five 

ndred copies of the fupplenient to 

: law for the gradual abolition of 

very, and the fame number of 

piesof the militia law, to be print- 

, and forwarded to the prothono- 

■ies of the refpedive counties, for 

s information of the public. 

The committee of the aflembly 

pointed to conlidcr the operation 

the penal law of this ftate, re- 

)rted that it would be proper to 

ipoint a committee to bring in a 

11, to alter and amend the fame. 

motion was made by dr. Login 

■repeal the law, but it was contra- 

f to the general fenfo of the houfi, 

id according!)- rcjeded. 

March 31. Late accounts from 
^harleftoii mention, that the fires 
1 that city have been fo frequent 
nd fo fatal, that there is reafon to 
afpfft they have been occafioned by 
le fame gang of incendiaries who 
ave lately travelled from Nev/ York 
that ftate. 



BANKRUPTS. 

Ann Gibbs, of the city of 
adelphia, merchant. 

John Fcrgufon, of the 
Philadelphia, merchant. 

Dean Timmons of the 



Phi- 

city of 
of 



c: 



Philadelphia, tallow chandler, deal- 
er, and chapman. 

William Tilton, late of the ciw 
of Philadelphia, now of the town of 
Pittftjurg, merchairt. 

Stacy Hepburn, of the city of 
Philadelphia, merchant. 

Jolhua Smith, late of Egg Har. 
bour townftiip, county of Gloucef- 
ter, ftate of New Jerfey, now of the 
city of Philadelphia, merchant. 

James M'Cutchcon, of thecily cf 
Philadelphia, viftualler and butcher. 

Hugh Newbigging, of the city 
of Philadelphia, merchant, 

Richard Mafon, of the city of 
Philadtlphia, merchaat. 

John Fowler, of the town ft. ip of 
Lampeter, in Lancsfter county. 
MARRIAGES. 

MafTachufetts. At RoRon, Mr. 
John Allen, printer, to mifs Sali^' 
Rand, of Charleftown. 

New York. Mr. Charles >^^Jkes 
to mifs Shaw ; nu. Abraham Frank- 
lin, to mifs Ann Townfcnd of Lcng 
Iflaad, 

Maryland. At Baltimore, Mr. 
James Croxall to mifs Nelly Gittings. 

South Carolina. At Charlciiun, 
mr. William Cam, mctclvant, t:) 
mifsWigfall; capt. John Trot t, to 
mifs Mary Fendid. 

Georgia. At Savanriah, mr. Fre- 
derick Herb, to mifs Mary Erov/ii ; 
mr. Robert Holmes to miis Eetfey 
Butler. 

DEATH. 

In Great Britain. Paul Fifher, 
efq. of Clifton, near Briftol, who has 
left to the fociety for propagating 
the gofpel two thou fa nd pounds, of 
which five hundred pounds is for 
propagating the gofpel in America; 
five hundred pounds for encouraging 
the proteftant v/orking fchocls in 
Ireland ; and the remaining one 
thoufand pounds for the ufe of the 
nrft bifaop that fnail be appointed 
in America, with tlie intereft of tht^; 
fame, provided a fee be conftitutcJ 
in twcaty-five years. 



O N T E N T S. 



Obfervations upon an hypothefis for 

{blvuig the phenomena of light ; 
with incidental obfervations tcnd- 
U)g in ilisw the heterogeneoulnefs 
of li.sfht, and of the eleclrlc fluid, 
by their intermixture, or union, 
with each other. By James Bow- 
doin, elq. 203 

Obiervations on light, and the wafte 
of matter, in the fun and fixed ftars, 
occalioned by the conftant efflux 
of light from them; with a con- 
jeflure, propofed by way of query, 
and fu.agellmg a mean, by which 
their feveral fvllems might be pre- 
lerved from the diforder and final 
ruin, to which they fcem Lable, 
by that walle of matter, and by 
the law of gravitation. By the 
fame, 206 

Obfervations tending to prove, by 
phenomena and fcripture, the rx- 
iilence of an orb, which lurrnunds 
■the whole vilible material fyfletn ; 
and which may be neceflary to pre- 
ferye it from the ruin, to which, 
without fuch a counterbalance, it 
feems liable, by that univerfa! prin- 
ciple in matter, gravitation — By the 

. fame, 2 1 3 

A theory of lightning and thunder 
ftorms. By Andrew Oliver, 
efq, ,1:26 

Addrefs to the minority of the con- 
vention of Pennfylvania, 242 

A view of the principles, operatun, 
and probable effects of the fund- 
ing fyfleni of Pennfylvania — 'oge- 
ther with iome obfervations on the 
effefls of a finking fund, 245 

Speech of an Indian, 2^6 

lixtrafl. from the memoir of the ab- 
be de Com.merell, on the culture, 
ufe, and advantages of the difette, 
or fcarciiy root, 257 

1. The time and manner of fowing 
the feed, SjH 

2. Preparation of the ground for tranf- 
planting the roots, ibid. 

3. Time and manner of tranfplanting 
the rootsj e^g 



A, The firfl gatherin| of the lejv 
and the culture of the roots, s 

5. The product of the leaves, 

6. Their ufe for cattle, 

7. Their ufe for men, 

8. The gathering of the roof, 

9. The choice of roots to be refer 
for feed, 

0. The time and manner of repla. 
ing the roots to bear feed, 

1. The gathering of the feed, 
manner of preferving it, 

2. The way to prevent the ft 
from degenerating, 

3. How to prcferve the r< 
frbrn November to ihe end 
June, 

4. The dimenfions of ihe trenches, 

5. Neceflity and manner of mak 
air holes, 

6. How to prepare the roots 
feeding bealls, 

7. How to prepare the rootsforfe 
iiig horned cattle, 

8. How to prepare the roots for fe 
ing horfes, 

9. Daily allowance for differ 
beads, 

20. Plow to fatten beeves. 

21. Quantity that may be raifcd ft 
an acre, 

22. Advantages of this culture, 

23. Plow to raifc calves weanet 
twelve davs old. 

On the ufe of oxen in hufbandry. 
Account of the planet Pleilchel, ■ 
Thfe'old bachelor. 
Tetters to congrefs. 
Advantages of newfpapers, j 
Anecdote of fir Joi'eph Yorke, 

— of an nrijiullor, 

of George Whitfield, 

Bon mot, 

An elegy on licut. de Plart, 

An ode — to Laura, 

A fong — from the French, 

Epitaph on Alex. Scainmel, 

Impromprn, 

Genius of America. 

The monkey — a fable, 

The banks of Kentucke, 



THE 



AMERICAN MUSEUM, 

O It 

REPOSITORY 

OF ANCIENT AND MODERN 

FUGITIVE P I E C E S, &c. 

I»R0SEAND POETICAL, 
For A PR I L, 1788. 

, " mtAfweetefiflow'rs enrich* i^ 

From various gardens cull' d with care," . 

• ..•••..." Collegia revirefcunU'\ 

••♦" <^&^&^& "<►- 
VOL. III. No. IV. 

THE SECOND EDITION. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

CAREY, STEWART, &Co. 
•.<>••••■<>"•••<>••••<>•■.■<>.. 

M. DCC. XC 



THE 



AMERICAN MUSEUM 



For APRIL, 1788. 



~<H <s><a& ^s> ••♦•• 



fewatiotts and conjeBurti on the 
earthquakes of Neiv England, Bj 
profejfor Wiltiams, F. A. A. 

N looking over fome of the hif- 
tories of New England, I obfer- 
i that the religious turn of mind, 
lich diflinguilhed the firft planters 
New England, had led them to 
cc notice of all the earthquakes 
lich happened in the country, 
;er their arrival. Several of them 
;med to be pretty well defcribed : 
d in fome of their phenomena, 
;re feemed to be an agreement. 
5 feveral of thefe accounts were 
ntaincd in writings but little 
lown, I thought i.t might be of 
me fervice to philofophy, if a 
rticular account of them could 
collefted. Ihis is what I have 
tempted in the following treatife. 
the firft part of it, I have fet 
)wn the moft particular accounts 
could find of their phenomena. 
he fecond contains obfervations 
id remarks upon their agreement 
d operations. In the third, con- 
jures are propofed as to their 
ufes: and in the fourth, fome ge- 
;ral reflexions are added, as to their 
iture, ufe, and effefts. 
The moft likely way to come to 
t knowledge of their caufes, is to 



obfervc all the phenomena that at- 
tend them. That the reader might 
have a true account of thefe pheno- 
mena, it was my endeavour, in the 
accounts and obfervations, to note 
all the particulars, which feemed to 
relate to them, however minute or 
trivial fome of them might appear. 
With this view I confulted all the ac- 
counts I could find. From feveral 
of them (the honourable profeflbr 
Winthrop's lectures on earthquakes, 
in particular) I have received much 
help. Others referred to authors, of 
which I could not have the advantage 
of a peri^fal. That gentlemen of 
fcience might have it in their power 
to examine with what fidelity and 
care the accounts are drawn up, or 
how far they might be depended 
upon, I have conitantly referred to 
the authors from which they are 
taken. Some of the accounts, I am 
fenfible, are greatly imperfed. As 
all our conjeftures, theories, and 
reafonings, muft depend on the ac- 
counts, it is much to be wilhed, that 
fomething more accurate andperfeft, 
as tofeveral of them, might be tranf- 
mitted down to pofterity. 

What is propofed, as to their 
caufes, will be judged of, by the 
degree of probability and evidence 
with which it is attended. In all 



tg2 



An htjlorical account of the earthquakes of Neiu England. 



philofophical hypothefes, a writer is 
in danger of making more of his 
fubjeft than will bear a ftrift exami- 
nation. I have found fome difficul- 
ty in guarding againft this : and 
whether, at laft, I have not carried 
conjedures, in fome things, too far, 
the reader muftj judge for himfelf. 
After all, the revolutions of time will 
afford the fureft proof of the truth 
or errors contained in the following 
pages. I would, therefore, make it 
my requeft to pofterity, to note, 
with care and accuracy, the pheno- 
mena that may attend any future 
earthquakes in New England : that, 
if what is here advanced as to their 
caufes, fhall be found to be true, it 
may be confirmed : but if found to 
be falfe, it may meet with the fate 
of other errors, and be rejefted. 
The caufe of truth and fcience is 
of infinitely more importance, than 
any of our fcheraes or conjeftures: 
and this is what I wifli may prevail, 
in all countries, and in all ages. 

An hijiorical account of the earthquakes 
of Nenv England. 

TH E EngliOi arrived at Ply- 
mouth, in New England, No- 
vember 11,1628. Tile firft earthquake 
that happened in the country, after 
theirarrival,vvas on July 2, 1 638. 0.S. 
The manner of its approach, and the 
violence to which it arofe, are 
pretty well defcrlbed in accounts 
•which are yet exifting. It is dcfcrib- 
ed as having been preceded with a 
rumbling noife or low murmur, like 
remote thunder. As the noife ap- 
proached, the earth began to quake, 
till the ihock arofe to fuch a vio- 
lence, as to throw down the p-wter 
from the (helves, ftone walls, and 
the tops of fcveral chimnies; and, 
in fome places, made it difficult for 
people to avoid falling. The courfe 
of this earthquake in fome cf the 
accounts, is defcribed as being from 



the weftward to the eaftward. 
others, it is reprefented as comi 
from the northward, and going 
fouthward. It is not likely a 
great care or accuracy was empl< 
ed, to determine what particu 
point of the compafs the roar 
ihake came from ; but only to fix 
to that, which was judged to be ■ 
ncareft cardinal point, which (o 
thought was the weft, others 
north. It is moft probable, the 
fore, that a middle courfe, fn 
about north weft to fouth eaft, v 
the true; as this will beft agree wi 
and reconcile all the other accou 
that were given of its courfe. 
what extent this earthquake read 
on any point of the compafs, 
have no way to determine. It 
faid in general, that it reached far 
to the land, and was obfcrved by 1 
Indians much beyond any of 1 
Englifh fcttlements, which then v/' 
but of fmall extent : and alfo, tl 
fome veffels, which were near 1 
coaft, were fliaken by it. In abc 
half an hour there was anotl 
fliock, but not fo lon^ or ftrong 
the former*. 

Omitting a fhock on Odobcr 2 
1653,35 too fmall to occafionaj 
neral notice, the next memoral 
earthquake was in 1658. In all t 
ancient hiftories, this is mention 
as a great earthquake. But I canr 
find any account of the month, da 
violence, courfe, eftefls, extent, 
any other particulars of it. 

On January 26, 1663, O. S. " 
the (hutting in of the evening!," a 
other memorable earthquake fhof 
New England. From the genei 
expreflions the writers, who fpeak 



* Vide Johnfon's, Hubbard^ 
and Morton's accounts of this eait 
quake. 

t Morton. 



An kijior iced account of the earthquakes ofNenv England. 



^95 



, ufe, it feems to have been one of 
e greateft this country ever felt. 
is rcprefented as being preceded 
ith a great noife and roar. Men- 
3n is made of the houfes rocking, 
e pewter falling from the fhelves, 
e tops of feveral chimnies falling 
, the inhabitants running oat into 
e ftreets, paffengers being unable 
keep on their feet, Sec. As to its 
lurfe, duration, or extent, nothing 
to be found in any of the New 
ngland writers. But they are well 
•fcribed in the accounts that were 
ven of this earthquake ill Canada. 
At the fame time, Feb. 5, 1665, 
. S. ** about half an hour after 
[c: 'e in the evening," a mod terrible 
rthquake began there. The bea- 
ns being very ferene, there was 
ddenly heard a roar, like that of 
great fire. Immediately the build- 
gs were fhaken with amazing vio- 
nce. The doors opened and flint 
fthemfelves, with z fearful clatter- 
g. The beiis rang, without being 
•uchcd. The walls fplit afunder. 
'he floors feparated, and fell down, 
'he fields put on the appearance of 
recipicGs: the mountains feemed 
) be moving out of their pbccs : 
nd amidft the univerfal crafh which 
)ok place, moft kinds of animals 
:nt forth fearful cries and bowlings. 
The duration of this earthquake 
'as very uncommon. Thefirft fhock 
ontinued half an hour before it was 
ver; but it began to abate in about 
quarter of an hour after it firft be- 
ran. The fame day, about eight 
'clock in the evening, there v/as a 
scond ftiock, equally violent as the 
irft: and in the fpace of half an 
our, there were two ethers. The 
\txt day, about three hours from 
ihe morning, there was a violent 
hock, which lafied a long time: and 
enext night, fome counted thirty- 
o (liocks; of which, many were 
iolent. Nor did thefe earthquakes 
cafe until the July following. 



New England and New York 
were fnaken with no lefs violence 
than the French country. And, 
throughout an extent of three hun- 
dred leagues, from eaft to weft — and 
more than one hundred and fifty, 
from north to fouth — the earth, the 
rivers, and the banks of the fea, 
were fliaken with the fame violence. 
The fliocks fometimes came on fud- 
denly; at other times by degrees. 
Some feemed to be directed upwards; 
others were attended with an undu- 
latory motion. — And throughout the 
vaft extent of country, to which they 
reached, they feemed to refemble the 
motions of an intermitting pulfe, 
with irregular returns; and which 
commenced through the whole at the 
fame hour. 

This earthquake was attended with 
fome remarkable eftcds. Many 
fountains and fmall rivers were dried 
up. Tn others, the water became 
fulphureous: and in fome, the chan- 
nel, in which they ran before, was 
fo altered, that it could not be dif- 
tinguiflied. Many trees were torn 
up, and thrown to a confiderabk 
diftance : and {'oi-hq mountains ap- 
peared toben.uch broken and moved- 
Half way between TadoufTac and 
Quebec, two mountains were fhake.i 
down : and the earth, thus throwu 
down, formed a point of land, 
v/hich extended half a quarter of a 
league into the river St. Lawrence. 
The ifland Aux Coudres, became 
larger than it was before : and the 
channel of the river became much 
altered*. 

From thefe accounts, it is evident, 
that Canada was the chief feat of 
thefe concufiions -• and of confe- 
quence, as it proceeded fjora thofe 

NOTE. 

* Vide Frezier's voyage, o. 210, 
21 1. journal desScavans, Mai, 1678. 
Charlevoix's hiiloire de la Nouvelic 
France. 



^94 



An hiflortcal account of the earthquakes ofNeiv England. 



parts, its coarfe muft have been fome 
point between the weft and north j 
probably much the fame with that 
of 1638, 

After an interval of fixty-four 
3'ears, (in which there had been fe- 
veral fmall (hocks, but none fo vio- 
lent as to occafion a very long re- 
membrancel) there came on another 
very memorable one, Odober 29, 
1727, O. S. About 10 h. 40, 
P. M. in a very clear air and ferene 
flcy, when every thing feemed to be 
in a moft parfeft calm and tranquili- 
ty, a heavy rumbling noife was 
heard. At firft, it feemed to be at a 
diftance, but increafed as it came 
near, till it was thought equal to the 
roar of a blazing chimney, and at 
laft to the rattling of carriages, driv- 
ing fiercely on pavements. In about 
half a minute from the time the re- 
port was firft heard, the earthquake 
came on. It was obferved, by thofe 
who were abroad, that as the (hake 
paffed under them, the fnrface of the 
earth fenfibly rofe up, and then funk 
down again; which muft have pro- 
duced an undulation of the earth or 
a motii^n like that of a wave, both 
perpendicular and horizontal: firft 
lifing in a pependicular direction, 
and as it fubfuled. fpreading itfelf 
in a horizontal direftion all around. 
The nature, therefore, or kind of the 

NOTE. 

t In Phil. Tranf. No. 437, men- 
tion is made of earthquakes in 1660, 
1665, i66g and 1669. Dr. Mather 
fpeaks of earthquakes in 1670 and 
in 170 J. There was another in 
1720, on January 8. But thefe, 
with fume others, having been too 
fmall to Gccafion a general notice, 
and being only mentioned without 
anv prirtic'.ilar account of them, are 
paffed hy, as not affording us any 
I'ght with regard to the nrrvire, caufe, 
•r effedb of thcfe nhenomena.- 



motion, was undulatory. The vi 
lence of the (hock, like that of t 
other great earthquakes, was fuch 
to cau'e the houfes to (hake and roc 
as if they were falling to piec« 
The doors, windows, and movable 
made a fearful clattering. The pe^ 
ter and china were thrown fro 
their (helves. Stone walls and t 
tops of feveral chimnies were (hak< 
down. In fomc places, the doc 
were unlatched and burft open, ai 
people in great danger of faUin 
i'here were various opinions as 
the duration of this earthquake. Tl 
moft probable is, that the (hake b 
gan about half a minute after tl 
roar was firft heard, and rofe to i 
greateft height in about a minu 
more : and was about half a m 
nute in going off. Whence, tl 
duration may be fuppofed to ha\ 
been about two minutes. It was vci 
generally agreed that the courfe < 
this earthquake was from north-we 
to fo;ith-ea(t. '* The noife an 
" (hakes," it is faid," feemed to con 
*• from the north-weftward, and 1 
'* go ofFfouth-eafterly : and fo th 
" houfes feemed to reel." This ac 
count of its courfe, was confirnie 
by all the others, one or two except 
ed, which differ fo much from on 
another, that nothing can be detei 
mined from them. With regard t 
the limits of this earthquake, it ex 
tended from the river Delaware, i 
Pennfylvania, fouth-weft, to Kenne 
beck, north eaft. At both thef 
places, it was fenfibly felt; thougl 
the (hake was but fmall. Its extent 
therefore, from fouth-weft to north 
eaft, m'jft at leaft have been fevei 
hundred miles, and probably man 
more. As to its other limit, fr 
north-weft to fouth-eaft, we have i 
way to determiiie how far it extea 
ed. It was felt by veffcls at f^ 
arid in the moft remote wefterly ft 
tlcmcnrs. As it came from the ui 
known parts, between the weft an< 



An hlftorical account of the earthquakes of Neiv England. 



295' 



rth, and palled oiF into the fea, 
is probable it might run jTome 
oufand miies in fiich a courfc. 
There were feveral efFeds attend- 
g this earthquake, which feem 
srthy of remark. Befides what is 
mmon, as to the throwing down 
wter, fences, &c. it was obferved, 
at feveral fprings of water, and 
;lls, which were never known to be 
y or frozen, were funk far down 
to the earth. Some were dried up. 
he quality of the water mended in 
me, and fo altered in others, as to 
jeze in moderate weather. Some 
ots of firm dry foil, became per- 
fl quagmires; and others, which 
;re full of mire and water before, 
came more dry. The centre of 
is earthquake, or place of greateft 
olence, feems to' have been at 
evvbury, a town which lies at 
e mouth of Merrimack Pviver. 
There,'' according to dr. Colman's 
count, " the earth opened, and 
threw up feveral loads of a fine 
fand and afhes, mixed with forae 
fmall remains of fulphur; fo that, 
taking up fome of it between the 
fingers, and dropping it into a 
chafHng-dilh of bright coals, in a 
dark place, once in three times the 
blue lianie of the fulphur would 
plainly arife, and yield a very 
fmall fcent. Ey this it fcems evi- 
dent, that it was a fulphureous blaft 
which burft open the ground, and 
threw up the calcined bitumincus 
earth*." 

NOTE. 

* Phil. Tranf. No. 409. What is 

;re {aid of its being a fulphureous 

iaft, feems to be confirmed by the 

;count which mr. Dtuliey fent to 

lie royal fociety, in which he fays, 

A clergyman, in a town about 

twenty miles from Bofton, allured 

me, that immediately after the 

earthquake, there was fuch altink. 



Concerning this earth which was 
thrown up, the rev. mr. Lowcl, 
minifter in Newbury, n'.entions an 
uncommon circumflance. " One 
" thing," fays he, " I may add, which 
" is very remarkable, and which 
" may be depended on : that about 
" the middle of April, the fine 
" fand, which was thrown up in 
" feveral places in this parilh, at the 
" firft great fhock, Odober 29, had 
*• a very offenfive flench ; nay, was 
" more naufeous than a putrifying 
«' corpfe: yet, in a very little while 
*' after, it had no fmell at all. How 
♦• long it was, before it began to 
*' have this flench, I am not certain. 
" I know it had it not at firil : and, 
" I believe, it was covered with 
*• fnow till a little while before. — 
♦* There is no fmell nowf." Thefe 
accounts refer to matters fo eafy to 
be known, that there is no room to 
fufpeft that the authors (both gentle- 
men of a philofophic tafle, as well 
as of eminence in their particular 
profefiions) could be miftaken. And 
it feems highly probable, from their 
obfervations, that the fand, which was 
thrown out by the earthquake, con- 
tained fouie very noxious, illfcented 
vapour, or effluvia; which, fo Jong 
as there was nothing to confine it, 
psffed away in quantities too fmall 
to be perceptible by the fenfes: but 
when it was kept together by the 
fnow, gathered in fach quantities, 

MOTE. 

" or ftrong fmell of fulphur, that 
*•' the family could fcarce bear to be 
•' in thehoufe for aconfiderable time 
" that night. 1 he like is alfo con- 
♦' firmed from other places. Perfong 
" of credit do alfo affirm, that jufl 
" before, or in the time cf the 
" earthquake, they perceived flafh^es 
*' of light." Phil. I'ranf. No. 437. 
t Letter to dr. Coin an. Phil. 
Tranf. No. 409. 



■9' 



An hijlorical account of the earthquakes of Ne^v England. 



ns flrongly to infeft the air, when 
tlie rnehing ol the fnow gave it li- 
berty to evaporate freely. 

Some phcnoiriena were obfervcd a 
lew days before this earthquake, 
which deferve our notice, as having, 
probably, forae connexion with its 
approach. The rev. nir. Allin, then 
minilhr of Brooklyn, took notice 
of an uncommon alteration in the 
■water of fome wells. " About three 
*• days," fays he, •' before the earth- 
*' quake, there was perceived an 
*' ill-ftinking fmell in the water of 
" feveral wells. Not thinking of 
•• the proper caufe, fome fearched 
" their wells, but found nothing 
" that might thus infcd them. The 
•' fcent was fo ftrong and ofFenfue, 
•' that for about eight or ten days, 
*' they entlrelv omitted ufing it. In 
" the decpcft of thefe wells, v.hich 
«' was about thirty-fix feet, the 
•' water was turned to a brimftone 
•* colour, but had nothing of the 
•« fmell ; and was thick like puddle- 
" waterf." We have this account 
Confirmed by mr. Dudley. — ** A 
" neighbour of his, who had a well 
*• thirty-fix feetdcep, was, aboutthree 
" days l^efore the earthquake, fur- 
" prifed to find his water, which 
*' ufed to be very fweet and limpid, 
*• fliiik to that degree, tliat they 
" could make no ufe of it, nor 
** fcarcc bear the houfe when it was 
*' brought in : and imagining that 
" fome carrion was got into the 
*• well, he fearched the bottom, but 
*• found it clear and good, though 
«♦ the colour of the water was turned 
*' wheyifh, or pale. In about feven 
<« days after the earthquake, the 
" water l>egan to mend : and in 
•' three days more, it returned to 



f Account of the earthquake of 
1727, by mr. Allin. 



•' its former fweetnefs and colour*. 
And juft before the earthquak 
began, feveral wells were found t 
have no water in them, which ha 
great quantities before and aftei 
To whutever caufe the alterations i 
thefe wclis may be afcribed, it ca 
hardly be thought but that they ha 
fome connexion with the earthquak) 
which in a few days ran through tb 
whole country. Several Ihocks wei 
felt in the northern parts of New 
England, for fome months after thi 
of Oftober 29 : but they were gi 
nerallyfmall, and of a ftiort dur; 
tionf. 

In 1732, there was an earthquak 
which, though fmall, was of a con! 
derabic extent. It came onSeptembt 
5, O. S. at about i ih. A. M. b. 
ing attended with a rumbling nolft 
and was of fuch violence, as to occ; 
fion a confiderable jarring of tl 
houfes. The duration of it was n( 
more than tea or fifteen feconds. Th 
earthquake was much more cvidei 
at Montreal, in Canada, then it w: 
in any part of New England ; b< 
ing attended with confiderable di 
mage there. As this was the chit 
feat of it, it feems to have conr 
from thence, in a north- wefterl 
courfe, to New England. Its eJ 
tent, from fouth-weft to north-eai 
was equal to that of moft of d 
earthquakes that have been in tl 
country ; being felt from Marylai) 
to the north eafterly parts of Ne« 
England : and from north-weft 1 
fouth-eaf}, it reached from Moi 
treal, and probably from man 

NOTES. 

* Phil.Tranf. No. 437. 

t The account of this earthqual 
is colleded from the printed accoun 
of it in the philofophical tran 
afiions, and by feveral of the Npv 
En'^land miniftcrs. ,, 



Ah hiftoricalaccotlnt of the earthquakes of Netxi-'En gland. 



^7; 



itles beyond it, to the fea coaft. * 
From the )ear 1732, though 
;ere had been fome fmall fhccks, 
iC'-e was none that occafioned a ge- 
'! A notice, till 1 744.. That year, 
n June 3, O. S, a fair and hot day, 
icrc was an earthquake, fo confider- 
jle, as to be generally felt thro' the 
ro\ince. It bcg^n a few minutes 
rer loh. A. M. being preceded 
itl. a very loud report ; and isfaid 
) have rofe to fueh a violence, as to 
lake down forae bricks from the 
vfi of fome chimnies, and ah'bfome 
icccs of ftone wall. The courfe of 
lis earthquake, is faid, by fome that 
men'.ber it to have been from the 
ell vard to the eaftvvard. As to 
t'ricr particulars 1 can find no ac- 

JUIltt. 

liie next earthquake that Ihook 
le whole country, was in the year 
-/y^. November 18, N. S. at 4h. 
1' 33" J J in a calm lerene and pka- 

NqTES, 

* Vide Phil. Tranf. No. 429, 
nd for 1757, p. 13, and alfo profef- 
jr Kahn's travels, vol. i. p. 44, -d 
dir. London. On February 6, 
- 37, at -f5 P. M. and December 7, 

little before eleven at night, fmall 
arthquakcs were felt at Boilon : but 
particulars are mentioned as to 
heir pheMomena-. 

+ Phil. Tranf. for 1757, p. t^, 
nd American Mag. for 1744. 

t The beginning of this earth- 
|uake was determined to all the 
xadnefs that could be defired, by the 
bliowing accident. — Profeffor Win- 
hrop at Cambridge, fome time be- 
bre, having ufed a pretty long tiibe, 
n a particular experiment, ihut it up 
a his clock cafe, for fecurity. This 
ube, ftanding nearly perpendicular, 
hiuft have been overfet by the firft 
hock, which made it impofiible for 
he pendulum to make any ofcillati- 
»n, after the tube had ftruck agaiuft 

Vtl. lU, N©, IV. 



fant night, came on the mod violent 
(hock of an earthquake that was ever 
known in New-England. 1 he firft 
thing obfervable, was that rumbling 
noife, or roar, which, as a found, /«/ 
generis, feemed a prelude to an earth- 
quake. In about half a minute, the 
furface of the earth feemed to be fud» 
denly raifed up : and, in fubfiding, 
was thrown into an univerful trem- 
bling, or a very quick jarring vibra- 
tory motion, which atted in an hori- 
zontal direfticn. This motion con- 
tinued for about a quarter of a mi- 
nute, and then abated for three or 
four feconds. Then, all at once, 
came on a violent prodigious (hock, 
as fuddenly, to appearance, as a 
thunder clap breaking upon a houfe, 
and attended with a great noife. 
This fudden and great iliook began 
with the fame kind of motion ; and 
was immediately fucceeded by quick 
and violent concufiions,' jerks and 
wrenches, attended *' with an unda- 
latorv, waving motion of the whole 
furface of the ground, not unlike the 
fliaking and quaking of a very large, 
bog." After this great fhock had' 
been gradually declining and going 
off, near half a minute, there was a 
fenfible revival of it, though of fhort 
continuance ; and fo all by degree* 
became iHll and quiet again. 

The violence of this earthquaks 
was the greateft of any we have 
ever had m the country, *' In 

KoTE. 

it. The clock flopped at the time' 
mentioned above. Being a very good^ 
one, and having been adjulted by a 
meridian line, the preceding noon, 
it muft have pointed out the begin- 
ning of the earthquake to a great 
precifion. Had the time been as ac- 
curately determined at any other dif- 
tant place, the velocity of its motion' 
might have been determined jx> gresrC 
exadnefs. 
B 



298 



At: hijiofkal account of the eafthjuahs of Nexv-Euglandt 



Bofton, befides the throwing down 
of glafs, pewter, and other moveables 
in the houfes, about an hundred 
chimnles were, in a manner, levelled 
with the roofs of the houfes ; and 
about fifteen hundred fhattered, and 
thrown down in part. Some were 
broken oiF feveral feet below the 
top; and by the fudden^nefs and vi- 
olence of the jerks, canted horizon- 
tally an inch or two over, fo as to 
itand very dangeroufly. Some others 
thus broken off, were turned round 
feveral points of the compafs, as with 
a circular motion. The roofs of 
fome houfes were quite broken in by 
the fall of chimnies. The ends of 
about twelve or fifteen brick build- 
ings were thrown down, from the 
top to the eaves of the houfes. Many 
clocks were flopped. The vane upon 
tht public m^arket houfe was thrown 
down ,' — the wooden fpindle, which 
fapported' it, being broken off at a 
place where it was five inches in dia- 
meter, and ten feet in height ; and 
which hadftood the moft violent gufts 
of wind. A new vane, upon one 
of the churches in the town, was 
bent at the fpindle, two or three 
points of the compafs : and a diftil- 
ler'sciftern, made of plank, almoll 
new, and very (trongly put together 
was burft to pieces, by the agitation 
of the liquor in it ; which v/as thrown 
out with fuch force, as to break 
down one whole fide of the (bed that 
defended the ciftern from the wea- 
ther ; as alfo to ftave off a board or 
two from a fence, at the diftance of 
eight or ten feet from it." Much 
the fame things were obferved 
in the country. At Springfield, a 
town diftant about eighty miles in a 
vvefterly line from Boftou, a fpindle 
on one of their churches, was bent 
to a right-angle — And through the 
whole province, much damage was 
done by the throwing down ot ilone 
fences, cellar walls, chimnies, and the 
likcr Thefe things may fave to 



give us pretty juft ideas of its vio- 
lence : but it is to be obferved, that 
the violence of the (liock was differ- 
ent in different places; and not ex- 
nt\\y the fame in towns contiguoun 
to one another; or indeed in all thai 
parts of the fame town. 

There has been no earthquake in 
the country, whofe duration wa« 
determined with fo much accuracy* 
as was that of this. Profeilor Win- 
throp at Cambridge, the day before, 
had adjufted his clock and watch by 
a meridian line. His clock waj 
flopped at 4h. 11' 35". Being awak- 
ed by the earthquake, he arofe, and 
looking npon his watch found it to 
be fifteen minutes after four. The 
jarring continued about a minute af- 
ter this. The next day the watch 
was found to have kept time very ex- 
aftly. So that the duration of the- 
earthquake, taking in the whole ol 
the time from the firft agitation ol 
the earth, till it became perfedly qui- 
et, was very nearly four and an 
half minutes; though the violence ol 
the (hock did not Tall half fo long. 
This obfervation of its duration at 
Cambridge, agreed pretty well with 
fome of the fame kind made at Bof- 
ton, by gentlemen who were up, and 
looked upon their watches when il 
began and ended. In other places, 
its duration might be different, ac- 
cording to the diiferent violence oJ 
the fhock. 

By the accounts of thofe who were 
in the commons and open places, 
when the earthquake began, the 
courfe of it was nearly from north- 
weft to fouth-eaft. It was almoii 
univerfally agreed, that the noifi 
and fhakes feemed to pafs in that di- 
rection : and thofe things which wer 
in fuch a Ctuation as that they might 
have been thrown indifferently to any 
point of the compafs, pretty generallj 
lay in that direction. 

The extent of this earthquake 
was traced to a great diftance. On 



..,L.,J uccou/it of the e^rthquales of yevo-Englani. 



e fouth-weft, it reached "as far as 
lufapeak-Bay in Maryland : be- 
;g felt on the eaftern, but not on 
le weftern lide. To the north-eaft, 
was felt as far as Halifax. It is 
uch more difficult to determine its 
elternoreaflernlimit. It extended 
I all our back fettlements ; was 
It at Lake George, and probably 
any miles beyond : but at Ofwego, 
tuatc on the foiith eallcrn (hore of 
ke Ontario, and diliant from Bofton 
)out two hundred and fifty miles 
cft-by-norlh, it was not felt at 
!. On the atlantic, the fliock 
as fo great, feventy leagues eaft of 
ape Ann, that the people on board 
veffel, in that longitude, thought 
ley had run aground, or ftruck 
pon a rock, till on founding, they 
)und they had more than fifty fa- 
lom w.iter. By accounts, which 
ere foon after received from the 
*^eft-Indies, it fcems probable that 
le earthquake reached as far as thofe 
lands; or, rather, pafTed by to the 
aftwardof them. The account was. 
That on the i8th of November, 
about two o'clock in the after- 
noon, the fea v/ithdrew from the 
harbour of St. Martin's, leaving 
the veflels dry, and fifh on the 
banks, where there ufed to be three 
or four fathom water : and it con- 
tinued out a confiderable time ; fo 
that the people retired to the high 
lands, fearing the confequence ot 
its return ; and when it came in, 
it arofe fix feet higher than ufual, 
fo as to overflow the low lands. 
There was no fhock felt at the 
* above time." 

As this extraordinary motion of 
he fea happened about nine hours at- 
erthe great (hock was felt in New- 
ingland, it feems very likely to have 
3een occafioned by the fame convul- 
ion of the earth. As this earth- 
quake went off fonth-e^ftwaid into 
ihe Atlantic, it would pafs confidcr- 
|»bly to the eaftward of St. Martin's, 



?9f 

which has about iS® of north lati- 
tude, with 62 i** of weft longitude. 
And this was the cafe at the illand. 
There was no fhock felt ; but the 
motion of the fea was probably ow- 
ing to a great agitation, railed at a 
confiderable diftance, in fome part 
of the ocean, by the palTage, or by 
an eruption of the earthquake, and 
from thence propagated to that 
ifland. And what fcems to be a con- 
firmation of this, the length of time 
was no greater than what feems neccf- 
fary forfuch apurpofe. We cannot, 
indeed, ftate, with great accuracy, 
the velocity with which the earth- 
quake moved : but yet it is very e- 
vident from its duration, and being 
preceded with a roar, that its motion 
was not very fwift: and that of the 
waves, rai fed hereby, and propagat- 
ed, to the land, muft have been much 
flower: both of which might eafily 
take up nine hours in being propagat- 
ed, and that in a circular diredion, 
to fuch a di 'lance as that of Bofton 
and St. Martin's. Theextent, there- 
fore, of this earthquake, from fouth- 
weft to north eaft, muft have been a- 
boiit eight hundred miles: but from 
north-weft to fouth-eaft, it reached at 
leaft nineteen hundred; and, perhaps, 
many more. 

As the eftefts of this earthquake, 
great alterations wereobferved inthc 
Iprings, wells and ponds of water : 
in fome, the quality of the water 
was altered; in others, the quantity. 
New fprings were opened ; old ones 
dried up; the channel in many was 
much changed ; and the water \\\ 
fome was obferved to boil up in an 
unufual manner, for feveral days 
both before and after the earthquake. 
At Pembroke, Scltuate and Lancafter, 
there were chafms made in the earth. 
At Pembroke, there were four or 
five of them ; out of fome of 
which, water iiTued, and myny cart- 
loads of a fine, whitifh and com- 
pieflible fort of fand, was fpew- 



je« 



An hijiorkal account of the earthquakes of New-Kn gland. 



jcd*. Nor were its effects confined 
to the land ; — feveral of the fea- 
faring men agreed in their accounts, 
that almoft immediately after the 
earthquake, large numbers of fifh, of 
different forts, both great and fmall, 
came up to tlie furlace of the water, 
fomedead, and others dying. One of 
the filTiing veflels, at that time out 
upon the banks, took up and brought 
in feveral quintals of thefe filli, which 
were found in large numbers, dead 
and dying, upon the furface of tlie 
fca.t 



* Speaking of this fand, " By 
what 1 have heard," fays dr. May- 
liew, " it was of a fulphureous na- 
ture." It is to be regretted, that no 
experiments were made with it, to 
determine, with certainty, whether 
this was the cafe or not. 

+ In phenomena, of whofe caufes 
we have fo little knowledge, it is beft 
to note every circumftance, however 
minute, and whether it feemstohave 
much connexion with tlie fuppofed 
caufes or not ; as we do not know 
hut that they may be of ufe, when 
future obfervations come to be com- 
pared with them. For this reafon, 
it may not be amifs to fybjoin to the 
above account, i. That at the time 
of the earthquake, there was no 
alteratioia in the atmofphere, as to its 
weight or temperature : the barome- 
ter and thermometer not undergoing 
anv alteration. 2. A very great white 
fioll was obferved in the morning, 
much larger tlnm had been for feve- 
ral years, When it was melted, 
profeiTor Winthrop m^^afured it, and 
found that it covered the ground 
g.^_7_ parts of an inch ; which was 
almoft double of any there had 
been for feven years before, and 
about five or fix times as great as 
what is common in this country. 
The account of this earthquake is 
•ollcftsd from profeilbr Winthrop 's 



There were feveral fmall fliocl 
foon after this of November 1 8. 
One in about an hour and a quart 
after the firft, viz. at 5h. 29'. 
fecond, on November 22, at twent] 
feven minutes after eight at nigh 
A third, on December 19, at 10! 
P. M. Their violence and du ratio 
was fmall ; their courfe, much lii 
that of the great ihock ; and the 
extent, fuch as to be pretty general 
felt through the country. Mar 
others, but very fmall, were felt 
different parts of the Maffachufet 
and New-Hampfliire, for fever 
pnonths after. 

In 1757, there was another earf 
quake ; which, tho' fmall, was g 
nerally felt. I cannot find any prin 
ed account of this iliock, and, ther 
fore, can only mention fome gener 
obfervations, which I then made 
it. It came on July 8, N. S. 
about 2h. 20', P.M. I was th< 
in an open field, furrounded wi 
pretty highhilis, from thefouth-wt 
to north-eaft, in company with an 
ther perfon. ""['he firit thing we pe 
ceived was a fmall noife, like th 
of a rifing wind, which feemcd 
be at a great diltance, hut fwift 
advancing. It w;is half a minu 
before there was any fhock. This 
inferred, not barely from any co 
jcdure I was then able to mak 
which in a ftate of furprife muft 1 
greatly uncertain, but from this ci 
cumftance : after hearing the noil 
we had enquired of each other wh 
it could be ; and as there was no fhak 
concluded it was not an carthquak 
when immediately the (hock came o 
The converfation I well rcmembei 
and am certain it mult have tak* 



ledure, and account of it in Phi 
Tranf. for 1757, art. i. and froi 
drs. Chauncey's and Mayhew's a( 
counts of it. 



An hijiorical account of the earlhqmles of Neio-Et/glatiil, 30! 



half a minute, if not more. The 
)ck itfelt' was not of very great 
•ce ; but fecmed as though fome 
all body was fwiftly rolling along 
der the earth, which gently raifed 
that part of the furface, that was 
er it, and then left it as gently to 
bfide. The courfe of this earth- 
ake appeared, to me, to be trom 
; fouth-wett to the north eaft. — 
be noife and (hake feerrsed very 
ainly to come on, and go oiF in 
at direflion. I might, however, 
deceived by the reflexion of the 
und from the adjacent hills, or 
3m fome other caufe ; for almoll 
ery one judged very different!)- of 
i courfe, tlmt it was from north- 
3ft to fouth-ealh This was the 
dgment of feveral men, who were 
work together, in a large open 
•Id, where there was nothing to 
fled the found, or miflead the 
dgment. It is not impoffible that 
■)th might have been right in their 
pinion; and this, upon the whole, 
am apt to think v/as the cafe : that 
though its general courfe was from 
orth-vvefl: tofouth-eaft,yet,in parti- 
alar places, it left its general courfe, 
!id run out to any point of the 
ompafs, as the fubtcrraneous veins, 
r channels, might lead it. From 
le effeds of other earthquakes, par- 
icularly that of turning and twiit- 
ng chimnies, &:c. it feems as though 
his had been the cafe with moll of 
he large earthquakes we have had. 

On the T2th of March, 1761, 
here was alfo a fmall earthquake. 
t began about 2h. 30^ in the morn- 
ng. ft was faid to have been 
Jivided into twofhocks, with a fmall 
saufe between, the laft of which was 

the greateft. The weather was 
noderate, like that of the preceding 
lay, and a perfed calm reiled on the 
and and water ; the horifon all a- 
'*round, being covered with a whitiih 
ifog. The duration was fuppofed to 
jbe about half a minute. Hap- 



pening in the night, and being too 
fmall to awake people in general, 
nothing can be colledied with any 
certainty as to its courfe. Its extent 
however, was confiderable ; heinj^ 
felt not only in the MalTachufetts» 
but ill mod of the adjoining ftates. 

The fame year, on November 1 , 
about 8h. P. M. there was another 
earthquake. As ufual, this was pre- 
ceded with a heavy rumbling noife, 
which increafed to a pretty loud re- 
port as it came near. There wns a 
confiderable interval of time between 
the roar and the fhake. I endea- 
voured to make fome computation 
of it by this mi.';hod : juft as ihs 
fn ock began to abate, I looked en 
my watch to note the time. The 
report 1 could hear for about half a 
minute after this. It is probable it 
was about as long in coming on, 
wliich would give half a minute be- 
tween the noife and (hake. Tha 
(hock itfelf was of the undulatory 
kind : not violent, but fufficient to 
make the doors and windows jar 
and clatter. Its courfe was very 
plainly from north-well: to fouth-eaft, 
and it was pretty generally ftlt thro' 
the ftate, and in New-llampfhire, 

In the years 1766, 1769, and 1771, 
tliere were fmall earthquakes. Their 
courfes were all, I think, from about 
north-well to foutheall. Their da- 
rations not more than twelveor fifteca 
feconds ; and their extent but fmali. 
Not being attended with any thing 
remarkable, it is not neceifary to 
write particular accounts of tiiem. 

November 29, 1783, about loh. 
54', P. M. there was another fmall 
earthquake in New-England. Its 
extent was very confiderable ; being 
felt in Pennfylvania, New- ferfey. 
New- York, Connecticut, R-hode- 
Ifland, Mairachufetts, and New- 
Hampfiiire. At Boilon, thers was 
but one rhock ; and that was not vio- 
lent enough to he generally perceived. 
At Hartford and Newhnvcn, ia 



502 Ohferisathm ani remarks oh the earthqunkft of Nanv-'EngiuJiu. 



•Conneflicut, hut ore fhock was per- 
.cdved ; but it feems to have been 
more conftderable than at Bofton. At 
Nevv York, three (hocks were felt, 
.about the hours of nine, eleven, and 
two the next morning. At Phila- 
tlelphia, they had a fliock about ele* 
ven o'clock, and another the next 
morning, about two. At the firft of 
thefe, " raoft of the houfes were 
" verv fenfibly fhaken," but the 
other was not geneially felt. Being 
but final] in mod places, and hap- 
pening in the night, the courfe of 
this earthquake was not much attend- 
ed to. The only remark I can find 
tipon this, is in an account from 
Newhaven ; in which it is faid, 
" Its courfe was nearly from north 
" to fouth, and it continued about 
" one minute." 

Objewations and rcmarlcs on the earth- 
quakes of Ncnjij-Englaud. 

TO have a general view of the 
ao;reement anddifagrreement of 
the phenomena that have attended the 
earthquakes of New- England, it may 
be of ufe to make fome general ob- 
fervations on the preceding hiftorical 
account. 

It feems worthy of remark, than 
all the earthquakes of this coun- 
try, have been of the fame kind. 
Writers on this fubje(fV, have fome- 
times diflinguirned earthquakes into 
two diftVrent kinds, according to 
the different motions of which they 
have confifted. In fome, an hori- 
zontal, in others, a perpendicular 
motion has been chiefly obferved. 
In the one, the earth feemed to 
move, as it were, from fide to fide: 
in the other, its motion feemed to 
be up and down. Both thefe moti- 
ons have been united in the earth- 
quakes of New- England. All, of 
which we have had ajiy particular ac- 
count, have come on with an undu- 
latory motion, like that of a wave ; 
^whith firft rifes till it comes to its 



greateft height, and then fubfid< 
and in fubfiding, fpreads itfc 
with an horizontal mcrtiou, all 
ropnd. This hai appeared, w: 
thfe moft fenfible evidence, to be l 
cafe, in all the earthquakes I ha 
ever felt. They have all appearc 
to me, to come on, as if a fo 
body, or a wave of earth, (ift 
expreflion may be allowed) was re 
ling along under the furface of t 
earth ; which firft raifed that p; 
which was o"er it, and then left it gi 
dually to fubfide : the confequer 
of which was, a ftrong unduiato 
motion of the earth ; which was ii 
mediately fucceeded with an univ< 
fal trembling, or very quick jarrin 
vibratory motion, as though t 
earth was ftruggling to recover 
former pofition. 

Another thing obfervable in t 
earthquakes of New England 
they have all gone in much the far 
courfe. As to two or three of t 
earthquakes, we have no account 
their courfe : but in all thofe 
which it was determined, there is 
very great agreement. They are ; 
defcribed as coming from abo 
north-weft, and going off abo 
fouth-eaft. As this was the ca 
with all whofe direction was obfer 
ed, we may rationally conclud 
that they all proceeded in prett 
much the fame general track ; i 
a path from about north-weft 
fouth-eaft, though with many fma 
deviations and irregularities, in pa 
ticular places. This, if I do m 
miftake, has not been generally tl 
cafe in the earthquakes of oth( 
places. The great earthquakes whic 
have fpread dcfolation in Sicil; 
Peru, and Jamaica, inftead of pr( 
ceeding in any regular courfe, ai 
defcribed rather as inftantaneov 
blafts, which ftruck dreadfully up 
wards, — not proceeding in any cei 
tain track, from one country to anc 
ther; but fuch as bur ft and rent 



Glfervatlom and remath en the earthqualei cf Neiu-Eng!and. ^03 



;e circle of earth all around, 
vvifh us, ihey have all proceeded 
I difterent manner ; and in a rnan- 
apparently regular ; — fiercely 
.'ing along, as it were, in the fame 
>, as though a paffage had been 
:n for, or by them, from one 
ntry to another ; in fome places 
ling more near, and in others, 
ning more remotefrom thefurface 
the earth. And the diftance to 
ich fonie, and probably feveral 
e run in the fame courfe, has been 
atly amazing ; — nineteen hundred 
es at leaft, and how much more 
know not. 

<>om the laft remark it feems pro- 
)le, that the earthquakes of this 
ntry, have had their origin at 
le confiderable diftance to the 
th-weft of New England, and 
fibly at much the fame place, 
latever might be the cafe with 
fe (mall fliocks that have had but 
mall extent, or v/herefoever they 
2;ht begin, the larger ones have 
been obferved to come from the 
rth-weft ; and they were of much 
fame violence at the moft north- 
fterly fettlcments, as at other 
ces in the country. The place, 
;refore, wliere they have Jiad their 
gin, muft have been in fome part 
the unknown lands which lie to 
; north-weft of New England ; 
d probably at fome confiderable 
(lance from any of the European 
tiements j as there has been no 
:ount from any of them, in which 
hjrd not tlie fame diredion, com- 
y on from the north-weft. Whe- 
er the great fhocks have all origi- 
tted at the fame place, we have no 
ly to determine ; but from the 
teement of their courfes and mo- 
ins, it feems not an improbable 
ppofition. 

There feems to have been a parti- 
ilar part of the continent of North- 
raerica, which has been the feat of 
& earthquakes &f New England^ 



and to which they have always beeiV 
confined. To the fouth-weft, they 
have feveral times reached a& faras 
Maryland ; but never fo far as Vir- 
ginia or Carolina. To the north- 
eaft, they have been bounded by 
Nova-Scotia; having never been felt 
much farther than Halifax. Front- 
the unknown lands, at the north- 
weft, they have gone oiT foudi-call 
into the Atlantic : their extent this- 
way, being greater than we are able 
to trace on either point of the com- 
pafs. The province of MalTacha- 
fetts-Bay, or rather, that part of 
New England which is about the- 
latitude 43° north, where the river 
Merrimack empties itfelf into the 
Atlantic, has generally been the 
centre or place of their greateft vio- 
lence. If from this place, a line 
be drawn north-weft, it will pretty- 
well reprefent the central courfe of 
the earthquakes of this couRtry : and 
from this line they have extended 
about four himdred miles to ther 
fouth-wett and north-eaft. It is not 
meant to be very particular, but on- 
ly general, as to ihefe bounda ies. — 
And the whole country, within thefe 
limits, has been repeatedly Ihaken — 
moft violently about the middle, 
and leaft fo towards the fouth-weft 
and north eaft boundaries. As far 
as can be gathered from the accounts, 
it feems probable, that moft of the 
great fliocks have reached to much 
the fame places : the fmall ones,- 
indeed, have not had fuch an extent j- 
being felt only in difterent provinces 
and towns. But all the earthquakes, 
within the above-mentioned limits,- 
have come from the fame point, aiid 
ran in the fame courfe : the great 
ones reaching to much the fame ex- 
tent, as though there was fomething. 
todiredl their motions the fame way, 
and confine them to the fame limits. 
With what velocity thefe earth, 
quakes moved, it is not tafy to de- 
tcxniine. I.^ many accounta of earth- 



3.04: Ohfervativ/s and remarks on the enrthq/iakcs of lifw-EngtanS^ 



quakes, their motion has been faid 
to be Jnilimtane()i.is, iikc that of the 
eli'drical fliock. The reverfe has been 
the cafe in the earthquakes of Nev\'- 
Kugland. Inftead of being innan- 
taiieous, their motion has never been 
very fwifc. To cr.mpute, indeed, 
with accuracy, wich what velocity 
any of them moved, we have no 
fufficicnt data. Had the times at 
which any of them begnn, been care- 
fully noted at places whofe diftanccs 
were knoun, it might have opened 
the way to fome very curious conclu- 
fions. But all the accounts, except- 
ing one of profcflbr Winthrop, are 
too general to form any certain infe- 
rences of this kind. There is, how- 
ever, one article in the accounts of 
tlie earthquakes of 1727, 1755 ^1 b1 * 
and 17^1, from whence we may con- 
clude, that the velocity of their mo- 
tion, was confiderably lefs than that 
of found. Molt of the accounts of 
the earthquakes of 1727 and 1755, 
sgree, that the roar was heard at leall 
half a minute before the (hake began. 
The found, therefore, that was occa- 
fioned by the approach of the earth- 
quake, preceded the (hock with a 
motion confiderably fwifter than that 
of the earthquake itfelf. Now, 
found moves about thirteen miles in 
H minute ;' and the motion of this 
was confiderably fwifter than t-he 
motion of the earthquake. In the 
earthquakes of 1757 and 1761, the 
found was alfo heard half a minute 
before the lliock was felt : and as 
the report was much lefs, and there- 
fore could not reach fo far as in the 
I;irger ihocks, the inference will be, 
that thefe fmall lliocks moved with a 
velocity confiderably lefs than the 
larger one. And, indeed, the fup- 
pofitiun feems not improbable, that 
the velocity with which an earth- 
quake moves, fliould bear fome pro- 
portion to its violence — to the 
lirengih and force of thofe caufes, 
b>- wliofc operation it is produced. 



Whether there does not feem foni 
evidence that this has been the caf 
with us, the reader will judge fo' 
himfelf, from what has been obfei 
ved above. If this is the cafe, as 
believe it is, future obfervations ma 
determine it with much more cei 
tainty and precKion, than any tlu, 
have yet been made. 

But ajihough we are able to dii 
cerri^ £t»me appearances of agreemer 
and fimilitiide in thofe phenomen 
that have been mentioned, we car 
not ('ifcern any in the times in whic 
thefe earthquakes have happenet 
From their having all proceeded i 
the fame courfe, one might be led t 
fafpeft, whether their caufes, whai 
ever they a e, operating in the fan" 
diredion, would not require near! 
the fame intervals of time, to gath« 
fufficienj force to produce the fair 
effefls. But nothing of this natur 
is apparent. The intervals of time 
at which they have happened, liav 
been very different, and without an 
apparent regularity. Not to mentio 
the fmaller (hocks, there have be? 
fi\e which have been di(i:ingui(he 
by their being much larger than th 
reft: thofe, I mean, of 1638, i6j;i 
1-663, 1727, and 1755. Betwee 
the two former of thefe, there w£ 
an interval «t twenty -eight years.- 
Between the two next, an interval c 
five years : then one of fixty-four 
and between the two laft, of twcnt 
years. At a medium, this will mak 
one in about twenty-feven years. Bu 
in thefe different intervals, there i 
noapparent order, regularity, or pd 
portion, in the times of their happei 
ing. Neither docs there feem to \ 
any proportion between the interva 
of time, and the violence of the (hocl 
One would be apt to imagine, thi 
the longer the caufes were gatheriu 
ftrength, the greater would be tl 
violence of the earthquake when 
came: and yet that of 1755. w 
g^tcater than that of 1727, thouj 



Obferi'ations and remarks on the earthquakes of Nevj England. 305 



e interval of time had not been 
ilf fo long. It is to be obferved, 
)wever, that as our accounts of the 
irthquakes are but imperfeft, as to 
eir number, and much more fo as 
I the degree of their violence, all 
\x reafonings, upon this article, 
luft be very uncertain. Nor could 
e, without very accurate accounts 
.' the time and violence of the 
irthquakes — the fmalier ones as 
ell as the greater — ftate any pro- 
^rtion between the times and the 
locks, fuppofing fuch proportions 
) exift. But if there be any fuch 
roportions, or any order and regu- 
irity, in their periods, it is not ap- 
arent; indeed rather the contrary, 
•om all the accounts I have been 
ble to CO 11 eft. 

It is alfo worthy of remark, that 
hefe earthquakes do not feem to 
lave any connexion with any thing 
hat falls under our obfervaiion. It 
las been fufpefted, by thofe who ac- 
:ount for the origin of earthquakes 
)n the principles of eleftricity, and 
)y many others, that there is fome 
;onnexion between the ftate of the 
iveather, or rather atmofphere, and 
the happening of an earthquake. 
As our knowledge of this fubjeft is 
fo imperfeft, it may not be amifs to 
note every thing of this kind. And 
it is obfcrvable, that the earthquakes 
have generally happened in calm, 
ferene, and pleafant weather. Some 
of the acfiounts are very imperfeft 
in this refpedt: yet, in general, 
they feem to agree pretty much in 
this particular. But though it has 
generally been the cafe, that the 
earthquakes have come on in fair 
and pleafant weather, it has not 
been univerfally fo. In the earth- 
quake, which happened November 
22, 17 j5, after the great fliock on 
the 1 8th, the weather vvas not clear 
and fair, but dull, and cloudy, and 
attended with fmall fhowers, and a 
brifk gale at fouth-weft. And in 
Vol. III. No. IV. 



March, 1771, there was a fmall 
fhock, when, inftead of the wea- 
ther being fair, there was a heavy 
ftorm of fnow. But perhaps it is 
of no great confequence to mention 
this. \t has been more common 
for writers on this fubjeft, to at- 
tempt to find fome preceding figns, 
or forerunners, of thefe events. 
And in this refpeifl, fear and fuper- 
ftition have been abundantly fruitful. 
Philofophy has nothing to do with 
the many idle reports of this kind, 
which have prevailed among rhe vul- 
gar. But among the many things 
which have been fuppofed to exift, 
there is one which deferves our no- 
tice, as having probalily a real foun- 
dation in nature. Ancient and mo- 
dern writers have fuppofed, that it 
might in fome cafes be a prelude 
to an earthquake, when the water 
in deep pits, wells, caverns, fprings, 
&c. is thrown into uncommon mo- 
tions, difturbed, altered and chang- 
ed, as to its courie, kind, or qua- 
lity. It is rational to fuppofe, that 
fuch events may, in fome cafes, 
proceed from thofe caufes, v/hich, in 
a little time, have burft out, and rent 
the adjacent country. Some curious 
oblervations of this kind were men- 
tioned bymeffieurs Dudley and Allin, 
as happening a few days before the 
earthquake of 1727 : and' fomething 
of the fame kind was obferved pre- 
vious to the earthquake of 1755. As 
thefe accounts have been mentioned*, 
it is unneceflary to repeat them here. 
I am far from fuppoiing, that any 
certain prediction of earthquakes can 
be generally made from fuch obfer- 
vations; as fuch events may, and no 
doubt do, happen, without being fol- 
lowed by any fliocks; and earth- 
quakes often take place without any 
fuch events. But at the fame time 
it can hardly be doubted that the 

NOTE. 

* Vide p. 293 and 296. 



Theory of water -fpouts. 



306 

alterations obferved in the water of 
thefe wells, were owing to the opera- 
tion of ibc fame caufes, which in a few 
days burft forth with fuch violence 
as to fhake all New England. With 
regard to the ill effefts, which have 
fucceeded earthquakes in fome coun- 
tries, it is well known there have 
been many and fearful accounts. 
In fome places they are faid to 
have been followed by great mor- 
tality, peftilential diforders, and the 
moft raging ficknefs. Nor is it 
improbable that the air (hould be 
infeded with noxious effluvia, from 
the vapours which were before con- 
fined, and perhaps corrupted. It 
feems credible, that fomething of this 
nature has been the caufe, and pro- 
bably, the confequencc of earthquakes, 
in fome places. Many of thefe reports, 
indeed, feem to be much like what 
has been faid of the effefts of comets, 
meteors, and the conjunftions of the 
planets. But at the fame time it 
feems probable, both from ancient 
and modern accounts, that in fome 
places, pelHlential diforders have, 
in faft, and probably as the confe- 
quence, fucceeded great earthquakes. 
Nothing of this nature has been the 
cafe in New England. It is, how- 
ever, highly probable from the rev. 
mr. Lowel's obfervation*, that fome 
very noxious vapour or effluvia, at- 
tended the eruption of the earthquake 
of 1727: but no bad efftds, no 
pefiilential diftempers, no fweeping 
ficknefs, or uncommon diforder, or 
mortality, have been obferved to fuc- 
ceedanyofthe earthquakes of this 
country; no otherwife, at Icaft, than 
what has been common at other 
times. 

NOTE. 

* Vide p. 295. 

(CoKJeSiures on the caufts nf thefe earth- 
(makes ivill appear in cur next.) 



Theory of tjuaier-f pouts y by Anin 
Olifer, eftjuiriyof Salem, in the Jim 
ofMaJfachuJetts, 

MY laft eflay t contained a thol 
ory of lightning and thundef 
florms, which was fuggefted to m; 
mind upon iheperufalofdoftor Prieft 
ley's hiftory of eledlricity. In th 
inveftigation of which theory, whil 
I was endeavouring to account fo 
the exhibitions of thofe phenomen. 
upon the ocean, at great diftance | 
from the land, fome thoughts natu 
rally occurred, relative to the water I 
fpout — a phenomenon as curious per 
haps as any one in nature, and whic! 
can rarely take place but at fea. 

Water-fpouts have by fome beei I 
fuppofed to be merely eledrical ii 
their origin ; particularly by fignio 
Eeccaria, (Prieftley's hift. ofeled. pi 
355, 356) who feems to have fup- 
ported his hypothefis by fome experi' 
ments. But as feveral fucceflive phe- 
nomena are neccflary to conftituts i 
complete water-fpout, (fome of which 
undoubtedly depend upon the elec- 
tric principle) if we attend to the 
moft authentic defcriptions of thefc 
fpouts, through their various ftages, 
from their firlt exhibition to their to- 
tal diflipation, we fhall be obliged to 
have recourfe to fome other princi- 
ple, in order to obtain a complete 
folution. I (hall, therefore, firft de- 
fcribe thefe phenomena according to 
the beft obfervations I have met" 
with ; and then, endeavour to give 
a general philofophical folution of 
them. But 1 muft here obferve, that I 
the following defcriptions are all ta- 
ken from the accounts of mariners, 1 
who are indeed the only perfons who 
have opportunities of viewing them; 
but, unfortunately for the caufe of 
philofophy, do not ufually obfervc 

NOTE. 

t See page 226. 



Theoiy of nvater-fpouts. 



hem with that circumftantial accu- 
iC)'y refpeding the previous and fub- 
equent ftates of the atmofphere, 
vhich mav be necclTary to found a 
omplete phyfical folution upon, nor 
vith any view to that end ; as it is 
oreign to their main bufinefs, trade 
>nd commerce. But as fuch accounts 
re the beft I have met with even in 
he tranfadions of the royal fociety 
lown to 1744, lower than which I 
ave not feen them ; from fuch 1 fhall 
iideavour to draw tlie beft conclufion 
vhich the nature of the evidence will 
jftify. 

The moft intelligent and beautiful 
ccount of a water fpout, that I ever 
net with, is in the abridgment of 
he Phil. Tranf. vol. viii, by Mar- 
in, pa, 65,5. as it was obferved by 
ir. Jofeph Harris, May 21, 1732, 
boutfunfet, lat. 32° 30'N. long. 9° 
'j. from Cape Florida : which 1 fhall 
erelranfcribe. 

'* When firft we faw the fpout 
' it was whole and entire, and 
' much of the fhape and proportion 
' of a fpeaking trumpet ; the fmall 
' end being downwards, and reach- 
' ing to the fea, and the big end 
' terminated in a black, thick cloud. 
' The fpout itfelf was very black, 
' aud the more fo, the higher up. 
' It feemsd to hz exadly perpen- 
' dicular to the horizon, and its 
' fides perfectly fmooth, without 
' the leaft ruggedncfs. Where it 
' fell, the fpray of the fea rofe to a 
' confidcrable height, which made 
' fomewhat the appearance of a great 
' fmoke. From the firft time we 
' faw it, it continued whole about 

* a minute — and, till it was quite dif- 
' fipated, about three minutes, ft 
' began to wafte from below, and 
' fo gradually up, while the upper 

• part remained entire, without any 
' vifible alteration, till at laft itend- 
' ed in the black cloud above. Up- 
' on which there feemed to fall a 
' very heavy rain in the neighbour- 



3«7 

*' hood. There was but little wind, 
"and the Iky clfcw here was pretty 
" ferene." 

In other accounts, contained in the 
philofuphicaj tranfadions, thefe phe- 
nomena are defcribcd as having the 
appearance of a fword pointing down- 
wards, fomttimes perpendicularly, 
fometimes obliquely, towards a co- 
lumn of water or froth, which ftems 
to rife out of the fea to meet it, at- 
tended with a violent ebullition or 
perturbation at the furface. Again, 
in others the appearance is compared 
to fmoke afcending vifibly as 
through the funnel of a chimney, ei- 
ther di redly, or with a fpiral mo- 
tion, which, according to the fancies 
of fome, refembles the afcent of wa- 
ter in the fcrew of Archimedes ; by 
fuppofing fomethi ng fimilar to which 
in the atmofphere, they have endea- 
voured to account for the rife of the 
water from the fea in a water- fpout. 
To which I would add, that, from 
the relations of fome perfons who 
ufe the fea, with whom 1 have con- 
yerfcd u})on the fubjed, I find that 
it is no uncommon thing, during a 
calm below, and a ferene fky above, 
to obferve at the diftance of two or 
three leagues, a fmall cloud hovering 
in the air, from when e the com- 
mencing fpout feems to dart down- 
ward to the fea, upon which the ufu- 
al phenomena take place in their or- 
der. I have aifo been informed 
(and to information I muft truft, 
having never been at fea) that it is 
common, during thefe appearances, 
for fliips to fail, even within hail of 
each other, with different winds ; 
and within the limits of the fame vi- 
fible horizon, with contrai ' winds : 
and lalHy, that the rife and progref'j 
of this phenomenon is fometimes fo 
rapid, that, even in a ferene fky, a 
few minutes v/ill be fufHcient to ge- 
nerate a cloud from one of thefe 
fpouts, and to difcharge from thenct 
a heavy fhovver of rain. 



3oS 



Theory of nuater-fpouts. 



Before I proceed to attempt a phi- 
lofophical fokition of thefe curious 
productions of nature in which the 
two principal fluids of our globe, 
air and water are largely concerned ; 
it may be neceffary to make feme 
cbfervations upon the nature and 
properties of fluids in general, as 
fuch. 

1. No fluid can be at reft unlefs 
every part of it refpeftivcly be acted 
upon by an equal force or prelTure in 
every diredion : till then its feveral 
parts will neceilarily recede from the 
greater preffure towards the lelTer; 
nor can an equilibrium take place. 

2. If two or more fluids of diffe- 
rent natures and dcnfities come toge- 
ther, fuch as quickfilver, water, oil, 
and air, which will not mix ; they 
will take their places according to 
their fpeciflc gravities, the molt dsnfe 
remaining at the bottom. 

3. If a veflfel be filled with either of 
thefe fluids, and a denfer one be ad- 
mitted into it, the latter will expel and 
take place of the former. 

4. If an empty cylindrical fpace be 
furrounded on all fides by a fluid, which 
is excluded by fome refilling furface 
terminating that fpace, the fluid will 
necelVarily, upon the fudden removal 
of the obltacle, immediately flow 
in from every fide towards the centre 
of the void : and as it flows inwards, 
the parts, next furrounding this fpace, 
will thereby be crowded together, 
and force each other upwards, till at 
length, when clofed, the fluid will, by 
its afcent, have formed a column di- 
redly over the middle of the fpace, to 
a height proportionable to the united 
force of the converging currents. 
This mull: be the cafe with every fluid 
thus flovv'inginto a vacuum ; and in a 
lelTer degree, when a denfer fluid, in 
a fimilar fituation, fupplants a rarer : 
and the greater the difference of the 
denfities of the two fluids might be, 
the more confpicuous would be the 
efFeft. 



This reafoning may be illuftratcct 

and the concluhons exemplified, b| 

fads which muft have occurred 1 

the obfervat;on of every one. E 

we not obferve, when a Ihower < 

hail, or rain in large drops, falls upc 

the furface of ftagnant water, th. 

the water rifes, wherever they fal 

like fo many little inverted icick 

which again inilantly fublide ? tl 

caufe of which undoubtedly is, th 

thefe drops, or hail-ftones, defcen 

ing from a great height in the atm 

fphere, acquire feverally fuch a ra 

mentum in their fall, as to pluni 

through the furface to a proportion 

depth, driving the fuperficial wat 

back on every fide, and leaving 

momentary vacuum behind them 

not indeed a pure vacuum, but fu 

relative to the furrounding flui 

which immediately returns to fill 

the chafm, and as it clofes, gathe 

and rifes in the little columns abo 

defcribed. When a large roui 

ftone, or any other heavy boi 

plunges, the effed is proportionab 

greater. 

5. Let us, for argument's fali 
fuppofe the atmofphere over any a 
tain circular trad of ocean, of foi 
miles in diameter, to be for a m 
ment annihilated, the fpace it occ 
pied before being reduced to a pu 
vacuum — the furrounding atm* 
fphere, when at liberty, would ru 
in from every quarter towards t 
centre, where the converging ct 
rents would immenfely croud ea< 
other, and force up a vaft quanti 
of air through a very narrow funni 
contraded below by the united pr 
fure of thofe currents from all fid( 
into the higher regions ; which fu 
nel, as the denfity of the air leffe 
according to its height, and the fi 
rounding preflTure which contrads 
muft decreafe nearly in the far 
proportion, would more and rac 
diverge and expand, the higher it rd 
above the furface of the fea. Tl 






theory of nuater-fpouts. 



So$ 



ould be attencled with a moft furious 
;aft of wind up to, and far above 
le top of the atmofphere. In like 
,3niier, 

6. If iiiftead of a pure vacuum, 
r a total annihilation of fuch part 
\ the atmofj)here, we fuppofe the 
me to become, by anv means 
hatevtr, fpeclficall) lighter than 
le i'urrounding regions, the efFe(5l 
ould be the fame as above, in kind, 
KHigh not in degree; the denfer air 
owing in, but with lefs rapidity, 
rom all quarters without, expelling 
le lighter, and fupplying its place, 
s in article four ; upon which alfo 
laige quantity of this confluent air, 
3r the fame reafon, would be driven 
p with violence through a like nar- 
ow veiit, yet not with the fame im- 
>etuofity nor to the fame height, as 
f forced through a funnel into a 
)urc vacuum. 

That the atmofphere, over large 
:rafts of feaor land, may thus become 
"pecifically lighter than that over the 
"urrounding regions, will be evident, 
fweconfider, i. That heat has a 
latural tendency to rarefy and expand 
;he air upon which it afls. 2. That 
the atmofphere, over our heads, 
does not confift of mere elementary 
air, but is an univerfal receptacle of 
all the heterogeneous vapours and 
effluvia which are perpetually exhaling 
from every fubltance which exilts upon 
the face of the earth, whether ani- 
mal, vegetable, or mineral. 3. That, 
by the cafual difpofition of thefe 
vapours and effluvia in the atmo- 
fphere, the air, which is, of itfelf, 
naturally enough difpofed to acquire 
heat from the paffage of the fun's 
rays through it, may become more 
difpofed to imbibe and retain that 
heat, in one region, than in another 
in its neighbourhood; which, from 
the intervention of clouds, or from 
its purity and freedom from thofe 
' fteams and vapours with which 
! the former is charged, may, in a 



great degree, retain its natural cool- 

nefs and denfity, while the other be- 
comes heated, rarefied, and expand- 
ed, and is thereby rendered fpecifi- 
cally lighter. 

That thefe different afFeftions of 
the atmofphere adually take place, 
and difpofe the air, at one time 
and in one place, even in the f